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aLPHEU s cros b y. 




117 Wabhisctoh Stbkbt, 


^ Upl:«lbvCTOOglC 


Grkev Toksuk, Jnim iU proprielii mud wuttntHty, u mwii fir mU 
thai u grtmt, am4 all Out it btitut^al, u «B*ry &tj(X(, and mrfn ac«ry 
Form ^ Kritiiig." — Hbttu'i Hermut, Bk. ill. Ch. 6. 

" Oiwk, — thft ihriue of the geniui of the old world ; ■■ nnivenu 
M oar nuse, u IndiTidual u ODiselTei ; oT infinite fleiibilitf , of inde- 
fatigable Btimgdi, with the eomplicKiiofl md ike Aj^aemem of nature 
herself; U> which nothing wu mtgar, (h>m which nothing wm eiclud- 
ed ; ipeaking to tha ear like Italian, apeaking to the mind like English ; 
with wnrdi like picturei, with wordi like the gasaamer film of the loin- 
mer; at onoe the Ttuietjp and pictureequenen of Honier, the gloom and 
ttw iDteaaitj of iCacbjhu ; not eompreiaad lo the cloaeai bj Thncydi- 
dea, not Githomed \a the bottom by Plito, not (oiiDding with all iti thua- 
dera, nor lit wf with all )ta anion even tinder the Promethean toonh of 
UeiDoetheDMl" — Coleridge's Ouly if tk* Oruk Clank Pe€U, Oil. 

Eatered aecordin| u> Act of CongreN, Id the year IM6, bJ 
iDlije Clerfc'i oOce of Uw i^ialnei Cowtefthe DMilctofNew Hampshire 

»i by Google 


Tbi Mowing pages an the TMult of an Utempt to nipplj wbu 
ma believed to be a deaidentiun in the list of Greek tezt4N>okB ; tis. 
k giBinmBj which should be portable sod simple enough to be pnt into 
the hands of the beginner, and which should yet be snfllciently seien* 
lific and eoinplete to accompanj bint throagh hit whole coarse. Ths 
ralome from whidi die elements of a langnage an 6rat learned be- 
eomu to the student a species of mnemonic tablea, and cannot be 
changed in the couise of hia stndy wilhont a material derangement 
of those Bssocia^ons npon which memory essentially depends. Tho 
&miliar remark, " Tt mast be remembered that, if the grammar be the 
firsl bouk put into the learner's hands. It should also be the last ta 
lesTe them," tiioagh applying most happily to grammaiica] Mudv in 
general, was made bj its accomplished author with particular refei^ 
ence to the manual used by the student. 

In the preparation of this woric, the routine of daily life has obli^nd 
ma to keep oonstantly in view tbe wants of more advanced studenw ; 
and, (or their sake, an attempt has been made to inTcatigate the prin- 
mplcs of the language more deeply, and illustrate its use more fully, 
than has been usual in grammatical treatises, even of far greater aize. 
At the same time, no pains have been spared to meet the wants of the 
beginner, by a studious nmplidty of method and expression, and by 
the redaction of the most important ptindples to the form of concise 
rules, easy of retention and convenient for citation. Many valuable 
worka in phOology fail of attaining the highest point of utility, through 
a cumbronsaesa of form, burdensome alike to the anderstanding and 
the memory of the learner. They have been the annor of Saol to the 
youthful David. I have not, however, believed that 1 should consult 
ttM advantage even of the beginner by a &lse tepresantatiou of the 
language, or by any departure (rom philosophical accniaey of state- 
ment or propriety of arrangement. T^di is always better than falao- 
bood, ^d sdsnoe than empiridsm. 

To secure, so far as might be, the double object of the work, it haa 
baen oonstrueted apon the following plan. 


Fint, to ^aU be QMge of the luigiu^ in compreheDHre ioIm 
knd coDdeiiBed Ublee, to be imprinied upoa the laeoMr j of the Mudanl. 
For conTeoient ezamplsB of the care with which bierit; and simplidtj 
htTo been here atudied, the leadOT will peimit me to refer him to the 
rules of ayntox, as presented to the eye at a aingle Tiew io ^ 64, and 
IC the eleiDaitwr; t^lea of inflectton and foTinauan. 

Second);, t« explatn the nsage of the language, and trace iii At»- 
' loricai development, as full; u the limits allowed to die work, and the 
present state of philological Bdenoe, would peimit. The student whc 
thinks wishes to know, not only ahat ii trut, bat ahy it it true ; aod 
to &e philosophical mind, a single principle addressed to the reason 
is oSiea like the silver cord of .£«1ub, confining a vast number of facia, 
which otherwise, like the enfranchised ninda, are acattered far and 
wide beyond the power of control. 

Thirdly, to iUuslratt the nse of the langnsge by great fiibess of 
ranark and exemplification. In these remarka and examples, as well 
■s in the more general rules and atatemenla, I have designed to keep 
myself esietiilly within the limiu of Attic usage, aa exhibiting th* 
language in its standard form, except when some intimation is giv«i 
to the contrary ; believing that the grammarian has no more right 
than the author to nse indiscriminately, and wiihout notice, the 
voctbnlarj, fioms, and idioms of different sges and communities. — 

" A partj-aMm'il irtm 
Of patch'il lad pj'rtall'il luigiijigu." 

The examples of syntax, in order that the student may be aaaored 
in regard to their genninenesa and sources, and be able to sxamins 
diem in their connection, have been all cited fiom classic authora In 
die precise words in which they occur, and with references to the place* 
where they may be found . In accordance with the general plan of the 
work, these examples have been milbtly taken &om the purest Attio 
writers, beginning with ^^schylus, and ending with .^lachines. It 
was also thought, that the practical value of such examples might be 
greatly enhanced to the atudent by selecting a single author, whose 
works, as those of a model-writer, should be moat Ireqnentl] resorted 
to ; and especially, by eelecdng for couBtant dtation a single work of 
this author, which could be in the hands of every student as a com- 
panion to his grammar, in which he might consult the passages re- 
ferred to, and which might be to him, at (he same time, a text-book 
in reading, and a model in writing, Greek. In making the choice, I 
eoutd not heutate in selecdug, among authors, Xenophon, and among 
his writings, the Anabasis. References also abound in the Etymology, 
*nt ehiefly in respect to peculiar and dialectio fonns.- 


The oubjeci of euphonic laws nod chwigw hw received s }trgei 
■hare of atlention than ia oBaaJ in works of this kitwi. but not lug« 
tti&D 1 fell compelled U> bestow, in treating of a language, 
" Whoaa lin vu bniimlr beuiij, ind whoH breuh 
finnpUrlDi nnMc." 

The Btndent will allow me to commend to his Hpeoial notice two 
piindplsi of extensiTe use in the explanation of Greek Ibnn* ; viz. 
the precessioa of rowels (i. e. the tendency of vowels, in the progreM 
of language, to pass from a more open to a closer sound ; sea j§ S8, 
S9, 44, B6, 93, 118, 133, 259, &c.), and die conespondenne be- 
tween the consonants r and u, and the vowels a and « ($$ 34, 46. /?, 
60,56-08,60,63. R., 84, 100. S, 105, 109, 13S, 170,181,300,301, 
313, 348./, 300, &e.). 

In treating of Greek etymology, I have wished to avoid every thing 
like arbitrary formation ; and, instead of dedunng one fbrm from an- 
other by empirical prooessea, which might often be quite as well r»- 
Teised, I have endesTOured, by rigid analysis, to resolve alt the formi 
into tlieir elements. The old method of forming the tenses of the 
Greek verb one from another (compared by an excellent grammarian 
to " The House that Jack built "), is liable to objection, not only on 
account of its complexity and molti plication of arbitrary rules, bat jet 
more on aceonnt of the great number of imaginary forms whioh it re> 
quires the student to suppose, and which often occupy « place in hii 
memory, lo the exclusion of the real forms of the language. To die 
but a ungle ease, the second aorist pasuve, according to this method, 
b fbrmed lirom the second aorist active, although It is a general rule 
of the language, that verbs which have the one tense want the other 
(§ 355. 0). Nor is the method which makes the theme the foundation 
of all the other forms free from objection, eidier in declension or in 
conjugation. This method not only requires the assistance of many 
imaginary aominativas and presents, but it often inverts the order of 
nature, by deriving the simpler form from the more complicated, and 
commits a species of itrammaticsl snaehronism, by making the later 
fbrm the origin of the earlier. See ^ 84, 100, 350. V., 365. In 
the following grammar, all the forms axe immediately referred to the 
root, nnd the analysis of the actnal, as obtuned from, classic usage, 
takes the place both of the metempsychoms of the obsolete, and of the 
metamorphosis of the ideal. 

Those parts of Greek Grammar of which I at first proposed to form 
a separate volume, the Dialects, the History of Greek Inflection, tlis 
F<nmstion of Words, and Veraification, 1 have concluded, with tba 

■dTiee of highl; eateemed frieoda, to incorporaU in thia ; M tW ■ 
■uwle Tolume ahauld cooBtitute a cumpleu manual of GraeL Grammai. 
To aooomplish this objact withio muderaie limita of aise and ezpenaa, 
a TeT7 eondensed mcxle of printing has been adopted, giving lo tb* 
Tolume an nnosual amoaai of matter in pn^xirtioo to it* aiae. I thank 
my ptintere, tbat. Uitou^ tlieir akill and care, they bave ahown thii 
to be conalBteDt with so much tjpognphioal eleainesa and beauty, [l 
haa also been found neceaary to reaerre for a ■eparsta treatise tbosa 
pans of the Giat edition which were derotad to General Grammar, 
and which it was at fiiat proposed to include in the preasat edition at 
aa appendix. 1 aabnut to thia uecesaity wi^i the leas reluctauL'e, 
baeauae a ayslematio attention to the prinoiplea of Gea«ial Grammar 
ought not to he deferred till the study of the Greek, unless. In accord- 
ance with the judidoua adnce of some dislinguislied acholara, thia 
ahuuld Im the first laoguage learned after our own ; and because ths 
wiah baa been expressed, that these parts might be published separ- 
ately for the uoe of those who were Qoi engaged in a course of classical 

1 cannot cooclude tbia preface without the expreasion of my most 
(incere thanks to those peraonal fhends and frienda of leaning who 
hsTe BO kindly encouraged and aided me in iny work. Among thoM 
to whom I am espeoially indebted tar valoable suggestions, or for the 
loan of hooka, axe Piemdent Wootaey, whose elevation, while I am 
wri^ng, to a post which he wOl ao much adom, wiU not, 1 trost, 
withdraw him from that department of study and authorship in which 
he haa won for himself so coviahle a distinctiou ; Profesaors Felton 
of Cambridge, Gibba of New Haven, Uackett of Newton, Sanborn, 
my highly estaemed asaociata tn classictl instruction, Stuart of Ao- 
dovei, ajid Tyler of Amherst; and Heasrs, Richaids of Meridea, 
Sophocles of Hartford, «n^ Taylor «f Andover. Nor can I'condude 
without ttw aokiiowledgment of my deep obligations lo preriou la- 
bwars in the same field, to the aacAT utino, and to the obiat 
Biao — Rtfidueani in poM .' It is almost superflnooa that 1 should 
mentioD, aa among tbnae m whom 1 am most greatly indebted, the 
honored aamea of Ahrena, Benibardy, Bopp, Buttmann, Carmlohael. 
F^aoher, Haituug, Hermann, Hoogsreen, Kuhnet, Lobeok, Mait- 
laiie, Uatthis, Faasow, Boat, Thien^, and Vigor. 

, AC. 

HaxoTHi, Oa. 13, 1846 

. Upl:«lbvGOOglc 


Tbs following tables hsve been prepared ae part of a Greek Graiih 
Kiai. The; are likewise published separately, for ihe gTeater conven- 
ience and econorajr in their use. The advantages of a tabular ai- 
rangement are too obvious to require remark ; nor in it leas obvious, 
that tables are coiuiulted and compared with greater ease when printed 
together, than when scattered througKoul a volume. 

The principles upon which the Tables of Paradig-ms have been oofr 
■Iructed, are the following : — 

I. To avoid netdUit repetition. There is a certain ellipsia in grant- 
matical tables, as well as in discourse, which relieves not only tha 
material instramenls of the mind, but the mind itself, and which a»- 
■ists alike the anderatanding and the memory, Wlien the student haa 
learned that, in the neuter gender, the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative are (Uways the same, why, in each neuter paradigm that he 
studies, must his eye and mind be taxed with the examination of nine 
forms instead of three ? why, in his daily exercises in declension, 
must his tongue triple its labor, and more than triple the weariness of 
the teacher's ear? With the ellipses in the following tables, the par- 
adigms of neuter nouns contain only sight forms, instead of the tvxlvt 
which are usually, and the fifteen which are sometimes, given ; and 
the paradigmsof participles and of adjectives similarly declined contEun 
only taenty-ttao forms, instead of the tunal thirly-six or JoTty-fi»e. 
Bee ^[4. 

n. To give Ihe forna just as they appear upon the Greek pagt, 
(hat is, without abi/rei-iation and without hyphens. A dissected and 
abbreviated mode of printing the paradigras exposes the young student 
to mistake, and timiliarizes the eye, and of course the mind, with 
ftagments, instead of complete forms. If these . fragments were sep- 
arated upon analytical principles, the evil,would be less; but tbey are 
nenally cut olT just where convenience in printing may direct, ao that 
they contain, sometimes a part of the affix, sometimes tha whole afiii, 
IS the affix with a part of the root. Hyphens »« useful 

nil FszTAcs TO tiib'tibus. 

in the ansljsis of fcirmB, but a table of paradigms seema not to 1m tba 
moat appropriate place for them. In the Toilowing lablea, the affixea 
are pven by themselvea, and the panujigms are ao arranged in eol- 
amns, that the eye of the atudeat will uauall; sepante, at a glance, 
the root from the affix. 

in. 7b repraenl the language according to its actwd tue, and not 
according to the theories or fancies of tKe Alexandrine and Byxantitu 
grammarians. Hence, for example, 

1. The ^st perfect active imperative, which has do extatenee ia 
pure wtilera, haa been diacarded. 

S. For the itQaginaf/ imperaliee fonua 1axa9tt rlStrt, SiSo9l 
Siliiyv9t, have been Bubstitnled the actual fonos Jmi), rtSu, dldoOt 

3. Together with analogical but rare forrna, have been giren the 
tiaual fbrms, which in man; grammars are noticed onlj as exceptiona 
oi dialectic peculiarities. Thus, povUvitmaat and ^ovltvortmvt 
fiovlsioatg and poviivouas, ifiefiovlivxtiaar and ifli^viivxeaur 
(^ 34) ; povltviaSaiaay and ^ovUvtadiar, ^ovlsv3al>iaar and /!dv- 
Uv9tUr (IT 35) ; W5i|x and iilSow (^ 50) ; ^g and ^o*o, Zof 
lai and guioi (^ 55). 

4. The second fvittre active and middle, which, except aa a euphi^ 
nie form of the first future, is purely imaginaiy, has been wholly 

TV. 7b distinguish belaeen regular and irregular usage. What 
ttadem, from the common paradigma, dees not receJTe the impresaion, 
Bometimes never corrected, that the second perfect and pluperfect, the 
second aorist and future, and the third fjtltire belong as regularly to 
the Greeli verb, as the Hrat tenaes bearing the same name ; when, in 
point of ikct, the Attic dialect, even including poetic usage, preaenta 
only about lifly verbs which have the second perfect and phiperfect, 
eigbly-Gve, which have the second aorist active ; fiilj, which have the 
second aorist and future passive; and forty, which have the second 
aorisl middle! The gleanings of aJ] the other diatecta will not double 
these numbers. Carmichael, who has given ns most fully the statia- 
tica of the Greek verb, and whose labors deserve all praise, has 
gathered, from all the dialeoU, a list of only eighty-eight verbs which 
have the second perfect, one hundred and forty-five which have tho 
second aorist active, eighty-four which have the second aorist pasrirO) 
and fiity-eight which have the second aorist middle. And, of hi} 


Mtalogne of nearly eight hundred veibs, embracing the most a 
▼erbe of the langaage, onlif Gfty-fiTO have the third 'future, and, ia 
the Attic di&leot, only twenty-eight. 

To some there maj appear to be an impietj in attacking the Tenel> 
erable shade of tvniiu, hut alas ] it is little mare than & shade, and, 
with all my early and long cherished attachment to it, I am forced, 
tSlet examination, to exclaim, in the language of Electra, 
"A.i-J fixrini 
Viffni, twMt ri mal tMiki aiiffiXii, 
and to ask why, in an age which professes sach devotion to tmlh, a 
IsIh TepreaeDtation of an irregular verb should be still set forth bb 
the paradigm of regular conjugation, snd made the Procrustes' bed 
to which all other verbs must be stretched or pruned. The actual 
liitarB of iviitia b not tuifrnt, but lumijoiu, the perfect passivs is both 
litvupat and iciuiiTii^ai, the aorists are in part dialecUc or poetio, 
the first and second perfect and pluperfect active are not found in 
elasnc Greek, if, indeed, found at all, and the second future activ* 
and middle are the mere figments of grammatical fancy. And yet 
all the regular verbs in the language must be gravely pronounced, 
defective, because they do not conform to this imaginary model. 

Id the following tables, the example of Kiihner has been followed, 
in selecting (iovXiiu as the paradigm of regular conjugation. This 
verb is strictly regular, it glides smoothly over the tongue, is not lia- 
ble to be mispronounced, and presenis, to the eye, the prefixes, root, 
and affixes, with entire distinctness throughout. This is followed bj 
ahoiter paradigms, in part merely synop^cal, which exhibit the dif- 
ferent classes of verbs, with their varieties of formation. 

From the common paradigms, what student would hesitate, in writ- 
ing Greek, to employ the form in -jiidott little suspecting that it ia 
only a variety of the first person dual, so exceedingly rare, that the 
learned ESmsley {perhaps too hastily) pronounced it a mere inventioa 
of the AlezandrioB grammariansl The teacher who meets witii it io 
his redtation-room may almost call his class, as the crier called the 
Roman people upon the celebration of the secular games, " to gaie 
Dp<Hi that which they had never seen before, and would never we 
again. '^ In the secondary tenioa of the indicative, and in the op- 
tative, this form does not occur at all ; and, in the remaining tenses, 
there have been fonnd only ^ve examples, two of which are quoted 
by Athenmis from a viori-lmnteT (oro/iorofiilpac}, wliose afleotation 
ha is ridiculing, while the thrae olasiical examples are all poetio, oo- 


•nrring, one in Homer (II. <P. 4B5), and ths other two in SophoelM 
(El. 950 and Phil. 1079). And yet, in the aingla paradigm of 
%vinit, as I learned it in my boyhood, this " needless Altxandritu, " 

" Which, Uks ■ vouDded inika, dnigi In ilow langth ilong, " 
occnn no fewoi than twenty-sis tunes, that is, almOBt nine times ■■ 
oAsD as in the whole range of the Greek olassica. 

With reaped to the manner in which these tablea should be need 
BO much depends npon the age and attainments of the student, that 
no directions could be given which might not require to be greatly 
modilied in particalar cases. 1 would, however, recommend, 

1. That the paradigms should not be learned en tnaste, but gradu- 
ally, in connection with the study of the prindples and rules of tha 
(ram mar, and with other exercises. 

9. That some of the paradigma should rather be used for reference, 
than formally committed to memory. It will be seen at once, that 
■ome of them have been inserted merely for the sake of exhibiting 
differences of accent, or individual peculiarities. 

3. That, in learning and consulting the paradigms^the student 
should constantly compare them with each other, with the tables of 
terroinations, and with the rules of the grammar. 

4. That the humble volume should not be dismissed from service, 
tin the paradigms are impressed opon the tablets of the memory as 

. legibly as upon the printed page, — till they have become so familiar 
to the Btndent, that whenever he has occasion to repeat them, " the 
worda," in the expressive language of Milton, " like so many nimble 
■nd airy seryitois, shall trip shout him at command, and in well- 
ordered files, aa he would wish, fall aptly into their own places." 

In the present edition, the Tables of Inflection have been enlarged 
by the addition of the Dialectic Forms, the Analysis of the Affixes, 
thu Changes in the Boot of the Verij, &c. Tables of Ligatures, of 
Derivation, of Pronominal Correlatives, of the Rules of Syntax, and 
of Forms of Analysis and Parsing, have also been added. Soma 
nferences have been made to sectiuns in the Gtammar. 


Hahoth, Sept. 1, 1846. 

»•• Thi ToImM it TMlm oostalai pp 1, H, vU-ldl, t-SL 




L Tables or OiTHOGEArHT ahd Obtbobft. 

n AnalTiia of 
nL Nauu <f 1 

A. MancoliDe, rM/Jmt, lavnu, 

Dialectic Yonaa, ■ > 
IT. Nomu of DedeosloD IL 

A. Muculloe uid Femiovu^ 
xifH, Kfisi, itit, tin, w(, 

B. Heater, «v»i, avi;!!^ /li- 

1. Latual, yi!^ fAl'^ 
S. PaUCal, titai MJi, pi. 

x>^ Sfii, . . . 

S, LingiuL 

m. IfucBHna aol Peoii- 
nia^ rmTi, rtit, iia^ 
Xdfr. »*"''■ ■ 

^. Nentci, r^», f£r, 

B. liquid, 
V^ 1-W». M »<^ M- 
"**'* * • _• 

/iitnif, s^ if r^ . IT 

C liqoid-Hnta, 

Xim, Sitii, ^Jyufi l^«fr 
SiMffi, '0«£(i • • IT 

D. Fun. 

B. UwolilW «M1 F»«ninln^ 

trnii, fiiSi, TfUTi w(i 
■^X*'> '•^ii rgiifiu, • II 

JL MeoUr, njxt, tftw, yl^ 
fi, ... 1« 

Dialectic Fonti\ ... 1* 
*i. tmgular aiid Dtalectie D*. 
dclirioii, Z%i,, OiIiVhxi riA, 

•I'il, »iir, Ii{B, <«iil, limllii 
•■iXH, 'OJivnft, nArtt**-H, *JC 
th. A^ediTM of TSro Ti 

jL W Deolcoioa IL, Anw, 

B. Of Deckofdca HL, lifm, 
Jgrnf,^ *'-«*. "**•• *"*• 
vm. Adjectives of Three Tenni- 

A. Of Dedenaom IL and L, 
f'^-'. "*«. - ■ • 
CoDtncted, ;^firut, AvXiMi 

B. Of Dedennnns Hi. mi L, 


CL Of flie Three Decbiuioiu, 

Hgmeria Fonns of nl-vi. 34 


tx. Nomenli, A, .Si!,, }iV, t/^ 
f.. r(u,, ,l,«(„. . . 

X. Pankiplis, finXiian, ri/uLn, 

ifiH, t*nii, iiUh Xrrit, 

XI. SabsUntiTa Prononiu. 

A. PenoDal, iyi, wS, t!, . 

B. Befleiive, if^„,Z, ntu. 
rw, lai^rw, . 

C. Kgciproool, iU>.iix», • 
T>. Indefinite, J>rw, 

XB. A^ecliva Pronouna. 

A. DeOaito. 

Aitide ;, Itenitira mirh, 
Bdadvs I(, Demoiutrativa 
Bi, Poraasatve, . . 

ItanoiutiaUTe tSrti, nriS- 

B. bideflnila. 

Simple IndeBnite wh, lotet- 
iDgatiTS rf f , BeUtive Aidrf^ 
bdta Irr'i, . , , 1 



L AcfjectiTei. 

1. CurdiiMl. 2. Otdiiial, 
3. Temporal, 4. MuUJ] 
S. PmpattimaJ, , . 
n. Advcrtw, 
m. 3(ibataiitiv«i, . 

C Tables or Conjccuxioa. 
I. The TenKS CUnified, . , S3 

D. The Hoda Claetified, . S3 
m. Formalion of the TeOKg, 33 

IV. Affixes of the Active Toics, 34 

V. Afflxw of the Ptarive ViAx, S6 

VI. Aaa]f;d« of the Affixes , SB 
Til. IHatectic Fomu, . , 39 
Tin. Active Voice of fiialnim I 

" ■ - • . . 4o| 

XI. (A.) Uata Verbs. 

2. .^,t-, 
OI. (B.) Liquid Vsifaa. 

1. iryi\).m, 

9. ^/.«, 
3L (C) Double Consoiuat Teib*. 

1. aJJ. or.Sf^w, . 

S. mixa/tfim, iX^^iy/ifu, 
av, (D.) Pure Verbs. 
L Contract, 


s. p,xi., . 

s. l,ii,, 

IL Verbs in -f^ 

I. Irm^ 

4. }.'Jh^ , 
6. fi1/<i . 

9. iV', . 
iiL Seooad Aorin*, 
]. Un; . 
a. iwiifm^ 

XT. (E.) Pretariti»« Verbs, 
1. •TU, 
S. iituai and !%■, 

xn. CSunges In the Boot, 


nL Pbikcipal Rules of Syntax, 


. 83 I a Or JSKnm, . 




Cb. 1. Charujixbi, . 90 

C. Aportrophe, . . 


Pronondadon, . 


Dud«ctie Tuiatioiu, . 

BiMta^,aoItboe^^ibJ, . 



d. s. VowM* . . . 


Euphonk Changte, 

1. Preo-dcm, . . 


A. la ForauUion of Words, 


IL nnioorfSylUblM, . 


B. InCoimectioiiorWoiJ^ 

A. ContBcUoo. . . 


a Spedd Bnlt^ . 

B. Cnud^ . . . 


Disltctia TaiUtioiu, . 


BOOK n. 


Ca. 1, Pbuxuplb or De- 

C. Mod*, . . . 


Cl^MlOI^ . 


D.NDml)er and Person, 


A. Gender. 


B. Nnmb«r, . . . 

Ca. a. PasnzEs or CmuD- 

C Ctm, D. UiOho/k, 




R Huu»7 or Dedeudon. 


L Augment, 


Cb. S. DBCLENHiiar <Hr Soma. 

11. Bwti^Oiaiaoa, . . 



UL Of Componnd TsrU, 


DUhxitic Forms, . . 

DiJeciioUwi, . . . 



Ch. 9- Amnei or Coxju- 

K«Ioctic Forms, . . 


UL Third DecUoskM, . 



A. Uotet, . . . 

A. Tense-Sign,, . . 

B. Uqold^ . . 


B. Connecting Towels, 


C. nexlble Endings, 

IMaleotia EomA ■ . 


n. Union of Affixes «nd Hoot. 


IV. Invnl«r Noiiii% . 


A. RepiUr Open Affix*, 


B. Ragnl« Close Affl«i, 




a Vaiie in v", 


Ch. 4. WirmmlUj , , 


D. Completo Teoso, . 


Ch. !. PBoBoinn. 

Kslectic ?oims. . . 

L Snbstaiitin, . 


Cb. 10. Boot OF TOE Tbbb, 


ILA^^aiy* . . . 


A. Enphonk ChuigM. 

Cb. 6. CoKFjAnox, 


B. Emphatic Cluinges, 



A. In .rtfit, -ntw, . 


B. In 4«, -twTH, . 

L Of ample Woid^ . 


C Imgular. . . 


A-Nonns, . . . 


B. Adj«Uv«i, . 


Cb. 7, Fuflonja or Cmr- 

G P™io™i, . . 

249 i 

jmuuioB, . 


D. Verbs. . . 

850 1 

A.V01MS . . . 


E. Adverbs, . 

251 , 

B.T««, ... 


IL Of Compound Words, 






Cta. 1. Tas SvBnunrn. 

A, Hamln&tiv^ 

B. Qenitive, 
I. or Deputnra, 

1. SeparsUon, 

2, nitinctiDn, 
n. Of CiuBc, 

L K Origin, • 
3. Hateriat, 

3. Supply, . 

4, PartitJTe, . 

ii. 1. Hodve, &t!., . s: 
3. Price, Value, &e» s: 
3. Sensible and Men- 
tal Otyect, . r 
4> Tims and Tltue, S' 
ilL Active, . . 3' 
It. CcHiBtitaSDt, 
1. Property, 
3. Bdation, 
C Dattve ObjectiTe, 
I. Of Approach, 
1. Nearnen, , 
9. Ijkenca, 
n. Of Influoice, 
T>. Dative Resldiuj, 

I. InaCmmcDtal and Modal, 2[ 
n. Tempora] and Local, 2\ 

E. Accusative, . . E! 
I. Of Direct Object and 

Effort, , . B! 

Double Accnsadve, 9( 

n. Of Speciflcatioii, . 3( 

m. Of Extent, . 3t 

IT. AdvertHal. . . M 

F. Vocative, . , 3( 

Cs. 2. Thk AsjBOIfVK. 

IL Uaa of Degree^ 
Ch. 3. Thb AbticU^ . 
L As an ArUda, 

n. Ai k Prononn, . 
Ch. 4. Tm Pmuioun. 
1. Agreement, 
IL Special Observatiooi, 

A. Penoaal, £a., 

B. AM[, . 

C. DentODStrative, , 

D. Indt&iilA, 

E. Helative, . . 

F. Complementarf, 

G. IntHrogaliT^ . 
H.'A>JU(, . 

Ch. 5. TheVebb. 

1. Agreement, . . 
IL Dse of the Toioea, 

A. Active, 

B. Middle, , 
C PaawvB, 

in. Dse of the Tenaai, 

A. Definite and Indefimta, 

B. Indefinite and Complete 

C. Future, 

lY. Gsa of the Hode^ 

A. Intelleclive, . . 

As nsedjn eenteucea, 
1. Deaiderative, « 
n. Final, . 
in. Conditional, 
IV. RelatiVL, 
T. Cooiplemoitaiy, 

B. Tolitive, . 

C. bicorporatcd, 
t. InGnitive, 
a. Fartjdph, 
m. Terlnl in -rin, 

Ch. 6. The Partkii^ 

A. The AdTO'b, 

B. The Prapoaljon, 
C The Conjunction, . 


I. Natural Quantity, . 

II. Local Quantity, 


A. Dartylic Veree, 

B. Anapsstic Tcree, . 

C. Iambic Versa, . 

D. lYochaic Verae, . 
£. Other Metres. . 

Cb. 3. AOCBHT, . 


L General Ixtn, 

Contraction, Ac., 
Grave Accent; Anastrophe, 
Proditica, Enclitics, . 

III. Determination of Accent- 


Hi. A. The ' Alphabet. 





































■^E V^loV 










































































o, ( 












'r ^loV 














































\ 3. B. LlOATDBES. 
























H 3. C. Vocal Elements. 
1. Vowels, Siufle ahd Coufoitno. 

[H M-SS.I 

cub I. 0. m. IT. t 


Onto™. •-"** aiHUU. tmtmtt. Mmi^ •■«<« 

Simple Vowels. $f*""^' '' * *" * " ' 

... , . (Proper, 3. dt ot ct in 

Uiphthones in<.<, "^ . 

° (Improper, 4. ^ a jf vt 

IV L.L C Proper, 6. dv ov ev 

Diphthongs m i». ? , •^ ' 

( Improper, o- At/ an/ ^v 

IL Consonants. 

A. .Consonant^ associated in Classes and Orders. 

Clui L Clua IL ClM* TIL 

Ordm, LnUaU. Fabul*. Llnfiiil*. 

1. Smooth Mutes, n x z 

2. Middle Mutes, fi / » , 

3. Rough Mutes, 9 X ^ 

4. Nasals, /*?'*' 

5. Double Consonants, yt § t 

B. Additional Semivowels. 

X g a 

CcoreoHAina (Sbookd AKSAKoraxwr). 
( Smooth, n, K, T. 
( Mules, < Middle, j3, >•, 3. 
8i]:gle Consonanta, ] ' Rough, v,f, *■ 

i Sen.ivoweIs, { ^^^'^^^ ^ ' "' P' >■ ■^' 
Double Consooanls, y, {, ^. 

III. Breathings. 
It 13.1 

Rough Breathing, or Aspirate (' ). 
Smooth or Soft Breathi n g ( ' ). , 

IS TABLES. [n 4. 


*I 4. RuMAKEt. 1. To BToidiieedlera repetition, BlikabardeiiBODia 
to teacher and pupii. and to accuslom the student early to the appiicatioD 
of rule, Ihe tables of panidigmB hare been constructed witb the tuUuwinf* 
tiUpaea, which will be al once supplied from general rules. 

1. In the paradigtnl orotcLiNaion, the Fee. dng. is omitted wheaeTet 
It bas Ihu same form with the Mem., and Ihe following ciiBea are omitted 
throughout (see 5 80) ; 

a.^ The Cof. pivr., becanae it u alna^a the >ame with the Nora, 

p.) Tbe Dot. dual, becauw il is always the same with the Geo. 

y.S The jlcc. and foe. dual, because the; are alwajs the same with 
the Mom. 

I.) The .Sec and Foe, neui,, in all the numbers, because thej are tkl- 
waya the aame with tbe Nora. 

2. Id the paradigms of ADJECTircs, and of words umilariy inflected, 
the M'aUer is omitted id the Utn. and Dot, of all the Dunibers, and in the 
Jfon.dual; because Id these cases it neyer dilTers trom tbe Haaculina 
(i 130. I). 

3. Id the paradigms of oonjcoATioa, the 1M Ptrs, dual is omitted 
throughout, as having the same form with the Isl Pers. plur., aod the 3it 
Perr. dtuil la omitted wheoerer it baa the same tbnn with tbe 2d Pers. 

:a of the iDdicntiTe, and in the Subjunc- 
m in -/i(9o», whose empty shade has been so 
. and (breed to sland, tor idle show, in the rank 
and file of numbers and parsons, see § S12. N. 

4. Tha compound fbrms of the Pibfiot passive subjunctite and 
' (PTATITI aie omilled, as belonging rather lo Syntax than to inflectiiiD 

I 234, 637). 

II. Tbe regular formation of tbe tenses is exhibited in the table (1[98), 

which may^ ha thus read ; " The lense is formed from the root by 

■Siting — —," or, " by prefixing and affixing (or, in the nuda 

fiirm, -)■" In the application of thia lable, ine fbrms of the root 


ftltLming, tkou art plonniagy he if //lanning, &^- For the hiddle voice, 
change the forms of " pUta" into the corresponding liirms of ^' delii- 
trale ' ; and, for the rissivE Voice, into Ihe corresponding forms of " b4 

IV. The Dialectic Forms, for the sake of distinction, are unilbrinly 
printed in smaller type. In connection with these forins, the abbrevia^ 
tions /Eol and M. denote i£olic ; Alex., Alexandrine; Att., /. liic; 
B<£Ot,and 8.,B(BOtlc; Comm., Common ) Dor. and D, Doric: Ep. and 
E, Epic; Ilel, Hellenistic ; Ion. and I., Ionic ; Iter, and It, Iterative; 
Ot Old ; Poet, and P., Poetio. 

V. A star (*) in the tables denotes that an affix or a form is wanting. 

Parentheses are sometitnea used to inclose unusual, doubtful, peculiar, or 
supplementary forins. In UTI 99, 30, the x and * of the tense-signs, a* 
dropped in ihe seiuiid tenaes (§ 1!K) II.), are tcparaled by a hyphen Ir"™ 

st of the attiN. 


fl 5, 6.] DBCLEKSION. 

A. Tables of Declension. 

fl S. I. Affizbs of thk Thbsb Dsolbrsiomb. 

Sing. Nom. 

Si, vi\',n 



cv |o-f,V( 








a, q 

. 1 ^ 

Plur. Nom. 


0. 1 S 








ovi\ a 



Dual Nom. 














tI6. n. Analysis op the Affixes. 

tTblHlnna In tba lul colamn danna lhadeeI«hiM.1 


Hmg. Nom. 


Plur. Nom. 

Dec II. D«. m. 

^ Fem. 1, •. Nr-m S », ., < 
{o&)oi. 2 ana Mace. *,«. 

i;. 1 and 3, « Neut a. 

(fo.). 3, al. 1 and 2, t;. 

(►0 St. Neu. a. 




11 7. III. NouKS OF THB First Declkmsion. 

^«-ar*^«ar. i, 

mm 0/ Atfu. J, aar«^. i, in^mbUt 

S. N. TO^ft 


'Ai,/ild^( 'Jif/iiii, 'iVP^e (lo^iat 



•at^Mov 'Jiepiov,-£tt*oi po4ii 



•at^M;, -Evfii^, ■Evi^S HH 

A. lo/Hdr 


V. TO^M 


Ai^USn 'E^tUa, Effi^ Mi^ 

P. N. ^a^i 


'AjfiXSm 'El/Ilia,, 'Eg/iai o, Gabrgat. 

G. ro^<Sr 


'Aiftid^t 'fie^KBc, 'Jiffimr N. I}u6QVdt 

D. ra^ifaif 


'AiQiiSait 'Eetiiait,'lii/fuut G. ntfipuop 



'AtfitlSat 'EQftiaq, ' Equo^ rit6ovd 



G. nifiAliv 


B. TsMoma. 

*,»Aa(f«o. ^, door, ii, tongue. ti,honor. ij, mtno. 

S. N. u»<; 


yl^aaH itflv (""S, /"« 

G. <i».a-c 


yXBiaai/g UfinS f^'liSt, (ivo! 

a ««7 


ylmaori i.^jj /-vn?, ftwf 

A. o^^.- 


fltaaaar tip^r fivaat, fl.'m' 

P. N. <r»«J 


flMOOai ii/iat firoai, jinii 

G. ffHwr 


D. oxiatc 

&Vfait J-iiiHriHf u/tait fira'oi;, faeut 

A. «.rfe 


ykaaaSt iifiat /i»t<o(, /irof 

D. N. a«i 


ylwaad Ufia itrda, /ira 

G. <>».<.» 


f fhaaoatv jiftai* fwAxtt, iwah 

8. N. *,, Ion. 

^'\ A. » (^™- "*. " f"^' ' "- 

Old, * ■ Iwrir*, itnrlird. ' (.Dor. Ht ■ ,mira^ «/i&. 

[, Ion. ■ ■ rui^ 3j(•^ T. £, Ion. * ■ rm/th. 
I, Ion. If. Zp.i>L<S,ln,*iim. M, Poet. ■■ AJnrx Ap. Bh. 

^ Dor. # . r.^ •i^axi, yi. ■, Dor. d • 'At^^I^, lIin(XjHl. 

■, Old, <• . 'At;ii'3s^ fii;i<L Old, > - ji^ft, A.'.d. 

■ ".. B.[U. P.G. «. Old,*-.- •AT(.,ti«. 

Ion. U»- 'Ar;iiJiH.,9H;Uiu 

Dot. 2> . 'Ar;u)£r, SveSi. 
D. m, Old, «in - H<;»iri, Aipun 

Ion. ^n, ^( . Htjri, rirf^i 
A. A, loo. Oi (muc.) 1 itnrirtJn 

Dor. d{ ■ Hujub, wiffdi. 

i£oL luc ■ rail rifutit. 


ENlr. M ■ 'Ar^iiii, 'E(/i5. 
b (Ion. » ■ mw, Sv^. 
U (Doe. <[ ■ fi/iitt, yXMirSf 

Ep. •&((>) ■ A;ni;»T9». 
f f Ion. , - Ti.,.i'>>, WJj. 
IT {.Dot. f MilTfin^ 

tr 9, 10.] 



0, toord. t),peopU. ig, toay. 6, mind. o, temple. 

& N. loyof Snfos a^oc 'ooft 'ovf rSis, vtuf 

O. Xiyov t^fioo o3oS yoov, rov pSov, rtm 

D. loyig i'lfff o3^ ray, r^ ya^, ftf 

A. loyoy S^fior oSiv root, rovr rnoV, ritir, y 

V. loyt S^fit oSi yai, rav 

P. N, Xoyoi d^/iai 

G. loyaiv i^/iar ....... .»_., •_. 

i. loyOVS S^pOVf oSoVi^ viave. »orw 


D. N. J^/. 
G. lo/ow 

S. N. 


TO, wing. TO, jwrt. 

niF^ov /iofioy 

TlTtgoi fV>i/loo 

""P^ ^o'pia 

vtiQUW po flier 

' ayaytt/v 

D. mnioif nic^o!; ftoflotf oinittt, otnoi; ayiifttjt 

D. N. ffVNW )n*fw fiD(/ai iini*i, otnti SytSytn 

G. avtoai mtffoiii /tofloty ooi^oir, ootoTv &niyttf¥ 

If 1 0> DUIACTTIO FoBm. 

Dor. >■ Tw xifw. (Q. ■«, Iim. fvi ■ winiut, m^i.) 

(Im. IS ■ Binu, Kf«'n>.) D. ««, Old, •in • mV. Ifynn. 

Ep.>9i(') ■ ti^itiSu. Bteot-Dc »i J;LXe( vfifftd 

« (onntracted team am), Ep. ■• ■ A. »i, Dor. ■(, w ' rln Xiyw, t^i 

rUnfj. X^«K, •'.{Sim. 

t. Old. . ■ 'IrS^-, »" U|H.. .£d. w ■ iAfU, wiwXM, 

Ep- 4^(p)- niri^ ^pyifn. rtti n/tut. 

»i by Google 


. Nouns op thb Thibd DEctENsioM. 




N. ^>i, 
G. ,I.J. 
D. yvxf 
A. y£m 


N. ,i,« 
G. ,(i,J. 
D. ,.^ 
A. yvnai 



N. ,t,. 
G ^-enoir 



£, raven. 







































V alyoir ipaXayymr jf*xoh' 


a, HucnlineaDd RcniiiinB. 

I, child. Oifoot. 0, tooereign. ij, gract. ^, key. 


N. flat; 
G. ^Ms 
0. mM 
A. n«!Ja 
V. «« 









xliljo;, »U7c 





^ Henttr. 

tS, Ws 

ii,Zt^ft(. Ti, 


ro, ear 





x»fdr«r «potB», Ktpmf af™> 






■tporoiv, xfpaoiv, xtp^r Miotv 

II 12 13.J 

II I 9. B. I«)DID. 

},harhoitr. o, deity. ii,nose. o, beast. 6, orator. -^jkatM 



its &r,(/ 

ya fiy« &iiQC 





dalpoai ^iil 9r,Qol 
Salporai ^l*as Sngas 







0, man. ij, mother, o 

^, dog. 





avvQ _ ^ |Uiin; 




ayii/ot. o»3po'c pij'gos ■&»oe 
nt-ipt, afflpf ^ijipi Ki/c/ 




ariQa, urSfia pijtiga xvra 




SylQ piin^ 





ayt'Qig, StS^it firi'ift "Vftf 




a. XM/ 




ayit/aq, SySqai f,i)1CQ 

OS Kvras 




aifQt, arJpa pijrif* kvm Sf/vt 
ayifoiy, arSQoiy pjjiigotr xvyiity ai/yoiy 


S. N. 



























P. N. 










S. N. '07,0V? 






G. 'Onuiyjos 






D. 'OaoSyJi 

D. N. 





A. 'unovna 







M. Hucnllae and Feminine. • 

oijadad. o, hero. o, weevil, o, n, iheep. o,Ji»h. 

S. N. 















^"e¥) -" 






^p™ ..V 





P. N. 





ok Izditf «»vs 














?p«S rf«f 


oh ij[&iat, ixsvt 






lx9«i, lz3v 








S, knight. 

o, ^, or. 




S. N. 























P. N. 


















p6ai, (Jo us 

yifias, y(/ixis 


n. N. 










£, ckHi 

i ct(y. 

ij, trireme. 

S. N. 

























P. N. 



































ir 14. 15.] THIBI 

> DBCLBirSION. 19 

:;. echo. i ihamt 

0, Soaraiei. 

S. N. ^fti uiSias 


G. ^^Jos.^oCf «iS6os,a 

D. y.;v, jxo} "iSoh „ 

i3ol iluiioaiii, JiaiKoatti 

A. i(Oa, ^gti a'Ma, atia JUaHf/aita, SaiM^ihii, Allif«rq» 

V. iial oMoI 


S, Piraeiu. 

5, Heradet. 

S N. nufaiiit 

'ifga^Up^. V/^,lw 

D. JItifaui, HetQauX 

'Hi/auUii, VeuxItH, 'llqatla 

A. Iliifaiia, neigaia 

V. niifaitv 

'HganUti. 'Hgo»k>tt CH?<n.l«t) 

S. Nmcr. 


TO, totm. t£, honor. 

8 N. mVc 

5<n« ^ ;.^«s 

G. it/i(0{, ■EJjfov; 

aoTEac, aojiiat yii/arK, yii/att 

a ie(iiV, fW^n 

SatfX, Sola yigal, y,\/q 

P N. ,«>.», «/^ 

Satta, ooiq yigaa, fii/S 

G. T«r('w, «««» 

potim» rtgaay, yif^ 

D. H^^IITt 

Saiiiit yigaai 

D.N. «i^„, Tttr, 

Saxu ydfai, yigS 

G. TUjr^if , ttylDiF 

ootEotr Y'e^'^t yvv" 



a. S.««. lon-w .i«.H,d(.M 

1. p. N. u,. Old Alt. if, - jS-nXfe. 

»,, !«>.•»■ S^^, »^/^. 

w Ep. in ■ $Mr.Xm. 

l-„^^M.■ flw-x;.,. 

loa.i.f s.„xi... 

hm-aaiDm.'w p»nXlH- m, loo. Mid Dor. , if • r(Xi». 

wi. Ion. and Dor. ik ■ <rJ*< 

... -.Port.*. yI«,«U. 

iJw, Ion. and Dor. „, . Ki*(.«. Ion. .. • yifus '^f* 

Do.. «„ ■ 01^«,. 

Q. », Ion. [.. ■ :£>i.£», i^U«. 

m,Dor.>nd.£t)l.;:(,>rf <x 

■:,. L>.,Ep. ..'»' Ii.f,xi^,. 

>. tf, Ep. ;7 ■ 0»ilii:. [!«-,. t», Ion. and Dor. i™ ■ «i;«. 

Ion. 1."- »Mf.i.iT. 

D. «(,). Old, .«(,) . j:.;i.«. 

u, Ion.r- riXT.l^i^: 

PoeL «,(,) . I«,«. 

A, iMi.!- efrf, *««. 

.rn!,)- wii,n». 

A.t, PoeL<- i^. f;^^.^ 

MiW. Ep. .*t<.)- I.^;wt». 

(«, lop. A- *1.5., A»r<&. 

lon.«<,)- rfX-r^ 

Dor. i» ■ *B{«, AmrA. 

A. U,, Ep. ;«f ■ ^wix;*.. 

£^ E^ ^ ■ A-«x^ 

Ion. l4< ■ ^<r<>.ij(. 

loil.iil> ^flXij, 

Comin. I'l ■ $itfiXui. 

Dor. ;• ^MixS. 

■M, Ion. and Dor. mi • irtimt. 

T.M,.fi<>L.' Z^^t^.. 

D. a ^p, Ep. «» ■ ini-T*, Zt^xib 

TABLES. m 16' 





8. K. ZiM. 

ZJ. (Dor.) 03.VIW 


O. &,{,, Zn>ic 

z*;, oa,>.i«. 

03.'«« o3.*a<*..^-i-, r^w 

D. A.;, z..; 

Zd>; oa;«j^ 

[(poM-X [D.-!h^A.-«, r»« 

A. Ciim, ZnK 

0,%™. ^s T. -», -< n^ 

V. ZiS 


(EporfioT.) rxJ 

Attic. i,tm 


Doric 4, •A9^ lonle. 

S. N. »-i. 


««(.S,) «S,(«B,) 

G. ut», «'(« 

»'.^ u'm, h/Im 

««, -A, «i| 

Attic «, ^tar. HomeHo. Bomecic 

G. iif 

P. N. iifurm, tifii (poet) SivfaTc, l.v;a 

D. Jifun 8ny«) Inpfn rrirr^ i 
HoMEiuo PAau>i(am. 

;, Jh^ib. J, (%. 

8. N. ,V«.A .r;;u, 

G. iVnfi wii-iH, *vI:LiH.ri;L»((TUin'nieog.), »'>w 

D. ;rnr (rJu Hdt.), m-JXti" *f:Lii, ri^n 

A' tTwn* wiXOt wriXn (nX* 
y. ;<nr» 

p. N. ,■»«.,, ;»«7, rJX... (riW( Hdt). *jl« 

G. ;irW»> «x;» 

D. ;<vu«. 



If I 7. VII. Adjectives of Two Tesminations. 

I, ^{unjust) to 

i,-n {vnfading) 


S N. 







' aSUov 























, ynto" 







a/r,i/aijvt, nyij'pue 







, "ntv 

B. Of 





S N. 

















ivjia^ita, ivxagiP 



a^^nit tt^^tva evj^^iiec nxapiio SlnoSif 
a^^tras (v/nptni; SlrtoSas 

oaqx't, aeupu 
aa<pia, oof^ 

0, ^ (greaier) id 

aa<fiii,oatfiu: aatfia 

aaifiiay, aaipir 
aaifinq, oaqitlt 



'•"f"''"'' Cnnolr 



, Adjectives op Three Terminations. 

A. Or TiiB Skcokr ahi 
[friendly) q lo 

t3. N. ipilioi iftlla ^Ihoi 
U. ifiUou <fillSt 
I). (pilMa yiU^ 

A. ^I'liov 9il/£r 
V. q,a„ 

P. N. .pOioi 

G. qiiiliar 
D. ^illuif 




FnoT DsoLENNoas. 

ooqxig atHpr; 

ooipon ooqc^c 

ooipoif uoquili 
ooipovt ao<fUi 
ooifio aoipa 

i {golden) 

Xevaita, Xt/va^ 
Xyvotoi; ji^iwuw 

X^uotoi, xv<"0i 
XQVai'oir, xC>"i'^'' 
Xevaio't- ipiuote 

XQtiiiSs. xe'^it 

Xfvoia, XQVO" 

o (double) 
Sinloof, 3inlov( 
Sinliav, Stnloii 
5i nlo^f, SlTtltf 

diJtlooi, di nXot 
Sinlijav, Sialar 

iijtkoov;, Sinlovi 

iiTiXuai, AinXia 
linXooiv, Smloiy 

linloai, 5mlai 
StnXoar, SinXmr 
diiXonif, imlaif 
dinXaa^, diilaf 

iinXou, AiTTiUi 
SmXoaif, dmjliuv 


H 19,20.1 

H 1 9. 8. Of Tim Tdikd a 

S. N. fiilag 

G. fiiXarog 

D. ^Xu*i 

P. N. ^a««ff 

6. ptl^r^r 

D. pAaoi 

A. [lilarof 

D.N. p(i«. 

ptXatrm /lilaya 


I FmsT Duci.KiiBiojra 

o {a^eeable) ig 

S. N. J;opI[,s JapiwoB 

G. ^np^crio; x"if"<""ii 

D. ynnifirti vnn virion 


A. j'opi'o'i 


P. N. ^ofirnjff ^npifaoni jrofkyt 
G. x"?''*""' X''Q"'"""'' 

T). N. jra^/itra xiQiiaaa 

o (noeet) q i 

>)i)tci$ rjStlaq 

nSfi, tiSii t]Silq 

I 'iSiis, tidiif tjSfiai t, 

qdf'o;, tj3ii{ tidciof 
TjSct tiStla 

^30. C. Op ths Thru Diclenuqrs. 

[great) ^ to 


F. N. ftiynXoi fityiiXai ptyala 

G. ptyalar iifynXoiv 

D. piyakott lAtyali'tq 

A. itiyaXcus piyiilSf 

D. N. /iiyalti ptyiiiS 

G. fiiyakoit [ttyaXaiv 

nolSs noUq noli 

nulXov noll^i 

ROJli.^ ITOlll^q 

noXvy nolXtir 

noXkol 'rtoXXal iroUu 

noUair nallfdr 

»i by Google 

t4 TABUES. — NUMEBALS. [^ 20,21. 

Homeric Fonni of rwxit. 
t i ri 

U N. nxii, mtxit riXXit wiXXi w^xi, wkoJ, nX>J> 

G. w'Xit ' wtXxSi 

D. (nlir XaA.) mXXf nkXji 

A. nL». •'HAvt mX;^ riXUii, «r»A 

f. N. cxiii, nXu, riXXu' nXl'l 

S. a (mUd) i TO P. ot ol 

N. ni/aoi nfaiXa itfaor tifuai, ft^iit Kqatiai 

G. nQaev TiqattSq PQtiinr nqanmr 

A. ni/aor Jifalliy ngaovf, aQout fif uuaf 

^91. IS- Numerals. 

H. (tut) V. N. H. (» o«) F. 
'I. (i; pli Sr oiSfif oiSt/tla 
G. irif iiiai oi/Sirof oudi/ttaf 

D. iW ^.^ 
A. r»o /da,' 

oidivl oiSijHq 
ovSiya oid*^«r 


K. U. I. ^., K 
G. M'.'w 
D. If H. '? 
A. ^.,,1*, 

Lit*. Ion. 

.ss..; .a-^iF 



.0,^. V.-d 



D. N. A. ^>^a, 9i„ 

G. D. dvotf, AftT. 

'(Att) P. D. a«af (rare) 

U. F.K.,Mi. 


M. F. C/iiB^) H. 



TMruoftC, itTia^i; leVoa^a. Ti'tiBf a 

G. ifiur 

Kuuu^oitr, iiiTupdiy 

D. i,.oi 

jcuaaiiai, Titiugai 

A. rpflv 

ji'atiaiiaf, i»tiu(iu; 


Ion. rirneic, Dor. rfnpi and rtn-tfit, 

D. *(.«« 

JM. uid ^ m^nf,,,*^.; Dat, Ep. and 
in Ute proM, r(»(*n. 

V SS.] PASTiciPCBb. 25 

IT 39. X. Pabticiplbs. 
I. Pre»nt Active. 

o (advinTtg) ^ to 

S. N. ISovkcviar jlovkivovaa fiovln<» 

G. jiovUvorvot doui,svovatjs 

D. ^aultv0ni jSovXeuovaij 

A. ^ooUvona fiovlivovoar 

I'. N. povlivovjiq fiovlivovaai ^vleiona 

G. ^oulivoyttny jlovltvovo^r 

D. ^ovlivovai fiovltvovaait 

A. pottXtvovtat • jJoviliiioiiircif 

D. N. ^oullvarH jSovlavottaei 

G. ^avltvdi'TOii' povXtvoiaaar 

2. Freient Active CoDtracted. 

a (honoring) q lo 

S. N. npStiir, ufrnv tinaovaa, nfuaoci nfiwiw, tt/uSf 

G. Tifiaonof,' Tt/tanof zt/Aaovatjf, Tt/itia^ 

D. ii^cfotTi, TifMiirTi zifiaovaii, iifuaari 

A. TifiaovTB, iipunu ttfiaovauv, %t[UHair 

P.N. Ti/ia'o*ii;, Tifiuviif Ttpaovatii, Tiiiaam tiftciovni, ttfiwrr* 

G, n/taoFTiuv, xiftanuy ii/iaovu(d)i, TifiucMuv 

D. Ti^nouDi, itfuiai xiiiaovaais, tifiuaaif 

A. ii^aoiia;, ii^wriiif ii^aol'i;(i$, li/ioiaiEC 

D.N. Ttpaont, Ttfiant Ti/wotiao, tinaaa 

G. Ttfi Bormr, ii^notr ii|U<iovuiiir> Ti;U<uiTa[i' 

3. Liquid Future Active. 4. Aoriit ii. Activv- 

o {about to show) ii TO o(haoinglefl) q to 
S. N. ipni'tiiv fnfovoa tpa¥<mir Itnuv JUnovoa iinov 

G. tfnrnvvtot tfitrovatii linaiTo; Imovoi;; 

D. tfa*ovvii ifavovorj itinoVn Jlinovoi; 

A. tfayoxnna <fiia/ovaa* linovia ilinutiaav 

P. N. ipmyoiinff ^m'tiCtrni ifoiiovwii lino'trtf Xinovaai linomi 
G. ipavoift^Gur ijiai'ouinar XiitO'tur XiJtovo^v 

D. g)avovai ipai'oiiuni; Xinovai Xmovaais 

A. ipuVDiinu; ipafovouc Xmonas Itnoiivu; 

D. N. qDoroErn gmvovofi 
. G. ^fowtotp (payainaii' 

&. Aorut I. Aetivs. 

o (hming raiaed) 
S. N. SfSt 

G. aQorxof 

D. aQortt 

A. a^oim 

r. N. aganis 
A> Sfarioi 

D. N. a^mri a^BOs) 


6. Aorut PandTs, 
o {kmntig appeared) ^ to 

(formof ipen'tiaTjg 
ipuriru ifmrtlap 

afaaai ufana tparinis ifoyttaat q/tviPta 

dfdaais qiarsiat iparilnais 

afaaat fpavirtat <parilaas 

ugarxom aqaamr 

7. Perftct AcliTa. 

qiwirtt tptatlaS 
ifayiyioiT ipianlaair 

8. Perfecl Active ContTMled. 

i {Jmoteing) ^ to d {atanding) ^ n 

S. N. uSAt ittvia tiiai iaiuf iatvaS iartisiiaiit 

G. itioiot itSviit JoTtaioc ioT^ir^ 

D> tiSoti tidvltf imiu imimig 

inTtita iaiuaiof 

P. N, itSoTte itSvliu ttSoia latatts latSaat i 

G. ttSowr 
D. dSoai 



D.N. tlScTi 




9. From Verb, in ^„ 

S {having given 

8. N. Soii 
G. Soyrot 
D. 86n^ 
A. dotra 



(lun>ing entered) i 
Sit 3wo 
Svnot dvaiit 

P. N. &>Vtv 
G. Bontip 
D. tova, 
A. aoVios 





D. N. JoVr. 
G. iirioB' 




II 88,] raoNovns. 

H 93< XI. Substantive Pbonodns. 

ITo iNh *>n» whlcn tn u«d u enclllle, Iha ilfr. 1 1 
dHlwlIc ftwnia dDDOU, iE. fgllc, B. BooOc, D. 

unnd. TIM ifflnd 
Bmic, E Epic, L IodJc, 0. C 

A. Pmraui. 


S. N. /;•»' 

G. <uav, fiovt 
D. ipoi, iiott 

A. ^i ^i 

UP. do-. 






D.N. nf 


a i^u ii-A, I/mI, 

D. W^ 
A. W^t 

ri.t. ™% «n, 


M, Ji .n. B..f 

P. N. ^»^-,. «w« 
Q. Vt^«i-<^ 

*f i«t. #f<I«^ t" 
#»!.iC,)t. ^(.)t. f 


.,ii.t. Wt. .f a,. 

0. 1^ 
D. t^ 


Adifithmil Fonn*. 
S. N. Uh U B. i4 D., «■! B. 

G. l/iiH,ltu!t,llU!,'D. rtH,rtM,ni,,rtA, Ft^i -X-, l»c Di tui & 

D. l/ii^ D. rb D. F'lt ^ I^ or M). 

A. TJ, M D. Fit 'S^ >''*t D. P. 

P. y. tiKlw I., '«>d( D. J/dw 1., i^ D. Hmt. rfiEnt L 

A. '^ a V> >W>> D- ^it D., irfi A 

1M p. IL (^ iqiKiO F. Q^Uv^f. 

S. G. iiiamov ifiavtift ametaii, aavmu ataut^t, aavr^t 

D. tfiaoj^ tfiavig aiavT^, aavj^ amvTy, aavTp 

K. iftavtor inavTifr vmuiai', oouio'i' ocatirqr, aatmjt 

P. G. ij/iNvauiuv ^^r oviatc vfitti' ouiwf UfMn* ovtwv 

D. ^filr avjoif tifiiy avuitg vfiir avrcil; vfiTv auinic 

8d P. Ks ^ UwjT. 

S. G. iaV¥ofr, MTOV 
D. kitn^, aiim 
A. inior, auior 

P. G. iouiu*, oeiuv 
D. iamoit, ovioTt 
A. fattiouci tmovt 

v., of if 

iavToit, avzttif 

8. G. ^HMWW 

A. l/.i-«^ 

P. G. ilinJMy alljlttw D. A. <|JUi;1h oUqU 

D. aliijlait alil^ilaif G. dUijiloii' «Uqlai* 

A. aUq'lotV «UliJla; Silvia 

P. Q. iXUiXxt Dor. iU;l^» Dor. D. Q. UulAlmJI Fp. 
D. <;i)J;i«n, .HI iXXiXmn, tut 

D. hrnKwawK. 

H. F. N^ *ydl > oiM. U. 

S. N. o, ^, TO Sft>w P. ei Kttrti 

G. Toil, T^f Aciroc «wr dibw 

D- -J. -„ , 

A. tO)'f *^r, 19 iJtfra 


1! 24.') PBOIttlVKS. 

H 34. xii. AwBCTiTB PaoRoims, 

Articlfc ItenttTK 


mrra wvj^ 

irviol ana/ 






























.IrS. D., -Iiii L 

i. D., 4m L 
P.N. «fE.D. •WE.D. 

Q. ri«0..niD, mMM.L •br<l»0, 4>D.,4«I. 

D. rijn 0. rmXn 0., nin, ah-iriiO^-lHnL «£t^>, 4ii, Jfn L 

A. f-iff, rit D. [*^ L sMuf i. htUi ll 

M.(n&>) r. H. H.(aii)F. K. 
8, N. oc 3 ^ °^' ''^' '^^' ^ ^' ^* ^'^ 

?■« 8 '?'■ '•',": D.r.t,.,«E^ 

A. ov ^»i To»ai tJi^M '^ *^ 

P.N. rf oj 'ii bK. ma« irffl.2P. S.OOS 

O. & £r TwtSi tw*Si P. v^jti^ 

D. ofc bI; Toia3»TOMF3» D. (wwfttpotEp. 

A. ovs ' Sf lovaSuiaSa 

D.N. J -i T.-J, ,a, 8P.S.S,P0M. 

G. o& air TDt*di raii^i P. mpfttfOf 

IMalactli: and Pangogia Fvmi. 

a N. 1 0. "J D. a; uf nS* 1 P. P. *«^, '4iA 0, 

G. •:>, Iiii B. h(' E^ ii D. rMtf T(r)f '<l>uTi{>r D.. t/tfut, 

A. '<• D. 9 P. S. ni, D. E. 

»rl»« E. S F. S. lii E. a 

P. #1*0. ,| 

-F10M0UN8. [1134 

H.(lUr)F. N. lL(»MMt)F. N. 

S. N. ourof aSi^ ToSio loooinof looavit f oaovio, toooviw 

G. Toviov T«vnK TOffavTav To«Bvn)$ 

D. nniiy laiiiji loaouifi loaaing 
A. lovioy Tatni}* 

B. ImsFnnTE. 
Sn^ig bddnita. IntaragatlTe. Babtin Tn tJ^iTt t-^ 

ILF.(««,aMM)N. ILF.(idkif)IT. U.(dt<>a«-> P. K. 

S. N. tie tl rfg t/ oanV 5H( 3 « 

G. nfOfjToE ^itic, TOtl ovttrof, Srw ntninif 

D. Tie/, ly tin, if wTirt, ory STU't 

A. Tira ifvK onira qmiia 

P.N. nrif Ti¥a, ilvit %lra oTurtt alToitf Sjira,an 

G, n>«i* [anv WrBr Mrrwof, 3«» wntroiv 

D. Tiv/ ttai olaitm, oroun mimiat 

A. twat flvfff oviTTirDv BOTivot; 

D.N. u*t th* «nr) fftiM 

G. tinSv xhoit olrnrotw Jiniraw 

BcBMrio Dsdandgo of rb, rii, and Jm ik 2rn(. 

O. rl^ «<■ ri<, n> Inv, Irru, (m« 


H Sff. B. Table of Nduerals. 
I. Adjbctitbs. 
1, OardinaL , % Ordinal. 



^rrni ««dt m «nirr» «, 


*mJ. fl c<"«». Munis-. 


ReL lad. 






■■lUx', SUI^. 

■■•X^L^ni, OTW D^ Bun^, ■!< 


rim, JD watQr. 




1 B* 

eif, f(/«, &, 01U. 

'>?«iof,-i),-or, /rs(. 


tvo, Bia, two. 

flinineoe,-fi,-fW, jecOTwi. 


iftlf, Tfiu. three. 

Tgliot.-tji-or, third. 

4 d- 

Kiopioe, /ourfA. 


aim, five. 



% sh. 

f,tn.s, nxth. 


inia. Stem. 

iySooi, eighth. 


OTrtW, <^Af. 


t»fiu, nine. 

tva\oi, twatoi, ninth. 

10 ,' 

Si»«, ten. 

SUaxoi, tenth. 

11 u^ 

hOsxa, lUvat. 

fedixaroc, eUeenth. 

12, pf 

do)d{ii(r, twelve. 

Stadixa.oi. twelfih. 


TfiaxaldtiiB, Sfxajftlt 


14 iS' 


15 .(' 



16 t^ 


17 .f 



20 »' 



21 ><<- 

tttiomv ^, lb xdl (tiiam 

tlxoatoi nguTOf 

30 i' 




60 .■' 






70 0' 



80 >i' 

90 ? 

100 e' 



800 i- 


300 I' 



»i by Google 


400 v" mpoxoifiw 

600 9' ntvraxoutet 

600 / ifoxooitu 

700 i/i' hnoKoatot 

eOO «' o.ia.<>o.M 

900 ^ Avaxooiot 

1,000 ^ ;««»,-<■*,-■ 

ii,000 ^ a.ii2UiM 

10,000 ,. 

20,000 ,K 

100,000 ,f 





3. Temporal. 4. Multiple. 

Inter, nmit, 1 an ail^ dagt 

]. (avd^'/ffpoc, on fAe jonu day.) airlooc, anlofic, fint/tb, Ji'ng'lc 

3. Jn/repoios, on (Ae second day. 
3< TpiTQiof, on ^Ae third day. 

4. TtTB^Toioc, on tAe fourth day 

5. ncfinraio;, on fAe ^jQA dajr. 

6. JxTBiaf, on the ii%th day. 
, iSSoficuos, on tht seventh day. 

6. eySoalot, on the eighth day. 

dittloit, double, 
r^inlois, triple, 
Tijfanlatit, quadruple. 
ncvTonlou;, quintuple. 
KanXovt, sextuple, 
imanlovq, septuple, 
oxtarikovt, octupk. 

5. Proportional. 

!• {toot, equal.) 

2. ^tnltMMK, twofold. 

3. ipi7iila(rio;> threefold. 

4. in^nlairiof 

5. itnTonlaoMf 

6. KoniUiaioc 

7. fanunilacrio; 

8. oxToalaoiec 

9. hftatiXaatos 
10. dixmlavio; 
SO. uKooonilifotiv 

100. bciiiDRaiiLiiFiof 
1,000. jiilioiclaaiof 
10,000. fivpionUffuv 

11. Adtehbs. III. SuBSTAN' 


iijyimi, ftyi thnt 
wtXXijut, nuny ta 

anai, once. fora(, monad. 

tig, twite. Subs, duad. 

tl/kf thrice. Tfiiis, triad. 
Ttreamftfow time*, inpap, TtTfcaiit 

ntiTaxif -- 


OxiiiNff iydoof 

irnaxis, irvixif trvtif 

Sixaxiq dtxaf 

Ixatonasit ixmoytas 

giliaxis X^"S 

liv^uixit fvp^ 


It 26, 27, 28.] 

C. Tables of Conjugation 
tl 96. 1. The Tbnsbs classifibii. 












Pi.Tr ■»■«¥. 




^97. II. Tkx Modes classitieu. 




IhIf write. 

iiH^At write 


Satfnv, Vfiaiftiv, 

1198. m. FoBHATioif or trb Tkrses. 

TuTUBMf «w 

Aogm. AoBUT, #■ 

ADgm. AoB. n., », t 

BadpL PEBPacT, h 

SadpL Pesf. il, • 

Angm. BcdpL PLuitxiBor, ain 

A>ig!U> BedpL Pldpebf. n., in 
BadpL FcT. Pew. 



md. S. 1 



P 1 




».(.), i«W 

D. 1 





Subi. S. 1 



P. I 



D. 1 



UpL S. 1 






P. 1 



(,.t, in 



D. 1 



/qior, hoy 


.^tl.-, itq- 

Imp. S. 3 



P. 3 



utturft rtur 

D. 3 



; i.f. 


Pun. N. 

ns, n,a, . 


TOJ, now 


1 99. IT. APnXES OP THE 

L Imporfbct. 

Enpbonle. Nnda. Euphonir 




hnaitf, omtr 

ortof, ouofK ^ CoOqIc ' 


Perfect. I laperfeoL 

Ind. S. 1 m 

P. 1 aofitv aafttv tiSfitr ic-(i/in> 

3 aovat(r) oar s-ai;i(v) K-eianr, ■ 

D. 1 oops* aafi*f x-attw v-Ufdv 

2 tntoy ' ooTor x-Ktav ■-iiTar 

S anor eran}r x-oior K-EJirv 

Subj. S. I oai {■-») 

8 ojj (x-n) 

P. I ou/iii' (x-u/in') 

2 ai]»« (a-titt) 

3 iraKuCy} (>-(iio^) 
D. 1 atafttr fx-M/iiii) 

3 aqiov (x-iinv) 

Upt. S> 1 0Olfll ooi^t (k-oi/h) 

3 Bote aai{, ffinit (■-(";) 

3 am aai, otit(r) (x-oi) 

P. 1 oai/iiv amiin (x-oi/iarj 

2 <roi» aaiK (k-^iiti^ 

S mucy oaiiv, ou«r (ii-oin') 

D. 1 aoiftni aaian (xwHjun') 

2 aoiioF oaiior (K-oiTor) 

3 po^iijv aatnir {x-oh^v) 

Imp. S. 3 aot (x-() 

3 ofiM (x-<in») 

P. 2 Otil« [«» (■-»/») 

3 a&fuami, am- (x-^Twanf, K-onwrl 

D. 2 aiitor * (a-ttor) 

3 aStuv (x-iioir) 

Inf. oci* lai x-iVai 

Part. N. mBr, &C. oSs, ofioo, (tox x-mj , x-viJ, «-^ 

G. oorroj OBCto;, oaoijs a-itof, v-vlas - 

re so 

ISO. V. 




pBtf. Plup. 





Ind. B.1 





*"» fl' 



J), « 

oo, • 


atu oo 






tut to 

P. 1 





fU»» iu9a 






o»« ff^t 






rtw no 

D. I 





Iii9a pMd-a 






aSop a»ow 






a»«> a9n' 

Sub). S. 1 








P. 1 


Uiwot «/<«) 



(^n^. ^« 



{p^«. ia-O 

D. 1 


{^(W) «f<(r) 



(^i«> ^.0.) 



(^.V« ^0.) 

Opt. S. 1 



^^rof rf^) 



1 i^iwot .n,o 




^.V„ rf,) 

P. 1 



^tVoi .fc,,i(*^ 




/iiroi rfiji.) 




^.'«» .v«., 

a 1 







(^«« rf,tor 




(^W «-,'t>p.S 

Imp. S. S 








P. 2 



















Part. N. 








^rf«W,HJf 1 


Middle and Passive Voices. 

Fut.Hid Aor.Md. Aw. FMi. 

bd. S. 1 






an, aa 







P. 1 















D. 1 






















P. 1 








D. 1 









Opt S. 1 














P. 1 








*^*t, »-tlTt 







D. 1 





















p. a 











VM^Bu aaaStu tf-^rai 9-^ia9at 

N, oifivot aifimos 9-tlg,9-ii«a,9'ir 9-itao/itrot 
Q,' ffOfu'roii aap/yov 9-ivtat, 9-elat]t ■9-tiaoiiiror 



!^ 4^ ^jji 

Uitii t» 

lid^j ti^ 

#i zi iiU 

t-^rlit ill 



m—J 13»t«J pm 1» 

■dPPIW pn MHny »\ioy [ ,^ ^ _^ _^ ^ ^ ., 

ijpmwMd I 

■•iPMK t— •»i»T "MT laaaiii aai 

■.i<-g|m-»A Jo»*i"T 

■iW-BiiqMA jmiPPlW 

-1* a( iqiSA JO ->»ioii pni ■■uj 

■tipnj mtpxliiu pn is^tis^ 


■wnsT IMimlnui P" l»t»d I 


If S9lJ coirnsATiOK. 

iiii TV^Tii iiliUzl ■' 

f s s* s E 5 s-l 

A f i d * a. ^■^ 1 .a a * ! * 

MlfidUJiWiMi til 


IT 33. Till. The Actitb Voicb or thi 

I I 

I Thou, FoM 

t He, ^u, n 

I Wt 

! Y; Yom 

I They 

E WtbM 

B you fwo 

) TKey tiBo 

8abj.a I i 

D. ! 

! Thou, Ymi 
t Ht, She, It 

Ye, Tau 



You two 


OpL a I / 

D. 1 

Imp. S. 2 

P. 2 



I ThoH, Yw 
I He, S&e, It 
1 We 
! Ye, You 



You two 

They (vw 

Do thou 
LH him 
Do you 
Let them 
Do you two 
Let them tun 

am ptmuiiiig, 



would pLai, 
could plan. 

be plamtingf 
OT plan. 

{To be 
To plan. 

»i by Google 

^ 88.] eoMivUTtMf, 

Vbrb fifwXiva (IT 34) TRAirSLATKD. 



Aaat plmmtd, 

hadplamud, litmflaMed. iadfbmMd. 


wuiyhaiie plaimed, 
jiloi, OT haoeplamud. 

might plait, 

might have plamud, 

liwuld plan, 

$Ju>uld piim, should have planned, 
or would plan, 

would plan, teould hate planned, 
could plan, 
could have planned, 
plan, or have pUmntd, 

pUm,<yr haae planned. 

To be about roptoi.or 7^ have planned, 

to plan. To have planned. ' 

Bpl:«l by Google 









lid. S. 1 llmUi. 






K I /fc.l^» 


» l>,,vi,im 





EubJ. & 1 /MM. 


Opts. 1 aoviiUttu 




3 SwUwiir 



I111P.S. SiWlni 

■ i^l^r™. 



»i by Google 


Regular Verb jSovJUva, to plan^ to counseL 








jhvitvaai, jhvliiaut 



»i by Google 

1 SA. z. BfiDDLE Aim Passive Voices op 

(U dM Wddl* Villa* 

lad 6. 1 jhvkti«fiat 

3 ^uititnM 
P. 1 jhvUtmiir&a 

3 ponUiorrai 
D. 3 fiovlMUiaSow 

8abj. S. 1 , 

3 ^vlivqim 

P. I ^ItViffll^ 

3 povl*v^a'&^ 

3 jfoirliiwnm 

D. 2 fiovlfiia9<» 



1 lhvlm«tinfv 

3 ^ovlrvoia 

3 jlovltvono 

P. I jSovlivalfu&m 

3 jfaiutiiSoino 
D. 3 jlovXniouiSew 
3 p<ni}itvobid^9 

Imp.S. 2 fimiixiiM 

3 /JovXiv/o^N 
P. 2 /Jouliiw^i 
3 ^ovlivtoANaor, 

D. 2 ^OvllUHF^IW 

3 paultviQ^tn 
Infin. jSovhiia&at 

Put. fJoiuUt>d/iiM( 

. fiovltvag, 




PI :«l by Google 

^ 85.] BBSHLlk COHXaeATIOH. 4ft 

THE R&GVLAK Verb ^ovXi^, to plant ^o cotmteL ' 













fiavltvaaa&m jlijloiAwva9m 

Pauitvaaa&taar, ptflovlwa-^ma HT , 

fiotilMuaaa9tif (StpovlmnSm* 

Sovltiaaa&op fiifiovUva^or 


U.g,l:«l by Google 


Table x. completed. 

[nd. 8. t t/lovltv»i,» 

3 ifiovlti9n 
?. I ^vinS»q^n- 

2 tlhvliv9^n 

3 i/hvlpi^^aa^ 

6 ijlovlniS4iii» 

Snbj. S. I govltoSn 
S povltv&St 
3 flovltv&j 
P. 1 fiovUvS£tu» 

3 /Joulniffwai 
D 3 ^l«v9^t<w 

Opt S. 1 fiovlwSilffl 
3 fSouilivdB^igC 
3 fiovhv&d^ 
P. 1 povUv&altium, flavXivSitiiir 

3 flovln&ihiaaf, jhvltv9iity 
D. 2 J3ovltv9d7[iov 
3 ^vlivdtiijr^ 

Iiiip.S. 3 /Sovlevdnn 

3 /SovltvS^tf 

P. 2 /J«ta«i!»ij« 

D. 3 jfovltvj^of' 
8 ^liu^^vr 




fiovln d ijaopi&a 







j3o vUn9ij9a ia9ar 



»i by Google 


H 36. XI. (A.) Mute Verbs. 
1. rgdfta, to write. 

ntMDt Futon. Aoitat. 

i. Labial. 

Subj. Yiiaifm 
Opt. yiiatfotiih 
Imp. yfaqii 
Id£ ^(a9tii> 
Pari, ^^BfiMir 


Ind. ygaipiifiai 
Subj. ffja^ttfua 
Opt. yuatfoliajy 

Imp. fQOKfOV 

Inf. ;r^'^o9iH 
Part, j'Doipo/m'cv 

Ind, iffaipoitp' 






Pnnci, hd. 

S. I Y^yfapittii 

2 jriYgaifim 

3 fiyifoirzat 
P. I yiyi/afifti&a 

S fiyfoifSt 
8 ft/ffanfitroi 
D, 2 fiytiBif9ow 


SAor, Km. 



< Pasbitb Voices. 
AmblHid. . 
















»i by Google 


1[ 37. Labial. 2. Atixa^ to Uaoe. 

Ind. !•;«(. 


lilfm Wautm 


Subj. %dnm 

Opt. 1«^IU. 


Imp. Ul«. 

Id£ uh^ 

IWyuv Uimmha* 

Part. i.Jm»» 

lify^ UoMMir 



Opt. W- 


8. 1 KUm 




2 EUjtK 


U^Dit Um 

3 ILn* 


Una. l.s<^ 


P. 1 A/tnvur 




2 A/nm 


U>n»n U«m 


3 Dinor 


D. 2 ai»«t0r 


Unoiior llnlTOT 


8 A()rii)r>> 

liKOJTigv linnaif 



AND Pabiitb Voices. 


FUtmelOd. Pcrfcct. 


Ind.. Utnoixat 


Subj. Icfnwfuii 


Opt Umoittv 



Imp. itdiov 



Inf liintaSa 

l.fu.TO:S«( i.ii.O.'SOT 




SFumre. BiqierfMt. 


Acnw IL Mnou. 



Opt w. 


S. 1 aonf^igy 




3 fl/mn. 


Unoui linou 

3 fl/nno 


I/koho lintaA'ii 


P. 1 antofuSa 

ct h7tolpi9a 

2 mnriFdl 


Ut,oio», Un,a9i 

3 alnono 


D. 2 OiniaSav 


»i by Google 


1 38. ii. Palatal. Il^daam or jtgdxTo^ to do^ 

lad. nqAaan, Kfonm nfa£m irifaia nittfBia nin^Sya 

Subj. nijaaott, nfatiit itfaia 

Opt. nfiooooifii, n^Biroi^i n^afOt^i TtgaSatfu 

Imp. nfaaat, nfant ttgaior [rai [vat 

InC Mfdaatir, nfirmir npofEiv n^afni ninpii^i- jtctigoyi- 

Middle and Pasbiti Voices. 

Subj. nfaaaatfiiu, jtfoxiafitiu 

Opt. ii(uuao//itp, nfanolftTir ngaiolfn)* 

Imp. nfdaaav, Kfanov 

Inf. npovaciitfin, nfdntafiat 
Part. «foooo,<wos,nfano;«roe 






Subj. „f<;,v» 

Opt. ,p„,W^,r 
Imp. n(iafa( 
iDf. nfdSaaSai 








S. 1 «i»wM« 
2 n(Wp«{«* 



2 ,,'n5oj^, 

3 Ttinqaypiyot 





199. iii. LwQDAL. 1. ntidm^io penuade, 

A<mn VoicB. 

Ind. ntlSm xtiem tntiaa Siudor niituna tUnotSa 
Subj. itMm ntlam nldm nutoidm 

OpL ntidoiiu Kitaoifu mlaai/u niSot/n avioi^ottp 

Imp. sit^i xdoov nl-dt nisiuidi 

Inf. Ki/9>tv viAiMr Kuvcu mSiZv nmtisiivii ntnoi^iioi 

Pui. ttd&mw Kiiamp Httamt Ki&mv nmioai; mnoi^u; 

MlODLi AND Pasiitb Voicbb. 

ncKDt FBtHtVU. SAar.2fld. AoHmAm. Fntanha^ 

lod. mJiJa/tiH mlaafiat ini^ofi^r tntladipi nitu^ijaiMiai 

Subj. nti9tiimt nl&ifim nna&i 

Opt^ jtu9olii^ Tiuaolfiipr nifiot/i^ir rtiiaStliir mmd^olfiiir 

Imp. Kil&ov ni&ov ntui^Tt 

luL nilSta9m ittlaia9m ni9ia9m nnu^^'M ntiovhj'ocod'u 

Part mi^iftvot niurofiwoc ni^ofim); nnvdi^ Kiiiidqod^nwi 



1 nintianat 
3 >.^i»«n«. 



1 mnUantdu 




2 t^uofiar 


»i'bv Google 


H 40. 2. Koftito, to bring. 

AcTitrs Voi«. 

Opt. KOulZotlU 

Inip. BOfiiEa 

Inf. nofiij;"' 

Part. Mpl^ 

FUnn. Aoikl. nriM. 

ftfilott hofitam mtniiitKm 


Ind. xofijfo^t 

Subj, KOidiiapat 

Opt. »o^itol[ii\r 

Imp. xDff^oii 

In£ *0fL^cii9ta 

Part. xo^iCo^tro; 

Ind ixofuion^t 


}DLK iND Passive Voices, 
FkMnlOd. Aoilit UU. 
KOjilaofifi ixo/^iodfttiP 


tmidataSitt to/xlaaafiat 
nofuoofurcf KO/iioajitrot 



Fwun Ptm, 
tuxofiio/uii ixnofi/a/tqr aofitodijirofiat 

Attic Fvtdsb. 

3 nefotlf 
P. 1 xoiuoviia 



»i by Google 


141. zii. (B.) LreoiD Verbs. 
1. *j^/yiXXa, to aanotmce. 





_, SAoriM. ' 

Inr. uyyiiXvr nyfiUir iyyi 

^jfthm ^fihitif 

Ogt. hi. put. 

iyyiXeXfu, ayyilol^ i/jftUir afjrtlSw 

9 mtydflt Ayftlols, ayyllolv 

3 ayj"}-^ ip-ildi, ^ytlolii 

P. 1 nT-fitovfuv ttyYtXatfur, ay/iiol^fiti 

9 ^yyilthi ayyiloiii, ayytlalijil 

3 iyytlovat iyyiloUr 

D< 9 ayyiUtKur ayylldtior, ayyilolTiTt 



ayyiloljtir, ayyilotijiir 

S, 1 ^tila 

8 %yy*tU- 
P. 1 iyytl^, 

1 i^«.i\-^ 

Wj. Opt b*. 

aryilkca ayyiHaiiii 
ayyilipf ayyillaif, iyyttXnat Syyiilw 
ayyiUg ayyillai, ayyillia ayytiXaTtt 
iyy'll--li" ayytHaifttv 
9 ^yytlhin ttyylkijtt ayytlXant ayyiDMit 

3 l^yyuiMi ayytUitat iyydi.aitr,iyyUisuip ayytiXitmaav, 
D> 9 iyyiDtatM iyyttXtitor SyyiUanor ayydlator 

8 ijyyuidttp' ayytilttlt^ ayyiilaimr 

lot. iyyiOMt, PuL a/;'i£U(,-d0(i,-<f ' O.-anof^iiaK- 

Middle and Passitb Voickb. 

Ind. iyyiiXoitai jjyyilon^r 

fiubj. ayyillmnai nyyiivpat 

Opt. ayyMnttH)v ayyilolu^r 

Imp. ttyyAlao iyytXov 

Inr. i!;';'^Uia0«u iyytUa&ai 

Part. iff/tXleiunt iyyiXoiatot 










ayyfXtf^Tloopai ayyilnaofiM 

ayyikStiootiirpi ayyil^aolft^t 

myyU^riao/itrof uyyUtiao/iung 

Idd. Opt. 

S. 1 ayytloifiat iryrlolfi^ 

3 ayydip, ayytUi ayythuo 

3 ayytktittu AvrtlntTi 

P. I ayytloviitSa 

S iyytliia9t 

3 ayyiiovntit 
I>. S iyytUut&w 


iyyMta^ai iyyilavfimt 


S. 1 iiyyuliftrir 
3 ^yytUm 
3 riyytOata 

9, I ^yyttii^Si 
3 MiY»liaa9t 
3 tiyytUarto 







D. 9 »yytllaa9or ayyiUtiaSo 
8 ^yytiiaa9tir 

Inf. ayyt0jia9ai' 

Opt. Id^l 

ayytihxio oyyiiXat 

iyytikaijo iyytlaaOi 

ayytIiaio9* iyytUaa&t 

ayyiliatyio oyytilaa9m' 


ayyflXataSor iyytllacSor 
ayyulalo9^r ayyiilaadm' 
Part, ayytilttfurot. 

I ^ilfiai 

P.. I iyyO/uSm 

3 ^yyti^iirot tlal iiyyil9maar, 
D. 2 ^ry*l»w ^y«i*«r 

3 ^yyll9mr 

^yyil9at yyf>fl» 




M TAILK8. nr ^ 

I 49. LiqiriD. 2. (PaiVo, fo «Aoto. 

Active Voice. 

Subj. ^/t-H trvM> 

Oft. iptitmfu fm nH/n , ywofyi y^iwifu 

Imp. fidZvi V^'A' 

Inf. fa/riif iptwitf V^"** «aqrfrJ»M 

HiDDLK AND Passitb Voicib. 

Ind. ^atro/tat kfturonnr tfarovpat dmeyafiJir 

Snbj. ipaltmtau ip^rmiiai 

Opt. q>mt^it^» iftntlfiiir fi^va^v 

Imp. ^a/ivD ^lui 

InC ^air»o&m tfayria^mi if^rma^at 

Port. 9>aiiio;in«r cfttiiov^nitK 

I Am'. An. 9 Aor. Ah, 1 FM. Fm f I^■L Put. 

Ind. iiparSiiT tipar^r ipmi9^aofiat ifBOiioo/tat 

Sabj. iparSn ipari 

Opt. iftrrStl^ ifar^tir ^mid^aoliiip' <f<tr^aiilf)iir 

Imp. <fAp9tin ifopti&i 

Inf. foi^qrM ^rqrni (for&^tadm ^mw^am&at 

Part, foffi'f^ ^'i^ <fmi9f)a6fMras ipar^aoitaios 

lad. Impb b£ 

3 ntqnroai nJiparaa iniipirrov 

8 siifortat vt^rdm tut. inliparto 

P. 1 i$e<fa«f4i9ii HHpaafthof tjti^aapi9a 

r , ..I CH)l")t5lc 



1. Av^ta or ttv^dva, to increase. 
AcTiTB Voice, 
KmbL Fotan. Anwt PmtetL 

lod. djija, avSavm ovfigoN qvfi}(W qiiSqMi 

Subj. aufB), ' ttj$(iM( aufijoM 

OpL. avioifu, aviarotfu avfq'ooi/ii nvfq'oai^ 
Imp. tnifi, etvSart ttdijao* 

Inf. avSur, ouforci* ovf^adi' ovfqaat t;vfi;xira( 

P(Ut. infUi', KvfaMM' mfiJoMV aiii^'onc tjvirixiit 

MrDDLB AND Pasbitk Voicia. 
rimat FnWn HM. Anirt Hid. 

Subj. a££«pw, oviiirM/KU nvfigoafuii 

Opt. mifo/^qv, DtrfsroJfitjr avi^aolfii}r avS^oalfi^y 

Imp. avfsv, ovfcivoir (rvfi)oii( 

I of. ovfradai, avfaciodai avfijaiodat avS^aaa9at 

Part, ctu^^iro;, Dvluto^frOf s^'oo/iirat «vfqOK^«*(V 

FofiM. Rifvlcel. AonU FU. Future ^ib 

Ind. iiSSiifiai qu{qfii]v qvfij^iji' in!fi)d^iiaf(a( 

Subj, avSJiOw 

Opt dvfilfft/ijr uufij^ijiio'fiqr 

Imp. ig{%i}(TO au{q9i;n 

Inf. iivfqo^M Bvfit^qrai Biitj9^ata9ai 

Part. i^tifij^A'O; aufiidf/c ovJig^qaiifMroc. 

1 44. 2. Perfect Passive of xa/iitita, to bend, 
and iXij^o, to convict. 

■ 1 nixafiuii Hijliyfiai 

. 1 ntKa/ipt9a lirilifftiSa 

3 mufinhm tl^Uyiiivot 

. 3 KiwflfldM Olflir^^dM' 

tittidiiipSm Ikiiliyx^at 



1 43. xir. (D.) PintB Verbs, i. Contract 

1. Tifuia, to honor. 

AcTttri VoicK, 

8. 1 J/idm, jtfim 

S Tipau(, ttfif 

3 unati, Tifi^ 

P. 1 tiiteofitt, Tiftiifur 

3 iifiiiovai, Ttfimat 

Hiiiaton tiftaonini, n/i^zor, tifi^^ton 

hiiiaziir tt^oo/tijr, ii/i^ngv, n^i^i^ 

■ br. 
' Fui. 






U^milK, Tl^^M. 

»i by Google 


eoMraioT tsxx. 

M.DDLB AND Pabhivk Voices. 

8. 1 iT^bV'. 



2 u^ip. 





P. 1 v,Min,»a. 



2 v^taa,. 




3 ti/umtai. 




D. 2 TifufraSov, 







2 ft,^riOT. 




3 Ai^a'no, 




P. 1 iniiaofuBa, 









D. 2 Hiftataattw, 




3 iu^aia»t,r. 




FiBnn Imt. 


B. 3 TVffc". 



3 ti/uu'dSM, 


P. 2 T<^«(a»>, 








3 uiiaia9iar. 










Opt. ii^ao/^ip' 













iDd. .„^^„0^ 




I 46. CoHTRACT. 2. 0tXiof to love. 
Acnn VoiCBi 



D. 3 f bUitof, f blilrar 

S. 1 /9>£tnir, 

3 V^M, 
F. I dtfiiio/tty, 

3 V^Usr, 
D. 3 ^«hUi[o>, 

3 VfxlMTqr, 




fiUoiioiv qxloiToi'i qnlaititaw 
^iltoij^*, ^ilolt^i ^lim^tttP 

8. S qJXn. 

3 f»Wi*>, 

P. 3 f tUra, full! 

3 ^Nltnuovr, 9tiU/i 

D. 3 9UU'(T0V, 9ll(I 

3 ^Xi^aiv, fiiiiji 


Opt fdiftrnfu 

Infi. ^aifmiv 






MiDDLG AMD Passive Voices. 

Pusnr IiTD. 



a 9tki>,,quUu, 

P. 1 viU6(,€»a, 
3 ifiUorau. 



D. 2 fuUioSor, 







S. 1 fv.3..Sp^y. 

2 V^'ov, 

3 i>fili^o. 






2 ^ae'tu^i, 

3 iipiUono, 


D. 2 iq,>Utoaoy, 
5 ;9»i«^o'5.p'. 





8. 2 fi4Uov, ' 
3 ifdttaStii, 



P. 2 yJiw^i, 

3 ifiUhaaoar, 

D. 2 vaiw,»ov, 

3 ^dia,9ur. 



qidto/iirri, tpilovftif^ 




Aoriit Pm. 







Opt. ntqcxiijuo^^ 
Ia£ Mi^dtitricrdat 

f 47. Contract. 3. JifJMo, to manifeat. 
ActtrK VoicB. 

S. 1 J^., 

2 d,ll,„, 

3 J,«.fc 


T 1 ),li,i.„, 

2 it,i6iiM, 

3 l,li^.. 





S. 1 mi6a, 
3 »,-lM, 

»,;&.. J,lol, 

2 /jqlom, 

3 /«>,'iao^. 

3 «,W.,., 



■ Vtmn 


a 2 dq'zoi, 

3 J,Wm, 


P. 2 irtUttt, 




.V Google 


p. 1 h^Looiitda, 
D. 2 S^loiaSm/, 

ilhiXovfiMd a 



8. 1 iS^loofii]*, 

2 td>,iiov. 

3 a^loito, 
P. 1 tlh)looiii9a, 

2 i6rii,itii3t, 

3 an^oano, 
D. 2 atiloiaam; 

3 ii) qioto^qv, 

Fboot Im 

S. 2 Siiloov, S^lov 

3 Jqiolodw, S^koviiSn 

P. S JqloM^t, JuJlawda 

3 S^loiaOttaar, STjXovoOtHiav, 

3 i^XoiaSar, diiioia3nr 





Funn Oi& 

StiXoolfiit/a, StjXolfu&a 







Ind. i^Xtiuuiutt 


Opt ttjimaolini^ 

lof, 3iiXmaia9tu 

Part. ^Xnaofitrot 


Ind. dtdtiXtioaita* 

Opt. MqiUMIoJfiqf 

IdC Mtihiir«j9at 

Put dtAqlxmfMrac 

Fmuun Ink 

iriXoo/ifrti, d^XaVfiirti 




8t8iiX£o&ai dtjXm&^n* 
MuXiafiivot SijXM&its 

9iilt 9^of ir^ot 

»i by Google 


H 48. FuKE Verbs, ii. Verbs in -fo. 
1. "Ict^fUt to place, to itation, 

(fl Aac., FM, Ffa^, Md S At, fc Kari.) 




»* 0,«. 


a 1 Snw. 

inj ln.1,. 


fcr Kr 




P. Ifc.^ 


Iot^i IotoV. I*""!" 


3 Info. 

D. Sinn.. 




loC !«.&<.. Put. )m,,-i,a,-i,- a.-ir.. 



a. 1 b.7 

p. bMv<» D. 


In«w tiim*]> 


Enoom Nnonp 

A0R»T II. 


B«li Oi*. Imf. 


8 I fm,. 

»t£ or-V 


S &,,! 

<fip( irnr% OTflfft (of«) 


..Tji ^«f, cx^u. 


p. I bnifuv 

oTUfim aiahiiitr, fmrt^tr 



OT^tt vmiijii, otuhi CTJji* 


0. 9 in.,... 

tfujiov miiiijTDf, omwof m^vrtf 


. vtaiqngr, orWiip an^Tur 


I AoiiK. Ftritct. . Fl-pofcct 


Ind. OTflou 


VT^'dto i(nqaa> 

Opt (m|<ro(^. 


iSf' n,,-..o. 

"i"" . • . 


»i by Google 

^ 4B ] TBBM U -lu. 

Perfect II. 
ha. Sut^ OpL Id^ IrC 
S. 1 • ioTiii iirM/i)r Itrcni'cu 

3 • • iaialjis fuTdfit 

3 a • lazal^ iaiiitt Ait. 

P. 1 tannfur iarufun &.C loruV Itfuyim 

2 laioit • ftFiaji lajmaa fatan 

3 tmSat tatum &,a. imii;, imot taiaaa» 

D. 3 Arrtnor • laiaiot ^aior 


ioicuui); iuTaiijr 




IMtf. OpC 

Id,. fat 

H. 1 Uia,^ 

loTM/iai liiiB//i)jr 


2 SoT«oa. 

iffrp ia-atU} 


3 fnanw 

Ifn^iat Soiano 

imiitr^w Alt. 

P. 1 foia/oOo 

I<n«>>:9a !oii>^(«« 


2 toTaaSB 

urrqadi loiaiir^r 


a i:nar<« 

UnwrTot SuTDino 

'uttiaStmini, iardad^n' 

iot^v^oi' Xo^aiaSov 





S. I lOTiJ^^ 

P. unaut&a 


3 IWmo, IffiM ^faSi 


3 &n«io 



Fut. Mid. anifn^iKi. Aor. Mid. iar^aaii^. Perf forn/Hu. 

Pluperf. tmaVqr 

. 3 Fat Mid. toT^iou: 

,^ Aor. PaBs. iajJi9^,. 

FuL Pass. ff,a»v<n,iiit. 

S4». 2.TttESKC0ND A6RIOT*¥tafl*fl«,to4by. 


M^ Oi*. 

Imp. U 

S. 1 i^^^^ 


2 ftrp.-- 

"e'fl "e^M 


3 inftaio 

nflriTtti ni/latto 

nfiaoffu Ifct 

P. 1 i..,tVO« 

ngiiifii&a nftaifttSa 

2 i,3^9i. 

jtfl^a&i fff/mv^f 


3 Ai^lono 

nglttrtm jiftatno 

,rj.,J<f*«a«>'. «(.«*»» 

D. 2 htflaaaor 







la*. VzRBa iir-/u. 3. TiSiifa, to ptU, 


B. 1 t;j?<iiu 

3 iWflo, 



P. I ii«>f<ir 

2 l/flCTl 



D. 2 i.'«fio* 



Inf. tttfiVofc P«rt 

T.*^,-lto«.-*i'- 0.-.Vioe,-tfaw. 


8. 1 /t/»i]v, itl»i,vr 
3 iil»^. M»H 

P. ftWt/iw D. 


AoRisT U. 


8. 1 r*i)-o 

2 Mijxoe 

3 S9nMt 


Sulj. Opt 


P. 1 /*«',«p«. 

2 ^*,l»T, 


9«lta &il,,i,ir. 3clf,i 


AoB. IL Inf. ffi*-ni. Part. *iff, *iw<<, *»■ G. #mof, d^a, 

Ind. H<i<* 
Opt. *^.ro.^ 
Inf. tf^Mw 
Part. ^OM- 

IMnt nq«ftot 

»i by Google 



> 1 ilStftiu 

3 ilSnat 

. 1 iiSi/uSa 

3 t'dtnat 



xtOitiuSa, ■aSetfu9a 

ilSavto, il9omo 
tlSiia9ow, tl&oia-9or 

3 ji9tm, t19o» 
S ti9h9» 

P. : 

2 ri^io^f 

3 n9iaSuaap, r*9ia&m* 

D. 2 T^«0#0» 
3 tt&iaOiir 



til9tao, hl9mt 


AoitisT n. Middle. 
Snl;). OpL 

9wnai Stlfi^y {9oliitir) 
9^ 9i7o S 

3 rSno 



9ia9m An. 

P. 1 i»if,t9a 

2 f*.o». 

3 S9trT0 





D. 2 I9ta9o» 
3 Mi<r«i|r 

*,-„ffo. ■ 




A€r.I>kM. FUtFMt. 

Opt. *,«Jhi' 

iDt «ifo(atf« 
Put. ^aofiiro( 


U9ufim iti9ilii^r 






Hal. Verbs in-/u. 4. JUSoyn, to gwe. 



U. Mf. Oph h^ 

8. 1 JM.p 


r. 1 «v 



D. SMnx 


tiSohpo*, iiimwp 

Inf. aiMmi. Part. J(&>i«-iivui>.-o»- 6.-«'mc,-ov(iita. 


2 ^a»M(, /a^Du; 

3 ^»d», /5;dDir 

P. <SJAo^ D. 


AoaiST I. 



S. 1 B... 

3 a«. 




N«. 0,1 



2 MMxon 

3 ».».r 

S^,t dolit,, idiu Sou 
fldioi Saitiaav, 8oUr dorittaaw, 

D 2 

» ditor 

Aon. 11. Inf. Stirm. Put. J.^ l,>im, tit- 0. lin^ Mow 

lad. ajaii 
Opt U«o.^ 

Pirt. Mm 


V Google 

If 61.] 


L I SiSofidt 

2 SlSoaa, 

3 diSczal 

3 AUonn 


n. 2 MAM««r <i^#n 

InC Slioa9ai. 






Put, SJIo/irrot. 

8i I iSiiofi^ 

3 nanno, aaov 

3 /a^io 




S 1 tdift^i' 
3 Ow 

P. 1 ai^a 
9 l^ttto 

D. 8 (':Ja[r»dr 
3 iaoaanf 





S£a9or Saia&ar 

• 3oio3ii9 

36o»m Pan. 



FtaL TDi. Att. Fmm. Kit. FkM. 

Ind. Siaoiiat Uo9^ ioSiiaoiuit tiSofitu mM/t^r 

Subj. 6o&u 

I nip Jdi^itti SiSoao 

InC 8maio9at 9o9^rat So9^oia9at SiSSvSvt 

»i by Google 

f 09. VeBBS IX-fU, 

S. .^cun'iyu, to stow. 








1 ».w^ 


2 j.;.rtt 


3 at&^<Ti 





3 StJ-^vif 














i dl/>HIV, ^dli>rvo» P. 



2 tSU^tpVi, attariit 


3 au^, isuxrZ, 


Future dtttw. 

Awirt »»«,. 











3 Stlxymut 




1 iMiKri^tffa 



2 a,hpva&» 











PaiL 3tiMw 




P. iSit*yvp,3i, D. 

Fnt, Mid. BtlSoiiai. Aor. Mid. i8titaitii». Perf. OiiaiyiMt. 
^laperC atiify/i^. Aor. Pua. /dE^flfiv. Fut Paai. 4*>z^t- 

II M-] 

1[ as. 6. 0ti[u, to toy. 


Ind. 814 

l^;r If 



3 ^al 


D. S 9nTM> 


l|ini.ijT.p, qxi/ngv 

8 1 W. 
8 1^. 




or Associated Forks. 

Aram Tans. 


Ind. ,,^ 9^,™- 
Subj. ^. ,i„- 

Imp. 9^»,, f<f<r>it 
In£ fo'iw, foaiNr 
Part. ^. ^',„^ 


1 A«M. tJUdM. 
Ind. tip^aa, ilna «]ii(rv 
Subj. ^'tfN, a^m anm 

Imp. • Jiior d^i 

Put 9^at, d>(«t .i>[*^ 

Pm. tnC ifHo^M, Part, ipaiuros ■ Perf. Imp, S. 3 tti^ovAw * 
Inapert". /^aanffury * Perf. tfQ^fiat, FIup, tt^/tqf, 3 FuL ■i^qm' 
/uu, Aoi. Pom. ijf^^, f^j(9<]>'i FuL Pass. ^^^mftm. 



1 04. VxRBs iS'Hu 7. "^/u, to setid. 

hA B^ Ojt. Imp. Id 

I Sw. 



3 UifclAn 





luii,,., iti.,. 





lei. Self. 0^ le,^ 


I V.fc„(!.,) J.. 

3 t,, U, i.. 

• Bf 'tee Ce 
. f .!,,».. r.. 


8 Un 

3 !«,» 


3 h» 

titer ^tor 



Future, qra. Perfect, ■!■«. P 






1 :.,„ 

3 I..e. 


bin,, u,i,v 

£l(0, "iovo 
ZeiTO. (Olio 




Adrist I{. 



Mi. OK. 



1 I«.,^ 

2 fcae, ie. 


r f 

&e. &e 


"nt. MM. »»,«.. I Aor. Hid. 4,.>,.. Pert 4, 
Aor. Paw. a9>p: FuL Pass. MigecvuM. , 

«. Hop 


las. 8. EifU,tobe. 

lad. Snti. Opt> Imp. 

. 1 (If</ « «v 

1 io/iii' MfMy trq/MTi ^<n' 

3 )M wm ifqirm', «Zn' 

Enwr, orrav ok 

3 ■Iq'Kfi thv' Eviw otwic 

Imtsktsot. FnmEK. 

Ind. Opt InK 


2 Itff, fO^B 


P. 1 lUMT iaof4*9a taol/u&a hoftaot 

8 qffw bonttt taotrto faafumr 

D. 2 qtoi', qotff lbio#9)i IiroiffA'oi' 

bd. Sidj. b^, Rot, 

& 1 ^D. aiI*L S.9In,ln«F. ILUfJ. 

S iTtL iXaK, l^ F. bSnL 

Un'P. SInB. j^K. UV-D. 

S fn^' D. Un K |_,Hu S. iJn D. 

P. 1 •;>.!• L F. I 4«( D. i^HH, p. I«n D. 

M>P- Opt. t,,t.i>. Ovi. 

•S^'S- a«*WbP. .V'D- UmtL 

a S r«. P. & S I.. L p. 3 In. L p. 

l»y. & h D. f*». p. 

W L Inl It. Umm It. 

S fctE. P. I tl-$0. Utml. 

- I»«.D. 

> l«w«l. 

la«. 9. Eliu,togo. 






IbH Art 






2 Ito 




FLunsFxcT n., or Ikpeueot 


lE'^ "■ 


MiDDLl (te Aoden). Preaent, Fi^mu. Imperfect, t^qr. 
Dummo Foul 





as AL 

& 1 iff p. 

B.S AS. 


& 1 1:^! 

S f»L 


D. 3 fwl. 

Ma>. At tTn^Mi, Aoi. iJntftn, Ep. (^ 9U). v. GoOqIc 


-Pure Verbs, iii. Second Aobists. 

I. AoRiST II. of fiaatt, to go. 
Sn)^ Opt. Imp. Inf. 

rfJi*. pi 



tpii fis" (»»% /J^"fl'(/*s) 

W-) /Sfl pidr, (J.;t*. 


ifinfttr P^fia jSalnpiy, flatf^iy 


ipn^. /Ji« /Jo(.iT*, /J-rfr. ?;,U 

tfl>)oar jJuoi palfiaar, fluUr pi,iBi9ar, , 


i^qiw /Jflto* /iu/flior. p.uxof Pn">» 

//JiilijK ^iijrti.', /Jn/in' Pn'i-" 

2. AoRtBT II. of anoS.dfavHoi, to run aicuy. 

U. Sutii. Opt. 


amdi/Or e 

nodfia anoSQalijr e 



noig^ anoSi/aiiis 


na^i inoS^^ln 



noi„a,Atv &.C. 




aJriSffSaar . 


ini3i,,Uov inoS^Htoy 


3. AottlBT U. of yiyyiioK*,, tO huM. 

IM Sutj. Op.. Imp. 


!>*•)» /.» yiorV {yrv-f) 


Syrif yy^i ytoim yy£&t 

f/»«i yri^ /foiij , /roif« 


tyrmptr yrufitr yralrnitv, yyoifiHt 


fyrmit ytuTI yroliit, ytoUi ytVTt 

(yfHiaaw yybiai yrolfja-tr, yra'if- yvi^Jbiae 

lynttio* yrmiar yroiTjior, yvoUor yraior 

/yytixtir yxii^rfi*, yroljii' yywTwii 

4. AowBT II. of 5vya. la aUer, to put on. 

LJ. Sdii. Opt iBp. 


tdvy die Sioif,. 


m( SvM dvov »«»• 

as avg 3vo. 9iTt, 


iUvfiir iv4ifiai Sioiiitr 


id Bit Sviiu 6votu Svji 

UCaay SvBiai 8Coiai avtetaaf, dvnmw 

rdEiDK Svtitof iinjiior 8vtor 


Svoh^y duivf 

V. Google 

[It 88, 89. 

1 tf 8. XT. (E.) Pbetebitive Verbs. 
1. Oiia, to know. 

U. S4(. <!,<. 




1 M, 

■tM udiV 



Jtfm Mi, ■!»■/,( 


3 .»• 

.»,- .U.I, 




1 .a.,<.r 

fofU. ■»•/■>' &.C 


S cam 

b.. .»,-<■ 


3 oRdn 

IMn Mi,, 



3 oOnor 

bm uli,^ 


8 tarm. 

Plupbrtxct II 



g, P.|..^»,^,,„ D. 

toy, joto* 

{*»»^ j-J,.9. 

3 tM'). 

B^l soww, J, 


ia.iTv. s<^ 

Fntare, tfoojjM, lU^ov. AoriBt, 



Jiiotxa or di^ia, /o be afraid. 

Perfect 1 1. 

Pldpkkf. II 


Solj. iMf. 



1 >.'].> 



3 lilm 

SMrit ais,». 


» Sllu 

saij, i««>. 




1 s^aiiiiv 



3 ia„. 

dM^M aniu 

3 ArAfffm 

d,3l>ia, dtaijuattr 


3 diSttw 

SMi/TW aHijot 





1 Perf ««..>.. I PluniC «.l.bu, 


Sa». B.*Hftai, 




I " 

top. M ^ 








3 J,»m 



io9c» a;ia9mr 





Preteritive VERBa. 
4. Kd&iffMtj to sU down. 

8. 1 KaS^iuu 

2 xB^tium 

3 aoSiiiai 
P. I Kcta^iti&i 

2 xuStio9t 

3 aa^igviat 

D. 2 ttaSva&o 


■a9qiM xaSoiio %aS^a9ti 
na&upi&a xa3olpi3a 
xaSija&i xad outfit xd9^it9t 
xaSmriut xaSoino naS^oSmam 
xa'd(]0i9ov xaSoiofioT xdO^aSov 



1 ixmOijfi^r, uafii^tf" ^- ^ ixad^fu&a, xa9^fu9a 

2 tnaS^ao, imS^aa 2 ixu9^a9i, xaSijafia 

3 txadtiTO, xB^qoTo 3 ^xB^^no, . av9qrta 

. 3 t%a3^a&i>v. xaS^afiw D. 3 /x«9i)u9)j)', xa&ij<i9t,w 

H 60. Kttfiat, to He doton. 

Present or Pesfbct. 
biU Sill))' Opt Imp. h£ 

. I xtcfiat xittfitti xtoliitir tiAiidai 

2 Kiuiai x(ji ' K^oio xflao 

3 KEiiai xiqttti *ion« ntla9u An. 

. I Ki/juido siu/ii^a «(o/^td(( xtlfimt 

2 xtTod'i x('qa9i N^oiofi xiTo^i 

3 KiuToi xmnai a^otvto Ki/odtwo*, xttafimr 
'■ S xGaivf xinv9o» %ioia9o* aiuifimi 

8 MtoiaJqc xUa9mw 

Imperfect or Plupkbtbct. 

3 bwra 

P. h»l,u9a 

Future, xilao/uu. 






xn. Changes in the Root 

A. EuFHONic Chanqbs. 


■ to 1. I 4. Hctathnls. 

• Ud > •> k 5. To ayoid Doabia AsptntiiM. 

6. OmlMkoorAdditii 
I f. From thi OBii»om nf UwDigimn.fc 

B. Emfhatic Changes. 

Br I jMU ' Hwm ia a &<« T«wkl. 

15. r to I. I e. « to 0. 

6. r to u. I 9. # to IP. 

a. To I^bU Hoott. 
^ ToOther BootL 
>. Pndxad. 
3. ASxed. 
Ciiilliig with a 

y. PilaUl to fono («(«■). 

I. yy " C- 

«. Lstnal 
HL Bt 

Prednd toaCoroontnt 

'«. Witlio«ftira<r dungs. 
^ TmnJchuigBdbyivect*- 
y. Towd kogthened. [ajoa 

ITuHHSK or Btti inn 
(55 8B3-S86). 
a. In Tortn in -^h. 

rs. WithMit faiOtr damga, 
}$. Willi tha InMitkin of h 

m<i5 287-299). 

(a. Td Pure BiMtk 
d. w -^A- To Palatal Roots. 

ly. To Lingual Htd Uqidd 
t.^m. [Bcwla. 

f. .:. 

(. Otb* SfDabto. - 

a. 4 £nA>rv> o/ £<«■>« (5 3C0> 

Akoualous Chanoxs. 

paoi.] I v.GoO'^lc 

D. Tables of Formation. 

t] 03. I. Table of Dbrivatioh. 

I. Pkou Vmuia, denutiag 

1. The Aaiomt in -Ht, -t'M. -*, -«, 

■ti{-t*),-m,-i i-ui), -fui, -fa- 
8. Th« Effid or Objrtt, id -fii. 
S. Tb« Satr, in -mi, -raf, -n^ 

(F. -Tf*, -™(4, Ttll. -rll,) -^t 

4. 'Die Plact, Im ti i um ml, fio^ in 

IL nuni AiwBcnVEH, expraaat^ 
tba ^iMnitf, in -iii (-»«, 4>>), -ra. 

111. Pbom OrHsm Nousra. 

1. PatriaU, In .rw (f- -vf*). lA 

(F. -r,). 

S. Fatrtmfmia, in ^Im, -lliif, 
lUw (F. h'i. -&, Jm). -i*\ 

(F. --J™. wV,). 

3. Ftmaii AgpMOita, in ^(, 4»«, 

4. liitainMiea, in -r« (-tlmv -tt^—t 
-iIxXhW ^w, 4c), .a, J%ti§, 
-i;C'"h ■">■■ -lAAif, 'tXftf, *c- 

L Fnw T«RBi ; in uU, 

in) -IfUf, /(mm; ^^f, - 
n. Tttm Novm ; in .rii (.ai. 

HI. From ADjatrnm add Ai^ 

1, A« from Nonni. 

3. Strengthened Ftwma ; 

D. Tn 

I. Fbom Nomm i 

bnta^M, aetht, Ae. ; -nwith panult 

fH 318. 31 St J 
AiMBCnvKSi II. Fboh Other TsbbSj In -n'm, 

Ac, frajumtatirt, htniigf, inaift 

I Obu()DC Cabcs < 

E. AnvBRss. 



n .«, .JaJL 

3. TJmiic. 

3. PlaetK 

4. JVuiiiAv, in -Ji.!!. 


IT. Dkbivatives riMiM I^kpobi- 


H #S« n. Pkokokikal 

[Otaoltu PiimlUna m prtnUd la capiuli 
Nifiiln. Eslmun. 


biteUn. Subjieun. DaSalla. IndaflDlw 

If, ^<tnf, li, Irm, 


Jnt, Mnt, 

■i ) i y ifti /uitufM, ItM, 

f^f^fwn, ^lirl^n, 

•In, tin. fuh*,^HrH. 
tiiirtrtf /titiirtn- 



Poatic ud DUJMtle FoRiu ua Dill 
DiOiilU et DmuiwintLn. 

DalcLlc. DIjUlbaUTS. CoUactln. 

l>i(n{(f, i^rffi. 






Irf.^ b^^ 










M., hrM^ 






I— "»s;<^ 



















, «>»;):;«, 





^. «** 












«if,<S(, finvi 





U.;»,, Aw*™,, 






. .IUlWw. 









*W». ti,-»S», 

, «,H.ilu 



rw«s •UiiMi, lri^i« (from l«;«M. oidtted 


IT 04' I' An ArFOiiTiTK aeroM is eate witb lis lubjal. $ 331. 
n. Tbe SfBJECT or l rmiTi tirb ii put in the NoDuDaliie. \ 34fi. 
m. Substantives iNnirEirDiiiT or obamhxticxl comstkiictiok sn 
pat Id the NominabTe. ^ 343. 
Gerebal Rule for the Gehitite. Tre Poibt or DErARTURE amb 

TBE CaUSI are FDT IH TH. GxFl--*l. $ 345. 

IV Woida of SEFARATioN uid DiBTincTiofl goTem the Genitive. § 346 
T. Tbe conrAKATiTi deiihee govanu tbe Geoitiie. § 351. 

VI. TbeoRisiM, iKiDi»K,Bnd HATBRiALOjepnt in tbeGenitiTe. $355 

VII. Tbe THEME or DisuDDniB on of TBouaQT ii pal in the GenitivB. 

VIII. Words of FLEETT and haut govern Ibe Geulive. §357. 

IX. Tba wBOLi or wbich a fart is taker ia put in the Genitiva 

X. Wordi of iBABiHa and todcb gorem tbe Geoitive. | 367. 

XI. Tbe aoTTTE, reamu, nnd ehd in riEi* are pat in Ibe GeniliTe 

XII. Price, talite, merit, aod cBiH* >re put in Ibe Genitiva. $ 374. 

XIII. Words of iBiiaATioii and of aUTAl. state on actiob guvern 
the Genitive. § 375. 

XIV. The TIME and flace n akiek are ^t in tbe Genitive. $ 378. 

XV. The AUTRos, AOEiTT, and bitkb are put iB the Genitive, i 380. 


idve. § 382. 
GEirERii. Rdli fok the Dative Objective. The Object or Af- 


Object is fut if the Dative, § 397. 

XVII. Words of EEARNESS snd LiKEHKn govern Ibe Dative $ 396. 
XVm. The OBJECT or irfluescb is pm in the Dutive. $ 401. 
Genekal Rule for tbb Dative Residual. An Attendant Tries 

$ 414. ' 

XIX. The BEARS and aot>m are pat in tbe Dative. \ 415. 

XX. The TINE and place at uAUk are pot in tbe Dative. $ 420. 
General Rule fok the Accusative. Aif Adjvect iipREiiiBa 

Direct Limit is put in the Accusative. $ 433. 

XXI. The DIRECT object and tbe ErrscT of an action are pnl in iha 
Accusative. § 423. 

CAnaATiviw govern the Accueetits lo.«her »iih the Mse nf'ihe Intluaert Terti. » «a 

ing, dumtirtg, eHtming, luuning, Ae. — (If ) The DIRECT DBjKCT and Ihe bffbct. ubI 
tit impanrion ; u with lortii of rfom/, aagitig, ftc, — 1111.) Two OBJECTS diflinmlL/ ra- 

diM^ng end une'iilAiiij', of ww ia ' -m na^ Atpi iritg, of fcrnnding iod laachini, kuk 

PBIlfCirAL IVLBR OP stutax. 81 

XXD- An adjOiici appljing ■ won) or expcetrioii to ■ rjRTicvLjiH 
PART, FHomTi, TBiNQ, or piKiiir, 11 pul in Ifte AccuuUto. j 4'-fl, 

XXUh ElTIHT or TIMI XND ■?«» 11 put in tb* AccuuiiTo. 3 439. 

XXIV. The AcciuatiTB is often lued ADtisaijtLLr, to esprew PS- 

•«■■, atllKia, ORDER, &c. § 440, 

XXV. The Con FELLA Tivi ofi MDlence i> pul in the VocitiTe. § 443. 

XXVI. An Adjsctitr afreet with iu luijtd in MtmJtr, ntaiJftr, uid 
-». ( 4«. 

XXVII. The Articli ia prefixed to idbitimtitki, to mark them ■■ 

XXVIII. A pKonoDir ureea with iti mhitU in aatdtr, itumbtr, and 
perwn. § 494. 

eaulm or Dalive, uif I'M bblitivi would pn>iJ«I]' bg In Aetnaalivt ikfiBuliitg ufm 

XXIX. A TiRB mgnaa with ita nttjea in luiiHier and pernm. { 543. 
Tta NacTM PtuniL hu Iu teri In Ihe •ingvlar. \ Ma. 

Tbi Piggiv* Vaioi hu iar iu iDBjaciT an ehjcci rf Uu Aclir*. ecunnMnlr ■ MntI, 
llsl iDniiitlina u iivlirta obJKt. Aof «*» ward nmiHl bv Ihi AcLira roHaiu H* 
dkaued wUh Ibi PbhIts. TaBnui 

a»fuAn,i ■ ~ 

Mlve, bf tbi OvHiJ^ wttl a pr^omition. 
Ab actka !• wpnjuuliil bj tba 

DaOiiiU Tnuw, u (a.) ci 
Aorbt, u (a.) ■ 

lb.) 1 •Jflfig aelj 

.aOrattmii ^'^^^tS^LSu^t^^'''^*''^ 'l'\'m^^^'\^^''*'''*■ 
aale Aoritl odan wppllH tha plug oT lbs tpcctjlt Pct/kI and PtvpafttI 

IMp. _ ..... ^ 

Thi RcnjUMonvi. for the moK jxrt, fellowa Ibi primaiy Icnn ; ind Ihi Opi«nv^ 

Sttppatiiionatjiiet laaxpragagd bif tba ipprDprial* tenig of Ih* [nJImlTe; tvpfot^ 
lien thai majf hBcarKfart, b/ thg Subjunctl** ; mpponliiM uathmtt rrgard Iffjfacf, hf 
tte Optatlra ; and tnpjuMlivn eimtrwj/ to JbJCt, by the put lansei of tha lodlcatlva. 

Thg OpTtTiva 1> Ihg digtlict mod* apprapiigu u ibs cralla oiUqaa M rail limt. 1 106. 

XXX. The InriiiiTiTa ia conatrued u a mailer wwa. ^ 630. 
Tha iHRmnTi snan tnnia an alllpiieil *c> 

XXXI. Tha SoBJECT or the InriniTiTB ia nut ii 

XXXII. A PABTTCiPt.* AnD >DR>T*RTiTE are put Bbaolale in tha Oea 

Tba btrmuMnnan li Indapgndgnl of imnimUod coutmctkiD. t H9. 

XXXIII. Adtibbi Dio<Hfy tenttHctSipknittM, and icnrdi; puttcnlBilj 
xr&f, odjeetittM, and Micr adttrbt. \ 646. 

XXXIV. pBEPoaiTioBB ^Tam mbatan^vea in the obUqse eaaea, mak 
aaaA tbeir ralationa. \ 648. 

' XXXT. CoH^DBCTloB) coBBCct nntencsa and like paita of* aentsDM 

• TOO,. nttL 

H 60. A. Or WotM. 

H, K 

'' Omod. J 

( — t ASx — I On Dtt. ^ PIdt. ^ 
Aec Dull) 

ttwGwi. at—, 
tlieltat.€f — t 
tb* Aoo. of — t A 

(Horn.) Hng.) Hue ) 
}G«a. > Flnr.^ Psm. > ; 
(4a ) Uutl) NeuU ) 

[Coinpaaiidad of — , J 

Fnwnul I 

StOexIra I I) 

-ii* BdittTi {Fimoin^ofUw S> 

*«. J »> 

r_. . , , Kom.) Sing.) Huo.) 

•^ [C5oo.po.mded of -J ^ '40.) Duj) Ht«L) 

(■grating wiOi — , Sua.,) 
tad oamwotl — to —.'} Bmtrit. 

Trb In /u, Ao, . 

L)«:«lbyGOOglc . 


;7ij{£l--}-p^-^— "^?5 

1) Sng.) 

QfJUti) On 1^ Pn. Plar. [- , (pMiog irilh — « 
S) Diul) 

Bom.) Sing.) Hue.) .„.„.„ ^.u 

- b MD DamoDMrativ V Astxbb of ll4aner 
ComplsmeoUry [ Order 


RAn to — w Ita viCecedoit, and ociiuMct* — to — .] RmaHa. 

o-™™ ^^7-4 ■ 

10— > Snie. RatarkM. 

a an InTERJKnoa, , 

B ta not ilvind, fin the NoRL and On 
KuilTMand idAdjecElmsfl Term., and iha diflbnnt Ibrmi DfttoNam. la J 
oT S or 3 Tenn. lb) la <«|/u;iufn;, giiBihn Thame, irltb the cormpondlng 
Perl <ir In Mm), U ofakh U i* B]» well to >Jd ihn 9 A«. If g»d (£j ' 
"tary" |g lusd abon In.a apeclflc aenee, to dendie gidng lAe difercnl m 
fem^iH', St It la aonuttmee called, fnJRj lAe tynopiw o/ lAe renn; endiha I 
JUa," to deaola ffefn; (At nvmbirt ana per»iu (Ip Ihii Panlclple, du/ei 
conna, ukei Ihs plica of Ihle). <d) Aftst complKlng the Ibrmula alnre, 

lluril «r flguraclre aenas, the force or lUa dT the numlisr, caai, thgtM, Toice, mod^ 
lenae, Ac. ; cUIng, ftom Ibe arammar, the appmlliliue nile. ramarlc, or oota. (0 Sana 
parUeBlin io Itw tmm al»r*, wUcb do not ap^j to all wordi, an locloaed lo biaiAala. 

TABLES. AHALTSIB. [fl 66, 6? 

IT 66. B. Of SnirnurcEs. 

^ iBCSipnnUd tn tht mbMoc* ■* ■ ) 

) Aelnl, 1 Pen 

S^. / . ,.,■ i,_ ., „. i Ct*nJln»u SMiliBefc 

Mln; C swHUdbr-u , •• > J 8Lbortl»i. O.-^ p«*nnlD, lb. oBk. 

J MlmrlDS bj rimpla ■uccailoD. 

( ButMUilln. 
•la} Ad)«llt*. 
t AdrAb. 

n. .<mi»i»l*«fltoi<wwaitoatJJI<Mi.iiiJ O r M ii no« i!af JfBfatoit, tePrtwipj 

Dm Idgteal |a^ f la , canUlnlaf Iba ^^^ I OiuunKicd Sub- 

^ AdjMtln ^ 

pdtuin } Adml) / 

MCI J — , nodUM br ibt AppaiUn > -~— ■ SkwAwt&wton •■•* 

mau \ Aajunct L 

Dtpeadml Omm* J 
tW, and amalgu AttonUiHfc *r ritwi7«iMrf CSohhi, wM Mt ■ tinWi i M (• w- 

5T 67. C. Of Mbtbeb. 


—, nvCMonli tbt ip^'J HaphdHDiim, (lAv — 
OL Amtgn by \D^oMn and] Fat, 

U.g,l:«l by Google 


§ l; The Ancient Greeks were divided into three principal 
mces ; the Ionic, of which the Attic was a branch, the Doric 
and the jGolic. These races spoke the same general language 
but with many dialectic peculiarities. 

The Ancient Greek Langoage (commonly called simply 
the Greek) has been ^ordinely divided by grammarians inm 
four principal Dialects, the Attic, tbe Ionic, the Doric, and 
the MoLic. Of these tlie Attic and Ionic were far the most 
refined, and had far the greatest unity within themselves. The 
Doric and £olic were not only much ruder, but, as the dialects 
of races widely extended, and united by no common bond of 
literature, abounded in local diversities. Some of the varieties 
of the Doric or ^Eolic were separated from each other by dif- 
ferences scarcely less marked than those which distinguished 
them in common from the other dialects. Of the jGolic, the 
principal varieties were the Lesbian, the Bceoiian, and the 
Thessalian. The Doric, according as it was more or less 
removed from the Attic and Ionic, was characterized as the 
glricter or the milder Doric ; the former prevailing in the La- 
conic, Tarentine, Cretan, Cyrcnian, and some other varieties; 
the latter in the Corinthian, Syracusan, Megarian, Delphian, 
Rhodian, and some others. 

^ 9. The Greek colonics npon the coast of Asia Minor and 
the adjacent islands, from various causes, look the lead of the 
mother country in refinement; and the first development of 
Greek literature which secured permanence for its productions, 
was among ihe Asiatic lonians. This development was F.pic 
PoKTRT, and we have, doubtless, its choicest strains remnining 
to us in tl)e still unsurpassed Homeric poems. The luiigiin<>;e 
of these poems, often called Epic and Homeric, is the old Ionic, 
with those modifications dnd additions which a wandering bard 

would insenubly gather up, aa be sang from city to city, 
and those poetic licenses which are always allowed to early 
minstrelsy, when as yet the language is uofixed, and critics are 
unknown. Epic poetry was followed in Ionia by the Elegiac 
uf which CallinuB of Ephesus and Mimnermus of Coloplton 
were two great masters ; and this again by loiiic Prose, ir 
which the two principal names are Herodotus and Hippocrates, 
who chose this refined dialect, although themselves of Doric 
descent. In distinction from the Old Ionic of the Epic poets 
the language of the Elegiac poets may be termed the Middk 
Ionic, and that of the prose-writers, the New Ionic. 

^ 3> The next dialect which attained distinction in litera- 
ture was the jGolic of Lesbos, in which the lyric strains of 
Alceeus and Sappho were sung. But its distinction was short* 
lived, and we have sr^rce any thing remaining of the dialect 
except some brief fragmenls. There arose later among the 
.^lolianB of Bceofia another school of Lyric Poetry, of which 
Pindar was the most illustrious ornament. As writing,' however 
for the public festivals of Greece, he rejected the peculiarities 
of his rude native tongue, and wrote in a dialect of which the 
basis consisted of words and forms common to the Doric and 
jEolic, but which was greatly enriched from the now universal- 
ly familiar Epic. He is commonly said, but loosely, to have 
written in the Doric. 

^ 4. Meanwhile, the Athenians, a branch of the Ionian race, 
were gradually rising to such political and commercial impor- 
tance, and to such intellectual preeminence among the states 
of Greece, that their dialect, adorned by such dramaliats as 
Jlschylua, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and Menander, 
by such historians as Thucydides and Xenophon, by such phi- 
losophers as Pinto and Aristotle, and by such orators as Lysias 
,^^hinea, and Demosthenes, became at length the standard 
language of the Greeks, and, as such, was adopted by the edu- 
cated classes in all the states. It became the general metlium 
of intercourse, and, with a few exceptions, which will be here- 
aHer noticed, the universal language of composition. This 
diffiisLoo of the Attic dialect was especially promoted by tlie 
conquests of the Macedonians, who adopted it as their coMrt 
language. As its use extended, it naturally lost some of its 
peculiarities, and received many additions; and thus diffused 
and modified, it ceased to be regarded as the language of a 

Birticular state, anil received the appellation of the Comhom 
ULECT or Language. 
The Attic and Common dialects, therefore, do not differ in 

any essential ieature, acd mey properly be regarded, |)m otw 
as the earlier and pure, the other as ihe later and impure, form 
of the same dialect. In this dialect, either in its earlier or 
later form, we find written nearly the whole that remains to us 
of oftcienl Greek literivnire. It may claim therefore lo be. re- 
garded, notwithstanding a few splendid cqinpositions in the 
other dialects, as tbe national language of Ureece ; and its 
acquisitibn should form the commencement and the basis of 
tireek study. 

The pure Attic has been divided into three pcrioils ; the Old, 
used by Thucydides, the Tragedians, and Aristophanes ; the 
Middle, used by Xeoophon and Plato j and the New, used by 
the Orators and the later Comedians. The period of the Com- 
mon dialect may be regarded as commencing with the subjec- 
tion of Athens to the Macedonians. 

^ S. or tbe Doric dialect, in proportion to its wide extent, 
we have very scanty remains ; and of most of its varieties our 
knowledge is derived from passages in Attic writers, from mon- 
uments, and from the works of grammarians. In Greece it- 
self, it seems scarcely to have been applied to any other branch 
of literature than Lyric Poetry. In the more refined Dorian 
colonies of Italy and Sicily, it was employed in Philosophy by 
the Pythagoreans (Archytas, Timteus, ix.), in Mathematics by 
the great Archimedes, in Comedy by Epicharmus and his 
nuccessora, and in Pastoral Poetry by Theocritus, Bion, and 

^ 8. To the universality acquired by ihe Attic dialect, an 
exception must be made in poet^. Here the later writers felt 
constrained to imitate the language of the great early models. 
The Epic poet never felt al liberty to depart from the dialect 
of Homer. Indeed, the old Epic language was regarded by 
subsequent poets in all departments as a sacred tongue, the 
language of the god», from which they might enrich their sev- 
eral compositions. The .£olic and Doric held such a place in 
Lyric Poetry, that even upon the Attic stage an jEoio-Doric 
hue was given to the lyric portions by ihe use of the long n, 
which formed so marked a characteristic of those dialects, and 
which, by its openness of sound, was 30 favorable Co musical 
effect. Pastoral Poetry was confined to the Doric. The Dra- 
matic was the only department of poetry in which the Attic 
Wtti< the standard dialect 

^ T- Grammar flourished only in the decline of the Greek 
langviage, and the Greek grammarians usually treated the dia. 


lecta with little fwedsion. Whatever they round in the old 
Ionic of Homer thai seemed to them more akin to the iaier 
cullivaled J&Aie, Doric, or even Attic, than to the new Ionic 
they did not hesitate to ascribe to those dialects. Even in the 
Rommon language, whatever appeared to them irregulnr or pe 
culiar, they usually, referred to one of the old dialects, lenning 
the regular form tioiroy, eomaon, though perhaps this form was 
either wholly unused, or was found oniy as a dialectic variety 
On the other hand, some critics used the appellatioo xotrof as s 
term of reproach, deaignating by it that which was not pure 
Attic. In the following Grammar, an attempt will be made to 
exhibit first and distinctly, under each head, the Greek in its 
standard form, that is, the Attic and the purer Common usage ; 
and aAerwards to specify the important dialectic peculiaritiet^. 
It will not, however, be understood that every thing which is 
ascribed to one of the dialects prevails in that dialect through- 
out, or is found in no other. This applies especially to the 
Doric and iEoUc, which, with great variety within themselves 
(§ l),are closely akin to each other; so that some (as Mait- 
laire) have treated of both under the general head of Doric ; 
and in the following Grammar some forms will be simply men- 
tioned as Doric, that also occur in the ^^lic. By the term 
JFjoVk, as employed by gramraariana, is commonly denoted the 
cultivated .£olic of Lesbos ; as the term Ionic is usuallv con- 
fined to the language spt^en (though, according to Herodotus, 
with four varieties) by the lonians of Asia Minor and the adja- 
cent islands. 

^ 8. It remains to notice the modifications of the lalei 
Greek. The Macedonians, who had previously spoken a rude 
and semi -barbarous dialect of the Greek, retained and diffused 
some of the peculiarities of their native tongue. Theae are 
termed Macedoaic, or, sometimes, from Alexandria, the prin- 
cipal seal of Macedonian, and indeed of later Greek culture, 

The Greek, as the common language of the civilized world, 
was employed in the translation of the Jewish Scriptures, and 
the composition of the Christian. When so employed by na- 
tive Jews, it naturally received a strong Hebrew coloring ; and, 
as a Jew speaking Greek was called 'ftliijnonii; (from m<,»/{;w, 
to speak Greek), this form of the language has been termed the 
Hellenistic (or by some the Ecelenaslical) dialect. Its pecu- 
liarities naturally passed more or less into the writings of the 
fathers, and through the difTuuon of Christianity exert^ii great 
general iafluence. 

Upl:«l by Google 

DllLCCTS. 89 

Another influence modifying the Greek came from the Ian* 
guage of the Roman conquerors of the world. Of necessity, 
the Greek, notwithstanding the careful compoaitions of BUch 
scholara as Arrian, Lucian, and £lian, and the precepts of a 
class of critics, called Atticists, was continually becoming more 
and mor« impure. The langui^e of the Byzantine period was 
especially degeoemte. Since the desiraction of the Easiem 
Empire by the Turks, the fusion of the Byzantine and E^le* 
Btaatical Greek with ihe popular dialects of the diflerent dis- 
tricts and islands of Greece has produced the Modern Gbeek, 
or, as it is often called, by a name derived firom the Roman 
Empire in the Ekist, Romaic. This language has been es> 
pecially cultivated and refined within the present century, and 
has DOW a large body of original and translated literature. 

• $0. The Greek, therefore, in its various forms, has never 
ce^ed to be a living language ; and it offers to the Mudcot a 
series of compontions, not only including many of the highest 
producticms of genius, but extendiDg through a period of nearly 
duee thousand years. 

»i by Google 



£Rh;1ia, Pnn. TIkl 


[IT I, 2.1 

^10. The Greek language is written with 
twenty-four letters, two breathings, three accents, 
/our marks of punctuation, iind a few other char- 

I. For the Letters, see Table, 1 1. 

Renabks. 1. DoiTBLB Forms. Sigma fatal is written ; ; 
not _fi>uil, a i as, aaiait. In compound words, some editors, 
without Buthoritv froin manuBcripta, use « U the end of each 
component word; ihiis, iti/iKiifip£i/ne. The other double forms 
Are used indifferently ; as, ^titif or Soic 

3. LiGATORES. Two or more letters aiv of\en united, except 
in recent editions, into one character, called a ligatvre (liga> 
tiirB, tie) ; as, li for »!, 8 for oti, & for u.^, S" (named 071 or 
mtyfta) for or. Por a IJBt of the principnl ligaturea, Bee Table, 

$11. 3. NtrxBiUL Power. To denote numbers under a 
thousand, the Greeks employed the letters of the alphabet, as 
exhibited in the table, with the mark ( ' ) over them ; as, a 1, 
» 10, iff 12, yxy 123. The first eight letters, with Vau, rep- 
resented the nine units; the next ei<;ht, with Koppu, the nine 
tens ; and the last eight, with Sumpi, the nine hundreds. The 
thousands were denoted by the same letters with the mark be- 
neath • as, t' 6, ,« 5,000, >/ 23, ,.^ or «^ 23,000, .owfuj 1841. 

tH. l.J ' LETTSBS. — BKUTBINea. 9l 

Nom M. Tu, In it 
;S 10> Hano* toam «dii 
jf Van, to dutota «. 

0. SomMlmc* the QtH& letten, like oar own, denote ordinal nnmbin, ■!> 
•ofdiDg to their own aria m the elpbabec In thia w^ ths biulu of Houw 
•n Durkadi M, 'LimIm, A, Z, XI, TV /fid>^ And I^ VI^ XXIV. 

y. Anothv method of writing nnmosle occnn hi old iiuiilptioiu, hy iriiidi 
1 dcDOlw OM, n (fbr Ulm) /a, A (tbc A(h) ten, H (for H>j»n>, 1 32. <} 
a iudra^ X (tot Xllyo) a t&Hurnil, H (fbr lUpx) (m Aowniit. II dnwn 
■roimd auotUr niunend multiiJiM it by fire. Thaa, HXX^B^A^III 
— ia,676. 

^12. 4. RojtAN Lettebs. By the aide of the Greelc 
letters in the table (51 I), are placed the Roman letters which 
take their place when Greek words are transfened into Latin 
or English ; as, HvKlaH/i, Cyclopt. 

NoiBb ■• Hn kMer y becomes ■, idun fUbxred bj tnotber pdatat ; 
XMfmyi, larynx ; AJja », j^jfiBii. 

$. The ifipAdo^ w becomea in Latin m; •>, « ; u, i or « (befcra • ooiuo- 
nant ilmoat iivt,jt E) ; ti/,i; and lu, yi; u, <^tl7l^|, PftoAiu) Bwirai, 
Saotiat NJXtr, JViAuj AmfTi, Dariiui Maliw, JfaJn; U<S», iftu, 
£;:ii>«>», IBkgia. 

A few words (nding in ■» end us eie excepted ; m, Msik, JUini, TgHn, 
XVau or 7>o^) w) alao ATm, .^/u. 

CmBpoBDda of tils, y twcomea a ; u, rfuj^li^ (r 

). The ranfk brtathmg becomn, in Latin and Englieh, A, while the msott la 
not written ; u,'E«rvf, fiartor, '^i>£, fiiyi, 'Pin, iUea (Elie A bdng placed 
afto' the r b7 the eame infccniacy u after the v la our wUit, pnmounceil 
hm-iU i dOM in both cases the breathing lalmdacee the word). 

^ IS. II. The Breathinqs are the Smooth or 
Soft ('), and the Rough (' ), also called the As- 
pirate (aspiro, to breathe). The first denotes a 
gentle emission of the breatb, such as must precede 
every initial Fowel ; the second, a strong emission, 
such as in English is represented by A. One of 
these is placed over every initial vowel, and over 
every initial or doubled p. 

Notes. 1 . An nitio/ ■ has alway* the ron^ breathing to anlat In Ita 
nttcranca (as in Engliah an initial long ■ !■ alwaya pracedad by the sound ct 
f; thna, Ji, t/tut, as, in Enghah, tue, prononnced futt, mum) ; eaoept hi tha 
Malie dialsct, and In the Epic fbnna JW*i'i ^W "r l**^* JtWi- 

9. An bMal f nqdm, ft* Iti pnqnr vibration or nlHog, ■ Umig wpha- 
tion, and ia tbovfim ilmTi rnvked nith tb* nw^ bnatUng ; u, fin. 
ViMa f ttdomblid, tha flnt ( haa Cba aoxwUi bnaUuDg, and Uw anond tha 
fDuglii aa, niffn. See § 6S. ^. 

4. In place ot tha nm^ bnathlng, Ibe JEdBe nenu commonlj, and tha 
El»c oFfen, to havD osHl the dlgamma (§ 22. 1), or the smiratli bnstlung. In 
Homer we And tin otioolh fbr the nm^ particolaify in worda wbkh an 
■UtngtlHned in lome other waj i aa, iSnnXti, tZXu, •^fi U>jn, B/fUf {Ot 
l«it>J(, Ij.«, );■■, jXiH, i^r- 

^14. III. The Accents are the Acute ('), the 
Grave ('), and the Circumflex ("ot "). F« 
their use, see Prosodj. 

^13. IV. The Marks of Punctuation are the 
Comma ( , ), the Colon ( • ), the Period ( . ), and 
the Note of Interrogation ( ,• ), which has the 
form of ours (.') inverted. 

To theai^ Boma editon have Jodidoiulj added the Nots or Ezoi.AMa- 

^ lA. V. Other Characters. 

1. CoBtnns and ArovraoniK. The mark ( ' \ wUdi at the tigSminf of 
A irord a the tmaoA brtatAing^ ova the m^ddlt ia the Coiunna (hmm.ji, etogk- 
«l marh\ or mark aj crodi, and at the aid, tbe Apostbophi (I 30) ; aa, raJ- 
riht rm nun, ■>.>.' \ym for il.i.k \yi. 

5. Tbe Htfotiustoia (frdiami.^ Kpantion IdKoU), or DusmiJi (X- 
urcdiS, •EpnratiDii), is a mark like a comma, placed, toe diatinctioa'a aaka, 
after some forma of the artlde and relatiTe pronoan, when fbllowed by tbe en- 
ditica ri and ri \ aa, I,n, ri,n, !,«, to dininguith then ftnm the partidM 
In, riTt, ITI. Some editor* Bwre wisely omit it, and ratxAf leparate tbe an. 
chUc by ■ space. 

4. Among tbe other signs aaed b; cridcs and editon, are BRACDcra [ ], ta 
bldoee irorda of doubtfiii authenlidtT ; tbe OBEtjaR ( t or — ), to mark 

vnaeg or words as faulty ; the AvrxRisx ( * ), to denote that something ii 
nnting in the text ; and Mahks i>p QuAnrmr, viz. ( ' ), (o mark a vowel 
or t)-llableas^; (''),aaiA(irl{ (• or ' \ u atkir limg ortliaTt. 

»i by Google 


^17. There are three methods of pronouncing 

Greek which deserve notice; the English, the 
Modern Greek, and the Erasmian. 

IliB pmnrndatioii of aroy luigBige, Arm ths rtry km of langnaga, la in 
a contlnaa] proceaa of change, mora or len n^ild. And in respect to tha Gmk, 
tbera i* fbtl internal evidmce, both that ita ptmimciatiDn had materially 
dtanged bdbre lu orthograjih}' became fixed, and that it baa materially 
cfianged rince. Thenfore, aa tlure i» no art of embalming aounda, tha an 
CMDt pronnndatian of the Greek can now onlj be inferrecl, and, in pBrt| with 
gteai ODcertaintj. Modem scholan have eommonly prononnce] tt according 
to the anal[^7 of thdr respective langnaga. Hie Engiiah method, which haa 
pnTtuled in the >choalB of England and thia country, conlbrmB, En general, to 
the analogy of onr own tongue, and to our method of pronouncing tbe Latin. 
Hm Modern Girrk method (also called the Renchlinisn, frooi Ita distinguished 
advocate, tbe learned RsndiBn) <* that *Uch now prevuls in Greece itself. 
It b ^von below, aa exhibited in the Grunmar of 8(^hocl«. The Eraamiaa 
metlkod (so named from the celebrated Eraamua) is that which Is mwt eztot- 
uyily Kdlaired in the schools upon the contiaent of Encope, and which eoO- 
ftmna moet naariy to tha prertdling analogy of the oontineDtal tongnea. 

NoTS. To arnd confhraon, the terms protracttd and abrmpt are ODjiojtA 
beJow to denote iriiat. In English orthoepy, we commonly call long and ahort 
•onnds ; and tbe temi ictn {ttrnk, Aeut), to dsnou that itiesa of the voioa 
vhich in Engluh we commonly call accaii. For tbe piqm nse of the tomi 
Img and sAort, and aeasal, In GrfA granunar, see Proaody. 

A. Enqlish Method. 

^18. 1. SiMFLF. Vowels. ^, v, and u have always the 
protracted sounda of e in meU, u io ttibe, and o in note ; as, 
^lifQi, Ttima, aipeir. 

I and o have the abrupt sounds ot einkl, Btid o'mdot; ex> 
cepi before another vowel, and at ihe end of a word, where 
they are protracted, like c in retii, and o in go ; as, Uyia, loyat ' 

<9id;, root ' '^, to- 
ll and I are, in general, sounded like a and i in English j 
when protracted, like a in hate, and t in pine ; when abrupt, 
like a in hal, and t in ptn. At the end of a word, t always 
maintains ita protracted aouod ; but a, except in monosyllables, 
lakes the indistinct sound of a in Cohmbia ; as, S^i/i, UarW 
Mfajr/ia, tftUa ' ib. 

NnTK. If ■ or f rec<dTea the utaj, whethor primary cr secondary, and 11 
MIowed by a single consonant or f. It Is protracted io the penult, bat abrupt 
in any preceding sy1J)d>le ; as, £>■>, IXvi'fH- y^pin, filiv, 'ASntaTit. ¥nm 
thia rulo is CTiceptod m in any syllable preceding the penult, when the rowel of 
the next pliable is i or i befhre another vowd (both without the Ictna), in 
wbidi case a is protracted ; as, wsrin, lunm, yjti.Hf U '^wjc'a. 

M rsoiruNCUTioii. [boox l 

3. Diphthongs. The diphthongs are, for the most part 
pronounced according to the prevailing sound of the same com 
binations in our own language ; « like ei in heighi, oi like oi in 
hoil, VI like ui in quiet, av like au in aagkt, tv and tju like eu in 
Europe, neuler, on and uv like ou in tAou ,■ ai is sounded like 
the affirmative ay [ah-ee, the two sounds uttered with a sin^e 
impulse of the voice), and vl like whi in wAtfe. Thus, ilivla 

aoial, itlfvaoifiat , ijvioi, Qaivfia, viof. 

3. ConsoNAKTs. The consonants are pronounced like the 
corresponding letters in our own alphabet, with the following 
special remarks. 

y, M, and x *^ ■'"ayi hard in *aui>d : y bdng pnmoaiiced lifca g in ga 
(except befbre a palaul, where it lua tbe loand of i^ in ^xv, S *^) i ■ and z 
Eke t in eaii, and ck in dkaat, U e. like t ; aa, yitit iyyH (pnm. aag-goi), 

S has the sharp aound of M in Uia ; aa, Sifi. 

r baa the afaarp Bound of a In tagt ezcetit in the middts of a mvd befim 
^ and at the end of a woid aflar ■ and a, where it MHindi lUe x ; aa, rCirai ■ 

r and r never hav« the loand of th ; thai 'Aria 1) proaoanoed A'-ii-a, not 
^-tki-ai K^TiMt, Krit-i-OM, ivit Krish'-i-at. 

At the beginning of a word, £ aoimds like i, and <^ like i ; and, of two 
cmaonanla which cannot both be proDaaneed with ease, the BrH ia silent ; aa, 
SiH^<, ^tZ^^ llnAi/wH, ^li:LlLw. So, in English, nA«, ptalm, &c. 

4. Breathings. The rough has the sound of A; themooli^ 
has no sound ; as, opor, Sgot. See ^ 13. 

5. Ictus. The primary Iclus is placed according to the foU 

Rni.s. In disiyllablet, the penult lakes the ictus. In poly- 
tyllabtta, the penult, if long, takes the ictus ; but, if ifiort, 
throws it upon the antepenult Thus, nang^, pron. pd-tir, y^a- 
tfijii, gra-phe-le, yijaifui, graph -e-te. 

Note. If two or man ■yllablea precede tbe prinian ictoa, one of Ihcaa, 
receives a aecondaij ictoa, in pladng which the ear and fbrmation of the woil 
Kin decide 

B. Mode an Greek Method. 

§ lO. ■« and f are pronounced like a in fa&etf after the iOtind I 
^1, R, u, •>, n^ lu) It is pronoimDed like a in pna&ih^. ai tike i. "S ■■> 
w, ■>, befive a Towel, a Ur|Dld, or a middle mute (fi, y, )) an prntomMed 
Oka OS, a, en, on, reepectively ; in all other casta, like af, tf, ttf, off. like o. 
y btkm tba aomida E and I ii pronounced nearly like y in ys, Turk; In bD 
other cases it is guttural, like the German g in 7119. yy and y> like ng in 
tinnigal. ^ like kt. yx like ng-h, nearly. 1 like th in that. ■ like 
■ in fiOoa, nearly. 1, like 1. id, see an. ^ like t. n and ; like <• 
*i^ Me ■>. S like fik in t* f». i like i In madiau. ■ like jI. ;i hke If 
befim the mmd I, Gke In t^iSiam. ^Skam. /ir]iktmb,u, V"!^ 

on. 1.] Histosr of aeset oBmoouTHT. 96 

i9u praoomued •Mmtln. ^ Owr) liki ah. r liks a ; be(bi« Iha 
Knmd I, like n in oJViaih llie words rii, rilr, l>,»v>,befon m word begioning 
wiUi ■ OT E, (ue pranonnced like tty, rwy, ly, riy bdbre ■ or £ (see y>, y£) ; 
(. g. r» uufir, 1> iryixf^ proDDunced Wyuufn, Ij^vXi^^y ; before •■ or i^ 
they an prwioancod riM. «/s l^ '>^; »■ g- »*» iroiiei', rw ^"Siiii pn> 
Dounced T-^mngi'i, ru^-^v;)^^. n- IQw ni^ h, tfrifttt pronounind ^Mfiauc. 
C lifco X or lb. * like a in porter. n Uka i. «i lika w Id nioH. r, ^ 
Iik« fi,r, r like « in v/l j belbn ^ y, I, ^ ;, it Is aoDnded like f ; s. g. 
mir/t*!, rfiinu, 2pifMi, [sonounoed M^^tif, ^inu, Z/tipn \ ao al>o «t tba 
end of ■ vend, rwi ^sr>].i7( rai }^(,pTaii(nmced nvfS'n^'M «iEr<ir- rUka 
(fiiti£ .likei. ulikeh f like^ « /. ^^ Ukfl German lA a 
Sputieh /. 1^ £ka jm. ■ mnd f> like a. •>■,»■ mi. 

" lie raigli AreatAinjr i> itloit In Modem Greek. So fiiT u fumfily is oM- 
oemed, ^ the ahort Tomlg are oqaivalait to tbs hog ono. The wiittm oo' 
ami gidda tin >tren cf dn voioa. Tlu accent of tlw at<£tic howew, ta 
ditfegBzdfld ht pmninidjUion. But whsn tlw attncting word lua the BcoeDt 
DO the anUpaonlt, iti last ^Habk takea the ncandaiy accent ; a. g, lu%ii /ui, 
pnammced lufn^ui, but \i).iMrml /ui bat Ibe primaiy accent on the fint ij\' 
laUs %s ood tba aeocodaiy on jirH." — BefKOT. Or., pp. SI, SS. 

C. Ebashun Method. 

% 30> The Eramiian method dHha tnm the En^iab chkdj la aoaud- 

bg a protracted like a in Jaiha', i puCractcd like i In aucAiAr, ■ like ^ in 

A^, av Uka m in mr, <* like «■ in ragout, n like our pronoon b^ and % like a 

•oft lb. 

} 91. That the Greek alphabet was borrowed from the 

Aeeotding to common tradition, letlen warn Gist bronght into Greeoa bj 
Cadmua, a Phcenidan, who founded llidiee. In iltiutntion, wa give the aom- 
Qion Hebrew alphabet, which it subetanCially the >ame with the old Fhisnician, 
pladng the corresponding Greek letlere by the »de. It should be ronaiked, 
however, that the fontu {J the lettrn in both alphabets hare nndergooe modi 
change. It will be noticed Chat moat of the Oriental names of the lottos, 
wben tzanifemd to the Gre^ leqniie modification in accordance with the law 
reqiecting flnal lettoa (| 63), and that tiili ii commonly Elected by ad^ig a. 

Hsbrvw. Greek. Hebrew. Gredc. 

tC Aleph A M Alpha S I^med A x Lambda 

3 Beth B C Beta D Mem H ^ Un 

J CHmel r y Gaimii* ] Nun N > Nn 

1 Daledi A 1 Ddta D Sameeh 2 i EHgma 

n He El E(p«lon) y Aytn O . 0(imaiGo) 

1 Tan F F Tan fl Pa n w P! 

I Zayin Z C Zeta X Itede S { S 

n Hbeth H ■ Eta » Eoph ? Koppa 

O TMh a A 'OMm, •\ Resh P ( Rho 


^ 33. This borrowed alphabet received in the coun* of 
time importanc modifications. 

■. The ori^nal Ptuenidan ilplubM had no pcoper voirak. The Gne^- 
Iberefora, employ u Boch Ihoat louan which wore oeaceat akin to vowsla , 
TU.A,E,F, H,I,uiilO. InUie tranu^on (tf tbcw leUan iota TOwdi 
than sppean W have been nothing aTbitTsry. A, u tba lott or cntlnly opoi 
hreslhini;, naturall; paued lnt« the meet oiien and dEEpeat of the vowda. 
£ and U, aa weaker and atronger Ibnna of the palatal breathin)^ notivallj 
became aigni of the ahorter and kmt^er aoonds of tbs palatal vowel < ; in like 
tnanncF, the Hngoal breathing I naannri into tbe lingua] vowel i, and the latdal 
breathing F into the labial vow? u (compare i and f, or in some Languagdi 
/, and alao ■ and a or ■) ; appeaia to iiava hem origitul^ a naaal bnatb- 
ing, and was hence employed to represent the vowel moat akin to a naaal, o. 
TIm upirata aae of E and F itlU continued for a period, and heooa theaa 
iMtere when employoi as vowels were diatinguished by the addiliou of +i'*", 
tmoBtli ; thus 'E ■^!>i^t, *T -^Xft. It will ba obaored that the last of theae 
iMtera, when used aa a vowd, was somewhat changed in tbmi, and was put at 
the end of the dd alphabet Tbt tapiiMlv use of H prevailed atiU Uict, aven 
to Uie period of the highest Givek reOneoient, and when at length it had 
jdelded to the vowel uae, the gnnunarian ArisU>iABnes of Byzantiam, who 
floorished at the court of AlexBndria, about SOO years B. C, is said to have 
^ided the old character Into the two mariu, h for Ibe rough, and H Rv the 
amooth breathing. Theag nuaka wem abbreviated to >■ -> or '" '', and were 
afterwards rounded to tbdr present forma, ". To the same Aiiatophana has 
been aaeribed the Bnt nae <il marks of accent and punctua^on. 

0. Ibe sibUants 2, M, and "V) exdianged places in the alpbabM ; so that 
B came after N, "^ after n (hmce called Sa^*;^ (Ac 5 eUcA (ftud wal to K), 
and 2 after P. 

J'. To tbe Fhaciudan alphabet, the Gretb added the aapbalea 4> and Z, 
the double cenuonant f , and the sign fbr long o, O. These new letters they 
placed at the aid. In diedndioD 'the abort e waa now termed 'O /(Ta^ 
nu// 0; and the long o, *n ^i^^^reof O, The names of the other Dew 
letters were fbnned by amply adding a vowd to aid in lonnding them ; thus, 
4;^ XT, aa, la En^lafa, U, ee. 

1. In the softening of the language, the laUal breathing F, and also 9 and 
'^ which were only rougher tbrmi ct K and 2, fell into disuse, and these 
leMers wtn retained only aa numeral charactera ; P and 9 l" f*^ propa 
places in the alphabet, but '7) at the end. Thus employed, they were tenned 
^Mma (ivIn^H, ngit, rnarH). See ^ l,.g II. 

F was slso named (Vom its Ibnn the D^asmmOy 1. e. the double gamma ; 
and (him its bdug (ongeat retained among the ^kJians, the .^!o&e Digamma, 
It ifl stiU fooad upon tome inscriptiooa and coins. In l^tia it commonly ap- 
pears as V ; thus, F-iu', video, ta an, F,Jw, vinnm, rh. Its reatentioD bf 
Beutley to the poems of Homer has removed so many apparent hiatusas and 
Irregularitioa of metre, that we cannot doubt iCa cxiatence la the time of Homer, _ 
thongh apparently even then bef^nning to lose its power. The general law in 
respect to the disappaaranoe of F, appean to be the Gillowlag : Btfon a maeit 
nr m nitini f, it it <aualh/ drafptd, or bimma imtof Ae dminn treoAiap; M 
oCAermise, it tamaUg pa—tt nlo fAs aispnU vowd u ; thus, ^(Fil. ^Fi, 0iPu 
(Ut. botit, bmi, bma) beoome Siir, 0it, jUk ) but ^F(, |3/F>, tfiF, ^iFn b*- 
nna ^it, ^^ ^ ^nri (^ W). 

OH. S.] VOWELS. 97 

^ 3 3> Tlu alphabet in Ila pnseat complete fbnn was flnt adopted I7 
tiM laouU (cf. S !), and bence termed 'Ivxsi yptft/tmtm. In Attic in- 
acriplltnu it wu flrat mad in Om arcbcHiahip of EucGd^ B. C. 403. 

The Greekj fint wrote, like the Elmenlciaiu, from ri|;bt to left ; and Oita 
allenialel; from left to ri^^ and right lo Idl (as it wu termed, ptiitrttftiiir,i^ 
ut lit 01 tmnu wKA (At phagii). In this mmte the laws of Sdtoa were written. 
Herodotus, however (II. 86), speaks of the method of writing from left to 
right aa the established costom of the Gneks in his time. Till a very late 
period tiia Gredia wrote entire]]^ in cepilals, and H-iLhoutmariiing the division 
of words. Tbt small cnrsive character first appears in maouaciipts m the 
eighth century, though there is evidence of its having been used earlier in the 
tcansactiona of common life. 

lliat there iboold be great Tariely in the ordiography of the ^alecta re- 
sults of neceBalj- fi«m the fitct, that in each dialect words were writlim as 
tliey were pronjiuKed. The Greeks had no standard of orthography until the 
DicralaDce 1/ the Common dialect (_% 4). 


^34. The Greek has Jive simple vowels^ and 
seven, dipMhongs. Each of the simple vowels may 
be either long or short, and each of the diphthongs 
may have eiAer a long or short prepositive, or first 

Rbmakks. 1. Of three vowels, the long and short sounds 
are repreaented by the same letters («, li ; 1 , r ; v, v) ; but of 
the other two, by difTereot letters (i, ^■, u, a), 

Sana. it. The long lonnds c£ these two vowels occur far more fteqoeatlj 
than thoM tjt the othar three, and are hence disldugoished by seponUa char- 

fi. When speaking of letten, and not of somids, we say that the Qreck 
has seven Towds ; and caD 1 and ■ the Aart ennij, becanae they always re|^ 
leeent ibarl aoandi, ■ and « the img medi, becaose they alwa}-s repiwit 
km eounds, and ■, 1, and ■, the dntbtftd khew^ because Utcsr form leaves u 
dnabtful whether the eonnd Is long or short. 

y. There is stroog evidence, that, in general, these vowels were prDnonnced 
In the same manner ss the corresponding vowels ore now pronounced upon the 
continent of Europe ; 1. e. •, like in falha; aaJI, fm (not as in Aoto) ; », 1, 
Bke < in Ihts, ttfli (not ss in meu) ; . like 1 in j^aihiM, fin (not as in pne') ; 
*, f, like c In mile, wK ; i> tike ti in tube, ImO. They will beuca be thus plaeMI 


aod I th« efaai TOOt i * 

% 9St 2. In the Oreek diphthongs, the voice alirayB passes 
from A mors open to a doaer sound ; and the subjunctive, or 
last vowel is always i or v. Hence the combinatioM possible 
are only teem, or, counting separately the proper and improper 
diphthongs, fourU "' 

the Ionic dialect. 

A ibr« pnpodtin Ml tlma ft^ the ftifl ntteiadcs of the niltfipictin Twd, 
■nd tba ifiphllKiiig wu thai temiBd /mfw, » raallj Bumbiniiig two Knmds ; 
'" 'B DMilj or qnila ovwded oat the wxind of the nbjiino- 
g warn thm tsmed trnpnyterj m tboQ^ dipbthonga] 

3. After a long, tj, and m, the subjunctive t so lost its sound, 
that It was at last merely written beneath the prepoaitive, if 
this was a small letter, and was then termed iota subieript (sub- 
scriptus, vriUen beneath). With capitals, it still remains in the 
line, but is not sounded. Thus, "ZAidiig or ^^tt pron. Hadie, 
'UtSt) or ^Sti, ede ; 'JliS^ or aSij, ode, 

Soma. m. The i miUcripl ia ofua writtm .when h don not Mong, ftom 
ftl*e_Tiew< rf etynndogy ; u In the Epic-dati™ »it99H ^ ^H' (T 8); 
■nd m the ■oriat of liquid Tsrba, vhich have u In the penolt of the theme ; 
ttju, ftom faiu., tS^m (rootB p»i-, i{-)) If ?«i K«. ft»S ftr Ifnxi, iTja, <I^ • 
■0 Sat. n. a^f^ra, te s-lf ■)>■. 

0. bi MHDB CUM the beat critici diSbr . thtu, in the inMtive of veiba in 
•4m, •ODN wiiM n/tf r, u oonlnuted ftom n^Mm, ind othm n>Ji>, u con- 
tracted iron u oldcc fbnn n^>. So In Iha advcrbud Ibrnu ri. In, cs «L 
In, and (he like. 

• ^30. 4. In diphthongs, except the three just mentioned 
(?. jii and 9), the breathings and accents are written over the 
second vowel, and thus often mark the union of the two vowels 
as, ovTfj, Urtelf, but dCiij, try ; qvila, but ^i>ai ■ owioic (o) 
but ^(dq; (b). 

If twn Toweli widch might foim ■ diphthong are prviionnrad Kotnijiw 
the second ia marked with a dienata (g 16. 3) ; aa, ^iln!, Kn. 

' For a full exhibition of the Greek vowels, simple ang 


compound, see the Table (^ 3). They are there ifivided into 
cIoMteM, according to the simple sound which is their sole or 
leading element, as A unmda, &c. ; and into orders, according 
to the length of this sound, or its comUnation with other sounds, 
as ahori vowtU, tta. The ctaaseB are arranged according to 
the openness of the rowel from which they are named. Vow- 
els belonging to the sane class are termed eogtuUe. 

^ 37. The Greek vowels are subject to a 
great number of Euphonic Changes, which may 
be referred, for the most part, to two great heads, 
the Precession or Vowels, and the Uniom of 


I. Fkecbssion of Vowels. 

§ 98. The great tendency in Greek to the pre- 
cession or attenuation of vowel sounds shows it- 

1.) In the change of sioiide vowels. 

Precession especially afTects a, as the most open of the 
rowels, changing it, when short, to t and o, and, when long, 
to 1), and Bometimea to u. 

Henn thtae Ihne vovdi nuy be Tegudad aa ifwfrHf, md an irftni Inter- 
^umga^ in Uw fbrautiou and Inlkction of word*. That, la the rerU r^i. 
«!, rrfitu, ve find the root in three ftirms, *{■<-., rjiv-, and t-^i*^ tr^p-, 
n^if-. Mid trftf. ; and in fiytviti, <re find Uie ferma f'V-, /*}'-, and jny^ 
TbU BiUrchan^ ia aba iDaatratad by tfaa comwcting rowdi iDsef^ed, Ibr the 
aake id mufbiMj, in tli* 'mSadioa 01 words. Thu*, hi tb* int dedansim, 
the connecUng rowel la s, but ui tha mwul, •, tor wbicb ia oo* caae ■ tp- 
pean. In tba indicative actiTe, th« ccmnecljng vowd in the acnat and per- 
fect ia a (paning, iunrerer, into ■ Id the 3d pen. ung^ ; compire tba impto- 
ative frS}Liitm\ whik in Uie preaoot, imperfect, and future, it la • before a 
fiqoid, but oUxrwiae i. 

^ 39. 2.) In the leDg;theniDg of the short vow- 
els, ^id in the general laws of contraction. Thus, 

a. The long rowel is regarded as the short rowel doubled 
dwt is, B = ua, 1) ^ a>, n 1= oo, = vv, and t = IT. When- 
ever, therefore, in the formation of words, a short rowel it 
lengthened, or two short vowels of the same class tire tuuted 

100 TOWELS. [book I, 

in sound, the correspondiDg long vowel ought to result Bu* 
through precesaion," which especially afiects the long opec 
vowels, a, unless it follows i, i, g, or go, is usually length* 
ened, not to a, but to the closer i), and (i and oo commonly 
form, not d and <■, but the closer diphthongs n and ov, whi&li 
are hence termed the correiponding diphihottgi of t and d. 

p. Contraction more frequently exhibits some attenuation of 
vowel sound. See ^^ 31-37. This naturally appears leaa in 
the earlier than in the later contractions. Compare fiaoil^s 
with ^aoiliis {§ 37. 2). 

II. Union of Syllables. 

^30. The most important changes beloog^g 
to this head aic, A. Contraction, which unites 
two successive vowels in the same word ; B. Cra- 
8IS (xgdais, mingling), which unites the fined and 
initial vowels of successive words ; and C. Apos- 
trophe or Elision, which simply dr(^s a final 
vowel before a word beginning with a vowel. 

In poetry, two voweli 
t^urUely. This nnion ] 


^31. Contraction takes place in three ways ; by twifilt 
- union, hy absorption, and by unton with precestton. From the 
taw of diphthongs (^ 25. 2), two vowels can unite without 
change only when the latter is i or v, and the former a more 
open vowel. In other cases, therefore, either one of the vow- 
els is aisorbed, i. e. simply lost in the other, which, if before 
short, now of course becomes long ; or else precession takes 
place, changing one of the vowels to t or tp, which then forma 
a dtphtboDg with the other vowel. The following are the gen- 
eral rules of contraction, with the principal cases belon^ng to 
each, and the prominent exceptions. 

NoTB. An 1, iittea ibKiTbed in ■, «,,ar v, innlttni benuth IL Hm 
lawi at eontnctjon Uikt tSaH, witbout ngaid to «a i mtanipt, or lb* nb- 
JimcUrv , at the diphtlK^ u; a. ■■ y, m ^ (§ S3). . . 

CH. 2.] COMXaiCTIOH. lOl 

^ 33. 1. Two vowels, which can form a diph- 
thong, joite without further change. Thus, 

§33. 11. a, (1.) before an E sound (13), 
absorbs it ; but (2.) before Emother A sound, is it- 
self absorbed. (3.) a, or (4.) j^, with an sound, 
forms a. Thus, 

bKoHDg u bgesma u 

Oil i ,i™ ,w. . n fei. fai 

'MMi /tint. (4.) .If *j lifJiHtn IvAm^ 

The closer ■ taku tbe plue of A in Uifl omtiact (brmi 
«f fimr iBtrji'diij/ verbs ; Tii. rioui, to AmgEr, )i<^ui, to (Anf, xt"/"'< '* 
■un/and (h, la hue; n, miiiii. ruHii, ;t:^trS<v x^'^i- Add the veite 
SHU^ e/uin, and '^m* ■ the Subjimcdre oT veiba in -^ M, irrw; (from Tm. 
fw) lr(^ • ud tb» liquid Aorist (aee $ 56). 

^ In adjatitet, . before s and o is absiKbed ; u, }iirX«i IiirXii, XtAhh 

■y. In (!■(, tor, the NominMiva ungular becomes wi bj an abeoiptlon of 
tlw ■, but the otber Smu tn contnclad *c(wr£ng to the mla ; as, linf, Srm. 
i. Vat the diange at tj into «, in rerba in -tn, aea $ ST> S. 

^ 34* Bbmakks. 1. a, taking the place of r before a 
(^ 50) ia contracted like t ; thua, io the Ace. plur., (id/ov;, Jo. 
jfoat) liyovt, {ylmoaars, yliaoaaai) yitiaaSs, (oi*c) oJas olf, igdi- 
it( lz9vt, Tiolmt noitif, ^oaf /Sovt, /tl^otat {flifiit) /i^ovg ' ill 
tbemeB of Dec. Iil., (if;, Inc) lU, (^ orinc, <parnt() <payiltt (odo>^, 
oSoat) oSovt, {^irsti'at) iflf !b feiiuniae adjectives and par. 
ticiples, (tparivxaitf ifitnaoa) tfitv^aa, (n/onos, ityaaaa) Syouaa' 
in tlte 3d pers. plur. of verba, (flovXtvorai, ^ouXivoaoi) fioviii- 
o'lai, {rlSiToi) uSiSai tidctai, {dldaroi) SiSoiiai BiSovai, (Oil- 
Kvi'i'iTi) SiixrvBat duKvvai. 

Nom. ■. By a dmllar cc 

W (1 U> la 1>^ nunner wf oDcDt* in tlw Sem. phir. by 


>. Vor K'**' xAj m I I IS. C For Sxi/m,, mt % 109. fi. 

$33. S. When a lonEis contracted wiUi an O Bound 
there is usually inserted be^re the w an t, which, however, ii 
not regarded in the accentuation aa a distiiiet sylli^e ; as, rSoe 
Irmi) rwt (tl 9), MtriiMot StirilHif, 'jtfMao '^^Um (^ 8). 

So ■omitimM, diledy fai tlw Im. («^ 48. 1, 34S. ■), wben > ia ahort. 

^ 36. III. (1.) sa becomes 17, and (2.) 11, eu 
(3.) f and o, with o, form ov ; but (4.) with other 
O sounds are absorbed. (5.) lo other combina- 
tions not already given (\ 32, 33), c is absorbed. 

becoma u bacoSH ■• 

(1.) M •, THjCM Tua:* «■ IS Jtt A. 

>All(. HI •>, TJH tfh 

iffXMt. (H Ml, >II>.jl* W<>i. 

(6.) w oi, xtf*^ XC"-' 
« •, f.;LU« fA«n. 

«• «V .iH Mi.^ •? » ♦"*'» P*f- 

14.) Ml a^ fixU fitji, *i II, «i^riiHV( n/H>nf. 

$»». SuSRKnn, 1. « prexfcd I7 •, ,, ft or ^ (S «9), -■ to 
tba phrol gr dual of the fint or nemul dwIsiuHHi, toconwg s ; is, ^ia fyia, 
ifVtiMt itr^'< *fr*('f *{J^ft ««U, naSr, »«t« '""i, i^l- wrS- Xet 
f;i..«. Geo. ^i*«. ft-*^ (S 1<M> 

S. In tiM dwl of tba Mrd dHfaawm, h baoomca a ; la, nixH rtlx»- In 
tba old«r Attic wrtten, wa, find tha aama contractioii in tba Staa. plor. of 
nouui tn .uv ; aa^ ^«iJiii( SwAit (iuoanectl}' writtoi .^), Inataad of tba 

S. In VMtaln -Mif tine tjaMm nf saA w, envpt tn Ob bdrdUrt, becama 
•I (L a. (he • and > DnitB, abaorbing tbe ■ and ■) ; as, hxif hXi;; IhJJm la- 
X«(. But txXJu. (iQHa.) lax^ >.)i;i (Ihna ).1«/u) )ilf( (S 33)- 

4. D> tlia tcrmiiuUion itf tba aecolid peraon aJngBlar paadv^, eea- 
tnded bilo ; or u, and •« inlo j ; as, ^tuXinai ^h>>Lii)j or ^wi>.ivu, ^wXtiwH 

5. For aped«I coDtractioiia i£ ■ bi 13m augment, aea $§ ISB, 189. 
KsHABK. Contraction is omitted in many woida In whiob It might 'taka 

(k^ee aoeradlng to the pnnediiig nika ; particuluiy in aamia of tlu third de- 
einudiHi, and in dtnyDatue Torba In -w. 

B. Ckuis. 

^ S8. Crasis (1.), for the most part, follows the 


laws of contraction, disregarding, however, an t 
final, which, according to the best usage, is not 
even subscribed. But often (2.), without respect 
to these laws, a final, or (3.) an initial vowel is 
entirely absorbed. 

Ctua DccnTft mfKt£y in pofltrj. Jt {• oommonlj Indicated b/ tba o 
it whan this mark u esc" 

( ) (S le), axc^ vhsi this mukla nzdnded by H 
ri/tA ti^. When an Initial voml haa bean abmrind wilkDOt an; Authtr 
dikaiige, tba words art mora ft'eqneiillj' Mpanlad tn writing ; M, il '/uf. Tha 
same i> (amUdnwi done iriica ■ final row«l h*> been ■barabud. And, hence, 
c^sBB lie oflsn teTmed to aphamit and apoitrophi which propoiy belong to 
craais. For the ohange of a Huooth mute (o ita cogoatc rough, whai tha 
•ectmd WDnl is aipirated, lee j 69. For the imxaty saa Pnaody. 

^ 30. The principal words In which the final vowel is aub- 
jert to crasis are the following : 
a. The article; thus, for 

ri.) Jb^iirt 

.1^ .iri. Tbr t ieini, 
•f«,i,. rw smi^ 

»tm*i*^ «i:<;^rif«, 
*,<,,«, 1- (s.)i.-„, 

Norm. I. -n^ «. 

«- z™. rf mJ ri «. e.|»*llr piiM » ™r. 

(1.) rf 1^.4, 

r.A.^ (SO riAi*Sir, 


§ 4©. ^. The cowjancd'iMi ««;, and .- thus, for 

(1.) »] i,. Hi U^ .<,. For hJ ;, hJ *; 

«JK«J1^ U,,„iM. (2.) ") ,A «) .i. 

-1J~, ^... (!,3.),»011,,.™. 

J,. A few other partte&j ,- thus, for 

*<J(-. For ^i„ i,, 



3, Some tortaa of the prwiowu ; thus, for 

/hJ l)isl% ^fltnu. In* Iiua, 

m' in-.., r.2n-ii. J <>, J l^a, 

lla fcw csNi irtMi nmuD vg bcrt Isanad from obaa-nlMii. 

C. Apostrophe, %k £lisioit. 

^ 41. Apostrophe affects only the short vowels 
A, c, I, and o, and sometimes, in poetry, the passive 
terminations in at (and perhaps oi in the enclitics 
ftoi, aoi, Toi). In mooosyllables (except the Ep. pd, 
and a few rare or doubtful cases), t only is elided. 

Ftor th* mark of ^xabvplt^ «M S le. far On tcomtatHoa, tea Fmndj. 

Elision is most commoQ, 

I.) In the prepositiww, and other particles of coDStaot use ; 
as, a<f lavtov (lor ani iavrttv, ^ 65), tit fxfiror, xai /fU, and, 
in composition (where the sign is omitted), iripznpiti, Sirlitvim, 

n*(iptijui ' alX iyoi^ag of r, / ovSir, fiiil. Dv, off o (dit o), la^ ar. 

2.) In K few pronouns, and in some phrases of frequent oc- 
currence ; aa, tovi silo, lovr ijS^ ' yiron ar, iatt' Sttov {tatt 
Snuv), ktyoi/t ay, old' on, qi^fi tjrii. 

^ 43> BEtuBKS, a. QlnoD ia km llw)Dait in i, thm in tbe otbcr 
■bort TOVfllA abovB mentioiuid. PArticuUriy, it ii P6V4r dided by Uie Auics 
in Tifi or in (which might thai be cunfoundad with in) i ind nerer in th« 
I^E l#W (2d p«™m Bin(ful«r of li/ti). It ia nsver in prow, •nd very r»rtly 
in Atdc poetry, elided in the Ditiie Angular, which might then be confounded 
with the Aocuutive. The ftami which take > paraoogic (§ 66) are not eHded 
In prooB, escept Irri. 

fi. Elieioa a least fttqnmt tn Ionic pnne. In Attic fvoee, it in found ct^e^ 
ly in a hw word*, but these often recuTriug. In poetry, where hiatus i> more 
careftiUy avcdded, its use is hr moie extended. In re^ject to its use or omi^ 
doa in pxMC^ mndi seems to depend npon the Aythm of the wntsiice, the 
Wnphaeis, the pauses, and tin taste of tlia writer. Ilien is, alsi^ in Ihia 
Raped, ■ gnat ^Arenoe among manuscripts. 


§ 43> The dialectic variations in the vowels may be raostly 
relerred to the heads of Precession, Union or Resolution, 
QuAmtitt, ana Iksebtion or Omission. 

§ 44> I. Pbecession prevailed moat in the sofl Ionic, and 


least in the rough Doric and .£olic ; while the Attic, wiiich 
blended Btrength and refinement, held a middle place. E. g. 

1, Long a, fbr tbe mait put, b ntajnol In (he Dciric wid Mo&t, bat in iIm 
Imdc pUBCB into a ; whili in tfie Attic It ii retained aflsr i, 4, f, and ;•, tint 
Otherwisa pMMi into ■ ($ !9). Tbos, Dor. 'a^i^il, Alt. i^ifi. Ion. t^i^n • 
Dor. lifm, riyi, inrit, Att. did Itfi. R^n, vnyii. nvTKi • Da. and Att. 
rtfid, wfiyiui, InL nfio, vji^yis. So, srcn in diphthonga, Ion. wf, 7;«H, 
fir MWj If int and in Dat. pL itf Dec i., -yn, -ji, for .aw, -aif. 

NoTS. TIm naa of tUa long s "prDdaail, in gnat nieanir^ tin Doric batorg 
called rXMnimr^i, troad pmmiBiciaiim, •Kiuh waa Imluted 1^ th* Attio in 
tiie Ijtie parta <t UmIt draou ($ 6). 

Z. Siort a ia retained by tba Doric in xHUa mmh, when, in the Attic, it 
paaaea into ■ ; and in aoma (panlcnlarij- verbi in ^t.) hy the Attic, wltere it 
becomea ■ in tlia Ionic lliaa. Dor. r^a^a, 'A{T<>iif, IkA, ftiri, AtL r(ifm, 
'Atnfui, In, ffirf • Att l(iut, firiui, rirrmfii, ■('■>, !>»■■ Jfi^ f jiriv, 
f^rif If) ffrar- 

3. In nomu in -m, -im, th6 dunctaiilic i connnonly pi inn. In the lonii^ 
htto 1 thnnt^koat ; aa, vJAji, »>, u (contracted into f Bcanding to § 39. a^ 

4. Aa tha ioag </ ■ and t, or tlie oontrution of ■■ and h or «, the atnctv 
TMnic pnAn the long TOwdt ■ and » to tin closer lUphtlnngi u and « ; 
while, on tba otlur hand, the Ionic la particularij (bnd of protracting i and • 
to II and » or H. lliDa, Dor. j^iff, ISiti ■ Gen. of Dec. n., rS if*m ■ Info. 
•■ffSf, X^'C't iw»ap ■ fbr x"t* l*bii(, ■-<£! tufmuS, iffflTs, ^a/^r, urtulf. loiL 
IliHf, ^inif, rii'a, for ^Hi, ftirti, tm. Att. ■•(«, Ai^is, IfH • loO. ■•■;•(, 
t^HftMy ti^ . Dor. aa^ff i*f^ »^. Both the Doric and Ionic have v> tfor 
fBv, tittrrfbre^ contracted from uv, 

G. Otbv examj^ea of pnccaaiaR or tin intmhang* of kindred vmrda 
(^ 28) an the following ; in aoine of which, contrary to tba general law of 
the dial«cts, the Ionic haa a more open aound than the Attic, or Uie Attic than 
tba Doric or £alic > Att 'tti, 'Avk, Ion. a.'i.', mhrii ■ Att lu, %xlt.. Icm. 
and Com. aai'v, aWo • Att &au(. Ion. Shk • Ion. rfit», ra^ia, fiymStti 
Att rfiva, ri/H-, ^OyiSw ■ loo. iffiHi-, Att l/^io ■ Ion. /•■nwaf'a, Alt 
/Hnif^;ia - Dor. and Ep. a!, Att ii ■ Dor. Siaraa. Ion. and Att ^■ina, 
MoL 9wVh( . Att n-^4^, ^^jt^iitf, ra{la>.if, .£id. rrftrii, jSfijti*'- vicl'- 
;uf ■ Att fo/w, j£ol. fri^a ■ AU. If «ri>v Mxl. Itnnt. 

^43. n. U.NioH OB Hesolution, A. The Contb action 
of vowela prevailed most in the vivacious Attic, and least in 
tiie luxurious Ionic. By the poets, it ia o^en employed or 
omitted according 10 the demands of the metre. There are 
also dialectic differences in the mode of contraction, which, for 
the most part, may be explained by precession. E. g. 

I In con t rac ti ng a with an O aonnd, the Doric often prefo* t to th« 
doflv ■ ; in tba Brat dedeiulan, ngnlariy. Thna, Dor. 'Ar^ii'l^ n> Ss^> 

fu> (.u^i), rtSrt (.un(). A like coctractioD qipeara in proper namea i 
•jUw i aa. Dor. U»Ua(, fiv HtiUaw. 1 1^' 

IM TOWELS. [book I 

S Rir to MnUactiini Sf ii ud h oth, aea £ 44. 4. 

5. With tha lonta «nd kdm of llw Dorics, the favorite contrncttoD of • 
md »r U into IV, inataid of in. This oae of tn tor •> soinetuneB exUnds t* 
cues when this diphthong itsulls fntm a different contractioo. Tliui, prKtv- 
fut, J.I1E, Iftii, 3i(i<i», for f.X.:^i. {-i.fUf), (ikii i-uv), i/^S C-i,), Sif*. 
(■■w)- lll■>;>•^ QiH/in, LiH^n, in Herodotiu tor iljultv (..>), II»;.. 

4. 11u Doria (but nOt Plndu), oontraiy to the genual Isv of the dialect, 
eootmoaly cootnct ■ with an £ •onitd [allowing, lAlo ■ ; u, l;«r*, n^nii, Xyi, 
ftmn ifmi, rt}w•<^ iuf^. Cf. S 33. >. 

6. In the coDtractkniB which fbUoff the chant's of • befbre r (§ 56\ the 
Atlic oftea amploys » nul », for d and » j u, Ace pL Tvii «/»<ft ™> »- 
/Ml, fin' tA( «/iJ(, «n li^Hi - Nom. Hng. of a^j. and ptrlic. ^iXm, ttf^mt, 
rt^airm, I;tw(w, fin' >iiUi, ti^l-itt, ri^nt, ixt*** • 3d [HI. pL ot verba, 
fair^ >{»«■», for fiiri, ■;>«■»«. The Doric has lien gieat TBiiMy, both 
anplofing the simple Imig roweli, the short vowels (aa thou^ > wen s>mpl;f 
dropped befim r\ the commoD diphthongs of controctioD (| 34), and the 
.£otlc dlphthoDgg; thni, Ace pL rijtrnti and rix''! (Theoc. 31. 1) ; nln 
KiimmA rii \m,(Tbeoe.1. it); ili and iTf. dm ; Mu», U»n (Theoc), 
Hwn (Pind.), aod Laconic Mia ■ Nom. sog. of pattlc Pfinut (Hnd. OL 
9. lOS), Axn (lb. 73). So, likewise, w for » hefora r in iiulr-, Theoc. 

6. The Tontc nso of bv fbr ■■ in a tew words, appears, at leart in aome of 
tbeoi, to havB arisen trom a onion of 1 and ■ to form « ; thus, fiv rmbri, 

ifiit aifH, rti nvriiJ, [• ml/rn. In tile reciprocal prononns. the an passed 
bito the other cases. We find also Ion. ^ii/is, rfaii^ (yet better rtSim\ 
tat ^n^H, rf^i/im. In all these mttdx, » is written bf some with a diare- 
als ; as, Saiv^u. 

^ 46. B. Vowels which appear only as diphthongs ui the 
Attic are otlen bksolved in the olher diajeots, especially tha 
Iodic and £oUc, into separate sounds. In the Ionic, the reao 
lulion of II, with t prolonged, into iji, is especially commoa ; sa 
fiautXiitii, all]!;, for flamlila, xUlf. 

Notes, b. On the other hand, the Ionic in a ftw cases onplofs contrail* 
tion where the Attic omits it, particulaiiy of hi into « ; as, l(ii, l ^ »«, Im>- 

ra, 0a9ia, •ylaafin, for llfif, lj3**ra, Irnri, JJ«iSia>, >]-)nai<n. 

0. The fimdnas of the Ionic Hn a concurrence of vowels leads it, in ■oma 
cases, to change > to a (J SO) aRs- a vowel (which, if betbn ■, now baorane* 
<) ; as, 'AfimtyiftMf itutimrtt (br 'A^irrsyt^p, \iinirTt, 

C In Crasis, the Doric and Ionic oilen differ from the Attic 

by uniting the of the article with a and m initial, to form m 

and ^ ; as, ro alijdt';, leiiLigSi';' O' BrSfff, tertftt' si vlnolot 

In the foOowing craasa, whid an fonnd in Herodotus, and the two flt*t 
tiso m Homer, the smooth hresthing has tidun' the plane li the nM^h 1 i J(i> 


§ 47. Ill- QuiMTiTT. For a short vowel in the Attic, the 
other dialects often employ a long vowel or diphthong, and the 
converse. Thus, 

Ion. IvXiinH Ibr >!«>,>«■( ■ Ion. IrirSm, i^li. Arflifii, /ti^in, Kflrrit, 
tar 'win(ii.H, li'uV iri)!^,. jmI^st, •^iSrnn ■ Dor. and S^ trim fbr in^^ 
f ■ S^ •At.tiH, itxit, <<7 -Akx^H, ^hTh. Sec SS 14. 4'i 45. 9. 

Hon. The poeta, upodanf the Ejdc, often len^en or shorten ■ vowd 
•ocmding to the metre. A short vows) when lengthened in Epic veiM 
wmillj pusra into * eognttte dtptboDg ; aa, tlx.iktyiiH for IxriXuSac, A. SOS. 

^48. IV. Insbbtioh os Ohissioit. Vowels are oflen 
inserted in one dialect which are omitted in another ; and here, 
as elsewhere, a peculiar freedom belongs to the poets, especial- 
ly the Epic. These often double a vowei, or insert the half 
<^ it (i. e. the short for the long), for the sake of the metre, 
particularly in evtitract verbi; as, nfiijTiror iil9uf, for a^cDf 
Rdmp, A. 41f ipaar9ir, ^jitaaioa, opou, ogan{, ylkiuorjig, ipaui, 
yalout, iclnoai, for ipdrdty, itPaiia, o^oJ, o^^, yilavMs, ipms, ya- 

'*-""'"»- 1. Tlie Ionic la npecialiy fbod of the insertion of t -■ aa,Gen. 

9. Id the Dcoie and Epic, Ibe putidea ifa, iiii, ■■nf, wm^ii, irt, Ivt, 
and »•■' (Dor. fbr <-;ii), oftea omit the final voml befbre a cooaooant, with 
loch enimilatibo of the preceding conHmuit as enphony may require; as, 
i; rf4», ill JJiyixn, lyitfii.,, lirrd, {§ 68. 3^ nil !w«/«t, lix fn'Xa^ 
(§ 63. fl), .^ -^-ASr. -ir rf«, — ;c'"'. "'( i'»', «J.X,«., »-«-.'£-(, 
vi( Znti, irwii^-^u, i^ixxui, irjr rii. When thm conaonanta are tbna 
broii^t together, the firet la aometimea rtjected ; aa, hstwii, Aftfiim, tor 
■■MjiTiiH, i^/»i>ni. So, aometimea in the Doric, even before a dn^ conso- 
nant ; as, na^i'iai. 

Norei. «. From the doae oi>nnecti«i of the prepoaUon with the IbDow- 
tng word, these cases ore not regarded as makiDg any exception to the ml( 
)n 5 f ^ Compan-S 68. 0. Tlie two worda are often written together, even 
when there la no compoaitiDn ; as, Miiiitaitii, rtrrir. 

fi. In these words, the Anal vowel was probably a euphonic addition to the 
original fimn. Comiuni iri and ^i with the I^lin at and mb. The old 
tana r^ir, in aocordAcce witik the mle (§ G3), became ■-( t( and rfiri, wheaca 

'y. Some of these (bnns even passed into the Attic, and into Ionic prose g 
an, ■w9an7> (poet.), l/t^irm (Xen.), iiiwuiitm- (Eenid.). 

1. 'A(a haa ilao, by apluereeda, the E^c ftaai fm, which ia codilic. 

[book I 



IT 8,1 

<^ 4:9. The Greek has eighteen consonants, 

represented by seventeen letters. 

Tbej ite ezhlUted in tbe Tibia (^ 3) xxardiiig to two metliods of dirl» 
Ion, amtdofed by ortluifiHaa. Coiuoiianta of tfaa lune due, aocording to tbl 
flret meitiod, an termed tagaatti of tbe lame older, coSrtbHiit. 

Rehaskb. 1 . The lettv y perfivnis s doable office. When fbUowed bj 
another pilalal, it ii ■ xsnl; otherwise a MtiUJt udt. Aa a nasal, it ha* r 
for ita <»iTaq>oni£iig Bomeii letter ; aa a middle mote, g (§ 18). For iti 

S. Fnan tbe reprceeDtatJon of tbe Latin vby0 (FtrpKiHi Biff-i'Liw), it n 
[ffobable that in the andrat, aa io Ihe moaeni Greek (§ 19)^ the middio 

In fbnning tbem, the organi vera not tritalif doeed. 

§ ffOi S. The semirowels v and a have correapooding 
vowels in a and t ; that is, o may take the place of c , and t (A 
<r, when euphony forbids the ise of these consonants ; as, c^tf- 
faxai for t<p9aifrTai, anifistt (contracted antfu) for aiii^a) 
See ^§ 34, 46. i», 56 - 58, 60, 63. R., &c. 

Note. In like mamur, > !■ tbe KnaponiSng voml of the old oCBMnant 
F. gee S 33. 1. 

^51. The following laws, mostly euphonic, are 
observed in the formation and connection of words 

A. In the Fokmation of Words. 

I. A labial mute before a forms with iti/i; and a 
palatal, | ; thus, 

m ^ XliVni ^.li'-Jw. ■* E, nltmrni si^ 

^ i;^, 'Af^ 'A«>^ yr t Xly«> a1E>. 

Note. . In like manner, ^ ig the nnion of a lingaal with a ubilant HOnnd, 
■nd in many words has taken the place of »1 ; e. g. advorba of place in -fi 
M, for "ASifrar!., ■ASs..;;., fbr e^«Si, &iiS*.lt ■ and many verbs in -t- 
•a, for ^A.'rlv, ^tlif*. lor ft*'**. P("t". I" these verbs, the old forms re. 
main lu the XlJic and Doric ''S 70. V.). For a lingual t^/ori r, sea £ M. 

GK. 8.] KUPBOMie L1W8. 109 

^ 59. 11. Before a lingucU mute, a (I.) labial 
or (2.) palatal mute becomes coifrdiitate (^ 4-9. H 3), 
aod (3.) a lingual mute, a ; thus, 

tvCOHIB IV tBe«n« H 

1 1.)^ ■*■, rirfArm rirfiwni. p-t »J, fit^x^ fl(i)*r>. 

fr wr, rtyfuffw ylyfmwrmt. mA ^S, Ir^iiSin UxixBnr. 

fl tt >,.:*>... yf^A-. (».)«• «-, ^i,«™, M^«» . 
«9 fS, lAjiVSvT iAi^fS*!. If rr, ■^tiint ■^limi. 

(■Or*- ■*-■ XUiyo' ;iUiMTu. r» <9, irif^rSn M^fin. 

■I yl. rillilxr villyJiiK $» r», Iru^Sn liWSim 

^ SS. III. Before /i, a labial mute becomes (i, 
a palatal, y, and a lingual, a ; thus, 

Except in a tar rii± mndi •> ^^li, ■ivS^uSi, juxfii, rir/ii • mi mn* 
otben ftom Ou dulacto; ■>, In Homv, j)^ n^., iririS^r, mutfuSiiim, 

\ 94. IV. V before a (1.) /a6ia/ or (2.) pala- 
tal, is changed into the cognate nasal (^ 49, 1 3) ; 
and -(3.) before a liquid, into that liquid ; thus-, 

u. |.v>, l.^». Iwl— (»-)•>. ". '■*•*« rxx.y.,. 

Ntms. ■. EndiCics an here regarded a* digdnct vordi ; thns, Tirif, 
vjtyi. Ws find, howavo', final > dunged in lika mamwr apoa old inKrip' 
IJCHU ; ■■, MEM«2TXA2, for ^> -f-vxH (liuc. Potid.) ; w, AtKAI, 
TOAAOrOS. and evm ESSAHOI (cf. $§ S7. ft, 6S. 3), fur Ji nu; r^i 

$. Bafon /I in tlie Ferftet paasire. > MTnetimea becomu r and [■ (om*. 
tiniea dropped ; aa, (br rifaT^uu, vifsr^xu • lor aininfui, linXi^i. 

y. BeToie ■ in tha Perfect actiTe, t ns commonl; dropped, or the Ibim 
•Toided, exc^ bj later wrileni ; aa, (br ■iinrin, lin^iu. 


flO C0N8OIUNT8. [bOOK I 

^09. v. A Ungual or liquid should not pre- 
cede a. This is prevented in vanous ways. 

I. A Imgual male is simply dropped before a ; thus, am/iarm 
naiSs, nUSou become atu/taai, nut;, ttilow. 

^*S6. a. In liquid verbs, the a formative of the Future 
and Aorist ia changed into t (^ 60), which (1.) in the FiUtO'e is 
■ contracted with the affix, but (2.) in the Aoriat is transposed 
and contracted with the vowel of the penult. 

Thni, in the Fut. wid Aor. tf thg liqnid verbs, iyyiXXm, to omunnc^ 
tifut, to t^itribule^ *{/*■», to j^tiigt^ itXm^ to wtuh, and ?k£«) to J^ff, ^r 

.I,-™. (..^U) «/.£■ I«^«. (1...^-) !.«/«. 

■^n, C-p.U> <p™- I.t,.»^ CU(,i.b) I.^... 

•-XiIh.., (TA^i.) •'X»£- lw>.„,m, ()>-).i».>) I<-Ae». 

»(», ()^) 1.^ ■ a^M, ot,t;.) liuf 

Sana. m. Eeie ai cmimonly pusM Into ■, nnleea i or ; preoedas ; Uioj, 
tfixXm, to ccKK to ({^ fmhit, to lAow (routa ifiaX-, f"-), have in the Aor. 
(ir^lrn, Ir^il.^ I>S!>iXii, I^» ■ Ttiile rw/Mi, to /atfaK, o-icii/hi, to cow- 
f)fa(( (nuta VICT-, a-i^i-), have Ir/din, Ivi-^u. Bat lix™l"'< to wtaki tun, 
MtfimfMtt to ganf./tntia/tM, to KnSav out, XivjutlnH, to vAtten, f^^Kii*, Aj oira^ 
■miw, to njm, bave li in the penult of Uie Aor. ; rir^iw, to ban, n ; aod 
ri^Hi, Id jrh a •^■u( itmUm, to liain, hath n and «. ATjb, to ram, and 
itxiUfMi, to bop, bave <, whidi In the lodicaliva is changed b; the angment 
Into « ; thve, IfM, i(M, SfKifu. 

$. A. Diw poetic verba ntain the old fonns with r : as, (UXv, to luml, 
■UiB, I«iJ.« ■ itfii, to miet wit/if to chantt, *i(ri, Iiv^ra ■ l(tB/u (r. Jj.), 
to mui^ {(rai, SfsM • ^tpi, la Inaad, ifvfiti. Add these fonna, moBtl; biim 
Homer, i^rlt, |X««, t^ra, dift/i«i, ■■fn'r ■'^■j'«i ^«f^l{*«, fl^«<- 

§ SV. 3. In the Aomtnofitie, the formative a (I.) after ;, 
and sometimes (2.) after v, becomes t, which is then trans* 
posed, and absorhed (^ 31) by the preceding vowel ; as, for 

OO'^ip, <+-.() -^if (20«.J«, («—..) -wJ.. 

■ "»■((. Cy»™() «'wi(, ^ix, (*vu*r) A/j^ 

^'•fi (f*'va() firmf. tml/utif (^mifuirj taimtn. 

Except In U^ ({ 10S> 

4. In the Dative phirol of the third declension, v preceding 
a loitlunU an intervening i, is dropped ; as, for 

fiiXMtri, /il3.Mri, For luf^itn, tai^iKl. 

So alw uriiJi r, In the DU. pL of m^ecfnei la -ui ; ta, tor j^a^iim, ^^a 

5. In the feminine of adjectivea in -m{, v befoie becomes 
; as, for j^^vroa, (jrop'trao) jfof^fooMi 

I v.Coo*^lc 

VB- &] BDPROMC LAWt. 1 1'l 

^ ff 8 6. OtherwisG, v before a ia chaiwed into a, which ia 
theo anUraeted with the preceding towbI {§'^ 34, 60) ; as, for 
Nm. Ute. Nml Am. 

(^tJLHf) ^it. Fc9 witrtm. 

It. In wnN, if A pncode r, ths ■ 1> nUlMd; u, br tifutit, Ix/un, fin 
Kl^iSvi, Ixftitn (yvt othov, Ix^ri). ll it alio reUined tn aum* forma tai 
riH tad darirUirM In ^u, frotn **Tba in .»'■•>, u rifmrnu ihiiii f ■!••% 
rivBint frcui vi'Hi'iir- wid Mmetinw in the admit rmXir, and Ills *4)ectiTe 
n^ n oDiiiparitioa. Add th* Humaric >»r>., Y. 337. For i^ .i,. and 
ir, Ka§ 68. 3. In tba roi^ Aigin and Crelan, > w«nu to hare been 
extenaiTd; ntiined befim r; thos, mf, nSirr, fbr ii'i, ri^lt 

§ 39. 7. In the DatiYB plural of tyneopated liquids, and 
of ouTifp, ttar, the combination w^u-, by niBiathesis and the 
change of « to a, becfiiite -fao-; as, for itaii^oi, nm^aai ' for 
iaiifai, iaifaot. 

8. Elsewhere the combinations la and fa were permitted to 
stand, except as a radical sf\er g was softened in the new Attic 
to p (^ 70) ; as, ap^qr, male, &aQ(o;, courage, xo^^q, tempU, 
cheek, for the older Sfofi*, &afoos, ad^ui). The combination /lo 
is unknown in classic Greek. 

^60. VI. Between two consonants, a forma- 
tive is dropped, and y is changed to a (^ 50) ; as, 

NoTS. So the OMnpouod wcrrx^ 1* inltten bj some ufux"- 

^tfl. VII. Before x formaliTJe, a /a&ia/ or 
palaial mute unites with it in the cognate rovgk, 
and a Ungual mute is dropped ; thus, 


^ C9. VIII. If rough muteA begin two succes- 
sive syllables, the ^^rst is often changed into its 
cognate smootK, especially (1.) in reduplications, or 
C2>) when both letters are radical; hat (3.) in the 
second person singular of the Aorist imperative pas- 
sive, the second rough mute is changed ; thus, for 

CO ff'*—-! "fiM". (2.) ifxh, rfxii. 

S3iV», rS*^. (3.) fi^3.ii»n^ finXiiSrn. 

NoT^ a. Cpoo thig Hune inndple, I;f;ii becamca l^- • and irtiowter / 
b ndapjiatcd, tba Hnt / beeaoH HHatt, ud, u it then caonot stMMl at the 
b*«mmiig<tf ■«ord($ IS. S>, iitnn^iaMdi u, for >i^fw, i^f>. Tet m 
Ai^ bj a ■nfUuioK of tba ncaad (, ^i;my>i>B ^. 69, jifa<-i>^M Aaaa. Fr. 
lOa, ^ip>»« Hod. Fr. SSI. 

f. So, lo avud ezcndve uqiitatiiin, ■ nnigli mnte ti nerer pnoaded by ttat 
■ma rough mnl^ but, intead of it, bj ths cognate nnooth ; w, Uu Epis 
■i* f<!%«(H, fbr Hf filXii^ ($ 4S. S) ; bo, Sarf^, B>>;t;w, 'ArSi'r ■ am], 
^oo tbe uma prindpla, Il^^ii (§ 13. 3). 

^ 63. IX. The semivowels v, p, and s, are the 

only consonants that may end a word. Any other 
consonant, therefore, falUng at the end of a word, 
is either (1.) dropped, or (2.) changed into one of 
these, or (3.) assumes a voice/ ,* thus, for 

(I.) r:^. 


/.f^. . 






• (2-) ♦^i f^(. ««, mil. 

Remake. A word can end with two conBonanls, only wher 
the last is a ; as, nlr, p-ti^ (^tjh?), tu'S (•'tixf). ■opnj. Hence the 
foTTiuiiiee r of the Accusative is changed into a (^ 50) after a 
consonant, e.ucept in a few caaes, in which a lingual mute 
preceding r is dropped ; thus, for 

yin, ySrm. For nXilit, n>.tii» and aAiTh 

■•{■»^ nifimm. >;"S< i;n-3a and ifnt. ,7^ 

nult, nAb yiAwn, yt%HV and ytXMh 

CB. S.] STPHOKIC L.>WS. 113 

^ 64. X. A consonant is sometimes inserted or 
transposed, to soften the sound. Thus, 

1. When a simple Bowel is brought by inflection or composi- 
tion before an initial ^, a smooth p Is inserted ; as, i^Quoa, 
S^^oToq, fjii^iiifvvfti, from ^unvfu {t-, a-, and /nl prefixed) 
l>ut ivftiaTot (the diphthong iv prefi^ied). 

2. When, by syncope or metathesis, a nesat is brou^t be 
fore i. or q, the cognate middle mule is inserted ; as, from 
avifo;, (itr^oc) ardqai, from fua^/iif/ia, itia^/tfif/ia. 

Norc It the numl ia bitiil, it ia theo dropped ftom Iba difBcak}r of 
tonnding it; e. g^ Iha n»t« of Sxlrri and ^Xvriui us thna ctuuiged ; /a>Lir^ 
fiJur^ H'^^^l 3>JT-; ^Hl-, fijLt-, fifiXt-, 6Xt-i to fifrtit, marbd, doTVad 

3. Transposition especially affects a liquid coming before 
■mother couaonant ; as, for So^ann, {fftiamty for ^(lahui, ^i- 

^ SS. B. In the Connection of Words. 

I. When a smooth mute is brought by (1.) cra- 
sis or (2.) elision before the rough breathing, it is 
changed into its cognate rough ; as, for 

(1.) »I J, »] 4 X^Xf- *■<»■ ■"" si". ■»«»■ ft«^ 

rj Ijtintw, SWfuinn. And in compodtkin, tmA 

«• IW^Hi, SiliV*. ri« and 1^^ ipl^u- 

Jrir liMM, tBtSuxM, liu and i^ifs, li^jiyMfft. 

(3.) iri w, i^' «r. In-i and n^ifs, ifS.^.,. 

NoTS. In •ome compounda, tbla cbange tahea place urilli lu hherTcnin; 

f ; tad in aams wonla, it ippaara aimply to have ■riaen ftom tbt l«odeDc7 of 

( to aapiratlfln (t£. § 13. 9) ; aa, ffiiSn (from <■;• and ■!•■), f^ufii (rfi 

h 60. II. Some words and forms end etthei 
tmu or leithout a Jirud consonant according to eu- 
phony, emphasis, or rhythm . 

1. Datives plural in i, and verba of the third person vt ■ 
%nd I, assume r at the end of a sentence, or when the tiex' 
word begins with a vowel ; as, 

nSn yi( i!wt »«i-. ■ but, ESwit nitri r3f— 
nSfi Kiyiin rtSn • but, nSni mrri Xl>wiM>. 


KoTBH. B. So, likewiM, u/Dfrli of jilaei m .n (pnperlj (btlves plural 
tba advert) rifuri, Iwt ymr, tbc Dumcnd iJntri (eommciJ;), the demonstn- 
tin u imcedgd ^ r (aoBiMima), tbc Epk can-oidiiig -«•, and the Epn 
partida ■•, n, and wf. - ••, i nxi>mw>>*rv»M-)I«wnIn-See49n.N. 

^ Tha > thiu anumed ii called t p artigngie. It ia aometliiMS em|doj«d by 
the pneU hr^on a coiuonuit to nuka a syHabk lonf? by povtion ; and in moot 
hindi of Tsne, HD» of the b«t tditon vrile it nnHbrmly at tha std of a line, 
In Ionic |ii«« H ii gsnenlly neKlectad, but In Attic proae i1 
found sven betbre a conxanaat in tbe middle of a Mnteoce. 
and lezkooa, a paragogic letter is comninnly marked thiu: ilMn(>). 

§ 67. 3. The adverb ouiu;, thus, commonly loses a before 
K coDBoaunt ; end ugi/i and (t'ju/'i until, often assume it before 
B vowel ; as, ciiiu iftjol ' iiize"i "''■ 

i. Some otha- worda have poetic nr diaiactle fonnr. In wbicb a Stmt t cr i 
la dropped or amimed ; a^ local advHba in -9it (post , chitdy Ep., -Si ', no- 
menl ■drarta in -»< (loo. -si], irrmtwt, i»iuf, Wx, wiiut, *i^'i$)t 

^ 68. C. Special Rulj^s. 

1. The preposition ^, ovi of, becomes tn before a oonsoiwiitt 
and admits no funher chnnge ; es in uaxiir, inntiai, inyilau, 

(Kdiioc, infiaooai. 

2. The adverb or, not, betbre a vowel, assumes x, which 
becomes x before the rough breathing ; as ov fr,aiy nun ernnii', 

n, from la and In, IbDoin Ihe analogy of 

■ niay perhafM be i^inHed la tha origbial 
a these forms ai« retained la owing to their 
a GompoaiUiHi, with the foQoviEtg woid, and 
to Ihe rule in $ 63. When orthatone, (bqr 
coofimi to the rale, the one bj ■^""^■"g i, and the other bj dropping s. 

8. In composiUon, the preposition d, in, retains its r before 
( and a ; " bile o^, toith, drops its r before o followed by an- 
other consonant, and before f; but before u followed by a 
vowel, changes » to o ; as, tyaantm, irailta (yet i^^v9iics ollen- 
er than iyQvSfiof) i oiniiq/io (for otjronjjua), ovZv/la' ouuocvw 
(for awofvai), ovmiitla. 

Note. tU Epic i> fyr itd ($ 48. 3) hoe tmltatea It ■ as, itrri,, M^int 

% 60. A. The dialects ollen interchange consonants ; most 


Virrxa. m. lla >oft Ionic wu len incliBed thu the Attio to Uia Toogb 
niD(«a ; benee, in tlie Iniic, tbc nmwth male remaiiu bdbn the rangli br«th- 
■if (f ^ S5, 88. 2) ; ea, ■•-' iJ, )i>ii^i;h, tit Sti- In xxoe compounds, thia 
puaed into the Attic ) >^ inXj^mi, ftim itti tnA JAjh- 

fi. Aepinlion ia WHiHtimea trati^Hnndi la, Ion. miBwi, IiJut^ Irftifni, 

IL CodRDDTA'n MdTKb § 49) I u, Ion. and MxiL, ■ fbr « in tultrnga- 
tm and iiulgfaite fnmoiau and arfturAj ; thni, uTh, ȣ, *frl, ftit rmH, riS, 
mrE • Dor., ■ for t In ■'ins. Ins, nu, for win. In, nn, •nd fii limilir 
admrtt o^ (tne; .£aL •-f^xi Tor rtin, fit; for fti;- Jlol. and Dor, }<>.ifa(H 
fae.fiKifaftT, iitnr yn- Dor. iliAii roi ifitXii, ifnxt ^ i(H^i. 
' III. Liquue ; an, Dor. J>5n, ^h-hwi, ft*' il;i9n, ^iXnmi • Ion. vW- 

^ 70. IV. r wtlh other letten ; e. g. 

1. TIh Ionic and Old Attic rr and ft past, for the moet part, In the Utcr 
Attic, into n- and ff ; as, rirtm rirrw, -/XHrfu yXirri, l^n tffm. See 
S so. 8. 

2. Dv. •■ for r^ M, II«iiU>, Irirn, ifun, for rftwlMi, Ivint, Jinn. 
Tbia appean eepedally in tlw 2d peranii] pronoun, and in the 3d pen. of 
Tectoi as, ns *i, for r£, ri (I^t. hi, teh fi>Ti, fair; Xi)«T^ for far^ f««( 
Xti-wi (Lat legmit). 

3. Dor. r for > in the verb-ending of lat pen. pL fut for ^i [Idt. mu) ; 
■a, xiyifiti tor Aifi^i> (Lat. Ufniuit), 

4. The I^conie oftai changee 9 to r, and final i to ; ; aa, «wA>J( Ar. Lya. 
988, riif, n>ji, for imAiuH, Siii, BiXm • «!; fiT ruTi (LM. pMr, oompan 

T. The Domut ConaoHAjns with other letten ; ae, old fn, later and 
common wyt (m the I^^ hih tiie # baa been dropped, inHt^id of the m\ i 
S/A. "Trnw^ tot Sar^'- £o\. rxUu, txifit, for £>w, fif ii ■ Dor. i^-f, -f,!,, 
for rpi, rfiiV ' Ion. 1{>(, ffifH, fin Jircit, TfinJt. 

^ T I . B. Consonanta are often doubled, inserted, omitted, 
and tnmtpoted by the poets, especially the Epic, for the sake 
of the metK ; as, Oklajlot, tppaaao/tat, cixvaai, 'Smnt, unnu;, 
tdStiar, for Sla^r, &.C. ; JitoXtfiog, mohf, d'H^a, rmrvftvot, ana- 
lafirog, for noltftof, noilir, J/j'", vuivaot, anaia/tos ' l^«£(ii', 
Odlfun!;, jlxil^ivg, ^fa^vyot, for Efl|^({^o*, Odfaoiv;, ^.fjfiliUvc, <pa- 
foyfOf' Kfaii^, na^ifof, pa^uftof,toT xuftla, xfatigogt flv^- 

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^ 73. Etymology treats of the Inflection and 
of the Formation or Words ; the former includ- 
ing Declension, Comparison, and Conjdgation, 
and the latter. Derivation and Composition. 

For tlK distlnctioa batirMii the mSeal tad ttaa frmaHn put of Tord^ 
and tlu DH of the taina nml, pr^x, affix, apem ami dott or wimii and eamtniiaM 
affixCD, AaratUHtlk, jntrt and Smpurt worda, wait, Hguid, itfind-iiuite, latiai, 
pofatn^ and Imgmil woida, iIksk, jiaraiSgm, £c., He Gmenl Grunmu. 


psraciPLEs of dbcleksion. 

^ 73. The two classes of Substantives (in- 
cluding Nouns and Substantive Pronouns) and 
Adjectives (including the Article, Adjectives com- 
monly so called, Adjective Pronouns, and Partici- 
ples) are d^lined to mark three distinctions, Gen- 
der, Number, and Case. 

le lubsUnliTes to wikich the; belong. 

A. Gender. 

^ 74. The Greek has three genders; the Mas- 
cuuNE, the Feminine, and the Neuter. 

Xonm. ■. Nonna iriiich ira both msBcnline and ftminbia> m mM toi It 
rf th* cuBWH gendar. T. .(Xltjic 

QB. I.J ttKNDES. 117 

$. Tii mufc the genda* at Gmk nooni, m gmplo; tba diflbvnt fbreu at 
the uticlc , io the singular, for the muculine, J ; f^ the feminine, li ; fbr the 
coniiitun, ;, IT ; and for the neuter, ri ; in tbe plonl, fbr ttie mucoUiK^ 4I ; 
for the ftmiaiDe, ml i for Cha caminoa, •!, kI ; aikl, for the oenter, n> : u, J 
'mftiui, itoBatd, rl, 4 »■{•?«, "«■«, rl nut, fig. 

In like nunner, the differ^t cues vid numbeni Kcording to thvr gendo^ 
are marked by diferent fbrnu li the utids ; u the Gn. alug. mwc. bj 

y. In the cue of m«t ^nimjtn it la (ddom Importent to ^EtJngidsh the 
gender. Heme in Greek, for the muet part, the nabiei of —<■"■'■, instead 
of twiiig oommon, have bat ■ ringle goider, vhldi ia need IndiffinnUy lor 
both nxes. Socb Domu are tamed (piuiu (IrfuHrH, jTMummf). Thni, 
- i ;ivxjf , viitf, it iXuTii^ /u, whetha the mala or the frnule ia ipokoi <rf. 

1. Words which change Ihrar forma b> denote change of gender an teemed. 
■HHotfe; and this change ia termed ■mtuii; aa, J (iaruLiw, Img, t ^ariXus, 

1. b mrda in wUch the ftminine maj ejtho' hare a mwhim ibim with 
the maacnUne or a (fittiiiM fivm, the Atbt aometimea preftra tlia comiiKO 
form, wlien the loiae aod Oommm dialecta prefer the dialjnct Asm ; aa, 1, ) 
Slit, gad, goddm, and ■ Sia or Siaira, foddat, 8<^ iikenite, in a4jectivea. 

% H S. The maaculine gender belongs properly to words 
denoting males ; the feminine, to words denoting faiuda ; (tnd 
ihe neuter to words denoting neither males nor females. In 
Greek, however, the namea of moat things without life are 
masculine or feminine, either from the real or fancied posses- 
sion of masculine or feminine qualities, or from a similarity in 
their formation to other nouns of these genders. 

Thus, for the most part, the names of winds and riveri 
(from their power and violence), and also of the months, are 
masadine; and the names of trees, plants, covMries, islands, 
«nd cities (regarded aa mothers of their products or inhahitanis) 
are/emt'rnne; while nouns denoting mere prodtuls, or imply- 
ing inferiority (even though names of persona), especially 
diminvlives, are neuter; as,.o ayr/ioc, wind, i Bo^^ug, Boreas, 
noin^Df, rveer, o WtUof, the Nile, /i^r, month, u 'lirnrofi/iai- 
b-r, June- July, i) uuxfl, fig-tree, ^ nnUa, apple-tree, i) umo^, 
peoT'tree, ^ Sftnilog, vine, ^ ^fiiot, papyrus, i| x<''ft"^ country, 
i, vfr^-tmioi;, Egypt, ^ vijooq, island, ^ i'li^oc. Somas, ij woiij, 
d^, ;; jinjifSalfiiiir, Lacedtemon ; to av*a*,fig, 10 fi^Xav, igiple, 
ij tf*ror, child, TO avS(iano3pr, slave, to yivaioy, dim, of yvr^, 
tooman, to naidloy, little boy or girl. 

(> 7S, The geiider of nouns, when not determined by the 
signification, may be, for the most part, inferred from the form 
of the theme or root, according to the following rules. 

I. In the FiKST heclxksioh (tj 7), all words in -at and -qf 

116 pbclbhsion. [book ii 

ftra mtueiditu; all in -a and -^, feminine; as, o ta^lat, o roit- 

U. In the SKCONQ DECLBiotoH (II 9), most words in -o; and 
-wf are masculine, but Bome are Jentutme at conuiion ; wonlf 
in -»» and -wn are neuter ; as, a io/'*, o *fiu'f ■ ij iJcf, q fnuf, 

dawn; i, 1} tfnif, jorf, o, ^ ai/xn>(, bear; to oinor, to arai;-;)*!'. 
Except when the diminatlfe Iwin in 411 w given to ftmiiUDS premier DAmes^ 

III. Id the TUiafi DtcLENsioD (^tl '1-14), 

a. All words in -ms are maaculiHe ; all in -w and -aivi femi- 
Mine; and ail in -«, -1, u, and -oti new/er,- as, inntii;, o o/i- 
VP'^ei amphora; 15 ^/w, ig roilj' to aw/io, to ^t'lU, Aonejr, lo 
ttmu, 10 ii(/i>f. 

b. All oAcIraett in -xm and -<;, and most other words in -is 
are feminine; as, ^ ^-iiixuii)!;, meetnees; jj Swufiit, power, ij 

c. All labial* and palatah, all liquidi (except a few in 
which e is the characteristic}, and all liquid-mutes are either 
masculine or feminine. 

d. Nouns in which the root ends in, 

1.)^ -««-, -tr-, or -ft', are DMUca/me ; as, o yi'lmrc, -*>ro;, laugh 
ter ; lijuijr, -tVoj • e liuv, -onss-, a oMf, i ytymq, o ^uor;, ~aw\os, 

Except tJ •!(, ^^i, «or, W fm, ««t«, iii/A/ (both oootrael^ t f n\ taiir, 
■»4 «nd ■ few namea of citjea (5 75) ; «5, S ■P,^,.;,, -.Z^.,, BioMMfc 

2.) -fl., or -ff-, are /emi'nine ; as, ij injiwn'f, -liaoe, torch, ^ 
ii/19, -i5iK, strife, i x^iiftvt, -uflug, cloak i q xofvs, -d#«$, Ae/tnet. 
Eioapt ; ( «», «,!fe. fAiu; J r«l,, ««(, /»«, j; A j^.„, -iS^, Knt 
3.) -ai-, or -a-, are neuter; as, to ii7f(f,'ato{,i6xiif<tt,-S%os, 

■o >'C('<ri -CtOf. 

B. Number. 
^ 77. The Greek has three numbers; the Sin- 
gular, (denoting one; the Plural, denoting more 
than one; and the Dual (dualis, from duo, two), 
a variety of the plural, which may be employed 
when only ttoo are spoken of. 

Thna, the egngnki- J,3(.™ risnifia "md.. the pluni <,»{«»., ■»■ (wbeta 
er two OT more), And the dual AtStirv, two meit. 

BouBC The dMl li most raed In the Attic Greek. In the A^c dialect 

eH. 1.J aas. 119 

(m Id tbe latiii, wUdi It qi^nwches the mart jimAj of tbs Qnck dUkettJ 
uid In dw HeBaiiKiD Gnek, th« jlnal doa not wear, except in Ih, tso, and 
J«f«, And (L^t. dw)^ aatbo), 

C. Case. 

^ 78. The Greek has five cases; 
1. The Nominative, expressing the subject of a. aentcnce. 



the point of departure, or < 
the indirect objeci, or a 



direci limit. 




NoTKS. M. Smu tht proatl cbBnuMr of tke reUdona which they dtoot^ 
tha NominatiTe, Accunlive, md TocMiTa ue temwd tht d»c(, and On 
Gmitive and Dative, the imlinct cases. 

fi. -[ia Naminstive and YocatJTe an tlao tanned cam nd^ li* riglil tail 
jod the other three^ nmu aHi^ tht oMifw nun. 

f^ for a fttUo' rtateount <tf Uie use of the easce, aee S/ntax. 

D. Methods of Declension. 

^79, Words are declined, in Greek, bj an- 
nexing to the root certain affixes, which mark 
the distinctions of gender, number, and case. 
There are three sets of these affixes ; and hence 
arise three distinct methods of declining words, 
called the first, se^cond, and third declensions. 

The first of these methods applies only to words of the mas- 
culine and feminine genders ; ihe second and third apply to 
n'ords of all the genders. In some of the cases, however, the 
affixes vary, in the same declension, according to the gender ; 
so that, to know how a word is declined, it is necessary to 
Bsceriain three things ; 1. its root, 2. the declension to which'it 
belongs, and 3. its gender. 

ITie mode in vhich (he gender is msrhed hue been ab-eadj slated (§ 74, S). 
From the theme (i. e. the Horn, sing.) and the gander, we can often detemune 
at once the mot and Ihe dedeiuion. If It ii necesaary to mark these expli- 
citly, it Is mmmonly done by giving^ with the theme, the Genitive singular, or 
ita eniUng. ^ tiit Gautat aingiJar aidt h -■# or -m, or ui -tu from a t^entg 
m -xar -■(, OttpBrdU of l\tJtTit dedmiim; if if mil is .Mi/roa a lAmuis 
-91 or -99, t/u tpard U of At aecond dedentLin j if il tndt in .91, tAf word it of 
&e thml dKientioH, Tht root it oUtiined by throtoiiu/ off tbt u^ur of the Genitive f 
at It may be obtained by throwiog off any affix beginning with a voweL 

Thna llie mnmi, J rmptmi, ttamml, i ilxim, Aohm, i yi^S^rm^ t'ogii*, i tSi/ult 


ftaplt, mH i 'Afn^l; Arab, moke in the Genitive, ts^iw, •i(u>[, yKArm, V 

yXirtm belong to Ihe finl dedenaioD, ti/iit 10 tlie second, and 'kfn-^ to the 
third. B; thmwing at! the *ffisea -», -m. -at, and -ii, we obtain the mot* 
Tn/H-, «'«-, }';u»r-, itiiL-, end 'Afrfi-. Ihe words ore then declined b; an- 
nexing to these roots ^e affixes in the table (H 3). 

^ 80. la the declension of words, the tbllow- 
ing GENERAL RULES are observed. 

I. The masculine and feminine affixes are the 
same, except in the Nominative and Genitive sin- 
gular of the Jirst declension. The neuter affixes 
are the same witli the masculine and feminine, 
except in the direct cases, singular and plural, 

II. In neuters, the three direct cases have the 
same affix, and in the plural this affix is alwajs a. 

In. The dual has but two forms ; one for the 
du-ect, and the other for the indirect cases. 

IV. In the^^mimnc singular of the Jirst decleo 
sion, and in the plural of all words, the Vocative is 
the same with the Nominative. 

^ S I. ItxtuxEB. 1. The lue of the Toe aa a distmct form is sUU 
ftirUia' limited. Few ■nbaUmth'ea or a4)*<^T^ except proper names and per- 
sonal appellatives and e^ntheta, are snffi^ently employed In addieda to require 
• separate form tar this pnrposa. Hence the partic^Cy iinmatai, artid^ and 
mawral have do diitioct Voc ; and in respect to other words which an de- 
clined, the Mowing observaUona ma; be made. 

■ or t^thatt at penoni, and 

fi. In Dec n., the distinet tana of the Toe ia commonly used, except fbi 
•npbony or rhythm ; as, 'ft fiXn, £ fiXti, mji frmdl tug friauil Ar. Nub. 
116T. >P;>H^Hi>Udi A. 189. 'Hii»[ n r.ST?. To avmd the doable 
1, Sill, ga-l (like dtia in Latin), has, in clasaic wiiteis, no distinct Voc ; yet 
0il St. Matth. 37. 46. 

y. In Dec 111., f^ words, except proper names and personal appellatives 
and epithets, have a distinct Toe. ; and even in those which have, the Nom. 
is Bumetimcs employed in its alead, especially by Attic wrilsis ; thus, '11 «>a 
rJx, Ar. Ach. 071 ; but '11 «;u. Soph. Phil, laiS. AT.. Soph. Aj. 89 : bot 
*f 1 f.X ' A7i(( lb. fiS9. In many words of this declensiuo, the Voc cannot 
be tbrmed without neb a mntdlatioit tf the root aa scarcely to kava it intalH- 

ca. l.J msTOBY. 121 

^89. 2. An inspectioQ of the table (U 5) will likewise 
shotv, that, in regular declensioD, 

«■) The Norn. liag. mtaa, and (except lu Dec I.) lem. alwajs audi in i. 

fi.') The Dst. ring, dways ends in i, dtber mitten in the liae or subscribed. 

y.) The Aec ring, (except in neuters of I>ec. III.) slwiiyB enda in >, or its 
ciHTesponiiing vowel a ($ 90); uid the Ace plur. masc. and fern, ia alwa^ 
fonnnd by adding t to the Ace. ring. [§§ 34, 58). 

}.) The Gen. plur. alviaya ends in •». 

1.) In Dec. L uid II., the aSixee are a!t open (i. e. begin with a nsw/^ 
and dl constitute a distinct sjllabls. In Dec. 111., Ihiee of the aSxei, r, i, 
and EI. are ci>« (i. c. Iiegin with a anmrnaat), and of these the two firal, 
having no vowd, must ojiite with the last ejllahle of the root. 

It., and the Yoc. masc 

d ;, that words of Dec. I. and II. ue 
a the uune number of ej-llables in all 
words of I>ec. Ill, are wi^taritylhibic, Uiat ie, tiave mora 
ayilubies in eome of theur coses than in olheis. 

3. The Table (H 6) exhibits the affixes as resolved inlo 
their two classes of Ei-ements ; I. Flexible Endihgs, which 
are signiScaal additions, marking distinctions of number, case, 
and gender ; and II. Connecting Vowels, which are euphonic 
in their origin, and serve to unite the flexible endings with the 
root. For farther illustration, see the following sections upon 
the history of Greek declension. 

E. History of Greek Declension. 

^ S3. The early hiatoij of Greek declenaion ia beyond tlw period not 
merely of written records, hut evtn of tradition. It can be tjocrd, tbenfore, 
only by the way-marts which have been left upon the language itself, and by 
the aid of coinpaTBlire philology. The following view of the subject has 
much evidenc« la its support, and eerves to explain the (roneisl phenooieDa of 
Giwk dedenalan, and of the use of tBe numben and casee. 

Gnek dedenidon was prt^rearire. At lint, the Ajd^ root was used, as In 
aiMTie languages even at the present day, without any change to denote nntn- 
ber •■- ca<ie; thua, Ix^u, fiA. yvr, cwfivre, wheilier one iH' more were spoken 
of. Then the phml number was marked, by affixing to the root t, the rim- 
ple root, of courae, now becoming tbytilar, as each new formation limits the 
nao of prior forms : thus. 

Plural, Ix^ui, fiaha. 

yvn, nZturei; 

The nent step was to make a separate form, to expreea the ituSrict, aa 
distinguished from tlie dinct relations. This was done by annexing • to ths 
root, and this form became phiral by adding one of the commoa rigni of tha 
plural, > TTe have now the diatinction of case ; thiu, ^-~ t 

.128 TOCLEKSIOH. [book H 

Kngnlar. Floral. 

Direct Case, l^^i 'J:3« 

Inflect Case, i;^:^^ 'X^" 

% 84. Eadi qf these eases vas aftervaida subdivided. (A.) FVom 
the DireM Case were separated, in tJie auaadint and /munnc geuders, tw« 
express the tttbJBCt, and the other the direct abjvi, it an 

Hm JVbtflinah'De waa formed b^ adding $, aa the aign of QiA n^ect, to the 
old Direct forma ; thus, Sing. Ix^i;, yi^i, Plnr. Ix^iu, ySrii. 

The Acaaatiee was formed by adding to the root, aa the sgn of the dirwf 
t)tJECtf t, which !□ the plural took one of the common ugna of the plm^ r ; 
thus, Sing, i^^ili, yiirt, Plur. i;^3u<[, yirtc, or, by the euphonic change of i 
into iU correaponding vowel (§§ 58, 63, R.), ^ng. yiwa, Plur. i^Bvut, 

(B.) I>am the Indirect Case vas separated a new case to ejipress the 
tdrjec&r, as distingnlslKd f^om the abjaiiix relaCians. i. e. the G^aitine. This 
was formed bj aiSxing 3, or commouly, with a euphonic vowel, >9. In the 
plural, this took the plural afRu .; thus, «9.. But by the laws of euphony, 
which aflerwards prerwled, neither 3, nor 3. coiJd end a word (§ 63). 
Theiefore, 9 dlher was changed to i, or waa dropped, or aasDmed (he vowd ■ 
(comnionly written with t paragogic ■>, § 67. 3] ; and idi became ■» by the 
abaorpUon of the 9 (3, perhaps, £ret passing intu v. a» in the singolar, thai r 
b«ng changed into lla correapandiag vuwel i, and this absorbed). Thna i9 
became », •, or iSx ; and iSi, ■». 

The old Indirect Case rem 
new plonJ was formed by ai 

'^89. The plural had now thronghout a new form, but the old fcnn 
had so attached itself to various Tiames of incessant use, that in moat tf (he 
dialects it vtas still preserved. But these household plurals, wlucb could not 
be shaHen off, would be prindpally aneb as refored (o olgects double tiy nature 
or custom, as the eyes, hands, ftet, shoes, wings, &c Hence iJiis form came 
at length to be appropriated to a dual sense, though in Uie dme of Uomer 
this restriction of its use seems not aa yet to have been fnHy made. The 
Dinple fbrm of the root was likewise retained in the singular as a case of ad- 
dress (FDcatHw), in words in which there was occasion Ibr such a fbrm, and 
the lawa of eof^ony allowed it. In the plural the Vocative had never any 
fbrm distinct from Ilie Nominative. We have now Ch^ three numbers, and 
the fiva cases, which, with the euphonic d^angea already mentioned, appear 

Sing. Norn. -I 


G«i. -.( 


Dst. -, 



foe. . 


nnr. N.T. .„ 


Gen. *, 


Dat .,« 

ix»«" Ox^if-) 

Ace., .>! 


Ah. I ' ~ BisTOST. 123 

Ddll Dir. -:■ IxSii ySn 

For the uke of compleUncss, we have added in the table aboTB two Iit<9 
modifiotiona ; riz., the coniinan ■horter DiU plar., fbmied by dropping) 
(onlni oae clioosea to fbrm it trora the DM. sing, by inserting the plural sign 
r) i and the Indirect Caw dual prulonged by iiuertiog >, alUc the anelugy of 
the Gen. alng. and plur. 

" S6. Wb hare exhibited above the primitive rude declension, now 
called the third. Bat aabseqnentty two othv modes (^ declenrion sprang np, 
having coonecthig voveia, irliidi nnited the Bexible endings to Che root ; the 
ana having •, now called the mcimd dedenuon ; aod ihe other, ■, now catlad 
the jtrA These devlenakina chose ntbo- to drop than to diaoga the final A of 
the Gea. sing., appaientlj to avoid coofiuion with the Nom. ; and likewise to 
niwn (he dd Direct Cass as a Nom. gdur., wbidi becaow afterwanla diatiif 
guiahed from the dual by a difierent mode nf contraction, ita mwe fteqoait use 
leading to pncesaion. In all the aSxes <rf' theea dedenaiona in wbicb two 
voweti came together, ca'ntraRioa naturiliy took place in one or another of its 
ibrma ; and In the Dat. plur. a ahorter form became the more common oo^ 
nude «ther by dn^ping i Brum the lunger Torm, or by adding the phtrat sign < 
tp tbs Dat. sing. For i in the Voc, matead oT •, aes S S8. We give as an 
exampls of Dec. II., i xiyw, •wrd, and of Dec I., i tm/Mi, itnunL 

Sing. Kom. Xiy^.!, >.iyti trnfil-m-t, TMfiimf 

DiialN.A.Y.:ii^.i^, Ajy. ■rm^i^-t, n^a 

G. D. X*y-«wt, A#fWP n/*i.m-iWf tufiiair 

In the Tfom. and Aoc sjng. of tbess dedenaons, Uie primitive direct {arm, 
without ( or > appended, was somotimes retained ; aa. Nom. &iArr*, irwirt 
($ 95. 9 ; compare the Latm aiwta, poita), i ■ Ace. >■*, !■, 'ASw (j 9T). So 
theoealers ri, i>.X; mirk, Uux, !(§ 97). 

^ S 7 • We have thea tix treated aAf Ot the niMeiiliiw gender. In tbs 
■nttr (which occnn only In the second and third deckmaions), since things 
without lifb havs no voluntary action, llie distinction of aubject and olyect is 
olivlously (^ far lass conseqaence, and tberrfore in this gender the sepanilioD 
af the Nom., Ace., and Toe. was never made. The place of these three caaea 
emtinjed to bs mpplied by a an^ Direct Case, which in the Angular of 
Dec III. waa the nmple root, and in Ihe alngular of Dec. [I. ended hi t> (the 
V being either euphonic, or more prc^iabiy having the aams fbrce as in the 
>cc., and maridng the clijectitK chaiacter c^ the gender). Tlie ploral has lbs 
same form in both decleq^nne, simply appending, Instead of the old i, il (which, 
■a the coneaponding vowel of > (§ SO), is more oljtctrM in its chaiacter}, and 
vithont a connecting vomL We give, aa avamplnn. ri iim^ii ^poatio), Uar, 
«r Dae. in., and ri (Sht, fig, li Dec IL 

DECLENSIOn. [book It 

Plnr. N. A. T. i^fv-a »■-• 

Gen. }<«;J-i.. tim-n 

Dat. ii,ft.t, rit^i, 

Dual N. A. y. I<i>;».| r>'..« 

G. D. l»,i;.„, „!..„, 

^ S S> The lUatinctitin of snbject and object is leaa striking in tha flm- 
inJiH than in tb« maicullnB ; and bence, in tlie fii-Mt dedenaion, where then 
are no neutere with which & distinction inuet lie msintainaiil, tba feminine ia 
ffifltlngniflhed ftom the nuacuiino hy not appundinf; tha aubftetite t in Ui4 
Norn. sing. (§ 84 , and bj niuniag (he form n in the Gen. nng., aa the 
Tsaaoo for praferring the ehoiter tbrni doas not now exist (§ 86). 'Hie • of 
thia ending ia ^Mor^tat in the pncediug; ■, nnlaM gne choesea to eonaidar the 
( se here appeoded witfaont tha euphonic vowd ($ 61. B). In all the other 
eaaes, the feminlna baa fnaaAy the aama tana ai the maaenllae. Urns, il 

For tha piweafloD whkh baa takan place so extenaival; in tha ringnlar </ 

Dec I.,-»* S 93. 

^ B 9. In tbe esiiier Greek, the prevalent mode of avoiding hiatna waa 
not, as allerwarda. by contractim, bat by tlie insertion of a strong breathing 
or aapirala consonant (cf. § 117). Of these the moat prominent appeare to 
have been Che digamma (| 32. J). And, atthou^ this has disappeared from 
the language, ^et it has letl other coasonants which have either taken lla 
place, or wbicb were used in like manner with it. The insertion of theae 
oooannanta, together with different modes of contraclion, has ^vea an espedal 
variety c# tana, in the jSra( and Kconrf dtdauiani, to the Dative Biu/ular, which, 
as the pnmlljve indirect case (^ 83), originally performed the offices of both 
the GenitlTS and tha Dative. Tlnie, we find, 

th tbe inaertion of ^ the natural rocceeaor of tha 
lung used as both Gen. and Dat., 
r these cases in the plural, is evl- 

Oen. Sbig. Dec. I. 1| ihg^. O. S80, g. a 
iwt nmxif, n. £68 ; la <n>ri^.. *. S3 . 
'IXii^ mXuri ruxm t>. S9i ; ir' niripij A. 44. 

Dat. Sbig. Dec I. If, S^#. «9.'». X. 107 ; 2^' i^ pmn^iimf-i 1. 407, 
J. 618; ItJ;*^. n. 734 -, a-if,^,,,. 238: Dec U.«u'wrif. 11.302) lir' S. 308 ; Sufii. H. 3G6. 

Gen. and Dat Plur. Dec. II. Im im*f„ifi w>.nT»it F. 696, Y. S97, 1. 
705; if' itTlifirt 134; i/if' SrriSfn V. 145 1 Inpifir ft. 414. 

Kmn. a. Ilu f likswiaa ^ipnrs in tha Datwi plural of a ftw words ct 
the &ir4 dtdeuUm, rV '' ■^9'°* t° ^^ ^>*^ inaerted tat thf nkl of 

CH. I.] BISTOKT. 139 

kogUieniDg Ihs frtobSag tyVtiilt ; u, Ix*^ fff Ix""" 11k» Anow mra 
■bo lued as both G«n. and Dat.^ tbns, Gen. «>r' l^itfi A. 452; w^irS'... 
•X'Tf E. 107 ; sn •Ti^irfn U. 214 ; }'<k )i miSur^^ E. 41 i DM. rn 
fxiifi n. ail ; if»f. A. 474 (cf. 4T9), X. 139. 

(J. The fbllovring (brms in -pi(0 require ipdal notice ; (a) Ux'^P" "- Ss, 
■rd iH-ui,>|i»>fi< I. 433, wbich on fonaed as Ihiid nouns oT Dec IL, while 
the theni» in ise are Wx'C of f^- U and ■•«<>*!«> of Dec. 111.^ {b) 
x^rttfi K. 15G, and 'E;i^ir^t (probablj the correct fbrm fbr 'E^m^ I. 
573^ Hom. Cer. 3M>, lies. Th. 669), which appen to have plural fbrnia, 
Ihongfa singular in their use ; (c) nu^>, an Itr^ulu plural form (or tuSri, N. 
700; also used as Gen. 11. S46, &C.; (d) Ihe Epii adverb ^^,, wUh atighl, 
k- 36, which appeani lo be an old Dst. sing, trom ft. 

y, Gompan with thve form in -ft, the Latin Datives tSd, tUti, wiAta, 
totitj deabtu, mrmonibvi, rttMa^ and the Ijtin adverbs of [Jace in -Aj ; aa, ihi, 
a&i, Mtryii. ftnm it, othti, irter. The ibrniB in -s^iiriien UMd as DativeB ai« 
«Aen writteo inoorrectiy wltli an i subscript (-^pi, $ SS. >), as though f '»<' 
baea added to the com[deta Dat. fbrm. For tlra > pangogie, ■« $ 6B. a. 

^ OOi 3.) The 1 appended with the tnsertian i^ 9. Thie Sana became 
•dverbtal (chiefly poetic), denoting the jilaet wkert) as, (fii>9i, at Kami, fiik 
Si, cbeuAere, miiriAi, iSi, K>^>.9i3i. It was maatly oanlined to the -coad. 
(bcfauioa, and, in the few instances in which it was made tuna nouns of other 
declensions, it atiU imitated the forma of this. Traces of ita old use as the 
Indirect Case still remain in Hamer ; tbua. Gen. •v;aii3i Hfi, = r^t lifittn, 
r. 3, 'IXiiS< <r;i 3, .^61, iS»9< ■•fi t 36 ; DsL .n(J5. I. 30D, ,. 3T0. 

S.) Tie • appended with the insertion of X' "^^^"^ '<>"'> appean onlj in 
tbe Epic ix' (impropeilv written b; some fj^i, ef. 89. y'), toe the adverbial 
Dative ^, yihtrt, A. GOT. 

4.) 1^ I oonlracted with the preceding t in tho second dedenson Into h 
(S 3S). This simpler mode of contraction now scarcely ^ipears exct^t in 
advobia] Datives; as, ■'■«, at Acne (but I'lif^ k> attom; d'. in Latin, doad 
mi domn), *f}«, '1<3^, A •*••■ Tet 1> 'IrS^ Shuai. Fi. 109) li 
Ilfiaiwwr Inacr. Cret ; ria idfin Inscr. Bceot. 

^91. TIm fiirma of the Genitive in -tSi. or -Sir (^ 84. B) remabed 
in tbe commoD tangnage only sa adverbs, denoting the plact iditncti as, 
JmiSii, fiom home, tXX§Su, itM^t, 'ASn'mSii. As examples of (heir nsa 
■3 decided Genitives, may be cited l{ Alri/uOn 0. S04, 1{ •ifrntOir &. 19, 
ir' lifafiSx A. IS : and tlw proDominal fhrnu lfU9», fOtt, Hw, irtdil 
trn oocDt in Attic poets. 

»i by Google 



I. The First Declension. 

[Pn tbg ifllica and [nndlgnu, Ha TTif-e.] 

^ 03. For the original affixes of Dec. I., which all had a 
BS a connecting vowel, see ^^ 86, 88. In most of these affix. 
ea, a either became part of a diphthong, or else, either through 
controctioD or the force of unalugy, became long. Short a 
however remaiiied in the tingultir, 

1.) In the direct cases of feminines, whose characteristic 
was a, a double consonant, or U ; as, ;'iiuHoa, yliaaSr (fl 7), 
Sit/iSt thirst, So^a, opfnton, ilC'i, root, o^iUu, contest. 

Notes, a. Add a tew (aniiuaet In -Xa, tuid Kime in 

rmvX* (Uid iT^r^vXA, rat, Iji^ilid, viper, fiififiti, am, lircw 
til, mutrtu, i.iiu,a, Sanai; likewbe 2ui3s. l/iom. 

0. Add, also, miny remininca in -s pure md -(^ The>e have mostly ■ 
diphthong in the penult, and nuy «U be recngnized by the accent, except the 
proper nunea Slffi, Iliifa, and the numeral /tli, om. The prindpsl claiaea 
are, (a] Po[ysyllabl» in .us and •»■, except abalTacla ]a -in froui verbs in 
-»■>', as, iki^ii/t, tmA, tShtii, good-will, dnri'Xiirt, tkok, bat ^riXif<, rnpi, 
from ^ryliw. (*) Female demgnations in -t['"; as, -^AKr^i, frmab amd- 
aan: (cj Diar^lablea and gome polysyllabic namea of places In -h>; as, 
^i, pood mMd-, 'In-w/a- I/) Words in .»>: aa, ^ui, y^.- (e) Hort 
vords in -;ii, whose penult Is lengthened by a diphthong (except ■■), by e, or 
by ffi M, lUxiuti, aoord, yifB{i, bridge, IHftt. 

y. The Koent commonly shows the quantity of Bnsl ■ in the thems. 
TboM, in all propatoxytoim and pruptri^pomata, it must be rtort by the general 
laws of accent ; whQe, by a special law ef the declenaion, it ia long in all 
vaytona^ aod in all panti^tame$ in -tt. Gen. -mf, except the ^me mentioned in 

2.) In the Vocative of nouns in -tqc, and of geniiies and 
tompound eerbals in -i); ; as rauiijc (t| 7}i AuSijCi Scy^ion, 
negarjf, Pertian, ftufiiigtis (/ij, earth, fiirgioi, to measure), 
geometer, iivgoiuXtn (fiupoi-, perfume, nalfta, to sell), perfumer , 
Voc. vnviS, SKvOa, nifaa (but tiifjii^tt Ferses, a man's name, 
Voc. //ipui)), jrmifii'jQa, pvgonmhi. 

^ 93. In the singular, long « passed, by precession, into 
II, unless preceded by «, t, g, or po (^ 29) ; as, vaviiif, ramji, 
AtfriS^tt AtffdS^, jtTfiliti, yhocats, ylwaa^, '</"}'i "f'^fci *>/")'* ' 

OH. 3.J FIItST DECLEMlitON. 1 17 ' 

but laiAiaq, Taiiiif, axiOy o»as, dvfiS, dif/ar (tl 7), ISiS, V Ba 
ffiiu, need, ZQ^''^ color. 

IfOTE. Long a likeviite nnn^ru in tbe pores, «■<, gniu, mi, /hu-cA, yit, 
field, rixii, gtmrd, infii, umlniii-lTet, IXmS, oUiK-tm, SaariiuiS, Xauticaai in 
the words, ii>ji/B, mtir-ryy, irljiiii, dag after a ftatt, ruariixt, trai:-ipriiig, 
-yirtmiit, noblt ; and in some proper nannes, particular; thoM which are Done 
otfonaga ; u, 'A>i{i/>iSf, hils, •t'lXtfiikd, A.iawiii,, 'TAsi, Si:x>.s( ■ and it 
becauM ■ after ; or ;• in Che words )i;i|, aaJi, ni^ti, Taaidat, liffi, chat, liS^fii, 
pap, fni, ttrtam ,' ID some proper namea, m- Tifni • and in compounds ol fH. 
rcHi, to Bawvre, M 7<u>fiiT;iii (§ 92, 2). In some words, usage fluctuaus 
between long or short ■ and n; M,'Afirr£i C}t. vi. 1. 31, 'Afitrin lb. T. 1. 
4, rbn and rxin, rfo/tri jutd r^p^n* 

$ 04. Contracts. A few nouns, in which the character- 
istic is o or t, and Teminine adjectives in ~ta and -oi;, are con- 
tnicted ; as, ftraa fiva, ^Eiifiiui 'H^fiijc, ^of/iikg jSopjaf (p being 
here doubled after contraction), ovxia uuk^, jig-tree, /Qvaia 
XQuo^, S'Jikoii diTiln. For ihe rules, see ^^ 33, 36, 37 ; for tbe 
paradigms, HH 7, 18. 


§ IPo. I. In (be affixes of thie declension, the Darie dialect retains 
throughout the original a : vrhile in the singular, the IqhIc has o in most of 
those words in which the AtHe and Gmmon dialects have long ■, and eren in 
some in which they have short it, particularly derivatives in -ua and -ni 
(S **) ; thus. Dor. T-./ia, r,/iii, r./io, nftif Ion, ritiv, «.»(, rmn, niif 
Ep. B;iii3ti'ii, lirXii'ii, New Ion. i\ti^U, /tin, for iXi5ui, iutXiiC, /ilk. 

2. In words in -nt, the prinatitit Direct Cote in Jt is sometimes letained by 
Homer and some i^ the other poets as Nom. (§ SG). for the sake of this, 
metre or euphony ; as, •■In 0i,irT± B. t07i 1-rriri Nim>; B. 336; ^i- 
ran Ziii A. ITS ; ^nAt/inr* Xi^fv. Find. N. 3. 92 ; luxTm MiuXjioi Tbeoc 
8. 30. So in ftminines in -n, the poets somclimM retain the old short ■ in 
(be Toe. ; a^ ,i^^t, flkn T. 130 ; '11 Ai'<i, Ssp)>b. 66 (44). On the other 
liand, AJin Ap. Bh, 3. 386, tbr A<7t£, Toe of Hirii. 

I, which often occur in the Epic writ- 

s.) In the Ahhc dialect, they were regularly contracted mto « and m, wlUi 
tbe inaartkin ol i aftar a consonant (§ 35) ; as, 'At;i.'!» C'At';i.'!»1 'kTtdl,«; ■ 
Xr(HUuf(:kr(i.iZ,)'/Lrpiiia,- B.;i*-f Bi;lii, 'EjiuifH O. SU, l!fl/ti>.l„ A. 
IBS, 'A#.'vB. 46!. 

/i.) Id the ft™, d absorbed the foUowiog vowel, and the sfBxea becama ■ 
and i, (S *5. 1) : as, 'At;>.7.. 'Arei.ti, 'A,>-;»ii»> 'At;..!.., 

Jr.) In the Altic, it and iCvi were contracted into ou (liy precession from «, 
f^ SB, 29} and » ; as, 'At^i^Im ('Atji.Iv) 'Arfi/'Jtt, 'ArfuJa^i 'At^uJ^t, 

^ 90. 4. In the Aeaaatint of nuaaiEna. the Ionic often changes > 
to ^ the old connecting vowel s now becoming i (^ 46. ^) ; as, iirrirti 
Bdt.i. 11, pi. lirnTUii lb. lit, forSim'Tm, Sifirinlt. 

B. The dative plural in Homer commonly ends in -jn, or -ji beftiie a 


Towd (irtdcb nu^ b« (eftmod to apoatiophB), nure m, howewr, a ftw In 
Mancea of -^t befiwo ■ coQBODant (iji »«' A. 17B, ^rffi r(ii ■. S79, 4*.) 
and two, wbere we even find -hi, whicb ODghl, perhaps, to be changed to -jt 
(i>Ti>;( M. 28*, ai.r( .. 119). An old contraction into -■!»,, Instead of -m.i, 
remained in Uie comtnon langoaga in advsba of plaoa ; ws, nx>raM«, id 
Phitaa, 9i(dr,. 

G. For the Epic Gen. in -5», h» $ SI. For Hie Epic Datives in -fi. Si, 
and -xi, aee §$ 89, 90. For Cha Doiio and Ailic f«ma of tha Aoc plar., 
aaa S 45. 5. 

7. Antique, IddIo, and Dorio fbnni aie aometinus fbund In Atlle writcn 

■.) The Dor. Gsn. in -■, from «oms noun* hi .■[, mostly propa- namea; 
at, t(ni,B4(ai, fimkr. TmStv^i, KmXiImi ■ Gen. i.„»,Ati(ii, r»^fi!a, KmX- 
Ak. So all oontracta in -£i ; aa, pMffii, O. fi^fi (1 T> 

3.) The Ion. Gen. in -tu, from a few proper namea hi Hit ; as, 0>>.lio 
Ti(;n( - Gra. &iXt^ Tip-. 

y.') Tbo old Dot. plnr. in -miri, wMch is ft«qaait hi the poeti. So, in F1*- 
to, rixHun Leg. 930 e, i^ifm.ri Fhiedr. STG b. 

II. The Secowd Declension. 

lPotih>iffli«tiHli»nilicnia,MHSe,n7; VT6, 0,9,10.1 

^97. The flexible endings of the Nominative and Accusa 
dve MHgular are wanting (^ 86), 

1.) In the theme of the article; thus, a for of. 

2.) la the neuler of the article and of the pvnotmt allof,^ 
irotoc, iHiiyot, and S; * thus, to, alXo, aito, iniii^^ o, for toc. 

Hoik. Iq craaia with the article {% 39), and in compoeition with the pro- 
noima rti» and rfr^r, the neu.ter ttlr* more frequently beoomfs uvn*' thoa, 
TsvT-if and rff^i, for vi airi • fff^.k-rer and T4iwTi, rtetvTtr and twovt.. 

3.) Frequently in the ArcastUiee of the AtUc declension 
(^ 98), particularly in ij foij, dawn, ij nXoif, threshing-floor, ^ 
Kimg, n fiw, fl TVoij, 6 "Affiat ■ Ihoa, Ace. riiar and »■(« (H 9), 
la. '.4*01. So, in the adjectives ay^^ai; {If 17), orn'niFWf, Jutl, 
aSioxQcaq, competent. 

5O8. Contracts. If the characteristic is a, t, or o, it 
may be contracted with the affix according to the rules (§^ 83- 
37). See «/^'pr.oe (t[ 17) , oaiiw, voo^ (fl 9). The contract de- 
clension in -oji; and -uv^ from -aog and -bov, is termed by gram- 
marians the Attic Declension from its prevalence among Atlio 
writers, although it is far from being peculiar to them {^ 7). 

NttTBB. «. The nmnbar 


mlj witli womt dung*- Tbui, fcr imy*—, tty^i (wUdi tr* eoaifOBoit of 
yd^j tbfl ongiiul fbnn of yi, earth, and from which come by CMitTSctioa 
iwyuif, iSyiiil we find the extended (bnn> awriiin t. 4. S9, iHymti or ill. 
)-M(. Some of them an ruioudj declined. See $$ 123. y, 121. y. 

0. IT the dMneterink !■ long ■, ■ U imoted ■fUr the contiactkn (§ 35) 
llnB. M, ()*) «i, (1 9), »^ («) hA »f (•« "f . »" ("•) -^^ • "n^ 

^ In the Attic dedewdon, ibe Kom. {Jnr. iKut. U Ofmtnclad, lika the 
(flkc £■>», into •■ ; Iltna, iynin (^ 17). u if from Aynfi-t^ a tism with 
Die ooDoectii^ ToweL See \ 87. 


% 09. 1. The affix of the Oat. >hig. i^ ($ 86), which wm cohh 
mmily contncted to », or, in the diolic and nrider DinIc to * (J 44. 4), 
wu often pTolongBd by tlie poets, espedallT the l£pic (somfltimn eTca by the 
Tragic in lyilc portiDiui), to u; thm, •^rri* '{nmfUt B. 145 ; U^» IrinX^m 
«. 12G ; «'. IJ^HH .. 330 ; 9»i; Find. 0. 9. 37 ; 9ik> lb. S. 60 ; /t^yiXm 
^H Ale 1 (SO) ; itX'pi'^' III- 3T ; rmi/i.7,...'A^rm Theoc. 1. GS ; ^. 
Xmai x^"' *^- *■ IB. The Epic eenltlte* nirifi ( A. SST. Ac ) and Hii. 
•ULiM (S. 489) an node by ■ ungle oontractiDa, with the onuI insenion of 

• (S 98. $), from the original forma niritt, n<,n>A-i. The Epic dual fomu 
in nrf, wluch alone are used by Uomar, arise from a mere poLtJe doobliQE nf 

• (5 48)- 

S. Some javpu Jamn la -h lure the Oeu. dug. in HeroJoIaa, after tlie 
analogy of Vac I.; at, E{«Vm, Kftinm viii. 122, but K^i.V.u I. 6; B^ttio 
iv. IGO ; K>.„f^firtM T, 82. The Gen. plur. form* .-irriot (HdU i. 94) and 
rofiuT (Id. ii. 36), if gconiue, may be leftned to the looia insertioD of ■ 
(5 *8. 1). 

4, For the Epic Oen. bi .^ii, sea $ 91. For the Epic Dati^ in -tfi and 
A, and the old Dal. in .«, Me Sg 69, 90. For the Doric and .ftdic fmat 
of the Ace [Jar., aee $ 45. &. 

9. Contncta in . 
-. 240 (daewhera rf.i). In ir 
to u ($ 4T. N. , and w 

The Third Declension. 

|FotlheiffliHandtua(ngma,*HHeS, BT; TITS g, II-IS.] 

% 100> In this declenaion, the Nominative, though regard* 
ed as the theme of the word, seldom exhibits the root in its 
simple, distinct form. This form must therefore be obtained 
from the Genitive, or from some case which has an open af 
fix (^^79, 82. «)■ 

■ Special attention must be given to the enphoalc changsa 
which occur In those caaee whidi have dlher doti aflixea, or no affiie* ; that 
Ii ia the Honunative and Vocative unnlaj*, the Datmi ploralr and the Aa* 


eoaatin OagalMr In -h Tv tbcn dungo, ns bt guaal $$ SI, 5S, 57 - 
09, 63. 

S. The flaxibk ending of tlie Ace long. \a ttui, u in the otbir two •!«• 
elouioiUT BBemi to have Iwon originADy *. Bat tbe t vis so extoiHivelj 
dunged into a in acoordance with 5 63. B., that the a became the prev^Ung 
■fll» , and waa oflBn ued enn after a vowcL It will thei^ie he oodenlood 
that tbe affix ii ■, IT no Matement ii made to the cuntni^. Whcm the at&x 
b ^ th* root nneiva the lama changA aa in the theme [$ 110). 

Words of (lie third ileclension are divide') according to the 
' 'ic,iiito Mutes, Liquids, Liquid-Mutes, and Pubes. 

A. Mutes. 

[T ll.I 

^ lOl. Labials and Palatals. These are all either 
njasculine or feniiniae, and in none is the Voc. fonned except 
yv^ (N. /). 

Noras, m. Forthe^andEintha theme and Dat. |d., aee § SI. 

fi. In Sjit tin root b ifix- In *«■ '«»• 'n wWdi x "mai™, 5 be- 
coniea r, according Is § 63. In <l ixini, -iHf, /u, the Uut vowel of the 
toot ii lenglhoud la the theme. Compare § 113. a. 

■y. Tmi, teamiHt, trifi, which ia iiregiilar b having Its theme after the form 
of Dec I., and al» in iu aonitaBtian, is tfaiu declined : 8. M. yv>«. Q. yu- 
nmil, D. ynmn!, A. yinmlmM, V. yi^ ■ P. N. yuiaJmli, O. ynmiit, D. yu- 

h{/, a. yvMi'iaf ' D. N. j'lwxi, G. ynxiii^i. The old graiiimariana have 
also died Irom Comic writan the Ibnns, A, yintn, P. N. ynml, A. ymii, ac- 
cording to Dec L 

^ 103. Masculine and Feminine Linguals. These 
los^ their <;h*'^cieristic in ihe iherm! and Dat. pi. ('J 55), in the 
Ace. sing., when formed in v {^% 63. R., 100. 3), and in tbe 
Voc. {% 63). 

KoTBB. ■. IT a palatal is Uios hnnght before r, it nnllcs with it tn | 
C5 51), aa (i.«r,. i«»0 i«E(1 II). i C™t,) -^ >■%*< ; if to the end 
of ■ word, it ia dropped ($ 63), as (b»»t, £•■>) ■». Thia distinct Toe, 
howovu, is used only in addresnng a god ; otherwise, I £>■[ (or, bj freqnent 
craai^ J«E)- 

^. For the change of • when brought bdbrp t)ie affiles t and >, or to tl.e 
•Ddof a WOTd, see §§ 112. >, 113. 3. 

y. BaiTtonea In .« and -n fbrm tbo Aoc. ong. in both a and >, the latto' 
beine the more commtm affix ; as, x^^t (1 i ' )i " U''' ^"fi-, '. • •("'' ^^^i 
Ace- 3;<fi^4v and x't^* (^ ^^ name of a goddoa, the fbnn in -« la always 
need, and sometimee, also, in poetry ; hnt, otherwise, the form in ->. jet sea 
H. Gr. ill. S. 16), \f., and poet. Ifila. !(,•, and poet. •{WSa- So also, %\tii 
(Y II). i yi>.Mi, taag/iler, and the tompoiuidaof raci, faut; thos. Ace mXttSm 
and .Xirr, y\i.„Tm and yix,.,, O.I.V.). and QXnvf (^ 16), IiV.Sa and }<'. 
win (^ 17). Add I I;w, /oh, Acc. I^xr' and rare poetic form !;«. Se 
MM. when leaolved by the poets iula wait, may have Acc r^'i, Ap. Bk 

CE. 2.J mrws. — LidDiDS. 131 

4. 697. la osybnet^ Uie accent aerred to pravaal tha liof^tul from bllisg 

^ 103. Neutbe LiNGUALS. In these, the charactenBtic 
is always I, which, in the theme, is commonly dropped after 
p-i, but otherwise becomes j or p (^ 63) ; aa, aiofia, (pott ttgagf 
I'nrne (IT 11), t'lio! (IT 22), from the roots oaijiat-, ^mt-, xfpm-, 

KcTE. The r ii also dropped in /lilj, /iil.iTU, hoiuy ; in yii^, ■yilMmrM, 
miiA, whicli alfio drops a ; and in yiiu, yiturti, knee, and io^o, iifmrti, ^w, 
which then chauf^e a to u (compare § 113). la tlie poetic n^af, i/utftt, 
day, r ia clianged into ; att«r «■ ; and ia EJa;, Hiarn. voter, sad fiwf, tim- 
Tic, jmh, r a changed into ;, and • into ••. Sea g 123. y. 

^ 104. CoNTBACT LiNGHALS. A few Unguals drop the 
characteristic before some or all of the open affixes, and are 
then contracted ; thus, nUISis (xliiii) tiliit, ttUidat (xlcta^ 
■iltT;' Kf^atot xiiiaot ic'cA'f, xiif'tia nci^aa xi^S \^ 11) ; id tignSt 
prodigy, P. N. ic'^iiia it'i/H, G. tr^utair jtf/ay ' o /paic, skin, 

5. D. zqoitI ixqi-'i) zvv ('" '^^ phrase iv xe^)- Soj '" Homer, 
from i IS^iit, xieeat, o yikiag, iaughter, b tfjag, love, S. D. td(i(^, 
yilu, tfiif, for (Aywri, &C. ; A. Id^ u, ;-tiLBi, for l^puta [iSqaa), 
■/ihoTa. Compare %% 107, 119, 123. «. 

HoTB. Id the rollowiog Hords, the coatiaction v confinad to the root 

ri til, writ, car (^ 1 1 X contracted from the idd iJsi, ubth (5 33. y). 

ri }Uia;, ioil, Gen. liJ^iorn, ^iXxi-ii. 

ri rf^, contr. rni;, tattw, Geo. rrisTii, rTiiTif. 

ri fcU{. nS, Geo. fti.Tw (< " *). fC"i <5 3'- ' )■ 

Rebiark, Those Unguals in which a liquid precedes thv 
lingual will be treated as a, distinct class (^ 109). 

Br Liquids. 

(T 12-1 

^ 1 OS. Masculine and Feminine Liquids. In these, 
except ai;, sail., tea (in ihe singular, only Ionic and poetic), the 
characteristic is always either r or p. For the changes in tlie 
theme and Dat. pi., see ^^ 57 - 59. When the characteristic 
is r, it depends upon the preceding vowel whether the r or the 
t is changed in the theme ; as followa. 

1.) If an £ or vowel precede, the e is changed ; as in 
iifi^r, -irnt, Siii/iaty, -ovos (TT 12) ; o juiji", iiijrSi, vumtk, o ^ii/jin'i', 
-atoi, storm, winter. 

Except i irii'i, ircif, eoinb, the numeral iii, \tit,caa (^ SI), and the lonfai 
i luU (u from root /•»-, yet Gen. ^nAt) fbr ^ii>, wmtA (Hdt. ii. S2). 

2.) If a precede, in novm the t is changed, but in adjecttvet 


the ► ; thus, i ndv, naro;, Pan, o notac, -arof, paan ; but 
liiXas, -a»os (IT 19j, rixXa;, -avoe, wretched. 

3.) If I or ti precede, the » is changed j as in ^fg, ^trd; 
(IT 12), o Selqilg, -'t'og, dolphin, o ^o^yvs, -irot, Phorcys. 

Notes. ■• Tbe t remahn in ftitut, -Pi«, wBodm bmir t ind mMt wonU 
En -II and -ui hava s secoDd, bat l(sa clusic form, in .n uid -n - U, fl$ aui. 
ll>i, liXfiif and iiifi'i, Of;j»i and <t>i;sc>. 

^. In the prononn i-ff, (^ 34), the > oT the nxit rit- i* rim[dy dropped in 
the theme. Tet Me § 1&2. ^. 

KehAKK. VOCATIVI. In the Voc. of ', -BIN, Apo^, Tltruiit, 
-m^, Itfptiau, and •;, -Hci, umow, the nBtunJ tone of addraw ha* 
kd to the tlirawing back oF the accent, and the shorteaing of the last tyTltf 
ble ; thus, 'A<rlX>.•^ nin.Jx, •£ri;. 

I I06> Syhcofated LmciDS. I. In a few liquids of fa- 
fniliar use, a xhort vowd preceding the characteristic is syn* 
copated in some or moat of the cases ; as follows, 

I.) Id these lliree. the syncope takes place bdbre oE the opat termmatlons : 

Mf, moa (^ IS). For the insertloa <tf the I, see $ 64. 2. 

Kwt, dog (^ 12), which has, fix its root, >»>-, by syncDpe, nn-. In Ihk 
Tord, tiie syiicope eit«nds ta the Dat. plur. 

i^fit, lamb's (^ IS), whteb has, fbr its root, i;i>-, by syncope, if- Ti* 
Kom. sing, is not nsed, and ita place Is supplied (jy Aufif' 

2.) These fire are srncopatad in the getitm and datni snjnilar; 

■-■m';, fathtr, and /.flVn;, fwlAcr (^ 1 2). 

i) Snyinif, daughiB; G. SuyiTijS Siiy«rfi«, D. Brymrif, ^ryMT(l. 

n ^«ffTT(, atomocA, G. •yarrs^M yarr^iti D. y«*Ti«j •yrrr^i, 

i ^eiiRTii;, Otr, G. a^/uSriiit ^ifiitr(», D. Hiiftin(i ^fuirfi • also, 
A- An/«i«f« AB^tpT(«. 

Notes, s. In these words, the poets sometimes n^;lect the eyociipe, and 
sometimes employ it in oilier cases then those wtiidi ■» apedfled. 

^ 107. 11. In comparativts Id -mr, the r is more frequently 
syncopated before a and t, after which contraction takes place ; 
as, fiiiZora (/.(/fon) ^(/foj, fiUZovt; (fi'-H^oe?) iiiliovq^ ftilioraf 
(filtoag) /itlCovt (H 17). Compare ^ 104, 119, 123. a. 

Note. A Mmiler contraction is common in the Ace. of 'Ari>.>.», ApoHo, 
and UfiiiSw, Keptunt; thus, 'AriXX*..!, CA^ 'A<ri;LXa. (iii. ]. 6); 
nirii!*w. riinilw. See, (br both the nncontiacted and the contracted Ibnna, 
PI. Oat. 402 d. e, 404 d. 40.'> d. So. likewise, J »■>•>, -i'lt. mind driitk t 
Ace. ivti'O.and. rather poetic, ■i's»(iit. 316; imiw A. 624) i i y'-nx'"' 
^Ht pmmfrtnftdi Ace. ykit^Mirit, y\Jix^ (Ar. hcti. 874) ; and by a like 
floicope of (, • i;t;"(i w^w; Ace. •x'^C ""^ (only E. 416) J^gi. 

^ 108. Neuter Liquids. A few nouns, in (i^liKkT^ii 

;&. 3.J Li4tns-KnTE8. — puhes. ISS 

the characteristic, are neuter. Tliey are, for the moat part, 
confined to the lingular, and require, in their declension, no 
euphonic changes of letters. 

Sacs. Id tnf, firing, and lh« poetic *ii(, luari, contnctioD tab* phca 
in the raati thus, N. In;, poetic j;, G. Infif, cammonlr Ifv, D. lap, mm- 
Bunlj Ip- M. mimf, In Homer ■hny* ■$;, D. aigi. 


% 100> All nouns of this class are either masculine o 
feminine. The characteristic of the class is n, except in the 
feminines Jii^o^, -oqik, teife, tlfiirg, -*»ltof, teorm, ntt^ir;, -ir- 
9oe, earriage-baskel, and lii/vn, -vrSof, Tiryns. The » or 9 
is affected as in simple linguals (^ 102). When, by the drop- 
ping of T, r is brought fjefore ; in the theme, it depends upon 
the preceding vowel whether the r or the ; is changed (^^ 57, 
58), according to the following rule :IftmO vouet preaede, the 
E w changed ; othervrite, the y. 

Tbat, iim, .trrt, Si'ifiii, Smt (^ IS), i tfixtn, .tirtt, dragrm ; but 
yiyat, ->n-tc (^ 13), J l^t, -itTH, thing, i Si/<Jw> -"ri, lit Sia&lt, )ij>»(, 

TSatta. M. Except SS'ii, -»«,, lo-lh (^ 13 ; yet Ton. SU- Hdt vt. 107), 
Md putidpln IroiD veHie in ..^ ; u, i.ii. }»T>f (^ 22), from iH^ifu, to gin, 

$. Some I^tin namea nceived into the Greek have .nt in the theme, inxeid 
«f -uf ; as, KXii/iiK, .irrn, Cbmau, OmXik, -iinf. Falmt. 
. y. U tb» chancteriitic a -•3-, tlie > reniaini bdbre i (^ 5B. S). In ^a^ 
(5 13). the f ii ilniplr dropped in Uw tbanw. 

Rbhubkb. 1. A tew proper namea in ^i, -xtrH, fbim the Toe. aAcr lh« 
(uulogy of the theme ; Uut ia, t becomes n, and ia then coatracted t (hni, 
•A^lift, -.-«,, V. {■t^Ti.^.T, -A,*.,, -Ar*..) -At** ■ n.)..Jil,«,, V. 

!, Noam and a^eetivca in .ui, -ih-h, pnctdtd by • or h, are nioally con 
traded; aa, J «-X»>ii( i-Xmiiii, caie, Q. vXiuiin-K ir>,«iuii>r« ■ ti^bhi 

D. Pores. 


^ I 1 0. The euphonic changes in the declension of pures 

may be mosdy referred, (I.) to a special law of Greek declen- 

mon, and (II.) to contraction. 

I. Special Law of Greek Declension. The 
ikort vowels, t and o, can never remain in the root, 
either before the ajixes s and v (f 5), or at (he end 
q/" a word. Hence, 

[book a 

^111. (A.) Before the affixes s and v, t be- 
comes ij, t, V, or tv ; and o becomes o or ov\ as 

1.) In maaculine nowit, i becomes m in nmjiU, and ^ in 

compound words; as, timple, 6 Ijintvg, -lug (^ 14; root inni'}, 
ffaoiltiq, -iwq, king, a Ui/ivt, -ttuj, prust, o e^utrij, -iuj, Tke- 
aeus, o MiyagtCt, -iiiiq, Megarian ; compound., 6 JSomgatTig, -lo; 
(^ 14; from owg, entire, aad i^uiu^, strength), 6 'jiiiiaioTil^;, 
-tuf, ArUlotle, drifiiiii&iriii, -eo(. 

Except the eimplce J 'A; «, -ui, Mari, j ti,, nii, mnlk ; and the foHuning 

axe, i rfit^ut, -u>r, tUtr (prop^ an adj.) ; 1 ix'h -"H, •'•pr, i ff'l. -wf, 
Krpemt, i w^irMMi, 'tut, praidoU, and alM» jufir^ nv^^t, fti^t, aud i^X'*' 

2.) In/(!mintne and common notou, « becomes i ; as, ^ nalic 
-/ai;, Ace. ttiXir (^ 14), q (turo^ic, -latf, power; 6, i /lanist 
-lU;, prophet, prophetess. 

^113, 3.) Id adjeetives, i becomes v in simple, and ij in 
compound words ; aa, simple, ^Sv;, -ioc. Ace. ij3ij» (H 19), yXv- 
■li;, -(Of, Sicee/, o|['f, -ioi, sharp ; compound, alijB-^St -iog, iTVe, 
tvitX^S, 'ioi, cheap, uqujxftiJijf, -loj, wasp'liie, i^iii^q^. -toe, hao- 
ing three banks ty oars, or, as a substantive (rntJ;, vessel, being 
understood), trireme {W 14). 

Excqit > feir fdm|d« adjectireo, In vhkh i beoomes *; u, nfat. -(m 
t1 in *>.i^i, .i»,f^ ■i.,vii,. .i.,.fi.he. 

4.) Id mjmosyllahles, o becomes on ; otherwise, ai ; u, fiovg. 
fioog, Acd. ^uiJi' (51 14), 0, ^ qoti?, ^ooe, mtmacA, o jroiie, Jtoo'c. 
A«g) o/" eortA ; but aiSwq, -6ot (M 14). 

Notes, k. This nile app1i«a alaa to Snguali in which • precedes the char- 
Acteiistic ; thus, <riw. riSii (T 1 1 ), aod its ooDipoDnda, OfiiVisf , j>i< (^ 1 6), 
»;«„, ^« (1 17); but uTJ,. .J«, Ct 22). 

^. In f^inincs uf more than one Evilable, in which the charactemtic ia i, 
the alS.1 I a clituiged to i, and is thea absorbed. Thoa ftxmi tlie root lix'- >' 
formed the theme i^t, iis;«) i^- (1 '* ■ So i tuS", •««, permoBi™, li 
Ann!. -!•(. Latona. &c. Except, as above, i>i!k[, and the lunic i iwii, liawJi. 
lliwe (bmininea in -« and -•>( have no plural or dual, encept bj metAplaam 
(§ 133); uaiesB, perhqii, .Utit (§ IS3. ■) is to be regarded w smpl; om- 
tracted from 'I'liai. 

^113. (B.) In cases which have no affix, t 
characteristic becomes (, v, or tv, or else assumes a 
euphonic s; and o characteristic becomes ot .'■ ov. 
as follows. 

1.) If the theme ends in -»{, t becomes <; ; but, ^lemsa , 

CB. 2.] POBBS. 18fr 

. is changed as ia the theme ; thus, Nom. neut. aa^it (M 17), 
qAii (H 19) ; Voc. lyvin/fi, JTbiii^aiif, noli, mXrv, iTtnsi (^ 14), 
tidi (11 19). 

2.) In the theme of neuter nouns, i assumes s, becoming 
iteelf o (^ 28) ; as, to ti^a«, -tot (H 14), lo i&fot, ~ios, natioii, , 
ji opo(, -CDC, motm/oin. 

Except ri irrv, -in. Awn (f 14), the EfAc ri wSH, -ii, jlock, and a ftw 
tbnign namsB of naturil prDducticnia in w, as ti ri«{i, -»>(, p^fpir. 

* 3.) In the Vocative, o becomes »7, if the theme ends in -w or 
-to's ! but oi', if il ends in -ovi ; as, ^.i?, oi'^i.T, ^ov (1[ 14) ; and 
in Uke manner (cf. 112. a), OISItiuv (fl 16). 

^114. Rehares. 1. After the analogy of t and o,a 
characteristic becomes nv in /Qai; and yav« (fl 14), and as- 
sumes ( in the theme of neuters ; as, id yigas, -oof (^ 14), lu 

yTfijaq, -aog, old Oge. 

2. Id the Accusative singular of pures, the formative » be- 
comes a (^ 100.2) except when the theme ends in -ac, -i;, 
"Vq, -avg, or -ov( i thus, 9<ot, tlfoi?, innfv;, Tpiqfli;, didtuf, 'iZ'» 
(fl 14), OBipijV (II 17) ; Acc. &iaa, 5p(ii", Inrtta, tfi-^gta, alSoii, 
)iro«, iFtif EB ; i>ut lu¥, a/one, mV, oiV (contracted from o»V}, 
Boiie, ij;*w, iWfS, ;■?«??. roiic, (Jov? {1[ 14), t,3uf (Tl 19) ; Acc- 
lat, xlr, olr, Tiolut, ix-fiir, nq/iiv, jrfavr, ravr, ^ovr, ^Siir, 

Nvn Proper uaniM in -n, -ut, fiir tlie muu part, admit both tbrma of 
the Aois.; ao, 2»>^«» (^ 14), A. 2>^Ta (Plot.), Svj^n. (Xen.)i i 
'AfHf, Mart, A. *A{ii and 'Afiiii. 

3. When the characteristic is changed lo a diphthong before 
a in the theme, the same change ia made before ai in the Z)a- 
lit>e plural; as, liiiuvat, flovol, ygavoi, mvai (H 14). 

^ 115. !I. Contraction. For the general 
laws, see ^§ 31-37. The following remarks may 
be added. 

1. Pures in-i)c, -of,-n, and -m?, -oos, are contracted in aU the 
cases which have open terminations. See i^itj^i);, Zamfat^f, 
'HfaxUr,g, it7/of, ^m, alSiig (^ 14), aaif<',i (fl 17). Add a few 
neuters in -«;; as, lo yiQ"? (IT '4), to xpt'nc, ineat. 

NoTSS. ■. Of naiing In -•> and -Mi, -iti, (be uncontiacted form tcarcelf 
occun, even in tbe poels and djalecta. 

0. In proner namea in .|Xiii(, contracted -nkit (fhim tXtu, mwm), tlie 
t>Bt and nometimea tlie Acc. eing. an doubfy conCrBcted. See 'Hf^mKin 
(T 14). For the Uter Voc ■H(».>,ii, compare 5 105. B. The Nom. i* 
H^iAiu, in the Ion. finm (§ 131. 4), oocun, with &iiriic, FL Ihect. 


2. In other pures, cnntraclion is, for the mosi part, con - 
fined to three caaes ; the Nom. and Aco. plur., and the Dal 

The contnetioiu irhich ira nnul or IVeqaent in these word) are exhibitea 
, In the t«ble». Contraction sometjmea occurs in cams in which It ia not giien 
in the tabtea, and ia aometimea omitted in caaea in which It la ^Ten. Then 
deviadma from coRuncm uaaga an chiefly tbond in the poeta. 

^ lis. 3. In the Attic and Common dialects, the endings 
tot, -'", and -acre, instead of the common conlracUon, receive 
ui certain words a peculiar change, which lengthens the last 
vowel. Thia ehnnge takes place, 

a.) In the Gen. sing, of nouns in -i;, -v;, and -tvs, and 
BOinetimea of nouns in -i and -u ; as, no'li;. Gen. no'lro; noltuf, 
'>%tVi-'«Sj InitW)-'!"*! (turn, -(o; and -fwe (H 14), Ji('7i(fi,-n«s 
(§ 1 13. 2). Also l4p?js. Mars, G. "^(ifo,- and someiimea 'l^pfe.s 
(as if from a second theme 'j^n's, cited by grammarians from 

b.) In the Ace. sing, and plur. of nouns in -it<f ; as, Innivi, 
Ace. sing, innea InniS, pi. lancSs inirau;. 

Kom. a. nil change appeara to ba aimply an saHy and l«s perftct 
mode of contractJcii. From tbo accentoation of such wurdd a§ riXi^t, it ia 
evident that the > (as in 'AT;t.')i», K,,ix,w,, $ 35) liaa not the (iill force of a 
distinct syllable; while it is equally evident from the use of tba poete. tbat it 
has not nttolty lost its syltabic power. It seemSi therelbre, to have osited aa 
a Species of semivowel (of the aatne daaa nith our ^ and «) with the GiUuw- 
ing Towel, which eonaeqopntt}', as in ottier caaea of contraction, becatne knijr* 
An eapecLaJ reason for r^arding thia method of contraction aa early, cffliu^ta 
In the fact that it is confined t» those classes of word^ which have dropped p 
or ^ from the root (h~ 117, ll''|. The poets sometimes complete (he con^ 
traction by synizesia ; aa, ^on!.!^! Eur. Ale. 340, 'E^ij^Si^t Id. Hipp. 1095, 
'Ax'>->-i' Id. Ipl>> A. 1311. Someljmes, also, the ondianged Gan. in -iif, 
and rarely (he Ace. b .■% and .li, occur in the Altic poets : as, Kn^in Eur. 
Ion, loss, nXiH Id. Hec. BAG, f..U lb. SB2. The poeta likewise eraiilny 
ia the Aoc sing, the regular conUw^lon into ii ; aa, {dj-^;*^ Ar. Ach. 1 1 bO, 
'Olvrr* I!ur. Rh. 708, and even.Ii;; Id. Ale S5. The nearly eontracted 
Ace. pi. In -UI, insUad of -lac, beoanie in the later Greek the common Ibrni, 
and although regarded aa lesa Attic, yet is not unfrequent In tlw manuscripta 
and editions of genuine Attic wiilan, puticularly of Xenophon ; as, 0ii>i;li*< 
Mem. in. 9. 10. 

p. St another rovd precedea, the i ia eonunonly absorbed by the vt, a, and 
Mi; (hns, n..c.i„ n„(^,, Hi-j-ia n»p.,i (1 U)i a;»(> I-S, X"' 

(5 isa). 

y. For the earlier contraction of the Nnm. jA. of nonna In -tci into i,-, sea 
( S7. S, The unconlracted 0a'>>c occnn PI. Tbei^ 169 b. 

fc The toaa ti tba- Gen. ia -u^ to tetued by grammariana tba ^tlk dw- 
Aw. For it* accentuation, see Proaod]'. The Gen. pL in -■« acoeated npo 

CB. 'i.j 

I. Tfaa G«D. ID -tw ii ilao fbood in ■ Ikw i^feetim in -» (u, luiXkiwiXn, 
■Hit), Ji ffuirt, ka^ (Gen. BOtnmonlj .uh, but also -m md -Mf ), uid, in 
Ut«r wiitm, in Mlier a^*^''™ i" -t (fnUi ^t'X'"' Hot.)- 

^117. """"* <ur THB DKcucinioa or Pusm. Tha vuiont 
■nJ pwatiar changn la the declendon of pnm appear to hive chleflj ariBen 
ftnm tbe aaccmiTe nMthoda irhich mre emplo.ved to avoid the liiatiia pnv- 
dac«d hy appending the open iSxta to the duncteriatia volreL Of Uum 
methoda, the uuMa coiui>t«ill TnalTi]7 fn tba outHlim of a Mnmg bnaMiig or 
aaptnite caniojuBtt (cf. S 89] ; and the later, in contnwtion. Tlia bnertcd 
aB[»nta became so iadmalely aasocialed iritfa the root, tliat tta nse extended 
eran to tbe oaea whidi had not aa opeo affix ; and althon)^ it teO awaj in 
the refining of the Language (cf, j 22. i\ jet it left distinct memonalH of it- 
Mlf, dlher In a kindred vowel or consonant, or in a prolonged syllable. The 
aB[dnit«s diiefl]' inserted appear to hare been the labial F, and a dental breath' 
ing, which was most akin to r (m Latin it passed exuusively into r j fin dis- 
tmctioD^S sake, we here represent it by a c^utal 2). FVom tlie classes of 
wocdg in which these sspirates were respec^relj insiaied, the liinner appears 
to lisve prevailed in an earlier period of tbe language, tban the latter. In 
the modiBcafions which subsequently tflok place, tbe fiJlowing law prevailed : 
ff'Vn ' 1 .) foBoa^ fy a vov^ both thf atpnta loert mmpiy dntppt/L WJtai 
not foBirwtd by a waeel, tJu tubiai brtaAittg mittd ^2.) with ■, ■, tmd t prf 
aalaig to form an, in, oniJ m, and (3.) wifA F mul » iacept fa Ae Dot. phiT.'), 
to form r aaif i ; while the dcHtal breathing (4.) at the end of a word beca me tt 
and (S.) before the affix i lengthened a prewJn^ lAorf amiL Thus, 

(1.) $,Fii W«, rpiFfe ysMit, -iFii mTm, ixS^tFn Ix^t, .""■!?<» )"!.»■ 
mliiSif •3m(i nivi%n riix't, y'f^ VH"* (1 **)' "^'^ir rmfitt 
(1 "7)- 

(2.) yfiTt y(«w, -iF< wE< (LaL navie), «F«' i-"^ I«iF( Iwrti,, ftrwiF 
■»•«, fl(F( »,h. (JiF. *.E-, fiiF M (1 14). 

(3.) j:f, -ii, 4F. -{.. Jjc**F( Ix^ii, 'xStr Ix^ {t 14) ; bat Dat. pU 
■rw, IxMn. 

(4.) Nom, neat. rafiZ nfii (1 17), riTxtl tux'i C< P»«*ig Into its 
Hndred vowel, § 28), yi{«2 yl(.(" (1 14) ; Voc. 'Si.farii li-^m, rtiw. 
(.2 ijJsfK (1 14). The peculiar form of the Toe. of ixii "ad 'H^i has 
arisen from tbe change of t to its corresponding vowel [§ 50) and tl»en con- 
Vaction with [Recession ($ 29); thus, it;^'^ ^X" "X"' i<^- S$ *5. &, 86, 
112. fl). 

(5.) nf)2. »«.i( (YIT), ZMfinSi 2»j>;-'t>». >%X[ a.t-i (t 14). 
For i;^i, see 5 112.0, and compare ix" above (4.). In the Dat pi. the 
short rowel remains onohanged; as, rafin. 

Note. Ta s^jectivea, and in a few msBcoiuie and neuter nouns, tbe diph- 
thong IB iqipean to have been rsdnced to a ^mple sbort v ; as, nliFi •9i't, i^'F 
it6 (1 19) ; vs^^iFi *»;(*(, rvx'F^ rix"'; ^x'^ «">;*> '''"F ^^ 
(1 li). 

^ I 1 S. In femininet, it was aatural that the inserted breathing — 
comommt should commonlj assnme a aoAer fonn. In this fbrm, it appear 


han boD moat mulj aJdn to tba lingoal niddla mate 1 C':'^ <t 49. 8) ; and 
in n gTMt nmnber of fbnunmeft, it Acquiml A permuieTit place in the langaagi 
■a tb^ letter. In its pnvioaa, and ai jvt onfixed atate, we repneent it, tor 
diiliOKtiaa'i uke, by a opilal i\. BcA«e tliia InBerted lingnal, m could re- 
nuuD, bat tbera wai > unifbtrn teodenej: in i to paw by jHCceBaion into i. It 
ia a remarkabfai iUaatratim of ttiia, that in the vbole dedanMcn, thee ia DOl 
■ ^u|^ initasoa at i before a cbaiacteiiatic tiognal mala. Jn the progreaa 
of tbe language femininea in -i., or <ritfa the iDMrted lingnal -lA-, aaanmed 

I.) Tlie ^ fen awmj-, leaving the Towel of precision i in the Norn., Ace, 
and YoE. aing., bat the ofigiaal ■ in the otlwt cuea ; Ihoa, viXii, viXiw, <ri. 
An, <ri)ut, riki- iriAw, nkimr, riXiti, riXui (^ 14). lliU beuaiQe the 
■nal flam of AmiiiiiM puree In -n, in the Attic and Common dialects. 

3.) The A M avBf, and preceesioa took place throogliont. Thia became 
the regnlar Ibnn of fbmlnine piuea in -» in the lonie dialect {§ H. 3) ; thoa. 
Ion. N. -it, G. Jti, D. -Ti, always contncted into ^, A. Jt, Y. -i'; H. N. -Iti, 

n, iriXit, riLiKi 'ill, riXn ■ riXilc, -Ian, <rii.>«, iTt>.iai, -It. The I WRB also 
the prevalent rowel in lh» Doric; thus, Dor. riXji, ri\itt, riu and rixu, 
wi^f raXjif, wmXimt, wtXitffi and rtXiri, wiXmt- 

S.) Ihe A became flmd in the not, and the word paaaed into the daaa of 
'■"C"*'' Tiua, the mot Vliymfi-, Mrgarian, had two fiirma, Mi}v(iF- masC;, 
and with pnceauon Hiy^A- fem. ; from the ftinnca we have Mi^jidt, .ini, 
Mtgarian nan, and from the tatler, Mi^^i'i, .Sti, X^arian ranum. This 
became tin prevalent mode of declining femininea in -h, if we except the 
large class of abstract nouiis in -ric. Eepedallv man; ibminise adjectives, <h 
w«dB which are property such, are thus decUned. 

Kcis. We find, also^ the same forma in a few mascnliDe or conmion 
s (§S 111, 119. 2), and even, in a few wards, a cone- 
' oin w(S 113. 2> 

^ I I W. As mi^t have been expected, these three forms are &r from 
being kept entirdy separate. Thus, 

1.) Some wotda exhibit both the llngoal and the pnre infledioa, the lattR 
eapedally in (he Ionic and Doric dialccta, which ware leas aveiae than iJie 
Attic to hiatus ($$ 45, 4G) ; aa, ■ fiini, wralh, 6. fiMn and itirtn ■ i rfi. 
nc, lad, G. T(i«i>f, t^itih, and tfinmi ■ particulariy proper names, as, 
K>r;if, G, ilii, and -.„ - n.,,, G. Ji» and ^., ■ 01r.(, G. Bi^.i^ 0. 370. 
D. &in 2. 407. For similar caaes of the use and omisaiiHi of a lingual 
chsiacteriatic, see § 104 ; of a liquid characteristic, §§ lOT, 1S3. k. 

S.) Ia some pnm in -ii, the Atlao adopts, in whole or in part (paiticolaily 
in the Gen. sing.), the Ionic forms ; as, i< rifrn, tower, G. rii'm vii. 8. 13 
but PL N. rifru, iv. 4. a, ri^nrnf H. Gr, iv. 7. 6, rS(Tin Cyr. vii. B. 10 
I rim, ipinus, G. -»(, D. -ii ' i /tAymhi, -ut, a land of harp, D. fuiyiil 
vii. 3. SS . J, A riyin, tigtt, G. rlypn, and in later writas nV{.}«, Pi. N. 
rlyfut, G. riytun- amt proper names, aa, i ^iiinun, G. .it, i. 2. 12, 
i '^1, 6. -Hf vi 3. 1 : and llie adjecljves 11(1,, uUlHga^ nfii, i^Mlanm* 
Lilikomanna, i. I, tyx""" {i HT-N), «< G. lyxi^-"-. PL K. iyjcfW* 
Q. tyxiXjin • ri rinp (_§ 1 1 S. K.), pejipiT, G. -im and .jw 




^ 130< (A.) Dialectic changes affecting the AFFIX. 

1. In Ibe poets, especially the Epic, the Ace ring, sometimea ends in .n, fn 
words in which it has commODly -< ; as, ■£;!• Z. 291, na or >u, <rJXiia, fbr 
lifit, m!^. nXn- I'l^Su'i Iheoc 21. 45. Oii the other hand, the New Iani« 
often runns the Ace at nouiia in -« or -ai, -•«, in -•>• ; as, 'IW, /u, Amni, 
Zafoau, wi|, doKin, Ace 'Lnii Hdt. L 1, Aarwr, ««!■. The £<^c and stricIV 
Doric have here -•>..foT -n- {§ 44. 4); as, 'U^i.. Sapph. 75 (91), Aatm 
Inecr. Cret. 


3. In the Dat. plnr., for ttie common affix -n(>), the poets often employ 
the old or proJoni^ furms .■ri(>). -•''•('). ^(l -'•'(>> ^ §^ ^'i B'l> S^- 
Homer oses the fbnr l^rms, though -iri(i) rarely. The ramis .irri(<) and 
■■«(•) are also common Id Doric and ^olic proee - and -i'i(i) is used in Ionic 
prone after Che charscterisiic •. Thus, x*t"' ^' '^' X"i*"'- ^' ^^'' X^'C" 
r.468; r.-IE. 74S, ««;B. 44,»a"«. T. 407 ; 1™,. B. 7.1, !»..« ». 
597, li-iioro B. 75 ; )i.n.^>i« Hdt. rl. 57.' So, F not poaung into u be- 
fore a vowel (^ 117), A<>r" B. 481, >iirn Find. P. 4. 98, tpriitw,, A. 

4. In the Dual, the E(hc prolongB -•,• (as iu Deo. H., § 99. 1) to -mh; 
thn>, •rJ«7. 5. 22B, 2ii^...;> ^ 52. 

$ 131. (B.) Dialectic ctianges affecling the SOOT, either 
simply or in connection with the aHix. 

I. Han? changes reealt fVom dialectic preferences of vowels ; as. Ion. 3«f>i^ 
wc, yftSi, fbr 3*;'e£, £c.; Dor. trn/tit, iMprti, riititii, caatt. tifiMt, tat 
ttuftSit, int. \ XH( for xi'(> ii for •I(i ^•f, ^'i f^ &'"'' &•'' (tlie Ace ^m in 
the sense of a thidd eanrrti iirilh ox-ki^ occms also H. T3S), ix"" ^ ix"f' 
Ac See §^ 44, 4S. 

5. The dialects and poets varf greatl; hi the e:ttent to which they employ 
eontiactlon, and in the mode of eontraction. The Epic has heie espedal li- - 
cense. In (he poets, contractiona are oflen made t^ synizeds {% 30), which 
■re not written. In respect to the usage of Homer, we lemaA as RiUowb i 
(o) In the Gen. sing., contraction -is commonly onUtted, except In nomu in 
.<> and .«(, 6. -iti. Id a f^ words, the eonCraotion of .m into -mi ocean 
(5 45. 3), and (here are a tew hulancea of ^nizaaia (which we mark thus, 
w); e.g. -Efi^i.^ 0. 3GS, Si^^m «. 394, 9i;iw s- 118; UviT^ A. 489, 
Un-itri'n B. 566, rixi» B. Sll. (b) In the Dat. sing., both the contracted 
and Dncontracted fbrms an used in most words with equal freedom ; as, yigiti 
and r"(f' 3i(i' and Si(n, «;;5ii and ti-'x", Iliiiiiand IliiXir, rixnT, irJiir, 
and iriXu, l^mT and j^ H. 453. The endings -a, .u, and -» (except in xt'') 
■re always contracted (§§ 118. !, 115. ■] ; as, .xirrr A. 640, >i«u n. 526 
(this contraction of -m into -e. is Epic), iW I. 618. (*) The endings -i-, 
.wr, and -Ht are commonly nncontracted, except by synizeiis; as, fhiiilis 

r. 37, i^>(>fi. 1. 757, ix^« a 7, aiJ.« o, 444, .i. -. aasj .^^C^, &. 

»ii .r.l.U, A.559, <r.ll..«'r. 111. 80 *Ji.i( 5. 660. (d) Tlie aiding 
•ut i« osed both with and wittiout contraction ; as, •tftmnyt'i ««-iip^it( 
& 194. («) The neut. plar. ending -u is always contracted, or dRip*^»aa 


■ (cf. 4. balow) ; U, mifm, N<->, >I^ B. !37. The fbrm with the Onglt ahorl 

■ (omednwi ocean m the Attic poeta; u, ifia Ar. Pax. 19B. (/.) Of fci, 
Aaip, lit, "f, fd ffuSt, old aomaH, the (oQoirlng Conni occur la Homer; K. 
r<, G. J7o, .li,,A.E,- P.M. £'», G. Um,. .li.. D. iti.r., .rir.. hrr. (cT 
3 119. a), A.^!. S.^,,Q. tAiTtf P. N. ifan, D. .imn, it! (J 33. y). 

yfkfiH Hid }f«ra> of Dec L 

3. In ttamon nonu in -iSi, tb* chaMctcriittc iF befbra ■ rowd r^nbrhf 
becomes a, in the Gpie; ae, IrwH'i, Irwit, Srrit, Iwnn (once id Horn. ir. 
nr, A. 191, aim 6mr.t.M Has. Op. 346), !twii„, (1 16), if,rr,l,rr, A. 227 
(so, In- imititloii, ,]Bn>.Hi Ear. Phcen. 829). Iliie chuige also extends to 
proper nanMi in .iji (in which the E|hc hu greet freedom in naing the king 
Tr short Towd eccording to the metre), to 'Api, Man (§ 116. ■), *aS to 
•riXn. See Homeric PindigmB. ^16. In coninion nonoe in ■■>(, thie 
dlange ooconi aiea in Herudutus. aldioiigh questioned by critica; as, ^ri\it;i 
f!>..i;<, vii. I3T, ^«.).;.~ m. 137, y3»i;L>ir>. yi. 56. The regular inflection 
of nonns in -iw, in Ionic prone, end also in the Doric, is in -in, tc. Th« 

136, Tiilii A. 3fl«, ^>ni.; Hdt. vii. 230 (Oracle). We find fiMr.Xnti with 
ajuizeab Hea. Op. 261. 

1. In vocda wboBB nmt «nda in u., the Epic often nirit«s ii into ■ (aa ngu- 
larly in iir(q>er namea in .hiIik), or into u; but aometimes in the Epic and 
other poeta, and in dialectic proee, one ■ is dropped. Still further variety of 
fbnn is sometimes ^ven by the Epic protraction of i lo u or a, or by the 
Ionic or poedc n^ect of contraction. Tlius, 'H(>iiXi« Hea. Th. 318, Hdt. 
ii. 43, Pitid.0.6. 115; G. 'H;..:i;« 8. 366, 'H;..xi.[ Hdt. li. 43, Rnd. 
o. 3. 20 ; D. "Hf..*;; a. 224, Pind. i. 5. 47, 'Hj..*.-- Hdt. u. 145, 'H(— 

»».u Find. P. 9. 151 ; A. 'IIj.!.!!. S. 32*, 'H^uXU Hdt. iL 43. Pind. a 
10. 20, 'H^aAii' Theoc 13. 73 (for the Attic torma of 'U{as;tii, aee ^ 14 
and Menuii. 1. 91-26) i iya<i>.iti 11. 73S; ISiAiw (Ace. pi. of li^Xm) 
K. 2S1, tUxit, nnd. 0. S. 163; U(^n (Gen. of lifiai) Z. SOB; xXui 
(pi. of >;il») Uea. Th. 100 : )(v>;iit B. 1 1 S, ^rijlU P. 330 : i*t.nM (Norn. 
^ uf imXiii) H. SIS. For the Homeric forme of nin, and fbr those c^ 
TlmTrnXn, which, like aooie other compound* of •Xiw, has forma both of 
Dec IL and of Dec III., aee ^ 16. 

5. FiM' the Ionic and Doric dedemloa of votda in -tr, -uh. and fbr the 
§§113,119. lliB lonk likewise omita 

■iM and TJ(ai ■ and then ia tbeee, aa in other n 

e cAen changM a into ■ ($ 44. S.}, axoept in the theme ; as, 
■i{U(, ai^tr, mifiM, «;!», 4-i(w, ^ifm, Hdt. 

6. In >■«, the D«ic retina Ihrougliont the original m, and ia tiere loms. 
timet imitated t^ the Attie poet*. In the Itoie, the ■ paaete thniu^voat bj 
precoa^ eitha into •. or with abort qnintityi eepeciaJly in the lata Jonio, 
into 1. The Attie retaina the ■ in the diphthcmg >r, but ha* olh«-wise n or t 
(the latttr having, perhaps, been inaerted in the Gun, ung. and pi. allai the 
contnctiDn of it and in, according to § 35, and the Gen. dual having ftol- 
lowed the analogy of the other uumben). For the loiuc and Doric fomia, 
■ee ^ 16 ; for the Attic, ^ U. 

( 133> Iiregulanties in ihe dec1«naion or nouns which 


have not been already noticed, may be chiefly referred to two 
hends ; varielff of declension, and defect of AedennoK. 

A. Vakjett of Declension. 
A noun may vary, (1.) in its root; (2.) in ita method of 
declension ; and (3.) in its gender (^ 79). In the iirat case, h 
is termed a metoplast (furaniaaio;, transformed) i in the sec- 
ond, a heteroclUe (foipoitLnK, of different declentitma) ; in tbs 
tliird, keterogenwu* (nfpa^vijr, of different gendertj. 

The llsU which Mo* ure d«lgiied both to asempli^ tbe diSennt kindt of 
anomaly, and likewiaa to present, in m claflnflod orrsngement, tbfl priodpa 
uomiilDua DDons. It wfll be observed, that soma oF the irordi ml^t hav* 
been amiigeil with eqnal propriety' under oClier headi, ftom their ezhlUtlnx 
mote than one ipBdet of anamaly. 

^ 193. 1. ilMTAriMm. 
Uvtaplasn bu notly nieea fl 
tii« laogiuga, for Uw ««ke of ei 

■. With a DoaUa Boot, hi ». and in •> 

i itiUi. nightingalt, G. itHfi, &e. ; ftom the root inh-, Q. iniil. Soph. 
Aj- S3S, D. M«~ Ar. At. 679. 

4 Ttfy^, -tSi, and r#f>wT, -JT#f, Gortfim, 

i iIm>, nuigc G. i.'iJhi, &c; from r. ■:>•., G. ii'um Ear. Hel. TT, A 
ii'u Hdt. viL 69 ; from t. ila-, by the second dedenlton, PL A. ilxib Eur. 
Tro. lire, Ar. Nab. SS9. TM Me § IIS.^- 

i xf'i-ti^h m/oBop, O. x'^-Tii'H, &C. j from r. ;ciXi)(-, T. j^aTliT Ar. At. 
1411 from amon. 

Compan M 1(M, 107, 119. 

fi. With a Double Boot, in m. ud hi i.. 

ri ^fn(, vDwIn awqi^ poetic, G. fifing, D. *;i«i - Fl. K. 0(En, (k 

tJ iiif^, dvfaew, a Epc •rlf«M, Attie ■•Ifm Jj^ EscL S91, lata 
intfMvt Pol^., D. »i^i' aiiff Cyr. [t. 8. IS. 

« ■«(,/>«>, poetic, r. 47 ; PL N. M^M *. 3, D. nim y. 88. 

« tZii^i, fatr, poetic, 0. lOuf, D. tOu Jtu (aH la Horn.). 
■y. Wsceltaneom Examplea. 

ri ylru, hue, and rt !i(ii. iptar, G. ylrmru, Hfurti, &c (^ 103. N.). For 
the Taiioui fonna of li^u (of which in tha thame thara ii even tha late fbrm 
iilfsi AntiphiL 9), M« 5 16. Thoaa which occur d yijB ccsreapoiMl; 
thna. Ion. and poM. ytiwmrt, }w'»n, j'lmin and yinwn (L «88, F. «6I, 


ftr wUdi mnM write rt^rn); du poaC jwrii, rinf. yrm, ytun, ind 
yi«. Sipph. 14 (as), y.i«,n. 

i Iw, daam (r. '£., Attic Dec n.). G. I«, D. 1,^ A. T» and U, ($ 97. 3) 
Dot. 'MtH (t. '<>0> O- iUm <Uv( - Ion- Ui, G. Am, D. u, A. w ud iM 
« 120. I> 

n 0i^(, T^oaii, (■ a comman nooD, ngU, bae, G. 0i^Sii, Epic Qi/un-w 
p. G8, lonk &IIMH lldt. ii. 90, Doric 0i^nt F^nd. O. I». 11, ebo PI. Rep. 
SRO 1. In (In Attic, fti^i ocean moatl? ia csruin Ibrmi i^ expiestion, 
when it i> med witboat deckniion, u an adjectin or nenUr nouD ; thna^ 
3i/u(l«-^ tluteB/W; ful... AJ^f ilwi, tiiiy a^ (Aot ■! u Aw/W, PL Goig. 
505 d ; ri ^ Si^f, tAiil icAicA ii lat lawful, £auh. Sap. 3S5. 

• SijivH, otfsubiit, G. $>;><rnrw, 6c.; poet. A. 3i(«ira, PL N. Si^vH 
Eur. Ion, 94. 

i miiMi, traUi (r. ui^-, AtL Dec II.), G. liXM, &c. ; Ion. miXi, -«s Ac. 
L 260 and Hdt.; In the later E[»c PL ^iK-ti, Sx., Ap. Hh. 2. 735. 

i Xiiyin, Aori (c. Xoy-, Att. Dec II.). G. X*y^, A. >ji}v!>, Xa}^ ic. i 
len. X>y((, -li;, &e., Hdl.. alaa PL N. k^y! Soph. t>. 1 1 3, A. Dor. (^ 45. 5) 
Xxyii lice. Sc »02 ; Epic ijiyBn, -w. Ham. 

J, i fulfrh C™ '«*« -rite™ ^'■ej). "■'*««. G. fUfHIt"- D- ^•V-P' ■*- 
c^frnfs, nuv ftifrUt ■ D. pL fiifrin • Bpe i /lifrtifH, .«, ■*. 433. 

i, i !(,-„, bird, G. IftTSu (Doc. Ifix^, i 69. 11.% D. j;.;^ A. i(KS> and 
1^- ■ PL Ir^Bt,, Ae.; fma r. iff-. Sing. N. ^.t,, A. I^.it, PL N. Ifu,, G. 
^un, A. JftM and Iftii (_i 1 19). Another fbrm i> n ■;»«, .«. 

J iffM and iff *(, a aM-fiah, Q. i(fii and Iffii. Compan aixiit, i^r^> 

i r.(% ;^i, G. •<'..;i. D. n<^, A. viS... - Uler G. rx-xif, D. «»!, A. 
rwi^M^. The proper root is vuiLi- (compare the a^j. ^vHrtr) i bat from the 
difficult]- of appending < in tlie tbeme, transposition looli place (J 64. 3), 
which aflerwaiila extended, ttirongfa the inSaeuce of auilag]r, to (he ol^qiu 

> fit, MuU, G. nit, and in later writcn cktii. 

t r/^{, un^ B. 267, Q. r^.yy^, &c j N. pL r/ua.^yii Y. 71G. 

■ fSii'i, contr. f&<7i, eiuti, G. f Skii ' N. fL fSiTf and fftiw ■ aleo i f^A 
•».(• M. id.fStn>(. See HI 9. 

i x'^ty ^todd, G. x*^' "'^ Xf*'! ^ ''^"i' '^ common fomu, aee ^ IJt. 
The other forms are also Ibund in the poeta andin Ionic prose. 

J ^,h, the name of a measnn, G. x"'- ^-^ '^^ 0'" (1 <'*)i ^"^ ^• 
T^u-, (he better Attic G. x'^"'' X'^i ^ X^ X'^ ^ ^ X^** X*^ 
(§ 1 16. ?) ; alao Dat. Ion. x"' ^PI>- 

ri XV" [Ep. «..-H, 5 47). rf*. R. r.i.« ■ Fl. tf. wU (S 37. 1) i Bw . 

I. ;tf«'-. N. Oeei*. x(if) x(U, G. (xfSiw. «*«». xe^O j:;'" (*5 83. s^). 

J ;(^,, •»■, i»/a«, G. xt"^. D- Xf-"' (jcrf. § 'O*) *■ Xf^™* I"*- 
and poet. G. «(.;,, D, xfi, A. ;|-(t^ 

For Z.^, Oainn, n^Tfuiw, and •>;m, aae ^ 16. 

MoTB. Add the poetic Nom. i 1h Bm. Op. 354, ^ )ini, jnyt; Aoo. X^Oa 
Asch. Ft. 49, 65, ^ >.^I. from D Xi^t, A'AoIim ,- Kom. i iTi O. 375, Ace 
U, A. 4S0, — J.<v< r. ?3, ;i>..tai S. I6J, On (In the later Epe, PL Kin, 
Xi'irn); Dat. ^n-I Y. 500, Ace. /tmrrn i. IS?,^ ^Vrfy. E. 74S, ftiwrlyu 
E. 926, ftvm il /ulfril, teontgi ; i 2mf<rMi, G- Ss^nlim and SsfnOwm, 
T 2a{«aH • NonL pL mfyif Ap. Sh. t. 636, •— rrofini from i m}^ 


§ 1 94. S. HEmuH.-Lim 

■. Of tha Firat Mod Third DedenaioDs. 

• -AJuLprntio-Anm. /radB,G.>^&i.; Dec III. E^ Q.'AJIn, D.'A^ 
AnoClKr poetic fiirm ii 'AJimii, G. -Im, Ion. .■«. 

J 0>;Um, Tlhiik^ G. Bd)LU, (§ 9e. T) and BsLarw 

i liw, coatnKtnl Uit, atnw, O. Ii5>f, «nd xi^t 3<qih. <Ed. C 196, D XSs 
A Xiuu, aSi, and XiM Call. Fr. 104. PL N. Iwi, As. 

t rrwxi, -i(, and rooMI; Ef. wt^ G- <rnjt;Jr, /iiU 

t f (i><i> HH, poetic ff/f, G- tfTmit, Audder, ripplt. 

NoTSa. a. Add ume proper aiinn in -ih, of which k part admit a dodU* 
fbmiBtion lluiHighoDt, a» Xa^t ■ but ottiEra only in pirticulu cagea) Ihiu 
ST(i';.ii;ii[, -.1^ bas (At. Nub. J-J06) Tuc ST;l^;;.I■|. Some nf^ to thii 
head die double Ace in ^ 1 M. N. Fn j-nii. sea MOl. y. 

b. Add. aba, the E(^ Dat. ix>; (always in the phrase ^Xnl mniSKf E 
899), =° lUuil (•.. 509) fhim iX.ii, m^; Kom. i ifw^i Hes. Op. »51, ~ 
■(«}dj, niA»^ ; Ac«. »» A. bOI , ^ .'••><i> frDin t.iii (F. 740), ioHk-dlit 
Ace. >;;■■ H«B. Op. SH6, = «(«»» from nfiiiiT, uaof {also PI. N. ■;iiii( Anlip. 
TlL lo. A); Dat. pi. fMmn Ap. Rh. .4. lOUl), — ^W from ja•^ r(«t 
Dat. Ufi:,, B. 869, 0. '^C, = iif^.^ (T. '^1.;) from ir^liK, balik; Ace frya 
(<«lj in fiiyali, (a ^'^', 0. 1 57, &c\ ^ f uyni ftam fry*. ./tiflU I and tht 
Dorio Gen. fbm. vi'yiir Tbeoc 5. IIS, S. 49. for aiyai ftom iuXfDa<(wi Gen 
•*nU> CaU. Dd. 66, 375, tot HJm from •) .irM of Deu. IL). 

A- Of the Second and Tliird Dedenaiou. 

rt if ,};« and Ion. li>);i.>, tne, G. ViUftn, £c ; Dec HL D. »>l;u, A. 
».){« Hdt. Ti. 79. PI. N. U.I(ii, D. >!.>{>« (die man comnKm Jbrm {^ tha 
J>at. pL even in Attic proee; e. g. Th. ii. 15). 

i UtUh. kmk, G. •mri,,^ Sx. ; Dec. III. rarer A. .'.tTw At. IV. 399, FL 
N. f»r7.ti Paaean.5. 14. 

i nXmii, taig, G- uliiiiiii, £c ; Dec III. poet. D. iXmil, A. Mk£U, FL D. 
■XiUtn At. Av. 939, iXntiur,, A..jiXiI>i. 

; auwrJi, (Aorer, G. »»>•;. &c ; Dec. IIL PL N. ■«£», C7T. Tiil. I. 35, 

ri *{''.», 2^, G. ■;:»*, &«. ; Dec HI. FL N, ■{.'«< Hdt 11. 9!, D. ■(.'. 
m>.Aj. Nab. 911. 

tJ Ifii;!! and j ttufn, drtam, 6. •■■';» and i>iJfa«f • n. faijn, and moi« 
freqnoill}' iii£{M-a. Derived from ;»; (§ 127). 

i •'^;cM(, eonb-. <r{Jjt;»(, t»i-, G. ir^e^^fu, &C1 Dec. III. Fl. D. wfix-m 
At. Nnb. S7i!. 
. W >{^ Jh, 0. «£^, D. «I^ Dec II. FL N. vilj^ iMri-AMb D 

144 isKEom^B NOUNS. Ibook ii 

t fvix'i. '<»> O- n-'V^ ^ • '^^ I^'- P"^ '^°'- ^- "'•X^ ^ 1 TS, Fl 
13. rrix'i Hnd. F. 4. S73, A. rn^x Ar. Eq. J S.i. 

Note. Add the poeL Dat. pL ^.J^xrilirn B. 475, = •.);>«')«( froa 
i>3;^T^», •&>«! Nom. I;., S. 315, Auc V i-9\i,^i1e^, r. 142, hat, 
A. f^*Ta Horn. Here 449 ; Goi. pl^ fLnXjiww Lye. JU6, ^= ^(jA-v* fitim ^X«i, 
•^ij Ace. (Tsa (only Id irnali, AomaBunl, ofLen iu Horn, tad area nied In 
Atlk prose, vii. 7. 57), — jTio bran •Tui, kouie ; PL N. r; •»»« t. 1 9S, 
D. vfUMrin H. SJa,-^irfitmrm, r(trittii, from •rfirum, fast. Fn 
Cf^wi, nir;»%«, and lAit, Ma ^ Itt. 

f. Of tbe Altio Seeraid and TUrd Dadenaioni. 
1 i>JH, ArtMitg-fioor, G. Jb*, it-mm, and poet. 2xw<. 
J /iiH-fBf, maternal ineb, G. ^f (n and /litfaii • PL ^lirfMi. 
1 H!»,, JAkw, Q. M;» and Hiuu|. 

• •^irfMf, puttmal uneU, G. t^t(i> and r^rfxt • H. nrjiiir. 

• twr and rmit, imeock, G. fiw and rum ■ PL K. rof, r«(, and r»ftw 
« rdfibr, vhirluind, G. ritpi and rv^»i«. 

^ 1 93> 3. HiTEiioaEnBooa Noran. 
■. Of the SeoDod DedeoMoo. 
J hr/uf, Aowf, PL t^ lir/(^ and v tuiuU 
ri ^tiyif and i Xi^i, fott, PI. «■ fi^^. 
I $ir/u( (Dor. nS^i), aatHtOt, K. J Btr/ul and ri Sv/uC 
J Al|:£Hi, tonqi, PL 'A >.J;^<a and ■< Xu;f;»i. 
ri iwm and 1 rim, badt, H. Ta wru. 

• rraS-zuf, ifulifli, iuloao^ H. h rrmSfHi and » mS^ ifatiaH, ri «w. 
i T>(n;ft (t Pbid. P. 1. £9), TarUnt, PL ri T^gn;.. 

^ Of Uu Thii^ Dodeiuion. 

rl mit* mi (Siqill. Rl. 1457) .jSi-., And^ poaliii, G. ((Hrh («K, Em. 
El. 140), D. .{drf and .S^f Soph. Ant. 13TS, A. ri ■ jf d, ri. and rJ *« ira 
Eur. EL 148 (c£ ISO), Ft. Areh, 16, Soph. tfid. T. 263} I^ A. rm ■;:»( 
Eur. Phien. 1149. Tba following forms an fbund in Homv: 

G. .lifRnr ■■(Hlrx ifdn. ■;£<*« mpiStt X.5Sa wi^ntr 

LI. iHifin MMeiiri ■(^ri ii|u*i 


■•dr.', ■flnrfi, E. 159, 156 

y. Of Different DcgIbiuImii. 
Dm. L and U 1 wxufi and » ■■:i»;;t, riA ; J fStyyit and A fSryj^ 

utl. 2. J DEFECTIVE. 14b 

net; it X'^* "^i ' K't"' 1P<>B<- Dsc. 1. *Dd [II. ■ li'-^a, -ni and r) ti^n 

-IK, Aim ; i ^mini ri tin,, diUs i Rki&n »aA ri »i.i^n, "•j<vy ; A yi- 
!>• mill lun. IDd poet. « j-n/u, -«■•(, njiisiiui; n s-bSu Uld li *-ii9ir, •I'ff'r- 
M» : Dec. II. uid III. • t^jw (Dor. mj;«)> -«^ ""^ •■■ ■;t«' -'"i ""^ ■'•' '• 

B. Defect of Declension. 

^ ISC 1- Some words receive no deelemion, as lite 

r imeB of the letiere, some foreign proper names, and a few 

oTier foreign words. Thus, lo, loi, i^ aiqia' o, tov, rip, loi 

A,ii/'iafi ' 70, ToiJ, iif Jiuuj;u, pOMOnef-. 

NoTK. A word of ttua kiiid is termed wfadiwifA, or in optott (Jiwrmrtt, 

mihout eatt*). 

2. A few diminutives and foreign proper names, whose root 
p.nds with a vowel, receive s in ihe Nom., » in the Ace, and, 
if the vowel admits it, an iota subscript in the Dut., but have 
no further declension ; as 

• AmSi fdim. fiom Ainffrw, AncdUi), G. ^ini, D. ^>ii, A. Aurrr, T. 

1 H>r.Si (tnm. IWini UmiJ.^.,), (}■ H<|i2, D. Kwf, A. Haw., T. Un.i. 
J U«>2,, G. HwM, D. Umr^f, A. H.»i;., V. Uvju. 
; 'U.^i, G. 'I.»S, D. ■ A. ■I■.n^ T. 'I.^ii. 
I'Ifirivf, JoHi, G. 'Iiwiis D. 'IftiS, A. 'IimSi, T. 'hw. 

• Taim- See t 16- 

3 Many nouns are defective in number. Thus, 

a. Manj nonru, from Uirar ^^iflcatioo, wont the [Jural \ BSy ij ll liif, Iht 
si', I x*!^*'!, caii/'tr, ri tXmin, of/. ■ raj^uriii, taiftnta. Proper and ibelTacC 
nouiu are seldom foaad ia the plunl, except when emplofed as cominon doiuu. 

0. The names of (catiTala, aome oames of diJea, and a f^w other wofde, 
want the lingular ; as, ri ^niiim, llw Jiait itf Baedm*, oJ 'ASiiuJ, Athtiu, 
tJ iriffimit tfie tradetpmdt. 

^ 137. 4. Some nouns are employed only in particular 
cases, and these, il may be, occurring only in certain forms of 
expression. Of this kind are, 

iijini, 6oify,/brm, Nom. and Aoe. nent. 

lri!ti.iij, n/Ttamt, Ace fern. (— ' In'sXivn), commonly used adverUa1l7. 

Xi'rs, witJi ml, DbU neuL, periiapa shortened from Xir^i, Sums n^srd <t 

fidKnt, am-jnt, Gea- fern-, onTy in the phrase un ^Xi», vtder the irrm, 
mxrttlyi also, in late wrilera, tiri ftixx: Otherwise tie longer form, il it* 
9jQ*>.n, is emploj-ed. 

fiiA.1, Yoc. maac and fern., need only in luoiliar address ) Z f^i-i, "S good 


146 DECLENSIOH. [book 11 

■HI, i&ip, drtam, Mul In;, iHiiaij;, rtalitg, S. and A. iMDt. See Irtifit 

br^ eya. Da. N. and A. nent. ; Pj. G. IrtMf, D. U,k,. 

tfiliM, oihaMagi, and ftrt (Ep.)i /ifeonire, N. neut. 

ni or rai, onljr Attic and ia Uie phrase £ rdr, gnad nV, ibmiA 

NcrTBS. a. Add the poet. Nom. and Ace. oeaC. iS (root Ivf-, § 6S) A 
4'.>6. = U^ui, A«(K, If." (r. tpi-) &, .55-1, = i c^rSW, Wt^, lU^ (r. i\f^.) 
Horn. Cer. ^OH, -> iXfiro, hir^i^^imii!, }-;iiJfi>, jMbu, Hea. Op. 331, Ip Plii- 
tN. ap. StTsb. 364, — I;i», wool (compare, with theae neuters, 0;r and f4, 
M <!.$)■. Dat. fern. 3.! (i), iaU&, N. S.-iS (akin to this, Ace. UT, Call. I>V. 
•JfH); Dat. xin 1.35ii,Aec sing. maac. or pi. neat. XiVs a. lOO.-'Dat. 
■nd Ace of Ti' i.i»(, IJMn ; Ace. fem. >i^ mae, Hes. Op. 5H:t (lh>m which 
ii«;i!i,-i)>r, nuu-JEofa); VocilxJO. IS)(,°c 4Vji (J. 91S, fhxn i))i>ii, n-ozal 

$. A word which ia ODiy employed in ■ $iitgk caae, ia tanned a numnplnU 
(jii'H, au^ wrint, (»••); in <vo cases, a dipMif in tiatt, a, briptolt i ia 
/oar, a UtrafMt, 


[inri7-ao. ai.] 
^ 138. Adjectives are declined like substan 
tives, except so far as they varj their form to de- 
note variation of gender (^ 74. 8). In this respect, 
they are divided into three classes, adjectives of 
fine, of two, and of three terminations. 

IloTS. Id adjectirea of mi 
garded at the primarj' gender, and the root, theuie, and dedcuDiHi of th* 
niasculinei aa the genersl root, Ihemc^ and declension of the word. The mode 
at declining an ai^ective is commonlj marked by Bubjdaing to the theme the 
other brma of the Nom. sing., or their endinga ; and, if iteccesary, the torn 
3( the Gen. aing. Thoa, Hmm,-"' rsf «, -ii • «;>jii, -li, -» ■ i, i thvn, 
-.).(, ri ),V.y.. 

'^130. I. Adjectives of One Terhination are de- 
clined precisely like nouns, and therefore require no separate 
rules OT paradigms. They are cotilined, ip the language of 
prt^?, to the masculine and feminine genders, ^nd some of 
thenf are employed in a single gender only. E. g. 

1. HHColine. Dec. 1. 1 ymalnf, .»^ 

rii, -«^ vnAuUofyr Deo. III. i jifin, - 
Besycfa. gives i win"*). 


f . FtaiMm. Da:. III. A ^.tit. -^«, fiaatie, t varf.'i, -Oti. » 

3, Kasculine and Feminine. Dec III. j, i a^ui, ■£r<i, wuUnin 
jmi, -iKigi, iMIdUtt. i, i Jx4 ..i>H, o/' (Ai nw ag', i, i V^Snii, -irn 
rJud, ;, ri f «}■&(, ■!■(, fugitne. 

NuTE. The indirect cum af ir^jectit 
•n (ometiniea employed by clie poeu as ncnter; u, ywimii n /uyii.*' l> Timn 
r*/uiT. Eiir. EL UTi, /u.Mirii WriHi—tit Id. Or. .:TU, If^i l^iWi ^i- 
fafii lb. H3T. 

^ I30> U. Adjectivkb of Two Tkr mi nation > have t>.e 
same form for the fgmimne aa for the awccu&'ne, but bave i 
distinct form for the neuter in the direct caaea singular and 

RKiURKa. ■. A^eotlvea which fonn the neotw muet be ehhei gf Dec. 
II. or III. (§ IB), lai. if of Deo. UI., cunot have either ■ labid or ■ [uOa- 
tal chanuitaiibtic (§ 101). To adjectivei vthich cannut fbrm iba neuter, this 
(tender ia sumetimea supplied frutu a kiadr«l or derived lout ; h, i, ■ J!(*'>& 

R. The neuter muK have tirn distinct rorma, and can bave ooly two, ana 
Ihr the JBrect caaea lingular, and the other for the dinct uuea plural (§ KO). 
Hence, every complete adjective muai have two termin aliens. A neuter \Aunl 
ia Boinetimea given, tliuugh rwvly. lu atUcctivca wtaidi du nut Ainu tlia aauter 
•iiigolort aa, ru» •#'{(( inrt(» Eur. Hero. 114, IS>ui... IniXiJa Bdt. 
viiu lii. 

J-. In Ij'rHv (1 17), and in Mmilar compoundB of ».iii, /not, the Neuter 
aing., on aoeoj^t of the dilEciilty of tftimtng it from the root, ia formed ^m 
tba theme, after the aualc^ of coiitracia of Dee. 11. (f IH) ; thee, •, * it. 
«MV, nl;Tw i, i Tfi-wtui, Jit,. tkra:-ffHiUd, ri rfltn,. CC ^ 13IL 3. 

5| 131* III. Adjectives of Tbsee Terminatiows differ 
fiom tboae of two in having a distinct form for the fetittnine. 

It IB only in the first declension that the feminine has a 
distinct form from the masculine. These adjectives, therefore, 
must he of two declensions, uniting the fcmimine forms nf the 
first wilh the masculine and ttetUer of the aeamd or .Urd. 
The feminine is formed according to the following rules. 

Rule i. If the theme belongs to the second 
declension, the feminine affixes ol the first are an- 
nexed to the simple root. 

If the root ends in i, i, p, or go, the feminine is declined like 
oil.* - otherwise, like tifit, (H 7, ^ 93). 

Tbna, fiXi'ii, ptX'iMi- t-fi, r,f^, ■ xt"^' i'^^'o (1 "<)l /"-(^ -^ A 
ib*;, i^H. -a, ■•'. dtiut ; laXit. -i, -it, btoutifkl, ^rw , -h. f, mtddU, yn/lfl- 
uitH. •». -nt mritttm. '^ 

MB uncTivBb. [book n 

^ 199. Rdle 11. If the theme belongs to the 
thvrd, declension, the feminine affixes of the first 
are annexed to the root increased by a (i. e. to the 
theme before euphonic changes). 

Tb«fc from the reoli ««■-, xf"" (1 '^)' ?">-'""*-i *M^-- P«'"» 
••M (iS 55. 57, 58). 

The following bpboial kulbb are observed in the fonnatior. 
of the feminine, when the theme belongs to Dec. III. 

1. After ( or o, the o which is added to the root becomes • 
(^ 50), which is then contracted, with c into zt, and with o 
into vt. Thus, from the toob i,Si. (1) 19), and liAot- (YI 32), 
Bra formed the feminines {yiStaa, ^Siia) q Jiia, (eUotub, iido'ua, 
tiSiia) itSvii. 

Nona. >. Tha diphthong u never Honda befbn the affixes <tf Deo. L 
Tbe ooiietin«noa of opaa Towd* which would be thai produDed seenu to Iwts 
(Baploued the Gre^ nr. Hence the contractlai], in tbie on, (rf ■ into Ibe 
doeer diphthmg w. 

^ In tbe emtrwtaf perfiei paHidpla, which hevs > long Towd in the bat 
■}rtl)Ma of Iba not, the r remuiu. 'Ihn*. from r. In-vr- (contr. traa irrmtr-, 
from the verb Irm^, lo Moiui) b farmed the feminine (IwrMrn) InwvC 

(1 '»■ 

■ometboM Id Epic eod otber poetry, to U (^metimee Ion. En, eepeciBllj In 
HipMl u. ^aSf^ >V' Hdt.L ITR, ^-Bin lb. 75, fimBin, E. 147 (bat 
^■Si.'iK B. 9-i), lijiiit 1). 7H6, ilU Theoc 3. 30, «;^u< Theog. 715. So, 
eroi in Attic pcoM, BuCtmann editi ttom the beat Mo. ifutUi PI. Ueno, 
8^ c. On the otber hud, the poeca, in a fbw loaluoea, [»iilofu -(a irf iha 
Nent. pi. to -■;■ fijT the aake of tbe metre (S 47. N.) ; *a, ^r> Hea. Sc 349, 
lluK Sojdl. Tr. 1!J9 (>0 niut for r.Mi>, Ap. Sh. S. 404, l.a(»jut Id. 4. 


2. AAer a Ut]uid, the a which is added becomes i, which is 
then transposed, and contracted with the preceding vowel into 
a diphthong. Thus, from the roots iiikar- (H 19), tifir- (r. of 
rifjjr, tender), nnf-, are formed the femininea (ftiXaraa, fi«- 

lm*a) /idlaiva, (Tcgiraa, tiffira) Tiftiva, nltiqi (^ 134. 9\ 

Compare ^^ 56, 57. 

3. If the roiit, after the addition of o, and the consequent 
changes, eods in « or g, the feminine is declined like q*m ' but 
if il ends in a or r, like rliaaa (^ 7, ^^^ 92, 93) ; as, qjtial, 
TlStlat' naoa,naa^' pitaira, luXalvtit (51 19); nltigay nitlMf. 
Obaerre that the a in the direct cases is always short. See 


^ ISS. or those words which belcHiff to the general class 
ofADiBCTives (^ 73), the followiiig have mree temiinations:— 

1. All participles ; as, fiovkivaii; Sfaj, ilSiut (tl 22). 

Note. In partidpltt, wbidi partake at tbe mrfr ■nd tbe sc^pRtn, > du- 
tbietkin muat be mode between Che root, o^, am«ctiii<) rhdi', kod JUxiUt 
m£^ of oHi/ii^tHm, and theae of dtdnaaii i thus, in the gtnitlw inKiittm, 
the root tS co^ugMiod ia ^uXm-, and Ihe aflix -»m ■ while tba not tt da- 
clenatoQ U fintinmr-, and the atBx -ii. 

2. All comparatives and BUperlatiTes tn-os', aa, ooqiKjigot, 
-&, -or, wiier ; oorptutams, -q, -or, wiieit. 

3. All numerals, except cardinals from 2 to 100 tnclu&ive ; 
as, dimnuiot, -ui, -fi, two /aindred, t^Jto;, -.q, -or, Ikird. 

4. The article and adjective pronouos, except tiV (ilc)- Se« 
11 24- 

5. Simple adjectives m -a^, -ti;, and -vf, with a few other 
adjectives ; ns, ipllios, uoifag, xp^^'oc (51 18) ; /npfn;, ^Sig ' not, 
fidlat (^ 19) i ixnir, -nvuu, -dvi G. -o»i)(, unT/tn^ ,* loJla;, -aim, 
-or, G. -aroq, wrelehed ; Tt'pijr, -«»a, -it, G. -t»oe, tender. 

Norn. •. For tbe number of terminations in adjectivea in ■•$. ool]' gen 
nl mlea can be given. For ttie most part, aimplea have lluve larnuoalJoiii^ 
and compoundg, hut two. Yet winie aoniponode bare three, and many dm- 
plea, particolaily derivaCivea in .ii«, -ut, and -i^w, h«ve but two. Deriva- 
tives JYoTD eompouod verba, aa bang thamaelvaA ancxMnpotuided, capadally 
thoee in .hh. -th, and -riH, have mom commoDlj thtee tanninatiana. Li 
many wordi, naaga is variable. See y. 

fl. Adjectivia in -m, of the Attii Dec. n., have but two terminationa ; n, 
'>^' (1 ^^), i, i 'iyn, ■" tiyti>t, finilt. For txW, aee § 135. 

y. In 'a.) words in wbieb the Fern, has eommoulj a diadnct fam, tba 
ftna of the Hase. ia ■ometimas employed in its Mead. And (b.), <Mi tba other 
hand, a diatioct fonn is aometimea given Co tbe Fern, in worda in wlueh H ia 
eionmoniy (he aama with the Mane. Thus, wa And as ftminine, 

(a.) Adjectives in -n (particaieriy in Attic writen, § 74. i). >a^ Eur. Hed. 
il97,^Si„ Id. Hipp. 43.1, i;l, i..y»«fwTh. i. S, .XM-^f B. T'lS; 
AdjecCivea in .« (particularly in Epic and Doric poetry), itiii />. 369, alia 
Theoc m. S, SaXw T. 9T, nuXin K. 27 ; Comparatives, Superlativea, Parti- 
ciples, and Prntwans (aii ransiy, except in the dual, see )■), kutfirtfH Tb. r. 
110, )i>fi>>y3AiiTt>Ti( Id. UL lilt, ikimtmrH 1. M:i ; n&i>Tii .£scli. Ag^ 560; 
mXjm^H Soph. El. 6lrt, (Ed. C. 7SI. 

(b.) iSMjitT, K. 4n4. 9fl;^»i 

^■fra Ar. Fax, 9TH, fbr (he com 
afric and lyric 

I. This uae of (he masc. (bnn for the fem. is particniaiiy frequent in tha 
ihial, in which, from lea ilmiteit use, Ihe distinction of gender is teaii Impur- 
tanti as. ri, xt-f "■ I- 8 (tbe ftmi. (brm »■ scarcely belongs to clasda 
Qmk); T>irmr-i. tpi;. Cyr. L S. 11) r<J'<i> K r.7. a/wi«> H. L« 

no AsncTms. [book u 

BMk.; WirfftlnHOU IfX"" •>->Iy'*<'i> 'T' Ik^S* • ... r • > r - 
n. Ptaadr. 337 d.j Jlitrt aai »»•£« So^ CEd. G 1676 { wXmyUr, 
0. 4.'!5. 

^ 134i To some adjectives, feminine fonns are supplied 
from a kindred or derived rooL lliese fanns may be eithei 
required to complete the adjective, or ihey may be only specia 
feminiaes, used (particularly in poetry and the dialects) by ti e 
side of fofnia of the common gender (cf. § 74. c). The fem- 
inines thus supplied moat frequently end in -t;, G. -iSo^, but 
also in -a;, G. -aSo^, in -tia, -iifa, &c. (for the use of d as a 
feminine formative, see ^ IIB). Thus, 

[., lEid in .iDi of Dec m., hirs often or- 
Time wonb ue chiefly pBtikh anil gm- 
mi, and an coBimonlj luied as BubstanlJTca. 
„, bdm^iis to a dig (3i<> nXlrm iF-ach. Th. i!5»), eitaat, 
it,,, Jtv ■ iioimf, i> ijtfni, mppiiaM; i S^iSm, n IxiAii, ficyfiiai 
i tityt^iii, Aant i HtyifJri Mrgarian* 

^ Tlie ennpaiindi vf Iri, yrar Qn ■■(, -u oT Dec III., bat loaietimea la 
■Wi G. -!■ of I>ec 1.), have oflau a Bpedal Am. in -n, -tin ; aa, i, ■ IrrJTw. 
W UflTv, «» yam o/< and ii in-irii, il.i . ri, ilin ui t^> lEint PL 
Leg. 794 c ; rk, rpmt^mirui nenlit Til. l '23, but rcmiun-MvilH' rnrl^ 

y. Sana uoinpoaDda in •■■, .u have a poetic (patticolarif Epic) San. in 
•m; as, it'y^'- -*!' '^ ff}lH<a A. 477. So fiivHyinit, tlniml, Smni- 
n< Soph. (£d. T. 4A9. 

1. Add I, ■ r'ltn, and « T.iifi, ri nn, fat ; i wfitfiut, old, vaaraile, Fem^ 
dueflj poet, «-;ir^it, r;ir0a, ^ir^iifi, rfttgnU, rfirfiH ■ i, i ^u^ Mid 
1 /td^Mtfl, bloKd, poetic ; /, li ftifi^, and Ep. * w^fiurii E. 390, Uml. 

^ I3*S. Irbegulab Adjectives- Among the adjectives 

whith deserve special notice are the following. 

Itiyn, g''—'tt >nd vAii, mutk (f 90). In tlkeee adjectivn, tbe Nora. toA 
Ace sin^ Biaao. and neuL are formed bona tba toota f^y»- and vtXi., accop^ 
ing to Dec lit. Ttie other caeee are foriDed from the rooti fayi'- >nd tiAA-, 
eccording to Dec I. and IL The Voc /ayiki occura only j^edi. Th. fiSS. 
From its signiflcaCion, irayii has no duaL Fot Che Homeiii: inflecdon c^ 7>- 
>.ii, eee 1 Sa In Uerodotiu, tlie fbrmg ftom Ti>.Xi| prevail thmugbont. yet 
SOI b> the entire exdnaian of the odier foimi. Tile Epic tiimu aometlinea 

i ri.iMt, i, ri wJ^m, /^S. Tie Uaac and Neat, an Ibnned from r. 
rXm-, according to the Attic Dec II. (§ fiS) ; the Fem. ia fonned ftvm r. 
ir>.i.. loD. rxin, Ep. ■';Lii'ii, -g, -n. So, liltewiM^ in Alt. wriUra, Che phiral 
compoundi J/irXui, i*r].jii Cyr. vi. E. 7, in;irXiii lb. 33. In like manna 
Tlu PL I^aido, 95 a, N. pi. from 'x,-i, -», contr. Ihim T;l<i(, .». 

• rfiii (by Bome writtan r(iir), i «■("««, r) rfui (irfiEi.), miU. In thla 
adj^ formi ftom r. »■•, of Dec. II., and ftvm r. rpa-, tf Dec IlL, n 
blmded (see ^ SO). Ion. w(titt. 

i, i fit, ri tit, tfi. In tliia a4j., oontract fbniia from r. n- an UMdij^' 

GH. 3.] ISXEGirUI. IS} 

»-), tNloogiiig pndj to the. U. tod 

A. («(„). 

Homaris t;i(< K. 87, i 
Cwf, {«», Inm^. 

^ I 36> REiLUuit. I. Some compoimdi of yiXM, ImdUv, ind ■(fM, 
Aon, maj teedva dllin' the Attic •econd, or the third dajnuiDa ; •*, fiiityi- 
Av(, -«p, G. -« and -vrf, tmghter-lomg, ;^^b«i(i**r, -■», G. .* and •mrttf 
gMem-hanitiL Shortn fbrma ttsd OGOir, acciHding to the oommoa Dec IL ; 
•>, !.'>.;«, ».•(», £>.^ 

8. Soma componnds of rtit, foot, haT<e noraiduy fimni ■ccordiog to D«c. 
IL ; u, Tii-kTHH (poet. irHAvTHv), lui^/sadirf, G. v<*.vr<l<t and n;Lvrw 
r;>'ni>i, -Hm, and Ep. r;;<r<(, -», X. Ib4, (4r»-/«Xed,- 'Ifii iiJL;Lir<f &. 
109; iTi-^n. £i>.;L»f')>rnr Honi. Vm. 218. Sm 0.?iV» (f 16), and 
oompara \ \30. y. 

S. Among other examples of varied tattaaMsa, we notice the Homotc I \ti 
B. S19. and ADr 11. 46-1, j»«l, iroH, « If F. 9^> £, iJ E. <!50 (both advertiia]), 
and U I'. 456, Oen. Ish A. :I93 (cf. $ 121. 3), Ace. »• G. 903, and ift'B. 
62P ; Geo. pi. neat. Mm, O. 5S8j i ifimt A. !66, tnaig, PI. Ifi'nfi,, l(fiif^, 
r. 47, 3TS ; 1 riXi^jooc A. 3.!T, nd ia (A<^ R. nxiffnt, I. 154 (see aba 
<ri>.£.f« betow, 1. 1); u'th tXAfH K. 7T3,'Uj« ■.'*« O. 7 1 , 1Xi« ainml 
N. TT.S, viAip ■;». N. 635, *:<ti ;i(9f. e. S6S. n^n. >;«in»« «. 67; 
^n^. r. 4 f 9, ifvirM &. I »n, if^rin A. B I e, ^yir. «. I :;T ; if^n^in 2. 
90,ieyvfHii.Sil ; rlXjt ... linlx-' Ji- 129, wiMt itn^x" 11.57; Tpiii 
l(iS^*'u r. 74, T(<fn trfdi'An 1. 3i9 ; wtXirKmt 1. 17 1 , wXmrldtun r. 3X9, 
wtkirkmni X. SS ; dbc Examples of adjectivaa of doable forautioo, or of 
(TDODf moiu a^)ectiTee with dil^reot forms, mi^t bo greatly multiplied. 

4. Among defective adjectives, we notice, 

B.) The Mlowing, chiefly poetic r ;, t fSaa^i;,, r> Um;i', tearl«, Ace JJa. 
■At (the other eases supplied by fSin^^Tii, .ir) ; wiXSimxt"! ^ff^ (supplied 
Id tike maimer by w.y.^ix.n-r,,'); i rfirfiM {tor Am. see | 134. 1), bU. as 
■ubat. eiiir, imbcuaikr (Li the last sense O. r^^w As. Acb. 93), A. *;ir. 

■-{iifJiwi, D. wfiiPiii, ifinBivrn Lye. 1056, A. rfii^iii, Du. ■-{ir^ii Ar. Fr. 
4 >)5 (the plur. in the sense of ambaisadori was in common use ; otherwise, tlie 
word was almoHt eidusively poetic, and iU place supplied by t ■-(■rf' 

Nom. throughout, liaa otJy the Gen. f 

p.) Poetic feminines and neuten. Which have no cotnapondlog nuuc ; a 
t «n»; (and Miinelimes xir^i), mmdy ni< winii, n' ritrm.- i »i3.ii, 
n Mlus, Uiomig, ricA (Horn.), t Xii and Xirni (always vilb rim), /i. 6' 
' la, y. t<)3, I. 4 1 2, — i.!.^ Ibm. of l.uif, nostA ; n ^^ <r. ^fiS-) He*. a| 
fitrab. '564, — neul. of S^3"l^ AmWi " fi (j- h^-) S"!*- ^r- 8^3, — neo 
of /aliii, easy (compara with ffT and /f, the neutm U, ■(.', Ic f 1 S7. >] 
4 ffM and in'fff*. yi^uaj^ (Hom.V 


y.) Poatlc pinnb which have no comspon^ng dng. ; u J ft^it K. 964, 
md ntflif A. 3ST (yet r.ffiJr -t^wh. Tb. 535), Uiot, frvpt^ -^ ^Mfuuti 

A. SS, uid ra;pusi T. 357 (accflDteil u if from Sii^mit and rmfftiit), ri 
ri>ffi> A. 63, ltprd,ftmn,..^w*t, II. 3TD ; •; wXill a: 3U5, riiv irXini 

B. 139 ^ ■rXinx, r)LU»r, ann. 

1.) Poetic oblique ciuea which hiva no aSTHponding Ncnn. ; a«, «£ IivIb 
^aM-M. wiAi^ipt'y lenJded, £sch. Ag. 1319 ; jHX^jyvHUMif. hnn; tsmti/k. 
KoiiM, S^iph. (139), u»jL.r£w» Find. P. 9, 131, 'EJil^l. uX^o™"'- 
B. 683 ; rt>.mi„ &mrf B. 106 ; wX-^irmym Si^iUbi Pradn. ap. ALh. 
617 c; W"l('"' rirfitt At. Nub. B97 ; x'v'i «'!"'"■ Z****. ■*" ^^ K'' 
(Mf, jclfH (of which j^ifuB r. sas, >. SIO, ii ■ dowblAil miatiio), A. BO. 
^ 400, Ac — iciif«(, Ac., anns. 


[TT SI, 25.1 

^ 137. I. Ndhbbal Adjectives. Or oumeral adjectives, 
the principal are, (I.) the Casbinal, aoswering the queetioa 
noooi ; how many 1 (3.) the Ordinal, answering the question, 
nouioc; lehicMnordert oTfOne of hoKmani/? {3.)theT£M- 
PORAL, answering the question, jiouinlof ,- on whai day t or, in 
hoie many days! (4.) the Multiple (multiple!, hewing many 
_foUs], showing to what extent anything ia eomplicaUd; trnd 
the Proportional, showing the proportion which one thing 
bears to another. 

]. Cardinal. For the declension of the firat four cardinals, 
see IT 21. The cardinals from & to 100, inclusive, are inde- 
clinable ; as, oi, at, la, iiui|, joXf, lais, loit, rat, 'ftm, fire. 
Those above 100 are declined like the plural of q,U>o( {V 18). 

HoTES. m. ET|, from ita tdgntfication, i> lued only in tba angnlar ; Hi, 
mAj in (he dual aod plural ; and the other cardinals only in the plural (except 
with ooUectivfl nouns, in auch expresaiona aa Arrlt jUbf<« 'OJ rtrfKvtrimt 
10,400 tn/anlry, I. 7. ID. Trnt »T«>'r;t:'^''<>< ^<°°*^ ^'"t ^'1'- '^- S'^> 
For the dialectir as well u common declens. of the first fbur cardinals, see ^ 2 1 , 
We add ndarencea to authors for some of the lais tVequent fbrmB : lut Hea. 
Tb. 145, Ji Theoc 1 1. SS (in some Mas.), Iiucr. Herad., fy 7.. 432, tUm/ii. 
M (by aome writlw .Om/U,) HdC <v. 114, lui F. 336, )>J, Hdt. i 94, 
tii^ri lb. 32, rf.«n HippOD. FV. 8, rir^ii Hdt. c!L 338 {liucr. Lac), rin(m 
Hes. Op. 696, riTi(«, Ttwoc 14. 16, ritrfti i. TO, r.Vo^i O. 680, rirfan ' 
H«». Ft. 47. 5, Rod. O. 10. 83. Dialectic fcrma of aonie of the higbM 
numbeiB an, S i-ifin JE(^, 12 Ii^ias and Swaailua Ion. and Poet., 
'' UUtri Ep., iban Dw., SO rfnixttn loo. (we even Sod Gbo. rfnuirr^ 


Hm. Op. B94, Dat fnxi>nr*n Anthol.), 4D nrn;ri»n-> and riHifijwn 
lod., nremmntu Dor., 80 JyliiiHrB (§ 40. >) Ion., 90 linUm-a r. 174, 

SDO huMTW Ion., 9,000 imixlXn £1. 148, 10,000 1i*ix'>-'' !*>■ 

^ ETi has two roots, li. and /u.. Iti compoiudB ivliir and fislifi (wludi, 
for tba take of empbasla, ai" also written Mparalely, •>!) Ji, ftaii t!i) bavs 
the masc plnr. 

y. The commoa rorm of the seciHid cardinal b )ii>, ehortened (hno th« 
regular Hi, which is hy some excluded entirely from the Attic and from B»< 
rodotUB. The second form oT the Ckn. In7> Is only Attlu, and ii even ex- 
duded from some of the best ediiiuni of fnnd Atl. writen. The Dat. pL 
li>« occnn Th. nil. 101. Both ii;i {tit,) and i^f., badi (which is placed in 
^ 31, as partakiog of the nature ol a nunural, with that of an empfaadc pro- 
noun), are aametiings indeutinable (in Hum. aeya olhernlse) ; la, lit >inw> 
Tii. 6. 1, )■!• fiifmti' K.. S53, ]ini rnutinm S. 40T, x'C^' *f' ^^ Hum. 
Cei. lb. 

le j 70. 1. In the compnonda >»>. 

•Ten nrrofaoSiu used aa indeclinable. See Hdt. L 86, Hem- 11. T. 2, and 
Lob. ad F]u;fn. p. 409. The compoonda fttim 13 to 19 are also written wp- 
arately: rirnpi »! If... So rciTi y> ■■; >>» Find. O. 1. 1S7, nim ») 
li»Hdt.i. 119. 

I The ctnUnals become enBuiivt or rfutnAutiw by composition with riii ■ 
we, •Mtw, tuD ti^el^, or ba> at a Hbu, vi, 3. !. n,tfu, i. 429, rioJoli-w 
Eur. Tro. 1076. The diabihutive sense is also expressed by means of the 
pnpoiilions ••>, KST-i, and, la some connecljons, ii( and In'- aa, I{ Xi^'n 
in laanp ArtoMi, Muc cnmpattitM^ each a huxfrtd nvn, iii. 4. 31 ; tmfk nT^- 
^rxi)J-i, 4,000 at a tiimi, iii. 5. S ; x'l Uoni, 100 derp, CyT. tL 8. 33 1 
(•; nrricK,, fiyr dtqi. i. S. 15. 

Z. TIM Diuneral f^i(iM, 10,000, is distinguished from tiuflu, plur. tf /•!;('». 
ffoif, coicaflcd*, with which it was originaily one, by the acCCTt* 

^138. 3. Ordinal. The ordinal numbers are all de- 
rived from ihe cardinal, except npeJtot, and are ail declined 
with three leVminationa. They all end in -lot, except Stiifgott 
iSSofiof, and SySvog. Those from 20, upwards, all end in -ouioc 

Haasa. r. Dialectic forme are, 1 wfirti Dor., 3 rfiruru Ep^ 4 rit(mrtt 
Tj>-, 7 IjUifuiTw Ep., 8 iyiimTH Ep., 9 >'••'<< Ep., 13 l^JiUuft Ion., 
14 nm(m>u)i»nt Ion., 30 ■rfinirrh Ion., &c 

e. Inslead of the oomponnd numben from 13 to 19 in tba taUe (^ 25), 
we also tind the combinations rflrii uu liisrM, Th. T. !>6 ; rin^rtt nal 
>i>.r», lb.,ei ; «i,»mi *•! tiuTH, Ih. S3i&o. Also, iTi ui u'sfrm, Th. 
nil. 109. See § 140. 1. 

3. Temporal. The temporal numbers are formed from th« 
ordinals, hy changing the final -oe into -a7os, -S, -o*i thua, 
dcvtifo!, dn'Ttt/alos, -a, -or. From nputo;, no temporal number 
IB formed. Its place is supplied by av^i/ufog, -«■. 


4. Mtrr.TiPLE. Tho multiple numbera end in -nkoog, con 
tiacted -nlovi, and are declined like Smkoos, SinXout (IT 18). 

Other lama are thoH in -finii, cbieSy lon^ u, Ji^nw, r(if£r»r - als^ 
t»i., <-(<»{., Itm. l.£j|, rfii.i, CS 70. Y.J, &c 

5. Pbofortiona] The proportional numbers have double 
forms, in -nlliaiitt, -a, -ot, and, more rarely, -nhialur, ~dv 
a. -ofot. Thus the ratio of S to 1 is expressed by ditiaaiot 
-a, -ox, or Sininvlioy, -or, G, -0*05 ■ and that of 10 to 1, by fl*- 
xaitXiiaioe or Stxmilaaltiir. The ratio of 1 to 1, or of e<]iiality 
is expressed by laag (Ep. lun;), -^, -o*. 

^130. U. NnMSRAi Adverbi. I. The numeral od- 
verbs which reply to the interrogative tioaaiit 1 kow many 
times 't all end in -uxi;, except the three first; ihua, IhKiiinf, 
ten timu, irrtaiimiiiiiooiitaiintviioyi(mtaaiaius,TI$ (Mm, Pt. Bep. 
687 e. 

These adverba are employed in the formation of the htghn 
cardinal and ordinal numbers ; thus, Stoxlhm, itoo thonnmd, 
trtrimMtafihoojog, five thousandth. 

2. Other numeral adverbs relate to dtrmon, order, place_ 
manner^ &c. ; as, Ji/a, in two divisiotis, r^/^n, in three dtvit- 
iong ; ScvtiQor, secondly, i^liot, thirdly ; rgixov, in three placet, 
ntrti^u, in five places ; ntnaxmt, *« five witys, ija/oit, tR *ix 

III. Numeral Substantives. The numeral eubstantiven, 
for the most pari, end in -nc, -liioc, and are employed both as 
abstract and as collective nouns. Thus, ij fivi/iat may signify, 
either the number 10,000, considered abstractly, or a collection 
of 10,000. These numerals often take the place of the cardi- 
nals, particularly in the expression of the higher numbers ; as, 
Uku /iv^ioSk, tea myriads = 100,000 ; biaior [ivfidSf^, a mil- 

^140. Eehares. 1. When numerals are combined, the 
less commonly precedes with ntd ■ but often the greater without 
xal, and sometimes also with it. 

Thns, wim uJ ilxint, fits md tieemtf, I. 4. fi ; nr»fiji»n rim, fir^ 
Jbit, V. ft. ft : -rfiiiiHrrM lal irCm, thir^ atid flrt, L t. 3 ; mA/m) rfHi 
MfJ Jn'iiiii'km, rtimmrJiyyMt ■'im itMi f^iiMtrm ittu rtwrmKiriH, rrditti wvir^- 
■nm ani iixxirx''-^ ■■> /'if- iL S. S ; n-aS/i*! himitiu liurim, ■■>. 

[{■un. rnrittfTM, vii. 8. S6. S« v. &. 4, and § 138. p. 

Kom. «. From the division of the Greek month loto dtcada, tfaa daja 
lr«ie oftsn deugnated u ibUowi ; /ntit ^l(ifu£>H Inn M liss, <ipM As 

UH. 5.] raONOJNS. I^ 

[60i afl«r 10] \6lh <f Uk mo-A BoUnmim, Dcni. »«1. IS ; i^rr({<£.M 
I.rf l*i Jiairj, Id. ST9. IT ) falefiSm t*rf »'r' i!UU. ' Ihe 16th,' Id 
S6S. B. In lika muiiw, r^t yt yJoat V(li J»' kKXaitn ytmlt, MaA 
Prom. 77 S, 

fi. tiuUad of Adding dghl or nln^ ntbtrattim Ea oAen Kiiplavcd > i^ tiit 
...fvil luBTU rimfitanra, /oi% i^v ipiiiitny oh [40 — 1-^39], 11. 
Viii. 7 ; wiwi W> htiirni wtrimtm. [M — S — 48], lb. S5 J !>>» )•»■ 
rxf iiW>« »w.', H. Gr. L I. 5 tih^.hv Itwr )i»T* Ini, Th. IL 9 ) hi, 
iU, iU.irl, t,H, Id. TiH. S (cf. .>!« .^ )U«-» rr.(, Id. ril. 18) ; i.i, 
li»Tw rimmtrrf tni, in lit lAirtwCA jwir, oh inntiit^ Id. iv. 103. In Iikt 
manner, rfusHw* jn>i»ra />>;!•, Id. u. 13. It will bs obaeived, Hut Um 
paitidide may cither igm with Ihe greater nomber, or, by i ranr aautnie- 
tion, be put obtolula with the le«. See STntki. 

y. The ooiDbiiiadon* of fradiau with whole nnmben are verlouiljr ex- 
piwed ; Ihiu, (■) <■;;■ i^U-nii, tint haff-daria, i. e. I j daria, i. 3. SI 
(b) PuticulaHy in Herndotiu, *;,>•• i^ri!Xa>r», Iht third talmt a Imff Ima 
1. e. Sj labXi, Hdt. L 50 i IgJi^H |/u<-iC;u>rn + rincfrx Vri^'T" =- 
t^lxm }lu, 6j + 3i— 10. lb. (oampiie hi lai. mMUrttHi, Bhunenat from 
InaiiterlBu) : (c) LfU clawic, >» >■] iu</rui» /»■>, llw ■■] I/urv )(B;£>i>j, 
PulL ix. &6, 63 : (d) iir.V./Tn, a M«f u> addiliM, I. e. 1^, TeoL 3. 9i trf- 
irv>TTn, li, lb. : (b) ifuij^n. half ti nueh agaia, L •. 1^, i. 3. SI. 

2. The Table (H 25) exhibits the mosl common numerals 
with some of the inierrogatives, iudefinitea, diminutives, Ste. 
which correspond with them. 


I. Substantive. 
. ^ 141. Pexbokal, /yii, av, ov. The declenmon of these 
pronouns is peculiar. 

The aambers are dietingnisbed dm Uee l>7 diSkrence oT rwt, thul of q^. 
Thua, the let Peraon has the raiti, Sing. ^-, or, ae a more emphatic form, l/i-, 
PI iff, Du. >.; the Sd Pen.. Sing, r-, Pt. V-. ^- "t- ' "" 3<> Pb"'> 9'-°^' 
the rongh breathing, PI. and Du. tf- Moat of the forme have ■ cmnatiitg 
vamel, which in the Sing, and PI. i» 4- (in the Dat. sing, punng into the 
kindred -•-, ^ IB), but in the Dn., .^.. The fltxible endingi are Shig. Gen. 
-•, Dat. .(, Ace none (the primitive Direct CaM remained aa Ace., nhile the 
Nam., in the l>i and Sd Peraoni. had the peculiar fonna lyi and fC, and hi 
Ihe 3d, from ila reflexive use, early disappeared ; conipare the Lat me, te, »; 
*gB, hi Norn, of Sd Pers. wanting) ; PL Nom. .«, Gen. .«, Dat. -t. (the 
fieiible ending of the old Indireet Cam. 5 83), Am. ^( ; Du. Nom. -i <in the 
prolonged fomia tZi, tpii, the ., appears to have come ftom an imitatkiii of 

156 sOBSTANTivs FROKoiJKa. [boos II 

tbc Gen.), Gen. -fi. Tn nil the fomui in eommoD hm, tha anmecting vaw^ 
and flexible ending ars conCncted ; tlius, ift-i-i IfM, •-!-• rii, '-l-t rS ■ (!»•■!-• 
l/t-i-i) l/«''p ('->-') "■■ (■-'-') "'■ "^-'-'1 "y-f-fp "I— '-« '/^i- C'P-'-'O '»"• ■ 

exhibit* • different fonnatiap without ■ cuanecting vav«i) i lifL-i-it i^iiii 
ift-i-dt i^i, rf.iAi t^i ■ t-i-t ui, rf-a!-) if^ (» and rpi are aametjmei 
vrrittoi iDCCHTectly t^ and (^, ai if oontracled ftom wr, rf«i, $ 25. a) ; 
>.*-i> if ■, r^H-7i if^r (>fai*>, ftnm Its limited use, remained unmntrBclad) 

^ 143. Rkmarks. 1, Tlie Tabled 83) eihibita, Ist. Uiacmnmon 
fbnDS of the pereonal pronouns | Sd, tlie rorms wliich occur in Homer, whelber 
ooromon or dialectic ; 3d, the principal other ftorma wtiicii occur. The forma 
to which the agn f is affixed are enclitic when need witiiout emphasis (see 
Pmaod]'). When the oblique cvw Sing, of t)* an not enclitic, the lunger 
Anns i/iiS, 1^, 1/ti are em|ilDyeil. 

3. Hie pTonoon t! Is used, both as ■ simple peraonal pronoun, and at a e- 
flexive. bi the Attic and Common diajecta, however, it Is not gieally a ed 
in dther sense, its place being c<Mnmonlj supplied bj other pronouns, llie 
plur. fimna r^( and rfia first oi-cnr in Hdt (vii. 168. i. 46 . For the lim- 
ilMiaiB and pecnUariUea in the use of this prononn, see Syntax. 

9. Baodea the forms whioh m common in praa^ the Attic poets also em- 
ploy, (a) the Epic GenitlVeB l^iSi^ n^,, lAn - {b) the Accnsati%-es >/< and 
rfi, without distinction of number or Kender ; (c) the Dat. pL rf!t, which 
even occms, though raiely, both in AtUo and in other poeti^, aa alng. ; 
(d| the Dat. pL of ijw and ri with tlie ultima short (.eepeciallj' Scphoeka, ; 
thus, ii^'!>, u/Hi, or Sftli, 1/tli. See 5. below. 

4. The DIALECTIC FORMH Biise diiefly, 'a] from want of contraction, as, 
^i>, &c ) (b) from protraction, as, l/uT; nU, I't, i/ult^, i/Him, rfii'vi 
(§ 47. S.'i ; (i) from peculiar contraction, as, !ful, ni. iS (^ 45. 3) ; 
(i) fiwn the use of different sHiieB, as Gen. F.p. -9it ll/ii^i,, riBi,, I9i>, 
5 84!, Dor. -« il»iH, contr. Ifttli. Im">i, tSm, contr. tiw, with ■ doubled 
naSt, and, eimilfirl; formed, inil ; Dat. sing. Dor. -ii H/n't, nn, rh, Tt ; 
(<) ftwn the retention of piimiljrc forms without the flexible ending, as 't/ii, 
i/tfti, i/ti, Sfifi. *fi (compare the sing. Vi, ri, I, and see ^^ S.3, 86 ; 
(/) from variation of root : as, Dor. r- for r- iri, nS, rti, ri, Lat tn, fu^ 
Ubi. ((, 5 70. S I i MtH. F- for the rough breathing (F'Ait, F~, Fi ■ Lat. •- : 
Mui, Mibi, k} ; Dor. 'l/t-, .£oL and Ep. i/ifi-, for lifi. <,'i/iir. fjU/iir. &e.) i 
jEn\. and Ep. i/i/i- tat 'ffi, iC/iftit. &c) ', Dor. •),- and f-, .£aL ir^fbrr^ 
<if;>, ^i, ^;>, i,f,, jifi). See Table, and 5. below. 

5. We add a few nferenea to anthors for the dislocUc and poetic forms ; 
lyi>> A. 76 ,'nsed by Hom. only before vowels , Ar. Ach. 748 iMi^. ', Ar> 
Lya. 983 (I,ao.', Theoe. 1. 14, .pEech. Pars. 931, Imya {'^tyt.yO Cor. 12, 
;iSj« Ar. Ach. 898 1 lf.i, K. IS4, Hdt. i. ia6, IfiiT. A, 174, l^.S A. 83, 
Hdt. tU. 158, ,Hu A. 87, Hdt. vii. 209, i^xi/ir A. 535, Eur, Or. 9S6, I^9i. 
8ap[*. 89 ; l^i, Tlieoc. 2. 144, Ar. Av. 930 ; «,<i<t Hdt. ii 6, V" ^^ 
Lys, 168, i^„ *. 432, Theoc 6. 67: A^In P. 101, t^ii.* K 258, 
•<^« Theoc. a. 158, if,f,i„, Alt 77 : S/u. A. U7, g^. or i^,, X. 344, 
Sopb. tEd. T. 39, 42, 103, Ar, Av. S86. •«>;, Tbcoc. 6. 106, i,^ A, 384, 
Theoc. 1. 102, tf,^„ S. 379, Ale 86 (15), £^/.>n> Ale 91 (78); vU, 
Q. 811, Hdt. i. 30, J/iSt r. 372, 'af^i Ar. Lvs. 95, S/t/u A. 59, Sapph. 
93 (13). Theoc 8. 25; ™ Cor. m, «ia. 418, H. D9C«iif>. .i E. 219, 

OB. &.} PBUONAt. l&T 

w» Z. 88: *< At. Lyi. 1188, Ssppb. 1. 13, rl-uK 485, nu Cor. 9; r» 

A. 396 Hdt. L B, n7i F. 137, ni; 1'. 306, Hdt. i. 9, >i9» A. ISO, Kar 
Ale 5l', nA &. 37, 468, rtli Hieoc 2. 136, n«t Theoc II. 25 ; «-« A. 
28, Hdt. L 9, «I> 1. 619 (not in B.). Hdl. v. 60 (Inscr.), At. At. 930, *.'> 
TtMoca. II, Find, a 10. 113 ; t! Tbeoc 1. », ru Tbeoc. 1. 56, Ar. £q. 
1»35; i^iu Rdt-Ti. 11, jl^ii Ar. Ach. 760. f^n A. 274, Sapph. 9S (17), 
TlMno.9. Ill ; ^« H. 1.^9, Hdt. iii. 50. iftiMf A. 34S, Vj">» Ale. 77; 
il^> or ^/u>, ^iph. Ant. 308, Sfifut A. S49, Tbeoc. I. 116, S/ifu Z. 77. f^>i' 
K. 551 ; ifiimi fi. 75, Hdt. i. 53, if^i, Ax. Lye. 87, S/ifi, lb. 1076, f>^ii> T. 
412. I^nd. O. 8. IS. Tlieac. 9. US, Soph. AuL 846 ; tfHT A. 336, rf^ A. 
574 ; rfiJ. A. 257, <^. 52 (here moBidered Norn, by some), cfif . ). 68 : I. 

B. 239, I'l i^. 400, ■■;• Ap. Rh. I. I03S, if T. 464, >> HdL iii. 135, ISii 
A. 114, .Esch. Sup. 66, FiSit Ale. 6 (71); I.r S. 495, 7. (orr>) Hea Fr. 66, 
Fu Sapph. 2. 1 ^ F< Ale. 56 (84), U T. 171, /», A. 29, Hdt. 1. 9, n, I^nd. 
0. 1.40. Theoc 1. lSO,£ech. Prom.'SS; ff» Hdt. i.46 ; rfio- S. SlMIdC. 
L 31,r^;*>< A. 535; if>' A.73,.iG9ch.Proni. 252, i« sing. Ham. H. 19. 19, 
jEsch. Pera. 759, rf. B. 614. Hdt. i, 1, »f' F. 300, ^„ Sophr. 83 (87), ^i> 
Coll. EK. 125, jrf. Sapph. 98 (40) ; r0i=, B. 96, rfiM, Hdt. i. 4, rptTi, ,. 
213, r^dit B. 5S7, rfi A. Ill, llieoc. 19. 60, Soph. Ant. 44, -^i Tbeoc 4. 3, 
Srfi Ale 92 (80) ; m— A. 8, <r^ or rff' P. 531 ; if.r. A. 338 : l/tin, 
i^[, !^H, /tiB'n, rid, TM, Iwi, &C., dl«d hy Apollonina in big treatiae on 
tiw Greek Fronoim. 

^ 143* 6. HiaTORT. m. Thedistinctinnofperan.IiketbnMorcoKind 
Kiaiibtr(_i 83], sppeoTB to have been at firat unly tviolidd, merely wpaniting the 
penm spewing from all other persone, whether spoken to or spoken of. We 
find tracea of tbia early use not otily in the roole cummnn to the Sd and 3d 
prasona, but also In tbe comnioo fbrma of Uiese pemme in the dual of verbs. 
The most natural way of deMgnating one's self by gesture is to bring lionie 
the hand ; of d^dgnating another, to atretch it out towards him. The voice 
heiB followa the analogy of the hand. To denote ourselves, we nnturally 
keep the voice at home a< much as is conMstent with enunciation ; while wa 
denote, another by a fonable emission of it, a pointing, as it were, of the 
Toice towards tha persoo. The former of these is acmniplished by dosing ttie 
lips and mnrmuring within, that is, by ottering n, nhidi beitcc became the 
great root of tbe lit personal pronouns. The latter is accomplished by sending 
the vince out forcibly dunugh a nanow aperture. Tbia, accimilng to the place 
~ of the aperture, and the mode of emission, may produce either a eibilaiil, a 
lingual, or a strong breathing. Hence we And all theae as routs of the 2d 
and 3d personal pronoune. In tbe progress of language, these two persona 
n,.re separnted. and their forma became, for the most part, diadnet, although 
fouuded, ill general, upon common roots. 

S, Tbe «- of the lat Pent, passed in the old Flar. (which afterwards bo- 
uime the Dual. $ 85) into the kindred >- (compare Lat. noi) ; and in Uia 
Ung., when prenounced with em|iha.'^a, assumed an initial 4 (compare the ^1. 
drfi, S'fi), which passed by precession into i. In the new Plnr., tlie idea of 
pluialjty was conveyed by doubling tbe f {li/tfi-, in tha Ep. and ^A. t/iiui, 
li/i^iai, a^^i, Sfifiri, t/titi') ': or more commonly by doubling the 4 to • 
($ SB), prenounced with the rough breathing {i,^-, in i,t,i7,, &c.), or. in the 
l)i>r.. to i ('if-, ill 'Hull, '~fi>, 'iiftTj. a/ti). From this (lie ii-iw I'lur. uf 
the 2d Pars, appears to have tieen Binned, by changing, for propriety of ai- 
tH^ssion, II, the deepest of the vowds, into n, the most [irotm^ve [i'/i/'-^ in tb* 
Ep. nd J^. f^i/ui, ifi/tit': l/ifui, f^H ' and '«^-, in vmv, &c) Witb tlw 


■xoBplrim of tU« indlaliTe plurd, the Plnr. and Da. oT the Sd and 3d pcr- 
•una bave th« uina root, ia wbich jiaraUty a expressed by jaiiung two of the 
»iga-< of tbeee peraons (_rf- ■■ r -J- p). In the aeparation rf tha two penooa, 
the aigD f became appropriated to tbe Sd Pere. (tml in ^e Der., r., aa in the 
Lat^ and aLu in the v«t>-eDding> .rt, -m, •Ui) ; and the n»^ breatluDg I* 
llie 3d Pen. (in an eariy itata of llie Language, thia waa F-i iu Lat. it be- 
eaine t- ; whQe in die article we find both the rough breathing and r-, and in 
verb-endings of the Sd Pers. both e, and more fV«qnentl7 r). 

y. In the Nam. aing., the subjective force appears to have been expressed 
b; peculiar modes or strsngtbening ; In the 1st Pers. by a double prefix to 
llie fs Ibus, S~y-i-ft (the y befaig inaerted dmply (o prevent hiatus), or, aa ^ 
cannot end a vord, iyi\ which paaaed, by a change of v to its corresponding 
vowhI (§ 50) and contraction, into (Ij-ia) lyw (compare tbe Sanscrit aham, 
the Zatd aim, the Bceotic ih. the Latin ego, and tbe Terb-ending of the- 
1st Pen. « in Greek, and □ in I^t.) ; In the Sd Peis. by atHxing F, which 
with the preceding ■ passed inla£ in the comman Greek (cf. $ 117. N.), bnt 
in the Borat. bilo tv (compare the Lot. tu, § 12. 0) ; in the 3d Pars, by 
aOixing A (perhaps chosen rather than F, on account of the initial F), before 
which precraaicni look place (§ IIS), so that the fonn became F/A, and fhtm 
tills, IA w f A, and, by dropping tike A, ° or ' (this obsolete fbrin is dted by 
ApoUonius ; compare the L«l. it, ea, id). With this Horn, there appeara to 
have been aseodated an Ace. Ti or J^ of which ^i> and m are strengthened 

^ 144< B. Refi.bxiv£, l/iavtov, atainov, invrai. These 
pronouns, from their nature, want the Nom., and the two first 
also the neuter. They are formed by uniting the personal pro- 
nouns with auio;. 

in the riur. of the 1st and ad Perscos, and soineiJmes of the Sd, the two 

Uomer, tbcy are distinct in both Sng. and Fiur. ; thus, I/a^iiA.a71, 
IfiiSii eifiJwi/tM airjii '),, 7B, nii'ii /«• i. 244. In the common compound 
bnas, l>x personal pronouns omit tlie flexible ending, in uniting with nirii, 
and in the Ist Pers., and often in the other two, cootraction takee place : 
llH.iBTn i^unii. rt-aiiril ruin-iii, l-imi! svrw. In the New Ionic, on 
[he other hand, the flexible ending oT the Gen. is retained, and is contracted 
with «' m(o Ku (§ 4ft. G) : l^u-min'! litiiund. Ihe otha cases imitale the 
form of the Gen. : i^wiiiY< ■»■ The, Doric fbrms nirxirti, mSriivm, ui. 
mvrit, BvniiTc, &c, which occur chiefly in Pythagorean f^agmenla, are 
formed by doubling kMi. Apullonius dtea the comic Kom. I^imhvJi &um 
the Metced of the comedian Plato. 

^143. C. Reciprocal, If Uiiiuv. This pronoun is formed 
bj doubling aXXot, other. From its nature, it wants the Nora, 
and the Sin^., and is nol common in the Dual. 

^ 140. D. Indefinite, d Brlra. This pronoun may be 
termed, with almost equal propriety, de/imte and mdefinite. Tl 
is used to designate a particular person or thing, which the 


speaker either cannot, or does not care to uame } or, in the 
language of MattbiEe, it " indefinitely expresses a definite person 
or thing"; as, 7'o<> Suva fiyyaamis j Oo gov hioie JIfr. So and 
So 1 An Ttlesm. 620. 'O Sclta mi Jt(»u4 lir dilfa lioayyiU'i, 
A. B., the son of C. D., impeaches E. F, Dem. 167. 24. In 
the Sing, tliia pronoun is of the three gentiers ; in the Plur. it 
Is masc. only, and wants the Dat. It is sometimes indeclina- 
ble ; as, Toti dilva Ax. Thesm. 622. 

Vmx. The vtida i> ao MMatMl put nf thia pronomi ; and it wen batter 
Tritten u ■ lingle word, Utlta. It appears to be.simply an STteiuioQ of Ills 
dmHKiatTalive Ai. by "^'"g -■»- or -tfa, which givu to it an iiulefiQitc forco 
(of. § IM. I), making; it a dimimitralm mdrjlnili. When -n- via ■ppendoil, 
it racdved a double dedauioD ; when -lu, it hid onlj the declaiiloa at Iha 
article. It ttelongs propcriy to die oolloqulal AUic, and Ant appears lu Arift- 

11. Adjective. 

^ I 4 ?• All the pronouns which are declined in TT 24 may 
be traced back to a commcHi foundation in an old definitive, 
which bad two roots, the rough breathmg and t- (cf. ^ 143. 
a, /3), and which performed the offices buth of an articfe and 
of a 4atum*tralwR, personal, and relative pronoun. 

Remarks. ■. To tliia definitive (he Greeks gave the name if^m, jmit, 
from Ita giving coniUKtion lo discuurK, by marlcing tlie person or thing iptdieu 
rif aa ane wbich had l>een spoken of before, or which was about to be sfioken 
of fhnher, or which was familiar to the mind The Gredi name tfAfit b«- 
cime, la I^lin. urtinhj (mntf jotiit, fVviD artUB, joint, a woid of the aama 
origin wilb 2(3;n), ftom which baa come the Knglista luina, artiak. "VUa 
definitive, when niad as a damonstnitive, or aimply aa the definita article^ 
DatunUly pnctda the name of the person or thing spoken of i but when 
naed as a rdativv, nnially fiilhuBi it ; as, tlfif l>n> i ini; •• ii^ii, fAu a 
nm Hum wsotr you mm i ri filtr I iiSiT, thk mm which bloBmr. Heocc^ in 
the former nae, It «aa termed the prjumiivi, and, lu Che latlor, (he palpoikht 
mrtide. Whoi prepeeitlre, it was ao doHly oonnecled with the ftUowing 
w^^] tiiat its aspirated fbrma became proclitic. 

^ Id tiie progieae of the langnage, the fiiraia of thJa old luriMniVE ba- 
oams apedally appropriated, and other prunomu aroM fhim it hy derivation 
■nd cnmpoeition (aee the fbllowuig aectiooa). The fbrma «'( and n( cf tliB 
Koni. ung. becann obscJele. 

A. Definite. 

^ 14S. !. Abticlk, 0, ^, TO. The prepositive artwle, OT. 
as It is commonly termed, simply the articie, unites the pro- 
<lilic aipiraled forms of the old definitive, o, ^, ol, wt, with the 
■- forms of the neuter, the oblique cases, and the dual. 

Hon. 'nsAxnH »(ud«< are alMi uwd,fbrtba aakacf m«tra,«i9b««j, 


or cmpoada, In the Ionic (chieflj the Epic), *iid in the Doric ; s. g. n! A. 
t47, Hdt. viil f>8. 1 (wbei« il ia strongly demonstnitive), Theoc 1. SO . ■rm 
r. S, Theoc 1. 9. So, even in the Attic poets, ni %i £sch. Para. 433. So|ili 
Aj. 1404; nu'Af. Bq. I3S9. For the otbw diilecUc fiirms, MC §§ 9b, 96 
99. For Iba fiirma • and n, «aa $ 97. 

2. Relative, ii;, ^, a. The postpositvoe article, or as it is 
now commonly lernieil, the relative pronoun, has the ortholone 
aspirated forma of the old definitive. 

Note. For the dd Hwic. f (11. 835, S. 283), u well u fin- the Nent. I, 
na § 97. For the redurriicaWd Jn (B. 83») and I«i (H. 306), see § 48. 

^ 1 40> 3. Itehative, iitro'c, -fl', -o (§ 97). This pronoun 
appears to tie compounded of the particle nv, again, back, and 
the old definitive rds {^ 147. /?). it ia hence a pronoitn of 
RETUHN {or, as il may be termed, an iterative pronoun), mark- 
ing the return of the mind to the same person or thing. 

TSt/TB^ M- Ho Xev Tonic often inaertfl i in n^r-f and ita componnda, 
before a long vowel in the affix (see $ *B. 1, f 34). This belongs eepedallr 
to UippocrateB and his imitator Aretsus ; in Hdt., it ia chiefl}' confined to 
the torna in -^ and -« of mirlt aud ilTric e. g. ■vria, airim and (vrai, 
HdU i. 133. BBrfM rnriin lb. iL 3. For the other dialectic fonne of aurir, 
see 55 95, 96, 99. 

$. The artida and uirii are often united by cnuis (5 39) ; as, mirit, 
nirh (§ 97. N.) or rmiri (Ion. r~m HdL I. »3, § 45. 6), «u«^, 
for ; .£*^., TJ .M, T» .i»S, ri tiri. 

^ 130. 4. Demonstrative. The primary demonstratives 
are outoc, Ihit, compounded of the article and ai'io; ' oSr, this, 
compounded of the article and Si (an inseparable panicle mark* 
ing direction lovMrds), and declined precisely like the article, 
with this addition ; and ixflrui, that, derived from ixi'i, there. 

Note. Of U>r»[ (which, wilh ikki, oOer, ia decUned iiks ■frit, § 97) 
there are also the forms, Ion. itiTrti, which is also commoa hi the Att. poets, 
.£ol. Ki,., Sapph. 9. 1, Dor. n>.r Theoc 1. 4. In the Epic forms of Hi, 
riliiiri f. 93, Ti/riirr. K. 463. r«r!i»A fi. 47, there is a tftdm of double 

Rekahes. (I. The definitives laloc, sveh, tSaot, so great, 
Tiji/no;, sa old, and rirtns, to litiU, are strengthened, in the 
same manner as the article, by composition with avtot and 3c ' 
thus, loiDuro; and juioadi, just suck, loitovios and loudu^t, jmt 
so much, iijlijioijros and ttihxiiiSr, tfrmvim;. These compound 
pronouns are commonly employed, instead of the simple, evtin 
when there is no special emphasis. 

fj. In declining the compounds of auid; with the article and 
adjective pronouns, the following rule is observed ; — If the ter- 
" I of the article or adjective pronoun has an O vowel, it 


«?«■ 6. («i. -i^;^) «j«. CI so- ("". »™.) ™w«,, (.rfe, -iw) 

«r>m, (nr.r airi) rmfr. and rn^n, (§ 97. N.) 

/. To demoiistralivea, for the sake of stronger exprcBsioo, 
nn I is affixed, which is always long and acute, and before 
which a short vowel is dropped, and a long vowel or diphthong 
regarded as short ; thus, oviooi, nvi^, louii, tkU here ; PI. ol~ 
jUlt avTial, tavit' ixtitoai., that there; o3l, taaovraat. 

Noix. 'Dkia 1 parapogie {■ Attic, and belooga npedaHy to tlie ttyta <i con- 
TSnMico and potnlat' discoona. It waa alio affli«d to advCTba ; ■% tinti, 
M, mi, ItrmiAi, ImiiSin. So, in cumio langvags, aren with an inaerud 
panide, in^n Ai. Av. 448, \iytrmiAi Id. Thesu. 64fi, li^inr^m' Ath. 

^ ISI< 5. Possessive. The possessive pronouns are de- 
rived from the personal, and are regularly declined aa odjec 
tivea of three terminations. 

W« add nfimnccB (br (he leu « 
nfH, A. 916, in Ap. Kli. =• r^ 
805, Soph. Aj. 44S ; k^ or i/tit, Z. 414, PyiA. O. I& 10, Theoc S. lOi 
.fsdi. Qia. 4SB (used pHrticularly in the AtL poets as aing.) ; <l/uri{>f, 
Theoc i. 31 ; l/i^i, Ak. 103 ; i/titirifi. Ale. 104 ; i-W, y. 1S3, .£ecll. 
Prom. I6S ; if^i, a. 375, Pind. P. 7, 15 ; iii, .. 409, Theoc 17. SO ; tfit, 
A. 534 ; til (•> 7i), fwH, cited by ApoDomua. For the om of tbs poeeea- 
rivea, puticulariy It, \ii, rf iri;ii, rfi.-, and tfminfi, see Synt», 


^ I S9, I. The SIMPLE iNDEPiMiTB is ti;, which has two 
ffiots, II*- and 11-, both appearing to be formed from t', the 
root of the article, by adding -ir- and -i- to give an indefinite 
force (cf. 5 146. N.). 

BEHaBKa. ■- The later root m. is declined Ihrongbont after Dec ITT., but 
the eaiiier n- only in the Gen. and Dat., atter Dec. IT. (except in the Gtni. 
Sng., which imitatea the personal pronount) with contractian ; thos, rTi, tI, 
rltii. rtrl. &e. ($ 105. ji) ; G. ru tk, D. n^ rf, and, in the compound, 
PL G. ii-w< Itvt, D. frii.n Ut,r, (also Ion. ri.>, Ttxri, § 1!<3. y). For the 
acccntuotlun, and the Torriu iirr>, am, see S, below, and & I ^3. a. 

0. The short i of rli, rlri, and the omlndon of t b W, suggest an inters 
mediate cool «-, formed IVnm n. bv preceauon, ind anerwarda Increaiwl by 
* fcf. § 119, and •;«f, « 1S3. }->. To this inl«niiediata root mij be refecred, 
socording to I}ec. II., the jm. nV i Sapph. 55 (34), riHrx id. 109 (1 13). 

2. The INTEBROOAT-VES in Greek are simply iho indefiniteM 
with a change of aecetU (see Syntax). C^iinilc 

163 ADJKcnvx rmoxoum [hook ii 

Hu, du tdrat d Oa indeflnite tIi (ntcept tlw pKuliir Ittw, wfakli !■ 
rutij- uxd aiwpt in oonnBctioii with in »di«ctiTB, and whiid) i* never lued 
JDtcrrogiiivWy) ue flicUie i while those of the intemiiiatiTs rii are oriliotoMt, 
and nevw take Ihe Rnra itxcnt. In leiksnu md gnnnnnn, Hv the iiake of 
distinctiaB, the fOnu of tlie fatdrfaite, rii and rl, are written with tha gm 
tiseot, or airtinil ■■ taaait. 

^ 1 93. 3. The composition of o( with it; formB the relatitk 
INDEFINITE ooTif, whoever, of which both paiTs are declined in 
those forms which have the root ti»-, but the latter only in those 
which have the root it- ; thus, ouhto^-, but aicn oiov. The 
longer forma of the Gen. and Dot. are very rare in the Attic 

NuTBa. a. llM Ibniu Mrrm, Att. trrm (f TO. I), appear to be abarter 
IbtBa of JriM, and are Mid t>y EvnUltaiiu to be oomponndad of i and tha 
Doric «i ^ TittL In ixrtwa conneetioni, they paaaed into eunpk inda6nit«a. 
Bud tb«D, bf a aoftar iHnnunoiatioa, bemns trrm, irrm. 

fi. The flmns wUch occur In Homo- of ni, rU, and 7t'i, which is the same 
Willi irrit, excopt that It hu no double dedenwia, are exhibited in ^ 14. 
Homa' hai alw the regular Rhths of Smt. The donbling of t ia aoae at 
tbe Ibmu' ie limply poetic, for (he sake itf the metre. 

y. Refereocea are added for manv of the fbnna of t)i, rii, and 7/m : Im 
r. 279 (J^Tii 187), rcr,e. 408;'t.ii Cyr.vni. 5 7, ™ , Soph. CEd T. 
M3S, Un i. 9. ai, ru *-. 305, Hdt. i. SB. rii , B. 32S, Irru s. 124, «> 
($ 45. 3) B. 3B8, HdL i. I», nf 2. 192, Hdt. T. lOS, iro ;. 422, HdL L 
119, Ittiv f. 121 1 » A. 299, 1. 9. T, tf I Sopb. EL 679, U-^ if. 6. 23, 
n. Hdt. u. 48, riri Hdt. i. 117, Ut^ &. 114, Hdk i. 95, ItT^ M. 428; 
Inu ». 204 (»»» B. 188) ; f;*Tfi am Cyr. ii. 2. 13, ^rn' inu r. 
218, £tt> Rep. Ath. 2. 17, lr» A. 654, Hdt. 1. 138, Ui,m X. 450 (2tih> 
A. 289) ; Ti» HdU v. 57, tJm < fl. 387, r(-> i >. SOO, J«x> >. 39, HdL 
>'iii. S5, rn>. vii. 6. 24 : ri^n Hdt. in. 97, in«n> O. 491, irivn Hdt. IL 
82, imin Sopb. Ant. 133S ; InHi O. 492 (iS>n»f A. 240). 

^ IAS, RmijUiKa. 1 . A4)eclivB JVinouns which have not baan 
■peciaUy mentioned are re^rularly declioad aa adjec^ve« of three tenn<nali<xu 
( 133. 4). For Che CoirelaliTe Pronouns, and for cha Paniclu whicli an 
aiBxed to pronouna, see 5 63, ^§ 317, 328. 

2. Spedai care ia required in distlnguiahing th« forms of i, Si, •!, rli, and 
■rif. Forms which have the same lettOTs may be ufl«n dlalinguiBhed by tha 
accentuation ; m, ■/, *7, aT. Special care is also required in diatinguisbing ibt 

»i by Google 


^ ISS. Adjectives and Adterbs hare, in 
Greek, three degrees of cMnparison, the Positive, 
the CoHPAHATiVE, and the Soperlative. 

1. Comparison of Adjectives. 
In adjectives, the comparative ia usually formed 
in -xtoos, -A, -Of, and the superlative in -rajos, -17, 
-Of ; iMit sometimes the comparative is formed in 
-toy, Aoy, Gen. -lovos, and the superlative, in -taros, 
-^, -ov. 

A. COMPAEISON 18 -ttfOC, -tolOfl 

^ 196. In receiving the affixes -ti^o; and 
-rectos, the endings of the theme are changed as 
follows ; 

1.) -OS, preceded by a long syllable, becomes 
-o- ; by a short syllable, -o- ; as, 

Beuabkb. «. Thia chuiga to -■■ tak«a place to avoid the snccfnlon of 
too man/ abort ayUablee. TlireB anccewive ahort ayllabUia Are inadialBuUB ia 
bexametar Ferae. We alsi flnd. for the lake of the nieti«, >m.E>'»>rifH 
m.t1i.^AfirrmTH fi. 350, KlC(intn P. **6, SZ'ti"'"' t. 10^- lonepect 
to >i<i[, 'ni]*ii. and frfiu wnTw, Bnthoridea var?. 

0. A mnte and liquid preceding -h bave common!; the aame effect M m 
kog aySable ; iw, rftifii, m/iemmt, if^irif^, rfAimrn. Yet here, tbo, 
the Attic poeta sometijiiH employ -*- for the sake of the metre \ a, lirrtft- 
WfArt^fja. Ph. 1348, A«;<w<T/»nni[ lb. 1345, linsH^ati Id. Hec 630. 

;■. In a few words, -a; ia dropped ; and, in a few, it beoomes 
•«!-, -(a-, or -to- ; as, 

nnlnioc, diKTienf, naiUtfiipo;, nahUiatof. 

fiUo;, dear, ipUjiifos, ifUjaioe. 

friendly, ipiXahrfot, ifduhaiot. 

^Uli/of, guiel, ^uvxaiufos. ^avxahajot- 

lolof, talkatioe, laUaiif/os, loUnmioe. \\C 

coupARison. [book t 

But irX(Jn;ii, lea fit fir MO, Th. t^. 60, ilxf^^-' ^^ 10- H, %i 
rwri;«, Eq. 1. 10, &c 

(c.) Olher exim[dn of -h dropped in comparison are yifiuii, M, *>;*• 
Xkiii, at Uitun; of -n changed to -mi-, iSHai, dear, iJik. private, 'rn, equal, 
pUn, MiifdlB (aeo ). below), IfSpi, uI dmeit, t-^iti, bile, r(^7ti, earlyi of -tt 
changed to -ir-, aiiiTif, angnel, it^Mrti, mtmiixd, ^^itM, t^^ ^f^'"i, 
bovUifnl, ivlrtiu, lend, iJ^v^if, JMre, ^v/tti, tweet (poet.) ; of 'tt changed to 
'tr-, /tntfmyft, eaJiJi^ ahne, i^§^yti, fim'nfjr, tfr«;^ir, poor* 

i. liitn and >i>f have old niperiatives of limited and chiefly poetic tun in 
■«'H ; thus, joirorif, midmott, Ar. Vesp. I S02, Ep. /tirrmr^, &. 323, >i«»f, 
bel, hieet, A. Tia, Soph. Ant. 627, Ep. •ilxrit, B. 82«. Compare Ir:i,inf, 
(,eJ«™) -(Jr.,. and ff»-T« (5 161. 2). 

^ 1S7. 2.) -£(s and -i^s become -ta- ; as, 

Xadlciff agreeahle, jrapdifit^of, jr'^"''"'°"^- 

uat^ri^i tcxdtnt^ aaipiain/o^f atufftuiatOf- 

ni»|)$, poor, JurioiiffOC, nitioimoi. 

Kekabk. In ai^ectiTca of the dret declemdon, and in ^],iMi, -» beounw ■ 

wr-; a*, wi-itUriii, -m, anxtoia, rS-trnHTirrmrH ' ■J-ivIn, -iwi fal", ^w 

lirrarif. Except, for the sake of euphony, iliptrit, -a^ tmobiu, ififirrm 

(H V. 8. 3, ^rrn-sTH, lb. 23 (rcAned bj aonw to S^imi). 

3.) -vs becomes -v- ; as, 

ni/iafiog, old, ai/ta^utti/ot, itfuiptnatoe. 

For Uie take of the metre, S^mrm 2. 508. 

^ 158. 4.) In adjectives of other endings, 
-jegos and -laios are either added to the simple 
root, or to the root increased by -£<r-, -ta-, or -»- ; 

laXag, -avo^, torelchfd, talarufOt, lalttrtntoi. 

oaufgtar^ -orac, ditcreel, oaxji^PtiiK^o;, auiffonintitott 
uiftai, -u/Of, rapaiAiua, agnnylirTatog. 

irtljritfif, -iTOCi pleanng, ^nt/npiiaiiEpoc, inijofiiviaiot. 
BoTSa. ■. Otbsr examples im /tiiutt, bUaed, itutifrtirH X. 489 ; ^(Xat 

CH. 6.] utfEcnvu. 16B 

-»^, titit, fUi-imtH, A. S7T, «ad wXat^nfM, Sbib. ; ifiix<{, •»•«, alfc- 
^ J^ljiiirnfK ■ Maf. -dmii, ibqiiil, i>.M»irtfH, -*»nf, Mem. iii. 13. 4, 
Iv. 2. 40, far vbkh aonM nad iymmiTift, uul fiXaursrH oi pLa>iV»iw 
EVom txi(H, ditagrttatk, wt Bod tb* •hwUr Ibcm A;£a{/m^, ■. 89S. 

g, hputiciilailymada tn*4}Ktivfia in .«. Tat miim 
of tbtts empio]' ahoner furnu ; u, irivwi, r^ mrainf<< jEieh. Fr. S44 ; 
■fx^ /bI; vMrifH, Horn. Ap. 48, tfunm, L 577- (u tiom tbt nn rw, 
Ofph. Arg. 508) i InAifr^n, JbwOH VrAaTMirmnH At. Nob, 790 (ImLii. 

B. CoMFABlSOIf IH -tir, -tajot- 

1j 199. A few adjectives are compared b; 
changing -vs, -as, -os, and even -fos, final, into -lov 
and -lazos. In some of these, -tmv with the pre- 
ceding consonant passes into -aatav (-rrof, ^ 70' 1) 
or -tav. Tlujs, 




!<«.«, ««yj. 

*<«OT«^, tfo'lTM., 


nolis, much. 


^I'yoe, p-eo/, 


««ade, beauiifal. 


«iu7pM, *««, 



4»p<if , AoXife. 



BnuBKB. .. nv tlu 

-•>, M 1 n M>d 

$ 107. The 1 in tba ifflx 


. ta kog in tbe Attio 


but ■hart in tha 

A- Tba ibnna m .trm and -C*> obeerre tMs diatinction ; ■#»> can ■»■« 
only when the oxiaonant pnoding ■•» i» c, ;^, r, }, or ^ ; 'Jim, □nlj' irben 
thu coaHnunl b 7. The mini precading bacomn long \ij ■attatt, prafaapt 
from > CranspOBltiiN], and abaorptian or contracUim, of tbe 1. Tbns, ri^M 
(ori^nalljr &*jt:i!i, ^ Sa), »>:('■> S*""'. Noat 9irr» (the ngnlu *>;(;;» Ii 
alra common is \Mx proaa) ; iKixn (t'-Pic ; 1*^k"> II"m- Ap. 197), wnuJl, 
IxiiiM,- nxii. Hack, w„X'-. (Arat.) rem., t. 830 : ftom i. i.., Comp. 
i<»i, n/swr (Ion. Ir»t, Udt. v. S6); yyfxii, nmt, yJLi>iti» (Z. 109) 
7x£r»>, Xeuophuu : ^mmfit, taHf, mirm poaU ^ ^03, Jlscli. Ag. S98 ; 
Xfi'ri, (E|HC n. 181), ttrtymg. Mi,',r« (lon. i(i«», Hdt. i. S6) : Sc*)n. 
*A>». ^u);.. (Sw. Op. 536) 0;ic»> K. 226 ; 4*3w, (Inp, 0>>3ii» (Trrt 
3. S) Btrrtn, Epicbum. ; ^Ifnt (the only adj. In -« compared in -ift, -irrn), 
^,ym, t'iiZ" (loo- <<•:?" Hdt. L aOi) : Utj-n, ;>f;->. Call. Jov. 72 {in- 
Xiiirii 2. &I9). It will be ubaerved that many of tbeae oompinitiTe* ara 
-nerelj poetic Compare tbe formation of vfrba in -m and •%. 

y. Tbe nxit of riXw i» rrki-, hj BfHoopa rki.. From thia dwrt root an 
fbriaed the cwmparative and superlative. n>.i*ir la a yet dwrtcr liim for 
rkiiii, Tlie longer form ii more common in tbe cootnclod caaea and [Jural, 
re need than *).i7.i., eapeclall; as an adrttb. Tba 
mat wkvt, but orij In mdi phnaea ai wxiTt H i^- 
Tbe Ionic toabnOa '»- Into -la- (§ 49. 8) ; t^ 

[bouk It. 

1. In lb 

Coa>p.>cdSQ|>.<>f »iU< 


Boon W miX).H 


In the adjectiTH in ^» wUch ■» comparad 

a ■;.» and -.m.. 


ud 8^.4>p~rU.I»v<c 

ome dtfaer from a aii 

upler fom of tha 


w SnUSl. R. 

>. Hoat i^fMliva vUA mn ompaad u abtm ban ako ftHHU In -n^ 
and -tmni ; Ibiu, 3fi)v(, jbis, fifmiinftt, fifaHtn, and ^(imn, Bf ^ rmnt, 
fifihrm. and b/ puetic metath. (§ 71), 0ii(l>rTit, Y. 310j /uufii, £>■$. ftm- 
■firi^ (nd ftittirr, ftaufirmrH Od (<< beeomiBg by ftrecsaaion ir, oa in Ih* 
Douu « p>»r, -'1, In^) MMifivf, Cyr. iv. 5. SS, Dor. /uurTii, Soph 
<Bd. T. 1301. Other utampln sT douUe fdimatian an ■iV^fii, Ijc^^ ■•- 
){« (pMb), rtmiffiKl, Kmrti,, fkiabk. OmAit, fif-K*!' »*^ r*»»»h »"1P»1 
-(w#A. «;cA. "«, -"A —«. (5 160), piX« (5 156. a), *«. 


$ 160. Some adjectiTea m (he comparative and superla- 
tive degrees are fonned from poaitives which are not in use, 
from words which are themselves comparatives or superlatives, 
or from other parts of speech. Some of these are usually re 
ferred to poaitives in use, which have a similar signification 
and some of which are also regularly compared ; thus, 
SjmSit, good, iiubmr, SfitFiat. 

jSfZlinr, fiiltwtot- 

nf/liaaaiy, Kfiitteir, xfaiiotot. 

Xifoir, liMtrof. 

PoM. i/iuiJrtti, SOmn. 11.9; ipi^ Mact. Ag. 81, IfuSntH, TheoS- 
B48 ; fliXntH. Mmh. Th. S3T, SUthw, Id. Earn. 4S7 ; fi;«;x, Id. Pr. 
TAB, fi^iTM a. SS9,, Soph. (Ed. T. IISS, and srat PL Pbmb 
S3S i, fiir.,TH, Pind. Fr. 02 ; ;l.;«, ^ 169, ;i>Iri:.(, a. 376 (the poa. 
fonn jjra occnn Tbeoa 26. 33); .^(nnw, A. 366 (J 71 ; »o ahraya in 
Horn.). Dor. ^Imrr.i, Tlieoc. S. 76, Mmfimt, nra. ap. FL lOa d : loa 
■cW» (5 IS9. »). Lale iY*^f"i, I>'ad. 16. Sfi. 

bA/iivoc, painfid, iXyiair, Slyiojas. 

alytiroufoe, al/nvonnof. 

»oxo>, Jdrf, nauuo, vtHtoior. 

i)0«ir, qTcatv. 

J 248 (fi3f Uw 6^ ^if^_ ft^, »hijl,^ tlioogl, parts™ In fbnn, an can- 
p- tiTO in noM. see S 136. V) ; *„„« or 4»r»f Y. 681 (»««» aa an ad- 
•"" '™™— ~ ~ AtlJc pnae ; Allan aM» #««■« oa an a^j.). Ion. Um 


^tfSiof, easy, 44""' ii'"^- 

Pom. ;.»«. X. 14S, ;^.«, Tbeog. B74, ^«^, 2. 168, ^^«^ Find. U 
8. 78, ^iVnf, 1. SS9, jjvnt, TlHin. 11. 7, fntnmi, r. »TT. Ite caramn 
foondiuion of tbefiiniixtf thiiword appam to haig bMn ^■li'^' (ne $$ 118, 

^ 10l> I. Ezttmples of double comparison. 

Ifa^HTW, fart, txtrtnu, irxmnrtiH (03rt yif nZ li%Br» Ir^'r^f "St 
iin. AiislLHetaplL 10. 4), IrjCXT^srH, H. Gi:.u.S.48. 
Wfinft, br/bre, comic irftrysinfu Al. Eq. 1 1 64 ; 

AA. 'Al.x' •£ T;(i«(ai, i>.L' lyi rfrifmlrifH- 
wfZrt, firtt, rfiinm,, jfrX of I'll, B. S28. 
t>ji%imf, &a^ IXmxirrintH, tt— thoM Ml kort; Ep. EpfacB. 3. S. 

2. Examplea of adjectival in the cunparadve and auperla* 
tin degreee, formed from other parts of speech. 

fiMnXtii, Hup, BM/.Xiiriftf, mart Ungfy, ■ grtalir Majf, I. 1 60, fimrsXiira- 
ttt, Oit greatat king, I. 69. 

hm^, fiiaid, Iru^s-rii, iai friend, PL Qacg. 48T d. 

■Alniti, Oiief, xXirrlrrmm, sunt admit (Ue/; At. Pint. S7. 

Mint, dag, uvrrtftf, mm litff-EJu, am anpudtni, 0. 4S3, titrmrii, E. SOS. 

■i^, -tH, gait, lUfHtn, mare ffoatfid, t, 41. mlt>.rrt, Saiib. Pr. 3S5. 
' ui-rit, Unmlf, ai^r^nHt f^iich. 3 (1), stTmH-M ( jaininw H Flwit. TrinoA 
tv. 2), Aii (wy k/^ At. Plut. 83. 

tyxi ot lyx"^ ""i *>';k'^'». «™w. Hdt. TiL 176, i)'x'*^t'"> l^or. 
Pel S, Dftenv li^^^^irrx Soph. CEd. T. 919. 

trm, Bp, itirici, fpfr, imntTH, aj^HTmait, Hdt. iL ISB. 

iifi/ut, $iiuf^, i);i^i>n;>f, nun piie^ Cyr. vli. 5. 63. 

xAnrin, Mor (rXnr/H poet, and Ion.), s-XiiriBirifit 1. 10. B, rXnmurmrti, 
TfL 3. 39, abo r).«nlrr>fi(, -irrsni. 

rfiffyiB. n/ iMportauM, ■■(•u{}iai'<n{>[, nan bgUftes^ R. Gblg. 458 4 

^ Mt t/, tr^anf, e*4nn(. 

vfl, Eifon, rtirtft, fmnr, WfSri (§ 1B6. J), Jtrtt fDw. wjirtf Tbaoo. 
8. 5. 5 49. 1). 

Mf, aiowc, arlfTifw, n^mior, iiiifrmni mA Smm, npi *mu i^trifinrm, 
PiDd. N. 8. 73). 

M C?), frnfw, Inter, Errini, Iu(. 

Rehabks. Wa find an nrpkiuthn ot titeae fbinwtloiu in the on of prep, 
edtioiu u adrvHa, and of adverba aa a^jectJTei ; in the Act tlut nUBy ntrant 

168 COKPAUSOM. [book II. 

■n origiiuUly a^ectJTei ; and in the atill more importMit taiA, that in tli* 
orliwt period of Ungiuge thc^ ia u yet no gruimiatica] dutinctioQ of thtt 
dlllBrsil puts of q>«cli. For other exampla of compmntiTes and luperia- 
tivea wbidi appear lo be fonned fhim Douni, Ke, in 5 I SOi iX^Un, -irrtt 
(from iX'yn, .IK, |Hnii), and Jfirm (like i(iri, from "A^ni or a common 
root, *nd ligniQ'iiig originaU; bal in war), and also J 159. 1, i. Add tlu 
poetic iiSl^m, I- 6*2, f,yi„. ^m, A. 3S5, E. 873, ^v):*^'), Ap. Rh. 1. 
no, frnxtlrmri f. 146, irXin^n, -rmr,i, B. 707, H«. Th. 137, tc; and, 
from adverba, ir:rrtfH, -rant, 0. 31S, rmfilrtfu, -tsth, "¥. 4S9, Ap. Rh. 
I. S9, ^;'i'n{n, nieac 8. 4G, v^I», Find. ft. 333, S-^rm, Sack. Pr. 
720, &C 

II. CoHPABison OF Adtebbs. 
ij 103. I. Adverbs derived from adjectives are 
commonly compared by taking the neuter singular 
comparative, and the neuter plural superlative of 
these adjectives; as, 


"^'^^ . =,=.. «.«-e«^rfy. 

mori toisel ■ 

oaftit (from aaipiis, § 157), oiaptaiifov. 


clearly, more elearli/. 

most clearly. 

xaximq (from mxus, % 159), fiaoaof, flano^, 


ai'mrpais (from alaxi/it, § 159), Bfo^or, 


ran to the Comp. 

u, j:-Jjt»t((-., -MM tennl^, l;c5i(«., i. o ww A«»ifa 

-»«r. SoSnp. 

^ 163. II. Adverbs not derived from adjec- 
tives are, for the most part, compared in -xiga and 
-laiia; as, 

TtnrnBiriL ■. The following an compand aftor the aiwlogr of idTntn 
darired from adjedivea : 

tyx' or iyjC'S, MOT, Jrrn, iyx'"'- 

Bo ffut, early, and l^i, late, employ femu <^ the a^ectivea 'till, l^ut 
($ 156. o), derived from them. In imriw #. fi7S, m hare a poetio donUt 
form (5 161. H.). 

0. Soma adreita vary in their compuieon ; as, 

(Hot Att) [j-Tui, tyyMT*. 





^104. Verbs are conjugated, in Greek, to 
mark five distinctioas, Voice, Tense, Mode, Num- 
ber, and Person'. Of these distinctions, the first 
shows how the action of a verb is related to its 
subject ; the second, how it is related to time ; and 
the third, how it is related to the mind of the 
speaker, or to some other action. The two remain- 
ing distinctions merely show the number and person 
of the subject. 

Greek rertM m co^jngabvl botb hj Pbifixes and b; Aftixkb. Fot tlis 
pnfixo, MeOt-TlIl. ; fbr the aSixea, *m ^^38-31, ud Ch. 1Z.( &c 
tlw mnfiAomiiiiB wbidi Um rvot itself rtceivge, we Ch. Z. 

A. Voice. 
^ 163. The Greek has three voices, the Ac 
TiVE, the Middle, and the Passive. 

The Active represents the subject of the verb as the doer 
of ibe action, or ils agent; as, iui'v tivb, I wash lome one. 

The Passive represents the subject of the verb oa the re- 
ceiver of the action, or its object ; as, lov/iat into iirof, / am 
washed by some one. 

The Middle is interTnediate in sense between the Active and 
the Passive, and commonly represents the subject of the verb 
as, either more or less directly, both the agenl and the ob- 
ject of the action ; as, tlovoiifiii', I mtsbed myself, I bathed. 

^ lOQ. Remasks. 1. The middle and passive voices 
have a common form, except in the Future and Aorist. In 
£tymotiigy, this form is usually spoken of as passive. And 
even in the Future and Aorist, the distinction in sense betweec 
the two voices is not always preserved, 

2. The reflexive sense of the middh voice often becomes so 

indistinct, that this voice does noi differ from the active in its 

use. Hence, in many verbs, either whqlly or in part, the 

middle rti'ce takes the place of the active. This it particu- 



larly frequent m the FiUttre. When it occurs in the theme 
(^ 170. o), the verb is termed deponent, (deponens, laying aside 
sc. the peculiar signifioation of the middte Ibrm). E. g. 

(■.) Ysriw, in which the Iteme bai Cha attiat, and Ilie FUmv has tLe nud~ 
db fi»w : ixtin, M Mir, Xihh^uu ■ ^x'hs *>* •!■>< Airifiw ■ ^'ij'Mfxw, to 
^wv, yrvff^Hu ' iv«Jt to be, Ifaf^mj ' ft^ntmwt/t to bar^ fuU^ftuu- 

(0.) Depsatnt T«rt» : aM^ri^Hu, (o penmt, yiyt4fuu, to bmtm, Hxnuu, 
ti nfSBt, iiim/tmi, to lit aAb, ^1^01, to rejoice. 

Vrm. A Deponeot Vab ia Unnod <i}i«i«(( aiiddlt, at iqitmait piimi, 
■ccording u Its Atdst hu ths mlddls or die psiaiTe Arm. 

B. Tense. 
^ 1A7. The Greek has six tenses; the Pres- 
ent, the Imperfect, the Future, the Aorist, the 
Perfect, and the Pluperfect. 

1. The PsESENT representa an action as da^ at the frment 
time ; as, yen(fu, I am writing, I write. 

2. The Ihpebpbct represents an action u deing at somtt 
past time ; as, iy(a:por, I KOt writing. 

3. The PuTUKE represeota an actton as one that wiU be done 
Bl sonie fitture time ; as, y^tSifiu, 1 shall tarite. 

4. The AoxiST {aoQia^ot, indefjiite) represents ao action 
umply 08 done ; as, iyigafa, I wrote^ I have written, I had 

5. The Pebfect represents an action as complete at the pret- 
eiU time ; ae, yiyfuqia, I haee wriiten. 

6. The PLnPERECT represents an action as complete at some 
past time ; as, iytyQaifeiv, I had written. 

^ I 6 S. Tenses may be classified in two ways ; L with 
respect to the lime which is spoken of; U. with respect to the 
relation which the action bears to this time. 

I. The lime which is spoken of is either, 1. preienf, 3. Jit- 
ture, or 3. past. 

The refbrence b) tinw Eg moat dutisct hi the Indioadve. In Oat mod^ 
those tanaca which refer lo present or fiitnre time tie termed firnnofy or chief 
Uaaea, and theee wbkh nter to past time Meemdary or AutoricoJ tenna. 

n. The action is related to the time, either, 1, as doing at 
the time, 2. as done in the time, or S. as complete at the time. 

Tlie tennee which denote the drst oT these relaClong may be tcnned (h)bil(i 
the ucond, mdefiuUe j and the third, con^ele. For a rjaaa^sd table ttf tbi 

«H. ?.] ' Bom. 1^ 

KWi a. Soon THta hna a eompble flMm tmn. «]M Ih« Futim 
Ptrflet, or tin Tlanl F^tmt (<^ 189} ; but, admtH. th* tbn« t«iM whlcti 
■n wuUing In Iha Ubla (^ 16), tU. tha tmil^hdtt prmnt, lbs it^Wk >fln, 
■nd the conpto / iibin, bti aupplM b; fumu b«h»i^itg lo olbar Udm*, or 
bf puticiplM combined with auxiliuy veibs. 

0. For di« genenl ftnrutiaa of the Greek t«ues, aee f SB. 
C. ' M(H>E. 

^169. The. Greek has six modes; the Ire 
DicATiTE, the Subjunctive, the Optative, the Im- 
'pERATivE, the Infinitive, and the Pabticiple. 

1. The Indicativi expresses dirtet ofMrlim gr-M^iry; ■• 
yf ofM, I an vriimg t r9^v^ > ^* ^ VFiling % 

2. The Subjunctive expresses present eontingenee ; aa, oi» 
oISs) Snet t^anw^aii J ^Icmno not, uhither 1 eau ivm, 

3. The Optative (opio, to leiah', hecause often used in tha 
^presBMU) of K wish) expresssa fott amlijtgetux ; as, ain gdiir, 
•itM ^fmnal^^*, Ibteanot,whmter Icmiid ban, 

4. Tlie Imperative expresses direct command, or enlreolv , 
09) /pa'v'i vrffe ; tvnriaOu, let him be bealea ; ioq fiai, give ne. 

5. The Infinitive paHakes of the aature of an aistraet 
noun i as, yijatfur, to write. 

%. The PAsnctF^E partake* «f Ae imtan of ut o^'eetoe, 
as, ;}'pa9iiir, tortting. 

$. Ifl ^ ngste faifladfon of the Onek verb, tha I>aeTTt ind Aoriit lisva 
all the modea bat tba TMun mnta Ae SnIiJiinctlVB and TmperadTe ; aA 
Iba Pvfect, fir tU miNt iivl, wanla tha SoljiuictlT* au) Optative, aod hko- 
wbe, In Iba activa mSiM, the Imperatlre. The Imperftct has the same tana 
with Ibe Pieaeot, and tlia Pluperfbct tha auoa form with Uw Perftot, uioapt 

y. Tbt teoats of the Bat^uncUve and Optatne wa ratatad to aaeb other m 
procxf uul /nit, or as primary Bod HcaHdafy. teoMS [$ 1 68. L I ; and Ktme 
have therafbn cboaan to oonHder them as oidy diSerent tmaaa of ■ ([nieral 
eonjonctlva at taatiagait meda. With tbia cbanga, (lie nnniber asd ofllces 
of the Greek modea are tha aune with those of tha iMia, asd the coneapotid- 
(oce bMween the Qieek GoqiusctiTe and the English jfolential loodea beoamca 
mora obvioua. 


^170. The numbers and persons of verbs 
correspond to those of nouns and }>tonoiuis(^ 164). 

ITS coMmoATioH. [book II 

HoTifc Tlw Imperative, from iu ngniflcation, wanla Ok finl ptnOK ; th« 
InAniUvB, from its dwtnct nsture, wuitB the diBlincticHU of nambcr and per- 
*0D alugetlur ; and the Putiuipk, at faitakmg of the lutara <rf an Adjective 
baa the dislioctiims of gtmbr and cote, inatead nf peraoii. 

Bkhabkb. ■. The Jimt femrn img*lar of the Fraatt indicatiee aetlBt, a 
In deponent veria (^ 166. S), atiddlt, it regained u the hikmb of the voti 
The luxiT U obtained by throwing olf - the affix of the theme, or it maj be 
obtained from any form i^ the vtirb, by throwing off the prefix and affix, and 
allowiDK for euphonic cbaajne- ^ veib >• conjugaled by adding to the root 
Iha preaxee and aiSxea in n !S - SO. 

fi- Verba are lUvided, accordintr to the charaeteriMtie^ into Himc, IjQim) 
DotTBLX ComoHAHT, and Pure Vbrbb ; and aecording to the ag!t t* Cit« 
Mow, Inlo Vbum IH ■••, and Tdbb ut .^ ($ £08. i). For a pandigm nf 
nyalor canjmgttion wWuml tmphaiiK duntja, gee ^ M, 3S ; tta shoftcr para- 
digma of Uie intral dbuu of vtrti, tae^^ S6- 60. 

^ For a fnller view <^ the use of tlie Onek vab In ita Kvaral ftemt, Ma 

E. HiSTOur OF. GREEt: Conjugation. 

^ I 7 1. lite early history of Qre^ coi^iigatian ean be traced only in 
flu aame way with that of dedenaion (J S3). The following view ii oAred 
■a one which haa much in its aui^Kot, and whidi aervei (a ezplolo the genera] 
phcDomena of the Oteek verb. 

Graek ooqlagatloa, like dedsnrion (§g 83, 143), was prDgmrfr*. At fliet, 
the root waa naedi aa In nouns, without iuHectloa. The fint distinotltm op- 
peora to have been that of pnan, which woi, at Siet, only Cwofi)ld, aSuing ft 
to expreaa the Arat pcraon, and a lingual or nbilant to ex^H^Ha the otbo' two^ 
Of thii •aaoad pmamninal affix, the dmplst and moat demonalralive Ann xp- 
pears to have been .r (cf. §§ 143, 148), By nnitiitg these offixea with tha 
mot f*-, la toji, we have the farna, 

fd/t, lot mt tag, fir, inn, t>, er tkjF nqr. 

Plur. t^n filni 

Upon the separation of the 3d and 3d Persons {} 143. t), the Sd, as being 
less dBmonntrative, took In the Sing, the aofler fbrm i (in some cases, n 
or /, in both which forma the t would, by the subsecnient laws of euphony, 
pass into (, onkos dropped or auslained by sn assumed vowel. § 63) ; while 
in the Pliu. there was a new formation (cf. gg B4, 85), In whicA plurality 
wiis marked, in the Sd Pera. by affixing ■ (cf, 5 83^ and in the 3d Peri, by 
inserting • (cf. .,.,, § 85). The dd Plur. now became, aa in nouna {§ 89). ■ 
Dual, and tia system of omnbcn and psmia was oompleto. Thos, 
1 Pen. a Pers. 3 Pen. 

Hng. fi/t fit fir 

Plor. ^/a, fin finr 

pMl fifu, firo 4*nt 


$ t T3> The (Tisthiction dT (oik, like thnse of number, oue. nxl tf 
«■> (^J 83, 1 13), wia at flrrt only Iwofnid, (li»tin)(ui»hing > fnuf m- 
tioo IhHn 1 /marnt or futvt am. lliia wiu niiturally dutw by preQiing i. (in 
fiuiaait, a-\ 10 expnsa, u it wen, the tkrorug Aunt of tlie acLim into pvt 
time (J 187). This expnuion, ll *IU be obwrved, b liriid by the lliniwing 
bau^ of the accmt. With the predx irf' ■-. a iliatinctkin wm 4Imi made b»- 
twean the Sd and 3d Penooa dual (perh>)» beeeim. the nore remote th« 
action, the man importaat hasmia* the spadflc derigBition of llw mibJKH). 
In the Sd Pen. Che inaertad ■ ($ 17!) waa bogtl 
Pen., aa in Ixith the ltd aiul Sd Penona of tba n 
Into the kindnd • ($ iS). Wa han mnr two I . 

ma-y Taut, irtikh Ba|>|iiiad the {dua of both the Pnaiw and Uw Paliu^ and 
Kw augmeolwl Sanw&ny Tmm, wliioh iTrraMBil pM action both deaaitalf 
ml iudrfnitaly, and aupplied the pUca of all the paal tauaa ($ 168). Ibim, 

Pmuubi Txaam. Sboosdabt Terse. 

B. pdfL,. fim f^» ■ If-^ar If«n> lfin< 

^174. At flm, them wai no diatinction of mice The affix merelj 
tbcnnd the oofmactioa of the penon with the action, but did not diatin^uiuh 
Ua raUdon to it aa agtni or niftct. Thli dislioction aeema to have arisen ai 
fiiDcm. A tnnNtlve action paases immediately from the agent, bnt Ita effect 
sfttD eoatlniua long u|ion the abject. Tliia continuance would DatnraHy be 
denotad bj prolonging the affli. Tbua, if I may be pardoned anch an iUos- 
Inllon, while At ilrUmr liinply nva with viracity rvnv^ / ttrOi, tit Ma 
ttmek niba hii bead and cria thtiwh, tSpt<an-*h'«a, / aa ttmtk. Henca 
the oA^ectiM fana wu diuinguished IWini the mbjtelitt (([ 19S), ainiply by Iha 
pfT^ongation of tho a&x. Thin look |dacc in variooii waya, bnt aD aflocting 
the pnonal and not the laauenj element of the affls. If the aillK ended with 
the tigm of permni, it wa* prolonged by annexing, in the Primaiy Tense, tu ; 
bnt in the Secondary Tense (on account of the augment, which had a natural 
tendency to shorten Ihe affixX the sliorter i, oxoept in the 1st Pan., when a 
ipecka of reifa/ibwiioa seems to have Uken placa (-^n^ paaaing of course 
into -ftwr, % 63). Tbos -^ became -fuii and -ftw '■ -t. -"' and -#• ; -r, .rw 
and -ri ; -rr, ■rrmi and .<n. If tlie alKx ended with the ilgn ef aamlvr, the 
preceding li^ of pemm look a longer form. In the 3d and 3d Persona, thia 
waa it {which mi^t be considered >* ari«ng Iram the r by the addition of f, 
^nce rf must paaa into rf, ^ 52). The lat Pers., in imitAUon of Iba oUms, 
huenad / (or, if a long syllable was wanted by the poeu, rfj, after which 
either • was inserted, lo aii in Che ntlerance, ur, what bacame (he oommoa 
form, the flnal t passed into its corresponding vowel ■ (§ 50). Thus H-r, -m^ 

I., (^„<„), . 

Subjective. Objective. 

IP. 2 P. 8 P. IP. 8 P. 3 P. 

n. S. t^-it fi-t fi-r f^ff^ fd-rmi ti-rmi 

P. fi-/m fS^n f^-H- fi-^lm fi-ih frm' 

D.f^^ fA-m fl-rn f^-fufo r^ttn f<-s#* - 

[book u 

fco. & ir--^ ir<-F iro-f if<i-^*> if-n i^--^. 

p. l^-^t tf«-n Ifn-M- ifi-f'ifM lfm-e>, I^->« 

D. Ifi-/iu If*-n> Ifi-nr lfi-^i/« Ifa-Wn (pii-.iii 

^173. It win be Dbnnad, that idl tbs (JBma abova begta Rltlia 
voBaoBBDt. While, UnMbm, tbej could ba nadibr allachBd to roota end- 
ing with ■ mwel, enphonf nqoind Ihkt, In tlidr tttachmeiit to the fiir 
greita nnmbir of raota ending vith i conaonant, a eoiateilng tand ahouM be 
buertcd. TUa vowd, wMch wia pordy eiqAonJc in Iti origin, *aa, doDbt«sa 
dao from enplionlc prefennc*, -•. beftire ■ Krpiid, but otterwiaa -i- (tlia fbcnui- 
flon rt the Opt. and Iha analogy af Dec II. lead oa ncher to conalder the •■- 
aa a eapbonic anbxltata Ibr Uie -•- tban the Tetrena, ^§ li, M, ITT). Ar 
u exampla of a^lioitie imfitcHa* (in diadnctioii from iriudi the iaflection 
witluMit ooDDBCting Tovela la tamed wufc), wa aelcot tba mot yMf > (a im(t 




8 p. 

8k. S.Iw"f-,^ 

p. i,,it-.^ 



^ I 79> The dittinctlon of mule tn the inflection of verba cc 
irttb tilat of Ii««Dii. Ttt the very atlicfanient of personal affixes makea ■ 
dladDCtko b etween a ftrtmud nadt (I. a. the verb aaed aa finite] and i aini- 
fmnwr aMiA (L a. the Terb need ai an infinitive or partidple). The latta 
lad daofatlen, at Biat, no aflix. Bat &e Inflnitlve ia in its ose a nMonAn!, 
CDnnmidy anataiiiiiTg the offices either gf a £rtct, or yet more freqnoiUy iBdi- 
ntt alijer* of aootbar wntd. Hence It naturally tsok the objective endings of 
Dotine. Of tbeae the dmtdeat and the ealtiest in its objectire force appears to 
have beMi • <§4 84, ST), which wu, accorduigly, affixed Eo the luf., to ex* 
prese '» gwnnl the objective diaiucter of this mode. To pm roots this sAk 
was atcadud tUmtfy i but to impure roots koA lAf htaertiitn of t to assist the 
miganUB . Thm tlie Inf of <h>- wsa ^i ; sad of yt't"' rf*f "■ SniiBe- 
qoently, to mark mon speciflcally the prevalent relation at the Inf., that of 
mffrvet al^l, the dMJve affix oT Dec, I. (g 86) was added to these Ibmia ; 
thna, f ilnu, y^f iKi. Voice appsan to have been distinguished by the in- 
Mrtian. in these fbnns, of W (helan which the > fell away. cT. §^ 65, &T), after 
the analogy of ^ 1T4 j thus. Act. (or Sul^ect.) Form, fi»i, y^ifirmi ■ Hid. 
and Paaa. (or Olj.) Futm, (fdt-,f-m,) fiitmt, {y(ifi-ft-a,) yfi^,rtn. Bui 
dM verb ia aha used as an adjactitm, and, as such, receives dedanaiwi. The 
nnt of this declension, in the Act. (or Subject.) Fortn, may ba derived horn 
the ori^nal fbrm of the noa-persoDsl mode in ->, by adding r, which ia uaed 
■0 extensively in the formation of verbal substantives and adjectives ; thus, 
fa> fmir-, «-, with the affix of declension (^ b), frir-t, y;afii WfiH-i 
(the kiDdred a was iwe pnfand as a eonneoting vowd to i, cf. « ITS). Tlia 
ICd. and Pasa. (or ObJ.) Ana ti the Paiticipke may b« dertnd from the 
MBM^Iir andi^i><"tlc»*»'°Coo*t«tl>*tl>HT4Ciinnth«Aa»>azj JB4, 

it stnetlj > Haul, vliidi could ba tiStar ft ct j, wscordltig to mphontc pnf- 
craxN i ■■, A^inT, bat IjM. fcrwni) ; thiu, fiii fi^r-M. yfafir yfrnfimift 
We hna now tlic sngla noa-penoiud inoda davdopcd iato ■ tyvtam of Infiil- 

^177. In Ibe ptrmmal mnA, a Umt^ild diMbiction UOM. Doom 

t w jltiw WW tutoraUj «EpniMd bj dwalla^ npce the txmiMstiDg T<ntel (or 
upon ths final vowel of the nMt), ■» if it ware ■ matWr of quntioii whether 
tin vRb cn^t to be onlled wilh iti niigaM. Tke stroogest expruidoa of 
ciinliBgBim, Ibat of pati canUmgnKt, prntncted Uie coDnecting vnvtl, or final 
Towd of tlu root, to the cognate diphthung in i (f 3), mi thna formed wiiat 
Is tefmed die Optatiee mode, whieh, u denotitig poet time, takea tlje aecofidaiy 

ftiftiit. The weaker expnedai oT ontiagetlee. that of praait amlnigcnet, 
ae lea needed, Heni> to have arisen later, after the conjugation with tbs eon- 
Dceting Toweb -*- and -c lud Iwcoine established as the prevailing analugy 
of tbe language ; and to bave oonelsted amply in pndonging Uieee vowels lo 
If and •■-, attaching tbe aame aSixee to all verbs. This wejiker furm. tanned 
the Si4ijiatclii>i mode (yet see ^ I G9. y), as denotine preaent time, takee the 
piimai; affixeB. Tbua, yfdft^ }^Bfv«>, ytiif'tiiii ^n'fufiiu, f^ f^th 
fi/t^ fin/tii. The original mode auV became an XtuUcatiei, expreaaing Iha 
oefudJ, in distinction from the anttingent 

A third mode aroee for the axpreasion o! command. This obviotuly reqiun4 
no 111 Pers. ; and in the Sd. it required no essential change, ae the tone <if 
v<Hce would euRiciently indicate the intent of the apeaker. There would, 
however, be a prel^renee of ebon IbTma, aa tbe language of direct command 
ia laconic : benoe, we And in tbe objei^lve inflectim -» rather tban -nu, and 
in ^M eabjeetlve, a tendent^ to drop the affix of the 2d Pera alng. The 
Sd Pers., en tbe ether hand, ha» thiuughont a peculiar form, in which tbe affix 
la emphttieaDy prolonged. This [a done in tbe Sing, anbjective by adding u ; 
thna, -m. In tbe olgective inflection, -rs, of courae. becomea -•fu {% 174). 
The dd Flar., aflerwarda the Du., was Ibrmed by adding the plnial Aga t 
(% ITS) ; thas, -•-•», -rtut. The new Flur. was atiil forbho' strengthened t>y 
pKgxmg . (wfaidi in tbe obj, fiirm wonid make no change, cT. « 17G), or I^ 
adifii^ the latw plur. ending n> {% 181- 7) Instead of • ; thaa, -nm ei 
-raiMi, (-Hfa*} -i/m or -aAurar. In the 2d Pen., it ia convenient lo regard -4 
aa the proper flexible ending (§ ITS). Hie system of peraonal modes la now 
oftmplete; tliu^ 

ImHOATtVB^ CosjmiciTVSi 

IP. 2 P. 3 P. IP. 2 P. 8 P 

P- ve**-'/"' -'" -"^ rf^f-»^' -a" ■-" 

D. yfif-^u -1™ -i«. yfif^fut -mt -•«. 

fitr. S' Ij-fa^v* ■" ■" ■ iVf-'V* ••" "■" 

D iytiif-t/iu -iriw -ire. v^f-iiut -*"■ ■*"!. 




P. n.» 


pri-™., fi-, 

9 P. 

Objectitx Iwflection. 
Indicauvs. CoNJDHcnvc 

^ I 7 Si Ws have, aa yet^ but two tenaa, the Primary,' denotliig 
prtMHi and future tinH^ and tiie Secondaiy, denodn^ prif time, both definitdg 
and inde/hdlefy. In a Ifew rerba, mostly poetio) the rormation appeara never 
to have proceeded Tarth^. In otfaar ferba, more BpedBc teuMB irere devdopod 
from thcee, aa (bllowa. 

1 . In most verbs, the Future was dietlngnlahed from the Present, and the 
Atriit (.the ittimhiiic pii$t) from Che tmperftecCthe d^itiit poll) by new fbnns, 
in wbirh the greater energy of the Fut. ajid Aor. waa expretwed by a r added 
to the root cC. ■ Si ; and consequently, i( the old Primary and Secondaiy 
TenHs remained, they remained as Present and Imperfect. The FnL fbUowed 
throQghout the mfledion of the Pros., encept that it wanted the Suljjuncliva 
and Imperative, whidi were not needed in this lanae. The Aor. had all 
the modes, following in general the intlectian of the Prea, and Impf., wcnpt 
that it preferred -s- a> a connectjng vowel, and simjdy appended the laur affix 
-« Id the Inf. act. (§ 176} ; thna, 


P. lyt'f-r'l'" -m 


5. yfrnt-tmi/t -im, 


-rMW -*«w 






OsJKCTirB Impiectiok. 
Imdioaitvx. SvBJiiaun\K. 


yfJip-rmwtmi Pabticiple, j-fap-nf^if-n 

S. In nianj Terbe, bj* ■ idiinge ti root, > new Pits, and Itnpf. wqtv fbnned, 
wUdi BxpmHd mors ipociflcaay tba action aa (Au'iur ,■ and in hhiib of tbew ' 
Tarfaa, llw idd SBC(mdaT7 Tans* remained as an Aoriat (caQed, Tor dtBtinctioa'* 
Mka, the Stomd Aoritt, S 199. a) ; and in ■ ftw, the old Priiuaiy, aa a Fn- 

tBN (« aoo. b). 

% 1 79t ' The tomfUr lima irere, probably, itill later tn thdr A>nna- 
liciL Tbrnt tcnaes, in their predae import, npnuient At Uatt coiuifanl upon 
rtg em^ileliiia a/ a aetiait (n> Inrrilili }•!}'{■; ■, / havt (Ac fetter ignK«i), 
er in othv worda the; represeot the aclioa aa done, but ita effect remaining. 
nil idM WW sMnrjdly eipraned by an initial rtduplicatiun {i IBO). Tliew 
tenaea admit « thiwdbld diitinctinn of time, and may expm «thnr preamt, 
fatl, a fiitiin completeness, The pmenl oompleU ten» (tlie Perfect) nat- 
nrallv took the prtinar; eodinge : the paul compkta t«iiig (the Pluperfect), 
the uiii^mBit and Che aeoondary endings ; and the fhture flmpleca tenae (the 
IWure Parfecl, or Third Fnture). the common Future aSxa. In the Per^ 
and Plop., the alyatat (ndings ware aBixed without a connecting vowel ; and, 
of eonm, with many cnpbonic changes. See ttie inflection of (^yiyfrnf-fmi) 

ft(.W" CT 36), ^*^-M. (1 38), (.«u/t«,) ,i.ur^ (1 8»), &o, 
tubjtelnt ending! ^ipear to liave been at flrit appended in the ume way ; 
thna, [W. Ind. yiy^mt-lt. Inf. yly(if-im^ I'lrt. yty^f-tTi. Bui all tbcaa 
ftrma wnv brbiilden by euphony. Hence in Ibe [nd. -^ became .> (which, 
dnoa /> Snal pain Into ■, may lie enoddered the comapundin^ vowel [tf ^ ae 
weD aa of •. S 50] ; thni, yiyf^P/i ylyfit^m ■ and after this change the in- 
flectioD proceeded aceodlng to the analogy of tba Aor., eicept to far aa the 
jsimaiy lorm diSan ttista the aecondary. The ■ in this way became lumply ■ 
eoiuMcting vowel ; thoa, yiy^^fm (or, if the analogy of the Aor. be (bllowed 
ban aleo, yiyfmf-it-fi), yiyfup-^^, .m-r, -s-^i, -■-«, -a.rr, -m-nt. In the 
Part., ■ alio be«me «, which by preceeuon paoseil into ■ ( 2S). Indeed, In 
Dec IlL na maacutine or fhmtnhie has a mot ending in -rr- (| 7fi. d. 3). 
Tlini, ytyfuf-iri. The • in the Inf., inalead of ■ ^lilsr change (aa It waa 
Mlowed by a), toofc -i- befbre It '■ Ibna, yiyptt-''"- '" '''" ^^P- "^t there 
waa a Und of double augment, prefixing i, both to the i«du(dicatinn, and alao 
to tiw connecting vowdof the Perf., nuking the connective of the Plnp. .».; 
thna, \-ytytmf-tm-ii. Tlua la lenuined b) the loaie, bnC in the eld Attio waa 
OonUacted into h, which aiterwarda paaied by precodm into u. 

COMMMATlOIt. [b60I 11^ 

Hwactko fa B ruiwted, Uimt tbis wniM b« 
i ipecial dnlgnatlon. But in the nui-fiiutt t«nMe, 
then would be ijrMlm uni of 'muUng the distinction. Uaic«, ■ ipectal Aor 
wd Fnt. pinmm wW baami by amploj^ Ih* TOb ii>h t* it, ■■ jb aanfii-jr 
aai CMupouadi^j in pait wid fbture ten*M witb Ite not rf thi T«fii (llw 
■iigBunt baing prefinad io tb« Aor.. u im Mbtr pait tiBKs, od tba ■ bring 
bngthened in some r/ the tbrnu IVom the infliuince of anaiug)' or far eophony) , 
tbax, Aor. l-yfdf^t, Fnt. y^Kp-tttfttu. The dd Aor. and Pat. now bacane mid- 
dlt, and the t«a voica wu» «o <kr diitmct. Tbaf had Kill, howsvar, w nuuk 
in eoaunm, tlutt it is OM wooderful thu [hit distinetion was hot ahny* »!>■ 
aerTed(.' IGfi. I> ThaAor. and Fut. pa«. we lAenranla MnagtlMuad by 
the inaertim of /, which ame, pei4iiip«, thim ein|do)*iiig in the conipmitlon 
the paMtra votal bi -ri(, Instewl of the »mpl« imt at the Tirb ; thiu, 
■-{■iiT-jf J> litfixh'' From the prevalence of the /, the leosea funned with 
_ it were deaominBted /Int, and thmte formed without it, uxoiid teusea ($ 1 99. IL). 

^ I S I • Dw ajMcn of Gteak rawjiinatinn waa B6w Hmplat^ hasiig 
t&nt ptmnu, dim nimttn, Ortt n^oa, «* wdn, if th* Snl^ aad Opt. an 
Wpaiated, and no fewer than cZetoi temaa^ if the Jint and a^eoad an iiiiiiitail 
AC^Jaretaij. Some remark remain to Lie added, chiefly apon oqAonic chamber, 

I. By a law which became so established in the language a* to aOow no ex- 
ception (S 63), flnal ft, r, and t Could not i«nun. ^y wera, thereftre^ 
ettiier dnppedj c^uitged, pnLmged, or both chafed and proiimged j as iiJlows. 

t. Final ^, after -■- auM wrfm, «m diopped ; aftar .<■ or -■■ aoi m ntfaii.* waa 
changed to -■ and then csamcted with the praseding t»«*1 : alter -tr- and 
tu- etmmctiec, and in the primary nuda fonn (§ 173), waa prokoagcd to -^ ; 
and. In all other coaea, became ->. Iliiis, ly(»-i,mp, j<i>^pa>4, ijtyfmpm/t 
beeama lvt"t-'f r'ye"f». 'r<y(^f" ■ W^fV "d reif ^ baoinw {}f^f«i 
ffii^it) }-(■»>, and }.(iV.i^andrfi>^.^hecamey;>i|»- y^if a^ f^^^i^ 
y(iyi-iut^ fif, became ypifi^, ytiii-niu. yti-^^p., fi^ ■ lyff/^ ir*rt^' 
f""i Ip-*" became iyf-f-, Jy.yf*Ji.., Ifa>. 

1. Final 1-, in the secondary fbrma UinHighont, and In tte Perf liBg^ waa 
dropped ; but, in other ceaea, was changed into -i, which after -■- or -«- eon- 
■ecffee passed into -■ and was then contiactcd, hot otherwise was prolonged 
to .n. When, by the dropping of -r, -a- ctmnatioi became final, h paned 
into -I (^ SB). Thus, l^r ific, (y^nfir ly^^t, lyfafnr ty^mit", ty^-^ur 
ttc-h. \yt'-i'*'r lyjaj-ai, yfafur yiifi, ypi'jirt' yedi),Mi, yiytsfmr yi. 
W»*« ■ n^P-'-r (y(^«, yt'f") yt^f'p yj^-i-i-T yt^-i'ii, ytif-n-t yt^ 
(written with the i sobsc. in hnltstion of d» Ind.}, y(i-fi^.T }-;J<^ ■ fir 
fin, frf.T (^Mi, 5 58) fin, yedf^r {yfift^n) y^tim, yfm'<^nr yfrn-ftivn, 
yiy(mf.,r {yiyfifrnm') yiy(Jftri, yfifitr {y(ifutn) yfiifmn. 

XoTsa. B. In the proloDged fivma of Ibo endingi -*■ and ->t, the Dovia 
retained the r (f TO. 3) ; aa, fmri Theoa. I. SI, ri/irn 3. 48, farr.' S. 45, 
fulbiri IE. 101, ^Mtn I. 43, i.byn-n Find. O. S. fil, Xririi<tnn 6. S6. 

^ Epic fbrnts of the Sulgonctlve, with ~fi and -4- iHulaoged to ./u and -n, 
an not nntVeqnenl ; as, l/iJ>.^ A. Mg, ri^'f £- 379, Tii^ I. 414, IhvH 
X. 490, WUiiR. (^ 6«) A. 408, «Wry« ). 1»1, Si^nr 2. SOI I N Dor. 
Uikjr. (N. ■) Thaoe. 1«. S8. A similar fimn of the Opt, though not Itaa 
from doabl, occun in ^tfaft^inti K, 346. 

y. A new ftnn of tho 3 Pen. ;4. seonndaty was formed by clmigfng -r of 
the Sing. Inta ^mt (i. e. by agixiuf > histand of praflxlog It, with a idiang« 

OH. 7.] BIBTOIY. -Tti 

ben, u alter r fa (IN Aor^ wm -■•, § 1B&). lUi fbnn, a lit* Atfic, ia noi 
ated IB ihiH !«■■■ wUdk hav* •■ a ooniwetiog Tnd -t. or •*•, and MamI / 
in tlKiM whkh hav* -^ or ^. ; but bi Bart otUr tann la (ftlur Uw eon- 
( B^r be frealj' uMd; (bw^ fir tpmi^ lyiifiifiiFT, lufSx^w, 
■ ■)(*»« (4 isa). 
3. Final / 4rM dhipped afUr -i- caimecfiiK ; afbr > short vowti ]n tlie root, 
if becune In Uie ! Aor. -t, and in the Prea. (except fn/t! and il^i) -i, irhich 
IMS then coatractad with the preceding rowd (» becoming >i) ; in other cuea 
(sucept Ibe irregular snbsUtution of -» fiir ^ in the Aor.) it wa> prolonged 
to ^. Tbam yfifft rt*f<' >•' ^- ^'^ C>'1") I'V'^ f^ f<'» rt^?>i' 

^ 1 83. n. A UniageT fomi of tbg 1 Pns. nng. snbjaetiTa was Ik 
'«' (oompan the Sag. and Geraua -it), iriiich, acoon^ng to § 63, muat either 
drop t and thai baewm the Mne with the common form, or anome a yoveL 
In the (auo- uase, it aeaumed a. benimfaig ^4m (compwv the alGx -idot the 
It Ptif.). Thia remaiBsd the cobums Ibrm in Ifarfs (^ U), fiim (f SS), 
$■»/> (1 S6), wf^s, jlu><a, and OinrAi (^ M). Other aumplca an Air- 
Dlabed by the pacta (panieularl}- in tbe Subjunaira, bj- Hskv) ; ■■, ri§nt4* 
,. 404, iHiirli T. 370, \tik,,U A. S54, SivXi^fr^. I. 99, ir>^> T. S60, 
fiix*^. O. 571, liLai-wW. IL etg, I;t:i,r^., fi\u.U Sapph. 89, f/i;i»rta 
llmic. S3. 4, ):{i;r/a Ar..Ach. T7S. Thia form, like many olherg belonging 
to the old language, Is tMned by grammarians Molie. 

III. Tbi» ol^ectlvs endings of the ! Pen. ting., -m and -ri, commonly 
dro;^)ed r In those tense* in which a Towal nniformly preceded (ct $f IIT, 
SOO. S, BOl. a), and wete then oontrwttad with thia vowd uieept in the Opt. g 
thuB, rt^frm. yfdf uu yj^^ or ffifH ( j 37. 4), ^■{.[' Wif.^ at -u, 

yfiifiK* r;^> irt-f" in"^' 're"*", rt^f" K«f '"i iwJ^" irt»' 
V-" l9Ta<l«> >(■</«'• ytc^j*' K<''^'u (the coBtraclioa ia bero irregnkr), 

»*^f«"" rpff"*! ?(•+"'" J^<^». 

^ 1 S3< IT. In ttn Greek verb, there Is a great tendMcy to lengthen 
■ abort vDwal bafere an affix beginning vriih a consonant. Hils will be ob- 
aerred in pare verts before the temie-sigiu (§ SIS); in the tenw-signa of the 
Aor. and Fat. pasL (J iBf)); in the -i- often inKrted in the Opt. ($ 184); 
bi vtrbi in -fu betan tlie inhftctiiie aidingt, especially in the Ind. ung. ($ S24) ; 
in the eupbonie aflbtea ■» and -h of the Pru. and Fut. act (§§ 103, «, 
906. fi) i ftc This tendency don not appMT befcire endings bcf^nnlng with 
IT, since here tlie gyllabla la already long by poellion. Of other endings, It 
■ppean chiefly before the shorter ; hence, bofore the aulycctire for more than 
the otjecim, and in the Sing, mure Hum the PIib-. or Vual. We give here ci- 
amplee of the two lost only of the caaee that have been mentioned above : ft/u 
f^^ (we now change the rejfular aomntuaUon of the word to that which is 
nnally given to it aa an aelitic), fM, fii, pdri fmi, bat FL ^^liT- [^i 
tfm, IfiH I#w, ffa [fK, but PI. tfi/tn (4 53) 1 t Pas. yfiifu y^M 
(so loilie form yiif^ and yfifti by kngtbeiting the ooanecting vowel and 
dropping Che flexible mdjng), y'i^tt yfi-i-in • yfiifii (the old farm of the 
Inf., i 176) yfif" (this became the common form of the Pre& aod PoL 

KoTC The old short fbrms of the 2d Pera. and Inf in -ir aad .n iraiain 
in aonw vnietiea of tlie Duiic; m, »;iV)ii llieac. I. a, ^ix^i 4. S, ofirla 
1. U, ^imn 4. 2, ym(it. Find. 0. 1. i, rc>f>' ^- ^'^ ^^^- C 

180 coNJvei.Tioi(. [book ii 

^ t S4> T. Hh opt sntgeetiva wu ofln naSeni Mm mora nc 
pnHdTS, by adding to iu connacllvii >, which wm lengthened to ■ e\ceii* 
beAve •«- (S 183). lUs addilioa ma meet common beAm the aidii%B wliicb 
h«* DO Toml, -•, -<, .Y, -rr. In the 3d Pen. pi. thii addition waa slwsyi 
mad* ; hot, ucqit ben, it wu nerv made to .m.. eo amrtfw , and rardj' to 
M' osjHHcCtia «ie(|>t in oonlnct tbnns. Tlius, (f;af-ii-H-) y^fwT, (}^<^- 
-.-») vt''*""' (f-'-f) 9-'-- (♦•-''■•*) ♦-'«. C*--"-') f-'". f-^' fJ'/"'- 
f«m falin, (f«-r-«-) ^» and fuvai, iyyiAii'e. (1 il), ti^». (1 i5). 

Notes, k. In the Aor. opt. act., a apeclal prolonged tbrm snm, in wbid) 
the connective wa« Chat of the Ind. with v praflxed. This tona occara onl;' 
in the Sd and 3d Penooi sing, nnd the 3d Pen. pL ; bat in theM persons wan 
Hz mam common tlian the otlier form. Thus, f(ii^-ii-ii-t, (y^sij-ii -■-<-, 
§ 181. 2) ffK'f.ut, y^m^uat. This rnrm, UkB many otJier remaini of old 
uagB, w«« termei) by gnunmariimi jSnEe. It wa« cepeciaUy tniployed by 
the AUJa ; yet was nU oonflned to Ihem, nor emplaned by them to the ex- 
dosjon of the othor liMin* ; Itaiu, rlrumi A. *S, fulnuH T. 53, ';'ii^iii I^nd. 
F. 9. 3\S, AyruMM, Tbeoc 13. 19, Imff^un Udt. iii. IS; ii^yt^m. Soph. 
(Ed. T. 446, hmm^mt Ar. Veap. TS6, firm- PL Gocg. 477 b, i^wmt-irm .Ssch. 
Eom. V83, Th. lii. 49. 

$. In analyting Opt. Ibmu of the 3d Pen. pi., K is often emveoitiit to 
■dn the inserted i with tlie dexibk ending, althoo^ in strict pn^irie^ it ia 
an axtokuoa irf Che cwnecting voweL See ^ 31. 

V I S 0* 71' One important analogy we onght not to pus unnoticed. 
The oldest inflectim both of verba and of nomu, that of the nude Pm. and 
Impf., and of Dec III., had no connecting rowels. Tlie neM inflection in oi^ 
dv of time, that of the euphcmic Proa, and Impf., of the Fut., and rf Dee. 11., 
to(A the connecting vowels ■•■ and -i- ; while the latest mSectJon, that of thb 
Aor., of the Perf. Act., and of Dec I., took the connecting vowd -a- (cT. 
$ 176). But the analogy iloes not stop here. Aa nime nouns fluctuated 
betWMn the different declensions (f$ 1S-I, lib), so some fbrms of vats Suc- 
toated between the di^rent nieth«i> of inflection. Thns we dud, 

n, parlicaUriy the large clasi in -S/41 and -It , 

0.) That verbs in -/u whose roota end in >, i, or v, have. In the Impf. act. 
ling., a second and more common form in -» ; as, irUm and (Irl/i-n) InVivr 
(^ 50), l3;i« and Mm (^ 51), ().;»i:> and iln'irCn (^ S3). 

y.) That verbs in -•> have the S Aw. nude, if the root ends In a vowel, 
aioept •; u.Cf 57) ISm [r. S*-), lyw' (r. y»-> llfi (r. )i>-); bat (nn 
(r. rr), S Aor. <a riim, M drint. 

i.) Poetic (chiefly E|rfeJ 3 Aorists middle which want the connecting vowd 
even afler a consonant ; as, it^rt A. . S32 ; i;^iii< (Fart) S. 600 ; yitrt 
{— CAirt) 0. *Z ; yitt, (>^ ij-i.iTi) Hes. Th. 199, {yin-< Theoc 1. 88 ; 
Siy/w I. S18, »*r. O. 88 (so eien Prea. 3 Pen. pL, )i;t:-~ "■ l^^i ^ 
iix'rt, % 60), Imp. )i£. T. 10, li;^;. Ap. Rh. 4. 1554, Inf. iix*i A. 23, 
Part. lij'^Ho B. Iti ix4x.i« A. 39 ; !.« Hea. Th. 481 \ Wiyi^f •■ 335, 
liar* J. 451, Kii, n. 650 i t^itlnf (3 Pera. du. for \^Attlt., $ 60)*; ifux-rt 
m. 438, /tiVn A. 354 ; ijr, E. 590, XiKb. Ag. 9ST, l(f A. 204, (;'■< 
e. 474, l,i».H, A' ST!, Soph. (Ed. T. 177 ; wian O. 645 ; clf^i. (fiw 
■V*'»i ii fi^ SO) r T08. * ^ 146. 

fiH. 1.] HISTOBY. 181 

NoTK. TluBe AorUtB. being node, *gne In their (brmatioD with tin Pnf, 
and Plup. (§ 1T9I, except that they wont tbe redupticalion. 

1.) Pontic (chiefly Epic) Aorist» which li«Te ih* t«nSfr^gn -r- with th* 
eona«tiv« -•- and -<-, and thus unite the Tonns of the 1st and !d Auriats; 
as, it'ini Ham. H. 16. I ; Uinr, t. 75, e>i<i> E. 109, SSI i Win H. 4r.5, 
Ijri. n. 129; !{..£. T73; liEi. L 6IT: ;;»• 1'. 2M), contr. j^rif §45. 3} 
&. SEl , •:» X- *^h Call Car. 136, Ar. Kan. 483, i.nn. T. 173, Unn 
■. 1 54. The lue oT thig fimn in the S Fen. Imp. will be apeciattjr notiotd. 
Perhape liie comiaon 2 Aor. \mn, fiU, and the rare, IT Dot donbtfiil, tx""* 

je, having the connectivcB -p and -i-, and thua unit- 
ing the fomia of the Peif. or Plop., and of the S Aor, See § 191. 3. 

Note. Tbeet tenseaof nixed (brmation are nauallj classed as 1st or Sd Ao- 
nst according to the connective \ a claasihcation which is rather conwuent 
tban jdiiloaaphkal. 

s] I ^0> VII. Tbii romiatiai of the complete leasee requires flirthw 
nmarit. The affixes at the Peif. and Plup. Bcein to have been originally 
node throughout, and thf^ continued such in the objective LTiilection. inaamudl 
as IwiB each flexible ending haa a vowel of iu own. That thin was the reason 
aiiiwats fhim the fact, that in tlie subjective inflection ^so we And remains 
of the nude liinnatinii, bnt only in cases where the Hexible euding has a vna-el 
of its own. These remains aboimd moat in the cdd Epic, hut are also found 
ill the Attic <(-' 237, 23S). The inflixtion with the connecting vowct, how- 
erer, became tl>e established anoii^j' of the language ; so much so, that even 
pHre verbs, u less tt^an tmpurry adopted it cf. § 1 00. 2 r. Here arose the 
need of another euphontit device. The atlachoient of the open aliixes to pure 
roots prudnced hiatus, and ,lo prarent tliis, > was iu^erted. This inscrti'^n 
appears to have been Just commencing in the Uun^eKc jwriod. [t attemanls 
became the prevalent law of the language, extending, through the fon?e ^if 
analogy, lo imfjure, as well as to pun roots. Other euphonic changes weir 
now retuired, fcr which see H 61, S4. 3. The hiMor>* uf the Perf. aitd Plup. 
active, therefore, is a history of euphonic deidces, to meet the successive dir 
Dinndi of /lun and iaqtart roots. The latter lirst demandol a cuimHiiiij 
vowd : tbeo tbe tunner, the insertion of -•• ; and then the Utter, that lliif 
'■- after a labial or palatal mute should be softened to an aspiration uniting 
with Ihe mute. We have thus four succeesive fbrmations : i. the priiHitnt 
ntuli fnmuitim ; S. the Jiirmatim n -■, -in i 3. the formatiut in -h, -niiii 
a/ter a voutvt ; 4. lite /oTmation im 'mmt -«(!■ ufltr a cofuvmaat after a iaiiat 
or palalal mlt, softened tu -i, •tit, ^ 61.. The List formation nowhere ap- 
pears in Horn., and the third oiilv in a 1^ words. The fiirms with the id- 
aerted > are distingoished as tbe Firwi Pat. and Plup. ; and those without it, 
■llhoogh older, as the Sieoitd [§ 199. U.). 

»i by Google 

FunxBs or cohivcatioii. [book ii 



^^■87. The Greek verb has two prefixes 
I. The AuQMENT, aod II. the Reduplication. 

I. Auqhent. 
The AugmeiU (augmentum, increase) |irefixes £- 
m the 3EcoNDARr tenses of the IndicaiAse, to de- 
note past time (^^ 168. I., 173). 

A. If the verb begins with a conaonatU, the «- 
constitutes a distinct syllable, and the augment is 
termed stllabic £. g. 

Tlwin. ImpC Anr. 

^wXi^ IB camuii, Uwl.u», Ktii-utm. 

y.-^;-, a rmag-^ie, h^'Z'^ iy^iff**- 

finm, to Anm. tififrn, tff"tii (§ 6«. I). 

B. If the verb begins with a vowel, the c- unites 
with it, and the augment is termed temporal. 

NoTB. The B/Babic aagmatl ii M named, Ikguik it Increaaea the anmbv 
of tfllaUai 111* la^mni/ (Umpoiilia, troai t«nipus. Umi'), b«aiue it increaiei 
the tima, or funti^ of ui initial short voweL Fur the aytlabic aogment 
betbre ■ vowel, nc ^ 1 89. 3. Hh bnathlng of aD initial vowel remaiiu ttaa 
■anu after Uie augment. 

§188. Special Rni.ES op the Tempobal AnoMEHT. 
1. The prefix »- uoiles with n to fomi tj, and with ihe other 
t'owels, if short, lo form the corresponding long vowels ; as, 
■jO..!., to h^a^ ha-Mn) m;.»., ((.K..H) !».'..«. 

■it>.im, to R>..tewt Kx«,, Ux-nw^ 

U*-/;., to kopi, iXr^K, fX«n. . 

•l*,r,i^ to BipfBealt, -rmirim, Viiniwa. 

lf*i», to nw*, i/, Mtirm. 

•fiVT^tow., .^s;^;^ .^ 

2. In like manner, the f- unites with the prepoeitive of tb« 
diphthong o,, and of the diphthongs ov and o. followed by a 

etmAiiiuint . nn. * 

So alM^ tj^fw, toCUO, 

OH. 8.J Aomturr. 163 

S. In other caaes, the i- is fdMorbed by the initial vowel or 
diphthong, without producing any change ; as, 

^fi*j«^ Id pn/U, •^■Jl»^ .fiX.ntm. 

^mlZf^^ to Mijw, 


Koit in F«ta bxgtoDiog -ith 

S«> '.Att.), 

ifurii, fura. 

Sa^ itao, th> Plup. j9(» (t as), and ^ (t 56). 

^ 1 8B. Remarks. 1. The verba ffoHiafim, to wB, tv~ 
yapm, to be able, and /liiXm, to purpote, aometimes add the tem- 
poral to the syllabic augment, particularly in the later Attic ; 
thus, Impf. fSavli/iiit ana iSoelonni', Aor. P. iSavl^Stj* and llSotr- 

2: In a few rerba begttmiii^ with a vowel, the »- constitutw 
a distinct syllable, with, sometimes, a double augment ; as, 

irtfu, *> inak, !■(■. 

Add •IXini^M, (o I* c^hmd. itlai. (Ion. and Post.), to pfuK, ifio. If 
•B, wfU ^ii^w. to t>9. uid »mB Efik romu. CT. ^ 191. 3. Tbt tyllt' , 
bic angment in Iheae wordK <■ to be rafernd, in part, al leaat, to ao original 
digammall 2S. l)l aa, tF>E<> !>£» r-S9B, iv. 3. SO) IFitttn im>ltn HiU 
U. M»)-M>.U3,IF<)>U.Udl.i. lai, IFF-htifa.t.d'. SSn, llT.a) 

3. In a few verbs beginning with t, the ustial contraction of 
H into » (^ 36) taltee place ; as, 

{■!», to jni^ ibn, §Ur^ 

Add l/i";*. to ocmdna,». to nff, IXiw, to dram. Iwm, to !■ (wn^Hd 

vW> l;>«^i^HUi to hvrA, l^c*, to cr^?', Imsv, to en/Brf on, l^^, to turn ; the 

Aoriata iRlA bnl, iln ilea, and port.), td, tijiiii and ilfiiii ,^ G4) ; and tha 

nop. >b«bu> 1^ 4S), Hood. 

4, An initial a, foUawed b; a rowel, ranaina in tba angtitenlcd tawa of a 
Toy few rerba, chiedf poetic ; a*, aw, to Acur, iin ' vec in'i'ri Hdl 9. 93). 
Bea, aiws J..i.-fu (« aSO). An initial •. HnnMinia remains even when 
ibOowed by a OitMnant ; ai, tlrTfiai, to ifbu), HH-fioa Eur. Bac 3S . ef. Htm, 
§ 191. a . ikr U>^r'rN> idul tba irord 'E>.k<n niav nM be diiguind). Th. 
iL .68, and in poetry l(i|Wi>. aa^^i^*., A<ch. Eum. 3, fron. £29. lu lhe« 
words i ifl long by position. 

i. An initial ■ rollowed by • unites wltb Ibis ToweL instead of uniting inth 
the augment J tlius, Ufrml^ii, to etiebratt a ftait, llii^Ta^n) UfrmZn- So, 
Ib the Plnp., l^avi, aud tba poet U>iirt», Utyur, ftom Pe[£ I«aa, IiLva, 


II. Reduplication. 

^ !••. The Reduplicatian (reduplico, to re 
double) doubles the initial letter of the completb 
TENSES, \n aU tiie modes (^^ 168. II., 179). 

Rdlb. ff ihe verb begins with a singk coTuonanl, or with u 
mule and lupiid (except y*, and, commonly, §1 and yl), the 
initial consonant is repealed, with ihe insertion of » ; but, other 
wise, the reduplication has the same form with ihe augment. 
Iti ilie Plcperfbct, the aagmeal it j^eficed to ihe reduplication, 

scept when this has the same form with the augmenu Thus 




I«i.J^ b, c«m»l. 



fiAi., to tm. 

*.p,l.,« (1 62). 


Xt"^. to ■«. 



a^.-. *. rf^ 





>.-(,;-, to r«w-£t 





SxJ™,, to A«rt, 



yxif^, to K-fpMn, 

ly*. w. ylr»w™. 


t.;k«. to -.i*. 



*,.-l.^, to Ik. 



a.-im($\»s. n. 



•({*.., to b«rtam 

S 188. a). 


iyU^. to W (5 

188. 3(,. 



J^.,to«(« 189 




J.1V.-. h. *-» (5 



i 189. S>, 



^ 191. Remarks. I. In five verbs beginning with a 
liquid, ft- commonly lakes the place of the regular reduplica- 
tiun, for the sake of euphony : 

XMfX''"^ to iMain fji lo4, i-i-tx'' "'^ )i-iX''yx'' 'J^-ty/f^ 

IsfiCiiw, (n tait, i'Xk^ inm^t^H vid kiXfif^fuu. 

Xiy*. to at/frct, tiXt^"' t'i-iy^^i and kiktyf^Mi^ 

r. >,^ to «ft ■%„., i^-^-, CI 98). . 

S. Some verbs be^nning with a, i, or o, followed by a single 
consonunt, prelut to the usual reduplication the two firat let 
tcre of the root ; thus, 

^ll/^, tiy annliU, iX^^i^«, AxikiUfUU' 

l(irrt,, to dig, it^'K'- ipify/^Ml. 

Thia prefix is teemed b; gnunnumBni, Chough not veiy appnipriaul; (§ 7L- 


the Attir SabipScatrm. I| xddnni neelvea m angine.t in tbc Itnp., except 

In tlw v«rb inw, to luar .- tbtu, i)LiX4t<L, lUniifui ' but, from kxtiu, ini- 
■H. ^nnaiiii. This rcdnplicaliiiii praTeni m nhnit Toml ki tbe pmnlo aa, 
it.iiA^, Ibough »Xu^ (j 3e9)i Uii;ii>fii {< 301). 

3. Tbe verb /iimtmti, to rtmtmitr, has. In (be Perf., ^I^fi^iai' i>t«^<u, 
to aequirt, has commiinly xUth^ui (i. 7. 3 1, bat )iJao turnfuu (proparij' lun., 
n Hdt. ii. 4!, yet algo «iich. Pr. 7^^ PI. l^t. S^tO d, e). Thm »re, »l«o, 
Apparent ezceptiooi to the rule, ui^ng fmn srncoiK ; aa, vJhy^ju, wirrm- 
t$M.. Vet luu, to Mui, anil tbe poet. Iilva, 'l.f7>, cf. $ 189. S. For JJa 
(YSS),cf. $ 189. 4. TliepOBt. !»]>■, (o cpauiaiat, nceive* no redupliu^Mi. 

4. Wben tbe augment and the rednplication have a comnuHi lt>nn, this Torm 
U not to be explain^ in bolb upon the same principle. Tbiu, in the Aor. 
lyxifirs (§ iST), I- li prefixed to denote paat time, but in the Parf. iyr^pMrn 
{i 190), it u a enph.«iic nibetitute Ibr the fiiU redupl. y... In like manner, 
analog; would lead as to regard the Aor. iliinr* (h 1B8. 1) aa conlracted 
frran Ul/sent, but the Perf. itimum if 190),' x contracted tr<m soI/hrjih, 
like initial vmrd bcint; doubled to denote oompTetenefB of action. In the Per- 
fects iT/is^fiai (R. 1). and Imiiia(^ 48), the lougb breathing seemt to rapiity, 
in part, the place irf' the Initial cODaonant. Some i/regularities in tbe redu- 
pUoation qipear to hare arisen trtna an imitation of the augment ; as, Uftxm, 
Un/^ (§ ISO). 

III. Prefixes of Compound Verbs. 

^ 103. 1. Verba compounded with a j?r«po«Tf«m, receive 
the augment and reduplication ajier the preposition ; thus, 

rcrytmfi,, to lutribe, rtttiyfufir, rfMyly^f «. 

Remarks. I . Prepo^tione ending in a ^'owel, except rifi and wfi, anif^ 
elision (§ 41 ' hefbn the prelix i.. The Ihial vowd of rp often units with 
tbe I- t^ craxit i § 33). Thus, iritdXKm. to Ihnrn mpog, trKmi-Xn ■ «fi. 
SmXX^, to thraa arouad, rifiUmWtt - VfiCn'^Xv, to lArlHC before, VfMaWn 



which is changed ic the Ifaame, re- 

the pr 

- ; as. i^S«'i 

„. to tt™ 6. (1 94). 

!.«-»*« ■ WUxkM, to (A™ 


68X llii->.\... 

3. A few verba rective th 


nd reduplication befm the preposi- 

tion ; a few lecdve them bo 

h ief 

d tftir; and 


, «»;e».i.., ;«:(;'■"-• 


.■^.Ji., (5 1 

8. N.). 

4. Some derivBdve verbs 



tbdr film, fbll<.» -Jia 

tame mt\<vy : se. J-.t"'-, 

to re,utot. 

-od. <,/ f,/e), i,,;^,. 

uid a^n..^ ).^Vn... ii,i 


- U 

WmX-. to A 

DUu»uiMm% ().<>„. 

. ;■), iS'i.;...*;.. and i»X>i 



(«(«..(), lr^,»r^\:i. 

; iyy 


to liltdgt, lot the various forms of 

^ I 03. I]. Verbs compounded with the particles dvu-, HI, 
and to, well, and beginning with a vowel which is clmnged by 
the Bugment (^ 186), commonly receive their prefixes o/ter 

TSS PHEnzES OF coirmsATioH. [book i. 

these patliclee ; as, ivaafmtiti, to be dUpl^utd, dfaqpt'orvvr 
titfyttia, l« benejil, trtj^/irtivr and ivnytiovi. 

UI. Other compounds nceive the Bugment and reduplica 
tion at the begimang ; as, J.n;-uTiui('n, to fable, ih-yoaiiovr 
duoti'xnt, to bt unforlvMate, iSviiri^^aa, HtduaTuxvKa ' lixiixim 
to be fortmate, tuiij[ovr or qvrr'/uM (§ 186. N.) ; da:iimm, tC 
ghame, HtvouTtav*. Yet iiinoifi(FnV',>"'i Lycurg. 167. 31. 


^ 1 O'l. t. It VM lung before (be use of th« angmoit t* tbe ilgii 
<t faA tiiiie (j ITS) becHiie liiU.v esUUialiiil in tins (ireek. Id tbeokl pocti 
K ai>|«>ra u a Vmi n( iiplinnnl n^ft, wliU'h uii^Iit be itei iir nniitud at 
pknnirei thua, »»» A. S, 9i>i .%» : Z, )f>» A. its. 4.'>T. &GB. i, f*n 

i8<j, ^45. 34a, aa;, all, asir; lo.. a. 4S9. 473, fi>xj 4ao, tan, am, 

aa;^ ;^i I. 493, .;^,i, 4B8. Thw Ikeiue ci>n[inued in luiiic |inwe in 
napeizt lo the Uin[xinl augment, and the au^mieni iif the I'iupn^'t, and waa 
•vea Bxlendad to the redui^ication when it had the aaine form with the t«ni- 
poral augment { thus, iyn H<tt. L 70, iyn iii. 47 ) ilniAA«{i Id. i. ] 6, iw^X- 
i-iUnr, 17: twiXMi.,ni [d. viL SIO, ^«^iu>^.r 311 : Ji)-iSx»n Id. i. 94 | 
if4<i, i'iitr. Id. i. 19, V/.i.»t S6 ; l{}^C'"-< lb. U6, ■■Ttf^Hr., ..nifyH/ii. 
»> 1S3 J«(7f.f»( ii. 9B (ao Kp. I^;^T>. (1.481, fKC«' I*- 3h4, cf. $ 189. 
4). So, more rarely, iu respect lu the gylliibic augment, and the rediijiliuatiiin 
luving the Hune fbrni ; aa, »» or ima Hdl. i. 16ft; v«;i»imc1«« vU. Hie, 
vafBrdif^lan £19; and ei'fn. for euphony'a sake. Is'aliXi.jjqm I 110. In 
nupecl lu the augment oT the fluperlect. and uf the impemmal ix,(nr. thia 
fVeediim remained even in Aciic |>ra*e; Ihiia, Sim ■nn\turi^u vl. 4. 11, jn. 
)i};j.ii lb. 13, SMfif^di vii. 3. SO thi» oniiK^on of the auRmont oveiira 
ehiefly after a vowel) . ix'h Cyr. viii. 1. 1, uftener xt'' tl^P- Alli. 3. 6. 
or Uw psMa, the Ij-ric niipioached tlie nearest u> the IVeednm uf the old 
Kpic, while the dramatic, ju the iambic trimeter, wen imiHnnl tbe mnst c1oim])> 
to the luaRe iif Allic prose. Yet even here tare vmes uvt'ur uf the nmissiua 
of the lyJIatMC aui^ieixt though not umliB|>ut«d by critics), chiefly is tb* 
narratives of meecngen and at the beginning uf a verae ; aa, arirnn Soph. 
(Ed. C 1606, }iyi,t— 1607, S^i^fi. \tm, xii^u \%±(,. 

S. For auch fbimi ai l(,l„ <;.. »6, I>i{i. B. «T4. Ip^u Hnm. Merc 76, 
and for snch aa tllum A. 39, iXi-aCi B. 37 1, if^f^n f, 3^6, •>•<» i|>. II, 
l»iH E 208, !>ee 7t. For the Dor. 1-y 6)r iy.> [Hiem:. 13. TO , tc, 
wx S 44. I. Pur f%(iirKftUm. Sx.. Me $ 82. ■. On (he iitiier hand, «o Hnd, 
after the anali^- of verbs bejtinnlng witli f, tw e' A. 278. Umft»i N. 79. 
For li.)»n I. 224, li,)«.a A. 9IS5, }■;).> S. 34, i.'u.v.V £. 416. Ke ^ 47. N. 
Compare iiiiitiVnu Ap. Rh. 4. GI8, and Uxairrw lb. S90, with wonb be- 
ginning with M- and y\. (j 190). 

S, In the E]pii: lanpiBRe, the 2 Anr. act. and mid. often rdwiven the I'cdu- 
I^cation § I SK. n), which reiuBins thrnugh all the modes, while the Ind. ad- 
mits the aufrmeni In addilinn ea|«dtdlv in eaw of Ihe Att. rednpl.i ; as, 
Jilsi 3. 44K. ,,,„li, A. 334. ■■i«1»r, A 49T. jti.i^u A. IR8, soiifw 

;. 30^. x,kix"- H. 80, xi;L.:i>i<.i 3. -ins. i«/i».«» It. nm. !„>.if.,r, 

O. 127. x>Xu»n Hum. Mure. 14a, juifur«(.> Hes. Sv. 252, ^tf^fri. ib 
itb, iprirnKif r. 355, r>r«.>r. or ««^rr Find. P. 2. 10.^, <riT.'/«^i> 
&. 100, vir;/«n K. 204, r<»r«> A. 991, nm^i^Hi a. 310, rlr^i In 

«fl. 9.] irptns OF a>tijmmoin 181 

BmyA^ rtrinfn A. U7, nnwJmt CtO. DL 81, nfifvin i. in, ii^i- 
(im II. SOO ; with Iht wgnHnt »inflliii» mdcM, ztiJLin A. SOB, Uia^lm 
Z. 66, virVirrR $. 144, rirkJiyt, H. 163. lir4irX«7« £. AM, «iff-)i 
S. 500, Inf^ln K. 137, rir^i Z. 374, >nr^. Hi, rir^pt. lliaiic. 95. 
61, rifn N. 363, IxfH A. 397 ; Att Bslupl, 4;«}.i. ^ IT9. i-ydy.r, X 
US, JMx> n. SS9, .Uivnn r. 343, iJial.. ¥. IBS, <(•<;« U. lOS, Ifafi 
^ 1 10, ifKfUr. Ap. mi. 1. Sfi9, n>ri»fi> H. 360, ({>«<if«r( 1. 976, 
l^«> (alao edltad liinrTn nd l.ixrn.i'O. 946, 131, V. 473, •!;■{■ B. M6. 
Two Seoood AortMa an raduplicatad M (tw ovf of tlu n»t : iIk »■■-» frum 
t. i«r-, B. 349, uid <;fau... from t. l^n-, E. 311. 

Non. Boon «f tbsaa rednplkaUd fbmu occur In Att. poetry ; dnw, If*. 
5. Soph. EL 147, ■■■Xv»«> Id.<Ed.T. I&d, Enfx lb. 149?, l(H«fi^ Ehk 
Ua, 104. 'U}<yw nouuwd area in Ao. gmt i w, L 3. IT. 





<5 193. The Affixes of the Greek verb may 
be divided into two great classes ; 

I. The Subjective, belonging to all the tenses 
of the ACTIVE voice, and to the Aorist passive. 

II. The Objective, belonging to all the tenses 
of the middle voice, and to the Future passive. 

Mors. Ths (ffixM of the Aor. pate, appear 10 have been derived from ilia 
Impf. of tlie ntb 11^'. br Is ; end Smac of the Fnt. pun., from tbn Art. of thia 
vah ($ 180). Hence the fiinner an nibjeetlvc, and the latter, otjeotin. 
Of tha affixea irUch are ant Ihiu derived, tba »1^«**H npraKot Um mAjact 
<tf the verb aa the dmr of tha aetdoo, and the o^'ectiK, as, more or lew diractly, 
In objtct. See ^ 165. 

^ 106. The affixes of the verb may likewise 
be divided into the following orders ; 

1. The PBiHAiLr, beloaging to the primary tenses of the 
Indicative mode, and Vt ail Ike tenses of the Subjuoclivo 
{%% 168, 169. y). 

3. The Bbcondakt, belonging to the secondary tenMU of tha 
Indicative, and to all the tenses of (ba Optattre. . - ^ i 

ISA AFnxEfl OF coKjneATioH. [book II. 

3. Tne Imperative, belongirig to the ImperaiiTe mode 

4. The Ihfinitite, belonging to the Infinitive mode. 

5. The Pabticipial, belonging to the Participle. 

^ 197. These affixes may be resolved into the 
following ELEMENTS J A. Tewse-Sighs, B. Con- 
necting Vowels, and C. Flexible Endings 

A. Tbhsx-Signs. 

^ 198. The tense-signs are letters or sjllahles 
which are added to the root id particular tenses^ 
and to which the flexible endings are appended, 
either immediately or with connecting vowels. 

In the Future and Aorist, active and middle, and 
in the Future Perfect (^ 168. «), the tense-sign is 
-a- ; in the Perfect and Pluperfect active, it is -x- ; 
in the Aorist passive, it is -ds- ; in the Future pas^ 
sive, it is -dria- ; in the o^er tenses, it is wanting 
See H 31. 

Thus, (i'lvlcv-a-K, fSovliv-n-a, (lovlev-a-opai, IGovXiv-aaitifl 
(HH 34, 35) ; nt>f'U-«-o^t (H 46) ; fii6ovltv^*-a, /etGovUv-K- 

iSoiltv-or, iSouhU'Oiiti*, j}fSovltv-fiai, tSiSoviiv-ittjt, 

^ 1 09. Rehabks. 1. The sign -St-, except when followed 
b; a vowel or by n, becomes -9i]- (^ 183). When followed 
t^ a vowel it is contracted with it. Thus, iSovUv-Stji', povliv- 
&^-xi, paviiv-9^'fni- (liovkiv-St-u, ^ 36) ^•3vliv9m, (fSoiifV- 
0t-ltiy, § 32) flovUvOtlijr • ^vUv-9i^inr, {ffovhv-»i-rif 
^ 58) fiovUvatlt. 

II. The letters x and 9, of the tense-sigos, are sometimes 
omilled. Tenses fonned with this omission are denominated 
Sfcond, and, in dislinclion from them, tenses which hiive ihese 
jetlers are denominated frsi ; thus, I Perf. ninmn, 3 Perf. Tf- 
no.3o- i Plup. I'j.fTifixKF, 3 Plup. irtftot^t^* (H 3H); 1 Aor 
pass, iyfikd^, 3 Aor. pass, ^r/f^l' ' I I^<"- P^^- Bryti-lt^oO' 
fis^2Fut pass. a^di)v(v«>( (11 41). See $^ 180, 186. ,|^. 


NoTiB. ■■ Tbl tcitn in flu aelim lod kUSt »cn, irhidi i« twined ttia 
Scamd Anritl, u rimply ui nld fonn of ihe Impirftcl (^ IJB. S,. 

g. The ngular or fint tensee will tn nniaUf >pDk<n of simplf m d* Ao- 
rul, <Ae Ptrftct, in. 

^300. III. In the PiTTTiRa active and hiddls, changes 
afTecting the tense-sign often bring U^ther two vowels, which 
are then enntriuied. 

1. Itk tense-sign -a- becomes -1- (^ 50), 

«.) In (h« Futan cif ft}wiJ eerlib See % it, 

^) In Futures in 4n>, fh>m dctAi in 4^m ; thni, »»itirti (h^IbJ h^ui. 

y.) In the Fatan of ji««i;>^i«, to iff nut I}-) ; thus, {wtjari/uu. imii- 
li>>u>i) MMtihSfuii. Add lbs poetic (riuiWa.) n.iT^u Horn. Ven. t2T, and 
(jtmlttftmi, -it^ $ 15. 8) ^iSftmi Theoc 11. eo. Sea ■!» b. below. 

2. Some Fatures in -San and -»W drop -a-. 

Thiu, U.£>», to driat, F. lUr. (U^) I;l£. I) 
\t.irui IX^i • MiiiM, UJ> ' riXiti, to filliJt, F. r»Li> 
riXifc ■ rairbi TlAli'i ■ ri>i«ir rl>j^ - Ujd. ri;iir> 
nXinr/n nJUrrfai, rlXlrJ^ix n^n/tint • X""' ' 
(Xi"". X'-O JCA ■ Md. (xJ..".) Xiv*- Add . 
(n jl^ i^mSK-, to cfclAe; lU verba In -a.<g/ii ; e 
partinilBlj {SiU;». &>. 

KoTC The amtraOtd farm ot Fnturea bi .&», -iw, md 4«>, ia lanmd 
the Auie fWnn, from the common oee of this tbnn bj Attic writer*. It ii 
not, hanever, conSned to (hem ; nor do Ihej empio; [t widiout exctption ; 
thus, Ixitrimi vil. T. 5b, nlirisni Cyr. viii. 6. 3. It is not fbund in (ha 
Optative. A nmilor oontmction Appeare, in e kw inatuicca, to have (alceo 
plAce ill olher EHituree ; thu^ ipt/uiJn i loUt you tuy watte f Ibr 1^ q^ririi 
Th. iii. 58. 

3. A few verbs, in the Fttture middle with an aetire sense, 
Bometimea add i to -a-, after the Doric form {^ 245. 2). 

Tho^ i-XJK, to *n4 F. ■■>.i»f/u>i, oftener (irAiB-ri-.^-i) rxtarti/uir faiym, 
tn fbt. fit^'iiM, and (f n^ii^uu) |)ii{>u/t>i. Thie form of the PuCnre ii (eimed 
t) ) Doric ihtmn. Otfao' mamplea In Attic Greek ira ■%■/•>, to nwp, An, to 
BBM, iWit^M, to ^Kirt, Ti'in-K, to /ol^ viiai, to Uw, vin/aH^u, to M^llin, 

RxKiSL'. a.) The Uqnld, Attic, and' Doric Futnm, from thdr formatloB, 
•re influcUhi like the Present nf crmfmrf vtrbt (It 45, 4G). It will be ob- 
MTved, tbM Id a few verbe the Prea. and the Ati. Fat. have the ume fbirn. 

b.) In a veiy ftw inWancse, the Vut- ia in form an old Pre*, (i 178. 2) j 
u, Utim, to tat, F. B'/iM., ^. 237, At. Nub. 121 (in later comedy iLSfuti, 
cf. ,. abuvo) i i™, to d™U, F. ■-:./»., «. IflO, Cj-r. i. 3. 9 (laWr .-..E^-.) ( 
t]^ to jfD, oonunooly lued aa Fut of Ux'f""- Add a rery ftw poetic hm^ 
Wbi^ wiH be noticad under the verbe to whicb thej belon^^ 

;L^rw lxS(, U^b 


» (riAik) TiXfr n 




to p«r, F. ixi'- 


M^in to !»/(. f^XI'^ 


190 AFFIXES or COXJtWATtOn. [buok'B' 

^ 9*1. IV. The sign or the Aoms-r, 

I.) Bocomea -i- iu Hi/m-l verb,. See < aS. 

a.) b omia^l ill ,r»« (1 53), Hxyu (r. iMy... to 4«7-), 1^1' (Rf- Ix'") 
from t^iM, In pitr, utul Ihc poetie Esia i,K|* 7ii«« micl Isiia). frimi aau>, b'hurm 
Add ibc Epic liLi^iK UHl i>.n»iia; N. 436, 1S4, Smim K- 'US, }>»»/- 
Mtt. 0|i. Tea. See S I8.V (. 

3.) I« the ume with iJiHt uf ihe Perf. in t/n.i, ll«u, and Ju. These 

Id the 3d rem. plur. h tlie midilU min. tb* AtU urilen we onl.v ll<r; Iml. 
«.•/..,. Eur. El. 62a, widi the vwy rare Purt, u^^i>.,, Jlfdiin. 72. 9 
Tbe other dialects will Un.i^^,. K. 31, Soti^utii Rnd. P. 4. M. 

HoTB. Th«M AoriMo In .iiii an onir euiibrmk exteniaima cf the 3 Anr., 
after tbe aaalagyot the Perf. V\t3l the tioal -> i^urjipiimliv -/i) iiewed Into 
-a, wbiiih becnma * cuntivcttng vowd ; mJ ilien -n- waa Inseriad to pre- 
wMthehiMiU (JS ITD. I8e)i ttiiw, )fc-> »«.> Ua-ni.Un*'. Uhi. I'*»>' 
Um (Ivn^ r[t KHi. Thl» tiinn bai^un* wbiibdb lail; wbora lh< Baxibl* vul- 
iiig Iia4 uo voweI (d. I^GX i «. in tbt .'iiilig. tUft ii| th« M Pera. pL ; tod 
WM properlj wiiiined to tbe lud. «t^ »lihi>U(^ a frw middle foniia are (iiuiid 
after tbe uine analE^'. Tbe Bude funn 4iiuiip«nia in ttw Lul. avt idiig. 
(cf. S ISfi), bat vat elHwbm either the sole or the ouminun l^ffm. Sea 
n SO, at. 94. 

B. Conhectiko VowEts. 

i^ 903. The connecting vatcels serve to unite 
the flexible endings with the root or tt; use-sign, 
and assist la marktag the distinctious of mode and 

Notes. ■. In each tenaa. thx which preaedea tbe roiuiKtiim towsI (or, 
if Ihia ii vanting. the flexible eadiiijt) may b« ' ' 

(S<>''i, fiiiBidaiim); oa, in the Prcs. uf ^mXiii 
Xii»- ; in the Perf. act., fliCtuXiM^ 

■M - B-l'i.ltS-MifH, ^•vf.lir-Mifu ■ S>ii>.ii>-<fiiii. !iiii>.i6r.c/iai. SiuXiuMr-i^i. 

§ 303. T, In the isiiicativb, t!:e coflneoing vowel is -u- 
in Oie Aoriat and Perfect, anA •!' in the Pluperfect; in the 
other tenses, it is -*»- before it liqtii, but otherwise -a-. 

ThDB, A. i:.<d.£r...fii., I(,t,yn,.i.f.„ ■ PT. diCuXiin-a-M' Pliip !£•:»- 
»>&-ii->> Prae. »K,iji.-f^t,, ^\,i.,.n, {gnXiS-rtn, 6X1 ^nkti,tn- firv- 
Xtit-fLin,(,0tXii-t-m,^i1.^4)SnMiji.linlii-i-T^,- Impf ICwXn-.-.. Km- 
;ii>-i-( • l(«>li>^-«w. Itf.>il>>-(.n . ¥.^Xw—ta;B'rktit-i-ru. S-rXtrr- 

RekaBKS. ■. in the Stn^. of the Pm. and Pnt. net. thr nmnerClvM -*. 
■nd •(-. either bv anion with the enitina. or bv ^nipl« prMniction, berome .■■ 
nd-u-; aa, (fi,iX,,-rf,, -rm) a«A.i^, (^iixiwr-it SwXnh.t. (fitiXtm^^, 
t-,)finXiiu- 0-».titM, fn>,tin„, li«,)L,in. Sea fj 181. I, t; 188. |'^. 

GH.4.J COKMKTIIfQ reWBtS. 1)1 

fi. Im thf 3d Pm alnfc. of dia Aer. mad Ptrt. h*., •■- Uka tb« phc* ^ 
■- ; u, (■Cu;>i>r.> r) i:.ii>Li>«, ^ChXiui. »ee § 181. 1. 

y. In the 3d ("a*. pL of the Plup., -i- comiiiunly takes Ihe plac« irf -•<- 
Sort. Th« oritpni] conaecti^-e of ths Plup. wa* -,m; whirb nniiiMd hr 
the Ion. (S 179); m, Ou B. TI, Qdt i*. ISO, »■»*•• ;. 166. irtlnn., 
». UO, Oil U. S32, ,-3ii^ ^. 411.1, iyi}.»i> Hdt. I 11, >»>.}uiTi Id ix. SB. 
'ihe aaSer coalraction Inla -*- is eapeiially uld Atlic, but alw octan in the 
Rp. and Unr. ; at. t Pen. flu Soph. Ant. IS, iriTit^n Ar. Kixl. 650, -^ix'" 
id. Ach. 10 ; S Pen. ^Im 'Suph. Ant. 447. Ai'h *. Ua. i;ii;i./i<i Ar. f:<|. 
Siia : 3 Pen. pa A. TO. Sopb. flA. T. 1.^3.1 {;i>xM TlirM'. 10. 3S. B/ 
[inrwirinn (S IJS}, -«- piused inlu -u-, whiefa bcuiiiie Lbs «iiininon tvnnectiT^ 
iiid in the 3 Pm. sing, ii itlnady found lit Fliim. (arisinjj fruin .ii) ; m, imt- 
nu 2. £57 ; so XU>:«< Thuui.'. I. 139. In tlie 3 I'av. pi.', -■.- berame ■■•, 
bv Ihe omiBainn of tha ■, whioh waa oidv eupb,.jii<: la iu urigin (§ IT!*): So, 
in tbe 1 l>en>. pi., ^n l« j)u«, Kur Biw. 134S. 

^ 304. U. The subjunctive lakes ihe connecting vowels - 
of ihe Pres. ind., lengthening -»- lo -ij- and -u- io -w- (§ 1T7). 

Thus, Ind. ituXti^, Subj. S>vliJ4>. ^»X«V-« ■ ^v;ki;-i<.i,. 0>i')jv-;-(, 
9>bXi^.;-I' UtiiXii-u, «.rt(«-j, ^.iW-jt ■ ^i,i.ti—^i,, fl.uJ.w--.^i. ■ ^^.. 

$il,>ili.:f.M,, ^vXii^-fuu, finX,ir-m-ft^ ■ Hitkli-t-Tiu, Si>,>.li-<,-rm, ^uKlit 

^ 903. III. TTie oPTitTiTE haa. Tor its connective, <, either 
alone or with olher vowels (^§ 177, 1&4). 

RuLB. if ihe Ind. has no connecting vowel, and the base 
ende in n, t, or s, then the i is foltowfil by ij in the aahjective 
form*, but receives no addition in the ohjeetwe. In other 
cases, dte i takes before it « in the Aor., and a in the other 
tenses. The connective i always forms « diphthong with the 
preceding vowel. 

«.. (1 3S), lil.-i's.i, li!i-.'.«ui> (1 SII; d.ibt.iw-«.M<. 8w;i(iv->i'.^w «». 
;ii^w-^, AiuXw-d'-fHiT, atiiKiir.n.^, S.aXuir-'i-im', SwAis/sr^i'.^ai • 7.11.^ 
(1 56), Iu«i-*-»u, fc..«..,-.^s. (1 62). 

.Kkmahhs. I. In OpUllves In -mr. Hie « Is ofton mtltted in the Hot., 
eapaeUU? in Ilu Sd Pcra., and also in the Dual ; as. /rv^jHt, Urmln. irr^Tu 
Strtir., 1 48', iJMXtkAru (i 35). I> tha 3d I^na. pL of dw Aor. puk 
the longer form is rare in classic Greeli Uruip^iiViai Th. i. S»). 

1. Is onfrwt •■^^Mm /vHi, vhetber Pres. or Fnt., Che cenneetii-e « oflni 
f141, ^.-ifi). 

Notis. ■. IIm Ibrm oT the Opt. <b -•An, (br ^fu, u called tiM .Itfic Op- 

Ibeoo 12. St. lUsfbrm is most emplnyed in die Sing., where ll is the com-. 
man forin 'a coBloets In -in aiid -», aiul aInioM. chu exdiwve fonii in con- 
tntcts is -Am. Id Oe Sd Pen. pL, it ■candr aeaara ^uh'sht ^scbln. 41. 


191. It i« liknrise found in the Perfl, ta r,wl,in (1 391 Ai. Ach. 940 
U><fiivr>;» Suph, (Ed. T. B40, rfitl.nX<a,.n Cyr. ii. 4. II; and In Iha 

a Aor. of ix', ta Aare, which ha». for iw Opt., tx'"" ™ ^ Biinple vert 
(CiT. vii. I. SG). bat r;(;>i^ in oompoands {atrirxta Hem. iiL It. II). 
So'iMo (t SSJ Symp. 4. 16. 

fi. See, In reapect to tlia inrcrtJon <rf i (i) in llifl Opt., ^ 184. 

3. The Aor. opt. >cL hu > Mnmd form, Mrmed JEi£c, in which the no 
neEtive iji UiU of the Ind. villi u prefixed \ as, ^fi.\ir~uiL-t. See § 18 1, a 

% 306. IV. In the imperative and infinitive, the con- 
necting vowel is 'H- in the Aorist, and -(.- in the other teases. 


Rrmaiiks. a. Before > in Ihe hufmratait, -t- Uko the place Of -■-, and, 
in the Srf Ftn. ting., of -m- ; ae, »«,>.n.i.tna, fitiUnt^., (§ 310. >). 

^. In the InflHiiiea of the Pnv. wid Fut. act, -■- i> lengtliaKd to 4 
(§ 183) ; as, 3«i..lj-.., S..i"'-^-.. 

^907. V. In the PARTiciPLB, the connecting vowel is 
-a- in the Aorist, and -o- in the other tenses. 

I'hne, (Biit-tSr-o-tTi, $ 109) »K.X,i.t,, Sn3.ivr-i-f,iu, ■ (fitrt.ti-.-tn, 
« 109) S."X.«,.. (^iiJ...«-«. g isa) S«,;i.i«.«, (e«XiS..."-. § 63) S»- 
>,»»- 0»Xiii««. (^■e.vlu'ji.t.n, §« lis. «. 1 79) SifixXiuiHif, (^:m>>». 
t-r.1., ^ 132. 1) $>Cw>jw>», (^iCMXiH-i.*-, S I03> eiC»;L>»;( ' ^hAu.;. 

^308, The indicative, impkeativb, infinitive, and 
PARTICIPLE are nude (nudus, naJeed), i. e. have no connecting 
vo«,l (4 175), 

) J In the Aor., Perf., and Plup., passive, of all verbs. 

1 the A«'. pais., the flexible ending* are affixed, in these modes, to tlis 
taue-^ (S 198); in the Perf. and Plup. pass., tbev an affixed to the not{ 
•t, itM\ti-»n-t ik 199,; ^■ewi>i.-^^i:>e»iii.>i>i. 

2.) In the PrM. and Jmpf. of same verha in which the char 
aclerittic is a short, vowel. These verbs are tenned, from the 
I nding of the theme, Verbs in -/«, and, in distinction from 
laum, other verbs are tenned Verbs in -oi (^ 209). 

"nie flexible eniSngs are here aiBxed to the mnt; thue. Irrm-fat, Itrm.rtif 
trrti-iuu, irri-fon (^ 48). In the Inf. .and ParL, the connecting TOwela -■- 
and -•- are innned ■ftan ; Ihot, l-i-im, Q-i-m) U, (^ 66). So, in Um 
Impenitii-e, ••»■«. Cf §g 18S. y, 20S. 

3.) In a few Seamd Perf. and Plup. forms (^ 186). 

The fle<ilhle endings are here affixed to the rgnl; lhu^ tm-^o, ImJi, 
lin.Hu (\ 48). In the Part., the connecting vowel ia inurted ; u, JiUt 
(^ 5B). Be, in the Imf., liliiwi, with which compan >i»i, abon. 


C. Flexible Endihgs. 
^ 309. Thejlexible endings (flexlhilis, chat^ 
able) are the thief instruments of rniij ligation, 
marking by their changes the distinctions of voice, 
number, person, and, in part, of tense and mode. 
They are exhibited in TI 31, according to the classi- 
fication (^ 196, 196). 

BnoAii Kelu juni RtmBgB, 

FiBST Pbbs. Sing. The ending -/i, afler -a- eoimeetive, 
and, in primary forms (^ 196. 1), after -o- and -w- oonnec- 
ttoe, 19 dropped or absorbed; after -oi- and -m-, and in the 
nude Present {% 208. 2), it becomes -ju ; in other cases, it be- 
comes -»; as, (Ind. (Juilitu-n-^, Subj. §;vlti^-ii) ^■■vXii-u, 
^tSoiiUvK-a, iSoiUua-a (bo after -la-, contr. -,]-, § 203. N.) ; 
0ovltva-ai-)u, flavlio~oi-fu, ^vltiu-oi-in, iuri]-/ii (5| 48) ; iSou- 
ItV-o-r, 4SiSovXivx-ii-i', /SovliiHtj-i; ^uuievttilr^-e ' qnJoiij-v, 
ayytXoirt-y (§ 305. 2) ; Vutij-*, iaiatii-r (fl 48). See % 181. 1. 

Kmx. T(ff>ui, fbr Tflfu^, ocoun for tbe sake of tba metro Ear. St. Inc. 
1 32. 

$310. Second Pbbs. Sikg. 1. For the form -o9a, see 
% 182. 

2. The ending -9 is dropped after -c- coTmtctwe ; after -a- 
eimnective, it becomes -■>, with a change of -x- to -o- (^ 206. a) ; 
after a thort vowel in f^ root, it becomes in the 2d Aor. u, and 
In the Praa. >, which is then contracted with the preceding 
vowel {at becoming tj) ; in other cases, it becomes --.''i (see 
& 181. 3). Thus, floiliv-t ■ fioiUva-o-r • #w, 3o-?, T-e 
(1FtI50,61, 54) i (i'orS-f) •iati),{ti3c-f) tlfln, (_d!-So-i) HSov, 
[diUi-v-i) 8ti»yd (flU 48-62); ?.«nj** (fl 42), (Joylt.Ifl-jT. 
(§ 62), iaia9i (H 48), Bi*,, 3(^-*( (fl 58), and, in like maimer, 
fSa,, "lat (titl 53, 56, ^ 181. 8), and the poet. ii<ii*( Theoc. 
15. 143, ini^rvSi ThcDg. 1195. 

KircE. In compo^tion, rrUt; Siti, utd ». (t^ 4EI, 56, ST) are nltea 
•hortened to rrM, fii, and ii ■ aa, rafirrt fbr wmtirnt^ nMriSi br imtd 

3. The endings -um and -ao drop the o, except in the Perf. 
and Plup. pass., and sometimes in the imde Pres. and Impf. 
(% 208. 2) i as, (^ovl.>i-(-..t, % 37. 4) ^uvliiii or 0uvhiu, (^ui^ 
IfU-t-o) (tovXivov, (/fluian'-i-o) IduvXevou, (iHuvUva-a-o) iSovUv- 
atf' (IpvlfV-O'-Oy PutXtun-ai-n' /J(fio)li»li-<(ai, /Jtfiojlini-cjo, ft?»Sou- 
l«u-oo ' foiB-uui, (ut"-uo and (VoTK'o) >">"' (5148); ic^t'tiett 

19A AFFIXES or cokjugation. [^ok u 

KDd (jlHt-m) 7l»s> i'St-o) idov (H 50); iJd.^ao and (dido a) 
dl5-v, <,3io) 8ov ('11 51). See § 182. 111. 

RiauRKS. (a) Tlia Aor. imperat. is irregiilBrly cantracuj ; tbm, (dm- 
Wr-...) ^Jx.(»-. (i) The cunlrartioii of ..., iilW .., (5 37. ^) i« « 
■pecUl Attic (brm, vhich hks exlauivel; used by pure wriiers ; and wliich, 
«fter yidding io nther worda to the eommun euntraction into -^. remained in 
6ni.u, f'li, uid Inl'U. (c) In aoia in -/ii, -imi mnaiaad mure trequentty 

.Each. Earn. 86, !»f or )«, (■ »9) Soph. I'h. 798. Farther particulura 
respecting the use or ominion of the .«- in wrii in -/» are best le(ru«tl ttvia 
Ihe tables and from oluervalioD. 

^311. Thisd Pers. Sing. The ending -i tMcomes -at 
in the mule Pre*., but in othiT cases is dropped, or lost tn a 
diphthong; as, (lurii-T) iuii)ai,'iai>i (^| 48) ; tfinilnii, fltSuvXimn, 
l/Liliv-M, ^vkiv-i-t) flauXivfi. See ^ 181. 3. 

NoiB. The paragogic i {% 66), whicli ii r^ularly KlSxed . only to i and 
iMmple I, 'a, in a lew inelance^ fbund afler .v in Ihe Plup., and Tullnvrg J! in 
the Impf. of li^', even before a contonant : tha«, S Ptra. Il3ii> ii iT '■S) 
Ar. Te^. 63ft, i!i'> •£!!» (H 56) Id. Pint. 69G, iri«.y>« tii Id. Nub. 
1347, liH-u. mi>r.i f. 691, SiCxii.i.. x';)::^!) E. 661, t> )i L S. S. In aU 
lh«ae cues, the > appean lo have been retained from an uncuntracted rorm in, 
->(•)> See § 203. N., 230. y. So Impf. Sr»,., .Ifm f. 3S8. 

^319. First and Second Pehsons Pl., with the Dual. 
1, The 1st Pera. is the same in the Plur. and Du., having, fol 
its svbjectipe ending, -ftir, and for its objectife, -fiitta, or some- 
times in the poets, -fAiaSa' thus, povliio-fit*, jiovliv6-iii.9a, 
and poet ^ovliv6-(ico9a. 

Kara, Of tite fbnn in -^i^h (^ ITl), there harg been fotmd oni; &n» 
dasaieal eiamplee, all in the dttal pnnary. and all occurring in poetry befbra 
a vowel: ti;<1^^i^.. V. 4SS, X,X%if^itn Soph, El. 990, if/^^^n Id. Ph. 
1079. Two examples more are quoted by AthentBua £9)1 a) Swataiord- 
hantcr (tMfiMrtliifMi'), whose affectation he is ridiculing. 

3. The 2d Pers. pl always ends in -». The 2d Pers. du. is 
obtained by changing this vowel into -or ; and ihe 3d Pers. du., 
by changing il inlo -ov in the primary inAection, into -ii*' in tite 
tecondary, aiid into -lar in ihe imperative. Thus, PI, 3, flovliv- 
til, /BovUvue ■ Tin. 3, jSuvliinor, iSavltvnov ■ Du. 3, /Sovlti'tror, 

Efjubk. Id the Kcandary dual, JJhe Sd Pers. Beems originatly \o hare 
had the same form nith the H \ and ve fiml in Horn, such cases as 3d Pere. 
IwKIrn K. 364, nnix"" N. 346, Xapir^trt, I. 5S3. 9k;iir>ir/» N. 301. 
On the other hand, the lengthening to -m (with whic* ccimpare the Icngthen- 
iiig of tha Plup. affix, -'i 179) was aumeUmea extended hy ibe ^ttica even lo 
tlie 3d Pm. I a^ id Pen. i.'jtlint. e<oph. Cbd. T. 1511, riXJuEirm Ivm. Al<x 
661. t^im, Wiinia'^iif B. Kalhyd. 373 e. 

$913. Third Pers. Pl. 1. Ths en ling w, in the ^ 


marp t,ejises, becomea -ym. In the sffimdary, after -o- or -«- 
ctmnecrirc, it becomes -f i after a diphlhoii;^ in [he Opi., -«' i 
but, otherwise, -am. Thus, {(iorliioyai, % 58) ^,..i»rui.ui, 
(tovUvaovm^ (liSovUrmaai, floflivaioi • iuiuui, nuuut (U 48) ; 
/finuXiv-O't', (6oikiva-a-* ' (Sovlfooi~fr, pttvltioai-tt, (louXivSti-nr' 
i€iSovliiiii-aav, iSuviivlt-ii-our, ^ultvOtlii-oaf 'ioiu-iiur, iurq- 
fluj', Io.o-'i)-o«» (H 48). See ^^ 181, 1S4. fl. 

2. In the Perf. and Plup. pass, of impure veris, the 3d Fere. 
d1. is either formed in -aim and -hid (^ 60), or, mora com- 
monly, supplied by the Purl, with liol ajid tjnav (H 55) ; aa, 
{<pttdfi-Btai Th. iii. IS, from <fSiti/ai (r. ifOii^), to woite, yi~ 

yf-pfiiroi tial, yfy^-fifiivoi ^o«» (IJ 36). 

Rkmark. The fonm ia -urm and -an ue I«rm«d /oiiJc. IWor« dieaa 
endings, a labial or palatal mate miiatbc rimpA (#. ;^), and a Imfpsti, miJdk(t); 
u, ttota r;iir« (r. t^wt.), to Oint, {riTfrnw-trm,) TiT'sf nTBi PI. Rep. 533 b ; 
from Tiittti (r. my-), to vronjK, (TirBj-im) nnx*""" '''• B- &> iT>«;£iir> 
n. vii. 4. 

3. In the hapwtUioe., the shorter tbrms in -rittr and -n^ttr 
(^ 177), which &re termed /l//tc ('J 7), are the more conunon. 
In Homer, they are the sole forms. 

Note, la hrm and Jrm (^t G3, 56), ths old phu-. (unn baa nmaioed 
witboat changa. 

^314. 1. Infinitive. The tuijeclwe enrllpg, after -u- 
connective (^ 206. j!), hns the form ■» ; after -a- coimective, -» 
forming a diphthong with -«-; but, in other cases, -nu \ as, 
^iii(ii-»(-r, ^a*iXtva-it-v ■ ^vliiia-n-i ■ ^iGiii^fva-'-nti, ^ii-i>vi>^ 

FB.- !«To-™i, Bi^^rof,, i(,™'-,». (tl 4S). See '^^ 176, ISa. 

2, Participle. For the change of » to a connecting vowel 
in the Perf. act., see ^ 179. For the declension of the Pan., 
BCe Ch. III., and the paradigms (IT 22). 

^ 3 I S. Ekmabkb. I. Pot the bechilar affixes of the nrb, 
whici are thgae of the aijJumic Pres. and Impf.. and of the regularly fiRDwd 
Fnt, Aor., Pnrf., and Pinp., rre ^^ 39, 30. These affixes ve npn in Iha 
rna. anil Impf., and dot In ths othar tenses. Ya( tke AmxES cl tfap Pres. 
and Impf of tkbes is -/« (J 208. !). »ee IT 29, 30. The afvixrh of the 
Sd Aot. act. uul mid. an the same with Ihowirf the Impf. ( 199. m), ut, 
ejtcept in the bid., the same with Iboae of the Prca. {% 1 63. jS). Ths Atnx- 
ES of the otlier tensea denominatHl •amuj(except the niu/r 9d P(rf, and Plup., 
5 186) dilb'&om the regular aOlxesonlyin the tmic-ii^ ($ 139. II.). Tlia 
Fnt. Perf, or Sd Fut. has the aaine affixca with the common Ful- act. and 
mid. (S 1T9). 

i. Special care is required in distinguiahing fnrnn which have the saina 
fatten. In SuiiH.(^^ 34,35), »e remark (besides iheformti whieh are Qa 
•ma in Ura Flu. sod Dn., § £13) the fblloning : Ind. and !iu1|j. pirX^- 
Itmt. tLd. ma Aoz. Sntj, ^r».ii*m • led. and Imp. JJ.v>.>Jiti, ■ JUi; 


PI. S, «Dd Part. PI. DM. a.iiUi'pr.. $„xii'.<v, ■ Imp. PI. 3. imd Part. Pt 
G«n. ^ullVHTin, ^nXutmrrin, fi,i,l.i,^,r.iw ■ Act. S. 3, UhI Uid. S. 9, J9<> 
Xiif, ^uXiwu ■ SuLy. Act. S. 3, auij luiL uul tiuly. Uid. S. i, fiuXtij ■ FuC 
Ind. Uid. S. 1, and Aor. Su^j. Ail. a 3, and Mid. & 2. e,„x,irf ■ Aor. 
Imp. ^^■>r»,-FDt. Put. S-x,5,n- Opt AH. S. 3, ^w^Lirni, I'nT. Act. 
finXfitmi, Imp. Uid. S. i, ^Lmru. 

3. With rexpen to the changH which take place iiT tlie ront, or in Ihe luiioR 
of the affixea Mrjth the root, the lemwa am thui awdaled : 1. the Pm. and 
Iinpf. act. and paaa. 1 3. the Fut. act. and Mid. ; 3. the Aor. acL aud mid. 
i. the I'erf. aiid Plup. act. : 5. the Perf. and Flup. pass. ; 6. the aad 
Fut. pais. It wiU be undaretond, that whatever change of Ihe kind mentioneit 
above' takes place in one oTtbe tenses, beloiiga likewise to the aesodited taisna, 
if aoihing appean lo Ihe contrary. For the FuU Perf., aee $ 339. 

II. Union or the Affixes with the Root 

A Regular Open Affixes 

^916. When the re^iilaropen affixes (^215. 1) 
are annexed to rocOs ending in a, e, or o, contrac- 
tion takes place, according to the rules (^^31 -37). 
See the paradigms (HH 45-47). 

Not™, m. Verbe in which thi« conlrai-tion takea place are tanned CoJi- 
TRAtTT Verbb, or, from the accent nf the tlietne. Periapamaiu. In diatinction 
fium them, other Verba an termed Butglax Vtrit. See Fnioudy. 

0. The verln ><us to hn, and HXin, to map, which have likewlM the 
fbrroi ■■«'» and ^x^Ik, are net contracted. DL««vUabic VerbA in -i^ admit 
anly the contractioDa into u ; thus. «-X.u, to im^ wXim ^Xi7i, wxiu wXu, 

Fl. CraU419 a,b. ' 

y. Tie contract Ind. and SubJ. of Terfn in -lui are thnioghoal the ume. 
See ^ 45. The conttact Inf. in -f> in likewise written without the . anbec ; 
thoa, rifiiy, aa craiCr. trom the old n^idr {§^ 2i. 6, 176, 1B3)- So fiXiTi, 
tnXm may be fijrmed ftom tin old fiXin, itiXiii. 

B. Reghlas Close Affixes. 

^317. [. When the close affixes are annexed 
to a consonant, changes are often required bj ftie 
general laws of orthography and euphonj' ; as, 

'(i^m, typi'f.m, yiy;.'^.! (§ 61) J J-l^ . , 

yw-^i»f™ (S MJ i yfw"w C5 ") 

yift-fri, yiypifti (§ 60). 

Xun (1 37, r. X.r-, Xtir-) ; lx.,!fin, Xuftirifiv (^ SS> 

vfirri (1 38, r. wfrny-'i I wfiim, r{i{^«<u, i<-;a£a^i., vIt^iEi (5 91) 

"•(*;c" (§ 61) ■. -f »r--'f . i't^«*p'. M'tv': "'tS*'- CSS sa, 60> 

CB. 9.] OTHBK EtrPHOniC CEtnOBS. 197 

«&U (^ 89, T. »#-, «>#-) ; mVi., Irlmn, Mruwti, rtwurU, f.% 99} 
«{ni>ii ih ei) ; rint/uu, l«nfr,wn (^ M); ■^rtvm, IruVh. {§ 59J. 

iyf^XXit (5 41, r. iyyi*.-); iy^ii, ilyyiXi^n, fyYf*«i *7T**i(^«i 
»i 56) i ily,.** (S 60). 

HkmaBks. h. In Ok Bqmd vtrbi hXi'm, (o Kcwf, !■;/», to jui)>, btiihi, 
Id ib^, niw, ti> i^ntcA, md wXitm, to wiuk, i it dropped bdbn the afllxea 
*bich man dot (5 56), except eoiiMtiniea !■ IIm Aor. pan. (chieflj in po- 
etT7 tbr tbe uke of tba metra) ; m, mii>.-tuu, Uxtfn uid IrnX'^tn, T. 360, 
H. Gr. iv. 1. 30 ; .imfrnm, ■(•f.^uu, Ufllm. and Ep. UfW.., N. 1 !9. 

^ In Dtbir vertw, > iHiuuihiiift'i, befbra ft, mon ftequeDlly b«onuB r, bat 
mnetiiMa becomea ^ or ia drupped [5 54) ; ■■, rifutfuu, nfmrfiitH (^ 13) ; 
ira{(£iiH>, l0 (vuigviUi, Pf. P. Put rmfn^uftfiitif or ■'■;«E>^i>H. 

y. Bafcn^ in the aAz, neitlur ^ nor 7 can b« doubled j faenoa, aiM^/uu, 
ixiktyftm (Y 44), fbr iBii r M ^^^ af, lxrfAi^y/«aA 

^SIS. 11. Before the regular close affixes, a. 
short vowel is commonly lengthened ; and here d 
becomes i^, unless preceded by «, t, p, or fo 
(§ 29) ; as, 

n/idii (^ 45), rifJtfti, WStnrm, nrifniM, rtrlfnmm, If^iMvh 

fiXl> (^ 46), fiXi(«, ^X<i«Mi, mf.'Ao/Hu, nfAarjfuu. 

^Xw (5 47), )iilM>, Diiljvii^i, ililn^iMfiai. lulWar^Hx. 

rtm, la Itaur, poet., F. nro, A. [«>■, Pf. P. riif/iu. 

^o. A) jHvAiet, F. ff», A. I^tfB, Pf. rif «ii^ 

l£v, fa }KnHl, F. Uras A. iJitm {i 189. 3), Pf. irdH. 

$.;£., fa Am, F. Smif^ A. iM^», PC riM(aa* ($ 61). 

NtnKS. a. Xfiin, b/Mtltr OH orach, }^(itfiai. In KMt.tnd nr(M:wu(T.r(ii-), 
to bott, lengthtn < to • ; aa, F. xt'''"' Xt'"'"'- '{""■ 'Al.<^, fa tAreiA, 
with tlu aHnmaa F. iU«irB, has also thj Old-Att. ixmi. 

0. la the Peif, of stria m ■/«, 1 ia lenKtheoed Co u, inataad of a ($ 39)) 
M, «4/u*a, rUi^oi (^ 50) ; irjis, i^ (^ 54). 

& 3 1 0. Rev AKKs. I. Some verba retain the short, towel, 

and others are variable ; as, 

trim, to dm, F. n-I», A. In-Jra, Pt rn-ita*, Pt P. Uwrnrpm ($ 83lX 
A. P. IrriWni. 

<«», fa fAmgk, F. !((,■, A. 4;m«, A. P. «{JAi> (Im. Pf. P. Part. i^.. 
«1h(, J. 548, Hdl. iv. 97, S 191. 2). 

iim, fa ftiml, F. ii>~, A. !3.», 3 F. )>)j'<^. • Pf. )!}■•■, Pf. P. )ilv»< 
(li:»^» Hipp.), A. P. l)i/f<r. 

9i;*(-il), fa lacrifia, F. ^», A. lAin. A. H. l»r^/.«.- Pf. riM.., 
Pf. P. ri«!>»i, A. P. iT^hir (: 62). 

HmBB. ■. Tatbi In -mnt/u and -t>Hi^ and Ihoaa in which the root end* 



in Xi-, lor Om moM put leUin Ibe sbutt Tand ; u, 71I.U, to i u i j *. f. vp 
XirtfiMt, A- iyiAird, A- 1'' tydKv/dp. 

^ Tlie afaort vowel lanains numt TrMfuaittj iKfnrv /, uid leut ftvqneotJj 
tnlun >. In the i-krf'im.t uul'M.T, it remains mun fciquiiuil]' ia 
the ptuitt, than In tbt "cffcv vc>iue> 

§ 930. 2. In sffen familiar diisyPables, mostly imply- 
ing motion, F appears 10 have been once attached to ibe roc 
(see ^^ 22. a, U7) : 

Sl^ to r» (r. ftiF-), F. (AiFrVM.) 3ti>,^ l,^in> mlj i^<i.in9). Set 
i 166. >. 

><>. tn fun'tt, F. »ii'>^., -ifju. (§ SCO. n , ir. S. IS. A.tnurm, PT. nnvH. 

1. ig. A. Ir*.«^, Pf. »iA,M-, Pf.'P. --i^^u*,* CS 221> 

■>ia. (" iTtaOic, F. viivra, Dein. S84. 17, cominnnly rnirt/tmi Andr 

655, « mi^rw^u, Ar. Uux. ISSl, A. IiTMHa, Pf. 7iTiu». 
Add ^iiD, fa jlw, ui'a, to Ahth, and ■l.c/ai, fa tM^ 

391. 111. After a sh^trt vowel or r diptUkcng, 
a is usually inserted before the rfg-w/ar'a^w of the 
Passive licgipning with d, fi, or i ; as, 

rwiw, a draw {i !19), Pa«a. Pf. Tr^.,.^, [,..„., tr«-r-TU, IrwJl-r- 
luim - ittnt-r-f^ivti • A' **"■*-/»» • P. wwrn-r-Kft/imi^ 

nXiv, to /<»'»( ($ Sia), PiH. Pf. TirUirjui, rmWfiMi • Flap. InnXi- 
r^m, iTiTai'i, lnTU»r. ■ A. ln:L!<^' • F. nlt'/in^'. 

Plop, li»«Xii^^w A. UlXlJrfii.. F. ■lAii.rftr.^Ki. 

Rkxahkb. a. In wnie verba, t \» omitttd after a t/arl Bmrd or di^iHumg 
\fi aome it is inauled nfter A tiiuplt timg nourel; tJid jume are vdno/d/e; thn\ 
«;i/n>, liSlfo., »i/.., rUf^uu, irt/fl. (|219; i ^Z.uU.,^.... xZ^i^it^,i\ 35)- 
;tii,, to Aoif) kp, Mixf/": ix"*i' ■ Xt"*^- "" "«' *!»:?""■•■ '«?"'»'■'• 
/ii/m^iai, to rnuiiiwr, i^tifr/n • mw, to atnp, ri'-av/itu, \rMiihf and Inv- 
4>i> • f^nfm (r. ^.-), to utrcngtkn, tff^'/^', fff^tm ■ ifii. >» ito, M)f4>m 
and diifVtf^ABf, Qfiffttf ' ^f^", to rf'7«ft, riS^Mbrtmi mid tt^^i/^AAj, l^car^ai. 
Jt iriri be (ib^Tved that the r ia attracted must UrungI; \iy the affixes begin- 
ning ■•ith 3. 

f . Wboi f ia iaaerted in tha Peif. m 
rimpl f.TiD 1 a% PI. 3, iiTMi^ii^ tU!. > 

^ 393. IV. The regular close affixes are an- 
nexed with the insertion of jj, 

I.) To drmljh consonant room, except those which end in i 
labial or pal/rtal voile, not preceded by n, and those which end 
in a Ungual tiiaie preceded by r ; as, 

.^--(r. .iE-, 1*3), -ij-,'-«, ,st-r«, .j;5-r«, irfS-r^, .IH^ 


l^bBa,v.i-Ui^.A.t,t,fm. i;^ to mms, F. iCibos A. ^«». 

ftiXXtt, to At B0viit to, to pnrjKtOt to dda^ T. fuXXirtr^ A< i^txXivrtt nkd 
i^iUmrm ($ 189. 1). 

I^ to fo ..^ F. W4«S A. 4)^^ K f^.^ 

fiirjm. Id jurinn, Id Jta( F. ^Mf». 

But :Li^n>, to iUh, F. Aiix^-, A. luyii^a, E Pf. iiU'^ra ■ J^^h, to 
(ml, to nJe, F. £;{., A. t^., Pt P. JTf y/ui, A. P. jfj^i> • rrlr)*, to nwk 
d Ubatim, F. (ririil-», SS B5, S8> mirm, A. Itnn, PT. P. (If«4-,M^ 
In-i>r;<uu, S 53) IfTurfMU, A. P. in-iv^t, UW Pf. A. tmmm. 

2.) To /i^tiU roots in which the characteristic is preceded 
Ly a diphlhong, and to a few in which it ia preceded l^ * ; as, 

fiiij/^M^ to ■>!% F. S,i,>.ir,f^„ Pf. ^tCtXft^ (Ep. 3 P£ filCtyM A. 113). 
A. Kipiilm and «£»>,•«»• l§ 1B9. I). 

WfXv, and ahortened Jtiiu, to wiA, F, UiA.Jri> lud ^XJitm, A. iWiXm and 
WiXiK', Pf. itikmm, and late ri^Unu. 

^Un to oHWcn, P. ^>;^>i». A. f/iilara, Pf. ^i^Uxu (Ep. ! Pf. aa Pna. 
fti^niiM, B. 9S), A. P. ifaxilot. Thia nrb li eommoal; lued Impcraoiullf : 
^ixu, tl oHHant^ ^;L«nj, Ac 

»ii., to fuaoiB, F. ^», A. I/.n>., 1 Pf. ^>*« (ct. 54. y), S Ff. ,.!- 

3.) To a few other roots ; m, ' 

Hm, b, mtd, f. li.i», A. lli*» (»'■> Z. 100), Pf. )(3i». ■ Hid. liv»<, 
to HNi^ to btp, F. liifr<|<»i. Pf. )>liii/.a>, A. P. lli>«i]>. The Act ia ixMt eou- 
man aa impersonal : iu, (Am if md, Jiiini, Uhn, Ac. See K. f, 

•Sit,, to ^Hf, Im(if. ■»« and anH (§ 188. N.). F. lulam. 

»V^ *« I*'"^ >'- •'<!'•>»', A. P. fn'/fir. When oaed panmtltetiGally, Ibe 
lat Fan. ring. eT tba Pr«. and Impf. haa tha nude fomu iT^.*., f^at. Id 
Horn, ve dud Ibe funiia iiww, «•., iTk (Dor. lii Ar. Lft. 166], mritm, 
Atefnt, with I commoDl]' long. See R. y. 

tlX'/Hi'i to di}Mtrt, to it gout (the Prea. having i»miDaiil7 the fbcea ct (he 
FertV F •Sxi'vuv, Pf- rXV> ■^ P°"*^ •'x'™* ■v rx"'^ (^ ^) ^"P*^ 
Aj. 89G (#;t">' It- asa). 

nw, to ttriii, F. *■•'», Id Att. p«li7 «<i!r>, At. Nob. 1 IfiS, A. Icwn, 
PC ■{«»•.>, A. P. !w.l,h: 

RXHAKKa. n. In a Aw vraba, i ta inaertid butead of ■ ((£ St9) g u, 

Ij^/^uit to fie Hreif, F. Ax^f't^^ft A. P. ej^/iWat. 

/Jj;,— .. to J%(*t, F. ^xi"—'. i"X''/^ C5 SOO. a), A. I^j^.r^,., PC 

^•,Ux»)t>u (Ion. «>xi>^>, lldU vii. 104, F. ^<;t;«nM. A. 299). 

0. Id a YWy. few verbs, we find the uuertion of i or «, See (fji^MM 
{3. above), J^iv^, Irtiai, Sy^, i'^m (id the two laat the insertad vowel ereu 
. pretedea die characteiutii.'). 

r- In nnet of t 
m^kmg. lliat U 


f ZIS. In lio, fa wof, and •I'ifwi, to tkai, tbsB appean to here boo son 
■ dignmma, of which «« find mces in the Homeric (liF-wu) >i»/uu, lim*- 
/»>, lli.^«, and in Ihe long . of iU^i. 

^ 333. V. Id a few liquid roots, wETATHESta 
takes place before the terminations that remain 
close (^ 56), to avoid the coucurrence of couso- 
nants 0} 64. 3) ; as, 

fiiXXK (t. AoX-, mnp. d:u-)> bt thvm, F. BmXS, aud In Att poMiy Ul. 
XV* (^ saa), Ar. V»p. 332, 3 A. ICl^ Pf. ^iCX... (ft 21S), PC P. »!• 
exa^w, S F. SiCXiin^wi, A. P. MxiMn. 

mC^ih (r. H^, trsDip. a^Hi-), (i> later, lo &t nary, F. as^qiH^ S A. fu 

»•, Pt .ia^ow. 

C. Vbbbs in -fu. 

[For Ibg pandltma, •nVHB-S7.] 

^ 334. I. Before the nude affixes, the char- 
acteristic SHORT VOWEL (^ 183, 208. 2) is 
lejtgtiiened (a becoming rf, unless preceded by f, 
^ ^ ; and t, ct), 

1.) In the Indicative singular of the present 
and IMPERFECT active. 

Thus, I<FH|;i« (fl 48; r. m&-),'umi'' »'9w (H 60; r. »»-),. 
iii»r{r • iiUmitt (it 51 ; r. So-), iSliuP • dUnrvfu (1| 5S ; r. a>ix-, 
diiH*v-), idtU^Cr ■ il/i, (11 56 ; r. "T-), .1, .Jo.. 

2.^ In the second aorist active throughoui, 
«xcept before vr (^ 183). 

Thus, Sirni*, Sat^itrr, at^St, ai^ittami, oiqmu * aiartur, 
(aTa-rts) aiaf ' aaiifm' (H 57 ; T. ifi-), oitoitSnu * i^vwr 
(H 67 ; r. y*o-), fywifin', fymtor, }^9i, jvHrai ' ytonmry 
{yrarti;) yrovs. 

EnxFTinn. The ihnt Towal rauatmt. In tfas S Aor. of nVn^u, >%>^(, and 
Tiifu, axeept In the In£, vhara it is dunged into <ta cofnapondin^ diphtboog 
(I 2B) ; thuis Ihf,,., SI,, S«-.«, (Si-w) »•;. ■ Ov", »«. I'"-. (>»-"■(} 
W ■ .!!".. (1 S'l i r. 1- ; for the augment, «ea « 1 89. 9). I,, J™, (!.,„) 
A (fiv the Kog. of tlwaa Aorista, aee § 301. 3). Exeqit, also, tb* poet. 

3.) In a few HrDDu: forms, mostly poetic. 
Thus, SIltiiiHt (r. ii^f-), to uek ; orirvfi^ to profit, 3 A. M 
w^Vq") ("><' Ict^' mrafitif • nl/ink^iii, to fill, 2 A. M. poM 

HB. 9.] rma m -fu. 301 

§ !99S. n. If the chamcterist'c is », o, or ti, the nTigufar 
of the iNPEUFBCT ACTIVE 13 commonly formed with the eim- 
neeting vowel {^ 185. p) ; thus, MSter, contr. /i/Aai», hldits 
itlSus. hi9ti trlUti ■ aiiaor tdaovr HiUinoP (Htl 50-52). 

Rbubk. In liks nannnt, the mjular afflxeii BomednMS tika tbe |4aog at 
the mA, in otber fbnna, puticulatt^ in tmt* b -a/u, which may b» ngaTded 
w tuTiog k ncoDd but leta Attic theme <d 'Hi (§ I R.?. ■) ; thus, hiHtCiu ind 
hiiw, luaiS#i tnd luaiHi, Dii'iivH. and llti'aiHf, lujsm ud luK>n». 

^339. in. SuBJCNCnvK AND Optativs. 1. 1q tho 
Subj., verbs in -fu differ from other verbs only in the mode of 
contracting -aq ant) -oi; (^^ 33, 37. 3); thus, ia»i-« laio, 

nAr*i,s Titf ,^ff * ttSi-iaftai iiSiiifjai, ii9f-i) jiti^ ' Siio-u Jtdu, 
dUl6-gf Stt^if ' JiJo-u^ni didw^ai, 8i36-ri Sidoi ' bttMri-», itaaih- 

tfpat ■ t-ti (fl 56). If, however, ( precede -«q, the contracticHi 
is into a ; as, aTioSp^; (tl 57). 

2. Vbbbs IK -w;(t have a second form of tho Opt act. in 
-4f^, which is most frequent in late writers, but is not confined 
lo them , as, al^i, £. 183 (aloiiir X. 253), fi<mv Ar. Ran. 177 
{the otlwr Corm is not used in this word, perhaps to avoid con- 
fusion vith the Ail Pres. opL, ^ 205. 2), p,^^ PI. Gorg. 512 e. 

3. In the Opt mid., tr, if not in tbe initio! ayllabh, is olVen 
changed before the flexible ending into ui, in imitation of verbs 
in -ai; thus, naolfitiv, loifiijr (HH 50, 54), and the compound 
forms, imaol/t^t, autdo^qr, i. 9. 7, ii|iaoJfii)r, lb. 10. So even 
KfiftoiaSi for Hfi/iaia9t, Ar. Veap. 29H ; fLai/rolpiHa for fia^- 
»allii9a, I. 513; and a<rlo>Tt for dqiftiif, PI. Apol. 29 d. 

4. In a few instances, Tert» in -v^ instead of inserting a connBcting rDwd 
in the Satg. and <>pl.. simpW lnngUien the ■ (cf. 4 17T) i a^ immuiUnyti, 
l»rMlU>.PT.i tui imtuUnij, >..rjH}.»^n., PL Phiedo, 77 b, d ; 9iyt6r, 
tbrm-rii-r', lb. IIB a. Add (he poet. l»Kf^i' n. 99, f » Theoc 15. 94, 
tMl,er, n €65, In.wn (fbr -im) r. 348 ; and tbe rimilart? ftnned fftfw 

>. 5i,p/rrt>- asa 

^937. IV. Second Aorist. The 2 Aor. from a pure 
root retains the primitive nude form, whatever may be the 
fonn of the theme (§ 185. y) ; as, ifitjv, aniiaur, Ivntr, tSCr 
(11 5-.. 

NoTB*. M. Kxc^t twut (el. 5S 805, S08. 2, 8), wMch vet hae the Imp. 

^ k kw malt 
j*(XAi^Hi. (d 167 17. 2 A. (r 
PwAr. Vaqi. IRO. 


Imp. atM A. S7, Enr. Hipt. 819, >xSn B. 5S, Mtetu Cbo. 399. mdapl 
■ixUV. K. Sfl4, >Uljw> r. 86 1 A^, lo A»_, 2 A. U. Lt^w «. tlO, Am 
114, A^rtH. 16; fi^. toproAita.'i A. If Ci, Pfr. li. 1. IS, Sail', fi., 0^16 
^1. (5 328. *\ Imf. 9£»j, Fart. fi,. 

RdCAfcKS urov Pavttcuxab Terbb* 
#itprf, to M3f. 

Iir as 1 

^338. (a) In ontain amnections, t*fii,tfnr, niA Ifn ua durteBed, 
At theskeof B«ari(v, to liy, J>, iiid j- thus, Ji t lyi, laid I, At. Eq. 6S1 j 
J r I(, hhI ik, PL lUp. 3^Tb, c) J, Aaipafc, A. SIS; «u; V^. *>".«*<-, 
»>y/ / tv,ta9! ^' Ar. Nub. IM.'i. (t) Tba £ Ptn. nag. of fln Piw. 
ind. u ODiDnionl} wiittai f ^. is if coDlncUd from fmiit. For If»r/>, n. 
the Imp., see i ISS. (c) To Uie fumu ia the table, Dia,v ba added the Ep. 
rres. H. PI. 1 firh u. 56S, Imp. fi. r. ISS, ^r/» r. 100, «■<«■ 1. lUX 
(Fnf. fiwtmi A. 1ST, .£<di. Pen. TOO) ; PC P. S. 3 irifimu ApL Kh. I, 
9S«, iW« n^or^ii^, U. 197, 

'lipt, to send. 

^ 93 Vi (o) Many of the fbima of tbU nrb occur only in Dompoai- 
twn. (6) Of the lontracl fbrmg lifi and I.rn (for Ii-i»i. .'iifr^ § S8), th» 
(brnutr ii pnAmd in the Attic, and (be latter in Ibe Ionic (c) The Impf. 
ftiiTO Tiir, which ecour» only Ib oompoaltMo {w(tti.t i. BS, a^k PI. KutAyd. 

by prwenwn, or to have been (armed after the aoaliigy of 'm, 'u, or of thi 
Hap. (^ IKm' Ibe <^t. (brnii »;^in and tl^ii>, the latter << wbifb ran hi' 
emiJi^^ only in componitian. Re § 3;!6. 9^ (<) In tbe diilecU, m God 
brnu IVem tbe aimplir tbenwa In aad b ■ thui, ImpC £w«- A. 37:!, Imp. 
ii.4t Tbeug. 11^40. lY. e. Part. f^i^mfJuH Hdt. v. lU6 (J$ fi9. ■, ISS. 3l 
rt. fu/iiluitm, Anacr. Fr. Tx) ; Pr. iiinnu Sdt. ii. \G5. Id tbe S. S. n. 
flod Jfu Uk. I. 34, ifui BsT. S. W, Ff. P. ifionw Ht. 9. 2, J. 

^ 330r In the Present uid Imperfoct (^ this verb^ the 
radical syllable t-, 

- i.) Before a eatMl, unites wUb it; thus,. (/-tv(| ^-Art,^ 56) 
*iol- (I-*.) u, (S-iie) ^e- (rf-fcj»)»iV- 

2.) Before VI, booomer o {cf. ^§ 263, 306) ; thus, (t-Fts, 
o-nt, % 109) (ov, Imp. {X-niay) ovjoiv (less used than ttie other 
forme, PL Leg. 87a b). 

3.) In other cases, is lengthened, as follows. 

«.) It bectimes 11 lu the forma i^.'. A, J. Jx, (of. $; SI8.A 314.^ 
Tbe form ■!. both hare and in ^ .;6, ie either ebortened ttom Ji (wUah to not 
OMd by the Actios), or ie a middle fonn employrd In iti Blead. 

^) la the remuning forma of tlia Ptbl, it aasumai r (pcbi|ppb}.S9H}j. 

IhM, i-i-/Ut. t^ri, l^-rit, l-r-rm, f-r-wm. !■#■»• (^ 813. K.). AAtf 
the (, Ibc r fn tba 3d Pan. ans- ti rataioed ; tbaa, \-r-rl. Bdbra the (. ■ in 
llw 3d Pen. ^1^ of kha Imparatirc bwwaw i by [iteaBmon (cf. $ UH); 
thus, ;-r-«i. 

)>.) b (fat Impf. it bacomai ■, and mtj Hknrln umow r bdbn r ; lhn% 
J>, J«orntber*-r-Ti. The OU-^iO. /ini <tf the I n Fin. Jl(Ar, At. 1363), 
uid th* 3d P«n. j>, tfpear to hare been aaatraated from U ud Jn («f. § 1 79, 
SOJ. K., SI 1. S.). For Sr/>, a«e § 183. The giiiUfa >rm j^t is UtUe 
Bsed by the more daute wriiara (Cyr. irL 1. 9). Tbe Imp. nra, wbidi feUom 
tiu aoalegy of tba bnpf., oocnn bat {oea ia Uw elauic wrilan (PL Bep. 
!i6l E.), and ia then donlitfal, 

ItitmHta. a. fai the FnL, battmA of trmxs tin Attica alWaye IM th* 

b. Some i^iaid the nxC of thli yob aa bdng !>-> and adduce is lappart of 
tMi new, the Lat. (incai] nm, O, iX, (()mihii, atu, (>>hU, iud the Saa- 
Bait «ni^ ad, olij Att. 

£!fii, to go. 


§331. (a) niePna.!^ iT^ baa commoiily in Ike Ind., aod aoaa- 
ttmet in the othei modee, the eenee of the Fat. (} 300. b); thai, ilw, {lam 

gontg) I win go. (b) For fut, in the Plup., the ajminou Attic fonii wae jta, 
which appeare to tie a ramnaiit of the old fbmution notioed in § S03. S. A 
Feif. un, coireeponding to this Ftup.i nowhere appean, and aome legard tfim 
(omittinj! the i anb».) aa an Impf. doubly Jugmealad (^ 189). For the uae 
of Ude tanaa. we § 333. (e) Par t-fi. and ;•;■,>, aea ; 305 ; fco- fr.., ^ SIS. 
H. ; for fJHU, Ui, and ;;,t», ^ 208. 3 ; fbr furtm, & 1 33 ; tbr ^i.. in the 
Sd Fen., ^ SI I. S. : tor ^^o, fn, &c, v^ 23T. (if) Tb& middk fonia i.^m,, 
X/tat are ngaMad b7 aolne of the beat critica aa inomvctly written Ibt "i^uu, 

Kitptti, to lie down. 

§ 933. (a) Tbia vnb appeua to ba onitractsd ft«m ■li/ui, a de- 
pMumt inflected ]&e nVi/w (t SO) ; thus, nii^iu iiurui, ■!»»! airmi, liin 
■iVh adrfrv nurlmi, uli/utH >ii>(Ih[ - i>llf(*< l>t.>iili ■ min/ui Julrt/tii. 
Id the Snty: and Opt. the contnctioa ia atmnionly omitted ; ttaoe, ■Ik^hh, 
(Ec 8. 1 9, Mii^«>, iv. I > I <>, Ilka rM/tmi (alio accented rifn/ui) and n/if- 
/in'- yet a^mw (alao vritten mVoi), for linriu. T. 33, g. lOV. (ft) Tba 
Sntg. aooietinw retains the fbrm of the Ind. ($ I 77) ; as, SubJ. I.^>i.f»i Pi. 
Phadu, 84 e. (c) We And the fuKowinK forms In the dialects, SMne oT which 
hare tlie diortw root ■!- : Prat. S. -i uik, Ham. Mere. SSI, 8, .f liiriu lldt. 
v1. 139, PI. 3 aiHTw X. 510, >iwr-. fl SiT, (mtoi A. 659, UdU L 14; 
Impf. PI. 3 Uilmrt Ap. Bh. 4. Vldr., ■■''<>« f. -IIH, Ui>n Hdt. L 167, iiiin 
IT. 763 ; Fut. >tirir;>iu Tbeoc 3. .IS (J 300. 3); old Pns. as Fat. (| ZOO. b) 
utM, a. 849, aiw r. 340. (d) Some of the best gratnmariana regard ■u>uii 
■a A Paif . having the aanse of the Free. (_% 333). 

D. Complete Tenses. 

^'S33. 1. Id some verbs, the sense of lt>e comple*" 


tenses, bjr a natural transition (see Syntax), passes into that of 
other tenses ; and the Pekfect becomes, in aigniticaiion, a 
Present ; the Plufbefbct, an Imperfect., or Aoriat ; and the 
FnnJEE Perfect, a common Fulvre. Thus, loiij^i (H 48), ta 
station, Pf. taiTjxa, (/ have ittOumed myself) Itttmd, Plup, iurrj- 
«i», / slood, F. Pf. iorij'Sw, 7 shtdl stand ; /ji/if^oiiB, io remind, 
Pf. P. fitfivii/iai, {I have been reminded) Iremeiaber, Plup. /^*- 
firq'/ii)t, / rerriAnAereii, F. Pf. ^i^vijuo/iui, / «Aaii[ remeBiher ; 
Plup. !?..» (H 56),I«enl. 

Rbmabk. In ■ few of them verbs, the Free, is not nsed, and the Pebf. ta 
tegarded u the 'ieme. Soch verba, u bsving a pntoite ImBe for Ilie theme, 
are termed r&EisBimrx, See H SB, 59. 

^ 934. II. Modes. 1. The Pekfect S^bjukctive and 
Optative are commonly supplied by the Participle with the 
auxUimy verb il^l (ti 55, § 169. /J) ; thus, Pf. Act Subj. (Si-. 
6avXtv%iq u. Opt. Pi6ovXtv»iii tFijr* Pf. P. Su£/. jSiSovXivpirag oi, 
Opf. /SiSovliVftiroi tfijr. 

w—"""' s. Somelimea, hoirerer, the Per£ firm* these modee accM^ing 
to the general mlea (tj^ 304, sot, &c.), cbieflj vhen it is emplojed Kt • 
Pra.; ta, lm'», vi. 5, 10, J«-i, PI. Gorg. 468 h, Iw-./b^ T. 101 (1 48), 
•riYiifii'ii. (i aOS. ■), Iilf> (1 5N), Bep. Alh. 1. J I ; i;;!.^;^^,! PL PoL 
369 c, iri*T«jHi T. 7. 'J6, SifXi<ji«i> Th. ii. 4R, titmiij. Id. viii. 108. 

fi, bl the Ar^ pat-, then modes are formed La only a fiw pun wrA^ 
tmd in these without a fixed analogy ; (hna, 

iMXiiu, b> coSi Pf. P. iiii>.i|/>u, / Aaw im cojbd, f on uamai. Opt. 

(iMiiin-^/«i.) «(i>;^>i>, (ioApt Soph. Ki. 1 19, iiiikjrt, &IB. 

■T^ifwi, to acfun I Pf. niant^"', I have ocyiiiTtd, Ipofin, Sttbj. (mn- 

■iiT^i, a^iTi^rt PI. Leg. 731 o, or («i»Ta-^^ir.) wnftutt, Murf; xurfn 
Ages. 9. 7. 

^I/»iV»i (S 933), Sv^. tiifttS/iMi, PI. Phil. SI a, Opt. t^if^rj/.^. CI 745. 
^I^rjlrj At. Plut- 991, or flt/£r^/£wr, /u/trft (OT ftifaut*) L 7. 5, ftt/tr^T* 
CjT. i. 6. 9. 

For iMm/ou, aes t 59> Add Aiif- ^ClSrA Aodoe. sa. 41, nr^ittm PL 
Btfi. 564 c ; Opt. XtxSn t. S3S (cf. § 8£fi. 4). 

^ 93S. 3. The Perfect, in ita proper sense, may have the 
IMPERATIVE in the 3d Pers. pass. ; but, otherwise, this mode 
belongs Only to those Perfects which have the sense of the 
Pres. ; and, even in these, the Impa-alive active is scarcely 
found except in the node form of the 2d Perf, (^ 237, 238) ; 
yet StKyr, nirptiyiu (^ 338. (»), j>,'ymri F,ur. Or. 1220, /JiSij- 
nitu Luc. de Hist Scrib. 45, iomnei lb. 49. 

^ 33S. III. Vowel Changes. The affixes ia -a. -»w tit 

' ea. 9.] . . OOHTLETB TENSSS. 305 

the Second Pbrpect and Plupbrpect are anoexed with the 
rultowing changes ia the preceding syllable. 

1.) r becomes o, and » becomes oi ; aa, ^ira, to remainy 
2 Pf. fiifiara ' Sii/no(iat., to fee, poeL, iiioffxa ' Itlatt, It'loina 
(H 37) ; nddu, niitotSa (H 39}. 
Norm, (s) Tfaa ume chmgH uk> place in the lit Pol uid PBnpL 

Sf > tft verba ; si, nXiwri, tn ilttd, ninXtf^ ■ rt'm. III tun, rirff* ■ ci^ 
wn, to Had, irivv'fa • liJi^aa (^ j8). (fi) AniJogoiD to tba change of ■ 
iDto *, ie Ihit of a into ■ in fvytt/u, to hraJi, v ¥t. fffmyu. (c) Id the fb)- 
bnring Pcfftcts, then appean to b« an inaution of ■ or •> (^ i-i^. fi) : iyi, 
m liad, iyiixiL tt 19J. V), Uem. ^39. 1. W.'., Id •a/, t)>}.», iv. H. -M |,Ep. 
Pd P. Udi^uH, j^. 54), i!i>/i (r. I/-), Co In wani, preteritive, t'x-" (^ !'-i> S). 

(d) In Che fbHotving diaJpctio forrns, the changa or inifartioa of vowels hM 
eatoided to the ponut : if unru (J 1139. *) 1 i^frt y. NTS, Thene. V4. 49, 
for Ji^n or i|;n, Flap. S. » of iii;i. or ■'(■., Id raiw; lvi:;(aT> H. 3*0, Wap. 
H. 9 of (<ri;i:« • aat/^i (N. e). 

2.) Short B, I, or u, berore a single cotuonant, is lertgihrned 
(n, Dot preceded by e or t, ^ 29, becoming ij) ; as, tfolroi, ni- 
(ftira (t[ 42 ; r. <fay-) ; S«iU«, to bloom, tiO^Au ' a/rlftt (r. wy-), 
(o break, iriya' apn'Cei, iiixpu;'!! (^ 238. (i) ; t:i»i^ya {t^xf^y ), 
to creak, pret. ; ^i)iiuD/iai (r. /lin-), to bellow, fisftuxa. 

Excsmon. Aiter the AUic redupUcition, Che short vtrwel renuung ; u, 
IxiUtfm (i 191. S). In >Anm (r. %■•-)> f -'ml, - ia not cfa«iged inta « 
in the Act; thni, S P£ iiXtfiu, Ar. Ach. 1 1 (aU^h, X. 141). 

^ 937. IV. NuDB PoRHs. In the Second Perfect and 
Plufbrfbct, the conoccting vowel is sometimes omitted in the 
Indieatwe p/wal and dual (^ 186). When this omissron inkes 
place, (a) the !nd. sing, is commonly supplied by forms from 
B longer base (cf. ^ 201. N.) ; which forms likewise occur in 
the plural and dual, but less frequently ; (£) the Subj., Opt., 
Imp., and Inf. are formed af\er the analogy of verbt in -fu ; 

(e) the Part is contracted, if the cltaracteristic is a or o. 

Pf. Jnd. 8n^ Ummm (1 4H ; r. »n-, bsae \rrm-, prolanged to Irvw-, 
§ ISG), IrreHi, In-aai, PL v«f-^t Fl. Gorg. 4GB b, Slid nrelj Xwrimmpm, 
IrTi-n, (Ir«^n, lfni-.r., % .4 H) Ihwi (l.n«>rn O. 434) i Sutj. {Uri-u} 
l'» and Imjjuf ■ Opt. Untl^, (poet) ; Imp. Uri-t- (poet.) Ar. Av. -.KM ; 
lot iniim, W. 7. 9 i Pan. Ep. Irv^.^, 4vh T. ^9 (alw Irrwit Hea. Ih. 
ai9), .KnoKBly nmtr. I™;, (,1 'i^. 8) 1. 3. -i, (1™-J.™) l,™;.^ (l„,. 
i^') Irrw rmd KHnetlmca, bv eyncopa, \trii PI. Pann. 146 a, Ion. irn*i 
(S 48. I), -VTH Hdt. iL SB ; abo l-ni-i PI. Hao, 9S d. Plup. Smg- Imi- 
■in or ilrvuui^ ■■>(, -u, PL Ifni.fll^ Irr<-n, Irvl.M> L 5. L3 (IrWuuw 
CjT, vUL 3. 9). 

Arinm, » di, (r. A»., A*., § 64), Pf. Ind. £ti^ r(Aa>< (hue riA.., 
V.A...), .„, .., FL Til^fu, PI. Goig. 49» e, «^n, »«»» iv. 3. 17, D-. 
riAxwiv. 1. 19; &ilj. »Mu. 1:1.710.74) Oiii. ni>«i>, C^. iv. S. 3 ; 

205 jtKFiiM OF coNjnojcnoK. [enoK u 

Imp. t. xei. ntUn, Fl W- 933 e, Ao. ; Inf nMnu MM. 1. % 
IS, n^i>»u aoph. Ai 474. "<■ I'«t. (nAw-i-Nu) nASw Mt6b. Ag. S39 
Put. n^H^i (fem. }. T»4}, n/^-ii. Find. Ncm. 10. IS9, commonlr cwitr., ' 
wttb > Iniertcd (cf. j; .IS, «A. I). 'lAuil. -irm, -^O! -i„i9. 4. 19, r. S1I, 
Ep nhii^ or nt>,«i,, Jr» or -frM. >. Se», P. 435. Phip. 5u$. IrJwi- 
>ur, .U[, -u, P/. ItUm,.!., -ti. -n. U. Gt. tL 4. 16. 

Pf. Ind. Siiff. iShiMM pfT. L4. IS, and iOm Sopk. CEd. a MG9 (^ 59, 
Uk )■).-. litur), liiuH uid }!}.><, }i}.u and )il.i - PL lil^it Th. iiL 53, 
jan, (li).in, S 5a] M;^< PL ApoL ^9 a; Sabj. liii'v - Imp. iU.!, Ar. 
Vnp. 37» ; lii£ )i)u.« (§ ^8. 1) Rep. AUl I. 1 1, and !<)<i>i«. Ror. Sup. 
546 1 Port, hi^ PI. PtdL »vO a (conti. or stdc Mmt, Ap. KIl .S. 75»), 
and lilaiw Eur. Ian, G^4. Plap Siiig. i3iJ<iiui> PI. China. I 75 i, and 
OiiU.., -u,, -u - i^ iliV". '!'>'"• !!')>'-• PI- L^ 6S5 c (il>)»'u»r Jii. 

Pf. lad. Simg. <n> (^ 58 : baae iS-, lil-), iM- (for iTJ-.f., ^ IBS ; iRa, 

•cane oceoiB ia tfag Att., yet Eur. Ale 7 so j the Att. poets, 1^ ■ mingliiig 
or tumu, aanietiiTin nae vt/-t Eur. Ion, 999), i^i- PL (3-^i>, ^ 5^) Uf> 
ii. 4. 6, 'Ji-n, h ^A '"">, (?!->", Uie ) becinning r in imitation of the otlwr 
persona) Iran, and nrdy inB^ii PL Ale 141 e, .fimn, ^ar, ■ Imp. (Ti-ti) 
fi/iii. 1. 13. Plop. 8img. R,„,Pl. pu^h &c and poet, (^^n) tr^r Eur. 
lieu. 1119, (jH-n) fm, (^»f) ^> .«a^ Pram. 451. 

Plnp. Sh^. fn> (^ 5S), fui, $11, PI. fiiftH, -n, comnKmlf V» ^- "'P- 
3iS b, fri viL 7. a, fumf Cji. it. 5. 55, MDietiiDea Ion. f,^, r. **5, Hdt. 
ii. 163. 

^ 33 8. In the following examples, the nude fonnB ttre 
chiefly poetic, and, in part, Epic only. 

■, Pdkb. i^rniis (v iIdmi Pr. PL 1 ilftn<^> Ar. Fr. 433, Inf. ifirrtim, 
Aih. 4S3 a. In imitatiui of tkeu coBk fornu, wa And d«o, from )imi«, « 
n^ }>liM-.l/>i. and liluwi'V Ath. 43S e, Ar. Fr. 94.1. 

^.'m., to^l pr. ^Cnu' (t. S—), 9 Pf i*!. poet iiSmfu; ^iCim, 0>U«n 
U. 134, Sif^M Soph. El. I3H6 : Suly. PL H ^iCii. PI. Phsdr. -ii'I e i Inf. 
^iCsHi. Eur. HeracL 610, HdL iii. 146, Part. Ep. 0iCuf, -i"'!, -£ru, E. 
199, n. SI, Att. oontr. &iii,, -iin, -Ztk. Soph. Ant. 67, 996, (Ed. C. SI4, 
IL Or. Tfl. tf. 3,PI. Ph.*. a54 b. 9 Plup. PI. ItlC.,..., -.«, -.n» B. 790. 

S.eaj»«, b> sit; I PT. mt^— (t. Sf), ^ pf- Part (?iC^A) ^iCfiii, 
-a^TH, Soph, Ant. lOSi^. 

]-i>HfMH (r. )«-, ]«.-, >u^r»-), to fcroonu ; 2 Pf. yij^ui, poat Pi- 2 ]-iyi4n 
(Ep. fbr }^>«n Horn. Batr. 143, 3 }.iyl>n> .^. 41 ; Inf. yij^n (Ep. 
fbr ytyi'vj B. 24 R ; Put. Ep. 7i>a«, -»>, -frw, V. 11.'9, I. 456, AtL 
mnlr. yiyii, -£.«, -«-j(, Eur. Ale. 5:f2. 677. Plup. Du. 3 yiyirn^ .. I "8 

filfiMi (r. fu-, mi-, ^ 336. 1), le it tagir, preC. E. 4S2, /ti^trnt Medi. 
Sept. 686, /<i^»i Boph. Tt. 982, PL ^i^fut I. 641, ^i^uin U. 160, ^i- 
/uM» K. 908, />■. fii^T- &. 413 i Imp. S. 3 „ifiirM A, :i04 ; Part, ^.i- 
f^it, -tTm, -ir-i, A. 40, 440, 6. 1)8, and ^i •»>»[, -fi-w, H, T54, B 
819. Ptnp. PL 3 ^V*n> B. S63. 

»;-»,., iBfaB; 1 Pf. ri.»H. (r. «.-, -«-) ; 9 Pf. Part. Ep. «-,*rui( 
-J™, *. fi03, and wfmi,, -km, -ir-i ud -Sm, t. »8, Ap. Bb. 2. asd 
Att conti. <nv»i, -i»w, Soph. Ant 697, 1018. 
- rir^mi (r. rXm-). toitur, preU, PI tiriMfa, ». 911 ; Impi vI^^mA Av 


586 : bif. nrid^m {Bp. 6it mtA^w) y. SOS| J^Tt. nr;i*iif, -u, -mf, 
«. 83, E. HT3. 

^ IxniKE. la tlu nnda fbnng of tbe drat fi 

I>H>«, *> canunaiHl; poet, preteritini, n. /■ay/m Horn. Ap. 531 ; Imp. 
Mnryt But. Or. 1 19, ud iwjt:^ Id. Ak. )044, if^/yi-Tm S- 1 95, aad (.tw)^^} 
in^X'*' ^ *^% PL ^^>>« tI^. 132, trmxli Ear. Hen. S41. 

■^^ ODDunonly if Pf iifi>(A7^ to cry; Imp. i>ia{B;(«i Ar. Ttip. I9S, 
i>t ■ijifaj'iri lb. 4 1 j, and ou^j^i At. Aub. 335. 

I,^;f«, (0 rflur; -2 PT. ij^y.^' Imp. f/. U lyt**^ 1. 1199 i Inf. lyjir; 
tVa. (W if ft™ lyj-lj..;^,) K. 67. 

ritx-^ ta affiri 2 P£ .i,.^ PL 2 (rJvWn, rlmm, § 58, trivwri, 
§ 55) wUtt/i i: 99, >. 465. 

Uh., toteUit, pRt. (bus i£>-, Uc, f« 191. .S, 336. I), PL tng. lny^ui 
SoiA. Aj. I;i39, i>H. Ep. t.'jiro 1. 87, Flop. i;.«r> A. t04. 

ttxfuu, ttceme; S Pf. Mk«lm, Ep. il 1 ■.'IiIXmH/ii. (HT. K.) y. 81. 

irin/^ to Inut (^ -M. bue ■■■■'•^-, mnt , wmJ-, $ ^38. 1); I>4k 
log. trini'^' JEwb. Eom. 599 ; Ptup. %. i*!: 1 Iviri/^t B. 341. 

^939. V. FurnRB Perfect, or Ththd Future. The 
Fut. Perf. unites the baae of the Perf. wiih the a^xes of the 
^ut. act. and mid, ; as, (iarq'x-tna, fl 48) iuii;ffti, {ytytjoif-aofim, 

Rkkabks. 1 . Tba f^t Perf. la sorael; fhand la K^iiJ vaba, or in TO-bi 
.^piaumg •oHk a nau/ (rtf^w/>u Pind. Nam. 1. 104, ■i(>i>.fuu, i 53, CfT. 

OHUnioa /idwT (4 933). 

B. (o) Of the Ftat Ptarf «et, the only ernnpla fe Attfc proaa «re )rniS> 
•nd nAi^ lioth IbmiBd from Pateeu hanof; the senn of the Pna., Jmiu 
■od rUtnim ((^ S33, 937), and both eiring ri» M iwti& form of the saiog 
■ignlflntian ($ IM. 8), Irn'^i/ui, end ri/nt.iuu. (») OUler exunpke-Df ■ 
i«dD{dkated Ait. In tka active Toice ire nntim Ar. Pu, 381, and llie Ep. 
immxirti. Bom. Hoc. 9RR, mimmiirm, f. 153, rintirii X. 233, ■l;^ii(<i», 
O. 98 (alaa mixtirtititi, if. ^6S), ell from rerb<i vhtch have redapltrated 
•J AoriMa (J 194. 9). (c) Otha- eximpln of the Fuu Perf. niii. with tlie 
Perf. acL, are mU^jtyyti, itnXitii/t^ Ar. Vup. 930, uU^ityr, aii;ij{i^uw 
Ai. Ran. 805, aue^., •lulrir.^uu, 0. ;153. (iJ) An example of a mdupli- 
c*ted Fut. mid. with a reduplitatad \i kat. a nfiiittitMt, O. 2\5. 

% 340> VI. The studeat will observe, in respect to the 
Com)>lele tenses, the following particulars, which are far more 
■trifcing in the Act. than in the Pass, voice (§ 256) ; 1. their 
defective farmalion ; 2. the entire vyani of these lenses in many 
verbs ; 3. the amparative infreqtieriry of their use ; and 4. their 
more frequetM occurrooce in the later than In tha earlier 

»i by Google 


A, ComRAcnoH. 

^ 34 !• Foniu vhich u« eoniracttd fn Uie AlL (md iriilch are ■!■» 
comnuinl; cootncted in the Dor., but oftoi with a diflbrant Towd of contrsc' 
IJiHi) mon &(qaentlj' remain mtcomtraitid in Ion. pros«, while the Ep. hu 
great freedom in the employment of either wteonttaeted, contracted, or tunoHji^ 
pnlraeUd foraiiu Here belong, Cuutract Verba in -us -in, and-w (^ '^^'■\ 
the Uquid. Att, and Dor. Fnt-iS iJOU), the Aor. Pass. Sobj. (§ las), the 
Sntij. tf Verba In -^m. {f> 226), and the 2d Pers. Sing, in ... and -• (§ 'iiO 
S). la these fbmu, the dret vowel ia dther (I.) ■, (II.) ■ or ■, o (III.) ■. 
Of tbaae, i or n is ftr tbe most frequenti; unoontraetad. 

^343, 1. TU Jim miari m. (a.) In the Ion., the • is eomnionlj 
contracted or changed into % {\ ■fl. '1) ; and when a with an O vowel is con- 
tracted Into ar, I b often Inserted (§ 48. I, cf. \ .15). Thus we And, ai va- 
rioua reading!, Igi^nt, !;!•■«[, and J;ivmi, Rdt- L t<2,- 99. So lufSiur 
L 130, ^i.^>tiL 131, jc(«(J*yU. 141, «iW«. ( ,■ S3. ■) L 47, ^iw** 
1S7, i;tf*-" S3, a:ei* (fi>r Xt^') 1 M. f,.«;K-i"-' («" ^P■>^;-i"'■^ one , 
dropped ; see §$ HAa. i, 948, /) v. fi» '. SnbJ. of Terbe in .^, Jioui/x^i 
ir. 97, S Am. xrit/ai <» xrin/tu x- ^'^i (^ iTiiav"'' coDl^. irw^i (>ee bIm 
b. below). 

Ninw- In tbe 3 Pen., the ttsminatlOTt -at comraonlj Tcmains ; as, \xti' 
nu Hdt. I. 117, irlrrf viL 209. 

(b.) In tbe Ep,, protracted fiwins are made bj doubling the vowel of con* 
tracttoii, either in whole, or In part (L e. by Inserting one of ita elements, oT 
its corresponding abort vowel, commonly • with a, and £ wilh #, § 48) ; and 
aometimea by pmlongiog a short vow^ parffcnlarly < oaed fbr k to n ; ta, 
l(i„, ountr, tfi T. SS4, protracted i(im E. 'M4, l^iu, Iff, A. 303, i(mfi 
H. 448, itim, ifZ, E. S7J, Ifiu, A. S.tO, •{»«' il. 9, i^iitm X. 15l>, 
J;>Uf«» V. lOT, itifn A. ^47, ■»-.;«« A. :ll, l^mXdf B. 293, i^mXji. 
ft eST, l/»v»T> GH6, ).i>.wr>( r. 40, }'i;lm>tii 1 1 1, iXw (Imp. fbr ixAn, 
■a) t. 377 ; ^.±>r/u ■. 39, ^»w« N. 79 (A»«'»n M. 59), I(ii.v. •. 324 ; 
lf««ju 3il,liUttu H. l57(aC^fu I3H), {juiit,' ii'A4ii, ^w) ^wii Ap. Rh. 
I . Sgii, HHruiry r. 387 ; ^iian^. O. 8.', for /louiii^ ai^l I. 30.-I, (br 
■i^i' Att. Fnt-U^wi N. 815, a. 319, Urf^t i. 290 (sea $ 200. 3); a;!^ 
H. ^3 t 2 Aor. Sutq, of Verba Id -iu, rni^i P. 30, m> K 598, rnV (>' 
S97 (n-i«/H> A. 34)t), rniM P. 95, iriiirn #. 18:); ^iw Z. 113, for ^ 
(1 ^T), ^ I. 501, 0i/v«> E. 97 {/:i.^» Uill. ViL 50. 2). 

Notes, l . a is not prefixed, when the flexible ending b^na with r ; a* 
in ifi-vi, i^-rm. Yet 'uItw Haa. 8c 101, for irm (■ being raolved inia 
M, S 29). 


(c.) Tbe Dor. sametimca contracts ■ with an O soond fijOowing into <; 
and commonly > with sn E sound fiillowing into ■ (^ 45. I, 4) ; as, wu^tr. 
Theoc. 1 % I4H, Ar. A,h. 7,71 : 1 Aor. Siuj. 2 l-r£f> Tbeoc. 4. 
8S, fiir Iwiifu, M, ift At. Ach. 91 3; fiX^jti Theoc 5. 35, *^ 64, i^i 110, 
Tpyit Ar. Acb. T7S, ifin 800. Hie latter conlractioa appears in some km 
proae-writars (aa Hipp. ; so At/inriu Hdt. Iv. 75) ; and ia the Ep. ifim ( 

ouLicTic rouH. 

§ 343. II. ITuJInl nvrfiDTK.' (>.) In loD. fnm, ocotk' 
■ axnmOfilf amltled, ocapt u i> and ua dtan b*aim« m - ai, ruin Uttw, 
S8, imiu »9, l«/u 3S, naifutt 73, «^w GB, «irri 131, wtni^m.--, 
miut/nti ix. 1 1 ; Fat. .«,uit(> lb. i. T J, ■i(l>riM 9j, ifl« 5 ; A<r. Sol;) 
ij«.(i/iii Ib.iu.S5, ^nWi L 11,»kn(T. 71 (n i Si;6. I); V Pan. ^. 
lj«, n^ix lb. L 90, l}.iH. nj, IA> tII. 309. 

Ncnc*. 1. In lika Damur, h, uad to a> (§ 949. ■), B^bwant •: i% 
ilfmrw TMt. uL 140, ufaniWw 69 (ijfvrinn* T. 13). Bo in (kt Dor., 
V>«» X.«ic L SI, ytXutn 90^ ftr yiXifaiw, ^ 

3. If u i> Mhnred I7 ■notlur dktiiwt vairel, ooi ■ li irftcn dni|ip«d 1 m, 
ftOmt, pitU HdU Til. S-i (frfi* 1. 9}, to ftCiuu, f.Su. So Ep. 1>J.!< H, 
liOS, nAit or irmAUi }■ 811. A rimllu' ominko t£ • atqieanin mimiuuU 

9. After the nulogj of the nobact Pm., tba Ion. uUoda Ibe 8 Aor. Inf. 
in -ui, « if tomed bj- contiBctiOT, to -iut ; M, Slin, «afiin Hdt. L 33, fr- 
yiu> 1, B. 393 {fvyui 401), miin A. SGS. 

4. ^w Ion. oAan noden impure Terba pore^ bj the liuartioa tt to ftnirita 
I (§ 48. 1 ) ; U, n^UM.ufu,„ (cf. rv.,U3J.m) HdC. L 68, ii.'xu 1 1 B, iy,i. 
pu» iU. 14, li»wi»H 98. 

(b.) Tlie £^ eommmlj onlte conlnction if tbe lut vowel la ■, ^ 11, or m 
(exeqit in Um Aor- peai. aatg., and in tba Parf. snly. i!ti) ; bat otberwin 
empln]-8 at omila it according to the metre (u, vbeo contracted, beooming u ; 
Tst Irif^iin A. SOS, i,iffimin t. 78). Synizen* l» rVequent wboi 1 pre- 
cedes a long O Towel, and sometiinBii occnn in i». and eren in ■«,. Tba Ep., 
also, often protncta ■ to u, and Bometjmea doubles the vowel of conUscticm ». 
Thns, fiXiK t. 305 (jet pi;i>.'e I. S9a. and ftgiin 1. 3 -'Oi), fiiiCfHt t. 42,i;iw. 
« ^ 18, winnK^n X. 381, i,1,;A. 51.;, i<1i« r. 336; piXiT B. 197,^. 
Atu 1. M2, Iffu P. S6, I^ii IT., Ir^ T. Ii54, In.. A. 56.), Ixniu 2. 95, 
bruu {. 33, ywmu B. DAT, y>arj 365 1 /rnhJ*! I. 1 80 (jmtimi or ^xfi; 
^SO'^ § 1243. a. 2). mTiuX. 114, to ^h/imi, >b« ■ f*X» X 281, [rXi* 
T. 69, tt^K" £■ miy «^<&* I- 395, nUio A. 177, aiV^ «. 550, uXinr. 
8.614; >uur ^359. InUlln A. 5, ifil^ii 62. I(U A. 611, r«7i K. 
285 , Aor. Pa»». SubJ. U^n t. 54, 'Uf^'^i F. 436, fa^iij X. '^46, 1.^'in 
tt 7Si 2 Aor. flobj. of Verbs in .^. Si;, fl. 83 (Sl« Hdt. i. lOS'.S.iiH 
a. S4I, 3i.> sot, i.B; B. 34, Si.^i. .. 48S, 9i/./», A 143, »>i'.,iu. S. 409. 

(c.) tat the Dor. contraction of tt and iw into m, and. In the stricter Dw., 
of u into a, see ^M5. 3, 44. 4 ; e. g. Uiv» Theoc. I. r<6, ;>a;t;i> ll:t, 
B>uifrr»f 1^.73, ■!» "^G ; ma Ar. \.y^ 1318. 80, In Horn., ifut^nvo 
N. 584, itviuani X. 319. 

Bicn^H»iL a. Some varietita of ths Dor. change it into » or w, and h> 
into m; as, iLty'-imt Ar. Lya. loo:^, i/imfutm 183, Itsiiw 198, to/u)-i</us 

0. The laler Dor, ftom the inflnenoo of analosy (5} 44. I, 248. d), ha* 
■omeUmea ■ for <,, in verba in -iv ; Bi, f.HMrS Theoc 3. 19, la»r & HO 
So. Jua. Pass. M<-4> id. 4. S3. - -. , 

18" C.oin^lc 


^ 344. m. Tlu JIrm emtl t. («.) Ren Om Ids. UUt TXr. tmall;^ 
employ contnctkm, (Wtowliifc (he mmmon mln, cxcc^it Itnl tfae Ion. Bc«n«> 
Umce DBBs lu for », and the Dur. ■> and . for •■ uid •. (§« 44. 4, 45. ») ; a*. 
luHuun HdL i. I»^ tlrHi'iv Ti. I.% •Jiurm-U 1. 4, rrifa.tttn. viH. 59; 
£v»> At. Ljb. 14a, /mrrtrZf Epicb. 19 < 1 1. The Iter, v ^ likeviw tatd 
hj uther dialeeu in ^yii, to tc ogiM, »vA in At Ion. 13^, la twnat ; at, f4yin 
Ai. Tes|>.44« (fif^CjiT. T. I. IM, i'vr ^ Goig. ^il' dj iS^iio. A. 598. 

(b.) TTiB Ep. aomeUmfa protracW the . to •., and BometiiaeB employs tha 
oombinatiaa h> after the anaJo)^ of verba in -^b ; u, HfKura 1. ,173. Sf^. 
HH A. Il», ftMii»T.t 1.4S; ri;(»tn,. lOMnilvm N.G'JS, Smi»wl. S^G; 
3 A<tf. Sobj erf' Tetlwia .>b, >«w ^ LIS, JXw A. 4CS, I*« ^. UIK, 1tif*» 
A. 324 (Sfn 1:29), Li^» H. Ii99 ().^i. T. S»T), )>«•/» A. 'l^T. 

it. TlUJSK-SlOHS. 

•5 94fl. 1. In TertH in -t». the Dor. commoBly employs J fbf r, in 
the Fut and Aor. ; as, .■/;{■( Theoc. I. 12, for nmlitai from xaHZ". X*t^i 
5. 71, U<^{» Find. N. 2. 31. Thb cbssge ap)>eva bIm in ■ lit* Dtbtr 
verbs in which short ■ piecedetj u, j-iAb^i I'heoc. T. 49, (flkEa U. 115, 
tnm yiXiw (; eL9. ■), flifm (§ !TC). Similar fonns aometimu occur ia 
other poeM heaidea the Dor,, Sh- tha sake of tha raelra ; as, rf iri;i{B>tmr 
,£BCh. Sup. 39, fi)~ii%u Ar. Lys. 380, \itifi.^<u !fki,i) Xp. 1th. I. ■^'13. 

9. In (he F^it. ftct and mid., the Dor. commonly adda to tha lea*e->Egn •, 
irMcfa is then contracted with the connecting vowel ; as, (f riv) f'i Theoo. 
J. 14.5, (^1.1^, S 43. S) fm/M 3. 39, »«n7, 3. 9, i^J t. 1 I, »if.-*« 6. 
91, Ji{>7«, Call. LaT. 116, y(w).h4i!n At. Ach. 746, ruforuWt 74 I, ftir 
^-, fi<..^»., £». See g 200. s. 

3. The Ep. employs Iho AtU Fut. (5 BOO. 2), both naBMb-oettd, amtraeUd, 
and protractnl ; and has also other examplea Of the Fut. with r dropped (or 
of the Pres. used u Fut.} ; as, ■•» A. S65, Ifjivr. 454, j^riio S- 3'i'J. So 
liytyiinru (from PC base yiy*-. Me ^§ 238. a, 2;19. e) Hunt. Vea. 19S. 

4. The formation of the 1 Aor. without » ia extended, (u) in the Ion. and 
poet, language (o a very iW liquids, in which the chaiacteiiatic ia precaded 
by R diptathiXig (ef. % 222. S), or by another consonant ; thin, inifm A. 
3.51!, irni^K MkUl Prom. 2lt, Umi^i/^n Hipp-, iS^ri Ap, Rh. 4. M^.l, 
^rffam Hipp. I M 1 (A) in the Aleii. and Hellaiist. dialectA, to a number irf 
verba which in the dBieic Greek employ the « Aor. ; as, Hktan Ht 25. 36, 
Aniisn Acts 7. 21. 

5. For the doubling of r by the poeta, eapeciatly the Ep., to make a ehoit 
Towel Img b; position (uX<»<n A. 54, lf>itrn i'k, l3.immt 147), see $ 71. 
Kb Ep. (xamples of r retried in liquid vaha, aee ^ SB. 3. In if UXim 11 
651, ^ 334, the) k doubled to tumpansate fiir the loas if the i. 


^ 940. t. R« -b. e wumdin . the Dor. and lEd. aoroetimw employ 

a- (^ 44. 4); w, t/iiiWa lleoc. ^9. 4, (or UAui, lifit 1 1. 4, for lu^ii, 
j}^< Sapph. 1. 19. For the Dor. hmt in -n and 4>, tee $ tN3. H. 

S. Tlie Dor. and .£oL aonuUmM (^va to the Peif. the oanoectin){ voTel of 
tlw Pres. (4 185), eepeciaUy in the Inf. ; as, tiitii- llieoc 1 5. SB, far lOw 
as, inirirfiH 10. 1 (aee 1. above), ht^tk j. 7, ria-Hfii 5. 9B ; b^ lidtw 

od. 9.] siALBonc roBMk. S!l 

I. 10S, yrrSnn nnd. a 6. Sa, r>Awi> S^ipb. V. 15 i Put. mi^lMttrmt 
Kind. P. 4. SIX, nfflmtfrm, 32S. luatoDcM lUuwiw oceoT Ja tba Ep. cf Uu 
Pof. pMdBg a*«t InU tlM bnn of tb« I'm., aod of Iba Plnp. tote lb« ui 
Km la|>f. -. u, uiiJUyMiH JL I as, iffyrn Hei. So. ^S ; l/tifm^m u 4.19, 

lrif«» Hut. Tk. 1 ja. 

Note. In tlila tnj new TErbs ■roa^ nM eonfiiiMl to Hm Ep. ; M, Iknm 
!»<)«, <<^)w, B> mfar, O. 4», A. «HT, Bdt. ^riL 104, Impf. h-yn I. 57S 
(Wyio U. 394), F. £h£> r. 404, A. b^m, Uea. So. 47!< i liam ^Xim, 
^liiMi, Id doCny, 2. 17^, A. 10, So^ AaU 1^66; fimn TiyMHi, yiyMw 
Uld ylyaiiiViui, U «y afeiuf. 

3. Id Ibe Sobjimclivc, the Bp. often nUAoa Oie old short eonoecUvi 
(I n?), fbr Ibe take of Ihe metre ; as. iyiipuir A. 149, I.^ir, iyi;^s^i< 
B. 440, fiiifuttm a. 87, f/i.TH T. 173, >n.^K A. 363, iHtn &. I S. 

4. In llie fdloiring poet, chiefl; Ep. (bniu, the connectmg Towel ia snritted: 
; ImpC 4>*« 1. IMS, 'tttn 

i{M>, loD. •nd Poet iS^iti, to drau. Mid. to draio to oru'i tt^, to protat i Act 
Inf. ■i'fi^M, Uw. 0[l 616; UhL I;>r<i Ap. Rh. ISOR, i;(±.t*i A. !i3E^ 
)<£« X. £U7, I(i>« A. 138, i^iirj n. £41i, [(n» Th«oc 3S. 7e, iF^nr. U. 
4'.;4, [(iiWw u 4S4, .rfiv^iu <^. flW ; Pus. t(ir, Hea. Th. 301 ; from the 
■borter >i»yuu, W«r. Soph. <£d. T. 1351t, ^£«-< 2. 515, firim O. 141 ; It». 
^liiw. XI. 730. 

nil, to Aite, mm Soph. Tr. S45. 

rnSrmi, Ht taket kit itamd, pvpent, T. Sn, mnri .Sadi. Pat. 49, rrtSri 

B. S9^, X. ses. 

rmiim, to itrttcA ; ritBrmi p. 393. 

^) Of ImpiU* Tvrb*. a*, umm. UtU., to m^t lof' )V» ^ 845- 
;iii'», to leoMj Impf. Uum-t Ap. Bh. ). 45. 
*E{4>, to lag teatto. Inf. Pm>. (<r{(/-rAu. § SO) irt(Au IL 708. 
fifv, tolev; Imp. fi^n L ITI. 

f fXhm, !■ nKct (i. f iOlu.) ; lo^. *^.f ^Xn^'t (c£ S ^^- f) ^"^ 

% 947. n. ftf ^tn. «-^ (a) For the A«ni .rAh M* $ US. 11. 
. (4) For MMKinbaBlad, TeiiiiMilj amtraoted, and prataacUd objedtin Ihnn^ 
Mc § S43. (e) The Ep. sometiiHs drop* > fa> the Pctf. cod Pli^h fm. ; M, 
^■w <fr. 44?. oDDtT. >4i^^ 0..I8, Tbeoc UI. 41, Si^Aiwi E. ^4, Irm 
n. 58J. (lO On the other bind, in the S. S., m Bnd « retained In »nM 
eontreet tmoa, and In tbe Presenti hiving (he iienae of the Fat. rufiMi, fiy- 
ftMi- that, (iM»;KiiMi) miu-Kirmi Bom. S. 17, Jl»Sr>. U. Ifi. aS, rkimi, 
fiyim Id. IT. H, 

b. lit Ar*. Pt.mid Dh. Tbe Dtr. neeB v"! f)>r -^" (§ 70. s) : la. ]•- 
IwHi/Hi Tbeoo. I. 16, ilJ^m S. S5. For the endinga -f^fu and -^'•>, 

§ 946. » iU An. PI. (a) FW tbe Dor. -i*^ M* f IfX- -• 
ti>) ne AiL MS* ■«« Itar -Mf ^ md -w. &«- .^ (^ 45.») ; ^^i;^,,^|^. 

313 Amxit or connramoif. 

BOOK tl 

Ale 7 (0. "*" Ptad. P. 9. IIO. f«; Owfe. as (88). W In U.. Al«- 
■DdiJm G«A w, fcid -. fbr -«n of tin P-t, «id -«-. f* -" of the lmi<f. 
u, TiMH' Ljc MS, I}«n« SL Jb. 17. 7 IK> Ify*. Horn. B«r. 179) 
ir;t'fC'"' I-yo- SI, W«« 1-XX Pfc 79. I, U.X-;-. Rom. 3. 1:1. So. i» 
tb« Opt, iKruaf P». as. Si, «•»«.»> Deut, I. ■fl. for i7*«>, ms"-" 
C* B» intf«M« oocurln th. p«to of -4.. In tb. Pert with . -hml penult 
(cf. 5 .fi. i); tho. tta old nadiag »,u.i»jtil»" *• 304, ««..jw... Antim 

W In Ihe nwb Impf. «irf « Aor.. ■nd in tl« Aor. pue., the Bp- ">il P«^- 
BA«n nUin O* olfcr cndbig .. (S l"!- r) ; ». *"^* *- *»■'■ ™"- ^- ■*■ 
8«<l«w.. N. 48B), T.,M. 3S,Plnd.I. I. 34, .»., td. P. 3. 1 14, BA. 
Horn. C«. 417, !,«. Plnd. P. 4. S14, «nd Ij™. lb. 9. IS7, I*b. ■■ 4«i. 
Piod. P. 1. Ri, fyffi. A- 57, rpift. aSI, f^.A' TOO, Moseh. ^. 33. 'P''-*- 
«i. Tbeoo. 7. 60, <»■> Rnd. O. In. 101. So, in imiuOon of Ihe Ep^ f»t- 
»#,. Ai. P«x, las'), f.t«9A> Eur. HiRi 1^47. We even find, M 3 Pel* 
pL, 4t%» Ap. Bh. 4. 1700, ^>o If. 6J. 

(/) la the Ion., Uu andingi and -irt. for -f«u md -m ^? *I3. fej, 
■n Uie comiDDn fiirnu In the Perf. uid Plup.. are very frequent in the Opt, 
■nd ire ■!» emi^oved in tba Impf., S Aor^ «nd nude Prw. ind. Befiiro thtBe 
endinga, a short t>^ in the not ii not lengthoied (4 3is), except in the 
Dodi for the Mke of the roelre, Iho connective -i- is Jwed Ineteed of — 
(J TOS), ■ and aometimei t> become i, and coogonanta are chuiged eccorJinf; 
lo^Si.t.R Thua, ■;»i«T»i Hdt. I. 1 41, for fxurrm, larwu T. 134,Hdt.ll. 
BS,'.T«™ (5 47. N.) B. 1.17, Un H. 414, .T-r. P. 149, for ^m«, J.", «- 
fiCwi-i «. 30« ; KflAinn HdL L 4, for U-iX-m, JmnUrt I5tf ; lioU™ 
Id. a. 142, UAuniv. 114. iMnvrianu Ix. 9, for }mmw, &c ; mmtx 
A. GS9, Hdt i. 14, »;i.m H. 587, UUn Hdt L U;7, hk'-t. f. 4IH, 
iv»»lU« Hdt. ix. 50. fbr ■iTn-x, ftc (so. with an intervening consonant, 
ifn^amrm, T. a84. l;ii{i}«-. *. 95, ftom ifiOJ) i rinlfK-rm (r. tj.C-) Id. 
iL 93, lili^c"" (r- I"*-. Ion. »«■) 6S (yet iw.'.-™, vii. -'09, cf ^ 69. ■). 
•ij^kfilanu L 140, Iniiiiflsn rii. 67 (n, u if from v«bs in -Zi, IinJ-aJim 
1. S6, ,i.exB«»' P- 6.17, iff^imnu >. 354, -« H. 431, lr«J.s]sT> Hdt. 
riL 89) ; Sw'l'/u'. Hdt. i. 3. n^'.n iv. 139, yi«,^Un ii, 47, The Opt 
fonna in -an are tikewim tiaed bj the Att poets I as, liExi'iin Bag\i. CEd. C 
44, n/fimUr, 602, rvttliin ysi. 

ig) In the Imperative, a third form Is Ibnnd In Dot. hiscriptiona, made b} 
. prediuig . to the Bex. ending of the Sing. (cf. ^ I 7'>) ; aa, <r«<nT*> (oon 
pare Lat. /iietnfe], (}Mti4M,<i. k 177) !>)•>/> Inscr. Cotc^t. 

d. For the 8ubJ. fbmu in .^ and -n, see $ 181. /S. For tbe Hot. Ong. 3 
h;,*., see § 18;, ». For the Dor. Sing. I in -^,, and Dn. Sin -ml., -wUi . 
(Tor^t^ -ni, -rh'), cf. 55 44, J, 243. c. A. 

^ 349. e. ZtcnKiH ^mn. The Icai, especially the Ep,, to exprea 

with more amphwJe the idea tf rq^uled or eontMual acliait, often pmlongl 
tne ne.. endinga of the lm]if. and Aor, in the aing. and the 3d Pers. pi., te 
,»«.r, -».ir, -•■.ir.), r>« in the niijcctm ntfltctipH, anil to -rmiftut, .mu 
i^ru'^'T^LlTZ ',V" "*»«"«". "niis form, which ie called the itero- 
0» fitero, » '.T»x) Ib likewise u»d by the Dor, poets, an.l Hometimes in 
Z^T^'^X'^n ■' ■™"''"- 'PP""^"^ -^ ft* n-etrical 

. "-.. *-. A..:^:roi "ir-rio;:::^:;"'!^^ 


f i((ni Tbeoc 35. I nO, ■Wu'w Sopb. Ant. jtes, ^jt^inin H. 1 40, «■>»■» 
X. 1:1:1, ifutyiri^ni. 7, ;i.H««iri E. 857; If Act. TSujii 1'. :<IT, i.mC,,M 
Hill. iv. 7H, iiJittrmm 130, !»■<• 8. S71, yf.irHri X. SOS, iXirjMn £8« 
I Aor. (ml; poet.), rr^^arwi S. 546, imu X. 509, ^r>i'-ritir> A, 566 
NoTKS. (a) llut the eDnaectins vowd beftm -n. is i nthar thin i, 
ftiDuws EtMU § !0:i> li) Bat'uce -*>., a short vowel nmaiiu, anil i takes Ok 
pUa of u ; H, »^r«> T. 317, tor Un (t. fn-), Ur.» 1, »SI, i.iux 
Ha. Th. 1ST, for iWo, «^»» A. 64, br Ifin (>! 199), ['■•• H. I5H, for 
i^ jUjL.rj.1 A^ Rh. 4. I5J4, (br UiXu (Hlimi f. 402, lor iwbji), -oXf- 
ran O. S:it<, Ibr Lh>u>i, nlmn f. 41, Ibr fxun. (c) Verbs in -u have 
aHnmanlj' the Iterative Impf. in -mn, «ani«tiiiie> doabljng the ■ for the sake 
a Uw m«tm (cf. 242. b) ; as, kn» T. 295, (br ib,, ..iiT^ B. 5:13 ; 
•0 PL I tairnt/tit k. 512, for Ihi>£^ii. ((0 Then ^>pean< to be a blending 
of Impb and Aor. fbniM (or fbrmation aa if fiem a thnne in -in), bi nfiir- 
rmm &. 372, ^'n-<m» 0. 2!l, /n'^u.i Hea. Th. 83J, aHrnwu UoBL 
Ap> 40J, from nfHTH, firm, fu^i^ and anun'a. 

^ 9*S0> e 7B;)iB(iDe. Li tlie Inf., instead of -•■<, tin Dor. aad MoL 
commonly reUUn tlis old ending -i (^ ITe), or, with the Ef., ledoplicate this 
eO'Ung to '/tit (cf. ^§ 174, J 76), which may be still biiher proloDeed (chleOj 
by the poets) to -ftitmi. (a.) lius tha £d. fbmu the Aor. pnu. inf. in 'ni, 
the I>ar. In -Kfiir. and the Ep. (which also emploj-g the common form) in 
•i^,m, ■■ as, ^ttithi. Ale. 9B(23), if.firln (for i.a/inWiiM.) Theoc. 29. 26 ; 
l^^fMfn Th. T. 79 : l/uitai/UfMi A. 187. (£) In other teiues, the nadi 
Inf. baa commonlf in the Dor. the form -/m. in the i£ol. -> and ->«mi, and 
In the Ep. ->u, -/a; and -/u-mt ; as, 3i^» Theoc 5. 21, Plnd. P. 4. 492, 
%. 315, $i^» Inscr. Cnm^ B. -iSS, Find. O. 14. 15, Butmi A. 26 (cf: 57), 
fi^u I^nd. O. 1 . S5f V^t. Th. V. 77, £i. 379, Ij^w A. 98, 1 16, a. 317, 
l<2wi 316, yHi^ms. 411 ) .f><.(^ 251.2) Ale S6(lj), iH-la> 11(3); 
«A<i*t. 0. 497, n't^H. n. 225, O^uf A. 719, TVi»< N. 27.1. So irri- 
ftiJKi Hdt. i. 17. Befi*B -/ui and -^"■4 ■ sliort vowel in the 2 Aor. does 
nut pass into a dlphttumg ($ !34. E.). (c) In like inanner the non-AUie 
poeta employ, for -u> (origlaally -», § 176), the pndonged -f/>ii and -i^inu; 
as, :;>H^») iu*U»A. 547, KniL O. S. 44, Theoc. 8.8:<, i«i^^... ;u. :380, 
i(i^%.Y. til, jfiv^wSO, x'^»i^r A. 78, Ix^i/iiu. 151. (({) Sa,inthe 
I'erf., rtwKmyitft IL 728. Vix the Perf. inf. in -in or -m, see ^ 246. 3. 
The comnion ferm in -Inn Ont occnra in Hdt. (■) Verbs in -it, and .in hava 
a oonlntct tma in -i^iiki ; as, (fu-it) yaifurmi 8. 502, run^nu •. 1 37, 
■aX^w K. 125, in>fivHM> r. 174, from }<ih, irii>^, Hiaiiv, m'ui. TM 
(ii^I-ai) 's^m 4. TO. In d-ynifUHU v. 313, fkom iyniM, and ■fif^MK 

Ilea. Op. 23, fhnn i{i«, the connecting vowel ia omitted. 

g. /WtH^ Vnr tlu .AoL contraction lata aj and h in the Pact., aea 
$ 4S. 5 ; Ihoa, nipm, Ua. 37, f!4,m, F^nd. P. I. 8E, ifi'^m^* 8. 37, {lu^ 
n Sapfdi. 1. 9, !;(•»■ ^7(7^)> I^»d. P. 8. 4, Theoc I. 96. Por the Fem. 
-am, tlw Lwjoote oses -m ; aa. U;u»^ >li£^ »i;f«ll>w> (§ TO. V.), fbr 
UAjv<£», ■«,!»«■, a^r.;»fJ>, Af. l^-a. 1297, 1299, 1913. &o Mw 

i2»s (5 4a. sy. 

^ 33 I . I. The Ion. and Dor. emfJor more freely thai the Att tha 
AoBi with a B a l u e uU i i g voml (§ SS5), Mpedally in tha Fna. aing. of wba 
^ ... , J, ,i ^ rMi Rnd.P. 8. 1^ vrfu-.. l»^HdUi. 


133, M.7f I. 164, tMSl9, S4t.i. 107 ; Irrf lb. iv. 109, Imp. m/Ws I 
90U -, rclUm (Biirediipl., for «;i«fid«) A. ^^1 ; 4 Aor. Opt. wcrtl-f 
HdL L 5:4 ; Inf. '■»»> Tbxig, jG£, J.i» ^ ^ U44. a) Unoe. 99. 9. 

3. On the otber huid, th« Mdi., Dor., uid Ep. retain the Ibnn ui -/u in 
■ODM TerliB, irhich in the AtC. uid in lun. pme haw aijty Llie fiiriu in -a> ; sa 
(■^^■•^ Stfyfb. ). 16, ffiuuS. n, f:ivM T<l('i.S), nJn/f Hes. Op. 68 1, .;.«- 
^Theoc T. 10, for uxi-, if^, Ac; 4»«wi, ^(ihi. S(/'*r. r. Ill, ilS, 
rur iti^u, &i. (nnleu nthiv Snbj. itix.Jt-, Sao.) \ ft^imu B. 107. 

n. The Ton. changes « cAorafteru^ before another s to i (cf. ^42.. a), and 
■oinetimes inserlA i before . (§ 48. \) \ as, {Srrain, ^ SS) I'rrUn Ildl. T. 
71, iuiUi-H (§ V4M. /), WUiTj BdL iv. iqfi. So, ID tbe Dnde Perf., UrUa 
lldt. i. £00, UrUn V. 49. 

4. The Ep. sHnetiiM* iSlftm Anm the aonnnoB hngnaga ia the lengtb of 
the diaoKMiMe vowti (^ ^34) T W. InC n«W">' Y- ^*^, >■)<>»« A. 425, 
;i>^:^» n. 115, fiv tiAmi, Ac; PvL wA^>w» K. S4 ; imp. T;i*A, I>1>A 
y. 380 (to nnde P«f. Im« A. 349, 846, for Urmn): 8 Aor. ^Sn> H. 
469, ^>n> A. 3S7, for Km», Ac 

.S. Fbr the Impr Iri^ uid Ii, tlia Ion. Baa IriAn Hdt. ilL 1 55, aod 7a 
#. 31'Wanaofpneatad [■ A.381, Hdt-IL 19. So I-r lldt- i. 18T, Jo A. 3«1, 
t>«Bdt.iT. 119, lnmucSl. Cr. §i n9,30i.S.-2Si!.b. 

^ 339. 6. ZNoJbctb fimu of il^l, lo be (^ 5^). (a) Those which 
■riw from dllltoiint modes of lengthening the nvHcsl ByHable ( § 240l 3) ; 
l^i' Theoc. 90. SI, Sapph. U, 15, Irn' (i asemned ofler the analogy «f the 
(ther penons) A. 176, Thsoc. 3. 7S, S. 3 itri (• inserted lne«i«d oT r) Id. I. 
17, li^i' E. 87^, HdL L 97 ; In£ tff (for which mme give the Rtrm il^ic, 
cf, » 711. S) Theoc %. 41. (A) UncDntracted IbmiB, and Tumu L*ke thuae oT 
verba la -«: UrnS. Ja5, [« A. 119, HdU iv. 9H, f^n B. 16^, [«. L I4C^ 
lidt. i 155, !•.[ I. 8H4, I« 1412, Hdt. vii. 6, U> B- 87, HilC L S6. 1m> T. 
159, l.7ni I^d. p. 4. 471, Tlieoc i. 6t, >£» 76, (t-rrta, $ 5S) !<!•■ or 
Ism 'nm. Locr. 96 a, Ii> A. T6V, Theoc e. 3, (e) Variously pro- 
lr»tted fonna: I.,. (1 P.) A. 76a, (3 P.) B. 643, Hdt. Tii. 143, I« Theoc 
19. 8, Uttm X. tan, fa. A. SOS, A> f. 47 ; tmpT. Iter. (| £49. &), In« 
(1 P.) H. 153, (3 P.) Hdt; 1. 196, tn> lb, E. 53fi, Aw*. Pen. 656. 
(d) Middle flirma : Ut, eommonlv Ut, m, .10-2, Sapph. r. 38, ir«« .. 106 
(for i^^ cf. S. 1 ^n - othen re^ .!.r<, Ep. for ,1,^. IW>m 3;,l^). (.) Old 
idiort and nnangmented foimi: l^ii Call. Fr. ^94, !>■• A. •i6^, ViaA. P. 4. 
371, }»» Id. O. 9. 79. (/) Pori^ n. 515, Hdt. vil 9, Bee^SSO.a; 
for P. 3 Uti Hud. O. 9. 158, Th. t. 77, Theoc 5. 109,5 ISl,.; for !., ?«, 
Ui, J(!.), Ian, Uh., \ 351. 5; for Jn T. 302, and FTrr., § IHI. S; fbr 
^•V- Theog. 71.'!, Iw/-, ^ 183; for >Tmm. ih<H Tbwn. li. 9, ifr'w 14. 39^ 
h 347 b i for Impf. £ ^ (Jft) Ji Theoc £. 90, ^ ^.-iO. y ; for bf. I|W> A. 
399, 1,u» r. 40, In^H find. O. 5. 33, Theoc 7. 33, Soph. Ant. 633, i^ 
>HHU A- 117, S^qA. 3. 3, {|>u> Theoc 9. 41, il^ (for vhieli aone writ* 
J/w, c£. a above) TTi. r. 79, Tim. Locr. 93 a, J^>w or 4^m. At. Ach. 77i^ 
% 850.4; for Irrtifw A. 367, lrri»i A 164, Ssch. Pen. 131 (Inriu A. 
VU), § 71 ; for )fw. A. 563, Wwuu 2. 95, ^ 843 ; Sac l.,f Theoc 10. 5, 
IfUTH Eur. Iph. A. 738, UwiVw B. iigs, Iteoc T. 67, !»?•». Th. v. 77, 

I 345. a. 

7. Dialtclie FaroM of iTfK. to fa (t H}> {») Th* prataactitDi if 1' U ■ 
(^ S34) Ukaida* apB*wa in P. a £« («r &it oi pe^Mft •«&» i^iOt^ 


Hw. So. 1 1 », Tbtnff. 1 16, lb ooly tofkt. S («3), da (by mait ueribtd M 
■.'^toii) {. 496, it ISg, ir»«M.a a, .b«4i^ l.Mt, iur«.0. -11.4, Iv 
nir/fi> 544. (b) In Ihe Impf^ wa find both node tonaa and forma witfa a 
connecting vowel, froni the root i'-, both unauguient«d, douUy augnientol 
{^ 1N9), and doubly aagmented with contracUon j thug, (Jn, cf. '^5). H) ais 
(from which may be fonned by cootr. the Att. no, j -/»]. 6) 1. 4^7, Hdl. i. 
4.', fi A. 47, Hdt L es, iti M. 371, 7, B. HtC ll>fu. ■. 851, r». A. 494, 
f.tM, K. ] 97, Hdt i. S», fi'^i -f,. 3T0, 7ni A. 347'. (o) Hie Opt Jn'a (only 
T. M9)iafonned, ■» if from the root ,'i- (cE 4 liSl.rf). (d) The Inf. Tm. 
Ath. 580 c, it ths ntgular nuds fbrm. (e] Fin A b« § 2S0, ■ ; for iTrfs 
K. 450, rjr«m K. 67, § 189 ;'fbT Fiiri I. 701, § 181. S; fbr fi^ii B. 440, 
( Q4S. 3 ; fi^ i^» A. 170, Find. 0. S. 103, '/tiw T. 32, T/i^iiai 365, 
) 250. b. 

F. Pebfect PAimCTPia. 

§ 9S3 I. In Fetf. Pntfolpla anding in -lir p<u« Oe Ep. moM 
Inqnently lenglbana the inwmftag vowel; and Iba PaK. is tbm declined in 
-*TW or -lirH, according to the metre. If the paeaediDg tdwbI remaina ehort, 
the fbnn in -mm is orHumonly tcquired by the mSre. Hius, fiiE^niTii y. 
139, mi^nirnt A. 801, uKf^ira a. 31. See, also, ^ '237, 238. 

S. bi some ftm. tbnns, the antqiennit is ahorteaed on account of the vena , 
as, ]ux^>r> fi. 65 {kikmuii X. 141), fofituiu A. 435 (ju/miuii K. 9e>i) 
ifitiimt r. 331, nMXuiii L 206. 



^ 994. The root of the Greek verb, although 
not properly varied by inflection, yet received many 
changes in the progress of the language. These 
changes affected the difierent tenses unequally, so 
that there are but few primitive verbs in which the 
root appears in only a single form. 

Note. The earlier, intermediate, and later forms of the root 
may be termed, for the sake of brevity, old, middle, and new 
roots. The final syllable of the earliest form of the root is 
commonly abort; and the oldest roots of the language are mon- 

^ 3SS. The tenses may be arranged, with respect to the 
'egree in which they exhibit the departure of the root from Ua 

<^nal form, in the following order. 

*. Thk Second Aorist and Secohd Future. 
OUMU. «. Hw 8d Aor. not and awi. il vn^y Uia Im^- ifmuM root 


f. TIm 'Ji Am. ud Put. ftm. m chigflj' fbnnd in i^mrt verb* which mnit 
Ok Hd Aot. act. and amL Hiay affix -v and -w^mi (f (BU) to ths >un- 
plot form of the root. 

y. IVm Uomb (axcetit tlu mxle 8 Aor. act, { Mt. 2) han Bunminty a 
dMM lyUaUa bdtea tka aSx (S 854. K.). 

}■ bi a Air vtrb^ the odgiiid not appear* to have rgonved Ktme change 
•vee in Uia 'J Aor. ; dii^j', in accordance wilh the piBraiiiug anikgy of the 
teuie, to reader the root momofOiMt, or id but ^ttaUt ilioH {% SSi. S.% or 
to naUe it to iBDBin the ndi firm (§ 331. ^>. 

^ 9S4. II. The Perfect and Pi.t;pEEFECT Passive. 
These tenses have not only a more complete, uniTorm, and 
simple formation than the Perf. and Plup. act. (^^ 179, 186, 
235), but are likewise more common, and are formed in some 
verbs (see rfitpv, § 263, tfSiifti, ^ 266, Sic.) fzcm an earlier 

III. Thb Pbkfect and Pi.nPEEFECT Active. For the van 
ous formations of these tenses, see ^^ 179, 186, 234-238 

IV. The First Aobist AKn Fuxnas. 

V. The PsBsaNT anb Impeefect, These tenses, with 
very few ejccepliona, exhibit the root in its ialest and most pro- 
tracted form. 

§ 3S7. Rehares. 1. Tlie 3 Aor. sod a Put. an wldelj distia- 
giiUied from the ottier teoMB by tluir aUachmtnt U lie original Jiyrm ot the 
rant 1 while the Pm> and Impf. are dlMinguiabed no ten widely bj their »- 
cliHatim to dtparl from this form. The other tenses ^ffer compuaUTel]' hut 
little from each other In the tawm of the root. If the verb hai three roots, 
the; an commoDlj fbrmed from the miibUe root. See, for example i.M/tCitti 

2. Many reilia are DicFECnTK, futher from the vniU of a eamplrit forma- 
tion, oc frtan the Stiae of mm of tluir Jbrmt. In both caan, the defect ii 
often Ripplied by other vert» having the ume aigniflcation (§ 901). In the 
poet*, eapecially the irfder, we flad ra&ny fragments of verbs belonging to the 
earlier language. Ileee occur ofien in but a angle tease, and somelime* in 
only a single form of Cliat tense; as, S A. £ 3 Kptxt, rang, Cl. 420, )i±n 
(r. li..), appeared, I. 242, 1 A. Uirtrm, brtaOud, X. 467, ;i<y£t, twaagid, 
A. 12i;, Pf. PU UMfwH, ooBinu, E. 698. 

le other hand, many verij* ai 

fontation from the eatne rooit, or the nse of finina from difftrail rooti. 
should be observed, however, that two «- more Ibrms of the same tanse^ w 
few eKceptioQs, either, 

(a.) Belong to diffiremt paiadi, dialeelM, or jfyfaf nf compoBtion ; th 
'.-, and latd .vioH/u (5 295) i »««. (j !74. y). A, P. inx'vN « 

later Xriym- .-'* (fi 867. 3), A. P. luMit, and Ion. Iniv ■ 
■ w (i B90){ «;fa.Ct99j, A.I*««,andp 

-1 poat. nUt/imi { 


Ot,{6.) Diffir ia thai tm ; tbat, 1 Ft. wimVM^ tnnmlJw. I kaoi ptnmaa- 
■f, ■; PT. riwKiM, inlnuuitive, / Inut (^ :!9) ; I A. Imn. tranL / pbieed, 
S A. Irrwf, htttaiiB. / Uoed (^ 18). Ttag tteomd tnun ure more indined than 
tba jirii u> *D intnuuitira lue. [Vimi tlw prarHlenn of this nw in the Sd 
Paif. and Piup., these tcoaea were tbrmeiiy called the iirf. and /'/ip. middb. 
O, (y.) Are inpfJBMHlary to ewli other. S« §$ 901. N., aa7. iL 
Koni. fVom the variona duuiget irtucb l^e place ia the nwt, many 
verbs, together with their common themw. have others, eitlier deriveil or col- 
lateral. In regard to lome forms, it Buems ilmibtful whether they shonli' be 
nther vigwed aa radundant tbrma of the lame verb, or as the brma of disllnd 
bat klndrMI verba. 

§ 3*S$, The changes in the root of the Greek 
verb are of three kinds; euphonic, emphatic, and 


HOTB. The Qata which foflow are deniened both to exemplify the raiioiu 
dhanijes of the root, and Hkewine to prenrot, in a cUssifled arrangoaent, all 
thuse verba npon whoat inflection farther remark seemed to be required. It 
will be observed, that some of the words mighl have been airaoged wiUi equal 
propriety under Mba heads, from (heir exhibiting more than one speoios <if 
change in the root. 

A. Euphonic Changes. 

^ 330. ]. Radical vowels are sometimes changed by 
PSECES3I0N (^ 26), a becuming t, and > and o becoming i. 

a. a-ng, «/ . to ■. 

NoTS. If the ■ is preceded or Ibltawed bv a B^tiiii, it is sometimes retained 
In the Ptrfiet, partieulitlj the Ftrfixt paime. 

Kt'f^ ('■ i't*: 1<(>-), and '2 Pf. 1>1^», to see, poet., P. S43, Sofii. (Ed. 
T. ii^9, -i A. nfs»> li 2ei) Eur. Or. 1456, 1 A. P. ■Jv:t;'a^ .^sch. Ft. 
53, S A. P, i!;i»^ Pind. N. T. 4. 

li^ r. >■{-), la fiat, F. li«f, A. Ru^, Pf. P. "Hi-tfuu, S A. P. VSipa, 
ili. 5. '3. Poet, and Ion. W;*, Ar. Nub. 443, }>;^ Hdt. jl. 39. 

IfiflK, tofrfMl, poet. !;t<-» (§ 3T3), Moscb. 1. 69, F. ifi-i-i, A. I3(»;% 
2 A. tifmwH, Pind. P. 4. 231. 

wxi... to wna&, P. rXfE«. A. f<-li|a, Pf. V.M..i..y^. 1 A. P. iwXix- 
in,, 9 A. P. trXm-m, A. M. WhHm"- I>> HipP-. lY- V-<ri'^<Jt:-. 1^ 

rr^if*, to l»B(, F. rrfi-f..,. A. Irr;r>;.., Pf. P. lrrim/t,tMi, 1 . A P. l#r;/f . 
<a^ M A. P. itr(m#nt. 1% ■■.irr^ifu, Ath. 104 c I A. P. lon-and Dot 
ifrf■fh^ Hdt i. IW, Theoc. 7. l^V. Extended fiirms, chiedy poet., rrfm. 
fu, ;. .'S:l, rrfwfii/tm^ Enr' Ale 10^2, Hdt. iL 03, F. rrimfir,,uu Theog^ 
1137 ; t^etiM, At. Pax, 175. 

tfiw (Ion. r^iw HdL li. 93), to (vn, F. •';i>A>'. A. tr(,y!.M. Pf. f^T^ifa 
($ use. s) and •tV(^s, Pf. P. ^rfmii,Lmi, I A. P. Irfiff/H, 2 A. P. lTf^^t^ 
I A. H. oommonly trans, irp-^i/n^ 3 A. M. intrana. irfmwiiuit- S A. Ep> 
lr{.T«, E. I B7, F. Pf. nrfrnf^^ He^ych. , 


tk (Aange of I ami tto i. 

Tim <)bfagt of ■ and • la i i> abacmt vhoOj oonfiimi la ^fl^bln which b«- 
aaat laag In tha Ptm. tai Impf., by the additiam tf out ar wten HHunuirti 
M, «'.™ tS 378. P), >;;n^ (S 27B. *), VC^'"- (S 3B0). 

^ 9S0. 3. Some roots are contracted ; as, 

pn, to mg, T. f n/w, A. frx, Pf. P. fr/iMi, A. P. fr/*< • amtT. froir 
AiSus A. I, iiir-ft^, X- 3^3 (>>vw Theoo. 2i. £6, Eur! Hvc 6R1), fta. 
Kor £•;»•, tea J 185. t. 

irrM c« fmr (5 TO, 1), <D nuH, F. ^^ A. ^ ■ oonfr. ftom lUiv, 0. 
88, &c A. F. itxfnt, r. 368. 

;i<Jiv, to wat, 7. X<j>», A. tlMwa, Pf P. *.(am^i(>, A. P. UiMo- eoob. 
ftm Ep. XtUi, i. 958, F. )^>, &o. Ftob be oM t. ^., im lun« tba Ef. 
Impf. or S A. x>i •. 361, >»■ Horn. Ap. l«i, Hid. Inf. iiiitu os ijitUi 
UeB. 0|k 747 ; ud fttnn tha §Aina root, <? Avm jl«p- with tha omisskffi at 
the comiectiiig TOwda, an tha commoa shonar fbmii et tba Impf. act and 
Pica, aod linpf. mid. ; u, (tbr lAii/ui or Uai^i?) Il.»/u> Ar. PL &S7, >>^m^ 
«^«iH Ctt. L S. W.XnrU, C> S>6. 

^34l> 3. Some roots are syncopated in the theme, 
chiefly in cases of reduplieaiion ; as, ( r. yiytr-, yiy*-) ylyrona^ 
nimta, iitiivta {h 286) : others in the 2(Z Aor. \% 355l S) ; as, 
(r. ijtii-, iyf-) nygi^j,, {% 268), ^laoj {% 301. 3), £p. defect, 
(r. !(/(-) iitjfioy (§ 194. 3), foimd : others in other tenses ; as, 

uLU, ta mB,V. uX.Ir>, uXf ($ 3O0. a), A. Ii^Jhm, Pf. (r. h;U^ 
■Xt-) •(•>ai>«, Pf. P. ■Uj.a/w, F. Pf. ■i.xrf'iM., At. At. 184, A. P. Ux*. 
tm (Imyirtnf, Hipp.). Poat., hbAww ^Bch. Sap. 917, wh-mmXIZi/uu, 

r. 19. 

^U*, t) OMHn. (5 2B2. 3) ; Ep. Pf. P. /li^fiLtTH, -irh, T. 343. P1>V 

/li^Un 9. 5 1 S. See $S 64. 9, S3S. m. 

Note. In i«gard to K>m« fbniu, it Kema doubtibl whether thej are beat 
refbrred to Bjncope, or to matalheeis with, is some cases, conmotioa ; lino, 

(t. UXI., «XiI-, <>.*.) ■ii;Lf|IS. 

§ 389. 4. In some roots, metatabsis takes place, chiefly 
hy changing the place of a liquid. This occurs, (c) in the 
Lheme; as, ^lia%a, a^ijoxoi, aptiu™ (^ 281) : (fi) in the 2d 
Aar. {% 2ri5. i) ; as, JWin* (^ 327. ;)), riJi,* (§ 301. 2', tflpa- 
■o»(§259. a), rii(if<3i>» (6 388): (c) in other tenses ; is, (Si- 
■ W.j»n, /fiifl'Si,*, »(»')(^;)j(o^$223). 

^ 303. 5. A few rop^ are chqn^d to avoid a t oubli 
&SFIBAT10N (^ €2) ; as, 

rfffv (r. Bptf., Sfif . S 959, rfmf-, rfif-), ta aaurii (QU i^f^ Plnd. 
P. 4. £05), F. dcH-, A. U^>4>, PfL rirtf, K P. -S'(-iiw^ I A. P 
U{if/«, sominoiilf 3 A. P. [•^■fir. Ep. if Aor. isUwa. or ptt I«ti>f(r 
)L 5^, Pf. r»4r(*fa miv. 

NOTB. See, alw, I^- SOCQk Mm, Sf^nw (S ET3), S^ (S S19\ 

CH. HL] BirrBOKK anb eHrnAiic changes. SI9 

Tet;c* (§ ^Oi «^- (I ST(^. A ft* Dth*T man tan bn(h t^Wud ua 
DDBqiimcd Ab^ ; at, nj^. and rn- (SJ tJTO. 9, -ifS, IJUU), ^^al- and hI- 
(§ 275. O. «^"X-. *> i»P^ F. ^^.^ fta, a A. P. (1;.;}..^ At, Nub. 151, ud 
ii^%a>, ^iicli. Fi. 95. 

6. In a few caaes, a ccnaonant U droffbd or apdkd for &e 
sake of euphony or the metre ; aa, kiiSw, to pour out, Ep. ttSv, 
Jl. 11; duunt'iu, to aound, A Aoua^nu, 1. 6. 18, J. 504, and 
/ya<ivn,iaa, A. 45 ; iFZ/ai, to Uelc, Pf. P. ItltiZf^t Hea Th. 836. 
So, ia reduplicated forms, s/^iitlij/ii, nl/inQ^/ii (§ 384], and in 
Uw AtL RedHpi., ^yfijfofa (^ 366), qpM>, to iim Joam, ^Pti/iit- 
■1 X. 491 (for ffujfiSiii, dp- being prefixed according to analogy, 
§ 191. 2, although the q is mdical). With joloo/iai, -moofiai, 
to be angry, we have also the Ep. {xooofiai, § 39. >) piofim, x^ 
aofmi, J. 80 (sec r. 413, 414). 

(901, 7. In some verbs, the omiBKon of the DiOAMau 
^ ^. 9} has given rise to diSereni forms of the rool ; aa, 

iXiiw (t. it-iW; i^-, iU>.), Id ohH, poeL Ak*. Prom. SG8, F. iXiAw 
Sopb. Fr. Slf5, A. ikiwrm, ^Kh. Sept BT ; Hid. ixUfim and i>.tifuii, to 
MnAI, X 5A6, al S», A. ifjd/im and il»^|i>« ({ SOI ■ a). Derfv., AXh.'w, 
A. T94, AUrw <f S73. «). 

^M.*>U, £p. iti-inim (4 48. S ; T. mF-, m., mo-, «*-, nn- ^ 377), 
la tRonr inafA, X. -'liS, A. P. k^nMnt, E. 697, nuda e A. H. t/trtSn 
A. UP.. FlHiIlia <iM YiK- An finwd ttoaxtanikd awiraa and wirittM, 
to malm antt, jfiKh. An. 890, JE. it^A, ud «he PT. P. wmvu^m^ to it sot, 
n. ST7, referred b; Mime to riin, l)y othan M ■ti'Mmm. 

fi- (r. ^>F> ^). tojae. f. fiin/^, ({ 3'^0^ A. Vfurm, and better Att. 
V. M. ^or £ F. P.) ^rw-, ! A. P. {or ■i X. Aet. r. /.•-) i^/.i», Pi. iffinum. 
Ion. Pro. n. /i.^^i.i. lidL TiL 140. LaW V. fii*^, 

nitfmi and riftmi (j. hF-. nt-, »., n„ whanm a- { 38), ie rwA, poet. 
Soph. Tr. 645 (§ H6. a), ^Kb. Peta. 35, A. nw^w CI ^'- ^J U- ''Ot. 
Pf„ w Prea,, Urt/tm. Z. :I61, A. P. UA.. iv Irrf/ai, Eur. HeL ISO^J, Soph, 
^.-394,2 A. U t^Var or Im/ai., Eui. UeL 116!, S. 519. E^ A. Act. 
trrum G. 30S. lacon. S A. P. iw-tmi* fl. Gr. I 1 . 33, ft^ Arirnn. Ot>- 
Mrre the angm. and redopL 

x'' (.'■ K^F: x-X *> j™. F. a:i- (^ a»- «)■ -*■ *«" w"- a). "« 
ana aoobtftal I^sh, K P. aiji^^i, A. P. 1;^^^ 'P- '■ x"^' %'» 
fi. 3C2, A. txinH, Tx"". ^ S69. s A. H. Ixtfrn, ^ 536, fscb. Cho. 
«>1. lua Pf. >ij:«>a, Anth. Lit* Arm, ^nw. 

Kon. See, aha, Sin, .b, rl^l. (f S20), }.iS u/v, •ksfaf^ 9B7. 3). 
Ad Ep. and loB. ftrm of .-U- ia tIw., ^rw, Ac, •. 340, Hdt. vi. 97, S A. 
t<rx», r. 15; «xl|Ddad, rXwt^is Tb. L 13. 

B. Emphatic Changes. 

^ 1S63. Most import roots and manj jnm 
roois are trotr acted in the Present and inper- 


feet, to express with more emphasis the idea ot 
c-onii-aued action. This protraciioo talies j^ce^ 


ns follows. 

In mute verbs, a becomea q ; in liquid verba, and in some 
mile verba, 4 and S am timply lengthtned ; in other casus, the 
short vowel is usually changed to a diphthong. 

In mvie Teriw, tba change commonljr eztenda to all the rtg- 
tJarUmttt {^2l&. 1). 

I. Cbmge of i to •. 

.■«. (.r. r-r-. nw.\ to nK. tnn^ F. «i(<K < Pf- tntim. ($ 357. «) •<■ 
nwm, iv. ^ IV, 8 A. P. Ifrfvw. 

*ju, to Bd (Dor. r^H Tbsoo. 9. S8), F. WE>, A. rnC-, 8 PC fntnn^ 
rini», iv. 5. 15, I A. P. iT^x'n- 0<>«>i»nlj 8 A. P. Irimw Pt P. «t 

^967. >. Chuigo oT « to «. 

lai'i^u (r. 1b^ tu.). Is i&4fa, chiea^ poat. •. 140, F. Un^»i, A. Oiti- 
fM; (Kcs. 7. S*, Klufui, A. I !.f , lilx^ui, >. 8:4. Kindred, lai^v, -^ to 
rtmd, jBnb. Ac. 907, lariwu to dnije, Z. 8C1, HdL L 816, A. l>ri>»^ 

u#ai^ (r. hAu<), to pwf^ F. naAi^, A. lui/iifs (xMMtliiMS mUttm 
UiAlfa, cC 4 Sti. ■}, FT P. mt-M-tP^' ^ P- Im'V^ 

■■;», fa iil^ vhiafly poM., F. hw, 8 A. fuiw. 

»;. (r. H.). to A«(^ potu, Aofb, Tr. 40. F. Ur..f«u (f 71) Ap. Bb. 9. 
747, A. Inuh, Wa, I. 1 74. Pf P. ■Ii.r/'U, Herod. AtL, A. P. IhMp Edi. 
Hed. 166. Ep. deriv. mii4^ A. 45. 

if>;», to «»«., F. ;«.^, A. Ifn^ Pf. P. If*r,H< (§ 817. P), Jk. P. 
Bf^ifn. EVom tin pm* root ^-, Ep. i^inn ({ V48. b) *. 1 05. 

9>;w (1 13', to Mo*, F. p»£, Jbc The Pf. rif-}~< ig lat«, fint aecm^ 
rug in Diiurch., who wnploya it Id compoeitian with iri. Kindred poet, 
verba, fsiitii, ti Mna, ^ ;tB:1 ; Ttom i. fx-, Impf fiii £. 502, F. rifn'i'im 
P. 1 55 ; from r. fuJ-, Ft. fuilm A. 735, Soph. El. BS4, 

X'k' (.'• Xt-- *«(■). <" f*^"*". P. X-f^" (5 »2a- S), Pf. -Ix-fH-, 
K P. ..x^tui™ and ■i;c-&»^ i' *■ P- IjC-t"" Ep^ TOdupL F. ihx>(J«< 
..j:.pjn,M>' (i B39. i), 2 A. M. H^c-f^""' CS 19''- 3), I A. M. lx«A-». 
S. ■iTO, 8 Pf. ft. Mixfi^ (5 S53. 1 ). H. .'■ I S. UtB, 1 Aor. Ix-k"' 
8 F. p. * "• 

a. Vuioni Changea of ■. 

Uli (r. Ur-, >«-, U-), fa hov, poet. ««h. Ag. 496, 9 Pf. u Pr«. in- 
tma.. Wm, T. 18. 8 A. M. llnJ^t, T. 316, Pf. P. lilwyuu, C«1L Ep. 59. 

,„'« uid ■£- (r- -*F-, H.., ... { S59, — .., Md.), fa frwn, F. «.j«. and 
"^t"' *■ .'"r'^!^ t»* l™ (S 801. S). .SHh. A«. 849 (Xp. Tm* A. 

RH. 10.] . BMI'IU 

»Km!» and »kim, Ai nep, ?. mTutin/tiu or itXmtmSiuH ($ 900. S), and 
iaiu«r« or .A^rfn ( j SSe), A. fj.>^i«; Pf. P. ■ili>..,>ll>, 3 F. MimXmittfuu, 
Ar. Mnb. 1436. P. •Amin, Theoc ii. 34. Late, A. F. IsAsMn, Pf- P 

^ 3S 8. 4. Oiuitie t€ I to u. 

iyt't- (t. iL)^;-, ityuf-), to toBact, F. iyifis A. fyv^ A. P. tyS^h 
^, Pf. P. iyiy,(f.M^ A. Jl I, i! A. U. Af^K^ B. 94, Pt. Bvnc ii}^»r. 
U. 1.14. Ep. (arna, iyifUfun, V. HSl, iynitfuu, K. 127 ; Ular Ep. tyi- 
^/imi Ap. Rh. 3. 895. 

tiit^ It. ■■{., tti(-), to raim, port, mi Ion., F. ibff, EMtr. 's^, Jlach. 
Pen. 7<t5. A. Ju{>. Pe P. 6;/.^ (fiw Ivf*-^ aw 9 S 16. if), A. P. «i{f<i. • 
CommDnl<r ^Jc (r. 'tf^ ayut, trnm i<f. J 2fi], ai;. ! 967), F. 'il^, A. <l^ 

Bmbf. -mt^ (S 5';. .), Pf. t(*m. Pf. P. It^,. A. P. V"> ■ ^ ^ V^■^ 

'^fiai, '■^>lll^ Eur. Or, 3, -i A. *1, piiet. ififtn, '■#•¥•••, ■■i<«^f Stifb. 
£1. 34. iEoL ii^ Sapph. 44(73> VwH. deriv., Vtfuw, P. 108, i.ft£. 
{*, Ap. Bb. 1. T3t), d{H:/w So|ita. An^ »03, ■r.C^H. (I li»:l. 3), [. 144. 

lyi^ (r. {}■(-, ly;- ^ 361, lyii;-), to rimK, F. iyi^ 9 Pt, M Pn«. in- 
tram., (Ihe sync, root prrflxeil. by a peculiar Att rodupl., $ 'J6^. li) iyfiyafm, 
Pf- P. iyiyi(iiMi, A. P. iyiffm, i A. U. liy^/m. For lygriju;/!, Ijr^yig^ 
na S S3S. 3- :j P£ i*/. 3 lyfryifUn '*» from r. lyt^.) E. 419. Hipp, haa 
\i-iyt(n utd lyiifmrt. Doriv., Ep. Ijfiiyi^io, ■. 6." lyfiMa f. 33; lata 

■T>« (r. iX., IX. S 359), lo roll yp, pte— liard, Ep. E. 903, A. !>.» 
(5 S6. #) A. 409, Pf. P. liXjW, a 669, 9 A. P. liXm, H. 408. Alt. 
ftnM, iRtikM or iiXXv, Aj-. Nub- 761, Th. It. 76, and ftiXv Soph. Ant. 340. 
Dciiv. i.'Xi> or ilxim, .irm, i.'lMi, .i» (Ep., A. P. IxMin, T. 393 ; Derir. 
%SxllfiM, A- 156, tlXSfdZm, T- 499), ^ifn, ..^> (poet, and Ion. tSxlrrt or 
i;x^», JEaeb. Pr. 1085, Bit 0. 38), Ixixi^v, -'{«, Ep. A. 510. 

&u»,(i>flBte, po«t, F. SifS, SA- »»«, Aj-. Av- A4, I A. f/uH, T. 481. 

Mi(ii (r. *Mf., *if. ^ 9.'9), to •'war, F. ai^, A. Izii^, Pf. P. aUruMmt. 
F. >^», Mosdi- '.'. 39, A. laifrs. >- 436, Ui^^/in, .£k1i. Pen. 9fi9 l| J6. 
A > A. P. J>i(Ai>, Find. P. 4, 146, 9 A. P. U^<i>, Anth. 

fuifiLMi (r- ^t-\ U oWofo, chiefly poet, I. 6IG, 9 Pf l^i^u^ A. S7B, 
FT. P. iTpoftwi ( 191. 0, U hu bmifaad, PI. Rap. .^66 a. Ft. u/uf^Ht, 
later Ep. ^ip>;*T>u Ap. Rh. L. 646, I>or. ^i/u^arai Tim. Locr. 9S a. 

ift.k; M nm, m^ (Ep. i^\>.).K 5. 469), F. i^uXJf- ($ 932, S), 1 A. 
^li'Xirra, 9. A., Died nnly in the expreaaiun of ■ wish, lifiXo, Pf. J^'XniMi. 
Kindred vBri», if ixxa. hi muM, poet. <,fer ifixxm, aee ^ 945. 5), ifXiruJHrv 

to WW (^^ a'-g), ^.xi», to auix. 

vii^ (r. «;-), to pime, F- nfa, Pf. P. vivf^Hi. A. tnga, A. 465, 

9 A. P. Wi(<n. Hdt. 4. <>4, Ath. 349 c. 

m'nu, (D urn, F. rmfZ, A. )rvi<^ Pf. P. Urmff.Mi, 9 A. P. ix'a;*!- 
niw (t. «»-), to atnb^ F. «^, A. I«», Pt ri^^.. (§ 917, •}, Pf. P 

rhifHu. A. P. Irton. Kindred Ep. fotnu^ *-»«.'», B. 390, A. Pf. vWxr 

iBU Kooi- ot THE vjtma. [BodK it 

N. 534; •m^P.SSO, ?. «4«,*e-t '■?■ n («>Mr. Aom ri-.r. n-.- 
>.SI»i a Aor. n. n«r^(i 191. 3 j c n^.) A. 591. 

fM^, « AXny, F. fAfA. A. f#«.^ I PT. IfA.«u, a Pf. If*^ Pf. P 
tttm^uu. It A. P. If/^ F. f/i;>», K. 6i!S, K. M. fimtUpm. BdL nh 
lOB, fA(iw.U.4a,g A.ILt««^;<>»(^ IMH./) ld.nii.90. 

^369. £. Clungeaf rior. 

*(!$«, (II n>», Id Mir. F- tv'^^, A. Ii-y;*, FT. rW^fo, PC P- vlvfiw^t 
I A. P. IvfCfAir, osauKaly 9 A. P. IVCiii. 

iXii'^ (t, iXif-, iXup-), Id imwit, F. i>u,i-l^, A. b<nj«, Ft AXaUf* 
(§ 191. 9) ud bMfm, Pf. P. iliXiftfim. uid JXi^i^w, 1 A. P. iXiifAii, 
S A. F. 4u'f«r. 

Ifii'.., to ArMt, F. I{>^. 1 A. JfuC Ar. Ttnp. 049, and >!({>, Hipp., 
i A. ilfHis p. 895. PI P. Ifijf<>*w, Hipp. CoUlt.. Ep. lti;c«H, i. 83. 

I^i«, M nut diH, F.«, A. 1^..^ A. p. it',**''- S A, Mmm. 
tatruM., iI;n-», B. 47, Phip. P. leifxn S. 1 5, IU» FT. P. If^fM^Mt. 

Sn, aln, Xn'n (f 37} and nJ«- (1 39). 

7. CbuffB of I into M. 

ia^ It. 1m-, i**.^ br >««-, F. io«<rqw, A. «»«■. 9 Pf. <>.(».. 
«Pii^ «n>;»(^l»l.9), A.P.4»M^ Lata, P. <■«&», Pt P. ilw 
«^w. £^ ^iMffis Ham. Hare 1il3. 

^970. 8. Cbneeof I into I. 
iXifUm, U o^K F. Ali*«£, A. il)b9.«M, A. P. i)j,itint. 
Otf/tmt uat lit^tM, te t rnrn nt , F. fl^fw^Mi. A. lanp^Hn. 
rxiw, (i> HiA, F. rlVin A. TtAihi, Pf. P. irtvXiF/tw (} SIT. ■), A. F 

Afi {*. 3*f-, nf- § 9«3),.to fwmgatt, to hn, F. SJ-fv, Pt P. rtA^^a^ 
S A. P. Mpn. 

9. Cluuiga of » imto u. 

■1^.. (r. .1^., ■■>/.), (D AMi, poM. Mw^ Pr. JTI, F. aijn., I A. Tjmh>, 
(. 96^, 9 A. I.W», J-. 16 (.(.!>/», $ [94. 3), S Pt •>>ii^>. Sopb. El. 1 ua 
Ep. ■■iM», r. 453. 

rtix-. (D P'q'ort, poet., P. «^., A. fncja, Pf. P. rWayiia^ A. p. In;i;/ii>. 
Pf. FU intraiM. nrtuxit f. 423, PT. P. n«iiK«Ta. (i W48. /) fl. (33, llup. 
rnnijC-" A- 808. Pf. P. /,/ nni,x:i-*'i X- >'»■'. F- Pf. rrfi.lj.,«u, M. 
945, A. P. InBX*"^ Hipp. Kindred Tertw, rryvin- (^ £90], nrvm^nw 

tf ass). 

f iByas wid wnnctioNk fvyyiiw (§ SOQ), fa JUt, F. fid&fHu and fwfi^ 
(^901X3). t A.If>4>. iW0DDDiilr2A.Ipv}«, KPt •r(f<*yi>. E{i. PL i^ 
«f«C^( (tf. KTI. 1> *. 6, nfUT'/.W ■. IS. 


K>. Cbange of I, in Uie cUpfatlunqf x, bi n. 

■Xiw aait nXfti, lo Ant, I, axiira tai xktirti, A. Iii>.iira and lii>.^ra, 

FT. P. iiimikir/M, aiiaMHii, and jhxA^^w, F. PC ■•■ArinpH, Ac I^iii. 

10T», A. P. UjiufAw. loB. ■*■;*, -ira, Hdt. Ui. 117 ; Doc. F. ax^f ■> 

■XfEf Tbaoe. e. 32, A. faXaf^ Ix^ as frooi axi^ w slf^o i§ M5. 1). 

^ 371. II. fiy the addition of consonants, 
usually either z, <r, v, ax, or ^ 

Of these eonsooants, f is chieSy added to UAial roots ; •, lo 
po/oMf and lutgtuilToo^; v (w)thoutfurthGraddttioa,§269. 2), 
lo /tjuti and fure roots; ttx, £, die., to purs roots. In a few 
instances, the dose terminations are afibced lo the protmcted 

% 979. I. At/amm or r (n* $ M). 
■. To Ulncl Boots. 

drrm (r. if., krr.), to /oKai to, (o ae< M >«, F. A^k. A. J^K Pl^ P- 
■ " ' " '" , HdL 1. 19, \ifti,,, •. 543). Kindred, i^, to 
te^a, Hdt. m. 69, irm^inn ($ U9l>). 

^.ia-r. (l. S.f -, ^n-.), to rf^ F. ^i-^M. A. IC..^., PT. P. MC'/t^, 
I A. P. I»^>, commoTd; ^ A. P. IMfin.. 

SX^rm (r. SXaE.), to fairf, F. ^l^i^w, A. ICl*^-, Pf. ^E^Lafa, Pf. P. 
^iCXsH^w., 1 A. p. iCJLafAi., 2 A. p. ICXaCai. F. Pf. &,ii^-i,4^i, Hipp. 
Ep. ^J-afi/w, T. 8fi. 

>;iiirrv (r. )(i>f-), to fear tike jbal, poeC Ear. £1. l.W, F. Iti^w, 1 A. 
Ilfv^, n. A-i% i A. OfL iwiiiift T. 1ST, A. P. iiiCftnr, i. 435. 

Sim. (r. »a#-}, to twy, F. Sil^«, A. Wa^a, Pt P. -Wafi^i, 3 F. «- 
tiyl'./m., Soph. Aj. 577, a A. P. i<^fa> (S 363). I A. P. lAtfAi., Hdt ii. 
81. Fram Uw t. &af . in uHilber nnae, oome Uu ^ ud loo. :f Pf., « Pim, 
ri/a«, lo ia aauzaif, A. £43, HdU ii. IS6, S A. I«f», L 193 ; aiMl tbs 
lata 1 PC truu. vMa^, Atk. 358 (l 

Sfim (r. »^-), to Ana* im plica, P. 5;iS4., Pf. P. rUH/tf^m. 
A. i';>4«, Hipp., L A. P. Ufiftw., AnCh., S A. P. (T^afi' (I ^63), P. 363. 

a^«w>. (r. ■a^r.], to touA P. a^^x, A. lai^^fa, FT. P. ataa^/w 
(§ 317. y), A. P. lUf^fh,. Kindred, y^rru. 

,\iwTm C- al^-a--. **^"- ^ 359), to atHf, F, aXh;., A. I.JLr.;.., Pf. >(. 
mXt^m (§ 23i>. a), PT. P. >i>ii/>|.ia<, 1 A. P. imliflm, eomuHHdj- S A. P. 
UUn>. Ute 2 A. laXar... 

airr.. (r. an-.), to ml. to ilriht. F aii^., A. fa.-fa. Ft .!>.;>. Pf. P. ai- 
Mt^fmi, 3 F. aui^i^x, Ar. Baa. I2S3, 8 A. P. iaini. S Ft. Pi. ■■■•»( 
N. 60. 

Mfirrii (r. a;,;;.), to Aufa, F. Mci-^, A. lafa^a, PC P. aiaft^uiu, I A. P 
lo^K, •ometimea a A. P. latilCa., Id Hipp., Pf. aUfafa, F. Pf. aiajii^h 
^uH. For ufiwrmm, mo $ 249. ^ 

fdwn (l. /af .), to MitcA. F. fi^M, A. qi^a<^a, Pf. P. Ifffl^ ^ ^ P 

/><(<»« (r.fwt*.), to i>it4(>o<t,F.|>it>i'^0. I3T, lA,IWf«.Ar.|Bl 


197, Bp ? A. /•i^-fwrn, AatMMd H>a<w (H IH- 9> <55. >, 9S3. «a 
•ndU-'". HM.8e. 831, 9 H. ^t^afva, U. 0|i. 30a. 

w*m (r. ^n-^ n«--}, P. rrwrirm (f 3». I), 9 A. Inms FT. P. «t^ 
•m^uf and rin^yi», 9 A. P. Ifwwi. lot. I A. trw^m, A. 5dl, int^^^v 
IMLiLlO. F<a«»wJnw>>MH9*-^ 

t. To Otlia Saoli. 

irU, <tit» (r. ix^ A»r-> to ■fwi^.l, F. lE.tni, A. Mr., PT. Jrtu 
Pf. P. (nv»u. A. P. liw'ai, Hw. Sc 31 1. Tba nmpkr fbnii*'<H like- 
«UB DGcnn In tba Pr^ tnd Im|£ K>r friki, &].,■»} M6. > 

t:>» (r. ru-, nmr. } 'J£»), to iq^ to bring firtit, ¥. ril>, ^LnuBnalj 
«4{iywi, 1 A. In{ii, dommodl/ ! A. Iru», 9 Pf. rinmm, A. P. Mg^lm. 
LM« Pf: P. ririf^H. For ni>w«>^ ne $ £00. }>. 


This letter is sometimes <M^Iy jirefixed or i^axd to the 
characteristic, but commonly unifei with it, IT a palatal, to form 
era (tt, ^ 70. 1), or less frequently £, and, if a Itagutd, to form 
£ (^ &1. N.), or less fretjuently „a (ti). 

NoTB. ( I .) PaUUIa in ■[■> ire moatlj- ononutopM. (9.) '■"e"''i in 
-fw tn moatly derivatiim, wsntiiig the Mcoad lanMi, and, bj reaaoa ri eu- 
pbdnlc dungn, nowbare axhitHting tba root in iU simple (brm. He cberec- 
tetiatie mqr, howevir. ba often daterrnined IVoni anathar irord. It is moat 
and mej be unmad to ba thia latter, if not known to be another. 
IT inataiioeB, * nnitea with -yy to Rmn C, eoi) eno with a labial to 

k\iTa4, (t. IXMk, k\m.\ to mM, poet, F. ilXsE*. A. iKof^ Extmdeil 
E^ ftnuk mXmrmii- Z. 4*:), ixinitt x- 330^ 

ifnw (r. tr>^ >)■- ^ 260, !;>■-). <<> at"! Kp. r. ^r, (aiu in*, x st9), 

PC p., la Prs.. Cy/iai, to Ac l£k, Enr. Ale 10fi:(, Php P. ifr^i, ). ?»''. 
The common trana. fbnn is »u(i>, -iru, &C., and tb? trmmoD intrans., the 
ptet. Ihh (4 39B. 3], for which are aln used tb« giniplei il*« (baTing in tht 
Sd Pen. pL the intgnlar form u^in Ar. Av. 96 ; cf. Iri. i, $ 23T. iSm), mi 
Ion. •:», Hdt. i. ISA 1 Bop., » Impf., l^mtn (^ IS9. 5J. F i^ Ar. Nub. 
loot. Ep. Impf. hilniu. (or Pf.) iT.i Z. saa 

l>i»aadlT>i» (t. fHv-, U>w- i 259, Imv.), toapn^, L-^ poet. A. 61.1, 
B. 161, Soph. (Ed. T. 350, F. it!^M, U. 447, and hmin (9 92S) >. 9S 
a A. hirTH, Ear. Sap. 4S«. Kindred, hiwn and him ( ^ 916. /), to re- 
inncA, Ep. r. 4SB, O. 196, 2 A. jifrAn* and iMrfni (j I9<. 3). Related 
10 .I«(i 301.1). 

X^j» (t. kmn-), bi mad, to utter, poet, F. Kimtt»HU (« 999), A. <>ji<*- 
M, commonly a A. )ȣsn, 8 Pf. liXtea ( 936. E.). 9 A. H. JUA^uir* 
(^ 194. 9). Fbr :L>X4it«a, m ^ i!59. i>. Dcriv. formi, Flp. JUbU, t. 379 
Dor. Ji«>U Tbeoo. S. 94, Att- Xmni^w, .fiaeh. Sup. 819. 


S61), |:u«/» (f) 999) Anb. Vt. 41T ; &nd. to rqid; F. iixi{i(rip«, vB. 7. 3 
A. iXiim/tni, i. 3. 6. 

OmiifiMi, to 6(te, Ion. and Rwt., F. SafWfi^ai, Hipp., A. kI^s^ki, Aath., 
P£ P. Jimyfau. Act. ;Ut«, (D nun from a biu, Symp. 1. 27. 

$3X4. J-, Uniting with a PaliUl to form rr {«■> 

mJLXirim or lil^Wn-- (r. •ai>y-)> '<■ cAaiyii^ F. >Ul^Ei^ A. tlAmi*, Ft. 
iU^X^ Pf._P. fta-y/-., I A. P. iUU:t;<». 2 A. P. i>.Uyu.. 

THrirr* (r. rXn-y-), En >(nle, In compo^tlon with U <« Hn, to (frik ipicA 
tomr, F. wi.^.., A. irinfi, i! PT. rUknyi,. PT. P. <riTX>r}'f»«, » F. w,wl.i. 
f-fuu. At. Eq. ST£, 1 A. P. lirXn;i:fii>, ccmmoiily E A. P. lirXii>i», bat i{i. 
rxtjv, Hn<-]4r«r (.lij'iii, r. :il, 2. e95). For virlnyn, &c, «e U94-3. 
Ilie form rXliytlt/»u (§ ^OS) occuri Th. iv. IJS. In tha simple amum W 
iMk, tbs Att. vritcn osao^iCe the A<it of vnrJrr. with the Pu*. of wxif- 
«.(5 301> 

rrinw (t. im*-, *tiiii. 5 966), to iroye* fmrn fiar, F. v-rifas 1 A. 
htifm, port. 2 A. Inain. ^Kh. Enm. SSJ, Pf. Imx'^ Ep., from r. »«.. 
S A. D. S-Ti™H.136, Pf. ;■(. ««^, C^aS-l. (), B. nL-J(cf. 5 9H8.-). 
Kiiidnd,'Twr», A. :ni, «wr>ii>:., ^ 379. 

- nfirw (». "{-j:.), to ilutK.i, F. "(i&-, A. 1™(-E», Pf. P. ««((-y. 
iMi, A. P. in{i;^Art. E^«n raf«H iJ Ibnned, by meutheau, connaclloa, 
•nd ttu aqiintiaa of r before (0 dS. S.), ifi/r., ■ i-sfair-, ■rfiMtr-, ftwv-)> 
F. 3(i£-, A. Ufmf^ A. P. WfiaA- Ep. Pf, «s Pr. intnuie., «»(.;«. W S'-'3i 

.»'». (r. »y-), to amoigv, F. rig-, A. fTrnJ., FT. rt»x:-- P^- P- 't- 
«y,«i, F. Pt TH-^ifUi, Th. y. T I , I A. P. It^jkAi., rare a A. P. Iriy-t. 

f;vr» (t. ^i>-)< <° Mwlder, F. f;.'^, A. Ip;<E«j ^^ ^- 'ifC**- Fot «- 
fe1.»Tw, ue i 846. a. 

%. Uniting with a P^atll to form Z- 

.^•f and 9 Pt mUfY' (^ S3S. S). to cry. F. PT. auf^ivui (S 939. c), 
S A. !■;■>>«. Kindred, mKiZi ( . 977. ■), >;•!!■, .^Ea. iil>{^v. 

-'j"'^- (r- tS/MMy-"), to bapail, F. tj^fa^ai, A. f/£at^y Pf. P. Jfutyftoi 
(V'SS- 4)- A. P. Ft. «n~x*''-i Theog- '^0*. l»te F •iV^E". Antb. 

iX>).v;> (r. lXi\»y-\ to ikaut, to ihruA, F. ix,Xii./ia,, A. ••XiXi>E>. 

mn^a, and poet. tntijQK, to ^tdob, F. H-inff., A. I>ri>a{>. Poet, fonna, 
rrnrnxia. Soph. EL 133, n-.r-Xft- o( m-ikj^;;-, B. 7ai, A, Urm^ica. 

rfs'^a and rfmrrm (t, /ftty.), ta llay, F. rfilJ, A. Irf ■{•, I A. P. lr^']~ 
^i, commonly 9 A. F. Ir^ynr- Pf- P. Irfny/fi, *. 539. Th* ibortor 
root fa-appean in the Ep. Pf. P. ^ififuu.'S, 5:i\, F. Pt 'i^i^hu, N. 81f 9. 
iUnce (r. #.., p.. §4 !i59, 277), the poet 2 A. Infw (5 . 194. 3, 961> 

u Unithig with yy to ixna £• 
wXiJC* {r. "-X-yy.), to earn to teatdtr, poet. (— .-l. .■'■), B. 139, 
A. I<rx>7{a, >. 307 ; Wd. rXs^MU., to mndtr. Soph. AJ. 886, F. wUyi- 
/w *. 3 1 2, A. P. ItX^^a;'*' Eur. Hipp. 940. 

tmi-rii- (r. •iX'i^-), to mad a tnmpd, T. nXwly\f, A. ItiXn^ 
Lata F. nXr'm, £«. 

s„d«. „«.«»„..> „,„,,,Googlc 

Wt B0OT «r -mr temk [sooc ib 

^ Wff. ^. VtSOag with a IJg(ari to Arm {. 

mmLZ^ (r. K il- k SaS. [£-, 'T- k K^S), to M<, to jWw, F. >^.V., ../.i; 
SOO. $}, A. ImJ/ln ind i>.rn l^^- ^). ^r. Bu. 91 1. Mid. t-iZ* 
pu, ami nnl; ■■«;;>^i, FL Ax. 371 e, A> ■!(, P. vJiiitt^mi {\ -ZTS^ R. 
Ruidr. '^'JS a, and a*4i)^^ (^ V00> r)i I^ TheM. 146 a, t k. •omoianl} 
iniH. imMt,.i/.„, Don. HS7. 3, and m*/uriLfm {.■ >R!>. :<)• I^"'- Hig^ nl 
3 A. iDtnM. UnJhCiwnt i. 5. 9. Lrta, A. P. iaaArtW, Aalta., F. H. hA 
WvH'. Uicg.Laot.iL 7 a. Tba ilw|<« form aw titMty pott, and dialtrtia 
!£«, Ill H^ tit, B. jilt Jbcb. EwD. 18 (•xtradad ^m^m, Th. ii. 76), A. i^ 
B. 549, R.b.«...3el (Ion. irV«r Hdt. lii. l.;6)i Uid. :i:,|Ih., T. IS^. 
■Dl rairij I^i^a^ 8a|)b. (Ed. T. 3S, F. if 4rnWU< L Ii J, lalw uwtftmi Ap. Kh. 
K. HOT, I A. iM^w, Thoog. ):j, Irn^w, t^od. F. 4. 363, Imi^i, ^ -^5, 
S A.l{/y.w, ^oeh. Eun. Si P£ P. J>«, to ji( (1 .^9), A. 134. Eur. Ale, 
604, at irUdi Iki conp. u/nwu is ab« GommuD ia AU, ^on. Dnia. 
a^H, .£»!, Ac, A. P. a^n and A;^.^. (S ^7ij. y). 

n^ui;* (r. JmrHHOT to hiih, F. Ji^n. A. .i>^i«s. P£. M^mm, Pf. P. 
iwY»iw^«H A. P. i',^iw4m. Ion. in^CH ($ 44. 4), Hdt. in. 6. XoL. «v 
(hC* C^ 44, 5), Find. P. s. 83, chiafl.v £p. jh^>^ B. 4ai>. 

ffrff. Cr. ftJ-), to teS, F. ffi^ A. Ifp.-., Ft ci^jM, Pf. P. ^tf^ 
(^HH, A. p. ipt***^ PC p. A. ir(<-«f^^HHi, He*. Op. 6M. Far «i. 
|fBl*,4«,Ma i 1»4> 3. Eatmdo^ 1 A. ffJIovi Pnd. IJaai, 3. IS. 

7:Jt- ('- r-J-. "»- * «03- N.X to w™. *«*, n«v (*«-:i^- hr. r. i«). 

mora fivqniiHtlj, bat diMv Ep., MM. jc^'/hh, to n*«, F. X"^^^ ' ^• 
tx->*^/«i>, ^ 53S. Ep. a A. Pi. miuUt, 9 A. BL (laj^nr. (} 1'94. 3; 
F. .u«M.. SS39.A). 

•. Uniting with a 'J«{C"'' to fbrm *r (rr). 

■ii/tr«>, to fe muHf, E^. EL 493. A.,lnhn, Ap. Rh. I. IITl. 

k^^t.. and Att. l(,i.Jrfw (r. i^H)-}, F. i«w«, H^r^w, Dor. A. P. 
Jtf"x:'ii>i IK"B' Itnt. viiL 85. 

^i.V» or SJL.'n-i. (r. ^iiH-., ^X.r. S 3<!I, ^jlm'- f 64. HI), to tofe JloMy 
/»tMii U( km, F. H^v, A. IKljra. 

M^irw^ (r. .^rf.), to onv poet, PT. P. PL •■»{»/^!h( (5 S3), P. IS 
Ear. Andr. V79. A. M. i^ ■•gMm^iHr (§ 71) T. 397, Dor. A. Ui^ 
(^345. ]),ThM>c9. 5. 

rim, to ^pniuUi, F: «E«i, A. lavni, A. P. tvtfrfe. 

a-lim, to /oaUim, F. wXir^ A. rir;^.^^, FT. P. rfvlmr/w, A. P. Irl^ 

9. tJoitliif wlb a L^al tn Cam {; or ». 

•:;> (r. Hf .). to waA, F. .A^, A. f»^<i, Pf. P. At^tfim, A. P. MpAv, 
Hipp, l^te lirti, Fht., Imt«u/~ w. 1 78. 

«^H» cr irir» (r. «r-), to aaa^ F. «<^ A. In^ F£ P. wlnfi/uu, 
JL P. Iirif^. Lala .ri«». 

6a^ also, {,;«• (J SIS..), X^v" (^ S90). 

^370. Bdube. Ai Terba in -^o and -»■ are tbrmed (hnn both 
palatal and llngoAl nwla, and «a pure verba often pus into nrba in -^a. It ia 
not HtningB that in ao'ne verba tlten shuuld ba an jntormin^inf ^ finv* 

[. 10.] 

Ac Ut« 3 X. K. n. (r. ifwm-, $ U97) ^J^tMr, Aotta. 

hc(;7^ to- ^, i«r^, poet, T. Im^li^ A. 191, A. Itic'i' ^- '^^' "^^ 
itiprM, Aaaa., Pf. F. hipr/M, Soph. AJ- '^. A'-e>'Ai>, .£m3i. Gho. 347. 
Fciniiliva, itmift, &. 336, 3 A. ftm^n, Sofdi. Ant RTI, 1 A. U inf^r, 
E. 49. 

I{1« (or 1(1.) Hid >lf . (1. 1;^., fir i iSi, l^-X to do, poet, uid loc 
.£«di. Sept. 3:)1, <I>. i;l4, F. {({« t. 3GO, ud ^ Eur. Ale. S&^, A. [;£• 
.XKh. Sept. 9?4, and r;/i|. or J^ify, L 536, Soidi. (£d. a 5J9 (observe Oa 
■agmeQt)^ ? FT. life's, B. 112, 3 Finp. !*{}«> (§ 1S9. 5), 1. 69:1, Ufju, 
Mdt. L ] s;7, A. K ft. ^i^ft.'!, t 250. 

lUf^iif;^, to pjMla', poet, F. yiy ««;{«. w. S61, A. l^g^Mpiis ^ 1^^ 
■Ed i/a^iJu^m, Ai. Tgsp. B. 

nf(H, to p(^, F. tmllipm,, m[«^, (^ «XX 3% A. Uiurm, Pf. «Ww», 
F£ P. innH'nHK Lain, ruifi^ Iviufo, r>«Hjt;>, ■^vwy/kn. Iwii';);/*!. 

NoTK. See § 345. ] . The Dorics Bometimes extend the pHlstid (brais to 
athv tenses, beddee the Pot and Aor. set snd mid. ; ss, i».ify'ixt>n (Ar -Mai) 
Theoo. I 9B, AtXmy^m, {^yJim) Id. S3. 45, it/^xf*' (§ ^^9' *)- 

^ STT. 3. ADDmon of 
In imjmre roots, r is eomnioalf pre^xed U 
)Ut in pare roots, t^xed. 

m. Pndud to • GonsoMOt. 

iXXt/tmi (t. 'JIX-, irk-, iX)..), to bap, F. >lx><ww, A. nXs^w, 5iiif. 'a^La 
pm (§ S6. ■), Ac, 3 A. ixi/..., £>•«/. 'ili>;u., &c Ep. nude S A. 5. S 
■t^n r. 754, H iXn 755, ft. JV-tH A. 11^1 (§§ 13. 4, 185. 1). 

pdXXM (r. ?>;i., fiXm- i 36'i, fitX§- §§ 38, 988), F. 0*X£, &«., me « 9SS. 
Ep, F. BXir.f,m^ T. 335, 3 A. Kxn ($ 9S7. fi), f. IS, le».■^^ S. 39, 
coDimaaly pass. A. 675, O/iI. S. S iXft or (r. 0». ^ 359, cf. ^((ifx, •';ll/^•t^ 
; !S4) fiXi!, S. 280, Inf. fiXwIn <^. I 15, &c. i Pf. P. M'Xif^ L 9 

•iiaCv (r. >:Uv- ■>'rr-i ■>>>{!- § 374. t), to ifiuv, to tertaat, F. aXif]{iH 
I A. I>X>}{i>, S A.tmXayu, Pf., ai Prea., aliXayya or i.ial.ayx*' Ar. Tcap. 
939 {.UXsyc, B. 222, see « 24(i. 2), P. Pf. a-.Xivl,,AMi (§ 339. c> Bl- 
tc^ fiirnu, njL.yYiv, Theoc E^ 6. 5, aXa}^«i»s -A'oh. Enm. 191, 
■;.ayfr4u> Soph. Ft. 783. 

rfa;.l« (r. rfal.0, to dtaat, F. ffaXiS, A. IvfmXa, PC P. IrfaA^n, 
« A. P. irfiXw. 

f^XX* (r. nok-, inl.. ^ S59), (0 tea* F. mxS, A. l<ruX^ F£ ImXus 
Pf. P. If nl^uu, 2 A. P. irr^a>, rarely 1 A. P. Urixt,,,. Fol lf»;U)>T., 
*e« S 948. /. 

e. Afixed to a Consoosnt. 

Wn. (r. U^ W- 4 SCO), la M>, F. K(m>«, 8 A. nM«, K P. Ufc 
WW, A. P. Ihix/n- POet.liLd.luHiE*^«,.£Mdi.F«ci.S^l.;p^,,'t|^. 


rt^m (t. r-^.. n^- f 95»), ti> w^ F. n^ 9 A. In^u. and f<^-«. Pf 
viffwu (f Ml). Pt. P. rir,t»t>M^ 3 B. nr/^r,/.M., A. P. ir/^UK,. Ion. 
r^w. I'. \0S. For nt/awft^ IM 4 334. ^ Kiodnd Ep. t^i*^., 11. 390 
(r/Ht-ni, UOKta. U. 81], F. r,.Jl^ 1 A. tr^nU. » A. ir/my.^ S A. P. W^ 
ywu IMr lr^«7a>. SoDM IMd •v*', M FlMq S. 707. 

Bn, ■Ikv >i^w {§ S83). 

^378. ^ Aaz«d w a T«v«i. 

«.;», ^>d poet. 0.if» ({ 279 ; r. $»-), b fca, V. fiin,^ S A. V. 
(1 57 ; tee i 1^37, 949. b, 951. l), Pf. ^ifn*. (n> 9 ilSB. .). Poet, uu 
Ion., P. ^■'.■s / nil roxM (a 7^ Eur. Iph. T. 74?, I A. Ifura, HdL i. If! 
In compodtioa. Pf. P. AiC>^>~ and 0iU.>>iu (« 93r. a), A. P. iCiBn,. Fot 
^ilni, Ac, H ^ IAS. 1. Kiadml forma, #u in Dor. UUmi llu r. 77 
Efi. «ie», r. -Jit, Sifa^ H. 31 !1, fiiCirtm S. S09; Ion. ^e^r», Hipp.; 
tlu aommon caosalJTa 3iC«(« ; and tjifanaOy tba Bp. Pna. and aa Fat. 
(^ WO. b) fliifw, / aUl nO, liN^ a 191, X. 43L FL M^tHm (or ^ 
^ Ham. Ap. 53a. 

Kw (t. )».), Id oiter, F. Knpmi, S A. Ofi (^ 57 ; BM ^ 397, 91ifi. 4), 
Pf. }i1>ii. For iwwttm, «• ^ 943. 4. Tba primitira )mi is coaauoolf 
CMMtirv, <D wti to flilgr (rat — )»>, >. £73), F. Ur^, A. JSirm. Pf! iv.. 
}ili» V. 8. 33, Pf. P. lilf^MM, A. P. ili!/... CUrfr Ep. aod Ion., PreL M. 
Kvw.E. 140, A. H. iJ>.<>^ii>, B. a7B, 3 A. P. ilw, U[pp. For liinn, Ac^ 
aea^ IS5.I. I«tar Ep. fonu, Ihth, Ap. Bh. 1. 1008, A. PI. Iv^w 1^36. 

Iv^ •nmmonljr Ua^ta, Eo ilriiv, F. i;i«w, UZ (^ 90n. 9), A; ixirm, Pf. 
i>.i\mmm{^ 191), Pf. P. Uikm^i, A. P. it;U^a>. Ion., PT. P. UiiA«^>i 
Hipp., A. P. Hifhn, Hdt iH. 64. Yvr ixnXiU'r., aae g 948. /. Ion. and 
Poat. UuT^ti^ 2. 549. 

^iw^uu and fimiitmi (r. ^u., ^mi- ^ 967, />■■■ G 359), A) mi o^, poet. 
Soph. (Ed. C. S.lfi, I. 36T, Ep. F. ^>rvjfi>. (MO '^- I9"> "^^ i^'»|Hi>. 
t. 499, 3 Pf. ^IjM» (4 9»'l. ■). Pro. frnp. f^a (^ 249. b) Mem. u. I. ^O 
(Ei^ch.), Inf. (aa from r. /.mi.) ^itm. Theog. T69. Ertended, t^ti/U^ 
4r», Soph. AJ. ^O. 

w'tm (r. »>, «- § 359), to ifrni, F. r',^uu (^ 900. b), laUi raZ,^ 
;§ 300. 3), 3 A. Iifo (^ 327. ■), Imp. •■/>, commonlj •-%, Pt «««■, 
Pf. P. «rvui, A. P. Iriffii. 

r/» (t. ti-\ to pat, lo exfaatt, F. n>a, A. fTTrn, Pf. nrto, Pf. P. nW. 
r^Mj, A. P. irirtm. Uid. r/»^i, and t/<4/uu oi rlttfLM, (^ 3911), to aimigt, 
to pwurt, cblaajpoat. P. 379, 366, Ear. Or. 393, 1173, Hdt. v. 77. Poet. 
rU^ lop^ Ann- to, F. t{» I. 143, i^,m. Soph. Ant 33, Pf. P. Pt. rt-r^n, 
T. 43 S. 

fU,. (r. tU-). to amiiclpatt, F. f/Sr*. commonly f)/.'..^ (5 919), I A. 
If/i», 3 A. If <«. (S 9VT), Pf. f«4±u. Ep. 3 A. M. Pt. fti^u; F- II 9. 

f A'w (t. ^1-), (o pcriiA, (o datrm/, F. trane. ^''», f<i£. Soph. AJ. 1027, 
tnCroni. ff.tfuu, A. trana. lf/„^ Pf. P. IfA^u, Flap. P. and 3 A. M. 
(^§ 9S7, 936. 4) l^^>. Ep., fh'.,, X 44fi, f. 3fi8, A. P. Ifftint, ^. 331, 
8 A. Act. tftlln (cf. $ 9S9) B. 110. Extenaed poeb tmn, ftnlt-, A. 
491, >. 350. 

1. PraBxad to a. 

tm. 10.] nEFK&TIC CHAHSBb. ' 229. 

^ 979. 4. Amutm* or n. 

The addition of these letters is commonly attended with the. 
jireccMton fx protraction of the precediog vowel, with metathe' 
*M, or with the loi» of a eonttmaat. 

m. Witboat Amber Cbuige. 

Afbw (r. ip-), (• fimm, F. ifir*, A. !;<«, A. P. lUtW... See ^».'. 
«- (§ 885). 

ymii uitl }^;in>>, 1(> jftw o£j^ F. yufsm and jnifar^wi, 1 A. lyifMim, 
i A. 1^<. (5 li27), Pf. y.)^(«.». 

ixAiii^tM. (r. ;x..), to }ir«,;;iJa<(^ F. ixirtfiM,, A. I'Ufiifin, A. P. llUrtin. 
Kindred Att fonua, .'jii.^w £»dt. Snp. 1 ] 7, Itiin/iMi, PL Leg. a04 b. Elk, 
i'Xh/w, B. 550, Pf. Stdij. i;Liiw, f . 36:;, C^ i^i^mfu, Horn. Ap. 165 ; 
fbniuia (nm Imp. IxiA Ap. Bh. 4. IOI4, Uii^i (4 85t. 4), BGd. 
I>^^«u Ham. Hjm. 90. 5 ; laMi Ep., P. I'l^f^w Ap. Bh. 2. SOS, A. ;Xj>{ii- 
/WN I. 1093. 

^Sr*M (t. ^i/i-), Id wfoxi'cote, F. /utf», A. I^Ufn, A. P. i^ithu. 
nia Inlniti. ^wn^ to te ilrawl, occura In the Fraa. and Impd 

^380. 0. Toiral changed bj PnuMdon. 
A/iixUi, coDunoolr i^C;iir(» (r. ii^C)L>-, il^biri' $ 959), in miteorry, 
F. i^tijirm, A. rlj.Cxwa, lY. ifioCiH., Pf. P. iJ^iCa^^iui. 3 A. Upti^Kt in 
fluid. Ion. l{-i[^C»,iiT«i Hipp, 

JnfilHS romnuraly i>«>,;.u (r. iu^ ilun-), lo ixpBtd, F. itfiuirti, 
A. AijlM^ PT. .lnX.u, P£ P. ii^X^^w, A. P. iniMn.. TUt verb dlcn 
Ktwn* s Id the iiiKmHit (^ I K9. 4), espedaUj' in ttie dder Att. ; and MMns- 
fimea, in doable GUnpiitdUoii, lugmenta the second ptepoiiliira (§ 199. M); 
'thni, A. iiixmm, Sofb. Aj. I0'I9, UTKni;ii>n, laoc. 201 b. 

^ Towel I,engtheaed. 
fiiiriufUH (t. liu-, Sum-), cliiefi; in Clw comp. irm-tairiitfimi, (d raat, 
botll tnuia. sod tntraniL, F. ftarvui, 1 A. (raiu. iCiaxa^iii, 2 A. intraoi. 
Utf> (^ SiiT), ;S^, {S/^*. (^ 3^6. V), ^;>/^ ^.fui, 0..ilf. Primitive, yJif«, (o 
Xbi, Fat. fiikn. commcHily ^rj^«i, I A. lf.»m, coimnonly -l A. lCi'», 
FT. ^iCivu, FT. P. fiiSimfuH. SboTUr Ep. fbmu^ ^t^nU [fiii/urU W.ilT., 
{ V7H) Horn. Ap. 5VH, F, Mnrii Ap. Bh. 1. 6S5. Fta mJ, we commonly 
Amt, In the Pras. and Impf., [ia, which egain in the other Una» (F. C<i»> or 
tire/iM., A. i;.r>, ftc) ii rare or lale. For the onnUactdan of C», >«• 
I fl3. a. Rrom the coDtr. forms of the Impt {tl^mu) tZm, E^a, appears '.9 
hare arisen a lit Pen. !;■> Eur. Ala. S95, and a lata /o^ ^ Anth. lliB 
pndoDged ;«aDd!:w(j 242. b) have given rise to A Iw.jCmi Hdt.L 12(^ 
A/. (Hif mmoD. Fr. 931. IT. 

^981. 1. Uetatbiib. 

B>j>fiw> (r. f»X-, fiX*., |9lf § 64. v.), to gB, la conw ^ the Vn^ Ep. 

aii.L fbood only in compoution, r. 466), F. /itX^/imi, S A. I/uLo, PC 

S«trH. (r. 9«.-, Sm.), M ilie, F. 5«<:v«>^ £ A. lU.^ Pf. riAvas ($ 33?}, 
F. Ft: nA<ie- and n/.^V-' (§ £39. a). Sea »iw (i SUK^OO^'k' ~ 

X**** {t. a?»-, i SS), to gap*, F. X " ^* i t a *. &(•"> « Pt vljIpDa. 
late x«^- Eztudad x-'-^^^ Ai. Ta^ 695. 

a^X" ('■ '■'-,*■•'- §§239, ZTT, nAa-, nr;^., tha «qnraticn of tbe ». 
which is dKqi)Md bdbn r, bans hwfioad lo tin ■, whidi Uina bBranui x), 
to ai^, F. nitf^ (^ 58), J A. iwmit, 3 Pf. wimU. Poet. 1 A. A. ni. 
(W« (but vrmim Dind.) .AttJL Ag. 1694. ^ Pf. Ft. wtrmtwl^ 953. 3} 
(. S55, Dgr. PC rtrirx-, Efidi. 7(2). For ri«-.>/>, MC f 338. ^ 

^ V 8 S* 5. ADDnToi (w ^ ^ 3, ard x- 

ifuttm Mut Vi(l- ('• 'f^O. <" (JirM. poet. Find. P. 6. 37, •- !«, 
F. l»lf»s A. f|Mf«, ». 64, A. P. 4|irf(Ar., X. M. 

tui tni ttlhi (r. h-, M- § 869. 6) botit Bp. I. 4^9, A. 470^ ammoalj 
IQh or iil-MM (1 5S, ^ EST), to /«r, F. Ep. It;..^.!, O. \I99, A. Hun. 
Gyr. L *■ 33 ; Mkt tt^M., to /r^ten, pott K. 793, JlaJi. Bb». aS7. SMr. 
Minimal or liliH^ai, la fi^li^a,i^mM (J 499'), auil Ep. In^ touhiB. 

nifi, (r. K., ,„t. i 366), to fin, F. n'», A. P. lnf>r>. Ep. h~, H«. Op. 
TTJ, A. Iw-, T. 138, U.^im a. tSB. Lits Pf. P. ,in*/Lm. 

tirmim (r. iwn-), to wmmd, F. wn(n>, &c E^ tirii, x, 35fi, F. (M™, 
1 A, .Smrm, 'i A.. 8. 3 tlrt {k «E4. £.), h/. .irdtHt, -i/m-u, E. 132, 
3 A. H. ft., u Pus., •ird/iini. A. 639. 

«X^C-. ud poat. nxa^^ Ear. Bb. S55, or r;k>^«, Soph. EL 39) (r. rO*., 
inX<.. nUi., r),iU^; ^h 360, 36-j), to i^rvuA, F. wH-Sra, rO^ 
(S SIX). 3), A. I«Ua», a. p. l«:i^W>it uul p«[. )tx£«ii. (5 361. N.), 
Jladi. Pr. 896. S^ «;h^, Horn. Baa. 44, Pf. P. TiT;bii^i ft. 108, 3 A. IL 
icXi^nt, jL 149 ; riXi^, to irt^i hot, Bes. Op. 508, riiLia/iai, to arfwiMd^ 
T. 93. 

«t<K and M-f.'Ci^ to MW, F. •^fn, A. frpn, PC P. airftt/uu, A. P. 

r^> (r. wm,^ n- h SSI), to mm, F. rirm, A. fn«, Pf. tinnm, Vt P. 
r(.ap« and rir-r/u^ A. P. tnMi>. E^ nw, Cdl. D^ »L', rum, A. SS; 
&C; Pin. Ib^ {Urn,, ritu, rS, ^ 343. b) nu >. 330, ImpC S. S (IAm) 
ii^wr^ n. 36:1, 4i. SSSi wmtr. rd^ Ap. Bh. 4. 1»7; ««, in tLs Sul|i. 
ri^ 1. 681, tij 434. 

T(ii», to afflict, F. •"{J**, Pf. P. rirfS/iMi- and rfSx" (•"■ '■(•i ''(>%-• 

»■(«>:.- ^ 298), F. rji^, Pr P. MT(i:;t"<»-^ 'ni- iv- eo. Sa >i- (9 »so), u 

mini, pott, ■iif;^^, i. 3T5 ; yt** "id '^■tCi '" "''■ 


SYLLABLES, either, I. by reduplication, or 2. by 
syllabic affixes, or 3. by cccA«*^e q/^ letters. 
1, Reditflicatiom. 
Reduplication in the root is most frequent in 
verbs in -/u aud -axa. Jt is of tHcee kiuds : ^ 

CH I6i] nVKATar cRuiaa, Sti 

a. Proper, which bpicwg* to rmito hey ii i i i y g witk a Wh^ 
connHMfU, with a mUe and liqittd, or with pr, and which pre- 
fixes the iniliat amtonemt with i, or rarely with r. See Sl- 
dtifUt *(xtV^ (§1 3B4) ; ^ifi^tuuiKu, (ttfir^aiua (^ 3S5). 

b. jf Hie, wtridi belongs t« roots begincing whk a (Aort mNorf 
follouxd by a tingle eonsimant, anA which prefixes the- two 
fnt fetters. See npnp/o«(o (§ 285). 

IiuLttl of laiiMtuig Iha initlBl tom^ 
tt tbe laaper wrlnpHMtiiia. See hln/m H SM). 

c. htproper, which betoDga to roots not included above,-aad 
which simply prefixes » with the rvrngk breathing. 

Cottqlan 4§ 190, 191. 8. 4. 

$984. a.TeltHh.^ 

Urn, *i> Umd, ntAr VUfu <f. >K M»), V. 8. S4 (Ba[A 10* A. 105). 
t.tin.. Sn§« 919, 31S.^ 

U3.IH (k I*, U.-), (D pii< F. Unv ^ U^ai, t. ass. Sw ^ jt. 

Lnvu (r. f n -, b^..), *o fUm. P. rrilM. See 1 46. Poet I A. frr<«, 
H. 56. Lite Pf. tons. !«•«■■ Aii4h.„ EM. |. A. P. |.n«i. Call. I^v. S3. 
Kindred Ibnns, itritm in eompoaltion only, Dem. S07. 6; rare \trimm 
(S S4S. N.^ AH). 413 e; UU n^<r>, Rom. r4. 4 ; mf^. (} 24«. >). 

-'«V (r «•-, «^(- 5 68). to &-* F. xf**-. A. Ijtjw, Pf. P. >l 
XtV'"'- Uitl- "•xe*/"'^ ^ hnrraiB. The prInUtiva eenee oit iha mot ^^fs. 
^>pa*n to be (0 aifi^ ■""'^ Eeoce we lutvl. 

3. xf^a (^ 918. ■), to —pplf the nrtd of cue via eontnllt rn tracit, bf 
mnnmrng Um mfinrw, F. xt^"^ *■ '«r"'"> '^- ^- «'J«"*™ ""* "Xf/^^ 
A. P. ixii'f^'- Mid. X(ii.fuu, (o imuiJt m oroci. Poet. XC^Z- of Je«"I"i 
Eur. HeL B I S. 

S. xt^'f^'i ^^ '"PPh ™^' <"" "^ 'y "a*"'"* '^ tf ' (*^ P. xfirtfki,, 
EC atxrvw. A- P. IztMnr, A. M. i;£(arKWt. In Om AtL contract forma 
<f Xt^ and xt^t^u, 9 Ukm (ha placa of ■ ( § ^n. ■), which, no ihs other 
band, ia commooly reUlned by the Ion. ; w» xtf "'''- '■ ^^' 

4. ;w^ (fl Pata. afng., Ibr xt^i. or ;t:rS«\ it wppAs ubdI, I. e. it fa lugU 
«r ■KMOry, « Mut <i^ to *e, bnpen. ; S^. xer- Opt. 'Xf- Xf- 
5 !5B) xt"'- V- «(*«<. ""li l™t- fXfJ'-) >:fif., Pi-1. Nml. (;c(™. • »"- 
awtsd after coolraction, § SS) xt""' ' ^P^ ^Xt'' ('"'<'■ ' parsgoglc, for Ixfh 
nrtxpijSi- S 911. N.)or unaugm. (g 194. I) ;tfS. ■ Fat. jtfitrii. TTie par- 
ticipla x{^ i* amnMimea naed aa an indecliiuible aoaa ; tiua, rtS xV^'- 
Penoaalbr, 5. 9 xr*''' (^ ^^^\ J™ ""^ A^^ Aeh. 77H (Meg.) ; Pf. P., a> 
Pna., MixcfM,, to an^ maul, Eur. Iph. A. »8i, a. 18, F. PC nijcf^n^iw, 
Hmoc 16. 73. Qndtad, x(f!>>, to want, d—irt, laa. XV^ ^^ '- *'> 
Dor. ;^f^J. Tbeoe. 8. 1 8, aid X(^*^ ^- -^''^ ^94 (^ 70. V.) j loB. A^oa. 
waJraHwi, Hdl. UL 117. Ic 


a. i^i-KC. « A* "W«" ■«* L «. J(«i^M, « it -Mfkl /■/. i«. 
X^ ■ Impf. i*!^-!, F. inxd'". A, <«];{«(- l«i. »"^rf. -«f "i *» 
(Me 3 abora), HdL ii. 79. So irtxtii't (^ S4-J. m) Id. viii. 14, m»n-xti 
L 164, im-xti"' "L '37. These verbs are miso oaed peraonslly. 

iii'n/u (t. Ih., hitM-), la be*^ F. mir-, A. S,„n, A. P. ^>i(«in, 3 A. H 
«n^» and «»i^r ($ l!Vl. 3), (^X. Mv**^ ^'t''- A«''^ Ep. uid Ion. /■¥> 
Ah. r. 6S, /■/, Inrtai Hipp., i^ i«VMH( 0. 33. Doubtful « A. Act /»/* 
hifm PI. Bep. 600 d ; Ulc 1 A. H. J«fi^.., Anlb. 

tr;^Xniu (r. rl«., m-^.-irJji- S 261. 6\ Ib jm, T. wxirm. A, trXvm, 
FT. rH-lMHi, Pr. P. rirXat/'ti (Plop, ir-irirlnn Lj». I BO. 4), 
A. P. frliMo., £ A. H. imfu,' (§ 384. 3), Opt. (rXii-i-^n) rxV*' "^ 
(rX>., wli- i S59) w*!;/™. (rf. j^i.'n, 4 ibora, 0>u>, S K77. •), Imp. rXi. 
«. Port. tXi^..,. /mjfc i|«-*.V)Lfi/. (5 251. ■)) «. 31 1, «. (r. »Xt.) 1^. 
vrXiif, Hipp. OUta*. loo. tbrma, <n^rXia, -(«, Ho. Th. 880, a-iVXv, Hea. 
Sc S91 Gilsf^ riftriMnftm, I. 6T9. -Kindred, r^Liftv, aad the intrana. 
vXit- (2 Pr. rirXn/s, TheoG. SS. :!8), oboice v;iiiyw and rii/io. 

fltt'Tfiiiu (r. r;!., Ti^ir^-), Is Aam, F. ■vii'vt A. Wpim, Pf. P. ■^«{ii- 
^uu or rirfHruu, A. P. Ufiic/n,. Pf. ir.-rlir^», Hipp.. F. Pf. mw^r^ 
fnu, Hdt. vi. 9, A. Tvfin Hn. Th.-e5G. Rp. 5>b|'. (u from r^f*) rlfrff- 
n (§ 181. ^) Ar. Lya. U48. Rare Ep. tryrm, wfiS-, L ^89. 

NoTK Hw epenthetk ^ of wSfirX^fu and ri|lrl^/u is eommotily ooutted, 
when tbese verbs, in ctHnpositlaD, m preceded b; ^ ; thus, i/irirXii/u, bnt 

i-»fl/H (r. ».^ rVi., ^ 62), to pal, F. S,)». Sea 1 A). 

^383. fi. Veiba In .rw. 

IfUfffH (r. i{., i{iT !(■{»>• S S96), tojB, Ep. {. 23, 1 A. !(«, 

S. ]«7, M. 380, V A. i;^af« ^ < 10, Soph. £1. 147 (| 194. 3), 3 Pf. liK 
tnuu., u PPeft, ffn^ N. OOO, also Att. £;■{>, Jicli. Prom. 60, H. Gr, iv. " 
7. 6, A. P. f(tnp n. ^11. Pf. P.ififtfimi, Ha. Op. 4-j9, Ap. Rb. 1.787. 
For ififoTm, lae ^ 253. 3. Deriv., ifin^ti (§ 279), i;rn> and ■;rfw, &c 

HApiriu, (j. $f-, ^((M.-, ^ 380. y), to tal (the Pro. ran), Pf. S>E(>» 
' (aeo i 338. •), Pf. P. SiC^^w. Ep, 2 A. !£;.•, Horn. Ap, 127. 2 Ft. Oi-L 
(r.a(»>-; or tram new Frea. fliCelVk) ^.tf^n i^ 3% F. Pf. $iif^t.,.M4, 
0. 203; Im. A. p. iif^hn Bdl. iii. I >; 1 late Ep. 1 A. K;.^ Ap. Kh. 
3. 271 j late F. ^(iIEi^iu. The defidenciefl of Ihia Tert> an aapplied by Mi^ 
{i S9B) and rfiira (^ 267. fl> 

yiTxiHH (r. yn-). to fcuw, F. yti*;Lmi, 3 A. I}nr (^ 57), Pf. %y^»*^, 
PC P. lytmtfiM., A. p. I}^r^n. 3 A. M. Opt. ny-yptm JEidx. Sup. 216, 
Ion. 1 A. it-iyiufA, pcrmadad, Hdt. i. 6B. 

Notb. The Ion. (not Horn.) end the later Greek aofteoed / yitm- and 
yl^ttfutj (§ 286) to ylrtiritit aiid ytitfLmt. 

),W» (r. 1.^ hUx; i.Uw,-), to (OK&, F. i,UiM, A. ll.'J.E-, Pf. lii'l-f, 
Pf. p. I.!.}«>.^,. A. P. li.!ij:/B„ Ep„ I A. SiJirKUM, Horn, Cer. HI, 
3 A. Oun, Ap. Bh. 3. i29, IOhi ($ 194. 3). From the r. Ix- are alM 
fbnned, nidi (he sense to bsni, the poet. F. )>n'r«u( ( j »£3>, y. IS7, ff. 
Miiiu, fi. 61, liUfl/is^ Xbeoc 8. 4, iilu, ;. 519 (hence tiUM^r. JIC, 

CO. 10.] BHPHATIC CHAHMfl. 23^- 

« 94S. 8), 9 A. P. CUnt, Sopb. EL IS9. B«Ke, QkewiH^ tba Ep. F. contr. 
(biro, k-b>, i VOU. if) M^ L 418. 

tlf^ru (t. >(m.), to ruM, nKd only In compaddon irith rtrl, t.i, at [£, 
F. ){«»,»•. I A. 13^^ i A. llfO (1 £7), Ff: li>(4u. Kindred, l^aruifw, 
L}«. 1 1 T. 3$, l(»niii, Hdl. tr. 79. 

lu^tinm (r. /•»-)> t" rcnmi', F. fin''». A. r^n», FT. P. f^i/,„^Mi (k* 
f Sf31. 0), 3 F. /»^wv»^ Cyr. fii. 1. U7, A. P. {fttirhn. A> lh«D i-i^x- 
uu and /tifitrnfimi. Imp. /ti^i» Hdt. T. lOS, Pt. »i^h^h( Archil. Fr. 1, 
Opt. PL 3 fUftmiMTi Fuid. Ft, '^77. Prim. Mid. /t>i>iuu, to rtmtmbtr (Ep. 
1. 106), to mw, vii. 3. IH. CoDU. ronus, fnirim, Orph. Hym. 77. G, /i>4 
Ai^Hi, Anur. Fr. 69. 

rirfirmi., and po«t. irifHi^ (r. nja-, r.ii- ^ EG! , rifHi- § 1178. I), to all, 
Pf- rii-fais, Pf. p. wiw(i/uu, S F. rirfiLjfuu, vIL 1. 36, commoaly ued 
As ttaa ni« rfaMrv" (AHi- ' 6U f). A. P. ir(J«». Ep., Put. hf. (nfi- 
»•) nc^fT ({ vi43. S) «. 454, A. Ixifdn 0. 4'J8, Pf. P. Pi. rivi^irfi'M 
9. .^S. His Fuk and Aiir. of thii verb ara supplied b; ainlkri^Hii Uid jn- 
l^m, mid. l«aKS of inOimfu. 

nr^H, (r. r;.-], (o n»w^ P- rf^», A. fr;«n, Pf. P. rUfM/tmi, A. P. 
IrfvAit. Kindred, rfim, Ep. f. £93, rifia^ to jwrcc, Ep. Horn. Marc US3, 
F. *-•;■'», lb. 17K, 1 A. iritmi', E. 3:i7, 3 A. It^>, A. 12^6 (tat rinm 
■Dd Tirifirw, m §§ 194. 3, 939. b), rfiiti, &r. Tbtaa. 986, nrfmint 


ririrmfv (r. n*-, ;^ 963. N., ST3. ■), lapf^art, Ep. *. 349, 9 A. n. 
«■■;> (§ 191. 3) •. 77, riruii^n.. A, 467. 

$386. y. OtbcrTcrtw. 

im^xV' ('• *«-. '"X-. i"»t- 4 897), to a#irt, Ep. ^. 432, F. immxi- 
*m. 1 A. imdx"*^ wmmonl/ li A. iIi>a;);H, Ft p. AMixif" '"^ ibijj^iu 
(P. 3 iinxilom § S^S. / . CoUat., ixf"' r. 129, and ixi^ttrnx. Soph. 
Ant. 697, totomw,- Prea. /><. ^ji;i« B. b91, ix'^" ^ ^^3- 

■y/yitfim (r. -ym-, ya. }§ I'S.iv, 277, yiyii., yij..- 5 261), *" bteomt, F. yi 
fii«V» (^ 2MS), a A. l7i»;»«>, Pf. y.yJ«,«* « Pf. yij-.« (see % 2:iB. .). 
F. P. ytttHtiuu, I A. tnni. Ij-mW/iai, / ttgat or tore. Inn. uid laU 
A. P. iyinAii, Hipp. For ]-i>Tt. »a ^ 185. 1; tor 1 Pf. Dor. ytyiuLia, 
^ S4e. U ( ftv U}>iy<£»«,, S '.245- 3 ; fbr >Jiv>~, $ 385. N, IDndred, yxi- 
ttftu, Ep. X. 477, ytrtim, -itK, la begfL 

XiXmU/tm (t. Xm-, XiXa., § 267), to doin tanuttly, Ep. N. 353, Pf. P. 
(ona X dropped, § 863. 6) XiiJafM, A. 465. The prim, kdi is lued b.v the 
Ooricai Theoo. I. 12. 

fiitM, and poet ^w, .Ach. Ag. 74, F. ^» See § 223. 2. Ep. derir. 
lu/ttiZm, B. 399. 

,*,. (r «r-. „,. § ^73. A ""-), *• M. ^- ""^" C^ «»■ 3), 

1 A. Irua, comotODly 9 A. I«n>. Pf. (nr-, m- 4 262, rrt- § 23H. u) 
ri'THa (we S 2:i3. a). Dor. 2 A. Inr», Find. 0. 7. )26 ; Ule Pf. <-)- 
irrnu, Anth. Poet, fbmu, rim,. Soph. (Ed. C. 1 754, and perhaps rmU 
(Eur. Pb. 993) and rirriv (Find. I. 3. 39). with which Boma connect ><-,<■ 
t*> B« 9 Aor. 

T.TJ-;™ (r. T{., «»(.<.. ^ 977). to io™, F. T-pfr., A. K(,.«, Pf. P. ri- 
T^MU. A. P. tfpiAi., A. M. ir.T(a^a.. F. nr{»i*, HJt. iU. I H, A. Wi. 
rfi" t. <47, A. P. Inrcdphr, AnOi. Lata <» doublAd, nrfin, nrtmi-, 

Ml UMc «r m wa> [mvko 

%. BntJLtK Arraxm. 

(j S87. The syllables which are most frequent 
ly affixed to prootact the root are a, «» of, w^ w, 
tax, and it- 

Bdcabks. (I.) When ■ ii iRIzmI. i In the pcMsiSng lyllaUa lunallj 
bacamv m ; but, wbcD i it affiiad. >. See rrf«fM ud rrfif !> (~^ 3.?!). >> 
(2.) Tit Tswel irhkb ia aiMMl b mwii freqiuntlr ntunad biAn the doM 

«. Addicion of •. 
fffx^v" ('• (>«•«■). *• ">». ^- «TO-"»™. A. ie;.:ew4M>, A. P. «^ 

X4fc>, SVt-, aa Ptm^ StCf'X*- Ktedred, 3^(i>, Uter S;»;c> (Blp(>-)> <> 
0iuiA iMt tmA, SmiL V ontowtopw *n ^Xnx'i^uu unl /Hrndt^m, ta Utat, 
•nd f.M«/uu, to iw, F. -wrr/xu, Ep. ^ Pr. />!/«>■, K. 36^ ^^^p9xl^, X. JM)k 
a A. I^M»«t n- 1«!9i W—i E- 749l 

ytiM (r. 7<-), Id t«i4 Bp. 11. «4, F. ytir^uu, 3 A. I}w, Z. JOO. lOd. 
y«Jiji«. «h(t Att.. 9ilph.(E&T. IE49. 

H^uf^ '- M>^'«». P«t. Urn rifiM (§ S9Z. 2), b iffifrffinfti Aba Bp. Ii»(£ 
M^«n A. 6:).^. 

rlrjpai, poet. wirt^Mi, Find. p. R. I9S, end nnj^wi, B. 46S, .XadL SepL 
84, lUer's'm^iB, Ear. l[Ji. A. I60B (r.Tir., nn., <■«■., vn- { S6I,Tt». 
$ S83. o), (d ;^, E. ririMttm, caamonly m^*^^ ! A. I«k>, S A. H. 
tnii^iii, omnmonlj' U-n^w (4 S6I), PC I'. vi^JtvuXi A- P. lirmMih 
F. •wlrip«, HoKb. 8. III. Otiur coDak Soma, nrf^uu, T. 357, c«^- 
fMf, M. 987, wmttfmt, Hdt. OL 1 U. 

$988. #. Addition {f>. 

^■•pw, tod poet. iJtfiMi, JtaA. 
T. altutuu, A. M. ituifw, PC p>f/i 
«!}, A. R j)i>/iir. 

<«, •. 478^ and Awn I. 5 (r. i-, it-), to tmOt, Mow, Ep.; /n^. U», 
I»f. iirmh PI. iiic Pus. <<VMU, ;. 131. Darir., <I^ O. ■iS-J, Hid iM^ 
n. 46S, to im^Ai mij, citwv. Kindred, A. iirm, to inatki: en Jaf, to j^oqi, 
9^ lj[,oontr. in, r. SST. 

ya^ia [r. y^f-), to ■urry, uid of Ibe man, P. yafiS, A. tyn/ta, Ft. ytyi- 
t^nMH, lY. P. ytyiftufaMi, Hid. ^/lijpai. A? vuuTj/, Said of Che wranui, 
F. ym/t^/iMi, A. lyn^^m. laU F. ya^cv, A. i)'ii>«'K, A. P. lya/ia/ii 
(ymfulun Theoc. B. 9I> Ep. F. H. ymiturt,^, mil pnmde a mifi fir, 

ilZi, ts (fovb, oHuir, poet, and Ion. 11. 719, ICd. iiZt"^ nMnmanlj 
l.';.^! (^ 2.i4, 3 ; r. K-. >■{'■). * «*, TIiboc. 85. 37, 1. 100, Hdt i. 95, 
V. i,ii.^^, A. Mt.i^n>. 

}.<» Cr. !»-), to wa, la Oimi, F. U£«, A. P^, Pf. P. til>y>MM. A. P. 
Sixh.- i-M. and [«!., V. 1«m'», a. JU...... Pf. >•)».»., Pf. P. Ufaayw 

A. P. iimh,. Impen. J»u-, >( aeou, F. tifb, &a. 

la v tiAJfiai and iwi^\ifim (r. ^x-, ^ult-), to tale tare ^ F> Xwi/utim 
•4, PL P. iw,lufiiXi/Lm, A. P. IrifulLUnt. /~ T, 

■n^^ to mmJ, t> crari, psM, K jiwrtm. I A. IwrAnnti 9 Jl- Im« 

■ i>X/>l« and «>>ji)», to roO, ¥. (nuxitt^^ § SS) ulfnx, A. UiXrm 
PC F. mt^^irfou, A. P. biiAiri^. !.«» F. ukaMfab Ku« PlW. uliis 
Ar. ynp. -iOS. Kiadradi »»1wM.>mi, to &• iMM «, Cyr. L. 4. 5, UuMi, er 

iX'.ii-', A. iuni, Ar. Nab. 3'2, Pf. i?U», lb. 3S. 

Mi(ii and uiflii, til nHit vi'M, tp cAmo, chiefly poat ud Ion. Eur. Hipp. 
746, Hed. s:), F. •■(» (^ 5G. M),S*pta. <BiLC. S115, Mdairi'*'' ^^- ^^"^ 
S£3, A. [i>i.;«, r. -JS, ud i»Ptnt^ Hdl. L SI, PC h.^h. PT. P. .i.i:;.- ' 

•Hrii/w(r.»r.>tDaHfC loD-ud FOM. »dt it. 37, F. «;fM,p«. A.iri. 
f^^ A. 4««, Sopb. Aat. 90^^ Pine, nrii^w fl. 64e. 

«fA> (K m(#., riff. ^ n», »{>■■), to 1^ Ha*, F. «ii^«, PL n^if 
fcjH, Ac. PoBt. wif/a, F. <Tjf«i, Soph. Ph. 1 1 4, I A. irifn, a. U^ f^. S A. 
Ivtuln (^ £63), A. 3fi7. Fiw wiftm. att i 846. ^ 

/;m and ^rria (r. ^f ^ firr. § 273), *i Aim, ¥. fl^ A. ^H^ PC 
lUif ., Pf. P. ^luM>~, 1 A. r. iffiftm^ 3 A. r. W^fiw For ^^mr—, Me 
j 249. rf. Dcriv. ^r«i;«. 

eolr '■•«4. or »..ri^» (r. m*-), F. ni-^i^a, A. U«. 
» r. Pf. U.^V-'THu. ^' Kep. 393 e. 

Mk (r. A-}, to jmA F. J~, ind poet. Mr«, A. I.« (« )B9. 9), FT P. 
Ih/hi, a. p. Urm*. LUn Pf. UmiL, Bat. ; Efi. wid lofu, A. Jn, A. £30 
(«(>Mfc for ■^■^»(, Anth.), FT. P. itftm.. HdL v. 68; Ar-Mt Elfp. 
Vtrir. HT^^wi, to >»<&, At. Agh. 43. 

^ 3 8 0. b. Aliiiino)) ov «» 

Ebhabxs. (1.) Roots which Tec«ne >» without fuither 
change are mostly double cotuonant. (3.) Mute roots receiv- 
•ng or eoDMHrnZy intert > before the charar.leriitie, (3. ) Boots 
which do not insert r sometimes prolong St to aiv or or. 

mtMii/imi, «ad Wtoifr iJfVw («. mlrt-, aJWUt-', to jipafcKy F. mMirfHn 
i« «2. J), S A. H»«. l* P- H"'-^ 

AAfii» (r. iXf.), te Jad, poet. Eur. H«d. 298, 9 A. Jxfir 9. TK 
i^frtit {r. Ifuifr.), tutrr, to mbi, F. tftm^rifftMi, 3 A. Sit^fnt, Pf, 

If^Tfl.^ Pf. P. i/^fnM', A. P. V-H*"'- *■■ *^fW'-. Hipp.. 1 A. 

i^^ip.-. Orjb. Arg.646. Ep- a A. (4|-,(»,i««^ 5 -JSM, i^(«-^ ^^ 13. *} 

SS, 61. s) t/,Sf,T„, £.287 (J^ui;/ A. 491). Heoca (^dKinMd,(£ irliji. 

■^ $ S96J i^»-<iC-, only in A. Sutj. Ut«4f,^ S. S5. 

^limiw, md poet. fiXiurim (i. ^Ah*^), to tpmit. to h^, F. ^JMHitro, 

aA.Wanw«.,.Pf.lfli^mf a tao; ftop.lgrft.wWiw'ni.Ui.M). 1 A; 
KAifTwni, Ap. Bb. t. 1131. 

2M looT ^ not fnm. [book n 

Pf. 1^imthmm, V A. F. poM. OifAir. :^ S A. Ilf.A. S. SW, S A. P. Uf^ 
/^^i.471 (§368). 

;fX>f«<iw (r. ifX-, ifJUni- § 996}, In mev, F. If AiU-, 1 A. OfXtrm 
vemmaBlj i A. JfJL«, PC ifXna. Im. Inp£ or 8 A. jfi,u (§ 943. 4] 
Hdt. viU. VS. Su ifiillo (S 96S). 

^ 99*. ^ WtthtbtAMTtlinof •(MeiS4). 

Uiiw (r. ■! , i-T-li»-), O pl-m, post, and Ion. B. 114, Soph. AnL S04 
F, M», HdtT. 39, 8 A. »••,». t.1Sl,aii^. !!-,«<!., UPC U1-,L ITS 
(I<il<h Tbsoc irr. 9S i I Pt JOua. HtrpoB-)- >^ (bt ■ogm., an § 189. 9. 
Kiodred, |l>i, to fit— , ooniinniily XitftMi, ta h pfaoasd, F. irMn^ias -^ If'n 
(A. H. I»» .. S£3J. 

Iftyj^Hi (r, l{>iy-)> *■ * 'yrg ' - ' ^ Mt"- 1°°- 'f*'}"F~' (}■ B^'> 
F. ifOittmi, Pf. IpiTF-, Hijip. 

Btrr*^ {r. 9^). to toml, F. ^-Ivuh, 9 A. Ui^m. Lat (dusb. 

«r;tS«. or iiirx*» {•■■ <"X-i> •" .*^ P™'' *"• AJ^ *■"• ^' '^X^'/"^ 
So^ CBd. C. MHT, 8 A. tmlx'^ £«• Ale. 88. Ep. alxi^, P- 673, and 
i>i;eU>hM4 (Wd. Pt. »;e^H<, E. 187), P. ixi*m, Ap. Bb. 4. I48U, 
8 A. <ftini r. «;ci.. 01 P«fc wUh lain oT Act.) IJx-. '■ 319. «•*■ (•^'^ 
UX^ () 843. b), A. 96, Ac. I A. IL iMixirif^h ^ 38S- 

iy bt, F. Xii{.^w, U A. Ixa;t;», Pf. iTxict;- (S l^'- ■™t ^iiL^J);>. PC P' 
■TXiiyMi, A. P. Uiix'»>- Ion. F. ;ii{i,K>., Hdt. vii. 144. For ^ Aor. SuA/. 
X>;L<iXi>^ omuliTii, BW S 1 94. 3. 

;iB>tMH> (t. ;l>C., ;liiC^ ]l>i«C-)< to laii, F. xi-J-t/M. 2 A. IXmSk, 
FT. iTxvfa (f 191. 1), Pf. P. irXri^wHi, and poeL xUnw™. ^ur. Iph. A.363, 
A. P. UiifAn. loun F. kifft^'fiiii, Hdt. L 199, Pf- P. %U<i>i/tw, Ui. IIT, 
A. P. ixdftttw, iL S9, Pf. A. xii>e*>> ($ 8912), IT. 79. For Xti^irtm^ iM 
S 194. 3. Poet, forma, k^^./^ uid iiiZ''/'^ ^ 3^~> Ar. LyB. ^U9. 

Xb>/i(m>, and nmMiam i<i<<i (r. ;ui/^ Xn/-), to Jit Aid, to acape militt, 
F. Xan>, I A. Ixvra, oommoolr S A. UaA>, 3 Pf. lix*^ Hid. >i»/»uuj 
•nd \HiM, to />^ F. Xwi^i, 9 A. \XMlifiin, Pf. J-iXni-jim, F. Pf. i.txi. 
n^Hi, Ear. AIo. 198. Bp. PC P. :m«^., E. fl34, late 1 A. M rxW^-t 
Qnint. 3. 99, Dw. A. P. JXiWai, Theaa. 8. 46. For Xi*«^ &0., jwa § 194. 3 
CuHat U-Air/iw. » 931. 

&ii» (t. Xiv-, >,ii*--), to ban, and KHnatiDiet Id compoaiti<»i tjftwAtm, Th 
Tiii. n.¥.X>h^m,&<i. {'131). Late I A. IXu-^.. 

fuiMm (r. ^-X to ham, F. fuMn^w ($ 9^3). 3 A. IfiMttt, PC fo/U^- 
■B. For ^laAi^ui, Me $ 800. y. 

naiinitxi, and poet. sivA^isi .Alsdi. Ag;. S 
Wfiu^, F. riwt^MH {mrtJrtiu Much. Pr. 9S8, J 
lY. vwiir/uu. Ep. 9 A. 0/X. nriMin (J 194. 3), Z. 50. ' 

f (^;C'*~ C'- '";£-■ "•«-)■ *" *«»™- *" ''''™. to «(. F. r.iCv-'- 9 A. loh 
;(.N Ff. «rj;c**" C; ^^^)' "^r '>">:(;>. -^'l'- ^H' «■ Fp- ' A. irilxw-< 
A. lOfi. 8ee™;(«(^ 970). 

S>liiH> (r. x'^-< xa>>-i ;E»1- 4 939}, to nnton, poet. Ar. Baa. 86C^ 
iotr^yw, i 58) X*inF«, <. IT, S A. Ixaln^ A. 94, 8 Pf mtx'^ 
T. 9«8. 

OB. 10.] lltFKATIC 

ixiMlH, (r. ii.i-). Id mnrish, poeL JEatii. Pr. fin, S A. iIxhiMi, r. TO. AIM 
£>.)■'», to imrfti, to gtmr, ¥. 599, late A. iter. i>.'>i""u Orph. lilh. S64. 

iXirmlf. or ■Aii^s^HL (r. i;^^.), to im, poet, H«a. Op. 3^9, fi-iS, I A. 
/X.Vr»«, Orph. Arg. 647, 2 A. t>..'«. L m75, Pf. P. Ft. i).,n^i:i ). 8Q7. 

«1w aod »%>.'» (r. .Jl-, .i7>- J ^88), to nccl^ F. ^lirK, A. firn^ Pf. ^ . 
». Al» tiTaMi, tniUn I- 354. 

iXjilitM uul it^ilmi— (r. ;!.#/-), to i/iii, to ifgi, F. il.rMr*. 9 A. lijitn.- 
I A. ^X.V/*» ud PT. •iX.Wii.., Hipp. Also iiA,ti\M, Ath. 2^6 i. 

W^'»f>~. ™«ly if<^/-<, Alh. 299 « (p. i,f(^ irff- £ 387), to »»a, 
F. i rf pi"^ " , 3 A. •»f^«>, A. P. mffMm. Ion. ! A. wf;i^>, Hdt. 
L SO, lata I A. irff»rm^m. 

So, «In, .-.iw tS »9S), -xi- (i 290). 

$ 399. a At>t>num or ». 

JlV>t. (ra- ^i>f>), fa Wnp ifi (r. ^*.), F. ^m, A. Kr«, I¥. P. SfCit/HH. 
AUo Pass. pi',/imi, Hdt. ii. 96. 

Inii^ui, and poet. '/■jw (r. lM;lmMf- 4 391). to coiiu, F. T^ipai, 8 A. 'rsi- 
^ip, Pf. 'r^u. Ep. ^u, K. 142. For Tmrt and ^ii. He § 1H5. 1, i. 

unit, (r. iv). loU-, F. ■nJnvHi, A. I«I». The oinnp. r{i>i»ii>, to 
Kon&fi, is regular : F. v^istwn, A. VfnaH^r*, and poet, rftinllrm, Ai. 
Eq. 156. 

i^X-i-^ (>■■ 'X-. ''XO. to p™!*. P- Jwx'f'.^ (S 922). 2 A. 4«. 
>XV>«>, Pf. rrir;^ii^wi, rata A. P. rrux''*": PI Fhcdr. S3S d. Poet, and 
Ton. iwit);iuu JBKih. £um. 804, Hdt. vii. 104. Sea Ix" (^ 900). 

§ 303. d. Additioh or n. 

(1.) If a, >, or a precede, the » is doubled, o becomiDg w. 
(2.) If X precede, the * becomes I. (3.) A liagwd or liquid 
preceded by a. diphthong is dropped before yv. 

M. To Pure Roots. 

Intfu (r. Fi., [- i 23. 1), tocMk^ poet., chiefl}' Ep., F. Ir» (§ 71). •. 337, 

A. Irn, E. 905, PC P. il^ and Irxai, r. 72, Hdt. i. 47. Prose rorm, i^ 

fanSiu, F. i/^in, i/^i£ (^ ^00. ^), iftfltrm (^ 1 91f. 3), Pf- P- il^i'ir/MU. 

W, Hn-u'HW Y. 135, Uh<'.i»«u Hdt. ir. 64. 

^S»F^ (r. (•■), to fint F. ^., A. !{.», Ft P. If«r/<». Lat« Pf. 
(C«>, Anlh. 

Mfif,S^(t. IM., ifM. $!61, ufM. ^^ U9,8TB. 1), HxMr, F. lu^ni, 
~ ' ' ' ~ (■«Shi a. 1641, Pf. P. Muitnt/Hu, Ath. £76 a, 
A. P. " ■■ ■ 

B4J, and luft^a, nut. IV. S)i. 

Mfitti/ti (r. lUfi-), to i.^i<ito, F. ■^im, A. !••;■», Pf. P. MtMifUftmi, 
A. P. U^^r/n. Ep., F. »(ui (i 245. 3), &. 379, 2 PC inlraiis. ■inifuf 
(§ 85^ I ), '• 372 ; Luk PC F. »«i(iyiM ^ SH7. Tba vert> n^ix, to ssMp^ 

SM BOOT OP THE vsM. [bmk ir 

^JUa, A. P. liiti^i§im, IM. ^Ipl^i (Act. A. Mffiirm Ath. !j d), uia 
pent. mfi^wi^M. (^ UT8, 1), Ar. Nub. ^TT, *• Aoj. F. ^u>*rr»>- Alas m^. 
fii/iMi, Horn. Bu. ;{9, II. ■•iv«(, I^J. F- *■ ^ >, iMe meiftii- 

wtrmnB/ti (l. nn-), Id ipraHl, In upnad; F. rITirm, «». A. Ivirlrs 

TT. P. •-irT«^(j 961}. A. M«r<j.^. !«■. Tf. P. »*!»>,»», Bdt 
L 6?, Ep., w!mfu, >.. n9% ■'.>», Hfs. Se. 39] Gottl. ; late rt'im. 

f^e^ [r. f..\ t, •trayOB, P. fi,^, A. ly««, K. P. IW«^, A. P. l^U- 

fCinO^ (r. .'£.-), to crtD^wit, F. ,««•, I A. 1rC<n, A. P. IrCt^Af. 
V^ .n.>«^«u, M bt atimgmlud, to po oart, P. rSJriyHu, 8 A. Act. (((■• 
<1 HT}, Pt An. bCinui. 

fdUnCfu (t. fjnila-), to ttaUa; F. ».»rk, hOE, A. InOi^a, Ff. P. 
Uiiilar/.a>, A. P. IrxliiWw. CoIUt romia, dsldlj pnet., ■■}>», Ap. Eh. 
4. 500, ^OmU,^, lA. t. EiS, aiMn«^ Antfa^ A. i^Utr^ E. 88 ; nilfiMH 
(i§ 9J9, STS. 1), Bat. Th. BTS, Th. vL 98, luinfu, HdL viL 140^ Eol. 

^ 994. iS. To PihMl SoDtt. 

lyrii^ (r. -.T..), to tfK4. P. 2(-, A.I.E. (^ 1S9. SI, SPf. intnni.7,£)«. 
to k iratm, 9 A. P. \iy», {KtL m. Ep. comm. <). Ion., A. I|«' ▼• 39S, 
SPf.Iir}*, Hdt. lU. tfM, It*, Hipp.; Up. A. Opt. (jurn.F'Vn, a-F 
pi{u(, }§ 2S. 1, 18, V) HMf^Mi Hu. Op. ee^. In Ibe comp. »«!y.Df« 
Uie I of tbo AD^m. 'a HHiiBtimes found out of the Tnd, ; aa, A. Pari, jifli-i«{jhf 
l4«. too. 5. 

iulyi. and it^y^B/u (r. it)-), to 491M, Impf. l>(f>>*r (^ IHS. S), TI. 9St, 
V. S. ^0, and IiHir htiyn, ft Gr. 1. 1 . B (ion. ibf>'». H. !«■), F. Cn^ii, 
A. i'iri'. u>tl luer ;».{>, Pf. .l.;.;t;>, Pf. p. iMt-jyuH. A. p. i,twxf^', and 
later Sin-xf<i'i Acts, I!<. 10. S Pf. Iti^^, to-noittf n^a, Hipp. The Bimpte 
•!)« HmI Jyvl/u m poet, fsch. Pr. 611, F. •:£«, A. ^ n. 457, i^, 

).;..ii^ (r. I....), to <Ao». F. )..-&>. See 1 53, loo. (r. 1...) »{«, »i^ 
£c.. Hilt Ui. I'JS. Mid. Ii.'a.D^a., Ep. to gnet. I. I<»6, PT. !■%}./.« 
( ^ 4T. N.), II. 72. Tlie primaiT SMue of Jiiaiu^i ia to ifrrfcA oaif tiie haml, 
and kindred verba mH^ifHu (Ion. li>i^, Hdt.vii. 177, i S9. I.X to ncraa 
F- iil^fuu, A. Ilil^/in, Pf. !»•)-,», V. Pf. hKEv"< (!<«' »•}?«•. Ac>. se* 
f 185. )), and the poet. WirK^tm, tuHniim; Jnmaa, Ox^iim,. 

t'^ytH/M (r. );}<., u(Y- 4 '^68), to lAiif la, to cuttffne, F. iT^Ein and I(^ 
A. ■![?■, /"'.rt. iT(E«l »nd Jjjat, Pf. P. ilty^., A. P. i^jc*!... Thb TWb ap- 
pears to have bien eri^Itillj' the taine Witb i!l(ym, to ^mt ant, and the 1^ 
(inclion wbich afterward* arose, and which vaa miiriied by Ibe diSbreoca of 

In*. -&>. Hdt. iiL48, 0. 3IU <Ep. lifr-< ^ ^'^9. "^ Ifyt^ « •^{^w/u. 

Hdt. X ee, jv. 69. 

tilly.*^ (r. t^., ^^. 5 9T0>, to j™*., F. :.^ A. !?»(., «. P. I{„^ 
,«,. I A. P. Vi'ixf'; 2 A. P. Ipy,,. 

ftiyttiu (r. /H^-), to »uiirf(i to sic, F. ^^, A. I^iifii, Pf. P. pifuy/ttu, 
9 P. K'f^tt^. 'CKh. Pen. I05£, 1 A. P. i^-X^ * ^- ^- *^<V^ T^ 
iMtt tbmfurym \i !tln) is dwsyiamlin tl«IVe*.aid ImfC bf Oam. and 
Bdt. Fiv IfuHi, &C., sei 4 185. 1. 

. •4)»«i>iCT-'«-r^«>r-S*«)>«»y<>Mt,4>;it,-p.w«k,X4««K«K 

08.40.] SMnuTK nuims. VM' 

Mm*., M PKi., tritnym, I A. P. liri;;(fit, Commatdr 9 A. P. trtyn- "Ep 
S A.1L S.3 IriBti (§ ISS. 1} A. ITS. For •»)>*»«, «eo § I'J6. 4. l^ta 

tiyttfu (t. /.r-, |J.y-). fe *™*. F. ^^, A, f>«^ 9 Pf. htnoi. ly.,. 
(5«36.S), BA.P. ir/iyii. Ep.. ^rf«», S. STl, Pf. P. I^^y^. 9. 137; 
loo. I A. P. Iffnx''^ Hipp. Kindrad, ^m> 4ad ifirwti, .£■, (d »U<. 

t(imi, and nnlj frdyrifu, Tb. vO. 7« (r. ffo)-., fruv. § V74), « Jbw^ 
F. f;^, A. tft^ "• P- *i^YI^> A. P. If^;ty*'- I-*^ K A. P. 

<j39ff. y. To Ungual and UqaEd RtwU. 

tuW^ (r. lair-, iw), — fflalam, m f»ut, feet. ¥. 29, F. Uirm, ibcL 
Earn. 30i. A. !!-«, A. P. i).;w*i. Fcr Opt. Wrii^ (as j t-iC. 4. 

MalriiiMi It. iial-, j»i)- $ 9^7), fo onf, fat. y. ?fla, FT. ulsur^iai, &r. 
XL 616, /% juMTjiJw A. 339, aod ■aul^iiu, Pind. O. I. 4U. 

Mi^ aid lUar anMi^ or mrlirt/u (t. m., mrnt. 4 4TS, (ri<- 5 959^ 
■T».4 aea, »<«>- S :25a. b, *«-■•.-), m iAijf, iSaaHrJn cuBpiMhionwithivJ 
OT u*J, P. ■nwt ' -^ I>Ti<», poet. X A. (>t<iw 8ovh. AaL tS40 (■!» in 
Xen, who w«i partial to pueL forma, hr. fl, Sj), and poM. I.t«. (§ Mil. E.), 
Suph. Tr. an, 3 Pf. larw, I P£, Inn claadc, Unu or I(»y..) tuid Ut^- 
njM, a A. H. poet. Uri^n; £Kh. Pan. 9WS. Ep., F. iira>», Z. 409, 
1 A. P. UrVw, t. 597 i late h^iir^if', Anlb. For tlie paaiiiTB of Knltm, 
ttu Atdc «Titen employ »n,»m {i 3Sl ). 

ti.>LCfu (r. Sx^ jlL..*.)' <° I'af'W) F. ixirn (§ SiS. >}, eommonlj l3,£, 
A. Aim, I Pf IXiiLiMM, 2 Pf. intrana. Ik^Xm, ? A. H. ^iIXf/M.. Pnet b.i- 
)»., A. 1<^ Soph. Ant. 1-^B6 ; Impf. iter. Jxi>ini> (or Uim„, u from Jxu.) 
T. 135. 

&l«^ (r. If^), » ■HOT, F. I^^l, A. A^HT. (S S32. S), Ft J^/WM 

(4 191. «), rtf.ifmipw^M. and W,B^^ ($«.:l..), A. P. .i;.UfAi> and 
i,Mv Pna. A. ^wm, Hdt. L 153 ; ht« P. iputK, AiUh. 

ifLi(yfl/u (V?*-). to "^ "Jf. po*- E. 41S, F. W;E^ A. Sfuf^ Eor. 
Or. al9. A. P. ^>^,;(;/b., Ar. V«p. 5<iO, A. M. i/^iifi^ 3. Iii4. CWlat 
Jf u f^jt*^ Hoffl. Hn«. 361, late /tifyti^ 

ifi^M, to MHick ««, aad Ep. iehfr>', A. 951. F. It^. A. ^f., A. P. 
iifi%lm; PI. P. lifirjMU, Hi|>p., i(Afiyim4, IL B»4. 

•(■f/ii (r. If.), to roue, F. /[« (^ 56. fl\ A. S(ra, 2 Pf. Intrana., aa Prea., 
IfKfm. Ep., F. H. if^fuu, r. L4(^ :{ A. J;.;» (« 194. S], 3 A.M. >;>^», 
H. 3T9 (me ^ lfl5. 1, ■) : tnrn r. If,., ImpT. tfii^^it, B. »9«, Pf. P. i^;i. 
^« (4 T9I. !), r. S''?, Sukf. tf^rmi H. «71. Kindred, chieBj poeL, tp. 
/uu, ifirti, i^iftHi, ifiim- Lat. orinr, 

«-i{i»ftaj (t. irn;.), IB nan, S A. Inv^M. S A. P. ft. irraftif, Bi[^ 

wri^fu, rTfinlm, and n-fvtiDiu (r. >*^-, rr^i. £ gHB, rr^. $ '.'6!), 
fo ifrm, F. rr^ aod rrfim, A. Ivr^va and Ur^rm, Pf. P. Irrfo/iav 
A. P. !»{.»*. ^Im^;.^.^ Hipp.). 

^ 990. •, Anrantw or »«. 


inflnw (t.if^ivmf.),li>dieiife.^X.a\-', T. infirm, A. drdft 
rm, Uddi.' Af. 376, eommonlj S A. 4awfn, {. S79. 

yiT'into md ytyMtiritM (r. ysi-, yi^-w- f 9BS, ytymtt. h BBS, yifvMn-) 
*1 eaU abad, F, fly^nwt,, A. iyiy^nrm, 2 Pf., ■« Pna., yiyma^ Sidj. ytyii- 
,K, 7i>v>. yi^KH {i SaS), &C. Ep. Imp. or 3 A. iyi7»» (or K. yiymm) 
S. 46<i. See § 2K. N. 

Irakf.'rsifuu (r. Bvf-, ts fi(), (s pet of, ti rsadl. Id Bijcf, poet, imd loB 
K. 13 \. ¥. ir,tfi,,fuu, S A. ln^«, A. 572, 2 A. U. Ini^wr. Ear. Hd 
4A<I, I A. U. irmi-(i/m, Hipp. Alan ivaufiViiii, Tbeog. U I , utd iTsi>^, 
Hea. Op. 4J 7. Fnmi the Bsme root, nivniuii* ($ 1!(<T. s), tn pet fioai, (o 
(rui( amy,' poet. A. 430, 1 A. H. mntfi/tn, £<ich. Pr. 38 ; luiJ fi-om the 
kindred .if. (§ SS), E(^ Aor. PI. inifmi A. 356', iv-t^tUi-i, He). Sc ITS. 
■;^n. (r. ii(-). >- fi^ F. iSfi™ (5 M8. 9), K A. iJfn or vift 

(j leu. N.), pr. lifDH, Pr. P. >S;iv«u, a. p. ><>;»»• (j 319), s A. H. 
tJp^, and tm Att. I A. H. tffif/n>. 

frift« end m^'tr%M (r. mf-), Jo depriee, F. #n^r#^ A. Irn^ra, FT Irrf- 
(KM, Ft p. Irrifti/tu., 1 A. P. irnfii<*>. poet. 3 A. P. i*!. rrifiw Eii{. BoL 
9J. Hid. niiitmi, lo tnamt, ?., dial u Put., (njn'riaiH (Jn^in^'fA 
Andoo. 19. S5). S^ 1 A. IrrifiH, w. SG8. 

^ 397. t ADDmoR OF if. 

l/.r*' (r. 1/-). k oenKoH, F. U!,^ ^ (5 200. 0), FT. iMu (S 189. S) 
Ac; S PT., u Pne. iutniu., .Wi (5 236. >:). Ep. Prea. Pt. intniu. I/m 
L 54a 

IXr-l- (r. Fa*--), to topt, F. Ur.'rii, .i^ &«. ; Ep. I;k«H, M pne Aope, jS. 91, 
txrvuu or iiXwif^, and 2 Pf. I.x« ($ 191. 3), M Ve, H. 199, K. 105, 
T. 1 8C, 3 Plup. UAnt (S 189. 5), T. 3:^8. 

siHCt. (r. ■«■;.), tv rup, Ep. B. 466, A. Ut»<;>ir<c, B. 334. 

•nt^Z" (r- «•(■)> <° fimuh, F. rffiVa, .if, FT. wirif.Mm, Ac Poet., 8 A. 
fv^fn. Soph. Okt. T. 93t (mo J 194.9), Pf. P. riafvm (( :!33), t( it /iKw^ 
3. 339, Pi. wtrft^uH, Sofii. Act. I33T, Hem. U. 1. 33. 

^ SVBi g. Additiom or Othib Stuablbb. 

im |r. >., ill.], to k uh< to latHtte, Ep„ F. 'ilfo, A. flin, A. In, 
£. 289, and Onn (OpC, illij.i,i. or '«},i,uit ■. I34X Pf- PU •!»x«w, K. 98, 
F. H. 'StfiMi, n. T I 7, A. H. 'gm4m T. da7. The F. iii, and commoniv 
the A. trm are tram., the other forrni intrang. For Prh. Svbj. (u^i>, J/iii) 
%ifHt (also writtea U^it, as If IVom U») T. 403, Bee§24^. a; fiir /•/. 
Vi>.., see § 250. • : for Frea. Mid. faru, eee $ ^4:!. 1. Deciv. •It.i.fau, 
'Theoc. ■25. 240. A. P. iiHn Hdt. iii. 4 1 . 

la^a^o (r. U/..), to nUM, F. l.^», A. D^^n, 1 A. P. OmfU^h', 
and poet. iV<i'« (I 223), ii. 99, Eur. Ale 1 27, « A. P. poet. l!if«.. Ear. 
Med. N47. Ep. Free, and perhape Fut. (| 2'K>. a) U/uk, A. 61, Z. 368, 
Pf. P. iii^nfuu, E. 8TS, F. PC lil^iin^ui Horn. Ap. 54.'}. CoUst. poet, 
fbrms, Ibjhisb, k. SSI, )■/.«■/.. K 893, .fwh. Pr. 164, Is^Xi'^i.. Find. P, 
S. 1 63. Lit. sbno. 

r;L><. (r. U-, U>K,), to dmv. F. ri.£. (U.^r., Hipp.), A. lUaJn 
(; tR9. 3; >;X{>, Orph. A^. £60), Pf, iI^L.e.., Ff. F. iTJUwihx, A. P. 
■;xaJfAn. Ep. iXsMi, F. 395, Umfni, ilacit, X. 530. * 

((««U (i. It-), to aai, F. I{...4.* tud tfifnwti (§ S3S), A. ■{.(«•«, 


Ft. i(^wxm, Tt P. if^rafuH, A. P. if^rihir, 9 A. M. ififuit. Ep. and 
Ion., ilf/HU A. SSa, UdU 10. €4 (tlfii/ Ib^ S S4S. 4), F. (.'{in^iul. 61 ; 
■I'^H-ifH, -i«, ). 347, HdL ir. 145 ; l(ii>, H. ISS; l;i>;» Z. 145. 

l»/;-, ■ndpoet.Irf-,'n.413, Jioh. Ag. 1S9'', or H-, i. S41, Eur. CjrcL 
S45 (r. I)-, iW- ^^ ^BS, 53, irf,-), to tat, P. n./»i (§ 200. b), Pf. lS>i7.j» 
(M^e.ei Pf. P. P«w^, (S 222. .), PL Hiedo, 110 e, A. P ««*«.- 
S A. Ip<r.> (r. f.}.., S .Wl). Ute F. fiy./^ (S 247. d). Ep. 2 Pf. t>*3i., 
P. .'>4», P£. P. ilnl^iw (§ £36. c). 

fj^^, Soph. Aj. 459, lz*''t- ^^'- ^^'^ I^9< ^^ 'x'^»> ^S*"- !>■ S 
(t, tx^-), to hatt, chiefl; poet., F. Ij^'a^. A. H^inf^. 

f>V>-i (»-, m-). to KDnt, Ion. ud poeC, ^.r.,, &e. (iKe ^ 51), f. 378 
r. itirf'", A. iHti^a, P. 173, sod .!.if^><., P. 35, A. P. i,Uh,, Hdt- il 
136. Daiv., »uli';«, and poet. ■»'»>, .£Bch. Sup II. 

rixrlai, Ep. ni'sH (r. nit.'), to comb, ihear, poet., Ar. Av. 714, r. 316, 
P. niS (^ 245. 3) Th«oc 5. 98, A. lri{<, l<ri£i^.<., S. 1 76, A. P. l«'i;t;^>. 
At. Nab. 1356. 

f».iym, and poet fktyi4K, Soph. It. 99, to ftw^ P. fxi£v, A. If;iiE«, 
A. P. if\lxhf Late 2 A. P. lfXt}^>, Anth. 

<§ 900. RsiuBE. A few verba obtain ■ 2 Aor. with ■ aliart penult 
(f 355. 1), UiTon^ an extanNon of tlie root ; aa, Juinv, to purtitt, UivjuUin, 
Ar. Tesp. 13ai, PL Gorg. 4H3 sj iTsi., to yutU, iTit/ii, Soph. (Ed. T. 651 ; 
■^fya, toexcbult, Cfyitn, Soph. <Ed. C. R6V (I;ylf», A. 4fi7, li;}4/«, 
E. H7), ilfyiiiit*,, Madi. Enm. 566 j a^'w. to nwd o^, ii^t>4/n, Ar. 
Nub. 1323, iftStififinr, ^ach. Eum. 4.SS ; >.'■, to jn^ ^t<-t>N<» A. 53 ; 
tf;kai/t.|5 S73. S),trj^i/«(S 300). Cf. Iffita {^ 378). These extended 
Aorixts, which are chiefly poet., an r^arded by some ae Imperfects, and are 
commonly k> accented. 

$300. 3. Exchange of LETTEns. 

In the two following verbs, a passes into i aspirated {§ 50). 

Im (t. tr., l«-), to be ocrupUd loitk, Impf, iJ^.r (5 189. 3), F. W«, S A. 
Irrtf. Sub}. rrZ, && Mid. Irtf^a.. to fiHina, Tmpf. li'n^K, F. 7<^./»<, 2 A. 
If^i/^uw, StJ^. rrH/Aut, Slc Poet. I'va^ai, 3. H^6, Impf. {conaidered by some 
8 A.) irriftn, r. 339. A. P. »;..i^ni, UdLvi. 15. The act. I«k icarcely 
occura except in compoaitioo. 

IX" and Ux- {I. fx-, ix-. *X- ^ =63, Ir^- ^5 383, c. 2S3), to An«, to 
tuAi (in tbe flense to Aoev, the forma Ix^ and f^ are preferred ; in the sense 
takold, '«;(•. and r;(a»), ImpT. i^x" 'nAJrx"- ^- 'I" "'^ 'X""" (S ^^^)i 
3 A. i.x". *"*/■ ■%* (caimp. i^irx- " '«';«"■ r- 'x- « •:«"-). 0>^- 'j;-'-!' 
($ 30.5. a), /np. «;t:if (ir;^.. S SflS j compare »», t,, % 210. V), and rarely. 
In composition, ^xi, A/- »jcu', it «Jt"f ■ 2 A. poet, irxi*" (S ^99), j«sch. 
Pr. 16; Pf. Ux-^, Pf. P. f';cw-'. A. P. Uxitn'. 2 A. M. (r;t;i/^- Ep- 
Pe Ft. «„^x'"" CSS IJ*"'- >. '»"■ 2. 62) B. 313. For U.ix''ro, »00 
S 236. d; tor h-lixH, see § 343. 4. Ep. deriv. forms, iVjt^atw, S. 387, 
Srx"*'^ E. 89. Fot Che compound trnx'^'f^h "^ S ^^3 , for iAxi"!, 
$.'{01.3. For the «- in iifi'ijciii {i^ipi, ix")' s«e > 63 : and for tba variooa 
fbmu ri' the augm. (Impf. ii^r-iixii"i', 3 A, a>tTi-r vi/ni, lUv-i'ifi/ia', ^)i 
J 193. 3. 

C. Anomalous Changes. 

$ 80 1 . Forms are sometimes associaled, which mwt bo 

31 ■ II-' 


referred to roots origmaUs distinct, or mdely removed from 
fiach other (^ 257. 2) ; as, 

1. «,J- (r. .;,..). to tafa, F. .;ji™, Pf. tp,.M, Pt-P. Jpv". A. P. fcU. 

(§ 319) ; S A. Ji« (r. I;l-, ^ 1H9. 3), Z A. H. ii'x;^... Poet. ) A. H. tf. 
;ifwa« At. Tlmni. 761. Donbtftil or ^aU ¥. Ixi, i>^/^ - Ion. Pf. i(m/. 
nH. HdC V. lOa, i^t^!f^^tM4, h>. 66 ; Ep. 9 A- tf. S. 3 /Uri for FiXn 
<§§ fi9. III., 185. 1) e. 13. Id tim wim to cofmH, tlu Ptm. i> commonljr 
HuppUed b7 kxjttfia, (r. Ix., wheoce U. \ 2S9. ii.-, i>nr^~ § 2M), [m|^ 
■Ai»Vin, P. Ax.i«^.«, 2 A. Ulh (§ 1S9. 2) uid lA», Sh^ '£Lf, lus^ 
Pf. U;l«>- aod lAvH. 

9. iAxt^Mi, tB (wAn, ■ comprauid of I;c« (^ 300], F. ME^ai md i«K. 
>:CJ..^, « A. i«ra:i*i,F (5 L9S. 3); P. »).in^ (r. «*.-, rX-- ^ 26lX 

8 A. I*x„ (§ S9T), Pf. rl<-;L«». (m $ 938. .). Ep. 1 A. lnix<»«, P. IG6. 
Lu«r E^ H-aU, Ap. Rh. 3. 769, IrLiiw, 2. loofl. 

S. Icc,^ (r. Ifx-)- *!)".*»»,, Imp. ifj;!*,. ■ F. \Ui»^ (I. Urf, 
l>»^-$ UTO), 9 A. JU/h, commuDt; tlJ» 'J'i I ), 2 PT. UriXC^ (S 191.9). 
Ep. 9 Pf. ixilm, Hm. n. GGO, il>,i>niiU (S 47. N.), Dor. -J A. !./•■ (^ 69. 
III.), Tbaoo. 1. 17, Lteaa. Ixtn ($ 70. 4), Ar. Lys. I05. Tb« Pres. (ex< 
Mpt In the Ind.), the Impf, ■ad tba Fat. an oomnKoily mpi^ed in the AtL 

4. ifiM (r. If*-), to tn, Impf. U;» ($ [89. 9), Pf. U^u (If^** Ar. 
PL 98), Pf. P. i^fd/tM,- F. ;%f..^u. r. ;«.), Pf. P- ifV^^ &■ P- ^f«> (if*- 
finuPI. Def. 411 a), 2 Pf. poet, and loo. h-im Soph. AdL C, Hdt. iii. 63 ; 

9 A. jtn (r. (1., the augm. uniting with the ■ to form u), Satj. Tin, to, 
9 A. H. lOi^n, S<Af. ilKfuu, &a.; 3 FT. .lU, (/ hmt tn) I hvu ($ 33:)) | 
Hid., poet, lilifHi (r. i.l- § 968), ti> Mm, to rmmbh, Mtdb. Cho. 178, 1 A. 
ilri/tn, 0. 79t. 

NoTB. In the fntcHtiH Vila (5 58, $ 93T>, tbe nxrt baa tarn tonm, 
(1.) 3.; U^„ (lou n^. A. Ii!4), Jm, trh. f«* (BiHit. f'rr* Ar. Ach. 
911).&a.; Mid Ep., /a/, rt/uf A. 719, n^t-m N. '^73, Ft 3»V A. 60S, 
Phip. PI. 3 (R.«>) ]«• 2. 405 : (9.) ill- i iSiHi, i3^, iiJu>, iVi^uu • and 
the Ep. SiOy. OifU,. inin (^ 246. 3) : (A.) tli. ( i 236. I ) ; (Ilo, •Ti/a, 
ftc : (1.) nil. ($ 1:88) ) (iJji.) 1,1;^ lili/nh t.lJn. (rare, A. .^46, hoa. 5 b^ 
■i)iiH (late). The Plup. ia nitw^ea doubly aagmented (^ 189] ; thus, Ep. 
iiilw OT *i3u X 9K0, ■(.111 or i,ih, ^ lioe, Ion. ji.ii Udt. i. 45 (for ^uIh, 
(Hie I dropped, d. § 243. 2). In the Dor., we find (he verb ItS/u, perh^n 
raggeeted by frtri (^ ■iSl, •Hn), Find. P. 4. 441, !m Theoc 13. -34, Trin 
I j. 146, Irm^t f^d. K. 7. '^I, Pt. 7»>i, Pind. P. 3. 52. The defidenclca 
of •!}■ an lappUed by yr-iiu- (§ 285). 

5. f»lx" (r- 9("JC-> '■(";(■ ^ S63)i <" "™i P- *(iiv««i commonly l;s^> 
IHH (t. hi'-'). 1 A. »(<U> oomTnonly S A. BfM^n, Pf. Ji^iif.ii«ii (§ 392), 
PC P. liV'-VW- ^eF£)i)iV».<>419. Late and ran F. If-f.^ Atlk 
416 C V^HMU C5 300. b), Anth. D«iv., i-px"!-. ™- »■ ■'6. Ep. r{<x^ 
«. 451, r^wx^m, X. 163, l;^ii>, Hm. Ft 2. 2. 

6. fi^ (r. fif), to iw. F. JlfM (r. «.), F. U. •&.,«, F. P. ,Uii„,Lm, • 
1 A. fiiYM (r. Ina-, Inym- § ET7), 2 4. In^'ur, A. H. <l>fy>i(^>n, PT. 
U»x' CM '9'- ». «36. a), Pf. P. Mhv^, a. p. Mxt-»' F. P. inxfi 
n/im. Ion. (r. Imi.. § 968 ; «;*im Hei. So- 440) 1 A. i^uiu, E. 885 
Hdt. lU. 30, 2 A. Opt. 1m;«u 2. 1 47, fa/, i.t.nt^ii T. 1 ^4, Pf. P. Iwi.r^Ht 
Hdt. 11. 12, A. P. itilxln', i. 66 ; 1 A. fn/. (i»-A«i) itfnu lb. 15T 
Ite Pf. P. wf-vrm. Loo. Pane. 2. For .Tri, &e., lee ^ 185. ■ ; fcr ^rn. 

4K. ll.J F0BH1.TI0II OF V0XS9. 343 

J S46. H ; ftic ftfwi, S 3SI. a. Derir^ f>;i>., Id nwry, .<«, Ac (^Sth 
S SSI. a> ]»-. lir., 1>^^. (^»i At. Tc^. 19.5), to JM ihh, -f^ir.^ 
-iffurm, -if^tht. Lm. ,^rB. — The AmiaU <»}•■■ and iuyaa are both 
tommoo in tbe ]a Pri. limg. of the /nit, uid id the Oft.; but In tb« 
2ff Fen. nup. of the /np., id the Inf., and id Ihe Pari., tlie fbrmi of j>|yi.w 
■re i»«feiTed; Mid, elsewhere, those of ttiyMm. 

7. f>u>; Mid firw (5 5», § ii98 ; I. f>^ fua. } 979), ta Uf, IB affimt, 
F. 1^ (r. !(-, ),- S 2S9), Pt. (f(nu (S lar. 1). Pf. P. 1?;,^™. »'■ W. .,■(,!«. 
w.. Cyr. vU. I. 9, A. P. 1^^. or \ffit„ (loD. ,'^i§n> or .;;.'A|^ Udl. it. 
77); I A, Jm (r. (t., ■■>. ^ 968). 9 A. Jt... Non-Att.. Pre». Jf* S. Ifi?, 
tifim, He<. Th. S8 ; Ion. I A. H. ir-urif.nh rtfiatd, Hdt. i. 905 ; Poet. 
1 Aor. , tfun) Ii.» Find. N, 9. 7S, U A. )un> K. 445 ; Ep. S A. {r. Ir, 
iri-. § 273, cf. Inr», B. 4S4. Redapi. fonna, r-ftiixt, .£sch Eum. 
690, iri#uM>, H«. n. 65J. — ThefoTDUoT frjru, vilh the K f «v, (he A. 
IfiHv, uid the Hid. voioe, have eommonlj the Urenpheiied aeuae, to afint 
The IM Aor. inC iT»i and port. uVat an not used by the Attics. 

8. Mt/ta, (r. ,;h-), to ixy, Iinpf. iw»i,nt ($ 189. 9), F.'wjrvuu. Ft 
Un^Hi, A. P. Umim- It A. U IrfH^p (^ 19 ; r. <!(»-)■ Iw. and lata 
1 A. H. i««r^*., Hipp. 



^ 303. The Greek, like all olber original languages, is 
the development, according to certnin natural laws, of a smalt 
immber of gtrms, or primary roots. These primary roots 
(which may be termed radicals, to distinguish them from tbe 
mere rootB .of inflection) have a significance which is not ar- 
bitrary, but founded upon instinctive principles of the human 

NoTK. Tba mncfa agitated question, whether the radicala of luiKiuge are 
mrnnt or utrbt, hna no prc^riety, ioBfimuch aa the ori^n of theafl radical* waa 
prior to grammatica] diitinctiDaa. and the aama radi^ waa nwd aa wwi^ 
adjtMvt, vert, &«., aa the caae might requiie. 

^ 303. Those words in which the radicals appear In 
their simplest forms are termed primitive ; and all others are 
termed derivative ; while, at the same i'me, a distinction must 
be made between simple derivatives, and those words which 
are formed by the union of other words, and which are termed 

SoTES. a. or thoae woida which are commonlj- distinguished aa priaA 
ltt« aod deritatut, aome are directly related to each other aa parent fnd ciiil^ 
Miil* othoi «n mara^ fimtationa baa the game n^ieai, whitli, howi^ 


commonly ajlticsn in ■ rimpl«r tinrn ia Uie one thui In the otber. It ii im- 
portanl to obHrre thla diatlnction, though thf luuaa luiguaga iB oomnunilf 

B. Id Incing derivalii 

ciutioiu ia prooouncaDg ibst [o have been emedita] in tlie actual [t>nnsti« 
tt the Ungiuge, which we find coavenleot in exi>laining thai fonnBtion. 

I. Formation of Simple Words. 

^ S04. Simple Words are divided in respect to their 
foiMnation into three classes. 

(1.) Those which consist of the mere radical, without 
change, except for euphony or emphasis. 

(II.) Those which have, \a addition, merely the affixes of 

(HI.) Those which receive farther modifications. 

Tba BalM and BemaAs which fallov have mpect chiefly to the third dia, 

A. Nonss. 

^ 309. I. Fbom Verbs. Nouns formed from verbs (or , 
from commoL radicals, ^ 303. a) denote, 

1.) The ACTION of the verb. These are formed by adding 
to the root of the verb, 

a. .«( (Goi. -nil, fbm.), or -tU (G. -tlit, t.) ; as, /tifii-t/iMi, ft> nnfnlf, 
fU^.T.f, imUatiMi Wfdrri (r. i(iy-), to act, (*(Sy.»i() ■•;2£.<, octibs ; 3i0, 
ta iat:r^fia, AtrU, lurrjfict ; !«i^^k, to try, luai^wnic, ItviL 

b. .,, -■ (G -«, .i,, t.) : as, 1»iy- (r. f»y-). I" >«. fi^i, JB^U 
Tf if a, to wmriA, rpfr,, noMriihrnml ; x"f (.'■ X'c)< <" nrfoia, x*l-*- J09 1 
^ii(i, to eompi, fttfi, eorrti(*oii. Soma verbs ii ' ' 
.,!i Ci 9e. i. a) ; MM, b " " " *- ' 

c. .(f (G. -», m.) ! as, xiy-ti, to ipeoi, Xiy-rt, >r>wct; firi^, I 

d. -m (fi, -Tw, m.) ; aa, imxi-ti, to Boil, Mtnii.rii, waUimg. 

.fkU tfi. -fuS. ID.), or ./•■) (G. -««, f. ) ; aa, M{-,fiMi, la lamaU, 3 
; ni-nn'/^i, to nmenter, /(>ii-/t>i, ranemAraHCi. 

^ 30e. 2.) The EFFECT, or object of the action. TheM 
ue formed by adding to the root of the verb, 

ffp- f*'f; °-}i ¥• '■'^-< * 

L 11.] 

a. ■nt (G. -«■>. m.) ; u. 9ia-t>tu, to biAM, $>4-nf , (iAoUb- ; wtiin, Is 
amfWH^ ««i)Tri(ri |»e< ; avJ^vi to /otnd, mrirmf, fovtda. 

b. .r»( (G. .«■(«. !».). or -we {G. -fff, m.) ; u. M-,-- (r. l..> to guii, 
h-rif, gioer; fiijis to »fl«, »-rW{, Mnoio-j r. fi., to ipuil, /li.i-^j, qiulir 

NirTB. The ftminines corresponding to the above (4. and b.) nid in -«^ 
or -Tuf* (proparoiyiime, 6. -■(), or in .»;i, or -rii (G. -.Sii) ; M, riw-fia, 
paeltu^ MmTufM, ftntuir tMiettv ; itt/XnTit and -rW^, ^tUg-piaj/tr, Mif>.rr^t aikd 
-T^H, fiutt-giA I (■{•^■irnt, jm^iAef, 7(>9iinf , pnpUtui. 

c -iw (G. -i*t. m.) ; as, y(if-m, to paini, j^af-iw, pahittr! fhtfu, la 
DVTtfjit, f^t^iit^ tomtpttTi viifw, to tAiu«» aue^^i barber. 

aatirah, rfitf-it^ nuttej Ai/t^, to m^ 

§S07> 4.) The ?L*cE, lusTRrHENT, or other means of 
the actioD. These are formed by adding to the root of tho 

a. -rifim (G. -w, B.), moTB frequenl]7 axpreadng plaa ; m, infiii-tfuu, ta 
hear, itjif *■ -tb^h, place of kearitig, awHtoryi itrtarrnfitr {hual^ti), court of 
jutlitt I wtrHfm («/>•>), drnMiis-np, Ct, ^ ^ :i 1 4. b, 31 S. a. 

b. -rf» (G. -lu, n.), or -TfM (G. -Ci, f.), more rre(|<ieatt; expreaahig 
wuoM i as, {uf. In ciirry, ^vt; » and iitrfm, eurryamb, Xirfn (Xw), roii- 
nn [meuia of rdeadng), i^^nvT^ (i{;(iif«ii), orcheitra. 

Rbmabe. TerminaCiona of verbaU are affixed, id genera], with the same 
caphunic change* as the aimilar affixea of inflection : ). e. those beginning 
with > follow the aiialogT of ->. of the Fut. or ->oi of tlie l><>rf. pass. ; those 
banning with ^ and r, of -^I'and -thi of the Perf. pass. ; and tlio»e be- 
ginning with a vnwel, of the '.d i^irf. It is convenient to remember, that 
vorbal nouns foUowing the J st I'ers. of the Puf . pasa- mon trequentlj deoota 
the Ihing done; the 2d, the doiw/; and the 3d, the doer. Thus, 

^ 309< II. Pbom Adjectives. Noudx formed from 
ftdjeciivea (or from common radicals, ^ 303. n) usually ex- 
press the ABSTRACT of the adjective, and are formed in, 

a- -!t (G. ->'<(, f.), or, if the root ends hi i or ^ -la R'rming, with the 
final vowel of the root, -ui or -uie ; as, ra^it, ww, ff-'i, mmtwi! liiial^in, 
-n-H, ^ajfiy, iHKi/ttw-li, Aappinea ; iXnMt, -'■-», trvi, ili.ifiii, InM ; tSir-H, 
oaatc mtn, tmd, thtii, kivbHit. See %% 9S. ^ y, 315. a. 

S46 DBBtVATIflK. l^ObK Ik 

U -m (Q. -nrH, t.\ from a^eeCivta tn -w and -m ; u, fn,, e}^ innn 

c -rtn (G. -«, f.), ftvin adjectives in -•( and -••> ; U, }'W>f, jlitt, iiuiui 
firn, JuMtice; n^^^r, ducnet, ra/f^trvin, ditcrttion. 

d. -H (Q. -Ill, n.), chiefly from a4j«(lva in -n ; at, ^mtii, de^ fi*^'!, 
Apdk i ii(it, broad, il(it, bnadth, 

e. -Ml (G. -dhi, f.), ftom nomenjg ; u, Hi, two, indi, Auid. &•• 
1 25. III. 

^ 309. Ill- From Otheb Nodns. Nouns derived from 
Other nouns are, 

1.) P&TRiALS {patria, natiee land), and similar words de- 
noting persotu related to Mine object. These end m, 

•. -ni (Q. -r») masc-, and -rn (^ I M. > ; Q. -rS.,) tem. (with tb« 
preceding *owe] long in polrials ; thaB, -'mi, -im. -irm, -lirwi, -^Ani ; 
and olw in other noiuu in -mii) ; ob, 2vC<i;i(, S^rii, loSa^'mi, a bum a/ 
Subaru, a SgbatiU, 2bC«(7t(i, a Bomoit o/ SyioHi; Aiyi.iii-iii, Iliram, 
2»iii(Ti»»B(, 2ii.i)j«!Tm, a mun of .J5^*ia, Ac ; rikn, cily, r.^triK, ciiitBi, 
nXirii, fatalt eitiltitl riln, bote, Tifim, nrcAer, tiEitk, unrAcreu. 

b. -lii (O. -in) moK., and ■» (G. -ilx) ftm. [^ 1 1 S. 3) ; as, Hiy^^ 
JtfqiiDa, Miv-'fivf, SUgariam man, Uiya^iV, Jf. inniuin; ^;^r>x», (fnif^ 
fg y iMjuJfT deaier h drugt, to r et n r, fm^ft^tif, wontrati Tv-rir, Avror, Irwivi, 
horwaun, knight. 

{310. 2.) Patrontkics (so called rrom containing the 
fether^s or ancestor's name, Bnrgof oi-o^b). These end in, 

>. -flni (G. -w) nuac. (nnitine with i or . preceding), and -'( (G. 4iii) 
Am. ; -iini (G. -<») mssc., and -Ir ( G. -H-i km., from nam«8 of Dec. I. ; - 
n>d -.£},, (G. -wl muc., and -,2c (G. -.S)«] feni., from namea in -..,. and 
(wrpedalij: in hexameter vene fiir the oake at the measure) from many which 
have the lait syllable or the mot long; as, llji'afi», Priam, U^ix^iitii, rm 
^ P., n;<^;i, doMfkltr of P. t EiM(.%^, Ki.f.r/lac, Kif.*;, ■ llnXiui, 
-Im, nmifliK . 'H(..;l;(. -im, 'Hfs.Xu'Siii ' A*f.i, -in, A.T.<ln - Bi;i<(t, 
Boreu, B^iiinc, sn o/' fi., B>(il(, -lit, dau^iler of B. ; &itr,^, 0nri^i, 
0imic •blfw,, -ar-H, •h(*T.ala( • IlaAiJt, £^ O. -ii«, Ep. nnX«.il«., 
A. I. 

' b. -Im (G. •/«•(, nrdy -/..h) noK; and -u^ « ■/«( (0. -n) fcm.. ool? 
poetic; aa, Kfinf, Saturn, E^>'«, -Ti.fw or -!•»<, am of S., A. 997 ; Tlw- 
)kiii, TIbXiwi. a. 188; 'Aui'ruf, 'Amprlrnhdaugliternf A^S.3i9i 'AW 

Rehabe. Patranymio appear to have been, in their origin, dimimuliBa 
thm, n(.mfilii,i, atUt /Vuna. See (> 312. Akin to the above are a ftw 
wordi in -ill.(, contr. -i3™(. — "n", -ili*, conlr, -JJ, — daagklir; n, SvyM- 
rplin, -'3ii, liaii^UH-'i us, — duKjiUer, JliXfilwi, -iK, mpiem, mm*. 

{ 3 1 !• 3.) Female Appellatives. These end in, 

•■ -H (G. -it), chieQj from maacnliaee of Dec I., and from tb«« in -tit 
W, hrrin,,, maita, hrnni, nKrai (.olio iimna, cf. b). Bee t 134. m. , 

CB. U.j Moom. 917 

b. -mM (6. iiu\ ebieUy ftom muenEiiea &■-»;>*, li«, -» ■», Hon, 
XiMitm, Homtms riimn, -«h, artum, rij»*iM • AiImt, -nif. Sparlai, Aa- 
Hu». Al» from tona ia -m ) U, $»«, ^ Situw, goddat (^ 74. l)> ^"'( 
wolf, ;if>«». 

c..-u< (0. -ii«(]i f""^ ^HVXiHh Ab^i aiul Ii;iw, frmt; thus, S»Aua, 
)iH«, fl^ini, jineatiB. 

d. -rn (-«T<, MO. t ; O. -m), from leveTa] en^ngs of Dec. III. ; u, 
ElXiE, -.»(, CmciuM, KlV.rrs (cf. ^ ST3), i!w& -■»«, tomrngo, i,Mrrm, Si,, 
-rii, hirtHng, Sitn, Aj'Ew, ->h, £yUa>, Ai'Com. 

Hon. Sa^ also, f^ 306. K., 309, 3iO. 

§ 313. 4.) DiHiNVTivBS (sometiines espresmng <!^- 
tfon, often contn^t). These end in, 

B. -»i (G. -in, n.l, with > sfll^e often prefixed (-tlut, -•Cf», -f%;uj^ 
-0^», -^n, &c}. — b. -:f.» (G. -n, m.). -.'»■ (G. -m, f.). Tho^ nTf, 
eUU, DiminutiTea, nuliu, littU ekOd, raJintf, gomng isy, nilirm, jmnf 
fB^ rmiinn, vKi)>;i1.n, riuh^vXljii, iraila(>rH(, muimi^in - ^7(bI, 
jm**, ianiM.a, ^.{uAin, fiufmmii.^i. ^ujfaMHA'Xtr, jU^cnw, /Hi^mmi- 
•vi ■ ■>{■, ffirt ■•;i», ■j;ini|, Hfiriuv, ii.[;!i.., •.(i£«>i (for -ajin, on^ ao- 
Count of tbe precedinf; «Ji Mt^m^Itif tnrn, idand, inirvi^tt' ^mi, amnai, 

Aar Socig I Ar. Nub. Slt'J. 

c -It (0. -Hi and -rbf, f.) ; as, it;^»i, /mntuw, n^ru, -Hn • irUni, 
table, nnitU, .It,,, IoMeI. 

d. -litii (G. -■•r(, m., only of the jouug of aninula) ; u, itrit, aa^ 
^nJtvft ecif&r j Xm^mi, hare, XKy^iai* 

& ->X»i, -uiih -bJAii, -vXii (Dot.), &c ; aa, riXii, citji, rtXixn ■ wUtt, 
tnite-jar, rJdxn • muKtlii, finch, immifrXXii • IfiH, -•>»(, love, IfMrixt, 
Au-Bmg, Tbeoc 3. T. 

Ni>TE. Some diminutives (especially la -j«) have lost their peculiar fbrce ■ 
thus, Sif, coiniBoalr in proaa Awfitr, wild bxait. Some pn^ier naidit hare di- 
minntlTe fmos, amaetimee made by abbreviaUon ; aa, MiyiXX^t lyM^at 
feal), 'A^(Ax!i (i/Ufic, eiammf), iiim,, Mn^f ($ I EG. S). 

^313. 5.) AusMBNTAT[VEs, words implying ineretae 
either of number. Hie, or degree. They end in, 

a. -» (0> •mil, m.). Thia mding may axpreai «tfara' tplaea, aa oamia^ 
er ■ perwm, in which any thing exists m mmbtn, or u /ur^ <u< or d;;na ; 
as, i/twiX», vhe, A/»n>^>, miwyanl, iVnvf llnricX Anm-itaUf, >1>1;k>, yt- 
tmiMmr {Afiif, yv*ii), BpartnienlM far inn, women, ww (tTMr), i^ne-atlar ; ^C- 
^', Iv, x"X^. a fish irtth a lon|i snout ; yiij/<i, ^nv, yniiwi, jfiiAnii; s-Jji- 
q->(, iftadtS, n^ami. As a designation of place, -mtln Is also used ; as, ft. 
J^rim (/fl}«> ', roee-bed. 

b. -■£ (G. -liaw, m.), applied, Uka the preceding, to penona and animals, 
but haraher in its expreaeion ; aa, wXiirn, tneaU/t, rXti^mi, a rid c/iurL So 
XiCf^t, greedy, XH^m^ tea-wolf. 

Remark. Many derivative oouna aie properly adjectivea 
used substtintivel}'. 



^314. I. Pbdu Verbs. These end in, 

inding is more frequently pr» 
iiii>\ pndi'c. But tee § 31.?. b. 
rvr^f"fi taping (cf. § 306. b). 
era, both offin and paune, aug 

t. -T«, -«, -fi, pnwi'w, HgniiyiDg Mot leiUt* u dime, either u ■ matt«i oT 
ybM (like the Lat. Put. pnas. in -tu), or more cammciiilj H ■ matter of hubit 
or pftaibitity ; thUB, ifiw, to tee, i^driif teetL, miiie. 

. Niyre. Verbiils in -rii knd -tih commonly follow, in respect to the romi 
»f the mot, Che soalog]' of Ihe 1 Aor. pass. ; ba, uli'm, to ttUte, Pf, P. >(;fi/ui, 
&. P. ifUnf, ■.'{irii, oifiTiM • riub, to ftnp, Pf. P. wixivii^u, A. P. i<r'itc!r«>i>. 

h. -ilfif (-■, -J>), -ac (6. -allt), &C. ; U, ;^i>>,u, (a (bnleR, ^sJijii, 
thck; fi;>, to icur, f>(^[, fnutftl; *i>v, Id itAook, ;ki}'ri(, ehiteni i.u*'n 

^3IS< 11. Fhom Nouns. These have the following 
endings with, in general, the significations that are annexed : 

s> -w, hAmgmg to; if a vowel precedeh commonly iinltinj) with 1 
diphthong (-"'r, -tat, -•!», '•"!, -wsi). and often, without respect t 
anuning the fbna -un (Ton. .i7Mi, ^ 46. B.), especially fhim namea of persons 
and animaii. Many putriatt (propsriy adjectives, but often used s^hstanti^■ely) 
bekvg to this clue. Thus, tiif»*is, htaeen, taptnet, hthm^ng to kftiven, Anuvji- 
hh f*T'*f (f'^f)f of m/ttrder, murderouai tyt^mtt (ay*^), ptrttatdag to th* 
/hwb, 'Attitmin CAAitayX .^(Aniini, StiH (9i-<(), cAifw, 'Afytiw ('A;}-n, 
.i-x), .^TpiDe, \^„ (t«), Ion. liun (Wf, 'i-n), <>f 1^ mnntaig, rixuH 

/fow™, W(„„ (9ri(), o/ m« ««•<>. 

VOTna. a. From the neuter of thoM adjectivea has come a class of suh- 
Mantives denoting an appropriated building or other place, injfmnmf, Ac ; as, 
Afn'nui. CA/n-i), 3.>ri;.>, M>.i>r(rn, ten^ of Mimrva, of Tbemt, of the 
Xmei, iiofiTn (aii/fivi), barber'i ihop, yfr/tfurCn (yja^^riiif), unfDijr- 
tailet, cf. ^ 307. 

A. Beflire -«f and -il (§ 308. a^, r oftoi panes into r ; as. IwivrJF, far, 
hliuirn,, of a year, Ihyiem (Mi'Xiirir), AlUaiaa, Hmmm (<Uii«Tw), ■>• 

cB. 11.] ABiscTiTm. — nonomn. aiB 

b. -titSi, -4, 'It (it m pncadei -ah •■ if amide i or u, -init ; wblle -mat 
eommonl]> nudtn 'mTmm), rdatmg to. Thrae adjectiTe* in xii tn often formed 
ftom irorda tbat are themMlvea deriTatJTti. Tbey mppl< to lUnj^i ratber than 
to ptnana. When used of the latt«r, they eommonlj- eignifj- ret.led (n « 
qatditf, or ^1 /or, and are moady derived tVotn pusonal appellalioiu. Thns, 
ri^n, art, rtx'iih, niatitig to art, artittic; iii\n, tlcax, itvXimii, tertilt) 
AiCvr, fjbjfanj AiCniii ptrluaing to the Libyiut or Libya; Kt^ii^ffFT Oorin- 
tAuH, Kf^prfdikff ' rwt^uttt spondee, rwtttuMtit, epimdate ; 'A-^ttthw ^ehatnef 
'Ax*!*ii, and 1«a Att. 'A^mJtit ■ rmirii, pnti, rmiriMii, pattie, /nri^iaif, 
(fi'-'f), rhetorical. rrfifrnY-'-t {ircr^yii), JU for a generoL S« ; 314. a. 

c. -.«, -d, -^ I 
XfCrif, t/oU, x(if' 

d. -Iritt ■ddom 
Ip day. «).»( (iri)«}. W/l i;>..i,"(ie-(> 

•• -fHf, -Kfii, -4ti(, palrialt, from Damea of cities and coontriea ont at 
Gnaii«i a«, ?■;>«■;>•< (T<i(>(, -■h-m), T'lrenti'iu, IU;.>ii>» (Kv;.««;, (>ii- 
MM, 2ii^<Mf (Zdi{liu), Surtean. 

t ti,,-^i,,-nc»i ■''■'"t. •»>-H. -^h, -W (■•rr/L, -», G. -"tk), -Am (-If, 
" M : contr. fivni -i-iilni, ftvcn JShi, /nm], expnuing fabmt or futEily t 

*, ilBUt (Sin), anoiy, wmiiit (•■S;. -..(((). >^. XH'"* Oc-ff). 
grae^ftil, rfiwailai (»*bR, ipuip-ii**, ^i/i/i^m {-^if^nX tamly. 

^316. m. From Adjectiveh and Adveebs I- From 
some adjectives and adverbs, derivatives are formed in the 
■ame manner as from nouos ; thus, taSafof, eletm, taSaoiOf, 
cleanly, /l.iv9igtot (rtFiitffpnir), liberal, Si,iu*6; (&t,lw),fiBti' 
nine, i9iair6{ ixSit), of yesterday. 

2. The adjective has in Greek, as in other langua|^, two 
strengthened forms, of which Ihe^one may be termed dual, 
denoting choice between tioo objects, and the other plural, de- 
noting choice among a number o( objects. 

The moEt obvioaa asunplea of these streagtbened fimki are the tomparathe 
•nd euperlalae degree!, commonly ao caDed. Other eumplei of the Bompara- 
tn or dual ilraigthrKid fitrm are. (a) the corrabtim tr'rtfi \ tnhelher of the 
two f rmfii, It-i{>i {f(>rTni*d ftxini the 3d Pus. prun. aa the poailiTe, f 2H, 

rifti, liBTifH. i/ifirifti (fee T fil, and compare the Lat. Wc-, nimler, niter, 
and the Eng. mlieihtr, either, mitiier. otiier); (b) the foJIniiing implying a ooa- 
uderation of tmo otijixti nr prtjicrtiei ; iiiirifii (poet.). IaU dexter, righi 
{rather than left), iifirTi;i(. ainialer, kft, Iiutiiif, trrimd, tj^ii-i;(j, nnster, nar 
(mtfaar than yoais, or any one's (dse), v^ir){<i, veeter, ymr, efirifif, their, &c 
I'l !4). Other euim|4a <rf the tKperiatia: or phiral Mtraigthemed flm u% 
(«) tfaa (VTTiUMit* nrnr I wUeh m orderT or, me of hoK mrnii/f twirm, 
i^^rm (1 63) ; ((Q aU onSmah except liinft (gee ^ 25). 

C. Pronodbs. 
-.&S,I7. For the formatioo of the nsost cDmaTi pronouna, 

SM ocsiTATKni. [aooin' 

«ee ^ 141 - 154. The Greek abounds in correlative pronotma 
and adverbs (see H 63), in reaped to many of which it will ba 
observed that, wheu they begin with n-, ihey are indefinite, or 
interrogative (with a change of accent) ; with i-, dejimte or 
demoiistralive ; with the rough brealking, relative dejinile, and 
with on-, re/oftoe indejinile. Thus, nooog / hoto muekJ iroud;, 
of a certain quantitg, naog, ioaovto( and loaoaSc (§ 150. a), 
to muck, Sao;, at much, oitoaoi, hoto much soever ; note / when f 
noti, at some time, i6u, then, ou, tehen, ondit, uihemoever. 

D. Verbs. 
^318. I. From Nouns and Asjbctites. Of these 
the chief endings and the prevailing significations are aa fol- 

B. -■«, -■<», and (mostly torn noans of Dec I.) -^, (n is or d) that 
iriiich <■ pointed ant bythe primilive ; as, f/iui, frioid, filiw, tn bt a/riend, 
tp hm^ tt/imtftniM {tirtaift^t, -*hf), to he protpenv*, itrv^^iw (irvy^nt), to be 

irUpui), to be bold, to dm, n/ui- (vifii), to hoaor. 

b. -in (mostly fcam woida of Dae. 11), -n'w and -J>« (mostly trora ad- 
Jactira), to vaie thai whicti is pointed out by the primitive ; oa, iiKn, an- 
deal, In'.i'i lo ruda iridmC, ItuXii (I>h;i» ), lo noibr su a tiaea, to Bulatte, 
Xt"'' (xt'^'l)- '° ""^ 1''^''™. <" Spt-i, rrtfii. (rnfit), lo mait wmgat, to 
fimuMk with »'»;>, f nf>.» (»t1j,.«), to crown ; >ii.<.;,» ().iM.ii), to 
■AifBt, rn/tmiM (»»/"), to ngnify, iilUi, (iJi'i), (0 iKwIci. 

c -Jt«i, and (chiefly when fbrmed from words which have > or n in the 
last syllable, or whan preceded by i, cf. 5S ■'110. a, 315. b) -bC"; ffim names 
of penans of inimala, inilotiR (denoting the adgptlnn ot the mamtert, language, 
opmlonM, party, &c.) ; fVom other words, used in variima sonses, but muidy. 
active \ as, M«l;;» (Hnln}, lo nvdife or ftwar tht Motet, 'ExXnfTo, to tpmA. 
Grrek, AtipZ" >'"i &^' {"i If /«, taU, nnjr. or I'reu ^tf; I/k Doriant, tiiijr- 
^i^K, to *e 0/ M V P""?. iV..r.j.,t., (iJj(«J). W play (h> /« j -rJ..«-;:» 
(rXtirv), to HoAe ricA, iu}iuci>ii;«, a «<aii> Anffy, Sifi^v (^ifw), to 'l>irt«t| 
>;<';. (ifii), toonUwl, ljfrB;i> (li{n), (» auti a >a«I, )«*i« ()'■«). O 
j.^, S.»,«ii- (;3»^.), to m-to-. 

d. -ai with simply a strengthening of the penult, mora frequently ocliMi 
as, ■■/a;g(, pare, M^taifK, to purify, winiWrn (niiiiAjf ), (0 (oriit^atf, /mlJtr- 
» (jiaXiKit), to teJUn. 

^310. 11. Fbom Otses Verbs. These are 

. 1 .) DtudenOira, fi»iDed in -n'm, ftoni the VvlU ; as, ytXiii, to baiglt, 
ytXanid, to milk lo tofgh, PL Phndo. 64 b. nl.i/»iMi'v (in>.i^iH), to wiiA 
fiir Kor, Th. L 3.'). Derideratives are also (bmud in -mi (nrely -■■), chiefly 
from verbs] nouns ; as, fuuUm, to kant, ^xtnrii. dimipk, ftniriTii*., to wok 
a iJiKripfa, Ar. Nub. IS!), rrfaruyian (>"r;>*n7<i), to liairt ntilitary 
•■ 1. 33, Si«ri. (9,i»rK), to (fuJr> ifeaCA, R. I%a<do, 64 b. 

S.) Various pnkmsed ttroM in ->, -rmm, in. (sea §4 365-300). loD*- 

CB. ll.J TEBbS. ADV&BB& 1^1 

timM />vfii«f ottK or mboiM, u, flm, U Oimc, firri^nibi thnm lo and fio, 
rrittr, to *i^ miK^ii', ft> tfiill (Ib^ { wmetimes btetptlBe, u, i)f lU, to t> c< 

Iht agt of puteriy, iSit'i, tn nnw tn tht agi of puiaiji } KimetiiDea countn, 
as, ^i/i>B, b> ic iKliu'iciifst, fuiiiiim, to intoxicate; «aiD«tiin«e (fitninnltH, u, 
l£>«-iiT<£>, la cheat, iixnTii.i.1 {a. iif ^\2), Ut ditat a IMt, to hmbug, Ax. 
£q. 1144; but often icarce differing in force from the primitivs fUnn 
(§S S54-Sf8, 362). 

E. Adtehbs. 

% 330> Most adverbs belong to the following classes. 

I. Obliqve Cases of Nouns ahd Adjectives, employed 
as circumstantial adjuncts (see Syntax). With an adjective 
thus employed, a noun is strictly to be supplied. Mqny of 
these obliqtte cases have antique forms, and many belong to 
themes that are not in use. Examples, 

I. GBHrnvsa, (a) in -/i>, deaoCing the place mhtnci (J 91) : (b) m -m, 
denoting the place where ; as, tS [sc- rirmir or xi/iUb\, ut n^icA placet (vAsA 
sur«w, there^ if^H, ■■ the eatae piuce, ti^K/uv, mfwheFe: (c) in -*ic ; u^ mtfmtt 
of a ndden, iiSc, imwvfcr; {d) r^uf (irj^), of a gift, gratit, &c. 

S. DATfVBS, a) in -u, -•»• of Dec IL ling-, and in -iiri(>), -«ri(0 of 
Dec. I. pi., denoting the place ahere (iu'edrerlM in -« derived froin pnmonna, 
this commonly passes into the idea of uA/fAer, see ^ 63, and compare the &- 
tniliar nae of inhere, there, &c., in English) i la, 'kinnn. at Athetu ; see 
§§ 90, 96. 5: (tj in -p (-■), -f (-•), -m of Da!. I., and in -. of Dec. Ill,, 
denoting uwy, place whne, or time *ihm ; <«, ruin}, [sc. i3»] in thii way, thia, 
[■c x^ff] " thii plane, here, wmKX,i, foen/ wuy, eseryoAire, witji. o" j'wi, 
tiitf, prinal^f ^Mftati, tm fAtf grtnmd, wAXmi, in a&^ June, Ij(j<n, ^ ^ V££f 0^ 

Ip. {§ «9. fl. rf), iyx-- "™-. <!(•. ™-'y, I- »«>• 

HoTB. Adverbid Da^res of Dec. I. an written bj most edibHi with an 
1 Bubac, ezcqit when they hare no Norn, in lue, wid bj gome even then- 
See h 3S. fi. 

<(, :);■p^ m aenHmt i)^ )l■■t^ Ji^ 

^331. II. Debitatives siaHiFTmo, (1.) Manser, in, 

«. -mt, from adjectives. Ilie adverb ma; be formed by changing t of the 
tien. pL into i ; as, nfii. G. pL etfUi, blk, rff>i, i«<e^, ritxit, rmxif, 
$trift, »x!i.f, *ri/I^, nfii («?«(, -i«, -ir), Ion. •••fU,, emU-tfy. 
' b. -tStr or -1» (perhaps kindred with iTJii, /arm), chiefly thirn nouns ; -ht 
or .^nt, chiefly Irom verbs (those in -ihi' commonly conforming to other 
Tcrtiale) ; and -). ; as, *k.ftn1» (_-r).:,l.,), in the form of bricti, Hdt. U. 96, 
fitrfBli, (piTfui), in chulen, B. 89, £>ifai>}i>, OT -!■ (iiafai'iw), openlg, 
K(Xlm, or -)»■ (tfirr-), lecretly, wri(iim {r<r,!i-, m^it), icatterinpl^. 
Tb^t appear U be Aco. forms (cf. S Si^. SJ; thus, Sing. fern, -im, neiit, 
-).,, PI. nent. -I.. 

c -f or -ii, especially ftom imitative verta (6 318. o, -Z" becoming -irr^, 
and in compiHindi of ■- prirathe, airir, and «« - as, Kut-rrl, She lit Medet, 
VXXimrri, bs Ott Oh* la-guoft, df^i (jur*h), iMioit paf, i/»x«' H)4 


(ii^), witk 0^ wluk papb. TluwappeulolMDU.riKinsCd'. M^o-^)- 
i. 4 added to ■ paUUI ; u, i^^ly^^ (r. fuy-, ^ 1^94), < 

(2.) TiMB WHEN, in -H (Dor. -■«), or, for more specific ex- 

fression, ic -«S ; as, akloji (uUos-)< a* tawther time, aiiina 
nvTOf), Hi (fte eery moment. See H 63. 

{3.) Place whither, in -oi (which appears to be a softened 
form of -6i, § 322 111., or at least kindred with it) ; as, on- 
^|aro^^, to h^en, /Kiiut, thither, tiifani, to the Other tide. 
See Y! 63. 

{4.) NoMBER, in ^oKic. See II 25. n. 

^333. in. Prepositioks with thbix Cases; as, (njo 
sp/uv) npat'p^ou, before the toork, to the purpose, napn/e^f«, 
upon the affair, immediate!]/, (Ji' 3) 8i6, on aecmmt of toAicA, 
wherefore, {,4* TioSit hi^) /ftitoSiir, in the may of ihe feet, 
'A^riralit (from 'AdJirai, and -Si, an inseparable preposition de- 
noting direction toioardt, ^§ SI. N., 150. 4), to Athene. 

TV. Derivatives fbom Pkepositiohb, or PBEPosixioNa 
osBD WITHOUT Cases ; as, K« {«), toilhoul, itau (k's), mOn'n 
aqoi, heeidea. 

II. Formation op Compound Words. 

% 333. In composition, the word which modi6es or limits 
the other, usually precedes; as, tofio-ltixiis (vu/ioj, %19t,iu) 


The exi«ptioo» ooniirt nuinly of > verb or preporitlon fbllowed by & Bonn, 
vid ire fbr the mo«t pert poetic. Among the vertis whiti. tie meat frequently 
BO placed in'pnMe are ^rXiH, ta l^«t^ and falriM, to kntc ; tkna, fiX-irifatvut 
moH^iotjimgy ^rt'^iftni, Ptrtian-hattr. 

§ SS'l. A. The FIRST woHD has commonly its mdical form 
with simply euphonic changes. These changes, besides those 
wliich the general rules of orthoepy require, consist chiefly, 

I .) In the insertion of ■ miim-inmi; which, after ■ mbitiBitivt ot adjtetnt, 

Jly-). adnn'mfe, S,^,„-(yi"(IonrV'-'-''(r"> from 'i'f"'i ""^ hr")' ■"*«™i 
(r*-.-^m,B. fl„m yi^ jontr. yS, and /..«i«, 55 35, S». .) j^*^!*;;-, gt- 

369 "te '''^''" f*"'"™' f'f-'- <'«o"-*"'9oW -Ewi-Ag. 1176, Cho. 
iT79 '■ f "■'^ '** "™'*«- "»-*■""-( (»•», -Jl-). /W-ft"tt, Hdt. 

fi^ Z^""*"'" ^T"«- i-'V"^". Jt-^ii™, J)-..-*Je« (»«. «jm), "y 


A. 419, )ur-t-rK^ii (Xilrn, nffii), fonnjr nw*! jwil. 

9.) In tbe ioMrbon of r, commonlj connected by a nnlon-vawd dtlier lo 
tin racceeding or pfecading vord, aad Kiaietimea even to both ; as, ifir-f' 
m.^.,) ;.V«T.. y.Vr-, i,r;,), «™-d. r,;i.-r-pi(., (»!>..„ ..-.,, fij-). 
JiiffiBiiig, Mifntfifn, tantd, far^M, liglii-brin^Hg ; is-rfrixii (kii, •■!/.«), 
fatOMe-pujt^, pnfitabU, tm-rl-rfi (inii, «■!(.() un^oUe, {jMy-rrt.) /uj»- 
Smft*csi l/ttytSiti, $i(iMfi\ mixtd leilb bariariaiui Si->i^iJt;/;ui (£h«, Ij^ 

mmmdmg, A. 5 1 1 . [n aome of tlbe«e cases, tbe r appeara to havs been bor- 
rowed IVom the theme or tba Dat. pi. of oouiu, and in othen, perhapi, ftom 
the AoT. of verba, or ■ verbal. 

Hj) Id adopting a *br(er Jorm Aom the Ihems, or an early root ^ an, uV- 
fSMfii {mTfui., -mm, ^rm), biood-bathtd, pk-i-rmt (pki-u from fl>Lt, 

Notes. ■. The mode in wbieh the eonadtnent vorda are aoited often 
depends, espaelBllj in verve, upon the qoanlity of the syllables which compoaa 

B' In some compomida, chicly poetic, the Gist word has a Ibrm like th^ 
of the DaL ring, or pi. without change : as. nwn-riA.f c, mamg iy li^it. 
Ear. Ion, TIH, ruxUFriJfnii, UMJl-appnacha; E. 91. 

^ 33o> RmuRKS. I. If the fint word Is Apartick, it is oommonly 
andianged ozcqit by the geDaial laws of euphony. For elision in preposi- 
tiooa, Bee^^41, 4^, Ifl'i. I. 'A/if/, like iri;i, oft«n retiuoa its voweL la 
tba other prepodtiona, the eUsioii is rarely oiiiitCed, except in the Ion., par- 
ticulaziy in the Rp. befbre some words which b^n with the riigamma. For 
disioa befbiv a conaooant. see ^ IS. 2. II^i sometimes nnitn with a vowel 
(Mowing by craaia; as, Wfi-trrM ir;ilrr.(, rf-ix," 'i'Sx.-, '■ 90 1 »e« 
^ 1 99. 1 . 

a.) i-, commonly denoting prwation or negation^ and then called A- prino 
the, as, I-<-'i[, witlmat childnn, t-nfai, uiwite; but sometimes denoting 
Wum, cuflcctini, or iiUtitiily, as, i-Jilf-j (!(), tmUlcr, i-nrii (Tiim), 
ttraaiBi. *A- priButipt loomitiooly ar- before a vowel) ia akin to Mxt, witAnW, 
to the I at. in-, and to the Eng. and Germ, m- ; i- copalaiive appears lo be 
akin to Sfv, ingtl/ier. Akin to i prio. is n- (I^L nc) ; thus, >sAiij< (IXitt), 

b.) iiir-, m, on*., m- ; as, Ifn-fii/Hf, iB-omaitd, !ip»-r»j;iW, mtf-/arffeM, 
Ivr-Isi/u,,, m-Aappji. 

c) The infouHW li^ O^ndnd with 'Afni, ^ 161. B.], t{i-, (>-, and la- ; 
at, ^(i'-iiiii(u(, my Uarful, ^i-rXiurii, very rich, , 

^ 390. B. The form of the last word depends upon 
the part of speech to which the compound belongs. 

1. If the compound is a noun or adjective, it commonly 
takes the vacmt obvious form which is appropriate lo the clsw 

SB4 UIHFOUTIOK. [book It.' 

of words to ffltich it belongs. Ofleo, the last word, if itself a 
noun OT adjeetiee, undergoes no change; as, ofi6-3ovXo(t fel- 
low-tlaet, R'Hiii;, ehildlesa. If the last elenient is a vtrbf 
the compound adjective or masculine substantive ends com 
mo»ly in, 

a. -N. Ilii* ending (which tg &i tha most common) bat both ao «(m 
•nd a patme maaet dlatinguiabed, for ^le most part, by thd acceot, which, if 
tlw penult is short, the actiae ctanpinuid commooly takes upon the ptmi/t, but 
the pauive npOD ttw imlipoHiil ,■ aa, >j/>-e>;iw {i.HH, AiiXlw}, lAravinp Mohii 
Xifi-e(>j(, Aroum ^ miA ItiMtt. 

^ b- -ivr T'lf) G. -i«() ; aa, iv-r^Wr, beaming, BtTafaflri Klf-raffwa^ff, 

c ■«» or -«, (G. -in), and -nj or — j. denoting the o^bK (^ SOS. a, b) ; aa, 

••/i>-firni, fa^iifatDr, /tv^rn^ni (§ 9'J. Z), ifnltJifH. bird-calthtr, /igXr- 

iin(, du^heM, 2. j39, «.l~ixi»;, ckOd-murdmr. 

SOHAaH. Tn compounds of this class, if the last word l>egins with «, t, oi 

i, (bllowed bj a nngle consonajit, this vowel 'li cbmmonl; lengthened to ii OT 

•t i aa, rrfBTH]-!) (rrfSTii, JEt*! , jciura/, iiitwi>.imi (lv>-, 1aiid»), Aord Id 

drive okt, swhi^i (b-, in^a, § 44. 5), naaufaH. 

^ 337. 2. If the compound is a vebb, it is important to 
observe that verbs are compounded directly and without change 
with prepositions only ; and that, in other cases, compound 
verbs are derivatives from compound nouns or adjectives ez< 
isting or assumed- 

Thua, kmfiSitii, to takt, nnitea diredlj with the prep. ■■■, np, to tana 
mmktt/ttint, to toil 1^ ; but it cannot bo uuiM with the noun Ifyii, mth, and 
benc« Ibe idea (s toie mart, to amtract, ig eipressed by \fyt->.*ii§,, deiived 
tbom the cnmponnd verbal i^'yf->.mitt^ eoniraetar. So the verb cnmponoded 
of Twtc, harm, and r; i^*, to fi**^ JA jrvtr^Bf iM IVom Irr^r^ifoij horae-Aeeper. 
Sometimee the fbrm of tbe verb happens not to be changed in passing through 
the compound verbal ; thna, from iT'ti and <ruiiu, is fbnned •iTt-itit, brtad- 
■laisr, and Ihun this agaia nrrmun, ta moIc trtad. 

Keuabks. I . lie imion of the prepoddon with the verb, aa not affecting 
"le fonn of the verb, nod admitting of reparation by tnutf ($ 3SS. N.), Ii 
~ ' OK or imprnper aa^xaitiOK, in distinction f^om that cbu or prcper 
It whidi fbrms one inseparable word. 

FARncLES there ia a still looear (bnn 
n tbe aggr^ation of wards, sometimes really and 
\y comlnned in bbubb. Iq (heee aggtegatea, the ar- 
tbograpby variea, (he wonis bdng aometimes written together, chiefly when 
Ae last ia an enditie, and aomedmes aeparataly. Among the ctuef wwdt 
that are th«B affixed lo others are, 

a. The DDEnnnK PBOitOun rli • aa, Irni, mhotiKr, tini, no Oa^ ifnt. 


yi (Dor. yt), t but. mnphil]- », \ymv%, JalbaM, rtt*, JM imnlf. 
nM yi, Oiil oHablfy, Imi yt, aw* at batt. 

U, Kw (ahortcr form oT Hii) ; a^ Jrrit M, nlsav aov, i^ Ij, jut MW. 

•I> (contr. ftom lj>, itfitaig te, ^ 5.f), Mn, (bre/iire. |ret, trftoi added to u 
tndcAnite proDonn or adFert lo itreiigtben the exprwiioii of litdeflaitmeaB ; aa, 
Imrw, kAovmp ttfli, Jrvflnvwi, Amaiimr wb Aat.' 

Tf( (shorter fono of nf i), vary, jMB-MnJar^, ^itt ; h, Jmf. bAo in jMr- 
Senior, Srrif. Juit at. 

nri, of my fane, RiFr, ofteD added to [DtcrrogBlirea to itrniglben the ex- 
pnadon ', u, n riW Im nm , [what at an; time is thiJt] loAat n lA( 
■MtU ii lAu r or, wUt an aUt it f 

ri, tbe dmpleat sigii oT OMUWCtim, and benee often jcrined to otbv gouiwo- 
tive wonla, before their use waa eatabliahed, to mark tliem aa such. In the 
Ep. and Ion. thii ii found to a gnat extent : bnt in the Att. ararce occun, 
txeapt in Iri, aud im, a*, A n, abk, poaibli, and If' ^n, on andiliim that. 

Norc In caacB of looia mtipoalioa, other wnda, ei^Hicia!)^ particlea, are 
Bomelimca interposed. Wheal a pnpoeidoD i* thni Hiianted ftiim a verb, tbe 
flgon is calkd Timait {r^Sfit, auttuff) ( aa. In U traiirtu, and JK^ny JWA, 
Bat. Heel ITS. 

»lbyGOOglC / 



^ 330. StTNTAx, as the doctrine of senten 
CES, treats either of the oflices and relations of 
words as arranged in sentences, or of the offices 
and relations of these sentences themselves. 

Note. For a general view of the omcra of words, m «!;'«*, prwff- 
taU, copula, atlribHlt, enxpcllatict (person addreasedl, appniitint (gubsl«iitivt 
In ap]>u«llon), orfjunrt (modifying or limiting rabatanOre not in apposition), 
whether complement or drcumatance (i. e. regarded aa eomp/tting the idea nf 
the modilied word, eapedallj as a direct or indirect object, or a> denoting some 
RmmiCniice respectiag it, aa time, place, means, &c.), whether exponentiiL 07 
QDde (i. e. attached with or without a prepOBitioa), cxpmttnt (eign of office ii 
relation, aa prepoaition, conjunction, &«.). Ac: of their rklatioss, as ujr«- 
neitt or eimcitrdf ganaTHiaatt at regiineiL, £C' 1 of the i>ranHC7no:fS OF aENTFN- 
CEa. aa tmpli or coatpnaid, diitinct (in which the predicate has a di.itinct (brm 
u a .(tiu(> verb) or incorponittd (in which the piMiuate ia incorporated in 
•oother Mnt«nce u an fj^fSiiitiiK or parlldplt), iititHntiir. ur mWdi (cxpreaung 
An act of the ujvferBtitndiitgj or of Che mtt,, dalaratibt or mterrngtantt, aetual 
W eont in getU (haWng respect to fttt, or founded upon ttippositi'm)^ p/atfipt or 
negativt, ttatUng or dt/Kmdenl, atibftiintivt, a/ijtcHttt, or adwrbini (p^fbrminjj 
thB oflke of a tubatantiTt, adjectitu, or adttrb in another MUtence), pntaiit 
(Inbodnctloa, condition) or npudntii ' oNiclusion ), &c: of their HODEa op 
r, incorpariUioji 

(^ Ihdr expoNEXTS, aa antiHellve or e/uiradrfiilie (denoting the onxnKlHni 
of geotences, or simply distioguishing th^ ch-iracltr) ; ciiiyuiWioos, copula- 
tivB, final (denoting purpose), couditional, coinplementary (intrndncing a ueu- 
tence used tubaaHliBdj/), &c ; amiitct-rt pnnunsu and ailrtrbt, whether rda- 
dve or complemenlarv (reftrring (o an anlttnlail, or introdocing a senlsnca 
tised ™*itaiilic*/)f> ; rharacla-iitic praiida, pronBuai, and atteerU ; &c : of the 

ARftAHUElUUrT OF WOKDfi AHU BKHTEHC'Ica, as l-igicol, rhelnricai, rhjilhmiail. pe- 

n'odur,j(b:andaflheFiuuBKaoF Syntax, as. K.i.i.TP!Us(omis9on),iyI/<p>u and 
xVTvpna (vartetiea of eompnuitd nrnjinu-tutn, according aa the word referring to 
a compound subject has the form required hy all the subaUndves in the lul^ect 
.taken tagedicr, or that which, Is required by rm* of them taKea soiff'j') ; ruai- 
HASH (redundance), peHpAnuu or cirmmiitiilion ; EKALtAOE (use of one word 
or form for another), nuta/jAor, laelnni/iajf, ipwtdocht, ayntEU (when the cnn- 
ttmctioa fbliowe the snisf, in disrefpird of grammatical form), attr<ution 
'-•hen a word is dnwn from ita appropriate- form hy the inSuence of anothtf 
1), muuoUt&m (a want tf agreemeiU between Iwo parti of ■ lenteaaft 


■liainK fVom < dung* of constnictioD), ■<•&>■. dua^ of uoitir ; Hti>sbba 
ton (dlsrq^ of Ihs omniaon Ian it urangBuuDt), amattrtfli* (iuvaidiHi) 
parnMait, &«, aee Genenl Gmninu. 

^ 330. AmoDg the especial causes of varibtt in the 
syntax of the Greek are, 

] .) Ita freedom in Che nw of either gentric or ipi^flc Gicma of expnasion 
In the dflvelopmsnt of ■ langiu^ new forma uige (o expreu more speciflcallj 
whM bsa beeo gtjierically expreased by amne older form. Thia older tank 
thua becomes oairowed in ita apprupriate apher^ and Liaalf more apeciAc in ita 
But habit, <rbi;;h it tuigbtr evuywheiB, ia peculiuly Ifae irlillai 

Qoem penva nbitHnm est et ju8 et norma loqnsndi * ; — ■ 
and, wbeiava the new diatinction la aniinportaat, there Is a tendency to em 
lA>7 tbe <dd ud Andliw farm in ita oiigiiud exteat of meaning. The issult 
is, Uut an idea may be often exprcswd by two or mure forma, wbich dilfcr 
from each other in being more or lew apecific ; md the nme form may have 
dUbient una, according oa it ia emplo]^ mne gBnericallj, or moiB apedllcally. 
Hhm irauika apply both to the woiila of ■ language, ta tbe fbrma uf tlHue 
msda, and to the methoda of conatmction. They apply with pacniiar funa 
to the Qreak, from the freedom and originality of ita development, the eopi- 

~ ' a vocabulary, the fuhieea of ila (orms, and tbe variety of ila 

•i.) Tbe prevalence of ^fTerenC dudectt In atatea Inllmatdy a 
each otlier by commerce, by alliancea, and by national f^tivals ; and also in 
different departmente of literature, without reepecl to local dislinrtioos (^ li). 
It cannot be thought atrange, that forms of expreaMun appropriate In llie 
Afferent dialecta ehould have been sometimes m1«rchaiiged or commin^leil; 
or that the lawa of avnUx should bave acquired lew rijpdity in the Greeli, 
than In languages wbich have but a single culUvated dialect. 

S.) Hie vhitbiitt of eomcefHitm *ind enotian, tbe apitit nf fne^om, the vtttn 
&itg, tbe Innt of Barirtj/, and ibe puwon /nr bcituly, wbicb so preeminently 
chaiacteiized the Greek mind, and let) tbeir impress upon all its pniduulluna. 
The Greek language waa the development in apeecb of these cbaracterlstlL-H, 
Iha vivacious free, venatile, varied, and beautiful ezpreauon of Greek geniua 



I. Agreement of the SnesiANTtvE. 

^ 331. Rule I._ An appositive agrees in 
case with its subject ; as, U: 

S5R smTAX OF rRB siTBSTiNnyB. ^book ni. 

lUtirMri, . . i ftirgf, ParyBtiM, Mg moOm; L 1. 4. "O H.I.t);* 

'O rtT^ftK ;ii}4m Usjr Jsi lb. 8. "Ouyw ury iTki '^yifmnL PL Prat 
315 e. *H( BiTh imrfirm tnwi U >■ 9. A>U> Tirrafifnt m f i 
l.r lb. 

^ 333. Enuniu. 1. Appotjdvea, more ^vqncDCty, ■gna witk 
tbdr nibjticta in ptndtr and iHimliB-, u well u in tan ; u, 'E«'h{ii, A Smri 
01 rvn, Tw Ki;L;»r |3«'.XiM(, £:;iyuu, Hu mift of Sytiaumt, Uie Hat 
p/ tlm Gliciam, i. 'J. 12. Z>fi[»r» ^ t» 2<rii^fiXu>, ») Ziii>(im> «f 
•Aj;*;., ti..M .-««,.^ r.i...,i.\. II. 

S. ELLHtua. Th« appoutive cr Che aubje 
b« supplied from the connection ; u, AiSii.if 
On KM af Polfttrahit, ili. ». .0. 0i/u>ti> 

3. Tba fdgn of iperiai ajjilicaiion (wi, ai) ie often omitled ; u, Ai^^i, Ji 
ilj^fv rviridr^wrs, tAr (Aim vAicA /A^ Amf an covtringt, i. 5. 10. KjJm^^tt 
11 hJ iT« raftiiXifi n/tituX-n i. 6. 5. 

4. Snraaia. An appiMitiTe aametimBa agreea with ■ lolqeot which it im 
pIlMl In aiMtiurword; m, 'A^aisix ■!> •■•:ii(ii riit /ttjrirrn, bamf a 
^Modm, a «(y thi grtiovL, PI. Apol. 39 d |,hera rii-iii agrees with 'AAiwi, 
0f ^ftou, implied in 'Aix.iuM). 'AfUnn lit Khw^^, irixir '£xi<i.%. 

plied in riXo] ; cf. it. 8. 22, t. S. 2. 2;. r» r^irCi.f Ar. Aob. 93. 

^ 333. 5. AiTBAcnon. A nibttantive indmslelfreUtad to anoth- 
er ia sometimes pnt in apposition with it by attraction. la this constniotJon, 
the appoaitivB uiually denolw a part, or a drcuimtaime, and is often joined 
with a pwliciplt, taking the place of the Gtniliot absalult. Thus, EJfAiim 
ii ra ^fiiiif^ mirMw^ ^airintr ^i' m1 5v(iti TiTufr^iHu, tAeir portait ar€ 
•UR^ Kt an firt, the doon being madt palat-Ua, Cjt. vii. 5. S2. 'Ax\t 
w(im 'tr" iii-yiTi, fn>i>i« ■imiri<-rii^ini t! Inrii lb. vlii. 3. I'J. 

6. Some relatiDns mav be eipreased either by an appotitine or an lo^'imce ; 
and one of theaa Gonatractloaa Is somstimea used when the other would seem 
more appropriate. Ilus, Tiiimi ri i!(h iit rkit^n, of Ihit tia breadth 
i> two pbthra, i. 2. 5 ; bnt, Tw Ti H>^;» rt iS(i, Im. >?■»< ui rim 
•■•)«>, owf 1A< ftrmiKjl of the M<irtya$ it tmnlf^et feet, tb. a. riiTmfui 
, ivfii 1» rX>/{-> n>. 99 ; but, Tif{<i . ^ rJ ^1> tf^t ttyn'l ri'n 
i. T. 14. Aiu ^la; ilrftfi- but, Au» |>»7> •r^«)», Vent. UL 9, 10. 
'EfT. >1 S ;cB^ . . i, •frntn rriti; T. 3. n. Ilnwt 'Afitmi Tifunrm'n 
wJljf 8o|di. (£d. C. lOS 1 bDt,'En'^' 'A^n>«> Irr' >Ti(f««( iriXn ..Eech. 
Pen. SIS. 

T A-iACOLCTHOir. An appontlTa aomelimea diflera a case ft-om Iti sub 
ject, through a change of conacroction ; as. Unrfl r, 'EfiC.imi kiy^i, and (a 
ny mofAtr, Brilaa I mtan (fbr Unrf! r' '£pC>if , md la p^ mothtr ErUiao), 
Soph. Aj. SG9. See alao § 314. 

^ 334. B. A word, in appoailion with nemtmce not med nAttnathelf, 
it commonly in the AeciaatBit, aa aipreasing the effect of the actioti ; but is 
•ometimea in the JVaianiitiBi, as if an insci^ition marking the cbaractar at 
theaentance. Thus, 'Exini srim^ui, MniXtf Kir^r «■«■>, bt at ib^ 

CH. 1.] VSB OF THB NrHBEBa. 85** 

BUn, l-wUih woold ba] a Mte- gnrf to MtnMmt, Ear. Or. 1105. 2i-!^ 
/ttM!H*mt wi\u r !**/%*/ ■*! Simr arif^im, OMr gnHpvU art profantd^ a 
dMoHnr to Uk aty, amd am imtmll ta thi godt, Eur. UwacL 7:!. Ti H nftrm 
*i}-irr.. . ^ rj» ^1> rj|> ;i:^;» ■^■■^in. ^f^, M Mf yrsilcK Ol'li; o/' aJ^ 
jroM Kcysv om (irHtofjr Mcexn^.Cyr.T. j.^4. Ti Lii'i/iat 11, ^fiyMii 
UX-tn ■!■», l»Aii yni r»if 'EXHiir i.'nf ;{>jKai Etic. Tlo. 4By. 'H^ }■ 

thg camic poet ujV PI. Ale 181 d. 

9. Hw bIoIe and ita fartt. or a p-irt, are oflai fbmid in the same case, 
eTlher by r^ular apjioBlion (u when the whole ia dmply i£™/«d into its parta, 
or tha parU taiud ia tbrm tlia whole), or by attnctlon [\ 3.1:!), or from tb^ 
nutuning dnular Telatlons Co (ha eame wi»d. Thli oniBtniction hu recaived 
the gaDoal name of rj^^M inJ' iXn m) ^i^n, eautmctin iy tj^ vAolt and 

II. Use of the Ndhbers. 

^ S3S< !• The SiNODLAK is sometimes used for the Plural 
in die Greek, as in other languages, to give to the expresaioo 
greater individuality or unitg ; as, lir "i:Xliita, the Greek 
{c=the Greeki)^ Hdt. i. 69. "/;(.n(i Snuevoy i/ifiaiuiy airo, the 
tear triekU* from my eyet. Soph. El. 1231. nifini^fi' liOvt 

Sfi/itt ia*ifivr lb 906. 

P"""' A dionu, ftom ita etrict unity, cominoDly epeafca of itself aa an 
tdtwiilivij; and ia often ao addresBed or spoken of by olbeiB. Not unfroqnant- 
Ijt tha two numbers are mizi^ed ; as, XOP. ^Ey^f /^p, Z ru, sai r« rh 
nrtiimr' Sftn, km} riiftit mirit, Skttt • I'l 3i fti xmXSt Xij-H, ri 
r.'u- ni yi; l-j-i^ir/' a^a Soph. El. 9.^1. 'n tir<N, f<ii Kt' iimfS fl 
rimirm. Id. (Ed. C. IT4. '0^7, ^h ^.i «> «r;|(UT» ?iXh • fiii- li 
£ach. Euin. 676. 'Ofyit Ei*«n> r« . . 'T/iir( )t lb. B4B. 

^ 330. U. The use of the Plural for the Singular is 
particularly frequent in Greek, especially in abitract noum, 
ID adjeetieea used tviiUaUively, in the names of tkingt com- 
jwsed of distinct parti, and in vague expressions for persmt* 
or things ; as, 

Kni 'tixn *«> AiXwx xm> <■•>•>! fi;u>, (a nrftm 6o& htot, aad cold, 
and biior. iiL 1. 23. Ti lt{.i r.i alfXrw, rts ttjA* "/ ^ "«'«?, i. B. 4. 
Tlmr(,M>LH, if ru rmrfi, Ji rA fi;Lr«<-il, P.itroclia, leho nj Af fitHttr't 
bat-Mmtd, Soph. Pb. 4.'!4. Ti 2H»(nw fimtlli.m. At paLutof SftioK- 
ta. L S. -iS ; cf. Ui. 4. 84, \r. 4. 8, 7. Bv> n.Vl> i-j|ji{, viU AUi b». 
Soph. Ph. 1 33S ; cfl Ti|« nil 389. T£t ^ir r' l;t;«{£. Sn( rritm, ' bt 
tba fan' (Promethaiis). Mecb. Pr. 67. Xila muint itmiwrn ^n/uiiftim, 
' pareaU' (a mother), Enr. Hec 40.i. 

REMAokg. M. An imiundmil often tpeaks of himself ia the Flar^ aa if 
otbeis wtfe tiaoaateS with him ; and a iRHBaii ao ^leaUng of herself, nsea 
the ■oKMttH, ai the gtnaric gendBr (§ 3^. 1) ; thns, Altti/tiU yic ri i.i- 
14«<Jm ^ti, fir I am uAaiwd of wkat I Aon Hid, Ear. Hipp. 844. 2iS 

SCO snnix or the substaktivb. [boos in. 

^ir, •!>■( I{if ■!«>>•» Id. Med. JS4I. 'HA. lUniitif, «' xr*> '■''«' '''^' 
{•v^iiH Soph. El. :)99. So > chonu of wornoi (4 33^. R.J usea tbe Dioaa 
ong. (if Uw text is correct), KiiVan inVa^iai, . . Xtirtm Em-. Hipp. I luj. 

0. The Plwr. miy be used with a HHjuiir con^/nfipe, when llie person att 
dnased i> auociuUd uilh oOitTti u, 'Ir', tfn, i^i't, * 'EUrri'Ja, ui tiJirii- 
n >^;. J3uA.iifi»i I«f »>.(.7. 0; ^T » i»rrimi il.lirx.. H. Gr. it. 1. 
1 I. "ii tu>», it iriflrr,, , Soph. (Ed. a t IDS. II(>riX/.r', J r>7, «r^ 
lb. 1104. 

^ 337. III. In speaking of tioo, both the Plukal uid the 
Dual are used, the one as the more generic, and tbe other aa 
the v.ore specific form (^ 330. ) ] ; thus, liaiitq diio, tvio children ; 
but, 7)0 ntitdt, (V two children, i. 1. 1. Compare Ta* n»dpisr 

vi. 6. 29, iia SiSfi 30, lov; SiStias ' . . louioir, . . lu a»d^ 31. 
ToitiMr 32, Tix' Tt a>d;> 34. 

Iff' )' »•)»'• Zi:.|, fil' ll' TlLirTi ^X 

Bxi<-»r' lri-i.,,r 


Rehabss. ■. Hence, tbe BHibn n/" tAe /"fur. imd Dit, is not regarded u a 
TioUtioa of the taws of af^mment ; e. g. Hfirirfix" )» (■■»'»«, lAir* m 
Kp Iw ynngr lan, tv. 3. 1 1). Ain^tii )i i/iftinfu !(«>, )•£■ n ■•! immj. 
tM PL Bep. 4TS b. 'Eyi;u«nr iJ. <I^f« ^i>^»n( iti ^XXiilU' PI. Euthyd. 

JJ. In Uh old poetic langnagn, ■ few examples occar in wbich tbe Dual ia 
ated of more Chan two (>' SS, 1T») ; as, SM, n ui ti, UiUfyi, ■■! 
AWx A^^n n JA, •» /ui rin >i^)n< ■•-•TiTtro . . • ix\' iftfiii(ri7- 

Rom. Ap. 4.'<6. Some Ihink tbat tbe Dual is never Ihn* lued, except whai 

III. Use of the Cases. 
^ 33S. Cases serve to distinguish the relations 
of substantives. These relations are regarded, in 
Greek, I. as either direct or indirect, and, II. as 
either subjective, objective, or residual. 

L Of these distinctions, the first is chiefly founded upon the 
directneta with which the substantive is related to the verb of 
the sentence. The principal dibbct relations are those of 
the m^eet. and direct nbjeet of the verb, and that of direct ad- 
dress. Other relations are, for the most part, regarded as 


II. The second distinction is founded upon the Auid or cAor- 
ticter of the relation. The relation is, (.H)i1*5lc 

RB. 1.] VSB OF TBE GASES. 361 

I. SuBJBCTivB, when the substantive denotes the source, or 
SUBJECT, of motion, action, or influence ; or, in other wordn 


a. Objective, when the substantive denotes the enb, or ob- 
ject, of motion, action, or in/Utence ; or, in other words, that 


3. Residual (residuus, renwnntn^), when it is not referred 
to either of the two preceding classes. 

^ 330. The latter of the two distinctions appears lo have 
haa its origin in the relationa of place, which relations are both 
the earliest understood, and, through life, the most familiar to 
the mind. These relations arc of two kinds ; those of motion, 
and those of rest. Motion may be considered with respect either 
to its soDBCB or its END ; and both of these may be regarded 
either as direct or indirect. We may regard as the Dieect 
SOURCE of motion, that which produces the motion, or, in other 
words, that which moeei ; as the indirect source, that _/ro»i 
which the motion proceed* ; as the direct end, that which re- 
ctivet the motion, or that to or upon which the motion immedi- 
aiely goes ; and as the indirect bhu, that towards which the 
motion lends. By a natural analogy, the relations of action 
and injhtence in general, whether subjective or objective, may 
be referred to the relations of motion ; while the relations 
which remain without being thus referred may be classed to 
gether as relations of rest. These residual relations, or rela- 
tions of rest, may likewise be divided, according to their office 
in the sentence (^ 338), into the direct and the indirect. We 
have, thus, six kinds of relation, which may be characterized 
in general as follows, and each of which, with a single excep- 
tion, is represented in Greek by an appropriate case. 

A. DmEor Bzi^Tiom. 
1. Snlyective. That atikh act: Tbk Kouihativx 

S. Objectivs. Thai viirh it ncttd upim. Tm Accusative. 

3. RuadaiX. Tliat wAicA u addratd. Thb Vocative. 


Suljectivt. That from vAtcA any thing proceedt. The Oesitivb. 

Obj«otlve. 7^( taonrdt iMch nny Oting ttnd: The Dattte. 

RoodoAl. That mth vhich any thms u a—odattd. The Dative. 

^ 340. REHAras. M. For Ihe historicil derelopnieiit of the Gredi 
cwea, we $; a:i-8S. From tba primitive indirect c>« (which remuDcd u 
ttas Dat), * ipecial ft>nii wax Mparaud to axpreu the labjcctiBi rektioiu, bnt 
MiiB to exproia the obfxetiBt. The primitiva fbija, thenfote, OEiUiiiied U ex- 
piBM tba abjictiat nUlinn^ M Veil u ill thoM reUtioiii whidi, from ai^ 


$. In the Litin ease-nysuin, which lua « close cnrreqaDcltnce with tbt 
Greek, tberi is s partial aepuaticn] of the ndiVnt oA^cefiiic and retiifiial, or, u 
Uiey an termed in Lat^ Dative uid Ahi^ttve casee. Thie separation, 
however, does not appev at alt in tbt Plural, or <D Dec. II., aiut, wherever It 
occurs, may be explained bj the mere preccaaon or contraction of final vowels. 
A more important ditTeigice between the two longuajies appears in the exten- 
sive use of the Ut. Ahlattvk. The Romans were more controlled than the 
Gre^a by the power of habit, while they were less obssrvsiit of the minntsr 
shades of thought, and niceties of relation. Hence, even after the full de- 
velcqjmsM of the L^t caBe-syntem, the primithe iwlirttt cnse continued to re- 
tain, as it were by the mere force of poeseeuun, xauoy cf the snbjectiv* rela- 
tions. It is interaling to observe how the i^d Ablative, the once undisfiaCed 
■old of the whole domiun of indirect relations, appears to hava contested every 
Inch of ground with the new claimant that presented hirasetf in the younger 
Genitive. But we must leave the particulars of the contest to the Latin 
grammarun. and content ouraelves with nienjv rtlbrring h> two or (hrse b- 
miliar illustrations. Thus, ia Lat., (he Gen. (.as well as (he Dst.) was vk- 
•tuded from all apimtnliiil nUjuiutt {^ 3'J9), because in these the reUtian was 
sufficieatly defined by Ihs prepositioiL The Ge*. of plant obtained admis^D 
Into the Sing, of Dec I. and II., but not into Dec III. (the primitive deden- 
rion, (£ <j »6) or inlo the Plur. The Ga. of prict secsml (<yax wrails {taiUi, 
ipajih, fiwnt, and iitwru), but was obliged to leave all others to Che Abl. 
After wonfa at iJttly and wot, the use of the two otses was more Dearly 
equal In the construction of eite gubttnniiBt om (jkc oomipiemati of naot&dr, the 
Gen. prevwled, yet even here the Abl. not unfkvquaitly maintained its ground. 
If an adjective was joined with it as on ally. In some constructione, the use 
of the Gen. was only a poetic license, m imitation of the Greek. 

y. The NoMisATivi^ from its high office as denoting the subject of dl»- 
CouTse, became the lading ciik, and was regarded as the representalive of the 
TTOrd jn oil its forms (its Ihtmi), Hence it was employed when the word was 
■poken of fli a leard, or was used witAout grammnticiil coiulnictacn ^ g 34:1). 

§ 34 1 • There are do dividing lines eithn- between DutEcr and thdi- 
RICT, or between mbitcHBa, olgtctiet. and reddivil relations. Some relationi 
seem to &II with equal propriety under two, or even three heads, according to 
ttie view which the mind (akee of Ibeni. Hence the use of the cases not only 
variea in dllTerent languages, and in dilltrent dialects of the same languagl^ 
but even in the same dialect, and in the compoutions of the same author. 

A. The Nominative. 
^ 343. Rule II. The Subject of a finite 
VERB is put in the Nominative ; as, 

{■tl, Tirra9i;>«i fcsCilXu rlr ESfn, and ukai aow Dnrfnt wis daad, and 
Attaxtrxa «as abt li iliid n 14« myo/ aiitAorily, T^itMuphtnta occWM Qnt^ 

^S43. Rule III. Substantives tifDECEND- 

OH. l.J yomsATivs. 368 


the Nominative. 

Note. The NomLzmtiTe thai Employed ii termed Che Kimiiialiti indtjmA- 
tat or aitobiti (abaolutiu, nttated, frm, K. from gruomitiol fetUTB}. Set 
S 34a y. 

To this rule may be referred the use of the Nom., 

I.) Id the inservption of names, tUles^anA dioisiont; as, 
Kinov 'AraSaan, The ^xpEBiTiOit of Cynu } BiBUov nQw- 
■or. Book Firtl. 

S ) In Kcelamalitms; as, Vl Svmalaiy' iyta, wretched me I 
Eur. Iph. A. 1315. doloTTo, ealaiia, the Sea.' the Seal 

3.) In address. 

The approiiriata cue of addnn is the Fan. (^ hS). But there Is oitan do 
disliiiet tona for tUi cue, and even when then is, [he Nom. ta sometime* 
■ni^ad in itaslCMld Ml), (j') The Nom. is partjcnlarlr naal, itben Iha 
AddnflB is ejutiimiitory or dacvipttBej or when tlie coniptU"Hrit lb the eojiM wilh 
the ttibjtet of the nentaice ; u, *1I fi).ii, J fUx, my bdavedt ay Muotd ! 
Ar. Nab. 1 16T. 'linr.H • itrnXit n hJ nfii. Hlfpnt, At •uMc »nd tlu 
taittl PL Hipp. Haj. •l»\ a. (£> To [be heed of dacriptivi iiddrat lielong 
tiuae aiMthoritutiet, eoKtenptitoua, and fnni&rtr fbrmSf in which Che penion who 
l> addregaed is deacribed or deugnaCed aa if he w^e a Uiird perim ; aa, Oi Ii 
•uJtei, . . IriAr/i, but the KPninU, .. do you put, Fl. Codt. 2IH b. 'U ^la. 
Aafiiv . ■ 'frw 'AriXXilKfK. ■> r>;wi<U( , TAe Pk',liri,ti tAcra, Apn'Mnna, 
I(r7>/ wmiymf lb. I T^ a. (c) In fornu of addreai whicli are both direct, 
and likewise exolamaCory or deicriptive, the Voc, and Nom. may be assodaled ; 
as, *n fii.,, S f.>i ^<ix« Sue. CJ<:\. 13. *It ^-r.,, AT*. Soph. Aj. B9. 
0:». ^ <r*r rj. wa- Jp"' >!"•» C^- HeL 16'2T. -Ac^l, hI <: JU3l» 

^ 344. ANACOLnTKON, &G. From ihe office of the 
Nom. in denoting the subjecf of discourse, and from its inde- 
pendent use, it is sometimes employed where the construction 
would demand a dttierent case : — 

■ In the tatrnfkctua of a sentence; aa. 'T/..:, »,...»» <»^. i^7, 
hniT iT-nu t Fim (An, . . dna it now urn lo ym to bt Jul the timet rli. 6, 37. 
E^JSf^, I KSfi . ., t!i£» mbrf, Cynu dairing . ., it Kerned bat lo in, 
Cyr. vil. .'>. ^7. Km} I>t.». /tuxif"- "> fimr,».ii, ■<.) Ki;.c, j») 
tS i^f miru^ Mf !<«-!;•». ■•rir« ^. rf> i^ufl ^mnxio lvW><irH> i.H.ST. 
'0<'vA> )i i fiXmyl ifiwftin, . . li ri^nyxitnrit rm i;%i>rM iri/iE. 
Xif« Cyi. Ti. 3. 2. 

2.) In QKciricotioa, dewr^itiini; or npetiftsn ; as, *A;>.liiir I' • ^ijwc > . 
Kb*>^ !n^-^t>- ^turirnitin, TIiiyaTTMymt, *. r. K., laid otlirrt At 
nut SUb ha& taa; SbmUui, P., ^., £8ch. Pms. 33. TA ri;! IlvAo Sr' 
if.f,ri(ti, unt a^ii InXMirn - 'A/ii»r>. ^> . . nprXit-nt ■ -, Hi. 
Xtrtttiitui » .. «-fiir«r>Jiiu^i.u Th. )v. S3. \lyf V l> HiiiiiXiir^r 
IffUm HMxi), fiXml U.iyx" fvXua Soph. Ajlt. 259. &Fyirm paym\i- 
««e*r "RtrUt,,, 'Htrivr, J( lw» Z. 3»5. 

S64 SYNTAX. — GENITITB. [boOK lit. 

3.) In ipeakitig of lunui or Kordt at ihcA ; thus, TlfiriiXt^ n> »• n>it 
^r MHiir iirtftuftimt rvntfirrni, Ae luuobUuivd the comrnn appeUatun nf 
On rib, $TcoraiaT, jEachin. 41. 15. ^Mf^yyU t K^h riftn^, Ztl, li/m 
ft'X" '"' Ay •/••>'■ Oynt goBt out o( du pa^aord, Jors out alli jjra 
txiDK^ Ojr. iU. S. 5B. 

B. The Genitive. 
^ 345. That from which any thing pro 
CEEDS (^ ^^^ may be resolved into, i. That from 
which any thing proceeds, as its point of depari 
UBE ; and, ii. That from which any thing pro- 
ceeds, as its cause. Hence the Greek Genitive is 
either, (i.) the Genitive of Departure, or, (ii.) 
the Genitive of Cause ; and we have the follow- 
ing general rule for subjective adjuncts (^^329, 
338) : The Point of Departure and the Cause 

ARE' put in the GeNITIVE. 

imoTily «xpreBaed in Engliah by tha 
bT the preposition of. 

(i.) Gemitive of Departcre. 
^ 340. Departure may be either id ■pXoxt or in t]viTa^fT. 

Rule IV. Words of separation and distinc- 
tion govern the Genitive. 

Note. There ia no line of dividiHi between the two clBsseB of •roid* 
vhich an mentioned in tliia rule. Man; words nhicb an commonl; used Co 
denola dietinction of chancUr referred oriKinallr to •ep&ration of place (of 
$ }I39). And, on the otbet hand, wurdji which usually denoM Mparalion of 
place, are often employed, by a metaphorical or transitive lue, to expieas dfr 
parlun or diflbteoce in other respecta. 

1. Genitive of Separalion. 

§ 347. Words of SEPARATION include those of removal 
and distance, of exclusion and restraint, of eessatvm and fail- 
vre, of abstinence and release, of delieerance and ese(^, of 
protection and freedom, ice, ; as, 

Xi>;iftrfai il>.iijn, la it Kparated from tach oAer, Fl. Conv. 1 9S 0. 
XiiP[!( rSt ii-Xtn, apait from tht rat, i. 4. 13. 2»jij.i-« J^x* ^y- ""■ 
7. SO- 'T>->x*'f7 "H ri^''" lb. ii. 4. -^4. Aiirx" •>>.>.'<>'•'■< arre dit- 
tint fivia aich olhtr, i. 10. 4. Ui/fx . . lirtv, far from hlin, i. 3. 12. 
KwX6r%ii rtS jtmitift he votdd prataU tKent from bunung, i. €- 2- E*} Skm* 
\i-rm •rc}-...4-.H.Gr. Til. I. S. T.Sffh 1^ r.Al^* «*iirar/-. te 


wow /ran 6j mar agofait M, I. 6. 6. Txirtn . . ti rmim ni itX*' Cyr- 
viii. S. 3. B;» riXlvritm lb. T. 17. OJrir I'll' >«-•£ ijH>(rl>, (Ail 
man miutil Um, 1, 5. IS. ■E'J-iir^ii ni llrilii H. Gr. Til. 5. -J-t. l\ 
tmitit MkSi J^rXanK Eor. Ale 4IS. 'Rrirx'f' «■ l-»f«», >H »- 
/raixd/roiiuK/inij, PLPhndo, llTg. E.»> . .)i><-ri;'<' Soph. El. 14X9. 
S^c, iM.>» Id. Ph. 919. N;»» irtpi.i'i.oi, lb. 1014. 'AXiiEir*' 
juifx Id. Ant. 4H8. Aii J<)(« I{ii «£ ^ »nJSMj, vitf ik^ tva mm 
fimt mka^ iti. J. 1 1. "E.i.iittf rjw>, \Ktitifi .. Ei;iw^W Eur. 
H«ncL S7;). 'A>.. mlrxirt jh! M-Cn <!.«■«. Ti/un n .iy.ii {£rn 
PI. Leg. MO i. En^-f ir miimlm,, PI. Rep. 496 d. 'E>[ £r nmtitf n- 
ff.ri,v lb. 513 b. Vlirfii!! /u rtSti ttm^tt nnfM^ , Eur. A]c 43. 

^ 34 S* Remarks, a. Wnidi of btarino impl/ n/rauDnr /nm, 
and thoM oT ooncbdino, BisiaHiHa, kbxittiho, md bukbehdebiho, impl; 
partiitg mtit, or rttirmg from. Henoe, w ^Ir ifur'nmt W >iw f liJir/m, 
ft ii njriitennirt ID (pari jtnir pmpfrty, Cyr. iii. 2. ^8. Ksii^ii iri;^*;*- 
f I • i>j~r^ nv 9;n»>, muf Al [3o[diacle9] caia^td ta \i<A [.^Hehylua] the tiir-at, 
Ar. R»n. 790. 'Al>,il nt ifyni i'lmt, but raigning yow aiu/cr, lb. 
70(). Tair£>'EX;Lii~> Uiifif/ii . . ■■>;>x*'t>i'*' "SiXirT^ (o iKrreiider 
(D FbSp (Ae frttdom of the G.tda, Dem. Cor. -2*1. W4. T«i ir;irCBTi;w 
.. Hi iJ.^ »iJ »>■» ui Xii«r iviiit.i Cyr. viii. 7. 10. 

^ Tlis Gen. danoling Aat frmn which mo^lm pmctedt 1i, In proee. commOD- 
ly joined lo nmii »< m themitbia expraimg t^Mmitm by > prepoaitloa ; but 
in poeti7, often wiihout > preposition (cf. |} 1'i9. m) ; u, Ai/nn . . fifivm, 
in'i^ii^ from Ot hone, Sopti. El. ^U4. TawSi raTlut y^i, ijLJi, to ibm 
Ihcm ehildm /roM the laml, Eur. Hed. 70. 'A.i....f ,V.i 'ui^ ^i>/» 
Soph. (Ed. T. 33. •T^Ct /.!. ^iU;» Irr.r«> lb. If2. Tj t' •£;■»£ ri. 
><i^a Eur. Iph. T. 1384. For adiiTit in .A., pioperly geaitivoi, Me H 91, 

<y. In > fev nn phruee, the Gen. deuotei the (ii» /mm inUcA, wilJiDnt ■ 
prepoeitioa : u, Htr' iki'yn ii riiirki, am' [after ■ little trom these thtnga] 
a Hall njbr them Ihinge, 11. Gr. i. t. U. T^iVy . . ItI'' 'in-iH, in (A( tAinJ 
IKor [frcHD] befan tiut thimg., Hdt. vi. 40. Aiw.;^ fi rrn" f>.*ri», ' [&omJ 
after,' lb. 46. 

2. Geniiive of Distmclion. 
^ 34ft. Words of DISTINCTION include those of differateti 
and exception, of mtperiorily and inferiority, Sec. ; as, 

A.ilfirrii, i-i;t:"i(, Hiiuffut ;^i>n Hhi art, PI. Folit. S60 c. 'Hxi>T;» 
»!■> Jii#i(ii, differed in luilhiag from amber, u. tt. 15. Uirmi rXlit Hi- 
XgnD, ajf UHpt JfiStw, 1. 1.6. ^iif>;<> »> lXX« riXiKt, niperur U 
Ml oCier, Mem. It. 4. 15. UijUu . . W' ii'f/i>r>[. ia/crwr to 
u >i ■iH.fer, Til. 7. .11. Ti }.'»- . ., J) iXX> »>. l.»;« I Hem. it. 4. 
as. 'Erifo 1) rJ liir «w <t>>/« n. Goi^. 500 d. niTi;» trr.i inn^n 
t dfin, ; i),x.:., lirimi^iK PL Meno, ST e. OiJi. i;LXii-;i.. <r.». 
»n rni Uiww riTf.lH •dn «f Tfim (ef. § 405) Dem. Cor. 289. 14. 
OiIn> ■-:i«Sf-.i. iftri, liim.o PI. Rep. 550 e. T» i(»;>n>r <-i(.i-r^ 
CjT. vlii. y. lil. 

BSHABK- llie verb XnVi^iai gorenu the Gen. in a Tirie^ of eeiuea, 
which an naturallT cmnnected with each other, but which might be referred, 
a q^lax, to ditrerant beads, lliui, St^mrh . . rit JuXb^iw }>;>r, 'l'^ 

9t6 bthtax. — sBitnitB. [book hi 

ftom [(T bf] th« ipiar,' i. *. ■ the r^ka of ««■' ($$ n47, SSI), Madb. Ag 
517. K^*M riiii«- it ^'(Ai li;Lii^^ii», 'not Wt Ar behind,' i. e 
'donlj pumiiDg,' Id. J>r. 8,!7. Vt^pj V iitX^ti lii>.%my('ii XiXii>i. 
^Im. ' let behind by,' i. e. ' inftrior t«,' Ear. 8u|>pL 904. Kai rii ^U, fin 
ttt i^up.^,t^ flXn I 'bercAof' (S .157), Soph. Anl. 54S. rr>f»( lu' 
n^iH, A*i«d of tautn tti m JiM ji, Sofb. EI. 4T4. AUu^^tai vn tt 'E»;ka«> 
rifttit, 'un ignonnt of,' Eur. Hri. 1346. 

^ SffO. Words of snPERioaiTT include,— 
a.) Words of tadhoriiy, power, precedence, and preeminettct 

li^ni. ltd («• an>ir,W. I.e. nfifCi,.. rZ 
mkef mat ciCiet, PI. Leg. 753 s. -B<.;i<-<f. 
)t .;.;>■. n-f-nf 9o[Jl Aj. 1050. 'Or -;'>/• 

Mt,\,i.., atr;. T. 6.37. Airr^.i. li^» 
In $ 389. 

r.;LA» rJX»,, to (ok 
ri^ 'ExXiiH.. iiL 4. ifS. 

£uT. Uax, 1036. Sm 

0;> mlHtk iIi*-XtiNn>, X[ 

J.. St^Aj. I09!j 

RmUBii. Tha primitive leDw of the verb ifx" ■ppeo'^ to b*ve been la 
tall Ou bad. Bat, Id earl; vufkre, the ume in^vidual led ths march, ruled 
Hie boat, uid begin the onset. Hence thin verb came to Blgniff 6> rule, ind 
(d Ac^ { and, In both theea Hmses, it ralsined the Gen. which t>e1ongtd to It 
M ft verb of pteeedenct, Hiiu, 'Ap/^ vtat Sfj^uwf to mlt Men, C^r. i. I. 3. 

Kwiu JLiytii MMrifX" Sjrmp. 8. I. 

^ 35 !• ' |3.) '.^ffyeeftcef and adverht in the eompamiiit 
degree, and words (/ertvecf /rom f A«n. 

AH «ompu«tivea may be ranked vith worde of mfariorHf, u denotiDg the 

tiie Genitive ; as, 

Kjilrrtx UoT'S. 'Dort pomrfiJ than himt^, 1. S. 96. T» IrvrH IrfC 
X« SStvo, t^ ron /liter 4a<i (A> Aoth, L 5. 2. T«Jt« >iiSi->f>> PL 
I^. 894 d. 'Ati.rir* ™. ,«#*« i. 4. 17. 'r^« .i *.li i^.E Strtf 
i. 5. 16. 'ACfiJu^iw « urTi^nri nr /^x*'i ^ Abmamuu ame after lit 
ianfc,LT. IS. Tb £rTi;-i> ri, i^x,"' ^- MeoBX. 240 c. 'Hrrji^i<> 
■ImCfT. V. S. 33. 1,^( rtiim irl.i>ii*ri7rivi. 1.37. 

§303. ^.) Mt^ttp^ and proportidnid words (^ I3S) 


IlallABrA.Br/tpr wurr Kin^Zt, manji tima yfmr tyvm nwiAer, ItL S. 14, 

en. l.j OF CAUSE. SOT 

wi/irrm II, Tfir^iit rit rfiriu ■ i^i J" Imms Ti( t;m-«i Jarar Aariitf 
inj/..>», Irr.ji.ji.ii.f.r^-r.'a. riir r^nf (a. « => 3 a. t= 1^6=. 
3 a. d™2*. « = ,ie, /=Sa. ; » IfT a) PL lim. S5, b, c Alf tJ»- 
UJ uruHf liliXf ir ffrm Eur. EL 1092. 

(ii.) Genitive of Cause. 
^ 3S3. To the head of cac3E may be refer- 
red, 1. That from which any thing is derived, 


exerts an influence, as an excitement, occasion, 
or CONDITION ; III. That which produces any 
thing, as its active or efficient cause ; 3nd 
IV. That which constitutes any thing what 


In the lirat of these divisions, the prevailing idea is (hat of 
<0urc« ; in the second, thai of in/uence ; in tlie third, that of 
action ; and in the fourth, tnat of property. Or we may say, 
in general, that the first division pteseaxs X\\e material cause ; 
ihe second, the motive cause ; the third, the ejidetil cause ; and 
the founh, the conslitiienl. cause. It scarcely needs to be re- 
marked, that the four divisions are continually blending with 
each other in their branches and analogies. 

^ 354. I. That from which any thing is de- 
rived, FORMED, SUPPLIED, Or TAKF.N. To this 

division belong, 1. the Genitive of Origin, 2. the 
Genitive of Material, 3. the Genitive of Supply, 
and 4. the Genitive of the Whole, or the Genitive 

1 and 2. Genitive of Origin and of Material. 

^ 9SS. Rule VI. The origin, source, and 
MATERIAL are put in the Genitive ; as, 

tlafi/ii lu] rlii^iiriTiIii ■/'lytm 
MotU art ion (i« childriM, i. I. 1. 4>.i'. 
dnart hem§ made of t^ paltA^-treK, Cjt. i 
PI. Neatx. 'i^9 k. 'n. )' ICXnm, Sc^h. Tr. 40I. Ofri 'rii >■•;*>•* 
'i)t^»i n»»u nTla Eur. M«d. MH. Ti ir,).airmit I' ni i(X'' t 
WluaaibKaaagttliomld yo^dtrm from goto- mOhorUgf CfT.-iH. S. S6. A.- 
^ww r« iVrrm <rtrmr imfMnrm lb. SI. Xfofirtn iwirtfimi Ear 
&«L 93S. EJ.X* r» >-iy" FL B«p. 35? b Ti, mlfuXi, •> A 

960 BTHTAX. — ennriTB. [aoot m 

Eed. .194. OTrH «»•/••>> »x^ ii. 3. H (ef. OTh. « >. r. X. L 5. 10> 
Hifimfi.. .Wl.* Soph. EL HHJ. .\v>n' ■ . (<••«» fl><-'< ■■> *< 
X(f, ' boiling wilh wmlar,' PI. PhodD, 1 1 :l «. Ui^ivAi't rm •imrmfiVl 
Cod*. «):lb. T^ Xiym i/tii Awrimi urrU, PL Phadr. 1!97 b. 

NirrK. Tht Gni. nf (ovce or matrrlal orcuni, operiilly in the Epic p«t^ 
fbr other liiniu of coiutniccian, particidftriy (he uulrMmnlal Dal. ; u, n^ini. 
a rwfit in7in iiftrfa, mil' hum At gala mth ra^ng fin [fhm lira, u tbt 
■ooKie], a 4I.'i. [I>;i( ^ul^d/ii. H. 410. Xtr,., H.;..:^)..! nxiii iHt, 
Awuf KUitM iii Aawli [with water from] u tk /oaMmf la, $. USX. An 
trfu li^'w nn/Hli Z. SOU. 

% 3flS. That or whir,h one discourses or thinks may be 
regarded as the material at his discourse or thoughts ; thus we 
•peak of the matter of discourse, a vuUler of complaint, the 
nibject-ntatter of a coMpotilion, Sic. Hence, not unfrequeotly 
both in immediate dependt^oce upon another word, and even in 
the introduction c ' 

RnLE Yll. The theme or discoorse or of 
THOUGHT is put in the Genitive. Thus, 

T<S r •{!•■•> tt mHA tx" *■>■>-»• in, xr. ;i^ it uii«(>KffM«qr^d> 
toBOUiI, thai, ire^ Ft Rep. ^M b. AisAii^liff iiirar, Inr ftir X'^" **^ 
«7«1 ii^ntr, abtpvmg in rttpeCi to tJkem, Aov grtal and Kjhal a country Oiejf have, 
liL I. 19. TiiD y;,,..t,, ,1 . . u.w«i7, Ant in raprtl la tlH wffr. if (At 
miaii'iga Ul, (La. 3, i , Tm nmtiyrirtu ri fii , Soph. El. ;tlT. KA.t'»- 
fs <rni%h. Iiova^ hri, I Ttptctinghetiim, Id. Ant. I i^'2. X^mrriTm,^' 
iXl*'*' r^ftmrtt Id.lK:l C. !)54. Kmrnftnlut K rn Kifm i.mifU'.il 
, . iwifuZi CjT. viiL 1. «1. Tm n Jn-h ri.,S ^iXi^ iarnirn^ in *- 
furAiriM-u Th. i. .i8. OMn yif rtr rit ytimUn ■*>»>, rri r»n f ■» ni. 
rSfritlH PLSap.37j o. Ti Hiy.;!.. -i-ipirfut t^m^tu. Id.L ]40(c£ 
TJn^ H>i«{i» >^iif,f/u hAiw. 139). T; ti rk> ■'•;kA«> HmXSt, 
^ itlt^rwt, ; I««.., 1 ;/..t;«., ..^faiari i-i .Sri txu , A« 
xtof •/, iti.r PL Phndo, T8 d. T« 11 ris «{"t|, t> 'w M«h £u 
AadT. 361. Cf. ^438. f. 

NoTK. For the Gtn, of Ac Mnw mej be often nibinihited another an, 
more fi«qaeDtl]' the Noin., in the ancceeding daose ; thiia, Elik i wit •■• 
■MM.-, baiy Omwifi managa UL 

3. Genitive of Supply. 
^ 3JI7> Supply may be either idmndoftt or dtfetiiee. 

KuLE VIII. Words of PLENTY and want p)T- 
ern the Genitive ; as, 

s. Op PuCNTT. 'Aj-f/an Snfin 

T.^» iX'i. emongh of Ikim lUngi 

ynttitmi i». 6, KT. Hirri yij nAlm iri;..!! l»ri. il. S. 9. Ti» « 

Irnw J »i^ If.rlirr/tri. 10. lit. TUf^in* . .latitt »HHMllr- 

CH. l.J or SITFIuT. — PASTITIVE. 269' 

igm 0.4. 14. Kjf f r.. ^S^ . . lf.Xt rmfmi. Soph. Ph. I 156. 'O Ui. 

«» 1' I( ^1 rXfvr.ii »u> Eur. Or. :I94. nXiBriT . . f I'Xv TU. T. 

^. Of W^urr. T*> iiriniJiiw r<r>>iir, At wtff i«.>((;»vr»diu, ii. 2. 13. 
S^iilmiTwi . • SiT, Uire ia tiad of ilnigeri. iii. :I. Lli. OTiii J> iXirilvt 
i/mvriw rrifirMi/ii, of mhiil iiyHM I tlfiuld depriix BiDtlf, ii. X. \0. 'At. 
tfir-i i-rt(i^ 1. 7. ^. 'B .},«x' r"/*'" w »|.>Tn PL CrU. 40» b. 
rv|H>»ri<( lli <rirr» PI. Bep.;)6l b. 'U;l.V» lin'raim jhthJIioM 
». i. 5. M. n,xxi, l.i}ii •irf, £«n Tfi. I. 4t. 'T^» )' if„f,Mit' 
L ». 6. 'Aft^n: . *i>ii ■«•;(» L 8. 'JO. 0V«. rl );ii» Inra rw joi 
riri/iitiii Eur. Ale ^80, '0{f>iJI> f I'Xiv rcr^ii Eur. EL 914. X(i|. 
^t-mJIK <r>>iiTif lb. ST. 'Ei;'.;i..£ti 3' i xifn rZ,lrrit,>i. 10. 13. 

Note. Tb> Gen. which belongs lo Sli/m. and ;^;^^a u nrAi if ic-al latj 
be retained 1^ them in the derived aeiides, to ttaire, to rfquett, to ea^ro^tM 
Thus, 'Akktii tSriitt ■• iinrh, whutmr elx ytia inny dairt, i. 4. 15. 
E^ Xit"" '' ■' '•■ i't)fi, grant mi vhnt I wtiuld entreuf of yun (f 3S0}, 
CjT. V.5. 35. AJrxti' y-; d');- <■•;,<»»;•; xHC"' ^''"- Soph. Aj. 473. 

4. Genitive Partitive. 

^ 35S. Rule IX. The whole of which a 
PART IS TAKEN IS put in the Genitive; as, 

■H/u»«i;:x» wrf^rii^mtn, hulf of Hit uihoh armg. vi. 3. 10. 
Note. Thia Gen. has receivad Uie names of tke Gen. of At whab, and Ihf 
GtH. purtUiBi j the funner from iu denoting Iht wAn&, and Ibe Utter trma )ti 
deaotidg Ihia whole in > stale of dicinoii (paitio or paniuc, (n ifiHift, from 
pare, part). 

^ 330. Rehabks. I. Ttie partitive construction may 
be employed, — 

a.) To express quantity , degree, condition, place, time, dec. 
considered aa a limitation of a general idea, or as a part of an 

extended whole. Thus, 

HiiBf(> )' Iwrtv kMxm, ohtntniiif a linfe tlixp [■ amall portion at sleep], 
iii. I. II. 'E. n,Krf . . ru xM„y •■;•'•••»(, '■ ncA innineiit ifiui^ [In 
such a degree of], i. 7. S. '0 )' >.'< n»' SCfiax iKfXftu, ' to such a pitch 
- of ineolenoe,' Dem. 51.1. fU! «' /d» 1. ™t^ n^mmt J"^ ' in this state 
of preparaUon,' 111. ii. 17. Buiirirn Ic Ttiri <i>>yii« Tll.1. 49. 'Eel ^iya 
ix^t*'*'' it"'/""! Ih. 1 1 R. 'E^CsJuTr ir>ii tri Ui'uii x''t"' *" ™"^ "" '"' 
ourtknt mHmewhert upon their territory^ or upim aome p'irt of ^., Cyr. tI. t . 4-1. 
*H> fiir» ifii'^f, I'l wit mill-dag, i. i<. H. lar k/u^ j^M !<• it V"t lati i* 
Ot ,lag [at ■ late hoor of the day], H. Gr. ii. 1 . -ii. £<'( rS' i«if.f, to Hit 
duf, Eur- Ale 9, Pbcon. 425. 

p.) To express the whole as the sum of all the parts. Thus, 

Ti k-rmtiU. )■ rmtr' Uitrn rtfmt, aid n Ihf good dwell all Ihi gHaS- 

■■ —■ " h «u/./«i J". Th. 

5 300. 2. The whole is sometimes put in the case which 

S70 sntTAX. — GBHvrm. Ibook ni 

belongs to the part, the part agreeing with die whole instead 
of governing il (^^ 333. 5, 334. 9) ; as, 

'AsnSwi> i^w ■ - Ultn tuitrtSj h rn^i tlxUii, n A«r tAot yrw, mmi n/ 
yn, fmnrUr m Urn lumm* i fat ifit i><'«x, ■. r. X. *. 5. I J . n>X«r»nir» 
»aj si iu/iLftMj^m ri im f*l^ - - IriCaXni for VlMXttrtmrutr km} tZ* {f^^ 
X^; *. r. X. 111. li. 47. Ailwa riiiw i-H-ifii ^ «n(n al/nilu Eur 

1%. liiag. 

V, At ^eatef part knd beat dtmnHthtd^ and but ftw rtuvtmdt 

th. i. Hg. 01, yj^ T^» .^, r^ ■■r.r'«» K;i.., », /.!> •■{.T.V.f, TJF !■ 
Ari^nf Ij^u I Soph. Ant. 21. In thi fbJluwing example, the second put 
hu three mbdliitiona ; lU •> {(•«, «' ^> ■ . iTij:ifwn' - ••' K, . . w ^Ir • . 
A«;;C"<»< •''»•■. •''«' 1' •! 111. Til. I », 

S. It l> oAen U the option of (he writer whether he w[ll employ the Gen. 
partitive or m umplR- fbrm of coostructian. The two forms an) •ometimea 
comtuned; u, E7r' •!> Siti, I'n S;iti>> Hi i 'avTo ■■{••'•n, 'a god, or 
(me of mortals,' Sopti. El. 199. Iln m »i»t t I><>-' infoyit i Ear. 
Btt:. 1^4. On> . . p^'mn «t4i )■•>•. >i, « St^. ri. .£;»''» Id. EL 

^ 36 1. According to Rule IX., any word referring to a 
part, whether «u&tlan/ivB, adjeetiee, adverb, or verb, may take 
with it a Cien. denoting the whole. Thus, 






..;.«. «frdp«r«»/tt,™» 





n Ir- 

:.-i. T(, 


.. .,(. 



Hw- i.i,f ™ ;,,,i(- 

At. Eq. 4 


SnuBES. M, When plaos ia deetgnated by mentioning both the eottntry and 
(he lavm, the (brmer, aa tlia whole, Toay be put in the Gai., and may precede 
thelattv; ai, 01 li 'A/*»;u . . if^ltutri r^i Xifiinni I. 'EXMtStr^ and 
tht AiheaiaHi tmuAtil upon Iht Cherrtmete at E3eSt [at Eieils. a (own of tile 
Cherroaeae], H. 6r. U. 1. 90. 0<' n>Xi».r^«i -rm 'Arri.ii I, 'EXiiv7» 
■■i e(/>;i IrCuXJiMf, the I>ebp^iiK!iLim4 airading Atticii at far oi EInA 
tad TVu, Th. i. LI 4. -Q ti rr(.irii ». nuiirg. »)'/>,. *-;.^. .(f.'.iTi 
rnr 'ATi-xni ii Oim*> rf^ni, ' came opon Attica first at CEnog,' U. ii. 1 8. 

)S. The Gen., In all caaea in which it la iCrictly ■partitiix, may be regarded 
as property depending upon a sutislantiTe deocting the part \ and Iherefbn 
the use of this Gen. in connection with adjeotivesi verl^s, and ad^'erlH may 
be refbrred to dhpeia. Thns, T» ii-Xm, 'Elli^»> r„\, [sc. i-VO' 'E&*»- 
^».i T, [sc. ^i(«] *-m ^J-nyyir (4 362. S)- E'V! J' -i™> [«■ irm.«« 
mil], >D[ ivl' i> rmnfriEn IikCh'iiti. ITili^iii, lai ^.fj^nf •& ^itii [so. 
«l{.rj -irj 1 S 364J. Pi!) yi tSU^iS, i. e. (> .i!i~ /ii(i. ™ >!( (i 36;i)- 

y. If the Bubftantive duioting the part ia eiprewed, and that denoting tha 
whole is a form of the same word, (he lailer is commonly omitted ; a), Tpft 
i<!;i( tit y\fiun(mt [sc k-A(it\, three mta of tit nmn aged, T. 7. 17. Aa> 
»;. Tfn-Curariii n-fartyi^ ilL 2. 37. Ei'njijlri «f •fX""'{'''' 'CIW ™» 
ay^uiMEr Symp. 7. S. I , 

«■.>!(, 1 

™. «t 


i. 1.5. 


>., L -J. 

,mi iK).. 

imi S 


, L 8. 18. -E. 



tU. 2. 


■ l"'t" 

Ear. AndT. 

^ 363> B. ANwrnvM. 

Note. Tha ai]-«iJTCH which an most frsqi>Bntl7 nsad to denote > put 
Vt t^^aei partitivtM, 

a. Tub ABTicub T>^i /ili mtrSr ^irdinni, ttli 1' iEiC>;Li>, iltir 
amte of tfumj and baniafted o&trtt u 1.7. 

oeW Gnwb, i. 7. S. 'Orr,, . . rSf rmfi &><rA 
l>.iftn.m, tZ, r.K.^i^.L-. tS. TJ. li A>;e., 
T»( r..i£T.if ri, ifi'xT Mem. iL 8. 3. Et 3i • 
fl nmkifi-r i. 5. 1. 'EEiiiii>«>i>( t, tit pH-^y. 
ipftftii hiftm(nt t Soph. Ant. 1229. See ^ 3.59. 

y. NUUBBAU. E*t «l> rrfmraySi, m> dT 
Tow riiTi . . »r )>iTvX»r Ar. \ttp.95. ESi 

1179. 'Owirt. fj< <-»> ■#<;! San;^!^ <eiri/>fi»» i. 8.' 37.' n>;ixi n* 
Sr>;>y.'..i. 3.5. 'Ol/y.i /.I. ■vr»>ui. 1.3. 

}. ScPBRLATiv^ and words derived from tbem (by vlttne of the indnded 
■4jective, ef. § 351 j. Ef ri^i ifirrti, H >;>£>, anon; (A> iot •/ tlW 
ftrriaiiA, i.f>. 1. Tw rirrififfv »> Ev^v rinr rii:;t:«> lb. II. 
■Ev; «-i.<7r*» i[./(.Jr..Th.LJ. 'n, yi, i iti,rnUi.-2. ISTmrnf 

•KM of thrir age, Mem. iii, 5. 10. A^', j >al.>.iri-iuii-aj tki >E> ft 
ii«;i><r«n<Enr.Mcd.947. Qi imrif' •';«i-> jivro A^es. i. 3. 

1. Fabticiplbs. £» ni rafifri ru' rirrSr, vilh thou pmeat af 
kit /ailk/iU oftoKlaiti, i. 5. IS. K^ »> jXXm r« jS'i'Xi^ii'i. owf 
of tlutatintytnuHHilxiMtd.L 3.9. ILtu Ji «i Ji »> ^rfSmrmt XtXw 
■ v/tiia flf«, A rSr $tit ■■riiatiii(«/t>ir^i>a Cyr. vUi. 3. 41. 

^. Other Adjectivss. *E;^» r» ii-ir/af vlanat rivr iftlrnt, 
hamg half of ttz rear guard, ir. 2. 9. *n raXao* >-■{/!.••. iH- 
/afal of Brghit, Eur. Berad- 5R7. Tiii i^i^i.i »> lUfurmt, the 
good aaumg ■«, Ar. Pint. 49.;. AiiXs/a liiXa/«> »;i7(, imtciaij of 
tk urtichid art Aoul Soph. EL B49. Ti Xiirti riii i^ifst iil. 4. 6. . 
'En^Mnif yat n> <r*lXfl> Th. iL 56. 'O fiXa j-oaiaat Ear. Ale 
460. ^ri niXarv£>.£Bch.SappL96T. 'AmIm ftiymKn Uirat Ix'f^' 
!:(;/;>> But. Andr.SSl. T« JxXa» ramfi « ri^ji-ra ilL 2. US. 

^ 363i C. Adverbs. 
.. Of Plijje and Tine (S »59. .). O^i' la-o yi, l'^> •:?>, / *»» 
not vhn M tti'lA [upon what pait of the earth] n are, Ar. Av. 9. I^i yi 
*l}a^>;Pl. Hep. 59-.Jb. na>ra;t:*" n< r» PI. Phgedo, 1 1 1 a. n.S 
(TH-' J p^»> 1 Soph. EL :I90. T ■ 1 1 f yaf uav rit iyeSr, ' in a remote port 
of the ctHinUy,' i. e. 'Hi (turn town,' Ar. Nub. 13x. 'EtraSia rai wjaiiu 
iriirt(ifnliu Uem. Ir. 3. 8. 'EiraiVa Xtn H ni lixubt, yw are mxr at tha 
point of lift, PI. Rep. 3'i8 c Aiic «• Xiyy PL CoDV. 317 e. 0» 1^ 
7t' i! ■•!>«; 1 So^ Aj. .<86. or <r{>aaAi>Ji> ariXfi/ai Mf-r^t Dem. 49. 
If4. lli.'nf ffi.TiSif 1x^1 Sopb. <Ed. a 17a 'E^HXarroixxiiiExx.. 
/>. T»'0.i;><; n. Gr. vii. I. 15. Hi Vfir. }i tw nra^S (-(^Ca..)!., (at 
Mi( ta adsiBux fur Olio the rittr, Iv. 3. 28. "Enmiti/Sn /tlxf Tip^v nM ii^i- 
fat B.Gr. TiLS. 19. 'Om >.'>■.. TIC «;ai, at vAuHmt pnat n/ fnu, OL S. 18. 

mUt. lU iJic airliat age, PL ecoi. a-^6 K. ^ .lH>^'^k' 

073 STNTAZ. — tillMITlTK. [bOOK III 

f. Of 9mtb w ComtTtiM (i 359< ■; «ap«ii)1y wilb the verba Ix" ■^ 

of] yivtipu^ Eur. Hd. B57. 'Ais^nirai, ^i il^i fi;.i'af <-(•! ti ni • • iri 
luh ' in what a itste oT frimdihip be wu,' i. t. ' wbat ft'kniiahip he bore, 

flodh DHtf Ao^ Aimaeif in rcifnef bi ipeHf, i. «. 003* Moit aeeoniittg to hin JfJitfJ* 
lb. <v. 5. 15. 'Hi i(yi, Jx- Snph.(FA.l.:i45. m, iyu.ts K»>u< 
Jkw <li> H COM « m IlKlrifr! Eur. EL ~^l. Of to rfiro . . f;t:>'i t^}'- 
vu. f. 56. ri>t>i ^ii <>A Jli i->iVli, fibu •n j^m iWutuf (» (Aw, Eur 
Herad. !f 13. '£:£•>'■' •■ ff"«i «/ S*"' >4V>»>^ l^- I!>PP- ''€'•'■ '-A'- 
l(«i ^Lli>h» ■; mum TEu> PL Rep. -104 d. 'Oni . . iy.t.tSi m f'^y 
«t«f OH-alb. £71 d. 

y. Of ibe 8iJFifm.ATiVB Dsobeb. 'AfulirrsTa «ii>m, imwC nuiiarinr^ 
d/ Bit i- 9. I :l. I Ifin^xtw fUi>jm nn 'Ei;ii»> L C. 5. OJ ^> kni- 

§ 364. D. Vkrrs. 
The Genitive partitive, in connection with a verb, may pei^ 
form the office either of a subject, an - apposUiet, or a comple- 
ment ; taking the place of any case which llie verb would re- 
ouire, if referring to the whole. See § 361. ^. 

■. Tha Gmilive Partitiv 

a aa a SuhjeM. 


.) Of a Fi*lti Vtrb. 

E.V11- miri. 

<'). .a- 1. 



thtrt an nm. of Ihf 

, which ynu a<dd >»t uu. al 

nil. ii. .1. 1 

fl. m.ti 

r«.r« rratf^i., a, «--.<. ^.fw «X.».>. i. £. 

. T« K 


{»/!/.■.« . . ).!(.'■. 

Tb. i. lis. n 

.; ^™ 

•iif, <^ tcarmd botOt. Ik 

^ /«« to *^_« 


vii. -i. W. 

Ov)' i, 


.£. ■'{.r.'.u .fn wxn 

-i/„ CjT. 

V. ■-■. •.'a 


K.1 lir.^y><^ 

.fS, r, -r 

i, (..A-.*, 

a*) 1.1. 

Wfi, ,irA, Ont Ihvt 


of themider 

I »>'(A Mo« 


of tikw until Urm, lii. 5. 1 

S. OS. Tin *( 

.ni«« •»■» 


Ae IhrngAl 


to <mj. OM, CjT. 

a...; i; 


™i(X-' /""•"«' 

Rap. Ath. 1. M. 

§ 38A> ^ The Geaitivs Paitilivg aa an Appo^tire. 
Tlie Gen. partitive in tha {dace of an appoaitive is nuwt common with im6- 
atantive verta, but ia likewise fonod with other verba, particolaHj thoee of 
rec^oxiiig, alttnintg, anA makiitg. ThOB, Ous lyi •rtimt ii'^i, / iin »( oM 
«f tiKK, Cyr. viS. :!. 4S. tit fiXrirm l/uiy i(it^iiu Tia>*>>, Abn vbift 
bt mimlitnd aiimt nf atg diarut cAiUin, Eat. Dacch. 131 H. 'Eriyx"" V^ 
».: ^•i.Xa. J>Th.iii. TO. Kal l><) «•/.»..»( f-f. wi<->.ff.i... PI. 
Rep. 4:f4 0. Tt!^ i^lnt ■ ■ »' '>•; U*ri> )>{{>.> •rxwaWu lb. 
567 e. Th> fi<'}'i>T»>«i^;in'.. Isocr. SSpd. 

^366> 7- The GeuitJTe Partitive ai! a Complameot. 
The Genitive partitive is used as a complement, 
I) Generally, with any verb, when its action affects not the 
whole object, bat a part only ; as, |i_' 

AmCirrmt ri« fiM^Cit^iinv tf^KrtVf taking tt part n/ ^ barbarian army, 
L 5. T. Tm mntimT . . If-^yn, alt of the homscomb: iv. ». !». 'Afiii; 11 
rth mSjr/tmXiirmir, lad teMtinff route !»/ I&t eaptiprt, vii- 4. 5. SoytAXt- 
rmtu X»;Q£ytht MMi wtXrmrrii ibaJ rit irXITt/f iv, 1, 3*i. Hu^irt^ 
•Vvu »• '■ ™ «^« «i«^ffi<«>'r iv. a. ^i. Ka} ni n ySi Iti^iui Tb. 
G. SS. itmtnxit lx» t < ;i: i n . Suph. (Ed T. 709. Suni.iy.irt rS, Xilit 
Ar. Ach. IS4. T» ■;■£> UXiimf At. Eq. 4l'0. Ilafi.iai ni 3v{-<, 
,^u( optning lit door, Ar. PsK, :>0. 

§ 807. II.) Particularly, with verbs which, in their or 
dinary use, imply divided or partial arlion. 

Rule X. Words of SHARirJc and touch gov- 
ern the Genitive. 

1. Words of sHAsiNo include those of partaking (part- 
taking), impartiTig, obtaining by distribution, &c. Thus, 

T£> ■»>»»> />iTi;^i<T, (0 ihan H the dimgen, il. 4. 9. Tni-}! s>i>a»» 
nx"(t -'' ffrloAe s/ thii jnrtwit. Bar. Med. ^03. T£i iup{»»£> /iirnli. 
t.iTK, wjnrfn; our Jm/i, (Ec 9. IS. K.i>ir>.D( ira.iwt, vli. S. 3B. 
'A>l;ll .1 (r,Mfd^lr.i r.Sl t» ■i.}^» Th. iv. JU. S<.Xli.'.^.^s. » 
nfli n >ilf« riw Eut. HkI. !)4f!, HmiixTir »• iv^hbw j ri^umt, 
'^lM»^euo[,' Bitr. 1.V9. T.E iiAuk vxioXTiEira, 'bBarioK mtn d;' 
Cyi. L 6. es. nSni ifMw( l«ii;>i. »• l»T.£ Usm. i. V. KO. T» 
xiy» •'{(•rj.jf Em. Snppl. il^U. SuftCiiXXiT-i . . tiDi )•;>>«■•( Eur. 
Med. 2fl4. -AyH U r if ;^;^^r <-{>•■ ». I> ,l(i^ <-»«,, fl.e.« » m> 1. n. 
Xi/>r'*^/>«x*' 'ey". V""'* f'^'-* •■!•-•;[ Mem. ii. 1.33. 

§ 308. 2. ToncH may be regarded as a species of par- 
tial action, affecting only ihe point of contact. To this head 
belotig, either by direct connection or by obvious analogy, 
verbs of laying hold of, hiltiTig, meeting leilh, &c. Thus, 

'Arririm rii 'dfffit, to loach ihtha), i. 5. 10. 'Es-iXa^Ciiiiriii miriS 
rii Jtbh. tayi hoM of hii MhieU-rim, W, 7. 13. <t>ifsiiXs tiiyxat'i, hitt 
pheraulat, Cyr. riii. 9. SB. 'E{.>>ir«/ai rw rfflxor-i. Co nach Iha 
itingtri, Ui. 3. 7. 'A.)(£> iyiJit wiuUi rraiTnriif , Auci'n; >«< ii>i'U (Ai 
■m n^ Araw Amm, Soph. Ph. 7 1 9. ■O™. Jl T.BTM nw &.>?! Cyr. i. n. 5. 
Tiili Tl ni rtmy,.^, wuitift It^nftiMOt PL Bap- ra^ b. l^iv;^l«l( <^>I'I.> 
r<«>>TH iij(i( Eur. Or.T9.'i. Anw « X.;;^i>ii rn lifiSi nf K»(.i^w 
Cyr. V. £. T. 'AtTiXii-^iii-ai »> ■'(sj'^tio Cyr. ii. .1. <!■ 'EfJ^ifs 
■tn;, n (Aotf facp Aa&l d/ Uxi, tU. 6. 41. K«>|> rii rmrmlaf Ixirlai, la 
•CrtM n amnua >r on- H/e(y, vL .1. 17. 'Ej^i^i.h » «£»>, mtf /ofluiDJii? 
tA<K, L S. a. Til iXi-i^K yi^JfxiM^ iii;-y»i„( 3apli. Ant. iai. Ai. 
ytrK4 rit nXivnti rii;(i;>, 'U have come to hii and,' ii. 6. 29. *Oiniiip 

^ 369. Remarks, a. Elence, the pari taken hold of is 
put in the Gen., in connection with other forms of construe* 


'Ej^tttnitiini rtr'O^im, IkerleitOnmta if AiipnBi,l.S. 10. Ti 
rmUf' itAt iii^Liu . . rJw X"t*' ^- ^*^>* ^^^- '^'< " «a:<'««^>» 
tytrtm... wXtmifiM, MaOl-TtKb. SSS. Hl> . . ^*im x'(" ^i" ^^Bia 
96B. Ti.^. >;vwnit ■*;(;'••( Sopb. Ant. 13^1. 

$, To the uuli^ (^ varbs of toacb may be referred SKpremions like thg 
following: Ti, mtrnXSi ^urUyu I" ^™t« [Wu rracCureil in] hii ^aul, Ar. 
Adi. 1180. Smr(Xn n, if,,).:, At. Pu, T1. 'ILrwrri i-h «(■»>» 
fwTf r^u *vf «tfUiX«f K^rvf , thty ckarr/mt Cmtintu wiih havhiff hroiaii her head, 
Itoa. SRI a. Brm amri^i ni mirn ^ititn Tit ni^^jw Ar. Aob. 1 166 
CC ^ 437. 

^ 370. 3. Several words of obtaining, attaining, and 
receiving, govero the Genitive, from their referring primarily 
either to distribution or to laiich. Thus, 

*Ihi riii T;Mm>iuriii ^ulfmi kuyx^'Ji "^ ■*' /"agrteaBe itt prrjier portiM, 
PL Leg. 9. 3 e. K;ii>;>>*^ir> ivSiiif, to tiiA»]l luMag, D«m. 1065. SS. 
T» limilk. ri.)';t;i.ii., to oltaw yov righU. yW. I. no. 'EriEIAU 
Iwcr. IfS b. KisiiA>, •£« r» ri^rit-ri^rai, •:» >•»»»;' iv^> 9o|^ 
£L SGS. Ow l^-Ri 1{ 'Lirmi .ii(i: Enr. Med. 39. 

MoTB. Tba Mudent can banSj Tail to ham ranirjied ths gnat niiery irf 
ineUphockal and tranritlTg meaningi in whicb wurda of Bhiiing and of 
■k an anpIoTad, not ivij in Gnek, but liknriM in our own and in otbo 

^ 371. II. That which exerts an influence as 


this division belong the following rules, respecting, 
I. the motive, reason, and end in vieio ; 2. price, 
value, meril, and crime ; 3. the sensible and men- 
tal object ; and 4. time and place. 

1. Genitive of Motive, ^. 
^ 373. Rule XI. The motive, reason, etnd 
END IN VIEW are put in the Genitive. 

To this rule may be referred the use of the Gen., both in 
regular eottstruclion and in exclamation, to express the person 
or thing, on aeeoimt of which, in eonaeqiunee of which, yin- tht 
sake of which, t'n honor of which, or to affect which, any thing 
is felt, said, or done. Thus, 

m. Wmt Vkbm. T.Srtt n . . ^nXS, <m Hit actmmt I aag you, C}T. 
Viii. 4. 23. M.r'i; irniirtirru, mvmg for Un, lb. V). 3. %!. Hull. 
mirZ, mmriUiU., juving luAmg for Oitai. tb. liL 1. »T. T» fdj wAltti 
fan^itaM. lb. v. 4. 32. ZiiXf n ni • • ! , ni K loXfat myi Sofk. 
EL 1037. 'H fi'l(i.>J.«. . Jx*>*-*"I<1-<£>1'T.394. Tavrai I»I^ 


^ n, I iaacli fOK fir •■a- KJt.Eai. Or. SI I. 'Liin«. n r£>li yittirMt 
mmi tii yiriim lijiai r' Miilfmn, 'by theM knees,' jbe., Eur. Hec. 75^ 
Tlwurn Ayi-i l-'iftm,, ' in honor of,' At. Eq. I OS. T • E 3iihiu, ^>ii Umtlf , 
For vAat do I [oae\ Pasia, twrbx iai»at Al. Ifub. S3. n{.«tTH-iu n, « 
MUTiita iiiaiiif mmI x^t'""' '^ "^f ''''^•'( '^W*'*- ' '^ 1^^ "^^ *^ 
pcewnt pleasure and favor,' Dem. M. 23. KarmffifiSn, rw . ■ /■■ Avrin 
XiTi •iriii, ' eo that It may not pro&t,' Cyt. 1. 3. 9. 

$. With AojEcnvsa. ESUi/u,, . . rtS r(i*ir PI. PliHlo, S8 e. '11 
4uu«;<irq[ Ti;^>iif, 3&iH(i«(Ay (nxiir At. Av. 1433. 'n nXui' 1}^ 
ri«i>3apLEL 1^9. *n Iwrix^Hi rj* l/tit( ■vful/ci Eur. Hed. lOES. 

y. With AovebbB. Th^i Txh tSi ■'■;i>iB, m ooeouit o/ aUijmu, 
L 4.5. Tib ^« 9i»yi» Ixo, fed lAtf iluuild mope, iii. 4. :<5. Ilt^ai 
y IsMn TiDli w f.Ctv liiifr Soph. EL 4-JT. Ili.fiw H I):*w» '» 
iltXfiv ri/rmiTit Cjr. V. 'i. T. Xilinf fi^io icirZ, Tli. iL 63. 

1. With Notng. 'Er»i najit JUmi mirtS -rptSmXiit, 'pangs odU* 
■eooDnU'Soph. TV. 41. n.X>ukt ytiit* riEl' £• Untiu X>rmi, 'bylhk 
beaid,' Eur. Or. S90. Or«{, r< TfUt /urw i^fif' "r(i lb. 433. 

u With iMTBSJBCTiOHa. iftiv ta iilfti. Alat for At mbU'maxI Cji. 
IU.1.39. A;^- ■>■£. Eur. Here 899. 0.>» la/i>fr*f vii 'U.^r, 
•i>ui 1' I/..; lb. J.IT4. -Oi n,i,ix,S ,r(*rtif.Mr,, rtSil MkI^ Fen 
IIS. lanamiiw .sjiftAr. Eq. I. 

C. Ih SrapiA Exciahation. Tii rrx^i, Itfy iB-luei I Cyr. ii. a. 3. Tat 
/■(•{('■I, ITjW/uAV; At. Nub. 818. 'a Z» &tnXu, fie ;iiirrJTiir*, 
«wi> ffiwi lb. I5'i. "Ai-iXXti ^rwjn-m, nS xi'i"'*""l ^- Av. 61. 

§ 373. Rehaiks. 1. I^e Genitive of the end in view 
is put with some words of direction, claim, and dispute. 
Words of direction include those of aiming at, tlirowing at, 
going toinardsi and reaching after. Titus, 

I to taie aim al ntm, C.VI. i. 6. 29. Ai™ )Qt 
a ttma at him, Eur. Baoob. 1096. 'EiH IliA. 
Pdlme, Ar. Ay. I4t!l. T/i ykf .vrf Irrn 
r>i I For rcAn I'l (Acn bint ditpUrt witit hint tkt 
'y [makeefbrlho Knerelgnty in oppoailim to him]? ii. 1. II. 'il*n 
rit^rn r. .<-.;;, r.EiJt*' J.}*;* TiUJi Soph. Ant. 1033. 'H^ //^« 
irirjH r^j;i riv EuT.Cyd. £1. 'Iliai T>t v^irsi, fa^rmcuirrfifAaf vAicA 
if fartAer on, i. e. to go fartiur, to procad, i. 3. 1. Aityu 2' T^jr tfB/a«if«'« 
t.ii rf„t.rirt, Soph. Aj. 731. OJ^rif iwtirtitStrt ie'riii, tJitm 

, bgirydaim lu the tt^ at, PL PoL £89 a. Tii M f ;*>•<• §1 , . i/if 

rCnri Isocr. 98 c 

S. The student cannot bll to remark the ease whh which veHis of motion 
pass into those of simple tjfori and daiit. Thus, Ti/tn, and. more commonly, 
XpUfUti, (0 lend o/mt'i xlf to, to null to, tO ttriTt for, to teei, to dcnrt ; i^iyt' 

SopJi. Tr. 514. TtTf ii£ni ffu>/.i.«i Cyr. iiL 3. 10. '0(l£<r«» ric ijitiXfx ■£ 
ruMem. i.2. 15. 2-r(iT,i,t ipxfirm lb. IG. Tvii afiyf^x Hier. 7.3. 




^i)„ , . 



Xini ri': 



276 KTNTAX. — &SKIT1VB OF FBICB, &C. [bc )K Iti 

2. Gtnitive of Price, ^c. 

h 374. Rule XII. Price, value, merii, 
and CRIME are put in the Genitive- 

a. PkICB. Irrn, h . . ttSirrt rtrriiMr* tufliiiSr, the iorlt, mlicA In 
kad kU fir fijtf darict, viL H. 6. 'llnlrtmi . . ^ilfi /ti't* nXAn a;yih 
eiimia.^.Ml. UtKl^.i r»( lExXm iriiXin Ham. i. e. t>a T>. V l^ 
m1» f«)w •i'tx'! '' f^i-i^imf, ti Xi'"' '""■ ^°'- "*^ ^^ 
^•&> ^ %;'i^«''*" »■ »«Tn laocr. H b. 'A/^uUj(ti> ■ . iwiXirinn ra- 
Xi!>i->> fnu Dem. 159. 13. 

B. Taluk asd HiiatT. UiKXtS X^w i^ tr^tirif, unrfA atidi to Me army, 
W. t.2S. 'A.3,., £&« tS. IXi./if.'.f LT. ». Ti, MmXXifTm. 1.vt.> 
i^wforraiU. ':;. T. Ti ^Afm m.Xt> x^r.uf' iH-n ifiSt CjT. TU.Q. 11. 
ILuJu.. ■>■£.» ^i riE, !!■«{/•• 1' I^fii Soph. ni. 1008. 'Eiun-ii ^.th 
TM fffii iErx PL Pol. S5T b. H>.';>>>( an^a rifiSwrm, t! Xaf^mtifr,, 
Cyi. ii. 1. 1.1. E; .;> }t;^> ..ri W l;<..« t» ilU, r.^i,fm^ r>ir,m 
TtfJifuL, r*i [• n^unHiV rinirim PLApoL36e. [!;>*» yi riw h ia!/u. 
w nifuS rill Soph. Aj. £34. n(in>nf tkf «;ii{i<Tw PL M«Dex. V.'19'o 
(li>r the cammoa oonstniction of wfirti, lee k *0->). 

y. C&mE. 'AnCiw fifynn, oceusf of impielf, PL ApoL .35 d. ^ 

liiL.'x Ar. Eq. dfiS. K^.E^wi ni.rJ>r»>;» Stfuii Ar. Ar. 1016. T* 
■WTfl f • • I E inji{:t;>/wi PI. Euthvph. 4 d. 'E«unar*^t>i.- jui f ■ > • ■ Dero. 
55i. 1. OU.)f I.>;£it Irr. Xt.xiTmlUv .Ui ioX/.c Lj^ MO. 1. Tm 

HOTE. The Geo. ia wimetinieB used to express the jnmijhmrtii ; at, 9 ■ > li- 
riu ^^rHKf:>«>n,i,ndlh,Kpninnuncs''a,ttiKtnf deulk,Cyt.x.-:. H. SuX- 
l<^iU»>T>, irnyu 9...T.I. U. Gr. iL 3. 1-.!. 'A.«,.;<r» ii>T<<;.f,r<i.T« 
SsTiiria j ^cySr FLKep..558B. 'IlrT' l><:t:>i Iir^if 7i)^u« Dem. 
I3:j9. 11. — In thia eonatruccian (whicb is rare Bxapt nlth SuHnH), the 
ptHAmtat appean W be regarded either aa the duirl of the crime, <a «a tlw 
tmd n ROB (j 372) in jndicial procediuga. 

3. Genitive of Sensible and Mental Object. 
% 97 S. The object oi sensation, thought, or emotion may 
be regarded as its exciting anae, and, in this view, may be put 
in the Genitive. Hence, 

Rdle XIII. Words of sensation, and of men- 
tal STATE or ACTION govem the Genitive ; as, 

■• Of Skmsatioh. XVih iyiitmtrt, taO^I nf fund, W'i. \.^. Tivrm 
vi( iifmi, ' have a amack of,' i. e. ' Xiy' or ' knock at,' Ar. Ban. 463. Th 
»rl>(. .yiorii. iCiiimTf.t 'fcire a taate of,' Fl. Rep. 537 a. 0i'>« . . 
irf{.<'rir<a., U, catdi Uu mmt of m«t,v. X. 3. 0^.;e.i, i!:>.<.r> iik cm 
riltmt »>T«, ' heard,' L 8. 16. Tnli witrmt HitT-i ixtir/^rH, IrmiMw 
ru„^,,in.f, iTHem. iL 1. !tl. OS. i.f>.l^.>.> » r» fl-rt Cyr. L 
3. 10. KXv»> riXtiyyt Soph. A]. 9»a Oh}<;i N nrm SuifaTm 
*M> linClf iSn ilwio »n r^TTtH-if iHii, ifn XiyjiTw Jjxurii Mem. 



iXkwXin {(f.'irat Th. i. S. 'Etiift 
'S,w,rri^m. .Thh rS, if^ TiiEiK li. I. 7. 0iX. 1' iJ1;.[ /iiXX^ i 
ffit <■■<» J>H iSacb. Sap. 453. 'D.iiriK .. nilri* t» Ityn, 'na 
(UIMla,' <Ec. 3. 9. Ini i;ir« . ■ tiii^ hT U.^riint PL Prot. 3i!r, t. 
Ka;M . . 1> riiff yiilrAu, to Aow ten axil ocfKimM nU Qfrw [in tb* 
knanledge oF Cfnu by proof], LD. 1. Iliifai^ifii thiWik rit rilim, 
' making trial id,' iii. 2, 38. Tm ru^Sr i/tit rii;f >, ' atlenipt,' Th. vti. 
1?. 'E/iwi4(ti yif Stmt rm HmfkiynliH V. 6. I. 'Arii;>i !wn, nitii 
UL 9. 16. T;. i^wiifi ■i™ t;c^w>ll. 6. 1. Si.vr i;^- i^ f>Mli 
XiEtw PL ApoL IT d. Oi Tc'Co. «> ;>Yiiiiw Ar. Vwp. 14-^9. 'H<iii-i.>; 
m tZ, nr)i ^i»ii> Soph. El .172. 'Aii/i.i •-» H».tA» Dem. 15. -il. 

^370. y. Or Hemobt. T.frw lildi ^i/t.iK.i, Mw Oli^a w 
Ma roKiiiien, T. 8. 95. OUiiJt In n«n»t j^f/nnrf, 'made meneion of,' 
viL S. 8. TSt ^jcai ^>>r/...i£.^i. bocr. IS c« » .frfn £•■• 
^lyttifrori C?r. ill. H. 37. Hj ^' i,mft'nrjt •>■»> Ear. Ale 1045. 
BiwH ra*->(in-H iC^ik'hiIj^ihi Soph. EL 393. T» «^i/i ^> XfyH 
}.*ii/L,f i^f^, 'target,' Ear. Hipp. Vt<l<. "Tnn n, i-itn^ »r sb^' 
i^if» i«» Eni. Bacob. 2Se. 

X Or Cabk. Kii)>r/» Siiht, ta ean fir SatAa, tu. 5. S. T.£n* 
niu mikii,,qf Hum liot tual bUoymacart, L a. jh luK (ofa Ban o/ 
ttN, Cyr. 1. 6. J6. T« »;' iury n ^M;*» Ivi^iXi.'ti 1. \.a. 
'A/iiXii't iftSf mirSr, 'to b« canko* of,' 'to neglect,' L 3. II. 'En^ti-it 
iym4Sf, i/ttxlii Mufi PL CoDV. 197 d. 'U nit iynimi irifitXiim Cyi. 
le. 16. Hi ^iTB^ixiii r« ni l^i( l>(iM, ' repent at;' Cyr. liii. 3. ^S. 
'E! HfJ^t,/.! Suit irtfiirm n ffori'^iii, lin ■!> li^tXiini avni Uenu 

I£>ivi> Id. vilL 102. 

u Or DmiBK. 'EfHrrx T»'mr, dairhi thit, iii. I. 2!l. ETrw ti Xf 
/Ulni IrilefiiJ, 'deairea' [sets his miml npon ; cf. $ 373. s], iii. if. U9. 
Tkixi/""! ™ ^., tagtr fir lift, or eH^iig to ii/c (^ 370. N.), PI. Fhiedo, 
117 a. HiitJirin ;^^^T«r, haang kmgered fir weaith^ Cjr. viii. 3. 39l 
n;;Li( UiB/if^i 1,>ti,Kim PLBep.56^c EiTr>iri( rii lifirnf Ar. 
Pax, 497. 

(. Or Tabiodb EuoTunr. 'Aj-a^ai xit^iirH. / "cIiBn lit ipiril, Rot. 
Bhea. 244. Off »> i> «•>#;(;'''•" ''"■ ^"^i^h-x, bi^ irhiU kM o- 
rfori Aim « Einr jUn^ iL 2. I, 'ili iym in li f /irifrii, »AuA I AaUrat 
S^vige to jr™, Cyr. viU. 4. 16. A;»j^(i( »riy«i yi frf.w™, il u mma to 
griuigr him mr rOD^, L e. to rt/'iue Ant admunm, Symp. 1.1^. H*}i fitt 
phiir^i tiyftirir, ' doiy,' or ' r^ect,' .£ach. Pr. £83. 'A>,x' iv ^ij'*;;* 

^ 377< ReilUibs. 1. The idea of hiaiiitg paaseo, by an eaay tran- 
altiiui, into that ol Bbediaue (obedio, to <;ttw tar- to, to litttn to, to ebif, frum ob 
and aodio, to luar). Hence, icntdi of lixiiltiia govem tlie Gen. (cf. \ 405. •) ; 
as, Ttitm . . flanAikf <» imiin, thai that did wt oAcy [nr aert nr* ntfeet 
to] Ot tag, m. a. tN. 0;»K.;}.^>. i»ti »X«.'>t» Jrn.u.,. 'rc^.'fliiled 
tbdr invitations [listened to ttaera calling],' iv. 1 . 9. 'T<nij»Mj nv H#rrvHf- 
■», niA]b!( to lAe ATnajDusa. Kiir»«i' n J«> »> -i/^' PI. Criti. 120 a. 
'AixHorruV Ji tm riTfif Xi^h Jiw ri <r£( i £sch. Prom. 40. SfSi mi- 
AWki Tb. Tii. 73. Ilic x^ "i-iim, imtur Cyr. Iv. i. 19. 


8. Tais of njrb eatamonlf govern the Aoc ; uxi many varta vbtcb an 
fUlnwed bf Che Geo. iccording Co this nUs •ometiaee or oftoo take the Acq 
(egpeci&U}' of > neuter k^j^ctive) ; u, En>«ii> rwi riXi/uW vi. J. 10. Ai 
>MH>m Imw Mem. i. 4. j. Sea ^ 41i4. ^•, 4S2. ^, 

4. (rentftoe of TYme and Place. 
^ SYS. The time and place in which any thing is done 
may be regarded as essential conditions of the action, or as 
tooperating to produce it. Hence, 

Rule XIV. The time and place in which 
are put in the Genitive (cf. ^^ 420, 439) ; as, 

I. TlHE. 'fLj^M-j rii lujirit, ht uad in Ai night, rii. 9. IT. TaEra 
otrnc i<f>i;>( iyinn, 'in the da}',' rli. 4. 14. Ti, i,!).,, i\ ?>■.., 'in 
the evening,' viL 8. 16. 'iUri rni i^ifnt fXat li>iX#» . ., iXki itlkai 
«{>,'■.». iii. ;i. II. ETn ■■■TJr Itx n, t'n >•>' ii^!;si, 'whether by 
night or b; day,' iii. 1. 40. BanXiir » /tM^ura liu i|;»i;h>, 'within 
len days,' i, 7. 18. *0« tin li nXXiv ;i;;iiiii . , Inri^i, 'now fee ■ 
long dme,' i. 9. 25. 'Sfiimi t' ixirmt i)|>ii;af , 'ev«7 day,* T<. 6. I. 
IlikkiM,, ri, il»i;af, manf timf a day, Al. Eq. L'SO. iliaiii nfn «X. 
Aaut w /lat*! Cyr. i. i. 9. TfUlif^uiii riS /><i>ii, thrm /udf-Oaria 
a iHndi, 1. S. ai. Tw 1' mirm 9i«<>f Th. iL -JH, 79, SO. T.r 1' t«yiy«- 
^>» x>'''>"f 'i>- *• l^t 36, 51, Se, 116. 'E{ lr£> dAwii Ar. I^ys. 
SXO. OSn t» Eiw i^->». «;»••' »x'^ PL Fhudo, 57 «. Uif-i»» . . 
.i ,».(«; ):ei.,. Soph, el 477. Oi.i« ™ >..,*.S [ao. ;E(i«»] Twjt**-" 
A- MUMS, Den. 44. IS. 


8. PUCB. Air 

.! [«!. 

,;«..] /«;.. 

i.ri(, Ttnuining i 

1.10. 17. 

Ti.r .;. 

r,«E. r 

UJ.U,, ' 

wilhln the 

wJU.' Eur. Ph. 

i.. . . iy. 


Soph. Aj. ia74. 


,». . . H-xi. 

■;* nuii- 

Bi. T, 

Ic » -I.i 

■;>r u] >>x>/i w>L>LMX'i ■; 

™., PI. Conv. 183 b 

. Mrfr- 


., ,-.(,■) 

.. Saph. (Ed. T. 

nil 1) ^ >e-^v( Jf' u. (Ed. c. 100. n.)<'» 

Trx^nd' iw ri;!! ni.;* fiirr^vx" Soph. D. 9U0. 'Eri-.'ix furfifi. 
XwIfTiTUi JHii ^Xb ^Kh. Ag. loss. Anil H x"l'' " "lefM-UriiK 
.;.«« X^XiiCic Id. Pr. 7H. KTKA. n.ri;>[ *» x^^ , XOP. '£> 1^ 
m Enr. CycL SHI. 

RsMABKB. K. This nie of the Gen., Co denote the plaa tehm, occim raiy 
rarely in proee, except in thoee edverbt of place which are propeiiy genitfra 
(^ 3lO. I ) ; it, t! [sc. Tii-iii], ui uAtcA plan, alitn, mirtS, thirt, Ifti^ i> Uu 
aaeu platx, euim^/ttZ, wtwAerc, ^- Cf. ^ 4!2I . ^, 

3. In Epic poeby, thia Gen, ia aometimn employed to denote the place vpnii 
or DBcr bAutA any tiling movefl; oa, '^j);»tu a-ijim, tAiy iithaxce npim (Ar 
plan, B. flOl. ■£»/.., v.xU «);«i Si.wu A. U44. 'EXii^iiKi .luTt ^. 

y. The ideas of pliix and timr are combined in expreaaona like tlioae wfaldi 
(bilow, relating to j^nu-vjnnp (Fi. Joum^ a doy'i-iHarcA, tioni Lac diunuu, 
lioin dies, dag) ; 'EmumSiHl J-a; fratitit »• Xyyurin liUi •))(:¥••■ '^■f 

Uiur, 'daring the laat aerarteeii dsy's-marcbee,' ii. S. 11. 'M^i^vnrw . 
fwii^f •iAi«/m> JEsch. Cho. 710. 


Kroke,' ' ooue for ill,' Eur. U«rc. 93S. 

§ 380. III. That which produces any thing, 
as its ACTIVE or efficient cause ; or, in other 
words, that by which, as its author, agent, or giv(i, 
any thing is made, written, said, done, bestowed, 
&.C., or Jrtm which any thing is obtained^ heard 
learned, inquired, requested, demanded, &lc. 

To this divisioD, which must obviouBly refer chiefly to per 
Ktnt, belongs the following rule, which will of course be un- 
derstood as applying only to adjimcU. 

Genitwe Aetive. 
Rdle XV. The author, agent, and giver 
are put in the Genitive ; as, 

a. 'With Verba of Obtilninf' Heuini:, LeanUng, iDqi^ring, S^nting, £a 
Tafn a rir rrx'^'lt ""^ nbtairnKg Ait of fau, li. 6. HI, 'iU Ji ro 
r-xt-t lf>i^s<, djiMTH (' 370] Soph. PhO. 1»1 J. 'Aii<<w> Evfiv 1^ Hrm 

0;fnu . .fji:^^^ 'learned by uiquii7fh>m,'vi. 3. Sfl> Kni imtldtttrt J 
'A{*i)i( rip n(i SiHfWiM, ri rii ru^ /tMrMrHriaa, 'inqoind of.' lb. 'JS. 
Kit, li ^••., i wml, ul »)• Cyr. i. fi. 44. Aj..r. H r.* hJ t.^t. vL 
6. 3.1. 'E>h) x^ein. J>« riS >•■#£ {k 357. K.} CfT. T. J. 3S. S.fyA; 
..^^''"''■'•''''^"SoiA. Old. a llSl. 


Aj. B07. Ti. fii.-t HK^fU"» lb. ]3.53. ll.,-.i ^if;^.*( i-«tf iMfT^m 
fill *.iY'" > Soph. (Ed. T. 738. Tit >■■>? rir^ic fuTiiA;i Id. (Ed. C. 
11°9. 'AAjitx ■}'it;{.( lb. 1531. r<i;-[ JM<» tb. 1S19. K>ji£> 
n^ }»^;l>ti( lilu'i lb. ITUS. 4>;x>r lixian-., gaph. Aot. 847. Kt.'.urt 
lyl«rii Id. EL 343. — Thia on of tba G«n. ii poetic, and is most frvqumt 
with the Pvtwfje. 

y. With SubaUntivta. SiTif«>rii Eilfiv 'Aiitam, Xaiaph<ji't Ex- 
ptJitian of Cgna. 0! ^> ill T«[ T-< rflrCiri^T In.'iii ;(>/(•l'rl^ «' )1 
yi^Vi^H i-AJV r^ HMt TtfiM'i myAxi.itrmir Ae young rtj^ou* in Ae praitet of 
Aar tUiri, and Iht eid dijight in Iht homin paid tJiaa by llu grmng, Uem. U. 
1. S3. "H^t iXmrum.!, KOHdermgt caned by Jttno, Sxb. Pr. 900. 'Sir— 
t ^U . . nifULrm Suph. Tt. 11 3. 

§ 38*. IV. That which constitutes any thing 
WHAT IT 13. To this head may be referred what- 
ever serves to complete the idea of a thing or prop- 

280 STKTAZ. GBttrtlVE. [bOOB III 

erty, hy adding some distinction or characteristic 

Genitiee Ctnulituent, 

Rule XVI. An adjunct defining a thinc 
OR PROPERTY IS put lo the Genitive ; as, 

Ti Hli.itf frfirtii^.-lit anty ef Mtm, L 9. SI. 

^383. Remarks, a. The thing ob propertt CBFinED 
may be either distinctly expressed ly its appropriate mord, or 

may be involved in another word ; aa, (Jnoilf lic in ^aailtiu, o«- 
ToaiTii in aaxQantiu (^ 389). Cf. %% 351, 362. i, 391. i, 394 

^ 384. ' p. A genitive defining a lubstantice is aometimea 
connected with it by an intervening vxrrd, which is usually a 
wubitantive verb. See, for examples, i^^ 387, 390 ; cf.^SeS.— 
This form- of construction may be referred to ellip»i» f thus, 
Vfr [arSfanofl iiiLr wf T^axovia, he wo* [a vian'\ of about 
thirty years (§ 387). 

^38o. y. A mbntantivB gnveming the Gen. is ofUn tatAntood, 
particalarl; ciii, am, tSiut, himm. Mid otha- wordi denodng domatit niat'fm 
at atodt. Illiu, Ti.m i To^ C^ Uiemnaf Tbinu, ii. 1. 3. *il ^W 
[k. »iyiLT,('] 'A^rifHt Eur. Iph. A. i570. Bwr.'wc rit 'Ir<r!tv [m. ynai 
■if] At, Eq. 44». 0J;.;i ^' ({..I^mt' It «£ n»^^« [m. Jjm.J, 'la 
PitltUiu't [bouse].' Ar. Ach. ltJ2-.;. E.', .jAi.« LUnikn nnn f«rittrtm 
Cjr. ii. 'i. 9. Tk> i> 'A}f>*T» ■■*» Eur. Ale. 76 1 (cf. 'E> 'A^mv }•/»•( 
es). 'E> -A^l.1, Soph. AnL 654 (cf. El, *AJ» V' '^'^O- '^> 'A'nl* 
nf [ac ;i;t3 Uam. iii. 13. a. i:, T;if«.;.c [nc j>rf»] Ar. Nub. .SOS. 

1. The Gen. ii often lued in pert^unt. particularly witli x^l"'- '^''Hli ""^ 
hj the poets, irith )i/ui[, />rrn, iiuly, xMfM, hold, liifoi, »nmt, aud aimilai 
Tords. Thus, ili/oi 'A)*^ijii»»t = 'Aya^</ti»B Eur. Qec. 72^. *fl ^i'>.. 
rm-TB y«,iL,.i, 'I>»irr#[ »>{■ Soph. (£d. T. 9iO. *n ■■•Ai>» ;»^' ^;l;« 
t^ Enr. Or. 10B:i. S« 5 395. «. 

I. A mibsumtive gaverniog the Gen. Is sometimes used by the poets instead 
at an adjatm i as, Xfurii . . iri; tht gold of nmrdi, Tot 'Ers xC"- 9^'" 
teordt. At. Plut. 268. *fl ^it^u i^qi ri:i>i £ai±. Pr. 1091. rii> niii'siin 
^;» Eur. PU. 56. 

§ 380> An adjunct defining a thing either expresses a 
property of that thing, or points out another thing related tc 
IL An adjunct defining a propebtv points out a thing related 
to that property. Hence ihe constituent genitive is either, 
1.. the. Genitiee of Property, or 3. the Genitivt of RetatUM.- 


1. Genitive of Property. 

^ 38T< The Genitive of property expresses qvalitg, di- 
mention, age, &c. Thus, 

•Hi SrSi M TfimMttTm,lu wu aboat lUrtji yian old [of «boul thirty jeara], 
iL 6. SO. n>r^» Um ri tSfi <rXi'f<v I. 4. 9, a i-iner Aei>$ [a/] a pU- 
Ontm n bmutU (cf. XltTuiiiw n iJ^ T^.i/fii.'ir I. 5. 4, uid see ^ 333. 6). 

[T.rjE.O .£(« ,u.r. c.)£„ s>f« » i,-*(.-.^;.„ »■ ui,.„ .i™ .r,^ 

ri WMfmiiyyi' ill. IS. 'O A «ii Artj^iiti »im,, Imi a Hfi of pM 
l—fimi inxniajmalifiyEar. Baa. 388. 2r,xitii . . rftfi, [=*(»• 
#1^.] Enr.Ph. H3I. T»i>}' l^i'i rix^^, •■(!»«■..[= .Jr. t^^b("J i 
Soph. <£d. T. 533. Tjji »/.v.>2r.< ..;K;i>(. »XX» [Irn], »]«)•;(;<(- 
XiTH PL L%, 703 d. *£«■» i •ri^Li^ui •!;( IrXm rirXin, ^XA J><->>iii 
Hi.!. f)3. 'OruTw •'Mw yr>^»i <t»> lb. 113. TiiT Jf£ nXXM rixi 
Eur. Fh. 719. 

Soim. It ii obvimu ftom the axunphs lium, that tbe Gat. of pvfxr^ 
p«&iiU9 tha offloe of ui ocfracttBa^ Ita dm to WcpreM gnaii^, in the ttrict 
MDM of the taiiD, is chiefly poetic. 

2. Geni^iot of Relaiion. 

$S88. The Genitive of relation, in ita foil extent, in- 
clude much which haa been already adduced, under other and 
more specific heads. The relationB which remain to be con* 
eidered are, (a.) those of domestic, tocial, and cittil life, 
(b.) those of possession and ownership ; (c.) that of the o^ect 
of an action to the action or agent ; {d.) those of time and 
place; (e.) those of simple reference, of explanation, &c. 

Hie GflnltiTH «xpreaang then reUtiong may be termed, (a.) the Geit. of 
iBcial rtlatiim, (bi) the ftnt. poaavK, (c.) the 0™. abftcim, (d.) the Cm. 
0^ bed/ and (miiDnit rdntini, (a.) Iha (Sh. i/ R^fereiue, of upAcutiiM, jv. 

^ 389. ^ OsimTvx OF SoouL ItKi.ATnnr. 

'O rni Axrixim ymmiitii iJiXfif, the brel/itr of thi Im^i Hi/e, ii. 3. 
IT. Tm 'Ot(¥rSt RarAim vii. :!. .'6. ^°>.iK[ TiiSroi i. 9. 15. lit 
■iWf »f^n> i«»n L 1.3. B.r.liu.> [= B.nJiibi £. f 3R^. .j.irSi 
r. 6. ST. T# »rt««^« f— «™ri«i .V,] t^. x't" ^- ■•■ »'■ (Sea 
also 5 350.) TiiV*. . . rS, 'E;L'L-1« (cf. « 399) iii. S. 4. Tii. ri>.i»i 
!«'(•« Van. 13. 12. Tw» lai.t.. lajAVr.w, . . t.w Ki(,« f;^,^ Hi. H.5. 
AiA nil isarfi nXi/um ^■'(■■< 'AnnaA f^ anmby of tkeir iTieniel, iv. 
7. 19. 

Remark. To this analngy may be referred tha ute of tha Gen. f&r be 
Dat., with Knne adjtrtaa mtflyag iHtinali cnaxntwi ; aa. 'O 11 fin, w^ 
ryyytrnt t4¥ Kj^ti tir^t, and he who once raid Ihiit ht wat niattd to CVtu, 
warebaietof C^ia, C\r. V. I. U4. Oil' il fSi-in,! »>»t«9u> Jl.'><t 
Sopb. Ant.' 4.11. Amt'Atiftnn >1 ymd tii la.m.v^.r > V-ar. HeL 4E)5. 

'Bi^X" ''•"■ H«.^>«. Vi"')^'- ^Pl^ (^- 'I"' ''^1'-'- T» £•»(-»» /•)• 
i^^.nt... Pl.Soph.alBb. R« Ui/.M>(' Jif Soph. EI. W7. "A. ;>.«*« 
«£« «iwi>>l>.L.;i».<Ec II. 13. 'n tiyyn Ir.,, l.^I.;^:.. Soph. Ph. 
867. '0 ••uttfint ri ri, «« ■>) mhh Jii Eufijff" "■■{^»iMT« 


n.PoI.996«. Ti Vfirf.fn ni i» in;iBnH n^>f>fSi Ear. Hd. 508 
Cf. §§ 399, 100, 403. — II Till b« obKTTed, tbit, In wnw of tbew eninpln 
tba idJcctlT* mar be ngrnkd u unl nibalantivclr, mud lliat Ijiii awstm 
tloa ii DM ooUhmd lo tlie lumes of penoiii. 

b. OBiimTK PoBssaaivB. 

^ 390> The Genitive possessive denotes that to whick 
any thing hetonga as a posaeanon, power, right, duty, quality, 
&c. Thus, 

T> Svoiirxt BMriXiiM, Oepalacenf 8gen<ia 
tiui TJXif Tirraf ifxvi, lltt Imitni eHia b^ _ 
T« />i. r*« •('■"••■•' ri jMrux'tu., »« » irr-i-l. 
Irrl, for it it At pari of aelon to MU, but nf tht\ 

fn> u. 5. fia. T.uV.D Ti ■;{« ii, r\il«, i. t< 

In! ..J rk im„*i. r^iu., ») ri r« irr»/ 

'H. j^£t mir£' UtXinn ■ytAttm, 'your own 

Dcm. 4:2. 10. Tit rij-ior hrmt, irM to At uai 

K;i»Ti( r^Tinv ^ffi-^./w Soph. (Ed. T. 111. 'AXX' irrl r» Xi. 

yTii, 4> fiCivf Xi^, '■! tha inen:y of th« speaker,' lb 917. Mnt' i /it 

'Siyu YHw riaaiTit, ' mike f oun,' Id. Ant. ,i4ti. 

^ 89 I • RnURiu. .. Tlig idea of ponnriim i* simctiinn iriOdfSed 
or (trngthened bj an a^wtlv* or adverb j as. 'li(it i x^" ^' 'A;tj^u}m 
At ^ot it lacrid to Diavi [consecnted to bo IMana's], v. 3. 1.t. 'llioi Uv 
«; <m^»., o/ Ail oim noTwiiftou. PI. Menex. 1J47 b. 0; I) ■;>)«». « 
ifimiim rJ.i. Dem. SC. 11. Tj •.'■■rii iHrifW njHir» PL TbeM 
1930. T» Ifkn ri^> ririfs ■•»>> I'li >rw *■•»> ir^fWKX i PI. CoDT. 
S05 a. Th i/tirifaf UfiSnf U<;c''t'" ">- '^'^ <>■ 

a. A nmttr adjatiTx attd HbilatitinJji Uket the 0«n. pntBoaive, io conDM^ 
hoa »itb vtrii of prout, blamt, and voudD- ; aa, Twr> I»u>h 'ATOnXiu, i 
<k«HwJ aUi hi ^puibu [ibia cbaracteristic of Ageailsiu], Ages. K. 4. *0 
fli^ffnti ^k-rm i/Li, Th. L fl4. 'AXla ri 'M waKXi iya,LaA STmp, S. 
lU. •'SJni^Mtm ulmi WfSrn fUl »vr> PI. PhHlD, H9 a. Tifri . .i, rii, 
■hJ uri-^i., I ■■} •[£.» »Mi,fUrm, riS 9i;,'» PI. Kep. ST6 a. 

}^ Eujrsu. Tlu ppMcwoT ia gometimea pat in the case bdonging to tlN 
thing pottetttd, with Ml ellip^ of the latter, particularij' in mmpiaitoH ; M, 
'Auara . . 7/hhi ian'if [•• rui inliiiu tf/tmri], charialt liigilar Ui hit [clinr- 
Lrtj],CjT.Ti.l.--OCrf.[;'A(^«];^«. r.r, Ki(.i.2.7). 'Of..!..™, l.f- 
Xa,i iTx' rurirtUrm Cyr. v. 1. 4. 'n<';LH'^»u . . «."( «»•■«( Kvfy ;»*«» 
Ctt. tiL I. If. 'E;t;V*" '••^ra luwrif* •■•Jtxi, m Auh ftmiin ttltir bUi 
that Attn, oL 1. S.I. Hnl' l£ir>rj( riir)) I— ri »>>> ■■■>] ti7| 1/u7i 
■■•M'r Soph. (Ed. T. 1507. 'A^iirn »lr» t;t:*>Tii n auT^i i. 8. IJU ((£ 

t, The verba l^w, to muO, rni, to brtalhi, and T;irCaXV», Is (md, DU^ 
take ■ Gta. deflnint( a noun Implied in theaa verbs ^ :tR:). ■) or undentood 
■mOt theni; Ibtu, 'O^hiii Tfrriif. thru mill of pildt [emit tbe nuell of 
pitah], At. Ach. 190. Tm .ifXii ;fk ^«(.<. (^ Hj5) Ar. EccL ^24. Ti! 
i>»Ti'»< iXiiu itliirmr,,, ' there will be a gmell of,' Ar. Ve^ I058. 'iU 
kti iw wt^nan x-V'" ■!<>> Ar. Ban. S'iS. tliht fifrti fU awi- 
biAt , Ai. Fu, 180. 

(. It win b* bbMTTed, tlMt tfw Oadtiai p 
Qm GatitiBe af proptrtf (^ 3ST), the 
tha other, Mot mAiei it pnnniti. 

c. GEMrnva OwKcnrc 
% 393. The object of an actioii, regarded at tucft, is put 
in the Aeeiuative or Dative (^S39). Bui if the action, iustead 
uf being predicated by a verb, is merely represented at a thing 
or property (or as implied in a thing or property), by a noun, 
adjective, or adverb, tlien its object is usually regarded simply 
BS Bomuthing defining that thing or property, and is coiise- 
quenily put ia Lbe Genifive. Thusi 

t. GENrrifH OF TUB Direct Owbct. '0 fji^^x" ''< t**-"t^i 
lE'TiiCi'i '^ eamMandtr of a gnrriim reclan Ail trwpi, (Ec 9. 15) but, 
K^« lEirsrit wfur*4 ri, 'EXXitmr, Cyna vmUt a mioD i/ thi Grnk*, 
LT. I ; T»n»»T» t{i-»> l{tra>i-i<i>, jUlaftorenwiiicAoiiUm, Mem. 
LI. 7. T(f t).tlf: tSi rvrrjaror^' I i. 26. 'U yi^v . . i;ii'{Mf 
fi:i>>£Mh.A«. tl.^S icf. SviyyM ilAirii li. li;29). T£ vntCiXf 
rw ;« •■! iv. 4. IS (cf. -Tr>tif>v;L« r^ f; <■ 20). E.;J;.i l*.^.. Ear. 
Bac -J3i(cf. Au>u f(i>a Id. Herad. 4X3). a.l>»»Ai(» . '. rtfiiKf n. 
Enthjph. » c Uafnrsf isTfiiiii R. Rep. £99 o. 'Axitn rmarvi 
ro^V ttmfwn»,i, lb. 47.^ t. 'A{n,»/*. !■■£> Eur. Sec. 6»<S. '0>;'.,>«/« 
..n> CjT. i. 6. »3. Ti^oiii n ui imtririirt fiXj^i>- 
^i<»r« i.9.5 (cf. S.f{.>i!>ii. K.TiL/Lit„ :l). Ai^f. It ». rre>T,«. 
r«>, M •ntknd tA> jbamfn^ nf tkt nlditn, \. ». 8 (cf. \mtth *hri> iriK- 
ti, 17). ^ifK «• 'A/(../>.> Tb.L 101. 'AwiJi »■«■ viL T. 33. 
•Awmitirm ^••riiSi CjT. iii. It. £S. 

9. Gemitivb or tb% ImiisBcr OwBct. ^Bx>*'" «»'' • ■ 9i>^> <• 
jny ta tlu gedt, iv, 3. ta ; bmt, &iSr iCj^-at, ptaftn to Iht godt, PL 
PluBdr. 341 a. TA t{i »••; d^ju« Eor. Iph. T. 329 (cf. 0iiiw 3if I035> 
Tih m .(i.rrii.. 1»;li;ii> 111. L 8 (cf. Tw i)..<;( 1,ri„im, Hero. L S. 
j). 'EnCoXiHw ri-fBTii, D/a ji^iMer ojoDut At hot. Soph. Aj. T2S 
(a. 'SmCtpiLiiH atrf 1. 1.3). Zi>}^n4iw> *£> ■>/; vn'wt ^/>s;rijK>i-» 
Prr. tL 1. :)7 (c£ 'Ej^ rii ttayiyumK lb. vii. £. 50). 

^ 303> BeMABIU. >. In like manner, the Got. ia empIcTed TrHb 
■nnu, to denote leUlioos. which, with the cort«tpaiiding adjtctaia, ore dencited 
b7 the Dot. t u, Th T^ 'EJlAi>»> ibfHKi, from geod-taii to Oia Ortdu, 
hr. 7. -A) (a£ EAw, H #•< ^> ni. 3. go). T., K-' t. itifit >V<>u> 1- 
UiUi TuSh Soph. (Ed. C. 631 (of. T;. ,1^ riXt, Id. Ant. 31H). 

f. Tbt Gen. ta ntnetinieB emplojed, in like manner, tut s ptepoelljon with 
Ua CSM ; u, 'Et Ar.Ciru rSr yiii, m " ifeusit upoK At Lmd, Th. L lOS 
(ef. -Arie, i, rif yS, H. Gr. i. 1. IS). 

■y. To the Go. s/' a> direef a&reet may be rafbrrtd (he Gen. irlth afriM and 
lU derivaUvM ; u, Ti >r<-<« nt >«vJn. tin o-ati of lit haitt [that which 
«u caimtive of, &c.], iv. I. 17. Ttirtn ti ri xtrim, ynii on ital rrtpauOU 
far [the cauae of] Ucm tiliivi, (Ec S. li. 01 r« wtXifur miTiiinri, lit jtiif 
equl uUbon d/' (k war, H. Gr. iv. 4. If. T>><w luinim 1 ui^ri«« alnS. 
««4 Jbr lUi tb amaer Uatta Soavlf [oukei S. tfaa uUIht ef thjal, lUm. 

L 8. S6. Sea i 374. 

SS4 sniuT. — QKimiTK. Ibooi in 

1. The Q«n. m iti mem ledni nsn (when «npl07ed to doiote ayemt, patxt- 
tar, &&) bu received the •(lecial degignatioD oT the Co. nbjrxiam, in distioe- 
tion fh«n the Gm. objective. The Iblloning pasuges conlaiii rxwnpln of bott 
kmda: Tn> TliKi-tr ^ir i>r#rq( niX<r>'»ir*ii m*ri>.n-^it, I'clopii mix- 
urt cf uU Pdapmnaia, leocr. ^49 ■- T^ rSt •i>i/.> wftrmXtinirut ni 
yifi PI- Rep. 329 b. Ti. i>i;><» ^ixmrn <-» li !/<£[ IxrHi Th. iii. 
13. Adjectiva Ukiog the place of the Gen. we, ia like huoiki, used both 
tlAflcti^ll^j| ud oijettiBify. Sea ^ 503. 

d. GBdiTvm or Locai. aud TmroitAL BEUnos. 
^ 304. The Genitive is extensively employed in detining 
local and temporal relation, particularly with adcerbg of place 
and lime, and with words derived from them. Thus, 

H. Gr. IL 1. 3J. Tmt» f»>T''» vii. 6. 'iX 'Atrivijai »' ■-JLnyun 
3. 'A:t(i rw />i m^» 8jmp. 4 
yifF /t^ltftf mearljf leu tfutuMind, v, 
7. 9. EIrk •■» •;>.• i. S. 81. 'Earif rw ni'j^m Ua|;. Eq. T. 4. -£■- 
«^ i),lyM^ ucqK K /» (^ 319), H. Gr. 1. ti. 35. Zwm I>l<i Soph. A|. 
SIB. 'Eiifti ySi ^Kh. Pen. V29. "E'ti, ■■! >./■. rfJi ir. .<. i!B. 
n>n^ lii-ii Q. I. 11. T« nVivTkHi IJlii At. Ran. 765. *£{<> tw> 
n;i» i. 4. 5. Kii^ tirm K yw Soph. (Ed. T. 96S. KinX^ m rr^- 
nrihr Cyr. iv. .f. 5. Ti fit,,, w ru;t:^'' '^ diilantt Mmcm M< wO^ 

Pol. 'J65 b. M..-.££ T» «<-.^ »i TJif r^f;., i. 7. 15. Mi;^;. »S 
Hnl/ai nr;£>iv lb. 'Ow. rtlt iavT£> L 7. 9. AjuMi ir.U> •■^{•■/■t 
Eur. Hee. 4N. B.^w i-iLi i£scb. Ag. <J10. Ilx.r;.. iTw *» n!xf 
tU. 1.39. 'Er;i...w;>> . . »• <E<^> Cyr. ill. 3. H. [Ii;.> »r »». 
fuJiL 4. es. [l;i#/it ». Irl^iii. I. ^3. 'T'lfJi 0<^f Jiach. Ag. 
iiSli. — It will be obHTved, that, in aoast of these siamplea. the wonl gor- 
nnii>B Ihe Gen. le owd in ■ eecondai; muib. Foi the Dat. after aume at Chen 
words, eee ^ 399, 405. 

•. GsnrnvB ov BEFSRZnca, Ezpluuttok, Emiuau, &o. 

^ 393. The coNSTiTFEifT GENiTivB has likewise olher 
t<0es, of which the principal are those of tijnple referenee, of 
txplanalion, and of tmtphaiic repetUUm. 

Note. Iq aonie irf these nea. the Gen. rather denotes s relation betwtoi 
Ami ctpruHAnf Jbr the aame ikiaff, lluil between two differatt Aatga. In mch 
c«s«, an appi)tititt might be nibstiluled for it (f 3:!:!. i>); and, indeed, in 
some of the examplu which ftilknr (particularl; with the compound* of i- 
prrnaliei, § MH. N.), we might regard tbe Geo. aa in eppodtion with aaub- 
itantiTe Implied. 

B. With SvBffTANTIVKa. Utifarit . . rw U(t!^iit, pretixt fir toMwHSatg, 
L 1. T. T;wi ititi' ^tUt. tian mtnihi pay, i. 1. 10. ^mtirni riXH, lit 
tnii [u. of life], uhidi it femd in dBilk, or mmply, dmih. iGncli. Sept. 90S. 
e.mmnlLia'ni.Ear.lSti. I5<;(cf. a'»'i;L.»iiSo[A.(Ed.C. 117:)). Tif^a 
nf »n;;« Suph. <£d. C. 735. E/ wi(m, ^.li. Un, tflr. r,i ir,X>.myi.m, 
rH ■»»•••> Th. vli. 43. Uir> . . xpu^ ■ ■ ™ if^'H't. - m.nuUr n/ <■ gM«t 
(§ 3S5. 1), Ai. Lye. 1031. Sm fiyirrwr xt^t" ^*^ ^- ^^^ (<^' K>«- 
UUu rit tkmfH, mmXii n Xt^vw «> ftT* Cyr. L 4. 8). TJ XTV" *>* 

eS. 1.] 07 BBnBBItCS, &0. — DATITB OBJCCTIVS. S8S 

tn»> Ar. Nob. £ S^ilmnw wi/anxt n xA" '^'- '■' '' ^- ^^ ^4' 
An«ar nf Aiwu^ fA« lamd &i*M, PL Hipparch. 399 o. Saa llso § 333. 6. 

0. With AiuiicnTBS. -Arau U >;/« ii^(>» ml.t, ami I am Mldliu at 
la male diUdreiL, Cyr. iv. 6. 2. 'H risia i-ar^f iri<r>;a Eur. Here. 1 ) 4, 
'Af.)... f .';u« Id. H«L 5^4. 'Kwi-rXn fm^tn Xt<,%it Id. Pb. -AH. n;if».£> 
^.:« At. Nnb. 1413. X;n^».. . . U.^ir.rK Th. ii. 61. 'Axih. . . 
<»;)« Soph. El. 36. 'Aimf,4fHi vli ^■'•w lb. a.te. 'AfiMi Tirii ni 
ifil td. CEd. C. S65. "EtirfmXiT •Ir-nifnTiwwKfur Cyr. iil a. Si. 0{m- 
ni J nXliv [«c. Sfinn'], )«■ on rerjr atidadimt [bold with much biddnan}, 
At. Nab. 915. evyiEni; . . yii^» iHii ^« Cyr. It. 6. 9. TiXkh irwi 
ni . . ijinf PI. Leg. 643 d. Ttfxt, D rii dXX*T i«ii>». Symp. 4. 12. 

y. With AuvKRBS. 'Efimi i^?,, ImiiViv T>»k, £( »i// be penmilid ■>, u 
/ir at n^wctt Aia, Cyr. ill. ^. 30. 'O^uih ri7( ruf XiTf ■> {/>■>, Iiiia yi «» 
ifurif^t l^lfJii, ' for til the good our ajta would do as,' Mem. iv. 3. 3. 
imxSi ra^vX.s miriH, it w tuB nhuM ^ 'vpon' M Ue n^u^. Th L 36. 
Tw a-fw 'Alwtaitn nXi/uf irnxSi airn, Uwti i «Xi( MmtitrarUi Id. iii. 912. 
7^1 « Iri e;f>» «v^» x:«>i'VW lEu. lb. (Sea >1» $ 463. ^.) T/w( 
«&>r*i f^H-iln yu/r«H rw i(^ >invr »• 'Ex^lswi H. Gr. vl. 5. 3S. 

}. With Verbs. Ti, inZtXim, . . u>if»i^n [= I, niMw^ An], tn^ 
it danper -^ At fint for falm acnualun, Dem. 835. 14. TAfn , . rii f>lt 
wf*rjri>(, T«r )' iiTiftArtLtj hapimg batawed itpan &e one, and dotted tp the otkeTf 
Ike haner rf tepuiturt {rm^n defining vi^ifv impliod in nrfrtif^t and Jirtf^fmit 
i 383. ■), Soph. AdLSl. 

^396. General Remabe. Great care is requisite in 
distinguishing the various uses of the Genitive, inasmuch as, 

1 .) Tlie Gen. may ham diffimnt iu» in connection with the auna word } 
M, with imfm and <;l^ (^ 356, 3TJ, .S80), with li.^i (ii .S5T. N., 380), 
with rXuHmrtt, (4^ D.f I, 367), with mprri, («^ 349. 363. 0. w^Ili *i>h 
(lid c^rc (^^ 347, 963). — llie nn of the Geo. with Ribetuitivea ia <•- 

9.) A word ma; have two or mam a^jnocti in the Gen. axpresaing diflki- 
ent reUtiooa ; u, 'AMmni ($ SSI. y), IZi (J 391. t), rr^x^" '^ "*'» 
($ 3S0. .). Sot S 393. 1. 

C. The Dative Objective. 

§ 397. That towards which any thin*, 
tends (^ 339) may be resolved into, i. That 
towards which any thing tends, as an object of 
approach ; and ii. That towards which any thing 
tends, as an object of influence. Hence the 
Dative objective is either, (i.) the Dative of Ap- 
proach, or (II.) the Dative of Influence; and 
we have the following general rule : The Object 
OF Approach and of Influence is put ih .th" 


Dattve ; Or, in other words, since neither ap- 
proach nor influence are regarded as direct actwnf 
An Indirect Object is put m the Dative. 

Kom, a. Tba Dot. of (qiproocA ii comnuailj ui.pre«al in Eng. hf 
(1m pnpaiitiaB la, and ttw Z)a(. u/ iafintna, by tbo prKpnatitma Id ukJ ^. - 

^ TIm Datitv OBJBCrm b tba can*WM of tba GmrnTB ; tba Oal. 
4^ nfprearit contrutJiig with Ok Gen. af dt f arUm , and tha Dot. af mjlomm 
with tbtOtm of caoM. 8M §4 338, 939, 94^. 

(i.) Datite of Afpboach. 

^39S. AppnMch, like its opposite, dejMirture {^ 34S), 
may be either in plaef or in ehara^er. Hence, 

Rule XVII. Words of hearhess and like- 
HE3S govern the Dative. 

Nim. •. WOTda </ lutoHa tla rdated to those at mtarma, in Uw hid* 

Bwniw Bi wonto of diUmctiai ue raUtsd M thoaa of •qurotiH ($ 346. N.). 

^ fn tha Gaitw* iflo' aome wordi of luanai and fiinun, aea ^i SS9, 

1. Dative of Neamesi. 

^ 30ft< Words of nearness may imply either being near, 
earning near, or bringing near ; and to thJ9 class may be re- 
ferred words of wnton and mixture, of companitmship and in- 
tercourse, of meeting and following, of sending to and bring- 
tng to, &x. Thus, 

IliXiiriii .. T^ iiri}ai, la upprmcA (Ac nfrsBK, 1v. 2. 3. 07tti ■ifirai 
mM>, h-ivby mind U with mrne, I. 'J. 13. *E>f><rit. ^w'l. Mty' wiB filbm 
|Vlf,Ui-1.36. ni^4'iwf M^^ J77i;Lir. fem/iiif a Ruuen^rr to Aim« i. :s. R. 

tx-' J>ch. Sup. 203. -K><ri<f i/c.'. yiWf/o pyr. iii. £. 8. ^in », 
lf|.^ *i if;;; !«:».. R Phato, 100 c (Cf. ^ ;T94.) Ti.V.. ..'.£ if 
"Exxil. II. 3. 18 (of. I 389). 'Er^iJirt . . S/a* T»nfjf>i. il 1. 9. 'Aaa 
rf ititifv Af>i(f fafini, 'at dajibreak,' L T. i. 'OfuS . . rui "EuLar 
frfarHiinM-ViM H. Gr. <ll. ii. 5. 'A.<i»i^iy^!i« rw *ExXiin iv. S. S. 
E; J/..X.<f<.;r<iT Uii',, Hem. i. -2. If. £»;.!» iti'\iTi, ym^iw lb 
13 (cf. lb. 18, and % 389> 'A«iai> . . >lai<jr>r(( 11. 6. i». Kimhx' 
!;»;> rii; w.k.x'i'o (5 367) PI Bqk 370 d. Kf.>.>t7> IxUXmi H. Leg. 
844 e. "E-xu ••••tt.wimj AxXiiXHi t rSi Y"" *«*» ^- ^"^ ^'^^ ■^ 
'Aa-aiTf rf Si..f£m EiMLxtaf vii. 8. 1. Ohi rirl Ki^f fitai ifhAi 
I. 2. 36. ASt^ jp;a..r. lb. 4. 'AjUKHlm X./l.'«i Sx/i Th. L IS. 
*Hiii ■^'ii in; l;irTi| Cyr. Ti. 3. 15. Ilii fin yiiii, il ieiin^ [came] (n 
■K A3, «rlA, Soph. (Ed. C. 738. Ti if^ T(.»ii»«T. CiT. V. 1 . 1 5 («ee 5 364>, riSt Soph. El. 74T. Tk r^^, i^ik..tM «ir;c"«« ^ 
Tin. 88 d 'cf. S 38S. E.). 'A..;!.,,/;, ,J ^i,u PL W- 836 e. Tj 
«■>$ ArrfXf. tJ. »uin{.^. I,.}l:t;i,/., Cyr.Yui,6. 18. AiitJx*t 

m. 1.] or AFFBOACH. 07 INFLUENCE. 287 

'KXU^^ tH. 9. i! (d. S SB§. TL). 'H t.^i.xi n r(Mn foXmrn^ Crr'. 
L4. IT. A^ jj-ifTii o^f vii. 3. J 6. Air^rimit'l •«!{-• lb. US. 

Bkhabkb. a. Tn^it i> > apeciea of Inlammnie ; henca, nj«> Ufin/trnt 
9m ri ^^ifHim I //bw ca / trodi itiA ym for jmir jnn f At. Aah. 8 1 S 
(j 374). 'n>a«>/>>/ ti, I mil bi^ of yon, lb. 815. '£]« rpo^Hu rfhl 
At. Ran. I3S9. 

fi. A aabcuntiTO !• somelimM i«)i«tiid In thii Dat., iritb is ellipals, to ex- 

■fwi •tnipUs' [Blaii{^t«r fiiUonrtng •laughter] Aiu dalnyid lAa ilimw o^ (Eii^ 
jmt, EuT. Ph. I49& Hi nanr r* dn> Imii Soph. £L 23S. 

3. Datioe of Likeneai. 

^ 400. Wor<]8 or likeness include those of resemiJanet, 
aMwimilalion, eomparUon, identUy, eqtiality, &c. Thua, 

'0^.>.> »( i>.>.H, IUKthiral,ii. 6. 16. T.^i n Sly ^> ,!,. ,Utm, 
tut me lu did not Utm lo a gad, Apol. IS. Ti iAtiAi Im^^i ti auTi rf 
ilj/i> i'hi, Ae (AnujU BJurerity to be the tnmr uritli foOy, ii. 6. 'j:.'. 'Irtn 
, . rtirii if,tfu>, equal la tJiem in number, Mag. Kq. ii. a. 'Ofttimt n-t 
IXXoi Hem. iv. T, S. 'Ofxiii- Um> ,i).Xf> Pt. Re|i. :<9:l c 'O^ilorit 
^HfPLTbeat. ITS b. Ti r^ mm)>^ ^iJ/.>.» Hem. iii. R. 4. •Qt—ymMt- 
•£ M uj T»ri Hem. iv. 3. la '0^il;.^.[ i;Li> PL E^a. 987 b. Za. 
■ai r> ^ 'ft" ^' Cyr- '■ ^- ^^- 'AXJLa>.u( J^ivixxf.rii lb. JL 
]. ^5. ^idixr —i i/frfifii; r»i^ut iii. 2. 4. 'Oi^i,,i,^„ ifwf 
PL Bep. ri;IO b (cf. ^ 389. EL). llti^uy^r* i^;iw*4n riT, r.ntA 
lb. 409 h. Tlfrfti, i rixn ri^ wiiu Ear. Ion, 3.^9. 2^^, lufi- 
(■rrir.*( At. Vwp. 1103. T.i ))■;(■.. I> «a;«<-X>!r.a rui IXa^b'- 
m L J. 3. 'AJuA fAtifv fit Ifisai ii. 1. 13. !!*«>»£ ^ij i<nia^» 
ml »n PL CnU. 402 a. Hfw.'irb. t.V ruiri [— rj avri, 4 39] li^ mi. 
■rut ill. I. na "Et *f avrf juililif TtTt ^(Ahwtm awgt^uu Th. vii. TT, 
■Ofl/u) ^iS( Iri"'' l>/»'Yi' Kof-Pb. 1^1- Oi>al»r^Tii r^ rrat 

■■Aiii)'^! l/ui I At. Ran. fi3G. Tiii (a to itii i/Ht if «, ' on an eqiulit; with 
n,' Hier. 8. 5. '0 r.lnfN ai>«>; r.h ^Wiiui tA l*x*t^' ^y- ">- '^• 
65. OiulA -^tx^' ''■«"/••'( »( i«-;m PL Tim. 41 i. 'Itix.i,,, 
Mil laryiAei ftiHi Symp. B. 1. 

(ii.) Dative of Influence. 

^ 401. The Dative of influence expresses a 
person or thing which is affected hy an actioUf 
property, &c., without being directly acted upon. 

Influence has every variety and degree. On the one hand, 
it may be so immediate, that it can scarcely be distinguished 
from direct action, and the DaL expressing ii is used inter- 
changeably with the Ace. ; and, on the other hand, il may be 
■o remote, that it can scarcely be appreciated, and ihe Dat. 
expresung it might have been omitted without impairing the 

J85 smux. — DATmL [book cl 

' RvLE XVIII. The object of infldence is 
put in the Dative. 

^ 403* The Dative ia governed, accordmg to this rule 

a. Words of ADDCES8, including those of eaU and command, 
of eonvenaiimt and repls/, of declaration and confesxian, of e»- 
horlalion and meaage, of ootA and promise, of reproach and 
lArMtenin^, dec. Thus, 

Of«( Ki^r •^■'■•, Hat wtoK ibU t Cfmt, L 6. S. Tf K;i>il;jt:y l^i*. 
~ ' - -^ - _ ._ ^,axi];/i>*i( iXXifXw, itittinj caMCTHO 

I MWja-ifwt iri7<ri fti ismytst vii. 9. 19. 
Aiyii til> ,at,nMt rv mmfHTU iU. 1. 7. Tf 'EnwH'V Uili^ii-ri i. R. 
18. Thih»wui t}.;t^> ImfXoilv. n. 13. 'H rutMuikiKr.t rfltS^i 
9Mfi wiwm Bmi,/Lmrn fi- C<«i*- IS^ i- 'AxXnii^H )<iiEiXtv>>r> ir. n. .1. 
'Afiiyarai rtirf, n m a*-ij>{i>i^ii> vil. S. 9G. 'Aj-^'lLliiiri r>7( 
^(MWrwl. 3. SI. n«(iiyyi.*i nr(f(..<^X«II-fi- T'-'X":- 
ft*; nliu T^;L»nL T. 18. 0«^l^f>^>i,lfi, T»T>i( Hhh. tiL5. UO. 
Ei'ltTH mbrf . . i,i,iti.. lb. ii.9.8. -Hn,'!... .trf v. G. ^4. '£>{. 
' (kji n't 'E»Xiin rtrmtti^mrt*- iii. 4. 36. 'Onr« rXirmm mktf ^i. 
fffi^tr Ar. Nub. ]t>OS. 'Ai.7:Lit .irf J 'A<rix;L« iii. I. 6. *U<m; a^-f 
^striBr>[ J> tL 1. SS. "O S{^ ^iirri(, Me p'flTiJtee] Uu ThrocioHt, 
L B. (Ai Thraciau jmfhet. Ear. Hec I'iGT. 'AnV ilHr i'lf) wirrm Enr. Ued. 

^403. /J. Words of ADVANTAQB and disadvantage, in- 
cluding those of benefit and injury, of assistance and serutce, 
of favor and fidelili/, of necem/y and suffieieney, o( fitness and 
un^oMS, of confcntence and trouble, of ea*e and d^culty, of - 
«a/e(y and danger, ikc. Thus, 

n«(i*«Tr( . . irn;;!;! rf Kv(f>^ Porjniifu fmored Cyna, L 1. 4. X{4. 
»</.■ . . «.'( K(.i»s we^ to tin Critam,, lit. 4. 17. 'Owj t. n rrfimf 
j.^fifBUL 9. -27. n(irfei »■ J|B;. Soph.(Ed.ai7:4 (uf. ^' »B9. B.> 
Ay.^i iL|M^»<{u( CfT' 1^>- £■ S^- E(i<f-f-w l-n^ m, 1. 4. X.Jfi, 
Irrn avry vii. 6. 4. Af^siii^iKi t>i( /lugnn/iiM Ar. Nub. t>^i>. OSwf 
IttH.t, ix).ii\iH It. 9. 'J6. T.uTw Itiji. <.«■•>> v. H. si. OT n 
tiri|(iTtr^i> iL5. 14. lit, SiTUn rXiSrif ifSi itf iXiT ifidch. Fen. 
812. •A^fin,„ if,>.ifL.Tm Id. Pr. 501. T--, flXn, kfiyt,, C7T. L 
i. 13. "Oi Uikan ri/t-ftXi wm-rt'i Eur. Or. 9V4, 'Ei. .i^f rofn ;(■. 
~ i l.n, Kif^ a. 1. 16. Li..7 iw.ri^ r). 


n((^ ijp- lii. 4 

35. n.Al£> Jii. 

m him (5 357) C>- 

. L 6. 9. 




.11. x^;„ 


> ^ll{M( 





'E..xX.f.T. i.i 

r? i^.^if, .M. 



ti> il^ 

, V. 7. 10. -E^^i 


rii. B. 4. 




. E3 i(^*.r... 

> «i™- CjT. i. 




r< nrl 

5,jc«. :t'«« , Soph 

Ant.7:ifi. -E 

.( *r». 








>» «'»'!> 

i^X^.M,„ ,i^„ 

-r.(- iv. 6. 





TO. 7. SI. ■£<■..;, 

a... ^,iU,a 

Ib.'s4. ]j^. 

1H. l.j OF UfPLUKNCB. 369 

§ 404. y. Wotds of AFPBARAKCB, including those of 
teeming, thawing, eUamess, obscurity, &c. Thus, 

nif. JiiJL.t lyfHn, it leai rtidrnt b all, H. Or. vi. 4. 20. 2.1 mS i% 
Xm*m Ml Xyi rif) rw iiuiti ii. 5. I'S. 'AJi|>,>. /ur •vir! ittfir^Jr^ 
tJ^JX^^ vi. 1. 3L. AJrxit'rt*: f" Ixkl. 7. 1. Ua .l^.J^E? W> 
IL 3. 9. Tm n rxrh |]i;. .■>>>> IT. 5. 33. IIu. rif it Vect 1. S. 
Arr.7( «i;irt f afiirai ; Mi/^iIiiTiii iii. 4. 2. AmftCmrut rtii ■'jXi^i'.vi . , 
^■ii;tvi n MHf, Af >>■( J> >ivr;i Ui.W OfT. L 6. 35. 

S. Words of QiviHO, including those of offering, paying 
distributing, sapplying, &c. Thus, 

Ai'liiri ll airf Sjifi fui(inn tupiiHii, and Qno ghn Abu fcn tiaw ai Ml 
dariet, it 6. 4. T^ 1' .t> fTfr^ ■rin linJ-w KS(.[ j»r/;f i. 'i. ] S. Ti 
K fJJU i>mtiTf,Ki ™V n^nt^Hi ¥»..•;. 3. T«( frpirnym !■>(•£ Ib.S. 
T*< Xt^myttf nmvtfitfittii lb. 4, ETv^^ 1^ IriAti rf 2iv^, .£j|; tSrmt 
IriXu Miru, wi f ■ n 1^ lii'n mfnn, ui sXXn v^"' iriri/ntr Til. 6. 
16. OiifAait >in7i ^r^(!rl^^llwSL ». 1». Tiir rw Stw }fr« j^ PL 
.^loLSOd. Z« 'HfuJU;» Soph.Tr. bfiS. BhiLu tsr^ii 
It. S. 34. Oiln lum f« i^> /t.i^il.rm L 3. 9. 

«. Words of oBLioATioit and talub. Thus, 

'A£iH ■ ■ &K^T«t rf wiXu, tnoilatg death from [to] tin aif, VUto. i. 
'£U tim j£i» iTi /SariXu ifiiTMi, ' nnwortby of ths king,' or ' diagracefdl to 
tn kJna' ii- 3. 2S. 'T^'i iZriTu %<>:'• l 4. 15. 

^ 40<E. i;. Words of opposition, including t^jm of eon- 
lenlum, ditpute, enmity, resistance, rivalry, toarfare, &a. 

/Uitir i/itt itriri\mi, to appot to you fiaiuiu, iL 5. 19. 'E{i^.>ri( 
« «^ nfitu, tmtaubig K^ Aiia in ditf, I. 3. 8. *H^ flaXXali r' l{n Eur. 
Iph. A. 183. 'Atrff. itw nTt irnki^f L S. IT. 2r>riii;..r. airf 
1U5.S8. TifKtHtwmt \x'0' iMvtiflf Mm} ti/u,( liatr/x Dem. 73. 9. 
*H^~> iiaiTikrirai viL 6.S. 'AiTi'rifit Xif» Tf ^arTf Iv. ~ " 
OSn Buf-Xu itrirt.iifitfm rn ifj^n ($ 373) IL 3. 23. XXX 
r«rai »«rf Dam. 71!. 1 (cf. ^ .S49). 'r<-irr*>i< ■£»'< 'Afii>a: 
^iiMnvliI.9. II. T^l^jliXff rtXl^.ts i. 6. fl. Tirnfi(.t. 
A>>.;>TI>1. r.8. OMimirf I^B^ir.i. 8. S3. •!'-/•)> yif TSafttin 
« v»« (■{•■itIbtiZib. rf i9>(eaff> Tb. i. 73. 'Slrr-Bfrn. . . ixxi- 
Xv. At. Ach. 34. -Hr Ir.C.vXii;.. lirf L 1. 3. 'Ei-iCuXJi l^T.6. 
89. AiiatJ^ittt Tfl «t;< FI. Enthyph. 4 a. 

q. Words of TiELDiNO, SUBJECTION, and WORSHIP, including 
those of homage, obedience (cf. ^ 377. 1), prayer, lacryice, 
ttc. Thus, 

ni£>ni««iS(A Iv.i;., all lAmgt an nAfecl IB liapiKU,S. 5. 7. "fyj 
ttSiXm rtUitiu,. ym an m^ ainby to otof mt, 1. 3. 6. 'Ei> fui wti 
*Hr,.ifjnHiii>iaiitl*»lomt.i.'i. ]4. EJjt"'-' ™> ■•»••«. top"* to 
lU ^nf^ iv. 3. 13. 'H .rf-ri^ ™ if iTr. tL fi. 31. 'rr.xia;;'*' ri 
•MVfui K^y 1. 4. IB. El' i^i^'U'*! ''T™ AMMii*ipnitft Tii. S. 43. 

no smiz. — uTtTX. [book m. 

01 •;> m trtntu tO. 7. !9 (cf. S STT. l)- ^-fr "^^ wtitmtx'"' 

L9.IT. 'Ar.#i-ir> t>iAriL6. 19. "E^x •> Ai/*fl. 6. 44. Qmtimt 
fvf/ii r$ 5tf T. S. 9. 2f>^iiifor/iii t^ l>i/'r it. 5. 4. 'Ofj^gia/ii. 
Id Suwr At. Ltb. IS77. 

^400. 9. Words expressing a mbhtal act or fbelinq 
which is regarded as ginng out towardt m oiject ; as tbost 
of friendtkip and hatred, pleasure snd displeasure, joy ana 
torrow, eonteiUmeiU and envy, belief and wahelief, truit and 
distrvtt, &c. Thus, 

K^tr fiAmVifo, ■•>»« yMokf^ (D Cyru, i. 9. S9. 'E;t;BX[riii»> 
M( nfsnyui, uBii oH^ry mitl Mi j imr ii h, L 4. 19. "EvirTuti y^ atfif, 
Jbr M^ Iraitid Wis L V. S. EtoTiff Ixiu ■(rf i. 1. 5. KaMJiiii 
rA "ixxam IL 5. VT. Twtm lr#* K^ i. 9. »6. Hf<v> iyjiXXtTt 
ff l{a<nrf;> B. S. 86. OUtii .8rw ;>;-';■" A f'^"' iy^A Hon. ii. 6. 
S6. ET «>• t^fwt h1 ;^'> aal Iful it ;«;'•»"'•' *>• '■'''9- 'n(yiZ,,r, 
Irjflt''' ^? KAUf ;t:fi 1. S> I i . ZaJLiraii fifn Ti7r m^iri ^iy/trnm 
i. 3.3. 2rif yiii nil «fwni. 'to bt contort wHti,' laoer. 159 e. 'Aj-o- 
rititt «■( mrfsycinii Dem. Ifl. II. <btt'it n7i f^HfM vi-difwn 
1. 9. 19. 'n> iyi ru » ftfir- iff 3TS. Crt- Tiii. 4. 16. 'H^. in- 
#r»'>iLfi.lj. 7^n;t;* '^"''■( l^iii-S?. 'Ef»n> irifiSirii if 
rfiyftmr. I 5. 13. •Alt,,Sw »> yiyit^fiiuH vl. U. M. &mw^ii>. H 
n « smsluim ^mi t^ <rr>^ Th. ir. N5. TvtTrnrf >t «* ilXiiiif nirf 
CjT. i. S. 1. — Some of these oonnnKtiona mmy parfaape be ntared to llw 
butniDaital Dit (§ 416). 

§ iftOT. (. Worda oxpresaing the power of sxcitins 
BHoTioN ; as, pleasure, displeasure, car*, fear, &c. Thus, 

'i.rix$i,,rimi rKm(,iriMT,u,,lodufhaKtlLiiotdkrt,\l.G.\9. *!>•) 
^H.irt,,itJinai)ntfeat», i. 4. 16. 'On mirf />, [that It ahoald b> 
■ canto him] that lit uoM tal^ can,i, B. 13. Aii ri ^iliit drarn, arm^ 
tb iatmit leAici oS ;U(, vi. 4. 30. Znn >-» rw, ut' iyi, ^ixu riwf 
(S 37G. 1) Ear. Hand. 717. ^U piXrmrH fii).tfii liifuiiii •rmrfi, Secb. 
Cha.S35. XiTM/tixn fH-,itu a rigrtttB mi, I r^Kml,CyT.v.H. 6. Ui- 
ra^Uu. Ti 'X Ifuffa i. 6, T. (3«e § 376.1.) T«-r ^1> »).X.?( . . Jfir.t. 
iL 4. S. 'UU r„p^hr, ri ir^ J. iv. 5. £7. 'T^-> Hunii l.iir^f.ii 
Ani( iL 5. 13. 4>ge>;.;raTt> »:> r.Xi^'w iiL 4. 5. 

K. Verbal Adjectites a^d Adverbs, having a poisiee 
signification. The property expressed by these verbals ntis 
relation to an agent ; which, as if atfectea by the property, is 
put in the Dat. AdjecUves of this kind usually end in -tot oi 
-jioi {^ 314). Thus, 

0m,f,mrrir rmr; amdafii! lo all [to be wondered at br ill], iv. S. 15. 
'H/hi . - tl/iMi v^irA T«fiiris. / AiuA fAdt every tlftng tAouId be dome ly «^ iil. 
1.35. T;.^, ihali 0ii,;ii/«.H ivii», i-h( rfa« ;*;L>Ti> v««'» ia^/ur, 
'■n object of env]' to hia amntiTmen,' i. 7. 1. Inn /m ipr{a>riTi;» 
iil.3.^. Of ■■•»/••!. . <rp7wnir;» rkt myii ismi^n) y!ym,rmt. 'oU 
be pweed by thoee who aseead [become pusible to tlioee who uoeDd],' UL 3. 
Sa. Sitrlttr,, I. In-aUa r«( •r^i/.;«, iu. 4. 90. n.;«>;i . . V"' i*r' 
Sfafarttf, 'fix ni to pui [to be piued by wj,' iL 4. 6 

CB. I.] OF iMn-vntcB. mi 

^40 St 1- SrBSTAKTivB Verbs, when employed to de- 
note posiesHtm. These verbe and their compounds are used 
with the Dat, in a variety of expressions, which are variously 
Uanalated into English. Thus, 

"Emalm Viiff ^ui'Xua fr, lure C^m had a palaa [then «u A faiice to 
Cynu}, i. 2. 7. Tx't n hr^lm «!> Hi, Iby And n n^pfcirm, or Ijuy tn^tdtd, 
i. 3. 'Jl. l^i/tH lyiiirt TtH tTfm^tinut, [lit Uia aoldiera tlieie come to 
be ■ numing] At jsUia-i bigm to nw, L 3. 17. 'IWi n»r •iV^vtoi iTiaj, 
» lA'il off vert ruAono/, U. 3. II. 'Ta-af;^!! yhf nt i/ui wJii ii. S. 11. 
'Hi >•*«[•>»«( i<( f^X" l'^ '"O i-S-l^* 'A>i7<ii li fui [ac in-/], /con 
WUP Bompdled, I 3. 5. 'H> mirf wiXifU,, ht su-dt war, i. 9. 14. Ui),,, . . 
f SrtfiM lirrimn, a eity Homid Sittaa, u. 4. I:i. 'Eyinrt t^i 'EWhh mcI 
S^a;^ . . ruiiirlax, belli Grtet amd bariitTian could go, I. 9. i 9. Ou yif 
ti >/;mu «f.rntu iy. 7. S. N» m Iflri-.i . . ■>!;! vuirtxi Til. 1. SI. 
OiAim i^r> ^ ■ T I ill iiL 1. 90 (we § 364). T.' yif J't' 'E^;£'<r >■: cXhh'i i 
/^ ulat &u £recUtm la i£> irilA jacluiawt [what is theie to Erecbthens, sod 
■Iso to jsckdawa]? Ar. Eq. 102.'. Mnili iTmi lii *ai <t>a'errf w^y/t^, 
tkat gnu kad no cmmactim uith Philip, Beta. S.JO. 7. T; i-f li/iy ita) TJrjJa- 
rJ>r , Id. ess. 5. 'Eiu'iy liivkM'f rafT Itti, IAw Uin^ on [to him 
wiUin^J tKcordvtf to hU mJi, or agraahit to him, H. Gr. Iv. ] . 11 . Ei atrf 
ti «i J3»Xi^i.y irri. air.^.'.ir'a, PI. Gorg. 44H d. JS '•. ■J./.U^ irrii, if 
tt it gOMT pLann, FI. Fhsdo, TS b. QJl»n aa^^ nEr a> Ir Soph. (Ed. T. 

135fl. 'Ht n •* rf '-^y^''^^ ■z'v'>1' ralra, ' dispteaung to Ageailan*,' 
H, Gr. V. 3. 13. N.a.'f ■■;>rJixv'>t ■!■ ™ "(l •■*' 'Eyirrai-r, ' Were Ii 
JHidw hid expected,' Th. vi. 4H. 

^ 400. /!• And, in general, words expressing any aelt'on, 
property, &c., which is represented as being to or for some 
fterson or thing. Thus, 

Uf^lu. m, I drnk te yon, Tli. S. SG. Kinr^fin afnTi iniV a^ ttqr 
snife ^ Una a «ho1u{iA, i4. 4. 9. TSiyirrn mirfut M^, Aa grtatt*l vma- 
■cat to a mns, i. 9. 23. Tlfa J> ilniw »( rtktfJm. it iBoi lone forlh* 
•umy to KirAtfrw, iiL 4. 34. Zr^nt^ ai«.f n..;Li^» L 1. 9. *Oi Xu. 
|.rif t ^»'^T.V' y. S. 36. Bm/Iw. 4r^. r$ «r(.i«, iv. 4. 2. "Ej;. 
r^ aal aMi a«v r<a{n{««i vii. 6. 99. 'H^'t rif fHrtir J»a-;±{ai lb. 40. 
Eyi nmrS rftii Ai. Bau. 11.34. ESfyut rianr; ^iTf] riXi/ui> }i(i> 
iBeoh. Sept. 416. 'K^ a /•iftm f^ir^w rf^au l^;.', ■ iw»lM ma [i» weit- 
bg fir me],' Id. A^ 1 119. Sifufuf i^ iyuV I**" tv. «. 1 J. IlSn a«»t 
J>a< aa]Wta}«;» ^>/^«i UL I. 43. Aiii'fi ^ uVx". ui. £. ■i9. 'Ay*. 
/» . . mJru, ^ rrtmr^yi. 1. 90. 'H . . rarn^a V "'•<■ ^ Chum. I ST e. 
Sim » Iriyxmm atrf I I. ta T/imt i/f) tlw h) rar^ita aai fiknt 
i. 3. 6. 'I^ina *f ymva; TiL 3. ST. T(i.i;u . . rl.K vL 4. 2. Ai » 
•!»>« Tw /4> i>n^Kyl-, J(»*->' It. 5. 3S. 'B » [■«. ;»« r~] IwUh-i *j> 
>nra/<«iii.5. 15. Kaa^ Iy* fVHu'aaf (It« r«^ Soidl. Ant. 5TI. AWi 
r> ffiwSi xt'l' " ''w ^- lUpP' 'B9. 

^410. Remarks. 1. The remoter relations expressed 
by the Dat. (§ 401) are various in their character, having 
respect to place, time, aeAsaiion, thought, feeling, expretsion, 
action, 6k. They ue expressed in two ways j (a.) by the 

S8B miTAX. — DATITB. t^OO^ U* 

DaU umply, and (b.) by an elliptical form of constroction, in 
which Uiie Dat. is preceded by u(. Thus, 

'H 3lf«r alni l'r)> . . lirl h{.i u'l rh nifrn ,UwXi,,ri [sc «.; Or 
nO> I^ 7^tm« u ■ywn !*• ri^ is ow wnHiiig imta Ot FomtiH, la a* ymt mti 
imlo H» Ptntmrn, vi. 4. 1 (cf. Th. i, 34). 'H. }' li,.Mf tin liinf cLiorl 
m*i, awl i< wai nam Ahc meaui day of Mf toj/ape [tu loc uitin^], Soph. Ph. 
351. (jvifii'ir •' •■ • S^Lw i^Mufmin, raUc *a kxu (ucri)Sciii<i (Ac »a ikh 
tcBimi, Hdt. Ix. JO (thii mode of defining time bj t, DM. with ■ partidpl* 
b eepKikll; Iod.). K^ ni ;c^»f mVl' \rrn HiiikKkMi t 'nnce this 
•vent,' Su|ih. <£d. T. 1A5- TJ ^> It*/i> a<-<-i^i>- »/u> t» it^tStr- 
pi> j>, 'tullwexlcnulIoiMb,"rh.it49. 2.1 yn^H, i: jIi't. [ic ^'iii], 
'•• 700 appear to me behaliling,' 'in appearanoa,' Soph. (Ed. C. 7S. 'Efifi 
yi^ Irni iliMH «> nfj< X<}V> irifiiii), a-XiInni ^v*" •f>J'*^>i>< 'acoord- 
log to mj judgiaeuV Eur. Hed. 5aO. Ks'm v' lj<ii 'n/>ii«i r>7( f {■>•■ 
ri> 1! Soph. Aat. 904. E^iw ;«; jr (xXn-ii, £( l/>*i [w. Iliaii], nri, 
*aa it aeenMd to me,' 'In m; ofdnion.' [b. 1 161. Ov ^ n> Af', Ifi, if 

5»6e. Ti fiirtl, linfLM, ■'•a;l> ■« £Lia rafaJLuri^ri . ., n»i^ir I> 
111.11.51. Siif yif !■«;;>. ^■.rySi >' •>):>^i, 'K> AruUymhini,'Soph. 
AJ- 1 1!8. H»^> ra^ ^ yi;*<". r(,ir*i>Lni Hit, 'tor an old man [aa 
Jonnwyi tee to an old nun],' Id. (EU. a iJO. TiSi H ^»ljm nirrwi /u. 
^n«i ^ii, ^irm i»/>l>i», Aat thu mait 0/ oJJ Ttnmber [fbr me], /p-i? 
jm^ «Kr tu de^, p}T. i. 6. lU 'Et ri' ^k flXi'^sr- 9iX>ii Soph. El. 8S7. 
(fl>H>; €,, i^,lMt, nit lir-'iK n r,Zs»k i^U,! y..»n.y C^. L 4. IS. 01- 
*Mly^ r.i ..ri^a Ii'hh. niT^WriT (Re W.^mb. IT. 

NoTB. The oae of tbe Dat. to expreae remote relation is pardcDlariy fts- 
qnent in the prov/um a/ tta jirsf und Kcoad pertn. Id the Greek, aa in our 
own and In other laoguaKea, the Dat. of theee froncnma it oft«i inaerted, Bm|dy 
to render the diacoune mote ranphatie or autyectiTe. Obaarva tha examplei 

^411. S. Words governing the Gen. sometimes takff 
a Dat. ID its stead, to express the exertion of an influence ; as, 

'Hyt^r* V mirut J nt^txil, "uf tike bailiff kd Uh way for dum, L •. 
gaideit Arm, iv. d. 2. 01 ykf ^irnrti m'l Ti^i.Hi iyiifiiiit At. Pint. I5> 
'H,i7,rir,, l(nyi/,t,i. Soph. (£d. C. I5S9. ', 6tUf^.fide- 
«^( ewEur. lpb.T..1l. -11 Oitm^t.^ •il^wm i"i Id. Ph. n. ^t, 
yiftim l>{ii a>«f jGach. Prom. 940. Vmx*! H ii mm) nki/^itt mfm.fS 
Cyr. Tii. S. Its. 'H ^iCaait i^iloH, 8n|rii. CEd. C. 01. nif>.ri< 
3,w>i rZM f*. nmtimi Ear. HeracL 43i>. T> iM(m ifJf . . rfmaraXm/f 
Cii.iiii. 3. 16. Tit^t'tiUrMrftttimnEai.Ph.tO. Cf. §§ 347,950, 
4^1 S. 

^419, 3. A Dot. depending upon a verb is of^ea used 
instead of a Gen. depending upon a substantive ; as, 

01 ..IrWM miriT, lOimj, (*e Aor» ore (iof /irlAcin, — m Trru nim 
liii.n.. Otir tnrlH arr tird. iii. 4. 35. 'H . . n> <-.<«( ■>;(■ Xii;irfff 
l>T>i». •»i;Lr»n vL -J. I? (cf. "U n Xi.f.ri^i* ^;;):A Tw i-»TJi jun^ii. 
/eyi.3.I> A,i ■ri iurriffm mirf ri rrfirti,^ W. A. a. T«, S>(». 
{fii tw n n!;£> iritmrtt <n>,l.(i, ■■; i-M Jovivt . . {l.riffcm iiL *. 5. 


Note. The Dat. (rliiefly of llw penwoal pnKuran) 1* sc 
■ ampla a^jxi":' of '''" >ubaluitiv> ; uid in tomt uulaucei, wtaen ao Yiaaea, 
■lipearg to depend Miictly upon > participle uuderatoud. Thus, ''i . . 
w(ii,'nr •■•■ k/ii' ViXit, laolt apoM ow iwii ttatt ^i. e. the neiT stole egUb> 
Uehed fbi DS in tlH dJAlogue), H. Sep. *Al b. Oi )■ rf . Siir ■ • •i '■(i 
y<'H>n Hdt. i. SI. 

^ 413< 4. Sometimea two datives following the sama 
word, especially in Epic poetry, appear to be most nBturally, 
though not unavoidably, referred to the .^iitin ind' olo> koI 
fiilfog (§ 334. 9) ; as, i'tfiVot t/jS^ii' kmiaii^ fag3lr„ imparted 
strength [to each one, to the heart] to the heart of each one, 

A. 11. 'A/aiti^iuvi qVaufi Ov,!^ A. 24. Cf % 438. p. 

D. The Dative Residual. 
^414. The Dative residual is used in ex- 
pressing adjuncts, Avhicli are not vit^wed as either 
subjective or objective (§^ 338, 340. o). It simply 
denotes indirect relation, without specifying the 
character of that relation ; or, in other words, it 
denotes mere aswciation or connection. Hence we 
have the general rule : Am Attendant Thing or 
Circumstance, simply viewed as such, is fut 
in the Dative. 

Nona. a. In accoTdanca vitb this nils, Uw Vat. U sometinm osed in 
expnsaing an if^iincl, which, upon a mors exact discrimtnatioa ot its char- 
acter, would be expremed by dther the Ga. or Act.- Saa i^ 340. >, 341. 

0. The Dativk BRaiDUAL ia expreased in Eog. moat ftcqueDtlf by ths 
prepoaitlaa vitA, but Likewise by Uie ptepuslliom bj/, in, at, &c. CC J^ 345. K., 

^ 41A. The Dative residual may be resolved 
into, (i.) the Instrumental and Modal Dative, 
and (ii.) the Temporal and Local Dative. 


Rule XIX. The means and mode are put in 
the Dative. 

§ -lift. Instbwmentalitt and mode may be either ««- 
terw or internal, and uode may apply either to action or eow 
ditum. Hence, to these beads may be referred. 

9M Rirux. — IU.TITK. [boob m. 

1.) Tba itulrumaUf force, or otJur meant, with which an; 
thing ia done, or through which any thing comee to paaa 

AMt ijHH-^u «t rmX.rf, OK abob UmmUKa darl, L fl. 87. "Efi/ir* 
n . ■ Ima^:, pnandmtt tatalrj/, rjL & SM. duxlrp {li^uur, la pwc 
a* ntA <l«d. Cyr. vi. 3. S7. 2;(ill«., iMfihtM-H L S. 10. *Iw. t^ 
A{/ij lb. 1'2. Ail.,, rf.d«f>iiL ;t. 17. £>.i(,., 1t{m> L 9. 14, A;. 
ytii Iwurt U. 6. 4. Ti>^w;(U«n 1' t> » '^•f f <v. «. 4. n^^ n Irit 

it>.^iT. r;L.;..[ )*WL9.s. ■nTX»j»i» 9^t-{<L8. (i. -ibui^*. 

f-jn. rx;W..|U. 4. Itf. K^lTiE* {....f it. 3. .!2. T^t D X,,r.tti- 
r:i U nxir«» txMmi, rit fvt iljiur I'i. C^" )i<w t^ Ii1ii> 
vi. 4. 83. 'AriMnu .irfi TiL 3. ;1U. DiXif ^ u) ■»>..> Ivi^.m 
U. e. IS. 01 n^ mfuit, nir-t *yu>* I A.f ■«■<.> n.! i! A).»> if 
i/iiXiif initai CfT. viil. I. 16. llftHvi fitt ■yt^tl ritrm rf M^^itj 
yti/tf, n« n x*;''' trA>f>(<i», Inf&^iai >i rf Irra, r» 1' itHH-iii 
lIMr;!'^ tf T»T«-» ;^^7 CfT. iv. .'). IN. Q^n, juiiirii, rf r^^.r. 
It L^. 611 c 'H ni ^i;Lirii Ifim lb. 717 a. T> yi{ IJXy if /^ 
!««•> ■ntft.f' .{;;t:' '*C>«> Soph. CEd. C 10-J6. — Tlu Du. of the mianle 
with T<rt» of throwing wiU be apedeJIy obaerved. 

^417. Rbhakk. Dative of the Aevrr. The D&L 
BomeiimeB expresses that through mhoM agency any thing takea 
place ; aa, 

TlitI' li/t'i ciiniaTiH, oB Hiingi kmi UtH dmu Ey u, L e-oiir mark it dam, 
L S. Ili. El' » « j»Xji . . MrfHT. i/.J> TU. G. »i. TA »{£ hhi^iEm 
lb «¥ itatf Tii.8. IS. Thi n K>.>v;iii'.if . . ^ i..;£T« Th. L 51. 
T«f *E;iXiir. ^nnn Id. iii. 64. Ilf.fvix.if f«ki,*,rm4 Sopb. A^ 
£39, 'Ha >.. Itrf^' >'{}««' w^ Eur. Hoc L()S5. TIx yif nr « 
.. «^irpif« Ammrmtfi t«f} 'throngli whom,' i.e. ^ fkrim Thcnn,' Soph. El- 
396. ^^ki^iiri •! nnTfii, rBtind from Ain tAe Kqilra, B. 1H6 (the Dai. 
fbnawing iix^ifu, iiutfad of the Gm. with m^, ii eapedaltj Epic, ud 
tnigbt peiiupe be leftrred to \ 109, thiu, fpol /r him On tvpiny. Oi^um 
. . liar, lin, a 87. 

Note. Thli oae of the Dat. i> mart ftvqiient wllh ttrbt U Ou Per/, ami 
Piup. "Kit DATTTE OF TBB AOEMT with patmt twrit, wid Uut witt pomm* 
wrtofa ($ 407. s), mi^t pvliapa hftve been nflned to the raine waiagj. 

^418. 3.) The way or laaaner, in which any thing is 
done OT affected, together with <Utendmd ciraanstxmcet. Thus, 

Ob ><i; M^M^yj, i>.\h riyn . . •r^I«^ Jitr Oef adtattetd mt milk 
dBnar, im iit iObu!., 1. 8, H. II^ixA;. •£■ ;> ?.> L 1. 4. 'Itmf Ifyj 
I.Utvril. 5. S. 'Exa^r ^>i ({ii*M JlftZiTi •-« Tvrf. L «. I. Ti. 
XaTi r*7i i>tp«).si( l> rf triAi/i^ iiuolmvui [!>. 6. Af i^y Si:> lb. 
)H. Tnrf rf rt^'9 lirtfiWiwm rTif/iivi rirrMfMf iii. 4. S3. ni(u^. 
,K..r^ iifIb.M. Ti, jS/f r^EiH PI. Pol. ItSO d. 

Rkuabk. Ths prononn uMi ii eimietiniH jmned to the D»t. of m ewH 
dated object to give emphaau ; u, Mn i^>> ■»>r( ra'i rfiijin uTaUff, 
,at At iloiiJif n'lut nt, IrifWHi niuj oS [with the triremej theiOMlvm], i. 3. 17. 
lirX-kiit yif At min!i ni Tirinif ■■ru^n^Hrnm Cyr, L 4. 7. TgiJpM 
■m."i jtXwfii^mn ii^ifurmt Incr. 176 b. — lie pnipaiiliaa rAs whWl Ii 


oamnHm in loch lAjaanta it the atric be omitted, ia KtmetiineB axplMMl OTVO 
with it i u, -0»r ■ ■ {»• -Ct»a nc'wt imnr/inrin PL Bep. 564 c 
Cf. S. 498 and T. 48^ 

3.) The respect in which any thing is taken or applied. (cf 
^ 437). Thus, 

nxMi yi iftSi Xufttmi, bifaior to H ia auaiar Qn fupect to namberj, 
TiL 7.31 (f 349). niXii . . e.f4«« {f*^:riL4.II. K iv.^fXii'f 
mfJi'Hu fwi fiX*t L 9. 24. If f »>; fx^ il- S. 9. Xfi/iuti ami 
r.^KU nirmt frXutunTn (^ 3jl) UL 1. ST. Tw, •l"X''l lnl-j-"(- 
rn{w lb. 43. 'E.J H ftiff irfaxHwn ti Imn lifiSf iiL 3. 19. Tf $ik. 
*lrr^ rw H'XiTuw jSla^m Hl iv. TS. 'Fi'tp ^It fiiijti Uh *. 304. 

^410. 4.) The Measure of diferejice, ^peci&lly with 
the Comparative. Thus, 

L e. s. n>;i>.^ n Sfrif» iL 5. 33. SftiZm, StY fi' ^•"»> i^«> '•- 

rtirf iwK^numrrtnif ^rii-ti f^KuUh iff i\ fX'>--"'"i"< rtnirf 
rxin remytipriiu ^an>u rTfiTiu/i^ IhiiUdng lAat {by how much] Ae man 
rofidfy Ac afu^tld adpamaj [bj bo moch] <Ad nore wtpnpared he ahovld find At 
timg for baitit,^^ i. 5. 9. 'Ersmtirf •rtutirifti, a fcoT oldiT, At. Ban. 
13. TltiiXuSi iriXXfTh. vii. 8a X(i>f> ^trinn nXXy ^dt. ii. lia 

5.) The Dative with xv^onai, to use [to supply one's need 
with, fj 284. 3]. Thus, 

ILnTfiaii j^fAfjuHfi wng diematitm, Uem- i. 1.3. '^^ft^rt fttt E^rKfi *va.* 
picked,' i. 3. JR. Twi i>VH( ifirm ^ptrtiu, 'moiuge,' i. 9.5. Xuufw 
XfiiHin, ' baviDg met with,' Dem. ISA. 3. Tiiif xi'f''"'' '""fi ' **><*' 
dating with,' Uem. iv. H. 1 1. 'Tii Kifii 3->>.i^i'f l;t;;aT>, inUcA voa Aotttit A> 
<^nii, ii. 5. 1 1. 2fi)(s ruttft'mii ixt'" "■ ^- '^■ 

Note. N>/t^i> has aometimea the Dal. after tbe analogy of xi^'f" ' 
tt, Btrm-i )>iTi)r.'«i tt/t-Ztmi, ' observmg,' Tb. a 38. Bvrifi.'f /^t (Mi- 
rvm IwJfuj;- Id. uL SS. 

(ii.) Tehpobal and Local Dative. 

^ 430. Rule XX. The time and place at 
WHICH are put in the Dative (cf. ^ 378, 439) ; as, 

1. Ton. T; 1' imtmlm [ac i,^'] Inn tvyi>.H, bat thi ntxtdty 
Ain camt a maimger, i. 3. 21. 'liiiTi yif ruinf »j llfitf /uixi'rtmi Rm- 
riXU i. 7. 14. 1^ ifri(^!f ,U Ifi'nin. tl r,>.ifuu, tOU rf tfirf • 
rfti r>rd(rif, tpniii '(">"*•""' '•"'^-'l^f''"'" Xl^'" ^>^>^"i 'l™t 
(HI the rourth, having paased tbem hi the ai^t (^ 378),* iii. 4. 37. Aim. 
3fH n r^ Ir..^ rv.ri, Ivil J(«(.f J>, )«^.i> B. Gr. u. I. 33. T..Vy 
«,.) i.»;t'" I"' "A')?" lb. L 4. 31. T# r iw,i^, It,,. ,* jT, 'OL^^J,, 
^ri rrolii. i./.. E«»;»: lb. II. 3. I. Tf 1' nbrf xt'"" "^ <« Ot (una 
Hmt, lb. i. 3. le. '0 S 'Aynn'Xifw ;({•'« iriri ■!«>, ' at leogth,' lb. iv. 
I. 34. 'il, 3uitr<rifr xt''f ^'X"" " »i "■'' >!f!t"» BuT' Tro. 3a 
CC U 378, 439. 

S. Pian Tirtirmmran JiifatZt4 mu Zi>A>/i: 

[book "• 

_™ ™« be i«fiaT*d the 

3 ,™ m.- Soph. Hi a »««■ oi ~i ?f J<J,,] ".J^-- •* fr 

(—A,), at *«- (i. 1. 10). ."«■«" C= A*"-"' 
8« i§ SW. t, 37». -. 

E. The Accusative. 
^ 4aa. The office of the Accusamej to ex- 
{he general rule for its use is the followu>g • 
Adtokct expressing Direct is pot 
THE Accusative.' 

pnn llniit ; bnt the Co.. u>d Bot. «!>»- ■' 'TJ^SLrt «»«« ■» •»«* 
thu the Aa:. In same connectioiM, howBTOT, """ ^^04 S 
LDterehanKeabl;? with the Aeo. See SS S^'f «>1. '''*■ "' * _ 

The Accusatire, as the case of direct limit, is 
employed, — 

(i.) To Umit an action, by expressing its dwerf 
object or its efect. — Ace. of Direct Object and 


(II.) To limit a word or expression, by applying 
"t to a particular part, property, thing., or person. 
Ace. OF Specification. 

(hi.) To express limits of time, spacer and quan^ 
tity Ace. OF Extent. Coin^k' 


(iv.) To limit a wotd or expression, by denoting 
degree, manner, &lc. — Adverbial Acc. 

'Sana, (a.) Tbxat usm in not tmiy intimstely ftUied, but BometJinea Uend 
with cub other. (&) For tbs nse of the Aoc lo denota (ha nbjtti of thtlm- 
Jhutkt, Me tba STiitax of that moda. 

(i.) Accusative of the Direot Object and Effect. 

^ 493. Rule XXI. The direct object and 

the EFFECT of an action are put in the Accusative. 

AmUw Tirrmfifm', takmg Tianphtrna, i. 
X.yiw, lit wwdt tht lay, i. 1.6. 'T<r^<rnH r 
ui *;. Ktf, lb. 3. •tik.irm >iri 
fiiytrmi. nUiEai rr;i^T.v^s W,X,ii*u Wiktr.i lb. 7. 

Nora. Ttia dklincdon betweeD the dirtcl obfect ■nd the rffecl of in mctlan 
Is not ■Iwaj's obvioaa, utd it aomalimtt appean dnabllul In whidi head an 
Kyonct ia beM Teferred. 

^ 434. Reharek. 1. TIm term attmi U empIof«d hi thii rule to 
denote igAatawr ii ligmfied bg a eerb ; and the mla piop«riy appliea only to 
the a^tancta at wrbi {k H9'^). AdjuUca and nmnu, howerar, Bometima 
take the Aoc after the analogy of kindred verba; thus, ^i . . fiii/m, aUt 
toacapt gtm. Soph. Ant 7SB (cT. 'H ^^l fiym «i Id. El. I.fn^). 'En. 
rri^mti )i iTh' ri v^ttivrM Cjt. iii. :l. 9. 'Eliftfi iTim ri 1;mw/ii«> 
Pt Chaint. 158 c. T^ ri /iiri-fo ff4trirrit PI. Apol. I» b (cf. Tm 
^TufBi ff,TirTxi Symp. 6. 6). Siat rfiri/ttrii JEecti. Cho. 23. Tit 
S>iK>Ci;i>i ^i» Xirai Id. Ag. 103. luiirrtfa . . u» lb. 1090. Sea 
•bo ^431. 1. 

S. Han; vefba, whidi according to tiia preceding raka gnvem the <?«. w 
file Dai., are likewiac congtrUBd vitb the Acaiiatm (see §§ 341, 401, 
4S^. R.); aa, -n^>Xi7. ^i. r<I>( f,:;L.ii,, ..gxiwrnw » t.^ 1%'^ PL 
Bep. S34 b (cf. $ 403). nfiix'i"" •'• •mil ifh 11. 3. 19 (cC j 350). 
'A>» ■ii-Sfj^i X^t PL Eathj-d. SSa b (cf. ^ 350. R.). ^itmfuu tSrt n 
m-.fUft,, ii. 5. 4 (cf. § 375. 0). H«-.].7<. o^.^f wv(.i, Iv. 5. 5 (cf. 
lb. 6, and § 36T}. Aiyw n UiXot. ■»»> viL 5. 9 (cf. § 4012). 

§ 43S. !l. AmucnoT. A word wlilcfa ii pmperiy canatned oUh^ 
irtae MtDetimee becomes the direct object of a verb by aari^ctiini ( § 3£9. K.), 
aapecially In the poeta. Thia aometimcs mulls m hypallagi, or an interchuiga 
of omatructioD {irmXl^yi, txdua^). Thus, ¥J Ii ^' •!!' 4il >.>ru( t{af:cit 
[" /m ),iy>ii( or >.i}<i»], 1/ gou Aad o&viy* ie^ua yDHr oififraHS to tu lAai^ 
Soph. El. 556. ^iririTBi i^ini . . ■■r>£(£r>, / u^ btfut lameiitaliinu fir mf 
■utter, Em-. Andr. 1199. Ct ?5 4^7. 9,431, 433. 

4. A Terb, (^ which the lanpo' object or effect ia a distinct lentence, oflaa 
takes the snbjact (or sonu other pTominent word) of that aenteiHn in tlia Acc., 
by ittTBction , as, 'Hilu nirli, It. ^r» Ix-, hi lata [him] Aal As a«a- 
JlMthMiIrcl. a. U1. Ts> yii ivicSikiii rm Iflm iiiiiiii"; fi 'f 
iis«>>j|fAi's iii. 5. IS. 'HAiy^c" ^ ■£■>* <riim x^t"' ''" 1'"''^ •'^ 
lb. 14. OT... Ift-'i-s I>4a Jr mtrvftyrfim W. fi. ii9. 'lb iff rl> 

VK nvTAX. — jooaurrrc [booiq 

5. PsBiPmai. Hm |JaM«rat«bbi«nNpiilkd trio ,i«.^ik 
lti*ri Bo^ J<riiMd wjtli nch vertis *< mis (or mors frecjDsitly ruiifKi), 
«>«, txth ritifu. Ac ; tiraa, Ki(w ifitwn aal <lf>'>^ r£> 'E;i]Ln« Innm 
[^ IfiiTan laJ ifitimn nil 'EIAchh]. Qn" ■u^ ' roHv a ~ 
fTC— nvfew^aDdnoMbtndJdt Cn>fa,L£.9. *££!«»»•'. 
Tit r^Ui Imiuri L 7. va 

<t. Bach polphnUM agaMtinm take an Am. b]r Tiitac of the impU«d verb , 

ViiL 6!. Ti> x-{«> "nl^^f X.I.-.I InHV. [=UHArfru] lb. 41. 'A 
Xtn n furcm . . tntitit tx-t [— mihn] Eur. Here 709. T> f U fit- 
■T I Xinn iV^^f Soph. (£d. C £113. TiV lU T^ani A' iu«m> ■^■jiAt 

iBlftanunstr, .1^' tx'' rUn [= rt^ ■-] lyA •■■'v| Ev.joa, 
na. XatMcff 333.3,431. 

^430. T. ELLIittB. Tbumrt irtikhgorana the Aoc i< tamefinm 
ii'tful; putioalaiiy, 

«.) In mrauio addbbh ; n, CMnt, J r( tw [ac xfyk or ■>>*], To* 
ttcn, lul joa I iwa., Ar. At. S74 (S 343. «). £1 », r) W. «£.»■> k 
irO» >ie>, fir. ■ »«i;h7>4 t.l^.iK. rih , So^ AdL 441. 

At oum la dm on Bat. Ode i. 8. I. Pir li ^ dm oro Tat. Andr. 

y.) In FKoaiBrnon; as, VA rptii In [ac T«i7n], Aii nsn dAn/tJ 
Soph. Ant. .^77. Hn' ^h> />c;(''>m. />■» W^if.'jiv {i»K [sc Xiy<]> ^'"-^ 
fea Ed KB of jHwr tea (AdoiuJ or trica<)i ttwioaiJ ■HrceaariB, Drao. 45. 1 1. 
Uii ^Mi Tfifon- At. Acb. 34£. 

}.) In sWKARino; as, Oi, rj>l' 'Ox^ii«> [sc ^r«^. Cf. $ 438], Jl^ 
(rtAit {%M;nu/ Soph. Ant. T5h. Oi ri. ^w .Urf.». Id. O. ion».— 
By tbia ellipida may be explained the dm of the Aco. with the partida n. 
Ml. and /ui (of which the two firet are ^gfrmatat, and the last, unleas [■«■ 
ended by t»i, conuDonly utgatm), —^^vrAing to tha bOowing 

Specul RoiiB. Advsbbs of ■wxarthq an fi^mnd by the AccnutlTe ; 
aa, K« ^'a, ra^ Ig JitpUtrl I. 7. 9. N^ t^ S<^ vi. 6. 34. 'Axxii.. fii 
nil Ahoi, •if Ivv* mirtiii lu^o, Aat, Igr (Ai jnfa, J inJI nut pwiH Abk, 
L 4. 8. N.J ^ a;., Tei^ nifaof/ t. S. 6. 

^ 437. 8, Tlw J«. leqnired by a tianatiTe verb is imietiinea «■>»• 
M i ai, 'Ow'm i r^ n«, SwX«n ^anXim [ac *^ O;.] L 5. 7. Cf. IT. 
5. II. Avjuif fxan [ac. n> In-o] i. 10. 13. Compare TlmtiiMmrrH 
Ojt. vSi. 3. an, irilh 'E;L>ii>»r« n> Tn-» lb. 39 ; and n>jix>n» »■ 
Tvnr, wUk nfmXBMn KirA Cyr. v. 3. ^S. 

g. An elliptical or onnaoal cooilrnctioo of a Tcrb and Aoc ia 
employed, cepedally by the poaU, fbi energy of e 
r= ■!!(•» l>^i] wti.i*tftit fim Soph. ^. 55. A!^' 
"™ !*:••> or mifimri ra> jfl. nmraj lb. 3T6. Tii^yu iiwm iljc»ai 
849. T(J#|i. fi.« Eur, Sup. IBOS. Cf. 55 485, 431, 433. 

<n. l.] 07 DIKBCT OBIBCT. S99 

1. Aeeuaaiive of the Direet Oijeet. 

V 43 8. I. This Ace. is oflea translated into English with 
a preposition I thus, 

'OfttC/u Smw h} Btii, I BBtar bj ^ub ai^ gaddeaa, vi. 6. 17. Ov«i 
/tlv ycf mortit i-^it/^MnMSfHt /br Aem hope btat ffu^ty of perjury iigsuut i&ai^ 
iiL 1. 3S. 'H^ . . <J «-u;;t, Amur uwll to ui, i. e. treotiiis w ekU, il. 3. St<. 
'O 11 rlyXn tmrm Im-i iCtXm, lAe i^ifiK u eqaicalent to (rten oMi, 1. 5. 6. 
Oilii £U> lvH/>i>ii ii. 8. 13. fSix-i BaffiTri, jm Asm no fear of bntaet, 
iii. 3. SO. ^rXurri/Htf . . <l/>*<i ^uonfiii^ Kgslngt u, ii. 5. 3. 'AsiJ(l(ii 
■•ri( a-nTifai, havag run auay (hnn tAa'r foAen, vi. 4. fl. '0 Kikiii /t 
Jx^''"' ^ jiichdau hat dtparttd bom nu, 1. e. Aof Itfi nu, Ar. At. 86. 'Hy. 
rx^'fi' *iu SiMv h! M(itrK» (-(iJwmu siTir, Kv icvrc aiAanifrf befbre &>lA 
^wdf mtJ mflH (0 detert Aim, ii. 3. 2^. Af>;^(^irfti W r^y^d, he u tuAonof 
of eJk act. Eur. Ion, 3GT. Tiur yx; i&riei;) 9iai S>ii'ri»i-a( u x''t""'- f" 
At godt do not rejoice In the death of the piota. Id. Hipp. 1340. A! n , 
Xtpiiawi, rtr TmfiiMi "Iiuj^ii, ' danoa in honoT 0^' 8o[di. Ant. 1153. 'Ex!r- 
nr . . 'AfTi^i Ear. Iph. A. M§0. 

^ 439. II. To this head may be referred the use of the 
Ace. with vEBBS OF MOTION, to denote the place or person to 
whiek [^^ 339, ^2) ; as, 

'Af'frrw T>n> ii^n, via ohb to o BoH^ apot, Ten. 10. 6. 'Am Kal- 
^n fuXm Sopfa. <£d. T. 35. 'Oxln nrfi, ifX*!,, rif Id- El. R9.1. 
Ilvfrtiv rw trkmt' 'I*>;Liiai Etir. Med. T. 'Af I'lin x'"* I>>. 1 2. Ti,h 
HBInXuf x^i™ lb. 6S^. *Henl rUt, /HXi^rmt lb. 92a X;i.b ni r> 01*- 
rax;> x''" «^<«<i Id. Ale. 479. K.;<r», )' .ip„i, A. 317. -EC» 

•Uf y. 162. 

NoTKB. «. This USB of tha Ace. ia chiefly poetio, and Bspediillr Epi<^ 
knatead of tlie conuaon conatnicljon with a prepoeition. 

$. The poets someUinea even join an Ace. of the plara with verb« of ttmd 
iHg, fitiBig, or h/ing (aa implying occHpaliim) ; thus, S-rit' si ftU i/Jn rj>>' 
ifu^litn r(Xn, u J' Mii- ii,>L„ .Tfu, Eur. Oi. 1251. Qimtr' !■{■> lb. 
STI. Tf'Vils »/;;.> iDu'Ch lb. 9S6. Tint . . Jnaa niTrmi Soph. Ph. 144. 

^430. in. Causatives govern the Ace, together with 
the case of the included verb ; as, 

Hi fi itmftiiriii uaxtit, do not ranind su of [euiM me to remember] 
ny iRH, Eur. Ale 1045 (| 376. y). 'A>s/<>x'r» yif ifti, >■! nin . . 
Bi>)i««iU.Z. II (§424. E). B>iS;Liirt yirii vjkth 2i>ciiT» ^ifa > Eur. 
Cj^ 149. Tiii m'Jst . . yii/rriij mlfu-r; PI. itsp. £37 a (J 3TS. >). 
n<ixx;t mI tlU »J wmiritawk li^x"" ■'/»' ^- ^'"S- SS^ *■ See also 
J 357. 

Reharr. Tlie verba Ji? and ;^ aie aometimes conalrued by the poets aa 
eautatita ; thna, 21 iiT flgi/iK/iBi, yw Amw aeed of [it ueeda yua of] a Pm- 
m^lutu, .£ech. From. Be (§ 357). !!;>» «iX;i>h ^i }■; Eur. Hipp. iS. Ti 
}^; ^' »u «,?■> I Eur. Suppt. 7B9 (cf. Soi ri yi; .»;!» rf Ju Id. Hed. 
£65, and § 403). Ti ^f* ¥''^' > I<1' Or. 66'' (but Porson read* Ti lu' fl- 
tkMr, deo^ng UiU tliiB lue of ;u>i ■> Attic). 21 xH • • *^^ r- !*• i , 

aOO sxMTAi. — Accvainvs. [book in 

2. Aaxtative of the EffeU. 

^43l> The EFFECT of a verb includes whatever the 
agent does or makes. Hence any verb may take an Ace. 
eKpressing or defining its action. The Ace. thus employed is 
either, a, a noun kindred, in iu origin or gignificaiion, to the 
verb, or jl. a neuter adjective used substantively, oi y. & noun 
tingily defining or characleriting ike action. 
a. EiNDBKD Noon. 

01 }1 0{f*i( liri} lirix**" nvri ri liriy^mftm, caul tdm Ai Thraeiiaia 
had paiiud dtU ntcat, vi -i. 6. 'iU iaitilltit $lrw J^/h', Adv fecim aB/eiBi 
tint, Eiu. H«d. ^48. ^rtmyinrrm f/>) nun' rin rrfxruymt L S. \S. 
Vn^v' yifm riili Eur. Med. f HT. Tf rfryii^irt tit mitrxtn )<i:im i 
lb. 1041. Uwi^kntriu ir«» i<ri>>iX(i« PL Prot. »3.! c BvXiIu «w 
JiiuH-sTni ^wiXuH^iu PL 680 & 4iii}^« rinf >^i» lb. STT c 
Ti> Ml ■■>«^>» riLl^i Irr^riivai Th. L 112. 'IL£i» !;<^ivi<> )<i>» 
Ear. Pb. 1:)T9. Ilriliiiu ■■S^ U tiiit ifikim ..EsqIu Pen. ftOS. Aiil.m 
f«r«i }i;r><- t^»>nf lb. 79. TM' • •tHttsxif !!(» Sopb. (Ed. C. 1 1G6. 

'fl(jj»»T* rf|' uifvWft vi- I. 7. Tltfiprtit I" iij(*r> t9W( wf^rtvt triUfuvi 
ii. U. Ili. "Exfx T«. At. iU. 1. 6. *%■ iyinHiti . . tin if. 1. £4. T;i. 
<■><■•' Tti^n'w iliiSi Hdt. tL 1 1 9. 

Rbsubeb. 1 . !□ tike manner, an adjccHnt Bometiniea takes an Ace of tha 
kindred noun (§ VH. 1 ) ; aa, Hnn n «f if St r», imiwr rif ['m, itiri i/ttt- 
$ht rtit i/Httirr, being ruUher wtie with Ihar butfont, nor /bo/uA u'i^ tAeir foi- 
fy, PL ApoL 22 e. K<»ii( rira. a»:.> PI. Rep. .99l> d. AivAu rk, ^- 
■ylrrmt 5kiri/>( m1 ^hiXii'ik lb. 579 d. 

U. It will be obaerred, thai usually an adjective ia joined with the Aoo. 
uf the kindred noaii, and the whole phrase ia an emphalic enbstituCion for an 
adverb. Thus, '11, i,i,Jt!fn 6'"' (-/•■> -^'Ht inMrmi ^^^^x. lliis ad- 
jective not uni^^uently oocure with an ellipt^ uf the noun i as, Ti Ilt^wixir 
^(K''" [."^ hxif^] ^ '- 'C- Hence appears to have arisen the conatnLO- 
tion is ^ 43^. 

^ 433. 0. KsUtEB AXhTSOTTVE. 

Tiixin /Hw riTufiii, raisura H >-lyu, [he haa done mch things, and 
Bays such things] neh hat been hit conduct, and s»tch i$ hit Lmffuagef 1. 6. 9* 
&iyutiiMixii,mi\L\.l!t. Toilni ;^it;iV»>«u lb. 10. Ti AiMMia 
Its,, L ^. 10. HaSi' -i-tauU. 1. 9. T. Hiy- ^^w.i ill. I. £7. 'Art. 
nfryi ri YiXi^iiii viL ». S3. XfirmrUi ri <^ n-;'n|, (0 mate aoiM 
MK 0/ (Ac amy, Cyr. viii. 1. 11. Ti kvrf ;tf«'7 < '"'^ KmM ym do wU 
AinP lb. i. 1, 13. T/ ri/i>>> hmI ri^fitriiiii S>.i«i, i uAy do yon 
fun* j>ratM md thotighlfult Eur. Ak. TT3. KsJlii ^\iw- Id. CycL S53. 
KxivTii 3;Li<ri.Ar. Vmp. 900. 

RkmABim. 1. This conatracljan (upoD iriiich aee \ 431. S) is cloaelj al- 
Ued with the adctrUal lut of the neutar ac^ective § 44o), and ia, perhaps 
Ik origin. 

9. The Ace, of lit vuler adjtetiiie Is veiy extsnaive in its nse, rad oftea 
occnre vbere ■ uAitaalin wunld have been oonecrueted dif&rently j thni. 
Till /Utn rXinuw ,n f'K^'rt, i' r>)' rf Sifu rw ■].;•■, ti ti (if 


ft>a«r Eur. BfncL 633. See lb. 6 

§ 433t y. DsmrmrB Noint. 

<Me» ^Xfri^ bolng tem>r, dlMb. Sept. 4gH. 'H BnxH . . IC%i<^ 
■ ■vr, (*( (nate fcokif niuean^ Ar. Eq. 629. 'A;. Ji)>f>H->« JMu Sept. 
fi3. 'A:ifii>i ir>i« At. At. J t2l. 'A.).* n> Sirslaai vi. 1. 6. 
'£;Lr;)>( X/^mL «. 11. 'Oki/irim rii.iniiiTi, Aoduijf ctnfiwW n (V 
OfympUgama, Th. 1. I'.I6. Nin.iHTi •>v/'<i;£<'sc Id. vii. 66. Ni«*»i. 
fW hMi rM^xfimr Symp. i. -J. 'Hyai^on i) tiiTSii ^i> rraiiii, . . 
rii-m H ») w«ritii ■■) ir>yj>;ir.>> Trifu iy. 8. ST. IltUii 
(i^;|;a( ifrnnm Isocr. Tl e. Xi;<i)->nTii wii iiiitirim Dem. 535. I3> 

3. Double Accusative. 
^434. The same verb often governs two ac- 
cusatives, which may be, 

I.) The DiaECT object and the effect, in appontion with 
each other {^ 331) ; as with verbs of making, appointing, 
choonng, esteeming, naming^ foi. Thus, 

Biirr^la rt Irtinfttr, Aey auide jfQv king, vii. 7- S?. Zrf TnyJp it miriw 
il>-i!ii{i, andht had ajyainltd him gntcral,i. J. 3. ri'Tifs Ipi inaXtJri, 
gm ealUd nu /adun; vii. S. ae. •Qit.i V t, UuTi- l>L*rmi rrfiTo^'ii V. 7. 
S8. OS, H ii^m BtiU i>;^iC"i. 4-9. *0> >>>^<i;i Aii/HiliK nr^ 
Eur. Sup. 131". '0,,fut n n >>lirt VSi xt>«' < U- I™, 359. 01^. 
rT»Xi( K^litfRr.i r» <;1» Iwrin /tii il.iiimrt iy^ij PL MeDO, i:3 d. 
03c iymi^x, «-iXi» irmiiiirmtli PI Rep. 546 b. Ki^ rt rrfini-i^ 
(oriiii^i JiiliiM ^ifii, QfTW <£iiuftiJ At amy uto huabw porfi, Cyr. viL 
5. 1». 

NoTK. The infinitiTa iTmi is oftm lued with these verbs ; as, Ki>tita yiif 
ifiit i/ui iT>H aal trmrfSx xo) fiXivi i. 3. 6. 2i^rti|> )« rw ii^tiiin . • 
rj> Sfitm Am PL Prot. 31 1 •. 

^ 433. n.) The DiBECT OBJECT and the effect, not m 
apposition ; aa with verbs of doing, saying, &c. 'thus, 

goodoraill,]. 9. II. Ti f^iyim aoii If yt^im'ti ri, riXii, PL Rep. 
49a b. 'H)ia«<ra/>i> nirn .Hi. TU. 6. ^2. •mJim rair' ^fUnrii 
Mnmt Dam. i5S. T. 'A 

Ml nuTAX. — AOStWATTTX. [booi in 

TaSw hI anffOir' sM. U. Bm. 616. 'Orm* b nA ff^Si-H iUi 
Xmtrihx'™ xlymta, ' 117 the mnt tUns* to och otlnr,' McM. U. 2. 
9. n<JiJa r^ nXxWf ^ M lEi'»( Soph. EL 520. Ts *ff>t' In si- 
Ji.C iuAm Id. AJ. 1 107. "En sA^ i >i. *i n!f>' .In^iC'i "^ 
Id. (Ed. T. 939. 'E^i>r<(f*<ii «M> n Id. (Ed. C. 1145. T.' . . y;i- 
^ !■ rt^w»«^ l>''Pr> Em. TVd. 1188. TwSrw TV 'x'^'C- 
#' 1^ Soph. EL 1094. *Of Bvrsv wAtni nvf tfrfmnurmt r§vt fttytrmit 
tin*, Th. tU. 75. HUirli ^ l}.(rf^aT. r^ }•;-?■> "irv PL 
ApoL 19 a. Tm^iJ /H Umxtrrttm ydft" Ear. Tro. 3.;T. K^vvuri 
■fSTS^^JUw «A*ra> Id Or. 1467. 'Au.' lyWi 7{>>> «• ufn >"-- 
^•» Id. H(L 83J. 'A»);vai ^iXi/^ linyyll.s n Ar. FlnC 764. 

79. 96. 

^ 430. m,) Two OBJECTS differently related, but which 
are both reg&rded aa dibbct ; aa with verbs of askisig and rt- 
guiring, of elotking and tmetothing, at amcealing and dtyra- 
ing, of ptrtuading and teaching, &c. Thus, 

SSfn ■/i-ii'i a-LuB, to of «■& of Qnu, or (0 oit C^rr— fi'' nmb 
LS. 14. Uim/a ifi^ft run, do mn hide Ah fmm me, Maiii. Ft. 6^5. 
*H/<if U Ir.rrifir rJ> ^rA'>, b^ mi U r^U nf our pay, vii. 6 9. SI 
li>irali> rit rr{any/«i, to tmai ytw Me nu^ifory urt, Hem. iii. l.S. 11^ 

MM, . . A'ii{Jra r' ifU )«>-;■■, nf}^ n £ur. Iph. T. SGI. Itrmd i 
JZu, ■'f.rrfiri.Soidl. Ai.R:<l. 'Trwi K t SanliM » i^Xa ,lr>jri 
11. J. 38. 'EA> rfirrnri urn' ri xtV^r-, ' deRuod," exTCC,' vii. 6. IT . 
O; Ainfil . . TiXa «H HnvXi<i»i iEijLiyii jEBChin. 69. '^9. Torn 
rf.i..Xi>. v^ r<^.Tw C7T. L 4. 4. T.£r. ^. U /.^ j>.iy<*:i ^ 
PL Rep. 47:1 a. T^./^. Utmi [«c. xirfw] Uuw «|«f /in CjT. ). 3. IT. 
Th >v»> if£> x'-'^' tfr.'x" *■'■ Lj». 1 156. ■£»».!«. 1^ «««.. 
(.'» Irffn .£sch. Ag:. 11169. 'A^xfiTrfsj i-uv l>«jiw>T>t 'B;i:La<B( <4> 
yiiri.3. 4 (cf. $ 4U). 'Of /a ,.it»\h ^' i^rtrritmt Soptl. (Ed. 0. 
V6ti. Tir ^ yi{ 9u> «^ mf^HW rir«>.ii,tr, Dem. FliS. 19. S 
nir*^ «■;/•■. Sgph.a:d. C. 797. Zii n yit f^ ■^'^ rw» . . IriL 
)tvi( Clyr. L 6. SO. Oh Urn rivrl 7 i tin n Sopb. Ant. 538. 'Of 
n ■•.Xtrii rilfr.Id.FbiLl34l. Tm:*' iflrr^, >.:^<.t-AxH"™' *- 
fiirii Ear. Ale 443. n« ^- frijiiyiii «i!> 1 Eur. Hec 8W (rf. '0 
..i^J, ^- rf;C.™, 5 4-2B). X(i- ,;t,r, . . J*;.«, {. ^-24. A,«(Kf« 
'A;CaHv( ^ j^fui e. £04. 8«e alBO ^ 430. 

(11.) Ac(nisATiv£ OF Specification. 
§ 437. Rule XXll. An adjunct applying a 
word or expression to a particular part, prop- 
ERTT, THING, or PERSON, IS put in the Accusative; 

T« x''l' tih/tim, [Ixmnd ai 

em. 1.J or tnemsAmm. — or asttiiT. SM 

Tlxit.i i,iaxbut,tr. S.S. tla^mt . . it wAijiUmnt Jni ri ^m*ti 

mmiri rXdrn Unit, malXtn tt rk tSrm, jhJ ri t^rftrtti rdrra 

IlAo rii .;])> mWimi vU. 1. SS (<£ f 393. y). 'O^k U /w «(ii*^a 
Im iL 5. SS. Cf. §} S6i», 41B. 3. 

^ 43 8. EEiumu. a. Thli DM of tin Ace fa often tvmad qnwf- 

fi. WWe ■ rab li in thi* mj IbllDWBd bj two aonusttni, tlie cooitnio- 
Am (wbicb ia bkkI brpaat in Eplo postiy) ribj ba oftin rt/nni to tin 
Z^ivuiii^' Ix« laJ^ifw (i 334. 9); u, Tl^h ti Ini f^ I(iif Slit, 
rtn. WKot laiigwii/c hat ueapid \j<xu On badge af tK> tnth] lAi Ae^ nf ytur 
MMl lb 64. Ti>}-i . . Air irvis &•/••! T. 406. (X J 41il. 

y. An Aeo. tf ipadAcatioa wonM o Bm Intiodiicea ■ Mittanca ; ■■, Tiii 
Ui^n, ' but u to Iha Gndo^' Q^. ii. I. 5. Ti tOt •£• rifrmy/im tit 

lili>^ru Imkt. S64 c. T» 11 rim *>> lari rit ^ijfuf, /w }-ini>v; n 
wAiiTb.iL a.'. T^ iyfifn «jn*i . ■ JmSh fifiWunt R. Le^ 
Tfil c. — Thij enutnction nuf 001% b« r^bmd to muafuAH or rftJHi. 
1. Tbs Ace ia KimatlEDei nwd in mlanafwu, to iporiiy (he otject of 
■motum (d: Si S43. 2, 373. •, 1 ^^ I*- » ^'yiw fif i-Him, bK ol 
/v tin fale of tilt inabdinn n^Migali, Macb. Ag. 1 1 4e. fluiii yt tji • ■• 
(Sna rh WMfi nil ^(Hvif ti^i^i^Hi, iJ /MMrtri iitrini v^lit At. At, 
1 969. — Tlifa eanatnKtioa, whidi !• nnfraqiignt, ibooM pvltapa be ratered ts 

(ill.) Accusative of Eztbkt. 
^ 439. Role XXIII. Extent of time and 

SPACE is put in the Accusative (cf. ^^ 378, 420) ; 

m. Tm. 1>iiHt t/ii(in Xrri, k nMoAisI Mem dagi, L 9. 6. '£!<•■(«■ 
■Min XT'" i. 3. S. Z£t KlmriHi Kuavrit ii. 6. S9. 'Er»ii> i^lea> ul 
r^n vi. 1. 14. IIifiH^Hi W A«n> ni ■/•■{■! iiL 4. 6. Tiln ^> r-if 

<■ n^;<nri, t\. Mr. ^> Mflri, r^r U )/.!;■> itfMtriTi T. R. '2*. 01 rpi- 
urra In ytytwril, ' thirty JWOT old,' ii. 3. 1 'i. Til 9v)<it1(b «f M^iij;);"' 
tiini i^if" ytr'fvin^ iv. 5. 34. T^.r*. i/^t u™ |ji»«f Th. viiL SS. 
Oinmrn ulx/^u, Um Eur. RhM. 444. 'Ol tUhk ««« *{/■ In, ' tb«N 
ttuMTeus,' 1^ 109. 12. 

0. Sfack. "TftKmitti U 4f*7w Mv>/ii> Iia, rmfmriyyui ixrit, A« aj- 
VOHcci Oinng/i Fhrj/pa am (tayVnarcA, cipU panaangt, L 2. 6. 'ATix**" 

yttiitm, viL 1. 30. Ti ^\Xh »irS, ■■] lii-Xinit [k. hirtnt^^ fifi'l" '-• 
nifn»r rfi>l»£> iii. 3. 16. 'Orirn tl irfJu^im ii"EUlii»i, nrwm 
inlAn irBHI;(H(4r> /irnxftintif fill iii. 3. 10. 

Note. In the eimple derignaCion of lau tnd plact.Utt OEnrnvB oommon* 
lyexpreaees the time and place » biUiA (§ 37H) ; the DATIVE, at eiUc* (^420); 
■nd the AccuaATivK. Aroagh vhii*. To ■ cvtain bxUu^ hewner, tha offioM 
<r the uveni cuee blend with CKh othar. 

S04 imTAX. — T0C1TI7R. [book Ul 

(iv.) Adtbkbial Accdsattts. 
^ 440. Rule XXIV. The Accusative is often 
used ADVERBIALLY, to express degree, manner, or- 
der, &,c. ; as, 

Titll «f *-(!■-•■, im Aim aof, or Uau, I. 1. 9. T« aMi r;jr<>vl. 5.6 
(cf. T^an-f rfirf iv. S. 13, and Wl 8). TiXif H iT<n, md Jbalfy [at 
Ihe end] Ac rbcI, ii. 3. £G. 'A;jt;ir ^J rXnrn'm, 'in the first place,' 'at 
■u; vii. T. ux. '0;;(>.H ■>/<;i< i,i;<u» Iv. ». ^e. T<mi> j:ii;.>,(mae- 
AuC of (Ail, Hem. L 'J. 54. E.nj| t'.tnt, H^a dag, Mach. Ag. 3. Esi 
;t> 1' [^Mui, '<q>partiiiHlj,' Soph. Aj. 34. 'Aofiai iIji»tii Ar. Ach. 39. 
Tj|> ^ f»}iiiu> HdUii. -J. Znrirnr/u t4t rmxirrv, [bc. Hi,^ I 3. 
14 (dl L 2. ^O). Oinm, If*, h! vi^i nXi/iu nitZnXtiui rit yi ■'{■rti 
irirxi*t^tt, ' far the preaeol,' Mem, iii. 6. tO. See § 3^0. 3. 

§ 44 1. RjDUBKS. a. Thia rale apfdies e9p«ciBll7 to the Ace. «■(. 
vf adjeetiBa, both ging. and plnr. ; u, Tt a;,:..'!!, Jbrwrfji, i. 1.6. 7k 
/ur . ., n Sir fHirtlt/ . ., parlli/f It. I. H, t. 6. ^4. Mft^ji i^ifi^^ «^ /ft4 
ssTariT-fafSru 1. 3. 3. Tu^", perhapt, vi. 1. ^!0. Ti 3.Mwi', lunr^rlh, 
S.'2.S. EI T„« ^ly. J. « «^- #.:». i T(.pj S i^f ir.,. pi. Gon(. 
S34 b. TirtfTii ya; rkHu rifii' HtsniiiM L 8. 13. 0K^«.)ifTifH U 
r*l*ir. 5.36 (cf. MI9). See eipecUlly ^ 1 63. 

0. A atrict aiuljib wonld rafer the adverhli] Ace. in pui to the Ace. of 
ffftet (} 432], in put to that of ^lecijicatim ($ 437), and in part to that of 
tt<«< (5 4S2. m.). 

F. The Vocative. 
^ 443. Rule XXV. The Compellative 
of a sentcDce is put in the Vocative (^ 329. N.. 
340. a) ; as, 

K>.i.tK' .a) TltH,, 

yon hioa BOt vAiit got do, 
uoHilofiiinuni, iil I. 37. 

443. Rkhaiiks. a. The tign uf addrea, is Graek, as in other 
commonlr S. 

p. The term oT respectfnl addrees to a compait; of men is MAfu, with 
wliich maj be likeirifle connected a mere specific appellation ; thna, 

■Oiin f^^ i irlfi,, goK w, pntlnin, iii. S. 4. 'Ai^k n^rwTai, ^ 
^t/UZ'ri, fdlovKtUim, do not mmder, i. 3. 3. *n ittfu 'E:LXn>i| U. 3. Is 
*n I>)(it n'(arfl7il aai ;i>;(il7>i Ui. 1. 34. 

»i by Google 

ns. 2.] isneriTB. — AGBESHsnT. 80& 



I Agbeehent op the Adjective. 

^444. Rdle XXVI. An Adjective agrees 
wiui its subject in gender, number, and case. 

Tba word adjtctm is here OMd id ha largest now (§ ?»). 'nla^ Iliifif- 
i$jtt ^iyai ly^iiir Snf/m ir;iii{#i, a laryepark fitBof vtM iaoitii L3. 
7. T^ null ifif •ri{i>, loCA tJu ekOdrtu, L I. 1. Ai 'Ivtijml riXut 
. . }i)./ii>ai lb. 6. T*i)4 ri> rtirr, lb. 9. "£%» J<-;i.'»f X')-!"* 
■>] «l»«-i| 0(f>si J«r>j..ri'.>|L3. 9. 0un *■*.•■■( ■■) ri- 
rxvL 1. 31. 

M<nse. M. An M4JectiTe either aaalsta in describing tlie thing vhich la 
apokai of, or torna & part of that irbidi is uid of it Id tbe tbnner cue, 
flu a^ective Is uid to be used u on qaiiti {IrHim, from IrmAi/u, Is uU) ; 
In the Utter, as an attnbuti (ittributmi, ucriiaf)' In the wntenos, " A good 
mm is merdful," " good " is an epilhet, and " merdfUl " an attribute The 
•graament of the attribult nith its subject is far less strict than that tf th« 
ipAeti while the agreement of the pnmmn (§ 495) is still leas strict than 
that of the attrilmte. 

fi. An exceptioD to this mle, which is merely apparent, consists in tb* use 
•f tlM voKvUtu fiirm tat the femmi in a^ectives of three terminations 
(S 133. y, »). 

% 44S> Remarks. I. Infinitives, clauses used substan- 
tively, and words or phrases spoken of as such, are regarded 
Ks neuter ; tbus, 

Ei»iu lAi iy/tif* >i'nrT, if maU be /wfiri la alia pada, I 3. 16. AS 
Xit h Jn iyyii nu ^m/iXiii h ii- 3. 6. Oi ri ^> rt^ wi-tlrrtt riin. 
ri.., i>.>.k ri ,1 ^ PLCrllo,48b. 'T/..;.. S i^u 'Ah^r«- ■,» J' 
'TMEIS ;«■ iJrtt, T*. riXif i.iyi. You, mm of Athau i imd vAat / uy rop, 
/■HiwlAe«ate,Dan.-J5£. 4. Tj HH ■■i r J OT r(,rili/tirii, tia Hot 
and tht wo prefixed, S\. Soph. ^51 b. XfMiu . . rf mmf miri, to ua tin 
plmu »mi' miri Ih. 253 c 

NoTC. Gramnuriuis often speak of a word, with an elUpds at the part of 
Bpc«cfa toirhich it belongs ; as, 'Erm ■ [sc ritlirftti) iXKi irr'i nS li, 
tAt [omjinKtim] ikki it buttnd nf 3i Soph. <Ed. C. -2^1, Schd. Aii'wu i 
[■C rft^im] t,A, \lht ptqiotiton'\ iii it wanting, lb. 1391, Scbol. 

^ 440. 2, In COMPOUND coNSTrocTiON, both syllepsis 
a.Ba teagma are frequent (^ 329. N.). («.) In iyltepsis, when 
veraont of both seies are spoken of, the adjective is matculim ; 
vhen things are spoken of, it is commonly neuter ; as, 

909 sntTAZ or tb> Awwrrm. [boox ok 

X^aX^nn yiyitiyifwr Ctt. iU. 1. S. AA« n luJ rXlttf, mmi iiXm mm 
mifmfm irimrm /^ Iffififtitm iMi jcfv^ ifrn Menu iiL 2. 7. 

(jS.) In MU^TDO, the aitjective sometimea agrees with the mtut 
proHtineiU aubeltuitive, sometimes with the nearat ; as, 

"Erri JCiX.h hJ i^iCiljn 'Arm Ji, no ..Ittw oMi a»l » MT. L 5. 6 
Iliti^tm . . ri> ST(i^;eiln mJ r^ Hin in;iiiliiri« Ilk TiiL G3. Ilw. 

eofih. CEd. T. 417. 

$447. 3. Ellipsis. The subject of the adjective ■ 
odea omitled, especially if it ia a familiar word. The words 
moat frequeotty omitted are, 

a. HUCUUSC, trif OT l<4f~wi, max, xtint. <im i (g, ^mrilai S ks. 
mt ni( UtwH [k. i>lfw], Biirf ttot «cA «K almU arranj* Au «n [imii], 
L 9. IJ. THVafi^niiw i. 1.5. Tm fljy»n>(. Ul «lAf, lb. T. T(i« 

b f [bc ;):(i>r] Kffx irUnmt L S. 2a. 'E> nirf «.i S>n;Li>v liAjf I* L 
10. 6 (cf. 'E> nir^ T^ xti^ iv. 3. IT). 

p. TaOBOn, yni, vemam, yi or x'V^ ^"4 Oit, nuy, il/iE{«, i%, ;f;4(, 
lon^ r^^ opuBiM. juifB, yurtiiM, ^[^ taatom ; M, 'H E;>j». [«& ynG 
L S. I U. n>^w«u w }ia fiXiif tt. 3. ST (cf. 'On-ii hi fiXin, rii j^afa* 
ila^u i. 3. 11). £iV rit fiXitii IMiTt vf. 6. W (cf. Ei( fiXibi yii sfiuim 
T. 1. I. Sot ibo 4 431. g,). n> i.uw^r [sc a)>] <n(i>ri^> ui. 4. 46, 
Esi atn) ^ ill WipUturiH i 11 IxXm, rk S vrttvyn »■ J> tUf I rmirf 
(■nm Iv. 2. II). 'Il>n( ^Mifit uL 4. IT. T; ^n^ff [bc i^i;.] .t> 
lfi<n»t »' mxi^ua, ,SA nf t;.'?^ .f M nri^t^ iU. 4. 37 (^ 4^). 'E. H 
if lifif [b. x*^^ t. 4. I S. 'E> }i|.^ <>■ atE r^, L 5. I . 'E> >f irr>(^ vi. 

at the m^foritj,' Ti. 1. 18. 'Ari rji 'm [bc. ^u'^i], m «}iul temu. Hi. L 
15. 'Eri Tf ff, m) i^f Id. i. !7. 'H rirfa^im, dufiny, Ear, Hec 43. 
■A«i *f>ini [bc J((w]. a™" <*« J*"*- ""^ '- ''^■ 

7. Nbuteb, rfay/ca Or ;^ffl/M, affaiff thing, /^i^"* P*'^ rX-Hn, eoBte&m, 
body, tr^rtvuf, maiUarjf foret, Mi^i, wmff of wi amtl', ;^m^ltt^ pUice, yvad; 
M, TkiHtH, Kift [k. Wfiyfutrm'] . ., T<i i)j>i<rl;« i. 3. 9 (cf. Ta 'Qifrti, 
r^iyf^Ta vU. V. 3S). E.'i ri Ihu [sc ;t:fv'-] >' 9- 3- Ti InT^iM, U. 
Hcenoriuq/* fi/c, t 5. 10. Tf ;<ri, >«%, V. 4. £0. Sxifairii 'E:iXi|. 
m^, XmaphiM't Affair* of Gtrta, or QrtA Bitiary. ■^■■,;,iuu>j n [ac 
^>(>r] nt fmXmyyH i. 8. I S. TA li&i nv aif^ni fb. 4. Tw . . £■•»>« 
[■0. w\Hiiii or rT{an^ian(]i tt» iMrceiwiy /br« [= »■ £■"», 1*« mtnt- 
noHa'], I. 9. 1. T.S -ExXm-ul [= »• 'ExXi^h.] i. 4. 13 (cf. L 3. I). Ti 
{mmi,;* (cf. T«, {»w^,) 'Ri. viU. S6. T) 3£l<> yi; wf /uiw., .;«r(;i 
^w> Eur. Iliire. 536. Ti m-ttt rt V^nf' ^- ^■ ' ?- T; ft >:.iiw(wt L S. 
15 (cf. Ti •Hirk/u. (!{■( i. 8. 4). 'Ef rf ^X^ [ac ;t;>V'>} ■'- &■ l^- 'Art 
•w i-inXtH ill TJ *■;■>!> (Cxxii IiL 4. 'J5. See aba $ 379. a. 

NuTES. (>.) In laaee of ftunlllar elllp^, th« adjective Is cotnimonlr tiSA 
to be used nMonlRHAr. The subeUntivs use becomea specially promineot in 
mdi exprasaiooB u, TaU ^' ^ii-ifwi im/tnUi, ' joat foes,' H. Gr. t. 9. S3 ; 
'O r UiiW riw, ' Ids fuller,' Eur. EL 355. (b.) Tlie nibsUnllrs cmdtted 
ti ■ometiniH coui^nedor implieil in uurtheriroid ; 14 'A^v)ji>j»r !■ itA 

(«. 3.] SB OP ItETTEX. 801 

MMfSr (•& i^wyUXai] iv. 4. 1 3. rmfyiiw rh /At ri) [w. yUr] Ai. 
Rod. 5S9. K>X.£f. >- 'Iji^rm ft - «fn f^- '■•^3 T^t «""•< i^'" l'^' 
tb. 13. (c-) 111 (ll« phmwlt i/nriftu, Bt mr palace, nl our tour! (Ildt.L33, 
TJi. 8. 1), tbere ia eitbo' ■ dmbls ellipgit ftr the sake of dignity (ti ii^ri;M 
•iMHi liS/uint) ; or a bluiding d the two fbmu of expreasitui, i> it/ivr ^«f, 

§ 448. 4. Many words which are commonly employed 
as substantives are properly adjectives, or may be used as 
such. Thus, 

*0;»Tn n nifrni itn^ and Oronltt, a Pttnan mem, i. 6. I. 'XI tttftt 
rrfmr.Srti,, . . ■>);£> rrimitiySi lii. 3. 2. 'A.!;! ■■■■.'■> CjT. ii. 
3. 6. Nmt.'hii >iyiii[ Eur. Ale. 679. -Rkktr m int Cvr. vi. 3. 
II. -Em.' ii ^V.. Eur. Med. 1331, trtkit y' -E*;^,« Id. Heracl. 130. 
'EiL^ilx ym Soph. Phil. 25G. Sr«n£, 'E;i;i*)<i Eur. Bhes. 233. 
rvHlaa Tffiala Id. Andr. BflT. T{f«3i( ;t;^.>j| Id. El. 1001. 2<iVii> If 

Jutf Jlsch. Prom. S. TiS;);! !i r>rn( Id. Ag. 661. —These words, as sub- 
■tantlves, are commonl]' qipelIati(HU of persoDS or countries, kti^ j'imt, yi, 
ftc, being nnderetood. 

^ 440. 5. Use of the Ngitteb. The substantive use 
of the neuter adjective (% 447. a) exhibits itself in a variety of 
forms. Thus, 

a.) A neuter idjective with the article often supplies tlie plaiw of an 06* 

Itract nam,, as, Tj Y IvXii^ »! W ilXn/li itifi^i ri nCri rf fllif.V ■^'"i 
Ast Biurcri^ aluj tnOk ht tAoughl la be tilt Mamr wUh foUy, ii. G. 33, lit rf 
)..«> (cf. M.Ti ii.«;.,) lb, I S. TJ x-»i'S- [~ i x«>-"i"»] '" "'■*«- 
wi iv. 5. 4 . OJ }.>{ l(i^^i[ l»Ti> • ■;it>» « •■■>-» "^ " jlifrtr, ' the niudb 
and the little,' viL 7. .16. Ii mtrit [= ■ rWii] Th. L 63. Am ri ivi. 
rtKTU iftit lb. £9. 'TW yit rw •■■;<;(>t;wc tit "'»K [d. vil. 73. Ti y' 
Xfii wtUi^t Eur. Hed. ITS. Tf Jv^LX-rrm-i rn ytipm, Ou [diB^ringj 
lUffiratct ef aptiuH, Th.iu.LO (lluic is especially food of tliie ose <tf tha 
Partic). T< ^i "iiim mir« . ., ri 1) 3>fr.», \a [being afraid] /air . ., 
buX iia confidem. Id. L 36. 'Ei rf ^i ^1.i»>ti lb. 14^. 

0.) yent«r a^ectiTes (both with and without the article) are used witli 
prepositions to fonn many adeerbud jArata ; as, 'Art rtv mvwf/tdftv, of thtir 
cum accord, i, ■i. 17. *£■ yt rf ^>i;fi Dpen^. 1. 3. 21 . Aih ■rux'—, rapid- 
Ig, L 5. 9. '£E fw iii. 4.47. '£■ tS* )»■»> It. 2. 3.S. 'Ari rif rt^n* 
It. 3. 9. Kovi r*iri , ta da mt tc^, t. 4. Si!. '£ir! l.{iii vj. 4. I . A>A 
fi. II. 

§ 4S0. r.) Neater adjectives are lUcd in oonitectiDn with words of 
dilftrent gender mid nmnber (commonly aa appositiTea, § ^31) ; as, tAt^m. 
ni-ii )' !;*/»■' I™' »ttMfa ii t&> ■»>/ femUa thing of aJ( ii. 2. 9 (cf. Bi^t- 
etv>,ii J(f» ;t;{n^a PI. Theag. 139 b). Tf ,Zt n^> irr.'! , Ii. 1. V3. Tiin 
n i-H-wiiiit ■»{■> H^i^m ilrn iU. ?. 33. Huaiiai ^i>;Jt it. Mgetaa uat a 
Mmall affair, Th.i. la V^tat yif minii . . ritn h. f" EtAaa wai totiy 
Any lo Ma, [b. viii. 9.5. 'A>«i.UTif» yvti, i,4^t PI. Rop. 415 e. 'A>){i( 
itl^H. rXtiru. ,irit .i3i. lb. 5B6 d, *E.rv- ri />ii)li iTm Ear. Rhes. 
al8. IlfJi «'> .iH. t<c- •'T'] lb. Ph. ■';98. T»> MiMt ill W ^HiKf Sopli. 
EL Ufifi. Tafr. Ii Dviarn lf^>% 'io illipaa8ibi%,' H. FMU. ICOfc 

80B wTtrnx or the AorBCTtTE. [booi m 

AV H'l* •* »*fc > Id. Hipp. Maj. S8B c %u>y< f<'>.rH» ir;iit Em 
Had. 399. (%-> yif i/.i( *ir]> ySi K^^f «i i^' l«r«H lb. 911! 
EfiOni 1* <U«S> »> 1^ « ^nn iEKh. Emu. 487. — In tben cuo, 
•B R^Bedn tgmiDg in genda and naRib«T with the aobaUntive would ttliet 
(qnn a diSnat idea, or would axpnm the hum idea witii ten empfaimi. 

1.) Tbe nntan rXtTtr or a-xLi, ^r» or ixarm, Im, jmJ>>, and r! an 
•oowtiiiHs Dwd ■■ indedinililc w^ectiviB or aubstanlina ; thoe, VLttmiu 
wl.un t ^laa, mfriadi norr Ikim (Bchw » luimba; v. 6. 9 (cf. B^hti <-l.ii- 
.., |««»™ iT. S, 27). M,WJ,»lJ« Jl rpi. ^ni>LS. II. OS™ »S. 
ni lni> '^iM J nrrBfaHm H. 6r. fiL I. 14. 'Aijfw. lb /uT*. ]»•'> m- 
U», (A> fTo^, iB( Im lAan m Koiffa is inoilil, v. B. 9. 4><;»& V*^- 
«u ti >ii>D S w*.%lt-m'mi Ctt. vii. 5. II. 'AruniMn »t ^{£> » ^» 
intfw»r(Hi Tl. 4. 24. <I>fai{»i »^' avrf *^ lJ,«i™ nr^u<'j;ilw> 
H. Gr. It. i. S (a. 2fi>limm . . »* IXJrrwi nTf«»ri» lb. 1 6). tlik- 
wnl *m [— TWfSm %-x] i-mnitm, largittin <u noiq' <u Um Ai»lr«f, 
TiL !. 30 (cC 'H^iTt niwro •"■« r«™« ri i(fi IL P. 16). Ai*«. . . Inr 
ftwu-iEq. 4. 4. AMm ..7r«jH>Hu« jmI rXu'o luil /luo Hag. £q. 1 . 1 6 
(rf. -Ol-ceJjtwf i^-S.-<'». «J ^.T-i «J U.irr«( iT. K. 3). -Or' ^i. A 
fW ^iilli iH-imif iri{ Sopb. Aj. 1231. riftr^ . . ri foiSii •rm Ear. 
Hand. 166. KfJrrm rihri /L^i'U. Two. 41 2. A,»mm Zmi ri. appa^ 
biglvbt tamtUung, i. e. d/ nM cnuajiiaia, PL Gotg. 472 a. (If ^iili> and 
«j did not hen remain without change, they would be conibDUded witb 111* 
maac, and (he exp«iai<nis would lose tbdr pecoHar (brce.) 

Norm, (n} So, wllh the plur. fbrm instead <^ the idng., Tlafa/iitv i/d. 
fmi rx I'lM, e T^( PI. Menex. 335 b, <fi) In some of these casee, the neoL 
•Elective appean to be need like an adverb. See § 529. ^ 

^ 49 1. t.) A neater adjectlre used mbatantivelr, or as an attribaK 
«f an in&uttve or claoiwof a aencencc^ is afbsapbo: insl«d of atajr. (§ 3.16)! 
aa, ES Ttvri W {#u;ij^im •lr<I>Ai'ii, I il ruBra n ;^iXwi->,if (iuBMlA 
b ilw ikmld be paid, or if both Mi ikwU btAie, vii. 7. 34. 0« ti>» 
Xi^tn I^^rMtu . . • t! yit miiTa li}<«^ Ago. i^. 7. *Oni>^tTi iyn/il 
^X""* rmfaMm*j«rl fu Irl raura Symp. 4. 51). Zl ^> rttmSr^ x^ 
rituii, aXiiui Uuwc At. Theam. 1062. ^A{' .bx Hifi rdi, i Sc^b. (Ed. C. 
SS3. 'AvJX^lM *<)' it . . J >»i uai n;i^>, ' It was Apollo.' Id. (Ed, T 
1329. Ots 'I«K «)> uii>, dart an htrt no loimia, Th. vi. 77. ■Alii- 
ra I, IrixutM Id. i. 125. ail.y^t.', ^i IH■^ r<i.3i mt^..!:. Siil)b. 
Ant 576. OSi .i •r>(«).rl. rM ■tJmmU.i \rr'n Th. L 8G. 

Hens. lUi nae of the Plnr. Ar the Sing, t^peue to have ariaen fton 
the want of ■ noon, or definite object of aease, to give aliict onit; t» the MO* 
oeptlon. It ia veiy frequent in dnnonstiBtive prononne, and in verbala in rf^ 

§ iffa. 6. An adjective often takes a substantive id lbs 
f^renttwe parlitive, instead of agreeing with it. In this con- 
Btruction. the adjective is either in the aame gender with tlie 
wjbsiantive, or in the neuter (commonly the neut. sing.). 

•A ^>/,^«„ rZ^7TV 't'yt^"' [for w(^y^r«], miH r,v, 
— ■ LH» wiea rf mai] laow. 8* A. Amf^^nrit n 

,1 fc-J™ 

■ of acuoiuji 

^B. S.] STNESIS. 30^ 

r<n ml, ««< diitiMctm [unwthinit of diaUnrtioii], Hi. rU. 69. 'AC^ *m. 
ftin [fbr MCfit v>(in«. v/t thttt [softnoea of cheek], Ear. Ph. H86. 
'Atii^> . . ^1 Sofih. Ant. 1809. 

Ncm. In this my, gruto' promlDeDoe lod dlitlnetutn of ■zprarigo, 
■nd XHnMimea ■ speciea of indapendenos or abstraetDea (§ 149. m), tit giyea 
to tbB >4jectiTe. Upon the whda aubjeot, ho S§ 358 - SG2- 

^ 4jS3. 7. Stnegi!!. Tbe adjective often agrees in gat- 
dtr and number with the idea of the tpiakert instead of the 
eubject expressed ; particularly with, 

m. CoiJ.BCT[VX Noun^ uid wordi nnd «Q«<iBe^ ; w, *H K ^t^>i . ^ 
vBjt iyvMnrUi tivi ^ asvite, iw< ^Hopoiif, H. Or. li. 3. 5S, Efairytr if* vw 
'EA>.<!«i>«! rr(mnifuin, [•= rr^rwrv.] ),i.j.i;i.ti>^>» iii. 4. IS. T^ riXir 
[r*l.'rai4 . . iVi, Th. iii. T9. Atrfx . . irim i^ 'A/■1w/*^ S.oXii- 

rmi U, vi. 5B. Oil' i^rii lirifimi inffiCtC ^aii, itifaftifu ^iC(Srit 
mltmr4, XiVw Soph. Ant. 1031. 

fl, Worda in the fbtral oaed tbr ths flnpiZar (chicdj il^i for lyii) ; aa, 
'Lii«M^(i . . wfttvimn. Hit [^ /] AmbrA fuu, famug doBm, Eur, Haro. 
1S06. *H].M> itmfrvfi/arl^ IfSr 1 i(ft •> ^vXi^ui lb. 8SS. Auui/uWa 

. . (fan/iTn Id. Ion, ISSa 

^ NoDna of vhich the geadtr ims not follow the kc (J 75); as, 'It 
piXrmr'j £ wiftrfm rt/tniiii riK¥tw, O dearat, O mott findfy Aoithed aoit, 
Enr. Tro. TiS. Tfi' I;>.( .. xmr/mmrm Id. Bac IS07. Ti.u fta^.V !«<■ 
wCwn-K Ar. Plat. 39^. %tkXiiufiyi Bunritir, Ai. Ach. 872. li rixm 
»n»>T.( Th. ir. 15. 

I. Woidi fbr whidi othara might have been uaed ; ii, 'H litti [^ tin. 
f,u] rpirn llf^r, yuirt^ tM 'AAiiw/m, Xtyi^ Th. ii. 47 (cC TJ fiif 
iSf •intm lb. 51 1 Tet see $ 45a }•> nSrs M }-i"> [— iuMi] <btfy!a 
..IvmiEur. Tro. 5m. 

I. Woids goraming a (laiCBa, to which, aa tha nun imjioriaat word, tha 
adjecdve eonfonna in gender and number ; aa, ^ii.tmr' Uyirtn fiix, dtart^ 
majatg of ^^giMtu, .Aecb. Cbo. 893. T;h'w \*.ijrtt iiwit' 'hfyiim wriXti 
10. Ag. 577 (cf. ■). n » n. ■■{irCH-i^H . . S.^.£«->r PL Leg. 657 d. 
Ik ri. Ixui'H . . m,ifl„u Soph. Phil. 497. 'Aui^v fyjyyn i^V«T, ■■if 
)■).•{:<'»( •'"'f 4> Id. Ant. 1 00 1 . — [n these expreasona, the Gen. and Uw 
word which govema it naoall; fbrm umpl7 a peipAratii, and an treated ae- 

^404. 8. An adjective sometimes agrees with a Geni- 
jve ittq>lied in another adjective (commonly a possessive) ; as, 

Ti ih [— nS] ^inr >«(«», At gift of fm ahnt. Soph. Tr. 775. TtTi 
i/tirlfi [— iW*] KirS. flu.,, ow ovn /Hcixto (§ 505. 3), viL 1. 39. 
n AftiTif' >£»• inXlritn Dem. ?5. 5. BfSw ,. l^i> r), uitHi 
£ach. Ag. 1321!. Ti. l^J. ,.1> mI.t,: ni riiX.,«^;.i> . . Sw Ar. Hut. 
S3. Tiai tvrriiiiv uii^ S*pli. (Ed. C. 344. 3Ji> ittflm, h1 ittymXi. 
Pftrim iymtm'„.,T., PL Conv. 194 a. CC ^§ 333. 4, 883. a. — In lika 
Duumec. aa Uu Dat. ma^ be naed fin tha Gen. (§ 413), lywm [■=> 1^] 
Ima ifix** 'V*f^ ■ ■ <^>^*f iEadi. Fl. 144. 

SIO mrrix of thk adjbctits. [book iu 

^ itSS, 9. Atthactior, An adjective is sometimes at- 
tracted by asubsianliveeither, (••.) governing, or {^.) in t^ 
position luilh, its real subject ; aa, 

a. tttftii >Tw . . nrfH, lie iload <tf mg /<iatr, So[4l. (Ed. T. 1400 
Oiiti, . . m't mti, Eur. Andr. 5M. Siwf r^ tXi.tu IrWuo nfiSrfim, 
Id. Ale. Sa». MU»» rTA/u> rirl^ lb. ilS. Nr-w 1.3;^. {i;..!^ 
Soph. AnC T9:<. riil.ii viirw d.M( Id. Ph. ri2.'1. 'H rix»> >» •>.< 
. . fiXmrrilrm Id. (Ed. T. 1 975. — In moH of thete cuet, the Geo. with Om 
word wbicb govenu it ma; be regacded ai fonning a cm^pfez idea, wbich cha 
at^ective modiSea. Thia constTOGtioD ia chiaSf poetic. 

$■ 01 yif Ift")^, niK\itrn h [fbc frrti], far Ml (jn, kng M« wutt 
atautiftil of otjtOt (^ 4jO), n. Bep. 4^0 a Tiu, fif ^iy,/ni iltifut^mni. 
rmt, itiiTiBf SI irrai, ^lyirni )) rjrai [fer »Tcii fixitnr riymt, irnX- 
Xifrru. i7i^r PI. Lag. T:i.? a. n^>» J )i « .1i>f lirii •&>( [ror >ii-<) 
Am] v«>.rvf^>v*(t PL Pann. 154a. 'HXik . . >-»tv> Xa/irfinrii, (A( m, 
tAe ninrt ^endi,! [ac. Ony] a/ oZf fAi'npi, Mem. iv. 7. B (this ia t^e EOmmoo 
coostnictioD when the tuperlatine a followed by a Om. pnrliiiM rf diSarent 
gender from the aabjcst of the aeutoioa^. 

Htm. Ad adjective la aometimea, in the poets, atlncted by a T«c. ; aa, 
'OaCii ■■;! yiriut [tbr llttdt, ufi, f-], Mar y** '< *<Viyi ^. llaoc. 1 T. 66. 
"U iimni ei, Uimn [fw -w] . . pm,^, Soph. Ffa. 759. CL Sic nuu i»< 
duw llbiilL L 7. £8. 

^ 4S0. 10. An adjective Bomebmea agrees with a sub- 
atantive instead of gooeming it in the Gen. partitive (§^ 356 — 
860); as, 

rU(} |wr>t •»•■«(, ai»t aidk^ [tha loiddls of the night], i. 7. 1 (cC 
"El ^irf Tu»> Cyr. V. 3. 5V). All ^Ini ft ni riXiiic, (nrf Ikongh tkt 
«U(t «/ (b dtf, i. S. 93. TJ ikU f t;i>t»^, (iU m< o/ t*< nmy. lb. 55. 
*E> ]' infivi ^( wi, QKi goB^ im [the extxamitiea cf the ftet} liphw, Ear. 
Ion, 1 1 66. 

§497. 11. Adjectives are often used for adeerbt and 
adjuncts, and, by the poets, even for apposilivei, and dependent 
clauses ; to express, 

.. TniEi aa, 'Afi.H^imi ..Tt,rm7,i [-• i9 rfhy i/titfl Aqi arrwi m 
Ae Ikinldag, r. 3. U (<£ Ul. 4. 3T, and ^ 480> Sa.»7.i rfwi.nt il. 9. 
17. nf.r({> Si);.. . . Ap.'»n L 2. S5. Tiltvrv. Ij^.Xinw, ^ iai< 
Aa inuDM angry, ir. 5. IS. 

II. Pi.ace; aa, Zsaiw^r irmli f 144, wt ttunmp In tilt t^im air, T. 5. SI 
(«r. Tr) nt -»(k( iv. 4. H). Aifijr fAryiptMi vi. I. )13. 'BCi/H«4' 
lfi<rr»i S<«h. <Ed. T. ns. &mKifritt Up'if^Ti lb. [411. 1>urf( f 
tri(<ri'ritt U. Ant. 7B5. ec;sr» •J^Hi'' Id. BL HIS. Hirttxi/tm 
J«f, nw.ftlbeiRii«D/»i,Eiir. Atc9lC«3BS. ■). n.x;!.^ 1' V "••-- 
[■• i-nvTf or T^, S 4K1. S] irtiCiiTa, mul 7 m late amng Aecp, lii. 5. 9. 
•H^^» ;«» .Ml iTa. OS'.i, Ifi. ffir/.. .-;»i(;t;.T», < here be ooni< 
n. Rap. 327 b. 'Hi <>«; lit, oi EAi nun u hart. Soph. (£d. C. 3S. U- 
(iinrmy)>( t'trtfinM, lb. 111. 'AxV fl' )«■!£> U l>/u» ni I{;);>«l 
Enr. Ak. 137. 'Of il/i 'Ofinaf Id. Or. 3S0. 1^ lai;») . . irwmi, 

<u then,' f. 3S9. ., 1 , 


Bi^legpontic eilif eottrihilrd wiUiii^s, i. 1. S. 'O /ih iiiw irii»r cC 'O ^> 
li.<*'f»i nA.<u»^.) Mem. ii. 1. 18. O; Ji rr^rwTai IJif.M-. A)W u) 
■ M^( ■:»>« J>Ai'<'Tii.2. 9. ^ifrinmi£i' !(•..• ifiru. Snph, (Ed. 
C. 1637. 'A<v'iii T;i;^i, ran wlA uJi ip«^ Ar. Rut. il\i$. T.h, .i>i»iv 
£*-.riri>!(i>( ■ril.l.n. H. Gr. u. 1. 19. 

1. Effect; u, Eff a^ir [= ajm iffK/iH iTin.] . . *t!/tfrn t-rini, kuth 
your maath la lOence [so Ihat it should be silent^, .^sch. Ag. 1 '2*1. TZ, nr 
tiifbraft ifAfLoiwtit nirifiijn, [deprived of your sightless ejes] remierat 
mghclai by thi laa of your tya^ Soph. (Ed. C I'iOO. 1.1 jul >.ui.r i%i- 
MiBi f;iM( r.(iitrf, Id. Ant. 791. H>;;i>' Urui Xi>» Id. Tr. 679. 
2J(« rtjig';!! . . jrlL.'rx Enr. Ale 35. 

I. TAHiot^a "Ra^rSEtsa Aso CliacuiaarAHciia ; u. 'A;iXfi 11 Htmi 1^. 
.,,;(;■■>'" '■"■""«. ' bBMde.,' i. 7. 1 1 . Oi yi( J. x^f* '**> ' » ^ • •«'• >i'- 
1{» L 5. 5. Bikifai i-imnjiiiw, suite o/ imsij, t. 2. 5. 'A.i;>^<i{.ir 
[= it>;j;, ^nfiiTH] - - Ki^uird, Aaniciiiii/ IJnnd, Soph. Ant. lOi'J. Mar;*- 
mri'tr if/iM, U« Uoof Df a nnMn- iZiu'n, Eur, Or. 3!)^. 11 glials ji;ii> 
(=«XX^ Xiii;n.>] j).»> Id. El. I^b'. MiXi^rir^L.uf #vX/»rJ< Id. 
Ale. 819. 'Afi^Tij;.,; . . iy^. Soph. Aj. ■Oli^'ir [- !?« 
;);iifr>] rn xruiTf jEsch. Cho. 2H. [Iii^^flTi; [= ra>T» ^llTI;) Tl yi 
Id. Pr. 90. TiSi inifLf.iTi( {= ritr-, or ..t^ r^.ra ^nrn;] <■>;» 
Soldi. Ant 12SZ. 'Eiiin if4rrifimitii {— i^.tr,, /U,r,t] Id. Ph. tS38. 

^ 4S8. IToTEa. t. In cages like the aboTe, the adjective farm ^>- 
pean to be aaaumed through the atlrar-liim of the lubitnntite, or in other words, 
for the sake of binding together mem closely the diflerent parts of the sen- 
tence, and giving greater unity to the expression. It will be observed thal^ 
in Kime of the examples, the adjective simply Ibrms an emphatic pleonasm. 

?. In siHiie instances, a (foiitin miih ilw adjeclirii appear ti> have been chuig- 
«d into two odjtetiKt agnaag toith tht gowning tv&ataTitioe ; as, THrvuir t* 
hiyam* [for ritrtu r Kiymltit] iv* Aitvkw i7.ifM$t, and upon the harbourlaa 
cnrX of the Mgiam Sea, Enr. Ale. i95. IliTa^.V "r'tf " ^f^ wtr*^'! 
M;Ti;»] iwirf, wilk SteoaTof Oie nethtr itream, lb. 459. 

S. DcriDaCrH and comjmaad adjeetiva ore formed in Greek with great five- 
dom, and the latter, especially among the juxti, often appear b> have taken 
the place of a naipb adjcctivt or noun, by a epedes of mphalic or gmpMo 
plaoaatm; as, Mtriftnnmt [ = /m.»h] ri}.iut. imgly-briiUed [—single] 
hoTMet. Eur. Ale 4'28. 'Ayii^.f &i<r>iiui, ['^^wi] Soph. CBd. T. 'le.— 
The poets often repeat a noun in eomposition with i- privatai ar a slmQu' 
word, to express emphatically the idea t^ negation or of ml ,- as, Hsth; ifif. 
T*{, imr [onmotherly moOier] mntW, ftl no stodier. Soph. EL 1 134. Vi/ut 
iy*/ut Enr. HeL 690 (cf. tnatpdt . . nqittu CHc de Or. liL 53). 'A wirif 
mltirmrtf £aoh. Cho. 315. 

§ 4A9> 12. Amacoluthon. An adjective sometimes 
difTers in case from its subject, through a change of construc- 
tion (cf. ^ 333. 7) ; as, 

Sttiif . . iJ»i/» wmfnyyiiXu AsCiir* ni/i ••);>(, he commandt Xeniat (D 
«Biu, taUmglui mtn (cf na(ayyiX\ii -^ n K>Lii(xf i-'tirr, fxii,), I. S. I. 
A»e»H>»> ^>r.. J rXiHi .(vNi l«-<f,f.i, iL 4. -j4. 'A»C>i>^af . . D^i 
^ PL Lag. 6S6 a. See the lyntax of 'he lafioilive and Fartioiiile. 

snrTAz OP TBS ADjscim. [book ttl. 

II. Use of the Degrees. 

LTha (bliowing otavralira* i^plj both to utltccirta and advebbs.] 

^ 400. T. Words are compared not only by infleetian 
(^{ 155 - 163), but also by the uae of adverbs denoting tuore 
and noat ; as, 

ITcma. (a) Tha two mothodi >i« nmelimea imital for empbstia at 
pMifncui^ (rf. ^^ lAI. I, tea) : u, es»> 1' « ■'■ ^li^Xir (>Tv):in-i;« i 
Z£i, and dfmg ht icmU ht Juf^Mcr, /iu- Anfpier lAiiii ^'i™^, Eur. Uec 377. 
Til IXXi f>iXX- lAm^run I &ch. Sapt. 673. Ilai •{• i^rrn . . /uix. 
;in ( ir. fi. I 1 (cf. lb. I ^J. U^n-. 1u,ir.T; lb. viL 42. Ti. <t\u.^« 
»;m>3.£. K^;.. Ear.AlcT90. *n,.ir..r« l^^/i^n }^» Id. Hed. 13:^3. 
(fr) So the Comp. and Sap. are united, ^il «n> uim ■■;i(>v li/^ ih/it/ 
Ix*'"*^ Mf» Sofdi. EL 801. 

^401> II- Tbe COMPARATIVE is commonly construed 
with the pa.rticle q, tfton, or with the Genitive of distmetion ; 
and the supkslativs with the Genitive partitive. Thua, 

I lion .^rtamxtt, 

Remaxka 1. Tb« Comp. is aaineEimga canBtnied with otber putide*, 
which commonly stnmgthen Ihfl ezpreflaioo (cf. 4(iO. c) ; ba, KiKXttw . . ir^J 
rii fiwyiii, Bwrt honnrablt [ia pieferance to fleeing] Aof to Jlee, H. Pbndo, 
99a. 'Airi en rXin, mart [instead of you] (Aos jwo, Soph. Tr. j7T. 
IIiiaHTifiu r*fi 1-ii . . ^wn/nHMfiiTu, wan fraparit [beyoitd] Am tht 
naOtction, Tb. i. 23. Ilfii J«>»| . . a-Xi/^, Ron [in CDmpwSs»D with 
■II] Mm oO, Id. vit. 58. II1;< w }<»rM n^ntu PI. Goi^. 4HT d. 
'Em> i rilijim lux ••-^' " ''^'''> '^^^^ tannic, [war ia not of arms tb* 
Dion, bat of BXpotditare] var (ba nnt Ttqyirt umi nm (Ana ■uiitc?. Id. L B3 
{% 3BT]. Tui^' I>t! >;i.'rr* ir;in> v<r' 'kfytlusmu,, 'better [but Dot lo 
All] Olin Vi &U,' Ear. Meracl. 931. 'Ar^n'rMi'n ir^T((.. '(ir JsHh 
yVi''*' •^ <('■> C;t. t. 2. 9 (cf. n(iTt;« B <; fill. «.{«>■> lb. vii. 5. 4I> 
O* r^t%i» ln«n>ri. fkf . . ■■T»Tti». Lfa. I 74. 6. •J.„1 ymrrifi mitrt- 
f«v i|. '2 1 6. . — In the most of ttkeee ezamplea, two fonoa of conatrootioa af^ 
pMT to have been aml«d. 

2. The constmotion of the Gen. with the Comp. is often t/I^pHadi ag, 
*E<rii irxii'vi xt""' ■'< '" /•' >;i'ti" '""i i^'', »• It'cSi, n'tce Mc time it 
grtatcTf which I mutl pieaae tiioti beioWy than those here [than that during which 
I muat please those bore], Soph. Ant. 74. See § 391, y. 

S. By a mixture of the two methods of constracfion which belong to the 
Comp., — (a) When a nameral, or other word of quantilj', follows rXun, 
rXilti, •XKTrt', or fiutf, S ia Bometimes omitted, thongli the Gen. is not em* 
^o;ed ; as, 'AnKTiMnn r£t ^>);k> •» /tiTn wiiraawiiH, ' not leas than SOO, 
'■ *. at. Set i 4.50. i, and d. Xm «p2uu tnmt yrngtrili, Cna. vm. 10.— 

OB. 3. 1 V8B OF TKS DEeKBBS. 818 

9) To tin Gen. gnrvnied by the Comp^ a ■peeUcaUon is aomethiua (umund 
«lth i; ta, Ti mS' i, ilp^' ilf,, i^»;f;im;.., i »n- yiw^o fi««>.iw i 
Eur. Med. 5S:i. Tiw »» r' i^ilt- *« fti»>, 1 •» pie" Soph- Ant. 1090. 
OJ «' Jk /wXXn ra-HUnii rif . ., ( nSrt , PL Gmg. 500 c Se* aim 
$ 464. M. —(c) The Gen. ■ometlma (oOom t. inatedl of tbe apprapiiMe 
cue : •«, 0« ai^ rhU nt il/>i(w, I U» J UIiu rrslun U. Gr. W. 6. fi 
(aaa S 439). 

^ 469. ni. The posUive is sometimes added to the su- 
perlalwe for the sake of emphaait ; as, 

'n Huf MMium, O riliMl of tlit tOe, Soph. CEd. T. 334. 'Aymtih iavf» 
kf^tuTH iw irwiit Cyr. i. S. 15. 

K>} ^l>ft, Ji«J rm,, MM.} ft.nfiritr,, 
T; t,i rrr* Irt' fc.><' i .£■ i;i7( i TP. tLafinr^. Ar, Fax, 1 B9. 
Notes. ■. By dnubSng the Poi. or liie 5h/i., tb obtain nmilar lamt of 
axprenton, the aat leea and the other even more emphstic than the shove ; u, 
■A/M' iffir^, AorriUc i/ U> AarHWe, L e. iMa(r Aorrilik, Soph. (Ed. T. 46S. 
£uiXMiiL li.XciW Id. EL H49 (^ :tfiy. 0- 'EVjt;>t' ir^aT.! uu, (*■ BiIiX 
wiotauof Ok met tMaU riproacAa, Id. Ph. Ij (cf. §S 161. J, 460. ■> 'O 
K l«u It riTi f,lylrrtit /tiy,rm t1,mi PL Cat. 427 e. 

0. FWnn the doubling oT the Sop., u la the last example, appesis to han 
arieen the phnue 1> rA, which ia teed wKb (be Sup. to increew its force, and, 
•a an adwbud expreMon. witlinat dumge of gender ; thns, 'E> tm [ec. r^i. 
wtnl riirm, firit [ameBg the fcU] of aU, Th. ii H. 'E. Tiri a-^e H. iil , 
Bi. 'E. r«i rXuiTm. H >«( lb. IT. '£• rut ;t;alia'*n>«i l/Syn Id. vtL 
Tl. 'E> T.7i fJiX,trm. mot of all,VL Crito, 5:^ a. 

y. Tbe niuuW ■;( i« KHDatiiiies used with the Sop., to rmder the idea « 
imjaiiiliialitg primineiit ; u, A^fi h r>.ijrrm . ., i7i )4 £r ^n;, iXa^CaTi, b 
n«riv<f ^ mot pretenUt [at least being one raan^ J^ a angU indioidtiatj I. e. 
■uiv An tntf wi mm toiib, L 9. V2. n:i.irfni ifi <>n; . . tmL/uin ^. 
Xui Th. viii. US. 

1. The Greeka are hnd of expneeing the Sop. tugatiafyi as, Oi;i; Inrnm 
[— >wiX(m], hiIIAiEruI, equeioj^. Hem. i. a. M. 'Arl^ it rit ilrtm- 
«'*ni»> 111. L S. HiT^fnr » jmI .ij; ilum Id. viL 44. 

& 403< IV. Certain special forma of compartsoo deserve 
notice ; e. g. 

I.) The Coopt, wllh a Oeo. expressing *d)M. ^tdy, pmier of dnrnpAan, Ac ; 
- m, Tdt-Xn Ixrthi, uiiihi Moa imU Aatw btm kopal, ohw Aepi, .£mJi. Ag. 
see. HiXXf n«li««a, Mralknu^inpB-, (ivMwA,Mein. iT.3.8. K{u> 
I, Th. il. sa 

S.) The Comp. liillaved by t nmri, or some^es 4 wfit ■ as, Mii^a, I 
ri 1i*(rK [sc Imi], [greater than ia in accordant wlUi Csan] laogrvU fm 
n, Th. viL 1%. B>Xt<»*i ' >"-' >i«fi.«> Mem. iv. 4. S4. Kt^f . . I 
r' Vi ■■' n iE»>;u> to« ^ool for me and gmiU dtKwer, PL Oat. 39S b 
Jiirr^tHf . . J Tf^r n' ie»r;.> Th. JT. 39. Cf. Avftw atnxiw. pHa 
> iHinsro pagniaitam Lir. SI. 39. 


3.) Th« Coinp. fmomd bj S Srrt (or i,} and the InbutiTe : u, Bf>;^^. 

fM imhriZn S w l^iimJrtiu, Aiy ihot [a ahorter diaUncB Uian tb«>' must in 
Ofdar to reach] ^ thort a pittance to rvi^cA. Lii. J. 7. Mi7^dr iS M-rt faf« 
Ivntr/nu H«» Hem. iii. 5. 17. — We likuwiN find Um InOu. without jm ot 
.if , and also the Fob. for the Cnnp. ; as, Tj ^ •in/t' t^- i ^i;ii>, for Iht 
m^aify ii too yimK (a imr, gopli. (Ed. T. J U93. T»wupi i/tm It Ji>i<H irwi^ 
rifiit, jnw nvBii if (oo weak (o parxrcn, 111. iL 6 1 . I'd;);;!!!, If a, lEm W- 
hWw Uti't Hem. iii. 13. 3. 

^ 404p 4.) The Comp. and Snii. (fir tha moat paitjuinad with sit-H} 
flUowed by ■ reftrxm prmums, to denote the compariaan of an otgect witb 
Itaalf ; the Conip. npresenting it w above that which it haa b«D or wntdd ba 
in other dimmBtanccs, and the Sup. repreaenting it aa at its hi^nt poin^ 
Thufl, 'A^uwngtt yiyrtrmi AbT^ 'vru, lu btcoma Btort matj^ IhoJt ht woa 
Ufi>rt, PL B^. 411 C. 'Off InnnTlfi. ivTil ■ur£> iyiyfnrt Th. iii. II. 
*Ori Ju4fwtw »**«! nSm nf/>, aAn r« wrr (Ag ■usl st^&if n iAck muf- 
len (*a< fm mr nn, i. e. vAai your. ttiU in /Afk noflFn urut at iti highlit 
poiHl, Mem. i. v. 4G. '!■' >»-« ■vr.E ti^^-'" @>^«'«i -• PL Gorg- 'tS4 e. 

NoTK. To the Comp. thus coustnied. a Bpecrficalion la sometimea aiuiMad 
irilh ( {h 46L. b) ; M, Aim' i.ura. [»>^^Xi^Ti(fi' i.Vii], t«uli> >«U«n., g 
c^'f ftmiiltt 'J^ ^^f"* Ihtmiehxi nvtra Efrnfiitnix wAat thty htai Umad, Aan 
they had be/on ttarHmg, PL Prol. S.H) a. Ti y iriktiTu mirit ni Hbm 
irh'irrifn miri luru irra, g ii ^el' ^n'/ant Th. vii. 56. 

5.) 7^ Aaipanilhpu oiKiiwtaf bjf 4^ to denote that the oua propv^ aziati 
In a higher degree thao the other ; as, 2«^r*><l rj^tinu n ^X^'itvif, g ra a r a h 
man nuiwraiH tham good, Al. Ach. lOTS. 'tU Kfyyfi^ imthrmi Irj ri 

V(fM-4{a Eur. Med. 495. 

^ 409. V. The comparatire and superlative are oRen 
used vnthout an expreta ohjeet of eomparisim. In this cose, 
the SUFERLATIVE inareasea the force of the positive, white the 
COKPABATivE may eiihcr ifierease or dimmish it, according to 
the object of comparisoii which is implied. Thus, 

'n ^mttirm-rm-n Mf-rt, MOtt watArfid mm, Ui I. ST. 'O Sw 

eH-sH vii. T. 10. Ti» rmx-m^ mmadiiOilg, ilL 3. 16. IIXiw [ae. «> 
■f] >.i;^i>T>i, [nun than la pnqi«-] too vmch kai fan aaui Ear. Ala 706 
(cf. KiXXn ti« 3i»T>f, § 463. I ). Nii>ti;>[ «• i,- 't rl;^i», bei<^ Ino ymmff 
.for the CDBUiuuiii, Th. t1. I'J. M>f^n;t> • ■ Imyiirxr/Mi, U im rathir lo*g 
[than DlAiptDUc] to rtlaie, PL Conv. 203 a (cf. i AfA. i). '0 % aUaiirTi;!! 
Ti n rinifi'iiiri, but hi amiuatd Am [aomswhat mora insolentl; than he 
might have dooe] wkk a dtgm of sHNhn, Th. viiL 84. iSkXn tlr„.t, 
iyf"in('; •» t^trgitU tlram, mmaihat nnvi, Ar. Adi. 6T.t. Tu~. 11 M- - 
fHi aal lilfyitTifa, 'quite caafboDdillK,' Th. vi. 46, 17i riii iruftTi(tn, out 
t^ Stt mart mexpttitmd, V. L B. 

IToiK. The Comp. anj Snp., whea UMd without direct oompariaon, an 
■aid to Im used <ii»Ja<t(y. When tboa employed, the Comp. ii otUa tran*- 
Utai Into Eng. by the Bioiple Poe., or by the Poa. wjth too or rather ; aud tte 
0ap. by the Poa. with etry. In additioD to the aiunplea above, aea $ 466, 

i 496. VI. The degrees are mora freely interejum&^ 

CB. S.] mtTAX or ths asticli. — bpic use. 91ft 

and ntixed, than in English. It may be however remarked in 
seneral, that the use of a higher degree for a lower renders 
Ute discotirse more emphatic, and ihe converse, less so. Thus, 

To«n> fUtutrm [kit wi-i fLmi.*.,,] iHw affW Itri^tm, Om du obna fdr 
rmAtrdiaK thewiifm. Ear. Iph.A. 1594. Sii'i . . ^mxdfrmrti, mpn eam p Utl^ 
happg Mm jron, ;l. 185. 'kfyt\tymrmrtt rSi *(rylymiiittii, [cbc mott n- 
nurfcable of thiJM whicb bad preonled it] mort rtmarkabk Um mjF wMii:k had 
fna-bdit, Tb. L 1. 'H $Hr.rr, w »i>f-w f.'i.i Ar. Pint. 6:11. Ti mAx. 
Xirrit .. rm ayn^foi fiaf Soph. Ant. IQiS 'H^> 1 yifKingif itor yt 
(■;«rx]. tkt ntdat of ■• (though nan* of thmn wen old), Cyi. v. 1.6. 
rtyuj «ji(j| rifnaii [lb ^;i;l», ; 460], | ■■ii<i( j'Xn^t, Mr dmtk luu bn 
•Mr* MHv to w Mm tnit to Hem, Soph. Aj. 9«^ (cf. » 4i;4. .1). 'A^f.^a. 
}« witni ii bi'ysi [to. rXnj.At] ni'mii, Uqp afi iriirf oat tkat lit Aad gam 
lun toe /m Ubw, w. B. 1 U (cf. f 4&5). 'H f IXi .^naiin O [bdo*ed of] 
rfamf 1/ nM«, Enr. Ak. 460 (§ SS8. (0- OJ «x:Li; Mi ;mifcr iia>6n-, 
or tk mat, Hmb. 1. 1. 19 (cf. Oi' •rJLirmi lb. 1 1 ; Thi v^LiI.r. H. Gr. iL 3. 
S4). 'OxJyHi . ., tJ n iriX^ i. 7. VO. OJ » yi^f'ri;.., &-I llie [oldrr} uU 
■a, Cy7. L :;. 4. Oi ^. >u> nTf r^ ■'{■'ChV' ■•'•'•hi x'tf-^" ^™' ■'• 
1. 33. 'In-i. . . WMlLmlrifM IT. 5. US. Ti .»«;«, S Z^xfmru, yirn". 
inU Hv tUiy Au Jtiyfu—t &ieratii*, PL Eothjf hr. 9 A. Nian(» t»li 
lrrfv^vi«( rpsyftmrnw, 'L nrolu^oo,' U. Gr. v. -J. 9. Ottit uMrtirifi, 
luMing [more recent] mh, PI. Vhiedo, ll.S b. Of yif Xi^f •'•>'Uwf 
Abhiii lb. IU5 L niXXA Sj iv ^ijLTTi' avriTf rrl^rfu, > not Well for tbem,' 
Cjnr. V. I. 1.'. T; ^w ^> K» ivIthi vAot tinmdna » pnfti m* In Evtt 
Est. Ale. MI (or. T; iiir' iH f?' ■•«>« ^w>>- Ff> 7*^)- *<<'■■•" ->)e»> 
vM^'i'ln-ifH, 'ddHt,* «. 156. 



^ 407* The arUcle (o, q, lo) appears, in th« Epic Irh- 
giMgo, as & BENBSAL DEFINITIVE, performing the office oot only 
of an artide a» tuualb/ widerslood, but still more Frequently 
of a dxmotuiraiivc, personal, or relative pronoun (see o^ 147, 
148); as, 

■O ytt^ tkt aU ma». A. as. Ti ^ Km, wd V l'rt^<» A. Ta T^ «* 
fmtK >it;irAu, owf atc^ Mti ronB, A. VO. "0 y'f- ^ *<, A. 9. "Em 
J nSr i;,wn A. F93. T;., MfcM, A. 96. Ti /Ji nui*. ff iwti*^n, ri 
lU-n-x. 'thowtUngiwtiidi,'A. IS5. 

Bexasiu. 1. Tbeit mei an tntlinBtalf allkd. tnumnch u, — (a) Hm 
art., u omuU]' nnderitood, ii rimidy ■ fan tnp/iatie firm of tha dnioiulr. 
fnn. Compare hi Eng., " TAot nutn -whom jnn ne." and " TVie man wbom 
JMI ■*>' — (b) Tbt psiooal pnm. of the "d Pm. !■ > laManlitt rfeamiMfr. prni. 
Ctti^snt In Eag., " 71t«f that Ion m^" and " Thtm that lav* me " | " Tlum 
Oat laA B^' and "7^ that kata ms,' FMt. viil. IT, SI, 30. (Tb* P**' 


•anal proa^ liln the art, )■ arniRWDly Irtt Orthotic than th« ttMnolutiativ* 

jaiuU.v ao named.) — (0) The demmutr. pran. nwd carmrairrfy becodMS ■ 
relaltBi ; as, in Eng., " Blessed are they (Ant mouni." — Observe llie reaem- 
Uaoce in Gmn between the Itn,j]ish article tlw, and the pronouns Ihil, Oat, lie, 
Aey, tm, ; the derfvatiiHi of the detinlle an. in ths Pranch, Italiao, &C., froa 
the LaU demuiulr. ijls; and the extensivs u» of the Gennan arlide dr 

§ 468. 2. In E(4e poetiy, -- f ■) The artitJe, in its proper dm m 
auch, ia ctimnKuily oat axgHHsed. The aanw omi«w>n prevails t» a great eX' 
tent in other kiodi at elevated poeUj. — (i) Whoa iwed ae a persomd pco- 
■oun, it ia moat frequently coanecCed with the aame partidea aa in Altic Greek 
($$ 490, 491); and ia not anfteqaaatJy foUowed in the aoBe Kntenoe by the 
wbatontive lo >hicb It tefera ; aa, 'U 1' tr«n Ilia.]-^ 'AM>a, mtd lU, 
FaOoM JUiMtna, Jailmatii. k. \'25- A! t' l^i^Mt 'AJuim n mt-i 'H(n A. 
80. Cf. ^ 4»<). — (tc) Aa a demonstrative, it wmetknca fbllowa its anbetaO' 
tire before a relative ; aa, 'Arttiftnii »3^ tit, » » Sivnt irixhrai ■. 
73. 'Sutliriiit rimw, ii iriTijii.t E. »jg. — {d) llie article when used as a 

$ 4»i. K.), or Tor the lake of the metre, the some form in the Nom. with the 
oommoD nlotivB . aa, *0[ j^ >air«-H •;lAi, /-r Aa mhinmid Lut, ■. 386. 
Hnt' I, fiym 2. 59. '0 yif yi^^i Irvl 3i»«r», ' for this,' 'T. 9. 

S, In the latn loo. iad in the Dif. writera. tbia eitended.uae of the aiticia 
traa, in great uioaatire, retained. E. g. in lldt.^ ihenUtiva has in the Nom. 
aing. and pt. the fiunu Jr. H, ri, tl, hi. rn - and haa elaewhoe the t. (tema 
nf tite article, except offer prepoeitlons which suiTeT elidion, and in the phraece, 

H »•, i. J, I. J. ^lx^ rf. 

4. Traces of (he earlier uid tkw uae of the article likewiae nmaioed in 
the Altie and cwnmon Greek ; ao that we shall treat of the Alt. use of the 
■rtlde under two heads, (i.) itt xtt a$ at artidt, and, (n.) iti ws as a prv 
KHOi, oorabining with the latter the naa of, the ttlatigi famt (^ 14S, S) aa 
Jtminutratiet <x ptrmmiit. We ougit, . perhaps, to pramiie, what might be 
loferred ftnrn ^ 4KT. [, that no pnuioe line of divi^on can be drawn betwea'. 
the uae irf" the article aa audi, and ita oae aa a pronaan. 

1. TiiE Article a9 an Article 

^ 409. Rule XXVII. The Article is pre- 
fixed to SUBSTANTIVES, to mark them as definite. 

NoTSB. I. Tba Orwk article ia commonly transIalAd into Engttab \sy tlie 
4^iatt urluJt THE ; but often when aaed substantively, and aometinwa when 
wed aitiei:tively, \ij tdannttratiix pnaiaiat.{^'i 476, 479, 4K6. 1). With a 
parliciplc fblloiring, it is moat frequently Uuu'ated hj a rdatae and nr^ 
preceded. If no antecedent la eipressed, by a peimna] or demmatniti'ra pro- 
noun (§ 4TG). It b 0IW1 omitlral in translation, especially with pra/tt hihks, 
abstract !«>«•, MwiM u«f pcnericufi^. and pmnaimi (|$ 470, 471, 47^}; and 
moat be oftoi tupplied in trsnalatiaa when not exptwsed ($$ 4fl5, 4S6). 

3. A aobatoDliTa oead hidt/hdla^ waola the article : m, SmXit yif $9- 
nm^, «M(' iti^ rriUMiif j^ifa if u^Li^r*. a fauir dat fipm ■ ftti naa A 
flnaaMdniKnanirLlaocl, Sb. Sw|S18.*. 


tm. 8.] wtm eimuc, abstsact xotnat, &c 817 

^ 470. A substantive used definitely is 
either employed in its full extent, to denote that 
which is known, or, if not employed in its full ex- 
tent, denotes a definite part. 

A.) A aibstantive employed in its full extent, to 
denote that which is known, may be, 

I.) A KibelintiTa med gmtrieaOi/, i. a. dawling ■ wMi daa j ■>, J Ittfm 
WH, nuu (Ttteaiag to the »hol< nee), k yun, woman, h' Mpnrit, mem, J 
'JJtnwHi. He AthmiaiH (tbt wbolt na^n). Thtm, "O tttf-ri "l./fvnt' 
inpuirtm, moM iw mamtd i,t(mn„ PI. CrM. 3D9 C 'U -yit riftttwXH i^ 4 
r»>fit«tf ■ ■ l> rtirr v;urm> i».3.i>Lm' timficim' Dan.!!!ll. I.?. Ksi »t 
'E>.>.imf H I:£>» irJkA-m . . rfmmtrii^, 'of Gneka,' L I. U. CT. § 4N5. «. 

Non^ Ta tbb bead maj be nfbrred nibatantiTea nwd diMrOmhvdf, whldi 
eonaequenCIy take the artida; as, KD^ii £rir:)^>i7nii . • ■r^ia i/ rii 
^at«f r^ trfMTi^r^, Cyrka fPORWf Areff hatf'iIiiFiet [the moDtli l4) tha wd- 
dier] a mmM to tadt mUitr. 1. n. 3r. — Etch >rith Um^m ■ i^ *E>ur» rj 
tfw, (ucA «<«»>, i. 8. 9. Kk-^ ri. {<rl'Vf<. t<«r«» li. />»; Tb. V. 19 (cC 
"Eiami «->» Hi. 5. I». For (he paaicion irf i.uri, aee ^ 17i'. a. 

; aa, "U iftrt, eJrtK. t —^ 
>, Mt Anrfi/nf (J 149. .). 'H »#;m^ h) t 
lya^rii^ ■« »rfljii C;r. vii. 5. T5. CT. ^ 185. H. 

3.) An uiJ?niltH or daute tiaed tubatJmtitalj/, or a iin*rd jpulni of at fi^| 
al, T> ^., to Aw, Hft (^ 145). .^.a ri fiUJilm. t/^imgh ftar, v. ]. 13. E^ 
ri /nlim ri lyyvi uw fiCiiVAu viL 8. ^O. T> Iffui 1 iitfrti,lit namt 
MfkTH Fl. cm. :I99 c. Ti l-^m i f,nx"' ">- US d. Tilrftm n> 
i;iTii> lb. e. [In Cba three last exunples, the Hiiicle oonfonna bf ntfractioa 
to the Dciin foUovtDff. inatead c^ being neuter ( 415), inaamuch oa the word 
J m/a h eipmaed aufflcieotJy ahowa that Jr/^wji, &c., ara apoksu of verdy aa 

§ 471. 4.) The DAon of » ivndk etfrd ! I. e. of an object which 
tiirU dtijly in nature, or which ia ao refivilcd (/»hIi>>i, timiU) ; a>, i iXiH, 
(ill (u, « nXii»i, Ut »»<«, k yi, Ac earOi, i ii(t,ii, tin: hraeem. Thus, 'E^u 
ftfit ■ yS iri ni' (ifati^ lAc eurtt recaitw Hutrmeiit from On beatau, (Ee. 

; aa, 'H i.^^.! »] t jc.X.»r.>i ..J 
carfemtrg, (Ec. i. 1. Cf. ^ iS5. ^ 

6.} A proper mane, which baa beea before iwiiIioKif or implied, or which M 
latff twMvn; aa, Kv^> D furawifiwiTm . - 'Aistai'ill ifi • KiifH, Suf A( aoi^ 
fir Cgrae. Cgrat l/urtfi-rc giKM vp.i. I. J. i^ii <t'(py!», . ., Ti( <t(ry'ml 
eri>... i. ii. 6, T. Ki;(.r ri. KA.r... i.'i riii K.l..</» ,tr.<rv<n<, C^ru (n<£t 
Mc CUui'™ gran to aiicia, i. L', 'JO. 'T«; rn 'ElJ.ii)«|, in AcAufT "T CrasM 
(their nalive land), i. 3. 4. Cf, h'i'^S. m. ; 

NoTKa. (a) Proiier nunw appear to take the arUcle, from their bOB^ IB 
dwir origin, either adjeclirrm nmd nittmtiKlg (^ 44 R), or aMimOH aMiiu aaari 
rfiKwlieg^ (g 479). Thus, 'H 'EmA, [bc yi], [the Greek land] CraiBt 
im*f. Sa^oMd, tha laud t^ the AnglM. in f mch . L'Angletant baUatJ, 


Uc Atifl, [lb* Uliutrioiu Uui] Frida; 'U 4>.')u<rrH, [the Hcme-kmr, 


m ia wpadaUj ntaiwd in amam af rtRri; h, 'O H 
(< L U. T. Tw Kfr^ nT.F>f lb. 8. Bo, in Eog., tla OnwdfMt 

479. B.) A substanttve not employed in iu 
II extent may be rendered definite^ 
1.) By a limiting voord or phrase. 

TUawonl or phnM tan 

' ' ' ' ' ' tlu Mt(m«, tke aitide Is oAmi r«- 

Thi-. Ml^ec '- >•■*« "i»:"<. " 

L T. I S. Ti^rii Uufrm ruxH H. Gr. \v. B. 9. 

n/ivi lb. 4. 1 8. T) nfxx ri 1 Iic»«.-> vii. 3. 1 1 

ixt <i(<i<~X» Tb. L lOS). Ti ^1. I>Wi> [ti7xi(] 

■""■■■ " •Tn riK^t Ifyn PI. PoL 881 a, 

■. On Iha oUmt hand, word* and plinna not bdmging to Ihs 
V dncriplka of tbt nbMrallTS, but to (tat MUct ii mid aiimt M 
fa ttt tm^MM, dttar fiMA Ac ortu^ v jUlw l*> aBMinlH wCknt til 
mHitU; u, '0« artJt i fiStt d%tmiii ify«w> nwi, that timfipr kom gnii M - 
Im^mmJUusmnUt^lLa. il. ITAX.i, 1x~, ^.i, MtfmXi^ hwi-g Ok kaad 
tart, i. H. n. ■Ki.mi^ i.k Mfir,, i7(.Sm r* Tny lb. I . Eai-irmn. Arrf. 
■t nil fJ;^}7« L la 10. 'Enrti iyt/tin rf 'Of-rnXu, faOom Hervm- 
|0 u UaHir, vi. 5. 9* |dl Ty 'H>v^ 'H^xAiTtL 9. 15). A«k />i<ri* & 
vii ra{a)»'«is ttrai^ lb luite d/ Mc /uril, L 9. 7 (J 4.^6). 'E> ry iyiff 
finf Mm. B4H. 1 3 (bat, T> ^(rn rrlpti, (Ac cofre iliiiuMii, i. K 1 9). IliX. 
JUrt rm \wtTtiiui" fitf rAf, ftdl of lAe mt<'eaaHet of Ufe Ht ffrvit itbvidante, W* 
4.7. TA K IriTiOui (-.XXi I. Xii^ej.u. iv.'l.H. 2b, b.:y„ rA «jl 
«irn, mtk (hue oAiml Ain /»,-!. e. noli fim otfaiwiuitli, i. 5. I -J (bat, Zh 
rit ii.!yiii «(! ■>r», vM tk /w alioti Um). 'Sr>x''^ir^ •'■— rh f^ 
Xmyym, I 9. 17. Tif ifilfm, tXmi iU. S. 1 1. Hin . . »i ifH-M •■] *A 
SiXnTl rim, la aO Ok jmd^ ami all At tftdatari, At. Ar. 445. Yili It 
Mrif« i K-it^ "^ eB<imlry mat aU hn, L 5. 5. "Eurnt ri i^ 1. 8. 9 
(^ 4T0. N ). Ti i>i^( UaTifH Tii. I. 93. 'Afifin^m ri £ri, iatt i£( cm 
ffi. I. 31. Ain> •« Aiuni, Ac i^nrtaiu AcHcctni, vii. 7. 19 (but, T* am, 
JUxftl, Ac cOMt Spariamt). Ttii rt tilfat airiif IL 5. 39. 

ff. Whaa tlu nibctantlvs la prandfid or feUnwed bj tMaxaut auidifiailiam, 
tfiB (Ricla Ii ioniMiinit npgaltd vitb each ; ai, Ti l> 'Af lal;, « nS OA 
Aiimln Il;i^ tAt Itmpli of Lreaaa Jatt n Arcadia, PL Rsp. 565 d. '& Tf 
«• l^w rir ^■'^I'rrll li(TJ 'A. L 138. Ti « tiIj^k n Uhwi r^ ^ui(A 
iriTiAirn lb. 108. 

E| 473t Rbmabkb. 1. Il is common to employ the arti* ' 
el« evea when the substantive ia rendered definite by a potaa- 
liee or dsmotutratme pronoun ; as, 


UJ>, $ 39] Cyt. TliL 7. 26. TIIt S^<r({» ^c^' iv. B. S. Tf >Vr rfi ip,. 
ricr Tli. 3. 39. 

0. DBMomrRiTiVE. TIn pmnoima tJnf and lit, u themtelvea bepnuiiig 
with Ihe irtide ($ ISO), do not take it before thei^ uid ii:i7»r fbllowa their 
analogy. The arTaogcaneiil, thavfbra, with these prenomu is the uine aa in 
^4T^. a. Thus, T.j~( i^i rit.u,, am<ritia,\. 1. fl. Ti> £.);• w«r 
i. 6. ». TMi «• Tf>r«, L 1. 9. 'O />!> iln); Ri Apol. !9. 'Emunt rir 
Arii{>f L T. 18. 

NoTB. In prow, whoi the actide ii omittid with a demonstntiv* prononn 
and a commoa noun, the pmon ia omali; smplo^ as a ntlifecl, and tha 
■ou a* an aaribidt; (hns, 'Ern |^> }-^ «•»■ aiini ra^, Jtf Uii it ■»>■>- 
fat paeerlf, (Ec B. ■i {^. ASn i litim lb.). Klnni yif mtn ^lyim . • 
lyinn Th. i. 1. Aim mi txi.n r(i(mrn hi- I. 7. 

§ 474. 3- Upon the game principle, the article is pre- 
fixed to wordB and phrases, which are joined with a proper 
name or a personal pronmm to give definilBTiesg or en^htUie 
dislinclion ; as, 

Tl> ^nAi^rs 'Afrmfiilm, [the rugning Artaxn-sea] Artaxerxa Oe ta^ 
L I. 4. U»<» i &imkii, Mrma Ot JHuuffaii, i. 2. 6. 'Eri-i^ i 2>>ih<. 
«W( yrA, nS Kil.liun SMr.>.iit lb. t^. 'Afirritniw *•> ^'•;*> l«<ai>;iw> 
^w Hwn. t. 4. 9. 'E}^ . . i UnwMrwmi^ . ., t^u'i li « LEennv'iui v. 7. 9. 
H r^u^ ly>, /, Ae turetdud aw (bf emineace), i. e. iwuf nwraMe, aoph. 
B. I I3X. "O;^ n rh tirmwtw Id. <Ed. C. 745. 'O «><^»^><^<— i>^, /, At 
^t^ntoM, U. CEd, T. 1.179. Tn crft^.m., ri. iritn fit lb. 1441, So, 
when the prmmun <s iinplied in a verb, 'JUiH^ai i «i>,ai Soph. Tr. 1015. 
"O rXifun . . t^ Ear. Andr. 1D7D. 

Koix. If, on the other hand, u ^ufuetioii u rftayaHJ, the article is omitltii 
m, BtnfZw 'Afnmt, XimoptaK, aa Atioiiaji, i. H. IS. llmniyimt i^ 
nifriH lb. 1. 'Eyi ri)uH, I, laJug^ sub, S(^ CEiL C. 747. 'AffXac 
^m }wnit< lb. S44. 

^47S< 3. An adverh preceded by an article haa often 
the force of an adjeetwe. This construction may be explained 
. by supposing the ellipsis of a participle, commonly wv or yiti^ 
fltrit!. Thus, 

T» » Xf"». Ac [aow tlnw] pr«»it tint, t1. 6. 13 (cf. T» fcni m x:;;- 
M* Ear. Um, 1349}. *£> i^ rfiriu [ac yix^iif] Xiyr li. 1. I. 'O w 
#HiXiw >■'•(, uAinn-if «; nri SttiKim, mr^ii li nf >E> Cyr. iv. 6. 3. 
Ti. ri/Ht" *!»•(•• '"■ «. 9- TSf •r.olf Ah iii. 1. a. T«( ir^.i t^ ffe— 
ri-r£w, l/u beMfobHtr*, Th. ^ii. t. Ei>)^» rw «iA« Soph. (£d. T. 1. 

KoTis. (a) Thii adjecdvn maf agaia, like any oilier adjective, Iw nsed 
cither tabitamlitiify or adverUally (H 47fi - 478). (6) A pnrpoiitiim witK if) 
cut maj be gssd in the same wa; ; as, Tw I, ^Xf «« xri"'!'"'' ^ Ddphir 
orade, C;r. viL 3. 15. 'Af^o/a . . i rft, trci{», Wtaem Anuma, Iv. 4. 4. 

^470. 4. The substantive which ia mndifjed ib often 
omitted ; in which caiie the atticle may commonly be regarded 
as used stibstanHveli/ loilh the word or phraee foUoaing (see 
«^447, 469. 1). Thus, 

aiO snrr^z or th£ azticlx. [book hi. 

T» •wi;l<'h [ic. itlf^l, V Ah* J^m dW Ih^ I. 1 . 5. T£. «^ 
til 5>'^>. rtoK iw^ n Itk AhJ, « Ck Anten, Pf. Sopfa. 2^^0 d. 0< tm 
H^tr Th. Tiii 6«i. LK r' Iiln . . ul li !{•>, tot* thnK widam, md lioK vi(A- 
aiU. it 5. :l^. T; vifw tm nra^ ahe Bppntitt ndt of lit lucr, iiu S. -i 
Tm9firm.i. 3. I. £,'■ rii^rm>^ [ri ^m1j>], iuci, LI. IS. O.' U rn 
IruUH, Abm </ (*< €Muilrf t^ami, v. 4. :l. TWi rmftin »• rirr^i i. 3- 1 5. 
Ti rj ■iiJ.w i7« ilfiXtur, w^al il mii icAirA ^etxnleif (Acir etfcruih Iv. 7. 4. 
Tl i»rli> <:>, hi M<i( il xHAi'.^ Sc^h. Aj. 157. T» ^,Tu [hr,,] lb,. 1U3J. 

SoTK. Ths [ihTMea •■' ^ifli ind m nf/, roUowad by Uu nama <^ a pereoa, 
commouly ipcLudv Cba |Jb-Joit AimMi/^ with hu aOeiHluitfl or Mvociatoa ; And 
■ometimu^ bj a ipecififl of vifue peripbraai^ d«]ioU tittle more thao the jiD-ifim 
Mffv^. lliiu, Oj ■Mf' *AfjH7n, [tboae nbout AnjviuJ AroMt and dtom tA/A 
Aim, iii. 3. i. O! rif! Umfifn, XtiuyJim wUll hi, men, viL 4. 1 6. Oi 31 
ipf)> iii. S. I («f. twrtfiftw ■» h' .i» .h^ !>>• ^)> 1*"' ■'^ 

M«m. L I. iti. 01 ^> ■'wJ T.u( K.^^;.., i, rji N>>.f, St^ ti » AhiW<- 

»«■>!•; {iyMH;t;<i 1> r^ Zmwh, ' tbo CoriDthiuu with their ullias,' H.Gr.iT. 
U. 14. tliTraiui n HI B.'srnf, hi r£i ififi ni ftLLar»> ea>.*i Fl. Wifg. 

Kti. SSI c 

^ 477> 5. When the neuJpr article is used mbslantwely 
with a word or phrase Toliowiiig, («.) ihe precise idea (as, in 
English, of * thing'' or * Ihittga^) must be determined from the 
coanection. and {^.) Dot unfrequently the whole expression 
may be regarded as a peripkriuii for an included suistantivt. 

a. TA «• y4t^t, (k nOt a/ aU i^, ApiJ. S. Ts i^^ rn <ri>.VH>, iibB- 
fry atnitii.Cyi.u. 1.91. TA «>;! [I(.Ei.H, tk fati: of Prtatom, it. S. 
37. "£> »( Ir^w. (in Iha abovs] n Ut prteaBs Mmrfitic, vi. .1. I. U 
^> li Kli^ liiAn in lilnf Ij^^u r;>i VWi ^*«f » '|Bi<ri;B *;;i( UlTin, ' the 
rdatioD c^ Cyrnt to ng ii tba sama u oon to him,' i, ^. 9. Ti «•{* i^ 
IXWiu 4tt} w» «Tii«i, to p^tr nmiatiing tpiA me tn relttrmitff hrrngj u 7. 4. 
'Enl UrirSt »>£• muXi, iT^i., aW idAch Uc ppdt had hern -bify hoHorml, UL 
S. 9. U ay; Tir li'm. H" cimmta-%ea of Cht tHal, PI. nuedo, J7 b. 
' Tj$ti*tftt /^' Aa «nAun»i, . . » t' )«■»> Nu. 'AnwV •■-fiXoei, 'Lii 
plooB V office,' vi 4. 11. 'Evifnifwi iim »> ^fl Tafuf, to it tUUtd m 
tmtia, iL r. 7. T«« ri 'A^um f;<«>::>Ti>[, Mow (hit /aanr Me cohc i/ Ifa 
>if*«jaiu, Th. Till 91. <»{«i7t 1-a r(ii ri viu 7. 30. Tj rS, ix,ii,, (Ai 
AuAit of fiihcmen, (Ec 1 G. 7. 'ilt !1 n r.£ rtrn/w ilrii Intrinrt, ' Itia 
dlvarrion of the rivn-,' Cyr. vii. 5. 17. T> t» 'I^iwu'ir 'wwn ririttiwMi. fn h 
n thicoiidili,iiioflhellorKnfI!i)ciu,¥l Fami. l^Ca. ^iSiIhu rj «n nil^ 
Id Aon lAa teyial /«ir, Id. Phodo, 77 d (k 43-J). Ti rjf %fn).ini, whatii 
taid tf Sofiotbt, Id Rep. S)i9 c Tt »i «;itn», Ai odirwihwk o/ (*■« 
Mb) anpraaU, Id &«](, 456 b. See ^ 447. y. 

)). TJ r« ™a;in, Ae ami-B of fortttne, = j tJjti, .ff>rtim*, Em. Alo. 78S 
Ti »> wia/tin; Ou itatt of Ih, wndt, = ri rniftMrm, (Ac ain^ Dam. 49 
7. Ti n r» xeV""- ^ ^ mattrr of the mnwy, = ri ^fi/Axrtt, Id. 47 
B4. Ti «« i^yH, = i ;«•», Th. ji. SO. 'E^i.u ri 0>r.Xl*>(, Ert.i/fcrf (*< Ai'aft 
B. Or. Til. I . AH. Ti 9i<;> iSt* lii<,>.i^u' ttrm, Elu. Ipta. A. 33. Ti ^ 
ac» yif i£>^ ^i,«L Tii. l.i, Id. HaL 27S. 'I!, » ri rift^ n^ [»i 

CM. 3.J pKBTioos tunxioit, SiC, az 

idr. 935. EJ W rS^V iSttm «^ Sgpl 

^4'y8> 6. The keutee accusative of the article i 
oflen used in forming adverbial phrases (^^ 440, 441), in con 

«. Atvrmem f§ *'"'■ ") ! ««■ TJ v^;i(u f»o. T], m to (iW vkii* inu o/oft 
L «. firmolf, amUHlfy. PL PhiKlr. i!SI b. Tj rfMii, i«/)>n. L 10. 10; 1 
rjit Ear. Ale !I7T. T.ii^raln « ^rsJu.^ intk, ri. A. »R. Ti yt rmfmi 
torn At. T«Bp. S3a. Ti «>(>«> Ag. 7. 7. Ti n^m PI. Urn. 4t b. 

^ Atuurmmai w. Ti ■■{»», at jSn/, i. 10. 10. Ti rj-ra, JlrX, Sopl 
Tr. 757. Ti <r{i«{», Ac/in, it. 4. I 4. Ti rflm i. G. 8. Ti ■->Xm> ii 
4.7. TM;i>:t;.fr» {n fjLii;i;»T»], ul fcoit, T. 7. S. See H-l'- 

T. I. 6. Ti UriiOi lb. 5. 43. Ti r^ W«;w, » 
(h mK, Ti. 4.' 4. See j 475. i. 

^ 479. II.) hy previous mentum, mutual ttn- 
derstanding, general notoriety, or emphatic distinc- 
tion; as, 
e>( ;:>■ iIjuhi ).i ». ^^u.. ;;>»,, »; ;;.« rU i Bi(.e., «'., »• 

ttard a «ui pofinjr lAnni^ Uii rnitit, fn»l vupiind tdmt the matt tivt, L S. 
is. O; >' lril;«» ^ij^piw^n tw- JmSfo l* !mm d'li\>.nnf , 
4rt( >-•( *;< »•»•( >^*.*.( h, .. ri^ li '■"•■-. i \ift htwxirfn 
L 10. I I. Ti w>.t7M mint i. a. l6(of. A;nr> rl.-. Ih. 14). ^v3.,i, 
^„ »,.:,, J«r<T' .iri. .;»...- Eur. Or. 4IH. •». Si(f» Hrrifn i,^;. 
(w rti •■s(if|Kar(> rrf^riir Jliir, 'that inBiwwnUe ainj,' iii. ■i. 
13. TIhi mil rm fHXk w.ii^mr' hx' i' AiXiJi Soptk EL 503. 
Ti> ttitu ifS, I me ran irjw [i. e. Artixarxes], i. S, 'iS. 'AMnnAtnrif 

t(yir*>, '•• Itlfs rir iymtitCyr. iU. 3. 4. 

^ 480. RiiMARKS. L From a reference to something 
vluch precedes, or is mutually understood, the article may be 
eveo joined, 

•.) WUh an iNTttBOCUTivm Patwoinj ; «; 'Axxa *™n, If* J 'Irx'tw- 
XM,H>M n . . lui}^niWai. . . Ti rtTm i ifni iy^.I vill liai,iaid Itdiom- 
ticAu, nbte to ynu alhet Aiage, [Tbe what ?] TAut ire (Atjr ^ jaut /, (Ec 
la I. KP. -A V tft*^i„ fiiX.,rn, rmSr H*" ffiimr. 'ET. Ti <rtr- 
r-fr.) Eur. Ph. 706. TP, HiUx- Ti 9««i— "i.. 'KP. TJ »J, Ar. 
Pax, 696 'EP. 0:i fC l.i'Xi»i> i.a«Wir«a. «■>. TP. Ti rn lb. 6»3 
(Ti plur. irilh reference to ~ii, and ri ^ng, fiir plur. ; cf. T; .J. t.Ji-b irri'i i 
% tSa.y). Etf 7 T, ri^ii'i li7- Ti ^1 v. Ili>j> l{r>"'l G<v- Bbc, 49^ 

Hirlf^i .It J^i.fTi;., rf iflij Ft. Phsdo, 79 b. Se« § S-2S. I. 
$. With a PEsaoNu. Pkokoithi aa, Ai^. Si, t )' •<, iUi<( */•£■ « 

■HfaCiUuf I . . riu. If., iy^ Xii'Uf, ■«: iri[;i tiW r.»I i/*Sl I Wit 
fOH mU, eaid hi, earn hither direclfy tniut Whidur, laid I, da l/ou eajh ami 
tevilofliCaglheyan?] da I go, it gning to y^uf PI. I^ -.^03 b. Tit f/ii. 
tlitmt,i.».me,of idvmymtfeak. Id. PhiL 20 a. C .00>^ li.' 


^) WIA ■ PMnram or Quauit tm Quunm ; m, Ti ntrm 6^ 
tmd, m Awm m I hmt JmMimi. gr, aidl ■ ^wb « tlu. iii. I. 9. 'At.,* 
**i> *J. «»;»• IUb. L j. !. Til nliiuJm ^xi> PL Leg. T55 b. 

B. A Hill— ■■< pnoidid bj <«fi, oioari. bu coamranl; Iha uiicU, tbe nmiid 
■ombv balug apiimillj ngudad u in oljecl rimiliar to the mind, or M M 
dritelta MaDdwd M wfakk n approKli b Bide ; tbtni 'Af^um . . <l^ ti 
■Jwik 8* 1 ■<» atm «b [n>Bbv <r] (mm^ L •. ■fasf iMn^r •■ mhOv, L T 
la IlMnnid H i^ ««n IWxiXmm i- ^ «■ 'A^ (A VMcJaMw In iL 
CIS. a»,tkwilmmfiid^mrmC^Al.SO. 

(j 481. III.) By the connection in which it is 
employed; as, 

*E»M))lnX>i!»«Aa(u-W.»)*-*(m •%•-). /S.r.Xi.'-t 'Afn^ftw 
•bad iDgeMdid t« tha tkno* [ie. c^ Pv^V ■■ ■■ 3- 'Umt Ir) rw Sif^ 
L». II. a; Kirx*' ■^ ■' *^l>« HTvfuu, ir;T.H.« i. H. 8. a* )' 

tnii[;L/Ma(A nil r(>#J;iss>(, I^Wnn r*it d;;^:'"'*' ii- 3. S. 

^ 4S9> Rbhabx. With MibHtontives which are rendered 
dentiite by the connection, the uiicle has ofleu the forc« of a 
pouettioe (see ^ 503) ; u, 

'EMXin r^ «■;}) i^f«V »(•»». *• *«W [tin] tit cAiUm li. b 
MtprHH^ L 1. J. Ttfiaf i«XH }«U].).b r» Kif •. «^r ri' d>.Xfi> lb. 

A-U, M Ti< T*<rt. f A r*;irA •!, rif x''f" "«^ I- ^ 3. 

^483. IV.) by contrast. 

This nuy giTe « degrae of defioiteDen to expresaions which 
ht6 otherwise quite iiideGnile ; and may even lead to the em- 
ployment of the article with the indefinite pronoun n'e- Thus, 

'£• U^n-f rtA ittfl, ifll /^iit UCmjnt ■j'l r^fn »im rm IwIlm, i B 
AtfH^ 'or whom two.., but the third,' v. 4. 11. Tw K nXyiiM •> /•!> 

«i( n tf KA.i^jcr »mAU<.^/.iM iil. ». 1 9. C£ i 490. EL 

^ 4S4. Gehbkal Remarks. I. The article is soote- 
timea found without a substantive, through anacoluthon (^ 339. 
N.) or apoaiapetu (iin-aDiMnqatt, Ike becoming siJent, i. e. the 
leaving a sentence unfinished, from design, atrong emotion, or 
ony olher cause) ; as, 

■H »• iXXm. 'EUlu'hit , .Trt xe>l ■■■•'•••, iTr lyttiat, Jn <■) 

^ Al rat i^ Oh Gnda, or both thcoa togeCher. Elem. :t31. Ul. T*i }^ 
Iftntt^ti rh Im rtfi'a hJ iTb, ^i((nfs i^'i s-a;i{ipai PI. ApoL SOe. 

)U W> , ti ti yt- AoC yew, fty (ihg name of the god amitMct, ei 

Ike old gnmnuuluii hj, through reveroice], lb. Gorg. 4se e. 

^483. 2. Omission of the Article With > 

lives which will be at once recognized as defiaiEe without the 
article, it is orieo omilled ; particularly with, 

m. Printer nameMy and et^ itamtt naemi^itg th^ae fVom their bdn^ gptcioBif 
i^fin^nabd or fiaaiiar a/ftUaHpiit if penomt (§ 471); tbm, i^oUxiiu <« 
K^... . . 2»i,;k<^>H. KSf 1. 1. 3. n^ii Ki^. lb. tl, 7. n^if rt. Kit" 
lb. 10. '0 li Ki(t lb. T, la KifH Jl L a. 5. See L 5, 1 1, 112. Eii tin 
Kiluw L S. ao, SI. Ei'i Kilkimimr lb. 81. 'JUa ilAiV ii"^ u. 3> 13. 
■A/» ti iilff Wi>f lb. 1 6. T«[ ItX"" ri, SaXamc. . . nn ni ^i 
Rqh Atta. H. 4. T«t fJi url SA>jitt„j tfx-"'. • ■ r"'! ^ ■■n' >» 'b. 5. 
Otk tnif... . . «^ I« V. T. 6. -On $,piu . . fi;u, ur« Ji lb. 7. TJ 
UuMni rXan. ■ > 'Sx" y um ihJ rtiiw •>) ]«n«7ui L 4. 8. AaCiIi £> 

iiU 1. S3, n^i *^ Sw. lb. -J4. Ji, Siui vii. T. 7. n^; 5u. t. 7. 5. 

^S»mih IfT. Mi tTfii Siai >■] iTfii ■>«(>><■•» I 6. 6. Ti VfJi r»i ^jiv, . ■ 
ri rfn riii iiifirm Lac- 'n. H. — Hence ^nnXtii, \a iu fkmiliar ippli- 
otion lo the JCi'i^ of Pttiia, commontf nftnU the article ; »», n>{uiTi« 
w 0ii«>.ui, gotttatlu kag, i. '2. 4. Cf. T» ^rAw ii. 4. 1. 

;S. Abitraxt mount, nama of artt and tdetat, and generk tenw($ 470)) 
Otua, Ef;.! •Tiiir. ■■.U^ ;^« li li<.Ti> u. 4. I If. TJ i2(« iri.r.i»>«i nlfi, 
sal >rj S-^H VImirHm iii. 4. 10. 'Tri *a;iX«>i aai jHiyUMt lAaj^m C;t. 
TiU. T. E-J. ear^riH n >iiA;i.l ■>) « fliyiM U. 3. 15. Ka) Ailflfa, u) 
rffcrim, aa) liuiinAii H. Phndo, 69 b. Pi.^^* n aaj tin ■■•Xt/uaii 
>lxm <Ec- 4. 4. -On i<ri 9^«<-» lr«-. I. 6. 10. a.^iCinar.. . . {i^n 
Mf.H'jr PI. L^. 9US b. 

^ 4lS0i y. Bnbamtiva JbBoKtd tf (&a artidt kM a d^Sming teorJ 
gr ^roH j thaa, Kv^m iriri/Mirai ■ aifalt aal x"e ' '<&■ >■ "'■ '• '^^ 
ntm !i>TH T^> Si,tfi,Tt Ti. 4. 19. 

Hons. I . Proper names, fellow^ by the irtide, are nrel; preceded bj 
1^ except with special demooBtrUiire force. Thos, Um^irxTis . , i ftin^ 
L 1. 4. Sifmiwirii }i J 2Tt,fifii.m . ., 2i»;aTi» 11 j 'kxM, i. S. ». '£> 
"XtifuMf IT l>a'ra.n<-|(a[ 'AC<3.v i. 1 . 9 (cf. 'E. tSi Zl^j»ri»l> i. ». 4> 
Bat, 'O Jl 2il.<Hf 1 'A/iifmMMnii, Imt Oiat SiliniuM Ui ^ninicBf (who had 
bera tbe chkf »othnjer of the umj), tL 4. 1 S. 

9. In Ihii constmction, the eubstantiTe [■ Bometimee Jlril httroduBed ai a- 
i^fitiite, and Ihtn dtfiiud; and this sabsequent definition aameCunea respect* 
■imply the iind la dan. Thns, fi^in i M.i.u ..y.i,, a frmoiain [that 
oiled Midu'i] nAkk nut aJM Urn fountain of Midtu, i. e. 13. TliXlti >) 
rrfntil tl ^i}<a;Lw, and manj ttnihi, the large diki, L e. ottriiAtt, i. 5, 8 
Ka(M . . irinA ra wi^ri%, 'of the broad kind,' v. 4. -.^9. 

IhX/i7>, iTit "Ryi— Tl ■■} nXintf aai ttTtit aai yS[ aal aViiif aal iirit aa) 
nf^r ■«; RaTii aaJ a^> aal InaarH , PI. CrM. 40S d (<£. Tm bun, 'H n. 

Xin, Ti a*r(m lb. 408, 409). See other example! in § 485. 

L Ordla^ and SUperlaliect ; at, E«) r;.'»> Im rf; iri;ii^- t«X><Sra 1^ 
B. 103. El, 'Irn^i, TM K.l»/a( trxaroi s-i^j* L 4. I. 

^487. 9. Tbe FAiiiB OF A aEHTEHCE mif be ranked as toUain, 

with . respect to the frequency of their taking the article : (a) An apiioiitiei, 

' ~ 'utimttun. See H 47^, -174. C^) The tmb/tct of the HD' 


(<) Ao aJfmtl M( §ofn^ ly a pi |WL lM » . (if) An ai(^iiK< ftmnud bf a 
yfy nifa n. (i) An atrnMi. TUi Dammanl]' wmnis the artide, u sixDply 
4iotiag that ttM mHajficl I* on* of > dua. To thig bend beUingt the tamil 
Jbc. aOv nrin of wAh^, rniwiny, Ac. (^ 4M}. 

4. BvKia Um Mrtide 1* ofUn nnd In imarK;^ (At nAj^ o^ a «mtmr, «|M 
vmfldniH ■pfnan to ba ved diiiAj fbr thu poqwne. Hiiw, Hii ^i^ i^ 4 
<#Jw, fart l*> d.p-vtmx aWwU k a /v&f. vli. H. 16. 'Ev'r';»> >' ■' rt X— 
fi'ii i 4. fi. *!!(■• n [uai SI •rXuVm, oW Me ^rniter part n» ipell, T, 4. -n 
\\ 453). KsXht.' r> i*Awui. rj ivJ *^ ».» i;:ci>Viu PI. I^nlo. 8R« 
'A;' ({> ngarXanM lirh Ay-M ui wni W iyul,! n .^ml J uih'i U. 
Gwft 4»l c TA 1« vim li» In-i^ turn j(» ii tea, Hon. ir. 4. T. A 
«<(Hi Im7( »K> tx>n S itif^ ilrit £i4(Mni, tat t/mmoM d Aomwi m mA- 
mflmOm ttm Hvmtcmd ■*■, Ul. S. IS. Km} &E01 h "O AOFOZ 8t 
Jb. I. I. 

Tw )' (%>, II ri ^. /.(r tm aaWwirt, 

Tj ■.*«.». a !:^ .^T* »/..^.».. Ear. FoL F^. 7. 

^ 4 O 9b 5- Han aiv aome words, with which it ia npcoally impoi^ 
tut lOBbMrra tka inaertkn or Dmiadan of tba artiBle; aa. 'A).i> ti rr(£nr 
fim, and nutla' v^f, 1. I. 9. Ti dJO* rTfiiTiiifW, Mi nW a/ Aa oraiy, I. -i. 
S.f. 'A/>faii(^iM hJ iiXu. ' asA atlMr^' it. '.'. i T. 'B^tfuturif, f ni 1xAj>, 
■Ihcotben,' 'tbaiMt,' lb. la ni.i nS rrfMni/tmrH. 'mndi of,' iv. 1. J I. 
Ti filw K avx; «> 'SjL\wmm^ ' the gnaur part,' L 4. 13. Hcl;^ lMnf^ 
t*. 6. 86. TiW <nU(A, M« «t. lb. 94 (^ 46S>. t^lyit irifnrm-, Jim 
Sad, IT. V. T. niiiv nH-> An^.H. i tx\n I, J U>V«, ' the few,' ■ Iha 
■riatocracy,' Rap. Ath. S. 10. See ^ -ITlf. a. 

fi. Wliai two words or phraaca are connBcted b^ a conjunction, ff they re. 
ftr to diffimt oAfectf. the artkde ii mon AHjnentlT rrp»««f ; bat otherwise, 
Mt| ae, Ti rl AaeC-piw hI tJ 'ExXenan l.i->^ «T;i>rln^ia L ^. 1. Th 
■ElliMi •>! »• B*^Ufm Rk J 4. T>at a-<r»H a*l iAhv m! ^ifnim L S. 
30. Tar VftWkk ^ximt 6wt/Lpif*mrM a^j vj'rrurf L G, ^. '0 1' aJ iiit riAtai 
vJt Avurra ;n^» yiyowt n aoi £> nu (r>fii>i[ Im ^>w PL Tim. 
38 0. 

7. When two Douu are talatad to eacb otbo' in a claate, and have the game 
•ztoit of meaiiing, the article la commonly joined with Mk, or witb wifibw) 
at, llxitu /tir X'-t" **' ■■'("J"" i'X't^ •^'"' *•■"' '' ^""f" »"' •)*■ a«! rf 
)drc^«/Bi rii imafiui Artivit i. 5. 9. ObSir'f* d(B . . J^ifrirt^itriftr tX^im 
htM..ri'-,i PI. Bep. H5i a. Aiv.'-iJLirnpp i ^.<;> rH, i.Hniirini lb b. 
■H r^^un fit^nm [iriMiSr. ri^'a]. ■ ■ 'H ri:! iVi.* rA ilStr^ra lb, 
3.12 c. 

§ 4 S 9. R. "nia insertion or oibisdon of the article often depeodt, both 
X poetry and prMe, apon cafAnajr and rl^Min, and npon tboae nict iliMtaixtiimt 
k tht txpnuUm nf our idtia, which, though Ihay may be readily ftb, are oR« 
tianafinTad with diHiDulty fmai ant '°"jr'*g* to anotbei'. In general, Ihe iaiw 
(fan of the article promotee the fwipieu^, and ila oiaiuaiM, (be •uiiaifjr of di»i 
course. It is, consuquentJv, more employed in jthiliaitjAicai than in tkmtariah 
coiiiposltian. and tar mora in prum than \a pottrj/. It should bc^remarkedi 
however, thai, even in prose, then is none of the minutin of language in 
which manuscripu differ more, thao in respect to ila iniertion or omisaioi^ 
*qndally with proper names. 

necimaa so closely united with the woid bftiwl^b tW 

« jseowf Btiefc h pnftm^ u if to a ringle woid ; thai, Aiyt It J mmri 
rmtrlr [• ri *ir^ s^ 97. K.] iil.ii^ yiyrt^Ht, r4;i n »i!rt((r [= n 
I«;^ $ 39] A o*! rt() rt r.lri. . ., jh.! 1 rtf S-f-ie*" ■">"( 1^- 
Ttm. 37 b. Tf r, 9ir^, mmI ri nMi lb. 14 b (u* §^ 119, ISO). T£> 
ri ^i> [«o. A»>]' 'AoM wh) art tW Kthkh u HOtUii^ Eur. Tro. 418 (sn 

II. The Article as a Pronoun. • 

^ 490. A. The ARTICLE, if we Include both its aspirat- 
ei Mtd its t- fomu, ia used as a pronoun, by Atti,- writers, 
only in eotmection mith eerCatn partieiM. 

Note. By the um of tbs srdda a* a jmium, b msuit ht HiUinCN ut 
■ufapDUlnf d/ a modifying taord or f/tnut (5 47i>). Thia UN ia explained, 
>■ in the cue of olhar wljectivH (f 441), by tha eUipiia nf ■ noun. Ah ■ 
proQaoD, tbe arlicta in Attic irriteiv ib either dtmtmUratnte or peraonai, the 
CUV in i 493 excepted. 

1. With f.1. aniK; u, '0 A [n. A]i;if;,] «%r<u, amd Ac [the brotlier} 
•■ yertmii/iij, L 1. 3. Oi /il> fx^nrt, YLiAicf^ti %i ri(ii/ii>i, Uijr (Chiriwphui 
■nd Ueno) Ktot, but Clearchiu Hayed, iL 1, 6. Ilii ri RiV-''*" l-w ■■^u 
Xii>;«l, !■ 11 TW fUXirr lyi Soph. CBd. Q 741. 

Bkhari. The ertide with ^i> and ti is comnionty used for cmtrodufne- 
tisB (cf. § 4^3), and m mej innslatc • ^)t . ., J 3i, lAii . ., that, thi out . ., 
alg e«ter, me . ., oKoeW. Ac, and •! ^i . ^ il K, (*« . .. tlhne, hw . ., olAeri, 
A«. Ilns, 'O fiij fuiinm, t H rmttfu, 6k me it nod, tlu nthcr u ralioiial, 
ry. Pbcdr. tJ44 a. O; ^> l<->{i»>r*, >t i' I'mri, the dm party (the Greeks) 
■uKAaf «, md lAe DlJlcr (the Peniana) fiHnued, Va. 4. 16. B»i;,ii;r n laJ 
(i 'EXAam . ., •! ^)> likaitrif . ., W 1' ifriXHtit, 'thcee . . tbose,' i. IK. 4. 
T.i, ^li .{»> ^nann.. r»[ 1' t{>C■;.l^ ■•ooie. . othen.' i. 1.1 (^ ■i6-2. m). 
*£> ^)> <;■ Tni n/i^mZiut, U M rHi •£ PL Phndi. »6n b. 'Ei-ura fwnf 
rin. iai^mi, i|iXiEaH-> nfr. ^1. U riii, mn )i la t^i Rep. Ath. It. S. Ti 
flit Watii., . . riXH 1) aaTiiTa.i, A« reeertd tamt ammdi, ftaf fim^ tha, 
L 9. 6. '0 iiU lix", x' !i l<n/'»T>, he (Ctearchiu) ammamled, and the tat 
it^td, ii. ■.;. 5. li ^)i yi( JHln, T^ 11 |J•).^ •i;iiV.^.> ri !;•>, for wt ihaU 
Jbid the mouHtaiH, hereeaiy, aid Aert difficult, nf mant. iv. fl. lo (i 4-il. 3). 
T,i tut n ^■;t;f|»i<u, ri n ■>} iiairaM^Kd, '[as la aome things . . u tn 
otben] part/y . . fortig.' 'ww . , iio»,' i». I. 14 (5 441). 

^ 49 I. S.) In poetry, vitb yit \ aa, Hag' i>>(.t «a>fri« U-f 
I y»t ftiyirru min, nyx''^' t^'fi'-'. ' f>^ >>a,' Soph. EL 45. Tai yi; 

wlfSmm fturiit Saph.(£d.T. tufl2. Ttrif . • rrivtr fifit, Jot tlutieo ran 
fct, Eur. Ale 47.'). 

3.) Aa th« ratjoct of a verb, after ■■), •nd ; aa, K>J W> KXiEra. Iwhi, 
and Hut he badt him ght it, Cyr. i. 9. 9. KmI -rir innfhmrtMi Xi^irw 
S. 13. 

The pmditict fa (Ae nMKiwhm (J, S, «*, aj, ^ H 8) require, from 
tk TBry lana of acuent, that tbe particle, in connection with which they 
are need, alMnild follcnr them. If, theret««, it preceilea, they liwonic orthMme, 
•r, in other words, take tbe fbnns which commonly belonE to Ihe rrlutine /mt- 
■Ma tl 148. £> llkia change lakea plaue with ui lUiifocnily, aiid with U 


«^ k ftOowi < to ff. (^ ns) ; tko^ K*) Ii U-w-n. «l *• w nn Ji i rf , f. 
a. 16. Km! *, "Ofa (tfivUnMi' tfa PL Coot. IfOl e. KnJ •! Jm tB 
<. 4. *B 1' A. adrf H FL Biqi. 937 e. *H I* I,. I Fx-ju.. Morf H L •. 
flina, lb. b. *H 1' I, mM idK Id. Com- M» & 

^ 499> B. Hie artids m it* t- /othm likewise occurs, 
t !•) As ■ DBMONVrmATiTK or firboral psomouh, 

1.) BaAia lb* nfafbn 1^, bK, ind ^ : u^ T»IIm>, sTtia' vUEt ^ 
R. Phado, 93 d. llif) W if ' ^ i>n7in>. Id. HiU. ST «. K.; tJ> If t^ 
ImiTw nH-Mi iliai L71. 167. IS. Ilif) nx*" ''*' ''^ "C^ rK^^rrf ■■•> 
FLSofilL ^41 a. nfwJM ■d/HVur.k Jifrf Jn, Ovn. 613. <i. — TIm 
^ntMMB IntrodDcBd bj lb« ntatiTs piaj bii ngaidol ■■ ■ d^fimimg dau^ t* 
wfakta dw irHd* b praflnd (mk f 47!). 

8.) la partiadar Jbrmt Bf upnfiim ; vii. 

m. rift n* (alio wriUen it^hW), l(/bf* An ; thai, Tt yt w^ rm nh 
t^ PI. Ale I US «. CU 1' Wsiru ^ir*>nir- ^A' •&> >1> Vfi nf At. Nidk 
5. 0< <r(i rm f&m ■farma- (Hold*,' Eur. H«I. 696. Sea 9 475. b. 

t- T^[thn>agh lUiuacna^ h 416] Jb- Mil rwunn, IJWr^in; (hoi, Tf 
«• . . ^hUx» ni«i(. PL IImN. 17» d. 

I, TJ y> ■; .n^ tr, . ., Oit I vdl hum, OM 
t . ., ir, Id. PdL .105 C 

). TIm Htida diatM attt uJ or J ; u, Ei rj hJ « Iniwn itifirrH 
■^m, •» it iliri/ntis 1/ Uit WBi *aif doH Uii owJ Mo/, Ac tumid nal jUm 
lUerf, Dtm. aOH. 3. Ti hJ ni ««.«:, Id. JSO. IT. 'A^<.h/uu m <h 
uJ en, I SB Ic IhU OM and Aal, Lyu 94. H. With the uticte agun »• 
pcaUd ; 'E)ii y>( rj asj ri nii^iu, ■■; n ^ii nii»i, /nr (Au and that n 
0k^ <D lum damm, imd Ait Mrf to kaet dmiB^ Dem. 1 SK, 1 1>. *Of If if iaTr tZtm 
wcanurtm wlniiui «■ rrt^mytt, Irati ^ ri ij tA yiTiirim. sXX' trmt 
r^ ■ not tbH* or tlioM, bBtTHn>,'Id. 1457. 16. Tbe uDinuuUiTe li aaj U 
(^ 491. B.J ocean, BdL iv. 6S. 

».) TIiToagh pa^ie ErBtt, In imltMJnn of tbe aariier Qteek ; ai^ Tb , . 
f#/r», kirn dotioy, Soph. (£d. T. WO. Tni ^» ^iltrfai, (a«c can i/ Ifax Jir 
■w, lb. 14ns. ttim yif ^vx* • rii rrifrnXyur ftir^m Ax,tn Eaz. Ala. 863. 
'A#ri(x, In> ftituni. imXi, r> »r JBk^ Ag. 7. 

^4VS. 11.) As a S£LAT1VB PSONOITN. 

This labatjlatum uT tba t. for tba atpiralid (bnna (§ 147) ooctm in ■§ 
Attic wriun excapt tha tragfd'uau, and acarealy bi thne. ajtcepi to anaid liia- 
Iw, or Inglkat a ihatt VJoUc Thna, Kni'nbs ntv •> ;c^ arwiT^ haaa^ 
llam Onmioiom $lie ouglU not ta tla^. Bur. Aulr. KIO. T» Sw, rif « ^. 
yui, tin god, Bbwyn us Uume, lb. Ban. Tl^. Nwf Jad'tf, htii' sfT^n 
^•ll?' If.i^lr4>, r« »' .In l,iyu , Soph. (£d. T. 1054. 'Ayil^a*' .'ifii, 

J^™ ir'4si" '"""' ^'" """^ " I"" y« - . f^ 

BuuRK. On the other hand, ttaa oMpimltd form are Kiinetintea round 
with ^i, aod H (br the *- Jfrnw (J 490. I ) ; thus, niiu. •E;i*a..i.r. A 
■1( iHugAi, (ii A H n>( f*}«lw ur>]«, '■ome deatniyiii£ and lo o&imM. 

fifl. 4,J PHOKOON, — AGREEMENT. 887 

Dcm. S4B. 18. 'Ai ^l> »«;»afi wlKu, n> ir<-i^ur>w>, mi, 1) vi^i.' 
td. 383. II. r,£fu, f J, ^. tMM.fn iJLtn. nTi }' lir ^tr« D-u Eur. Iph. 
T. 419. So, 'CM ^ .^ IH a, mmitima . ^ at oAtr tnw, T^ vli. ST 
VM » y«u. 5. 8. 



I. Agreement op the Pronoun. 

§ 4*4. Rule XXVHI. A Pronoun agrees 
with its subject in gender^ number, and person. 

By Iha tutjiat af a prMOM ii Dwant tha mMuiM'h uUdI it r^rond. 

jniHwiu unf miibHtiBa^. Ths aKwtnicliaD dT u^active [«t>notiiiB rrgpurdHi 
u aicJk beking* to Rm.E XXYL, and erca Ibor subaUntive um is eipUincd 
b/ellipHi (§ 447. •]. Thiu, 

lUv <'*' *^ fBnw rt« pbt ^UDUf kimttf, L J. 8. 'Art rii ifj^ai, iTf 
[•B. ^A;ai] nftrfc rwtfirmt li-wwi, /row rte jomnuwut o^ wAm* [govern- 
HkiiC} ht kad mada him tatrap, i. I. V. fliir** Irii . ■ Ufti^nrMi lb. 
n^ wh itikfi,, i, lr,en>.,i« miri. -O h «//>«» (S 490) lb. i. 
*T^Si. , J*,. lrrilT.6. 14. &m„tmrrl. nu,. It ■ ■ l.lw Hem. IL 7. 1 3. 

^ 49S. The remarln apon the agreemenl of the adjec- 
tive C^§ 444-459) likewise appljr, so far as g-enrfer and «iwi- 
Jer are concerned, to that of the pronoitn, and some of them 
*n eVen a greater exieat (§ 444. a). Thus, 

m. MAocuuSB F^KH ma Femikisk. 

tftf^itm Ttirtr r^ruiri «(■> W LuoXcui ilA;i.aA» Hem. iL S. 18. 
8h } 444. fi. 

Nuts. In apaaking of psHHu e^M^, or gemeraH]/, or siini^ tif pemmi^ 
the ■oani/ua gendar oftan Cake* llx plaie of the /eniniae, boUi in pranouna 
awl in MbB- aubalanliTt vorda vhich admit it; thu, Sit iTi r' u xt'i' 
[— rf frti] !•' if>txi> Soph. (Ed. T. i Ifl4. OUi >i>f au^ T^r^xr. 
futti Si rixf wfrylytrm Id. EL TTO. *H m^ar ijra i^irxt •"> '>>£>rai 
•■.'■<'»Ta< JXJltix [— nX-HM. Al^L..] Eur. Andr. 71 1. 3jml^3.Ua*n 
il 1^ aavaJLiXu/i^iHi ilULfai n hi ■IlA.^Kr ■•! i't^mi rumiviu, Srr 
ihm I. rf .;-;, »r»;>'u.l.» T.t, ii.,«ti(.^,. . . X,X,wl, ^). .h 
Urt,, A iti~(Mr,,, .I'.ii'.Bf .^i^S. ita-f A 1 H^Uirt, iQJMVn a 
^r.irtt, rfipiii Blam. U. 7. S (i£ lb. S> 8m $ 396.a. 

MS mmz or tbi raonouM. [book in. , 

$ 49*. b. Dm M> nra Nnranu 

•K >^ r.j*-.. ^«(.«(«, r- ^ ^j:fi.« I Cyr. riu. 7. S5 (f «5J 
E«lrl■;«M■l^ I*i( i/.2. >~' i-m^m U-inn iv. 1. ^"J. T.'i ^< j> i^. 

TUib t' J> i^fiTifn Tufra, u . .Hem. i. J. S ($450)- — Tbe Mats- 
nfOnig Is nmb of otW ynifar^ uul tha noifar nbrW far Ma sainiJcr 
(||4S0, 4Jl), u* puthnluly frK|na 

'A(*^« »1 VV^n,, .1 I«. ii. 5. 35. n,x\^ S <v —I y 
Ku< lal^i iTw;, ilf li i.nt^ir4M4 iiin, i).i.' siri! . . rM(irm,rm vii. » 
31. 'ArfilXiM hJ, < (dn %>nn'nTm. Cfr. viu. .'. V2. IlilAi 

Sn ) 446. — Zangnuiahr kH ftsqucDt in Iba crautnictioD of Um f U M— 
Own la that of the u^THKiBL 

^497. d. Stnsa. 

T) 'A{Hl..t. ;.;iiTi.i>, J. J;x' KJ^-»'« It- S. 18. 7i };£..» J. rX*'- 
A>, .Trir IniAwn PL Phadr. t60 >. B>nk(4 . . - W 1' i«.^»nt L 
10. 4 ((f. A. 1 and S). Obrt^ y^ naMW^ir, 4 . . ■«)> >«^<f iX<-.)a 
Em. Ipb. A. »ti3. *n pULU •J-*xii,fr..<<<>8o|ikPhiL 714. 'lldyaHi 
>-J ««i +.j:i, .J;kJ >* ir».4wi< i/A , Cyr. yfi. 3. S. Tm-h , . tl, 
Smz. Sappl. IV. See i 4S3. 

Norn. J. In Um eooettiiatiM of th* ftamm, |}ic iHiite- u a/ten dlo^Bt 
ftr tlwHke of mdrndaalaag er jwirafawj Ibe Bipmaian ; ■■, 'Orm I' 
iftmrtin . ^ rssrsf . . il«c{^avir«i orf nAoCT T MM^ he mat Aben 0A 
teci, L F. S. 'An-i^iiw ■-»»(, f i. nf^ryxif PI. R>p. !if>6 d. 'Oi ^ 

(Ec 7. »7. Ttir.,, . ^ f t, . . nUi) Ir»«i. [b. SI. 8. 'A ll-.r, T 

oohJ (BcA a« iuii 6f« Mnol, v. X. 12. IlfMBi It) kiiirrti. tlrr.wm, 
ftn he— n rii- :l. 16. Hufci >j>Cii'V . . Jh luttri't itri, iml ri' ■{«> 
U>ri-fi( )wM;>uuTt.6. S3. *H> !(«««;■ rfr AiXi>T(i> utlniA.., ;n« 
w.t •!'•>« K^> mlrHnrtm, i. 9. 15 (aee lb. 16). *H. » t<i r.J»> «,«• 
^e<;>H, Cw^i >iT>r( l*»t». Cyr. f. 3. a. EJ If Tl ■£*•; «■%!•> w 
^V<^»-(, r.iru, ^rij^wn Eur. Ale 744. 'Alrrfi. J. f.'l.r - . . Jt 
i^ffaii at vtXvft Atf UTitf a trve /nekd ; n^ vAnn the number it not grttitj Id. 
SuppL 8e7. Airofj'ii, ilrie m1 'xi.u ri^wn j-m Id. Or. TifO. Bo- 
»>;•<-•. Jr il>i{ ' if r )4 •■> ixH><r» rXntn PL Rep. 534 k. 

S. A prononn nftan refe™ lo ■ anl^ect which a imp/Ud in atuilAtr word eC 
j 454); u, 1>,Jy„ . . (, KitMBf... it .iri, p. 8. «. «,(.„;.;„] 
■hfylTiii, Ae Jli« to Cbnyrn. tiring a brntfadnr nf theiri, TTi. L 1 SS. "Aa-J 
Df ;.<«.. ..'r.i' .., .r ri,h ^.;».H <'V' Id. vi. 80. m I^Sc !««»«, 

;. [ue. (^i],.<»' ;.»>. 8<^ (Ed. a 730. n-r,^'. »■ wi«n™t. 

fa, ajrii n . . r.Viu Eur. Hec lj'2. 'A>r^i..i.(, Jr [i. t. i^nmim} /i' 

^ 408. «. ATTKAcnoir. 

■vuma !■ (mleliiim attnctod by ■ yrari hi its own daue^ or ■ word tl 
n w;th i|a raol auyscl (.<£ S *^S) 1 Xi Bini>«ir •Tim Ura,. ;«( 


[ftrr Ivi;] i/tW Mi)i>jffn X^i'" ^^'> ^ ™^ 9™ -J^"*! ^ ^ nndna^ Mimmtkt, 
nliei u my jf«i/ iotint. Tii. :;. 38. 'EfJWf, n (Jri i/iirift x'^'" ^JT- "ii- 
£. 56. OfU. j)i.« ImYtyi^'V^ »~> - Ewie [for twif S '<'t.''j 'W.T- i-'^li- 

«n •EnXJ^i-if £<ctl. Ft. 754. 'Eri vi^x rw KiJL.i.'w j>s] rm Ivfiri. 
*Hr« a nSra [for •Irm'] ti, n.;c« i- 4. 4. KiiJ I.'.fi i> i.Hji^inii itm •■ 
amXif, t wmm ifiiffH ri Mfmwm I PI. Leg. 9»T d. — This ouHtnictloa 
may be conimiHily explained by dUpm ; thiu, 'Erri'ar. 'S \x''t'"''\ ''" '"^' 
ri^ j(#^'a, IM Affu-M, Molt vAuA [ApotJ then ii wi /w/io' ^jof. 

^ 499> AnnrnoHAi. Rehakks. I. A pronnuii, for the Mifce of 
pCTspicuiLy or emptuisis, is on«i lued in aaStipatioH or ttpeti&m of id ntjtti, 
at ii iuelj rtpeattd; u, Ti' ykf Ttirtu itMuufMrtft, nS yf /uxfmi i For 
tdat ii kapptr than Hit, to muigli n£A tU earih f Cyr. vlii. 7. ^5. Titft 
riftifHu, rm !• nfi<r»i.> nnjnkt PI Apol. 3^ ■■ KiTx lit-Xlt, rin-t, 
innm «r>ft Enr. Ph. 5:i5. 'Aj-fai SI • 'Afiit »1 2iu(anii J 'A;t;iiiH, 
aal r •*•■•• inAi.iim, ' tlieae also died.' ii. 6. »a BwiAia ..,<!■ ills • n 
liT stTii ^rw ii. 4. T. 'AIihCi^Jim . ., tZm MintTirt i/tiXirii <•£»> 
Hnn. L V. El. Z>i^ », Jy An ^.. «;) r), h'm J> «;) Ifd, twuri ,.,. 
fti/ifil Oyi. It. 5. £9. I%hi Ii >.. . . fx^- it ir^uimi wu (Ea. A. IG. 
"Ernyit ril ti rtini trifm riXH i-ifGur. Andr. T 19. 

IfoTB. Homer oftan oiea the pencnul pno. tl, with it* naan fbUowing [ 
■e,-'Br !;■ m' Sifar»> 1^ rii^iii X>^> N. eiX). *H ^> !}'(>;■> NannHim 
■AnrAn {. 48. Ct § 468. b. 

^SOO. 2. Adumgeof fessom sometimM tikts pUce; — (a) From 
llie nnko of dirtct and teiAvef modea of qwiklog, eap«da11y in guolatum ; as, 
'Ajwt' J> itirmttt iilf ImnUn, Ii . . mjuraiir. buts oiif n/ Ue iniji a tm- 
iu> HKU, au, anlo lum tlain, Snph. Ant. .1 ms. KW sj«( If n " \ti>.in ri^i^. 
I ix TBirif TiJ rr^Tiii^uii. 'Eyi yi(," Jfa, ' 
L H. ^O; iii. A. iSi; iv. 1. 1^1; y. 6. -.(5, 26.— 
reaiing a HimpiDy, lunf aa oh vi(A ttcn, and DOir 
tt dii^xct from tium; u, Aa><u(n liitii o'l tnr rii^^cin li nlji j/i«i 

II. Special Observations on the Pronouns, 

% soil Of the observations which follow, many Bp[Jy 
equally to pronouns and advkrbs of the same ckuset. 

A. Peksomal, PossEssivB, and Reflexive. 

§ A03« In the uae of the pronouns, especially those of 
the classes named above, it is important to distinguish between 
the stronger and the weaker forms of expression ; that is, be- 
tween those forms which are more distinctive, nnphatie, or 
prirmneTU, and those which are less bo. 

I. In the weaker form, the first and SECONn pbbsonal pro- 
NODNE am omitted in the Nam., and are enclitic in ihe ohlique 
ease* ring. ; "but in the stronger form, they are exprrssed in the 
Nbm., and are orthotone throughout In tlm teeaker form, the 
THIRD PERSONAL FBONouH IS omUtcd in the Norn., and is com* 

SM BtiiTAz or TBI rROMomi. tBO*''' "■ 

moolj m^pUed by mitit in tbe ohUque eawet ; m the Uronga 
fonn, it is mpplied by o uid oq, whicli are aimply distincHvt 
and are limited in their use (^§ 490-492), and by avio^. Sit 
and ixiiwotf which are both dutinctive and demoTUtralu-e. Thus, 

'Anm nia i<rOm*d tti, l«) hJ ri 1^ mwCtt^i rii tittm, J gart ym 
I<m4 ««ry tt% (b/i, nk- wxatrnkad Mnm (0 ni« ttt huh. t. 8. 7. 'E>« 
^k J iJjll, Ha ;^ !«.» • I<r.f 11 >■; ^iTi Ijm) Innlnrl, l^.i ^.tJliru, 
I >H>i« ^ Kif» H^ln L 4. 16. OSn yif i^, 1»i'h> fr. n-;an£»i, 
In.' yi •> rmr^ufa ulrf., Un liuw In V'> pirtMnu L S. 9. Oin fi 
UiImi fiXi.!, .fn ri Hem. U. T. S. ET^i D *j /J, )({.;. Hi»t ui d 
rU ■;*$, W K i^i^* Klf-exw. —1 •J 1»»- t- 'i- 1-1- K^< » «~ ''»' 
rtirm L B. 8. T»n> n-jryaH^itif I Ki^, tj-itr^ « ■Jrm, ■■) I'Tuwn •4rf 
L I. 9. 'B>' •;• »>nrn. 8(t1<h. Ant. 751. (UVm ri ■■;»• m^yirm, miyi 
*ja. lA. Aj. 1039. 8nH490-49S. 

^ 303> n. Iq the stronger form, the Gtn. guijeetivt 
{fj 393. i) leith a mbsUmline is commonly supplied in the first 
and SKCOMD FEasoNS, and sometimes in tbe thibd, by the pot- 
teuive adjedioe (cf. &§ 457, 458) ; in the weaker form, it is 
ol\eo mniUed, especially with the article (§ 482). The Got. 
objective (^ 392) sometimes follows the same analogy. Thus, 

" Ofu y^ rx r»:i:iMiu, S K^, th >li;if ;> i ' " Ni Ai"." If « • Kv(«, 

" iTvif yt Ai^>^ >■) IlBfHinKf inv mri, l^oh H mtiXfi, " \. 1. 9. T« 
ftffiiratr rrr^n/vKi- . • Tli^ vihv f^ir£f*n my^iZ^ U. I. 13. Kint* « ■■] 
fi. tf Tru u^. x*f ^1^ 1^- ^'- 1'' ''' *-^Xn, At marriape jfBU bilt <f, 
Sopb. Ant. .57^1. Tt «•> yif 'Afr« ■■ !!}•»' I}* Ear. H«nd. ^4. ^ 
fp^ i ', 'the diipiM* liir yoa,' Eur. lUI. I16a Eini'f jhJ fdff *j 
1^ gomt'iM and affectiait la mt, Cyr. iii. 1. SS. 4>il.^ n r^, isM Id ftm, 
■rii. 7. V9. Mi ^ira^b.u> m i-ii M'ii I^paf, (W jw IB19 wt nyrd jotf 
p we tf to IK, CJr. rill. 3. 3V. SfSm i^ SMb. Pr. 3HS. Sn ^^ 4^4, 

Notes, (a) Tha Foausaivx pbomouh ii Midiiigrf Uke Ihs p^wtmal praiKma 
of which it supplies tin piacB ; u. Tit yi rh [i^nX^iO, t^ ^ii^ini, oi Jmi( 
IDwi [fOiir eye], At ambiamaiLr, Ar. Adi. 93 (4 fl:ta. 4'. Sea § 434. 9o, 
■inee wirt^i may he fiiliimd by tbe Dot., u wdi m the Ga. (J;^ 40:1, 41 1), 
Xfuri^t [^ ■>»%] rir^H, ■Xuiiri AoCiai.'Jwnt Sopb. Ant. «6(). (t) V» 
only FOSKHSIVE of tbe :id Fen., which be* ■ pUoe in AtUc proHi, i« rfir);«> 
tJieir; And even this is used nJUximi^t bijcI with no great fivqaencj. Thos, 

CjT. L 4. ai. (a) The Jlat. for&e Gat. belongi paiticolariy to the weata 
fonn of expi^on. See M'^- 

^004. III. In BEPLEX REEEBENCE, the weaker form is 
the same with that of the common personal pronoun ; the 
ttronger form is the so-called reflexive (§ 144). The weaker 
form belongs chiefly to those cases in which the reflex refer- 
ence is indirect and wiemphiaic ; the stroneer, 'to those in 
which this reference is either direct, or, if indirect, is specially 
'mphalie or dialinetioe. Thus, 


wiUitimiit adtaalagima M >imnWpM, H. U. S. Ki;LtH<wi Iwr^nn-. air.:, 
▼i r^Kurm, rii fii' utb !■£••>, mi » rf/rn i>»li±w vt «. 5. ' K^ (JrM 
H, f> ^in rvWr (i Jhh, »x>' ■■"• >f(' Kv^ fiXxitun, ( Uivf i. B. 39. , 
'fU iTIn if^i^Hvt mtW aiir^, n^ i^^ivrw l«i rfSi TuAw V. 7. U5. AI. 

f£r Tij. 5. 9< Efr *iM Uvtw fwinbi • ■ iw «ifi mirh • • . cijj rJn BinS 
nanii L 6. 4, '£■!>.■« rait fi^it rmi rk Uhwi niftMra iyitrn Iwniti 
l^trnXXut nmt rit x^^h, it /A tnaSm, nit Ih«J fi^jiv i^wn L 9. 27, 
IIi^ J' JXnun IfMHfl lUui Jn^iiH 1 . • 'Eai ri^tft tffiiS iftmnrit SL I. 
14. 'iiiMrri y, ).w tnutiuu viL 6. 11. HthXti /ti !•» )•» Ih. IB. 
3i flit iyii/utt mtrit IviC*^'**! Jinu ruiM-y, I*um< M rl j^ai ti^A^iiw 
If' UmMi Mem. li. T. 9. 'A^lu. t^ airf. LU. 1 1. [lti:i>rA>r;»> 
i^ mUS, l»u« lii. 8. 14 (§ 352). 

^ oOO. Rehabkb. I. Ai ptonottu ire lusd matnlj fbr dutittetion, 
lbs choice or reaction of a pronoaa in ■ piutiealu ioalann depends geattlj 
opon the vie of oAer ptommnt !□ the connection. The an of tha pronoonc 
b UluwlBe tnach mflueoced in p«fry bj the mtCn, and cTen in pnti, to Knne 
•Kteat, bj wpAtnqr and rhglim, 

S, With respect to FOBmon, the veokr firm of th Oatitire, iVom its mnt 
tt distinctive emphasis, eomnianl}' ftiOows ^ 479. ■, bnt the Mtnmger form,taA 
the foaamx adjtttivt, $ 17S. L Thus, tw^mptinrM. mini n, r>-w ir. 
7. li. "Ht 11 i-rt air» r;f^ ril yi/i'l iii. 1. 4 I. T^ rifiMTi mirn. 1, 
W^lil-Hu »^L g. 33. 'H l*i;>» EC;'( »);i V>''>f> vr.';.:«iit. 1. 81. 
Ti i.'.C^ri. ri Ui/m i. 3. 1. •Arim^-t'i /•» •-» Ji.T;ni> At. Phit. IS. 
Xk fi- ri, If^rnS PL GoCg. 4SS ■. 

9. Tlie plaoe of the Om. poaoncc of Hie raSexive pron. Is tommaefy ■lip> 
jUM In the plor. by the poaweslira {son. irlth ■>*»>. In the sing, this torn 
of axptnum li poetio. See $ 454. 

^ SOO. 4. Ibe Mrd fimm hdi^ exprvaed Am/mtt-alMf tn odwr 
w^>, 4w proDOtin iJ became rimpl; a nfra^KtiH prononn, i. >. a pnnoor. 
nAning to a penon cr thiog prevlotuily mentiaiwd. As sucli, It perfarmed 
(he office both of an w^mphatie r^^fexiK ( 4 504), and of a timple parMHud 
prtmovt, and was eotnetlmaa need as a general reJUrive^ wJLhout respect to per- 
son, tn this last noe, it wu somedmee imitated by ita derivatirce (even in 
the Attic, by lamf and rfJn(H). Thos, hnXtiin ^irA rfitit [~i^'V], 
'among /oundves,' K. 3<IS. ^^n> Jr.r [^ rni] ■•arrui m. lOV. 4l;l. 
>iT Jn> [^ ^~i] Ix" ti)a'V^'"> J^-t ■^^»> '■ ''^1^ '^■^ !•>»( •tn(irtmi 
Utnii [^ ii^ aw.i:!], n <n^ to u* om^vet, [1 Phsdo, 78 b. VA>jt- 
C*itin*tj Swtti /Mm iyi iri Wftiyftmt ifut iitwiw [^ i/^Murit] ri ud &/4M9 
^•ranini lb. 91 e. Kxai'. . . tMi <-(J( a^. So]A. Q. t^S^. Alri:f>iu 
■4Xn rin aMf a^n^ y» ymsw^ diifraa yov «» cily, Id. (Ed. C. 9'J9. 
OM )4f tAi ia»r» [— nanrw} rj y, it^x*" •if' )*«»■ 1- '*- 9- >(^" *<• 
■Mf «>/a £aeh. Ag. 1397. £.'<■■> irl; r>riT;i'ai airar [— v^ uirm} 
fpiriXm Dem. 9. 13. Zfiricf [— J>»Ti;j] rfrj futrifi «-i'ht' i^HCiii 
Ap. Bb. 4. 1387. 

^ S07. S. Somef/ thelbrmsi/ •; an nsnd with gnat laUtod* of 
■■mba and gaidH- ; thus, (s) ^i> and r/> commonly sing., Imt also ptor. 
(sqMcUSy »>) ; as, •!,, Um. .£sch. Pr. 36.% itr. Ear. Hec At5, ^ Soph. It. 
145, OcK, Duuc. Soph. CEd. T. 363, ftm. Id. (Ed. a 43, aent. JB»A. Pi 


U \ ftSt. Onm, Ap. Kh. a. B : (i) rfl (vopcriy phir^ .bnt the (tnpedMj in 
the tngio poeU) ung. : ■■, ff ■,!*«, muc ;V. Nl, fam. Soph. l£iL T. J 50^, 
Ata, £Kb. Pr. 5, JW, Eur. Aie. HM : (c) rf .'> imidy nB);. ; ms, Udoi. H. 1 9 
19, JEnib. Ptn. T^9 : (d) I commonlj nag. muc and Saiu, but aing. luub 
A. S IS, plor. Hgm. Tan. U6S. (*} S* the dnired ;bwhp«: w, Uf, t4cD- 
Hw. Op. M ; finf^, Au, Id. ac 9^>, Hnd. O. 13. «G, _,, Thso«. -^S. 169 
(4 J06), tiky, Id. -iJ. 67 ; rf>Inf<(, Ui, A^ Kh. I. 643. 

6. Th« pUcfl of aj u & TeAc:dn is commonlj nopplted in Att, pnwA bj 
Ibdth, and n a simpls pencHul pnn., bj nMf. Hm plural otcnra br 
oftcocr than the ^gnlar, which, flxofit tfas Dat., i» in Att. pniM fer]- nra. 
Ilia duun of the Nnm. nng. of thia pwi. ($ M:<, 4) Is exptaioed bj-ita ro- 
flaxlre chancliir (cf. $ 111). 

T. A cDRUHM r^kiisr b Mia^lima iu«d Ibr the rw^vncol jiraitaini ; ai, OT 

f/iHirit l»ni fiSll^ j ru( MiLAiTi i^fi^M Uem. iii. 5. 16. 'Airj >f>t> 
^wr lavrii, illw ■l.JLii' U^> lb. ii. '. I ■;. Snniuusn /ur sUliUn • 
<w> K nli/t^> •! riXAd ^> m'TTitru ^' turn QfT. vi. 3. M. 


^ S98> The pronoun aijoc marks a return of the mmd 
to the same p«rson or thing {§ 149). This return takes place, 

I.) In speakiii); oT reflex action or relation. Hence 
«uioc is used with the personal pronouns in toiining the SG- 
FLKXivBS. See ^§ 144, 504. 

II.) In designating a person (^ thing as the saiib whicb 
has been pieviously mentioned or observed. Whea thus em- 
ployed, itvjof (like the corresponding somc in English), being 
tised for dislinclion, is preceded by the article (^ 472). Thus, 

T; U air^ ifitf, 'W' •)« tti MM ■%, ). 5. IS. £^ . n .M «xVH> 
■.10.1a OJrif K i ainf, orf BU) HM |W«Bis Tit. a a. 'Kuh i-^unl 
IfaB. iT. 1. 6. Imiri I«rx» iii- 4. ^8 (§ 39). Sea § 40a 

^ SOO* III.) For the sake of bxpbasis, one of the most 
ftmiliar modes of expressing which is repelitiom. When aitet 
is thus employed in connection with the article, its position con- 
iorms to ^ 472 a. Thus, 

Airit Hi>«. ie»'Xiri, Xao Umii/f mitlrnd i^ ii. I. 5. -0#nt . . mirk 
i/tirmi ^Ta, mirii it^i i^ift, mint i^mmrifmr rtai tafi nwg 0*^T^ymit 
tti. a. 4. Ei^ villas JHfi u«i win Wyfrn i, S. Itl. Aira rm mwi 
t£> •.'■!£• .{JlX Hit Bvy ■sad .^a« l*e ItmKi, a. i. 16. K>i SiinCins. 
«• ■«> Im nin-M j^» daf^vm, ' (h« vBiy most ntigiooa,' PL L«g. SHI b. 
Ortw I' aJ a-f* avni $a*jkuw nTvy^Mw Jhi. 'before (b* paiwo of tha 
Ung,' L 7. I 1. n^ .i*^ rf rrfan.;^.*., [bv tlw unT itself] r<w iD (*• 

4. 4r. El ■*<■■! W npafwrai ■ . «);wT>, ■ of ttldr DWD accoRl.' riL 7. iH, 
El mirmt «» iI4(»' jriatiTi iiiin, ■ witk xinipl; tba moi,' iL A. 7. 'En 
n ^H> •>• «n* « *4* am i>«p, ■ V >t*>lt' » ' >'«^' >'<«^ >iL >*• ^. 
Ainin «;« >Van^ ^nwiAWt. AoM^ calU lie fiMnh ^H^ ll. 3. 3fc 

OH. 4.J ' Anof. 333 

' ^ dt I O. RnuRKa. I. The emphatla mirli it Johied «!& pronoun* 
In bnch (heir ifrAnjKr aiid tb«r KnJur Jaraa. Hence It Is often itwil hi Ujt 
K«tmatlte with a pronoun whlcb ia tmdatlood (§ 50V). Tbua, Oi >i rT(iin«. 
m, .; n lira Ui.'mi' (■> li «Xll«, ' both bis own,' <. ^. 7. A&rw mSru 
IiiiEIt, n> t*w nry awMitt, W. I. 'i\i. Airf l^ii . . i^t, PL Phsdo, 91 ■. 
AvTk ^41 tfliili [b. hi) c 'Il( cbTH ru ifttLrftlt \. E. 1, 'JW If! nirii lb. 
<i. AMi irir ImuliKM (Eb 7. 4. KLri, i«.;Ji<v« lb. 7. Air^i i.>^ 
Iv £vrbl( ii' 'J. I ti. AvT«f vuW'JTi tA«y tiwmttivf* bttm^ iii. 5. '?. '\itrtiti m¥- 
rit n Tfu^ twt, ' thu lie hinuelT tiedeil,' i. S. U6. }C*^i7 »mi, he gmt 
abmt, tv. 7. 1 1. Ami y^e •'>•■■> farineatskf outhJmi, PI. Leg. Rjii b. 
STP. T.V ^ ,im wW Hit ••(t/^tt^i mtif i HAS. Airii. STP. T/t 
■Crfii HA». 2*iii;>nc'[lIiuKieU'J TbaKTutnuu. What great mu 7 ' 
Ar. Kub. \i 1 8. 

£. In like maoDer. mlirJt ia used viUunit anotber prcmoaa expressed, in tin 
mt of the third ptraan; OA, Ai^m mynrit ttvrf n «■} r^ <yvnuiUf 
MtKsI. bath far himielf a«d /t hit wife, va. -S. 1 C. 'Ewi^.f i, . . 
u lui Mi... iT;(i, ..i mirlf i. S. 30. ni>.\ni »> if'Z''*" 

9. Tbe emphatic ovt^i eftoi precedM a 
subject of the UtMr. Hyperhabm (4 3iJ9. N.) Ik •om'etimu employed 
to iving the two pronoiuu into immediate cormection. Huu, 'Annvt^Mu ;Lt- 
^nu nuTJt rii Uvrit :(;iifi 'AfTiyi^ni, and he it taid [himeelf ] with hit own 
kund to AoK i/utn Artageite; i. 8. 'J^. Oi K 'Eij.iok . . xiri If' laurfi 
lxijf»>, ' If Ihemselvee,' iL 4. lO. T* K i<^« >M >^' auri l>^/»n Hem. 
iii. .14. S (cf. lb. 3, and § S09). Ti7( r' >utJ( bv*^ iripH.i ^■;»>f h iesch. 
A«. B36. T«.. «%un4. r» mfwiui^iT.. Ir' .irii niTf Id. Pr. 9-iO. 
See §§ 464, 506. 

4. The emphaoi of mirii eometimu Ilea in mere enjitradiitmetiim ; ae, 'kw' 
-mbrinyS- . . ritt ^fini ti riftmn ixiirim. 'those tbioge I omit; but 

hear,' MKb. Pr. 44'j. *0« *■) Ir) ri •!!!■, 1^ in; ^»> ImiT t intntlm 
vtin M^wtn Ayur, mvrii /Ar ti israni iyif, k V iymgirum Hem. It. 5. 9. 
' *0i, 1 wm, A^f Ak 1»> ■■■r»», *i T* marit, itfa lunbuldri^ iuat Am 
kt& JUH. nqr tan, md r<»h t°^ <"y ■">> Sopb. Ant. 1340. 

5. Hu tne oT >vr>( with nninab deeervee remarli ; tfans, XlifinxSt ■ ■ rr;*- 
myh Ct 'Alnmitn lUam ■vrii, /Vicfai Aenjr gaeral of the AAaiiant [him- 
•df the tenth] ixifA ■!« BoBeagya, Th. ii. I!) (cfc 'Atx'"t^'^"' ■ ■ i""' 'l^- 
Xtn !!■> rr^nruH-<( Id. i. 5T). 'Efirtf.-i^i A»«<;Lis rl^mr oilWf 
rr^Hnyh Id. lil. 19. '^ wttwiinri, tix.m .trit H. Or. IL V. 17. 
Bat, with the on^Eirion of suTic, iHa^ihr . . XhUy mtrif [i. s. nir il(r^] 
Kbwf, ' with an conMeiatu,' PI. Leg. 695 c 

C. Dehonstkaiivk. 

$ S 1 3. I. Of tha FEiMAKT DXHonsiRATmo, the mora 


ditlmit and emphatie is ixtlrat • the nearer ancl mart familial 
b auio,- or ZSi {% 150). Thus, 

'JSAi lai;.*.t lu$,u; rtirtyt hh( Miirun, i/ tboae hIimU vM (^ 
flhy nflaiBi Mjoi tbiw, H. flUMtr. tt3 1 c 'Eaiixt /Ui «X<if(«, >>r>t 
h rftfi^ Id. Eulhji. KTl b. 

Norea. ■. The two maj be comtHned to mnk ttw coanection of the Mum 
BDfOTi with tha KKAUEM ; ■> of the jaut with the proBrt. at ■ w|Fng with 
its Wtatratim, of tha which hat ttat atntinfrf with that wbich i* firiEHiit ^ 
/in w, Ac Thiu, T>£t' [k. Irri] IsuV fv^* iLirai. dUi ii lA.4 loUal / nii^ 
Ar.Ach.41. Tt?T iaUH' " SriW* In/fivf, ^ rJ nyytiii /um" Eur. 
H«c 804. T^'luT.*, au ii KluU I qmiKif, Id. Ued. 98. 'HI' Irr lii.'iit 
nffjw i (ufy^rfiin Sa|>h. Ant. 381. 

^ OlrH »m«tiai« mark! the ordmarji, and liir>H tha nfruonlnuTy j ■■, 
'E;^imi Twnn n n^ TiXvnJLiii ^rwt^i, tunny « |A( HcA tnict oUeA 
(key on la (te kuil vf <tmii*g, I. 5. f (an C^. i. 3. -i). Tiyiftn firfit 
'" ' J fu-ydiM w(i Iftti, &ii>i>iitrfiirt§ uuni, m. r. X^' tlut wondcHU 
' " 1. .'Ml. IT. T» 'Afvniliif Uum Id. 34. «). 

^913. II> The prooouns ovrog aad Zdi have iirgeneml 
the same force, and the choice between them often depends 
upon euphonj' or rhythm ; tu, tovik ifiUlr xfii, >b>'^> zi/^ lurTnc 
D»Stir Soph. Ant- 981, Yet they are not without distinctkio. 
Oorot, aa formed by composition with niric, is properiy a pro- 
noun of idenfi/ieal'Um or engfkalie designaliim (it may be t«< 
ffarded as a weaker form of u airic, the tame, ij 5tl2) ; while 
oSf, arising from composition with it, is strictly a deiclie pro- 
noun (AiixTiKK, from itiarvfit, to point ptft), pointing to an 
object as before us (see ^ 150). ' Hence, 

I.) If reference is made to that which precedet, or which 
is contained in a tubordmate douse, oiiae is commonly used ; 
but if reference is made ib that which follows and is not con- 
tained in a subordinate clause, o3i. Thus, 

TinftifmH rmirn Hal nil, and nf thit (which haa beeaatsled', (Au(wUdi 
feOowi) ii aba a jwaif, L 9. 89. 'Eirl rtirm Sih^ ti>}i Jn, ta iSU Xtm- 
aph-nt Ttplitd at foOaa, U. 5. 41. twh t f £> )>-^ »i ^iiTi, ri'jt;'" ^ 
if. 6. T.;» yi IrlrrMrh, In ^U( . . pifu T. 7. T. Tim w(Srm ifiirm, 
rinf, Xf.. ir* iu. 1. T. 

Nure, To tha nfrnHpsdin characttr of ifnt uuy ha referred, — (a) Its 
oia, pcecaded bj naii, io <<iajt»jr m wUitioii la a infawi, tin pcooouD eiliix 
•erring u ■ ripntiHim of ■ lubUaatret io the aaDteiK*, at, in tfa* ncutir Aee, 
or A'-aL (oomnMnty pbr.), of the Kateiiu llaelf (cT. i§ :t34, 451). The oon- 
■Bvction may be OKplainid bj aif^st. Tbiu, Siiw rfindu m tni-Xtit 11. 
p^uSmtt KMi rtvrtot [ac 3ia^ir/b'] ^^XH^^iiTAr, <t btcoma j/ou to tultritin ■ 
maaf guflt, md Aat magnifimtlg, (^ :;. 5. iif^X" hinnx, lai «*. 
n» a-XiHwi Ham. ii. fi. !JT. 'EC«i'/im> r$ Ai.i)<>;^..i, ■■: »»■ [so. jrw*- 
ii] tHini, lA^ oHUteJ Laetdamim, and [they did] Uul itiuBn^, Ag. I. flR. 

I»H » fw ICn'n., Juii T-fm •»;' 'A«..;.> it, hX dfMo Ar i^ wit <ut /br, 

tttaaJfin^ Af KOI fnat JjiitiiM, ii. 4. 1 j. Aflf^Aofi n> irfAi% a^ 

ea. i.} DKMtJitSTRATIVE. 399 

«■« irtlx'rm ilrai Ag. 1. 91. — (t) The me of ttm and n^ In w- 

" N.) rwri 71 [m. I»r.]-" '»* 'Certoinly it U »o,' PI. Bep. *i-i b. n. 03- 
mtm ln(i> }4 n>' U .Vaailn^omi ^ini «•>»« ri t K. Tsi^', J Km-hv At. 
Paz, VT4. B^ 'AU,' luu^o. <b. Tsfr^ no, ibif loii Id. Vesp. rOOB. 

^ S 1 4> 2.) 'odr surpasses io denumatratioe vivaeily ; but 
ojii'if in emphatic Jorce and in the taient of iu mihitantive me. 

Old. 'H ri-Jt ft<!;t.i I 'AFT. Twrtf, Jtrt ilfffi, CEO. J> ran A> mnt 
fom ^>tai a/f Men. Ttit ricEr xilt, whmm gou b^M, Soph. (M. T. I ISO, 
eBP. nj» iTl(. »i XiTWi 01.1. Thf, 1, rii,fr.f lb. 1136. ^, 
nSfti nS, npir, m ii. H. 19. C««;ir»rn( «Ji ri. Mf> ■ . . i«l ilnt 
■KM •fuXiyuvL t>. V6. 'U^ rwrli A^Coni, liiUy u ubi luv Am, Ilk 

NoTK. To tb« Odette powCT of □■ ($ Jl fl), ■ii*7 ba nfencd the rery fre- 
quent OH of thie pflHwim by tbe Epic and Dramatic poeti for id adtxri ef 
flatt (^ 457. fi) ; and perhaps, in no imall <^(^e^ the general fact, that it ia 
Iv more exUD^rdj employed in pntby than in pmtt. 

§ vS I 9. 3.} In the emphnlic deBignation of the first and 
Kccnd persons by a demoiutrative, olt commonly denoles tbe 
_firit person, as ihe nearer object ; and iivrot, the second. In 
denoting the Jirtl peraon, the demonstrative may be regarded 
as simply deictic (^ 513) ; la denoting the second, as expres- 
•ive of iwtpaticHce, avikorilt/, contempt, fwniliarity, fma. For 
the use of vvioq in address, which is employed both with and 
without ov, see % 343. 3. Thus, 

HA i^rx' i^ "^' iftei, [•• ifu^, •»}' lyi rft r,^ da nel yon dit for 
Ail man [for me], mr yd I for yo^ Ear. Alo. 690. <D»ifv i' r.!l, rMfi, 
[^l^iiTI 1^4i»w Soph. (Ed. T. .^14 (but, 'A,;,; fl' [^ rl>], i, ;«>i>, ■,-( 
r^w U2 lb. 1 I GO). Tirlj ■yi Ziirm hi, at Itat, aMIe I am gtt alim. Id. 
Tt. MH. ' Tall [= k^ui, j 45U] . . mrk jHliirn., ■■i fik^Ht Maeb. Fere. 
1. Oiru: A.i{ [-"^i •!■ niVi'Tu f>.cii(f.. E.'ri *.«, J S^i.^«(, <ui> 
■.V;t;"! ^- &>%■ 't'^9 b. OJth th, i '{irCB, [Thii yoa, or You there, 
S 457. ^3, Ho tkatl old wm, 3opfa. (Ed. T. I lUI. Olnt n, »( lii^' 
lUit 1 HovUhinI how canal (iw AiUcr^ lb. 5^9. AEn n, iriT rrfifui 
AA Tbearo. 610. Olri. ri rt^ii' . . fiiuim, , FiOoie I why tint folem.n iookt 
£nr. Ale. ^1S (§ 43^). Sa* § 343. 3. — Thu nee of 111 ia very freqnmt io 
the bvgediana. 

^ ff I 9. III. Other compounds of aviit and St {% 150. n) 
are distinguished in like manner wilh ovio; and oSt ' thus, 

'O KS;h iiuitK, T*; T.tti- r...:.-., rx^li ^t^ nirri. %\,l, Cyr. v. 
S. SI (^ SLI. 1> 'O ^1> tiTM, iT«> Q. 3. 33. Exiifx" ^' •'• *•■ 
tatrn iT«- Tuwflfiei I) Jli in^'f* li- S. 19. OStoi Itt) 
Liyuf, .!rn n rurmi lb. 'Eyiim lilrHi, irrtf » (liyir viL 9. S7. 
T.riui-.. iTn*, In it w H>*>wi irHii. I. 9. 'U^iri r.iriSri. J^nt, 
!«*■ r& ifft lb. 16. 'Hftu'f ririi'li Irrtf Ihu/ih fw 0w»,U U. 4. 4 
($ 514). :0P. 'Trmtt .Jn }<.yf^»i rUu. HP, T«,>ir. . fun^— - 
rit *'"•*• y^ ' ^''^ ■»•' Eor- EL 644 (f 513. t). , • i ^ 

SH nxTAx or tbx nasaun. [book iil 

(e£ nSAs A InrC*". Kw L 8. I). nS^ Aw lyj Qnd^ t8. & 3«. 

BekAku. >. "Oi h ilv nad fbr J„ witb an dDpA of Ihe oiKciidRit; 
«t •£««( J. J, ft [- ,«fr-, JW] 4 - i-W - 1- « -*- [-«i «.! 
yov ore, PL Phadr. S43 e. *I1> yi ft .^ Id. ThBL 1 97 a. 

i. TIw pUca Of ■ idatin piuuuuu ia oftro aoppliad bf ■ bkluivb adtxk^ 
cUdj in dfdpwliwH of jjAh, (uh, and luiwHr; aa, EJt x>^«. •'•' f^>» 
m S^Xhtk., to a ^Ah* [wbnca}, from mludt tky waU idkiU Ma n, IT. 
7. 90. 'Er T^ ^ !>/■«>{ U>»u> W. ><. 35. Ti ■*» wx'f" ■ ■ >'<'i( 
rl vf^n fx'"/"'" "^ "^ •"■« ""Iv [■>] "*'* '*^ ™ 'i*^^ '^ P* °^ 
DOJUBf to tia batik, L 10. Id. "Q^lm yi^ pm luivn iri»x*"' •">; •) 
«( »Ua iW» ^*>irm l^r.Vlmm Sjnip. ir. 37. KU r J 3ul rici-i. >« 
ty^ Six. Soph. <Ed. C. 1 1 34. 

^ fi33> IV. The relative pronouns belong to the class 
of adjeclieet (^ 73), and, as such, agree with a subslanliva 
expressed or understood. This substantive, or one correspond* 
lag to it, is also the aniecedeta of the relative. Ii is commonly 
erpreued in but one of the two clauses, more frequently the 
foruKr, but oflen the kdter; and may be omitted in both, if it 
IB a word which will be readily supplied {^ 447). Thus, 

2nt«/i^t mtw^ rrtmn^nu. tUt [ac trpsrivtwr] Hiixi iTxt, Ac »>( vtA 
W At mUStn, kAw* faakOat] Man Sad, i. 2. 80. 'Air«-i^i^w tfi, U»- 
rii [ac ri n-firiv^u,] f iT];)> rr;iim^«>, to Hivf Aoal to jl^ Ui fara whidk 
k huf fvbat rorca Ih bad], lb. I . K^n D !;{;-> •!!• i?;>i>i, aul Q>nu Jtov- 
ji^ Hbt wa leliom I luat matioiud, lb. 5. &'( )) J. if /»>n ui^in, [ac 
■Iri. ■ »^] ^lyiXm n tw iv. 4. S, Ksnnlw^i^ni n fi i;3^>i t-JM 
L 9. 19. AnCimi [sc rjnvrin 3»c,l Irv ^•-' l^in vii. N. IC. *EnfH 
yif lint, tUa tlxf^ 3i*-'( At. Baa. 88S. 01)', ■• Up'Ui 'Ef/uin' fnnt 
^ Eur. Or. 1184. 

Bbmarks. I. Odicr iroda, bdon^ng alLks to botb dattwa, are mbject to 
a rinOar dHp^ ; thai, Timf i;<ii> l4-ip>»r [k. tx"], •?! n a't-if I'lrviat 
l>J§r ix"- '^■Mxp^'rw oppunid^ kosD^ tcii At emiAy iMdt Ag had hhf 
t^ tmfU [bad coma having], ui. 4. I :l. OFr nnvVvi rifi nii^i, Jrmt 
tfut, a-fHiiTai [^ Or< wfiturm rai-^f irifi i-wim-«h, «;! Irm AfUi ni^M 
rfjatini] H. Bep. £33 (^ 

8. It will b« obaerved, (hat when the antecedent is expreaaed in tha lama 
daoM witb tha nlative. It ia commonly pot at (he ead^ as though the rart of 
tfa* dauae woa regarded aa modliyiiig it like an adjtctiiit. See ^ 526. 

^ S33< 3- The KLUPUa of a demamtlralm pnmmm befiire the reb- 
dn b veiy fVeqnant; as, indeed, at the mhate antawfait, n-hen it can be enp- 
pUed from the relative. Whea this eUipaie of tha aatacedent takes place, In- 
ofttm nnilea with the relative to fnrm a apeciea of compouiul pmutua or aiheri. 
ramaioiiig ilaelf mchamiid, nhaievei may be the appropnau number, tCDNi 
or mede. Thns, n^tufaXXitn i-^irCur rfi-rn ^i< }Ci';ir>#», In f(X'^ 
'(■«■ Irri 1' if [= J»«. 1" UtT'u, .IJ »;, Acy prrjxmdoM on* 
toodnra, jfrif Chiruaphiu, beeauae he had beta choten cnntnunnder ; and ana 
> [tliare were alio thoae nho propoied] StnaphuH, yi. '^. 6. Hx*! 'laitxikjgi 

Vm. 4.] RELATIVE.- 

'AxiuSt, h) Imt J> <XA« !/>.;. Th. iii. 93. .K«) In-i ^. A mirit man- 
CtOH U. Gi> U. 4. H. 'BrT» ■fr*iH>i M^rit ■rttmi^im, M »f ff I Htm. 
L 4. 9. (Ct E.V1 r .irf. iS. »>- Jr mrirdn 1mS..:»T, U. S. I S ^ ^Hnr 
)i •? h1 r^ v^fifu T. &. 14 I and, with U< tuH/nIar fyr (be jibmi) in tb* 
Iwf^aet alao, 'H> U ra^nx n> rrmtfii, iSt niu ^laiifHt Jlsmt 1. 5. T. 

Sea S ;t64.) 'fli ami airy ^«^l.i» Ir/' In, B (Aot |,tb«n wen tioMi 
irhen] ««e<UHt *• nn r^nUtd il, il. 6. 9. *Ern U Irfu, owi (ken on pbow 
B>Aa«, or m laau plattt, Cyr. viii. 3. 5. "Emi !««( rw ilr iyw tfix-sTinu i 
Il Among ma/ MwlaiAimitomlddBxmyxif nt. It it fattibim Oat imt Aoald 
deaivym? t. T. 6. Of yilf fr/' 7rH>V i},M Soph. <Ed. T. 448. 

Ncma. (a) Ftam ■MmOaruiltHiof Ih [r-^lHrrOwith the raiatiT^han 
•liBm the oompoanda Ihi, toma, and lun, witrmi. (A) Tia eUipai* whim- 
timea utaida even to tha lubataaCiire verb itadf ; thoa, *0<->t> [Or 'Errn 
ht.'], Bt mum plan-. Lao. 10. 4. 

§A94. V. The intimaie relation of clauses connected 
by a reltUive prontntn, or a kindred particle, often produces 
an ATTEiACTiON, sometimes simply affecting the position or 
firm of partiatlar v>ordt, and sometimes even uaiting the ' 
hto dmtea in one Not unfreqnenily a combination results, 
which may be regarded as a species of compound or compkm 
pronoun. Thus, 

^935. A.) A word or phrase is often made a part of 
the relative, instead of the antecedent, clause ; and somelimca 
the two clauses are blended in their arrangement. Thus, 

AtyiH Abuih, (l( m ttrtPX''! ii^ ^t—, ^*ar Ai md tidimgi wtidi I 
hrmgyim, Eur. Oi. S53. &'< 'A«u>^> )({»■, f, 'O^tnt I;;(i riXXnt ul 
<£)>.>.>.( [for -rAVn, ■■! tO^l^tm] iQ. S. 17. E.'*) «.;l', I> If i^m 
Xtek n.*tl<ii(ii I« Ti imr(« l> I^w I;t««, u' ^, 'tell me respecting iny 
KUi Pplydonia, whom yon have,' Eur. Hec San. Tovnti y' •'U' S><'r>w», 
h «i Ti. .iM(i. ir(r«f Soph. AnL 404. 'En;. ri.<i;«, J 3ii T.tif ■ri 
frnfrirftmrM iri in-^l., <Uafi ..x»r,i PI. Tbeatt. 167 b. OiJth, Ui) 
l^^t^f irinra ri ^fimyfim, An;^«ffa'Bi [fbf 1«^ f[«^»rt ra v^y^, iitiitit 
itrixAfirmt], ttm, »i« tAqr »uJin<aad tA( mollir, iii»»rfiiri% laifUrag, H. 
Oi. iiL i. 4, Sea § 5S3. 

Remark. We observe Ihis construction particularly, 

a.) In exinealoaa of tim and pntpbiliti/ with Hie H^ierlatiio ; aa, ITii^ 
fiftifia wmfutMt, Jr*» tAx"^* itMwfM^fuJu [tor rmfutm f^;^imK, Vrsii 
■ Jiavfafk^a], Ht alaO nufommr ta fa jnnnt [meet qi^cklj, wlwn] HI amn 
at we hmt accompSilitd, CjT. iv. 5. 3.1. 'lt< n^icr- b( nifami^ i/»>n 
tv. .']. S. 'Evil t>.i> rix'"^ • • ■'ilrri, cu (cwii at ht had cone, A« anU, vii. 
7 6. 'Rymyi . . irirm iym rkiitrm ittiwif^m, I iavt broug/U [the molt 
inich] ru winy ai laxJd, C}^. It. 5. -.19. 'E^- 'Vt>«i w if Unrm, wktl. 
rriuf, b-in^ng cu Bunjr JbtrK at At Amid be abh, u6. 9 {\ 5Si. &). 'ili /im. 

TJ. 6. 1. 'EXivTBi i, Inarn Ifi rixirrm, ridiiig at /•at at wot fnaibU, Ctt. 
T. 1. 3. ni/r^ai i luuri. [ac !»-«.] fUx>m L ». 15. A'SCaim . ■ '- 
•»> n [iO. {.] ^;i.rT> n^^iMy^ui U. 4. 94. •£•( Jf r-wa it 
[— lHnv]».rTayJ>««<UanLiT. £. 9. , C.lHHnC 


HoTM. TtK word deriotliig jraabililjf it often nndentood : dm. 'iU rA- 
Xtra [k. tatmrh l>J n^Mri'a', Is luircA » Jmidllf at pr Wt ife, ). H. 14 

8. 27. *1h w rXu'm ^> ifti, it nV icXh. J«>, m Ua^^Mn. )i nivifi 
(£« lb. 3&. A^Uafui >i( n> 'Arf» Jn i^:i;<n« (ac £• )uHn«.] vli. -'. 9 
(In in thn CMUtniu^u Kills the npiriMi** ■ tk* ntmlir a/ Imi, used Ml- 
vrtLill^). -0«H ^ aYifsmHiniTiiTn XiJCx S»nXiii, fAM «• at^ ml* 
(Ac jIsi^ at mifrqiiimd a* imitiiU, I. I. 6. 'On rxiirrttt uii BiXriittit ib 
*0n>( )' «(«n ^Kh. Ag. ecXX •Ornri»pm Soph. EL I4i3. 

^) In Che use oTIha iiuf^ilB, whicb, even in i»inipa>iUoa with Ji (^ 519. 
t), aftaa nem to belong in (iirce to tb* RBlsoedail- cIb im ; thae, 'H^^m 
■j»> Kii{H, Imi . . irmiii (» iyi^iii mi, Ii). ta a^ Cy>«u Jtir aHu jfaidi, 
nhr ihU anutocf tiu, i. 3. 14. ■£<«. ]•,[=. r), t] n ttiim^ i /■ Um 
■■gill n loUah / katii uroiiged ym ? i. fi. 7. Esi iULin trnim Ji K m>»i<» 
T. .5. 12. Ot SisT^f'Ctff, Irw ^if ivtftrtr/^u IrikK . . ij>c/i{|ir*, ^ [«nyivheiea ■ 
when be did wM] except wbcra,' L 5. a. Bee j$ JSO, 52S. 

^jl36< B.) The RELATIVE takes the ease of the anlt' 

. cedent. This is the common construction, when Uie antbcb- 
DBNT is a Genitive or Dative, and the relative would prop- 
erly be an Accwaaiive depending upon a verb. Thus, 

taplunui lu^peHcd (a Atisi, L I . H. Ty ili^tl, f i, Ixwh, nUifm, I milt 
tt^ lit man, nioB jhw May ckoni, i. 3> I5< 'Afm *ii Uutitltu, Ii aiMnwA 
L 7. ». (CC 'E, fwf n-MWi, Jt, . . l»n«w iV. J . I. Sk, aninm, <l U 
*^ T.ii;« l:ue» iv. 7. 17.) Ttirm., i. n itrwutZ ' = i ri tvniiai, 
§ 4;t4] iia;iui (Bin. ii. I. 'Afx"'''( ■Villi ill uTi«-;ifi-i x'e*' !• 9. J4 
(^ S!^. :^). S» f«i; iT^R •I'alrfi awi^ ^«f> Soph (Ed. C M4. Hira. 
liJuil «!«; avTH Ijf^tn rit» Mem. IL 7. 13. Xi^iii yt »«• aba ^liylil 

RsMABKa. a. If the antecidemt i> a 
(erf; u, 2vi [ac. Ih.'wi] i'i [;£•>, wllh l&u 

J.l!;C»iT. 5. IT. 'A<r if l! lnl« \. 3. 4. 'HjuiX^. riry Urin . ,. 
ctf>rlfl{» lb. 81. 'Elii^^n It (wri «■ rg urrlfa^f ra-;aTri ii. U. IS. 

9- Somotiiiwi, Uioagh nraly, the Do*, nd <»ran the tfnm. an ntnuttd in 

itdittrtuUd, Cjr.v.'l. 39. 'E£ J> [= i«i.'»», J] ^i^' laarifn yiyini, /ron 
vA/i^Af Aof hni with alkv parCy, Isocr. G^ i: (o 45n). BXai-Tir/ru a^ tf > 
[= faii'wi, i] fl^'i n^raiAi(TH, &> k 'mj'krrJ b) Ooai aiitft wUcA tave bn* 
fir^iattd bg w [in raapact to which prapualiiHi hu been uude by u»], Th. vii. 
67. OUi. IM. taint rm !.• wi(} ^Mfhi HdL L T». — Whan tba uj^ a/ a . 
vtrb u aCCncted, the verb, if retained, becomea irapenooaL Cf. § S^». 

y. The n&rin fiHamd by ^lixu taaf, as iTa iwapniiuf pnnmai (i jS4), 
tgr-M with the antecedent In juij case ; thm, FIi;! MiXuftmriv, i i>~i.n Irat 
[^ •>«>■] ^•i<>.u, rajxctiiy Palygiuitiu, or any sMtr one KHam you pitete, PL 
lo. 333 iL. Ta li.a, j i,r„ SiiXu ixXti ifl/^i, Id. CraC. 4.12 a. Ob rtS. 
rmr h ^hu I'fyurrai Id. Gorg. 517 b. CuiDpare, in Laf., qaivi*. 

I. KCLAIITE asvBKBS in likawlis aflbctad bf atlraEtioi 
'nniUtv 9» [vtaiiyii Ir.r] iinfUim <ra.-ta[, lity ia 
v (tetr aAtUn [irhcora] from tAtflaait w/urt tt^ kmdfa* tiam fir tt, 


Th. i 89. *£. » ^. M. [— (f) « 

^'ff37. C.) The ANTSCSDENT takes the ctue of lAe rein- 
tire. Thia is tert ' "" 

AiuXli mirf 1 'AriXiiin 9i«i [^»i>>>f] A Du Svu, 'ipoBo madt kmomm 
to him (Ai godi to ¥^ora Aa nMf iMri|Stt, iii. 1 . g (cC dyrii^tHi ili iiuXo 
; »<ii lb. H). 'On AmiU^FiH (-^.Tn [.^ »>r>], i' ii..^.., r,r;.yfTl( 
A> H. Gr. U 4, S. 'AiMiun ^> fB}^ nu*£i [~ n*.iTMi,} J. i^uir* 
;tM» Id. HmL 1 1 . TiA, [=> An.] 1- Jn'i; iln^, K iLCI.. lt;n;L.. .j^. 
n. ^.'ff, x*«*w' «(H ri Soph. Tr. 9S.S. A^h )' S, l^irirrH.. Jfrw, ^u) 
m!x'"' >>^>, »^e>lw W/«' H. CEd. C. 1 1 jO. Tir j.>p> T.Er», ;> ri. 
%» ;■»[, . . tSrit Irn. I.Mla Id. (Ed. T. 419 (« 499J. EtTHfi'm U, ^ 
i^ricn far) iTmi, ll ti «ir« ii'Xcf a/ui, avnl mlrai t'lrn V. S. I 9. 

RiCHARK. lovertod ttCnetion ii^mn liao la advbiihb -, thus, BShu atiihi 
[= .uVi], »» Tif I«>, ft) ratern UilAv, ahtmct lu anm, Soph. (Ed. C. 1 SST, 
K*3 tXi^ I— iXiMX^^, t*i t, ifim^ i^rinwri r, PL Crilo, 45 b. GC 
5$ 536. J, S3I. fi. 

^SaS. D.) The two clauses are brought into one by 
t]ie elKpsia of a substantive verb (cf. ^ 538). This is termed 
amiUed either (a.) with the atUteedeut, or (b.) with the relm- 

a.) With the Aktecededt. We'here distinguish the fiJ- 
lowiflg cases : — 

I.) AAcr a Aumufrafw prswnn or ortieli, Iba iiii.a*iti h iko nwiHa^ 
Bid tb« AMTKCXDiOfT b^fi* ill plua In the enntruclion. This fbnn of oon- 
dnMlioB !• pnticdbri; flre^oent ta fnoMsM and Kcdamatiimt, eiipada% with 
tiu poeU. tbat, T; rfl' o^i [-> Ti Wn rtit, t mUf,'] i ITAot ii (M, 
«AhA foutatf Ear. Ale 10«. Tit itJen r»l' [— rlt i^if i*T. n>, A] M 
mw;t.'e£i (fhu HwutUi,iDAan /m {y lit tote r KL Bee. T<t. Tf 
wt' ^jtiii» !..!«.( ■>.!> , Sop£. (£d. T. KKIM. 0T«> Ijc.3«. t^.I' Ifi:»i t 
WAut a mpir a Ait, whkA Uum htiU p'odutnil Eur. lun. l^'iS. T»« >ii> 
•il'ir 9.v^rTJr :iiyi,( n Prot. :<I8 b. Tli i ritn [=71, trr. i ri/», 1,] 
uliTii, T>ir> I Soph. Pfa. 601 (see if 4R0. ■). KmXi, yi /^ rtlniin i£*.n.1i. 
ttti ^ rt^iivKuA tMcA jfim Aoh 0«uf Hpm mt it urn htim^. Ear. Iph. A. 305. 
la tJte following HiiteiMit, thars tpiieare to be i aniiia between an txclamitiim 
wiAiml a ncri, and • lelMiva d4ua; Tiw I/tit Tii nriif Sawmv mixut 
{='a ^wmtu m!*ui, tS, th «n( iftiijl 7n< criKf c'oitA 1^ futbtrmel 
Sopb. EL AI5. — Exprauiooa like tlie following are atill more elliplicil ; *EtA> 
i Tf.wrfyim t= Uri a:*^"" ' Te.»B(y.'«] «.!..>•., io*er« (Aim u a plart, 
■dAicA u oi/bif TVipyrju, H. Gr. v. I. li>. 'E> ^ ■aiMi^ti rJ {[^i. u laUcA 
il tAot kiAicA n retf ur*:, PI. Pbedo, 107 c. 

9.) OUi/> with Irm u (or »metini« ft u) fbrmi ■ specie! of campimmd 
jMHin (6 5'.^4l ; aa, OHiU Im '9* Afi&Tw. tAer< a » dk, nta witf luf 
asK n^nn, T«. i X. 14 (rT. Oilili h Sm, ^. ;>« H. Gr. lii. 5. 1J6). K.. 
nyH~i •> i/.^ »tt)i ;>*« >i, t»vy tody m-M Ah^ at w, H. Hipp. H^. 
tte a. OiUt if w;^' •^' '<«*'» ^B>^ (^ '^- 373. Oili>4 ^ ~ wtf' 



$406. b. Un or TUB HnnsR. 
Ti yi( r.i.-.. ^,..c,ir,(.,, r» yJ^^Kfi,.,, CjT.yia. 7. 35(5 «») 

kryiriat ■irn SwJlkAu /inr' j>.M« /tir IXn^im pmnurttu riTi rmntv ) 
'EU.ui' li. i^fJTi;. r.fra, u' . , Mem. U I. J (§ 4fiO). — The Muter 
r^Etrvig to ward* of oUttr tjotdtftt ud the nttter j/htrtd jw Ao mffmltr 
(Is *S0, 451), an putknlaii/ fraqiw ' 


'A«r<!.;.( h) tUfiin,, ,1 I». ii. 5. 35. n„\».^ » 2.!;.. h1 j-. 

91. 'ArfiXiiMw «} iBtXimt, i art\mtmr*nnu Cfr. Tiii. J. -J2. n,)LXk 
1' «^ <rf*C«n ««3 sTyflr vvJ J^r< ii«] AovTi ^i IraJs^arr* iiL 5. 9. 'AnX- 
X«yivni rfAt^wrt «■} lurtoir' ««) n^;^;5f, I'f iff ' - mm^ i rr^fttt feecT' IS.S lb 
See g 146. — Zengnu is br 1» bsquent in llie coDBtruction <tf (be y a i M — 
Iban in that of (he aJjtctiet. 

$497. d. STKmm. 

TJ 'AtMiXxt, iwi^rith, 1, i(x' Bj..if»; It. 8. 18. Xk K{>.n <!> wXi- 
tm, .Tiri; >.>^ru>r<. Pt. Phsdr. S60 l B»i»i4 ..■•It' kt^""' ^ 
\Q. 4 (ef. n. S (UKl .••}. Ot.rfk vAf «>M.^», I . . urit Hrli:^.!. iL>r.ta 
Eor. Iph. A. 9HJ. 'A ^iXia >(>xA, tF..I>«a Sopk Phil.TI4. *U^M 
■^ *Hn 'i.wxii, ttxi K >■'•>'<'-• li^ I C/I. viL a. 8. Tiixn, . . tit 
Sdt. SupjiL. lU. See § 453. 

VtfTwa. I . Id Uu eoaMnic(k« of tbe prono u n, flw miicr » e/tei cAbwmI 
(br theeake of uufca rf nati xi ng er ^nfrufu^ tbe catpreaaiai i H, 'Ornt 1' 
ibffjkibrt • ., r^rwmt . - Ariri/.n*'., owf aj Aw wj ' cbi hb , Ac teit Acb otf 
ioci, i. I. 5. 'Arri^im ramt, ^ j> n;.riiy;4;^fli PI. R(^ .'iriS d. *Of A 

(Be. 7. 3T. T.^T.Vf . ^ f it.. . (-.XAil Xwmm. [b. St. S. -All^iFi r. 
Ui>.ivi Xiyiiii, )ii rl laarrif Is-Xijyii, ow/ Af ioife Hit rat tay, on inhal at- 
tmoU taeli ow kad baa Unck, t. H. IS. IlfwM tti luarTfr,, 
^rt l;t^t n Tli. ^. ICI. Haj^i Jl^Cirt . .. .Lf Ij»«rrif trn, «<■■' nT «fm 
\%irrm Iiwu>*> id. fl. 33. 'Hi ^#/«» r£idil.j>««< i».)i»iAi>. In> 
1-.I •;■» K^> ■<-«/*«' fa. L 9. Ij (see [b. lb). 'H. It m «r^.. n.n- 
;>£..'»., lit^m. *ir,7, irUim. Cr'- >-S- 2- ^ >! •-' >*■" «->'•> >»' ' 
<i']^iri, r.i'T*. iaiT4;^un Ear. Ak. 744. 'Ax^ti, f, f!x,, ■ . . Jt 
K^Jfuit ti wtiiitt ke Mrat a triu fritml ; of whnn &e n^mier u m>£ ff"'*tt Id* 
Suppk 867. Air.vfyif , .Tri; »>; f»'« nififn yg. Id. Or. T'^a Oe- 
r>v;.<->iii i>if - if< a, «■! Immrn 7Xi«» PL Rep. S31 a. 

3. A pronoun nften refera to m Bnbject which If impl'ud m owtAcr aon/ ' c£ 
5 4^1); «, «.;j,„ . . (, K!(.i:(-,, J. -ixS. [i. e. ™ K.e»i<»;«] 
lirfyintE. A« JUa to Giivyra. bring a Apirfndnr n/ Aart, Th. I I m. 'ArJ 
niA.<r.>.^#>B . ., .; Ti,Ii .{i;«.w i.V; 111. W.80. TSt Uni l«»U.i^ 
J> fi. a. i/iij lUiir (louTi Soph Gld. C. TSU. TlaTtfiit 5' trr.'i' unn^ 
ffl, .£ri( K . . wi'nu Eur. Hcc tfiJ. 'A>>i.[, J> [i. e. V""] ^ 

§ 40 8. e. AiTRMTrBm. 

A ;ai3ioQn ii. BontedmeB attrac(sd b; a word in its own clanse, or ■ mad IB 
'^roantkm with iU real autijpcl C<^ § 455) ) a^ Bi»i4«> tlmita Uf%.I<r^_,K 

um. 1] PBKSONAt., P08SE3SITB, AND BBFLEXITB. 3!f9'- 

[Ibr !«;] i^ iUx>L,mt X'^'" '"'<• -^ "^ ?'" >™> <" " ' m * "" ^ Bimmtim, 
wkitk H I^ yEnwr toHtm, vii. l'. SB. '£«nb(, •■ tiri ininpw x^'" Cfr. vU. 
5. 56. 0M> illia» tiMyyitufuu «•■>■ Enry [fbr 7*i;, J -11/0 "H'^^k /•■>-■■ 
n> iTw iiaXX.Vni iniLty^i ApuL 3. 0i..i7> - . . »Sn yi( it i, <rxfui- 
r» i«vX)Lsi^ ^eh. Pr. TS1. 'E<r) «vl.« vii KiXid'si mti riit Zc^i'at. 
'Hfo. M n^a [fbr oJvh] 1^ rtixn i. 4. 4. K<ii J... I. irtf^H, wSi ti 
uUr, J «!•« i^>j««i 1-4 ktttiwnm i PI. L%. 937 d. — Thia awaUuctiaa 
may b« coniDaooly axpUlned by tSiptit j tbpa, 'Err^, tJ [;ffi''^] *^'* irw* 

^ 490. AnnmoNAi. Rehabiu. 1, A prannun, fbr tbe nke (if 
per9p[caity oj- emptumj, ia o(Uin used id ajitiei/iaCioK or rcprtihrm o^ j^ t^bjeet^ 
or U ittcff r^KoUd; A8, Ti ^a^ T«tr«p ^ftaut^/HiMk, riv ^ ^;^fi*iu t /"pT 
vAof u happier than AUf, A> nin^ in£jk (A« eorJA f Cyr- viii. 7* ^^ T#vrt« 
r^jui, r^ii li n;>Tii>i.> ««<>■« PI Apol. ^7 a. KiT.. (^li», ni«<i^ 
IriraTB «^> EUT. Ph. j.-tS. 'Ayiai J) ■ 'Afiiif mbI Zvx^rtif I 'Axmii, 
hI ro'ro ilnAinTiif, ' then >l*a died.' li. 6. 3a Bw.xU . ., ^<i «im S n 
Jii sii-ii t/tirmi iL 4. 7. 'A;Ui&ii}iii . ., tlrit >■>■?••( ^iXnni nirn 
Hem. L ■/. S4. Z>f^ ». Jf fc« /... «{) r), At ^ rie) 1^1, Ii-i^i /•#< 
^ff Cyr. ir. 5. £9. OTwi » r« . . Ixui <•> ln>>.>i >« CEc 3. 16. 
*Ern y^ «n •« iTfMw Z*^;nH rJAii ti( Gar. Andr. 7.13. 

Norm. Homer oftsi ues tlie panoiul piwi. t3, with in iHnni IbUgwing | 
■a, 'Bi i;a i! Si(a<r»i I^i irii^ix A>^ S. 61X1. 'U ;u> 1)4<(H Nawwwi 
■SnrXn t 4S. Cf. ^ 468. b. 

^ ffOO. 3. AduDggof PERBOS Mmetimei Ukea plsoii — (a) Frun 
the unkm of dirtct mud torfmtet moda of ipwkiDg, specially in qmlatiini i aa, 
'A>«H^ J> j»Tiu» ill;' UnlM, 1( , . .imr-m, IaJk iml -f llui vay a jnue- 
Itu IKU. m, m*a lum ilaim. Soph. Ant. .1 1^9. K>I •Jr.* If n " Uixu, wi^ii. 
trttu, rfrX^C^t Ut^ar^rki U wtnrit Ttu rrfMrii/AMTtt' 'Kym ya^.'* i^i' 
"hIh" IB. i. a?. Soalti.-M; m. .1. IK; iv. I, III; t. 6. -J5, lie. — 
(i) From a ipeaker's iddrcHing ■ company, noir aa p« with Iknt, and noir 
ndutiiut /ram them; K, Anrtiinn ipiii li, Um r>i;Ej;it> i riXit ifiSf 

II. Special Observations on the Pronouns. 

^ SO It Of th« obAcrrationa which follow, many apply 

equally to pronouns and adverbs of the same elasset. 

A. Pbrson^il, Possess IV b, and Reflexive. 

^ 90it, In the uae of the pronouns, especially those of 
the classes named above, it is important to distinguish between 
the stroagar and the weaker forms of expression ; that is, be- 
tween those forms which are more rlMtinctive, fwphatic, or 
promtnenf, and those which are ksa so. 

I. In the weaker form, the first and sbcond personal pbo- 
NoDNE are omitted in the Nom., and are enclitic in The nbliifve 
eases sing. ; "but in the stronger form, they are expr-^ed in the 
Nom., and are orlholone throughout. In the weaker form, the 
THiES PEBSOMAi. PBONOUN IS onfUled IQ the Nom., and is com- 


mooly tupplied hp avtot in tbe oUitpie eaiet; in the itronget 
form, it IB luppiied by n apd '6g, which are simply diitinelivc 
n.nd are limited in their use (^^ 490-493), and by oviof, oSe 
and inilpot, which are both distinctive and demonstrtUipe. Thus, fM <'Bv.i r«, l«i ihI f& l^ri ^vQi^.f rh J>)f-, /^on ym 
tact nwjF (An; h/e, inftfli yon aln had tAmmi fo ma (itc mui. v. 8. 7. "Ejw 
^l>, S fitlfif. Oil l^St lm» - At., K ul V>» W lin«'ir>«, W ^i><<'<>, 
« ^».i« ^ K>f» ■•^ir> i. i. 16. Ofn j-A; i^Uf !««» fn n-tsn^nu, 
l»ti' yi (v rmn^i/i avry, ifri {jiuni Iti A/u~> /uj-AJint i. 3. 9. Oirt •-■ 
Ui;»( ^it.'f, ,ht Ikuw .^ Mem. li. T. c. ET;^, » W ^1. K^ ">•»> >■! •' 
rit nCi-f , ri )1 lUtfftit Kli>;x*t> "^ "' '■"'■"' I- V- > 5' Ki^f n »< ivriri 
f<^H L H. 6. Tiirf tpyyiiitutM t KSfn, iyirh n >ir>n ■•! >.)•>«• airf 
i. I. 9. 'HI' •!> SoUTHu SotJi. Ant. 751. Ku'w nk »w rrtfyiTm, -mfm 
rAi Id. A). 1039. Set §S 490-493. 

^ 303. II. In the stronger form, the G»?. m^'nrfiTie 
(§ 393. S) teith a tuhstantive is commonly supplied in ihe fibst 
and Sbcond. PfiasoNS, and sometimes in the thibd, by the pot' 
MOiivt adjective (cf. &^ 457, 458) ; in the leeaker form, it is 
often omitUd, especially with the article (§ 482). The Gen. 
abfectitie (§ 392) sometimes follows the same analogy. Thus, 

'0714 yit •- fmxurtwu, S Kf^ -ri, .liXfi. ,' " N» J^;*.* Xf^i K^ 
"ifn; y> A^i.'» <.i n.;»^r.Kf Irr. nr., l^Jc » .l.xp;;" I. 7. 9. T« 
r.^r» rnpiA.». . . ni;i *fi> ff.iri^. iy^fZ, li. 1. J!^. Kif>.> « ■■) 
n). IE friu Bi.^ x't" BoP*^ '^- ^^- 1*' '^ ^'Jt"' f^ marriapt ym UM tf, 
aopb. Ant. .ITS. Tj #;. yit 'ifyH ti lilxit' !}>•; Eur. Benud. ^84. £i. 
I^ i 'Sxin, 'the dispole for ^n,' Eur. Hel. J L60. Evni'f ••) ^xJf *f 
1^ giml-iaa lad affecliim fa im, Cyr. iii. ]. SA. ^i^ilf rf rf, loet to yim, 
vii- 7. :^9. Hit /ftin^iXu. «i r^i Ifijti iatftHt, that jmc nu^ BcJ reffnt four 
pnmml fa (H, CjT. tUI. 3. 3V. e^iiH t^^ .^Kh. Pr. 3HB, Bn 4§ 454, 


Notes, (a) Tlie roesEsaivx pt 
of which it ntppUea the place ; u, 

fomit {joar eye], du luniuiModar, Ar. Ach. 93 (^ niJS. 4<. Sea J 1.^4. 8^ 
■inn ri-r^M mny be fbUxnrad by the Dot., u well u the Cn. (!^ 40:t, 41 1), 
A^irie»> [— fl^V] rir^K, aXuMrt AaR.ii.lAr., Soph. Ant. R60. (ft) Tha 
nnly POsaESsrvE of tlia :<d Pen., widch hoi ■ place Id Attic pnica, ii rfinfi, 
Uieir i and even this is lued rrfiaitxig, aud with qd great fraqnency. TllM, 
CU \iftn mwini nil rftripvt, mlim Uief tait thar <m ■« n ^ilrat, 
Cyr. 1. 4. 91. (e) The i>cK. /«■ Oi Gta. Mmigg pardculariy to the weaka 
fiinn of expresdon. Sea § 4 13. 

^ S04. in. In KEFLEX REFEEENCE, the weaker form is 
[he same with that of the comntoa personal pronoun ; tbe 
itronger form is the so-called reflexive (§. 144). The weaker 
form belongs chiefly (o ihose cases in which the reflex refer> 
qnce is indirect and unemphalie ; the stronger, 'lo tboee in 
■hich this reference is either direct, or, if indirect, is apecialtj 
iphatie or dittittelive. Thus, C (tlH^lr 

m. 4.] rsnaomiL, ksszssite, and bkflexivs. 

ri rfiZmtwL, ri ati* mmrit XsCuPt 4^ ti ffim ■tf^luwu vl. G* 5. ' Ks} njv-tr 
H, ji V4n runt «' Jhu, njc^ '^^ '^P ^^ ^X>;n;o, ■ Uvrf L 9. 99. 
'Ill ilin if^wM-Bf ■■#' mirtit, '•fwt H^»n( Iri rfai IirAu v. 7. !;S. Ai- 
yit « UUiMi atriir, Jn.atlli tt irnt rfuV Jy^y«> t^ rrfmriit, I S»h 
f£> vii. $. 9. £ii rAi Umw #i«4i . . t£> «f) >lrJ> ■ . . ai^ Tiir BinS 
AHPvt i. 6. 4, *Efii(tXHit «i^ fikiii f v^ tA knfervT r J^a r a J^«m» InrAt 
IfiC^XXin niinf rii jci'Lit, at ^ iniMimt ««i liwfw fi4,M>i lywnr i. 9- 37, 
Hfi^B 1' iiummr l^ww r y JaA7i •u^Jtwi > • *E^ rifvfu w^ttit ifiMvrit ill- l« 
14. '&uwrr 7> hmS ntiiitm viL 6. II. HiUw /«> IwS !» lb. IB. 

If luTx't Hem. it 7. 9. 'A/tiXtTi A^ Btrn L 3. 1 1. II.xx><-Av.'«>f 
4pi£. miri, UiiZn iii. 3. 14 (j 35:^). 

^ jf OS. RnuBEt. I. As [KonoDiu in nnd mainlj for duftucfiim, 
the cbulce or njtetina of a prononn in a particulu' iosUnee depends greuJjr 
Vpon tbe ui q/" oiktr prmomat in the connectlan. The uu oT tlie prooouna 
b likewin mnch influenced [n poetrji b; the metrt, and even in prt^, to w»Da 
axttut, b; aiphoi^ and f%ttfli. 

S. 'With renpsct to i^wmoa, the lemiker form of (h Gt>a6te, from its mat 
«f diatiuctive «niphaai&, commonl; (bllowa \ 473. >, bat Che Oraagrr farM, and 
(he ^cwBwsa od^Ectiiit, { 47S. L Thnl. 'EnXa^CilTiriH •vrw riii Uihi it. 
T. 1'^. 'Hr )i r.mirit t;!^; th j^/m iii. 1.11. T^ UjU.r. air.:.., 
W |iil' Ui'TW »/>■ L 9. as. 'H Ui;r» ffpi hI * i^iryi £»■;';■ iii. 1. 31. 
Tit ;»C^M> rA U>;»> L 3. 1. •*L<tm^-^i ^r r» }>r«ra. Ar. PhL 13. 
Til jlw np l^*r(* PL G(9g. 48g ft. 

3. The place of the Gen. pottaiiii of tin reflexive pn». Is commonly aap. 
ffiei in tbe phir. by the powi— ive pnm. wtth ■inn. In the Aug, thlj fioa 
Mic See $ 424. 

^ JC08. 4. The lUrd pcrmm bdng expreaeed rfniHMfratfn^ in other 
mja, the pnMioun tl became rimplj a rttrn$pB:tnK prononn, !. s. a prononr. 
nArring to a peraon or tiling prsrioiul^ moitjcmed' As iiich, it performed 
tiie office both of an wun^halic nfitxhi < § 501), and of a >u^ jurmial 
prrmoim, and was sometiniae ueed sa a gmcral rr/iaiipe, without respect to per- 
am. Id this last nse, it wu aometinieB imitated by its derivative (evm in 
the Attic, by iMml and rfinfM). Thos, Bw^-lvurl >»Ta rpim [—ifut], 
'amoDg jrounelvoa,' E. 99S. lU^uini tSrn [« ftii] i'irrtt a. 40J. <tji- 
r). f,., [=. V-«] Ix- i'i'Ty^"" *'.( il^fn- '. saO. Au i^i, i,^i.lK, 
UvTiJc [^ iiiif *vrtii\, mt ought b> rut •mmhiet, PI Fhndo, 73 b. EiVa. 
Cvl^lVH, ■■*! /ii< 1^ i« r^fib^i'ar J^ lairrir \_= j/t«DrivJ Tl jtal v^atf 
lEaa-arJm lb. 91 o. Kxaio . . MBTi rgl, ah-if Soph. B. 33:). AJt^^m 
«4>.n nil «M( mtnS, joh gatrt^f diigract your sh c(^, Id. (Ed. C 9:^9. 
OM y^; vi. Uiw [<- wuL^-S] wi y, ^I'zt* IfSt Hem. L 4. 9. H^^ ri, 
mlini urht JBaiib. Ag. 1397. Ylrtf Mf r«ii;iai airn [>> {^> airJi] 
f;nnXtn Dem. 9. 13. Zfirif^ [^ J^itI;;] i^ /htV rffir* «^«fn 
Ap. Bb. 4. 1 337. 

^ SOT. 5. Some (^ the ftmu of jf an uaed with great ladtods of 
pombsr and gender i thus, (a) ^'i and tit commanly sing., bnt also plnr. 
(a^Hnany ti,) ; aa, .«, Aim, Saiii. Pr. 3Si, *«■, Eur. Heo. 515, U, Soph. Tr. 
145, Aai^ maac Soph. (Ed. T. 863, fbm. Id. (£0. C. 43, oent. iEtdk FT 


SS ; ftlt. f)w, Ap. Bk. 3. S : (k) rfi jnpaiy plor^ .hot iln ((qncUly in 
tbe tngic poeU) Bing. ; ■>, •«■, Ucn, maac A. I J 1, fan. Sopb. (Ed. T. 1505, 
Am, ^DCh. Pe. 9, A<r, Ear. Ale 894 : (c) r^.i ranlj' siiit{. ; u, Ham. H. 1 9 
19, .£siji. Ptn. 7.^9 : (if) I commonly N>g. mate, ud fbiiin but «ii)(. n«ul> 
A. ai6, plnr. Hum. Van. V68. («) So tha derived jnunna; u, Uf. I4cd- 
Ha. Op. SD; rfin^, Au, Id. So. 9<>, Bud. O. 13. 86, my, Tbeoc :iS. 163 
506), %, Id. Jv. 67 ; tfmtrtf,. Aii, Ap. Kb. 1 . 643. 

6. Tbe pUce of •! aa > retlexim 1> cODinionlj imppllfld in Att. prene by 
latnE, ood w a stmple pereonal proa., bj' nirit. Tfas plumi occnra 6r 
oAener Uuiti Uia sbigalar, which, ncqit the Dat-, la in Att- proee tury isre. 
The dimiE of tho Norm. sing, of tiiis pron. (§ I4f{. 4) is explained by-its re- 
flexive chanctar (cT, ^ 144). 

7. A emuitoii i^fieriee is sometimes osed fbr the recipmcnl prmwn™ ; as, 01 

iflmSrir Uvrw'i /iSJi.X(t fl ra7( iiJ.;iir( ai/fiiTiif Hem. iii. 5. 16. 'Arri iftf^ 
rSi a rilnfutn •> vi\;L>i /()> niiiimiiTai /ii/' lain-Hi CjT. vi. 3. 14. 

• ^ 90 8. The pronoun aii6q marks a return of the mind 
to the same person or thing (^ 149). This return takes place, 

I.) Id speaking of reflex action or relation. Hence 
allot is used with the personal pronouns in loiining the re- 
flexives. See §^ 144, 504. 

II.) In designating a person or thing as the suib which 
has been pFeviously mentioned or observed. When thus em< 
picked, iitiivt (like llie correaponding >am in Engiit^)), being 
used for distirtction, is preceded by i)k article (^ 472). Thus, 

Tf Dsfrrj ifMitf, mni upM At onw dof, I S. IS. E-V-ri mtti rxif-* 
1. la.ia O^rirKiairif, uitt*w.u>iM{iVBm,nL.1. a. 'KauHir^uni 
Hem. iv. 4. 6. tmiri I»rx» iii> 4. VS (§ 39). See § 400. 

^ S09. III.) For the sake of emphasis, one of the most 
familiar modes of expressing which is repetition. When xviot 
is thus employed in connection with the article, its position con- 
forms to ^ 472 a. Thus, 

Airi, Hi>» iCiiJT,, iUflu Uaudf Bu&gd 0, u. I. 5. "Orni . . ^it 
ipiriti Itftij, auTii li^«r 3avf, aDT*f i'^wit^wni ttn\>jtit fwf rrf^my^ 
ilL 2. 4. KSpt «(iX-^> Mirii rm WytKr, i. 8. IH. Ai-ri ri mwi 
tin <Iaw-{£Xa, Iht wry aood /ma (Ac Aowei, IL -i. 16. Kaj SifnCii-ra. 
»> ain lr« «^Ti» £iun 4>/;iiirH, ' the very mogt relijfiout.' 1*1- l^. ^^ 1>. 
Ofnr 1' M v^ auTH fianXivi riMj-^iM. Jr», ' befbrs the persou of (he 
king.' i. 7. 1 1. n^ surf tf Tf n'^fn. [by the army lt>elf} cAu> to dm 

4.41. Ei nCnl •! rT{«TiwT«i . • •";t;u<T>, ' •>( tiieir own accord,' vil. 7. cl. 
£■' a^TK't r«7 i>)«a« rriit-n I'iSn, ' with Mmply the men,' iL n. 7. '£■> 
rif Jhk riS n'riH « iVn am Ir/^i ' by itaiJC or * alone,' Mem. iU. 14. 3.. 
AvTiw nw f r{*T<i}w liwiaaXiHi, keaing ctUU tin gairalt opart, vU. ^ ^ 
8m J3 41S. B., 47:;. «. 

OB. 4.J ' Ami?. 333 

^ A I O. BraiAiws. 1. Tbg emphBilc »rrti \t joinsd irith proBotiiu 

bi bntb their Unmgrr uid tbtii mtiiitr /■a-mi, Hsnce it ia often usei) in tlia 
Xwiiaiipe with a pronoun wtakh i* Mjulawtiad (^ S012). Thus, O; ii « t^t<^ 
ni, «' Ti miTit Uiw ■■! «' f JlJlm, ' iKitb Ills oitn,' 1. 9. T. Ainf tih-i* 
T»iu>, am ak vay onmnf, Iv. 1. IJV. AW ''••' . ■ lf£u PL Pbigdo, 91 a. 
Avrf ^u t«*l< lb. h(1 C 'Itt (^ii rv ifiti.tyi7f i. 6. 7. 'lit I^ xirit lb. 
«. Atri, n UkJimm (£& 7. 4. Ami Ivwlienf Ilk 7. Airi, ,;^ 
h ;■«;■ ii. 4. 1 6. A^TH uJhw^^ Iby Utmefcu ian, iii. 5. 5. 'littm -i- 
CH n rfmi/td fnrt, ' tint h« hilDtdf heiiUd,' i. 6. 1^6. XnfU mtrii, it giKt 
tUmt, iv. :. 1 1. A»>i ymf ir/tti, for wt art bji imrieha, PI. Lt^ ».M b. 
STP. Ti', vit »r« iU Hi >;M^f{« ->■; < MAd. Ar.i|. 2TP. Ti'i 
■Mil MA». Zkx^TM. '[lliiiueirjTIiBgreUnum. Wlwt greU maa ? ' 
Ar. Nub. a 1 8. 

S. In like manner, nini is ubsiI withmt aootber piononii espreand, in Ow 

sUifM cwei nf lit third perMonj aa, AiSfii jyiiT), aur^ n imu t^ yvHUW^ 
hiH^fing pt-menU bath for himjtelf nmd f'lr hit urift, vii. S* 1ft. "Evi^i^i* . • 
rrjsTuSi-si tSi Mi»t il;^!. ■■! ^iri, i. 2. 20. IIjilAjui /il> wi cfVB^tirwf 

N<rrHS. a. ftina th« gndaal extension of this use lo case* In which ther* 
WM no apecial amphaHs, appeaft to have ariaas the bmillar enplofment of 
■tni is the oUif u coH, at the cnamim pnmovi of At tiiinl penon. Sea 
5 5o:i. Id this unempbatic use, uMi mmt not begia a clause. 

$. Sometimts (ehiefly In the Epic), nuni ocean In tke oblique oasa, with 
tba ellipus nf ■ pnm. of the Ist or -Ji Fen. : as, Aini yi{ irmXi^ii' lifta- 
li^n [bc i^r} .. Ii7. AJtb. [m. »i] Z- ^T, 

^ ff I fl • 3. llM emphatic Mtrit often precedH ■ rtfitxisf, agreddg 
iridi the aubject of the latter. ifyfWtatoa (§ Suy.N.) hi lonetiinea emplofed 
to bring Iha two pronenns uitu immediate coimacljon. Thna, 'Artanlmi ;U- 
yiTai itirn rH Uvnu ;);li(i 'AfTnyifni, and it ii hh/ [himtelfj KtiU Ai) IWB 
hiwj to AUH Wuln ^rtajfr.«>, i. 8. •/■*. 01 » 'E;l)lii.w . . mmi If" Ul'rff 
. ixii{«>'. ' liy lh«nsdv«,' iL 1. lO. Ti » Jk;.» >M •>/' o^i Wi«» Hem. 
iii. 14. 2 (cf. Ib-3, and J5U9^. TiTi t' hvth nirtH wif^ri' &ti(i«riu Xacb. 
Ag. Blie. T<r» iraXi>.r<T> w> r-fBHiH^iTn la' ^iri, mirf Id. Pi. 9:fa 
See 5§ ^fi^, 50S. 

4. Itie empbaris of airif sometims lies in mere ennlradiitlMt:tim ; as, 'Avx' 
■mitknyZ- . . ritt ^rrui It ri^ara iit§irmn, 'those things I omit, but 

he«,' £M:fa. Pr. 44'J. -0« <■) Iri ri «}ia, If- i», ^h. J.<ir J £*t^r!m 
rA, i^(i*«., tym, afr^ ^' •f l^™ ^T-". A >' Ir't't'-i'- U«n. ir. 9. 9. 
*Oi, i rm, A r' ■£■ la^ aa'aratn, >i ■/ uirti^ K*» iMmbattarify kavt ilaSn 
toM jnw, my (M, and gou, (on. lay myii, Soph. Ant. 1 340. 

5. The me of aii-ii with ndnofa deeerrea ramark ; tbns, IlifitiXi . . fT{M. 
myk St 'Alntm'itn Jiasm avTK, Perida hmg gaumt of tiit AthauiMMt [hnn- 
*etf the tenth] viA anu BOlhag<ia, Th. ii. I!l (cf. 'Afx'"t^^" ■ • jU*' 'l^- 
X^ }f.a rr^niy>!^H Id. L 57). 'Efiri^'^a. Ai>n<;LU rl^rnr aJvJr 
trcmrnvi' Id. iii. 19. 'H^Uk wfirCurrii lixam atrw H. Or. IL V. IT. 
Hut, with the omiirion of auTic, ila^irii . . XaCin mirit 1^ B. nil ifx^l 
KImw, ' inth *x conMaMee,' PI. L(«. 695 c 


^ ff I 3> I. Of Iha FEIMAKT DSU0H3TRATITE3, the nUOT 


distant and emphatic is 4>itiros ' the nearer and more familtaf 
is oucuir ur ZOt {% 150). Thus, 

(*qp nJJ am nfkn tfasae, H. ftusdr. H 
n «■{•;■;*( Id. Eulhjd. ^71 b. 

Notes. ■. The two maj be oombuied to nvHc Uu coanection of tlifl horv 
■KHOTE with the NEAHiui ; M of tfao jKut Willi Uh pmnf. of a tufrnf with 
Hi WiHlraiiim, at tbM which JIai fan iwrinmri with that which i* jvwu ti- 
>(R1 W, Sx. Thus, Tffr' [*C IrrJ] UuV ivjw {JLI^*'. «U( u dW BAicA / Mid, 
Ar.Ach.4]. T.i;r' l.i;.. - " iritf \rmlf,B,, fti rj rru}^>4: ^nn" Ear. 
Bee. t(04. Ta*^ tkit k wliat /^nb a/, Id. Hed. 9H. 'HI' («■' inhn 
rtlfytt i {iifjw^in Sa|ih. Ant. 384. 

p. O'tk Kimctimea marks tlie ordinary, lod Imrm the ufruonliiuirjr ; a^ 

(key on ■■ 1*1 A<iat a/ icoirti^ i. 5. S (tee 'cyr. i. 3. '^). ri).i^ir, /jr^it 
l>]i|u ■■! ^lyaXu r{j i^<£, Ka]L;i;rT;>«( iitrrx, >. T. X., ' that wondarAit 
CailulnliB,' Dem. .SOI. IT. Tt> A^n-i;}*. lui;... Id. 34. -JO. 

^ S I 3> II. The pronouiiB ovtch; and iiii have m geneml 
the same force, and the choice between them often depends 
upon euphony or rhythm ; as, iouib ipiifif zeVt ""'3' xv^ mirTae 
atSiir Soph. Ant. 961. Vei Ihey are not without diatincttoo. 
ol'K, as formed by composition with r^fol-, is properly a pro- 
noun of identijicalion or en^hatie designation (it may be re- 
(larded as a weaker form of i avrai;, the same, ^ 592) ; while 
odi, arising from composition with dt, is strictly a deietie pro- 
noun {diiximoi, from diUi-ifii, to point ottt), pointing to ao 
object as before us (see ^ l&O). Hence, 

1.) If reference is made to that which preeedet, or which 
IB contained in a subordinate clause, oi'ioc is commonly used ; 
but if reference is made to that which folloms and is not con- 
tained in a subordinate clause, oSt. Thus, 

Tij>^B(i»n rtirn luJrtti, ondnfAU (wbid) hiu beea.9Cated\ lAit (whl^ 
Mows) II alKi a proof, i. 9. S9. 'Kri rivrot Sutfir rmh tlw%, la Mt Xai- 
(ydkin nplUd at jbtiaa, iL S. 41. Twri, ! r- » Ixy Tx'r Sini, r^'* i^ 
if. 6. T.Sri yi lrlriai*„ In /SifUf . . fifu T. 7. 7. Twti •r(«T» ■(>«, 
riti{» Xf» i?( iii. I. 7. 

Note. To the rttnipBrfin eWweter of •>t« may be referred, — (a) Its 
na^ pieceded by •■;, Id nuiu^ m addllkai la a lattenet, tbt proDOUD NIber 
•erviog aa a reprtilm td a mttfoMtiiK in the iealeiice, or, id the Hnilir Ate. 
or JV>Mi. (commoDly pfnT.), of the mtlsiei itaetf (cf. ^^ n34, 451]. The oon- 
itniction maj be explained by lOijm. Thus, Mittn ritristu «i nXXiit jj. 
;i-(r^ »«1 r»mw [at !i;t;n^] ^lyaXis-f ■•■•:(, it ittaium ynii la oitertani 
many giiati, and litK magnificeHtls, (Ec -J. 5. Ivfifiix*" tt'n-rm, ■« rti- 
rtr, rXuiioi Mem. ii. A. '.IT. 'EtMm^t TJi Asai)«,>..., tut. [ac j«n- 
»r] iJlint, CAiy onufaf i^ac«^aini, and [tbey did] Aat kmamg, Xg. I. 3X. 
Hi»HI H tU \X,ir%,, ul Tifn n;' 'A{.>i» £>, M Jtfmo A( di^ wit oM /" 
aad (Aot oJfAsiyt In vu J^vM .^rin^ iL 4. 15. OiafiXt^ tin irikjt, ■■) 

ea. 4.] DBHoKSTRATire. 339 

*«ni inlx'm' ttnii Ag. 9. 94. — (ft) Tile nrc oT «wr> and «iDn in o- 

"Smlriiri y (k. !«■.],' Ififc ' CurUiiily It ii »,' R. Sep. 4:;k b. H. OJ. 
-w> tnffi yl T»' U .\Mm,tmi^n., ^It.i i.ww « , K. T.£r', J lin-». At. 
Fax, 974. BA. 'A>X' iiVw^ii. - <fr. ToSi^ >», il«( luu Id. Vmp. J 008. 

^ S 1 4. 2.) '(>^( nuTpasses in (femoniiroltDe vivafiiy ; but 
oui'i; in emphatic force and in ihe extent of itt aubitatUive use. 


OlA. *H Ti>li ^;iH , 'AIT. T^», Imf ilr^i, (Ed. /■ ran AW lui 
fom ipeak nff HeaL 7%( nn mak, vtmii ^n MnU, Soph. (SA. T. Iioa 

eEP. n«« d.i(. .-J xiyxd oii. Tw, i. rtifin " — - 

NoTB. To tht lUctKpomr of IJi ($ 519), nuijr be nAmd the Tsy A«- 
qa«M OM of thia praaoun by Ibe E|^ ind OnunUic poMa fbr >a admrb of 
flaei (^ 4.^7. 0) ; toi parbapi, in ■» onill degree, tb* general hct, tbat it ii 

^ ff I A. 3.) In the emphatic designation of the first and 
aecand peraont by a demotutrative, iidt commonly denotes the 
first person, as the nearer object ; and u£id«, the second. In 
denoting the first perwHi, the demonstrative may be regarded 
OS simply deictic (<^ 513) ; in denoting ihe second, as expres- 
sive of ittpalienee, aiUkority, contempt, familiarity, &c. For 
the use of uvioq in address, which is employed both with and 
without hi;, see ^ 343. 3. Thus, 

H) 9»Jrj;' i»^( T»3" iri(H [»■ v*"*], •»!' fy" «■{) riS, do mtt yim dir for 
(Ui K» [fbr me], nor ^ I far y«, Eur. Ale e90. <I>i.ii4 S, «Ili riEiIfh 
[= i^w] tfi«i..»( Sopb. (Ed. T. .514 (bat, 'A^ R' ['^ ri>], i, Ux,,. ,!, 
rfid, Uf lb. I ICO). TXrti yi Z^/^i If. M katl, uAOt I am ^ aim. Id. 
TV. MS. TO, [— i/u;), $ 4.U] . . wtri uXum. niKi ft!Xa»( fsch, Ptn. 
i. Oiir») itit [= n] •• Taiiriroi fJLudjan. EiVi ^ui, ^ S^x^tii, iva 
■.Vjt:ii>7 PI. Gorg. 4!<9 b. 0!rH ru, ^ *■;»£■, [This jon, or You there. 
J15T.3], HoihtrtI old miai. Soph. Gld. T. lllil. 03th r>, >« lii^' 
JxAi t Ha viBain I flow camat thou hither f lb. 5.1!. A?n ri, «-» rT^if u i 
Af. Thwn. elO, 0?«f, Ti rijUHi . . Bi-int i J^aOw/ BAy ItiK b/hwi Jm* f 
Ear. Ale. TT1 (^ 43-j). See ^ 349. 3. — Thu use of Ri ii very fteqiunt is 
the tragedian*. 

^ S I 8. III. Other compounds of avTot and 3i (^ 150. a] 
are distinguished in like manner with outo; and Sda ' thus, 

'O K^H iMtirmt fjS r«e;*w rtimir*, riiHi rfi, >»» lXi{> Cjr. v. 

2. iiJ Sia. 1). 'O /dr .e<-Mi iT«T U. 3. 33. Exis;:):^ ^)> ,i. rt- 
iMSrm i!n- T,mfif«u » •!}> inntlftn ii. 5. 15. OSrix irri Iuhi 
Xlyu., im n rurm lb. 'EfJ.H-. •Si-i.,, Jm; >» (Xtrw vii. 9. 87. 
T.r.frii iTriF, In .» tA viuhn, iTa ii. 1. 9. 'H^'i r<r<£r.i ArM, 
J«*f rl J;>t lb. 16. 'U/aTt f-ariili A«( Ihh^h n> ^iinXfai ii. 1. 4 
(§ 514). :0P. TirH-«( •&■ r-y.^.!. «iXu. HP. T..avTa ■ fwanB 
)^i»nM rnJ, 'EtOIHI,' Eur. GL 644 (^ 513. i). i ,. 


ift. TlMt„, A \tiyxtm, i«. L 8. I). 
" T-5r-,- IM " «4 •■">'•. I;- ■ »>«,i»i 

Rbharkb. It. "Ot i* also lued for ■*•[ witb an tUipais of the uiUcednit ; 
m^ ■£*«!( t, f, I, [— rMm( J«] tl, m ^19 u yn or* viW [— <ndi m] 
|PH or^ PL PbHlr. 313 e. 'lit yi li ii^ Id. Thiat. 1 97 a. 

0. Tba plan {^ ■ nilatiTe pranona is aft«i mf^ilied bj a kW^nVE adtirb, 
ihkdy in dcaignatiffiii o( piacti Juu, and a n i ji iM r ; as, E*r j^^fUr, tit r S^tt- 
rmi ^iiMrria, to a plant [nbaDcs}, Jhim lehith tiny would icAnU fAe Mi, iv. 
7. SO. '£> tS Sfu. Itimwif InHHVf It. H. 35. Tt .uri r;^"/" - ■ Srrif 
ri w^rtw ^^tCfWat vviTiUf the tame order [aa] toiA ^uU m which he ^rtt <ul- 
vinad to the inHfc, 1. 10. \0. 'O/nia yi^ /ti tmrri rdrxut, £tn( iT 
ni r'i>.i Wl'im ^irSia-m liLw', Symp. iv. ST. Kid rii Stti •'•{••l^ «( 
I]^ Si;L. Soph. (Ed. C. 1 [ 34. 

^ S33. IV. The relative pronouns belong to the clasa 
of adjectioM (^ 73), and, as such, agree wiih a substantive 
ejipresaed or underatood. This substantive, or one correspond- 
ing to it, is also the anlecedetU of the relative. It is commonly 
Keprensed in bat one of the two clauses, more frequently the 
former, but often the latter ; and may be omitted in both, if it 
IS a word which will be readily supplied (§ 447). Thus, 

2nt*i;i>|'it afrrf n-iarivraf, lilr [k. trtntmrm,} Hi»> Cxh *< •«■' "^ 
her the lidieri, ahieh [loldieraj Mem had, i. '^. 30. 'Arari/i^Jimi ir;H lu. 
rit [ac. t) n-fsTiv^B,] J iij^ii rT;i>TiD/i<h to laui back to kim the /nret inAieA 
lu had [what fonx he had], lb, >. Ki^ti ti Ix"' 'It 'ffvitih o^d C^nu hae- 
iup At am union / Ash Bieatioiud, lb. S. Eli H ir i^Unn u/iits [bc 
lOrni I, «;^«] ^.y^x, « it. Iv. 4. a. K.««i«f:..^ « i, i^x- X-t" 
L9. 19. AnfMi-if [m. riniiTHf ^iSi.^ ini Jra> ySiif vli. X. 16. 'Eri;H 
yif ti'nr, >r>i> iffjt;'/^ ^"•f ^- B'"- ^^3- ^'''> i' Ut"h' 'Bf/unn ^in( 
tf.«Ear. Or. 1IS1. 

Kbiukks. I. OQier wnr^, belonging alike to botli claiusB. are labjeot to 
■ dmDar eUipna ; tluu, Tim^i^i In^dwn [ac. Ij^raiJ, ■?( n •irh irrUi 
fxhr tj^w'i T^ue^Aemea appeuredy hatting both the eavairy which he had him- 
lelf brmighl [had coma having], iii. 4. I:<. OTi Ttnirut rlfi ni<^r, Irit 
i^,. ,(««,., t- or, *eJ..,«, «1J.„ «(! ™,J™.. «() j™, *^-, *.i4« 
rfHbfii] PI. R^ 533 a. 

3. It will be obeerred. that when the anlecedent ia expressed in the Bam* 
daiue with the relative, It is comnicnly pot at the end, aa though the net at 
fbe daoH vov regaided aa modUying it like an adJeeiiBe. See $ 536. 

^333. 3. The Ei.uraia of » derBOrutralire promtmi befon the tela- 
tive ia very f>«qaent ; at, indeed, of the wholt anCtetdent, irtaen it can be mp- 
^ied from tbt relative. When this ellipsis of the inlecedent takes place, Irr 
oftoi unites with the relative to fnrm a epecies of ampauiul pronoun or adeert, 
rcm^niiig itself tmehangcd, whatever may be the appropriate Dumber, teua^ 
or mode. Thus. n;iL>f>I.X»T> r(ia!ui X(iim fUi Xnfirtfn, It, ((X" 
ifptf ■ I"' >■ •' 1= J"" !' '•■^"1. <I) »«;, (Aey pnipoMtd ai am. 
icatadnrt, firtt ChiriMtphua, becauee fie had been chosen commander ; and soma 
aUo [thai* were alao those who proposed] Sevuphan, vi. i. S. QXar 'limi, xgl 

(S- 4.] HZLITIVE. — ITrtJtCTinil. 

'Ax>iS>, ■>! Inn it iuur IA.f. IK B. 9C. K«l tn pb >• 

C>1h H. &. B. 4. «. 'EfTa rf»Tnt i - ttmw m ' nt~it^^^ i»l 
J. 4. S. («. E;.: }' mir^ A «!' I 

■d, wit* Ike • I ' - kv Ita ftani is IM 
^■■^■■ f (jL«v«p L 5- 7« 
. IW In, ■• «to ith« sm tiM* 
. iL 6. 9. 'Em B IJb. — rf Hmw Mt H^aM 
^ C7T. rm. 9. .? . *Enw Im *i« tr t^it ifavarww 1 
iiinUiAMtsnMrf«nitfi.r or. Aa^ 1 » l*if««hii« 
dtala ion r T. T. 6. (M >«« I^' 'n' / *'^' ^°t'^ ^^ T. 418. 

Sam. («) Fta> a riMlw i^M af In [-^ lum] wift lh« wliliT^WT» 
■rum tlia ODDiponda hni, ««H, and k^M, (BwAbw. 1*) Tti JLpwi w— - 
Ura» HtaHb aw to da aahitaDliTa nb itMlf i tfaaa, ■Om> [Iv *Em 
7r«J, H lamtfltu, Lae. 10, 1. 

^JS94* V. The iBbmaie relaiion of clausea oonnected 
hy a relalice pronotut, or a kindred particle, ori«a produce* 
an ATTiACTtON, sometimes simply affetiing the foutio* or 
fvrm of partiadar words, and sometimes even nmUing tha ' 
two dmuet in one Not nnfrequenily a combination results, 
which may be regarded as a species ^ eompotmd or eompUa 
pronotat. Thus, 

^ S9S. A.) A word or phrase is of^n made a part of 
the relative, instead of the mOeeedent, elmue ; and aometimcs 
the two clauses are blended in their arrangement. Hius, 

trinfft^ Eor. Or. 853. Bit 'A»tu> ffin, h 'Of»m tgx' ^f-^it "l 
ttimi^.,., [far w.xi.i, ..1 <iS.;>.».] iiL S. 17. E.V1 .»}', 1. l{ l/iit 
;E»(Jt Ili^l >)■;•! !■ n rmr^ It Ij^uii J^t"'. ■' R- ' leU ™e r(s|wcting my 
KHi Polydonu, whom yaa have,' Eur. Uec 9SK. T<vtii> y lU. 9>rr»>»., 
J. ri ri> •(>;(. iruVx 8cr[A. AnL 404. -E*if> ri»i^>, i }ii t.ui rk 
futrif/tmrM iri iru^M, il.^/i mMX^nPl. Tbaet. 167 b. Olri, In) 
titi^l Mtm rl r^y^u, il«;t;«fim> [ftK- In] Wim « rffj'^a, iWuii 
<t«X«ew»], Abac, Khn t% tmdtrltaad Of matttr,' tmamaHoUlf leUktlrtK, B. 
Or. iii. 8. 4, a>e S ^^^ 

Rbhark. We observe this construction particularly, 

a.) In txjmtaaaa oT tuu and piuBU% «ltl] tbs n^ierlatiM ; aa, ITii^a. 

■ hmrf^foim,], n alofi BHhmmr to b jiruait [moat qolcUy. wbm^ oi inn 
lu n AoH acampliilud, CjT. iv. 5. 33. "llj <ii^.™i l-» rrifmnm, Uw>n 
i». 3. 9, 'Em! Wi nf^.Vr*, . . iriiin, ai toon ai hi had atmt, ki mid, tL. 
5 6. -Hy-yw . . ;-;».(i. lyi -J..,Vr«. »«J^,.. / Aa« iro-jAt (lll« m«t 
iriich] dj nuny at I amid, CjT. It. 5. ^9. "Ej;-. ;*<■(.( w J. tinr" '>■"- 
rT.w,b'|-Kfitngii(.>aiiyiiirM<uA<*hmZ<Ib(a£^i. 6. 3 (-' 5'I\.fi)- 'Ht ^i- 
kirrt ai.mri j«-'>>i>irn/'t»r i. !■ 6, 'A^V"" • ■ '"■" """'" ''""'i™ 
■ri. 6. 1. -Ex.;.*. i, l^rJ. J. cix'"* '*""» ■■" /'"t « "« f"!"**. CjT- 

». 4. s. n./,™, I >«-t;. [«. !*■«] ^x,«-- i. fl. 15. ^e-«' ■ • -• 

A « [m. jf.f ^y*« «f»*-y»i«« iL 4. 24. "Kw J< "•«■ *» '" 


Htm Tin *erd deaatlng pitailiilltf i> often understood ; Am. 'fir n(- 
;^n [k. Intri. Ji] ir.eiH>«», to i-ure* u. fnioUy M pWi«/e, I. H. 14 

8. ST. '1h> w «->.»rn. ftU it^» l> «•> 7<-l«i <Im, « kXmxtrfm U «<«>f> 
(Ml lb. 8». &^&E,iit» ■;[ n> 'ArU> tr. rix-*" («■ '' )^»»] tU. /. 8 
(In ia thia (oiBtTuullan wiA th« w p wl Mi i w i> Iki iiflikr (r* tmi. luad Ml- 
wtriiaUf'). •Qrni It, i<r>(>n.i»n^riH-» XiICh ^anXU, (*■< lb mk^ bib 
Ac ieijr m mmfnpani at jnnuUi, i. 1.6. °0f ra.iiVrm »i SiArirrm lb 
'On, V Ifim ifiacb. A«. SOO. *0«> rrt^C'Tra Soldi. El. 14:13. 

$.) In the uw of Ihe ialgSuts, •rhich, evea tn codipoliition villi 7( (^ f I9v 
fl), oftai Mea lo Modg in force to tbs laUoedeDt da ua : tkaa, 'Hytiiiim 
■;«;> Kipt, bri( . . ^rafu L>- iiyt)ti» nri, tt J, la Mt C>nH /v awu ^iiula, 
■*o ■B»M Bwrfert am. i. 3. J1. 'Er*» In [=>ri, I}n lilwMi i /i 1A« 
o^U n ■nUc* / luBX wnaigid yon r 1. fi. 7. K<^ AULir tmm if }M^l<b 
T. .!. 13. Oil lmr(ltif*, Irw ^ii Inrmrpw I>i>a . . Iiui^i![i», '[uiywhel^. 
lrb« ha did not] except when,' i. S. 9. Sea $; SSO, 5'iS. 

§ S36. B.) The RELATIVE takes ihe ease of the mU. 
cedent. This is the conimon construction, whea ute ai4TEC£< 
DENr is a Gatitive or Dative, and the relative would prop- 
eriy be an Aeeuaatwe depending upon a vtrh. Thua, 

"Em rSi <r>Xr», ^i Twn9l;ni Itiyx"" ^X"'- f"™ <*• '*'>"• "^^ ^^ 
tapkemtt hippaud la lum, i. I. H. T^ i<I(], ^ » IXirA, wiit^tMt, I teUl 
tier tte Man. MtoM |<ni *u^ (AoMS, LS. IS. 'AJid **( iXiv/ifiiH, Hi ■(Mntrh 
L 7. ». (Cf. '& M-i «■»;■», ii. .in^rwiv. I. I. Tm MiiHnit « ta 
rit T»;c» Ia-:» it. T. 17.) Itirm, J> rii IwiiM. '-=1/1, turtltmt, 
§ 4:I4] .kXi;! (Kc ii. 1. 'A{;t:tn-a( iir.;ii J,- Mnrrjift-t x-^t" 1- »■ '* 
£li-.i. 1<> Mi* ^wif 3x- iinrm wry ^fi Soph (Ed. C 3S4. ISitm. 
Vimi tSni ami (jt;"' ''*'*" Hem. iL 7. 13. TTi^mw y* t>ni ab> Aiyui 

. If til 

(«f , e», 21, [K. U.;»„] A Ix-, -■'A 
A ,JX" "■ S. 1 7. -A./- J, u' I<r./« 
rtfrlff lb. 21. 'EIiUhi U TiSr, 

0. SooMinMs, thoogfa na«l7, Ibt ZM. *nd «vgn Ch« Vmi. ■ 
like manner ; u, '11' [— UnW, iTr] (tr/cTii, nkXivt, maay of Mm hMb 
h ilidrKM^ Cfr.T. 4. 39. 'E{ J> [= U>i'i*>, J] /<><' Im«H;» t-ijoM,, /rax 
•nbit Itt luu bvn wUh aUtr parif, leocr. G» c (^ 4.;0]. fijiimr^n A^ al. 
[= iHiMn, i] lyu' WMfirmdarrm, In if iaj'anJ jy lAlv (Aulgi mUcA iIok Am 
j/rtjiartd bj/ u [in nqiact to which prapaotion haa been uiads by u*}, Th. viL 
67. OCJin u iJUni T» >• n^ ^}i.- Hdt. i. 7S.^-Whaa the aJgit af a . 
lari ii itlnded, Che verb, if reUHDed, becoma irapeiwinal. QL \ b-i». 

y. Tia rda&ai foOowtd bi/ 0iuAii maj , la iT a cnrnpnund pnnHnn d 534), 
agrre with the antacedent In anj case ; IltUB, rii;i FliXii}.>HTiii, S dXfca* Tnr 
[^ irtmt] ^'^Xu, raptctintg Pafy^notuMj or any athrr one w^pfla you j^hik, FL 
lo, 333 a. Ti tiu, j Jmi ^.r:!!. Jjl;Lj, ^./^: td. Crat. 4S'J a. Ob r,i. 
•VI •! S>v;iii I'f/arTw Id. Gorg. 517 b. Compare, la Lat., ^idu. 

1. BBi^aTm ADVKSBa an likawlia aAolad ^ attraecioo ; thus, AiHttfil' 
mr tUr nUUw [whrnca] fnm tl< jilcHct mWi ti^kmdjiat Omt fir m^. 


f» [— Uwi SroJ x'mi ■(^■'n Air(|«> li^iuf BMt. Ipk. T. IIB. CC 
$5SST. a,53I.«. 

^ 59 r . C. ) The aktecedbnt takes the ease of the nla- 
tioe. This is termed inverted attraction. Thus, 

A»A» -;•-« J 'A<ril.;u» SW. [— Si.ii] A Hu Siu.. ApaUo mad, huwm 
te kirn At gadi la wfum k autl taerifiei, iit 1.6 (cC Qmifum A aHilir 
i Si^f lb. H). -0« .Vi»t)iiH^n« «i.». [=1 rii>T>], <:. Ii»m, xirfayir,, 
,"!,, a. Gr. t. 4. 9. 'AiMmt- ^f fry. «M»> [^ nX.Va,,] J. if jmt. 
j^/tHlcLIM. II. T^> [— An.] 1- ^ni{ .Ir*;^, i( M««. A^i.;^ iV^ 
m ^'n, x>i{«« ■{« ri Sopb. Tr. SS.S. Aiyn V h V''™*" ifrwi 1^ 
mix"r. J<^ rtfiUx^ yimi 14. (Ed C- 1 1 ja To !>){■ «^«, J> rrf. 
X« CuTUf, . . MtrJi Irr» I.Afli Id. <Ed. T. 11B (^ 49gj. KH-»(.'Tm( U. .^ 
j^u«{iii( ftttk Jhh, if n avTM uiiifm/ttt, usTii aTmi ilrn t. 5. 1 9. 

RIUIARK. loTertad iCtnction siqwan aln in ADVUiHa; thna, Binu ■iiAt 
[=> <i;n], Ih. wn ].u, to rnn MlUr, igAna k* «», Soph. (Ed. C. tTST. 

{j 536. 1, 531.0. 

^jS3S> D.) The two claiweB are ^oi^Ai into mm by 
tlie ellipsis of a tulstmtive verb (cf. ^ 538). This is termed 


omitted either (a.) vntk the anUeedaet, or (b.) tmlA lAe rWo* 


B.) With thb Ahtecsdekt. We' here distinguish the fol- 
lowing cases : — 

1.) AJt«r B Amait^ra^ jfnMDu or artidt, Qm KBi.Anvs b aba m^tad, 
•nd the axtkckbkbt tak«a iti plan in the ooratniction. Thia feirn at con- 
llwiwtimi ii particnlArlj frnpiml In fnofwiu Uld exciamaiimu, enpfldallj with 
liU poeU. Thiu, T; rS' «U$i [— T! tm rili, f >ilf(] i What it tkk, 
Klikkyo* mff Eur. Ale. 106. T>V i^ riii' [=■ r/i ifi, Un ih, h'] M 
tn-mT, i^ , HHul »» u Mil, mAo^, r ttt bji At Unt»t Id. Bee. T (I. Tl 
«<;/ -(i^'un i'MTUi ■■<•• , Sopli. Old. T. im^. OTa> ix-i"' n''^' If >»• ' 
WItat a aipif it thii, wAich Aim hail pndnctdl Eur. ton, \-tii^. T»n ^t 
.^>. S.i'^ErrJ. kiy„, PI. Prot. ^ I R b. T.'i J <-;«h [= Tic l«-i • n/n, Ii] 
■ir.h ;.•'• I Soph. Ph. GO I (■« ^ 4R0. >). K.l.i> yi /u. n£.i.}.i lE«.i.1» 
*«f, tt( nynmch mkidi yn Aom cut i^xm mtUam Ainar, Ear. IjriL A. SOS. 
In the lelltnriiig •euteiKC, there appean to be ■ union belwBen ui en/uinatin 
mllnmt a ttri, And ■ niatire dauM ; TtSn Ifiit % mri; SmiJvmv ■uuV 
[-='n 9ii<«-if x'sui, tSi ni «tJ» Vi;] t 7^ cmd dtatk ay ^^iMcr hw.' 
Soph. D. ^05. — Eiprewona like tbe foltowing are alill nuin eUi|iUcal ; "E^m 
i Tfirnf yiM [= irri x''t'"< ' "^f'ty''] ">-'^-rM,. ako-t Ikert ii a pLict, 
triuA it calltd Tri]igrgia, H. Gr. V. I. il). 'E> J uAiu/it> ri J^^i. in iMch 
M Mot »A»A va coiU urK. PL Pbndo, 1 07 c. 

9.) Ovli;i wftb Jr«( •» (or Knnetimss ft «i) fbrma a ipecia* of cmxpttoBl 

jvmnm (^ 5-^4) ; as, OUth Jmi ,tk ifilim. lAna ij »> a«, ra(n irill oK 

aotrtfnm, V«n. ]>!. 14 |rf. OiltU t: trn, .i. ^in H. Or. vii. J. KG). Ka. 

«>r<''V •• '/^' •')•'• I"" »- "^ '>«*l ••"^'^ '<^ a« w, PI. Hipp. H^. 

' SaO A. Oikii U -ix' »')' ••«1h'' Soph. (Ed. T. 373. <Mla>j( ' . mUs 


Im,] fna (t «(t««> Jt f^ *■/' AX.*.'- •r.rJif ■;*> PI. Prot. <l I T e. O^ 
iMl Iff tbiL iriLfnifVH Id. U«H>, 7(> c Ilifi Ji •£!.» ■.'•}«>» [= tlAu 
ml^ltl t;] Itnt tix ii-i^iMi •! ■-{iynu Ueiii. ^93. 7. ~ So, with u in- 
t«rn)gativB lor »)■», T^m j]ir/i »ti>s •■ ^(ns^iif rfpitu iririnrtMt 
TIl iii. 39. 

§ 399. b.) With the Relative. This occurs with 
the relatiuet of comparison, oio-r, ii-iiK, iUx"i:, which then unite 
with the aubatantive or adjectivt; fulluwing, to form a speciea of 
compound adjective. To this, as to other adjectives, the article 
may be prefixed ('J 472). Thus, 
x-rtJ^i,^ ^y r«' i.v [= i-V ™«''». "'" '" -n. -^V"? « """■ "<* 

« y^« onr [■ euca ab tou mui], M«ni. ii. tl. X O! » J» «, i^u, a.}{>i, 
ik( [the BltCH ta 10U men] nun >/ ywi- ritni, or nn fijie yan, Cjr. vi. ^'. 2. 
rifii ftl;!!! n;L^R{.w ••in; »1 'A/nta/in Th. \Hi, '.'I. '0>T>, T» ■-■I'oiTx 
llnrrirn [= titirir, mi Irr, IdiiTsmj, lAe coU Aeinj [suC^ 08 i> mort 
drudful] c/ U< wiX iaifut tfiul PL Conr. liJO b (»e iv. K. t \ rii. I. -J4). 
M*x-'S''" •'" E*"'-" A.««.,*, [— »#.Et», Jm i»i Eml, A«.««ii»], o 
kmijt about the tin of the Spartan aumit-veitrfl^ iv- 7. 16, Eimm JrSfa jtt^v 
tx;>« 0w.c;},1ar [=1 nil.i<.i;T», i>/>4 e».Kli?n( lrr<], iE'Xir/o. Ar. Ach 
70:1. Au>» T»Vi> ik.'jtnri .^> Id. EccL 465. — In like manner, Tif iripn-w 
ftvM it]; iSrtf rn r^idw PI. Pbaido, 1 04 a. 

BnuBKS. B. A tahftantivc of a diffrrati mmAer fbllowing the idadva 
nnuiiu in theJVontiula,' as, Nibiisi I' iliw [^ T«>iiT>v(, Jii] rvibHtrox^ 
mtm iHCh ta you. T« ilini-i; >»-» fm.>, d/ dwi lUit him, H. Gr. i. 4. 16. 

fi. In ttiia cuutnKtJon,' Ir>i' is commoiilj uaed in (he maittt fatwi %tn, M 
im^sefiAdUe, and maj be often regarded u a mere adverb ( § 4 jO. 3, 6) ; thiu, 
Oi !m7f rtirta Irit l£aii«ii, 'as mia; at dlX),' or, 'about fi(K),' i. R. S. 
AmUi . . tm rfixmrnt t{tm vli. 3. Wd. 'Arix" It" ■■•■{■^frr«^ ' about 
. ■ ptuaaang,' ir. £. lo. KW v^Csra ?rn Si^ra, luuf thtep \t» muy ai tlw 
«*aidcaa would be] aumgh for taerifiix, vii. 8. J 9. So, doubled, 'Ort U- 
triyjii Ai.Vet^m. See 3 4^LI- >■ 

y. In Ibe Epic, the demomtrativa is sametiDKS eiprused Instead of 0» 
nlatlre; as, Tifitn . . Iiriu.i. »?•> [^ >-«", »'•( Un inuxii] f. 1246. 

^jSSO. £.) A BELATivB FBONonN lakes the plsce of a 
dmonttrative proTtoun and a eonneetive particle. 

The tenn rfiwnriifrntii> pnnomn, aa here oaed, Indodee the pertonal onnami 
and the articb. See -' 467. 1. Of this fom of attnction there aie two 
kinds, accordinft as the demonatratiTe belongs to the firtl or t>ie meoid rf lb* 
two clansu which are united. 

0.) When the demonitralivB bdon^rs to the finl dame. In this kind ot 
attraction the pronoun Is commonly eiliier gpoemed Ay a prKp/vHuiM or advtibi, 
er is itself mtd udBeibmilg. Thus, 'Ef' f [= Ir. t'ir'i. iirrt] /tn ui'iii rii . 
»>■•■, MpaK Ihit omdilum, Ihal Uieg Aoald not bant Iht riUiiget. iv. -,'. I S (et, 
■a.i r--»)i, irr, Th. iii. I H). 'Eff ^ r. [=l.ri «i^ -".«] *»,■- «*• 
xiyiit, /v tike parpoet of cn^tia^ [ for tMs purpose, that we might collect} 
Muefa, vL A. S3. Mi^^ *' [— rw x;l«v, I« | ii}», lufi/ [the time when],v. 4. 16 'of. Hj^;. «r.Jr», I.( Th. L W). Hijt;;' Jl-=i'"»:— 
iwr, Irfc] iA w^M w InarriK (/uri ■>/{«■'«, ' to the ret.'ioa where,' i. 7. S 


Ai^t ixp >J [= n> rirMT, J", irpol^c fir. iTki, ' u hr u,' Cji. v. 4. 
IC 'Evii rfrwift^^tiar rtat 'A^nXmiut ft^xf ^*"*' <tirai mktvsii* H. Gr* 
It. S. 1'2. -Bi 1t.v i*aiif,nri, (iwx At Aod iw <il>rwd, vii. S. 4. 'E> ^ U 
iri-IZ-rt, and takihl Ihcg kvk arming, a, a. 1£. 03r„ li ^IH ^.],>( piri- 
Irti, tSnm [tl Iiimt '" riirtii Tiiui, Jti] 'Arjii'iaf »r»ytr, ' because,' Soph. 
Fh. 585. 'A>«' J> (— 'A>ri v«;nis J«], iicwue, Id. Ant. lOfitt. 0« hnu 

fiyt it, irin ^iktm Hem. IL 1, 18. 

t ftlxp •' '>'' 'n" ■■ ■ oDmpoDiul adverb gor- 

^ JC 3 I • b.) When the demooetntiTe belonga to the Keond dmai i tt, 
til irrm ^itlT-i, Irrii [^^ri Uu,;} ri fi.ik,rmi » f^Xn •'•« | tTie it 
to mad, tkat Ai iloit not Kith [or at not lo mitk la In jnwr friend f iL 5. 1 9 
' (we ni. n. (i I viL 1. .la). 'A«(«> iff) . ^ •!'»••( ''UMn, il u (A( pari of 
ttkua vidaiif Fnnira; lAuf fky lAiwU witA, or (u vijA. ii. 5. U 1 . Ovx fvni 
.Sn ^H, h »>H|-V Ijj Soph. AuL -jm. T»wT» JX^, .; [>>= im mi. 
rm, irrt' ti UXirirmi, tuck grief, that ht Kill nettr Jurga it, Eui. Ale. 198, 
K«r«fj(nj'^T rit r> ynaixtt^ Jtv Atifit [ ^ «n rtfi^df «i3f jf ] rri^ain, ami 

iny, botk the Ktfe, that the hud htt ta£h a Atft 6tj n rf, and the hutbami, that, tt a mg 
inch a mfe, ht Kould naier tthoU htr wort, Cvr. viL S. 1 3. O; Ji Jirnm 
r^»«., .;» 1. U^». ini>,<»< Enr. Ale 948 (« 435. 4> 

KoTBS. a. Akin to this coiutnictioD ii the extanmTn ose of the rdatiw 
in txptanatim, or the attignmtttt of rtaMon or purjnte ; an, Smv/tarrif rsnTi, 
It • • lilwf, you conduct ttrauffeif, \ytht> givej that you five, or in giving, Menu 
ii 7. 13. 'OrXn nrSrrai, A iftunit-nu nvf iiiin.Tn,, ffkey pri^lart arrat, 
that Kith thae Ihty mag npd aitailaalt, lb. 1. 14. fLt.1 rii-u Yi/nj-n rn, 
Urif n/tani, and und far out to the eify, to five uotict, Eur. Iph. T. IWS. 

fi. RojiTirt ATVEBBa likewise exhibit this tbrm of KttracCioD (cT. ^i S26. 
1, 5^7. R.) ; u, EiinifiK, yif ^« • i-ni ifaitiT^ . . i, L^:« »»!] iiiM 
n^ ytttatMt X'Tt'tAVTa, fat the niajt apptared to Mf happg, that he died to fear, 
kt^g oMd mobtg, PI. Ptuedo, S« e. S>f» r* »fi4» 'EiiAi, ^ ;#/» ..Xm 
Bur. Iph. T. 1180. 

^933. Remark. Forms of comparison are especial!; 
liable to altraction snd ellipsis (cf. ^^ 391. y, 461) ; thus, . 
Hi» <-> S>r,t Jf-t )T;-rr», 2n; [=> U>.'>«(, Ji-ifl rit /•■r' ixx... ;>nr, 
[Ilka things, which, tAiin^ ttk fo iAoii Khich,' v. 4. ^J4. 'Eit ^It j r^i^n 
I nf»ri.»,la, .7j«( ..i r(ir«i> Ij^Jt. *«( ii™( i. 3. 18. Oir, yij >'v«h 
wr' j;«-{.. ir'nnttt ^iXi, tier [= r.».!r.B, tJn] rt tSi 'Af(.J.Vd.[ r*n> l» 
f^{£< '^( Eur. Hipp. 530. Twwro 91 Im^ifio i/^i liT ri> 1«Sa«, Jen 
>i ^. 1w;l« Jl>»ni fw }>r<rJn.( iwKfmZr,,, V>i K . . )>»»[ ti7 m», 
' insomucb as this, that slaves,' Cjr viiL I. 4. TH'ivrii ^h> n iyiymrittt, 
If.> [=S»> r»vh Sti] hm- 'A/<i»ri> i!»i, 'so far as this, that I heard,' 
SL 1. 4j. T^ ^1. £.9,. T.,^., iyiy,.^.... Sr, := l.« ■t.St., l-r.* ,1, i^ 

1.-./I. Fl. Eothjphr. 1 1 d. 'Eiu' .,. »>!. «*««■. 

, ;.«« fl^l«./, Ir^ 

>■} ffenT, miKfitv, 'inasmuch as,' So|>h. Tr. 3 

I'J. n(,t)Ji,TH Ire. 

laj JHi(« iinu lu ri hi»wrtM7rlu,, • until,' vt 3. 



Sots. 'Our ti, [jmrt so nmA m not to b«] ailg B«b oB ^ 1« iffBd ■• » 
■iinpls adverb Ulm millsa irmi) ; thus, Tir /tiXXim *mi U" ri •e^t'rra 

^tS33* VI. A BELATiVE sometimes ininxluiieH « clausa 
which (a.) has another coanectwe or a piftieiple absolvU, nt 
which (/3.) is properly eodrdinaie} aod, ob the othiir band, a 
COOBDINATE CLAUSE sometimes (y.) takes the jAace of a reia- 
live eltaue, or (J.) ia used in anUimuUiofi af U. Thus, 

>. TltX}.m » iinri Tx«» '0>»Au >E>, J rJT 1.' t;<ii')»t>, <»«. j«. 
jL»n, 1A( <%iifAiaiu nwU mm ttutitiim many tkiiigt, xhiclt, bad Ihtp then fin- 
MSi, EAeji uaiild jtot Aon ptrit/xd, Oetn. 12B. n. 'Oi i<'>.3A n-Lti/tmlu . ^ 
iMutH • • ivkiyvKn, t^when who percHved > ., he compelled] t£^, mhen ht 
pBceivtd . ., conj^lKi, Lac 10. 4. OJ, If^ [= .7, ■;;> .£ti7(] wivrm t^u. 
» T« •riXI»i, •» • tjt^Kir Fl. Rflp. 46S a. CT. S33. 2. 

decreed bj/ prophetic re^oiuet ; <a ep^cA ''n 3"*^ p^ w ^rpi^rd, Soph, C£d- T. 
TS3. 'OP. T:^j/<f' if^ wUn, \t1 pi't Airim Jt;«w>- IITA. 'U 
"t"'' *^ KP^* i ' [Wbich will decide vbU?J Atul gAat will <Ui Jra4tt 
Eur. Or. 756. 

y. 'E£>Tar>i . . 'Oivrria, t 2.Vi>f«, ) axitrt r<>;»M £• m ifir«, b> ennn* 
IT^UM, Br Siiyplua, or [one mi^t mention t«a thousand others] (n lAnuani 
oA^en toAim nw hd^Ai mtittioit, Pt. ApoL 41b- 

$ 334. i. E».t n /.>»<■;»«« iwi ri, ifxi'- ^' ''"' '•t*"" 

Imnri, naJ rrfn-Tiiyii Ji tirU ■n'liiji i. 1. 2. Thtg coostraclJon h wlopt- 
«d ehieflj lo avoid the repeti^on of the rehuive, ii; accordance with the tA- 

Remabk. l^e repetition of the reJattee is commonly aeoid- 
ed, either by etlipsit, or by the subsliliition of a demonttrative 
or of a pa-ioiud pronoun , as, 

'AfsTif J), U ifiuf litiXtiu' OunxU •ahrrAitt, ■*) [ec f\ Uwi^w a«l 

lp£fA«f to tmJie Aln^, and to whom we yne and from lehom in received piedgee 
that IH inould not betray each other, iil 3. 5. 'F-nuw, tU ti fui.u m butm 
4»j^ii[, il~X.k ^Si i^HT* rl^mm, ;»ri PI. Pbcdo, 82 i. 'H>w », «> 
Sfll<f«). ^> .iiiit wi(irr,., iirf^nira^,. » !t' -jri. iil. I. IT. Hw M 

Wlicre mng u Mift nun, wb> Amtid uifti hi, atui uAm jfm HUHd tn ma gtaaOf 
to admire? Cyi. iii. I. 3S. 'Eauu m'wi, m >» l;t;a;i'7»4' ••' xij^wif, •>>* 
If ;%»■ ■^.w Dem. 3S. 3. Ksl >£. ri ;c^ i($> , Srr„ kf^iS, 3iH( ljt;fc;^ 
MX, ^nT >i ^' 'EA.Xiiiv> rr^rii Soph. Aj. 4&T. — So, wbeo the pronoan tf 
npealed In the ume eeatoice ($ 499) ; ae, !'»-;•.> Ri^Uf', »• x^ r 
Uiwna v^il' M( 'StiXn ftit, 'whom jaa ooght to drive (W],' Em 
Andr. 649. 


^ 333* Prom the connective, and, at the same time, «n- 
i^nite character of the complementary pronouns and advertut 


(^ 8St9. N.)i fl>c)r prepet Come are those of the iad^nile rel- 
oUms {(j 519. 3). Bui, when ibere will be no danger of mm- 
take, there is often employed, for the grenter brevity and vi- 
vacity, in place of the full compound form, one or the other 
elemeul, eillier the relative or the mdejmiie. Of these, the 
latter is far the more frequently used, but with this distinction 
from the indefinite in iU proper senx., that llie accenhialion of 
tha atmpomd form ie retained, as far as possible. Thus, 

n^> Kxn iTnu, 1 r, H ixXM -CiXfiflf tr.iLtnn'rm, h^fhn It ft etidaa, 
wkal Hit oltv Omla viff omht, i. 4. 1*. 11;!. )il» Am., rl vurtnH-.. il 
IXXm *EU<H, lb. t*. '11. h,\^, .i, t,pf i. 9. as. '-Bpt^ Ti, I ii. 
(■Cx •r*. . . Kai i^i«, ; T. •;■ TJ rM*^ i. e. is. aayurm f(inM, 
3rt„ ^ IkM, Inw, I, n f,li ffX« Eur. Hipp. 914. '0«'<I*.i ^it Xi- 
ytit fwun KifM, liULf yiyfavrn ii. 6. 4. '0{«, l> (Tair U/iii iii. I. IS. 

ih rtin tt nim irHtxia, ttt' iitit i' ■'( ix'^ X'^" Jnimn il. 
0.7. Ti rw r^x"' y^ <«>•)(. •' ■-{•Cilnnu Eur. Ak. 785. ZmCMAtAri 
n *S, i, ri„ ^x^, n«r. L T. S. O! >' «f<^'n., mirit r( frj^riivw, 
Iwittt n Jn Mil hii rhi rmuXiy^hn It. 4. IT. 'Bf*« >h«, rtr** 
»-- Ijt" vii. 8. ». 

JS36> Remarks. 1. The indefinites thus employed 
accented are termed in Etymology, from the most promi- 
nent of their olficea, intehsogatives {^ 152. 2, 317). As 
complemeniary words, they were employed in indirect ques- 
tion ; and hence appears to have arisen their use as direct 
intermgatireif through an ellipsis. Thus, from the indirect 
question, Jiini, xtra ynafxTiv ixn? iifi Ttii fto^ilat, *ay, what 
, opinion you haee respecting the march (ii. 2. 10), by the omis- 
sion of tiai, comes the direct question, lUa yiiiisti* tlfoc I'v* 
T^{ jtofilai ; What iqiinion have you respecting the march 1 
So, from Miatt nvt nijOi pi, tl ir r^ ix"', tell me, therefore, 
what you have in mind (iii. 3. 2), comes, -li {r r^ ijfEie ; What 
haee you in mind 1 

Hvm. •■ In a&a languaga, ■■ tba Lit., with ttiMs denred fitHn It, 
and Iha Eog., ths complementiiry uu of tli« nm/Jt nlatioa hu prerdled; 
■ad bcoet^ in tfacM languages, the gancnl identilv of tha ra/nnnci and Ihe I'n- 
Umgatam. Thiu, icAo, wUc^ whtH, &a., are both relative and inlvni^tive. 

S. Id dinot queatlon, the Greek employe only one of tha two abortcr fbmu 
above mentiuned, bat Id txctamatim il «up|Dy> bollL 1 thua. Ot/m, <ririf, ri 
Jh[I lU It il(ym,\ O mg foAtr, vfial haim yiw iiidt Anw ^u Irani 
■■/ So|*.Tr. 1203. or tfy- imiinrf, ,1m f liti-tir/', Ji.t J' iiu,i, 
•WhI Id.(Ed.T. 1328. 


u on echo to an interrogative, has, for dislinction's sako, ita 
fiill form ; thus, 

MM- Tit r^ t!i AO. [&s.'S|*rf«] 'Qrrui IlWrw xcwJf 


Lnn. For yibe mreymt tXe. [Ai jfw wt] ITaoT A gaud eiliza, Al. Adl. 
594. ZAP. Olrw, ri irHiif , AION. 'O ti n<f i Id. RsiL 19S. ETa. 
Ti'ia >{i>p» » riy(a<mu , £nKP. "H-fiiai 0» il^itn, I^}4 I(«l 

n. Euthyphr. ! b. KA. n*( i. »£« y In {i^X*'i''>'' > '*-&.'Owii. 
Kl »H( i/u> . . }ii'ii TH »/«;«.;«. Id. Leg. 6G3 a. 

3. A coiaplementary clause of\en expressea merely a eon- 
ditian or a eircimttance ; and the ct>mpleme«iary c<H)8tniction 
IB sometimes used where the relaliue might hnve been. Thus, 

AM', Irx irri, fw U, wlioaier Ae mag be, Soph. El. 1123. T» i,ii 
twmiAi THrn, trr„ Irri. fii Id. (Ed. T. 296. AuAuvH* »>••'<, J « nr' 
•JrJi H Si>/ Eur. Or. 4 IS. K^i hhhk af'tn nmfyiii iThu. ( « rvyji^iii 
^Xi|«<« HrifyiiCiWi I 9. 20{cr. Z«»<r*l - ■ <'hu «>n«. Ith Ill.:il). 
*iU«r' i> iuiirM,^ ri i.,^, ri, <J»( U« )uii( Xiyu. [— .'h^ nn«, Ir. 
m '', noit ^adlji Aould I htar At wmk, vAn (Awn if of muh pawtr m jpsnisif 
[~ Ilia Dams o( him who iij, a. 5. 19. *A/Xs iwiri^ At ii^> ii>^( ^ui. 

^«S38. 4. Condensation. The antecedeat and com- 
plementary clauses are Bometimed brought iith) one by the el- 
lipsit of a tubittmtdve verb (cf. ^ 538). The verb is omitted 
either {a.) in the antecedent, or (/3.) in the eomplemetUary 


■. lu ths iXTtCEDBUT CIAOSK. Thi> occun with [uffKtiMJ i/ aifwiroKss, 
which nnit« with the compleroentuy word ^camiDonly ir,i ui ii) to fonD a 
eempla adjvtm or adeoli (d*. $$ 538, !, A!9) ; thus, Soi-^iirTi. fr*> 
[^ Qma/trntrh imt, Ini>1 «;i li rftlufimt I;^», fl il Kiuakr/iil hint HHcA r»- 
fonf A* Wybr- pm, PI. Akc. 151 a. H.ri Sfilni SM^fnf !»> Id. Rep. 
aSO d. Smifucrrir riwK x^'f tnt ld.Epia.9B2 0. Qsiywrr^ ii — Smk- 
^rrt. irrn, i, _ In.W*. Id. Phodo, 93 a. eiLt^tri, f^, Jn, i, rmf^ 
itiat Tb. 99 a. 'A^ix"" •'" Xl'""' ■» na-naiuabl^ hng timt, lb. 80 e. 
'A>l|3).t^i ri ftv nil t^^Xftut iftnx"" ri tTn Id. Chartii. I.^.S c 'T«-i;- 
feSi it x'''(- Id-Cnnv. 173 c llr «() otrlf f^J-ii infMi Irn At. Plot. 
760. 'X^»<i ;™ Hdt. IT. 19*. 

fi. In the coKPUUiEirTARY;be. To this elUpeia may be reared tha 
emplDpneat oT a crnnplementar; word (cammonl; with <2t or Is ). as a nere ■■' 
definitti thus, VLwtV imtmrn furth [^/urMi ram, Irrit tit l7ii] rftrtuTi- 
m, Itot denuiiuUng any pug whalcvtr [it miglit be , vii. 6. ST. 'H iXX' in. 
•;• nr any thing eltc aJiatimr. C.vr. i. S.3S. OA' Jmir in(< TivrH Iin/»jrAi, 
lu Mitfi Hol (Ai &iul HKiifim u/' Iha, lb. 1 2. 'Omiir»i, n inji wajr vAatRvr, 
tb. ii. 1,27. 'OTtt}n '"(lyyuirx'tti, w nnt whosoever it iniybL hnve been] 
hiBxmg nggatut it. It. T. SA. f^n yi( iritSr r(iyftm tri )• irtmit 
tx-r- iffn. ir>«" r'r»ir>M. i P. Ale 143 c H^ L»»~t ^irl' If 
*IM> uini|ot»f PL L%. g 1 9 d. ET T.( il.»r'ii •<rinjwi CfT. ilL S. 33. 

Ncnx. For an additional remark upon complementary worda, lea $ 539. %, 

G. Ikterbooative. 
^ SSO. The interrogatives are, in Greek, simply the i»> 
definite' vnth a change oj" accent. For iheir origin, their cw* 
f>lbn>nUarif Me. and their vte in exclaauUiont see ^§ 535, S^ 

OB. 4.] IKTEE-KOOATIVE. —'jlXot. «7 

Tar Uu Die of Iha artidt with InteirogBtlTM, aee § 4S0. For uumpJei 
«f cnidaugil nttm^R mCeiun, He j S28. I. 

Rkkakkb. 1 , The uxtEr i-/ un[tea with nvsnl particla to (brm tOiptieal 
eiprsMnima ; which, with Tarious ipedfia offlceo, nerve in geQerkl to protnote 
the vii/or and BoacU^ of the diacoam ; aBt Tf ^f [Ac Irrir^ or Ai^nl i 
itx"-r'i •utn^iti" if^. lym rai ifini^, tl/u , 'Whatthen?' v.7.10. Ti 
.If I V. 8. 1 1. T; ti , Hem. li. 1. 3. T; ISt. , Tect. 4. S8. 

3. The Gredi idiom (a) admita a gnala fradai than the English, in the 

woBDa ; and even (ft) allowa the use of more tAm one ia the same clau«a. 
Thoa, — (a) T/ . . Hi, mim'rm, rmSrm ••mriyymi-i >^w i [Hiving Men him 
doing what] IFkat kmt jnni ten him do, Ihalyim thtujadgt of hintt Hem. 1. 
8' iO< *0«VT Ti wv^tfti tti^tTi nirriiirt rw f^vriC*'* < 1^' *• ^*- '^>^ «ft 
«f \k tfMBf VflXUf r^'fareyw vft/ttkAi rairM vf i|iit I iii. I, 14, EJ fit 
ffan i^Sl, T»rf riffi ifni jf ^Byfifn lirirni^iiiii 1^. Prot. 31! c. *1m ti 
{m. rt>«r«] ra^mikyiHt I That what ma)' be] Wili vlial ifitaU, or Whg, 
(byo-H^Muf II Apnl. 26 d. HTA. 'He n' » i-i!. i 'OP. *Iti m Im. 
ni/» fu firm Eur. Or. 796. 'On )» ti }^ fsc. UtIf] i [Bectiu«a-4b«« Is 
whatPI »T>!) tot PI. Charm. 161 c. EV i;^..Tivt(»<, >ir~:;;.;./.iw^ ..J 
W ■■«» tij;) n.Tj;itr«, »■•»■ * .Jxiiyit™ 7ii»t4 yiym rf.liTn, ' what evil 
not aDflMngr' i. e. 'anlfedn^ erirj evil,* Dem. 241. 23. Cf. | S33. — 
(6) T/( Tim iiJt«( Irn, yi»^«T«i f«n;», i( ai/l bourne cmtent vAo ii 
yi^ [and'' »/ wAoC, Dem. 249. 8. Tir*i t!t, Ifn, ir) rUij i3;u^i> J> 
^.Xm tUfyiTt^inn. i «u1-( ii'i r»i*' > Mem. ii. 2. 3. IISti;.) .!;•. 
vtTi;.. u'^u , Ear. RitEn. 1388. Ti't j> wi wifi mm,^ yi.«r, , Id. 
Ala. 213. Aiitfin, . . •'■ r{ii •'■r 1>1^> rH':^- Saph. AnU 940. Ov)' 
tx-^ Jwm r;i, wiriff Urn Id. 1342. 

H. 'AAA02. 

JS40. The pronoun uUo( is not only used retrospect- 
y, but also prospectively and dittribulively ; that is, JI may 
denote, not only a different person or thing from one which 
has been mentioned, hut also, from one which ia to he men- 
tioned ; or it may, in general, denote a difference among the 
several individuals or parties which compose the whole num- 
ber spoken of. 

When ikXtt ia projperfiM, and ia fbllowed by another iXkti or an equiva^ 
lent prononn used refrcuptctiWy, It la commonl; translated by one. When it 
is diitrUnUiBc, it ia combined with another ikXn, oi with one uf iCe derivatirea, 
and is commonly tranfllaUd by two prononne, BH Qne - - aaoihtTf ^u • . Aat, 
&e., the sentenee iwing resolved into two. Examples are nibjoiaed of i>.>.H 
ud Its derivatives, as used, 

a.) RbTRODPKUIIV ELY. *0«<I' 7i !■■»> l^yH 111 Itf-Ilt ^t*. ixx^ trrfr, 

SxXm )i ij^ui i^UT, ikXf Jrrfi, SxXf igriiii inii7t, 'fbr one man to boil 
meat, f^ inather to roast it, &C.,' Cyr. vili. 2. 6. Mi.'hitk » rmimr tin 
if^(*', ifiixx, <<->;i<i»T(, 'on the next,' iii. 4. I. See §457. i. 

$S4ll. S.) PRDSFECTIVSLT. TA n iXX/l iTi/tin, X-l) /il^lm tt-M 

riei, i. 3. 3 ($$ 432. 488. 5). OiTs, ikk, rfiiit.Ttt i 3ii^»iti[, hmjiug dont 


Nom. (k.) Tb« neut«r ju.> ii often ased with ri, tI, taiit, aod /t»U*, 
with tbe rilipais of > vn-b, mimnonl; ni«, Tfirrv. rit^"^ ''C^i ■'^ r'V'vHu 
thiu, Ti ii;k;i* •»»< [tC. in/Km] i tr,iii>.,i,rm> < »^r cZk have Iflni d"ni: bm 
plat agamtl Mif Tlu UL 99. 'Ax^tri i> t . . iym^iZiifiim i ii. 5. lit. 'S..u,h 
wDi lyk,t nit rirrfiint n^iiX-VMO Uuiti, 'did nothinR bat,' Cvr. I. 4. !4. 
E; . . f«iti, l^Kt X funtiyu., lb. 6. 39. — (b.) Hence ■riiei the uu of i>.>.4 
ri 4, or, the J omitted, iXXt n (*]h mitten ixxm). ta m iBtonijiiIno 
pArcue ; thus, *A>.>.> ri S rtfl raiimii mj i 77o ym [do anj thinfc ebe Uuo 
regwd] iwl r^wnj itof Uu hiatal cmwfxowt f Fl- Apid. %* a. 'AXU n i 
•LJl. ■•xiiii, i>i«>i»]r(Aii<gicAa<ner_^''i^f iv. 7. S. 'AUli n •!< « /i 
^Liniflu'r f^'. rt jiiflti i Do nfil lAm 1^ cotvtoiu Arw ^ou f PL HlppMrch. 
226 e. 

§34 a. 

j.l PRoancnvxLT mnd BaiBosFicnTKLr. 'Axlw 


■Txu, flK dtm 1 

ip oHolW, T. 3. I&. 'Au.n JXXo . 


■ iiie4< 

W5, «« <vxM < 

i»ttp-, Soph. EL 7Sa (of. % US). 

T;r' *».*.(, a»AJ' in. 

1 U« At oAir, Ih. 7a». -Axx-n ■») ix;L»<. [>t on 

* tinw 


■w <nd Am, ii. 4. S6. So, when t 

wo «re epokaa irf, 


f^ Ti I«e" « 

iu, (b «H itraa lAi oCtfl-, tL 1. 5. 

I.) D1BTBIBOTTVXI.T. OJm ;>)>, il KAi^;t;>> i'-'.w ^i-i^ X'V^ UettMn, 
OtonAu, <^ «u o» tU-ft and onot&fl- *MKhn', lU 1. 15 (SS 451, 497. l> 
0; n «iJ.Vu>. . . iXXH lAX, itfittiri iv. 8. 19. Oi «i> Ir< ^(»4 aU' 
£xXk iXXJn, » biyiriaa badi/, but tame m Ihii dirtctian, am! ti*imiw iMat, 
i. 10. 13. EUmZ- n ''^'^ i;L%iiv' 1. 6. U. *AUmi iJUf BnCKlw n. 
lit. L 6.30. 



I. Agreement of the Verb. 

^ 343. Rule XXIX. A Verb agrees t tfa 
its subject in number and person ; as, 

"Eyi Xi'^./uu, I AaS taie, L T. 9. 2ii .;•, iL 1. 19. 'Hf/iiu ^mfiiit 
I I. t. •Tf^.T, li^,,, L 4. 15. Ail,j;iri,i r^'fl.iX.}'^! L 8. 17. 

le general fbund&tlon, and, ta a grut oxtant, the msM 
TKielJea and exceptions. The fbnr niln oT egreennit may be thue preMBted 
in a tabuUr form ; — 

agrece wiLh ( Gender, Ndkiirk, and Cake. 
ita subject in f Gk^iikr, Nmuiiut, and Persok. 

J HuMum, and Pkbmii 

tV- 5.] AOKBBHZNT. — E[.I.lPaib. 349 

^ S44> Remarks. 1. In compound coNaraiicTioN, both 
tyuquit uid seugma an common (^ 329. N.) ; thua, 

'AriliXtiaWni i/iMi ttulmi m1 !!■(»» t, 4. 8> Kit** JiriTi>i>iT»i t «- 
fal.fl ■■! x>^ i >>^<- Bh'.Xivi U ■>!••; »• -vrf >»>••< ttrr.Vn. i. 10. 1 
BonXivi Jl jhJ •■' tin mirf ri n t>L>i^ rttiXi t^riZ'^' '>>• 9- KS^.i rt 
u) J rr^fii rafSX/i, jiai ItIhh-i L T. 16. 'Eyi ui >^ SB{>'f '"^•^tf 
rnrt.iy^t(t Eur. Ale 4D4. 2^ t « ^u;;. ^li^i, S' i fit vir.i J.ith 
Eur. Or. 86. ^»iri «; n »! Zi^><wi PI, Fhaedo, 77 d. Cf- §§ -tlG, 497 

Mons. a. When tlx >ulj«t ia dhiiU or £^T^m^ tk nrb MiiaMiniei 
■gnti with tba uMi, Bnil KmaCimw with am^f At pmrU; tliiH, 'Own IM. 
H>« IjHfTH, iBhtn Uuf enck eo<iM. it. !. 13. 'An»Hm K. Ath irivx"' 
nt lann-H iiL I. 3. n<i<Tii 11 tSri muri !/>■, Ir wXou.V ir)Lii(U mttfiw-t 
UMtrifTiUfH ir^iii-r,i.».9. -A).),,, rcii S\ki,1.iCt,XX« H.Gr.U.3. S3. 
OSn . . tX)k.i A;u> Alyu ii. I. 15. Se« S| 360^ 497. I, H2. 1. 

^. In ■^UcfMUf Eba poetB AomflUraflfl adopt tk 
by grammsriuu Sj;g^ui 'Ai.i^u>ij>ii) ; llii;ifXiyi/i» « |1(iim 
■. 513. E; li ■' •Acn, iix—i^x" < ■>^'^" T- >38. 

^ S4«S. 2. Ellipsis. Wban the aaijetA ii suffioioutl^ 
indicated by the form of the v«rb or ths context, and no atroes 
IS laid upon it, it is commonly omitted. This remark applies, 

a.) To tlie fint and Mcoruf pefiottai pronomu, and liliewiae 
to the tkird, when its reference is iuifiGiently determined by 

the connection; thus, 'Entl 8i ^'-ti Jo-pfioi; . ., i^oiliro, 

and vhen Dariia vim sick, he wished, i. 1. 1. See ^ 502. 

NoTB. The paWRiRl pronouiu ars implied in tlia very Rffixaa or the vertk 
fieaSI 171, I7S. 

^ 9'16. b.) To the third perianal fnnotat, when rerer- 
ring to a subject which is indefinite, or general, or ivplied m 
the verb itstlf ; thus, 

"Evil wnxmirmrt, wlm il grtv dark, CjfT, iv. 5. 6. "Enm, tlurt mu « 

taraqaake, Th. iv. 53. Kari»'J'i x-'" -^^ 3;?»l> iXni, inaJ rtli iirmfuv, 
Inli Ar. Acta. 1 38- 'O^'l h, it *™ lait, ii. 2. 1 6. *H> i/^i i^i;i> i-;.*- 
/.»» 1. 8. I. 'Hf t„xi^ a» it Kcnu, vl. 1. SO. 0?» ^i Ijt;i., t>nd It baa 
itself thiu] imif rtu Ih matter itmtU, V. 6, 1 2. 'Ei rtirf JrjciT. vi. S. 9. 
^aXi, Urmi Tii. 3. 43. 'Tiixur, Vl Hem. 1. -i. 33. 'il, )) .1^,^ .C ir»f. 
:t:i>;( bat ahm [it did not succeed (« bim] A« ncl with m ncau, Tb. L 109. 
Eir> ).ij:»f>. iiiTiri iv. 8. 20. Vlixvi 11!. Ihirr u need of a battU, or tAtrt 
■nil k ;l^;Atnv, ii. 3. S (see §§ 357, 430. R.]. 'E^il /.airii wt(i rfffar 
■m^i, [there >hi!l be to me « cure | I uiU iaiu can of t*H> nippoH, Ovr. iv. 
fi. IT (see S 376. 1.). T«( />). n/i^w -'''^ '<"!«»;■, '"'r 31 ^ij «,fc^iiwt 
/HiV>^> Uern. L 1. 4. A>}'iiin>, In Ivi nfn If;cMm, ' Ibey uy,' Cyr. i. 
3. 6. K-i .»!. /.!.«. •£» T.i^» w-Ar. Ifh... (ef. T.^iM-: «< I;Li}..») 
i. 8. ao. '0«( r<r;c<»i> l> r>r[ (•lydt.-i i-yZt, Th. vii. 69. Ofri ■;• ri>- 
ralwlii tti, . . Wim rirxf, it it nat right (An to retunt « injury, nitatenr 
mu B.^ luffh-, PL Crito, 49 c. 'H r,: .r>W» iili.H li^x/.'- , it .» •»•>« 
Su/dllp d/awV nqiprui'i^ Mar As Aiunni vhal ht daa wt kvm, PI. Apnl. 39 b, 
"Ewi) ieiXriy^ Ik. i n>.tnyMiritl, uAn ^he blew th4. (IWtpM. th* »««i|Mlr 


UM,OT«(lllMnrf*f lft> ImvO. «. 17. *£»<««»«;. 'EXXw rS fiA. 
«y)i UL 4. 4 (e£ 'E> «J<y fvo-K J rmXrtrnril iv. 3. 31). '£.ij(i^i rmi 
'EUmn [•& i ■^•{L f n ehmnli ii m bu auiii fa Uc Grwdii, iii. 4. 36. Tj> ^. 
«» iv-'i ■>*lt ii»>>>nr« Dtm. 469. 14. 0:»;);ji«. j^k. < •;•■;):•»] ^ 143. 

Nmn. H. Wluo tha pmacHm u wtultf mdefinila in iu reTereuce, or, in 
etha vordi, wImo iba rsrb limplj expnnea ui action or aUM witbuut predi- 
caliag It of aoj pcnoa or thing, llie nrb b termed n/vrnnu/ (in, aoi, penuaii, 
p^nm ). A Tarti thni em^^yed >• ■ Ojmpetidious rarm of expresaion Tor the 
Undrtd imat with a i^t ta n li et (or oMer i^ipniprute) aerE ; thus, II mini 
^ ftn it ran, ar JIb /Ub. An impenonal veHt, Ihnn ita reiy nilure. in 
in Ibg Adftrt. dug.; and an a^^iCn joioed with it ii in the hW. (in^., or ji 
the aail. jibr./r Ac ai^ (f 4S1J. 

S- A verb ia iAmi Mtrodweif oa layg- a aM^ of which the auhject u afler- 
wuita eipreMtd in an /a/*, or iliittMt rkue ; as, 'Eru 1' iSim hut* ifin «- 
(iMi/w, uKf vrlai mate U maud tat la Mim to march, i. S. I. Ori aK^xi ii't 
KanwAw tnlirr ■Wfw'{i>Av i. 9. T. AiiXo ii, Sri iyyit <rw ^ril.iw J> ii. 
3. G. OsM Ji IaCiTi, [it waa not, M take them, L a. there wae du such Uiing 
tM bikinB thsn] ili«i> mUpottibli to buts tihra, L 5. 3. 'Erri X.>^:»ii> lb. 3. 
'E{im> b^p nrri fLaCtrt^tt it permitted you to ttiia p^dga, iL 3- ^G. "Ef*- 
r«> iff ^ |« HS aa^ iiL 4. 39. ' . . r^.A^^u L 9. 13. Sat i £23. 

y. Pnanoal and hnpemnial sHiabiution an ao Mended tod intercbaogsd, 
that It la ofta dificolt to dtcermiika, wbMher ■ verb i* M be Tainted in a pac- 
ticutar inatance a* ptmavU or ntperaoiuii^ and whether ■ neuier |HotuiQn *a 
adjective conneeled with it la to be r^arded ai Nam. or Ate; u, Ti tu mirtt 
Mlru- 1 iWhat oecda him, or. What doaa it n^d him, f tii] WTiat laad ii 
tktrtOutkt •homid oulf il. 1. 10. For the changa of impenonat to peiaaiiAl 
conatmctiaDa by attraction, lee ^ S!>l. 

)• For the oooatmctioD of verba with the Gek. FAmTnvn, an §§ 3G 1 . ^ 

^ 347> 3. The SSMTAKTITE verb is very often omitted, 
es pecia II yjC-it-is merely a copula. Its omission is particularly 
^SH^iMflTwith verbala in -tiot, id general remarks and reialwe 
elauMegj and with such words as ayaynt), Zfat, liiog, 9(^if, 
Haifoc, ai(in, d^iof, fioi^toc, tffovSos, dlirinost oios it, ^^log, J^tt' 
Itaof. Thus, 

T^Sn .i THaTtfi [an. In-i], thu mtut not it ime, I 3. IS. *£. rf i,T(r 
8it aJ myui, « At oat, wkaut At tprotgt, \. S. 8. IlfmfHi, •? ri tZfn 
rrmim (cC O! I> n iJfw I L 4. 1. ^Wx;<rr<ii« iTmu ixiyan jirumw At«« 
(cf. •A.iyun yit In-ir) uL 4. )9. 'Oi n •.'*« iii. 1. 21. 'Oft Xiyr, l. S. 
IS. A;i» ^ it 4. 19. Cf. SS S3S, S3S. 

§S48> 4. Stnseis affecla the number of the verb in 
two ways ; — 

I.) A plural verb may be joined with a singvhr Norn., if 
more than one are referred to ; as, 

TJ rX^t., l4^,f;«.T^ tht majnrity tottd, Th. i. ISS. -O iXXn »;-«4 
•!<(C.i... Id. iv. 83. i:^„,„rlint ^iTi ri, iB,T(^nrS' 'A.iij..i«. r«j>>». 
r~ Id. Iii. 109. Ti » rS, wt„S„Ticw. i/^ . . iy^^am PI. hig. 657 A. 
'w S£ 453, 497, 544. -. . , 


§ S49. 11.) A singular verb may be joined with a plu- 
ral Norn, regarded as but a siitgle otnect of thotighL This 
occurs chiefly in two cases ; — (a) When the nominative ti 
neuter, according to the following 

Special Rule. The Nedter Pldral has its' 
VERB ID the sirtgiUar. 

Tbat the vaDt of it;minent hw ib this cue become the rule, leema to hiv» 
■lUen front the fiut, thai the neuter plonl commocTy denat«a k nuw of liklat 
things, and likewise to ba connected with the usage in §§ 33R, 4.S1. Rxcep- 
liuDt are, however, IVEquent ; chicKy, vhen thln|,-9 that bsTe liie are denoted, 
or when the Idea of plurality la prominent, or in the aon^Attle poeta lor Iba 
lake of the metre. Thus, T> Iv.nlio irix-ri, promimu faiM, iv. T. I. 
nxwo r ^~< VBfin-o T. 6. 20. Tuira Oimv vfUi/x iT«<, Uiae Aing$ [or 
tUt] laatd tB bt ueM L 6. S (cf. $ 4il> 'EtrmiiM Kiff ^mriX,,* ft i. 
a. T (cf. (b. 8). -Etr-Sfa I»> ri Zv».U.h 0«/X>.- rb. 33 ($ 336). Ik 
vlXn w> AuiIai^fHvf i^iiaHv aMi l£i«/>'J«<, 'the raleis,' Tfa. Ir. 88 
(e£ § 453. y). TwiZh^ A^m U. S. IS (cC iv. 5. 25J. T^ ir^iym 
lx<i^>» iv. 7. S« (cf. L 5. 5). *H»> » Mfni )m fi/x* i. 4- 4. ' 4><>4{A 
1»> ui Tn» aw' Mfiww, f^nr nX^Lii i. T. 17. T,l 1' fgiwT. ^^i^^, t. 
8. 20. 'Arrfu 1> rj tiwrJ Jm^hth, i t^'< Jeiu i-u iionr tfipai/'fu 
Uein. iv. 3. 4. 'E<}« yliHn A. 310. For auch example! aa '0»> l.iim 
I. 131. see S 337. 

Mem. In the fbOowing example, apparently upon the aame {Minciple, • 
mies of finninine plonla denoting oManl pheooinena is fullowed after an in- 
tarval by ■ sniMtantiva vertt is Uie iingalar ; En) y^ ''X"' "• X'^^'Z" 
mml IfvrUmi la v-Xlftl^HM **i djuf/iimt atf J JjlXalx rwv rutvrt/t yiywtrmi Iw- 
«w PI. Conv. 188 b. Cf. «. 

(ft) When the eerfr precede*, and is hence introduced as 
though its subject were, as yet, tmdetermned (cf. ^ 546. 0). 
"Hiis construction w almost confined In prose to fmi and qv 
(compare, in French, the use of t/ est, and il y a). Thus, 

*Em ykf Iftiiyi ■>) 0.^ aal !t(i, fir [then la Co me] Ihavt tatk aUart 
•wf aocmf rilo, PL Eothyd. 302 c, TIi J' i^*;<rM.»« (X^^uait Soph. IV^ 
SaO. -Em *.*« l-«* ™ pi- PI Gotg. 900 d. "■ ■ ' 

yi^ Id. Bep. 363 *. Sea j' fiS3. 

KnuRK. A ft* other eitani[dn of the 
*trti la tbe ahig. oceor In the poeta j^iar-f*^ 
T^M . . riKXirm Find. 01. U.^ ThU 
•Id grammaiUiia 2xi^ Hit fa pa w or B»nir. 

^ 05tf< 5. Attbaction. The verb is sometimes attract- 
«d by a viord in appontion with the subject ; usually an oUn- 
hiU coming between the subject and the verb; as, 

Tj x-V" "^ '«•< rflrif 'E>ti> '0><i U>X.:.t>, lAii plae*, wUA 
«« taf-ora coBmI Tin JVia« ^'■v*. Ill- ■▼■ 'OS- 'En« >' >>• ^(f* * 
D.^ln »4#;L.i Id. m. US. *An» » W />lr*> v£f rux£> (»r irriloi 

f.:.L4.*. . C'.oook' 


^SSI. & A verb, oT wUoh the prvper sut^t h fcn 
£{/: or diMimct eUau€ (or wlwh ia mfenffwU with en Inf- ot 
clause depeDdenl), oAen lakes for a Nom. the sulrjec/ of ihn 
Inf. or chiNe. In this cue, tbe lof- •ometimea bocomes a 
Part ThuB, 

Alytnai 'AriXX*, latuMi 

nm. lital [Pisanda wh onmancad u hmTiag ttlHl] it hu ougaiKHl, Aat 
Piiamlir HOI ifautf. H, Cr. it. 3. 13. 'Oiul.>rir>-*> Wfti tritrm' xfinrrtt 
ti ytr'ufm4 L. i, 3tl (cT. OfulfrWTH . ., TWi ^ain; U u> n/nirtn yi}!- 
•iw Pt. lIlBdo, 71 t). -O pi< •!• r.itii-Mci Wfi, inyx'" [— T(> wpr. 
Cirtfn WMfii^mA trvy^avi], £lc etder^ thereon, hay^lKHtd to he prgtent, t. e. il 
tutf^mmai, that At tliltr 4guj /wont, i. 1 . 2. 'On mnftTan' rJ uVa, •(» ^ 
X>^>HH<, [=;l.,M.>i] (Ec f. 19. 'A«.(r» Siiriw' ly^ [ 'Af*ir« W 
SnrJU..], H wiBbt nm.^ lAot f lA.xiM .fii. Soi^ Ant. S4T. "AXii [>c iJ^l] 
,m>h' t>k Id. lEa. T. 1061. Tir>fr» i(ii£ r« n^nVa. ^w, 'It ia enough 
tlut I OHninuniciiIe,' Jlach. Pr. 621. Oi r^^jviifttr -uKiZ"' r^ri,. U dn» 
not Mnng la Aim Ib pujtM u, Enr. Or. 7T1. K;i>»> ym( 'Jiif •uHtn, 
for [In woig bMHr iTing] it nn biUrr ht were fymg In At gratt, Soph. Aj. 
63}. ^;;Li, « I, ««>, In inftftSur; it mi mamfit to aU, titat Ki wn 
txtmdmglf alaiwted, Cyr. L 1. 3 (cf. 'Ori /U> rp^n i'mtnrmt, rin Rxh 
It'inn H. Gr. t1. 4. S0> ^Xm J> iwi^iM, •) Wu nUnt dal t( w Mf, 
or, *e wit HidMl^ *a4 i- >. II. 2«if>«, li ^tfi, ^. J, .iU-, try 11 
fun f &H A^ T,^ 1,1,1^ L)..>«» InCMAiiiM iL G. M. S» ^, i^ If. 
HMf it iinicafi^iWH, (t H rt«;bn Jmt Aat tm alwU FOfwte tu, Qjr. it. 1. 
SO. Twf r.f.^ . . «X;l.; )i. [•^riAX» ll7 I^J 0iir;ii;K»i Xi^Uii, 
[mncb ia wanting In onlar thai I should call} / on far frmt calEag At tciit 
Itagi. PL "nieiM 1 67 b. Of rfint Kttr, fKiuMm' ri, mifnn n> hu. 
«(■> UoBt. SOO 1. In like nunnw, Ah'iS i>.'iym Iiba 

NoTB. SatneUiiiea tin two nio4« oT oonstnieCioo sre onited ; u, 2« j^a; 

11 XfyiTu »>■' }4 'i/it'TiiirXu ; 'kwiXXM,, *.; ri rJ.*. Ui.> Tuf^i.n 

•wii-ru. Ojr. vil. 2. 15. -Hyyi^r^ . . S « ^»^n wi.i. IrxH^ nyni^h 

' ■• oWf rt>.>j)n . . nAwrn K. Oiarm. 153 b. 'E)^> sh-^ ^»nf 

"V'ni. *» ."*^ *"*" "* "' "'■'"O*" *'•"'' "^ *" """ *^*"'-' 

4 53*. 7. The ™t Ifit ^ ""^ •«P«""«1 fr™ il* ""lS«' l>7 »™« 
(£ tlie words nuoted ; and ■■ often thrown :.■' pleu««ftra//|, ,• u, " EJ Xiyi.t, 
Ia,h " i ■i.^-m,- i tiC«. " You v^ -rdt. Si«»..--." W ft6=. PI. Ph«d.j. 
77 e. *0 'Hp.»li( *»*«.. ^^rih '• '" >"»■." 'f^ ' •'•'"' " '• " '"" ' 
Ucm.B. 1.86. •Aw.v-'nt* ' Xii(i"*« ■ "Bii-|«, l#», *j* t*^««ii 
W. 1. SO. Se« ». I. a ! vL I. 31. 

II. Use of the Voices. 

^ 003. For a general Biatement of the use of the voicea, 
aeo ^^ 165, 166. ^regularity and variety in their use ariae 

CB. 9k] vn OF Totcx^ aw 

dusfly (jraoi the fftllowing sources : — (a) Froin the use o/' 
tha mnia verb ai trmuitiee and inlnnsitwe, or as eamativf 
and immediate. See <^ A65. — (A) Prom ihe fbrm&tioii of t 
new Uieme, with a ttreagtkened meanitig. See ^ 266, 819- 2 
— (c) From the variety and exieal of the refiexive uses of the 
verb, and their intimete connection, on ihe one hand, wiih (hn 
intrantitive, and on the other, with the paitive use. Sc«- 
^ 165, 166, 557-561. — (d) From a^ irantUion of mfianin' 
in the verb. See ^^ 556, 561. 2. — (e) From ellipm. 8a< 

$ jSjS4. Ab in moBt of the tenaes the same form is botf 
mrf. and past., it is but natural that the distinction abauld b^ 
aometimes neglected in the RU. and Aor. (^ 166). This oc 
curs chieRy, 

a.) In tbc iiw of tlH fW. wud. for tb* Fut. pcui., ai ■ ituata and moo 
jyphtmlr fcmn ; tbiu, 'E£ {>iM nfiinriu. In Aait bt komnd Ay ih, Sa|A. Ant 
SIO. Tlfi, ■■>' i)^. (fnrw r^' >;^iff Eur. Or. «40. l&mtrryitHm 
rrfld^rtrmi, itHnrmi, Imnmulinrm riflxXitii PI. lUp. 361 a. 

0.) In tha ma of tha Aat. pas. for tlw Aar. mid. Thii occnn chkHy b 
JipwiW (4 166. !), anil in Mtav vnt» ia irtiicb ft* pTa|Kr purire ta want 
log or ran. Thoa, 'UjiiWa n iiuni, whiirei Aiai, i. 1. 9. l\imi.ix/itn 
iUiilwt, kaeiag eomrrtd witk lack otlttr, ii. 5. <3. 2ii>iiX),i>yirTi 1. 3. 1 
^■/(■u lb. 14. 'Hriii lb. IS. 'I3im«ar«ili. I. Sa. 'Er^iJLnJi/in lb 
88. ■" " ' 

NoTBB. (1.) Whether verbs of OiB clawea jnst manUoned empltq' tk 
wU. or tha pat. Ainn of tlie Aor. mnat tw determined b^ obaarvatlon 
().} Somatimea, Aoogb rarely, the FiO, pait. occnn aa mid., and the Aor 
aud. aa poa.; thpa, *Enfuk1l4^rif^ltmt Mem. li 7. 8. Esrirj^iri t^ibn Ifiif 
Knr. mpp. 3T. 


^ SSS. I. In many verbs in which the active voice it 
commooly or often transitive, it is likewise used intrmmtivel^ 
ot rejhxivelp (^ 553). This use may be o^en esplained by 
the ellipsis of a noun or reflexive pronoun (^ 427). Thus, 

'0 n RmtiXii, r^itj />)> tliM Jyii {sc. ri trfiru^iu'', kd lit Mmg did mt 
Head on hi* army] adm»ct in fftfa dl'tetien, I. 10. 6. 'Ay, Ji. cnm noir. il. 
S. 10. «J^ a, nUn Rep. Alb. 5. 5. Bi>,>: [wt. fi.iiri.] Ir »;•»! ! 
[Throw TDUTwIf to the crovi] Oo, frtd Ot cromi Ga to llu dn^tl Ar. Pint. 
782. 'H)»j Im [k. UtTi'tl, gin'w) [hxmtdf -p (a pbaMun^ Cm. [%. !l. 
'A»>ii;UMrT'', J »»/rnrr» ■■(> Id. Or, 994. 'E>r>»» Iti.ii.i. i. S. T (cf. 
S 437). Oinr » I^t', "^ ""•' it haa itaelf ] a, matttr; v. 6. 13. 
Xlx" luw. (Aiy ■»« Il a and midUi-vi. ri. 4. 33 (see 363. S). tlft. 
ri;i^tiw {bo. Ttt H»], A* jrw ajifjirinii^ Math. iv. A. 0. 'Tvt^i'cit'n [bc 
UiiTi]T. 7. 13. n>M r,S\iy,rAr. Ran. 580 (i^. 1. 6. e,andaee§ &60. l). 

Norn, (a) 'F^x" "aed nSnIvidj with an fii'i«r& la ammsoiil; aqnivalant 
Is i^ «itl| an iidJKlisii Itut^ £vn>"iw J;(Mr=<£^rHi ,'utat i. J. I 
30* Ji- 

8m rktax. — vss OS voicss. [boox la. 

'Atifun tximi —'AiSfui Itnt lii. 1. 3. Tbr poata cm join %X' '^'^ ■■ 

•dj«ctlve ; u, -£;c' i"X"- \>>^ ^^1 ^ l"^- ^v. Hed. aSO. (A) for Ihi 
"w DM trf the MKiiid tuHi, see ^ 257. ^■ 

% 0ff0. II. The active voice, through a IrarmVion o/ 
taeaning, sometimes supplies the place of the passive ; as, 

ES JjuiSb, la htar agtaablif, and hence, fcgm tha bewiicbing sweetoau of 
pruH, to be eemnumUd or tpoktu wtH of; as, Wiyu li iS ■■tvifi iri l^jtfr- 
X'^.'h i>/;iini> vii. 7. 23. *l.ii ^ airal imii-ri tai^f, lAaf (A^ 
tAduafm IIU9 nal be i/nllta IB of. Rep. Alh. S. IH. K^Lvi.i rliali.i. fa A) 
caSni a cownril, .£wh. Fr. 8G8. (Cf., in Lit., ban uadiit. malt nwlirt.) 
'Ari/.M. iri SnijJ(,i., it [diedj torn iilltd bg Wicamltr, v. I. 1^ {art 
i !9S, ■«/»). 'EJi:..!-. . , ix.r.. . . OStm, iikm. He Ko, abU lo Udu 
It .. A nit fAw taAm, iii. 4. IE (tea ; 301. ]). O; l(<-t*f--Kirii T>. 
}:» M rfi hifuv, btiK o/ tAt Shndi.nit ml" AuJ [fallen out of Cba city] fu 
baniiliedby the ptople, H. Gr. iv. 8. 20. "Un f iil^'iiii (uifii uri tm iii- 
^.K. fAal tVr mre Lfleeixg] ba<ilAtd from honu by Iht ptnpU, 11. Gr. i. 1. 27. 
ArtCiftf ^i^yarTfli ^# i&t\'i9tu^ aanued of unjaety by MtUimi, PL Apol. 35 d 
(^ 3T4). lUnrr^i^f' i^., of^MufaJ Ay yrni, Deiii.49. U. Ct. % 961.3. 
— For tba InT. oef. inataad of paa^ aee § 621. fi. 

B. Middle. 

^ ffff T. "Hie reflexive sense of the middle voice is for 
from being uniform either in kind or force. It not only varies 
in ditferent verbs, but of^n in the same verb when used in 
different connections. It is, 

a.) DiBBcr I to that the middle ii eqairatent to llie active with the Aet. 
oT Iba T^peiiw pnnvnai s ae, Annu [^" Amiu Uvri'], Ac u inuAtn^ haiuel/, 
or batUits, Cyr. L S. 1 1. lUmi f^w ilt'ittm, tJu^ all amintid tha 
H. Gr. iv. 5. 4. 2«fi»»r4ii. <ra.»i Ag. a. 1&. 'Ot-> r iyi Ij-jh 
fttu Cyt. viii. T. 36. *£«-i^;^i<in. bear'aig hfidf m, i. e. rtiiAjiiijr on, \. u. 
6. Tm U'.Mmt irixif"'!, J^rainiiig {boMiiig hinuciT) /)vm injiutia, Mem. 
It. 8. 4. 'O )' ikljt rrfMri, , . t^Kiim riUiTf /Ji hi »X<» ;t:irwi-<'^!>> K u} Tn-ui K(tfUT,ir,iint Cyi vl. 4. 1. 4i:^ iklin <lx*|i 
lr;«<riri iv. 8. 19 (cf. Ei, fi.^> It^>^i n^ l^ji.f;cA/<t>i L 8. 34). 

^558. b.) Indibect; h) that the middle ia equivalent to t&a 
active with the D.i(. or Gat. of the rejkiiee prtmrnin j so, Sr^tn. 

[^ iLy4(i^iit ImviTi'], (a [take for tbemielveal cAwm otAir pciuruyj, and 
to Hfply themxha miili neteuaria, i. 3. 14. noilii . . rl ruii^rui. / mAf 
yon ■ sin In wjiiri/, or / noAe ynu my bw, Cjt. iv. 6. 2. 'AirJ yttifyini vii 
fiitt ruilrlmi <Ec. G. 11 . 'On rxfi ri.tirrn rtmrt, that ke (nude it to hitu- 
lelfj ttteaatd it nf the utnmtt enmtqtt'nrt, i. S. T. KavarT-fii^ii/iitii tar rirrmt 
lifim, 'having anljecled to himself,' Cyr. 1. S. !. Ki{« )i /•tras-i^irini^ 
i^ Ag $tMU fir (^na (to come to bbiuelf), L I. 2. T<^> f»XsrnW<u. 
to watch hist for y(mr oom jo/itff , to At m ymrr guard offaintt hun, i. 6. 9. ^t- 

rifiw>, (fraoniiv Ail icymilar, i. 8. 29. 0i><ai ri trin i. 6. 4 
Kfiii 9i^i>H It! tw yaiarii, ' npon his own kneea,' vli. 3. 23. 'Avtf ■>« 
v»^•l^ exprea jw opnuim, L 6. 9. ' Ila.Ja ft' ^^lirt, Ae eoJU nu Ait 
tfm, So^ (£d.T. lOil. — 'Anl.1^u>i.tii f»e aji /«■ oai'* nm ]ir<^ heuw 

eft. S.J HissLx. S&3 

to«Bt ■■. T<S» Jnl^^ot, .In 3.U, iwOmwu .An t^, ri y,y.if„*, Xav 
h^ toU thw (JWa^ *i Aof norto- poU gen- t*i prawti In SralAa nor to i». 
vii. fi. 4l. Air/tiH, to loom far oiu'i nJ/', biiUivcr, to nmmH, M mftani; u, 
Er«<ai It Mr rtli^un ljLvni|»a> Dem, Slfl. 3, TiVn^ or rfsfv »^n, to 
Mdi« alanf for avkher^ rUifiMi of y^f^ftmi m/hi, to mnjie d fuic /rfr oiv^a Melf; 
U, 0HV( i^ rih tJ^h nvrui i-«[ ittfKrvt Sum, / (JuU lAoI (At gndl 
AoK imtil-tvl rtw baa for mn. Oi M^w^m tirtin »»ti, ■«■ Aan iiuCi- 
Mnf Uim /or lAHueAw), Hem. iv. 4. 19. Ni^i. .Jm rr;><^<i<, IAck mn (th« 
Tllirtj} nuctef a fnu, H. Gr. IL 3. 52. 'Ht tifui isXim )<(i-|B>r«, i/Uiy 
(tb«dtiuna) ttould tnaet good laa, (Ec S. 14. B.i.lii^, to gm amnij to 
dHfrfW, $«hXiv^i«^ to gm eomuel to m/i teifj to ddiben^t, to raoiet (^ 3A). 
Ti/ur^, to laile vengeaiKO for anoAtr, to ODBfi^ rifurfit/*Mi, to toAt Btuffeanet 
far ont'i tdf, to pamth, 

^ SS9. c) RboipbocAi. ; •» tbtt llie middle Is eqniTilenl to th( wf 
Ora witb ths rtdpretal pranotai j u, Ha^i/iim ■■! JJhiXiui <■! Kilftt ■■! tl 
ifif ' ■^•M, ' fighting viCh fluh other,' i. 8. 27. 'A^^ J> iTj^i. tn^^^iiu, 
' qurrdiing,' IT. fi. 17. A..:iXa{»Ti \ T.'.-m ] , * exdnnged," Cyr. vilL 
B. 32. — Hence tiu middle is eitaneiTely naed in expreming acCiDns which im- 
ply NUTUAi, BXiMTion ; u thoee of agrtemtnl and coatenlinH, of jpnetiit^ and 
saipmiintAip, of ateroHirw uid traffie, of quulim and wtRoer, &c. Thai, 
IrrrihfHU, to agrw, }ia>.M^uu, to bteoma rteoneibui, rriiii/m, [Co pour oat 11- 
batiom lagedier] to etolc a frealy, a^iVfifMu, to onfmf, i/uILAai^iu, to ei^ 
/Ux'l'*^ tojtj**, rfn'B{;v>u, to amArooe, to ufoto, Ir^ui, Id oObu/ i^idii, to 
foBov, %iMi.'tyt/.»if to onuen^ wLi^iaj, to ^a^, ittiiim¥tf.Mi, to inquire, airM^/ia- 
^Au, to oiuver, &c. 

d.) CadBAtivc ; K) that tba middle denoUs what a person procuru to IM 
Ahh fbrhimBelf ; as, 0«^jmi iv^ii^flri, ahe had a eortetet nadg, Cjr. Ti. K61. 
*AJ rd-TTH .. fn«n« lb. L 4. IB. -kri).}...,,, m^iit,)^ *:>ird^„„ v. 
S. S. 'E^ yd( « rsEn (r;n(lt( ni)i{i^frt,/or / jlod ym (oi^ (Aoe Itii^ 
■mpirpw; C.vr. i. e.S. TfimZmt n IlifniJii «(iTrVi« Th. i. 130. 'Eii- 
JUHf drr^fd^itint rmrtmt, tti^ Commanded aU to [have their naraee regislvred] 
p(« iitthdr nnnua, H. Gr. ii. 4. 8. — I'fift/iMl Tim, In have tin noiw i^ my am 
butni dim at a m'lUBiiJ, hence to aanat j as, Oi >'^4ii^"<' 2«ii;ii«n Mem 
L 1. 1. n^i^tfi^ to go at m ambauadof, r^irCiCaftmt, to .end an amb a imt 
dor; an. *0r«( tr(iT<ivii surf tsith'i vii. 3. 23; Oi <r>l.i/i<ii iTfirCiHir. 
Ag. S.2I. MirMv, to to iipim hirt, /tirtis/Hu, [to procure to be let to one'r 
aalf WMO hiiel to lun ; aa, n;iHir futinrifum Ti. 4. 13. 

^ 360> s.) SnBJEonva; eo that tlu middle repraeot* the aotkm u 
won marfy eonmimj tlu Migiut, than ttw aotin (aea $ IT4). '^l^^ (I.) it 

■fa, (2.) If the active expmaei an external or phgncal action, the middle maj 
flxproje tlie anaiogoofl internal or mentai action ; [-3.) If the active repreeenta 
• peiWHi u kaaing a particulu office, condition, or character, the middle may 
iQHcaent him a* making ic more hii own by acting in actvrdance with iL lima, 
— (1.) Viim, to mate anatlier taatt, ytil./uii, to laO, far aiu,; mif (_eo> SM^^ 
dSO). Uuim, la malir to eeam, r.i.fLm. to «ub ,- an, ■£»•«• /^f riiSr*. nl.. 
X*A Uem. i. S. a ; TmSrn i.'rki l«i)n« I. 3. 12. 4<>»v, lo emu to/ear, 
to terrify, f.Cufu., to fear; ai, T.ii, Iri^ixw riXiftim fi«'<< It. S. 17 ( 
"KftCwrt. nirir \. 9. 9. AiV;^£»^ to put to t/iaiM, itlrxiti/t^, lo In ailuxned. 
Irn^, to mate to land, to lotion, U-ra/tn,, to Hand (*[ 48). Eji^t^, to pnt 
t»dmf,mufiifimi, to ifaip. 'Ofijw, to itrrtBl wt, i(i^«/uu, (a iwuA o^, 

»i by Google 

»i by Google 

396 smux. — v» or tdices. [book is 

cornr ncM i, Mf A ^a^ to ^ MroM, Z«a1m to^ ■••'; to wad, rwU^fut 
taut Hi, toj*. ^itm, lo liom, ^mltipmi. I» <ifr'V.-~(,2.) 'OfV, to^aiH< 
ift-y^ " ^ ' f '' "" ; •«> nm^ . .It if.^u rw 'Af^Mi W. 3. I i OlrXu. 
rr- ifZiirm wi liifyinH Ut»> i>)(^ livaAw irw H, Gr rii. 3 13. 
Zurias to •■■■s (a e&in« rwrtviai, to aaiuitUr i m, 01 Xt^'V' ''><*w^ J 
.% « A <i). a<tw XmSiT, • . . .»n^<>» n •ir~i D^i nmiM^ <JNi;i>- 
vn iltai rJ x»(<^ v< i. to. 'AyiXXM, to oAvh, dyix),*^/!!, to fridt bm'( h^ 
<»(«>, w WI, f(#C^«i, to toS dhV W/, to rfto<- — (>-} IIumMi (fimm «->. 
Um. lituna^ to Ac a ofuvi, nlirtMiMu, to axMkit ow'« ^ <u a atait, to 
nfopi n puJifwi, to toMnpf (Hto affidtt i u, tfiw}^!* 1{ 'AiiiHi ■ ■ rMXiT§i- 
Mw nf' aim [i. e. r»i St^.tin] E. Or. i, 5. 19 1 0. ^1> «;u*»niMW '• 
m'l WTfJ^i u) iJ^wf T.Y»i-.. Hem. 11. I. 14. 

^S9I> Bnuiuu. I. If ttx raflexi** aMiofl it Olrtcl or pmrnimit, 
Ibe r^ixim pnmintt u canmuHily cmplnyed ; mora &eqii«B(lj with tlu actiw 
▼rioe (if Id lue), but ottta witb (he mldJIs; u, 'Eiumi m*irpMi„ U*n>, A« 
■fav Aiiu^/; Dem. 137. S 01 ^t> fmn »mnXia H\,itm t.hi Ivrfajw airil 
Ki^ •; » U>r;< l«rfii{H#>i L S. 39. 'E«>f>Atrri;(v uMi . . uri. 
niMJU' U*<f Dem. 39. 13. 'E>oTf i-^ >*< lwi»» rt;ir>ignu'AH t. «. 
IT. Huixivrrri n Um't. Ay ti>£M vtA Amtobo, r. 4. 34 (<± ^ MS). 

U;uii lb. 27. See 4 fi04. 

f . Hh mlddlv Tfrioa, br a bandtKni of TFbeaninf^, (a) often tMeomfli In tt| 
Aim the ullveof • new Terb ; and (A) •omedinca. He the Ktlve, inip|die« the 
pUn of the puaire (^ 556). Thai, — (a) Kirrn, Id hbH, umi^iw, to 
wto bh'* tofr Unw^ gi^, horn M baml, M, KJirT.r/"A)wi Ar.Lffe. 
SeS. Sm ¥ SS8-56a — (t) 'A>wX<>n iri T> Tw «*;lviI» ■■! ;«>««■ 
'wna daitrored 1^.' r. 3. 3. 'Aa»n^H>i ui.h, / lAofl fc >"''<»' b «"■>■• 
8a(li.(£d.C. gSS (cf. ^556). OiM «w«.> n^wnni, At (Jwfl w< [wutl 
N dlgir^Hd i/ Oiat, L 4. 8. 

>. In many enm, tbe reflex raArence b 9a oAnrw, or tfi iKBttmct, that It 
nuy be elOMT exprwiied w omitted without afrteUDg the nnae ; tfait i*, the 
■dn or Uw mnidft ms}' be employed at plounre ; tfaoa, A.'nT uirit 1. 1 . 10. 
'Hini^iKfUn'LiBii. 3. 19. Uikl fitfa. . . Hiji{»f^<^ Mera-ili. 14. 1 
IIiLA ;n >u>yh . . fif-in (Be i. 4. ALrfii tiiStik f <;« lb. 6. riipi,!} t 
Ml Iv/i^X'^ wKituh ■ . . f;*n viirtfiu q-i. naf>.^» v, 5. 31 (rf. lb 
13, «558). 01 rrf>r.£r.> ayi^Co rA l«r>aiM L B. 10 (cf. I. 3. U, $558) 
ET«. h-. Sfr-; r, ^X«r.. K.i in^M. U^r< vii. 9. 14. 'En-uinvn Ic 
^rAi> u. e. IS. '&rt W. JItAf* 'Af«{i;{ii> Ir*;>riAri ii. 1. 1. — Ii 
MDM TSrha, the BH of the nid. Arm i> poetic, eapadiBj Bplo. 

1. It fiillofft nelDTsIlr <^'o ">B diitlncUoo between Che tvo voic«*, that Iht, 
middle it more ioclinad to take its object in aq iadinct aue than tb4 iutiii<i 

vf U«li(irrt lb. 9. 

C. Passive, 
§069. The-pamive voice has fbr hi subject en ohjeet 

•/■ the active, commonly (o.) a direct, but sometimca (/J.) an 

indirect object. Any other word governed by the active rp» 

Hnt unchanged with the passive. The spbJBCT or tbs 40. 

OR. s ] nssTTK. an 

TivR IB expremeJ, itiith the paAMve, b^ the Om. if iVA n prvj'dti' 
linn (ronmonly I'lci, hm sonTeiiiUfs n'l", ^E, ti'Ihi, oi" ui".), irr, 
l.-ss rrequenily, by the timpU Gm. or Dat. (^ 3S1, 41?), or, 
yet mun: mrcly (chiefly in poetry, especially £p-), by the Dai. 
with iini. Thua, 

■. Tlipi^n )' miri, irt tu M^u, mif i( bu aiFmmdtd Ay At JHa<H> 
[— nttiiiuV liiriit iUAwKM,, and Oh MoKBmlarTvtmdtd it], \. 5.4. O^. 
iha tfnm iri rXtiim npxitfiu, IJudgi Hal sb dw Aoi item hmd bg mnn 
[— lUw irl,ii'>w cifiXiiaixic. »U>^ Ijmlfetiialmenlmeihiiaimimiii.9. 
SB. E; SaX^mf •rn™'•'^ '/ ^^ •'""^ ^ aclmbdfiom Oe m, B. Qr. vH. 
I.B($347). TS.f Iwri^t i Kiff \nr\i^ i. 10. IS (f 3»7'. 'H{;» . . 
}.fi«. u- «iSr.( *i« vJHM i. I. B (4 iM. )). U,„„x),. ^1. fi-j Ai^rffn 
vuIivAif, Imiag bea Imgkt mtaic by Lampnu PI. Men«x. S36 ■ ({ 436). 
"Et* l«.Wiit n nfn iri «f C)T. r. ft. Ifi. 2>Xii/iii yi; 'H;uXi;c »< 
^ . . iri NnXioi, /or fftrcHia /laping ban nbbtd n/ Au ii'w % NcUiu, 
Ii<c>cr. 1 1 9 a. T; lirn ■ . ti x-l /v rimi rit Ir^i rkn-yii !/••;, <vbg Uiii art 
Kit yw btaten Ok tanu naaba- of bfawi wM m. Ar. Ran. 63S ( 435]. Tw 

nch a cut u the entttr cMi, PI. Goig. 47G d. Ti /uyiXii [bc ^>rTii;.ii] ^i. 
^t'lmi, ffU vk fftniA, ifnu have ban inltiaied into tkt grtater rni/rttriet fio- 
fin du lot, lb. 497 c 'AklM n yw^iu ilf' Itif rritr (Xiyxn Th. Ui. 3d. 
'B. |^ l>liir>t«< i. I. 6. Hafi rimi. J/M;iiy,r»i i. 9. 1. 'O^.Xi- 
Twnc. r;i( ri.«» lb. 90. Tri ri>.mi ««>T^iHr, il iri rii liTr4t. i £k>^ 
nil (tM^iiii tanx'tani i<. 6. 13. Ti'ir iri rf rar^t n/(s/4^i»t, ' brougfat 
np [iiBder] by hi* (ktbar," PI. Bep. 588 d. 

^ KjirifinHtit ir' Kirm, Iimdtviadfy Aiml^SMnffmriinn fur, 
Oku dayiud ne], PL Euthyd. 373 c . « 375). Ti nfn-rH, ;!.».. . . K;iiT»>r' 
j. M rw 'E^.( Id, Conv. 196 c ( 350). 'Arifr»H->. )' if' ir>.'r» 
tliXmnrUa, mdtk^ an diitnattdl^ all Oit Ptlaptitottnatit[= Oi ii fit- 
>.,r,^wm iram, ir-r^w,, mbrA], Imcr. 93 ■ (g 406j. 0.' t,;. 'A/hm... 
tnnrfn^^lui r*f ^Xkhiv, Mo«e q^ rt« Athtniaot teko had baa intnatad with 
{Am gwd [:= nt if ^X«jnl iwtrirfuvrt, to lehom the ffuard had been intnutrd], 
'~ L laS. O; Ktf.'i/w tmtH inrrmX^hi, tin OHmthiaiu humaf nanal 
■ ■ 1, Id. T. 87. 

^ 303> KnUBKa. 1. Wben theactivehuniDn th»on*nH«:t,it 
H uHnmanly dBtenniiKd whkb iholl be th« ubject of tlie pmisiva by one or 
tlin ntlwr of the (blloKint; prdaraiicea ; — (a) The fWHtn pnfirt, ae id mb- 
jtet, s dired .to «■ inrfiract oi^f d/' Ou active. — (b) TJu paeeice prtfire, at 
iti ealyect, Oe name of a permm lo thai 1^ a Oiimg. — If the— fttlenimm con 
Hat, Mmetion* tk* one pnralb, and MmWinKs Ott otbcr. Tb« lilWr ynta- 
■Dca often le«da to oautruction by ^/mtdiiche {i 43B) ; tkiu, 'AriT/tmKtrii 
rit nf'mi, ail off ai la lkeirhtadii='AnT/intiiri, ril m^xS,, Ihib 
heaith^aatff], il. fl. 1 (cf. Ki^fv te.Vi^.im- » ■■f»X>! i. 10. 1). £ia- 
fUftLi«...r,i,if*M>^[=-V.x«n, T.i, ifim>.^.i, )<if^.f^i..«J lv.5. 
12. Tm Zrn nr^v^ntiittr, hamg hie earr boredf iii. i. 31. 

^ ff A4. 3. Tba puHvn ii nrnfllimea th« conTuw of the taddle mitar 
Ifaia of tin mUt* i and benn dtpmutUi may bave a passive, lliiu, Mif /»- 
/H»<».iilr: r.Hy tpii»i, 'that tbey bad natbwn hired,' 1. 3. 1 (.^ 959. d). 
Oa^dHi if ilfTar^lMi, cortebte udt made, iSeia. iii. 10. 9 (tf. 'AilfiiiTiu 
MlA i^jw^Jm, 'IwttnC and*,' lb. iL 6. 6}. •Efymrftnrlu, K JUT It 


ptr/brmtd, Sofh. Tt. IS\«. 'E^nUii ti If*, and itoni rai bomgkt. Um. 117 

IS ( 301. »). Ti 5i>«i. Th. lii. as. 'Jli MCv»' *^ ^P>>- Ant. 66. — 
Ttiia putin ocean ebledy in the Pof., Plan, and .^ur. 

3. If ao active or middle which has w olgiet n changed lo a passiy^ il 
becomes, nf cawK, uipkkiiohai. (. 546. ■) ; and il my become xo, with aa 
indinet ofijftL Thiu, 'Trn^itTv, a Ae^juH^ hud bren maiit [^= 'Trrnf^ai, th^ 
had begim], 111. L 93. 'KnM ■»<-«( (■■;i»iv>rT>, nb«t pnparaliitn had 
bttJK madt by Aem [-om 'EvuSa vdtfi#«itar^pH ]#■■■, wAfu <A^ Aivi «ade prfpf" 
nlum]. lb. 48. Ksi^ i> n irijii>t.» [^ i> iniin^jj . (fiwU [it ban 
b«n uuinend well bj jon] fw atttnitr kaee fut s yoiKt mw ^ PL Gor^ 
463 d. 

III. Use of the Tenses. 

^ SOS. A general view of the distinctive offices of the 
Greek tenses, pnrticulurly as employed in the Indicative, haa 
already been presented (^^ 167, 168). In explanation and 
completion of ihat view, it is essential to observe, 

I. That, out of the Ind., the tenses, except the Fitt., have 
00 direct reference lo a distiactioa of time, but simply to the 
REi^TioN or STATB of the acdon aa indefinite, definite, or 
complete, or, in other words, as doiug, done, or hoeing been 
done {^ 166). 

UcDcs, if we omit the Fnt., each of the three atalaa or rdatlnna hai bat a 
B^iglt tate-fom oat of the Ind. Tlila form, aa It marhs the diatinclion cf 
time only accariaaallj and indirectly, may b« Urmed laJiranic (<•■, not, xc"- 
ail, rdalimg to lime) ; while the forme of tfiB Ind., aa Ihay pruperly and diiwitt? 
mark (hia disdnccion (thongh eomeCimes used aehmtically), may be termed 
chronic. The Ume o( an action exprewed by an achronic tense most be in* 
fcrredfrom the connecUou. Hins {lilt star denoting that a fiirm ia wanting), 

Ind. Boat, On. Im\ Ixr. Past. 


JPaa^ ; 


I (see § &T6),C. Adinidg, AAranl^ JutnOc, A^ntSo, 

J ] „ f- J^rhUo, Achronli^ Aduonle, AAtadis, Adnata 

I J Part, i 
Q (, Future^ • Fntnre, • Fntoie, Futon. 

^ «(00> II- The use of generic forms for specific (§ 330) 
haa a peculiar prominence in the doctrine of the Greek tcnsea. 

«B. 9.] vm OP TEitsES. 8BQ 

Behares. m. Tha Pim^ io its widest genaric serua, includes alt du "lAtr 
fciua (SH ^] ; u a deGnile ttuse uM.i athnniicuU^ (^ aesj, il inuludej tlw 
Im}^. The Ihpf^ Id iU widest generio sauss, includes oil the putt laua 
($ 1 13) ; BDd the Aor. uB the ind^niu and midline laua. The Pnnv^ la a 
geoeric traise, inclades the I'tuf. 

$. Hie distinction of pmeric snd tptcific belongs not meisly to Rrammiliral 
Ibrma, but also lo the ideas which theie (oiau ruprefleat. Thus the idea rjf 
PREtaENT TIME, which appUeii specifirall? only to the pas^ng mamenC, extand* 
tn Id generic ippHoation to soj period inclii^Tie tliia mament ; and we speak 
et the pretaii immlA, ttaa presenf nmlury, Ac In its widest extant, thtretbraj 
U includes all time. Hence gtiurat tmtfu, txatitg dutet ajtd hatntt, and o/l. 
rtatrnxg /ucd, belong approprislelj lo timpratnt lime 

^ SA7. III. The relations of lime have nothing sensible 
to fix the conceptions of the mind. It ranges therefore with 
freedom through all lime, the past, ihe present, and the future; 
and, without difficulty, conceives of the past or fulvre aa 
present, and even of the praent or future as already past. 
That the Greek language should have o peculiar freedom in 
the interchange of tenses, is but tlie natural consequence of 
the wonderful vivacity of the Greek mind. See ^§ 330. 3, 
576, 584, 585. 

Rnuitr B. B. The Fns. lansc^ when emplo}^ by the flgnra of nHH, fn 
speaking of pastevenla, la larmed the hibtokic PHEaaiiT. See ^ 576. 

^. Common bcu, imsKined 9cene^ and genera] userttoEU, not being con- 
fined to any particular time, may "(ten be expressed in (lie prewnt, past, or 
iutore, according to the view which Che speaker chooses to take. E. g. we 
may say, " The wisest often err," or " The wisest have often erred," or " Tha 
wisest wiU often err." Thus, 'H >.i. yi^ .U.^' »?•" ^"^ i >i ■''■{;. 
wtKi^tut Air *«'#JLtvXt«ti, /or goad order teema to preKreVf but djjordtr 
kai abtadf datrnj/cd hqiiji, iii. I. 38. Oulii irri ■i^iaJtiwrifir th iisf • - 
i yif afsw i/tm wi.r- runfn*! Cyr. iv. H. -26. 'H ii •4'i'xi> ■ • 

80 e. EfmnT n pnKM"U iytMii..« 9»;i; if.r,ai^, Xmrmixiti ^ I"- 
irilm, Supta. Anb 348. 'Air.;« I*' ,IXi. Itx^-^ ri ^iXi^- ■ 'AJu fti. 
T» fi^i ttm Iriiirm lb. 960. 'B> nXXtti /■)^ i As^utriH, «X> iiirri. 
rmi t&fiirfftn rit *i rm r^tuiniMr ym/Amt Mai rig rZt fmbXjn %Mtt'ms ' wtXi 
J) /aylmn }iaf^ tULipim !■ raS, Vfir ixUi^m nntluiui. Oi ft'a ri{ 
fi'^HV aVfitrBf /timt ri/tirn, W S i«) /Httfi' iwhtvi iy»wSri ■ mmI rmi /lit 

Mt t wit Kti, I^Xi:<|'M' Isocr. 2 a. See ^^ 579-578. 

Note. Hie nse of the Aor. by Homer in compansons la particularly tn- 
qaenti as, 'H;i<ri ).', w ■« m iiS, Upm Tl. iS3, d. P. 33, ftc. See alsa 
{ 579. 3. 

y. A past tensa may be used, in tptoMng of Ihal tdiick U praciit, icitli nf^ 
srvBcs to tame paei t^nbm, fielin^^ rtmoHiy aettoa, or nhtitfation ; thus, K^ir^ 
■in tf' If 3iit, Vtnia vai w< tAn mertig a gnddeti ( as we supposed her I« 
ba), Eur. Hipp. 399. 'A;' .i riJi t, rt Jirlfi., if' fn; fy» i^ii < It. Phtedr. 

aso a. AiBf^ifw/Ht I*i7 ' " ......' 

160 iyhtax. — tm or ransEi. [boos m 

impnteitf Jt^lm, md mlmi <y ( i tf ii ttei , PI. CrfliG. 4T d. 1f» r* UtUM 
•i fTfrnrv/^ rtftfK Ar. A^ 107S. 'flfiXi ^t KSfi ^ [Cjna onsfat M 
bt living] ITbaJrf that tyna »« IMi«/ U. I. 4. 06a l^efC- ^••» '■•vm, 
fat M^Af yon kX » k a au i d B iitg t ApoL 8. CT, in EogUdl, Itu ftnilitf 
DM of ought, tfaa IiUFf of om, u ■ Pn. 

^ 08 S< IV. The tense ma; vary according as an sctkm 
IS viewed in its relalion to the present tune, or to the iim£ of 
another action, either fott or fiuvre. The tense of an Inf. 
or Part, is commonly determined by ia connection with anoth- 
er verb, without regard to the present time. In the /n^., the 
tense is properly determined by the relation of the actioo to 
the prmeot time ; but in Greek, if the Ind. is dependeat upon 
another verb, its tense is often determined by the time of lliat 
verb, particubirly in indinel quotation. In the Subj. and Opt. 
modes, from their very nature, there is commonly a union of 
the two considerations. Thus, 

Trirxm irtft XiUrrf l«u>, Im pnmiitd t> fiH aoeJI turn (the ^vfag 
Ifatote at (ks tfon of tka praniM', L 4. 13. 'Ex" '■''■irw iMn rfmaf 
tUiMi i^WMt •!>, hannf (U Uk tioM of hi> Iping a[ii <ArM itmdnd h^M—, ■ 
t. I. S. 'A.;r«iM-i . . xi{»*i[ i ty.Vvrjitn Uty nw (n n^ (nuure at tba 
time of the riling) leial A^ tiumgU (pant at the time of the narntion), i. 3. 
13. [LrflnAJi iXutiimi, i lAiyw, i>V> vii. 7. Si. Hn . ., n-fH^Hn 
uh ll.ifAH A>,X»( w r^^t^irrs, ll /w {Mlinu K>js(x*> ■•'■r>'> ' ' ■ iyv>*>* 
■iniV K>(•^ Imi . . >irs£ii, rtenmmtndtii, Utal Ikrjf Aoiid inomdialely ehemm 
olhtr geaetaU, if Ckardiiu [Is] mat trnwUBx^ In lead thtm ; that Ih^ iAskU 
mi Cgna for a guidt, mie [will wiuU coi^itI (Ae« bact, i. 3. U. T*r< Jt 
irt^m />!> I>, h-i iyii ir;ji ^arilia. oh/ Uqr had indteri a Bapidom, Aal <l« 
teat Itadimg Am agahul tin Umg, L 3. 31. 'Efau^uri, n'l niivyiyi».li.u i. S. 
le. 'E<rvHlirn, J n vonru fi»n).in lb. 21. 

RiDUBK. Aa iHFiarnvK, danodng in actiiin whloh muat be fttturs, from 
tha nry liitutB of the govBniBg wind, irflen employi the FtU.. bul fir mora 
fieqaentlj the ^jfMpriste oolmut tenia ; thna, Sv^vj^iir r>'t*i;>ii'n ■ Hun 
X «^ liJ^HH ^ mmm wi. 7. IB. 'Trir;i;HnTiu trttivfunfit mirHi riurfs 
nAr/« lb. 81. Kt/uMm iritx'"/^ viu 6. 38, 'TrbjciTJ fw ^uOu 
■wAu, IfMiu K fH t^iai laixivni ii. 3. 30. Set S SS3. 

A. Dkfinitb ans iNnuFiMTB. 
^S09. The iNDBFiNiTB and the definite tenses are 
thus diHtinguiahed. The former represent an action tiwply ta 
performed ; the latter represent it definitely aa performing. 
The former merely express that an action has been, is, or will 
oe performed ; tlie latter present a picture of the action in the 
course of its performance. The former take a single glance 
«t it, as one complete act conceived of as momentary; the 
latter observe its progress, as begun and going forward by con- 
tinued or repeatea eflbrt, but not yet complete. 

If SMlixi ii oooMlved or w wg6M in s tIndfU But, the dcOiUta btniM m» 

ea. 5.] DBmnTB akd iHDBnMiTK 981 

Deflulta Tinr. Indsfloita Vinr. 

( ) ( ■ ) 

^ S70t Hence an action is represented, 
ft.) By the definite tensea, aa etmlinved or p- ihmged; but 
by the Aor., ss momentary or (nmsienf. Thus, 

AarAuniuu tiiH rcHfcirf ttc tanpton (momentary) ami /ixoAl niilA Um (coo- 
tinurd); bat Dini itc» tki tutplOti wtn Mor, Me; (umaf tn/ufAt (mdnientcry). 
^*^ the targiUB'i immtdialily fillnmd pnrmmi Elm (continued), v. 4, S4, 
1» ■ . . fin;c'" ^XV- << • ■ iti>^"-H l.nffri Hem. 45. 2. ^.liy.u, >■) 
pUl •■;<VTW rmi li'ril, CowCrM mitt Ueni, uiid Icamjiril IrAn lAcJi urt, ir. 
8. S. -Bruti, a^arrm it-inn, »f!i~n, »•' ^k *;«-■;•> r(i;Liif>UHn 
Dam. 44. >. .^(fiui •; rnurat rii riXf, fiixxi., I T.rritfi(»ii ifxi" it- 
rSt i. I. 8. AaUt, kacing iaJum ^momBaUzj). 'E;^w^ Aoniij (continnad), 
L I. S. 

Nomi. I. Any dvdKng irf the mind apon the agnil, ntode, or araam- 
•tiaisn of M aetioa, md any attempt at graphic dacriptiint, commonly lead to 
the uaof tbeifgUtr teuHt tbiu,'AiriK;;riiM'> (KAiiii{;C<[ I' r;iiyi>), Mcy m- 
mrW(<n<< CS^unAw uu !*< ^aJr-), ii.». 2) (cf. ii. fi. 39 ; iu.fl.S). 'EXi{i 
BiHpf., i;^ihi» >1 T.iiw'Jitt V. 4. 4. Sea S &T6. 

E. In the Imperative, the mnmentary chiragtcr or the AoR. is p«ul)ailj 
fiiTQi-ablc to piwci^, vurgf, and tunuwtfKMt of expicvion ^ thufl, Sv tft tf^ 
SlBi rvftttiUwrn iftJt ii. 1. IT. 'Aaiivai-i (Si >>» >-{« ftiHi V. T. 5 
"Bli-^n," 1^, " rii, rt Iff, ■■) n. ^ i;.r. riE.T. IfW" iv. 1.20. 

§ 07 I. b.) By the definite tenses, as a habit or conlinue^ 
course of conduct ; but by the Aor., as a single act. Thus, 

■%rii li ait. airn, iTrif rc^r/i. •';H»iS..n, ■■) i-ir> ir;M'i<Aiin>, ow' 
wAoi iboK «d» U» nh' wm be/an H £Af jloMJ of protUatiitg themaeha befoH 
IdiK, lliof pnttrattd Amudert cim thm, I. 6. 10. Aiif/ii;» yaf <r(turra 
nil rT^Tiamf. aai [in yf >.•;£■}'•' >'S^'^> ^- ^t- 5' *Om( I' <ifi»irn 
. . rfitKiri>, wi^m, >;» i.aT,«ii, ,i.-i.'i>.T>T. i. I. &. n.XX^ui .Vmi lir] 
<-«f Si(~, iwirm. '0 11 Ur.loi lir«> ).;>• i. S. 11. ^TfW;. !> .^Mf 
tinfii • h' li I^fiiTTii »i I'rTfai Ti>;^u liravitn i. B. 3. — Hvice the gnat 
hh of the dettiiite taoHi ia tha deacriplion cf etiaract«r. See Anab. i. ch. 9 ; 
iLih. e. 

^ 0T9. c.) By the definite tenses, as doing at the lime 
of, or until another action ; but by the Aor., simply as done in 
its oum time. Thus, 

Ttirf rf T{iir« tirifiMmi rrm//ait rirmfm. 'Hn'u >1 ri> rifmt 
Wftittri, iTin fim4t».i<i< «. /■ Ui> way, tAey madt /dur dag'M-mardia, And 
mliiklliif<Mrtwuiiagtlu,fflli,atgtaiiiapa!a<it. 111.4.33. 'AiruM-uMt ^ 

Sn bthtax. — vsx of tzhsss. [boo< in. 

j^Mb, . . sal ftiM—r^lxf *^ ■!)•>' lAtg^tietumg, mdcomtauiedAe pKowkim 
mAttn-B, V. 4. 16. Tw«> liiVivn )..f >X^{.i s^ Tfl-i n >»«■. 
m! «i> nxn- Cjrr. t. I. 2. iJi UI^Lihh ; It!^ iimfi-itrti, 
«t 'Afuwu., Ibi j> ■irii XaC; lb. 3. 

$ A73> d.) By the definite tenses, as begm, aUenqited, or 
detigned (doiog, not done) ; but by the Aor., aa accomplished 
(done). Thus, 

•inrMi ^irarltu. Otarchut atlmpted tn force kii mlditri fc pncred ; bat Ihtf 
beffta In tinnt hiait Ht tJtn narrowbf acajttd bang Mount to detith (the coDi- 
pletioa of tb« act oT stoning) ; and aJUruiitrdt, wAei A> hcoiH nmiHnJ UuU 
Ke Aoald not bt ab/t la prmiil &y /am [to aixninplish hit UtemptJ. i. 3. I. 

'OrttI f^t tyirii* Ifd'it til-rtfij . , TIfJ rmiltmftMv^t 3« 'triIVl' iX*i!*f«L^^. 'H 
ftir yiif Iwrtt rftrirJu wfii raSttfAM, . . lyif 31 nu wtintm 'rJifAnr 4lf- 

!.>;! Tf Xr'1' >«•? £»>C>i^iT. liii^if- 't'lil.m'^iii. ff^AnlAit 

urn viu fann to w, tiiaiiqnm va bcpnx (□ fnurre^ abnut tAi name. For iltt 
intiEted on tatjti¥ig "wrai to hU lume, and I waj for gi^i^ Ain Ail gramt- 
/uUir'i mBK, Pkidonidct. Al Imt we made a eoKprainai, and namid Urn Pbi- 
dlppibi. Ar. Nub. GO. 'Or t^fCakkit rtoi Al'it, wfm I wot/or txpt/Uug dl* 
godi, lb. U7T. 'E«<i>i^ii>E.fii' iXX' i£i>;Li<;.» , .'AfTifM Eur. Ipli. T. 26. 

>re often uKd with ■ iw(!BtiT« taiiHy 
nr of an action ; thoa, HiXiMfxi *^* 
it BiufcrfuAe (D march apm lb jus; i. 
10. 14.' Tiii ^1. riXrarrii .i, J^i. iii. 4. 39. 'EriS li .llili it 
riliiyit, JiTK iii. a. 38. 't^nl H •£>!> ifiXi/i„ IXiyii, i^rrx nS lri;i>> (■- 
i-irffWyn. 'O 91 >.„T,, fXiE». ^«l vAn Ac vou/i/ xiy irrxAfi^ larfiJ, he wom 
put lo death iitthe ei^ of the other. But Iht Meeoad inid. iv. I. 23. 

0. X penioa ia often spoken of aa having ibme what ti« hai atteatplid It do i 
thus, HEN. a;.^ai yi(Ti'i' i<;<-i>xur ■^■;<»T<> ^1 1 TETK. Si-i^B.rm 
AlIH. y I'-rm,, ,i >.; ;^( 3.>^>. MEH. e,i, y^ \,r,iXi- *■. rO. 1' iSxV^- 
Von- /br ie k right Ihflt he ehould jjtogper, kaviitg Mlain me f Teac Hawng 
Amt yoit f Tou leU a unuhr, indeed, if, being dead, yon ore gil oHim. Hen. 
For heaven p rt ien i a me, but, » far ae big in kirn, I am ma mart. Sopfa. Aj. 
m<rii*\e¥, rittn • IbvikJ r iEa»» Ear. loD, 

^074. e.) By the deSnite (enses, as introductory ; but 
by the Aor., as conehitive. Thus, 

0) {(VTM Kf^i ■ . . J I' d«■(;Hr^ vA« atkd Ofnt ; and he OMtr i f , 
L 3. ao (cC 'A&.» ■ . . i«^.:^» lb. ie> 'A.«!r-.T>| T.£r. )«;/.»-. ,.) 
).i;i,»tL4. IG. 0;-EXJI.ii,>(lf»Xii^>T(' ■■} AriVmir. il. 3. ?1. 

NoTS. Verb« of ojjfrinj^, inquiring, eaaunandijig, fbrbidding, d^Htergti^, at 
fcHpfinp, endeauonring, beMtegtngf wounding, and Bome olhan, bib introdncton' 
in thur yaj nature, and hence incline to the use of the d^linile lenaes ; tliu^ 
Ti tiTiirh oiVir,, »1 .li Xsfi7> U^»n, W^g miin he aik for Aem (vliidl 
of iMdf accomplishes ontbing), and vol come and tait %in (which is final) ? 
U. 1. 10. lukXiU, <'r{iii-<(r/», Inx,;;.., M,'X«n. uj nari yif mJ iWt# 


iKin'<fMi», h1 )ji^«m> »>'ElXirf» liL 4. 26. 

^ 7o> Rstumu. 1. A> die Aor. ia ui achrcmlc tense, except in 
the Ind. (^ 569), it is in lliia node only that liie Pm. hiii^itt is wintlng 
(^ I E8. •). It ia oomnHmtj mppliad b; the Fra. dtfinUt, but sometimee by 
the Aer. or Pa-/. See Rkm. 2, tad 55 233, 577, 578. 

3. Tlia AoB. in the Ind. is prgperly apuilfeiuc; but, rmni rhewant oTtha 
Frti. md^itUt, it often supplies the piaue of this tense, or is used achnmicaili/. 
In Ihrae luee, it dlHen frsoi the Prra. detiiiite, in repmentinf; the action eilho' 
mart timpif or aingtyr or with a cerlaiu exprention of iHMtiaitiiTiepMtneBB, mer^, 
dtcuieemeitt or oampUttKtv, 'Arv; 3' Ititt roTi ipJai Jix^ffn-pm Si-«»T, Tf*r >A«;i^t 
fnvn iiB^Mv ^nr, aiu/ vAfli a man becnmtx tetury nf the fuitktynf IhoKathfline^ 
fling abroad Ac re^imt Ail Aiurt of unci n/' iti I'ufuC, Ear. Aled. 214. Kb) 
Hi!) yitf irri^tCtiL ^(i, ^mf ni) Ka^i<. Ut<, 1' x!/,s, i> x^^f n)<i Id. Or. 
706. "Orn, f U «-].>•»{;■; luj <;^( ri(, -ri-i; •Jtw, 'r:t;i:fii, j v^t* 
■-;^<«( hI >i..;i> mZr^ 2<rii>T> ^M^t^a.V.n nal >.iw».., ' inatamly lossa 
off and dinlpates,' Dent. SO. 25. Taxi •T«i PL Rep. 40e d. 'Erjnr tiyit, 
Ifulfyt^ntm Ok net, Sopb. Aj. 536. Sii rmirm . . Id. Phil. 1433 
S . . iTcn rieii yii Ifai ri;^', ' I hid jou peremptorily,' Eur. Hed. S7I. 
'IV^a I'(^>l{y» Irr* trvarrit. lb. 791. 'A<ri<rr>» t«^.)> ri>yri.u» 
AXl«i>» TiJtf^ Id. Iph. A. 509. 'a,tn iruX-7,, lyi;i.>»« <J..i...^<-;..|. 
ff«^Ttf3ii^rs /tit^tn, r^miitnbrm, I enjoy ynut thnatt, I luugh at yimr AifuN 
■■^f n/ nok, &C., At. Ei). e96. 'EJi£>^<i. « /kAi, / wdeeme At onuii, Soph. 
EL 668. 

§ S70. S. The Greek has the pover of giving to narration a wondei^ 
fhl variety, lift, and energy, trma the freedom with which it can employ and 
interchange the Aor., Impf., and Historical Pres. Without circumli'cution. it 
can repment an action as continued ur mumenury; as attemi>ted or accom- 
pliahed ; as introductory or conduaive. It can at pleasan retsrd or quicken 
the pro^cnss of the narrative. It can give tn it dramatic lift and reiility by 
eihiliiting an action as doing, nr epiv vivacity and energy liy diimiisKlng it as' 
done. It can bring a scene lonrard into the strong light of the present, and 
Instantly send it tmck again into the shade of the past. The Tarietv, vivaci- 
ty, and dramatic lift of Greek narrative can be preserved but very imperfectly 
In translation, from the fact that the English has no deflnite tensee. except by 
drcomlocution, and has far less tteedom than the Gre^ in uniting the past 
and present t«nse>. Thns, 'Evil fi >■] hrmSI' Ix^cm u'ExXkik, XiiV«>n 
liMu'rf. kifiltnuf .1 ^h In it(i«. iW Mklf-K dXX^. ■ l<f.Xwr. }' 
• l.«f<r rZ' ivwint ■ «».« n KnJ rmmt ■*ij;»fii»«i, '0 "Jt Kxia;;t;>i tin 
■ intK^u Irl r)t Xtfn, iXX' irf nirii trit-i ri rrf^Tik/u, wi/tn Aiiiui 

fur, rl !«■», iniyyt7>Lm. Kmi i Avmi Ht-mri ^^ lutl Sir iwrnyyii-kn, In 
ftiyttii iri nfirn. 3;t;.)it J' In n!^ tr. wJ iIA^h Him. 'Zmitm 1' 
l#nr« W "Exxmu, h) 3V»» *^ f**^ inniim ■ hI •U' ^> itmifuiZ", 
SnrStm^ Ki(.i faittm, >£)' iXXH t^ airtS lultlf vafn'g i. 10. 13-18. 
See ill. 4. 25-27,33,39; 18.23-87; W. 7.10-14; v. 4. 16, 17; lil. 

4. There is bo pnctae Kns of divMon between the ofiicea of (he definite and 
indeflnlla tenses. In some cases it seems to be indifferent which are enip1a}-ed. 
And the deflalta tensea, aa the pmric ^os (^ Ii66. ■), often occur, where the 
indelhula wonM seem to be more strictly appropriate. The use of the hajL 
ftir the Acs. oocan aipedally in Horn, and Hdt. 

9W1 bthtax. — um op TBtan. [book m 

5. In vtflw hi vhidk Iba Aor. wa* net IbnMd, orwai ftrmsd with ■ ifilA^ 
tat BigoificatiDii, Cbe Impf. nmiintd ■■ botb tha deAnite and imMnile [■■( 
tCDM; uit and I^ (ii M, 55, ^301. 7), which an mora fniueatlj luej 
■a Aor. 

B. Indefinite and Conpletb. 

^S77. I. The indefinite and the complete tenses are 
thus distinguished. The former represettt nn action as per 
formed in Ike time enntemplaled ; the latter represent it as, al 
the time contemplaled, tiariJig already been performed. In the 
former, the view is directed to the aclion simply ; in the latter, 
it is specially directed to the complelien of the action, and to 
the state consequent upon its performance. Hence arise two 
special uses of the complete tenses ; t!ie one to mark emphat- 
ically the entire comphlion or the terminalion of an action; 
and the other, to eicpress the conlinwmce of Ike effeeU of aa 
action. Thus, 

T>i»n fAt irm'nai, mdi Odtigi hcu ht drm (and la now npoo tiia) li>r), 
L <. 9. 'Evi./ iKy«f> riXo 1E<^ arr- I, uxxif^i ^», ' whataver 
ttaij majr ban Maka from loe (and ta»y bare in their poaMsrion),' Ar. Eq. 
1147. 'Hxfn «' 'M^ I. ». wtXilKU... til iwiwi^i. ^., 1<-1 i»Tm»w^ 

)' ifitVSn *■«( rvjitiix'" • • ""f i™ ' ■ ■ "'•f^fi'v ti K^hVk mJ ii'r A« 
•iIb^m irifi E*W";t;<« Cyr- vi. S. 9. lln'i /tii tSt n>i i1ia» nvn ^n t^- 
ufjrAf ■ <ri^ li «■> ■«•«• . . , ' let theie things luTa baan premiHd,' Iwcr. 
43 d. 'flf'V/- u^ i $iMtim ■ m & . . SnfiViin, fel four dug^iluHmlani 
natkeditifiia SmiU! md do yim mm luiat, Th.i. 71. Tiifn ^l> >;>, J FJi. 
fA^f^ Ti JUH ^mf^ii^ft, wtwmiwiv Tt »^<>f a^ tfan ja«vwr !;£■'' ** 31 'H^- 
ri »f» i«-i)>i{.«i. PI. Eathyd. SIB d. 'An^y^W* » V"' ■-> -rn • ■ ■ 
• wtlLjnJk Id. Rep. S&a e. [liirWWa. [irt It hue iweo (rietl] fa a Mat U 
Biuie, At. Tesp.1129. 'E{.»«i 11 iIs-h n> ii(m, m,M>.,:rtmi, lutd ^A^ai^ 
tM^ amnuBuU tb (bar [to be doaad and lo rtmain to] to t* t^ timd, B. 
Or. Y. 4. 7. 

^578. RsMABKK. a. liu ooueqnenoea of an acliao an aauaUj 
Bum obvioua nd man pennaiimt in that whieh it aeltil i^nm, than la that 
which acta. The ncavec leala the blow mon daaply and lodger than the gir- 
•r. We find here a reaion wh; the completa tenaea are uaed aa much mora la 
the paim than in the odiee, and whj-, hi the aetm, m many verb* want 
them allogBther (§^ SS6, SSO). 

0. Aa the object of the annidela tensH !■ to ucritte Ute coRMqnencea at an 
actioa, rather than lo narrate the actloo, they niitDrally occur more flvquantly 
Id the Part, than Id the oUier modea. Some modem langnagea, u the Eng- 
Hah, the Frend, the flennan, haTe no paaa. fbrni by inflection, except tha 
P(rf. Part. 

y. For the rame leaaon, Ihe truidtion in % U33 ia natnrRl and eaay. Wa 
Bubjffln an example, whicb nmrki Kritingly the diaUnefion between the Perf. 
need ai a Pros, and Ibe Aor. ; Tiftim n' 9c»iii(. iAok who haec iBtd (nftr- 
•d (rererring U> the pretent gtate ctmeequHit upoa 
~ ' 'tmifyiiig, Ib.SS4). 

OL 5.J iiTDEnjnc ahv cohplktb. — Ftmrss. 8^ 

). In ttw Epic, the DM i< dn Phip. ai Impf. vr Aor. ts more extended than 
in the Auic, uiii hu perbapa samB connection with tha tuage in § 194. 3. 
Thut, BiCitM, mX, A. 221. BitX<im £. 66. 

^ ST9. t. The Peif. ia nometimis called a fnH, and eoinelimes ■ 

aetiim ta tite proBil lifv. lliefKtiDii vhich it denotes i) poit; but Ihe ilnit 
toHtiqwtnt, Ut vbich it alen refera, ia pi-aciU. The teiue ia tbenfiire in its 
Hbh, as in man; languages in iti /nrm, cnMrol;M>, harini; both a /lud and ■ 
pronrt element. The comparative (irumiiience of these elenxints vance in Ait- 
ftreat languages, in dilleient worda in Ihe Hnie language, and in difien;Bi uwi 
flf the aame word. We remark, in genenkl, that the prexut idtanmHl hua a faf 
Plater prominence in the Greek than in tlie Engivh Perf. 

X- An action is sometimes to regarded aa ooDtinued in itji etiect, tliat lb* 
Flit. Ktppliea the place oT Uu Ptrf. This is the common uite of the Pna. is 
3«, to ™™, and .Ix.-^^ to pa (of., in Eng.. / am t«me, and / <m jom) ; and 

qittr, and some oth«r verbs. In ihew rerbe, the Impf. may snppi}' Ihe place 
of the PUp. Thus, EU «>1» ?■•'•, yoa [eume] Aune aimt o;if»rfaiH^; iv. 7. 
a. KifH » .w. J.I., lai/ Cgn* Indnetftt cnmt, i. S. ] 3. Ofn ii«li^J- 
■ani, ■}■ 7<i{ iva i'^bts^ ' whlthar they bure gone,' i. 4. B. 'lit a^ir* 
liuu.ju., u n O'^'J *<™ '^*«4 "■ B- B' '-^^ f^Mt" ^<a- Bac 1297. 

^980. II. Unless the attention is spcuially directed to 
the efect of an action, the generic Am: more frequently sup- 
^ plies the place of the specif Perf, and Pbtp. (^ 566. n), aa a 
more familiar, more vivacious, and often a shorter or more 
euphonic form. This use prevutls especially in the aclive 
voice (^ 578. »). The Aor. of^en occurs in immediate cod> 
nection with the Perf. or Plup. Thus, 

"Ef ' f [i(it^] kiytTM. Klin TJ. 3intn»rtu, .rn. aij^rx •i'it, ft 
mt icA \JumMtni»\ Midae ie tiid to have caught the Satyr, humng uuaieri it taik 
VDH 1. 1. 13. Tui^i tin «a» iii>..rn «' IwHnrif, Out eilg He inAuiitoaU 
liad kfl, lb, 24. Nni » eirnAw . . ISn^ri, tnf wag it iai aided the Tha- 
taliatt, Dem. 22.7. Tuafra arsMi hi *■r:c•>^ hacbtg mffcnsd imd tuffering 
awdl (AJh^ Id. 5T8. IS. 'AnJil^atnf varifoi hi fmrifmi, •'• >t ■•! tUh 

t>^r>.»i, a.] r«;. ri^ ■£»..». X.tie\nu Itact. 163 a. Oi^ i lr«^i<w 
a»' i ^i;.r.n«i »l.'i».> li>».> Dem. 5TS.S2. STP.'lia /u Uilp, Jtwit 
eln» UaLi/.. 211 *Hx^i[ !i ht^ ti' , At. Nub. 338. 

Von. Tlw nsa of tha Aur. (br the P«if. ia aapeciallf ooaataa in Uk Pari. 

^081. I. The dim, shadowy future has little occasion 
for precise forma to mark the state of iheliction. It i? com- 
monly enough to mark Ihe action simply as future. Hence i 
the inflection of most verbs has but a single FuL, the iaiMU M 
mU I leaving the dejinile and complete F}dvre», if ^ey raquire " 


to bo dislinguiahed from this, to be expressed by a PartitipL 
and substaTtiive verb ; as, 

Btd, S STOj 3oph.Ph 4W T.;^'i„M^U» Id. (Ed. C. 65a. 'Atj(> ■> 
n»>»Tii trir/i, >« in& AoH «iid. _ wm, vii. 6. 38. Ti >i.tra iri^i/a 
l}wi>ir>(, hI JLiyvi ^araiH Jnl>^}'/.iu. Dam. S4. 23. 

$ 983. II. The Future Perfect expresses the sense of 
the Perf. with a change of the time ; that is, it represents the 
state consequent upon the completion of an action as future. 
As it carries the mind at once over the act itself to its com* 
pletion and results, it is sometimes used to express a future 
action as inanediate, rapid, or deeitive, and hence received its 
oM name of paulo-poil-fiuure (pauio post futuni)), abotU to ba 
a little ajier). In verbs in which the Perf. becomes a nev 
Pres., the PuL Perf. beconies a tune Fat. m 233, 239). 

*H> n ^n 'jAmrmi, /immr Ijuii nnt^Luirtrai, but if Am Anidd not be, I MhaH 
ton Kept in vain, Ar. Nnb. 1435 ( i 564. 3). OiJih . . ^iriyy^fitirmi, 
ii.>.', 3tn( Xi ri s-fiiTn, l>}'i)'(a\|->Tiii. HO ant tkall bt tnTiJIol (the eimpla 
act) (^nsAcn, but M^aH Hmain rMniUtd [ibe State conMqiient upon tbe act of 
oiralinent) of lu uku at Jtrtt, Id. Eq. 1370. 4>fiifi uJ •'■•';i!{itu, tpeai 
tnd it [rihaU be done at onoe] ii d.«.t. Id. Hut lU^T. 'Ora. 1* fu, wtit-, 
nravri^i, > I ahall dealat at oace,' Sopli. Ant. 91. Ni^i'^in 1> nil rj 
ifi^ Vi ri larasii.i^irfu, aal u/ne( at «Xv i/of iirTi{n, 'shall be ImdM- , 
diatdy cut down,' i. 5. 16. '£■* ykf a^ Iftiu lifii rj»a . . abrjH fuiXu 
>u> Ti/'iiiiu, rJ-mifi iJtw, ' he ihall be dead,' i. s. ' be sliaU die inatwtly, 
PL Gocg. 469 d (cT. K.»n»yi, I.tiu, :^„x"f"" i"" lb-). Mi^.iri^i/a, 
n (iuif renKiHto', Cyr. iii. I. 27 ({ 233). ZHi, 'A{.>r.i lififrnE" ' «"-■ 

fiiB^ wis r«ua M u, ii. 4. 9. 

§ 9 83. Ill, A flitora action may be represented more expriHly ae 
« lAe point of aceomplitkmmi, or as eonmected toith dutiity, nectHity, will, pur- 
pom, &e.. by the veriM /liiikti, l/ij.i> or Six>, fiiiixijuai, }i7, ^(i, &c_ with the 
Inf. Thla Inf. may be Frtt., Anr„ or Fat., according to the view taken of 
the action in retpect to deflnilenesa and nearness (( 5S8. B.). Thus, *I)in> 
inuSa . . ^AAiM-a ivt^tirim, tang a bog aUnt ta die, rii. 4. 7. 'O rraZ/uf 
f^a t^UX, aaraAnit L 8. I. KnUt^tri ■,, nliT- Cyr. t1. 1 . 40. El fili 
w-xA trirtmi /iixxii isaia, if tlun an to be tatli aioagh, V. 6. IS. Oia 
f/iXa lA/ir,, / an »t wming to pa, or J uUI not go, i. 3. 1 0. 'Eyi l^iXm, S 
i^„, U&Eiin. ifA, 11). 5. 8. B>i.»iilir/a., T ti j^^ ruiT. i. 3. 11. 

BmmjlRKS. (a) The Ideas of datiny, pitpiM, Sc, are often expreeaed 1; 
tbe airngJe FUt. EapcdaJly la the Fm. Purt.. bntb with and without it, 
ued oontinnallf to txpns fmrpo— ($ 639). Thus, 0>' lit ti'i SatiAuat 

Wjc"' *-.»■"«"« ■ ■ w »-»!(.«. T« i£ *»y„. .a..«#.;.«,^ .; ,, ™. 

riritri aaJ )itj>iir>ivi Mai ^jiy^nun aaj •^'•iimirun, < if they most bungtc 
and Ihlist,' Hem. ii. 1. 17. Ti. ifiZ, S,wi^i>n, hi ikat umiU Hd wB, n. 
Gerg. 491 e. 'SvXXatiSmi KSfu ii inuntSi, he appi^iende OftTu [as ^raat 
toput him to Until] oMlAaiiByii^jwctuyAiBtoiteutiL 1.9. "Eov*^ . 


ftM \fArm, b Huf Mt (D ay, ti. 5. !. 

I. 17. llMxtiftrH rpfju i. 10. lU. 

Fut. I^rL, tbe Prat, is BometiiDea cmpi 

§ 5TS, MpeeuD; with veriM of maticin ; dius, T.Sr' ■>!.»{» jA^.t, 

Ai nOTJt Ait wnmg, Eur. Suppl. 1 G4. 

§ 384. IV. A fbtan tctku. In view of it 
rapidHy, 9r itt co^tvcthn viCA ojioCAer ocfimi, mi_ 
doing, or even u ofrwrfy doK (§ 567); •nd may honce be expressed by tit* 
Fnt^ Anr^ or /■«/. Tlina, K^nti Scb thI, jbi/ it trmiitig Hpm sinM one, Ar, 
Kan. 5^2 (cT. il^i. nt );.«. lb. 554). 'A»].i^<r<' i;', i.' jmikJ. ■-;.».>.- 
»» .i» nXm.^, w(h riV llaH-XLixu Eur. Med. 78. Er ^i ti^m. l/.^ari. 
sfVAfrinH, fXMjLs, smS rj VftriiaptlfH, if, whUt pnuaaal of tke /mjuj, Ad «A'id 
diKHWiH, /UM wKbw, mj /liW dainty fnu Utida, Sopii. Pfa. 75. El' n 
» u«i*««;ri ^1, 1 ^H[ J.<>w Eur. Or. 940. Oi, J E»>c£-'' *"''■' ^ 
nr>»/«/> •!•>» ^» «:-»TM, i tS^^ifurf t^ , Soph. Tr. 83. 'ArimXai! 
n Tiili na ).i}<» Ufit Ihki. 3 b. — For praunti which ire oommonly med 

^ 3S3i T. Thf FuTUBK Bometinua occurs for a pratat urpiuf tense, 
aa a le» direct and piiailive rorm of KtpresdiHi, or as Chuu(;b the action vera 
not y«. Onished ; thus, Tti/iit Y iyi . . rngu' iji» Bivlira/t^, ' 1 shall wish,' 
L e.'(unreiwlired,'Saph.<£d. T. 1076. XOP. U^flu rii'in x*^ /"ireff 
rill.. "US. Or^«, T. ikilui 1 -lit ^' -«-^J..r.i, yi.a. Eur. Med. 1S09. 
na, fill , n' Ai{i.i I 'ill /.' -»Xt»<, r>«u [d. HeL 780. This eidama- 
tory oae of n Xifut for n' Xiyut or W fi.iE>(. as Ibough th« communicaUoa 
«ere Dot yet Bnished, belong! psrticuluiy to Euripides. 

IV. Use of the Modes. 

$380. For a classification and designation of the modes 
according to tbe chaTacter of the sentences which they form 
(^ 339. N.), see tl 37. 

A. Intellective. 

^S87. Intellective sentences express the aehud ot the 
eotaingeni (^ 329. N.). The idea of contingency is expressed 
in two ways ; by the form of the verb, and by a particle, com- 
monly ay {,Ep. ti or sir. Dor. sa). The two ways are often 
united for the stronger expression ; and they may be ttuth neg- 
lected, if the idea is eitber not prominent, or is loo obvious to 
require expression. The forms of the verb which in them- 
selves express contingency are the Subjunctive and Opta/.ioe 
modes (§ 169), Intellective senlencea not employing these 
modes (either because they are actual, or because their con- 
tingency is simply expressed by a particle or is not expressed 
at all) employ the Indicatwe, which is the generic mode 
(^^ 177, 330. i). 

Al Sutf. a 

Wis' sniTAX. — nsE or kodbs. [book iil 

aU ^mflB- 5tat«n«ntA id grsmmar, has prinuij reference to tlw ooncoptions of 
the mind, nuber rhsn to tlw reality of Ehiags ; that is, to empby the lecbni- 
raJ l(Uigu%« i>r pliikiaoi>hy, it must be Ulken mtyatads, istlier than atjtxlmlii 
Tie cnntingent is often, ftora airong aesonmee or viviil fancy, spoken ef u 
actual ; while, on die other haiid, iJie actual, fruTii dUfideiii;« or coorteay t\ 
•ome other cause, is not unftequently spi^en of as coiRlngeiit. This state- 
ment a abo limiled by the generic use of the ind., as mentisiied abore. 

degree of coatin|{eiiey ; and therefore, in the FuL tense, no distinction is taait 
between the Ind. and the Subj., but any rule requinnj; in other teoMS t)it 
Suhj. 'm Ehie requires the Ind. And even the use of tliu Kut. opt. appears i* 
be linilteil la the nmtia obla/ua, in nluch it takes the place of the Fnt. ind. in 
the orufto tvcia (JJ 607, 608). 

^ O o S* 3. Tlie particle of contingence, dfr. may commonly be dis- 
tinyuialied Iroin the coiyunction ■■ (or lii> ($ 603) by its position, as it never 
stands liiet in its clause, which is Che asaa] place oT the conjunction. It chief- 
ly occurs with the past tenses of the Ind. and wiili [he Opt, to mark thein 
■B depending upon some condition exprasaed or implied ; with the Snig. »fter 
i-ariou^ connactivee ; and with the Inf. and Part., nben the distmct modea 
to wbidi tbey are ei|Uivaknt wonld have tliis particle. It is cKlenaively dboI 
wiUi the Sulil-, in cases where it wonld hare (teen omitted with the Opt., for 
the reawnt, as it would fona, that the separation, in form, of the Snl;]- from 
the Ind. was later and leaa strongly mariied than thM of the (^t. ( ITT). 
The Insertion or omission of £> for the most part loilowa ^reneral rules, but in 
Bome cases appears to depend upon nice distinctions of sense, which it is ditli' 
colt to convey in mnsia^on, or upon mere euphony or rhychm. ITpon its 
ose in nat a fbw casea, muuscripts diflra', and critics oonteud. Verbs with 
which it is connected are commonly translated into Eng. by the potential 

% 9 80. ContingeiKy in viewed as either present or past ; 
thai is, a contingent event ia regarded either as one of which 
there is some chuDce at the present time, or merely as one of 
which there was some chance at some past time. PxEsEttT 
coNTiNGENcr is expressed either by the Subj,, or by tke pri- 
mary tetuei of the Ind, ; and past coNTiNGiiMcr, either by 
the Opt., or by the secondary tenset of the Ind. 

The tenses of the Snl^. and Opt. are therefbre related to each other as 
prtmt and pott tenses, or, in sense as wdt aa in form (^6 16S, 19S),M primary 
and tvtmdarf tease* \ and the rule ^jove may be thus given in a more con- 

SOTE. Futnre ct 
oontingeiit, U of cou 

^ S90, ReHAREs. 1. It cannot be kept too carefully in mind, that 
flu dlsdnction above has no reference Co Che time of the nceurence of an event. 
Dot only to the time </ its amlin^iicy. Thus, in the two sentences, " I can 
fo if 1 wah," and "1 could go, if I wished," the time of the guiitg itsell is tai 

«*. fcj IKTRLI.8CT1TK. 

baOi tba MMr, I. «. /ktan. But ia Ihe hnmr , _ , ^„„, _ 

juooii^ becaiuc it i> Mt nndccided what the person's wish la, mai tiMrefbra 
tkoe ii stiy ■oma chanco of his going I whil* in the lutsr, Uie amlmgacf la 
piut, Iwcaan it !• implied tlut the p«raon does nut wisb to go, ud therefor^ 
although Iben waa aome chsnoi of his Roing before hii deduon, there ig now 
im chuKS. Heno^ ia tba torma HcleiiGB, piHent leoaea are employ eil ; and 
in the UtUr, put. 

3. The limits of plat are Rir vider tbm tbme of present cMtingency ; R>r 
tbsB it nothing which it is proper fbr us to suppoH at all, of which w« may 
not coneeiire that there was soiue chance at some ilistaul period in past eteniitji 
Ute fUviding line between pnsent and past aHitin4[enej' maj per1U|B be thoa 
diawB ; whatever ta aappoeed wiA k*» dijTtt of promt expatation, or ia 
pratHt viao of a dmnitii yri ta be Mad, belong to the head of pFoettt coittit^ 
gaejft bat whatarer id jiuppoeed wilhnitl thit jtretetU txptdiitimi or view nf a 
theiikm, to Ihe bead of puM eoHlmgauf. Past cnntinjfencf, thenftee, indudea, 

il.) all pait BuppoaitioD, whether with or without exjieciatioii at thai time; 
!.) all Buppoaition, whether prtwnt or past, which [fnu <!•* bitpig txpeetation, 
€f mnlBiiptati a dtdtim, that is, aH Hen njfMirtam i (3.) all tuppodttoo, 
wtMther pneait or past, in despite of a prior datislun. Thu : 

,^1.) Past sapporifion. 

lilumgU, Aal ImigMgo, if I eoald katH katt. 

I ttiihed, dial yni wyU go. 
(3.) Ptcatnt aappoahion not implying axpactatjon or contmiplatliu: a d» 

/ would g<t,\f I Aadd lum lean (but I have so Ibooglit of asLiuf 

(3.) Fnwnt soppiaitioD in deapits of a prior dedsioo. 
D. In retard to the present. 
I mkU go, if I had Imm (.bat I liave none, and tbenfbn I aball 
not go). 

0. In regard to the paat. 
Iwmldhiam gaiu, if I had had Uave (bnt I hod aone, and thera- 
fore did not go). 

^ SO 1 . 3. As the differe ice betmen the Snij. and OpL ia one of 
time, rather than of essenlia] ofiio , some have cbown to oonrider then a* 
only different tensea of a gentrat amjtaxetm at eoHlhffeM made. With tbi* 
diange, the number and offioea of the Greek moilea are tli« sama with thosa 
ol the L^Iin, and the oHTeapondeiice between the Gre^ coiyunctive and the 
English potential moden becomee Kuttewhat more obviomi (see ^ 33). Ad- 
nQgdLwj ta ft*!* ulasiiifivatioa, whjub deecfvea tlie atteotiou of th« atoiden^ 

* no snnix. — irsB or modes. [book m 

aoa^ it k irifHtwwW- TtMUw it fa bait to iBaaai tha sU plBaKiv 

PraaitflaljiBKdnbeooawitlw DrtnitB Pneiil (or Iba Pnaent) Conjunctin 
rnwiir Optatin " " Dc&iila Put (or Uw Imperftct) ConjiinctivB. 

Aint SabJuDctin " " Aoiist Pnaoit (in- PrinuujJ CoDJanctirs. 
AoriM Optative " ' AoriM Put (pr Secuorluy) ConJDDctiv& 

F«rfcC SolgoMtim " " PtribM Present (or tha fataa) UoqnnctiTB. 
F«rfict OptMin " " Parfect P«t (m tba PliqieiAct) Conjiiiirtiv*. 

4. CoDtbigBit Mntttoa, like actual (£$ S66 - 568. STG, 5B4, 585), are 
fiaide to an iatnjiadge and Uendiog of ttrua. Put conttngenc? u often 
ODDceiTed cf a* presait ; and present, u put. Henoe, primarr troaa take 
flw place of tecoaixry, and aecmdaij of primary. Una intcTehangi m^ ba 
«Uerved paiticolailf between tba Sa^. and Opt. modea. 

^ S03. The Subj. and Opt occur, for Ihe most part, in 
dependent clauses ; aod indeed some grammarians have re- 
fused to regard them as being ever strictly indepeadenL ll 
results from the principles already laid down, that, in their use 
as dependent modes, the Subj., for the most part, follows the 
primarg tetuet ; and the Opt., the seamdarp. To this gen- 
eral rule, Itowever, there are many exceptions. 

Not*. Id the apptlettioo of Ihii rule, tba tenaea oT tbe IwipBTit., ai frMa 
ki v«i7 natniB refemng to pftaait or talait time, are to be regarded as pri- 
•ury touBi ; IboM of tha I*/, and Pari., M primary or nanulary, accoriiilg 
to tile Snila verbs, whose plaiei lliej occupy, or, in general, sccording to than 
■pmi which they ttumselves depead. 

^ 593> In the expression of contingency, the Ind. is 
properly distinguished from the Subj. and OpL by the greater 
posiiiveness with which it implies or excludes present anticipa- 
tion. Thus supposition with present anticipalion is expre*ied 
by the primary tenses- but there is here this generul distinc- 
tion, that the Fut. Ind. anticipates wilhoin expressing doubt, 
while the Subj. expresses doubt. On the other band, supposi- . 
lion without present anticipalion is expressed by the secondary 
tenses J but with this general distinction, that ihe Opt, supposes, 
either with some past anticipation, or without regard to any de- 
cision, while the secondary teases of the Ind. suppose in despite 
of a prior decision. 

Kkhakkb. o. tn Hie enpresaloD of oontinjiency, tha Iv^f. ind. baa eom- 
nionly the same dirnenoe from tba Aor. and Plup., aa, in Engliab, the Imp£ 
Ind. and potential fVom tlie Plup. tn legpect to the time of tbe aotioQ, 
Ibeielbn^ tbe contini;ent Impf. ind. commanly ref^ to pretent tisBB, and Um 
Aor. and Plup. to pat. See ^§ 599, 601. }, 603. }. 

fL We may, aiy la genera], that nippoiitiim « /act Is sxpreued by the ap- 
propriate teuBfl of the Ind. (^'- 5S7, 603. ■); ntj^otition thai ma^ beeom$ 
fad, by the Suty. ; n^p.-inlimi mAoat rtgard to fact, by the Opt. ; and t*p- 
pBBtiim amtraty la fact, by tbe past leoau of Ihs lud. ; while ia theea tenaos 


tberg ii tliii ^stinctimi, Ibu the Impf. oKpreisn mppodtion caninay to prtiaU 
fori, but the Aor. and Plop, eaitriiry to pail fact, 

y. Ilie Epic aometimeg Juins ■! with the Fut. ind,, when it depends upoD i 
oondition expresaed or underatood ; w, Ei 9' 'Qiiimit l\.itt . ., i^r^A ■■ . . 
mrtrinriu (. 539. A luniikr use of it in the AtL is race and doubtfaL 

^ Ow4> J. IndeSaiUuesa coDBtitates a apeclu or coDdngenoy. Heora 
(I.) the OMUlniction with the relative IndeAnite (^ 606) ; and (2.) ^« ■« 
of it with the past t«ns» of the lad. to denote an action, not as occurring at 
k dcSnile Ciine, but ftom time to time, as the occaeion might occur, or, in 
other wocdt, to dcQOta a AniiliiaJ adioK ; tbui, n,xxiit„ -yii ifii ftiy ir tihi 
IfBB, /or ha uould i^pm aofj that ha btoi in June wWi tome ont, Mem, iv, 1 . 2. 

wXiU rfniiiHi i. 9. 19. ET th stry Jimi'ii . . 0Ai»ii:u>, . . Imn. ■>, <uii 
MftM ttlrit w^tXJtftZ<tny iL 3, 11* 

§ S9S, The coDtingent modes are oflen ueed where the 
IncT. might have been employed. The Opt. with 'iv for the 
(«.) Pres. or (/S.) Fut. ind, is particularly frequent ; and often 
serves, by suggesting instead of asserting, to give to the dis- 
course that tone of moderation and refined courtesy, which 
was so much studied by the Greeks, especially the Athenians. 
(See ^% 604. b, 60d. 5.) The use of ihe Subj. for the Ind. is 
more limited, and occurs chiefly {for the Fut.) in (;•.) earnest 
inquiry respecting one's self, and in (fl.) strong denial. Thus, 

a. Avri it , . Tt li» lU ■ &irrn ykf itxkirttri, iha [wiiuid be] U Me 
very JAjajt w wamli for iheg tciU totmer expend, iv. 7. 7- Kai S^^wrrif /lir 
eh. A, itirtirmn, i. ii r, fa^ . ., S«(ifi ^ixf li'V-w Cyr. i. £. 1 1 (cf. 
$ 594). SHK. A.f.ny.;w ^i. n'l !m> 1 <■«■<■«»■ KAA. 4>.^'. SllK. 
0&»>< /unfixK ix^nrti' £' ih PU Gorg. 50a d. Thia lue of the Opt. is 
particularl; fkqnent in ugumenCatiTe conclusious. 

^ ■^II>u, ui •» >> ipuli'-m, I cmfai, and [mnild not] loUl not deny it, 
Dem. S76. 17. 'A^x' .UW i> .(^-^../^ Ar. Pint. 284. MEN. OS. it /tiM- 
fint. DP. OU'(>'-y'>l^n'»/>«. Eur.Iph. A.310. — Thiameof the Opt. ia 
particoIaTly frequent in the firet pereon. 

y. n« liS 1 n rrS , rl liyi i WhiAa [can] iW / ^ f iMFre ito/) T 
Khntv^t Eur, Ale 864. ^n^,,, i r.yZ/Lit, Jr/icin^m Id. Ion, T5S. 
£;«?> n Uri/i, S 'T^ftii lEiwf r> I Soph. Ant. 31k KVrlsu «u «! 
/ufu, Ib.fi54. Sm i 611. 3, 

IToTS. In the Epic language, the nse of the Sabj. for the Fat ind. is more 

nirri »!».!. frr iKry [cannot] uiS mil <Uw 
WW, »■) i«j:»»("" "i jii !ii»!H vii. S. SO. 
'O rKwIn 0,„(in!- ih ri . ., ^lilt ^ ^i-tj iv. 8. 13. 

Notes. (1.) This use ie most fiequenl in those fiirms of the Suhj. vh\A 
hare no fomn of (he Ind. cloedy resembling them, vis., the Aor. paa. and the 
9d Aor. It is, on the ofher hand, le«a frequent in the Pres., miembling the 
Ptm. iaJ., and in the 1st Aor. act. and mid., resembling the Fut. ind. (rf. 601, 
B.). In this empbalic n^alion, the Sntj. is regularly preceded by a doubla 


■HiNlii. it ^i Ttf Li»nli»lluii mty b* Mphbwd kj nqqiljrfav a iron) « 
fbnm nfmBBg ftv (.dl ; 60). 3) ; thu, 0> IOhh ^i rwn, 7 Auw am 
fitt Aat tiHf iromU kmm. Qvofmit mdi pi— gwi ■■, Oi ftin, /•■ n s>^> 
ywHm-B. LIS; Oi^' >U, ^' n f<X»f Ar. Eoct. G&O. (£.} The aJnuUt 
wm^ ti ^i witk tfat Fta. bid. ii to ba ufdaiiwl in tba sum maiuMt j m, 
M n> ^ ^'ifml nn, mttw wU IfiMim yiu. Soph. U. lOSS. 

^ 990> We procwd to the application of the genentl 
principles which govern the use of the distinct modes, to par- 
ticular kinds of aenteoces, which may be termed, from their 
offices or connectives, derideraiiee (expressing wish, from de- 
gidero, la detire), Jual, eottditMmal, relatiee, and conp^enai- 
tary (§ 339. N.)- 

( 1.) Denderaiive, 

^ 00 7> A wish is expressed either with or without o 
de&ilfl looliing forward to its realizatioti. fn the former case, 
it is expressed by the pntnary tenses ; in the iatter case, by 
die tetwtdary. In the former case, (a.) if the wish is expressed 
with an asgwraiiee that it will be realized, the Ind, /W. is used ■ 
but, (jf.) otherwise, the Subj. mode. In this use, both the Ind. 
Fut and the Suhj. may be regarded as less direct modes of 
expression instead of the Imperat. in the latter esse, (/.) if 
the time for realizing the wish Is already post, the secondary 
tentao/lhe &d. are used with ti yiif and ttiti- but, (a.) other- 
wise, the Opt. mode. (See ^^ 590, &»3.) Hence the Opt. 
becomes the simplest and most general form of expres^ng a 
wish ; and from the frequency of this use, it has derived il« 
name (§ 169. 3). Thiis, 

(■-) 'He tti riirin, mal n!tirfi fti, tMm tin [j'Dn will do] do, and ft«li» 
Id M, PL Prol. 3S8 a. Ha»> »J' l;trf ^Kh. SepU 250. 

SoTE^ ( 1 ■) A wiib is oncQ aiiprened in the form of • <)iieMioii. Heoca 
In Oiwk, U in otber Uuigiuge*, the interrogative Fut often supplies the finca 
of the Imp«raC ; a^ Oh> !£■>' it ''X"" i ■■! ■ i^" fiin; [Will you 
not caiT^'] Carry ho attajf intranlfy, arnf ttavt hera/tyne, Sopli- AnL 885. 'A^ii 
r« llM, l.iV* W. 0H^> /MI I T-iSti. 3' Jiri Id. (Ed. T. 1069. Oi ^A X>Xa'. 
rut, tKK- i.«;L.*Mn.| V"' 1 [Won't yoo not talk] Jt,^'! wtt, Iml faOw aw. 
Ar.Mnb. 509. (S.) For the Fnt. vrith Jw, in the place of the Imperat, ars 
$ 602. 3. (3.) Tht Aor. lUiit Pre*, are alao naed willi ri •£> ■*, or ri li, in 
the eameiC ex|HnaioD of a irish ; as, Ti iSi, ip* • K^, li . . t).i|Bi fti > 
rPAvOo.aaHf C^nu, liavi yau aottoUmtT La Idl me,Cy[.iLi.4. Titli.t 
)' t',, iI* tf«rfi , n. Lya. a 1 1 d. 

^098. (0.) mi>m^Um^^UM net wait. lit. 1.14. Hit ^Ul- 
lut, 3 i<};il. iXK' ini.timi 0« >i>iiVA lb. 46. ai, (w> reirtiirirMt pr{a. - 
rw/iiir-fi'LlMmf IrirtfyXmrnSmttf i/uTl iii. 2. 37. 'AjLlifi' fn yl riA 
■yni ■ri^niamii rix'""- 1"^' mlm! ^i^" Soph. Tr. SOI. <!>.;', Uvvfkyuu 
Ear. Hoc sas. H« nni'^f Tid^ d., net Jo thit. vii. 1. 8. Mail, itt^nn 
I«aa TW )>i>w«ftiH» ■ Irn yii* v. 4. 19. 



.Horn. (1.) Tlw n« «f tlia Sntg. a Impmd. Mnin tbk&y is Um lil 
Pirw. (whan tbm Impsit. is nnting, ^ 1 70. N,), and in Um ,4*- intlh />». 
la tha 3d Psn^ tbe distloctloa la nralj npgtected. th&t in prokibilmu taith fti 
tatd rb tompiHai^, tin Fro. U pml a (id ImperiU., bvt Ae Aor. in rV XiiAf'. i 
W, M» iaUri fU ■ . . ^n r.l-t^Jn Vi. 6. 18. MJr' j>.i;n, ,>^;^' afiT* I<r4 
8opb.(Ed.C. 731. H.)' irinrnh «-. 168. Hxl' Wmii^, ,. 963. In tha 
Sd Pan., tha distinctian k l« o tmu i ii d, Tbc fbandstjan of tbe di^Iinctioa 
aaOBt to ban b« thia ; that (lie j'lH. forbidi an acUon more definitdj Uuui 
the Aor. (' 563), and bHia lulunlij adopM a more direct form of eKpreaaion. 
Thtu, prufaibitiim kl tba Pr». in often designed to arrest an action now doing, 
wbile prohibition in the Aor. merely forbids, in general, that it ■hould be done ; 
as. Mil ».u^^;iTi, lKm,iw<<mieTimg,\.i.Z .smO; Hi(ii,T„ Xtait,*.^,. lb. 3); 
but MhJ) .. liJiTi, nar tlintiid you ahA, VS I-IT. (E.) Tb« uae iif the 8n^. 
u Impact, maj ba explained by ellipoa thua, 'O^irt jui^ KM^ita^ip, ah thai 
wtdo mH wait. Smiru /.. wxirfi rmZru. See $$ 593, 601, 603. 3 ; and 
compare §$ 5S5. ]-, 1, 611. 3. 

' % <K09. (y.) ETA ».. -riw, ri^iy„i^n,, WoiM lAal I had Aai biem 

leiAjiim! Mem. I. 3.46. EA' I'x't • • fi>.T;siii f;iiii[. ^twld r&il yna Aof/ a 
(eKs- v'irit, Eur. El. 1061. E; yi^ nrmirvj )i!»/"> (Tjt:f> H. Ale t07a. — 
In these expres^ne of wish ttaere ia properly an elUjinB ; thai, EiV' iT^k dtK- 
rUn t^nu, km^Jh J> iT^i, or iiifiin iw, if jna had a bttfr ^irk, it inmld ia 
wtO, tx I tluHdd bt gbO. Sot §4 600.3, 603.). 

Nora. A wiab in sppontion to fact may ba also expresasd by the Aor. 
iftXit (' 36B), B^ht, With tbis rerb, the particles of wishin^r are some- 
tiioea cambined for the sa^ of-gntater strength of axpresaion. Thua, '11ft- 
X> ^> £^ Z^,, [C ought to be living] H^ould th,ii Cgnu mm Utingl 
11.1.4. -Oklrtrntr if,k,f, Wiadddut IlfidptriJudI Sopb. (Ed. T. 1157. 
E»' iti>: 'A«y»i fik iimrrirtm nit» £nr. Med. 1. E.' yif iftx., PI. Cri- 
to, 41 d. So the Impf. Sfuin, Enr. Iph.A. 1991. In later wtiten, SftXn 

% 600, (I.) O; St.! Irrrlt^m, Mny Ot godt nqulb I iii. 3. B. 
n>>,ii lut ukymli yUiTt y. 6, 4. tixTi nXt/uTn AmMtlmfi'lii, ri^itft n 

vi 6. 18. nj^i^M r I ^4 wix"!", '"T^V.,^ yi( Eur. Ale 1023. 

Noras. I . Tha Opt of wish u aomeCinie) used, etpeciallj in the 3d Pen^ 
•a a leaa direct (arm fur the tmperat. Sometimea the two fbrms ara united, 
and then again with the Sul^. (§ 598) ; aa, "Ayt/', il^iTf »•!( fw inrgmri- 
/H' , ., I «•« . . 'Ax-'ii- ntf^rnin, )iii| Si nfirn f^ym, ftnH ri ^/tif iiMrti 
T. 119. See Soph. Ant. 151. 

2, The Opt. of wish may be Introduced by tha particles ii, iMi, i! yi( (Ep, 
and Dor. ■Wt, «; yif), it, and in inlerrogalion by rSi it. E1ftn yittm fliy. 
yii,^ Ikada mice I Eur. Hec B36. E»i /inrm y^int Soph: <EA. T. 
106?. E; ykf ^-iiHTi Cvr. t1. 1.33. 'fli ty-rt ^^yiJuHit Eur. Hipp. 407. 
ns, t- Jx.r^r , [How might I <Ua ?] Wm>,1 Mat / mi^ di, I Id. Ale 6(15 
— Iheae eipraatons. axeepc the lait, are elliptical j Oxia, W )tti yittm ftiy 
ytt, hitifl' I', If 'Am Kwn a vna to att, I alumtd bt glad ; OtnXtifon It it 
b.Hr, rmyxi.!,,. See ^« 599, 603. y. — Very rarely, i7h it Joined with the 
8ubj. in tbe expression of wish ; aa, E.7' . . Uxn Soph. Ph. 109:t. 

3. Excefit in in(erra|^t1on, i> is not used with tbe Opt. of wish, which i« 
flina often dlalinguiahed ftom the <^t, in its other uses. Thus, ''il rai, yi. 


BTKTAX. — ' 081 OF «>DK8. [bOOK UI 


(II.) FitwL 
^ 80 1 . Afler final coDJimctioiiB (trs, o>r«f , it^ 1^ ' o(f^ 
poeL), a praent pitrpo$e is ezpresBBd by (a.) the Sabj., or 
iff.) in the Put., by the hid. ; but ■ ffut pmrpote by (/.) the 
Opl., or sometimes {i.), when the realisation m now impotti- 
hU, by the pof/ /m«u o/ the Lid. (See ^ 589, 593). In 
nnal Bentences, iutroduced by a relative (^ ^1. a), the modes 
are used in the same manner. Thus, 

(a.) 'Im iilin. B Aot r-K ■u^ iiHW, t. S. I S. "Ef^ Ui mlri, Umi . . 
>ii>)i; Cyr. L4. 10. Siii^uXiim iyi, rtt itifm riUm UrM, r,.uiiiu ii ri- 
j^irra ■ i( ^iiiin hf L 6. S. — After f»i ud it, St a sonietiniea iiuEita]; 
u,'A{u[ i^.fmil. ul^/iii CTT.iU 1.21. e.^f fiix; « j> riffur' U. 
,ti^ .£m1i. Pr. 706. 

(fi.) 'AXK' Jnw n /•) i*" Uii'iy }-»iri/>i<a. nHv niann, tut •veil' «■ 

yim. After tirmi, tbe lit Aor. wtg. U rarely lued in tlis Bctive and mid* 
dia vmoBM, but idileid of it Ihe Tot ind. CC f bOb. i. 

Ac dU|i>. in onkr Hut lit viight bid ilapKta, t, 4. 9. &.;{>;*» Irifiil.ii'n, ^ 
•-.Xipir. r> ;•■»' ifrtHf i. 1. 5. Eliou ^irtn-iWuiu . ., f,i rit Wihni yt- 
H.T. n. 4. sa. Ei'r^^ (HIK. Frw., § S67. >) U/uw, T>' <{u>r fi n, uim 
Eur. Hec 1 1«8. 

ta^oMlfy ilay mt, IB Aat I miglU user Aoh sbwi mftd/T Soph. <£d. T. 1391. 
"litrf^i, Ithl-ISS. OU^t^ii' f n^v-'n Cti^>' <ri'i;j., 7»r if>i'>« 
Ar. P>i, 13S. -I» /.■)>!( 'k'n >.:^>^», ^:l).' iruh ■f.'xi.r. uV n> i^" 
kii^ aiH'V** y.V.«.T. PL Meno, 89 b. 'Eli, r^ l.ijt^n;. tJt. AnSir., ^ ^«l", 
(I- ($.<:>.■«, il^MT. j. »£r. tfuHTf . vii. 6. 23. 

^803. ReUAHKa. 1. A paat parpow, still eonCinned or eonoeired 
of upreKnC (§ 591. 4), may be eipressad by the 3nbj. ; and on the otbcl 
handj a proient pnrpoee, viewed aa donblftj or aa connected iritll Bonwliliag 
pant, distant, or contingent (^ 590X may be expressed by the Opt. Tlu 
Subj. fbr the Opt. may be remarked panicularly after the Aor. oied for thft 
Perf. ( .^80), and in indirect quotation (4 610). The two modea an aome- 
timn boih uMid in the name oonnection. Thua, 'Eri'mlJi n ti* lyuf, Ira 
i, tiirr-c hiyrii PI. Crito,43b. 'B&>Jh ii/ttn, pi fUi « t*V"i"'Hi Eur. 
Med. 214. "fii;£iT> ir;IrCtii iym, iinf n rfir4{« fpinH-ii Th. viL 2S. 
TI(tri)JiU IcUii'i., ifm ilW . ., Tk minvyyilXtiri U. 5.36. Compare IvAii- 
« an.1 !««.... iii. 4, 1, 34. ^r-, » «-.. J ^«r«i«-u « J .;*«-.,jt.T.^ il< 
tr^i u'li « ^( >i. 4. 4. Sriirf. /u uiE/lfOro, i, wM^itM Sopb. (Ed. C. 1 1. 
A.Viii ri.4ia,i-i iwtwXititf . . riftftM. li itnl r{»ani>.*if'>filiu( i-i <!»(•, 
tr„i fill ftir-ri \. 3. 14. 'Clt Kpr tll^n KiyMn ^uc,. y'—m r' «fli« 
Eur. El. 9S. 

lal, ii commnnlj sMd, bol 


fHt iinMf» ainai . . m* •Mf^w, Mqr ftmd [bat Cha enemy sfaaaU *tbuk] 
Aat lilt taaa, wmM atladi Eio, iii. 4. I. A.l.^,, ^i x-fiir ^i I'mii \w,Ih I. 

3. 10. «•:.£/». >i. /.if TM>( Al..ii ii}i..:( iieir,,.!, {.>.«■, pi. plu. i3 a. 

'Efifun ../.■•£ 1»UT. iii. I. 12. Z.:.i«yn ftS, XiS^r. rii. 1. 31. A>l«x' 
7m itli Ti^t^i, / on a/roil/ [u lo this, du. hutr 1 shall nut find] Umt 1 ihaS 
fiMd, At. Bq. 1 IS. "Owm Ai(<*. !»»■■, Ifiw [as to thifc tifj. Low I may e»- 
eape] Oial I canunt ucapt, Eur. Iph. T. 995. HIi r^irxi, 7<r»f ri ro . . ■>«- 
n«i.,,/i!iiriHit Uat luyowviff (nrycw, Id. Heracl. 34$. lAiitir^t rJ'.it 
~ . Iyf.,rm Siq>li. B. 1309. "EffCirn, In ifMrw«>i 1^,XU (^r. iiL 1. 1. 4>h 
Ci^M ». i-w z;* li'Uil'i^' inaSrm, lb. iv. a. 19. 'Aw f iCii, x' ««« 
ltm.H> Ear. Hed. IM. 

9 b« supplied be^HQ 

Jh I{ •Tik 'rt^fii Bofk. Aj. Sae. -Axi' IrM M »;t: ••'•c *-' !'•/>« [k- >•>•'- 
•a] PL Hsno, 77 a. Ut . . luf/ti;^ Ear. Ale 315. Cf. H ^95. 1, 59S. 3. 

(ill.) Conditional. 

^ 003. In sentencea cooaected by conditional conjnnc* 
lions, there is a great variely of conception, and consequently 
of expression. The condition may be assumed, either (b.) as 
a fact, or (/?.) as that which may become a fact, or (;'.) as a 
mere tuppntition without regard to fad, or {8-) as contrary 
U> foci, lo the first case (ii.), it is expressed by the appro- 
priate- tente of the Ind. ; in the sacood ((!.), by the Su^. ; in 
the third (/.), by the Opt. ; and in the fourth (S.), by a patt 
taue of Ike Ind. (see §^ 590, 593). Of these modes, the 
Ind. and OpL ore usually connected by li, and the Subj. by 
iir {= il and a* the contingent panicle) or its shortened forms, 
qt and uv exceptions (i.), however, occur, though rare in the 
Alt, writers, and some of them doubtful. — The form of ihe 
CONCLUSION is, for the most part, determined by ihat of the 
condition. In the first case (a.), the conclusion is regularly 
made by the appropriate tense of the Ind. ; in the second (^.), 
by the FtU. ind. ; in the third (y.), by ibe Opt. with Sr- and 
in the fourth [>.), by a past tense of the Jnd. with Sr. The 
form of the conclusion (j.), however, oflen'depends upon other 
causes, besides its relation to the condition, and cases of ana* 
tolulhan are very frequent. There is (t;.) sometimes even a 
union of different forms in the same construction. If (a.) the 
conclusion is itself a dependent clause, its form is commonly 
determined by this dependence, and the condilion usually con- 
forms. Thus, 

(-.) El ^1. i^u, 

iiitmt, Am lirvi Mxt, VII. a. in. 

s tlw Gitek, u in Mlwr iu- 

- USE 07 XODXS. [book lb 

tnl 6i aUito rtmam, IU.4.11. *H> 1) fiiyf, ^vV Ux" r(w Tafni ^ibXim-*. 
/u/a L S. SO. "Eu /ui rurArt, . . rfr^inrh 1. 1. H. See lb. IS.— 
(a. and fi.) Ovu AfH In /i^X'^'^ '' '■ rmirmii » /I*;|;>r<nu mTf uiifiut ' jai 

NoTB. The place of the Put. in Ihe condudoi] may be unpplied by th« 
nme forma of expnasion aa are daeirbere aubstiUilea for this tens ; lima, 

•: nAifM T. 1. 9 (§ &95. 3). 'H> y^ i^^i/^ ;Li>'» » r-fr', I-yi-y' Ai U. 
nf>«}^.'*> r^M Soph. CGd. T. 89B. 'Hi J' if!i uorx^in, V*' l"" . . cm- 
.» i. T. 7 (^ BB3). lU. »^-, If,, ua^i, rdif i/tTt nnoinu i. 8. IS 

{§ BB4). 

(iUh, iDDJHJfr 1/ Uc CMinv lAouU /mmt, iii. S. 35. Ej tJi ify'"' ''/•^ rWn'fin 
n JiuXiiii^iMuf, IUk^ >> r{i( cjuaf iii, 3. S. 

().) El ^l> U(aT iinf»m[ u/t£t, niir' ■> Imirfin . _ 'Evil M ^ x. r. 
X^ 1/ I lap r>^ in want, I Ainild be amakring Hat . .. Btl MiMcef It, ix- 
▼. 6. 30. Ova £. I*hV» 'Atw.'*! »£«, il H b^ a*^ UUtKO., .^jwrot 
taMM nothmm dim, lAit if I tad not nammandid Itim. vi 6. la. hi H wn 
■-■H-H l«ui>»^ drami a> iriiJ/^iU v. B. 1 3. E<>i iftiTt ilKttn, Wftti- 
tutu it li. 1. 4. — {y. and 9.) E; fih wpifn Krirri^K,. •£>' ■. tmnKAiUtti 
wi ■ «<> •:> i*Ufu. OiU ykt i, Hiiiuii jHI • B'^rii.iv, Wmsti'm. •! i£ijL<>»»j>u 
n^ tAtgyirai. Had I bnom thii br/bre, I had tuivr accompanied yon j and 
Kow / MoJI drpart For Smg Sftdacta mmid ly u i m n iu amnwHt vu, Aonid 
I dtitt emt pv bent/adtm. vii T. 11. 

(<.) ElriirrifM Soph. (Ed. C. U4S. -— llieiueof il with the Sol;], ii 
aimoM endraly oonflned to tbe Iob. and Dor. 

({;.) E; ^i> l.r«.» >Mr, li»;*( t, >.i ■>> ..V.^ ./• ») fu*^n vti. 6. 1 3. 
E.- » h! 9»>iii7ri T<i T, 6;n ■li<^*' . ., Km i<-l »^ »»,..■!( (cf. 'Ef^ t. U> 
fc>« il., >: f^t'Axn )..£■;*«) V. 6. 9. EJ tx-/". M n;^'"* i*^ >'•»« 
^a> Cyr. ii. 1. 9. Oi> £> .-f.^^. r» nla n> trv•^ ••' f* "" "f^-*n- 
«». At. EccL 181. El yic yy^n,, I, »!' |&»fl 3«^.n, . . ■-■;' .Ub 
■ifwi f< !• iU-nx rwi.i Eur. Or. 5S6. 

(a.) Ei •;• tflirit run.., Tor* <> l<ri rw witnt ■ -, m) •■(-■{yii. 
i.„r. i, ■£*«. Vcn. lit. il. Auii. ■> ir*. ■; w /Ji . . rvfr^/un . . 
Ixor'i b K T^ rUt x^i^ •■ 9»i<Tt. isiXa^iri LyB. 179. 33. EI />!• 
itAmi I<rir<u fiiXXii J»» . ., it/>iH ■!• vXiwi'- ••' » /lixXii^o V. 6. 
IS. Oi. It . . ayipHt, .£» .1 . . dmlM &. 181. 

(9'. -E<-^ii>i^.>,tw,i'nK«^ii#«X^it>.&rJ>i.3.4(f SOI). 'E«vf»'>.tj- 
H>rn, w, S> )»M»h •!•-•»!'•»'> Iii' 1-35. E.Vi^ <; afrrt }<.'* Irri-t x'>^ltv^ 
in . . vtrnUni if I. 6. S. 

§ 604. Remarks. 1. The condition is often («.) under- 
■tood ; or ifl.) instead of being expressed in a distinct clause, 
is incofporated in the conclusion ; or (y.) is expressed by a 
relative clause, or by an independent instead of a dependeul 
wDlence. In all these cases, the Coim of the ooocluuoa ia 


properly the Bams aa if the condition had been formally ex- 
pressed. Thus, 

(a.) "En ,1, At rim ■r^ l^f H'i-fi r,i.i^m, W T^ P'-*"! > '*'<"'<' »»■ 
Am [if I ahoald now fbrgira jmi] be n futurt tm ns^ to n^ kntkr, anil ■ 
fnatdtomtt I. 6. 8. 

NOTK&. a. Among tbt, coodidom moat Datanll; rapidicd, n>d thcr^bn 
moet freqnentlj omitted, an those of indisKtion with poeaibilitj and nt |waH- 
bilit; with indioatioD ; nnce iheae an the twu gnv. coBdittacu irf' huuian nin. 
duct. Henoa tha firquent uas of th* Opt. aad paat lefBca of the liid. with J> 
to deDOt« one of thiae ideas, the otber being implied as a conditicHi ; thD% 
Oia <• Umitt, it ueaU mot be ahlt (if he should wish), i. s Ac could mit, i. 9. 
33. OtSi twf' i. r„ iri-K ■« "»" mp ime May ai^ i. 9. 13. Airti pi, 
St lr^t^i0^n^t, liey eould Uiaiueha liart marrhed [might if they had diosen], 
iv. 9. 10. 'H^i 1' Itlfnrlytyi xfi'^i <"<^ I aii/kt haat midduit wtimgia, 
ill. S. 14 OU' sM. ^«i>Tu-,«i i, Uix»^i^ HOT Jvmld m witlitn iltg Urn {it 
we could), ii. 3. S3. lU.rr' ■> iiuirmifu, I ihimid mmt pladlf Aur (if I 
might hear), ii. 5. 15. Tii> iUrtt'm, U>i>i> i, IT.Z. '0»>^n ^ ii L 
a. 17. "EtulSfa. y J>. ZtAmM Acm usAoJ, PU Pbsdr. 328 a. 

b. To the use of the Opt. with it Just noticed, mny be referred fu etiH 
plopuent to exf^ess jwmuiiViii, gr comm-nid in Ue m/imed or indifftivtt Ian- 
guaje of pn-niuUH ; as, I'll /III ai/i.^iif •• fimitrir, gat mny note bebikr j/mr- 
tdf [might if j-on wished], Soph. Ant. 4<U. 'Kyttr tt ^mitt iA(' iiiwi. 
I^ lb. 1339. Si.^~f it il^uthtrixu Id. El. 1491. — Ila use fw the Prek 
and Fat. ind. (i 595) may be refeired in like msnoer to ellipsiB. 

t. From the different idiom of the two languagea, the Opt. is often best 
tfan^ted, as in the examples just given, by oilt Pres. polaiitjaj ; thus, 'A\i^ 

<> lb. 23. See abo ^ 600. 

(0.) 'B-X.i/.nt V 3f, txtm, iw,i,. i= u' i*-;»H ^if- >-'*'^' -"-'• >■ 

3. 1 7. OJt. yif, Mt £' Ix- «>■" [=■ '■■ &■>< '^X' "/"]■ J-'t^™ » y«!- 

^e., tl^T it rtim.t a ie..;i.ii-. Mem. i 1. It. 'A.u i-» ri rtiMlrm 
Jxut [— u ^ 1-4 »»:» .r:^..], . . .U it ^a, r- i, PI. Phedo. 99 a. N.- 
■Smi /d> •!»•■ i> H»jii.K<., trrWlrrxK .iTW .Utii f. Xufhm iii. 1. 3. 
*n«n{ M, ifiiai tH nil n'niti L 9. 8. 'Awl; i> tttftrn it Ifijiuf ruiinsi, 
fX;iM 1) (is jr «;i^ii> T- 1. 34. 

(y.) *Of«i » nint titfitt [°- (f ni fmlu'o] * Jrf wativuiilHSv, «£r> 
l}w •Cm' it lila^HirViuM Ii. S. T- 

^ 00 ff. 3. The plsoe of the Opt in the conclnsion is sometinw* 

■applied by the Ind. expressiag such ideas as pouibilitii, jtmpniiy, mrtmi^, 

Sin>.. i. 5. a. Om yi(. ,t wi,„ ^itivf^t^T,. fa,,,' h Hi. *. 15. Wr».V 
ri fa„tii yl.«T. Init;.>»;>. P^JlVi'". "(J *i.T., iwtii'r, i. 9. Ifi. 9e»' 
lb. IS. 19, SB; ii. 3. II ; iv. 1. 14 ; and ' 594. 'l!,.m;», <; iViini^ri i. 

4. 7. Ai''ji;;if yi( I> ™ />i> l/.i Ji«Tiir{ij;Au, ' fcr it wonld h»»e been 
base." Tii. 7. 40 (| 804. ^). 

». The conclusion has sometimes s second condition, te which it.- verb con- 
fbrms ; as, 'E>r )' l^i TXnifi, ,U it Sau^iriu^ >r t,u iSfun vl 1 . 23. 
'H.HW> . . fn, >; liiXfKU . ., i> ^i> ^,ik„tTm., imtirnrms iv. I. 3. 

4. The paitide it is somatjmee omitted when it would ngularty be Innrt- 


978 smTAX. — USE of modes. [book in 

ad ; u, 'ILr^n^i ^tim, il . . ninrmrih', I artmig Junld bi adorned, if 
I had Amu dmiped^ vii. 6- 31. E* 1' fl^ii**/ *i Si<3 ytM/tw ?;k«"iii ibrp^qf 
gniyii Eur. Pb. 1200. Ei' )i>i« . . i[>/ii> . ., fiCxnfirjt" U.Hecllll. 

Aini^ nor nni£^ ihtf Atiife Jaii« iJ luiabwBrvtii, Id. £1. 9 14. 

S. Auic conrtmy (5 59S) ofUn gives the conditionjJ form to com piemen t»- 
ly cUuMa sAa w«di of emdtion ; la, Ti7i ifau/>^rii, iJ [=: In] . . riAif, 
dm I immdr at, that ym plaa, PL Rep.- 348 a. 

(iv.) Relaiiee. 

% 0OO« A sentence, which is introduced by a relative 
(or by a similar particle of linrie or place) referring lo tbat 
which is tndefinite or general ur not yet determined, lias a 
species of contingency (§ 594), and may hence employ the 
Suij. or Opt.; the Subj., when a fulure determination is now 
contemplated, but otherwise, the Opt. (^ 590. 2). Which 
mode should be employed will commonly depend upon the 
preceding verb (§ 592). After these connectives at is regular- 
ly used with the Subj. (sometimes compounded with the con- 
nective) ; btit not with the Opt, unless for some additional rea- 
son. Thus, 

Zlnht ifo, J}'i/UM iJrui *m^ rtiria, f [definite, tIz. Qtki] ynftairifu/m 
ri> ■-;>&•. B; n m1 r^ nVf"" titriinfin, f [indcdnite] i> Kb^h ii^ 
' ths guide vhom Cyras Duy give ns,' i. 3. 1 6. 'Eiyi yif lim'mt ^> It ii'i 

' tbe vessels which be mighi give uh,' lb. 1 7. "0 r, St liy, ri/t,/m lb. 5. 
"Or^ U frn'-n pli.M tStm, r,£i^ ItJuXii lylyrirt Wit.i,).iii, ii. 6. 23. In 
ifA ^1> it H^mi iTmi riiLitt, Jvn if i \, 3. 6. 'O'lu ^l< rr^artiyit iZn i!il, 
rJt rrfonrir ruftniX'iH- irilu 1) «;(:•»■•, «• inrr^Ts^i iii. 1.32. 
ilifivrur i' iiftif rtvi v^vr«i>f rrsf^ur »f J' Ivw^t^ futM^rmrtui u. £> IS* 
Sh-.;^* . , Im, [— fr> d>] x' f{;c»r» «</.•.'»» CfT. L 3. 8. 'Oti 1' !{. 

<-» !•.»; Tri„„T« . . ^rJxi,.-„ iL s. 13. 'E^ n, j<r;»t [= m*. £.] ■«• 

fH J. iE- vil. 3. 3S. 'E^^iui. ivt '.■wr,«, irir, ■yv^,irm4 jSwAun i. 3. T. 

Ti'il,. I#a,n»n., I«i.[;=i«ii.] <^''"»'> Cvr.iil.2.1. 'Ei-i. [== 1«1 
i,\ 3i <riVif JXtf/j U; 4.' 3. 'Eini nt W.i., Y^.l^^i.rii rrr>»> I. 5. 3 
*E«| /HI Ji ra;!; n(, Xi^f" ' Itk^' [" ll'>i ^'J U ir-i'm jSivXurn, . 
mtimSi r»£ L 4.' S. *Ew SiSfr «v^fti'E>'s< il. 1. 2. 'Eiri.Ia Si n i^^}<..ii, 

eniXlir<iTa. 1. 1. 10. n<;> mlrtn tunyiyu i. 3. ji. Hi;t;;. <. MTinTn 
1.4. 13. 

Notes, (a) The omtsaion of It vilh the Subj.. in sentences like tbe pre- 
ceding, is moat treqaent in the Ej>. puet^ and ntnat in Att. ptuse, (b) In 

KJve dunees ; as, '!!«-> X7, iHyhuH. irfm titt, . . H-tTmi P. 109. 'fl< 1 
In rifflff riXMytt S. 16. 

(v.) Complementary. 

% 80 Ti Am tia oomplementuy wnlence* which it U llllil IliiliillllBl 


hen to noUoa occnr ia wiat li larmei tlu oroiiD 0W7W1, It win be neoamrr 
to mnark npoa the chuvctv <if this form of diaeonne, and iip«i Ita dUiuo- 
lira fram the oratia recto. 

Tliere are two ways of quoting the words of a peraoQ. In 
the first, we simply repeat his words, without choiige or in* 
corporation into our own discourse ; as, He raid, " I wilt go.*' 
This is termed, DiBSGT quotation, or b LaL, obatio becta. 
In the second, we malie such changes and insert such connec- 
tives as will render the quotation an integral part of our own 
discourse ; thus. He taid, thai Ae wxnUd go. This is termed 
INDIBECT qcoTATios, or in Lat., oratio obuqua. This dis- 
tinction likewise applies to the thoughts and feelings of persons, 
and even to general truihs and appearances. 

NoTB. Of Ui«M twa mMhodi of qnotatian, the fbnner a dr-imatie in ll> 
diantcter, pnaeating befbie us tliu apesker in the utterance of hia own worda ; 
but [he latter ia ivirraticc, limply relating what the apeaicer hu aaid. This 
idation ia made la Greek, bj tlie oae dther of the distinct modea iritb th^ 
comectivei or of Che inciKpotated modM. We luve occasloa at present bi 
trait only of the oae of the diicinct model. For ttw uae of the iitcnparaled 
modsa, toe J fll9. 

^ SO Si In the oroftq ohliqua, a thing b presented not as 
actual, but as dependent upon the statement, thoughts, or feel- 
ings of some person, and consequently as having some degree 
of contingency. Hence it is properly expressed by a contin- 
gent mode. This use, however, ia confined to the Opt., which 
limitation may be explained as follows. The oratio obliqAa, 
from the very nature of quotation, commonly respects the past, 
and the cases in which it respects the actual present are too 
few and unimportant to require special provision ; while in 
thooe cases, so constantly recurring, in which the past is spoken 
of as present, the very vivacity and dramatic character of this 
form of narrative forbids the use of a contingent mode. Hence 
the Subj. is used in the watio obliqaa only in such cases aa 
would admit il in the oraiio recta, while, on the other hand, of 
the distinct modes, 

The opUUnie U the mode appropriate to the oraiio obliqua in 
pott time. 

With this OpL Of is not joined, unless for some additional 
leason. Thus, 

mfmg, Aat Syaautii liad Uft UAi«rU>, L E. SI. Afnu if«»i avnif, 
r»» iTii. 'O S \(^nnU •!« ni^jrri, U, «;^ AiLnkim ■■^•M.r. rfi, tit 
ntrpinir* At H Mmmfirttn-f, tri «» irrMySm iJ^, dXX* ««-£;^m Srtt rMfMriy. 
y«t iv. B. 10. 'tU irn. 1 iiri^H In .l^fnr^ 1} Mn rfwiiuif, lini;>Ti- 
-'A. !!«.«£, .friJe',")^, "»>%v»,'-U.Gr.-ii.3.S6. -On»mJn>, 
at Urt^H U. I. 33. 'H»Afn «' /Af *EJLXan,, T« ^wUiv ..Unit raua 

SHO snrtjx — vsb of hodss. [book m 

ftpit A, fiMnXiii f bI Ikmwi TmnfifHif, In *f *EXXitHt M>$t>l. 10. ft 
■£y.yi^T^ In i«««^HYn rfx iii. a. 4. Z.f Ir nnr Ax lU«. Jw, In t 
niXH ifir Ui. 1. 10. 'H}^i., ; n 1^ .^i, lb Iv. S. 7. 'Ef^-^w U, «■« 
Imvk Jii IT. 4. 17. 'EmMwi «^ th Z>v/», rtnts nxiit.,, itt S fix*. 
tO. I. 14. 'EuXu . ., ^Ti^ «>ju» m^Twt Ij^iiw', vf ' «i Siiw /<)> 
■Mt Soph. CEd. T. 1145. Z(M-», >■' l>.bi;»i» H. 4. 21. '01 tx-^iwiu- 

t•^ fn . . <rff«( Xt^H L 5. U. 'SJtifuJ^m, In (tta^ KieM fmh-r, i. to. 
16. TiHKfitnt loCrixXu (HiM. Prag..>S 587. ■) th K;fn vf^b w ^i.^ 
i, iwAnXtiH HTr i. 1. 3. Se« 1. 6. 3. 

^000. Rbharks. 1. The Greek, from its peculiar spirit 
of freedom, vivacity, variety, and dramatic life (9^ 330, 576), 
often iDterctianges and blends ihe forms of indirect and direct 
quotation, commonly passing from the former to ihe latter, but 
■ometlmes the reverse. Thus, 

A.) A wddaD dunge » oftsn made frooi indinct to direct qoolatkni. 
Thka diangB nwy be nude eitho' (n.) >Aer tiM inUDdoclorj pirtide > w 
(fi.) in UiB bod; of the qaotatioD, oammonly iflar > relative, > panntbetio 
duue, or one tJ Ihe tergvr paoiH. «nd in the last case wiUi the ftequeot 
iiuartiDD of Ifi. Tha^ — (a.) [IfiJiMt Jn^ Tn "Avrii i^ J> {(nu," 
iVnzmu laid, " I am tht ten/ ptrwrn gim »fnn for' ii. 4. 1 6. I]i 1) iJra, 
In *> ;■■»' Irfa, " T. 4. 1 0. 'In* ir iJmn. U. " S 2^ii(.nt, ^i S-J^C* 
(A x.^^.." PI. Crito, SO c — (0.) -E«l>»ri< », "^ fMirVi, iy^M 
ii/vt'T mifji rtvrtv, ^ Xui^Mitifittm rhf r^*^*" L fl. 16. " \iyn' l^m^mt. 

wii •■ii ilfJi^n ' H. Gt. L 1. SS. 'Exi}i^ In '• ifIS, ^if >« . ., 'Aml* 
Ij^" ffv, " itntyjtirln^ 'kriMprmrt, Sri "#£r)}v 2* rtirmt ^wtt lU nl» r*^«* 
«w ■ £/u7r D EaXXi{«fnf ," lf% " u' ?«XuA, Xiywi " v. G. 37. 

^01 O* B.) Indizvet quotatHn, withoQt lofling eatirdy iu chnveCer, 
eften adopta, in whole or <n part, the mode* aod lanaeg of dinct ifoot^ion, u 
the ?«., Fut., ind Ferf. ind. for tb« Opt., the Subj, for the Opt., &c. Thu^ 
Tri) .1^ Ir. ItI r) .Tfirtof^ (>.»,., \uy,.. Ir. H rrfir,!.,.. 4«l.i»>, 
Wim diey aid, tiat Atg \tn] wn mm fatlhi amy. In rrfilud, ttsf A< Ire. 
tfgns] raigntd tti aniky (hero the i^alar foniw ef indireol qaotatno woakl k* 
■fuiii and iirililiifi, whila those of ihrecl, quotation would be Iju^k and iwiii. 
im/u, to that the person of the one lOna la united with the mode of tbe other), 
Iii. 6.3. 'Zy,0,!T..ila«ir,.r„i.i.S. 'Tr<4;-/a> f.s 7"<Iyi<(cf.'0« 
M W) fimnklM tyi) lb. 11. Oini IXty>^ Jr. KS{k ^> ritniui, 'A(,^» » 
wifisy^ I. 1^ iTalfti iTd iL 1. 3. Iliio Xiyrm, .. In iSix '■'«'> "'™> 
Axxif*t;^>4w»niL fl. 15. SeelU. M3; vl. 3. II; vIL 1. 34. 'Elt. 
■» )iiXt> iIhii, In mi(i'nriu rnith, iT ri, Iri'i-fiil vi. 1. 35. "EXtyn, In 
rifl «-»U. I..,.., i,if„, .'.n,„ I>..<i !»»•. ii. 3. 4. Sa lb. 6. 

§011. 9. Tbe use of the Opt. in the nratio 
merel; to the leading Terba in tbe quotaUon. but al 
these by relatives and nthv connectives fV. (j SI9. ■) 
. ., Ii' f mf iTituii, 'ttarongh whioh they had coma,' 
twi ir»Ttf Cjjis Xiyw SicVai ' xtifwr yif i!W, ' fbi it 

Bven thoogti an infinitive preoedsB; an, 'Efu, iyut -ri rrfinii/tm ■■» /tir— 
•4 »• vi)Li/ui>% SVi iiiTjlanXivi i'<i, ' because there was tlte king,' i. S. 18. 

S. b oomplcDHntai;. aantancea, when doubt k expnesed, and a fAnaej 

ay extend 


e joined with 

>.«. 7t, . . 



r,' vii. 3. 


tm. fi-] VOfcntVB. IHCCIBPOHA.TEA. ' 0fr) 

t«na< pncade*, tbe StJjf. is wiMtlmgs nied. npeciilL; in tlu \tt Ptn. Tht 
condecliv* ii eDmetimca omilted. and ev«i the leading verb itself. ThnB, O^a 

•n*. <; Xew*»f rUr, n cyt. yiii. 4. 16. s,i>,,. iH. ^j xiiCv/u., trut 

Oum Itaktt Soph. Pli. 761. BUi.i ^i;».^. i Id. El. 40. BTn « 0.J>j> 
rfu«f( S tfU.^ Ft. PhBdo, 90 d. Al. n.f«^ ». ru«-^>. . . A12X. 
[Sc Ilnfuw hJ '£)« ««» ( Bwxh. / MbHM ynt tn te liiait. JBaOt. t 
U tUoUt la. Rao. llsa (cf. a aST}. — The dm of tlu Sutg. in S 693. y 
■nay in like nuumor be expUiaed b}' (Uipsia. 


^ 6 1 S. The moat direct expression of an act of the will 
(^ 329. N.) is by the Trnperativt mode. (% 169. 4). For other 
less direct methods, see |§ 597 - 600, 602. 3, 604. b. 

»»m»»« I. Fniin Ibe fbndiMsa of the Greeks for pusiBg (him Indirect 
to ikoa. forma of expnsueo (cf. $$ 576, 603. 670), the [mperat. is some- 
tiinee fouod ia ifepnuEcnf Knlencee ; thus, Qmri; I* 'Ofirrni - *rr> ^n %»• 
•rin, and Orat— mat mortal ; h Aai [do not grieve] ycm MoaU iio( ^mm to 
BTW, Soph. EL 1179. Ffit^i. 1), Jm, j> ^;UlF/^ jciifn-innn, a>H< / 
wHi pnpom il n vriting, m tkat if jmni anJ^ [vote itj ymt m^ mU it. Den. 
199. 1. i1u-£h, fn, J> ^> Ifi'n-.^ . . jn-»f>»n fa >*■>(> trkcn, M>4 n^irf 
1% ifinre [let them gaini Oity rmut pain, Tb. iv. 99. 'Ersn^M^ vwAa^ 
»• IsjUfwo «7i fJ-A iJ «{£m 1. «iV i/^, ifitKtt utitlf PI. Leg. SOD e. 
0',rf •]• i )f ■>» , i>D ymi iiMtf Aa. oKat [do] yn lAoiiU do T Eur. Ueo. 
S2S (c£ Or>/' •;> ; Ififirr < ld.Gyd.l3n. OT.f i, r.n,., i i,T; ri, ,}„■ 

^Ew> V Ordrnmn, tlwm ipV aini ^ii«« Sopb. (Ed. T. 343. 'A>A' urf 
ifm ti^itfmf^ , Eur. Hend. 451. 0'.,U .■» ^ ^u yi.M^ i i>ii iN« tmm 
«K-,inM(letbad0Mj mam it dom for tm? Id. Iph. T. 1903. Oid4wn, 
•7 Xi^Wm Hdt. L S9. 

§ 6 1 3. 9. Id geaaral bat eoniest iddreM, the 9d Pen. of the Im- 
pent, ia sometimea used nth ni, or *U, ot both, iaalead of the 3d Pen. ; aa, 
Xa!;ii )i^ «-■< iwn^na • •'•{■■4, rm!\ ■ >f iiliim vi'f ^ti itTm, Cum llitkv 
eptrj man [ftliaa, bird] of yon 1 Snooty mile. Let tome one give me a tUn^ 
At. Av. 1186. «JX«Ti ■■« vtf lb. 1191. Irm ««. lUdyyOJui Ear. Bao. 
173. See { 500. a. 

3. Such famitiai impentJTea as Syi, ilri, St, and f !;i, ma; be used in tba 
Bingalar, as interjediona, though man than one are addreued ; thus, 'A^-i iSi, 
iitiimr, Apd. 14. E<Vi ;.«, Ti' ri.xir, J.>«>f i Ar. Pax, 383. 

4. An act of the wiU m^ napecl either the real er tbe ideal. Haoce ia 
Om^ aa in otlm' languagM, Bha Impeiat. may be oaed to axpRea su^qxiutiiifl 
BT taaikkm ; thiia, "O/wi ti itpirtm fuijbntjHl [let It bave b«eu aaid by me} 
It^ffHe me lo kam mid. Ham. It. i. 19. Illivru n fw( ..,••) Jii Sofb, 
«Dt. 1I6S. 


^614. L llie Greek has great freedom in respect lo 
the employmeDl of distinct o{ incorporated sentences, and in 
respect to the mode of their incorporation. Thus {a.) a do- 
pendent clause may be pretentd entirely ditlinci ; or {ff.) its 
tvihjtU 01 mo»t fromimtU tuittoiUiiie may be incarforMed^ia 

fft tTHTUL — m or aoMS. [booi it& 

the leading ctnuae, leaving it Dtherwise distiDct ; or (;-.) its 
tierh mav be also iiicorjio rated &h an InJinUirt ; or (A.) its vtrh 
may be incorporated yet more closely us a Parlictplr. The 
union ol\en becomes ujll cloaer by an attraction, which rendeis 
tie Mtijeel of Ike Inf. or Part, ihe same wilh tke subject or an 
adjtutfl of tkf principal verb. This attraction has three forms ; 
in the first (a.), the principal verb adopts the subject of the de- 
pendent clause ; in the second (f.)i the Inf. or Part., refDrring 
to the saine person or thing with the principal verb, udupis the 
■•roe grammBtical subject; in the third (r/.)i the Inf. or ParL 
tdoptt for its gTammatical sutgeci, mi adjunct of the principal 
verb. E. g. 

Of <my ^ Mm mat mm U GSeia, I. S. II. AlyM'n, In iri wn t(X"- 
rmi Cyr. i. I. S. n>;iHii^fn«, In, Hi-i si^^ iti-XtS,., Th. u. 99. 

iL lIoAn ri « HiwfM K^JntyH, Ir. Urn li 'K.Xj«i> iI>, A< pmtacd Ai 
mmi if Mtm, tint il nu aw n CUtcin, 1. 3. 31 ■>. J. 'EXi'y»r; «>», ^ 
YyitiHM, Twl. i. 1. Sa SS 435. 4, 6SI.— ■ and /S. For biuu^Jb^ 
M k 951. N. 

y. AiVfni^im icEniv /ilfw rcfi ^nl.i7 Ab;iiV Ivfw^i, ptreamng Otm 
(> taw fnai utjhaia miM Kaf Daiin, H. vi. 59. tln^nii'^Ct*'' iB'«'>» 
TlkULllO. ILn-m *>^ul*<">«r<7'(£c4. 6. 'H;iJi. . . ^n/u"' ff «- 
T(<1 AgM. L 36. 

>. Oi IwfHH . . r) ■;*fM>i n-^^M, / const pcrcnn jtm oHnufXnft 
H. 5. 4. Il>f..>.»tt:.n r^ «;>>rj^<»f H. Gt. IT. 2. 41 ($ 583. a). 
■En^^'i "H if*inv ii- S. i- '£(;(:>»••*• • - a-^if"! rnrM vii. 7. 17. 

y and I. 'El^lr mirtit nfinHV if <n>r Aiiilu^iiwi ■%», nr ^ 

l^jLiv^i^nrt ri^ /H)ir ^TtXayiw^iTUfi ' . JvJLJrfK U Th. i. 72. 

1. For txamples, ace \ 551. 

C. Tj'i^v'k d{w J~i f— i^, i^m ir—-], n fjhn^ib that wt wot wor- 
%, C.\T. vii. 5. 7a (cC SfS^u^ ykt i^<n)< i«>i.>. lb. v. I. 21). N^i 
. . ■!>]{• iir-/t> •jnari.'n.t [<- •■■.». Jriini'mn , amtider i/ounelf pnUof 
to deatk a goad man, vi. i. S4. OVa. ■!«, ri^..^ L 3. 6 {d. OT^mi /.h, 4i )* 
. ly^ ;L>r;(r> ^ PL Cluum. 173 a), '0(1 j-li <&>/»(Tarj» Ear. Med. 3R0 [tt. 
•0(i U ^' I;y» lb.;. llu(ym,^w Soph. Tr. 706). 0» .1 afL'TTH. A>. ^ 

^X* Cyr. L- 4. 4. <lal* r^ t^ vXifrn Ar. Flat &87 (cf. 'Anfiiw 
^ini. mymti, Iwi'rrtn tliut airitr i>ti lU. 4tiB). ^iafS 'a^irs ^iilii UMJf 
•Ii «i<>a< y.v.i( Sopb. El. 33. See §$ 6S7, 633. -- f and ). 'E^^pn h aa- 
r.f ^.vh-itt «al rthi trt^Tiiufmt itx^tfiitttrt, they taw thai Uiej/ mri unnectt^/ib 
tmd At $olditr$ duplaatil.Th. vll. 47. 

a. 'Elifi. •?> aiTH", T.H>H«.^i>«( J iT:^., m) JOini^twi r;iilw, 8 
ttm/uFi letmal lai to EAcn, lAat Aoeiitg padud up uAat the) had, and c^Mipp^ 
Ihimidoa in full ormr, Ihty ihoald advam. <i. 1. 3 (^ G27. a). E; yif 
fH.innt lii/iK rw «aTiij-oi7, /or j/ourlj/t pratxt that yon fed kixdla, jEecL 
Ac- 37 1 (§ 633). 

■ ^615. Bmusva 1. An aqadal yaria^ y tooMniEthai bi.ab- 

CB. &.J inooBPoUTSih Ms 

mend wfth mA wndi ta rtttHM, myfttirmm, Ixkh, fjKwit >I^. 'Byv nt 

*nlilB [Mt. *■) . . rjut aurTii^iB (r. t aHrro^ifi), / (know wilh ^TDO 
joor iJting] nwnhr jnnir liiin; vrlji, (Ec 8. 7. Zm/ran yi^ riii (cli ■ . 
yiytni^wKi (v, L rm . , ytyunitrntiih T>i( H . . ti'JinfJni Itocr. 319 0. 
SiSn.>- I|uvrf nf^t >3> PI. Apol. SI b. 'Ef^rrf yif {vi^ut tuKi ir,tr*/il. 
jf lb. 3S d. '£p«ra {mJa. In . . Xira lb. lon, 933 c "Enax ^nXlvf 

•Ij^iHi, ' jOD aesm mora pleased,' H. Qr. ri. 3. B. *£«■•!( JiiK i^fniif-i, 
ymi *Bn li^ ov who kiu gielitn iht tmth, 1. e. jwa iKn la hatt ifnktn da tmlX, 
11. Ale 114 b. 'Ehm yif S.rtf aT,.y^m IrrT.H.'T, PI. Apn], 36 e. *0^W 
HO.- lU ^Si i^x,y»^i.. Id. Ueao, 9T a. 'O^m Im 5>K,ui!:i.t (i. I. 
Siuftmiamt), tiity Hand k A* umda-e^ iii. 9. 13. 

2. Ths coDlingenl panicle j> may be jiniied with the Inf. and Put., mhec- 
mtr it would be joined with tbe diatinct modea of wbicb tfaey nipply the plua 
Tb« Inf. and Put. an then oimiinonlr tnnalated into Eng. by ibe p^ential 
mode (§ 56S). Thai, Ei 3i r., i£i.n*iiflH< t> titrm,. ifang ont Aiidu Mot 
lu OHld bt dtcaad, v. T. II (^604. >l. 'ilrrt ui Awtik ■!• >.>i:«. vi. 1. 
31. T; i, .H/.IU rmtu, (cf. rlMfuh «:«'/«) , >1i. l. II. Se« vi. 1. SO, 
and § 999. 0. 'He lilro a-i;.Yi>i^>M( Jr »> <j.««-u»r£>, oi tAn>^ Aa 
M va U (fait pHvaH mtr Alt ojipanmtt, L 1. 10. 'Hi iijtr» it «£ j);B(>fa v. 
S. $. 

^01 8> 3. From tbe Intimita union preTaiting beCween the Inf. m 
Part., and tbs principal verb of tbe sentence, a word properly modifying tita 
000 la »nntin)c« placed in iminediBW connection with the other. Ws ramiHi, 
in particuliir, — (a) Such adrerba aa li^iii, mir.iui, liilit, l£>ifi»K, and /unf^ 
joined with tbe Part, instead of the principal verb ; aa, "A^u ravT tint iti. 
rm (uying thie, be at the same time rose up], oi khm u> Aa Itad taid Ihii, h* 
rote ^f, iii. 1. 47. 'Orw /ti, l^m ittthitiHfm rn ittftmt, iMtrntimnSm 
ll -iax* ^- PtuBdo, 77 b. ZUiH tJ. f<i iUi i Ki>l«t ■H-ifcrt, mmtdiale. 
fy, Ourtfort, upon miag mt, CrphaUt taluttd ne, PI. Rep. 328 c *H< mlir^t 
Wixictt, ri ^iTiilii rtfivitittPt firt XwHw fin ritut, I'l mil tkar cuttom, 
»Me marMMg [in the mean time}, nrilktr loeat nnr liriai, Cyr. vii). 8. 1 1. — 
(ft) A particle joined wltb tbe prindpal verb Inatead of the Inf. or Part., par- 
ticnlariy tw, and iv* wlili fti/ti- li, Svi i/tTt fiir it tS/ttu Htm riftiM, wtiA 
ran, / duHk Aat I lAokU bt hojurtd, i. 3. 6. Xf^r^w At Ui«t» ><>h v. 6. I. 
Oin [fa»> I'iMj, thty Maid Vug Kould nuC fn, L 3. I . 'Erifin >Mr, il iwX4- 
fiMi. Ois Ifia [ee. JvX.rii;>i.], ' He said No,' v. S. S. 

4. In (he nae of tbe Incraporated modes with adjuncts, there i> often a union 
jf two COnatTOCtiona ; aa. 'AyyilAi 1' J;sf ■rfrrilili Innlting iyyiXXl 7' 
lf*f and iyyiU,, y, r;.» ■'{.<'T,/ii(\ nad ursnBsni |i«th an oath, adding it}, 
addhg an MOi, Sopb. EL 47. *0« 0'iix;i.ii> lii'ti itm,ftvft'u.i,i rmli $i>.Ht 
CjT. ii. 3. 17. Ti ii^«i lieriffi ;(;(fl'>.f«» [uniting W i^> hirtiti and W 
liarii/i V Xt*"**"^ t [^^<it ahall yon want of UB to do with ne?3 In 
iphat ahaU jnhi vuA to atpLt^ utt v. 4. 9. 'Er Jv/iiy wf kbS^* «v 1* wiit 
titir Hftirmrtm, Th. T. 19. 

^017. 9. The In 

die flniU modes ($ 54G) ; 
f>U» ainrt R Fhtedo, use. 

6. Firom the familiar anodatlon of the Ace with the Inf. (S S26), and 
Ckn. with (he Part. ($ G38), wordj commonly governing other caaea are o 
UlowQl b; (bene in connectioa with an Inf. or Part. Thiii, 'T/iit r 

WA anrTAX. — ttst op modes. [book ut 

■ol ifulHm, mat «y*»Hrl(t <k< UL I. 15 (cC 'A}.*.-. « :^<(.x(h 
A» ill. S. 1 1 }■ nrnf-rr^*^' ^' 'fin. xdL.Hti'. :<-»/•. C?r. U. 4. 3 (m 
t§ 401, 424. a). OM, lx*m 'rrit rtXiptimn, Jit Ha <ul at oA iH^ltimm 
mH JMr Miv at HT, i. 1. 8 (ef. Ziv'ir )i ilx^ir. mir^ ri[. S. 7. So 
§S STI. ■, 406). 'Ht V»" >'"19i ■'^ S<>Pl>' '''''' 33* &S 379. 377. 3) 
SunwtiBO Uw Ace. oceun lur ■notltar cue whh tha ParL, if iU 3« u aoils- 
|DU to thtf of t^ Inf. ; u, Zi ^ J r^riwr' tn;csi(« Sc^ J^ LM> 
'Ht^ . . itXtyifns n Id. PluL 1314. Cf. S 406. 

^ S I 8. n. The relations of dependent sentences are ex 
pnissed wtib greater expUcitnes* by the dittinet moda vnlii 
thiir CDttMectwet ; but with greater bremty, and often greater 
energy tud vieaciif, by the incorporated mode*. There are 
few of these relations which cannot be expressed by tbe latter. 
Hencie, in the wide range of their use, these moden may ex- 
press the nhjea, the direct or indirect object, ilie time, cause, 
purpoit, manner, meant, eonditifm, restriction, prelintinariet, 
retiilt, inc., of the verbs with which they are connected. 

RkmauUi 1 . TIh Bn (/ both tba tooDrponlBd oiodHi is ttr more extn- 
rive id Gnek thin in Engliih. Hence wn oOen Inni'tile the Graek Inf. ml 

Put. by finlu nrin wiCb oonnecUvea {Hiat, vist, tekile, at. md, if, aOlmigk, 
tcRnuE, UHx, IK nrdtr tint, Ac). Sometime*, ilai, fram a dilfbrence of idiom, 
tbe Inf. ud Put- it intcrcfauigeil in transiatinn ; aa. Til ll rir f'^t-i' /utt 
^iTi iSiiMi ffrrn It ijf vIuaiTa ».Mf,tiH,t, b*t lie th<i^l thai he alimi kwii it 
to if mit imf to lazt Ma Mttgaardxd property of frirmlt, ii. G. 24. n(>Titui 
»;' A lUiXirt 1»rn piUTrlmi, m fciU tAi j!rf( pbici uxA thete by wham hi 
KitUd kimKff btbnal, Cyt. viii. t. SG. 

^ttlO< S. TbeoMoftba inooiponUd inodis, paiticularrv tbe M, 
b Ter3' gnu in the nrofu oMfna ($ 60T), ■oni'itimes (■.). extending erco U 
■ubaidiuy dauaea (ef. . 611. !) ; md being«rcbangad and blendgl >»t 
only (0.) with other fbrmi of tbe eralia abUqtta, but also (y.) with those of 
the ontfio rarfa. Thua, 

■. II^Jl.^ f-/> 'A;i>.K <Tm> nif^Kf U««> i,>LTlHM,, .1, ,i» itmrxii*" 
il.S.l. 'E^ a, inli iH^Hm., Tin 4pX>i: r^ rir^.^h 
i..W iThi x"/^" ^- Bap. 614 b. 

$. 'kyybL>.ti AifaeXXilnH, In nxftt n aJ A*h)ium^>«i, m) avwr ;ib 
riAitai ;>nl H. Or. iv, 3. I. 'iV ^1. ,rcLmyi,..TM 1/.) . . ^ahif ^ !•- 
7>r«..' ^1 » riirt^ i. S. 15 ($640). 'AriyyiXXHr^ K^^.nn>* 
t7« 1J» Jya^i, In.. Mi <• 1«)^<;«" Gyr- v. S. 4. See § 828. 

HoTC 'On and ^ an •ometimes even ftdloired, after an intervening len- 
tcnce. br an Inf. or Part., Instead of a flnite verb ; aa, BTvi », In. " ln<U> 
rix'i" i-'C-nm ki^^ iiH, irtrif^iiw aMf'iii. 1.9. 'V^funt h,, 
,lr, •2*« rmt^ tirt, i, i.Mt,7, Cyr. T. 4. 1. "Zyi y^, ■Jfa/'jT^ m ■ 
^MTi. «»«, . . t^ iTi., T.^« In R Oorg. 4S3 b. A!rlir,,uu A na 
... ;«, Mr' <t> fji... <J> >».a^i..<' [b.481 d. THii 11 i Klii. -mH 
AnfHtiim, !t4, u aai Jo-innin' /liXXn IwtiiiiBn, iui^mn'tfiml MirtBI Th. 
W. 57. 

J-. "Eft " UiXiiT vipitrtti . _ "Eyi yi(," Ifir. " <0a " iv. 1 . 27. KH. 
«>(«. "VUXm f^X,,,' Ifn. "imrptii^HHt"-- Aiyoi }^ 'A.a£i'e.« In •!• 
iT'tJhw ^ . ."Ofu., M ,l,,l,Mi,' Ifa, "luixint" tU. 1. 39. 

en. O.J iN?tNiTivB. 885 

(i.) TAe Infinitive. 

^ 090. I. The general rule for the construction of the 
Infinitive is the following : — 

Rule XXX. The iNriNixivE is construed as 
a neuler noun (^ 445). Heace, 

(a) The Inf. may be the scbject of any word which would 
agree with a noun ; whether appoaitive, adjective, article, prO' 
noun, or verb. {V) The Inf. may depend upon any word 
which would govern a noun ; whether substantiee., adjectiee, 
va-b, adverb, or preposition, (c) The Inf. may be used, like 
a noun, to express a circumstance ; particularly such as are 
denoted by the inatrvmenial <md modal Dal. (^ 415), and by 
the Aee, of spec^ication (§ 437). Thus, 

4>iuyin miriii irfakimgii In-ir S lifut, io fig it tafarfar tAtm Hum for um, 
tii. i. 19. 'fl( in inikmlm (In ri n Irjiririv hi Xirur riw yif^'fat n. 4. 
19. Aof' iwmnr,, /ttXiTi «.' Soph. AnU 333. OOi. M. Irr' [= rwvrj. 
Iftii, iTnil iiwraj, Acn it MMii^ £auch u] Ute litaritig, or, it it bal lo Acur, 
Ar. Av. 966. OM, •:» ri mirit !;«■$> PL G«^. 447 c 'E> yif ry ^m- 
riT. Im ««i ri Xt^Ufm v. 6. 3a. nfi^ini . . t» <l/;»t<" 'r^nu^u, 
prtttxl for asttmbimg an armj/, i. I. 7. TIf*^ar» rr^iriudi irJ rwt Qh- 
e^»c B. Gr. ill. 5. S. 'A.n.iJr^ci" >••>)•'< '"''^"<>i- ^'1^- 'A^"«t tw 
)i.e>;>i» i. 4. 15. Ti;e« '"f t'i"-". ^"f^rm /.». AJ.'-, »«<A;. r. ^(.r« 
*w l^« •!> >&'■ Soph. <Ed. T. 776. Ko:i>n» rw »/>.> ini^.f i. 6. 3 
(S 347). 0» iwln ^nXii, rJ K^«. r<f^Ti<./o l.nC.'.io L 7. 19. 
'Ariynu^n nv ^j^irAu lb. ^a tiu iiria;iii~V ii. S. S3. 'Hj'iJ.;!)*-! ry 
IE>«Ti> lii»r«.H rf w\i,mtfu, •^.u'K, lb. 26. Mo.Mni. }•■; ;../u. Soph. 
(£d C' IS. f-iCff/tini (iv V«> /■••••> ^'-^^ >"' '• ■■»<-•'■'• i>i- 3- 19. 
i^ ri r.k>..i, txf i^^ir., M.1 iiiri. I<-.^I;li». i. 9. 37. 'fl| w.Jl.^u. 
n iHiw I'lim L 1. 5. 'Aftix"" ''•''J"' rrf^ii/tari i. 3. 31. <tayi7t 
li.iif, a tern&fc /(/Jbu (a wf, TIL 3. S3. AxtJt kiy,,, ii. 5. 15. '0(f> >tv. 

j.^. i., jw' T? t—v rt*x'i "- 6- '- nji.-.- j-i( « Tii(«..« .;#<(#. Soph. 

EL 664. 'E<rJ )^ »ri «»I /^r.; >,V» iftiittU, Th. Iv. 10. 'l>:">i » 
If ri AkiwrutMt Id. vii. 67. Utitu 11 ;cii;^ /.uC*. \krlU, mkiu, JExlb. 
Ag. 266. niU Xiyui lb. 66S. UfVoi ii^wnMf Aiyui Eur. Iph. A. 318. 
Hi, irXiit ■yii>m4Mit iJiliM tT(mri>Jm:t, rii.}.' •i3i>, J Hjurrl n/u>(iri ffXw 
£ni. Or. TI8. OiV' X/um lutl. tilr' 7ni ^fnU, rkln if/trntn., 'in noHiiiig 
■xccpt nwna,' Eur. Pb. GOI. 

^ 8 3 1 • Notes, m. In aome cues H Mems indi^rent whether tba 
Int. it Rgarded u Ibe (ubjecrt of * vsrb, ot u dep«nding apon the verb owd 
ImpenoDtlly. See § 546. S, y. 

fi. In Greek, u Id Eng., the laf Act. it often used, where the Inf. Pott. 
Kdgfat hare been uied with raftrenca to ■ neirer, more eipliuil, or more nmto- 
nliotyect; u, TwTut rmcix'irn, gUiiis hi^/igi ^fbr b^^jufll^^ itultit, 


»i by Google 

»i by Google 

01 iniTAX — DSK OI HOSES. [boOS 01 

PL 0x1. 480 d ((£ TUt*rCf ■ 

- - 73. , 

• iriftfmfn Imr. 965 c. 

§ 099> RbmasCs. 1. The articte is oAen prefixed to 
the Inf. to g^ve promioeoce to ita substaotive character, ut to 
define the relation which it sustains as a subataiuive, hy mark- 
ing the case. If the Inf. is governed by a preposition, the in 
■ertion of the article is required. The article isolYen prefixed, 
especially in the tragedians, where it would not have heea ez> 
pected, and is oflen in the Ace. (of direct object, effect., or 
tpttyiaition), where another case might have been expected. 

Ti Iff > •;■ Wil«n^ [inlkd oot thg diniig it] vert mot wiOmg lodBi, 
Sopb. CEd. C 44S. niA.,a>. ri iff' Id. Ph. 1S5S. 'O, ri •.!.;», ri i^, 
lb. I>41. 'EJLi-.Ih . . tJ ^ «i/i.~> Soph. AuU 239. TiiS{(». r> /ii, Ss.ui 
tb. 7T8 (dl I 370). V.m^m, r lEirrHiKX n l;f. lb. I IDS. 'Eyi, s7rw . . 
*J *) <«*(;Hrlliu Pt. Lull. 190 «. Ti n /» Sxin. ItM>w, mil nn^ M 
JHM Ite lytt, Sopb. El. 1079. TJ ^t ■'f«n;Lwvafu~> . . wfUfffui lU 0. 
B3. Tt riyit •> r/lr. Eui. Iph. A. GSS. 'Ey* yi; liCuXiZt jkI> n!l.ifiMi 
Ui^, rJ ^i ^■■{Sm r av/u ■i'l>!^ rifXai lb. 4S1. For other >zAm^ 
■n JS 6S0, 633. 

Not*. Tbt Inf. with n> ai His Chs. ^ mMim ($ 372) ii puticuta^ 
fttquent with m ucgaliTa ; tM, TaS pi «mu itrirmt, m onltr tlot WM siqi »■ 
)«B^ lb. i. 39. 

^ 633. 2. The Inf., both with and without the article, is 
used in a great variety of expressions which may be referred 
to the Aee. of ipedJUtUum, and the adverhiai Aee. When 
thus employed, it may be termed the infihitivs of sfbcipici> 
TiON, and the adverbial infinitive. In these uses it is vari- 
ously translated, and in some of them it is oflen said, though 
not in the strict sense of the term (^ 343. N.), to be abaoMt. 

*£> iuimrii r» iUTf(<E, Itiuri 1/HH ftoi» »>m night n'tun, raccording ta 
theNeming' attttat* to me, or mtthiidU, Soph. EI. 410. 'Ax\' lUirmi ^t. 
Hi,, btU to guat, joftna. Id. (Ed. T. B2. 'E> J y^ J. *.« riirm, y.yMl.un 
hX£i Eur. Med. 2!S. 'Ei ri inflti, [^ itflliii, ^ *49. $ tinT.. to ^Kali 
corral^, Th. vi. SS. 'OXiV»r )■;> irXiy'ivt dn»f>u>t, Aoh j/om [Co w«al 
UtUe] o/nuiit a gnattr nun&ir, H. Gr. il 4. 91. M.i>;» !•.'> laocr. 70 «. 
■OxiVv [k. li?.] ■ri,.., almoit aO, PI. Fhedr. SSS, •■ E'l ^>«» ae. )u>] 
nl>i7». lE.r(«;t;"*"" Cyr, i. 4. 8. 'E, ».• «i(.r/' «. K(U., »J Tjii^ni. 
hJ nSM'XiHii Sopb. (Ed. T. UtS. For olhtv «iu«pl«s, HeSSGSO, 699. 

N<ns. The nn of ■'•» *a the fii/. of tprcijkolmi. at the adoerhial Inf., 
will bs puticiilarlf remarked, (■.) with U«r, chiefly in np^'^'ve seatencHi 
da.) irith some udterbr uid prtjmtitiotu, fiilhiaai fy liar ciuit, cbieSj' pieceded 
by ri. Thiu, OUr, ,,M>^i i. <;i»).;^.. ).^t aor vd-U / mv /aim 
^ mf agdgaicM,, [aa XV Oip bang ■HOiiiigl lo/ar at dtt-vuUifan iiqi<iif^fg. 

te. 8 J INFINITITE. 38f 

€rr. T. S. 1 0. (KM {1»« 1<^ f H» ylx»-. <r«;t;ti.., ' wtningly,' tk K. >. I S. 
T> >» (Tmi, at U> U< [ddw being} pranl ttatt af affairt, for dm pmnit. Hi. S. 
S7. Tj 1-1. rvt" Jxu.yor IomJi^. H. Cnt, 396 d. T. urii ni^H •!»« 
Of A? l40 flAMi^wn 0/" affairt with rt^ut to him^ i. a, to far at rafards tum^ i. 6* 
t. TJ Iri nirm iThi, b /ir at ihpnd^ igin iIkm, Ly*. ISO. 41. Tf l<rl 

rfSi iTw iiL iv. as. 

% 634. 3. Plbonask and Ellipsis. Tbe Inf. (o.) is 
sometimes redundant, and (ji.) is Bometimes omitted. It (y.) 
not unfrequently depends jpon a word omitted, or implied in 
auolber verb, especially in indirect quotation. Thus, 

(■.) Zifn ifTMhir.r txw, fa rrtm glva [ta bMve] pkaturt, Si^h. CEd. 
C 33S. kitiffuu li r' ,i /tMntif yifH Kx"'' Id. Aj. B99. The I>f. aM«d 
tbr Un aaka of •ipreaHng n idea aum full; or preciBBl; it tertued tbe /■/ 
>lfK»9>lK (lv>{i,}»,T.>if). — (».) El'. W ^Xa«:» i^>.,,tm [»c. 3.-0 At, Km, 
1ST9. 'EufXinri . . Tttn Mi» ir) rtr 9.^^i.>.. H. Gr. fi. S. 54. 'Kf* ; 
*0;Jm( [te. <Jt> vwinii], Onntei (mid that he hid as dmiel atiKnttd, i. 0. 
7. — (y.) O; » r^T*ii> i>iXi»> • .■ yiit a. l^fh. ■'•{x^u [k. ifrntuil, 
hMtOKghaOxlamlaaAtms fir (they Mid Uut] (Aqr vcn iMdUk lo prmd, iv. 
fi. 16. e«eTl). T. I». 

^03S* 4. The Inf. olYen forms an elliptical common^, 
re^ueil, cottasel, aalutation, exclamation, or qu«stion ; as, 

2i fi- Pt'Z"' E>^- ">^']< <^ )*™ [/"koM Id} Idl w. PL Soph. 262 «, Hi 
1^ ■;»■>/.. ni^TM., do wt btumt w /or [Aw, lb. '.i 1 8 a. 0;< ^i <riXiZu' 
JEacb. Pr. TIS. 0ui n^Jr.., M<i ft ]>i>;li.., rc);!;. [hc. Uri] ! fe ^mJi i^ 
t/ucUy, [sir'm]lhutl«u^noif,iUiMtailaiKrfl Id. Srv^- 2ft3 (ct 'It Zi*, 
U, ^1 <-;»>/., fiie„ rmrfi, Id. Cbo. IB). N.!.*, inyyi^. . . Siftiu t^mu. 
«■ #^±1, O Victory, htffiend, grant that m may erect a trofihf/, Ar. 317. 
K*J VK^rnitiH irarri [ec. IsTt, va^niiw, Of )ir). frjrtf let it be Impreivefi HpDa 
niFS imc, Tta. Ti. 34 (cf. n>^r*^«> )i n» ■.] «}> lb. BS). KHR 'An.J. 
in, Xt4> • «iii iw\lr*t . . IrAra. [m. Hill jiTKi, )>r, Or x;;iQ, Herald. /Ttar, y* 
feAplt i It i* otdertd Ikut tiie hoplitea depart, or the hupiihe niul thpart, Ar. Av. 
448. T;.11 I;£HT> . . nM'Tuiiln T. 3. 13. TJ. In. x'^t"' .». miX<&.], 1 
Mf fm Aaif, PI. Ion, S30 a. '^1 ■-■«»> riit [w. Ju>i> Ifr.], 9tv.> TTiat I 
■AohU n^ tact lUnjv [la horrible], a/oi/ ftch. Enm. SST. 'tl jSuriXi^ 
■fT>;» i.\y%„ . . il nyf. [k. Jt;ti(, or ■iJLi^,] , Hdt. i. SS. *A liiX.; rV 
V» > ■■ 431. 

NoTSB. a. In exclamation, the articb it otuilly prgfii«di u^ ^»w, vjaal 
AaCir> Tfirffiyfia mwl' kii^it Ah, the hearing At eoia of tadi a mant 
ioph. Ph. 394. TCf rixm t TJ i/d •» aX<i/i>« Ji^t ru^.r. / Jf^ iZf-iw* / 
That lehwld hi^ppm rune to hmt ben mmnoned hither I cffT. ii. 3. 3 (t) 372. 

%). nEiS0. TJ >' ifi -i^r, njif^^ ri, Uk... I aa «;..iAr> «-i>- 

•■JLi7> t x'*^'l K'^- T' 1' if> ""•'f «<'<A»<S ti,1CrfUt„l iruwilif^ 
nix frv^ai <-« lai^T^lw / Ar. Ar. S. 

$ 696. 0. Tbe tubjeel of thti Inf. is very of^, either 
properly ar by attfBCtioa (^^ 425. 4, 614], the (JtHSl ohjeet o! 


a preceding verb, and consequently in the Ace. Hence has 
arisen an association between thia case and the Inf., which ho* 
ied to the following rule. 

Note. The Inr., Od tba olhar hud, ixtensivaly constilDtes an laidWal ofr 
jv* of the verb or other won! on which it ileiimtls. Froni the prevalence of 
thii DH sppearg (o have (uiaen (be reaemblance In riirm of the Greek ani: 
IjU. Inr. to the Dat., aod the uee oT the prepoaitioos bt otid t» before the Inf. 
in Eng. and German. Thus, rliri'ii «> ^ith iiyui, had getouidtd At 
prBphtt [tfl [ha sayiog] (o no/, vi, *. 14. Tim fvyiint Uixmn rii an-y 
rrgartitrttu, lu imatal &e exUtt [b> the Bervidg] (o Km with him, L 9. 3. 

Rule XXXI. The Subject of the Infini 

TivE is put in the Accusative ; as, 

h rt^aalai Ihat Mol cilia (AimU Ik gtnat to kim, ra&rr Ouni that 7^WupteriM* 
lAnuM nil thnu, i. 1. S. KiiSmiJiii ium iCiilLnr^ iri Xif'S n va/u> avrivt, 
did nnl muh to incur At riih [that tber ahoulit auAer any thing] nf thiir mfftr' 
iff fnrn hunger, Tb..\y. 15. N»f r.'wii M/hh. T.»rA»i U. iii. a. «.- 
W t' •; np«, . . &»H aai Mt^m ^w »>»•«< 'i"i;t:ii> PL Gorg. U)7 e. 

^ 097.. RzKARKR I. This rule ippliea to the subject of the Inf. 
toKiidtTtd timpfy <u nuh