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From the Library of 

Henry Tresawna Qerrans 

Fellow of Worcester College^ Oxford 


Given /& JdCvk' .Q!>«^^ 


H. T. f^*" '"''•^* 



German Language 










S^e J^nichtibocktr ^ress 

Copyright, 1884, By G. P. Putnam^s Sons, 


;,\ uw"»'4» 4 

;^ ■ 


•4 Of OirUWU S/ 

^ J 


rpHE author trnsts, that this work embodies the results of 
philological research during the last twenty years, as far 
as it concerns Gterman. Advance has certainly been made in 
the study of Phonology, of Accent^ of Phonetics, and even in 
Syntax. This adyance is largely due to improved methods of 
investigation. Our views of language in general have changed, 
certainly our views of the living languages, the study of which 
it would seem, is gradually being looked upon as a science and 
as worthy of serious pursuit 

From the works of Osthoff, Sievers, Paul, Kluge, Braune, 
and Sweet I have appropriated most of the new results and 
methods, which are accepted and popularized only too slowly. 
I have added a list of the books which have been of special 
help to me and which I consider absolutely necessary for a 
thorough study of German. Perhaps I should also have 
mentioned for Syntax: The fourth volume of Gfrimm^a large 
grammar ; Vemaleken^a deulsche Syntax, and the Syntax in 
Biotas and Kraus^B grammars. 

Because the grammar contains no exercises, and because 
the illustrative sentences taken from the classics are not^ as a 
rule, translated, it should not be inferred that it is intended 
only for advanced students of German. On account of the 


Btrict sepaxation of Accidence and Syntax, it is hoped that 
the grammar can be used in the beginning classes of prepara- 
tory schools. 

The grammar was first announced as being prepared by 
Professor J. M. Hart, of the University of Cincinnati, and 
myself, but unfortunately for myself Prof. Hart's interest and 
labors became centred more and more in English work and 
he found himself obliged to withdraw from the undertaking 
at an early date. I have nevertheless not been deprived of 
his valuable counsel and suggestions, for which I herewith 
express my thanks. 

I am moreover specially indebted to my colleague Professor 
G. P. Bristol, who has most faithfully read proof with me, has 
tried to Anglicize my unidiomatic English and has so fre- 
quently suggested changes and additions which were always 

Hamilton College, CUnton, JIT. F., Augtut, 1884. 



1. Paul and Braun^s Beitrdge zur Oeschickte der deulachen 

Sprache und LUeratur. (YoL IX. is just complete.) 
Niemeyer. Halle. 

2. Sammlung kurzer Grammatiken germanischer Diakkte. 

Niemeyer. Halle. 

a. Gotiache Gram, von Braune. 2. aofl. 

b. Ags. Gram, von Sievers. 2. aufl. (An American 

edition by Cook is promisecL) 

c. MUtdhochd. Gram, von Paiul. 2. anfl. 

(With a syntax.) 

d. AUnordische Oram, von Noreeru 

3. PauPs Principien der Sprachgeschichte. Niemeyer. Halle. 

4. Klug^s Mymol. Worterbuch der deiUschen Sprache. Trub- 

ner. Strassbnrg. 

5. Sweefa Handbook of Phonetics. Macmillan. London. 

6. Sanders* Worterbuch der Bduptschtmerigkeiien in der 

devischen Sprache. Langenscheidt. Berlin. 

(A large and a small edition. The large one has now a yalna- 
ble index.) 

7. OrimnCs devJtsches Worterbuch. Hirzel. Leipzig. 

Out as far as " NothwendigJceit,** with breaks sub G. and M. 






Tmo Abtiglbs 6-7 

Declension of Nouns 7-17 

Declension and Compabison of the ADjEcnYB 17-21 


Pbonoxtns. 23-dO 

Conjugation 80-47 

Weak Verbs. 85-87 

StioDg Verbs 87-48 

Anomalous Verbs 44-47 




Abticles 51-65 

Nouns 56-74 

Gender. 56-62 

Singular and Plural 62-64 

Cases 64-74 

Adjectives 74-80 

numebals 80-82 

Pbonouns 82-96 

Personal Pronouns 82-65 

Beflexive and Redproeal Pronouns 86 



Possessive ProDoans 8&-88 

Demonstrative Pronouns 88-91 

Interrogative Pronouns 91-88 

Relative Pronouns 93-95 

Indefinite Pronouns 95-96 

Verbs 97-118 

Classification of Verbs 97 

Auxiliary Verbs 97-99 

Modal Auxiliaries 99-108 

Voice 102-104 

Tenses 104-110 

Moods 110-112 

In fi niti ve 1 13-1 16 

Participles. 116-118 

Gerundive 118 

Adyebb 119 

Preposition 119-180 

Conjunction 130 


The Simple Sentence. 181-135 

The Compound Sentence. 185-147 

Coordinate Sentences 185-187 

Subordinate Sentences 187-147 

Substantive Clauses 137-188 

Adjective Clauses 139 

Adverbial Oauses 140-147 

Word-order 147-154 



A Phonology 157-193 

Historical Notes on the Orthography 157-160 

Analysis and Description of German Sounds 160-176 

Ablaut. Umlaut 176-182 

Grimm's Law, Vomer's Law 182-189 

Accent 189-198 



B. Historical Commbntabt itfor the Accidence 194-216 

Noon-Declension 194-198 

Adjective-Declension 196-199 

Pionoans. 200-206 

Goigugation 206-216 

C. History of the Language 217-260 

Characteristics of the Germanic Languages 217 

Classification of the Germanic Languages 218 

Classification of the German Dialects 219-221 

History of "German" 221-228 

The German Wordstock 228-280 


Derivation and ComixMsition of Suhstantives 282-245 

Derivation and Composition of Acy ecti ves and Numerals. . 245-251 

Derivation and Composition of Verbs 252-261 

Derivation of Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Inteijecdons. • 261-264 

planations 265 

Subject-Index 266-270 

WOBD-lNDBX 271-278 





Ctonnantype. Gemum script Kime. Gennantjpe. 

Gemiaa script. Mime. 


81 ^ ^ 

(S c 

5D b 

@ e 

^ f 

® 9 


3f t 




€ I ^^ el 


9i tt ^^^ 



// ah-umlaut 
"* (h)ai(r> 


Ue it ii^ '^•^ ^ ocumlaut 



t^ „ o' au-umlaut 





®f«g "Sy^yS 

% t 

3E j: 

3 J 










PROifUNCIATIOlsr. [a- 


The Gennan sounds are here only very inaccnrately represented by 
English words and letters. A full analysis is found in the second part, 
p. 160. The following description, with a few key-words, will suffice for 
the beginner ; but it is meant to be only a popular description. As soon 
as the student begins to read, be ought to study Part IL, p. 16(X-174 

3. a as in Eng./a/^er: SSater, 2lal, Sa% i, not in Eng., 
bat similar to Scotch a as in Sc hand, land: 3Rann, iat(ti, 

4. h = Eng. b, but surd ( =jp) at tho end of words: Sttbe, 

ipaube, DleJ, ianb. 

5. c, if = Eng. k : daxl, Sadfe, SScfer* 

6. |l§, not in Eng., but in Scotch as in loch. A single guttural 
sound. Two kinds : 1. Palatal (forward) after palatal yowels, 
after e, i, 5, it, &, ti, m, and in the suffix g^iitn, e. g., iii, SBa^ter, 
^Uij, mWt, tnii, ©erud^t, toeid^, 9R&Dd^en, "SRamaiim. 2. Back- 
guttural after the other vowels, a, 0, u, an, e. g., aij, ^aif, ioij, 
S3u4, ^anij (betrog in N. G.). In S^arfrel'tag and in foreign 
words = k: fe^ara'fter, S^or; also like fd^ in foreign words: 
fi^mpa'gner, d^angle'ren, S^nce* 

7. b = Eng. d, but surd (= t) finally: bu, toil, Sat>, lub* 

8. t, long, similar to Eng. a, ay, as in pay, pate, rate ; short, 
like Eng. g, as in met, h fle^n, Seet, toert; e: xtd^t, SBette* 

9. f = Eng./: l^offen, $afcn, fu^ren, glagge, 

10. g = Eng. g, but surd {=Ic) finally: fllauben, J>lagen, 
graben; but lag, 3ug, fragte, trug, Salg. 

11. I = Eng. A if it stands initially : ^mt't, ^ofe, $afe« 
After a vowel and after a t it is silent : fie^n, ^ti){t)n, ^af), t^un, 
Stat, Z^al See the dropping of ^, p. 159. 

12. t similar to Eng. i : Wn, fintie, Bringe. 

t or ic = Eng. ee in fear: »ier, pegen, jnir, tir, 3gd, Stter. 


13. { edmilar to Eng. y : lung, iagen, 3agb. 

14. i,it = Eng. k : Aa^e, ^ait, ^aten. 

15. I similar to Eng. 1 : 2age, lac^en, too^I, ®aal, (alb* 

16. m = Eng. m : iDloIc^, Saunt; fc^toimmen. 

17. n = Eng. n. 1. Initially, finally, and before a den- 
tal: 9laget^ nun, fein. fenten, gant, Sunb. 2. In the stemnsyllable 
before (, and combined with g like Eng. ng in sing, singer: 
Slnfang, ©finger, ginger, Sanf, fenfen, Minfen; but an^rge^pfommen, 

18. Q = Eng. o, oa^ in hold, foal : Sote, SSoot, tot, rot, Sood, 
lod, £^on (day), o not in Eng., but short Sc. o ; e. g. : SBod^e, 
ioii, @to(f, 9lo(f (not at all like Eng. aiock, rock, but see p. 164). 

19. p = like Eng. p : )>Iagen, Aappe, Srapper, ©alo'pp. 

p\ = p +f: 9)funb, 9lapf, Sumpfr tapfer. In Eng. only in 
accidental juxtaposition, e, g., '^ a cap for him,'' ^' stop for me." 

^1 in foreign words only =/: 3)l)lIoIogie', Selegra'p^. 

20. q always followed by u, similar to Eng. qu: quer, 
Dua|l, Duart, (equem. 

21. r unlike Eng. r. 1. Trilled: SRegen, SRa^e, fern, gurt, 
treu. This is the standard r. 2. Uvular or guttural in K G^ 
very much like the guttural ^, but sonant. 

22. f, ff, I, g = Eng. surd 8; ipau«, 9Jlaufe, SSJaffer, giuj, 
9)?u§e, fein ; but initially and after a vowel it begins surd and 
ends sonant, as in N. and M. G. Standard unsettled. But 
see p. 175. 

23. fd^ = Eng. sh (surd) : fd^iden, fd^enfen, l^afd^en, @d^(ange. 

24. fl, \p = f^i, f$^ initially in the standard pronuncia- 
tion and in S. and M. G. But in the middle and at the end 
of words, in N. G. also at the beginning of words = Eng. st, 
9p ; f(!^t, fdjp : Stein, Strafe, ©tu^I, ®pa§, fpriegen \ st, ^: ^ajt, 
»ii[tc, berjten, SBnrjt, SBefpe, ^afpeln. N. G.: ©pief, ©tod. 


25. i, if) = Eng. / ; ^|at, l^atte, SK 9lal^t. 

2& it = Eng. 00 in ^ ; $ut, SBut, Sbtme, Sud^, Stt^Ie« 
it = Eng. u in pit/ : Sutter, flu^n, ©ulten* 

27. Ii = Eng./ in German words: Sotet, grctoel, toleL li = 
German to in foreign words: Sifa'r, ^Intijie'ren, Safa'nj, 

2& to like Eng. v dento-labial : SBetter, SBaffer, toamen. 
After fij^ labio-labial like u affcer q^ bat not quite like Eng. w : 
@d^me{ler, @d}mei§, (Sd^meUe. But see p. 170. 

29. I in foreign words and |I§|, il§f = Eng. x : SUejrattter, 

SBaAd, gud^d, Suc!6fln, feci^^. 

t| = ii, which see. 

30. J, ^ = Eng. fe, as in cols, vols : ^nnst, ^tu^, SBaqe, 

C in foreign words before e, i, 9, a = te : cerebral, fiafu'r, (Jila'te, 
&9K0')); bat the spelling is unsettled: 3^9^'^^^ 3^^^^/ Stn\u'x. 

31. Modified Vowels (TTmlants). 

a long = Eng. ai in fair: Sater, SRSber, flSl^Iem. 

a short = Eng. and Oter. i : ip&nte, SB&nte, f&Qen. 

B not in Eng. It has the lip-position of n, the tongae- 
position of e: long in bofe, I5fen, ^ergdge ; short in ^iUtx,2iilt, 

tt not in Eng. It has the lip-position of u, the tongae- 
position of i: long in ^u^t, Sucker, Aitci^Ieln; short in ^uOer, 
©finbe, Suttel. 

t| = it, as in (i^a'n, (l9)>re'{fe, only in foreign words. 

32. Diphthongs. 

ai (rare) and ri = Eng. i in find : Aaifer, 9tai, leife, toti^, 
Ueiben. m = Eng. ou in house: ilan, ^au€, 9Rattd* 

Sit and eit similar to Eng. ot in exploit : SR&ufe, I&itten, S3eute, 


Quantity of Vowels. 

33. Vowels are long in an open syUablOy e. g^ Sagged, 
jo^gen, 9iUd)er«. They are also indicated: 1. By doubling, bat 
only in the case of a, e, oi @aal, @eele, iDlood. 2. By t) after 
the Yowel and after t : ^ol^n, D^m, i^n, Sl)ran, Z^or. 3. By e 
after i: litb, Htx, 'oith 4. a and e are generally long before 
r^ rt, xt t root, tax, feet, »ert, rotxim, gart, 9?fert* Short in fertig 
« ga^rt), ©arte, ©c^arte, ^era, ©d^meq* 

34. The vowels are short before more than one consonant: 

85* i counts as a single consonant ; it becomes |f medially (see 
** Rules," § 12), e. g., glup — glttffed, OlfifTe ; flltf en — flog, ficjlofl>«» The 
vowel remains long before inflectional endings, e.g.f loben, lobfl^ gelobt 
(but ge](a6t» gemod^t); also in a closed syllable, when the stem- vowel stands 
in an open syllable under inflection, e. g., %0l%, Xa^ged; dug, dunged* But 
see p. 175. 

Since 4 cannot be doubled, there is no telling the quantity of the pre- 
ceding vowel from the mere looks of the word : e. g.^ long in 93u4 — 
SBu^ed; Xu^ — Xud^ed; bra^ — ^rad^ett; but short in 9Ba4 — 93a4e0; la^m, 
toad^en. As a rule, shortness may be expected. 

36. The division into syllables difibrs somewhat from the English 
custom. The " Rules " § 26 show how words are divided at the end of a 
line. The following examples will illustrate sufficiently: (a^bcnr fu^^tc 
(cei^renr 8ee-T(» »er'irren# gcirrt^ 9Bafsf(r» ©tra^ge^ U^f^m* ro^terf Sin^ger (but 
see 17), ^t*Tit, SBei'^en* ^it^^Cf R9lx*'^\vx, (e^o^^a^tem na^^fa^gm* (t^glau^ 

87. Gennan orthography is now regalated by the govemment, and the student 
who is to write Qerman Bhonld provide himeelf with the official, 9tegeln unb SQ35rten»crs 
tet^nid fftc bie beutf^e Sle^tf^reiBung tn ben preufif^eu e^ulcn. Berlin. It Ib a small 
convenient guide of 40 pages, with a quite fdJl word-list See 361, S. 





38. The definite article is ttt, Ht, bad +tke; the indefinite, 

eitt, cine, eln + one, an, a. 

The definite article declines: 




oommoii gender. 

Sing. N. ^er 



Plu. tie 

G. ted 




D. tern 




A. t)en 




e indefinite article declines: 

Sing. N. tin 



G. eincd 



D. einem 



A. einen 



39. The articles are unaccented. 

The definite article is the weakened demonstrative pronoun, which 
has chief stress. It retains the short original forms of the same. The 
indefinite article is the weakened numeral tin, which also has chief stress. 
To mark the demonstrative pronoun and the numeral, they are some- 
times printed spaced or with a capital letter : 9{ur (Etntn ®4rtttr fo Mf! bn 
^xti, F. 4563 ; hut (£d tsar einntal ein 5tonig, F. 2212. Vtx ^o^ fonn gel^n 
(Sch.). (£d t^ut mir lang' f^on toe^, baf id^ bic^ in b e r (Defclf^aft W, F. 

40. Owing to their lack of accent hoth articles sufibr apheeresis and 
apocope, and contraction with the preceding word, most frequently with a 
preposition : bent and bad are, according to good usage, comhined with the 
following prepositions : an, auf, Ux, hux6i, ^x, ^inttxt in, ultx, urn, unttx, ^ort, 
^oxt and }u ; e. g,, am, andr aufd^ ind* umdr ^om, etc In general, contractions 
with dissyllahic prepositions are rarer in the classics, common in the 
spoken language, which allows the contraction of ben whether dative plu- 
ral or accusative singular masculine with the ahove and also with other 
prepositions. Some such are even in the classics : in = in^n^ F. 2429, »itt 
®cffel,« Lessing's Nathan, irin Sad,"* »in Sto^pf," man Za^." 3n, urn contain 


long (see 389,5) consonants and the article is not absent, as is generally 
explained. In conversation is heard: nn 9rm# von tB^umcm aufn 8e(b€nt» 
mlt^n ^Sttbctt, bur^^n SBalb* The apostrophe in aufd, fibtx% etc., is not at 
all indispensable. Ibtx, dative singalar feminine, combines properly only 
with gtt into |ur* 

41* Attractions of the definite article, especially of the neater, to pre- 
ceding words other than prepositions are common in the spoken lan- 
guage, e,g., iri4 ttiU'd S3u4 l^oleiu'' »er ^t f!4'« 8ein 0((re4at.« ir93iiib'f4 
9>fcrb ^i' anf (G.). »Unb ffaft'^ St^n mlernt'' (F. 4485). 

1. The aphferesis of mtin^ common in the spoken langoage is also 
found in the written, e. g„ »9Barf auf Htm Stutl bie ^anbf^u^'' (Uh.). Bold 
abbreviations are these in Chamisso's, »^^ tt>ar 'mal .^nc ita^nfdnigin.'' The 
dropping of (in before mal is not unusual : md^ toar mal tin itaifeT;" trSuc^ 
soar mal ein 9(t«< (BQ.). Notice fo'ne for fo (int. The early N. H. G. (16th 
century) (im for einem (comp. M. H. G. eime for eineme), (inn or eln for 
cincn occur still in some South German dialects. In M. H. G. the aphas- 
resis of **ein" is unheard of, while the definite article is much more 
pliant than in the present classical language. Apocope of the same Is 
still allowable in certain S. G. dialects. 


42. There are three systems of Declension, the 
Strong ( Vowel, Old), the Weak {Consonant, n-Bedension 
or ^ew), and the Mixed. 

The strong declension {see 43, 1) ha^ (e)d in the geni- 
tive singular; the weak has (e)n in aJZ ca^es, singular 
and plural, except in the nominative singular; the 
mixed has (e)d in the genitive singular, (e)it in the 
whole plural. 

General Bnles. 

43. 1. EeminiDe noons never vary in the singalar. 

2. The only case-endings are (e)d for the genitive singular 
and (e)n for the dative plural. 

3. e in the case-suffix ought to stand in nouns ending in 
1 5/ f*i h k, t, jl. 


e is always dropx)ed after el, en, em, tt, ^en, lein* In other 
cases it is optional If the genitive singular has ed, then the 
dative singular has e as a role: ipaufed, gu ^aufe* 

Distribution of nouns among these declensions according 
to gender: 

1. The bulk of feminine nouns belong to the n-dedension. 
No neuters at alL 

2. To the strong declension belong mainly masculine and 
neuter nouns, and a few femininea 

3. The mixed declension includes a few masculine and 
neuter nouns. 

Strong Declension. 

44. We distinguish for practical reasons four classes, 
according to the formation of the plural : 

1. No sign unless it be umlaut: tad SJuntet, tie SOuntet; la 
Soter, Ut Sater. 

2. -e without umlaut: ber Sag, tie Sage; tad 2od, Me Sofe. 

3. -e with umlaut : ter @oi|tt, tie @&^ne ; tie Stta% tie 

4. -er always with umlaut: tad Sat, tie S3&ter; tod ^anA, 
tie ^aufer* 

45. EiBST Class. — a. No sign: 

Sing. N. ter ©paten tad ©emerbe ter Snge( 

G. ted @)>atend ted ®ett>eried ted Sngeld 

Plu. D. ten @paten ten ©emergen ten Sngebt 

All other cases singular and plural like nominative singular. 
6. With umlaut: 

Sing. N., D., A. ter gaten ter Sruter 

G. ted gatend ted Sruterd 

Plu. N., G., A. tie gSten tie Sriiter 

D. teng&ten tenSrittent 


46. To this class belong: 

1. Masculine and neuter nonns in -€l, ~tt, -m, -^tn, -lein, -fel, 
e. g., ter ^tUl, ter StUter, ^er So^en, ter i^opfen, la& ^vM&nn, tad 
Atoleiit, tad 9l&tfeL 

2. Neuters of the form (Se-e, e. g., tad ®etrfite, (SefAmeite. 

8. The names of kindred in -er : Sater, Sruter, Zod^Ux, SRuttet, 
@d}»ager, all with umlaut Also ter Std\t. 

4. Certain nouns, if they take *tt in the nominative singu- 
lar, as they may according to usage : tcr %A\tn, ter ©runnen, ter 
Zvcp^m, ter Sd^reden (these so generally). The following not 
BO frequently in the written language : ter 5unfe(tt), ©ai[!e(n), 
grietc(tt), ®etanfe(tt), ®efalle(tt), iauit(n), (Same(n), e(i^ate(tt), 

47. The nottiiB sub 1, in -fir -en, -«r# ore o-BtemB that lost the e of the 
plural in M. H. G. (see 434, 8). Masculines in -e r < aere < M (oiigi- 
nallj J0-Btem8), those of the fonn of vogel retained their c longest. 9tcm 
(Obem), Srobemf (Sibantr S3rofam stand isolated. The plural, if it occurs, is 
the -e of the next class. S3rofamtn is more common than Srofame* 

1. The nouns sub 2 are originally ./o-stems, having -e also in the sin> 
gular as the remnant of Jo, O. H. G. •'. Many have lost it and gone oyer 
into the next class, as if -« were sign of the plural. St&^t is treated like 
the preceding < O. H. G. ehdn < eddus < Lat. edseus, 

2. All nouns sub 4, except grieber (S)efallei and (S^cbanfcr were weak in 
M. H. G., and are not yet fully established in the strong declension. 
Since usage is unsettled^ they might all be put under the mixed 

48. The nouns of this declension that take umlaut, besides the 
names of kindred in -er, are 9pfel, Mer, S3obtn» Sabcn (thread), (^xttn, 
^afeiu ^ammerr fiabeitf ^an^th ^axAtl, ^a^tl, Ofettf battel, SAabciir ^d^mUU 
S^wagCTr S^ogelr e, g., @auet# ^d^n&UU etc. Two neuters take it, 5t(ofler + 
cloister < daustrum, and £ager (camp). In none of these is there any 
cause that could produce umlaut as in i and jo stems or before -ir. 
Umlaut has arisen from analogy with these. IBSiitXt S)?&tter» Srfiberr 
XSc^ter had umlarat already in M. H. G. This way of forming the plural is 
on the increase, because it is so convenient and some way of indicating 
the plural seems necessary. SD£gen# Sfiger, etc, still sound objectionable, 
but have no worse and no better claim to correctness than the above. 


49. Second Class. — ^Plural -e, no omlatit. 

Sing. N.,A. ^wXti We Erangfal lad 3<il^r 

G. ted ipunted ter !Cran9faI ted 3at}red 

D. tern ^unte ter Drangfal tern ^a\fct 

Plu. N., G., A. ^uttte rrongfale ^a^xt 

D. ^unten ■Erangfalen 3^^^^^ 

50. To this class belong: 

1. A small number of feminines in -nid and -fal, e. g.^ tie 
Drangfal, SruBfal ; tie ginflernid, Setrubnid, pL -nijfe. 

2. Many masculines; some capable of umlaut, but without it. 
These may be considered exceptions to the third dass: ter 
ad, aor, arm, Sefucft, ambog, Tia6:i^, ®rat, Eoc^t, 8aAd, ^alm, 2u*d, 
^mi, iautf $fat, $un&, $uf, Sag, @tojf, S^ron, Serfud^, and a very 
few others. 

3. Masculines in -ig, -(i) dft, -ing, -ling, -(f )ttt, -(d, -id, -i(!^, c. g. , 
ter «6nig, ©anfcrid^, 9Ro(d^, Bering, 3ungling, grcunt, iTOonot, 3ltid 
(pi. SItiffe), $aM(^t. 

4 Many neuters, among which monosyllabics; those with 
the prefix ®e - ; in -nid, -fal : tad ^ai^x, ®f fd^enf, ©efSngnid, 

61. The feminines and neuters in -ntd ended in M. H. G. in -« (-ntffe)» 
both in singular and plaral. The ending of the singular was lost in earlj 
N. H. G. Also -« of the neuters in ^t- was lost, and they really belong to 
the first class. (See 45. a., 47.) Those in -nid and these are O. H. G. 
;<>stems. The monosyllabic neuters followed the masculine o-stems with 
-< in the plural (without umlaut sub 2), and can therefore never have 
umlaut. In O. and M. H. G. they were either uninflccied or took -er (see 
431). The masculines sub 2 and 3 are o-stems, and come properly by 
their -e (see p. 195). The group sub 2 is on the decrease, because we can- 
not tell on the surface whether a noun has umlaut or not. To avoid the 
difficulty, several nouns form very anomalous plurals : ber 93au# bi( S3autfn 
instead of S3aue. Of Wtox\>, pi. ^ox\>t is rare, rather SJ^orb^aten ; of (B^muSt 
pi. Bdixmdt is rare, rather <3(^mit(ffa(i^en ; <3^(u(ff pi. ©^ludc is seldom 
used, since it stands in the singular after a number, e. g,, brti <3d^Iu<f 


52. Thibd Glass. — ^Floral -e, with umlatii 

Sing. N., A. ter Stamm bie Au^ Ue Sraut 

G. ted (Stammer ber Au^ bet draut 

D. tern @tamme bet Jtu^ ket Sraut 

PZu. N. . A., O. @tamme Jtu^e Sraute 

D. @tammen Afiifien Sr&uten 

53. To this class belong : 

1. The majority of strong mascnline nonns, mostly monosyl- 
labics : ter ©efang, ®ebraud}, Sail, ®a{l, @olf|n, etc. 

2. A number of feminine nouns: Me Slngfl; Slxt, 93anf, Srunfl, 
Srujl, gaujl, grud^t, ®and, ®ruft, ^aut, Aluft, Araft, ^htnft in com- 
pounds, iani, ivi% Sufi, maiit, SRagD, ^aud, 9lad)t, 9la^t, 9lu§, 
(San, @(!^nur, ®tat)t, SBant, Surfl, 3un^ ; audflud^t, %xmixu% 

3. £)ad g(o§, ter or tad S(or. 

54. The old bulk of these nouns are i-stems. Their number has been 
increased by u-, o-, jo-, and e^Ti^-stems. Bug and dd^n were originally 
eonsstemB, Comp. Gr. 7rod-6f, L. dent-is. They appear as tt-stems in 
Gothic, OS t-stems in O. H. G. Sta^t is also a eans-Btom. Comp. L. noU-is, 
Isolated cases of its old inflection are fRac^td the adverbial genitive and 
the dative plural in SDei^nad^tni < 96n u^en nahten. In 9{a4tigaS + 
nightinj^e appears the genitive of its •- stem -inflection ; compare also 
SBrSutigam + bridegroom, lit. "bridesman." (See 480, 5.) An isolated 
u-case is .^anben" < 0. H. G. ?UtyUuin, dative plural in ab^anbem lost ; 
vor^anben + " on hand." f^fRSten^is an isolated dative plural; the nomina- 
tive plural is obsolete. Compare the Eng. umlaat in mouse, mice ; louse, 
lice ; loft, lift, Ags. lyft, but Go. luftus ; cow, kine, eta 

66. No neuters belong here except H. G. meri, bad ?Kccr, bit 5WeerCr 
now according to 2d Qass. J)ad glog is 0. H. G. masculine t-stem. ©er 
and bad (S^or, borrowed from church-Latin "chorus," has joined the 
group sub 2. !Dad SBoot, bie SBdte because it was also b(r Sootr a modem 
borrowed word < D. ©if SBoote is more elegant. Dad JRo^r, bie 9ie^re is 
not good. Besides there is bit IRi^trer feminine singular, the pipe, tube. 




56. FouBTH Glass. — ^Plural -er, always with umlaut: 

IXng. N., A. ta« atot) 
G. t)e0 Slaved 
D. bem Stotie 

Flu. N., a., A. Slater 

D. tenStattm 

bed 3ntumd 
bem 3rrtume 

bm 3rrtument 

57. To this class belong: 

1. About sixty neuter monosyllabics : bad Sad (9f^); Slatt, 
I)a(^, 8^4 etc. 

2. All in "tarn, whether masculine or neuter: bad $er}ogtum, 
ber Sieic^tum. 

3. Some masculines, viz.: ber S95fe»id^t*, Vom*, ®elfl, ®ott, 
2elb, 3Rann, Drt*, !Rattb, ©trauc^*, Sormunb, SOBato, aCurm. 

4 A few neuters, with the prefix ®e- : bad ®tma(i^, ©entitt, 
®efd^Ied)t*, ©eftdjt*, ©efpenfl, ®e»anb** 

58. Only neuters had this plural -er at first. Of the sixty 
sub 1, some twenty form a different plural, and usage is unset- 
tled; so do those sub 3 and 4 marked with a "*". In the fol- 
lowing a distinction is made in meaning between the different 
forms of the plural: 

Sub 1, 2, 4,— 

bad 35anb, 

Sanbe, ties, 

Sanber, ribbons. 


-male, monuments, 

-maler, figurative sense. 


Dinge, things, 

jDinger, coll., e. g.y girls. 


®efid)te, visions, 

®ef!(!^ter, faces. 


®c»anbe (poetic). 

®e»an5er (commonly). 


2anbc (poetic), 

SSnber (commonly). 


Si^te, candles (only), 

gl*ter, lights. - 


masc. @(!bilte, shields, 

©d^llter (sign-board). 


masc. ©tlftc, pencils. 

©tifter, institutions. 


Su^e, kinds of cloth. 

Sitci^er, cloths, shawls. 


SBorte, words (their mean- 

SQorter, parts of speech. 



62] DS0LBK8I0K 07 ^OUli^B. 18 

Sub 8,— 

her ^awx, Wtcinntn, retinuOy ZRinntt, men. 

Ort, Ortm, D. pL only, Oerter, places, towns. 

69. Xrfistmer oooars in the pi oral only. Bat a weak plaral Zrflmmmi 
occurs in the classico. Singular Ziuvm + thrum, m^u'ptvx,** aa dative 
plural, is isolated in i»stt ben ^^upten." ^axax was originally a eema-stem, 
*mann' (see Eluge's Diet.). The form S^nn in funftig SHann is the real 
nominatiye plural of the eonB-Btem. SRenft^ was originally neuter, being 
an adjective O. H. G. menniKO. t>a^ Wttxt^^, bie 9Renf(^er» now implies a 
eHur, si>eaking of woman = strumpet (see Elnge's Diet.). -SBit^t in Sdfe^ 
toiii^t was also once a neater, + wight 

60. In early N. H. G. many of the neuters still occur without -cr. 
itinbed Jtinb toerben beine SBerf preifen (B.). itinber unb j(inbed Stitib (tti^fjUtn) 
«on bem $oIf no<i^ unb feincn ^^aren (Sch.). 

The plural in -^ is not elegant. S&UUt Sungendr 8rauend# ^rSuteind 
are more than colloquial, though found in the classics. This -d is strictly 
Low German, and identical with English $. 

Weak or n-Deolension. 

61. Oharacteristics: (e)n in the plaral and also in the sin- 
gular of masculine, except the nominative. 

ICasc Fern. 

Sing. N. bet Sole Whole sing. SutiQt 

G. ted Soten 

All through sing, and pZti. Whole plu. ^ntiQtn 

Only feminine and masculine nouns belong to this deden- 

like S^n^t decHne all feminines^ except : 1. SRutter and 
Sod^ter. 2. The few in -nid and -fal (see 50. 1). 3. The 
strong of the 3d class (see 53, 2). 

62. Of the masculines belong here: 

1. All of two or more syllables, except jt&fe and the doobt- 
fol strong ones sub i, 1st class (see 46). 


2. Tlie following which generally do not show the e, which 
belongs to them: Der 8ar, Sautr, Surfd^, gurjl, glnf, ®td, ®efca(c), 
®raf, ipagcjlola, ipelD, iTperr, i^trtc, Snfajfc, 3Renf4, 3Ro^r, 9larr, Dc^fe, 
9)rlna, |)fau, @pa^, ©prog, ©tetnmc^, S^or (fool), SSorfa^r* 

3. Many nouns of foreign origin, which are difficult to tell 
from strong nouns, many of them names of persons and ani- 
mals. They generally end in -t, -nt, -jl, with the suffix -grap^, 
-ard^, -ttat, -109(c), -nom, e. g., ^ot't, SanDt't, S^weli't, 9)atrio't, 
ard^Uc'ft, «ome't, 9)Ianc't, «onfona'nl, ©tute'nt, g)^anta'jl, Selegra'p^, 
©eogra'p^, 9>atria'r(b, aRona'rdj, autofra't, I:emoIra't, afholo'8(c), 
3)^lloIo'8e, SSflrono'm, Dcfono'm (polite for *' farmer '*) ; also 

4. Some names of nationalities in -ax, and -er, e. ^., ter 
U'ngar, Sulga'r(e), Z(da't, SSaier, |)ommcr, Gaffer* 

5. The adjective used as a noun when preceded by the arti- 
cle (see 220). 

Kehabk.— An isolated form is now ,,anf (Srben.'' (Srbe was either weak or strongs. 
Bnt ^in (S^ren," „m\t %xtnUn'* are old datives plural (see 434, 1). Notice the spelling 
ffdnigin, pi. ftdniginnen. 

Mixed Declension. 

63. Characteristics : G. sing. (e)d, plu. (e)n* 
Only masculine and neuter nouns belong to this declension, 
and very few have not double forms for genitive singular and 
for the plural. The following generally belong here: 

1. auge, SBctt, Snbe, Ocvattcr, ^mt, iotim, TOafl, TOurtel, D^r, 
3>attto'{feI, ©d^mcra. ©ee, ©tad^el, <BtaaU 9lad)6ar, Untcrt^an, Setter 
sometimes retain in genitive singular the (e)n of their former 

Dad $erj inflects G. ted iperjend, D. tern ^erjett, A. bad iper^; 
allowing for its being a neuter, which always has nominative 
and accusative siDgular alike; it really comes under 1st Class, 
strong, sub 4 (see 46). ©d^merj rarely has ©Amer^end* £er©porn, 


ted @pomd, has taken an ~n in the singnlar, bnt the old weak 
plural ©poren is still the rnle, thongh @pomen occurs. Z^ronen, 
borrowed in M. H. G. < Gr.-L. thrones, is yery rare. The 
plural of I/orn is either t:otnt (old) or generally £:i)mer ; rarely 

The mixed declension is quite modem, and does not exist in M. H. G. 

2. Foreign nouns in -or (o long and accented in the plural, 
short and unaccented in the singular), e, g,, ter Do'ltor, tie 
Dofto'ren, ter 9)rofe'ffor, Me yrofeffo'ren. Also ^n\t% Sntere'jfe, 
^utoe'I, @tatu't, and others. 

Colloqiilany yoa hear Bometimes -n after nouns in -tl and -<i: bit ig^ummern, lobsten; 
6ttef cin, boota ; bat they are not to be Imitated. 

Declension of Foreign Nouns. 

64. Those which are fully naturalized come under the 
declensions already treated of. It remains to speak of those 
not at all or partly naturalized, and their inflection is very 
irregular and complicated. 

1. Those that retain their foreign inflection, e, </., 3(fud 
(E^rifhtd,3efu S^rifli; JRart'a, 9Rariae; 9Rot)ud, pi. 9RoM ; Safu«,pL 
Safud ; (l^ttuh, pL SberuMm ; Sonto, pL Sonti ; @aelulum, pi. 
@aehtla; Sorb, pL Sortd; £empud, pL Ztmpoxa. Their number 
is decreasing. 

2. Those which take a German plural ending, -en for 
instance, and do not inflect in the singular, e, g. : ta^ T^xama, 
pi. Cramen ; Sterna, pi. iitmtn ; 3nt)it)i'liuum, pi. 3nDi)>ttuett. 
®lobud, Slptl^mttd. But these are also found with -d in geni- 
tiye singular, and then come under the mixed declension. 

3. Nouns whose foreign plural ended in -ia take -tens 
@tut)ium, pi. @tubien ; ©vmnaftum, pi. ®9mnaflen. The ending 
of the singular may have been lost, and they have -d in geni- 
tive singular, as k't'ot'xb, $artici')), @emlna'r, SRinera'I, Soffi'I, pL 


atijcrBien, gofpUen, etc Notice |>ri'mad/|>rlma'tett ; Wtla^, %iWntm } 
Rli'ma, ^limaten* On the whole^ there is a great deal of irreg- 
ularity, and therefore freedom in the inflection of foreign 

Declension of Proper Notins. 

65. 1. The names of nations and peoples are inflected both 
in the singular and ploraL Those in -er (except 93aier and 
$ommer, where -er is not suffix, denoting origin) go according 
to 1st Class (strong). All the others go according to the 
tt-declension ': ^cr ipamBurgcr, ted ipamburgcrd, etc., D. pL ben 
ipamburgem. But tit (Sa&i\t, Ui ©aci^fcn ; Der 9)rcu§e, tec |)rcu^en, 
all through. 

2. Certain geographical names (see 147), which always 
have the definite article, are treated like any common noun, 
e. g.y ter Stt^tin, ted Sl^eind; tad gldbtelgcHrge, ted -edj tad 61faf, ted 
Slfaffed ; tie ©dbwcia, ter ®(^»etj, etc 

3. Names of persons are uninflectedif preceded by the arti- 
cle (an adjective or title between article and name makes no 
difference), e. g., ted Stad, ted ftatferd &axl, tern gropen grietrtd). 
If the title follows the name, or if the name in the genitiye 
stands before the noun upon which it depends, then the name 
takes -d, e. g., tad 9lei(i^ Sutwlgd ted grommen, ted gtof en grietrid^^d 

4. Names of persons, places, and countries without an arti- 
cle take a genitive in -ed: ®oet^e, ®oetl^ed; Snglant, Sttfllantd} 
Slnna, ^nnad. But names of males ending in a sibilant, if 
inflected at all and an apostrophe is not preferred, and femi- 
nine names in -e, form a genitive in -ettd^«. g., SRa^end, granjend, 
^ariend, @op^iend. Surnames in a sibilant certainly prefer an 
apostrophe, e. g., 3Rufdud' Solfdmirti^en, Opii^' SJerle, ®aug' Sot. 
Names of places in a sibilant are constructed with )>on: tie 
Slei^dfrei^elt »ott ito'ttjlanj, tie SefcjHgungen uon 5)<iti'd* 


66. A dative and an accoBatiye in -«n of names of persons are haidly 
in use now, as e.g., 6<i^iaernf ®octteiw Jtlopflotfen. Christian feminine 
nsmes retain them more easily than masculine, e.g., ^afl bu SXatien 

67. Plurals of names of persons are formed in yarious 
ways. The general role is: -e f or masculine and -e(n) for 
feminine names, e. </., ^etnri^e, SRarien ; but also SBnm^ilte, 
SIifaiete« -4 forms the plural of masculines ending in a vowel 
and of feminines in -a: Snnad, ipugod« 

68. 1. Here also belongs the plural of surnames denoting the mem- 
bers of the family, formed by -4 if ending in a consonant not a sibilant ; 
by -(e)n if ending in a vowel or a sibilant (occurs only in familiar lan- 
goage however), e,g,^ @tcinbrttd0en# the SteinbrUgges ; ©u^Itngd^ the 
Suhling family ; Jtit(f9. Other endings for the plural, generally of for- 
eign names however, are -ne» Hten : (£ato» Catone; Scipionen, Ottone^ and 
Ottonm ; but the first n belongs to the stem of course. Compare L. 
Scipio, Sdpionia, 

2. Biblical names retain classical inflection: (Si^angelittm SRott^aei^ in 
Befu Sl^riflOf fBtaxht ^eimfu^uttd* 

8. It should be borne in mind that the rule in the classical writers 
before Qoethe's death is not the rule now. Leasing wrote bed Sut^erdf bed 
Stelont^ttond; Qoethe, fieiben bed itm^ett SDert^d. The dative and aocnsa- 
tive in -en are the rule in them« the exception now, ^abett @ic Staxlta 
^xvtbta, S^il^Imen defu^tf 


69. The adjective is inflected according to two sys- 
tems of declension, the Strong and the Weak. It is 
inflected strong when there is no limiting word before 
it; weak, when there is an article or pronoun. It is 
uninflected in the predicate. 




1. Stbono : 


Sing.l^. guter 

G. guted 

D. gutem 

A. guten 



Denter. oommon gender. 

guted Plu. N. gute 
guted O. guter 

gutem D. guten 

guted A. gute 

2. WniLK: 

niase. fem. neuter. 

Sing. N. ter gute tie gute tad gute - 

A. ten guten tie gute tad gute 

All other cases, sing, and plu,, guten* 

Notice that the nominatiye and accosatiye singalar of the 
feminine and neater forms are alike. 

70. After ein, lein, and the possessive pronouns the adjec- 
tive is strong in the nominative singular of all genders and in 
the accusative singalar of feminine and neater, since it is like 
the nominative, e. g, : 

Sg. N. ein grower I:l(i^ter, eine rote Xix\iit, eln l^errli&ed ©etid^t 
O. etned gro§en DtAterd, einer roten jtirf^e, eined ^enlid^en ©etid^ted 
D. einem gropen "Biijttt, einer roten ^irfd^e, eincm ^errlld^en ©etid^te 
A. einen gro§en !Di^tcr, eine rote ^irf(i^e, ein ^errlitfted Octitftt. 

71* Adjectiyes endin^^f in -tU -err -nt as a rale drop the e of these 
Boffixes when mflected, sometimes however the e of the case-ending^ -ni# 
e.g., ebel» eblcTr ctlcr ebled; ma^tx, magrer, magrer magred; d^tn, eidner, eigntr 
eigned ; but l^eitern and (eitren^ eblen and ebeln. Those in -tr like to retain 
both e's: f^ttxtx, f^tiittt, l^eitered. Note therefore: (Sin magrer O^ftr eined 
magern or magren 06fen, etc.; ber ^ttere or l^ettre ^tmmelr bed l^eitereiw (eitreor 
or l^eitern ^immeldr etc. ; mein eigned ^an^, meined eigenen or eignen $aufed» etc. 
For ^o4, ^ol^err (o^e, l^ol^ed see 490» 3, b, 

72. Tlie (^nitive singular masculine and neater, -ed» is now so rega- 
larly replaced by -en» that it should perhaps appear in the paradigm. 
Though strictlj according to rule, -ed has become the exception ; -en has 
prevailed since the 17th century. Voss, Elopstock, and Grimm opposed 
it. Goethe favors it dbx, Uin, and the possessive adjectives never 
allow -en for -ed; feised, never feinen !IX(umed. 



73. Adjectiyes are compared by means of the inflectional 
suffixes -er and -(e){l, e. g. : 













Those in -el, -en, -er lose this e before the comparative -er ; 
but retain it and lose the e of -e{l in the saperlatiye, e. g,, 
ntager, magrer, magerfl; tunfel, bunHer, tunle(fl. e in -efl is as a 
rule retained after t, t, d, fe, 3, xA, §, and {I, bnt not necessarily, 
e. g,y lautefle, getoiffefle, fit^efle. ®ro§te alone is classical, but in 
the spoken language fugte, l^eipte, titrate, etc., are heard. „$ocl)" 
retains the former ^ in the comparative ^5^er, and !^ in nal^e 
becomes d^: nS^fl. See 490, 3, 6. 

74. The umlaat generally takes place, bnt it is very diffi- 
cult to tell when it does not. A not small number are doubt- 
ful, e. g,, ila^f gefunn, fromm, etc No umlaut take: 1. Those 
with the stem- vowel au, e,g.y lau, Uau, etc. 2. Foreign ones: 
ixa'o, noMf etc. 3. Participles: befud)t, geioanbt, etc 4. Deriva- 
tives : |haf6ar, fd^aK^aft, langfam, unglaublidb, etc. 6. Sunt, Want, 
feumpf, falfd^, flaci^, fro^, ^o^l, l^oln, la^I, Har, la^m, lag. lo«, matt, 
morfd^, platt, plump, raf^, rol^, runt), fanfl, fatt, [(i^laff, f*Ian!, fArojf, 
flarr, {lola, fhraff, toO, «)oa, roa^x, ga^m, aart. 

75. The comparative and superlative forms are declined 
just like the positive. Examples : 

®r5f crer @paf , flr&§ercd or grSgeren ©paged, etc. ; ter grBgcre 
©pa§, M flrbgeren ©paged, etc. ; ein grbgerer ©pag. 

^larjled SBajjer, tad Harjle SBafler, eln Harjted ffiajfer. 

(SMerer mam, tier et(erc Wann, ein etlerer SKonn; eitelfler Surfd^, 
ber eitelfle 9urf(!^, ein eitelfier Surfd^. 


$elfrer ©anger, bcr ^cifrere Singer, eln ^eifrerer ©anger; G. etned 
IJeifreren ©iingerd, etc. ; ter ^eiferjle ©Snger. 

76. 1. Irregular Comparison. 
By the use of different stems: 

Positive. Comparatiye. Saperbttiye. 

gut + good bejfer, adv. ha^ -f better 6ejl + best 

)>iel me^r + more meifl + most 

me^rer me^rjl 

gering or menig minter mtntefl 

®ut and ^iel are never compared regularly. SRe^rer and mel^rfl 
are due to doable comparison. „^t\^x^" though occurring in 
Qoethe and Schiller, is not classical 9Rebr and minber are really 
not adjectives, but are used adverbially and substantively. „Sa§„ 
(me^r, very, much) is now archaic. ^Do^ ia^ ^e^ i^n Der Itnle 
9Rann'' (Bu.). Surba§ (onward); Mi" ^o means fel^r, fiarl: „I)ad 
ntad^t, er t^St |l^ ba§ :^er»or" (Sch.). „Unt warlD nicbt mel^r gefe^n" 
(G.). 9Rorgen ein mel^rered = to-morrow (I will write) mora 

2. Defective and Bednndant Comparison. 

0. There is a class of adjectives derived from adverbs and 

prepositions : 

Ady. or prep. Compantiye. 


(auper) &u§er 


(Winter) Winter 


(tnner) inner 


(nleter) nieter 


(ob[er]) ober 


(utttcr) unter 


(»or, fort) sorter 


For the derivation of these adverbs, see 551, 3. The 
superlative sufix -fi is added to the comparative. This is 
due to their former full comparison, as for instance, O. H. G. 
pos. hirUaro, comp. hintardro, superL hintardst. The pres* 




ent comparatiyes i^itdttt, tAttt are not eyen now felt as real 
oomparatiYes ; &uf er has a spnrioiis umlaut ; „56erfle'' and 
„f^tltT^t" are colloquial ; „)>oiber'' comes from „fort/' O. H. G. 
f ardor; compare "Eng. further, which has nothing to do with 



(e^et, adv.) + ere 



(mittel) + middle 
(el^e, conj.) 
(la^ + late) 


(fiarbtr, ady.) 


erfl + erst 
Sflrfl(sub8t.)+ first 

The first compares regularly like an adjectiye in -el. The 
positiye occurs only in compoxuids now, and the comparatiye 
has the force of the positive. 

77. Cardinals. 

eittd, + one 

gttjet, + two 

fcrei, + three 

»ter, + four 

ffittf, + five 

fed)d, + six 

fieben, + seven 

aijt, + eight 

tieun, + nine 

gf^n, + ten 

elf, eilf, 5If, + eleven 

3»e(f, jtt)5lf, + twelve 

treigel^n, -f thirteen 

Dlerge^n, + fourteen 

fibt^e^n, + fifteen 

fe^(«)3c^n, + sixteen 

jlDattjig, + twenty 

eitt ttn^ J»anjl8, + twenty-one 


jttjei unb gmanjlg, + twenty-two 
tret unb amangig, + twenty-three 
brei^ig, + thirty 
ein tmb brei§ig, + thirty-one 

»l«^8t8f + forty 
ffittfaig, funfetg, + fifty 

^WS, WS/ + si^cty 

ileB(en)aia, + seventy 

«*tsig, + eighty 

neimgig, + ninety 

(unbert (bad ^unbert), + a hun- 

(ein) ^unbert unb ein(d), + a hun- 
dred and one 

(ein) (ttttbert unb ^toti, + a hun- 
dred and two 

(ein) l^unbert (unb) jel^n, + a 
hundred and ten 

22 NUMEBALS. [78- 

(ein) l^untert unb itoan^i^, + a hundred and twenty 

(ein) ^un^ert tin mtt itoaniiQ, + a hundred and twenty-one 

(ein) l^unbert adift un^ ad^t^ig, + a hundred and eighty-eight 

gttjeil^Utttert, + two hundred 

trei^untert feci^d unt flebjig, + three hundred and seventy-six 

taufent (bad Saufenb), + a thousand 

(ein) taufenb unt) tin{^), + a thousand and one 

(ein) taufenb brei unb 'oitx^iQ, + a thousand and forty-three 

(ein) taufenb ein^unbert or elf^unbert, + a thousand and one 

ein taufenb ati^t^unbert brei unb ad^tjig or ad^t^e^n l^unbert brei unb 

<^^t)^df + one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three 
brei(mal) l^unbert taufenb, 4- three hundred thousand 
eine 9Ritlio'n, + a million 
eine SRiKia'rbe, a thousand millions 
eine Simo'U; + a billion 

78. Inflection. 

Fully inflected are only eind, ^totl, brei, as follows : 



eined, when used substantiyely. 

ein, like the indefinite article 
when used attributiyely. 

„^« roar einer bem^d ju ^ersen glng'' (Oh.) ; „eind »on beiDen," one 
of two things. 

N. 3»ei G. 3»eier D. gtoeien A. gmel 
N. brei G. breier D. brelen A. brei 

79« Older inflections were masc. }»een# fern. }tt>o. Qtoti, the neutei; 
has crowded out the mascaline and feminine forms, which may still 
be foond in the older modem classics, and still in use in the S. G. 
dialects. SDa« jtoeten re^t \% if! breien )u tn^t. Durd^ ^eier Beugen 3!ftnvb 
toirb aSemirtd bit Satr^eit funb (F., I. 3013). dmeen bit mit mir ft^erfu^rtn 















« « . . (Uh.). Stop ^ofen eined Xu4d» cut from the same doth. irStto 
Sungfem in ben bcflen Sa^^ren" (Gellert). The plurals imit and breie are in 
analogy with the strong noun and acyective declensions From 4-12 
the e in the plural represents O. H. G. t when they were I'-stems, fimfe < 
flmfl. The only other case in which these nomhera are inflected is the 
dative plural (in -en): auf aUtn Bitxtn txitditn, aQe Stere )9on fl(^ fhetfcn; mtt 
©ec^fen fa^rcn; su ^reiciu QmitXi imitn are according to the adjective 

80. Ordinals. 

The ordinals are formed from the cardinals by adding -te 
to the numbers from ^19, and -fie from 20 on. 

(Der) erfle, + first fe^fle, + sixth 

gtoeite; + second f^^^e^nte, + sixteenth 

britte, + third Stvanjigfle, + twentieth 

»iertc, + fourth l^iinbertfle, + hundredth 

ffinfte, + fifth taufenbfle, + thousandth 

Their inflection is that of adjectives ; getter, ter imitt, eiit 
jmeiter; O. einee }»eiten. See 438, 1. 


81. Personal Pronouns. 

Special forms for gender in the 

Common gender. 






Masc. Fern. 


Sing. N. i(36 


er fie 


G. tneiner 



felner i^rer 






(feln, c«) 

D. mir 



m i^r 


A. mid^ 



m fie 


Flu. N. »ir 




G. tinfer 






D. und 








24 PBOKOUN& [82- 

The first and second persons and the plural of the third 
person are of common gender. The singolar of the third 
person has a form for each gender. 

82. In the genitive singolar the longer forms in -er are 
conmion; the others are now archaic and poetic, e, g^ ,,Serg{f^ 
mzimW (the flower). „3d^ t>enle Dein/' etc. (G.). The length- 
ened forms eurer, unfrer are not yet sanctioned, though common 
in the spoken language, and, especially eurer, not very rare in 
the classics, e. g^ ,,(9Bie er) »ei Safel (Surer feUfl nid^t a^' (Sch.). 
ff'Dann (etarf ed unferer v\^i„ (Sch.). The genitiye singular nen* 
ter „ed" occurs still in certain constructions, generally called 
an accusative: „Sr ^ot ed leinen ipe^I tap . . . *" (Sch.). 3^ Mn 
ed miine. Sd nimmt mxioi SQunter. (See 183.) 

83. Beflezive Pronouns. 

For the first and second persons the personal pronouns 
serve as such, e. </., ^ fttrAte mi^, toir freuen xM, i^r fd^eut eud^* 
For the third person the forms are made up of the personal 
and the old reflexive pronouns : 

Masc. and neater. Fern. Common gender. 

Sing. G. fclner (il^rer, pers. pron.) Plu. (i^rer, pers. pron.) 
D., K. fid^ fld^ fid^ 

84. The reciprocal pronoun has no special form; as such 
are used und, vx&if ^i^, einanter; meaning '' each other," ** one 

The Possessive Pronouns. 

85. The possessive pronouns are: mein + my; tein + thy; 
feitt, his, its; i^r, her; unfer + our; euer + your; il^r, their; S^^r 
your; feer jneitie + mine ; Itt tcine + thine, etc.; btr meinige + 
mine; feer beiwigc + thine, etc. 

They are inflected like adjectives (see 69); but the first 

87] PBONOUKa 25 

group, mtin, bein, fein, etc, like the indefinite article (see 38), 
in which the nominatiye singular masculine and the nomina- 
tive and accusatiye singular neuter are uninfleoted, e ,g, : 

Nenter. ^ Feminine. 

Sing. N., A. mtin ZuSj Mnt 9lid)te 

O. meined Su^ed telnet SftU^tt 

D. meinem Zui^t Uintx Slid^te 

Plu. N., A. meine Ifldber teine 9lid^tctt 

G. mctncr Siidber beincr 9li^ten 

D. meinen Zixiitxn beinen 9li(!^ten 

For the declension of ber meine, ber meinige, see the weak 
adjective, 69, 2. The rest stand uninflected used predica- 
tively and when they follow the noun (now archaic), e, g,, 
9Sm mtin i% tad ifl bein unH toad tein ifl, bad ifl mein (B.). Su 
l^afi bad iperge mein, fo gang Qtnommtn tin (Song). 

86. (Suev, (SuTCr Getoetr Seine are often abbreyiated Into (S»., 6v.» 6e. : 6e. SD2aie{l&tr 
(S». SBo^Igeboren. 3^ro is archaic, e. g.y 3^to Onaben. It is an imitation of the old 
G. ben (see 80). It does not occor before the seventeenth centnry. It stands for mas- 
eoline and feminine singular and plural : 3^ro Onabcn, Gminensi ^ur^tauc^t. 

87. The posseBsive pronotms form oeitain compounds with toegetif 
l^alhn, toiHettr and glet(!(en* Ex. : tneinetwegenf i^retwegen, meinetl^alBenr i^red^ 
glei^ntf euredgleid^en* The compoonds with toegen and l^aUen are reallj 
D. plu. meinen tt>egenf beinen ^alben. After n sprang up the excrescent t '■=■ 
meinmttoegenf beinent$alben> current in the sixteenth century. These became 
the now classical meinetwegenf beinetfal^en^ though the longest forms are 
still beard ; also meintl^aUen, even meintd^albeni occur, but they are not 
good. 3ReinettoilIen < metnentwiQen < meinenwiUen are original accusatives, 
e. g., urn meinen wiQen = for my sake. 

The origin of tl^redgleid^eny etc., is not so clear. ©leici^en is without 
doubt the adjective used as a noun and governing a preceding genitive, 
which was at first the genitive of the personal pronoun and became later 
the possessive pronoun agreeing with gleic^en (M. H. G. «Cn« gelichen). 
But whence d ? Is it the genitive sign -ed in compound nouns, fiiebed^ 
Briefs !0{lttagdfhmbef which was looked upon as a mere connective ? (See 
618, 2.) In M. H. G. was a Gen. mines^ dines, which with tnttier, stood for 

26 PBOKOUNS. [Sd- 

min, almost exclnsively before sdbes. Bat beincdgleU^en is not old enough 
to connect with M. H. G. dines selbes. 

Other compounds with the possessiye, like meittedteild# meinerfeitd (see 
652), are clearly genitives. 

Demonstrative Frononns. 

88. These are : 1. Itt, tie, tad + the, that ; 2. tiefer, tiefe, 
tlefed + this ; iener, {cne, Jened, that, + yon. The first, when 
used with the noun, differs only in accent and not in declen- 
sion from the article (see 39). When used substantiyely 
(without the noun) it declines : 




Common gender. 

Sing. N. ter 



Flu. tie 

G. tejfen 



teren * 




terer (ter) 

D. tern 




A. ten 




89. The spelling of frbeg" for ^ted" is unwarranted. It implies that 
it is an abbreviation of ^tt^tn," which it is ni t. 

wDero" is the O. H. G. form retained in certain phrases, as in bero 
®naben» ^erenttoegen^ ^^Uetu etc., are forms like mtmtmt^tn, etc., bat 
rarely lose the n before t. For their explanation see 87. 

Masc. Fern. Nenter. 

90. tiefer tiefe tiefed and tied + this 
jiener iene iened + yon, that 

These are declined like strong adjectives, and stand adjeo- 
tively and substantively: tiefe geter, tiefed Sitttenfa§^ iener Sanrn* 
Sencd tort ifl mein Su^. 

91. Another group of demonstrative pronouns, sometimes 
called " determinative," consists of : 

Masc. Fern. Nenter. 

terjenige • tieienige tadjenige, the, that 

terfelbe tiefelbe tadfelbe, the same 

terfelblge tiefelbige tadfetbige, the same 

felber, felbjl (iminflected), fettlger feftige fettiged, the same 

fo^(er) fol^(c) fol^(ed), + such 

82] PROlirOUNS. 27 

1. The ixiflection of the first three is that of „ter" and a 
weak adjective, e. g., berimige, tedjifnigen, temienigm, etc Their 
composition is apparent, -ig is the nsnal adjective sofEix (see 

In the 16th oentary ber is still separated from felB-f {tn-, and earlier 
the latter were even declined strong, ber itntx, bent felbem# bat they soon 
followed the n-declenslon. «»X)er ieney" from which wberientge* developed, 
becomes obsolete in the 17th century. wDerfelbige" < wberfelbe,". Accent: 
be'neni0e# but berfe'lbc* 

2. @elber is a stereotyped form like ))oDer, and felbfl is a geni- 
tive singular of felb, M. H. G. sdbes. The excrescent t appears 
first in the 16th centuxy. 

8. @oI(!^ is inflected like any adjective, even with -en in the 
genitive singular, e,g.y foI^enfaUd, fo((!^en ®Iaubend* It may be 
uninflectedy always if followed by ein and generally if followed 
by another adjective. An apostrophe after fol^ is uncalled 
for. (Solij ein 9Rann, fo^ f^5ne Slumen. dint fold^e Seleibiguttg 
lann i^ nii^t ^^ergeffen. SU er folded fa$ . . . • (B.). 

92. Interrogatiye Pronotins. 

SBer + who ; toad + what ; mliitx + which ; mad fiir ein, 
what sort of. 

1. 9Ber declines : 

Mate, and fern. Neater. 

N. tott toai 

O. toeffen, toed t^^fT^n, m^ 

D. »em 

A. mn toad 

IBeg or oefd: »ed as befTettt bed* See 89. The genitive lengthened 
by -en like bed > beffen was not yet established in the 16th century. 
SBed is now archaic, except in compounds, 0.^., tt>ed^Ib, medwegen. For 
»effent^Iben» see beffenK berem^alben, 87» 89. 

2. SBel^ + which, what, declines strong. Before „ein" it is 

28 PBONOUNS. [93- 

always, and before an adjective it is often left nninflected, 
also in poetry when used adjectively: SBeld) ©etummel @tra§en 
auf ! (Scb.). ffield) cin ©cfii^l (F. 1011). SBelc^er 3Rann mx ti ? 

3. 2Sad fur, wad fitr eiit, what, what kind of. „Sitt" alone is 
inflected like the indefinite article if used adjectiyely; like a 
strong adjective if used substantively: „3Qad fitr 93erge, toad fiir 
SBuflen . . . . trennen und Denn no^?" (Le.). ffiad fiir tin ^aum 
ifl tad ? 2Ba« fiir Dinte ijl Died ? 

93. Eelative Pronoims. 

1. !Eer, Die, Dad, which, + that, who, declines like the demon- 
strative, but the genitive plural is never Derer : Reiner flegte itoc!^, 
Der ni^t gefiritten l^ot (Bo.). 

2. 3BeI(!^er, mli^, me^ed, + which, who, that, always declines 
strong: T^a^ ^n^i, melted id^ gelefen ^a6e« 

3. 3Ber, + who, whoever. The inflection is the same as that 
of the interrogative: SBer ed {andfj fei, whoever it be. 

4. SBad, + what, whatsoever. The inflection is the same as 
that of the interrogative : SBad er {avLdf) fagen maQ, no matter 
what he says. 

Indefinite Pronouns and Indefinite Nimierals. 

94. 2lttDerer, anDere, anDered, + other, different : Der anbere, 
Die anDere, ta^ auDere, Die anDeren* Declined like any adjective, 
used substantively and adjectively. 

95. (Siner, eine, eined, + one, the numeral with its deriva- 
tives !etn, none, and einlge, generally only plural " some." 

Sin- is always strongly inflected and stands only substan- 
tively. Standing adjectively it is declined like the iodefinite 
article (see 39). 

Rtin is inflected like the indefinite article, but standing 
substantively is declined lelner, lelne, lein(e)d : Reiner »irD aid 
SWeijler geboren (Prov.). 




96. &&i^, some; ettoad, anything; toer, anybody; mad, any- 
thing, something; tveld^, some, any. 

Stlidh and tpeld^ are always inflected strong. The singular 
of etli^ is rare, haying the force of ''tolerable,** ''some": mit 
etUAem Srfolge, with some success. 

97. Compounds with Je: JeDer, eyery, each; JeglidJ, JcDweter 
(= ieter) stand adjectiyely and substantiyely; ietrrmann, eyery- 
body; iemant, anybody; niemant, nobody. 

3e^er, leglic!^, ietmeter, each, eyery, are declined like strong 
adjectiye& 3eglic^ and ietmeter are not common now; they 
haye the same meaning. 3^^^^>nann has only a genitiye singu- 
lar in -^« 3(ntant and nieman^ decline: 

N. iemant 
G. iemant(e)d 
D. iemantem, -ten 
A. iemanten 

The accusatiye and datiye are N. H. O., taken from the 
adjectiye inflection. Though the classics are full of these 
cases, the best usage for the spoken language fayors no case- 
ending for accusatiye and datiye. 

98. ^an, one, any one. It is only nominatiye. The other 
cases are made up from ein- or toir, 9Ran is old spelling for 
9Rann, from which in M. H. O. it wbs not distinguished. Its 
corresponding possessiye is fein : 9)tan glauit i^m ni^t. Wlan 
faun fclnen cigenen Ao)>f nid^t fffm (Proy.). 

99. 9lid}td, nothing, allows of no further inflection. It is 
itself the genitiye of M. H. G. niht = ni-mht and nio-whiht^ 
Compare Eng. naught = na-wiht. 9li(i^td, the genitiye, 
stands for the emphatic combination niJUea niht, "not a 
thing " = gar nid^te. 

3u nid^te, mit ni&Un, " not at all," show still that n{d)t was 
once a noun fully inflected: Seffer etmad tenn nid^td (Proy.). 


100. As indefinite numerals it is cnstomary to classify 
an + all; beite + both; ttilti + each or either; Qan^, whole; 
lanttv, "nothing but;" manci^ + many; me^r + more; mel^rere, 
several; tie meijlen + most, the majority; tie me^rjlen (= tie 
meijlen) ; eiit paax, a few, Ut. " a pair; " fdrntlici^e, all, altogether; 
tad ubrige, tie iibrigen, the rest; )oiel, much, many; menig, Httle, 
few; ein tvenig, a Httle. 

Of these, aU, ^an^, manii, t)iel, tvenig may stand nninflected. 
Otherwise they are inflected like adjectives: Siel (Bt^int gab^d 
itnt toenig Srot (Uh.). „®ana £)eutfd)Iant lag in ^iimai^ unt 
^i^mtti" (Mosen). Dad gange Deutfc^Iant foil ed fein (Amdt). 

Sauter, mel^r, ein ))aar, ein tvenig are indeclinable. 


101. The verb varies for person and number; for tense 
(present and preterit) and mood (indicative and subjunctive). 
From the present stem are formed the imperative and the 
noun-forms of the verb, viz. , the infinitive, present participle 
with the gerundive, and the past participle in -(e)t. Accord- 
ing to the formation of the preterit we distinguish two great 
systems of conjugations, the ** strong ' and the " weak.** The 
strong verbs form the preterit by substituting a different stem- 
vowel from that of the present, e. g., geben — gab, tragen — trug ; 
the weak, by adding -(e) te to the stem, e. g.^ loben — lobte, 
glauben — glaubte. 

102. The infinitive, the preterit, and the past participle 
are generally given as the " principal parts " of a verb. The 
infinitive represents the forms with the present stem. Know- 
ing the preterit or the past participle, one can tell whether a 
verb is weak or strong. If the preterit ends in -(e)te the past 
participle ends in -(e)t ; if the preterit is strong, the past par- 
ticiple ends in -en, e. gr., fagen, fagte, gefagt; faugen, fog, gefogen. 




The infinitiTe and the past participle help form the compound 

103. The following paradigms show the Tarions inflections : 






Ind, Subj. Ind,and9ulii. 


Bubj. ' Ind. Bultj. 

iil lobe lobe 



Pnge fang TAnfl^ 

ttt lobjl Iobei» 



Pngep fangP fdngP 

ft lobt lobe 



Pnge fang fdnge 

»ir loben loben 



Pngen fangen f&ngen 

i^r lobt lobet 



Pnget fangt f^nget 

fie loben loben 



Pngen fangen f&ngen 



Imp. Inf. 

2. sg. lobe (lu) 


2. ag. 

Png(e) (t)u) Pngen. 

1. pi. loben »ir 
^ \ loben ©te 



Past part. 

> 1. pi. 
2. pi. 

Pngen toir -P^i^f*-' 

r fl / \i. /i£ \ Gerundive. 

IjingtnSU p^^^ 



104. The personal suffixes are: 

8g. 1. p. -e, except for strong preterit 

2. p. -(e)P for both tenses and moods. 

3. p. -(e)t for the present indicative. In the pres. subj. 

and in the pret. ind. and subj. the 3. p. is like 
the first. 
PL 1. p. -(e)n for both tenses and moods. 

2. p. -(e)t for both tenses and moods ; also for the im- 


3. p. -(e)n for both tenses and moods. 

The retention or rejection of the thematic or connecting vowel -e- is treated later. 
See lia 

105. Imperative. The 2. p. sg. ends in -e in all verbs 
excepting those strong on3s that have the interchange of 

82 COKJUGATIOK. [106- 

e — ^i or e — ie in the 2. and 3. p. sg. pres. ind, e. g., Sraue, f^ue, 
Bete, Htte, grabe, ^ebe, but fprid^, fri§, nimm. 

106. Infinitive. It always ends in -en except in those 
weak verbs in which it is preceded by -el, -er : jranbeln, 
tvantern ; also in fein, t^un, which are non-thematic verbs. 
See 449, 2. 

107. Participles. The present pari and the gerondive 
always end in -ent: ^offent), ^clfenD, ein Slebeitter, ein gu be»eifenler 
®a^, a proposition to be demonstrated. They are declined 
like adjectives. 

The past participle is formed by the prefix ge-, and the suf- 
fix -(e) t for weak verbs, the sofi&x -en for strong ones: Ileben — 
geltebt, blattern — geblattert, tragen — fletragen, jlngen — gefungen. 

108. ®e- does not stand: 

1. Be'fore ^ei§en, foffen, fe^en, l^elfen, lemen (?), le^ren (?), l^^ren, 
when an infinitive depends npon them in a compound tense: 
3d) \io.\it i^n ge^en l^eigen, (ommen lajfen, fagen ^oren. For lernen 
and le^ren, gelernt and gele^rt are better usage. 

2. In the preterit-present verbs (= modal auxiliaries, see 
134) which form similar past participles, viz., fonnen, tiirfen, 
megen, miiffen, foden, tvotlen. 3Ran ^at Dad xoWlt Sier nic^t fangen 
fbnnen. See 113. 

3. In the past participles of verbs having inseparable pre- 
fixes, e. g., tterlajfen, entfagt, Uudt, getadjt, except frejfen < »er + 
effen and verbs in which 6 and g are no longer felt to be the 
prefixes be and ge (see 543), e.^f., gefreffen, geMieben < Weiben; 
geglaubt; geglici^en < glei(i^en. See gegejfen, 128. 

4. In verbs with the foreign ending -i'eren, e. g.y marfdjleren — 
marfcftiert ; probieren — probiert. Even when these are com- 
pounded with separable Germanic prefixes, they take no ge- : 
audmarf^lert, einftolcrt. 

5. SBorten < merten never takes ge-, when it is an auxiliary 
in the passive voice, e. g., ®r ijl gelpbt worsen. 




Compound Tensei. 

109. These are formed by means of the auxiliary verbs 
l^aben, fein, rotxltn ; the last in the future active and the whole 
passive; Ijaitn and fein in the active voice. As a matter of con- 
venience the simple tenses of these auxiliaries are given here. 




er l^at 
mir i^cAtn 
i5r mt 
f!e l^aben 


2. sg. l^aie (tu) 

1. pi. ^aitn »ir 


Ind, SuJbj. 

iij toerbe merte 

ttt n?ir|l wertefl 

et ttHrb jocrte 

»ir jDerten werben 

il^r »ertet jDcrtet 

fie toerten toerben 


Jnd SvJbj. 

^atte ^atte 

^attefl ^atte|t 

^atte %m 

i^atten l^atten 

l^attet Httet 

l^atten l^&tten 


Tree, part,, 

Past part, 



mtt>, tourte 
wattfl, jDUtbejl 
toarti, tpurtie 


Ind, Subj. 

Mn fei 
Mfl feiefl 

tit fel 
Pnt feien 

feiD fclct 

Pnd feien 

2. «gr. fei (tu) 

1. pZ. feien tt)ir 
^ ( feien <Sie 


mar m&re 

n^arfl tpfirell 

war tDcire 

toaren to&xtn 

toant toavtt 

toaxtn tohtn 


Pres. part. 

Past part, 








2. sg, mxU (tu) 
1. pL werben »ir\^''^'^^^^'^ 
I mxttn ®ie 

Inf. ttjerten 

Poet part. ftJOrten 

111. 1. <&aben has contracted forms for the 2. and 8. pers. sing. : ^afl 
< Jidst < habest; $at < Tidt < habet. The pret. has undergone the same 
contractions : (atte < hdte < hdbete, etc. The pret. subj. has umlaut due 
to the influence of strong and pret-pres. verbs. In dialect the long con- 


traded forms of M. H. G., prevailing tlirotigh the whole present, are still 
heard. In M. H. G. haben as auxiliary has the contracted forms ; as an 
independent verb, the uncontracted. 

2. SBerben is a regular strong verb of the 3. class. It is the only verb 
that has retained the two pret. vowels, generally the vowel of the sing, 
prevailing over that of the plural. SBarb is more common as independent 
verb ; tourbe/ as auxiliary. In elevated style marb is preferable. 

112. The Perfect is formed with tHe present of ^aben or fein 
and the past participle, e. p., iij ^abe getragen, I haye borne; td^ 
bin gcfaferen, subj. id) fei gcfa^ren, I have ridden. Perfect Infini- 
tive: getragen ^aben, gefa^ren fein. to have carried, ridden. 

The Pluperfect is formed with the preterit of ^aben or fcin: i^ 
l^atte getragen, subj. i(!^ ^iitte getragen, I had borne; id^ toar gefa^ren, 
subj. ic^ n?arc gcfa^ren, 1 had ridden. 

113. The past participles without ge- accompanied by an infinitive 
(see 108, 1, 2), the modal auxiliaries and weak verbs which followed 
their analogy, form such tenses as these : 3(i^ l^abe t^n gelbcn ^ti^tm I have 
ordered him to leave, ©ie ^abcn cinen SRotf madden laflTeii* you have had a 
coat made or ordered a coat to be made. ^iDer J^nabe \oX bie Seftion nid^t 
lernen fdimen, the boy has not been able to learn the lesson. <£r \cX ed imr 
fagen ^orett; he has only heard it said, ^er 9?ad^baT ^t ben SBettler arretteren 
lafTeu tt>oIIen (or moUen arretteren laffen)^ my neighbor wanted to have the 
beggar arrested. 

114. The Futnre ind. and subj. is formed with the present 
of iperten and the infinitive, e. g,, i^ jrerbc tragcn, id^ mttt fa^ren, 
I shall carry, ride. 

The Futnre Perfect is formed with the present of toerben and 
the perfect infinitive, e. gr., ic^ jrerbe getragcn ^cAm, id^ werte 
gefa^ren fein, I shall have carried, ridden. 

115. The first Canditional is formed with the preterit 
subj. of merben and the infinitive, e. g., ii^ murbe tragen or 
fa^ren, I should carry or ride. 

The second or perfect Conditional is formed with the pre- 
terit subj. of mxttn and the perfect infinitive : id) JDurbc getragcn 
^aitn or gefal^ren fein, I should have carried or ridden. 


FaBsive Voice. 

116. The passive voice is formed by toerben and the past 
participle. The tense of the auxiliary with the past participle 
of the verb forms the corresponding passive tense. SQerten 
forms its compound tenses with fein and mermen. 

Pbesent : {$ totxlt gelp6t, I am praised, am being praised. 
PBBTERTr : i^ toart or murte gelobt, I was praised. 
Pebfbgt : i6) lin gelo&t mprten, I have been praised. 
Plufbrfegt : i^ toax Qtloit wxttn, I had been praised. 
FoTUBE : iii toerbe geloBt tper^en, I shall be praised. 
FuTUBB FEBFECT *. Hj totxU gelobt wxttxt feitt, I shall have been 


1. Conditional : iii mxU gelobt toerten^I should be praised. 

2. or Conditional febfeot : i^ toiixtt gelobt morben fein, I 

should have been praised. 
Impebative : fei (bu) itleit, be (thou) praised. 

felt(iDr)geIobtK ( ) j^^^ 

Infinitivb : gelobt toerbcn, to be praised. 

gelobt toorben fein, to have been praised 

Weak Coigugation. 

117. The weak conjugation forms the principal parts by 
suffixing -te or -etc in the preterit: loben, lobte, retten, rettete; by 
prefixing ge- and suffixing -t or -et in the past participle: 
gelobt, flcrettet* 

1. Verbs of this conjugation are with few exceptions deriyatlre verbs, and most of 
them can be recognized as such by certain marks of derivation, such as suffixes (-ein, 
-em, -igen, -iecen, -itn, -f^^en) or umlaut (Bat there are a few strong verbs with 
umlaut: Ukgeiii ttflgen, getftcen, etc.). 

118. 1. The connectlog vowel always stands before t, whether per- 
sonal suffix (8. p. s^. and 2. p. pi.) or in the participle and preterit, if the 
stem ends in b or t (t^)| if the stem ends in m and n> preceded by another 


36 COKJUGATIOK. [119- 

consonant which is not m or % e.ff,,tt r^et# i^r mtlbet, toix toaltttm, getToflet/ 
er Qtmitt, i^ }(i($nete* 

Those in m and n have loet an e before these consonants. Compare them with their 
nonna : Ktem, ^ti^tn. Those in n are often treated like those in el, er, to which they 
really belong (see snb 3) : jeU^ente, tegente. Bat these forms are not elegant. 

2. The connecting vowel stands in the 2. p. sg. present incL, also after 
stems in f, fd^. i, j]*/ i, i^, besides the stem-endings sub 1, e,g., bu xtht% 
tt>altefl, fd^mad^tefl, re^nefi; reifef), fifi^ef}, fpa§efl, fafltfl, »ibme|l, hti^tft, fto^tft. 

3. Verbs in -ein and -ern rarely show the connecting vowel t, e^g., i^ 
$anbelte# er ^nbelt» gelcici^elt oir manberten* In the 1. p. sg. present ind. and 
subj., in the imperative 2. p. sg. they generally lose their own tt e.g,,x^ 
tt>anble, n>anbre, ^^mti^U (bu). 

4. In solemn diction and in poetry any verb may retain the connecting 
vowel. On the other hand, the poet and the people take many liberties 
in the omission of it (sab 1 and 2). For instance, ^ad neue ^aud ifl aufgC" 
rid^t't (Uh.). ectb mlr gegrilgt, ibefrranbHe ©d^aren ! (Sch.). SReb'flbu »on cinem 
ber ba lebet? (id.). ®egrfi§ct fcib mir, ebic ^erm! ®cgruflt t^r, fd^one 'Jbamtn 
(G.). See F. 3217, 3557. In fact though snch full forms as bu ftfc^efl, 
rafrfl/ faffefl# ^u^t% etc., are written, yon generally hear bu flfd^t, rafl, fagtr 
pu^t, etc. This applies also to strong verbs, e. g., bu tt)df($t» flo^t^ retgt* 

5. The present subj. nearly always shows full forms, but the preterit 
ind. and subj. have coincided : bap bu liekfl, i^r liebet; bap i^ lithtt, rebete. 

Irregular Weak Verbs. 

119. There are two groups of these verbs. One has a dif- 
ference of vowel which looks like ablaut^ the other has besides 
different vowels also a change in consonants. 

1. The stems show nn or nb: 


Pret. ind. 


Fast participle. 









Here belong Brenncn, + bum ; lennen, to be acquainted 
with, -f ken; ncnnen, + name; rennen, + run; fenben, + send; 
wenben, to turn, + wend, went. The last two have also a pre- 
terit ind. fenbete, menbete* 

121J CONJUGATIOlir. 37 

2. The stems show nl, ng. Here belong : 

Inf. Fret. ind. SnbJ. Paat participle. 

titnUn tad^te Vaiitt getad^t 

tunfen teud^te (^eud^te) Itniftt Qtuni^t 

Hnftt tiutfte getiinK 

bringen ixaAtt irad)te gebrad^t 

Strong Coigugation. 

120. Strong verbs must have different stem-TOwels in the 
preterit and present, since in this way difference of tense is 
expressed. But the vowel of the past participle may coincide 
with that of the present, as in geben^ gab, gegeben v, fasten, fu^r, 
gefa^ren vi, ^alten, l^ielt, ge^alten vn; or with that of the preterit, 
as in beigen, bif , gebiffen i, biegen, bog, gebogen n, glimmen, glomm, 
geglommen vm. The past participle ends in -en, and has the 
prefix gc-, e. g., gejbW^tt/ gerufen* 

121. The personal sufiSxes are the same as in weak verbs. 
Compare liebte, liebtefl, liebte, etc.; fa^, fa^fl, fa^, etc. The imper- 
ative 2. p. sg. has no ending when the present ind. has inter- 
change of e-i, ie, e.g., [6^ berge, tu birgfl, er birgt; imp. birg; bred}en 
— bricb; effen — ig. This interchange of e-i,ie occurs in m 8, 
IV, v; in verbs which do not have it there is no difference of 
stem-vowel in the imperative and the present, e.g., l^alten — 
^alt ; f(!^)oimmen — [(^toimm* But often e is added in analogy 
with weak verbs, always when the verb' is either strong or 
weak, e.g,, rufen — rufe vii; fdj(agen — fc^lagc vi ; always mit, 
betoege, erm&ge vni. In the last group there is of course no 
interchange of e-i, e. g.j tu bemegfl, er bemegt. When the stem 
ends in t, the suffix t in the 3. p. sg. is not added, or rather 
-tet passes into simple t. M. H. G. giltet > gill't > gilt. Com- 
pare 118, 4 E. g.y geltett — cr gift ; fec^ten — er fidjt ; raten, riit. 
Special mention is made of these peculiarities imder each 
class and verb. The preterit subj. always has umlaut and 

38 CONJUGATION. [12a- 

tbe 1. and 3. p. sg. end in e, e. g.y id^ \a^, btt fa^fl, er \a^f etc. ; 
but id^ fa^e, tu fdljcft, er fa^e* 

The verbs are best classified according to the ablaut-series. 
(See 393.) 

122. I. Class. Ablaut : ei {, ie i, ie. 

1. Division : ci i i. 

The stem ends in g ((f), f, ^, t, M* 

Examples: bei^en, Mp, geHjfen ; Welfen, fci^nff, gefd^liffcn ; fdjrelten, 
fc^rttt, gefd^rttten; wcldjen, toiij, geroic^en; lelcen, litt, gelitten* 

The following verbs belong here : betjcn, + bite ; Met(^cn (intrans.), + 
bleach, but also weak, always when trans. ; {!($ ]&eflei§enf to apply one's 
self; ^Ui^tn, to be + like, strong since the 17th centuij, in the sense of 
+ liken it is still weak, a N. H. G. distinction, M. H. G. only weak ; 
glcigem + glitter, nothing to do with the rare gleifcn < gelihsen, to 
deceive, or ^glctfett" in cntgleifen < ®clcife, track, to derail ; gleitcn, + glide ; 
grcifen, to seize, + gripe ; grcinen» + grin, rare and generally weak, grlnfm, 
its derivative, has taken its place ; feifen^ to qaarrel, is strong or weak, < 
L. G. ; fneifen, to pinch, L. G. > N. H. G. ; freiWcn and frcigem to scream, 
are related, both weak and strong, not H. G.; Ieiben# to suffer, + loathe ; 
pfcifcti/ to whistle, + pipe < L. pipare ; rcigen» to tear, + write, draw ; 
rettenf + ride on horseback ; fd^Iei^etii to sneak (+ slick and sleek) ; 
f(^Ictfcn# to grind, + slip, weak in the sense of ** to drag, raze"; f(^tet§cn# 
+ slit, split ; [(^metpettf + smite, throw ; fd^neiben^ to cut ; [(^reitetif to stride ; 
fpleijettf + split, L. and M. G. ; fhreid^en» to wipe, cross, + strike, etc., with 
very varying meanings ; ftrctlcn, to strive ; xoti^tn, to yield ; compare 
toti^if + weak, wicker ; weak, it means to soak« soften. 

2. Division : ci • ie ie. 

Examples : 0et)el^en, getie^, geMe^en ; rei6en, rleb, gcrteben. 

Here belong: bleikn» to remain (+ leave) ; gebct^ciu to thrive, the part, 
has a doublet, gcbie^cnf thriven, gebicgen, solid, pure ; leil^cnf to borrow, + 
lend ; mciben# to avoid ; prctfcn, 4- to praise, strong only since the 15th cen- 
tury, < ^xti9 < M. H. G. pris < O. Fr. pris < L. prelum, analogous to 
Fr. priser ; xtiUn, to rub ( + rive) ; fc^eibciif to separate ; fd^ciiien» + shine ; 
Wrciben, to write (+ shrive); fc^reteiif to scream (?) ; [(^weigen, to be silent, 
weak in the sense of " to still a child ; fpeiciif to spit, + spew ; jlclgcn* 
to climb; treibeiir + to drive; weifcn, to point out, in the 16th century 
still weak ; itx^tn, to accuse (+ indict). 


123. Kotlce the Interchange of b-t in the flnt dlvleion, «. g,^ fc^neibeii; fi^nltt, 
geft^nltten ; bat not in the second, yic., meiben, mieb, gemicben ; f^eiben, f^teb, gefd^iebcn. 
(See 416.) When the stem ends in ^ or f, the 8. p. sg. present ind. is heard merely as 
ending in % whether spelt so or not. The fall form -eii stands only in elevated diction, 
«. ^., bu f<^mei|t, bei^t, bcjletlt bit^ ; bu neifefl and »etfl, bu pretfefi and preifl. (See 118, 
4.) Notice also the doubling of t and f in ft^reUeii; ft^rttt ; fheUen, jhitt: f^^teifen, \^\\% 

124. IL Class. Ablaut : ie (it, au) i, o o, o* 

1. Diyision : ie (au) o i* 
The stem ends in J (ff^, (^, f. 

Examples : flicfen, flog, fleflojfen ; triefen, trojf, getrojfcii. 

Here belong: loerbriegeUf to disgust, vex; fliefettr + flow (+ fleet); 
fitepen, to pour ; fricd&en, + to crouch, creep (?) ; gentcfcn, to enjoy ; rieci^cn, 
to smell, + reek ; fdjlejett, + to shoot ; fd)Uefcnr to slip, rare, supplanted 
by its derivative fc^lftpfen; f(^Utfen, to close, lock ; fprlefen* + to sprout ; 
triefen» + to drip ; faufen^ to drink (of animals), + sup and + sip. 

2, •Division : ie, il, au o o. 

Examples : fitegen, flog, geflogen ; triigen, trog, getrogen ; faugen, 
fog, gefogen. 

Here belong : 1. In ie : Megen, to bend ; bietem to offer, + to bid ; 
|llegen» + to fly ; jlte^^cHf + to flee ; fricren* + to freeze ; fUeben» + to 
cleave, split ; fd^ieben, + to shove ; fliebenr to scatter ; Joerlieren, + to lose ; 
jic^en (jog, gcjogen)), to draw. 

2. In fi : fftren (llcfen), + to choose ; lilgen, to lie ; trflgen, to deceive. 

8. In au : faugen» + to suck ; f^naul^en (fc!^niel&en)f to snort, L. and M. G.; 
Wraubtn, to screw (+ ?), L. G. > late M. H. G. 

S., 8. pen. Bg. pree. Bhow archaic forms eometimes in eu *. ftcu^t, treu^t, ftcugt. (See 
406.) Of thoee in au only faufen has omlant, viz., f&uffl, f&uft. The stem ending in %i 
the 8. p. 8g. may he bu f^ie^t, genie^t. Notice the interchange of ^ In jte^en, |og, 
ge)ogen, but % is silent (See 416.) Notice also the doubling of f : faufen, foff, etc. 

125. m Class. Ablaut : ?, i fi u, S^ 
1. Division : i a «. 

The stem ends in n + cona (t>, g, ()* 

Examples : Hnben, Banb, geJunben; frtingen, frrang, gcfprungeti. 

40 CONJUGATION. [127- 

Here belong : btnbenr + to bind ; bingen^ to hire, oiiginallj and still at 
times weak, the isolated weak past part, bebitigt is a regular adjective ; 
bringett, to penetrate ; flnben, + to find ; gelingetu to be snccessfnl ; fUngen» 
to be heard, resound ; ringen* to struggle, + wring ; f^inbcn* + to skin, 
pret. fc^unb; fd^Ungen^ to twine, + sling, it also has the force of the now 
lost [(l^Iinbetif to swallow ; ^d^mxibtn, to disappear ; fd^mingen^ + to swing ; 
jingen, + to sing ; jlnfen, + to sink ; fpringen, + to spring ; (linfeiir + to 
stink ; txixHttn, +to drink ; tt)ittben/ + to wind ; j»ittgcn» to force. 

2. Division : i a S. 

The stem ends in mm and nn* 

Examples: fpinncn, fpann, subj. franne and fpSnne, jefponnen; 
fd^mimmen, fd^tvamm, fd^mfimme and \iitt>ommt, gef(i^mommen« 

Here belong : U^imtn, + to begin ; rinncn, to flow, + run ; fimtn, to 
think ; f(^tt>imincn, + to swim ; fpinneii/ + to spin ; gc»innen# + to win. 

3. Division : e-i a 6» 

The stem ends in I, r + cons, except brefd^en. 

Examples : ^elfen (Wlft), '^alf (^iilfe, '^iilfe), flf^lfm ; werfcn 
(mirft), marf (wilrfc), gc»orfen» 

Here belon^jr: Bcrgcn# to hide, + bury, bnrrow; htx^, + to burst; 
bref(!^en^ + to thrash ; gelten, to be worth, pass for ; l&elfm» + to help ; f(5cUcn» 
+ to scold ; jlerben, to die ( + starve) ; »erberberw to spoil (intrans.) ; ^tx* 
bcrben (weak), to corrupt ; totxUn, to enlist, woo ; tt>crbcm to become, + 
worth ; totifm, to throw (+ warp). 

126. Notice the doable preterits enbj, (See 464, 8.) Sub 2, rinnen neyer has 
„T&nne.'' The d. division has generally and better fi, because yon cannot tell /,]^Ufe'' 
from „^e(fe'' by ear. ^ref(^en and berjlen, once belonging to the next class, haye 
br6f(^c — brifc^e, barjtc — ]&6rfte. 

The 2. and 8. p. sg. present Ind. have i instead of e. (See 403.) As to the suffix, 
berflen has bu i^trft, Ux^i% er Birfl; QtlUn, bu 9i(t{l (pronounced gUfi), et gilt; nerben/ bu 
toix^, n »iTb; f^etten li^e getten. 

127. IV. Class. Ablaut : &,?,! — t, ic 5 3, o* 

The stem contains I, r, m after or before the root-vowel. 

Examples: bredjctt (bridjfl), bra* (ixaiit), gcbrodjen; flc^len 
(Ptc^), jla^t (pa^Ie, jlb^le), gejloWcn. 


Here belongr : Bre^en^ + to break ; geB^rettf + to bear, bring forth ; 
befe^Ictif to command ; m^ftfjltn, to recommend ; erfd^recfcn (erf^ra!), to be 
frightened; ne(mett# to take, + nim ; fpre^en, to speak ; flecl^etu + to stick, 
stab ; |le^Un» + to steal ; treffen (traf )» to hit ; fommcn» hvx, dcfommnw + to 
come. (See 489, 1.) 

IBefe^Ien and (tnpfe^ten belonged to the UL CIasb, and hare doable rabJanctlroB, 
Bef&^Ie — bef&^Ief etc Bo has {te^ten, fiddle— fi&^(c. The nmlant in oe^&ren Ib onlj 
graphic for e < ?. Those in -^t and geb&ven have ic in 8. and 8. p. sg. present ind. : 
cmpfie^It, geMert. The rest have t : trifffl^fpri^^; bu t5mm{l, er I5mmt are quite common, 
bat not elegant. 

128. V. Class. Ablaut: i, ll—i,it « 1,1. 
The stem ends in any sound but a liquid. 

1. Diyision: t,l — i^ie fi i,f. 
Example : geien (giebfl, giifl), goB (fi&ie), gegeBen* 

Here belong: t^tn, + eat ; frelftitr + eat (said of animals) ; fie^eiu + 
give ; gcnefeitf to recover ; fiefc!^eten» to happen ; Ufcn» to read ; nieffcn# + to 
measure, + mete ; fcjot, + to see ; trttciif + to tread ; ucrgelfen* + to for- 
get ; (mefcn) V6ax, getoefetti to be, + was. 

2. Division : i, ie 5 i, e. 

Here belong: Mttnw (at, ge^etem to ask, + bid; Uegeni la^ gelegen* + to 
lie ; p^m, faf, gtfefTenf + to sit. 

The form of the 2. and 8. persone 8g. of the present ind. of yerhs ending in ff is -$t; 
of those in f is {I for both persons : bu, et t^t, vergtH fri|t ; bu, ei ttejl. Bat %tnt\tn, bu, 
cr senefl, has no ie, probably becaase genie^ woald have coincided with geniclt < genielen, 
%tno%f u. ; bu fi^efl may be contracted > fl^fl/ pronounced merely „f^t" The participle 
of e^cn, yIZm ^t^^^tn, has ge- twice, becaase geeffen was contracted into ^tf^n very early. 
This is now colloquial. (See F. S888, 4416.) Notice bu trittfl, er trttt ; bu bittefl, er bittet. 

129. YI. Glass. Ablaut : S, a-& u fi, a. 

The stem-Towel is short before more than one consonant ; 
also in iuh 

Example: 6a(fen,(6fi(Ifl),(ttI(6tife), gebaden. 

Here belong : (acfntf + to bake, in N. G. generally weak ; fal^retir to ride« 
+ fare ; graven, to dig; laben» to invite, and labetir + load ; laben (strong). 

/^" UNIVr»?4ITY ^ 

42 CONJUGATIOK. [130* 

+ to load, and laben (weak), to invite, have been confounded since early 
N. H. G.; thej are of different origin ; fd^affen (fc^uf), to create (weak, "to 
work ") ; fc^lagen* to strike, + slay ; tragen, to carry ; xoa^^ta, to grow. + 
wax ; U)af(^en, + to wash ; {fitf^), fhinb» flanb (fhinbe, fldnbe), geflanbeur + to 
stand, fhinb is still common in S. G. 

Here belonged also formerly : ^cben (^ebfl), l^ub, gtl^oben, to raise, + 
heave ; fd^tt)dren (fc^ttorjl), fd^wur — W»ot, gcfd^aorcn, + to sweat, ^ragen 
(fr^dll)» frufl (but never gcfragcn), ** to ask," are frequently heard ; also jagcn 
(i^9ll)# \Ht "to chase." The forms are still frowned upon by gram- 
marians because they are " wrong," but the people use them just the 

In the 3. and 3. p. present ind. & le the role excepting fd^affen, fd^affft, which is under 
the inflaence of the weak verb. Notice bu and er »&d^fl, bu v&fd^fl (pronounced »&fd^t). 
Isolated participles : ^tmafjitn, ground ; mafjlUn Ib now weak, mo^UO/ mafjlltt, gemo^lt^ 
to grind ; er^abcn, lofty, < et^eben, er^oBen. 

130. yn. Class. Characteristic is ie in the preterit, 
which is no ablaut, while the past participle always has the 
vowel of the infinitive. 

For convenience we make two groups. 

1. Division. The seeming ablaut is : d, a ie i, a* 

a before more than one consonant, ie = short i before >ng* 

Examples: fangcn (fiiitflP), fienfl, gefangen; ivatm (6r5tfl, briit), 
brlet, gebtaten* 

Here belong: lla^tti, + blow, + blare (?); BrttUttf to roast, fry; fatten 
(ftcl), + to fall ; fangen (rarer fal^ctt)^, to catch ; (gc^n), gieng, gcgangcn, + go, 
went, gone ; f^lttn, + to hold ; ^angenf + to hang ; laffettf + to let, cause ; 
xattn, to advise ; Wlafcn# + to sleep. 

IJmlant is the role in the 2. and 8. p. present ind. Notice bu t&ifl, ei r&t ; bu, er ((&fl ; 
bu ^&U{1 (pronounced nW^")f cv ^^ ; bu t&ffefl or bu, er I&^t. The umlaut in this whole 
class is late ; in later M. H. G. they bare it rarely. The ** Rules *' prefer the spelling 
i to ie, yiz., ^Ina, fing, ging. 

131. 2. Division : an, ti, o, it ie an, ti, o, u. 

Here belong : f^antn, ^icb (b < »), ge^uettr + to hew ; laufcn, Ilef, gclaufcn, 
to run, + leap; ^eigenr ^teg^ ge^eipem to call, command, + hight; flofen 
(flte§), to kick, thrust ; rafcn (rief), to call. 


Only lichen and generally latifen take the umlaat : bu, er fi&^t ; bu I&uffl. 

@(^eiben, once of this class, has gone into i ; ,^ge^ie|en," according to i, is 8ome> 
times heard, but must still be rejected as incorrect. Of this class there are a great 
many isolated participles of verbs that have changed conjogation, e. g,, bef^elben, 
modest (bat befc^teben/' ordered^'); geft^roten, roogh-groond ; flcfaljen; + salt ; flefpalten, 
" split " ; flewaljen, rolled, etc. 

132. YIIL Class. Characteristic is o in the preterit and 
past participle, long or short according to the following con- 

The verbs belonging here are stragglers from all the other ablaut- 
series. There must be therefore a number that are still afloat ; that is, 
according to the usage of the period in which they are taken, they be- 
long to their regular class or to this. Present usage in the spoken lan- 
guage always favors o — o* e,g.^ f%tt)flren# ^^toox, gef^»oren# vi ; brtf(%en, 
broft^r gebroft^enf iii ; f^^m, l^obr ge^obeuy yi, which have been assigned by us, 
however, to their proper classea fiitgeny n, and trugeitr ii, have sprung 
from Uegen and trtegen under the influence of the nouns fifigty Xrug. They 
might be classed here ; as also ffirenr n, for ftefen ; compare the noun 
^ur('farfl)# elector. 

133. The vowels of the present may be t, i, a, &, 5* 
The ablaut is most frequently e o o* 

We count here : beHen (bettt# billt)r to bark, in ; fed^ten (fid^tflr ^6^i), + to 
fight, IV, III ; ped^ten (fli(i^tjlr pronounced fli(^fl, pidjjt), to braid, rv, in ; 
^jflegen^ to carry on, undertake, v, rv, in the sense of " to be accustomed,^ 
" to care for," always weak ; melfen (melft and mil!t); + to milk ni ; queSen 
(qu{Ut)i to swell, gush, in ; fi^eUen (fcbiUt archaic), generally fc^aUen the weak 
verb, **to resound," weak = to cause to resound, ring, m; fci^mtljen 
(Wmiljj!, Wmiljt), + to melt, in ; \^mUin (fdS)»iUt)# + to swell, in ; mUn 
(tt)ebil)# strong and weak, + to weave, v; bcwcgcn (bcwegjl), to induce, 
weak = to move, v ; gUmmoir to glow, in, 2 ; fUmmm* + to climb, in, 2 ; 
gdren (g^rt); to ferment, also weak, iv ; erto^gen (emSdfl)r to consider ; lo^gen 
or wicgm (if ie, n), wagjl, miegfl, + to weigh (-wagen, tt>lcgcn# -wegcn are in 
M. H. G. the same word, v) ; r&'c^en (r^(^t)r + to wreak, sometimes has ro(b# 
^txo^tn, but is generally weak, rv; erlofd^nti intrans., to die out (of a flame), 
(erlifci^ejlr erlifc^Or but trans. Ibfc^em to extinguish, ni ; )9crn)irrenf to confuse, 
m, is generally weak, but has an isolated participle, vertoorren = intricate, 

44 AlifOMALOnS TEBBS. [134< 

L The Preterit-Present Verbs. 

134. To this group belong the modal auxiliaries and toifen* 
They are originally strong verbs, whose preterits are used as 
presents. New preterits, past participles, and infinitiyes were 
formed weak. The infinitives, the present plural, and the new 
strong participle have the same vowel, sometimes with an 
irregular umlaut : tonntn (inf.), »ir Knncn, Knncn (past part). 
The different vowels of the present in the sg. and pL mi^, 
tDiffen; the subjunct, with umlaut, tnag, ttti^ge; the lack of t in 
the 3. p. sg., er ma^, are still traces of their strong conjugation. 
The weak preterit was formed without connecting vowel^ and 
has umlaut in the subjunctive : moQtn, moAte, mbAtt, gemod^t* 
(See 119, 2, and 454, 3.) The strong participle in -en stands 
in the compound tenses, when an infinitive depends upon the 
auidliary: i^ ^abc fciftrelBcn muffen, but ici^ l^ah gcmugt. An im- 
perative, the meaning permitting, is made up from the 
subjunctive, e.^., »otte, m5flc. 

135. 1. SBtjfctt, I, to know, + to wit (wot, he wist). 

Inf. Fret. ind. SabJ. PEurticiples. 

»tffe« wupte wfi^te {J-^ 

The pres. ind. inflects: iif wcip, tu toti^t, er toti^, t»ir toijfcn, i^r 
»ijf(c)t, fie ttJtjfcn. Subj. : ic^ wiffc, »ij[cjl, »ij[e, etc. Imp. : totjfe, 
toljfft, toijfen ®ie. 

2. !E)iirfett, in, to be permitted. 

Jut Free. eg. Fret. ind. SabJ. Past part. 

kflrim kOTf *«rfte fcfirfte if!?* 

I turf en 

Pres. ind. : barf, batfjl, barf, bfirfen, biirft, bfirfm, Subj.: butfe, 
bflrfejl, bfirfe, etc. 


3. Adnnen, m, to be able, + can. 

Inf. Pros. «g. Ptet. ind. SnbJ. Put part 

Knnen fann fonttte Hnnte -t ^^ ^ 

( Knnen 

Ftea ind. : fann, fannfl, fann, fdnnen, etc. Subj. : linne, {5nne{l, 
finne, etc. Imp. : Unm, Untd, Unmn @ie. 

4. SK6gcn, V, iv, to be able, + may. 

Inf. Free. Bg. Fret. ind. SabJ. Fast part. 

Jtftt like IBnnen. 

5. @oIIen, lY, + shalL 

Inf. Free. eg. Ind. and sabJ. Fast part. 

foDen foQ foOte 

Pre& ind.: foQ, foUfl, fotl, foDm, etc. 


This is almost entirely weak now. The vowel-dlffbienoe in the prea. 
has been levelled away. Comp. Eng. shall, should. 

6. aRiijfcn, vi, + must. 

In£ Pres. eg. Fret ind. SnbJ. Past part. 

mflffm muf mu^ mflfte {^^^^^ 

Pres. ind. : mn^, mu^t, mu^. Subj. : milfe, etc. 
This too is almost entirely weak. 

7. SBoHen, i, + will. 

Inf. Free. eg. SnbJ. Ind. and snbj. Fret. Fast part 

( tooUen 
Pres. ind. : »iff, toiDjl, toitl, rotten, ttoflt, tooDen. (See 472, 2.) 

n. The yerbs gel^n, + to go, flel^n, + to stand, t^un, 
+ toda 


136. 1. ®t^(t)n. 

Pres. ini : id^ flcl^e, tu gc^jl, cr flcl^t, »ir flcl^n, i^r jc^t, flc flc^n* 
Subj.: ^ gcl^e, t)tt flc^cjl, er gc^e, etc. 
Imp. sg.: gc^; pL, flc^t, gc^cn Sic. Pari: gel^ent. 
Pret. ind.: l^ glcng. Subj.: i^ fiicnge. 
Part: gcgangen* According to vn ; from a stem "gang.'' 

2. ®tc^(c)n. 

Pres. ind. : i^ flel^c, t>u jlel^jl, er \tt% »ir flc^ii; il^r jle^t, |le flel^n* 
Subj. : i^ jle^c, t>u flc^efl, cr flc^e, etc. 
Imp. sg.: flcl^; pi., (le^t, fle^en ®ie. Part.: fle^ent. ^ 
Pret. ind.: id^ jlanD (flunt). Subj.: jlante (jHinte). 
Part: gcflantcn^ According to ti ; from a stem "stand" 

3. S^utt^ 

Pres. ind. : i^ tl^uc, tu tH% er t^ut, »ir rtun, i^r t^ut, fie t^un* 
Subj. : id) t^ue, tu t^ucjl, cr t^ue, »ir tl)ttn, i^r tljut, flc t^uen^ 

Imp. sg.: t§tt; pL, t^ut, t^un @ic. Part.: t^uent). 

Pret ind. : id^ t^ot, tu t^atfl, cr t^at, tt>ir t^tctt, i^r t^atet, fie 
t^aten. Subj.: i^ t^Jitt, in t^fitcfl, er tl^ate, etc« 

Part.: gct^an* 

The full forms with e of these three verhs are not used in the indica- 
tive. The ^ is merely graphic, and is not pronounced, e. g,, id^ gel^e is not 
gc-Jc, hut ge or gf'e. 

137. The compound verbs are not inflected differently from 
the simple verbs. Notice the position of the separable prefix 
and ge- in separable compound verbs: i^ fdjreibe an, fd)rie6 an; 
imp. f(^rci6e (t>u) an, ii) l^ait angcf(!^rieBcn, Id) merbc- attfd)rcibctt. 
The separable prefix stands apart from the verb in the simple 
tenses (pres. and pret. ), but only in main clauses ; ge - stands 
between prefix and verb, angcfdjrickn, aufgct^an. Ex. : 3A 
f^relbc, fd)rlc6 ben Srief ai, but wa^rcnb Id) ten Sricf aBf(i^rlc6 
(dependent clause). In inseparable compounds notice the 

138] AK03£AL0US YEHBS. 47 

participle has no fle : left »erflc^c, »erjlanb, l^ait »erjlanfcm, toerbe 
))er{le^n. (See 108, 3.) 

1. Notice a class of inseparable compounds derived from compoond 
nouns. These have ge. They can be easily recognized hj the chief 
stress falling on the first element: bad dxWi^ft&d, verb fru'^fluden, frit^llittftei 
gefrU^fl&tftf to breakfast; ber fRa't^^la^, verb ra'tf^lagCHf xat\^la^tt, geratf^lagt^ 
to take council. 

138. Example of a reflexive verb, e. g., f!(!^ freuen, to rejoice: 
Pres. i^ freuc mici^, bu freujl bi^, cr freut fid), »tr frcuen une, i^r 

freut eu(!^, fle freuen fid^ ; ic!^ freute miij, f^abt mii^ gefreut, merbe mid^ 

frcuen, toerbe mld^ gefreut ^aben. 






139. For practical reasons we divide the Syntax into 
Special and General Syntax. 

The Special treats of the function of the word, inflected or 
uninflected, in a sentence. 

The General treats of the combination of words into a 
sentence, of the word-order, and of the combination of 
clauses into a compound sentence. 

It is of course difficult to keep tliese two divisions separate, as in fiust all the differ^ 
ent branches of grammar. Thus the separation of inflection and function, of phonol- 
ogy and inflection, of word-formation and syntax is a yiolent one. The division into 
special and general syntax is the custom of French grammarians, who have succeeded 
best in freeing their grammatical system from the strait-Jacket of Latin and Qreek 


The parts of speech are treated here in the same order as they are in the Accidence. 

Syntax of the Article. 

140. The use of the demonstratiye pronoun as definite article is 
much older than that of the numeral wdn" as indefinite article. ir<£in'' 
was used where the definite article could not stand ; hence the plural of 
ein ^axm is still SR&nner. In O. H. G. the article is still lacking ; its use 
spread in M. H. G., so that now it is almost a necessity. 

Some General Cases of Absence of the Article. 

141. Proper names, names of materials always when pre- 
ceded by nouns expressing quantity and measure, have no 
article. Ex. : ©octfec tmiijtt tin f^e^ti Sllter. ©d^ltter (lar6 "otx^ 
^altnidmafig iung. S(ei ifl toeid^er aU ®otD. Sin 9)funt) 3u(!er. 

142. No noun preceded by a genitive can take an article: 
Dcd Denfend gaten ijl 3crrlffcit (F. 1748). let altcn ®6tter hunt 
®e»tmmel (O.). 


143. There is no article before nonns^ connected by unt, 
mltv, noil, or nnconnected, in certain set and adverbial phrases; 
in an enumeration of objects belonging to the same class or 
genus. Ex. : ®elr) unr) ®ut. ^au« unD ipof. iUlit ®ott fiir Abnig 
unD SaterlanD. 3tt ©aud uitD Stand, ©inn un^ Scrflanb »crlier^ 
id^ fci^icr (F. 2504). 9li4t irtifd^ ifl t>ed S^oren Sranl noii ©pcife 
(F. 301). ©oU id) mit ©rijfcl, gWcipel, gercr fd^reiben ? (F. 1732). 
Ura^ttc, ®ro§muttcr, 9Rutter unr ^inr in tumpfcr ©tube beifammm 
finD (Schwab). Qn Sifdj, gu Sctte, §au0 an ^an^, ©tcin auf ©tein. 
in Dflen, gen ©utjcn, »on 9lort>cn. 

144. All pronouns exclude the article, except fold^, manif, 
mliij, trad fiir, which allow an indefinite article after them, and 
a(I(e), which allows the definite article after it; e. g. : SBad fott 
aU t>er ©camera unt) Sufi (G.). SBct^ tin gefd^aftig SSoII citt ein un^ 
aud (id.). 3Cad fiir cin Santdmann H(i W, gagcr? (Sch.). 

145. An abstract noun, and any noun denoting profession, 
rank, position have no article in the predicate after neuter 
verbs; e. g. : 5>^ito!te't,Der gang 9latur i(l, bringt au(i^ ten ?Rco}>toIc'm 
gu feiner 9lahtr »ieter ^nxM (Le.). ^ei^e 3Ragi|ler; l^ei^e 'Coctor 
gar (F. 360). (3(i^) bin ©obot, lomme niemate toic^er (Sch.), 
Eng., I am a soldier. 

146. 1. In technical phrases some nouns and adjectives nsed as 
such take no article : ©^reiber biefed/ the writer of this ; StU^tx, plaintiff; 
©efagtcr; Ocbac^ter; Dblgc^; fjolgcnbcd, etc. In headings: Ucber STimiut unb 
SGBurbc (Sch.). eafudU^rc, glcxion«Ic^>rc. 

2. In folk-lore and folk-songs : fftotU^i^d^tn, Little Red Riding-hood ; 
©i^ncetDtttd^cn. ifnabc fprad^: tc^ brc(^e bici^. gi5«lcin fpraci^: i^ fle*c bt* (G.). 
2:^ur4en fnarrt. Wt&n^ltin pfeift. 

Article with Proper Nouns. 

147. The rule is: no article before proper nouns just as 
in English. 

1. Names of persons may take an article when the bearer is 


well known and his name has become a common noon; to ex- 
press familiarity and intimacy, also contempt; to mark gender 
and case more dearly (this applies also to names of places 
and countries) ; when the author's or artist's name is used for 
his work; before names of planets, of ships^ of the characters 
of a play, of titles of books taken from a person. Ex. : Sin 
SBaftlngtoit, Der SSJelfe, tie Dttoncn. Schiller's Tell and Wallen- 
stein, G-oethe's Gotz and Lassing's M. von Bamhelm are full 
of examples of the second use (familiarity, etc). !iDie Sufle bed 
©ofratcs^ 2Car iii Dcm gcrt>inant> gettefen, toad Dctat)io mix toax . . . 
(Sch.). gagt fld^ neitncn ten ffiattenjletn (Sch.) (contempt). 
1^et)rient fpielte ntn ^lati^an. 51Rcin 8«wnb ^at ten Sorot »erfaufl 
(painting by Corot). Der ^erfulcd tj^ befd)dt)igt. 

2. Names of countries and provinces which are not neuter 
take the definite article. Most of these are feminine and a 
few masculine, viz., compounds : ter Sreidgau, 9t6eingaU; ter 
©untgau; also Ux ^aag (+the Hague); Ux, tad SIfa§. Femi- 
nines in -ei : tie Surf el', SBattaciftei' ; in -au : tie SRoItau, tie 
SCetterau; in -marl: tie 9lcumarf, tie Dflmar!; tie 2au|I^, tie 
Sci^welg, tie ilrlmm, tie Se»ante, tie ^\ali. Some neuters in -lantt 
tad Bogtiant, tad SBenttlant, tie 9lleterlante, pi. 

8. Names of oceans, lakes, straits, rivers, mountains, and 
forests always have the definite article, e. g., tad SRlttelmeer, tie 
Df^fee, tcr Sotenfee, ter Sclt, ter ©unt, ter Sl^eln, tie T)onau, ter 
ipara, ^^^ ©peffart; tie 3Hpen, ter ©(Jfetvargwalt. 

4. Names of the seasons, months, days of the week, of the 
streets of a city: „Der SBlnter Ifl ein fi^rcnmann" (Clauiius). 
3m 3<J«uar, ted ©onntagd, auf or In ter ^aiferf^ra^e, im griifeling* 

148. Appellatives have an 'article as in English: tie £^rdne 
qulUt, tie Srte ^at niiij wlete'r (F. 784). For exceptions see 

149. Abstract nouns have no article when they denote a 
characteristic or state of mind : SRiit jelget aud^ ter Wamelud; 


©e^orfam ijl M 6l^rijlen ®iimui (Sch.). greube toor in Sroia^d 
fatten (id.) Jtrieg ifi cmig gmlfd^en 2ijl unt) 3[rfl»o^n (id.). But 
when they denote an act or motion they are treated as appel- 
latives. They may also take the article that has generahzing 
force, e. g., Der SoD ijl tier @ilnt)cn ©oft) (B.). Die SSa^I flc^t tir 
nod^ frei (Sch.). Die ^unjl ijl lang utxo fuq ijl unfer 8c6cn (F. 
658-9). Die Sotf^aft W id^ »o^I, aflcin mix fcl^U Der ©laube 
(F. 765). Dad max tin ® d^up ! (Sch. ). 

150. Names of materials have the generalizing article, 
which denotes the whole kind or substance, or an article that 
singles out a certain kind or quantity, e. g,y Der SBein erfreut 
ted 3Renf4ett iperg (B.). Dad ®olt ijl fojlbar. Die ©teinfo^le ijl 
fc^mara olicr braun. Without article: ©ilbcr unt) ®o(D ^abe iAi nic^^t 
(B.). Slut ijl gefTolfcn (Sch.). 2a§ mir ten bejlen Seeder SBeind in 
j)urem ®oIte rei(^en (G.). 

151. Collective nouns take an article except when taken 
in a partitive sense: 2Cad rennt tad Soil? (Sch.). SBcit ta^inten 
»ar no^ \i(k^ gup^otf (id.). 2Dir %Oiiixi gufttoH unt Sleiterei (id.). 

152. AU classes of nouns qualified by an adjective, by a 
genitive, by a relative clause, etc., take an article in the singu- 
lar, excepting names of materials and any nouns standing in 
the predicate or in certain adverbial phrases. The plural has 
the definite article or none. Ex. : Der ttcine ®ott ter 2DeIt Hei6t 
jletd »on fllet^em ©djlag (F. 281). Der ®ott, ter Sifen toad^fcn 
lie§ . ♦ ♦ (Amdt). Die ipauptjlatt t)on granhei*. But (©ic) 
fpra^cn laut »ofl 6ol^en ©innd unt ®eful^Ied (G.). "^aA alter SJeife^ 
Sd flab fd^ijnrc 3eiten aid tie unfern (Sch.). Der alte Sarbarojfa 

153. The genitive preceding a noun always has the article 
except a proper name : 3n ted 9Rarmord lalte SSauflen (Sch.). 
3nted SBaltcd 9Ritte (id.). Schiller's „att Ufer^d Slant" Goethe 
would have made a compound, „Uferdrant.'' Oomp. ,,Serfled^ 
%^W^ and other compounds of Goethe. 


154. The definite article stands for an Eng. possessiye 
pronoun, when the possessor cannot be mistaken. There 
may or may not be a personal pronoun as object in the sen- 
tence. Ex. : £)er Ao))f t^ut mix fo toti) (Song), ^aii i%x mix ten 
ginger Uoi genommen? (Sch.). (@ie) rii^rt if^m leife tie @d^ulter 
(H. and D. 4, 63). See 243, 3. 

155. 1. In S. G. the definite article is always applied to members of 
the family instead of the possessive pronoun. In N. G. no article is neces- 
sary as in Eng. : ®xixi' ben Battx unb ^atcrd ^ritber ! (Sch.). 

2. As with proper names so names of materials and abstract nouns 
often have the definite article in the genitive and dative merely to show 
the case : ber S^il^ SBaffer )9orite]^en. 

156. The definite article is used in German for the indefi- 
nite in English in a distributive sense : Sutter foftet antert^alb 
SIRarf Ui g)funD, a pound ; biefed Sudj fojlet 90 g)fcnnifl(e) tie ®tte ; 
funfmal bad ^af^x or im ^a\^xt^ This ** a " in Eng. represents the 
preposition " on/' and is not the indefinite article. 

157. (Sin can stand in German before certain indefinite pronouns and 
neuter adj. where it does not stand in Eng.: ein {ebeTf ein ieglid^er, tin folc^er, 
etn mand^er (better mand^ einer); ein fefled; = a fixed sum; ein mel^rered, = 
more ; (in menige^ = little. 3(^ f^rcibe na^flend ein mel^rered. 

Bepetition of the Article. 

158. Before each of several nouns of different gender the 
article must be repeated if it stand at all: !iDer Setter, bie 3)tutter 
bie gingen t)or bed ^auptmannd $aud (Song). If two nouns, con- 
nected by unb; denote different persons the article should be 
repeated : Der Dnfel nnb ^at^t bed *inbc« toax bci ber Saufe 
Sugegen (one person). But ber Dniel unb ber ^atl^t ♦ . . (two 

Both rules are often offended against by Luther, Goethe, and Lessing, 
and frequently in the spoken language : SBenn man ben ^akx nnb ^id^ter mit 
etnanber ^^crgleid^en toill . • . (Le.). 

The article before an apposition \b treated as in English. 



159. The grammatical gender of nouns is threefold, mas- 
culine, feminine, neuter. As to living beings, the nouns de- 
noting males are masculine, and those denoting females femi- 
nine. Ex. : t)cr guci^d, Some, l)er gutc 3Rann, 9lcjfc, ^iteci^t, Ddjd, 
Socf ; Die «u^, 3ieflc, Safe, fc^Sne aRagD, Me ®au, ©tute* 

1. Exceptions : nouns denoting the young of animals, diminutiyes, 
and bad Seib, bad S^enfd^ (see 69), bad Srauen^immer are neuter. Ex. : bad 
f^erfeU BuQen, italb, 3)tdib4en, f^riuleim 

2. Either grammatical gender is ascribed to the names of the species 
without regard to sex. Neuter : bad ^ferb, bad S^weim bad ®(^f, bad 
!Re^ Fern. : bie 9{a(^tigall, S^metfc, fdim, 3Raud, fftattu Masc. : ber %if^, 
{)afer Da^d, Suci^d. 

160. Where the grammatical gender does not coincide 
with the natural, the following rules may be of service, based 
on the meanings of nouns and on their derivation. See 159, 1. 


1. Masculine are : 

The names of the points of compass, of the winds, seasons, 
months, days of the week, of mammals (a few small ones like 
tie iDlaud, tie 9latte excepted), most of the larger birds, most 
fish, and stones. 

Ex. : ter 9lort or 9lortcn; ©ommerj gebruar, augu'jl; SRontag, 
©onnabent; ter Sfel, 85»c, (Slefant; ter ®trau§, Sltler, Stored; tcr 
$ai, 3lal, ftarpfen (all compounds with -fifd), of course, as ter 
ffialfifd^, «lippcttftfd)) ; t>er «icfct, Xiama'nt, gehfpat. 

2. Feminine are : 

The names of most rivers, trees, plants, and flowers (in -e), 
insects, small singing birds, and nearly all derivative abstract 


Ex. : We SBcfcr, Dt)er, gtte ; We gid^e, Zcmt, Sudfee ; tie JlcIIe, 
Slofc, SUttbC; 9lejfcl, «artoffel; We Slmeife, SBanac, Slenc; Die 9lad)tlflan, 
®iiwalbt, Serd^e; also tiie jtrii^e, Sule. !Die Slebe, Sugent, 3ugent^ 
Demut, grcuntlid^feit, etc. 

3. Neuter are : 

The names of places and countries except those always hay- 
ing the article (see 147, 2), collective nonns (particularly those 
with @e-) ; most names of materials, including metals; of the 
letters of the alphabet; other parts of speech used as nouns, 
particularly of adjectives not denoting persons (see 169). 

Ex. : Ui fd^bne (Spanitn, „ein Hcin 9>arid/' ta^ Solf, ^m, ©eMrge^ 
®efc^a^; t)ad ^ols^^eu, ©dentals, Dbfl; t>ad eifen, Slei, Stnm, 3lnn; 
tiad % g) ; Dad Summein, „Dad Sitm unt tad 'Mtx," tad (Suit, tad 
SBa^re, tad <Bifint. 

Bexabk.— So many risers are feminine becanee they are compounded with ^ha 
(+Lat. aqua): SBefet and SBerra < WeBerft(h), Werraha ; bte ®alaa((^). Bnt notice bet 
9i^ein, Wlaivu 9)ie ©d^wei^f SCattet have the article really on account of their exceptional 


1. Masculine are : 

Most monosyllabics by ablaut^ e. g,, tet (Sptnii, @))ro§^ @tid^, 
@d^irm; those in --er, -ler, -net (denoting agents); in -el (denote 
ing instrument); all in -ling ; many in -en; dissyllabics in -e 
according to the n-declension; in -id^. 

Ex. : ter ©cferciBer, ilunjHcr, ^fdrtner ; ter Dedcl, ^ebel ; ter g'^emt^ 
llng^ ©iinjMlng, ©Sugllng ; ter ©cgen, Degen ; corresponding to 
Eng. -om, S3ufcn, Sefen ; ter Jhtabe, 25»c, Bote ; ®anfcri(S^, SBiiteri: 

2. Feminine are : 

Many dissyllabics (by ablaut) ending in -e; abstract nouns 
in -e, mainly from adjectives; in -ie, mostly foreign; many in 


-t; all in -el, -in, -ung, -^elt, -!cU, -fci^aft; some in -nld and 
-fal; foreign ones in -age (see 163, 5). 

Ex.: Me ®ro^e, ^ij^e; Die ^pxaift, ®ahx tie ??^lIofo))^le, ®alatt^ 
terle; Die ipafl, ^aijt, «raft; Die 3Sflerel, 3urlflerel, SRelotel; Die 
greuttDln, Secretin ; Die DulDung, SBlDmung; Die grei^elt, grbmrnlg^^ 
felt; ^eunDf^a^; Die SBllDnld, gdulnld; Die Slamage, Sourage* 

3. Neuter are: 

All in -^en, -leln ; most in -fel, -fal, -nU, -turn j nearly all of 
the form ®e-e or ®e- without e; some in -el^ 

Ex.: Dad $unD(!^en, ftnaMeln; Dad SSatfel, UberWelifelj Dad Qijii^f 
fal, Sabfal; Dad ®eDad^tnld, Serma^tnid; Dad ^bnlgtum, S^rlfientum 
(only two masc, Der Sie^tum and Si^rtuni); ^<»d ®eftlDe, ®emalDe; 
Dad ®e6llD, ®efc^ld(; Dad SiinDel, ®ef!nDeI, and the S. G. diminu- 
tives Dad SSlnDel, Siibel, etc. 

On the whole the gender of noans has changed very little in the history- of the lan- 
guage. Bx. of changes are : tie @ttte < O. H. G. der gUu, already K. H. G. sometimes 
diu site. XU SSlume was O. H. G. both masc. and fern. (Die $a^ae was O. H. G. der 

162. The following groups of nouns have varying genders, 
though some are of the same origin and have the same mean- 
ing. They should be fully treated in the dictionary, to which 
the student is referred. Only a few examples are given in 
each group. 

. Ist group. The same form and meaning, bat double gender (m. and 
n.) ; ber and Dad ^etetr X^ermome'terr ^atomt'ttt, S3eret4r S^recfenr deug, etc. 

2d group. Doable gender (m. and f.) with varying forms, bat the 
same meaning and origin : Der ©d^urj — Die ©(ijiirje; Der Zxvupp — Die Xruppe; 
Der Duett — Die Quelle; ber ©palt — bie ©palte. 

Sd group. Doable gender, the same form in sg. and pi. if the plural 
be formed of both genders, bat of different meaning and sometimes of 
different orlg^ (the latter with *). 




All adjectives : bar (fitter + the good man ; bie (Sittt, + the good 
woman ; pL bie ®tttett* 

ber ^eibe, heathen 

bie Mbe, heath 

pi. bie ^eiben 

•ber SBttttCr buU 

bie fduUt (document) 

bie SuIIeii 

ber (ixU, heir 

bad dxU, inheritance 

bie dxbttt 

ber l^erbienflf earnings 

bad Serbienfl# desert, merit 

bie ©erbienfle 

*ber ®eifel# hostage 

bie ®eigel, scourge 

bie ®ei$eln 

bie SReffer 

*ber S^efTerr measurer 

bad aftefTer, knife 

There are perhaps forty in all. 

4f.h group. Double gender, double plural, but different meaning and 
sometimes difierent origin (the latter marked *). Perhaps a dozen or 

ber S3anbf volume 

pi. ©fittbe 

bad S3anbf ribbon 

pi. S3&nber 

*ber aXarfi^r march 


bie ^ax\dif marsh 


ber @($ilb, shield 


bad S^tlb, sign-board 


♦ber X^oXf fool 


bad Xf^cx, gate 



163. Foreign words retain generally the original gender : 
Me ?)cin < L. /xena, later pina ; tad ftlojlcr < L. claustrum ; 
tcr Verier < L. carcer(em). 

Many have changed gender for various reasons They were 
folly Germanized and foUowed German models according to 
ending or meaning, or they followed French (Romance) rules. 
Some changes are difficult to account for. 

1. Examples of neuter nouns that became masculine, masculines that be- 
came neuter, and f eminines that became neuter : ber 9)ala'flr < palatium ; 
ber S3airam» < hakamum ; ber 3Rante(, < matni^um ; ber 9reid» < pr^- 
iium ; ber ^unftr < punetum. Neuter nouns in -at : bad Jtonfula'tr < eon- 
tvlatua ; bad ^^xxna'tt formatum or -us; bad 9liedr < V. L. risma (f.) ; bad 
Jtreujr < erue(em) (f ). 

2. Examples of nouns that have changed gender in analogy with Ger- 
man words similar in meaning and ending : ber 3iegel» < tegula ; ber 


S^armor, mcvrmor, d., on acconnt of ber <5tein (see 160, 1) ; bcr ^imx, < 
corpus, n. ; bet iJaba'»cr, < cadaver, n., on acooont of ber 2etb, bcr Scld^ 
nam, and the many maecalines in -er; bie 9htinmer» < numervs, sinoe bit 
Bal^L (£uropa» ©parta, St^etu Xroja, now all neater (see 160, 8). 

3. Nouns in -arium^ -orium, -erium^ -are, became all mascnline in 
analogy with H. G. words in -cr, < arre < art : ber ^Ita'x, < altare ; ber 
^cfler, < ceUarium; ber 9)faUer, < psalterivm; ber fflcijer, < O. BL G. 
fjDitD&ri < vivarium ; ber 9)ia|ler/ < It. piasira, f., < V. L. plcutrum. 

4. Neater noans, whose plaral ended in -a in Gr. or L., became 
feminine in German from analogy with feminines in -<, < d, and also 
through Romance influence : bie fdibd, < hibUan, V. L. Wdia ; bie Drgel, 
< organum, -a; bie 9)fTimbe» < V. L. provenda (pL) ; bie ©tubie, < 
studium ; bie ^ramie» < prcBmium, 

5. Words in -a'ge# masculine and feminine in French, are all feminine 
in G., e. g., bie ©ttga'ge, bie aSlama'ge, bie (Soura'ger etc. *£>it ®^rift» < scrip- 
turn, bie ^aH^U < pactum, are due to analogy with G. noxms in -t» viz., 

bie %xa6iU Si^t, (B^id^t, ^ad^U etc 

Gendeb of compound nouns. 

164. Compound nouns have the gender of the last noun : 
ter Simkum, bie ^au^ti^iix, tad @(!^ilterl^aud, bad Srauengimmer 

Exceptions : a. Many compoimds with -mut ; bie jDenmty bie ffStfyaxot, 
bie ©anfhnut; but ber ^D^mut, ber $reimut» etc They are, however, only 
seeming exceptions, -mut going back to compounds with O. H. G. and 
M. H. G. -miu>t, m., and --muoti, f. This has given rise to the doable 
gender of the same noun : 0. H. G. Mhmuoti, f. only, but M. H. G. 
hochmHete, hoehmuot, f., and hochmuot, m. ; bie ©emut» < M. H. G. 
diemilete, diemtu}t, always feminine : ber ^leinmut, bie STnmut, bie ®ro§mnt; 
also ber ©rogmut; always ber ^o(^mut» For ^rmutf which is no compound 
with -mutr see 611, 2, a, 

h. Der 9(f($eu seems an exception, because bie Bd^tn is old and more 
common than ber @(^eu. 

e. Names of cities and places are neuter even if ending in nouns of 
different gender : bad f^5tte Hamburg, Ciineburgr Stnnaberg, eta ; but bie SBart^ 
burg^ ^errenburd/ because these are castles, = fdnx^tn, t, and not towns. 


d. Xer 9y{ittti)0($ (SBo^e, f.) appears by the side of the legitimate bit 
!Ritt»o4, already in M. H. G. It has followed the other days of the 
week, which are all masculine. (See 160, 1). 

e, jDie 9ntU)ort had doable gender in O. H. G., bat the neater waa 
more common. Luther has still bit and bad Sntmort* 


165. This subject can be best treated under the head of 
concords as between noun and adjective, noon and pronoun, 
subject and predicate. The general rule that adjectives and 
pronouns take the grammatical gender of the noun to which 
they refer is only set aside when the grammatical gender does 
not coincide with the sex. In that case the pronoun or adjec- 
tive can take the natural gender. 

166. Sy^db^m, SReisbleiiu Seib, ^reiulein admit of this construction ac- 
cording to the sense, most commonly ; not so, Ainbr 9tauensiinineTr SRdnn^ 
leim @5^n(eim and the other diminutives : Unb f^nell mar i^re @pur ^txloxtn, 
fobalb bad 3R(!ib(^en ^bfi^ieb na^m (Sch.). 3eiKd SH&b^en \fi% bad vertriebene, 
bie bu fiewfiJU ball (H. and D., IV. 210). Du gtbraebciete unter ben ©etbern(B.). 
Sit unglfitflic^eTf @le itngIM(i(6t« you unhappy man, woman. The a^ective 
therefore also agrees with the sex. 

^rdulein and the diminutives of names of females have irbie" sometimes 
in colloquial language : bie SrMeiitr bie Sop^t'd^ta, bie Dortc^en (Dorothy). 
But irSbre Stdiulein Sod^ter^ is quite common and correct : 3^^ gr&ulein 
X^^ttx . . . roar audgelaffen (unrestrained) (G.). 

167. Names in the predicate, not capable of forming a feminine from 
a masculine, like Sejrerm < Sebrer, ©orlleberin < SJorfleJer, of course retain 
the grammatical gender, no matter what the sex of the subject : ®te 
toarb . . . gleicb mit befonberer ^cbtung aU ®afl bebanbelt (G.). But even pre- 
dicate nouns capable of forming a feminine by suffix if used in the ab- 
stract sense, and not the personal, form an exception, e. g,, ^ttx, iDleifler fetn 
or tt>erben, " to be or become master of." Denn i(b bin euer Jtonig (Sch.). 
®ie roar ber SJetbred^er (id.). 

168. The neuter pronouns ed, iebed, bad, aDed may refer to 
a masc. or fepi. noun, even to the plural and to a masa and 


fem. noun together : ©ic lommen ^troov eiit 3BclB ba, tin SRantt 
♦ • ♦ ta« rcift ttun,c« tt)lll ft4 erge^en foglclci^, bic ^nbd^cl gur Stunbe, 
= they stretch their bones for the dance, eager to enjoy them- 
selves (in Gk)ethe's „ZoUntanf). aUe^ rennet, rettet, fliicittet (Sch.). 
Da ma^ t)cnn ©c^merj unt ®enu§, ©elingen unb SerDrug mlt elnanter 
mii\dn tt)ie e^ lann (F. 1756-8). ©tiHfdjtoelgenb Morten fie (three 
persons) gu, intern JeDed in jtd^ felbjl guriicffc^rte (G.). 

169. When adjectives are used substantively, the mascu- 
line and feminine denote sex, the neuter an abstract noun or 
thing : Ux ®ute, tie ®ute, the good man, woman; bad ®ute, the 
good (abstract). £omm^ l^eraB, o l^olbe @d^one, unb )>erla§ beitt 
flolacd ®d^lo§ (Sch.). Dtt ^ajl ipcrrlid^cd 'ooUbxaiit (id.). Da« 85fc, 
bad id§ ni^t tolH, bad t^ue id) (B.). 


170. Names of persons and materials can take a plural 
only when they denote several persons, species, or kinds, viz.. 


bie ipcinridbe, bie Scrt^ad, bie Die (the various kinds of oil), bie 
®rafcr, bie gettc, bie ©alje. 

171. Abstract nouns do not as a rule admit of a plural, 
but as in English the plurals of such nouns were once 
quite common, viz., SRinne, Onabe, SBonne, ^ulb, S^re* Some 
of these plurals are left in certain phrases: in d^xtn, gu S^ren; 
»on ®otted ®naben ; ju ©Aulten lommen lajfcn, to be guilty of; 
®w. ®naben ; bie iperrf(3^aften. Compare Eng. thanks, loves (in 
Shakspere), favors, regards. 

172. To the sg. -tnann in composition corresponds often -leute^ pi. 
only, which in sense really corresponds to SKenfd^* fKenfd^cn, without regard 
to sex. Examples : (Sbelmarm — (Sbeffeute, gentry ; Canbmann, peasant, — 
Sanblcutc, country folk : (£^cmann# married man, — S^eleutc, married people ; 
but the pi (g^emanner means "married men" ; ^u^rmann — ^u^rlcute, driv- 
ers, carters ; j^aufinann — ^an^tntt, merchants, etc. But SSiebermannr hon- 


est man ; (E^renntanm man of honor ; ^taotdmamu and a few more, form 
only the regular plural in -€r« 

173. For certain noons which form no plural, plural compounds are 
used, some of which have also a singular. — E.g. : 

bad ffeuer 

hit ffeutrdbritnlh 

ber Sob 

bie ZoMfm 

ber SRat 

bie SRatfd^Uge 

ber Tfant 

bie X)anffadimdeii 

174. Nouns only used in the plural are : 

a. Diseases : Slattern, Wta^txn, IRatcIm 

b. Certain dates : Ofleni# 9)fin0flen, IQ^ei^nac^ten, Serien, Qfaflciw to fi^od^ot 
= in childbed. 

e. Names of relationship : (Sltern; ®tlMtx, brothers, as ®ebniber ®rimmr 
the brothers Grimm, but g^erally only in the names of finns ; (S^ef^toifletf 
brothers and sisters, rarely in the sg. = brother and sister ; other nouns 
as ®efilbe, Binfen, Srieff^aftenr Clnffinfte, etc. 

175. Masc. and neater nouns denoting quantity, weight, 
extent, preceded by numerals, stand in the singular, but fern, 
nouns (except 9RarI) in the plural as in Eng., e. ^., 6 ®lad Sier, 
10 gag SBclit; „an blc brclmal ^unberttaufenb Tlann" (Song of Prince 
Eugene), 5 gu§ Hef, 3 aRarl 70 |)fennifi(c), 70 x 7 = flcbenaig 
mal fleben mal (B.). Feminines : 3 3ReiIen brett, 10 %la\&itn $ort^ 
mixif 12 Stunbcit* The coins, bad 3al^r, ber 9Ronat, ©(i^ritt gener- 
ally stand in the plural, e. g., 50 |)fennige ma6:itn 5 ©rofd^en, 
3 I^ulotm, 20 @d}ritte lattg; yet also sing., 90 3^^^ — gebiidt ^nm 
Sobc; 7 9)lottat(c) alt; but ^tf^n matt 

176. In older German the plural was used in all genders just as in 
Eng. That the singular was ever used came from the analogy of masc 
nouns and *^diu mare" with the neuter nouns, in all of which sing, and 
pi. would not he distinguished. See 431, 2. The fern, of the n-deden- 
sion never followed this analogy. For ^axm see 68. Compare the Eng. 
"a ten-year-old hoy," now considered colloquial. "Year" is an old 
plural just like 3abr. 

177. Notice the use of the singular in German for English plural in 


snch phrases as : uitter ban )»ierten unb funften ®rabe ndrblic^er SSreite (Ho.) ; 
ber erfle unb ber fitnfte ^erd tt)urbe(n) gefutidcn; bte brei (Sc^uler mu^m |ut Strafe 
bie ^anb auf ben SRunb legen; t»tele ^aben bad Seben 9erloren» many lives were 
lost or many lost their lives. 


178. The nominative is the case of the sabject and of 
direct address: 9Keltt greunb, tie S^itm ber Sergangenl^elt ftnb und 
tin Sud^ mlt jleben ©Icgeln (F. 575-6). 9Rit euci^, $err Doctor, ju 
fpasiercn ifl c^ren^oll unb ifl ©etolnn (F. 941-2). 

179. Neuter verbs and verbs in the passive voice which 
govern two accusatives in the active, are construed with a 
predicate nominative. 

Such are : 1. ^m, mxUn, bletben# bun!en/ fi$einen# l^etpen (to be called), 
gelten# n>a(i^fenr flerbenr etc.: !£)ed ^xmmeU ^ugungen {!nb immer bie beflen (Le.). 
^Uer 2:0b wirb neued Seben (He.). (£r wirb ein gro§er ^rtn^ bid an fein (Enbe 
fd^cincn (Sch.). X)aa attein mad^t f(i^on ben SBeifcn, ber |i$ jeber bftnft ju fein(Le.). 
These verbs denote a state or transition. Preceded by aid the construc- 
tion may be called an apposition : Slttcin er flarb aid (E^rijl (F. 2953). 3d^ 
fomme aid ©efanbter bed ©erid^td (Sch.). (&x gilt aid ein reic^er S^ann, = He 
passes for . . . 

2. Verbs of calling, thinking, making, choosing, scolding, viz., 
genannt, gebad^tr angefe^enr gentacbtr betrad^tetr ^m&tiltt gefd^olten n>erbenf and 
others: SBil^elm )>on Dranien tt>irb ber <5(^tt)eiger genanntr SBill^elm t»on ber 
Slormanbie, ber (Srobcrcr. (£r »arb ein Dieb gef(^olten, aid ein Saugenijitd 
Hxa^ttU 3* barf mic^> nl*t bed Oliitfed Ciebling Welten (Kdrner). 


180. The genitive is used chiefly as the complement of 
nouns and adjectives, but also of the verb (object). The gen- 
itive with nouns expresses the most varied relations. The 
principal ones are briefly given and illustrated below. Ger- 
man does not differ from other languages. 


1. Q* of origin, cause, aathorship, relationsliip : tDad SDunber ijl btd 
©loubend (tebfled ^inb (F. 766). (S)oet^e« 9aufl. Die 9ru(6te bed S3aumed* 

2. Subjective O.: Die Ciebe ®otte«, ml^t J0^er ijl benn affe ©errainft (B.). 
Der Oefang ber ©Sget Da« Ijl ber ^am^jf ber 9)ferbe unb gifc^e (Hu.). 

8. Objective G.: Der ^nblid bierer (S^egenb (Hu.). Die (Srfinbund ber fbu^^ 

The personal pronoun is rarely found in this construction. Instead of 
wbie £iebe feiner" stands bie Sie6e su i^ntr gegen i^n* 

4 Posaeseive G. : Ded Saturn* unp^tbare ^anb (Sck). Det ©arten be« 
itanigd. Do(% 6e|fer ijl'd, V^x faflt In dotted ^«nb al« in (bie) bet !Kenf*en (Sch.). 
Sometimes the possessive pronoun is put after the G. in colloquial lan- 
guage. Lessing has it several times: Da* fc^ien ber alten Slrtiflen i^r 
®ef(^ma(f nic^t }U fein (Le.). See 242, 2. 

6. G, of quality OT eharacteriitic : Der Sfingling eblen ®epi^(e0 (H. and 
D., IV. 66). 

This G. and the preceding stand also in the predicate after neuter 
verbs : @eli$ flnb bie reined ^ersend flnb (B.). (£iner SKeinung fein; bed Sobed 
fein. (Sin fold^er SBafferflanb roar alfo eined ^Uerd mit ben ro^en Denhnfilern 
ntenfci^lid^en i^unflfleiged (Hu.). 

6. Appontive or specifying G.: Der SfeJIer bed STrgtoo^ndj bad Safler bet 
Srunffut^t; bie @Me ber Unban!6arfeit* Staxl erl^ielt ben SDeinamen bed ®rogen* 

This G. and that of characteristic are frequently supplanted by von + 
Dative : (Sine (Eid^e «on (o^em ^Uer wurbe t»om S3U6e getroffen. Dieb «on (einem) 
SBebicnten; Seufel »on ffieibe (Le.). See Prepositions, 303, 15. 

7. Partitive G,, dependent upon nouns of quantity, weight, measure ; 
with numerals, various pronouns ; comparative and superlative. Ex. : 
Sl^ut ni(i^td (= no matter). (£r (ber SWantcl) l^i ber Xropfen me^^r (Le.). 9?un Ker 
aSefdbeiben^eit genug (id.). Dem reid^te fie ber ®aben befte^ ber S3Iumen anerfc^ijnfle 
bar (Sch.). Siinf nnferd Drbend waren fd^on . ♦ . bed fujnen 5Wuted Dpfer 
ivorben (id.), fiafjl mir ben beflen S3ed^er 9Beind in purent ®oIbe reid^en (G.). Du 
fd^Iugfl bi(i^ burd^ mit bunbert a(^tjig 9)?ann burd^ il^rer Saufenb (Sch.). Unfer einer 
lann (1^ bad ni(3^t (eijleni = *• One like (of) us cannot afford that." 

181. In the spoken language and also in the classics (excepting 
poetry) this partitive G. has passed into more apposition ; especially 
after nouns of weight, measure ; after numerals ; after nid^td^ ni(^tr and 
the indefinite pronouns. Ex. : (Sin ^funb 2;^ee ; brei @(^effel ^orn. (£tn)ad 
®d^aned, nid^td ^5fedr 9iel (Sauted are no longer felt as genitives. The adjec- 


tive used an Doun is governed independently of the prononn or nomeraL 

Ex. : Beigt bad )»erfdlf(^te fdiatt ni(^t, man moQe ya ntc^td ®utcm und ^erbinboi? 
(Sch.). Dad fotmte ju etn>ad <3(^re(fUc^ein fu^ren (id.). From Lather to Lesang 
this G. is still quite freqaent, and it still remains in certain phrases, e. g., 
^xtt ill meined SSIeibend nid^U *' I cannot stay here." Siel ^uf^ebend ntad)en» 
" to make much ado." 9Benn i(^ mtt ^enfc^en^ unb mit (Sngel^imdoi rebete unb 
l^atte btr Siebe ntc^t • • . (B.), literally " and had nought of charity." It is 
supplanted by 9on# au9, unter + D. See Prepositions, 303. SBer 90tt und» 
unter und ? 

Oenitive Dependent npon Adjectives. 

182. It stands after adjectiYes denoting possession and 
interest or lack and want; fulness or emptiness; knowledge or 
ignorance; desire or disgust; guilt or innocence; e, g., f&^tg, 
♦^ab^aft, fld^cr, tell^aftig, unfa^ig; tar, *Io«; *»olI, *fatt, leer, qultt, 
»erlujltg ; funDlg, *gc»a^r, untunbig ; *mul>e, begierig ; fd^utolg, leblg, 
etc. Ex.: Dc« langen ^aberd miitc (Bu.). De« 2cibe« bljl bu Ictig 
(id.). De« ®crld)t« fd)uItl9.(B.). (^^cngjlc) Jeglcrlg tc^ ©tailed (H. 
and D., VL 313). ®lc flnD »oD fiigett SSJelnd (B.). Da Hjl ed t)od^ 
gufrletien, Sitter ? (Le.). 

183. The adjectives marked * and others not given also admit of 
the accusative. In the last illustration mt^" was felt as A., and therefore 
tr^ad" is much more common. See Pronouns, 199, 2. M g., 3(^ bin bad 
ftttt, mitbe, " I have enough of it," " am tired of it." 

The prepositions na^, ]»on» etc., + D. frequently supplant the geni- 
tive, e,g,, wbegierig na^ bem ©tatte* would he commoner; tjott, rein fein »on 

Genitive after Verbs. 

184. It may stand as nearer object, as remoter object, and 

As direct object after verbs with meanings similar to the 
adjectives in 182; also ac^tcn, toarten, l^ancn, fpottcn, ladjen, fd^onen 
geniejen, flerfccn, pflegen, bcnfen, ftcrgejfen, lo^nen, ^erfc^Ieit; firaud^en, 
and others. 


Ex. : t>a^ S^ergipmeiimid^t. 3^ benfe bein (G.)* -tungerd fterben. ^aelofitt 
f!4 ber ^^t nic^ti = It Is not worth the trouble. (£d {!nb nl^t aUt frei ble 
t^rer Stttitn fpotten (Le.). ®el)rau4t ber QtiU fie ge^t fo f^neS 9on (Innen (F. 1908). 

185. After yerbs goyeming an A. of the person the G. of 
the thing stands as remoter object, such as judicial yerbs, those 
with priyatiye meaning, yerbs of emotion ; after many reflexive 
verbs with meanings similar to the adjectives in 182, e.g., gei^en, 
t^erHagettffrcifpred^en, 6efd^ulbigen,(erauben, entlabett, eittlaffen, entbintien, 
iiber^eien, 'otx^iiftm, (ele^ren, ma^nen, and others ; fid) freuen, itW^ 
ncn, crlnncm, \iiamm, fceflcl^en, erfrcd^cn, P^ »c^ren» 

Ex. : (Entlafn vx\^ meiner 9((nenpTober i^ toill ta^ eurer toieberum entlaffcn 
(Le.). ffler farai mi$ elner ©flnbe jeijen? (B.). 3emanb be« fianbed »er»eifen ; 
dned S^erbre^end anflagettr fiberf&^rem etc. (Emfd^Iage bid^ aHer [(i^toarsen ®eban(en 
(Le.). Du barfl! hi^ beincr tQ^a|)l ni(^t f(^dimen (Sch.). But manj of these gen- 
itives are sapplanted bj auf, itbcr + A., and by A. alone. 

186. Oertain impersonal verbs expressing feelings, which 
are construed with the A. of the person feeling and with the 
G. of the cause and object of the feeling. 

Ex. : (Sd efelt mic^f ed reut, ttlaxmU jammert, )»erbTte§t mi^ ; ed lo^nt fld^. 
3)«rob erbarmt ben ^Irten bee alten Jojen ^errn (Uh.). Unb ha cr ba« ©olf fai^e, 
{ammerte i(n befTelbigen (B.). But the nominative supplants here the A. of 
the person, and the A. the G. in the spoken language as a rule; ^t^" was 
again felt as A. See 183. Ex.: Dad gereut mi(i^> bauert mi(i^. Der (S)ered^te 
erbannt j!(% felnee Siejee (B.). 

Adverbial Genitive. 

187. It expresses place, time, manner, and other adverbial 
relations. • 

Ex. : Place: Unfer ^anb, renter ^anb» atter Drten» ** everywhere." ^^ 
m5(^te (it is not likelj that . . .) biefed Seged fobalb nid^t tt>ieber fommen (Le.). 
Time : bicfer Sage, be« 2lbenb«, »be« SWorgend in ber Sruie." 
Manner : trocfnen gugc«, dry-shod ; fle^^enben §u§edr immediately ; ^er* 
nitnftiger SDeire, reasonably. @ie famen unt^erri^teter Sad^e ^uriid (without suc- 


A large number of these genitivee have paased into adrerhe, e. g., flitgd# 
For genitive after Prepositions, see 802. 

Oenitive in Exclamations. 

188. Interjections are followed by a genitive only when it 
denotes the cause or occasion of the exclamation. SBo^l and 
toe^(e) have often a dative of the person and a genitive of canse 
or origin: D bed graitgofen, ter feinen Serflant, ttefed gu itberlcgeit, 
lein ^era tiefed )u fit^Ien ge^aM ^ot (Le.). O ted ®(u(tlid^en, tern ed 
^erg&nnt ifl, e i n e Suft mit eud) ^u otmen (Sch.). 


189. It is the case of the indirect object, less remote than 
the genitive. The nearer object can also stand in the dative, 
but is more remote than the nearer object (the direct one) in 
the accusative. 

190. The dative stands as nearer object after intransitive 
verbs denoting: 1, approach and removal, similarity and dis- 
similarity; 2, pleasure and displeasure; 3, advantage and dis- 
advantage; 4, command and obedience; 5, yielding and re- 
sistance ; 6, belonging to, agreement, trust, etc. A large 
number of these verbs are compounds, viz., those with ent-, 
»er-, ai-, an-, auf-, tei- ein-, ml^, nad)-f »or-, »oran-, toiltx-, 
jit-, and those with noun, adjective, or adverb: leiD t^un, ttJO^ls: 
tvollen, fauer merten, guflatten lommen, toetd ma^tn, gu teil toertett, tad 
SBort reten, "to defend," etc. 1, na^cn, nad^gcl^en, begegnen, 
9lel(i^en, a^neln, aufe^en, entfprcAen, fel^Ien, entgcben, nad^fle^^en; 2, 
flcfaUen, tianlen, genitgen, Be^agen, l^ufelgen, ml§mtlen, {(i^mel^eln, lajfen 
(to look), broken, groUen, flud^en ; 3, ^elfcn, nu^en, Menen, beifle^en, 
frommen, m%xvx, f(i^a^en; 4, geileten, Befe^len,b5rctt,gc^orci^en, folgen; 
5, treid^en, triUfal^ren, »itierfle^en, tt)tter(h:ebcn, tro^en ; 6, antiDorten, 
emietem, ge^Sren, eignen, 6ei|limmen, gureten, trauen, glauben, i^ers? 


Ex. : 7>t€ fieBend mtgemif^te greube »arb leineni ^tttblid^m }tt teil (Sch.). 
©traflofe Srei^eit iVr^t ben (Sitten ^o^n (id.). Du rebefl i^m bad Sort, anflatt 
i^n ansttflagen (id.), ^e ^tef^en »irb i^m fauer, It is hard work for him to 
stand. 1. Dtt glei^fl bem ®ti% btn bu be0reiffl, nic^t mir (F. 512). Dad i»tttdfl 
bu itr (ber 9{atur) ni^t ab mit ^ebeln unb mil @4r«tben (F. 675). 2. dvam 
SEDirte I£§t nid^td fibler aU 9{eugterbe (Le.), Nothing looks worse in a host than 
cariosity. @o flu4^ i($ aHem, n>ad ble Seele mit Sod" unb ®auUltotxt umfpannt 
(F. 1587). Der fianbtjogt groffte bem Sefl. 8. (©ie) »ejret ben ifnaben, she 
restrains the boys (Sch.). Vn Jtnappe folgt bem SRitter* Q^oU l^ilft benen, bie 
(14 felber ^elfen* 4. <SoII i(^ gel^ord^en ienem !Drang ? (F. 681). X)u folgft mir 
bodb balb nac^ (Sch.). (3$e^5rfi bu bir ? (id.). 5. Unb bie i^ebilbe ber 9}a4t tt>ei(^ett 
bem tagenben Si(^t (id.). SBo^I tt)el§t bu, ba^ i(^ beinem dom nld^t tro^e (id.). 6. 
Sraue, fc^aue »cm. 9©em elft^et ®ott (Le.), To whom does God belong, = 
Who possesses him exclusively? Compound verbs: 3d^ l^be bir nt^t 
nad^gefieUt (F. 1426). (Se^r gem fle^t StaxM bem 9){ini'fler nad^ (Sch.). Die 
itdnigin fa^ bem j^ampfe )U (id.). 

191. After transitive verbs the indirect object stands in 
the dative and the direct in the accosatiye (see 198) : Ser^iiQe 
mir bad twogcnbc ©clrangc (F. 61). Dad iKcnfcJ^cnred^t, bad l^m 
Sflatur m^onnt (F. 136). 

192. A dative still farther removed from the verb is the 
ethical dative, or dative of interest (on the part of the speaker 
or hearer). It is generally a personal pronoun. 

Ex.: ®e^t mir» ni^td tteiter ba»on (Sch.), " Go, I tell you, no more of 
that." Die Sfirfen ^aben bir aUe ®£beld mit Diamanten befe^t (Le.). (@ie) flnb 
bir gar locfere, letd^te ©efellen (Sch.). Die U^r ft^liSgt feinem ®littfli(i!)en (id.). 

193. After impersonal verbs: cd a^nt, Beliett, elelt, gel^t, fe^U, 
iiiviiit, ed ixant, graufet, gelingt, liegt (mir) an ettvad, lommt (mir auf 
ettvad) an, Waubert, fd)t»tttbcU, trSumt, jtemt, and many verbs in 
190 can be counted here : T)em Sater graufet^d (G.). Sd liegt 
mir ^kl baran, I care much for it. Sem jtaifer tparb^d fauer 6ei 
W unb bci «dftc (Bu.). 

Dative after Adjectives. 

194. These have meanings similar to the verbs in 190, 
e. g., angene^m, aljnlici^, eigcn, fcinb, folgfam, bienjttar, gnabig, l^olb, 


nad)teUig, t)er(unten, aittraglid}* Ex.: VaA fle^t i^m &^ttlid}, = 
that's like him. 9ud^ toav Itt Snfang il^ren SButtfd^en :^ofo (Sch.). 
Die mcijlen fint mir augctfian (id.), "devoted." 

195. Substitution of preposition + case, both after verbs 
and adjectives. 

%iaxf auf, an, degeiu uber + accusative, mit and ^en + dative may replace 
the dative : 3($ litnie auf bi^, i^ glaube an h\^, vertrane auf i^n; Ibtn freunbUil 
gegen bie Snnen. ^er Snjng (suit) tfl fe^r paffimb fitr bulft, etc. 

196. Verbs with unsettled constructions. 

With a number of verbs usage is either unsettled or the classics still 
show two cases, while the spoken language has settled upon one, e. g,, 
now only ed ban(^t mir, but t€ bunft mtc^/ classics have D. or A. after either. 
Olauben with D. only, or an + A.; but F. 3438: 3(^ glanb' ijn (®oU) ni*t. 
(£0 efelt mir and mic^. 9){an htiaffit ben Jlne^t (person), bad Srot (thing), bent 
fd&dtx bad 93TOt. 34 rufe bir, I call out to you ; i^ rufe bic^, I call you, etc. 

197. The few reflexive verbs after which the reflexive pro- 
noun stands in the dative are really transitive verbs, and the 
pronoun is the indirect object: Sr bl&et fl(i^ ettoad tin, " he imag- 
ines something," "is conceited.'* 3^ ^<itf mir fd^meid^cln (Le.); 
but see 190, sub 2: 3<^ ^^nfe mir ^ie @a^e fo* 


198. The accusative is the case of the direct object after 
transitive verbs, including many inseparable compounds of 
intransitive verbs with it-, cnt-, er-, »er-, ger-, turd^, l^inter-, 
iibcr-, unter-, um-, »olI-, icicter-; such as Befa^rcn, befolgcn, it^ 
fcu(3^tctt, cntfraften, cntfdjeibeit, crfa^rcn, crfiitbcn, "otxiaiitn, vcrtreiben, 
3cr(h:citen, burti^fe'gcln, Mnterge'^en, ixbtx\t'i^tn, umgc'ben, yoUBri'ngen, 

Ex.: S^r fe^t elnen SRann »le anbere mejr (F. 1874). SJeradJte nur SJemunft 
unb SlfTenf^aft (P. 1851). Die ?Rflben ^aben nti(% \)ertriebcu (Folk-song). (£oof 
l^at bie aOBelt umfegelt. S3. Sailor l^at ben ^au|l fiberfe^t. 

199. Two accusatives may stand, one of the person and 
one of the thing, after verbs meaning to ask for^ to inquire. 


teach, to cause to do a thing or have a thing done, and simi- 
lar ones, e.g. J fragen, \^%xv^, laffen, Htten« Ex.: 9Ser le^rte bid^ 
biefe gemaltigen $Borte ? (Le.) Se^re mi(!^ tl^un na4 teinem SBol^U 
gefaUen (B.) (t^un = second ace). SQoQen @{e ten 3(r)t nid^ 
lommen Ia{fen ? 

1. After fragetu ^Uten> fibenebem bercbem the two accusatives stand, as a 
rule, only when the accusative of the thing is a neuter pronoun, e. g., i4 
(itte, frage bid^ etmad, ni^t^r i^leU If the pronoun is lacking, then fragen 
na($ + D., Mttcn urn + A., flberrcben »on or ^u + D. or the G. without prep- 
osition is the prevailing construction : ^afl bu nac^ i^m gefragt ? 3(^ ^abe i^n 
barum gebeten* 

2£igm fhafen, 9Bunber nel^men govern an A. of the person : Dad nimmt 
ini4 SBunbetr " I wonder at that." 

2. Bat these prononns, ba^# ni^tS, «ie(, stand for old genitives which were felt as 
accasatlyes. The constraction was : SBunbet nimmt mi^ bed or beffen, wonder seiises 
me on that aocoant. (See 186.) Sikgen is probably a Q. of cause : 3cmanb vegcn bet 
Sftgen ftrafen. Semen for le^ccni though found in Qoethe, is wrong. 

200. Notice a choice of constraction in certain cases, when 
the personal object is further defined by another case or prep- 
osition and case. The verbs that concern us here are such as 
fd^Iagen, trejfen, treten, fled^en, and similar ones. 

1. Dative of the person and accusative of the affected part: 
^&i toafd^e mir tie ^hiU or meine $&nbe* 

2. Dative of the person and preposition + A.: 3d^ trete i^m 
auf ben gu^, fi^fage V^m in'd ®ef{(!^t. 

8. Accusative of the person and preposition + A. : SQir fc^Iagen 
fcen gclnb auf d ^au))t. SBlr treten bie ©d^Iange auf ben ftoM. The 
choice is between 2 and 3. But 2 is preferable after intran- 
sitive verbs; 3 after transitives. 

201. These accusatives are both object-accusatives, but 
after verbs meaning to name, scold, regarding, and others of 
similar meaning, the second accusative is a predicate or facti- 
tive accusative, while the first is direct object, e. g,y after ixttvxvXf 
\iiiViiXi, fc9im)>fen, glauben, taufen, l^eif en (trans.). 


Ex. : 3tt tiefjler ©cele fd^metjt mx^ ber ©pott ber grembllnfte, ble im« ba 
Sauernabel fci^clten, " who call us by the nickname of ' peasant nobility ' " 
(Sch.). DieXrcue . . . iflicbcm 3Rcnfc^en tt)ie ber nacelle ©lutdfireunb, aW i^rcn 
Slacker fujlt er fl(^ geborcn (id.), ^o^ f^lt i* vx\^ bmfelbcn bcr i* war (id.). 
3^ a(^te i^n aid einen (g^renmami. 

202. 1. After laffen + fein and iDtrben a predicate A. by attraction is 
found instead of the predicate nominatiye, but the latter is the prefera- 
ble construction, e. g,, Sa§ bad S3d(^Ieui beinen Sreunb fein (G.). Sag biefe ^aUt 
felbfl ben @c^aupla^ »erben (Sch.). 

2. For the passive construction, see 178, 2. The verbs in 199, 1, 
may retain the accusative (pronoun), also le^ren. This would also admit 
an accusative predicate noun in the passive : tDad @4Ummfle» toad und 
toiberfd^rt, bad ttcrben tt>lr »om Xag gclc^rt (G.). 3d^ toerbc ben Sanj gelc^rt. 
But it is best to avoid all these predicate accusatives. They sound 
pedantic. Better say : 3($ l^aht Xaniunterri^tr Xanifhtnbe. 34 i^^bc immer 
oteber barna(^ gefragtf barum gebeten* 

203. The inner or nearer object stands in the accosatiYe 
called the '* cognate." The noun has the same meaning as 
the verb. Its idea is generally included in the verb : Sinen 
gttten &amp^ ^abt id) gefam))ft (B.). (Sine @(!^Ia^t f(!^lagen, l^eipe 
Z^xhnm toeinen, etc. ; Garten \pitUn, ©^lUtfd^u^ laufen* ®ax f^bne 
©plelefricP i*mUHr(G.). 

204. Notice that the nonn is sometimes replaced by an indefinite 
pronoun, tt>ad# edr eind» etc. Compare Eng. '' to lord it," the unclassical 
"to come it over somebody." %htt bie £iferfu(it ubcr ©panien gettann ed 
btedmal U^er biefe poUtifd^e (Bpmpat^ie (Sch.). 2)ie ©otter l^alten ed ntit ben Xapfer^ 
flen (id.) ; fic^ tt>ad red^ted (prei^te) laufen^ fpringeny tan^en^ "to run, etc., a great 
deal." 2^m <Bie mir eined auf eigene fStt^mn^ »or (Le.). 3(^ fi^wa^e eind mit 
(Le.). See also F. 3416. 

205. After many impersonal verbs and some other verbs 
the logical subject stands in the accusative (see 186). The 
verbs denote states of the body and mind : ed biirflet, ^ungert, 
fd^lafcrt, JDUttbert, ttan% »erbrlc^t mid^* 

Here belong also ed qjUbt, ed (at# ed fe^ti ed gilt : tDerglei^en @timmcn gibt'd 
(Sch.), " There are such voices." fid Jot ®efoJr tt>enn »lr td^t gejen, " There 


is danger . . . ". (£d fet^t ^itU, ^&vi>t\, ^djU&^t, There is a fight, a qoarrel 
going on, somebody is being whipped. Comp. French Uy a» 

206. After refleziye verbs the pronoun generally stands in 
the acoosative : Sntfil^Ue^e MA. Sefinne (id) m in bi|l (Soh.). 
But see 185 and 197. 

Adverbial Accusative. 

207. It denotes measure (amount), time, and place. 

1. It denotes measure after Terbs like loiegm, (o|ien, ge(ten ; 
after adjectives like (ang, brelt, ^od), alt, totxt, etc. 

Ex.: Die IRu^e bcined Ofreunbed gilt cd, " is at stake " (Sch.). Die Jtifle 
toicgt bici Jtilogramm, stoei Sentner» fitnf Sot, etc. Die Srucfe ifl me^iere Xaufenb 
Sui langr ^unbert fcc^jig (o(6 unb ac^tjig Ofug breit. Dad Dorf liegt eine ©tunbe (an 
boar's walk) »on bet ^tabt. griebrid^ ifl etncn ^alben Mcp\ grdier aH Dtetric^. 

Tbe usage as to the case of the person with wfoflen" is unsettled : Der 
Si^er) fof!et mi(^ or mir »tel @elb. Grimm's Dictionary favors the A. 

2. It stands with verbs of motion to express the distance 
and the v^aj, the noun being often followed by an adverb. 

Ex. : SBei^t feinen ©d^rttt guriicf . Sn>ei SBanberer flel^t er bie Strage )ie6n 
(Sch.). ®d iicjt tin ^aufc bad ob're I^al ^erab (Uh.). Der geU roDte ben ©erg 
^inab. mt leifen ©djritten fc^lit^ er feinen bSfen ©eg (Sch.). 

The A. of measure and distance supplanted the G. of an older period ; 
that denoting the way is old. Tbe G. still occurs frequently. See 181. 

208. The accusative of time denotes the duration and the 
moment of an action. The former is often followed by an 
adverb, lang, turd), fiber. Ex.: Der Sote fann ten Slugenblid Mer 
fein (Sch.). gr f(!^lSft Den fianjen 9Worgen. !Du ^afl ed ^ai^xt lang 

1. Compare the G. of time (see 187), which denotes a repetition of the 
action or a custom. The A. denotes a definite point of time or fixed 
period: (DeT)Ueg93etjhinb^ ^Itenbed !D{orgend 0leict(Sch.). @onnabenbd 9^ad^' 
mittagd ^Un n>iT !eine (Sc^ule (= custom). 92dci^flen 9^itnD0(^ ^aben n>ir feine 
©d^ule. 9Jod^ biefe ?»a(^t mug tr SWabrib JjerlafTen (Sch.). Tbe G. denoting 
duration of time is rarer now : <£in ®ift bad neun ganger 3a(re bauert (Le.). 
This may be partitive G. 


Absolute Accusative. 

209. This approaches the nature of an adverbial accusa- 
tiTe. Ex. : 3" 'Etonv^, tern Zi^xcinntn, ]&iliif 9RiJro«, Den Dold> im 
®emant)e (Sch.). @(!^on ten ^old ent6Iopt, htiet' ic^ auf meinem 3Ran^ 
tel (Le.). 


210. The adjective may be used attribntiTelj, predica- 
tively, and substantively: ter rc^c 3la6fiax; ttx 9lac!^bar ijl ui6^; 
ttx Sleid)^ 


Attributive Use of the Adjective. 

211. Some adjectives are only or mostly used attributively, 
as : 1, the superlatives and ordinals; 2, certain adjectives de- 
rived from adverbs: ^iejlg, tortig, felt^erig, bl^l^erlg, e.g^ tie l^icjige 
3cttung, but not tie 3c^^w*^9 ^1^ W^S > 3, many adjectives in — tfA, 
-li6^, -en : nortifdj, irtifd^, taglicb, anfanglid), enrlid), golten, feiten, 
plbem, glafem. 

1. If they do stand in the predicate, they must be inflected, and the 
noun may be understood, e, g., bie Stcferung tfl cine fliinbltctef not fKtnbltc^. 

For the adjectives in -en and -crrif »on + noun is substituted, e.g,^ ein 
S3cd^cr »on purcm ®olbe. But in poetry the adjective is found; 2)cr ©tu^l 
ijl clfenbeinctn (R.). 

212. The attributive adjective is inflected and agrees with 
its noun in gender, number, and case : ^it fitter ^ofl unt 
frifc^em ©d^aum ^at er mid) »o^I gena^ret (Uh.). It may stand 
uninflected, however: 1. Before a neuter noun in N. (and A.) 
(very rarely before a masc. or fem.) : 3Relne SWutter l^at xa<in6!f 
giilDen ®e»ant (G.). (Ed ijl ein ))utelnamf(i^ Sier (F. 1167). Fre- 
quently in certain phrases like „bar ®elt)", " cash " ; „attf gut 
©liid". Bare : ®ro§ 3Ra*t unb ttiel Slfl (Lu.). I:ad Sllter 1(1 ein 
l^bflid) aWann (G.); „fremli unb frember ©tof' (F. 635.). 2. When 
it stands after the noun, mainly in poetry; commonly after 
coins, weights, and measures: ttx $au)>tmann fit^rt im @4tfo ein 


fRMtiti rot »on Oofce unk cinen gfcer ttllk (Uh.). Sin Siitoaxm »ott 
©apen grog unD Ilcin (Bu,). 3e^n guj rteinifd), finf 3>furni flamifti^; 
In prose also, when the adjective or participle has adjuncts: 
Dort tin gutartiged, geflttctcd 4)antcldttclt, fdjMjelgent »on ten uptJigcn 
griicJ^tctt elned gefegnctcn glclged, tt)a(!^fam auf ©cfe^c, tie feine ffio^I^ 
t^ater ttaren (Sch.). 3. Of two adjectives the first stands unin- 
flected in certain set phrases; when the two express one idea; 
in poetry, very frequently in Schiller : Die groj^eraoglldj tatifdbe 
SRcgicrung ; Ui Kniglic^ preu§ifd>e S'Jf ^iw^' SB«^ ^CW/ ^^^ <*« ^^n 
tt)iirtig alten ^auerot i^m rii^rt (Sch.). len folfd) i)erraterif(3^ctt Slat 
(id.). „3n Me tteit unt brclte ffielt" (G.). Schiller has „traurig 
^nfher ^x^mW ; M^^^tli^ eitle ^ol^eit'' ; „C ungliidfelig iammen»oU 
let Sag"; „mit graufam teufcUfc^er Sufi/' etc. 

1. SautcTr and generally eitel both in the sense of *' pure/' '* nothing 
but/' are undeclined : I)ad ifl lauter Unfinn. Bat Compare wlautered SBaffer^ 
in the literal sense. <£ffct eitel undefauert S3rot (B.). (<£itel is archaic.) 

213. The attributive adjective is inflected weak after cer- 
tain limiting words, viz., after the definite article and pronouns 
declined like it; after eitt, fein, and the possessives, excepting 
the N. sg. of all genders and the A. sg. neut. and fern. Ex.: 
ker gute SSipfc Ibaum (Uh. ) ; jur glMid^cn ©tunte ; gu {cnem frobcn 
gejle; elned f(!^8nen Saged; an cittern latigett SSifle (Uh.); feitt griitte* 
ipau« (id.); eitie artne Sauerltt (N. and A. sg.); eitt feitence StUil 
(N. and A. sg.). 

214. The adjective is therefore declined strong, when not 
uninflected (see 218) and when not preceded by any of the 
above limiting words, mentioned in 213, e. g,, ipolte ©e^tifudjt, 
fuped 4>offen (Sch.). ©tuitime fitter toter eiS^e (Platen ?). Also 
after the uninflected pronouns totl6:i, foI4, ^jlel, iDeitig, nte^r, ett»a«, 
niift^, and after uninflected numerals. Ex.: Sr gibt ^ettt treuen 
^irtett mani^ Matties Stild (piece of money) tat)ott (Uh.). S^et^ 
uiijiv ^itnmel (G.). @ol(^ trefflic^er 3Rottard| (Sch.) (see 216, 4; 


216. The Bjntactical distinction between strong and weak inflection of the adjec- 
tive, though very old, ia by no means clearly drawn even now. The oldest inflection 
of the adjective is the so-cailed '* aninflected," identical with the strong noun declen- 
sion. When the pronominal endings spread over the adjective declension, forming 
the present strong adjective declension, the adjective probably was still declined 
strong even after a pronoun (ind. article). Of this there are traces from O. H. G. down 
to the 17th century. The n-declension of the adjective is a characteristic of the Ger- 
manic languages. Having less distinctive and fewer endings than the strong, it is natoral 
that the adjective should be declined according to it, when preceded by a word which 
liad the strong endings. This lias given rise to the syntactical distinction and to the 
feeling that two strong forms should not stand side by side. When an adjective be- 
came a substansive or was used as such, it was always inflected weak, with or without 
article. This explains 221, 1. In Gothic the present participle and the comparattves 
were always inflected weak. In O. H. G. appear only a few strong comparatiyes and 

216. Unsettled usage as to strong and weak forms. 

1. The strong genitive sg. m. and n. tamed weak in the 17th oen- 
tniy, which is now the prevailing form: i,^o^ed SPhitd" (BQ.); Mut'gctt 
S^u^md (Uh.). ir^ortc fu^en ^aud)^" (Sch.). The pronouns always remain 
strong, except itntx, \th(x, of which a weak form is rare, e. g,, icben S^olfd 
(Uh.) ; jenen Sagd (Ba.). This weakening is dae to the feeling, that two 
strong forms should not stand together. See 215, 217. 

2. After personal pronouns the rule is strictly the strong form, as the 
pronoun is not a limiting word. But as early as M. H. G. weak forms 
hegin to appear. Usage now favors : after ic^f bU/ er (in address), xaxdit 
bi(^ only the strong form, e. g., »btt jlarfcr itfinifldfoftn*' (Uh.) ; l^ armcr 2Rann; 
after mir» bir mostly the strong form ; after mitr i(r the weak (if fern. 
always), e,g,, SBer nie fein a3rot mit S^rSnen a$ * * • bar fennt eu4 ni(^t» \S^x 
^tmmlifd^en SRad^te ! (G.). In »®e0TU§t i^r, f^ane ^amen ! (G.), the comma 
makes a diflTerence. After und and eu(^ (A.) strong and weak are equally 
frequent. After und and tu(6 (D.) strong and weak coincide of course : 
3)?an follte tud^ fc^lec^te Jterle betfleden (arrest) laffen. <£u(b faulen SSurfc^en ifl ie^ 
bcT aSrotforb ^oi^cr gc^fingt. 

8. In the vocative the rule now is strong form both in sg. and pi., 
e.flr., ttn»crfd^amter ! wcnnbic^ jcmanb gcl^ort ^attc (G.). Du, armcr Ocijl (Sh.). 
The plural is still found weak, but rarely, as : Slcben ^reunbe* ed gab bcJTrt 
Seitctt aU bic unfcrn (Sch.). 

In O. H. G. the weak form was the rule ; in M. H. G., the strong in 
the sg. 

4. After certain pronouns, pronominal adjectives, and indefinite 


numerals* such as \oldit, m^t, etnigtr ttlid^t, aUt, mand^t, Uim, and others, 
there stands in the N. and A. pi. very frequently the strong form against 
the rule, but rarely in the G. pi. This strong form is the older. Even 
after bitfe and iene strong adjectives may be found in the classics. Ex. : 
Vtx Sdlumen^dnbler (at fetne fd^ane 9icfen mi^x. SBo l^afl bu folc^e (alb^oerfaulte 
Sirncn gefauft ? After the Q. pi. )n>€ier and breier the weak adjective is fre- 
quent, but in the spoken language these genitives are very rare : bcr 
^nfauf «on itoci neuen ^dlufem or ixoti neuer ^&n\tXf and not ^eier neuen (or -er) 

217. If two or more adjectives hold the same relation to the noun, 
they have the same inflection. If the second adjective, however, be more 
closely related to the noun, forming a joint idea, then it usually stands 
in weak form in Q. and D., not in N. and A It can often be formed into 
a compound noun, and has less accent than the first adjective : <£r traftitrte 
imd mit f(^le(^tem roten SBeinc (= 9lotn>ein); bie Solgen blutiger biirgerli^en Jlrieac 
(= ©argerfrieae). 

1. After certain adjectives like folgenber^ oBtger» em^^nter^ gebac^tm etc.« 
the second adjective, as a rule, is inflected weak in all cases : ®enatuucd 
unum|l5pU4e ^rtitiipr obiger anerfamUe Sa)^. 

The Adjective in the Predicate. 

218. The predicate adjective is uninflected. If it stand 
inflected in the predicate, the noun is supplied and the adjec- 
tive is looked upon as attributive: S)ie jtraft ifl f^wad), aQein tie 
8u(l ijl gro§ (F. 2203). Dein ®cf(i^iift Ifl tin fd^irierigce (supply 
"one"); „tf« 5>oIialflen 8oe Ifl leln flludli^ce." 

The adjective (or participle) is also uninflected when it is 
an appositional or factitive predicate : SQir famen glitdli(!^ an^ 
9lutt, t>ae finD id^ t>umm (F. 961). Dcr ©laubc mai^t felig (B.). 

219. Certain adjectives are only used predicatively. Some 
of these are really nouns, like fcinD, freunD, ^cil, fdjaDc, not, nii^c, 
fd^ult. Others, originally adjectives or past participles, have 
been restricted to this use, like ^ab^aft, ab^otb, getrofl, anf{d)t{g, 
^erlufllg. All of them have not yet become full adjectives; 
and many, if with adjective form, are of late derivation : 

aifpenfUg, ai^ol^, aitoentig, audflntig, l^anbgemein* Ex.: Cttilit 


fonnte tern 9Ratc!^en ni*t feinb fein (G.). gin fcfeSner 3Rattn, fine 
fc^one grau! Ifl ter Xlrcftor gliicflid) genufl^l^rcr ^abl^aflau jperDcn, 
fo • • • (ii ). Xic Stnti^tt touttm ^antgcmeln^ 

1. In O. H. G. the adjective in the predicate is still inflected, though 
not always. In M. H. G. it is rarely inflected. In N. H. G. voUer and 
^albei are stereotyped strong forms used for both numbers and all gen- 
ders : X)ie ^a^t ift f^lUx ^in (coll.) ; M^ 9la^t^ urn ^aVbtt BtoMf" (student 
song). SoQer ©(^merien unb Jtranf^eit (B.). 

Substantive Use of the Adjective. 

220. The adjective when used as a noxm is inflected ac- 
cording to the rules already given for the adjective proper : 
9)llt ^leittcm fangt man an, mit (Sro^em ybxt man auf (Prov.). lu 
©cbmert an ntcincr iinUn (Komer). lie Srflen werDcn tie Se^en 
fein (B.). For gender see 160^ 3. No inflection is the rule in 
certain set phrases: ©teid) unt ©(ei^ gefeUt fl(i^ gem (ProT.). 
3ung unD 3llt, ®rog unb ^Icin, 9leic^ unt Itnn, ton JHcin on, ton 
3nng auf; also in the names of languages : Snglifc!^, grangoftfcb ; 
tttein gelleMed I^eutfc!^ (F. 1223). SBie ^cipt t)ie« auf Stalienlfc^ ? gr 
^at t)on Mnti auf 9?or»egif(^ gefonnt. Also of colors: ®run, Stou* 

221. Usage admits of many irregularities. 

1. The weak form in the plural when no article precedes as Sebientett> 
Seamtettr ©(^Snetir Sungenr or rarely the strong form in the singular like 
any feminine noun, invariable in the sg. : ber Q^ovt, instead of ber Sd^dnen 
(G. sg.). See 216. 

2. The strong or weak plural after aUt, tinx^t, etU4e» etc : aHe ®ele^rte« 

cinigt ®cfanbte. 

8. After n>ad» ttvoa9, ^kX, etc., the weak form is rare. See 214. 

4 If an adjective precede an adjective-substantive and is inflected 
weak, the latter is of course weak ; if the adjective is inflected strong, 
then the substantive may be either strong or weak. The latter form is 
perhaps more common for the neuter, the strong certainly for the mascu- 
line nouns : Slcin, fic (bad ffietb) ijl, o ^olbe ^^bntn, jur ©efefllgfett gema^t (G.). 
Die annen S^em>anbten jlnb gmai^nlic^ ntd^t miflfommen. ^od^gefleSte a3eamtc |Inb 
entlaflen* jDet neue Sdebietttc ^t ein angene^mtt) iupere* 


Do not coDfound bad fftt<iH, law — bad ^tdi\t, the right thing ; bad (Svt, 
property — bad ®ute» the good (abstract) ; (bad) @d^n>ar}y black (the color) 
— ha^ Sd^toarie (the bull's eye of a target), etc. 

Syntax of Comparative and Superlative. 

222. These may be used just like the positiye, only that 
the superlative is never used predicatively, i, e,, uninflected, 
excepting aUerliebfl, e. g.^ tie Slume ifl aQerliebfl* If it stands in 
the predicate, it is always weak, being preceded by the definite 
article: Diefer Saum i|l Ux l^bd}{le or Diefer Saum i|l am ]^&(!^flen« 
These two should not be used indiscriminately, however, as 
they too generally are in the spoken language. The first is 
the strictly relative comparison; it can be strengthened by 
aQer-,e. g., ter l^od^jle ))on aden^Der aderbbci^fle. The prex)08itional 
superlative should only be used when not so much the objects 
themselves or different objects are to be compared, but the 
same objects under different circumstances of time and place. 

It is generally the '^absolute ** superlative, expressed by an 
adverbial phrase: !Cer @tarle ifl am ma(!^tigflen all e in (Sch.), 
" The strong man is most powerful standing alone, unimpeded 
by the weak." £)ie ^fe( fint auf ter fonntgen @eite ted ©ortend am 
reifften. 9(td Soot^ Sitd^elteu fpielte, mar tia^ Z^tattv am t)o(I(len* 

1. The "relative" superlative is generally preceded by the definite 
article, the *' absolute " has, as a rule, ein or no article. Goethe is very 
fond of such an absolute superlative : <£in aHerUebfled Jtinbr a most lovely 
child. !D{ed beutet auf tin fp&tefled (a very late) 9{atuteretgnid (G.). Notice 
also: mcil^d bie SBenigflm Umtn (G.), because very few know how; ber 
8Urf!f bie <£lternr bte neueren @pra4en» and other examples. They show 
absolute comparison with the definite article. The absolute superlative 
is best expressed by an adverb + adjective in the positive. The more 
common adverbs used are : fe^r/ xt^U ^5(6fl» ^uperft, itberaud^ e. g,, eine $5d^fl 
angene^mc Uberrafd^ung, ein re(i^t bummer 3unge. 

223. Any adjective can be compared by -er, -efl, except 
those that are never used attributively (see 219) and a few 
whose form seems awkward, like Ined}tifd^, ^^^if<^r but the latter 

80 SYirrAX OF the KUHE1U.L8. [224- 

are not absolutely excluded : SlOein, toeif ®ott, fie mar me^r f(!6ub 
aU iij {¥. 2960). 

224. When two qualities belonging to the same object are 
compared, me^r, mentger, minltv are now used, but the classics 
are still full of the comparatives in -cr. 

According to Lehmann (L. Sprache, p. 206) Leasing uses me^r only 
once : IDtefe ^udrufitngen ftnb r^etorifd^er aid grunblic^ (Le.). Present usage : 
Der ^creUe ifl iveniger ^imtucfifc^ aid bumm. Der (Solbat ifl me^r lapfer aid flug* 

225. Logically the superlative cannot be used of two objects, but it 
is so used much more frequently in German than in English, e. g., dtoei 
®5^ne, »o»on [it ben dltejlen • . . mit einem $feile erfc^o^ (Le.). 

1. For the conjunctions benn# ald^ after the comparative, see 333. 

2. Notice the bold comparative in H. and D., IX. 311 : 9}un# ijl bad 
SReine meiner aid iemald. Such forms as ber !£>eint9fle# etc., at the end of 
letters are rare. 2eibcr is a comparative of letb (adj.), which became a 
noun very early. 


226. The cardinals, used attributively, are indeclinable 
now, except cin, cine, cln. The G. and D. of gmci and brcl now 
and then occur still : ^wdtt ^tn^tn iWunt) ma*t aUc SBa^r^eit 
funb (Prov.). Here „itotitT** shows the case; 3»ei 3^^6^^ SDlunb 
would not be clear. 

1. To express the year the cardinal is merely added to „im 
3a6r(e)" or to „itt/' as im 3a^rc ad^tjc^n iuntert etn unb aci^tgig, or 
shorter, in 1813. The cardinal shows the year, the ordinal 
the month: ®&t^e flarb ten 22ten STOSra 1833; ^anno»er, ben (1.) 
erflen augufl 1881* 

2. The time is expressed in Tarious ways. Answering to 
such questions as : SBie^lcl U^r ifl ed, weldje B^it ifl cd or ^aben 
ttir ? »ie ifl ed an ber 3ctt ? we say : Sd ifl jmolf »orBei, aitx nod^ 
ni(!^t ein«» Se ifl ein Siertcl brei or awf brei,or dn Siertel naiii (fiber) 
amei (all mean a quarter past two). Sd ifl brei Sierte( brei or auf 


ltd or ein SSicttcl »or trci, = a quarter of three. 5d ijl Hlb 3tt)&lf, 
= half past eleven, on the same principle as t)ierte^alb (see 
229). We can say: 20 9Kinutctt mil ge^n (past ten), swanaig 
\>ox jcbn (of ten). Dcr 3ug fa^rt 3 U^r 20 SKlnutcn nadimittafld ab. 
2Clr woUen und urn fiinf trcjfen. 

227. Used substantively the cardinals are more frequently 
inflected, having a plural in -e (see 429) and a dative in -en 
(see 79): Sd »aren l^rer fiinf (c), a»Mf(e)* 

1, Ck)11oqmall7 this -e is very commonly used as far as 19 incl., even 
when the figure itself be meant, which stands in the feminine singular : 
Dicfc Sl*t(e) 1(1 mt gut ficmad^t. !Dlefc ?»cun(c) jlc^t fd^lef. (Klf i|l bie ©iinbe. 
(£lfe iiberWrcitet ble jc^n ®cbote (Sch.). 

2. Dte fWlUio'n, ble aSillio'tt, blc 3WiDiarbe are regular nouns, and, unlike 
^unbert and taufenb» stand in the plural after the cardinals, e,g., brei ^iU 
Ilonen, but funf IJunbertr fe^d taufenb. !Dad ^unbert, bad Saufcnb are common 
nouns, pi.: ^unberte + hundreds, Saufmbc + thousands: e.g., in ^unbcr^ 
m, a hundred at a time ; bei ^unberttaufenben bie 37{enf(i^en bruden (Le.). 

228. „^ti'^t" corresponds to Eng. "both "in form and 
use: 3P ^<Jd Vf^^"^ fltt bcibcn 8lugen bllnb ? It may have the defi- 
nite article before it: bie belDen Rix^t, "both the cows." 

1. The singular bclb- means " either," "each " (of two), ©clbtd Wgt 
fl(i l^oren = either statement is reasonable ; bad 5tbenbma^l unter bcibcr ®c* 
ftalU the communion in either form ; but the masc. and fern, are archaic. 
Denn ju einem gropen ^amt ge^drt betbed : Jtleinigfetten aU itleinigfeiten unb 
mic^tige Dtngc aid toi^tige !Z)inde ivi bebanbein (Le.). SBcibed has supplanted 
beibcr beidiu (pi.), which are still common in the 16th and 17th centuries. 

Notice belbed — unb = both — and. aSclbcd, cln loblic^cr Stoni^ unb niiiid^ttger 
©(^winger ber Canje (Btt.). 

229* 1. Peculiar are the compounds of the ordinals with l^alb following 
them and fclb preceding them : S5lCTt(c)5alb (8J), ncunt(c)balb (8 J), meaning 
bad jjierte nur IJalb or wenlgcr ein ijalb, bad ncuntc nur Jatb. Drcijc^ntcbalb Sa§ = 
12 Ofag aber bad 13te nur ^alb. Ags., Icelandic, Danish, and L. Q. have the 
same forms, though in the two latter "half" precedes the ordinal. It 
does not go back to O. H. G. (Sclbanber = cr(fclbjl) bcr jmcite, two of them ; 
fclbbreiiie^nt, himself the 18th, thirteen of them (G.) ; felbbrltt, fclb»lert gen- 
erally uninflected. Selbft in>an)ig|leT (Le.). The cardinal is not common, 


but Lessing has ^felb funfitger." This composition is more common than 
l^alb- in the modem dialects. 

2. Notice also the cardinals in -er, as in ben funfjiger Sa^rcn— either 
" from 1850-60 " or " from 50-60 years old." It is hardly dassicaL This 
-cr occurs in the names of the unit, ten, etc : ber (Sinerr ber de^net^ etc 
See 507, 1. 


Syntax of the Personal Frononn. 

230. 1. ^n, Bg,, i^T, pi., are used in familiar interconrse 
in the family and among intimate friends, in addressing God, 
in sermons, in solemn discourses and in poetry. Ex. : ^ennfl 
tu M^ 2ant), mo tie Sitronen bliifen ? (G.). Slintcr, alter Sater ! tu 
fannfl ten Sag ter grel^eit ni6^t me^r f d^ a u e n ; tu fotljl x^n^bxtn 
(Sch.). Sr^ab'ner ®eijl, tu gabfl mix, gabfi mix ailed, toaxum ^ hat 
(F. 3218). 

2. Sie, 3. p. pi., is used everywhere else, even among rela- 
tives in some families; also when grown children address the 
parents: SBo ttjo^nen ©ie, toenn i6^ fragen tarf ? 

8. This peculiar use of @ie sprang np early in the 18th oentary. It is dne,no doubt, 
to the Qse of the eingnlar @r and ®te in address, which were the height of politeness in 
the 17th century. 6r and 8ie are due to the use of igerr and %tau in direct address. In 
Chamlsso's /^^eter B^Umif^i" the gray-coat always addresses Peter with irberi^err," 
4t. g.t ,;S025ge ber igerr meine 3ubringtt(!^{eit entf^ulbtgen . . . i(^ f^abt cine S3Ute an i^n." 
i&crr, grau, 3^re Onaben, (Sure GjccHenj, ©cine 9Kaie|lftt were followed by the "plural of 
majesty" (see 311, 2): $crt IJoltor wurben ba fate^ifiert (F. 8534). gfttS et^ wotten 
©eine aWajefiat, ba§ ble 5Irmc'c o^n* Sluffci^ub Socmen raumc (Sch.). $err was reduced 
to mere „er" as early as M. H. G., e. g,, er Sigfrid ; in the 16th century, ,3ertet et 
$faner.'' This form encouraged the use of the pronoun er in direct address. 

4. S^r, in addressing one person, was early very respectful and has maintained itself 
in the drama, except in comedy, to this day, and might be called the '^ stage-address,** 
and is due to Eng. and Fr. influence. See Schiller's ilRaria @tuart. 

231. The gradation as to politeness and etiqnette now is about as 
follows : 1. For princes and all persons of high standing, 3]^re ©nabeitr 
(£urc exccUenii, Cure SWaiejlcfr, with the verb in the pi. 2. <Sic, addressing 
one or more persons, verb always in the pi., e.g., biirftc t(i^ <Sie fcegleitcn? 
3. 3^rf pL of bUr and 3^r in the drama addressing one or more persons, 


€,g.y (Spfit fommt S^r, bod^ 3^r !ommt (Scb.). See F. 981. 988. 4 (£r, @ie, 
addressiDg one person, now rare. 6. Tixtt \%tt as in 230, 1. 

232. The genitive of the pronouns of the 1. and 2. persons stands 
very rarely after nouns. Goethe has it once, irmeln, be« ©cogno'llenr*' " of 
me the geognost/' but it is common as the object of verbs, after adjec- 
tives and numerals : 3(^ ^itt^ eud^» ne^mt eud^ meiner an (F. 1876). The un- 
inflected possessive meiitf bein are by some interpreted as predicate genitives, 
e. g,y ber 93cd^er ifl bein (Sch.). As it is much more probable that the posses- 
sive adjectives were used as genitives of the personal pronoun than tnM 
versa, this interpretation is hardly correct. (See 441, a.) 

233. The personal pronouns always accompany the Terb. 
In the imperative ,,@ie'' always stands, but bu and i^r only for 
emphasis: iitUt tun geinbe (B.). SleiBen @ie gefaHigfl* See 
F. 1908. 

1. In poetry, colloquially, and In merchants' letters the pronoun is 
often not put : ^in »eber ^rauleim xo&tx Win, !ann ungeleitet na(i^ ^aufe ge^n 
(F. 2Q08). See F. 8429. 3^r 5Bertcd (viz., S^xtiUn) Jjom 18ten bicfed (viz., 
9)?onatd)r ^U cntpfangcn. Notice the set phrases Httt, I pray ; banfe» thank 
you ; gefc^weige (conjunction, " say nothing of ")» before which H has to 
be supplied. S^ut ni(i^tdf ber 3ube mirb ^erbrannt (Le.), no matter, the 
Jew . • • 

2. Colloquially the subject, if a noun, may be repeated in the shape of 
a pronoun, as in Eng. : ber Jtird^b^^fr tx liegt »ie am Sage (G.). See 244, 8. 

234. The pronouns of the third person bave demonstra- 
tive and determinative force. (Compare the cognate Latin 
is, ea, id,) Hence if they refer to lifeless objects or abstract 
notmsy they rarely stand in the G. and D. cases, but they are 
supplanted by the regular demonstrative pronouns or, if gov- 
erned by prepositions, by ba(r), ^n, ^cr + the preposition. 
Ex.: %m Slcbd^en fclncn ®rug! 3<^ »itl tatoon ni4t3 I)5rcn (F. 
2104). ^abt Cttdj »or^cr »o^I ))ra))arlert (F. 1958). Mdn iij Q\aui\ 
tu ^aitfl nid)t »lel ta»on (viz., t)on ber SReliglon) (F. 3418). 

1. Also cd (A.) is thus supplanted, when referring to an individual 
object: ffio llegt g)an«? . . . !Den Singer brauf (not auf ed) bad ne^men »tr 
( Arndt). S«enn'« ©lucf ! ^er| ! Siebc I ®ott ! ic^ ^abc felnen Slamen bapir (P. 
8455-6), itennfl bu Sonbon ? Sdefud^e baflelbe iebenfaSd. 


Concord of Fronoim and Noun. 

235. The pronoun of tbe third person agrees with the 
noun which it represents in gender and number. The con- 
cord of the pronoun with the natural and grammatical gender 
has been treated, see 165, 166; also the neuter sg. ti repre- 
senting a plural an(^any gender, see 168. 

On the USB OP „ed". 

236. 1. Sd is the indefinite subject of impersonal verbs 
denoting states of the weather and other natural phenomena, 
e. g.y ed rcgnct, t>onncrt, bli^, fdjncit, ^agelt, ed (lOt flcgla'tteijl, ed tagjt, 
ed lointert, ed tunfelt, tammert, taut, etc. 

2. Sd is made the indefinite subject of verbs, not really im- 
personal : Sd Wc^Qt elf; ti hxtnnt, ed Kopft, flingelt, e« ge^t lod, 
lautet; also in the passive and reflexive: ed toir^ getangt, gefungen, 
gefpielt ; compare man tanat, man ru^. Sd gel^t, fpielt ^di ^ier gut 
= it is good walking, playing here. SBo^in foQ ed nun ge^n 
(F. 2051). 

a. Such an ed is nsed by poets to ^ye a vagne, mysterious, ghostly 
impression. Scbiller's ^Zan^tx," Goethe's ^^od^iettUeb" and irSotentan)" 
are fall of them : Unb aid er im wiQigen (Bd^lwamtx Ia$, beti'tgt ed ftc^ utiter bent 
93ette (G.). The ed (treated so far) except in the passive and reflexive verb- 
forms cannot be omitted like, for instance, the expletive «ed^ sub 3, 5. 

3. S0 is made the grammatical subject of a verb, when the 
logical subject follows later: 6d gogen tret Swrfdje »o^I fiber ten 
Sfl^cin (TJh.). g« f(i^rUt i^m frif* gwr ©ctte ttx Mu^enDe ®cno§ 
(TJh.). See F. 3490-1; 3674-77. 

The logical subject cannot be another pronoun, e g,, ed tt>ar KHi, ed n>aren 
©ie, as in Eng. " it was I," '* it was you," which is a late construction. 

a. In ballads and other folk-lore this ed ie not required and invereion is still possi- 
ble, as was the rule in O. H. O., without cS at the head of the sentence. For after all, 
ti was here nsed not merely to denote an indefinite subject, but to account for an inver- 
sion which had no apparent cause. It is an *' expletive ^* and superfluous as soon as 
any other part of the sentence stands at the head bringing about the inversion. It is 
oftenest translated by *' there." German tales begin „^i war einmat . , ,", ^ There 


was ooce . . . " . Botfy eln $tnaV tin Kdflcin fle^n (Q.). 6teIIt* ein ftna^c fl^ mtr an ble 
eeite (id.). The construction i^ bin ti, 3^r feib c8, "^yon are it," m in Ags. and as 
Bnglish-speaking children still say, is already the nilo in O. H. O. Nor can we say 
in German ,,i^ bin er" and ,,@tc linb cr," but i^ bin ed, bad bin i^, bet bin i^, i^ bin 
bericnigc, mel^et . . . , I am he who . . . 

4 Peculiar is the impersonal „t^ fllcbt/' " there are " or "is," 
which is not a very old phrase, but rare in M. H. G. , in which 
ed with pL verb was even possible. 

m^^" 18 here the indefinite subject and has taken the place of the more 
definite irbad" or a noun, which "gave," '* furnished/' *' produced" a cer- 
tain thing. Hence i^ed gie^t'' is always followed by the accusative : mt^ 
giebt ^djU&^t," " Somebody is giving or will give somebody a whipping." 
(&u ba gab'd meflfdrfd^cn S^tnfen (Scheffel). »(Sd giebt" is not well followed 
by a noun in the sg. denoting one object or individual, e. g., (Sd giebt l^ier 
einen $unbr but by nouns in the pl.« by abstract and material nouns : (£d 
giebt feincn dufaQ (Sch.). See F. Ilia 

5. Sd is used as the subject of impersonal verbs followed by 
ah objective personal pronoun (D. or A.), denoting states of 
mind and body: Sd tiirfiet miiif ed l^ungert i^n, ti reut miii, ed ijl 
i^m 6ange* 

If the objective pronoun or any other part of speech precede the verb, 
ed is not necessary, but it may be retained. Ex. : 3(^ fc^tDore eu(t lu, mtr 
ifl'd aU tt)ic ein Sraum (F. 2040). Dir toirb getvtg einmal bei beiner ®ott(ii^nUd^^ 
leit bange (F. 2060). SRir if! f(i^Ied^t }u mute, *' I do not feel well." 

6. Sd stands further as indefinite predicate and as indefinite 
object. See 204. Sw biefem ©Inne fannjl tu'« wagcn (F. 1671). 
See further, F. 2012-14 ; 2080. @ie mclnt Du fcl|l cntflo^n ; unO 
^alb unb l^att M|l U c« fd)on (F. 3331-2). 

In the last illustration and in similar ones ed» if translated at all, may 
be rendered by " so " : 8ie finb too^ mitbe ? D nein» aber x^ bin ed gemefen, 
= I was (so). 

Syntax of the Beflexive Pronoun. 

237. The reflexive pronoun always refers to the subject: 
Sd ift ber io^n ber £:emut, bie |ld^ felbfl beatDungen (Sch.). X)ie W 
^il ieglid^ed erlauit (id.). 


1. The dative was already lost in O. H. G. In M. H. G. the nse of 
f!(^ as dative is very rare. Luther's Bible is still full of the dative of the 
personal pronoun for the reflexive, e. g , jDie ^eibcn ba fte bad QJefcft nit^t 
^aben, fmb (fic) i^nen felbjl ein ®efeft. Die fficid^it Idffct ijr fagcn, = wisdom 
will take advice. ®ott f(^uf ben ^enfc^en i^m )um Silbe. Lessing has: SBer 
ft(^ SimH unb gafl i^m felbfl ju leben nit^t enlfc^liefen fann, ber lebet anberer ®fla»^ 
auf immerbar. But this nX^m" stands only because there is already one ft4* 
It is very rare in the classics and does not occur in the spoken language. 

2. @elb{l» felber strengthens the reflexive pronoun and prevents its con- 
founding with the reciprocal. For examples see above. But felbfl (feller) 
is far from as common as the Eng. self (selves). 

Syntax of the Beciprocal Pronoun. 

238. As Buch are used und, euc!^, flA, both in the accnsatiYe 
and dative : Un^ (jte) ntdten fid) (D.) gu unD gru§teit ^ii (A.) 
freunMid) Im ©plcgel (H. and D., YH. 42). SCenn ji(!^ Die gurflcn 
befebbcn, mxi^tn lit IDiener fid) morten unD toten (Sch.). 

But if any ambi^^uity arises, as is frequently the case, the unvarying 
form etnanber or the inflected etner (ber etne) ben atibem is used instead of 
them. In M^xt fra^ten [xti^i- m^xt rauften ft(^ bie ^aare oxl^," f!(^ is ambiguous. 
<Bx&i einanbet/ eud^ etnanber are tautological, though often used. irUnter 
etnanber'' is also unambiguous, e, g., unb Ueben m^ unter einanber (B.). 

Syntax of the PoBsessive Prononns. 

239. The possessive pronoun nsed adjectively agrees with 
the noun like any other adjective. See 212. The uninflected 
forms ntein, bcin, fcin stand in the predicate and can be subjects 
only when used as nouns with or without the article, e. g.j 
3)lcln unb Icln Ifl atlcd ^antt^ Urfprung (Prov. ). 

1. Standing in the predicate, therefore, it is right to say : jDad 95u(S 
ijl metm meinedf bad meine, bad meintge. As subjects referring to bad fdu^ : 
fD^einedr bad meine, bad meintge ijl ^irloxtn, = mine is lost. 

2. Care should be taken that the right possessive be used when per- 
spns are addressed with ©le, bu» l^r (3^r). 3^r refers to ©ie, bein to bit» 
euer ((£uer) to ijr {^})x), e,g.,<Bit ^aben SJre granSKutter ^erloren? ©ojtn 


SDirb bi4 t)eine 9$enneffen(cit m^ f^xtn ? !Dut4 M Scanned ftbermut ben 3$r 
bur(^ (Suer SSrautgemad^ )um X^rone gefii^rt (Sch.). 

240. Of ter, tit, bad mcine (ter, tie, tad meinifite), when used 
substantively, ter, tic SJleinc, pi, tic SJlclncn (with capital let- 
ters), denote persons, viz., friends, relatives, etc. ; tad SRelnc 
or tad 3Rclnlgc denote my property, duty, share, deserts. 

Ex. : Der ^err !emtct tie ©einen (B.). @ie ^at bad Sljrlge ertalten (her 
dowry). !Jarbinal ! 3(^ ^abe bad SRcinifle get^an. X^m ©ie bad 3^re (Sch.). 
Dlefen ^Worgen, aid i* @ie Im !Jrelfe ber SJrigen fanb . . . (id.). *®anj ber 
S^rige,* »bic ^Delnige,'' „bie I)etnc* are proper lettei^endings. 

241. The possessive pronoun must be repeated like the 
article with nouns of different gender: @cin l^o^cr ®ang, feine 
etlc (Seflalt, fclncd SKunted SSdjcIn, fclncr Sugcn ®c»aU * . • (F. 

242. 1. As fetn and il^r are both reflexive (referring to the subject of 
the sentence) and non-reflexive (referring to another noun) an ambiguity 
may arise, which should be avoided by using the demonstrative pronouns 
instead ; either bclfen, bcren always preceding, or bcffclbcm berfelbcn either 
preceding or following the noun. Ex. : 9ioIanb rltt (interm Skater ^er mit 
betTen ©c^ilb unb Sc^wcrte (Uh.). „3Rlt feinem ©cftilb'' would have meant 
Roland's shield. Compare the following lines of the same poem, in 
which i^m prevents ambiguity : 8%. ritt ^interm 93ater ^er unb trug t^m feinen 
flarfen ©peer sufamt bem fe|len Sd^tlbe. Compare grau 9^. 9^ ging mit ber 
^audl^iSlterin unb i^rer 9{i(^te nad^ bem ^arfte, i. e, Mrs. N. N.'s niece ; but 
mit ber ^aud^^Iterin unb beren ^id^tt, t. e., the housekeeper's niece. <£d etfre 
ieber feiner (the father's) unbeflo(^enen, «on ISorurteilen freien Siebe nad^ (Le.). 

2. The possessive of the 8. person is in the people's language often 
repeated for emphasis after a genitive of possession and also after a 
dative : »2Rclnem SJetter feln Oartcn.- Comp. " John his mark." This is 
not to be imitated though it occur now and then in the classics and quite 
frequently in the 18th century: Sluf ber ijortuna i^rem Gci^iff (Sch.) ; bed 
3Uo feinem <StuW (id.). 3^r artet me^r md) eured SJaterd ®ci(l aid nad^ ber 
SWuttcr l^rem (id.). See 180, 4. 

8. The definite article cannot precede the attributive possessive pro- 
noun. Sener, biefer and such adjectives as obgeba^ter, ema^nter seemingly 
do, but such constructions as biefer bein ©ojur obgebad^tcr mein ©(^reiber are 
rather appositional. 


243. 1. By a license the possessiyes lose inflectional endings in sach 
set phrases as occur in 3ci) moc^te bnttn mein Sag m(^t Uebm (F. 2920). 
^ein 2tUa^ benf t(^ bran (Sch.). -^ab' t(^ bid^ bo(^ mein Xage ni(^t gefeben (F. 
4440). These phrases are in the transition stage to adverbs and the 
apostrophe may stand or not. 

2. <3etn is in proverbs and in one phrase irfeiner Qiit*' = " in due time/' 
'*in — time/' still used for the feminine if^x, a remnant of the earlier 
periods, when if^r could not be used as the reflexive possessive: (Btin %^ox 
fcnnt jebc ^u^ (Prov.). Untrcuc fc^lagt fcinen cigcncn |)cnn (Prov.). »Setncr 
deit" is an adverbial genitive, in which feiner has become non-reflexive 
so that it apparently stands at times for i^rer* unfere^/ etc. Reflexive : 
w5lllcd !Ding »ajrt feinc Qtif* (Hymn) ; but non-reflexive : Bit toax feiner 3eit 
(once) etne gro§e Sdngenn. 

Compare the relation of Eng. "his" and ** its." The latter sprang 
up in Shakspere's time. "Its" is the genitive of "it." InSh. "his" 
stands frequently where later ** its" is used. 

3. The use of the German definite article where in Eng, the possessive 
is used, is by no means as strict and as common in the spoken language 
as the grammarians would have us believe. Take for instance : 3Rdn 
armer ^opf tjl mir »errucft. 5Kein armer ©Inn Ifl mir serflittft (F., I. 3383-6). 
@olang t(^ mi($ nocb frtfc^ auf metnen S3einen fu^Ie, genfigt mir biefer j^notenfloif 
(F. 3838-9). See 154. 

In the 17th century ,,fi^" web used also for all persons. *' Simplicissimns " is fall 
of this misuse. 

Syntax of the Demonstrative Pronoun. 

244. ^tx, tie, ta^, always accented, points out withont 
reference to nearness in time or space. It is generally well 
translated by "that," also by "this," and by a personal 

Ex.: D ent fBc\U ^ter (this) njtrb ieber %a^ ein %t\t (F. 2162). Sfber, »ie 
i^ mtd^ fcbne bid^ ju fc^auen, ^abe i(^ »or b e nt (that) 3J?enfc!^en (Mephistopheles) 
ein l^ctmli(^ ®raucn (F. 3480-1). D gluff Ud^ b e r (he), ben i^r belc^rt ! F. 1981). 
^CT (for her) l^ab^ \^ bic ^reube terbittert (Bo.). Seje b tm, ber S5oltair(en)« 
©d^riften iib errant)! nid^t ntit bem ffeptifd^en ®ei|l liejl, In weld^em er einen %t\l ber*- 
felben gefd^rleben (Le.). 

1. The genitives be^f beJTen, beren sg. fern., berer and beren» pL, are used 
substantively as follows : 


a. Ded is archaic, but occurs in compounds like ht^aV), Mtdt^tn, ber^ 
geflalt/ etc., e.g„ Ded freut jlc^ bad entntenfd^te ^aax (Sch.). SBir finb ber feined 
mxt, bad xoxx bitten (Lu.), We are worthy of none of those (things), etc. 

h. Deffettf beren G. sg. fern, and G. pi., are used when thej have the 
force of possessives (see 242). 

c. The present usage favors bcrer, G. pi., referring to persons and beren^ 
beffen referring to tilings. But the classics do not agree with this. Gen- 
erally these forms are antecedents of relative pronouns. Ex. : 3e&o fa^' 
mix bad (5nbf bcrer, bie »on Sroja fejrten (G.). ^at bad jfinb f*on 3fi(^ne? (£d 
l^t beren )»ier« ^ort |ie:^t man bie fitter berer (of the gentlemen, lords) )9on 

ft. The lengthened forms in -en and -er sprang np as early as the 15th centnry both 
in the article and in the pronoun. Lather has ^^benen," D. pi., bnt the short genitives 
„be8" and ^^ber.'' In the 18th century they lost -et and -en again, owing, no doubt, to 
the desire of distinguishing between article and demonstrative, and between the sub- 
stantive and adjective uses of the latter. Goethe has still „unb t>on benen aD2enf(!(en bie 
fie befonberd fi!^&^en." Present usage, however, requires the short forms of the pro- 
noun, when used adjectively. 

8. Notice the frequent emphatic force of the pronoun, e, g.^ Som {Recite, bad mlt und 
geloren i% toon b e m ifl leiber nie bie ^rage (F. 1978-0). 

Dl cfcr, jicttcr* 

245. liefer points out what is near in time and space, jener 
■what is remoter. Diefer is "the latter," Jcner, "the former.'^ 
They are used substantively and adjectively : !Eiefed Jungc 
grauen3lmmcr ^at ®efu^I unb ©timme (Le.). I)iefer xoW^ troden, 
tt)ad jimcr fcud^t begel^rt. Died Slatt %\vc — biefed tt)iUfl bu geltenb 
madden? (Sch.). 

1. Dad, bied like ed, but less frequently, can be tlie indefinite subjects 
of neater verbs. See 236. E, g,, Dad tfl bie SRagb bed !Ra(!^bard* Dad ifl 
ein weifer S^atetr ber fein eigen Jtinb fennt (Sch.). Died if! bie %x\ mit 4>exen um^ 
jugebn (F. 2518). 

2. Died unb bad, bied unb iened bave the force of irir^enb ein,'' e.^., SBtr 
flnb nid^t mel^r beim erflen ®Iadr brum benfen n>ir gem an bied unb bad (Song). 
Unb er fhetfte aid ifnabe bie $&nbe nid^t aud na(^ biefem unb ienem (H. and D. 

8. Diefet is strengthened by Jier ; ber, iener and bad by ba, «. ^., 3Rit 
bem ba toerben @ie nic^t fertig (Sch.). :3ener, in the sense of " the other " and 


" to come," iritt icncr 3cU*, In iracm 2eben. ©Joffperc^d ©tfpenfl fommt »irHl(^ 
aud iener SBelt (Le.). 

246. When not referring to persons ^ier + preposition 
may take the place of tiefer, and ta + preposition the place o! 
ter and jcner, e. g,, 2Cer fonjl l|l \^\x\X) taran aU l^r In fflien ? (Sch.). 
Datton fc^ttjeigt te^ 6angcr^ ^bflici^feit (?). 4)icmad6 (according to 
this) mup tie 2edart cine gang antere flemefen feln* 

1. Notice the two strong fonns in Lessing's STHed biefcd, fetne (Erpnbmtscn 
unb bie l^tflortfd^en S^aterialietw htrtet er benn in dnen fein lan^en, fein ft^toer su W* 
fenben IRoman )ufammen. For an bad, toad . • . ^ )»on bent, uad * • « no 
baranmad . • wbai^onmad . * * should be snbetitated, though this is done 
colloquially. wSBir baci^ten baran, mad bu ie^t anfangen tDurbejl" is not elegant. 

247. Der-, tie-, taejienigc is generally used substan- 
tively followed by a relative clause or a genitive. Used adjec- 
tively it stands for ter, tie, ta3 when a relative clause follows, 
e. g., tieicnigen 9Kenf(^en, »eld)e ♦ ♦ ♦ The best usage accents 
ber, bie, bad. Used adjectively it has only medium stress 

Ex. : ^Diejenigen ber itnaben, »el^e i^re Sufgaben ni^t gema^t fatten, mugten 
nad^ft^en (stay after school). £iebet bieienigen, tt>el(l^e eud^ )»erfolgen (B.). 

248. T)er-, bie-, baffelbe denotes identity. It refers 
to something known or mentioned. It is used equally well 
substantively or adjectively. It can be strengthened by 
„eben" : 9Wit aUer 2:reue ttertt)enD' id& eure ®aben ; ber Ciirftifle fofl fid^ 
berfelben erfreuen (H. and D. n., 74r-5). 

1. T>tx ndntlid^e also denotes identity, bat is not written as one word. 
if2)erfelbi9C« is rarer than bcrfclBe. 2Bar bad ntc^t ber Dicnflmann (porter) bcr 
bie Sludwanberet betrogen l^t ? Der ndmU(^. 

2. @elMg without bcr is rare, e,g., wjur felbigen ©tunbe* (B.). 

249. ®eIB, felber, felijl distinguishes one object from 
another. It strengthens personal and reflexive pronouns. It 
is made emphatic by ebeit, also in the phrase ein(er) unb berfelbe^ 
®el6er and felbfl do not differ in meaning, but in use. @e(6er is 


never made an adverb as feI6fl is. ©elber always follows the 
word it qualifies, though it need not stand necessarily directly 
after it: 3c^ fclkr or felbjl ^abe i^n gefc^en. 2Cer jwcifelt 9lat^an, 
la§ ibr nidjt (see 309, 2) tic g^rll^fcU, Me ®ro§mut felbcr fciti ? 
(Le.) SBer anUxn tint ©rube grabt, faUt felbjl ^Inein (Prov.). 

1. Setbf! has become also an adverb with the force of irfogar*" and then 
stands best at the beginning of the sentence, unaccented : ©elbfl ein fo 
l^immltr^ed ^aax (viz., Psyche and Amor) fanb na(^ ber ^erbinbung \idi ungUt(^ 

2. Notice the compounds bafelbfl^ l^le(r)fetbfl, in that or this very place ; 
also the force of ir«on felbfl'' in : Die !D2u^Ie gebt ni(^t ]»on felbfl (of its own 

For fclb with ordinals see 229. Alone it is vety rare, e. g., »eil er in 
felbem (tm ^ala'fle) aUe urn flci^ )9erramtneU :^atte (Le.). 

250. @ 1 d^ means + " such." It describes what is pointed 
out. It is used adjectively and substantively: ^ilfrcidjc 9Kad>te I 
einen folci^en (SCeg) 3eigt mir an, ten id) ^^ermag gu ge^en (Sch.). 3Bo 
mar tie Uberlegung aid mir . . . \n\ijt SJtac^t gelegt in folci^e ^ant 

1. The use of fold^ for the personal pronoun or ber-r bie-, bafTelbe is not 
good although found now and then in the classics, e. g, , ^Id fie bie SRood^ 
l^ittte erreid^ten, fanben fit fold^e auf bad lufligfle (see 300, 2) audgefc^mucft (G.)- 

2. For ^oldi eiitr fo ein is a frequent equivalent. It is more common in 
the spoken language than fol(i^ ein. Lessing and Goethe are very fond of 
it, e,g., ©0 ein !Did^ter 1(1 @:^affpere unb ©^Pere fail ganj a^cin (Le.). ^^ 
laxm nii(^ ni(^t, n>ie fo ein SODort^elb, fo ein 2:ugenbf(^n>&^erf an meinem SBiSen xodx^ 
men nnb ®ebanfen (Sch.). 

f,6o ein'' does not come from ,,fol^ ein," bnt from ein fo before adjective and noan : 
„ein fo l^o^ev Sturm"— /,fo ein ^oi^er Xucm," then ,;fo etn Sturm." 

Syntax of the Interrogative Pronoun. 

251. SBer, + "who," "which," and load, + "what," are 
used substantively only: SSad Kimmert ed bie ?5»itt, ter man bie 
Suttgen raubt^in toejfen JCalte fie brftUt (Le.). 9lun, mn lieben a»ei 


tjon eu^ am mcijlen (id.). SBad ijl ttt latiflen fRtU furger ©inn ? 

1. Once the genitive after ton and tt>ad was common. SBer is almost 
entirely supplanted by vytl^tx, and n>a<} by tt>ad fUr ein* Bat toad + geni- 
tive, which generally looks like an accusative, still remains in phrases 
Uke 9Bad SBunbeT(d) (Le.). 9Bad bed Xtn\tU, S^ad {)enfeTd. SBad if! 38ei§ed 
bort am griinen SBalbc (G.). See 181, 188. 

2. SBent only refers to persons. When it refers to things or whole 
sentences »o(r) + preposition is substituted. SBoju bcr 2drm ? (F. 1322). 
SBoran erfennfl bu ben ^ngeflagten ? 

8. In the spoken language mtoa^" is preceded by a preposition that 
does not govern the accusative : ^u xoa^t mit xoa^; but iDomitf tDOgu are pref- 
erable. The classics*have it too. Even fur toa^, urn xoa^, huxdf toa^ are 
supplanted by tDofiir, moruin, mobur(6« Qn mad bie ^offe ? (G.) 3R\t load 
fann id^ auftoarten 7 

4. 9Bad in the sense of toarum and mie is originally an absolute accusa- 
tive, e. g., SBad fle^t t^r unb legt bie |)dnbe in (= in ben) e(!^op (Sch.). 9Bad 
»irb bad |)erj btr fd^wer (P. 2720). 

5. Mark the interrogative adverbs : »o, -f- where ; »ann# -I- when ; 
»ie, + how ; tt>o(r)- with preposition ; »arum# + wherefore, •\- why, only 
interrogative. For their etymology see 

252. 30 e I d^ means -f '' wbicb " and singles out the indi- 
vidual, though etymologically it inquires after the quality. 
It stands adjectively and substantively: Unb tt)C^cr ijl^d, ten tu 
<m meljlen liebfl? (Sch.). SBeld^cd Unge^eure finnet I6r mix dn^ 

In exclamatory sentences njeld^ is originally interrogative, often fol- 
lowed by ein : 9BeI(ib ein 3ubeln, n>el($ ein ©ingen luirb in unferm |)aufe fetn! 
(Song). See F. 742. 

253. 3Qad fitr, mad ftir ein inquires after the nature 
and qualities of a person or thing. SBad fitr always stands 
adjectively, toad ftit ein adjectively and substantively. S3ad is 
separable from fiir ein. Lessing is particularly fond of this 
separation. 9Qad fur stands before the singular of a noun 


denoting material and before a collectiye noun; before the 
plural of any noun. S3ad fitr ein inquires also after an indi- 

Ex. : SBad \ik SODetn ifl bled ? Sad f&r S3erge . • . trennen vaa bnm iu)4? 
(Le.)- ^^^ tn Sab^lon ici^ bir ffir einen f^dnen ©toff gefauft (id.). 

Syntax of the Belative Pronouns. 

254. There being no original relative pronouns, the other pronoans were need m 
such or conjunctions like «0, dar^ da, unde (see below) connected coordinate sentences, 
one of which later became subordinate. The first pronoun used as a relative was ber, 
lit, bad, in O. H. G. SBel^er, »er, »a8 developed into relative pronouns gradually. First 
they were made indefinite pronouns by means of the particle «o, O. H. Q. no htoeUchiso), 
90 hwer{80)^ 90 hw<u{90) > M. H. G. swelieh^ 9tper^ 9W<u = whosoever, whatsoever > 
N. H. G. welil^er, »er, »a8, which can be strengthened by nur, au^, tmmet (= ever). To 
say therefore that the interrogative is used as the relative is hardly correct, though, no 
doubt, the indirect question had its influence in the coincidence of the forms of the 
interrogative and indefinite relative pronouns. The demonstrative ber, tie, bad intro- 
duced the coordinate clause, which afterwards became subordinate ; and dause and 
pronoun were then called rdative, SBelt^er is only of the 16th century. 

255. !Der and loeld^er are equivalent. After personal 
pronouns Itx is preferable. Euphony should decide which is 
to be used. Sin gtauengimmcr tad ben!t, ijl ebcn fo cfcl al« eln 
aWann, bcr fid) fdjmlnft (Le.). SJJeld^cr is preferable after ter^? 
ienige. The following sentence is bad : Hit, tie Me 9)tutter Itx 
^InDcr xooXf ifl gejlortcn. 

1. Of the four relatives ber, tvel^» xotXp mad only » e I ^ can also be 
used adjectively, the other three only substantively. The j?enitive of 
ber, bie, bad is always bcJTotr bercn, s^. and pi., never berer, e,g., 2Der fcin 
®efe^ ad^tet ifl e^en fo m&^\\^ aid mer fein ®efe^ ^at (Le.). ^m S^ontag, an 
meld^em ^age xo\x abrtif!en ... But this is not very elegant. 

256. Set and xoil&tx will take any antecedent soever. 
But mcr, xocl^, haying sprung from indefinite and compounded 
pronouns, require none. SBer admits of no antecedent at all ; 
tvad may have any other neuter pronoun, an adjective (pref- 
erably in the superlative), or a whole clause, e.g,t %ixx xoo^i 
brein ge^t unt nid^t trein (viz., ind ®e:^lrn), ein )>rii(i^tis SSSort au 


fcienflcn jlc^t (F. 1952-3). Mc^ m^ ijl, ijl Dmmn^fl (Hegel). 
2Bad Du ercrbt »on teinen Satcm ia% cmlr6 ed urn e« gu bejt^en (F. 
682-3). Dent ^mli6^^m, toa^ auij ler ®eifl em)>fangen, br&ngt 
Immcr fremt unt) fremter ©tojf fidfe an (F. 634-5). 

1. dx, toer; ber ^arni toer; ber* toer are impossible. Bat Goethe has (in 
the '* Walpurgisnacht ''), F. 3964: ©o €Jre btm, tt)em (g^re gebu^rt. The 
proverb says : wS^re bem S^re gebu^rtf" the Bible «»(£^Te ban bte (E^re gebul^rt.* 

2. ^ad referring to a substantive and totl6^^ referring to a ^hole 
clause are not present usage, though the classics use them so. Die SUrn 
fannten bad Ding ni(^t, »ad xoix ^ojlici^feit nennen (Le.). ^on fritter 3ugenb an 
^atte mir unb meiner <3(i^n>efler ber Skater felbfl im Sanjen Untenici^t gegebeUf melc^ed 
einen fo emfl^aften S^ann munberlid^ genug ^dne fleiben foUen (G.). 

8. If n>er has a seeming antecedent the latter stands after the clause. 
The antecedent is nothing but the subject of the main clause repeated 
for emphasis in the shape of another pronoun. If, however, trer and its 
seeming antecedent do not stand in the same case, the latter is indis- 
pensable. Ex. : ®er 9>ed^ angrelft befubelt ftc^ (Prov.). S©er itber gewtfTe Dinge 
ben SBcrjlanb nid^t »erllert, ber l^t fetnen ju »erlieren (Le.). SBer dieted brtngt, otrb 
ntand^em ettsad bringen (F. 97). But SDer ein Wtal litgt, bem glaubtman ni^t 
unb toenn er aud^ bit SCBa^r^eit ftrld^t (Prov.). ®er ba ^t, bem tt)irb gegeben (B.). 
The same is true of tt>ad : SDad man nid^t toti^, bad eben braud^te man unb mad 
man n)ei§, fann man nid^t braud^en (F. 1066-7). grii^ fibt fid^, wad ein 5Kcifler 
toerben xoiU (Sch ). For the gender in this illustration see 168. 

4. The old short form n>ed is now archaic except in n)ed^alb» toed' 
» e g e tt : 2Bcd SBrot td^ e|fe, bed Sieb idj jlngc (Prov.). 

257. If the dative and accusative, governed by a preposi- 
tion, do not refer to a person, too, now rarely tta, with that 
preposition, are generally substituted : Jlid^td Ijl S^fflH ; dm 
totnxQ^m bad, mo^on bie 2l6fl(!fet fo flat in tie Slugen Icu^tct (Le.). 

1. ©0, the oldest relative conjunction, has now been crowded out from 
the spoken language, though it was very common in the 16th and 17th 
centuries: Die linfe ^anb, baju bad 4>aupt, fo er i^m abge^auen (Uh.). Son 
alien, fo ha lamen (Bu.). 

258. The relative adverbs » o, "where " and t) a (colloqui- 


ally); ba, mann, menn, »o, **wben"; mle, "as*' take the 
place of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition when 
they refer to nouns denoting time, place, and manner. 

Ex. : i^ennfl bu bad Oanb m bie Sitronen blii^n? (Q.), (£d gibt im aXenrd^en^ 
leben 9iigenMt(fe» oo er bem SBeltgeifl nd^er ifl aU fonfl(Sch.). 3n btrfem Sugen^ 
blidfe, ba n>ir rebem ifl fein Spta'nn me^r in ber @(^tt>ei}er fianbe (id.). «»Die Srt 
unb ffielfe »ie,* ** the manner in whicli." (wffiie** is more forcible than win 
rnXditi.*') D fc^dner Xa^, n>enn enblid^ ber @olbat ind Seben (eimfc:^rt (Sch.). 

1. This oonstr action is old only with the demonstrative adverbs used 
as relatives, viz., da, dd/r, danne. ^Qn)o» aU^a, too\tlb\t are archaic 

Syntax of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

259. S i n and e i n i g e can precede a numeral generally fol- 
lowed by a noon. They mean " some," " or so," " odd ": eln 
a^t Xage, a week or so; einige 'oittii^ ^Cii^v, forty odd years. 
The order may also be: „ein 3a^r fiinf^e^n.'' 

1. Grimm thinks this phrase has lost „ohtx,'* as if it meant rincn Sag 
obcr se^n, ein 3a$r ober f&tfie^n. No doubt Mtinige ^^iergig Ba^r" has lost 
ffUnb" and stands for einige unb viersig 3a^r. 

260. (Sin, tiroa^, toai, wtx, Itmant, t&tlijt, tlnl^t 
can be strengthened by irgenb (compounded of is + hwar and 
gin = **ever," "where," "you please," grin corresponding to 
L. '<un). For the origin of tvad, totv, toel^, see 254. 9l(^, rotnn 
id) etn>ad auf bid) fbnnte ! " if I could influence you at all (F. 
3423). SBad anbcrd fuc^e gu beflinnen (F. 1383). Die Saflb i(l boc^ 
immcr »a« unb eine %xt »on ftrieg (G.). ^ier finb itirfc^cn gu »cr:s 
faufen. SSiQfl bu loeld^e? $a{l bu irgenb mad verlorcn? 

1. They stand generaUj only in the nominative and aocosativa (£inig 
is rare in the singular, and for it irgenb cin is better used. 

261. at 1 1-. The following examples show the many vari- 
ous forms of aO- : ad bad (Mt>, att bed ®e(bed, aUed bad ®elb, m^ 
foil bad ailed ? 


1. nt stood in M. H. G. only after prepositianfl as still now, e. g., M 
aQe bem, " withal." mx oirb »on aOe ben fo bumm (F. 1946). The form aEe 
before the article and not preceded by a preposition, though yeiy com- 
mon in the classics and in the spoken language, is not so good as aS or 
an with strong endings, e.g,, 9S btr &(^ner) (G.). WL or aSe in such 
phrases as btr SBeiit tjl aSi " there is no more wine^" has hardlj been satis- 
factorily explained yet. 

2. Notice the following meanings : SSe @titnbfn dnen X^cloffel t»oS, ''a 
teaspoon fall every hour." The singular in the sense of *' every " is 
rarer, auf allrn ^oXl, in every case. Witt Snfang ifl [(^mer (Prov.). WLt^ 
!Ding tpd^rt feine ^61, dotted £teb in ^tdv^l^ (Hymn). The singnlar in 
the sense of Eng. " all " is archaic, alien SDtnter (Logan, quoted in Grimm's 
Diet.), all winter. For all day, all night, we say best bie gaiQe Stoc^tf ben 
gaiticn Xag. Notice also in qSlu ^x^, *' very early/' in oiler @tile, in aHe SDelt 

8. The plural of jeber, iebweber, iegU(^er is rare. It is expressed by mOSx:' 
Even the singular of the last two is now archaic and rare. 

262. 3)1 a n (^ e r does not differ from the Eng. " many " in 
use and force. Compare ein mandier, man(!6 einer, manner gtite 
SRann, manci^ eln guter SRann, mand^e fd^one Slume* 

263. S i e I and to e n i g, denoting the indiyidnal and used 
substantively denoting persons, mnst be inflected ; if they 
denote an indefinite number, quantity, mass, they are gener- 
ally xminflected. £:cnn i^iele f!nb berufen, aber menige finb au^cr^ 
mallet (B.). Siel nod^ ^a|l bu t^on mir au l^dren (Sch.). 3^<t^ tt>^i^ 
i(^ ))iel, tod) mbd)te i(^ ailed toiffen (F. 601). Sd ftubieren otel SlmerU 
faner In ^Deutfci^lant). 

1. SBieler, -e, -ed denotes "various sorts," e,g,, t»leler ©ein; in composi- 
tion „*telcrlei ©eln^" *' many kinds of wine." 

A ftiller treatment of the laige number of hidefinite pronoaiu and numeials beloDgs 
rather to the Dictionary. 


Classifigation 07 Yebbs. 

264. According to meaning and constniction the verbs 
may be variously divided : 1, into independent verbs; 2, into 
the small class of auxiliaries proper and the modal auxiliaries. 
See 267. Again: 1, into persona/ verbs, which can have any 
person, the 1., 2., or 3., as subject; 2, into impersonal verbs, 
which have the indefinite subject ed, „ti rennet.'' See 236. 

The personal verbs again divide: 1, into neuter or subjective 
verbs, as tie @onne fd^eint (see 179;; 2, transitive or objective 
verbs, the direct object of which stands in the accusative 
(transitive proper, see 198) or in the genitive or dative 
(called also intrans., see 184, 190). 

As subdivisions of transitive verbs may be regarded: 1, the 
reflexive verbs; 2, the causative. 

The reflexives again: 1, into reflexives proper, which occur 
only as reflexives, e.g., fld^ gr&men, to pine; fid^ erbarmen, to feel 
pity; 2, into both transitive and intransitive verbs used re- 
flexively, e, g,, fld^ loafd^en, flA 'otrdmn, fid) tot lacben. 

The pronoun is always in the accusative. 

1. Transitive verbs have often intransitive or neater force, but there 
can be no direct object then. Dad ^fixh jte^t ben SBageitf but !Dte ^olfcn 
Sie^en am ^immel* Personal verbs can also be used without a loprical sub- 
ject : Dad SBaffer raufd^tf but (£d raufi^t im SRof^re. Also the modal auxilia- 
ries occur still as independent verbs : SBad foil bad ? but SBo^in foQ ber 
Dieb gefltt^tet f€in ? See 267. 

Syntax of the Auxiliaries. 

I. $aien and feitt. 

265. $ a 6 e n forms the compound tenses : 

1. Of all transitive verbs : lij ^ait getragen, iii %ait betedt, iij 
t^abe angeKagt. 


2. Of the modal aimliarieSy of reflexive and impersonal 
verbs proper, fir ^at ed nl6t flemoc^t, ^ot (id) fle»afd)en, cd ^ot 
geregnet, ed l^ot mic!^ gereut 

3. Of intransitive verbs that have no direct object, at most 
the object in the G. or D. fir ^atte mein gefpottet, er IJot mix 
gefc^atet, er l^otte itlaijt, gemeint, gefc^Iafen* 

4. Of (intransitive) verbs of motion when the mere action 
within a certain space, the effort, and its extent are to be 
emphasized, without reference to direction, point of depar- 
ture or destination. ^. ))on ^umBoI^t (at 'oitl gereifi, = was a 
great traveler. Dcr ©tatlfncdjt (at tint ©tuntc (in unt (er geritten* 
!Cie Sbglein (aben gefungen unD gef))ntngen. £)ad 2&mmd(en (at 
ge(itpft, Der Sif(( (at gefd^wommen. "Dad ^leine (the little one) (at 
no(( nie gegangen (has never walked). @0)>(ie (at geHettert unt 
fl(( tie (Sd^urae senijfen. Der @d(neUI&ufer (at f((on lattgfl gelaufen 
(finished running long ago). Good usage favors: Die U(r (at 
einmal gegangen aber jie^ fle(t fte fHQ. Die 3Ru(Ie, tiie aRafd(ine, Dad 
9taD (at gegangen, but ift is frequently used. 

5. Of P^en, fie(en, liegen, anfangen, begtnnen, auf(oren. - But in 
S. G. fein is more common and it is also found in the classics. 
2Bo (abt i(r gefejjcn, gc|lant>en ? SJann f^at Die ©Aule angefangen ? 

266. @ e in forms the compound tenses: 

1. Of all verbs of motion, except some, which take ^a'btn, 
when action simply is denoted. See 265, 4. These take fein 
when the direction, points of departure, destination and ar- 
rival are mentioned. These circumstances are often expressed 
by inseparable and separable prefixes in compound verbs. 
Ex. : „Dcr OTai ijl gefommen." fir ttJirt gefatten fein, = he proba- 
bly fell. aBlr fint) fdjned (tnabgefliegen. Die 6eefa(rer jlnt) auf Der 
3nfel ©J^e gelanDet. Die ®t5rd^e fint) nad) (SiiDen gejogen. Der 
(Btatlfned^t ijl in einer StunDe (in unD (er gcritten, = he rode to a 
certain place (there) and back. Die geinDe fint entflo(en, tnU 
laufen, eingetroffen. SCir jInD fd)on me(rere SWale umge^ogen (moved). 


2. Of certain Terbs denoting a springing into being or pass* 
ing away, a transition and development, growth and decay, 
often expressed by er-, tocr-, jcr-, and separable prefixes. lie 
3Wilc^ Ijl flefrorctt « flefrlcrcn, but ed ^at flefrorcn < frieren, there 
was a frost). £ad @eil i{l gerriffen. !Cer 8(^nee i{l gefd^molgen. 
ffXtx Srut)er toare nid^t geflorben.'' Zad Saumd^en ifl gewad^fen* Xit 
reic^en Seute f!nt im ^riege ))erarmt. Xa^ iW ijl erlofi^en. !I:ie 
@^ale ifl gefprungen (cracked). Xer Settling war eingefci^lafen (had 
fallen asleep). In the compound verbs it is just this prefix 
that called for fein^ Compare trinfen — ertrinf en, fci^eincn — er:? 
fd^einen, wac^en — crnjadjen, f^ungcrn — ml)ungem, fricren — erfricrcn, 

3. Of fein, WeiBen, begegnett, folgcn, gelingcn, gefdsc^cn, gliidcn, for 
which it is hard to account by meaning, but see 283, 2. Ex.: 

Sd i{l i^m nid)t gelungen, geglucft. Sad i{l fd)on aUed tagemefen. 
Sin fuger £rofl i|i i^ geblieben (Sch.). 

i. ^a(en has gained upon fein In German, bnt not bo much as Bnglish " to have ^* upon 
** to be.** ^olgen and (egegnen were once generally compounded with ^oben. Also the ten- 
dency to nse intransitive verbs as trausitives, so strong in Bng., has increased in Ger- 
man. While in Bng. yon can *' mn " a locomotive, a sewing machine, a train, a ship, 
in German ffii^renr kiten, in ®ang (rlngen, gebrauc^en, or the verb of motion + laffen or 
mailmen, will have to be nsed. (Der ftutf^r ^at unS f^neH gefa^rf n. ^er ^ofliQton l^at ben 
SBagen eorgefa^ren. 9Ran (onnte bte ^euerfprfi^e ni^t in ®ang bringen. 

S. The difficulty as to the use of ^aben and fein lies after all mainly in the way in 
which a verb is used, transitively or intransitively, and in the meaning. The student 
should attend particularly to these points and not be too timid, as in many cases usage 
is by no means settled. 

As to the omission of l^aben and fein in dependent clauses, see 346. 

n. Special Uses of the Modal Auxiliaries. 

This subject belongs really rather to the Dictionary, but the appreciation and trans- 
lation of these verbs is so difficult that a brief treatment of them is given here. 

267. 1. j( 5 n R e n denotes ability : Der %i\^ fann fi^wtmincn. |>ier fh^^ 
idi, id^ fann nic^t anberd (Lu.). PoBsibilitj : Six fdnntet i^r Serfucttg ^tvx, mtd^ 
in bad Q^axn iUiie^m (Sch.). Knowledge, *' to know how/' its oldest mean- 
ing: JJannfl bu Stalie'nifd^ ? Compare fonncn, **to have learnt," then **to 
be able " ; fennen (< kanjan^ causative of fann — Wnncn)» **to be acquainted 
with" ; wlfTen, " to know." 

2. 2) tt r f en denotes : 1. Permission and authorization : Du barffl au4 


ba mtr fret erfi^etnen (F. 886). Dffnt Sagbf^eui barf niematib osf bie Sftfib gcl^iu 
2. •* To have occasion to," " reason for," ** need " i Watt barf bctt ©d^luffcl 
mir iXDti SHal umbre^en unb bcr fftit^tl fpringt jurutf , ** You need ..." Du 
barfjl binoudgeben^ bie £uft ifl bter fe^r Wt^t, " You have good reason to go 
out ..." This force is the oldest, but rather rare now. 8. "To trust 
one's self to" : SEBer barf ijn nennen unb tt>er befeimen: 3(b glaab i^n (®ott) (F. 
8488-5). This force has sprung from 1 and 2 and from the verb tar — 
turren + dare, whose meaning was embodied in barf — burfen. On the 
other hand, it has nearly given up the original force of ** need," " want," 
still apparent in 2, to its compound beburfcn. In some editions of the 
Bible bfirfen, " to want," and lar — tiirrcn, " to dare," are still the rule. In 
later editions beburfen and burfen have been substituted for them. 4. The 
preterit subjunctive (potential, see 284, 8) burfte is used for a mild asser- 
tion : !Z)ie ^tad^totlt b&rfte Scbenfen tragen, biefed Urteil }u unterfi^reiben (Sch.), 
" Posterity very likely will ..." !Da0 bflrfte su fpfit fein, *• I fear very 
much, that is too late." Etiquette admits such redundant phrases as : 
!Durfte or barf i(b mtr erlauben* etc. 

8. W e n denotes : 1. In its oldest, but now rare sense except in dia- 
lect, *' abDity " and " power." This it has given up to »f3nnen»* Compare 
its cognates '* may " and '* can" in Eng.: 3br 9lnbU(f gtbt ben (Engeln @tarfe, 
toenn fetner fie ergrunben ma^ (F. 247-8), " although no one Is able ..." 
2. Concesedon, no interference on the part of the speaker : ^er SSurf($e 
mag na(b ^aufe ge^n (It lies with him, I have no objection). SBer mtr ben 
S3ed^er fann n>teber jeigen, er mag il^n bebalten (Sch.). 8. Possibility, the action 
does not concern or influence the speaker ; fSnnen means a posability that 
lies in the ability of another person or object. SBad fur ®ritttro(!^ mogen 
bad fctn (Sch.). (£r mag bad gefagt ^abenr er mag bad t^vatt It is possible he 
said so, he may do it. ^ad Xier mag ^e^n 3a^re alt fein« With this force 
it supplants the potential and concessive subjunctives ; if it stands itself 
in the subjonctive of the present or preterit, it supplants also the opta- 
tive subjunctive. 3(^ »unf(^e ba§ bie gan^e SBelt und ^oren mag, :^dren mdge. 
^oc^te aud^ bod^ bie ganje 9Bett und boten (Le.). 5. From 2 springs the force 
of ** inclination," " liking," ** wishing." fBa^ fld^ »ertrdgt mit meiner 9>fli^t, 
mag t(b ibr gern ^^S^xm (Sch.). 3(b mdd^te ba§ er ed nid^t loieber erftibre. 34 
effe »ad t(b mag unb leibe xoa^ id^ mu§ (Pro v.). 

4. SHuffetti + must, denotes : 1. In its oldest sense, ** to have occa- 
sion, room," ** to be one's lot," *' it is the case." A trace of this is left 
in the following uses : ^m ^unb roar obne S^aulforb ^tnaudgelaufen. Stun 
mufte au<b gtrabe ein 9)oUit'fl baber fommen (as luck would have it, a police- 


man came along). !X)er Sufall mugte i(n grabe $ln brmgen. Qum imittn Vial 
foil mir fein Stlan^ tx^^Utn, er miifte benn (unlees it should) befonbern @inn 
begrunben (G., quoted in Sanders' Diet.). 2. Necessity of various kinds : 
SCUe aKenf^en mUfTtn flerben. Der ®enne mug f(^ciben (Sch.). Q^in Dber^aupt 
muS fein (id.). !Z>ad mu§ ein f(^Ie(^ter SKiUIer fein, bem niemald fiel bad Sanbern 
eiit (Song). (£r mug fe^r franf gewefen fein; er ifl no(!^ fo fdl^mci^. The force 
of biirfen : 3(^ mug nl(^t )9erge|Ten» " I must not forget." 

Srau^en -f- negative generally takes the place of mftJTen + negative when it denotes 
moral necessity. ^aS (rau^fl bu niil^t ju ti^un, menit bu ni^t nlQfl. SBo^l bent, ber mtt 
ber neuen (3elt) ni^t me^c brau^t ju (eben (Scb.). 

5. So Hen, + shall, denotes: 1. Duty and obligation. jDu follfl ®ott 
beinen ^errn lieben 9on fianjem ^er^eur »on ganser @eele unb un gan^em ®emUte 
(B.). ^tt ^fittejl ba fein foffen. You ought to have been there. 2. Neces- 
sity and destiny : X)iefe f^furd^t foU enbigen I il^r ^aupt foS faUen. 34 it^tH 
grieben Jaben (Sch.). ^^ wefg ni*t waS foil e« bebcuten (Heine), ffiad fott 
bod ? What (is that) for? !Z)arin foUte er f!4 tSufd^em In that he was bound 
to be deceived, disappointed. 8. It denotes the statement and claim of 
another, *' is to," ** is said to " : !Da« 9»eter foO aci^t XJaler fofien. Der @(!^tt^ 
ber 92tbelungen foU im fR^tint Xit^tn. ®ieben ©trdfiinge foQen entfommen fein. 4 
SoUte approaches the force of the conditional, + " should." ®oIIte er no^ 
fontmen/ fag i^m, icb (£tte nicbt Un^tx n)arten fonnen. Oolite er au(^ wol^l franf 
fein ? Is it possible that he is sick ? 

6. 9B n e n, + will, denotes : 1. The will and purpose of the sub- 
ject. SBad moQteft bu mit bem t>ol^t ? f^rid^ (Sch.). 3c^ mid ed n>ieber ^^ergef" 
fen, totil Sit bod^ ni(!^t moUen bag id^ ed n>iffen foQ (G.). SoUe nur n>ad bu fannfl 
unb bu tt)irfl f^nnen »a« bu Wtflfl. 2. "To be about," **on the point of." 
(£in armer S9auer mollte fterben (Nicolai). (£^ toiU regnen. Frequent in stage- 
directions, „ro\U ge^eUf'' »n>{a abge^n.'' SBiQ f!d^ Rector eioig )»on mir tsenben? 
(Sch.). 8. The claim and statement of another, who *'says" or *' claims 
to " : ^er deuge mill ben ^ngcflagten gefeben baben. Du miOft ibn in einem guten 
Svotdt betrogen bciben. Notice the ambiguity of such a sentence as Der ^err 
tviH ed get'ban baben» " claims he did it/* or according to 1, " wills or wishes 
that it be done." 

SBoQen is really the most difflcnlt to understand and nse. It occurs in a great many 
mora idioms with ever varying shades of meaning. Notice, e. g,^ (Sd »iS verlauten, " it 
is spread abroad." SSad niQ baS faaen? = "What does that amount to?" "that is 
nothing." ^i!^ wlU i% nic^t gefe^f n l^aben, I will act as if I had not seen it or " nobody 
shall see it," according to 1. JEBenn ber ®(l^&(er bo^ biefe {Reget lernen woQte, " if he only 
woold . . . =s conditional. iBoUte Oott ba^ . . . , would to God that . . . ^iefe $ebet 
»tfl nt^t, this pen does not write (well). But it is impossible to give all these meanings. 


StiU Bng. ** win " is not far behind the German. €o1Ien and tDolleit should not be con- 
founded with Bng. '' shaU " and " wiU " of the future. Bee 279, 8. 

7. Saffeit/ sometimes classed here, is really a caasative aaxiliary 
and never used as such without an inf., which stands as a further object, 
^eine Stla^t ld§t flc fatten (Sch.). ttnterifigUd^ Ucg er brci ©attcrten aufwcrfcn 
(id.). See 202, 1. A second force is " to allow," " not to hinder." X)cr 
(Sefangenmdrter Iie§ ben ®efan$enen enttDifci^en* £affen (Sit bad bleibm (= to 
leave a thing undone, not interfere). 

For laffen + reflexive, see 272 ; in the imperative, see 287, 4. 

Bkkabk.— Verbs of motion can be omitted, particularly when an adverb expresses 
the direction. iSBiOfl bu mit ? 3^ mu^ ^in. *Da6 ^adt'i foSte fott (ought to be sent). 
<X)er ^nt mv^ in bie G^ad^tet. Bat all except miiffen and bfirfen can be need as inde- 
pendent yerbs, i. «., no other verb need be supplied. There is no call for a verb in SBaS 
foil bet i^ut? (Sch.), *' What is this hat (here) for f Notice that foSen, mdgen, and woSea 
are really the only ones that deserve the term modal auxiliaries, since they assist in 
expressing the mood. See 287. 


268. The active voice needs no comment. Only transitiYe 
verbs form a complete passive. Bat transitives whose mean- 
ing admits only of an object of the thing, also intransitives 
and subjective verbs, form only the third person singular 
with the grammatical subject ed or without it. 3^nen toirt 
gcl^olfen. Sd toixt gelad^t nnr) gcfungen^ ©eflcrn tourbc flefpicft. 
33ei und ju ^aufc (where I come from) »irb »lel SJJl^ijl flefplett* 

269. In the transformation of the active into the passive 
voice, the direct object in the accusative becomes subject- 
nominative and the former subject is expressed by ))on -f- 
dative denoting the agent and by burci^ + accusative denot- 
ing means and instrument. Saumgartcn erfdjiug ten SBolfcn:? 
fdfeic§cn» SB* rouxtt »on S* crfd^Iagen. l^er Srief tonxtt burdft elnen 
£;icnflmann bcforgt (through a porter). See prepositions, 304, 2. 

270. When a verb governs two accusatives both accusa- 
tives become nominatives with the verbs of naming, calling, 
scolding. Sr vomu fein gmtnt) genannt. See 179, 2. 


1. With le^ren and fragen the accofiative of the thing may be retained, 
partlcularlj if that accufiative be a pronoun, e, g,. Dad ^d^Ummjle tt>ad und 
toiberfiS^Ttf bad toerben xoix 9om Za^ gele^rt (G.). For cttoad gele^rt loerbm it is 
better to use unteni^tet toerben ; for cttoad gefiragt toerben, better m^ ettoad 
gefragt loerbtn* The accosative of the noon now sounds pedantic, though 
le^ren in M. H. G. always retained the accusative in the passive. See 
202, 2. 

271. With a verb governing an accosatiye, a genitive, or 
a dative, the accosative becomes nominative in the passive, bnt 
the genitive and dative are retained. ^* wurbe ted ^od^t^errotd 
angeflagt* Deiner wurbr getad^t (no grammatical subject) or ed 
tDurte beiner getaAt^ Stir wurte gefolgt, /was followed. 

1. The verbs fotgen, ^elfen, ge^oril^en, f^mei^eln, ttiUrfpred^n, banfen often form a 
perBonalpAasiYe in the claesics and In the spoken language, but it is very qnestionable 
whether this use should be Imitated ; certainly not by foreigners who are aocostomed 
to this construction in their own language and are apt to make mistakes in the active 
and say „i(^ folge bit^" if they hear or say „{^ mcrbe (jcfotflt gcf^meic^ctt." Those who 
defend the personal passive appeal to the older aocnsative after ^etfen and fd^meidf^eln. 

272. The reflexive, encouraged by French influence, and man# ed + 
active often replace the passive. For (£^ »irb gefungetu gtpod^t stands Stan 
fhtdt, po^t. VCL affhtt fi4 bad Zt^ox, Then the gate is opened, ^er Sc^Iuffel 
toirb f{(^ finbeitf The kej will be found. More frequent than the reflexive 
alone is fI4 . . . laffen^ e, g,, (£r tolrb |t4 befHmmen laffen ju . • . # He will 
let himself be influenced to . . . , He can be induced to . . . *Jba^ lagt 
f!d^ (ei(^t ma(i^(n# That is easily done, ^ad I£§t |1(^ (5rem That is plausible. 
See 290. 8, h. It is clear from this that the German passive is less fre- 
quent than the English. The grammars boast more of the fuU and long 
compound tenses than actual usage justifies. 

273. Obigin of the Passive Voice. 

1. In O. H. O. fein («l», wtsan), wetben (twrdoa) were used to expreaa the passive. 
Gothic alone shows traces of anything like a Latin passive, bnt even there the peri- 
phrastic form had to be resorted to. In M. H. G. the present is ieh toirde gelodet ; pre- 
terit, ieh toari gelobet; perfect, ieh Hn geiodet; pluperfect, ich was gOcbeL Warden 
was added to the perfect from the 18th century downward, but was not considered 
essential until the 17th century. The passive idea lies originally only in the past or 
passive participle and not in werben, which means only ^' I enter Into the state of being 
„fleUebt," „9eWttgen," etc. Compare the ftiture, i^ werbe litUn, " I enter into the state 
of loving." The M. H. G. ieh bin gdiebet, ieh was (war) gelitbet are by no means lost 
Only they are not called tenses now. 3(^ Mn flelie^t, bad 3immet ifl gefeflt mean '* I am 


in the state of being loyed," ** tlie room is in a swept atate,** ** has been cleaned,'^ ** is 
clean/^ The participles ore felt as adjectives, ^df Mn gedeM worben, la9 3iinner ifl 
gefegt norben mean * I have passed into the state of being loved," " the room has 
passed into the state of being swept** The transition Into this state, and not the 
present state, but the fact or action are emphasiaed, hence the idea of tense is promi- 
nent. The fltnesB of the name of perfect passive for this form and not also for i(^ bin 
gettebt is apparent becaose U!^ bin geUebt toorben is composed of i^ Bin (ge)t»orben (the 
perfect) + getlebt. In O. H. G. fein still formed the present as ** to be *' now in Bng., bnt 
already in M. H. G. toerden was the prevalent aoxiliary (see above), while eein was 
prevalent in the perfect. 

2. Perhaps the following examples will illustrate the force of the vari- 
ous forms : 

Die Zo^ttt ifl «eTbbt# is engaged to be married, ^em CEife bcfreit fti^ 
©trom unb »a(^c (F. 903). Dlcfer ^cffcl ifl »on SBcrgen bfgrenjt (Hu.) These 
three are not passive tenses. But compere : 3n bcm Sd^rrlti^en toirb fin 
(Sontra'fl von SoQfommen^iten unb UnvoUfommcn^eiten erfbrbtrt (Le.) (present 
tense). 2)icfcr 9)unft ijl »icl bcfhittcn ©orbcn (perf. pass.). The same difier- 
ence between ttnrbe + participle (= imperfect pass.) and mar + partici- 
ple (no tense), e.g., |>ome'r nxir »ot 3nicr« nnfhettig flciitgcr gcltfcn aW jc^t 
(Le.). 2)it |>dufer ©arcn fcflUr^ gef^mucft (no tense). Det SRfiubcr^uutmann 
roar fc^on ^t^an^tn gcnommen toorben, aU feint fieute ^erbeifamen (pluperfect 
pass.). !Dtr ©pio'n wnrbe o^nc wtitercd an tintn ^\t &tM'pft unb crWngt (imper- 
fect pass.)' 

Examples of the future and conditional perfects passive are very rare 

in the clasedcs. 

Syntax of the Tenses. 
SnfFLE Tenses. 
274. The Present. 

1. It denotes an action as now going on. SBie glatt^t Me 
©onnc, »ic lad^t He glur (G.). 

2. It is the tense used in the statement of a general truth 
or fact or custom, in which the idea of time is lost sight of. 
Drcimd Drcl ifl nt\xn. ®ott ijl tie 2le6e (R). Sorgen maiit ©orgen 

3. The historical present is used in vivid narrative for a 
past tense. Do* a" Slna gegebene ©cifpiel flntct ott^cmeine 5«ad^^ 
atimung; man »crflu^ tea anDenlen ber Sen&terej aDe arme'eii foHen 
Don i^m ci (Sch.). 


4. For the English perfect German (also French) uses the 
present when the action or state continues in the present 
time, but there is generally an adverb denoting duration of 
time qualifying it Ex.: 9tun bin id^ fieben Za^t Wv (G.)* 3^^^ 
Sage ge^en toix \iion ^ier Return (id.). 3(i) Mn aU^ier erfl furge ^tit 
(F. 1868). 

TMs use !b by no means new in German or unknown in English, e^f., " I 
forget why." " The world by what I learn is no stranger to your generos- 
ity " (Gbldsmith, quoted by Mfttzner). It is closely related to the present 
Bub 3 and 8, and generally translated by '' have been " + present participle. 

5. The fature present, that is, the present with the force of 
the fature, is much more frequent in German than in English. 
Ex.: 9lein, nein, i(% gc^e naij uv ©taut auriicf (F. 820). ffier »eif, 
mx morgen iiber und befie^It (Sch. ). 

It is a very old use of the present, from a time when the periphrastic 
future was not yet developed. 

6. The English periphrastic present in " I am writing/' ** I do write " 
rarely has corresponding German phrases. For instance, t^un is dialectic 
and archaic. Unb t^u^ nic^t mef r in Morten framen (F. 885). A large num- 
ber of present participles are looked upon as adjectives and stand in the 
predicate after fetm but they do not form a tense (see 273, 1). There is 
a difference between the simple present and fein + pres. part. The for- 
mer, if it occur at all, denotes an oc^ of the subject, the latter denotes a 
quality of the same or of another subject. Ex.: fD^att nimmt %t\\ an ettoadf 
one takes part in something. 3emanb ift teilnt^mcnb^ one is sympathetic. 
1b\t garbe Wreit is hardly used, but bit Qfarbe ifl eine Wreienbe, the color is 
a loud one. Die ^udfid^t rei)! einenrimmer l^d^er ivl fleigen» the prospect entices 
one to climb higher and higher, but bit STudfid^t ifi rei|tenb» the prospect is 
charming. Compare the Eug. *' charming/' " promising/' etc. 

275. The Preterit. 

1. It is strictly the " historical *' tense, used in narration, 
-when one event is related in some connection with another 
event, as following it or preceding it. Ex. : SSfar !am, fa6 un^ 
fieflte. fir »art gcBoren, er Icbte, na^m ein SBeib un^ jlarb (Ghellert). 

In the Btory of the creation in Genesis only the pret. is used until 


cbapter 2, Terse 4, when the account is Bummed np STIfo ifl ^immel nnb d^rbe 
getoorben^ which has the perfect as it should have. See 276. 

2. It represents a past action as lasting, customary; also as 
contemporaneous with another action* ®e{lem lam ter 3Reticud 
l^ier aud ^er (BtaDt l^inaud ^um Slmtmann (connect „^navi&" with 
„3um/' not with „au« Der @tatf ') unD fant ml^ auf to Srbe untcr 
Sottend ^innem, mie eini^e auf mir ^tmmttaihtltm, antere mi^ nedten 
(G.)- ^u^n mar tad SBort, metl ed Die S^at nid^t tvar (Sch.). 

Compound Tenses. 

276. The Perfect. 

It is used to denote a past event as a separate act or inde- 
pendent fact. The act is completed^ but the result of it is felt 
in the present and may continue in the present. Ex. : 34 ^abe 
genoffcn t>ad trtifci^c ©liicf (Sch. ). ®ott ^at Die SBelt crfcbaffen = Gtod 
is the creator of the world, but 3nt Slnfang fd^uf ®ott ^immel unD 
erDe (B.). X;u ^ajl^d crrci^t, Dcta»io (Sch.). 

1. Iq the best writers this distinction is generally observed, but not in 
the spoken language, in which the perfect is crowding out the preterit. 
As an illustration of the exact use of the tenses, particularly of the pre- 
terit and perfect, may be recommended the introduction to Schiller's 

©efci^ici^te bed STbfafle bcr ^ercinigtcn 9?lcDcrlanbt. 

277. The Pluperfect. 

It denotes a past action which was completed before another 
past action began. Ex.: Sitt^ l^atte faum feinen 9tu(fmarfd} ange^ 
treten aU Der RMq fein Sager gu @4»eDt auf^ob unD gegen §ranljitrt 
an tcr DDcr riitfte (Sch.)* 

278. The Future. 

1. It denotes an action yet to take place. Ex : SBad toirD 
aud tern ^itiDlcin werten ? (B.). Der Jlaifer wlrD morgen abreifen. 

2. It denotes probability and should then not be translated 
by an English future as a rule. Ex. : IJer ipunD »irD fed^d 3a^re 
alt fcln (= Ijl »o^l or ttja^rfd^einlid^), the dog may be or is prob- 


ably six years old. ffler Copft ? g0 »lrt) cln Settler fein, it is 
probably a beggar. 

3. In familiar language it stands for the imperative implying 
confident exi)ectation of the result Du »irji ^ier Melben, You 
shall stay here. £)u tvirfl tid) ^ttten, Take good care not to do it 

For the present with the force of the future, see 274. 5. 

279. The Future Perfect. 

1. It is the perfect transferred to the future. Sergebend 
»ert)et l!^r fur euren ^elD^errit tnii geopfert ^aitn (Sch.). More fre- 
quently than the future, the future perfect denotes probability: 
SBo toixn er ^ie 3laiit gugebraci^t ^abm ? (Le.), Where can he have 
spent the night? S« wlr^ »a« ontircd »oW beteutet ^abcn (Sch.), 
It probably meant something else. 

2. As the present can have future force, so the perfect can 
have future perfect force. 9lid^t e^er tenf iii biefed 93Iatt su 
ixaniim, bid tint S^at get^an ifl, tie itnmiterfpteAHd^ ten ^oii'omat 
Bcjeuflt (Sch.). 

8. In M. H. G., the future perfect is unknown and its force is expressed 
by ge prefixed to the present and by the perfect. 

Guard against confounding the modal auxiliaries in German with 
the Eng. future. Approach to a future might be felt in ooHen and foUeny 
e.g., Wat rooUtn f!e bemt ^txant^tx^oxtn, mm einer unfd^ulbig ifl? (G.). Der 
giteid^dtag ju ^ug^burg foU (offentti^ unfere 3)roie'fte sur ffttift Bringen (G.). See 
283, 4. 

280. The Conditionals. 

They are future subjunctives corresponding to the preterit 
and pluperfect subjunctive as the future corresponds to the 
present. As in all subjunctives, the idea of tense is not empha- 
sized. Preterit subjunctive and I. conditional, pluperfect sub- 
junctive and n. conditional are nearly identical in force, but 
preterit and pluperfect deserve the preference, particularly in 
the passive. In dependent conditional clauses the preterit or 
pluperfect subjunctive only can stand. In the main sentence 


there is no choice between them and the conditionals. Ex. : 
D^ne teinen 9lat witrtie i^ ed nt^t getl^ott baben or l^dtte id^ ed ntd^t 
get^an. SBad tvitrtefl tu an meiner 8tetle t(un? SBarejl tu ^ier 
gewefen, mein ©ruter »are nid^t gejlorbcn (B.). 

281. The conditionals should be substituted for the subjunctive of 
the preterit and of the pluperfect : 1. When the force of the future is 
to be emphasized as in : 9{a^m( ber Jtranfe bit SRebtjin regelmdgig etn# fo touibc 
bad Steber »on bicfer 8tunbe an aHm&^Iic^ )>erf<^»inbtit* @ic glaubten, fie tDurbcn 
ft(b leicbt aid {>clbm barflellen (Sch.). 2. When the indicative and subjunc- 
tive forms coincide as is the case with certain persons in weak verbs : 
9uf etnen (£ib toitrbe i^ tbm nid^t dtanben* »®Iaubte« might be pret. ind. Six 
tourbtt bicd Stdtfel mir txtl&xtn, fa0te fie (Sch.). irS^r roti^tV oould also be 
indicative future. 

The Tense of Indirect Speech. 

282. The rule is : The indirect speech retains the tense 
of the direct. Ex.: Zit Saume feien gebannt, fagt er, unl mtt f!e 
fd^atige, Dem ivad^fe feine $anb (eraud gum ®rabe (Sch.). Sgmont 
Beteuerte, t)a§ tad ©angc nid)td aid ein Safelfdjerg gemefen fei. Xtt 

Knait be^auptete, er ^atte ed nid^t get^an, tvenn er niiit von feinen 
©efii^rten ba^u ))erleitet worben »&re. Sr fagte mij, er moQe ed nii^ 
wieter t^un, wenn man i^m ie^ ))ergebe. Der 3^uge fonnte ni^ 
fd^mbren, ba§ er ben Slngeflagten ie gefel^en ^(e* 

1. But this rule is not strictly observed. If the main clause contains, 
for instance, a past tense, the other clause may take a preterit for the 
present, a pluperfect for the perfect, or a conditional for the future : Dad 
woiren bic ^lamttn, fagte mir bet Sii^rcr, fie regimen bad ®ef*itf (Sch). SJr 
wurbet bled SRitfel mir erflSren, fagte fte (id.). ?Klr melbet (pres. for perf.) er, er 
Idge fran! (id.). If any ambiguity arises, as is not unfrequently the case, 
this license should not be indulged in. If the main verb is in the pres- 
ent, it is not well to substitute the preterit or pluperfect in the sub- 
ordinate clause, because this license is due to attraction of tenses, viz., 
preterit in one — preterit or pluperfect in the other. Compare : (£r 
beteuerti er fei bagegen# he asserts, that he is opposed. Sr beteuertr er tt>£re 
bagegen might be construed as meaning er tourbe bagegen feiti# which means 
*' he would be opposed." dx beteuertr er fei bagegen gen^efen, he had been 

283] SYiriAX OF THE YEBB— TENSES. 109 

opposed ; er to&rt bagegen getoefen mig^bt moreover be understood as baying 
tbe force of tbe U. Conditional. 

For the mood of the Indirect statement, see 285. For farther remarks on the OM 
of tenses, see 284, also the General Syntax. 

283. Obioin of the Compound Tknhes. 

1. The compound tenses in all the living langnaffes are products of the derelopment 
of so-called periphratiie coi\Jugation, which uses certain independent verbs denoting 
existence, possession, transition, or the beginning of an action, in connection with an 
InflnitiTe, participle, or gerandiye. The more the inflectional endings of the simple 
tenses of the earlier periods weathered, the more Ihvorable were the chances for the 
growth of analytical and circamlocatory tenses. Compare the Latin amor^ amaiut 
turn oTfui; excuaaniy exeutatam, -um Aabeo or teruo with French Js tuit akimky -00, 
i^fiM akni^ -U; je Pai txeuaS^ -««, Je Favais eaecmS, -4e. The Gkrmanic langoages 
have only two simple tenses. Gothic shows still a mntllated passive. Bat the future 
perfect and pluperfect active and passive sprang up within historic times fh>m a com- 
bination of an independent verb with an infinitive or participle, which were at first 
felt only as predicate noun or adjective. The participle in O. H. G. could be Infieeted 
like any predicate adjective. 

S. At difltoent periods of High German there were diftorent verbs which could be 
thus employed. Besides the modem auxiliaries f^aUn, fein and loerben* in O. H. G. 
Hffan, + to own. In Gothic haban + inf. was made to express the futare, in O. H. G. 
win (shall) and toerdan + pres. part. ; in M. H. G. besides these, tceff^fi, m&ezen. 3(^ 
Ifaht ten 4>ut a^genommen or aufgefe(}t means originally I have, possess the hat in some 
state or position, vis., in my hand (taken off) or on my head (put on). The German 
order, too, shows this early construction much better than the English ** I have taken 
off my hat.** Compare the Latin Itocutaium hab&at me rogOy *' Have me excused, 
pray,'* ,,9iite, ffobt (^afte) tnt^ (fikr) entf^ulbigf S^Qhtn conld only be used with tran- 
sitive verbs, but loelng tbe distinctive meaning of possession, it could combine with 
verbs haying an object in the G. and D. and even with no object, viz., with intransi- 
tive verbs. $aben required thtf past participle in 0. H. G. In the A., but fein required 
It in the N. 6ein could not, fh>m the nature of its meaning, form the perf . or pluperf. 
active of any transitive verb, but only of intransitives denoting a continuance of a state 
(Meiben, fein) or transition into another state, where it, however, collided with werben, 
used in the ftitnre. But notice that the idea of transition and change is in most verbs, 
here in question, due to the prefix. ®ciii + past participle could only mean existence 
in a certain state, at most the beginning or ceasing of an existence. 

8. As to verbs of motion, their relation to these verbs is very intimate. When it is 
not, ^(tben becomes the rival of fetn, as soon as the activity of motion is to be brought 
out and not the result. That fein conld be used with a past participle of a verb of mo- 
tion at all, was partly brought about by its use with a present participle and infinitive. 
Such forms as oermutenb, ecrm&genbi nad^gebcnb fein, vermuten fein are remnants of the 
use otAn + pres. part, or inf. in M. H. G. We do not feel the participle or infinitive 
•B such now. They form no tense. 

4. SEBetben + pres. part was in M. H. G. more common than tscrben + Inf., but the 


latter was the establiBhed ftitnre in the 16th eentniy. From "• I paae into the state of 
praising " to " I shall praise " is not a long step. 

6. The conditionals formed with w&tbt sprang np in the 14th centory and were set- 
Hod in the 16th, according to Orimm. In M. H. Q. before the 18th centory "«iftfe," 
" vwlde '' were nsed as in the other Germanic langaages, bat these lacked the nmiimt, 
and therefore were not easily disdngnishable as snbjnnctives. 


284. The indicative is the mood of realitj, the sabjtmctiye 

is the mood of unreality, contingency, possibility. 

1. The imperative subjunctive helps to fill out the imperar 
tive for the third persons sg. and pL and the first person pL 
It is a strong optative, see sub 2. 

Ex.: 9[IIed [(^weigc, jcbcr neigc ernflcn Sdnen mm fcltt D^r (Song). ©t^jAer 

tt)ie er'« treibe, fc^c ieber »o cr Mcibc (G.). Seioi ©ie mlr »ittfo mmoi. Baffoi 

toil badr let as not do this. ®e^cn loir bieftn ^aragrap^en) ta^ mal bnr^f let 

us go over this paragraph once more. ®tj^n ©ie. Xrettn bit {>erren gefdl* 

ligjl etn (rare). 

2Berbe and f ei, feib reallj subjnnctiyes, are nsed as ImpeiatiTes in the second person. 
SBerbe munter, mein (Semitte (Hymn). &ei mlr gegrfi^t, mein SBer^ (Sch.). 

2. The optative subjunctive expresses a wish or request. 

The present subjunctive implies confidence of fulfilment 

Only the third person is used. 

Ex. : Vidi fubre bur^ bad mtlbbmtgte Seben ein gndbiged G^efd^td (Sch.). titbn 
fRarne fci vergejfen (Uh.). ®ctt ^crmetrc bie ®abc (G.). 

The preterit subjunctive implies less assurance, and, like 
the pluperfect subjunctive, even no expectation of realization. 

Ex. : D todren mir welter ! o toUx id^ i\x f)au« (G.). D fdljll bu »offer 3Ron* 
benjci^eitt ... (P. 386). SBdre er nur wd^ am 2thtn I (Implying irer ifl aber tot"). 
^Tommer 8tabr o l^dtt^ id^ nimmer mtt bem @<^merte bi^ ^eTtauf($t (Sch.). See 
also F. 392-7. 

3. The potential subjunctive expresses an opinion as such, 
a possibility, a mild assertion of an undoubted fact {diplomalic 
subj.); it stands in questions, direct and indirect; in exclama- 


tiona The preterit and I. conditional are the potential sub- 
junctives of the present ; the pluperfect and U. conditional, 
of the past. 

Ex.: 34 t{ime» bdd^t^ i^, bod^ no4 fo sientlid^ sufammm# toad jufammen ge^ort 
(Le.). !Dad ginse nt>6i, "that might do yet" (id.). SBcr tofigte bad ni(^t? 
Everybody knows that. $^tte i(^ bo^ nimmermef r gebad^t^ bap cr fo grog ton* 
ben to^rbe (Le.). ®ie liege fi^ aUed f^reibenl (G.) (Implying .ed ifl unrndgUd^''). 
^aH ^ttt td^ bad SBefle verdefTen (id.). S3elna^e todre i4 gegen einen S3aum gerannt. 
!X)u (^ttefl bad getougt? (Implying »id^ glaube ed nii^t). !Ri(^t; bag i^ toiigte, not 
as far as I know. 

See also the modal auxiliaries, 267. 

4. The concessive subjunctive denotes an admission, yield- 
ing, and supposition. Generally only in the third person of 
the present and perfect. It borders closely upon the optative 
and conditional. 

Ex.: (Ed fofie toat ed woffe (Le.). (£d fei, "(it is) granted." ®efeffe, bu 
feifl ein guter ober f(^Ummer» leg' bi^ aufd O^r (Uh.). See mdgen, 267, 8. 

5. The unreal subjunctive stands in conditional sentences 
both in the premise and the conclusion, i. e. in the dependent 
clause and in the main clause, when the premise is not true. 
The preterit and pluperfect stand in the premise; the preterit, 
pluperfect, and the two conditionals in the conclusion. The 
preterit has present and future force, the pluperfect has future 
force only. 

Ex. : QEd liege P4 <^^t^ treffitd^ Wi^ttn, fdnnte man bie Sadden imimal ^tx^ 
ri(^ten (G.). 3(^ nx^re nid^td, &>enn t(^ bliebe toad i^ bin (id.). SBenn tt)ir Q^elb 
bet und ge^abt ^^tten, fo tDftrben »{t ben ^rrnen »ad gegeben baben. 

The premise omitted or represented by an adverb, etc. : 3(i^ tl^dte bad 
nid^t an Deiner SteQe = uenn \^ an Deiner (SteQe »are. SSDlr tt)dren bed Xobed* 
D^ne ^Ipenflocf wdrc ber ©anberer in bie Xiefe binabgefallen. 

The conclusion omitted : 3a ttenn tt)lr nld^t »(!iren# fagte bie Saterne }um 
SRonb. 'Jba ging fie aU (Folk-lore). 

285. The subjunctive is the mood of the indirect state- 
ment, in which the speaker expresses the ideas of another or 


renders the speech of another in his own words. For exam- 
ples and tense, see 282. 

The subjanctive in dependent claoses is treated nnder the head of ** dependent 
clauses " in the Qeneral Syntax, which see. 


286. It expresses a command and occurs only in the 2. p. 
sg. and pi. For the 1. and 3. p. pL, see 284, 1. SUe mit 3BeiIe, 
Make haste slowly, ithxt Du mid) meine £eute feniten (Sch.). 
Sin^et ibn (id.). SGartet i^t, intern tt)ir 9oran laufen* 

1. The pronoun is quite optional ; only when there is a contrast, as in 
the last sentence (il^r — xoxx), it should stand. In the suhjunctive it al- 
ways stands. 

The imperative is only used in the present and has future force, 
but by a license also a perfect imperative occurs ; Sefen ! S3efen ! Sei&^d 
gewefen 1 says the apprentice when he wants the brooms to cease being 
watercarriers (G.). 

287. Other verbal forms that take imperative force and a 
very strong one, are : 

1. The infinitive : 9RauI (3Ruttt)) l^altm ! Hold your tongae. 
9li(^t anfaffcit I Do not touch. 

2. The past participle : Die Srommcl geruirt (G.). %d\ii ouf 
Jtameranen, aupd ^fert, auf^d |)fcrt) ! In tag gete, In Me Stei^eit 
geaogctt (Sch.). 

3. The present and future indicative : ®eorg, tu 6Iel6fl urn 
mxi} (G). Du »irfl ten Slpfcl fd^iegen »on tern t^opfted ftnaben 
(Sch.). See 278, 3. 

4. The modal auxiliaries denoting a necessity, duty, can 
express imperative force, also laffen. !Eu fottfl nl(^t flcl^len (B.). 
^ein iOlenfc^ mu§ miiffen (Le.). 

Since the Eng. "let" shows no inflection, notice the German forms: 
Safi und ge^en, to a person addressed as bu ; plural jQaffl und ge^en. Saffrn 
@ie und ge^eitr to a person addressed as @ie. 



288. It Ib a verbal noun and the present infinitiye has 
neither voice, tense, nor inflection. The compound infinitive 
arose like the compound tenses (see 283) : gelobt totttm, to be 
praised; geloM morten fein, to have been praised; gelofct ^aben, to 
have praised. 

1. Notice the marked di£fereDce in meaning between the present of some 
of the modal auxiliaries + perfect infinitive, and the perfect or pluper- 
fect + present infinitive. Ex. : Dcr ihjtf*er »iff bctt OJefangencn flcfe^ 
IJaben = claims to have seen him, but ^t ijn ftjen ttotten = wanted to see 
him. X)er {>auflm mui \>oxUiman^tn fein = must have passed by, but ifat 
)9orbetge(en muffen# was forced to pass by, etc. 

289. We distinguish between the infinitive wiLhovi gu and 
wfiik gu. 

The former is the older constmction. BAing a nonn, the InflnltlTe always stood In 
the D. after ju in O. and M. H. O. Bnt in early N. H. O., when it was no longer in- 
flected, the prepositional Inflnitive gained ground and gave also rise to the gerandive 
(see a08X Usage Is in many cases still ansettled as to the ase of }u. Its ftequent use 
Is the source of much bad style (see Sanders* „$auptfd)n>ieriaCeitcn" . . . snb Inf.). The 
cases where the infinitive has taken the place of the present participle are mentioned 
below ander each head. In the gemndiye alone the participial form has taken the place 
of the inflnitive. See 298. 

The Infinitive without gu* 

290. 1. It is dependent upon the modal auxiliaries. Xer 
Sote mta ed aud aOer Seute iIRun( erfa^ren %^Un. 9Ran foD ten Za^ 
iticbt toor tern Sbent loBen (Prov.). Also upon t^un in quaint and 
dialect siyle, e. ^., I)a t^aten jle jld) trennen (Uh.). See the 
speeches of 9Rartt>e and SRargarete in P., I. Upon tjabcn in the 
phrase ivii Ijaben* Du §afl gut reteti, it is easy enough for you to 
talk. Sr tl^ttt ni(]^td aid « • • , he does nothing but . . . 

2. In cei*tain phrases dependent ux)on some verbs of motion; 
also upon "^elfen, ^ei§en (command), laffen, le^ten, lenten, m^iiixit 
ttennen. The verbs of motion are: f))a3lcren reitcn, fasten, ge^en; 

fcj^afen gel^en, P4 fc^Iafen legen, etc $ei^ mii^ nid^t reten, 


l^ei^t miii f(i^»eigen; benn mein ®tf^dmniA tp mix ^id^t (G.). Se^te 
mi(i^ t^un nad) teinem SSBo^Igefatlen (B.). 

3. Dependent upon certain verbs of rest: iU\btn (most fre- 
quently), liegen, fle^en (rarely); and upon verbs of perceiving: 
ftnten, fit^Ien (rarely), ^xm, fe^en; also ^ohtn* ®ttdtn Met6en, to 
stick fast (intr.). @d)(afen liegen* SBir fanten ten Seid^nam im 
SCahe liegcn* SBir fa^cn ten gii^rcr ubcr tcm abgruntc fd^meben^ 
Der Sproler ^at gemo^nlic^ getern am $ute fleden, ber Snglanber 
Santer l^erunter^dngen. 34 ^i^^^ ^^ i'fterd riil^men l^oren, eitt Aom5^ 
lia'nt TonnV einen |)farrer le^rcii (F. 526-7). 

a. 8eln Is still so used in dialect. Gr tfl fifteen, iagen, he has gone aflshing, ahnnt- 
Ing; er ifl fifc^en genefen/ he ha6 been aOshing. With all the verbs sab 3 and several 
sub 2 the present participle was once the role in older German. Compare the parti<d- 
ple in the predicate, 294, 3. 

b. After ffl^Ien, ^&ren, ia^tn,\ef^tn the Infinitive has either passive or active fbrce, 
and often an ambigaity arises wtiich should be avoided by a different confitmction. 
SDtr ^aben ed fagen ^oren, We have heard it said, ^ie ^ogge l&^t fi^ nid^t ntdtn, The 
bnlldog will not be teased. SBtr ^&ren ben ftnaben mfcn, calltnig and called (generally 
the first). <Z)eT So^nfutfd^er tte| un$ ni^t fasten, the hackman did not let us go, did not 
allow us to drive, did not have as driven <DeT SReiflrr Iie| bie Xo^ter ni^t nalcn, did 
not allow her to paint and did not have her portrait painted. 

4. As subject or predicate with fein and ^ci§en, to be, to 
amount to : 9lod^ ei'nmal tin SBunter l^offen l^ie§e ®ott verfud^en 
(Sch.). Sin Sergniigen emarten ifl auii ein Sergnugen (Le.). 

The Xottnttivb with ^u* 

291. 1. It expresses the purpose of an action and in gen* 
eral the indirect object ; also necessity and possibility after 
neuter verbs, e, g., fein, bleiben, fle^en, when it has passive force. 

!Die @ad)e ifl nid)t ju dntem. Sd bleiBt nod) t)ie( gu t^m. Vai flc^t 
no(^ jtt iifeericgcn. Da tttiiV^ i^n, Den fofl(i(!^en |)rct« su erwerben 

This is the old and proper nse of the infinitive, originally a noun in 
the D. governed by ju. In N. H. G. urn was added to express purpose, 
but it was really superfluous, though common in the spoken language. 
Urn ble (5tr9mune abiuleiten gruben fie ein frif^ed S3ette (Platen). SBir leben ni^t 


nm |u effenjonbern »ir cffen urn su le^en. The force of p was macb weakened 
when urn oonld thus be added. Besides um, anflatt and o^ne can precede 
in : anflatt n>eg iu lanftn, !am ber S3aT n&^cr ^eran. Df^ne ftc^ umjufc^ciwltef ber 
Dte6 ba9on. Bat irum" should never be used except to express purpose. 
It is used too frequently. See sub 4. 

2. It stands as direct object of verbs, often preceded by, or 
in apposition to, a prononn or pronominal adverb + preposi- 
tion. Ex. : %ani an pi leaden ntca gu ffcaitn (F. 2355). 9lieman0 
fdume in geben. 3<^ ^^nte niiii laxan, bir bad gu getv&l^ren* 

In older periods of the langaage there was no ju in this case. 

3. It stands as subject, in the spoken language, more fre- 
quently than without ju ; there is no choice, ©efatirlid) i|l^d ben 
2cu au mdtn (Sch.). ginc fci^one SKenft^cnfeele ftntcn 1(1 ®e»ltttt 

4. As adjunct of nouns and adjectives, the latter often being 
qualified by gu and genug. „Zii Jtunfl ^6^ beliebtau maiim.** 3" 
^ok, £anl einauernten, too iif i^n nici^t fdete (Le.). !£)u n>arefl blinb 
genug, bad nid)t ein)ttfe^n ? * * * Sereit, bit gur ®e(e(lfd^aft ^ier au 
Blelbcit (F. 1431). 

After adjectives »ttm in'* is now far more common than in alone. 34 
Bin )tt alt, nm nur in l^ielen, )u iungf urn o^ne SBunf^ su f^in (F. 1546-7). Quite 
rare is aU su + infinitive. 

5. For the independent nse of infinitive, see imperative, 287, 1. 
With or without }u in elliptical expressions : 9Bad t^utw fprid^t Qtn^ (Sch.). 
SBad, am fRavb M ®xal^ }U liigcn I (F. 2961). 


292. In this construction the logical subject of the infini- 
tive stands in the accusative. The infinitive stands with or 
without au. Ex.: ^itx ntl^et SRartitt Saulermann, tvenn man ^en 
ru^cn fagctt tann, ber fcinen 8c6tag nid^U gct^an (Wechherlin, quoted 
by Blatz). Siigen, Me matt Silgett au fein t»el§ (Le.). 

1. Accaeative with infinitive was not rare in O. H. G. in the translations from Latin 
and Greek. It is largely due to foreign Inflaence. In M. H. G. it is very rare. In 


modem German It is discoaraged by the best anthoritles, thoogb Lessiog uses it quite 

2. The corresponding English constmctions must therefore be rendered freely into 
German. I believe him to be my friend, ^df %lAuhe ba^ cr mein 9r<unb ^ or ^^ ^oUc i^n 
fur meisen greunb. German loses thus a compact oonstmctlon. 

The Infuhtivk as a Noun. 

293. Some infinitiyes are felt as nouns only, e. g., tad SeBen, 
tad ^nfe^en, tad Seiten* The infinitive used as noun generally 
has the article. Dad Staucben i^ l^ier vertoten. Scim Ufrerfe'^n 
mu§ man bid an^d Uniiberfe'^Iid^e ^erange^n (Q.). Der Srben SBetnen 
Ijl tin ^eimlid^ Sadden (Prov.). 


294. The participles cxe really adjectiyes derived from 
verbal stems. The present participle retains more of the 
verbal construction and force than the past, in which the 
idea of tense only appears in intransitive verbs. 

The present participle has active force in all verbs and the 
noun is the subject of the action. Der Ia(!^e(nte @ee, tie axi\^ 
gc^ente ©omtc, tad fd^lagcntc 2Better, " fire-damp." Both parti- 
ciples can be used as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs very 
much as in English. They stand in apposition in the predi- 
cate and as attributes. 

1. Participles in which the noun is not the subject of the action, and those 
in which lies passive rather than active force, are still current, but not so 
frequent as in early N. H. G. They are not generally countenanced, e, g. , 
Ui Wlafcnbcr !«a<^t, " at night time," " when everybody sleeps ** ; einc fl^enbe 
Cebcndartr a sedentary habit of life ; effenbe ffiaaren, eatables (better (Eg* 
waaren); eine ^orbabcnbe fftti\t, an intended journey. Some of these can be 
defended: fal^renbe ^aU, movables, chattels (intrans. verb); crPaunenbe 
9la(i^rt(^t, astonishing news (trans, verb); eine melfenbe 5ht^ (intrans. like 
„mtld^en*); Me reitenbe 9)o(l, postman on horseback. Poetic are bet fc^tom* 
belnbe geld, the giddy rock. Son bed |>aufed weitWauenbem ®iebel (Sch.). 

2. In the predicate appear now only such present participles as have be- 
come regular adjectives : bebeutenb, important ; reljenb, charming ; binrei§enb# 
ravishing ; leibenbr in pain, ill health ; bringenbf urgent. See 274, 6. 


3. In apposition : ^od^enb» ttic an^ Dfcnd ffta^tn, fi^n hit fiflftc (Boh.). 

34 empfange fnieenb bied ®ef4en! (id.). 

4. The participial clause with the present participle is only in rery 
restricted use in German compared with English. It cannot express an 
action preceding or following another action, a cause, purpose, etc. It 
has usually the value of an ai^ective clause and can often be explained 
as in apposition. Der ^xmt, f!4 fttt mi4 »enb(nb# fprad^x iahtn ®ie 9{itleib# 
mein f>err. 

295. The past participle of a transitive verb has passive 
force ; that of a verb which forms its compound tenses with 
fein has active force: ter lauBumfr&nste Sed^er (Sch.); tad ^erge^ 
fii^rte Soil (id.); tie aBgefegelten Sd^ijfe; ber turd^efallene (unsuc- 
cessful) (Eantita't« 

1. But not all verbs that have fein in compound tenses can be thus used ; 
the participle must denote the state produced by the action of the verb. 
^It gefcgelten ®4lf e^ ber geloufene Stnt^t would not do. 2)er entlaufenc ©flave 
means " the runaway servant." This force is clear from the origin of the 
compound tense with fein (see 273, 283). 

2. Seemingly a large number of past participles have active force, but 
they are either quite wrong or they can be explained as having had origi- 
nally passive force. Thus : ^Ungebetet igt man ni^t* (Gerok) ; wungegeffen |tt 
S3ette ge^n" are as wroug as their English equivalents: One does not eat 
xmprayed, go to bed uneaten. »SBeblent« means " in service," "invested 
with an office," hence a servant, ein ©ebienter. ^Serbientr* one who has 
merits, n>eit er |1(^ urn enoad or iemanb ^erbient gemad^t ^t; eingebtlbet meaus 
conceited, taken up with one*s self ; ein terlogener SRenfc^^ a man given to 
lying ; ^erfof ener 9Henf4f given to drinking, and many other compounds 
with »eT- : »er»einte Slugen, eyes red with weeping. 

a. That some are now felt as having actiye force cannot be denied, else the wrong 
use mentioned coald not have sprang up : ^otts, pflic^tveTgeffen, foigetflil of one's duty, 
of God; verf^lafen, **one who slept too long " ; oermctfen, ''presumptuous" j Mrtegen, 
embarrassed ; besides the above. 

296. The peculiar past participles of verbs of motion, 
which seemingly have active force, stand in a sort of apposi- 
tion or as predicates with fommen, rarely with gc^cn* Ex.: 
Stam ein Sogel geflogen (Song). !Da bmmt bed SQegd geritten ein 
fd^muder SDeltne^t (Uh.). 

118 SYiirrAx of thb adterb. [207- 

1. This nse is by no means modern, itomsten and ge|n are felt as 
auxiliaries. Compare t^erloren ge^en. 

2. Special notice deserves the past participle with ^ei^ettr fetn# and 
nenneitf which has the force of an infinitive, but belongs nnder this bead. 
!Z>ad ^eigt fc^led^t geworfen^ That is a bad throw. Unter e^rlt^tt Stttlen nennt 
man bad ,»gelogen*« 8rif(^ geioagt ifl ^lib getoonnen (Prov.). 

297. The participle appears in an absolute constraction. 
The logical subject is left indefinite (Lessing is very fond of 
this). The logical subject stands in the accusative and with 
a few, like audgenommcn, eingefd^lojfen, abgere^nct, even in the 
nominative. ?(De toavtn ^ugcgcrt, ter ^S^^antv au^genommett. Un^ 
tiefed nun auf Saofoon angewentct, fo ifl t>ic Satire Uav (Le.). 

1. Closely related to this constraction is the absolute accusative + a 
past participle (see 209) and in some cases there may be doubt as to 
which is meant. Unb {le fingt ^inaud in bie fUiflm 9^a4t# bad ^uge ^on SBetnm 
getriibct (Sch.). 

The past participle is in elliptical construction in the imperatiYe, see 

287, 3. 

The Gerundive. 

298. It stands only attributively. In the predicate the old 
infinitive stands, which it has supplanted. £)er no^ 3U 'otv- 
faufenbc (Bijxanl, the wardrobe which is still to be sold; but ^er 
©djranf ifl nod) ju »ertaufcn, the wardrobe is still to be sold. 
See 289, 452. 

Though the form is rather that of the gerund than of the genmdive, in constraction 
it closely resembles the Latin gerundive. Hence the name in German. 


299. The adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective or another 
adverb. Ex.: Du ^afl mic^ miiAtig angejogcn (F. 483). Die 
unbegreiflid) ^o^en fficrfe flnt) :§errlid^ »ic am crjlen Sag (F. 249-60). 
Da« ijl fe^r fd)on gefc^rieien. 

1. The adverbs of time and place often accompany a noun with the 
force of an attribute : SJor Scnem broben jlc^t gebucft, ber ^elfcn Icl^rt unb ^Ufe 
Widt (F. 1009-10). ©wrg V. (ber %imftt), etn|l Stonx^ »oji |>aimotcr, flart im 


2. The adverb stands as a predicate : Ibit ^^dnen Stittn «on Kraniue) 
flnb nun torftber (Soh.). Die S^flr ifl ju (one can sapply ^gema^t*)* Der or 
bem 9)^ini'f!eT ifl ni(^t n)o^U 

a. Do not oonfomid gut and wo^I. Except in a few cases, m In »o^l t^un« to do 
good, »o^I does not qnalify a transitiTe yerb. We do not say In German tooffi f^rct^en, 
»o^( anhooTten, too^l anfangen in the sense of English " well." (5c f^ai ti »o^( gef^rie^en 
means " he wrote it, indeed, (I assure yoa) *' ; or it is concessive and can mean : " to be 
sore he wrote it, bat then — ." In the last sense mo^l has no stress. 

8. With adjectives or participles used as noons that are felt rather as 
snlistantiyes than as adjectives or as derived from a verb, the adverb 
changes to an adjective: ein na^ l^eroanbter > ein na^er Senvanbter; ein 
imtm 93efannteT > ein intimer 93efannter. But compare Goethe's famous line : 
Da0 Soig^SBetMid^e jie'^t und ^inan. 

300. An adverb may strengthen the force of a preposition 
by standing before or after the preposition + case. This is 
always the case when the adverb is the prefix of a separable 
compound verb: rittgd urn tie @tatt (Return), mitten Wxij ten 
SQalD, in tad Dorf ^inein, and tern ®arten ^eraud* Sd ritten tret 
Sfteiter jum S^ore ^inaud (Uh. ). 

1. Mark the adverbs which are only adverbs and not adjectives : 

loo^lf faf!» f(^on# fe^r, neuUd^, freili^r fru^ (rare), fpat (rare), haVb, and others. 

2. The uninflected comparative and superlative of adjectives serve 
also as adverbs. Notice the difference between auf + A. and an + D. 
@ie fangen auf bad bef!e (Uh.), they sang as best they knew how. This is 
abwluU superlative. @ie fangen 9m beflen» they sang best of all, any. This 
is relative superlative. 


301. The prepositions express the relations of a noun to a 
verb or to another noun. 

1. Prei)OBit1onB are originally adverbs, and the distinction between prepositions, 
adverbs and conjanctions is only syntactical. (Denn is, for instance, a conjanction = 
for, and an adverb = then, than ; to&^renb is a conjanction = while, and a preposition 
= during. Prepositions conld not originally *' govern " cases. A certain case was 
called for independently of the preposition, then still an adverb. In Greek there are 
prepositions governing three cases, which shows how loose the connection between 
case and preposition was. hi fact nearly all adverbs, old and new, can be traced back 


to cases of nouns or pronouns. They are isolated or *' petrifled" eases, and as sach 
coold only stand in the loosest connection with the living cases, which they gndnaUy 
began to " goyem." 

S. Prepositions can govern different cases in different periods of the langoage. 
The preposition has been partly the caose of the loss of case-endings. Its function 
becomes the more important the more nninflectional (analytical) a language becomes. 
It is one of the most difficult and subtle elements to master in the study of a living 
language. For another reason the preposition is very important, via., the preposition 
-f case has supplanted and is continuing to snpphtnt the case alone, directly dependent 
upon a verb or noun. The two together are much more expressive and explicit than 
a case alone. In <Die fiiebe bed SaterS, the genitive may be subjective or objective, but 
there is no ambiguity about bie Siebc jnm Satcr, bed iBaterd Siebe lum @o^ne. 

Classifigation and Treatment of the Pbepositionb AccoBDnra 

TO THE Cases thet Goyebn. 

302. Prepontions goyeming the Oenitive: 

UntDeit, mittete, Iraft unt ma^renb; (aut, i9erm&ge, ungea^tet; oUt^ 
^alb m(^ unter^db ; inner^alb vM auf er^att ; Me^fettd, ienfeUd, l^oKen, 
toegm ; flatt, au^ langd, sufolge, tro^« 

These are all cases of substantives or adjectives (participles) and their 
number might be easily increased, e.g., by (e}flgli(^, with reference to ; 
an$e|!(i^t0, in the face of; feittnd, on the part of ; inmitteiw in the midst of, 

(The order is the one in wliich they are given in German grammars. Tbe semicolon 
shows the ends of the lines of the doggerel.) 

We comment in alphabetical order briefly upon those that seem to xequire comment. 
Often a mere translation will suffice. 

1. Slnflatt, an — fitttt, fiatt, + instead of. Draii* (from which, 
from whose breast) flat! bcr gotbencn Cieber tin ©lutfhrajl ^od^ ouf fprin9t(Uh.). 
^n Xod^ter fiatt, in daughter's stead, ©tatt sometimes with the dative. It 
also governs an infinitive like o^ne, translated by " without + participle." 
See Infinitive, 291, 1. 

2. augcrjalb + outside of; inntxf^alh + hislde of; obcT^aU, 
above; unttx^alh on the lower side of, below. They are all more 
expressive than the simple forms. They rarely govern the dative. 

8. X) i e # f t i t (9), i ( n f e i t (9), this side of, on the other side, beyond. 
Rarely with the dative. 

4. $aUen# f^al^tx, f^al^, on account of , + in behalf of. FoUows 


it8 case. Frequent in composition : hUf^Xb, therefore ; meinet^oKeiw on my 
l)ehalf ; 9Uer9 $aU(r# on account of age. Comp. toegcn and toiSen* 

5. it raft, according to, by virtue of. Stxaft M (Sefe^ed ; fraft M 
5Imted. Formerly only in Jlraft,«.^.,ba§ (lew bnliebfie(@oitt) . ♦ ♦ In Stxaft 
aflein bed 9iingd# bad $aupt> ber Bflrfl bed l^aufed toerbe (Le.). Comp. laut. 

6. 2 ant, from, ^na^ ^aut," lautd (Luther), means "according to,* 
" by." Sant 8efe^U» by command ; laut bed Xeflamentedr according to the 
last will and testament. 

Plural nouns without articles in which the genitive could not be dis- 
tinguished stand in the dative : laut 8riefen# according to letters, fiaut 
means literally according to a verbal or written statement ; fraft gives a 
moral reason. 

7. flftitttli, mittelfi (most common), )»ermittelfl# by means of, 
with. 3)littelfl eined |>ammeTd# eined So^rerd. It is more expressive than 
mit or bur(^. Barely with the dative. 

8. D h, rare and archaic. With genitive if causal (on account of) ; 
with dative if local (above), and temporal (during), ^a oeinten iufammen 
bie ^renabier^ n)o^I ob ber fl&glid^en itunbe (Heine). Db bem )Q3alb; nib bem 
SBalb (Sch., Tell) ; ob bem Slltare (id.). 

9. X r $» with genitive and dative, in defiance of, in spite of ; in the 
sense of **in rivalry with," *'as well as," always with the dative. Srojj 
bed Mtigen IRegend fu^ren toix ab. ^ie ©dngerin jlngt tro^ einer ^lad^ti^aU, as 
well as a nightingale. Comp. the forms i\x or )um Xro^e preceded by a 
dative : ^ir fium Xro^e fii^r er fort }u lefenr in defiance of me or to defy me 
he continued reading. 

10. Unangefe^enf setting aside, unbefd^abetr without detriment to, 
ungead^tet, notwithstanding (very frequent). The last two also with a 
preceding dative; bemungead^tet is felt as an adverb. These are very 
modem prepositions. Unioeitf unfern# not far from, occur also with 

11. ^ ixmi^t, in virtue of, through, in consequence of, by dint of. 
Denotes a reason springing from a quality of the subject : t^ermiige feiner 
SReblid^feitr through his honesty. We could not say fraft feiner 0^.; i^ermdge 
(and not fraft) grof er 9[n|lrengungen» by dint of great efiforts. (Perhaps from 
»na(^ 9)erm6den**) 

12. SB & ^ r e n by during. Sometimes with the dative : to^(renbbem» 

18. 9B e d e Ur on account of, both preceding and following the noun ; 


alflo with the dative. SBtgen denotes also a motive and an impediment. 
@eintr ®rd§e toegtn fonnte ha€ ®c^if rti^t bur^ btn StamL ^er duller max 
soegen feiner Bt&xft btru^mt. 9Begen from )»oii — toegen, still common in ^voit 
Slte^td oegen," strictly, in justice. 

14 S3 ill e It/ generally u m — tt> i U e n^ denotes the purpose, the ad- 
vantage or interest of a person. Um meiner 9{u^e totSen ttd&xta ®ie ^ 
beutltc^er (Sch.). Um M @o^ned toillenr um mdntmiUm, for the sake of or in 
the interest of the son, for my sake. SBegeiw ^Vbtn, and loiScn aU appear 
with pronouns, and are used promiscuously. 

15. 3 n f ( g €/ as frequently with the dative, denotes the result, ** in 
consequence of." dufolgt bed Suftragedr in consequence of the commission ; 
ben ll^erabrebungen }ttfoIger in accordance with the verhal agreements. 

Prepositions goyeming the Dative. 

303. @^retb: mit, nad), nad^fl, nebfi, famt; [eit, )9on, gu, lutoi'ltt; 
entgcgen, au§er, aui — jleU mit bem Dotto ntcber. 

1. ^ 16/ still used in the Alemanic dialect (Baden, Switzerland) as a 
preposition. In business style it denotes the place from which merchan- 
dise is delivered or the time affcer which anything is to be had : ab ^m* 
burg, ab SReujabr, ah = "all aboard." 

2. ^ u d denotes the starting point of a motion, the opposite of in + 
accusative, = "out of," "from": 9[u« ben Slugen, au* bem ©inn, "out of 
sight, out of mind " : au« bem Senfler fe^en, to look out of the window. 
Origin and descent: and alten deitenr from olden times; aui ^annot^er, 
from Hanover. Material : aud Se^m, of day ; and 9?e^l, of meaL Motive : 
avLi ?Kltleib, ^a^, from pity, hatred. Origin also in and Crfabrung, from 
experience ; and ^erfe^enr by mistake. Notice the idiom : and Stein geburttg, 
a native of Cologne, bom in C. 

8. STuger, outside of, beside, the opposite of In + dative. Denotes 
also exception and " in addition to." More frequent in the figurative than 
in the local sense, because au§et^lb is more precise. Sfuger bem ^nfe, not 
at home ; ttnjer ^fe fpelfen, to dine out ; anger (1(^ fein, to be beside one's 
self. 9hir ber ©etter ttar anger mtr ba. Mark once the genitive anger Sanbed 
^l^en, to go to foreign parts ; also the accusative in auger alien 3tt>«ifel fe$en# 
•o put beyond all doubt. (@e^en being a verb of motion.) 

4. © e i. Original meaning is nearness, hence by, near, with : bel ber 
<5(ieune» near (by) the bam ; bet ber 3:ante, near the aunt or at the house of 




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^22 SYNTAX HP TTjp ^r,„ 



from the writers of the French Romantic School — 1824-1848. 

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the aunt ; beim Qm9, by Jore ; Me ^d^lad^t Ui S5rt$, the battle of W. ; (ei 
Xifi^ feittr to be at dinner ; Ui %a^ unb bet 9ta(tt# by day and by night ; (ei 
(einem) 9tamtn nennenr to call by name (but Qriebri^ m i t 9tamcn> Frederic 
by name) ; bet (rare) neunjig Q^efangeneitr about ninety prisoners ; Ui Strafe 
9on itJfn ^axt, ten marks fine. 3(^ ^U fetn ®elb bei mix, I have no money 
about me. The accosative stands in bei Seite legen^ bringenf fleUeiti to lay, 
put aside. In M. H. G. after verbs of motion regularly the accusative, 
but in the spoken language now discarded, though still found in the 

5. Sinneitr sometimes with genitive, expresses now time only, 
" within " : binnen bret Sabreur within three years. <h6 — innen. 

6. Sntge'gen denotes approach, both friendly and hostile, towards 
and against ; stands generally after its case. SBir gingen bem Qreunbe ent^ 
gegen; fiibren bem SBinbc entgegen. With verbs of motion it frequently forms 
separable compounds and is really more adverb than preposition. 

7. ® e g e n it' b e r» opposite, facing ; generally after its case ; rarely 
gegen — iiber. !Dem ©(Jblofle gegenilber. 

8. ® e m d fir preceding and following its case, according to, in accord- 
ance with ; really an adjective, ^em S^erfpre^en ^tm&i, according to the 
promise; gem&g bem &t^t^, according to the law. It is more definite 
than nac^* 

9. ^ i t means " in company with," " with " ; denotes presence, ac- 
companying circumstances and instrument, ^rm in ^rm mit bir^ fo forbVe 
idb mein ^a^rbunbert in bie S^ranfen (Sch.). !IRtt ffreuben, gladly; eile mit 
©eiler hasten slowly ; mit gug unb SRetbt, justly (emphatic) ; mit ber Beit 
pflflcft man ffto^n, in due time . . . ; mit d^tii, intentionaUy ; mit bem 9)fei(, 
bem Sogen (Sch.). (See mitteU, 302, 7.) 

10. 9^ a c^ denotes originally a " nearness to," being an adjective (nabe); 
then "a coming near to," and generally corresponds to Eng. "after" in 
point of time, order. With verbs of motion (literal and figurative) " to " 
and ** after." SHadb ettt)a« flrebenr ^^ febnen, to strive after, long for ; nad^ SWit- 
tema^t ; na^ bir fomme i(^# it is my turn after your ; nac^ ©erlin reifen. " In 
accordance with," not so expressive as i»gem&§»* in this sense often after 
its case, fla^ ben ®efe^en verbient er ben %eh ; bem SBortlaute na^, literally. 
Aim: nacib etwad fc^lagen, fcbie^enr to strike at, shoot at. 9{a(b ettt>ad f(bmecFenr 
Tie(ben# etc., something has the smell, taste of; nac^ etn>ad urteilenr to judge 
by ; nad^ et»a^ or iemanb f(4i(fen# to send for. (See ju and gem^p.) 


11. 9{ d (^ fl is the superlative of na^e (na^)f and denotes very close 
nearness to in place, order, = + " next to." dunac^fl has no different force. 
Unb nai^fl bem £eben toad crfle^fl bu bir? (G.). 

12. 9^eb|l denotes very loose connection and connects also things 
and persons not necessarily belonging together; \amt, on the other hand, 
only what naturally belongs together, ^uf einer Stance trSgt f!e einen $ut 
nebfl einer ^al^m (Sch.) (a hat and a banner). < nebenfl < L. G. nevens, 

13. Sam t, mtt famt, $u famtr " together with.'* fEftiib famt meinem gaiQen 
^cere bring^ ic^ bem ^er^og (Sch.). See nebfl. It implies a close union, which 
does not lie even in mit* 

14. <Bti t, older flntf = + since, denotes the beginning of an action and 
its duration to the present moment. Sett btefem Sage fti^toetgt tnir ieber 
3)7unb (Sch.). (£r ifl herein felt me^reren Stunben (id.), it is several hours since 
he came in (into the city). @eit eintgen Barren ^a^U er feine Sinfejii For sev- 
eral years he has paid no interest. 

15. S3on,** from/' denotes the starting point of a motion or action in 
time and place. Its case is often followed by another preposition or by 

l^er. 9$ on ber f>anb in ben SRunb; »on SBorten fam'd gu S^Ugenr from words 
they came to blows. Son Dflent bid ^flngften ifl f^iig Sage* Origin: 
Saltier »on ber Sogelweibe. d^xft 9on 8{dmar(f. ^err 9on ©(^nlcinbttrg. 
Hence i9on in the names of persons denotes nobility : ^en I90n @o mib @o. 
Son 3ugenb auf; 9on ®runb aud» thoroughly ; 9011 Dfien l^er. Separation : 
freir rein t^on etwad. Supplants the genitive : ein fBlam wn df^xt, »on grogen 
jfenntniffen ; ber 9)5bel "oon 3)arid. Denotes the personal agent : SBaOenfhtn 
tourbe t^on ^iccolomtni ^intetgangen unb ]»on ^itlvx ©eneralen tm ®ti(^e (in the 
lurch) gelaffen. Notice : Sd^urfe i9on einem SBirt (Le.). Cause : nag )»om 
(with) Saur t9oni 9{egen. 

16. du denotes first of all the direction toward a person (but nad^ 
toward a thing) + " to " : )u jemanb ge^enr fommen» fDred^en^ etc. Sit fang }u 
ii^rn* f!e fprac^ in i^m (G.). du jtd^ fommen, ** come to'* ; etnKid jn {{<i^ fle(fen# to 
put something in your pocket. (This is its only use in O. H. G. In 
M. H. G. its use spread.) In dialect and in poetry it stands before names 
of cities and towns (= at). Qu ©tra§burg auf ber ©d^ina (Folk-song). 3Jr 
fetb metn ®a|l )u ^Bd^mi (Sch.). 

In certain very numerous set phrases and proverbs $tt stands before 
names of things. Direction: ]»on Drt su Dxt, from place to place; }tt 
S3ett(e)» iur itirc^er m S^vXt, )u ©runbe^ ju 9tate ge^n = "take council"; 


many loose oompounds with fa^ren; su %aU, gu ^tattcn^ iu €>4abcn> su (Enbe> 
gu @^rm fommen; su Sc^anbettr git 9{i4te toerben. 

Place where?: i,)u beiben Seiten bed 9{^eln9« (Song) ; in ^au\t, lUX ^(inb 
fetn; ^u B^figen Itegen. Maimer of motion : |u Satib, gu fBafftx, )u fPferb (su 
fftoi), lu SBagen^ gu Suf = Eng. "by" and *'on." Transition or change : 
|um StM^ ma4en# to&ijiltn, entennen ; jum fRarrtitr )um kflen ^bcn* to make a 
fool of. Degree or size, numbers : )um %til, in part ; su f>unberteni by the 
hundred ; gu breien toaren tvlr im dimmerr there were three of us in the 
room ; ym, Sobe betrfibt (G.), sad unto death. Combination of things : 
SJe^men Sle nic 9>feffcr, <Satj ober ©enf ju (with) bcm (£i? Dfl ^att^ tr faum 
SBafTer su ©d^tDarjbrot unb Surfl (BU.). Notice the use of ju before nouns 
followed by j^inein^ ^eraud^ etc.: )um X^oxt ^inaud; sum Qenfler ffttau^. Time 
(rare) : Unb hmmt er nid^t gu Dflerni fo fommt er jit S^rinita't (Folk4K)ng). After 
the noun = " in the direction of," *• toward " : bem ©orfe ^vi, toward the 
village ; na^ bem SDorftr to the village. 

Prepositions governing the Acousative: 

304. 8U, tur^, fur, gegen, o^ne, fonter, urn, »ilicr» 

1. 93 i dr till, until, denotes the limit in time and space. When denot- 
ing space it is followed by other prepositions, except before names of 
places. The nouns of time rarely have an article or pronoun. fd\€ 8afl«- 
na^t ; bi^ and (£nbe aller X)inge ; bid l^ier^er unb ntd^t n>eiter ; bid an ben ^eHen 
Xag ; neunjig bid ^unbert ^ait; bid Sdraunf^oeid* (a3id <I>i -{■ az, -^ Eng. 
by + at.) 

2. I)ur^# + ** through," denotes a passing through : burd^ ben 2Balb# 
bur(^d 9{abeI6bT. Extent of time (the case often followed by btnbur(i^): 
bur^ 3abTie^nte ^tnburd^; bie ganje Beit (btn)burd6. Cause and occasion, very 
much like and ; burd^ 9{ac^l&ff!gfeitr bur^ eigene ^d^ulb. Means: burd^ einen 
9)feil i^enounbenr burd^ einen Dienflmann beforgen, attend to through a porter. 
(t£)ur(b more definite than miU See this and mitteld. It denotes now no 
longer the personal agent.) 

8. 9ux, + for, denotes advantage, interest, destination : SBer nid^t fiir 
ml4 x% if! ttiber mtc^ (B.). dx fammelt ffir bie SIrmen* Die ©d^cere ifl fein Spiel^ 
jeug fur itlnber. Die ©a^rbeit ijl »orbanben fiir ben SBelfen, bie ©d^anbelt fiir ein 
fitblenb ^erj (Sch.). Substitution and price : Da trltt fein anberer fur i^n ein 
(Sch.). 2Reln Ceben \\t fur ®olb nl*t fell (Bil.). Limitation : 3d) plr meine 
9>erfon. ®enu3 Pxjbiefed 3Wal, Sbt seigtet einen fetfen SKut ... fur eure Sabre 
(Sch.). ^tiitf fiir @tittf, point by point. In its old sense (local) only in 
certain phrases : @(^ritt f&r (by) (Sc^ritt^ Sag f&r (by) Xa^, @a^ fUr (after) 
@a$* (See i»or.) 


4. ® e g e n denotes " direction toward," bnt with no idea of approach 
that lies in }U and m^. It implies either friendly or hostile feeling if 
persons are concerned = " towards,'* ** against" ®cgtn bie SBanb le^nni; 
gegen ben ©trom fc^totmmen. fBkm i(^ mv^ dtegtn fte i»crpflt(^ten foS# fo muffcn jtc'd 
aud)de9tntni^ (Sch.). ®iM t« cin Slittcl gegen bie S^tombfu^t ? i&t^mt>vam* 
(eit fampfm hotter felbfl verge^end. Exchange, comparison : 3^ totttt (tmbort 
gegen rind. ffteXavb xoax ein Qxotx^ gegni ben Sl^iefcn. Indefinite time and num- 
ber : " towards." Der ^xatUt fc^Iief erfl gegtn Storgen ein. 2)er 9elb^ ^tie 
gegen brei^unbert taufenb Solbaten. ®egen bret U^r. (S^egen once governed the 
dative almost exclasively and traces of it are still found in Goethe. 

® e n is still preserved in irgen ^immel.'' ®en < gen < ffein < gegtny 
+ again. See entgegen^ which implies a motnal advance. 

6. D i n e, " without," the opposite of »mit,* •^ei.* SRit ober ojne itlaufel, 
gilt mir gleic^ (Sch.), ** With or without reserve, it is all the same to me." 
CEtn Slitter ol^ne Qurd^t unb S^abel. In irO^nebem'' is a remnant of the D. in 
M. H. G. ; )n>eifeldol^ne of the G. occurring after the M. H. G. adverb dne, 
from. (Sttoad ifl ni(^t o^ner there is something in it (Coll.). Df^ne ai Com- 
position, see 489, 3 ; + infinitive, see 291, 1. 

6. ©onbetr "without," is now archaic except in set pnrases like 
•fonber ®lci(!&en,* irfonber Swcifel,* "without compare," " no doubt," + Eng. 
asunder. Once governed the accusative and genitive. 

7. Unir ** around," " about." Unb bie ©omie, fie mad^te ben »eiten aiitt am 
bie SBelt (Amdt). Unb urn i^n bie ®ro§en ber itrone (Sch.). ^ix or ^erum often 
follows the case : 3n einem ^albfreid flanben urn i^n \n fed^d ober fieben grogc 
itonigdbilber (Sch.). It denotes inexact time or number : Urn ^ittemad^t 
begrabt ben Seib (Bil.). Urn brei bunbert ^orerr an audience of about three 
hundred. (®egen is rather " nearly," nm means more or less.) But irum 
brei»iertel fSnf* means "at a quarter to five." "At about" would be 
wungeffibr urn* or mVLxei ttngeffi^r,* e.g., ungefabr um 6 Uljr. It denotes further 
exchange, price, difference in size and measure : Sug^ urn Suge* d<^^n um 
3abn (B.). mt9> ijl eu* fcil um ®elb (Sch.). Um jtDci Soli |U flrtn. (£r ^t 
(Id^ um jtt>ei 3>fenmge »erre(%net. Ijoss and deprivation : um^« Ceben bringen, to 
kill ; um^d ®elb fommen, to lose one's money. Da ©ar'd um i^n gefi^ebn (G.), 
He was done for. ffier brad^te mid^ brum ? (um betne Siebe) (P. 4496), Who 
robbed me of it? It denotes the object striven for: vm. ettt>ad toerbenf 
fpielen# frttgen* bitten, Iheiten, beneiben, etc. The object <if care, mourning, 
weeping : SDein^ um ben 8ruberr bod^ nidftt um ben ©eliebten meine (Sch.). ^^^^^ 
»)dr'« um eure (Hiare (id.). SRid^t um biefe t^ut'4 mir leib (id.). 


8. 9B i b e r» " agunst " always in the hostile Bense. Denotes resistaaoe 
and contrast : 9Bad ^ilft und Se^r unb Safe n)iber ben? (Sch.). <£^ ge^t i^m 
loibcr bU fflatax, It goes against his grain ; + Eng. '* with " in withstand. 

Prepontions governing the Dative and Aoonsative. 

305. an, auf, winter, in, nefcen, fiber, unter, t)or, jwifi^ett. 

1. In answer to the question whither? they require the 
accasative. In answer to the question where? the dative. 
y^an^t tie S&ume )>or ta^ ^aud. X:ie Saume fie(en ^ov tern ^aufe. 

2. In answer to the question how long and until when ? 
they require the accusative. In answer to the question when ? 
the dative : 3nt ^af^tt 1872 toutu ©trapburg »ieoer old teutf^e 
Uni)>er{ltat erbffhet. SBir reifen auf ^oieqe^n Sage ind Sat« 

3. When an, auf, in, iiier, unter, )>or denote manner and cause, 
then auf and fiber always require the accusative, but an, in, unter, 
loor generally the dative, in answer to the questions how and 
why? SBir freuen un« fiber (= over) and auf (= looking for- 
ward to) feine ?lnfunfl. Sluf tiefe SBeife, but in ttefer JCeife* 
Der Settler toeinte )>or Sreuten fiber tie l^errlid^e ®abt. 

The above general rales, as giyen in Eiaase'a grammar, will be found of mocfa 
practical yalne. 

306. 1. %n + Dative. 

After noons and adjectiveB of plenty and want : ^an^tX an ®tlb» rei^ on 
®fitent. After adjectives when the place is mentioned where the quality 
appears : an Mben B^ilpen Ia^m» an einem Kuge blinb. After verbs of rest, 
increase or decrease, and after those denoting an immediate contact 
or a perception : %n ber DueUe fap ber ^ndbt (Sch.). <S^ fe^It an SBuc^em. 
^er Sudtoanberer Utt am SBed^felflebeT* ^er did^uner f&btt ben SB^ren an finer 
Sttttu 'Jbm S^ogel erfennt man an ben ffebem (Prov.). It denotes an office 
and time of day : am S^eateir an bet Unit^erflt^t^ am 9(mte angefleUt feim to 
hold an office at ... ; am 9){orgett# 9lbenb| ed ifl an ber Seil * « « # it is 
time . • • • 


2. 9n + AoeuBatire. 

After benfai# (runicro# mal^nen and similar ones, and verbs of motion, 
^enfet an bm ^uf^m, ni^t an tie ®efa^r* @e^ ®ie f!(^ bo^ and %tnfttt (near 
the window). Inexact number: an bie brei mal ^unbcrt laufenb Vlarm. (as 
many as). From its English cognate "on" on differs very much in 
meaning. *' On " generally is auf. See also 300, 2. 

3. 9uf + "upon/' For auf + Dative, see 305, 1, 2, 3. 
It denotes rest or motion upon the surface. 

9 u f + Accusatiye. 

Stands after verbs of waiting, hoping, trusting, etc, e.g., auf ttioa9 
xoaxttn, ^ojfcn, jt<^ befinncn (recall), gefagt ftin, f\^ frtacn (see 305, 3), versi^tow 
(ed) auf ttma€ xoa^m, ^dren. Here it stands generally for the old gen. with> 
out preposition. 3(^ fann mi^ anf bie gcnanen Unt^&ibe ni^t Itfinnm, I cannot 
recall ... 2)er ^unb wartet auf fein Sreffcn. Wtttft anf bie SS^orte bed 2e^TCT9. 
Xro^t ni^t anf euer fftt^t (Sch.). After adjectives denoting pride, envy, 
anger, malice, e.g., eiferfn^tig, netbtfi^, floli, bdfe, erbofl: eiferffit^tid auf feine 
G^re (Sch.) ; M auf feme Unfi^nlb; erbofl auf ben dkfangenen (iiber would mean 
cause). Exact time, limit, and measure ; often with »bt9.« Here belongs 
the superlative, see 300, 2. a3td aupd SInt. fbii auf Speif unb 2:ran! 
(Le.). (£0 ifl ein SJiertel auf brei, a quarter past two. 5(nf bie SKinn'te, 
©efu'nber auf S^uitotitt, at shooting distance. SB id auf bie 9{etger to the 
last drop. Suf fleben f^on eined tt)ieber (Le.). (Nathan had ** toward " or 
" as a return for " his seven dead sons one child in Becha.) Suf eine Wtad 
ge^en l^unbert ^fenntge* 

4. $ i tt t e r + " behind," opposite of „wr." See 305, 1, 2. 

It denotes inferiority : Die franj5f!f(^e SfrttUerie ftanb meit ^btter ber bentf^en 
luriidE (ambiguous, either stood far back of the G. or was much inferior to 
the G.). Notice the following idioms : fld^ Winter enoad ma^tUt to go at with 
energy. 3(1^ fann nid^t babinter fommen, I cannot understand it. (Sd l^tnter 
ben D^ren l^aben, to be sly (oolL) ; Winter bie O^ren fd^lagen# to give a box on 
the ear ; M ^^^^ ^^^^ ^i^ D^ren fd^tetben^ to mark well 

5. 3tt + in, into (A.). 

The German and English prepositions are more nearly identical than 
any other two. See 305, 1, 2. 


3n + Aoousative. 

Denotes direction, including transition, change, division : CDeim ber 
fieib in Staub ittfaUtn, Uht ber groge 9^anie no4 (Sch.). Deutf(^(anb jcrrif auf 
biefem 9tei(!bdtage in imi fftdi^ie'mn unb itt>ei )>oUtir(be ^artti'en (id.). 

6. ^titn, near, by the side o£ See 305, 1, 2. < eneben, 
lit, "in a line with," 

7. fiber + over, above. See 305, 1, 2, 3. 
fiber + Aoousative. 

After verbs denoting rule and superiority over, e.g., ^errfdjettr ^t%tru 
verfiiden (dispose) ; laughter, astonishment, disgust, in general an expres- 
sion of an affection of the mind, e.g., Hihtt tnoad lad^tn, erflauneUr {14 • • , U* 
flagenrfld^ . • « entriifleni fld^ ^rgern. (For an older simple genit.) j^arl ber ®roge 
flegte iibcr bie ©ad^fen. !Dae Jeflament Jjerplgt fiber ein grof e0 ©ermagen. ®le 
fhifrte ber 9)3bel iiber bie neuen Ciore'en (G.). Die Oefangenen bcflagen |i(^ fiber 
ibre a3ebanblung. fiber fein Senebmen babe i($ mi4 re(bt ge^rgert. It denotes 
time and excess in time, number, measure : fiber^d ^at^x, a year hence, 
only in certain phrases, duration : fiber ^ad^t, bie 9{acbt fiber* !Z>en ®abbatb 
iiber oaren fie fUlIe (B.). fiber ein Sa^x, more than a year (ambiguous, 
either " more than a year" or " a year hence "). fiber brei taufenb ifanonem 
fiber aUe Segriffe f^dn» beautiful beyond comprehension. 

When It denotes duration or simultaneousness, or when the idea of 
place is still felt, then the dative follows ; when it denotes the reason 
then the accusative follows. This is dear when the same noun stands 
in both cases, as in 3(b bin fiber bem 8u(^e eingefd^lafen^ means " while reading 
it I fell asleep." 34 bin fiber bad Oud^ eingeft^lafen means " it was stupid, 
therefore I fell asleep." fiber ber SBefi^reibung ha ftergefT i^ ben ganjen itrieg 
(Sch.). ®d)abe, bag fiber bem fcbbnen 9Ba(n bed £ebend befle ^dlfte babin ge^t 

Notice )0on etoad and fiber etoad n)red^en. 3d^ (abe ba)»on gef^rod^en^ I have 
mentioned it. 3($ ^U barfiber gef^ro^en^ I have treated of it, spoken at 

8. U n t e r + under. See 305, 3. 

In the abstract sense this rule holds good. It denotes protection, in- 
feriority, lack in numbers (Dative, opposite of fiber), mingling with, con- 
temporaneous circumstance (D.). It stands for the partitive genit. 
(= among). Unter bem ©cbufte. !Der gelb»ebel flebt nnter bem Dfflder. ®er 
t»iQ nnter bie 6obaten» ber • « . ^ he who wants to become a soldier (Folk- 


Bong). (St ifl bntnter gebliebnw he did not Teach the nomber. (Samurai 
dffnete fetnem Cnbtfc^ofe unter (amid) frcubigtm durufe bte Xffen xoithtx (Sc1l.)> 
SDer untcr (among) biefen (D.) rcu^t an unfern Srteblanb Y (Sch.) (von bieftn would 
be " of these "). It denotes time when none of the exactor modes of ex- 
pressing time is used : SGBir fmb gebortn unter glei^en ©ttrntn (Sch.). Unter 
ber SRegterunfi ber j^onigin Sictoria = in the reign ; wd^renb implies not a sin- 
gle act, but a commensurate duration, = during. Der ©afrifto'n f^Iief 
tvci^renb ber ^rebigt, but ging unter ber |)rebi0t ^inaud* In irttnterbeffenf" and 
other compounds of that class, inbeffen# etc., the gen. is probably adverbial 
and not called for by the preposition. 
See }n>tfd^en. 

9. S r + before, in front of. See 305^ 1, 2, 3. 
S r + Dative. 

Introduces the object of fear and abhorrence : itein (Sifengitter f^fi^^t i»or 
i^rer Sifl (Sch.). ^or geoiflfen d^rinnerungen xaJ^i* US^ mii^ gem (uten (id.). 3Rix 
grant 9or btr. Time before which anything is to happen or has happened : 
Der itonig ift gefonnem ^tx 9(benb in Slabrib no(^ einiUtTeffen (Sch.). Sor breifig 
3a(ren# thirty years ago. Sl^ox ac^t Xagen# a week ago. Hindrance and 
cause : !Z>te (S)rogmutter utrb ^ox itummer flerben (Sch.). ^Den SBalb ^ex tauter 
93aumcn nic^t fe^n (Prov^.). Sor ^ungerr «or !£urfl flerben. Preference : s»or 
aUen Dingenr above all things ; l^nli^ ^9X alien. 

^ox and fur are doublets and come from fora and furi respectively. In 
M. H. Q,fur + A. answered the question whither? «ar + D. the ques- 
tion where ? In N. H. G. they were confounded, even in Lessing very 
frequently, but in the last seventy years the present syntactical difference 
has prevailed. Goethe and Schiller rarely confound them 

10. 3t»if^en. 

" Between " two objects in place, time, and in the figurative sense. 9tein 
nitt§ t€ bleiben smifd^en mir unb i^nt (Sch.). ^ie SBolfenfSuIe fam stttf(^en bad ^eer 
ber Sd9pter unb bad |>eer 3draeld (B.). See 305, 1, 2 ; also unter = among, 
sub 8. 


307. The conjunctions are divided : 1. Into the coordinat- 
ing, like unb, tenn, etc. ; 2. Into the subordinating, e. g., tveil, 
ba, aU, etc. They are treated in the General Syntax, where 
see the varions clauses. 



308. Subject and verb make up the nmple sentence. This 
sentence may be expanded by complements of the subject and 
of the verb. The subject may be either a substantive, a sub- 
stantive pronoun, or other words used as substantives. The 
attributes of the subjects may be adjective, participle, adjec- 
tive pronouns, numerals. These are adjective attributes. 
Substantives, substantive pronouns, and the infinitive are 
substantive attributes. Their relation to the subject may be 
that of apposition and of coordination; or they may be con- 
nected by the genitive, or by preposition + case in subordi- 
nation. Preposition + case is more expressive than the 
genitive alone, when the subject is to be defined as to time, 
place, value, kind, means, purpose. 

The predicate is either a simple verb or a copula + adjec- 
tive or substantive or pronoun which may be again expanded 
like the subject. The complements of the verb are object and 
adverb. The object is either a noun, substantive pronoun, or 
other words used as nouns. It stands in the accusative, dative 
or genitive, or is expressed by preposition + case. The 
adverb qualifies the verb, adjective, and other adverb. It is 
either an adverb proper or preposition + case of substan- 
tive or what is used as such. It may also be a genitive or an 

309. As to form the main sentences may be divided as 
follows : 

1. Beclarative sentences, which either affirm something of 
the subject or deny something with regard to it. Affirmative : 
Aura ijl Ux ©djmcra unt) cwig i|l Die greuDc (Sch.). Du bafl Dia^ 
ma'tdm unl ^txUn (Heine). Negative : £)ad ititn Ifi ber ©itter 


Ji^^ti tiid^t (Sch.). ®it foQett i^n nid^ ^a(m, tm fretm beutfii^m 
Sl^ein (Beck). 

1. The doable negatiye is still freqaent in the classics and coUo- 
quiallj, but it is not in accordance with correct nsage now : Sttmt £uft von 
feincr Stxtt (Gt., classical). fBtan {!c^t» haf er an nid^td Umtn StnteU ntmmt 
(F. 3489) (said bj Margaret, colL). Alter the comparative it also occors 
in the classics : SBir mitfTen bad Serf in birren n^^flen Xagm n>citer ^jbtm, aid 
ed in 3a^ren rd^t gebie^ (Sch.). 

2. After verbs of "hindering." "forbidding/' « warning," like »«- 
ptnu ^er^inbenu n>amen# 9crbietctt# etc., the dependent daose may contain 
,rnid}U: fitvLx ^iitel ru^, ba§ i^r mir ni^td 9ergU|t (G.). ^imm bi^ in 9(i^t, tag 
bi(^ 9la4e ni^t )>(rb(rbe (Sch.). 

8. When the negative does not affect the predicate, the sentence maj 
still be affirmativ& Sti^t mir, ben eignen Ittgcn rndgt i^r glonben (Sch.). But 
ni(^t mir stands for a whole sentence. 

2. Interrogative sentenees: ^afl tu bad @(!^Io§ gefe^en? (XTh.). 
2Ber rcitet fo fpat burd^ ^lad^t unb SSlnC ? (G.). Double question : 
aCar ber Settler »erru(ft ober war er bttrunfen ? ©laufcjl bu Dad ober 
ni^t ? SBiUfl bu Immer welter fdjweifen ? (G. ). 2Ber »ei§ bad itiAt ? 

For the potential subjunctive in questions, see 284, 8. 
For the indirect question, see 325, 2. 

8. The exclamatory sentence has not an independent form. 
Any other sentence, even a dependent clause, may become 
exclamatory: D, bu S3ate, o i^r Serge briiben mie feib i^r fo jung 
geblieben unD i^ Mn worben fo aU! (Uh.). T^i ifl bad Sod Ded 
@^5nen auf ber (Srbe ! (Sch.). ^a^ lanV (owe) i^ iim niAt aUU I 
(id.). SQie ber Stnait gewa(^fen ifl I 

For the imperative and optative sentences, see 284, 2 ; 286. 

310. Elliptical clanses generaUy contain only the predicate 
or a part of it, including the object or adverb. ®uten SRorgen ! 
®elt ! Truly I ©etroffen ! You have hit it I Sangfam ! ® d^neU ! 
etc. It is very frequent in the imperative, see 287. 

Proverbs often omit the verb : SJicl ®cf(^rci unb ttcntg SEBolIe. ^letne 
jlinbetr fletne ©orgen; gTO§e ^xvbtx, grofe @0Tden. See 309, 3, in which the 
last examples are really dependent questions. 


Concord of Subject and Predicate. 

311. The predicate (yerb) agrees with the subject in num- 
ber and person. 

Two or more subjects (generally connected by unt) require 
a verb in the plural : Unttr ten Snmeienten wed^feln gur^t unt 
Srflauntn (Sch.). Do^ an tern ^eqen nagten mix itt Unmut luit tie 
©treltbeflier (id.). 

1. If the subjects are oonoeiyed as a unit and by a license ^Toater in 
German than in English, the verb maj stand in the singular ; also in the 
inverted order if the first noun is in the singular. Ex. : SBad ifl bad fiir 
tin aXttnn# bag i^m SBinb unb SKecr ge^orfam ifl (B.). SV fP^e^e ^^^ unb ^a^ 
mU, etc. (Sch.). <Da fontmt ber fBtixUtt unb feinr ihir^te* By license : (Sagm 
unb X^un if! sn>rierlei (ProT.). S>ad SRidtrauen unb bie (Elferfu^t . . . rmad^te 
loXb mieber (Sch.). 

2. The plural verb stands after titles in the singular in addressing 
royalty and persons of high standing. In speaking of ruling princes the 
plural also stands. Servants also use it in speaking of their masters 
when these have a title. Ex.: (Sure ((£».) !lRaie|!ditf ^UT(i^lau(^tr SrceQen) 
Befe^Un? (Seine SRaiefl^t ber StaiStt }^Un geru^t, etc. X)er ittx ©e^eime 
ioftat flnb ni(!^t ju ^aufe. X)te ^errfti^aft flnb audge^angen* 

312. After a collective noun the verb stands more regularly 
in the singular than in Eng. Only when this nouin or an in- 
definite numeral is accompanied by a genitive pi., the plural 
verb is the rule. In early N. H. G. (B.) this plural was very 
common. Die ^Rcnge flo^. Mt SCett nlmmt Seil (G.). Unb M^ 
lunge S5oIf ber ©(j^nittcr fKegt aum Sana (Sch.). Mt aWengc teined 
^aufed foQen flerben (B.). 

313. When the subject is a neuter pronoun, ti, bied, tai, 
etc., the neuter verb agrees with the predicate noun or sub- 
stantive pronoun in number: Dad waren mix fellge Sage (Over- 
beck). g« (fnb bie %xixiiU lt>re« S^un« (Sch.). 60 jogen brei 35fler 
mo^I auf bie Sirf(!^ (Uh.). In this case ed is only expletive. SBer 
finb biefe ? 


314. When subjects are connected by entmeber — ober, ni^t 
nur — fontern auc^, meter — noif, fowo^I — aU (audfe), the verb has 
the person and number of the first subject and joins this one 
if the subjects are of different persons. The verb for the 
second subject is omitted. Stttmeber tu ge^fl (or gebjl In) ottr 
iij, Seild mar id) f<i^uto, teito er. Subjects of the same person 
connected by the above correlatives ; by o^tt, nebfl, tnit, famt 
have as a rule a singular verb and the verb joins the second 
subject. Sent Solfe !ann meter S^uer bet nod) SBajfer (Sch.), 
Neither fire nor water can harm those people. 

315. If the subjects are of different persons, the first has 
the preference over the second, the second over the third. 
Moreover, the plural of the respective pronouns is often 
added. !£:er ba unl id), mir flnb an^ Sger (Sch.). Du uitb let 
Setter, (t^r) getit nadj ^aufe* 

The adjective as a predicate or attribute has been sufficiently treated 
under the adjective, see 210-225. 

316. The noun as a predicate agrees with the subject in 
case ; if the subject is a person, also in number and gender, 
but in the latter only when there are special forms for mascu- 
line and feminine. See 167. Ex.: Die 3Beltgef(!^id)te ifl bad 
SBeltgeriAt (Sch.). Die Slot ijl Me SMutter ter firfintiuttg (Prov.). 
!Cad Sl'^atii^en mill ie^ Sraie^erin merten, auerfl moDie fie ©^aufpielerin 

1. If one person is addressed as @ie or 3^r» the substantive stands of 
course in the singular. ^Sit jtnb ein grofer 3){ei|l(r im @(i^iep(n.« Poetic and 
emphatic are such turns aa : SRegierte ffit^t fo laget i^r )»or mir im ©taube ie|t# 
benn id^ bin (£ucr Stbni^ (Sch., spoken bj Maria Stuart). 

317. The substantive in apposition has the same concords 
as the substantive in the predicate, only the rule as to case is 
frequently found unobserved in the best writera SBad 9itn\i^ 
baitb, bie Sringerin bed ®IM^, fann SRard, ter @tern bed Ungliidd 


(AneQ aerreifeti (Sch.). 3^r lennet i^n, ben @d^&)>fer lu^ner ^eere 

The appoBltion maj be emphasized by n&mU4 and aU i S^ntnt M dnen 
0ercif)cii fEftoxm, ^Uatbta mir. 


318. The compound sentence consists of two or more 
clauses, which may be coordinate (of equal grammatical 
yalue) or subordinate (one dependent upon the other). 


We may distinguish various kinds of coordinate sentences, 
T^bich may or may not be connected by conjunction& 

319. Copulative Sentences. The conjunctions unb, auA, 
be^gleid^en, gTei(^faQd, e6enfaQd, and their compounds, bedgleici^en 
auAj'o au(^, e(enfo aud^; nicbt nut — fonbem aud^; niAt aUein — 
fontern au(6 ; fotooU — aU (au(^) ; rotltx — nod^ indicate mere 
parataxis. 3ubem, au§ertent, ttbertied, ia, fogar, la fogar, ^iclme^r 
emphasize the second clauses. Partitive conjunctions are 
tcild — tcite, ^aI6 — ^alb, ^nm ZM — jum Scil. Ordinal con- 
junctions are erflend — j»citen«, etc. ; juerfl — tann — fcrner, 
enblic^, iyAz%i\ bate — kiD. Explanatory are nSmtid^, unb atuar. 
Ex. : Die SKflV tit Heln, ber ©pag i|l flro§ (F. 4049). ^alb m P« 
i^n, l^att fang er ^in (G.). 3d^ tuitt njcber Icugnen nod^ Beft^ftnigcn, 
tag idfe (fc bcrebetc (id.). 9lidf|t aflein bit erjlett ©lutcn faOen ab, 
fonbent aud^ bie Sriid^te (id.). 

1. Notice that the adverbial oonjanctions such as Balb, jule^tr batm^ 
mbrr — no^r ^alb» teUd» etc., always cause inversion. Some admit of 
inversion, but do not require it, «.^., au(!^, crjlend, nfimU(i. The ordinal 
conjunctions and n^mlid^ are frequently separated by a comma, then no 
inversion takes place, (grflend ifl ed fo ber Srauti^, }»eiund toid man^e felber 
auc^ (BuBch). 

320. Adversative Sentences. 1. One excludes the other 
(disjunctive-adversative) : obcr, or, tntweber — ober, fonfl (else), 


antemfaOd, otherwise. Ex.: St (SSallenflein) mu^te entmtber gar 
ni(^t befe^Ien oltv mit t^ollfommentr grti^eit ^antelit (Sch.). One 
contradicts the other (contradictory - adversatiye) : fon^ent, 
))ie(me^r, fontern . . . ^ielme^r. The first clause contains ni^t, 
iroav, freilicb, aDtrtingd, mo^l. <Bo magten fie f!^ nid^t in tie 9ld^t 
tcr gfitttc, fontern feferten un^errid^teter ©acfee ^uriid (Sch.). 

2. The second sentence concedes the statement of the first 
in part or wholly. The first may contain nid^t, etc., as above; 
the second has a6er, often in the connection aitx tod), tennod) 
abtx, abcx gleid^too^I; aMn, iibrigend; nut. SlUein is stronger than 

Mark the contrast between abrr and fonbent# Eng. bat. SBer concedes, 
fonbem contradicts. (£r xoax jtoar nic^t franf, aber bo(^ nid^t ba$u aufgele$t« " bat 
he did not fee] like it." dx wax ni^t fronf, fonbern er mar rmx itt^t ba)u anf" 
gelegt (he only did not feel like doing it). Spirit fbb berufen abcr xotxA^t ftnb 
au^emdi^Iet (B.). X)m Unge^eutrUf ben ®t$antifd^en l^atte man i^n (Q^omeille) 
nennen foUen, aber nic^t ben ®rogen (Le.). SBaffer t^ut^d freili(^ nid^t (It is not 
the water that is effective in baptism), fonbern bad ©ort ®otte«, fo (which) 
mit unb bei bem ©affer If! (Lu.). 

8. The second sentence states something new or different 
or in contrast with the first without contradicting or exclud- 
ing or limiting the same. It occurs commonly in narrative 
and may be called " connexive- or contrasting-adversative. " 
Conjunctions: aber, ^ingegen, tagegcn, iiBriflend, tro^bem, flletd^too^f, 
inl'effen, etc. I:ic Seleitigung ifl grog ; aitx gr5§er ifl feine ®nabe 
(Le.). (S« fci^fint ein SRatfel unD tod> ijt eHelnd (G.). SdijlMe 
fdjbnjle ^offnung; tod^ i|l ed nur cine ^offnung (Sch.). 

321. Causal Sentences, One gives the reason or cause for 
the other. Conjunctions: b(a)ntm, tc^wegen, la^tx, benn, nSmUd), 
etc. The clause containing the reason generally stands 
second, the one beginning with „tenn" always. Notice tcnn, 
"for," always calls for the normal order. Ex.: ©oteaten toaxtn 
teuer, tenn bie iKcnge ge^t na^ bem ®\M (Sch.). Sine DurAIauii^ 
tigfeit laft er fld^ nennen ; brum mug er (Bolbaten fatten f&nnen (id.). 


322. niative Sentences. One sentence is an inference or 
effect of the other. Closely related to the causal Conjunc- 
tions : fo, a'{\o, fomi't, folglici^, mit^i'ti, tt'mnad), etc. 9Reine 9le((te 
(right hand) if} gegen ten Dni(f Itx iitbt ttnem)»f{nt(i4 « * * fo 
(then) feit i^r ®d^ i»on Setlid^ingett (G.). D i e @(mnrn olfo fd^tinett 
itiid nidit me^r (Sch. ). 


323. We shall distinguish three classes of dependent 
clauses, according to the logical value of the part of speech 
they represent: 

1. Substantive clauses, with the value of a noun. 

2. Adjective clauses, with the value of an adjective. 
S. Adverbial clauses, with the value of an adverb. 


324. The dause is subject : £ad Am ifl ter glud^ ter 65fen 
2:(at, ta^ fie fortn)%ent S5fed mu§ geb&ren (Sch.). 9Ri(!^ rruet, tag 
i^'d t^at (id.). Predicate (N.) : Xie 9Renfd)en fint niAtimmer 
toad fie fd^einen (Le.). Object (A.): ®lau6fl tu nid^t, taf eine 
SBarnungdfUmme in Sriiumen torieteutent px nnd fpridbt? (Sch.). 
SBad man fd^maq auf n>ei§ Bef!^, lann man getrofl nad^ ^aufe tragen 
(F. 1966-7). Dative : SBo^I tern, ter H« auf Me Sffeigc (to the 
very end) rein flelcit fein Se6en l^at (He.). Genitive : SBcd tad 
iperg ^oll ifl, bed ge^t ter 9Jlunb fiber (B.). Apposition: Den ebein 
®tol3,t)af t)tt t)ir feftfl nid^t genfiflefl, tterjei^ id? tir (G.). 

325. As to their contents the substantive clauses may be 
grouped as follows: 

1. Da§, or declarative clauses, always introduced by „baf *'' 
(Sd^on @ofrated lei^rte, ba§ tie ®eele ted SRenfd^en unflerbliA fei, or tie 
2e^re,t)af tie ®eele . . . , or koir glauben, ta§ tie @eele . « « 

More examples in 324. 


2. Clauses contoimng indirect questions : a. Questions after 
the predicate always introduced by o6 ; in the main clause may 
stand as correlatives t^, tad, teffen, lo!Ot>n, etc. Sr ^otte nicbt 
gef^ricben, ob tr flefunD gcbUebtn (Bu.). (See F. 1667-70). 6. 
Questions after any other part of the sentence, introduced by 
an interrogative pronoun, by an interrogative adverb, simple 
or compounded with a preposition, viz., tott, toa^, toit, too, xoann, 
toomit, mo^er, too^in, etc. Ex. : graget nid^i, mantm i6^ traure (Sch. ). 
See F. 1971. Segreiffl bu, toit atiDad^tig fd)m&rmen t)iel leid^ter aU 
gut ^anteln ifl ? (Le.). ^odj fe^It und Aunte, mad in Untemalten 
unt ©djw^g gefci^c^en (Sch.). c. The question may be diqunc- 
tive, introduced by ob — oter; ob — ottx ob; ob — ob. Ex.: 
Slber fag^ mix, ob lolr flcl^en otcr ob loir todtcr gc^en (F. 3906-7). 
UnD eV tcr Sag f!(i^ neigt, mu§ ft(!^^d erRaren, ob id^ ten greunt, ob id^ 
ben Sater foil entbe^ren (Sch.). 

Remarks. — 1. The mood in 1 and 2, according to drcmnstances, is 
either the indicative or the potential subjunctive. See the examples 
sub 1 and in 324. 

2. In lybaf^-clauses the other two word-orders are also possible, bat 

without bag: SoftaM Uf^xtt, bie @rele fei mftttUx^* d^ tourbe bc^uptrt* gtflcni 
^abe man i^n nod^ auf bet ^trage gefeben. 

8. When the subject is the same in both clauses or when the subject 
of the dependent clause is the object of the main clause, in short, when 
no ambiguity is caused, the infinitive clause can stand in place of bag + 
dependent order, ^an boft^ bad untergegangrne S^iff no^ |tt bebes. ^te 
^oU^ei bat bem JSaufmanne befo§Un, fein <S^xlh b^ber gu ifin^tn* 

8. Claases with indirect speech — ^after verbs of saying, as- 
serting, knowing, thinking, wishing, demanding, commanding. 
They either begin with ba§ with dependent order or they have 
the order of the direct speech. The subjunctive is the reigning 
mood. For examples and tense, see 282. 

4. Glauses containing direct speech, a quotation: jDad SQort 
ill fret, fagt ber Oeneral (Sch.). ©er «5nlg rtef: 3fl ber ©anger 


Abjecuve Ciaubbs. 

326. The clause is introduced by a relative pronoun or by 
a relative adverb. Nothing can precede the pronoun in the 
clause except a preposition. Unless the personal pronoun is 
repeated after the relative, the verb stands in the third person. 
Ex.: Dtt fpri^fl ))on ^tittn, tie t)ergangen fint (Sch.). Die Stotte, 
tie eitt guter HRenfd^ htttat, if} eingemei^t (G.). Der tu ton tern 
^immel Mjl, fu§er gricte . • . (id.). 

For nse of the pronouns and more examples, see 255-268. 

827. 1. The relative pronoun can never be omitted as in English. 
In several relative clauses referring to the same word, the pronoun need 
stand only once, if the same case is required ; if a different case is neces- 
sarj, the pronoun should be repeated. This is often sinned against, for 
instance bj Schiller : @ie^ bd tie i8eTfr» bie cr fi^rieb unb feinr ®lut grfle^t^ 
instead of worin rr . « . ficfle^t. 

2. The relative clauses beginning with toer^ toad without antecedents 
are really identical with substantive clauses, e.g,, ^a fe(t» ba$ i^r tieffltmig 
faStf mad in bed S^enf^en ^int ntd)t pagt. 9&r »ad breln 0e^t unb ni^t brein ^t% 
eitt frdftifi Sort ju Dienflen flcjt (P. 1950-8). 

8. Case-attraction between relative and antecedent is now rare. 

9ld totl^tx, denoting rather a cause than a quality, is now archaic, but 
still quite frequent in Lessing's time, tnta^, aid toelc^er {1<^ an ben blogcn 
(mere) giguren erge^et, = "iBneas, since he delights ..." (Le.). ®on bet 
3:rag5bte» aid fiber bit und ble 3eit Mcmltcb ailed barand (of AnHoOe^s Poetics) 
gSnnen ..." about tra^y, in so far as time has favored us ... " (id.). 
irDa" in the relative clause is no longer usage. SBcr ba flel^eti fe^e pi, ba$ et 
nic^t faHe (B.). 

328. The mood depends upon drcamstances. The poten- 
tial subjunctive (of the preterit and pluperfect) is frequent 
after a negative main clause. Sd ifl feine gro§e @tatt in Deutfd}^ 
Unt, tie ber Dnfel nidjt befuAt ^iitte (= did not visit). The sub- 
junctive of indirect speech also stands. Die Slegierung ^er 
Sereinigten ©taaten bt\iixotxtt fid^ iiber bie Sanbimg \oMtx ^xmtn, 
mliit mand^e euro)>Sif(^e Slegierung fortfd^ide. 


Adtxbbial Clattses. 

329. They are introduced by the subordinating conjunc- 
tions. The main clause often has an emphatic adverb, e, g., 
alfo, Xann, ta, H^n, ie^t, balder, latum. ®o does not, as a rule, 
stand after main clauses expressing time and place, and gen< 
erally becomes superfluous in English after main clauses of 

330. Temporal Clauses. 1. Contemporaneous action imply- 
ing either duration or only point of time. Conjunctions : 
wa^rent, intern, inbcd (Inteffen), tt)ie, ta (all meaning "while," 
"as"); folange (aU); fo oft (aU); fo bait (ate); t>a, wo (rare and 
colloquial) = when; wenn (mann is old) + ** when," refers to 
the future; aU, "when," refers always to the past with the 
preterit; »cil, tleweil, bcwcil, = + "while," are archaic. 
@oIange, fo oft, fo6aIt are now much more common without 

Ex.: 9(^ ! vieHeic^t inbem (as) n>tT bofen» $at und Unbetl fc^on grtroffen (Sch.). 
9{ur ber @tarf( toirb ba9 ©cbicffal }n)ingen» toenn bcr Sc^w&d^Img uttterliegt (Sch.). 
Unt> tt)ie (afl) er fl^t unb toie er laufi^t, teiU {!(^ bie %lvit empor (G.). ^U M 
©anctud Sorte famm» ba fc^eUt er breimal bei bem Stamen (i»@anctttd ..." is 
part of the mass) (Sch.). (£d im ber !Renf4» folang' er fhebt (F. 817). Sobalb 
bie erflen Serpen fc^toirrten (erf^ien) ein 9){db4en \^bn unb wunberbar (Sch.). X)ad 
(gifen mu§ gefci^miebet merben, meil ed glil^t (Prov.). SBia mir bie ^anb no4 
rei(^en» bertoeil vSi eben lob (= while I was loading the musket) (Uh.). 

2. Antecedent action^ i. e., the action of the dependent clause 
precedes that of the main clause. Conjunctions : na(!^tem, 
after ; ba, ate, toenn, after, when ; feitbem, feit, feitbem ba§ (all 
mean + since) ; fobalb (aU), fomie, mit, as soon as ; the adverb 
laum + inverted order. 

Ex. : 9{immeT (no more) fang i(^ freubige Steber, feit i4 beine Stimme bin 
(ScK). SDenn (after) ber Seib in Staub jerfallem lebt ber gro§e Jtamt nod| (Sch.). 
Unb tt>ie er toinft mit bem ^in^n, auf tbut f!(^ ber meite Qroin^tx (id.)- Staum toax 
ber Skater tot# fo fommt ein ieber mit feinem fftin^ (Le.). (Notice the invezsion.) 


^tr itdnig 9trU(g ^Mbtt^, nad^bm er e^ inr Sftrforge mit riner (inl^lUtcn 
Sefa^ung ^tx\ttitn ^m (ScK> 

3. Subsequeni actum. Tbe action of the dependent daose 
follows. Conjunctions: S^e, bwor, + "ere", "before"; M«, 
until, with or without ba^. 

Ex. : 9t{e vera^te ben aXamif eV btt fein 3mi^TC« nfaitnt ^af! (H&). lB(i»or 
loir^d lafTcn nimen, belet einrn frommen Sprud^ (Sch.). 8id bir ®lotfe f!4 ^tt" 
Ifi^Utf lafll bit fhenge %xU\X vx%n (id.). S^e toir ed imd ^erfaten (unexpectedly), 
bra4 ber Sagen gurammen. 

a. The main danse may be emphasized by barni, bamaU» bamu baronf, 
and fo» if it follows the dependent clause. 

la 2 and 8 the potential subjunctive can stand. 

331. Local Claiues. They denote the place and direction 
of the action of the main danse. They begin with »90, mol^in, 
tool^er, and the main clause may contain a corresponding ba, 

Ex. : SBo S^enfii^rnfunfl ni^t gureic^tr W ber ^immel oft geraten (Sch.). Die 
SBelt ifl ^omommen ilberatt^ too ber 9^enf<^ nic^t (tnfommt mil fetner Dual (id.). 
2>emt eben too IBegriffe fe^leiti ba f!e0t etn SDort %ux reti^ten Beit |14 ein (F. 1995^). 
j(ein SBafTer if! }U ^betir tool^in man fi^ ^^ toenbe. 

a. The demonstratives ba» ba^tn^ ba^er in the local clause are now 
archaic. Do not confound the relative clauses and indirect questions with 
the local clauses which generally refer to an adverb. 

The potential subjunctive may stand in them. 

Clauses of Manner and Cause. 

332. Modal clauses express an accompanying circumstance 
and are therefore related to cootemporaneous clauses. Con- 
junctions: iitbem, ta§ ni(!^t, o^ne bap, without, inbem ni(^t, flatt or 
anflatt bap, instead of. Ex. : !Cer Slitter gtng fort, intern er auf ben 
®egttcr einen »er&d^tli*cn ©lid t»arf. 3(!^ bin nit in Sonbcn, bap ii^ 
ttid^t bad SRufeum (efuc^te (snbj.). 

1. They may have the potential subjunctive. ~ But these clauses occur 
more frequently in the form of participial and infinitive clauses with 



irO^ne lu," iranjtatt lu" : ^Uiafi, anflott su em)>fandeiw mnfte ja^Un* (£r ritt fort 

333. Comparative clauses denote maimer, degree, and 
measnre. Conjunctions: mie, aU, " as," '^ than'' with the corre- 
sponding fo, alfo, ebenfo (= so) in the main clause. After the 
comparative aU, tenn (rarely) + ''than ;" other forms: glei^:^ 
toit — fo; fo »ie — fo; just as — as, sa SBlt denotes rather 
manner and quality, aU the degree and quantity. When the 
predicates are the same the contracted form is quite common. 
Then mie denotes Hkeness, aU identity. 

Ex. : 3(^ flnge n)te ber Sogtl flngt (G.)- '£)anfet ®ott fo toarm al€ i^ f&r biefm 
Xrunf cu* banfc (id,), ©ie bu mir («tl^u|l« underBtood),fo id> bit (Prov.).* Du 
(ifl mir nici^td me^r aid fein @o^n (Sch.). ^er trage ®ang bed itriegcd ^ bent 
J!onig ebenfoviel S^aben get^n aid er ben SRebellen S^ortetl brac^te (id.). •€>atte fU^ 
etn 0tan$letn angemdijt't aid tt>te ber Doftor Sutler (F. 21^-80) (aid toie is coUo- 
quial). ,rffite ein mtttx," " like a knight " ; »ald (ein) fftitttx,*' " as a knight." 
(Setn ^lud n>ar grower aid man bere^net ^e (Sch.). Sincd ^tt)>ted (by one 
head) Idnger benn aUt^ ^olf (B.). 

1. Specially to be noticed are the clauses with aid tib, aldtoennr gener- 
ally followed by the potential or unreal subjunctive. For n>enn + de- 
pendent order occurs also the inverted without tt>enn. Ex.: 3^t eilet ia, aid 
tt>enn i^r fflugel ^attet (Le.). @u(^e bie Siffenfc^aftr aid ttitrbefl en>tg bu ^ier fein; 
Sugenbr aid l^ielte ber Xob bic!^ f^on am flr^ubenben ^aar (He.). But the indica- 
tive is possible : Unb ed tt>all€t unb fiebet unb braufet unb jifd^t mie toemt SDaffer 
mit geuer jlc^ mengt (Sch.). 

2. 2)enn is preferable after a comparative when several ^ald* occur. 
SBie is colloquial. (£d fragt ft^ ob Sefjtng grower aid Dic^ter benn aid Witn\^ 
getvefen fei. !Ric^t in the clause after aid is no longer good usage, though 
common in the 17th and 18th centuries. Lessing has it very frequently. 
3d^ lebte fo etngejogen, aid i^ in 9)2etgen nid^t gelebt ^atte (Le.). 

a. 92iAtd tvenigcv aU means ** anything bat/' literally " nothing less than that," gen- 
erally felt by English speakers as meaning ** nothing bnt," e. g.^ Sl^er id^ baxf fagenf ba| 
Mefe (Sinvid^tung bev tyaBel nid^td weniger old nohoenbtg ifl, i. «., that this arrangement of 
the plot is anything bat necessary (Le.). In ,,ni^t8 aid" = " nothing bat," as after all 
negative pronoans, ,,niemanb aid bu" = nobody bat yoa, old has ezclnsive force, — 
•' bat." 

3. Other correlatives are fo elner — n>te; ber namllc^e — »le; berfelbe — 
»ie; folder fp + positive adjective — tt)te (quality) and aid (degree) ; after 


in, affutt + positive and after tin anbner stand aU + ba§ or totim* aid and 
infinitive, e.g,, (£r brnft in ebtli aU bag cr fo ettoad 9on und emarten fdnnte* 
(3^r ifl bet ndmlic^e toie er \mmtt mar* (Sure iBerf^^nund toar cin mntid ju Mnrlli 
aU bag fie bauer^iaft ifittt fein foUen (G.). 

Notice the potential subjunctive after mdU baf .'^ 

334. Under this head comes really the proportional clause^ 
which expresses the proportion of the decrease or increase of 
what is asserted in the main clause. The conjunctions are 
the following correlatives : ic — tcflo, nm fo (or urn tejlo, rarely) ; 
ie — je, = the — the; it nac^bem (or nad^tem or »ie, rarely), 
according as. If the main clause stand first, its correlative 
is dispensable. 

Ex. : 3e me(r ber ^oxxax f^molg^ beflo f^retflid^et toud^ ber hunger (Sch.). 
3e Unger^ ie Ueber (Piov.). 3e mebc er bat» ie me^r er »UI» (3e) na^bem einer 
ringt, na(i|^bem i^m gelingt (G.), " The success depends upon the efibrt." 

1. 3e = ever ; beflo» " on that account," "* hence/' see 442, a. Notice 
the dependent order in the first, the inverted generally in the second. 

335. CoruiecutiDe dauaes express the result or effect of the 
predicate of the main clause. Conjunctions: ba§ (foba^), that; 
in the main clause, if any correlative, fo, fo fel^r, bergcjlalt, terart, 
fold^. Ex. : @o »eral»fc^eut 1(1 bie Scrannel', lag ffe fein SBerfjcug 
ftn^et (Sch.). Sr fcblug, bag laut ber SOafo erftang unb aUed Stfen in 
©tiidfctt fprang (XJh.). 

1 The result maj also be expressed in the form of a main clause or 
of an infinitive clause : X)o(^ itberna^m^ icb gem no(!6 et'nmal aUe ^la^i, fo lieb 
toar mir bad JSinb (F. 3128-4). 34 bin ^u alt» urn nur }u fpielen^ }U iung urn o^ne 
ffiunW iu fein (F. 1546-7). 

2. Mark the potential and unreal subjunctives of the preterit and plu- 
perfect which maj stand in these clauses : ^ermeint 3bv mi<^ fo Jung unb 
f(^wa(b# ba$ i(^ mit SRiefen jlritte? (Uh.). X)ad ^ferb n>ar fo la^m,ba$ wir fc^neQer 
}U 9ui b^im gefommen xo&xtn* 

336. Restriciive clauses limit the value and scope of the 
statement of the predicate and border closely upon the con- 
ditional and comparative clauses. Conjunctions: nur ba§, only 

144 QElirERAL SYirrAX— SUBOBDUTATE SElirCBl^rCES. [337- 

(that)y auper ba§, except that, in fo fern (old), trofem, in tote fern, 
in fo or in tote meit, in as far as, in as much as. The negatiTO 
force is given also by the subjunctiYe and the normal order 
with the adverb benn or by ed fei Itnn, t€ mfire benn, ba^, which is 
now more common. 

Ex. : SBir xoaxm gar nidft fo ibtl bran, mtr ba$ uKr ni^td in trinfrn pattern We 
were not at all so badlj off, only ... 3n fo fent mtn bufe SBefen i^oiper jti^» 
fc^itbert bie 9>cefle au(^ itdrper (Le.). (£t entfentte fi^ niemold tocitr er fagt^ ed 
i^T betm (H. and D., lY. 4^-3). 3^ laffe bi4 ni^t, bu fegnefl mid^ benn (nnlees 
thou bless me) (B.). !Ru^ig (g^enfe i(^ mvS^ lu ^er^lten); e9 fei bcmir baf 
(unless) er ft^ an metner (3^§re ober meinen ®ittem vergreife (Sch.). 

1. This is a very old constraction, qaite common in M. H. G. The 
negative force lies not in benn^ bat in the lost ne + the potential or con- 
cessive sabjonctive. jDetm < M. H. G. danne, is nnessential. Compare 
M. H. G. den Up wU ich verliesen, si en toerde min u^ = my life will I 
lose, (slie become not mj wife) onless she, etc Sioaz lebete in dem toaide 
ez entrUnne danne halde, das toas eehant tot, = SBad tai Salbe IthXtt bad war 
auf ber ©telle tct» ed fei benn ba$ ed balb bavon lief or gtlaufen xo&tt (quoted by 
Paul). Ne disappeared as early as late M. H. G., particularly after a 
negative main clause. It is left in nnr < ne wiere = (ed) toare nid^t bog. 
Bee Paul's M. H. G. gram., § 835-40. 

337. Causal clauses denote the cause, reason, and means. 
Conjunctions: ba, since, toeil, because, inbent = by + present 
participle in Eng. Correlatives, if any: ba'mm, ba'^er, fo, bed^alb 
etc. £)a't)urd^ ba§, ba'mit bap express rather the instrument. 
SBeil expresses the material cause; ba the logical reason; „in^ 
bem'' is a weak causal and borders rather closely upon the 
contemporaneous ^intern.'' Denn + normal order expresses a 
known or admitted reason. It is emphatic. See 320. 

Ex. : !£>ae ®(i^(el»ptau (hawser) ytxix^, »eU ber @(^lei9pbam))fer (tug) ju fdi^nefl 
an^og. !0{it bem befien Sillen letflentoir fo tt>enig# tteil und taufenb SDilen freiQen 
(G.). 3eben anbern ivl fd^iden ifl befler, ba KOi fo flein bin (G.). Dir Mu^l getoig 
bad f(^5n|le ©lud auf (Erbem ba bu fo fromm unb ^eiltg bijl (Sch.). 9^i(i^elieu tt>u§te 
^ nuT babuT(^ |u ^elfen^ bag er ben Sfeinbfeligfeiten ein fc^Ieuniged €nbe ma^te (Sob.). 

1. 9htn# bietoeil/ aUbietoeilr magen* fUttcmal* and others, are rare and 


2. The dausefl with ba'bttrd^ baf, ba'mit baf border cloeely upon the 
substantive clause. 2)a» says Becker, denotes the leal and logical rea- 
son, tQcil the logical only when the kind of reason is not emphasized. 
SGDeil stands in a clause that answers, the question as to the reason. 
SGDarum tourbe SBaaenflein abgrfeftt? SBeil man iftn f&x rinen ^txx&ttt (ielt. 

338. Final clauses express intention and object. Oon- 
jnnctions: X^ami't, baf, ''in order that." 3(uf la^, unb baf are 
archaic. In the main clause i*arely stand barum, baju, in ter 
8lb(id)t, gtt bcm 3»ccfc (both followed by baj)* 

Ex.: <Darttm eben leibt er Uinm, hamit er flrtd lu gebm %aU (Le.). <Daiu n>crb 
i^m bcT Serflaitbf ba§ rr im iitnent ^tr)en fpitrttr toad « erf^aft mit feincr ^anb 
(Sch.). (£^re iBater unb Sautter, auf ba| bir'd loo^l 0tbe unb bu lange lebefl auf 
(Krbcn (B.). 

1. The reigning mood of this clause is the subjunctive. If the object 
is represented as reached, the indicative may also stand. Urn |U + inf. 
forms a very coounon final clause ; !D?an lebt ni^t urn }tt tffm, fonbern man ipt 
urn su leben. 

339. Concessive dances make a concession to the contra- 
diction existing between the main clause and the result ex- 
pected from it in the dependent clause. They are called also 
adversative causal clauses. Conjunctions : obglet'c!^ (ob • • • 
glei^), obf^o'n (06 « * . f<^on), obmo^I (ob . . « wof)!), ob andii, oB 
Itoat, mnn aud), menn iUiij, ob, all = '* although.'' The main 
clause may contain be'nnoci^, bo(^, nid^tdbeflomeniger, gIei(!6mo^(, but 
fo only if it stands second. 

Belatiye clauses with indefinite relative pronouns and 
adverbs, met • • * mij (immer,nur), toie * . . au(^, fo • . • auii 
(nod^) ; inverted clauses and those with the normal order, con- 
taining the adverbs fci^on, glti(!^, ^mar, mo^I, freili^, no(!^ have also 
concessive force. 

Ex. : 3fl td filei(^ ffta^U fo leud^tet unfrr ffttd^t (Sch.). (Ck)mpare Dbglei^ e« 
^a^t i% ob ed dUi(b fftad^t ifl . . *) SBad 9euerd»ut Ibm au^ geraubt, etn fiiger 
Xrofl ifl ibm 0ebltebrn (id.). ^Dhittg f^rad^ cr |u 9ieine!end beflen (in favor of R.) 
fo falfd^ au(b biefer befannt toar (G.). QEin ®ott ifli ein l^eiliaer SBiHe Iebt» toie att(i 
ber menfd^Ii^e toanfe (Sch.). QErf&lI^ ba^on bein (>eTs, fo groS ed ifl (F. 8453). 


9Xan lommt ind ®ercbtr tote man fi<^ inmier fltSt (G.). 2)em 96dfetoi4t »ixb oled 
f(^meT, CT t^ue toad er mH (Hdltj). dtoar locig i^ viel, bo4 mdd^t^ i4 oSed loiffeit 

(F. eoix 

1. Mark also the form of the imperative and unb + inversion : @ti 
tied) fo humm, td gibt bo<^ iemanb(en)f ber bi(^ fur tDtife ^tt. t)tx 9lcnf4 ifl frti 
gefd^f en# ifl freir unb tsurbe er in 5tetten geboren (Sch.). 

2. Mood : if a fact is stated, the indicative; if a sapposition, the con- 
cessive and unreal subjanctive. See examples above. 

8. When certain parts of speech are common to both claoses, there 
may be contraction. Dbmo^l t)on ^o^^em @tamm» liebt er ba^ SSolt (Sch.). 

340. Conditvyiwl clauses express a supposition npon which 
the statement of the main clause will become a &ct. If the 
supposition is real, the conditional clause has the indicative; 
if only fancied or merely possible, the potential subjunctive; 
if it implies that the contrary of the supposition is about to 
happen or has happened, then it has the imreal subjunctive 
of the imperfect or the pluperfect. CJonjunctions : xovxix, if; 
faUd, im Sade ba§, in case that; toenn anberd, if ... at all; also 
toofem, fofem (such often difficult to distinguish from a conces- 
sive clause) ; toO; fo (rare). The main clause may haye ba, bann, 
in bem %oXiif and if it stand second, generally begins with fo« 

Ex.: SBenn ^ bie Golfer felbfl befrein, ba fann bie So^Ifal^rt ni^t gebei^n 
(Sch.). SBenn bu aid Wtonxx bie SBiffenfc^aft ^erme^rfir fo fann bein <3o]^n ju ^oVrem 
Biel gelangen (F. 1063). 9Ber miebe ni(4t# menn er^d umge^en fann^ bad iu§erfie 
(Sch.). ©0 bu fampfefl ritterlld^, freut bein alter ®ater ft<^ (Stolberg). 

1. Other forms of the conditional clause are the inverted order, the 
imperative, and the normal order with benn + subjaDctive (= if . . . not, 
onless ; see 336, 1). <3ei im S3e|i^e unb bu toobnft im 9{ed^t (Sdi.), Possession 
is nine points of the law. !£)em Ueben ®otte tt>ei(^^ nid^t and* ftnb^fi bu i^n auf 
bem Scg (Sch.). 

2. SBofem ni^t, auper menn# ed fei benn baS# if not, unless, denote an ex- 
ception to a statement true in general. Der SBoIf ifl ^armlodr auper menn er 
hunger $at. See 336, 1. 

8. Sometimes the preterit ind. is substituted for the unreal subjunc- 
tive in the dependent or in the main clause or in both. Its force is 


assurance, certainty. %xaf eitt ^xM ncitt ®e{i4t» a4f fo ItlV i^ (!4cr ni^t 
(Gleim). ^\i bicfem 9)fcil bur(^f4og i4 <Ett4» tomii i4 mein ttcM Jtinb sctrofm 
^ttt (Sch.). O to4rfl btt toafr smcfen unb 0crab(f ide lam c4 ba^Uw allc4 fUtobc 
anbcrd (Sch.). 

4 Contracted and abbreviated forms : C^ttttoorfnt IM i|l^4 ein dtndnet 
grevel; voOf&^rt ifi'd tin nnfhrbli^ Untemc^mm (Sch.). SDcmi nit^ti too ni^t, 
too mofili^ are yerj common. 9Blr ocrfuc^ten i(n too m90U(( ^n bcrufigeiw tocnn 
ttl^t gans &u cntfernen. 

For tlie tenaes see also 276-280. 


341. We distingnisb three principal word-orders according 
to the position of subject and verb: 

1. The normal, viz., subject — verb. 

2. The inverted, viz., verb — subject 

3. The dependent, viz., verb at the end. 

(By ** Terb ** we shall nnderstand for tbe sake of brevity the personal part and by 
** predicate" the non-persoDal part of the verb, yia., participle and inllnitive.) 

342. The normal occurs chiefly in main sentences : !Cer 
93istt tot% It is identical with the dependent order if there 
is only subject and verb in the dependent clause. !Die ^ix^U 
it% mil ter SBinb m% 

343. The inverted order occurs both in main and depend- 
ent clauses: ®e^t tit m&W ? Se^t Ux SBistt, (fo) ge^t W iDtit^Ie. 
It occurs : 

a. In a question. 

b. In optative and imperative sentence& 

c. In dependent clauses, mainly conditional and after aU + 
subjunctive when there is no conjunction like mnn, t>b, etc. 

d. If for any reason, generally a rhetorical one, any other 
word but the subject, or if a whole clause, head the sentence. 

e. For impressiveness the verb stands first 
Examples with adjuncts (objects, adverbs, etc.) added: 

148 GEia^ERAL 8TNTAX — ^WOBD-OEDEB. [343- 

a. Sd^reibt ttt %tcmt ? SleiBt ttx Xiener ni^t lange (m^i 9Qad 
firelbt tir ttx greunJ ? 

Bat when the inquiry is as to the sabject the normal order stands of 
course. SBer fc^reibt einen Sricf? SDad i^ bex longen 9lebc fuxitt <Btxm? (Sch.). 

6. 9Ko0e nie Itt Sag crfci^einen, »«m bed tauten ^egcd Morten 
tlefed jHDe Sl^al ^urd^jtoben (Sch.). For more examples, see 
284, 1, 2. 

But the inverted order is not required: Die 3# bet Zxe^ffta, bie er ^gt, 
fei euren Xagen iugelegt ! (F. 98&-990). 

c. SBidfl Dtt genau erfal^ren toad f!(!^ giemt, fo frage nur Bei etileii 
grauen an (G.)- SB^'^^ JW^^ ^^ (=ir9entwo) gut aufgenommen, 
ntuf man nld^t gleid^ wleterlommett (Wolff). (Sr) ®trt(^ ^auf elii 
©pange, «ett' unD 3ltng\ aid »aren'd eben |)flfferHn8' ; banft' ni(%t 
wenlger unb ni(]^t me^r, aU ob'd ein jlort ooD 5Riiffe war' (F. 2843-6). 

Notice here the inversion after aid alone, but dependent order after 
aid Ob. See 340, 1 ; also F. 1122-25, 1962-3. 

Bat for emphasis and to add vividness, the normal is still possible : 

2>u fiel^eft fHE, er toaxttt auf ; bu fprt(49 i^n an, er fhrebt an bit l^inauf (F. 1168-9). 
This is mere parataxis. 

d. Die Sotfd^a^ Pr' ^ »o^l, aDeltt mir fe^ft ber glaube (F. 765). 
grnfl Ifl t)a^ Seben, ^elter ifl Die «unjl (Sch.). 9Ri(^ i^d mcin ipera 
betrogen (id.). 2So abcr tin ^a^ i% t>a »erfammeln fl^ Me 2lbler (B.). 
Delned ®elfled ^ab' iij elnen ^anii oerfpurt (Uh.). See also F. 860- 
1, 1174-5, 1236. flberfe'^en lann Saj^Iud bied ®tmalu ni*t ^aben 
(Le.). ®c)%ieben jle^t: „3m anfang »ar bad SBort'' (F. 1224). 
See also 236, 3. 

1. The main clause, inserted in any statement or following it, has in- 
version according to this rule. Dad» fprid^t er* ifl !etn ^ufent^Ur load fotbert 
^tmmelan (Sch.). 2Bte feib i^r ^am, ebler ®raf 1 (ub er »ott 9[rgUf! an (id.). 
For emphasis the speaker can insert a clause uninverted : jDenn^ id^ toeig 
ed, er ijl ber ®iiter bie er bereinfl erbt, »ert (H. and D., III. 53). 

2. The coordinating conjunctions aber^ aEein^ bemtr nimltd^f oberr fonbemr 
unb standing generally at the head of the sentence, any adverb with the 
force of an elliptical sentence (ixoax, ia, etc., having generally a comma 


after them) call for no inyersion. After ntttoeber there is optioii. Ex.: 
SIber bit ihm[l ^t in ben neueren Beitcn ungleii^ »clttrc (&xmtn tt^alttn (Le.). 
atoax eutr fdatt ifl frauds bo4 ^tht l^r ni^t bie dtiegel (F. 671). 8finoa(r ! i^ 
bin ber tinsige eo^n nur (H. and D., IV. 91). 3a, stir ^t e« bet (0cifl stfast 
(id., IV. 95). 2)cnn bit Sttoncr finb (eftlg (id., IV. 148). 

8. When the dependent claoae precedes, the main danse can for em- 
phasis and very freqnentlj colloquiallj have the normal order. Ex. : 
^dtte cr bie ttrfa^en biefcd aOgemeinen 9{berglauben0 an Sb^ffpcre^d @(^dttbeltrn 
and 0eru((t# or mMt {!c balb gcfunben (aben (Le.). 

e. ^at Me JtSnigin tod^ itiAU t)orattd «)or tfm gemeinen Siiroenoeibe 
(Sch.). ®te^en »ie Selfen bo^ atoei 9l&nner gegen einanber I (H. and 
D., rV. 229). GteneraUy oontains toil* 

344. The dependent order occars only iu dependent 
clauses. The (danse begins with a relatiye or interrogative 
prononn which may be preceded by a preposition ; with a 
relatiye or interrog. adverb; or with a subordinating conjunc- 
tion. Ex. : SBenn iii nid)t SUeranber toare, mo(!bte id^ »o^l Diogened 
fein. 3e mebr er iot, (e me^r er wiQ (Claudius). @o jlol) idft bin, 
tnu§ iii mlr felbfl gefle^en: berglei((en ^ab' id^ nie gefe^n (G.). ffiie 
foIAe tiefgepr&gte SUber bo(!^ ju S^i^^n in und tWafen nnnrn, bid ein 
SBort, ein Saut fie medt (Le.). See also F. 2016-18, 2062. 

345. The dependent order does not occur in main clauses, 
but it is not the only order of the dependent clause. 

1. The yerb precedes two infinitives. One may be the past 
participle of a modal auxiliary. Ex.: jtann idb t)ergeffen mle^d 
^&tte fommen Knnen? (Sch.). I)af ein SDtenff!^ bod^ einen SDtenfd^en 
fo loerlegen foO mai^m Ibnnen! (Le.). 

a. Bat in this case and in other compound tenses the ** verb " (t. e., the 
personal part) may also stand between the participle and the other aux- 
iliary or the infinitive, e. g,, mcil ber Jtaufmann bad ^au^ fofl gefauft b^ben or 
gefottft feU baben (in poetry), ^efauft (aben foS is the common order. 

2. The normal order may stand: 

L In dependent clauses containing indirect speech. Sr 


^lavM, ©^atfpere l^aBe Snttud pan ^eben bed ©tuded ma^en moQen 

2. In certain danses with negative force containing an 
enditio „Unn": ed fei teitn ta§+ dependent order. See 336. 

3. In snbstantiye clanses : ®ott »fi§; iii Un nid^t fc^ub 
(Le.). This is mere parataxis without conjunction. 

346. The auxiliaries l^aben and ffin are also frequently 
dropped in dependent clauses to avoid an accumulation of 
verbal forms, both in prose and poetry. Leasing, Goethe, 
and KJopstock, especially the first, drop the auxiliary very 
freely and skillfully. 

Ex.: 9Qie itnkgreifli(!^ idj t>on i^m beleiDigt toorDen (supply Mn 
here or before beleitigt) imt noif mttt (Le.). 3RogUd}, ba^ t^er 
Sater Me SprantteH ted einen Slingd ni(!^t langer in feinem ipaufe 
(supply ^at) tnlltn »oUen (id.). 

347. The dependent order in main danses is aicluiic and poetic. 
Ex. : Siegfricb bm jammer tDo^l [(^wingcit fumtt (dialect for fonnte) (UK). 
Ura^ne, ®xciwatttt, 9Ruttcr nnb Stw^ in bumpfer <Stnbe Mfammm finb (Schwab). 

348. 1. The inyerted order in the conditional clante and in a main clause for the 

sake of impressiveness has sprang from the order of the question. Compare, for 
instance: 1. 3fl bet ^resiib treu 7 (question), ft, 3ft t>tt Srrcunb treu ? (qnestion). Ont, 
fo »irb et mir betfle^en. 8. 3|i bet ^rennb treu (conditional danse), fo tvitb et mit bei^^en. 
4. 3|i mit bet ^Tcvnb boA tren geMleben 1 (impreesiye inrersion). 

S. The main danse has inyersion when the dependent dause precedes, because it 
generally begins with an adverb like fo, bann, etc ®el^fl bu nt^t, fo t^nfi bu Unxe^t 
Without fo, the inversion really ceases. Hence we say, the normal order may still 
stand tor emphasis. But fo, etc., were so frequent that inversion became the rule. 
Inyersion is therefore limited originally to the qnestion and to the choice of placing 
the emphatic part of the sentence where it wlU be most prominent. 

848. 1. The dependent order was in O. H. Q. by no means limited to the dependent 
dause. Toward the 10th century it begins to become rarer in the main clause. In 
early M. H. O. it became limited to the dependent clause, so that now we may justly 
call it the " deprndeat-dauM ofder." 

3. The verb at the end is, no doubt, a great blemish of German style— second only 
to the separation of the little prefix of separable compound verbs, which may turn up 
after many intervening parts at the close of the sentence. According to DdbrOck, the 
dependent order-HBubject, object, verb— was the primitive one, still in Ibrce in Latin. 


GEiinEBAL Bulbs fob the Ordeb or other Parts or the 
Sentence besides Subject and Yebb. 

PoBition of the Predicate. 

350. The predicate, be it an adjective, a substantive, par- 
ticiple, infinitive, or separable prefix of a compound verb or 
the first element of a loosely compounded verb, stands at the 
end of a main danse in a simple tense. The adjuncts of the 
predicate, such as objects, adverbs, stand between verb and 

Ex.: Der ©enne muf fd)cltett,t)cr ©ommer Ijl ^n (Sch.). y^i fcit 
eltt SRelfler (id.). Sr ^at t>erlor^ne SBorte nur gefprod^en (id.). Xtin 
€d)U^ flng titefen SRorbflre^ auf (id.). Straflofe gred^^eit fprid^t Un 
©itten ipo^n (id.). ®eflem \ant tin SQagner^^&once'rt flatt 

In the dependent clause onlj the verb changes position, subject and 
predicate remain as in the main clause, and the adjuncts stand between 
them. For instance : ®lanbt bad nid^t 1 3$r »erbet biefcd J(ampfcd (£nbe nisi" 
mer txUidtn (Sch.), becomes ®Iattbtni4t# bag i(tbiefc0 StaxmpfU (£nbeic crMitfen 

351. In the compound tense the separable prefix immedi- 
ately precedes the participle, be it in a main or in a dependent 
clause. Drei§ig ^oi^xt ^abtn »ir ^ufammen avi^tUbt itnb audge^altm 
(Sch.). Die S^olera toiQ (is about to) ii'ber^anl nel^men* 

Order of Objects and Cases. 

352. a. Case of a person before a case of the thing, ^itx 
anil nodb bamt * * * fui^r ler jtaifer fort, ben @tanben ttn Srieben gu 
jeigen (Sch.). 

6. Case of a pronoun before a noun, ^an Betlimmte fie 
(them) bem aKgemeinen UnmiOen ^ixm Dpfer (Sch.). 

c. The dative stands before the accusative; if both are per- 
sons, the accusative may stand before the dative. Sr feI6|l 
l^otte bem Dienfie biefed ^aufed feine erflen Sebafige getoibmet (Sch.). 


d. The accusative-object stands before remoter objects, a 
genitive or a preposition + case. But see also a. Wlan mbd^e 
fagen, Soltaire ^obe ein ®efii^I \>on r>tt SBid^tigleit biefer ^tt^n\x&/ttit 
0e^a6t (H. Grimm). £{e ©(i^ttlerin fd^riei einen Sluffa^ fiber Un 

e. As to pronouns, fidb stands generally before t9, and both 
before every other pronoun. The personal pronoun stands 
before the demonstrative. The personal and fjiii may stand 
before the subject, if it be a noun, in the inverted and depend- 
ent orders. Sr ^ot fl(^ ed ongeeignet. jtrummau (a proper name) 
na^ert fid) i^m (Sch.). SBer tarf fi(^ fo tttoca trlauben ? 3enem ten 
SBeg 3u t)em bomifd»en S^rone git s>erfd)(te§eit, ergrijf man tie Sajfen 
fc^on unter Wlatt^a^ (Sch.). SQad i^m Me t)ersr5ferte 9Rad^ ter 
@tante (estates) an (SelbfU^otigfeit no(!^ fibrig lief, (ielten feine 
SSgnaten (relatives) unter einem [(i^iinpflid^n B^^^d (^^)- '^^^ P<^ 
tie glotte ergeben ? $a|l tu ed i^m mieter it^tbtn ? 

1. 6 also includes the personal pronoons : SBte fotmt^ id^ o^ne dcugett mill 
i^r na^n ? (Sch.). The rales a, e, d are by no means strict. 

353. For the position of the acljectiye, see the use of the 
adjective, 194, 212. Notice that what depends upon an 
adjective, participle, or infinitive precedes them. I)ie Sng^ 
lanter fint il^rem iperrfd^er^aufe ergeben. S^m ®e^en geboren, ^um 
@d}auen befleitt; tern Surme gef(!^»oren, gefaKt mir tie SBelt (O.). 
SBir baten i^n, ten Srief auf tie |)ojl gu geben. (@^al|>ere^« SJerle 
fint) feine £ngentle^ren, in XapM gebrad^t unt tur(!^ tetente dv^mptl 
erliintert (Le.). 

Position of Adverbs. 

354. In general, adverbs stand before the words they 
qualify. The modal adverbs nid^t, ctnoa, imax, fc^on, tool, etc, 
and ibe adverbs of time immer, ftibon, Itijt, nit, nimmer stand 
generally immediately before the predicate or in place of it if 
there is none. Died 9i(tni§ ifl bejaubemt fd^&n (Mozart's S^^^t^ 


f[5te). (Silt fel^r l^eftiget ^uflen greift ttn jtronlen {latl am Dad 
fAtoere .^era toirt nidbt tttt(^ SBorte lei(i6t (Sch.). @d^on )9iele Xage 
feV i<% ed fd^weigent an (id.). 3(6 ^a(e eud^ tio(^ nie ertannt (B.). 
^aft ttt i^n nod^ nid^t (efud[}t ? (Notice the opposite of the Eng- 
lish order in "never yet^** "not yet") 

355. An adverb of time stands before one of place, and 
both before one of manner. Ex.: Stele Sauem toaxm geflent 
nail t>tx Statit au SDtarfte gefa^ten* 9Bir fal^ren morgen per Sifenbal^n 
stad^ 9lu^oI{lat)t @d tangt fid) auf tiefem glatten 5u§(oDen nic^ fe^r gut* 

1. Of several adverbs of time or place the more general precede the 
more spedfic. Sir reifen morgen frit^ urn 6 tt^r 59 S^iimten ab, ^cr 9oIiiifl 
fanb ben Setrunfenen auf ber Sa^rfhage im Drttfe liegrn. 

2. Adverbs of time precede objects when these are noiuui, bat pro- 
noons precede all adverbs. 9Bir ftiern f>aVb ben 4ten SitUr ben Sag ber UnaB" 
^dndidfeit^erflfirung* SBir (offen i^n morgen auf bent JBaJ^nfofe in treffen. 

356. Only aber, n&mlid^, ietod^, and a few others, can sepa- 
rate subject and verb. Ex. : Der Sftid^ter aber fprad^ (Le.). £)ie 
9lad^ti0an jie^odb flngt munDerfc^bn. 

357. As to the position of the prepositions, they, with very 
few exceptions, precede the noun \ when they follow the noun 
has been stated under Prepositions. See, for instance, 303, 
7, 8, 10. 

Position of Clauses. 

358. Dependent clauses have, in general, the positions of 
those parts of speech and of the sentence which they repre- 
sent, t. 6., the substantive clause standing for the subject or 
object has the position of the subject or the object in the sen- 
tence, etc. No special rules are needed for them. When 
there are several dependent clauses, the last often takes for 
variety the normal order introduced by unb. 

The following examples show well-placed dependent clauses : Sttin 

i^aifer Yanni toad nnfer iflf «erf(l||en!en (Sch.). )S}er|Iegelt ^V idfi^d nnb verbrie^^ 


ba$ CT mdn guttr (Engd ifl (id.). Die (£ix\ bie Hm gcbfirt, geb^ i(( t^m gtrn; bad 
8tci^t bad CT |i<^ nlnuitt, venoeigr^ 14 i^ (id.). 9ld k^ lunger max, Ivtbtt i4 ni^td 
fo fc^Tr aU aioma'iK (novels) (G.). dti^eUeu tougte {!(( babut^ p ^Ifcn, bap er 
ben 9(inbfeltdfeUat itpifc^n beiben ein fcblemtiged Snbe mic^t (Sch.). ^ein gnter 
®eijl bctoa^rte mi(^ ba^or^ bie Scatter an ben 8itfeii mir ju legen (mir before bit 
fftatttt in proee) (id.). Der 9Venf4 bege$rt« aSed an {i4 }u reifen (G.). SBie 
0lit(f li(^ i|l bet, btTr urn fi^ mit bem S^ift^al in (Einigfeit in fe^n^ ni^^t fein gonjed 
voT^eTdctenbed £eben toegiuioctfen bran^t (id.). 

859. The rales giTen can hardly be ahetncted from poetry. Bven in proee fhey 
will be found freqaently Infringed. Bhyfhm, rhyme, and, in proee, emphasis control the 
order of words and allow of much choice. Bat stadents translating into Qerman should 
adhere to the rales yery strictly. It win be noticed that tlie Geraian woid-order coin- 
cides very nearly with the old BngUsh, and does not diifer after an so mnch ftt>m the 
modern English word-order. The chief points of difference are the dependent order, 
the position of .adrerbs of time, which in English stand generaUy at the end, and the 
position of the adjmicts of ad jectiyes, participles, and inflnitiyes, wliidi precede the 
latter instead of foUowing th«n as in Boglish. 

1. The word-order required by certain conjnnctions has been fteqnently mentloDed 
in the Gkneial Syntax. See, for instance, 820. 







861] PHOKOLOQY. 167 


Hifltorioal Notes on the Orthography. 

860« The letters used in Ctonnanj are the strongly modified Latin 
(Roman), called ** Gothic/' in rogue all over Europe during the later 
Middle Ages, when printing was invented. Ctermanj is the only nation 
of the first rank which retains them, and for this reason they may he 
justly called " German " now. In Denmark, Sweden and Norway they 
are also still in use to a certain extent. Italy, France, England and 
Holland abandoned the ugly ** Gothic*' alphabet very early and returned 
to the Roman. The German people and the more conservatiye among 
the scholars make the retention of the "German" letters a matter of 

1. An edition of Schiller in Latin type mined a Leipzig publisher twenty years ago. 
Yet in tlie 18tli century mucli literature was printed in Latin type. It is an interesting 
fiict, stated by a correspondent of the "EvetUng Pott^" of New York, that the first 
German book published in America was printed In Latin type by Bei^amln Franklin. 
It was a sectarian hymn-book, " Matft ZiOM." 

2. Nearly all German scientific books are printed in Ij. type to-day, 
because all scholars and dvilized nations that would read such books are 
accustomed to this type. Qrimm advocated it strongly and had all his 
books printed in it. KobergteirCs Literaturgeachichte ; Bauer^B^ Eraus^n, 
and WUrfumnff grammars are printed in it. That G. type was not ban- 
ished from the schools by the new "Rules" is due to the personal 
prejudice of the Chancellor of the German Empire, who, not long ago, 
when a publisher sent to him a book in Latin type, returned it, because 
it was more troublesome for him to read than German type. 

8. Qerman children therefore still continue to learn to read eight alphabets and to 
write in four, viz., capital and small Latin script, and capital and small German script. 
In the Swiss schools German type and script have just been given up. The Latin type 
and script seem bound to prevail in Germany before very long. 

861. The German alphabet represents the sounds of the language 
more adequately than the EngUsh does the English sounds, but that is 
not saying much. In no living language do the signs keep step with the 
sounds ; they are always behind, nowhere more so than in English. But 

158 PHOHOLOGY. [362- 

in German also are seyeral signs for the same sound and one GOgn may 
have to stand for several sounds. For instance, <| in mCuSi^ and ^iH^," n in 
fanfr fattb, fang/ denote different sounds ; ^, f» ffr f stand for the same sound ; 
also & (short) and e. The long vowel is indicated bj doabling in ^aal, Sootr 
S3eet; by 1^ in SBa^U SBo^I, SBe^, and not at all in 8u4, dui, ^uU And yet, 
while German spells more phonetically than English, its standard of 
spelling is as uncertain as the English, if not more so. 

1. In 1876 an orthographical confwence was caUed at Berlin, which was to diflcass 
certain modifications and propositions aiming at miiformity, laid before them by 
R. yon Raamer. They met and agreed upon certain rules, which proved, however, 
unacceptable both to the government and the public. 

2. In 1879 and 1880 the various governments in Germany took the 
matter in band and prescribed the spelling to be followed in their schools. 
Thus we have Prussian, Bavarian, Saxon, Austrian rules, but they vary 
very little. The kingdom of Wiirtemberg alone, with true Suabian 
tenacity, still clings to the old spellings. Some seven millions of chil- 
dren, therefore, now have to learn spelling according to these official 
rules. All new books introduced must be spelt according to them. 
Influential Journals and periodicals have taken up the matter. The 
excellent new edition of the classics now appearing in CoUa's '* BibUathek 
der WeUlUeratur" is spelt accordingly. While these "Rules" leave 
much to be wished for, yet no one can deny that some of them are a 
great step in advance. They change the spelling abont as much as the 
five rules for modified spellings of the American Spelling Reform Asso- 
ciation would change English spelling. This grammar is spelt accord- 
ing to the rules. We shall not give them, since they can be so easily 
obtained. For title of the speller, see 37. 

A few explanatory remarks are given on certain points. 
362. TTmlaut signs. 

Of the numerous signs in M. H. G. only two are left, viz., e after and * 
over the vowel ; e is to be discarded now entirely even with capitals, after 
which it was generally put. Umlaut of a was always t, not to be con- 
founded with S, which is old e. In N. H. G. & has been put for e in words 
whose connection with words containing a was transparent. SSattt, pL 
a^^terr but better; alt, alter, but (Eltem; 9Ramu Wl&xmtt, but S^enfi^. 

1. Dictionaries and encyclopedias often pnt &, & after ah, 9(b, which is very annoy- 
ing. Unfortunately none of the nmlaats have a fixed place in the alphabet. They 
stand generally mixed up with a, o, n. 

364] PHOKOLOOT. 159 

2. i was aCf i, a in M. H. Q. I was mtelj marked ; } was otyOB, I ; 
fir also frequentlj not marked, was it ue« ft, ft. The stroke over «i» is the 
remnant of o over Ur which stood for the diphthong a*. This became 8 
in N. H. G. (see 488, 4), hence the stroke. 

363. On the marki to show length. 

1. M. H. G. it > {, but the sign it of the old diphthong remained and 
was put also where i was lengthened as in kil > ^iel* spil > ®p{e(. 

2. <^ was used as a sign of length for several reasons. 1. It became 
silent as in %t^n, S^m&lftx, ^tfftn, gcbei^* It stands frequently now, where 
an old i or » was dropped, as in (Ifi^, fftnl^t, bro^ Jhi(» Btxoff, but it 
is not pronounced. The preceding rowel was long originally, or became 
long according to the general yowel-lengthening. See 488,2. 2. O.H.G. 
th (= Eng. th) passed into d. This sign after the sound had changed 
appears still in the M. G. of the 12th and in the succeeding centuries, 
and stands not only for b but also for t. 

8. Since the 15th century many MSS. have regularly t( for t, and this 
t$ was used indiscriminately whether the vowel after or before it was 
long or short, when printing was invented. In the 16th and 17th centu- 
ries 4 ^As ^^^ frequent. Whether the breath-glide (aspiration) after t 
was then pronounced, and if so, whether it was appreciated and expressed 
by ^r is a question. Paid thinks this was the case. It would then be a 
development parallel to the Eng. t in teh for eh {= tsh). Certain it is 
that ( after t was no ** d^nunga-}^ " originally. In Sirtf and ZffVixm, still 
in vogue, in older t^osme (= Zcamt), tMf4 (= 2:if4)' d<^Tt(tn (= ®axttn), ^ 
could not be " dehnungi-ff,*' The grammarians of the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies began to consider it a dehnungs-f and tried to limit its use. It has 
lost ground with every coming generation, and it is a pity that the offi- 
cial spelling does not abolish it entirely. 

4. The doubling of vowels is the oldest method to show length. XL, i, 
and the umlauts are never doubled. 

364. The use of initial capitals. 

This is a self-imposed task of great difficulty and mSit^h^ln^tn*" In 
the MSS. capitals were only used for the beginning of a paragraph, 
sometimes of each line ; so also in the early printed books, in which the 
capitals were added by hand. In 1529 KolroM prescribed capitals for 
the beginning of every sentence, for proper names, for irQ^ott* and n^txt" 


(Lord), as be sajs m®ott itt mm nvb rei»erent|»« Soon capitals spread over 
appellatives, then over neuter noons, and then over the abstract. In the 
17th centory every noun and any part of speech that could possibly be 
construed as such got a capital. English can boast of some superfluous 
capitals in the names of the months, days of the week, points of the 
compass, adjectives derived from proper nouns, but German carries off 
the palm among the languages of civilized nations. The official speUing 
reduces capitals considerably. 

366. The spelling of foreign words is in a hopeless muddle. There 
is no system and no rule. All that can be said is that there is a prefer- 
ence of one spelling over the other. The official spelling leaves much 


866. In Part I. we have treated of the alphabet and the pronnndation of the letters 
in the traditional way. But this way is qaite nnscientiflc and is barely sufficient to stut 
the student in reading. To describe the sonnds of a language, however, is not an easy 
matter. If the instmctor were acqaainted with the Bell-Sweet system as presented in 
Sweet^s ** Handbook of Phonetics," Oxford, 1877 and in Sweet's '* Soond-Notation,** 
the matter wonld be comparatively easy and might be disposed of within small space. 
The system analyzes the vowels as well as the consonants aocording to the position of 
the organs, for nothing is more delusive than to ** catch " vowels by the sound alone 
as is generally done. Sweeps Hdbk. gives specimens of German, Fren<^, English, 
Dutch, Danish, Icelandic, and Swedish, transcribed in Latin type, and if the student 
have a little perseverance, these transcriptions will be a great help to him in learning 
to pronounce any of the above languages. 

The system nses none of those big Latin terms, which hide a nmltltade of inaccu- 
racies and which are so much affected by philologians. 

The Vowels. 

367. 1. The most tangible quality of vowels is " round- 
ness," produced by the rounding of the mouth-cavity in that 
region where the vowel is made. Pronounce le of Siene, round 
it and you have & of ©u^ne* Pronounce e of Sccte, and round 
it and you have 5 of 335te. Pronounce a of gaiter, round it and 
you have o of goiter. In o is very little lip-rounding (labializa- 
tion), but mostly cheek or inner rounding. 

2. The second, but less palpable quality, of vowels is " nar- 
rowness." Its opposite is " wideness." A vowel is " narrow 



by fhe convexity of the tongae cansed by a certain tenseness 
in it. It is " wide " when the tongue lies flat and relaxed. 
This is the difference between t of Siene and t of Mn, between 
long it of SRii^Ie and short it of SRitUer, between o of @o^Ie and 
of fotl, between the Eng. yowels of ''mare" and ''man/' 
" sought" and *' sot" 

8. The third important element in producing yowels is the 
position of the tongue. Two positions should be distin- 
guished, the yertical (height) and horizontal (forwardness or 
retraction). In each we distinguish three grades, viz., " high," 
"mid," and "low" ; "back," "mixed," and "front." In the 
Towels of „UeflV' „2i(i^t," ,,iagt/' „2fl(Ie" the tongue is " high " and 
" front " ; in the vowels of ,,9ud}'' and „Sud^t'' the tongue is 
"high" but "back." The table on next page shows the rela- 
tion of the German vowels to each other and also to the 
English Towels. 

Key-words for Vowels. 

We give below some more key-words, some hints as to acquiring the 
BoiindB and some of the dialect-variations in pronunciation. 

High Vowels. 

368. 1. n (high-back-narrow round) is only long. Ex.: 
t)ut, Su^, Slu^e, U^u. Short it is rare in S. G. TOutter, gutter. 
Since u < t40, the second element still appears in S. O. as eh 
(in ®aU), but this pronunciation is not classical See Hart's 
Ooethe's prose^ p. 40. Identical with Eng. oo in too, booi 
Its length is either unmarked or indicated by 1^, e. g., Sud), 
^u^n, tl^un. It is never doubled. 

2. u (high-back-wide-round) is identical with Eng. u in 
'"full," but for a stronger labilization in O. Ex.: iDlutter, 
i^unger, ®prud^. It is always short The ik pronounced by the 
extreme N. G. is rather like Eng. lu 




^ «2 






•2 © 














O - 







H '^ 














Of c S 




















a e t: 





3 H 

1 «^ 








8. 7 (high-front-narrow round). This differs from u by 
having the tongae-position of i, that is, it is high-front^ instead 
of high-back. Ex.: (titen, gti^tn, Sii§e. Long all over Oer- 
many, but diphthongal in S. O. ,,®ute" = „®flete/' which, like 
ue for % is not classical, though old. M. and S. O. rounding 
of tt is not so emphatic as N. O., so that ii sounds more like i. 
Its length is sometimes shown by 1), oftener unmarked. Ex.: 

4. y (high-front-wide-round). This is N. G. short ii in 
^iitte, %li\ft, etc. S. O. short fl is only slightly rounded and 
rather the short of their long narrow &, and therefore itself 
narrow. Extreme N. O. it (in Bremen, Holstein, etc.) is rather 
'' mixed ** than front The first ii (N. G., Hanover) is das- 

In the alphabet the ft-umlants are represented by ft, ^, and 9/ as in 
9fltfte (short), 9)Pi^( Qong), aX^rte, Sv'rif. 

369. 1. i (high-front-narrow). The same all over Ger- 
many. Ex.: @ieg, ntir, "oUx, f!et)* Before final / and r it is 
slightly diphthongal, showing a ''vanish" or ''glide'' before 
the consonant Siel, ^itt are not fil, fir, but, marking the 
voice-glide by ^, fiy^l, fiy^r. (See Sweet's Hdbk., p. 133.) 
Always long. It is represented by i, i!^, ie^, but generally ie« 
Ex. : 2Rlr, i^r, Sier, jHe^tt. 

2. t (high-front-wide). Peculiar to Hanover and M. G., as 
in (in, SBin^, Jtinb* The strict Low Germans of Holstein, 
Hamburg, Bremen lower this i toward e as in Eng., making it 
e^, so that their jtiitb sounds much like kent. In S. G. neither 
{ occurs. For it the medium long narrow i is substituted. 
Hence a S. G. pronunciation of Eng. little sounds like '^ leetle," 
while a N. G. has no difficulty with it. The wide { of Hanover 
and M. Germany may be considered dassicaL Always short. 
It is represented by i; by ie in ^ittiif^n, ))ier)ig, generally also in 


Mm Vowels. 

370. 1. o (mid-back-narrow-roTind). The regular Gterman 
o of (Bo^n, Z^xcn, ^of. d is S. G., as in !)offen, ic&i, to^. o is 
represented by o, o^, oo. Ex.: ^on^, toof^ntn, Soot. 

2. o (mid-back-wide-ronnd). ^ of M. and N. G., where S. O. 
has the narrow 6. Ex. : @omte, toO, @to(!. This and 5 are per- 
haps the most difficult vowels for Eng. speakers. Do not 
lower 6 to low-back, making it like Eng. o of stock, not. Eng. 
o is equally hard for N. G., as they too feel that the effect upon 
the ear is much the same, and they do not readily appreciate 
the difference in articulation. 

The o-amlaat has very different shades in different parts of the coon- 
try. The S. G. 0, whether long or short, is narrow (more *' dose ")• 
The N. G. is wide (more " open "). 

3. o (mid-front-narrow round) is both long and short in 
S. G. Long 5 in b^c, lofen, ®oet^e ; short 5 in Hbdiftx, Jtod^er, 
@t5cle« S. G. 5 is identical with Er. eu in/eu. 

4. 9 (mid-front-wide -round) is long and short in N. G. 
Long 5 in fdjoii, 9)l5t)e, 85»f ; short 5 in ®6tter, ©potter, ©tonfte. 
Do not confound 5 with the vowels of Eng. bust, bird. The 
o-umlauts are represented by 5 and 5^ ; by tu in French words: 

Popularly speaking, S. G. 6 is closer than N. G. 6. To acquire the soond It Is beet 
to start with 6 as in ^beete" and contract the month comers, in which the roonding 
mainly consists in this vowel, and „^btt" will hare to result. In ft the rounding is 
mainly in the lips (Ifthlalization). 

In Berlin and M. Q. there is a provincial pronunciation of 5 which sounds very much 
like 6. It is caused by imperfect rounding and is by no means to be imitated. 

371. 1. e (mid-front narrow) is easily produced. But guard 
against diphthongi2ang and widening it as in Eng. may, I>aid9 
pate. Ex. : Seet, toth, 3;^ee, Ste^. Pure Er. and G. narrow e 
sounds as if it were out off short, and so it really is compared 
with Eng. ei in say. Signs are tf^, ee. Always long. 


2. 6 (mid-front wide) is the common short e in Eng. and G. 
Ex.: 2Renf(i^, menu, 3ett(fl)* 

9 («i) is slightly lowered toward the Eng. vowels of man, mare ; for 
instance, St&\t, i^Te# tP^rt. Complete lowering to the Eng. yowel is pro- 
vincial. Signs, t, <r &(} loenbeiw •fr^ntti 3Rd(r. Distingaish therefore: 

3. eh (mid-mixed-narrow) is unaccented e and distinct from 
** long " and ** short " e. It is more closely related to the Eng. 
"neutral" vowels of " cut" and "cur" than to any German 
voweL Ex.: trage, glaube, ®etr&nl, getvettet* 

4. a (mid-back-wide). This has various sounds. In the 
city of Hanover a is almost fully lowered to low-back. It 
sounds affected. The average G. a is almost identical with 
the a of Eng. father, only the latter, as I have frequently heard 
it, has the slightest trace of rounding. 

The Austrian long d has a very " deep " hollow soand. It is distinctly 
rounded and lowered, and is either low-mixed or low-fh)nt-wide-round. 
Signs, a, aa, al^i Sage, ^Baal, SBa^I. 


372. There are three of these, in which both elements are 
short and by no means the same throughout Germany. 

1. The first is represented by ei and at in the alphabet. 
The value of the signs is the same in N. G. and is de\ Its first 
element is not fully retracted and is exactly identical with the 
first element of Eog. ''long" i. In S. G. the second element 
is clearly raised and even narrowed I, and is better repre- 
sented by ai. The first element of S. G. at is clearly mid-back. 
(See Sweet's Hdbk., p. 133.) 

2. The second diphthong, spelt an, is composed of a and o 
(short wide o) = ao, certainly in S. G. In N. G. the second 
element is, in my opinion, mid-mixed narrow-round, t.6., the 
e of ®ait rounded. 


3. The third diphthong, spelt tu, an, rarely oi, is oe' {e' = e 
raised towards i) in N. G. and oi in S. O., e. g., %ttmt, ®el&ute« 
The former is classical Any approach of tu towards ei is pro- 
Yincial and not elegant. 

373. Oeneral Bemarks on the Vowels. There are thirteen 
Yowels, counting either N. G. or S. G. b and not counting & 
lowered mid-front. There are no ^ low " vowels in G. at all 
as in Eng. naught, not, snare, err, bag. All £ng. long vowels 
tend toward diphthongization, as in say, so, saw. The German 
vowels are pure single sounds and seem to an Eng. ear cut off 
short, (Bit, fo. Er. and G. vowels are alike in this respect 
They are strictly narrow. While German has no low-back- 
round vowels (saw^ sot), the front-rounding is very emphatic^ 
and the back-vowels are very fully back, yielding a fall 
sonorous tone. See Sweety p. 132. 

The Consonants. 
Open Coitsonants. 

374. 1. H (throat-open-surd) is the same in Eng. and G. 
It has always the articulation of the following vowel, and 
might be called therefore a surd vowel. Ex.: ^at, $ut, ^ier, 

Sign : ](. A ^ not initial is always silent, e. g., gefeni fie^t# tlftxtu ifat^ber. 

2. R (throat-open-sonant) is strongly " guttural," and the 
provincial N. G. pronunciation of r, r^, e. g», in Stegett, Sieger, 
SSr, gurc^^e. 

For the regular, classical r (divided) see 377. 

375. 1. kh (back-open-surd) is the surd guttural spirant 
after back vowels, viz., a, d, u, H, o, i. 

Sign : ($. Ex.: Sod^, 9)?a($ti tDad^etti a3u(!^i 9au($. This is the Sc. eh, as 
in lock. After a» finally and before a consonant, it is more easily acquired 
than after u and before a front vowel. In S. G. dialect this is the only 
cl^-Bonnd, the front d^ being unknown there. 




^ * ST " 
g.3 to Si 








» ttf 


5 Q^ 






S B' Surd. 

S «* fc* 






* 0* 













a "^ 



I qpap I 





5»f o* 







a •^ 








2. jh (froni-open-snrd) is sometimes called the " palatal- 
guttural." It stands after the front (palatal) vowels (i. e., after 
all vowels except a, o, u), including the diphthongs, at ei, eu an, 
and always in the suffix -dben, Ex.: 34r ^^^t ^VL&itx, mSdjte, fei<l^t 

3. The sonants corresponding to kh and jh are gh andj ; 
gh stands after back vowels, y after front vowels and initially. 
Ex. : SSoge, 3w0e ; S^tQt, ©lege, luflen, Je, Jaflen, bSge. But gh for 
g (back-shut-sonant) in this position, though very common, is 
not classicaL 

4. In the alphabet these foar soands are represented as follows : 

kh hy ^ after back vowels, as above ; by final g in N. G. after back 
yowels, not counting consonant suffixes, e. g., Za^ Qa^ bogfl, n>agt» Sagb* 
See d^9, 383. 

jh by cb after front vowels and consonants ; always in -^tn no matter 
what precede. Ex. : 2x^t, %ux^, ^tox^t S^tcib^en, ^amaH^tn, loL^^ttn, ta^, 
9RoI(^, ^xl^. See (b«, 383. Also by g final or at the end of a syllable in 
N. G. after front vowels and consonants, not counting consonant suffixes. 
(S^fflgf tcoUi^, lugflf Uegti fegneitr (egfl. Also by initial df in forei^ words 
before front vowels, e. g., (S^b^mi'e» (£b^Tub» ^%\vi'x%. See also 383. Do 
not confound this sound with ^ + j ( = y) in Eng. huge, hue. 

gh by medial g after back vowels, e. g,, fiagei Sogm. See sub 3. 

j by medial g after front vowels, liegenr Bntgtr gut^ger. But this sound 
of g is provincial even in N. G. and the "hard" one (= shut, stop) is 

Regularly by j initial. In N. G. a strong friction (buzz) is heard as in 
Eng. ye, yew. Ex.: 3flgtr, jung. S. G. j is a mere t, jc = te, jung = iung. 
The latter is, no doubt, the better pronunciation. I have heard even a 
regular Eng. j (= dzh) in Bremen. 

5. Sweet, I believe, was the first to notice a slight labial element after 
Hi when preceded by u and wx, indicated by w. Hence (Uid^ = aokhm. 
See 378. 

377. r (point-open-sonant) is the classical r of M. and 
S. G. Eng. r is rather "blade " (dorsal) than "point." 

Popularly speaking, Eng. r is ** rolled," G. r is trilled. The effect 
upon the ear is very different in the two r's, though their articulation is 
not so dissimilar. See Sweet, § 109 and p. 134. 


378. 8, z, sh, zh (blade and blade-point) form a group of 
** sibilants " closely related to each other and to Eng. Ih, dh 
(point-teeth). They are very mach alike in Eng. and G., and 
no description is needed to acquire the Oerman. (For the 
different varieties see Sievers' Phonetik, § 15, 2, and Sweet's 
Hdbk., p. 39.) The N. O. sounds are more forward than the 
S. G. and Eng. Eng. th is farthest forward (point-teeth), then 
8, and then shy on the palate. In th the current of air passes 
over the *' point" (tip of the tongue), in s over the *' blade'' 
which is back of the point, and in sh over blade and point, 
presenting more tongue-surface. In the G. sounds a slight 
labialization is noticeable, marked by Sweet shw. It consists 
in a slight contraction of the mouth comers. 

1. 8 (blade-surd) is represented by various letters of the 
alphabet (except in N. G.), viz., by f, d, f, ff. Ex.: foQ, $au0, 
gluf , SEaflfer. 

2. z (blade-sonant) by medial and initial f, peculiar to N. G., 
as in lefen, rafen. Initial f begins surd, marked by Sweet s^, as 
in s^cly but ends sona^^t. The standard is hardly fixed in 
favor of B or z. $ee 391, 4. 

3. 8h (blade-point-surd) by fd) and f in the initial ^, fp of 
S. and M. G., as in ©d^langc, ©djlnfen, wafdjcn, ©tabt, Sprac^^e. 
The first word would be = shwlaqe. By d) in foreign words, 
S^ampa'gner, (E^tta'ne. See 375, 4. On {I, fp also 389, 4. 

4 zh (blade-point-sonant) occurs only in foreign words; 
by 9 in (Efcarflc, Oage, f>afle, io^t, ©en^Darm. = J in 3ournal. In 
ioi9ia( t = j and frequently I in 3ournaI = dzh, Eng. j. Com- 
pare Eng. azure, crosier, glacier. 

379. bh (lip-sonant) is the S. and M. G. to, pronounced 
with the lips only. Blow to cool which would be surd bh and 
then intonate the breath (Sweet, p. 41). Do not confound 
with Eng. w, in which the back of the tongue is raised and 


the cheeks are narrowed. S. G. tt) is less consonantal than 
Eng. w. 

380. f (lip-teeth-sard), v (lip-teeth-sonant). The above 
sounds are " labio-labiaL"* These are labio-dental. The pas- 
sage is formed by the lower lip and npper teeth. 

1. f is represented by f, 19, as in ^afet, faul, @clai9e, Sret)el, 
9len), 5>af|!tt, 2«)foie; by p^ in foreign words : |)5iIologie. For 
))f see 389, 1. 

2. V is represented by to in N. G., like Eng. and Fr. v but 
less energetically buzzed. Ex.: Sagen, Sbtoe, ©AtDefier* After 
\il, however, to is often made labio-labial in N. G., as well as 
in M. and S. G. The pronunciation of as 6/1 or v between 
vowels is hardly classical, for instance, greocl = frevd or 
frd)heL By initial in foreign words, as in Sala'ttg, Safe, 

381. German I# tr bf n differ somewhat from the Eng. The place of 
contact (on the palate) in the G. sotrnds is mnch more forward than in 
the Eng. and the " point " of the tongue is used in the former while the 
"hlade" is used in the latter. Eng. ** weil" is the shihholeth of the 
German speaking Eng., and G. wtoo^l" that of the Englishman speaking 
German. The difference should be thoroughly appreciated by all who 
wish to speak " pure " German. 

1. 1 (point-divided) is represented by I, as in iUji, %a\l, toofjli, 

German U is peculiarly hard. Practise upon 9BeS(, SaQe, ^oUcr SBolIt. 
See 376. 

Shut Consonants or Stops. 

382. Next comes a group •£ sounds in which there is a 
complete closure of the mouth-channel. When the closure 
is opened an explosion takes place^ hence their name " expLo- 
dvoB," '^ Stops '' is a less pedantic name. When the closure 
is far back, formed by the root of the tongue and the soft 
palate, we get the back-stops k, g, called also not so well " gut' 

384] PHOKOLOGY— THE 00KS0NAKT8. 171 

tural " and *' palatal" When the closure is forward, formed 
by the point of the tongne and the teeth, gums, or pakte, as 
the case may be, we have the point-stops /, d, called also 
"denUW or ^lingualy' or *^ alveolar," If the closure is made 
by the Kps, we have the lip-stops or ^^ labials." The great 
difference between G. and Eng. stops, particularly of the surd, 
lies in the more energetic closure and explosion of the Q., 
amounting almost to an H (aspiration). 

383. 1. k (back-shut-surd) is represented by f, as in Aa^e, 
6u!, Aragen; by (!^: a, before tf (in the same stem); 6, in foreign 
words before back vowels. Ex.: a. Sud)d, fed}^, Su(!^d6aum, 
toacbfen | but tvad^fam. 6. (E^ara'cter, ^^^m^, S^olera. But see 
375, 4; 378, 3. Also by d, it, with prolonged closure: ^\xdif 
gurudfe^ren. By final g in S. O. and according to the standard 
pronunciation. See 375, 4; 385, 3; 20. 

This g is not strongly exploded, has no aspiration, and is called with 
final b and German phonetists *'Umlos6 mediae** hj tbe people 
** hard " bi b» To English speakers it seems absurd to speak of a ** surd " 
or " hard *' h. We would call these sounds p, t, k ; i, e» surd stops, unas- 
pirated, slightly exploded. 

a. Also by final g preceded by n, but only in N. G., as in langr iung. 
See 386, 1. 

2. g (back-shut sonant) is represented by g initial and when 
doubled, as in ge^en, fagen, &rgern, baggem, Sgge. See 375, 4. 

384. 1. t (point-shut-surd) is represented by t, tt, as in 
SBettc, ^eutc, Sante, ^ut; by t^, as in Zbat, ZM, formerly very 
common finally, as in 9)tut^, ^eirot^, ^eimat^. which are now 
spelt without ^. Also by t final, as in Zct, gef^ei^, f!nt, Jtleit, 
^anD^ci^en. See 385, 3. By It only in @tatt and its deriva- 
tiyes, but formerly more frequent, as in tobt, Srott, gefdjeitt, 
Srntte, which are now spelt tot, Srot, etc 

2. d (point-shut-sonant) is represented by b initial and 
medial, as in banlen, ter, ^ottn, Aleiter, SBitter. 


385. 1. p (lipHshut-sard) is represented by p, pp (see 382, 
but Eng. p before vowels is often as strongly aspirated, e. g., 
pound, par, pat. Ex. : |)uber, ftaiit, $aupt, jtappe, 3Bappen« 
Also by b final, as in Zitl, i<A, lUi, ^cb, l^o6{}, mb^t, lieb^t. See 
sab 3. 

2. b (lip-shut-sonant) is represented by medial and initial b* 
For final b see sub 3. Ex.: Sofe, ^ubt, &bt, ttabbdn. 

3. Final bf b are therefore pronoanoed t, p all over Gennany, and g as 
k according to the standard prononciation, but not in N. G. See 383, 1. 
For g after n see 383. 1, a. 

4. Before b» b» g# pronoanoed as surd stops, the liquids l# ii# m are short, 
and not long as in English. Pronounce tt>ilb therefore nearly with the U 
of Eng. wilt, unb with the nd of hunt, not of hound, wUd, 


386. The nasals are also " shut " consonants, but they are 
not stops (with explosion). The air passes through the nose, 
and we distinguish them according to the place of contact 

q is the ^' back-nasal-sonant " common to Eng. and G., as 
in Eng. bring, G. bringc, flitge. 

1. q is represented by n before I, before g in N. G., and by 
medial ng. Ex. : Zxant, Siinl, bange, lange, i^inger. Final ng is 
q according to the standard, e. g., ©efang, ^Ing. For N. G. 
final ng see 383, 1. Also by n of en, in, on, an, ent final in for- 
eign words, as in laup^in, balanclercn, 2l»ancement, S^cabron, 

This is an unsuccessfol attempt of Germans at pronouncing the 
French nasal yowels, which are not at all identical with q ; q does not 
exist in French. Though incorrect, this sound is given by the educated 
classes and by the stage. 

387. n is the "point-nasal" (half-dental). For Eng. and 
G. ?i, see 381. n is represented by n, nn as generally written, 
except where it becomes either guttural or labial by the prox- 
imity of guttural and labial consonants. (See 386.) Ex.: 


fentien, ^atdi, @)>inne, SiUttel, mand^e, Siind^e, too^nen, Zfixon, toav^ttn 
= vantn. 

388. m, the lip-nasal, is identical in Eng. and O. It is 
represented by m, mmx iStunt, @timme, toarm ; also by en after 
i and p, as in pumpert z=zpumpm, Sreppen = trq/m. 

1. In untaught proDundatlon not influenced by the letter, n is also 
pronounced as m before f, as in fanft, funf, ^anf^ duhtnfti dunft* Over- 
precise speakers pronounce as two full syllables words like hUi^hm fium^ 
ptn, |in'ben# fln^gem etc., but persons speaking naturally pronounce as 
stated above. 

Compound Consonants. 

389. These are composed of single sounds already de- 
scribed, but some of them seem to call for special mention. 
Their elements are closely joined together without any glide. 

1. pf is composed of p and f, and is always represented by 
pf, as in ^ftrfid), Aampf, Aarpfen, @umpf. But this pf is not pro- 
nounced except by a special effort The current and "natu- 
ral " pf is composed of a lip-teeth-stop and f. (This was first 
noticed by Sievers and Sweet.) The first element being formed 
by lower hp and teeth instead by lower and upper Ups, as in 
a real lip-stop. Final pf is in N. G. commonly made into f, 
but it is not to be imitated. 

2. ks is composed of the surd back-shut and the surd 
blade-open, as in Eng. Eepresented by Xr as in ^jA, ZtT:t, ^ivt, 
9Lit%anltt ; also by d}d and d}f, if of the same stem, as in S3a(!^d, 
D^fen. See 383, 1. * 

3. ts is composed of the surd t (point-shut) and a the surd 
blade-open. Bepresented by 3, as in S^Wt 3^^'r SBel^en, SJarje 5 
by tj, as in @prii^en, fd)toi^en, fta^e ; by c in foreign words before 
front vowels, as in Jlcce'nt, Stoi'l, Slccenfc'nt, S5llba't, etc; by t in 
foreign words before t, as in ^otie'nt, 9latio'n, etc. 


4. G. ts differs from Eng. ts in cats, hats in this respect . in G ts 8 is 
long, in Eng. ts t is long. In fl = sht and fp = shp (see 378. 3) the first 
element is also short. In " natural " pronunciation final i^ m N G. is 
made into d after n, rarely after r and I ; so that gaiQ becomes ®and> 
®4tt>an) > <3cl^tt>and. But this is not classicaL 

5. Though there are doubled letters, both yowels and consonants, 
there are no doubled sounds. Double vowels denote one long vowel, as 
in <Baal, ^taaU Wtoci, and double consonants are long energetic conso- 
nants, as in SBette^ l^affetv Srepp(» lerren^ Xreffcr^ Sevatt, aUt, But the conso- 
nants are not always long and short in G. in the same places where they 
are so in Eng. See, for instance, 385, 4. Final consonants are short in 
German. Compare ^axau toeijil, f>ut with Eng. man, well, hut The 
Eng. sonant stops d, g, b are very long and their sonancy is very em- 
phatic. This is not so in German. Compare dihlK — ebb, (l^gge — dagger, 


390. While Germans have a common literary langaage, 
fhey have not a common spoken language. German cannot 
boost of such authorities in pronunciation as French has in 
Paris, in the French Academy and in the Theatre Frangais. 
Provincialism, so strong in German politics and other institu- 
tions, is particularly strong in pronunciation. All sections of 
the country readily acknowledge the " Schriflsprache" as the 
common language of the country, but in pronouncing the 
same they claim the utmost liberty. 

1. You can hear professors of the German language at the universities 
speaking in the purest dialect-pronunciation ; so you can, preachers in 
the churches and representatives in the state-legislatures and in the 

2. The great authors of the classical period, Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, 
Elopstock, etc. , pronounced the literary language with strong dialect 
coloring. One of Lessing's favorite phrases was : ^(&9 !ommt hodi nid^td 
babet ^eraudr" which he is said to have pronounced ^^^ Bmmt bo^ nif4ta)>ei 
^raud.^ Goethe was called " Oeie" by them. Compare Goethe's defence 
of dialect in ^%}x9 metnem ^thtvif (Hart's Goethe's Prose, p. 19-20). 


8. To dialect pronunciation are mostly due such bad rhjmee as : 2cute t 
SBeite; \dfin : ge^n; frii^ : nie; f>d(^^: ®ee; fcrnc : (Sk^drne; which occur in 
their poems. Platen, Bilckert, and Bodenstedt carefully avoid these 
rhymes. In families of culture in Cologne you hear dU and dot for bic9 
and bad« In Bremen are still families who take pride in haying the 
children leam the L. G. dialect first. 

4. In Hanover, both in the city and in the surrounding districts of the 
province, the pronunciation is generally considered classical, and yet 
Hanoverian has three strong provincialisms : 1, fl# fl}f which most Ger- 
mans pronounce fc^ti f(i^p ; 2, they pronounce the sonant stop g as the 
spirant, while it should be pronounced as a surd stop just what all Ger- 
mans make of B and b; 3, in the city itself a is made almost into long L 

391. The only institution .that claims to have a standard 
and tries to come up to it is the staga The best theatres of 
Q^rmany and the better actors, followed by a very small num- 
ber of the cultured, stride after a dialect-free pronanciation. 
The standard set up by them decides the dieputed points as 
follows : 

1. Initial ^, fp are to be pronounced fd)t, \iip. But only the 
initiaL Never pronounce i(l — tfii^t, blfl — bifd^t* 

2. Pronounce fl surd : Scrj = Serf, ffitfl = SBcI, lleflt = lieft* 

3. Pronounce r trilled, not uvular or guttural, as in North 

4. North and Middle Germans pronounce initial ( and f be- 
tween vowels as sonants ; the standard is not quite settled, 
but will probably come to sonant f. 

5. The rounded vowel should be fully rounded. The ex- 
treme N. G. pronounces u, o, i (short) in $age6utte, hmm\ 
{)utte too much like Eng. but, come, hut. The extreme S. G. 
likes to unround it > i, 5 > e. 

6. Sag, SHp ^^9 hB,Ye long vowels, == tac, zuc, wee See 
sub 2; also 488, 2, b. 

7. The lip-teeth m and not the S. G. labio-labial bh has the 

176 PHONOLOGY — ABLAUT. [392- 

392. 1. Bat it is possible to have a dialect-free pronunciation and 
yet have dialect-accent, ». «., " intonation," " modulation of voice." Very 
pronounced are, e, g. , the " accents " of Berlin, Vienna, Bavaria (Munchen), 
Saxony, which can be distinguished without much difficulty even in a 
good pronunciation. The stage favors the North Qerman " accent," par- 
ticularly the Hanoverian, and this is at bottom what is meant by saying 
the Hanoverian is the best pronunciation. 

2. There is another reason, however, why the N. G. pronunciation is 
" purer," as it is generally called, than S. G. The Low German dialects 
are farther removed from the classical language than the High German. 
The contrast is felt more in North Germany than in South Germany. 
The school and the educated make a stronger effort to acquire the stan- 
dard pronunciation as far as there is any. The N. G. is more influenced 
by, and has a higher respect for, the written language. He pronounces 
according to the letter before him. Compare, for instance, ( and pf 
which the Saxon calls a " soft ( " and a ''hard (." 

3. Another reason for the purity of N. G. lies also in the political and 
intellectual predominance of the Northern half of Germany for nearly 
two hundred years. The speakers of S. G. dialects are divided between 
Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. The modem theatre also developed 
earlier in N. Germany than in S. Germany. 

4 The Swiss too can speak dialect-free German when conversing 
with strangers, of whom they of course see a great many. They make 
then a special effort to drop their dialect, which is nearly as far removed 
from the written language as is a Low German dialect 

5. One thing is surprising, viz., that the excellent G. school-system 
has not more power to spread a common spoken language. It is true, 
the school does modify the dialect, but when the child has left school, its 
language relapses, as a rule, into pure dialect. 



393. Ablaut is the gradation of yowels, both In stem and 
snffix, tinder the influence of accent. The vowels yary within 
certain series of related Towels called ablavi-series. 


The abUnt of safilz-Towels, i. g.^ of case^nflUeB, Is dittcolt to determtno even for 
BO early a period as O. R G. or Ags. We shall speak only of the stem-yowel-ablaot. 

The phenomenon of ablaut appears in all the L E. languages and is characteristic 
of the Teutonic languages, only in so flur as a very large system of verb-inflection baa 
been developed. On the Greek ablaut, see Amer. Joarn. of Phil . vol. L, No. 8, p. 
S81~, an article by Bloomfleld. 

394. Osthoff and Brugman have the credit of establishing as 
many as four grades or stages of ablaut, viz., hochstufe^ strong 
and weak; tiefstufey strong and weak, which may be called in 

'Eng. strong^ medium^ weaky zero. They do not appear in every 
series. But the second has them all, viz., *^au** strong; ^*ea — iu** 
medium ; " t2 *' weak ; '' £ " zero. The first two stand under the 
strong accent; the third under the secondary, the last in the 
unaccented syllable. 

Why there should be a difference of vowel under the strong accent is not clear, but 
the fact of two grades is undeniable. 

1. For the I. E or Parent-speech-period three series have been recon- 
stnicted with tolerable certainty and there are traces of several more. 
Bat the exact quality of the vowels can hardly be determined, o of the 
first I. E. series was probably unrounded, and more a than o, see 469. 

1. e— o, Q. T. e, i — a, appears in I. to V. ^ 

2. &— 5, G. T. fr—a, in VT., see 469, 4. 

8. &— d, O. H. G. S— uo, in G. tUt, S^at — tuon, t^un. 

We give the Qermaoic series in Branne^s order. (See his Gothic grammar, followed 
also by Bievers in his Ags. and Paul in his M. H. Q. grammar.) 

395. "^ I. Ablaut-series. 

*1 9 8 4 

itrong, fMdium, weak, nero, 

G.T. ai ei t i 

O. H. G. ai, ei, d i i, e 

N.aa ei(te,t),f ei i(i«),?,?. 

Oompare Or. ir^otda, irtitfu, (cXtfial, win%Bi$Mf\ oZftor, fflfAi, Ifuvaiy Ififlv. I Is the aero 
stage, because the flret element of the diphthong, e— o, has disappeared, while the 
■econd, the consonant element of the fiilling diphthong, has become a vowel. 

• The figures I.,n., etc., always relbr to the ablant-aeriea : the fignrea 1, S, 8, 4 refer 
to the ablaut stage. 

178 PHOKOLOGY — ABLAUT. [396- 

Ex. : 1, leren, le^rttb < la^fan, to teach ; lera, 2tffttt + Ags. Idr, Eng. 
lore ; £ti{ltn + last (Kluge) ; pret. eg. of strong yerbs of Gl. L 2 and 3, 
pres. of verbs of CI. L 4, fiifl» Umtn, with the words of 1, from the same 

V\xa. z represents the yowel that is to appear according to accent and 
is an unknown quantity in the root 1, jttgtn, BttgefUtdtr; 2 and 8, sti^en; 

4, itlit^tn, oerjt($ten# all from a Vdxc. Ck>mpare L. dicere. Notice the 
Eng. cognates show in 1, a, : ladder, wrote, last, lore, loaf; in 2 and 3 : 
i, rise, smite ; in 4, 1 : risen, smitten, list 

396. U. Ablaut-series. 

19 8 4 

O. T. au en t u 

O. H. O. ou, 6 in, eo, io ti ft, 5 

N. H. G. 0, 5 ie, eu cat n, 9, 3. 

All fonr grades efcUl apparent in German. 11 bears the same relation to 0a, an as I 
to fii, aL See above. Compare x«Fwi x^Fih x^t*^t x^m . 

Ex.: From the Vlxk : l,£o(e, flame. 2, Sid^t < UMM^ttn, + light 

4, Su^d + l3mx(?). From a V^ : 2, Seunmnb. 8, tout < hlHi + loud ; 
4, Sub»ig» Sutl^CT, Gr. k^vtoc, L. indfUus, Again, 2, f!td^ + sick, @cit^# 

and 4, ®u4t* See the strong verbs of CI. IL < Vb'xd' : 1, bot pret. of 
bitten* 2, bitten, ®tVxtt. 4, Sote, ®ebot, Suttel + beadle. Eng. bid repre- 
sents older heodan II. and Inddan Y, The corresponding Eng. vowels are 
very irregular. 

397. m. Ablaut-series. 

1 9 8,4 

G* T. a e, i a before r, 1, m, n 

German a, e (umlaut) t, i u, o* 

As to 8 and 4, see 460, 8, a. The roots all end in r, 1, m, n + cons. 

Ex. : See the strong verbs of CI. III. From the root of toinbtn, toanb# 
$ett)unben» + wind : 1, bit 9Banb» oenben < *wancfjan, + Eng. wend, getoanbt, 

toanbern + wander, etc. 2, bit 9Binbe# SBinbel. < Germanic Vbxrg. 
1, barg pret. sg. 2, ©erg, ©eMrge, bergen. 8, 4, Surg, + burgh, borough, 
to burrow. SBfirger, SBfirge, borgen + borrow(?). Also + bury. Ck>rrespond- 
ing Eng. vowels in verbs before nasals are i in 2, a in 1, u in 4, e, g., spin, 
span, spun. In nouns, etc., they are quite irregular, but generally also 
i, a, u, o. 


39& IV. Ablant-series. 

G. T. 

a, d 




0. H.G. 




N. H. G. 


I, I, it, i 

% it, 9, 9* 

The roots end in a single liqnid or nasal, or these stand before the Towels. I, ft are 
not yet explained. 

Ex. : Verbs of CI. IV., ftt^Xtn, flal^I^ gePol^lcn* 1, Diebflal^U < Vdxm. 

1. sa^ntr iSimtn + tame. 2, dejiemen. 8, 4, dunft. < Vb'xr. 1, bU Sal^rt* 
+ bier, barrow(?), f!d^ $e6atren» tie ©eb^rbtf -bar. 2, gebdrra + bear, (Simer < 
efrn-&er, duber < twiber (see Eloge). 8, 4, bit 8firb( + burthen, bit ^eburt 
+ birth, bit ®tl^x(^)t gebftl^rlU^* Eng. cognates show generally ea, 0, 
0. ^., bear, bore. 

399. y. Ablaut-series. 




a, & 


0. H.G. 



N. ao. 

a, a 

e, I i, if 

Only two grades. The roots end in a single consonant, not a liqnid or nasal. 

Ex. : Verbs of Gi, V. < Germanic VgxE 1, ^al, ^aU. 2, 8, 4, 
0ebtn# dtgebatf bu gicbfl, bie and bad ®ift Eng. vowels the same, + give, 
gave, gift 

400. YI. Ablaut-series. 








0. H.G. 


a, e 


N. H.G. 

u, it 

a, e (umlaut) 


4 Not in the past part, only in nonns. A difficnlt series. 

Ex. : Verbs of Gi. VI. < f pxr. 1, fujr, filjren. 2, 8, fajren, ble Sfaljrt. 
4, ble gurt + ford. < Vmxl. 1, M. H. G. muol (now mailte). 2, 8, 
maifUn, SRe^I + meal, malmtn, ^alttx, 4, Wt^U + mill, !D{fiaer, fDluS, 3Kaul^ 
tturf + mole, by popular etymology < molitDurf + mould-warp. 

180 phokology — umlaut. [401- 


401. Umlant is the modification of an accented Towel by 
an i (j) in the next syllable. 

1. By it a, o, n become soimdB lying nearer to L In other words, back and mixed 
Towels become more like front vowels throngfa the inflaenoe of trout vowds. The 
tougne-position of back and mixed vowels changes to ** front,** while the rest of the 
articalation remains the same. This "fronting" is called by the Germans "mooil- 
lierang," i.^., palatalization. Sievers* theory is that the intervening consonants were 
first affected and then the immediately preceding vowel. Snch palatalized consonants 
are the Fr. 1 and n still in 'feuiOe " </afitim, Etpagne < Mtpanki. 

2. To understand umlaut we must go back to a period in which i (j) 
was still tolerably intact as in O. H. G. But there was only one umlaut 
marked in that period, viz., that of & and its sign was e just like the 
original e now distinguished by " = S. In M. H. G. the umlaut of the 
other vowels appears and is unfortunately very irregularly represented. 
Sievers supposes that the consonants were already palatalized in O. H. G. 
and that they imparted their change to the vowel in M. H. G. But it is 
also very likely that the vowels were already palatalized in O. H. G., 
only the alphabet was not sufficient to show the change. 

Ex. : lamp — lembir, Sfimmer; ^oM > gad>e > %Sbt, pret shj. ; gast — 
gasti > geste, ®d|!e; *aU-lantjo > eU-Unti > eBende> tlenb» unfortimate 
because in an ''other country;" sedni > sehoene > f(j^9it; angU > (gngel; 
bSsi > boft, etc. 

402. The extent of this phenomenon varies with the period and the dialect. Certain 
consonants have prevented nmlant. Bat we cannot enter npon a further discussion. 
Compare gebulbig, gewatttg. By umlant, then, a > &^ e; o (^) > 5 (s) ; u > ft (^) ; au > 
&u, eu, bat this only seemingly in cases where au < 11, since 11 passed into 11 (iu) and thla 
into eu, hu, according to 488» & 

1. While in German umlaut is still a living principle, it is dead in Bug. and has been 
for some 8-900 years. Eng. only has isolated forms with umlaut, e, g^ mouse— mice, 
cow— kine, etc., that belong to no system of inflection or derivation in which umlaut 
serves as the expression of a function or meaning. We call the above examples *^ ir- 
regular " plurals. 

2. There is no such thing as ** rlickumlaut *' = '* umlaut reversed," as the old graio- 
marians caUed it. «. ^r., in benfen, bail^te/ gebail^t. See 464, 8. 

Interchanges of Vowels: e — i, ie; no Umlaut — Umlaut; 

tt — ; ie — ctt* 

403. e — i (te)« 1, where e is original, that is G. T. and 
I. E. e. e passed into i before i (j) standing in the unac- 
cented syllable, a process exactly analogous to umlaut; e > i 


also before a nasal belonging to the same syllable, generally 
before nasal + oons. The physiological reason for the latter 
change is not clear. 

Ex.: The present of CI. III., IV., V., see also the O. H. G. paradigm. 
The first p. sg. mmu may be due to analogy, but in O. H. G. and Ags. 
S > i also before u and it may therefore be a phonetic transition. f!|^tiw 
lit^tn, bitten have i all through, see 467. 1, but ®t|rel < te^aL dtXb-^tfiVot 
< gifildi, reiftt — ri^ttn < *rih^n, + L. rectus, gtber — ® rjlebtr ; fern — 
firn < fimi. Verbs of UL CI.: fUtbcn, Moisuncft. Q^tfm^Qiift < giftu 

2y i is original, but passed into 3 before a, e, o in the next 
syllable or if the word ended in a consonant, i remained 
before i (j) and before w. 

The cases of i > fi are not namerons. It is a High Qerman and Old Saxon pecaliar- 
ity. Bng. has stiU i. 

Ex.: !«f — erqulcfm + quick, quicken; leben + live, flcbtn + cleave, 
f^totben belong to ablauts. I. with the zero grade. S^emefem to decompose, 
compare L. tiWuBt Skr. tith-am, fieber + liver. 9)cd^ + Eng. pitch < 
\j,pic-8, @tt3 < same root as jleiflcn I.; ©edjfcl — + Lat. mo-ea. tr < 
tr, + Lat is, 

404. Umlaut — no nmlant. 

Ex. : Verbs of VI. and VII. CL, but in the latter mostly by analogy, 
«. g. , faru, fwst, fert — fa Jre, ffi^r jl, fSbrt. %\X — (£ttcrn < eUir6n, Comp. 
+ elders. Sbtl < adal — tbel < ediU, Comp. + Ethel. Very numer- 
ous and the umlaut often more or less hidden. 

405. It — 0* In the stem-syllable n is always the older and 
passed into o before a, e, o. It was preserved like i before 
i (j), w and a nasal belonging to the same syllable. 

This process is also one of assimilation similar to nmlant, caUed ** brechung^^ by 
the older grammiirianB. 

Ex.: See verbs of CI. II., IIL, IV. in the past part, and compare with 
them the pret pi. and nouns from the same stem, e,g.f %ivi^t, du($tf S^er^ 
nunft, Sunft^ ©oflte < «»«to — <S*ulb; IJoIb — <)ulb < hvldi; ^o^l — .f^flfle, 
( < ykxl. Q^olb — ®ulben (a coin), but golbcn + golden by analogy ; SSote 
— S3iUtel < huiU. The transition before nasals is quite modem and M. G. 
Comp. Sonne < sunna ; ©ommer < sumer : ®o^n < sunu ; past part, of IIL 
Before n + oons. (not n) u remains now, gtfunbcni S3unb# gtfunfen^ 9nlunft«. 


406. te (io) — eu (iii)« iu being levelled away and ie stand- 
ing for both io and iu, this interchange is not common now. 
Both iu and io < G. T. eu. eu > iu before i (j) and w, but 
> eo before a, e, o; and later eo > io > ie, it* The process 
is e > i and u > o in the same diphthong. 

Ex. : Ablauts, and CI. IL, see 124, Remark. 9Bad ba frend^t nnb {lettgt 
(Sch.). ]&ietcn — ©eute (?), SBcutcl (?). 

Grimm's Law or the "shifting ofmiUeSy' Sauberfd^ieBmtg* 

407. It concerns the so-called '^ mutes,'' b, p, f; d, t, th; g, 
k, ch, media, tennis, aspirates. This law was discovered by 
Bask, but first fully stated by Jacob Grimm. It includes two 
great shiftings, the first prehistoric, that is, General Teutonic 
or Germanic; the second, historical or German. The first is a 
peculiarity of the whole group and shared to very nearly the 
same extent by every member of the group; the second is a 
peculiarity of the German dialects proper, is partial both as 
to the number of sounds and of dialects affected. We very 
briefly represent the first shifting. See the author's article 
in the Amer. Jour, of PhiL, vol. I., for a fuller account Let 
y represent the sonant stops, z the surd ones and x the so- 
called ''aspirate," which represents various sounds. The fol- 
lowing formulas will be of use. G. is added now merely for 

Fftrent-epeech, L E. 




X > 





y > 




1 1 1. 

z > 




Notice L E. is the oldest stage of the language reconstracted from the varions L B. 
dialects. You can substitute for I. E. any language but the Teutonic, provided you 
make allowance for any changes in that particular language, e. g.^ d* has become f or d 
in Latin, ^y General Teutonic or Germanic is meant that stage which is reconstructed 
from all the Teutonic dialects. By G . we mean the written language of Germany ; H. G. 
iieans South and Middle as opposed to Low German. 


Substitute in each formula the labials, dentals, etc. 

408. Form. I. 1. z = d'. L K d' = d + sonant aspiration 
(Ellis), " sonant affricate/* this d' through G. T. dh (sonant 
spirant) > d > H. O. t, but dh remains in Gk>. and Scand., e.g,y 
L E. * rf'wr-, Gr. ^v'^«, lu fares, > G. T. ♦ dur-, Eng. door > 
G. S^or— S^ur, doublets. 

2. X = b'. I. E. b' > G. T. bh, b > G. b, e. g., L K \/b^ 
ablauts. ±1., Gr. nv»^ > G. T. \/bS, Eng. bid > G. Hcteti, fcot, 
ge6oten. No German shifting of b > p therefore. 

S.iL=_^. I.K^> G., g > G. g, e. g., < V^ 

(Skr. Vht > G. T. Vgu-), *gud-, Eng. God > G. ®ott, "the 
being invoked " (see Eluge). No German shifting of g>k. 

4. z = g^, the second series of gutturals, the ^ labialized *' > 
G. T. g, gw (w) if medial, > G. g, or zero if medial, e. g,^ 
I. E. * ang^t L. angustua > G. T. angu--. Go. aggwus > G, enje 
< angi < * angwjo. L K * g^stis, L. hodia > G. T. gJiast, 
gaaty + Eng. guest > G. ®a^« 

409. Form. II. x in G., see later. 

1. y=:d. LE.d>G. T. t,Eng. t. < Vdint, to eat, I. R 
d(mt-y li. denir^ > G. T. tunth-y Eng. tooth > 3fl^n, < zand. 
Before d the vowel has disappeared by apocope. The form 
is participial = "the eater" (Eluge). Comp. L. edere > 
Eng. eat > G. effen. 

2. 7 = b. I. K b is very rare and examples doubtful. 

3. y = gSgf. I.Kg*>G.T.k = G.k. < Vg3"., L.^6tore 
> G. T. * kald, Eng. cold, cool + G. fait, m/i, ablauts. VL 

I. K g« > G.T. kw, k = G. !, qu, e. g^ < Vg^m, L. venio « 
* gvemio)> G. T. qvsman, Eng. come, + G. fommen, adj. frequent. 
The phonetic change of y > z consists in the loss of sonancy. 

410. Form. lU. x = G. T. surd spirant, I. E. z = unaspi- 
rated surd stop. 


1. z = L K t. t through the transition stage t' = t + surd 
aspiration > G. T. th > H. and L. G. d, e. g^ L. tertius > 
G. T. thridj-, Eng. third, > tritte. 

2. z = p. L K p > G.T. £, bilabial, Eng. f > G. f: lupi9c^ 

> G. T. ^fisk-os > gifc^, + Eng. fish. 

3. z = kML2. I.Rki>G.T. h,kh, >G.|,*. Ex. : L. 
pecus > G. T.fehu, Eng. fee, > SSic^ I. E. k^ > G. T. hw, h, 
Eng. wh, > G. \o, zero = silent 1§. L. sequnyr > G. T. sehunm 

> fe^en, + Eng. see. L. quisy qitod > G. T. Awr, hvxxt + Eng. 
who, what, > G. »er, ti>ad. 

Vemer's Law. 

411. After the first shifting and when the accent was not yet 
limited to the root-sjllable (see 420, 2) a new phenomenon ap- 
peared, viz., Vemer^s Law or the " shifting of spirants." The 
G. T. surd spirants th, kh, f, s became sonant spirants and 
later sonant stops, when ihe immediately preceding Towel was 
unaccented. This affects only form. UL, but the transition 
of sonant spirants into sonant stops is identical mih the tran- 
sition of the sonant spirants which sprang < sonant affiicate 
according to form. L See 408. Hence there is an inter- 
change of the following consonants: th — dh, d which became 
G. t; f — bh, b; kh, khw — gh, ghw, g, w; s — z, r. See 416. 

As to accent, see 420. Students who know Greek can 
generally go by the Greek accent, which is often still the L E. 

Ex. : Gr. narvp > G. T. fathar > fadhar (Go.) > fddar (Ags.) > G. 
S^ater^ M. Eng. has again dh (through Norse influence?), but lt,frdt€T > 
G. T. brSthar, Eng. brother > G. Sruber according to form. JJL G. T. 
lUTian, laith, but pi. lidhon-, part, lidhanr-, Eng. loathe, > G. leiben (litt by 
levelling), gelitten. L. 8equ-or > G. T. aShtoan, tahw, seffvrum', sigtoanr-, 
O. S. 9e?ian, sah, sdwum, gUewan, Eng. see, saw, seen (levelling) > G. 
fe^en# fa$, geft^en (levelling, | silent). G. T.' tc^Mn, tms, werun^, wSaan- > 
Eng. was — were > G. war (levelling), warewr gmefcn (levelling). Com- 
pare ficfen — M (for, levelling) — gtforen. 


412. In certain consonant grou]>8 the first sliifting of Grimm's Law 
allows of modifications. 

1. Original st, 8k» sp remain, e.g,, L. vutigium + G. ®teg» Gttig; L. 
8c in po9C€re + G. T. sk, Eng. and G. sb, f4 in forfc^cn, tpaf^cn (see 467, 4). 
L. sp in spicere, speculum + G. fp^^ + espy, spy. 

2. Before t eyery dental has become s, eyery labial f, eyery 
gattaral kh, d), while t remains intact, bnt st can become ss by 
assimilation. Examples are yery numerous. 

2)tt t9dSt < wM < *iMiM2+t; L. eap-tui + G. -^ft (bat see Eluge) ; 

L. noeUm + G. 9ta4t + night; fRad^t + might < Vmxg*, from which 

mag — ntdgeitr ablaat& VI.; gn»ii < 'wid-U/ a past participle < i^wzd, + 
L. yid-, + to wit, wist. The differentiation into st and ss is difficult to 
explain. K6gel ascribed it to accent, but see Kluge, P. and B. Beitrftge, 
yol. YIII. A different origin has the st of 9tefl, SRafl (of a ship), ®txftt, 
and a very few others, viz., < ad. For these see Eluge. See also 454, 8. 


The second or German shifting we shall treat chiefly with a view to represent Bng. 
and G. cognates. We shall not treat of every dialeet separately. It mnst sofflce to say 
that upon the extent of shifting the dassiflcation of the dialects is based. See 480. 
For a ftiU account, see Braone^s article in P. and B. Beitr., vol. U. In fact, to Braone 
we owe the best light that has been thrown npon this difflcalt sabject. This second 
shifting, though coming within the historic period of the langnage, had been mach less 
understood and more misrepresented than the first shifting. The material was veiy 
different from that of the first shifting and the result had to be diftorent, though Grimm 
supposed that the first stage was reached again in H. G. Nor is there room to enter 
into the chronology of the various steps, though it has been tolerably settled. The 
latest shifting, th > d, we find still going on in the 18th century, and is the most exten- 
sive of all the shiftings. Geographically the movement began in the South and the 
flirther North it spread the less it grew and the later it occurred. See 480. We follow 
the order of the formulas. Where Bng. is identical with G. T., as 1b generally the case, 
the Eng. examples will at the same time illustrate the corresponding sounds and the 
cognates of Bng. and G. 

4ia Form. I. 1. G. T. d > G. t. Eng. dead — G. tot ; do 

— t^unj bed — Sett; steady — jlctigj mother for M. Eng. moder 

— aJlutter (see 411) ; hoard + 4>ort. 

a. Where Eng. d — G. b in a small numher of words, there d has been 
restored in N. H. G. through L. or M. G. influence, M. H. G. showing t ; 
or the word has come from L. G. into the written lang^uftge. Eng. dumb 


— bumm; dam — jDamm; down — jDune; "Dutch" ia L. Q. > Eng., while 
G. beutf(^ belongs to form. III. After 1 and r are some cases of d — &, e.g,, 

wild — toilb; mild — ntilb; murder — SJi^orb* These are due to a change 
of Ags. th > d. Also after n, e.g., wind — »inbett; bind — binberu These 
are due to a change of O. H. Q. t > d. 

2. Eng. b and g = G. ( and g, see 408, e. g., bold — (alt; 
beck — Sad^ ; gold — ®ofe ; garden — ®arten«. For mb — mm, 
see 490,4. Butb and especially g have often disappeared in 
Eng. Compare hawk — ^abid^t ; ^caxpi, < houbU, — head ; 
SHegen — rain; Sia^tn — wain. G. b — Eng. v, \^abtn — have; 
Heben — love, etc. 

3. G. T. bb > G. ppx fftapp^ < *r<q>pOy G. T. rabbo-, buf 
Sftabe — raven. Stnappt < * knappoy G. T. knabbo-, but jtnobe 
— knave. Sfrbe + ebb, is L. G. 

4. G. T. gg > G. if, but G. T. gg > Eng. dzh (-dge). 
*mugj6^ Ags. mycge, Eng. midge — G. WlMt. * hrugjOy Ags. 
hrycge, Eng. ridge — G. 9luc!en« Eng. edge — Scfe, bridge — 
Sriicfc, etc. Sgge, harrow, is L. G. 

5. y = BonaDt stop has sprung either from L E. x = sonant affiricate according to 
form. I. or from I. E. z = surd stop > O. T. snrd spirant according to form. m. and 
Vemer's Law, in both cases through a sonant spirant. Notice " affiricate^* is a doable 
consonant, ^* spirant " is a single one. The process of O. T. j > O. z is loss of sonancy 
the same as I. E. y > G. T. z. Notice that consonants were doubled, i. «., lengthened 
before West-germanic J, w, r, 1, as the examples show, see 389> 6. 

414. Form. H 1. G. T. z > G. ac. G. T. t > G. ts (a, ^) 
and this remains when initial, affcer r, (, n and when sprung 
from tt, but becomes ^ (Grimm's sign), supposed to have 
been a lisped s, and later s (f, ^), see 490, 2. 

In M. H. G. this ^ and s never rhyme, hence they must have been diffn^^it sounds. 
tt > ts is much later than t > ts. 

Examples exceedingly numerous: ton^e — Qm^t ; wart — IBaric; 
holt — ^olj; mint — 2Rfln|c < L. maneta through *mil7Uta; * Batman > 
Eng. set — G. fe^n ; whet — »c^n; wheat — SBeijcn; sweat — fd^tt>lten; ' 
water — SBaffer; hate — ^ai, lafftttr etc. All seeming exceptions can be 
explained in some way or other, e, g.y in foreign words introduced since 
the shifting : tar — %ux < L. G.; temple — XemptI < L. templum ; ton 


— Xonne > Keltic (?). The combination tr is an exception. Compare also 
ft, kht, 8t, 412, 2. True — trcu ; bitter — bitter < G. T. biir-os ; winter — 
SBittter. Winter and unter are M. H. O. hinder, under, see 413, 1, a. 
Words introduced before the shifting are Germanised, e, g„ plant — * 
9)flan)e < L. plarUa ; tile — Bit^tl < L. tegula, 

2. G. T. p > G. ^\f which remains initially, after m, and 
when sprung from pp, but passes into f after vowels and r, 1. 

Ex. : Eng. path ^- G. 9>fab ; pea(-cock) — 9>fau < L. paw; plight — 
9fli(l^t; swamp — Gumpf (?) ; rump — Shtmpf; hop, hip — l^&pfcn; stop — 
flopfen; sleep — Waftn; hope — iofftn; sharp — f(^rf; help — Jclfen. 

a. Where Eng. and G. p correspond, tliey indicate either L. G. or other 
foreign words introduced since the shifting, 0.^., pocks — 9^o(fen; poke 
— po<^cn < L. G. ; pain — 9>cln < L. pcBna; pilgrim — 9)llgcr < L. 
p&regrinus; pulpit — 9>ult < L. pvlpUum, 

3. G. T. k > G. kh, jh (i^)^ except initial k and doable k, 
which appears as d* Eng. has frequently palatalized its k 
into tsh, written ch, tch. 

Ex.: Eng. like — gleid^; bleak — bUidben; knuckle — i^nd^el; knee — 
jtnie ; church — jtir^e ; cook, kitchen — Jtod^# itft^e. Westgerm. kk — 
Eng. k — G. (f : bake, baker — badtiw SS&dtr ; waken — toecten; acre — 
9((fer ; naked — nadft. 

0. The links between G. T. i and G. x are probably enrd stop -f aspirate, surd 
stop + spirant, spirant, «. 0r., k > k + H > kkh, an aflHcate, > kh. kkh is still S. G., 
tth is the Irish pronnndatlon of Bng. th. The processes are identical with those of 
L B. a > 6. T. X. Bat G. x is a long consonant or an aflHcate, while G. T. x < L E. a 
is a single, weaker consonant. Compare the present nat^n haying a long and strong 
^ with SBa^t ; ^offen, ^onf with the initial f as in f&r, Bfeuer, Dot. The latter corre- 
sponds to G. T. f , the former to G. T. p. See below. 

415. Form, IIL G. T. x > G. y. This shifting only took 
place in the dentals. G. T. th > G. d. Eng. thing — G. Itng 5 
that — ta« ; hearth — ^ttt ; earth — Srtc ; brother — ©ruber* 

As to extent and time of this shifting, see p. 185. The process of the shifting of the 
G. T. surd spirant under the accent > G. sonant stop, final sard stop is identical with 
that of G. T. surd spirants nnaccented > G. T. sonant spirant > G. T. sonant stop in 
certain positions. For this G. T. y > G. a, see 41 1. 

1. Eng. h, gh> f correspond to G. ]|, i^, f {^), bat Eng. gh is 
often silent 


Ex.; Eng. floor — G. gUir; fowl — ©ogcl; heart — ^crj| hart — ^irf^ 
< Mn^, ; might — SWat^t; fraught, freight — gfrac^t. 

2. G. T. hw, Eng. wh — G. to. Ex. : Eng. which — G. 
todii ; whelp — 2Celf . 

8. All irreguhaities must he explained as hefore, either as due to 
levelling or to foreign origin. See ^4, 1. herd — ^erbf, L. Q^ but ^ixtt 

— shep-herd according to rule ; throne — XJron < Gr.-L. thronu^. The 
relation of Saufenb to thousaDd is not cleared up. 

Eng.f — Q. (6, L.G.,see 493, 4. hbeforeland r has been lost in both 

languages. Comp. kXvtoc, Ags. JU4d — Eng. loud, G. laiU j < Vkrx, 
ablauts 11. Lat. eruor — Ags. hrea — Eng. raw, G. roj. 

The Intebghakges BEsuLTiNa from the SmrriNa of G. T. 

Spibants. See 411. 

416. Levelling has so largely done away with the results of Yemer's 
law in German that what is left of them may be looked upon as isolated 
cases. Thej appear more in derivatives of the same stem than in the 

1. t) — t most frequent : letoctt — Iltt, gelttten ; lelten ; (iebm — 
fott, gcfottctt. f — 6: barf, biirfcti, 9lot^urft — barren, toerberBen (?). 
^,^—r* li^W (^ silent), 3ud^t — flcaogcn, ^^ergofl. f — r: 8er^ 
lujl, + loss — loerlicrett (levelling), ioerloren + forlorn; fiefen — 
^ur, erforen* 

417. Correspondences between Eng. and G. consonants 
outside of the shif tings. 

1. Loss of n before spirants in G. T. and later. Before 
G. T. kh as in fallen (archaic for fangcn) < "'fanhan ; tadJtc < 
*danhte, + thought, etc. Ags, — Eng. also before th and f, 
when G. has preserved n. Compare: tooth — 3^^^] mouth 

— 9Kuttt); but south — ©lib, of L. G. origin; soft — fanft, but 
fad^t, of L. G. origin. 

2. Eng. wr — G. r: Eng. write — rei^en, ri^cn ; wrench — 
tenfen; wretch — Slccfe; wring — ringcn^ 

3. Eng. w, r, 1, m correspond to G. tt), r, I, m* 


4, For Eng. m — G. n, see 490, 6. For Eng. mb — G. 
mm, see 490, 4. 

5. Eng, s (original s) — G. s: honse — i&att«; sink — finfttt. 

a. Eng. X — Q.Xt^* The phonetic value of the sign is the same in 
both languages. The sign Xt borrowed from Latin, stands for d^, tii tf^. 
Ex.: Eng. wax — G. toad^fett ; fox — 9ud&d ; axlo — 9d^ft; box — 8it4fe 
< Gr. irvfig; box — S3ttd^dbattm < L. Inixtu, 


418. We are following BtlU the traditional method of treating of the accent, bnt, as a 
matter of fkct, in speaking we never divide the word into the syllables or the sentence 
into the words as they are printed or written. Such a division is parely for the eye and 
artificial. We speak in '* breathffraupty" as Sweet calls them. Sievers uses ** JSpfxieh- 
iakt^'* bnt " apr^chtoM ** woald be better. A breathgroap consists of a certain nnmber 
of sonnds that can be pronounced ** in one breath,** as we say. If one or two sonnds 
hav e very strong stress then the nnmber of *^ syllables ** in the group is small, because 
the store of air is spent. If one syllable has only the amount of air spent upon a 
secondary or medium accent, then the number of syllables can be larger. Bug. and 
G. have a prevailingly fttlling rhythm, that Is, the stress fhUs upon the initial sounds or 
syllable of a group. French is difRBrent. Its stress is very uniform and the predoml- 
nant stress very difAcult to place in the group. Bxcellent authorities, both French 
and Dutch, claim that the stress lies at the beginlng ; other authorities. Just as high, 
that it lies at the end of the group. The French groups are very long. 

In G. and Bug. the amount of stress concentrated upon some part of the group 
varies, else there would be a great monotony as in French, but Fr. has a more varied 
intonation or ** tone," which gives it an advantage over Bug. and G. 

1. For very trustworthy division into breathgroups, see Sweet*s transcriptions of 
Eng., G. and Fr. in his ** Handbook.^^ For the whole difficult subject of the synthesis 
of sounds, see Sweet and also Sievers* Phonetik, $ 88. Notice that the principle of 
breathgroups is recogniaed when we speak of proclitics and enclitics. All syncope, 
elision, contraction, metre, assimilation take place according to this principle. When 
there are too many syllables to to be pronounced conveniently by one breath-impulse 
some are cut off and always according to a certain fixed rule varying with the different 
languages. Or If the sounds coming together in a group are very different we assimi- 
late them to each other. This we call " ease of utterance ** or " euphony.** 

419. We distinguish three degrees of accent or '^stress/' 
viz., chirf (strong, primary), medium (secondary), and weak, 

marked respectively J, 1, Z. Thus : 8l>fcl, ta'tttta>, ^Da'nf-? 

1. " Weak" also includes '' unaccented/' when there are not syllables 
enough, e, g,., ^\^^CL\\i^% 9r'l)fe'^lbau''m. But when the word is very long 


or in a group of several words we may distinguisli not merelj between 
weak and unaccented, but tbe variety of stress can be further marked by 

figures, fl. g., ©CTc'bfa"'m!ti^ (©c unmarked or *'«"): Orop^rjogtum, 

Sltertumdmnber Sieraigjd^rtger* 

Accent in Unoomponnded Words. 

420. The chief accent rests in all oncomponnded words on 
the stem-syllable (no matter if suffixes and inflectional end- 
ings follow). This syllable is always the first, e. g,, 8a'tcr, 
»a'tcrlic^, fo'Igfam, 8a'(^erii(i^!eit, XUi'non, f^mei'c^cln, tit ^u'ngembcn. 

1. Exceptions: lebe'nbig from le'^tn; words in -ti and -itx, -itrtn, e.g., 
fRalerei^ (tntbei'ou ^ttmaltbti'tn, fbtbie'reiw 8ar6te'r; lut^t'rifc^ (long e), mean- 
ing " Lutheran/' pertaining to that confession, but ltt't^r(i)f(^» of, per- 
taining to Luther; ^t^rif^ ; a few derivatives in -^'ftig (see 626, 2); 
oatr^a'ftig, leit^'ftig, sometimes teil^'ftig; also »a{^Tf(^ei'nli4, but see 422,2. 

8. This limitation of tbe primary aooeDt to the root eyllable is a peculiarity of the 
Germanic languages. It is called the logical or ** gebondene ** accent. The other 
Indo-Buropean languages have the **f^«e" accent, which can Ikll on any syllable. 
The original accent must have been preseryed In G. T. until after the ahifting of I. B. 
z > G. T. X, because then the law of spliants (see 411) went into efPset, 

8. The Teutonic element of Bng. has, of course, the same accent as G. and even the 
Norman-French element in Eng. has largely submitted to the Germanic accent, e. or., 
sea'son < L. saHt/nem ; rea'son < L. ratio'nem ; li'berty < L. Uberta'tem. Compare 
the foreign accent in G. ©aifo^n, raifonnie'ren, Ouattt&'t. It is to be noted that the two 
past participles and the pret. pL were not stem-accented, originally, standing in con- 
trast with the pros, and pret. sg. The accented suffixes we cannot enumerate. 

Accent in Gomponnd Words. 

421. In compound words the chief accent rests upon the 
stem-syllable of the first component paxt if the second paxt 
is a noun (subst. or adj.); on the stem-syllable of the second 
part if this is a verb or derived from a verb : ga'^rfhra'f e, 
9la'*t»a^d>tcr, ©d^o'^^u^nti, lie'brel^d^, gna'De^n^o^n, Srt'trag, a'nt^ 
njort, Sii'rfprcd^, U'rtcil, tto'me^m, aRi'f gunjl ; but ^erfpre'd^en, crtel'^ 
Ictt, \>emc'^mctt, betra'gctt, uolttrt'ngcn, mif ll'ngen, iDoHfo'mmen. 

1. This old principle should be understood even by the beginner, though to him there 
will seem to be many exceptions, which an advanced scholar will generally account 
for. 9'iittooitetty tt'rteUen are no exceptions, because they are derived from tha nouns 

422] PHONOLOGY — ^ACCENT, 191 

91'ntn>ori, U'rteil; nor are bad Qetla^ngen, btt Oefc^I, »enic'(mll4f because they are de- 
rived from the corresponding verbs. SoIQo'mmeii has the correct accent, becaase it is 
a past participle. 

The prefixes are fhlly treated in the word-formation, which see. 

422. The more striking exceptions are as follows : 

1. A large group of words whjch have not become real oomponndfl 
but h^ve spmng from mere jaxtaposition in orthography : 1>a^ itUt^o'd^, 
vivat ; vieHei'dbt, S^ieaie'b(^en, 2thmo'J^l, Dergi'Smeiimi^t, ^n^na'rr, ^o^er^ 
prie'fleTf fiangmei'Ie (but fia'ngtoeil after the genuine compound J(u'riti>eU)r 
3a5rK«*«t, 3a}n«'i«*f fcrri«i'nis# DreiernigWt, atttr- + -Wh% -c'rfl, -iel'Ugtn* 
fef!# etc. ; ^reif0'niddfefl« Their etymologies are apparent. 

2. In a number of adjectives, most of them ending in -Xi^t and their 
derivatives, the chief accent has shifted from the original position to the 
syllable preceding the suffix : VPtiit'gUc^f but Do'rsug; 90Ttre'ffli($; abfc^eu'Uc^i 
but ^'bfiieu; audbrfi'ifU^, but 9u'dbnt(f; bie ^ortre'flli^feitr bie Sudf^'^rU^feit, 
leibei'gen* In some the accent is uncertain, but the chief accent on the 
first element is preferable, e. g,, (a'nbgretflic^ better than ^anbgrei'flic^; no't' 
tDenbtgi ma'frr^einltd^, ei'gratfimlici^, A distinction is sometimes made be- 
tween tV^tntikmli^, ** belonging to," and eigemft'mli^f " peculiar to." Notice 

8. bannfe'Tjigr full of pity. Star-- (formerly (Efar) as in itarfrti'tag, Good- 
Friday, ifartoo'c^ef Holy Week (itar-r+c«r<?, sorrow,but also Sta'xrood^i), 
%xof^vlii'(Sinaxa, Corpus Christ!, perhajMS because the meaning of the first 
element is no longer clear. @fibo'ft# @&bfubo'ft» norbme'fllic^ as in English. 

4. In a large number of adjectives in which the first element denotes 
a comparison or a high degree, «.^., ^tmmel^o'd^y as high as heaven, eidfa'It» 
as cold as ice, fo^If(^n>a'r$# the accent may stand on the second element, but 
must remain on the first when the adj. is inflected. @teinrei'(^» " very 
rich," originally '* rich in precious stones," flei'nrei(^» stony, are sometimes 

5. aQer- is accented only in a'Uerl^anb and a'llerle{# doubtful in several, 
as in a'Qerfeitd. aU- is generally unaccented : aUei'tt^ atim&'il\(f^, aU^mti'n, 
but also ^'Ilma^tf WU^attx, WUta^ and its derivatives, but also aUtdi'gUci^, as 
sub 4. 

0. nn^* For this prefix it is difficult to find a general rule. The best 
founded and most practical is this, based upon nominal and verbal com- 
pounds : Un- compounded with nouns and adjectives not derived from 

192 PHOKOLOGY — ^ACCENT. [423^ 

verbs attracts the chief accent ; if they are derived from verbs, then the 
stem-syllable retains its original accent, e, g,, u'nfrttdjtbar, tt'obanfbar, tt'nHatf 
U'nmrnfc^, bat utidlau'Mi($# uiifd'glid^» nnent^e'^TUd^, unt^era'ntwpttli^f unBegrei'flid^. 
Notice, however, ixatlMvii, ungc^'er — u'nge^euer. See a. 

a. With regard to adjectives there is also a feeUng approaching a principle, that sn 
Bhoald have the chief accent, when a regular a4jective exiets, of which the compound 
with un- denotes the contrary or negation : bran't^^or, n'oirauil^iai, fi'^tbar, u'nfi^tfeav, 
etc. This feeling frequently unsettles the aceent, as uitDeigei^Ii^ > n'noeisei^U^ 

7. Dber- varies in accent in compounds consisting of three parts. When 
it belongs to the second part it has chief stress, and the third part secon- 
dary stress : Syi^erfiefer'toerle^liutgf injury of the upper jawbone. But if the 
second and third form one subdivision and Dl^er- denotes rank, then it has 
less stress than the third part and the second has chief stress : Ober^ 
f(3^u'ttt*^rar = chief school-teacher; Dbcr^nm'iibfd^c'itf ; Dbcrgtrl'd^lda^moalt, 
chief attorney. But accent the first and last examples differently and 
they mean different persons, viz., CXberfd^ulIe^^TeTy teacher at a high- 
school ; £)'beTgeri(^tdan^maU# attorney at a high-oourt of justice. 

423. In compound adverbs the chief accent iaWs generally 
upon the second element, if they are compounded of a simple 
adverb and a preceding or following nonn or pronoun; or if 
compounded of two adverbs, e. g,y bcrgau'f, fbroma'b, ia^rel'n, 
ia^rau'd, W^%^f aitjla'tt, l^iitu'ber, l^cr\)o'r, fofo'rt, lOi%x% ta^e'r, 
iiberau'^, ukrei'n, ukr^au'))t, ^orta'nbcit, ab^a'ntcn* 

1. This includes their derivatives fofo'rtig, jufrie'ben, »or^a'nben» 
Exceptions are: 1, compounds which contain demonstrative and posses- 
sive pronouns, e.g., be'mnaii^, be'rgc|laU#mei'ncttt)C8en,etc.; a'nbcr- or a'nber*-, 
-'Jalb, *^»firW, -fieflern, 6.g,, a'nberdwo, a'nbcrfcitd, o'btr^Ib, ]^ci'm»firtd, »o'r- 
wartd, uo'rgeflcrtt, etc.; be'imod^, c'twa; 2, many compounds which are fused 
adverbial phrases and derivatives from compounds. They retain their 
original word accent, e,g., a'ngellc^td, a'bfeitd» na'(|mittad^» u'bermorgetw 

See the rhetorical accent, 426. 

424. For the secondary accent rules can be given only in 
derivatives and compound words. 

1. OertaiQ nominal suffixes have always medium stress. 

427] PHOKOLOGT— AOCEirr. 193 

o. Substantive suffixes: Hit, -ut, -ot; ^eit, -rtc^t, -In, -leit, 
-leitt, -ling, -ni«, -fal, fcbaft, -turn, e.g,^ ^erma^t, Jttel'no'^, 
e'tpifllel't, gl'ttjlcrnl^d, Irfi'bfaU, JtB'nlfittt'm. 

b. Adjective suffixes : -tar, -l^aft, -Ic^t (?), -4)6^ (?), -Iid>, -fam, 
-f*9^ «. S'-* beOa'flba'r, cV«i<>a^fl, e'rtl^c^, ^e'rrl'f*, la'ttgfa'm, 

2« In nominal compounds the secondary stress &Ils upon 
the root-sjUable of the second part, e. ^., Sftit'dgra't, Sa'^rtDa'ffer, 
SItt'gettferte, 9ll'^terfii^attng, U'ngere^^tigleU, It'UnmiCU, ^I'lfiSbe:^ 

8. In double compounds when one or both parts are again compounded 
the secondary stress falls upon the first or the only stem -syllable of the 
second part But care must be taken in properly separating the parts, 

«. g., ©e'tt-Do^rJangf R^^nunfid-a'Magc, ©o'lb-be'rgwe^'rff 9>e'lj-^i^nbWu"1# 
gc'lbmaM*«tt; but ^a'tibfcju'^^wa'c^er, Vln'if^vTm-^o^ ©(^Ti'ftjle^aenjerei^u 
The misplaced medium stress would give no meaning at all, e. g., 
fltu'^lau)sa:iolh because bau'ml^p^Is is meaningless. In Seu'enoerfld^ng^ 
^t^CU^diaft secondary accent on -fC^ is only ix>sBible, if there is such a 
thing as ffeu'er-re'ttung^gefeSrc^afL 

4. The foreign endings, of course, also cross this accentuation, e, g,^ 

»u'*brutfmr, tt'nterfefretaria't, i'rrlic^teUe'reiu 

425. Unaccented are aU inflectional endings, many pre- 
fixes and suffixes. The syllables generally contain e = eh. 

426. The rhetorical accent (emphasis) can interfere with 
the placing of the various degrees of stress, but this does not 
differ from the English : ba'rbei and babel' ; ei'nmal, einma'I. In 
Sch.'s Wallenstein occurs jta'nn nic^t fein, lann ni'(i^t fein, eta 

427* The accent in foreign words is as a rule foreign. Very few words 
have taken German accent when introduced since the 0. H. G. period. 
Substantives in -ie and -ei, verbs in -ieren retain, for instance, the prima- 
ry accent on these suflixes, 0.^., SHagie'f XffteU^it', IbtudtxtV, flttbie'rtn> 

194 msroBicAL oomkehtaby on accidence. [428- 



Comments on the Honn-Dedeniion. 1. Yowel-Declension. 

i8ae table on neBBtpaffe."} 

Tbere we two niimben, three genden. Onlj two caeea taftve now endingB, Tic, 
G. «g. andD. pL, but other parts of speech still inflect for the N. and A. The number 
of cases was gndoally rednced. In O. H. 6. then is stiD an Instrumental. 

428. 1. There were two Iftrge STBtems of dedenslon according as the 
Btem ended in a vowel or in a consonant. Vowel stems ended in o or in &. 
We generally count here also the i- and tf-stems, bat they really belong 
to the consonant stems, since i and n haye the functions of consonants 
as well as of vowels. Stems in o (Jo, too) belong to the L £• e — o 
ablaut-series and are always masculine or neuter. Stems in d (Jd, tod) 
belong to the a — fi series and are always feminine, jo, too, jd, wd are 
counted as separate classes, because j and w produced some peculiar 
changes, tf-stems are very rare, eince they soon became i-stems, e.g,, 
tunu, pi. 9uni, Sd^nc There is only one neuter instem in 0. H. G., vis., 
meri, bad ^ecr + L. m(vre. 

2. The consonant stems end in n, r, in a dental and in a gutturaL The 
most frequent are the TiHBtems, to which went over a great many fem. 
noons from the earliest times, e.g,<t tunga + L. Ungua for dingua. 

8. J. Orimm flmcied that there was strength in the yowel-declension and so called It 
**" strong," the consonant declension he called ** weak." The names have been genei^ 
ally accepted and though Grimm's reasons are flmciftil the terms have the advantage 
of brevity. 

4. The stem and case endings have been very mach redaced according to certain 
prindples called the ** laws of finals ** and the '' roles of syncope.** We cannot illus- 
trate these here, as it wonld presuppose a knowledge of the older dialects. There was 
also a great levelling of cases, «. g.y the N. sg. fem. (^stem) took a from the A. sg. fem. 
Its own Towel had to go according to the law of finals. 

429. /-Stems. 

The paradigms of ''kraft" and "gast" show which cases 
were entitled to umlaut. The sg. of the maso. very early took 
its G. and D. from the o-stems. The feminine was made in- 
variable in M. H. G. since the apparent cause of umlaut had 
disappeared and since aU other feminines, strong and weak, 
did not vary in the root-vowel. 




A fl Q § 


7 I 


• s SoboSbSo 



O - 



I •^ 'f™ >fm •« 




•S aS (3 

rtj V o w V a« 


^ >->-►► 



. O ^ S) o & % 






" d f« cs § ? 


Q M N N N 

d -^-^ 

H 43 5 ^ ^ 

as 2 S 8 § S 


ftd »i4 4d 



•a .a 


9 4> O 


•J n4 -^ _- 


jii5 ill _^ 


f Ori 


O « p 



M o O O 


QJ 0) V 



•J4 *^ JM 


^ ^ ^ 





430. 1. A smiill group of fem. is interesting, because the sg. was lev- 
elled in favor of the longer amlant-forms of the G. and D., while the pL 
became weak at the same time. For Instance, bie (&tttt, the duck, inflected 
M. H. G. at first anty ente, ente, ant; pL ente, ente, enten, ente. Then it 
became ente for the whole sg., enten for the pi., as it is now. Similarly 
M. H. G. hltiot, now bie Slftte + blowth ; M, now bie ^Mt, oolunm ; fmrch, 
bie BruTJ^e + furrow, no umkut in M. H. G. ; huf, bie ^iafti, this form 
'* huft " with excrescent t, + hip, also Eng. with umlaut, + Ags. hype; 
stuot, bie Bmt, + stud. %^x&nt, d^^re + tear, SbfirC?) + door, are origi- 
nally plurals, that have become singulars. See E^luge. 

a. In this way doablets could spring np, «. g., M. H. Q. eg. stai^ stete^ ttete, Uat tax- 
nished bie 6tatt + Btead, bie @tabt, pi. ©tftbte, city, and bie @t&tte, pL -n, place, spot- 
all + Eng. stead. @tatt on] j occurs in the sense of representation " in place of,'^ 
anflatt, an feinet @tatt, an ftinbeS^att, to adopt as one^s own child. Another sncb Is 
M. H. Q./ar^— modem bie ga^rt, pL ^a^rten, ride, and bie 9&^ite, pi. g&^iten, track, 

2. All nouns in -$ett» -fei^ -r^^f^ and a large group of others were in 
M. H. G. still strong (mostly i-stems), but are now weak. 

8. The modem fern, nouns in -in, pi. -imien# are also strong in O. H. G. 
The suffix -in < -f^ See paradigm of mdgin. They had the fate of 
all fern, nouns, viz.. Invariable in the sg., generally -en in the pL 

431. Plurals in -er« See paradigm, p. 195. 

1. This sign started from old 08-stems corresponding to L. 
genus^ generis ; corpuSy corporis. It is rare in O. H. G. in the 
sg., where it may have been even reintroduced from the pi. 
In the G. and D. pi. -o, -um are the regular case-endings. 
"ir therefore is really stem-ending, but it was too convenient 
a form for the pL to escape being used as a pL sign. Some 
eight to ten nouns are thus inflected in O. H. G. In M. H. G. 
-er spread and gradually formed a pi. even of masculines. 

2. The word (&i is originally a ^'^-stem. The double plurals in -t and 
-er have sprung up from the apparent necessity of distinguishing sg. and 
pL of neuters, which according to the law of finals had to lose all end- 
ings. Some nouns took t, some er^ some both. In the latter a distinc- 
tion in meaning developed. See 68 and the inflection of wort and kM, 
p. 195. 


2. Consonant Deoleniion. 

432. The masculine and neuter n-stenis ended onoe in -o/i, 
-jon^ the feminines in -tfn, -j6n. They correspond to the L. 
homOy hominiB; fxdmen^ fulmini%; ratio, rationis. As to their 
frequency in the Teutonic languages, see 478, 5. The Latin 
declension shows also in the singular, how the case-endings 
were added ; in 0. H. G. these appear still in the pL, e. g., in 
herzonS 6 is sign of G. pL What was therefore the mere stem- 
suffix has become a means of inflection in the course of time. 

1. r-stems are the names of relationship, SSaUx, etc. They with the 
dental stems were forced into the strong, first into the o-, then into the 
i^eclension for lack of case-endings, which coold appear only in the Q. 
and D. pi., viz., fatero, faterum. Already in M. H. G. the umlaut 
appears in the r-stems. 

S. Noims like ttftte, iRengc, QHr5|e end in f or fn in O. H. O.: guoil^ manat/i, -In. That 
is, they were>d- and/dn-Btems. They are all derivatives ttom acUectives, and those In 
f n are later than those in I. In O. H. Q. they bad f or In throa^hoat except in the G. 
and D. pi., which were managinOt manoffim respectively. Therefore umlaat through- 
out. The fn-forms had to coincide in time with the strong femlninee In -4fi(}i) at least 
In the 8g. and therefore disappeared. Tliey were rarely used In the pi. See paradigm 
of mdgin^ p. 195. 

433. 1. AH feminines having now no inflection in the ag. and the old strong Ann. 
having taken c(n) in the plural, it is difficolt to tell the original yowel-stems from 
n -stems. It would be correct to summarize the changes that have taken place in them, 

All fern, nouns have become strong in the sg. and most of them by 
far, weak in the plural. 

9. The fem. ^•sterns (see paradigm) had already two cases In -m, via., O. and D. pi., 
the other two were like the whole sg. It is not to be wondered at, then, if N. and A. 
pi. also took -€n and thus a sharp contrast was formed between the sg. with no varia- 
tion and the pi. with -en throughout. By this levelling and by the^ (t and in) stems 
the loss of -m in the sg. of »-stems was brought about 

434* 1. -n in the D. and G. sg. is still frequent in the 16th century and 
is preserved in certain phrases and in poetry. Schiller's Wallenstein's 
Lager has j^ird^tn^ ®tubntf®onntn. Oeflgemaurrt in bn (Erben (Sch.). Bee 171. 

3. The masculines in -e are the bulk of old n-stems in M. H. G. Some 
nouns have become strong, «. g., ^ax, ^a^n ; others have become weak, i 

^irte (originally j(hstem), ^elb (already in M. H. G.). See 61. ) 

8. As to the nouns in 46, 1, in M. H. G. e was dropped after r and 1 in 




the N. 8g. and all through ; after m and n only in the N. In modem 
G. no -t is the usage. See paradigm of f>ogel, p. Id5. 

435. 1. In O. H. O. were only four neuter n-etems, yis., 6ra, O^t ; auga, SCnge ; 
Asrza^ i^erj; wangci^ iZBange. In M. H. Q. thej inclined toward the strong and now the 
first three haye joined the mixed declension ; wanffa lias become weak and fern.; namOf 
hit iRame, was once neater. Comp. L. nonuHt nomiMs. ■ 

2. Interesting are bit 9iene + bee and bie Sinie + pear, in which the inflectional n has 
entered the stem. Compare the older 0C0, Mr. This entering of n into the N. of mae- 
culines is very common and has fkunished the hoik of strong nonns, 1. class mh 1 and 
4, 46, e. 0r., ytiidtn, (Salgen, $f o|len, Soggen, Gl^aben (but notice the isolated ^ed tfl 
Qd^aht," it is too had). One can tell these hy comparing them with their Bng. oogi- 
nates + ridge, gaUowCs), post, rye, etc, which show no n, 

8. In be r i^eibc < heidan + heathen ; C^rifl + Christian < krMen < L. ckriOkuniB ; 
Vtaht < robe and raben + raven, n is lost aa if tt had heen regarded an inflectional snfliz 
and the nouns became weak. 

4. In bie %tx^t </er8ana^ Ags. fynn ; ftette < tetene, cheHna + Bng. chain through 
Romance < V. L. ettdina, L. eatSna ; in bie 9^^ < kSchene, kuehtn < V. L. «ii^na, L. 
eoqtdna + Eng. kitchen ; in bie SRette < meiten, mettina < V. L. hm^jui, L. matutlima 
(hora) + Sng. matin, the n has also been lost and the nouns became weak. 

Comments on the Adjective-DeclenBion. 
436. O. H. G. paradigm of o-stems: 


8g. N. BLiNT, blint^r 
G-. BLnrrEB 
D. blintema 
A. blintan 

Instr. BLDTTU 

PL N. blinte 
G. blintero 
D. blint^m, ^n 
A. blinte 


BLDTT, blintiu, -(i)u 
blintera, -u 
blintero, -a 


blint^m, -dn 


BUNT, blintaz 


BUNT, blintaz 


blintin, -(i)a 
blintdm, -^ 
blintin, ^i)n 

437* The adjective was once declined like the suhstantive, when hoth 
were still "nouns." In the Teutonic languages the so-called **unin- 
fleeted " forms are stiU the noun inflection, hecause *blindoz > blind(t) just 
as *daffaz > tag. The Hrong declension is the pronominal inflection, which 
in some cases coincided with the substantive declension. These casea 
and the uninflected forms are put in small capitals in the paradigm. 


1. The aclJectlTe pronouos tod the way in this eoaleicenoe of the two bifleetloiis hito 
the one ttrong one. bUMir is only S. U., the iininlleeted alone ooenra in M. and L. O. 

8. The doable forma WnHu^ Ulntiit are perhaps due toio-stems (PiMil). MntUt ooiild 
give M. H. O. blinde. The M. U. U. forms, both strong and weak, dUfer very little 
from the O. H. Q. In the nenter pi. bUtuHu lasted long. 

8. In O. H. G. the vowel-stems are rednced to <h and jto-etema. 
The id-stems are atUl recognisable by the nmlant which rons throoglioat, «.^., Wn, 
b&f(, tr&se. 

4. The weak declension was exactly like the n-sabst. dedensfen. Now the ag. A. 
fem. and neater are like the sg. N. just as in the sabstantives. 

Comparison of Ajyeotivei. 

438* -^» -eft represent O. H. G. -^o, -dro, -Mf , -^. The ^fomiB, are 
not freqaent in O. H. G. % in ir^itt prodaoed ninlaat, which spread in 
M. H. G., so that even then the amlant hegan to he looked upon as an 
essential part of comparison. 

They were declined almost exdosively weak at first, e of bef^&re (K. 
sg.) was lost just like the e of vogele, see p. 196. 

1. It is generally stated that -iro^ -oro come from an L B. soiBz -^ont, bat how baa 
never been made clear. It is probable that, since -oro was at first attached only to 
o-etem^ the o Is secondary and dae to the stem-safilx. The comparatiye-saflix seems 
to have been -4s and to this -^ was added for the saperlative. fiat -t- is probably 
identical with the ordinai-safflx. 

Irregular Comparison. 

439. Beffcr < O. H. G. hesfjiro^ Ags. hetera^ Bejl < befpd^ Ags. 
heUi ; mel^r < O. H. G. mirOf Go. maiza, meifl < O. H. G. meisi. 
Go. maists; minber < O.H. G. minniro, M. H. G. minrey mittte|l 
represents O. H. G. minnist, M. H. G. minnesL 

1. All contain the regular sofSxee. (effer comes perhaps from a stem 
*b'ad. lai is the regularly developed comparatiTe adverb. Comp. 
M. H. G. min, mS, Ags. min, mSL r disappeared according to the law of 
finals. Whether me^r is related to L. magis, major, is doubtfnL minbcr 
has excrescent b. The O. H. G. nn shows that L. minur^ is its cognate, 
minbcfl is a N. H. G. superlative < minber. 

S. (Sifl is < O. H. O. ifisto, comparative iriro. ($|e is a modem formation for the 
positive, + Bng. ere, erst. Sc^t comes ttom a stem *iat^ from which Bng. late, later; 
Ust — latest ; also + to let = *' hinder.'* la% tired. Qe^t < lett, iatii)8t, Jnst as Eng. 
last < latest See Eluge. ^ftift + first is < O. H. O./kiH (adverb), yMfV,yVri«fo. 




Comments on the Pronouns. 
440. Personal Pbonounb. 

M. H. G. Common gender. 


1 1 . 

ITT. refl. 

Sg. N. 


do, dft 
















Fl. N. 
















ill. penon with form for each gender. 

Sg. N. 





sin, es 

ir, ire 

es, sin 



ir, iro 



in, inen 






Bi(e), si 




H. G. iro) 



H. G. im) 

1. The pronouns of common gender come from Tarions stems, which as well as the 
Inflections are difficult to analyze, tt, fU, ti come from two stems i{<H —of) and 
^ For ed< e^ + Qoth. ita, see 490, 8. Compare L. fo, «a, id. 

2. The pronoans were extended by two endings, -er and -en* hi N. H. G. 
The G. Bg. meincTf etc., are no donbt due to the inflnenoe of the strong 
adjective declension and to unferi eutr (G. pi.). The same endings appear 
in berer and benem but these are kiter, since both mtnea and ndner appear 
in M. H. G. sporadically, iuch, originally A., spread over D. like the 
reflexive "sich." tin crowded oat es (G. masc.) already in O. H. G. and ea 
(neuter G.) has general force, not referring to a single object. N. H. G. 
3!ffxo is probably an analogous form with " dero " before a title and not 


the old fern. G. eg. or pi. iro as generally stated, ir (G. pL) was still tbe 
rule in the 16th century and as G. sg. still in the 17th. beiner was estab- 
lished later than mtiner and ftmer» which were the rule early in the IVth 

441. PossBSSiVB Pronouns. 

a. The poBseBBlve pronouns ue of the eame origin as the genitives meln, bcln, fctUr etc, 
of the personal pronoun. They are most likely not derived from the latter as is gener- 
ally stated, but rather the reverse. The adjective suffix -in< f n seems to lie in them 
attached to the primitive stems ^mOt *ttoa^ ^ttoa, which appear in all Indo-Buropean 
languages. Comp. L. meu8^ tuu8^ tmu^ mdl, ^, tuL 

1. In 0. H. G. the poesesBives were declined strong even when preceded 
by the definite article. In M. EL. G. the weak declension came into use. 
The long forms in -ig sprang up late in the 16th century. 

d. 3(tr her, their, however, is derived from the G. of the personal pro- 
noun of the third person. It sprang up in the 12th century and was 
fully established in the 16th. 

442. Thb DEMONSTBATiyB Pbonoxtn. 

O. H. Q. Masc. Fem, Neat 

Sg. N. d« (thie), der diu da; 

G. dgs d§ra, -o des 

D. d§mu, M. H. G. d6m(e) deru, M. H. G. der(e) d§ma 

A. den d^, dea, dia da; 

In. dia diu 

PL N.9 A. d^, dea, dia deo, dio del, dia 

' , ' 

G. d§ro 

D. ddm 

a. Slevers assumes two I.-B. stems, to, tfo ; Paul only one, to, explaining 1 as due 
X> the diphthonglsation of 6 > ea > ia. di without r Is the older ; r is the same as in 
weTy er^ + L. guia^ is. to is treated as o and i stem, di < thai, del is probably dual 
like zwel. O. H. O. tUu < G. T. thata, in which final t is a particle. The Instr. exists 
still in the isolated nbeflo," + the In *' the more," < dMde < du^iu, des is the Gen. 


0. H. G. 




Sff. N. dfiee, ddsd-r 

delsu, dinsin 

die, dSiad, di^ 

G. ddsses 

dfisera, derra 





d4»i Is composed like a strong a4)ective of de and a particle sa. In the G. sg. both 
elements are inflected, generally only the second, dif has in f the neuter pronombud 


safflz, but nothing else in it iB explained. In If. H. O. the fofaa tteg^natng with di" 
prevailed, always short, bled goes back to O. H. O. dif, bat UcfcS first appears as late 
as the 15th century. Hans Sachs still spells diz^ dWL, 

1. jen-er seemB to contain the same suffix -4n as the posBessive pronoona. 
Its stem is limited to the Teutonic languages. 

The origin of m^tlh" + self is dark. 

fol($ + such is compounded of swa, so, fo and llch, like, -H^. 

2. The pronominal stem hi, which appears also in the Eng. pronoun he, 
his, him, her, is hidden in ^eute < hiudagu (Instr.), l^cuer < Mu0€iru, ^nt 
(now dialectic) < M. H. G. hinet < Mnaht, + to-night It occnis also 
in the adverbs (im fftt, + hi-ther. Compare L. M-e, hae^, ho-c, 

444. iKTEBROOATiyE Fbonounb. 

O. H. O. Masc. and Fern. 

N. huer 

G. hues 




w6r, waj 

D. huemu 


A. haen(aii) 

bnin, hin 

wen, way 

From the stem -ko with k* that was labialized in Latin and 

the Tentonic lanffu 

Compare L. quit— quid, quod, which perhaps requires another L B. stem H. A. AiMium 
is only O. H. O. and the ending is taken from the adjective dedension. 

1. »it < O. H. Q. win, huiu, + why, how, comes from this stem, G. T. 
htoor-, I. E. ko-, + Go. htoaiteOf Ags. hiL But the phonetic relation be- 
tween tt)ie» why and how is not jet cleared up. 

Eng. whom is really the D. + totm, but served as D. and A. very 

2. totld^ < O. H. G. hu&ih, toeUeh, + which < Ags. htoyle, lit "how 
or what like.'* 

8. toeber + whether, now only conjunction, is still a pronoun in the 
16th century. Formed by the comparative suffix -btr < thar < tero from 
ko- the interrogative stem. Comp. Gr. Korepoc, archaic form. 

445. Indefinite Pbonounb. 

1. itbcTf iemanbf niemanb contain the prefix to, m, ie^ + ever, io gave the 
original interrogative toeder indefinite force, ieber < ieuMer < iotoSder, 
Like " either," it meant *'one of two," " which ever you please." The end- 




ing -er was oonf onndr) With the iidyectiye-endliigB -n# -c# -<4 and the 
full forma ithmx, icbcrc> iAtxt^ are praerved, though raiep down to the 
17th century. 

iemanb ia compoxmded of ie — man, ttiemoiib of nt — i0 — man* Aa to b» 
aee 401. 2. 

iegtidj < iegdih < io—gUih, " ever (the) like." 

2. iebweber < ie — detoSder, " anj one of two." It oontaina an element 
de, which is also in etU(t» tttoa^* Its origin is unknown, frin < deehdn. 
This also oontaina an obeoure element dee^. 

8. anber + other is a comparatiye like wcbct# < O. H. Q. andar < *aii 
— ^teio. 

Comments on the Conjugation. 


Stbonq YicBBa 




Pres, ind. 


8g. 1. nimn 




2. niniiR(t) 




3. nimit 




PL 1. nemam(6s) 




2. nemat) et 




8. nSmant 




Pret, ind. 


Sg.l, nam 




2. nAmi 





8. nam 




PL 1. n&miim(68) 



nsBmen % 

2. n/9.Tnat 




8. nftmiin 





2. sg. nim 

I^f. nSman 



1. pi. n@Tnam(6s) 

Ger, ze n§manne 


ze nemenne 

2. pi. nemat 

Pre8.part. nemanti 



Pott part, ginoman 



447 Weak Yebbs. 

O. H. G. M. H. Q. 

Imp. 2. sg. neri salbo ner salbe 

Pret. nerita saTbdia, d^ta nerte salbeie 

AA neren salbdn nem salben 

Part, nerenti salbdnti nemde salbende 

ginerit gisalbdt genert gesalbet 

a. Grimm called a verb " strong" because It would form Its preterit of its own 
Bonroes, without the aid of composition. We retain the terms ^ strong *' and ^* weak '* 
simply because they are generaJly used. 

44& Tenses. 

There are only two simple tenses left in the Genniinic languages, yix^ 
the present and the " preterit" which corresponds in form to the " p^ 
feet " of the other I. E. languages. What we call " the sabjonctive " is 
in form the optative, the suffix for which was ie—i, in an o-verb of course 
-oi. Compare the Greek ^pot— Go. nimai, 

449. Personal suffixes. There were two classes. The prima- 
ry were added to the present and the sabjnnctiye mood, the 
secondary to the preterit and the optative mood. The O. H. 
G. 1. pi. in -mis is qnite a mystery. The 2. p. sg. present in 
8t, prevailing in O. H. G., has sprang from analogy with 
nimis — tu and the pret.-present verbs, e. ^., cansi. '^bistu** 
occurs in the very oldest sources. 

1. The 1. p. sg. present is either u < o in nearly all verbs or m < m» 
in the few mi-verbs, e.g., nimii hut t%u>m. Peculiar is that the 2. p. 
preterit subj. has entered the preterit ind. The regular ending was -t, 
as still found in Gothic and in the preterit-present verbs, e, g.. Go. namt^ 
G. bu toilt, foU (archaic). The other personal endings are quite regular. 

2. These suffixes were either attached to the bare stem as in the wit- 
verbs or by means of a connecting vowel generally called ** thematic 
vowel," which was I. E. o — e for all strong verbs and in O. H. G. i, S or 
6 for weak verbs. 

4B0. Impkrattvb. The 2. p. sg. has the syncopated form of short- 
stenmied verhs which once ended in -e: neme > nimi > nim. In 


weak vetha the ending is amalgamated with the oonnecting vowel : 
neri, taXbo, neri should heoome ner, hut there was levelling in favor of 
the long-stemmed verh. The 1. p. pi. is exhortative. It is Indicative. 

45L iNFiNmYE. This is a verbal noon ending in -nth-. Perhaps aa 
isolated aocnsativa 

462. Gebunditb. It is confounded with the infinitive with which it 
has originally nothing to do. Suffix is -t^ ; hence the double n. It 
was inflected like anj noun. Since in modem German it has taken a 
construction similar to the Gerundive of Latin grammar, we have called 
it " Gerundive." The form with -t occurs, according to Weinhold, aa 
earlj as the Idth century in Alemanic. fi tuanne and fi tuande were con- 
founded. In the latter form lies the modem construction, as in cim in 
bccu^tenbe S)oif4rifi« 

463. Partigiflbb. The suffix of the present participle was -nt, a 
consonant stem, but afterwards a j<h, jd^em, hence nematUL For the 
^ouns Srcunbr ffeinby $eUanbi see 606. 

1. The passive participles are two verbal adjectives formed by means 
of -t6- and -n6- (both accented) from the verb-stems, not from the 
tense-stems. They were at first not limited, --t^ to weak verbs and 
-n^ to the strong. Compare mtM- (the modem prefix mig- + En^. 
mis-) < misto < *mith — 16 the weak stem of the verb inc{ben# vi' 
gemiebetu to avoid : gmig < gawisa < ^-vitta < *tDi(Ud, from the stem 
of mii, toiffen; aU + old < al— t6- from the strong verb (Go.) alan + L. 
alere, to nourish. Besides in these and other isolated forms -t6- occurs 
in the past part, of the pret-pre& verbs and in a class that had no con- 
necting vowel, e.g., gebra^tf geba^ty etc., see 464, 8. Compare Gr. -roc, L. 
^tiM. -no is rare in non-Germanic languages ; compare L. dignuB, plenuB 
+ full. 

3. The prefix ge-. It is the inseparable prefix ge- and belonged at first 
only to the participle of verbs compounded with it. But in simple verbs 
it could give the present the force of the future, it would emphasise the 
preterit or give it the force of the pluperfect and give the infinitive de- 
pendent upon a modal auxiliary the force of the perfect inf. Thus also 
n the participle it emphasissed the completion of an act. Some parti- 
ciples very rarely took ge- in M. H. G., 6. ^., komen, warden, funden, 
Id^eUf flrepfen, heifen. »®nabe funben" is common in the Bible. The 
Patriarch in Lessing's Ifathan uses it Compare Eng. ydad, yclept 


454. Weak Ykbbs. 

1. The connecting vowels are iQ), 6, in O. H. O. The original type of connecting 
vowel is sapposed to have been ojo— ejo, but the reduction to 6 (Go. a!) and A is by no 
means clear. The large majority have iQ) < *4^, but a not small number both of orig- 
inally strong and weak verbs have none. The preterit is formed by the suffix -<a, now 
-te. Its origin is by no means settled. Paul reconstructs two suffixes^ via., -<tAd 
and -ta. The Old Saxon forms M^da, Aaftdo, Mda with corresponding participles can 

only come from VdAdj from which is atoo t^on + to do. The majority of verba take 
I. B. -to,> tha>da>ta according to yenier*8 Law. See 411. 

2. We distiDgaish originally three classes : 1, no connecting vowel in 
the preterit ; 2, connecting vowel and short stem ; 3, connecting vowel 
and long stem. 

8. There was very early (in O. H. G.) a levelling between the 2. and 8. 
classes, because in short-stemmed verbs, in which no syncope coold take 
place, j(i) caused doubling of the final consnant. This made them appear 
like long-stemmed ones. The first class has now been reduced to the 
three verbs ben!m# bunfen* and bringen, see 454, 3. Ck>mpare O. H. G. 
denken, ddhta, giddJU ; dunken, dHAta, gidOM; bringen, brdhta, gibrdht 
Long H < a nasalized < an. braud^etif f&T(^ten# fut^etif tDtrfen (< toitrfen) 
belonged here also. Eng. bay, bought, bought ; work, wrought, wrought 
show still their origin in the gh before t. Sringen is of coarse a strong verb 
and so are hrOkan (II.), suochen (VI.) as their ablaut shows. 93egimien be- 
longed here perhaps too, since we find still in dialect (egoimte (F. 8176). 
That these verbs never had any connecting vowel is shown : 1, by the 
ehange of the guttural stop > guttural spirant which takes place only 
directly before t ; 3, by the umlaut in the pret. subj. For the M. H. G. 
forms are denken, ddhte — doshte, geddht; dunken, d4hte — diuhte, gedHht; 
hringen, hrdhte — brcBMe, {ge)brdlU. bMm, bfinftCr gebunft begins as early 
as M. H. G. The present mir baud^t is a N. H. G. formation from the 
preterit. That fitr(^tra once belonged here Is shown by the archaic 
form irfitT^te,'' e.g., Der toadVe Sd^toaht fox^V f!d^ nit (U.). Lessing has 
wfur^te," < O. H. G. furhten (vUrhten), far{a)lUa, gifor{a)lU (the a is a 
secondary development). 

455. The verbs in 119, 1, are the only verbs that still sh 
the difference between the long and short-stemmed of the i(j)- 
dass. They formed their principal parts in O. H. G. : brennen, 
branta, gibrennU — gibrantSr ; nennen, nantOy ginennit — ginantSr. 
According to Efyncope *brannita, *gibrannUir had to become 
brardOy gibrantSr. The i that produced umlaut in brennen^ 


gibrennU had disappeared from trannUOj gUbrannitSr and 
therefore there is no nmlant in brannte, geirannt. The parti- 
ciple with umlaut was levelled away. 

1. The tunlaut in the modem pret. snbj. is due to analogy with br£4te» 
b&rfte» etc. It Is a liiddle German feature. Even preterits indicative 
with e of renneiu brennciw nemten occur now and then in the classics. The 
levelling into fcnbttu fcnbetc* 0efcnbet$ tootben^ tocnbete, getoenbet is not uncom- 
mon. Schiller hss • . • bk ^xta^t, too er bad »on ben 8(^oebm erobertc 
C^am bcremtte. 

3. All other differences were levelled away, e.g,, M. H. Q. haren, Mrte, 
gekoBret—gehSrty becomes (dreiw (9rte# gcl^dTt; fttrc^teur fikrd^tete# gcfftr^tet ; 
fpreitden, f^rengtCf gefprengt; fiiaeit, ffiStCr gef^t; becfen, Mtt, gcbetft. 

8. A few isolated participles are left, such as gefklt (ttngeflaU)^ dctrofl 
(adverb), and others. 

Stbono Yebbs. 

456. The Present 

1. The interchangoB of e — i ; ie — eu ; no umlaat^nmlaut in the present and the nm- 
lant in the pret. snbj. are accoonted for in the phonology. See 403. Bee also nnder 
each class of yerbs. 

2. The first p. sg. has followed the analogy of the forms that have e 
and of the verbs of VI. which had of course no umlaut in 1. p. sg., e.g., 
O. H. G. faru, ferist, ferit. The contrast is now for all classes between 
2. and 8. pers. sg. with i, &, etc.: bu faVf^r tx fa(rt# bu gi(fi# cr 0ibt and 
all the other forms with a and e : fa^rem id^ faVe# toix fa(rfn» i^r fa^rt, ffc 
fajren; gebra, i^ %tU, ttir ^tUxi, l^r gebct, |!c gcben. Formerly the contrast 
was between the whole pres. sg. and the whole pi. for CI. III., IV., V. 
Bee paradigm, p. 208. 

457. Of the numerous formations of the pretent-ttem the following 
are still to be recognized by certain peculiarities : 

1. I. E. jo~-J6, L. eapiOj fugio, German bitten V. < h%c(jan < *bec^jan, 
according to the interchange of e— i, hut the participle gcbeten < bedan-. 
Exactly Tke this Wen V., Uegen V., but gefcffen, fielegen. Also ^cbcn VI. and 
W»iJrm Vi., e.g., W»9rtn < etoem < stoerien < stoarjan, aiodr, stDaran-, 
Hence i, or in the last two, a umlaut through the whole present This 
was once a large group. Here belonged for instance the class bmfeiti 
ba(^tc# see 464, 8, + Go. (harden. 

2. The suffix -n (~nw, tij), which also entered the pret. if it was 
within the roQ(6, fraacn < ^frehnan, Ags. frignan, but already weak in 


O. H. G. tmUntn < an O. H. G. ((fy-ioahhinnen, nn < nj. ibeginneiu 
rinnen and others have nte. Go. itandan, GFeiman flunb, fianb — geflanbtn; 
(de^ai)# gien0f gegangetu fandtn* etc Compare L. tundOf tuttidi. 

8. Reduplication, corresponding to Gr. rt&rifu and nitrru, is preserved 
in bebcn < biben, to quake, and sittcnu to tremble, both weak (Kluge). 

4. Bk, corresponding to L. -sco, in brcfc^ctu forf<^ tounfti^ toaf^en (see 
Kluge's Diet for these words). 

45a The Preterit 

1. Bedvplieation, There are traces of ablaut without rednplication, hat general^ the 
two occurred together. In Gothic are stUl Terbe which have both. The redaplicatioii 
coneieted in the repetlton of the initial consonant + e or if beginning with a vowel by 
prefixing *e. e. g.^ Go. haidan^ haUuUd (ai = 6 in Gothic), aukan^ aiauk. O. H. Q. has 
only one clear example, vis., Uta^ i^ t^ot. Compare L. faUo^ftfiUi^ tango—UHffL 
How the redaplicating syllable was lost, how it coalesced with the stem la not yet 
clear. Oar YII. class inclades the redaplicating verbs, that is, those still redaplicat- 
ing in Gothic, though it is by no means certain that Gothic baa preaerved the original 
method of reduplication. 

2. In 0. H. G. the stem-vowel of the reduplicated preterit appears as 6 
and eo, e. g,, rdtan ret, fdhan feng and flng (fahan < fimhan). t hj 
diphthongization > ea> ia> ie; eo > io > ie, bo that already in M. 
H. G. we have ie as the regular vowel of the preterit. Examples: 
stfk^an — ateoi^, stio^, M. H. G. ttie^—gistS^n; Jdovfan — KUof, Miof^ 
M. H. G. lief—gMmfany N. H. G. laufen— lief— gelaufen ; faUan—fU 
> feal > flal > fiel {U.R. Q.)-^ ffifaOan, N. H. G. faflen— fici— gefanen; 
hei^an—heff, heof, hic^, M. H. G. Me^—giheif^an, N. H. G. teiien— l^iej 
— gejeigctt. 

& However the vowel appearing in the pret may have aiisen, it ia not aNaut, It 
never appears in derivatives as all the ablaut vowels do. Unterf^ieb is only a seeming 
exception, since it stands for the older ,,UnteTf^ib/' which was crowded out, because 
the verb went over into the I. CI. 

The Ablaut-series and the Verb-classes. 

459. No one verb shows all the four stages of ablaut as they have 
\)een determined. See 394. The first five classes belong to the origi 
nal I. B. e— o series, the VI. is the I. B. & — a, G. T. & — series. To 
the latter series belong also the reduplicating verbs which have in the 
stem a + liquid + cons, (halteu) ; ai (ei) ; and bxl, o. 


In the first groxip 6 oorresponds to O. T. 6, 1 ; o to O. T. a In the prel 
i^., for in L and II. we must count i and a as conaonanta. The fire 
classes can he grouped as follows : 

1. a. I., n.: 1 and a as consonants in the pres. and pret. sg.; at 
Towels in the pret pi. and part, via., 

6 - i + cons. a - i + cons. i + cons. 
6 - a + cons. a - u + oons. a + oons. 

The stem ends in i or u + cons. 

h, m., lY., y. have in the present 6 - 1 + Uquld or nasal + cons. (III.); 
e + liquid or nasal (IV.), or e + con& (V.). In the pret Bg, they have a. 
The stem ends in a liquid or nasal + oons. (III.) ; in a single liquid ot 
nasal (IV.) ; in a single oons. not liquid or nasal (V.). 

3. L, II., m. have the weakest stages of ablaut in the pret. pi. and 
partidple ; IV. in the part only ; V. in neither. IV. and V. have a long 
vowel in the pret pL, that is very difficult to account for. 0. H. G. ft 
corresponds to G. T. S, the length of which may be due to comx>ensation, 
^'ff'» *g%bum > g@bum. See 468, 1. 

8. A third grouping Is possible according to the quality of the vowel, 
viz., L to V. run in a system of unrounded vowels, VI. runs in a system 
of rounded. 

a. tL (o) In n. \b either consonaat in the aooented stage (pree. and pret. sf(.) orTowel 
In the nnaocented atage (pret pL and past part), a before r, 1, m, n in the unaccented 
stage is also dne to their doable natore, aooording to which they senre as vowels or as 
consonants. NoioHt and Idqtdda mnant (Bmgman) are represented In all the Tea- 
tonic dialects by or, ol, am, an, a ehaiacteristie of the whole groap. 

4. VI. stands alone and contains rounded vowels. Its a cannot have 
been originally the same as the a of the other series. It was probably 
more o than a. 

Levelling in the Pbetebit. 

460. Tracing the classes from O. H. G. to N. H. G. we have to notice 
one great levelling in all the classes, via., of sg. and pi. pret. This was 
started by VL and VII., which had qg. and pL alike. In IV. and V. the 
difference was only one of quantity. The sg. was short and the pi. was 
long. The sg. had to take a long vowel according to 488, 2. 

1. In cm. G. T. au> ao> 6 before dentals, before 1, r, h, and finally 




There were therefore already 0*8 in the imt. tg. The leveUiiig was ia 
favor of 6, but of 6 before oertaiii coiia(MiaiitB(fr, (^, f, b — t). 5 was already 
in the past part < it Only L and IIL are left. Bat in L i > ei accord- 
ing to 488, 5. The pres. and pret. had to become alike. The principle of 
ablaut was thus interfered with in I., and the levelling in the pret. was 
in flBkvor of the pi. and part., viz., i or ie according to the following con- 
sonants. IIL is the only class in which the levelling was in favor of the 
pret. sg. Before nasal + cons, n stood in the pL and part A levelling 
in favor of the pi. was therefore not likely. In IV. and V., where such a 
levelling occurred, the pi. and part, had different vowels. Before 1, r, + 
cons., to be sure, there was a in the pi., o In the part., but a — o stood 
in no ablant-relation. Bat this levelling was the latest of all and we 
find none in S. G. dialects at the present day. In the written language 
of the 16th and 17th centuries it is rather rare ; in the 18th it is the rule 
with not a few exceptions. SBerbem loarb — tourbe, geivorbenis the only 
verb of IIL in which the pi. -vowel stands by the side of the sg. But this 
verb stands isolated from the rest as an auxiliary verb. The pret.-pre8. 
verbs have not suffered levelling except rolIm(see 471, 2), but these have 
stood in an isolated position toward all the other strong verbs from pre- 
historic times. 

461. We give a few examples of the classes in fhelr earlier stages. Space will not per- 
mit to trace each verb of each class. It would be easy to show what verbs have died 
ont, what verbs have become weak, and what weak or foreign verbs have hecome 
strong. The stock of verbs belonging to each class varies with every period; in fact, 
it is ever varying. Compare, e.ff,, ias, ia%, fta%, fcng VI. (see 129)» and the huge num- 
ber of doubtfnl ones in Yin. 

462. I.CL O. (M.)H. G. 1 

ei, 6 












— zigan 


1. The interchange of h— g, d— t according to Vemer's Law, see 416. 
1 > ei according to 488, 6. N. H. G. i in the whole pret. by levelling, 
ei > e before h, r, w. i represents both the medium stage G. T. €i and 
the weak stage i. i is the zero stage. 




. n. 0. H. 

G. in — io 

OUy 6 

il 6 













llefen, titrm 

b«, br 



















1. The interchange of in — io aooording to 406; in in the pres. Bg. 
trlnAi, triufist, trinfit, hut pi. triofam^ etc., inf. triofan. For a period 
this iu, having passed > U, became en by diphthongiiation. These forms 
aie now archaic, ie prevailing through the whole present, see 124. 
M. H. G. io > ie. G. T. au > ou, but > ao > 6 before dentals, 1, r, h 
and finally. The interchange of s — r, d — t according to Yemer's Law, 
but levelled, as in f(^neibtn I., in favor of t, in the whole preterit. In 
M. H. G. kiesen, kos, kom, gekoren for a while, but later, !icfni# !od# 
gefofen; fiefen# for, gcforen; now VXxtn, for, geforen. See 132. 

2. In this series all the four grades of ablaut are represented, ou 
strong ; io, iu medium ; ^ the weak ; {L zero. ^ > au regularly. ^ ap- 
peared in verbs that had the accent on the sufllx. Ck)mpare 467. 

464. ni. CI. 0. (M.) H. G. e— i & 

V a, a before nasal + oons.; e — i, n — o before r, 1 i- cons. 

a— d 

























1. This is in N. H. G. the most primitive series, finben, fanb, gefunben Is 
already the G. T. series. In the second group (see 126, 2) the secondary 




transition of a > o is a M. G. feature. It takes place before vm and mm. 
The older transition from a > o before 1, r + cons, is already O. H. G. 
See 406. 

2. The interchange of S — i is regular (see 403). It appears in III., 
IV., V. alike. 

8. The double preterit subjunctiye (see 125) is due to the levelling of 
the indicative. The subjunctiye was regularly formed with the vowel of 
the pi. and omlaut of the same. Now when the vowel of the sg. spread 
over the pL it is natural a new subjunctive should be formed also by um- 
laut: fdnbCf hSx^t, Wherever the new pret. subj. in d did not approach 
too closely to, or coincide with, the present ind., it prevailed as in the 
first division: ftabe — fdnbe# blnbe — bdnbe, gclingc — gcldngc. Where such 
a coincidence was the case, the old subjunctive is still in use and prefer- 
able as in the third division: bngc — (bdrgc) bfirgCr fhrbc — fWrbc, Wttbc — 
rovixU, see 126. Seftl^len and empfe^Ien of IV. belong here since in M. H. G. 
they were bevelhen, enpfelhen, containing 1 + cons, fttfjltn TV < stein has 
followed the analogy of III., 8, on account of ftafjUt, the regular subj. and 
fleble the pres. ind. The 2. division has 6 for older Vl just as it has o for 
u : gewllnne > getoomier but the new ones in & are quite common except of 
rinnm# on account of renncn. 

4. e — i is the medium stage, a the strong ; the weak and asero appear 
as u — o. 

465. IV. CI. O. (M.) H. G. e— i 


stelan stal 

fle^Ien flabl 

koman, qu^man qnam 

lommen lam 






1. Here is again interchange of e^i. ft prevailed in the pret. u >o 

8. Queman > koman according to 489, 1. It is possible that *^ koman " 
is the weak grade (see 471, 2). jled^eti belonged originally to Y. ; it has 
no liquid. Before ^ and ff the vowel is short, except in the pret. of 
course : flld^en/ ^6i, aeflo(^en. 




466. V.a. O.H.G. e 











4?, aj 














1. In 6 the three lowest grades are represented, there was no liquid or 
nasal to represent the & and 4. grades. & is the strong stage. The origin 
of £ is not certain. &^ is perhaps from'ea^, 'e being the reduplicating sjl- 
labia For bitten, see 457, 1. In the part, the interchange of s — r was 
levelled away after the in£ as early as 0. H. G.; in the pret. with the 
levelling of the vowels. SDad is archaic in Fenchteerleben's : ®o (if) 
bit gefd^tnft ein J(n5n)Iein toad. Interehange of e — i as osiial and quantity 
of € depends upon the following consonants. 

467. VLCLO.H. G. a— e 


M. H. G. heben 



l^ob, ^ub 

no, 6 


l^oben, l^ttben 

no, 6 a 



1. This series has only two grades, strong and weak-medium, see 400. 
G. T.d>uo>tl. For e in heffen, bebcUf see 467, 1. For a >o, see 480, 8. 

468. YII. CL Its verbs do not form an ablaut-series, see 458. 

469. Vlll. CI. Its yerbs have mostly o for &, a in the pret. 
and the majority belong to HE., IV., Y. Some of these were 
unsettled very early, e. g,, M. H. Q.pjkgen IV. and V. For 
4 > o, 6, see 489, 3. 


The Preterit-Present Verbs. 

470. In theee the meaniDg admitted the perfect to be tised as a pres- 
ent. They are a primitive class. Compare Qr. olda, idfiev, Lat. odi, n-offi. 
With a few irregularities they can yet be assigned to the regalar ablaut- 
series as has been done (see 135). Weak preterits were formed without 
connecting vowel. Therefore umlaut in the subj. The stem-vowel is 
th6 same for the old pret. pi., the new preterit, the participles and the 
infinitive. The participles (see 463, 1) were formed either weak or strong, 
generally weak. Since the infinitive is a new formation as well as some 
of the strong participles, and since as in gan— gunnen (gonncn) the strong 
participle was formed before there was an infinitive, it is hardly correct to 
say the infinitive is used instead of the part, in modem German : eigeiu 
O. H. G. gatoi^an, M. H. G. gunneUy gegunnen^ {eryeunnen are strong 
participles. The others, bilrfm^ fdnnen* m5g(n, folIfn» were formed later. No 
doubt, participles like hei^^en, Ifi^en, etc. (see 463, 2), had their influence 
in the non-use of g^-. 

1. The inflection of the present is that of the regular strong pret. They 
have even one very old feature, viz., in 2. pers. sg. t is used, the second- 
ary ending, while in all other strong verbs the optative has entered the 
indicative, e. g., ndmi, but tarsi ( + durst) darfty 9caU ( + thou shalt), 
maht. St in canst, anst is a mystery. This t still occurs in the 16tb and 
17th centuries, bu foU nic^t fle^len (B.). 

471. 1. O. H. G. wei^ — wi^^mn I. corresponds exactly to 
Gr. olda — fSiiev, in ablant and consonants. 

2. scal^ scalt (2. pers. sg.), senium, scolta lY. 

It is possible that senium is older than the long vowel of IV. 
{** stalum "), for it may be the weak grade of ablaut, like -boran, sflf an. 

8. 0. H. G. mvLOj muost muo^um muosa and muosta 

M. H. G. muo^ muost mde^en muose, muoste 

subj. mtlese, mlleste 

N. H. G. muSf mu^tr mitfrenr mu^te, m&itt. 

Of the double form muose — muoste the former is the older and regu- 
larly developed, muose < *m5t-ta, muosta has the sufSz added once 
more. The umlaut that appears in M. H. G. and later in the pres. pi. and 
inf. is difficult to account for. 


4 foS < Bchol < Bchal < seal. Why f < M f Ckimpftre O. and Bl 

H. G. skal — 6al, but always @(ttt(b. 

6. gSmien III. and taugm II. have become weak. They come respec- 
tively < ganr-gunnen, in which g- is prefix, and < toue-tugen, to be fit, 
+ Eng. do in " it will not do," " how do you do " (?). 

6. cigeti + own < eigtm Is the strong part, of a stem of which there 
appears only a pL aigum in 0. H. G. g according to Vemer's Law. It 
belongs to the a — % ablant-aeries like hei^an — hS^ — gihei^p^. tar 
— turien + dare has disappeared. Its meaning has passed into barf — 

472. 1. Notice that Eng. mutA is really a doable pret.-pres. verb, 
must is the weak preterit used again as a present, loufte < weste, see 
488, 1. Compare Eng. to wit, wist, wot. See Skeat. 

2. 0. H. G. wili wilt, wili, pl. wellemes, wellet, wellent, pret. welta, inf. 
wellan. o appears already for e in this period (see 480, 1). M. H. G. 8. 
I>erB. sg. is wilt, wiL N. H. G. toiUfl. This is really no pret.-pres. verb, 
but we have according to custom put it at the end of this class. It is 
really a mi-verb, whose ind. was lost. Compare L. telim, 

Mw,^ /. i Mi-Verbs. 

473. fein. 

1. O. H. G. bim, bis(t), ist, birom, birut, sini Subj. st, eto. 
Inf. stn, wesan V. Imp. wis, wesat, stt ; pret. was ; subj. 
w&ri. In M. H. G. the pres. pL runs: 1. p. birn, sint, stn; 

2. p. birt, sit, sint ; 3. p. sint, sin. In N. H. G. toir fint < tbe 

3. person; {%x fcl^ < tbe subjunctive; (le finb is primitive, comp. 
L. 8unt^ sint. 

2. Three stems have helped to form its conjugation, viz., Ves-, l^'x-, 
L. fui, Gr. 0V6), and the verb wSsan. It would lead us too far to enter 
minutely upon the part each plays, but the development is not at all dif- 
ficult to trace. Only r in birum, birn is a mystery, but it appears also in 
the reduplicating verbs of VII. 

474. gdriy gSn, gangan, it^n, + go. 

1. O. H. G. gdm, g&s, g&t, g&m, g&t, gAnt; g^m, gSs, g^t, g^t, 
g^nt; tbe subj. only g&, g^s, g^, etc. Imp. ganc, gdt, g^i 


2. The verb gangan is ofVll. The relation of & to d is not dear. Elnge 

has shown that g^n is oomponnded of ga (prefix) + V]~ L. tre. Then gem 
< ga-im, ges < ga-is, etc. See his Diet. 

475. 8tdn, siin^ stantav^ fi ^ ^ n, + stand. 

1. It inflects just like g@n. standan, stnont — gistandan according 
to VL A past participle gest&n occurs also. 

2. Both gangan and ttatUan show a secondary stem and a present- 
formation with n (see 467, 1), which n also entered the preterit and the 
other forms. 

476. tucm^ t^Utt, + do. 

1. O. H. G. tuom, tnos, taot, tnom, tnot, tuont ; sabj. tuo> 
tuoB, tao, tuom, taot, tuon; pret. ieta, t&td, ieta^ t&tam, t&tnt, 
tdtmn ; sabj. tdti, tatts, tati. M. H. G. subjunctiye with 
umlaut Past part, git&u. 

2. teta is the pore reduplicated perl te + ta, the stem. The pL in & 
is probably ablaut of the almost lost series L-E. e — d, 0. H. G. & — uo. 

Comp. Gr. prjywfu — ippuya, N. H. G. t^ < M. H. G. ^ is archaic and 
has a curious spelling as if it were subj. 

478] HI8I0BT OF IHK LA.SQVA.aR. 217 


477. " Oennan " belongs to the Germanic or Teutonic group of langungefi, which 
again is a member of the Indo-European group. To the latter belong the following : 
the Aryan (Sanskrit, etc.), the Iranie (old Batric and Persian), Greek, LaUn^ Keltic^ 
Slavic^ Lithuanian^ Germanic, and perhaps as a separate member Armenian. Whether 
the Germanic languages are more itftimately related with one member than with an- 
other is considered very doubtful by most anthorltios, though aome think Slavic and 
Germanic so related. 

478. Charaoteristios of the Oermanio Languages : 

1. Grimm's Law with Vemer's Law (see 407^416). 

2. The doable verb-inflection, one by ablaut, the other bj oomposition. 
All the related Indo-European have ablaut to be sure, but none so exten- 
sively developed in the verb. The suffixes -da, -ta in the preterit are 
quite peculiar. 

8. A certain ** law of finals " showed itself in General Teutonic in the 
consonants, but the ** law of final vowels " belongs entirely to the indi- 
vidual dialects. For instance: I.-B. *b*eroit became G. T. *b€roi, Go. 
berai (e written for Go. ai). N. s^. masc. o-stems : G. T. *dagoz, Go. 
dags, Scand. dagr, Ags. ddg, O. H. G. too. 

N. 8g. fem.: I.-E. *gebd > G T. geb6, Ags. girfa, but by levelling of 
Ace. and Nom. O. H. G. 

4. The limitation of the accent to the stem-syllable was probably 
General Teutonic, though Vemer's Law shows that the Indo-European 
accent was preserved until the surd spirants in the unaccented syllable 
became sonant. Gr. irarj7p shows I.-E. accent, but G. T. fath4/r > Go. 
fadhar > fadar > O. H. G. fcUer, 

5. The spread of the n-declension, which in German is still going on. 
See 428, 2. 

6. The double adjective declension. The other I.-E. dialects decline 
adjective and substantive alike. The Germanic has, 1, a strong declen- 
sion made up of substantive and pronominal case-endings; 2, a weak de- 
clension identical with the n-declension of substantiveB. See 437. 


Classification of the Gtermanio Languagea 

479. The following is in our opinion the best daesification . 

I. East Germanic, viz., Gothic, the language of the Qoths, who cmoe 
probably occupied European Russia. The chief literary monument is 
part of the Bible translation made for the Westgoths by their bishop 
Ulfila (A. D. 810—381). The manuscript is of the sixth century. 

a. In comparison with Anglo-Saxon and 0. H. G. the language is 
"simple," but in spite of the great age of its literary monuments, it 
should be made the basis for the comparative study of the group only 
with great caution. 

IL The North Germanic or Scandinavian Langtiaobs. Two 
groups: Ea>8t'8candinavian,yiz,,9u>eduh2Ji^ Danish; West-Scandinavian, 
▼iz., Norwegian and Icelandie, Earliest literature of East-Scandinavian 
of the fourtheenth century consisting of laws. Runes of the 10th cen- 
tury. Rich literature of West-Scandinavian on Iceland, colonized by 
Norwegians, of the 12th century and earlier. The literary langoage of 
Norway, Sweden and Denmark is East-Scandinavian. Norwegian exists 
only in dialects. Icelandic is the state-language of Iceland. 

IIL West Germanic Dialects. English was very early isolated 
from the rest of the group, being the language of the early colonists in 
England, who were mainly Frisians, viz., Angles, Saxons and Jutes. 
The Frisians emigrated from their old homes on the coast of the North 
Sea from the Zuider Zee to the river Eider in Schleswig. The Jutes 
lived to the north of them. This settlement continued during the 5th 
and 6th centuries. In the 9th the Danish conqaest occurred and in the 
11th the great Norman conquest, which gave to English that great influx 
of Romance words and removed it still more from its cognate dialects on 
the continent. Literature beginning with the 7th century. Runes, 
Beowulf, Csedmon, etc. 

a. The oldest dialects are, 1, Anglian, ind. Northumbrian and Mercian ; 
2, Saxon, the chief is West-Saxon ; 8, Kentish. 

480. The Continental West-Germanic dialects are divided according to 
Grimm's Law. The North and East-Germanic, and English only under- 
went the first shifting, that is, the General Germanic (Teutonic) shifting. 
The continental dialects shifted again, some more, some less. 


Claaiifioation of the Oerman Dialeeti. 

1. The Low (or Nobth) Oebmah shifted only th > d, oompare Engl. 
" the " — Low Qennan " de ". 

2. The Middle Qebmam shifted mach mora. 

8. The South Qbbman (OberdetUtch) shifted most of a]]. 

a. " High German '* if it is to translate ** HocMeuUch " is ambiguons, 
since many still make " hochdeutech " inclnde " OberdeuUch** and " MU- 
teldetUsch," Nieder (low), Mittel (middle), and Ober (upper, south) refer 
to the geography of the country only. 

481. L Thb Low Gebmak Dialects. 

1. Frigian. Though the literature is only of the 16th and 16th cen- 
turies, the language shows a stage at least some 800 years older. Its 
territory (see 484) has been largely encroached upon by Low Saxon and 
Prankish. It embraces still the northern provinces of Holland (West 
Frisian); Oldenburg and the Hanoverian county of Ostflriesland (East 
Frisian); North Sleswic with the islands off the western Sleswlc-Holstein 
coast (North Frisian). But the modem dialects of the region described 
are strongly influenced by Low Saxon. 

2. Loto 8axan, Earliest literature the Heliand of the 0th century. 
Territory very large. 

Draw a line ttom DftsBeldorf to C&bmI earring Bllghtly Boathward; from Cutnei to 
QnedlinbnrK to Poeen and to the boandary of the empire. All that is north of this, 
except Frisian and Slavic in Bast Prussia, is Low Saxon. Two thirds of its territoiy 
is colonial, however. The Slavic conqaests fi-om the 6th to the 9th centuries had their 
western limit in the following line : Kiel, halfway between Bmnswick and Maedcbnrg, 
Nanmburg, Cobnrg, Linz, Klagenfnrt. What is east of it is colonial for the German 
langnage, either for Low, Middle, or High German. Abont half of Germany and three 
fourths of Prussia therefore are on once Slavic territory. 

a. Frisian and Low Saxon together are now often called '* IHattdtuUeht''^ which even 
in our day can boast of a poet, Klaus Groth (Holstein dialect), and of such a capital 
novelist as Fritz Renter (Mecklenburg dialect) who died a few years ago. 

8. Law Frankihh. Literature : oldest the Lex Salica, very badly pre- 
served, and fragments of a translation of the Psalms. Of the 12th century 
the'' Eineide" by yeldeke,and in the 18th a very rich literature in Hol- 
land and Brabant. Territory : Holland (Dutch crowding out Frisian), 
the northern half of Belgium (Flemish), and the northern part of the 
Prussian Rhine Province. Dutch is now the only Low German literary 
language. Attempts are making to revive Flemish. 


482. II. Middle Qsbicak. 

For this group draw about the foUowing line, which win eeimnte it from the 
South German dialects : From Nancy (but this is French) across the frontier with a 
curve north of Strassburg to Bastatt in Baden, through Heilbronn to Eichstftdt, then 
north to Eger, from there directly eastwaxd, but Bohemia is Slavic, of course. 

Begiuning in tlie west we have then : 

1. Middle Prankish (according to Branne). Its territorj consists chiefly 
of the Rhine Province, whose centre is Cologne. Very little literature. 

2. Sa^ith Prankish and Hessian. South and west of 1, and north of 
South Qerman line. The eastern limit would be a line drawn from 
Cassel to Heilbronn. A rich and old literature : Isidorus of the 8th cen- 
tury. The great gospel harmony of Otfrid of Weissenburg. The Lud- 
wigslied and much more. 

8. East or High Prankish. East of 2. Eastern limit is the S. G. line 
from Eichstadt to Eger and a line from Eger to Cassel. Its old literary 
centre was Fulda. The larger monuments are Tatian, and Williram'a 
paraphrase of the Song of Songs, about the year 900. 

The next three are almost entirely on colonized territory, vis., 4. Thu- 
ringian, north of 3 and south of the Low Qerman line; 5. Upper Saxon, 
chiefly the present kingdom of Saxony ; 6. Silesian, 6. and 6. are east 
of the rest, but do not extend to the boundary of the empire, since there 
is a long stretch still Slavic, though with German written language. 
Their literatures belong to the M. U. G. period. 

483. III. SouTQ German. 

The southern limit towards the Romance dialects would be, roughly speaking, a 
line drawn from the lake of Geneva eastward to Elagenfurt in Austria and beyond, 
then directly north through Pressbuig to Brftnn. The eastern boundaiy is the Hun- 
garian, the northeastern the Slavic of Bohemia and Moravia. 

1. Alemanic, divided into : a. Alemanic proper, covering Alsace, the 
larger part of Baden and Switzerland, b, Suabian, covering the larger 
part of Wtirtemberg and Suabian Bavaria. The eastern limit would be 
a line from Eichstadt to Ftlssen. The literary centre was St. Gallen. 
Abundant literature of the 8th and Och centuries. The ** Benedictiner 
Kegel." The Paternoster and Credo of St. Gallen. Vocabularius St. 
Galli. Murbach Hymns. "Christ and the Samaritan woman." The 
extensive works of Notker. 


2. Bawman-Auttriati, covering the larger part of Bavaria and non- 
Slavic Aostria. The oldest of all Old H. O. ia the Gloeaary of Kero 
(740); theOioflsaryofBrabanasMaums; the so-called " Exhurtatio " and 
the poem Mospilli, besides smaller pieces. 

484. It IB impOBsIble for na to give here a deierlptloD of the phoDologj of tbeee dia« 
lecte>. Besides Orimm's Law the long vowels and the diphthongs are the chief criteria for 
their classification. Their territories have not remarkahly changed. Note that Frisian 
has been driven ont of Holland by Datch and tn Oermany it leads a very precarious 
existence upon the isiands off the coast of Hanover and Oldonbarg, tiavtng been 
crowded out by *' Flattdeatsch.'* Low German has also encroached upon Middle 
German territory in northeastern Germany. The only scientific description that we 
have of any modem dialect is that by WInteler of the Kerenaer dialect (Swisa- 

History of Oerman. 

485. In point of time we divide the history both of the lan- 
gaage and of the literature into three periods, viz., Old High- 
German till 1100; Middle High German till 1500; New High 

German since then, perhaps better till abont 1800, because 
the literary language of the 18th century is already taking on 
an archaic character in comparison with the language of the 
last fifty years. See 487, 3. 

1. The literatare of the O. H. G. period is entirely dialectic and clericaL 
We have one poem, anfortunately only f^gmentary, the HUddiTantdied, 
that goes back in matter and meter to the period before the introduction 
of Christianity. 

2. There has been much contention, T^hetber there was a standard 
written language in the M. H. G. period. Lachmann and his school main- 
tain that there was and that it died out with the decay of literature in 
the 14th century. But the opinion is losing ground. The reasons 
against are well stated in Paul's "Gab es eine mittelhochdeutsche 
Schrif tsprache ? " Tbe literature was mainly lyrical and epic. Its climax 
falls in tbe 12th century. The chief differences between the O. and M. 
H. G. periods are : 1, the spread of umlaut ; 2, the weathering of unac- 
cented and inflectional vowels to mere e. 

486. With the N. H. G. period begins the written language that became 
not suddenly, but gradually the standard literary language of Germany. 
In phonology it agrees with that of the East Prankish dialect, which is 
the M. G. dialect that is most closely related to S. G. Its territory was in 

222 msiOBT OF the iakouaqs. [487- 

the veiy centre of Gtennany. Both this position and this lelationship are 
two elements tliat help to account for its spread. 

1. From this same centre started the Reformation. Luther's share in 
the establishment of the written language is generally not well stated and 
even overrated. Fourteen translations of the Bible had been published up 
to 1518 in H. Q. alone, made from the Vulgate. The language was bafied 
upon the *' JTa/M^euproc^/' t. e,, the "official" language in which em- 
peror and princes published decrees and laws and in which all govern- 
ment business was transacted. 

2. There were at first several of these "Eanzlei8pnchen«" difEering more 
or less. We find traces of them as early as the 14th century. Those of 
Austria, Bohemia and Saxony were first amalgamated. It was this lan- 
guage that Luther used in his Bible translation, moulded by him, of 
course, as every man of genius will mould his mother-tongue. Luther, 
by birth a Low German, had come in contact with people of all stations, 
speaking Low and South Qerman. No Bible, the circumstances being the 
same, translated into strict South German would and could have been 
accepted by North Qeimany. Again Luther had sprung from among 
the people and had a most hearty appreciation of folk-lore and all that is 
" volkstiimlich,'* of proverbs, saws and songs. This made him a trans- 
lator for the people. The proverbs of Solomon and the psalms are with- 
out doubt the most taking portions of his translation. 

487. The spirit of the Reformation was one roused from the lethargy 
of the preceding centuries and ready for something new. Luther's New 
Testament appeared in 1522, the whole Bible in 1584. Besides the 
Bible the catechism, hymns, sermons and the numerous polemical 
pamphlets were written and read in the new language. With the 
Reformation began also the public school (" volkssehvle ") and the first 
grammars and **formelbfi4iher" appeared, written often by the lawyers, 
who, of course, favored the " Kanzleisprache." But last and foremost of 
all the invention of printing some fifty years before the Reformation 
made a common language possible. 

1. The clerks would write and spell as they spoke, ».€., according to their 
own dialect. Printing brought about a certain uniformity in the orthog- 
raphy. It spread the language to the most difierent parts of the country. 
About the year 1600, books were already cheap in comparison to the costly 
manuscripts. In 1528 a Bible was printed at B&le, which had as appendix 
a sort of dictionary explaining the terms unfiuniliar to the Swiss. 


2. The straggle of the new language was liardest in SwitierlancL Both 
Catholic and Calvinist objected to a Lutheran language. In North Ger- 
many it was favored hy the fact that the whole North became Protestant 
en masse. Yet hymns were printed there in Low German for a long time. 
In the 17th centozy High German preachers came to the North. But 
through printing the writings of one man exercise a great influence upon 
the speech of his readers. Printing in fact has introduced into the de- 
velopment of language a certain stiff, artificial clement that tlie written, 
and especially the unwritten, dialects do not have. Tlie printed language 
has more of a fixed, stereotyped character than dialect. But on the otlier 
hand we must remember that the letters of the alphabet are not the 
language. They are only contrivances that represent speech very im- 
perfectly, contrivances invented several thousand years ago, which we 
try to apply now to that most subtile institution— language, that has 
been changing and developing ever since, 

8. The language of the lOth century diflfers not a little from the lan- 
guage of the 16th. The difibrences in forms and functions have been treated 
to some extent in Part I. The 17th century is a dark gloomy page in the 
history of Germany and almost a blank in its literature. In the first half 
of the eighteenth we see the beginnings of the classical period. Until 
then Latin was the language of the learned, and in the 17th and 18th 
centuries there was a large number of foreign words both in the written 
and spoken languages that were never assimilated, but driven out again 
by a school of literary men that started a revival of the love of old 

The following are the more important and fai'-reaching sonnd- 
changes in the transition from M. H. G. to N. H. G. 

488. A. Vowels. 

1. The further spread of umlaut by analogy (levelling). 

Ex. : as a sign of the plural, see 48; in derivatives as in: gldubtgi t^iter" 
Ii(i^» briiberUti^f Sdrilberc^etif Sdc^terlein ; in long-stemmed weak verbs as in : 
(dren# ^drtti ge^drt < hceren, h6rte, geh6rit — geh6rter (see 455, 2). 

2. The lengthening of short accented stem-vowels in the 
open syllable, and of a and e before r, rt, rd. To this process 
the largest number of the present long vowels is due. 


Ex.: SJogel, f>of— ^ofc«; gebofrm (< bSrn), ^mSffxtru \ibtn, »ebe«, fe^cn; 
^a^n — ^a^ned; ^^uti mir, totTi er, btr (demonstratlTe), kr (but bSrfu§) ; ^erb, 
mxbt, xottt, laxt, 8art Ur in the sense of " great " as in : Vix^xc^attx, other- 
wise short or long : VLxUaib, Urfprungi but Urteil is always short -art and 
-ar) are unsettled stilJ. Compare ^xi, SDSi}e. 

a. The short vowel is retained before more than one consonant and in 
a closed syllable, except before r (rt, rd). Ex.: Ij^ofem OoQr renneiw ^tdt, 
XooUta, fafl# etc, but mir, totrr as above. 

b. This point of N. H. 6. phonology \b by no means aD cleared np. Paal is the only 
one that has thrown any light npon it. See P. and B. Beitrftge, VTL p. 101-. When 
throagh inflectional endings the stem- vowel is now in an open, now in a closed sylla- 
ble, the standard pronunciation demands levelling in favor of the long vowel of the open 
syllable. For instance, bad (3lai, &la^t9, ®(afe, ®ia9, Otafer, all with long stem-vowels. 
In N. G., however, (Slai, &xti9, Stag, 6ob, (N. and A. Bg.)i sre always short according to 
the law of short vowel in a closed syllable. N. and S. G. agree in the levelling betwe^i 
the sg. and pi. pret. of ablaat-series, IV. and V. in favor of the long vowel of the plural, 
«. flr., %ah—%abtn, fa^fa^en. 

e. This principle may be stated in another way : N. H. G. makes a M. 
H. G. accented syllable containing a short vowel long, either by length- 
ening the vowel or by lengthening, ie., ** doabling," the consonant, par- 
ticularly if that consonant be t or m, and if a single consonant is followed 
by tx, eir en* 

Ex.: ^tattt, Sittt, Tomttteit# Semmtx, SBetter; in the pret. and past jutrt. of 
the I. and II. ablaut-series : fi^nttt — gefc^nitteiif fott — gefotten. This change 
began in the M. H. G. period, starting from L. G. it spread over M. and 
over S. G. as late as the 16th century. 

3. Long accented vowels are shortened before more than 
one consonant. 

a. This process is not far-reaching, but includes also the long vowels 
sub 4, that have sprung from diphthongs. It started with the M. G. 

Ex.: e(^t L. G., see 493, 4, < Shaft; ba($te, brar^te (see 454, 3). 9($t < 
dhte; |)cm ^cnfr^en; ^otd^cn ; flngr W^» fi^wg <fiene, hiene,giene; »tCT in 
the compounds ^jierjcjn, -jig, uiertcU etc., SWulter < muoter. 

4. The simplification of the diphthongs ie > i^ still spelt 
ie; no > u; ue > ii long. 

Examples very numeroas : Slut < Ntuit; Wtixt < muot; ®utc < gUete; 
fug < rne^e; fiitren < f>Qerm; blft^en < bUl^en; litb; ttef; always in the 


preterit of Class VIL and in the present of Class IL, yis.» xitt, fitl, bieteiir 
fieben, but see 3. 

a. This also is a M. G. featare that was fixed npon the " Schriftsprache," 
showing itself as early as the 18th century. The S. 6. dialects do not 
know it yet (see Hart's OoetMs Prose, p. 40, bottom). 

5. The diphfchongization of the long vowels 1, A, iu 

(whether < O. T. 6a or umlaut of tk, value u long) > ei, an, 

eu {an), respectively. 

Ex.: brei < dri, SBeib < u^; ei in the present of the I. Class ; laut < 
lUt; ^aut < hUt; Ban <9&; ^dufcr < hiutir < hiU; Wdufc < miuse < 
miU; Xxvxt < triuvoe; eu^ < tucA; Senate < livMe; er beut < biuteU The 
Eng. cognates, e, g,, the verbs of the I. Class write — wrote, shine — shone; 
loud, hide ( < Ags. hjd), sow, house, mouse — mice show that a similar 
diphthongization of long i and u has taken place, o in wrote, shone 

< Ags. d <<d corresponds to the old diphthonijr, M. H. G. ei as in 
Bchein, rei^, etc. Modem German ei therefore goes back to 1 in ^etrat < 
hirat ; to ei in fc^eiben < mheiden; ai always goes back to ei, al as in Stai^ 
j^aifer. an < fi in ^aud < hiU; but < ou in laufen < loufen; ftn (tu) < iu < 
ii by umlaut, in ^^ufer < Muwr < Mis; but cu < iu (Su) in Seutr < IMe, 
^len < hitUen; and another eu < 6u umlaut of ou (< au) in flfreube < 
vrdtide ( < *frauwida), beugen < hdugen < haugen ( < *baugjan, ablauts, II.). 

a. This is a S.G. feature, especially Bavarian, in which dialect it started 
about 1200. It spread over East Prankish and Upper Saxon in the 14th and 
15th centuries and latest over Suabian. All the other dialects whether L., 
M. or S. G. do not know this change. " House *' is still " hiU ** in Bremen 
and in B&Le. The new diphthongs are still kept apart from the old ones 
in dialect, but the standard spoken language recognizes no difference. 

489. The following changes do not affect very many words. They are 
mostly S. G. features and though quite old, the standard and the common 
spoken language do not agree upon all words. The former favors r and 
{, the latter S and ii. 

1. e, 8 > 5 in tx^^tn (Classics still erge^en), Wtit, fiSffel 2Jim, ito5tf (stand- 
ard imif), fc^toSren and a few others. Rarely e, § > o or u after to: tooHen 

< wdien ; wo^t < wSia; fommen < qtiSman* This is as old as O. H. G., 

3. i> iiinftfitfe — ftilfc; ftriltett — ft)rlt«i; toflrWg; t»fi§te; (Spri^wort — 
Gftfi^too't. i < ft in toirfen + work and Sti\ftxu but also still itftfTen -h cushion. 


3. a > 0, D^nmac^t, folk-etymology for D^mad^l < dmaht ; tto < wtf ; o^nc 

< dne; S^lonat < mdnSt; and Do^le < tdhek. Gompue SBafn and Hr0« 


4 Both S. and M. G. is u >o, it > o, reg^tdarly before modem mnv 
nn and n + any other cons. 

Ex.: Past part, and pret subj. of Class IIT.. 8.; SBonne < wunne; fromm 

< fyrum ; fonbcr < junbcr ; umfonfi < umbems ; @o Jn < mn. Compare 
Sronn (poetic), but 93ntnnen (why u is not clear) ; 9)ldn4 < mtinich 

5. Before palatal g/ 4 e > i. By this -ig and -14 have become the 
only Boffixes Instead of 0. and M. H. G. ec, ae^ eeh, aeh, see 609. 

Ex.: 9tttid( < fettach; Jtraftid^ < hranech, O. H. 0. ehranvh; fertig < 
f>ertee; ^onig < honee, 

490. B. Consonants. 

1. The spread of fd^ for f before I, m, it, and m» 

Ex.: @4tof < Mf, + sleep; ^d^Ieim < fUm + slime; S^meer < 
*8mear; fc^meiien < <7n%en,+ smite; @(^nee < «n^, -f snow; @<^nci»fe < 
snepfe, + snipe; ^dj^toetg < «u)e^ + sweat; f^tointmcit < mommefi, + 
swim. The Eng. cognates still show old s. 

a. This is a S. G. feature, starting in the 15th century and extending 

over the M. G. and the colonized eastern L. G. dialects (Paul). In the 

16th fc^ was substituted for f after r in a few words and later still in 

initial fp. % 

All these f(!^*8 are recognised by the standard pronnnciation, but the S. and M. G. 
dialects know ahnost no limit in the nse of fil^. H. G. dialects aabBtitnte it even for 
^; viz., mtf^ for mi^. See 381, 1. 

6. @ < fd^ also after r, e.g., ^trffi < Air5:+ hart, 5JlrWe< *M'«e+ cherry, 
^enfd^en < Mrsen, Since f($pr f<^t are not recognized in the spelling of 
initial fp, % Eng. st, sp^ and G. fl, fp correspond : ®tabt» @tatti ©tatte < 
Stat, + stead ; ©pief < spi^ + spit. 

c. This \6i for f is not a phonetic change as is generaDy taken for granted. In the 
transition from O. > M. H. G. sc had become sch first before the front vowels, then 
before all the vowels and then before r. so sch before a palatal vowel is a phonetic 
transition called pakUalbsation dne to the following Towel and attended by loosening 
of the contact, and is known in Eng. and the Bomance dialects as well. See SUis* 
Early Eng. Pronanciation, p. 1164-. The traneition-soond was no donbt the present 
Westphalian sjh, a double sonnd. At first only sc > sch in the above order, and not 
■ > sch. The links were sk + pal. vowel > at^ > sjh > sh. 


d. Before vowels and r G. f^ oonespondfl to Eng. 8h« e. g,, 64iff +ship ; 
&diam + shame ; fd^On + sheen ; 6(^t + shread, shioad ; Sd^rcln «f 
shrine. When Eng. sc, sk corresponds to G. f4# ffr there is something 
wrong, due generallj to foreign origin or influence, in one or the other, 
Ck>mpaTe ^d^uU + school ; ®(^aum + scam (Norse) ; Sanbf^aft + land- 
scape (D.) ; ©fanta'l + scandal (Fr.). 

2. J (< z < t, see 414, 1) > s, written f, «, jf, f . 

This is a S. G. feature, beginning with final s in the 18th century, 
spreading over M. G. L. G. still like Eng.; notice the cognates. Ex.: 
load < iJDcu; -f what ; an^ < Hm -^ out ; 9Ba(frr < im^^ + water ; Sinfe 
< bin^, + hentgrass. Examples very numerous. 

8. (^ = kh (< old oh, cch and medial h) has become jh 
after front-vowels and after r, 1, and n. See 375. 

This transition is not shared by S. G. The Eng. cognates show k or 
silent gh for 1.-E. k: nic^t < niht (= nikht) + not, nought ; SBl^t < toihi 
+ wight. 

0. ij before s in the same syllable > ks, the same in Eng. as 
early as Anglo-Saxon. 

Ex.: Sut^d <fuhi + fox ; a3tt(ibd < hiha^boum, + box; fer^d < «eA«-i- 
■ix ; Kd^fe < oAm, + axle ; %iX < aechus + axe (t is excrescent). 

h. Medial ( at the end of a syllable is silent now, fe(nt» jte^fl, but ^ 
still in ®ef!(^t; fleu(^t — flie^; (o(^ — l^il^er; raud^ still in 9{au4toer!# furs, 
— rau(; fd&m^l^en — @4ma(^. 

4u v(b > mm, Eng. still mb: fiamm < lamp — lambea + lamb ; ihimmer 
.< kumber, -f to cumber. 

5. m — n, Eng. still m. Sefra < hsiem + besom ; 9aben < fadem + 

6. w < bh, the labio-labial bh has become labiodental v in the standard- 
pronunciation ; it has disappeared after ou, iu (now an, eu); in a few cases 
fiw > au ; after 1 and r it became b, beginning in the 14th century. Eng. 
cognates show a vowel + some silent letter. 

Ex.: neu < niuwe, + new; fd^auen < aehoutoen + show ; gtott < grd — 
grdtoa, + gray ; Ibtau <M — bldwea + blue, due to Fr. l)kfi, ^xhtn < 


garwen, + yare ; QdftoalU < stoalwe, + swallow; ftaxhtt a scar < nartoe, 
+ narrow, lit. "contracted sarfiace;" gelb < gel — gdwes, + yellow. 
Some cases show doublets doe to leTelling in favor of the uninflected 
form : fajl — falb < vol — ttaltoes + fiedlow ; ©l^er-ling + sparrow — 
©perber < aptxrwaere + sparrow-hawk. 

491. 1. Other transitions are not general enongfa to desenre special mention. It 
is important to distingaisb real phonetic transitions and differences between the two 
periods in the history of the language due to levelling and analogy. The latter have 
been frequently treated in the comments apon the varions inflections. See the lev- 
elling in the declension of fern, nouns, 433, between sg. and pL pret., 460. 

2. The disappearance of sounds by contraction onght also to be con- 
sidered, e.g., of i for which a merely orthographical t has been sabstituted 
(see 363, 2) or of e in 8. pers. sg. pers. of strong verbs whose stem ends in 
t as fd^ilt < schiltet. Examples of new sounds are e between !, uo, ti and 
r as in 3^raueT < tr&re, ®t\tx < gir; of t(b) after final n and s as in iemanb 
< ieman, etgratlic^ < eigenliche, Dbjl < obez^ %%i < aekes. 

The Oerman word-stock. 

402. The following sources have furnished words and forms older 
than any occurring in the literatures : 

1. Runes, e.g., the famous inscription on the golden horn, which reads 
ek Tdewagastiz Tioltingaz Jwma tavddS = I, Hlewagastiz (= lea-host ?) of 
Holstein, made (the) horn. 

2. The words borrowed by Fins and Laplanders before the race-mi- 
grations, when the latter were in contact with the Scandinavians, the 
former with the Goths in the South, e. g., " kunungas" ** king." 

3. Words and proper names occurring in Latin and Greek authors, 
e.g.f the name " Teutanes" would seem to go back to a period before 
Grimm's Law (see Kluge's dictionary) ; glSsum = amber. Ago, glcsre, + 
glass in all Germanic dialects; " akes ** in Caesar = meaning '* elk," O. 
H. G. elch, Ags. eolch; modern Eng. " elk " is reimported from Norse. 

4 German has a much larger Germanic word-stock than Middle and 
modem English, because through the Norman conquest the Romance 
was engrafted upon old English and so many old English (Germanic) 
words died out. But compare the couplets calf — veal ; deer — venison ; 
sow, swine — pork ; hunt — chase. 


a. Geraian, nerer hM.rfBg had to aooept raeh a large foreign ehnnent, hai treated 
foreign words very atepmotherly. BngUah welcomes every stranger, at least our 
laige dictionaries do, which contain as ntoch as ten per centnm of words that are 
no more BngUsh than they are German. A Qennan, seeing such a dictionary with 
colored flags, steam-engines, animals, and what not, takes it tor an encyclopedia. In 
German a foreign word has to undergo a long period of probation before it is accepted 
in the language and in the dictionary. Foreign words are collected mostly in the 
**JV«fuii0i0risr&iMA,** i. s.. Dictionary of foreign words. 

483. The first larger influx of foreign wordB into German came 
through contact with Roman dvilisation, e^„ ^ixait, 9W, JtafCr St^M, 
StttU, SRfinier SttSitx, Qfenfier ; the second through ChrisUanization : Stix^, 
fafht'otf Stttoi, (Engelr Vrieflerr 9faffe, j^rebignir and a great many others. 
These and other foreign words of the O. H. Q. period were quite 
thoroughly Germanized. They took part in the shifting then going on 
and their accent was put upon the stem-flyllabie. 

1. In later O. H. Q. and in M. H. G. the chief source, from which foreign 
words came, were the crusades and the institution of chivalry ; in later 
M. H. G. and early N. H. G., the revival of learning and the thirty years 
war, €4/.^ 9ala'flr 9Unte» Zouxraftx, %\^xen; in fact all older nouns in -ie'r and 
verbs in -ic'Tcn« Schiller's Wallensteln has many foreign words, e.g., 
9nn(ntf!; malrbei'en; ^anitx, ^ultteri 9u(t. 

2. In the last 200 years Germans have taken up, as all nations have done, 
a large number of words from Greek, Latin and the Romance languages, 
words which the progress of civilization calls for. But beginning with the 
M. H. G. period German has not been able to change the foreign accent, 
e,g., the verbs in -Wxtn, even when this ending is added to German words as 
|ofieren,f!ol)ieTtnr(au{leren; 3)^eIobei' or-bie'i Qaflei'r 8ataiao'n» Saaa'bci SBalfo'iu 
9afle'te ; the many nouns in -it'* Compare English which changed in its 
middle period the accent of nearly all Norman-French words, e.g., 
reason, season, melancholy. Later telegraph, but German Selegra'p^. 

a. There has sprang np since 1870 a tendency In high oflicial circles to banish foreign 
words, bat it is not likely to meet with mnch soccess. The military system uses hun- 
dreds of them still. 

The Postmaster-General of the German empire objected to ZtUp^o'n, because he 
coQld not decide npon the gender, and so „%tvn\ptt^n'* was made the official word. A 
letter to be called for mast have on It ,i$o{Ua9enib,''not "poste restante " as formerly. 

3. One more large source of borrowed words has to be mentioned 
which began as early as the 15th century, viz.. Low German and Dutch 
(also English). All words that contain " p," for instance, must be either 
foreign (^at)t)eli ^ant^er) or non-High-German, because there can be no p 


in H. G. (see 409, 2). If the words do not come directly from Low 
Qenuan, they have been influenced by it and taken L. G. form. 

Ex.: pttffetu pufieiw 9ocfe, ^e% fiatu ^Innber^ 9Bapi)cn. Words in gg, 
lU dhU, (EgdCr Stogge, Sflaggti Sagger, Pgge« 

4. Notice the many shipping terms : BlaggCi fdoih, Sootr ^ptitt,' 2tCtt 
SBradT, @tet9en (9 = »>). Words in -c^t for ft, e.g., fad^t, H. G. fanft ; @d^(^t, 
H. G. @4afi ; @($Iu4t for (Sd^luft. The ending Hi^en is Low and M. German ; 
-leittf South German, gett for ftijl is L. G. 

494. A small group of words was introduced twice, but at different 
periods, e,g,, 9)fal) (O. H. G.), ^ala'\t (M. H. G.XpakUium, but see Eluge'is 
Diet. 3argc (O. H. G.), Sartfd^t (M.H.G.)+Eng. target < V. L. targia (if 
this is not originally German and belongs to the next group). SKelobei was 
really borrowed, SHelobie is a later doublet after the many nouns in At^ 
gc^kn + to fail, faaierem to fail (in business) < F.faUUr. 

1. Compare Eng. frail and fragile ; quite — quiet ; exploit — ex- 
plicite. Many originally German words, adopted by another language, 
are borrowed again in a foreign form : ®agcn — ffiaggon + Eng. wain 
— wagon ; ©pion < fpajen — German ©pd^r j ©bouaf < Uwackt, ©cittHK^t; 
tie ®arb«,bic ®arbero]6c + guard, + wardrobe < warta, wartSn--bl« 3Bartc, 
ber ©art + ward; ©tudf < Ital. ttiuxo and this from G. ©tfitf, O. H. G. 

2. Besides isolated and obscure German words a large number of for- 
eign words are exposed to " folk-etymology," because they are not under- 
stood. These have been collected by Andreten in his *' deutsche Volks- 
etjrmologpe." (See also Palmer's Folk-etymology), ^ebftid^ < L. hede- 
racea, ground-ivy. SJbtntcuer (archaic spelling even Hbenbtnicr), < M. H. G. 
aventiure < Rom. averUure, 

3. 2Ji«lfrag, wolverine < Norse jgwt^;yy*M«=moutain-bear, as if it were a 
great eater ; ©unbflttt as if from ©finbe and glut, "the flood that came on 
account of sin," but it is from ©in— meaning '♦ ever," « universal" as in 
©ingriln, evergreen. S«umunt as if it meant ^gfigemntttib*' or irCeutemttrtb," but 
< hliumuntf hlium, in which -munt is suffix, *' hliu " < the same root as 
hut, loud + Gr. kXvu, See SRaulmurff 400. Compare Eng. causeway < 
O. Fr. chaueie < L. calciatam {viam) ; country-dance < counter-dance, 
Fr. contredanse. 

Hundreds of examples will be found in Andrettn and PbAimtV coUeetioiis. The 
words in 494, 494, !« have never been collected. 



This ehapter does not contain a oomplete German etymology. It alma merely at 
Siving a brief, practical Bur?ey of the derivation of German words for BtttdentB who 
know a little Bnglish and Latin. A knowledge of the older forma of some Germanic 
dialects cannot be expected from the student. For practical reasons only, the follow- 
ing subdivisions of the chapter are made. 

495. We may dJBtiingniHh four ways of forming and deriv- 
ing words : 

1. By ablaut without deriyative suffix, see 496, 1, 3. 

2. By suffixing some element which was onoe perhaps an 
independent word. 

3. By prefixing suoh element. 

4. By composition of independent words. 

486. The pronouns have roots peculiar to themselves and many adverbs are formed 
from the pronominal roots. Nouns (that is, substantives and adjectives) and verbs 
had probably the same roots, though it is customary to speak, in contrast to pronomi- 
nal roots, only of verbal roots, from which nouns were formed later. We count as 
primitive all strong verbs and those nouns which have no apparent derivative suffix. 

From a Vb'xnd', in which s represents the vowel, that is to appear according to the 
various ablaut-grader, both nouns and verbs were formed. In G. T this root would 
be baond. It ftimished Mnden, band, gtbunden, bad iBanb, ber tBunb, bet SBanb, bad 
Cunb (for SBftnbel). Both nouns and verbs had their stem-sufflzes, of course. These 
made them into words. Boots are to the etymologist what z, y, a are to the mathe- 
matician. They are something unreal and abstracted from the actual phenomena of 
languages. No one ever spoke in roots. In a word, we distinguish the stem and the 
Inflections. The stem minus the etem-eufflz is the root. Of every root, noun and 
strong verb are not now extant, for instance, (ieb, Sob, but weak verbs by means of 

the sufflz Jo—je^ were formed from the same root, I. B. Vb:ub\ G. T. tlznb, e. g.^ 
(g)tauben, toben. z appears as «— i in Iteb, Qiebe < liobfi^ *ieub^ ; as a in (s)Iauben, (er)tau 
Un ; it disappears In Sob, loben, the weakest or zero stage of ablaut. See 394. 

1. Formed by ablaut alone, we consider strong verbs, nouns of the same roots and 
nouns from roots that may have no strong verb extant. 

8. The stem-sufflx may hare been o,/o, i, «, d,Jd (fern.), etc. We are inclined to look 
upon the^o-stems as derivatives because they suffered umlaut, «,g.y Sftrge, ®ef^ft|. 
There Is some reason for this because /o,^<S, tco, wd are not primary stem-sufflzes, but 
for our purposes there is no harm in confounding the primary and secondary sufBxea. 


8. Examples of tlie deriyation of verbs and of substantiTes bj ablaat 

L ablaal^series : Betgen, ber 931$; Tei4» 9^etb* IL: Wirgeiu bad @($log, 
ber @(^(ug; trtefeiu ber Zxeipf, blc Xtaufe; bad £o(^» bie SMe« III.: ft^tpimmen, 
ber ©d^mamnif ber ©urnpf (?), bie ©d^toemme; bet @d}Iunbf ber dtm%. IV.: bergenr 
ber S3erg» bie Surg, ber Surge ; fd^aSeiii fd^acnr ber @d^Q« V.: gebem bie Q^abe 
(rather ^^), gebe or ^Sbt (adj.). VL: grabett, bad ®rab^ bie Q^rube; 14 mug# 
ber ^abn, bad ^u^n. 

To the G. T. & — 6 series : t^utt, getbaiu bie %^. See 476, 2. 

Derivation of Substaiitives 

497. Derived by a late ablaut, also directly from a weak 

Ex.: Der @(^uiib < fd^inbenr = refuse ; ber Sefe^l < befe^len; ber^onbel < 
^anbeln ; ha^ Dpfer <opfent ; ber ^rger < argem. Feminines in -< : bie 
2Bint>e + windlass < »inbcn; bie gdjre + ferry < vem <faran, 

498. Derivation by Vowkl-Sufpixks : 

1. e < i formed from adjectives, all feminine, e.g,, ®r5ge < gro§; ^S^t 
< l^od^ ; ®(^6ne < Won"; 93albe < bolb (now only adverb) ; ®iite < pt — 
guoti < giLot, i produced umlaut. 

2. e < i <jo ^irte < |)erbe. 

3. el < le < Eomance ie, ia, always with chief-stress 
upon it, at first only in foreign words, then spreading very 
rapidly in N. H. G. 

It is attached most frequently to nouns and verbs ending in -iU -^x, 
-en, so that the ending was felt to be -erei, e, g., Sauberei', STrjenei', ^eud^elei* 
3ageret. It denotes also a place of business : ^ruderei^ 93d(Ierei. It im- 
plies a slur, 3urij!eretr ^inberei. 

4. ie only in foreign words. It is th6 later form of ia, ie, 
and the nouns were formed after i had become ei. 

Ex.: 5[fhonomie', &t^o^xavW' Sbc^ologie', etc. -ie has crowded out the 
older -ei, or they appear together with a difference of meaning. 9^elobei 
— 9KeIobie, both mean "melody " ; 9)artei = party, faction — 9)artie = game, 
mat>eh, company, excursion ; 3)^tttarei + fancy, — ^^antafle + phantasy. 



499. Liquids and their oombinations. 

1, generallj el < O. H. G. vJ (oZ), U. U produces umlaut 
It is weak or unaccented. + Eng. le, + L. -tiZ-us. Majority 
of substantives are masculine. 

Ex.: 1. I <ul,(U: ter fdvi}^t)U @laili tad fddl, ^aul, Me Seele. 

2. el ( < ul, al)i ber SBanbel, ^aii%tl, 9laUl, ^finoM, Sottel* fitUl; bie dadtU 
Ourgelr SBunel* ffafeli 8(^»fel. 

8. el < U, Most of them denote means and instruments like the fem- 
nines < tU, al, 

Ex.: bet Senteli 8utte( ( + beadle), fidffel, itegel + cudgel (?)» ^^Mii, 
irmelr d&det* These are very numerous. 

4. eir + Eng. -le. sign of diminutives, < Ua, Ui Neuter gender. A 
S. German fiayorite from old times, now It, h see Goethe's famous Bd^toti^ 

Ex.: Siittbel, Sitd^el, 9liiibe(. Proper names: griebeli Qa^ttU 

5. el in foreign words : ble Drgel < V. L. organa ; Seufel < SidPoXoc ; 
bad ©irgel < L. rigiUum; bet (Efet < Lu (uinus; ber itibnmel < L. cum»- 

500. I combined with other suffixes. 

1. with s in fel (weak accent), fal (secondary accent) < tai, ia + al, 
generaUy producing umlaut. Gender prevailingly neuter, but also a 
few fem. and very few masc. 

Ex. of -fel: ber Sec^fel, bad mm, ttberMeibfelr t>&m^ 

Ex. of -fat: bad ^^idfal, bad £abfal, bad ^d^enfal^ bie Saumfalr bie %xiSA^aU 
Some have double gender. 

2. -lein < U ■{■ in, secondary accent, very numerous, produces umlaut, 
noun always neuter. See 493, 4. Now only in solemn diction and poetry. 

Ex.: itinbleiru Sdmrnleutr SR^igbleiiw €>d^nleiiu etc. -el^en is rare : S3it(^el4en# 
F. 3779. 

8. -Itttg < ulf U -^ infft + Eng. -ling, weak accent, often with a 
depredative force. Its second element was at first only added to nouns 
in -1, then -Ung became the suffix. 


Ex.: BfrembUnd^ ^tnblfaig + foundling; 3&igUn0 + youngling; 9Bi|lmg» 
Ddumling; S^tietlingr hireling; ©duglind + suckling; ©^dflmgy Btottting. 

a. -Ungen (en is Dative pL) fonns many names of places, ^amelingettf 

4 ler < I + er is a quite modem suffix. For er# see 607, 1. It started 
with nouns that came from verbs in -ela or nomis in -cl. 

Ex.: ^unfller < funfleln ; ^^m^Ux < ftmcici^cltt ; but |)fiu«ler < |>au«5 
%Wtx < Xifdi. Implies a slur, e^., fftt^tXtx < IRe^t. Comp. Eng. hostler 

< hostel. 

501. em, m, amf t(i<^tm. Of these m, en are unaccented 
and form no syllable ; -em has weak accent, am has second- 
ary. < O. H. G. m, um, am, + Eng. m, om. For em > tn, 
see 490, 5. 

Ex. : ber 93aum, + beam ; Sraum» + dream ; Qavim + team ; ©^marrn 
+ swarm ; ber ^tem (Obem, the biblical form), 6robem ; ber Sobeitr ber 
93ufenf ber Sabetir ber S3efen ; ber (StbatHy ber Srofamr in which am has been 
restored in place of older -tm. bad SBtttum belongs here, but turn has 
crept in for older " ttfidem" as shown in the verb totbmen. 

m is a suffix in -turn < Vd% see 616, 5. 

502. tn, n, < O. H. G. an, in + Eng. en, n, on, in. 

Ex. : ber Donir + thorn; ^afctt/ + haven; bad Stoxn, + corn; bad Qtiditth 
+ token, ber Degen# + thane. Slegen. + rain ; Sagen, + wain, wagon. 
Often lost in G., compare ber fftaU, + raven ; bte SBoIfei + welkin ; Ria,^, + 
kitchen ; ^ette» + chain, en of inf. is lost in English. In Q. en has crept 
into the Nominative and changed the inflection, see 436, 2. In some cases, 
e,g,t ^orn» dom + Ags. torn, n is the participial suffix -no, see 463, 1. 

1. The -en of the weak declension really belongs here, since it forms 
nouns denoting the agent, for instance, from verbs, bieten^ ber fdoit, bed 
S3oten. But we feel it now as an inflectional ending. See 432. 

-ner is not a real suffix. Compare ler, 600, 4 In SRebner n belongs to 
the stem < redina, redinSn, In others n is added by analogy : ©IStfner 

< ®lo<fe; ^lr(§ner<^ir(^e; W^txttt < portenaHus; (Sdlbner < wldenarius, 


2. en < in, a now rare diminutive except in composition in -leltt# -^en. 
Ex. : bad OfflHen (golen) + filly, foal ; <Sd|^n>einr + swine < G. T. sft; bad 
Mttn for j^&^letn + chicken < from the same stem as " cock." 


503. nid, ttijf-, forms neater and fem. noonB, generaUj 
abstract ones denoting existence and condition, sometimes 
place, + Eng. -ness. 

Generally from, noun and verb stemB, bat also irom adjectives: bie 
SBilbnid < toilbi Binflernid < finfler. It represents now older -niM^ and 
-ntuiB-, Go. -noMUSy and generally produoes amlant. -^iM, -ntua are 
compounded of n + im^ issa and n + tusi. 

Ex. : M Bt^x&M, ®ef(Stipidf 8$en»£4tnid I bie <ErIaubnl9» JlemUni0i 


504. in, inn- forms fem. nonns, denoting females, from, 
masc. < M. H. G. tn, in, inne < O. H. G. innd, in, + L. ina 
in regina, 

Ex.: ®otti ®5ttin ; %Vi^^, %ii^\in -f vixen; ^imoveraneri ^aimoverantrin. 
Very nameroos. Not extant in Eng. except in vixen, Ags. fyxen. To 
be translated by " female," " she-," " lady-." 

1. -in has become (e)n and is attached to surnames having the force of 
the more elegant 8rau+ surname without suffix, eg,, bit SRftllctn instead 
of Bfrau S^iUIeif bie ^pann^afen instead of %taix ©pannl^fe. 

505 -nb, enb, (anb, ant), really participial sufGlx (see 453), 

+ Eng. -end. 

Ex.: ber ^reunb + friend ; 8einb + fiend ; SDeiganb* champion ; |)eilanb» + 
Heliand, Saviour ; S^alant^ bat the cognate ant is foreign and has chief- 
stress, &,g,, ^Btn^ta'nU SRiniflra'nt. No participial ending in ber ^bttih, ber 

506. -nfl, -Ing, -nn^, < older ing, ung, + Eng. ing, ng, 

weak accent. 

Ex.: ber $&ritt0 + herring; ber <S($iIIing + shilling; bad a^efflng, brass, 
Ags. mdding. 

1. n is lost in RM^, + king ; ber ^\tm\^ (< pfenninc) + penny. 

2. ung forms numerous fem. nouns from verbs. Like Eng. ing they 
denote mostly action The suffix is gaining ground. But Eng. nouns in 
log are frequently best translated into German by an infinitive. Ex.: 
bie (Krfa^rungf ®ilbung# deitung + tidings, ^nfertiguns + manufacture; i^er^ 
bami^fungr evaporation, etc. Biding + bad Steiten; building, bad IBauen. 


8. ing and ung + er and en form manj patronjinics and names of places : 
3:^uringen# SReixtingnu X»t|hingen» SRo^rungm, ^omung» ^Zibelungenr 'IRerottngeir 
3a^rittger, Cot^ringer. For cr (see 607, 2). -en is originally dative pi. 

507. -er is of yarious origiBS. 

1. It denotes the agent, < ere < asre < driy + Eng. er, or, 
ary, + Lat. -ariv^. 

It is attached to both nonns and verbs and is preceded by nmlaut as a 

Ex.: Soubcrer, ^fimmerer, ©d^uler, 9!litter, ©djneibcr, fStfiXtt, Xfinjcr. Very 

a. Borrowed words not denoting the agent : dnttnet# < L. eerUenaritis 
+ centenary, a hundred weight; Irid^ter < late L. tractarius (?i, fonneL 

2. -er denotes origin and home, attached to names of 
places and countries. 

It was originally a Genitive pL, bnt of the same origin with 
the preceding : Springer, Berliner, SBiener, ©d^toeiger* 

3. -er without any particular force, and words with it are 
looked upon as primitive < r, ur (ar), ir, + Eng. r, er, re, + 
I.-E. -ro-. 

Ex. : Der Slder, jammer, ©ommer, I)onner; Me 3(^er, gcber, 8e6et, 
©djulter; Da0 gutter, SeDer, SBetter, ©ilber, SCajfer* 

4. -ier in foreign words, e. g., ter Eattalier, ©artier, is iden- 
tical with er sub 1, but is of Romance form, < L. -arius. 

For -er as a sign of pi., see 431. 
608. Suffix -ter, ker* 

1. < tar, forms names of relationship + Eng. ter, ther, < I.-R -t-r. 
It is unaccented. Ex. t)er Skater, ©ruber, tie SWuUer, ©d^»e|lcr, Xo(^ter. 

2. < tara, tra, ^»ra+Eng. ter, der. Denotes Instrument. Not numer- 
ous, unaccented. + L. trum, Q-. rpw, rpia, 

Ex.: Stlafttx, cord; Me Ceiter+ ladder; t)a« ®eWdbter+ laughter; fiafhr < 
Uthstar, lasta/r < lahan, to blame. In the last word -ster is secondary 


finffiz. It appears also in bar ^mfhr, badger ; bie <EIfler» macule, which 
are of doubtful origin. 'La9 Sfntfler < Lat. fenedra. 

ber (ter) aa comparatiye suffix, see 630. 

8 and t, Eng. g and k, it is difflcolt to leparate from tha rest of the ttam. Noons 
ending in thom must be considered primitive. 

509. -id), sometimes spelt -ig, forms a few maso. norms. 
It represents M. H. G. --ech and -ich < uh, ah and ih < uk, 
aky ik H- Eng. -ock, -k. See 489, 6. 

Ex.: ber S3otti4 (+ buttock), bcr ^abid)(r) + hawk; itrani^ + crane; 
Sittid)r 3:eppi4| bad f^t\^, 9leif!gr brushwood; ber ^tXA% (-i(^) + radish < L. 
radie^em; !Rol4 < M. H. Q^. mol, + mole, but means lisaid. btr Sffig 
(ig for i(^)» (+EDg. add) < L. cuv^m, through *ate€um{1), ^aW^^tn is 
of later importation. !Der itdfigr St&^di, does not belong here, but < kevje 
(> kefge) < L. cavea, 

1. Adit = i(^+t# for which see 612, 2, forms a number of neuter nouns 
denoting fullness, plenty, frequency. Late suffix of 15th century, ^ad 
l^kdi^t, +Eng. thicket (but -et is Romance) ; bad Stttfxi(i^t, sweepings ; bad 
!Rd$ri(^t, reeds, ^cr taU^t (see above). 

510. -d)en forms the common neater diminutiYes and has 
crowded out -lein in the spoken langoage. See 493, 4. 

Compounded of i^, see above, and n < in, in, see 602, 2. Always 
produces umlaut. Has weak accent, + Eng. kin. Ex.: bad SR^t^en^ + 
manikin ; SdmnK^enr + lambkin ; SB&nn(^en# 9Rdb(l&m# X^eil^en. 

b; i, i. i W- 

511. 1. -t>- + Eng. -th, < G. T. -th-, < I. E. -'t-. 

Ex.: ^er Xob» + death ; 9)>hinb» + mouth ; bad (bie) 9Ra$b» + aftermath ; 
bte ®ube» + booth ; bie 9iirbe» burthen. Not numerous in German. Where 
Engl, forms, abstract nouns in -th, from adjectives generally, G. forms 
the same in -e x SBtfrmer warmth ; Zxtw, truth ; Xitft, depth. 

2. -te < -irfa, -4dd, nnaooented; -ob, -6be, -at, < -rf/o, -SU, 
-uoti, secondary accent, form neuter and fern, nouns. 


Ez.: ^te Brembe, %xtttbt, ®ebarbe, BitiU, Idegterbe ; ha€ ©ttreibe < ge- 
tregede < gUragida, what is bom on the fields, crops, grain, ^ad &tlvihbt, 
®tHuU, ®emdlbe. 

a. jDad 5llctnob# jewel; bie (Sinijbe due to folk-etymology after Dbc, desert, 
then wilderness = solitude, lone-nes& T>tx ^onat + month < mdnot; bif 
|)eimatf + home, native land ; ber Qitxat, ornamentation. But |)ctTat» mar- 
riage < hi < Mw + rott, *Jb\t %xmvX belongs here, its ut < uoti, O. H. G 
armuotu SBermut, + Eng. wormwood, has this suffix, but its root ir 
doubtful. For -at in foreign words, see 163, 1. 

512. -t forms nximerons fern, nouns and a few masculines, 
-f Eng. t when preceded by snrd spirants, see 412, 2, < origi** 
nal t. 

Ex. : blc Stxaft + craft; bit SRadJt 4- might; bic %n^ + drift; bit 8flu<^t + 
flight; bcr grofl + frost; ber ®etjl + ghost; bcr ®afl+guest; bie SKtt|l,+ mast 
(of animals); (Sift, + gift; ®nip -f crypt. 

1. This -t forms other nouns, but it then corresponds to Eng. d, rarely 
th ; mostly < I.-E. -t- before the accent, with which the suffix of the 
weak past participle is identical (see 463, 1) : bie Svrt + ford ; ber SEDart 
+ ward ; (Baat, + seed ; %^t, + deed ; bie ^UU + flood ; bie Splitter bloth; 
bie St&m, (Btabt, + stead; ber SPtat, +mood ; bie ©ut, + wood (mad). 

2. Notice the excrescent t, which the many noons ending in a spirant + 1 
encouraged, e.g., ber ©aft + sap; bie SIrt+axe ; bad Dbjl < obes; in -f(!^fi 
+ -ship, -scape (?). After -^, see 600, 1. In foreign words, e. g,, ber 
9>ala'il, + palace ; 9)aj)flr 4- pope ; SKorafl, + morass. 

8. -ft in 5?uttfl < Umvx, 93run|l < breraten, ®unjl < gonnen is not clear. To 
caU it *' euphonic" does not explain. Slrjt < O. H. G. arzat < late L. 
archiateVy but phonetically not quite clear. !Die ^agb^ SKaib + maid < 
M. H. G. magety meit has the suffix b-t, < G. T. th, derived from a masc. 

513. d, f- is rare, + Eng. s, < is-, es-. 

Ex.: %la^€ + flax ; dvi^^t+ fox ; gu(%d + lynx (?); bie Sld^fe, + axle; 
bie ^Slfe, pod ; ber RxtH < erdfe^e + crayfish, due to popular etymology, 
as if *' cray-fish " ; bie ©remfe, brake; bie ^orntJTe+ hornet; bie ©and + goose. 

614. \6h- is of various origins, but generally inseparable. 

< isk- comes the frequent adjective suffix -fi^ + Eng. ish, sh, e.g., ber 
fD'^enfd^ < O. H. G. menniskOt an adjective ; ber Srofd^ + frog (see Elnge) ; 


SBelfdi^ + welsh. In ^ir^ + hart, f(^ < 8, ^. In iTirf^e + cherry < 
*eere9ia fit < 8. See 626, 4. 

a. -f^e is added to Bnnuunefl to denote Mrs., bat 1b quite coIloqiiiAl, bit IRrlii^xHf^ 
for ^oti meln^otbt, blc 8anbn>c^cfi^ for Stan 8anbt»c^r. 

Nouns Debivsd bt Xoicznal Suffixbs, which can be Traced to 
Independent Wobds still Extant in the Older Uebmanio 

For eariier periods of the langnage tliis derlTttlon would therefore property come 
nnder the head of wordcomposition. 

515. The suffixes are: -^flt,-teit,-r{d),-fdHxft,-htm. They all 
form abstract fern. noHUS, chiefly from substantives and adjeo- 
tives, except those in -rid) and -turn, and have secondary accent 

1. -l(tit + Eng. -hood, -head. < 0. H. G. keit, Ags. Tidd, meaning char- 
acter, nature, rank. In a few noons it means *' a hody of/' and has oollec- 
tive force. Very frequent : tie Srtil^eit ; ®ott^eit + godhead ; i(inb^elt + 
childhood; !Rettf4^eit» mankind ; (E^riflen^t# Christendom. 

2. -leit composed of -^eit and the adjective suffix -ec or ic, to which it 
was attached in M. H. G. First ec-heit, ic-heit (> echeit, icheit) > 
ekeit, ikeit > keit, feit. -feit is attached only to adj. in -bar^ -<x, -ig^ -\i^ 
luid -fam. Very numerous. 

Ex.: bte Danf^arfeit, Sitelfeitr ^eiterfeitf dxoi^Uit, ^rtuMidj/MU C^infamfelt. 
The derivation from adjectives in -ig is so common, that -Igfeit was looked 
upon as the suffix and adjectives in -M and 6aft only form nouns in this 
way : bie Cirloflgfclt, ©traflorisfcit, Sugcn^xftiflfelt, Jlranf^aftisfeit. In -ig-fcit ig 
has heen restored in many nouns, after it had helped form feit, e, g., 
ea^igfeit < 9ilezek€U ; (^wigfeit < etoecheit. See 488, 5. 

a, Mark the distinction sometimes made between noans in -Igtclt, -feit and -^It fh>m 
the same adj. ^i( ftleinigeeit = trifle, bie fttein^tt » litUeness ; bie iRcttigtett s a piece 
of news ; bie iReu^eit = newness ; bie IReinU^Icit, cleanliness ; bie Kein^cit, parity, 

8. -ri(ft + Eng. -ric, -ly < 0. H. G. rich + L, r^x, rigia^ forms a numher 
of proper names. Denotes ** powerful," "commanding." Ex.: ©utertc^, 
blood-thirsty person, tyrant ; griebrit^ + Frederic ; ^cinrt(^ + Henry ; ® e* 
gerid^, a plantain, lit. " ruler of the way." 

a. -xxif appears in the names for certain male birds. The oldest is (Snterid^ + drake < 
tndrake. This is certainly not identical with the above -HeA ; it may have been shaped 
after it on account of cmtreche^ O. H. O. an/roAAo, which cannot go back to -r(cA-. 


O&nfnU^ + gftnder, St&nBeti^, cock-pigeon, are N. H. G. fonns after Snterii^, < Oanfer, 
Xauber < (Sand, Staube. ^A^ntt^, ensign, < older G. venre, faneri, has -i^ by analogy. 
9&^nbrU!^ may be due to D. tfendrie (Wiegand) < Bfo^ne, flag. By folk-etymology . bee 
^cberi^, fh>m L. hederaeea, 

-vei^ comes under composition. 

4 -f(^aft -I- Eng. nship, shape <0. H. Q. ieqft, meaning character, being, 
creature ; itself a derlTative by t < G. T. Vskap, from which to shape, 
fd^affen* Forms mostly fem. abstract nouns and a few collectives. 

Ex.: tie Sreunbfc^fi -l- friendship ; ®raff(^ft, county ; fianbfd^ft -i- Ags. 
landnpe^ + Eng. landscape (acape due to D. and Norse influence) ; bie ®e' 
fanbrd^aft, embassy ; ^rieflerf^aftr priesthood ; S^ermnbfi^aftr relationship ; 
®efeflf(^afti company. 

5. -tum + Eng. -dom < O. H. G. tuom, M. and If. ; Ags. ddm JK +Eng. 
doom = judgment, law, dominion, power. It forms neuter nouns from 
nouns, but neuters and masculines from adjectives. The nouns are 
abstract, but many denote domain and place. 

Ex. : bad ^ergogtum -{- dukedom ; ltdm$tttm« -(- kingdom ; ^eibtntum, + 
heathendom ; ^eilidtumf sanctuary ; ber 3ntttm» error, Sletd^tum -{- riches. 

a. Mark a difllerence In meaning between noons derived by means of ^ett, f^ft, -torn 
from the same stem : bie (Sigen^eit, stnbbomness, pecoUarity ; bie Cigenf^ft, qnality; 
bad (Sioentum, property ; bie C^rifien^eit = Christendom ; bad G^rtflentum = Christianity ; 
bie Cfirgerf^aft, all the citizens ; bad Obrgertum, citizenship ; bie iEBeid^ + wisdom ; 
bad SBeidtum, statute. 

Debiyation of Nouns bt Mbans of Inseparablb Pbsfixes. 

516. The composition of nouns by means of independent parts of 
speech, such as prepositions and adverbs, will not be treated here except 
the composition by means of those prefixes, such as \z\, Ur^ etc., which re- 
tained the strong form under the noun-accent, but wore down to a weaker 
form in the verb accentuation and thus became " inseparable." For the 
principle of accent, see 421. Whenever the prefix of a noun is unac- 
cented and has weak form, the noun is not old, but it is late and derived 
from the verb, except in one case, viz., the prefix ge-y g^. 

This is really composition, bat wo treat of the subject here for convenience. 

1. 9 b e r- has the force, 1) of obtr- &ber# from Dutch = excessive. It is 
rare. jDct ^berglaube^ superstition, bie ^berad^t; "pracriptio superior;" 
Slbemt^, conceit, presumption, imbecility, is M. H. G. iAertoiUe, abewitae, 
in which aber = abe, ab. 0. H. G. dwiud. 


The force of again towaid, against It la depnelatlTe: bcr 9^^ 
iponbelr forfeit, back-sliding ; Uhttmmt, nick-name ; bic Vbcrfoat, Becond-aow- 
ing ; bcr VbcTfaifcr=(lk0cnIaifeo rival emperor. In thia aenae = after and 
both probahlj <qftdb -k- -or and -tor xeapectiveljr. 

2. 9 f t c r-+ Eng. after : not the first, not genuine, second, retro-, false : 
2>a« UftfxbUtU stipule (in botany) ; bie Xftarmufe, false muse ; bie Vflerfritifr 
false, second-hand criticism ; XftemcU = Ka^toclty posteritj ; Vft(nniete« 

8. 91 n t- + Eng. an-, a-, am- in answer, acknowledge, am-bassador, 
+ L. ante-, Gr. ** dvri" Force : against, opposite, in return, removal 

Ex. : bie 9ltttn)ortr+ answer ; bad 91mUt^ &oe ; bar 9ntlaj# absolution ; bad 
9imt, office, court < O. U. G. ambaht, Go. andbahti, and+bahto, a servant, 
Eng. ambassador, embassy < Romance forms < Low L. amhoita < O. 
H. G. anibaht. 

Unaccented it became rat (see 641). Xnt- has in some really old nouns 
given place to the ent- of verbs, 0^., ber dxapfa'n^ for older dntvane, 

4. ® e i-r h- rare as old prefix, but common in modem compounds, con- 
sisting of preposition + noun, + Eng. by ; in verbs U, + Eng. by-, be- < 
H,he; see Eluge. Perhaps related to Gr. dfi^ L. ambi. 

Ex. : ha^ 8eifpietr example < Mapd; bie 8ei(^te, confession < liihte < 
IngihU < hi + jehm; ber 8eif<^lafr cohabitation ; ber 8eifa§, + settler, un- 
naturalized comer ; S3eifugr wormwood. The weak unaccented form be« 
is very common in late derivatives from verbs. In M. H. G. appear the 
doublets bUraht — Setra'd^t ; Mgraft ^ begr6ft ; bteiht — beMt, 

6. 9 ft r- occurs only in one old noun, Qiirfpre^, mediator, attorney. In 
the 18th century f&r and por were used indiscriminately and a great many 
compounds now have IBor- only. Unaccented SSer- sub 11. 

6. (Erj-, -f- Eng. arch-, means chief, original, great- < V. L. arei- < Gr. 

Ex.: ber C^r)Mf(l^of+ archbishop; CErjtitgneTi a great liar ; CErjnarrr arrant 
lool ; (Erifpieler^ professional gambler. 

7. (^t-t 0-r the traces of its accent are difficult to find even in the oldest 
stages of the Germanic dialects, though there are some in Ags. (found by 
Eluge) and in Qo, There are none left in German. It is always unac- 
cented. < O. H. G. ga, gi. Its connection with L. cum, eon, is generally 
asserted, but is difficult to prove. Has intensive, generally collective 


force. Nouns of the form ®c— e# < gor^ are almost all nenter and yeiy 

Ex.: ber (S^Iasbe + belief ; ber ®efdle; ta« ®Uebr bie ®cbttlb» bit ®nab(; bie 
®efa^r ; bad ^b^e; ®etreibe; ©cMmetbe; ®merbe; ®ebirBe; ®c|dlse. ®- 
appears before !» r» n* 

8. 9)1 i g- + Eng. mis-. Force : negative, Mse, fidlnre. For its origin 
see 463, 1. In M. H. Q. still an adjective, now inseparable, always accented 
prefix. Only one compound with its derivatives retains muM-, viz., ^Xif" 
fet^t + misdeed. 

Ex : Very numerous : ber a)2i$bratt(^ bie WS^mXt^ ber aJKignang, ber W\^ 
wxx, ber aKiggriff. 

9. II r + Eng. or^ only in " ordeal " and ** ort," < older im, ur. Force : 
origin, great age, great-. Weak, unaccented form = er- in verbs and 
their derivatives, n always long except in UrteiL bad Urteil + ordeal ; ber 
Urfprung, bie Urfunbe; ber Urloubr ber Urgrogi^ater ; bie Urfati^ ; ber UrqueS. 

10. Utt + Eng. un-, of like force, privative, + L. »n-, Gr. ai>-, a-. 

Ex.: bie ttnart« ber Unbanfr bie Ungunfl^ ber Umoile. In nngef^r un- stands 
for o^n-, < An gewjsre, but in O^mnad^t* o^n stands for O^mo^t < dmaM, 
containing the obsolete H privative. 

11. S3eT-y fr- always in this weak form and unaccented like ®e-. 
Traces of early accent upon it very rare, none now, + Eng. for-. Bare 
in older nouns, very common in later nouns derived from verbs, see 616, 
< O. H. G./ar,Jlr. 

Ex.: beraJeTluft,btea5emunft,gre»)cI + AgB^frctfele; graf— freffett; Srad^t 
+ fraught, freight (see Eluge's Diet.). 

12. d e r occurs only in nouns derived from verbs. See therefore 646. 
Ex.: bie Berfhreuung^ derfli^rung. 

a. For trittel, Diertel, see 532, 2. dnnflfer, maiden <Jun^fhMV}ey daughter of a noble 
fiimily. SnnCer, yoimg nobleman + younker <junc4ierr. ^nndftau, virgiD, ie a modem 
compound. In anch words as 9(blet, SEBlmper» 92a^bar, @4fn1lcr, and many others, the 
second elements are no longer felt ; they are suffixes to all intents and purposes. 
See the dictionary for their derivation. 

Composition of Nouns. 

617. The second element is always a noun, in a few cases an adjective, 
but used as a noun. This noun always determines the gender and inflec- 
tion of the compound. The first element always has the primary accent 
the second the secondary accent. See 421 ; 424, 2, The first element may 


be any other independent part of speech, a noon, acUective, verb, adverb, 
or preposition. 

NouH + Noun. 

618. The relation of the component parts is syntactical ; the first ele- 
ment may stand in apposition to the second or it stands in csse-relation 
to it. 

In appoBition : boS ^mmclxci^r ^ GommeiaeU ; many names of plants and trees, 
bet apfetbaum, bie ^tbcttcere. 

In the G. relation : bet VusspfHr bet fttalg^fe^iw b4c ftu^mtt^. 

In the D. relation : bet CM^aftrant baft Xlntenf oft, b4c SUntllttiibc. 

In the A. relation, incladiug the objective Genitive : bet SBegwetfctf ^laoii/ Qatcta 

In the AUttlve relation of ori||[in, material, eanse : Mc gftcttbctit^t&ne, bet VBefhsinb, 
Ue eta^Ifebet. 

In the Lutr. relation, denoting Instmment, means, connection : bet ^u^^ittr bet 
^ttff^Iaa, bie ficimrute. 

In the Locative relatlan, denoting place, association, even time : bte ^a^fhibe, boC 
3a^n1lelf4, 3:a(|e»ei(r bet ^nMoIbat. 

a. The earliest method of combining the nouns was that of attaching 
the second nonn to the stem with its stem-suffix, that is, to the *' theme." 
The vowels of the stem-saffizes became e in M. H. G. or were lost. A 
later way was that of joining the second noun to the Genitive sg. or pL 
of the first noun. This way originated in the relation of noun and its 
dependent genitive. The sign of the G. eg. 9, t^ was then added also to 
feminine nouns, which of course were not entitled to it 

1. Stem + noun. ChmpasUion proper, 

a. With stem-suffix : btr Sagebie^ btr ^geborn^ bad Sageliebr bie SBabe^ 
rtife, ber ®r£utigam, bie ^ad^W^aU, bie Qkinfeblttme. See the examples with 
en sub 2, since en was originally stem-suffix. See 502, 1. 

b. Without stem-suffix. Very numerous : bet SBilbbiebr tad 3agb$oni# 
bad SBeltmeetr bad ®aTten^ud# bad $anbtt>erf. 

2. G. sg. or plural + noun. Secondary composition. Case-endings : 
(e)d> err en« en and er were also encouraged by the other cases in which 
they stood, e, g., N. and A. pi. and in the other cases of the sg. of masc. 
weak nouns. Indeed (e)d and (e)n were gradually looked upon as connect- 
ing elements between two nouns and crowded out many compounds of 
proper composition. 

Ex.: bad ^onntagdneib, bad Sirtd^ud^ ber £anbed(en; ber ^^'ufenocrlaufr bie 
itinberle^rerbie^^nnemiirbe; ber S^ren^ortr bad 9reubenfefl» bie S3(umenlefe» ber 
yolmenbaum^ 8eigenbaum» ber (£t(^m9alb> ber Sternen^immel. 


8. d between fern, noon + noon. This began as early as the 12th cen- 
tuiy. -d is a favorite after nouns in t, particularly after the suffixes -it 
-(eit {ttit), -fi^ft and -ung ; and the foreign nonns in -ion and -tdt. 

Ex.: ber (^eburtdtag; bie ^rei^^ltebe, ^cimatdlicbe ; bcr Steunbfc^fidbote; 
bad ^ofTnungdgl&df (G.) ; ber SBei^nac^ldmamu ber ^oc^ititdtag ; bad SXintond" 
blatt, bie Uni^erfltdtd^Qe, ber Siebedbrief. 

Adjegtiyb + Noun. 

518. The adjective appears without stem-suffix, but see 622. The 
relation of adjective and noun is that of an attribute or of apposition. 

Ex.: bie ®uttbatr bie 9Beibna(|t, ^0(^}eit; ber Sangbetn, ber !Rittfe)tt>o4; bie 
3Rtttfaflen; bie Sungfrauy bte (S^clbfu^tr bie iturstDeil; ber ®roginaul; ber S^ofe" 

1. In many compounds the adjective is used as noun and is then in- 
flected, generally in the weak G. pi.: bie S3ltnben^, bie Xaubfhtmmeiianlialt, 

2. There is a small group of compounds in which the union of the 
elements is not intimate and the adjective is inflected^^^., bie fia^igcipe'ilef 
£a'ngn>ei'le ; ^o^ert^rie'flerr ber ^o^prie'fltr; <l)e)eimerrat> ein (S^e^eimerrat (but 
also uninflected ber, ein ®e(einiratX 9R^tlttnailft is a secondary compound 
for the older fnUna?U + midnight. For their accent, see 422, 1. 

620. 1. NUMEBAL + NOXTN. 

Ex.: ber Ibxtxfai, bad Sieredf, bie Stnbeere, ber dtocifam^fr ber Btoiebatf, bad 
B»icU(^t + twilight, bad ©iebengeflirn, bie Crflgebnrt. 

2. Advkkb + Noun. 

Many of them are formed from compound verbs. 

Ex.: bie 9Bo^U^at, bie ^erhtnft, ber ^ingangr bie SBoHufi, bie 9u§enibelt, bie 
9it(i^tanerfenttttttg (= non-), bie 5lbart, ber 5tbgott, ber (Kingang. 

8. Prbsposition + Noun. 

The majority are formed from compound verl)s. But not a small 
number are made directly of preposition + noun. 

Ex.: bie STnjabtr ber 9lmbo§» bie ^nfprai^e, ber ^ufgang» ber SBetname, berSei^ 
tragi bie 3)nr4fabrt» ber ^urcbbruc^i ber Brftroi^ or ^orwi^r bie (S^egengabe, bie 
^interlifl, ber 3nbegriffi ber !fRinnenfd^r ber fRa^hmmt, bad 9{ebengeb&tbe, bie ^it^ 
berlage, bad Obbaii^, ber OberfeHner, bie Dberbanb, bie ftberma(btr ber Umfreid, ber 
Unterfa^, bie ttnterwelt, bie »ortt>elt, ber ffiiber»iae, ber 3nname, bad 3v>i^d^\tl 


4. Vbrb + NOUK. 

Very numerooB. A few with the oonneeting vowel -t, which repre- 
sents the saffix-vowel of weak verbs, older 6, S. 

Ex.: ber Gpur^unb^ ber @mg«OdeU bit G^Teibfeber^ bad Zt\tH^, ber £ebe' 
ntantii bie dlrifelttflr ber ScUfhrn. (See below.) 

a. Oflthoff (see his Verbum in der Nominal Om^ntUUm) has proyed that these eom- 
ponndB are not prlmitlTe In the I. E. langoagee, but that they are originally com- 
poanded of noim + noun, in which the first noon was felt to be, on aoooant of its steni- 
Bofflx, a Yerb-steni, and this led to the formation of many compounds, in the Qermanic, 
Oreek, Slavic and Romance langnageB, by analogy. Thus fiellflcni, + lode-etar, does 
not come ftom letten and 6tem, though meaning ,,Ieittnbcr Gteni," but < M. H. G. 
leUegtem, in which teUe + lode is a noon = guidance, direction. 

521. Compounds of more than two words. The accent 
deserves here special attention, see 421; 424, 3. 

1. Three words, but only two parts: bar ^ei'ratda^iitrag» ber SRi'tgliebdfc^^nr 
bieDa'm^f-fcbi'^a^rt^ steam-navigation, bat5Da'ml»ffd^iH<^^(rtf steamboat-ride; 
ber 9e'IbittB«-))la'n# ber $a'nb»erf^u'rfc^e» bie Se'bendverflibentng^'eefe'afii^ft. 

2. Four words and more. These are not common, much rarer than 
is generally supposed. ObeT))o(i)el'0er{(btdprdftbe^nt# ^taa'tdfcbulbentilgungd' 
fommifflo^td^ureaUf office of the commission for the liquidation of state- 
debts ; @tei'nIo^lenbe^rgn>erf» ©eneralfelbmarfd^aO. 

a. To get a quick surrey of such a word, « ought to bo inserted once at least in the 
first and second words and the last words might begin with a capital as in English. 

b. The capacity of German for forming such compounds is generally exaggerated and 
that of English underrated. The custom of writing these long nouns as one word is 
very bad. We might just as weU write them so in Bng., e, g,^ ^irHnsuraneeeompany't- 
0^, and we should have the same compound. Ofiicial language, certain schools of 
phUoBophy and the newspaper are the miUn sources of such monstrosities. Moreover, 
the composition exists only for the eye. When we speak we do not divide according 
to words ; we speak in breath-groups, see Sweet^s Hdhlc, p. 86-. 

8. Similar to the compounds in 520, 4, are such whole phrases as Ste'H' 
bi(4ei\i, rendez-vous; Xl^'nif^tgu^t^ ne'erdowell; Xatt'getti^cbtdf goodfor- 

Derivation of Adjectives. 

The comparison of adjectives, and the past participles come really under this head, 
but see 438 and 468, !• 

622. ADjEcrnvES Formed by Ablaut. 

These may be called primitive. See 496. They fit into the ablaut- 


series just as snbstantiv-es and verlxi do. All have lost stem-sufBxes 
except the jo-stems, still recognizable by the omlaat and generally by 
the final e. 

Ex.: reifr fleif* bUf ; lith, tief ; blinbr W, Wn, Uffu, bumm. With -t : 
enge, ia^Cr raSibt, U\t, trage. 

ADJBcnTBS Derived bt Suffel 

623. 1. -el, see 499, roots generally obscure: eitel -(- idle; evil, 

fibcl; cbel(+ Athel-, Ethel) ; bunfeL 

2. -e ntr see 601, rare. Ex.: toaxrn -f warm. 

8. e r < -or, ~r, rare, same as ar of noons in 607, 8. Ex.: tvadfer + 
watchfdl, brave ; bitter + bitter ; l^eitetf lavittt, fd^oanger; fidget < L. aeeunu. 

524. -en, -n, see 502. Very freqnent and of various 
sources, + Eng. en, n. 

1. e n < O. H. G. an, in a few words of doabtfdl origin. 

Ex. : eben + even; fleiiw small + clean ; grfin + green ; f(biln + sheen ; 
fent + &r ; rein < Vhrl. It is late in albent < aitoofret lit|ienw fc^u(^tem« 
from a4i. in -er, < -ni, -jyo. 

2. < tn, in. Denoting material, " made of." 

Ex.: golben for older gttlben + golden ; toollen + woollen ; feibeiw silken ; 
jilbertt + silver; Icbern + leather. 

8. ern<n-(-er, dne to the influence of er in such nouns as <Silberr 
Seber and of er in the ploraL Ck>mpare -lerr ner in nouns, see 600, 4. 

Ex. : |le!ttem# of stone ; tl4<if«ni + flaxen ; t^anem, of day ; ^Sljeni, wood- 
en ; ttfici^tem (?), sober. 

4. e tt < on, »n < G. T. -nd in all strong past participles. Some fifty 
or sixty of these stand now " isolated," that is, separated from the verb 
still extant or the verb is obsolete. See 468, 1. 

Ex.: elgen + own VIL CI., gebiegen I. CI. (old doublet of gebiejen), pure ; 
befc^eiben VII. CI. (old doublet of be^^en L CI.), modest ; gelegen, conven- 
ient (verb obsolete) ; fterlegen, embarrassed (v. obsolete); erbabenVLCl. 
(doublet of erboben), lofty ; beritten I. CI., mounted ; offexi (?), open ; troifcn 

+diy,< Vdrftk. 

525. 1. -ifi, + Eng. -y, represents now both older -ee, 
-ac and -ic. See 489, 5. 


The omlaat ooold oocnr only in the a^)^^^® which had Ac It ia a 
living suffix and new adjectivea are atill being formed with it from any 
part of speech except verbs. 

Ex.: trourtg/ (l]itig# ffinfi^ 0ftltig# flMltis» gcmalHg; late formations : ^utig» 
(ieflgr o^ig, bortig. For fcUg, see 628, 2, a. 3Xaiu^ -(- many, < manec. Its 
4 for g is L. G. (?). 

2w ig + li4 = {gH(!(» once very common and attached whore there 
was no -eCy -io. It is now rather adverbial, see 664, 2, and rare in ad- 
Jectiyes, &,g^ cnKgli^r gn^bigll^. 

3. -i (i^ t < -eU, -o?U, -ohti, is more common in adjectiyea 
than in substantives. See 509. 

a. -ig and -id^t famish doublets, sometimes with a distinction in force. 
i4t with i must he due to -ig with i, as it is very late. 

Ex.: flcini^t + stony, itari^t, foolish, ntUWdiU foggy, H^tli^t, prickly. 
-i(^t implies only a sUght resemblance : dli^tf slightly oily — 6Ug« oily. 

4. -i f (^r -fi^ + Eng. ish < older -isk^, implies a bad sense in contrast 
with ~U4# as in Eng. ish and like. See 614. 

Ex.: finbifd^ + childish, finbUd^ + chUdlike; (£it(e)rif(^ + boorish, hSntt^ 
lidi, rustic ; denotes origin : )^reug{f(^ + Prussian ; bairif^ + Bavarian. 
Corresponds to -ieua in adjectives derived from L. : !omif((# logif<^f pi^H^ 
logifd^. See 614. 

6. -^ nb in the present participle, see 463 ; 606. 

6. -(e) t, the past participle, see 468, 1. 

But notice those that we no longer feel as partidples : toU IxoU UHU 
etc. Later formations : ixaviU {art 

526. Adjectives derived by the nominal snfiSxes -bar, 
-"^aft, -lid^ and -fam, which were once independent nonns 
(see SIS). For accent^ see 424, 1, 6. 

1. -b a t < M. H. G. bcBre < O. H. G. bdri, < the root of the verb gebfiren + 
Eng. bear. Should have become -Uxt which really occurs in living dia- 
lects, but the levelling was in favor of the full form. Ck>mpare L. 
-fer-, Or. ^opoc, 

a. In meaning it corresponds to Eng. -able, -ibie, -ful. It means : 
bearing, producing, capable of, and is attached only to nouns and verbs. 


The onlj adjective to which it is attached is offtahafx, with the accent of 
the verbs oftnha'xtn, oe^'iren. 

Ex. veiy numeions: tTernibaT^ separable; ^Max, audible; haxHtbax, 
grateful; e^rbar, honorable. Ux'hax < M. H. G. urbor^ has the weak 
ablaut like the L. and Gr. forms given above. 

2. -^ a f t, a participle either from the root of fyAttt + have, 
or L. capere, cc^us (Kluge). 

a. It denotes " possessing," " similar to-/' *' approaching-." In mean- 
ing it corresponds frequently to Eng. -y ( + G. tg), -fnl, -ly. It is attached 
to nouns, adjectives and verbs and is sometimeB increased by -ig. 

Ex. numerous : fe^ler^aft + faulty ; fd^bl^ftr harmfd] ; le^^fl + lively ; 
fpag^aft, funny ; tt>a'^T^fir# toa^r^'ftig, truthful, true : f^uI^T^ft + scholar- 
like, boyish ; meifler^ft + masterly ; leib^ftigf bodily, incarnate. 

3. -It d> < M. H. Q. ZicA < O. H. G. lich, + Ags. -Zfc + 
Eng. ly, later again "like. 


Originally an adjective, occuring only in compounds, but derived from 
the subst. Ags. ZCc, O. H. G. ^ = body, form. 

a. In both laDgoages its earliest meaning is " like ** or *^ similar to,'* then " appro- 
priate,*' " adapted,** finally it became very frequent and often withont particular force. 

b. The umlant generally precedes -li^, bnt Is not prodnced by it It started origi- 
nally in stems with i suffix and spread by analogy. This la the most frequent snfOx 
and attached to sabstantiYes, adjectives, and verba. 

Ex. g5Uli(i^» godlike ; ritterlid^, Ghivalrous ; tranli^, familiar, devoted ; 
fro^U^f merry + frolic ; flerblid^, mortal; be^rrli($, persistent ; (egrelfltd^r 
comprehensible ; erl&auUd^f edifying ; glaubUd^^ credible. For -iglid^ see 
662, 2. 

c. er in leferli^, ffivt^terli^, etc., is due to analogy. These lengthened forms havo 
crowded out the proper old forms \t%\vSi, ffir^tli^. In certain acfjectives the ending 
has been mistAkon for -ig, and the spelling has followed this notion, abcftg, biSig^ 
ttnj&blid l^^o the Bnfflz -lit^, bnt cannot now be corrected. aSiiiil^lit^ is the official 
spelling, though frequently aEma^ng is met with < oUgemad^r gentle, manageable. 

4. -fa m < older samy originally a pronoun ( +Eng. same), 
+ Ags. -ewwi, + Eng. -some^ + Gr. bnog, + L. stm-Uis. 

It denotes originally identity, similarity, but has now no particular 
force, unless it be capacity, inclination. 

Examples not so nnmerous, the suffix has lost ground. 


Ex.: einfam + Eog. lonesome ; lattsfam, dow ; 9Ciiic{iifam# oommon ; ax* 
Uit^am, indaBtriooB ; ^eilfam + wholesome ; graufam, erael, + graeeome. 

-^eU, + ful, -to4 + leas, oome under oomposliion, though In £og. they 
might oome under this hesd. 

For -fa^y -faUig#-fSlttg, see the numerals 631, 1. 

Derivation of Adjeotiyes by Preflzei. 

527. The prefixes in substantives have the same force and 
accent when attached to adjectives, but only aber, er^^, ge-, 
un-, ux- form immediate compounds. Adjectives with the 
other prefixes are derived from substantives, verbs, etc Ex.: 
a'berKug, e'^faul, ^ttctn', u'miH^, u'ralt, etc. 

Composition of Adjectives. 

628. The second element is always an adjective or participle. The first 
element may he any part of Epeech and stands In the same relation to the 
second as it does in a compound noun. Accent and form of the first ele- 
ment are also the same. Some old past participles without ge^ are pre- 
served in composition, 0. g., trunfettr hadtn, in toonnetrunfttt, intoxicated with 
delight; ^audkcfen + homebaked, homely. 

1. ADjBcrrvB 4- Adjecttve. 

Ex.: toUfft^n* bummbreifl ; bunfelblau; (o<i^iniitie < ^0(^mttt(see 2, h); hUu* 
£ugig# rotb&tfig. 


Ex.: totfranir *frei'be»eigr *goI^dtIb« litMhantt mmttmUtu *maufttot» 
^erlei^tf licbMoU, gfban!mreid6» ^offnungdlo^r freubeletTf t»ttMt\^, ^9tf^xift^* 
mdgigf aintd»ibrig# *b(utiungr (ulbreidbr *feirenf(ft In those with * the noun 
expresses a comparison and has often intensive force. Notice -rclc^^ Iod# 
i^oH have almost become suffixes. 

a. Adjectives in -fclig are of double origin. 

1. The real adjective felig < BttU, + soul, as in gliidfeligf Ieutfclig# gottfelig. 

2. felig < fal (see 600, 1) + ig t mftKe^* triibfelig, faumfelig < ^Hm^ 
Sriibfair etc It does not belong here at all. 

b. A large class of adj. do not come under this head, e. g,^ ^off&rtig, e^rgei^ig; many 
in -fft^tig/ as monbfftt^tis/ fi^nlnbffl^tig. They are derivatiyes of the compound noons 
^offol^Tt ( < AMvaH, ch and f asaimUatad), iKRoabfu^t, (Sl^vgtii. 


8. Pronoun + Adjbctivb. 

Ex.: felbfhebenbr felbflficnugfamr fclbfilo^r etc, only with felbfl-. 

4. Verb + Adjective. 

Ex.: tt>i§begiengf benffaul; many with -tottt and -mftrbtg : banfendtoertr 

6. Numeral + Adjectiye. 

Ex.: eindugigf irodtdi^, jtoeifc^netbtgr erflgebortn^ d'ngeboren# only child. 

6. Adverb + Adjectivb. 

Ex.: (od^gepriefmr aU~, frtfd^/ nm-hadta, T»9ilftil, tool^Igeborm. 

7. Preposition + Adjectives. 

Ex. : an^eif(^ig, eiiti^eimifc^f eingeboreitr native, + inborn ; aHetb, iabttfln^, 
W'xntt^m, tt'ntert^iu *)o'rlaut. ffirlle'b does not belong here, fur = kr, maU", 
aU \xtf> amte^metw anfef^n. Compare iufric^eitr at peace, content. 

DerivatioxL of Hmnerala 

520. dtoet is probably an old dnal. Qxown < zw^ has the distribntive 
suffix ni,+ Eng. twain, twin, + L. hini. With j»o fem., < older ztcd, zwo, 
compare M. Eng. twa, two, also feminine. The numerals, as far as 10 
incl., can be easily compared with the cognates of other languages accord- 
ing to Grimm's and Y erner's Laws, elf and jtoelf contain perhaps a stem 
liky ten, that appears in Slavic. They come from older eirUif, zudif. eilf 
is archaic. As to gtodlf for %tat% common in N. H. G., see 488, 1. 

1. The ending -jig, < zug + Eng. -ty, differs originally ftom geljn in 
accent, jel^n < I.-E. ^deknif L. decern. See Vemer's Law. 

2. <&unberti + hundred, is compounded of hund+ra;th- ; the latter from 
the same stem as SRebCr Go. ra(hjan, to count, hund alone means 100, 
compare L. centum, Gr. Uarov according to Vemer's Law. Bee further 
Kluge's Diet. S^aufenb < older tilsunt, a fem. noun. It is not an I.-E. 
numeral like all the others. Boot doubtful. 

530. The suffixes for the ordinals are really the superlative suffixes 
-to, -sta Only German and Icelandic use Hsto. jtoett- only sprang up in 
the 15th century. Instead of it was used, as in all Germanic dialects, anbfr 
+ other, a comparative in -ter. Comp. L. dUer, anber has not quite died 
out. Comp. jum erflen^ jum anbern unb jum britten 9Rale, still used at auction. 
9l(^ ®oU! toie bod^ mem erflcr tt>ar, flnb^ i(^ ni(i^t leid^t auf biefer SBelt ben anbentr 
S. 2992-8. onbert^alb^zone and a half ; felbanber=lit. himself the second. 


i,e, , two of them, of ub, britt- baa the ahort vowel of the atem '* thriu" 
Btill in the neater 0. and M. H. G. driu. tt < dd < 4j aa in Qo. ihru^fa, 
Ags. thridda, + L. ter-ti-us, ber ^unbcrtflc waa in O. H. G. uhantogSdo, 
teharutug being the other word for 100 ; really '* ten tena." For crjl# It^U 
S&rfl, aee 438, 2. 

Numeral DerlTatiYM and Compoimdi. 

631« From cardinals. 


Suffixes -fa^r -faltig* e.g,, breifa((, ^\ttfa^, »ietfa((» In O. H. G. -fa4 ia 
only noun, -fa^ expresses a certain number of parte, diviaions, = 
i»9£4tT*'' -faltf-faltigf fSlHg + -fold, expresses also variety besides q nan tity. 
It comes from the same stem as the verb fatten + fold, and is quite old. 
-fait is archaic now. boppeU+ double, ia < French, t ia "excrescent" ; 
in compounds t does not appear : DoppelableT^ Doppclddnger* 

gn>ic- in |n>iefa(^» gmiefSltigf comes itom older et^i, +Gr. d<-, L. H-, 

2. Iteratiybs : 

-mat, rare -jlunb^ ei'nmal gtt>ei'mal« brei'mair maiu&mal ; tivmoJl, " once 
npon a time." -mal is the noun ^a^l+meal, O. H. G. mdl. Notice ^aUx^ 
mal{€y*, once more, adverb mdhtx" = "again;" ein(maO f&r aOemaU wdni" 
+ " once/' is seemingly the neuter N. or Aoc., but it is a Gen. < older 
" eines," form which einfl with excrescent t, + once, ** oust." mtbM" is now 
rare and so is ^fhinb." Uhland has vaQfiu'nb" = all the time. @tttnb and 
Wb are isolated now ; mal is plaral, being neuter (aee 176). 

S to i e Tr now rare, comes from older innro, twirSr (r < ?) 

632. From the ordinals: 

1. Adverbs like erllendf imittn^t etc, see 666, 2. 

2. Fractions by -tel < ZtiU Drittel, ^ittttl, Sfitnftel, one t is lost in 
writing, Stoanjigflel. They are neuter, of course. irDritteil^ the full form 
is now archaic. wStoeitel" has not come up on account of the late origin of 
irgmeite," wanbert^alb" is used, see 228. Notice ber QtoMi^tt, next to the 
last ; ber Drittlej^te, third from the end. 

See also syntax, 226-228. 

633. Vabiatiybs are formed by -lei < M. H. G. leie, fem. meaning 
'* kind," probably < Romance. The numeral preceding it is inflected like 
an adjective, matu^erlei (G.), ticlerlei ; idiererlei^ four kinds, etc. But the com- 
pound is invariable. 


Deriyation and CompositioiL of Verbs. 

534. Ab primitiTe are r^[ftrded all Btrong yerbe except pteifen, f^eiSen, which art 
foreign, and a large nomher of weak verbs, which are either very old, each slb ^aBen, 
fragen, or they are those whose origin is obecore or whose stem no longer appears in 
other primitive parts of speech, e. g.^ ^olen, ^offcn. All other weak Terhe are derivatives 
except the originally strong that have become weak, «. ^., noUen/ ma^len, hthtn, (see 
Kl.). They are derived from other parts of speech by means of c» the connecting 
Towel representing older i, ^, ^, which unites Uie verbal inflections with the root or 
with those words from which the verb is derived. (This e may drop oat.) The con- 
necting vowel i or j ( < Jo) produced nmlant, which, since the J dass was l>y far the 
largest of the three dasaes of weak verbs, was soon used throng analogy as a com- 
mon means of deriving verbs after nmlant had ceased to work. Besides the yowel t, 
there occnr certain secondary snfllxes, some of which have a pecnliar force. 

535. 1. Deriyatioii with mnlaut dne, a, either to an old i 
or^ h, to aoalogy, or, c, to the fact that there was an nmlant 
already in the nonn-stem. 

a, A large number from strong verbs of the 11., HI., IV., V., VI. ab- 
laut-series with the strong ablaut, ».«., with the vowel of the pret. sing.« 
and from the reduplicating verbs with the vowel of the infinitive, 
e,g., flogen < fliefctt, flo§, seffoflctt Kf^an < *fl6tjan, to cause to float, IL; 
ftnfen < flnfrn» fan!, gefunfeiu < senken < *sanl^n, to cause to sink. III.; 
S^l^men + tame < eemen <*zamjan^ this < eemen, IV., now a weak verb 
gicmen; Icgen < lit^tn, lag, gelegtn, < *lagfan-^hLj, V.; fu^ren < fasten, fulfx, 
gefal^ren < vfkren < fuorjan^ VI., to cause to go, to lead ; faSeiK fatten, ^, 
gefaarn, < M. H. O. fellen < *falljan, to cause to fall, + fell ; fur^ten < 
gurd^t ; W^mm < lajm; tSten < tot ; trdflen < *tr6ttjan < trost + trust. 

h. vPd^ < ^flug, brdunen < haun; i^fnen < S^^n; b&ffen < baff! ; rdumeit 
< 0launi ; fiffnen < offen, 

e. 0ritttett < grutt ; trubcn < trflbc. 

Bern. 1. If the strong verb is intransitive then the derivative is transitive or 
cansative ; if transitive, then the derivative is intensive or iterative, «. g., fd^uxmmen < 
fd^ioimmen, to cause to swim ; fe^en < ^n, to cause to sit ; Uizn, to pray, < Bitten (!), 
to ask for. Tbe same principle prevails in English : to fall — to fell, to lie — to lay, to 
drink — to drench. 

Bern, 3. j (or i) has caused certain changes in the final consonants of the stems 
hecause these were doubled before the **lautver8chiehnng,*' and when doubled they 
shifted differently from the single consonants. For Instance in metfen — n>a^en, beifen 
— ®a<^, if <kk < kj, but t^^ <k; in ifeen — effen, Beiicn — bei^en, f^nifeen — f^ncibeti, 
V<K« — *«!' J/ (» < tt, tj, hut ^ < t. Shnilarly fiispfen (for f<^epfcn) — fi^affen ; ^enfen — 
^angen, compare Bng. henchman ; Mcgen — Bfltfen ; f^^miegen — f^mftifen ; gefc^e^n — 
fil^iif en. Compare also Bng. drink — drench ; stink — stench. 


2. DeriTation by e without nmlaai 

These are late or if old, absenoe of umlaut ia doe to the &ct that cer- 
tain vowels did not sufibr nmlaut in certain positions or that the con- 
necting Towel was 6 or 6. 

Ex.: Ba^nen < IBa^iu fu§cn < dui, atfern < 9(fer« formcn < Sorm, altmi< 
9Uer» Older are Uttii<bet6n < beUi, prayer ; faffcn < faff6n < fof; faflm 
< fasten < fasta; bulbtn < diilten < duU, Notice the difference between : 
brtt(fen» to print, hrMttit to press ; hanfnif to be HI, frdnfen» to grieve ; toaU 
iettf to roll, technical as in a rolling-mill, m^l^au to roll, revolve ; crfaUcii# 
to grow cold — txUlttn, to take cold. 

536. Derivation by e preceded by a saffix, but e drops oat 
after ( and r» 

1. -4 cttf intensive force, rare: (or(^en» listen + hearken < (drtn + hear; 
f4iiar(i^ + snore < fc^narren. 

2. -eln^ always preceded by umlaut if attached to other 
Yerb& It is also attached to substantives and adjectives. 

It has intensive, iterative force and, from association with the noun- 
sufl^, diminutive and hence derisive force. Numerous in N. H. G. on 
account of the many nouns in -e(. Qenerally umlaut. 

Ex.: l6etteItt+beg(Y)< Utm, Wttn, pray, ask ; fd^meid^eln^ flatter < fc^tnei^ett 
(rare), smooth ; \&Mn, smile < Ia(^en+ laugh ; hdnfeln^ be sickly < hanfcn, 
be ^ok ; fraf!eln» to feel chilly < Qfrofl; liebeln* to dally < liebeiw licb; fr9m^ 
mtln, cant < fromm^ pious; $anbeln» to trade < ^n^» 

537. 1. -ttCtt + Eng. -n, on (rare). 

Ex.: Menem from the same stem as ^e- in jDemut; lemen < the same 
stem as le^ren; re(i^nen < O. H. G. rehhanSn, + Ags. recenian; roamtn, + 
warn, < same stem as toa^ren (?) ; toerbammenr + condemn, also contains 
-tt < M. H. G. verdamnen, but < L. damnare. Compare jeic^nctt < Seic^en 
+ token, regnen < SRegen + rain, in which n belongs to the noun, see 602. 

2. -em, + Eng. -r, has intensive, iterative, and causative 
force. Barely preceded by umlaut ; not unfrequent both in 
Eng. and German. 

Ex. : gti^ern + Eng. glitter, < glitzen < gW^en; ftimweni < flimnien; 
gUmmem+Eng. glimmer <glimmen; ftottem< L. G. Bt5tem< Bt5ten,+H. G. 


flo§en, + Eng. statter ; s5gent < eogen < |ic^n ; fUteni + Age. sieerian, to 

a. Noons both sg. and pL , adjectives and their oomparatiyes in -er have 
started many of these verbs, e, g., faubem# tsmiUxn, bldttmi# rdbertu drgenK 
arg; forbentr to promote, forbern# to demand. 

538. ~i e r e n^ -ixtn, of Bomance origin^ always accented, 
at first only in borrowed words, and then added to German 

Ex.: Foreign words : faQtertn + fail, rcgittnt + reign, fbibieren + stndy, 
]^antteren# trade (rather from French hanter than from ^avb, see Kloge). 
German stems : l^uflerenf peddle ; floUicrcttf strut ; falbieren. In Goethe's 
Faust : irrU^telieren* 

a. These were formed as early as M. H. G. in no small nombers, bat were most 
nnmeroas during the ThLr^ Tears* War and the first half of the 18th century. Now 
they are excluded, except the oldest of them, from elevated style. These verbs are 
very numerous in the Journals. 

639. 1. -f e n, -c f e n, + Eng. s, < O, H. G. -ison. Rare both 

in English and German. 

Ex.: grinfen, + grin, < greineiw, M. H. G. grinen; grauftn < O. H. G. 
gruwiMm < stem grd, G. graufantr ®T&tteI, + gruesome, grapfen + Eng. 

a. -fen is hidden in gei)cn < gitsen < gUiwn < sahst gU, Compare 
Eng. cleanse < clean, --fen stands for -sen in gatffeit < gageen, mucffen < 
M. H. G. muchzen. 

2. -f<^ en. This is of double origin : 1) From -fen, see 490, 1, b : 
Jerrfd^en < htrsen < herison < ^crtr herro; feilfdjen < veiUen < feil. 

2) From Hsk, L. «c, + Eng. sh, forfcjen < foraken ; perhaps in Jafcften 
< *haf8k6n, if that comes from a stem haf-. For moro examples, see 

8. -^en < older Hseen. Has sometimes iterative and intensive 

Ex.: btt^en^ ifirjen, erjen, to call thou, yon, he ; ^d^^en < ac^r to groan; \^ 
}enr to thirst, < le6hen + leak ; fenfjen < aiufzen, from the same root aa 
faufen; f($lu(4ien# to sob, M. H.G. Awdkz&n. < fd^lutfen. 

a. -enjen in faitlenacn < faulf is due to the influence of L. noons in -eniia. 


4. -i g e n. This is a Beoondarj safflx, starting with verhs derived from 
adjectives in -ig (see 625), e,g,, ttftrbificn < ©firbig, notigcn < ndtig. It was 
felt to be a verbal suffix, hence : enbigen < dtvS^t, frcusigcn < Stxtuy rcinigm 
< Tcin# (ulbigen < ^ulb* Quite numerous. 

Yebb Formation bt Means of Inseparable Pbefizbb, viz.: 
be-, en t-, e x-, g e-, » e x-, j-, | e r-. Always unaccented. 

540. 6 C-, b- before I, + Eng. be-. See 33ci-, 616, 4. 

1. SB e- has lost nearly all local force of *'by/* "near," "around," 
which is felt still in Uif&n^tn, cover by hanging, bef4neiben# cut on all 
sides, to trim, but in these it approaches already its common force, which 
is intensive : bebauen, befragen, begebrenr berit^reiw bebetfem berufen. 

2. It makes intransitive verbs transitive : faffen— befallen + befall ; reifen 
(in cittern fianbe) — ein Canb bereilcn, travel all over a country; fajren auf et».» 
but etUHid befabren. This is its most frequent use. 

8. In verbs from noun-stems it denotes " provide with," "make": 
befcbuben* provide with shoes ; htoolkxn, populate ; befreunben + befriend ; 
betrilbettr make sad ; befldrfenr confirm. Notice certain participial adjec- 
tives which have no corresponding verb, e. g., be(eibt» corpulent ; betagt, 
" full in years ; " belefenr well read ; or they are isolated from the verb, e.g., 
befcbeiben, modest ; bef!allt» holding an office ; bef($affenr conditioned. 

4. It has privative force still in benebmettr to take away ; fl(( begeben 
(with G.), to give up. Compare Eng. behead and M. H. G. hehouheten, 
for which now entbdupten. N. H G. bebau^ten strangely represents M. H G. 
Miaben and heheben, for which once hekovJben, to maintain, assert. 

541. c n t-, e m p- before f, < 0. H. G. in^. See ant-, 516, 3. 

Its force is : 1. " Opposite," " in return ; " in entvfeblen^ reconmiend ; 
empfangen# receive ; entgelten^ pay back, restore ; see sub. 3. 

2. Contrary, '* against," privative, " away from : " entgelten» suffer for ; 
entfagen^ renounce; entblnben* deliver; entfleben^ to lack (but see below); 
entbecfettr entlaufen. From nominal stems : entgleifen^ run off the track ; 
enttl^Tonettr dethrone ; entt^dlfern^ depopulate. 

8. " Transition into," inchoative " springing from," " out of : " entfleljen* 
spring from, arise ; entbrennen^ to take fire, break out ; entfcblafettr fall 
asleep. A quite common force. 


542. er- < 0. H. G. ir, ar + Eng. a-, see 516, 9. 

Force: 1. "Out from," ''upward": er^e^n# arise; cme<Ien# awaken; 
erforf^ettf find out ; erfUtbeiv to invent. 

2. Transition into another state, inchoative like cnt- : erfaltem grow 
cold ; erblu^ hloom ; erbcbcn, tremhla Many from a^jectiveB : crtronfem to 
fall ill ; erMinbeiu to become blind. 

8. Completion and success of the action : criageitr txltiUXn, to obtain bj 
huDtinpf, by begging ; very frequent* Compare Eng. arise, abide. 
In certain forms : only pret. erflar(# past part, erlogcn^ erpi^t* 

543. t-f fl- before 1, see 516, 7, + Eng. a-. 

Force : 1. " Together " only in few verbs like : fiefrierov congeal ; gcrin* 
nen# curdle ; 0e^oren# to belong ; geleitem accompany ;*0efalIcnr to please. 

2. Frequentative and intendve : geloben# g^(n!en» debiettn» and finally no 
force at all as in the past participle and in verbs like : gebei(en# gelttflcln# 
gmefen# gcnieSen* Numerous past part from nominal stems, with the force 
of ** provided with/' see 640, 4: gefhefebi in boots; geflimtr disposed; 
0e(lirnt» + starry. 

544. m i §-, + Eng. mis-, as to its force, see 516, 8; as to 
its origin, 453, 1. 

Ex. : mi§glfi(fcn# to fail ; ini§(oreiu to misunderstand ; miSdoimeiw to grudge. 

545. »cr-; fr-; < ver, far^ fir^ Go. fra, fr, + Eng. for-. 

Very frequent. 

Force : 1. ' Through," " to the end," intensive, " too much : " ueTlimtt, 
+ lose, + forlorn ; ijergeben + forgive; ijeraUeru grow antiquated ; ^ergraten, 
hide by burying ; terbergerir hide ; Jjerjlnbem, prevent ; uerfd^lafen, + sleep 
too long; toerfomnten, to deteriorate; "^ttll^tti, fade; i9eTiagm» despair; i^er^ 
flud)en« curse ; terlaufetw scatter ; freJTot, to eat (used of animals). 

2. The opposite, the wrong, a mistake : i^erfaufciw t>erbietot» verfii^reii; 
i^erlegen + mislay, but also (sub. 1) to publish (a book) ; )>eTbauen# build 
wrongly ; ^6) »erlaufcn, lose the way ; flc^ »er^3ren» to mishear ; fld^ »crgret' 
fettr to get hold of the wrong thing ; (fid)) tergebetu to misdeal (in cards). 

3. Waste and consumption of the object : )>crMuen» use up in building 
(see sub. 4) ; terfaufen^ waste in drinking ; toerfpieleiti lose, gamble away. 

4. From nominal stems : i* change into," " give the appearance of," 
"bring about a certain state of," e.g., toerglafeitr glaze, turn into glass ; 
l»eT80lb(nr + gild ; "ottbt^tvx, ossify ; «er}tt(fcm# cover with sugar, turn into 


0agar ; i»crftrmeii» grow poor ; »erf4te(ttcnu make or grow worse ; tcrKtitni 
(sub. 8X cover by building in front of. 

a. t»CT- in paat participles : t»fmailbtr related, bnt of the regnlar verb = 
"applied;" «erfit^^ basbfal. 

546. 3cr- < M. H. G. «er-, 2»-, O. H. G. zur, zar, zir, + 
Gk). tus-, + Gr. (Jvf- + O. Eng. to-brecan> atrbred^en. Least 
frequent of these suffixes. 

Its force is: <* separation/' ''scattering," '* dissolution/"* to pieces " : 
Ittiautn, cat to pieces; lerglicbcnw dismember ; irrhrilmmcnw dash to pieces. 

1. If (e- and 9tr~ precede other prefixes, separable or inseparable, the 
verb is always an inseparable compound. Ex. : ttru^nglucf cn» ^tti'ntx&^ti^tn, 
benat^ri^^tigen. These come from the compound nouns ttnglit(f» Sintrac^tr 
9{a(^Ti4t. See 547. Notice the difference between bc9o'nnunben< Sormunb 
(insep.) and bc9o'rfle$tn<be)»OT + fh^ (8ep.X 

S. Notice such compounds as an'fnfle^nu a'mxiititn$ i»oran'4teTfttiibigen# in 
which the second prefix $s inseparable. The first and second do not occur 
in the simple tenses. Their past part, are aufcrflanbenr annriogrn. The pret. 
of the third is ffinbigte i»orau4» but the past part, is )>oraud»erfiUibi0t# without 
gc-. See 660. 

Compoimd Verbs. 

547. The first element is either substantive or adjective or 
adverb or preposition; the second is always a verb. The im- 
portant questions are accent and whether the compounds are 
separable or inseparable, or both; whether direct or indirect. 

1. Indirectly compounded are the verbs derived from compound sub- 
stantives and adjectives. They are inseparable and have noun-accent- 
ualion, t. e,, accent on the first element 

Ex. : i^xhtt^tn < ^xUxqit, inn ; ra'tfd^Iagen < 9tat' Wagr council ; wl'H* 
fabrttn < aBaflfabtt, pilgrimage ; frilbPtftn < 8tii(fl&tf ; argme^iien < Krg" 
tt>o(n« suspicion ; bemiSfommen < SBiUfontmm. 

2. That these are not genuine compound verbs their inflection shows. 
The seemingly strong verbs, as in Ta'tf(^lagen# (tiratettf etc., are not in- 
flected strong, but weak : ratfd)lagte» geratfcblagt; bdraletCf gt(cirattt. Note 
also : ^anb^btt# gt^aiibbabtr not ^nbbatte» ^'nb^abt or ^nbgcbabt. 

8. Under this head come also: 1. Verbs of which the compound sub- 
stantive or adjective is no longer common, €. g., ioctterleu(^ten < ^MterUich ; 
tc4tferttgcn<r0fi^Mr^; bra'nbr<i^t^< IBraiibf<4a(. d. A few verbs which 

258 WOBDFOBKATIOlSr — ^YEBBS. [648- 

Beem due to analogy with the ahoTO and fonned by mere juxtaposition 
of adjective or substantive and verb, e. g., IWhtefviu toiQfa^ren (accent 
doubtful), fro^Io'cfen, Ixi'bdvi^tln, toet'dfagen (as if it were from tDcife and fagen, 
but it comes from the noun toi^ago, prophet). Principal parts : liebfofcn, 
UeMofle, geliebfofl; frof^Iodeiu gefro^lodt. 

548. All the other compound verbs are directly compounded, separa- 
ble and accented on the first part excepting certain propositions, see 649, 
which form the only genuine old compounds with accent on the stem- 
syllable of the verb. These and the verbs in 54(X-646 are the compound 
verbs proper with the original verb-accent. 

1. SuBSTAirnvB + Vebb. 

The substantive is the object of the verb. 

Ex.: fla'uftnbetv ^au'd^altetu tetlnc$men# ban!fagen# prctdgeBeiu 

NoTS.— But for the fact that in certain tenaes they are written together and the 
anbstantive is now according to the ** Boles'^ to be written without capital, these 
verbs are no more eompoands than tiie corresponding Eng. to keep honee, take place, 
give thanks. As late as early N. H. O. these and the following groaps were not treated 
as eompoands. 

2. Adjective + Vebb. 

The adjective is generally factitive predicate, e. g., mfjimimttu " take 
notice of"; totWlagcn, strike dead; frcifprcd^cn, declare not guilty; »ott* 
0iegen» -f4iitten» see 649, 5. 

a, A large number of compounds with substantives and adjectives oc- 
cur only in certain forms, viz., in the two participles and in the infinitive 
used as a noun, e.g., blutflittenbf }fi^x^t»tt^tfftn, fHflbtglMt, ba« ©*6«Wreibctt, 
bad ©tiQfd^wetgen. 

8. Adyebb or Preposition + Vebb. 

The adverb qualifies the verb expressing manner, direction, time. 
The preposition in this case has the force of an adverb. Exceptions 

Ex.: Ji'nf*i(fen, Jc'rjolett, na'(^mtt«ett, uorau'efttcn, jufa'mwenfommctt, roo'^U 

549. Separable and inseparable compound verbs occur with 
bur*, (Mtttcr), iibcr, urn, unter, »oU, wtDcr, tt)iel>en 

a. Inseparable verbs compounded with these prepositions are transi- 
tive, and have the old accentuation of verb-compounds (see 421). Here 
belongr also all verbs with Winter-, wibcr- and a few with »oII-r e. g., »ofl* 
Mn^ttL These verbs are nearly all old, but some new ones have been 


formed after them. The force of the preposition has entered into and 
modified the meaning of the verb, so that if the simple or separable 
oompoand verb was intransitive the inseparable compoond became tran- 
sitive ; if transitive, the compound developed a different meaning, gen- 
erally figurative, often intensive. 

The separable compounds have not the verb-aocentuation and the 
force of the preposition remains literal and intact. 

Very few verbs allow of both compositions. 

1. b u r (^ means + "through," " thoroughly," completion of the action, 
" filling with," **to the end of a fixed limit of time," bu'rc^bringou crowd 
through, penetrate, carry to a saccessfiil issue, 0.p., tie i^ttgel ifl bUT(^ebrunden# 
the ball went through. Trans.: Die i^ugrl ^t bod IBrett bttrd^bnt'iidciw the ball 
penetrated the board ; iri^on bem ®efiitle feined 9{i(^te bttT(^bru'n0en.'' In m1>it 
if* ifl bur(^ bad fbxttt fiebrungcn" there is no compound. !&u'r4f(!^ttcn# lo<^ 
through, ttxoai burd^fc^au'eiti see through, understand thoroughly ; burd^^ 
ta'n^em to spend in dancing, bu'rc^tan^etu to dance through, to pass through 
dancing; bu'r^fel^enf to look through (a hole), hurriedly through a book ; 
the inseparable burc^fe'f^en is obsolete, it would have the force of burd^^ 
f($au'en# to understand thoroughly. 

S. ^ i n t e Tf + behind. Separable compounds with (inter do not really 
occur in good style. In (i'ntergie§en» -hingen it stands for (inunter = pour 
down, swallow. The inseparable compounds are always figurative and 
transitive, its force is the opposite of straight, " deceptive " : (interge'^n^ 
deceive ; (intertreibenr to prevent, circumvent ; (fnterge^en would mean the 
more usual (inter^e'r or bintena'ngef^enr to walk behind. 

8. ii ( er = a) separable : over, beyond, across = (iniibrT; h) in close 
compounds : transfer, covering, a missing, figurative sense, extent of a 
certain limit of tima 

a. ft'bcrft^en^ cross, take across (a river) ; &'^rge(en» go over. 

h, iklniWf^ttu cover with ; ilbema'(^tenr spend the night ; ii(crf($rei'ben# head 
a column or chapter ; &berb5'reny not to hear ; fiberlc'9en« consider ; it'btrft^Ia' 
gen = u'mfcblagenf tip, turn over ; but ii6fTf(^la'8cn» calculate (expenses) ; 
ikUxW^^f to translate ; Uberge'^ettr pass over, skip ; fibtrfe'^eiv overlook. 

4. urn* a, separable = around, about, again or over, upside down, 
change of place, loss of something, failure. 

Ex.: u'ntb&'ngen (einen 9)tantel)» put on, (ein S3i(b) change the place of a pict- 
ure ; u'ntlaufmr overthrow by running ; u'mfleibenr change clothing ; u'lti^ 
fe(ren» turn back ; u'mfommen (viz., um^d fiebcn)» perish, u'mbcingenr take the 
life of ; fl4 u'mgc(en# take a roundabout course. 

260 WOBDFOBMATlOlSr— YEBBS. [550- 

5. inseparable : literally denotes the encircling of an object, figura- 
tively it lias the force of J i u t e r, deception : uma'nncn, embrace ; imif^i'f' 
fen, sail around, double ; ttm!In^cn# cover, drape ; mnge'^enf avoid, deceive. 

5. II n t e r» separable : under, down, among (with) : ii'nter^Iten» hold 
under, down; u^nterbringtitf provide for (figurative) ; tt'nttrgcjen, go down, set. 

Inseparable, figurative sense : nnter^a'Ueiw entertain ; umerfa'^en (Dat), 
forbid; ftd^ unterfle'^en, make bold; vrntttnt't^mm, undertake; vxitttWfftiu 
leave undone ; uatttWqicn, to be overcome by. 

6. ^olU separable : + full, always literally with verbs denoting pour- 
ing, filling and similar ones: i»o'llbrin0en# »o'Ilgiegett» 9o'0fii^iitttn(ein®efag), 
bring, pour a vessel full. Inseparable : "to the end," accomplishment : 
t»oIIf{i'tren» toQbri'ngeitr execute; toUtfvhttu finish, compare Eng. fulfil; 
yoEfo'mntcn (part.), perfect 

7. » t b c T in the sense of '* against *' is always inseparable and unac- 
cented, generally figurative sense : toibcrlc'gen, refute ; tt)tber|hc'6cn (with 
Dative^ resist ; totberfpre'd^tu contradict (also Dat.) ; roHbtxfit'f^tti, to resist. 

8. toieber, separable: "again," "bock": ttie'ber^olen, fetch back; 
toie^bfTgeben* give back ; loie'bcTfagfiw say again. Veiy loose compounda 
Inseparable : figurative sense only in n>ieber(o'leny repeat ; toiber^a'Sen^ 
tDiberfc^ei'nen also xoit'htx^^tiatn, tot'ebcr^Sen; usage is unsettled in these. 

a. The difference in the spellhig ivibcr— u>iebct is quite modem. 

550. Separable and ineeparable composition with these adverbs is quite old, bat in 
O. H. G. probably no distinction was made in force or meaning. Bven now „(Z)ie 
ftuflel f^at ba6 iBrctt burd^bru^ngen'' and „bie St. ift bur^ bad SBrett gebrunflen" amonnt to 
quite the same thing. In fact separable composition is no real composition. Many 
still write the prefixes separately before the verb where any other adverb would stand. 
In M. H. Q. the great minority of our modem separable compounds are not felt at all 
as compounds. Two things haye brought about this feeling that they are such : 

1. The substantiyes compounded with the same element as the yerb, e. g,^ U'tngang, 
(Du'i^fa^rt, ^^htixdf, have lead us to associate um and fle^en, bui^ and fasten, ab and 

2. When a meaning different from the literal or common one was developed, verb 
and adverb were felt as belonging together, e. g.., ettoaS bu'x^fe^n^ to carry something 
through, to the end ; Dotf^Iagen, to propose ; na^f^Iagen, to look up a reference, etc. 

a. Very often there is no difference in meaning, but only in oonstraction, between 
the simple verb + preposition and the close compound, e. g.^ 1, <Da9 ipferb ifl fiBer ben 
®ra(en gefprungen, = ** The horse has Jumped over the ditch/* and, 2, ba8 ipferb ^at ben 
Graven fibetfpningen, The horse has Jumped the ditch. In 2, perhaps the act of the 
Uags is emphasized, it did not sttHm across; in 1, the extent of the leap. But compare 


Also the other, not Uteml nnwmtng of tiU^vti'9%tn, tIx., to skip, omit, hi : Set Rctfenbc 
^ot einen tpoflen ftfterfpntneen, the traveller has skipped one item. Set 91. ifl ftbct ben 
ipo^cn flefpnragen would be meaningless. 

Deriyation of Adverbs. 

The adverbs are derived from pronominal stems and from 

551. The two snffixes en and er, < older an{a), ar{a), 
are attached to the stems. 

Adverbs from Pbokominal Stems. 

1. From the stem of the demonstrative prononn: 

a. From the stem tar4ha : hat, ba + there, baim + then and bemif oooj. 
" for/' this doable form is M. H. G., but the difference in meaning was 
only established as late as the 18th oentoiy, < older danne, denne, which 
have not been explained yet. ^annen < dannana stands only in ir«on 
banntn''r hence. Dcflo^ see 442, a ; bort < dor^ ; bo4 + though (?). 

h. From the stem hi : (er + hither ; (iiu away ; (itr + here ; (imicnr 
in «on (Umen, hence, ^inteiir (etttc» $rint» (tuer, see 443, 2. 

2. From the stem of the interrogative pronoun: 

toaim + when, toeim^ if; loor-r loo + where < wd, vAt ; oon mamten + 
whence is rare. For toie + how + why, see 444, 1. ©artt'm < toflr + 
uinSbe or toara + wmhe (?). 

8. From the stem mor- : fo + so ; famt/ lufammen (?)» fonbetr Mt alfo^ fonfl 
< wivoBt, sttst, sus. From varioas stems : oben» + above ; tttUen» itntCT> + 
under; nib (rare), nieben + beneath ; nun + now ; aupenr aupcr; innen» inner* 

552. Adverbs from Nottn-stemb. 

These adverbs are always cases of noxms, the Gbnitive 
being the most frequent. See 187. 

1. Oenitive : a^enbd^ morgendf na^td, M^, flttg9» bmoetU bennaSen# ni^te* 
was looked upon as an adverbial ending and added to fem. nouns and 
even to other cases and whole adverbial phrases, e.g.^ -feitd in many 
compounds: bic'efeit^/ mti'mrfeitd/ attcrbi'ngd (really a G. pi.), oo'rmaUr unter^ 
n)c'g9i t'^tmaU, aHertoc'dcn* Compare Eng. needs, now-a-days, always, 

2. Dative: lumi'ltn, mittenr ^Ibtn, tTaun(?)» morgen(sg.Y), aB^^nbcn, oor^ 


Ja'nben, jufolge, anflatt. Compare Eng. to-morrow, o'clock, a year < on 
(in) the year, a day < on (in) tlie day, because, asleep, whilom. 

8. AecuscUive : m^ (t) + away ; ^im + home ; inali once ; bicmeil, + 
while ; ubcrfKittpt, \t, nie. 

-n>etfe following at first only after a Qen., later the nninfiected noun : 
jtoangdmeife, by force, audna^mdtoeifef exceptionally, fHttfrneifCr piecemeal. 
Compare Eng. nowise, otherwise, the while. 

4. InMrumerUal : ^tutt, this year< hiujaru; Ifiutt, todaj < kiutagu ,' 
(eint < hinoM (a Dat?). See 443, 2. 

553. Derivation by suffix: -littgd and-martd« 

1. -lingd comes from the G. of nouns in "Imo^ and is a late formation : 
rfidningdr backward ; blinblingd, blindly. Compare Eng. sideling, headlong. 

2. -tDdrtd + ward is really the G, of an adjective wert, toarL It is very 
common after prepositiona : l^mtoirtdr homeward ; malbt9&rtd# towards the 
forest ; ahto&xt^, downward, aside; »omdTtd+ forward. 

Advebbs fbom Adjectives. 

554. Almost all adjectives can be used as adverb& 

Adverbs with a suffix : 

1. -e, this is now rare but once very frequent < older -o, which was 
probably the A. sg. fem.: Qtm{t), fem(e), balbe in Goethe's tt'Baxtt mx, balbe 
IRu^efl bu au^.** 

a. Remark here the doublets fa(l — fcfl, fd^ott — fc^on, fru^ (rareX — ftu^t 
rpat (rare), — fpdit. Those without umlaut are the regularly formed ad« 
verbs from jo-stems. Those with umlaut are adjectives used as adverbs. 
In trdgCf bofe* etc., e does not go back to -o, but O. H. G. i< jo, since they 
are adjectives (jo-stems) used as adverbs and not transformed into adverbs. 

2. -U (^ + -ly, is really no adverbial suffix, but the adjective suffix to 
which the adverbial e ( < o) was added, -4iche, -liho : treuUc^ — treu + truly, 
fMthfuUy ; ma^rlic^ — toa^x, giitlid^ — 0Ut# frcilui^, to be sure, — frel ; bitterlic^ 
— adjective l&itter. 

a. The corresponding adjective in -lic^ is perhaps no longer in use. 
Compare freili(i^# to be sure — fret + free. 

b. -1x6) has also been added to other stems : einf($Ueg(i(i^r (offentltt^^ tDif^ 


555. Adverbs, cases of adjeotWes. 

OeniHve: 1. red^tdf Unfe» cilmb^f vnrdeicndr fletd+Bteadily. 

2. -e n d from superlatiyes and ordinab : tt^ttA, (9<l^f!end» meiflcn^r brit" 
lend* -end contains the inflection -en of the adjective. 

a. Genitive with excrescent t. Such are felt as superlatives : {fingf!# 
Mngflr ne&fl; einfl (?)» but in O.H.Q. are doublets einM and einea. Compare 
Eng. onoe< dnu and dial, "onst" ; also amidst, amongst, dial. *'acrGst." 
Pore Gen. in Eng. else < elles, unawares, etc 

Bm/L The above ezpUnation is rejected by Lexer in QrimnC$ Diet. 

8. Dative. It is hidden In }tt>ar < tewdre, lit. '* in truth," to be sure. 
Cinielni singly < einzd by sufllx -U from «/i(a«) < ein; a<y. einjeln-er. 
In adverbial phrases : am leic^tefien* am f^dnflen* In M. H. G. this Dative 
was very frequent, «.^., in -Ziehen, --lingen, etc 

4. Accusative, also in the comparative and superlative degrees : xotni^ 
^itl, genu0» me^Tf meiflr U^tt, 1^1^^% mdgU^f!. In adverbial phrases : indbe^ 
fonbere, fitrtoa^rr aufd reinfie, f(^5nfie. See 300, 2. 

a. Note also those preceded by prepositions : iixUi^t, at least, nel&en ( < 
end>en), iuglei(!^# at the same time, ^xW^ or fiX'xH^t fiEurther. 

Pbepositioits and Cokjunotionb have the same origin as the 
adverbs, being originally adverbs. 

Three classes of words may be comprised under the head 
of Pabtiglbs. 


666. 1. As old and simple prepositions may be regarded : a'b, an, auf^ 
audr M, )9or and fur (doublets), buT(^» gegen ( + again), in# milr ob» )tt» urn ( < 

2. Derived by suffixes : -er* -^er, -ter» mostly from pronominal stems 
and from the older forms ar, dar, tar, which are probably all three com- 
parative suffixes : dBeTr unter, (interr n>leber# auger. See 661, 8. 

3. A number of nouns and adjectives in the various cases : haft, un* 

mxt, n>^^renb» mitteld (mfttelfl)r flatty Un^9, txei^, ^alben> xot^tn, millen# nd(^|lr 

nebjl, Iaut> na^r itt>iri^en. 

a. The number of prepoBiiione goyeming the Gen. is really dUBcult to state, be- 
cauBOf like maiiy of the above and many otbers, they are really noans with a O. 
dependent upon them, yia., anetfS, be^ufd, Behrep, {etten^i etc. 


557. Compound Pbepositionb are generally adverbs, but the 
following may be classed here : 

1. Preposition (or ad verb) + preposition or adverb: bbmeiK lu+innen, 
bid < bi + a^ (a^ + £ng. at), ne^n <en+ eben, iumibct ; ' cntge'gen < en +gegen 
(t excrescent,) etc. 

2. Noon + noun, or prep. + noon, or pronoun + noon : iufolgCr several in 
-^Ib and -feit : augerbolb, imfcit» anfktt* 


668. 1. From pronominal stems: For ba^ bemtr fOf xotcoL, x»\t, and 
others, see among adverbs, 66L 9l[ber» osd^r luibr obcTr fonbenu tpebetr show 

2. From nouns and adjectives : faQdr gld^, V6%touS^XtX, meiU toa^renbf and 

8. Compounds: adverb and preposition: betOTr fobalb^ mttbiitf fomitr 
babtr# barunif and others. 

4 Preposition or adverb + pronoun or adjective : iAbem, feitban, fobaf # 
M bagf aS(in» mmeber < ein- d^ toeder, one of two ; ni^dbcflotDOtigtr, 

559. Interjections proper. 

1. Joy is expressed by: ab» o, ^ iu^% ^d^a, l^urrab. Surprise: ei, )>o^ 
ba. Painbj: cf^, m^t, m, ad^, ^u* Disgust: pfiti, fi, bab* Doubt: l^m^ 
bent> l^unt. Commands to be silent are : pfi, bflf fd^ ; to stop or pay at- 
tention ; bnr (to horses), ^tha, be» b^r f^oUa, baHob* 

2. Imitations of sounds in nature : ))Iumpd (fall), piff, paff, puff (shot), 
but (whizz), bau^ (fall)* mub (cow), miau (cat), wou (dog), l^opfa (stumble), 
bum — bum (drum). 

8. Burdens of songs : Dubelbumbct, Suubattera, fdbrum — f^rum — f^rum. 

660. Certain regular words which have become exclamations, often 
oaths in much changed forms : ^lU SBetterr jDonner unb S3It^enr ^o^taufmb, 
^eiU S3ra90r D ie^ D iemine, (Sappermentf ^aferlot^ 3Kein ^immel, Domienpctter 
094 nnmaU 



AgB- = Anglo-Saion. 

(B.) = Bible. 

(Bo.) = Bodenstedt. 

(Ba.) = BQrger. 

(Ch.) = ChamiBSO. 

D. = Datch or Dative. 

(F.) = Hart's Edition of Qoethe's 

Faust, Part I. 
Fr. = Frencli. 
(Q.) = Goethe. 
Go. = Gothia 
Gr. = Greek. 
G. T. = General Teutonic. 
(H. and D.) = Hart's edition of 

Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea. 
(He.) = Herder. 
H. G. = High German. 
(Hu.) = A. von Humboldt. 
I.-E. = Indo-European. 
L. = Latin. 
(Le.) = Leasing. 

L, G. = Low German. 

(Lu.) = Luther's works excepting 
his translation of the Bible. 

M. G. = Middle German. 

M. H. G. = Middle High German. 

N. G. = North German or North 

N. H. G. = New High German. 

O. Fr. = Old French. 

O. H. JG. = Old High German. 

(Prov.) = Proverb. 

(R.) = Rttckert. 

Rules = the o£Qcial rules for spell- 
ing, see 37. 

(Sch.) = Schiller. 

S. G. = South German. 

(Sh.) = Shakespere translated by 
Schlegel and Tieck. 

(Uh.) = Uhland. 

V. L. = Vulgar Latin. 

< means " derived from," ** sprung from," " taken from." 

> means " passed or developed into/' ** taken into." 

+ between a German and non-Gterman word denotes common origin 
or ** cognates." In other positions it means "accompanied or followed 

* before a word means that that form of the word does not actually 
occur, but is conjectured or reconstructed. 

: = : or : as : means a relation as in a mathematical proportion. 

I, II, III after verbs indicates the strong verb-classes. 

— between letters means " interchanges with," e,g,, ( — (^ as in («f er— 
(o4 or r — i as in ne^mcn — nimmfl* 


The numbers refer to the paragraphs. The nmUnits have a separate plae^ & after 
Ot h after O; ft after n. 

Ablaut: Batnre of. 393; four grades, 
394, 463. 2 ; 496 ; 497. 

Ablaat series : and yerb-classee, 122- 
129 ; I.-K., 394, 1 ; G. T., > O. H. G. > 
N. H. G., 395-400; 459^^67 ; group- 
ing of, 469. 

Abstract nouns : article before, 149 ; no 
article, 146 ; 166, 3; plural of, 171 ; 
62, Bern. 

Accent: 417, 418; degrees of, 419; 
chief on stem-syllable, 420* 420, 3; 
478, 4; Bng. m Norman-Fr. words, 
420, 8 ; in compounds, 421-42^ : seo- 
ondaiT, 424 ; rhetorical, 426 ; " free '* 
in I.-B., 420, 8 ; in foreign words, 427, 
420. 1 ; 424, 4; characteristic of Ger- 
manic Lang., 478, 4; = intonation, 
302, 1. 

Accidence : 38-138 ; Historical Commen- 
tary on, 428-476. 

Accnsatiye : office of, 198 ; after verbs, 
198-206: two A. after verbs, 109; 
predicate in passive, 202 2 ; cognate, 
203 ; logical subject in, 206 ; after re- 
flexive verbs, 206 ; adverbial, 207 ; dif- 
ference between A. and G. of time, 208, 
1 ; after adjectives, 207, 1 ; 183 ; abso- 
lute. 209 ; 297, 1 ; by attraction in the 
Srea. after (affcn, 202, 1 ; after prepos., 

Adjective: decl. of, 69-72 ; 436 ; origin 
of strong decl., 437; comparison of, 
73-76, see comparison, compar. and 
superlat. ; 438, 439; used as nouns, 
220, 221, 181 ; gender of same, 160, 
3 ; 169 ; 162, 8 ; G. after, 182, 183 ; 
D. after, 194 ; A. after, 183 : 207, 1. 

Attributive use of, 211-217 ; only 
used attributively, 211 ; uninflected 
uBed attributively, 212 ; in the predi- 
cate, 218, 220 ; as nouns declined 
strong, 214 : G. Be. m. and n., 216, 1 ; 
declined weak, 213 ; 217, 1 ; as nouns, 
221, 1 ; origin of double decl., 215 ; un- 
settled usage as to strong and wei^ 
decl., 216, 221 ; after indef. pron., 
214; 216, 4; 181 ; after person, pron., 
216,2; two or more adj., 212,8: 217. 
In the predicate, 218, 219 ; only used 
in pred., 219 ; position of adluncts o^ 
353 ; accent in certain compounds. 

422, 1-7; derivation of, 522-628; 
used as adverb, 554. 

Adjective Glauses : nature of, 323 ; 326- 
328; 339. 

Adverbial Clauses : nature of, 323, 329 ; 
various kinds of, 330-340 ; see tempo- 
ral, local, danaee of manner and cause 
(332-340), final (338), conditional, 
(340), etc. 

Adverbs : origin of, 551-655 ; < G. of 
nouns, 187,562; + prepos. supplanting 
the person, pron., 234 ; syntax of, 299, 
300; after prepos. + noun, 300; ad- 
verbs which are only advenw. 300, 1 ; 
564, 2; adjective as, 300, 2; 564: 
comparison by, 223, 224 : relative and 
absolute Buperl. of, 300, 2 ; nature of, 
301, 1 ; interrogative, 251, 5 ; relative, 
258, 326, 331 ; demonstrative, 327, 
8; in local clauses, 331, a* position in 
a sentence, 354 ; order of adverbs of 
time, place, manner, 355; accent in 
compound, 423. 

Adversative Sentences : coordinate, 320. 

AfiHcate : 413, 5 ; 408, 1. 

Alemanic : 483, 1. 

Alphabet : printed and script, 1, 2 ; ori- 
^n of the G. letters, 360 ; Latin letters 
in G., 360, 3 ; relation to G. sounds, 

Anglo-Saxon, see Boyish. 

Apposition : < G. ot nouns, 181 ; 179, 

Articles: inflect, of; 38; accent of, 39; 
contraction with prepositions, 40; spell- 
ing of, 39 ; 41 ; syntax of, 140-158 ; 
nature of 140 ; general cases of absence 
of, 141-146 : before proper nouns, 
147 ; before abstract nouns, 149 ; be- 
fore names of materials, 150 ; before 
collective nouns, 151 ; repetition of, 
158. See A., del. and inder, 

Article, Def. : infl. of, 38 ; attraction to 
precedinjg words not prepositions, 41 ; 
contraction with preceding prepos., 40 ; 
relation to Eng. possessive pron., 154, 
243,8; distributive for Eng. ''a,'* 156. 

Article, Indef. : infl. of, 38 ; aphaeresis of, 
41 ; after certain pronouns, 144, 252 ; 
before certain pronouns, 157. 

Austrian: 483. 



Anzillailefl: of tense : Infl. ot 110 ; um 
of, 865, 866 ; 883, 3 ; omiiseion uf, 
346 ; in passive voice, 873. 

Modal : see pret pros, verbs ; special 
uses of, 867: verbs of motion omitted 
after, 867, Rem. ; imperative force oU 
887, 4 ; -I- pert and pres. inf., 88S, 1 ; 

Bavarian-Anstrian : 483, 8 ; 488, 6» a. 
Bible: 486; 487. 
Brtchung : 405, Bern. 

Capitals: initial, 364; in prononnB of 
addrosB, 830. 

Cardinals, see Numerals. 

Cases : see individual cases, N., O., etc. ; 
order of cases in the sentence, 368. 

Causal Sentences : coordinate, 381 ; sab- 
ordinate, 337. 

Comparative : see comparison ; use of, 
888 ; by adverbs, 88d, 884 ; conjunc- 
tions after, 333. 

ComiMirative Clausea : 333, t-i ; with 
ni(9t, 333, 2. 

Comparison: of adjectives, 73-76; 438; 
439; irregular, 76, 1; defective and 
redundant, 76, 9; the suffixes, 73, 438 ; 
by adverbs, 883, 884, 888, 1 ; of two 
qualities of the same object, 884. 

Compound words : accent of, 481-484 ; 
iri-egular accent of certain nouns, adjec- 
tives, and prefixes, 488 ; secondary ac- 
cent in, 484 ; 581 : see nouns, a4j.% 
etc. ; 516 ; compared with Bug., 581, 

Compound tenses : lOOuliS; 883. 

Concesi^ive Clauses : 339. 

Couditiouals : formation oil 115, 883, 6 ; 
force of, 880, 881, 884, ft. 

Conditional Clauses : tenses in, 880, 884. 
6 ; nature o^ 340 ; several forms of, 
340, 1 : word-order in, 343, e. 

Conjugation : strong and weak, 101-103 ; 
446,476 ; weak, 117, 118, 447, 454, 
455 ; strong, 180-133, 446,456-469. 

Conjunctions : classification of, 307 ; ori- 
gin of, 301, 558. 

Coordinating : copulative, 819; adver- 
sative, 380 ; concessive, 380, 8 ; causal, 
381 ; illative, 388. 

Subordinating : in temporal clauses, 
330 ; in comparative cianses, 333 ; 
334 : in consecutive clauses, 335 ; In 
restrictive clauses, 836 ; causal, 337 ; 
final, 338 ; concessive, 339 ; condi- 
tional, 340. 

Consecutive Clauaes : 335. 

Consonant-declension, see n-declension. 

Consonant-stems : become i-stems, 54 ; 
488, 9 ; 438, 1 ; 438-435. 

Consonants: description of, 374-389; 
open, 374-381 ; shut, 388-385 : na- 
sals, 886-3881; compound, 389 ; long, 
380, 6; cons.-tabto,p. 107; see Grlmm^s 

and Vemcr's Laws ; doubling or length- 
ening of, 389, 6 ; 413, 6 ;^I8, S, e. 

Coordinate Sentences : 318 ; Tariooa 
kinds of; 319-388. 

Copulative Sentences : 319. 

Danish : 479, IL 

Dative: office of, 189 ; as nearer object 
after intrans. and certain compound 
verbs, 190 ; as indirect object after 
trans, verbs, 191 j ethical, 198 ; after 
impen. verbs, 193; after adj., 194; 
190 ; supplanted by prepos. + cafe, 
195 ; after prepos., 303, 305, 306. 

Declension : oi articles, 38 : of nouns, 48- 
68 ; 488-435 ; of foreum nouns. 64, 
68, 8 ; of proper nouns, o5-68 ; or the 
adjective, 60-78 ; of pronouns, 81- 

Demonstrative Pronouns : 88-91 ; use of, 
844-850 : origin of, 448 ; supplanted 
by ^ier and ba -i- prepos.. 851, 9. 

Dependent Clauses, see Subordinate. 

Dependent order of words : 341, 344 ; 
in main clauses, 347, 349; the oldest 
order, 349, 9. 

Dialect : and written langnage, 390 ; in 
M. H. O.. 485, 9 ; In N. H. O., 486, 
487 ; in the pronanciation of the edu- 
cated, 390 ; and the public school, 398, 

Diphthongs : pronunc. of, 38 ; analvslsot 
378 ; become single vowels, 488, 4 • < 
long vowels, 488, 6. 

Dutch: 481,8; 493,8. 

Bast Franklsh : 488, 8 ; 486. 
Blliptical clauses and phrases: 310 ; 884, 

6, Rem.; 887 {S4S, rf, 9. 
Bnglieh : 479, m. ; 498, 4 ; umlaut in, 

Bnphony: 418,1. 
Bxclamation: Q. in, 188, 309, 8; order 

of words in, 343, e ; see interjections. 

Final clauses : 338. 

Flemish : 481, 8. 

Foreisn nouns : decl. of, 64 ; gender of, 

Foreign words : spelling of, 365 ; ac- 
cent, 487, 480. f ; 484, 4; in G. word- 
stock, 498-494. 

Fractions: 533,9. 

Frisian: 481,1. 

Future: formation of, 114; force of, 
878; imperative tone of, 878, 3; 
887, 8 : present with iViture force, 874, 
5 ; conolt. for sub), of, 881 ; origin of, 

Gtonder : of nouns and their distribution 
among the declensions according to, 
43; syntax of, 159-169; grammati- 
cal and sex, 159, 160; concord of the 



Bune, 1611^168 ; aeeordlni? to meaning, 
160; according to endins?, 161; doubt- 
ta\ and doable, 169 ; <mange of, 161, 
Bem^ 163; of compound nouns, 164: 
concord of, 166-168; between subject 
and predicate, 313, 316. 

Genitive : office of, 180; varioua kinds of 
Q., 180, 1-7 ; partitive Q. passed into 
apposition, 181, 261: supplanted by 
prepos.. 181 ; dependent upon adj., 
89, 183; dependent upon verbs as 
nearer object, 184; as remoter object, 
186: after impersonal verbs, 186; ad- 
verbial G. of place, time, etc., 187; sup- 
planted by A., 307, Rem.; diflbrence be- 
tween A. and G.^ 308 : after prepos., 
303; in exclamauons, 188. 

German Dialects : clasaflcation ofL 480- 
483; 484. 

German Language : see SeKfiftspradke ; 
history of, 478-494 ; relation to otber 
Germanic languages, 480-486. 

German Sounds : analysis of, 366-389. 

Germanic Languages: relation to other 
I.-E. languages, 477; charactetistiGs of , 
478: dassificadon oL 479-484. 

Gerunclive: 107 ; 389, Bem. ; 398; 463. 

Gothic : letters, 360 : language, 470, 1. 

Grimm's Law : 407-416 ; G. 1*. shifting, 
407-410; G. shifting, 413-416; mod- 
iiications of; 413. 

Hessian : 483, 9. 

High German : explanation of term, 480, 

8, a. See South German. 
HUdebrantalied: 486,1. 

Icelandic : 479, IT ; 339. 1 ; 630. 

Illative Sentences : co-ordinate, 333. 

Imperative : 106,' 460 : in strong verbs, 
131 : personal pron. in, 386, 1 ; Ihture 
with imperative force, 378, 3 ; 387, 3 ; 
force of, 386 ; other yerbai forms with 
the force of, 387: conditional and con- 
cessive force of, 339, 1 ; wordrorder in. 
343, b. 

Indefinite Pronouns : 94-100, 446 ; use 
of, 369-363. 

Indirect Speech : tenses in, 383; mood in, 
386; 336,8. 

Indo-European: 477. 

Infinitive: 106,461: nature of, 388; 
300, 8, b ; perfect, 388, 1 ; imper. force 
of, 387, 1 ; without and with au, 389- 
391 ; 391, 8-6 ; without ,^u, 389, Bern.; 
after certain groups of verbs, 390 ; with 
5u, do., 391, 1 ; as object and subject, 
391, 3, 8 ; A. with, 393 ; as a noun, 
393 : governed by prepos. + jtu, 391, 1 ; 
inf. clause, 336, 3, Rem. 8 ; 333, 1; 336, 
1 ; position of two, in dependent clause, 
346, 1 ; position of adjuncts of, 363. 

Instrumental: 194. 

Interjections: 669, 660. 

Interrorative Pronouns: 93,444; use of, 
361-363 ; D. supplanted by »o(r) + 
prepos., 361, 8. 

Interrogative Sentences: 309,3; Indirect, 
336, 3; disjunctive, 336, 3, «; word- 
order, 343, a. 

Inverted order of words: 841, 348; in 
inserted main clause, 343, 1 ; origin oi; 
in oonditi<mai and in main clauses, 348, 
1 ; after certain co-ordinating co^}unc- 
tions, 319 ; to a clanse instead of o^« 
flleii^, etc. 339. 

I-stems: 63-66; 439. 

Iteiatlvea: 631, 3. 

Jo-stems: 46,8; 47; in adi., 43T, 8; 
496, 8; 633. 

Kanzleisprache: 486, 487. 

Labialisation, 867, 1 ; 370, 4, Bem. 
Language: written. See ikshr^ttpraehs. 
Law omnals : 478, 8. 
Levelling: nature ofL 491,1: in the strong 

pret., 460 : in tne weak verbs, 464, 

Low Fxsnkish : 481, 8. 
Low German I>ialects: 480, 1; 481; 

> H. G., 493, 8 ; their relation to the 

written tanguMTS. 393, 1-8 ; 391. 
Low Saxon: 481,1 
Lather: 486,487. 

Middle Frantdsh : 483, 1. 

Middle German Dialects: 480, 8 ; 482 ; 

488, 8, a ; 488, 4. 
Middle High German : 486, 8 ; tianaitSon 

of sounds to N. H. G., 488-491. 
Mi-verbs: 136; 449,1,8; 473-476. 
Modal Clauses: 333. 
Modal Auxiliaries. See Auxiliaries. 
Mood : see snbj., imper. ; in a^jectiye 

clauses, 338. 
MnltipUcatives: 631,1. 

N-declension : of nouns, 47, 61, 63, 
433-436 ; of adjectives, 69, 313, 316. 

Narrowness of vowels : 367, 8. 

Negatives : 309, 1 ; double negative, 309, 
1 ; in comparative clauses, 333, 8. 

New High German : 486, 480. 

Nominative: syntax ot, 178. 179; pred^ 
icate. 179 ; A. for, in predicate, 303, 1. 

Normal order of words : 341, 343 ; in 
subordinate clauses. 346, 3; after co- 
ordinating conjunctions, 343, 3 ; when 
the snborainate clause precedes, 343, 8; 
348,3; 343, c; 368. 

North German : see Low G. 

Norwegian: 479,11. 

Nouns: decl. of, 43-68 ; systems of noun- 
decl.. 43 ; distribution of nouns among 
the three declensions according to gen- 
der. 43, 433 ; general rules for noun- 
decl., 43 ; strong decl. of, 44-60, 438- 
431 ; weak ded. of, 61, 63, 438, 8 ; 



489 ; mixed decl. ot 63, 485, 1 ; use 
of caaea, see individnal cases ; deriva- 
tion of, 496^16; composition, 517- 
521. gender of compound. 164 ; ac- 
cent of, 491. 498. See Namber, Proper 
N., Foreign K. Abstract N.. Oompoond. 

Knmber: Bingiuar and plural of noans: 
pi. the basis of classiftcatloo of strong 
nouns, 44; no sign, 45, a: umlaut, 
45,6: -c. 49-55; -ft, 56-60, 431; 
(e)n, 61-63 : pL in -0, 60 ; irr^ular, 
51, 179, 173 ; double forms, 58, 169, 
4; 431, S: of abstract noans, 171; 
nouns only in pi., 174. 

Sins, or pi. after nouns of quantity, 
etc., 175: why sing., 1 76 ; sing, where 
Eng. pL, 177; Slug. nent. of pronouns 
refer to nuisc., fern., and plural nouns, 
168, 313. 

Binui, and pi. of yerbe : 311 ; j>l. after 
a collective noun, 319 ; ** pL of mi^os- 
ty," 311, 8. 

Numerals: 77; infl. of, 78; when in- 
flected, 996, 997; cardinals, 77-79; 
SI. in -e, 997 : in -cr, 998, S ; ordinals, 
o. 530, 539; indefinite, 100; deri- 
yation of, 599^33. 

Old High German : 485. 

Ordinals : see Numerals. 

Orthography : division into nrUables. 86; 
regulated by government, 37, 361, 2; 
historical notes on, 360-365; umlauU 
signs, 369; on the marks to show 
length, 363 : on use of capitals, 364 : of 
foreign words, 365 ; government rules, 

O-stems : lose sign of the pL, 47, 51, 

FArtlcipial Clauses : 904, 4 ; 889, 1. 

Participles : 109, 107. 463 ; ase of, 994 
-907 ; position of adjuncts of, 353. 

Past part, without ge-, 108, 113, 
463, 8; 470, 598; isolated, 199, 
Rem. : 131, Rem.; 594, 4 ; imper. force 
of, 987, 8 ; pansive force of, 995 ; act- 
ive force of, 995, 8 ; 996 ; dependent 
upon fommen. ^i|en, etc , 996 ; of 
verbs of motion, 996; absolute con- 
struction, 997. 

Pres. pait., 974, 6 : 983, 8, 4 : 994 ; 
463 ; in compound tenses, 983, 1, 8 ; 

Perfect : formation of, 119 ; force of, 
976; with future perf. force, 979,8; 
Eng. perf. — G. pres., 974, 4 ; impera- 
tive, 986, 1 ; infinitive, 988. 

Personal Pronouns : 81, 89, 440 ; syn- 
tax of, 930-935; sender of, 81 ; use 
of. in address, 930-933 ; repetition of, 
933, 8 : omission of, 933. 1 ; sup- 
planted by other pronouns ana preposi' 
tions, 934 ; in the imper., 986, 1. 

Phonology : 360-497 ; orthography, 360 
-365; analysis of sounds, 366-389; 

as standard of pronnnc., 390^.399 ; pho- 
netic laws. 393-417 ; accent, 418-497. 

Plattdeutsch : 481, 8, a ; 484. 

Pluperfect: formation of, 119; foroeof, 
977 ; relation to Oondit., 980, 981, 
984, & 

Plural : see Number. 

Popular Etymology : 494, 9, 8. 

Possessive Pronouns : 85-87 ; syntax ci, 
939-943 ; origin of, 441 : compounds 
with, 87; used substantlveiy, 940; 
repetition of, 941, 949, 8 ; relation to 
def . article, 154, 943, 8 ; supplanted by 
demonstr. pron., 949, 1 ; uuinfiecteo, 
939, 943, 1. 

Predicate, 308 ; concord of subi. and 
pred., 311-317 : number of verb after 
collective noun, 313; when subjects are 
connected by coi^nnctions, 311, 314 ; 
person of verb when subjects are of dif- 
ferent persons, 315 ; position of, 360, 

Prepositions : syntax of, 301-306 ; nat- 
ure of; 301, 1,8; 566; classification 
of, according to cases, and treatment of, 
in alphabetical order, 309-306: gov- 
erning the G.. 309 ; ffoveming the D., 
303 ; governing the A., 304 ; govern- 
ing D. and A., 305 ; general position of, 

Present: infl. of, 103: of weak verbs, 
118, 447 ; of strong verbs, 191, 456 ; 
O. H, Q., 446 ; of pret.-pree. verbs, 
134 ; uses of, 974 ; jieriphrastlc. 974, 
6 ; imper. force, 987, 8 ; formation ox 
present-stem, 467. 

Preterit: infl. of, 103; weak, 454; 
strong, 458 ; levelling in, 460 ; double 
subj., 196, 196. 464,1 ; 199 ; of pret.- 
pres. %'erb6, 134, 470* force of, »76 ; 
relation to condit., 980,981,984,6; 
ind. for unreal subj., 340, 8. 

Pret.-pres. verbs : 134 ; 135 ; 108, 8 ; 
967 ; 470-479. 

Pronouns: inflection of, 81-100, 440- 
445; syntax of, 930-963; concord 
with noun, 166-168, 935; origin oi; 
496 ; position of; in the sentence, 359, 
€ ; neut. pron. refers to masc. or fem. 
nouns, 168 ; neut. pron. one of two 
accusatives, 199, 1, 8. See reciprocal, 
possessive, etc., separately. 

Pronunciation: of letters. 1-37, 866 ; 
standard of, 390-399 ; disputed points 
in standard, 391 ; Hanoverian and N. 
G., 390, 4 ; 399, 1-8 ; dialect in, 390, 

Proper Nouns: ded. of, 65-68; arilde 
before. 147, 155, 1 ; gender of, 160, 8, 
with Rem. ; 164. 

Question: eee Intenogative Sentenoei. 

Redprocal Pronouns: 84, 197, 906, 

Reduplication : nature of, 458 ; in VII. CI. 



of verba, 130, 131; in the present, 

Beflexiye Pronouns : 83, S3 7 ; personal 

for, 832, 1. 
Belatiye Giaases : see Adjective CI. 
Belative Prononns : 93 ; nse of, 254- 

258 ; origin of, 254 ; supplanted l»y 

adverbs and conjonctiona, 257, 258, 

326, 327. 
Bestrlctive Clauses : 330. 
Boandness of vowels: 307, 1 : in 8. G., 

391, fi. 
Bones, 492, 2. 
HOciBumknU : 402, 2 ; 456. 

Scandinavian, 479, II 

Sehriflsprache : 390 ; 485, 9; 480, 487. 

Sentence : stmctare of simple, 308 ; con- 
stitaeDts oi; 308 ; arrangement of; see 
word-order: various kinds of main, 
309 ; 284, 2 ; 280 ; oomponnd, see co- 
OTOinate and subordinate. 

Shifting of mutes : see Grimm's Law. 

Shifting of spirants : see Vemer's Law. 

Silesian: 482,6. 

Singular : see Number. 

Slavic : 477 ; 481, 3, Bern. ; 482, 4-0. 

Sonancv: 370. 

South Frankish : 482, 2. 

South German Dialects : 480, 8 ; 483 ; 
488, 6, a ; 489 ; 490, 1, a : relation to 
the written language, 391, 892, 4. 

Suabian : 483, 2. 

Subject : 308 ; concord of, and predicate, 
311-317 ; position of subject and verb, 
341, 350. 

Subjunctive: kinds of, 284; potential, 
284, 8 ; 325, 2. Bern. 1 ; 325, 3 ; 328 ; 
in conditional clauses, 340, 448. 

Subordinate Sentences : 318, 323, 324- 
340; word-order in, 343, ei 344- 
340 ; 350. Bern. : omission of auzil., 
340 ; position of, 358. 

Substantive Clauses: 323-325 ; nature 
of, 323 ; various Idnds of, 325 ; nor- 
mal order in, 345. 

Superlative : see Comparison ; use of^ 222 
-225 • never uninfiected, 222 ; absolute 
and relative, 222 ; applied to two ob- 
jects, 225. 

Surdness : 370. 

Swedish : 479, IL 

Swiss : 483, 1, 0. 

Temporal Clauses : 830. 

Tenses : simple, 101, 103, 448 ; use of, 
274, 275, 283. 

Compound: 109, 112-110, 270- 
281 ; origin of, 283 ; position of sepa- 
rable prefix, 351. See the separate 

Thuringian: 482,4. 

Time : modes of expressing time, 220 ; 
G. oU 107 ; A. oi; 208. 

Umlaut : signs of, 31, 302 ; as a sign of 
the pi.. 45, b; 48 : in comparison of 
adj., 74; in pret. suDj. of strong verbs, 
121 : in the pres. of strongverbs, 127, 
Bern. ; 120, Bern. ; 130, Rem. ; 131, 
Bern. : 404 ; nature of, 401 ; in Eng., 
402, 8: spread of, 488, 1 ; in derived 
verbs, 535. 

Upper Saxon : 482, 6. 

Yarlatives: 533. 

Verb : principal parts of, 102 ; infl. of, 
103 ; personal suflOxes of, 104, 118, 
121. 449 ; classification of, 204 ; ir- 
regular weak, 119, 454, 455; weak 
verbs are derivative, 117,1. 

Beduplicating: 130, 131, 458; non- 
thematic, see mi- verbs ; anomalous, 

Compound : 137 ; D. after, 190 ; A. 
after, 198, 547-550 ; accent in, 421 ; 
reflexive, 138; 107; 200; 230,2; 

Impersonal: subject of. 230, 1, 2, 5; 
cases after, 180, 193, 205 ; G. after, 
184-180 ; D. after, 189- 193 ; D. or A. 
after, 190, 200 ; A. after, 198 ; two A., 
199, 201 ; neuter, 179 ; trans., 191, 
204 ; intrans., 204. 

y. of motion : comp. tense of, 205, 4: 
200 ; 283^ ; 290, % ; past part, of; 
290; see Kumber, Predicate, auxil., 
pret. pres. verbs ; person of, in relative 
clauses, 320 ; position of, 341, 350, 
Bern. ; derivation of; 534-550. 

Vemer's Law : 411, 412, 410. 

Voice : passive, infl. of; 110 ; construc- 
tion in. 179.2; 202, 2; 208-273; 
replaoea by reflexive construction, 272 ; 
ongiu of. 273 ; hi Go., 283, 1. 

Vowel-declension : see Noun, strong : 

Vowels: quantity of, 33-35, 488, 3,6; 
analysis and description of, 307-373 ; 
vowel-table, p. 163; general remarks 
upon, 373; doubling of, 33,303,4; 
connecting v. in conjugation, 118; 
449, 3 ; 454, 3, 8 ; in abUiut, 393- 
400 ; in umlaut, 401, 402, 404 ; in- 
terchanges of, 403-400; lengthening 
of, in W. H. G., 488, 8 : shortening o^ 
488, 8; diphthongization of long y., 
488, 5. 

Vowel- stems : see Vowel-Declension. 

Wordformation : 


tives, 495-521 1 pronouns, 490 ; ad- 

UTCB, -mtrt^-tMx^M.. pronouns, ^•'v, ob- 
jectives, 522-533; verbs, 534-550; 
adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, 
551-558 ; interjections, 559. 
Word-order: 341-359; normal, 342; 
inverted, 343; dependent, 344. See 
these separate heaos; in poetiy and 

W^rose, 359. 
ord-atock: 492-494. 


It contains a list of the words, praflzes, suffixes, and letters treated of in tlie gram- 
mar. The numbers refer to the paragraphs. The omlauts hare a separate place, & 
after a, A after O; ft after u. 


a, prononc. of. 3: description oi^ 371, 4; 
quantity of, beiore t, vt, xh, 33, 488, 2 ; 
m ablauts, VL, 450, 4; in ablauts, L- 
v., 459. 

al, prepos., 803, 1; 510, 1. 

aber, 3^0, 3, Rem. 

9iUv^, 610, 1. 

ae as sign of umlant, 30)i, 8. 

aeu as sign of umlaut, 302, S. 

«fter-; 510, S. 

-aac; noun-snfflz ; fem. gender, 101, 3 ; 
103, 6. 

at, pronuuc. of, 82, 872, 1. 

aU, 100; def. art. after, 144; neuter, 108; 
use of, 201; accent, 422, 5. 

aSet- + superl., 222; accent, 422, 1, 6. 

aaerlie'aft, 222; 422. 

allma^tt(<^, 520, 8, c. 

aid, before a predicate noun, 179; in ap- 
position, 317; before a relatiye pro- 
noun, 327, 8; in comparative clauses, 
333 ; after comparative, 333, S ; after 
adjectives, nltf^td, anber-, 333, 2, a, 8. 

alt, 453, 1. 

-am, 501. 

Kmt; 610, 8. 

an, 305, 8; 300, 1, 8. 

anber, 94; 423, 1; 445, 8: 530. 

anflatt, 302 : + )u and inf., 291, 1, Bern. 


-ant, 505. 

Slntwort, 104, e. 

SCrmut, 104, a; 511, a. 

-at. 511, 8, a; in neut. foreign nouns, 

au, pronunc. of, 82; analysis of, 372, 8; 

oiigin ofl 488, 6. 
OUf, 305, 8. 
auferfte^en, 540, 8. 
a-umlaut, see &. e. 
9(St, 491, 8; 512, 8. 
6, pronunc. of; 31; 302; 371, 8, Bem. 8; 

see umlaut. 
&u, pronunc. of, 32 ; 372, 8 ; origin oi; 



I, pronunc. of, 4; description of, 385, 8; 
Ana}, 385, 8; „9arte8" b, 383, 1, Rem.; 

392, 8; Bng. correspondents of, 408, 8; 

413; 2; 49&, 6. 
b-r see be-; 557, 1. 
hadtn VI., 129; in compos., 628. 
-bar, 620, 1. 
baimbe'vAta, 422, 8. 
bal, 70; 439. 
be-, 108, 8; see bet; 540, 1. 
beben, 457, 8. 
bebient, 295, 8. 
befeblen IV., 127. 
beflei^en I., 122, 1. 

beainnen m., 125, 8; 454, 8; 457, 8. 
bebaiipten, 540. 4. 

bet, prepos., 303, 4; in oompoe., 518, 4 
beib-, 100; use of; 228. 
bei|en I., 122, 1. 
bequem, 409, 8. 
bettenvm., 133. 
beraen ni., 125, 8. 
befAeiben, 624, 4. 
betfer, beil, 70,1; 489. 
beneoen VIIL, 133. 
bid CBng.), 390. 
bieaen IL, 124, 8. 
bleten n., 124, 8. 
blnnen, 303, 6; 657, 1. 
blnben IIL. 125, 1. 
m, 304, 1; 567, 1. 
bitten V., 128, 8; 199; 233, 1; 457, 1; 

blafen VH., 130, 1. 
bleiben L, 122, 2; + inf., 290, 8. 
blei^enL, 122,1. 
broten VII., 130, 1. 
bte^enrv., 127. 
btennen, 119, 1; 455. 
btinaen, 119, 3; 454, 8. 
aSruber, 411. 
a3uTg, 897; incomp., 104, e. 

c, pronunc. of; 5; in foreign words, 380,8. 

4 pronunc. of, 0: 375, 4; 378, 8; 383, 
1: description of. 375; quantity of Tow- 
el before, 35; Inig. correspondents of; 
410, 8; 414, 8; 415, 1, 8; 490,8; 
t^ — g, 410. 



-^n, 46, 1; 510: neater gend., 161,8; 

pronanc oL 6; 376, S. 

fe(n); in Terofi, 536, a. 
(Sbrift, 435, 3. 
A), df^, pronanc of, S9, 383, 1. 

a, 14; 383, 1; £ng. oorrespoodentB of^ 
413, 4; 414, 8. 

b, pronanc of, 7, 385, 8; deflcription oi, 
384, 2; Buff. correepondenta o^ 410, 1; 
413, 1, a; 415; b — t, 416. 

-b, 511, 1. 

bamit, 338. 

ba(T), in relative clause. 3Ji7, 8; In local 

claaae, 331, a; caosai, 337; oitein ofL 

551, 1. 
bad, 168; for Oen., 183; see ber. 
b&ud^t, see beud^t. 
-be, 511, S. 
^ebnunad:^, 363, 8. 
benfen, 119, 3; 40S, 2; 454, 8. 
benn, caasal coi\]anction, 3^1, 337; after 

comparative. 333, S ; in restrictive 

clauses, 336; origm of, 551, 1. 
ber, del art., 38-40; demonstr. pronoun, 

88, 449; lengthened forms in en, cr, 

SS44^; relat pronoan, 93. 
beren (Q. pL), 88, 93, 1; nae oil 844, 1. 
betent-. 87, 89. 
be'rgeflalt, 335. 
berer, see beren. 
betienige, 91, 1; 847. 
bero, 89, 44S. 
betfelbe, -felbige, 91. 
bem>eil, 330. 
bed, bei, beffen, 89. 
beflo, 448, a; correlative of ie, 334. 
• beuAt. 119, 3: 454, 8. 
Uv^i, 413, 1. a. 
bieS, biefer, 90; 443; use of, 245, 846: 

bieS unb bod, jened, 245, 2; sapplanted 

by adverb + prepos., 846. 
bieraeit, 330; 558, 3. 
bingen HE., 185, 1. 
boppet-, 531, 1. 
bref^en lU., 185, 8; 18S. 
bringen m., 185, 1. 
brttt-, 410, 1; 530. 
buid), 304, 2; in comp. verbs, 549, 1. 
bfinfen, 119,2; 454,3. 
b&rfen, 135, 2; ase of; 867, 2; 416. 

e, pronanc. of, 8; description of, 371, 1- 
8; unaccented, 371, 8; 485, 2; sign of 
length, 33, 363, 1; sign ofamlant, 368; 
be^re x, rt, tb, 33, 488, 2; sign of pin- 
ral, 47, 49, 51, 52; in cardinals, 887; 
intheadj.-saffixes -el, -er, -en, 71; coo- 
necting vowel in conjugation, 118; de- 
rivative e in verbs, 535, 536: seconda- 
ry before t, 491, 2; e — ii ie, 187, 188, 

-e in noons < 84).» 498, 1; gender of snch 

nouns, 161, 2. 
-€ in,^o-8tems, 46. 47, 51, 437, 8; gender 

of such noons, 161, 8. 
-e in adverbs, 554, L 
ebel, 404. 

ebe, 76, 2, b\ 439, 2. 

et, 1 

such noons, 161, 2. 

pronanc. of, 38; analysis of, 378, 8; 
origin oi; 488, 5. 

-ci, 498, 3; gender of 

eigen, 470, 471, 6. 

eigcntnmliq, 488, S. 

ein, indef. art, 38, 41 ; after toetA, wad 
fftr, 98, 8, 8 : indef. pronoun, 78, 95, 
859, 860. 

eingeboren, 588, fi, 7. 

(Sindbe, 511, a. 

eind, 531, 2; for cognate Ace, 804. 

etnfl, 531, 2; 555, £ 

einAeIn, 555, 8. 

eitel, 818, 1. 

-el, noon-saffiz, 46, 47, 499; sender of 
sach noons, 161,1; 161.8; a^.-sofBz, 
71, 583, 1; verb-Boffiz, l06. 

elenb. 401. 

-eIn in verbs, 536, b, 

eitem, 174, 404. 

-em, 501. 583, 2. 

tVKp-f 541. 

empfe^ten IV., 187, 464, 8. 

-en, noon-Bomx, 46; 47; 501; 608; in- 
dicates masc gend., 160, 1; in the n-de- 
clension. 61, 68; in the pi. of foreign 
noons, 64, 2, 8; in D. ana A. of proMr 

nouns, 66; in O. ag. of adj. for ^d, 78; 
440, S. 

91, 3; 816, 1 

pronoons, 844, 2; 

Ajj.-sofflx, 71; 811; 584; in the 

past part., i07; 453; 508; 584: in 

the inf., 106; 451; in adverbs, 551. 
enb (nb), in the pres. part., 107; in noons, 

505; in the gerond., 107. 
-end, 555, 2. 
ent-, 541. 
(Snte, 430, 1. 
(Snteiii^, 515, 8, a. 
entgegen, 303, 6; 557, 1. 
entweoet, 558. 
-er, noon-sofliz, 47, 65, 507; Indicates 

masc gend., 161, 1; 163, 8; as sign of 

ploral,56, 431. 
Adj.-sofnx, 71, 583, 8; in adverbs, 

551; 556; compar. sofflx, 79; 438; 

in the G. of pronoons, 88, 88, 844, 2; 

er-, 548. 

-erel, 497, 8, Bern. 
er^aben, 189, Rem; 467. 
-eittA, 586. 8, c, 
erl&f^n VIlL, 133. 
-em, adJ.-sofQz, 584, 8; a4]. in —9 nnin- 

fleeted, 811. 
-er(n), verb-sufflx, 537, 8. 
erfAaUen Vni. (erltJ^aOt), 133. 
erfftreden IV., 187. 
etfl, 76, 2, d: 439, 2. 
erw&aen VIII., 133. 
eno&^ncn, 457, 2. 




ft, n. aDd A. ■g.Dent- 81; pocullar uw 
of, ase: nodar, 1A8 : nuladng oog- 
UM A., 804; »ia, 8; Q. c» muc ud 
maler, SS ; 183 ; A. rapptonud by 
prepoi., >34, li lodeflntla subtMti ^^8, 
),>, 4, B; gnunmatlad rabject and oi- 
pletlve, 99«L S: 313; dmIUdd of c* 
^^ |m. «i rt (N.) »d ta««i«.. 
jJLS8, 1; A0», I; 46Q. 


tu, pranuDC. or'a^; auilfiti o^ 318, ■; 

I, proniiDC. of, V; deMtlptliRi at, 330; 
Boe. coTKapoDdenU oi 410, 1; 414, 
«:41B, 1; i8S,4; (-6, 41«. 

-fi«, G31, 1. 

■-'--VII., 130,1; 4H, 1; 408,8. 

.in "" MTi+ ji,«(tenii, 880, 1 

•.ti VII., 130, 

liraa"iViL',130, 1. 
taulHijED, S38,8,a. 
-UUtg, 631, 1. ^ 
fRtttn VltL, IBS. 
HViti, 4»4. 
Stlnl), aiO; SOB. 
flnben m_ l8S, 1; 41 
ffi(»nn.. 184,1. 

htitil XL, 184, 1. 
foif, 76, 1, 
fi-, S4S. 

ftogtn, 18B; 457, »; 

iiauintlmsin, 186. 

iiauKln, 186. 

ItntR, 108, 8: 188, 1. 

[Knn IL, 184, 8. 

ma, 183: 461. 

iftifli, S64. 

iaUtn, BOS, s. 

ti, 76,1,6; 304,3; B 

Bcfttrii. 4B4, 8. 

itUti. 888,7. 


g(-,j-, Blft7: B4S: !n the p. pirt, 107, 
loa; 4A3, 1; I11I8; In noaui arnaaCet 

fli6<n T., I!i3, ll 466; Impanon*!, 80S: 

938,4; sab. 
fltbtlicnll., 188,1. 
gcMtgiD, i3b, 1. 
gt^ VII- 130,1; 136,1; 467,8; 474; 

+ tnf_4»0, 1; put pirt, 888. 
etUngtn m., ias,l. 
gilUiim., ISl; 181 
am, 304 4. 
fllMhn v., 188, 1. 
e(nlc»liill., 184,1. 
antna, comparison of, 76, 1. 
glMlKUt, i33. 

StftKi 188, Rem. 
(tnilil, Bil. 


I; gmder ^ 168,1. 

ic ot 11; daseripUon oC 374; 
arrespondents ot410, S; 41S, 
ice o^ 33; 383, S; 401,8; lou 
S, 3 ; tlga of leoglb, 38, 363, », 
■ li, VB; 4»0,3, b\ »-g,li4, 

o ; contracted tormf, 

^'8Ba,l,'»; +ln£,SeO,L 



^Ifen IILf 125, 8 : past part, of, 108, 1; 

464; + inf., S90, 8. 
^ften VIL, 108,1; 131,468,3; intrans., 

170, 1; trans., 201; + inf., 290, 2, 4; 

+ past part., 296, 2. 

iber, 443, 2. 
^rr, rednced to „er/' 230, 8. 
euer, 443, 3. 
eute, 443, 2. 
in; 443, 8. 
inter, 306, 4; in comp. Terbs, 549, 8. 
^offabrt; 528, 2, 6. 
bolD; 405. 

Ifbnn, inst. of ge^ftrt, 108, 1; + Inf., 
290, 8. 
^Utb, 405. 

^unbert, 226 ; 529, 2. 
^fifte, 430, 1. 


i, pronunc of^ 12; desciiption of^ 869, 1, 

2; <ie,488,4. 
Adf, 509; indicates masc. gend., 161, 1; 

489, 5. 
A^t, 509, 1; 525, 8. 
ie, pronnnc. of, 33, 8 ; see i: in rednpli- 

eating verbis CI. Vn., 458, 2; 488, 8, a. 
ie-eu, 124, 406. 
-ie, nonn-safiix, 498, 4; indicates fern. 

gender, 161, 2. 
-ieren, verbs in, 108, 4 ; 493, 2 ; 538. 
-iS; adj.-snifiz, 525, 1^; 489, 5; for -i^, 

509; 526, 8, c 
-igen, 639, 4 
-igfeit, 516, 2. 
-igUiJ^, 525, 2. 
i^r, poss. pron., 85 ; origin of, 243, 2 ; 

441, 2. 
3^W, 86 ; 441, 8. 
in, 306,6. 
-in> noan-8nfflx,504; indicates fem.send., 

161, 2: 430, 3. 
inbetn, 330,1; 337. 
-ing, 506. 
trgenb, 260. 
-4fi^, adJ.-Bufflz, 211; 514; 525,4. 


i, pronnnc. of, 13; 378,4; description of, 
376, 4. 

iagen, 129. 
t, 334. 
eber, infl. of, 97 ; 216, 1 ; 445, 1 ; in 
comp., 97; pi. of^ 261, 8. 

IebeS, 168. 
ebneber, 445,2. 
i^m, 97; 445, 1. 
emanb, 97, 260, 445, 1. 
lener, 90; 443, 1; O. sg. of, 216, 1; use 

of, 246, 246. 
3ungfet, 616, 12, a. 

\aq, prot^ 129. 
Jilnail; 556, 


t, pronnnc of; 14. 883, 1; Bng. corre- 
spondents of, 469, 8 ; description of; 
883, 1. 

fait, 409, 8. 

$t(tt~, 422, & 

feifen L, 122, 1. 

Uin, 72; 96; 445, 8. 

-!cit, 616, 2; fern, gend., 161, 2. 

fennen, 119, 1; 267, 1. 

ftette; 435, 4. 

fiefenlL, 124,2; 132; 411; 463. 

JiTteinob, 511,0. 

Kieben n.jl24, 2l 

fllmmen ViII., 133. 

flinaen m., 126, 1. 

fneifen Lji22, 1. 

fomtnen iV., 127: 465; 489,1; nmlant 
in pres., 127, Bern.; -i- past part., 296: 
409, a 

foflen + A. or D., 207, 1, Bern. 

Ibnnen, 135, 8; 267, 1. 

ItnH, 513. 

freife^nL, 122,1. 

het^enl.,122, 1. 

triet^n II., 122, 2. 

StOtt, 435, 4. 

UrenIL, 124,8; 132. 

I, pronnnc. oi; 15; description of, 381; 

385, 4. 
-1, see -«I. 

laben VL and weak, 129. 
laffen VIL, past part, without fte-» 108, 1; 

130, 1 ; constr. after, 199, 202, 1 ; 

267, 7; +reflexiTe, 272: in the imper., 

287, 4; +inf« 290. 8^ 8, d. 
laufen VlL, 131; 212, 1; 458, 2. 
taut, 396. 
(outer, 100. 
I&ngfl, 666, 2L 
Ic^ren instead of getebrt, 108, 1; constr. 

after, 199 ; in passiTe, 202, 2 ; + int, 

290,2; 395. 
-Ui, 633. 

leiben L, 122, 1; 411. 
leibcr, 225. 2. 
leiben I., 122, 2. 
Atin, nonn-Bufflz, 46, 1; 600, 2; neat. 

gend., 161, 8; 493, 4. 
fiettfiern, 620, 4, a. 
-ler, nonn-snffiz, 500, 4; indicates masc 

gender, 161, 1. 
lernen instead of geTernt, 108, 1; for Id^ren, 

199, 2 ; + inf., 290, 2 ; 396. 
lefen V., 128, 1. 
leferlie^, 626, 8, c. 
let, in imper., 287, 4. 
k|}t, 439, 2. 
fienmunb, 396; 494, 8. 
-foute in comp., 172. 
-lid^, adj.-enfOz, 211; 625,4; 526,8; ad- 
verbial isafflx, 644, 2. 



OcaenVM 188,9; 457,1; n^ 138; -i-iiif., 

-ttg, 586, 8, <?. 
•4tn9, nonn-eufflz, 500, 8; indicates idmc. 

ffender, 161, 1. 
-iGsgen, 500, 8, a. 
-Ung4, 553. 
Uf^en, 133. 
IftSCil II., 184, 8; 138. 
SftgeR {toafen, 109, 8. 

nifpTonanG. of, 16; desorlptioii of, 388; 

sag. oorreflpondents ot, 400, 4, 6. 
-m, Bee em. 
mcOftn + lof., 800, 9. 
SKaab, 518. 8. 
mo^ien, 400. 
mait, 518, 8. 
-mal, 531, 8. 
mand^, lOO; 868; 585,1. 
SD2ann, 58, 50; in comp., 178. 
SRauItonrf, 400; 404,3. 
mtffx, oomparlBon of, 76, 1; 100 ; 480; 

lued in comparat, 884. 
mtf^ttt, 76, 1: 100. 
neiben I., 18», 8. 
mtintt, comparat., 885, 8. 
mcift, oomparison of, 76, 1; 100. 
melteii ym.,^ 133. 
SKelobei, 493, 8. 
Wltn\^, 50, 514. 
meffen V., l88, 1. 
SRcite, 485, 4. 
mlnber, comparison oi; 76, 1; 430; used 

in comparat., 884. 
SRifr.. 453,1 ; 516, 8 : 544. 
mitteljl, snperl., 76, 8, 0; prepos., 308, 7. 
flRiitetnaef^C 519, 8. 
flRUtwoA, 164, d, 
mdoen, 135, 4 ; 867, 8 ; 418, 8. 
nmnt 135, 6 ; 867, 8 ; 471, 8. 
-mut, in comp., 164, a. 


11/ pronnnc of, 17; natnre o^ 886^87; 
floal n in foreign words, 386| 1, fiem.; 
short before sonant stops, 385, 4; n = 
9, i. e., "guttaral" nasal, 386, and see 
nt, ng : before labial. 388. 1 ; lost in 
Bng., 417, 1; entered the N. of nouns 
of the n-decl., 435, 8; loss of; 435. 8, 4; 
508 ; Bng. correspondenta of, 490, 6. 

n&Ail, 303, 11. 

92a(^t, 54. 

-nb, 505. 

neben, 306, 6 ; 557. 

nebjlr 303, 18 : 555, 8. 

ne^men lY., 187; (iEBunbct), 199, 1. 

-iie(n), yerb-soffix, 537, 1. 

Bcnnen, 119, 1; 455; oonstr. with, 801; 
890,8; 896,8; 803,4. 

-ner, 508, 1 ; indicates masc gender, 

m, pronnnc. o^ 17, 383, 1. a; 386, 1. 
mt, Bii^td, 99; 199, 1, 8: 309,1: in 

comparative danses, 333, 8 ; 490, 8. 
tii^btd wenlget aU, 333, 8, a. 
tiiemanb, 445, 1. 
-nl^i 50; 51: forms nenter and fern. 

nonns, 161, 8, 8 ; origin of; 503. 
nlf pronnnc. of, 17; 380, 1. 
no#iiiAt, 354. 
ttttv, 886, 1. 


0/ pronnnc. of; 18 ; description of, 870^ 

tj, 8; in ablants, Yl.. 450, 4; < n, 405, 

489,4; <£489,k 
oh, prepos., 308, 8; coBJ., 385, 8. 
oUv-, accent. 488, 7. 
oe, as sign of umlant, 368, 8. 
C^ma^^t, 489, 8 ; 516, 10. 
o^nr, 891, 1, Bern. ; 804, 6 ; in comp., 

516, 10. 
e-mnlant, see b. 
b, pronnnc ot 81; description of, 870, 8| 

4 ; 5— f, 480, 1; <ft, 489, 4. 

pf pronanc. of, 19 ; description of. 885, 

1; Bng. correspondents of; 413, 8; 

ipolaft, 163, 1 : 494. 
pf, pronnnc or, 19 ; description of; 389, 

1; Bng. conespondentB of; 409, 8; 

iPfala, 494. 
pnegen VuL, 133: 469. 
pp, pronnnc of; 19. 
pui)tn L, 188, 8. 


^, pronnnc of; 80 ; 409, 8. 
queOen VIII.. 133. 
quiman, 400, 8. 

T, pronnnc. ofL 81 ; 391, 8 ; description 

of, 374,8; 377. 
fRaht, 435, 8. 
taten VIL, 130, 1. 
T&Aen YTtL, 133. 
rtiben L, 188, 8. 
-rti<^, 515, & a. 
rtt|en I., 188, 1. 

reiten I., 188, 1 ; -i- fp(i)tmii, 890. 
tetttten, 110, 1. 
-TiA, 515, 8. 
tU^n U., 184, 1. 



liaa or, 3TB, I, a, S ; Id Q. ag., *»i In 
Uie pi,, 60 ; ST ; In compoiuids, ST 1 

B18, a. 

fl< fl, *1», a; in Vemet'a Liw, 411, 
416 ; Edk. comnKUkdeDU ot 414, 1; 

-t, DIHID-Hlfflz, SIS : lu tdieilM, SSS. 

faiU, 4 IT, 1. 

Mu. SO, bl ; 000, 1 : noiuii of dDDbtfal 

Hvnq^ A ox, 
m, 91^6, 4. 

Ullt^n ru 124^1. 

MUntitD in., tas, t 

"—■Ma VIII., 133. 
ittn n., 134, 1. 

tinlL, tS4,l. 
ita L, laa, i 
:b l, laa, s. 


eitDtln, 60a, s. 
ttbnlntKa m , laM. 

jStvlaintn nl, 1 as, t ; «e4. 
fSiDhtii TL, ISO ; I3a ; 4ST, L 

t^ X^Sl * In 
3M, 1 ; +pn 

Ipim, 137,1: 

I; Se0.4l3BI, 

oL 4ia. 

,1; iBOldllwU, 



1^ proavnc of; 95: tea t^; Bug. corre- 

Bjpondents oi; 408, 1; 41»; 418, 1; 

414, 1; deBcripdoD oil 884, 1 ; In j, 

889,8,4; ezcreBoent, 87; 91,8; 491, 

9 ; 612, S, 8 ; Btop* Into spinuita be- 

foro, 412. 
-4, noQD-safliz, 512 ; fom. gend., 161, 2 ; 

163, 5. 
-t, in the participle of weak Terba, 

-t S. pen. 8g. in pret-piea. verba, 

470, 2. 
taugenr 471, fi. 
Staufenb, 226 ; 529, S. 
-te, Bulfiz in ordinals, 80 ; 530. 
■4t, inpret, 117; 464, 1. 
-te(, 632, 2. 
-ter, noun-snfflx, 608. 
t^ pronanc of, 126 ; origjln of, 363, 8 ; 

384, 1. 
t^&t; 274.6; 290: 476,2. 
St^or, 162; 408.1. 
t^un, 136, 8 : 464, 1; 476 ; aa an anziL, 

274,6: 290,1. 
Zf^tt, 408, 1. 
traaen VI^ 129. 
treffenrv., 1»7. 
trelben I., 122, S. 
tretenVM 128,1. 
iriefen IT., 124, 1; 463. 
trteaenIL, 132. 
trinten III., 124, 1. 
-trunfen, 628. 
iTftgenn.,124,S; 189. 
-turn, sonn-sufilz, 67, 4 j mostly nent. 

gend., 161, 8; origin oL 501; 615, 6. 
%, pronanc oi; 889, 8 ; 414, 1; see a* 


V, pronnnc of. 26 ; description of, 368, 1, 
8 ; < uo, 488, 4; n—t, 405 ; +naiaUt 
and Hquida sonoM^ 469, & 

w, as sign of umlaut, 362, 9. 

um, 291, 1, 4, Kem. ; 304, 7 ; in oomp. 
verbs, 649. 4. 

un-r accent, 422, 6 ; 516, 10. 

-ttng, 606, 8 ; fem. gender, 161, 2. 

nnfrer for nnfer (O. pi.), 82. 

unter, 306, 8, 10 : in comp. verba, 540, 6. 

Untetf*ieb, 468, 8. 

Ur-, 616, 0. 

UrBatr 626, 1. 

tt-umlaut, see ft. 

ft, pronanc. oil 31; sign of omlaut, 862, 
8; 368, 4 ; description of; 367 ; 368, 
8, 4 ; <11«, 488, 4 ; ft-i, 489, 9. 

hUx, 306, 1 ; in comp. verbs, 549, 8. 


t, pronnnc oi; 27; 880, 1, 8; 

416, 1. 
Soter, 411; 478,4. 


Mr-, 516, 11; 545; In certain participles, 

296, 8 L646, Rem. r- r -• 

Mtberben IIL, 126, 8. 
v<ftri(|eii U., 124. 1. 
vcrseffett Y., 128, 1 ; past part in comp., 

296, 8, a. 
Dettegen, past partn 524, 4. 
Mtlieren n., 124. 9 ; 416. 
»er»itreii Vm., 13S. 
MTOorten Vm., 133. 
«ie^, 410, 8. 
Dtel, comparison of, 70, 1 ; 100 ; 109, 1, 

2; 263. 
Dolt-, 649. 6. 
WtUt, 219, 1. 
tfolDo'mnieii, 421, 1. 
wn, 303, 16 ; 306, 7, Rem. 
»0T. 306, 8: 1S16, oL 
sorbet, 76, 8. 

»i nronnnc of, 28 ; description of, 379 ; 
880, 8; loss oi; 417, 8; Sng. corre- 
spondents of, 410, 8 ; 416, 8 ; 490, 6. 

maifUn VI., 129. 

SBagetir 494, 1. 

war, see witan and fein. 

warb, prec. of merben, 111, 8. 

warum, 261, 4 ; 661, 9. 

na9, inteiTOg. pron., 92 ; 444 ; use of, 
261 : + Q., 261, 1 ; preceded by lu, 
m\if 251, 3 ; with fftr and eln, 263 ; 
fbroe of toarum, 261, 4; relat pron., 
93: 266; 266,9; Indefl pron., 96; 
204; 260. 

waft <toffMiii, 466,1. 

mS^n VI., 129 ; 412. 

iD&aen ym., 133. 

-»att9, 663. 

"weak," 428, 8. 

weben yin., 133. 

webct; 444, 8. 

-oegen, In comp. with prononns, 87: 
prepoB., 302, 18. 


ttci^n L, 122, 1. 

toeil, 330,1; 337. 

tDeifen L, 122, 9. 

mUSf, interrog. pron., 92, 9 ; 444, 9 ; with 
ctn, 144; 262: rclat. pron» 93, 9; 
265, 266 ; indef. pron., 96, 260. 

iDctI, see »Wen. 

iDcnbeur 110,1. 

IDCT, interrog. pron., 02 ; 251 ; 410, 8 ; 
444 ; relat. pron., 03, 8 ; 254 ; 266 ; 
indef. pron., 96 ; 264; 260. 

tDCtben III., 126, 8. 

toerbcn in., inil.of, 110; 111,9; 460, 
1 ; in passive, 273 ; in comp. tenses, 
283. 9^. 

ivetfcnllL, 125,8. 

VHi, IDCffcnr 87 ; 92, 1 ; 266, 4. 

JJjjJJ^ t v., 128, 6 ; 411 ; 466. 
mtber, 804, 8 ; 549, 7. 



wie, 444, 1 ; in eompar. cUoBeB, 333 ; 

after comparative, 333, 2. 
tvieber, 549, 8. 
wieaen Vm., 133. 
»iaen, in compos, withpron., 87; prepos., 

30S, 14. 
tvinben III., 126, 1. 

Wiffen, 135, 1; 412,8; 471.1; 472,1. 
t9o(r), sapplants cases of interrog., aod 

relat. pron., 251, 8; in local ciaiises, 

331 ; origin of, 490, 8. 
»oM, prommc. oL 381 ; 489, 1 
»onen; 135, 7 : 472, 2 ; special force of, 

267,6; 279, 8: 283, &. 
loorbeiti past part., 108, 6. 
SBunber, see ne^men. 
tvurbe, 111,3. 

S, proxranc. of, 29 ; 389, 2 ; 417, S, a. 


^, pronimc. oi; 81. 

of,' 409, 

8# pronimc. of, 30 ; 389, 8, 4 ; Bne. cor- 

1; 414, 1; 


3«^n, 409, 1. 

hdfftn L, 122, 2: 895 ; 462. 
-)en, in verbs, 539, 8. 
|er-, 546. 

ite^enn., 122,2; 416. 
-tig, 629, 1. 
gttteni; 457, 8. 
Sn, 303, 16 ; before InH, 291 ; before an 

adjective, 291,.4 ; 333, 8. 
3ttnft, 398. 
g»ar, 655, 8. 
jween, 79; 629. 
8»ei, iniL of, 78 ; ftvm and gender ol^ 79 ; 

8»elf, 529 ; 489, 1. 
gwie-^ 520, 1 ; 531, 1. 
{iDinaen III., 125, 1. 
itDi\^, 306, 10. 
a»o, 79 i 529. 

^ Gximm*8 sign, 414 ; > b^ 490^ 2.