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117 Washington Strket. 



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*' The Lav«va<3k of thb Grebes was truly like themselvea, it mis 
eonformable to their transcendent and universal Genius. * * « * The 
Greek Tokoue, from its propriety and universalityf is made f&r all 
that is great, and all Utat is beautiful, in every Sutject, and undet every 
Form of writing.*' — Harris's Hermes, Bk. III. Ch. 5. 

** Greekf — the shrine of the genius of the old world ; as universal 
as our race, as individual as ourselves ; of infinite flexibility, of inde- 
fatigable strength, with the complication and the distinctness of nature 
herself; to which nothing was vulgar, from which nothing was exQiud- 
ed ; speaking to the ear like Italian, speaking to the mind like English ; 
with words like pictures, with words like the gossamer film of the sum- 
mer; at once the variety and picturesqueness of Homer, the gloom and 
the intensity of iEschylus ; not compressed to the closest by Thucydi- 
des, not fathomed to the bottom by Plato, not sounding with all its thun- 
ders, nor lit up with all its ardors even under the Promethean toouh of 
Demosthenes ! *' ~ Coleridge** Study of the Greek Clastic Poets^ Geu. 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by 

Alpheus Crosby, 

II the Clerk't office of the ihstnct Court of the DisUlct of New HampbhUe 


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The following pages are the result of an attempt to supply what 
was believed to be a desideratum in the list of Greek text-books ; viz. 
a grammar which should be portable and simple enough to be put into 
the hands of the beginner, and which should yet be sufficiently scien- 
6fic and complete to accompany him through his whole course. The 
▼olume from which the elements of a language are first learned be- 
comes to the student a species of mnemonic tables, and cannot be 
changed in the course of his study without a material derangement 
of those associations upon which memory essentially depends. The 
femDiar remark, *' It must be remembered that, if the grammar be the 
first book put into the learner's hands, it should also be the last to 
leave them,^' though applying most happily to grammatical study in 
general, was made by its accomplished author with particular refer- 
ence to the manual used by the student. 

In the preparation of this work, the routine of daily life has obliged 
me to keep constantly in view the wants of more advanced studentu ; 
and, for their sake, an attempt has been made to investigate the prin- 
dples of the language more deeply, and illustrate its use more fully, 
than has been usual m grammatical treatises, even of far greater size. 
At the same time, no pains have been spared to meet the wants of the 
beiginner, by a studious simplicity of method and expression, and by 
the reduction of the most important principles to the form of concise 
rules, easy of retention and convenient for citation.' Many valuable 
works in philology fail of attaining the highest point of utility, through 
a eumbrousness of form, burdensome alike to the understanding and 
UtC memory of the learner. They have been the armor of Saul to the 
youthful David. I have not, however, believed that I should consult, 
the advantage even of the beginner by a false representation of the 
language, or by any departure from philosophical accuracy of state- 
ment or propriety of arrangement. Truth is always better than fals^ 
bood, and science than empiricism. 

To secure, so far as might be, the double object of the work, it haa 
I constructed upon the following plan. 


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Firat, to state the usage of the language in comprehennve rales 
and condensed tables, to be impiinted upon the memory of the student. 
For convenient examples of the care with which brevity and simplicity 
have been here studied, the reader will permit me to refer him to the 
rules of syntax, as presented to the eye at a single view in ^ 64, and 
to the elementary tables of inflection and formation. 

Secondly, to explain the usage of the language, and trace its Am- 
tarical development, as fully as the limits allowed to the work, and the 
present state of philological science, would permit. The student whc 
thinks wishes to know, not only what is true, but why it is true ; and 
to the philosophical mind, a single principle addressed to the reason 
is often like the sUver cord of JBolus, confining a vast number of facts, 
which otherwise, like the enfranchised winds, are scattered far and 
wide beyond the power of control. 

Thirdly, to illustrate the use of the language by great fulness of 
remark and exemplification. In these remarks and examples, as well 
as in the more general rules and statements, I have designed to keep 
myself carefully within the limits of Attic usage, as exhibiting the 
language in its standard form, except when some intimation is given 
to the contrary; believing that the grammarian has no more right 
than the author to use indiscriminately, and without notice, the 
▼ocabulary, forms, and idioms of different ages and communities, — 

" A party-color'd dre« 
Of patch'd and pya-btU'd languages." 

The examples of syntax, in order that the student may be assured 
in regard to their genuineness and sources, and be able to examine 
them in their connection, have been all cited from classic authors In 
the precise words in which they occur, and with references to the places 
where they may be found. In accordance with the general plan of the 
work, these examples have been mostly taken firom the purest Attio 
writers, beginning with .^^hylus, and ending with JSschines. It 
was also thought, that the practical value of such examples might be 
greatly enhanced to the student by selecting a single author, whose 
works, as those of a model-writer, should be most frequently resorted 
to ; and especially, by selecting for constant citation a single work of 
this author, which could be in the hands of every student as a com- 
panion to his grammar, in which he might consult the passages re- 
ferred to, and which might be to him, at the same time, a text-book 
in reading, and a model in writing, Greek. In making the choice, I 
eould not hesitate in selecting, among authors, Xenophon, and among 
his writings, the Anabasis. References also abound in the Etymology, 
!iiit ehiefly in respect to peculiar and dialectic forms. 



llie sabject of euphonic laws and changes has reoeiTed a higer 

dan of attention than is usual in works of this kind, but not laigei 

dMm I lek compelled to bestow, in treating of a language, 

" Whose law was heavenly beauty, and whose breath 
EniapturiBg mosk." 

The student wiU allow me to commend to his special notice two 
fmnciides of eztensire use in the explanation of Greek forms ; yii. 
tiie precession of vowels (i. e. the tendency of vowels, in the progress 
of language, to pass from a more open to a closer sound ; see §§ 28, 
S9, 44, 86, 93, 118, 123, 259, &c.), and the correspondence be- 
tween the consonants v and a, and the vowels a and 8 (§§ 34, 46./}, 
50, 66-58, 60, 63. R., 84, 100. 2, 105, 109, 132, 179, 181, 200, 201, 
213, 248./, 300, &c.). 

In treating of Greek etymology, i have wished to avoid every thing 
like aibitraiy formation ; and, instead of deducing one form from an- 
other by empirical processes, which might often be quite as well re- 
versed, I have endeavoured, by rigid andysis, to resolve all the forms 
mto tlieir elements. The old method of forming the tenses of the 
Greek veib one finmi another (compared by an excellent grammarian 
to *' The House &at Jack built "), is liable to objection, not only on 
account of its complexity and multiplication of arbitrary rules, but yet 
more on account of the great number of imaginary forms which it re- 
quires the student to suppose, and which often occupy a place in his 
memory, to the exclusion of the real forms of the language. To cite 
but a siBgle case, the second aorist passive, according to this method, 
is formed from ike second aorist active, although it is a general rule 
of the language, that verbs which have the one tense want the other 
($ 255. /S). • Nor is the method which makes the theme the foundation 
of all the other forms free from objection, dther in declension or in 
conjugation. This method not only requires the assistance of many 
imagmary nominatives and presents, but it often inverts the order of 
ftature, by deriving the simpler form from the more complicated, and 
commits a species of grammatical anachronism, by making the later 
form the origin of the earlier. See §§ 84, 100, 256. V., 265. la 
the following grammar, all the forms axe immediately referred to the 
root, and the analysis of the actual, as obtained from classic usage, 
takes the place both of the metempsychosis of the obsolete, and of the 
metamorphosis of the ideal. 

Those parts of Greek Grammar of which I at first proposed to form 
a separate vdume, the Dialects, the History of Greek Inflection, the 
Formation of Words, and Versifieaftion, I have concluded, with the 


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liidviee of highly esteemed friends, to incorporate in tliis ; so ttiat a 
•ia^U volume shoukl consiituie a complete manual of Greek GiammaiN 
To accomplish this object within moderate limits of size and expense, 
a very condensed mode of printing has been adopted, giving to the 
volume an unusual amount of matter in proportion to its size. I thank 
my printers, that, through their skill and care, they have shown this 
to be consistent with so much typographical clearness and beauty. It 
has also been found necessary to reserve for a separate treatise those 
parts of the first edition which were devoted to General Gramwar^ 
and which it was at first proposed to include in the present edition aa 
an appendix. I submit to this necessity with the lees reluctancey 
because a systematic attention to the principles of Genei^ Grammy 
ought not to be deferred till the study of the Greek, unless, in accord- 
ance with the judicious advice of some distinguished scholars, this 
should be the first language learned ailer our own ; and beeaose the 
srish has been expressed, that these parts might be published separ- 
^ly for the use of those who were not engaged in a eourse of clltssical 

J cannot condude this preface without the expression of my most 
pveere thanks to those personal Mends and friends of learning wht 
iMive so kindly encouraged and uded me in my work. Amoi^ those 
to whom I am especially indebted for valuable suggestions, or for the 
loan of books, are President Woolsey, whose elevation, while I am 
miting, to a post which he will so much adorn, will not, I trust, 
withdraw him from that departiaent of study and authorship in which 
ha has won for himself so enviaUe a distinction ; Professors Feltoa 
•f Camhridge, Gibbs of New Haven, Ha^ett of Newton, Sanborn, 
B^ highly esteemed associate in dsssical instruction, Stuart of An- 
dover, and Tyler of Anherst; and Messrs. Richards of Meriden, 
Sophocles of Hartlbrd, and Taylor of Andover. Nat can I conclude 
without the acknowledgment of my deep obligations to previwis la- 
borers in the same field, to the gskat uvins, and to the orbat 
DSAO ^ Bequiescant in pace ! it is aliDost superfluous that I should 
mention, as among those to whom I am most greatly indebted, the 
honored names of Ahrens, Bemhardy, Bopp, Buttmann, Carmickael, 
Hscher, Hartung, Hermann, Hoeigeveen, Kuhner, Lobeek, MaiV 
Itixe, Matthis, Paasow, Rost, Thi^seh, and Vigor. 


HAWnrsa, Oel. 13, 1646 


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Tbi following tables hare been prepared as part of a Greek Gnnn 
mar. They are likewise published separately, for the greater con\ : i* 
iencc and economy in their use. The advantages of ^'Tabular vr^ 
rangement are too obvious to require remark ; nor is it less obvm... 
that tables are consulted and compared with greater ease when priiiirn 
together, than when scattered throughout a volume. 

The principles upon which the Tables of Paradigms have been ct.i. 
•ttrucled, are the following : — 

I. To avoid needless repetition. There is a certain ellipsis in gra:ii 
matical tables, as well as in discourse, which relieves not only \Ut ■ 
material instruments of the mind, but the mind itself, and which ;r> 
sists alike the understanding and the memory. When the student \.'m 
learned that, in the neuter gender, the nominative, accusative, Htnf 
▼oeative are always the same, why, in each neut^ paradigm thai fi* 
fltodies, ncist his eye and mind be taxed with the examination of nut: 
forms instead of three? why, in his daily exercises in declensiu.). 
must his tongue triple its labor, and more than triple the weariness «>. 
the teacher^s ear? With the ellipses in the following tables, the p:p 
adigms of neuter nouns contain only eight forms, instead of the tivt/r. 
which are usually, and the fifteen which are sometimes, given; atui 
the paradigms of participles and of adjectives similarly declined cont:i!^ 
only twenty-two forms, instead of the usual thirty-six or forty-Jiv^ 
See 114. 

n. 7b give the forms just as they appear upon the Greek pane . 
that is, without abbreviation and without hyphens, A dissected an i 
abbreviated mode of printing the paradigms exposes the young stud. w. 
to mistake, and familiarizes the eye, and of course the mind, with 
fragments, instead of complete forms. If these fragments were s* j 
arated upon analytical principles, the evil would be less ; but they h i> 
usually cut off just where convenience in printing may direct, so ^h-i' 
they contain, sometimes a part of the affix, sometimes the whole z^w- 
«nd sometimes the affix with a part of the root. Hyphens are useiai 

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in the analysis of forms, but a table of paradigms se6ms not to be the 
most appropriate place for them. In the following tables, the affixes 
are giyen by themselves, and the paradigms are so arranged in col- 
umns, that the eye of the student will usually separate, at a glance, 
the root from the affix. 

in. To represent the language according to its actual use, and not 
according to the theories or fancies of the Alexandrine and Byzantine 
grammarians. Hence, for example, 

1. The first perfect active imperative, which has no existence it 
pure writers, has been discarded. 

2. For the imaginary imperative forms lOTa&iy Ti&fjiy dido^t 
diUvv&i^ have been substituted the actual forms mjti}, t/^m, dldov^ 

3. Together with analogical but rare forms, have been given the 
usual forms, which in many grammars are noticed only as exceptions 
or dialectic peculiarities. Thus, flovXsvhmaap and ^ovXtvovitav^ 
fiovXivoaig and flovUvaHag, ifls/iovXfvxsiaav and ifisl^ovXsvxfaap 
(^ 34) ; fiovXevia&waav and fiovXevda&wPy fiovXsv^Biiioav and fiov 
Xiv^sUv (Tf 35) ; hl&tjv and id&ovv (Tf 60) ; ^g and ^a&a^ sof 
Tffi and IWai (^ 55). 

4. The second future active and middle, which, except aa a eupho- 
nic form of the first future, is purely imaginary, has been wholly 

IV. To distinguish between regular and irregular usage. What 
student, from the common paradigms, does not receive the impression, 
sometimes never corrected, that the second perfect and pluperfect , the 
second aorist and future, and the third future belong as regularly to 
the Greek verb, as the first tenses bearing the same name ; when, in 
point of fact, the Attic dialect, even including poetic usage, presents 
only about fifty verbs which have the second perfect and pluperfect , 
eighty-five, which have the second^ aorist active ; fifty, which have the 
second aorist and future passive ; and forty, which have the second 
aorist middle ? The gleanings of all the other dialects will not double 
these numbers. Carmichael, who has given us most fully the statis- 
tics of the Greek verb, and whose labors deserve all praise, has 
gathered, from all the dialects, a list of only eighty-eight verbs which 
have the second perfect, one hundred and forty-five which have the 
second aorist active, eighty-four which have the second aorist passive, 
and fifty-eight which have the second aorist middle. And, of hit 




flatalogne of nearly eight hundred verbs, embracing the most commoB 
▼erbs of the language, only fi%-fiTe have the third future, and, in 
the Attic dialect, only twenty-eight. 

To some there may appear to be an impiety in attacking the vener- 
erable shade of n/Tirw, but alas ! it is little more than a shade, and, 
with all my early and long cherished attachment to it, I am forced, 
after examination, to ezdaim, in the language of Electra, 

'Ayr) (piXreiritt 

and to ask why, in an age which professes such devotion to tn;ith, a 
false representation of an irregular verb should be still set forth aa 
the paradigm of regular conjugation, and made the Procrustes' bed 
to which all other verbs must be stretched or pruned. The actual 
future of Ti/Tiro) is not rvipat, but rvTirifaof, the perfect passive is both 
thvfi/juxi and isxvnjTjfjim^ the aorists are in part dialectic or poetic, 
the first and second perfect and pluperfect active are not found in 
classic Grreek, if, indeed, found at all, and the second future active 
and middle are the mere figments of grammatical fency. And yet 
all the regular verbs in the language must be gravely pronounced 
defective, because they do not conform to this imaginary model. 

In the following tables, the example of Kuhner has been followed, 
in selecting /iovXfvat as the paradigm of regular conjugation. This 
verb is strictly regular, it glides smoothly over the tongue, is not lia- 
ble to be mispronounced, and presents, to the eye, the prefixes, root, 
and affixes, with entire distinctness throughout. This is followed by 
shorter paradigms, in part merely synoptical, which exhibit the dif> 
ferent classes of verbs, ^with their varieties of formation. 

From the common paradigms, what student would hesitate, in writ- 
ing Greek, to employ the form in -lis&ov^ little suspecting that it \a 
only a variety of the fhrst person dual, so exceedingly rare, that the 
learned Elmsley (perhaps too hastily) pronounced it a mere invention 
of the Alexandrine grammarians? ^ The teacher who meets with it in 
his recitation-room may almost call his class, as the crier called the 
Roman people upon the celebration of the secular games, ** to gaze 
upon that which they had never seen before, and would never see 
again." In the secondary tenses of the indicative, and in the op- 
tative, this form does not occur at all ; and, in the remaining tenses, 
there have been found only five examples, two of which are quoted 
by Athensns from a word-hunier (ofo/nxTodifpa;), whose aflectation 
ho is ridiculing, while the three classical examples are all poetic, oo- 


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tuning , one in Homer (II. ^. 485), and the other two in Sophoclet 
(El. 950 and Phil. 1079). And yet, in the single paradigm ci 
tvntiOy as I learned it in my boyhood, this " needless Alexandrine, " 

** Which, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along, " 

occurs no fewer than ^wenty-six times, that is, almost nine times at 
often as in the whole range of the Greek classics. 

With respect to the manner in which these tables should be used 
80 much depends upon the age and attainments of the student, that 
no directions could be given which might not require to be greatly 
modified in particular cases. I would, however, recommend, 

1. That the paradigms should not be learned en masse, but gradu- 
ally, in connection with the study of the principles and rules of tfie 
grammar, and with other exercised. 

2. That some of the paradigms should rather be used for reference, 
than formally committed to memory. It will be seen at once, that 
some of them have been inserted merely for the sake of exhibiting 
differences of accent, or individual peculiarities. 

3. That, in learning and consulting the paradigms, the student 
should constantly compare them with each other, with the tables of 
terminations, and with the rules of the grammar. 

4. That the humble volume should not be dismissed from service, 
tiU the paradigms are impressed upon the tablets of the memory as 
legibly as upon the printed page, — till they have become so familiar 
to the student, that whenever he has occasion to repeat them, ** the 
words,'* in the expressive language of Milton, " like so many nimble 
and airy servitors, shall trip about him at coinmanJi, and in well- 
ordered files, as he would wish, fall aptly into their own places." 

In the present edition, the Tables of Inflection have been enlarged 
by the addition of the Dialectic Forms, the Analysis of the Affixes, 
the Changes in the Root of the Verb, &c. Tables of Ligatures, of 
Derivation, of Pronominal Correlatives, of the Rules of Sjmtax, and 
of Fonns of Analysis and Parsing, have also been added. Som« 
references have been made to sections in the Grammar. 

A. a 

Hanover, Sept. 1, 1846. 

**« Tht volume of TktalM eontaint pp i, 11, vU -zU, f - 81 


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1. Tables op Orthography and Orthoept. 




. 9 



II. Tables op Etymology. 



Introductory Remarks, • 12 

A.' Tables of Declension. 
I. Affixes of the Three Deden- 

•ions, . . . .IS 

n. Aiial3rsi8 of the Affixes, • 13 
ID. Nouns of Declension L 

A* BiaMculine, Ta/iiaf, vavmst 

VvCfvmtf • • • 14 

B. Feminine, ^-^t^ ^^c^h 

Dialectic Forms, . • 14 
IV. Nouiis of Declension II. 

A. Masculine and Feminine, 
XiyHt itifitHt iiist »Mf, NMf, 15 

B. Neuter, rvxav, «'rf^«», fU' 
ft»f, iwrin, mwyitt^ • 15 

Dialectic Forms, . . •15 
f . Nouns of Declension IIL 

A. Mute, 

I. Labial, yv^^,, ^xi^, 16 

S. Palatal, »i^al, all, ^i(. 

^•rf. ^r5» ... 16 

3. UnguaL 

«. Masculine and Femi- 
nine, V'atf, 9t9Utt &*»\, 
X»(*(* »XiUt • •16 

$. Neuter, rSfiut, fSu 
^^raf, M^r, 0it, . 16 

B. Liquid, 

Syncopated, v-ar^, M^ 

C. Liquid-Mute, 

D. Pure. 

«. Masculine and Feminine, 

ivt^nvt, $0Vff y^rnvt, mug, 

^^x^fi ^•>-tfj ^e'^^nu • 

/}. Neuter, rtt%ot, &fru, yi- 

Dialectic Forms^ . . • 

VI. Irregular and Dialectic De* 

deasion, Zi of, Oi^^tvt, FXm, 

Vi«f, fttvi, ^«(«, ririaf, iVflri^,, 

vn. Adjectives of Two Termina- 

A. Of Declension II., «Qt»4tt 
myii^aaf, • • • 

B. Of DeclennoD III^ i^^9, 

C«», .... 
vra. Adjectives of Three Termi- 

A. Of Declensions IL and I., 
^iXi«f, r«^«(, • • 
Contracted, ;^f vrt**, )i«'X««f, 

B. Of Declensions HI. and 1., 











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GL Of the Three Dedensions, 

f»iy»t, «'«Xvf, • • .23 

Homeric Forms of vtXvf, 24 

"'(«««fl • • • •24 

□c Numerals, tTr, §Mf, )v«, i^ 

f A», Tfttff rl«-r»(tf, • .24 

X. Participles, (iooXivtv, Ttfiimv, 
^ottSjty Xi^atff r • • 25 

^0USt Ivft . . • m 26 

zi. Substantive Pronouns. 

A. Personal, ly^, rv, •S, • 27 

B. Reflexive, Iftmifrw, ri«»- 
r«v, Iavc^v, • • •28 

C. Beciprocul, iXXn>.m, • 28 

D. Indefinite, hTtm, • • 28 
zn. Adjective Pronouns. 

A. Definite. 

Artide •, Iterative mMt, 
Relative 7#, Demonstrative 
Hi, Possessive, • • 29 

Demonstrative •urt, r»^»S' 
r§t, . • • • SO 

B. Indefinite. 

Simple Indefinite r}r, Inter- 
rogative riff Relative Indef- 
inite $fTti, • . .SO 

B. Tablb op Numebalb. 

L Adjectives. 

1. Cardinal, 2. Ordinal, • SI 

S. Temporal, 4. Multiplay 

5. Propordonal» • • •32 

n. Adverbs, • • • 82 

III. Substantives, • • • 32 

G. Tables of Cokjuoahoii. 

I. The Tenses Classified, . • S3 

n. The Modes Classified, • S3 

m. Formation of the Tenses, 33 

IV. Affixes of the Active Voice, 34 

V. Affixes of the Passive Voices 36 

VI. Analysis of the Afiixes, • 38 
▼n. Dialectic Forms, • • 39 
Tin. Active Voice of fL§yy.i6m 

Translated, • • • 40 

EX. Acdve Voice of /3«vXiv«, • 

X. Middle and Passive Voices of 

^oXtyatf . • • 

XI. (A.) Mute Verbs. 

L Labial, 1. y^i^m^ • 

2. XfArAT, 
ii. Palatal, ^^iw^tty 
iiL TJnfflial, 1. ti'Jty • 

2. K^fAi^a, • 
xn. (B.) Liquid Verbs. 

1. ayyiXXtiy • • 

2. Ifothtt, . • • 
xn. (C.) Double Consonant Verbs. 

1. aS^v or mu^ivty • • 

2. xixekftfAiUi \XnX%yf/tm4y 

XIV. (D.) Pure Verbs. 
i. Contract, 

1. rtftati, • 

2. ^tXut, • 

3. )«fA.«*», • 
ii^ Verbs in -/m, 

1. %rnfu, • 

2. vt(mw0M4t 

3. riftifu, • 
4« iiittfUf • 

5. ^ii»9VfU, • 

6. ^nfit, • 

7. hfiij' • • 

8. i/^/, • 

9. {$fi4, . 

iiL Second Aorists, 

1. ICnv, . • 

2. k^Q^af^ 

3. tyt»i9f • 

4. tiuf, • • • 

XV. (K) Preteritive Verbs, 

1. «n«, • . • 

2. }i^«i»« and >l>i«, • 

3. iT/tMM, • • • 

4. jteifitifMtif • • • 

JKIljlMM, . • • 

XVI. Changes in the Root, • 

D. Tables of Fosmahov. 

I. Table of Derivation, • 
n. Pixmominal Correlativei^ • 












ni. Principal Rules of Syntax, 
IV. Forms of Analysis and Parsino^ 

A. Of WOBX38, 

B. Of Sehtsnobb, 





by Google 








C. Apostrophe, • 


Pronandatioii, . 

• 93 

'Dialectic Variations, . 


Hiatoiy of Orthography, . 


Ch. S. Consonants, 


Ch. 2. Vowels, 

. 97 

£uphonic Changes, 

!• Precession, • • 


A. In Formation of Words, 108 

IL Union of SyllaUes, 

. 100 

B. In Connection of Worda 

, 113 

A. Contraction, • • 


a Special Bules, 


B. Crasis, . . 

. 102 

Dialectic Variations, . 



Ck. I. Pbinoiplbs of Db- 

C. Mode, . 


OLENSIOK, • • • 


D. Number and Person, • 


A. Gender, 

, 116 

K Histoiy of Conjugation, 


B. Number, . • • 


Ch. 8. Prefixes of Conju- 

a Case, D. Methods, 

. 119 

gation, • • • 


£. Histoiy of Declension, 


I. Augment, 


Ch. 2. Deojension OF Nouns. 

II. Reduplication, 


L First Declension, 


III. Of Compound Verbs, 


Dialectic Forms, . 


Dialectic Use, . 


IL Second Dedenmon, . 


Ch. 9. Afftxkb of Conju- 

Dialectic Forms, • 

» 129 


m. Third Declension, • 


L Classification and Analysis, 


A. Mutes, . 


A. Tense-Signs, 


B. liquids, 


B. Connecting Vowels, 


C. Liquid-Mutes, D. Puree, 133 

C. Flexible Endings, 


Dialectic Forms, • 

. 139 

IL Union of Affixes and Root, 


lY. Irrqgular Nouns, 


A. Regular Open Affixes, 


B. R^ular Close Affixes, 



C. Verbs in .^, 



D. Complete Tenses, 


Ch. 5. PaoiroinfS. 

Dialectic Forms, 


I. Substantive, • • 


Ch. 10. Root of the Verb, 


IL Acyective, . 


A. Euphonic Changes, 




B. Emphatic Changes, 


L Of Adjectives, 

. 163 

C. Anomalous Changes, 


A. In -ri^«#, .r«r«f, • 


Ch. 1 1 . Formation of Words, 243 

. 165 

L Of Simple Words, 


C. Irregular, • • 


A. Nouns, . . 


n. Of Adverbs, 

. 168 

B. Adjectives, • 


Ch. 7. Pbingeplbb or Coi 


C Pronouns, • 



> 169 

D. Verbs, 


A. Voice, 


£. Adverbs, . 


B. Tense, . . , 


n. Of Compound Worda 



C ffl. 


Ch. ]. The SuBmsTiTX. 

IL Use of Numbers, 


L Agreemeow 


IIL Use of Cases, 



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A. Nominative, • . 26"2 

B. Genitive, . . 264 
1. Of Departure, . 264 

1. Separation, • 264 

2. Distinction, • 265 
n. Of Caiue, . 967 

i. 1. Origin, • . 267 

2. Material, • 267 

3. Supply, . . 268 

4. Partitive, , 269 
ii. I. Motive, &c^ . 274 

2. Price, Value, &c, 27$ 

3. Sensible and Men- 
tal Object, . 276 

4. Time and Place, 278 
la. Active, • . 279 
iv. Cktnstituent, . 279 

1. Property, . 281 

2. Relation, • 281 
C Dative Objective, . 285 

I. Of Approach, . 286 

1. Nearness, . • 286 

2. likeness, • 287 

II. Of Influence, . 287 
D. Dative Residual, . 293 

L Instrumental and Modal, 293 

n. Temporal and Local, 295 

£. Accusative, . . 296 
I. Of Direct Object and 

Effect, • . 297 

Double Accusative, SOI 

n. Of Specification, . 302 

m. Of Extent, 303 

rv. Adverbial, . . 304 

F. Vocative, . . 304 

Cn, 2/ Thb Adjectivb. 

I. Agreement, . • 305 

II. Use of Degrees, • .312 
Ch. 3. Thb Article, • 315 

I. As an Article, • • 316 


^rt. 1. QUANTITT, . • 410 

L Natural Quantity, • .411 

II. Local Quantity, . 414 
C'li. 2. VsKsiKicATioai, • 416 

A. Dactylic Verse, • 4t-'l 

B. Anapastic Vove, . . 423 

C. Iambic Verse, • • 425 

D. Trochaic Verse, . . 427 
K. Other Metres, . . 428 

(II. 3. Au;knt, . • • 429 


II. As a Pronoun, . 


Ch. 4. The Pkonoun. 

I. Agreement, 


II. Special ( )l)8ervations, . 


A. Personal, &c.. 


B. Ai/TOff . . • 


C. Demonstrative, • 


D. Indefinite. 


£. Relative, 



G. Interrogative^ • 


H. 'AxA.*}, . 


Ch. 5. Thb Verb. 

I. Agreement, . • 


n. Use of the Voices. 


A. Active, 


B. Middle, . 


C. Passive, 


III. Use of the Tenses, 


A. Definite and Indefinite. 


B. Indefinite and Complete, 


C. Future, 


IV. Use of the Modes, 


A. Intellective, . 


As used in sentences. 

I. Desiderative, 


II. Final, . 


in. Conditional, • 


IV. Relative, 


v. Complementary, 


B. VoUtive, . 


C. Incorporated, 


I. Infinitive, 


u. Participle, • 


m Verbal in *Ti#f, 


Ch. 6. The Partici.b, . 


A. The Adverb, 


B. The Preposition, 


C. llie Conjunction, . 


D. Concluding Remarks, 



I. General Laws, • • 


11. Accentual Changes, 


Contraction, &o.. 


Grave Accent, Anastrophe, 


Proclitics, Enclitics, 


IIL Determination of Accent- 

ed Svllable, 


In Declension, . • 


In (>»ni|'anson, Conjugation, 

, 4.39 

In Particles, 





by Google 

GREEK 'tables. 

1 1. A. The Alphabet. 



Large. SmalL 





A a 






B p,6 






r r.r 








Delta . 



E t 


V 2 





U 1,. 

e . 





e &,d 






I * 

1 1^ 






K X '^ 






A X 






Jlf A. 






^ U 

n '^^ 





' « A 












// w, a 






P (?. P 






J? a,S 






T T,7 






T V 


V iplXov 




* V 7 

^ ph, 





^ch , 





tp V, 






JZ 01 

Jl fiiya 








' ^ 






by Google 




Ha. B. ] 
























































































by Google 


TL 3. C. Vocal Elements. 

I. Vowels, Simple and Compound. 

[Sf 24-26.] 

ClaM I. n. in. TV. 9 
A O E U I 

Ordera. Soundi. Sou nds. Sounds. Seonda. Soandft 

{Short, Lao s v I 

!Long, % a (o 71 V i 

; Proper, 3. di oi u ifi 

\ Improper, ^. q, o ff vi 

I Proper, 6. av ov €v 

! Improper, 6. du tav rfv 

n. Consonants. 

Simple Vowels. 
Diphthongs in i. 
Diphthongs in v. 

(ff 49-61.] 

A. Consonants associated in Classes and Orders. 

Class L 
Orden. Labials. 

1. Smooth Mutes, n 

Class IL 


Class in. 


2. Middle Mutes, fi 



3. Rough Mutes, (p 

4. Nasals, fji 





6. Double Consonants, rp 



B. Additional Semivowels. 

X e 


CoHSOKAirrB (Second Asbangement). 

C Smooth, or, k, t. 

i Mutes, < Middle, /9, /, b. 

SiDgle Consonants, \ ^ Rough, y,^, ^. 

Double Consonants, ^, {, {;• 

ni. Breathings. 

C« 13.] 

Rough Breathing, or Aspirate (* ). 
Smooth or Soft Breathing ( * ). 


by Google 

•"-d TABLES. [H 4 


^ 4* Remarks. I. To avoid needless repetition, alike burdensome 
lo teaclier and pupil, and to accustom the student early to the application 
of cule, the tables of paradigms have been constructed with the following 
edipses^ whifch will be at once supplied firom general rules. 

1. In ihe paradigms of dkclihsioii, the Voc. sing, is omitted whenever 
It has the same form with the Nom., and the following cases are oiqitted 
throughout (see § 80) ; 

u ) The f^oc. pLur.y because it is always the same with the Nom. 

/9.) The Dtik. dualj because it is always the same with the Gen,. 

/.) The jScc. and Koc. dual^ because they aj-e always the saino with 
the Noin* 

d.) The jIcc and Voc. neut.j in all the numbers, because they are al- 
ways the same with the Nom. 

2. In the paradigms of adjectives, and of words similarly inflected, 
the Jfeuter is omitted in the Gen. and Dot. of all the numbers, and in the 
jYom,dwU; because in these cases it never differs from the Masculine 
(§ 130. «). 

3. In the paradigms of conjuoatioii, the 1st Pers. dudl is omitted 
throughout, as having the same form with the 1st Pers. plur., and the 3d 
Pwrs. dMU if omitted whenev^ it has the same ibnn with the 24 Pen. 
dual, that is, in the primary tenses of the Indicative, and in the Subjunc- 
tive (I 212. 2). For the form in -^c^o», whose emptv shade has been so 
multiplied by grammarians, and forced to stand, for idle show, in the rank 
and file of numbers and persons, see § 212. N. 

4. The compound forms of the Perfect passive bubjuhctivb and 
OPTATIVE are omitted, as belonging rather to Syntax than to inflection 


II. The regular formation of the tenses is exhibited in the table (IT 28), 

which may be thus read ; " The tense is formed from the root by 

atiixing ," or, " by prefixing and affixing (or, in the nude 

l>rm, )." In the application of this table, the forms of the root 

must be distinguished, if^it has moie thga a single form (§ 254). 

III. In the table of translation (U JiS), the form of tlie verb must, of 
course, be adapted to the number and person of the pronoun ; thus, / am 
p'anmng^ thou art ■planning^ he is planning^ &4i. For the middle voice, 
rhanae the forms of ";»7an" into the corresponding forms of " c/«/tfr- 
etaie ' ; and, for the passive voice, into the corresponding forms of " be 

IV. The Dialectic Forms^ for the sake of distinction, are imifbrmlj 
printed in smaller type. In connection with these forms, the abbrevia 
tions JEo\ and y£. denote iGolic ; Alex., Alexandrine; Att., Attic, 
U(bot. and B., BoBotic ; Comm , Common ; Dor. and D , Doric ; Ep. and 
B , Rpic ; Hel , Hellenistic; Ion. and I., Ionic; Iter, and It, iterative; 
O., Old ; Poet and P.. Poetic. 

V. A star (*) in the tables denotes that an affix or a form is wantin|f. 
Parentheses are sometimes used to inck>se unusual, donhtfiil, peculiar, or 
f<iipplement.'try foriiis. In ITII 2U, 30, the k and *<^nr the tease-signs, as 
dropped in tlif» srrond Uiiar.s (§ 1!)0 II ), arc scpnrHted by n hyphen from 
the rest of th^ affi v. 


by Google 

^ S* I. Affixes of thb Three DECLSNsioiis. 

Dec. I. 

' Dec. ri. 

Dec in. 

Masc Fein. 

M.F. Neuu 

M. F. Neu 

Sing. Nom. 

ag, ^g a, tj 

og 1 ov 

t 1 • 


ov ac, fjg 










f, « • 



$ 1 OK 

• • 

Plur. Nom. 


o» 1 a 

H 1 i 







oig ^ 

. "'^'V 



ovg a 

ag a 



0$ a 

eg A 

Dual Nom. 




















116. «. Analysis of the Affixes. 

[Tbe figuree in ihn last cdumn denote the declensions.! 

Flexible Ln«/i' a* 

<?. Fern. 1, •. Nriii i > , . , 

(o^) o;. 2 and Mace, x, c^. 


v« «. Neut. 3, iiH 


fQ, 1 and 2, f Neut a. 

(ctfi). 3, tfi. 1 and 2, i^. 
(vg) ag* Neu^ «. 

ty. 3, oip* 

Connecting ^wels. || 

Dec. 1 

DecO. Dec mil 

Sing. NAn. 




« W 










o(0 . 

Plur. Nom. 













D'wtl Nom. 







by Google 




51 T. in. Nouns of the First Declension. 
A. Mascuunb. 

#1 iteward, i, tailor, i^ ton of Atreut, i. Mercury, 

S. N. tafuag 

G. TttflloV 

D. xafdtf 
A. xttfjti&v 
V. Tor^/a 

r. N. Tttfilat 
G. tafuw¥ 










D. raiilaig vavxaiq *AiQsldaig 

A. xafilccg vavxSg ^AtQildSg 

D. N. xafild vavxa 'AxQslddl 

G. xafilaiy vavxair ^Axgeidair 

^^ shadow, ^y door. 

if north wmi- 


S. N. (jxttf 
G. axtag 
D. axi^ 
A. axtay 

P. N, (Txta/ 

G. axifuly 

D. axuxig 

A. (7Xtor9 

D. N. uxta 
G. axtatp 



E(}fi6ag^ 'Egfitig^ 
EgfASOV, ^Eg/iov 

Egfiidv^ ^EQ/ifjp 
Egfiid^ 'Egfifj 

Egfiiai^ 'Egfiai o, Gohryas. 
Egfjimv^ ^EgfiWP N. FatSgydg 
Egfiiaig^* Egfioig G. HnSgvou 
Egfiidg^ ^Egfidg rmSgvd 


^, tongue. 1^, honor, 

yXtaaaa ilfni 

yXmaarig xtftijg 

yXwoarj xifjfj 

yXuaaap xifiiiv 

yXtaoaai xifial 

yXwaataP xifimp 

yXtuaaatg xifiaig 

yXoiaadg xtfiag 

yXeiaad xifiti 

yXiaaaaip xifiolp 

fj^ mtna, 
fipda^ fiva 
fivddg^ fipdg 
fivda^ ^y^ 
(ipddPy fApdp 

/Avdm^ (APoi 

fipamp^ (APWP 

fipdatg^ fivaig 

lipadg^ (ipdg 

fivaS^ fipd 
fivdaip^ fiPttiP 

51 8« DiAUBOnO FOBMS. 

S. K. £tt Ion. nf • rmfitns^ fi*(ns. 

ntj Dor. St * fttvrdf, 'Ar^iUdf 

Old, d • i^r^rird, ftnrUrd. 
Mj Ion. n* wxtnt ^v^n. 
d, Ion. n • Ep. iktiB-itfii »fiwwn» 
If, Dor. S • rtfAOt '4^vx'h y*- 
6« «», Old, d0 * *Ar^f /2a«, B»^(4«. 

Ion. i«>, 4» • *Ar#«<^i4», B«(t4». 

Dor. d * 'Ar^f id«, 'E^^Mt. 
Mi (Ion. «f# • r»i?f, ^u^tif. 
Hi (Dor. Sg • ^tfuify yk$twffdt. 

D. f (Ion. 9 • raf/tiift B^. 

Ep. nf /(») • Si;^fi(»). 

. /'Ion. fiv, tae (masc.^ ; r«» 
< (/i/ify^'A^/rray^^Kv, -tJ. 
''' (Dor. df • ftturdp, TtftMf, 
V, #, Ion. u« rafiifi. 

dj Poet, fi • AiifTf! Ap. Rh. 
«f, Dor. « * 'Ar(«<^, Mcv«Xxir. 
Old) » • fufi(p&^ A/x<l. 
P.O. £», Old^M^y *Ar(U%MHv. 

Ion. t*>v • *Ar^ii)i«rv, B-tfiMfk 
Dor. Sv • 'Ar^ii^Sy, St»^«v. 
D. Mf, Old, «uri • fmvrmrtf 3>v^r« 
Ion. ^r4, 1ft • Bv^p^t ^rirfft 
A. dtf Ion. i4lf (masc) ; h^itirtdt 
Dor. 4lf • MM^^r, f^/A^dt. 
,MoL tut * «'«^f TiftMit. 


by Google 

tl 9, 10.] 



If 9. IV. Nouns of the Second Declension 

0, word. 

0, people. 

^, way. 

0, mind. 

0, temple. 

S. N. 





















































ytfafi', yewv 







vaolg^ vs^g 





voovg^ vovg 

vaovg^ vmg 














> volv 

vaolv^ Vf^v 


TO, vnng. 

TO, part. TO, 


TO, chamber. 






oaiiov^ oarovv 






oaxiovy ooTOV . 





00li(i^j OOT^ 







ooTca, ooTcr 






ooTsW, oaimv 
oarioigj oatoig 


D. N. ovxoy Tnegto (loglm ootco), ootoi ixvtaytm 
G. avxoip msgoiv (logloiv oarioiv^ oaxdiv avwytfj^y 

H 1 O* DiALEono FoBxa. 
8. K. «f, Isomdc, #f • ir»>.ti(, § 70.4. S. D y, Boeot u • mMy rv ^dftc. 

O* M^ £p. 0t» * r«r« X«y«i«.' 
Dor. it* rS Xiym. 
(Ion. i«r • B«rrt«r, K^«/«V«r.) 

£p. «;^(v) • «v^«v«:^y. 

«r (contracted ihnn ««v), Ep. «« < 
D. f. Old, «i • 'IrS^MT, r«r ^i^^CM. 
Ep. «^(9)* »vTi(pif Zvyifi9. 

P.N. «!, Boeot. 0» »aXv,*'Ofit9i^6. 
(G. 4»v, Ion. itt9 • vTifffiw, o'tf^iATv.) 
D. 0tif Old, M«'4 * rflr^i Xdyot^i, 

BoBOt. (7# • rv# &kXO( iffoliivSt 
A. «vf , Dor. »if, •$ • Titff Xtf^^ATf, rift 

r§)s vifAdif, 
D. G. uf, Ep. «!?» • ^vvuTf, ifMttf. 


by Google 



[II n 

nil. V. Nouns op the Third Declension. 
A. Mute. 


o> vulture. ^, vein, o, raven, o, ^, goat, ri^ phalanx. ^, hair 

S. N. ;'i5^ 
G. yvnoq 

D. /i/Tl/ 

A. yvna 












P. N. ;^i/7iffff 
G. yvnwp 

A. /iJ7r«i» 









D. N. yvTiB 
G yvnolv 







«• MascnHne and Feminine. 


», ^, child. 


0, sovereign. ^, grace- 

























xdqira^ xdgiv 

xXfida^ xXhp 










xXtidfq^ xXsiq 


















xXudaq^ xXfiq 














fi. Neater. 

TO, body. 

TO, light. TO, liver 

. TO, horn* 

TO, ear 












xigiitoay xigaoq^ 

, xigiaq moq 





xegari^ xiga'iy 

xigtt wtI 






xf^nta^ xignct^ 

xfga Qiror 





xigdiitfp xigdmv 

,, xtgmr a>Ta» 







D. N. atofjiaxs q>MX9 ^naxs xtgatt^ xiqnn^ xigS (»t« 
G. oo)/ifXTOtv (ftaioiv fjnatoiv xtgdxotv^ xrgdoip^ xig^v wtoiP 


by Google 

II 12 13.J 



a N. 


P. N. 

D N. 

S. N. 

P. N. 


S. N. 

P. N. 



Of harbour, o, detiy. ^,nose, 6, beast o^ orator, riJiana 























daifiovotp {^it'oTv driQoXv ^i^jogoiv jff^oti' 


o^ father. o^man. ri, mother, o^f^^ dog, o^f^^lamb. 

natr^Q avriq 

nmigog^ nargog avigog, avdgog 

Ttttisgt, naigl txvigi^ ardgl 

xvaiv {oifivog) 
xvvog ocgvog 
Hvvl agvl 
xvva agva 

avsga^ uvdga 

ntnigtg at'f'gfc^ nv^g*g 

natigtav avigtuv^ urdgaii 

nmgdai> oivdguai 

naihgag avtgttg^ ui'iigag fir^rigag xvrag dgvag 

ntttfgB arigf^ avdgi fiiitigt xvvs agr^ 

naxigoiV nvigoiv^ urdgoiv fAtirigoiv xvt^oiv ag^viv 






/jrjTegsg xvyfg agvfg 
firjTfg&tv xwav agrwv 
jjrjrgdai xval agvnai 

U I 3. C. Liquid-Mute. 
o, Zton. Ot tooth, 6^ giant, ri^vnfe. 

0, Xenophon. 

XbMv idovg ytyug dufing 

Xionog odorxog ylynvrog dnfAagiog 

Xiom odovji yi'yavn ddfingu 

Xeovra odovta ylynvxa ddfiagra 

Xiov yiyuv 

Xiovtsg odovTfg ylyartsg ddfiagtfg 

XsovTOtv odoTToiv ytydvxfav dafidgxbtr 3. N. ^Onove 

Xfovai odovfji yiyixai ddfingai G. 'Onovfrog 

Xioviag odovtag yiyavrag ddfiagiag D. 'Onoptri 

,, >•/ , »» A. 'onovfia 

XiovjB voovTf yiyai'Tf On/jngrf 

XtovToiy odot rniv yiydrioiv dttfiiigtoi.v 



^, Opits. 


by Google 

18 TABLES. [fl 14 

U 1 4. D. PUBB. 
•. Masculine and Feminine. 

0, jackal. 

0, hero 

0, weevil. 

0, ^, sheep, 
















^^a)V ( 

[VQ(?) ^l 






^^01 XIV 











olg IxSvtg, ix^vi 








a mat 








rj(fwg xtng 


oig ix^vag, Ix^Vi 








. Ix&v 







0, knight. 

0, ^, ox. 


' woman. 

^, ship. 














In nil 
































innidg, inntlg 

poag^ Povg 

ygaag, yqavg 













0, cubit. 

V> city. 

^, trireme. 














noXf'i, noln 
















noXtfg, noXiig 
















noXftxg, noXttg 






noXff, noXri 






jQttfgioiv, rgtrigolp 



If 14, 15.] 



^, echo, ^, shame. o, Socrates. 
S. N. rjxw aldwg ^axQattig 

G. i2;|foo^, ^ov; aldoog, aidov; ^taxQaTSog^ SaixgaTOvq 

D. ^o'/, ^/o7 al^dt, aidol ^taxgnTfi^ ^uxQUTti 

A. ^oa, i^jifO) aidoa^ aidii .Staxffdieaj ^(ux^ofrf}, ^cax^arij^ 

V. ^oZ aldof 3i)x^aTe; 

o, Pircseus. 

S N. Uhiqaiivg 

G. Jliiqauioq^ IliiQumg 

D. ntigaitC^ JIsiQnin 

A. IlfiQuiia^ I28i(^aia 

V. JUiqauv 

0, Hercules. 

^HQaxXirjg, 'HgaxXijg 

'HgaxWiog^ 'llgaxXiovg 

'llQaxXds'Ci 'HgaxXisi, 'HgaxXn 

^HgaxXiiay 'HgaxXidf 'ifgaxXtj 

'fIgdxXftg, ^HgdxXiig CHgaxXBg) 

fi. Neuter. 


TO, tovm. 

TO, honor. 

S N. 





xtlxtog, ^slxovg 

atnfog, aaxtfog 

ydgaog, yigatg 


ttlxn, %dxH 

aatn^ aotsi 

yigal^ ytgtf 

P N. 

uixsa, filxfj 

ooTca, Saiii 

yigaa, yiga 


THxtmv, xsixojv 


yfgdny, y$gav 






iilxfBf tUxn 


yigasj yegS 


tHXioiv^ Tsixoiy 


rsgdoiv, ysg^p 


8. 6. MTHi Ion* *t * «^*0r, ri^uf. 

w$t. Ion. %vs • ^S^itff , ^eififitvs. 
iatf, £p. if«f • ^9tXn9i. 

Ion. and Dor. Ut • /3«riX(«f . 
tmti Ion. and Dor. t9t * *i>-iot. 
iisf, Ion. and Dor. set • Kv«'^/0f . 

Dor. tT§t • &ifur0f. 
§St, Dor. and iEol. Sf, ut • ^x*^'* 
^. is, Ep. ifi** /3«^/Xffr. [&•*§• 

Ion. li** fia^tXit. 
u, Ion. F • riXT, ^vtifu. 
4^, Ion. 7- eSrT, ^«'«xr. 
A. 9, Poet • • tv^im, txB-va. 
im. Ion. ^^^ * 'Itft/v, Aiir0?y. 
Dor. ivv • II^Arf , A«Tivy. 
u^ Ep. rM • /3«#iX?4U 
Ion. ia • $mriXii. 
Dor. If • fi»riXti. 
Y. If, iEol. t * Sj^x^ari. 

P. K. !?# , Old Att. nt • fiet^tXns. 
£p. ff«f • /3«#vXffir. 
Ion. itf ^rtXiif, 
nf, Ion. and Dor. nf • «'«Xiif . 
•«, Poet, d • yi^«, »^$il. 
Ion. i« • yi^$e^ ri^M. 
G. «fy, Ion. Sivy • ;^fifiM9f ivi^Utf. 
Ut9t £p. if«^y • fia^iXnfv. 
Uf9, Ion. and Dor. wt • vrcXimf. 
D. ri(»). Old, iri(y) • x*'(*^*- 
Poet. m(f) • Xvetm. 
irri(y)* «'«Wri9. 
iri(»), Ep. i*'^i(i') • S^ta^^n, 
Ion. <r<(i') • 9'iXtrt. 
A. Uf, Ep. ifd(f • ^rtXnAf. 
Ion. ti(f • ^«0'<x«4U. 
Comm. uf ' fia^tXuf. 
tit. Ion. and Dor. t»t • ^rixmt.. 
D. G. tf/y, Ep. Mn* • «'«^«rr», Sij^iiM Ty. 


by Google 



Ill 16 

II 1 6. VI. Irregular and Dialectic Declension. 

i, Jvfiter, I, (Ediptts, «, O/m 

S. N. Zii/j, Zi> (Dor.) Otiiv-fius Txodt 

6. A/«f, Zmisy Z£*is 'Ot^im'^9ei Otit^w OtiirS^Ms, -d^ -tm, TXav 

D. Ai<, Zfivi, Zufi 0/%V«^i, [(poet.), [D. -9, -^ A. -»!>!, FX/jtr 

A. A/«, Znvet, Zava OtH^oia^ Ohl^ttn [-«i», V. -«, -« FXw* 

V. Ztv OiXV«» [(Ep and Lyr.) YXtIi 

Attic. ^ MM Homeric 
8* N. vitf^ v/«f 

6. olw, vtUt vltS, v7oty iui§t 

D. utS^ vlit v7ty viiif vu7 

A. vtiv v/«9, vlet, vied 

V. i/ii 

Doric. «f, sh^. Ionic 
vmif »«»f, «•? 

fain (yfty) »ii«) VMS, ynvt 

G. Mwv, t/a<tfv v/a>v, viitit fdHf tnHf^ vtiiv 

D. viaT§, viiirt utaio't, viAffi^ • utuffi^ MUfft vnvrs, tnirtf'/, yScrtf"!, 

A. vUuf, vlits vUuff VMSy vtiat nutf 9n»$* vuts \yav^ 

Attic «■«, spear, 
8. N. ^9^1/ 

G. Jflfar»f, ^«^flf (poet.) 

D. ^o^art^ }o^4y ii^u (poet.) 

P. N. ^o^etretj 
G. ^e^Amt 
D. Vo^a^t 

Vo^n (poet) 


Homeric ri, nve, 


0, knight. 
S. N. iir«rii/f 
G. isrv-tict 
D. <«•«•«? 

A. iT^^» 

Homeric Pabadigxs. 


«'0Xi0f, «'r0X/0f, iraXitff (w^XiVfTheog.), vroXn^ 

(4r«Xr Hdt.), 9'roXu, viXfi, waX^r 

«'0Xiir, vrtfXiv (wtfXfftf Hes. 

p. N. lir^mt^ iV**!?; «'«Xiif (wtfXfj Hdt), «'«Xifi« 

G. iWit^ttt VtfX/ivf 

D. I^^rtvrt 9-0X/ir#i (<rtfX/iri Find., frdXiV'/ Hdt.) 

A. i^9nat «'0Xia((r^Xrf Hdt.), frtfXfif, «'«Xif«r 

J, Ulysses, 1, Pairoclus, 

G. O^z;0-0-q0f, 'O^vtf'tf'Stff, *O^i;0-«0f, 'O^i/tf-c^f n«r^«xX0V) -0i«, n«r^««Xn«f 

D. *O^V0'm\ *05t/<rir n«T^fl*Xy 

A. 'O^f/tf-^Sc, 'O^f;0'ri«, *05e;^«f«, 'O^c/rq Xlar^axX**, n«r^0»XS« 

V. *0Wrii7, '02i/#iv n«r(«xXi, Ilar^tfxXt 


by Google 

M 17. J 



fl I 7. VII. Adjectives of Two Terminations. 
A. Ov THB Sbcond Declension, 
o, ^ (laijusi) TO Of rj (unfading) to 

ayiiQUOv^ uyiiQw 
nyf]{)ua)f i'ty^if^tij 
vty/iQttOv, viyt\{^wvy ayi]qm 


























ayrii/aa, ajnifm 

S N. 

P. N. 


adixa ayt]i/OLoif otyrigta 
uyrjgdbiVf ayt]{i(tt¥ 
ayri(}(ioig, i>y»\{fbj% 
ayri(jdov<:, ayrj(jotg 

nyfifjavHf ayr/qat 
uy»iQuoiVy ayriQtav 

6. Of the Thikd Declension. 

o. ri (male) to o, ^ (pleasing) to o, ^ (two-footed) to 

t'Qi^flP ag^sv kvxuQtg ivxi'Qt dinovg dinow 

aQQtvog H'^nqiiog dlnodog 

itQ^fvi ivx^ifiti d I nodi 

tig^tra fixi^ita^ tv/ngiP dlnodit, Slnovr 

itQufp iv^ngt dinou 

u(gfy$g Sg^fva evxugii^g ivxagita dlnodfg 
uQ^ivbiv tvxttgitoiv dinodojv 









0, ^ (eindent) to 

S. N. 



o, ^ (greater) to 


fifiCova^ fitlito 

oaq)ifc^au(pitg atxqiia^aaifrj juf/forfc, ^f/fov? fitiZova^ (abIC^ 

oiitpiui fitl^oai 

outpiagt aaq>ug fisiCovag, fidiovg 

antpftg oag>cg 

anq)iog^ aaq>ovg 
an(fn\ aaq>t7 
onqx'n^ aaq>ri 

oaq>st^ aaq>fi 
oa(pioiy, at'q>o7p 




by Google 




fl 18. vi:i. Adjectives op Three Terminations. 
A. Of the Second and First Declensions. 
o (friendly) ^ 

S. N. q>Uiiog 

G. (piUov 

A. ipiXtov 

V. <piXl9 

p. N. <pato* 

G. (ptXlatv 

D. gnXloig 

A. ifiXiovs 

D. N. 9)iA/ai 

G. qtiXioiv 

S. N. 

P. N. 


S. N. 

P. N 

D. N. 






o {golden) 
Xifvasog^ XQvaovg 
XQvaiov^ Xgvaov 
XQvaif^^ XQV^f^ 
Xifvoiovj jf^vaow 

XQVOtOl^ XQi'itoi 
XQVodoit'f ^f^vacuy 
XQvaioiq, XQ^'^oig 
XQtJiovgy X9^*^ovg 

XQVosb)^ XQVata 
XfJvoioiVf ;|f^i;ao7y 

6 (double) 
dinXoogt dtnXovg 
diTtXoov, dinXov 
dinXoo}, dinXui 
dtnXoov^ dtnXovv 

dtnXooi^ dtnXol 
dmXuwVf diTiXciv 
dinXooig^ dinXolg 
dinXoovg^ dtnXovg 

dmXootf dmXta 
dinXoitiv, dinXolr 




o (toise) 






XQVoia^ XQV^rV 
XQvaiag, Xlfvorjg 
XQvaia, XQ^^V 
X(jvaidy, ^^va^v 

X^vafai^ XQVoai 
XQvatwv^ X(fvawv 
X(iVoimg, jf^vaal^ 
XQvoiikg, jt^vtfce? 

XQVom, jif^vaa 

dinXofj^ dinXi] 

dinXoTig, diuXrjg 

dmXorjy dmXjj 

dinXoi)^^ dinXfjv 

dinXoai^ dinXni 
dinXoiov, dinXcov 
dinXoaigt dinXal^ 
dtnXoag^ dinXag 

dtnXoSf dinXa 
di^Xouiry dinXnlv 



aoifol ao(pa 

aoq)uv aoq>eap 

aoq>oig (jo<paig 

aog>ovg ao<pag 







Xgvaiu, XQvaa 

HmXioVy dmXow 

dinXoa^ dmXi 


by Google 

If !»,; 




IT 19. I 

L Of the Third and 

First Declensions. 

i {Mack) 



S(all) i TO 

S. N. 




itag nSaa nap 




navTog ndar^g 




navxl Ttaarj 




ndrta ndoav 

P. N. 




Ttdvttg ndaai ndrta 




ndvTiop naamv 




naai ndaaig 




ndvtag ndaag 




ndvts ndaa 




ndvToir ndaaiv 

(agreeable) ^ 


(sweet) fi TO 

S. N. 




r^dvi rfina r^dv 




^diog ^dtlag 




Tldit, '^dt% ^delijt 




fidvv fidHav 




P. N. 



Xaqiivxa rfiitg, ^dtig ^dnai ^ii§ 




fjdi(0¥ tjdtioip 




'^diai fjdBiaig 




'^diag^ ^dng ^Sdag 




^dis ^dsla 




idtoip r^^tlaiP 


K C. Op the Thru Declensions. 


^ %o 

(much) ^ to 

S. N. 


fifydXri fiiya 

noXvg noXXfj noXv 




noXXov noXXrjg 




noXXta noXXfj 




noXvp noXXi^v 




r. N. 


fiiydXat fitydXa 

noXXoi noXXat noXXd 




noXXciv noXX^p 




noXXoig noXXaig 




noXXovg nolXdg 








by Google 




lof ««A^. 

S. o (m/4f ) j TO P. ol cS ra 

N. nguof Mfafia n^ior n^aoi^ xpctflp it^ot^m ji^om 

A. 71 ^ a o r Ti^af lar Hfgaovq, nf^uq n^iiaq 

M. (om) p. N. 
S. N. fiq fila Iv 
G. irog fituq 
D. kri fiia 
A. tra fiiiii' 

Ep. Dor. loo. Ep. 

HSI. iz. Numerals. 

lL(«o<»e)F. K. lL,a0iit. 

ovdfi^ ovdfftia ovdiw P. oidirtg 
ov^trog ovdffttag ovddrmv 

ovdira ovdr^fiiap ovdivuq 

Late. loo. • Late. loo. 

M. F. N., tew. 
D. N. A. ^i;o, dvm 

G. D. dvo7r, ^i/fif (Att) P. D. dvai (rare) 

Ep. Ep. Ion. 

G. S»^ 


P. N. rpfl^ T^/a 

G. JQtiJ$¥ 
D. T^tl// 

A. T^cT^ 

M. F. (/o«r) N. 

Ttoao^e^, TCTTa^s^ tiaaagu, riiioQa 

Ttoadgwv, rf rra^iuy 

xiaaaQO^t TdnuQat 

ttatfuQag, tiiHM{jag 

Ion. rim^iff Dor. rSrc^ir and r(mff;» 
JEol. and Ep. iriffv^tt, &c ; Dat, Ep. and 
in late prose, rir^«r«. 


by Google 




IT 33. X. Particiflbs. 

1. Present Active. ' 

o (advising) 

S. N. ffovXivuip 

G. fiovlsvovTog 

D. l^ovXivovn 

A. /iovkivona 

l\ N. fiovUvorftf 

G. povXtv6v%oiV 

D. ftovXtvovat 

A. /iovXBVQnag 

D. N. povXtvovTt 

G. fiovXtVOVTOlP 







2. Present Active Contracted. 






Ufiaovaavy ttfiotaar 

xifAOovta, Ti/ift»rra 

o (Aonorin^) 
S. N. -dfnaiovt Xi(imv 
G. rificiortog, Tifmvxoq 
D. tifidorti, ttfi^vti 
A. Tifidovtaf Tifiwrta 

P. N. ttfinorttQf xtfiAvxtq 
G. tinaovxtov^ jifiiavfoip 
D. xtfjuiovai, xi,(imai 
A tifidorxag, xifimvxag 

D.N. xifidovxi, xifioivxB 
G. xtfiaorfoiVfXifuirtoiv 

3. Liquid Future Active. 4. Aoritt ii. Active 

o (o^ofi^ to «Aoto) { TO o (having left) ^ 
S. N. ipavnv qxxvovaS fpavovr Xindv 

xifiaovaaigy xifinaatg 
xifiaovaagy xifjuaaag 

xifiaovaa^ xifuoaa 
xi/iuovaaiv, xifnaaaty 

G. q>ayovvxog g>avovafig 
D. 9(xyot/vT» (pavwaij 
A. 9»yovvra ^ayovaoty 


Xtnovaa Xinov 
Xtnovxog X^novaT|g 
Xinortt Xmovaji 
Xmovxa Unovaar 

P N. (parovvxsg <pavovaat> g)avovvxa Xmorttg Xmovaat liirovta 

G. g>avovpttav fpavova^v XinovxBiP Xinova£v 

D. (pnrovui fpavovont^ Xmovai Xinovaaig 

A. <pitvovyx(tg ipavovoug Xmovxag Xmavaag 

D. N. fpnrovrfB (pavovoa Unorrt Xinovaa 

G. ^avovrxoiv {pavwaaip Xmovxotp UnovaiMtP 


by Google 





5. Aorist I. 


6. Ac nst Passive. 

o (having raised) ^ 

« r 

(Jkacing appeared) { 


S. N. a^ag 
G. uQartog 
D. Sqccth 




A. aqarta 




P. N. &qmntg 
G. iftartnv 

A. aftartag 







D. N. ^^aira 




G. agdrtoir 




7. Perfect Active. 

o (knowing) { 
S. N. tideig sldvla 

G. SA^OTO^ sidvlag 
D. tidoti tidviq 

A. uHoxa Bldvtap 

TO (standing) { to 

Cf^oc kartig katmaa iariog,iotof 

kotoitog kvtBtafig 

iarmn kotaiaif 

IotcJto iajoia&p 

P. N. sldoteg sldvtai tldora loTfluTt^ katoiaai iattitu 

G. ai^oToiy tldviw ioroiTCDV ioindwy 

D. e»<)oa» (Idviaig kattiat hattiaaig 

A* ffl^oTa; BidviSg katoitag iuifaodg 

D. N. eldoTC Bidvia 

G €*^0T0ir BidvlaiP 

katmB katniaa 

9. From Verbs in -^. 

o (Aootng gtven) { 

S. N. ^OVff ^OVOrt 

G. doPTog dovatig 

D. JoiTi ^ovoiy 

A. dorm dovaup 

P. N. doPTBg dovaat 

G. doPTVtP dovamp 

D. dovoi dovaaig 

A. SoPTog dovaag 

D.N. Wra 
G* donoiP 

TO o (having entered) ^ 
dop dvg dvaa 

dvpxog dvofig 

dvpii dvatj 

dvpta dvaap 


dovra dvpxBg 







by Google 




fl 23. XI. Substantive Pronouns. 

fTo those fonns which are used as enclitic, the sign t is aflized. The initials affixed M 
dialectic forms denote, &. JEolic, B. Bceotic, D. Doric, £. Epic, L Ionic, O. Old, 
P. Poetic] 

A. Personal. 

lit p. /. 

2d P. eftoK. 

8d P. Am, Aer. 

S. N. i'/f^ 

G. iuoxi^ fiovf 
D. ifiol, fiolf 
A. dfii fiif 



P. N. ^julg 
G. rjfdav 
D. ylp 
A. nt^ag 





D. N. ,.0? 
G. ^^r 

Homerio Forms. 


6, ^^ Ifiiioj l^tv, 
D. l^i. ^^ 

rt, rum 

rwt, »'•?'•» •'«S't> 

P. K. V'^V* «^^^<f 

Ufllif, Sftfttt 

G. V*^»* Aa**''*' 
D. liyttT^ «/*rs ^^1^ 

r^tejf, -Jit, rftSf. 

a N. «?;(•;:;»?) 

G. mIiV 

D. »^ry 

A. f*rr, MV 

Additional Forma. 


r^*rit, #^t or #^»* 

8. N. Iii,, Xi; B. 

r!$D., r«v'6. 

G. S^i0#» i/«iv;, l^vr D. rf vf, rSn , rtvf , riM/f , Fi5i» iE., Ut/f D,, tiM B» 

r%w D. 
D. l/tJy D. Wv D. 

A. ri, r«t D. 

F«rt -«., 7f or r» D. 
F«t -^1 w't t). P. • 

G. *Mfi£v D., ^^^U#f JEL v^^Sm* .^ 

A. *i^i IX v/ftS, t^^/fti D. 

D. M. Mffi B. 

Kent rf Ut L 


by Google 




5. Aorist I. Active. 

o {having raised) ^ 
S. N. a(^ag 

G. S^avtog 

D. Sgarti 

A. aQotvta 

P. N. aQarttg Sgaaai Sfona 

6. a^eciTQiy agaatiy 

D. a^odi UQaaaig 

A* Sqavxag agaoag 


agaaa agw 


6. Ac nst Passive. 

» (having appeared) ^ to 
q^avdg ipavsiaa (pavir 

g>avirtog (ponftlatig 
g>avivu (pcofsiap 
(pavivta (petpeiaop 


^avuam q>apirta 

D. N. Sgayts aQuam q>ayirtB ipmvtksa 

G. agdytoip agaaatP qtopsmotp (poptUftup 

7. Perfect Active. 

o (ibtOK^n^) { 
S. N« cMoi; eld via 

G. SA^oTO^ etdvMS; 
D. eldoTi tldvltf 

A. eMoTO tldvtap 

P. N. «M0T«ff 

G. fidoToiy 
D. tidoat 
A« cMoia; 

D. N. tidoTB 
G udoxoip 

8. Perfect Active Contraeted. 

TO (5/anc^tn^) { to 

Cf^oc lorw; lavcSoa hntag^latif 
loxtitog loieKJi}9 
ioTWTi iaTcooi; 

eMt/ta* eldora lorfluTtc loTfuoffi loTftfTcs 

siihiiip iatvTWP haimavp 

ddvinig iatmat iattoooug 

BidviSg kateiiag ianooag 

sldvloi kawxi iatiuaa 

ddvtaip iajtitoip katciaaip 

9. From Verbs in -^. 

o {having given) ^ to o {having entered) ^ 

S. N. dovg dovan dov dvg dvaa 

G. doPTog dovarig dvvxog Svarig 

D. SoPtt dovorj dvpii dv(jfj 

A. dorm dovoap dvrta dvaap 

P. N. diptig 

G. doPTWP 

D. dovoi 

A. doPTog 

D. N. dovTs 

G. doptoip 

dovaui dopta dvpxeg 
dovawp dvPTiOP 

dovanig Svat 

doyaug dvptag 










by Google 




II 23. XI. Substantive Pronouns. 

[To those fonns which are used as enclitic, the sign t is aflized. The initials affixed M 
dialectic forms denote, M. JEolic, B. BcboUc, D. Doric, £. Epic, L Ionic, O. Old, 
P. Poetic] 

A. Personal. 

lit P. /. 

N. fym 

G. iuov, fiovf 

D. 4fioi, fioli 

A. dfit, (lif 

N. ^fuls 
G. rjfim 
D. ^filp 
A. ^fiag 

N. r^^ 

G. p^p 

ftdF. Aou. 





8d P. hi$, her. 



G. IftU, lfAit»j ifiuZy 
D. i^M, fl»f\ 

A. W^lt 

P. K. ^C*;, &fAfAlt 

G. ii^u#y, n/At4t9 
D. tt/tftTy, S/tTN ^/»i», 

D. N. »;?r(»i?;»?) 

G. tiitf 

D. f^r? 

A. tUt, w 

Homeric Forms. 

ri;, ri/Mf 

tf'itff, rir«) rivfy 

ffipSitf 0'^^y 

Additional Forma. 

r^Mit, r^t or #^»* 

8.N. «», WB. rUD., «»'B. 

G. i^S«#y S/«iv#) tAMi<V D. rf vf, rStff, Tivf , rtM/f, Fi5iv iE., Usv D,, tiM B» 

ritfv D. 
D. if^if D. «•;» D. 

A. ri, rvf D. 

P. K. fif^Ut h, 'Mfitit D. vfititf I., vA«(f D. 

G. *dfuiv D., ^^S«#» ^. v/A/utiett J&, 

A. *i^S IX !tfi,i, Sf*fM D. 
D. M. fSt B. 

Fit -fi^ »«t I>. P. • 
Kent «flat L 


by Google 




B. Reflexive. 

2d P. M. (of ihytelf) F. 

OBavxov, aaviov (jfavji^g, aavj^g 

IstT.'il, (of myself) F. 

S. G. ifiaviov (fAitvxrjs 

D. ifjiuVTt^ ^fiavTJj oBavT^, aavra 

A. f/iavjov ifjtavti'iv ataviov, oavtov 

P. G. r^ftwp aviaiv Tffiav aii^p Vfitar avitov 

D. ri^lv avTclig rifiiv avtoitg Vfilv aviotg 

A. fifiug avtovg rinag aitag vftdg aitovg 

VfAtav aviwv 
Vftip aifTaig 
Vfiug avTug 

3d P. M., of hktuelf. 

S. G. kuvTov, avTov 

D. kavtt}, avi^ 

A. korvTOV, aiftov 

P. G. havTmVy atrtwv 
D. kavTolg, avTciig 
A. kavtovg^ ctixovg 

F., of henelf, 
kuvt^gt aVTfjg 

kavrmr, avttjv 
kavTtxtg, avtaig 
kuvtag^ airtag 

New Ionic 

8. 6. IfumvreS 
8. 6. Uvr«v 

D. UtOTf 

A. Imvriv 





P. lanfrSf 


N., of ittdf 

kavrS, avtH 




8d P. S. G. •bruurut •£{, D. •ft -^ , A. •«*, •£%, •§ • 

P. G. mltravTtn, D. -Mf, -•mf, A. -«#;, 'df, -4, Dor. 

M. (of one a$iaihier) F. 

P. G. aXXriliaP ilXtiXap 

D. ttUijloic oiUifilai; 

A. iXXrjXovg aXXrjXag 

C Bbcifbogal. 

JH» M. N« F* 

D. A. aXX^Xm aXX^Xa 


G. iXXi^XotP alXriXait 

P. G. ^x«x«ry Dor. JikXmXm Dot. D. G. J^XX^Xmw Ep. 

D. ^XX«X«ir<, -Mf JiXXmXmtfi, -mii 

A. ^xXtfXtfvf ^x«x«if IxxiTXil Dor. 

• D. Indkfdirb* 

IC F. a»t flMCA a one* 


N. 0, J, TO 3wr« 
G. T0i3, T^5 ^fti'oc 

D. T^, T^ 3c7vi 

A. Toy, T13V, TO Huva 

p. of ««« 

tw dtii 


TOVC ^ftll 


by Google 




11 84. 


XII. Adjective Pronouns, 



S. N. ^ 
G. tow 

A. toy 




N. M.(«ery,««««,frf/)P. N. ^ 

TO avTo'c avi^ avto 

avtov avtrjg 

avt^ avtfi^ 

ainop avtifp 

F.N. ol 


D. tolg 



toi avtol 

avtal aitS 




G. To*r 



» 4 


S. N. 'J D. 

D. rf D. 
A. . m D. 


•iw L murif D., .{«# L 
«^r^ D., 49 L 
•^A» D., .in* I. 

P. N. r#; E. D 

D. r»49t 0. 
A. r^.r^ 

•. rm E. D. 

TM#yO.,r«»D. avriA^y I. 

r«rri 0., T^^h ml*rt>7fft 0., 
D. [rjtr L mvruvs I. 




S.N. 5c 
G. ov 

A. oy 

P. N. 

m m 


ods rids tods 1 P. S. ifiog 
TovdB tiiadi P.^fOtB^og 

P.N. of 
G. iJr 

A. ovc 


of •« 


• • 


oidt aXdi 1 

toladt taladt 
tovadt taads 

taidt rdde 
Tolvdi taivdt 


P. iffAStBQOg 

D. aa>flotTff^oc Ep. 

SP.S.S' Poet. 
P. a<ptteQog 

Dialectic and Paragogii 

B Fonna. 

a N. jfo. -jd. s^ i^f 5 

D. #D. &c 
A. Uf D. 

P. D. fri, ft E. r.i^'Ji 0., r«rrJ( 
r«?0-)i0-r< E. 

r^* I P. P. 'tf^'f . '^^f 0., 
*£fiirt^0f D., «^<^Mf, 

2 P. S. «tff D. E. 

ir<, P. V^f 0., v/uMf .£ 
8 P. a \i* E. D. 

P. Wifit 0. 


by Google 








M. (M) P. N. 

IL (ao muck) F. 


oi/Tog autti foi/TO roaovTo; loaavn} voaoi/ro, roaot/rof 

jovxov tavtfi^ 

toaovTQV joaavtrig 
Toaovioi Toaat;?!; 
toaovTov toaavttiv 

ovtoi avttu tavta foaovroi toaavitu voaavta 

toaovtfov Toaovtmw 
toaovioig toaavxaig 
Toaovtovg joaavtdg 

toaovT&i toaonna 
jOQovtoiy Joaavtm$p 

S. N. 



P. N. 



tovtoig lavrmg 
tovTovg ravtag 

tovtm tavta 
tovtoir tavtaiv 

Paragogic Dedension. 

0UT»n «v«Sft rwn «i«r«v<rM-i, i«i<M«-1, ^g^, t«vt«>^, Tttn-Jit* 

T«VT^< ravvfi rvfvovr^u Adv. •i;r«f^, ln^*^, vvW} )iiifi. 

•vr^ft MiirM]! riM>«i Titurttfj retauraiti, rtsavrt, r»vrm^» 

Mixed Paragogic Forms. 

B. Imdkvimite. 

Simple Indefinite. IntenrogatiTe. BelatiYe Indefinite. 

M.F.(<my,«ome)N. M.F.(urAoON. M. (ioAmmt) F. N. 

S. N. t\g ti itg tl oatig wxtc o t» 

oviti'o;, oTov natipog 

ortiva ^rtiwa 

attivfg Stiya^Stta 

G. nyoVfToif iitog,tov 
D. T«y/, T^ t/fi, tf 
A. Tiva t/va 

P. N. TiWc Tiya, t/»'«c 
G. Ttycoy [arra r/yoir 
D. Tia/ tlai 

A. Ttyffff t/yoff 

D.N. tivi tlv8 

G. T«yo7y T/yo«y 

tlva oXtivtg 

oavtivfav^ otu> tartipwp 

olffTtat, otoiai alatiai 

ovativag iativag 

totivt ativB 

ohtivoiv atvtivoip 

Homefic Declension of rht rSg, and trtg .at trrtt. 
S. N. r)t ri rit ri Urtt ln,tm 

G. ri; rtv t(#, « J 

D. rif,T^ 

A. rif» riMK 

t* N. riyif Jlrr« r/vif 

G. rU 


A. riviCf 

D N rM 

trtu, tm$, 9m» 



by Google 





liSff. B. Table 


I. Adjectives. 

I. Cardinal. 

2. Ordinal. 


witt 1 Aow mo)^ f 

wUrni iMA m order f o^ 


one qf how many f 


hro0r0t9 whichsoever in order. 



U*yerit9 <»«« of few. 


wXliM, maty. 

wkXfTHf one of man^t «, 


▼•w W^ ^W WWwi^W# 

one faUowng many. 


lr«i, Of mai^. 

1 «l 

flj, filci, fv, <m«. 

Ji^coTOf ,-^,-or, /rst. 


dvo* di/<»> two. 

devteQog,'&,'OP, second. 


t^iig, xQlOf three. 

rgitogrVrOv, third. 

4 «' 

tiaa&gsg, xiaaaga, four. 

tixagtog, fourth. 


nivtt, Jive, 

nifiittog, ffth. 


U, SI*. 

txxoq, sixth. 


hna, seven. 

iddofiog, seventh, 
oydoogt eighth. 


oxTw, eighi. 


iwia, nine. 

tvatogt h>vaiog, ninth. 


dixa, ten. 

dsxatog, tenth. 

11 vol 

hdexa, eleven. 

hdixarog, eleventh. 

12 ./f 

dtadsua, twelve. 

dwdixarog, twelfth. 

13 ,/ 

TQiaxaidixa, dsxatgeig 


14 li' 



15 ((' 



16 .ff* 



17 OC 



18 «q' 



19 ,d' 



20 «» 



21 w 

ttxogiv tU, tig xal $fxoQ$ 

Bixoaxog ngutog 

30 i' 



40 ^ 



60 »< 



60 r 



70 0' 



80 n> 



90 ? 



100 «' 



200 a' 



300 I' 




by Google 



[fl 25 

400 V' 
500 (p' 

700 y;' 

800 00^ 
900 7^ 
1,000 ;« 
2,000, /J 

10,000 ;» 

20,000 ,K 

100,000 ;^ 










3. Temporal. 
Inter. Wi^rmTn i on wkaiitajff 

1. (av&i^fiiQog, on the same day.) 

2. dBVTBQoiog, on the second day. 

3. x^naiog, on the third day. 

4. iftaQTolog, on the fourth day 
6. nffiJiToiagt on the fifth day. 

6. ixxaloq, on the sixth day. 

7. kjSdofiatogt on the seventh day. 

8. oydoaiog, on the eighth day. 












4.- Multiple. 

anXoog, anXovg, simple, singk. 
dmXovg, double. 
TQinXovg, triple. 
TiiganXovg^ quadruple. 
nsrtanXovg, quintuple. 
i^anXovg, sextuple, 
kmanlovg, septuple. 
oxtanXovg, octuple. 

5. Proportional. II. Adverbs. III. Substan« 


inter. wwrn^yA^tH i how many vfamt % how many vr^irns, quantity, 

fold 9 times 9 number. 

Dim. iXtyduiff Jkw times. iktydrtift Jewnesi. 

Augm. frtkXavrkarMStnutny/old. ir»\Xdxis, many times. 

1. (taog, equal.) 

2. diTtXdaiog, twofold. 

3. TQtnXaaiog, threefold. 

4. tiTi^anXttQiog 

5. mvtanXdifiog 

6. k^anXdaiog 

7. iTitanXdaiog 

8. oxranXdaiog 

9. irvBanXdaiog 
10. dixanXdatog 
20. BixoaanXdaiog 

too. kxatovtanXdaiog 
1,000. x^X^onXdaiog 
10,000. pvQionXdaiog 

onia^y once. 

fjovng, monad. 

dig, twice. 

dvdg, duad. 

jqlg, thrice. 

TQidg, triad. 

Tsr^dxigtfour timei 

i. TBjgdg, tBT(faxtvt 









ivvBdxig, hvdxig 













by Google 

M 26, 27, 28. 1 



C. Tables of Conjugation 
U 36* I. The Tenses classified. 

TL Sbcondabt. 



HiDA. 1- Present. 2. Future. 

a Past. 

y^afprn, • 
lamufriHng. I shaU be writing. 

J tea$ writings 





Jmrite, JahaUwriU. 

I wrote. 





yiyffaq>a^ m 


II 37* II. The Modes classified. 


I. AOoiL 





A. Imtxllsctxvb. 

a. Contingent. 
m. Present. B. Ftot 



R VounvE. 


A. Sobetantiva. 
Infer iTiYB. 

n. incorporated. 


B. Adjectire. 



If 38. in. Formation of the Tenses. 










Angm. Imperfbot, 

«f, f 

•/»«», /»«v 





Fur. iL, 


Angm. Aorist, 




Angm. AoR. n., 

#», V 

$f*n9, t^nw 


Bedpl Perfect, 



EedpL Perf. n.. 


Angm. RedpL Pluperfect, 



Angm. Redpl. Pluperf. n., 


Redpl. Fur. Perf. 




by Google 

84 TABLES. [5f 29 

KS*. IV. 










S. 1 















P 1 










yai(y), aai{v) 




D. 1 















. S. 1 



P. 1 






D. 1 





S. 1 



P. 1 












D. 1 













S. 2 


P. 2 







itiooap^ OPUHP 

D. 2 











Piff rtooit 9 

wp, ova&t 



•Wfff yraijff 




by Google 




\cTivB Voice* 



Perfect fluperfect 






K-a ih-Mis nt-^ 




^ :nVg n-ug 




it'i{p) je-e* 





«-a^cy K-tifitp 




K-OTf fl-€tH 




»-oat(y) n-tiaap, x-eaorr 





n-afitp K-9i(tep 




X'Cnop x^Htop 




n-atop x-e/irr 




























1 X-^^fil) 



aaif, OBiag 




aai, atiM^p) 










] x-oitb') 

1 X-OlBp) 



OttlWi OBtSP 




























(x^twaop, u^ptmp\ 












am^ &c. 

a&g^ oaaSj aw 

«-«C» «-i^» »-«f 



ootPTog^ aacfig 

X-OTO;, X-V^C 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




III 30 

1130. V, 





Nude. Euph 

Perf. PIup. 

Ind, S. 1 








fiat fiTiP 
aat 00 
tat to 

P. 1 




fAB&a fi8&a 
0^8 a»8 






pteu vto 

D. 1 




fts&a fdB&a 
a&OP o&o> 






adov a&^ 



{fispog «) 


P. 1 



{fispot Wfitv) 

{flBPOt O)0A-y) 

D. 1 


iiiipw ifiiv) 

{fiipm Yop) 
{fOpu fitop) 

Oot. S. 1 





{fiipog Bhip) 
iliipog «%) 
{fievog ttfj) 

P. 1 



{/iipot Btflfltp) 
(fiipot ittits) 




{fiBPOt Btfianp) 

D. 1 


IfiBpm Btvifitp) 

{fA6P» (tfitOp) 

(^m» Binr^p) 

Imp. S. 2 




P. 2 





a^maav, a^oav ia&maap^ ia^mp 

a&waaPy adtt* 













Part. N. 

^fvog^ -i;, -ov ofisvo^f -ij, -of 



fii'vov - 

■r)Q GflSVOV, 


fiivov, -IK 


by Google 




Middle and Passive Voices. 

Fut.Mid Aor. Mid. 

buL S. 1 aoftm oifiipf 

3 ajj, an ati 

3 anm aazo 

P. 1 Go/iB&a aafM&a 

2 ata&s 0aa&» 

3 aorrat aarto 
D. 1 ao/ii&a adfju&a 

2 asa&op aaa&op 

3 aea&op aao&tip 

Subj. S. 1 
P. 1 
D. 1 

Opt S. 1 aotiAijp 

2 0Oio 

3 aoiTo 
P. 1 aolfi8&a 

2 aDMT^f 

3 ooipvo 

D. 1 aolfit&a 

2 aoia&op 

3 aolo&fiP 







P. 2 


Aor. Paw. 






Fut. PaM. 










d-'8iflfl8P, &'8'ifl8V 
^-f/l}Tf, &'8it8 























ata&ai aaa&at ^^^pm 

N. aofispog 
6. aofiipov 

attfi8Pog '&-8lf^&»tlaS^&^ip &'Tia6fi8Pog 
aafifvov "d-'ivTog, ^-datig •d-'riaofupov 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


























2 r 







■•Jmn J pire luseajj | 

••IppjWpOT»A|idVT8iJ0V I 2 9 s } 9 i 

•Mntft J pthi looswd 

3 S « 3 51_ 

g i g 

3 3 9 

-9AI88VJ tBUOy 

'lit- %t\ 8qj9A JO »A^^?v 

•»W. u| iqjOA io »IPP!W 


^OAiWBj 'Tjocfnu pro ^jioj ^-joy 

'9A{ioy t9ojJ8dnu 


••IPPIW |w» •Aiioy Vfioy 

C 5 5 

5 f ? 

l««)«9 «»* 

• ••«•« ••* 

a a a a a 

*« HI )« i« m «« HI '« HI 

'Mnin J pov 'to^pjodiui 'laasejj I 

.'9Ain«j t30|j9ditu pm toojjoj 
•loajjodoi] pun luaeojj 

««««•« ««*« 

•«A|«raa wntn J 


^ ^ '^ ^ « 

•8AI8rtd 181J0V 1 

J4^^ 7^ 

'5'5'i << 

'9A|t3V tooji9dnu pov toeji9j 

Ullllllllll Ullllllll 

•1PPIH pW9^noV hlJoy puB aIn^nJ 

%%%%%% %%%%% 

o5 cl; d 3' 


by Google 







. o 




•^js iffJlit?H 


T si S 
i « 5 : 

4*S g- 

iiCs- •SB'S 

E ,- 

%<• xji *W 


c-^ i 

•» do 

I ii 


? \\ 

f .7 J 
. » 8 8 ' 

1 tJ!-•-^r- 

i * 


2-11 ^ 9 *£ «-i .? 







1-5 r 

I J ^ S « cS^S 8^ i.^«S 


by Google 

40 TABLES. [n 33 

1 33. VIII. The Active Voice of the 

Ind. S. 1 

Subj. S. 1 

P. 1 


Opt a I 

P. 1 


Imp. S. 2 


P. 2 





/ ) 

Thou, You 
He, 8ke, It 

Ye, You 
We two 
You two 
They two 


Thou, You 
He, She, It 

Ye, You 
We two 
You two 
They two 


Thou, You 
He, She, It 

Ye, You 
We two 
You two 
They two 

Do thou 
Let him 
Do you 
Let them 
Do you two 
Let them two ^ 

am planning. 

was plamdng 





may plan, 
can plan f 


might plant 
should phm, 
would plan, 
could plan, 


be planning^ 
or plan. 


' To be planmmg^ 

. To plan. 



by Google 


Verb povXevc9 (H 34) translated. 






shall plan f have planned, 
or had planned, 

will plan, or 

plan. * 

have planned, had planned 

may plan, 

may have planned, 

can plan, 

can have planned, 

plan, or have planned. 

might plan, 

might have planned, 

should plan, 

should plan, should have planned, 
or would plan, 

would plan, would have planned, 
could plan, 
could have planned, 
plan, or have planned^ 

plan, or have planned. 

To he about To plan, or 
to plan. To have planned. 

To have plannetL 

Abcuttoplan.l^^'^J^P^;^' Having planned 



by Google 




H 84. IX, Active Voice of the 

Lnd. S. 1 fiovXevv 

2 PovXfvuQ 

3 fiovUvst 

P. 1 fiovXtvofiiP 

2 fiovlevnB 

3 /iovXevovai 

D. 2 fiavUvnoy 

Subj. S. 1 jiovlwrn 

2 PovXtvjig 

3 liovXivp 

P. 1 fiovlivmfAW 

2 jiovXiviitB 

3 fiovltmtai 

D. 2 fiovXevtitov 

Opt. S. 1 fiovXtvoifu 

2 /^ovlcvoK 

3 fiovXsvot 

P. 1 (iovXsvoifiSP 

2 jiovXtvoiTt 

3 /iovXtvotti' 

D. 2 jiovXtvoitop 
3 povXtvolifiv 

Imp.S. 2 fiovXevB 

3 fiovXsvhm 

P. 2 fiovXtvtJt 
3 povXsvitmaar 

D. 2 /9oi'X«i;«roy 
3 fiovltviTȴ 





ijiovXfVfiB ^ 

















by Google 




R£(^irLAR VsAd fiovXiJm, to plarij 

to counsel. 




















ipovXskntut^v . 










fiovXtvaaiq, fiovXwcBiag 
fiovXtvOai, fiovliVQUt 

fiovXivaaitr, fiovXivasuKP 










by Google 



K 39. X. Middle and Passive Voices of 

(la the Middle Vaum 

Ind S. 1 fiovXivofjuu 

3 fiovXiVBtm 
P. 1 fiovltvo/AM&a 

2 fiovltv8a&e 

3 fiovUvortat 
D. 2 fiovUvw&op 


Sabj. S. 1 povltvmfuu 

2 fiovXevfi 

3 fiovXtwitiu . 
P. I fiovltvmfii&m 

2 fiovUviia&$ 

3 povUvwrtat 
D. 2 povliVfia&ap 

Opt. S. I fiovlBvolfifiP 

2 (iovXtvoio 

3 jiovXevotto 
P. 1 fiovXtvolfiB&m 

2 fiovXsvoia^i 

3 fiovXsvoiPto 
D. 2 (iovXivoM&ap 

3 flovXsvola&ipf 

Imp. S. 2 fiovXt^cv 

3 fiovXiviad-m 
P. 2 fiovXtvta&8 
3 fiovXivio&maopf 
D. 2 fiovUvsa&w 
3 povXxvia&wf 












Future Mid. 










by Google 




THE Regular Verb ^ovXavo^ to plan^ to counseL 

f deUberatet to retobseJ) 

Aoritt Mid. 































, * 












by Google 




Table x. completed. 


[nd. S. 1 i/iovUv&fiP 

2 ifiovXiv&tis 

3 ipovltv^^ 

P. 1 ifiovXsv&fifASP 

3 i/iovXev&fiaap 

D. 2 ifiovlsv^fijov 

Subj. S. 1 ffovXsv^a 

2 fiovXsv^j^g 

3 povXsv^ji 

P. 1 fiovXiv^isfisp 

2 fioyXsv^rjis 

3 fiovXsv&^ai 
D 2 fiovXsv&ijtop 

Opts. I ^ovXsv&dfiP 

2 fiovXsv^Blfig 

3 fiovXtv&elfi 

P. 1 flovXev&stfiiiBP, fiovXsv&itfiBP 

2 povXtv^dr^xBt fiovXtv&BlTB 

3 fiovXBV&slfiOctP, /iovXev&ucp 

D. 2 fiovXsV&tifJTOP I 

Imp. S. 2 fiovXsv&fiT$ 

3 /5ovAevi9^i}Toi 

p. 2 jiovXsv&fjiB 

3 PovXtvd^fixioaap, ficvXtv&inmp 

D. 2 fiovXsv&fjTOP 

3 povXtv^t^xtiP 




Future Fui. 


fiovXsv&ria 6t 

flouliv^woif afp 








by Google 

IF 36.1 



H 30. XI. 

(A.) Mute Verbs. 

1. FgdifG)^ to write. 

Active Voice. 

L Labial. 





Ind. ygaqxa 




Subj. ygdipia 


Opt. yQd(poifi& 



Imp. y^d(p% 


Inf. ygdiptip 




Part. yQU(pt}P 






ind. ^yffuifop 


Middle and Passive Voices. 


Future Mid. 



Ind. /QuqiOfiat 




Subj. yffd<f>»fin^ 


Opt y(fa<polfi7iP 




Imp. ygdifov 


Inf. y(ffx(pfa^ai 




Part. y{faq>6iitvoq 





8 Aor. Fkss. 


Ind. iyi^ip6ftrj[r 




















S. 1 ytyQOfifiat 



2 yi/ifttipai 



3 yiyqunttth 




P. 1 yfygdfifis&a 



2 yiyQaq>&B 



8 yiyqannhoi 





D. 2 yiygaqt&w 







by Google 




H 37. Labjal. 2. Auna, to kaxie. 

Active Voice. 


Imperfect. Future. 8 Perfect 

S Pluperfect. 

ind. Uinia 


Xetif/m XiXoina 


Subj. Xtlnia 

Opt. XBlffOlfU 


Imp. XuTiB 

Inf. 2«/nr«y 

XsliffHP XiXomhw 

Part Ulntap 

Xdtf/fov Xthnma^ 
AoEisr IL 



Opt. Impi 


8. 1 Umop 




2 IXi9r6( 


Xlnoig Xlnt 

3 Ili7l« 


Xlnoi Xmitm 


P. 1 iXlnofiBP 




2 il/7im. 


Xinoixe XlntrB 


3 shnov 


Unoup XinireiKfap, XtnoPTOiP Xmop 

D. 2 ^;U7i«oi' 


Xlnoitop Xlnsiop 


3 iXiniitiP 

Xinohfjp XinhaiP 



Middle > 

\ND Passive Voices. 


Future Hid. Perfect. 

Aorist Tua. 

Ind. Xtlnofiai 

Xsiipoiiai XiXBififiUh 


Subj. Uinwfim 


Opt. InnolfAfiv 



Imp. Xflnov 



Inf. Zc/7iea^a» 

Xtlif/Bodai XfXu(p^tti 


Part. il«7io/i€yo? Unpoftfvog UXsififiivog 



8 Future. Pluperfect. 

Future Fkii. 

Ind. iktmounv 

XiXslipofittt iXtXstfifiiiv 





Opt. Imp. 


S- ] iXmSfifiP 




2 ^A/^ov 


Xlnoio Xi,nov 

3 ^X/;rfiTO 


Unono Xinia&oi 


P. 1 iXiTtofii&a 

Untufis^a XmolfieSa 


2 ^A/7ica^« 


Xlnoia^e Xinta&s 

3 iXlnorto 


Unoirto Xinia&aaap, Xmia&utp 

D. 2 mn%a&op 


f Unoia^op Xlmodop 

3 amiaai^ 

hnola&fiP Xmh&tiP 


by Google 




1 88. ii. Palatal. Ilgdaam or nqdrxm^ to do. 







Active Voice. 

Pkcsent. Future. Aorist 1 Perfect 8 PerfiBct 

nQctoati, nQattm ngd^ Bn^a^a ninQ&xot ninqaya 

ngnaaoifu, fiQarroifU nqaloifn n^a^tfn 
nfaaatj nQarxB nga^^v [vai [vui 

ngdaoHP, n^atrtiP nQo^tiP n^ii^ni nt-nqaxi'^ nsnQays- 
nqiowaatp, nQatiav ngd^atp n^^ag nen(faxf^i ntngaywc 

Imperfect I Pluperfect 2 Pluf '^rfect 

hsqaaooVf mgartop insngdxsiv insngdytitr 

Middle and Passive Voices. 

Imperfect Future Mid. 

ingaffaofirpf, inganofiijv ngd^ofiw 



8 Futufe. 
nsngd^ofMti • 

Ind. nQaatFOfuxh ngditofiai 
Subj. ngdaaotfiai, ngciTtwfiai 
Opt. ngaaaolfiijv, ngaTtolfjiTjv 
InU). ngtiaaoif, ngartov 
Inf. ngdaaea&ai, ngaTtfa&cn 
Part. ngaaaofjiBvog, nganofisvog 

Aofitt ARd* 
Ind. inga^dfiriy 
Subj. ngd^fiai 
Opt. nga^aififip 
Imp. ngd^ai 
Inf. ngd$aa&ai 
Paft. ngalifiBvog 

S. 1 nsTtgayfiat 

2 ningnl^irn 

3 ningautai 
P. 1 n^ngdy^n&a 

2 ningux^e 
8 nengayfiivoi 
D 2 ningmx^op 

Aoriit FiMi^ 










Futuie Fus. 

ngax&riaoifiTiP ntnga^olfiiiP 

















by Google 




H 39. iii. Lingual. 1. Ileidiaj to persuade. 

(2 Perfect, to trust / Middle and FassiYe, to believe, to obegf.) 







AcxrvE Voice. 



nsl&a niiuta inBiaa 

nd'&ta mtlaw nldut 

nU&oifit nslaoifit ntlaaifit ni^oign 

ml^B nrlaov ni&» 

nei&eip ntlotip ntlaon nidiip * 

nUdiav ntlawp ntluug mdfov 


S Aoriit. 1 Perfect 
mi^op ninuxa 

S Perfect 

nsntixivui nanoi^ivat 
TtBnuxwg nenoi&wg 

I Pluperfect 8 Pluperfect 
inBntlHHv inenol&iip 

Middle and Passive Voices. 

Ind. nil^ofAat 
Subj. 1i$i&aifiai 
Opt. n$i^ol(iriP 
Imp. nd&ov 
Inf. ntl&ta&ai 
Part. ns$&6fA6yog 


Future Mid. SAor.Mid. 

nsiaqliifir nt^olfiriv 

niiooiieyog ntdofifyog 

AorittPkMi. Future Pksa. 
intia&riv itHo^iioouat 

nitadU^v nita&fiaolfifiv 
ntia&dg nBia^rjaofiBvog 

S. 1 nin BIO fiat 

2 ninBtaaB 

3 ninBiojoiB 

P« 1 TIBTlBtafiBd'et 

2 ninsio^B 

3 -nBUBtOfiivot 


D. 2 niuBta^op 









aBJlBtOfABVOg i7tBnBiaiAB&9 









by Google 














1140. 2. Koiiito, 

(Middle^ to receive.) 


Active Voice. 

Ind. xofilia 
Subj. xofiliu 

Opt KOfliioifU 

Imp. xd/ii{8 
Inf. KOfilidv 
Part HOfAiZwv 






















Future Mid. 







Aoritt Mid. 








S. 1 xofim 

2 xofAitig 

3 xofiiti 

P. 1 xofiiovfiiP 

2 XOfAltiU 

3 XOlitOVQi 

D. 2 KO§UUt<tP 

Attic Future. 















Middle and Passive Voices. 

Aorist P^M. 







Future Fkii. 









by Google 



ffl 41. 

T[ 41. XII. (B.) Liquid VERBa. 

1. ^AyykXkta^ to announce. 

Ind. ayyillti 

Siibj. ayyilXfa 

Opt. ayyillotfu 

Imp. uyysklt 

fnC ayyfXltiP 

Part. uyyiXknp 

S. 1 ayyfXii 

2 ayyfXftg 

3 ayytXu 


ImpofiMt S AoriaL 
ijyyMov fjyyilov 



Pcffsct* PhipgffacC 

ilyytXxa rfyyiXxjfiP. 




ayyfXoifH, ayytXoltjv ayytXttP ayytXwP 


ayytXalg, ayyfXoitig 
iyyfXoi, ayytXolij 
P. I ayytXovfAtP ayyfXotfitP, ayytXoiiifiiP 

2 ayyiXfliB uyyfXoitt, iyytXolfiu 

3 iyytXovoi ayyfXolfp 
n. 2 iyytXnjoP ayytkoirop, ayy(Xolr}TOP 

3 ayytXoiitiv, ay/fioiifxiyy 

AoEur L 
Ind. Sutj. Opc 

S, 1 ijyytiXa ayyflXw ayydXaifii 

^^yyftXttf ayydXfif ayytiXaiCt ayystXttng SyytiXop 

3 fiyytiXt iyytlXij ayytlXai, iyytiXtu iyytiXaitt 

P. 1 fjyytlXafiiP iyyflXwfitp iyytiXmfUP 

2 fiyytlXoTM ayyslXi^tB iyyttlaitt ayyitXart 

3 fjyytiXa^ ayytlXwai iyytlXaiiP, iyytlXtiap ayyttXartanPi 

D. 2 fjyytlXatop ayyilXfitOP iyytlXattoP ayyslXmop 

3 fiyyeiXmtfiP iyytdahriP ayytiXatmp 

luf. iyyiiXai. Part. iyyelXaq,'daa,»ap • G.-oyzof^aai^;. 


Ind. ayyeXXofi€t$ 

Subj. ayyiXlBf/iM 

Opt. iyytlXolnnp 

Imp. ap'/tlJtov 

Inf. fiS;9^^iUl8a«>o* 

Part. iyytXXofUPog 

S Aor. Ifid. 







1 Aor. Flit. 







SAor. FlMh 



by Google 




I nd. Tfy/tkXofAfiP 


S. 1 ay/flovfim 

2 ayyfXj, ay/ilii 

3 tt/yfkeitai 
P. I ayytXovftt&a 

2 uyydfla&B 

3 ayytl<nfrta$ 
D. 2 otyyBltia&or 


1 Future. 










FoTUEi Middle. 

ayytkolno . 


Subj. Opt. 









S. 1 fiyyftktifiijv iyyUkonfiai 

2 ijyytikm .ayyhlXrj 

3 t/yyiikaro ayytlktjtai (•y^/c/v^.v m^/^c»«m*vvi» 
P. 1 ^yytiXaftr&a iyyciktifitd-a ayyeikatfis&a 

2 iyyiikva^B ayyflXrja&8 ctyyilkaia&B ayytlXaa^i 

3 ^yyUkarto iyytlktavxai ayytlkaino ayyeikda^nactp, 

^ ayyfdad^faw 

D. 2 iyjiiMaaSor iyytlkija&op nyytUatadop ayyUkaattov 

3 "Ifyytikaa&fiP ayyiikixiod^rjv ayyfikaudwp 

Inf. ayytikaaSaim 

M. Imp. 

S 1 Jfyyfkfini 

2 T,yytlaoti rjyypkao 

3 Siyytkrai %yyikdm 

P. I riyyiXiit&a' 

2 nyytk^t ^yytk&M 

0. 2 f//a^ov yy«A^oir 

3 fiyyfkdtur 
5 • 

ayytikalo d^rjv ctyyf 
Part, (tyygikttfitroc:. 

PiRPxcT, PLursmFBcr. 

Imp. Inf. 

Tiyyik&ni fiyyiXfjfiy 

PiMt. Tfyyfkio 

fiyyfkfiivog ^yyikfit&a 
fiyyikfiipoi tiamp 



by Google 




H 4S. Liquid. 2. 0aivQ, to show. 

(S Perf. and BTiddle, to tqtpearJ) 
Active Voice. 



Aorist I Perfect 8 Flerfeet 




tcpriroi niipayxa niq>fiva 






ipavdifii, (pupolij 

¥ <f>r^vmfu 















8 Pluperfect 


Middle and Passive Voices. 



Future Mid. 

























1 Aor. Pkst, 

8 A<)r. FkM. 

1 Put P^M. 









qtavta "^ 























S. 1 












^ iniq>avTO 

P. 1 











nupaagiipoi tiaccp 

n. 2 








by Google 




H 43. XIII. (C.) Double Consonant Verbs. 
1. -^v|fi) or av^dvo^ to increase. 

Active Voice. 









Pketent Fiitnre. Aoritt 

av$ot(ii, av^avoifii 
avUt av^avt 


Middle and Passive Voices 
Future Mid. 


Ind. av^ofim, 
Subj. av^tofiat, av^dvufiai 
Opt. avMfifiv, avlavoififip 
Imp. av^ov, av^dvov 

Jnf. avUo&M, ai^vto&tti 
Part, av^fievog, ai^ayofisvog 

Ind. fiv^tif^M 

Part, tiv^fffiivog 

144. 2. 




Aoritt FuM, 


fji'litixt' if 

Aoritt Mid. 


Future Past. 



Perfect Passive of xdfinxoj to bendj 
and iXi/x^y to convict. 

I n fl e i ti ve* 

S« 1 xexetfifiai ilr^XtyfMH 

2 XBxafiipai, iXfilty^ai 

8 udxauTtttti iliiXfyxrai' 

P. 1 Mtxa/ifiS&a ilrjXfyfit&a 

2 nixafiip&i ikriUyx^^ 

3 xtxafifiivoi iXfiXtyfUi'oi 

[iial [tial 

D. 2 Mixafiq>&oy HijXtyx^^ 


Mfxafttpo iXifXfy^ 

»Bxdfi(p&Wt 6lc. iXriXiyx^fo, Slc 

»9xdfi(p&tti iXviXiyx^M 

xexaju/ifi'oc iXriXfy/iivof 


by Google 





xir. (D.) Pure Verbs, i 

1. Tifid$9^ to honor. 

Active Voice. 
rExtnrr lam. Pmbbipt 



1 1 fiat or 



S. I iifidati 

2 tifitUtg, 

3 TlfiUft, 
p. I TlfidofiBV, 

2 tifidttt, 

3 ufAaovai, 

D- 2 rifidsTov, 


8. i hlfiaot'f ittfimy 

2 hlftafg, itlfiag 

3 Hifiui, hlfia 

P. 1 iTifAaofitv, ittfiOifiiv 

2 itifidtiB, itifidjB . 

3 itifiaov, HlfAWV 

D. 2 Hif^aeTOP, itifidtop 
3 itifiaitriv, itifidtfiP 

pEBMiiT Imp. 


S. 2 Ttfiixe, 
3 Tifiairw, 

P. 2 tifittittf 
3 TtfiertTOiffor, 

D. 2 Uftdtjov, 
3 tifiahoiv, 


Ind. Tiiitjtfoi 

Opt jifitlaoifn 

Inf Uftfjasip 

Part xi^^ouip 

tifidta, itfm 

tifidjfg, tifi^ 

itfia/j, ''^i"? 

tlfidttfitP, Tlfi^HBP 

ItfidfilB, JlfAUTB 

tifidfoai, itfitiai 

ttfidriioPf tifiatoP 

Pumr On. 

Jtfidoifn, ttfi^fju, tiftt^ffp 
ttfAiiotg, tifitagt f-M^VS 
ttfiaoi, ttfiia, rifAt^m 

UftdoifiBP, Tlf/^fiBPf Ttfi^flftBP 

tifidons, TififMjB, iiin^rjiB 
tt/juioitp, tifi^ip 

jifidoitov, . rifjwtov, tifii^ritop 
Pkbsbmt Iirp. 









PunsifT Pam. ^•/f'^^ 


tifidov, . 







by Google 

M W.J 





DDLS AND Passive Voices. 

t%MUXT Im, 

PaxsxiiT Sow. 

S. 1 iTfidofittt, 




2 ufiiiff. 




3 tifiautitt 




P. 1 tifiaofit&a. 




2 tifuita&t. 




3 Tl^lM»TCt<» 




D. 2 u(imw»op. 





Prbsbmt On. 

S. 1 irifiaofifiy. 




2 itifiaovt 




3 hifidita. 




P. 1 iufiaofMt&af 




2 Hiftdfoitt, 




3 itifiuovto. 




D. 2 HiiAnta^w, 




3 ittfiata&f}v, 




Pmbdit Ixf. 

Fmmmkkt Ivf. 

S. 2 tifidov. 




3 ufiaia&Uf 


P. 2 Ti^aea^e. 


3 Tifuts'a^oiaar, 


PknnT Pa»t. 





D. 2 Tifiofv^on 




3 TificUa&bif, 








Ind. TifiijoufAai 





• T/jUlfcl«/i«« 


<>|H. ttftfiaolfinr 






xtfirjO fiTi 

liif. Jiftiat(f&a$ 




Part. Ti^f}(90fi8roc 






Future Fisi 

Ind. T(Ti/«i}ao/ia» 



Opt tniftfiaolfitip 


InC Ttn^i2tffai9<M 


Part, jittfiiiaofiirog 



by Google 




1 4«. CoKTRACT. 2. 0iXia, to love. 


5 I 




Pusrar Sw. 

1 ^*2f4M\ 

3 ifO^. 
3 »f4i<«rfa\ 


Pusnir Onw 



qnXolri//t 'J 


Punmr ivf^ 

Pexssmt Ikf. 

9 ^f9. 
3 ^4lHm» 

3 ^Mr«Nf«^ 
8 ^Uf4tP»v» 


PftxsKMT Pass. 





by Google 




Middle and Passive Voices 


Pkbsimt Iiro. 


S. 1 g>tXiofjiatt 

3 iptlisTm, 

P. 1 <pil$6fii&tt, 

3 iftyortai, 

D. 2* (piXi$a'&ov, 


2 iq>iXdov, j-.-i-r. 

3 ^^(ileero, 

P. 1 iq>ili6fit&ti 

2 iq>iXita&t, 

3 iipiXiorto, 

D. 2 ifptlifa^ov, 

3 iipilfia&fiv, 









PEsmrr Iicr. 

2 9>ll80t;, 

3 ipiXeia^w, 

P. 2 9«Xie<y^«, 
3 iptttia^maav, 

D. 2 ^fl^ca^op, 
3 (piXtia&mv, 



















Aoritt Mid. 
















PaxtsKT Opt. 
g>iXsolfifiv, q)tXot(ifjP 
q>iXioio, q>tXoii^ 

(piXioiTOt q>iXoiTO 

q>iXtolfit'&oit <piXolfi9&a 
q>kXioia&t, q)iXo'ia&9 
q>iXsoivTo, q>iXoivto 

q>tXioia&ov, qaXoia^ov 
q>iXBola&fi¥, q>iXolo^riP 

PunifT Inp. 

q>tXiea&ai, q>iXB7a^at 

PEmifT Pakt. 

q>tXB6fitPog, (piXovfiBPog 
g>iXeofiBvti, q>iXov(iBPfi 
q>iXf6fiBP0P, q>iXovfiBPOP 






Aoritt Fm. 



Future Pms. 






by Google 



J11 47; 

H 47. Coi^TRACT. 

3. JtfloiDf to manifest. 

AcTiTB Voice. 

pEimrr Imd. 


S. 1 aijXo'ai, 
2 diiXottg, 
8 dr^XoH, 






P 1 dfiXoofitP, 

2 d}}Ao»TC, 

3 di^Xoovat, 









D 2 di9Jl«aio^ 





Prmknt Opt. 

S. 1 idnXoov, 

2 /a^^Ao*^, 

3 ^dijAof, 


driXooifAi, dtfXdifii, 
drfXooii, dfiXoig, 
dtjXooi, drtXoi, 


dtjXoifi ' 

P. I iStiXioiABP, 

2 i?3,jAosT«, 

3 idi^Xoop, 




drjXooifitPt dtiXo7fiiVi 
dfjXooitt, dijXo7jet 
driXooup, SfiXoiuf 

» dtiXoltifiiP 

D. 2 ^dijAocToy, 
3 idtiXoitfiP, 


dfiXooiJOP, dTfXohop, 
dijXooitTfP, dtiXoljtir, 

' dflXolflTOP 


Fmqm Jitf. 

PftmMT Ihf. 

S. 2 dij'Aot, 
3 diiXoirm, 


dijXoHv, dt^Xovp 
Pftissirr Pamw 

P. 2 «ijXo««, 
3. ^Xoixwaop 

D. 2 dr^Xonov, 
3 ^ijAoinuy, 

dijXovjt driXouty, 
, dfiXovimoar, dr^Xoovaa, 
, drfXovimp dtjXoop, 
dfjXovtop G. driX6opto9f 
driXoviwp diiXoovatig, 


Ind. dfiXuioM 

Opt. dfiXdao^^i 

Inf. dfiXmatAP 
Part. dijAiJ<r<k>» 













by Google 







MlDpLE AND PAi»a»lVI£ VoiCf^S. 

Punxt Ind. Prsunt 

1 dfiXoofiui, dfiXovfiai dijloiufjiai, 

2 dijlo//, drploX dijlotjy 

3 ^ijJlofTaiy ^jjilovrat dijAoijTai, 

1 dfiXoofiB^a, Sfilovfit&a d'tjXomfit^a, 

2 di}Zoea^«, drjXova&i di}Aoija^e, 

3 ^^Aoorraiy dijAoVFTat ^ijZdcDyrcu, 

2 ^Aoea^oy, driXovad-oP d^Adi}(j^or» 











1 4driXo6fifiVf 

2 i^v^XooVt 

3 i^tiXotiOf 

1 idtjXoofif&a, 

2 id^Xota&B, 

3 ^dijldoyroy 

D. 2 idfiXoia&or, 

3 fdi2Aofff^i}y, 














PeuhiT' Imp. 

2 dfjXoov, 

3 SiiXoiadti, 

P. 2 dfiXota&i, 

D. 2 dfjXoeadov, 
3 dfiXoiadwy, 

Future Mid. 

Ind. S'^Xtauofiai 

Opt. dijXmoolfifir 

Inf. dfjXtiota^at 

Part. dtiXttaof/Bifog 

8 Pkitara. 
Ind. d$driXwaoiAa$ 
Opt. dtdfiXmuolfifiP 
IbC Mi}Aft)(j€0^ai 
Pirt df^i}AflaffdjuC9'0( 










PEmifT Ixr. 

dfiXotoxfai,, dtiXoV0^ut 

Vmaaxn Pabv. 

dfjXoo^if'og, dr/Xovfttrog 








Aoriftt Hmil 







Vntnn Put* 

dr^Xn dtf aa^m^ 


by Google 




1 48, Pure Verbs, ii. Verbs in -^i. 
1. "lajriniy to place, to station. 

(S Aor., Perf., Hup., and S Fut, to aUmd.) 







S. ] laxfifi^ 

2 Xaxriq 

3 latriai 






P. 1 Xara/itp 

2 ?aT«T« 

3 laraa^ 

iatiJTS iaralfjTe, iataitt 



D. 2 latoTOP 

iajijjop icrtalijTOP, laxatTor 


Inf. iatavat Part. Mrrer^y-afaaray * 



S. 1 I<JT1?r 

2 'Mni^ff 


^ larofttp 



3 VtfTij 









S 1 tarrfV 

2 rarrjg 

3 taxij 




arrj&i (<ft«) 

P. 1 EOtrjiisv 


aTalrjfifv, aratfar 


2 eoTi^Tt 


araifjte, araUt 


3 eatrjaay 


otaiijaar, ataUv 

atijtmaap, atdrtav 

D. 2 lariytoi' 
3 iari^Tfiv 


aralrjror, atairav 
atairiTfjVf atalxtjv 


1 Aorift Perfect. Pluperfect 

. S FiKiire. 

Ind. ai^tfO) 


Opt. oTiiaoifii 


Inf. oTiiaHP 

Part. aTiJawy 

arifaei) lorifxo) 

oxf^aaifM iaxrfioifi^ 



by Google 

f\ 48J 



Pkrfkct II. 
Ind. Subj. Opt Impw Inf. 

S. 1 • larui koTulijp iaravai 

2 ♦ • katalijg tata&i 

3 • • kutalfi iatdtat TuL 

P. 1 Tarttfitp iajafi$y &C. 

2 FfJTare • 

3 koToiiSi ioTfuai 
D. 2 faTMToy • 




3 XojttTai 

P. 1 latdfieOa 

2 laraa^f 

3 Icrratrat 
D. 2 Soraa^oy 



ioTUTt kaxwaa 
&c. laiiu?, iaiog 








P. iordfis&a 

Pluperf. II. 






Xaraaot Tcttw 




iatdodmaav, laTaadtar 


1 iatdfifiP 

2 Xaraaot Xatw ^tijua&s Xaraa&ov 

3 Xaiajo XfTtaivTo ioTda&tjv 

Fut. Mid. oTfiaofini. Aor. Mid. iarrjadfiriv, Perf. tarafiah 
Pluperf. iatdfifiv. 3 Fut. Mid. kani^ofiai. Aor. Pass. ioTd&tjv. 
Fut. Pass, ata^iqao/iai, 

1 49, 2. The Second Aorist ngiaa&ai^tobuy. 

Opt Imp. Inf. 

TTQiaififiv TtQiaadat 

nqlttiTO ngida&to "Put. 

ngiaifjii&a ngidiifvog 

nglaiad^t nglttij&f 

nglaivto nqida&oiatxv, nQida^ttP 


Ind. Subj. 

1 inQidfifiP ngitofiui 

2 ingito ngifj 

3 inQlaTo TTQlfiTai 
P. 1 inQidfisd-a ngiiofit&a 

2 inQiao&t nQirjad^s 

3 inglarto nQltartai 
D« 2 inf^lttadop nQlfja&op 

3 ingido&rip 

nglaiad-op nglaa&op 
ngialo-^'^p ngida&ciP 


by Google 





1 so. Verbs iN-fii. 3. TY^^u, to piU. 

1 Tlxtlffll 

3 lid rial 

2 t/^6T« 

3 tidi&ai, 




D. 2 tl^nov rid^jop 



Ti&tififitv, Ti&fyfify 
ti&BlfioaP, ti&fUP 

ti&BlfjToy, Ti&elrov 





Inf. ti&dpai. Part. T»^8/^,-etaa,-rv ' G,-e>Toc,-f*aiK» 

1 iTl&fjp, itlx9ovp 

2 iri&fig, hldiu; 

3 iil^fi, iil&n 

P. hl&ffitp 




ixt &ijtip 

A0RI8T I. 


1 tOfixn 

2 i&Tfxag 

3 t&fixt 

1 i&f]Kafi(P 

2 i&I^XUTt 





3 i&iiXttP $&taap &mai 





^drifttPt ^f7 fiiP 

^tifiaap, ^eliP 

D. 2 

eSiTOP d^Tjrop 
3 i&irrjp 

A OR. IL Inf. ^f««m. Part ^t^, ^eXaa, ^tV' G. ^iiro?, ^ec(ji)C 

'&titlTOP, &e7T0P 
Seii^iTiP, deiTyp 















by Google 


VERBS IN 'fit. 






S ] ri&tfiM 


ti&tlfjiriV, Tit^o//iiyy 

2 €l»€OMf Tl 

l&H Tl 


tidaie^ ti&o^9 

3 tl^nai 


tldmo, tl&otto 

P 1 ji»dfiB&a 



tidtlfii&a, u&olfit&a 

2 tiataai 


ri&Biad^B, ri&oia^t . 

3 ti&Brtai 



tidtinOf rixtoirro 

D. 2 ti&t6&09 


tl^sm&op, ti&oia&09 


n&th&riv, ti6oio&fiP 




S. 1 

titfta&m iji&ifiTiP 

2 T/^«ao, ti&w 

iti»(ao, Hl9o¥ 

3 fA^^Cff^OI 



P. 1 

U&ifttrQg iri&ifAt^a 

2 t/^w^« 

ills tad 9 

3 ti&ia&viaav, ti^ioBrnv 


D. 2 ri^ta^or 


3 ttd^io&wy 


AoRisT II. Middle. 





Imp. lot 

8. 1 ^d6>jjy 


&ilfi7if {&olfjiiiy) &da&M 

2 ?dov 




3 r^cTo 



dia&w Ito. 

P. 1 i&ifii&a 




2 r^w;^« 




3 l^fw 



diadtaaar, dio&tiP 

D. 2 r^fad«y 




3 ^^io^ijy 




Aor. Fmi. Fbt Fmi. 

«*--j», -. ¥Ttiiiii iiif. ^ 

Ind. d^fiaofum 


tst^iioofiai ti&tifia$ ixedtifjiiip 



Opt. ^fiaoliAfiP 




Int. ^^ata&at 




i rs^fietaS 

m xtdtia&m 

Part ^ficoforoq 


tt^^0ofupot tt^tifiiP9g 


by Google 



[11 « 

H 4ff. xiy. (D.) Pure Verbs. 

1. Tlfjidta^ to honor. 
Active Voice. 

i. Contract 

PmnBirr Iwa^ 

PuHBipr Suw. 

S. 1 iifidfa. 



11 fm 

2 Ttfiiingt 




3 tl/AUH, 




P. 1 tifidofiiP, 




2 Tifidtjf, 




3 Tifidovai, 




D. 2 rifidsjov, 





Tmmmwwt On» 

S. 1 Hlfiaoi^t 

2 hlfAatg, 

3 hifAaf, 


Uftdoifii, ttfif^fu, 
tifidoig, rifit^j, 
iifidoi, tifii^. 


P. 1 dtifAoiofitP, 

2 it I fid ne, 

3 ixifiaov. 

iufidit . 

rifidotfiip, rifi^tfitp, 

tIfidoiJt, tlfit^TB, 

ttfidoisp, Uft^ip 

D. 2 Hifiditor, 
3 ittiAaitriP, 


ttftdoirop, ti/iWTOP, 

HfiUoltljV, Uflt^TIJV, 


Pumr iMPb 

Pmshit Iwf. 

S. 2 T/iu/xr, 


• "" tifidftv. 

3 tifiair». 



P. 2 tifidtttf 




3 Jifiaiiwaav, 

tifidtuatxp, lifitiovaa, 



f ti/AtiliVTtiP ttfidor, , 


D. 2 Tf/i«noy, 




3 uftantiP, 









Opt tifii^aoifn 


Inf. ufiiiatip 






Part tl^^ooip 




by Google 

M 4&.J 





DOLE AND Passive Voices. 

Frissmt Ind. 

PiucsKiiT Subj. 

S. 1 jTfittOfiaif 




2 tifi^li. 




o tiuanm. 




P. 1 ttftttofit^a. 




2 xi/juxia^t. 




3 t^aovrai^ 




D. 2 tifia^&oy, 





Prmknt Opt. 

S. ] hifiaofitiv, 
2 iufiaov, 


3 iTlfAoifiO^ 




P. 1 itifiaofif&ttf 




2 e'ji^fiufaitt, 




3 ijifidovjo. 




D. 2 itifittso^ov, 




3 itifiuta&fiv. 




Prbosit Imf. 


8. 2 tifidov, 




3 ufMUa&€9, 


P. 2 ri/Adea&t, 


3 tifiaiif&maav. 


PknniT Part. 





D. 2 TlfmHf&OV, 




3 Tifiaia&wv, 





Aorist Mid. 


Aorist FkM. 

Ind. ttfifjoofiai 





• T//uiJ(ja)/u»i 


Opt. tififfoolfinv 







Itii. Tiftiiat(f&a$ 




Part. tifniaofiBvof 






Future Pisi 

Ind. 7111(11^00 fia$ 



Opt. jftifiijaolnfjv 


InC Tefifii}tfftfi^aft 


Part. tiufiJiaofitvot 



by Google 




H 46, Contract. 2. 0ili(Of to love. 

Active Voice, 



1 qnXiiat 

2 gnXisig, 

3 q>tXisi, 

1 (piXiofiiv, 

2 q>ildsTt, 

2 ifiXistor, 



Peuiit Ijfik. 













1 iq>iXfov, 

2 ^(fiXugf 

3 iq>iXft, 

1 i<fiXioijiSVi 

2 ^<piitceTSy 

3 ifplXtov, 

D. 2 iq>iXisTOV, 

3 ig>tXeiTfjv, 






Prisknt On. 
















q>iXolriiA :/ 


Frmmeht Imp. 

Present Ikf. 

2 iflXfSt 

3 (piXiSTt), 

2 (ftXhrB, 

3 qnXfirwaat', 


D. 2 ffiXftJoy, 
3 <]()tAe£Taiyy 


Ind. ^fAifao) 

Opt. <piXi^aotfii 

Inf. q>iXi^aHP 

Part. ^iXifaoiy 











(fiXinVy ifiXflv 

Present Part. 
















by Google 

M 46.] 




Middle and Passive Voices 

Prbsint Ind. 

Presekt Suit. 

S. 1 q^tXiofiai, 

2 q>iXBij,q>iXiH, 

3 qnXdftai, 

(fiXjj, q>dsl 







P. 1 q>iX€6fie&€it 

2 <piXit<r^t, 

3 ffiXtortai, 

. qnXovfAfd^a 







D. 2' yiZiIw^oy, 





FtLMSEurt Opt. 

S. ] ifpiXBOflV^V, 

2 ^q)deoi;y 

3 /9>lii€T0, 










P. 1 itptXiSfiiaa, 

2 i(piXita&t, 

3 ^^flcolTO, 










D. 2 iq>iUta&ov, 
S i(fiXf8a&ijv, 





Pkksxmt Inf. 

8. 2 9)cZsotfy 
3 q>iXBia^nt 




P. 2 9)a^€a^«, 
3 ipdiia&ttaav, 

D. 2 9)fliea^oy, 
3 g)iilffia^(»y. 



Punnrr Part. 

(pdBOfiBvog, g>dov/ig¥og 
(fdtofiivijf q)iXovfiipfi 

ifdfOfiBVOV, (fdoVfJlBPOP 

FiitUTt Mid. 

Aoritt Mid. 


Aoritt Fmi. 

Ind. ipdfjaofiai 


Opt. ^fZijcroZ/ii^y 


Inf. q)iX^ata&ai 

Pait ^i}ao/ifyo( 



















Future Fmi. 

Ind. ntfptX^aofttti 
Opt. irff9fAi7cro/jui}y 
Inf. nnpiX^ata&at, 
Part. 9te9«Zqaofifyo( 




by Google 




H 47. Coi^TRACT. 

3. JtfXoOf to manifest. 

AcTiTB Voice. 

pEimrr Imd. 

VtMoan Buwtm 

S. 1 aijXoV 

2 diiXoti^f 

3 dfiXoti, 






P 1 dfiXoofitp, 

2 di^Aofie, 

3 di^Xoovait 










D 2 JijAmio^ 





Prmknt Opt. 

S. 1 ^diflooy, 

2 /a^'io€<?, 

3 idiXoi, 


dtiXoOlfAlt dfiXoi/Al, 

driXooti, driXolg, 
duXooi, dr^Xoi, 

dfjXoifi ' 

P. 1 ^^JjioO/llOy 

2 ^3i?io«w. 

3 /aijioo^ 




dfiXooifiBP, dtjXolfiiPi 
drjXooiTt, dfjXoilTi, 
dtiXooitP, itiXoUp 



D. 2 idfiXonop, 
3 idtjXoitfirt 


dfiXoonop, driXoltop, 
duXooljup, dtiXohriPf 


Fmqm I>^. 

PftmMT Ihf. 

S. 2 ^ij'Aos, 
3 dnXoirm, 


dijXonv, dtfXovp 
PRissirr Pamw 

P. 2 dijXom, 
3 ^Xoixwaen^ 

D. 2 ^T/Aoffoy, 
3 dtiXairatv, 

dilXovt$ dtiXouty, 
, dr^XoviwaaPt dtiXoovaa, 
drjXovi'tviy diiXoov^ 
dtiXovtop G. dfiX6orjo9, 
dtiXovimv dtiXoovufig, 

. dtjXmp 

I lid. d>^Jlitfua» 

Opt. dfiXtaaoifii 

InK SfiXtitrtiP 
Part. dqAci»(rflo» 













by Google 

!f 47.1 




Middle and PAiiMVi:; Voicp«. 



PRUfNT Sow. 

H. 1 iiriXoofiui, 

2 bnXofi, 

3 duXottah 






P. 1 driXoofii&a, 

2 drjXoea&B, 

3 dttXoQvjm, 










D. 2 dfiXosa^op, 




Peopit On. 

S. 1 ^dr,Xo6fiTiP, 

2 f^dov, 

3 <d/^il0tT0, 






p. 1 idfjXo6fA$&a, 

2 idfiX6(a&8, 

3 idiiXoopTo, 




dtiXoolfiS^a, driXolfit^a 
djiXooioSf, dfjXoladB 
dtiXoowTo, dijXolvTO 

D. 2 idtiXoia&op, 
3 fdriXoia&ijv, 



, driXoia-dop 
, dfiXoiadfiP 

PrmbnT' Imf. 

PftlSllIT IkF. 

S. 2 ai}Xoov, 
3 ^fjAosff^M, 




P. 2 «ijZo«a^f, 

D. 2 driXoiaSop, 
3 dfiXoia&mp, 


dijXova&waap, Pmwwt Part. 

dtiXovadwp dfiXoofiitog, dr^Xovftspog 
dijXova&op drjXovfifVfi, drjkovfiipti 
di^Xova&iup dfiXoofAft'OP, dtiXovfiSPOP 

Future Mid. 




Ind. dijXijiuoiAat 


Opt duXuaolfi'^p 


Inf. dfjZcJaea^at 

Part di}X«oo/ieyo( 

















8 Putarib 



Opt dtdriXmaolfitiP 
IbC Mi}lftia€0^ai 
Pirt MriXoiirofitPos 




by Google 




1 48, Pure Verbs, ii. Verbs in -^i. 
1. "Icxrfiii^ to place^ to station. 

(S Aor., Perf., Plup., and S Put, f» Mand,) 







1 latfiiAt 



2 Xaxfig 




3 lattioi 





1 Xaraptr 

Icrrco^sy itnaltifisr, 


2 tatat$ 





3 itrtaa* 







2 laxaiov 

iatiJTOP icrtalijxer, 








Inf. iataycn Part, Sara^y-aaarcry * 






. latttfitv 


2 IVfTi^ff 



3 IWi, 










1 ttnrfV 




2 r&Ti?? 



atrial, (<yT«) 

3 ^atrj 






1 Eatfjfisp 


aralrjfiey^ aiaifiiv 


2 COTI^Tt 


oralfjTt, aratte 


3 e(JTi}tfay 


axairiaar, axultv 

aTiiiftKrov, oraiTwy 

D* 2 Boxtftov axrjxov araltjxor, axtxlxor axr^xov 
3 iaxiixfjv axaifjxfip, axalxriv axr^xtav 


1 Aorift 




• Boxrjaa 

















pluperfect • S Fufiire. 
iaxi^xtiVf iiuxrjxtiv Icrri;^ 


by Google 

D. 2 


\ VERBS IK -^». 


Pkrfect 11. 

Pluperf. H 


Subj. Opt Impw Inf. 

1 • 

l^JT^lj karalijv karavai 


2 • 

• katairjg tara&i 


3 • 

• kuTolij iajdtu Pwrt 


1 tatttfttv 

iajwfisv &C. kaifog 


2 ftfTare 

• Icrraxfi iariuaa 


3 kataai 

l0T(tt(JI ^C. itfTO)?, laTO? 


2 eoTuxoy 









1 tttrafiai 

2 Mjaaai 

3 XoTatai 








1 UfTafieOa 

2 %aTaa»9 

3 l^rraira* 





laidodeDaav, lardadon^ 


2 lataa&oy 







1 J«TT«VlJf p. 

3 laxaro 




Fut. Mid. axTiaofiai* Aor. Mid. iarriadfirjv, Perf. taxotfiah 
Pluperf. iaidfifiv, 3 Fut. Mid. iaTi}|o/iai. Aor. Pass. ioTd&Tir. 
Fut. Pass, ara&iiaoiiai., 

1 49, 2. The Second Aorist ngiaa&ai^tobuy. 

Ind. Sutj. Opt 

8. ] inQidfiTjr ngifofiut ngiaifiiiv 

2 ^TT^/oi TTQifj nglaio 

3 inglato nQiriTai nglaito 


P. 1 inQidiAS&a nQi(6/i$&a ngiaifiB&a 

2 inQtaad^B nQlrio^B nglaio&B 

3 inQlarto ngltartai nglairto 
D« 2 ingitxa&op nglria&ov nglauf^op nglaa^op 

3 ingtdo^i^r ngiaio-^'^v nQida&mp 


nglnaOf nglta 
ngidadto Vni. 

ngida&ioaav, ngido&ttP 


by Google 






m-fu. 3. TYfli^/Mt, 

to piU. 




S. 1 tKtiffii 

2 ti&fig 

3 TidTjat 






P. 1 tl»fflBP 

2 fl^txt 

3 ti&idatf 


Tl&fitifiBV, tt&flfifP 
ri&BifiJB^ tlx^ filB 

xi&BifjaaP, Tt^fiiP 



D. 2 T/^rtor 


Tl^BlritOP, Tl&BirOP 
tl& BllitlJPt tld^BixTjP 



Inf. ti&ivm. Part 

. ri^Bl^t^uaari^' G.-e>To^,-f*aiy^. 


S. 1 /r/^i?v, itl&ovp 
3 iti&ri, iti&H 

P. hl&Bfiep D. 





A0RI8T I. 


S. 1 tdr,xa 

2 rdr/x«j 

3 t&fixi 



Sulj. Opt 
•^ii^ ^df,g 



P. 1 i&i}xa(4fP 

2 i&1^XUX8 

3 r^ijxfXF 


^wfisp ^BirifiBP, ^f7fiBP 

^^TB ^BirjlB, xffllB 

&mai ^tlfjaap, ^bUp 



D. 2 €^<Toy ^^Toy ^BirjTov, &Hrov &hop 

A OR. IL Inf. ^c««m. Part, ^^fe, ^cTaa, ^tv' G. ^irrfx;, ^ecai)C 

Ind. '£^ijaa» 
Opt. ^i^aotfn 
Inf ^ijacty 
Part. ^votup 


tBxfnxa iiixffiKtiP 


by Google 

IF (M).] VERBS IN 'fit. 




S 1 ti&ifia$ 

2 *l&4aw,ti 

3 tl&na$ 



u&ttfirfV, ji^olfiiip 

P 1 tt&iiie&a 

2 ji&tadB 

3 ti&ttnm 

Ti&elfit&a, Tt&ol/ieS^a 
ti&Hyto, tlx^oiPto 

D. 2 jl&td&op 


tl&tia&op, tl&ota&op 




S. 1 tltfta&ai iu&ififip 
3 ti&ia&» Pwrt. ^i/^CTo 

P. 1 Tf^s/ici'o; hi&ifit^a 
3 n&ia&tsaav, ti^iadmp iri&tPto 

D. 2 ti&ta^op 
3 n&io&up 


AoRisT IT. Middle. 


8. 1 ^d«>ii?v 

2 r^ov 

3 r^cTo 

Sulj. Opt. Irap^ Int 
&rJTai &tito ^ia&» Pwt. 

p. 1 ^^^/ie^9 

2 r^ea^a 

3 l^t>TO 

Sia^aaap, ^ia^tP 

D. 2 li^fa^ey 
3 ^^c'cy^ijr 

^^a^op ^fia^op 



Ind. &rjaofAat 


Opt. ^aoifitip 


Inf. &^afa&a$ 

Part ^i}ao/i€r(K 

Aor. Tub, Fut. Tub, F^riwt. FlnpedMl, 
Hi&fiP XB^^fioOfiai ti&H/iM itt&tifitit 

xt&tlflP jB&fiaolfiUP 
ti^tiu ti&ttao 
ti^^PM tB&fiata&M xi^tia&M 
rt&ilf tB&ii06fUPOt tB^tifiipof 


by Google 







1 dldmfti, 

2 mtag 

3 didmai 

1 dido/ifv 

2 dldore 

3 didoacTi, 

2 dldoTov 


Verbs in-jmi. 4. Jii&fii^ to give. 


opt* Imp^ 



didolfifiW, dt9oifitr 

didoifiaav, didoUy 

dldolfJTOVf didolTOv 

didoLiJTfiP, didoltriv 





Inf. dMpui, Part. 9idovg,'Ovaar6p' G.-oi^05,-ovaijff. 

1 WdtOP, 

2 Adidas, 


1 tdtuxa 

2 idtaxng 

3 t'dwxe 

1 idaxafitp 

2 idcixajt 

3 tdtixop 



P. ididofisp 





Ind. * SubJ. Opt. Imp. 

• dbi dolfjv {i^catjp) 

• dotg doirjg dog 

• d(a dolfj doTfiH 

t9ofi(P dSfitP dolfifitp, do7fiiP 

idoit d^Tt dolrjti, doin 

tdoantp daiai dolfjoap, dottp 

D 2 



WoTOP dwTOP dolfJTOP, dotlOP dotOP 

idoxfiP donitT^p, doirrjp dorotp 

AoR. II. Inf. dovpai. Part. 9ovg, dovaa, dop * G. doptog, dovarfg, 

Ind. dtiati 

Opt. 9«iaoifu 
Inf. dtoanp 

Part dwotap 





by Google 

H 51.] VERBS IN -/!»• 




Bali. Opt 


S. ] dido ft ai 

didoifiai didoififjp 

2 didoaai 

6idf^ didoio 

didoao, didov 

3 dldorai 

didutat . didoito 


P. 1 dtdofitda 

didftifis&a didolfis&a 


2 didoa9t 

didaw&e didoia&e 


3 dldovrm 

didbiytui didotvto 


f). 2 didoaSov 

didwa^op dldoia&op 





Inf. dldoa&ai. Part, didoftivog. 


S. 1 ididofifir 

P. idiiout&a D. 

2 ^^/doao, ^d/dov ididooi^t imoa&op 

3 ^a/aoTo 

idldovxo ididoa^fiP 

Aorist II. Middle. 


Sidj. Opt Imp. 


S 1 /^o^jjy 

dwfitti doifirip 


2 rdov 

dia dolo dov 

3 I^OTO 

dmai dolio • doa&m 


p. 1 /^o^t^a 

9tofif&a 9olfis&a 


2 ^^oo^a 

daa&B 9oio&6 doa^8 

3 r^orro 

dmpiai doiPTO 66a&iaGap,d6a&»p 

D. 2 r^oo^ov 

dSa&ov doXa&ov doa&op 

3 ^iJoav'^i/y 

dola&t^p doa&otp 

Fat MUL 

Aor. Ptett. Fut Fkss. Perfect 


Ind. doiaofiui 

iSo&TiP 6o&i^aofiai didofiai 




C>pt. dmaolfitiT 

do&tlrip do&fiaolfitiP 


do&ffri didoao 

Inf. dAfio&m 

do&rjvm do&Tjata&m dfdoad^m 

Part. Swaofitro^ 

6o&flg do&iiaofitpog dfdofiivog 


by Google 



[IT 52 


1 159. Verbs iN'/iu 6. Juxvv^a^ to show. 


Opt* Imp* 


1 dtUvHiu 

2 bdxvvq 

P. r dtixvvfAfv 

2 dflxrvte 

3 diixvvaaif 

D. 3 duKVVtOV 












Inf. dnxrvvm. 

Pari. dnxvvg,'vatt,'VP' 




1 idelxvvv, idtlxvvov 

2 idfixpCg^ 4^tlxvvtg 

3 idtixvv, iddxrvt 

Future dtl^. 

idtUvvfiBP I 

Aorist tdttia. 




1 dtixrvfiw 

2 ^Uxwaai 

3 dtlxwvTai 

1 dtixvvfit&a 

2 6%lxvva&t 

3 ^c/xyvyio* 



D 2 dtlxvva&ot dHxrvfia^oP 

Inf. dtlxpva&at. 









Part dunrvfitvog. 

1 ^dtixrv/ifir 

2 idtixvvao 

3 ideixvvio 


P. idBixvvfifda 




Flit. Mid. dtiSofiai. Aor. Mid. idtt^afirip. Peri dihty/ia^, 
Pluperf. ^MfiyfiTiV, Aor. Pass, (dnx^ttv^ Ful. Pass, dtt/dn" 


by Google 



f as. 6. ^fjiij to say. 

Ind. Subj. 

S. I q>f)fjil, Tifil <f a) 

8 yija/ '«« 

P. 1 q>afjiir 

2 ^MTi 

3 gfdal 

D. 2 <paTOP 
* 3 


1 ^pyy, ^f 
8 £9)i}» i| 


■ Opt. Imp. InL 

q>tJilfi (parw But* 

<palrifitp, q^alfitv fpag 

(faltjUf <y>aire <fnxr$ 

(fuiffoar, ipatsr ipawaar, ipartmp 

<pulrjTov, ipaliov iponov 

P. f(pafi$p 


Synopsis of Associated Forms. 

Ind. (ffiftl, (pdaxa 

Subj. q>iUf ipdaxttt 

Opt. ipaliip, (pduHOifii 

Imp. (pd&i, q^anB 

Inf. (pupm, fpaauHP 

Part, ifds, (pdoxav 

1 AOfiit. 0% jf » 9 

Ind. Iqpi^frcsy tlnn 

Subj* ^awf stnn 

0|it. ^iqamfu, tinatfu 

Imp. • tlnop 

Ini. ^^aof, elna$ 

Part ^ifaa^f ct^jra; 

Acnvx Voici. 





igdtfii, igolt^p 





M1BDI.B AVD PAtinrs Voicn. 

Pr«6w Inf. fpda^tti. Part, ^^/ufyo^ * Perf Imp. S. 3 nti^€&m * 
Iraperf. iipaax6fi»ip ' Perf e{i^^aft» PI up, fi^^i^y, 3 Put. li^ao* 
|Mu« Aor. Pass, i^&fjp, i^^i^n^, FuU Pass. ^ij^ijVo^cm. 


by Google 










"IflfAh to send. 








1 %* 








3 liia$ 






1 li^ty 





2 Utb 





3 iciac, kuTi 




Utmitap, Unvp 

2 1jto» 















Ope Imp. 


1 XfiVttow {Uip) ^Kfl 




. ilpm 

2 %. I«iC 



fXfjg fg 

3 I,,, Ui 


tXri,Stc era) 


I If/uty 

{xa/iey tlfiiv nfi$p 


2 rm 




3 Uaap 


huoapi tptmp 

2 liTor 





3 Utup 



Future, ^ow. Perfect, tiKa. 











1 UfiM 






2 ttaa^Jfj 




Xiao, Xov 

3 i:*ia* 














[I. Middle. 



Opt. Imp. 


1 ifVipr 

2 Uao, lov 


olo ov 


3 ?eTo 


oho ta&tt 





&,C. 6lc. 


Fut. Mid. liaoftat. 1 Aor. Mid 

. ^xafAfiP. Perf. cf/4 

M. Plup 


ilXfitip. Aor. Pass. tX&ijp. Fut. Pass, k^^aofiai. 


by Google 

II 55. J YE&BS IN -^i. 71 

H SS. 8. ElfAij to be. 


Ind. Subj. Opt. Imp. iii£ 

S. 1 eifAl «i etrip dvtu 

3 iatl ]j itii Itftw (^7co/ 

P. 1 iafUP wfiip itrifjitv^ iJfiiP Part. 

2 iori itB itriti^ alrt cart wy 

3 fia/ ' mat i fijaay, clfy ItfTOKray) ovaa 

foTikir, oiraiy oy 

D« 2 iotov f^xop ttriTOP^ shop tat op ortog 

3 u>J7i}y, cfrijy Itfioiy oSafig 

Imperfect. Future. 

Ind. Opt. Inf. 

S. 1 nr, n, iffif^p taofiai • iaoifiiiP lafat^o* 

2 ii;, i}a^a laijt caei iooio 

3 i^y ftarEai,laTO(» saoiio Part. 

P* 1 fuup iaofit^a iaolfii&a iaofitPog 

2 nrc, ^ait $ota^B tooui^B iaouhti 

3 ^aay tisovxak taoiPto iaofiipop 

D. 2 ijioy, i^aror laeai^oy laoia&op 

3 ^T^y, ^unjr daola&tip 



Ind. Subj. Imp. Part 
S. I If^iD. a 1 U L S. 2 f#«» f##« P. U, Uft 
S i2f I. i2t» E. i]i£ F. Uv0M L 

U#<F. 3 J#<E. liMfE. Ur#«D. 

S IfW D. !«#« E. ij;^^ E, iZ^» D. 

P. 1 i/^if L P. 1 if*u D. f^^,y p. f^« D. 
•V*tf D. 3 i»00t L Ifuf^tuu £. JE. N. Uf L 

*^^»P« Opt iS/KifD. Gen. 

« i»ri D. g. s f7iir/« P. iT^t D. «m-w L 

^^' ^ fMf» 3 f « L i7/M»M D. i^M-^f D. 


a 1 f«» B. a s Uf P. a 3 fn* i. p. s fr«» i. p. 

!«• E. f«W« E. ^Tf D. Irr«» P. 

f#»«f It f«r !• f#«i It frs«f It 

U L 8 4«» E. P. 1 V D. f«r«» L 

|« I. <f(0 1. 8 I«rt L i7«r« E. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





TL 44. Verbs iN-^nt. 7. "/i^^i, to send. 





UllJfltP, UlfiBP 

UlritB, ItUt 

UlriOar, itttr 

Ulritop, lettop 

Uniriir, UittiP 


nd. Sub|. Ope Imp. 

• tal HtjP 

• f^g Hfjg fg 


3 tfiai 

1 UfiMP 

3 iaai, iua^ 

2 Utop 






iitmitap, Upjkp 



8 I XtiP,Xovp {Uiv) vxa 

2 iij^, 1:81^ 

3 li}, Ui 

2 Ina 

3 Uaap 

2 IcTor 

3 Utup 

Future, r,aa. 



tlfiiP Wfisp 

illB IITB 

tlaav i»*ai 

Hfi, && hut 




1 hfiM 

2 Uaoi, Xri 

3 i:fra» 


1 ItVip' 

2 Xtao, Xov 

8 fcTO 


HJOP fit OP hop 

ux^lP hwp 

Perfect, tlxa. Pluperfect, tXxup. 

Ulfiijp, iolfiTiP 


AoRisT [I. Middle. 
Sub). Opt Imp. 
Uifia$ oX/itiP 

n olo ov 

fjTttt oIto fcr^ti 

6lc. d&c. 6lc, 





Xtaot Xov 








Fut. Mid. ijaofiai. 1 Aor. Mid. {xa/iijy. Perf. tlfiM. Plup 
fSfATiP. Aor. Pass. tX&i^p, Fut. Pass, i&^aonai. 


by Google 


YE&BS IN -/!». 




S. 1 iifil 

2 ilg, d 

3 iatl 

P. 1 iofUP 

2 ioti 

3 tiol ' 

D. 2 ioxow 



2 ii;, i}ai^a 

3 r^p 

P« 1 ijiMr 

ntf , ijart 
3 ^aay 

D. 2 ijTor, i^arey 
3 ^tfip, ^uttip 

8. ^Vp, 


ttrixoy^ ihop 


to be. 

loTia (^f 00/ 





















a 1 



S ilf I. 

u#; p. 

8 Itr/ D. 
1 i/^ffL 

•i^if D. 

Wf P. 
ft iwri D. 

1 UL 
tS^ E. 

S ^#1 £. 

f «#i B. 
1 /^ff D. 
3 U0t L 

S tlfirim P. 

2 f #«, f r#« P. 


f/MNM E*. 
f^/M» P. 
Iftftlteu EL JS. 
JS/Mlf D. 

f7/Mf D. 

Uitt 3 fii I. i7/6i»«M D. 

M. U«L 
F. U»»« L 

iv#« D. 
I^« D. 

N. Uf L 

a 1 


fr»«f It 



2 Iw P. 

8 4iiȣ. 
«i(0 I. 

a 3 

fii» I. 

Ir«i It 
«/i»if D. 

P. S 7r«» I. P. 
U^mt P. 
frs«» It 
!«#«» L 


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TABLES. — TfiRBS IN -^i. 

[^55 56 

DiALKono F0B1I8 or tlfu, to it 
FuTURB Ini>. 

A. 1 I##«/mmS. 

& 3 «rir«i E. 

I 1 U«^ir/«P. 


Urt^m E. 

i^ri/»i^« & 


lrarT«j D. 

8 f rrt#^i E. 


UriiVci D. 

S Uftfrm E. 



H 36. 9. EifAif to go. 



1 ft/U 

1 f/Bfy 

2 Tjb 

3 iSa» 


D. 2 i«o» fi^oy 











S. 1 ^jiv^ ga (^) 

2 ^ti^y jiua&a 

3 .^ciCf) 

Pluperfect II., or Imperfect. 
P. fjttfitP^ nfttp D. 

ijeiToi^, lytor 

Middle {to hasten). Present, Uiiai. Imperfect, U/Atjp, 

DiALBono Forms. 


a S iTf I. 

P. S fJr4 P. 

& 1 47«L 

8 f/f L 


& 1 iSWP. 
8 7iiW« E. 
S 7^1 B. 
7«/Mf E. 

& S i7ii F^ 
hin B. 

P. 1 


p. 1 fofiUvE. 
3 7r«v E. 
^ir«» I. 
^7«. K. 

7^f E. D. 

7jMII«4 E. 


D. S Truf S. 

Mn>. Fat Jo/am, Aor. iW/tKv, Ep. (4 252). 


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Hat. Pure Verbs, iii. Second Aorists. 

I. A0RI8T U. of fialvb), to go. 

8. I 

P. I 

D 2 

S. I 

P. I 

D. 2 

S. 1 

P. t 

D. 4 

8 1 

P 1 

D. 2 



Bflrjaav fioiat 






2. AORIST II. 6f uTtodid^fiayrtt, to run awmf. 














3. AoRiST II. of yiyvfaania, to kfioio. 





Subj. Opt. 

yiw yvolrji' (yrolrir) 

yvwg ypoirig yratdt 

yvia yvoiri y rut fa 

yr^fitv yvolr/fifv, yvolftetf 

yrmxt yroirjTt, yvoliB yvwrt 

lyvtoaav yroaai yvolr/aavt yvoltv yvwtwaav, yvovx^p 

tyvtito^ yfmtov yroltjtoVf yroi rov yvdioi' 

iyvtaxriv yronjttjVf yvoirtjv yvtatbtv 

AoRisT II. of 6vvta, to dith^, tif put on. 











d volute 









by Google 



[II 58, 59. 





1 ol9a 

2 oldtxg, 

3 oldB 

1 otdafitp, tafiw 

2 o29ara, tan 

3 ol^^aaiy {bJ(f» 
2 otdatov, tatop 

XV. (E.) Preteritive Verbs. 
1. OJJa, to Amou?. 

Perfect II. 



Pluperfect II. 















t&top 3 tatmp 


P. ^dilflBT, fJOfiSP D. 

1 ^^dciy* 

fjduad^a, ^dfia&a 
3 i7dai(y), lyi^ fjdtaap, ^aar ^dBltfjP, paittP 

Future, itaofim, eid^iaw, Aorist, Btdtiaa. 

2. Jiioixa or iiiM^ to be aJraUL 

Perfect II. 

Pluperf. II 





S. 1 mia 


dtdispm idtbUip 

2 Miag 




3 diiiB 



VbxL idtdUi 

P. 1 ^€^t/iey 


dtdifog ididifiBP 

2 de^m 




3 dfd/ffa» 




D. 2 m^op 







1 Perf. dfidoiita. 1 Pluperf. idtdolxBip. FuU dklaofiat. Aor. 



3. ''Hfiaij to sit. 







S, 1 1JfMl$ 




nfi^pitg ^np 


3 i}(7Ta» 


P. 1 ^B&a 


3 4rr«» 
D. 2 ^a^oir 





^a&OP 3^^]yf 

na^maap, fiad-wp 
tia&op 3 ^a^wr 


by Google 

II 59, 60.] 



Preteritive Verbs. 
4. KddTjfiui, to sit dovm. 


S. 1 xdd-Tifiai 

2 xd&riaai 

3 xd&ijiai. 
P. 1 xadi^fif&a 

2 xd&fnj&8 

3 xd&firtai 
D. 2 xd&fia&ov 


Subj. Opt. Impi. IbL 

xd^wfiat xa^olfiiiv xa&Tfad^at 

xd&ij xd&oio xd^fjao 

xd&ritat xd^ono xax^ria-&u Pwt 

xaS(ofif&a xa&olfifda xa&i^fitvog 

xd^fio&e xd^oiad^t xdd^iio&e 
xd&wrtai xd&oivto xa&rja&maar, xa&i^ad-tP 
xd^TiOdop xd&oia&ov xddrjo^ov 
xa&oia&fiv xa^ria&iov 


1 ixu'O^i^fiijVf 

2 ixd&fiao^ 

3 ixd&r^to, 

2 ixd^fia&oVf 


P. 1 ixa^TJfifda, 

2 ixd&TjO&f, 

3 ixd&fivTO, 
D. 3 fxa&r^adfip. 


1[ 60. K€ifjiaif to lie dovm. 
Present or Perfect. 



1 xBlfiai 

2 xtlaai 

3 xiltai 

SubJ. Opt. 
xioifiai xtolfir,v 
xiri xioto 
xdfijai xioiTO 

Imp^ InL 

xiia&m Pwft. 


1 xtlfit&a 

2 xtla&B 

3 xttnai, 

KfiifitSa XtolfiS&tt 

xdfjo&B xioia&B 
xfOitviai xioiPto 

xtla^oioar, xda&wf 


2 xtla&op 

xiria&or xioia&op 


Imperfect or Pluperfect. 


1 intlfifip 

2 ixBiao 

8 IxfiTO 

P. ixslfieSa 





Future, xbIoo/am. 


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1[61. XVI. Changes in the Root 

Euphonic Changes. 



fa. of « to fl. 

(b. of • and » to u 
S- Csntraction. 
S. Syuoo|^ 

4. Metathesis. 

5. To avoid Double Aspiratioa. 

6. Omission or Addition of ConsonanU 

7. From the Omission of tlieDigamnJU 

1. £to n. 

S. «t0M. 

8. Vario^ks Changes of «. 

R Emphatic Changes. 
Bt IflNGTHSiniio A Shobt Yowxl. 


4. f to M. 

5. r to r. 

6. ttou. 

#tO ««tr 

a to tth 

I. Of • 

S. (Hi 


II. By thb Addition of Ck>N80NANT8. 
[H 271 -282.] 

To Labial Roots. 
To Other Roots. 

«. Prefixed. 
/3. Affixed. 
Uniting with a 

y. Palatal to form #v(rr). 

J. " " c. 

I. yy " t 

C. Lingual " Z- 

/.Labial " ?;,##. 

S. Of 


Prefixed to a Consonant 
Affixed to a Consonant. 
Affixed to a Vorvrel. 
Prefixed, to «. 

«. Without ftirther change. 
fi. Vowel changed by ^rec4^ 
y. Vowel lengthened, [sioii 
i. Metathesis. 
•« Coiteonant dropped. 

5. OfKr^^.X' 

III. Bt Incbsjuhno the Number of Syllables. 


1. By RedupUeaium (§§ 283-286). 




«. In Verbs in .^m. 
fi. In Verbs in -r»«. 
y. In Other Verbs. 

a. « and i. 

/'«. Without further change, 
b &» -</3. With the Insertion of ». 
(^v. With a» prolonged. 

«. N. 

2. ^ SyOabie Affixes (§§ 287 - iJ99). 

(«. To Pore Roots. 
d* r» -1^. To Palatal Roots. 

(y. To Lingual and Liquid 
e. «#». [Boots. 

f. .:. 

g. Other Syllables. 
8. By Exchange of Letters (§ S00> 
r becoming I. 

Anomalous Changes. 



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D. Tables of Formation. 

U 63. I. Table op Derivation. 

1. Fbom Verbs, denoting 

1. The Action f in .«-r<, .r/4, -n, •«, 
-•I (-♦»), .r#f, -•# (-•#*), -^tfj, -/«ii. 

2. The ^ec* or Object^ in ./*«. 

3. The Iher, in -mj, -t»j^, -t4»{^ 
(F. -r^iA, -rii^A, -Tgr^, -T/|,) -ii/j, 

4. The F/actf, Irutrmment^ &c», in 

IL Fbom Aojbotivbb, expressing 
the AbatracU in -m (.»4a^ .«i«), m-ik, 

A. Nouns. 
IH 305-313] 



Prom Otueb Nouns. 
FfttrialSf in -nw (F. -r/f), -i^ 


Patronymics, in -IJnf, •«^ff^9 
-<2»J»il (F. ."f#, -«;, -^«l)» -'Aw^ 
(F. .M^yff, -/wf). 

Female Appellatives, in -/#, -«/y^ 
-•Me, -wf& {-rr&)* 
Diminutives, in -r«» (-1^i«», -l^i««t 

'*X*1i -'i**^» 'UXkif, -tXoft &C 
AugmentcUiveSf in •«*, -«»<«, -«^ 

B. ADjEcnyss. 

[§§ 314-316.] 

L FiMMC Verbs ; in Knit, -rn^J*/, I patrial ; .^ig, -i^^, .if^, -ItXist, 

MM ; -IffMf , fitness ; -d^ist -as, &'c | quality, 

n. From Nouns ; in -ra; (-«i«f, •!/«{, i III. From Adjectives and Ad- 

-•f«f , -ytff , -V40;)» belonging to ; 'Xnit, TERBS. 

•»««, •««««, -«'»«f> relating to; -<•«, | 1. As from Nonns. 

'iftt -«»t material; ^mi (t), <>ir« 8. Strengthened Forms ; Ck>Bft* 

9r |imNifaic» ; .o*f, -nMf, -«v«f, I parative. Superlative. 

0. Pronouns. 
^ 11317.] 

D. Vbbbs. 
rH 318, 319.) 

L From Nouns and Adjechves; 
in 4», -f VM, ^4», Id fe or efo ; -«*>, 
.«i»M, 4mv, to moAe; .i^*>, Me^«s 
fnu/uliM, oc^roe, &e. ; -m with penolt 
strengthened, active, &e. 

E. Adverbs. 

(U 320-322.] 

n. From Other Verbs; in -^Im^ 
-met, •««, deuderathe; -^*>, -r»»^ 
&c, frequentative, intensive, me^ 
five, c&nmutive, &c. 

I OnuQUB Cases of Nouns and 

1. Genitives, in -fit, place whence i 

-,90^ place where; -nst &0. 

S« JDoftVMi in .»i, '•il, -neJ, 'A«X, 

♦ place where; -ii, -«, -«/, -T, way, 

pUve where, time when ; &c. 

3. Accusatives, especially Neut. 

Sing, aud IMur. of Adjec- 


1. Manner, in -ivf, .ff^«t, -in, 4«% 
•aitif, -^Of -A -«'» -*• 

2. TtfM tt^A^n, in •««, -Ts*. 

3. F/ace whither, in .#i. 

4. Number, in •«»/;. 


IV." Dkrivath'es from Preposi- 
tions, or Pkkpiwitions 



by Google 

73 TABLES. [U 631 

5T 63. II. Pronominal 

[Obsolete Primitives are printed ia capital* 
Negative. Relative. 

> • 




Orders, L U. lU, TV. V. VL 

Interrog. Indef. Objective. Subjective. Definite. Indefinite 

Positive, rii i r)f, #tfT/f, fi^TtSy h, ?•"«*, 

no2 1 no2, cvh'if, f^Ms, 'onos, 

»v^aftisf fAfihafAOf, 

Compar., irirt^ts t 9^•r^^os, •wJiTif**, fAnHnfof, Mrt^$s^ 

Superl., v'irrcf i Mrr»t, 

Quantity, «•**•«# i «••••« j, •rot, Mrf, 


Quality, m'oTof i ^roiiff oitriiavif, Mt, W^t, 

Age, Size, wmXtKot \ iikiMs, iv^Xitui, 

Country, iroiav'it t ««'«^««'/r. 

Day, wo^Ttitot i i^ot^ratH 

Whence, wfl^ivi w**^!*, fi^^oStty «^fv, wriitf^ 

Wliere, sr*? i flr^v, ftv^rav, oSt Met, twu, 

0vhct»OVt fAnhetfAOV, irtt^OVj 

Whither, «'mi wa/, ftn^a/Atltt •!, Wt^ 

I a. Way, or w-jf i «^, oS^ift y^ X«^, 

^ Place where, •vliv'if, 

^ «'««'«;)^^l ^thetftl^t fifUnfA^ i^»XVi ^•'••'•aA 

3. Manner, frSf i «■«!;, «^ir4wf, f^nvts, if, t^rmi, 

cviec/Atisf fAijheifii£sf 

olttf, •«'«/«#, 

9'og'axSt I [«•», [«••», Uax'^h 

trS I «*«, tt^vAr, «v2i. fifi^ttf fjiniim 

General, «'«ri i watI, olhrtrt, /Kit9'0rt, 7n, isrirtf 

Specific, ttn/tiui % hintt^ lwmf»^ 

Various, ^n/Aot i ^A««*» ^•'•'t «*»V**'> 

tats, i<p(», • 

6. Number, «'0«'4^»«f i §^ifdMiif l^AxiSt ittordma. 


Dertvativb N0DN8. m'tvoTtift v9i0Tfit^ 9'irX/x0r*ir, tvietfuvirns, hr»iimi 
In^irnft Irt^oiirnst ifAnornt, <V«Tiff, iri^a/ftf, iftotato'tt, ifuftf, etWoittta, &0. 


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Pbetle and Dialeaic Fonna ara not markad.] 

Deflnita or Demonstrativa. UnivarsaL 

vn. vm. IX. X XL 

SImpIa. Emphatic Deictic. Dlitributiva. OoUactira. 
T02, imMt, Af»^^, 


Ttftif T^tVT9t% 


TMty rttwr0f. 





TffriV) awfiviVi 



tvitv, IvrifViy, 



, Wtfvrtf;^^^!*, 






M«, lmS#«, 















\fia$^ Xwrmwiu, 







rmSr^ ry^ 


Itut^mxp, 9'»frttx?* 

xiL xm. 

Of Like- Of Idantl- 
neaa, and ty, Diranl 
Equality, ty, 4ec. 






ifuif, mSrmt* 
ifftatf, kXXiimi* 

DsBXYATivv Verbs. «'«r««, «^vMf, Irt^iitt (fW>m !«(•*•;, omitted 
■bore), ifttittj iV«», AkXssiet, •v^ivi^«#, Aftftrtd^h Umti^Sm, AXA^rw, &C. 


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BO T4BLE9. n S^ 


IT 04* I. An Apposititk agrees in ease with its subject § 331. 

II. The Subject of a finite ybrb is put in the Nominative. § 349. 

III. Substantives indepenoent of grammatical comstkuction art 
put in the Nominative. § 343. 

General Rule for the Genitive. The Point of Departure and 
THE Cause are put in the Gemi-^'ve. § 345. 

fV Words of separation and distinction govern the Genitive. § 346 

V. The comparative degree governs tl^e Genitive. § 351. 

VI. The origin, source, and material are put in the GenitiTe. § 355 

VII. The theme of discourse or of thought is put in the Genitive. 

VIII. Words of PLENTY and want govern the Genitive. §357. 

IX. The whole of which a part is taken is put in the Genitive 
I 358. 

X. Words of SHARING and touch govern the Genitive. § 3G7. 

XL The motive, reason, and sud ir view are put i^ th% Genitiv« 
I 372. 
XII Price, value, merit, and crime are put in the Genitive. § 374. 

XIII. Words of SENSATION and of mental state or action guvera 
the Genitive. § 375. 

XIV. The TIME and place in which are put in the Genitive. § 378. 

XV. The AUTHOR, AGENT, and giver are put in the Genitive. § 386L 

itive. § 382. 

General Rule for the Dative Objective. The Object of Ap- 
proach AND OF Influence is put in the Dative ; or. An Indirect 
Object is put in the Dative. § 397. 

XVU. Words of nearness and likeness govern the Dative § 398. 

XYIII. The OBJECT OF influence is put in the Dative. § 401. 

General Rul» for the Dative Residual. An Attendant Thivg 
OK Circumstance, simply viewed as such, is put in tb« Dativ^. 

XIX. The MEANS and mode are put in the DatiTf* § 415. 

XX. The TIME and place at which are put in the Dative. § 420. 
General Rule for the Accusative. An Aojuect expkessino 

Direct Limit is put in the Accusative. § 422. 

XX-I. The DIRECT OBJECT and the effect of an action are put in the 
Accusative. § 423. 

Advrbbs op swearino are followed by the Accusative. % 496. 

Oausativbs govern the Accusative together with the case of the includsd verb, f 430l 
The aame verb often governs two acci»ativb8, which may be, — (I.) The birboi 
OBJBOT and the bfprct in apposition with eachoiher: as with verbs of moJb'n^, appoint* 
ing, ehooHngf eateeming^ naming, A^. — (IT ) The dirbct objbct and the effect, not 
hi anpo9ition; as with verbs of tSoing, saying^ ice. — (HI.) Two objects diSbrently re- 
lated, but which are both reirarded as niRBCx; as with vertw ofuy^kinv and rtquiringt of 
WqfWwf ^d unclothing, of nonMoUng and aeptiving^ of persuading and isaching^ iw. 
ff 4M — 496. 


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XXIi An adjttiiGt applying a word or expression to a r^RTiciiLAm 
f ART, PROPERTY, THING, or PERSON, is put in the Accusative. § 437. 
XXIil. Extent of tims and space is put in the Accusative. § 439. 

XXIV. The Accusative is often used apverbially, to express d«- 

eRER, MANNER, ORDER, &C. § 440. 

XXV. The CoMPELLATivE of a sentence is put in the Vocative. § 442. 

XXVI. An Adjective agrees with its subject in gender^ number j and 
ease. § 444. 

XXVII. The A&TiCLX is prefixed to sobstantives, to mark them ai 
definUe. § 469. 

XX VIII. A PRONOUN agrees with its subject in gender ^ number, and 
ftretm. | 494. 

The RBLATiVB eammanly takes the ease pf the antecedent, when the AirTBOBin»T la a 
Genitive or Dative, and ihe r^jltivb would properly be an Aectuative defending upon 
a verb. S 586. 

XXIX. A Verb agrees with its subject in number and person. § 543. 

The Nbtttbr Plural has its vbrb in the singular. $ 549. 

The Passive Voicb has for its subject an object of the ilc/iue, commonly ^direct, 
but sometimes an indirect object. Any other word governed by the Active remains un^ 
changed with the Passive. The subject op the Actitb is commonly expressed, witk 
the nssive, by the Genitive tnth a preposition. § 663. 

An .Minn I. r.nm.*nt«<l hv th« \ Definite Tonses, as (a.) eontinuid or prolonged ^ 
An action is represented by the J j^^^ ^ ^^^ momentary or tranwnt, 

Sib.) a habit or continued course of conduct; (c.) doing at the time of, or untA tn^ 
} (6. ) a single act ; <c. ) simply doTie in its own time ; 

S other action ; (d.) begun, attempted^ or designed; (c.) introductory. ) ,, KTn^sJd, 
i {d.)aecomplished; {e.) conclusive. ^ ^^" **^* 

The generic Aorist often supplies the place of the specific Perfect and PiupeiAct 

The XioiCATiVB expresses the actual; the Subjunctive and Optative, the contingent, 

Prbsbnt continobmct is expressed by the primary tenses ; past coivtinobnct, by tlM 
s^ondary. i SSQ. 

The Sttbjunctivb. for the most part, follows the primary tenses ; and the Optativ% 
the itfcondary. S 592. 

Suftposition oh fact is expressed by the appiopriate tense of the Indicative ; supposi' 
twn fhnt may hpcomf fact, by llie Subjunctive; supposition ttithout regard to fact, by 
t1»e Optative: and supposition contrary to fact, by the past lensea of the indicative. 

Tlie OpTATivB is the distinct mode appropriate U» the oratio obliqua in past time. 5 608. 

XXX. The Infinitive is construed as a neuter noun. § 620. 

The iNPiNrriVB often forms an elliptical command, request, counsel, salutaHon, exdm- 
mti/ion, or question. $ <J26. 

XXXI. The Subject of the Infinitive is put in the Accusatim, 

XXXII. A PARTICIPLE AND SUB5TANTIVF. are put absolute in the 6fei» 
kive; an impersonal participi.k, in the Accusative. § 638. 

The Iktrrjbction is independent of grammatical construction. § 645. 

XXXIII. Ai»VERB8 modify sentences, phrases, and words; particularly 
ierbsy adjectives, and other adverbs. § 64o. 

XXXIV. Prkpositions govern substantives in the oblique cases, and 
mmtk their relations. § 648. 

XXXV. Conjunctions connect sentences and like parts of a sentence 


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83 TABLBS. [II ( 

11 eS. A. Op Words. 







Nouvof the 

^ Comm. J 


^ Affix---; tlM Dst. 



the subject of — , 
governed by — , 
the Gen. of — ^ 
the Dat of — ^ 
^the Ace of — f Ac, 

" Rale. JUmarki, 

P09 "> 

— — is an AiiJBOTiyB [in the Comp. >• Degree, from — . .— — . («om|mv«V 
Sup. ) 

•r2| Termination. (^«»e);[^;^;^^^^ Root -, Affix .. 

,) Sing.) Masc ) 
Y Phir. y Fern. ^ ; 
) Dual) Neut. ) 



agreeing with — \ . 

used substantively, &c.) * 

Rule. JbtMrii. 

Personal "| 

Reflexive I H 

— is a Relative ( Proitoun, of the 2 >• Pers. i- , ttom — — — (di»> 
&c. J S) 

r-Tk • A !> n Norn.) Sing.) Masc.) 

rthe subject of — ^, ) Q K* t > 

^governed by , ^ Rule. [It refers to — as its A^^e„. k Rule; 

(agreeing with — , &c.,) ' 

■nd connects — to — .] RemafkM. 

•is a 

Transitive Verb, 
Intransitive " 
Deponent ** 
Barytone ** 
Contract " 
Verb in /m, &c., . 


-(->^)» KSS- 


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rlj i^--}' CP««x T.] ^ -' «- a 

{wary and 




Pros. 1 Ind. 
Impf. Sabj. 
Fut. 1 Opt 
Fut Imp. 
1 Aor. Inf. 
&c J Part _ 
_ Sing.) 

(if/nite) the 2>- P«n. Phir.S- , agneing with — , 
S) Dual) 

(if Inf.) having for ite .abject -, and {f^g^^ ^ 

(ir /•art) the gT'I Rufil ^l ; "^Jf^"!;^^ "? . 

^ &c ) Dual) Neut) ««^~b«tantovely, Ac, 


Pes. ) 
, [in the Comp. > Dt* 
Sup. ) 

Interrogatiye ^ Place 

Indefinite I Time 

■ is an Demonstrative V Advbbb of Manner 

Complementary I ' Order 

Ac J &c. 

le&ra to — at its antecedent and connects — to — .] JUtmark$. 

its relation to — , Rule. Remarks. 

Copulatiye "j 

. . Conditional I n^^r^w^^^^ p)erived from — , ] ..^..^^ 

» • Complementary f Cc»-^<^oir, ^Compounded of -,j «"""**• 

&c J 

ing — to — i Rule. Remarks. 

is an lOTEiuEcrioN, [^^^^ o7'- j "* ^^^P~^* ^^ «™- 

matical construction \ § 645). Remarks. 

Noma (a) When dec/ension in./W{ is not desired, gire the Nom. and Gen. In Sub 
■tantires and in Adjectiras of I Term., and the diflerent forms of the Nom. in Adjeaivas 
of 9 or 8 Term. (6) In eot^ugating, gire the Theme, with the corresponding Put. and 
PerC (if hi use), to which it is also well to add the 3 Aor. If used, (e) The term 
**i»ry " is used abora in a specific sense, to denote giving the different modes ^f a 
fense, or, as it Is sometimes called, giving the synopsis of the tense; and the term "<»> 
Jlcel," to denote giving the numbers and persons (in the Participle, declensionf of 
course, takes the plhce of this), (d) After completing the formula abore, which, to 
aroid confusion and consequent omission or delay, sliould always be giren in the pro* 
•eribad order, add such Remarks as may properly be made upon the form, signiJicaOon, 
and tiss of the word ; as, hi respect to contraction, euphonic changes of consonants, 
Uteral or figurative senss, the force or use of the number, case, degree, reice, modi^ 
tansa, Jbc. ; citins, from the Orammar, the appropriate rule, remarlc, or note, (e) SosM 
particulars in thv forms aljoye, which du not apply to ail wordd. are inclosed In brackals. 


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1I66» B. Of Sentences. 

\ followf og Iqr ample ■nccwioo. 

Adject ine. 
Adrerb. « 

IL Ana/^«e <A£ Sentence into tte Logieai mnd Orommatteal Divm&nat ii» Primary 
and Secondary Parte, jfc. 

Compellative ) ««,«i* > ^*>»' 

Thf Logical SuWact S it , eontaiaing the cUSpSaad ( Gtammellcri Sub- 

AdjectiTS n 

pellative ; Adverb / 

jna > — — , modified bj the AppoeiUr* \ <— ^ Shorn how tkme an mo^ 

d.cate ] Adjunct L 

Dependent Clause 7 

^^, and OMo/yM Subordinau or Incorporated CZoneet, «nf»l Me .^lenleiice if a^ 

1167. C. Of Metres, 

I. CMm a gefieni/ deecription of the Metre in which the Poem. i§ tpnflen. 
IL Deeeribe the particular Veree, 

Iambic ) Monometer ) Acatalectic ) 1 ) 

It ia Dactylic > Dimeter } Cataiectic } , constatinf of 2 > Paat, wUch «f 
. Ac ^ Jce, S ^Bc S ^tc ) 

tiMmm^ ^ Penthemlm, ) 
. The Caaura is the [g'™j Hepbtbttroim, 5 after 

m. Analyse by [Dipodiee and] Feet. 

Dactyl, ) 1 ) . ^. , Nature, ) 

— la a Spondee, S the 9 V Syllable |^^* \ by Position, > Salt. 


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^ 1 • Thb Ancient Greeks were divided into three principal 
races ; the Ionic, of which the Attic was a branch, the Doric 
and the MoWc, These races spoke the same general language 
but with many dialectic peculiarities. 

The Ancient Greek Languaob (commonly called simply 
the Greek) has been accordingly divided by grammarians into 
four principal Dialects, the Attic, the Ionic, the Doric, and 
the iEoLia Of these the Attic and Ionic were far the most 
refined, and had far the greatest unity within themselves. The 
Doric and JEkAic were not only much ruder, but, as the dialects 
of races widely extended, and united by no common bond of 
litemture, abounded in local diversities. Some of the varieties 
of the Doric or iEolic were separated from each other by dif- 
ferences scarcely less marked than those which distinguished 
them in common from the other dialects. Of the iEolic, the 
principal varieties were the Lesbian, the Boeotian, and the 
Thessalian. The Doric,' according as it was more or less 
removed from the Attic and Ionic, was characterized as the 
stricter or the milder Doric ; the former prevailing in the La- 
conic, Tarentine, Cretan, Cyrenian, and some other varieties ; 
the latter in the Corinthian, Syracusan, Megarian, Delphian, 
Rhodian, and some others. 

^ 9» The Groek colonies upon the coast of Asia Minor and 
the adjacent islands, from various causes, took the lead of the 
mother country in refinement; and the first development of 
Greek literature which secured permanence for its productions, 
was among the Asiatic lonians. This development was Epic 
Poetry, and we have, doubtless, its choicest strains remaining 
to us in the still unsurpassed Homeric poems. The language 
of these poems, often called Epic and Homeric, is the old Ionic, 
with those modifications and additions which a waqdering bard 


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would insensibly gather up, as he snmg from city to city, 
and those poetic menses which are always allowed to early 
minstrelsy, when as yet the language is unfixed, and critics are 
unknown. Epic poetry was followed in Ionia by the Elegiac 
of which Callinus of Ephesus and Mimnermus of Colophon 
were two great masters ; and this again by Ionic Prose, If 
which the two principal names are Herodotus and Hippocrateb, 
who chose this refined dialect, although themselves of Doric 
descent. In distinction from the Old Ionic of the Epic poets 
the language of the Elegiac poets may be termed the Middle 
Ionic, and that of the prose-writers, the New Ionic. 

§ 3. The next dialect which attained distinction in litera 
ture was the .£olic of Lesbos, in which the lyric strains ot 
Alcaeus and Sappho were sung. But its distinction was short- 
lived, and we have scarce any thing remaining of the dialect 
except some brief fragments. There arose later among the 
iEolians of Boeotia another school of Lyric Poetry, of which 
Pindar was the most illustrious ornament; As writing, however 
for the public festivals of Greece, he rejected the peculiarities 
of his rude native tongue, and wrote in a dialect of which the 
basis consisted of words and forms common to the Doric and 
iEolic, but which was greatly enriched from the now universal- 
ly familiar Epic. He is commonly said, but loosely, to have 
written in the Doric. 

§ 4« Meanwhile, the Athenians, a branch of the Ionian race, 
were gradually rising to suQh political and commercial impor- 
tance, and to such intellectual preeminence among the states 
of Greece, that their dialect, adorned by such dramatists as 
iEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and Menander, 
by such historians as Thucydides and Xenophon, by such phi- 
losophers as Plato and Aristotle, and by such orators as Lysias 
iEschines, and Demosthenes, became at length the standard 
language of the Greeks, and, as such, was adopted by the edu- 
cated classes in all the states. It became the general medium 
of intercourse, and, with a few exceptions, which will be here- 
af,er noticed, the universal language of composition. This 
diffusion of the Attic dialect was especially promoted by tlie 
conquests of the Macedonians, who adopted it as their court 
language. As its use extended, it naturally lost some of its 
peculiarities, and received many additions ; and thus diffused 
and modified, it ceased to be regarded as the language of a 
particular state, and received the appellation of the Common 
Dialect or Language. 

The Attic- and Common dialects, therefore, do not differ in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


any eflsential feature, and may properly be regarded, the one 
as the earlier and pure, the other as the later and impure, form 
of the same dialect. In this dialect, either in its earlier or 
later form, we find wn'tten nearly the whole that remains to us 
of ancient Greek liten^ture. It may claim therefore to be re- 
garded, notwithstanding a few splendid compositions in the 
other dialects, as the national language of Greece ; and its 
acquisition should form the commencement and the basis of 
Greek study. 

The pure Attic has been divided into three periods ; the 0/rf, 
used by Thucydides, the Tragedians, and Aristophanes; the 
Middle, used by Xenophon and Plato ; and the New, used by 
the Orators and the later Comedians. The period of the Com- 
mon dialect may be regarded as commencing with the subjec- 
tion of Athens to the Macedonians. 

§ •!• Of the Doric dialect, in proportion to its wide extent, 
we have very scanty remains ; and of most of its varieties our 
knowledge is derived from passages in Attic writers, from mon- 
uments, and from the works of grammarians. In Greece it- 
self, it seems scarcely to have been applied to any other branch 
of literature than Lyric Poetry. In the* more refined Dorian 
colonies of Italy and Sicily, it was employed in Philosophy by 
the Pythagoreans { Archytas, Timeeus, &c.), in Mathematics by 
the great Archimedes, in Comedy by Epicharmus and his 
successors, and in Pastoral Poetry by Theocritus, Bion, and 

§ O* To the universality acquired by the Attic dialect, an 
exception must be made in poetry. Here the later writers felt 
constrained to imitate the language of the great early models. 
The Epic poet never felt at liberty to depart from the dialect 
of Homer. Indeed, the old Epic language was regarded by 
subsequent poets in all departments as a sacred tongue, the 
language of the gods, from which they might enrich their sev- 
eral compositions. The iEolic and Doric held such a place in 
Lyric Poetry, that even upon the Attic stage an ^olo-Doric 
hue was given to the lyric portions by the use of the long of, 
which formed so marked a characteristic of those dialects, and 
which, by its openness of sound, was so favorable to musical 
effect. Pastoral Poetry was confined to the Doric. The Dra- 
matic was the only department of poetry in which the Attic 
was the standard dialect. 

^ 7, Grammar flourished only in the decline of the Greek 
language, and the Greek grammarians usually treated the die- 


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lects with litde precision. Whatever they found in the old 
lonie of Homer that seemed to them more akin to the later 
cultivated MoWcy Doric, or even Attic, than to the new lom'c 
they did not hesitate to ascribe to those dialects. Even in the 
common language, whatever appeared to them irregular or pe 
culiar, they usually referred to one of the old dialects, terming 
the regular form x<hp6v^ common^ though perhaps this form was 
either wholly unused,* or was found only as a dialectic variety 
On the other hand, some critics used the appellation xoiv6<; as a 
term of reproach, designating by it that which was not pure 
Attic. In the following Grammar, an attempt will be made to 
exhibit first and distinctly, under each head, the Greek in its 
standard form, that is, the Attic and the purer Common usage ; 
and af\erwards to specify the important dialectic peculiarities. 
It will not, however, be understood that every thing which is 
ascribed to one of the dialects prevails in that dialect through- 
out, or is found in no other. This applies especially to the 
Doric and .£olic, which, with great variety within themselves 
(§1), are closely akin to each other; so that some (as Mait- 
taire) have treated of both under jthe general head of Doric ; 
and in the following Grammar some forms will be simply men- 
tioned as Doric, that also occur in the iEolic. By the term 
iEolic, as employed by grammarians, is commonly denoted the 
cultivated .^olic of Lesbos ; as the term Ionic is usually con- 
fined to the language spoken (though, according to Herodotus, 
with four varieties) by the lonians of Asia Minor and the adja- 
cent islands. 

,§ S. It remains to notice the modifications of the later 
Greek. The Macedonians, who had previously spoken a rude 
and semi-barbarous dialect of the Greek, retained and diffused 
some of the peculiarities of their native tongue. These are 
termed Macedonic^ or, sometimes, from Alexandria, the prin- 
cipal seat of Macedonian,' and indeed of later Greek culture 

The Greek, as the common language of the civilized world, 
was employed in the translation of the Jewish Scriptures, and 
the composition of the Christian. When so employed by na- 
tive Jews, it naturally received a strong Hebrew coloring ; and, 
as a Jew speaking Greek was called 'ii'U^vi ari/V ( from lUi^v/^w, 
to speak Greek) ^ this form of the language has been termed the 
Hellenistic (or by some the Ecclesiastical) dialect. Its pecu- 
liarities naturally passed more or less into the writings of the 
fathers, and through the diilusion of Christianity exerted a greai 
general influence. 


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Another influence modifying the Greek came from the lan- 
guage of the Roman conquerors of the world. Of necessity, 
the Greek, notwithstanding the careful compositions of such 
scholars as Arrian, Lucian, and iElian, and the precepts of a 
class of critics, called Atticists, was continually becoming more 
and more impure. The lai^guage of the By^^antine pejriod was 
especially degenerate. Since the destruction of the . Eastern 
Empire by the Turks, the fusion of the Byzantine and Eccle- 
siastical Greek with the popular dialects of the different dis- 
tricts and islands of Greeoe has produced the Modern Greek, 
or, as it is often called, by a name derived from the Roman 
Empire in the East, Romaic This language has been es- 
pecially cultivated and refined within the present century, and 
has now a large body of original and translated literature. 

§ O. Tlie Greek, therefore, in its various forms, has never 
ceased to be a living language ; and it offers to the student a 
series of compositions, not only including many of the highest 
productions of genius, but e^^tending through a period of nearly 
duree thousand years. 





JBKhylus, Prom. ViosU 



[inr I, 2.) 

^ lO. The Greek language is written with 
tu^nty-four letters, two breathings, three accents^ 
four marks of punctuation, and a few other char- 

1. For the Letters, see Table, f I. 

Remarks. 1. Double Forms. Sigma final is written q\ 
not finals a ; as, axaa^q. In compound words, some editors, 
without authority from manuscripts, use g at the end of each 
component word ; thus, n^ogtiggfigtui. The other double forms 
are used indifferently ; as, ^ovg or 6ovq 

2. Ligatures. Two or more letters are often united, except 
in recent editions, uito one character, called a ligature (liga- 
tura, tie) ; as, j^ for xal^ 8 for ov, cS* for a^, ^ (named ail or 
atlyfia) for or. For a list of the principal ligatures, see Table, 


§ 1 1. 3. Numeral Power. To denote numbers under a 
thousand, the Greeks employed the letters of the alphabet, as 
exhibited in the table, with die mark ( ' ) over them ; as, a 1, 
*' 10, */r 12, Q%y 123. The first eight letters, with Vau, rep- 
resented the nine units ; the next eight, with Koppa, the nine 
tens ; and the last eight, with Sampi, the nine hundreds. The 
thousands were denoted by the same letters with the mark be* 
necUh ' as, «' 5, / 5,000, x/ 23, x^y or *^ 23,000, ^atufti 1841. 


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Konm. «. Tan, in its usual small fbrm (r\ resembles tbe figature for #v 
(§ 10). Henoe some editors coofoond them, and employ 2T, as the lai^ge form 
if Van, to denote 6. 

/3. Sometimes the Greek letters, like onr own, denote ordinal numbers, ao- 
eording to their own order in the alphabet, ta this way the books of Homer 
are marked; as, 'Du^dtr, A, Z, H, TAe Iliady Books /., F/., XXIV, 

y. Another method of writing numerals occmv in old inscriptions, by which 
1 denotes one, n (for Iltvrf) /m, A (for Aixa) ton, H (for Htx«r0v, § 22. «) 
a hundred^ X (for XiXtu) a thouaaad^ M (for tUv^toi) ten thousand, 11 drawn 
around another numeral multiplies it by five. Thu^, BiXX^H^ AAIII 
— 12,676. 

^13. 4. Roman Letters. By the side of the Greek 
letters in the table (U 1)) are placed the Roman letters which 
take their place when Greek words are transferred into Latin 
or English ; as, Kvxlwy/^ Cyclops. 

Notes. «. The letter y becomes n, when fbllowed by another palatal ; 
but, otherwise, g ; as, AyytXf^ Lat. angduiy £ng. angd ; ^vymeTny nfneope g 
Xu^vyi^ larynx ; Ai^f »«, ^glna, 

fi. The diphtiumg m becomes in Latin « ; ti, ce ; «#, { or e (before a conso- 
nant almost always i) ; «(/,«; and m, yi ; as, <I>«i^^«f, Phadnu ; B«i«r/«, 
BoBotia; NiiXtr, NUu$; A«^t7«f, Darim; Mii^tiff, Medea; M«(7rff, Mu$a, 
EiXfiVviA, Hithjia. 

A few words ending in »ta and m« are excepted ; as, fAmm^ Mma^ '^C**'h 
Troia or Trofa ; so also A7«;, Ajax, 

y. The improper diphthongs f, }?,**, are written in Latin simply a^e,oi 
as, @f fxn, TAroce, 'Ai^n^ , HadeSy O^Jftf-r*, TAreno, ^^ ode. But in a few 
compounds of ^^, f becomes or; as, r^yfiimj trag(Bdiay Eng. frc^ecfy. 

}. The roM^ breathing becomes, in Latin and English, A, while the tmooth is 
not written ; as,*Exr*r(, Hector^'^viy Eryx^ Ti«, Bhea (the A being placed 
after the r l^ the same inaccuracy as after the w in our whUe^ pronounced 
koo-Ue; since in both cases the breathing introduces the word). 

^13. IL The Breathings are the Smooth or 
Soft ('), and the Rough ('), also called the As- 
pirate (aspiro, to breathe). The first denotes a 
gentle emission of the breath, such as must precede 
every initial vowel ; the second, a strong emission, 
such as in English is represented by h. One of 
these is placed over every initial vowelj and over 
every initial or doubled g. 

Notes. 1. An mitial » has always the rough breathing to assist in its 
utt(>r.ince (as in English an initial long u is always preceded by the sound <^ 
y ; thus, Ss^ &fiti*s^ as, in English, use, pronounced yttee, union) ; except in th« 
JColic dialect, and in the Epic forms Sftptts^ Sfifu or t>/«^v, t^u^i. 


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93 eBABACSEBS. [book & 

S. Am trnttof ^ Teqrim, fiw its pnpar vibrMioii or volfliici» • stioiig a^jdn- 
tion, and is tharefore always Buu^rad with the roqg^ breathiiig; as, ^uw. 
When ^ is doubled^ the first ^ has the smooth breathing^ and the second the 
rough ; as, Uufpot* See § 62. /3. 

8. In diphthongs (except «, y, and y), the iHeathfaig is placed over the 
second yowd ; as, avris, cSt§s. See § 26. 

4. In place of the rongfa breathing,. the .£olic seems oommonlj, and the 
Epic often, to have used the digamma (§ 22. %\ or the smooth breaUiing. In 
Homer we find the smooth for the rough particularly in words which are 
strengthened in some other way ; as, ilUnA,*;, «vX«f, oZ^of^ liiXi*;, iV^^t;, for 
f «iiX«f, (i>.Hy •(•Sy «Xi»f, vfiu$, 

^ 1 4f HI. The Accents are the Acute ('), the 
Grave ('), and the Circumflex ("or ;. For 
their use, see Prosody. 

^ tS. IV. The Marks of Punctuation are the 
Comma ( , ), the Colon ( • ), the Period ( . ), and 
the Note of Interrogation ( ; ), which has the 
form of ours (?) inverted. 

To these, some editors have jadicioosly added the Notb of Exclaxa* 
WON ( I ). 

§ 16. V. Other Characters. 

1. CoRONis and Apostbophv, The martc ( * X which at the begmmng of 
a word is the smooth (n-eathing^ over the mielidle is the Coroni^ (»M*rviV, oroo/^ 
td mark)j or mark of crasif^ and at the end^ the Apostbophb; (§ SO) ; as, r«tf- 
rd fbr r« aura, &XX* \yu for aXXit \y»t, 

2. The Htpodiastola (Jbir»^evX^ aeparatUm henea^i)^ or Diastoue (I/. 
«irT«X«, 8eparation\ is a mark like a comma, placed^ for distinction's sake, 
after some forms of the article and relative pronoun, when foUewed by the en- 
clitics ri and ri ; as, |i,ri, r9,rt, 0,r«, to distingiiish them from the particles 
•rt, r«Tt, ert. Some editors more wisely omit it, and merely separate the en- 
clitic by a space. 

3. The Hyphen, Dl^resis^ Dash, and Masks of Pabbmthbbis and 
QvoTATioH are nsod in Greek as in En^sh. 

4. Among the other signs nsed by critics and editors, are Brackets C ], to 
faidose words of doubtful authenticity ; the Obbusk ( f or — ), to mai^ 
verses or words as faulty ; the Asterisk ( * ), to denote that something ii 
wanting in the text ; and Marks of Quantitt, viz. ( - ), to mark a vowel 
or syllable as long ; (^ ), a^ short ; ( « or " ), as either long or short. 


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^ IT* There are three methods of pronouncing 
Greek which deserve notice; the English, the 
MoD£RN Greek, and the Erasmian. 

The ptommdatkm of 6v«ty language, ttom the very laws of laHgaage, is in 
a continual process of change, more or less rttpid. And in respect to the Greek, 
there ia full internal evidence, both that its pronunciation had materially 
changed before its orthography became fixed, and that it has materially 
changed since. Therefore, a» there is no art of embalming sounds, the an 
dent pronunciation of the Greek can now only be inferred, and, in part, with 
great uncertainty. Modem scholars have commonly pronounced it according 
to the analogy of their respective languages. The English method, which has 
prevailed in the schools of England and this country, confonns, in general, to 
the analogy of our own tongu^ arid to our method of pronouncing the Latin. 
The Modem Greek method (also called the Reuchlinian, fh)ni its distinguished 
advocate, the learned Reuchlin) is that which now prevails in Greece itself. 
It is given below, as exhibited in the Grammar of Sophocles. The Erasmian 
method (so named from the celebrated Erasmus) is that which is most exten- 
sively followed in the schools upon the continent of Europe, and which con- 
forms most nearly to the prevailing analogy of the continental tongues. 

Note. To avMd eonftision, the terms protraeted and abmpt are employed 
below to denote what, in English orthoepy, we oommonly call Umg and Aori 
sounds ; and the term ieha (ttroke^ beat\ to denote that stress of the voiei 
which in English we commonly call accent. For the proper use of the terms 
kmg and Aart^ and acceaiy in Greek grammar, see Prosody. 

A. English Method. 

^18. 1. Simple Vowels. i?, v, and « have always ih^ 
protracted sounds of e in metey u in iubey and o ih note ; as, 
^"THfol^ tvniUy a^ctfy. 

e and o have the abrupt sounds of e in let^ and o in dot ; ex<< 
cept before another vowel, and at the end of a word, where 
they are protracted, like e in real^ and o fn go ; as, Ac/ai, Xoyoq ' 
■^«o^, roog ' diy to. 

a and I are, in general, sounded like a and i m English ^ 
when protracted, like a in hate^ and i in pine ; when abrupt, 
like a in Ao^, and i in pin. At the end of a word, i always 
maintains its protracted sound ; but or, except in monosyllables, 
takes the indistinct sound of a in Columbia ; as, ^17^/9 leom ' 
stifayfMtt, (ptXla * id. 

NoTPE. If « or 4 receives the idus^ whether primary or secondary, and is 
foHowed by a single consonant or ^, it is protracted in the penult, but abrupt 
hi any preceding syllable ; as, &yit^ ix^i^it • y^ti^trty ^<xi«r, 'ASn9m7»t. From 
this rule is excepted « in any syllable preceding the penult, when the vowel of 
the next syllable is 1 or 4 beforo another vowel (both without the ietus), in 
which- case « is protracted ; as, «*«rU, nmtftttj yMkuf»v§fm;^m, 


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2. Diphthongs. The diphthongs are, for the most part 
pronounced according to the prevailing sound of the same com 
bmations in our own language ; c« like ei in height ^ ot like oi in 
boUy VI like id in quiety av like au in aughtj sv and ijv like eu iu 
Europe^ netUerj ov and cut; like ou in thou ; at is sounded like 
the affirmative ay (oA-ce, the two sounds uttered with a single 
impulse of the voice), and vi like whi in while. Thus, tidma 
avTo/, nXtvaoijfAmi ^v|oy, &»v/Aa^ vlog, 

3. Consonants. The consonants are pronounced like tlie 
corresponding letters in our own alphabet, with the following 
special remarks. 

7, «, and x "^ always hard in sound : y heang pronooBoed like ^ in ^ 
(except before a palatal, where it has the sound of ii^ in iong^ § 49) ; » and x 
like c in eap^ and eh in ehao$j L e. like k ; as, yiin^ &yyH (pron. aMg-^09\ 

S has the sharp sound of e& in Hum ; as, ^tit, 

has the sharp sound of « in uxy ; except in the middle of a word before 
^ and at the end of a word after « and «, where it sounds like z; as, rCsr«M • 

r and r never have the sound of «A ; thus *Ar/« is pronounced A'^d-a^ not 
^-Mt-a ; K^tTMSy Krit^'i-a$y not Kriah'-t'OM, 

At the beginning of a word, | sounds like c, and ^ like « ; and, of two 
cooaonants which cannot both be pronounced with ease, the first b silent ; as, 
MiMfMv, ^n^it^tt^ \lr^X^fAm,7^s^ fiiiiXXin. So, in English, «e6ec, p§aim^ &c. 

4. Breathings. The rotigh has the sound of A; the smooth 
has no sound ; as, oqoq^ ogog. See ^ 13. 

6. Ictus. The primary ictus is placed according to the fol- 

RuLB. In dissyllahleSy the pentdt takes the ictus. In polp' 
syllables^ the penult, if Zon^,. takes the ictus; but, \£ shorty 
throws it upon the antepenult Thus, narif^, pron. pd-tiTj yqa- 
V'JT*, gra-phe-te^ /Qaipsuy graph'-e'te, 

KoTB. If two or more flyllables precede the primary ictus, one of these, 
receives a secondary ictus, in pkuung which the ear and formation of the woil 
will decide. 

B. Modern Greek Method. 

V ^ ^* ^ « and f are pronounced like a in father ; after the sound I 
V, «f, K, M, V, vi) it is pronounced like a in peculiarity, mt like i. ««, m^ 
fft/, «v, before a vowel, a liquid, or a middle mute (/i, y, 2) are pronounced 
like avy «?, ew, rw, respectively ; in all other cases, like a/, c/, ec/, o/f. ^ like Ir. 
y before the sounds E and I is pronounced nearly like y in yes, York; in all 
other cases it is guttural, like the German g in Tag. yy and ym like n^ in 
ttrongeat, yl like nar. y;^ Uke ng-h^ nearly. ) like <ft in Mot t like 
e m /eOw, nearly. w like i. ii;, see «v. ?; like «. n and ^ like i. 
nv, see m». S like «& in (Am. 4 like t in mocAtiM. » like A. A. like /| 
before the sound I, like i? in WUlianu ft, like m. ^4- like m^i, as, S>«^f«. 


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rStf pfoooimoed Smbrotthtn, pt-^ 0*^0 ^^ ^""^ ' ^^ * » I'Cfore the 
aotmd ly like n in oNunu The words tm, rjiv, Iv, rv*, before a word beginniiig 
with » or I, are pronounced like «-«y, viiyy ly, rvy bdbre » or | (see ytt^ y|) ; 
6. g. T«v tuufivy Iv IvAi;^*^ [Hx>noanoed T«yjMu^0y, ly^vkix^ ; before «* or ^ 
they are pr<moanoed r*/*, r^/t, l/«, rv^ ; e« g. ro «*«# if^v, rvy ^v%^t pro* 
noonoed rift^^wn^^py ^ofA^vx?* 9t like nd^ as, \mft»t pronounced indknot* 
\ like » or At. « like o in porUr, m like «. •« like oo in moon. «*, f, 
Hke pyV, r like « in toft ; before ^ 7, 1, ^ ^, it is sounded like ^ ; e. g. 
s«r/Mf, #)3irM, S^v^m, pronoonoed »«^f, CiS^'m, ZfAv^m 1 so also at the 
end of a word, rws fia^ikttt riff yif, pronounced T§v^fimrt>,ut rn^ynt, r Hke 
t in /eflL » like «. v< like <. ^ like ph ot f» x ^® German aA 01 
Spanish j, ^ like ps. «r and ^ like o. ««, see «v. 

** Ilie roM^ breathing is silent in Modem Greek. So fiir as quantify is ooa* 
oemed, all the short vowels are equivalent to the long ones. The written a«* 
eent guides the stress of the vdce. The aoooit of the mcHiie, however, is 
disregarded in pronunciation. But when the attracting word has the accent 
on the antepenult, its last syllable takes the secondary accent ; e. g. hTliw /««f| 
pronounced Ii^m^mi, but kikiurMt fAt has the primary accent on the first syl* 
laUe A.I, and the secondary on mrm/* — Soph. Gr. Gr^ pp. 21, 22. 

C. Erasmian Method. 

^ 30« The Erasmian method differs firom the En^ish chiefly in SGU4Ad- 
hig m j^otracted like a in father^ t protracted like t in machme^ n like ^ in 
lh§yj m» like om in onry w like om in ragout^ m like our pronoun we^ and ^ like a 


§31, That the Greek alphabet was borrowed from the 
Phoenician is abundantly established both by historical and by 
internal evidence.' 

According to common tradition, letters were first brought into Greece by 
Cadmus, a Phoenician, who founded Thebes. In illustration, we give the com- 
mon Hebrew alphabet, which is substantially the same with the old Phoenician, 
placing the corresponding Greek letters by the side. It should be remarked, 
however, that the forms of the letters in both alphabets have undergone much 
ehange. It will be noticed that most of the Oriental names of the letters, 
when transferred to the Greek, require modification in accordance with the law 
nqwcting final letters (§ 63), and that this is commonly effected by adding «• 












A X Lambda 








M ^ Mn 








K » Kn 








2 r Sigma 








0*0 (micron) 








n •• H 








S C Xi 








? Koppa 








P e Rho 








"^ San «r Sampi 








T •• Tan 


by Google 

§ 9f3. Thk borrbl^ed ^Ipfidt)^ receiydd id ttl« coiifSe tif 
tiitie important modificatiohd. 

«. The original Phoenidan atpiudiet bad no proper vowdi. The 6redE8| 
tii«refore, employed as each those letters wbidi irere nearest akin to Towdil , 
Tis« A, E, F, H, I, and O. In ilie transition of these letters into vowds 
there appears to hare been nothing arUtraij. A, as the soft or entirely open 
breafthing, natoraSy passed into the most open and deepest of the vowels. 
B find H, as weaker and stronger fbiins of the palatal breatMng, natnraUy 
became signs of the shorter and longer sounds of the palatal vowd e ; in liktf 
rtanner, the lingnal breathing I ftassed into the lingoid vovrel i, and the labial 
breathing F into the labial vowel u (eompare t and y, or in some langoages 
J, and also u and v or w); O appfeikrs to btfve been originally A nasal breath- 
ing, and was hence employed to represent the vowel most akin to a nasal, tf. 
The aspirate use of £ and F itill ccmtinaed for a pmod, yid hence tbestf 
tetters whoi employed ma vowds Wke distingaished by the addition of ^TXit^ 
§mooA ; thus *£ i^rx«*, ^ ^TXit. It will be observed that the Ust of these 
letterd, Wlieti used as a vowd, was tomewhat changed in form, and was put ate 
the end of the old alphabet Th^ aspirate nse of H prevailed still fattery evefr 
to the period of the highest Greek refinement, and when at length it had 
yielded to the vowel use, tbe gnfmmari^ Aristophanes of Byzantium, who 
flourished at the court of Alexandria, about 200 years B. C^ is said to have 
divided the old character into the two marks, h for the roughj and H for the 
smooth breatliing. These marks were abbreviated to »- J or *] '', and were 
afterwards rounded to their present forms, * '. To the same Aristophanes has 
been ascribed the first use of marks of accent and punctuation. 

/3. The sibilants 2, 3, and 'Pf exchanged places hi ttih alphabet ; so that 
S came a^Ster N, '^ after £1 (hence called 2«/»W,eAe 8 which Uobd nixiibPt), 
and 2 after P. 

y. To the Phoenician alphabet, the Greeks added the aspfantes ^ and Xy 
the double consonant T, and the sign for long o, H. These new letters they 
placed at the end. tn distinction the short o was now termed "0 /uz^iff 
smafl O ; and the long o, ^H fiiyec^ great O, The names of the other new 
letters were formed by simply adding a vowel to aid in sounding them ; thus, 
<I>7, Xr, as, in English^ ^ ee, 

t. In the softening of the language, the labia! breathing F, «nd also <f and 
'^ which were only roughei' forms of K and S, fdl into disuse, and theses 
letters were retained oiAy as numeral characters ; F and 9 ^ ^^ proper 
places in the alphabet, but ^ at the end. Thus employed, they were termed 
Epiaema (IrivufAtv^ gign, marK), See f 1, § 11. 

F was also named firom its form the Digamma^ L e. the double gamma ; 
and from its being longest retained among the .^olians, the JEalic Digamma, 
It is still fouhd upbn some inscriptions and coins. In L&tin it commonly ap- 
pears as tf; thus, Wthlv^ video, to «ee, F«iV«;, vinum, wine. Its restoration by 
Bentley to the poems of Homer has removed so many apparent hiatuses and 
irregularities of metre, that we cannot doubt its existence in the time of Homer, 
though apparently even then beginning to lose its power. The general law in 
respect to the disappearance of F, appears to be the following : Before a vowel 
or an initial ^, ft is uauaUg dropped^ or become$ one of the common breathingt ; but 
otherwise^ it usually passes into the cognate vowel v ; thus, /StfF'f * fi^F*^ fiiFif 
(Lat. bovis^ hom^ boves) become (itify ^w, fiits ; but /3«Fi, fitPp^fiiF^ fisfri be- 
come /5#«f, /3w», 00V, /SwW (^ 14). 


by Google 

en. 2.] VOWELS. 91' 

^ 33* The alphabit in its prwent complete form wu flnt adopted by 
the loniane (cf. § 2), and hence termed *litfi»k y^Aptftmrm, In Attic in. 
scripHons it was first used in the arehonship of Euclldes, B. C. 408. 

The Greeks first wrote, like the Phoenicians, from right to left { and then 
alternately from left to right and right to left (as it was termed, /3«vrrf «^ff)^y,i.e. 
at the ox turns with the plough). In this mode the laws of Solon were written. 
Herodotus, howeyer (II. 36), speaks of the meAod of writing from left to 
right as the established cuftom of the Greeks in his time. TQl a veiy late 
period the Grreeks wrote entirely in capitals,' and without marking the division 
of words. The tmaU cursive character first appears in manasciipta m the 
eighth oentuiy, though there is evidence d its havkijg been used eariier in thtf 
transactions of common life. 

That there should be great variety in the orthography of tbe ^akets re- 
sults of necessity from the imst, that in each dialect wofds wws written •• 
t^ ir^n pivPoaBoed. The Greeks had no 8t«n^|^ of 9r\iixignit>^ v^ U^ 
«eTale^99 / i^ Qommop dialect (§ 4). 


(IT 81 

<^ SI4. The Greek has Jive simple vowels^ and 
seven diphthongs. Each of the ^mple vowels. may 
be either long or short, and each of the diphthongs 
may have either a long or short prepositive, or first 

REMARKS. 1. Of three vowels, the long {iiul short flowidg 
are represented by the same letters (a, a ; T, r ; v^v); but of 
the other two, by different letters (I, ^ ; o, «?). 

NoTBB. m. The long sounds of these two voweb occur fkt more fteqnently 
than those of the other three, and are hence distinguished by separate char> 

fi. When speaking of letters, and not of sounds, we say that the Greek 
has seven vowels ; and call i and s the fhort voweUy because they always ivp- 
resent short sounds, « and « the long vowels^ because they always represent 
long sounds, and «, i, and 0, the doubtful voweU, because their Ibnn leaves «. 
doobtfal whether the sound Is long or shorC 

y. There is strong evidence, that. In general, these vowels w^re pronounced 
in the same manner as the corresponding vowels are now pronounced upon the 
continent of Europe ;!.&«, like a m father^ waUj ftm (not as |n hat$) ; 9f h 
like e in they, then (not as in mete) ; t like t in machitu, pin (not as in pine) ; 
t0y •, like o hi note, not; v like « in tube, bull. They wUl hence be thus pUoed 
9peo ttm tctilt of prtetfman or c<<«ntMrfK>». 


by Google 

Scale of •tt^^.^ ^ • 

^^"^^^bytheBpt. * Qpemng. 

In genera], % i, and • are termed tibe opea, and p and « !!»• c&w TOfweia 
but m b mom open than f and «, and i is aomewhat doaer than m, 

§ 9S. 2. In the Greek diphthongs, the voice always passes 
from a more open to a closer sound ; and the subjunctive, or 
last vowel is always i or v. Hence the combinsftions possible 
are only seven^ or, counting separately the proper and unproper 
diphthongs, fourteen. Of these, atv scarcely occurs, except m 
the Ionic dialect. 

A Aort prepositive left time fbr the foil ntteranoe of the sabjoncttve vowel, 
and the diphthong was then termed proper^ as really comlnning two aoonds; 
tmt a kmg prepositive nearly or quite crowded out the sound of the subjunc- 
tive, and tiie diphthong was then termed improper^ as thou^ diphthongal 
aoly in appearance. 

3. AAer « long, 17, and w, the subjunctive 1 so lost its sound, 
that it was at last merely written beneath the prepositive, if 
this was a small letter, and was then termed iota subscript (sub- 
scriptus, written beneath). With capitals, it still remains in the 
line, but is not sounded. Thus, '^Aidtjg or adtig^ pron. Hades^ 
"Hidfi or jjdfi^ idi ; *Jltdrl or ^^if, ode. 

Notes, m. The t subscript is often written where it does not belong, ftom 
(Use views of etymology ; as in the Epic dative Sv^^<, for Bv^ti^t (f 8); 
and in the aorist of liquid verbs, which have «i in the penult of the theme ; 

tfanS, from ^/y«r, «7^«r (rootS ^r-, «^), I^JfMt, pfetj «^«r, for l^ffM, fT^s, &^ • 

•0 Perfl n. «'i^^y«t, for vi^mr*. 

/3. In some cases the best critics diffisr : thus, in the infinitive of verbs in 
-dm^ some write T«^f », as contracted from ti^iCmv, and others r<^y, as con- 
tracted from an older form rtf^Uu So in the adverbial forms vjf, Urif^ or «^ 
Tr«, and the like. 

$ 96. 4. In diphthongs, except the three just mentioned 
(^, 17, and ^), the breathings and accents are written over the 
second vowel, and thus often mark the union of the two vowels 
as, avTij, herself but avj^^ cry; ^Wa, but ijiJae • aXqiaiq (a) 
but "Aidng (o). 

If two vowels which might form a diphthong are pronounced separately 
the second is nuu^ced with a diieresU (§ 16. 3) ; as, kvrl^ HS^t. 

' For a full exhibition of the Greek vowels, simple ana 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


compoond, see the Table (ff 3). They are there divided into 
classes^ according to the simple sound which is their sole or 
leadnig element, as A sounds^ &c. ; and into orders, according 
to the length of this sound, or its combination with other sounds, 
as short vowels, &c. The classes are arranged according to 
the openness of the vowel from which they are named. Vow- 
els belonging to the same class are termed cognate, 

^ 3T. The Greek vowels are subject to a 
great number of Euphonic Changes, which may 
be referred, for the most part, to two great heads, 
the PRECFifisiON OF VowELS, and the Union of 

These changes diminish the effort in speaking, by reducing the Tdmne of 
Bonnd employed, or by preventing hiatus, and lessening the number of eyh 

I. Precession of Vowels. 

^38. The great tendency m Greek to the pre- 
cession or attenuation of vowel sounds shows it- 

1.) In the change of simple vowels. 

Precession especially aflTects or, as the most open of the 
vowels, changing it, when short, to e and o, and, when long, 
to 1}, and sometimes to o). 

Henoe these three Vowels may be regarded a^ kindred^ and are often inter- 
changed in the formation and inflection of words. Thus, in the verbs r^i. 
WM, rr^i^«r, we find the root in three forms, r^av-^ ^(^^'^ ^^ ^t^^'y ^'*'i»<p-j 
rr^i^-, and rr^«^- ; and in pnyvvfu, we find the forms ^ety-, pfiy-, and ptity-* 
This interchange is also illustrated by the connecting vowels inserted, for the 
sake of euphony, in the inflection of words. Thus, in the first declension, 
the connecting vowel is «, but in the second, «, for which in one case • ap- 
pears. In the indicative active, the connecting vowel in the aorist and per« 
feet is » (passing, however, into i in the 3d pers. sing. ; compare the imper- 
ative /3«vXsvr0v), while in the present, imperfect, and future, it is • before a 
liquid, but otherwise u 

^39. 2.) In the lengthening of the short vow- 
els, and in the general laws of contraction. Thus, 

a. The long vowel is regarded as the short vowel doubled 
that is, ff = aa, i} = e; , w = oo, v = vv, and r = u. When- 
ever, therefore, in the formation of words, a short vowel is 
lenicthened, or two short vowels of the same class are uniie<* 


by Google 

100 VOWELS. [book 1 

in sound, the corresponding long vowel ought to result. Bu 
through precession, which especially afieets the long opec 
vowels, «, unless it follows «, £« ^, or qo^ is usually length* 
ened, not to a, but to the closer 17, and $e and 00 commonly 
form, not rj and ai, but the closer diphthongs n and ov, whiok 
are hence termed the corresponding diphthongs of t and o. 

/?. Contraction more frequently exhibits some attenuation of 
vowel sound. See §§31-87. This naturally appears less in 
the earlier than in the later contractions* Compare fiaadiii 
with ^aoiXng (§ 37. 2). 

l^OTE. A similar tendency to pqw from $■ more open to a dosor aowad ap*- 
pears in the general law for the formation of diphthongs (§ 25. 2). 

II. Union of Syllables. 

^ 30, The most important changes belonging 
to this head ai«, A. Contraction, which miites 
two successive vowels in the same word ; B. Cra- 
sis (^xgdaiSj mingling)^ which unites the final and 
initial vowels of successive words ; and C. Apos- 
trophe or Elision, which simply drops a final 
vowel before a word beginning with a vowel. 

In poetry, imo yimtla are often onited In pronundation, which are written 
separately. Thid imion is termed tynize$i$ (jrwUfin^tt-, fUnmg *o§Atr\ er lyn- 



^31. Contraction takes place in three ways ; by simple 
union, by absorption^ and by union with precession. From the 
law of diphthongs (§ 25. 2), two vowels can unite without 
change only when the latter is i or v, and the former a more 
open vowel. In other cases, therefore, either one of the vow- 
els is absorbed^ i. e. simply lost in the other, which, if before 
short, now of course becomes long ; or else precession takes 
place, changing one of the vowels to « or v, which then forms 
a diphthong with the other vowel. The following are the gen- 
eral rules of contraction, with the principal cases belonging t» 
each, and the prominent exceptions. 

Note. An <, when absorbed in «, «, or «, is writ^ beneath it 11m 
laws of contraction take effect, without regard to an s subscript, or tho BidH 
Junctive « of the diphthong •< ; as, «fi ^ , mu f (§ 33). 


by Google 


^39. I. Two yowelsj which can fiwrm a diph- 
thong, imte without further change. Thus, 
















































tr iif Ttix^t nix*** mt f^ XitrrH >Ji^»t. 

EzcEPnoir. 4^ like mT, becomes f ; aa, yiS^^ET, y^f * nalesey with Thiench, 
ir« pie^ to write 7<(;«4. 

^ aa. II. a, (T.) before an E sound (IE 3), 
absorbs it ; but (2.) before another A sound, is it- 
self absorbed. (3.) a, or (4.) ijj with an O sound, 
forms o. Thus, 

become m beoome m 

•J f, 
(2.)- ^ 

MM M, 

C3.) M m, 

ExcfSi^cm, A. The doser m takes the place of ^ in the contract fbruu 
of four etenf'day verbs ; viz. letnam^ to hungeTj h^putt, to UiirtHy xt^'f^'^h ^ 
^Ifff and («4», to Iwe; as, iri/vtft/y «'i<v^i>, ;^f«iri^du ;^^0'^aM. Add the verbs 
»MM#, r/MM», and ^j'tfU • the Subjunctive of verbs in -^ aa^ hrmy (ftom Xrm. 
/m) /r^f • and the liqdd Aorist (see § 56). 

fL In mdftethett $ belbre • and n is absoibed ; na^ WXmi )i«rXS, livXtJw 
WXau, ibvXilt ««'X«. 

7. in ifmtj w, the Komtoativo sfaigukr becomes §h hy an absorption of 
fke «, bot the other fonns are oontnMSted aodotding to the role $ as, mrit^ Zrm. 

}. For the change of mi into m, in verbs in -tt^ see § 37. 3. 

% 84* Rbmakks. 1. a, taking the place of v before o 
(§ 50) is contracted like s ; thus, in the Ace. plur., {Xoyovq^ 16^ 
yoag) ko/ovf, {yX^aaavft yXo^aoaag) ylo^aaSg, {ohg) olng olg, ixd^V'- 
mg ijc^vg, noXco? noktig^ fi6ag §ovq, fitliovag (fttlCoag) fitlSovg * in 
themes of Dec. III., (fr^, kng) flg^ {ipocvtvrg^ (pavrag) qtavtig^ {odovtg^ 
idong) odovgy (^Ivgy (lag) ^ig' In feminine adjectives and par- 
ticiples, {q>avfvtaay q>arfaa(*) tpttvtiact^ {^ayovtaa^ ayoaaa) ayovaa * 
m the dd pert. plur. of verbs, {fiovltvovaiy fiovltvoaai) jiovXev^ 
o«vi, (W^rat) ti&i&ai tt^fltfi, {dldopai) didoSai didovat^ {diL* 
Mvwnn) dtixinjaai, dtixinjai. 

Notes. «. By a similar contraetionwith jS/xr fim^ we find also tmmt tmSt 
and y^mt y(mv$ (^ 14). In like manner tetuf occurs in the Nom. plur. by 
OOStfaotii^ frotn mi;, but only in late writers. 


by Google 




fi. For x^ X»^'» ne § 116. C For Kxi^, Oiixns, see § 109. /3. 

§ 3S. 2. When a long is contracted with an O sound 
there is usually inserted before the «> an t, which, however, is 
not regarded in the accentuation as a distinct syllable ; as, vao^ 
Irotq) >««(r (fl 9), M^iXdoq MiviXtvt^y ^Atqtldao ^AtQiidtm (fl 8). 

So sometimee, chiefly m the Ion. (§§ 48. 1, 242. a), when « is short. 

^36. III. (1.) ea becomes tj, and (2.) ££, bi. 
(3.) € and o, with o, form ov ; but (4.) with other 
O sounds are absorbed. (6.) In other combina- 
tions not already given (§ 32, 33), € b absorbed. 








































































































§37* Exceptions. 1. la preceded by i, «, ^, or ^« (§ 29), or in 
the |)ft(ra/ or dutd of the ./SrsT or aeeond dedennon^ becomes & ; as, vytim vysm^ 
mfyu^iaf it^yv^af^ &(yv(if i»yv^f, rv«l«f rv«2f , rv»S« rvMt, irrS* m-tS. Yet 
f^i«^, Gen^ ^^i«r«f ^^nrit (§ 104). 

2. In the tfMo/ of the third deekiukm, m beocmies 4 ; aa, n/;tM rt/;^. In 
the older Attic writers, we find the same contraction in the Nom. ^nr. of 
nouns in .ivf ; as, (iM^sxUt fia^tXnf (incorrectly written -ft), instead of the 
common fia^tXtTt. 

3. In verbs in .mm, the flyllables Mf and mi, except in the Infinitive, become 
M (i. e. the « and s unite, absorbing the n and •) ; as, ifixiy ^Xai; ^xius )«• 
Xm;. But inXou9 (Infin.) InXsv*^ ^thpt (from ^sffM) It'ift (§ 33). 

4. In the termination of the second person shigular passive, mm is oott« 
tract ed into ji or u, and ««i into y ; as, /StvXtvMM fiwXiwf or /^Xtvu, /S^vXi mhu 


5. For special contractions of • in the augment, see §§ 188, 189* 

Remark. Contraction is omitted in numy words fai wfaidi it might taka 
I^ace according to the preceding rules ; partJcalarly in nouns of the third da- 
Ciansion, and in dissyllabic verbs in ••«. 

B. Crasis. 
^ 38. Crasis (1.), for the most part, follows the 


by Google 

CB. 2.J CRASIS. 108 

laws of contraction, disregarding, however, an i 
final, which, according to the best usage, b not 
even subscribed. But often (2.), without respect 
to these laws, a final, or (3.) an initial vowel is 
entirely absorbed. 

Crasis ooccm mosCj in poetry. It is oommonly indicated by the coronis 
( ) (S l^X oxc^^ whea this mark is excluded by the rough breathing ; as, 
rm^j •vfA»i, When an initial vowel has been absorbed without any farther 
change, the words are more frequently separated in writing ; as, m *^/. The 
same is sometimes done when a final vowel has been absorbed, ^d, hence, 
cases are oftoi referred to apfueregU and apostrophe which properly belong to 
crasis. For the change of a smooth mute to its cognate rough, when the 
second word is aspirated, see § 65. For the accent, see Prosody. 

^39. The principal words in which the final vowel is sub- 
ject to crasis are the following : 

rt. The article; .thus, for 

a.) ; 1*, ; !«-; ^U, •^«-i. For a i^tr^ 
ti Ifui, •uffi. Mi AymS-mij 
i i^ftf, tS^ftt. rtS «VT«S, 

(2.) i &fnc, Mc, or, less (3.) i •%•*, 
Attic, 4^^. ol ifi»!y 
«iy it^fiy r&vi(i rtu v)«T«f, 

KoTBS. I. The neuter forme ri and r« are especially subject to crasis 

(1.) rl lMi»r/(Mi, rthatrria*. For vk 2>frX«, 
W ifUirte^y ^tifUrff, (3.) rk MXi'h 


:i. In crasis, Iri^, other, retams the old form Irtfts • thus, for 

^2.) i Irt^tr, in^. For tw Wi^tv^ 

§ 40. fi. The conjunction xaiy and ; thus, for 

(1.) m) !«, m) Ut, »if. For »«) ;, »«) «;, 

mm} I», mm} i», »^y, »&». (2.) ««) i/, »«< »u, 

mmi t7r«, »frM, (2, 3.) tta) « «fy;t«v'«i 

X^i XV* 
»ll, ««&• 


y. A few other para'cfe*; thus, for 

Itm i^m, irSf, For ^n^ifl-^r l», 


by Google 

1(14 VOWELS. APOfeTROPHfi. [BOOK ., 

I. Some forms of the pronou$ts ; thud^ for 

\ym •il«, lyS^tt. For i \(pe^ii^ tvipifth 

flu few cases which remam are best learned frook observation. 

C. Apostrophe, or Elision. 

§ 41. Apostrophe affects only the short rowels 
4, «, f, and o, and sometimes, in poetry, the passive 
teroiinations in ai (and perhapis oi in the enclitics 
fAoi^ aoij Toc). In monosyllables (except the £p. ^e^ 
and a few rare or doubtful cases)^ « only is elided. 

For the mark of apostrophe^ see § 16. For the accentuation, see Prosody. 
Elision is most common, 

1.) hi the prepositions, and other [>articles of constant use ; 
as, a^ imviov (for ano knvrov^ § 65), in innvov^ xai ifii^ and, 
in composition (where the sign ' is omitted), airi^j)fdjum, diilavrtu^ 
nuQHfil' ixil iyoi3^U(f oi/y, / ovosvy fiul ar, oo- o (oiso), xoe^ ar. 

3.) In a few pronouns, and in some phrases of frequent oc- 
currence ; as, Tovi' aXlo^ xnvi i^dij ' yivoix ay^ lad" onov (lai» 
OTTot;), kiyoifi av, old or/, qn^/i fyta. 

§ 43* Rkmarks. m. Elision is less frequent in i, than in the olher 
short rewds above mentioned. Particularly, it is never dided by the Attics 
in w%fi or Hn (which might then be confounded with «ti) ; and never in the 
Epic irW (2d person singular of i/yMi). It is never in prose, and very rarely* 
in Attic poetry, elid^ in the Dative siiq^ular, which might th^ te coktfounded 
, with the Accusative. The forms which take » paraoogic (§ 66) are not eHded 
in pruse, except W/. 

fi. Elision is least frequent in Ionic prose. In Attic prose, it is found chief- 
ly in a few words, but these often recurring. In poetiy, where hiatus is more 
carefolly avoided, its use is far more extended. In respect to its use or omis- 
sion in prose, mwh seems to depend upon the rhythm of the sentence, the 
emphasis, the pauses, and the taste of the writer. There is, also, in this 
respect, a great difference among manuscripts. 


^43. The dialectic variations in the vowels may be mostly 
referred to the heads of Precession, Union or Resolution, 
Qttantity, ano Insertion or Omission. 

^J 44. I. Precession prevailed most in the sofi Ionic, and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


least in the rough Doric and iGolic ; while the Attic, which 
blended strength and refinement, held a middle plieuse. E. g. 

1. Long «, for ihe most part, is retained in the t)oric and .£olic, but in the 
Idnic pluses into n ; while in the Attic it is retained after i, j, ^, and (0, but 
Otherwise passes into n (§ 2^). Thus, t)or. *afti^d, Att. V'^'S ^^^ V'$*> * 
Dor. "ieifitbtj 9rAyL, ixvr&Sy Att. and loh. %infAosy vriyny MKVTti$ * Dor. and Att. 
r«^<«, vfayfia^ Ion. wo^iti^ vfnyfMi. So, even in diphthongs, Ion. vfivf, yonvs, 
for 9u»s^ y^»*fs, and in Dat. pL of Dec i., -ifo-t^ -pt, for ^asn, -«<;• 

NoTB. The use of thi» long a produced, in greAt measure, the Doric f^tun 
called v-Xartm^fiify broad pronunciatim, Which Was imitated by the Attics ill 
the lyric parts of their drama (§ 6). 

2. Short m is retained hj Uie Doric fft «ome words, wfa«^ in the Attic, H 
pB«es into i ; and te some (partlcularty verbs ia .«») by the Attic, where it 
becomeil 1 in Um Ionic Thus, Dor. r^iftty 'A^rdptts^ txi, ^dri, Att r^(^4#, 
*A^%tMf , irtj P^i ' Att* i^sutt ^dtrtut^ risra^if^ A^vnv^ Ion. i^ut^ ^atriat, 

3. In nouns in wr, -i«f, the characteristic 1 commonly passes, in the Iomc» 
into I throughout ; as, w»Xtt, 4«f, u (ccmtraeted into t according to § 29. «)^ 
t9, ntf /«»», /«'!, lett (contr. r^). 

4. An the long of t and «^ o¥ the omtiaction of ii and «« or a, the stricter 
Doric prefers the long vowels n and «r to the closer diphthongs u and «0 $ 
while, on the other hand, the Ionic is particularly fond of protracting • and t 
to u and tv or «. Thus^ Dor. x^^* iH^t * Gen. of Dec 11., vS i^MvS • Iiifin* 
iv^ify, X'^'f^h vTyZv • tor x**iy mvA.0;, t«v w^ettov, ti^th^ ;^ct^uv, vwfcuf. Ion* 
(sr»«s, fMWft, raitit for ^11*0;, /mm;, «r««. Att. »0^0f, Ivofia^ S^og * Ion. »ou^»u 
»vt»/Atiy »S(»f • Dor. wAr^f, ZfofMi, tlf^tf. Both the Doric and Ionic have «y for 
•vy, therefore^ contracted from \of. , 

5. Other examples of precession or the interchange of kindred vowete 
('> 28) are the following ; in some of which, contrary to the general law of 
the dialects, the Ionic has a morb open sound than the Attic, or the Attic than 
the Doric or Aolio ; Att *dtU *4i4<f, Ion. ttltit, akrit • Att* »««r, nXetv^ Ion. 
and Com. »«<W, «X«i«» • Att ^iut$u Iob- >M*«r ' Ion. <r^«4w, ^eifitftt, ftiya^i 
Att. r^lTm^ rifiVM, /Atyt^t • Ion. a^^Vui, Att iff^tf • Ion% /Ki0-cyie^^/a, Att 
finvnfA^^iat • t>or. and Ep. «i, Att. tl • Dor. ^avxat. Ion. and Att ^vin^xtt^ 
^k^ BimifKtt • Att fr^etroft /39«;^««f, ^ra^iecXtf^ i£ol. 0-r^«r0;, /3^o;^i«r;, ta^^** 
Xif ■ Att Svofuif i£ol. «v(YM( • Att. i^iWr, j£ol. S^^rtrov, 

§ 4S. II. Union or Resolution. A. The Contraction 
of vowels prevailed most in the vivacious Attic, and least in 
the litxurious Ionic. By the poets, it is often employed or 
omitted according to the demands of the metre. There are 
also dialectic difTerences in the mode of contraction, which, for 
the most part, may be explained by precession. E. g. 

I Ib contracting « with an sound, the Doric often prefers a to the 
ekM«r «» ; iii the first declension, regulariy. Thus^ Dor. 'Ar^ii^w, rZv ^veiv 
(^ 8), riM'K^iiy, -av9Sj wuvifTtf ^«a4ri/m^sr, «'^£r«f, for *Arfu^ov (uncontracted 
•d»\ rS* d-v^f (-«*ry), Htfrii^wv, •Svof (-««;», -acv^t^, 9U*eitTt (-««yri), ^lawinZ- 
0U9 ('••^if), irfS^rtg (^«r«f). A like contraction appears in proper names in 
-%Jtn ; IKS Dor. M«viXil>, for Mtfix*»t, 


by Google 

106 VOWELS. [book f 

2 For the oonlractum of it and •• or «f, see $ 44. 4. 

8. With the Ionics sod some of the Dorics, the fiiv ori te co n traction of f * 
and t0v is into tv, instead of •«. This nse of f« for *v sometimes extends ta 
cases where this dipbth<Hig resolts tmrn a difiierent oontractiun. Thus, ftXw* 
ft49f f <Xsv, ifikiv, St^iv^ for ptXiv/fUf (-ca^iv), ^k»» (-mv), ifi^ ('**)* ^*^m^» 
(-M#) * Qtxaiio, iiimahuv, iimtutv0-t, m HerodotuS for Hdxtcitu (-««), ih»a4§m. 
(-Mv}, ^txa49V0'i (-Mvr/) * Xafrctifvrw M. 283, for XMVtvrra (-iiwc). 

4. The Dorics (bnt not Pindar), contrary to the general hnr of the dialect, 
Cionunonly contract « with an E sound following^ into a ; a8» i^^rn^ ^tynv^ Xjff, 
ftom i^ratf 0'tymuff Xmifg. CL § 33. m. 

5. In the contractions which follow the change of » before r (§ 58), the 
JEolic often employs m and ««, for d and «« ; as, Aoc pL rmis Ttfutig, rtit v«- 
f$stfj for r»$ rtfitdf, Tohf fifMVf • Nom. ang. of a^. and partic. fuXmtj rv^Mf, 
ru^pMt^a, tx»*'»t for ftiXdfj rv^pds, Tvypd^m, \x***^* * ^ P^"^ P^ ^ verba, 
f «<«■«, ttevrroift, for ^^ri, »^vmv€u The Doric has here g^ieat rarietj, both 
employing the simple long vowels, the short vowels (as though t were simfdy 
dropped before r), the common diphthongs of contraction (§ 34), and the 
.£oUc diphthongs; thus, Ace pL ri^^df and rixf^tf (Theoc. 21. 1) ; r»uf 
Xvxtvt and TMt Xv»»f (Theoc 4. 11) ; iTf and tig, one; M«(/r<K, BiLwr« (Theoc.), 
"Mm fa (Find.), and Laconic MJUtt • Kom. sing, of partic ^^awtug (Pind. OL 
2. 108), tiotwm. (lb. 73). So, likewise^ m for •» before r in «»«/r«, Theoc 
n. 78. 

6. The Ionic nse of «0v for av in a f^ words, appears, at least in some of 
them, to have arisen from a union of • and a to form u ; thus, for ralriy 
XfAaurw^ netvrau, Itturw, Ion. rttlri^ t/tttvrsu, etmtfr»Vf i«rvr«v, from r§ «vr«, 
I/aU avrov, 0U mvrcu, %• »vr6v. In the reciprocal pronouns* the «v passed 
into the other cases. We find also Ion. ^»w/Mt, r^atvfia (yet better r««i/ec«), 
for ^avffM^ TfMVfia, In all these words, «;v-is written by some with a diiere- 
iis ; as, ^t^Sfut, 

§ 46. B. Vowels which appear only as diphthongs in the 
Attic are often resolved in the other dialects, especially the 
Ionic and iEolic, into separate sounds. In the Ionic, the reso 
lulion of €4, with e prolonged, into iji', is especially common ; as 
fiaaiXrfirj^ xXrfl'g^ for paodtla^ xldg. 

Notes. «. On the other hand, the Ionic in a few cases employs contrac- 
tion where the Attic omits it, particularly of •n into «r ; as, /^«;, ifim^m, lv«»<> 
/«, /3«d^«ar, iyisixcfTo, for it^«f, ifiefurett Uon^m^ /3«>i^tiv, »ylon»o*Ta. 

fi. The fondness of the Ionic for a concurrence of vowels leads it, in some 
cases, to change ► to » (§ 50) after a vowel (which, if before c, now becomes 
•) j as, 'A^tfTayo^taf I'ivviaTtf for 'A^t^retyo^KVy ihvvetvTo, 

C. In Crasis, the Doric and Ionic often differ from the Attic 
by uniting the o of the article with « and at initial, to form n 
and bt ; as, to aXri&ig, twlrj&ig * oi avd^fg^ atrdgfg ' ol ainoloi 

In the following erases, which are found in Herodotus, and the two first 
also in Homer, the smooth breathing has taken the place of the rough ; • 4^- 


by Google 


rrt, Jt(i0TH * i etvriff mhrit • «/ Ixx«i, JxXm. Other dialectic erases are, 
Dor. i tXM^»$t SXti^H • iV^ i^' »«2 Iff, un» « »«) iTri, »fw% • Ion. • Irf^«f9 

§ 4T. III. Quantity. For a short vowel in the Attic, the 
other dialects oflen employ a long vowel or diphthong, and the 
converse. Thus, 

loo. ^wkfiftt for hirXM^tf • Ion. Iv'irn^uty tv^iw, ivH^tl^f, ^i^^vv, x^frrm^ 
far *irtrnhtH^ tv»t7a, itire^ulfft fiui^t'h »^Mwmt ■ Dor. and £p. XrA^$t for ir«r- 
9* • MoL *A>.»S«f, «eX«««t for *AXMm7»u J^eX'^*^' See §§ 44. 4 ; 45. 5. 

KoTB. The poets, espedaUy the Epic, often lengthen or shorten a -vowel 
according to the metre. A short vowel when lengthoied in Epic verse 
usually passes into a cognate dipthong ; as, %iXnk»vSat for IknXuB-ettf A. 202. 

^48* IV. Insertion or Omission. Vowels are often 
usetted in one dialect which are omitted in another ; and here, 
as elsewhere, a peculiar freedom belongs to the poets, especial- 
ly the Epic. These oflen double a vowel, or insert the half 
of it (i. e. the short for the Umg)^ for the sake of the metre, 
particularly in contract verbs ; as, xgijtivov iiXdw^^ for ngri^op 
tXdmQj A. 41, q>aav&t9y ^finimaa^ oq6o»^ oQoi^g^ /iXtaovtrg^ tpoo};* 
yaXoutg, itlxooh for q>dv&BPy '^fiaaa^ o^cJ, o^^, ytlmvitg^ <pwgj yd^ 
ia>C« etxoir«* 

RmfARga. 1. The Ionic is espedally fond of the insertion of t ; as, Gen, 
pL kv^^t X^^h »l»rUif^ for «i^^, &C. ; 2 Aor. infin. i v^im, Xtwun^ tot 

2. In the Doric and Epic, the partides i^ tttly «««•«, ^m^ k^i, iiri, 
and ir#ri (Dor. for ^^if^ often omit the final vowel before a consonant, with 
such assimilation of the preceding consonant as euphony may require ; as, 

§r^i) &fit fittfiaT^i, l'y»(t0'ts, k^trris (§ 68. 3), ««^ ^u*»fu*^ ttkw ^tiXM^m 
62. jS), »«» xtfaktift My ynvi tcmm^tvtUt »»( fic*^ MMkknr§9y ttm/tfJl^tf 
WM( Znf'h kv^ifif^tu WmkXuf, ^§T riv. When three consonants . are thus 
hrmight together, the first is sometimes r^ected ; as, tUxran, kfitfrn^u^ for 
mmx»rtt9i, kfitftwu. So, sometimes in the Doric, even before a single conso- 
nant ; as, icmfimtMf. 

NoTBS. m. From the dose connection of the preposition with the ftDow* 
faig word, these cases are not regarded as making any exception to the rule 
fai § 63. Compare § 68. /S. The two words are often written together, even 
when there is no composition ; as, xMlivfafuvt WTrit. 

j3. In these words, the final vowd was probably a euphonic addition to the 
original form. Comp^ue k^i and ^«r« with the Latin ab and mib. The old 
foim w^y in accordance with the rule (§ 63), became v^W and v^^r^ idience 

y» Some of these forms oven passed into the Attic, and hito Ionic prose ; 
M, MM-9«ftr» (poet), k/t^mmt (Xen.), k/twrnw/Mu (Herod.). 

%. 'A^ has ilso, by aphssresis, the Epic form fm, whidi is enditic 


by Google 




^ 49* The Greek has eighteen coNSOitANrs, 
represented by seventeen letters. 

They are exhibited in the Table (% 3) according to two methods of divis- 
ton, employed by orthoSpists. Consonants of the same class, according to tha 
fiisit method, are termed coffmUes of the same order, codrtUntOi,. 

SraiABKS. 1. The letter y peribrms a doable office. Whtti fbllowad hy 
another palatal, it ia a nasals otherwise a middle mute. As a naslkl, it has r 
for its corresponding Roman letter ; as a middle mute^ g (§ 13). For its 
pronnndatioo, see $ 1^. 3. 

2. IVom the representation of the Latih v by j3 (VhyiBu8, Bt^iXm), it to 
probable that in the andent^ as m the modem Greek (§ 19\ the middle 
mutes approached nearer to the aspirates than in oor own langfoage, and that, 
iA fbrining them, the oilgans were not wholly dosed. 

§ ffO* 3. The semivowels v and a have oorresponding 
vowels in m and t ; that is, a may take the place of y, and c of 
a, when euphony forbids the use of these consonants ; as, itp&A-i- 
gatai, for tififaQvrai^ onf(}iia (contracted anfQ^) f&r a'tidivat 
See §§ 34, 46. /J, 56 - 58, 60, 63. R., &c. 

Note. In like manner, v is the corresponding vowd of the old consonant 
iF. Sde § 22. i. 

^ St. The following laws, mostly euphonic, are 
ObiSerVed in the formation and connection 6f Wtjrds 

A. In the FoRMAtior^ of Words. 

[. A labial mutt before tf forms with it t^; aftd a 
palatal^ | ; thus, 

becdme n become as 

P9 ^, y^a(p9m y^i-^m, x' t ^i^X* ^v\' 

KoTB. In like manner, ^ is the union of a lingoal with a sibilant sotm^ 
and in man^ words has taken the place of r$ ; e. g. adverbs of place in -^i 
■s, for *kMi>Kir\%^ *A5if»«^i, fer 0i$i3«»-^, 0*fj3&?i • And many verbs in -t*» 
as, for ^iX/r$*>, ;*«X/^M, for ^*«rJ»», ^e«C*». In these verbs, the old forms re- 
m^n in the ^Eolic and Doric <% 70. V.). For a lingual btjore r, see § 55. 


by Google 

CH. H,] EVTkOHit LAWS. itJfy 

^ S9. II. Before a lingHfd mute, ^ 0*) ^^bi^^ 
or (2.) palatd mute become^ €odhiin&te (^ 49, H 8), 
and (3«) a lingu<d mtUe^ € ; thus, 

tocome as become as 

















A;^» l*j««y^» 







rr, tttifun^rk 







wTy sfft^^nf 







#r, irivud^M 






r^, «iy0^a<»'^n» 







irS, lip^^i, 







r^, Ui;»;»ii» 


Two Imgnal motet maj renudn togethtf, if both ard radi- 

ca) ; as, w^drrat^ *ArSif. 

^ tl8. III. Before /i, a labial mute become^ ^, 
a palatalj y, dnd a lingual, a ; thus, 



becdme as 



XlXii«'/tMi4 KiXtifi/tmt. 


Tf* riruxfuu rirtfyfimt. 



TfififUt T^/flfM, 


r^ dtifntT/tms ttvift.ita'fuu. 



'y(d^/»m y^df^fta. 


ir^u, ^^« ^^^*. 



4iirXi»fUtt wivXiyfuu. 


#^ «4«tiS^eai 4'i«'U9;^NU. 

Except in a few such words as a»f»^ xtu^fidf, ntx/^^s* ^er/if • and some 
others from the dialects ; as, in Homer, i^^n, T^/miv, ivivi^/uiy, xf»0^v5/Kfy«i, 

^ ff 4. IV. V before a (1.) labial or (2.) pala- 
tal, is changed into the cognate nasal (^ 49, i 3) ; 
and (3«) before a liquid, into that liquid ; thus, 

becomd as 





f 9»f*ird^xat, 




























Notes. «. Enclitics are here regarded as distinct words; thns, T*ri#, 
ri9yu We find, however, final » changed in like manner npon old inscrip- 
tions ; tA, MEM4>2TXA2) for ^i» ^(/a:«« (I"^- Potid.) ; so, APKAI, 
TOAAorON, and even feSSAMOI (cf. §§ 57. 5, 6d. 3), for At nai, t$p 
Xiy§9, Iv 2df»f. 

^. Before ^ in the Perfect passive, t sometimes becomes r and is soma- 
. times dropped • as, for iri^«*/i*«i, Tt^a^fiai • for «ixX<f/iMt«, »i»Xifitu, 

y. Before « in the Perfect active, » was Commonly dropped, or the fbrm 
"woided, except by later writers ; as, for si»(4*««, «i«:ix*. 


by Google 


^ SS. V. A lingual or liquid should not pre- 
cede a. This is prevented in various ways. 

I. A Ungual mute is simply dropped before a ; thus, awfAatat 
ncudg^ nU&am become aoifiaai^ nalgy ntLoti. 

^ «I6« -2. In liquid verhs^ the a formative of the Future 
and Aorist is changed into e (§ 50), which (I.) in the Future ia 
contracted with the q^^ but (2.) in the Aorist is transposed 
and contracted with the vowel of the penult. 

Thus, in the Fat and Aor. of the liqoid verbs, ityyixxt^ to announce^ 
•ifibi^ to distribute^ n^/pt, to jtuigcj wXuva^ to w€uh, and ii^M, to ftoffy for 

(\,)kyyiX9a^ (JtyytXut) ityy*^' (2.) 4fyy«Xr«, (nyytiXm) HyyuXm. 

pift^M, (vi/MUf) ftfiui* tnft^a, (Ivm^m) hufut, 

»^/vrM, (x^/vim) *('t^ * f»(ivr«, (l»^iiv«i) fx^iMt. 

«>Xvv^«f, (4rXvfUf) 9'XvfS* titXtntm, (iwXvtfa) iwXOfm, 

){(#«#, (}i^) h^» i^t^^^h (fi**vO Uu^ 

Noras, m. Here si commonly passes into «, unless / or ^ precedes ; tiuis, 
#^i^XAiv, to cause to aUp^ ^altm, to thow (roots r^cX-, ^cv-), have m the Aor. 
(fr^Xr*, irf«iX«) lr^X«, f^ifv« • while ittmiptt, to fatten, m^mJtat, to com- 
plete (roots «■<«»-, 9'f^fff.), have Mdm^ Imifdm. But UxpttJwat, to make leaUf 
»i^c/vM, to ffotHj MiXuhv^ to hoOaw otOj Xgv»aUt^ to whiten, i^ymita^ to enroffe, 
ittTaUatt to ripen^ have « in the penult of the Aor. ; rt^^ifm, to bore, n ; and 
etiftMifm^ to give a signal, fuaitmy to stain, both n and d, AS^m, to raise, and 
£xX0fitut, to leap, have d, which in the Indicative is changed by the aogment 
into n ; thos, i^m, ^^m, i^mfju, 

/3. A few poetic verbs retain the old forms with r ; as, n\xXm, to land^ 
»%Xwm, IxiXwu • *u^t*, to meet withy to chance, xv^rm, ixu^vot • S^pO/m (r. i^-'), 
to rouse, i^^m, Z^em • ^t^ to kneadj t^v^ra. Add these forms, niostly ftx>m 
Homer, i^ra, <Xr«, f^r«, ^i(r§/MU, ni^^tt, ixi^u, }taip^^^tt, H^^fu, 

§ S7« 3. In the Nominative^ the formative a (1.) after ^, 
and sometimes (2.) after v, becomes f, which is then trans* 
posed, and absorbed (§ 31) by the preceding vowel ; as, for 

(1 .) ^1^, (^^«<() ^i^* (2.) ^mtAp$, (srumtp^ wudp, 

v'mri^, («'«irii^) wur^, Xiftipt, (XtfMiP^ Xtftnp. 

f^»(t, (/nr«i() fnrtt^. htif^Pt^ (hu/Mip^ imiiun. 

Except in imf^d^ (§ 109). 

4. In the Dative plural of the third declension, v preceding 
a without an intervening r, is dropped ; as, for 

ftiXxprt, ftiXm^i. For ^uifjt§p0t, ^ifi0n. 

XtfAtpn, XifM,iru h^'*» f*^^ 

So also with r, in the Dat pL of adjeethes in -ut ; afl, for ;^«^/ifrr<, ;^« • 

5. In the feminine of adjectives in -f/p, v before a becomes 
; as, for x^i^Uvxna^ (x^Qtsyan) x"Qlfoaa, 


by Google 

LB. 3.] 



^ «I8^ 6. Otherwise, v before a is changed into <k, which ii 
the^ contracted with the preceding vowel (§§ 34, 50) ; as, for 


Norn. Fern. 


For ^dvtrm, 




Dat PluT 

Terbs in Sd Pen. Flnr. 

r/^i»^4» Tt^id€4, ri^ufi. 
}iin^U ithmfi, }ii9urt, 
iii»9V9€tj iuufvdt'it iu»fV0t. 






Notes. «. Hie ibrms rAUiwi, Wii^t, and )i/»»tfii^i were naed by the 
Attics, for the most part, without contraction ; fa^t received no contraction. 

fi. In noons, if »^ precede r, the » is retained ; as, for tXftn^t^ Ix/Mvf , for 
tXfut^it Ikfuwt (yet others, iXftitri), It is also retained in some forms in 
trtii and derivatiTes in ^n, from verbs in -«/»«, as «'i^«vrM from ^»i9t^ 
wiwatnt from v^^ttitm • and sometimes in the advorb wdXtt^ and the ac^ective 
«'«», in composition. Add the Homeric »iirr«i, If. 337. For l», rvy, and 
<l^ jwe § 68. 3. In the rough Aigive and Cretan, » seems to have been 
extensively retained befwe r ; thus, iut «S^»«} for iif , ri^if 

% S9« 7. In the Dative plural of syncopated liquids^ and 
of tttfTi^V, 8tar^ the combination -e^o-, by metathesis and the 
change of t to «, became -^acj- ; as, for naiiqai^ natqaa^ ' for 

8. Elsewhere the combinations la and qo were permitted to 
stand, except as o radical after g was softened in the new Attic 
to ^ (§ 70) ; as, «^(Ji?y, male^ ^agfogy courage^ xo^^jj, temple^ 
cheeky for the older agarivy ^agaogy xo^ai}. The combination ^a 
is unknown in classic Greek. 

^60. VI. Between two consonants, a forma- 
tive is dropped, and v is changed to a (^ 50) ; as, 

yty^Lp^^mt, yty^dip^mi • for XiXty^B-tj XlXi;^Sf • for l^^a^fratt i^^d^^rmi, 
NoTS. So the compound ^^tw^x*** is written bj some ^•ft^x'**- 

^61. VII. Before x formative^ a labial or 
palatal mute unites with it in the cognate roughs 
and a lingual mule is dropped ; thus. 


by Google 







^63. VI 11. If raugh mutes begin two succes- 
sive syllables, the Jirst is often changed into it» 
cognate smooth^ especially (1.) in reduplications, or 
(2-) when both letters are radical; but (3.) in the 
second person singular of the Aorist imperative pas- 
sive, the second rough mute is changed ; thus, for 

(1.) ft^iXn»my wt^iXnumi (2.) ^(t^it, *VX^f* 

T^X^f*^ »tX^fmm. ^»X^t r»x^* 

^a^tifn^ ri^fifii, (3.) ^tfvXiu^^i, $«»ktv%rt. 

K0TB8. at. Upon the same prindple, tx*' beoomds };^m • and whenever / 
li t«da]ilioated, the first / becottieB tmnath^ and, as it then cadnot sltfid at the 
beginning of a word ($ 13* 2^ is transposed ; as, for fifupt, Vfff^ ^^ ^^ 
ted, by a softening of the second ;, fi^ifirm/tiv* ^. 59, ft^witftitM Anaer. Ft, 
105^ ^^t^^tu Find. Ft. 281. 

/3. So, to avoid excessive aspiration, a rough mute is never preceded by th« 
s&me rottgh mate, bat, instead of it, by th6 cognate smooth ; as, the £pi6 
*m9- fciXm^M, for »it^ ^^Xaftt ($ 48. 2) ) SO, 2tt*^ ^i^X'h ^Ar^if • and, 
upon the same principle, liu^fti (§ 13. 2). 

§ 68. IX. The semivowels v, p, and ^, are the 
only consonants that may end a word. Any other 
consonant, therefore, falling at the end of a word, 
is either (1.) dropped, or (2.) changed into oAe of 
these, or (5.) assumes a vaioel ; thus, for 

(I.) r«^r. 


























(3.) fi»uktuMf*f 






(2.) ^Sr, 





A word, can 

end with 

two consor 

lantB, only y 

the lost is a ; as, mA^, yvift {yvng), ii/J (viJx?), xo^«5. Hence the 
formative v of the Accusative is changed into a (§ 50) after a 
consonant, except in a few cases, in which a Ungual mute 
preceding v is dropped ; thus, for 

yv4rv, 7«Kr«. FOT »Xiidf, »Xt/^s and nXut, 

»«^s»f, »«^«4(ai. I'^N^v, S^*iJ^M and l!fMw. 

«r«<)*, «'«4)a. yiktiTv, yiXira and >tX*f» 

L-iyiii^tJU uy -«^-J v_^ x_^ -t IV^ 

elL 8.j StMOKIb L.iWft. 113 

§ 64. X. A consonant is sbtoetimesi inserted or 
transposed^ to soften the sound. Thus, 

1. When a simple vowel is brought by inflection or composi- 
tibd before an initial ^, a smooth o is inserted ; as, iif^aaa, 
aQfwatog, im^(}(6wv(ju, from fmyviifAi (i-^ a-, and int prefixed) 
but sv^maiog (the diphihang hi prefixed). 

2. When, by syncope or metathesis, a nasal is brought be 
fore I or ^, the cognate middle mute is inserted; as, from 
ipif^of^ {jm^^oq) opdgogy from fitoti^tqia^ fitaiififiiqlai 

KoT^ It the nasal is hiittal, It is then dropped fitom th6 difflcalty of 
tonndidg it ; e. gi^ the roots of fikirrm and j3x^»* are thus changed ; fttXsr-t 
ftXiT-, /nfiXsr^ /SXir.; /mX^ ^X«^ ^^X»-, /3X«.; 80 fi^tT§$, morta^ derived 
ttom fiti^tSf Lat mors, 

3. Transposition especially afl^cts a liquid c6ming before 
another consonant ; as, for* &6(faxtay &qwoxtit^ for ^d^aXxa^ fli" 

^ 6«l. B. In the Connection of Words, 

I. When a smooth mute is brought by (1.) era- 
sis or (2.) elision before the rough breathings it is 
changed into its cognate rough ; as, for 

(1.) »*} ;, »«} .j; 

X^y Xi' 

For wxtm yxnr, ^x^* '' *»»• 

r« ifUTt»9, 


And in composition, ftsM 

Tw lrif§tff 


k^h and Inioy «^/if/»«. 

ir§» iftiutf 


^%nM and A^lf«, ^t^nfAt^* 

(«.) M .i. 

k<p' tJ. 

\trrm, and V^«f i^^>e'«* 

KoTB. In some ooinpoands, this change takes place with aa failervening 
^ ; and in some words, it i4>peafB simply to have arisen finom the tendeDcj of 
^ to aspiration (ct § 18. 2) ; as, ^dht (from w^ and •}•! )| f^^fit (we* 
^«itf), rii^e'^*''* (rirr«e*f > 7«'«'0f ) ; ^($ifM»9 («'(•> 'V'^ )) '^f <*' ^^ ^'"^ ^* 

^ 66. II. Some words and forms end elthei 
t(n^ or unthoui a JincU consonant according to (^u* 
phony, emphasis, or rhythm 

In most of these cases, the consonant appears not to belong to the iri^pnal 
form, but to have been assumed. In some cases, however, the reverm appears 
to be true ; and some cases are doubtAiL 

1. Datives plural in «, and verbs of the third person in » 
%nd I, assume w at the end of a sentence, or when the ne5« 
word begins with a vowel ; as, 

nSri yk( tl*t rw»r» • but, E^'TIv »M «'Sr«». 
n«r< kiyw^t Twrt • but, Flsriv miri kiytpetw, 
i\J * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Notes. «. So, likeirifle^ adverU tf place m .#» (piroperiy datives phiral 
the advert) 'ri^vrs, last year^ the numenl ttrnt^t (comraonlj), the deraonstra* 
tive -i preceded bj r (sometimes), the Epic case-ending ^ and the Epic 
particles »!, 9v, and fU^t • as, li Uxmramm tiyt/t^ia' %t»»0n fm. See § 21 1 . N. 

^. The y thus assomed is called v paragogie. It is sometimes employed by 
the poets before a consonant to make a syllable long by position ; and in most 
kinds of verse, some of the best editors write it nniibrmly at the end of a line. 
In Ionic prose it is generally neglected, bat in Attic prose it is sometimes 
found evm before a consonant in the middle of a sentence. In grammars 
and lexicons, a paiagogic letter is commonly marked thus : <7»dri(y). 

§ 67» 2. The. adverb ovrcucr, thus^ commonly loses a before 
a consonant ; and a/^i and /iixgt^ urUU^ often assume it before 
a vowel ; as, ovt«» qnjal ' ftixQ^^ <>v* 

3. Some other words have poetic or dialectic fcnmn, in which a final » or f 
is dropped or assumed : aa, local adverbs in 3fv (poet , chiefly Ep., St>, nn- 
meral adverbs in -tug (Ion. -tu), 4bvt4»^v;, «r#i^f, tftwrng^ wmXiPy tv^v(jt\ 

^ 68. C. Special Rulks. 

1. The preposition ^$, out of^ becomes ^x* before a consonant, 
and admits no further change ; as 4% xaxoiy, ^xas i;ai^ ixytXdtt^ 
Ix^ero;, ixfidaaw. 

2. The adverb ov, not^ before a vowel, assumes x, which 
becomes/ before the rough breathing; as ov yijai, ovx IVeorii', 
ovx vtiy ovxirt. 

Notes. «• The advert) finxirt, from ftn and lr<, follows the analogy of 

fi. In these wordM, U and tv» may pertiaps be r^:arded as the original 
^rms. That in certain situations these forms are retained is owing to thdr 
ckMe connection as proclitics, or in composition, with the fbllowing word, and 
therefore forms no real excq>tion to the rule in § 63. When orthotone, they 
conform to the rule, the one by assuming r> and the other by droi^ing s. 

3. In composition, the preposition ^r, tn, retains its r before 
^ and (J ; while avvy toitk^ drops its r before a followed by an- 
other consonant, and before f; but before a followed by a 
vowel, changes V to a ; as, ivQamta^ ivadta (yet e^^v&fiog often- 
er than h(fv&fio^); avaxrma (for avvaxrina)^ avivyUt' avaatvu 
(for avyasvtf), avaanln, 

KoTB. The ^ic A» ibr &fd (§ 48. 2) here imitates It • as, &9^Ti$, It^^rn 


^ 69. A. The dialects often interchange consonants ; most 

1. Cognate Mutes ($ 49) ; as, Ion. mZnt^ VvitfMt^ for mZ^t^ Hxf^' 

i?M\. JiM^ri for i^^i. 


by Google 


Notes. «. The soft Ionic was less inctined than the Attic to the rongli 
mutes ; hence, in the Ionic, the smooth mute remains before the rough breath- 
ing (§ § 65, 68. 2) ; as, £«■' »S^ hxtiftt^og, •hx Sn, In some compounds, this 
passed into the Attic ; as, a^n^uirnsi fix)m £«■• and ^Xt§t* 

fi. Aspiration is sometimes ircmspoaed; as, Ion. »i5«#», iv^avrm^ lydif/nv, 
K«A.;(;if^Ary, for X*^''** ^*'''»v^'h i^Ttu^iy XaX«f}d4i/ir. 

IL CooRDiNATB MuTBS (§ 49) ; as. Ion. and .^1., « for r in interrogct- 
tive and ind^nite pronouns and adverbs; thus, itoTee, xov, Ȥrif for ^ms, wtvy 
wri • Dor., » for r in «'«»«, X»s, r«»«, for arari, 2Vi, rirt, and in similar 
adverbs of time ; JBoI. fri/MVi for rifft, ^( for ^^ • .^1. and Dor. yXipKf§9 
for jSXi^c^dy, ii for ytf • Dor. iitkit for o/SiXtf;, S^nx«S for tgyr^df . 

in. Liquids ; as. Dor. M«ff fiivrurtsy for ^k^n, fiixriwrts • Ion. wXii^ 
fuf* for trMv/c««>y. 

§ 70. IV. r with other letters; e."g. 

1. The Ionic and Old Attic ^g- and ^r pass, for the most part, m the later 

Attic, into TT and p|» ; as, rotwm rarret^ yXu99ot yXeiTTttj H^^tif cjp/fff. See 
§ 69. 8. 

2. Dor. r for r ; as, n«rti^«v, f inrty, tltntrt, for Htf^-ii^Aly, f ff*! r«y, i7»0r4. 
This appears especially in the 2d personal pronoun, and in the 3d pefs. of 
verbs ; as, ri;, ri, for ^i;, V< (Lat. ^ te) ; ^ar/, ^aprij kiyttrt, for ^uri, ^aW, 
XiydV0$ (Lat. legunt), 

3. Dor. r for » in the verb-ending of Ist pers. pL /Ai$ for /A$f (Lat. mut) ; 
as, xiy«/uif for Xiytfitv (Lat. iegmtts), 

4. The Laconic often changes ^ to r, and final i to ^ ; as, *ttXtdf Ar. Lys. 
988, ri«(, WAi», for vuktueg, B%«ff Six« • w^ri* for ireiTs (Lat /m«r, compare 

T. The Double Consonants with other letters;- as, old ^vir, later and 
common rvv (in the Lat. cmn the ^ has been dropped, instead of the ») ; 
.£d. "Vttw^at for 2«r^4i(' iBol. #»•»•;, r»/^«f, for ^im^, ^/^«f - Dor. ^i, ^iis 
f<Mr r^i, r^i» • loiL 2<^0;, r^t^og, for isg-g-ig^ r^tr^ig. 

For ^, we find, in the iBolic and Doric, r^, )), and ^ ; as, S0'hg, fttxith^ 

(^ 51. N.)» WAl'^IV, fuC^ Altff, for •^«f, ^iXl^A^, «'«/{«, fMS^A, Ztvg, 

§71* B. Consonants are often doubled^ inserted^ omitted^ 
and transposed by the poets, especially the Epic, for the sake 
of the metre ; as, tXXajSovy <f^daaofiai^ vittvaai^ ooao^^ onntag^ 
iddsiaBj foT tkapov^ &c. ; nxiXffioq^ nroXtg^ dix^f*^ vmvvfAVoq^ ana" 
ImfiPog^ for TtoXffiogy noXig^ ilx"^ vtorvfiocy nndXafiog * tqtiov^ 
*Odvatvg^ *JxtXtvgy (paQvyog^ for i^^iSov^ *Odvaaivg<, jixtXXevg^ <]pa- 
ifvy/og* ir^d/q, xagtigogj fidgdiaiog^ for naqdia^ xgdugog^ /^^<'~ 


by Google 



*Einm itn^ftiu 

^ 7«, Etymology treats of the Inflection and 
of the Formation of Words ; the former includ- 
mg Declension, Comparison, and Conjugation, 
and the latter, Derivation and Composition. 

For the distinction between the radieal and the fomuOhe part of Words, 
and the use of the tenns rootf prejix^affix^ open, and dMe Or vmod and eontommi 
affixes, eharaeUriMtie^ ^mre iod impure Words, nmUt iiqmd, Kqmid-^vte^ labial, 
palatal^ and Ungual words, thenuj juxradigm, &c., see General Grammar. 



§ 78. The two classes of Substantives (in- 
cluding Nouns and Substantive Pronouns) and 
Adjectives (including the Article, Adjectives com- 
monly so called. Adjective Pronouns, and Partici- 
ples) are declined to mark three distinctions, Gen- 
der, Number, and Case. 

Note. Acyectives receive these distinctions merelj fbr the sAke cf €QO« 
ibrming to the substantives to which they belong. ^ 

A. Gender. 

^74. The Greek has three genders ; the Mas- 
culine, the Feminine, and the Neuter. 

Notes. «. Noons which are both masculine and feminine, are said to b« 
of the comnum gender. 


by Google 

•». I.J Gj^MPER. in 

(^ To mask the mmden of Greek nomui, m employ the different forBu of 
the article , in tlie singular, for the masculine, ; for the feminine, « ; tor th^ 
oommon, «, h ; and for the neuter, r« : in the plural, for the masculine, «/ : 
hf the feminine, «/ ; fi>r the common, m, at ; wsv^ for the neuter, v^ : as, i 

Id l|ke manner, the different cfiaes and numbers, according to their gtndei^ 
■re marked ^y different fofma ^ ^ article ; as the Qeo. dng. niase^ by 

y. In the case of most animals it is seldom important to distinguish the 
gender. Hence in Greek, for the most part, the names of animals, instead 
of being common, h^ve but a smgle g«nder» which is used indifierendy for 
both sexes. Snch nouns are termed ej^cene (IrifCMts, promiscuotu), ThuS| 
i Xi/s««, wolf, h itXMxnll, fox^ whether the male or the female is spoken of. 

y Words which change their fonps to denote change of gender are termed 
movabk; and this change is termed motion; as, i fianXtug, king, 4 fiarikumf 
fMeeii ; • ^*fifi vise, 11 r«^tf, t^ r«^«y. 

1. In words in which the fbninine may either have a eomtmm form with 
the maemfine or a dtsUnet form, the AUie sometimes prefers the oommea 
form, where the Ionic and Comtnon dialects prefer the distinct form ; as, <^ 4 
^ify god, goddea, and li df« or S-mmmk, goddess. So, likewise, in adjectives. 

^709 The masculine gender belongs properly to words 
denoting males ; the feminine, to words denoting female9 ; and 
the neuter to words denoting neither males nor females. In 
Greek, however, the names of most things without life are 
maaculioe or feminine, either from the real or fknoied posses- 
sion of masculine or feminine qualities, or from a similarity in 
their formation to other nouns of these genders. 

Thus, for the most part, the names of winds and riverf 
(from their power and violence), and also of the months^ are 
masculine ; and the names of trees^ plants^ countries^ islands^ 
and cities (regarded as mothers of their products or inhabitants) 
tire feminine ; while nouns denoting mere />rorft*€^, or imply- 
ing inferiority (even though names of persons), especially 
diminutives^ are neuter ; as, 6 avf/xoc, loind^ 6 Bogduq^ Boreas^ 
o notttfiOQ^ river^ 6 NtlXog^ the Nile^ 6 fn^v, months o *E%aiofApai' 
oiy, June - Jvly^ 17 ot/x^, fig-tree^ ^ fjitjlia^ apple-tree^ ^ umogy 
pear-tree^ ij auntlog^ vinCy ^ fivlSXog^ papyrus^ ij x^ga^ country^ 
fi Atyvntog^ ^gypU V ^V^og^ island, rj Safiog, Samos, { noktg, 
^tty, 5 jtaxfSnlfimr, Laced(Bm,on ; to avxar^Jig, to fiijlov, apple, 
jI Tf'xroy, childy to nvdgdno^Qv, slave^^ to yvvmov, dim. of yvvri, 
woman, to naidiov, little boy or girL 

$76. The gender of nouns, when not determined by the 
signification, may be, for the most part, inferred from the form 
of the theme or root, according to the following rules. 

I. lo Ibe FUST pscLSNsioif (H 7), all words in -a; and *ni 


by Google 


are masculine ; all in -a and -f^, femimne ; as, o ta/ilag^ o i^av* 
Tijg' ij oixia^ ^ "^^M* 

n. In the SECOND declension (H 9), most words in -oq and 
-atg are masculine^ but some are Jfemimne or canmum ; words 
in -w and -«r are neuter ; as, o io/o^, o mi0( * if odo$9 17 IW9 
dawn ; o, 19 ^f o;, go(^, o, ^ agxrog^ bear ; to ovxWf to at^/emr. 

Except idien the dmuimtive fini in ^ is giren to iNmininfl proper names; 

a. All words in -tvg are masculine ; all in -eo and -«tv« fi"^ 
nine ; and all in -a, -i, -v, and -o;, neuUr; as, o tTTTrf v;, o a/*- 
^^ci;;, amphora; r^ ij^ctf, { yav$* yo augiOy 16 iidXiy honey ^ to 
aatVy TO T«T/off. 

b. All abstracts in -^ijg and -i^, and most other words in -i^ 
are feminine ; as, ij yinvxvtfigi sweetness ; { dwaftigy power, ^ 
nolfiaig, poesp ; ij ^ig, 17 noltg. 

c. All labials and palatals, all liquids (except a few in 
which ^ is the characteristic), and all liquid-mutes are either 
masculine or feminine, 

d. Nouns in which the root ends in, 

1.) -«»T-, -tr-, or -yt'y are masculine ; as, o /sImc, -etroc, /ot^ 
ter ; o Ufti^r, 'hog * o lce»y, -oyro^, o odovg, o ylyagt o Iftag, '■artog^ 

Except Ti «?f , tf^r^f , ear, ri ^2$, ^•trit, SgM (both oontracts), 4 ^fiit, fftMf. 
MMd; and a few names of cities ($ 75) ; as, h 'Fmfifwe, '§inT»ty S h am m u, 

2.) -^-, or -1^-, are feminine ; as, ^ Xafindg, -ddog, torch, ^ 
iifig, -idog, strife, ^ /Aa^i/;, -vdog, cloak ; 11 x6(fvg, -v&og, helmet. 

Except •, 4 itati, Ttuiie, diUd, § 9»ut% ^•iit, foot, i, h S^iSf -lS«r, bird, 

3.) -aT-, or -a-, are neuter ; as, to r^nuQ, -aiog, to Kigag, -atogf 
TO yigag, -^og. 

B. Number. 
^77. The Greek has three numbers; the Sin- 
gular, denoting one; the Plural, denoting more 
than one ; and the Dual (dualis, from duo, two)^ 
a variety of the plural, which may be employed 
when only two are spoken of. 

Thus, the singalar &9^(MTf signifies man, the plaral &v^(t0*§t, mm (whetn 
er two or more), and the dual 4»S^4^4r«, two Msa. 

BKMAnc. The dual is most used in the Attic Graek. In the JEoIio diakd 

Oigitized by VjOOQIC 


CH. l.J CASE. 119 

(at in the Latin, wtdch H apinmu^es tiie mott neaify of the Greek dialeote^ 
and in the Hellenistic Greek, tiia dual doei not ooeor, except in )«•, iwo^ and 
Mm^ both (Lat. dmOj ambo). 

C. Case, 

^78. The Greek has five cases; 
1. The Nominative, expressing the subject of a sentence. 


** Genitive, 


the point of departure, or cause. 


« Dative, 


the indirect object, or accom- 


" Accusative, 


direct limit 


** Vocative, 



KoTBS. «. From the general character of the relations which they denote^ 
the Nominative, Aocosative, and Vocative are termed the direetj and tha 
Genitive and Dative, the indireet cases. 

/S. The Nominative and Vocative are also termed casus reed, the right eaam 
and the other three, casu* oMiquif the oblique C€uet, 

^ For a fiiDer statement of the use qf the cases, see Syntax. 

D. Methods of Declension. 

^79. Words are declined, in Greek, by an- 
nexing to the root certain affixes, which mark 
the distinctions of gender, number, and case. 
There are three sets of these affixes ; and hence 
arise three distinct methods of declining words, 
called the first, second, and third declensions. 

The first of these methods applies only to words of the mas- 
culine and feminine genders ; the second and third apply to 
words of all the genders. In some of the cases, however, the 
affixes vary, in the same declension, according to the geiider ; 
so that, to know how a word is declined, it is necessary to 
ascertain three thbgs ; 1. its root^ 2. the declension to which it 
belongs, and 3. its gender. 

Hie mode in which the gender is marked has been aiready stated (§ 74, /3). 
Firom the theme (L e. the Nom. sing.) and the gender, we can often determine 
■t once the root and the declension. If it is necessary to marlc these expli- 
citly, it is commonly done by giving^ with the theme, the Genitive singular, or 
its ending. If the Genitive nngular ends in ^mt or -nu or in .«» from a theme, 
m -uf or -n$, tiu word is of the first dedensions if it ends m .»ufrom a theme m 
-09 or -sfi the word is of the second declension ; if it ends in -tt, the word is of 
Ae 0ttrd declension. The root is obtained by throwing off the affix of the Genitive $ 
or it may be obtained by throwing off any afl^ beginning with a voweL 

Hins the nonns, I rafttmty steward, ^ •ixUt house, h yX^rr«, tongue, i ^f*t^ 


by Google 


pep^ imd i^A^^t Arab, milkd ill the Genitive, r«^y, fhrnt, yXmt^nti M 
f4,0M, a?i4 "A^fif^f. FroiQ (kese genitives, we a4c«rtain ^t rafnitu, •Uitty an^ 
yXZrrtt belong to the first declension, ^iifA»i to the second, 4nd "A^*^ to th^ 
third. By throwing off the affixes -«&, -as^ -nt^ and -«f, we obtain the root! 
TKfU'y eUs-, ykmrr-, itifA-^ and 'A^t($-, The words are then declined by an- 
nexing to these roots the affixes in the table (^ 5). 

^80. In the declension of words, the follow- 
ing GENERAL RULES are observed. 

I. The masculine and feminine affixes are the 
same, except in the Nom^iative and GenUtve sin- 
gular of the Jirst declension. The neuter affixes 
are the same with the masculine and feminine, 
except in the direct cases, singular and plural. 

II. In neuters J the three direct cases have the 
same affix, and in the plural this affix is always d. 

III. The dual has but two forms; pne for the 
direct J and the other for the indirect cases. 

IV. In the feminine singular of the first declen 
sion, and in the plural of all words, the Vocative is 
th^ 35me with the Nominative. 

% 8 !• RracARKS. 1. The use of the Yoc as a distinot form is atll 
furtW limited. Few svbetantives or adjectives, except proper names and pern 
sonal appellatives and epithets, are sufficiently employed in address to require 
a separate fonn for this purpose. Hence the participle^ pronovKj artieje, and 
uimeral have no distinct Yoc. ; and in respect to other words which 9re de- 
clined, the following observations may be made. 

a. JkTeucuIimet at Dec I. are commonly names or epithets of persoaa, and 
l^ierefore fonyi the Yoo. sing. 

fi. In Dec. 11^ the distinct form of the Yoc. is commonly used, except for 
euphony or rhythm ; as,^n ^/X«f, Z ^i>.»s^ my friend I my friend! Ar. Kub. 
1 167. ' a>;x0( Z UinXgLi A. 189. *HiXii$ rt F. 277. To avmd the 4ouhIe 
I, Si0;, god (like deus in Latin), has, m classic vrriters, no distinct Yoc. ; yet 
0M St. Matth. 27. 46. 

y. In Dec. III., few words, except proper names and personal appellative^ 
and epithets, have a distinct Yoc. ; and even in those which have, tiie Nom. 
i9 sometimes employed in its stead, especially by Attic writers ; thus, ^Sl trSra 
xtfXi Ar. Ach. 971 ; but *^n viXtg Soph. Phil. 1213. Ai»» Soph. Aj. 89 ; but 
*ft ^<X * A7«f lb. 629. In many words of this declension, the Yoc. cannot 
be formed without such a mutilation of the root as scarcely to leave it inteUi- 
^ble($$ 63, 101). 


by Google 


^892. An tnspection of the table (If 5) will likewise 
show, that, in regular declension, 

*.) The Nom. sing* mase. and (ezc^t in Dec I.) fern, always ends in f 

fi.) The Dat. mng. always ends in $, either written in the line or subscribed. 

y.) The Ace sing, (except in neuters of Dec. m.) always ends in v, or its 
corresponding vowel a (4 50) ; aiid the Ace. plnr. maac. and fern, is always 
formed by adding g to the Ace. sing. (§§ 34, 58). 

h) The Gen. pins', always ends in m. 

^.) In Dec I. and 11., the affixes are all opem (i. e. begin with a vow^ 
and iH oonstttute a distinct syllable In Dec III., three of the affixes, r, 9, 
and n^ are dote (i. c begin with a eonmmantX and of these the two first, 
hanng no vowd, must unite with the last syllable of the root* 

^.) In the singular of Dec. III., the direct cases neut, and the Yoc. masc 
and fem., have no affixes. 

NoTR. It foOoMTS, from nos. i and ^, that words of Dec. I. and 11. are 
faruyWdne (par, equal), that is, have the same number of syllables ic all 
their cases ; but wofds of Dec. III. are hnftaruyUabic, that is, have more 
sylhibles m some of their cases than in others. 

3. The Table (U 6) exhibits the affixes as resolved into 
their two classes of Elements ; T. Flexible Endings, which 
are tignijicant additions, marking distinctions of number, case, 
and gender ; and II. Connecting Vowels, which are euphonic 
in their origin, and serve to unite the flexible endings with the 
root For farther illustration, see the following sections upon 
the history of Greek declension. 

E. History of Greek Declension. 

§ S3* The early history of Greek declension is beyond the period not 
merely of written records, but even of tradition. It can be traced, therefore, 
only by the way-marlcs which have been left npon the language itself, and by 
the aid of comparative philology. The fbllowing view of the subject has 
much evidence in its support, and serves to explain the general phenomena of 
Greelc declension, and of the use of the numbca^ and cases. 

Greek declension was progresdve. At first, the simple root was used, as in 
some languages even at the present day, without any change to denote num- 
ber iir case ; thus, i^^y fi»h, ywr, imiitere, whether one or more were spoken 
of. Then the plural number was marked, by affixing to the root i, the sim- ^ 
pie root, of course, now becoming nngular, as each new formation limits the 
^se of prior forms ■ thus. 

Singular, Ix^i, fidi. Plural, Ix^* /«*«• 

yvr, vulture^ yv^t, tuthiret. 

The next step was to make a separate form, to express th« wdtreel, as 
distinguished fh>m the direct reUtions. This was done by aimezing i to the 
root, and this form became phiral by adding one of the oommon signs of the 
pharal, » We hava now the disthicttoa of case ; thus, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

122 <»ECI«E2)i310N. [bOOK H 


Direct Case, ix^v 


Indirect Gate, Ix'^ut 



- ^ S 4 • Each of those cases was afterwards subdivided. (A.) From 
the Direct Case were separated, in the mascniine and feminiw. genders, twi 
new cases, the one to express the subject^ and the other the lUrect object^ of an 
action, i. e. the Nbminativef and AccuatxHoe ecues. 

llie Nominative was formed by adding $, as &e sign of ^the tmi jeei, to tka 
old Dii*ect forms ; tbus^ Sing. Ix^^h yw, Plur. Ix^^^t yvwu^ 

The Accmatwe was formed by adding tq the root, as the sign of tbe ^^r^ 
obfect, 9t which in the plural took one of th/9 Qommon signs of the i4ural, t ; 
thus, Smg. ix^vyt yvfPj Plur. ix^h Y^*fi ^i hy the euphonic ctuwge of t 
into its corresponding vowel (§§ 58, 63, R.), Sing, yvret, Plur. tx^^»t, 

(B.) Prom the Indirect Case was separated a new ease to express the 
ntf^edhej as distmguished from the ol^jecHve relations, i. e. the OenHive, This 
was formed by affixing ^, or commonly, with a euphonic vowel, «^w In tha 
phiral, this took tfaa plural affix » ; thus, fSv. But by the laws of ouf^ony, 
which afterwards prevailed, neither S, nor ^v could end a word (J 63). 
Therefore, S either was changed to $, or was dropped, or assumed the vowel i 
(commonly written with y paragugic iv, § 67. 3) ; and a^v became »t* by the 
absorption of the ^ (^, perhaps, first passmg into r, as in the singular, then r 
bebig changed mto its corresponding vowel i, and this absoHted). Ttuia «^ 
became «# , «, or ^Siv ; and «3ir, i»«. 

The old Indirect Case remained as a Datha, witkont diaoge, exeapt tliat a 
new plural was formed by annexing the dative sign 4 (§ 83) to the Komioa- 
tive plural. 

§ 8 «!• The plural had now throughout a new form, but the old form 
had 80 attached itadf to various names of incessant oso, that in most of the 
dialects it was still preserved. But these household plurals, which could not 
be shaken off, would be principally such as referred to objects double by natnre 
or custom, as the eyes, hands, feet, shoea^ wings, &e. Hence this £r>nn oaina 
at length to be iq>propriated to a ^tai sense, though in the time of Uomer 
this restriction of its use seems not as yet to have been fully made. IIm 
simple form of die root was likewise retained in the smgular as a caae of ad- 
dress ( Vocative), in words in which there was occasion for such a form, and 
the laws of euphony allowed it. In the plural the Vocative had never an> 
form distinct fVom the Nominative. We have now the three numbers, anc 
the five cases, which, with the euphonic dianges already mentSened, appeal 

• Smg. Nom. -» hx^t yi*t (y^) 

(Jen. 'H ix^*i ytHtU 

Dat. •» *x^^* yvTs • 

Voo, ♦ !x^ 

Vkr. N.V. ^ Ix^f ywt 

Ace. Hif hc^^ y^«i 


by Google 

CH. 1 * HISTORY. ISfc 

Dual Da*, -i Ix^St yftn 

For the sake of completeness, ^e have added in the table above two later 
modifications; viz., the common shorter Dat. plur., formed by dropping i 
(unless one chooses to fbrm it from the Dat. sing, by inserting the plnral sign 
r) ; and the Indirect Case dual prolonged by inserting «, after the analogy of 
the Gen. sing, and plu^. 

^ HO. We have exhibited above the primitive nude declension, now 
cilled the third. Bat snbeeqfaently *wo ether modes of declension sprang np, 
having oonneethig vowels, which united the ileidble endings to the root ; liM 
one having «, now cidied the §ecomd dedenslen ; and the other, •, now odM 
the firtL These dedensbns dioee rather to drop than to change the final ^ of 
the Gen. shig., apparently to avoid oonftision with the Nom. ; and likewise to 
FHain the old Dh«ct Case as a Nom. plur., which became afterwards distiiH 
giiished from the dual by a difi^crent mode of contraction, its more finqaent ose 
leading to precession* In all the affixes of these declensions in which two 
▼owels came together, contraction natwally took plaee m one or another of iito 
forms ; and in the Dat. plur. a shorter form became the more ooomon 000^ 
made either by drapping < in»i the longi^ form, or by folding tite plnral sign $ 
to the Dat. sing. For « in the Yoc., inatoad of •, see § 28, We give as an 
nple of DoD. II., i Xiyt, word, and of Dec L, ^ r«/M#f, ttmoard. 

Sing. Nom. 

























Bw. N. v. 











Xiytm, •«# 
















In the Nom. and Aoc. sing. <of these dedensionf, the primitive dhfeet form^ 
without f or t appended, waa tometimee retained ; as, Nom. &vi^rd, twirird 
($ 95. 2 ; Qompare the Latin mauta, pogta), i - Aec vm^, U, 'AS» (§ 97). So 
the neuton ri, ixx$, mM, Uum, H (§ 97). 

•^ ST. We have thus hr treated only of the fnateuline gender. In the 
nmOtt (wbitk ooeoKS 011^ in the second and third declensions), since things 
without lift htv<e no volvotary action, the distinction of subject and object io 
obviously of far less consequence, and therefore in this gender the separation 
of the Nom., Ace., and Yoc. was never made. The place of these three cases 
«contin led to be sappHed by a shigle Direct Ctee, which in the singular of 
Dec. in. was the simple root, and in die sinyrular of Dec II. ended in tt (the 
9 being either euphonic, or more probably having the same foree as in the 
Jop«, «nd mivfcing the otyeetive character of the gender). The plnral has the 
same form in hoth declensions, simply appending, instead of the old 1, 4 (which, 
|W t}ie corresponding vowel of » (§ 50), is more objective in its character), and 
Vrithout a connecting vowel. We give, as examples, rt ^dm^v (poetic), ttar, 
«tr fkr* tlL, and « i #t;»«», Jkfy of Dec. II. 


by Google 


Sing. N. A. y. i^^v m-w 

Gen. imu^'H 0v»'4tf 

Dat. idftfV'i rvx-y 

Plur. N. A. y. ImM^v-m * ' rv»^ 
Gen. tmmfu-mf w^x-mv 

Dat. ia»^v-ffi 9V»^*$f 

Dual N. A. y. ^«»^ff.s r^x.«r 

G. D. %«itt^V'»n rtf»-Mf 

§ 8 8* The distinction of sabject and object is less striking in the yew- 
^iM-e thaii m the masculine ; and benoe, in the Jim dedmision, wliere then 
««K no nonters with which a distinction must be maintained, Uv* feminine is 
^ttinguished from the masculine by not appending the suUfective $ in the 
Num. sing. (§ 84 , and by retaining the form »$ in the Gen. sing., as tha 
reason for preferring the shorter form does not now exist (§ 86). The « of 
this ending is absorbed in the preceding «, unless one chooses to consider the 
t as here appended without the euphonic vowel (§ 84. B). In all the other 
eases, the feminine has precisely the same form as the masculine. Thus, i 

Sing. Kom. nM-i, 0»t£ Flor. Nom. 9m»i 

Gen. ^Mi-d-Hf 0»mt Gen. 9»tm * 

Dat. fsu-ti-T, 0Mtf Dat. ^tumg 

w^Loc r»4-«-», r»MB» Ace eiudg 

For the ).n<ee8sion which has taken place so extendvely in the singular of 
Dec. I., see ^ 93. 

§ 8 0v In the earlier Greek, the prevalent mode of avoiding hiatus was 
not, as afWw%i js, by contraction, but by the insertion of a strong' breathing 
or aspirate omr^mant (cf. § 117). Of these the most prominent- appeaia tk 
have been the digamma (§ 82. T), And, although this has disappeared ttom 
the language, yet it has left other consonants which have dther> taken its 
place, or idikh were used in like manner with it. The insertioa of these 
consonants, to^y^ether with different modes of contraction, has given an especial 
variety of form, in ihejirst and teeomd dedenshm, to the Dative tingular, which, 
as the primitive induct case (§ 83), originally performed the offices of both 
the Genitive and the Dative. Thus, we find, . 

1.) The I appended with the hisertion of ^ the natural successor of the 
digamma. This form is Epic, and from its being used as both Gen. and Dat., 
and sometimes fiven supplying the place of these cases hi the plural, is evi- 
dently of great antiquity. £. g. 

Gen. Sing. Dec. I. i| litiif i O. 580, /3. 8 ; iri n»fip9 O. 300 : Deo. II. 
kvi irm^^akip H. 268 ; in vtfri^tv ». 83 ; Jkwi wXmri^ irrvi^tp N. 588 
IXiip ftXurm rtix*» O. 295 ; ^r' eturi^n A. 44. 

Dat Sing. Deo. L Up fi'mp ^Mwmt X. 107 ; if** Jim fmsptftimfn ). 407, 
I. 618; iri^efi 11. 734; S^p* t. 238: Dec IL wm^* mvript M. 802 ; lir* 
hiiopv N. 308 ; ^ii^tv H. 366. 

Gen. and Dat Plur. Dec II. iTrri Un^viipi wXnr^f P. 69S, T. 897, I. 
705 ; A^' Urtiipiv ^ 134 ; i^* Urti^tv r. 145 ; I'x^iifiv /». 414. 

NoTBB. «. Tlie ^ likewise appears m the Datwe j)htral of a few wordi ot 
the third dedauiom, v^ere it seems to have been inserted for the sak) of 


tjy Google 

^H. 1.] HISTORY. 

lengthening tbe pceeeding syllable ; aa, fi^ir^ ^ fixr S^^'t, These fixrms were 
also used as both Gen. and Dat.; thus. Gem. »««•* S^i^^i A. 452; w^i^B'*.., 
•X*^P" B* 107 ; ««■• 0vti^trft9 S, 214 ; ^il % rnf^trfi* £. 41 : Dat. rvv 
;;^irf< IL 811 ; ;^>rfi A. 474 (cf. 479), X. 139. 

fi. Tlie following forms in -f '(0 require special notice ; (a) U^m^ipv t. 59, 
ard »«rvXii)«»«^/» i. 433, whidi are formed as firom nouns at Dec. II., while 
the themes in ase are Ux^^ ^ ^^ ^*) ^^^ xtfrvXn^^t of Dec IIL ; (b) 
i^rtV^i K. 156, and *E^ii3cr^y (probably the correct form for *E(ifi$v(rp¥ I. 
572, Horn. Cer. 350, Hes. Th. 669), which appear to have plural forms^ 
though singnlar in then* use ; (e) vmufn, an irregiilar plural form for imufs, N. 
700 ; also used as Gen. 11. 246, &c ; (<i) the Epic adverb Tf «, with m^, 
k» 38, which appears to be an old Dat. sing, from ft, 

y. Compare with these forms in .^i, the lAtin Datives tUn, nbi, nobiSf 
wbit, deabui, aermoitibuSf rebus, and the Latin adverbs of place in -bi ; as, tbi, 
aUbij vtriJbi, from if, aUus, vter. The forms in .n^« when used as Datives are 
fliten written incorrectly with an i subscript {-i^p, § 25. «), as though ^i had 
been added to the complete Dat. form. For the » paragogic, see § 66. «. 

§ 0O« 2.) The I appended with the inserticm of i^. This form became 
adverbial (chiefly poetic), denoting the place where; as, •1*»^ at home, «{XX«- 
S«, dmuhare, rnvri^t, t^t^ KpfivBoBi. It was mostiy confined to the eeeond 
deeleiuioH, and, in the few instances in which it was made from nouns of other 
declensions, it still imitated the forms of this. Traces of its old use as the 
Indirect Case still remun in Homer ; thus, Gen. ov^avoBt r^^, ss v^i w^cifv, 
T. 3, *l)uiBt w(i 0. 561, fiH^t w(i C* 3^ ; I>at. Mti^i^t I. 300, •. 370. 

3.) The I appended with the insertion of %. This form appears only in 
the Epic i}^i (improperly written by some ^x** ^* ^^* y)> ^^ ^ advcobial 
Dative f, where, A. 607. 

4.) The < ooatracted with the preceding • in the seoond dedension Into h 
(§ 82). This simpler mode of contraction now scarcely appears except in 
adverbial Datives; as, «7»m, at home (but «7»^, to a house; cf. in Latin, domi 
and dbuMt), rs^ *UBfUi^ t^ tvt. Yet U *UB/»m S^fm, Fr. 209; i§ 
n^tfif r<M Inscr. Ciet. ; tm ^/mj Inscr. Boeot. 

5.) The common form, in which the i is absorbed by the preceding vowel; 
as, •-« ^ t^ f] thus, ^(fy «&^ 'l^^/^f' 

^01* The forms of the Genitive in ^tv or ^» (§ 84. B) remained 
*io the eomaon language only as adverbs, denoting the place whence; as, 
9i««dt», from homcj ilxx^^it, mvroBtf, 'Ad^vffStf. As examples of their use 
as decided Genitives, may be cited l| KWvfAn^t 0. 304, V^ «v^f«di» 0. 19, 
ir* «^«»£^» A. 18; and the pronominal forma ifai!^*, rsi^v, l^», which 
tnn ooenr in Attic poets. 

11 • 


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ISMT DECi.BI«BIO^. [book II 



L The First Declension. 

[For the affixes and paiadifrnt , .aee f IT 5 -a] 

^08. For the original affixes of Dec. I., which all had a 
as a connecting vowel, see §§ 86, 88. In most of these affix. 
es, a either became part of a diphthong, or else, either through 
contraction or the force of analogy, became long. Short a 
however remained in the singular^ 

1.) In the direct cases of femininesy whose characteristic 
was a, a double consonant, or Xk ; as, yXwaaa^ ylmaaup (^7), 
diipii^ thirsty ^o|fli, opUiioUy qI^u^ root^ afnHn^ earUesL 

Notes. «. Add a few feminines in -Xa, and some in -tm, particulaily^^mdle 
ap/>ellativet ; as, wmukd and mveiv-mukSLj rest, txt^fA, viper^ fti^tfAnt, eore, iUTt 
fdj mutrets, kUtvd, HoneMs; likewise axmvB'm, thom, 

i3. Add, also, many ieminines in -m pure and .^«. These have mostly a 
diphthong in the penult, and may aU be recognized by the accent, except the 
proper names Kip^o, Hvp^M, and the numeral ftiiy one. The principal classes 
are, (a) Polysyllables in -cm and .m«, except abstracts in -ua from verbs tn 
.^S0 ; as, JiX^B-uSy irm^, cA>m£, good-wiU, fittriXuit, qweeM, but /B«r«Xt«li; mym» 
iirom $ttf 1X160 • (b) Female designatioM in -tftmi at, ^^4kXrftSi, fimak mttai^ 
dan: (c) DitsyflaUes and some pdysyllabitf names of plaoes in -4m«; as, 
^r«, goid motiitt, 'UrUuit' (d) Words in -w*; as, /luTSit Jfy' (*) HMt 
words in .^ whose penult is lengthened by a diphtttoag (tzospl mm), by S^ or 
by ;/ ; as, fUx»4(A, tword, yi^Sfi, bridge^ Ilvffi. 

y* The accent commonly shows tlia quantiQr of final • in the theme. 
Thus, in all proparoanfttmes and properupomenaf it must be ahort by the general 
laws of accent ; while, by a spedal law of the dedeoslon. It is long in all 
octytones, and in all /lomtytonet in •«, Gea. -mt, ttceepc tha time tteatioiisd in 

Note /3. 

2.) In tlie Vocatioe of nouns in -tfic^ and of genttUs and 
vompound verbals in ^17; ; as vavtijg (5[ 7), JWu^^, ScjftkUm^ 
Uf^arjg^ Persian, yfwfiiiQtig (y?, earthy fUTQiio^ to measure)^ 
geometer^ fiVQonwXrig (fivgov^ perfume^ nwUw^ to sell) ^ perfumer ^ 
Voc. vavia^ 2%vSiiy flfqaa (but UsQafig^ Perses^ a man^s name, 
Voc. niqori)^ yftofihiqa^ fiVQonmla* 

^ 03. In the singular, long a passed, by precession, into 
fly unless precedod by ^, t, t», or po (§ 29) ; as, vavri;;, rctittj^ 
Aiffetdtig^ AtQtldijv^^AT^Hdriy ykbluo'igy ykulooj,, ti^ij, tifi^g^ Tf/iijV' 


by Google 


butt ttt^MBpf trnfii^y auti^ OKiag^ &v^i^ Siif&p (51 7), idiiJiy it ea 
HiffiSy need^ X9^^y color, 

NoiB. Long a likewise remains in the pores, «■««, grois, rr^a, jxirck, yvM^ 
fieldf r<»vc, gourd, tm^vd, walnut-tree, iKaS, olive-tree^ "Setv^txadf Nau$icaa ; in 
tiie W(HXls, mXmxif war-ay, itri/S^*, day after a feast, ^ttavldXd, trofy-iprmg, 
y*99m$dtf nMe ; and in some proper names, particulariy those which are Doric 
or foreign ; as, *Af)(0/ts)c, a4«E, <I><x«^iix«, At^piidf, TX£f, ^vkXdg • and it 
became n after ^ or (0 in the words Zifti, neck, xa^n, maiden, xif^nt cheek, Jt^^^fi, 
pap, fmi, stream ; in some proper names, as Ttiffit * and in oompoonds of ^1- 
r^, to meaturetf as y%mfiir^9i$ (§ 92. 2). In some words, usage fluotnatos 
between long or short « and n ; as, 'A^arr^f Cyr. vi. 1. 31, 'A^icrmf lb. y. 1. 
4, iruni and n/m, w^vp.'td and w^vfAvn* 

§ 94* Contracts. A few nouns, in which the cbamcter* 
istic is a or e, and feminine adjectives in -(& and -017, are con- 
tracted ; as, fivda pvoiy ^Egfiidq ^Egpr^^ fioQSug fio^faf (ff being 
here doubled after contraction), avxen iri'xij, fig-tree^ ZQ^^^^ 
Xifwjn^ dinXoti SmX^. For the rules, see ^§ 33, 36, 37 ; for .the 
paradigms, fl^ 7, 18. 


§ 0«S. I. In tha affixes of this declension, the Dork dialect retains 
throughout the original « ; while in the singular, the Ionic has n in most of 
thtM ihitdB hi trliich the Attk and Common dialects have long «, afid even in 
some in which they have short «, particularly derirfttives iii -iMt and "tSt 
( ^ 44) ; thus, Dor. n/^a, ri(Mis<, rs/A^ rtfiat • Ion. ^Ksn, fntnSi ^»in, r«w • 
Ep. JkXn^uMt ivwXaifit New Ion. aXnd^niii, fiin, for mXvi^ui, iSTk^iA, /AtiL, 

S. ih ilrofds In ^f, the primitive Direct Case hi 41 is somethntt rebtmed by 
Hanwr attd some of the other poets as Nom. (§ 86), fof the sUkd of thA 
metre or euphony : as, • «vrc Qvi^rd B. 107; i^nrirA Nirriv^ B. 356; ^n- 
ritra Zit/f A. 175 ; fia^vfitnTtt Xi/^wt Pind. N. 3. 92 ; iv»rk M«y«Xx«f Theoc. 
8. SO. 80 in ftminines in .«>, th6 poets sometimes retain the old short a in 
the Voc. : as, fCftfM, piXfi T. 130 : *n Ai»«, Sapph. 66 (44). On the other 
hand, Mvn Ap. Rh. 8. 886, fhr At^rA, Voc of AiMmf. 

8. The old fnttttw aMxes^ «« tod dm, whidi dten oo6ur hi thi Epic writ- 
ers, were oontntotod at follows : 

«.) In the Anit dialect, they were regularly contracted into and m, with 
the hisertion of s after a consonant (5 35) ; as, 'Ar^uhf (*ATfiii0) 'Av^tiiw, 
Ar^uitUn (*Ar^ii0«ry) 'Arfuiiat*' B«^i«« B«(i«, 'K^fuitt O. 214, IS/ifUkitt A. 
165, 'Ar;»B. 461. 

/3.) Ib tiie Doric', d aheorbed the fallowing rowel, and the affiites bM«in0 d 
and S» ($ 45. 1 ) ; aa, 'Ar(tlita§ *Ar($!Zd, *Ar^uhutf 'At^uHv, 

y.) In the Attie, d» and dmt were contracted into «v (by precession from m, 
h% 28, 29) and »» ; as, *Ar^itim9 ('Ar^ i/J«») "Ar^tth»u, *Ar^uiat9 *Ar^i£9. 

^ OO. 4. In the Aeeu^aHve of matdkEnee, the Ionic oft«n changes t 
tol, tiie old oonnectiiig vowel « now becoming • (S 40. /I) ; wm, 'U^^Mi 
Hdt i. 11, pi. Zifxirtit lb. Ill, for ^i^irorif*, h^riTdg. 

5. The dative plural in Homer commonly ends in .iir<, or .ft before a 


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vowd (wfiJch may be referred to apostrophe). There are, however, a few in 
Btances of -pf before a consonant (^Jj »«/ A. 1 79, <rir(tit w^it q. 279, &c.) 
and two, where we even find -«if, which ought, perhaps, to be changed to -91 
(ixraif M. 284, ^i»7s c. 119). An old contraction into -cr/, instead of -tit^t, 
remained m the common language in adverbs of placd ; as, Ilxara/ari, ai 
PlatatBf B^u^&ffu 

6. For the Epic Gen. in -i^iy, see § 91. For the Epic Datives in ^«, Sif 
and 'Xh see §§ 89, 90. For the Doric and .£olic forms of the Aoc plnr., 
*ee § 45. 5. 

7. Antique, Ionic, and Doric forms are sometimes ibund in Attic writers 

«.) The Dor. Gen. in -«, firom some nouns in .«;, mostly proper names ; 
as, i(9i^0^^msi fovsier^ Tmfifuctt, KMkXiat • Gen. •«vi^43ii^a, Tmfifvaf K«X- 
Xm» So all contracts in 4^^ ; as, fi»ff»i, G. fi»f^a (^ 7). 

i3.) The Ion. Gen. in .i«, ih)m a few proper names in -iif ; as, 0mXngf 
rn^ns • Gen. 0cXi«, Tn^m, 

yJ) The old Dat. phir. in .«i^i, which is frequent in the poets. So^ in Fla- 
tOb rixfatn Leg. 920 e, hf»i^ettri Phsedr. 276 b. 

li. -The Second Declension, 

[For the affixes and par&dlgms, see Sf 86, 87 ; ITf 6, 6, 0, 10.] 

$ 97* The flexible endings of the Nominative and Accusa 
ave singular are wanting (§ 86), 

1.) In the theme of the article ; thus, o for og. 

2.) In the neuter of the article and of the pronouns SXlog, 
WTog, ixslvog, and og ' thus, to, ailo^ aito, ixiivo^ o, for rof, 

Note. In crasis with the article (§ 39), and in oompoeitiQn with the pro- 
nouns vMt and riets^ the neuter «wr« more frequently becomes mMv • thus^ 
rahrit and rmbrif for ro ai/ri • r«i«tfr«v and «-0m«»t«, rf§Sm and r»wtvr»* 

8.) Frequently in the Acckisatioe of the Attic declension 
{% 9S)» particularly in ^ eo><:, dazwi, ^ aXw^, threshing-floor^ 13 
K^fiCk)^, ^ KoJff, ^ Tew<:. 6 "Af^wg ' thus, Acc. r€«f and vtm (fl 9)i 
f«, *^^w. So, in the adjectives ap^ij^wc (IT 1*7), avanUiag, fidl^ 
n^ioXQBtog, competent, 

§98. Contracts. If the characteristic is o, ?, or o, it 
may be contracted with the affix according to the rules (§§ 33- 
37). See ayriQiwg (H 17), oaxiov, voog (U 9). The contract do- 
clension in -wg and -o»v, from -aog and -aov, is termed by gram- 
marians the Attic Declension from its prevalence among Attic 
writers, although it is far from being peculiar to them (§ 7). 

Notes. «. The number of words belongiriir to tlw Attic declension it 
unalL In some of them, the uncontracted form dues iioi tifcur, m ocean 


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only with somo change. Thus, for kutyaot, s^ 

y§M, the original fonn of ynt earthy and 

iuiywtt %yyu»s) we find the extended forms ktmyafi"' 

yu»s» Some of them are variously declined. See §5 123. y, 124. y, 

$. If the diaracteristic is long «, i is inserted after the contraction (§ S9) 
thus, 9dif (jMif) 9Utf (^ 9), 9«tw (y«) »u», vo^ {yf) vi^, utit (nv») vmmt • PhUW 
§m»i {yif) vtff &C. 

7. In the Attic declension, the Norn. plur. neut. is contracted, like the 
Khe caseB, into t» ; thus, myn^^ (f 17), as if from Ayrifd-t-m, a ftrm with 
the o^nnecting voweL See § 87. 


"^ OO. 1. The affix of the Geo. img. «•• (§ 86), which was com« 
monly contracted to «v, or, in the iBolic and stricter Doric, to m (§ 44. 4), 
waft often prolonged by the .poets, especially the Epic (sometimes even by the 
Tragic in Ijnric portions), to m«; thus, witrov^Xttet^icu B. 145 ; ^•/^•u v>pn^»i» 
«. 126; J* UfM4* «. 330; ^%o» Pmd. O. 2. 37 ; S^tct* lb. 6. 60 ; fi,*y»Xf 
Aif Ale 1 (20) ; l(x»/*i*M§ Id. 37 ; «'«r«^«r«...'Ay«4r» Theoc 1. 68 ; /««- 
km»Z ;^/^r«M Id. 4. 18. The Epic genitives Ilcrc*;* (A. 327, &c.) and Iln^ 
ukuM (S, 489) are made by a single contraction, witii the osoal insertion of 
« (§ 98. ^), from the original forms IIiriM, nnnJjU*. The Epic dual forms 
in Mr», which alone are used by Homer, arise frinn a mere poetic d'mbling of 
' (§ 48). 

2. Some proper names in -h have the Gen. sing, in Herodotus, aft»r the 
analogy of Dec. I.; as, E^«iV«f, K^mVi** viil 122, but K^mw L 6; BAmm 
IT. 1 60 ; KXtftft^irw Y. 32. The Gen. plur. forms rirrMrv (Hdt. L 94) and 
Tu^imv (Id. iL 36), if genuine^ may be referred to the Ionic insertion of t 
(§ 48. 1). 

3. The old Dat plnr. in .Mr< is common in the poets of aU classes, and m 
Ionic prose. So, even in Flato, ^»irt Leg* 955 e. 

4. For the Epic Gen. in .0^9, see § 91. For the Ei^c Datives hi ^< and 
•^4, and the oLd Dat. in .m, see §§ 89, 90. For the Doric and .folic f^irms 

of the Ace plur., see § 45. 5. 

5. Contracts in -tvs from .««# occur in Homer, though rarely ; as, w»t 
»..240 (elsewhere w«f). In words in .i«f, -•#?, he sometimes protracts the • 
to u (§ 47. N. , and sometimes employs synizeeis (§ 30). 

III. The Third Declension. 

[For the affixes and paradigms, see ff 85, 87; W 5, 6, II - 16.] 

^ lOO* In this declension, the Nominative, though regard- 
ed as the theme of the word, seldom exhibits the root in its 
simple, distinct form. This form must therefore be obtained 
from the Genitive, or from some case which has an open af 
fix (§§ 79, 82. e). 

Rkmarks. 1. Special attention must be given to the euphcmk: changes 
which occur in those cases which have either cloae aflUxes, or no affixes ; that 
b in the Nonunative and Vocative singular, the Dative plural, and the Ao- 


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cttsativc abgnlar in •». For these changes, see in general $$ 51, 55, 57 - 
59, 63. 

2. Tlie flexible ending of the Aoc sing. In this, as in the oflier two de- 
clensions; seems to have been originally ». But the v was so extensively 
dianged into m in aooordanee with § 63. R, that the m beeauie the prevailing 
affix, and was often osed even after a vowd. It will thurefure be understood 
that the affix is «, if no statement is made to the contrary. When the affis 
is V, the root receives the same changes as in the theme ($ 1 10). 

W(Mrds of the third deel^usioH are diTideJ aocoftiing to the 
characteristic, into Mutes, Liquids, LtquiD^MifTES, and Pures. 

A. Mutes. 

§ 1<^1« Labials and Palatals. These are alt either 
masculine or feminine, and in none is t&e Voc formed except 
yvyii (N. y). 

Notes. «. Cor the >^ and ( in the theme and Dat |fl., see § 51. 

$• In S^tl, the root to ^e'T** ^ *''<'"* ^""^ ^ wMch x Nmaiito, 5 be- 
oones r, aeoordiniir to § 6S. In « JkXmwnl^ -tiMf, /Mr, tbn UmI vowel of th? 
root is lengthened in the thene. Cempaie $ lit. «. 

y. Ft/Mf, wamoHj wife, which is irregular in having its theme after the form 
of Dec I., and abo in its aooentnatioii, is thnt deeliaed : S. K. ytnf, O. yv- 
9m»itt D. yvjmmii A. ymmsuMj Y. tywmi • P. N. y »w ri W t#^ G. ytMutuh, D. yp^ 
mtJ^/j A. yvtmsmmt • D. N. yvtrnTxt^ 6. ywmmstv. Hie oM gnamarians have 
alsd cited from Condc writers the ferms, A. ^vmI^ P. V. ymmi, A. yvwdf, ac- 
cording to Dec. L 

§ lOSI, Masculine and Feminine Linguals. These 
lose their characteristic in ihe theme and Dat. pi. (§ 55), in the 
Ace. sing., when formed in p (§§ 63. R., IGO. 2), and in the 
Voc. {§ 63). 

NoTRS. «. If a palatal is thus brought before #, it unites with it in ^ 
(§ 51), as (&*m»TSy itaxi) Si^al (f 11), h (yvxri) fv^, night \ if to the end 
of a word, it is dropped (§ 63), as (&9a»r, *(»«*) afy«. This distinct Voc., 
however, is used only in addressing a god ; otherwise, 2 &fti^ (or, hj frequent 
crasis, Zfml). 

$. For the change of • when brought before the affixes t ani », or to tljs 
end of a word, see §§ 112. «, 113. 3. 

y. Baritones in wr and -ut form the Aoc sing, in both « and y, the latter 

being the more common affix ; as, x»(*t (T 1 >)* 4 '('«« «^>^) i* A ^e»t^ hird; 

Aoc x*f'^* *^^ X^i" (^ <^ name of a goddess, the fbrm in ^ is always 

used, and sometimes, also, in poetry ; but, otherwise,, the fonn in -t, yet aee 

H. Gr. iii. 5. 1 6), i^n and poet, t^tim^ i^vtv and poet. d^»r^«. So also, xXwf 

i yi>^tt^ laughter^ and the compounds of vvt, foot ; thus, Aoc »Xiii* 

', yikmrm and yik^tf, 0/Jf«-#J« and O^ii'rn* (^ U), Ji<r^m and >/• 

17). Add • 1^, /bM, Aec l^nr^w and rare poetic fom f^. Sc 

in rsMlved by the poete into rii>, dwy hwm Aoc wdTf, Ap. Rh. 


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CM. 2. J MUTES. — LIQUIDS. 131 

4. 697. In ozytooes, the accent served to (ireveat the lingual from fidliog 

§ 103. Neuter Linguals. In these, the characteristic 
iS always t, which, in the theme, is commonly dropped after 
/4«i, but otherwise becomes ^ or ^ (^ 63) ; as, ow/ick, (pdtg^ ftsgag^ 
lnui^ (^ 11), tidog (IF 22), from the roots atifiai-^ qport-, jce^orr-, 
i*7r<»T-, tldot-m 

Note. The r is also dropped in ^kcXi, /MXtrs§y Aoiuy ; in ymk», yukmnrtt^ 
milk, which also drops x ; and in yivv^ ycf«r0s, knee^ and io^Vy ii^mrttt V^o^t 
vvhith then diange « to t; (compare § 113). In the poetic ^/ak^ HftttTot, 
dty, r is changed into ^ after /mk ; m& \A tis^, Ifiarsu wtOeTf and fjuif, nus. 
c iiy JlUh, r is changed into ^, and « into *. S«e § 123. y. 

§ I04» Contract Linguals. A few linguals drop the 
characteristic before some or ail of the open affixes, and are 
then contracted ; thus, xXflSfg (xiHig) xlel^, xlBtSag (xlstag) 
yXfyg' iCfgarog xi(jaog xigug, xignia xigaa xiga (IT 11) ; to rigag^ 
prodigy^ P. N. tigoja xiga^ G. xtgartav tsgmv * 6 XQ^^t skiUf 

5. D. xgoitl Or^6/t) XQ^^ (k» ^ phfase A> X9^)' So, inf Hoih^r, 
from o idgwg^ iwe»ty ^ yUm^i ktughtert I t^g, lave, S. D. iSg^, 
fih^ Bg9fi for idifmt, dec. } A. Id^oi, /iXw, for 2d^to (i^^cr), 
^'flwTtf. Compare §^ 107, 119, 12S. or. 

liToTB. In the fbllowing words, the contraction is confined to the root 

ri tZff i^rhi ear (^^ 11), contracted from the old tSagy •imr»t (§ 33. y). 

ri ^sXmb^, bait. Gen. hxUtroff iiXnr0s» 

r$ ^ria^, oontr. rrnf* teUlow, Gren. rrt«r«|, rrnrot* 

vi f fU^} tw/Z^ Gen. ^^utrtf (» or a), ^^nrie (§ 37. 1 ). 

Remaek. Those linguals in which a liquid precedes ^ 
lingual will be treated as a distinct class (§ 109). 

B. Liquids. 

[IT 12.J 

§ 109. Masculine and Feminine Liquids. In ^se, 
except aU^ salty sea (in the singular, only Ionic and poetic), the 
characteristic is always either v org. For the changes in the 
<heme and Dat. pi., see §^ 57-59. When the characteristic 
is »•, it depends upon the preceding vowel whether the v or the 
I is changed in the theme ; as follows. 

1.) If an £ or vowel precede, the g is changed ; as in 
Juftiip, "ivogt dalfimv, -opog (IT 12) ; o fiify, fiffpog^ month, o /n^oiy, 
-Mi'oc, stamif winter. 

Except i »riif, »ny<f, eomh, the nomeral iT«, l»d«,0R« (^ 21), and the lonie 
i fuU (as from root ^t-, yet Gen. ftn^is) for ^if», momA. (Hdt. ii. 82). 

2.) If a precede, in nouns the g is changed, but in adjectioe$ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


the V ; thus, o //«V, /Zkvoc, Fan^ o naiav^ -^vog^ paan ; but 
^ik&S, -ai'off (IT 19;, TuAa;, -avoQ, loreiched* 

3.) If & or v precede, the v is changed; as in gig, (nog 
(IF 12), o deX(plg, -Ivog, dolphin^ 6 06(jxvg, 'Vvog, Phorcys, 

Notes. «. The » remains in ^•rw, -i7f««, wooden tower ; and meet woKls 
fn 'if and •&« have a second, but less classic fonn, in .<» and -vy ; as, p/r an^ 
/;», )fXf /f and {iXf /», 0*^»vf and 0«^xv». 

/3. In the pronoun rUt (1 24), the v of the root rtt- is simply dropped i« 
the theme. Tet see § 152. fi. 

Hf^atht. YocATivifi. In the Yoc of 'AiraXX^v, •«»•«, Apollo, JJ^^iiiSv, 
-£v0St NeptwM^ and i wmr^^, -n^, «avurafr, the natural tone of address has 
led to the throwing back of the accent, and the shortening of the last sylla- 
ble ; tilUS, ''A«'«XX«v, Iltrci^ay, rwri^. 

§ 106« Syncopated Liquids. I. In a few liquids of fa 
miliar use, a short vowel preceding the characteristic is syn- 
copated in some or most of the cases ; as follows, 

1.) In these three, the syncope takes place before aU the opm tenninations : 
ifi^, num (Y 12> For the insertion of the ), see § 64. 2. 

. »im^ dog (Y 12), which has, for its root, »vf^ by syncope, »V9-* In this 

word, tlie syncope extends to the Dat. plur. 

^y«f. Iambus (f 12), which has, for its root, ^^ly-, ^y syncope, k^^. Hit 

Nom. sing, is not used, and its place b supplied by ktAfo$» 

2.) These five are syncopated in the genitive and dative dnguXar : 
^nrn^, father, and ^ijrn^, mother (^ 1 2). 

I* ^vykrfi^, daughter, 6. ^uyetri^at B^vy«r^c$j D. S-vymri^i ^vyMV^u 
i ya^rn^, etomach^ G. yavri^tt yn^r^it, D. ym^ri^t ynvr^u 
4 An/Hfirff^, Cere», G. A«^nrf^«f Aii/nnr^t, D. Anfiinn^t Aiif»nr(i • also, 
A. Anf/tnrifm Anfitir^n* 

Notes. «. In these words, the poets sometimes neglect the syncope, and 
sometimes employ it in other cases than those which are specified. 

/3. For the Dat. pi., see § 59. Ftfrrif^ has not only yawr^n^t (Dio Cass. 
54. 22), but also in Hipp. yafrH^^t, 

§ 1 Oy. II. In comparatives in -wy, the v is more frequently 
syncopated before « and f , after which contraction takes place ; 
as, fitl^ovn (fiUion) |iif»'fft), fisliovfg (fiuioeg) fiiiiovg, fitiiovui 
iliBiioag) fAfUovg (fl 17). Compare §§.104, 119, 123. «. 

Note. A similar contraction is common in the Ace. of 'Am'Skkatv, ApoUo, 
and IloetiiSvt Neptune; thus, 'A^aXX^va, QATiXXvn) 'A^aXX^^ (iii. I. 6) ; 
HwuiZtm, Tlowii^ii. See, for both the uncontracted and the contracted forms, 
PI. Oat. 402 d, e, 404 d, 405 d. So, likewise, ; nuKttif, .;;»•#, mixed drink ; 
Ace. nvMtiStm, and, rather poetic, nvxtS (*. 316 ; *v»tiS A. 624) : f} yXnx»'h 
-•»•#, pennyroyal; Aoc yXnx*»*»» y^fix" (Ar. Ach. 874) ; and by a like 
syncope of ^, ; i^^ti^^ ichor ; Ace. i;^i^f« and (only E. 416) Z;^^. 

§ 108. Neuter Liquids. A few nouns, in which g is 


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3H. 2. J LlQmD-MUTBS. — PURES. 1^ 

the characteristic, are neuter. Tliey are, for the most part, 
confined to the singular, and require, in their declension, no 
euphonic changes of letters. 

Note. In l«^, fn^t and the poetic »S«^, hearty contraction takes place 
in the root ; thus, N. I«^, poetic 4f , G. I«^«f , commonly ^^0$, D. im^s, com- 
monly ^^ • K. «U^, in Homer alwajrs »«(, D. »n^t, 

[f 13.1 

§ 1 09« All nouns of this class are either masculine o 
feminine. The characteristic of the class is vx, except in the 
feminines dnfiaQ^ -^Qtoc:, wife^ tlfiivg^ -iv&og^ worm^ ntlQivg^ -if- 
tVo^, carriage-basket^ and Ti^wg^ -vvdog^ Tiryns, The x or ^ 
is affected as in simple linguals (§ 102). When, hy the drop- 
ping of ^ V is brought before g in the theme, it depends upon 
the preceding vowel whether tfie v or the g is changed (§§ 57, 
58), according to the following rule i If an vowel precede^ tlie 
g is changed ; otherwise^ the v. 

Thus, xUt9, '•rrti Stvc^iv, -ifTH (f 13), i )(«»«f, ••tr«f, dragon; but 
yiymtf -uvrt (^ 13), i i/^iSi -avrof, thong, i 'Sifioug, -ivrot, the SimoUf iuttvui, 
'VVTf, Ammng, 

Notes. «. Except 0^*1;^ .«»r0f, tooth (T 13 ; jet Ion. }!im Hdt. vi. 107), 
md participles from verbs in -*r^; as, ^ovt^ )«irr«f (f 22), from "hihvftt^ to give, 

fi. Some Latin names received into the Greek have -ns in the theme, instead 
of -tif ; as, KXn/enf, -ivr*;, Oiemeiu, OviX^f, .«yr«f, Fia^ieM. 

y. If the characteristic is -ti^., the » remains before f (§ 58. /S). In )i^/t«^ 
(f 13), tiie f is simply dropped in the theme. 

Rbkabks. I. A few proper names in -«#, .«yr«r, form the Voc after the 
analogy of the theme ; that is, t becomes «, and is then contracted ; thus, 
•ArX^f, -nnrt, V. ("ArX^w, "ArX**, "XrXmm) 'ArXd' Jlckiitif^s, V. 

2. Nonns and a^ectives in .t<f, .i»T»f, preceded by • or n, are nsoaOy con 
tracted; as, i wkuMUf 4rX«««vr, ee^ 6. ^rkaniivrct itXa»»vtT»s' rsftnut 
riftlii, honored, P. rtftntrra «■!/«?##«, N. ri^Ssy ri/eqv, G. Ttf^nitrot Tifinvres, &c. 


§ 1 1 0» The euphonic changes in the declension of purcs 
may be mosiiy referred, (I.) to a special law of Greek declen- 
sion, and (II.) to contraction. 

I. Special Law of Greek Declension. The 
short vowels^ b and o, can never remain in the root, 
either before the affixes s and v (H 6), or at the end 
of a word. Hence, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


^111. (A.) Before the affixes $ aad v, € be- 
comes ff, ij Vj or €V ; and o becomes c» or ot; ; as 

1.) In masculine nouns^ $ becomes bv in simple^ and ^ in 
compound words ; as, simple^ i Inntv^i ^ttag (^ 14.; root innB')^ 
6 (iaudsvg^ -sw(, ^'i^i o Ugevg^ -«Vw^, priest^ 6 QriOBvg^ '((^fj The- 
seus^ o MtyagBvg^ -ioag^ MegOriAH ; compound^ 6 ^oix^ari}^, - fog 
(tf 14; from awg^ entire^ and xqoitog^ strength) ^ o'Ai^taioTiXrig, 
-<09, AriskftU^ i Jr^fiotf&iviii^ -to^ 

Except the i^mples i "A^m, •««») Mars, i ^f, nig, fnoth ; and the following, 
in which i beoomes « or i, j v^x^fit -^*» -^cc <r«;^iw (^ 14), i «-iXi«v«, -i«f, 
ai«, i «'^«#0i'#, •!»#, tffcfer (properly an acy*) ; ^ f;t'^ '**"* *^t ^ '^«i -M^i 
mrpeiUy i ^^irmuff -t««, president, and alio ««f<f) »v^ts, fttd^ti$ >nd %;^«f* 

2.) In feminine and r^mzYTton notm«, s becomes i ; as,*^ ^roAf^ 
-rwj, Ace. TToAtv (fl 14), ij dvrafiig^ -«<»ffi power ; o, ^ fiotrttg^ 
-tw?, prophet^ prophetess. 

§ 113. 3.) In adjectives^ c becomes i; in simple^ and i} in 
compound words ; as, simple^ ridvg^ -iog^ Ace. ij^uf (fl 19), /iv- 
xi;^, -eo^, «i/7ee^, o^v^, -co^i sharp ; compound^ aXti&rig^ -^ogt true^ 
fiuXi^g^ -iog^ cheap^ aqmxMdrjgy -fog^ wasp-like^ T^<i2pi!}(» -£o^, haV" 
ing three hanks of oars^ or, as a substantive {vavg^ vessel^ being 
understood), trireme (fl 14). 

Except a few simple adjectives, in which « becomes «; as, Mif«ff 4h 
Cl 17), ••Xfi^fif, •i0ttftUlj ^PtvinSi 4cf,fuUe. 

4.) In monosyllables, o becorines ov; otherwise, oi; M, /9ot;;^ 
^oo(, Ace /^oi/y (II 14), 0, 17 ^ov;, ^00;, sumachy i x^^i% X^» 
heap of earth} but uMg^ -oog (IJ 14). 

Notes. «. This rule applies also to UnguaU m which « precedes the char- 
Acteristic ; thus, «-«vf, «-«^di (111), and its oompomids, 0Ai«'«»f, ^c^ (f 16)^ 
riir»vt, .«^ (^ 17); hot liX^f, 4t«« (f 22). 

/3. Tn feminines of more than one syllable, in which the characteristic is 0, 
the affix f 16 changed to c, and is then absorbed. Thus from the root ^x'^- is 
formed the theme (fix»tt ^X'*) ^X'* (Y ^^ • ^^ ** v*''^^ -««r, pertuationy li 
Anrttj 'C0Si LatoHOt &c. Except, as aboVe, at^t, and the Ionic if iUvr, daum. 
These feminines in -m and .*rr have no plural or dual, except by metaplasm 
(§ 122) ; unless, perhaps, tliMvs (§ 123. «) is to be regarded as simply con- 
tracted from tixcetf. 

^113. (B.) In cases which have no affix^ h 
characteristic becomes «, v, or £v, or else assumes a 
euphonic 5; and o characteristic becomes oi »f ov. 
as follows. 

1.) If the theme ends in -lyc, « becomes tg ; but, otherwise 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

CH. 2.] PUBES. IK 

b changed at in ihe theme ; thus, Norn. neut. aa^ (M 17), 
^dv (11 19) ; Voc. T^/i2^€(, JS^x^aic^*, TidXi, ti^i/, In^itC (^ 14), 
^5iJ (U 19). 

2.) In the theme of neuter nouns^ t assumes ^, becoming 
itself (§ 28) ; as, to ih^o;, -tog (fl 14), to B^og^ -eoj, nation^ 
ri o^iy -«oC9 maimtaiiu 

Except «-• if TV, •••<, town (f 14), tbe Epic vi mv, .c«f, >Zoci(, and a tsw 
fioreigii names of natural productions in -<» as t« trio'i^i, -•*>$, pepptt. 

8.) In the Vocative^ o becomes o? , if the theme ends in -w or 
-^^ ; but «tr, if it ends in ^ovg\ as, ^oi, al^oi^ fiov (t[ 14) ; and 
in like manner (cf. 112. a), Oldinov (fl 16). 

^ 1 14« Rebcarks. 1. After the analogy of s and o, a 
characteristic becomes on/ in /^auc and i^avg (^ 14), and as- 
sumes c in the theme of neuters ; as, to yigag^ -aog (H 14), to 
yi^ag, -aog^ old age, 

2. In the Accusative singular of pures, the formative v be- 
comes a {§ 100. 2) except when the theme ends in -«<r, -i^, 
-vc, ^ etv(, Or Hive ; ^US, &mg^ V^^^y Inrnv^^ rgtifgrig^ aidwg^ ^ai 

- ^i] 14), aotgifig (51 1*7) ; Aco. i^wtf, {^Of tTtTtea, tQii^gtet^ aidott^ 
flXotM^ aa<pim ; but o Ao^, <ton«, k^, olg (contracted from oig), 
noliC, Ix^^y ntjzvg^ re^vg^ »'^i /^v? (fl 14), v^vg (11 19) ; Aec 
Hvj nl»^ ohy noltr^ Uf^i^f ^VJ^^ y^^^j yavr, /^ovf, ^dvw, 

NoTB. Proper names in •«# , .s*f, for the most part, admit both fonns o( 
the Aoc; as, :i»»»(drtif (1 U), A. 2«»^iir« (Flat.), 2«»«^«fy (X«n.); I 
"Attif, Marsy A. 'A^n and "A^nv. 

3. When the characteristic is changed to a diphthong before 
a in the theme, the same change is made before ai in the Da* 
tive plural ; as, Innfvoi^ poval^ ygavol^ vavai (fl 14). 

^119. II. Contraction. For the general 
laws, see §^ 31-37. . The following remarks may 
be added. 

1. Pures in -17$, -oc, -e», and -oi^, -00^, are contracted in all the 
cases which have open terminations. See T^ir^pi^^, 2Vux(»ariic*, 
'NffttxXirtg^ tftxog, iJjtw, nidtig (H 14), aaq>/,g (fl 17). Add a few 
neuters m -ng ; as, to yf(fng (fl 14), to xging^ meat. 

Notes. «. Of nouns in .<# and -^t, 4»ti the nncontracted form scarcely 
occurs, even in the poets and dialects. 

/3. In proner names in -xkifiiy contracted -»Xm (trom xXi«;, rennwn), the 
Dat. and sometimes the Ace. sing, are d&ubfy contracted. See *H^«»x<nf 
(1 1 4). For the later Voc II^AxXff, compare ^ 105. R. The 
H^MXlsf, fa> tha loB. fyrm (§ 121. 4), oocun, with 0nfit§, FL The«t 


by Google 


2. In other pnres, contraction is, for the most part, con 
fined to three cases ; the Nom. and Ace. plur., and the Dat 

The contractions which are usual or frequent in these words are exhibitea 
in the tables. Contraction sometimes occurs in cases in which it is not given 
in the tables, and is sometimes omitted in cases in which it is given. Thest 
deviations from common usage are diiefly found in the poets. 

§ 110* 3. In the Attic and Common dialects, the endings 
80^, -8a, and -tag^ instead of the common contraction, receive 
in certain words a peculiar change, which lengthens the last 
vowel. This change takes place, 

a.) In. the Gen. sing, of nouns in -i^, ^vg^ and -«t;?t and 
sometimes of nouns in -i and -v ; as, noXig^ Gen. noUog noXwg^ 
nrjxvg^ -«ft>$, imiBvg\ -cwj, aatv^ ~iog and ~fwg (fl 14), ninf^i^-Brng 
(§ 1 13. 2). Also "AQijg^ Mars^ G. *'A(ifo<: and sometimes *'jgmg 
(as if from a second theme "jQsvg^ cited by grammarians from 

b.) In the Ace. sing, and plur. of nouns in ^svg ; as, tnnfvg^ 
Ace sing, innia innea^ pi. inniug innsikg. 

Notes. «. This change appears to be rimplj an early and less po-fbct 
mode of contraction. From the accentuation of such words as riXfUt it it 
evident that the s (as in 'Ar^ii3i*r, Mi»fXs««, $ 35) has not the full force of a 
distinct syllable ; while it is equally evident from the use of the poets, that it 
has not wholly lost its syllabic power. It seems, therefore, to have united as 
a species of semivowel (of the same class with our y and w) with the follow- 
ing vowd, which consequejitly, as in other cases of contraction, became long. 
An especial reason fbr regarding this method of contraction as early, consists 
in the fact that it b confined to those classes of words which have dropped F 
or A from the root (§§ 117, 118). The poets sometimes complete the con- 
traction by synizesis ; as, /3ariXi«f Eur. Ale. 240, *£«i;^^utf( Id. Hipp. 1095, 
*A;^iAAi« Id. Iph. A. 1341. Sometimes^ also, the unchanged Gren. in -ias, 
and rarely the Ace. in -ti and -tis occur in the Attic poets : as, Nn^b; Eur. 
Ion, 1082, 9-oXt0s Id. Hec. 866, ^•fi& lb. 882. The poets likewise employ 
in the Ace. sing, the regular contraction into « ; as, lvyy»m^*i Ar. Ach. 1 1 50, 
' *Oiu9^ffri Cur. Rh. 708, and even tt^v Id. Ale. 25. The r^^arly contracted 
Ace pi. in -!<;, instead of -ntst became in the later Greek the common form, 
and although regarded as less Attic, yet b not unfrequent in the manuscripts 
and editions of genuine Attic writers, particularly of Xenophon ; as, fiK^sXiit 
Mem. iii. 9. 10. 

fi. If another vowel precedes, the i b commonly absorbed by the «;, a, and 
Af ; thus, n.iiftui»t§ Huf»m(, Tlti^et/im TLu^eiii (^ 14){ X^'^fi /C^> X'** 
(§ 123). 

y. For the earlier contraction of the Nom. pi. of nouns in -ivf into n;, see 
§ 37. 2. The uncontracted &nfiit occurs PI. Thest. 169 b. 

). The form of the Gen. in .i«f is termed by grammariant the Jttie Gem^ 
twe. For its accentuation, see Prosody. The Gen. pi. in -$m accented tipoii' 


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GH. 2S.J P0RES. 13% 

tbe antepenidt iA also tenned Atdc ; as, wSXun. The f^gnlai^y eontnictod 
^rnx*** occurs iy. 7. 16. 

u The Gen. in .i«f is also found in a few adjectives in st (as, »«XX/ir«Xif , 
•mm; ), ^ flfu^vf^ half (Gen. commonly -tMf , but also -iot and -«»«), and, in 
later irnters, in other adjectives in •»$ (thus, /3(«^iivf Flut.). 

§ 1 1 7« RKMATtys ON THE DECLENSION OF PuBEs. The various 
and peculiar changes in the declension of pures appear to have chiefly arisen 
from the successive methods which were employed to avoid the hiatus pro- 
duced by appending the open affixes to the characteristic vowd. Of these 
methods, the eaiiier consisted mainly in the insertkm of a ttnmg breathin0-or 
tupiraU coMonant (cf. § 89) ; and the later, in contraction. The insoted 
aspirate became so intimately assodated with the root, that its use extended 
even to the cases which had not an open affix ; and although it fell away in 
the refining of the language (cf § 22. ^), yet it left distinct memorials. of it- 
self, either in a Idndred vowel or consonant, or in a prolonged syllable. The 
aspirates chiefly inserted appear to have been the labial F, and a dental breath- 
ing, which was most akin to *■ (in Latin it passed extensively into r ; for dis- 
tinction's sake, we here represent it by a capital 2). From the classes of 
words in which these aspirates were resi)ectively inserted, the former appears 
to have prevailed in an earlier period of the language, than the latter. In 
the modifications which subsequentiy took place, the foUovring law prevailed : 
When I.) foUowed bjf a vaweLy both Ihe aspirates were simpiy dropped. When 
not foUowed by a vowd, the labial breathing united (2.) wiUi «, «, and • pre- 
ceding to form «v, iv, awd «v, and (3.) toilh I and B (except in the Dot. plwr,\ 
to form I and S ; while the dental breathing (4.) at the end of a word beeame^ t, 
and (5.) b^ore the affix g lengthened a preceding Aort voweL Thus, 

(1.) /5#F^f ^titj y^&fit y^diff tctfig xtit, ix^vfog ix^vog, iV«-iFi« <V«riif • 
mt^'Sag mtiiogf ri/;^i2«f rux^^ft yi^a^og yi^dg (^ 14), ra^t^tg €a^i$g 


(2.) y^tifg y^aSgt ^mfg f»vs (Lat. navis), fetJF^i vmtwS, SirwiFg iirvrm, iVtrSF 
•m», fiiWg /5#S», /WFr fitv*, /5#F fiw (1 14). 

(3.) xlFg nig, »tF» »U ix^'^ft ix^tg, tx^tW ix^i (t 14) ; but Dat. pL 
«f W, ix^i^i* 

(4.) Nom. neut. r«fi2 wa^ig (T 17), «r;^«2 rttxt (« passmg into ita 
kindred vowel, § 28), yi^a^l yi^ag (^ 14) ; Voc. 2«$»^«ri2 ^tuK^angt r^m-' 
fi2 r^in^tg (1 14). The peculiar form of the Voc of nx** and mthtig has 
arisen from the change of « to its correspon^ling vowel (§ 50) and then con- 
traction with precession (§ 29) ; thus, «;ttf2 «;^#i hx** (c^* §§ 45. 5, 86, 
112. /3). 

(5.) zaftig ra^fig (T 17), 'Smm^drt'Sg ^utM^arfig, mtH^g mt^g (^ 14). 
For if;^», see § 112. iS, and compare fix«i above (4.). In the Dat. p!. thA 
short vowd remains unchanged ; as, va^itt. 

Note. In adjectives, and in a few masculine and neuter nouns, the diph- 
thong IV appears to have been reduced to a simple short y ; as, HhiFg ^^v<» «^(F 
ntt (1 19) ; ^nx^Fg vnx^f* v-nx^Fv ^x^h '^nx*^ ^^X^t HvriF A^tH 
(1 14). 

§ I I N« In feminineSf it was natural that the inserted breathing or 
consonant should commonlv assume a softer form. In this form, it appear* to 


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138 THIRD DfiOItBlfSION. ' [bOOK U 

tavn bMB radit umiIj afein to th» lingaal niddlo mate % (cf. $ 49. 2} ; tad 
in a great number of feminines, it acquired a permanent place in the langnaet 
as this letter. In its previous, and as yet unfixed state, we represent it, wr 
cfotincti(m's sake, by n capital A. Befolre this inserted U&gtia]^ tt ixrald i^ 
' main, but thefe Wiis a nnifbtm tekidekiC}' in c to pass by preeiMiien into «. It 
is a remarkable illostratioli of this, that ift ^bo irfaole dedcnfliotij there is not 
a single instance of t before a characteristic lingual mute. In the progress 
of the bmguage, feminines in -i^ or with the inA6Kdd Ungtud .tA-, assumed 
three forms: 

1.) The A kSk away, leaving the vowel of preoessiaB « in the Kom., Aca, 
and Ybc aing., hot the original « in the other cases ; thus, wiktu ^i^ttf, «*«• 
Xi«, wiXi9, wiXt • wikuft wiXtwv, T«JLi#v, <t0k4n {\ 14)^ This became the 
OMial form of ftminine pores in wf^ in the Attic and Common dialects. 

2.) The A fell away, imd precession took pla6d thfodghotlt. This became 
the regular form of feminine pnres in -tf in the Ionic dialect (§ 44. 8) ; Ihus, 
Ion. N. -Tfi G. -r#f, D. -T/, always contracted into -r, A. -fi', V. -f; PI. N. -Uf, 
sometimes contr. into -r; , 6. -tvt, D. -r«-/, A. •!«;, commonly contr. into -Tf ; 
as, viktfy ir0X/0f, irikTf ToXiv • viXngj -/^y, ^oXirij 9C*Xiaf, -Tf* The i was also 
the prevalent vowel in the Doric ; thus, Dor. vreXtg, «r«X<0(, wJXr and ir^ku» 
triXtv ■ vikitf, irokitVf vXitrc-t and ^riXirs, veXietf, 

3.) The A became fixed in the root, and the word passed into the daas of 
Kngnals. Thus, the root Mty^^t-, Megarian, had two forms, MiT^tF- mate, 
and with precession Mty«^i A- fern. ; firom the fbnner we have Mtyaifttfit -Uff, 
Mufttrian tkan, and firom the latter, Mtytt^if, ./^««, Meg<trtan woman. Thia 
became the prevalent mode of declining feminines in ^^ , if we except the 
large class of abstract nouns in ^/f. EspedaUy many feminine acyectives, or 
words which are properly such, are thus declined. 

Note. We find, also^ the same forms in a few masculine or common 
nouns and adjectives (§§ 111, 119. 2), and even, in a few words, a ooir^ 
■ponding neuter formation in w (§ 113. 2). 

§ I 1 9« As might have heed exptcA^A, these three forma iuv for firoa 
bong kept entu^ly sopanite. Thus^ 

1.) Some words exhibit both the lingual and the pore infleetioBi the latlct 
espedaHy in the Ionic and Doric dialqct^ which were less averse than th« 
Attic to hiatus (§§ 45, 46) ; as, « fthth ^orcOhj Cr.»s and (»,nn«s * 4 r^«- 
wif, hed, 6. v^Uri^afy r^««'««f, and r(««rf«f • particularly proper names, as, 
Kt/v^if, G. w)«f, and -tag • '^r<(, G. -tiot and -fs • ®tr/f, G. 0fr/}«« 0. 370, 
D. 0tTr 2. 407. For similar cases of the use and omission oi a lingual 
characteristic see § 104 ; of a liquid characteristic, §$ 107, 123. «. 

2.) In some pores in -tt^ the Attic adopts, in whole or in part (particolarly 
in the Gen. sing.), the Ionic forms ; as, Si rv^r/f, towery G. rv^fuf vii. 8. 12 
but PL N. vu^uf iv. 4. 2, Tv^rtmv H. Gr. iv. 7. 6, rv^rtn <)yr. vii. 5. 10 
i 9-wf, 9p<nue, G. •!««, D. -ti • ii /jtayatitt^ •/«;, a kmd of harpf D. ftmymk 
vii. 3. 32 ; i, H riy^t, tigeti G. ^iy^ttt, and in latar wiitors W>^«f, PL N. 
t/y^ttfj G. riyftm' some proper names, as, i 2vif»fr«f, G. -mi, L 2. 12, 
i *l^is, G. -ff vL 2. 1 1 and the acyeotives Hm, mttUigmdt vtirnij tAitemiotu 
In like mannet, », li iyx^kvt (§ 117. K), ed, Q, lyxi^"*f* PI* N. iyxU^ut 
G. iy)^ik$m»' ri wiw%(i (§ 118. N.),/Mf:per, G. .i^vf and ^««. 


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HR. 2*] DIAI.B0T1C FORMS. 19B 

§ 1 90. (A.) Dialectic changes affecting the affix. 

1. In the poeti^ especially the Eihc, the Aoc. sing, sometimes ends in -«, in . 
words in windi it has commonly -t; as, ih^im Z. 291, »«« or vsa, viXuxj for 
f^^, Mii;», 9rixtf tx^uA Theoe. 21. 45. On the other hand, the New Ionic 
udm forms the Ace of nouns in -« or ^;, 4asf m .«?» ; as, '!«, /o, Anrw, 
Zxi^ono, wvf, daum, Aoc. *hivf Hdt. i. 1, AwTM/t, ntvv. The ^olic and stricter 
Doric have here -*ry for -tuv (§ 44. 4); as, *'H^*rv Sapph. 75 (91), A«rivy 
Inscr. Cret. 

2. In the Gep. plnr., the Ionic sometimes inserts t (of. §§ 48. 1, 99. 2). 
m, %nfi^9 Hdt. ii. 45, fAy^mhmy Ai^^i«y, for ;^4»«», /»»;/it^wv, Av^Hf, 

3. In the Dat. plar., for the common affix -0-/(0) the poets often employ 
the old or prolonged forma -«»■/(»), -»«■*•/(»), and -••*■<(»). See §§ 7 1, 84, 85. 
Homer uses the four forms, though .tfi(v) rarely. The forms .t0^0-/(») and 
.«r<(i») are also common in Doric and i^olic prose • and -••"/(») is used in Ionic 
prose after the characteristic ». Thus, xH^'* ^' ^^» x^k**"'* T. 271, x^k^'* 
T. 468 ; iroffi E. 745, voviri B. 44, voiifffftv P. 407 ; t-rttrn B. 73, i^trr$ h 
697, Mtwtf B. 75 ; teuTv/Aensi Hdt. vi. 57. So, F not passing into v be- 
fore a vowel (§ 117), fi^ai B. 481, tatrn Find. P, 4. 98, it^tvTvut^t A. 

4. In the Dual, the Epic prolongs .«/» (as in Dec. II., § 99. 1) to -««?» ; 
thos, wtiaitv S* 228, ^u^fuf [a, 52. 

§ 131. (B.) Dialectic changes affecting the root, either 
tfimply or in connection with the affix. 

1. Many ehanges result from dialectic preferences of vowels ; As, Ion. ^m^%i 
ttiSft y^nvSi for ^ti(»lit &c; D<Hr. frsi^Av, «xvr«#, rtf*&%iu oontr. ^ifiity fto 
*0ifi4ft &c ; ^n^ for ;^t/(, is for «J|, j3*?f , jSivt, for (iovtt i9«v» (the Aoe. fiSv in 
the atnse of a Meld eoverad wkh ox-hide occurs i^ H. 738), kx^it for itx*^i 
&e. See §§ 44, 45. 

2. The dialects and poets vary greatly in the extent to which they employ 
o6ntraction, and in the mode of contraction. The Epic has here especial li- 
cense. In the poets, contractions are often made by synizeds (§ 30), which 
an not written. In respdct to the niage of Homer, we remark as follows : 
(a) In the Gen. sing., contraction is oommoidy omitted, except in neons hi 
•m and .«f , 6' 4t* In a few words, the contriiction of -t«f hito ^ws occnxs 
($ 45. a>« and thore are a few instances of synieesia (idiksh we maifc tiius, 
m); e. g. *£ei/3ti>f 0. 368, a«^fOf ». 894« i^lewif. 118; linxU$ A. 489, 
M««#r«& B. 566, wiktn B. 811. {b) In the Dat. sing., both the contracted 
and nnoontraeted forms are used ui most words with equal freedom ; as, yi^T 
a^4 yiiff, Si^ii'and S«^, rt/;^t7and rtixu, IlifXii'and FlirXt/, <riXn7t vrix%7f 
and vtfXu, !?(«/' and ^^m H. 453. The enchngs .«, -m, and .m (except in xt**) 
are always contracted (§§ 118. 2, 115. «); as, »M$rri A. 640, ti»m H, 526 
(this contraction of -v7 into -w is Epic), <«? I. 618. (e) The endmgs .t«, 
•u»», send 'i»t are commonly unoontracted, except by synizesis ; as, StM<^i« 
r. 27, p^^•e«^U ^. 757, «Xyi« IL 7, jStXii O. 444, yU i. 283; rvn^U* K. 
95; «'«x<«; A. 559, v-iXlxMrT. 114. So ir;xi«r ^. 560. {d) The ending 
•Mf is used both with and without contraction ; as, ^^rawetyuf n»vtvxm 
S. 1^4. («) The neat. plur. ending ^« is always contracted, or drops &ak 


by Google 

149 'iKBSGi:i.AB MMnn. [book b. 

«^c£4.WMr);aii.«^»»,Y^BL2S7. 11b fini wtt te ait 

iimiliii iimiii Hi '-F | r ^" '- '^- '^ O^) Of J^ 

A9.«^,«r,aiidyc«i^«tf»>Mii.ti«f*mi>sins«e»i>Haacr; X. 

»«r DtBcL 

3. bflMBMB ««■■* m -MPS. fls ^MattBDrtie iF Wftve a mad ifjgalady 
finrnaiw «» ia Oe E|k; aa. Srmim^ Uwm, ^nSl, ;«««£ lows ia Horn. lar. 
n^ A. 151, dbD «mA<« Hek Op. 24S). ;«««» (Y IS^ j^nm^wu A. 227 
(», lij niilalioa, fimmM^Jms Em, An. tt29> TUa^^.ate OEtoids to 

V ahot TiMRl aeonfias to Oe aMtre}, to 'A^k. Mmn (5 116. a), and to 

mXjf. See Hoscrie Pia fi g— , 1 16. b 1 1 n ■ aoam ia .»?, thia 

^kange aecKS abb ia Herodotas^ aMboagh nai Hiiiai fl by critics; as. ^«#iXi*;, 
^naW, TB. 137, ^m^MkSi m. 137, ganli^ tL 5S. TW »i;aiM mflectioa 
of Boam ia .«a^ la looie prwe, aad abo ia &e Dane; ii m .««, 4e. Tlio 
Aec ia .«■ fir -M b wiMiliiiM i co t iae te d \tf tiha ports lato -« ; as. Xttwr^ r. 
136, T.3« JL 3M, ^«AJLi Hdl. tI. 220 (Okaefe^ We i^ ^mmOJm with 
srniaKs Hes. 0|iw 261. 

4. Ia ndi vboea net caife ia »^ Ae Sfie aftoi lails s iato « ^as rqga* 
larij ia pvoiMr aaMei ia -aJLass), or iato «; baft aoHNtaBOft iatiha E|ae and 
otber ports, aad ia Adectie pnae; «Ba • b Ao^ed. SdD ftvtber Taiie^ of 
form b aaaMOHHS gi^rea \tf &e Efic fotiaitiu a «fitoi«flr«,or hj the 
ioab or poefeie aegbrt of ce a Ua>lii M Tba^ 'Hpraaiw Hak T¥. SIS, Hdt. 
S. 43, Find, a 6. 115; a*H^«ja«.s B. 266. *He»iki« Hdl. fi. 43, Find. 
O. 3. 20 ; D. "He^JLiT S. 224. Find. L 5. 47, "H^iuaiT Hdt. S. 145, "H^^ 
«X«7Find.P.9. 151; A. *H«nJL«B & 324. 'H^ttlU HiL 2. 43» Find. O. 
10. 20, 'H«««JLia» Tkeoc 13. 73 (ftr tbe Attic ins of *H^uAi;, see i 14 
Md Mrta.n. 1.21-26); iymmX^s IL 738: ImJUmc (AtcpLof tmJUw> 
K. 281, MOidf Fiad. a 2. 163 ; \Sifmm, (Gaa. of sa^t^) Z. 508 ; sXiS 
(pLoTsXttc) Hob. Tb. 100: W>am a 115. ^*te^ F.330: iaXmh (Norn. 
pL of 4ia««() M. 318. ¥^ tbe Homrie fcnai of #«l«, Md ftr dioee of 
rUr^MX^, vbkh, fike sqbm odier fowB|wi aa< b of aJiW, bas forms both of 
Dec n. and of Dec IIL. see ^ 16. 

5. ¥^ Oa loaie Md Doric d w r b a n iaa of meirdi ia .«, .Mif, and ftrlba 
embakmof ^mvanfem .«, .iW,8ee|§ 118, 119. Tbe loaie fikewbe omits 
tbe r in wi^m and «sf«« - and tbaa ia tbeB^ as ia otitor aeaian in .««, .4Mf , 
tbe kter loaie aftoi rbiiye « iato ■ (§ 44. 2.X «n)iVt ^ «he theme; as, 
«e*^. «^ »<f««. ««cM«k WeMs, y<gta , Hdt 

6. Ia «m«, tbe Doric letaias t bi aa g boa i «be oi^^Hd «, aad b bere sobm-. 
timei imitated by tbe Attic porta, in tbe km; tbe « pmsm Araagboat by 
prcoeeajn eitber into «, or vitb abort qaaaitity, eapeoa^y m tbe ktor lonip» 
into t. Tbe Attic retaios Oe « ia Oe dlphtboiy m; bat bai otbenrise « or % 
(tbe latter bsTini^ parbap% been inserted ia Oe Gea. ai^. and pL after the 
Qontracttoii of 4l« and ^b», accordinf to § 3V and tbe Gen. dnal having fol- 
lowed tbe snalogT of tiie olber aamben). Der tbe Ionic «id Doric forma, 
•mi 16; for tbe Attic, 1 14. 

!¥• Irregular Nouns, 
^ 1 99« Irregularities in the dedensioo of nouns which 


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nave not been already noticed, may be chiefly referred to two 
heads ; variety of declension^ and defect of declension. 

A. Variety of Declension. 

A noun may vary, (1.) in its root; (2.) in its method of 
declension; and (3.) in its gender (§ 79). In the first case, it 
is termed a metaplast {utranXninoc^ transformed) ; in the sec- 
ond, a ketereclite (brfgoxhrnc^ of different declensions) ; in the 
rfiird, heterogeneous {ktfito/fvrig^ of different genders). 

Words which have distinct double fonns, either throughout or in part, are 
termed tedundant. Those, on the other hand, that want some of the usual 
forms, are termed defective. 

The lists which follow are designed both to exemplify the different kinds of 
anomaly, and Ukewise to present, in a classified arrangement, the principa 
anomalous nouns. It will be observed, that some of the words might have 
been arranged with equal propriety under other heads, from their exhibiting 
more than one spedes of anomaly. 

§ 1 3 3« 1. Metaplastb. 
Metaplasm has mostly arisen from a change of the root, in the progress of 
die language, for the sake of euphony or emfrfiasis, chiefly by the precessioii 
oi an open vowel, or the addition of a consonant to prevent hiatus ; whfle, at 
the same time, forms have remained frt>m the dd root, especially in the poets 
and in the dialects. 

«. With a Double Root, in «t- and in ••. 

A Msifj nightingale, 6. Motaf, &c. ; from the root inh-, 6. Mouf Soph. 
Aj. 628. D. &tii^ Ar. Av. 679. 

n r«^«, -avf, and F^^yivy, •«?«;, Gorgon, 

h f/jM^y, tmage, 6. tUifOf, &c. ; from r. i/««., G. tUtug Eur. Hel. 77, A 
i/W Hdt. vii. 69 ; from r. i/«., by the second dedendon, PI. A. tUcvg Eur. 
Tro. 1178, Ai'. Nub. 559. Yet see § 112. /3. * 

4 ;^ixr^wir, swaUoia, G. ;^iA.r^#i'#f , &c ; from r. ;^f X<^«-, V. ;^i>.rJ#r Ar. Av. 
141! from Simon. 

Compare §§ 104, 107, 119. 

fi. With a Double Boot, in «- and in f< 

r§ fi^irmt, wooden image, poetic, G. fi^irtifj D. fi^iru • PI. N. ^im, G. 

r* M9if»f, darknem, G. Epic niA^mn, Attic »A^»ut Ar. Ecd. 291, latei 
^»Sf«ci« Pdyb., D. xti^mt »*i^tf Cyr. iv. 2. 15. 

r* »Sat, fleece, poetic, w. 47 ; PI. N. Miu%m v* 3, D. xtitrt y. 38. 
r« 0u^»s, floor, poetic, Q* tvltn, D. eS^tt oSiu (aQ in Horn.). 

y. Ifiscellaneoiu Examples. 

r« yiv9, knee, and ri ti^o, tpear, G. yitant, ^i^arog, &c. (§ 103. N.). For 
the various forms of ii^v (of which in the theme there is even the lat^form 
hv^mg AntiphiL.9), see ^ 16* Those which occur of yifv correspond; 
Urns, Ion* and poet. yvvarH, ywrn^m, ywwt and ywrnttt (I. 488, P. 451, 


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tor wfaidi loine write y»^9U0i); abuL poet ytnit, ymn, ymhm, y^Awv, nl 
yiMtf Sappli. 14 (S&), ytmnw0»* 

A l4»f, ifoKm (r. *£-, Attic Deo. n.)i Q. 1^, D. t^, A» U and tmw (§ 97. 8) 
Dor. *tuis (r. *il«.}, Q. ii«f ^vf • loa. in^, G. ^h, D. dUT, A. 4« and ««» 
(§ 120. 1). 

If 0ifuf, Themiit at a common nomi, right, law, Q. OI^}«f , l^pio 0iMtTT^ 
fii 68, Ionic &ifuf Hdt. ii. 50, Doric 0ifur»f Find. 0. 13. 11, also PL Rep. 
880 a. In the Attic, ^ifuf occurs mostly in certain fbnns of e3q>re88ioa, 
where it is used without declension, as an a^feetiTe or aeoter nomi ; thns^ 
^ifuf Writ it it lawfid; pm^) ... ^is tTiww, thej^ mt^ ^mt it i$ lam^ PL Qatg* 
505 d ; ri fith ^ifuft that which it not lateful, JEadu Sup. 335. 

; l^f^w^v, attendant, 6. ;^^r«ir«f, &c ; poet. A* ^»*a, PL N, 3t%^»^*$ 
Eur. Ion, 94. 

i tuiXms, cable (r. jmAjb., Att Dec II.}, 6. »«X«, &c ; Ion. «MiX«i, -•», ^c^ 
I. 260 and Hdt ; in the later Epic, PI. tctiXMs, &c, Ap. Rh. 2. 725. 

; Xmyaif, hare (r. X«7»-, Att. Dec IL), G. Xao^, A. x«9^, A«yM> &c ; 
Ion. X«r«f, ^tf, &c., Hdt., also PL N. Xayl Soph. jFV, 113, A* Dor. (§ 45, 5) 
X«y«f Hes. Sc 302 ; Epic x«7««i, -Mt, Horn. 

i, 4 fU^Of (in late writers ^u^rS^), witnestj G. fi^riffn, D. fU^rv^t, A» 
mA^Tv^, rarer fU^rS* • D. pL /lUf «ifr« • Epic < ft^vt^H, ^», ft. 423. 

4 4 j^,, Ur«i, G. ^'^.f (Dor. %«r;^, § 69. IL), a J^n3«, A. ^^c9« and 
^t-« • PL ^'a«#, &c ; ftom r. ^^ Sing. K. j^r^ , A. i«^», PL )$[. j^, a 
^vMrr, A.i^andi^f (§ 119). Another fbrai is <^ JtfMM, «««. 

f «^r and J^f ^> ^ sea-fiali, G. i^ and jffML Oemparo ndxm, Xmytit, 

4 «^^, pnyXf G. vi/xy*^, D. «rv»»i, A. wvm9« • later G. vnvmis, D. «wi»/, A. 
vvvM. The proper root is ¥»m- (oompare the tuS^ erytms) ; but ftom the 
difficulty of appending f in the theme, transposition took place ($ 64, 3^ 
which afterwards extended, through the influence of analogy, to die oblique 

i nif , moth, G. ri«f, and in later writers mrit' 

4 4/^4, weal, B. 267» G. tfn^tyy0s, &a ; N. pL ^/uShyytt T. 716. 
; ^^iTs, contr. f a«rr, cake, G. ^S«i«^ • N. pL f^Mf and f S^cif • also 4 fS«tr 
-;)«f • N. pL ^^«tic(. See § 119. 

ii x**t* ^"*^* ^' X**€^* ^^ XH*ft ^ ^^ ^® common fonu, sea 5 ^^ 
The other forms are also found ui the poets and in Ionic prose, 

i X»uf, the name of a measure, G. x»it, &c, like fi0vg (f 14); from r. 
X»i; the better Attic G. x*^* X*^fi ^ X*^ X**^ ^ ^ X*^^ X^ 
(§ 1 16. i3) ; alao Dat. ion. ;^«^'Hipp. 

ri xi^** (Ep. Are*"**. 5 47). dAt, G. x^\m • PI. N. ;t;^U (5 37. 1) ? from 

; xfl^U «*«»» sw/oce, G. ;c;«»r^, D. x^ Ocrf* § *^) ^ Xt^^' I«* 
and poet. G. xt^f* D. ;ce»'i -^ X^ 
For Ztvf, Ot^iwm* Udr^nkHt and m^ sat f 16. 

NoTB. Add the poetic Norn. 4 ^ Hea. Op. 854* -• Ijrir, ^/if Ace x/ii« 
iEsch. Fr. 49, 65^ » X<i3i()« from A X//3iir, /i&Kum ; Nom. ; Jjf O. 275, Aoc 
XTv A. 480, » Xiar* F. 23, xinra 2. 161, ItoM (!n the later Epic, PL X/if, 
X/tr^ ; Dat. ^rrl T. 500, Aoc ^^-tiv «. 182, » ^r«fyi £. 748, ftdgrty^ 
E. 296, from A ^rr«(, teoici^ ; i 2«(«r,r^, 6. Sufrif^JMr and 2»gr<(> w T»> , 
V 2«^«9l«v • Nom. pi rrii^if Ap. Ih. 4. <??«, ^rrc^otf from k ^rmy^ 


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«^H. 3.J HBTSROOLtTBS. 143 

dtcps Dit. On Has. Op. 61, Thwig^. 955, -= Shcn fhmi ri A^^, mater fto 
Norn. 0)«« Call. fV. 466). 

§ 134. 2. HiTBBocLnm 

«. Of the First aiid Third Declensions. 

• "A^^m, pMdc 'Athit, Hadn, a fis &c ; Dec. III. Epic a'A^^f, D.*Ai1b 

Another poetic form it 'Ai)«»iKf, G. -mv, Iob. -iiff. 

i 0aA«f. Thaiet, G. e«Xi*^ (> 96. 7> and SaXtiT»f, 

i Xims, contracted Xm$, fiotw^ Q. ;^«9f, and XeUv Sopl^ CEd. C. 196, D )«i^ 
A x««», x«y, and kact Call. lY. i 04, PI. N. x«tf , &c« 

fitvxnft mushroom, 6. /Ki/x«tf and fivKfir^f, 

n 9'Tvx^', -nst and mostly Ep. «rTw|, G. ^rvx^h f'>^ 
n ^^»nt -ns, poetic ^^/g G. ^^r«/f , ahudder, ripple, 

NOTti^ a. Add aQm« piopor names in -nf ^ of which a part admit a doubU 
formation throughout, as Xeifns • but others only in particular cases ; thus 
Sr^f^/aoff;, -•», has (Ar. Nub. 1 206) Voc 2r^i-v^/«)tr. Some rrfer to this 
bead the double Ace in ^ 1 14. N. For yvvn, see > iui« y. 

b. Add, also, the Epic Pi^t. mXtti (always ia the phrase Mkx) «'i«rM^i»« E 
299), = Jik»y («. 509) from mX»ti, might; Nom. h u^^al Ues. Op. 354, » 
k^wmyn, robbery; Ace. IZxa A. 601, kb ia»«ifv from jWti (E. 740), 6aM2»-i^ 
Ace. K^ixrn Hes. Op. 5^i6, ss «^«xifv from x^«»t), tcpoi^f (also PL K. «f«»cf Antip* 
Th. 10. 5); Dat. pi. ^^i«rr4y Ap. Rh. 8. 1020, a ^^c from fSiet, rote; 
Dat. vr/ftTyi B. 863, 0. .56, =s v^-^/y}} (T. '245) from vr/«iv)t, 6ai</ie; Ace. ^vy 
(only m ^vt^a^i, to fiigktt 0. 157, &c.^ =s ^i/ynv from ^vy4, Jligkt; and the 
Doric Gen. fem. mlymv Theoc 5. 1 48, 8. 49, for miySf from mT^, goat (sa Gea 
nir«*»» CalL Del. 66, '^75, for niruv from n Hfr«f of Dec II.). 

fi. Of the Second and Tlurd Declensions. 

ri ld»f»f and poet, ^^x^u, teof, G, ^9^m$», D. ^;ir^f < PI. N. 2^(fM, O. 
Vut^^y, D. 2mM(V04$ and idx^vn Th. vii. 75. 

r« }|y^^«v and Ion. }i»^^i«», ^ee, G. )i»}^«v, &c. ; Dec III. D. ^ty^^n, A. 
>f»^ Bdt yi. 79, PI. K. )«*);% D. ^»^t0-« (the more oommon form of the 
DaL pL even in Attic prose ; e. g. Th. iL 75). 

i &«7Mf, AmxA, G. ;»n»«v, &c. ; Dec III. ranr A. 7«vfMi Ar. ¥r. 525, PI. 
N. fxrlftf Pansan. 5. 14. 

; »x£i»s, twig, G. MXaho, &c ; Dec. III. poet. D. *Xmii, A. »xi2«, R D<. 
sAii2i#:i Ar. Av. 239, »Xa}$i0^h A. »>JUin 

1 MH9t»90t, •harer, G. »Mim9Hk £«. ; Deo. III. PL K* xu^Znt Cyr. viii. 1. i5, 
A. »tfSif§it lb. 16. 

ra »^;y«», %, G. »^<v«tf, &0. ; Dec III. PL N. k^Uui Hdt. H. 92, D. »^/. 
nr« Ar. Nub. 911. 

vl int^n and « Svu^0t, dream, G. iutcv and iui^mrts • PI. 0yfi(«, and mon 
ftoqnontly mi^wi. DeriTod from hm^ (f 187). 

4 «'(»%••:, contr. «'^«;^«vf , «icw, G. *r^«;c**'» ^ » ^^®^ ^^* ^' ^' ■'^^^'••^ 
Ar. Nub. 272. 

ri ifvfy fin, G. «^^f, D. «^e/ Dec II. PI* N. «^eiC, walth-firtt, D 


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i ^iX»» '■»»> G. €vtxw, &c ; Dec. III. poet. fem. 6. frt^^i II. 173, PI. 
N. frixu Find. P. 4. 373, A. 9rlx»f At, Eq. 1 63. 

Note. Add the poet Dat. pi. iri^etv'i'ita-ft H. 475, ^= itii^irSius from 
«v2^air«$0y, slave ; Nom. }^«f H. 315, Ace i^n I. 92, ^ • 7#*rr F. 442, iove, 
A. I^ftrra Horn. Merc 449 ; Gren. pi ftuXtirmv Lye 106, «= ^nXwv from fAtiXofy 
«/tee/i ; Ace Jxc (only in gtxuh, homeward, often in Horn, and even used in 
Attic prose, vii. 7.57), = •!*•» from «Tx««, htmaei PI. N. w^ntmvmrm, r. 192, 
D. v^arttvan H. 212, ss flr^^rwrc, Wf9^mr»tff from ^^immwny Jwt* FoV 
Ot^i^r^tff, Tltir^tMXaSi And i/Ztf; , see ^ 1 6. 

7. Of the Attic Second and Third Dedensions. 
n <8[x«f , threshing-Jloor, 6. afx«, aiXntvs, and poet. i[fXi»0r. 
« fk^Tfttg, maternal unde, G. fAnv^w and /fti}r^*>«; • PI. ftnr^ttit. 
i MtNtff, Minos, 6. M/yw and Miyw«f. 

« «r«r^*r«, paternal unclCf 6. vmt^v and 9riT^t**t * PI* «r«r^*>f f« 
« r«utfr and r«Mvv, jteacock, G. tmv and raZvos * PI* N. ra^, r««/, andf^iuMtf 
• rS^mt whirlwindf G. rt/^^^ and rv^mvaf, 

^ 13ff» 3. Hbterooeneous Nouns. 
«. Of the Second Declension. 
i W/Mf, Aond, PL r« hr/Aa and m hffitti, 
ri ^vyiv and • C^^y^^* 5^^ ^1* ^^ ^f^** 
« d^ir^tff (Dor. Tt^ftc(\ institute, PI. 0/ ^ttrfitai and ri^ i^r^i^. 
i Xvx9»ey lamp, PI. r« Xtf;^i'« and ei Ai/;^m/. 
r« y<vr0v and i fZr*i, back, PL rk vHrtt* 
rrr0f, com, PL rm f7rat. 

i rra^fMf, station, balance, PL 0/ fraB-fA»i and ri^ erm^/td, tta tk mt, v2k rr»- 
S^fua, balances, 

§ Td(Ta(t (n Pmd. Pr 1. 29), TartanUj PL ri^ T^^tw^m. 

/3. Of the Third Declension. 

ri *»^i and (Soph. Ph. 1 457) »^arc, heed, poetic, G. n^drU (rns, Em. 
£1. 140), D. K^dri and x«(f Soph. Aiit. 1272, A. r* Mm^d, r» and ri M^StTm 
Eur. El.' 148 (c£ 150), Fr. Arch. 16, Soph. (Ed. T. 263 ; PL A, reut m^irmi 
Kur. Phoen. 1149. The following forms are found in Homer: 

a N. »i(n 

G. x«^)tT0( Mtt^^ros »(»Tot Mfi&rt »^^9 X, 588 ui^»m 

D. xd^rt »a^ti»rt z^Mri Mf&mrt 

A. »«;«, tUi^ n. 392 x^mret S. 92 

P. N. »ii^« Cer. 12 na^n^rm n^iSirm $ut(n9» 

G. «(«rw» »«^MM 

D. »(«rl, »^«irir^i, K. 152, 156 

Other poets (not Attic) have also forms of »d^ as a fun. of Dec I. ; thni« 
a nd^nt CaU. Fr. 125, Moech. 4. 74, »dfy Theog. 1018. 

7. Of Difiiirent Declensions. 
Dec. I. and II. i wXtv^d and ri v-Xtv^iv, rib; i f^tyyit and i fS«ry4. 


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•:H. 2.J DEFECTIVE. 145 

^foict ; 'h x*^(* ^^^ ^.X''t*** ^pace: Dec. I. and III. h li^att -nt, and ri Vt^f 
-ttf^, thirst; n taiv-n and r« va«'0f, deU; ti ^Xa^n and r« fikeificst injury; n yw- 
ftr and Ion. and poet. r§ yfufAtt^ -etTtSt opinion ; ri vd^ag and ti v-aSfi, mffier^ 
tni : Dec. II. and III. • •x^'f (Dor. Sk^os), -ov, and W 0;^0f, -10;, and also ri 
•X *f^* -etratt carriage; i ahd ri c-xirof (and also 11 vxarim)^ darkness; i and 
«* -xu^of, cup; &C. 

B. Defect of Declension. 

^ ISO. 1. Some words receive no declension^ as tlie 
iv\mes of the letters, some foreign proper names, and a few 
ot/ier foreign words. Thus, to, tov, tw al(f>a • o, tov, taJ, t6> 
A^SQtxdfi ' TO, Tov, r^) ndaj^a^ possover. 

Note. A word of this kind is termed indecUnabU, or an aptote {&9rmr9$t 
without cases), 

2. A few diminutives and foreign proper names, whose root 
onds with a vowel, receive g in the Nom., v in the Ace, and, 
i^ the vowel admits it, an iota subscript in the Dat., but have 
no further declension ; as 

« ^anie (dim. from Jitovdragf Bacchus)^ G. Ai«yv, D. Aiavv, A. Ai«yv», Y. 


i yLnms (dim. from t/Lnvoim^at^f G. M)}»S, D. Mnt^t, A. MnvSy, Y. MiivS. 

« Metfxist G« Mm^-ka, D. M«r«^ A. M«0-«ay, Y. M«rjM(. 

i *la¥fnsi G. *Iavtn, D. 'I«iry^, A. 'lavv^y, Y. 'lawn. 

• 'Itifovf, JesuSf G. 'I^rtfv, D. *Itifov, A. *I*i#«i/y, Y. 'In«'«v. 

« r>.«?;. See 5 16. 

3. Many nouns are defective in number. Thus, 

a. Many noons, frY>m their signification, want the ploral ; as, «, li &n(^ the 
o^r^ ;^«Xx«f, oopjteTy ri iktuatj oily h retxynnfi swiftness. Propesr and abstract 

nouns are seldom found in the plural, except when employed as common nouns* 

fi. The names of festivals, some names of dties, and a few other words, 
want the singular ; as, r<^ Aitvvrta, the feast of Bacchus, ctl 'A^veci, Athens^ 
«i tTfitriett, the trade-winds, 

§ 1 3 7* 4. Some nouns are employed only in particular 
cases^ and these, it may be, occurring only in certain forms of 
expression. Of this kind are, 

Uftxsi body, form, Nom. and Ace. neut. 

iv-UXtiv, surname^ Acc.^em. (= IwixXnm), commonly used adverbially. 

A/xoe, with od, Dat. neut., perhaps shortened from xJiraT, Some regard it 
as Ace 

fieixtif, arm-pit, Gen. fem., only in the phrase uiri fJiXtit, under the am, 
secretly ; also, in late writers, &«*« fuiXnt, Otherwise the longer form, 4 f^t 
'X^^^i is employed. 

ftikt, Yoc masc. and fem., used only in fi»niliar address ; Z /tiXt, my good 



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146 DSCLENSION. [boor II 

M«^ §hep, dnam, and Wm^ waUag^'remHiy, N. «nd As ntmU Se» 9mi^ 

i^c-t, eyeSf Da. N. and A. neut. ; IH. 0. jrrwy, D. i^vtt* 

«^sX«f , advantage, and i^^^f (Ep*)* pleature, N. neat. 

ri» or ray, only Attic and in the phrase £ vi*, good dr, sirrah. 

Notes. «. Add the poet. Nom. and Aoo. neat. ^£ (root ^w^-, § 63) A 
4'26, -= )w/MB, Aoitte, »e'' (»*• »e'^-) ®- •56**. = »» »e^^» *<w&y» ^^^'^^ (r« et^pr-) 
Horn. Cer. 308, « Jix^ir«», barley-meal, yXJ^v, hoQow, Hea. Op. 5S1, i^t Flii- 
lat. ap. Strab. S64, » {^mv, umw/ (compare, with theee neuters, ^(i and ^ ^ 
§ 1:)6. /3) ; Dat. fern. %a.1 {l\ batUe, N. 286 (akin to this, Ace. Uiv CalL Fr. 
243); Dat. Xtri 2. 352, Ace. smg. masc. or pi. neut. Xit» a. 130, = Dat. 
and Ace of r* Xiv^v, linen ; Acc. fern, vi^a, enow, Hes. Op. 53.^ (from which 
h vt^dty -ultu tnow-fiake) ; Yoc nXi O. 1 2H, =s liXfi /3. 243, Arom nX%ii, crazed, 

/3. A word which is only employed in a single case, is termed a fnonoptote 
(^v«i, single^ vrisHt ^o^ t ^ <>k> cases, a diptaU ; m three, a triptoU ; in 
yoicr, a teirapMe. 


[mr 17-20, 22.] 

^ 138. Adjectives are declined like substan 
rives, except so far as they vary their form to de- 
note variation of gender (§ 74. 8). In this respect, 
they are divided into three classes, adjectives of 
one, of twOf and of three terminations. 

Note. In adjeddves of more than one tennination, the maseuUm ia re- 
garded as the primaiy gender, and the root, theme, and declension of tiio 
masculine, as the general root, tiieme, and declension of the word. The mode 
of declining an adjective is commonly marked by sutgoiniog to the theme the 
Ather forms of the Nom. sing., or their endings; and, if necessary, the form 
jf the Qea, sing. Thus, S^mt, •«» ■ sa^nf^ 'it * piXttg, -d, ^n • i, n ^<«tff » 
•«3«f , vi )j«r«(n>. 

^ 139» I. ApjECTivBS OF Onb Termination are de- 
clined precisely like nouns, and therefore 'require no separate 
rules or paradigms. They are confined, in the language of 
prose, to the masculine and feminine genders, and some of 
them are employed in a single gender only. E. g. 

1. MascoUne. Dec I. ; ytn£Ut, ^v, ndbh, i futim%, -•», soUtaty, i i9flX«f 
rw, -•5, vokmtaryi Dec IIL i yi^m. -errt, old, i irivnt* -•«••#, jwor (y«l 
Hesyoh. gives 4 vimr^tt). 


by Google 


T^vdtj 'dhti Trojan^ h ^(ist -t^oSi Dorian, * 

S. Masculine and Feminine. Dec. III. i, fi iy^s, -Urat, vnknoum, «, « 
liir»ifi 'eu^tSi ckUdlesSf •, n nA/|, -i»oe, of the same agcy ij i hfti^vmi -^rog, half' 
dead, i, n ^vyeif, dhfj fugitive. 

Note. Tbe indirect cased of a^jectivea of one termination and of Dec. III., 
Bfe sometimes employed by the poets as neuter ; as, yy^v^y r% fuytiXw U wifnm 
TtitfA»Ti £ur> £L 072| /utw^tv Xugon^vn Id> Or. 270, )^/ac«r« ^mim* .^Xt- 
^d^eis lb. 837. 

§ 1 SO. II. Adjectives of TVo Terminations have tie 
same form for the feminine a» for the mascuMne, but baye j 
distinct form for the neuter in the direct cases singular and 
plural. • 

RiaiABKS, «. A4iectives which form the neater most be either of Dec. 
II. or lU. (§ 79), and| if of Dec. III., cannot have either a labial or a pala- 
tal characteristic (§101). To adjectives which cannot form the neuter, this 
gender is sometimes supplied from a kindred or derived root ; as, •, ^ ^^v^S* 
•^yst, rgpoMOUSf ri A^^tmnruciiit, 

fi. The neuter must have two distinct forms, and can have only two, one 
(br the direct cases singular, and the other ftnr the direct cases plural (§ 80). 
Hence, every complete adjective must have two terminations. A neuter plural 
Is sometipies given, though rarely, to a4i^eti^^ whiah do not iarm the neuter 
singular; m, fimm wmr^it mirmr^m Mnr, Hare. U4, tdin»,., IwvXtiim Hdt 
viji. 73. 

y. In ^/r0tf# (5 1 7), and in similar compounds of vrwt, foot^ the Neuter 
aiqg;, on account el tbe difficulty of formmg it ftem the root, is formed from 
the theme, after the analogy of eontrae^ of Deo. IL (^ 18) ; thua, «, ii U- 
«wf, r* }/T0f/»* i^ k TftTeMSt -'hi, thre$-faot»d^ ri rftwwv, C£ §^1S6« 2. 

§ 181* HI. Adjectives of Three Terminations differ 
fiom those of two in having a die^aot form: for the feminine. 

It is only in the first declension that the feminine has a 
distinct form from the masculine. These adjectives, therefore, 
jnust be of two declensions, uniting the feminine forms' of the 
first with the masculine and neuter of the second or ihireL 
The feminine is formed according to the following rules. 

Rule i. If the theme belongs to the second 
declension, the feminine affixes of the first are an- 
nexed to the simple root 

If the root ends in f, i, p, or ^o, the feminine is declined like 
amn • otherwise, like n/wij (If 7, § 93). 

•Hnia, ftXU, ^iktdt ' 00^^, 0»(finf • x^^u^ifi, hwkin (t is); /»»»(•{, -«, 49^ 
Sbng, ASf^0Hn -£, .«t, dmte; «cXif, ^, -m, beauiifiU, ftXrty -fit '•p,ndtUtej yty^ftim 
fM9Hi -9, '*h vrkten. 


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148 ADJECTIYEb. [bOOK n 

^133. Rule ii. If the theme belongs to the 
third declension, the feminine affixes of the first 
are annexed to the root increased by a (i. e. to the 
theme before euphonic changes). 

Thus, from the roots «'«yr., xx^nvr' (f 19), fiavXiunr-^ A^ttfT', ^tiufr 
(^ 22), are formed the ftmmines (wdvrsetf w^f^m) wrA, {xm^Uvrrm, x*' 

»fiV& (§§ 55, 57, 58). 

The following spbcial kules are observed in the formation 
of ^e feminine, when the'' theme belongs to Dec. III. 

1. Afler B or o, the ^ which is added to the root becomes 
(§ 50), which is then contracted, with e into ci, and with o 
mto vt. Thus, from the tDots {jde- (fl 19), and ndot- (fl 22), 
are formed the feminines (j^ddua^ ^Jeea) {^eZa, {eidotaa^ tUdoaa^ 
ddoBo) sidvTa. 

K0TB8. «. The dijAthoiig w mmr stands before the affixes of Dec L 
The ooDcmTenoe of open, rowels whidi woold be thns prodnoed seems to have 
cBspIeased the Greek ear. Hence the oontractioii, in this case, of «• into the 
doser diphthong ou 

$. In the eoniraeted pmfiei partie^piet, irbicb. have a kmg vowel in tiie last 
syllable of the root, the r remains. Thns, from r. Wrttr- (oontr. from irr«M'^ 
ih>m the vecfo Trr^^, to ttand) is formed the feminine (Irrwrra) UrSr& 
rt 22). 

y. The fern, terminatimi -cT^i is commonly shortened m Ionic prose, and 
sometimes hi Egao and other poetry, to U (sometimes Ion. in, espetaaSly in 
Hipp.); as, fim^im, tifU Hdt. L 178, fia^nt lb. 75, fia^int £. 147 (bat 
fia^itif B. 92), ti»i» B. 786, «)m Theoc 3. 20, t»x^S9 Theog. 715. So, 
even in Attic prose, Buttmann edits from the best Mas. n/uAag PL Meno, 
83 c On the other hand, the poets, in a ftw instances, prolong .U of the 
Nevt {d. to 'Ua for the sake of the metre (§ 47. N.) ; as, •^i/'k Hes. Sc 348, 
Huk Soph. Tt. 122 (so rMtiiv for ^xtUv, Ap. Bh. 2. 404, Uiftfitn Id. 4. 

2. After a liquid, the a which is added becomes e, which i» 
then transposed, and contracted with the preceding vowel into 
a diphthong. Thus, from the roots fisXav- (fl 19), tsQev- (r. of 
Ts^i/y, tender)^ msg-^ are formed the feminines (fUXavaay /i»- 
Xaspa) fiiXatySf (tigsvaaj itQCtva) Tigsiva^ nUtga (^ 134. d\ 
Compare §§ 56, 57. 

3. If the root, after the addition of a, and the consequent 
changes, ends m & or ^, the feminine is declined like ontd ' but 
if it ends in a or y, like yXuaaa (fl 7, §§ 92, 93) ; as, ^^«Idf, 
'^ddag • nao&y ndaiig ' fiiXat^va^ (itXalvrig (fl 19) ; nUiQa^ mdoag. 
Observe that the a in the direct cases is always short See 


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§ 1SS« Of those words which belong to the general class 
of ADJECTIVES (§ 73), the following have tiiree terminations :— r 

1. All participles ; as, fiovXeviav^ agag^ tldag (U 22). 

Note. In participlesy which partake of the verb and the adjeetive, a cha- 
tinction most be made between the root, affix, connectmg vowd, and JUxSM 
ending of conjugation, and those of declension ; thna, in the genitive fiavktu^vr^St 
the root of conjugation 1b fiwktv-, and the affix .Mr«f • while the root of de- 
clension Is fitvktunr-, and the affix .«; • 

2. All comparatives and superlatives in -og ; as, ^ro^oiTc^oii 
-fi, -01', toiser ; aofptaiaiog^ -i?, -or, toisest. 

3. All numerals, except cardin^ils from 2 to 100 inclusive ; 
as, diaxoaioi^ -ai, -Oy two hundred^ rgliogj -i}, -of, third, 

4. The article and adjective pronouns, except ife (rig). See 
1124. .. 

5. Simple adjectives m -o?, -etj, and -vj, with a few other 
adjectives ; as, qtlXiog^ aoq>6gy xQ^^^og (fl 18) ; /or^i^, ^dvg ' tioj, 
fiiXag (f[ 19) ; Ixcoy, -ovact, -oy, G. -orro?, tvilling ; taXagyaivaj 
-cry, G. -ai'og, wretched ; tiqrivy -uva^ -cy, G. -ivog^ tender* 

Notes. «. For the number of terminations in adjectives in .«# , only gen- 
eral roles can be given. Fot the most part, simples have three terminationay 
and compounds, but two. Yet some compounds have three, and many sim- 
ples, particnhiily derivatives in .ii«f , .<«f , and -t/Ms, have but two. Deriva- 
tives from compound verbs, as being themselves uncompounded, espedallj 
those in -a^f , -r«f, and ^Uf, have more commonly three terminations, la ' 
many words, usage is variable. See y. 

fi. Adjectives uk .i^, of the Attic Dec. 11., have but two terminations ; as^ 
l^(it\^ 17), i, li >^i«f, r§ tSytt*, fertSt. For *XU»$, see § 135. 

y. In (a.) words in which the Fem. has commonly a distinct form, the 
form of tlM Masc is sometimes employed in its Mettd. And (b.), on the other 
Inuid, a diMinct form is sometimes given to the Fem. in words in which it is 
commonly the same with the Masc Thus, we find as feminine, 

(a.) Aiiyectives in -^ (particularly in Attic writers, § 74. i), ^nkt Eur. Med. 
11 97, ^X«f Id. ffipp. 435, Th. vi. 21, iti»y»Mu Th. L 2, xkvrit B. 742 • 
Adjectives in -of (particularly in Epic and Doric poetry), nivs ft» 369, iiim 
Theoc. 20. 8, ^Xug T. 97, trevkvv EL 27 ; Comparatives, Superktives, Parti« 
dples, and Pronouns (all rarely, excqst in the dual, see ^.), atx^^^rt^af Th. v. 
110, %u0%ft^»XMTmvt Id. iii. 101, §k»mv^es ). 442; rt^frts JEsch. Ag. 560; 
mXiMVTH Soph. EL 613, (Ed. C. 751. 

(b.) ^KMsrH K. 404, ^^•^0vir Theog. 1 1 , wXt^USt VmSi. N. 3. 3, wXvrim 
fiim Ar. Pax, 978, for the common h it^m^mres, &c This use is espedal^ 
q>ic and fyric 

1. This use of the dnasc. form for the fem. is particularly frequent in th« 
dual, in which, from it« limited use, the distinction of gender is least unpor- 
tant; as, r*r ;^i7^i vi. 1. 8 (the fem. form r« scarcely belongs to dassie 
Chfeek) ; r*vr^ rw A/ai^m C}T. 1. ^. 1 1 ; r«vr«4y %h relv mtvn^ietf FL LfQPi 

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150 ADJSOTIYBS. [book U 

898 a.; ^ ^ni Urn Siim i^x**^* '^ iyswrh •^^ MfU^tt* ^.rtirm 
PI. Fhadr. 237 d.; ;)#fri f^mi w'm^twm Soph. (Ed. O. 1676; «'A.iirl»r« 
e. 455. 

^ 134* To some adjectives, feminine forms are supplied 
from a kindred or derived root These fonriB may be eithei 
required to complete the adjective, or they may be only specia 
feminines, used (particularly in poetry and the dialects) by tl e 
side of forms of the common gender (cf. § 74. s). The fem- 
inines thus supplied most frequently end in -ig^ G. -idog, but 
also in -a?, G. ^adogj in -em, -eipa, &c. (for the use of ^ as a 
feminine formative, see § 118). Thus, 

m, MascnUnes in .iff of Dec I., and in -tv; of Dec. III., have often coi> 
responding femutines in ^f , •<)««. These words are duefly fiatriids and gen- 
tiles, or other personal designations, and are o(»nmonly used as substantives. 
ThnSf • iraxfriff, .«t/, bdongmg to a cUy (d-i«2 ^rtXTTttt iEsch. Th. 253), eifSzen, 
n taktrtf, -ihf ii»imt,n Uirif, ntpg^iatU.'f i "Skv^s, ii ^»v^if, Scythian; 
i Miym^$^ 4mft 4 MsyecfU, MBgarian. 

. JL Tlie eompoHods of l«w, year (in -«# , -if of Deo. UL, bnt somttiiiMi fat 
Kf, G. -tftf of Dec I.)i hare often a q)6cial fem. in -ts, -^«i ; as, i, li l«^r«f, 
T« itrrirut 9eom year$ old, and h IvrSrif, -tht • rit l^irn ^^»i <^» V^Uw PI. 
Log. 794 c ; rkg v^uumwvtus wirovUis Hl L 23, bnt r^Mrravritm twn^Sh 
lb. 87. _ 

y. Soma oompeonds in .im» -i# have « poetio (partioilaify Epie) fan. in 
«Mi; as, 4^<ytMif, -if, A 4e<7i»uA A. 477* So ttkunoyiHtStt ittiiinA, ^uW- 
irt«A Soph. (Ed. T. 463. 

• }. Add #, li Wivy, and it «r/>i^ ri «-?«», /a<; 4 «'^lr/3iir, oZi^ twMroNSe^ Fem., 
chiefly poet, «r(i«-/3iE, rfi^/Sii, o-^Sj-jSii^ wfwfinfs, vAv^n • #, li ^jum, and 
li ^»«i^il^ blessed, poetic ; ^, i^ «r^«^^*»y, and Ep. il fr^s^^arr* K. 290, kmd, 

^ 13tS« Irregulab Adjectives. Among the adjectives 
which deserve special notice are the following. 

fuymti grtaty and •'#x#f, mmh (5 20)« In thaie acyecUves, the Norn, and 
Ac»Q. sing, masc and neat are formed fiom the xoots fuym^ and «'«x«^ accord- 
ing to Dec. IIL The oti)«r caees are Cnmed firop the roots /(•ir^x. and wXX^ 
according to Dec I. and IL The Yoc iAtyAx% occurs onty iEsch. Th. 892. 
From its signification, ^•x6t has no duaL For the Homeric faifleetien of «i- 
Xuf, see 5 20. In Herodotus, the fbrms from wKXit prevail throoghont, yet 
not to the entire exdosion of the other fbrms. The %le forms sometimas 
occur in the Attic poets. 

; wxims, A wxU, ri wxit*, fvU, The Kasc and Neat are formed ton r* 
rX«^ according to the Attic Dec U. (§ 98) ; tite Fern. Is formed from r* 
«'Xi.. Ion. rXitff, Ep, vX%7os, -ir, ^». So, likewise, in Att writers, the plural 
compounds tfi^-Xtos, t««-Xi<( Cyr. vi. 2. 7, rt^irXim lb. 33. In Hke maanet 
7xut PI. Phsdo, 95 a, N. pi. from fXtmi, •«», contr. from Ixmtt, -•*• 

i vfitf (by some written ir^f «f), if v-fmuet, r§ r^«M («'^f «»), mUd. In this 
wiy., forms from r. ir^a-, of Dec II., and from r. «^m-, at Dec IIL, An 

blended (see ^ 20). Ion. ^^nit. 

i, 4 >«lf , ri w, aa/k In this a^j., contract forms from r. ^m- are blandad 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

CM, 3.] IBRBOULAB* 151 

wilb fionns from z riw. (ecmtr. ttom mm-% bdaqging ptrti|f to Dm. IL mad 
puiiLj to Pec. IIL Thus, 

i i ri * 

P. K. r««i, (r^rf () r«f (^<^) ^'b '*** 

Tbero li alio aa Epic haa r^r. With tfa« abofv may be eompand tbB 
Hbmerio (i^ EL 87, Jlm. (i<» II. 445, oontr. from C«^s C*^* "" the oommon 

§ 1 3 G» KitMABKR. 1. Some oompooncU of yixms^ Jaughtar^ and «if«i» 
Aom, may reoeive either the Attic second, or the third declension ; as, f iX«7t. 
XtHt -tfv, 0. ^ and ^rvf, loMghter-lovmg, xi'^^'^^^fi '•»** C^* -^ "''^ -«'«'•(, 
goUen-hornedL Shorter forms also occor, according to the common Dec IL ; 
as, Vm*^«9i 9n»*^M, M»t^ 

2. Some compomids of T»6ff foot, have secondary fbrms according to Dec 
n. ; as, w\v^»vt (poet. w«ykuir$tii), manjf-footedf 6. wKuw»i0s and ircXvittp • 
r^iVnff, -^ttt and £p^ t^iitH, «Mr, X. 164, tkre^/Mied; *l^is JUXXiirtf 0. 
109; WwMiv ^iX>.««'«)frri» Horn. Yen. 218. See Oi'2<t«v (5 16), and 
compare § ISO. y. 

3. Among other examples of varied formation, we notice the Homeric i Hi 
B. 819, and Hit U. 464, good, brave, ri IS T, 2:^5, tS £. 650 (both adverbial), 
and «l^ r. 456. Gen. I««f A. 393 (cf. § 121. 3), Aoc U» 0, 303, and ii$f E. 
6^8 ; Gen. pi neat Uutp H. 528 ; • ifin(»t A. 266, tnutyf fL l^iniHt l^^e^t 
r. 47, 378 ; i w*X^fh^H X. 257, rich in iheqa, PL fraXMf}nn$ I. 154 (see also 
w§X^f9i below, 4. i) ; AiVvf tXt^^^f N. 773, "IXso* etlvrv O. 7 1 , IXft ttiwuf^ 
N. 773, «^A4f mir^ N. 625, «;«-« ^li^e« ^' ^^^> nif)«r«* «Mtrr«y <l». 87 ; 
i^ri r. 419, ^fcer*(«'« ®' 13^> ^r^*"' a. sis, i^^ir* <|>. 127; i^y^iM 2.* 
50, i(yvf*9 n. 621 ; wiXn ... toT$i%U9 A. 129, r«Xjv tttrtix— II. 57 ; T^«f«9 
I^A«X«M» r, 74, Tf 04919 l^ifistXM 1. 329 ; 9'tXyTXmg f. 171, «'«JLirrJli(^M»9 «v 319, 
wtXvrXurM X. 38 ; &c Examples of adjectives of double formation, or of 
flTnonymoos adjectives with dif^rent forms, might be greatly multiplied. 

4. Among defective acyectives, we notice, 

«.) The foDowing, chiefly poetic : i, h £ia,»^us, r§ £im»(v, tearktt, Ace jOm. 
s^ (the other cases supplied by iiti»^r«(, -«v) ; wXv^ax^vf, tearfmi (supplted 
in like mamier by ^txMK^irtf); i w^U^f (for fom. see § 134. )), oU, aa 
tfubst. aUr, ambanmior (in Uie last sense G. w^rfi^m Ar. Ach. 93), A. w^* 
/itnr, Y. v'^isfiu ' PL w^Ufiuf, v-^irfifits Hes. Sc 245, eldert, mnbauadorg, G. 
ir^lr/3i«», D. w^Ufiirij w^r^iS^n Lye 1056, A. 9'fUfiuf, Dn. r^ir^n Ar. Fr. 
495 (the plur. in the sense of ambaatadora was in common use ; otherwise, the 
word was almost exclusively poetic, and its place supplied by i trft^fiimtt old 
Man, and i v^i^^t^c, ambeusador) ; ^f0S!icsy •«» •«*, gone, wfaidi, with the 
Nem. throughout, has only the Gen. f^^»» Soph. A^. 264. 

^y Poetio feminlnea and neuters, which have iio oorrespondiag masc; a^ 
li wirtti (and sometimes «■•«•»£), reoerad^ rjiv vinniv, ml wirrumt • 4 SmXud, 
r« ^dXm, blooming, rich (Hoip.), li ^f and Xsm (always with vim), ^ 64, 
7y, yg 293, •.412, — Xii«, fem. of Xi7«, emooth; ri ^7 (r. ^<^-) Hea. ap. 
etrab. 364, = neut. of ^t^vs, heavy ; r# /^ (r. /fJ-) Soph. Fr. 932, » neat, 
of ^d^H, etuy (compare with /3^7 and /f, the neuters )w, »^r, &c, § 187. «) ; 

k ^ and Iwtnfm, jtUtoMg (Hom.). 


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y.) Poetic plurals which have no corresponding sing. ; as •* ^mf*U$ K. 264, 
and r«^^iif A. 387 (yet raa^vt iEsch. Th. 535), thick, frequmt, mi ^itfmai 

A. 52, and raf^uai T. 357 (accented as if from ^afituog and Tei(^uos)t ril 
raffia A. 69, l^vtrd^futrts —Imrti EL. 370 ; m vrXUt A. 395, rohf wXi»$ 

B. 129 sss frkievtf, rX'utebSt more, 

^.) Poetic oblique cases which have no corresponding Nom. ; as, rw 'tvff^at 
fiut^rcst unhappily wedded, Mach. Ag. 1319 ; »aX.Xi'yv9»moSy having beauH/u* 
women, Sapph. (135), tuckksyufosKB Fvad. P. 9. 131, *EX)Mti Mkiuyvmixa 
B. 683 ; wXum^n 0tfSrrii B. 106 ; x«>.tfir^rmym. ^ftkKm* Pratin. ap. Ath. 
617 c; v^pixi^Ara trir^av Ar. Nub. 597; xk*'*f» XH^^* X^f*^*"^ ^* K** 
tn*f, xU'*'^ (P^ which xk*** ^* ^^^* v. 310, is a doubtftil yariation), A. 80> 
A. 400, &c a* X**i***h ^^ vfone. 



[TTir 21, 25.1 

^ 1ST* L NuMEBAL Adjectives. Of numeral adjectives, 
the principal are, (1.) the Cardinal, answering the question 
noaoi; koto many ') (2.) the Ordinal, answering the question 
noatog; which in order 7 or, one of how many 1 (3.) the Tem- 
poral, answering the question, noatmog; on what day 7 or, in 
how many days 7 (4.) the Mitltiple (muhiplex, having many 
folds) ^ showing to what extent any thing is complicated; and 
the Proportional, showing the proportion yvhich one thing 
hears to another. 

1. Cardinal. For the declension of the first four cardinals, 
see IF 21. The cardinals from 5 to 100, inclusive, are inde- 
clinable ; as, ol, oi, Tix, T(i)y, toX^, toilg^ tovg^ lag^ naVrc, fve. 
Those above 100 are declined like the plural of (plliog (IT 18). 

Notes. «. ETf , from its ngnification, is used only in the singnlar ; )i}*»» 
only in the dual and plural ; and the other cardinals only in the plural (except 
with coklective nouns, in such expressions as a^^'h i^v^m »m\ riT^sM-ZM, 
10,400 infantry, i. 7. 10, 7inr«y UvaKscx^^'inv, 8,000 harm, Hdt. Tii. 85). 
For the lialectic as well m common decisis, of the first four cardinals, see ^ 2 1. 
We add references to authors for some of the less frequent forms : tut Ues. 
Vi. 145, tii Theoc 11. 33 (in some AIss.), Inscr. Herad., ttf 2. 422, 9i!iafi,U 
att (by some written •viafUf) Hdt. iv. 114, hiti V. 236, luHv Hdt. i. 94, 
itw^i lb. 32, r^teTn Hippon. Fr. 8, Tirofts Hdt. yiL 228 (Inscr. Lac.), rirt^m 
Hes. Op. 696, Ttri^mt Theoc. 14. 16, vUv^ig i. 70, 9ri<rv^t 0. 680, rir^Mt 
Hes. Fr. 47. 5. Find. 0. 10. 83. Dialectic forms of some of the higher 
nuiiiben) are, ft xi/^vt Mo\,, 12 W^ixa aiid IvoxatliKu Ion. and Poet., 
20 iii»0#i Ep., iUmrt Dor., 30 r^tn»»trm, Ion. (we even tinU Gtm. T^«ii««»r«« 


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Hes. Op. 694, Dat -»$nxofTtf«'tp Anthol.), 40 TMft^t*nrm and rt99t^Mnrm 
lon^ rfT^x«M'A Dor., 80 iyhttxatraf {^ 46. «) lon., 90 UA»§fTm r. 174, 
200 'itntiftu Ion., 9,000 Iwax^Xu H. 148, 10,000 h»dx^Xu lb. 

fi, Etf has two roots, iv- and.^-. Its compounds §»i$if and finittf (which, 
for the sake of emphasis, are also written separately, «»& irir, ^n^i tJi) have 
the masa plnr. 

y. Tile eommon form of the second cardinal is ^v«, shortened from the 
regolar 3vw, which is by some excluded entirely from the Attic and from He- 
rodotus. Tlie second form of the Gen. iuut is only Attic, and is even ex- 
cluded from some of the best editions of good Att. writers. The Dat. pL 
Wi occurs Th. viii. 101. Both ^m Qum) and a/^^«, both (which is placed in 
^ 21,<as partaking of the nature of a numeral^ with that of an emphatic pro- 
noun), are sometimes indeclinable (in Hom. never otherwise) ; as, )v« fAwSi* 
Vii. 6. 1, ^u» fMt^&mt K. 258, 'ivm xettiftg-n N. 407, x^^^h Sfitififti Hom. 
Cer. 15. 

t. For the double forms of rUfo^tt, see § 70. 1. lu the compounds ^i»a. 
TfiTti TiccmfifKetiitxti, and its equivalent it^aric-c-a^tt, the components r^iti 
and rif^a^ts are declined ; thus, ^txar^tts, itxar^itt, ^t^mr^tSv ■ r«7ir nffec^g't' 
Maiitxa. Tet we sometimes find T$ff»^ic-Katit»a (Ion. rt0'9't^»0'»aii»x»), and 
even rtr0'a^«»ai^i»« used as indeclinable. See Hdt. L 86, Mem. ii. 7. 2, and 
Lob. ad Phtyn. p. 409. The compounds from 13 to 19 are also written sep- 
arately : rUg-M^if »»i y»»a. So r^Uf yi »m,) ii»m, Find. O. 1. 127, r^ia xui 
iiz» Hdt. i. 119. 

i The cardinals become coBeethe or distrHnawe by composition with ru» • 
as, ^tff^M, two together, or two at a Hme, vi. 3. 2, fvtr^uf i, 429, g-whtHtJut 
Eur. Tro. 1076. The distributive sense is also expressed by means of the 
prepositions «»«, narAy and, in some connections, $h and Sir/ • as, 1^ >.ix^vt 
itfk ixetrot eifi^at, fix comptmies, each a hundred men, iii. 4. 21 ; xurm rtr^»- 
xt^X*^Uvs, 4,000 at a time, iii. 5. 8 ; tU S»«r0», 100 deep, Cyr, vi 3. 23 ; 
I9) rtrrd^v, four deep, i. 2. 15. 

^. The numeral fAv^m, 10,^000, is distinguished from (tv^it^ plnr. of f*ufi»u 
vast, countless, with whidi it was originally one, by the accent. 

§ 1S8. 2. Ordinal. The ordinal numbers are all de-" 
rived from the cardinal, except ngmiog, and are all declined 
with three terminations. They all end in -loi^ except dsvtfgog^ 
fSdofiog^ and oydoog. Those from 20, upwards, all end in ^oatog. 

Notes. «. Dialectic forms are, 1 irfirof Dor., 3 r^irarot Ep., 4 rir^mrtt 
f p., 7 IfiHofMiTat £p., 8 iyioar»f Ep., 9 tlvxt^f Ep., 12 3i;«^i««r«f lon., 
1 1 7im^irx«/^s«ar0f Ion., 30 r^rnxo^ros Ion., &C. 

/3. Instead of the compound numbers from 13 to 19 m the table (Hf 25), 
we also find the combinations r^irot xai ^inmvHi Th. v. 56 ; rira^ros »»\ 
lii»«r««, lb. 81 ; «-i^<rr#j xmi iixattf, lb. 83 ; &C -Also, »7if »ai tlxa^rif, Th. 
Tiii. 109. See 5 140. 1. 

3. Temporal. The temporal numbers are formed fron\ the 
ordinals, by changing the final -og into -aiog^ -5, -ov; thus, 
dfVTfQogy divtiQaiog, -a, -oy. From ngmog^ no temporal number 
is formed. Its place is supplied by ov^i^/i^^off) -ov* 


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}54 NUMiSMts. [book m 

4. MuT.T^Fi.^ TUq ipultiple numbers end ia -JvJtoo^, con 
^raqted «9iU»V(« and ^re declined like dinkoog^ dinXovg (IT 16). 

Other forms are dioee in -^d^tt, chiefly lon^ as, hpd^itt, r^ipm9t§f • als<^ 
V'M> T^fisn !««• Ml^* *t4»* ($ 70. v.), Ac 

5. Proportionai The proportional numbers have double 
forms, in -nXoiaiog^ -a, -of, andi njowj rarely, -rJiluaimv^ -or 
O, -avog. Thus the ratio of 2 to 1 is expressed by 9^nXaai09 
-a, *oy, or d^nXaQliav^ w>v, G. ^oyof * and that of 10 to 1, by dt^ 
M0Jiluoiog or diMnnhxaioiP. The ratio of 1 to 1, or of equality 
is expressed by toog (Ep, hog)^ -i?| -ov. 

^ 130. II. Numeral Adverbs. I. The numeral ad- 
verbs which reply to the interrogative noaaxig; Juno many 
times 7 all end in -dxig^ except the three first ; thus, ftTfdxig 
ten times J ivvfaxa^HxoaixMsmfino0io^liuJMin^%^29 tynfiS^ Pl« Rep# 

687 e. 

These adverbs are employed in the formation of the higher 
cardinal and ordip^l Qi^mbejrs ; thu9f S*^lXifiHt Ud9 tl^mmd^ 

2. Other numeral adverbs relate to divisioriy orders place, 
manner^ ^. ; as, d/^a, in two divisions^ ^qU^j ^^ three divis* 
ions ; dsmtgoy^ secondly , xqliov^ thirdly ; tQix^v^ in thr^ places^ 
ntrtaxoV'i in Jive places ; ntyxot^^g^ in fiv^ v>ays^ ^/(^S% i^ ^ 

III. Numeral Substantives. The numeral substantives, 
for the most part, end in -«?, -ddog^ and are employed both as 
abstract and as eolleetive nouns. Thus, ^ fiugtag may signify, 
either the number 10,000, considered abstractly, or a collection 
■of 1Q,000. The^e numeral^ often take the place of the ordi- 
nals, particularly in the expression of the higher numbers ; as, 
dixa fivfidde^^ ten myria4s 7=- }00,QQO ; Ixoroy fivgiddtg^ a miU 

§ 1 40. Remarks. 1. When numerals are combined^ the 
less commonly precedes with koI • but often |he greater wiAout 
xa/, and sometimes also with it. 

Thus, «*»» »ai i7»«r/», ,fif» and fippU/f, i, 4. 2 ; T4rr»^dft«»r^ f iori, fofiifT 
fiot^ V. 5. 5 ; T^Mi^nra. »at\ «*<«», tkirty amd Jh^^ i^ 4. 2 ; 0rm^fUi vf^ 

»»in-ec x») lletxtr^^iXtoi xet) fcu^tctt ii. 2. 6 ; rrm^fco) ^taxivm ^cjuerivri, «*»• 
^^rdyyxt x*^'** Ixmrn ff'f»nf»«»r# f^vri, 9r4^t^ f^t^f^u^t* r$r^mxt^xJ^^Mi 
lletttSina «-«»ti»«mt«, vu. 8. 26. See v.. 5, 4, and § 138. fi. 

Notes. #.. From the division of the Greek month into deeadeg, the daji 
were often designated a? foUovs ; fin»h f^^^sf^m ^^9 M ^ix*, «S»fi th» 


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CH. 5*] PRONOJIfS. l&b 

[6th 9fter IQ] 16tft of the month BoSdromiomy Dem. 261. 12 ; »f^irm^««f 
Uvif W) )f»«rfl, Id. 279. 17 ; fi«tii^»fuiiws Urif t/t$r* tixtcim, * the 26th,' 14 
265. 5. In like maimer, r^W yt yinw w^if )U* &}<>Mtft9 ynms, MasAi 
Prom. 773. 

/ft. Instead of adding eight or nine, nAtraetion fa often employed \ as, tm 
...fiumt iiwrm Tirr«^«»«vr«, Jbriy sj^pt wanting one [40 — 1 »■ 39}, Th. 
viii. 7 ; nbvW ittoip havrmt wifrnMPra [50 — ^ 2 ^ 48 J, lb. 25 ; ivtitt iuv- 
watt t1»»9t mvrit H. 6r« 1. 1. 5 ; wivr^opru tutlh httra tm, Th. ii. 8 ; Uit 
)t«f ii»«rr«» trt, Id. viii. 6 (c£ Syhtt xui ^xmtm Ir^f, Id. vii. }8) ; Im 
2i«vr«f r^Mt»«r«^ tru, m the thirtkth year^ one wan*in§y Id. iv. 102. In like 
manner, r^nt^im* inr^iUtrm. f/kv^tn. Id. iL IS. It will be observed, that the 
partidi^ may either agne with the greater nnmber, or, by a rarer eonstrac- 
tion, be pot absolute with the less. See Syntax. 

y. The combinations of frcuthne with whole numbers are variously ex- 
prassed; thus, (a) r^tet fi/Atia^uxti, three half-daricsj i. e. 1^ darics, L 3. 21 
(b) Particularly in Herodotus, rfirm nfU9^?L»9T«M, the thhd takiU a half one 
L e. 2^ tqilente, Hdt i. 50 ; tfiii^ftM hfurmXwtrtv + wirm^n nfiurtiXnwn ««• 
^Xtcvrn ^»#, 16^ 4- 3^ ae 10, lb. (oompase in Lat. eeettsiiUtt, shortened from 
eemktertiia) : (c) Less classic, )m nml i/u'wum* fitWt )«« f^ ii/**fu i^^f^ 
P(^ ix. 56, 69 : (d) WiT^irth a mrd Uk addiikm, I e. 1^, Vect. 3. 9i WU 
wytwrov, \l, lb. : (e) nfuiXjt*, half <r« much again, L e. 1^, i. 3. 21. 

2. The Tabte (YI 25) e^ibits the moet eoinmon auraemls 
wiU) BOQie Qf the mterrogatives, indefiBites, diminutives, &c. 
which eorrespond with them. 



I. Substantive. 
^141. Personal, fy4, ov, ov. The declension of these 
pronouns is peculiar. 

The numbers are distinguished not less by difference of root, thah jsf ajgHx. 
Thus, the Ist Person has the roots, Sing. /!•-, or, as a more emphatic form, l^-, 
PI A^, Du. p. ; the 2d Pers., Sing. «--, PL if*-, Du. ^(p. ; the 3d Pere., Sing, 
the rough breathing, PI. and Du. r^-. Most of the forms have a connecting 
vowel, which in the Smg. and PL is -t- (in the Dat. sing, passing into the 
kindred -♦-, § 28), but m the Du., -•-. The JlexiMe endinge are Sing. Gen. 
^ Dat. -r, Ace none (the primitive Direct Case remained as Ace, while the 
Nom., in the 1st and 2d Persons, had the peculiar forms iyti and wu, and m 
the 3d, from its reflexive use, eariy disappeared ; compare the Lat. me, te, «e ; 
egoy tu, Nom. of 3d Pers. wanting) ; PI. Nom. -•*, Gen. -«»i», Dat. -Xp (the 
flexible ending of the old Indirect Case, § 83), Ace. -dt ; Du. Nom. -« (in the 
prolonged forms p£7, 9^7, the -t appears to have come from an imitation of 


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the Gen.), Gen. -ip. In all the forms in common ose, the connecdng row^ 
and flexible ending are ountracted ; thus, i/t-i-* i/fZ^ a-i-o etHi, *4-« §»• (l^i-* 
l/»-«-4) Ififif (r-f^) r#^ C-i-*) «• nftt'i-tt fiftutt vfi-i-ts vfius, (a^-i-u) ^^ut \ 

exMbitB a dlfierent fonnation without a connecting vowel) ; hfA-i-dt iifitas 
u/A-i-itt vfitMff 9<P'i-if 9'^ms * gS't mv, ^P'S^t r^4w (v«^and 9'(pm are aometiroes 
written incorrectly »f and r^, as if contracted from vSt, f^m, § 25. «) ; 
v^.iV v^y, rf-w-iV rff » (f^m9, from its limited use, remained unoontracted) 

^ 1 43. RBMABKft 1. The Table (If 23) exhibits^ 1st, the common 
forms of the peisooal pronouns ; 2d, the forms whidi ^ccur in Homer, whether 
oommon or dialectic ; 3d, the principal other forms which occur. The fonns 
to which the sign f is affixed are enclitic when used without emphasis (see 
Prosody). When the oblique cases ISng. of lyti are not enditic, the loi^ger 
forms ifUvj IftMf Ifti are employed. 

2. The pronoun »v is used, both as a simple personal pronoun, and as a *»- 
flexive. ia. the Attic and Common dialects, however, it is not greatly n. ed 
in either sense, its place bemg commonly supplied by other pronouns. Hie 
plur. forms ^fut and rff« first occur in Hdt. (viL 168, L 46). For the lim- 
itations and peculiarities in the use of this pronoun, see Syntax. 

3. Besides the forms which are oommon in prose, the Attic poets also eai- 
ploy, (a) the Epic Genitives t^fS^*, ri5i», Z^» • {b) the Accusatives »/» and 
r^, without distinction of numba* or gender ; (e) the Dat. pL rfh, which 
even occurs, though rarely, both in Attic and in other poetiy, as sing. ; 
Id) the DaLpL of iyti and ^i with the ultima short (especially Soi^odes) ; 
thus, ii/iiv, vfiutt or fyift ^/ifv. See 5. below. 

4. The DiAUEonc forms arise chiefly, a) from want of contraction, as, 
4»i«, Sec ', (6) ttom protraction, as, ifttU, ^m, im, nfttifv, vfuu^t wptimt 
(§ 47. K.> ; (e) from peculiar contraction, as, ifttZ, nv, iv t§ 45. 3) ; 
{d) from the use of different affixes, as Gen. Ep. -^t* {ifci^%f, ri^y, ;^», 
$ 84), Dor. -0« (l/Atofj oontr. l^«vf, lutvf, ri*t, contr. r$ut, with t doubled 
ri#£v, and, similarly formed, iovs) ; Dat. sing. Dor. -tp (i^;», rt?f, tiV, h, ; 
(e) from the retention of primitive forms without the flexible ending, as *dfti, 
i/itfiUj ifiit vffk/tttt r^i (compare the sing. I^i, ri, I, and see ^^ 83, 86:; 
(/» from variation of root ; as. Dor. t- for r- (rw, «?, r«, ri, Lat. tu, ha, 
tibi, te, § 70.. 2) ; JEol F- for the rough breathing {Fi^u, foT, ft • Lat «-: 
nut, gibi, k) ; Dor. *S/a., JEoL and Ep. «^^, for i^*. {'A/^Ut »f*fiuf, &c) ; 
Mo\. and Ep. i^^. for 'Cf/t- (Sft/ttf, &c.) ; T>or. >^- and ^, iEol. «^f>, for r^ 
(y^ip, ypij ^it, if^t, ««-^;. See Table, and 5. below. 

5. We add a few references to authors for the dialectic and poetic forms 
iytit* A. 76 (used by Horn, only before vowels), Ar. Ach. 748 -Meg. , Ar. 
I>y8. 983 (Lac. , Theoc. 1. 14, iEsch. P^. 931, J^pym (==Jfy«yr Ck)r. 12, 
i^ymr Ar. Ach. 898; if^U K. 124, Hdt. i. 126. l^i?* A. 174, i^tZ A. 88, 
Hdt. vii. 158, fuu A. 37, Hdt. vu, 209, if^iftp A. 525, Eur. Or. 986. ifn^p 
Sapph. 89; Ifiip Theoc. 2. 144, Ar. Av. 930; ifcUf Hdt. ii 6, •«^if Ar. 
Lyj«. 168, &fAfcts <^. 432, Theoc. 5. 67; ^tfiu^p l\ 101, if^t'mp E. 258, 
'£fcSp Theoc 2. 158, ^^tf^imp Ale. 77; Ufap A. 147, ^^r» or ^i^tr, X. 344, 
Soph. <Ed. T. 39, 42, 103, Ar. Av. 386, *£fi7, Theoc. 5. 106, if^fu A. 384, 
Theoc. 1. 102, &f^f,„ N. 379, Ale 86 (15), i^^.iriy Ale. 91 (78); ifsUt 
e. 211, Hdt. i. .30. ^fidi T. .172, 'afjti Ar. Lv.«<. 95, 5^^ A. 59. Sapph. 
93 (13). Theoc. 8. 25 ; .^» Cor. 16, pi\- A. 418, U. 99 (y^a?), m E. 219, 


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CH. 5.] PERSONAL. 157 

wTf X. 88 : Tu Ar. Lys. 1188, Sapph.!. 13, Twri E. 485, r»v Cor. 2; n» ' 

A. 396 Hdt. i. 8, etTt T. 137, ri5 T. 206, Hdt. i. 9, ^i^i* A. 180, Eur 
Ale. 51, rtM 0. 37, 468, rtZf Theoc. 2. 126, nm Theoc. II. 25 ; tm A. 
28, Hdt. i. 9, rtU J. 619 (not in 11.), Hdt. v. 60 (Inscr.), Ar. A v. 930, r/» 
Theoc. 2. 11, Find. O. 10. 113 ; ri Theoc. 1. 6, «/ Theoc. 1. 56, Ar. Eq. 
1225 ; u/iitt Hdt. vi. 11. ^ig Ar. Ach. 760, Sfifinf A. 274, Sapph. 95 (17), 
Theoc 5. Ill ; ifiiatf H. 159, Hdt. iii. 50, ifittiuv A. 348, vfiftiuv Ale. 77 ; 
vfiiv or ^^f». Soph. Ant. 308, Sfifuf A. 249, Theoc. I. 116, Sfifn Z. 77, S/tf/b 
K. 551 ; ofiiietf /3. 75, Hdt. i. 53, ufii, Ar. Lys. 87, Sfifit Ih. 1076, Sfifct T. 
412, Find. O. 8. 19, Theoc. 5. 145, Soph. Ant 846 ; ^(pZT A. 336, c(p^ A. 
574 ; ^(pSTv A. 257, ^. 52 (here conadered Nora, by some), r^^y i. 62 : 7« 

B. 239, t7» A. 400, UT^ Ap. Rh. 1. 1032, ij" T. 464, U Hdt. iii. 135, ?^«» 
A. 1 14, iEsch. Sup. 66, Fi5i» Ale. 6 (71) ; l« N. 495, Vt (or 7») Hes Fr. 66^ 
F« Sapph. 2. 1 ; Fi Ale. 56 (84), « T. 171, ftsf A. 29, Hdt. L 9, m Find. 
0. I. 40, Theoc. 1. 150,iEsch. From. 55 ; trifta Hdt. i.46 ; r^f«v 2. 311, Hdt. 
i. 31, ir(ptia>* A. 535 ; g'(pn A. 73, .^sch. From. 252, as sing. Hom. H. 19. 19, 
^ach. Pens. 759, tr^ B. 614, Hdt. l 1, r^' F. 300, ^^«» Soplu*. 83 (87), ^i» 
Call. Di. 125, ii^(pt Sapph. 98 (40); g'(p$eif B. 96, r<pien Hdt. i. 4, (rpiTas n 
213, e<p&s E. 567. r^i A. Ill, Tlieoc 15. 80, Soph. Ant. 44, y^t Theoc. 4. 3, 
«r^i Aic. 92 (80); g-iptu A. 8, <r^« or <r^A>* F. 531 ; tr(pmf A. 338: i^t^;, 
lfft»u(t if**vfi fAt^i*^ riosf rioy ieus, &c., dted by Apollonius in his treatise on 
die Gceek Fronoun. 

§ 1 43« 6. History, a. The distinction' of /)er«on, like those of ca«« and 
number (^ 83), appears to have been at first only twofold, merely separating the 
person speaking from all other persons, whether spoken to or spoken of. We 
find traces of this early use not only in the roots common to the 2d and 3d 
persons, but also in the common forms of th^e persons in the dual of verbs. 
The most natural way of designating one*s self by gesture is to bring home 
the hand ; of designating another, to stretch it out towards him. The voice 
here follows the analogy of the hand. To denote ourselves, we naturally 
keep the voice at home as much as is consistent with enunciation ; while we 
denote another by a forcible emission of it, a pointing, as it were, of the 
voice towards the person. The former of these is accomplished by closing the 
lips and mmrmuring within, that is, by uttering m, which hence became the 
great root of the 1st personal pronouns. The latter is accomplished by sending 
the vmoe out forcibly through a narrow aperture. This, according to the place 
of the aperture, and the mode of emission, may produce either a sibilant, a 
linpial, or a strong breathing. Hence we find all these as roots of the 2d 
and 3d personal pronouns. In the -progress of language, these two persons 
were separated, and their forms became, for the most part, distinct, although 
tbur^ed, in general, upon common roots. 

^ The M- of the 1st Fers. passed in the old Flur. (which afterwards be- 
came the Dual. § 85) into the kindred y- (compare Lat. nos) ; and in the 
Sing., when pronounced with emphasis, assumed an initial A (compare the i£ol. 
Ar^it «r^i), which passed by precession into i. In the new Flur., the idea of 
plurality was conveyed by doubling the f* {afitfit-t in the £p. and ^EoL a/4fttt, 
dftfcimPf tif*/nv, afcfuft, AfAfAi) \ or more commonly by doubling the 4( to n 
(§ 29), pronounced with the rough breathing (V-* i^^ A/uirf, &c.), or, in the 
Dor., to « (*«/(*-• in *itft.Uy *iltAZfy *£fA4f, *afii). From this the new Flur. of 
the 2d Fers. appears to have been formed, by changing, for propriety of ex- 
pression, «, the deepest of the vowels, into v, the most protrusive (^^/a-, in the 
£p. and ^Eol. Sft/Atiy lffi/titit*t SfA/AtVy Sfitfitt • and '9/u-, in u/u.t7s, &c) With the 


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ttxoeplon of this imitative plural, the pltir. and Pa. of the 2d and 3d per- 
sons have the same root, in jRrhich plorality is expressed by joining two of the 
signs of these persons (r^. a r -|- F)- bi the separation of the two persons, 
the dgn r- be»une appropriated to the 2d Pers. (but in the Dor., r-, aa in the 
Lat, and also in the verfo-endings -n, ^«», 'tis) ; and the rough breathing if 
the 3d Pers. (in an early state of the language, this was F-; in Lat. it be- 
came t- ; while in the iurtide we find both the rou^ breathing and r-i and in 
verb*ending8 of the 3d Pers. both r, and more frequently r). 

7. In the Noou img., the subjective fbrae appears to have baso expresnd 
by peculiar modes of strengthening ; in the 1st Pen. by a doable prefix to 
the /M, thus, i-y-i-ft (the y being inserted simply to prevent hiatus), or, as ^ 
cannot end a wordj Xyiv^ which passed, by a change of * to its corresponding 
vowel (§ 60) and contraction, into (lytt) tym (compare the Sanscrit oAam, 
the Zend azem, the Boeotic mt, the Latin «^, and the verb-ending ci the 
Ist Pers. m in Greek, and o in Lat.) ; ui the 2d Pers. by aifixing F, which 
with the praoeduig % passed mto tf in die oonunon Greek (cfl § 117. N.), but 
in the Besot, mto •» (compare the Lat Mi, § 12. /3) ; in the 3d Pers. by 
affixing A (perhi^M chosen rather than F, on account of the initial F), before 
which precession took place (§ 1 18), so that the Ibrm became FiA, and from 
this, 7A or 7A, and, by dropping the A, 7 or 7 (this obsolete form is cited by 
4-pollonins ; compare the Lat. is, eo, id). With this Nom. there appears to 
have been associated an Ace ?» or 7», of which ^i» and m are strengthened 

§ 144* B. Rbflbxivb, ifiavTov, aeenttovy iavjov. These 
pronouns, from their nature, want the Nom., and the two first 
also the neuter. They are formed by unitmg the personal pro- 
nouns with avro^. 

In the Flur. o# the Ist and 2d Peraons, and sometimes of the 3d, the two 
elemaits remain distinct ; if*£v «vr«y, ifUiv atorUft ^^9 myrHv 99 ImttrSt* In 
Homer, they are distinct in both Sing, and Plur.; thus, tft* «vrM ▲. 271, 
lyMiStv 9%^im9ofui$ »vrm ^. 78, avvah fut I. 244. In the common compound 
tbrms, the personal pronouns omit the flexible ending, in uniting w^ ««r«f, 
and in the 1st Pers., and often in the other two, contraction takes place : 
ifM-mtfTM i/MiiM'«C, 0t.mttrw fmmrtSf l-«iMr»S miv'fu. In the New loaic, en 
the other hand, the flexible ending of ttie Gen. is retained, and is contracted 
with «0 into m» (§ 45. 6) : ifiut-ubrM Ifurnvrau* The other cases imitate the 
form of the Gen. : \f»u*w^i -•». The Doric forms «vr«vr4w, «(Kmvr«*, «v- 
r«vr«y, aSreturat &C., wliich ocour chiefly in Pythagorean fragments, are 
formed by doubling mhrit, ApoUonios dtes the eomie N(Hn. ifut»ri$ frmn 
the Metoed of the oomedum PUto. 

§ 1 4ff • C. Reciprocal, HXXr^Xvtv. This pronoun is formed 
b^ doubling &lXog^ other. Prom its nature, it wants the N ^m. 
and the Sing., and is not common in the Dual. 

Note. For Ikxi)^* (Theoc. 1 4. 46), see § 44. 1 . For kKK^XiT* (E. %h\ 
see § 99. I. 

$ 14A. D. Indefinite, I hlva. This pronoun may be 
termed, with almost equal propriety, definite and indefinite. It 
is used to designate a particular person or thing, which the 


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spe^Qr ^itbeic caanpt, or does not care to name ; or, io the 
language of Iiktthi8e,it ^^ indefinitely expresses a definite person 
&r ming " ; as, Tov Ssiva yiyveiaxsig ; Do you know Mr, So and 
1^0 ? Ap. Thesm. 620. *0 dstvfi jov dityog tov dslva (iaayyiXkti^ 
A. B.y the son of C, D., impeacfies E, F., Dem. 167. 24. In 
the Sing, this proqpun is of the three genders ; in the Plur. it 
is masc. only, and wants the Dat. It is sometimes indeclina- 
ble ; as, xov dfiva Ar. Thesm. 622. 

KoTB. The aitide is an ttsential part of this pronoim ; and It were better 
written as a single word, ^iSV«. It appears to be sfmpty an extoision of the 
4emonstrative ^, by addiqg «i»- or -iv«, which gives to it ao . indefinite force 
(cf. § 152. I), makLog it a demonstrative ifid^nUe. When -iv-was appended, 
it received a double dedension ; when -/»«, it had (noty the dedenncm of the 
article. It belcogs properly te the oollaqnial Attie, a^d fint appeara ia Arift* 

II. Adjective. 

§ 147* All the pronouns which are declined m ? 24 may 
be traced back to a common foundation in an old definitivb, 
which had two roots, the rough breathing and ?- (cf. § 143. 
or, /?), and which performed the offices both of an article and 
of a derrCbnstrativej personaly and relative pronoun, 

REBfABKS. a. To this definitive tlM Gr«8to g»y« tbt nvm ^^(^h J4»i^ 
from its giving connection to discourse, by marking the person or Uiing spoken 
•f as one which had been spoken of before, ar which was about to be tp<^en 
9f (\trt)ier, OP which wdf faipili«r to the aiini^. The Greek name i^^f** b«* 
can»^ in Uitin, ariieufm (amaU joints from artus, jomt^ a word of the same 
origin with «e^^^M*), firom which has come the English name^ articie. This 
definitive, when used as a demonstrative, or simply as ^e definite artide, 
naturally pivcedes the name of the person or thing spoken of; but when 
^^sed as a relative, usually foUowg it ; as, f Jrfr i^nt i &ffi( 8* iT^if, thȤ is 
THK man wuoit you saw ; ri ^ihw S £f^iTy tub rose which bloonu. Hence, ii^ 
the fprmer qse, it was termed the fnvposit^j and, in the latter, the posipositivt 
article. When prepositive it was so closely connected with the foDowing 
word that its aspirated forms became proclitic 

jS. In the progress of the langua^ the forms of this old DBFmrnvE be- 
came specially appropriated, and o^er pronoims arose fron) it by derivation 
and eompoflition (see the following sections). The forms rit and rq of the 
Nem. ong. beeame obsolete. 

A. Definite. 

^148. 1. Article, o, {, to. The pr^nrntive artieU^ or. 
as it is commonly termed, simply the article^ unites the pro* 
clitic aspirated forms of the old definitive, q, r,, oi^ ai^ w\\h the 
T- forms of th^ neuter^ the oblique case^-i a^d the dual, 

N019. Tl|e |<^ms r*/ and rW are also qs^ ffitT tfa« sake of metre, tophooyi 


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•r empAods, in the Ionic (chiefly the Epic), and in the Doric ; e. g. «*«/ A 
447, Hdt. viii. 66. 1 (where it is strongly demonstrative), Theoc 1. 80 ; t»' 
r. 5, Theoc 1.9. So, even in the Attic poets, r§i ti Mach, Pen. 423, Soph. 
Aj. 1404 ; rai Ar. Eq. 1329. For the other dialectic forms, see §§ 95, 96 
99. For the forms « and ri, see § 97. 

2. Relative, o?, ^, S. The postposUive^artide^ or as it is 
now commonly termed, the relative pronoun^ has the orthotoM 
aspirated forms of the old definitive. 

Note. For the dd Mase. I (11. 835, /3. 262), as irell as for the Neat t, 
■ee § 97. For the redupUcated Xw (B. 325) and Ut (n. 208), see § 48. 

§ 149, 3. Iterative, a vTo?, -iJ,-o(§ 97). This pronoun 
appears to be compounded of the particle av, again^ hacky and 
the old definitwe tog (§ 147. /?). It is hence a pronoun of 
RETURN (or, as it may be termed, an iterative pronoun), mark* 
ing the return of the mind to the same person or thing. 

Notes. «, The New Ionic often inserts t in avrit and its compounds, 
before a long vowel in the affix (see § 48. 1, f 24). This belongs especially 
to Hippocrates and his imitator Aretsus ; in Hdt., it is chiefly confined to 
the forms in -^ and -4*$ of «vr«f and ^Jr^f • e. g. auri^j aMttv and avrih^ 
Hdt. L 133, »vritf r^urimv lb. iL 3. For the other dialectic forms of •vritf 
see §§ 95, 96, 99. 

/3. The article and mvrit are often united by craas (§ 39);* as, tturit, 
rmuTov (§ 97. N.) or rauri (Ion. tmvt§ Hdt. i. 53, § 45. 6), rmir^Z^ rmyrm, 

^ ItSO. 4. Demonstrative. The primary demonstratives 
are ovro^, this, compounded of the article and aitog • o^«, this^ 
compounded of the article and de (an inseparable particle mark- 
ing direction towards)^ and declined precisely like the article, 
with this addition ; and inuvogy thaty derived from IxeT, there. 

Note. Of 1x17*0; (which, with &XXh, other, is declined like alrott § 97) 
there are also the forms, Ion. xiTvti, which is also common in the Att. poets, 
Mo\. nmas Sapph. 2. 1, Dor. riiMf Theoc. 1. 4. In the Epic forms of tl%y 
rtiJivhrt (p, 93, roTg'hff'g't K. 462, rMta-rtv ^.47, there is a species of double 

Remarks. «. The definitives toiogy suchy Toaogy so greaty 
ttiXUogy so oldy and ivwogy so litthy are strengthened, in the 
same manner as the article, by composition with aviog and 5« • 
thus, loiovtog and totovde, just suchy Toaovrog and xoaoodty just 
so muchy tTiXixovtog and TtjXixoadty rvvyovtog. These compound 
pronouns are commonly employed, instead of the simple, even 
when there is no special emphasis. 

/?. In declining the compounds of aitog with the article and 
adjective pronouns, the following rule is observed : — If the ter* 
mination of the article or adjective pronoun has an O voweL ii 


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U7tites toith the Jirii byllahle of avrog^ to form ov\ biUis other* 
wise absorbed. 

. Thus, (« nlrii) «Jr«f , (Jk aurn) mtrtif (rj avrS) vwr§ • G. (reS auroS) rou 
wv, {r^f etvrnf) rttvmt -* PL (ai avr»i) *tjr4i, («< murai) «?r«M, (r« avr«) 
r«trr« • G> (r*l» «vr«i>) T0vrtf* (^ 24) • (r«#«« «vr»f ) ra^tSrHf (vMti »urn) 
Ttwaum, (tm**? «vr«) fMwr* and rtrMrrw (§ 97. N.) 

y. To demoustratives, for the sake of stronger express! jn, 
an $ is affixed, which is always long and ac^te, and before 
ivhich a short vowel is dropped, and a Jong vowel or diphthong 
regarded as short ; thus, ovtoai^ avi^, toi/t/, thii here ; PL oif~ 
ToH, avitul^ tavti * ixtivoal^ that there ; odlj toaovroal. 

NoTB. This tparagogie is Attie, and belongs espedaUy to the style of con- 
versation and popular discourse. It was also affixed to adverbs ; as, ^vrMfi, 
i^i, fttfi, Ivrttv^i, ifrtv^pL So, in comic language, even with an inserted 
partide, vm^m Ar. Av. 448, UytruvBi Id. Thesm. 646, U^cvrtvl^vi Ath. 
269 £ 

§ 1 15 1 • 5. Possessive. The possessive pronouns are de- 
rived from the personal, and are regularly declined as adjec 
tives of three terminations. 

We add references for the less common possessives : v«/rt(«r, O. 39 ; ffanU 
rt^§ti A. 216, in Ap. Rh. =» r^fri;*;, 1. 643, 2. 544 ; ?;, P. 333, Hdt. L 
205, Soph. Ai. 442; &ftit or Afiit, Z. 414, Find. O. 10. 10, Theoc 5. 108, 
Madi. Cho. 428 (used particularly in the Att poets as sing.) ; kfMin^H, 
Theoc 2. 31; «^c^0«, Ale 103; iftfAirtf^tt Ale. 104 ; riofy y. 122, iEsch. 
Prom. 162 ; hfMt, «. 375, Find. P. 7. 15 ; l«$, «. 409, Theoc. 17. 50 ; r^«j, 
A. 534 ; F«f (=» ?; ), tftkiAt^ cited by Apollonius. For the use of the posses- 
fives, particularly 7f, U; , 9^'%t\^h% f<pis, and ^^mtrt^, see Syntax. 

B. Indefinite. 

^ 1 ff 3* 1. The siMPLB indefinite is t^, which has two 
roots, Tiv- dnd t«-, both appearing to be formed from t-, the 
root of the article, by adding -iv- and -«- to give an indefinite 
force (cf. § 146. N.). 

Remarks. «. The later root rt9- is declined throughout after Dec. III., but 
the earlier rt- only in the Gen. and Dat., after Dec. II. (except in the Gen. 
Sing., which imitates the personal pnmouns) with contraction ; thus, rig, t^ 
Tlvtiy rtfiy &c. (§ 105. ^) ; G. ri« rav, D. riy rf, and, in the compound^ 
PI. G. IrM*» trmty D. Mart irtfi (also Ion. rliwr, ritt^t, § 153. y). For the 
accentuation, and the forms eirTm, Jif^My see 2. below, and § 153. «. 

/3.«The short s of rtf, rUiy and the omission of v in rr, suggest an inter- 
mediate root «-, formed from «- by precession, and afterwards increased by 
9 'cf. 5 119, and •;»«, k 123. y). To this intermediate root may be referred, 
according to Dec II., the iEd. rif ; Sapph. 55 (34), riMrit Id. 109 (1 13). 

2. The interkogattves in Greek are simply the vndefimUs 
with a change of accept (see. Syntax). 


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163 AOJEOTivs PRoaiovNs [book It 

Thvi, the forms of tha indefinite rig (exoipt tlu paeuluu* irr^ which it 
rarely used except in connection with an adjective, and which is never nsed 
interrogatively) are encUtic ; while those of the interrogative ris are orthottmef 
and never taka th« grave accent. In lexioons and grammars, for the sake of 
distinction, the forms of the indefinite, wit and ri, are written with the gram 
maoBDi, or withtmi an accent. 

§ 1 tS3. 3. The composition of og with tig forms the relative 
iNDEFiifiTB oorig^ whoever^ of which hoth parts are declined in 
those fonns whi#h have the root jip^i, but the latter only in those 
which have the root Tt- ; thus, oSupogy but hto 3tow. The 
longer forms of the Gen. and Dat are very rare ill the Attic 

Notes. «. The forms tUrm^ Att irr« (§ 70. 1), appear to be shorter 
forms of 4rtin»y and are said by Euatathius to be compounded of ^ and the 
Doric ra ■■ Tiv«. In certain oonneotions, they passed into simple indafinitst, 
and then, by a softer pronunciation, became Mrtf-o, Arrm^ 

fi. The forms which occur in Homer of rUj rU, and on;, which is the same 
with a^rit, except that it has no double declension, are exhibited in f 24. 
Homer has also the r^^ar forms of t^rts* The doubling of r in some of 
the forms is simply poetic, for the sake <ii the metre. 

y. References are added for many of the forms of rh, rUt and 9^rt% : tnt 
r. 279 (arr« 167), ? rri 0. 408 J r#w Cyr. viii. 6. 7, rw i Soph. (Ed T. 
1435, t'Ttv i. 9. 21, 4-f» «-. 305, Hdt. i. 58,- r(« ; B. 225. irrt» «. 124, n» 
(§ 45. 3) B. 388, Hdt. i. 19, riv 2. 192, Hdt. v. 106, tnv ^, 422, Hdt. L 
119, irrtv e. 121 ; r^ A. 299, i. 9. 7, f^ i Soph. EL 679, 7t^ ii. 6. 28, 
ny Hdt ii 48, r<y, Hdt i. 117. trt», fi. 114, Hdt i. 95, irZ M. 428; 
h-tta a. 204 (Unva B. 188) ; tUr^k arrx Cyr. ii. 2. 13, imT* 2r#« t, 
218, Irra Rep. Ath. 2. 17, ^^em A. 554, Hdt 1. 138, Utfet X, 450 (&rs*» 
A. 289); rt«rf Hdt v. 57, rifw , H. 387, r&» ; ». 200, •Vur» ». 39, Hdt 
viii. 65, 7r*09 vii. 6. 24 : rm<rt Hdt ix. 87, irU*ft9 O. 491, M«tn Hdt IL 
82, 7r«ir< Soph. Ant 1335 ; Snfaf 0. 492 (ati^nfat A. 240). 

^ 1 «S4» Rkmarks. 1. Adjective Pronouns which have not been 
specially mentioned are regularly declined as adjectives of three terminations 
($ 1 33. 4). For the GorreUtive Pronouns, and for the Particles which art 
affixed to pronouns, see t ^^) §§ ^^7, 328. 

2. Special care is required hi distinguishing the forms of i, ht fJ, rtt, and 
rif . F(Mrms which have the same letters may be often distinguished by the 
accentuation ; as, «/, J, «?. Spedal care is also required in distinguishing the 
forms of »STtfj those of avrit, the combined forms of i »vr§$t the tame, and 
tiie contracted forms of U»r«». 


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08. &J C0IIPABI80N* 169 



^ ISS. Adjectives and Adverbs have, in 
Greek, three degrees of comparison, the Positive, 
the Comparative, and the Superlative. 

I. Comparison of Adjectives. 

In adjectives, the comparative is usually formed 
in *T<^o$, -d, *ov, and the superlative in -raro^, -17, 
•ov ; but sometimes the comparative^'^ formed in 
'imv, 'Jov, Gen. -iovosj and the superlative^ in -unosj 

A. Comparison in -ttgog^ -ruTog, 

^ 1S6. In receiving the affixes -jsgos and 
-TttTog, the endings of the theme are changed as 
follows ; 

1.) -og, preceded by a long syllable, becomes 
-o- ; by a short syllable, -o- ; as, 

aofpig^ wisest aofpwttifog^ ooiptitaTog. 

RiEMARKg. «. This change to w». takes place to avoid the succession of 
too many short syllables. Three successive short syUablas are inadmissible in 
hexameter verse. We also find, for the sake of the metre, x«xtf|uv»ri^«f 
V. 376, Xd(^rtiT§s ^ 350, iiZogtirt^^p P. 446, iTt^v^mrmr^t i. 105. In req)ec( 
to »t*i$i emptyj and mvis, narrow, authorities vaiy. 

fi. A mute and liquid preceding -§f have commonly the same efitBct as a 
long (syllable ; as, rf 4^0^, pehemmtj f^oi^in^t, f^9i^ira*ot. Tet here, also, 
the Attic poets sometimes employ .«. for the sake of the metre ; as, ^v^'v*. 
t/a^rt^ Eur. Ph. 1348, fim^iMrtrfiutrArMt lb. 1345, tvrt»9^rmn Id. B.9C 620. 

/. In a few words, -og is dropped ; and, in a few, it becomes 
-««-, -«a-, or -«a- ; as, 

naXaiog^ ancient^ naXaluQog^ naXaltaiog. 

iplkog^ dear^ (plXTSQog^ qflXtarog, 

friendly^ (ptXairtgoc, q>tXalTatog> 

ravj^og^ quiei^ tjavxnljfQog, ^avxaitarog, 

f^^Wfiivog^ strong, i^fotfifviartQog^ ^^^wjucWototo^. 

JUrlo^*, talkative, XaXhrf gog^ XaXlatatog. 


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1M couPARison. [Boot a. 

NonsB. (a.) Yet abo r«X«i«ne«^, Pind. N. 6. 91, ^/Xi^n^^*, Mem. fit 11 
18, ^X4»f9 (§ 159) «. 268, (piXt^ras, Soph. Aj. 842, i»ri;;t;«Ti^«f, Id. Ant. 1089 

(b.) The change of -«f into -ir- belongs particubuiy to contracts in -Mf 
These contracts, and those in ••«;, are likewise contracted in the Comp. and 
Sup. ; as, 

kirXitf, simpk, mirXoi^n^tf iwX»irr»r§f, 

But i9rX»^rt^t, less ft for MO, Th. yu. eO, »vx^Htr$^H, (Ee. 10. 1 1, ti 
w99t0T*z0$, £q. 1. 10, &C. 

(c) Other examples bf '§$ dropped in comparison are yi^aiit, cld^ r;^«- 
XtM9s, at leisure; of -«; changed to -ms', tS^tas, clear, fitoff private^ 7r«f, eqwxl 
flints, middle (see ^. below), S^B^^ttfj at dawn, i^i»sy late, ir^7»s, earfy; of •«# 
changed to -<r-, ett^otts, august, &K^£vot, unmixed, &fffuv«f, glad, ti(p^n«s. 
b&uniiful, lw$irii§t, Ifpd, ttH^M^ts, pure, niu/tff sweet (poet.) ; of -h chai^ged to 
wr-, fi*9tptiy0t, eating alone, r4^»^tiys, dainty, vrrmxitt poor, 

\ Wt<ro§ and vltff have old saperlatiyes of limited and chiefly poetic use in 
.««-«< ; thus, fiUarf, midmost. At, Vesp. 1502, £p. fA%wrm,r§t, 0. 223, tiart^ 
last, lowest, A. 712, Soph. Ant. 627, £p. uiarof, B. 824. Compare U^'^rss^ 
(tr^Mcrtff) 9r^r«s, and Straref (§ 161. 2). 

^157. 2.) '€is and -ijs become -sa-; as, 

Xtxghig^ agreeable^ XaQuaugog^ XotQUaxatoq. 

aaqiT^q^ evident^ aaipioTSQog^ ' aa<piatatog. 

neVij^, poor J n(viaxtQoq<i nsviataxog, 

T^KMARK. In a<^ectives of the first declension, and in yptv$fif, -nt beoomes 
-<r- ; as, vXtofixrvii -«v, covetous, «'Xf 0yi«cirr«7«f * ypttt^g, -i«f , folse, yptm 
VirraTH* Except, for the sake of euphony, Lfi^i^rnf, -w, utsoknt^ v^t^rirt 
ft Y, 8. 3, ttfi^irrivmrt, lb. 22 (referred by some to Sfi^t^t)' 

3.) -vff becomes -v- ; as, 

TtQta^vg^ oldy ng$a/ivT$Qos^ ngtafivrmog* 

For the sake of the metre, l^vfrarm 2. 508. 

^158, 4.) In adjectives of other endings, 
'Tsgos and 'taxos are either added to the simple 
root, or to the root increased by -fcr-, -icr-^ or -«- ; 

tdXag, -avog^ toretched^ xaXavxtQog^ TaXartarog. 

oui<pQ(av^ -^vog^ discreet^ an<fQoviax8Qog^ awpQovi(naTog» 
OQna^, -ayog^ rapacious^ agnqyUnatog. 

inlxngig^ -itog^ pleasing, inixngniaTtgoe^ imxagiTtotaiog, 
KoTRs. A. Other examples are fUnm^, blessed, prnxd^rmrH X, 483 ; ^»Sx«« 


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C|l. 6.] APJECTIVES. 165 

-Mfft blttekf fAiXatnfa:^ A. 277, and MiX«iwn^«f, Strab. ; l^tiktl, -<»«;, e&fer- 
1^, ^^Aixim^tf • /3X«(, -£)tisy ttupid, ^X«c»ivTi^«r, ^tat*;, Mera. iii. J 3. 4, 
iv. 2. 40, for which some read fix^xirt^oij and fiXa»irar9s or /SXaxiVrttr^f 
From ix'^V^y ^^^^ogreeaJblej we find the shorter form a;^a(/<rri^a;, v. 392. 

fi. The insertion of -tf- is particularly made in adjectives in -«r. Tet some 
of these employ shorter forms ; as, «-ffra>y, ripe^ ^n^ettrt^of i£seh. Fr. 244 ; 
«ri*>f, fat, ^lirtftt, Hom. Ap. 48, neretr^s, I. 577 (as from the rare vUf, 
Orph. Aig. 608) ; Wtkn^fut*, forgetful, Iv'tknrftor^rof, Ar. Nub. 790 (l^nkti- 
r/Mrim^tff, ApoL 6). 

B. Comparison in -imv^ -latog. 

• ^ 1S9. A few adjectives are compared by 
changing -V5, -ag, -05, and even -po5, final, into -/©v 
and -ioxos. In some of these, -imv with the pre- 
ceding consonant passes into -acciiv (-ttov, ^ 70. 1) 
or -fov. Thus, 

^dt;^, pleasant^ 



xaxvf, swiftf 

&daamv^ ^artny^ 


noXvQj muchj 

nXBlwv^ nXimr^ 


fityag, great^ 



xaXog^ beautiful^ 



alaxQogy base^ 



ix^Qogj hostile, 



Remarks. «. For the declension of eompaiatiyes in -^», see f 17 and 
§ 107. The I in the affix -/«» is long ui the Attic poets, but short in the 
Epic, and variable in the later. 

/3. The forms in -rr«» and -^«y observe tins distinction : ^^mv can arise 
only when the consonant preceding -ut* is », ;^, r, ^, or ^ ; ^«v, only when 
this consonant is y. The vowel preceding becomes long by nature, perhaps 
from a transposition, and absorption or contraction, of the i. Thus, T&^^f 
(originally ^A^vfj § 62), d>a;^/«» ^«rr»y, Neat BZcrw (the regular rA;^/*rv is 
also common in late prose) ; 1>m%vs (£^ic ; lx«;^i/« Hom. Ap. 197), naoff, 
Ixiafmt • wix^h <^*^> «'a;^i«v (Arat.) ^mtt9, t* ^30 ; from r. fix-, Comp. 
nrgMv, inferior (Ion. Sfrrw*, Hdt. v. 86) ; yXSitvij tweety yXoximf (2. 109) 
yxtr9m*j Xenophan. ; ^x^ity long, lAMomf poet., d>. 203, ^sch. Ag. 598 ; 
x^&rvt (Epic, n. 181), $trtmgy xptirvatv (Ion. x^irrwy, Hdt. i. 66) ; fif&^vt, 
•low, /3«a^/«« (Hes. C^. 526) fisMtuv K. 2^26 ; fii^vt, deep, fiaS^wt (Tyrt 
3. 6) ^ar^tn, Epicharm. ; i»\yxt (the only adj. in -xt compared in ./«v, -i^ret), 
fttyitn fttiZtf (Ion. ^iC«v Hdt. i. 202) ; iXiyot, ixflm. Call. Jov. 72 (vv-*- 
Xi^tns 2. 519). It will be observed that many of these comparatives are 
*ii«rely poetic Compare the formation of verbs in -^fM and .^«. 

y. T^e root of w0Xui is «-»Xf-, by syncope rXi-. From this short root are 
formed the comparative and superlative. Tlximt is a yet shorter fonn for 
irXiittf. The longer form is more common in the contracted cases and phml, 
but the nent. wXUv is more nsed than 9rXM9, especially as an adverb. The 
neat, rxt?** sometimes becomes rXi?*, but only in soch phrases as wXtTv 4 ^• 
ft0$, more <ftiw tm thomeamL The Ionic oontncta .i«- into -iv- (§ 45. 8) ; aa, 


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166 coMFABnoif. [book fir 

«M0», «r>4ir»«f, #Xf»vir/fte. Hdt ii. 19, L 97, 199, ftc The Ep. trXtu 
A. 895, and rkUt B. 129, an comparative in seoae, thongli positive in form 

). In the Comp. and Sap. of MiXif , X ia- donbled, as in the noon wi »^»XXh 
'Utt btauty. In the directives in -(•# wbick are compared in ./«» and -ivrtt, 
the Comp. and Snp. i^pear to have come eilher fixm a simpler form of the 
ppeitiive, or from a oorrespondii^ nomi. See § 161. B. 

I. Most ac^actives whidi are compared as above have also fbrms in -n^ 
and .r«T«f ; thus, fif»i«ff alow, fi^Mrt^ost ^^atUtv^ and fi^^tn, ^^t^Urart^ 
^^dhfTH, and by poetic metath.(§ 71), ^d^hfros, T. 310 ; fiMx^it, long, fi»» 
tt^ivt^sf and /M»rr«», f»M»^iTmrH and (if beocnning by precession n, as in tlie 
nomi ri ftmtui, -Uf, lengik) mut^rat, Cyr. iv. 5. 28, Dor. fuixt^r^s. Soph 
CEd. T. 1301. Other axamplfls of double formation are ttl^x^it, Ix^fit, »»• 
ii«t (poet), remwnedf Mxrf*;, pUiaNe, Bt^vt, ^ttx^u «*«<, y\»i2it ^^X^ 
^(trfiuf, r»x^» •'»^t «»^ *»»«s (§ 160), ^ixtf (§ 156. a), Ac 


§ 100* Some adjectives in the comparatiTe and superb- 
tiye degrees are formed from positives which aj^ not in nse« 
from words which are themselves comparative or superlatives. 
or from other parts of speech. Some of these are usually re 
ferred to positives in use, which have a similar signification 
and some of which are also regularly compared ; thus, 

iym&oqy good, cifislvwp^ S(^ajog. 

ToeL IftmirtfH Mfann. 11. 9; J^un iBsch. Ag. 81, Jk^uirt^0s, Theog- 
548 ; fiikn^H, Mack. Th. 837, fiiXrmTH, Id. £am. 487 ; f l^rt^H, Id. F^ 
768, ft^rmTH H. 289, pifirrts. Soph. CEd. T. 11&8, and evtti PL Phfldr 
238 d, fi^n^Tf, Find. Fr. 92; A^^>», ^ 169, X»4rt^0t, «. 376 (the pes. 
form Xmm occurb Theoc 26. 32) ; nA^trrHt A. 266 (§ 71 ; so alvaya in 
Hom.). Dor. fiifr»^»f, Theoc. 5. 76, md^^ Tim, ap. PL 102 d ; Ion 
M^Urmf (§ 159. /S). Late ^ytt^mruTH, Diod. 16. 85. 

aXystvogj painful, aXyiavy Sl/tmog. 

ilysivoxi^ogf aXynritmTog^ 

xaxoVt had, Kotnttav, xaniarog, 

fjaaoav, ^tt«»k 

Poet Mm»«irtM, §, 343; x"i*^*f* 0. 513, XH***'* ^ ^^^ X'€"^*^*t'* 
1 248 (for the Epic ;^S^«f«f , Scc^ which, though positive in fonn; are coo^ 
p -• tive hi sense, see § 136. 3) ; ^Merst or Hms^th T. 531 (Jltu^rm as an ad* 
veA'Was eomnioB in Attic ptose ; jEBan uses Untfrt as an acy.), Ion. t^wm 
(§ 159. «. 

fiixg6e,8maU, ( funQ^tiifog fi^nffitans. 


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Poe^ U«;^^» iXiim ($ rSf». $) ; ftttirt^ Ap. Bh. r. 968, ^MSrrvf , BIqB| 
ft. 10 (jtik eonuBOii reMfing ftftm)* 

Poet intit0(, X, 146, f^»s, Theog. 574, fntrt^, 2. fiftS^ /^{n^ PbkU a 
8. 78, /4rrr«i, I. 5€6, /iiVr^r, Theec. lU 7, ftil^urt, r* 597. Hie oomrnon 
fonndatioii of the fonns of this word «ppe«Di- Iwhare been /aTA- (eee $$ 118, 

^ 1 6 !• 1. Examples of double comparison. 

t^ar§ty loMt^ extreme^ U;^ar4wn^«c (OtKn yit^ r«v WxdT§» U%«m#n{«» •&§ 
i» r<. AristL Metjq)tk. 10. 4), Ux«iri^«rif, H. 6r. U. S, 49. 
w^rt^§s, before, comic tr^Tt^irt^t At. £q. 1164; 

AA. *AXA.* fv r^^tcf {«», aXX' lyiM 91f«7i^«un^* 
W(Sir§s, Jlnt, ^^iiri0rH$ firU of aJl, B. 228. 
IXmxi^^tf least, ix»xt0Tirt^§f, lecf ifton the least, Ep. Ei^ies. 3. 8. 

KoTB. See also examplee of a poetic doable formation of the Compi 
(JiftutirtfHt Jt^9»irt^i, &c) in $ 160. For »«AAtf^i^»y Til. iv. lifl^ ia now 

2. Examp^ of adjectiyes in the oomparatiye and saperla* 
tive degrees, formed from other parts of speech. 

fimetXtvt, Mng, fia^tXiin^Bt^ more kmglg, a ffrtater kmg, L 160, f^tXt&rm- 
TH, ^ greatest king, L 69. 

%Tm^§S, friend, Irm^imrBf, best friend, PL Qctg. 487 d. 
sXirmff, t/uef, xXt^rifrarti most adroit (Ate/^ At. Phit 27. 
»vmt^ dog, xmrt^tt, more dog-like, more impudent, 0. 483, »iW«Mvf, K. 603. 
. nif^H, -iH, gidnf ntfiUn, mtme g0is^ T, 41» «l|)irr«, ^Eaeh. T^. 385. 
siMu kmsflf, mwrinMf £pich..2 (1), mivirmmH (ijp waim wt tf Flaql^ "RfaHBP. 
hr. 2\ Ms very self, Ar. Plat. 83. 

iyx^ or iyx*** i»«oir, ky^irtfttt nearer^ Hdt. viL 175, AyxirnrtSt Sor. 
PeL 2, oftener iyx^trvn Soph. (Ed. T. 919. 

ivm, sip, k9ttr$^Ht ^fppe''* iftimrsi, t/pperwuet, Hdt &• 125* 

ififuh ^melfyf i^t/iUn^tf, more qniet, Cyr. -viL 5. 63. 

xXffr/«9, near (wXti^Ut poet and Ion.), ^'kn^tnin^ U 10. 5, rXartfiirafHf, 
Tfi. 3. 29, also wXti^sUrt^H, 'iermrt* 

w^ou^yov, of tmportanee, ^r^tv^intrt^, mors i m p or tani^ PL Goi^. 458 % 

^omtof, f r;^«r«f , < Jiii ea M w 

fir^i, fe/bre, ^^irt^t, former, ^fSh-t (§ 156. I), /nt (Dor. r^Sr^r Theoo. 
8. 5, § 45. 1). 

M0, abope, i^i^n^, ss^eriur, I wi ^m^ f iH «mI Amt^, j i y i — m ( »i grf» i w ff H | 
Pind.N. 8. 73). 

^«C)> ^«e«^ ln^* t^rmrt, lo^ 

RwfABiHi Wii ind an eocplanatieo ef th«e fbtmatioiis fai the nae of prtp- 
oaitkmB aa advwha, and of adverbs as adjectives ; hi the ftct that many noons 


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are originally adjectiyes ; and in the stUl more important Ud, that in tha 
earliest period of language there is as vet no grammatical distinction of the 
different parts of speech. For other examples of comparatives and snperla- 
tives which appear to be formed from nomis, see, in § 160, aXylatf, -i^th 
(fhmi &Xyt^ .t«f, poin)t and aai^Tt (like a^trfi, from "A^ns or a common 
root, and signifying originalfy best in war\ and also § 159. 2, t. Add the 
poetic M^i^0f, L 642, ^lyimf, -irv$, A. 325, £. 873, ftuxtTty Ap. Rh. 4. 
170, fAux^irart ^. 146, ivrxirt^tf, -Tttrtf, B. 707, Hes. Th. 137, &c. ; and, 
from adverbs, MrWi^«f, -rarcff 0. 342, vrofain^tf, -Taraf, "i^. 459, Ap. Rh. 
2. 29, vypiri(»f, Theoc. 8. 46, vi/'uvf. Find. Fr. 232, S'4ft^T»ff JEech. Pr. 
720, &c 

11. Comparison of Adverbs. 

^ 163. I. Adverbs derived from adjectives are 
commonly compared by taking the neuter singular 
comparative, and the neuter plural superlative of 
these adjectives ; as, 

aoq)mg (from aog>6s^ ^ 156), aoqtwtnqov^ aoqwiata^ 
wisely^ more wisely^ most wiset 

aaq>£g (from aaqujg^ § 15*7)9 aaipiattgov^ aoKpiaiara, 
clearly^ * more clearly^ mostlclearly. 

taxiatg (from ta^vg^ § 159), &aaaov^ ^atrov^ taxvQta, 

aiaxQwg (from aiaxQogy ^ 159), aXax^ov^ oXaxiista* 

Note. The adverbial termination -mt is sometimes given to the Comp. 
as, xaktTttri^s, more teverefy, l^^B^tiMtf, m a more hottUe manner. So Sap^ 
l^Tofutrnretti nioit concieely. Soph. CEd. C. 1579. 

§ 163. II. Adverbs not derived from adjec- 
tives are, for the most part, compared in -riga and 
-TaiG^; as, 

kxdg^ afar^ Ixaore^oi, ixaataTU, 

RsiiABKS. «. The following aie compared after the analogy of adverba 
derived from ai^ectives : * 

So T(»ttf early, and i^pi, late, employ forms of the adjectives w^t^t i^tn 
(§ 156. c), derived from them. In &^^M^ 0. 572, we have a poetic dooUa 
form (§ 161. N.). 

fi. Some advertM vaiy in their oompariaon; as, 

lyyvg, near, lyyvri^, lyyvrdrm* 


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^ 164. Verbs are conjugated, in Greek, to 
mark five distinctions, Voice, Tense, Mode, Num- 
ber, and Person. Of these distinctions, the first 
shows how the action of a verb is related to its 
subject ; the second, how it is related to time ; and 
the third, how it is related to the mind of the 
speaker^ or to some other action. The two remain- 
ing distinctions merely show the number and person 
of the subject. 

Greek verbs are conjugated both by Pbefixbs and by Affixes. For the 
prefixes, see Ch. VIII. ; for the affixes, see ^^28-31, and Ch. IX.; for 
the modifications which the root itself receives, see Ch. X. 

A. Voice. 

^163. The Greek has three voices, the Ac 
tive, the Middle, and the Passive. 

The Active represents the subject of the verb as the doer 
of the action, or its agent ; as, lot a nva^ I wash some one. 

The Passive represents the subject of the verb as the re^ 
ceiver of the action, or its object ; as, Xovfiai vno uvog^ I am 
washed by some one. 

The Middle is intermediate in sense between the Active and 
ihe Passive, and commonly represents the subject of the verb 
as, either more or less directly, both the, agent and the oJ- 
ject of the action ; as, iXovaii/irjv^ I washed myself, I bathed. 

§ 166. Remarks. 1. The middle and passive voices 
have a common form, except in the Future and Aorist. In 
Etymology, this form is usually spoken of as passive. And 
even in the Future and Aorist, the distinction in sense between 
the two voices is not always preserved. 

2. The reflexive sense of the middle voice often becomes so 

indistinct, that this voice does not differ from the active in its 

lise. Hence, in many verbs, either wholly or in part, the 

middle voice lakes the place of the active. This is particu* 



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larly frequent in the Future. When it occurs in the theme 
(§ J70. «), the verb is termed deponent (deponens, laying aside 
sc. the peculiar signification of the middle form). £. g. 

(a.) Verbs, in which the theme has the active, and the Future has the tnid^ 
dU form : §ix$vm, to hear, a»ov9fuu • fi»iw, to go, finrfuu • ytyttig^tut, to 
know, yt^foftat • ttft,t, to be, U$/Aeu • fiatfavm, to learn, fiainffMU, 

(fi.') Deponent Verbs: atMtafuu, to perceive, yiytiftMt, to hecom^ ^xH"^^ 
Is recave, iytaftai, to be able, t(ia/teu, to rejoice. 

NoTB. A Deponent Verb is termed deponent middle, or deponent paedoe^ 
•ooording as its Aorist has the middle or the passive fbnn. 

B. Tense. 
^167. The Greek has six tenses; the Pres- 
ent, the Imperfect, the Future, the Aorist, the 
Perfect, and the Pluperfect. 

1. The Present represents an action as doing at the present 
time ; as, /Qatpw^ I am writing, I write, 

2. The Imperfect represents an action as doing at some 
past time ; as, iyQaq>ov, I was writing. 

3. The Future represents an action as one that will he done 
at some future, time ; as, y^dtpa, I shall write. 

4. The Aorist (ao^toro;, indefinite) represents an action 
simply as done ; as, t/Qatpa, I torote, I home written, I had 

5. The Perfect represents an action as complete at the pres* 
enl time ; as, yiyf&(pa, I hone written. 

6. The Pluperect represents an action as complete at somA 
past time ; as, iy8yQdg>6iVy I had written. 

% 1 6S. Tenses may be classified in two ways ; I. with 
rospect to the time which is spoken of; II. with respect to the 
relation which the action bears to this time. 

I. The time which is spoken of is either, 1. present, 2. fin' 
tare, or 3. past. 

Tlie reference to time is most distinct in the Indicatiye. In this mode^ 
those tenses which refer to present or ftttnre time are termed primary or chief 
tenses, and those which refer to past time tecondary or historical tenses. 

n. The action is related to the time, either, 1. as doing at 
the time, 2. as done in the time, or 3. as complete at the time. 

The tenses which denote the first of these relations may be termed definite f 
the second, indefinite; and the third, complete. For a classified table of ths 
Greek tenses, see ^ 26. 


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CH. T.] MODE. I7l 

NoTBB. «. Some robs h«ve a compibie fiebtrt tense, called the Fvtwrt 
Perfect, ot the Third Fmtmi (§ 239) ; but, otherwise, tilie three tenses which 
are wanting in the table (^ 26), viz. the tndeftnite pretentf the definxU future, 
and the complete future, are supplied by f(Hrms belonging to other tenses, or 
by participles combined with auxiliary verbs. 

/3. Foi the general formalion of the Greek tenses, see f 28. 

C. Mode. 

^169. The Greek has six modes; the Ir<- 
DicATivE, the Subjunctive, the Optative, the Im- 
perative, the Infinitive, and the Participle. 

1. The Indicative expresses direct assertion or inquiry ; as 
y^qito^ I am writing ; yQWftvt ; am I writing ? 

2. The Subjunctive expresses present contingence ; as, ov» 
older, onot rgdniofjLai^ I know noty whither 1 can turn. 

3. The Optative (opto, to wish^ because often used in the 
expression of a wish) expresses past contingence ; as, otSx ^deii^» 
Znoi tQttnolfitjVy Iknew notyWkUher Icouldtum. 

4. The Imperative expresses direct command^ or entreaty , 
as, /^9)£, write ; tvntia&ta^ let him be beaten ; dog fioi^ give me. 

5. The Infinitive partakes of the nature of an ahstract 
noun ; as, yqdipuvy to write. 

6. The Participle partakes of the nature of an adjeetwt^ 
as, yqdfp^av^ writing. 

Notes. «. For a table of the Greek modes daasified aocording to the 
character of the sentences which they form, see ^ 27. 

/B. In the regular inflection of the Greek verb, the Present and Aorist have 
all t}ie modes ; bat the Future wants ttie Subjunctive and Imperative ; and 
the Perfect, for the most part^ wants tilie Subjunctive and Optative, and like- 
wise, m the active voice, the Imperative. The Imperfect has the same form 
with the Present, and the Pluperfect the same form with the Perfect, except 
in the Indicative. 

y. The tenses of the Subjunctive and Optative aie related to each other ai 
present and past, or as primary and secondary, tenses (§ 168. L) ; and some 
have therefore chosen to connder them as only different tenses of a general 
conjunctive or contingent mode. With this change, the number and offices 
0^ the Greek modes are the same with those of the Latin, and the correspond- 
ence between the Greek conjunctive and the English potential modes becomes 
more obvious. 

D. Number and Person. 
^170. The numbers and persons of verbs 
correspofid to those of nouns and pronouns (^ 164). 


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NoTB. The Imperative, from its signification, wants the p-tt permm ; th« 
Infinitive, from its abstract nature, wants the distinctions of number and per- 
son altogether ; and the Participle, as partaking of the nature of an Acyective^ 
has the distinctions of gender and case, instead of person. 

Remarks. «. The first person singular of the Present indicative active, of 
in deponent verbs ("> 166. 2), middle, is regarded as the theme of the verb 
The ROOT is obtained by throwing off the affix of the theme, or it may be 
obtained from any form of the verb, by throwing off the prefix and affix, and 
allowing for euphonic changes. A verb is conjugated by adding to the root 
the prefixes and affixes in ^^ 28 - 30. 

jS. Verbs are divided, according to the characteristic^ into Mute, Liquid 
Double Consonant, and Pure Verbs; and according to the affix in the 
theme, mto Verbs in -a*, and Verbs in -fit (§ 208. 2). For a paradigm of 
regtdar conjugation without euphonic changes, see Tf^ 34, 35 ; for shorter para- 
digms of tiie several classes of verbs, see ^^ 36 - 60. 

y. For a fuller view of the use of the Greek verb in its several f(nins, see 

E. History of Greek Conjugation. 

^171* The early history of Greek conjugation can be traced only in 
the same way with that of declension (§ 83). The following view is offered 
as one which has much in its support, and which serves to explain the general 
phenomena of the Greek verb. 

Greek conjugation, like declension (§§ 83, 143), was progressive. At firsts 
the root was used, as in nouns, without inflection. The first distinction ap- 
pears to have been that of person, which was, at first, only twofold, affixing /$ 
to express the first person, and a lingual or sibilant to express the other two. 
Of this second pronominal affix, the simplest and most demonstrative form ap- 
pears to have been -r (cf. §§ 143, 148). By uniting these affixes with the 
root ^a., to say, we have the forms, 

^afA, I or we tay, far, you, he, or they say, 

§ 1 7S« A plural-was then formed by affixing the plural sign t (§ 83\ 
with the insertion of i to assist in the utterance. Thus, 

1 Person. 2 and 3 Persons. 

Sing. fdfA p»r 

Plur. ^eifitf ^artf 

Upon the separation of the 2d and 3d Persons (§ 143. jS), the 2d, as being 
lass demonstrative, took in the Sing, the softer form s (in some cases, re 
or #, in both which forms the # would, by the subsequent laws of euphony, 
pass into St unless dropped or sustained by an assumed vowel, § 63) ; while 
in the I'lur. there was a new formation (cf. §§ 84, 85), in which plurality 
was marked, in the 2d Pers. by affixing i (cf. § 83), and in the 3d Pers. by 
inserting » (cf. -f-t, § 85). The old Plur. now became, as in nouns (§ 85), a 
Dual, and the S3rstem of numbers and persons was complete. Thus, 

1 Pers. 2 Pers. 3 Pers. 

Sing. ^dfA ^as ^T 

Plur. ^dfjitf (part pdfT 

Dual ^df*t9 f»r$9 ^drtf 


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§ 1 7 3* The ^tinction of tense, like thw^ Sj fejfe, case, and per*> 
HOD (§§ 83, 1 13), was at first only twofold, limpl jmrfrtT|fpi|igliiii||| r prr Tf ac- 
tion firom a present or future one. This was nataniUy done by prefixing «. (is 
Sanscrit, Sr\ to express, as it were, the throunng back of the action into past 
time (§ 187). This expression, it will be observed, is aided by the throwing 
'uack of the accent. With the prefix of i-, a distinction was also made be< 
tween the 2d and 3d Persons dual (perhaps because, the more remote the 
action, the more important becomes the specific designation of the subject). 
In the 3d Pers. the inserted • (§ 172) was lengthened to n, while in the 2d 
Fers., as in both the 2d and 3d Persons of the unaugmented tense, it passed 
into the kindred • (§ 28). We have now two tenses, the unaugmented Pri- 
mary Tense^ which supplied the place of both the Present and the Future, and 
the augmented Secondary Tense, which expressed past action both definitely 
and indefinitely, and supplied the place of all the past tenses (§ 168). Thua« 

Pbdcart Tensb. 


Oin>ABT Te 


IP. 2 p. 3 P. 

S. ^^ (pds pdr 
P. pdf.if (pirt ^rr 
D. ^fM3 pAr$f ^T§9 




2 p. 


8 P. 


^17 4* At first, there was no distinction of voice. The affix merely 
showed the oonnecti<m of the person with the action, but did not distinguish 
his relation to it as agent or obfect. This distinction seems to have arisen as 
follows. A transitive action passes immediately from the agent, but its efiect 
often continues long upon the object. This continuance would naturally be 
denoted by prolonging the affix. Thus, if I may be pardoned such an illus- 
tration, while the striker simply says with vivacity ru^rofA, I strike, 'the one 
struck rubs his head and cries rv^r»/Mu, tuptom-ah-ee, / am struck. Hence 
the objective form was distinguished from the subjective (§ 195), simply by the 
prolongation of the affix. This took place in various ways, but all afiectmg 
the personal and not the numeral element of the affix. If the affix ended with 
the sign of person, it was prolonged by annexing, in the Primary Tense, eu ; 
but in Uie Secondary Tense (on account of the augment, which had a natural 
tendency to shorten the affix), the shorter 0, except in the Ist Pers., where a 
species of reduplication seems to have taken place (-/»»/«, passing of course 
into •fififf § 63). Thus -f* became -/am and ./uqy ; -f , -^eit and -^a ; -r, -reu 
and .7« ; .vr, -vrai and -trs. If the* affix ended with the sign of number, the 
preceding sign of person took a long^ form. In the 2d and 3d Persons, this 
was r# (which might be considered as arising from the r by the addition of #, 
since 7# must pass into r#, § 52). The 1st Pers., in imitation of the others, 
inserted # (or, if a long syllabTe was wanted by the poets, *■#), after which 
either « was inserted, to aid in the utterance, or, what became the common 
form, the final v passed into its corresponding vowel « (§ 50). Thus .re, -rtf*^ 
•Ttif became -##•, 'O^fot, -^finf^ and -/aiv became 'fA%hf {•fAt^fiof), or commonly 
"fAiia (.fii^fia). In respect to the form -/ut^tfy, see § 212. 1. We place the 
•nbjective and objective inflections side by side for comparison. 




1 p. 

2 p. 

3 P. 

1 P. 

2 p. 

3 p. 

Prim. S. p»-/» 

P. (pd'ft49 














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174 coJOVcATiOJi. Ikook If. 

IF. J F- « F. IF. 2 F. 3 F. 

•fee. ftl^^/R ff»-f Sf*-^ I fa '/ il tfm-^ ffm n 

§179. ft«a be 

iBi^ Willi A mwdy 
gRaternoBber of looli 

IbcIi wm purd 


tioD 4jr tibe Opt. ad theaBflkgfor Dwl IL fead ■snOcrtDoaniider&e -i- 
MAcqilMBe fobidtDtB ftr Ae^Oa Ob ievcne,§iS8,86, 177> ilj 
•a ewmpifl of wp fcw rif i w /l«fiw i (m < !i i <iiirta i B i fiam wUdi the mUrrtkm 
wftfaoot oonnertmg roweb m tenned mmtk), we Miect tbe not y gg f , «» write 


IF. « F. S F. IF. 2 F. 8 F. 

P. j f£ p tf U9 f«« -frr }^af lyiiAi -mA or w 

D. yyi ^ j^yy -mw -scfp yyf i/iilw - i WU - i WU 

flee* 8. f7f«f-4|fR -•# -tr t^ifsf-tf^uiv ^ -«#» -•« 

§t^9» The <B8tfiieCion of fMiA in flie inflection of veriM conu^^ 
irfth tfaet of penon. For the rerj attadiment of personal aflizas makes a 
distinction between a permmai mode (L e. tlie vob need as finite} and a noa- 
permmai mode (L e. the ▼eib need as an infinitive or participle). Hie bttei 
had donbtiesB, at first, no afiix. But fbe InfinhiTe is in its nse a mAetaaOhe, 
c/mmotSj iostaining the office, either of a dinet^ or yet more fteqaendy tmH- 
reet object of anotlier word. Hence it natorally took the objectire en^igs of 
noons. Of tliese the simplest and the earliest in its objective force appears to 
have been v (§§ 84, 87), which was, accordingly, affixed to the Int, to ex- 
press in general the ot»)ective diaiacter of this mode. To jwre roots this affix 
was attadied dkeetfy ; bat to mpure roots wiA Ae vuertiom of t to assist the 
ntteranoe. Thus the Inf. of ^- was pdf ; and of y^ap-, yf«ft». Snbee- 
qnently, to mark more specifically the prevalent rdation of the Inf., that of 
tndirect obfect, the dative affix of Dec. L (§ 8() was added to these fi>rm8 ; 
thus, pdvmt, y^Aptvtu, Yoice appears to have been distinguished by the in- 
eertion, in these forms, of r# (b^sre which the » fell away, cf. §§ 55, 57), after 
fhe analogy of § 174 ; thus, Act (or Subject.) Form, pavat, y^tipitmt • Ifid. 
and Pass, (or Oltj.) Form, {pAv-st-ai) pd^fai, (yfiptf^i-ai) y^ap*e0m. But 
the verb is also used as an adjeetioe, and, as sudi, receives declension. Hie 
root of this declension, in the Act (or Subject) Form, may be derived flx>m 
the original form of the non-personal mode in -v, by adding r, which is used 
so extensively in the formation of verbal substantives and adjectives ; tilius, 
pait ^«fr-, or, with the affix of declension (^ 5), ^avr-f, y^tipg* y^aiptfr-g 
(the kindred « was here preferred as a connecting vowel to •, cf. § 175). Tlie 
Bfid. and Pass, (or Obj.) form of the Partidple may be derived fixnn the 
, by a rednpUoation aBak)gou8 to that in § 174 (since the Aoe. affix, § 84, 


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is strictly a nasal, which could be either ^ or 9, according to euphonic pref- 
erence ; as, jStf^idcy, bat Lat. boream) ; thus, ftiv ^ai/Att-tt, y^a^tf y^pi/uf^g 
We have now the single n(m-personal mode developed into a system of Infini- 
tives and Participles ; thus, 


Inf. ^avett, y^a^ttm ^a^ffai, y^ei(p%^0au 

Part. ^afTff y^a^trrs ^dfittaf, y^a,po/Atf$s 

^ 1 T T • In the penonal modtf a threefold distinction arose. Donbt 
leads to hesitation in closing a word or sentence ; and hence the idea of con- 
tmgatee was naturally expressed by dwelling upon the connectihg vowel (<« 
upon the final vowel of the root), as if it were a matter of question whether 
the verb oo^t to be united with its subject. The strongest expression of 
contingence, that of past contingence^ protracted the connecting vowel, or final 
vowel of the root, to the cognate diphthong in 1 (^ 3), and thus formed what 
is termed the Optatwe mode, which, as denoting past time, takes the secondary 
affixes ; thus, l^a^t ^«^) l<p»f*nf ^etifitif, ly^a^o/* y^a^atfA, ly^a^ftrif y^»' 
^•ifMHf, The weaker expression of ccmtingenoe, that of present contingence, 
as less needed, seems to have arisen later, after the conjugation with the cr/u- 
necting vowels ••- and -1- had become established as the prevailing anal<»gy 
of the language ; and to have consisted simply in prolonging these vowels to 
-IT* and 'ti't attaching the same afiixes to all verbs. This weaker form, termed 
the Svibjunctwe mode (yet see § 169. 7), as denoting present time, takes the 
{nimary affixes. Thus, y^a(p$fi y^ei<pvfAt y^i^^/Mtt y^a(pMftaty pdfi ^tuifif 
pifMu (pautfMu. llie original mode now became an Indicative^ expressing the 
aetwd, in distinction from the contingent. 

A third mode arose for the expression of command. This obviously requu>4 
no 1st Pers. ; and in the 2d, it required no essential change, as thi^tone of 
voice would suffidentiy indicate the intent of the speaker. There would, 
however, be a preference of short forms, as the language of direct command 
is laconic ; hence, we find in the objective inflection -0-0 rather than -roi, and 
in the subjective, a tendency to drop the affix of the 2d Pers. sing. The 
3d Pers., on the other hand, has throughout a peculiar form, in which the affix 
is ttnphaticaHy prdonged. This is done in tiie Sing, subjective by adding m ; 
thus, 'Tm. In the objective inflection, -r«, of course, becomes -sSm (§ 174). 
The dd Plur., afterwards the Du., was formed by adding the plural sign » 
(§ 172) ; thus, -Tt^ 'fitn. The new Plur. was still further strengthened by 
prefixing » (whidi hi the ot^. form would make no change, cf. h 176), or by 
adding the later plur. ending r«f (§ 181. y) instead of t ; thus, -vr«fy or 
-r«raf, (-f^^Mv) -^iaif OX 'tittraf. In the 2d Pers., it is convenient to regard -# 
as the proper flexible ending (§ 172). The system of personal modes is now 
complete; thus, * 

Subjective Inflection. 

Indicative. * CoyjUNcnvE. 

IP. 2 P. 8 P. IP. 2 P. 8 P 

Prim. S. y^dp-Bf* 'if -ir y^dip't/A 'tit -ifr 

P. y^»^§fttf -iri -#»r yfti^-tt/Atf -«« 

D. yftiip'fttt -ir** -tTO y^ip'ttfittf -uro 


Sec. S. ty^tclp'tf* -If -«r yfdp'UfA 


P. ly^dp'tftttf -in -#»r y^d^M/Uf -nrt -t*^ 

D. ly^df-»fi%r -irw -irii» yf«f-w/*i» -«w» -Wtii* 


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[book II 

2 P. 3 P. 2 P. 

P. (pA-Tg (p»'9r»nf (pd'rairatif y^a(p-trt 

3 P. 

Objective Inflection. 

1 P. 

Pnm. S. y^d^tf^at 
P. y^a^o/A%4a 
D. y^ap-ifuPa 

2 P. 3 P. 


S. ly^aP'Oftfif 
P. \y^a^i/At4m 

IP. 2 P. 

y(d<P'»tfiMt -nrm 
y^a,ip-dfA%4m ^n^h 
y^a^dfMfim, 'nriof 




3 P. 


2 P. 3 p. 

S. (pd'^t (pd'ffSm 

P. ^d-ah (pd'ff^tnf, ^d'cfim^at 

D. ^«-r#«f <pd'04mf 

2 P. 


8 P. 

^ 1 7 S* We have, as yet, but two tenses, the Primary, denoting 
p-ewnt and future time, and the Secondary, denoting past time, both definite^ 
and indefinitely. In a few verbs, mostly poetic, the formation appears never 
to have proceeded farther. In other verbs, more specific tenses were developed 
from these, as follows. 

1. In most verbs, the Future was distinguished from the Present, and the 
Aorist (the indefinite past) from the Imperfect (the defitdte past) by new forms, 
in which the greater energy of the Fut. and Aor. was expressed by a r added 
to the root (cf. ^ 84) ; and consequently, if the old Primary and Secondary 
Tenses remained, they i^emained as Present and Impetfect The Fut. followed 
throughout the inflection of the Pres., except that it wanted the Subjunctive 
and Imperative, which were not needed in this tense. The Aor. had aU 
the modes, following in general the inflection of the Pres. and Impf., except 
that it preferred -a- as a connecting vowel, and simply appended the later af&z 
-«i in the Inf. act. (§ 176) ; thus, 

Subjective Inflection. 



S, ty^ap-^afs. -rat 
P. ly^dip-^afAtf 'fart 
D. ly^d^^etfUf 'warcf 



Imperativb. , 

S. y^dip-rtttfA 'fftiif 
P. ygd^fatfAif '^atrt 
D. y(d^reii/A$f "ffutrot 

y^d^'fai -adrm 
y^d<p-fart 'vd^rtn^^vdrmtmis 
y^d<p-fUTo» "vdrvn 

INI-INITIVB, y^d^'^mi 

pAKTlCirLK, yod^'va^^t 


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3h. 7] history. 1t7 

Objective Inflection. 
Indicative. Subjunctivb. 

8. iy(Mf'^»finv -rAo •#««*« y^ai<P'ffotfAat 'rti^ms "mrtu 

P. \y^m.(P'feifAt$m •ra^'/c 'fatTi y^aip-rtu/AtSa '^nvh 'wmitrm 

D. iy^m^eafAtim "waatw ^tmttvt y^^-tiiAttm. 'vn^^n "^nvi^f 

Oftahyb. Imperauvb. 

8. y^»^^aifinf 'fmt^§ "^mr* y^a^ea^t 'tioitt 

P. y^m.^0$k\iA%9» "^atfh -rduvr* y^ip'^avh "^avtvtyeiftoitmv 

InFUllTlVB, y^^9m0$m Pabticiplb, y^Qk^^JiitAft 

2. In many verbs, by a change of root, a new Pres. and Irapf. were formed, 
which expressed more specifically the action as doing ; and in some of these 
verbs, the old Secondary Tense remained as an Aorist (called, for distinction's 
sake, the Second AorUt, § 199. ») ; and in a few, the old Primary, as a Fa- 
tore (§ 200. b). 

§ 1 79* Tlie complete teruee were, probably, still later in their forma- 
tion. These tenses, in their precise import, represent the state conaequent upon 
the completion of an curtum (rnv Wt^raXnv yiy^*^*, I have the letter written), 
or in other words they represent the acdon as done, but Its effect remaining. 
This idea was naturally expressed by an initial reduplication (§ 190). These 
tenses admit a threefold distinction of time, and may express either present^ 
poMty or future completeness. The present complete tense (the Perfect) nat- 
urally took the primary endings ; the past complete tense (the Pluperfect), 
the augment and the secondaiy endings ; and the future complete tense (the 
Future Perfect, or Third Future), the common future affixes. In the Perf. 
and Plup., the objective endings were affixed without a connecting vowel ; and, 
of course, with many euphonic changes. See tiie inflection of {yiy^^-fiai) 
yiy^a/A/MMt (^ 36), vi^^y-fuu (^ 38), (^wiwut-fMu) ^iv'ttr/utat (^ 39), &C. 
The subjective endhigs appear to have been at first appended in tiie same way ; 
thus, Perf. Ind. yiy^uf-fSj Inf. yi^^^^-MM, Part. yty^»^9Tf, But all these 
forms were forbidden by euphony. Hence in the Ind. -/a became -m (which, 
since fi final passes into v, may be considered the corresponding vowel of ;« as 
well as of V, § 50) ; thus, yiy^a^f* yiy^tt^a • and after this change the in- 
flection proceeded according to the analogy of the Aor., except so far as the 
primary form differs from the secondary. The « in this way became simply a 
connecting vowel ; thus, yiy^a^a (or, if the analogy of the Aor. be followed 
here also, yiy^m^-a-fA), yiyfec^-m-ff >a-r, -a-^ff, •«-ri, -A-vr, -a-rtv. In the 
Part, 9 also became «, which by precession passed into a (^ 28). Indeed, in 
Dec III. no masculine or fbminfaie has a root ending in -ar- (§ 76. d. 3). 
Thus, yty^a^-irt. The » in the Inf., instead of a similar change (as it was 
followed by «), took -i. before it ; thus, yty^a^-iveu. In the Plup. act., there 
was a kind of double augment, prefixing i, both to the reduplication, and also 
to the connecting vowel of the Perf., making the connective of the Plup. •!«- ; 
thus, Uyty^^'tm-fA, This i« remained in the Ionic, but in the old Attic was 
oontnuled into n, which afterwards passed by precession into u. 

^ 1 SO* The middle and passive voices were at first uncUstinguished. 
The fbrm simply showed that the subject was affiscted by the action, but did 
not determine whether the action were his own or that of another. In tha 


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179 coifJiH^ATioif. [book u. 

defimiie and eomptde tenses* the aetun is w npfVKated, that tihis would bt 
oommoiily andentood withoot spedal deaignatioa. But in the i ml ejimiit t ena e i , 
there woold be greater need of marking the distinction. Henee, a spedal Aor 
and FnL patswe were fimned by employing the Tcrb ufu, to ^ as an mmnBm^ 
and compoonding its past and fotiire tenaes with the root of the Tcrb (the 
angnifnt being prefixed in the Aor.^ as in odier past tenses, and the t being 
lengthened in some of the forms firom the Hifliwuce of analog}- or for eophony) , 
thns, Aor. i-y^df-nw, ¥nt. y^mp-n^fuu. The old Aor. and Fat. now became wad- 
dlt, and the two Toioes were so fiur distinct. They had still, however, so mn^ 
in oommon, that it is not wooderfnl that this distinrtinn was not always ob- 
senred {k 166. \\ The Aor. and Fkit. pass, were afla t w aids strengthsned by 
the insertion of ^, which came, perhaps, finom employing in the composition 
the passive verbal in -7«f , instead of the simple not of ths Teri) ; thus, 
v^wr-H h U-ftix^' P^^om the prevalence of the ^, the tenses formed with 
it were denominated ^Cni; and those formed wiOont it, seoontf tenses (§ 199. II.). 

^181* The system of Greek coiyngstion was now complete, having 
three permms, Arm nmatbers, three coices, six sKides, if the Snl^ and Opt. are 
separated, and no fewer than eUvem tentes, if the Jirtt and efvomd an counted 
separately. Some remarks remain to be added, chiefly upon eaqoAome ekemgee, 

L By a law which became so estsbBahed in thelaqgoage as to allow no ex- 
ception (§ 68), final ^ r, and ^ could not remain. Hiey were, therefore^ 
either dropped, dumged, prolonged, or botii changed and prohmged; as follows. 

!• Fhial^ after ••- OMaeeim, was dropped ; after ^. or .«».einuMe<nM,* was 
dianged to -« and then contracted with the preceding -vowel ; after -m- and 
"sw eonmsethey and in the primary node form (§ 173), was prolonged to -fu \ 
and, in all other cases, became -». Thus, ly^^^^ yiy^mfrnft, lysy^mpi^fii 
became ly(«>^, yiy^tt^ lyty^dftm • y(»p*ft and y^m^uft became (y^iifM, 

y^P»tm) yfti^Mj and y^ti^^tfA and y^^mfa. became y^m.^^ • yfdfMft, y^«>^M/H» 
yfm'^oiftj ^f* became y^iptfu, yU^^fu, y^^lmsfu, ^tifu • iy^m^ft, iyiyfd* 
fuuf ifitfA became iy^mfn, lyty^m^uf, l^f . 

2. Final r, in the secondary forms throogfaont, and in the Per£ rfqg., was 
dropped ; but, in other cases, was changed into ^, iHiicfa aftxr -t. or hi- eom* 
nectwe passed into .land was then contracted, bat otherwise was prolonged 
to 'Tt. When, by the dropping of -r, ^. eomneetioe became final, it passed 
into .1 (^ 28). Thus, I^r tp», ty^mftr tyfaft, ly^mftfr ty^m^n, iy^'^far 
ly^^i, ty^a't^avT iy^a4'»9, y^ti<p»tT y^m^M, y^^mr y^a-^mi^ yiy^m^ar yi" 
y^tt^ ' y(»p.t.T {y^mpth y^dp**) yfdfu, y^^P-i-r y^d^th y^dp-n-r y^dpif 
(written with the i sabsc in imitation of the Ind.), y^d^-n-r y^d^if * pdr 
fdrt, pdfT {pdfr$, § 58) ^«ri, y^df^tr (^y^dptfri) y^mptvrtf yfd^pavr y(d^»vri, 
yiy^tipavr {y%y^dpa9rt) yty^dpdrt, y^dftttr {y^pe^trt) y^ipmri. 

Notes. «. In the prolonged forms of the endings -r and -t r, the Dorie 
retained the r (§ 70. 2) ; as, pttri Theoc. 1. 51, nVnn 3. 48, pa^ri 2. 45, 
ptXUvTt 16. 101, ^Inxavri 1. 43, xiyvrt Find. 0. 2. 51, Wtr^i'^^nrt 6. 36. 

/}. Epic forms of the Subjunctive, with -f* and -r prolonged to -fu and •#«, 
are not unfrequent ; as, WtXvfu A. 549, rvx^t^ E. 279, 7jm#/m I. 414, Utfu 
X. 450, i^fir/f (§ 66) A. 408, vavr^t I, 191, difir/v 2. 601 ; so' Dor. 
UiXifrt (N. a) Theoc 16.^28. A similar form of the Opt., though not fires 
ttom doubt, occurs in wat^apiatinn K. 346. 

y. A new form of the 3 Pers. pL secondary was formed by changing ^r of 
the %ng. into -r«y (L e. by t^ing v instead of prefixing it, with a change 
of r into *•, &) above, and the neoesaary insertion of a union-vowel, irtiieh 
* In primary forms (i 300), 


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•;h. 7.] HISTORY. 139 

here, as after «■ in the Aor^ was -«-, § 185). This form, m the Attic, is noi 
used in those tenses which liave as a connecting vowel .«. or -a-, and scaroelj 
in those which have -m- or -at. ; but in most other tenses is either the com- 
mon form, or may be freely used ; thus, for i^atr, lyty^ti^uvr^ Iw^ixi^vtr, 
S^«r«y, ly%y^Jiipu^tt9, W^ti^inrm,* (§ 183). 

8. Final i was dropped after -t. eonnecHoe ; after a short vowel in the root, 
It became in the 2 Aor. -g, and in the Pres. (except ^f*i and i/f*/) -i, which 
was tlien eontracted with the preceding vowel (m becoming n) ; in other eases 
(except the irregular substitution of •«» for ^ in tilie Aor.) it was prolonged 
to •#!• Thns, y^dpti y^a^i, W ^ig, )/^«/ Qt^ai) ^/i»Vf ^mi pd4t, y^d^nf 

^ 1 8 S* II. A stronger form of the 2 Pers. sing, subjective was in 
-r^ (compare the Eng. and German -s^), which, according to § 63, must either 
drop t and thus become the same with the common form, or assume a voweL 
In the latter case, it assumed «, l)ecoraing .^^« (compare the affix -ati of the 
Lat Perf.). This remained the common form in Jf^n^^a (If 53), j»r^» (T 55), 
fu9$a (^ 56), «7(f^«, ifiu^at^ and fin^im, (^ 58). Other examples are fur- 
nished by the poets (particulariy in the Subjunctive, by Homer) ; as, riinfta 
I. 404, "i^ttwU T. 270, WiXi^^ia A. 554, ^^uXti^^U I. 99, lU^fU t. 250, 
fidXMf4» 0. 571, »>Mi$t0U n. 619, 7;^fir^«, plXurfim, Sapph. 89, WtXnfia 
Thooc 29. 4, xfii^a Ar. Ach. 778. This fbrm, like many others belonging 
te the old language, is termed by grammarians JEoBe. 

UL The objective endings of the 2 Pers. sing., -rat and -r*, commonly 
dropped r in those tenses in which a vowel uniformly preceded (ct §§ 117, 
900. 2, 201. 2), and were then contracted with this vowel except in the Opt. ; 
thus, y^Mftrm y^dfuti y^d(pif or y^i^u (§ 37. 4), y^tl^ptroi y^»^tf or .14, 
y^a^nras y^dppf ly^d^tra iy^d^* iy^d^aVf y^dftr§' y^dftv, ly^d^p»0§ iy^d' 
^a» ly^d-^^m^ y^d'^»r» y^d^l^m* yfd'i^tti (the contraction is here irregular), 
y^p§tf y^d^^t y^d^auft y^dyptua* 

§ 1 83* lY. In the Greek verb, there is a great tendency to lengthen 
a short vowel before an affix beginning with a consonant. This will be ob- 
served in pure verbs before the tense-signs (§ 218) ; in the tense-^gns of tlie 
Aor. and Put. pass. (§ 180); in the -<- often inserted in the Opt (§ 184); 
in verbt m .fu before the tubfective emUngSy especially in the Ind. sing. (§ 224) ; 
in the euphonic affixes -n and .i» of the Pres. and Put act (§§ 203. «, 
206. j3) ; &c This tendency does not appear before endings. beginning with 
vT, since here the syllable is aheady long by position. Of other endings, it 
appears chiefly before the shorter ; hence, before the tubjecthe far more than 
the objective, and in the Sing, more than the Plvr. or Du<d, We give here ex- 
amples of the two last only of the cases that have been mentioned above : ptfu 
pp.fAt (we now change the regular accentuation of the word to that which is 
vsoally given to it as an enclitic), fds^ptiff ^«r« ^nW, but PL pdftiv * i^Af 
I^f, t^t tfnf, ipt 1^, but PL tpifU9 (^ 53) ; 2 Pers. y^d^ts y^d^ut 
(so some form y^^u and y^d^u by lengthening the connecting vowel and 
dropping the flexible ending), yfd^tt y^d^ttt • y^d^tv (the old form of the 
Inf:, S 176) y^d^f (this became the common form of the Pkes. and Put 
iil£ act), y^d^it y^dypuf, 

NoTB. The old short forms of the 2d Pers. and Inf. in .i# and -tt remain 
in some varieties of the Doric; as, ^u^Uhg Theoc. 1. 3, Ji/AiXytf 4. 3, ey^Uhw 

1. 14, j3«r»i» 4. 2. ym^^f Pind. 0. I. 5, r^d^if Ar. Ach. 788. 


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180 COHJUGATIOW. [book II 

§ 1 84* y. The Opt snbjecthre was often rendered sdD more f>x 
pnadre, bj adding to its oonnectiTe «, which was lengthemd to « exoep' 
before rr ($ 1 83). This addition was most common before the endmgs which 
have no rowel, -^ -«, ^, -rr. In the 3d Pers. pL thu addition was always 
made ; but, exoept here, it was never made to wm- eamMeetive, and rardy to 
«i. amiteethe except in contract forma. Thos, {y^mp-M-rr) y^mfmv, (y^a'^- 

fc7n pMinrt, (^-7-rr) fMv and fsMK«f^ ityytXaai* (T" 41), riftfm (T 45)» 

NoTTEB. «. In the Aor. opt. act., a special pndonged form amee, in whidi 
the connective was that of the Ind. with u prefixed, lliis form oocnrB only 
in the 2d and 3d Persons sing, and the 3d Pers. pL ; bat in these persoiis was 
for more ccnnmon than the other form. Tiras, y^ti'^'U-^'tj (y^cA^-ci-c*^, 
§ 181. 2) y^a'^ut, y^a^pumf. This form, like many other remains of old 
usage, was termed by grammarians JEo&c. It was especially employed by 
the Attics ; yet was not confined to them, nor empIo3red by them to the ex- 
dnsion of the other forms ; thus, 7<rw«» A. 42, /^ummg T. 52, il^avrm Pind. 
P. 9. 213, JtyytiXutp Theoc 12. 19, 'hmf^iSiiumt Hdt. iiL 12 ; aXyvmsg Soph. 
^ T. 446, 2iMd^Mtf Ar. Yesp. 726, fn^mt PL Goig. 477 b, A^aXl^ms Macb, 
, 983, (ptaemat Th. uL 49. 

^ In analyziiig Opt Amuis of the 3d Pen. pL, it Is often conveniflnt to 
•oin the inserted t with the flexible endings ahhoo^ in strict p t mn ie ty it it 
an extension of the connecting vowd. See f 31. 

§ 1 S 9* YL One important analogy we onght not to pass nnnotioed. 
The oldest inflection both of vvrbs and of noons, that of the node Pres. and 
Impf., and of Dec. IIL, had no connecting vowels. The next inflection in or- 
der of time, that of the enphonic Pres. and Impf., of the Fat, and of Dec. 11., 
&M)k the connecting vowels ^. and -t - ; while the latest inflection, that of thCi 
Aor., of the Perf. Act, and of Dec I., took the connecting vowd -«- (cf. 
^ 176). Bat the analogy does not stop here. As some nouns flactnated 
between the diffisrent declensions (§§ 124, 125), so eome forms of verbs fluc- 
tuated between the difi^erent methods of inflection. Thus we find, 

c.) Verbs in both -/u and -«, particulariy the laige class in -Vfu and .v«» , 
as, hixvvfu and ht»futt, to show, 

$.) That verbs in -/m whose roots end in i, «, or », have, in the Impf. act 
sing., a second and more common form in -«f ; as, •4'i#s» and (IriVf-o) WiSun 
(t 50), U;)«f and i^i^ain (t 51)> i^</«»v» and Qu»t6»9 (t 52). 

y.) Tliat verbs in -« have the 2 Aor. nude, if the root ends in a vowd, 
oxcept I ; as, (^ 57) ifitiv (r. /3«-), tyfo/v (r. y»»-), t^vf (r. J*-) ; but Win 
(r. «•<•), 2 Aor. of w/t^, to drink, 

2.) Poetic (chiefly Epic) 2 Aorists itiddle which want the connecting vowd 
even after a consonant ; as, ixr* A. 532 ; Si0ft%*n (Part) 2. 600 ; yttr§ 
(— »7Xir#) 0. 43 ; ynro (= iyUiri) Hes. ITi. 199, lyiw* These. I. 88 ; 
i^fy^*if I. 513, ^i»r« O. 88 (so even Pres. 3 Pers. pi., %ix'^reu U. 147, for 
ytx^rmt, $ 60), Imp. 2i^« T. 10, iix^t Ap. Rh. 4. 1554, Inf. hx^tu A. 23, 
Part. yiyftiPti B. 794 ; IXiXsxrg A. 39 ; Txr* Hes. Th. 481 ; Ikiyf^ti* t. 33.5, 
xUr§ %, 451, xilo fl. 650 ; fAtititif (3 Pers. do. for 4^«»»^>i», § 60)*; ifM»T§ 
«. 433, f^Uro A. 354 ; J^r* E. 590. iEsch. Ag. 987, •e'* ^- 204, i^m 
0.474, S^ui^^u A. 572.' Soph. CEd. T. 177; »«At« O. 645; ^k^fou (for 
wifiaUt, 5§ 55, 60) r 708. * A. U6. 


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TH. 7.] HISTORY. 181 

4 NoTB. These Aorists, bdng nude, agree In their formation with the Perf. 
and Plup. (§ 179}, except that they want the reduplicatiuu. 

I.) Poetic (chiefly Epic) Aorists which have the tenae-sign -r- with the 
connectives -o- and -t-, and thus unite the forms of the 1st and 2d Aorists; 
as, «iiVi« Horn. U. 16. 1 ; iCwiT§ v. 75, fivvio £. 109, 221 ; iv^tro H. 405, 
iiirto n. 129 ; :i»f E. 773 ; kili6 I. 617 ; S^^to \\ 250, contr. S^^tu § 45. 3) 
A. 264 . «r<rf X' 481, Call. Cer. 136, Ar. Ran. 482, ^Uir*, T. 173, »;<r»Ti 
V. 1 54. The use of this form in the 2 Pers. Imp. will be specially nuticedi 
Perhaps the common 2 Aor. t^iwat, fell, and the rare, if not doubtful, ix*^»h 
belong here. 

^.) Aorists without the tense-sign -••-, but with the connecting vowel -«-. 
See § 201. 2. Compare the omission of -^ both here and § 200. 2 with 
§§117, 182. III. 

«.) Reduplicated tenses, having the connectives -*- and -i-, and thus unit- 
ing the forms of the Perf. or Plup., and of the 2 Aor. See § 194. 3. 

NrrrB. These tenses of mixed formation are usually classed as Ist or 2d Ao- 
nst according to the connective ; a classification which is rather convenient 
than philosophical. 

^ 1^0. VII. The formation of the complete tenses requires further 
remark. The affixes of the Perf. and Plup. seem to have been originally 
nude throughout, and they continued such in the objective inflection, inasmuch 
as here each flexible ending has a vowel of its own. That this was the reason 
appears from the fact, that in the subjective inflection also we find remains 
of the nude formation, but only in cases where the flexible ending has a vowel 
of its ovm. These remains abound most in the old Epic, but are also found 
in the Attic (^^ 237, 238). The inflection with the connecting vowel, how- 
ever, became the established analogy of the language ; so much so, that even 
pitre verbs, no less than impure, adopted it (cf. § 100. 2). Here arose the 
need of another euphonic device. The attachment of the open affixes to pure 
roots produced hiatus, and to prevent this, » was inserted. TMs insertion 
appears to have been just conunencing in the Homeric period. It afterwards 
became the prevalent law of the language, extending, through the force of 
analogy, to impure, as well as to pure roots. Other euphonic changes were 
now required, for which see §§ 61, 64. 3. The history of the Perf. and Plup. 
active, therefore, is a history of euphonic devices, to meet the successive de* 
niands of pure and impure roots. The latter first demanded a connectin| 
vowel : then the former, the insertion of -«- ; and thai the latter, that tliii 
-X- after a labial or palatal mute should be softened to an aspiration uniting 
with the mute. We have thus four successive formations : 1. the primitive 
nude formation ; 2. the formation in -a, -uv ; 3. the formation in -xa, -xu9 
after a vowel; 4. the formation m -»«, -»t<» after a consonant (after a labial 
or palatal mute, softened to -&, -cit, ^61). The last formation nowhere ap- 
pears in Horn., and the third only in a few words. The forms with the in- 
serted » are distinguished as the Itrtt Perf. and Plup. ; and those without it, 
although older, as the Second (§199. XL). 



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^18T. The Greek verb has two prefixes 
I. The Augment, and II. the Reduplication. 

I. Augment. 

The Augment (augmentum, increase) prefixes £- 
in the secondary tenses of the Indicative^ to de- 
note past time (^^ 168. I., 173). 

A. If the verb begins with a consonant^ the «- 
constitutes a distinct syllable, and the augment is 
termed syllabic £. g. 

Thieiiie. Impf. Aor. 

^«vXf »«, to eommad, IC«vXcv«y, IC«^Xtcmu 

ytm^t^m, to reoognizey iyMw^i^tfv, ly^m^t^m. 

ftTTit, to Orow, i^tvrn, tfft^m, (§ 64. 1> 

B. If the verb begins with a vowel^ the b- unites 
with it, and the augment is termed temporal. 

NoTB. Hie tyUaiie augment is so named, because it increases the number 
of ty1laJbiU$; the temporal (temporalis, fit>m tempns, time), because it bcreases 
the txme^ or ^Konttty, of an initial short voweL For the syllabic augment 
before a voirel, see § 189. 2. The breathing of an initial yowel remains the 
same after the augment. 

§ 1 8 8. Special Rules op the Temporal Augment. 
1. The prefix e- unites with a to form ly, and with the other 
vowels, if short, to form the corresponding long vowels ; as, 

*ii2<»l4M, to mfure, (!«)/»««») iiiuMn, (U)/»«#») Uttwufm, 

*dix'ufy t9 eomteitd, ^\mf9, iMa««w. 

iX^r/^, to hope, ^Xri^*?, HXwsem, 

'Utrtvtn, to nyofSeale, *r«inM9, 'fminvrm. 

i^Mty to erect, &fitn, M^mwm. 

VC^iX«', to mmM, 'i7C^<C«f, "S^^t^m. 

2. In like manner, the f- unites with the prepositive of tha 
diphthong at, and of the diphthongs at; and oi followed hy a 
eonBonomi^ as, 

«iVU, to aek, fr»pf (§ 25. 8), ^#». 

«^«»«, to inereaee, ni^w, «i2^r«. 

•iMTi^m, to pity, #»'riC*», fmrt0». 

^o also, ^r^fim, to ^mk, ^i^m^, ^„. 


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CH. 9.J AUGMENT. 168 

3. In other cases, the «- is absorbed by the initial vowel or 
diphthong, without producing any change ; as, 

nytafuut to had, ityvfunf^ hy^tifin** 

«i^Xi«», to profit, «^fX«ify, ^iXntrm, 

t7»0tj to yidd, %4»»9f i3^«. 

§i»niZ»fuu, to OMtgrnTf «M»M^«^ir», tlmwatiftum 

•vrm,T^t0f to woundt §STmt^»», tSrm^m, 

Note. In verbs beginning with tv, and in tltUH^m, to conjeeture^ and «l 
•/»«, to dryy usage is variable ; as, 

iSx^fttUy to projf, tlfx»/»n9t nhxifn*, tw^*/**!*, ifi|«/tif». 

See, also, the PIup. ^tn (f 58), and Ijut (f 56). 

§ 1 80. Remarks. 1. The verbs flovXofim^ to mUl^ dv- 
raftni^ to be ablCy and fiiXXuy to purpose, sometimes add the tem- 
poral to the syllabic augment, particularly in the later Attic ; 
thus, Impf. iSovXofiijv ana ^SouXofitit^^ Aor. P. iGovXf^&tiv and ifiov^ 

2. In a few verbs beginning with a vowel, the s- constitute* 
a distinct syllable, with, sometimes, a double augment ; as, 

JiyvfffUf to break, Iml^. 

Ataiytt, to open, kfitfyn (§ 188. 2), Afitf^ 

Jtiitt^ to puik, Xmtatn, %i«rm» 

Add kxietMftMt, to be eaptmred, kvitiftt (Ion. and Poet), to please, iftltt, to 
•09, •»0im, Mdfuu, to bwf^ and some Epic forms. Cf. ^ 191. S. The sylla- 
bic augment in these words is to be refterred, in part, at least, to an original 
digamraa f% 22. I) ; as, iF«^«» ?«|a» y, 298, iv. 2. 20 ; Ifm^^mn UiUmn Hdt 
ix. .V XA^'mn y. 143. IF«)< U%% HdL i. 151, irFF«)i» i^«2f» (cf. §§ 71, 117. 2) 
S. 340. 

3. In a few verbs beginning with <, the usual contraction of 

ff into u (§ 36) takes place ; as, ^. 3 / ^* 

l«*r, to permit, tXvy, t7«ir«. 

Add Ui^ttt to ttceuatom, Ixieeat, to roll, tk»at, to draw, twtt, to be oeetqried 
oith, i^m^tfttu, to work, ^wtt, to creep, Wr^aUt, to entertain, tx^i to haoe ; the 
Aorists trx««, took, iUm, ( Ion. and poet. ), eet, %t/An and tl^ify (f 54) ; and the 
Plnp. liVntxuy {\ 48), etood, 

4. An initial «, followed by a vowel, remains in the augmented tenses of a 
yer>' few vertM, chieHy poetic ) as, kit*, to hear, tin (yet iw-ifiri Hdt. 9. 93). 
See, also, A»«XiV»« (^ 280). An initial m sometimes renuuns even when 
Mowed by a coiksonant ; as, mt^'u^, to tting, tUr^tirn Eur. Bac 32 (cf. «n«, 
$ 191. 3). So Uxifvir/ify (that the word "Exxn* may not be disguised), Th. 
fi. 68, and in poetry l^tf^n*, tta0t!^if*nv, iEsch. £um. 3, Prom. 229. In these 
words I is long by position. 

5. An initial t followed by § unites with this vowel, instead of uniUng with 
the augment ; thus, U^tit^^, to celebrate a jeoMt, (lt«^T«^«v) M^raJ^n. So, 
fai the Phip., \if%%n, and the poet Uxwmv, Ui^w, from Pert Xunm, l«X«>«, 


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II. Reduplication. 

^ too. The Reduplication (reduplico, io re 
double) doubles the initial letter of the completb 
T£NS£S, in all the modes (§^ 168. II., 179). 

Rule. If the verb begins with a single consonant, or with a 
mute and liqtdd (except ^, and, commonly, /U and //), the 
initial consonant is repeated, with the insertion of t ; but, other 
wise, the reduplication has the same form with the augment. 
In the Pluperfect, the augment is prefixed to the reduplication, 
except when this has the same form with the augment. Thus 




641/XfMw, to ammmit 



yt*^»0, to write, 



^tXu0, to love. 

rtpiXnx* (§ 62). 


Xt'^f^^ to uae. 



S^irxM, to die^ 



^^^'U0, to prate. 

l^^ayP^%,xm, (§ 62. m). 


r*s^»X^, to recognize (§ 187), 



$>M0-Ta9t0, to bud. 



fiXmirrat, to hurt. 



yXv^m^ to tcutpturt. 


l^nXiu, to emulate. 


yPivitfitu, to He, 



aTi^*99t0, to emum. 



Haxi^ (§188. 1'. 

{mmii»n»») n^ixnxm, 


av^awaft to increate ( § 

188. 2), 



hyttfjuLi, to lead § 188. 3), 



i^ tee (§ 189. 2; 




iviofteuy to Imy {^ 189 




i^yal^ofMu, to work (§ 



^ lOl. Remarks. 1. In five verbs beginning with a 
liquid, n- commonly takes the place of the regular reduplica- 
tion, for the sake of euphony : 

i3Xnx» <uid Xix»yj^m, tlXny/uu* 
itXn^^ %7Xnf*/iuu and XiXnftftMt* 
|7X«;^«, tlXiyfieu and XiXty/cau, 

if^tixay ttffiftat (5 53). 

2. Some verbs beginning with a, e, or o, followed by a single 
consonant, prefix to the usual reduplication the two first let 
trrs of the root ; thus, 

&Xi!<pe0, to anomt, ixAXt^at, JiXnXiUfiuu. 

\Xa{nte»t to drive, XXnXaxat, iXnXafjktu. 

•^iirr«*, to dig, ^(i^X** i^fvyfitu. 

Thb prefix is termed by grammanans, though not very appropriately (§7), 

Xatyx^^f* to obtain by /b^ 
Xafi.Cecve0, to take, 
Xiyaj to collect, 
/iti^«/iait to share, 
r. /i-, to tay, 


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oa H.] COMPOUND \rj£RBs. 185 

the Auk JteihqpBeatKm. It MUom reoefves an angmen^t in the Flap., except 
in the verb itttv^t, to hear ; thm, ^Xi(X4^«, aXnXi^v • but, from a»outt, aicn^ 
»MB, nxtiMiuv, This reduplication prefers a short vowel in £he penult ; as, 
k>,ftXt^a, thou^ HXu^ (§ 269); MXvim (§ SOI). 

3. The yerb fAtfini(rM$t, to remember^ has, in the Perf., //tif/tvnfMti * xreiofAtci, 
to acquire^ has commonly »i»Ttifiuu (i. 7. 3), but also tuTfifua (properly Ion., 
as Hdt. ii. 42, yet also JSsch. Pr. 795, PL Prot. 340 d, e> There are, also, 
apparent exceptions to the rule^ arising from syncope ; as, ff-irr^x*, virret 
fim. For iuMMj to «eem, and the poet. Ux^m^ i»(y»j cf. § 189. 2. For oi^» 
(^ 58), cf. § 189. 4. The poet, ivmy^ to command^ receives no reduplication. 

4. When the augment and the reduplication have a common form, this form 
is not to be explained in both upon tiie same principle. Thus, in the Aor. 
Xytm^i^m (§ 187), i- is prefixed u> denote past time, but in the Perf. lytu^txet 
(§ 190), it b a euphonic substitute for the full redupl. y*- In like manner, 
analogy would lead us to regard the Aor. HiUn'tt (§ 188. 1) as contracted 
fVom U^/»«}^«, but the Perf. Hi'ncnKm (§ 190), as contracted fh>m autiUnttet^ 
the initial vowel being doubled to denote completeness of action. In the Per- 
fects %lftM^tutt (R. 1 ), and X^m** (5 ^^\ the rough breathing seems to supply, 
In part, the place of the initial consonant. Some irregularities in the redu- 
plication appear to have arisen from an imitation of the augment ; as, Uv^«x«, 
Unifuu (§ 190). 

III. Prefixes of Compound Verbs. 

^ I OJl. I. Verbs compounded with a preposition^ receive 
the augment and reduplication after the preposition ; tlius, 

^^•ey^a^ttf to cucribe, v^oa-iy^a^dv, v'^aryiy^m^m* 

i^iXavftt, to drive out, f^«iX«t/v0V, i^tXnXtiita, 

Rebiarks. 1. Prepositions ending in a vowel, except ti^/ and r^*, suffer 
elisi<m (§ 41 ) before the prefix t-. The final vowel of «*(« often unites with 
the I- by crasis (§ 38). Thus, m^gCtlxXa*, to throw away, mwiCmXXn • Tt^i^ 
CmXXtt, to throw around, xt^dCaXXn • ^rftCaXXv, to tiirow before, vr^siCaXXt 
and w(»SC»xx»9, 

2. Plrepositions ending in a consonant which is changed in the theme, re- 
sume that consonant before the prefix t. ; as, ifiCdxx^, to throw m (§ 54), 
UiUXXtf • UUxXtt, to throw out (§ 68), lliCaXXaw, 

3. A/ew verbs receive the augment and reduplication before the preposi- 
tion; a few receive them both before and after; and a few are variable; as, 
itric-TM/uu, to understand^ *i9'i0'rafAri9 • Uo;^Xiai^ to trouble^ fi^uj^Xcuf, fivti^X9fK» • 
jus/fi^d*, to sleep, iica4tv^of, »a4nvh»9^ and »a4tvt»v (§ 188. N.). 

4. Some derivative verbs, resembling compounds in their form, follow the 
same analogy; as, hatraM, to regulate <firom i!euT»y mode of ltfe)y ^t^mre 
vnd i^i^rnrc, ^i)i^rn»«) iittn^riifAnv * inxXti^'tti^v, to hold an oMembly ( tKuXn- 
I /«), l5i»X»»»'««J»» and tx»X*i<r/a^av, l^ntXnriaret • Ta^MyfM, to act the drnnkara 
{*i(W9s)i i^ec^tf^fica V. 8. 4 ; lyyvaat, to pledge, for the various forms of 
which see Lob. ad Phryn. p. 155. 

^ 1 03. n. Verbs compounded with the particles dva-^ ill^ 
ana eJ, weM^ and beginning with a vowel which is changed by 
the augment (§ 188), commonly receive their prefixes afer 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


these particles ; as, dvaaifsariu^ to be diipletuedy 9^v0fig€atovp 
tiftf/ytiiw^ to benefit^ evijgytrow and tvf^/novf. 

III. Other compounds receive the augment and reduplica 
tion at the beginning ; as, Ao/otiou'q), to fahle^ iXuyonolovp 
SvaTvxdti, to be unfortunate^ kdvatv^iiaay S&dvaivxHxa' ivivxi» 
to be fortunate^ divxovy or tiirrvxovr (^ 188. N.) ; dvtmndm^ tc 
shame^ idvannovp* Yet lnnojft(f6qnjxa^ Lycurg. 167. 31. 


^ 1 04l» I. It was long before the nae of the augment as the sign 
of past time (§ 173) became fully established in the Greek. In the old poets 
it appears as a kind of optional sign, which might be used or omitted at 
pleasure ; thus, l/if»i» A. 2, Snxi 55 ; *lf i^«r« A. 33, 457. 568, «}; far* 
188, 245, 345, 357, 511, 595; KaXi A. 459, 473, ^«Xi 480, 499, 519, 
527 ; i^tifu 2. 493, «^«^ii 498. This license continued in Ionic prose in 
respect to the temporal augment, and the augment of the Pluperfect* and was 
even extended to the reduplication when it had the same form with the tem- 
poral augment ; thus, «y«v Hdt i. 70, iiyov iii. 47 ; AxtiXkaJ^ Id.L 16, avaX^ 
Xaeetrt 17; itvr%Xmv9»9ro Id. vii. 210, airn^Mvvn 211 ; h^vXt^rt Id. i. 94; 
m^^fl, £yp»Tt Id. i. 19, »f*f*iitnt 86 ; i^^a^Avra lb. 66, »aci^«0'r«, xmru^yar/U- 
99U 123 . &wt^yfiMt ii 99 (so £p. t^x^^Trnt 11. 481, t^x»^» ^- 354, cf. § 189. 
4). So, more rarely, in respect to the syllabic augment, and the reduplication 
having the same form ; as, mii or iv«fi Hdt. i. 155 ; «'«^i0'xfv4)«T« vfi. 218, 
m-afarutvaimr* 219 ; and even, for euphony's sake, iv-mXiXXiymro 1118. In 
respect to the augment ot the Pluperfect, and of the impersonal i^fi** ^^ 
freedom remained even in Attic prose ; thus, tS^n TtrtXturnttts vi. 4. 11, ^r*. 
Ithaxu lb. 13, luiCtCnMi vii. 3. 20 (this omission of the augment occurs 
chiefly after a vowel) ; Ixfi* Cyr. viii. 1. 1, oftener x^nt Rep. Ath. 8. 6. 
Of tlie poets, the lyric approached the nearest to the freedom of the old 
Epic, while the dramatic, in the iambic trimeter, were confined the most closely 
to the usage of Attic prose. Yet even here rare cases occur of the omission 
of the syllabic augment (though not undisputed by critics), chiefly in the 
narratives of messengers and at the begmning of a verse ; as, »rvmrt Soph. 
CEd. C. 1606, fiytir»9 1607, ^^v^tt 1624, »dXu 1626. 

2. For such forms as S^i^y ^p, 56, l^i^v B. 274, I^i^^^ty Hom. Merc 79, 
and for such as l^uriy A. 33, ixx»U 0. 371, tfifJjtv #. 226, Un»9 <fr. 11, 
Upturn E- 208, see § 71. For the Dor. iyw for Hyv (Theoc. 13. 70), &c, 
see § 44. 1. For ft^vrm/AUm^ &e., see § 62. «. On the other hand, we find; 
after the analogy of verbs beginning with /, %fAft.«^t A. 278, Ua-vfuu K. 79. 
For hiiixr* L 224, hiittum A. 555, ht^it 2. 34, tm»v7m 2. 418, see $ 47. N. 
Compare »wx4it9Tmt Ap. Bh. 4. 618, and UA.«i>r«i lb. 990, with words be- 
ginning with /3A.. and yX^ (§ 190). 

3. In the Epic language, the 2 Aor. act. and mid. often receives the redu- 
plication (§ 185. n\ which remains through all the modes, while the Ind. ad- 
mits the augment in addition (especially in case of the Att redui^.) ; as, 
%%iat 3. 448, »t»«^«y A. 334, Mx£inr» A. 497, Mxi/ut A. 168, %t%v$M9 
C. 303, XiXAx^'t H. 80, XiXMvim X 388, \xXkXa6n B. 600, X%XiJ*9T\ 
A. 127, XtXinnro Horn. Merc. 145, fAifta^otM Hes. Sc. 252, ft,ifia^wt9 lb 
245, i.ft-rt^mXtit T, 355, irtraftTv or v^^-tfuv Pind. P. 2. 105, Ttvlfatfjutt 
K 100, ff-iff-Z/Mr* K. 204, rtruytiv A. 591, rtrm^ifMtt a. 310, rirt^n hi 


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Hesych^ nr^xnrt A. 467; mrvwirrts Call. DL 61, m-i^H/tnv t. 277, mx*^ 
fofT0 II. 600 ; with the augment sometimes added, Ki»XiT» A. 508, SxixAtr* 
Z. 66, wivrXnyn ^. 264, m'txXnytro M. 162, Iv-iff-Xn^o £. 504, 9ri(p(tch 
B. 500, Iri^^c)* E. 127, rir/Aiy Z. 374, IriT/ccfy 515, rfr^M/«iy Theoc 25. 
61, 9r%pt N. 363, f<ri^M A. 397 ; Att. BedupL Hyaytv A. 179, ^^ayir* X 
116, ii»»x* n* ^22> it»ax*^^* «*• 3"^^' «iX«X»i Y. 185, Si^a^n M. 105, ijf^o^t 
A. 110, m^mfamrt Ap. Bh. 1. 369, «'«(«tr«^y ff. 360, ilawi^otro I. 376, 
^ |yi>r«'i» (also edited hinmi and biN^trtv) O. 546, 552, T. 473, if^^^i B. H6. 
Two Second Aorists are reduplicated at the end of the root : nn^r&T-cf from 
r. iMflp-, B. 245, and 9i^t»&»-99 from r. i^t/»-, £. 321. 

KoTB. Some of these lednplicated forms occur in Att. poetry ; thus, &^~ 
^9 Soph. £L 147, »i»xif*tfH Id. (Ed. T. 159, SflrtfM lb. 1497, l^«'«f«» Eiar. 
Ion, 704. '^y^yov remamed even in Att prose ; as, L 3. 17. 




I. Classification and Analysis. 

(^ 195. The Affixes of the Greek verb may 
be divided into two great classes ; 

I. The Subjective, belonging to all the tenses 
of the active voice, and to the Aorist passive. 

II. The Objective, belonging to all the tenses 
of the middle voice, and to the Future passive. 

Nons. The affixes of the Aor. pass, appear to have been derived from the 
tmpf. of the verb il/^i, to he ,* and those of the Fut pass., from the Fnt. of this 
veib ($ 180). Hence the former are snligeetive^ and the latter, objective. 
Of the affixes which are not thus derived, the tubfeetive represent the iubject 
of the verb as the doer of the action, and the objective^ as, more or less directlj, 
its obfeeL See § 165. 

^106. The affixes of the verb may likewise 
be divided into the following orders ; 

1. The Peimaet, belonging to the primary tenses of the 
Indicative mode, and to all the tenses of the Subjuncliye 
(§§ 168, 169. r). 

2. The Secondary, belonging to the secondary tenses of the 
Indicative, and to all the tenses of the Optative.. 


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3. The Imperative, belonging to the Imperative mode 

4. The Infinitive, belonging to the Infinitive mode. 

5. The Participial, belonging to the Participle. 

^107. These affixes may be resolved into the 
following ELEMENTS ," A. Tense-Signs, B. Con- 
necting Vowels, and C. Flexible Endings 

Note. When there is no danger of mistake, these elements may be dO' 
nominated simply sigitSf connectwea^ and ending** For a synopsis of thest 
elements, see ^ 31. 

A. Tense-Signs. 

^198. The tense-signs are letters or syllables 
which are added to the root in particular tenses^ 
and to which the flexible endings are appended, 
either immediately or with connecting vowels. 

In the Future and Aorist, active and middle^ and 
in the Future Perfect (^ 168. a), the tense-sign is 
'O' ; in the Perfect and Pluperfect active^ it is -x- ; 
in the Aorist passive^ it is -ds- ; in the Future pas^ 
sivcj it is 'dtfa" ; in the other tenses^ it is wanting 
See 1 31. 

Thus, /Jovilsv-a-w, i6ovksv-(T-a^ fiovXsv-a-ofiai^ iSovXiV-a-dfAfi'* 
(If 51 34, 35) ; mfpilri^a-ofiai (|f 46) ; ^tSovkfy-K-a^ iSt-SovXev-X" 
Eiv * j3ovXsv-df-lrjP ' fiovXsv-di^a-ofiai, ' ^ovXtv-ta^ PovX^v-o^ai^ 
iSovXfv-ov^ iSovXfV-ofitjv^ ^tSovXev-fiai, i6f6ovXsv-(iriv, 

§ 1 00. Remarks. I. The sign -^f-, except when followed 
by a vowel or by vt, becomes -^i;- (§ 183). When followed 
by a vowel it is contracted with it. Thus, i6ovXsv-d^f)-v^ ^ovXiv- 
&rf-Tij fiovXiV-d^ij-vai ' {povXiV-^t-m^ § 36) /iovXev&cj^ (/Joi/Asu- 
^S'lriv^ § 32) fiovXfV&sltjv ' fiovXtv-d-i-vTOiv^ {ffovXsv-d^i-vTg 
§ 58) /SovXsv&slg. 

II. The letters x and ^, of the tense-signs, are sometimes 
omitted. Tenses formed with this omission are denominated 
second^ and, in distinction from them, tenses which have these 
letters are denominated Jirst ; thus, 1 Perf. ninnxa, 2 Perf. ni- 
noi&a ' 1 Plup. 4nfntliiuv^ 2 Plup. inmold^nv (IF 39) ; 1 Aof 
pass. TjyyiX&Tjv^ 2 Aor. pass. riy/fXtiv • 1 Fut. pass. ayytX&i^ao^ 
(iui, 2 Fut. pass. ayyeX^uofint (fl 41). See §§ 180, 186. 


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«-II. 9.] TENSE-SIGNS. 18if 

NoTFS. «. The tense in the active and mieUBe voieeSf which is tenned the 
Second Aorist, is simply an old form of the Imperfect (§ 178. 2). 

/3. The regular or Jirst tenses will be usually spoken of simply as ihe Ao' 
ristf the Perfect^ &c. 

§ 300. III. In the FUTURE active and middle, changes 
affecting the tense-sign often bring together two vowels, which 
are then contracted. 

1 . Th. tense-sign -a- becomes -«- (§ 50), 

«.) In tho Future of liquid verbs. See § 56. 

^.) In Futures in Arm, from verbs in -iT^M ; thus, Msfiirm (xtfitim) xofut, 
»»fi,Uut Ktftttlvy »afAifft09 KafAMV • Mid. xafitirofitat {»»fuio/Aai) »»fn»dftmt, »•/*{' 
atfffiat xofAttitafiett, xafiurifAtfos KafAitVfitvof (^ 40;. 

y.) In the Future of xaH^afiett, to sit (root I'i-) ; thus, (xetfiiia-afMCt, xeth' 
yt0/uai) Kafiiit!vfjM$, Add the poetic (^rixrtc-^at) rtx%7a6ett Hom. Yen. 127, and 
{jAa.$99fAMy -MftMf § 45. 3) fiahvfuti Theoc 1 1. 60. See ^dso b. below. 

2. Some Futures in - auto and -eaw drop -a-. 

Thus, IXkvw, to drive, F. Ikeirm (iX«w) U«, iXarus iX^St iXti^u IXf • 
IXdffUf iXSf.9 • Ixdffoiv IXeiv * TiXiaf, to finish, F. rtXirv (riXitt) riXZ, riXiff%tt 
rtXi7s * rtXiiru9 r^Xtlit • T%Xi9uit TtXSv * Mid. rtXio'afMti ( riXiofAai) rtX»v/MU, 
r%Xir%w4at rtX%Tr^eUf rtXivc/AUaf rtXavfuvas ' X*^t ^ P^^^*^i ^* ix^''*'^ X^'^f 
ix'^'tifi X"'f) X*'f ' ^*^* (x't^ofMtt) ^MfAxu Add xaXtat, to call, fAa;^«fMcty 
to fight, afc<ptivvvfitt, to clothe ; all verbs in -eivfufitt ; sometimes verbs in -d^u, 
particidarly ^iSti^ai, &c. 

Note. The contracted form of Futures in -aaoi, 'irot, and Aw, is termed 
the Attic Future, from the conmion use of this form by Attic writers. It is 
not, however, confined to them ; nor do they employ it without exception ; 
thus, ixivatvett vii. 7. 55, rtXirovvn Cyr. viii. 6. 3. It is not found in the 
Optative. A similar contraction appears, in a few instances, to have taken 
place in other Futures; thus, %^fi[Ativr% \ will you lay waste? for l^tifuirtTif 
Th. iii. 58. 

3. A few^ verbs, in the Future middle with an active sense, 
sometimes add e to -a-, after the Doric form (§ 245. 2). 

Thus, crXiw, to sail, F. ^Xtweftat, oftener (jorXtv-A-afiai) xXtwoufAxt * ^tvyvj 
to flee, ^tvlafiiai and (^tv^Ufctti) ^tu^avfixs. This form of the Future is termed 
Hi Doric I\tture. Other examples in Attic Greek are xXaiu, to weep, vim, to 
gwtm, «'«i^«, to sport, w^iirrm, to folly ^ti»i, to blow, 9rvv6iinfAeuy to inquire^ 

BxAkBXi. a.) The liquid, Attic, and Doric Futures, from their formation, 
are inflected like the Present of contract verbs (ft 45, 46). It will be ob- 
served, that in a few verbs the Pres. and the Att. Fut. have the same form. 

b.) In a very few instances, the Fut. is in form an old Pres. (§ 178. 2) ; 
as, Ufim, to eat, F. ti»iMu, A. 237, Ar. Nub. 121 (m later comedy l^»tl^««, 
cf. y. above) ; r/w, to drink, F. «-/#/tMei, ». 160, Cyr. i. 3. 9 (later vfvfjutt) ; 
CfM, to go, commonly used as Fut of t^x^/Mit. Add a very few poetic fermf , 
which will be noticed under the verba to which they belong. 


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§ 90 1. IV. The sign of the aorist, 

1.) Becomes -i- in liquid verbs. See § 56. 

2.) Is omitted in iT«r« (^ 53), HvtyKa (r. Uty*-, to bear), f;^i* (Ep. tx*f») 
fVom x**'* ^ Pf**"^* And the poetic txtx (Ep. 7x»a and ?xfi«), from »«/», to &»m 
Add the £pic nUd/Anv and 4Xft/«^*f», N. 436, 184, lr«-it/« £. 208, iarUr^a 
Hes. Op. 765. See § 185. ^ 

3.) Is the same with that of the Perf. in Uti»», tUix*, and « »«. These 
Aorists are used only in the Indicative, and rarely except in the Sing, and 
in the 3d Pers. phir. In the mideBa twice, the Att. writers oae onlj tl\e Ind. 
hxi/Afiv Ear. El. 622, with the very rare Part. hxmjAivot, iEschin. 72. 9 
llie other dialects add Unxeifinvy K. 31, ^xxa^tya; Pind. P. 4. 52. 

NoTB. These Aorists in .k» are only euphonic extensions of the 2 Aor., 
after the analogy of the Perf. First ^e final -» (originally -/t*) passed into 
.«, which became a connecting vowel; and then -»- was inserted to i»^ 
vent the hiatus (§§ 179, 186) ; thus, Un-t Uti-» Uft-x-tc, Ufix^t^ ihxi, UnxMt • 
ttuv ^x«, iv ^xm. This form became common only wh^re the flexible end- 
ing had no vowel (cf. § 186), i. e. in the Sing, and in the 3d Pers. pL ; and 
was properly confined to the Ind. act., although a few middle forms are found 
after the same analogy. The nude form disappeared in the Ind. act. sing, 
(cf. § 186), but was elsewhere either the sole or the common form. Sea 
i\ 50. 51, 54. 

B. Connecting Vowels. 

^ a09. The connecting vowels serve to unite 
the flexible endings with the root or tense-sign, 
and assist in marking the distinctions of mode and 

Notes, a. In each tense, that which precedes the connecting vowel (or^ 
if this is wanting, the flexible ending) may be termed the base of the tense 
(fiti^it, foundation) ; as, in the Pres. of- /Sai/Xi t/«, ^uXtu- ; in the Fut., /Smt. 
XtM-. ; in the Perf. act., /SiCflvXii/*.. 

/3. The regular additions, which are made to the base in tlje Present and 
Future, are throughout the same ; as, ^avXiv-tt, ^ouXivv-et, li^yXtv-ut, fitvxUe 
tiS * fiotfktv-tiftit ^ovX%v9'«tfu • fiavXiv-o/AOi, fiavXw-o/Aettj ^ovXtvHff-ofMu 

§ 3 OS. I. In the INDICATIVE, the connecting vowel is >a- 
in the Aorist and Perfect, and -h- in the Pluperfect ; in the 
other tenses, it is -o- before a liquid^ but otherwise -<-. 

Thus, A. lC«t/Xiv0'^-^y, KtvX%W'$i.fAn9 * Pf. fiiUuXtux-m-tAiv ' PIup. iCiC«v. 
Xit/X'%t'* • Pres. /S«tfXi^-«-^v, ^vXw-%'Tty (/^i>Xii;-«-v^4, ^ 58) ^uX%y»u9i • /3«v. 
Xtv-tf-^uii, (/3«i»Xsv-i-«i, § S7. 4) /SmXii^, j3««Xii/-f-r«M« Impf. iCtfvXiff-*-*, ICau- 
Xiv-i-f • \C»uXtv-i-fAn9f iC0oXiv-i-r« • F. /3«vXfV0'-«-jMtv, iS«t/XiV0'-t-rM> • /3«c/Xim% 

Bemabks. «. In the Sing, of the Pres. and Fat. act the connectives -— 
and ^^ eiHier by union with the ending, or by simple protraction, become -iv. 
sni <.«i^; as, (jS«vXw/-«*/M, -•-«) B^vXivtti (fi^vXt»'^-t) /3#»Xitfi<f, (j3M$Xi»-t-«% 
i-t) ^•vX*v%t ' )3«t^x«vtr«, ^0vXiv^H , ^^Xw**t. Se« -^^ 181. 1, 2; Its. 


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/3. Ib the 8d Pen. sing, of Ute Aor. soA Perf. act., -t- takes the place </ 
«- ; as, (iCtvXiwm-r) ICtvXtun, fitCtvXtvzt, See § 181. 2. 

7^ In the dd Pen. pi. of the Plop., -t- common^ takes the jdace of -u- 
NoTB. The origmal connective of the PIup. was -i«-, which remained in 
the Ion. (§ 179);.as, ^M S. 71, Hdt. ii. 150, IrtMwut ^. 166, i«WikMif 
A*. 90, pu B. 832, pn'f 2. 404, lytyivu Hdt. i. 11, ^-t/y^^Un Id. ix. 58. 
The earlier contraction into -if- is especiaOj old Attic, but also occun in the 
^p. and Dor. ; as, I Pen. ftti Soph. Ant. 18, In^rovfiti Ar. Ecd. 650, xtx^vn 
Id. Ach. 10 ; 2 Pers. ^^hns Soph. Ant. 447, ^hiaia, r, 93, Iktkn^nt Ar. £q. 
622 ; 3 Pen. ^n A. 70, Soph. (Ed. T. 1525, iktknfti Theoc. 10. 38. By 
precession (§ 29), -n- passed into -t/-, which became the common connective^ 
and in the 3 Pers. sing, is already found in Hom. (arising from -ii) ; as, 1^x4^ 
»u 2. 557 ; so XtX^iitu Theoc. 1. 139. In the 3 Pen. pi., -*»- became -t-, 
by the omission of the «, which was only euphonic in its origin (§ 179). So, 
hLthe 2 Pers. pl^ pir* tor pitn, Eur. Bac 1845. 

§ 304# II. The SUBJUNCTIVE takes the connecting vowels 
of the Pres. ind., lengthening -«- to -ij- and -o- to -»- (§ 177). 

Thus, Ind. ^•vXtu-m, Subj. /SfvXfv-w, /3«0Xivr-«* fiaukiv-u-t, fiovktv-if't, 

Xiv-t-rt, fiwXU-n-rt' (/SfyXitf-tf-ytf*/, fi§pXtP'0t-90t, § 58) fi»¥Xtv»»n, fiifXw&mtri* 
fiwXtu-^'fuUf fi»yXiv-^-/tMty ^«vXivr-«f-/iMM ■ (idvXtv-t-reuj fiwXU'n-rmf ^ttXtue 

%99S. in. The OPTATIVE has, for its counective, i, either 
alone or with other vowels (§§ 177, 184). 

Rule. If the Ind. has no • connecting vowel, and the hase 
ends in a, s, or o, then the i is followed hy ri in the subjective 
forms, but receives no addition in the ohjective. In other 
cases, the i takes before t< a in the Aor., and o in the other 
teases. The connective i always forms a diphthong with the 
preceding vowel. 

Thns, t^vm-m'h Urm4-ttm (t ^^)t r/^t^-v, nit^^n* (t ^)> ^—XivH 
in-9 (5 35), )i}«-iif-v, )«^../'^if» (5 51); fiwXtv^-as'fu, fiivXivr-ui-fun* ' /3«v- 
Xtv-M-/u, ^vXW'^i'finff fi^yXtu^-M-fUj ficvX%vf'9Ufi.n^ ^•uXtvin^^m-fAnv • l-tt-fH 
(5 56), iuxti'i'fUt iuMw-^i-fitfit (^ 52). 

Bemarks. I. In Optatives in .inv, the n is often omitted in the Plur., 
cspedaUy in the 3d Pers., and also in the Dual ; as, UrmTfitVf IrretTrt, irrmttv 
Urmrn {% 48), ^x$v0%T%f (^ 85). In the 3d Pers. pL of the Aor. paai. 
the longer form is rare in dassic Greek (U«'M*^<i«r«y Th. L 88). 

S. In eoHtraet mibfeetive forwUy whether Pres. or Put, the connective m often 
assiynes «; as, p^xi-ti'/m, ocntr. px»t-/u or ^tXo'm-f (If 46) ; ibyytX^'m-f 
(1 41, § 66). 

Notes. «. Tlie Ibrm of the Opt hi ^di^ fbr .m^, is called the Attie Op- 
tathet though not confined to Attic writers ; as, Utt^fii Hdt. i. 89, dtxatnrt 
llieoc. 12. 28. This form is most employed in the Sing., where it is the com- 
mon form *n contracts in .i« and .am, and almost the exclusive form in con- 
tracts in -Ae0, In the Sd Pers. pi, it scarcely occurs io»»iv'»* Mt^Wm. 41. 


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29 >. It is likewise found in the Perf., as w%w»6oUi (^ 39) Ar. Ach. 940 
ixvt<pivy»ifit Soph. (Ed. T. 840, vr^^tXnXvioint Cyr. ii. 4. 17 ; and in the 
2 Aor. of f;^4», to have, which has, for its Opt., ^;^«/»i» in the simple verb 
(Cyr. vii. 1.36), but ^;^0i/«i in compounds {xetr&vxoti Mem. iiL 11. 11). 
So Ulm (^ 56) Symp. 4. 16. 

^. See, in respect to the insertion of n (i) m the Opt., § 184. 

3. The Aor. opt. act. has a second form, termed jEoUc, in which the con 
nective is that of the Ind. with u prefixed ; as, ^avktar'ua-t. See § 18 1. a 

§ 206# IV. In the imperative and infinitive, the con- 
necting vowel is -a- in the Aorist, and -«- in the other tenses. 

Thus, fiavXtv^-et-Tti ^tvXtug'-et-e-^t, )30c/Xit>^-«-i, fiovXtuc-a-viat • /StfvXiv-f-ri, 
&ovX%v-%-rhy fisvXtv-t-o'ficUf fitCauXtux-i-waif fi»vX$u^'t-^fiai, fiovXtvH^r-i'ff^m, 

Remarks. «. Before » in the Imperative, -•• takes the place of .|., and, 
in the 2d Pers. sing,, of ^. ; as, fitvXw-c-vruf, fiduXtv^-*-* (§ 210. 2). 

i3. In the Infinitive of the Pres. and Fut« act, -i- is lengthened to -ii 
(§ 183) ; as, ^«uXt6-ii'V, fiovXtv^-u-u 

§207. V. In the participle, the connecting vowel is 
-a- in the Aorist, and -o- in the other tenses. 

Thus, (fiovXtvc-a-tTfy § 109) fiavXsvraff fiouXtuc-a-fiuvat * (/3«vXiv-«-vrr, 
§ 109) ^auXtvattj (fitvXtV'i-vr^a-, § 132) fitvXtitvra, ()3at;Xfi;>«-vr, § 63) /Smt- 
Xitftfv • fitvXtuffw (fiiC»uXiv»-i-rSj §§ 112. «, 179) j3iC«f;Xii;xjwf, (/3fC«vAit/»* 
«-r0'«, § 132. I) fitSovXtvxvTa, ()3fC0vXtv»-«-r, § 103/ fiiS»yXtviccf * /3«cXiv-i- 
f*tt«S, ^•uXiVff-c-fAi¥»f, ^»uXiv4nf-i-(A%i>os» 

§208. The INDICATIVE, imperative, infinitive, and 
participle are nude (nudus, naked) ^ i. e. have no connecting 
vow^jI (§ 175), 

) ) In the Aor,^ P^f'% and Plwp,^ passive^ of all verbs, 

U the Aor. pass., the flexible endings are affixed, in these modes, to the 
tenae^eign (§ 198); in the Perf. and Plup. pass., they are affixed to the rooti 
as, iC^uXii-in-f (§ 199); fitCtuXty-fMUyiCtCtuXtu-fitif. 

2.) In the Pres, and Tmpf, of some verbs in which the char 
acteristic is a short voweL These verbs are termed, from the 
t:Tiding of the theme. Verbs in -jut, and, in distinction from 
them, other verbs are termed Verbs in -oi (§ 209). 

The flexible endings are here affixed to the root; thus, l^rm-fttv, *lrrm-9af, Ur^-fufif (^ 48). In the Inf. and Part., the connecting vowels -i- 
'and .0. are inserted after t ; thus, l-i-vas, (J-i-prf) mv» (| 56). So, in thff 
Imperative, /tfyr^y. Cf. §§ 185. 7, 205. 

3.) In a few Second Perf, and Plup, forms (§ 186). 

The flexible endings are here affixed to the root; thus, frr^.^m, tfra-iif 
Ura-tett (^ 48). In the Part., the connticting vowel is inserted ; as, himt 
(5 58). So, in the Inf., hliimi, with which compare /i»«i, above. 


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C. Flexible Endings. 

^ 300. The Jlexible endings (flexibilis, change 
able) are the chief instruments of conjugation, 
marking by their changes the distinctions of voice^ 
number^ person^ and, in part, of te^e and mode. 
They are exhibited in H 31, according to the classi- 
fication (^^ 195, 196). 

Spbgeai* Bulbs and Rkmabkb. 
First Pers. Sing. The ending -fi, after -a- connective^ 
and, in primary forms (§ 196. 1), after -o- and •«- connec" 
tive^ is dropped or absorbed ; after -oi- and -ah-, and in the 
nude Present (§ 208. 2), it becomes -fn; in other cases, it be- 
comes -»' ; as, (Ind. PovX^v-o-fi^ Subj. ^ovXtv-a-fi) PovXfv-v»^ 
P^SovUvH-n^ fOovXfva-a (so after -f«-, contr. -i^-, § 203. N.) ; 
(iovXiva-ai-'fii^ jiovXfV-oi-fjii^ fiovXfva-oi-fii^ XtjTri-fii (^ 48) ; iSov^ 
Afw-o-F, i6h6ovXfvx-hi-v^ iCmvXfv^ri-f^ pfvXfVxtiiri-v • (fiXoiri-v^ 
iyykXoin-v (§ 205. 2) ; I'oti^-i', laxalri'V (IT 48). See § 181. 1. 

Note. T^i^iv, for r^i^tifHf occurs for the sake of the metre Eur. Fr. Inc. 

^ 3 I O. Second Pers. Sing. 1. Fi>r the form -a^a, see 
^ 182. 

2. The ending -& is dropped after -f- connectii^e ; after -«- 
connective^ it becomes -v, with a change of -«- to -o- (§ 206. « ) ; 
after a «Ao^ri votbel in the root^ it becomes in the 2d Aor. a, and 
in the Pres. «, which is then contracted with the preceding 
vowel («« becoming i^) ; in other cases, it becomes -&i (see 
§ 181. 3). Thus, jiovXfv-s ' ^ovXiva-o-v • i^«-?, 5o-?, %-q 
(UU 50, 51, 54) ; (iarrVf) loii?, (r/de-*) t/^«, {dl-6o-f) didov, 
{dfixvv-f) diUvv (ITU 48-52); ipavri&i (1142), liovXtv»fiu 
(§ 62), «rr«^« (U 48), fa^i, didl&i (H 58), and, in like manner, 
y«^i, l^t (flU 53, 56, § 181. 3), and the poet. XXa»i Theoc. 
15. 143, in6iAvv»i Theog. 1195. 

Note. In composition, rrn^i, /3?^i, and 16^ (5Y 48, 56, 57) are often 
shortened to rr&t /3<i, and u • as, vtt^Aars for vm^m^rtiSt, xarmCs for »«r« 
Cfi^i, m-^ig-u for 9^69t4i, 

3. The endings -aa* and -«fo drop the a, except in the Perf. 
and PI up. pass., and sometimes in the nude Pres. and Impf. 
(§ 208. 2) ; as, (/5oi/A«;-f-at, § 37. 4) /iovXevrj or flovXivtiy (ffioth. 
Xtv-(-o) jSovXfvov^ {^6ovXfv-f-o) 66ovX$vov^ [iSoyXBya'a-o) iSovXtv- 
out ' ftovX(v-ot-u^ ^oikfvo-m-o ' fifSovXfV-ani^ ^iSovXfv-ao^ iStSov- 
Xtv-ao ' Vara-a«<t, Xom-ao and (1'cjt«-o) taioi (fl 48) ; xl^i-om 


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and (T/.^«-«t) T/^iy, (t&s-o) Uov (11'50); mo-ao and (^/cJo o^ 
mov,i86o) dov (Vi 51). See § 182. 111. 

Bemarks. (a) The Aor. imperat. is irregularly centractei ; thus, (/J«»- 
Xivff-et-t) fituXwce^i. (b) The coDtraction of -tm i»to -li (§ 37. 4) is a 
special Attic form, which was extensively used by pure writers ; and which, 
filer yielding in other words to the eoramou contraction into -»j, remained ia 
&»vXu, tSit, and ••v/^. (c) In verba in .^, -cdu remained ooare ^quaitly 
than -»■«, and was the* common form if • or » preceded. Yet poet, i ritv^ 
^seh. Eum. 86, ^uv<f. or Jy»»j (^ 29) Soph. Ph. 798. Further particulars 
respecting the use or omission of the -«-• in v^bs in -fit s^ye best leanied from 
the tables and from observation. 

§311. Third Pers. Sing. The ending -i becomes -ai 
in the nude Pres,^ but in oth* r cases is dropped, or lost in a 
diphthong ; as, {Xorti-j) l'ur»yai, Xojt} {^\ 48) ; (6ovlfvt^ i%6ovXevxt, 
(povltv-i-T^ ^ovktv-t-f) ^ovXfVfi. See ^ 181. 2. 

Note. The paragogk v (§ 66), which is regularly affixed only to i and 
simple I, is, in a few instances, found after -n in the Plup., and follows ^ in 
the Irapf. of ilfil, even before a consonant; thus, 3 Pers. piiv is {^ &8) 
Ar. Yesp. 635, f^n •iVt^m (f 56) Id. Plut. 696, Wtxsi^M •U Id. Nub. 
1347, \9rn»%n ahrav Y. 691, ^iZXnMn ettxf^n £.661, h h i. 2. 3. In all 
these cases, the y appears to have been retained from an uncontracted form in 
.•(»)• See § 203. N., 230. y. So Impf. tf^»M tl^ta F. 388. 

^$812. First and Second Persons Pl., with the Dual. 
1. The 1st Pers. is the same in the Plur. and Du., having, for 
its subjective ending, -^cy, and for its objective^ -fitda^ or some- 
times in the poets, -fiBo&a ' thus, fiovUvo-fisv, povltvo-fAh&a^ 
and poet. fiovXevo-fieo^a. 

Note. Of the form in 'fitfw (§ 174), there have been found only three 
dasaica] examples, all in the dual primary, and all occurring in poetry before 
a Towel: wi^ih^fAiSof Y. 485, \tXu/».fu6»f Soph. £1. 950, i^/buifit^tv Id. Ph. 
1079. Two examples more are quoted by Athenseus (98 a) from a word- 
hunter (if»/*ecTo4n^ccs), whose affectation he is ridiculing. 

2. The 2d Pers. pi. always ends in -«. The 2d Pers. du. is 
obtained by changing this vowel into -op ; and the 3d Pers. du., 
by changing it into ~ov in the primary inflection, into -lyv in the 
secondary^ and into -wv in the imperative. Thus, PI. 2, fiovlsv- 
ftty i6ovXtv8T8 * Du. 2, PovXimtov^ iSovXeveToy * Du. 3, povXsitxov^ 
iSovXsvstfiv^ PovXivixoiv, 

Rbkabk. In the $eeondary dual, the 3d Pers. seems originally to hare 
had the same form with the 2d ; and we find in Horn, such cases as 3d Pers. 
^iiwxir«v K. 364, nrivj^^m N. 346, XM(pvra-iT»9 2. 583, ^M^n99%0^6a¥ N. 301. 
On the other hand, the lengthening to -ify (with which compare the lengthen- 
ing of the Plup. affix, § 179) was sometimes extended by the Attics even to 
the 2d Pera. ; as, 2d Pers. lixirnf Soph. CEkl. T. 1511, hxXmH^mv Ear. Ale. 
661, ivfirnt, IxtififMirn* PI. Euthyd. 273 e. 

§918. Third Pers. Pl. 1. The en ling -it, in the pri 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


mary tenses ^ becomes -vat. In the secondary, after -o- or -«- 
connective, it becomes -v ; after a diphthong in the Opt., -sv \ 
but, otherwise, -aav. Thus, {^ovXfvovai, ^ 58) ^ovXsvovai^ 
fiovXtvaovai^ fieSovXtvxaat, PovXbvvusi, * ioxaai, haraai (]\ 48) ; 
i6ovXsv~o-v, i6ovXsva-a-v * ^ovXsvoi-sv, fiovXBvaai-aVj PovXnv^il-tv • 
iStSovXsvHS-aav^ i6ovX6v&i}-auv, SoyXsv^sirj- aocy ' lata-aav^ laiij- 
iay, iatairiHjar (U 48). See §§ 181, 184. (i. 

2. Tn the Perf. and Plup. pass, of impure verbs, the 3d Pers. 
d1. is either formed in -atai and -aio (§ 60), or, more com 
monly, supplied by the Part, with sial and ^oav (fl 55) ; as» 
fipdii^ajiMi Th. iii. 13, from (p^Hgat (r. qy&aQ-), to waste, ys" 
yqafifiivoi tial, ys/gafifiivoi, rjoav (jj 36), 

Rebiark. The forms in -arm and .«t« are termed lomie. Before tl^ese 
endings, a labial or palatal mute most be rough (^, ;^), and a lingual, middle (S) ; 
as, from r^i^rai (r. t^***-), to turri^ {rir^aTt-vTeu) rtr^i^arat PI. Rep. 533 b ; 
from ri.99m (r. r«^-)|r/o«arwzitae, {v'tray-vrett) t»t«;^«t«i iv. 8. 5, »t«t»;j^«t* 
Th. vii. 4. . , V 

3. In the Imperative, the shorter forms in -nwy and -a&np 
(§ 177), which are termed Attic (§ 7), are the more common. 
In Homer, they are the sole forms. 

Note. In t^^v and Irttv (f f 55, 56), :he old plur. form has remained 
without change. 

§ 9 1 41. 1. Infinitive. The subjective ending, after -«*• 
connective (§ 206. ft), has the form -v ; after -a- connective, -* 
forming a diphthong with -u~ ; but, in other cases, -vat. ; as, 
povXtii-H'V^ fiovXivo-H-v * PovXfVO-a-i ' /ieSovXevx-s-vai, povlsv^rj" 
rai ' hrtd-vai, orii-vat, koTcl-vai (fl 48). See §§ 176, 183. 

2. Participle. For the change of »' to a connecting vowel 
in the Perf. act., see § 179. For the declension of the Paru, 
see Ch. HI., and the paradigms (IT 22). 

^ 31ff* Bemarks. I. For the reoulab affixbs of the verb, 
whicn are those of the euphonic Pres. and Impf., and of the regularly formed 
Fat., Aor., Perf., and Plup., see H 29, 30. These affixes are open in the 
I*res. and Impf., and date in the other tenses. For the affixes of the Pres. 
and Impf. of verbs ih -/m (§ 208. 2), see 5T 29, 30. The affixes of the 
2d Aor. fct. and mid. are the same with those of the Impf. (§ 199. «), or, 
except in the Ind., the same with those of the Pres. (§ 169. /3). The affix- 
es of the other tenses denominated second (except the nude 2d Perf. and Plup., 
§ 186) differ from the regular affixes only in the tense-sign (§ 199. II.). The 
Fat. Perf. or 3d Fut. has the same affixes with the common Fut. act. and 
mid. (§ 179). 

2. Special care is reqpiired in distinguishing forms which have the same 
letters. In ptovXivM (55 34, 35), we remark (besides the forms which are the 
nme in the Plur. and Du., § 212) the following: Ind. and Subj. ^tvXtvw 
Y\it. Ind. and Aor. Subj. /3«vXivr«» • Ind. and Imp. ^•vXtdrt, ^0vxU%r4t • Ind. 


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n. 3, and Part R. Dat. ^•vXtvtuwt, $ouXtvr»v^i • Imp. PI. 3, and Part PI 
Gen. fi»vXtu»vT(UVt /Sai/Xf c/^avrwy, (itvKtv^ifTMV • Act. S. 3, and Mid. S. 2, fi9U 
Xti/f4, fiauXtvffu ' Subj. Act. S. 3, and Ind. and Subj. Mid. S. 2, ^ovXiwf • Fut 
Ind. Mid. S. 2, and Aor. Subj. Act. S. 3, and Mid. S. 2, ^»vXivv^ • Aor. 
Imp. fiovXivcov, Fut. Part. fiouXtvc«9 • Opt. Act. S. 3, fiavkiwttty Inf. Act. 
^•vXivaai, Imp. Mid. S. 2, /Sai/Xfi/rai. 

3. With respect to the changes which take place in the root, or in the unioi^ 
of the affixes with the root, the tenses are thus associated : 1 . the Pres. and 
Impf. act. and pass. ; 2. the Fut. act. and Mid. ; 3. the Aor. act. and mid. 
4. the Perf. and Plup. act. ; 5. the Perf. and Plup. pass. ; 6. the Aor. and 
Fut. pass. It will be understood, that whatever change of the kind mentione*! 
above takes place in one of the tenses, belongs likewise to the &<^sociated tensi^, 
if nothing appears to the contrary. For the Fut. Perf., see § 239. 

II. Union of the Affixes with the Root 

A Regular Open Affixes. 

^ a 1 6. When the regular o^en affixes (^ 216. 1 ) 
are annexed to roots ending in a, f, or o, contrac- 
tion takes place, according to the rules {W 31 - 37). 
See the paradigms (HH 45-47). 

Notes. «. Verbs in which this contraction takes place are termed Cow- 
tract Verbs, or, from the accent of the theme, Perigpomena, In distinction 
from them, other verbs are termed Barytone Verbt. See Proeodj. 

;3. The verbs x««, to bum, and kXom, to weep, which have likewise the 
forms na'iM and xX«i«, are not contracted. Dissyllabic Verbs m -iai admit 
only the contractions into u ; thus, 9fXm, to saU, v'Xiuf m-XtTg^ vXiii 9'Xu, 
itXufttVf fl'Xifri ^XtiTt, 9rXi»u^t. Except ^i*>, to bi$ui; as, to ^ovv, rip levvr 
PL Crat. 419 a, b. 

y. The contract Ind. and Subj. of verbs m -«m» are throughout the same. * 
See ^45. The contract Inf. in i^y is likewise written without the i subsc. ; 
thos, rtfiZft as contr. from the old nfiatv (§§ 25. /3, 176, 183). So ^4Xu9, 
InXouv may be formed from the old pxitv^ inXitv, 

B. Regular Close Affixes. 

§ 917. I. When the close affixes 9re annexed 
to a consonant, changes are often required by the 
general laws of orthography and euphony ; as, 

^(^(pot (^ 36, root y^«^-) » y^lB^^«, lyf«^^•, yiy^m^peti (§ 51) ; yiy^m^m^ 
lytyea^tit (§ 61) ; yiy^afAfun^ yty^ttfAfM^of (§ 53) ; yty^at^rrm (§ 52) 
yiy^a^hf yty^eiffv (§ 60). • 

Xiivru (f 87, r. Xi*--, Xuir-) ; Ut/>^»»», X%i^iw»/Mtt (§ 52). 

«'e«''*' (5 38, r. fl-fAy-); r^c^of, «-f«$fl^uM, W^atlafAnVy «>ir^«^« (§ 61) 
^U^ax* (§ 61): wiv^M'-m W^eix^nt, lW<rg«;^;^i, vrtr^mx^m (§§ 62, 60)u 


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" m'tiitt (^ 39, r. W-, Tfi^-) ; Ti/aM, Wfrti^tf MxticrPif 9ri'rt7^§mt (§ 55) 
^ivrttftu (§ 61) ; vi^rtiJfMCif IfriniV/uify (-) 53); «-iTi<0'rai, Wtlff^nv (§ 52). 

eiyyiXX*) (^41, r. ityytX-)'y JiyytXii, ayytkw/tmtf ^yyttXetf nyytiXtifin* 
.5 56), iryyiX^t(§,60). 

Remarks, m. In the liquid verbs »X/»m, to bend^ x^htt, to judge^ xTtivtt, 
to sUti/, rtifVy to stretchy and frAi/v4v, to wash, » is dropped before the affixes 
which retncdn close (§ 56), except sometimes in the Aor. pass, (chiefly in po- 
etry for the sake of the metre) ; as, xcxXz/^ai, IkXI^v and UXi»^*}v, F. 360, 
H. Gr. iv. 1. 30 ; »i»^i»«, »ix(4fMn, ix^i^m and £p. U(i»^*}y, N. 129. 

jS. In other verbs, » characteristic, before ^, more frequently becomes *-, but 
sometimes becomes f* or is dropped (§54) ; as, Ti(paff/Aett, <ri^«^ftivos (^ 42) ; 
ra(0^(;v«, to exasperate, Pf. P. Part. ^a^M%vfA/Ai*»f or va^uj^o/iiv^t^ 

y. Before fn in the aflix, neither ft nor y can be doubled ; hence, xixaftfiat, 
IXnXty/cau (^ 44), for xixetftftfiMi, iXfiXtyyfiets, 

§ 318. II. Before the regular close affixes^ a 
^wrt vowel is commonly lengthened ; and here d 
becomes ij, unless preceded by «, t, p, or go 
(^29); as, 

Tt/uit^ (^ 45), rtfun^atf IrtfAfira, rtTtfAtixa, rtriftfiaai, Xrtftnin** 

<Pikiti (^ 46), ^4X^«'«, ^tXnff6fjuti, <ri^ikfifi»ii irt^tXtiffofAeii, 

iflXoM (^ 47), ^uXtfitf'tf, l^ffXAr^-^i^tfy, i^i)»X4w^i|y, ^nXv4vtr»/tMU 

rtt0, to honor, poet., F. »■<*••», A. ttr^m, Pf. P. rirTftMu 

^tm, to produce, F. ^V0'«, A. t^Sra, Pf. frS^i7xa. 

i««», to permit, F. I«ir«, A. i?«ra (^ 189. 3), Pf. %!Axm, 

^^mm, to hunt, F. ^(00*0, A. yn^dret, Pf rf/i}(«»a (§ 62). 

Notes. «. X^ib**, to uMer an oracle, ^^Adfiat, to use, and nr^a/MvCr. r^a-), 
to Acre, lengthen £ to n ; as, F. xz^^**^ x^n^'f^h 'r^^iw, 'Ax«««, to thresh, 
with the oomm<m F. aXtnam, has also the Old-Att. etXoartt, 

/3. In the Perf. of tw&a m -^, t is lengthened to u, instead of « (§ 29) ; 
as, ri6u»m, rihtftMt (^ 50) ; ilxat, tJfitai (^ 54). 

§910* Remarks. 1. Some verbs retain the short, vowel^ 
and others are variable ; as, 

0'rim, to draw, F. r«-«^«r, A. Uvriwm, Pf. Uwiuu, Pf. P. Uwm^fuu (§ 22 r, 
A. P. U^tifffi*, 

rsXist, to finish, F. rtXi^m, rtXS (§ 200. 2), A. IriXi^m, Pf. nrf>4»«, 
Pf. P. TtriXtr/MMs, A. P. IriXir^ifV. 

^0«», to p&m^A, F. «(«r«, A. ^e*'*. A. P. Itfi^nf (Ion. Pf. P. Part A^fs^ 
ttUof, 2. 548, Hdt. iv. 97, § 191. 2). 

Vu0, to bind, F. U^it, A. Uti^M, 3 F. Wn(r»fMu • Pf. )i)i»«, Pf. P. ^i^i^cmu 
()i)i^^Mu Hipp.), A. P. i^i^it*. 

^vm{'ii), to sacrifice, F. ^^«, A. tfiuira, A. M. US^^fAW Pf. ri#<;»«, 
Pf. P. rUi/^/, A. P. Wth^ ( 62). 

Notes. ». Verbs in -avvO/M and -twOfAt, and those in which the root enda 


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in \A', for the most part retain the short rowel ; as, yiXatt, to h^h, F. vi* 
kd^tfMU, A. lyiX&ra, A. P. lytXeifffn** 

|S. The short vowd remains most frequently before ^, and least fiwqnentl^ 
before r. In the prrfect and pluperfect, it remain* more frequently in 
the passive, than in the active voice. 

^330. 2. In seven familiar dissyllables^ mostly imply- 
ing motion^ f appears to have been once attached to the roo 
(see ^§22. 5, 117): 

Bi^ to run (r. ^F-), F. (^^if^t/imi) ^v0»/mu (^^%u0m only Lye. 1119). See 
§ 166. «. 

>!«» to swim, F. nuvtfuti^ -w/im (§ 200. 3), iy. 8. 12, A. fMvr«, Pf. tluoza, 

v-kui, to udL, F. wXUtrm, commonly w-Xtt/rtf^uM, v. 6. 12, or vXtwrM/MM, v. 
1: 10, A. WXtutret, Pf. «r«<rXii/*», Pf. P. v-itrXtu^ftm (§ 221). 

«*»!*», to breathe, F. wnvff^»t, Dem. 284. 17, commonly wviuetfAtu Eur. Andr 
5(5, or mtwv/tmt, ki. Ran. 1221, A. Ivrnvrtt, Pf. ^riinttma* 

Add y%i, to flow, iM4A», to bum^ and »X»im^ to wetp, 

391. IIL After a short vowel or ?l diphthongs 
a is usually inserted before the regular affixes of the 
Passive beginning with 0, ^, or r ; as, 

tr^recM, to drtuo (§ 219), Pass. Pf. ftf-cra-ff--^*/, iwetveti, %99rm-fv»it U^ri-f' 
fiiffu • Irvu-ff-fiivos • A. lr<ra-r-^nv • P. rvF»''r'fnirefAut. 

rtXitt, to finish (§ 219), Pass. Pf. rtriXtefuti, rtviXttrfthtt • Hup. IrtnXi- 
«/«})», iririXia-0, IrtriXttf-r* • A. tTtXir^nv • F. riXi^iir«^«. 

xtXtvM, to command^ Pass. Pf. «ixiXi»rfMu, xtxiXivrrm, »t»fXiM/»lMf • 
Plup. ixixiXivr^iiy • A. ixtXiv«-^)iir • F. ji%Xtuff6ft9tfun, 

Remarks. «. In some verbs, <r is omitted after a «Aor/ ootrd or diphthong 
in some it is insetted after a nm;?/^ iScm^ vowel; and some are variable ; thus, 
n^o^fi*', VthfAMi, iiUtitf riffvfut^ irtfiriv (§219) ; fitSovXtuf*ai, tCtvkivfnv (^ Sb^ ' 
;^9A>, ft> heap up, xi^tffitau, i^^i'^nv • x^aofitu, to use, x%x,^n/Attt, \x^^90n* 
ftifAVfifieu, to remember, Ifivw^nf • <rav»0, to stop, Tiwetuftas, ivetva-frif and Wau' 
0fiv • peitvCfiti (r. p0-), to strengthen, tppatfctu, ifprna-^nv ' i^aet, to do, iii^afAMi 
and yt^^ec^ficeu^ i^^g-^nv * B-^avt*, to dcuh, rii^tLvwiteu and rii^tiUfAmt, Mfttvtin^, 
It will be observed that the «> is attracted most strongly by the affixes begin- 
ning with d-. 

^. Wben r is inserted in the Perf. and Plup., the Sd Pers. pi. wants the 
simpl irm ; as, PL 3, UvawfAift tltri, xtxtXii/r^ivM ffr«v. See § 218. 2. 

^ 333. IV. The regular close affixes are aa- 
nexed with the irhsertion of ly, 

1.) To double consonant roots, except those which end in a 
labial or palatal mute not preceded by cr, and those which end 
in a lingual mute preceded by v\ as, 

aSI^-m (r. all'y ^ 43), aul-n-ft, nvi-n'f», ir»l^-ir-»«, ntl^-tr/MM, if^^-4-Ai» 


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tif^, te koO, F. li^«Mi, A. fy^n^M. i{ity to meO, F. iC<^«, A. «^if#«. 

ftiXktf, to te about to, to purpose, to delay, F. ^ikX^^, A. i/tiXXnr* and 
4/»iXXifr« (§ 189. 1). 

Iffm, to ffo awa^ S. iffii^m, A. iffn^et,Tt HffnMM. 

fiitrttst, to pasture, to feed, F. fit^Mn^m. 

But >AfA9nt, to shine, F. yJitA^tt, A. 7x«^'\/^«, 2 Pf. XiXc/cv-m • 'e^^*) to 
had, to rule, F. i^, A. ^ei** P^ P* ^nf*»h A. P. |^;t;^ii» • «•«•&»)«, to moib 
a Ubaihn, F. (rv-iy^-r**, §§ 55, 58) fwu^t*, A. 7«-9Y4r», Pf. P. (ttrtnvhfun, 
tfwtfffuu, § 53) iv^uffMu, A. P. \^^ur6nt, late Pf. A. i^iruMm* 

2.) To /i^ut(2 roots in which the characteristic is preceded 
Ly a diphthongs and to a few in which it is preceded by e ; as, 

^yK»fMt, towm,¥. fietfX4^»fMt, Pf. ^CwXnfuu (Ep. S P£ /WC«vX« A. US), 
A. lC«</Xf*#irv and iiUvkti^fif (§ 189. 1). 

i^ftX*», and shortened S^ix«, to wish, F. i/t Xiitm and diXif****, A. nHktm and 
i/iXifr«, Pf. nfiXn»», and l&te n^Xirx*. 

AuX«, to concern, F. fAiXnrt, A. l/ciXff«'«, Pf. ^t^iXnxa (Ep. 2 Pf. as Pres. 
/*VeirX«, B. 25), A. P. i/MXtf^iiv. This Ttrb is common^ used impenonalij : 
f^\X^t, it concerns, ^iXifrii, &C. 

^tM^, to remain, F. ^it*!, A. l/ftiif», 1 Pf. fuftimnm (cf. 54. y), 2 Pf. /»S- 

»S^Mr, to distribute, F. M#Mf, and later n/A^i^m, A. Ivm^mi, P£ nv^s«, Pf. P. 
Hfiftfifuu, A. P. Ivi^ii^ifv and Iftfii^nv (R. «). 

3.) To a few other roots ; as, 

)i«, to need; F. ^iifr*r, A. Hiti^u (^0-iv 2. 100), Pf. Witixtt • Kid. )i«/MM, 
to fwcd; to 6c|r, F.'^tii^'c^i, Pf. UiinfMit, A. P. S^TiVn*. The Aot. is most eom- 
mon as impersonal : hi, there is need, M^n, tUvfi, &c See E. y, 

tSitt, to sleep, Impf. i^m and m^»f (§ 188. N.), F. tSin^st, 

eJtfiai, to think, F. •m^t/juu, A. P. ^n^nv. When used parenthetically, the 
1st PcArs. sing, of the Pns. and Impf. has the nnde forms Ji/MUi f/in»> In 
fiom. we find the forms iU/Mu, Hm, tim (Dor. tlii Ar. Lys. 156), m^upmf, 
mUint, with I commonly long. See R. y, 

•txf*-^ to depart, to be gone (the Pres. having commonly the force of the 
Perf.), F« tlj^nvtftMi, Pf. Jfj^nfuu^ and poet. m;^a»»« or f^micm (R. fi) Soph* 
Aj. 896 (t;t;*>»<» ^ ^^^)* 

«-«/«», to <trifte, F. e-ciV**, in Att. poetry vctt^trm, Ar. Nub. 1125, A. fnurc, 
PL xrkxtunm, A. P. imirfnt* 

REifAJtKa •• In a few verbs, « is inserted instead of « (c£ 219) ; as, 
ix^9fiun, to be vexed, F. A^^^fAm, A. P. iix^irin*. 

fUx^puUf to ./^S?*** F« iMtx^'*"^^ iMtx,wiMu (§ 200. 2), A. i/««;(;fr«S^j|», Pt 
fi.iftAxnfuu (Ion. #Mt;^Stf^4, Hdt. vii. 104, F. fia;^rt9t/j^$ A. 298). 

^. In a very few verbs, we find the insertion of « or *». See •Ixfttu 
(3. above), fftvOpu, Uitm, Aym, t1ti4u (in the two last the inserted vowel even 
fveoedes Uie characteristic). 

y. In most of these cases, the vowel is obviously inserted for the sake of 
^mphon^. That the vowel should be commonly n, rather than %, results firom 


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§ 218. In Vitt, to need, and «7«^mm, fo thimi, there «pjpean to hire been onot 
a digamma, of which we find traces in the Homeric (}if»/uu) hv*fuu, ^unir** 
fuiij iiivfif»t And in the long t of itofuu, 

^ 333. V. In a few liquid root^, metathesis 
takes place before the terminations that remain 
dose (^ 56), to avoid the concurrence of conso- 
nants (^ 64, 3) ; as, 

^XXm (r. fimX'f tnuup. fiXa-), to Arow, F. fimXS, and m Att. poetry Ux 
X^m (§ 222), Ar. Yesp. 222, 2 A. IC«X«f, Pf. i3sCXii«« (§ 218), Pfl P. 0t- 
CXnfuit, 3 F. fitCkti^»fMu, A. P. IC>.i)#ffy. 

M^^f jw (r. ««^, transp. ^fut-), to labors to be weary, F. mmft rnf tmi, 3 A. l»m 
jMff, P£ »iitft,ntt** 

C. Verbs in -/if. 

(For the paradigms, see ITT 48-57.] 

^834. I. Before the nude affixes^ the char- 
acteristic SHORT VOWEL (^^ 183, 208, 2) is 
lengthened (a becoming i^; unless preceded bj p, 
^ 29 ; and /, «e), 

1.) In the Indicative singular of the present 


Thus, Xarriiii, (H 48; r. ai«-), wjTijr' T/^iy^f (H 50; r. ^«-), 
itl&fip* dldatfu (H 51 ; r. ^o-), ididtov ddxvvfii (If 52; r. ^etjc-, 
dBixvv-)j idtUvvv • fl/it (fl 56 ; r. **-), «I, da*. 

S,"^ In the SECOND aorist active throughout, 
except before vx (^ 183). 

Thus, loTijy, soTfifier, arrj&ij ajiJTttactv^ oTfjpai * orairaiy, 
(ora-i'Tj) OTof^ • an^fid^ay (fl 57 ; r. Sga-)^ anodqStvai ' typwp 
(II 57 ; r. y»'0-), c/yaijuey, Byvmor^ yy«3^*, yv£vai ' yvovxwv^ 
{yponq) yvovq. 

Exception. Tlie short rowel remmnsj in the 2 Aor. of rihifUy ^/^m^m, and 
Ts^ except in the In£) where it is changed into its correspon^ng diphthong 
(§ 29) ; thus, Uifitw, ^U, ^Tfcu, {^i'tTf) ^tif • Sf)«^i», ^, iuitmt, (}i-*Ts) 
iwt • ff/cciv (5 54 ; r. i- ; for the augment, see § 1 89. S), If, i7v«m, (I-vrf) 
«7f (fbr the Sing, of these Aorists, see § 201. 3). Except, also, the poeU 
tmrkf and «Zra9, * 

3.) In a few middle forms, mostly j^o^iic. 

Thus, dV^rifini (r. 5/^f-), to seek; ovlvTjfti^ /o profit^ 2 A. M 
bwrifitir^ and later wvuftrip ' nlfinXTjf4i^ to jli/, 2 A. M. poet 


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•)H. 9.] VERBS IN -/I*. 201 

§ 285« 11. If the characteristic is e, o, or v, the singidar 
of the IMPERFECT ACTIVE is comiTionly formed with the con* 
necting vowel (§ 185. /J) ; thus, dri&sov^ contr. iii&ow^ iu&ss^ 
itl&sig^ hi&ie hi&Bi ' ididoov ididovv idsixwov (JI^j 50-52). 

Remark. In like manner, the regular affixes sometimes take the place of 
the nude, in other forms, particolariy in verbs in -vfn^ which may be regarded 
as having a second but less Attic theme in -vm (§ 1 85. «) ; thus, hixtu/Ai and 
iti»9Vt0f itixvS^t and ttiJtvvu, ihtixvvtrmv and ihtixfveVf tttxyv§ and iuxfvtuu 

§ 296. m. Subjunctive and Optative. 1. In the 
Subj., verbs in -/it differ from other verbs only in the mode of 
contracting -ari and -otj (§§ 33, 37. 3) ; thus, faia-ai tatuj 
iata-jjg Un^g ' latd-tofiai iatcafiai^ iatd^ii latfj ' ri^i-m Tt^w, 

dido-ijg did^g ' dido-ta^ai diddi/iaiy dido-tf didat * detxvv-(a^ dsixvv^ 
ttuai ' i-a (tf 56). If, however, q precede -«iy, the contraction 
is into a ; as, anodgag (fl 57). 

2. Verbs in -Wjui have a second form of the Opt. act. in 
-^97v, H hich is most frequent in late writers, but is not confined 
to them , as, aAwij I 183 {dXolrjv X. 253), /Jt^'ijy Ar. Ran. 177 
(the other form is not used in this word, perhaps to avoid con- 
fusion with the Att. Pres. opt, § 205. 2), /Ji^ij PL Gorg. 512 e. 

3. In the Opt. mid., «*, if not in the initial syllable^ is often 
changed before the flexible ending into oi^ in imitation of verbs 
in -0) ; thus, n^olfitiv^ Xolfitiv (^^ 50, 54), and the compound 
forms, ini&olfAfjv^ aw&olfifjPy i. 9. 7, Jigoolfitjv^ lb. 10. So even 
xgifioiade for xQifiaia^s^ Ar. Vesp. 298 ; fnxgvolfn&a for fiag^ 
vaifif&a^ I. 513 ; and a<ploiT8 for aq>Unt^ PI. Apol. 29 d. 

4. In a few instances, verbs in -vfu^ instead of inserting a connecting vowel 
in the Subj. and Opt., simply lengthen the y (cf.,^ 177) ; as, ^mtxiiitw^t, 
tix^xiirnvturat for iteta-xi^ectvui^, iiet^xiietvvvn'reiti Pl< Phaedo, 77 b, d; vny^Br^ 
for irti'yvu»$T«, lb. 118a. Add the poet. Ixiufin* II. 99, (pun Theoc. 1 5. 94, 
taivOrt fl. 665, ^«iirtf«r« (for -Sfri) #. 248 ; and the similarly formed ^ifftn* 
«. 51, ^^T0 X. S30. 

§ 227. IV. Second Aorist. The 2 Aor. from a pure 
root retains the primitive nude form^ whatever may be» the 
form of the theme (§ 185. y) ; as, Iffiyy, am'dguv^ syviav^ sdCr 


Notes. «. Except ?«•««» (cf. $$ 205, 208. 2, S), which yet has the Imp. 

fi, A few roots are transposed, in order to admit the nude form ; thus, 
j»ikX»fiuny to dry «p, 2 A. (r. ^xak-, rxX*-) IrsXift, Opt, rxXmint, Inf. rxXir 
MM Ar. Vesp. 160. 

y. We add a list of nnde 2 Aorists, which may not be hereafter mentioned : 
nXmv, to break, 2 A. Part xX^t AnacT. Fr. 16 ; xXw, to hear, poet 2 A. 


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Imp. kXj^s a. 37, Eur. Hipp. 872, »xS^i B. 56, JEach, Cho. 399, rednpL 
»U\G6t K. 284, xixkvrt F. 86 ; Xi/«, to loote, 2 A. M. xtftnv <I». 80, xir9 
114, )JvT« H. 16 ; ^vu^ to produce, 2 A. ipvv, Cyr. u. 1. 15, 8ubj, ^um, OpL 
^vnv (§ 226. 4), /n/. ^?v«j, Fart. ^vg. 


0fltdi to say, 

(IT 53.1 

^ 3S 8* (a) In certain connections, ^d^/^ f^n*, and \^n are shortened, 
for the sake of vhacity, to VA ^') ^nd JT * thus, jft S* t^'^^, mnd /, Ar. £q. 634 ; 
iV U, Mdd he, PI. Rep. 327 b, c; S, he qtake, A. 319; ««7, 4^i, «-«r, ^eu, 
hoy I I toy, boy! boy! Ar. Nub. 1145. (6) The 2 Pen. sing, of the Ptres. 
ind. is commonly written ^^t, as if contracted from ^m/#. For t^ntrfia, m 
the Imp., see § 182. (c) To the forms in the table, may be added the Ep. 
Pres. M. PI. 2 ^«r^i x. 562, Imp. ^Ao «•• 168, ^r^A» v. 100, ^cM I. 422 
{Inf. ipiviett A. 187, -^Isch. Pors. 700); Pf. P. S. 3 wi^mrm Ap. Bh. I. 
088, Fart «ii^«#/<$i«f, H. 1?7. 

Ifjfih to send, 

[ff 64.J 

^ 839* (a) Many of the forms of this verb occur only in compooi* 
tion. (b) Of the contract forms ««« and ItTtn (for 7«-»ri, il^n, §58), the 
former is preferred in the Attic, and the latter in the Ionic, (c) T^e Impf. 
form hiv, which occurs only in composition (v^^mv i. 88, rjfUiv PI. Euthyd. 
293 a), seems either to have come from h* (which is of doubtful occurrence) 
by precefsion^ or to have been formed after the analogy of lug, 7i/» or of th ) 
Plup. (d) For the Opt forms UifAWf and UfAn*, the latter of which can be 
employed only in composition, see § 226. 3« (e) In the diidect8> we find 
forms from the simpler themes ^ and tut * thus, Impf. Ivmp A. 273, Imp. 
IvM Theog. 1240, Pf. P. Part. ^v*»ri^w«# Hdt. v. 108 (§§ 69. a, 192. 3; 
cf fttfAihtxet, Anacr. Fr. 7S) ; Pr. avittrat Hdt. ii. 165. In the S. S. w« 
find ti<pu Mk. 1. 34, &^uf Rev. 2. 20, Pf, P. k^imvrm Mt 9. 2, 5. 

Elfd, to he. 


§ 330* In the Present and Imperfect of this verb, the 
radical syllable ^-, 

1.) Before a vowel ^ unites with H ; thus, {i-v<n^ iSatj § 58) 

2.) Before yi, becomes o (cf. §§ 203, 20^ ; thus, (t-vxg^ 
O'vrgy § 109) wv. Imp. {e-vrnv) ovrnv (less used than tie other 
forms, PI. Leg. 879 b). 

3.) In other csises, is lengthened^ as follows. 

«.) It becomes u* m the forms i^ iT#, iT, JtM (cf. §§ SI 8. A, 224. £)• 
The form iT, both here and in ^ 56, is either shortened from Jf (which ia iMft 
used by the Attics), or is a middle form employed in its stead. 

fi.) In the remaining forms of the Pres., it assumes «• (comparo § 221) ; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

GH. 9.J COMPLBTE T£lf«E8. 203 

thxm, l-r-/ftl», l-r-rl, l-e-^if, l-rMw, t-f-^m^mtf Uw-rmv (§213. N.). After 
the r, the r in the 3d Pers. smg. is retained ; thus, i-r-r/. Before the #, i in 
tiie 2d Pers. smg. of the Imperative becomes ibj precession (cf. $ 118); 
thns, 7-^ti, 

y.) In the Impf. it becomes n, and may likewise assume r before r ; thns, 
h, ^r% or rather ^-r-n. The Old-AU. f&rm of the 1st Pers. ^ {Ai, Av. 1 363), 
and the Sd Pers. jr»» appear to have been contracted from ^m, and Hit (cf. $ 1 79, 
fiOl. N., SIl. N.). For il^U, see § 182. The middU form 4/»*f» is little 
nsed bf the more classic wiitan (pyr* vL 1. 9). Hm Imp. iir«, which foDowi 
the analogy of the Impf., occurs but once ia the classic writers (PI. Rep. 
36 1 c), and is there doubtfuL 

Remarks, a. In the Put., ha^ead of U%rtuy the Attics always use the 
Kudt form Urm. 

b. Some regard the root of this verb as being U-, and adduce in support of 
this view, the Lat. (e»mn) smm, «t, mi, (e)giimu$t mim, (e)timt, tmd tbi dan- 
acrit u$mi» tuL oitL &o» 

ElfUj to go. 

[If 66.] 

^ 33 1* (a) The Pres. of iT/m has commonly in the Ind., and some- 
times hi the ottier modes, the socise of the Fnt. (§ 200. b) ; tiius, itui, (/ am 
fomg) I w^ go, {b) For fuf, in the Plup., the commion Attic form was fm^ 
which appears to be a remnant of the old formation noticed in § 203. K. ' A 
Perf. sTk, oorrespon(fing to this Plup., nowhere appears, and some regard Hu* 
(omitting the < subec.) as an Impf. doubly augmented (^ 1 89). For the use 
of this tense, see § 233. (c) For Jm^ and Uinr, see § 205 ; for 7fwf, § 213. 
K. ; for avAi, iiif, and iitratf, § 208. 2 ; for fuf^m, ^ 182 ; for jfm in the 
Sd Persn § 21 1. N. ; for f^it, fri, &a, ^ 237. {d) The middle fomu U/Mtt, 
liftnf are regarded by seme of the best critics as incorrectly written for IiJimm, 
iifAn*, from 1n(u (^ 54). 

Kfifiaiy to lie down, 
% 333* (a) This verb appears to be contracted from »(i/mm, a de- 
ponent inflected like rfitfuu (5 50) ; thus, »««/mm mT/mm, mUfrm t$t!frmt, sito 
jmT^'*, nUtrtm tuSfitUi Miftt^t »»/|^ 9H • l»9if$m Uttiftn* • mtifcfcm »%i^fuu% 
In the Subj. and Opt. the contraction is commonly omitted ; thusi «U^mm, 
(Ec 8. 19, xtM^irv, iy. I. 16, like rtfUfuu (also accented riitfAm) and rtfio'f 
ftnt * yet «irr«4 (also written MtiTot), for »ifi«-M, T. 32, /3. 102. (6) The 
Subj. sometimes retains the form of the Ind. (§ 177) ; as, Subj. ^sdrnttfuu PI. 
Ph»do, 84 e. (c) We find the following forms in the dialects, some of which 
bare the shorter root »i- : Pres. S. 2 Mt7»t Hom. Merc 254, S. 3 mUrat Hdt 
iri. 139, PL S ziatrat X. 510, »ti»Ttu H. 527, s(««-«i A. 659, Hdt i. 14; 
Impf. PL 3 Uumrt Ap. Rh. 4. 1295, »f/«r« f. 418, !»(««« Hdt. L 167, mUr* 
K. 763 ; Fut. »w%vfutt Theoe. 3. 53 (§ 200. 3); old Pres. as Fut (§ 200. b) 
AIM, n. 342, Mtiat r* 340. (d) Some of the best grammarians regard MtTfmt 
as a Perfl having the sense of the Pres. (§ 233). 

D. CJoMPLBTE Tenses. 
^333* I. Id some verbs, the sense of the complete 


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tenses, by a natural transition (see S3mtax), passes into that of 
other tenses ; and the Perfect becomes, in signification, a 
Present ; the Pluperfect, an Imperfect^ or Aorist ; and the 
Future Perfect, a common Future. Thus, loirifii (51 48), to 
station^ Pf. l<jTi?xa, (/ have stationed myself) I standi Plup. iari; 
xfir, I stood^ F. Pf. l<rri}3o>, I shall stand ; fiifivrioxtay to remind, 
Pf. P. fjiifivtifiai^ {I have been reminded) I remember ^ Plup. i?/i«- 
/ifif/iiyy, J remembered^ F. Pf. fie/Ari^oofiai, I shall remember ; 
Plup. ^^sii' (fl 56), Jt(>en«. 

Remark. In a few of these verbs, ihe Pres. is not nsed, and the Pbrf. is 
regarded as the theme. Such verbs, as having a preterite tense for the theme, 
are termed PBETBRmvB. See ^^ 58, 59. 

§ 984. II. Modes. 1. The Perfect Subjunctive and 
Optative are commonly supplied by the Participle with the 
auxiliary verb tifii (fl 55, ^ 169. /?) ; thus, Pf. Act. Sulj. /Jc- 
SovUvntag co. Opt. fliSovXBVxwg tifjv ' Pf. P. Subj. (itSovUvfiivog cJ, 
Opt, fii6ovX$vfiivog etfiv, 

Rbmabks. «. Sometimes, however, the Perf. /bmu these modes according 
to the general roles (§ § 204, 205, &c.), chiefly when it is employed as a 
Pre$.; as, imf««, vi. 5, 10, Irw, PL Gorg. 468 b, Wrmifif, T. 101 (^ 48), 
^iTthin* (§ 205. «), hVm (5 58), Rep. Ath. 1. II ; tlXtt^mrn PL Pot 
269 c, 9%9rm»9i V. 7. 26, /3i€>j(«0ii» Th. ii. 48, vtivrtnxM Id. viii. 108. 

/3. In the Perf. pas$.y these modes are formed in only a few pure verbe, 
and in these without a fixed analogy ; thos, 

»«Xi«, to call I Pf. P. MxXnfMth J Aow ^««> eaBed, I am named. Opt. 
(xixXffUfHii) Mixk^/Aiivt »i»kif Soph. Ph. 1 1 9, xi»Xifrtt &c. 

xT^t/iatf to acquire; Pf. xixTfifMu, I have acquired^ I possess^ Subj. (xixrc- 
u-ftmt) xtxrHfAMif xtxrpf xiXTnrmt Symp. 1.8; Opt. {xtxTti-i-fcnv) xixrfftnPy 
xfxrt)«, xixryr* PI. L^. 731 C, or {xtxreft^fim) xixrifftnt, »i»r^«, xixrur* 
Ages. 9. 7. 

ftifinifuu (§ 23.3), Subf. ^i^n^/mm, PL Phil. 31 Ay •Opt. i^t^t^fAnt H. 74.5, 
fMfttnrt Ax, Vint, 991, w ^i^v^^jfn, ftt/t.vf» (or /t.i/t9M») L 7. 5, /ttfi^Sre 
Cyr. L 6. 3. 

For xitnfun, see If 59. Add 5^;. fitCxMt Andoo. 22. 41, rtr^ff##tf» PL 
Rep. 564 c ; 0/)<. XfX?T# r. 238 (cf. § 2'26. 4). 

§ 333. 2. The Perfect, in its proper sense^ may have the 
imperative in the Sd Pers. pass. ; but, otherwise, this mode 
belongs only to those Perfects which have the serise of the 
Pre^. ; and, even in these, the Imperative active is scarcely 
found except in the nude form of the 2d Perf (§§ 237, 238) ; 
yet nvatyf^ xexgd/tte (§ 238. /J), yfyavs Eur. Or. 1220, /Jctfij- 
x«Tw Luc. de Hist. Scrib. 45, ioixhm lb. 49. • 

§ 336. in. Vowel Changes. The affi.xes in -a, -nn of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

CH. 9.] COMPLBTfi TENSES. 206 

the Second Perfect and Pluperfect are annexed with the 
following changes in the preceding syllable. 

1.) e becomes o, and n becomes ot ; as, fisva, to remain^ 
2 Pf. fiifiora * diyxofiai^ to 566, poet, dsdoQxa ' X$inoty IsXoma 
(fl 37) ; n$l&a, ninoida (U 39). 

Notes, (a) The same changes take place in the Ist Perf. and Flap, 
of a few verbs ; as, «Xi«'r«», to steai^ »i»Xo^a • rfivfj to *«m, rir^o^a • vifA* 
«r«, to send, vmfi^m • 'hiluxct (^ 58). (6) Analogous to the change of i 
into «, is that of n into •$ in fytyvvfju, to break, 2 Pf. iffttyet. (c) In the fol- 
lowing Perfects, there appears to be an inseition of # or •» (§ *22i>. fi) : &yat, 
to lead, ayn»x» (^ 191. 2), Dem. 239. 1. Uft»t, to eat, iUlojKt, iv. 8. 20 (Ep. 
Pf. P. iJ«3«^«i, X' 56), «W« (r. U'\tobewont, preteritive, o'!x»'*» (§ 22i :J). 
{d) In the following dialectic forms, the change or insertion of vowels has 
extended to the patthe : it^ittvrttt (§ 229. e) ; it^v y. 272, Theoc. 24. 43, 
for Ht^Tt or if^Ttf, Phip. S. 3 of ai/(*> or «?'(«», to raUe; inix'^To li. 340, Plup. 
PI. 3 of Uix" ' i^^'>/*»t (N. c). 

2.) Short o, I, or u, before a single consonant^ is lengthened 
(a, not preceded by e or ^, § 29, becoming jj) ; as, (puiro)^ ns- 
<pi?i'« (H 42 ; r. (pav-) ; ^dUo), <o bloom^ Tt^i^ka • ayvifii (r. «/-), 
to breaky %uya * x^a^ai, nixqaya (^ 238. /?) ; xcx^(/nr (r. x^(/ ), 
to creaky pret. ; fivxtiofiai (r. ^vx-), to bellow^ fiifivxa. 

Exceptions. After the Attic rednplication, the short vowel remains ; as, 
KiiXvlai (§ 191. S). In xirjKw (r. Xcx-), to Mmiu^, « is not changed into ir 
in the Att ; thos, 2 Pf. x.ix£»a, Ar. Ach. 410 (XtXuxo, X. 141). 

§98 7. IV. Nude Forms. In the Second Perfect and 
Pluperfect, the connecting vowel is sometimes omitted in the 
Indicative plural and dual (^ 186). When this omission takes 
place, (a) the Ind. sing, is commonly supplied by forms from 
a longer base (cf. § 201. N.); which forms likewise occur in 
the plural and diudy but less frequently ; (b) the Subj., Opt., 
Imp., and Inf. are formed after the analogy of verbs in -/i* ; 
(c) the Part, is contracted, if the characteristic is a or o. 

Pf. Ind. Sing. Urtixm (^ 48 ; r. ^rm-, base l^r«-, prolonged to lrri»»-, 
§ 186), Uni»»frt^rfixt, PL trTd-fAiv PI Gorg. 468 b, and rarely Urii»a^iv, 
t^ri^t, (trr«-fri, Xrra'ttet^ § 58) \0rei01 (i^rnxtfri A. 434) ; Subj. (Ivra-J) 
UrZ, and Iff-nix** • Opt Irvainv (poet.) ; Imp. Uri-ft (poet) Ar. Av. 206 ; 
Inf. Wrifms iv. 7. 9 ; Part Ep. Irra-tif, -irot T. 79 (also Urnt^s Hes. Th. 
519), commonly oontr. Xwrif (^ '22. 8) i. 3. 2, (lrT«-fl-<rr«) i^r«lr«, (Itf-rae- 
«-f) \rrt»t and sometimes, by syncope, \»rcs PL Parm. 146 a, Ion. \9Tu*i 
(§ 48. 1), .^r«f Hdt li. 38 ; also UrmUts PL Meno, 93 d. Plup. Sing, i^rn- 
»tn or iiVnfJKiif, -ij#, -i/, P/. t^ru-fttf, t^rA-rt, X^rA-trat L 5. 1 3 (irTi{»ir«» 
Cyr. Tiii. 8. 9). 

i^rxM, to die (r. ^«»-, ^»«-, § 64), Pf. Ind. ^injr. ti^»»j»« (base n^v«-, 
ri^vn*.), ^f, -I, FL riitm/itt PL Gorg. 492 e, rifpari, rtfvin It. 2. 17, />«. 
ri#»«r«» iv. 1. 19 ; Suhj. rt^9n»»t, Th. viii. 74 ; Opt. rt^tminf, Cyr. iv. 8. 3 ; 



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Imp. rUfm^i X. 865, rt0*dTt0 PI. Leg. 933 e, &o. j Inf n^Straw Mem. i. % 
16, Ttivfixitat Soph. Aj 474, and Poet. (Tf^i»«-«.i'ai) Ttfititai JEach. Ag. 539 
Part, ri^mw (fern. J. 734), r%hS.-vt^ Find. Nem. lO. J 39, commonly contr., 
with « inaerted (cf. §§ 3«, 4^. l)» n^M^^. -i5#«, '«;i or .«^ vii. 4. 19, r. 331, 
£p. rt^yiMvi or ri^»ii4v^, ^r^f or -«<rtff, «. 289» P. 435. Plup. Sing. IrtStfi' 
muff 'USt '*h ^^' ififvttf***, 'Ti, -r«y H. Gh% tL 4* 16. 

PC Ind. Sing. m*iM Cyr. i. 4. 12, and )i^i« Soph. (Ed. G. 1469 (^ 58 , 
base ^1^/-, hhtK'), Vthsxmf and ^i^Mf , ^Hmxi and ^t^n • Fl ^/^it Th. liL 53, 
^i^ri, ()i)<y0-i» § 58) ^i^ari PL ApoL 29 a ; Stibj. Witt • Imp. ^<^/^i Ar. 
"^esp. 373 ; Inf. ^i^atM (§ 208. 3) Rep. Ath. 1. 11, and h'^otxiyat Eur. Sup. 
548 ; Part, h'^mt PI. Prot. 320 a (contr. or sync. h/^uTat Ap. Rh. 3. 753), 
and WMKsit Eur. Ion, 624. Plup. Sing. ihhtMuv PL Charm. 175 a, and 
*MUn, 'Utt 'U • PL *%iiiifAt9y Ui^iri, iititfat PL Leg. 685 C (Ui^MSf^Av ilL 
5. 18). 

Pf. Ind. Sing. <31« (^ 58 ; base 1*^, «j'^), «?r^a (for «n-r^«, § 182 ; «!)«» 
scarot occurs m the Att, yet Eur. Ale. 780 ; the Att. poets, by a mingling 
of forms, sometimes use •tv^ms Eur. Ion, 999), «Di • PL (T^^iv, § 53) 7rp*f 
ii. 4. 6, (7^«-i, § 52) /rrf, (^^vr/, the I becoming f in imitation of the other 
persons) Udirt, and rarely •t^fA%t PL Ale. 141 e, tfT^n, •Tim^f Imp. (T^^j) 
7^^4 ii. 1. 13. Plup. Sing. Hiuf, PL fhifitt. Sec, and poet, (^/km) ftrfut Eur. 
Hec 1112, (p-rt) fim, (^W«f) fr«y .£sch. Prom. 451. 

Plup. Sing, fkt* (^ 56), ^lif, jIm, i% jfttftn, -n, commonly ^» PL Bepw 
328 b, frt vii. 7. 6, ^trjM Cyr. iv. 5. 55, sometimes Ion. J^ttv r. 445, Hdt. 
ii. 163. 

§ S3 8. In the following examples, the nude forms are 
chiefly poetic, and, in part, Epic only. 

«. PXTRE. &^i9Tm»t, to dine ; Pf. PL I fi^UvUfut Ar. Fr. 428, Lsf. H^t^ttm 
Ath. 423 a. In imitation of these comic forms, we find also, from iuw/ut, te 
tup, tthi99&/Ai9 and hhivviimi Ath. 422 e, Ar. Fr. 243. 

fietifntf to go; Pf. (iiCtixei. (r. (itt-), 2 Pf PL poet. ^iCetfAttf ^iZari, (itCadn 
B. 134, 3«f«(fi» Soph. El. 1386 ; Subj. PL 3 ^if«/i PI. Fhaedr. 252 e ; Inf. 
^iZivai Eur. Heracl. 610, Hdt. iii. 146 , Part Ep. jStfo^f, -!/?«, -«^«f, E. 
199. n. 81, Att. contr. ^if«#, -*!#«, -M^r^f, Soph. Ant. 67, 996, (Ed. C. 314, 
H. Gr. vii. 2. 3, PL Phcdr. 254 b. 2 Hup. PL ICifa^t*, -An, -<r#«f B. 720. 

^t^^^trxm, toMti XVt /3iCe«'«« (r. f^*-), 2 Pt Part {^^t-^i) ^S^, 
'Sroe, Soph. Ant 1022. 

yiyvafiect (r. y«-, yi»-, yiyt-), to become ; 2 Pf. tyiyovu, poet iV. 2 ytyauiTt 
(Ep. for yiy&Ti) Horn. Batr. 143, 3 ^ty^^tf'/v A. 41 ; Inf. yiyeifiiv (Ep. 
for yiy«i»aM) E. 248 ; Part Ep. ytyMf, -u7et, -tirot, V. 1&9, I. 456, Att 
contr. yiyMti -»i(rat, -ttrcft Eur. Ale 532, 677. Plup. Du. 3 yiytirny ». I .^8 

(AifMvet (r. ftM', Miv-, § 236. \), to be eager, pret, E. 482, f*ifA4vets iEsch. 
Sept 686, ftifAon Soph. Tr. 982, PL /«t/««^i» I. 641, /tM/*«rt H. 160, fu- 
fieimft R. 208, Du. fiiftavot 0. 413 ; Imp. S. 3 /itfAirat A. 304 ; Part /m* 
fn&mi 'vTm, 'tHroi, A. 40, 440, 0. 118, and fitueUigy 'irtf, II. 754, B 
818. Plup. PL 3 fii/ui^m9 B. 863. 

Ttvrtf, to fall; 1 Pf. vivrtxet (r. «•«-, <rT#-) ; 2 Pf. Part.Ep. «^irri«f 
'£rt, O. 503, and ^t^rrfms, •!/;«, -ir^j and -«r#f, ». 98, Ap. Rh. 2. 832 
Att contr. «r««rrjwf, -«rr«f, Soph. Ant 697, 1018. 

rirX»»»« (r. TX4i-), to Acer, pret, P/. rtrXm^it y. 311 ; Imp. rirXmii A. 


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01... 9.] €OK?LKT£ XETiSfiS. S67 

586 ; Inf. TgrXafAtf (Ep. for rtrkdveu) y. 209; Part, rirkn^s^ -i/7«, -«m. 
w, 23, E. 873. 

/5. Impure. In the nnde, fonns of the fifst four verbs mentioned below, 
r passes mto h<t after the analogy either of the 2d Pers. sing., or of the 
•bJKtim iaflectioii. 

ivetyetf to commandy poet, preteritive, PL awy/Lnv Horn. Ap. 528 ; Imp. 
avetyi Eur. Or. 119, and &vti>x^t Id. Ale 1044, kvttyirv /3. 1 95, and (»iwy«-*>) 
l*ix^t0 A. 189, PL aviyirt >^. 132, mtatx^i Eur. Here. 241. 

K^ot^t, commonly 2 Pf Kin^&ytt, to cry; Imp. jtix^ax^t Ar. Yesp. 198, 
FZ. tcttt^ayirt lb. 4 1 5, and Jtkn^etx^i Ar. Ach. 335. 

• Syi/^w, 4t> rotMe; 2 Pf. iy^vyt^ • Imp. PZ. 2 Xy^v^yt^h 2. 299 ; Inf. i^^n*- 
yo^0at (as if from iy^vy^^fMu) K. 67. 

Teifx**t to suffer ; 2 Pf ir<T«v^«, -P/. 2 («r«<rflf^ri, «'ir0i>rri, § 52, wi^tvTi^ 

1 55) «'i«-»^^ r. 99, «. 465. 

fwjMB, to bt Wte, pret. (base uV, l«»-, §^ 191. 3, 236. l), PL trag. I«<y^» 
Soph. Aj. 1239, Du, Ep. i;«r#y J. 27, Plup. «f*rn» A. 104. 

hX'^f*^*^ *ocome; 2 Pf. lAiiXi/^a, Ep. PZ. 1 tlXnXwfifctv (§ 47. N.) 7. 81. 

v-ivM^M, to <nw^ (^ 39 ; base ff-iW-, wntui-, 9t9^t0-, § 236. 1 ) ; Im]L 
trag. irUuttt .^sch. Earn. 599 ; Plnp. Ep. PL 1 Iv-i^r/^^iy B. 341. 

^339* v. FxTTURE Perfect, or Third Future. The 
Put. Perf. unites the hose of the Perf. with the c^es of the 
tui, act. and mid. ; as, (laTi^x-ao), fl 48) I(jt^^, {y^yftafp-oofim^ 
\^ 36) yfyQoiipofim. 

Rehabks. 1. The Fat. F^. is scarcely found in Uquidjretha, or in verbs 
.eg^ning with a vowel (9np6^nfiau Find. Nem. 1. 104, tl^^a-aftMi, 5 ^8, Cyr. 
vii. i . 9), and is f^nent in those verbs only in which it has the seme of the 
eommon future (§ 233). 

2. (a) Of the Fut Perf act, l^e only examples in Attic prose are hrvniit 
and ri^vii^M, both formed from Perfects having the sense of the Pres., U»rn»» 
and ri^Mixa (§§ 233, 237), and both giving rise to middle forms of the same 
signification (§ 166. 2), Irni^fl^MM and rt^tn^tf^MB/. (b) Other examples of a 
reduplicated Fat. in the active voice are rtv^wtt Ar. Pax, 38 1 , and the Ep. 
itxetx,^^»»i Horn. Merc 286, Mtxniwmj p. 153, vtmHft X. 223, «i;^«^«^A», 
O. 98 (also »f;^«^ifr0^4, y^. 266), all fh)m verbs which have reduplicated 

2 Aorists (§ 1 94. 3). (c) Other examines of the Fut Perf. ndd, with the 
Perf. cui.f are xixXayy^ »%xXtiyl^»fMu Ar. Yesp. 930, xix^Myet, xtx^al«fuu 
Ar. Ran. 265, «i»ii^«, xtxainv^ftai, 0. 353. (d) An example of a redupli- 
«ated Fat mid. with a reduplicated 2 Aor. is vri^tinrtfAeuy 0. 215. 

§ 940. VI. The student will observe, in respect to the 
complete tenses, the following particulars, which are far more 
striking in the Act. than in the Pass, voice (§ 256) ; 1. their 
defective formation ; 2. the entire want of these tenses in many 
verbs ; 3. the comparative infrequency of their use ; and 4. their 
more frequent occurrence in the later than in the earlier 


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A, Contraction. 

§ S 411 • Forms which are contracted in the Att. (and which are alat 
commonly contracted in the Dor., but often with a different vowel of contrac- 
tion) mure frequently remain uncontracted in Ion. prose, while the Ep. has 
great freedom in the employment of either uncoiitractedy contracted^ or variously 
protracted forms. Here belong, Ontract Verbs in .«*>, -lar, and-«M (^ 216)^ 
the Uquid, Att., and Dor. Fut. (§ '200), the Aor. Pass. Sabj. (§ 199), the 
Subj. of Verbs m -fii (§ 226), and the 2d Pers. Sing, in -tu and -« (§ 210 
S). In these forms, the first vowel is either (I.) a, (II.) i or i}, or (UL) e^ 
Of these, i or fi is far the most frequently uncontracted. 

§ 343* I. TTte first vowd a. (a.) In the Ion., the « is commonly 
contracted or changed into i (§ 44. 2) ; and when » with an O vowel is con- 
tracted into «, i is often inserted (§48. 1, cf. § 35). Thus we find, as va- 
rious readings, i^mtTu^ i^iovrtf^ and a^Lvtrif, Hdt. i. 82, 99. So IttfSfAiw 
i. 120, ot^iofMt ii. 131, ;^(«(r^dM vii. 141, ;^(nr^aM ( SB. a) i. 47, ;^^ii«-^ai 
157, ix(iti*T» 53, x^it* (for ;^(««i') 155, ifAn^mviar» (for Iftn^atinrt^ one f 
dropped ; see §§ 243. 2, 248, /) y. 6'6 • Subj. of Verbs in -fu, ^wutfttim 
iv. 97, 2 Aor. srU^iv or xriAf^fv ;^. 216, for «r<uv^iy, contr. »T£fitt (see also 
b. below). 

Note. In the 2 Pers., the termination -m* commonly remains ; as, 1;^^* 
r«« Hdt. i. 117, Wlfrmt viL 209. 

(b.) In the Ep., protracted fbrms are ipade by doubling the vowel of con* 
traction, either in whole, or in part (i. e. by inserting one of its elements, or 
its corresponding short vowel, commonly « with *», and £ with «, § 48) ; and 
sometimes by prolonging a short vowel, particularly i used for « to n ; as, 
i^auty contr. 0^*1 r. 234, protracted i^itt E. 244, i^atit i^ig A. 202, i^mft 
H. 44^, i^ecMv i(£v E. 87-^, e^ot^v A. 350, i^cmvatt A. 9, i^ar^ai X. 156, 
i^matfffiat r. 107, i^ivn A. 347, avrioMretv A. 31, ««-;^«X«^ B. 2!)3, uv^xXm'. 
fv 297, ifAvaiovTo 686, ytkietvTK 9» 40, ytXtitvrts HI, aA.«M (Imp. for ayAoVj 
-«) f. 377 ; fA^eutvSxt «. 39, fAtvottmm N. 79 (/ui»«/»i«y M. 59), $^a^*i0'/ «. 324 ; 
%ftio4ftt 317, iiZm9t(M H. 157 {itZSfAi 13:^), {fnveito^ fitti^Vy fi*»i) fAVM» Ap. Rh. 
]. 896, »«<i<r««r>j F. 387 ; fAtfMvnria-i 0. 8', for fi-ttotvari, xi^otn I. 20:^ for 
si^ai* Att. Fut.'U««»r< N. 315, ii.'319, sXaay i. 290 (see § 200. 2); x^tfMi 
H. S3 *. 2 Aor. Subj. of Verbs in .^<, mi»jj P. 30, rrjtjj E. 598, ^rtUftt* O. 
297 (rTift»A*«» A. 348), ^Htt^t P. 95, ^Tii«T«» «•. 183; '/Si/*» Z. 113, for ^S 
(1 ^7), /3i)i} I. 501, fit/»fAtt K. 97 {^iufittt Udt. vii. 50. 2). 

Notes. I . « is not prefixed, when the flexible ending begins with r ; as 
in «(«-«-i, ifi-rat. Yet "i&reti Hes. Sc 101, for irat (« being resolved into 
«i, § 29). 

2. We also find in Ion. prose, in imitation of the Ep., xofAi»t^i Hdt. iv. 191t 
ny^^iatw vi. 1 1. So Dor. xoft^tttrt Theoc 4. 57. 

(c.) The Dor. sometimes contracts « with an O sound following into £ 
and commonly a with an E sound following into n {h 45. 1,4); as, vtivivn 
Theoc 15, 148, ^i«<r««y«^«f Ar. Ach. 751 ; 1 Aor. Sing, 2 Wmla Theoc. 4 
28, for iT*i^««, ^, H^m. Ar. Ach. 913; roXft^s Theoc. 5. 35, X^i 64, o^nn 1 10 
r«y«» Ar. Ach. 778, \^»trn 800. The latter contraction appears in some Ion 
prose-writers (as Hipp. ; so ^vfunrm Hdt iv. 75) ; and in the Ep. ifim I 


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S43 (written hy tamit t^m, as if from If^/u^, and in the Dn. forms, «*£«#•» 
hiTti9 A. 136, ^vXtlrn* N. 202, etnmfrnrnf «*• 333, ^mthVhv M. 266. 

§ 343*- II. The JirU vowd % or n, (a.) In Ion. prose, contraction 
m commonlj omitted, except as m and too often become %v \ as, tm/« Hdt. i. 
88, iTMUf 39, l«'«/ft 22, v^itifUff 78, w'Mftf/cciftff 68, w-Mivn 131, v^tttufjtm- 
i^tvfitfos ix. 1 1 ; Fat. rtiftmtim lb. i. 75, »t^)cf luf 35, l^utf 5 ; Aor. Subj 
mrat(i0ii0 lb. ill 65, f«v/A»#4 i. 41, ^Urrj iv. 71 (see § 226. l) ; 2 Pers. fitu. 
XtMSy rtuiitat lb. L 90, iyiM* 35, Utu vii. 209. 

Notes. 1. In like manner, t«, used for «• (§ 242. a), may become v ; as, 
•i^Tivf Hdt. iu. 140, tl^mnvfrmt 62 (ii^ArruvvTM v. 13). So in the Dor., 
^urtvf X^AOC i. 81, TtXivvri 90^ fbr ytk^ptrt, &C 

2. If If is followed by another distinct vowel, one t is often dropped ; afl^ 
faCimt, ptCU Hdt. vii. 52 (f tfCiv i. 9), for poCiuu, poZuo, So Ep. Uxi« fl, 
202, flrjwxtt or ff-A^xUi ^ 8 1 1 . A similar omission of • appears in dt»*Mtu 
Theog. 73. 

3. After thto analogy of the contract Pres., the Ion. extends the 2 Aor. Inf. 
in 'ii9, as if formed by contraction, to -tuf ; as, tiiup, vu^iu* Hdt i. 32, ^v. 
yiu9 1, B. 393 {(pvyiTv 401), Wtiiw A. 363. 

4. The Ion. oft^i renders impure verbs pure, by the insertion of its favorite 
• (§ 48. 1) ; as, ^u/*CeiXXMfit94f (cf. ^intCtikXiro) Hdt. L 6S, lyi/;^if 118, «yi«. 
fiU9§f iiL 14, itivtioua-s 98. 

(b.) The Ep. conmionly omits contraction if the last vowel is *», ^, m, or tv 
(^except in the Aor. pass, snbj., and in the Perf. subj. tii£) ; but otherwise 
employs or omits it according to the metre (i«, when contracted, becoming tv ; 
yet tvo^avf A. 308, etn^ fibroin v. 78). Synizesis is frequent when i pre- 
cedes a long O vowel, and sometimes occurs in 101*, and even in tat. The Ep., 
also, often protracts t to li, and sometimes doubles the vowel of contraction 4. 
Thos, ^iXtM ; 305 (yet pXoln \ 692, and ^•^•in «. 320), ptXi^/itf 4, 42, 0/»tM- 
r* A. 18, 9tt(fifi£/itf X. 381, tiiS A. 515, tt^Ut w, 236 ; (ptXu B. 197, p. 
Xiu I. 342, 7/^11 P. 86, Vfftt N. 539, U^ r. 254, Utctt A. 563, Utrteu 2. 95, 
IrriM Z' 33, ytmrtm B. 367, ^viwrf 365 ; ftuitlat i. 1 80 (jAvfictt or /cu/^iif 
/3. 202, § 243. a. 2), m7«< X. 114, for fAvfttai, »»mm • frXi^ X. 281, Wxt» 

Y. 69, f^«C" ^ ^^0» ^e*?**' ^* 395, MXfv A. 477, ««Xt«f ^. 550, xaXtutv 
B. 684; viixiitf A. 359, WtXtitr* A. 5, i^tiefttv 62, }^i/0 A. 61 1, tf-frirtf K. 
285 , Aor. Pass. Subj. ^m/ntiat ^. 54, ^a/uiiin r. 4.S6, ia/tnif X. 246, )aA«S''*«^ 
H. 7V ; 2 Aor. Subj. of Verbs in -^, :^i/« FT. 83 (;»«•» Hdt. i 108 ., Si/jw 
». 341^ i^f/^ 301, «»i)^ B. 34, S^iAf^iv ar. 485, :^i«Vif A. 143, ;^i/d^ai 2. 409. 

REiiABKS. «. Some varieties of the Dor. change t» into t« or la^ and tm 
into i«; as, fMy'f^ts Ax, Lya. 1002, ifum^ttm 183, ftr«iv/«f 198, for ^yu^tv, 
-tfv^iy, if»»ufAt0»f i^mttSt 

fi. The later Dor., frt>m the influence of analogy (§§ 44. 1, 248. d), hai 
sometimes m for n, in verbs in -U ; as, pXM^S Theoc. S. 19, )«#«# 5. 118 
80. Aor. Pass. Irv^Af Id. 4. 53. 


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^ 844« ni. The ftrtt wmd «* (a.) fieratiSe loitv and T>«r. vidatSkf 
employ contraction, following the ooromen rultt, exeepi ttuU tbe Ion. some* 
times uses %u for ou, and the Dor. m and w for «v and «* (§^ 44. 4, 45. 3) ; as, 
^txtuivtrt Hdt. i. 133, l^jaMc/it/v vi. 1.5, »lM%twvrai i. 4, rrt^itytt/iKraM tUI. 59; 
vTvftly Ar. Lys. 143, /MirrfyZt Epich. 19 (1). The Dor. « is likewise iiee4 
by other dialects in fHyojm, to be cold, and in the Ion. li^iw, to awe&t ; as, ftyHv 
Ar. Yeip. 446 (^/yflv* Cyr. v. 1. 11), ^tyf PI. Gorg. 517 d ; j\»i<rmi A. 598. 

(b.) The £p. sometimes protracts the to *», and sometimes employs tho 
combination mw after the analogy of verbs in -ii*> ; as, t^^mavra, 2. 372, t^^at. 
MW« A. 119, y^nvtfrat 1. 48 ; msimm *, 108, ^7imr9 N.675, ^0^*1'^. 2\16\ 
2 Aor. Subj. of Verbs in -fn, y^m ^118, kh^tt A. 405, latif ft. 216, Im^n^ 
A. 324 (^fri 129), l^^f^u H. 299 (^a*«v "F. 537), ^ii^iy A. 137. 

B. Tknsb-Sions. 

^ 94:4B« 1. In verbs in .^«r, the Dor. commonly employs | for 0-, in 
the Put and Aor. ; as, xaftlat Theoc. I. 12, for xai'tcatt from xet^i^m, x'^i'^ 
5. 71, ixafn^ttv Find. N. 2. 31. This change appears also in a few o^er 
verbs in which short « precedes; as, y%Xa^as Theoc. 7. 42, l^^a^a 2. 115, 
from ytkeiv (§ 219. «), pieipw (§ 278). Similar forms sometimes occur in 
other poets besides the Dor., for the sake of the metre ; as, ^^tn^tldfttv* 
Mach, Sup. 39, iXj^tt Ar. Lys. 380, U^Xi^cj (^Xvm) Ap. Rh. I. 275. 

2. In the Put act and mid., the Dor. commonly adds to the tense^sign 1, 
which is then contracted with the connecting vowel ; as, (f 0-i*») f^Z Theoc 
1. 145, {ftritfuu, § 45. 3) f^tvfuu 3. 38, wtmtrtTt .3. 9, &lp I. 11, «r4^^/^l7 6. 
81, hliurmt Call Lav. 116, y^vXKt^Trt Ar. Ach. 746, wtt^mrtt^h 743, for 
^«, fW0fuu^ &c See $ 200. S. 

3. The Ep. employs the Att Fat (§ 200. 2), both uneoniracted, contracted, 
and protracted; and has also other examples of the Fut with «* dropped (or 
df the Pres. used as Fut) ; as, ifou A. 365, l^vov^s 454, ;^ii;a» /3. 2-22. Sd 
i»yiym»9rtu (from Pf. base ytym», see §§ 238. «, 239. c) Horn. Yen. 198. 

4. The formation of the I Aor. withont r is extended, (a) in th6 Ion. and 
poet language, to a very fow liquids, in which the characteristic is preceded 
by a diphthong (cf. § 222. 2), or by another consonant; thus, itvrw^f A* 
mSy Jt9rnv(M .£0dL Ptom. 28, l^av^dftn* Hipp., tS^mr* Ap. Bh. 4. 1I33» 
w^^mtv Hipp. L 80 : (6) in the Alex, and Hellenist dialects, to A number of 
verbs which in the dassie Greek employ the 2 Aor. ; as, Mmr% Mt 35. 36, 
m9itXmr» Acts 7. 21. 

5. For the doubling of r by the poets, especially the Ep., to make a short 
vowel bng by position (jMiXirrtr« A. 54, tfttwtrn 76, Ix^w^trnt 147), See § 71. 
For Ep. examples of r retained in liquid verbs, see § 56, &, In jf (xxm» H 
651, ^. 334, the X is doubled to compensate for the loss (f the r. 


^ 346* 1. For -««. eoMfMcdve, the Dor. and .£ol. sometimes employ 
n- (§ 44. 4); as, UiXnr^a Theoo. 29. 4, for i^iXi«f, iv^«» 11. 4, for tv^i7v, 
&yfi9 Sapph. 1. 19. For the Dor. forms in -tf and -ly, see $ 183. N. 

2. The Dor. and .£ol. sometimes give to the Perf. the connectmg vowd of 
the Pros. (§ 185), especially m the Inf. ; as, hhixst Theoc 15. 58, for ^«i» 
•a, w*9-09^nf 10. 1 (see 1. above), ivai<rii 5. 7, ^%9»i$u 5. 28; lof. %^%t»m 


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CH. 9.] DULBJTIC FORMb. 211 

1. 102» ytySiMu* Find. O. 6. 81), rt^fcmi* Sapph. S. 15; Part. •i^.X^avrcf 
Find. P. 4. 318, rtp^»*9Tiit 325. Instances likewise occur in the £p. of the 
Peif. passing over into the form of the Pres., and of the Plop, into that of 
tiie Impf. ; as, »$»kny»9Ttti M. 1 25, if^ytvrt Hes. Sc. 228 ; I^i^hxm* i. 439, 
irip9M0f Hes. Th. 152. 

KoTB. In this way new verbs arose, not confined to the £p. ; as, from 
ifitytti kftiytt, vo order, O. 43, A. 287, Hdt. vii. 104, Impf. iif0yf I. 578 
{i^atyft H. 394), F. avj»^ «-. 404, A. Htmltt, Hes. Sc 479 ; from «fXi»«, 
«Xi»«, to destroy f 2. 17^, A. 10, Soph. Ant. 1286 ; from yiy^fttf yiyinat 
and yi9<«viVxA», to cry aloud, 

3. In the Snbjnnctive, the Ep. often retains the old short connective 
(§ 177), for the sake of the metre; ba^ ityii^ofAiv A, 142, ttfttty \yu^9fi,tt 
B. 440, ^tifAi0ta. H, 87, ^^itreu T. 173, ii^«^i» A. 363, tfittt 0. 18. 

4. In the following poet chiefly Ep. forms, the connecting vowel is omitted : 

•.) Of Pure Verbs. «yvAr, to accomplish; Impf. HvOr* «. 243, '£»£«-• 
Theoc 2. 92, "ifefitg 7. 10. 

i^vM, Ion. and Poet, si^v^t, to draw. Mid. to draw to one^s sdf, to protect ; Act 
Inf. i/^v^iMii Hes. Op. 816; &Iid. t^Dras Ap. Kh. 1208, ti^tarat A. 239, 
iciif* X. 507, if^5r« A. 138, gt^iir^ 11. 542, t^vvro Theoc. 25. 76, «7^i/»Ttf M. 
454, t^ufPat i. 484, il^vf^ttt yj,, 82 ; Pass. ?^t/r« Hes. Th. 301 ; fh)m the 
shorter ^ueftmt, iffvr* Soph. (Ed. T. 1352, ftetT« 2. 515, /v0'^a< 0. 141 ; Iter. 
fvwxiu ft. 730. 

nuft to thake, wivrtu Soph. Tr. 645^ 

frtvrmt, he tahee his stand, purposes, F. 83, ^Ttvfrmi JEach. Pen. 49, mv«« 
B. 597, X. 583. 

rmvvm, to stretch ; raiSreu P. 393. 

/L) Of Impure Verbs. n«, ocanm. Itrfm, to satf hd, O/umw A. S45. 

XfiVw, to leave; Impf. Ixi/vr* Ap. Rh. 1. 45. 

rl^ to lay waste. Inf. Pass. («'i^.#/ai, § 60) w-S^^m IL 708. 

fi(t, to bear; Imp. pi^t L 171. 

fuki^wm, to woateh (r. ^i;X«».) ; Imp. ir^«^vX«;^^f (c£ $ 288. /3) Horn. 
Ap. 538. 

Z>. Flexxbuk Endings. 

% 347. a. 2<i Perf. ^n^ (a) For the ibnn ^«, see § 182. H. 
(h) For nnoontraeted, rarioosly contracted, and protracted objective fcHins, 
■ee § 243. (c) The Ep. sometimes drops r m the Perf. and Plop. pass. ; as, 
(Ai/t^nm <t. 442, contr. ftiftfif 0. 18, Theoc 21. 41, ^iCXnm E. 284, U^v 
n. 585. (^ On the other hand, in the S. S., we find «■ retained in some 
fo&tract ibrms, and in the Presents having the sense of the Fat 9'U/tm, ^my- 
/MM* thni, {ftmyx^ms) Mm»x»^»» Bom. 2. 17, HmMtu Lk. 16. 25, ir/irou. 
p£ywm Id. 17. 8. 

b. lie Ptrs. PUamd Du. The Dor. nses -/Mf for .^t (§ 70. 3) ; as, ^i. 
hixofut Theoc I. 16, tSi^fMi 2. 25. For the endings .^r^« and .^t^0y, 
see ^ 212. 

^ 948. c Sd Fers. PL (a) For the Dor. .m-i, see § 181. «. 
^6) The iEoL oses -wtj for .mi#4, and -Mt^t for -d^t (^ 45. 5) ; as, »^r«iri 


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Ale. 7 (t), rr^^Mr/ Find, P. 9. 1 10, fair/ Sipph. 35 (88). (c) In the Alex-" 
andrine Gre^ we find -at for -m^t of the Perf., and -omv for -«» of the Ini|}f. 
as, vi^^Txav Lye 252, l^y^xay St. Jn. 17. 7 (SO j«^7«i» Horn. Batr. 179) 
U^ei^offuv Lyc. 21, Ma^at LXX. Ps. 79. 1, «J«X«aw<r«» Rom. 3. 13. So, in 
the Opt., i7vif»9 Ps. 35. SSf vomveti^ett Deut. 1. 44, for iItmiv, <r»tnrtM9 
{d) Rare instances occur in the poets of -art in the Perf. with a short penult 
(cf. § 45. 5) ; thus the old reading Xt\cyx^^** A.. 304, nvivKxvn Antim 

(e) In the nude Impf. and 2 Aor., and in the Aor. pass., the £p. and Dor. 
often retain the older ending -» (§ 181. y) ; as, la-r** A. 535, Pind. P. 4. 
240 (frrD<r«« N. 488), ?•» M. S3, Pmd. I. 1. 34, n'Mt Id. P. 3. 114, H/^v 
Horn. Cer. 437, ty*»t Pind. P. 4. 214, and lytot* lb. 9. 137, l(pSt i. 481, 
Pind. P. 1. 82, ^yi^iv A. 57, rg«^i» 251, (pimtht 200, Mosch. 2. 33, i^/x«- 
ht Theoc. 7. 60, ^«»iv Pind. 0. 10. 101. So, in imitation of the Ep., 1x0. 
^i^^ff Ar. Pax, 1283, U^v(pht Eur. Hipp. 1247. We even find, as 3 Pera. 
pL, nti^M Ap. Rh. 4. 1 700, ftuf 2. 65, 

(/) In the Ion., the endings -areu and -ar*, for .fVM and -tr* (§ 213. &;, 
are the conunon forms in the Perf. and Plup., are very frequent in the Opt, 
and are also employed in the Impf., 2 Aor., and nude Pres. ind. Before these 
endings, a short vowel in the root is not lengthened (§ 218), except in the 
ooets for the sake of the metre, the connective .i> is used instead of -0- 
(§ 203), a. and sometimes it become i, and consonants are changed according 
to § 213. R. Thus, •Wiarett Hdt. i. 142, for cfXfivrott, tarctt P. 131, Hdt. it. 
8f>, uarat (§ 47. N.) B. 137, tmrt H. 414, tlctro V, 149, for tfvreuy ^tra, «•«. 
(poSnart <I>. 206 ; \CouXiar6 Hdt. i. 4, for ICevXtfrt, a^txtetrt 1 52 ; ^uuecreu 
Id. ii. 142, iiunaro W, 114, atet^rfrrieirat ix. 9, for tufecvrmt, &e. ; xUreu 
A. 659, Hdt. i. 14, xtUreu H. 527, Ixiar* Hdt. i. 167, xiiarc ^.418, 
i,T9x%xXi»T» Hdt. ix. 50, for xtTvrat^ &c (so, with an intervening consonant, 
iffi^itetreii Y. 284, i^n^Har* n. 95, from i^tiiJ) y Tivfi^r»i (r. r^/C-) Id* 
ii. 93, JiJi;^«T«i (r. hix-, Ion. h»-) 65 (yet J^^ixeirai vii. 209, cf § 69. «), 
«f;^«^i)a«-«i i. 1 40, Uxtvaiaro vii. 67 (so, as if from verbs in .^«, UifX.«^«r« 
n. 86, axfiX'^^etTtti P. 637, X^etietrat u, 354, -r* M. 431, UretXai^etrt Hdt. 
vii. 89) ; ^ovX$iaro Hdt. i. 3, vti^cfetro iv. 1 39, yivveLictro ii. 47. The Opt 
forms in -ara are likewise used by the Att. poets ; as, ^%%xietv Soph. CEd. C 
44, rtftypctmrt 602, vv^omt§ 921. 

(^) In the Imperative, a third form is found in Dor. inscriptions, made b} 
prefixing » to the flex, ending of the Sing. (cf. § 172) ; as, ^ofvvri (com 
pare Lat. /octtmto), i^t^ivtit, cf. § 177) Ithiwti Inscr. Corc3nr. 

d. For the Subj. ibrms in .fu and .r/, see § 181. /3. For the Dor. Sing. 3 
in -Tj, see § 181. «. For the Dor. Sing. 1 in -^p, and Da. 3 in -vi^ '^$i$ 
(for -^nf, -«»», -r^fff), cf. §§ 44. 1, 24.3. c iS. 

§ 3 419* e. Iterative Form, The Ion., especially the Ep., to express 
with more emphasis the idea of repeated or continued action, often prolongs 
the flex, endings of the Impf. and Aor., in the sing, and the 3d Pers. pi., tc 
-«-»«f, -9*if, -tf'xi(v), '^xoy in the subjective inflection^ and to -tf-xd/Kut, -rxu 
(-11/, -0(/), -#xir«, -rxtfyrtf in the objective. This form, which is called the iterw 
tive (itero, to repeat) is likewise used by the Dor. poets, and sometimes in 
lyric p*)rtion8 by the tragic. It sometimes appears to be used for metrical 
effect, rather than for special emphasis. It cummonly wants the augment. 
Thus, Impf. i^tvxtt, luHU in the habit of carrying^ N. 257, i^ta-xis E. 472, 
l;t»*»« 126, Hdt. vi. 12, PL S lx*'»»^ J. 627, for tJ^'v, -m, -i, -•!., vipaiu^utw, 
the kepi wearing, $, 104, i,X\vt9Xtv 105, ri^Q-irJti, MfATi^nn Ildt. L 100, 


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^i^tn Theoc 25. 1 38, )r«vir»i Soph. Ant. 963, ^;tir«iT« H. 1 40, ^tXt9Kta 

X. 43:i, i/(£/ryir««vr« i/. 7, ^wvyi/tf-xir* £. 857 ; 2 Aor. Iha-xt l\ 2 i 7, kd^s<rK$ 
Hdt. iv. 7fii, iX«Cir»*» 130, ^vtrxtv 0. 271, yi»ir»»T« X. 208, oXiirxtro .>8d 
1 Aor. (only poet.), rr^iypetrxov 2. 546, «r«r»f X. 599, yuv»i<7arxfr0 A. 566 

Notes, (a) That the connecting vowel before -•■»- is i rather than •, 
follpws from § 20;J. (6) Before -r»., a short vowel remains, and i takes the 
place oi u; a&f 9ri.9x%v T. 217, for t^rin (r. rr«-:, Wxav I. SSI, avit^xt 
Hes. Th. 157, for avin, ^m»«i» A. 64, for l^avn (^ 199), wx«» H. I5S, for 
i}y, »«Xfr»f Ap. Kh. 4. 1514, fur UaXu (xttXitrxt (. 402, for IxaXii), waXt- 
r»ir« 0. SS8, for IxaXtTra^ xirxtro ^.41, for txuro. (c) Verbs in -«a» have 
commonly the iterative Impf. in -««■»«», sometimes doubling the a for the sake 
of the metre (cf. 24y. b) ; as, iag-xts T. 295, for i?af, lanreietfxov B. 5S9 ; 
so PI. 1 vixtirxt/itv X. 5 1 2, for iuxUfisv. (d) There appears to be a blending 
of Impf. and Aor. forms (or formation as if from a theme in -««), in »(i/<r- 
reirxt 0. 272, y$xr»ffxn O. 23, fei^a^xt Hes. Th. 835, «y«rrfi«#»f Horn. 
Ap. 403, from x^uvrtt fi^rrtf f*t^ify and dtttwi'nt, 

§ 3tS0« f. Injbdtioe. In the Inf., instead of -vc/, the Dor. and i£ol 
commonly retain the old ending -v (§ 176), or, with the Ep., reduplicate this 
entiing to -^i» (cf. §§ 174, 176), which may be still farther prolonged (chiefly 
by the poets) to -^iv«4. (a) Thus the .£ol. forms the Aor. pass. inf. in -dv, 
the Dor. in -S/uiy, and the Ep. fwhich also employs the common form) in 
-M/(£ff<M as, fAiHrfinit Ale 28(29), o^ycr^nv (for ava,fi,tnriii*at) Theoc 29. 26 ; 
%tax^JvifAtit Til. v. 79 ; ofAOMt^v/nvat A. 1 87. (b) In other tenses, the nude 
Inf. has commonly in the Dor. the form -/uiy, in the i£ol. -v and -^cy«i, and 
in the Ep. -mm, -fuv, and -^ivoj ; as, ^i/ttv Theoc 5. 21, Pind. P. 4. 492, 
X. 315, BifuvM Inscr. Cum., B. 285, Pmd. O. 14. 15, ^7wu A. 26 (cf. 57), 
fifiif Pind. O. 1. 55, Ufttp Th. v. 77, A. 379, )«^cmm A. 98, 116, «. 317, 
hZfcu 316, ywfUfms «. 411 ; »/»£» (§ 251. 2) Ale. 86(15), ivrXtif 11(3); 
«-f^»«»f» O. 497, TUvdfttfot it 225, n^iv A. 719, iifAtWi N. 27S. So i<rr«- 
fAtvat Hdt. i. 1 7. Before -fuv and -^i»«4, a short vowel in the 2 Aor. does 
not [Mss into a diphthong (§ 224. K). (c) In likti manner the non-Attic 
poets employ, for -m (originally -i», § 1 76), the prolonged -ifis* and -i^«»«i ; 
as, v<ij»«tf-tv) ixouimf A. 547, Pind. O. 3. 44, Theoc. 8. 8S, itxwifjuvat X. 380, 
itlifjtit Y. Ill, itlfifAifat 50, ;^«x«ri/(£i» A. 78, ix^i^fMEi 151. ((i) So, in the 
Perf., vtvXnyifAw 11. 728. For the Perf. inf. in -ii» or -if», see § 246. 2. 
The common form in -^mm first occurs in Hdt. (e) Verbs in -um and -ut have 
a contract form in -^futat ; as, {ya-iv) ynfin^M S. 502, ruvn/tivM u, 1 37, 
xaXftfMVM K. 125, irtti^tuu r. 174, from ^«««, «*»»««, xaXuv, $rfv^i*». Tet 
{kifAtittt) "dfittvtit 4>. 70. In iytfifAtitat v. 213, from itytviaa^ and »^ifitfitven 
lies. Op. 22, from «(««, the connecting vowel is omitted. 

g. PartieipU, For the .£ol. contraction into «m and m in the Part., see 
§ 45. 5 ; thus, xi^fmtt Ale. 27, yi^^mt Pind. P. I. 86, ^^iyi^a$r» 8. 37, |ii;^«i- 
r« Sapph. 1. 9, ix»*^» 77(76), Pind. P. 8. 4, Theoc 1. 96. For the Fem. 
••»#«, the Laconic uses -«« ; as, UXifTMa, »Xuv«, Sf/^ra^^««y (§ 70. V.), for 
\xXt99wmy xXutfwm, ^tt^^^^avfiif, Ai. Lys. 1297, 1299, 1313. So M^« 
1293 (§ 45. 5). 

E. Verbs dt -^i* 

§ 3ff 1* 1. The Ion. and Dor. employ more freely than the Att Hm 
IbnnB with a connecting vowel (§ 325), especially hi the Ptes. sing, of verba 
mhom Gharactflrialio is • or • ; aa, rsPut Pind. P. 8. 14, rtfum. 192, Hdt. t 


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1S3, IthTt I. 164, ^>«r519, Hdt. L 107 ; Urf lb. W. 109, Imp. suJi^rm I 
202 ; it^t^'uvrt (nxiradnpL, for 9r^»rt$i£n) A. 291 ; 2 Aor. Opt. it^900{Mr» 
Hdt L 5S ; Inf. rvf<«r» Theog. 565, hiSt (§ 244. a) Theoc 29. 9. 

2. On the other hand, the iBoL, Dor., and Ep. retam the form hi -^ m 
Bome verbs, which m the Att. and m Ion. prme have only the form in -« ; a^ 
tttiXtifu Sapph. 1. 16, i^fu 2. 1 1, fiXtifu 79(23), alnifu Hes. Op. 681, vmn* 
/At Theoc. 7. 40, for mcXU, «(««, &c; AAxn^h ^'^nri, fi^itnn r. Ill, 112, 
for «vc;^M, &c. (nnlesB rather Subj. «»t;^fyr«, &c) ; f«(*iMii B. 107. 

3. The Ion. changes a characteristic before another « to i (cf. 242. a), and 
8(»metimes inserts i before « (§ 48. 1) ; as, {Ifreid^t, § 58) Uridn Hdt. v« 
7 i , luuarat (§ 248. /), tfrimr0 Hdt. iv. 166. So» in the nude Perf., Uridn 
Hdt i. 200, irrUrc v. 49. 

4. The Ep. sometimee differs tram the common language in the length of 
the characteristic vowel (§ 224) ; as, Int ntnfiutat H^. 247, 'itiwtai H. 4*25, 
^tvyw/At^ n. 145, for ri^MM, Ac; FaiL ri^i^^tM* K. d4 ; Imp. 7xir/«, ^I'UA 
y. 380 (so nude Perf. Umrt A. 243, 246, for 7rr«rO : 2 Aor. ^j^r«v M. 
469, fi»Tti9 A. 327, for fCnrav, &c 

5. For the Impf. Irsfn* and i|iir, the Ion. has Irih* Hdt iii. 155, and jf« 
3. 313, onaugmented f« A. 321, Hdt ii. 19. So !«$ Hdt i. 187, ^» A. 381, 
l«n Hdt iv. 119, }«r«v tx. 31. C£ §^ 179, 201. N, 252. b. 

§ StS3. 6. Diaketk fomu of i<>;, to 6e (t 55). (a) Those which 
arise fixmi different modes of lengthening the radical syllable (§ 230. 3) : 
lf»fii Theoc. 20. 32, Sapph. 2. 15, Irr/ (i assmned after the analogy of the 
ether persons) A. 176, Theoc 5. 75, S. 3 Uri (» hiserted instead of f) Id. 1. 
17, ufitiv £. 873, Hdt i. 97 ; Inf. i/ntv (for which some give the form iT^if, 
of. § 70. 3) Theoc. 2. 41. (6) Uncontracted forms, and forms like those of 
verbs m -«»: Uftf B. 125, tm A. 119, Hdt iv. 98, Ipn B. :i66, U^t I. 140, 
Hdt i. 155, Ut I. 284, U 142, Hdt vii. 6, U» B. 27, Hdt i. 86, Uvta V, 
159, U7ra Pind. P. 4. 471, Theoc. 2. 64, i^ir^ 76, (l-vrr«, § 58) 7tf<r« or 
ktrr^ Tim. Locr. 96 a, in A. 762, i^vrtf Theoc 2. 3. (c) Variously pro- 
tracted forms: In* (1 P.) A. 762, (3 P.) B. 642, Hdt vii. 143, Im Theoc 
19. 8, ftfr/« X. 435, iTif* A. 808, •?« Y. 47; Impf. iter. (§ 249. b\ Xtrxn 
n P.) H. 153, (3 P.) Hdt 1. 196, Um Ib^ E. 536, iEsch. Pers. 656. 
Id) Middle forms: Uo, commonly Ur» a. 302, Sapph. 1. 28, c7ar« v. 106 
(for ff»r«, cf. 8. 1 UfAfiv • others read i7ar«, Ep. for n*Ta from fT/iMM). (e) Old 
•ihort and nnaugmented forms : i^iv Call Fr. 294, Uav A. 267, Pind. P. 4. 
371, W«» Id. O. 9. 79. (/) For tTg U, 515, Hdt vii. 9, see § 230. «; 
for P. 3 if ri Pind. O. 9. 158, Th. v. 77, Theoc 5. 109, § 181. « ; for l«, ?», 
tttft ^(i), 7«rf, f«r«v, § 251. 5 ; -for f^s T. 202, and i^ri, § 181. /3; for 
i7«r^« Theog. 715, fW«, § 182; for tTf*ig, Zfttt Theoc 15. 9, ifuf 14. 29» 
§ 247. b ; for Imp£ S. 3 (^^r) it Theoc 2. 90, § 2r>0. 9^ ; for Inf. jf^i* A. 
299, l^iMu r. 40, ifi/tif Pind. O. 5. 38, Theoc 7. 28, Soph. Ant 623, f^ 
^i»ai A. 117, Sapph. 2. 2, i/uf Theoc 2. 41, il^* (for which some write 
itfAtf, cf. a above) Th. v. 79, Tim. Locr. 93 a, c^ivm or H/Mfm* Ar. Ach. 775» 
§ 250. 6; for 70'r«^« A. 267, 7r0^fT«< A. 164, .£sch. Pers. 121 {Utrm A. 
21 1), § 71 ; for Uuu A. 563, frruM 2. 95, § 243 ; for U^f Theoc 10. 5, 
iffttroi Eur. Iph. A. 782, Wwurm B. 393, Theoc 7. 67, Uwfrm Th. y. 77, 
§ 245. 2. 

7. DiakeOe Fomu t^ gjfu, to ffo (^ 56), (a) The protractiQii of 7 U m 
f § S24) likewise appears hi P. 3 tlrt (or Iri, or perhaps liW from iVA <» ^ 


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CH. 10.] ROOT OF THB VEEB. 216 

Hei. fie 1 1», Tbeog. 11«, tU only Sophr. « (23), iftr (by some ascribed to 
ilfii, to be) I. 496, it 1^9, f7r«#e«i S. S, tUmr* A. I5J8, fiimr* O. 415, iii- 
r«r^»)» 544, (b) In the Impf., we find both nude forms and fbnna with a 
oonnecting vowel, from the root /-, both miaugmented, doubly augmented 
(^ 1^9), and doubly augmented with contraction ; thus, (ntt, of. 251. 5) n'm 
(from which may be fonned by contr. the Att. J«, § '2S1. b) J. 427, Hdt. *. 
4ii, art A, 47, Hdt i. 65, J« M. 371, U B. 872^ Plofut ». 251, /#«» A. 494, 
tC^av K. 1 97, adt i. 62, ^h)* a^'. 370, trn* A. 347'. (c) The Opt. Uin (only 
T. 209) is formed, as if from the root U- (cf § 231. d). (d) The Inf. "t^* 
Ath. 580 c, is the regular nude form, (e) For th see § 230. « ; for gUfim 
K. 450, ry^^a K. 67, § 18if; for Jywi I. 701, § 181. /3; for 7»fitif B. 440. 
§ 246. 3; for 7^» A. 170, Find. 0. 6. 108, r^iy«« T. 32, 7ftfMf<u i^65^ 
I 250. b, 

F. Pebfbct Pabticipijl 

§ 9^3. 1. In Perf. Participles ending in -«$; pore, the Ep. moiv 
frequently lengthens the preceding Towel ; and the Part, is then declined in 
•««>•# or -i?r«#, according to the metre. If the preceding yowel remains short, 
the form in -«r«f is commonly required by the metre. Thus, 0tim^nirtf y. 
139, »cx/wii«r«r A. 801, »i»/»tfA;T« x. 31. See, also, §§ 237, 238. 

2. In some fiam. forms, the antepenult is shortened on account of the rerae^ 
as, XiXiMviat ^. 85 (XcXDJM^r X. 141), /«c/MUvr«i A. 435 (j*t/Aii»tit K. S62) 
Jk^i^vUt r. 331, radkytmv L 208. 



^ 3ff 4. The root of the Greek verb, although 
not properly varied by inflection, yet received many 
changes in the progress of the language. These 
changes affected the different tenses unequally, so 
that there are but few primitive verbs in which the 
root appears in only a single form. 

Note. The earlier, intermediate, and later forms of the root . 
may be termed, for the sake of brevity, old^ middle^ and new 
roots. The final syllable of the earliest form of the root is 
commonly short ; and the oldest roots of the language are mon- 

§ 988* The tenses may be arranged, with respect to the 
degree in which they exhibit the departure of the root from it9 
original form^ in the following order. 

I. The Second Aobist and Second Future. 

RmfAltra « TbB 2d Aor. act and mid. it aimpty the Impf. of im old root 

Jigitized by VjOOQIC 


(§ 1 78. 2) ; thus tki^4P and Ixswifin* (1 37) are fonned from the old root X/w^ 
in precisely the same way as IXM«'«y and iXu^rifinv from the new root Xuif, 

jS. The 2d Aor. and Fat. pass, are chiefly found in impure verbs which wani 
the 2d Aor. act, and tnicL They affix -«» and -n^sfMu (§ 180) to the slm* 
plest form of the root. 

y. These tenses (except the nude 2 Aor. act, § 224. 2) have commonly a 
short syllable before the affix (§ 254. N.). 

^. In a few verbs, tiie original root appears to have received some change 
even in the 2 Aor. ; chiefly, in accordance with the prevailing analogy of the 
tense, to render the root tnonost/Uainc, or its last syllabU short (§ 254. N.), or 
to enable it to receive the nude form (§ 227. ^). 

^ 3tS6* II. The Perfect and Pluperfect Passive. 
These tenses have not only a more complete, uniform, and 
simple formation than the Perf. and Plup. act, (§§ 179, 186 
235), but are likewise more common, and are formed in some 
verbs (see tQiqiia^ § 263, qt^Bi^m^ § 268, &c.) from an earlier 

m. The Perfect and Pluperfect Active. For the van . 
0U3 formations of these tenses, see §§ 179, 186, 234 - 238 

IV. The First Aorist and Future. 

V. The Present and Imperfect. These tenses, with 
very few exceptions, exhibit the root in its latest and most pro- 
tracted form. 

§ 8t57« Remarks. 1. The 2 Aor. and 2 Put are widely distin- 
goi^ed from the other tenses by their attachment to the original farm of the 
root ; while the Pres. and Impf. are distinguished no less widely by their t»- 
clination to depart from this form. The other tenses differ comparatively but 
little from each other in the form of .the root. If the verb has three roots, 
they are conmionly formed from the middle root See, for example, XafiCavm 
(§ 290). 

2. Many verbs are DSFEcnvE, either from the want of a complete forma- 
tion, or from the disuse of some of their frrms. In both cases, the defect is 
often supplied by other verbs having the same signification (§301). .In the 
poets, especially the older, we find many fragments of verbs belonging to the ' 
earlier language. These occur often in but a single tense, and sometimes in 
only a single form of that tense ; as, 2 A. S^. 3 lff^«;^«, rang^ A. 420, J«a« 
(r. ^f«.), appeared^ ^. 242, 1 A. XxMuvvtit, hreaihed^ X. 467, X/y^i, twanged, 
A. 1 25, Pf. Ft, Kixa^noret^ gasping^ E. 698. 

3. On the other hand, many verbs are redundant, either through a douhU 
formaiion from the same root, or tiie use of forms frt)m different roots. It 
should be observed, however, that two or more forms of the same tense, with 
few exceptions, either, 

(«.) Belong to different periods^ dialects, or styles of composition; thus, 
»rf/Mv, and Uter xrifvC/u (§ 295) ; ra^f»/ (§ 274. 7), A. P. Irdx^h and 
later Irdynf * »«/*» (§ 267. 3), A. P. \»mv4nh and Ion. \»ainf * itnfdvfMmt 
and poet ^%v4»fMu (§ 290); wtiU (t 39), A. 7riir«, and poet %^tUu 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

10. J ElfPHONlC CHANa^t^ ^ ♦^\" . ^ " ^Vf/ 

Or, (0.) Differ in thdr «m; tlmik 1 ?f. wimuntr P^ 
erf, 2 Pf. «-S«W«, mtransitive, / <rMt^ (^ 39) ; i A. Urnray trans. / placed, 
2 A. Urtiv, intrans. / stood (^ 48). The second tenses are more incfined than 
the Jirst to an intransitive use. From the prevalence of this use in the 2d 
Perf. and Plup., these tenses were formerly caHed the Perf. and Flup, middle. 

Or, (y.) Are supplementary to each other. See §§ 201. N., 237. a. 

NoTK. From the varbos changes whieh take place in the root; many 
v«cba» together with their common themes, have others, either derived or ool> 
lateral. In r^ard to some forms, it seems doubtful whether they ahookl be 
rather viewed as redundant forms of the same verb, Qr as the fbrms of disUnct 
but kindred verbs. 

^ ^8S. The changes in the root of the Greek 
verb are o( three kinds ; euphonic, emphatic, and 


Note. The lists which fbUow ate designed both to exsmpISfy the vaiioHi 
changes of the root, and likewise to present, in a olassified anrangement, all 
those verbs upon whose inflection farther remark seemed to be required. It 
wiU be observed, that some of the words ndght have been arranged with equal 
propriety under other heads, from their eidiibitlag more than one speciss of 
change in the root 

A. Euphonic Changes. 

^ 3ff 9« 1. Radical vowels are sometimes changed by' 
pii£C£SsioN (§ 28)) a becoming », and $ and o becoming c 

a. Change of m to %• 

IfoTBk If the « is praoeded tsr Mowed by a KqvH, it is somatunas mtaioed 
in the Perfect ^ particularly the Perfect paesioe, 

%i^m«tiMt (r, ^f»-, ^i(»-)i and t2 Pf. ^«(m», to sm, poet, F. S4S; Qopk. CEd, 
T. 389, 'J A. n^»e» (^ 262) Eur. Or. 1456, 1 A. P. S^M Ma^ £fc 

53, 2 A. P. Q^aztif, Pind. N. 7. 4. 

ii^m (r. >«e.)* to PV» P* ^cf'^* ^* ^<<e«* ^* P' >^/«««, 2 A. P. tU^HH 
iii. 5. 9. Poet and Ion. Uf^i, Ar. Nub. 442, hifm, Hdt ii. 39. 

i^i'Ttt, topluckj poet ^(ivrrm (§ 272), Mosch. 2. 69, F. ^(i'4^t, A. li^^pm. 
2 A. 2)^«««y, Pind. P. 4. 231. 

rXi»*», to wreaA, F. ^ki^t, A. fv-Xi^*, Pf. P. wUXiyftmt, f A. P. Uxix' 
$n^ 2 A. P. lieXm»n»t A. M. lwXfS»^«ff. hi Hipp., Pf. IfA-niwUxa* ^ 

^T^i^t0f to tunetf F. rr^(^^«#, A. t^r^^pm, Pf. P. trr^ftfMUy 1. A. P. Ur^. 
Aif^ 2 A. P. Wrfdfnn Pf. JU-t^^r^*^ Ath. 104 e. 1 A. P. Ion* and Dor 
Wr^Aftnh Hdt i. 130, Theoc. 7. 132. Extended forms, chiefly poet, #«^m. 
^*r, ^. 53, er^dtfuu, Eur. Ale 1052, Hdt it 85, F. tr^^nfiuu Theog; 
837 ; ^ftfUf, Ar. Pax, 175. 

r^iwi (Ion. r^tr** Hdt il. 92), to turn, F. r^i-^, A. fr^^*, Pf. rSr^«^ 
(§ 236. a) and <rSr^^, Pf. P. rirfaf^fiat, 1 A. P. U^i^v, 2 A. P* Ue^Cnif^ 
1 A. M. commonly trans. lT^i^pdf$r.9, 2 A. M. intrans. Ir^«'«/Mi9. 2*A. 1^ 
|c««T«t, K, 187, F. Ft ^^efd^/mt BMgrolk 


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b. Chanffe of • and »to i. 

The change of • and « to i is ahnost wholly confined to sjOables which be> 
come long in the Pros, and Impf., by the addition of one or more conaonantB 
as, ri»T», C§ 272. fi), »i^nifAi (§ 278. J), ifj^^Xirnm (§ 280). 

§ 3G0* 2. Some roots are contracted ; as, 

fimt to ting, F* 4^»fMUf ^ ?*"*» ^' ^' f^/*»h A. P. frfin* * contr. froiB 
ill')**, A. 1, iti^afiMi, X' 3^^ (Juiett Theoc. 22. 26, £url Here 681), &o. 
For milru, see § 185. 1. 

f^vm or ^Trtt (§ 70. 1), to ruth, F. ^$m, A. jf|»« contr. from mUtm, B. 
88, &c. A. P. «V»»»» r. 368. 

X«««, to UMiM, F. Xowm, A. fx«v^«, Pf. P. xiXavfuu, A. P. Sx«v^fiy • contr. 
from £p. XotM, ). 252, F. X«i«-*r, &c. Fitm the old r. X«^we have the £p. 
Impf. or 2 A. X«i ». 361, X999 Hom. Ap. 120, Mid. Inf, xiiUm or x««r^«i 
Hes. Op. 747 ; and from the same root, or from X«v- with the omission of 
the connecting vowels, are the common Sorter forms of the Impf. act. and 
Pres. and ImpC mid. ; as, (for Ixm^cv ix Ix«m/«cO ix«v/«iy Ar. PI. 657, Xm/^mbj, 
\tSirm QjT. L 3. 1 1 , Xw€$mt ^. 216. 

§361* 3. Some roots are stmcofated in the theme^ 
chiefly in cases of reduplication ; as, (r. yiytv-^ /</»'-) yip'ofim, 
nimw, filfAvw (^ 286) : others in the 2d Aor, (§ 255. h) ; as, 
it. iys^-, iyq-) ^yq6(iTip (§ 268), ^X&ov (§ 301. 3), Ep. defect 
(r. Jtgi') hetfiop {\ 194. 3), found : others in other tenses ; as, 

MXitf, to eatt, F. »«xSrM, tut)Ji (§ 200. 2), A. Im^Xi^*, Pf. (r. mXi^ 
«Xi.) »i»Xfi««, Pf. P. xUXtifMu, F. Pf. »i»Xif#«^Mu, Ar. Av. 184, A. P. UXif- 
099 (U«xi^ir», Hipp.). Poet, xMvXi^rxw .£sch. Snp. 217, «v«-iMcXi^«/MM, 

r. 19. 

f$iXm, to ooncem (§ 222. 2) ; Ep. Pf. P. f*i/^X%rm, .fr#f, T. 343, Phip. 
^/»CXM'«<fr. 516. See §§ 64. 2, 222. «. 

NoTB. In regard to some forms, it seems doobtM whether they are best 
reftned to syncope, or to metathesis with, in some cases, contraction ; thos^ 
(r. MtXt-, »X4ii-, »Xii-) »i»Xn»»» 

% S69. 4. In some roots, metathesis takes place, chiefly 
by changing the place of a liquid. This occurs, (a) in the 
theme; as, /5Xo)axo), ^yj^axoi, &Q(oaxw {^ 281) : (b) in the 2d 
Aor. (§ 255. 3) ; as, hxXfiv (§ 227. /?), s'riiji' (§ 301. 2] r^- 
nor (§ 259. a), sitQa^ov (§ 288) : (c) in other tenses ; ts, /Jt- 
^Aijxa, iSkii&fji^y KixiAfixa ($223). 

§ S63« 5. A few roots are changed to avoid a I)DUBL1 
aspiration (§ 62) ; as, 

r^l^m (t. ;»^^-, ;»^i^. § 259, r^.^^ «^^-)» to Jwnrii* (Old rM^«, PInd. 
^ 4. 205), P. ^^^p,^ A. f/^t^ Pt ri*^«^ Ft P. rii^M^ 1 A. P 
Jfi^y, commonly 2 A. P. Ir^i^ny. Hsp. 2 Aor. intrans. or pass, ir^m^ 
L 55£^ Pf. «wv.(r^«^ Hipp. 

Non. Sesb also^ t^m (§ 300), Mr««, »|Ar«» (§ 272). Mr (§ Slt]^ 

Digitized by V>00QIC 


r^X*' (§ >^01), T^^tt (§ 270). A few other roots have both aspirated ana 
cmaspirated forms ; as, rv;^- and rvx- (§§ 270. 9, 285, 290), ;^«^. and x^e^- 
(§ 27.5. O* '4'^xft to cool, F. ^^it, &c, 2 A. P. i'4^vynf, Ar. Nub. 151, and 
l'4^vX'f'» .£sch. Fr. 95. 

6. In a few cases, a consonant is dropped or added for the 
sake of euphony or the metre ; as, XbISo), to pour out^ Ep. etSat, 
77. 1 1 ; dovniw, to sounds A. idovnrjaa^t i. 8. 18, J, 504, and 
fydovTtriaa^ A» 45 ; XUxfo^ to liek^ Pf. P. hlstxfjtfog Hes. Th. 826. 
So, in reduplicated forms, nlfinlfjfii^ nlfinQtifii (§ 284), and in 
the Att. RedupL, iygr^yoQa (§ 268), ^fivm^ to bow down^ ifivrifiv^ 
X8 X. 491 (for ifiT^fivxs, ^/i- being prefixed according to analogy, 
§ 191. 2, ahhough the 17 is radical). With xoXoo/iaij -waofim^ 
to be angry, we have also the Ep. (xooofiaij § 29. a) x^^t'^^h X^^ 
aofieuj A. 80 (see r. 413, 414). 

§ 3^4. 7. In some verbs, the omission of the digamma 
(^ 22. d) has given rise to different forms of the root ; as, 

AXt6»t (r. AXtf', AXt-, AXtV'), to atfert, poet. .Ssch. Prom. 568, F. «Xi^« 
Soph. Fr. 825, A. i|fXivr«, .ffisch. Sept. 87 ; M!d. JtXUfuu and dXt^^ftmi, to 
avoid; 2. 586, «. 29, A. iXtdfutv and nXtim/inif (§ 201. 2> Deriy., AXniftt^ 
A. 794, JkXu0»t0 ($ 273. «). 

Jkm'wvimf Ep. a^-rv^ (§ 48. 2 ; r. rNp-* rN-, rvMr-, irvv-, «>i«- $ 277), 
to reoooer 6r«a<ft, X. 222, A. P. kft^nwin*, E. 697, node 2 A. M. ifAwtSf 
A. 359. iVom the root mv. are formed the extended ^nU»m and wnwwm, 
to make wise, JBach. Pers. 830, H. 249, and the Pf. P. itimff/uu, to be unte, 
fL 377, reftned by some to «iriw, by others to *nv9»m., 

fw (r. /cF-, f»'\ to flow, F. ftvr»f»«u (§ 220), A. Ifftv^m, and better Att. 
F. M. (or 2 F. P.) ftm^tfuu, 2 A. P. (or 2 A, Act r. /m-) Ij^i^ify, Pi. ^f^J^m. 
Ion. Free, i^ ffifutM Hdt. viL 140. Late F. ^ivr». 

9%&»ftm and rM/MM (r. #iF-» rf»-} rv-, ri-, whence r«- § 28), to rusA, poet. 
Soph. TV. 645 ($ 246. «), .£sch. Pers. 25, A. ^tuAfunt (§ 201. 2) H. 208, 
Ft, as Pros., Irn^/Mu, Z. 361, A. P. UUn* or U(rUw, Eur. HeL 1302, Soph. 
Aj. 294, 2 A. M. UV«v» or UrV*f»> Eur. HeL 1162, S. 519. Ep. A. Act. 
Unva E. 208. Lacon. 2 A. P. in^-twewm, H. Gr. i 1. 23, for kineevn. Ob- 
serve the angm. and rednpL 

xi^ (r. ;c«F-, X»')> *> l»w» ^« A;^ (§ 200. 2), A. f;^;«« (§ 201. 2), rare 
•nd doabtftil tx^rm, P£ P. «(;^fMM, A. P. \xvhv» Ep. F. x'^^i X*^ 
fi. 222, A. l;t;«^«> ^X*^> ^ ^69, 2 A. M. i;^l$iiHf», A. 526» .Asch. Cho. 
401. Late Ft »(;^««, Anth. Late ibrm, ;^w«. 

NoTB. See, abo, 5U», »^, «-xS*» (§ 220), )«/«», »«/«s »X«i^ (§ 267. S). 
An Ep. and Ion. ibrm of rxU i$ <rX4^, ^^*», &c., t. 240, Hdt. vi. 97, 2 A. 
I<rx«w, y. 15 ; extended, rA^l^w, Th. L 19. 

B. Emphatic Changes. 

^ 36ff. Most impure roots and many piire 
roots arc proxr^cted in the Present and Imper- 


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fect^ to express with more emphasis the idea of 
continued action. This protractioa takes place, 


as follows. 

in mute verbs, & becooies i^ ; m liqmd verbs,, and is some 
mule verba, I aod i/ are mij^Z^ lengthened ; in other cases, the 
short vowel is usually changed to a dipJUhortg, 

In mtUt verbs, the change commonly extends to all the reg- 
ular tenses (§ 215. 1). 

I. Change of 4 to «. 

•n<rf (r. r**--, r»j«-.)» *» »^i tr«W'» F. «J4'«^ 2 Pf. iirtrtns. (5 257. ^) irV- 
rf)*-*, iv. 5. V2y 2 A. P. Udvrtiu 

^luh to nffH (]>or. vwMi Theoo. 2. 2a), F. Wg», A. ?4nf^«, S fl fntaaiB, 
rirfi»m, iv. ^ 15, 1 A* P* lir4%h^ CoamoDiy % K P. kriv^u Pf. P. «4 
r«>7bt«4 Anth. 

^36>7. 2w Gh«ag» of « to «4. 

htinpuu (r. }«., Im.), It» dlml^ eliie^ poet «. 140, F. ^tffut'h A. I)£nf- 
^y, (£c 7. 24, >fW^Mu, A. 125, >U«</««i, «. 2S. Kindred; Ui^**, -^l**, to 
tend, Maok. Ag* 207, UrUfMUf <» tfftvici^, 2. 204, Hdl. L 216, A. )»rUr/M 
{§ 201. 2> 

xahti^m (t. »ac^#.), A> /^ci/^) F. Kuia^Sj A. I««^if^« (sometimes written 
Uii&^tL, ct ^ 56. «>, Ff. P. »tx£ht^ftcuy A. P. U«^<^e^fiy. 

xaivtt, to km, chiefly poet., F. xaw, 2 A. ?x«v«v. 

9»ut (r. »«.)> to dioeO; poet., Soph. Tr. 40, F. vJieetfuu (§71) Ap. Rh. 3. 
747, A. hnftra, huUt, ). 1 74, P£ P. vUttfftat, Herod. Att, A. P., i»<^r^«ir Eof. 
Med. 166. £p. deriv. vmt^, A. 45. 

v^AiVM, to weave, F. v^«»«, A. jlf^ffm, Pf. P. S^^/mu (§ 217. /3)> A. £• 
v^«»/tfv. From the pure root v^«., £p. v^*r#i (§ 242. b) n. 105. 

f«/»«r (t 42), to jAow, F. fM^ , &(x The Pf. «i^yiN» i» late, first ecow- 
cmg in Dinarch., who employs it m composition with •««. Kindl«d poet, 
verbs, ^attPM, to shine, ft, 383 ; from r. f «., Imp£ ^ |. 50% F. wi^n^t^fm 
P. 155 ; from r. (^aiA^ Ft. ^aifimt A. 735, $oph. El. 824. 

X'k" ('^ TCH-* X»^i-)> to r^wse, F. x**^^^'^ ($ 222. 2)„ PC »ix«e«»«b 
]h& P. tux»tn/*tu and jU;^«te/««i« 2 A. P. i;^«(v. £p., redupL F. »ix«e*>'«^ 
tnX»t^fcfiuu (§ 239. 6), 2 A. M. M^«e^i|y (J 194. 3), 1 A. M. Ixn^mftmh 
n. 270, 2 Pf. Ft. mx»^tit (§ 253. 1), H. f 12. Jtfie, 1 Aor. ix»'^^», 
2 F. P. xH^f**"* 

3. Yariims Changee of •• 

Uim (r. I«F-, }«-» >««-), to 6tir«, poet .^sch. Ag. 496, 2 Pf. as Pros, in- 
trans., iOnm, T. 18. 3 A. )L lW^ii», T. 916, Pf. P. ViUvfiuu, GalL £p. 52. 

mam and mm* (r. »«F-) nao-, »%- § 259, Mti^ xi'\ to bum, F. »«vriy and 
HAimyMM, A. fiMiitf« avd poet Um ($ 201. 2), ibeh* Ag. 849 (Bp. Ian* A. 
40, Utm, fk 176), Pt jftisMUM, Pf. P. »(»#»«m, A. P.l»#^l«f. Ion. »A* P 
U&i^ Hdt tt. 180. 


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«*.H. 10.] EMPHATIC CHANGES. 221 

m^Mim «Dd mkimt «» weep, F. ttXmv0ifuu or »>Mo095fimt (§ 20a 8), mnd 
»>Minwtt or mXdwf ($ 222), A. txXmv^, Pf. P. MkxXmuftmt, S F. OT»X«»tfr«^Mei, 
Ar. Nub. 1436. F. »Xmvf^ Tbaoo. 23. 34. Late, A. P. Ux«c/^^«», Pf« P 
»i»Aatfr/i««, Anth. 

Note. Kiuv and »X»t are Att ftyrms, and an not contracted ($ 21S* fi). 
For HMueiy »X«f/r0/MM) 2(2«i//mm, from maf^tf xXaffoftmt, yt^ttFfiuu, &C.) see 
^ 220. 

r(«$y*r (r. r^y-, r^tty- § 28. l), to ea«, F. r^4^^«/u«4i 2 A. Ir^yw, Pf P 
oi^YA^^/MM. loB. 1 A. f^-^AT^* Horn. Batr. 126* 

§3^8* 4» Cfaango«f t toM. 

kyti^m (t. ^y«f-f i^Tfi^-}, to coBeetf F. Ayc^A^y A. ^y*tf», A. P. ^yi^/tft. 
Ep., Pf. P. Aynyt^fAmi, A. '-'1 1, 2 A. M. nyi^if*»i9$ B. 91, Pt, sync iy^ofAtvtf, 
H. 134. Ep.^fbrms, nyt^Uofiat, V, 231, i(7c^c0/««i, K. 127 ; later Ep. ityk^ 
^^uu Ap. BlL 3. 895. 

4kJifw <r. At^-, ilfi(-), to raiee, poet and Ion., F. it^ cMitr. *«^«?, .fisch* 
Pen. 795, A. ifii^m, Pf. P. iTi^/mu (for «f«^T«, see § 236. </), A. P. itie^tiv • 
coramonlj «3^m (r. '«#., syna, from ili^. § 261, «;^. § 267), F. 'Af«i, A. ^^a, 
5uA;. "•e*' (§ 56. «), Pf. ^^»«, Pf. P. ;r«^tMM, A. P. 4(^ify, 1 A. M. n^ficti^, 
'a^mfitm, 'a^aifAfiVy Eur. Or. 3, 2 A. M. poet. n^e/Anvj 'i^tptat^ *&^oifititf Soph. 
EI. 34. JEoL Aif^, Sapph. 44(7 3> Poet, deriv., iit#f^*/MM, F. 108, it^rei. 
{«r, Ap. Rh.- 1. 738, &^fun Soph. Ant. 903, a7»i}fAat (§ 29S. 3), ^. 144. 

iyiiftt (r. l^c^., i^^. § 261, lyu(-), to rmcie, F. I^^, 2 Pf., as Pies, in- 
trans., (the sync, root prefixed, by a pecoliar Att redupl., § 263. 6) ly^nyo^ct, 
Pf. P. lynyifftttiy A. P. nyi^^f, 2 A. IL ny^ofinv. For ly^ny^u ly^nyofjOai, 
see § 238. ^. 2 Pf. P^ 3 iy^fiyi^iwt (as from r. lyt^-) K. 419. Hipp, haa 
Vl^'^yt^v and i7f/^r«. Deriv., E^. i7^fi^«^«*'» v* 6, Xy^w^ti «. 33; late 

f?>^ (r. &X-, iX*. § 259), to ro2/ «p, jireM Aorc^ Ep. E. 203, A. fXr« 
($ 56. /3) A. 409, Pf. P. UX/Mu, n. 662, 2 A. P. iiXny, N. 408. Att 
forms, i7xx*» or c7xx«^ Ar. Nub. 761, Th. ii. 76, and 7xx«r Soph. Ant 340. 
Deriv. i/Xuv or i/xU, .^rjM^ i/Xvm, -vr*» (Ef>., A. P. cXvWWv, "i^ 393 ; Deriv. 
ilxSfdm, A. 156, uXUpmZttf T. 492), ixi^^M, -ilt (poet and Ion. i<x/rr« or 
i;x;rr«»,.«:fich. Pr. 1085, Hdt u. 38), iXtXit^, .i^t, Ep. A. 530. 

3>iiy«r, to «m£te, poet, F. 5tv*l, 2 A. Umv, Ar. Av. 54, 1 A. tfuva, T. 481. 

»ti(m (r. zm^^ «f^. § 259), to aAeor, F. xt^S, A. l»Ci#a, Pf. P. xixatftuh 
F. »(^rM, Mosch. 'J. 32, A. 7»f^r«, ». 456, Ui^^«/»D«, .£sdi. Pers. 952 (§ 56* 
^), 1 A. P. Ui^fi9, Find. P. 4. 146, 2 A. P. i«i£^tfy, Anth. 

f*tiff4/Mmi (r. /Mc^-)) ^ obtain^ chiefly poet, I. 616, 2 Pf Ifi/M^a, A. 278, 
Pf. P. ilftm^rmt (} 191. 1), it Aa« been fated, PL Rep. 566 a, P». tifut^ivsu 
lifter Ep. fAifiiffirxt Ap. Bh. 1 . 646, Dor. fuf$i^»xrtu Tim. Locr. 95 a. 

a^i/XA*, to owe, ought (Ep. ;^XX« S. 462), F. i^Xnftt (§ 222. 2), 1 A. 
«^4Xi}^«, 2. A., used only in the expression of a wish, A^iXn, Pf. m^iiXnxa. 
Kindred verbs, ipixxt, to aetitcty poet, (for ^xxiii, see § 245. 5), i^Xirxdvttj 
to buiur (§ 289), li^tXuv, to OMMt. 

iri/Mr (r. r*^-), to- fierce, F. «'ff«^, Pf. P. friwrn^fuu, A. I«t4^ A. 465, 
2 A. P. lT«e«f»f Hdt 4. 94, Ath. 349 c 

r«'«4(f «, to 9oWt P. riri^, A. twufo, Pf. P. teTm^fuu, 2 A. P. iff^i^^»ji». 

rtifw (r. r«».), to «<retoA, F. rf»^ A. Xtmb, Pf. «-iT««« (§ 217. «), Pf. P 
rUikfuu, A. P. lr«#ii». Kindred £p. fonns, r«r«<M», B. S90, A. iV. rtthm$ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

it^^ ROOT Ot THE VR&6. [bOOK H. 

N. 534 ; r«y&» P. 890, F. rtt'tt^m^ Ac. ; Jmp. rn (ootftr. from rAt, r. r»-* 
H. 219 ; 2 Aor. Pt, nrmytip (§ 194. 3 ; r. rtPy.) A. 591. 

^^ci>*», to dettroy, F. ^^i^iS, A. I^iif«, 1 Pf. tpia^M, 2 Pf. f^/«^ Pf. P 
i^tcffuuf 2 A. P. l^^i^^if*. F. ^ifr«, N. 625, F. M. pU^uf^u Hdt yiil 
108, ^tt^Upuu ix. 42, 2 A. M. l^«^U«-« (§ 248. /) Id. viii. 90. 

§ S69. 5. Change of r to r. 

»xt»«, to 6etM2, F. »>.US, A. l»Xry« (§ 56), Pf. P. mUxtf^m (§ 217. «/ 
1 A. P. UXSt99 and IxXiVtiv, 2 A. P. Uxt»i}v. 

r^tfiat, to n(6, to loeor, F. r^i^atf A. fr^i^j^a, Pf. rir^t^, Pf. P. rSr^^c^MU^ 

1 A. P. Ir^^n*, commonly 2 A. P. Ir^Ctif* 

6. Change of r into ii. 

^XiiV*' (r. i(X«^-« AXtip.), to anoint, F. 4lX«;<4^«, A. HXit^P*, Pf. 4Xi(xrfM 
(§ 191. 2) and Hxu^m, Pf. P. kXrtXiftfAcu and HXtt/tfuu, 1 A. P. 4Xi;^#ii«, 

2 A. P. liXi^y. 

l^t/««, to AreoA, F. \^*im, 1 A. 4ffii|«, Ar. Vesp. 649, and 4ffi|«, Hipp., 
2 A. 4ff<»«y, P. 295, Pf. P. l^^iyfiat, Hipp. Collat., Ep. l^ix^m, t. 83. 

l^fiVw, to cost ctoum, F. X^u^atj A. ^(ii>^a, A. P. h^pinf* 2 A., eomm. 
tntrana., tt^tTn, £. 47, Plup. P. c^i^i rr« H. 15, late Pf. F. l^^ttufMu. 

See, also, XiiV« (t 37) and rtiV« (Y 39). 

7. Change of • into «». 

i!»«^ (r. «»«^ A»«v.)i ft> ^^^o*** P* kmoirofMUt A. i!f»«vr«, 2 Pf. A»««««» 
8 Plup. 4»ii«;iiy (§ 191. 2), A. P. «»«vV#«». Late, F. ^x^Jr**, Pf. P. 4f»«9. 
r/MM. Ep. kuMJUtty Horn. Merc 423. 

^370* 8. Change of if mto 0. 

IXytm, to aj^ltcf, F. kXy9tS, A. 4fXy9Mi, A. P. iiXyMnf, 
9%u^»fMu and )v^«/MM, to lament, F. i^d^*?/!**!, A. »)i^i{/«fi». 
wxtuty to woMh, F. rX^nS; A. twXffwmj Pf. P. wi^XSfuu (§ 217. •), A. P 

rt(p»» (r. Sd^., ri;^. § 263), to fumigate, to hum, F. SuV**, Pf. P. rUuftfrnt^ 
2 A. P. IrlJ^iff. 

9. Change of 9 into iv. 

«iv^« (r. kyt-y »ii^.)> A> A><^ poet 2Sach. Pr. 571, F. »cvrM, 1 A. I»im»» 
«. 263, 2 A. I»i^«», 7. \6 (jiixutn, § 194. 3), 2 Pt »(»iv#c. Soph. EL 1 12a 
Ep. KtvUiim, r. 453. 

Tii/;t;*»^ <» prepare, poet., F. n^«r, A. Ir««;5«, Pf. P. rirvyfuu, A. P. M^h^ 
Pf. P«. intrans. riTii;;t;'^f A*- 423, Pf. P. nTiJ;t;«r«i (^ 248. /) ^. 63, Plup, 
lrirff;;^«r« A. 808, Pf. P. Jnf, nrii;;^W«< X' ^04, F. Pf. rint^«;MM, M. 
345, A. P. Irtvxhh Hipp. ELindred verbs, rtfyx**^ (§ 290), rtrmt/mt 
(5 285). 

^iwy^S and sometimes ^«yyig.« (§ 200), to ^, F. ftv^»/Mu and ^tft|«S>Mi. 
(§ 200. 3), 1 A. t^tu^a, commonlj 2 A. tpyyov, 2 Pf. «^ft»>^ I^ PH Pt. 
^fvlirtt (cf. 274. >) «I». 6, ff-i^t/y^Sy^f «. 18. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


10. Change of i, in the diphthong ci, to «. 

»Xt/« and xXptff to shut, F. »Xi«r*r and xXiir«, A. IzXu^ai and tttXy^m, 
Pf. P. »%xXue/tMi, »(»Xii/BMM, and MtKXif/Mti, F. Pf. »f»XiiV«/»«i, Ar. Lys. 
1072, A. P..UXf;r#fff. Ion. »Xtff*», ./r**, Hdt. iii. 117; Dor. F. ttXafsfi or 
»Xf(M llieoc. 6. 32, A. I»X«^«, &c, as from xkd^m or »Xf^*r (§ 245. 1). 

^ 371. II. By the addition of consonants, 
usually either t, ct, v, ctx, or f. 

Of these consonants, t is chiefly added to lahial roots ; a, to 
palatal and lingual roots ; y (without further addition, § 289. 2), 
to liquid and pure roots ; ax, {;, &c., to pure roots. In a few 
instances, the close terminations are affixed to the protracted 

§ 373* 1. Addition of r (see § 52). 
«. To Labial Roots. 

drvi (r. il^., ib«'r-)» A> fauten to, to tet on fire, F. iVa^'**, A. l^^^«, Pf. P. 
iT/t^AM, A. P. ^^tfv (of^^tf*, Hdt. i. 1 9, U^^i}», y. 543). Kindred, k^Jut, to 
kmdie. Ion. ^^«err*r, A. f|f^a«-dt, Hdt. iii. 69, ArapUxt (§ 296). 

^aitTM (r. /3«^., ^cvr-), to dip, F. A«'«^*'> A. IC«^^4t, Pf. P. fiiCm/A/iUUt 
1 A. P. lU^ftiv, commonly 2 A. P. iU(ptif. 

fi^Jirrtt (r. /3X«C0> to hurt, F. ^X«^;'ftr, A. KXtt^^a, Pf. fiiSXm^m, Pf. P* 
fiiCXmatfuu, 1 A. P. ICx^fiP, 2 A. P. iex«^Ci}y. F. Pf. fi%Zxi^»iM, Hipp. 
Ep. fiXdSofMu, T. 82. 

2^(v«'r*» (r. ^(vf •)» to fear tAe ^/letA, poet Ear. EI. 1 50, F. ^^u^J^t, I A. 
U^v^a, n. 324, 2 A. Op*. ^r^^^f^^M T. 187, A. P. S^(v>^tfy, i. 435. 

^^rr« (r. S«f .)> to 6ury, F. ^l^^^*r, A. Um^^a, Pf. P. rUafifuu, 3 F. rt- 
ii^4fMu, Soph. Aj. 577, 2 A. P. iriC^ (§ 263). 1 A. P. UJilpif,^, Hdt iL 
8 1 . From the r. S«f - in another sense, come tiie Ep. and Ion. ^2 Pf., as Pres., 
vk0iinr», to he amazed, A. 243, Hdt ii. 156, 2 A. Ir«^«v, I. 193 ; and the 
late 1 Pf. trans, rita^, Ath. 258 c 

^f^trr^ (r. ^^'\ to brook in pieces, F. ^(i^i, Pf. P. rii^uptfrn. 
A. ^^(va/'*, Hipp., 1 A. P. U^y(p9m, Anth., 2 A. P. ir^6(pn* (§ 263), P. 363* 

»mpt9rrm (r. X4t/tfr-), to bend, F. xtifi^ptt, A. I»«e^^^«, Pf. P. »i»af*fuu 
(§ 217. ^), A. P. Udft^tif. Kindred, yvc^v-r*^. 

»X««'«-*' (r. »X«r., »Xtfr. § 259), to «toa/, F. »Xi^t, A. l«Xf^^«, Pf. »f* 
»X«^« (§ 236. a), Pf. P. »UXi/AfMu, 1 A. P. Uxc^tfv, commonly 2 A. P. 
UXi^rtfv. Late 2 A. txXturov. 

mirr»f (r. am-.)* to etU, to strike, F. »«^», A. I»«^^•, Pf. «Sx«^«, Pf. P. »(• 
jM^VMM, 3 F. MjJs^ipM, Ar. Ban. 1223, 2 A. P. l»««-iiir. 2 Pf. /^ Mjct^tif 
N. 60. 

«(v«^« (r. »(vC.)» to Aid^i F. »fv>^«r, A. U^a, Pf. P. xi»^ofmm, 1 A. P 
Ufv^nv, sometimes 2 A. P. U^vCiry. In Hipp., Pf. »i»(vpm, F. Pf. »t»^in^«« 
f$m4. For »^Mrr«r»t, see $ 249. d, 

f^^ fa^.), to stitdi, F. fJi^m, A. ?//«^^«, Pf. P. f/^A^ 2 A. P 

ftd^rm (r. AMie«'-)* ^ '"^ V>^ F* A<^«»f 0. 137, 1 A. tfut^^a, Ar. Bq 

Digitized by 



197. Ep 2 A. pAfm^wn, shortened ^//u««-«» (§f 194. 3, 255. >, 263. 6j, 
and ItMMxn, Hes. Sc 231, 2 Pf. ftifui^^a. Id. Op. 202. 

r^«-9w (r. rvtr., riMrr.), F. ru^rwrn (§ 222. l), 2 A. 4r«Nr«s PC P. virtf 
wvnfMu snd rirv^^Mu, 2 A. P. Iruwnu Ion. 1 A. Irt^«, A. 531, iri/^c/tii* 
Hdt. u. 40. For nrvvrstnt, aee § 194. 3. 

fi. To Other Boots. 

kfta^t avtrt (t. iw-, Jtrvr-), to aoeompUihf F. a^tw^t A. ^fvfimn, Pf. ht'mm 
Pf. P. nvv*tMMu A. P. ntvffintt Hes. Sc. 3 1 1 . The simpler form '£»« like* 
wise occurs in the Prss. and Impf. For il^w, &c., see $ 246. « 

«•/»«» (t. ri»-» r/»c. § 259), to h^gei^ *> 6r% /©rK*, F. rVim^ ^tnUMAj 
rVitfuu, I A. 2r4»i oommonly 2 A. 7rf««v, 2 Pf. rWMMh A. P- irix^wt* 
Late Pf. P. rtrc^r^M. For rtzufffas, see § 200. y. 

§ 373* 2. ADDITION OF r. 

This letter is sometimes simply prefixed or ^!a^ to the 
characteristic^ but commonly unites with it, if a palatal^ to form 
aa (tt, <J 70. 1), or less frequently f, and, if a lingwd^ to form 
f (§ 51. N.), or less frequently oa (rr). 

Notes. (I.) Palatals in .^» are mostly onomatopes. (2.) lingaals in 
-Zm are mostly derivatiyes, wanting the second tenses, and, by reason of eu- 
phonic changes, nowhere exhibiting the root in its simple form. The charac- 
teristic may, however, be often determined from another word. It is most 
frequently ^, and may be assumed to be this letter, if not known to be another. 
(3.) In a few instances, r unites with yy to form ^, and even with a labial to 
form ^ or rr. 

a. Prefixed. 

^X60nm (r. iXvs., AXiirx-), to avoid, poet, F. JkXv^, A. ilfXn^. Extendea 
Ep. forms, «Xvr«^ Z. 443, «Xvr»4ra x- 3^* 

Urm» (r. ir»., f2». § 260, liVie.), to UkeH, Ep. F. 19? (also U%m ). 279), 
PC P., as Prss., Ipyftm, to be like, Eur. Ale 1063, Plup P. AT^/kuv, ). 790'. 
llie common trans, form is ii»«^«, .<^r*r, &c., and the conmon intrans., the 
prat. %•*%• (^ 238. /3), for which are also used the simplet s7«« (having in th€ 
3d Pers. pL the irr^ular form iii&in Ar. Av. 96 ; cf. Irik* *» ^237. Zhm\ antf 
Ion. Jtxm, Hdt i. 155 ; Plup., as Impf., i^»iiv (§ 189. 5,, F i?|*r, Ar. Nub. 
1001. Ep. Impf. mtrans. (or Pf.) tlm 2. 520. 

hivtt and Wt'rtt (r. Ivir-, iy^*'. § 259, iMrr-), lo ^eol^ fc^ poet. A. 64.), 
a 761, Soph. (Ed. T. 350, F. Ui^ot, H. 447, and Iw^fiwm (^ 222) t. 98 
2 A. iMrv-jf, Eur. Sup. 435. Kindred, Ui^rm and Iv/r^-^ (<i 276. 0, to re- 
|iroac&, £^. P. 438, O. 198, 2 A. nnv&wn and Uivrrfy (§ 19 ^ S). BeUifed 
to iTr^f (1301.7). 

Aiir»*r (r. Xmm'}, to srmwd; to utter, poet, F. Xauntofuu (^ 222), A. ix«xi}. 
#«, commonly 2 A. Ixa««», 2 Pf. Xix«»« ( <) 236. £.). 2 A. M. XtXaxavro 
(^ 194. 3). For UXAjtvla, see ^ 253. 2. Deriv. forms, Fp. Xnitiw, /. 379 
Dor. XMnim, Theoc. 2. 24, Att X«»«^«f, .£sch. Sup. 872. 

^. AflUxed. 

«xi|« (r. «Xi»-, 4tXi5.), to iwirvf q^, poet in the Act, F. IXtlwt, Z. 109^ 
'Kl|iir«, y. 346, and ^Xi^«, ifisoh. Sup. 105 J, 2 A. «X ;i»w (i§ 194. % 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


261), ;fx»«/«. (5k 299) -ffiach. Fr. 417 ; Mid. to repel, P. «Xi£|rr^ci, viJ. 7. 3 
A. iiXtlafinv^ i. S. 6. 

i)«^«fMi<, to 6tte, Ion. and Poet, F. »i»liv»fia$j Hipp., A. 4f)«|iS/ufy, Anib^ 
Ft P. iHmyfMu, Act •)«(*>, to gmart from a 6tto, Symp. 4. 27. 

^ 974. 7. Uniting with a Palatal to ibnn r^ (rr). 

»3LXA0^»t or «XX4irr« (r. rnXXmy-^^ to cAonge, F» aXXi^at, A. iTXJL*!*, Pd' 
4iXX«;^«, Pfl P. jfXXayyMM, 1 A. P. nXXd^^nv, 2 A. P. 4xx«yif». 

rX4r#w (r. 4'X«f7.), to eirS^ in «6mpo8itioD with in or xaroj to s<rtAe trt^A 
Urror, F. «>Xif|«, A. {vXtf^c, 2 Pf. Tri^rXn^, Pf- P' irf«rXny/M««, 8 F. fl^v-Xi?- 
(o^MM, Ar. Eq. 272, 1 A. P. iwX^x^mf eommofUy 9 A. P. l^rXnynv, bat iff. 
wx;^7#f, Mrt«>X<{7«f (wifyiff, r. 31, 2. 225). For ♦i-rXuyw, 4c., see § 194. 3. 
The form irXwy^^fuu ($ 293) oocuK Tk. iv. 1 '25k In the simple sense to 
sHlIhe, the Att wiitere associate the Act of ««M^r#w with the Pass, of rXiir. 
r*r (§ 301). 

•'WMv (f. «'r»»-, «yi»»« § 26^)^ to ctpmcA ^si y«ar, F, rri»^ 1 A. 
f«rr«|ih poet 2 A. f«^«»«», iEsch. Etna* 25^^, Pf. %wnfix»- £p*i A^ni r. irr«^ 
2 A. Z>. 3 ^-rw'm* H.136, PC Pt, inwmm (§ 253. 1), B. 312 (cf. § 238. «> 
Kindred, «Wr#Jl^ A. 371, «'«««#»iC*', A. 372. 

TA^tt (r. r«^;^.), to ciM<Mrfr, F* <ni^^, A. Ir«^«|«, Pf. P. rffr«^«7« 
«MM, A. P. i«vif^;^^ir«. From rm^iktr^m 'm forvied, by metathesis^ oootraotion, 
and the aspiration of r before ^(§ ^5* N.), ^jp/U^at (rw^A^rr^ «^»«0-r., ^^m^0'\ 
F. ^e<^ A. c^^«SiH A. P. i#^#ii». ]^Pf.,asP^.intraoB.,«ir^;^«(§62), 
H. 346. 

raeem (r. rdty.), to orrai^ F. r«^«. A- It«5«» Pf» Tir«;^«» Pt P. ri* 
riLyfuu, F. Pn rtriil|«^iMM, Th. v. 71, 1 A. P. Irm^^tif, rare 2 A. P. lriJyi»n 

f^Urtt (r. C^i»0* ^ s)b«dd!er, F. f^tiat, A. 7^e'^«, 2 Pf. rc^^r»«. For n. 
f^Unrmf, see ^ 846. 2. 

I. UnHiiig with a P^tal to Ibrm C* 

»fa^t *and 2 Pf. »i»^£ym. (§ 238. /3), to er^, F. Pf. xiK^ilo/Mtt (§ 239. c), 
2 A. \»^»yu Kindred, »x£iii (§ 277. «), »fiv?«, -a^Ia*, xX^^«. 

«i/u»^«» (r. •lfA^y-\ to bewail, F. *l/uuil^afuUf A. f/AM^et, Pf. P. elfftatyfiuu 
(c 189. 4). A. P. JPl. •ifMtx^ttf Theog. 1204, late F. «;^|Af, Anth. 

iX«Xv^*r (r. iX»Xvy-), to shoutf to shriek^ F. iXtXil^oftMij A. ivX«Xv^«. 

rny«^^ and poet rnv«;^*», to ^roan^ F. rrcv«^a>, A. \rrU«t,l^a, Poet forms, 
rrM«;^M», Soph. EL 133, rrmax'^*' O' '*'««'*AJ'C*'> B. 781, A. lrr«v«;^ii#«y 
2. 124. 

r^«^d» and r^«rr« (r. r^«7-), to day, F. r^«|a», A. 7r^«^<x, 1 A. P. l^^d^" 
inh commonly 2 A. P. lirpmynv* Pf. P* irpayf$at$j ». 582. The shorter 
root ^«. appears in the Sp. PC P. tI^^mm, £. 531, F. Pf. vi^nffuih N. 829. 
Hence (r. f«., ^ty. §§ 259, 277), the poet 2 A. liri^o (§ ) 194. 3, 261> 

I. Uniting with yy to form ^. 

«'X«C'» (r* vXmt^.), to coKM to tmnufer, poet (s> ff-XMVM**), B. 132^ 
A. WXmyia, m. 307 ; Hid. irX«^«^«, to «NiM^, Soph. Aj. 886, F. v-xiy^. 
^« #.312, A. P. irxiyx^f £ar. Hipp. 240. 

wtiXvi^t (r. rotX^-iy^.), to fOMul a trumpet^ F. r«X9r/7^*r, A. WmXm^/f^ 
Late F. waXviw, &c 

See, also, «Xi^« Ci 277. •). 


by Google 


§ 37S« C* Uniting with a lingaal to fona ^. 

»mPi!^m (r. i., 22. § 282, i;., i*^. §^259), to teat, to ji/ac«, F. mafiU*,, »mtm 
(§ 200. /3), A. i»i^iV« and ««^ir« (^ 1^*2. 3), Ar. Ran. 91 1. Mid. »«^;^« 
/«M, and rarely »a§V^o(Attty Fl. Ax. 371 c, to ««, F. »a^t(n<r»fAmt (§ 222), PI 
Phsedr. 229 a, and »tihhvfuu (§ 200. )^), PI. Theaet. 146 a, ^ A. commonly 
trans. Ua^4<r«/»f}y, Dem. 897. 3, and »etturi/Ant {^ 189. :«), Eur. Hipp. 31 
2 A. intrans. Ua4tt^mti9, u 5. 9. Late, A. P. Ijut^i^tit, Anth., F. M. »«/• 
2it«-«/«a«, Diog. Ldiert. ii. 72. The simple forms are chiefly poet, and dialectks 
i^*», to teaty sit, B. 53, iEsch. Earn. 18 (extended U^mvtf, Th. ii. 76), A. J^u, 
B. 549, Pt Umts »• 361 (Ion. v«r.f/r«f Hdt iii. 126); Mid. T^^^mm, F. 162, 
and rarely i^«^m, Soph. (Ed. T. 32, F. ip.Unffa4 L 455, later i7r«/MM Ap. Bh. 
2. 807, I A. tUa/ttiP, Theog. 12, irr^^^nv, Pind. P. 4. 363, i«rr«/M(ir, {. 295, 
2 A. IC^^Di, .£sch. Earn. 3 ; Pf. P. ^^mm, to tU (^ 59), A. 134, Eur. Ale 
604, of which the comp. jtmin/Mu is also common in Att. proae. Derir* 
(i^uaiy .vr*r, &C., A. P. ti^Unt and th^w4w (§ 278. y), 

ivtfiui^tt (r. ifftf/iMir.), to name, F. mti^^m, A. mtifutra, Pf. mtifMtmm, Pf. P* 
mafAa^fuu, A. P. ivv«^MM'^irv. lon. «tfv«p«^iv (§ 44. 4), Hdt. Iv. 6, .£oL •»»- 
^4^«^ (§ 44. 5), Pind. P. 2. 82, chiefly Ep. iftftctiw, B. 488. 

^^«^«r (r. ^^c).), to'teU, F, ^f«ra», A. If^««w, Pf. Wf^x*, Pf. P.>i^. 
r^MH, A. P. i^r^«y. Ft F. PL «'^.«'c^e«)^»««, Hes. Op. 653. For «ri. 
^^«2w. &c see § 194. 3. Extended, 1 A. ^«Wrt Pind. Nem. 3. 45. 

Xdl»> (r. x*^'* ««)- § 263. N.), to <2r»M 6aeft, rttirt (iva-x^** ^' 116), 
more frequently, bat chiefly Ep., BGd. x*X'f**** ^ reih^ F. ;^4^«^mm, 1 A. 
ix»^^»f*fi9, A. 535. Ep. 2 A. i'^. «i»«Uy, 2 A. M. »c»«2«»r« (§194. 3;. 
F. MxM^m (§ 239. 6). 

«. Umting with a Tiingnal to form 99 (rr). 

itniieettt to he vnuted, Ep. K. 493, A. «if/cr«, Ap. Bh. I. 1171. 

itff*i^i*, and Att etffisrrs* (r. il^^.), F. ib^/Mr«r, ^^^fuu. Dor. A. P. 
l^fAoxhtj Diog. Laert. viii. 85. 

^Xt00-t or fixirrt (r. /«iXir-, /«X«r- § 261, jSAjt- § 64. K.), to toA« Aofaqf 
^m ^e Aire, F. /3X/r*r, A. cCXir«. 

*«e«''<^«' (r. »«e*'^-). to arm, poet., Pf. P. PL »%M^t4fs,Ut (§ 53), V, 18 
Eur. Andr. 279. A. M. PL »«(vrr«^cMf (§ 71) T. 397, Dor. A. Ui^v^di 
(^ 245. 1), Theoc 3. 5. 

9Fi99tiy to tpnnJdty F. <r«r*r, A. X^tawat^ A. P. iv'iir/ifv* 

«'XiC«-7*r, to fouhion, F. )rX«r*r, A. l)rX«r«, Pf. P. itWXm^fuut A. P. Wxi. 

i^. Uniting Wth a Labial to form X <"* •'•'• 

»/{a/ (r. M^.)> *o washf F. »A^*», A. hi^», Pf. P. fUs/A/uti, A. P. Iyi>ln», 

Hipp. Late v/Vrar, Pint, but iito-viwrt^fw r. 178. 

9riffa0 or «'irr*r (r. ^-cr-), to cooA, F. «'i^^M, A. frt^^«, Pf. P. ritrf/A^uw 
A. P. SiTi^^nv* Late ftiitrtt. 

See, abo, IriVr** (§ 273. «), XiC«/MM (§ 290). 

^970. Rekakk. As verba in -T^v and -erm are formed lh>m both 
palatal ^and lingual roots, and as pure yerbs often pass into verbs in -^d», it ii 
not strange that in some yerbs there should be an intermingling of fonnf. 


by Google 


ktwi^t, to match, F. i^drtt, A. jf^ircr*, Pf. ^(it»»m, Ff. P. H^wmtfuu^ 
A. P. ^i^r/nir. Non-Att. F. ile«ri^A», X. 310, A. P. «f«-4£;^j^ii», Hdt u. 90, 
&c Late 2 A. M. P*. (r. &^:, § 227) i^^df^tf^, Anth. 

Iwee/?:*', to «%, tir^, poet., F. U«(i'|*», A. 191, A. W^i|« P. 187, and 
ny^if»t Anacr., Pf. P. 4»«^ir^Mu, Soph. Aj. 26, hmfi^nf, JBach. Cho. 347, 
Primidye, l»«;^«» 0. 296, 2 A. i|fy«^«». Soph. Ant 871, 1 A. M. ifuf^ftnv, 
E. 43. 

7^« (or T{>«) and /iC<» ('• lcy-» hy § ^62, I^J-), to do, poet and Ion 
ifiech. Sept 231, 4>. 214, F. I(|« i. 360, and /i^, Ear. Ale. 262, A. l^lm 
JEsch. Sept 924, and tffi^a or f^t^M, L 536, Soph. (Ed. G. 539 (observe tha 
augment), 2 Pf. I«^y«, B. 272, 2 Plnp. U^yi/y (§ 189. 5), >. 693, U^yMS 
Hdt L 127, A. P. Pt. ftX^iit, L 250. 

oi^fAn^il^tt, to ponder, poet, F. fAt^n^il^ r. 261, A. i/«i^ii^«S», A. 189, 
and IfUffin^i^m, At. Yesp. 5. 

<r«;{;«r, to phj^, F. irttil»/Mu, wa^wfuti (§ 200. 3), A. IrMr*, Pf. w^wmrn^ 
Pf* P. wtwtu€fuu. Later, vai!^, twatl^m^ m^rmxa, irivrmiypuu, lr«/;^^«v. 

Note. See § 245. 1 . The Dorics sometimes extend the palatal fbrms to 
other tenses, besides the Fat and A<nr. act and mid. ; as, iXvyix^m (far Jwhu) 
Theoc. 1 98, riiX»Y/*»* (^Xi^) Id. 22. 45, i^ftix^m (§ 275. n). 

§ 3 7 7* S. ADDinON OF ». 

In impure roots, y is commonly prefixed to the characteristic « 
but in jnir^ roots, affixed. 

Note. In a few poetic forms, » is prefixed to a diaracterlstic For the 
changes of » before a consonant, see § 54. A short vowel is sometimes 
lengthened before ». 

A. IVefixed to a Consonant 

dXXtfuu (r. 'AX-, JkfX', AAA.)> to hap, F. kXwfuu, A. hxifunh Smbf. *aXm 
fMu (§ 86. «), &C., 2 A. M/iim, 8ubf. 'ixifuu, &g. Ep. nade 2 A. iS. 2 
^Xr» «•. 754, 3 iXr» 755, PL &XfUf$t A. 421 (§§ 13. 4, 185. }). 

fLaXXm (r. ^«X^ ^X«. § 262, ^0X1- §§ 28, 288), F. fimXi, &c., see § 223. 
Ep., F. fiXwtfuu, T. 335, 2 A. KXnf (^ 227.^), f. 15, lSx^f$tit, U. 39, 
commonly pass. A. 675, Cipt. 8. 2 fiXp* or (r. ^Xi- § 259, cf. xt^**ii «•>•«^»f^ 
§ 284) $Xm N. 288, /n/. ^Xifr/«i A. 1 15, &c. ; Pf. P. fitCiXnfuu, L 9. 

»Xii^« (r. »X4iy-« »X«yy-, «X«{^. § 274. •), to c&xn^, to scream, F. »Xi^^w, 
] A. txXmy^m, 2 A. IxXa^o, Pf., as Pres., »i»Xetyyat or »i»Xmyx»i Ar. Vesp. 
929 (»«*Xny«, B. 222, see § 246. 2), F. Pf. fnxXdylof^mt (§ 239. c). Ex- 
lecded forms, xXmyyUt, Theoc. Ep. 6. 5, uXmyymUm, JSsch. Eam. 131, 
«X«y7i6»*' Soph. Fr. 782. 

r^«XX*» (r. r^«X.)» to discetw, F. r^Xiv, A. fr^i|X«, PC P. te^Xfttu, 
9 A. P. Ir^tfXiry. 

#rlXX« (r. ^raX-f mX- § 259), to teiid^ F. #nX*l, A. UruXm, PC lrr«X««y ' 
FT. P. UraXftmi, 9 A. P. Wrdx^h rarely 1 A. P. Wrtixfn*. For Uv«xi2«rt, 
■ee $ 248. /. 

fi. Affixed to a Consonant 

Unm (r. )«»^ >9s. § 266), to bite, V. ^^l»^t, 2 A. »«»•», Pf. P. I0« 
y^MM, A. P. Uii;t/n». Poet Mid. >«*»^^^«i, -^^sch. Pers. 571. 


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44^yi» (r. rafit-, rif*- § §59), to cnrf, F. ^-i^iP, 2 A. ttmutf tend in^fun, Pf 
viTf»tr»M (§ 361), Pf. P. ^irftfifiiah 3 F. ^irfinvtfuu, A. P. Wfi.Mw. Io& 
r«/»»M, r. 105. FVm- nr^«r#«is aee ) 234. ^. Kindred Ep. rfuiyat, 11. 390 
(fyMiV«w, B^>flch. 2. 81), F. r^^«», 1 A. 7r>i»^^ )2 A. Ir/M^yM^ 2 A. F,Upd 
y9i9, laur i<iyM»y«». Some read ri/ifi, us Praa^ N. 707. 

fl0d, idao, »i/»y«» (§ 223). 

§ft78. y. Affixed io a YvfreL 

^#;»», and poet ^»wnm ({ 279 > n /3«.X to ^ F. ^n^fuu^ 2 A. H/kp 
(T 57 ; see § 227, 242. b, 251. 4), Pf. ^iUttm, (see ^ »2S8. «). Poet anf 
Ion., F. /3i;rM, J tottf cauae to go, finr. Iph. T. 742, 1 A. 7C>i^c, Hdt. i. 46 
In composition, Pf. P. fitCmfAat and fii€et<r/*at (§ 221 . «), A. P. ICdB^nV' Fot 
/3ff0t«, &c, see ^ 185. i. Kindred forms, /3«« in Dor. ixCStras Th. v. 77 
£p. /3iC^, r. 22, /3;Cii^, H. 213, fitCmrf,0 N. 809; Ion. fiiUem*,, Hipp.; 
tiie coramon oansative ^tCmt^tt ; and apparendj the Ep. IVm. nsed as Fat. 
(^ 200. b) A(«|i*«i, / tkaa watt, /hh;, O. 194, X. 431, PL ^if^tHm (or /3i« 
^<r^«) Horn. Ap. 528. 

)</M» (r. I|}.)> to mtar, F. }vw0f$mt, 2 A. I^v (f 57 ; flae ^ 227, 926. 4), 
Pf. Ms»m, For ^vfMvri, sea $ 243. 4. Tha (Mimitiva aU is comm«nly 
caosative, to make to enter (jet = ^wm, i. 272), F. U^tt, A. I^f7r«, Pf. «l«'«. 
)f^t;»« V. 8. 23, Pf. P. ri$vf^, A. P. ilt^tif. <M€tfy Ep. and Ion., Pres. M. 
ivoftMs, £. 140, A. M. llufftifftnfy 6. 578, 2 A. P. iiinvt Hipp. For Wir«,&c., 
see <^ 185. 1. Later Ep. Mm, ^wnrm, Ap. Bh. 1. 1008, A. Pt. }v^ms 1326. 

iktittf commonly iKmvttt, to drive, F. IXart, tX» (^ 200. 2), A. jfJUtMi, Pf. 
tXifXc»A(6 191), Pf. P. UiiXa^ci, A. P. ^Xa^D». loa, Pf. P. \>.nXtt9fUU 
Htpp., A. P. hxdein^, Hdt m. 54. For iA.iiX«)«r«, see § 248. /. Ion. and 
I'bet U«rr^f«, 2. 543. 

fAotfiai and fMiUfims (r. /««•, /iMii- ^ 267, /tiv- ^ 259), to «eeA after, poet. 
Soph. (Ed. C. 836, ». 367, Ep. F. fteiirrtfuu (^ 71) A. 190, A. Ifimffifinp, 
f. 429, 2 Pf. yKS^«M (§ 238. «). Pres. Imp. fuiu (§ 242. b) Mem. u. I. 20 
(Epich.), Inf. (as from r. fta».) fiSrfat Theog. 769. Extended, fiat/Um, 
.ffrw. Soph. Aj. 50. 

vtw (r. «••-, «•!- § 259), to rfrtnA, F. •'f^/KOi (^ VOO. b). later mwf/^mt 
;§ 200. 3), 2 A. i^Tn (§ 227. «), /mp. Wi, commonly «•»#, Pf. «->«'•»»«, 
Pf. F. tJ«-«a*«'. a. p. WiSnu 

rltt (r. r<-), to pajf, to expiate, F. rttf-M, A. trt^; Pf. rfrtua, Pf. P. riW- 
r/u«<, A. P. IrUhv. Mid. r/v«/u«i, and rlrUfMu or rlfvUfMtt (^ 293), to avenge, 
to punidi, chiefly poet P. 279, 366, Em:. Or. 323, 1 172, Hdt v. 77. Poet 
TM, to pay honor to, F. <n9t I. 142, Irira, Soph. Ant 22, Pf. P. Pt. rtriftitH, 
r. 426. 

^^«v» (r. ^^«-)* to anticipate, F. ^fiavm, commonly ^4nr§^ou (§ 219), 1 A. 
l^i«r«, 2 A- iipfint (§ 2J7). Pf. tp4ax», Ep. 2 A. M. Pt. ^^^^iMf E. 1 19. 

^^/iri* (r. ^i-), to pertsA, to destroy, F. trans. ^^*V«», ^^/*i. Soph. Aj. 1027, 
intrans. (pSlffAeu, A. trans, i^fitm, Pf. P. t^^ffiai, Plup. P. and 2 A. M. 
(^§ 227, 226. 4) l(pfi1f^nf. Ep., ffm, 2. 446, /5. 368, A. P. I^^^n^ ^^. 331, 
3 A. Act t<p^4of (cf. § 299) E. 110. Extended poet fbrm, ^ftttU, A. 
491, «. 250. 

I. Preixed to «. 

See iifivaftrnt (5 298), mifvnfiii, K^nf^vufAM, 9'Irtnfiu, r»iX«^ (^ WS), «r(^v«- 
•M r§ 285), 9rsXm»,, Wx»«/mj (§ 28-'). 


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%:R. 10;] BKiVATie t;BAi7<iB^ 239 

The addition of these letters is commonly attended with the 
precession or protraction of the preceding vowel, with metathe* 
ra« or with the h$i of a eotwmani. 

«. Without fnrther Changs. 

i^r»» (t. k^t-), 10 piBOie, F* Jtfi^tt, A. |^ir«, A. P. ^Whif. Sto Jt^it^U 
w»m (§ 285). 
•^ yn^im and yn^ivnty to grow old^ F. yn^wm and yn^mfttttf I A. Iyii(«r«, 
i A. iynfav (§ 227), Pf. yiyn^dma. 

iXetfxafMU (r. /Aa-)i ^ propitiate, F. IXarfim^ A. /X&r«/M»)<A. P. Iktir^f. 
Kindred Att foiins, skUfiat Mach. Sup. 1 1 7, iXtit/uu, PI L^. 804 b. £p., 
IdJUfiott, B. 550) Pf. iStt^. iXifJMf, f. 3^5, OpL iXmsi^ Horn. Ap. 165 ; 
forms as from 7kn/u, Imp. fjicA Ap. Bk. 4. 1014. TxnA (§251. 4)^ Mid. 
7;uE^MM H(«m. Hym. 20. 5 ; later £i>.» F. iX#(iyMu Ap. Rh. 2. 808, A. ;a«|«. 
fuiw. I. 1093. 

l^irjMt (r. ^M#»-), A» tnterieolK, Fw fuitwm, A. I^«l#«#», A. P. ^t^i/rAf». 
Tb% iatrant. ^m^^ Io de ^rtpiA, oocnn i» tha Pras. and Impf. 

^ 3 80# 13. Towvl diangod bj Preoessioit. 

A/iCkiat, commonly i^CXiVx# (r. A/»CX»., i^CXiriiK $ 259), to imtttmy, 
F. AfiCXsirit, A. UfA^Xm, Pf. tf/itCXttxtt, Pf. P. ^^uCXw^m. 2 A. 4^Cx«»» in 
Said. Ion. S|^^Cxiir«/ Hipp. 

^irCXiM, commonly ApdXiwiut (r. ix«-, IXiVx-)* ^ expend^ F. AtXXiiirat, 
A. ^yiix»r«, Pf MXMxm, PC P. MxmfMu^ A. P. kvnXmiw, This verb often 
retafaiB « in the augment (§ 189. 4), espedaOy in the older Att ; and some- 
times, in doable composition, augments tira second preposition (§ 192. 3); 
thus, A. A»ix»r«, Soph. 4|. 1049, tutrnfdXmm, Isoc. 201 b. 

7. Yowsl Lepgthened. 

fiitirsM/uu (r. ^«., fim«r».\ chiefly in the comp. Am-Cuirxtfuu, to revwe, 
both trans, and intrans., F. fimwfuu, I A. trans. iCmrmftn*, 2 A. intrans. 
iCim (§ 227), /i/i;, /3m;*i» (§ 226. 2), ^•r^i, /l«M«i, /SiWf. Primitiv«, /Bm«*, *» 
Aw, Fat. /Ii«r«, commonly fimnfMu, 1 A. iCiWa, commonly 2 A. iCim*^ 
Pf. IhCmtcm^ Pf. P. /Siffm^oM. Shorttf Ep. ibrm^ ^ti^usU {fitifu^^ Wolf., 
§ 278) Hom. Ap. 528, F. jS^wrir^i Ap. Rb. 1 . 685. For ^itt, we commonly 
find, in the Pros, and Impf^ ?•«», winch again in the other tenses (F. J^ifet or 
Xnre^mtt A. 7^if^«, &C.) is rare or late.' For the contraction of ^««, see 
§ S3. «. From the contr. forms of the Impf. (I^atf) V^ntt <(*)> appears ts 
have arisen a Ist Pers. f^ny Eur. Ale 295, and a late Imp. ^«^i Anth. The 
prolonged J^mm and T^im (§ 242. b) have given rise to A- W-ii«tw% Hdt.L 120, 
Inf, liw Simon. Fr. 231. 17. 

^981. I Metatiiesii. 

BXtim40 (r. ^«X^ ^X«-, /3x«. § 64. N.), to go, to come (in the Pros., Ep. 
and' found only in composition, v. 466), F. ffXwfMu^ 2 A. I^Xtfv, PfL 
fiiicikmnm (§ 223) 

5»ifr)M» (r. S«ff^ &N(-), lo diie, F. Scvm^mm, 2 A. 7^«m», Pf. rt^»ii»« (§ 237), 
F. Pf. r«#>if(.» and rtif^Ui^fmt (§ 239. a). See mrtita* (§ 295). 



by Google 

290 ROOT OF THE VEBB. [BOOlt ir 

^^9»m (r. S«^^ ^V')i to bap, F. ^wfuu, 2 A. U*^n. ColUt. ^^Smm 
Hdt.iil 109. 

t. Consoiiaiit Dropped. 

X^»^ (r. a:«»-» § 55), to gape, F. ;^«m«/mm, 2 A. tx»9§9, 2 Pf. »l;^ffMb 
Late ;^«/r«. Exten d ed -;^«r»«^M, Ar. Yesp. 695. 

*^ex*» ('• «'«'-» •'••'^- §§ 259, 277, wafie»', •'•r;^-, the aspiration of the ^, 
which is dropped befine r, being transferred to the », which thus becomes ;^), 
to suffer, F. «'i/r«^/ (§ 58), 2 A. ;«-«^«f, 2 Pf. ^i^otia. Poet 1 A. PL «^. 
r«r (bat rr«iV«r Dind.) iBsch. Ag. I6*<24, £p. Pf. Pt, ^%^a4vi^ (§ 253. 2) 
e. 555, Dor. Pf. «'(«'«r;t;'*> Epich. 7(2). For «rf«'«r^i, see § 2S8. /3. 

^98 3* 5. Addition of ^, ^, ^, and ;^. 

l^i/^« and i^i^ (r. ^/«i(-)> ^ dqprwe, poet Find. P. 6. 27, r. 18, 
F. dlM«e^) A. 4>«ier», S. 64, A. P. niM($w, X. 58. 

}m» and }f4')« (r. I/., lu^ § 269. 6) both £p. I. 433, A. 470, oommoidy 
l%im or ItUjim (^ 58, § 237), to /wr, F. Ep. )iiV«^«i, O. 299, A. ftu^m, 
Cyr, L 4. 22 ; Mid. )/«/mm, to frigkien, poet £. 763, ifisch. Eura. 357. Deriv. 
^s^iVm^mw or itiirrtfMu, to friglUen, ^M%m ($ 299), and Ep. lin/M, to ekaee. 

ntim (r. »t., mi. § 266), to ipm, F. mwt, A. P. bii^iiy. Ep. yi«r, Hes. Op. 
775, A. tmrm, T. 128, imw^/Ant, «. 198. Late Pf. P. AmtrfMu. 

•hrmim (r. «vrff-), to.acotuMi^ F. •hriwm, &c Ep. «vr«M, X' ^^^t ^* •Mwt, 

1 A. «^r«, 2 A. 5. 3 «^r& (§ 224. E.), /n/. ^^rii^f, w»^»m, E. 132, 

2 A. M. Pt., as Pass., §vrAiA%9ot, A. 659. 

^txil^m, and poet ^%xt4m, Eur. Bh. 555, or irxi/ar, Soph. EL 220 (r. nX«t^ 
«'tX«^^ «'iXi^., irXiil^, «rXiE/., §§ 260, 262), to approach, F. nA«rM, ^%Xm 
(§ 200. 2), A. Wixa^m, A. P. Im'tU^ifif and poet Iv-Xa/h* (§261. N.), 
.£sch. Pr. 896. Ep., nA«Ur, Jion^ Bac. 44, Pf. P. ^i^Xn/uu ^ 108, 2 A. M. 
irXif/Kifv, A. 449 ; «'/X»iS«, to 6rtii^ near, Hes. Op. 508, wiXntfuu, to approatdi, 
T. 93. 

ir^w and t^/^m* ^ *<>*<^> P* ^ff'^^t A. Ir^/r*, Pf. P. ^i^^tw/uu, A. P. 

»;;«' (r* r««^ r». § 261), to save, F. r«;r«», A. Um^a, Pf. rfr«»«, Pf. P. 
wiwrn/uu and rirwr/uM, A. P. I«^«». Ep., mw. Call Del. ^'i, r««r», A. 83, 
&C. ; Fines. Imp, (rii«t, ri(«v, wi, § 242. b) ri£«» ». 230, Impf. 5. 3 (lriS«i) 
Ui«r or ri^«» n. 363, <l>. 238 ; contr. wttm, Ap. Rh. 4. 1 97 ; rim, in the Subj. 
r;^L681,#i9 424. 

T^vM, to afflict, F. T^tri, Pf. P. rlr^i/^MM* and «'^</;^<v (>*. v^v-* ^^X"* 
r^vx»' § 298), F. rfv^m, Pf. P. nr^vx-f^^h Th. iv. 60. So yU> (§ 220), to 
wim, poet irn;^^, i. 375 ; ^i^« and '^'nx*'* ^ mb, 


SYLLABLES, either, 1. by reduplication^ or 2. by 
syllabic affixes^ or 3. by exchange of letters. 

1. Reduplication. 

Reduplication in the root is most frequent in 
verbs in -(ii and -crxo. It is of three kinds : 


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CR ]0.] ^ EMPHATIC CHANaSS; 231 

a. Proper^ which belongs to roots beginning wiA a single 
consonant^ with a mute and liquid^ or with ^y, and which pre- 
fixes the initial consonant with *, or rarely with «. See dlr^ 
dotfiL^ xlxQni^i' (^ 284) ; /^t^^oiaxoy, fiifivT^axto (§ 285). 

b. Attic^ which belongs to roots beginning with a short vowel 
followed by a single consonant^ and which prefixes the two 
first letters. See aga(jlaxa) (§ 285). 

lostnad of rapeating the initial vowel, t is sometiines inserted, in inutatioo 
of the proper reduplication. See ititnfu (§ 284). 

c. Improper^ which belongs to roots not included above, and 
which simply prefixes i with the rough breathing. 

Compare §§ 190, 191. 2. 4. 

§ 3841* «. YertM in ./m. 

9U, to Umd, nanfy ^%i/m (r. )t., li^i.), v. 8. 24 (Impf. )/}« A. 105). 
F. ^V«». See §§ 219, 216. fi. 

ItlnfM (r. )«., )»)«-)* *>* P^ ^* ^'*^ ^ ^i^ivctf, f. 358. See ^ 51. 

7ii/M (p. 1^ ;•-), to swirf, F. ^r«#. See T 54, § 229. 

Irrn/M (r. rrc-, trr»'), io place, F. rn^r^. See ^ 48. Poet 1 A. Irrar«, 
M. 56, Late Pf. trans. trriMm Anth., Dor. I A. P. UrtJnt Call. Lav. 83. 
Kindred fbrms, i^rdw in composition onlv, Dem. 807. 6; rare Ur»i»»t 
(§246. N.) Ath. 412 e; late rW»», Bom. "l4. 4 ; rrfi7^« (§ 246. «). 

»/;^:e«»Aw (r- ;t:f«-» ""AJe*- § 62), to &im^ F. ;c^Va», A. I;tf •»•*«» P^- P- »i 
X^n^M' Mid. zixt^fiuth ^ borrow. The primitive sense (xf the root xt*' 
appears to be to nijify need. Hence we have, 

1 . tf%(9i/*h to euppfy the need of another, by tending him what he reqmreg, 
liid. ttix^etfiat, to nqtply -onie own need by borrowing, 

2. xt^" (^ 218. «), to aupfiy the need of one who consults an oracle, by 
answering his inquiries, F. ;^^r«>, A. 7;^f nra, Pf. P. ^ix^n/^tu and xix(*i'fi»h 
A, P. ix^nvfin*' Mid. xt^^f**h ^ consult an oracle. Poet. xziK^ ^^ Xi^Z"* 
Fur. Hel. 516. 

3. x^f^*h ^ ***PP^ <'"^'' <'(<''* "^^ ^ making use of a thing, F. x^^»f^»h 
Pf. »ix(fifMu* A. P. Ixt^'^^^i A. M. i;^^0-«^ir». In the Att. contract forms 
of ;t;(«i» and xt'^P^h n takes the place of « (§ 33. «), which, on the other 
hand> is commonly retained by the Ion. ; as xt^ ^^^ ^ ^^* 

4. ;t^ (3 Pers. sing., for ;t;f«i/ or ;t;f nr/), t* supplies need, \. %. Uis useful 
or necessary, it must or o«^A/ to be, impers. ; SubJ. xH^ Opt, (XZ'^'* XO' 

5 259) x(***'* ^^f' xi*'f*** ^^ P^^' (;t:e««'0 xe^^^ ^°^*' ^«*'- (;t:e««»'» « *"** 

serted after contraction, § 35) xt***^ ' I^P^* ix(*i^ (with » paragogic, for tx(»h 
or ?^^, cf. § 21 1. N.) or unaugm. (§ 194. 1 ) xe*i* * F"*- ;ee'»'»'' Tb® Par- 
ticiple xt*''* ^ sometimes used as an indeclinable noun ; thus, r^a xt*^** 
Personally, 8, 2 xfi'^* (§ ^82), yo« must, Ar. Ach. 778 (Meg.) Pf. P., as 
Pres., nixfnfiMi, to need, want, Eur. Iph. A. 382, «. l.'l, F. Pf. »tx(^^»f»»h 
Theoc. 16. 73. Kindred^ xnl"* ^ voant, desire, Ion. xi*'*^ ^^ ^* ^^ 
Dor. xti^^** Theoc 8. 1 2, and ;te^)««> Ar. Ach. 734. (§ 70. V.) ; Ion. d^on. 
XcntwMfms, Hdt. iii. 117. 


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333 ROOT OP m TsmBi | Bodk o 

5. A>ri*xt*h ** f^ mpjpHes need; i. e. «(tu^Ee«i, it •• «no«9&| ii|f. k*§ 
Xi^* ' Impf. iitix^fi, F. i^axinffiit A. ^^f;^if^ik Ion. a^^^^f^ -AJW*** ^ 
(see 3 above), Hdt. ix. 79. So ^^tx^itrt {^. 2^1. a) Id. viii. 14, ttmret'Xif 
i. 164, \»-xznvu iil 1 87. These verbs are also used personallT-. 

Wtimfu,{T. iva-j oMva-), to benefit^ F. ntiffttj A. tSftitret, A. P. tivn^nh 2 A* li 
^i^Kif* and ^y^nir (^ 824. 3), 0^ •mi^cmiv, /f|f. JtwrAti, Ep. and IDO. Aip 
onr* T. 68, /n/. it^i^eu Hip^^., P^. «^iuMf ^ 33. Doubtlul 2 A. Act Inf 
i^nvtu H. Rep. 600 d ; late 1 A. M. meia^fAvtj Antb. 

vrlfi'srkfiiM (r. w-Xai-, «r<-^-«rX«- § 263. 6), to //4 F. «rXiir«#, A. Iw'Xifwi, 
Pf. fl^i«'Xftx«, Pf. P. riirXitr^ffi (Plnp. h'tTi'ttXttrn L^s. t80. 4), 
A. P. i^XnsSnv, 2 A. M. lirX^fint ($ 224. 3), Ope. (ff-Xn.i.^ir*) irk^fit dr 
(ff-Xtf-, irXi- § 2.59) 9'Xti^v (cf. ;^;i/«* 4 above, ^Xir^^ § 277. a), /n^y. v-X?** 
re. i'art. «-Xi7/*iMf. /m/>. i^-«-iVx»j^i (§ 251. 4) <I>. 3ll, P^ (r. «-Xf-) W- 
witXtif, Hipp. CoOat. Ion. forms, irt/u,vXKM, -!•», Hes. Th. 88<), 9'i^Xtt, Hei. 
8c. 291 Gaisf., trifitirkmvafitai I. 679. Kindred, ^-Xii^^ai, and the intraofl. 
itk^^i (2 Pf. «-iirXfi^«, Theoc. 22. :}8), whence vXnSvm and ^Xn^*M, 

9'i/*ir^fifM (r. «•;«-, T<^r^-), to fttirn, F. «^^m» A. Ir^u*-*, Pf. P. vri^^n- 
fAtu or «rir^n'/^«') A. P. W^n^Snv, Pf. ^«'tf.4ri«'^fixa, Hipp., F. Pf. ••nr^r*- 
^Hw, Hdt vi. 9, A. l«-^frf Hes. Th. 656, Rp. Stib^ (as fVon ^r^wfw) W^mti^- 
ri (§ 181. ^) Ar. Lys. 248. Rare Ep. form, ^^m, I. .589. 

Note. The epenthetic /» of ^IfA^Xtifu and vifAv^^fu is conraibnly omitt^ 
when these verbs, in compositioD, ate preceded by /m ; thuS) ijK«nVXi!^ bat 

r«Vfi^ (r. di., n#i^ § 62), to jnd, F. S^r^. See f 50. 

Remark. Oq/m/ (^ 53) is the only verb m -fu having a moiiosyllabio 
root, and beginning with a consonant, which is not reduplicated. 

^ S 89* /3. Verbs in .r»a». 

dl^rM* (r. dl;., &^t^ i^«^r»- $ 296), to fit, Ep. |. S3, 1 A. ^Tf**, 
H. 167, a, 280, 2 A. H^m^o* A. > 10, Soph. Sa. 147 (§ 194. 3), 2 Pf. in- 
trans., as Pres., of^o^a, N. 800, also Att. £^a(«, iEsch. Prom. 60, H. Gr. iv. 

7. 6, A. P. ii^§fi^ II. 2i 1. Pf. P. i^^^tfia,, Hes. Op. 4^:9, Ap. Rh. 1. 787. 
For i^i^vTei, see y 253. 2. Deriv., ^^irxw (§ 279), A^ri/« and m^rtnt, &C 

fiiC^M9xc* (r. jStftf., fitC^MO'x-, ^ 280. y), to ea< (the Pres. rare), Pf. jSfCf«»x« 
(see ^ i;38. «), Pf. P. M^otftau Ep., 2 A. Jfff^A»r, Horn. Ap. 1 27, 2 Pf. Opt. 
(r. /a^W. ; or fix>m new Pres. fitC^iiftt) fitS^diatf A, 35, F. Pf. ^^mfftftai, 
$. 203; Ion. A. P. iC^ai^fif Hdt. iil. 16 ; late Ep. 1 A. SfC(«$M, Ap. Rh. 

8. 27 1 ; late F. ^^ti(f»f*etu The deficiencies of this verb are supplied hy Ufi'im 
(§ 298) and r^tiiym (^ 267. 3). 

y$ywxtt (r. yv9'\ to know^ F. yft^vftat, 2 A. l^^-vwir (^ 57), Pf. {yv^xa, 
Ff. P. tyvatffAau, A. P. 27>Mr^}fv. 2 A. M. OpU rvy-ytnTt i£f>ch. Sup. 216, 
Ion. 1 A. av-tyv«ra, persuaded, Hdt. i. 68. 

Note. The Ion. (not Hom.) and the later Greek softened y y^u^xtt and 
yiyvtfMU (§ 286) to ylvuvxtt and yly^^a/. 

Ztid^xM (r. ^«^ ^i^a;^-, ^i^«r«-), to toacA, F. di^«^«, A. i^i'^^a, Pf. )Ui'^s;t'«, 
Pf. P. }<2i^a9.^«i, A. V.ihUx^fif. Ep., 1 A. f)4^«^0-»iK«, Horn. Cer. Hi, 
2 A. tha0f, Ap. Rh. 3. 529, iiUmaf (§ 194. 3). From the r. U- are alsi 
formed, with the sense to team, the poet. F. %awftuu ( 222^ y- 1H7, iY 
)t2«)i»«, /3. 61, )f^«i>^u«i, Theoc. 8. 4, Vthaa, ^.519 (hence ^fW<r#«/ >r. .1.6 


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^ 246. 2), 2 A. P. tidfif, Sepii. £2. ie% Hence, Bkewise, the Ep. F. contr. 
(UcrA*, ^«i«», § 200. 2) liiV, I. 418. 

)/l#<irsM (r. )^ff.), to nm, used only in compodtiob with i«^, ^td, or f^ 
F. delr^yMi, i A. 2le4#«, 2 A. U(B9 i^ 57). Ff. it^^MMm. Kiadied, J^iutm^^^, 
Lys. 117. 35, J^nrrip**, Hdt. iv. 79. 

/MfAvnwntt (r. ^y«-)> ^ remind, F. ftfn^ty A. tfifnrM, Pf. P. fiiftvnfiau (see 
$ :^34. ^), S F. fttfftvne^fuu^ C.vr. iii. 1 . 27> A. P. ifju»ft(rhv* As from ^i^»«. 
iMKi and fAtftva/Aat, Imp. ft.ifi,n» Hdt. v. 105, P/. /ui/«y«/»iv«f Archil. Fr. 1, 
O^X. n. d fAifAvetiatr* Piod. Fr. 277. Prim. Mid. fAvAoft,ttt, to remember (Ep. 
1 106), to iroo, viii 3. 18. CoUat. forms, /t»<r»4», Orph. Hytfk. 77. (>, ^»ii 
/xd/Mt/, Anacr. Fr. 69. 

4r4«'^«r»«, and poet vri^vnfu (r. irt^*-* v^f- § 261, rt^M- § 'i78. ^), to wff, 
Pf. vri^fdKu, Pf. P. «'i«'(«^«M, 3 F. «'f«'^d^t«4N, vii. 1. 36, commonly used 
ibr the rare r««^nr«/MM (Ath. 160 f), A. P. W^ah^, Ep., Fut /nf. (s-i^c. 
wm) rte«f » (9 ^4.5. 3) 0. 454, A. i«-i(A^a O. 428, Pf. P. Pt. «-i«-f^f}^<v«; 
<I>. 58. The Fut. and Aor. of this verb are supplied by «<r«^«^0-«^»«i and «ti. 
lifAnt, mid. tenses of ^rf^i^Ar^. 

Ttr^enm (r. tj«-), to wound, F. r^iet, A. ir^«r«i, Pf. P. rir^ttfAM, A. P. 
irf«^fiir. Kindred, r^«^«, Ep. ^. 293, ro^it, to pierce, Ep. Hom. Merc. 283, 
F. ra«ii«-A>, lb. 178, 1 A. irtf^ura, E. 337, 2 A. lr«^0v, A. 236 (for rira^at 
and riro^n^M, see §§ 194. 3, 239. 6), rtf^ti/w, Ar. Thesm. 986, rtT^aitt* 
ii 286). 

rtrveufuu (r. ti/«-, §§ 263. N., 273, «), to prepare, Ep. <&. 342, 2 A. «. 
rwnTf (§ 194. S) «. 77, rfT»*«/t«», A. 467. 

§386. y. Other Verbs. 

mnax'^i" 0^« d^-, dn»X'> »»''X*K' § 297), to o/^, Ep. «•. 432, F. Ana^^ 
9t. 1 A. ^xa;^ifra, commonly 2 A. i!xax»9, Pf. P. ii»a;^n/c«/ and Ji»tix*f"^ 
(P. 3 ^»if;^i^«r«i § 248. /). CJoUat., &x^f*as r, .129, and &x^f^h Soph. 
Ant. 627, to Borrow; Pres. P^ i^;^t«rv B. 694, dl;^fMv» £. 869. 

y/yttfieu (r. y«-, yi»- §§ 259, 277, yiytv-, ytyv- § 26l), to become, F. yt 
PV^ofMu (^ 222), 2 A. iyififAfiv, Pf. T^^fim^ci, 2 Pf. yi^fM (dee § 2".8. «), 
F. P. ytvnH^^fMu, 1 A. trans. Iyiiy«/i«ifyt / ^o' or bore. Ion. and late 
A. P. iytvfiStit, Hipp. For yivTt, see § 1 85. i ; for 1 Pf. Dor. ytyaxnw, 
^ 246. 2 ; for Uyiy»»vTmt, § 245. 3 ; for '^vfutt, % 285. N. Kindred, yi/- 
»*/Mju, Ep. X. 477, yiftetm, -n^tt, to beget. 

XsKaU/Mtt (r. X«., Xikm-y ^ 267), to <festre eameetfy, Ep. N. 253, Pf. P. 
(one X dropped, § 263. 6) XtXin/iMi, A. 465. The prim. Xdtt is used by the 
Dorics; Theoc. 1. 12. 

fAiftt, and poet ;»/^v«, .Asch. Ag. 74, F. ^iitm. See § 222. 2. Ep. derir. 
fuftvm^iit, B. 392. 

«"<Vr«» (r trir-, trir- § 273. /5, trurr-), to /off, F. ^xewf^on (> 200. 3), 
I A. \xi9tt, commonly 2 A. 7«'tr0», Pf. (w-ir-, «•«- vS 262, w-t*- § 236. a) 
^t-KTmxa, (see § 238. «). DoT. • 2 A. 7«-ir«», Find. 0. 7. 1 26 ; late Pf. «••- 
irrfiiMe, Anth. Poet, forms, ^i'rtm. Soph. (Ed. C. > 754, and perhaps 'Tirvu 
(Eur. Ph. 293) and vtritdm (Find. I. 2. 39), with which some connect iTtr 
»«* as 2 Aor. 

Ttr^aifi* (r. T^«-, riT^f- § 277), to bore, F. r^^-A*, A. ir^vh Pf P« '^- 
v(tifi*t, A. P. iT^Vnt, A. M. lTtr^nMt/w*}y< F. rxrcuat, Hdt iii. 1 2, A. ir«- 
«>(n*«i 1. 247, A. P. Ir<r(«»^if», Anth. Late or doubtAil, nr^mtf, rtr^mntt. 


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2. Syllabic Affixes. 

^ aST. The syllables which are most frequent 
\y affixed to protract the root are a, «, dv, ye, w, 
iaxj and it* 

a. Addition <^ m and i. 

Rdcabks. (1.) When m is affixed, i in the preceding syllaUe OBoaDy 
becomes » ; bat, when i is affixed, «. See rr^mptiv and rr^t^Mi (§ 259. a). 
(2.) The vowel which is added is more frequently retained before the dose 

«. Addition of «. 

fifOx^t^fMu (r. /S^ffjc-), to roar, F. fi^vx^fafi**, A. lC^vxfif»/*n9, A. P. IC^v- 
;^;»)Vu», 2 Pf., as iW, fiiCfS^a. Kindred, fift/tM, later /3e«;t;A» (Hipp.), to 
^luuift Me teetA. Similar onomatopes are fiXnx*'/*'^* '^^ ^fixm0ftMt, to bleat, 
and ftvxdofiuiif to hWf F. •^^tfuuf £p. 2 Pf. fttiftn»eij K. S62, ^c^i/xc, 2. 5bO, 
2 A. l^»0y, n. 469, tf*ifx0f, E. 749. 

ystitt (r. 7«.), to AezraO, Ep. fL 664, F. yn^^fMu, 2 A. fyd^ir, Z. 500. Mid. 
yMitfMt, also Att., Soph. CEd. T. 1249. 

9m/tM«t, F. tm/tmrtty poet for vi^ (§ 222. 2), to dtstrilmte. Also Ep. ImpC 
M^i^0»r« A. 635. 

itir»fiaty poet, ff-trc^f, Pind. P. 8. 128, and 9r0rti»fMu, B. 46'i, iEsch. Sqit. 
84, later WrifMu, Eur. Iph. A. 1 608 (r. <riT-, ?riT«-, «'»t«-, irr«- § 261, 7Tr«- 
§ 283. c), to jf2y, F. «'frfir0/iMii, commonly ^rnrt/tth 2 A. Ifrrnv, 2 A. M. 
litrdfitw, commonly f«rr«^i}v (<5 261), Pf. P. ff-ifrfm/MM, A. P. Iir»rnin9> 
F. trarnro/Mti, Mosch. 2. 141. Other collat. forms, ^ttU/mu, T.'S57, wttrtU* 
fuu, M. 287, vtrtuftM, Hdt. iiL 1 1 1. 

^388* /3. Addition of i. 

ttfittfuct, and poet. mUt^funy Madi. Eom. 549 (r. «i)-, «i)i-)' ^ retpeet^ 
F. MiiUtfimt, A. M. phtrdfitiv, Pf. Jf2<r/MM (P. 3 o-^f-^^iar*, § 248. /, Hdt. L 
61), A. P. ^^tr^n*. 

£«f, t. 478, and Ih/m, I. 5 (r. «-, Ai .), to breoAe, Mmo, Ep. ; /n^. Anrtt, 
Inf. miivett, FL kiif • Pass. Afi/iuM, t- 131. Deriv., Aim, 0. 252, and AiW«^ 
n. 468, to ^rao/Ae out, expire. Kindred, A. Sitwm, to breathe m deep, to i/eep, 
y, 151, contr. Siea, «*. 867. 

ynpAm (r. o^«^), to marry, said of the man, F. y«tf*Z, A. lyn/iM^ Pf. ^lyAr 
fii;»«, Pf. P. yf^«/»ii/CMM. Mid. ya^0^«i, to marry, said of the woman, 
F. yafMUfAat, A. lyn^/tiiy. Late F. yftnvtt A. iy«/*iir«, A. P. iym/An^nf 
(7«/»f^f7(r« Theoc. 8. 91). Ep. F. M. ym/^irrofMu, will provide a wife for, 
I. 394. 

^/^M, to €bi(M, eonnder, poet and Ion. TI. 713, Mid. ii^fim, commonly 
^i^fifMu (§ 224. 3 ; r. Ji^;., Ji^i-), to sedfc, Theoc 25. 37, X. 100, Hdt i. 95, 
F. h^nrgfiuu, A. iii}^fif»fitfi9. 

)oxl« (r. ^«».). to Mem, to <AtnJi, F. ^«|«, A. i^«^a, Pf. P. ^<l«y/MM, A. P. 
iii;c^9it. Poet and Ion., F. l»»inf»f, A. {)««ffr«, Pf. hiiMn»», Pf. P. )tl^»if^Mu 
A. P. i^tfxftVuv. Impers. ^axi?, i< eeems, F. dtf^fi, &c. 

l«-4/»ix«/M«i and iv'tfukiofMn (r. /»iX.» /aiXi.), to toJbe core (2^, F. IwifaKie* 
$Mtt Pf. P. iwtfiifAiXnfMth A. P. Ui/»fA»}^frv. 


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mrvv'itt, te mmnd, to ertuh, poet, F. Mrtnt^^m^ 1 A. knrvimem^ 2 A. t»r» 

xvXitht and »vX/ir)i«, to roU, F. (»t>X«>).r«, § 58) »vXtrM, A. IxvXCf 
Pf. P. »i»vXir^MM, A. P. UvXir0fi9. Late F. »v7aMft,* Bare Pres. »i/Xi*', 
Ar. Yesp. 202. Kindred, »«Xiydi«^««, to be buned in, Cyr, i. 4. 5, aX/ir^fM or 
iX/y^**, A. tfxjra, Ar. Nub. 32, Pf. Hkixa, lb. 33. 

xi;^« and xSfint, to meet with, to chance, chiefly poet, and Ion. Eur. Hipp. 
746, Med. 23, F. »i/^r*r (§ 56, /)), Soph. (Ed. C. 225, and nu^wt, Eur. Herad. 
252, A. U»(0'm, r. 23, and Uv^n^M, Hdt. L 31, Pf. M»v^n»ti, Pf. P. xtKu^n- 


wttrUfuu (r. ▼•r-)* <» totfe, Ion. and Poet. Hdt ii. 37, F. 9'i«r§fiuu, A. l^A^ 
mdfuit, A. 464, Soph. Ant. 20i, Flap. ir$v£^fitfif H. 642. 

ff-^^iw (r. 4r«(^., Ti^- § 259, iTtf^^i-), to lay waste, F. irt^inrm, Pf. ••ir*^- 
^)f««, &c Poet vi^m, F. 4r/(rM, Soph. Ph. 1 14, 1 A. W%^w»^ «. 2, £p. 2 A. 
U^$Jn (§ 262), A. 367. For vi^4»t, see § 246. /3. 

/iVt«» and ^«rri«» (r. /<^-, ^nrr- § ''?72), to throw, F. //i^», A. tfftyptt, Pf. 
If^r^a, Pf. P. Vpfifcfiat, 1 A. P. i^^>^», 2 A. P. l^iJl^. For }l*rmwx»f, 806 
§ 249. (/. Deriv. pt^ralt. 

ffxivrafutt, commonly ffxtTim or ^xt^Uftm (r. rxir-), F. fxi^t/uu, A. Ir»i« 
^'i^^ifv, Pf. U»%t/kfMu, F. Pf. Ifxi^tfuu, PI. Rep. 392 c 

«/!•» (r. i9.\ to push, F. 4Sr«». and poet. «^nV«r, A. 7«»r« (§ 189. 2), Pf. P. 
itt^fuu, A. P. hivin*' Late Pf. ?«««, Plut. ; Ep. and Ion., A. S^m, A. 220 
(w^0m(, for «-^«^r«f, Anth.), Pf. P. iSr^Mu, Hdt ▼. 69 ; it^-sttint Hipp. 
Deriv. ier/^fuu, to jusUe, Ar. Ach. 42. 

^389* b. Addition of itn 

Remarks. (1.) Roots which receive tiv without further 
change are mostly double consonant, (2. ) MtUe roots recew' 
ing av commonly insert v before the characteristic. (3. ) Roots 
which do not insert v sometimes prolong av to aiv or av, 

m. Without fhrther Change. 

M!Mt§/m4y and rardy nS^fafMu (r. «/W^ mlwimt-), to pereewe, F. mltH^sfuu . 
{4 222. 1). 2 A. j^if^nv, Pf. P. ^r^n^cMu. 

Axfmtt (r. iX^.)* <c ./^»<^} poet. Eur. Med. 298, 2 A. ^X^«y <I». 79. 

itftmfrAfi (r. k/Au^r'), to err, to miss, F. kfut^r^vafutt, 2 A. tlfuc^<r§f, Pf. 
f(^i(^r«»«, Pf. P. iifii(rnfi»i, A. P. nftx^r^hf* F. kfJiM^rnwat, Hipp., 1 A. 
iifJifTnwm, Orph. Arg. 646, Ep. 2 A. (kfim^r-, kfjt^mr- § 262, kfitC^tr-, § § 1 3. 4, 
28, 64. 2) KfiCcr**, £. 287 (c^;/ A. 491). Hence 0* dn^ped, cf. dlrX«. 
mJv, § 296) kC^ordt'^ only in A. i9tc6;. kCfsr^ftn R. 65. 

Awtx^»*«f*»*i <u>d sometimes k^ix^^fuu (r. l;^^-)> ^ ^ Aa^ F. k<r*x^^^ 
f$M», 2 A. kfcnx^'^f^^h ^* kirnx^^fi^*' • 

«fil^ and a^tr«, poet and Ion. «li^« (r. ilFir-. »tty-, kty-, § 22. ^, «^^ 
^., § 273), Z. i^61, to increase, F. «^^iiV«», &c See f 43, and ct Lat 

fiXtcwrdw, and poet fiXm^ritt (r. /3x«rr-), to i7>rottf, to 6iMf, F. i8X«rr«(^w, 
9 A. tfiXm^Ttf, Pf. i/SXirruM (§ 190 i Plup. 2CiCX«rnf«u Th. iii. *2€). 1 A. 
ICxd^rnrm, Ap. Bh. I. 1131. 


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2S& ROOT tp TEX vnnm^ [bo^ku 

U^dtm (r. Uf9:\4o$le^, unuSj bi ooBiposttiMiifitii mi«< S A. I^m 
Pf. ^fSa^^nxo, 2 A. P. poet. iU^^nt' Ep. 2 A. ti^a^»r ^. 296, 2 A. P. i^f«. 
^ny, «. 471 (§ 262). 

ipXifMmvM (r. i^., ^Xirx- § 296), to ihcwr^ F. ^Xi{r*r, 1 A. m^Xnra 
tiommunly 2 A. w^Aw, P£: a^^Xjukm. Iod. impt, or fi A. «lf Xm (§ 248. 4} 
Hdt. viii. 26. See ;^iX«f (§ 26S). 

<^ 990* fi. Wiili the Biaeitioii of « (tee§ 54). 

i^y)«v« (r. a^ , Ji-t-'imv"), to piUeue, poet, and Ion. B. 114, Soph. Ant. 504 
F. i^4tw»,y HdC V. 39, 2 A. &^, id. L 151, S»bj. ^L,y^&e^ 2 P£ 1^ L 173 
{Ui», Tbeoc. 27. 22 ; 1 P& ^»», Hippon.)* For the imgm^ we § 18a. S. 
Kindred, ^«, to please, commonly ^•fuu, to be pleated, F. fi^Hrt/Mu, A. «fr^n« 
(A. M. ^irmr* t. 353). 

ifvyyeift/ (r. l^i/y-)* ^ ^^^V^rge, 2 A. i^ifv^fiu loB* i^v^i^Mw, O. 621» 
F. l^w^ofAtUy Pf. i^ivy/jMtt Hipp. 

^tyyamt (r. dv^-), t» toucA, F. i^<|«/iMM, 2 A. Uiyn. Lttt. loi^o. 

xr;^av« or tuyx&vm (r. «/;^-)» *^ fi^t V^^' EuT. Alc. 477, F. xY^rtftrnti 
Soph. <£d. G. 1487, 2 A. l«/;t:«'i Etff. Alc 22. Ep. M^x^y ^' 672, «ad 
m4Xi»' »• 284 (Mid. Pt, xt^nfituof, £. 187), F. »i;^i$r«, Ap. Rh. 4. 148'^ 
2 A. (from r. «<;c«-f ^^ P*^* ^^h s^se of Act.) lxfxn»f «*. 379, 5tt^*. (»^S) 
Kixtitf (^ 243. b), A. 26, &c 1 A. M. Utx^rm/Ant, A. 385. 

Xayx^t9m (t, X»X'> ^1X' § ^^^* >^*yX' ^^ 259, 277, XMyx^t-^ to ^ktan 
by lot, F. k^lof*mi, 2 A. 7A«;^«», Pf. i7A}f;^a (§ 191. l) «od XtX«>x«> ^ ^* 
i7XifyM«i, A. P. IXfix^iif* Ion. F. kdl^fuu, Hdt. vii. 144. For 2 Aor. Subf* 
XfX«;^A>, caosative, see § 1 94. S. 

ketfACetftt (r. X«C-, XdC^ Xa/*S-), to take, F. Xn'^tfAeu, 2 A. 7x«C«ir, 
Pf. f7Xfi^a <§ 191. 1), Pf. P. t1xtifit»ai, and poet. X<X*f^«,(MM, Eur. Iph. A. 363, 
A. P. fXn^iiy. Iod., F. Xi^/k^^^/uu, Hdt. i. 199, Pf. P. xix«^i^w, iiu 1 17, 
A. P. iX^fA^hf, iL 89, Pf. A. XiXaCnxA (§ 222), iv. 79. For XfXaCf<r#«i, see 
§ 194. 3. Poet, forms, X«^^«i and Xmlvfiieu, A. 357, Ar. Lys. 209. 

Xdey^ffHv, and sometimes Xif^*» (r. X«^^ Xn^-), to lie hid, to escape notieef 
F. XhVm, 1 A. tXfic-etf commonly 2 A. lx«^0», 2 Pf. XfXn^«* Mid. Xavfivo/Mu 
and Xn^afiunj to forget, F. Xfuro/uu, 2 A. fXa^tf^nv, Pf. XiXiir^4, F. Pf XiXti- 
M^MM» Eur. Alc 198. Ep. Pf. P. XtX^r^i, E. 834, kte 1 A. M. IxirM^ni, 
Qoint. 3. 99, Dor. A. P. {Xtieinh Theoc 2. 46. For X«X«#mi» &c, set § 194. S 
Collat. U.Xii^«v«, If. 221. 

XsiV« (r. Xi**., Xii**-), to leave, and sometimes in composition Xtft^dvm, Th 
Tiii. 1 7. F. XiiV«», &c (^ 37). Late 1 A. ^Xu^p», 

/uty/ay** (r. ^-), to team, F. fm^n^sftm (§ 223), 2 A. I^M^ff, Pf. f»tf » d h» 
JM. For fuJtSfuut see § 20a y. 

r»9^M99puu, and poet w^Utfttu JSsch. Ag. 9B8 (r. ^ti/-, «^«;#. $ S70), # 
tnqtdre, F. ••t»r«^uu (rivriiV^i iBsch. I^. 988, § 200. 3), 2 A. UrOiftnh 
Pf. «-i^«/M(/. Ep. 2 A. QjD<. *tTvi»tr» (§ 194. 3), Z. 5a 

^vyX»^t (r. rv;^-, riv;^-), to happen, to obtain, to kit, W. nul^fun, 2 A. ir»» 
Xsh Pf- rtT»x*i»» (§ 222), rarely rirtvx** Ath. 581 e. Ep. 1 A. lrv^«#% 
A. 106. Seerfi;;^«r (§ 270). 

X^'Uiw (r. ;^«)^ ;^«»)-> ;^<»^- § ^59), to contotii, poet. Ar. Ban. 260^ 
F- G;<i^M/M(i, §1 58) x**^*/*»h '• 17, 2 A. f;K«^, A. 24, 2 Pf. »i;^«vl% 
Y. 268. 


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CH. 10.] BMriiAtiG cHiuracs; 237' 

mX'iaivM (r. ix'i'), to nourish^ poet JBsch. Pr. 540^ 2 A. 4XS«»m. r. 70. AIm 
4^x)ifrx«, to nouruhf to grow, Y. 599, late A. iter. Axin^a^xtf Orph. Lith. 364. 

AXsraitm or «Xir^/vM (r. mXtT-), to nn, poet., Hes. Op. 2:)9» :)28, 1 A* 
IXirn^a, Orph. Arg. 647, 2 A. ifXiV#^ L H75, Pf. P. Pt, aXifrn^Uft J. 807. 

niitt and M)«iM» (r. «d., m')*. § ^88^ to stoe^ f . «/S>i^«, A. ^i}ra» Pf. fin 
»«. Also atieivMf trans., I. 554. 

iXtr^tiyt* and 0Xi4i«iyw (r. «^.), to Wtdle, to tUp, F. iXtr^^ftty 8 A. JSktrfou 
1 A. ttxiwhem, and PC ixish»i^ Hipp. Also «X<^^4^«, Ath. 2:^6 a. 

hf^mivsfiatt rarely «r^(««^«i, Ath. 299 e (r. 0r^^-, ^(«- ^ 287), to fmeS, 
F. ir^(n0f*»i, 2 A. irff^iftnu A. P. m0(p^nu Ion. 9 A. Aw^^imt, Hdt. 
i 80» late 1 A. M^^nmrnfin** 

Sm, also, ;»i»« (§ 292), »/;t:«»«*^ (§ 2^)* 

^ Sv3* c Addition of m. 

^j7vMr (or fioU), to ttop tip (t. /3«.), F. /SSvm^ A. 7<?r«, Pf. P. ^iCv^ftmt, 
Abo Pass, fiuffuu, Hdt. ii. 96. 

A«M«^iMtf, and poet. *7»««m (r. /»-, ;«i?v. ^ 291)1 ^ ^o"^ P* ?S«/mUi 2^ *c«^- 
lups Pf. 77/MM. £p. *r»«», K. 142. For Txr* and J^m, see § 185. S, •. 

»mriat (r. XV.), to ktMB, F. Mint^afims, A. s»^«. The COmp. vc^xnim, tO 
wonhip, is regular : F. w^or»iftn^»0j A. «'^««^t»virifMh and poet. r^oeixSn^ Ar« 
£q. 156. 

vTt9x*i»tMu (r. r;^-, /r;^-)» *** promise, F. vTtvx^^^f*'^* (§ 222), 2 A. ^<n. 
^X^f*n9» Pf. v«rir;^if^Mii, rare A. P. u«*i^;^t^nN PI. Phadr. 235 d. Poet, and 
Vm. Mrxofuu iEsoh. Earn. 804, Hdt. vii. 104. See t^" (^ 300). 

§ 9ftS« d. ADDmON OF VV. 

(1.) If ff, f, or o precede, the v is doubled, o becoming «, 
(2.) If i precede, the •» becomes 2. (3.) A lingual or %ui(i 
preceded by a diphthong is dropped before w. 

«. To Pure Roots. 

tfwOfu (r. n., i- § ^ )). todoAe, poet., chiefly £p., F. Xrrw ($ 71), «. 337, 
A. 7rra, E. 905, Pf. P. iJftm and 7rMM, r. 72, Hdt. i. 47. Ph)ee form, «l^. 
^tUwfju, F. kfit^nem^ kft^tS (§ 200. t^), nfM<p'nwm (§ 192. 3), Pf. P. ^/ir^i. 
Ion., x«Tw-iivf/«v ^.^35* iT'iUvvfim Hdt. iv. 64. 

^i^vviT^ (r. ^«.), to gird, F. C'^rw, A. f^«»r«, Pf. P. ti»0ffMu. Late Pf. 
V(^a0$tmf Anth. 

xt^avvSfu (r. »!#«., »^«. § 261, M^s. §§ 259, 278. 9), to miar, F. xtfirm, 
»t^, A. Uf^jitf» (»^«i «. I64\ Pf. P. xtMi^mrfMn, Ath. 576 a, oommonlj 
si«(«^MM, A. P. Ut^drtnt and i«^«^iif. Ep. »t(««r, 11. 363 (»((«it, § 242. b), 
Subf, )U(»t9vat A, 260, aafrom »i^»^uu. Poet, and Ion., mifvnfUt Ar. Eod. 
841, and ju^vmt, Hdt. iv. 52. 

Mt^99§fu (r. Mff-)* ^ MtMito, F. Mffnw, A. l)U^i«w, Pf. P. «i w ^<r/ >«ri , 
A. P. U«eWn». Ep.. F. »i^i*» (§ 245. 3), 0. 379, 2 P& intrana. mt»»^ 
(§ 853. 1), r. 378 ; Ion. P& P. »$»i(9/mt 2. 887. Tlie verb m^ to mm^^ 
k icigiilar. 

ji^i^ApH^i Ct. afy X to wywwl , F. m^tfJUm, »^tfm ({ 800. 8), A. ki^* 


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fU^m, A. P. l»^fUr0fn, Wd. u^fAfuit (Mxt. Pt, mftfUifrts Ath. 25 d\ ana 
poet. M^nftvifMu (§ 278, >), Ar. Nub. 377, to hang, F. M(mn0'0fiun. Also »^- 
fina»fiuuf Horn. Bac 39, P». »^i(^i>iSf, Pind. P. 4. 43, late »(tf*m»t. 

^trtivvBfu (r. ^irm"), to ^rtad, to expand, F. irtrirM, tnrS, A. iiririUm 
Pf. P. «-^r«/Mu (§ 261), A. P. IriTiirAtv. Ion. Pf. P. xiv-irAr^cMM, HdL 
L 62. £p., v-Ztmi^ X. 392, v/tm*, Hes. Sc 291 Gottl. ; late v^rtut, 

fmnSfu (r. ^.), to iCrayfAm, F. fai^m, A. !//««#•, Pf. P. tfft^fuu, A. P. i/^ 
r#«r (§ 221. «). 

irCiff9fu (r. «tfi-X 'o e«tfM^icu4, F. rCtr«, 1 A. IrCtrc, A. P. l#CUAr«* 
UM. rCivv^^MM, to 6e earimguuhed, to go out, P. eCnffMu, 2 A. Act. frCnf 
(5 227), Pf. Act IrCiiM. 

nti^tiftSfu (r. r»i)«t-), to acoftor, F. extlurm, rm%^, A. Irxi2c^«, Pf. P. 
\9tk'%im9/uu, A. P. lr»<^«#At». Collat. fonns, cfaieflj poet, «i)«4v, Ap. Sh* 
4. 500, »ii«id/MM, Id. 2. 626, »t^»»9^ Anth., A. \»i%mw9», E. 88 ; rxt^m^ 
(|§ 259, 278. 1), Hes. Th. 875, Th. vL 98, «i'^»f}^, Hdt. vu. 140, Eur. 
Hfic. 916. 

% 994« /S. To Palatal Boots. 

to fo droAeM, 2 A. P. Uyn* (Alt £, Ep. comm. &). Ion., A. ^«, Y. 392, 
2 Pf. 7si)^ Hdt vii. 224, fym, Hipp. ; Ep. A. Opt. (»«r«.F4«<«* ««F 
Fi^^Mf, §§ 22. ^ 48. 2) MtM^aMf Hes. Op. 664. In the comp. KmrmytSfu 
the I of the aogm. is sometimes found out of the Ind. ; as, A. Pcu-t, »«rf«^ 
Ljs. loa 5. 

Ji»4ty»t and kuiytdfu (r. •iy-), to open, Imp£ ni/imyM (§ 189. 2), 11. 221, 
>r. 5. '20, and later H^tytf, H. 6r. i. 1.2 (Ion. ivtfyrf, H. 168), F. «»«;^ 
A. knifS^, and later ^ir«i^«, Pf. »fitfx»i Pf* P* «»i^^MBi, A. P. MuLx^n^t and 
later Yiuix^n*, Acts, 1 2. 10. 2 Pf. A»if >«, to <AkiMf open, Hipp. The simple 
•TyM and iSyf^/u are poet, i£sch. Pr. 611, F. «}^*r, A. ^« H. 457, au(c, 
a. 446. 

hUtOfu (r. }MJK.)t to 'l^ow, F. ^fi^**. I%e f 52. Ion. (r. hn-) K|«*, Oi^ 
Ac.. Hdt iii. 122. Mid. hinvO/uu, Ep. to ^reet, I. 196, Pf. htUyfuu 
( § 47. N.), n. 72. The primary sense of hinvvfu is to UrefcA ouf <A« hand, 
and kindred rerbs are hx»f*»* (Ion. ^S»«^i, Hdt vii. 1 77, § 69. 1.), to reortM 
F. Vtl^fiteu, A. l2t^iS|Uirv, Pf. lihyfMu, F. Pf. )i)<|«|U«^ibr Uiy^», &c, sea 
§ 1 85. )), and the poet. )i)ir»9^MM, iu^iena/Mu, iunnvnt, Vtx^OfUU. 

t%ytVfii (r. i(7-, i/^y. § 268), to ahnt in, to conjine, F. iSfim and l((«r, 
A. Je|«, Part, imat and ?f|«f, Pf. P. t^^yf^h A. P. i7fi;^»i». This verb ap- 
pears to have been originally the same with %i^ym, to shnt out, and the dis- 
tinction which afterwards arose, and which was marked by the difference of 
breathing, appears not to have been always observed. Ion., in both senses, 
t^ym, .^t0, Hdt Iii. 48, 0. 325 (E^ ^^7^* B. 617), and t^ytCfis or $7^yfSfUf 
Hdt A, 86, iv. 69. 

Zivy*Sfu (r. ^uy; ituy- $ 270% to poke, F. (fv^«», A. 7C«4% ^' ^' ^{••T- 
/Mu, 1 A. P. Kivx^np, 2 A. P. iZ^ynp. 

puyf^ (r. ffuy^), to mingle, to mix, F. /m$i», A. l/^iin, Pf. P. fiifuypm$^ 
8 F. fHfJJ^tfuu, JBacfa. Pen. 1052, 1 A. P. ifuxhv, 2 A. P. i^/rn*. The 
elder foirm fiieym (§ 273) is always used in the Pres. and Impf. by Horn, and 
Hdt For ifunr$, ftc, aee § 185. ). 

^ySftt (p. 9ny^ wny. $ 866), to /uton, to /Ix, F. n^f*, A. twnl^ «J* 


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CH. 10.] eMfHATIC CHANGES. 4d&^ 

tntrans., as Pres., trUmym, 1 A. P. Mx^nt, commonly 2 A. P. UJiynt. Ep 

2 A. M. S. 3 J«^»T# (§ 185. Y) A. 378. For w^ytBr*, sec § 226. 4. Lat« 
wn«rrt0^ Pf. P. ^ivtiyfAat, 

fwytSfu (r. ;«y-, ^»r-)» <» *»■««*» F- /•»l*'i A. f^«, 2 Pf. mtrans. %Hmym 
(§ 236. b\ 2 A. P. ip^*«yi»». Ep., ^^ee»0, 2. 571, Pf. P. iy^nyf^h ^. 137 ; 
Ion. 1 A. P. lf^n;c^fift Hipp. Kindred, ^«rr*r and «^«rr*>, .^«, to «mtte. 

^^eurfat, and rarely ^^ayvOfu^ Th. viL 74 (r. ^^7-, ^^m*'*'- § 274), to/eiMM^ 
F. ^e«i«, A. 7^e«^*' ^* ^* «'Sf(«7/MM, A. P. l^^a;^^!!*. Late 2 A. P. 

^ SOS* y. To Lingual and Liquid Boots. 

%MSiAt (r. ^flur., ^ai»v.)> to etUertaiH, to feaai^ poet Y. 29, F. Wr^^ .Aseh. 
£um. 305, A. I)«4r», A. P. ihmlvinv. For Opt iKtwrof see § 2l'6. 4. 

xahSfAcu (r. «a^-, »ai^- § 267), to excd^ poet 7. 282, Pf. mumm/mm, Ear. 
£L 616, /*! «i«ar^»«« A. 339, and »ts«^»0r, Pind. 0. 1. 42. 

»rt<»M, and later xrivfOfu or mtuvS/u (r. »r«-, »r«y- § 278, »rfv- § 259^ 
mruv- § 268, ttrtvtU' § 259. b, »rii»7-), to alajf, usually in composition with mvi 
or m»t£, F. xnvSj I A. ?»Tfivc, poet 2 A. Iktuw Soph. Ant 1 :i40 (also in 
Xen., who was partial to poet forms, iv. 8, 25), and poet }»t£» (§ 224. E.), 
Soph. TV. S8, 2 Pf. Kr«»«, 1 Pf., leas daaaic, inrmxa or Urmyxa) and i»r«- 
MfMS 2 A. M. poet. UrafMiff i£sch. PerS. 923. Ep., F. arayiM, Z. 409, 
1 A. P. Ura^ify, ). 537 ; late iMrdfint, Anth. For the passiye of »nif«§, 
Hm Attic writers employ Mr»M (§ 281). ^ 

i^XXiVM (r. ix^ ik.9u-), to destroy^ F. aXm'w (§ 232. «), commonly JAif, 
A. iSXt^a, 1 Pf. ax«ixi»«, 2 Pf. intrana. /X*>X», 2 A. M. ikifin*' Poet tXi. 
»A>, A. 10^ Soph. Ant 1286 ; Impf. iter, ixixfrxiv (or ikUrxtv, as fhnn «Xim) 
T. 135. 

ififSfu (r. J>».)i A> MMor, F. ifuS/uu, A. i8^cm#iii (§ 222. /3), PC Ifm/umm 
(§ 191. 2), Pf. P. ifMift00fMu and ifui/M/Mi (§ 221. «), A. P. ttfU^inf and 
«/M#i(v. Pres. PC. ^Mfyrif Hdt L 153 ; late F. i/^^m^ Anth. 

iftifytO/u (i/M^y'), to wipe o/f, poet. E. 416, F. a^^^m, A. 4M0fS«, Eur. 
Or. 219, A. P. tif^x^^ih Ar. Vesp. 560, A. M. «)k«^^/mii», 2. 124. Collat 
ifu^yd^^ Hom. Merc. 361, hite /*i(ytSffu, 

ifiymj to gtreteh out, and Ep.' ifiyw/M, A. 351, F. i^l^, A. *r^i^» A. P. 
m^X'^^^i P^' P' ^t*yf*^ Hipp., ifii^iy/MU, IT. 834. . 

^ir0/M (r. j^.), to roMe, F. «I^0-m (§ 56. /3), A. w^^*, 2 Pf. intrans., a|.Pres., 
i^m^m. Ep., F. M. i(0Vi»at, T. 140, 2 A. £^0^0* (§ 194. 3), 2 A. M. Z^ifint, 
M. 279 (see § 185. ), 1) ; from r. ;^i^ Impf. i^i/Aiih B. 398, Pf. P. i^ai^t- 
/Mu (§ 191. 2), r. 377, Subf, i^fnrat M. 271. Kmdred, chiefly poet, ^^^ 
^uu, i^ifm, i^9^M», i^tvm * Lat orior, 

WTtiffriiftas (r. rr«^-), to mesK, 2 A. firr»^n, 2 A. P. Pt. irra^tif^ Hipp* 

0ri(9Vfiu, 0T0^*vS^tf and rr^MffSfti (r. rri^-, rr«^i- § 288, rr^«« § 262)» 
to streMy, F. rT«^«l and r«-^«, A. Irrtf^r* and Irr^w^A, Pf. P. frr^^Mu^ 
A. P. Irr^t (lrr«e«'^«'» Hipp.). 

§ 39 O. e.. ADD^non OF ir». 

i^MrX«««#«« (r. dl/MrX«».), to trrt poet S A. I/m^tX^mm* Soph. Ant 91C 
Pt k^kmumf and, to ihortMi tba initial • (§ 263. 6), dlv-x^M^ Eur. Ak 


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2¥^ M01 •» TSB ITBMB. [bOOI If 

dv'et^mm (r. dp^, iSir«f.), to dleemM, "6^ X. 917, 7« Amm^^m^ A* «in(4hk 
M, Hook Ap. 376y eommonlj 3 A. Hv^m^t, I. 379. 

yi>'«y«« and ytyMvif-Kit (r. >'«'»-, yiywv* § 28 S, yi^wM- ^ 288, yiyattt^*") 
iQ call ahud, F. yi^wyiirAr, A. vytytivnamt 2 Pf., as Pres., yiyvvaj Subf, ytyti, 
*>, Itt^ yiytni (§ 235), &C. Ep. Imp. or 2 A. iyiyttuw (or Pf. yt^wvtv) 
S. 469. S«e § 246. N. 

Iruu^ntofuu (r. «v^-, to ^), * to ^ at, to reach^ to enjoy, poet, and Ion 
N. 73.^ F. Ua»^fi^^m4t 2 A. i«^v^, A. 572, 2 A. M. hrtiv^mnv Eur. Hd. 
4f>r, 1 A. M. Wmvfdftnf, Hipp. Also Wxv^i^/tat, Theog. Ill, and Wmu^, 
Hes. Op. 417. From the same root, ««-«t/^«A» (^ 2f<7. «), to get from, ta 
take away, poet. A. 430^ 1 A. M. mirnv^d/Mtf, iEsch. Pr. 28 ; and from the 
kindred «v^. (§ 28), Ep. Aor. Ft. uTou^af A. 356, •v'av^a^iv*;, Hes. Sc 1 73. 

i^^iVxw (r. tv('), to find, F. iv^nrw (§ 222. 2), 2 A. tvpn or hJ^m 
(§ 188. N.-, Pf. t?^»«, Pf. P. f^^fl/MM, A. P. ti^ihf (§ 219), 2 A. k 
ti^ifkfm, and lets Att. 1 A. M. ti^aftnv, 

^rt^it/ and ffri^ivnm (r. rn^-), to deprwe, F. rri(i^^*>, A. irri^Dr«, Pf. irr^- 
^^HM, Pt P. UriffifiMt, I A. P. i#«v^'^», poet. 2 A. P. /^ Mn^V Eur* HeL 
9l'>. Mid. wri^tfMu, to want. P., often ia P&ss., ert^^^um {M0'9r%^h 
Andoo. 19. 25). Ep. 1 A. Uri^r«, ». 263. « 

^397* f. AnDmoN OF <{. 

Wi'5»» (r. I/-), to aecuatom, IS. \0w6», -m (§ 200. ^), Pf. i7^iJMt (§ 189. S) 
&c ; 2 Pf., as Pres. intrans., iWa (§ 236. c). Ep. Pres. Pt intrans. Um 

U«'/^M (r. FfX«'.), to hope, F. lx<r/ra», ^, &c. ; Ep. IXv-w, to ^ hope, /S. 9ly 
tXTfieu or lix<r9fMu, and 2 pf. foXv-a (§ 191. 3), to &o/^ H. 199„ K. 105» 
T. 186, 2 Plup. Uik^u* (§ 189. .'>), T. 328. 

»«v#C«C*' (r- M»«C.), to ring, Ep. B. 466, A. U«McCifr% B. 334. 

iwe«C«» (r. ««(-), to furnish, F. frffirM, •/«, Pf. «*ir«(4JMi, Ac Poet, 9 A. 
I«r«e«». Soph. (Ed. T. 921 (see § 194. 3), Pf. P. ^rifr^rci (§ 'i2S), it U ftttd^ 
2. 329, Pi. wtr^»0/M90s, Soph. Ant. 1337, Mem. ii. 1. 33. 

^ 39 8* g. ADDrn(»r of Other Stllabtjes. 

&» (p. •', tih-\ to de sated, to satiaie, Ep., F. "m^t, A. 818, A. l(r«, 

E. 289, and aifira (Opt. mh^^Mf or '^i7riif» «. 134), Pf. Pt. mSinw, K. 9A, 

F. M. "SrtfMu, IX. 717, A. M. "dira^fitu T. 307. The F. 4'«' and commonly 
the A. irm. are trans., the other forms intrans. For Pres. Sfthj. {&»tf*t9, tSfAf^y 
ittfitf (also written UifAtf, as if from 1««) T. 402, see § 242. a; for In/l 
u/ttmuu, see § 250. e ; for Pres. Mid. ii»Tait see § 242. 1 . Deriv. *Atrm»fA»tf 
Theoc 25. 240, A. P. ^n^y Hdt ilL 41. 

U/it£Z»0 (r. U^\ to subdue, F. Uf^^^f, A. Hm/iLm^m, I A. P. liUfUtrtnw, 
and poet. U^i^^ (§ 223), A. 99, Eur. Ale. 1 27, 2 A. P. poet, iUfifiv, Eur. 
Med. 647. Ep. Pres. and perhaps Fnt. (§ 200. a) i»fiaet, A. 61, Z. 368^ 
Pf. P. hifttifuu, E. 878, F. Pf. W/*^f0fuu Horn. Ap. 543. CoUat poet, 
forms, Ufivmm, X. 221, Uf*ni/$t E. 893, JSsch. Pr. 164, }»f*mXil^»>, Plnd. P. 
5. 1 63. hat. domo. 

Ixttm (r. lx»., lx»v.)i to draw, F. 7x^ (IXxv^w, Hipp.), A. tlXnS^m 
(§ 189. 3; ijx^ Orph. Ai». 260), Pf. «Tx»il»«, Pf. P. $Sk»vffuur A. P, 
fi>MMnt. Ep. U»M*, P. 395, IknJiwtt, iX»90M, X. 580. 

Ir^rdm (r. le-X to odk, F. Ie«rr4#«» and I^AiuM ($ S88), A. Hf^i^fHrn^ 


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Ffi 4e*rr«»«, PC P. i^timfuu, A. P. Af^^rifAit, S A* M. 4e</Mrv. ]^ «ad 
Ion., t7;d^MM A. 553, Hdt. iii. 64 {t!^t»fuv0f Ib^ § S43« 4), F. itfnef$mh 61 ^ 
i;(#>r«Ar, .t«», h 347, Hdt. iv. 145 *, l(i«», H. 198 ; l^u/»«» Z. 145. 

ir^;«, and poet M»f, H. 415, JEech, Ag. 1597, or l^*r, t. 341, Eur. CycL 
245 (r. d., Ir^. §§ 282, 52, IWi.), to eat, F. A«^mbi (§ 200. b), Pf, Uii^*** 
(§ 236. e), Pf. P. UTi^ir^Mu (§ 222. «), PI, Phsedo, 110 e, A. P, i^Mnf 
2 A. f^«7«» (r. ^«y., § 301). Late F. ^aytfuu (§ 247. d). Ep. 2 Pf. I^^ 
P. 542, PC P. i^i(^«^iMBi (§ 236. c). 

2;t^*'> Soph. Aj. 459, ix^Mi^^ Ear. AJc 179, and l;^^^^/**, Ag99. 11*5 
(r. 1;^^-), to hate, chiefly poet, F. Ix^^^*** ^ ^X^^t*' 

i9$fim$ (h't i99-\ to seom. Ion. and poet, o«r<ii, &c (see T "^Oy ^ 378 
F. Mwofuu, A. mo*»/A99 P. 173, and livi^^ny, P. 25, A. P. liv^^ity, Hdt ii 
136. Peciy., i»ii^«r, and poet ivtri^, iSsch. Sap. 11. 

n»r^, £p. iri/xw (r. «^»-), to esMfi^ lAear, poet, Ar, At. 714, «^ 116, 
F. n^ (§ 245. 2) Theoo. 5. 98, A. Uigtb i«ri|i^y, U, 176, A, P. M;c^v, 
At. Nub. 1356. 

f x(9^«s and poet ^XAyiitt, Soph. Tr. 99, to 6Kr>> F. f xi^, A. I^Xi^,. 
A» P. If Xi;t:^ifn Late 2 A. P. l^Xtynv, Antb. 

§ 999* Remark. A few verbs obtain & 2 Aor. with a short pentdt' 
(§ 255. )), through an extension of the root ; as, ^utnty to purtue, U«M»a^«v, 
Ar. Yesp. 1203, PL Gorg. 483 a; •?«•», to yield, iUifiov, Soph. (Ed. T. 651 ; 
tT^AT, to exclude^ t1^$n. Soph. (Ed. C. '862 (JL^&ia^, A. 437, ii^^A/w^ 
£. 147), tl^y&4ifAw, iBeeh. Earn. 566; ^/«iv«, to toard off, nftotA^tf, Ar.* 
Nub. 1 323, iiftuviiifitif, iBsch. Eum. 4^i8 ; »/«», to ^, /Mir.t»fa^«f A. 52 ; 
|x»«/«» ($ 273. /3), fr;t:(^" (§ ^^)- ^- ^^*^»* (h ^78). These extended 
Aorists, which are chiefly poet, are regarded by some as Imperfleets, and are 
commonly so accented. 

§ 300* 3. Exchange of Letters. 
In the two following verbs, passes into s aspirated (§ 50). 

tw«t (r. r**., IfT.), to be occupied with, Impf. i7«'0y (§ 189. S), F. t^tt, ^ Ar 
frrav, 5tt6/. 09rSj &c Mid. 270^«i, to follow, Impf. u^iftn^y f, typ^fuu, 9 A. 
ir«'«/»n'. ^tf^'* rvSftMt, &C. Poet Sfr<raycMu, 2. 826, Impf. (considered by some 
2 A.) W^ifunv, r. 'i39. A. P. -ri^i^ip^tif, Hdt vi. 15. The act ?«••» scarcely 
occurs except in composition. 

ixt* and 7rx»t (r. r;t-i i;^;-* I*;- § 263, Ux' §§ 283. c, 263), to *«>», to 
Mi (in the sense to Aaoe, th^ forms tx" and l^« are preferred ; in the senae 
to AoW, 7'r;^«» and r;t4r«»), Impf. «7;^#f and Tr;^#», F. !$« and rx*i«'*' (§ 222) | 
2 A. fr;^;OT, ^tt^. r;^;*; (oomp. im^x** <"" ^'«'^;t*'. >■• ^X' ^ ^X*')» PP*' ';C"W 
(§ 205. «), /mp. «r;^;4# (r;^;*- § 288 ; compare ;W#, If, § 210. 2), and rarely, 
in composition, r;^i, /n/. r;^ir», jPfc ^x*^* ' 2 A. poet 7r;^i^M (§ 299), -fflse*. 
Pr. 16; Pf. Ir;t;if«», Pf. P. ttrxnfMih' A. P^Wxi^fif, 2 A. M. Ir;^i/tf»». Ep. 
Pf. i^ rvf .«;C«»«n (§§236. 1, 191.2, 62) B. 218. For l^-^x*^ ^^ 
§ 236. </; for if.tix^t, Me § !243. 4. Ep. deriv. forms, l^x^**'* ^* ^^7* 
irx»9dt0t E. 89. For the compound i-rt^x^^^f^^h Me § 292 , ftr A»f;^i^«/, 
§ 301. 2. For the <r in kf*^x*' (Af*fh '^X")'! see $ 62 ; and fbr the vaciout 
forms of the angm. (ImpC ifivr^uxifm*, 2 A. ^«'i-r;^i^if \ i/t^'i^x*/*^'^ ^\ 
5 192. 3. 

C. Anomalous Changes. 

^ 30 1 • Forms are sonietimes assodated, which moit be 


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referred to roots originally distinct^ or widely removed from 
each other (§ 257, 2) ; as, 

1. ttt^Uf (r. «ifi-)f to take^ F. «/^«*-«#, Pf. ^(t}x«, Pf. P. ^^n/AWt A. P. ^^i^n* 
(§ 219) ; 2 A. irx« (r. U-, § 189. 3), 2 A. M. tixif*t,f. Poet. 1 A. M. I|. 
•i;<frAr« Ar. Thesm. 761. DoubtAiI or late F. ix«, iXtftYM/ • Ion. Pf. «^a/. 
{ffxtf, Hdt. V. 102, k^ttt^fi/Mti, iv. 66; Ep. 2 A. M. S. 3 ^i^r* for FiXr« 
(§§ 69. III., 1 85. ^) 0. 43. In the sense to capture, the Pass, is commonly 
■applied hy ixirm^/un (r. «X-, whence U- § 259, Jkx*-, AXiA**- § 280), Imp£ 
fiXir»ifAfih F. Jt3^r0fiat, 2 A. Ux*>9 (§ 189. 2) and JKx«», 5u6;. **x;;, &c, 
Tt UiXm»m and tlfX^MB. 

2. inix^f^h to endure, a componnd of t;^*r (§ 300), F. Avi^^fMu and ^m- 
wX^»ftMt, 2 A. »iMr;^;«A*n» (§ 192. 3); F. rXn^9fMu (p. t«X«., cX«- § 261), 
2 A. fcXiff (§ 227), Pf. rWXn»a (see § 238. «). Ep. 1 A. lr«X«rr«, P. 166. 
Later 1^ Wxim, Ap. Rh. 3. 769, ^Xtv^v 2. 1008. 

8. i(x*/*^ (j' UX'\ to go, to come. Imp. n^x***^ ' ^- l>-tv99fMu (r. Ix»^^ 
\Xtw$- § 270), 2 A. *Xt;^#», commonly ;rx^«» (§ 2^1), 2 Pf. lx»iXt?^« (§ 191. 2). 
E^. 2 Pf. ^Xty^«, Hes. Th. 660, •;x«X#»^« (§ 47. N.), Dor. 2 A. hfiof (v 69. 
m.), Theoc. 1. 77, Lacon. ^x«m (§ 70. 4), Ar. Lys. 105. The Pres. (ex- 
cept in the Ind.), the Impf., and the Fat are commonly supplied in the Att. 

. 4. i^iu, (r. «(•.)> to we, Impf. \^^mt (§ 189. 2), Pf. U^a»« {M^&xa Ar. 
PL 98), Pf. P. U^&fMt ' F. S^Pofuu . r. m--). Pf. P. i?/»^ai, A. P. Zp^n^ (^i^^ 
ifhm PL Def. 41 1 a>, 2 Pf. poet and Ion. Ut^m Soph. Ant 6, Hdt ilL 63 ; 
S A. in«v (r. i)-, the aagm. uniting with the i to form u), S^c^*. j^«, &C., 
S A. M. Mftnt, Subf. i^A>^«i, &c. ; 2 Pf. aT^a, (/ Aaoe ffeen) / know (§ 235) ; 
Idld., poet, i]f^«/MM (r. ti*^. § 268), to Mem, to resemble, i£sch. Cho. 178, 1 A. 
tifdf^nh /3. 791. 

NoTB. In the preteriHve «T^« (^ 58, § 237), the root has fbur forms, 
(1.) 4*).; Ir/Mf (Ion. T^^iv A. 124), 7m, 7r^/, 7rr*r (Bceot Ivrtt Ar. Adi. 
911), &0.; and Ep., Inf. n/»i» A. 719, U/^tftu N. '?73, i^. i'J«/m, A. 608, 
Flap. PI, 3 {li-rai) 7ft 2. 405 : (2.) i «2. ; li'^imi, li^^^f , ^f/y, if^ro^flM • and 
the Ep. Svbf, iT^o^i », iT^in (§ 246. 3) : (3.) »!i. ( 3 '236, 1 ) ; «n», «W«, 
&C : (4.) tlit- (§ 288) ; (i/2m) li^i;, ii2iiff», s/'3ii^a» (rare, A. 546, Isoc. 5 b), 
i7^f)r« (late). The Plup. is sometimes doubly augmented (§ J 89) ; thus, Ep. 
Mut or h^t X. 280, Mu or Mn i. 206, Ion. Mt Hdt I 45 (for Mt^ii, 
one f dropped, cf. § 243. 2). In the Dor., we find the verb Umfu, perhaps 
soggested by l^drt (§ 237, •T^«), Pind. P. 4. 441, 7rnf Tbeoc. 13. 34, trdTt 
15. 146, U»ftu Pind. N. 7. 21, P<. rr«#, Pind. P. 3. 52. The deficiencies 
of §Tia are supplied by yiywict (§ 285). 

5. r^x*' ('• ^(*;^-> ^(*;t- ^ 263), to run, F. i^£t|0/(MM, commonly ^^h/mv- 
iMM (r. «^«^-)> i A. i^^t^a, commonly 2 A. I^;«^«», Pf. )f)^«^ii»« (§ 222), 
Ft P. %i^^n/it, Ep. 2 Pf. ^i)^#^iu», I. 412. Late and rare F. ^^mft^i Ath. 
416 f; 'i^a/MftMt (§ 200. b), Anth. Deriv., r^ox'^l*'* ^* ^* ^^> ^P* '^^X»^* 
«. 451, r^tx»^y X. 163, ^^«^««, Hes. Fr. 2. 2. 

6. ^«^« (r. ^i^-)» to fceor, F. «7r« (r. «;.), F. M. •tr^/uu, F. P. oUinva/^^t • 
1 A. ^M7»« (r. l»f»., iyiy». § 277), 2 A. ^M7»«», A. M. nttyxtifinv, Pf. 
Iwim;^;« (§§ 191. 2, 236. a), Pf. P. U^ny/tas, A. P. nuxhh F. P. l«;^;/.i 
r«/MM. Ion. (r. Uux- § 268 ; ftn-tnUtrett Hes. Sc 440) I A. Unttut, E. 885 
Hdt iii. 30, 2 A. Opt, luUtt 2. 147, /n/. ImMifttt T. 194, Pf. P. Mtuyfiuu, 
Hdt ii 12, A. P. *fi/;^;^f»», i. 66 ; 1 A. Inf, (i^a-wirm/) ^tfr»4 lb. 157 
Late Pf. P. <r^#.#rrT«/ Ijuc. Paras. 2. For Jr*, Ac., «ee § 185. i ; for fi^ 


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$ S46. fi ; fbr fi^^ $ 251. 2. Berhr., f«(l«s ft> carry, h(#w, &o. (pfim 
$ 851. 2), X«^ tiV., Ix^^ (fe«''*^ Ar. Yesp. 125), to /!ee /xisf, '^^m^ 
'i^^^m, 't^^rtti*. I^at. ybt*. — The Aorists UnyMu and iinyift are both 
eommon in the l<t Per«. «t>i^. of the IiuL, and in the Opt; but in the 
2d Pert* nng. of the Imp,, in tiie /n/1, and in the Part,, the forms of tfuyMw 
are preferred ; and, elsewhere, those of ilny»M. 

7. ^fi^' and ^eUtut (^ 53, § 228 ; r. ^«^ ^«r». § 279;, to toy, to affirm, 

F. i^;;; (r. i^-, /•- § 262), Pf. t?^*!*. (§191.1), Pf. p. ti^nitcu, f. Pf. i/enV*. 

iMti, Cyr. viL 1 . 9, A. P. \f}n$9i* or i^^'t^nv (Ion. t/^/^t or tJ^nhv, Hdt iv. 
77) ; 1 A. tJ^rm (r. !«•-, tiV- ^ 268), 2 A. tTa-^. Non-Att., Pies. •7e«' /5- 162, 
litfftf, Hes. Th. 38 ; Ion. I A. M. ««'.ua^^«», refiued, Hdt i. 205 ; Poet. 
1 Aor. itFtt^M) tuitm Find. N. 9. 78, 2 A. iur»f K. 445 ; £p. 2 A. (r. W^ 
Uir- § 273, cf. Uiirm) tr9r09y B. 484. Bedapl. forms, vri^auvMi i£sch. Sum. 
620, m'tptUMtff Hes. Th. 655. — The forms of ^d^»at, with the F. ^if«-«», the A. 
t^fift, and the Mid. voice, have commonly the strengthened sense, to affirm 
The 1st Aor. inf. iTrtu and part, ittrmt are not used by the Attics. 

8. mUfuu (r. «ft-)» ft> ^) Impf. U»0ty«if» (§ 189. 2), F. M^»ft,mt, Pf. 
Umi/m4, a. p. Utnih* • 2 A. M. Ir^Mt^Mif* (^ 49 ; r. «^i«-). Ion. and late 
1 A. M. Ut»nf^f*nf, Hipp. 



§ S09* The Greek, like all other original languages, is 
the development, according to certain natural laws, of a smaU 
number of germs^ or primary roots. These primary roots 
(which may be termed r(idicais^ to distinguish them from the 
mere roots of inflection) have a significance which is not ar- 
bitrary, but founded upon instinctive principles of the human 

NoTB. The moch agitated question, whether the radicals of language are 
mntnt or verb§, has no propriety, inasmudi as the origin of these radicals waa 
prior to grammatical distinctions, and the same radical was used as noun^ 
adjecthef verb, &c, as the case might require. 

§ SOS* Those words in which the radicals appear in 
their simplest forms are termed primitwe ; and all others are 
termed derivative ; while, at the same vjme, a distinction must 
be made between simple derivatives, and those words which 
are formed by the union of other words, and which are termed 

Notes. «. Of those words which are commonly diBtinguished as primt- 
Ore and denvatire, some are directly related to each other as parent and child* 
^n^He othen are merely formations from the same radical, which, however. 


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Qommonlj appMrs in a simpler form, in the one ilian in tbe other. It U bnr 
portant to observe this distinction, tiiough the saxBA language is commonly 
for the sake of convenience, employed in both cases. 

j3. In tracing derivations, it is sometimes convenient to assume a theme, 
either as a primitive, or as a link of connection. We must, however, b« 
cautious in pronouncing that to have been essential in the actual formatiin 
4ii the language, which we find convenient in explaining that formation. 

I. Formation of. Simple Words. 

§ 304. Simple Words are divided in respect to their 
Ibrmation into three classes. 

(I.) Those which consist of the mere radical, without 
change, except for euphony or emphasis. 

(II.) Those which have, in addition, merely the affixes of 
.inflection. * 

(in.) Those which receive farther modifications. 

Hie Rules and Remarks which follow have respect chiefly t& the third dasi. 

A. Nouns. 

§ 309* I. From Verbs. Nouns formed from verbs (or 
from commoL radicals, § 303. a) denote, 

1.) The action of the verb. These are formed by adding 
to the root of the verb, 

a. -ets (Gon. -rftt, ftm.), or ^/£ (G. -r/ag, f.) ; as, fufti-s/umtt to tmUate, 
fJfAn-rtt, im itatwn ; nr^kerm (r. ft^Ay-^ to cut, {vr^iy-vtf) r^oiii, actifm ; S^ 
to Bocrificet ^vr/m, tacr\fice ; ^•«i/M»t'v, to try, ^iitfAtgimt trioL 

b. -«, -« (G 'fit, 'St, f.) ; as, ^i$7« (r. ^»y-), to JUe, fyy-n, j^t 

fitifVf to corrupt, f^^ corrvpium. Some verbs in .smt have abstraoto in 
'tid (§ 9S. ^. a) ; as, m'athim, to Uutructt m'mthid, imtruction. 

c. -«t (G. -•«, m.); as, Xiy-v, to tpeak, Xiy-sf, speech; #irt/(^«, to tow, 
0^o^»s, $ounng, 

d. -rtf (G. -^w, m.) ; as, Mwrv^, to wail, kwcS-tU, waStimg* 

6. '$t (G. 'ft, n.) ; as, »ni'»fMii, to care, »tii-ot, care, 

f. -ftit (G. -^w, in.), or .^ff (G. -mw, f.); ««> i^^-^f^tt^ to lament, Qv^-fdt, 
kKmenUatioH ; fii-ftm-fuu, to remanber, fifn-fin, remembroMce. 

Bemabk. From the tendency of abstracts to pass into concretes, verbals 
of Class 1 often express not so much the action itself, as the effect or obfeti 
of the aotion, and thus blend with Qaes 2 ; as, y^aftf^, Hne* 

§ 306. 2.) The effect, or object of the action. These 
are formed by adding to the root of the verb, 

"fm (G. -fsmrtt, n.) ; as, ^»si-t0, to make, compose, ^sin-ftm, <&% 4Wl% 


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cmi IL] ifcmNS. 9tt5 

po$m ; €W*i^ k> jow, ^iri^fut, tkhg mmm, §eed$ y^dpif, to wriit, (jy^-fjM^ 
y^fi/ut, letter. See also § 305. B. 

3.) The DOER. These are formed by adding to the root of 
the verb, 

a. -T«f (6. -r^v^ m.) ; as, ^%m-»fMit, to bdiold, S^td-rng, hdwider; ir»tim, to 
vompote, wtfii^tt poet ; »v/^m, to founds urifrtift founder, 

b. -rt^ (G. -'ni^tt nu), or .t«^ (Cr. 'r»fa(j m.) ; as, ^i^MfM (r. ^f.), to give^ 
h-rn(t gioer; r«^«, to tcaoey fairn^, saviour; r. /•-, to speak, fn-rtt^j speaker 

Note. The feminines corresponding xa the above (a. and b.) end in -r^ 
or -rii^i (proparoxytone, G. -£;), or in -t^k or -rts (G. -Hof) ; as, ff'^nr^ios, 
^0etoi5, nvrf^«, fmak deHeerer ; «^X«nif and -nt^, ftute-pUyer, ttvknr^is and 
-r^Mi flute-^irl ; ^^^^rm, prophet, x^t^T^, prophetess, 

c ^tff (G. -i«f, m.) ; as, ><^i^^.», to jiom^, 7^«f-tvf, painter; ^tti^tt, to 
corrupt, ^•^%vt, corrupter; »ti^t*, to shcme, mv^ivs, barber, 

d. -«f (G. -#v, m. £); r^(^«> ft> noum^ r^»^U, nurse; ittlim, to smg, 
mniiti mhutrd, 

Rkmark. Some verbals of Class 3 are appHed to things; as, /«/«, to 
heat, f»tvrn^, beater, hammer, Zm^rn^, girdle, itnrnit unnd (blower), I^CfXtvr, 

^ S97* 4.) The FLAGS, uiSTBUMSMT, cft Other means of 
the action. These are formed by adding to the root of the 

a. -nifMf (G. '4V, n.), more frequently expressing place ; as, ^m(-4^mm, to 
hear, «»^Mi-r«^i«y, place of hearing, auditory ; it»mrrn(t49 (^ma^m), court of 
Justice; 9r»ri^ (Wvw), dHnktrng^cup, Of. §§ 314. b, 315. m, 

b. -r^«» (G. -•», n.), or -r^ (G. -«#, f.), more frequently expressing 
means; as^ |uw, to citrry, |M^r^«» and l^rr^a, currycomb, Xut^m (Xv«), ran- 
som (means of releasing), i^x*^''*'i'^ (}iX^»l^*)t orchestra. 

Remark. TerminatioDs of verbals are affixed, in general, with the same 
euphonic diangee as the similar affixes of inflection ; i. e. those beginning 
with r follow the analogy of -«■« of the Put. or -tm of the Petf. pass. ; those 
beginning with ^ and r, of -^eu and -rat of the Peril pass. ; and those be- 
ginning with a vowel, of the '2d Perf. It is convenient to remember, thai 
verbal nouns following the 1st Pers. of the Perf. pass, more frequently denote 
the thing done ; the 2d, the doing; and the 3d, the doer. Thus, 

wtrinlfffuih wtrifivfrmt, ^%'W0tifrm, 

w^ifi'fub, poem^ iraiffrtf, poesy, ^tn^rmt poet, 

% SOS* II. From Adjectives. Nouns formed from 
adjectives (or from common radicals, § 303. «) usually ex- 
press the ABSTSACT of the adjective, and are formed in, 

a. -/# (G. 'i&t, f>)j o^i i^ the root ends in t or •, -m farming, with the 
final vowel oi the root, -ui or -atai ; as, vo^-is, wise, 99(P'li, wisdom ; tifitci/Mif, 
-•v-4f, happy, u4m$fMfim, happiness ; ikftPnt, -S-«f , true, mknfui, truA ; tlht-stt 
eenlie. §&nus, kiisd, tihmi, kinduess. See §§ 92. fi, y, S15. a. 



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b. 'Tfii (G. ^mrif, t)y from adjecthres in -«; and -vt ; as, fr»f , ejuoi, /r^nf 
equdlUy^; ra^vf, swift, rax^rrK, mmftneu, 

c '^tvn (G. -Jif, f.)» from adjectives in -»» and -•»» ; as, iituu^fj jutt, hxtu4 
9Wfi* justice; €m(p^»tf, discreet, «-«^(0rvy«, discretion. 

d. -«r (G. -t«r, n.)> chiefly from adjectives in -vr ; as, ^eJut^ deep, fia^ag, 
deplh ; tv^vst broad, tS^ot, breads, 

e. '»$ (Or. 'ttisf, f.), from nmnerals ; as, ^110, two, Wf, duae^g Se« 
If 25. III. 

§ 309. III. From Other Nouns. Nouns derived from 
other nouns are, 

1.) Pa-trials (patria, native land)^ and similar words de* 
noting persons related to some object. These end in, 

a. 'Ttif (G. -Tfltf) masc., and -vtf (^ 1 34. « ; G. -nhf) fem. (with thi 
preceding vowel long iq patrials ; thus, Arns, -nrm, -urns, 'tarnf, -«wfc t 
and also in other nouns in -irns) ; as, "SvSa^is, Sybaris, 2vf «^trDf , a man of 
Sybaris, a Sybarite, 'IvGet^irtg, a woman of Sybaris; Aiytvnrfih Tlt^irng^ 
l^ret^nirns, 2/*iXi«5T»ij, a man of jEgina, &c. ; voXtg, city, vaXtrtif, citizen, 
woXtrif, feihale citizen ; ro\ot, bow, rJ^irns, archer, ro^irts, archeress. 

b. -ii/f (G. -Utf) masc, and -ts (G. -thg) fem. (^ 118. S) ; as, 'Miytt^m^ 
Megara, M^ya^tvt, Megarian man, It/Uym^is, M, woman; ^ai^/tM»ov, drug, 
(pa^fiutHiut, dealer in datgs, soreerer, pn^fumit, sorceress; Ivritds, horse, Urmt, 
horseman, knight, 

^310* 2.) Patronymics (so called from containing the 
father's or ancestor's name, nntgog ovofia). These end in, 

a. 'fitis (G. -ov) masc (uniting with i or « -.preceding), and -t* (G. -t J«j 
fern.; 'oivs (G. -cv) masc, and -»s (G. -ethg) tern., from names of Dec I.; 
and 'io^ng (G* -«v) masc, and -tag (G. -taiog^ fem., from names in 't»g, and 
(especially in hexameter verse for the sake of the measure) from many which 
have the hist syllable of the root long ; as, Ufitt/Aos, Priam, Yl^totfJlmy »on 
of P,, Il(Mf*4g, daughter of P.; KU^a^, Ei»^««'/^«f , Kix^avig • TlnXtug, 
•*•»$, IlffXii^nf • *B^m»Xngt 'i»vt, *H^nxkilhis • Atirti, 'iog, Anrtiing • B^^uifi 
Boreas, B«^ue^i», son of B,, Ba^t&g, A»g, daughter of B, ; &irri»gi 0«#tmU«^ 
0trri«f • OifDf, -nr-ag, ^t(nT4tt^ng • linXwg, Ep. G. -w, Ep. TlnXmdht»9 
A. 1. 

b. -««y (G. '/vfag, rarely -Uvos) masc, and -uivn or -Im (G. -ng) i^*. only 
poetic ; as, K^iv^g, Saturn, K^antv, -ttvag or A»9»g, son cf 8., A, 397 ; Ilir 
kiug, IltiXu»>p, A. 188 ; *A»^irt0g, 'An^^tmni, daughter of A,, S,S19; "A^^ 
0r«gf * A J^fltf-rtf fj E. 4 1 2. 

Rbmabk. Patronymics appear to have been, in their origin, diminutives 
thus, n^ia^Anf, little Priam. See (^312. Akin to the above are a few 
words in -sites, contr. -Hevg, — son, -tiis, contr. -<JJ», — daughter ; as, ^»y«- 
r^t^ovs, -'^«, daughter*s son, — daughter, itiiX^iiwg, -1^, n^hew^ mece. 

§311« 3.) Female Appellatives. These end in, 

from those iB< 
See § 134. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

a. 'tg (G. '»i»g), chiefly from inaaculines c^ Dec. I., and from those ia •sis 
as, "hMvirng, master, itewirig, mistress (%i80 ^trvMMt, cf. b). See § 134. «• 

CH. ll.J. NOUITS. 24il 

b. -«<y& (G. -Iff), chieflj from maacnlines in -mv; as, xUv, -•f «#, fiioit, 
kiatva^ U(mesa ; ri»r«v, -«v0f , cirtuoit, r%»recn» • A«xa>v, -*>»•;, j9/>artoii, AiC- 
»«<m. Also from some in -•; ; as, i^iAf, ^focf, S-ioivo, goddeat (^ 74. i), X^»«f 

c -fiil (6. 'umt\ frt>m fi»^iXivf, king, and /i^ivf, priest; thus, fim^/XMu, 
fueem, H^tm, priutesa, , 

d. -##« (-«•«, § 70. 1 ; G. -nf), from several endings of Dec. IIL ; as, 
KiXilt -mty CUicianj KiXi#r« (cf. § 273), «f»«^ -»«f, sovereign, ivarrm, ^i, 
^iif hireling, Siirr«, AiCug, 'uog, Lybiecn, Ki^vftra, 

Note. See, also, §§ 306. N., 309, 310. 

§ 319. 4.) Diminutives (sometiines expressing o^ec- 
tum^ oflen cotUempt). These end in, 

a. -Mv (G. 'too, n.), with a syllable often prefixed (-i}<«y, -^^f*, -vXkitv, 
-»)^i«y, 'v^tof, &c.). — b. 'i0xos (G. -•», m.), -iVjsn (G. -w, f.). Thus, <r«r#, 
dtildt Diminutives, ff'm^itfy, /t^ cAi/<f, 9raihtr»oi, young boy^ 9ruiiiv»fii young 
girl, itmiia»i»9j v'eu'iafi^tsv, 9raihet^vX>jof, 9rattia^t9x»'i, trttiiiv*£^tov * fnit^aJ^ 
youlk, /Ai4^ti»409, fiu^x/ii»9, fAU^axvXXt»¥t /Ati»a»uXXiii09j fAH^Kxiaxos, ftu^etxi' 
•"»« • xi^rij gif'U xo^tovt »»fU»fi, xt^tffxiov, xo^iho*, xt^iriov (for 'a^tov, on ac- 
oowit of the preceding ^), xe^xrihcv • tH^ot, isUmd, ^nfvh^tof • T^Sin, animalf 
{J^ntfitw) ^iih09, Zatid^iavj ^mu^tov, *€i iMx^xrif, £ iMx^etrtiw, O Socrates / 
i&or Soekyt Ar. Nub. 22'2. 

c 'if (G. 'ttof and -tiaf, f.) ; as, »^wn» fountain,^ x^wU* -7^«« • rivM^ 
tabie, xncbxUi 'i^9t, tablet* 

d. 'ihut (G. -<«r, m., only of the young of animals) ; as, atrig, eai^% 
Atrtiius, eaglet; Xeiym, hare, Xttyt^ivs* 

e. 'ix^n, -axvn, 'vXXit, 'uXoi (Dor.), &c. ; as, iroXti, city, ^•xix^n • ^Uh^ 
wine-Jar, ^t^dxtti • kxaviis, finch, itxavtuXXit • i^Mf, 'ttr^s, love, i^mvuXf^ 
darling, Theoc 3. 7. 

Note. Some diminutives (especially in -taf) have lost their peculiar force * 
thus, d^^, commonly in prose ^^iov, wild beast. Some proper names have di« 
minutive forms, sometimes made by abbreviation ; as, MiytXXaf \juymty 
great), 'A/Aa^uXXU (JtfAa^et, channel), Atevvs, "M-tifits (§ 1 26. 2). 

§ 3 1 3. 5.) AuGMENTATivEs, words implying increase^ 
either of numhery size, or degree. They end in, 

a. -«» (G. -«v«(, m.). This ending may express either a place, an emunal, 
or a person, in whidi any thing exists in numbers, or in large size or degree; 
as, &fjtwtXt, vine, ift^rtXtiv, vineyard, /«•«■«> {Iwoi), horse-stable, «v^^«», yv- 
MMJMvv {&fn^, yvvn), apartments for men, women, slwt {tnof), wine-cellar ; x**' 
Xt, Up, x**^h A fish with a long snout ; ytai»t, jaw, yvaJtv, glutton ; irXmr 
ros, breadth, IlAirtfv. As & designation of place, -mm is also used ; as, p»- 
^Mutt (Jtitf), rose-bed. 

b. -«( (G. -ux»f, m,), applied, like the preceding, to persons and animals, 
but harsher in its expression ; as, 9rX»ur»t, .wealth, irXavraJi, a rich dtwL So 
XdS^^S, greedy, Xx^ttl^ sea-wolf. 

Remark. Many derivative nouns are properly adjectives 
used substantively. 


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B. ADJEcmrBs. 
^ ft 1 4. L Prom Verbs. These end in, 

a. 'tftif, 'fit -«>, acHve; as, i^X"* ^ ^'^f &(X**'fi ^'^ ^ ^^* ye*^*^ ** 
^ktcHh*, ycf»mif^ ekaoipHve, fftaphic. This endiog is mofB freqnendy pre* 
oeded by r (cf. ^ S06. a, b) ; as, wMnrmif (wMtm), poetic. Bat sm § S15. b^ 

b. •^t^^tdti 'd, '0f, ttcthej as, r^^Ar, to »mv6f vmtn^t$t, »avm0 (cf. § 306. b). 

0. 'if*»tt -«* (and -ff, 'fi, *«f )» impljing fitnesi, both aelxoe and poMtee, ano 
annexed after the analogy (^ different verbal noons; as, r^i^i», r(«^fi 
(§ S05. b), r^i^ifMs, ftttBd to impart or to rtte<M mmMment^ fuOritUma, dig* 
aromt, Xi^if*H {xi»»/*^ xfi'*t\ JU foriue. 

d. 'fMtt, '/M9 (6. 'fMf»t)t active i as^ Uil«, ft> jxty, Ulii^imms c f w p awi oii a ii; 
ftf^i/Mn (jiifAvnfiMt\ mindfuL 

a. -«vr, -If, -^y, pamoe, signifying Mcrf wluck is done, dther as a matter of 
fagt (like tiie Lat Part pass, in •'tut)j or m(H« commonly as a matter of kabU 
Qi po uibil ityi thus, i^dtt, to see, i^drht seen, visible. 

t "tint, '&, '•vt passive, expressing necessity or obUffatton (Bke the Lat 
Part. In -ndus) ; «8» irstiv, to make^ wun^Usj Aa^ loAtcft is to be made. 

'. NoiBb Verbals in -rit and -riis commonly follow, in respect to the ibrm 
if the root, the analogy of the 1 Aor. pass. ; as, mt^w, to take, Pf. P. fj^nfmi^ 
A. P. ^^Unv, m^trit, Mt^tridt • vmvM, to stopy Pf. P. ^iwmitfutt, A. P. Wmwtn*^ 
^awrift irtufT^iat* • 

g. -fi#, -If, 'iff passive (compare the Part, in -fttwi) ; as, #tC«, to revere^ 
{nC-vig) 0tf»,fi(j revered, m'^fuvit (vr^Hm), longed for. 

h. 'iifiU (-4 -•»)» '»s (6> '£iH\ &c ; as, ;^«X«4», to slaeken, %»> m^it, 
Atck; pi^v, to bear, p»(as, frui^ul; Xiyv, to choose, X^y^g, chosen; Xmth 
(Xi/r^^ remaining. 

§S1S* n. From Nouns. These have the following 
atidiQgs, with, in general, the significations that are annexed : 

a.* 'ft, belonging to ; if a vowel precedes, commonly uniting with it in a 
diphthong (-«Mf, -uos, -^toty -««(, -moi), and often, without respect to this, 
assuming the form -iMf (Ion. -ti'toi, § 46. B.), especially from names of persons 
and animals. Many patriuls (properly adjectives, but often used substantively) 
belong to this class. Thus, •vfavis, heaven, •h^titnf, bdonging to heaven, heaven- 
llh fvw i^^t\ of mtader, murderous ; ky*^9% {ky^£), pertaining to the 
/ w' lwa , *Ain9mt QAJUfeu), Athenian, ^t {^'u), divine, 'AfytTn ("A^Hi 
^-•iX 'drgivCf if«f (tm), Ion. «•/> (imt, -•-•»), of <At morning, wmx*'*** 
<«ri;ttf|)i of a cubits length ; M^w^uog {Avifttvos), human, *0p4(ii»t (•O^nf^), 
MomenOi ^(u»f (B4(), of wild beasts. 

^OTBS. m. From the neuter of these adjectives has come a class of sub- 
stantives denoting an appropriated building or other place, instrument, &c ; as, 
ktimtw QAJnvm), ^nfiTut, Mavtf-iTfv, temple of Minerva, of Theseus, of the 
Muses, M0v^$&9 (»«»^ivf), barber's shopf y^ninfuunlsf {y^fAfimrtut)^ writing^ 
tablet, cf. § 307. 

«k Before -*^ and -tt (§ SOS. a), «• oflen passes into •• ; as, iMUifrii, gear^ 
l»Wi»f, of a gear, UtXnrut (TAtknrof), MUesian, ii»f4t*M (u^mturt), i»- 


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•?H. 11.] ADJECTinS. — PSOfTOUNS. 3»19 

b. -/«««, •«, 'if Qf y precede^ -jmi ; if simple t or ii, -S»«f ; while -miot 
oommouly makes -«i'»««), relating to. These a^ectires in jm; are often formed 
from words that are themselves derivative. They apph to things rather than 
to permma. When used of the latter, they commonly signify related to in 
^^lalUy* or Jit for^ and are mostly derived from personal appellations. Thus, 
vijcm, art, T»x*t»ot, relating to art, artutic ; J«»X»,-, stew, l«9Xi»es, »ervile ; 
AiCvt, Libyan, AjC»»§t» pertaimng to the Libyam or Ubya ; E^ivitH, Carina 
dUuit, K»^it0ta»if • ^wov^ut, spondee, ^ff^Himxis, spondee ; *Axmit, jichaan, 
*Kxntnis, and less Att. 'A^^iixis • ^unrns, poet, ^Mnrtxis, poetic, ftir»^M»tf 
Qn'TM^ rhetorical, rr^mrfiytxit {ar^ctr»yos), fit for a generoL See ^ 314. a. 

c -i«f, -«, -•», an4 'Tt»f, -«, -•» (proparoxytone), denoting material, -en ; aa, 
Xei^^*Sj 90^ Xi^^**f (T 18)» golden, IvXiwg j(^'x#»), wooden, 

d. -/mi, seldom -f »•«, expressing time or crso nfa io t ; as, ii/in^ffit (l|^S^«)» 
^ f/«|f, n^iirtfr (^ri^**), 2n>e/, Ji^iivof (^«;, -•-•0» m ountainoue, 

e. -rvff, -ifNf, -4ry«r, patrials, from names of dties and countries oat of 
Greece ; as, T«^«»rr»«f (Tn(»t, -mvrtt), Tarentine, Kvlt»ti9«s (Kv^tM^f), Cyzif 
eene, 2a^tt»0s {Im^htt), SartBan. 

f« -^if, -•^•»» -«f^»#» -«Ai»f, -«X«f, -ArXif , "Ut (-4#ri, -t», G. -«»r#*), 'tHing (-•#, 
G. -i«f ; oontr. from 'e-uint, from in*!, form), expressing fulnes$ or 9110^ ; 
as, aUxi*f i»*^X*f)» tihameftd, paU^is {^oCh), feeufnl, irsffi^ig irivtt), pau^ul^ 
^m^emJiisf {Bm^r^s), courageoua, d^rnrnXit (^nvrnm), deceitful, ^tietXit (jP*i«i\ 
parmmoiwme, iXniH iJiXn), woody, m'v^ius {^ru^, -i/^«f), fiery, ;^«^W (xH*f\ 
gtaeefid, efnntSht (*f ^)b wasp-Ske, yJ^aftfiuHins {^aftftof), sandy. 

^ S 1 0. in. From Adjectives and Adverbs. 1. From 
some adjectives and adverbs, derivadves are formed in the 
same manner as from nouns ; thus, xa^a^o^, dean^ xaddgiog^ 
cl^eanlyj iXfv&igiog {iXtv&f(fog)y liberal^ &iiXvx6g {^^kvg)^ jemi' 
ntnc, x^joipog {x^ig)y of yesterday. 

2. The adjective has in. Greek, as in other languages, two 
strengthened forms, of which the one may be termed dutd^ 
denoting choice between two objects, and the other plural^ de- 
noting choice among a nitmher of objects. 

The most obvious examples of these atrengthened forms are the eomparathe 
and superlatioe degrese, oommoaly so ci^ed. Other examples of the oon^Mtra^ 
tive or dual strengthened form are, (a) the correlatives vrirtff ; whether of tht 
two f wTt^ig, Xrt^H (formed from the 3d Pers. pron. as the podtive, ^ 28, 
$ 1 4 1 , or, as some think, from the numeral its'), one of the two, olVirt^^t, •«*«. 
rt^os, U«rt^«(, ifA^irt^»s (see f 63, and compare the Lat. uter, neuter, alter, 
and the Eng. whether, either, ndther, otiier) ; (6) the following impl3ring a con- 
sideration of two objects m properties ; hJ^rt^it (poet.), Lat. <texter, right 
(rather than left), n^tm^f, sinister, left, hun^Hj second, hfitin^ti noster, our 
(Mt|Mr than yours, or any one's else), &f*ir$^, vaster, yomr, e^irt^, their, &c 
r*| 84). Other examples of the euperlaUve or pbiral strengthened form are, 
(r) Hm co nWii ti w i wirrt \ whdeh m order f or, one of how many f iwiern^ 
UmeTH (1 6S) ; (d) all ordmak axoept ^t^rs^ (tee f S^)* 

C. Pronouns. 
^317. For the formation of the most commrn pronoam, 


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250 DBRTVATIOlf. [bOOK It 

see §§ 141 - 154. The Greek abounds in correlative pronouns 
and adverbs (see fl 63), in respect to many of which it will be 
observed that, when they begin with w-, they are indefinite^ or 
interrogative (with a change of accent) ; with t-, definite ol 
demonstrative ; with the rough breathings relative definite^ and 
with 07r>, relative indefinite. Thus, itoaog ; how much 7 noooq^ 
of a certain quantity^ loaog., Toaoviog and toaoadt (^ 150. a), 
so much^ oooq^ as nrnch^ onoaogy how much soever ; noxs ; when 7 
TroTc, at some time^ tots, then^ ore, wlien, onotey whensoever. 

D. Verbs. 

^318* I. From Nouns and Adjectives. Of these 
the chief endings and the prevailing significations are as fol- 

a. 'itfy -ii/«, and (mostly from noans of Dec I.) -i^, to be or do that 
which is pointed out by the primitiye ; as, ^/Xof, friend, ^ikint, to be aftiaui, 
to lovty tt^atfMvim (jkv^mlfMt*, -•99s)t to be proaperoutj Atv^w {^'''^X^f)* to be 
unforUmatey w«ktf*itt (^triXtfiUf), to wage war ; ^•vXivm (^•i;X«f ), to be a slave, 
to eerve, f^ftXivm (fimnXtuf), to reign, XH*^** (x*t*f)* ^ dance; rpkfuut 
{rikfim), to be bold, to dare, rtftAm (rtfin), to honor, 

b. 'om (mostly from words of Dec. II.), -«/»» and 'vim (mostly from ad- 
jectives), to make that which is pointed out by the primitive ; as, ^nX«f , m»- 
dent, ^nkim, to make evident, 'havXut (J^wXtt), to make one a elave^ to enaUxoe^ 
Xi^^*" (x(*'^^^)» ^ *"^'^ golden, to gild, wrt^im (^rn^v), to make winged, to 
furnish with wings, rTt^etviat {ffri^aift), to croum ; Xfv»«/»« {ktuxis), to 
whiten, rti/Mtifm (ftifjia), to signify, niuvv (Jiivf^, to sweeten, 

c. -i^Af, and (chiefly when formed from words which have « or n in the 
last syllable, or when preceded by i, cf. §§ 310. a, 315. b) -«?»; from names 
of persons or animals, imitative (denoting the jadoption <^ the manners, language, 
ojnnions, party, &c.) ; from other words, used in various senses, but mostiy 
active ; as, Mt>^i^A> (M^af), to imitate or favor the Medes, 'ExXkiti^a*, to speak 
Greek, Am^i^v and A«^i«^w, to live, talk, sing, or dress like the Dorians, <l>iX4ff'. 
r/^Af, to be of Philip^s party, iXMVtxil^t (^iXiivtil), to play the fox ; ^Xturi^m 
(frXft/Tvf ), to make rich, tuimfA^til^v, to esteem happy, ^i^i^« (^^C^^)* ^* harvest, 
Ifi^tif (^(ts)t to contend, i^^rd^tit (b^rn), to wtake a feast, ^ix«^« (}*M$i), to 
j^uige, ^mvfiui^M {^mSftu), to wonder, 

d. -*> with simply a strengthening of the penult> more frequentiy active $ 
as, nu^i^of, pure, xaiai^tn, to purify, ftuftiXXtt (xTMittXot), to variegate, ftttXue'- 
9m (jiaX&xos)j to soften, 

§819. II. From Other Verbs. These are 

1.) Desideratives, formed in -ftiat, from the Fut.; as, ytX^ to laugh, 
ytXartw, to wish to laugh, PL Phado, 64 b, ncoXifttfi^um (r^Xi^U), to adM 
for war, Th. L 33. Desideratives are also formed in 'idv (rarely -dm), diieily 
from verbal nouns ; as, ^v^mvm, to team, fteJtivtit, disciple, fsMtnrtdm, to wiak 
to become a disciple, Ar. Nub. 1 83, ffr^ttmydat {rrfarnyit), to desire military 
command, vii. 1. 33, ^»furdw {^»itmr»s), to desire death, PI. Phaodo, 64 b. 

2.) Tarioufl prQl(mc«d fbnns in -C«, -r»», &c. (see §§ 265 -SOO), mbm- 


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timet freqiteiUatieB or mfeiutoe, as, /iVr^, to iknm^ fs^Tdlm, to throw to imdfroi, 
rrS»«, to »igh, #rt»«^«», to iigk deeply ; sometimes utc^ve, as, i^i^ to be a$ 
the age of puberty^ fi€eif»at, to come to the age of puberty ; sometimes coMo^ttw^ 
as, fitt0uttf to be intoxicated^ fufvfxM, to intoxicate ; sometimes diminutioe, as, 
l^ttrn'mrdrnf to cheat, l^av-mrvXXv (cf. ^ SI 2), to cheat a Utile, to hutnbug, Ar. 
£q. 1 144 ; bat often scarce differing in force from the primitiye fonn 
(§§ 254-258,265). 

E. Adverbs. 

^ 390. Most adverbs belong to the foUowmg classes. 

I. Oblique Cases of Nouns and Adjectives, employed 
as circumstantial adjuncts (see Syntax). With an adjective 
thus employed, a noun is strictly to be supplied. Many of 
these oblique cases have antique forms, and many belong to 
themes that are not in use. Examples, 

1. 6ENTnvBa» (a) in -#», denoting the place whence (§ 91) : (6) m •«» 
denoting the place where ; aa, tS [sc rmv or ;^Aff i«v], tn which place, where^ 
§tiirw, Acre, iftau, in the tame place, ttHaftw, nowhere: (c) in -nr ; as, alftmif 
of a sudden, l^nt, in order : (d) ir^unif {'e'^«i&, cf a gift, gratie, &c 

2. Datives, (a) in -m, -«#i of Dec II. sing., and in -ifr4(»), -#r4(v) of 
Dec. I. pi., denoting the place where (in adverbs in -m derived from pronoons, 
this commonly passes into the idea of whither, see f 63. and compare the &- 
miliar use of u^ere, there, &c,, in English) ; as, *Ajfvtntvh ot Athene ; see 
§§ 90, 96. 5 : (b) in -p (-n), -f (-«), -m of Dec. I., and in -i of Dec HI, 
denoting wag, place where, or time when ; as, rnvr^ [sc i^f ] m Ait wag, thMt^ 
[sc x'^^f] ^ ^^ P^^i^ A^*^ ^rntrmxnj cverg wag, eoergwhere, irtl^, on foot^ 
tiif, prioatefy, ;^«^/, on the ground, ^riXtu, m olden time, Innrt, bg the wUl of^ 
X^ (§ 89. fi, d), Ayx** ^*^^9 V» '^^H* I* ^^^* 

Note. Adverbial Datives of Dec. I. are written by most editors with an 
i snbsc, except when they have no Nom. in use, and by some even fheo* 
See § 25. fi, 

S. Accusatives ; as, infun*, at the moment, x^i ^ account of, }{»n9f Sktt 
and the Neat sing, and pi. of acyectives. , 

^391. II. Derivatives signifying, (1.) Manneb, in, 

a. -^, from a^ectives. Hie adverb may be formed by changing y of the 
Gen. pi. into t ; as, ^a^it, 6. pL ^9^£v, wise, v^Zf, wisdg, rm^vst rax^t 
wwift, rmxi»Ht wnfUy, ^a^Ss (fn^ns, ^i^vv, -«?»), Ion. ra^ivf, eoidentig. 

b. -«)«v or -^ay Tperhaps kindred with iitt, form), chiefly from noons ; Ant 
or -4^ifv, chiefly from verbs (those in '£ifi* commonly conforming to other 
verbals) ; and -}« ; as, ^Xnfiniof {trXifi^i), in the form of bricks, Hdt. ii. 96, 
^TfSiiv {fi»T(vs)t in clusters, B. 8$, Jitetipatiiv, or 'im (^y«^«/y«), openlg, 
AtfvC^itv, or -itc {x^u^rrai), secreUg, 0ir»^£ifiv (#«'i/^«», vwa^aii), ecatterisigfy 
lliese appear to be Ace forms (cf. § 320. S) ; thus, Sing. fern, -hv, neat 
•}#y, PL neat -^a, 

c -I or -ti, especially trom hnitative verbs (§ SIS. o, -iC« becoming 't^Ot 
and in oompoands of i- prtoaHoe, mbrit^ and «*&# • as, Mii^«r4 Uhe the Msdee, 
'EXXnfi^h in the Greek language, dfurti (juHit)t without pag^ ^^ft»X^ M^ 


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ni OOMPOSXTUUf . [ BOOK fl. 

dj^Zff^ <» '^ irfrtoW *■«&, «^;^<e< (x**^)* "^ O'*'* ««» *«»< •^A^^ 
(lii^), wM M« wAofe P^opie. These appear to be Dat. forma (cf. § a£0. SC 

^ •! added to a palatal ; as, mtet-uiyvvfu (r. fuy-, \ 294), to nujr up, 
4n(^X confusedfy, pdhttell, «'a^aAX«^(9'a^-aXX«rr«, ^ 274. 7), atUmatefy. 

(2.) Time when, in -t* (Dor. -jc«), or> for more specific ex* 
pression, in -/xa ; as, aXloit (olkXo<;)^ at another time^ txiiUa 
(avTo;), €U, the very momejU. See tl 68. 

(3.) Place whither, in -at (which appears to be a soAened 
form of -de, ^ 322. HI.,, or at least kindred with it) ; as, oi^ 
popSfji^ id heaven^ iniiat^ thither^ kej^cutfe, to the other side* 
Bee IT 68. 

(4.) Number, in -dxig. See fl 25. II. 

§ 393* in. Prepositions with their Cases ; as, (91^0 
«(^ov) n^ovgyovy before the work^ to the purpose^ naoaxQfifia^ 
i^Mfi the afairy immediately ^ (dt' o) d<o, on account, of which^ 
wherefore^ {^p nodw idm) ^Tio^coy, in the way of the feet, 
*A^nvait (from U^ip'o^, and -d^, an inseparable preposition de- 
moting direction towards^ %% 51. N., 150. 4), to Athens. 

rV. Derivatives from Prepositions, or Prepositions 
u«£D without Cases ; as, fya (^£), vjithout^ %Xa(» (ai;), witMn 
^is, Ifesides. 

II. Formation of Compound Words. 

^ 33 d* In composition, the word which modifies or limits 
the other, usually precedes; as, vofio-^itfig (vofAogj tidr,fii) 

The exceptioDB ooDnst mainly of a verb or preposition followed by a notm, 
§tA ace fbr tha noet part poetic Among the verbs which are moat frequently 
80 placed in proee are f rxMr, to love, and ftr^ut, to hate ; thus, ftX-avi^WHt 
i'lomng^ fuart.^ifrns, Fersian'hcUer. 

§ 334. A. The first word has commonly its radical foi-m 
with simply euphonic changes. These changes, besides those 
which die general rules of orthoepy require, consist chiefly, 

1 .) In the insertion of a union-voioel, which, after a substantive or adjective, 
18 commonly -«-, but sometimes -»»-, ►«-, or -/- ; and, after a vtrh^ -1-, -/-, -•-, 
-•I-, or -M-; as, m'aii-i.r^iCtit (»«<*>, -ieSi TflMj instructer^ tt*-6->,oyH (^/»«, 
\iyM)f advocate, iufjuw^yis (Ion. '^vtfAi-o-i^yify from "hnfAtoe and ?gy#v), artisan, 
(yd-d-fur^la, from y««, contr. yn, and^tr^U, §§ 35, 98. «) yiMfntr^loy ge- 
ohtetry, (fM-9-»»^»t • f£es, tuit, and KOQU0) u»/»o(»t, keeper of a temple^ ^ettarm 
•-pi^ot and 'ti'^ifPt {B-avarof, ^i^«>), death-bringing, JEach. Ag. 1 1 76, Cho. 
869, ^p-n-fi^tt and ••-fi^Af (I'P^s, -•«?, pif), sword-bearing, iya^-m-tiftf 
i^cyt^ ti^\ ^hr% of the markat, ii^-t.n^^f (ir^^s, ^^\ foot-btdk, Hdt. 
iLm, w^^.yn^ (wv^^ yiy*futt\ fsre-hmm. H^n-^tf (fiiti ^h\ W^ 
W»WS ^semt^wUsH (pmn, 9rsXiii)^ half-gray, N. 861 ; l^-i^«e« i^K^ 


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A. 419, X4«'-«-««(m (Xt/rtf, «'«^)» Uawing tm^Bfoat* 

S.) In the inaortioii of r, Mmmonlj eonnaMed bj n unioii-Ttfwd efthef to 
tbe saocMding or pr tc odia g word, mA MmetunM fv«a to both ; aB» {^it*^ 
ao'm'tt) ^^pa^vrit {fiv'ra^ tifitit), coward, rtXt-r-^ifs {riXti 'i-^fy ^«(«')» 
fu^UiiHg, »t^M€^(«f, homedy f «»#^«^*f, hght-bringing ; XS-^frikiif (Xww, rU«), 

^^^•f (j§iy*B/mf fi^Cte^gf), mixed wUh barbariant; Bf9^^^4j^Ut {Btcti l^ 

iMNiiidM^, A. 5 1 1 . &I Dome of thne oA6es» th« «r appMn t6 kat« been bor- 
rowed from the theme or the Dat pL of nouie, «nd ia «tketB| pertuipa> ftott 
the Aor. of yerba^ fa a yerbal. 

3.) In adopting a thorter form from the them«^ or an eariy root ; as, »//•- 
^Ca^ns {joufMif •«r«f, ^9mt), hiood-ba£hodt iptk'i'WMg (piki'tt from ^i^Ht 
v^Mf), labor-Mag, * 

NoTBs. «• Tbe mode in irkaA. the ooostitQeBt words are united (rflen 
depends, espeoial^ in verseb upon the quantity of the syllables which oompese 

/}. In some oomponnds, cidefly poetic, the first word has a ibrm like that 
of the Dat. sing, or pi. withont change ; as, 9¥»rt-iroXtt roamh^f by nigkt, 
Ear. Ion, 718, tttxt^f^^nrfitt wcH-ap p roa tke t , £. SI. 

§ S9ff» RsMASKS. 1. If tlMfiivt word is a iNirtidlK, It fs commonly 
VBcfaaaged except by the general Unre of eapfaony. For elision in pxeposi* 
tions, see §§ 41, 4i', 192. 1. *A^^i, like ri^/, often retains its voweL in 
the other prepodtions, tbe elision is rarely omitted, except in the Ion., par- 
Henlkriy in the Ep. belbre some words wMch begin with the dtgamfiia. For 
elision before a consonant, see § 48. 2. 11^ sometimee' unites witli a yowd 
Islkming by crasls; as, ir^^trr*; ^r^»Swr»f, ^^r-ix'' *fhc*'> *• ^» MO 
^ 192. 1. 

2. Some particles occur only in composition, and are hence called uuepara^ 
Ms. Of these, the most important are^ 

a.) JU, commonly denoting privathn or negatidnf and then called A" pfha 
the, as, i'lraig, without ckUdrem, 2-#«^, unwiee; but sometimes denoting 
MnioHj collection, or intensiiy, as, a-ltX^^f (hx^vt), brother, m-rivng (rtivw), 
atrcdmed. *A- privutive (commonly «v- before a vowd) is akin to &nu, without, 
to the Lat. m-, and to the Eng. and Germ, un- ; «- ccpuiadve i^ipears to be 
akin to af/Mt, together. Akin to H priv. is vti- (Lat ne) ; thus, vn^ans (tkta), 

b.) ^vr-, iU, mu-, mi-; as, ^U-^nfMt, Hl-omemd, >vr-rv;^«K, nde-fmrtuHe^ 

&) The ixtmeioe m^ (kindred with 'A^, § 161. B.), <(<-, W* ^^ ^' t 
as, «^P^«»^(v, very tearful, T^A-itXtvTt, very rich. 

% 336* B. The form of the last word depends upon 
the part of speech to which the compound belongs. 

1. If the compound is a Nouif or adjective, it commonly 
takes the most obvious form which is appropriate to the daas 


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254 COMPOSITION. [book u. 

of words to which it belongs. Often, the last word, if itself a 
noun or adjective^ undergoes no change ; as, ofio-dovlog^ feU 
low-sUmey a-natg^ ehUdleu. If the last element is a verhy 
the compound adjective <Nr masculine substantive ends com 
monly in, 

a. -H* This encUiig (whidi is fiff the most oonmon) has both an actum 
and a passioe seose^ distingniwhwl, fiv the most part, by the accent, which, if 
the pennh is short, the aetwe com^wand commonly takes upon the pemmU, but 
the paubee upon tiie imtepenmlt ; as, kJt-CiXH (xUt, fidXX^), throwing atoim^ 
kJi-CsXttt throttm at wUk ttmuu 

b. -ns (-if} O. -ui) ; as, ti-^f^ir^y becoming, aurn^nnt, tdf-Bt^jScing. 

c -Iff or -at (G. '•»), and -n^ or -«^, denoting the agent (§ S06. a, b) ; aa^ 
9«f*$'fimf^ UgUiatar, fitu^0-iriiXnf (§ 92. 2), i^tit-in^s, Urdrcatcher^ /miX«- 
C«nf^ Aepherd, 2. 529, irm^sXittf^, diM-wuttrderer, 

Rkkark. In compounds of this class, if the last w(»d begms "with &, t^ot 
«, fbHowed by a single consonant, this vowel is commonly lengthened to « or 
«» ; as, ^T^mrnyit (fr(ar»t, &yi , general^ )vnix«r«f ()»r-, iXmyfJ), hard to 
drive over^ avrnvfui («-, •••ftm, § 44. 5), nam e len . 

% 337. 2. If the compound is a verb, it is important to 
observe that verbs are compounded directly and without change 
with prepositions only ; and that, in other cases, compound 
verbs are derivatives from compound nouns or adjectives ex- 
isting or assumed. 

Uma, XMftCdtaty to take, unites directly with the prep, iv^ tqa, to ibrm 
mfM>MftiCm9»0j to take iqi ; bnt it cannot so unite with the noon t^yew, work, and 
hence the idea to take work, to contract, is expressed by i^ykaCim, derived 
from the compound verbal l^7«-x«C«f, contractor. So the verb compounded 
of TflTflrff , horee, and T(i^v, to feed, is !9rwT^0(piv from l^vr^ipuf, horee-keeper. 
Sometimes the form of the verb happens not to be changed in passing through 
the compound verbal ; thus, from 9-tT»t and vatit, is formed ftrt-wMf, bread' 
maker, and from this again nrf^ratut, to make bread, 

Rekakks. 1 . The union of the preposition with the verb, as not afiecting 
the form of the verb, and admitting of separation by totem (§ S28. N.), is 
termed hou or improper conqMrntion^ in distinction from that cloee or prcper 
compotition which forms one inseparable word. 

§ 33 8* 2. In PBONOUNS and pabticles there Lb a still looser form 
ol composition, consisting in the aggregation of words, sometimes really and 
sometimes only apparently combined in sense. In these aggregates, the or- 
thograpby varies, the words being sometimes written together, chiefly when 
the last is an enditic, and sometimes separately. Among the chief words 
that are thus affixed to others axe, 

a. The niDEFZinTB fbonouii rU • as, Img, whoever, aSnst 'X' o**^ *^*^'» 
if any one. 


Mv (Ep. »l or niv. Dor. »«), contingent or faidefinite; as, 3t if, whoever, Un 

VKtW i*,\ ' 


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yi (Dor. yA)f at katt, emphati' as, tymyu lot least, ^^yt^ pou twrefy^ 
rmiri yt, thit eertainfy, Iwti yt^ ghtee at leatt» 

hi, now (shorter form of jf^) ; as, Srrif H tofioever now, nh ^ Juat now. 

^fiir§Tt (^ff fl'trt), ever now; as, UrteHvrt, wKotoever now, ri ^nwr% \ what, 
in the worldf 

0Z9 (oontr. from lif, it being eo, ^ 55), dun, therefore, yet, often added to an 
indefinite pronoun or adverb to strengthen the expression of indefiniteness ; as, 
ifr$^»v9, whoever ^en, ivm^^tiwrtm, howeoever now then. 

iri^ (shorter form of ri^O* ^^^* partieutarfy, juet; as, •r«Y(, who m par* 
Heular, Hwt^, Just as, 

m'«vi, at any time, ever, often added to interrogatiyes to strengthen the ex- 
pression ; as, ri w«ri Urt rwr» \ [what at any time is this^] what m ths 
world is this 9 w, u^at cqn this be f 

ri, the simplest sign of connection, and hence oft^n joined to other connec- 
tive words, before their use was established, to mark them as such. In the 
Ep. and Ion. this is finmd to a great extent ; bat in the Att. scarce oecnni 
except in In, and Jrrt, as, aUg n, able, possible, and i^* frt, on condition that* 

NoTB. In cases of loose oompoeitian, other words, especially particles, are 
sometimes interposed. When a preposition is thus separated from a verb, the 
figure is called Tmesis (r/Mt^tf, cutting) ; as, l« ^ irnU^nt, and leaping fartK 
Sor. Hee. 1172. 


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<^ S39. Syntax, as the doctrine or senten 
CES, treats either of the offices and relations of 
words as arranged in sentences, or of the offices 
and relations of these sentences themselves. 

KoTB. F(ff a general view of the offices of words, as nUfftet, f>rt£* 
eatCt copula, attribute, compellative (person addressed), aj^Msitht (8abstantiv% 
in apposition), adjunct (modifying or limiting substantive not in apposition)^ 
whether oomplem^fit or drcumstanoe (i. e. r^arded as completing the idea cMf 
the modified word, especially as a direct or indirect object, or as denoting some 
drcunutanee respecting it, as time, place, means, &c.), whether exponential or 
node (i. e. attached with or withont a preposition), exponent (sign of office t^ 
relation, as preposition, conjunction, &c\ &c : of their relations, as c^/ree^ ■ 
ment or concord^ government or regimen^ &c. : of the distinctions of senten- 
ces, as eimpU or compound, distinct (in which the predicate has a distinct form 
as a finite verb) or incorporated (in which the predicate is incorporated in 
another sentence as an injinitive or participle), intellective or voHtive (expressing 
an act of the understanding, or of the ten^), declarative or interrogative, actual 
or contingent (having respect to fact, or founded upon supposition), positive or 
negative, leading or dependent, substantive, adjective, or adverbial (performing 
the office of a substantive, adjective, or adverb in another sentence), protasis 
(introduction, condition) or apodosis (conclusion), &c: of then: modes of 
OONNECTlbN, incorporation, subordmatUm, coordination, and simple succession : 
of their exponents, as connective or characteristic (denoting the connection 
of sentences, or simply distinguishing their character) ; conjunctions, copula- 
tive, final (denoting purpose), conditional, complementary (introducing a sen- 
tence used substantively), &c. ; connective pronouns and adverbs, whether rela- 
tive or complementary (referring to an antecedent, or introducing a sentence 
used substantively) ; characteristic particles, pronouns, and adverbs ; &c : of the 
arrangement of words and sentences, as logical, rhetorical, rhythmical, pe- 
riodic, &c : and of the Figures of Syntax, as, ellipsis (omission), syllepsis and 
zeugma (varieties of compound construction, according as the word referring to 
a compound subject has the form required by aU the substantives in the subject 
taken together, or that which is required by one of them taken singly) ; pleo- 
nasm (redundance), periphrasis or circumlocution ; enallaoe (use of one word 
or form for another), metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, synesis (when the con- 
struction follows the sensSf m disregard of grammatical form), attraction 
(when a word is drawn from its appropriate form by the influence of another 
word), anaeoluthon (a want of agreement between two parts of a sentence, 


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OB. 1.] eBMimiL B£aCASXS.-^«frBSTAIITlVE. 251 

Mkittg A«di a diaage of ooaMnKtkli). vm^ ^IUmf$ <if mmiber$ Htpbsba 
TON (dbrogard of the coouBoa Umi of anjugamentX mmattnpki (inYenioa) 
pttttnthetiM, &o^ see Qederal Gnunmiur. 

§ 3S0* Among the especial causes of varibtt in the 
syntax of the Greek are, 

1.) Its freedom in the me of either genene or qfecifie forms of expres^n 
In the development of a language^ new forms arise to express more specifically 
what has been generically expressed by some older form. This dder fonx 
thus becomes narrowed in its appropriate q>here^ and itself more spedfic in its 
expression. But habit, whidi is mi^ty everTwhere, is peculiarly the arbiiei 
of langoage;— > 

Qoem penee aibitriun est et jna et norma loqaendi**; — 

mid, whererer the new distinction is unimportant, there is a tendency to em 
ploy the <dd and fiwniliJM- form in its originid extent of meaning. The result 
is, that an idea may be often expressed by two or more forms, which difibr 
from each other in being more or less specific ; and the same foim may have 
dliftrant OSes, according as it is employed more generically, or more specifically, 
lliese remarks apply both to the words of a language, to the fbrms of those 
words, and to the methods of oonstmction. They apply with peculiar force 
to the Greek, fttoi the freedom and originality of its devek^anent, the oopi- 
of its Toeabolary, the ftdness of its fonn% and the variety of its 

2.) The prevalence of diffbrent dialects in states intimately connected with 
each other by commerce, by alliances, and by national festivals ; and also in 
different departments of literature, without respect to local distinctions (§ 6). 
It cannot be thought strange, that forms of expression appropriate to the 
different dialects should have been sometimes interchanged or commingled ; 
or that the laws of syntax should have acquired less rigidity in the Greek, 
fiian in languages which have but a single cultivated dialect. 

3.) The vimdnett of eonceptkm and emotSoH, the ipirit of freedomf the versa 
Ulihf, the hve of variety, and the pcudon for beauty , whidi so preeminently 
characterized the Greek mind, and left their impress upon all its productions. 
The Greek language was the development in speech of these characteristics, 
the vivadoos, free, versatile, varied^ and beantifhl expression of Greek genius 
and taste. 



I. Agreement of the Substantive. 

§ dSl* Rule I. An appositive agrees in 
case with its subject ; as, 
22 • 

'Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wrmf^, the rkftr Mommder, i. 2. 7. Ti^ )l i^X« ^r«» ^rXtyylUt lb. 10. 
•O wrafU< Xiytrm M«^rv«« lb. 8. 'Ov^^mi «pr^ iTmu 'JLyiUnm PL Pro*, 

. 315 e. *Hf mhrh emr^^^n* Ivf/nri i. 1.2. A«Cit» Ti^^m^i^mf itt f« 
X«v lb. 

% SS9« Remarks. 1. Appodtivos, more freqimitlj, agree with 
their subjects in gender and nmtnber, as well as in case ; as, 'Ev^m^o, 4 2mm i 
0tci ypfiit r$S KiXman fimrtXims^ EpyaxOy the wife of 8yeime$i$, ihekim§ 
of Ae CUieiana, i 2. 12. 2«^«/Mr«v T^ rov 2rvfi^XMf, »mi ^m»^£mf r»r 
'A;^«4^, J^iftvf SfTttf' »m} r§»T§vf i. 1. 11. 

2. Ellipsis. The appositiTe or the snbject may be omitted, when it can 
be supplied from the QoniMction ; as, Au»t0s i ll»Xv^T(mr9if [sc. vlit'], Lycms, 
the ton of Pofygtrahu^ iiL S. 20. 0i/urr«»X?f ^ju* vm^k A [sc. \ym\y 1% 
Themieiocles, have come to thee, Th. i. 137. 

3. The fflgn of special appUcation (it, cu) is often omitted ; as, /^^fifug, &t 
i7;^«v vMinkfffMtra, the s/une which tiiey had as cooertnjj», i. 5. 10. KA./a^«r 
^f »a) ttffm VA^ixdcXtri vv/btCcvXcv i. 6. 5. 

4. Snncsis. An apposittve sometimes agrees with a subject which is im 
plied in another word; as, 'A^nvmlat mv ^oXttt rns (uyifms, bemg am 
AthemoH, a city the greatest^ PI. Apol. 29 d (here ^iXutt agnsa with 'A#«m», 
of Athem$, imi^ed in 'A/ffv«7«f). *A^ix«vr« i<V K^riW^a, 9-iXif 'ExXumI*^ 
%9$t9'itt* tufttftttf *liuStrmt v. 5. 3 (here mtmovs refers to «'«x/«'»f, im- 
plied m iriXtf) ; cf. iv. 8. 22, v. 3. 2. 2«v r«v ir^irCiA^f Ar. Aoh. 93. 

§ 333* 5. Attraction. A sabstantive intimately related to anoth- 
er is sometimes put in apposition with it by attraction. In this construction, 
the appositive usually denotes a part^ or a circumstance, and is often joined 
with a participle, taking the pla^ of the Genitive absolute. Thus, ES^ktuv* 
Yt r« w^ifo^m ttvTZvf (p»ivT»»t fMf ml ^v^ai <ri<rM*iyuey«u, their portals are 
easify set on fire, the doors being made of the palm-tree, Cyr. vii. 5. 22. "AxXe 
T^im i(f*» llinytTo, ^ornKtat zttTatnvretfAivoi ti lirw«i lb. viii. 3. 12. 

6. Some relations may be expressed either by an appositive or an adjunct; 
and one of these constructions is sometimes used where the othv would seem 
more appropriate. Thus, T«vr«v r« tS(9s )v« ^xif^m, of this tkM breadth 
is two pldhra, L 2. 5 ; but, T«v il Ma^rv«v r« tZ^ig Wm it»ft »a) «'ivn 
wtSiv, and the breadth of the Marsyas m twenty-five feet, lb. 8. Titraftis 
iZf$f )m irXiff^f lb. 23 ; but, Tei^^tt • ., to f*\v tu(0s i(yvim) wivrt 
i. 7. 14. AixM f*va7 tUpo^ti' but, AvoTw fAva7it ir^iroiev, Vect. iii. 9, 10. 
"Em K n A^^f • • tfS tt»9€t rr«)i«4 v. 3. II. Yimrtit 'Atntmt rtfuttrmTti 
weXis Soph. CEd. C. 108 ; but, IS^r if 'APnvS* Ut kvi^tfirot ^ikit JEach, 
Ten. 348. 

7 Anaoolijthon. An appositive sometimes differs in case from its sub 
ject, through a change of construction : as, Mnr^/ r , 'E^iUimv Xiy«, and to 
my mother, Eribaa I mean (for Mur^Z r' *E^«C«I^, and to my mother EriUsa), 
Soph. Aj. 569. See also § 344. 

§ 33 4*' 8. A word, m apposition with a aentence not used substantivefy, 
is commonly in the Accusative^ as expressing the effect of the action* ; but ia 
sometimes in the Nominative^ as if an inscription marking the character of 
the sentence. Thus, 'Exiw nri^mf^t, MtMXty Xvvffv vtn^mv, let us ih^ 


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Hden, [wtiidi WoaU be] a bUkr'gnef to MmelSua, Ear. Or. 1105. Irifn 
fuminvm ^iXu ^ S*n^§f nmi BtSv Jtrifiimj our garlands ar9 profanedf a 
diahtmor io the eUjf, and an uuuit to the gods, Eur. Herad. 72. T« )i wmvrmt 
i^iyiffTtf .., r^f ftlt rJkv x**^* «6^«»«^(fff» ^ff, hut Ike greatest thing of all, 
you tee yottr own territory inereaeingtCyT.Y, 5.24. Ti XtUftpp li, ^(iy»is 
iJXimt nm»S9t hvXn yvfh y#«vf *Exx£^ ur»p'i^9/imi Eur. Tro. 489. *H^i> Tli 
yt99»tf*i9tf9, ri rov »ttft^d§T9t9Uj «v^ M yuT09t$ 0^oi^m rt «<V^«v«yrai, 'as 
the comic poet says,' PI. Ale 121 d. 

KoTB. This use of the Nom. and Aoc. may be often explained by attraction 
(§. S J3) to the subject or object of the verb. 

9. The whole and its parte, or a part, iae often found in the same case, 
either by regular apposition (as when the whole is simply divided into its parts, 
or the parts united to form the whole), or by attraction (§ 333), or from their 
sostaining sunilar relations to the same word. This constmction has received' 
the general name of rxni*u »tJ* %>m9 %mk ^i^«#, oonOrwElwn by the whole and 
Uie part 

IL Use of the. Numbers. 

<^ SS«S« I. The Singular is sometimes used for the Plural 
in die Greek, as in other languages, to give to the expression 
greater individuality or unity ; as, t^p ''£lXtivtt^ the Greek 
(-ss^iht Greeks) y Hdt. i. 69. "Effnu dauffvor omiaxfav ano^ the 
tear trickles from my eyes^ Soph. £1. 1231. nifinX^/i* cv^tv 
S(A(Aa daxQV^p lb- 906. 

•Ra-MA^K-. A dwTue, from its strict nnity, commonly qpeaks of itself as aa 
imdieidual, and is oflm so addressed or spoken of by oUiers. Not nnfreqnent- 
ly, the two numbers are mingled ; as, XOP. '£>>« ^v, Z ^ui, xmi «•« r«» 
rwtv^eoe'* eifut, juu r§vfni9 mvriit, if X/«v • ti ti f>tii ttrnXif Xly«, #» 
fiJMK • r«} yk^ l^if*tr0* »f*m Soph. EL 251. ^Cl I^Mot, ^ Hr* i^ixntS r«) 
iTi^nv^mg Id. (Ed. C. 174. *H^r» ^» ifhi «'«» rtriltvrm ^iXf ^iv« ti 
JSsch. Emn. 676. *0^yks Iwiret r«i . . *Tf*u$ ti lb. 848. 

§ SS0« n. The use of the Plural for the Singular is 
particularly frequent in Greek, especially in abstract nouns^ 
m adjeetives used syhstantu?elyy in the names of things com- 
posed of distinct parts^ and in vague expressions for persons 
or things ; as, 

Ku} ^vx^ '^ ^^Xirn nui «'«»«crf ^i^u9, to endure both heat, and eoldf 
and labor, iiL 1. 33. Ti^ t^\tk rw Mi^ir^g, the ri^ of the wing, L 8. 4. 
JlArcnXt, h #M. irmr^if ^y rk piXrurm, Pntrochta, who was thy father*e 
best-beloved. Soph. Ph. 434. T« Si/iovinat j3«r<Xii«, the palace of Syeune^ 
sis, L 2. 23; cf. iii 4. 24, iy. 4. 2, 7. Su9 roTrh riltts, with this bow, 
Sc^h. Ph. 1335 ; oH T«^«» ritt 288. TSt Atit r' Ix^fS* Swt^ erUut, 'for 
the foes' (Prometheos), iEsch. Pr. 67. X«X« r«»ivr«y tinirms ^vf»4tifti9§tf, 
* parents' (a mother), Eur. Hec 403. 

RiSMARKS. ft. An individual often speaks of himself in the l^lur^ at If 
others were associated with him ; and a woman so speaking of hersdf, uses 
the tnaseuHne, as the generic gender (§ 330. 1 ) ; thus, Aitw/atiim yk^ rk Xi- 
Xfvttiiw ^i, for J am ashamed of what I have said, Eur. Hipp. 244. 2«S 


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T^e ^if^im tUit* if Aif' U ^^ r Uf^ ««> ^ miI^U. iOe. 277 
*AAEL. [A^aStfuf h^uf W wfthnv^vtrtt 9iht lb. 863. MH^ *H^f srwMM 
futj ^ir*( i^t^vrafU9 Id. Med. 1341. 'HA. ELmw^^', m' x^ wmt;^} rtfu^ 
(•vfuut Soph. El. 399. So a chorus of women (^ 3S.5. R.) usee the masCi 
«iag. (if the text is oonect), Ktv^mp XtMrp^uu, . . A.tMvw» Eur. Hipp. 1 lOi. 

/3. The Plur, may be used with a nngutar compelhtwe, when the person ad- 
dressed is associated with others; as, *Ir*, %pi, vfiutt, S 'HMviri^o, xai )i^i£r»i. 
rt «vc«v fiovkn^iivm ttitif nfittTf, 0/ /»iv ^ av«rr«vri( S)idarx«v H. Gr. iv. 1. 
11. ^a rinw, i wti^tmv i Sopk. CBd. a 1102. n^«riX#ir', Z 9'mZ, wmvfl 
lb. 1104. 

^ 337« III. In speaking of twoy both the Plural md the 
Dual are used, the one as the Tnore generic^ and the other as 
the more specific form (^ 330. 1 ) ; thus, Jlaldtg dvo, two children ; 
but, Ta noupB^ the two children^ i. 1. 1. Compare Tmv apdi^^p 
vi. 6. 29, T(u avd^s 30, lov; uyd^oe^ * • • xovioiy^ • • iflo ofy^^ 31* - 
Toviaiy 32, rti t< ay^^s 34. 

d«f«vr*, Its) §S fut ^ahri y* mv0tt 7^(r«». 

BXir^yr' Iro^iir^' «?#!«. Soph. CEd. C. 1435. 

Rkharks. «. Hence, the unkm of the Phtr. and Du. is not ngardtd at a 
Tielation of the laws of agreement ; e. g. n^«ri^i;^«» Iw M«Mr»M, CA«re ran 
up two young men, iv. 3. 10. ^u^mftus ^t it/A^ori^t im*, ^« n »«< Ivirnf* 
un PL Rep. 478 b. 'EyfX«r«rny «?t «^^«» ^Xii/«»r(f iiV itXXnXm PI. Euthyd. 
373 d. 

/3. In the old poetic language, a few examples occur in which the Dual is 
used of more than two (§§ 85, 172) ; as, Hith n nm.) rv, lloiaf^yt, x*« 
Kl4m9 Ad/Jtirt CI ^f, 9U9 ftM rn* »»fAi^ti9 «ir«r/»ir«y . . • JtXX* l^f^M^riT- 
r#» »mi mv^iTtfv 0. 185. 1X1/^10-^1 . . • »dPtro9, Xvirnvr* jiMimt 
Horn. Ap. 486. Some think that the Dual is never thus used, except when 
two pairs or sets are spoken of. 

III. Use of the Cases, 

§ 888. Cases serve to distinguish the relations 
of substantives. These relations are regarded, in 
Greek, L as either direct or indirect, and, II. as 
either subjective^ objectivey or residual. 

I. Of these distinctions, the first is chiefly founded upon the 
directness with which the substantive is related to the verb of 
the sentence. The principal dirbct relations are those of 
the suiject and direct object of the verb, and that of direct ad- 
dress. Other relations are, for the most part, regarded as 


n. The second distmction is founded upon the kind or char^ 
acter of the relation. The relation is, 


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na. 1.] vsB or the cases. 961 

1. SimrBOTi'VK, whetk the siifoetsuitiTe denotes the souses, or 
SUBJECT, of motion^ action^ or it^tuenee ; or, in other words 


2. Objective, when the substantive denotes the end, or ob- 
ject, of motion^ action^ or influence ; or, in other words, that 
TO which ant thing goes. 

3. Residual (residuus, remaining)^ when it is not referred 
to either of the two preceding classes. 

. ^339* The latter of the two distinctions appears to have 
had its origin in the relations of place^ which relations are both 
the earliest understood, and, through life, the most familiar to 
the mind. These relations are of two kinds ; those of motion, 
and those of rest. Motion may be considered with respect either 
to its SOURCE or its end ; and both of these may be regarded 
either as direct or indirect. We may regard as the direct 
source of motion, that which products the motion, or, in other 
words, that which moves ; as the indirect source, that from 
which the motion proceeds ; as the direct end, that which rc- 
ceives the motion, or that to or upon which the motion irnmedi' 
ately goes ; and as the indirect end, that towards which the 
motion tends. By a natural analogy, the relations of action 
and influence in general^ whether subjective or objective, may 
be referred to the relations of motion ; while the relations 
which remain without being thus referred may be classed to 
gether as relations of rest. These residual relations, or rela- 
tions of rest, may likewise be divided, according to their office 
in the sentence (% 338), into the direct and the indirect. We 
have, thus, six kinds of relation, which may be characterized 
in general as follows, and each of which, with a single excep« 
tion, is represented in Greek by an appropriate case. . 

A. Direct Relatiomb. 

1. Subjective. That which acts. Thb Nohinativk 

2. Objective. That which it acted upon. Thb Acx^usattve. 
S. Reeidual. TTiat which i$ addretted. The Yogattve. 

B. Indirbct Belations. 

1 SabjectiYe. That from which any thing proceedt. The GENrnvE. 

S. Objectiye. That towards which nny thing tends. The Dative. 

S. fieddual. TViat with which any thing is associated. The Dative. 

^ S40« Remarks, m. For tbe historical development of the Greek 
ctsee, see §§ 83-88. From the primitive indirect case (which remained aa 
the Dat), a special form was separated to express the subjective relations, but 
none to express the obj^tive. The primitive form, therefore, oootinnsd to ex- 
press the objective rJations, as well as all those relations which, from any 


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eanae, were mat rtferrBd to either of tbese two daseee ; and hflnoe the Dat u 
both an oltjeetwe and a rendual case. 

/3. In the LAtin case-system, which has a dose correspondence with the 
Greek, there is a partial separation of the indirect objective and residual, or, as 
they are termed in Lat., Dative and Ablativb cases. This separation, 
however, does not appear at all in the Plural, or in Dec II., and, wherever it 
occurs, may be explained by the mere precession or contraction of final vowels. 
A more important difierence between the two langaages appears in the exten- 
sive use of the Lat. Ablativb. The Romans were more controlled than the 
Gre^s by the power of habit, idiile they were leas observant of the minater 
shades of thought, and niceties of relation. Hence, even after the Aill de- 
velopment of the Lat case-system, the primxtive indirect case continued to re- 
tain, as it were by the mere force of possession, many of the subjective rela- 
tions. It is interesting to observe how the old Ablative, the once undisputed 
lord of the whole domain of indirect relations, appears to have contested every 
inch of ground with the new claimant that presented himself in the younger 
Genitive. But we n\,ust leave the particulars of the contest to the Latin 
grammarian, and content ourselves with merely referring to two or three fa- 
miliar illustrations. Thus, in Lat, the Gen. (as well as the Dat) was ex- 
cluded from all exponential adjunet$ (§ 3*J9), because in these the relation was 
sufficiently defined by the preposition. The Gen, of place obtained admission 
into the Sing, of Dec I. and II., but not into Dec. III. (the primitive deden- 
mon, cf. § 86) or into the Plur. The Gen, of price secured four words {tunUt 
guantif plurisy and mtitorts), but was obliged to leave all others to the AbL 
After words of j)lenty and wanty the use of the two cases was more neariy 
«qual. In the construction of one ntbttnntioe as the complement of another^ the 
Gen. prevailed, yet even here the Abl. not unfrequently maintained its ground, 
>if an adjective was joined with it as an ally. In some constructions, the use 
of the Gen. was only a poetic license, in imitation of the Greek. 

y» The Nominativb, from its high office as denoting the subject of dis- 
course, became the lending caecy and was regarded as the representative of the 
\vord in an its forms (its theme). Hence it was employed when the word was 
spoken o( as a word, or was used without grammatical conetruction ^ § 34:i), 

^ 34 1 • There are no dividing lines either between dirbct and indi- 
rect, or between tubjedive, objective^ and rendual relations. Some relations 
seem to faU with equal propriety under two, or even three heads, according to 
the view which the mind taked of them. Hence the use of the cases not only 
varies in difierent languages, and in different dialects of the same language, 
but even in the same dialect, and in the compositions of the same author. 

A, The Nominative, 

^343. Rule II. The Subject of a finite 
VERB is put in the Nominative ; as, 

'E«'iiH K IriXivTffri A«^ir«f, »«} nmrirrn t/r r^f fiaetXtimf 'Afrmf^i^" 
|iif , Tte^m^i^pns itMUiXXu r^ Kv^«v, and when now DarUit was dead^ end 
Artaserxes wa» established m the royal authority, Titsttphemei accuses C^rtui, 
L 1. 3. 

^343. Rule IIL Substantives independ- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



the Nominative. 

Note. The Nominatiye thus employed is tenned the Nominative independ' 
ernt or absohttB (ab8olutus» rdeated, free, so. from grammatical fetters). Set 
§ 340. y. 

To this rule may be referred the use of the Nom., 

1.) In the inscription of names^ ^t7Ze9, and divisions; as, 

^vQov UvdSuaig^ The EXPEDITION of Cyrus; BiSXlov n^fw^ 

toy, Book First, 
2 ) In exclamaiions ; as, !a dvaraXaiv* iyi»y O toretched me! 

Eur. Iph. A. 1315. OdXajtay edlattay the Sea! the Sea! 

TV. 7. 24. 

3.) In address. 

The appropriate case of address is the Voc. (^ 85). But there is often no 
distinct form for this case^ and even when there is, the Nom. is sometimes 
employed in its stead (§ 8l). (a) The Nom. is particularly used, when the 
address is exchtmitory or deacriptive^ or when the compeilative is the same with 
ttie iutject of the sentence ; as, *Cl ^iXtty Z ^«X«^, my beloved I my beloved I 
Ar. Nub. 1 1 67. 'Wirimt i xmkif ri xm) r«<^«r, O Hippm»^ the noble and the 
wi$e! PL Hipp. Mi^. V8I a. {b) .To the head of descriptive nddreee belong 
those authoritative, contemptuous, and familiar forms, in which the person who 
is addressed is described or designated as if he were a third person ; as, O; II 
sixiras, . . Wthffh, but the servants, . . do you put, PL Ck>nv. 218 b. 'O 4>«- 
Xn^titf . . •vr«« *A<r«XX«^Mf •«, w m^ifiuitt t TTie Phileriun there, ApoUodorus, 
stop I wont you? lb. 17'2 a. (c) In forms of address which are both direct, 
and likewise exclamatory or descriptive, the Voc. and Nom. may be associated ; 
as, *il fk»t Z piXt Bci»x*i Eur. Cycl. 73. *il tSrot, A7a» Soph. Aj. 89. 
OSrgf Z, v7 r«y ^riV at^us, iUirora Eur. Hel. 1627. *A^ia7t, x«2 «/ tiXXat 
& 5. 39. 

§ 344. Anacoluthon, &c. From the office of the 
Nom. in denoting the subject of discourse, and from its inde- 
pendent use, it is sometimes employed where the construction 
would demand a different case : — 

1.) In the introduction of a sentence; as, 'Tfitif Ikj . . tuf^h xm^ie vfitTf 
laxi? iTvAi ; You then, . • does it now seem to you to be just the time f vii. 6, 37. 
"E^Jv/iZv i Kuftf . ., tio^tv avrif, Cyrus desiring . ., it seemed best to him, 
Cyr. vH. 5. 87. Kal IrrttvPm ft^ifituu xm) ^M^iXtvf »a) Kv^»f, mm) 
si «ft(p* mvTthf M^ Ixmri^t^v, Mvt fAh rSf &f»f} fitt^iXia inrifpfi^tuv i. 8. 27. 

X»vT9 Cyr. vi. 3. 2. 

2.) In specifcation, description, or repetition; as, 'AxXous V i fiiyett . . 
NiiX«« i<ri^^if • ^0Virir»M9titi Tinym^vSyait, », r. X., and others the 
ffost Nile hath sent; Susiskanes, P,, ^., ifisch. Pers. 33. Tk rt^} UvXov v*** 
^/»^«ri^«y xmrk x^drtg l^aXtfiurg • 'A^nt«i«i fth . . irt^i^Xurrtt . ., 11 !• 
X»it§9fnfi»i ti . . rT^Tir%htfCf*%v4 Th. iv. 23. Aiyu V iv iXXnX»i^t9 
lffiS»»9 nm»s), f vX«| Ixiy^t^v puXmum Soph. Ant. 259. Quyirn^ fAtymX^ 
r«f«# *H(ri«»«f, *Hiri«v, 2$ }i*«m Z. 395. 


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8.) In Qwakiog of momm or wofdSp m «im:A t tbxm, Jlf0^Xnp$ vh «w» wmi ' 
^«» »Mfnv W^ytf/MMiy rv»»^mfrtis, he ha$ obtained the common mppeUmHon of 
the vile, STCopuAitTy iffiWchin. 41. 15. Tim^tyyvm. i Kv^»t fwin/Am, Zthg I6f^ 
f^nx** **^ ^yc^ii^y, Cjfme gave omt at the paee'Wvrd, Jown oum ally anm 
LMADMaf CjT. iU. S. 58. 

B, The Genitive. 

^ 84«S. That from which ant thing pro 
CEEDS (§ 339) may be resolved into, i. That from 
which any thing proceeds, as its point of depart 
URE ; and, ii. That from which any thing pro-* 
ceeds, as its cause. Hence the Greek Genitive is 
either, (i.) the Genitive of Departure, or, (u.) 
the Genitive of Cause ; and we have the follow- 
ing general rule for subjective adjuncts (§|^329, 
338) : The Point of Departure and the Cause 

ARE put in the GeNITIVE. . 

Note. The Gen, of departure 1$ oommonly expreaeed in TCng|i«h by tbf 
preposition from, and the Cfen, of caiMo, by the preposition of. 

(i.) Genitive of Departure. 

§ S46« Departure may be either in place or in chamder. 

Rule IV, Words of separation and distinc- 
tion govern the Genitive. 

Note. There is no line of division between the two classes of words 
which are mentioned in this role. Many words which are oommonly used to 
denote distinction of character referred originally to separation of place (cf 
i SB9), And, on the other hand, words which nsoally denote separation of 
place, are often employed, by a metaphorical or transitive ose, to express d» 
partore or difference in other respects. 

1. Genitive of Separation, 

§ S4y« Words of SEPARATION include those of removal 
and distance^ of exclusion and restraint^ of cessation and faiU 
ure^ of abstinence and release^ of deliverance and escape^ of 
protection and freedom^ &c. ; as, 

Xf^i^t^Pmt IXXnXm, to be mparated from, each other, Pl. Conv. 198 «. 
Tit^)s vm iXXtn, apart from the rett, i. 4. IS. 1^fikmr§t iix» Oyr, viiii 
7. 20. *X9'9X''tV ^'(^ iri2uW lb. ii. 4. 24. Ati^x*^ AkknX^t*, were dis- 
tant from each other, L 10. 4. ILi^^t . . rnvrMt, far from him, i. 8. 12. 
KfXy^iit r»v nmiup, he wamld prevent them from burning, i. 6> 2. BJ d«« 
Xdrmg i7(y«ifr§ H. Or. vii. I. 8. Tsuwfit IfU wXi^uv ir«vr#W«o *» 


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eeoaf from 0je war againti me, 1 6, 6. T«»r«vr • * w. «r« v#« rSff Jk^ns Cyr* 
viii. 6.3. B/«» rlXivriir*^ lb. 7. 17. Ovr«f ftXv ttvrw UfAM^rnf, pU§ 
mtm misMd him^ L 5. 12. 'E^i ^r^n rnf iXwi^Bfil 6r. vii. 5. 24. ty 
>«u««« Ir^Xiif i|^«'X««if Eur. Ale 418. *£«'i^;^«^iy rfv iaxfvtif, we r^ 
fraxned from weeping^ YLVhsadxit ll7e. KjettUit . . Xvrti^tct Soph. £1. 1489. 
2*lr«4 x«»Mi Id. Ph. 919. K«r«if rt^tv^lvci, lb. 1044. 'AXv^ir«» 
fitiftu Id. Ant. 488. Av« tivi^eit I|i4 rtfv ^if Mtrtt^vvdM, wiU keep two mew, 
from nnhxng^msS* 11. *£Xii/^i^«4 ir0VA>y, iAii;^i^«i , , 'Etv^vrtitit Eur. 
Heracl. 873. 'A»i» ml^x^f *m).^X»int ii. 6. 6. VaftMv r« Ayy«} ^«^if 
PI. Leg. 840 d. ¥.mia^is HtxUi, m. Rep. 496 d. "Eat/ &* »at^^y r«. 
Pft^vtns lb. 573 b. Ntf^^iiTf ^ki cmI}* ituri^ov mx^«v ; Eur. Ale 43. 

§ 348* Remarks. «. Words of sparing imply refraining fnm^ 
and those of conceding, resigning, REMrrriNG, and surrendering, imidy 
parting with, or retiring from. Hence, rSif f^h ufAiri^mv iHu ^m ^i i^(r^««, 
ii itmy pUasure to tpare your property^ Cyr. iii. 2. i^8. K«xfr*0ir vrt;^*^!!- 
r I » «vT<^ r«v ^^«f«v, omf A^ [Sophocles] conceded to him [.^sehylus] the tftrone^ 
Ar. Ran. 790. *AXX« rns ifyns itvifrtsy but resigning your anger , lb* 
700. Tns rmv *ExX)iyM» iXtvft^Ut . . ira(ax*'fn^»i ^iXivitft to surrender 
to Philip the freedom of the Greeks, Dem. Cor. 247. 24. T^tg ^fftrCvri^m 
• • tuti ^iv »ai ^«x«y ttai X»y*i* u9%iM.ti9 Cyr. vlii. 7. 10. 

/3. The Gen. denoUng that from which motion proceeds is, in prose, common- 
ly joined to words not m themselves expressing separation by a preposition ; bat 
in poetry, often without a preposition (cf. 429. m.) ; as, Ai^Mry . . ^t^«vr«y, 
hnnging from the house. Soph. El. 324. Ttfvr^t treiiittt ynt ixSv, to driee 
these Mldren from the land, Eur. Med. 70. 'Ay«xof/^/r«i »«^« j30^«ii 
Soph. (Ed. T. 23. 'Tfius ^|y fidtf»ff 7«-c«r^i lb. 142. Ti r* pv^aw rt- 
tf-n^M Eur. Ipb. T. 1384. For adverbs in ^iy, properly genitives, see §§ 91» 

y. In a few rare phrases, the Gen. denotes the time from which, withont a 
preposition ; as, Mtr' ixiyn ti r«vr*fy, and [after a little ftom these thhngs] 
a little after Aese things, H. Gr. i. 1.2. T^iVy • . trgs ravri»/9, m the third 
year [from] before these things, Hdt vi. 40. AiuT$^^ H Irtt rgurUtp, * [firom] 
after,' lb. 46. 

2. Genitive of DistincHon, 

^ 349. Words of distinction include those of difference 
and exception^ of superiority and inferiority^ &c, ; as, 

Ait^^i^rmt rix*nfi w distinct from the art, PI. Polit. 260 c *Uxi»r^» 
§v^9 iii^t (t 9, differed in nothing from amber, u, S, 15, Hmrut rXi^y Mi- 
X^rov, all except MiUtus, i. 1.6. Ai«^«(0y rZf &XX»/v viXis/f, superior to 
the other sttites, Mem. ir. 4. 15. Ilxii^u . . ii/iiSv Xti^Mtnt, vlferior to 
us it number, vii. 7. 31. T« iinmm . ., t} «fxx« rZt li/x«/wy { Mem. It. 4. 
25. "En ^fy K T« ii^v r«v ifc7<«^«v PI. GrOrg. 500 d. Tliri^iv irriy im^r^fMi 
4 ^irl^ «} 4KXX«r«y lirirr^fitnt Pl. Meno, 87 c Ov^^y aXXir^ttf ^rtSf 
•Srt wnf Upr«v ^mr^itts »Sr» rou r^i^tv (cf. § 405) Dem. Cor. 289. 14. 
OSrat irXwrw J^trh ^ilrrifxiv PL Rep. 550 e. T«ly i^^jMvyrt^y «'(^im( 
Cyr. viiL 2. 21. 

Remark. The verb Xti^rofMu governs the Gen. in a variety of senses, 
which are naturally connected with each other, but which mig^t be rafemd, 
« syntax, to different heads. Thus, St^^to . . riv XiXttf*f*ifs9 )«;•»» 'laft 


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§ttm {jft by] ilie «pcar,* i. e. * the reKcs of war* (§5 347, 981), iSech. Ag 
517* S^sM viXka^^ «» fuex^kf XtXtif»/titotf 'not left far behind,' t. e 
' doftdy pursuing/ Id. Pr. 857. FyM^ff y •JiX^«5 MiXti^^cv XiXij^ 
/*iv«f , • left behind by/ «. e. ' infferior to/ Eur. Suppl. 904. Em) tU fiUt f*m 
0$v XiXu^^ivfi ^iXof \ *bereftof* (§ 357), Soph. Ant. 548. Tvmpuaf Xu- 
ir»fiiiMf devoid of underttanding, Soph. EL 474. AiXufitf»»t rSt iv ^'EkXnnw 
vifitff, 'am ignorant of/ Eur. Hd. 1246. 

§ 3 SO. Words of SUPEBIORITY include, — 

a.) Words of authority y potoer^ precedence^ and preemirience 

Ti#r«fS^vnt &iX*** thrSt, that Tissaphemes should govern than, I. I. 8 
*^y^mri7t . . wAfrttt sovereign over all, v. 4. 15. 'HyiTr* «••£» tf-r^a* 
TtvfMtTOf, led the army^'tv. 1.6. n^trC«i/ii» tmi* vttXXHv atoXimv, to IoAs 
ronil of most cities, PI. Leg. 752 e. *E»e «<•«»'*'' '*•'» 'ExXiiiraJir iii. 4. 26. 
•Of »(ai9tt vT^etrw Soph. A/. 1050. "Of ttifvf*ff x^**'^* ^^* lAe^ 19- 
B«r4X(^*>y tthrmf ▼. 6.37. Aitf-r'^Kv ^A^EMwr Eur. I(m, 1036. See 
also § 389. 

Otfx «tfr«f IflirXttf^fv, in mortS x^ttrSf i 
II«v r» ^r^«ri}yirf ratr^i t «*•? ^ ^a) Xt«y 
"E^irT* d^vAr^tfD tSv oi* iyttr* eSxohv i 
Svdc^ritf » f « r tf- *f V ^Xfts, »ux *lf^f » ^ « r *» y • Soph. Aj. 109!/ 

ItKKARK. The primitive sense of the verb ^^x" &PP^ra to have been to 
tahe the lead. But, in early warfare, the same individual led the march, ruled 
tiie host, and began the onset. Hence this verb came to signify to rule, and 
to begin ; and, in both these senses, it retained the Gen. which belonged to it 
as a verb of precedence. Thus, *A.¥6^ti<rmv &^x^n, to rule men, Cyr. i. 1.3. 
^uyns ti(X"*i ^ ^^ fivhtf iii- 2. 17. Tav X«y«» tk ^x**^* J^ iit 2.7 
K«iMy Xiystf nmrfi^x** Symp. 8. 1. * 

§851« /?.) Adjectives and adverbs in the compcaralio^ 
degree^ and words derived from them. 

An comparatives may be ranked with words of superiority, as denoting th* 
possession of a property in a higher degree. 

Rule V. The comparative degree governs 
the Genitive ; as, 

K^i irrfvi lauT9u, more power^ than himsdf, i, 2. 26. T*rv lititmf ir^s^ 
X»9 hmrrpf, they ran faster tiuin the horses, i* 5. 2, Ttvrtv ^ti/ri^«» PL 
Lsg. 894 d. *Av*>ri#« rHv pMriiv i. 4. 17. *TfAaf »v itoXu if^ou tfm^** 
i. 3, 16. *ACfo»»fA»t dl i0'Ti(fitrt rnf fitaxitt hut Ahroconuu came after Iht 
battle, i 7. 12. T$ i^rtfaitf. Tti$ fitmxnt PL Menex. 240 c 'Hrr«^t^« 
•hrwOjT, Y. 3. 33. Ttfttu$ ravrt/v l9'X$§ftMrurt ilL 1. 37. 

§ 3S9« y.) Multiple and proportional words (§ 138) 

n«XX««-X«r««tff ^:a£y tturSf^ many times your own nvm^er, iii. 2. 14, 


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OK. l.j OF GAUSS. 267 

^vrifttff TftwXatrimf )) riif ^^tinif rtrdfrnv IS^, rnf 4iori^»t 'itirXiiv 
9rif»trrfit Ik, r^i^Xti* rUf r^inn • riit V t»Tti9j t« ir^tiirns ixrmvXmg-imf 
lOtf^ffv ^ l«'r«x«ii<»«r««'X«r/«» riis ir^tims (a. b = 2 a, c=s1^6bk 
S a. da 2 6. tsSc. f=^8a. gmsQT a) PL llm. 35, b, c A); vUtt 
W »rt/M»« ii^iX^if {«;r«f Eur. EL 1092. 

(it.) Genitive of Cause. 

^3S3. To the head of cause may be reter- 
red, I. That from which any thing is derived, 


exerts an influence, as an excitement, occasion, 
or condition ; III. That which produces any 
thing, as its active or efficient cause ; and 
IV. That which constitutes any thing what 
it is. 

In the first of these divisions, the prevailing idea is that of 
source ; in the second, that of infu&nee ; in the third, that of 
tuition ; and in the fourth, tnat of property. Or we may say, 
in general, that the first division presents the material cause : 
the second, the motive cause ; the third, the efficient cause ; and 
the fourth, the constituent cause. It scarcely needs to be re* 
narked, that the four divisions are continually blending with 
each other in their branches and analogies. 

^ 3«S4. I. That from which any thing is de- 
rived, FORMED, supplied, Or TAKEN. To this 

division belong, 1. the Genitive of Origin^ 2. the 
Genitive of Materialy 3. the Genitive of Supply^ 
and 4. the Genitive of the Whole^ or the Gemtive 

1 and 2. Crenitive of Origin and of Material. 

^9SS. Rule VI. The origin, source, and 
material are put in the Genitive ; as, 

^mfti§9 tut) Uttfu^drtigf yiytofrmt weuiu ^m, of DariuM and Posy' 
tatU are bom two children^ L 1. 1. <P«/vr»«r /i»U mi S-v^m Wiwainftiveut tkt 
doon being made of the pahn'tree^ Cyr. yii. 5. 22. 'ULias /tnTfit . . (pvvrtf 
PL Menez. d39 a. "Tl* V Kxm^nt Sofdi. Tr. 401. Ot^i rh ua^Sy^ 
pvfttfns rt»N^n# vrMTl* Eur. Med. 804. T/ kie^Xminut £f rnt ^(A^nfi 
ITActf adptmtage tkemld ytm derive from ytmr atfAorittf f Cyr. viL 5. 56. A«. 
ffif#»# rSi9 iHi^rmf it»rSf Ji^»Xm6^rmi lb. SI. "K^nfttdrnv iv^ftm EuB. 
Hal. »S5. E^«» THt Xiypp PI. Rep. 3S9 b Th »^^»X^t j?«» Ar. 


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Bod. 524. OTm; fttfUmr wXii iL 3. 14 (cf. 07»«ir re ». r. X. L 5. 10/ 
IIi^M-rt^ . . iiv^|*rv Soph. El. 895. A/^my . . ^i«vr«y v^crff »«) «'« 
X«i/, 'boiling with water/ PI. Phsdo, IIS a. 'M.tfvo'fth <rw vixr«^«fPL 
Conv. 203 b. Imit Xiyt*t vfuit Avri«f iiVr/« t PL Phaedr. 227 b. 

■ Note. The Gen, of taurce or material oocnra, especially in the Epic poet^ 
fbr other forms of construction, particulariy the instrumental Dot. ; as, Il^rw. 
' }\ irvfig tfitu0 ^u(tT^», and bum the gates with raging fire [from fiie, as tht 
source], B. 415. W.u^i ftuXa^AfAtw H. 410. X»t^ vtypmfAivas wXtnt k>JH, 
having washed his hands [with water from] m the foaming sea, /3. 261. Atw 
t^fat lufptTaf wrafiflo Z. 508. 

§ 3<S0. That of which one discourses or thinks may be 
regarded as the material of his discourse or thoughts ; thus we 
speak of the matter of discourse^ a matter of complaint^ the 
mbject-matter of a composition^ &c. Hence, not unffequently 
both in immediate dependence upon another word, and even in 
the introduction of a sentence, 

Rule VII. The theme of discourse or of 
THOUGHT is put in the Genitive. Thus, 

T«tf T»l»r§p •It nmXSs ix** Xiyuf, 7r<, ». r, >.,^ it is no^ well to sajf tf tk§ 
bowman, that, ^., PL Rep. 439 b. Ai«^f«^iv«f «tfr«y, S^n* ftlv ;^«^«» nmi 
plttv t%M9f observing in respect to diem, how great and what a country they Aoee, 
iiL 1. 19. Tiff ^ y'jveitnttt t* • . xttaa^rMTf but in respect to the wife, if the 
manages iU, (Ec 3. i i. T«v »«^i^y)fr«v ri ^ns { l^ph. EL 817. KXvttr- 
r« irtniif, having he ird respecting Xer son, Id. Ant. 1 182. Mayri7c, . . M «-mD* 
IXV**^^ r^^crff Id. QiAi. C. 354. ILmrmfuJitfti rov Kv^tv ioxguftw, if 
. . MfuZ* Cyr. viiL 1. 40. T«S il tltnah irk»v ftSiXXav inftti^rom^ S<rn jm« 
fttwin^vtrau Th. i. 52. 0W« yn^ iro» rHv ytwtiitt nufZv^n rmirt (pvru my* 
rHv ri ^4»e PL Rep. 375 e. Ti^tym^itv ^np^/Mt nmieu^iit Id. L 140 (cL 
Ti irtfi Miya^itn ^n^ir/iM umhXwvt 139). Ti ti rSv irtXXiiv naXS*^ 
mof ktt^mirmjtyn 7<r«'*rv» i} i/jtmrivf, . • S^m xmrit va rnvrii l^u i But 
what ofj ^,9 PI. Phsdo, 78 d. Tnt Hi 0ns pfi^is, tf vv Mu»m Eur 
Andr.361. Cf. ^ 438. 7. 

NoTB. For the Gen,- of the theme may be often snbeiitated another case^ 
more frequently the Nom., in the sacoeeding danse ; ihna, Ei tk i yytk »m» 
tuTMU, but tf the wife manages ilL 

3. CrenUioe of Supply. 

^ 8«S7« Supply may be either abundant or d^ectwe. 

Rule VIII. Words of plenty and want gov- 
ern the Genitive ; as, 

«. Of PLBirrr. 'Ay^mf ^^/Ar* wX^^nt, fuU of wUd beasts, L 8. 7« 
^pik^mt . . l«'//M«'X«V«» %^(r§uj theg fOled Iks skuu with h^ff, L 5. lOu 
Itvvmv iXttt enough of these things, ▼. 7, 12. Ktifutf ittXXSf mmi iym$m9 
yt^«^r««hr. 6, 27. Mif'rj^ yk^ ^•XXnt lirs^iuf IrWv iL 5. 9. T^ ^ 
Unrimp i Xifn IvtwX^trfn I 10. 12. n«^«}iiV«v . . infiet rctvcWf K«>. 


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cjr. l.J oFstrpiLT. — PAniista. . _, ' 969i* 

umf V %t fti irXpv^iPf zmxiif Ear. Or. 394. 3^^Mp^. v. ^A«rvij^ 7. 
42. Tfin^nf • • ^t^ttyfiifn M^i^iv GSc 8. 8. 

3* Of Want. Tory Iwirn^t/ofv ^^avuT, he win loarU provisions, n. 2. 12, 
2^<y)«yiir*fv . . ^i?, there is need of slingers, iii. 3. 16. Otuv av ix^riitt 
iftauTov rri(iir«4^4, of what hopes I should deprive myself ii. 5. 10. *Av- 
fi^iHt^mt &^»(iiv i. 7. 3. 'H ypvx** yffit^h rou rMfturts PL Crat. 403 b. 
Vvfiyttrigf ifi ireifTt^v PI. Rep. 361 b. *Oxiyov itn^avrot xaraXtvffSn 
vat i. 5. 14. IlokXSv Ivi^ti ethrSff ^0-Ti vii. 1. 41. 'TfAUf V l^nfit*'^*' 
i. ;5. 6* *'A^fcmra . . x t y « nui^^tt i. 8. 20. Ot/AMy ri ^^a,€m }(nTa vou (a $ 
ftv/itvct i Eur. Ale 380. 'O^^ay^v ^/Xtft/ irar^eg Eur. £1.914. X^if. 
fAATott ^ ^h riynrif lb. 37. *£^^4X«t/r« V • Xi^og rSt l^^tMV L 10. 13. 

Note. The Gen. which belongs to yiofAou and x^K^ ^ ^'^^ ^f ^"^^ ^"^7 
be retained by them in the derived senses, to desire, to request, to ewtreaU 
Thus, 'AXAfv §vrtv9t «y Hn^^t, whatever else you may desire, 1.4. IS^ 
Efiti ;^«(4r«M Jv Af 99V hn^S, grant me what I would entreat of you (^ 380), 
Cyr. y. 5. S5* A/r;^^«y yu^ &fifm rtu fiaxgw XCV^**^ fii*u Soph. Aj. 473* 

4. Genitive Partitive. 

§ 858. Rule IX. The whole of which a 
PART IS TAKEN is put in the Genitive ; as, 

*B/u^tf r«v 7Xtv rr^«riv^«r«f , half of the whole army, yi. 2. 10. 

Note. This Gen. has reoeived the names of the Gen, of the whole, and Xh» 
Gen, partitive ; the fooner from its denoting the whole, and the latter from its 
denoting this whole in a state of dwisioh (partio or partior, to divide, from 

% SS9« JIem^rks. 1. The partitive construction may 
be employed, — 

a.) To express quantity y degree^ condition^ place, time, 6cc. 
considered aa a limitation of a general idea, or as a part of an 
extended whole. Thus, 

Mi»^^ y iw» XMx*»^t obtaining a Kttle sleqa [a SQiaH portion of deep], 
iiL 1. 1 1. *£» rtoCrif , . r«v ntMfu it^Mrrn* in such imminent danger [in 
sach a degree of], L 7. 5. '0 V $U rtSji* SC^mtf IXnXu^tv, ' to such a pitch 
of ins(deiioe,* Dem. 51* 1. Kmi «i ft>h h rourcf ^a^a^Ktvns ^fett, 'in this state 
(^ preparation,* Th. ii. 1 7. SwtWim U rt!ur» avayxtif Th. i. 49. *Efr} /jtiya 
I;^M^*ir«y ^tntifitvs lb. 118. *^/AC»ki7y irpv rm Xnuvmv x*'t*fy ^ make an m« 
eursion somewhere upon their territory, or upon some pirt of, 8^c., Cyr. vi. 1. 42. 
*Hy fitUn fifAi^as, it was mid-day, L 8. 8. Tns Sif*i(»s i'^l h, it v>as late in 
theday [sXb. late hour of the day], H. Gr. ii. 1. 23. E/f rSi* nui^etf, to this 
day, Eur. Ale. 9, Phoen. 425. 

/J.) To express the whole as the sum of all the parts. Thus^ 

•Ef rwf kyaUm Si trifyr* fyi«-r«v *'#^««f, and in the good dwell all the quaB^ 
Um of wisdom, Eur. Ale 60 J . Oi ^b 'Atntam it «'«yr) Ih k9vfdmt ^#«y Th. 
vii. 55, 'Ey «'«yT} XCX0V %U PI Rep. 579 b. 

% 360. 2. The whole is sometimes put in the case which 
23 • 


by Google 

970 STlfTlX. — GBNTHTB. [BOOK Uf 

belongs to the part, the part agreeiog ivith the whole mstea^a 
of governing it (^'^ 333. 5, 334. 9) ; as, 

*A»»u9fAt9 ufitZt • . Uiauf o^xnvovv U rttTg «ix««if , toe ftear Aat you, aome of 
you, quarter in the houses ; for Vjcawv Uitus, x. r. X. v. 5. II. HtXoiraffwrt* 
»a) «/ J^vfAfim^ot rit 2uo fii^n . . WtCetXoVf for Tliko^ttfnrSMf xa) rZv ^vfi/tei 
X***» *• *"• ^« 1^* U. 47. A/^v/Mft cixia <rir%^os &(» irirt^ef aifui^u Eur 
Ph. 1289. 

Note. ThiB form of construction chiefly occurs when several parts ara 
sucoessively mentioned ; as, Oi»ieu, at ftU ireXXxi lirnrTtixtfavj ix.iytu ^ irc- 
(tno'uvf the houeeSf the greater part had been demolished^ and but few renudned^ 
Th. i. 89. Op yk^ rA(P»v fSfv rei Ka^tyy^rat K^tAfv, rov /uin it^orWas, row )* 
arifMifut tx*t I Soph. Ant. 2K In the following example, the second part 
has three subdivisions ; Ko) «/ ^ivot, •/ ^iv . . &vrox^(*^'^** * m ^, . . «? f^h • . 
iiri^X^vreut «/ ^i . ., i«V« ^* 97 Th. vii. iS. 

3. It is often at the option of the writer whetho* he will employ the Gen. 
partitive or a simpler form of construction. The two forms are sometimes 
combined; as, £7r* tZv ^tig^ ttrt fi^grSt ^t i t»vt» 9'^a^f»t%, 'a god, or 
one of mortals,' Soph. El. 199. n«v th B-iUp H !«<>«»» iv-a^yit \ Eur. 
Hec 164. Otii , , ^aivoort nAs ImSfttvtt, H ^i«lv w gltfavmf Id. £L 


§ 301* According to Rule IX., any word referring to a 
part, whether sukstantive^ adjective^ adverb^ or verby may take 
with it a Gen. denoting the whole. Thus, 

A. Substantives. 

T^ r(tT99 t*i^»s T9U . . i*wt»»v, the third part of the eavaby^ C^ ii, !• 
6* Tft^y xiXr«0-r*l» ng &9ii^, a certain man of the Uf^geteers^ iv. 8. 4. T«r9 
*£xXiiy*f» Tli tx"* iirXirmg aviCti r^tuxttrUvg i. 1.2. Xf<«»«yr« ptv^tm* 
^ag ^rfmrtmg L 4. 5. ETir' mfh^ riHv fnri^tf Ar. £q. 425. 

Rbmarkb. «. When place isdesignsted foymentioning both tiie eoimiry and 
file tamm, tha fomNr, as tiie whide, may be put in the Grcn., and may precede 
the latter; as, 0/ ^ *A/nv«?M • • i^fti^ttfr* rtig Xi/»^«vifr0f/ iv *EA4Mivri, ant^ 
the Athenians touched tqton the Cherroneae at Eleus [at Eleiis, a town c^ the 
Cherronese], H. Gr. ii 1. 20. Qi XliXtfronfffMi <ntr *Xvr»mng ig 'EAjmtiVm 
»«} 0f/*r^i itfC«X«fr«f, <A« Pafopt w w gwant innmdatg AtHom ae far as Ekusia 
and ThriOf Th. L 114. *0 ^ rr^«r»f rSf HtXt^f^m^iut w^7it9 kpi»sr» 
rng *A'rTt»nt U Oi^nrt w^Srof^ 'came vpon Attica first at CEnoe,' Ji, ii. 18. 

{i» The Gen., in all cases in which it is strictly partitive, may be regarded 
as properly depending upon a substantive denoting the part ; and therefore 
the use of this G«n. in connection with adjectives, verbs, and adverbs may 
be referred to eUipeis. Thus, TSv &x.Xmv 'ExXifvwv rms [sc. A^^tg"]. *E^i»v. 
ftMtvi rt [sc. fti^9g2 rng (pak»yy«g (§ 362. /3). E/Vi J* avrSf [sc ^rtrmfAst 
r4¥tg^t otg oLV £9 ^avraT&ft haCecinn, TLgXi/MV^ zm f*Mxm oh fAtt^f [sc 
i*^«f] tLvr^ ( § S64). Ynt y* mIm/imv, •iHivi fti^i rm yng (§ S6S). 

y. If the substantive denoting the part is expressed, and that denoting tht 
whole is a form of the same word, the latter is commonly omitted ; as, T^ut 
&»^^tg tSv ytfairifMf [sc. avl^eHv], three men of the more aged, v. 7. 1 7. Ave 
rSv r^ifCvraTttf t^T^urnyi, iii. 2. 37. E«Vi^«»»t« r^ i^x^^'^'t*^* ^t*K^ ^^ 
•Sfmftiu»£9 Symp. 7. 2. 


by Google 

im. l.| *PAETITIVB. tTl 

^ 863« B. AiMBonvn. 

NoTB. The ad*ebt3veB which are most frequently nsed to denote a part 
are termed partUives. 

«. Thb Abtiglb. T«vf ^ mirSv Jiwixruft, r§hs )' l^C«X(9^ tbif 
MOW of Ihem, and iamiahtd odurs, L 1. 7. - 

fi, AixiEcnyB Pronouns. TSt &xx»tf *Exxiiy*ry rtvit, tome of ^ 
other Greeks, L 7. 8. 'Otrrtt . . tSv ira^ Ba^iXitts L 1. 5. 07 S^n^w 
Ikn^n^ttv rSv ifXiftiw i. 7. 13. Tatv ^ fiet^Cei^MV . . iXX«4f i. 2. 18, 
T94f T»t9vr»tt r«» «^r*'» Mem. iL 8. 3. £1 ^i « »«} iEax* biy 2a.«« 
4 s«X«/u«v i. 5. 1. '^txvfMtivi rt rnf ^aX«yy«f L 8. 18. *£y rf 
ipfit^efif iit^M^tif I Soph. Ant. 1229. See.^ 359. «. 

^. Numerals. ETf rX^v er^mmySv, one of ihe generals, vii. 2. S9. 
Ttfvf r^iTf' . . rSv immrvXufv Ar. Vesp. 95. EiV Iv f^oifttf Eur. Andr. 
1172. 'Or^rtfi /tlv rA>y «^^) fiag-tXia &9rif9ti0-»9f u 8. 27. n«XXi^ m 
iirtJ^uyiMf i. 5. 5. *Ox/7«4 ^h nh^i* iiL 1. S. 

). Superlatives, and words derived from them (by virtue of the indoded 
adjective, cf. § 351). *Ey vi>7t &,^i^r9$t llt^vtiv, among the best of ih$ 
FersietnSy L 6. 1. Tw wtrrpTmrpv rSv Kv^av r«i(«'r«v;^*>y lb. 11« 
'E**} «'X(7r«'«y Iff^tiirt^vTh^L I. Tnt yns h it^Umlh.'i. T«;y»«#* 
Xmvrtut «y^(«(r*>y Jt(t f^T$v€*9rtt [^ et^i^TMytvifttvai], being tkebest of tke^ 
men of their age, Mem. iii. 5. 10. Aat^*, «S xaXXimui r«i ta^v yvy If 
M^tiv-Mtf Eur.Med. 947. O^ l^ari^mt w^»tr*u6V€ti> Ages. L 3. 

c. Partichflbs. 2^ rtTi; vm^tv^i rSv iri^rSf, with those present of 
his faithful attendants, L 5. 15. K^ii r«y «fXX*>y «-«y j3«»X«/M(y«f , cmtf 
qf the rest any one that withed^ i. 3. 9. *H»ci ^c r/f ^ r^ly ^^•Z&r4t» X«X»« 

^. Other Adjectives. *E;^*>y r*ry iirirfg^vXaxttv rouf iifAl^tttf 
having half of tXe rear guard, iv. 2. 9. ^H ri^Xaiy« ira^Pivw, O (Br 
fated of virgins, Eur. Herad. 567. ■ Tfvf Jly«^0v« rSv itft^iw*tf, the 
good among mm, Ar. Plut. 495. AfiX«/« )i«X«/«y »v^ii>, wretchsd </ 
<Ae wretdied art Ikon! Soph. EL 849. T« X«ir«y Tnf-if^l^«# iiL 4^ (i. 
'En/««y r«f ^«« r«y «r«XXny Th- ii 56. ^Xl f/X« T^vjrai**)* Eur. Ale. 
460. ATc niXc^7«>y .£8ch.SuppL 967. *Ay«iW ^y«X« XiiVtif l;^#^«^f 
.l:^^e«y Eur. Andr. 521. T«>y tExXivy ^niumt rm irt^trr mm» 2. 28. 

§ 363. G. Adverbs. 

•. Of Place and Tdib (§ 359. «). O^^' iwtv yvt Wftiv «})«, / hmost 
mot where on eartii [upon what part of the earth] we are, Ar. Av. 9. I^ ys 
«tf)«^«tf PL Rep. 592 b. Ilmvrmx'v rnt ynt PL Phaedo, 111 a. !!»« 
«-«r * i7 ^(tf^y { Soph. El. S90. T if X « v y«^ «i»i? m ay^t, * in a reniAte part 
of the countiy/ i. e. 'fiir from town,* Ar. Nub. 138. *EfT»uf» r«v «^«v«« 
nui€T^t^i^$at Mem. iv. 3. 8. *Eyr«fiV« »|[^n t7 «-«( hXtxUtt, you are now at that 
point cf life, PL Rep. 328 c. Ait;^« r«v Xiyu PL Conv. 217 e. Ohn i^ft 
If* ti »»»§vi Soph. Aj. 386. or ••{•iXwXw^iy ag'tXyt/at &ffi(t9'of Dem. 42. 
24. n «r Tif ^fifvi^H tXty I Soph. (Ed. G. 170. 'E^vXcrr** iiXX«f 2XXa. 
ftf r»y *Oni$v H. Gr. vii. 1. 15. Wi m-^irst }>i rw it»Tafit»v «r^«Ca/yiiy, but 
mot to advance far mto the river, iv. S. 28. 'Endhviet fiizi* ^'f)'* *^ ^f*^ 
Mf H. 6r. vii. 2. 1 9. *0 «■ If y /» « . . riif S(»$'y at whatever point of time, iii. 5. 1 8. 
Iltfy/x' Urlf «f^« T« V^«f t At. Av.'l498. n^«r«/r«T« . . rni iXi 
•Uf. at tlu earliest age^ PL Prot. S26 e. 


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^ Of State or Condition (5 359. m ; etpecially with the verbs l^** *°o 
|»af). Tiff rix^f y'^t '^^* ^X*** for I am thus in [have myself in this Btat# 
of] fortune^ Eur. Hel. 857. ' Af afAvn^aty its **x* ^ *>■*»( ^^'s «•» rh . . «•• 
Xi», *in what a state of inendship he was,* t. e. *what friendship he bore, 
H.Gr. iL 1. 14. AMw^Avn^, it r«;^avf t»ec0^»s tT^iv, having pursued^ at 
each tme had himself in respect to speedy i. e. eoery man according to his speed, 
lb. iv. 5. 15. 'Hi i^yiis J;c«» Soph. CEd. T. 345. USg &y£ipot n»«^ii* 
how do we come on in the strife? Eur. El. 751. Ourt r^i^av . . tx**s Cyr. 
TiL 5. 56. ri»#i/r p.h Hxus JJ« rwVJi, thus are you related to theses Eur 
Herad. 213. "Extf rat tv (p^ttHf, of good judgment, Eur. Hipp. 462. 'At- 
2^^t ^>.X9»&n ii ^M/jtarts %\it9 PI. Bep. 404 d. "Orut , , vyatifSs^ rtt ix9 
mttrit uvrtS lb. 57 1 d. 

y. Of &e SuPBRLATiVB Dboreb. 'A^ii^i^r«r« (r»M'«y, mott vnsparingfy 
of ali, L 9, IS, TlftrtfAfiitiftu /u^A^rrm rUf *EXXw^9 i. 6. 5. 0/ fi,lf iyy»» 
nrmrm rSv wXifniotf ii. 2. 1 7. 

^ 364. D. Verbs. 

The Grenitive partitive, in coDnection with a verb, may per- 
form the office either of a subject^ an appositive^ or a comple' 
ment ; taking the place of any case which the verb would re 
quire, if referring to the whole. See § 361. /?. 

•• The Genitiye Partitive as a Subject 

(1.) Of a Finitt Verb, EjV) i* ttbrSfy edt wV &t vrxtrA^atrt ^/«C«iirrt, 
smd ihere art some of them^ which you could not pass at all, u. 5, 1 8. *H» Si 
Tsirm9 rm ^rmfftSf, attt iravu /ut»^»ut ilXaouv^ i, 5, 7, TUv Tli "Sttfuit^f 
• • l^tniifufst • . hiCti^Mf Th. i. 115. n«xi/t»«tf, »») ftrnx^t *y ^<rn» 
«v«f, of war and batde^ there fell to her no share^ Cyr. viL 2. 28. Oii* At 
ifuf W9 ^^»fn»u §urt 9'ktir/t99$if «'*> •3rt /uiffit Cyr. iv. 2. 20. 

(3.) Cf an Infimtioe. Ka) Wt/uytSvau v^S* rt ir^it i»*lf»»t, »mi l»*t 
fmt iTfit m^rtvt^ that there even mingled some of themselves with those, and soms 
•f Aom wiA them, id, 5, 16. Ov» aftrt w^arnxm tvitti k^x^** ^ thought 
thai mo autiwrity bdonged to any one, Cyr. vui. 1. 37. A§»ii linmrnr tltuu 
^ri^i rSf m^x*** f^^ruuu Bep. Ath. 1. 2. 

§ S0«S« /S. The Genitive Partitive as an Appositive. 

The Geo. partitive in the place of an appositive is most common with sub* 
ttenlMW Mrftt, but is likewise found with other verbs, particularly those of 
vedtoning, esteeming, and making. Thus, Ov» lym rairtf tl/Aiy I nm not one 
of Asm, Cyr. yiii. 3. 45. T^> ^iXr^Tott iffty* i^tiftnru rl«»An>, thou shaA 
he numbered as one of my dearest .children^ Eur. Bacch. 1318. *Er6yx*9i yu^ 
nmi fisuknt iSv Th. iii. 70. Ka) l/d r«/vvv .. S^t rSv irtrn'ti^fitfttv Tl. 
B^ 494 0* T«Vf itvktvf , . vJv ittfi la»T99 "it^yfifMif irsiwu^^ut lb. 
567 6. TSv p%»yi9TU9 «««^«^«r^aM Isocr. 380 d. 

§ SO0« y. The Genitive Pftrtitive as a Complement. 

The Grenitive partitive is used as a complement, 

L) Generally^ with any verb, when its action affects not the 
whole object, but a /?ar^ only ; as. 


by Google 

3H. l.J PARTITIVE. 273 

AMCiprmt Tw fim^Cm^ixav 0T^mr»u, taking a part of Me barharian amof, 
L 5. 7. T«f» »if^/«r . . tifmytt €ite of the haneyeombn^ ir. 8. 20. *Xptie }li 
rSf mt^f^mXairmf, and §eiuUng tome of £Ae captive*^ vii. 4. 5. 2vyx«Xi. 
r«vTtf X«;^il)^«Vf imk) «'tXr«r<ri^ »«2 rXly i^XTrSit iv. 1. 26. Hu^i99<p9t 
wi/AVu rHv l» rnt »mf».nt 0»%'^tAu»vt iv. 5. 22. K«} rns Tt yns Irtftct Th« 
fi. 56. 'MmrrtMnt tx»» ri^^wns Soph. GBd T. 709. Bu9tXi'y4*T0 tSv xtietw 
Ar. Ach. 184. Ti»r »^tSt imXivrw Ax. £q. 4t^0. n«^«4«f rnf 0i/^«f« 
jtȣ opemng the door, Ar. Fax, 30. 

^867. II.) Particularly^ with verbs which, in their or 
dinary use, imply divided or partial action. 

Note. The Gen. partitive may be connected with other parts of speech 
njion the same princi|je. Hence tiie rule is expressed in a general form. 

Rule X. Words of sharing and touch gov- 
ern the Genitive. 

1. Words of SHARING include those of partaking (part- 
taking), imparting^ obtaining by distribution^ &c. Thus, 

Titff »ir)Mr«n> /ttri^*"* ^ thare in the dangen^ ii. 4. 9. Tiir^t »»tf»»rm 
ru^ns, I partake of this fortune, Eur. Med. SOS. T«y lu^^t^tnSt ^ir«)<. 
)«>rir, imparUng our jogt, (Ec 9. 12. "Ktt^atfvt kftdwrttv, vii. 2. 38. 
"AvS^if M Jiit9m^dfi$9»i r«»^i T§u mvivfBv Th. iv. 10. SvXXnyp»f^ut tt 
r»m ei nkyit «*«*•» Eur. Med. 946. Mtitvixrir rSt ty^fte^wSt i TU^mmet, 
' has less 0^' Hier. 1.29. Ttv i^xUu «'Xi«»iiKr«Zf*r«, 'bearing more oC 
C}T. L 6. 25. nSf-iv k^iitms l^rn^mt rSv Ui/r«v Mem. i. 2. 60. Tav 
Xiy^if W(§e^§it Em^> Suppl. S50. Sv/t^^XXirMi . » rtuh hi/iaT0f Ear. 
Med. 284. *Ay*0n tt r»XXfi«'«'^/« tUv U ti^nvif <r«v«r, /kCam tt rSt if we* 
Xifceit ^ufAfA»x*f '^iy*'** k^i^^n tt (ptXiuf xottmtof Mem. ii. 1.32. 

§ 388. 2. Touch may be regarded as a species of par- 
tial action, affecting only the point of contact. To this head 
belong, either by direct connection or by obvious analogy, 
verbs of laying hold of^ hitting^ meeting vnth,^ &c. Thus, 

"Awrtefm rnt Hm^pn$t to touch Ae hajff L 5. 10. 'EeriXuftCdftTut uvt»u 
rm Jrtftf, l*tjf$ hold of hie sAteU-run, iv. 7. 12. ^t^muXa rvyx'^^n, kite 
PheratdoM, Cyr. viiL S. 28. 'E(i»ri7r^«i r£f .e^tvhttirSf, to reach the 
eiingerSf iiL S. 7. *Ay^*»r kymim w»ti»t pwmfrnrctg, having met with the 
eon of brave heroes, Soph. Ph. 719. "Orar tt ravrm nvis Biyi/t Cyr. i. S. 5. 
T«v( Tt init rfmytntit wtneutf kerr»/»U§ut VL Rep. 602 b. A«r;^i^)f ^uvuf 
t%0§uvTt kfifif Eur. Or. 793. Avrtt tt X«C«^t»«r riis ttliSf rtv KvetJ^ti^wt 
Cyr. V. 5. 7. *AfT»Xn'^»9r»t tSp w^myfUrvf Cyr. ii. S. 6. *E|j/«i^« 
uivu, we ehatt keep hold o/T Am, vii. 6. 41. K«iv^ Tnt ^MTfi^Ut tx'^^'^f ^ 
wtrirn in eouunon for our eafetg, vL 3. 17. 'E;^«^i*« tt vvrmt, and fdUowvng 
theee, L 8. 9. Ttit iXwi^t yk^ Ux^/uu 'itl^mynkiwi Soph. Ant. 235. Ai- 
ytTut rnt TtXiurnf rv;^!?*, *to have come to his end,' ii. 6. 29. *Ow§Mf 
mSw iifim tr9%»f, what kindof men theg found m, v. 5. 15. 

^ 369« Remarks. «. Hence, the part taken hold of is 
put in the Gren., in connection with other forms of construe* 
tinn ; as, 


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''Ex«C«» riit iti*nt TM 'O^fmtt they took Oromiet bg the ginBe, i. 6. la TA 
irmtim^t* thivf «viX»M . • riif X**(*f Ar. Yesp. 568. Tkt ik mixufm^tm 
iytf^ms . . «'X«»«/»«r .^sdi. llieb. 326. Niv • . i^««tiv X^t** ^^' H«fa 
968. T«y ftXt m^tftm^rn* mbx'^*»* ^P^ '^^ \^2U 

/3. To the analogy of yerbs of toach maj be referred expresrfons like tiM 
following : 'tns Mi^mXnt xmridyt^ he broke [was fractured in] his head, Ar. 
Ach. 1180. Smrir^/Cn rns M%p»Xns Ar. PftX, 71. 'ILrmtra rif K^«Tr*«9 
rt/vr^r-t^M riff »tf«Xiif «vrifr, (A^ charged CraHnm with having brokem her head* 
Isocr. 381 a. E!ra »ardlui rtt mitT$v fAttumt riif »tf«AiM Ar. Acfa. 1166 
Cf. § 437. 

^370* 3. Several words of obtaining^ attaining^ and 
receiving, govern the Genitive, from their referring primarily 
either to distribution or to touch. Thus, 

*1mb eUs 9-(»en»»v^f fifi^ms Xay^^dfp, that it mag receive Ut proper portkm^ 
PL Leg. 90S e. KXif^«v«^i7v $vlMtf to inherit mSdng, Don. 1065. S5« 
T*»» '^$nnlm rvy^'^***** ^ obtain gour righttf vii. I. 30. 'EIIEIAH 
Isocr. 22 b. Ki»ii/^if, sSrt r§v rd^tv ittrta^mt, avrt yimt «r«^* i^^r Sof^ 
£L 868. 07«f kfMiSnt 1^ *I«r«v«# xv^tTEur. Med. 23. 

NoTB. TbB student can hardly foil to have remaiked the great nuriety of 
■etaphorioal and tnmaitiYe meaningn in which words of sharing and of 
touch are employed, not only in Greek, but likewiae in our own and in other 

^371. II. That which exerts an influence as 


this division belong the following rules, respecting, 
1. the motive, reason, and end in view; 2. jprice, 
value, merit, and crim^ ; 3. the sensible and m^en^ 
tal object ; and 4. time and place. 

1. Genitive of Motive, Sfc. 

§ 373. Rule XI. The motive, reason, and 
END IN VIEW are put in the Genitive. 

To this rule may be ref<5rred the use of the Gen., both in 
regular construction and in exclamalion, to express the person 
or thine, on account of which, in consequence of which, /or the 
sake of which, in honor of which, or to ajfed which, any thing 
fa feh, said, or done. Thus, 

a. Wfth Vbrbs. T§ut$u et . . ^hXm, on thie account I envg gou, Qyr. 
viii. 4. 23. "iit^ftv v9rfiftT»v9Tt(f eerving for hire, lb. vi. 2. 37. tin^U 
mirSf »Tat%Ut pf*gi»g nothing for them, lb. iiL 1. 37. T»v ^ ir4^«»f 
^mrtifiv mitrif lb. T. 4. 32. -ZnXti 0t tm * •» , rns Tli %*tXimt ereyS Soph. 
KL 1027. "H fiX»y yj»mt . . H ;c««r«« Id. (Ed. T. 234. T«vrei 2»Mi- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


fmi r$f I heteeeh yom far har take, Eur. Or. 67 1 . *I«trf v« n rSt^i yvtmrttt 
»ai ^»v yttiitv )f|ia# r' %vimifA»*9t, 'by these knees/ &0., Eur. Hec 753 
2«^«v mymi»» lmifM9»St * in honor of/ Ar. Eq. 106. T« v ltih»» ftfif n«#<f • 
l^or loAof do I [owe] PasioM twelve mimat Ar. Nob. 23. IX^ATiflrtfTflM rUf ftm 
•mvrtMt 4)«y9f »«j x^t^*^** ^^ ^^^ «r«xt*>f «'(iiy^«T«, 'for the fiake of 
present pleasure and favor/ Dem. :^4. 23. KMrmff»^0i^ r§S . . ^j^ kwtr% 
XiTv mvrtTst * 80 that it may not profit,' Qyr. i. 3. 9. 

/S. With AiXTBCTiyBS. Fjihtifut* . . r*v r^iwv PI. PhsBdo, 58 «. ^C\ 
umtui^n riir Ti;^»if # , Bfetaqfi m <% ^mcfe / Ar. Av. 1423. ^H riAjiif* l)^ 
wUif Soph. EL J 209. ^H )vrr«X«/y» v^if </»«ff mvim^ims Eur. Mid. 1026. 

7. With Adverbs. Tetvmt Inxm rn$ rn'm^ilav, on account of this pass, 
i. 4. 5. T«tf ^n iftuyttt innm, lest they should escape, ill. 4. 35. Ill^n 
^' Ut/m r«i!^t r*? ^iC»v x^i" Soph. B3. 427. Hiv^tnSf ti tx'vraf r«» 
A)iX^«i; r$ifn»ir0t^Cyr, v. 2. 7. X«X««'«ff ^i^M mhrSv Th. iL 62. 

t. With Novks. *E^«} «'i»;ibf i!^ut »hr»u «^«rC«>^y, 'pangs on hS# 
account,' Soph. Tr. 41. n«XXi^; yt^tUv r«v^* iv 2»nrv«i Xiri(#, 'hythii 
beaid/ Eur. Or. 290. 07«f, r« T^t/atf ^r«r ilv«^^*ry «'«r^i lb. 432. 

t. With Imtbbjisotioks. ^tv rmi itf'i^ht Alas far Ihe nMs mamt Oyt. 
iiL 1. 39. AiW »m»Sf Eur. Here 899. 07/mi ^i^M^rtr »«) rixf^f, 
slfiut V l/»«v lb. 1374. *0A^t»$v 0T^ar%6fAUT»t rtiii^t iEsch. Pttl 
116. 'LitrTMrMi^ riwf umxSf Ar. Eq. 1. 

C* Is StifPUB Exclamation. T«f rix^t, My iO-btck I Cyr. If. 2. 8. T9$ 
ftt0^i»t. What folly I Ar, 'Svih, 9\S. *il Ztu fia^tX%v, ^f Xirrtmrtt 
«wf f^iMwy lb. 15"). "AfircXX** iLWr^Htun, rw ;^«r^ii/»«r«f Ar. At. 61. 

^ 373. Remabks. 1. The Genitive of the end in tiew 
is put with some words of direction^ claims and dispute. 
Words of direction include those of aiming at^ throwing at^ 
going towards^ and reaching after. Thus, 

'Av^^«'*ry rr«;^ii^ir/«4, to take aim at men, Cjr. i. 6. 29. Avr«v XH 
ftmimt . . tffi9'T09'j they threw stones at him, Eur. BaMl^ 1096. Eltfv IIiX. 
Xiivff; ff'irtr^flM, fl> ^y straight to Pellene, Ar. Av. 1421. T/r ya^ mvrf Irrtv 
I^Tif Ttig it0xni iifr$wtUT4tt\ For who is there ^lat disputes wUh him At 
mvereignty [mains for the sovereignty m opposition to him] ? ii. 1. 1 1. "fUvt 
relireit #»««'0tf, V0ltvtr* Jif%0O( raiHt So(^ Ant 1033. 'Xljf, fl^i0 
«rir^«v r«;^a f-fv Eur. Cyd. 51. *Iiv«i r«t; w ^ i r t , to go towards that which 
is farther on, i. t. to go farther, to proceed, 1. 3. 1. Anyu i* t(tt ^^nffvfm 
T$v 9-(OftraT0t Soph. Aj. 731. Otfru £»Ti«r«i«tf rr« i^irntp these 
were rivals in valor, iv. 7. 12. B«riXi»ii« ffuru^ttavfitifut rix*if* 
laying claim to the kingly art, PL PoL 289 e. T»v ll ^^^yiTt •? . . Af$^f 
wCnrH Isocr. 96 c. 

2. The student cannot fiill to remark the ease with which verbs of motion 
pass into those of simple effort and desire. Thus, Itfttu, and, more commonly, 
i^Uftmsy to send one*s self to, to rush to, to strive for, to seek, to desire ; i^iys' 
fLMt, to reach after, to strive for, to seek, to court, to desire ; as, 'JifitfM Xi;^Uw 
Soph. Tr. 5 1 4. T»7t "Hint ipifiiftt Cyr. iii. 3. 1 0. •Oei5«'#«' w ^X*«# ni 
r«v Mem. L 2. 15. 2m»^aT$v( et^%x^nrn* lb. 16. Tiftins iiiyi^im Hier. 7.S« 


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276 SYNTAX. — GBNltlYE OF PRICE, &C. [bC >K If* ' 

2. Genitive of Price^ 8fC. 

^374. Rule XII. Price, value, merh, 
ana crime are put in the Genitive. 

m» Price. *l«r«r«r, h . . u.^ii»T» «'i»rn»«vr« )«^ti»*»», the horsCf which h» 
had told for fifi^ doaricty vii. 8. 6. *^n'i0$m.t . . iu*(k /itirfm wtXXsu «^yv- 
|/»v uL 2. *^1. n«XX«v TMf <XXMi i«'«X«i>v Mem. L 2. 60. T«v ^* i^v 
wmt^tff puyetf ^vx^t ^ ^X«(«MM^*y •» Xt*'^*^ ftivtv Eur. Med. 967 
A«(« )l ;^^il^ar«f •»» mnrn Isocr. 21 b. *Af*fiX»;^»f . . ««'fXvr{i»#'i r«- 
A.«f cA'v lr»f« Dem. 159. 13. 

jS. Yalub and Merit. n«xx«v £!^§t «f fr^mritf, worth mtteh to the armif^ 
ir. 1. 28. "Ajfi^tt S^M Tiit iXtv^t^ /«# L 7. 3. T«fv »«XX/«'«'«v Uvr^ 
A^uvTMyrM Hi. 2. 7. T« fiftiftm 9'$yX*) ;^«^r«vr<» a^/tvf t;^*>v Cyr. vii. S. II. 
Ilmim . . Avc^«v ^v rtv, »«r»^» )* iffu Soph. Ph? 1008. 'Em^tm ^ifTf 
rir 7<r«f itl^imt PI* PoL 257 b. Mt/^«v«f avtik n/tSfrtu m XmfiCmvtfrtt 
Oyr, iL I. 13. £j «?r iir^i lutrM «■• ii»au»9 rng »^i»g nfMtaitUf r»vr4» 
rtftSfuu rns iv Tl^vTanif rtr^ftmt PL ApoL 36 e. Ti^iwf yi rm,f ^9 W^- 
Mf r«l^tf r£it Soph. Aj. 534. Il^tffvrwf rSv w^tJ^frm PL Mtfiex. 239 
(for tbe common coii8tracti<m of «'ei«'«s see § 403). 

y, Crimb. *A#iCii«f ^iv^ttrM, acoMttf of impiety^ PL i^L 35 d. Ai 
«4(^«tfri ^ imk) I^»Xif^«r«r, • . hxmft^rimt Qyr. 1. 2. 7. AuSl^fuu n 
)t<x;«f Ar. £q. 368. Km^w/mu TlMfiraij^tf SC^tug Ar. Av. 1046. T^ 
«'«r^ fifsv (w^i^;^4/iat PI. Euthjph. 4d. *E«'«uri«ri(^Mf fit fifv Dem. 
55;^. 1. Ovhif h»x»t ^'** Xt4«r«r«(/«ar «v^ %itX'ims Lys. 140. 1, Ti< 
mirmt »yfpi»f uwiu05ft H r»tt ifXXMf Dem. 293. 28. 

KoTB. The Gen. is sometimes used to express the /yimuAment ; as, 0«vi(- 
r« V ^ ^Stm t^ivtvrt, and these pronounce mntence of dMth, Cyr. i. 2. 1 4 . 2»X- 
X»/ttCm949Tti vviiytv B-avartv H. 6r. ii. 3. 12. 'Ar^^«'*»v xetrn^n^pif^fivrt/w 
^nfdrsv ^ ^vyns PI. Rep. 558 a. "flrr* h»x** ^*^f^ov ytyita^t Deau 
1229. 11. — In this construction (which is rare except with Sa»«r«v), the 
ptmithment appears to be regarded either as the deeert of the crime, or as the 
md w view (§ 372) in judicial procedings. 

3. Gtnitive of Sensible and Mental Object. 

^97S» The object of sensation, thought, or emotion may 
be regarded as its exciting cause^ and, in this view, may be put 
in the Genitive. Hence, 

Rule XIII. Words of sensation, and of men- 
tal STATE or ACTION govem the Genitive ; as, 

m. Or SeKSATIOX. 2iV«v iyturavr; tasted of food^ Wi, 1.3. 7<vrc 
rif# ^^»t, * have a smack o^* i. e. ' try/ or * knock at,' Ar. Ran. 462. Tm 
wm'iat . . ^ivrritfy ettptmrast 'give a taste of/ PL Rep. 537 a. 0?mv . . 
i0p^mi9$^4aiy to catch the scent of taine, v. 8. 3. 0»^uC»v lixav^i %ik c-*»» 
r«4**^ ***^»ft 'heard,' L 8. 16. T$u ^ vrnwTMV iliUrau it*»vvft,a,TaSy i^aiM* 
rtmvTtif^ §tvn»»os i7 Mem. ii 1. 31. Ou» A«(««i^i»«i ti rod ifiovras Cyr. L 
S. 10. KXi;«» ^aXactyyt Soph. AJ. 290. Oii^us H wu^ari 2* «^r«iv 
ettw ^%fX% suit itvtria}! ouTi Tpirra^rat i7)f», evrt Xiyatrat K»a»0t Mem. 


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/3. Of Pbrcbptton, Enowudkki^ BBFLBcnodr, Expertencb, and Habit 
Ttif . • WtC»vXnt «v» ifw^tiftr*, he did not perceive the plot^ i. 1. 8. *OrM 
AXXifXwy IvfUfmf Th. i. 3. 'Effff/ttv ^ r£v tiiir^tt Mem. iU. 6. 17 
*£«ri«'ri}|W«v fTvM r*rv £^} ri^fij iL I. 7. &iXit 2* A'/i^tf ficmXXcf 4 
r§^»i x»»£t tJvtu .^sch. Sap. 453. ^l^ttirnt • • ravrav r»v *(y«Ut *vni 
•killed in,' CEc 3. 9. Tiit «^irSf . . •I'iifm 2t7 <^i«rf vny PI. Prot. 3i6 e. 
Ki^4U . . Iv «'(<^f yivM^ to have teen well acquainted with Cj^rus {in the 
knowledge of Cyrus by proof], i. 9. 1. Hgt^tifAtfai rttims rtis ra^ietf, 
' making trial of/ iii. 2. 38. TSv rtt;^Sf hftMf trK^^y, 'attempt/ Th. vii. 
19. 'EtfAWtt^tt yk^ jfrar e^s Ti.m^X.myetmf V. 6. 1. "A «r 11^44 hrti »uvm 
iii. 2. 16. T*ry l/»«'ii^4tff aurw i;^«y«'M» ii. 6. 1. Sifts t^t rins if4£i% 
Xiltatt PL ApoL 17 d. Ov r^iCtf if i^9t»iig Ax.Yesp. 14-29. *H.4a( tl/ti 
^mt rZw r^git fikv4m Soph. £L 372. *Aff^tif r«S »tt/rm»evM Dem. 15. 27. 

§ 37o« 7. Of Memory. Tauretv pMg fiiftttirmt, these Mngs no 
one remembers, v. 8. 25.. Ovhvii irt rUrm Ift i/Avntp, 'made mention of/ 
vii. 5. 8. Tiif »^x*if fiiffif*»9%»PfA%9 Isocr. 12 c. Tpvtsv ^ mbvwt vv* 
fHftfi^xtTi Cyr. iiL 3. 37. Mii ^* ^y«^yiir;if xaxSw Eur. Ale 1045. 
Bi«if % Ttft; vetfivrat »u fipismf tx**t I Soph. £3. 392. TJy irA^6$it fiif Xiymv 
Xm^MfAti* mft^et, 'forget,' Eur. EQpp. 288. "Tw^tt r«, Xn^tif rm >ca0' 
li/tifmf »m»i9 Eur. Bacch. 282. 

%. Of Gakb. K«)ir^«4 2tv^«v, to care for Seuthes, vu. 5. 5. T«vr«» 
rM ^t? /»iXt«f , o^ Mif <ft«re mnaf fe to you a care, i. e. you must take care of 
this, Cyr. L 6. 16. T«v «r«^' UtM-^ ^) ^^a^m kwifitiXi7T§ i. 1.5. 
*A^iXi7y if/tMrv abrSf, 'to be careless of/ 'to ne^ect,' i. 3. 1 1. 'E^tfttxht 
kymHtj eifitiXi^t ««»*lv PL Conv. 197 d. *H rnf vy$%las Ivt/AiXtsm Cyr. 
L 6. 16. M«^ fA%ra/a,ixttit #m riir IftSit ^*>^i««» * repent o^' Cyr. viii. 3. 32. 
"Eu vftl^ttfu ^iwf M^MVtn Tt ^(«vr/^iir, avx Av Ji/AtXsinf «vr«r» Mem. 
i. 4. 11. ^uXmgg6'fti9»vf tSv rutfv Th. iv. 11. "O^mt mitrSv i9»»S$ 
tli»urt9 Id. viii. 102. 

f. Of Desire. 'EfSvnf r^uvav, desiring this, iiL 1. 29. Efrtg ^^ Xi"' 
ftarm \irt40fitt7, 'desires* [sets his mind upon; cf. § 373. 23, iii. 2. 39. 
rx«;^«^ftrtf f rw ^f, eager for life, or clinging to life (J^ 370. N.), PI. Phaedo, 
117 a. Titttn^ui x^f^^*"'f having hungered for wealth, Cyr. viii. 3. 39, 
TloXts iXitf^t^mt ii^pnet^* PL Rep. 562 c. KirrSfr$t rns it^vns Ar. 
Pax, 497. 


^. Of Yariods Emotion. "Aymfitai Xtifcecrag, I (ubnire the spirit, "Enr. 
Rhes. 244. Ov; ov» Af ^»«r;^ir^«f rnvrau /SariXiMrr^f, who would not en- 
dure him as their king, ii. 2. 1. *ftf iyti ^t $1 ^icvnrtt, which I shall not 
grudge to you, Cyr. viii. 4. 16. AlexV^ ^riyns y* f^«v«r«i, it is mean to 
gruilge him our roof, i. e. to refuse ham admission, Symp. 1. 12. Mn^i ft.t 
^hfif^s %vy/uiri»f, 'deny/ or 'reject,' .£sch. Pr. 583. 'Axx* sh fAsymt^t* 
rwii et 'ttt^nftMTt lb. 626. 

^377* Remarks. 1 . The idea of hearing passes, by an easy tran- 
sition, into that of obedienee (obedio, to give ear to, to listen to, to obey, from ob 
and audio, to hear). Hence, words of obedience govern the Gren. (cf. § 405. n) ; 
as, Ttirevf . . ^tkfiXims eln ii»9VM, that these did not obey [or were not subject 
to] Me ibtn^, iii. 5. 16. 01 7MLn^»Zx»* »Srt xaXwrvv turnKavat, * regarded 
thdr invitations [listened to them calling]/ iv. 1 . 9. *T«rif»«M rei* M«#rv»04- 
jMfv, subject to the MossynascL Ktcrnno^i n ^ettt rSv fi/Mtt PL Crili. 1 20 e. 
'AvuffM^mr* ti rHv trmrfif Xiyff dliv n *St ; .£sch. Prom. 40. 2f«?» ni- 
0twfat Th. viL 73. Ilitff xi^ »*X»vitr»$ itviJuf Cyr. iv. 5. 1 9. 



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8. Yfirbs of tijiht oommoBly fOv«ni the Aoo. { ud many y«rbs vbleh are 
followed by the Gen. aooording to this rule flometimee or often take the Aca 
(eepedaOj of a neuter adjective) ; as, Et^ft$» rwt wa.tfttmt$ vL 5. 10. Ai 
€0i»nTm %Km0T» Mem. L 4. 5. See §$ 424. 2. 432. 2. 

4. Genitive of Time and Place. 

^378* The time and place in which any thing is done 
may be regarded as essential conditions of the action, or as 
tooperating to produce it. Hence, 

Rule XIV. The time and place in whicb 
are put in the Genitive (cf. §§ 420, 439) ; as, 

1. TiMB. '^x*'^* '^f fvxrif, he went in the night, Tfi. 2. 17. Ttivrm 
ulf rnt nf*i(nf lyinr*, 'in the day/ vil. 4. 14. Tns ^i/Xnf >t iTxiiv, *in 
the evening/ vii. 2. 16. "iUrt nis nf^i^nt Ixnt ^niXf§f . ., k)iXk liiXnt 
£^i»«yr« iii. B. II. ESVi fvxrit ^im rtf tfrt »«} ii/ti^mti 'whether by 
night or by day/ iii. 1. 40. hm^tXtvt 0v ^;^i7r«M hnm nft$(Sf, 'within 
ten days,' i. 7. 18. *Orf «i^r« ^ ^sXXtS ;^f «v«v . . Iv-irv;^*!, 'now for a 
long time,' i. 9. 25. '£^««vri# V Ifuiertif i/Ai(»ft 'evetyday/ vL 6. t. 
IltkXMMit Tn$ iftifMt, man^ Hmee a de^ Ar. Eq. 25a IImu )t rsSn «iX. 
X«Mf r«tf fttifit Cyr. L 2. 9. T^ n^^m^utut r0v /An* is 9 three ha^f-dariee 
a month, L 3. 21. Tm? )' mbr^ ^ifvs Th. IL 28, 79, 80. Tw )' Wi^^iyv*. 
ftifw x**f^*^*'s Wi»v, IS, 36, 51, 56, 116. '£$ lr*lv iXe^ts Ar, L^ 
280. Ovn ri; ^y«« «lfr««WM X^'''<' rv;^vM> PL Phiedo^ 57 a. JAirum . . 
0V fucMfw p^(i9»¥ Soph. £L 477. 0«i»lri r«t/ X«4«r«v [so. X^ifee] wd^^ifUf 
&* jMtxMf I>6m. 44. 12. 

^ 3#If« 2. Place. Aut$u [bc ritrtu] f^tivafrif, remaining m tiiat 
place, i. 10. 17. T«»)* t<Vf^i^4» rttxif*, 'within the walls,' Eur. Ph. 451. 
*E(»(«f . . \'yxt»X»fAi9$vf Soph. AJ. 1274. KcriieX<«r«y . . M«»f}«v/«f 
*Ainf»Toi XltfiiiMMtcv Th. v. 83. Tiif )• l4tf»/«r »«} kXXoti ^r$XXnx''^ **^X€^* 
9%90fu^rou PI. Conv. 182 b. MijT* \fAinrt6ttt wnr^t'itt Soph. CEd. T. 825. 
Tfif h ftn >C«iV 'e*" I^ CEd. C. 400. Hi J/*,, l«-i»/ririr«i lb. 689. 
*Er;^«<r>K J' «^ itv^ae ntifi fii^r^ux^t Soph. El. 900. ^'S.^rimf fAWfAipti- 
X§v%fTn»i9 Hin fttnXec JEach. Ag, 1056. AMtig i\ X**i^f '' ri^f#Ti«r«»tf 
•Uw^t XnXyCis Id. Pr. 714. KTKA. Utri^as rif ;^i^f {* XOP. *£» )i|<f 
r«t; Eur. Cyd. 68 1 . • 

Remarks. «. This use of the Gen., to denote the place where, occurs very 
rarely in prose, except in those adverbs of place which are properly genitives 
(§ 320. I ) ; as, 0? [sc riv-av], in which place, where, ahrw, there, if^w, in the 
same place, ovhetfAtv, nowhere, &c Cf. ^ 421. /3. 

/3. In Epic poetry, this Gen. is sometimes employed to denote the place np/m 
or over which any thing moves ; as, "^x^'*'** *tli»f, they advance upon th^ 
plain, B. 801. "Ennftn vtXiae wi^Ut* ^i«pr«f A. 244. *EX»if»um HtM /3«- 
iiins irtinrif m^m-^** K. 353. 

y. The ideas of plice and time are combined in expressions like those which 
follow, rdating to jonmeying (Fr. joum^ a da^s-march, from Lat. diumus, 
from dies, day) ; *E^Tanaiitx» yik^ rTaffUiw tSv lyyvrarm aviU t7xf^* Xoft 
C«Mi», ' during the last seventeen day's-marches/ ii. 2. 11. *II^t^swyr«r • 
fMnt^ttf KiXiv^aw JBsch. Cho. 710. 


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Ofi. i.) «BKITIVX ACTIVX. 9^ 

. I. In the phiaae /mSi x^^itt in the fbDowing pssaage, the idea «f <uae is 
combined with that of actum ; *E^n fumg mm x**i^ '^ ^Wm ri^i, ' at a ehiffle 
stroke,' ' once for all,' £ar. Here. 938. 

^880. III. That which produces any thing, 
as its ACTIVE or efficient cause ; or, in other 
words, that by which, as its author^ agent ^ or giver ^ 
any thing is nuiLde^ written^ said, done, bestawedy 
&c., or jfirom which .any thing is obtained^ heard 
learned, inquired, requested, demanded, &c. 

To this division, which must obviously refer chiefly to per 
tons^ belongs the following rule, which will of course be un- 
derstood as applying only to adjuncts. 

Cremiioe Actioe. 

Rule XV. The author, agent, and oiyer 
are put in the Genitive ; as, 

«• Witii Vertw of Obtitfnfaig, Heiaring, Learning, Inqoiring, Beqaesting, A« 
TWSrw ^i 0»v T¥x«9^ti «id iibtammg tkU of jfou, vL 6. 32. ^Hv 2i r«» 
r»xi^^ l^iifituit SkMwn (§ 370) Soph. PhiL 1315. *A»«^wf Kv^«v X\i hrm 
» . fiM^tXim i. 8* 13. T«ff »ar«XtXtij(«^i»*»y iitwidfttrs, in tl ft\t 
0^f»ir. ,fx**^*t Meamed by inqoiiy fixim,' tL 3. 23. Kmi \wv9iAv§9T» 4 
*A^»£i%t tHw ff*!^} Si9»^9rmt ri rk w»^k mmra^i^ttrnff 'inquired O^' lb. 25. 
M^f a f)i0v, Z vrttTf »mi r«^f Cyr. i. 6. 44. Auvrat ii rsv »m} r«tlr« vL 
6. S3. *Efit^ x^e*^'^ ^' ^' •'«<' ^*i^ (§ 357. N.) Qyr. v. 5. 35. 2»y yit^ 
• . fi(»x^* ^"* »t^i* f*^»9 Soph. (Ed. G. 1161. 

§ 38 1. fi. With Passive Verba and Verbals. Uxtiyih ^uymr^ig 
rif i/t,ns, tmittem by my doMghter, Enr. Or. 497. ^ttTig nwrnrnftUn So^ 
Aj. 807. TZv ^iXtitt vuutfMttVb, 135S. II«/«f fn^ifivnt rtZi* vwfr^m 
^tis \iyut \ Soph. (Ed. T. 728. T«? »»»•» wir/ittu (pvni^ut Id. (Ed. C. 
1S?3. 'A0i»vot n'yfirn^0s lb. I52i. Fi^^A^r IXO*** lb. 1519. KaxSw 
yetf turdXttrt 4yiu$ lb. 1722. OiX«v JixXayras Soph. Ant. $47. Rf /vitl 
)/2a»ri Id. El. 343. — TUs nse of tiie Gen. is poetic, and is most fi-eqaent 
with the Partieiple. 

y. With Substantives. S^fo^Sfras Kv(§v 'XftiCm^tf, Xenophon*8 Ex* 
pedittan of Cj/rus, Oi fi>h Wm rut vSf w^trCtt^^atf Ivuifdtf ;(;a/|»«vr<y, «< il 
yt^miri^H r«2f rSv »•»» rt/utTf Ay^XXnTOSf the yomng rejoice in the praitee of 
their eUerif and the old delight t» Ae honon paid them by the yotrng^ Mem. !!• 
1. 33. 'H^Af &Xmrtimft wanderinge comh^ by Juno^ JEach, Pr. 9(X). 'Sirew 
I B»iia . . »ifutr» Soph. Tr. 1 13. 

.^ 88«. IV. That which constitutes any thing 
WHAT IT IS. To this head may be referred what- 
ever serves to complete the idea of a thing or prop* 


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erty, by adding some distinction or characteristic 

Genitive Constituent. 

Rule XVI. An adjunct defining a thinc 
OR PROPERTY is put in the Genitive ; as, 

T« Mif«»«f ^(£r$¥fu$, the arm^ of MenOj L 2. 21* 

<5 S8S. Remarks, o. The xHrno oh property defined 
may be either distinctly expressed by its appropriate toord^ or 
may be involved in another word ; as, fiaadevg in fiaailivi% oa- 
xQanriQ in aaiQamv^a (§ 389). Cf. §§ 351, 362. 5, 391. 6, 394 
395. d. 

Note. In particular, a4iective8 in which a substaottve is compounded with 
ii'pnoative (§ 825), hare often It Gen. defining the substantive. See § 395. 

§ 384* /?. A genitive defining a substantive is sometimes 
connected with it by an intervening word, which is usually a 
substantive verb. See, for examples, §§ 387, 390 ; cf. § 365. — 
This fonn of construction may be referred to ellipsis ; thus, 
Hv [av^Qunoq] ixoiv wf tgiaxovxa, he was [a man] of aboui 
thirty years (§ 387). 

§ 9S8. y, A substantive governing the Gen. is often tmdenUfod^ 
particularly vlUt son, «7»«f, houae, and other words denoting domuiie rdatkm 
or abode. Thus, VXwt $ Ta^, Glus, the mm of Tamos, ii. 1.3. ^H Ai«f 
[sc ^vy»T%^ "k^TifAtt Eur. Iph. A. 1570. Bv^riviK rns *lwvi»u [sc. yvmt 
M§f'] Ar. Eq. 449. 0i/(«^i /»' iliuyxmr is ran liirraXw [sc «r»0v], 'to 
Pittalus's [house],' Ar. Adi. 1222. £jV •viifit ^i2«rx«X«v «r««r«ri ^trn^m^Tm 
Cyr. ii. 3. 9. Tm It 'A^^nrtfi/ ««»*!» Eur. Ale 76 1 (cf. '£» 'Aifctirtv ^ifuts 
68). 'Ev "Ai^tfi; Soph. Ant. 654 (cf. £/» *Ai)«» )«/(Mif 1241). 'E» 'ArxX* 
«Mv [sc /f(^] Mem. iiL IS. 3. EiV T^^^mUv [sc irr^tfv] Ar. Nub. 508. 

). The Gen. is often used in periphrasis, particularly with xfif^** thing, and, 
by the poets, with )i/cM(f, form, body, »d(»i head, ntfut, nnme, and similar 
words. Thus, Aifucf *Aya^t^»0r0( = ^Aym/Aifufta Eur. Hec 723. *11 f /x- 
rcr^v 7oir«i»«f 'laxda^rnt »«^« Soph. (Ed. T. 950. *il wtitttn h§f^ i/uXime 
Ifniif Eur. Or. 1082. See § 395. «. 

t. A substantive governing the Gen. is sometimes used by the poets instead 
of an adjectioe ; as, X^vov . . iwHt, the gold of words, for 'E*^ Xi*'''^ 9'*^*^ 
words, Ar. Pint. 268. *0. fMirfis \/Ans riC«f uEsch. Pr. 1091. Iia>in%i»Mtt 
fiUf Eur. Ph. 56. 

§ 388* An adjunct defining a thing either expresses a 
property of that thing, or points out another thing related^ to 
It. An adjunct defining a property points out a thing rekUed 
to that property. Hence the constituent genitive is either, 
1. the Genitive of Property^ or 2. the Genitive of Relation. * 


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CH. 1.] OP 7R0PBRTT. — OP RELATION. 281 

1. Crenitive of Property. 

§ 3 8 7* The Genitiye of property expresses quality^ du 
mension^ age^ 6cc, Thus, 

^» irSf tt$ r^m»§frm, he wot about thirty years old [of about thirty years], 
it 6. 20. n«r«^» ffrm ri tZ^at itxi0^av i. 4. 9, a river being [of] a pie- 
thrum in hreadA (cf. TlovetfAh ri tZ^t wXiffiaTov i. 5. 4, and see v> 333. 6). 
[Ttixt^ iv^«r tJx»0i 9'»^S», S^f tk Immvcf fin»»s V Ixiytra iJvai $7x»- 
#*< wm^afuyyiiv u. 4. 12. *0 ^ rSf «rv;^/«« fiioratf but a Kfe of quid 
[sjB/S/M-ff iif»X*f9 ^ V*^ ^]* ^^* ^^^'^^ ^^^* 2r0X/)« . . T^i/^i; [ssV^v. 
^f^«r] Eur. Ph. 1491. T*^^^^* tx^t T*Xftn$ ^^•rm^at [= *i/t*» t«X/ccii^0»] i 
Soph. CEd. T. 533. T« )) euf/t^nu^ai . . ;^(«»«i> «'«XX07 [i«'ri], »«} «'«7;^«. 
At«'M PL L^. 708 d. "E^rtv i itiXtfUf tvx I^Xatf rtf«'Xi«y, ^AXA }»^£vti§ 
Hi. L 83. *0r« 47ff «Mf yfmfAfit n^ttf lb. 113. TaZS* i^S vXXau wifau 
Enr. Ph. 719. 

. NoTB. It is obvious from the examples above, that the Gen, of property 
perftnns the office of an adjectioe. Its use to express quaUty, in the strict 
sense of the tenn, is chiefly poetic 

2. Genitive of Relaiion. 

§ 3 8 8* The Genitive of relation, in its full extent, in- 
cludes much which has been already adduced, under other and 
more specific heads. The relations which remain to be con- 
sidered are, (a.) those of domestic^ social^ and civil life , 
(b.) those of possession and ownership ; (c.) that of the object 
of an action to the action or agent ; (d.) those of time and 
phice ; (e.) those of simple reference^ of explanation^ &c. 

The Genitives esqpressmg these relati<ni8 may be termed, (a.) the Gen* of 
todal rebUkm, (b.) the Gen, jootseistoe^ (c) the CTen. lAfeetive, (d.) the Gm. 
of local and tniponi/ relaikm, (e.) the Gem» of rtftrmce^ of eacplamation, |ne. 

^ 389* ^ GsinTivx OF Social Rbulteon. 

*0 9m ^ai^tXitg yypamtit rnhx^at, the brother of the 1dn^$ wife, ii. 3. 
17. Ti?y *O^^v0m* ^rtXU vii. 3. !6. AauXavt ravratf L 9. 15. *H» 
•^•y fatr^A^nv iminn i. 1. 2. BetanXtuatv [=s Ba^iXtlff £$ § 383. «] aivraif 
V. 6. 37. T^ ^mr^mtrtvam [=» raraei^if avrt] r^s X*'^*^ iiL4. 31. (See 
also § 350.) Ttlvan , . rnt 'Exx.Jdf (cf. § 399) iii. 2. 4. Tw ir^Xi^f 
l;^^(«rf Yen. 13. 12. Taut i»f/y«v Ix^ifraut, , , ravt Kufatf fiXaiff iii, 2, 5, 
/Lk ns laturSf waXifuatt X^f^** through the country of their enemie$, iv. 
7. 19. 

Remabk. To this analogy may be referred the use of the Gen. fbr he 
Dat., with scnne adjectivea implying intimate connection ; as, *0 ^i ^nfot ^ari 
fuyytaiif raS Kv^«t; ittaity and he who once eaid Ant he was related to Cyrus, 
or a rdatice of Cyrus, Gvr. v. 1. 24. OvV h J^vwatnaf raav nmrat ^i* ^i»fi 
Soph. Ant. 451. Aantimifiavas tk yau» rt< \ Em". UeL 495. 
^»X** <^««) I^Lii»«^«» ifia^raXav Soph. CEd. T. 21 J. Ta9 laan^dnvt fakt 
i/aaififtaav Fl. Soph. 218 b. Tnt^* Jlif^ Soph. £1. 87. 'AxaXaviai 
rmSrat rdfrm AXXfiXatv (Ee, 11. 12. *il piyyat S^tap )i«)«;^«» Soph. Ph. 
H67, *0 xvCt^nivtif ra rnt 9tm »«i aatvrZt ki) \uft,^%^at vat^pvXdrrata 


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969 8TUTAX. — GWriXXV* ^OWMBiyp. [ BOOK Ik 

PL PoL 396 e. Tk w^Jt^ft^m rSit wit lem^si^m ^9f*P^f ^mr. HeL 508 
Cf. §§ 399, 400, 403. — It will be observed, that, in some of these ezampleB 
the ac^ectiTB maj be r^gwrded m used substMitivvly, and fliat this eonstruflF 
tion is not confined to the names of persons. 

b. Gemhivb PossBignrx. 

§ 390* The Genitive possessive denotes that to whick 
any thing belongs as a possession^ potoer^ rights dvly^ qudLUy^ 
k>c. Thus, 

Ik Si>iyy(ri«f /3«riXi<«, the palace cf SyennenSf L 2. 23. ^r«v mi '!». 
unmi wiXuf Tirr«^i^r*0f , the I<nuan citiei bdonged i» T^i»$(i^phernei, L 1,6, 
TSv /Uf yk^ 9t»m9Tt09 ri »mrm»etiftiff rSv il nrrmfAiitmf r» itvrttvnfmuB 
l^rit for iti$ the part of vietore to hUl^ but of the vanquished to dtCj ilL 2. 39. 
X^iivn h Mi)«i> »aX»o/Aifn L2. IS. Aut»u yk^ tJvai ^n^tf, IwtUn^ Kv^«i» 
UtC9 ii. 5. 38. T4UT§v ri tZ^as ^v* vXU^m, L 2. 5. T^f yk^ tt^mtTttt 
Irri »«) rk l«vr«r r«^m, »m.) rk «w» htrmfititttf XafitCJintf iJi, 2.39. 
*Hv*v/««fv «tfr«l» UiXn^rt yniHmtt 'your own mfXk* L e, ' independen V 
Dem. 42. 10. Tik wix.ta0s hrut, true to the state, hoar* IBS b. 'Hr*^ «l 
K(i»9rst «'f#rrir#i/ yty^eiyl^aftoi Soph. CEd. T. 411. *AXX* Ur) rtS xU 
ytrttt h f^Uui Xtyif, *at the mercy of tlie speaker,' lb 9l7. MnJ' tt fu^ 
"^tyu ittw rt«arriif, ' make youre,' Id. Ant. 546. 

v391» Rkmarkb. «. The idea of possession is sometimes modiiled 
or strengthened by an adjective or adverb ; as, *Ii(^r i X'*Z*^ *''*' *A^«^^ 
the spot tt sacred to Diana [consecrated to be Diana's], v. 3. 13. 'I)/*»v Uv- 
r«v %TnfAir»0Vt of his own acquisitions^ PI. Menex. 247 b. 0/ )i xii/tovt tm 
X^i^nxTit Uitt Dem. 26, 11. Ti tU^Ttv \»etri^ov ^fiftuav PI. ThesBt 
193c. T«v t^sfrmrovm m'ort^m »$tf»f efu Uteu vuvrtn M^mwiw \ H. Conv; 
205 a. T«f hfuri^ut tlUmt Xwtx^V^ ^ 189 b. 

fi. A iMMfer adjeaHee used substanthefy takes the Geo. poesesnve, in connect 
tMfe with verbs of praise, bUuney and womier ; as, TtSr* WmvH 'AynrtXmem, I 
^mmemd ^is m A^esikms [this characteristic of Agesilaos], Ages. 8. 4. S} 
ftift^svrm fJiXi^ra nfiuiv Th. L 84. "AxXa ri «*•!> «r«XX« iyecfuu Symp. 8. 
1 2. *Eim»f$m0M airsS WfSrsf fiU t*St» PL Phndo, 89 a. TsSrs . . iv rtit 
»vr} JMtri^'i'y ' ««^ i^«* ^avfuifau r»u ^(i»v PI. Bep. 376 a. 

y. Ellipsis. Hie possessor is sometimes put in the case belonging to the 
thing possessed, with an ellipsis of the latter, particularly in comptxrison ; aa, 
^A^fMtra • . t/Mt* IniUif [^s r»7$ lutivty Mffuc^t], chariots similar to his [char* 
tots], Cyr. vi. 1. .50 (cf ["A^^arc] tfMtu rt7s Kv^»v 2. 7). *0^«i«» raus ^$4- 
Xettf tSx* fl^" Uinru Cyr. v. 1. 4. *n«rX<r^iv«i . . ratt atltratf Kv^f K^Xms 
Cyr. vii. 1. 2. '''E;^of&t¥ rtifAarat IxtciniTt^a ravratv, we have bodies better ahU 
than theirs, iii. I. 23. Mi^' i^fft^ri^s- r«r^i [== rk rHvh »«»«] raTg •^•Tf 
matxaTf Soph. GSd. T. 1507. "A^x^vrtg fiUaf ix^rtt r« aturmt L 8. 22 (ct 
B««'<Aiv; ^ rart ftifav tx**^ ^^' mvraZ erfurtit 23). 

). The verbs «^«, to «me/Z, frvi^, to breathe, and «'(«rC«XX«, to cmtif, may 
take a Gen. defining a noun implied m these verbs § 383. «) or understood 
with them; thus, "OT^avn trirrtig, they smell of pitch [emit the smell oi 
pitch], Ar. Ach. 190. Tm xt^Xns aim /tu^au (% ^55) Ar. EccL 524. T^ 
tfMtriiw a^nvu it\$arnTaty ' there wiD be a smell of/ Ar. Vesp. 1058. *iU 
iiv fiM «r^«#«<rMvn x**i^'*'* xttit Ar. Ran. 338. llaitt fiparay /m «>«ri« 
Ukti Ar. Pax, 180. 


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oil. I.] OBJECTIVE. 9S§ 

1. It vin b« ftbtemd, that the amUim jwMHirfni |p tlw exact oonvmeof 
liie Chniiwe of proper^ (§ 387), the one denoting Aat wUek potmn u, and 
the other, that which u po$$es9mL 

0. GuNiTivK Objjeutivk* 

^393* The object of an action, regarded as wch^ is pot 
tn the Accusative or Dative (^ 339). But if the action, instead 
of being predicated by a verb, is merely represented as a thing 
or property (or as implied in a thing or property) ^ by a noun^ 
(fdjective^ or adverb^ then its object is usually regarded simply 
as something defining thai thing or property^ and is conse* 
quentiy put in the Genitive. Thus, 

1. Genitivb of tub DutBcr Object. *0 Pi»v(»^XH rht ^»>.m»ht 
i^ftr«^ii, the commander of a garruon reviews Mm troops, CEc 9. 15; but, 
V^t i^ir«r<ff wm'rm rS* '£xx«y*»v, (^rus makes a review ef the Greeks, 
L7. I ; Tjvv TMtfVTA^v '^cy* l|fr««'ri»«r, Jitted to review su^ matters, "Menu 
L 1.7. T«» Sx.t4^»9 tSv ^vrrfmTiMTiv L 2. 26. 'lit yafus . . iX'ti^tti 
fiXttf JEsch.Ag, 1 156 (cf. l^iyyet iikt^tv yi^^nf 1329). T^ wrt^CtXp 
r«v S^0Vf iv. 4. 18 (cf. *T«ri^iC«XX«» ra S(ti 20). Ka^)/«f )it»n}^<« £ur. 
Hec 235 (cf. AaMfU ^^iwrn Id. Heracl. 4 83). AiW»«Xi»«» • . rt^ims PL 
Both jph. 3 c JAM^nrki lar^$Mns PL Rep. 599 c. "AxXfi/r T»t9urm* 
Titit fiahriKws lb. 475 e. *A^Tifia0ni »»xSi Eor. Hec. 686. 'O^t/Aafi 
• , tZv «rXi«»i|«*?y Cyr. L 6. 35. T«^i»^f ri ««} Jl»«»rirt«f ^tktftM- 
ii^T»T»t i, 9, 5 (ct, 2«f^0rvrifv «ara/(Mc^M 3). A§i4^» 'Si'rmt fr^ttrim* 
rSf, Imt without the knmoUdge of the soldiers, i. 3. 8 (of. AtJitv aitrn Atrtk* 
$m 17). JL^u^m, rZt 'Xintulmt Th. L 101. *A.wmin »«»«» viL 7. 33. 
'AwasityTsvf fA99fi»nt Cyr. Ui. 3. 55. 

S. Gbmitivb of thb Indibbot Objbot. ESx*^^»i rut • • ^ftt, it 
puy to <A« ffods, ir. 3. 13 ; but, 0t«?v stx^f* prayers to Iha gods, PL 
PlMdr* 244 e. Ti^ ref :»i«v i^^Mir« Ear. Iph. T. 399 {cL Bptn 5t^ 1035> 
Tj^f rSv »^$if0ift0f hvXiiaf Th. L 8 (c£ Tm4t Iti^fmtt hvXiUn Mem. i. 5* 
5). '£«'iC«i>Xttrr«v rr^«r«?, of a plotter agaxHtt the host. Soph. i^. 726 
(o£ '£«'iC«tfXiM4 mvr^i, 1. S). 2v><7rf«j^f r^rf ^y^^i^ir/Mnr k^a^rn/A^rmv 
Cjtm tL 1. 37 (c£ *^tyJ» Wi funyiyut^iu^ lU TlL 5. -SQ). 

^ 303* RmffARKB. «. In like manner, the Qtn. is employed irith 
MOMM, to denote relations, which, with the corresponding adjectives, are denoted 
hy Hub Dot.; m, Tim «w» *£xxiff»f tvMMM, />«m good-wUl to the Cheeks, 
Vf. 7. 20 (cf. "BOfmt )S r«« £f viL 3. SO). T^ In^ Jt A»)^ j| tVi'toif U. 
UXm r$$mlh Soph. CEd. C 631 (cf. Th shfum «'Sxt4 Id. Aat SIS). 

/^ Tlie Gen. is-sometimes employed; in like manner, fbr a preporitlon with 
its case ; as, *Ef kifCdru ritf yiis, in a descent upon the kmd, Th. L 108 
(cf: 'AitiCn if rJ^f ynn H. Gr. I. 1. 18). 

y. To the Oen, cf the direct ol(fect may be referred the Gen. with «7rMf and 
its derivatiTes ; as, Ti mTtmv riif r«'M»&, M« CMtMe </ <Ae hasU [that vdiich 
was causative o^ &c], iv. 1.17. Tturttw w ro mMa, you are not responsibU 
for [the canse of] these things, CEc 8. 2. Ol r*» wXi/^v uirmrmrM, Ike prin>m 
eiptU avthors of the war, H. Gr. iv. 4. 2. T»vr§» 2«f»(«mv ^ mmrfiYt^ mMU 
r«i, fortUsthe accuser blames Socrates [makes S. tiM autlior of thk], T' 
L S. 26. See § 374. 


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984 8TKTAX. — aENtTivB. [book xh' 

). The Gen. in its mwe active uses (^en employed to denote agettt^ posses' 
tor, &C.) has received the special designation of the Gen, subjeetwe^ in distinc* 
tion f5rom the Gen. objective. The following passages contain examples of botlt 
kinds: T^» niA.««'0( fch ettrirfit IliXffrtfyyiirfv xaraXft'^t^, Pe^i^** eeiz' 
ttre of ail Peloponnesus^ Isocr. 249 a. Tat rHv 0i»iifl#» ^^av^XatxiffUs r«tf 
yi^ett PL Bep. 329 b. Th ixtivwy ^ixXir^i* rUt if hftmt }iii«»« Th. ilL 
12. Adjectives taking the place of the Gen. are, in like nkaansr^ naed both 
subjectively and objective^. See § 503. 

d. Genitivb of Local and Temporal Selaxion. 

% 394. The Genitive is extensively employed in defining 
local and temporal relation, particularly with adverb$ of place 
and timey and with words derived from them. Thus, 

"Xyx* y^ff *»*'"' ^ ^^^f Soph. CEd. C. 399. *Apri»v rni Aafitypaxea 
H. Gr. ii. 1. 21. T»ut6u l»ayri«y vii.' 6. 23. 'Ayr<«r«^af rSt ^Xaytttt 
Qyr. viL 1. 7. "At *> t£v iV^'iAry iv, 3. 3. 'A^f* t»u fcri w'l/yj* Symp. 4 
37. 'Eyyuf tra^ethUtu ii. 4. 14. *Eyy*»f fAv^ia/v^ nearly ten thousand, V. 
7. 9. E7r» r*lir j^iarv i. 2. 21. *E»r»f t6u T%lx»vt Mag. Eq. 7. 4. '£». 
r«f iksyuwf except a few (§ 349), H. Gr. i. 6. 35. 2»*}w twiav Soph. Aj» 
218. 'Evi^^t ytis iBsch. Pers. 229. '^y^iv »a) iv^i » r^*!* iv. 3. 28. 
Tierm.ftMt itrof iL 1. 11. Teu TlXavrttvos i^ns Ar. Ran. 765. '^|« r«v 
«rv>^y L 4. 5. Kiv^ii x«r« )jf ynr Soph. CEd. T. 968. Kv»X« tav rr^«. 
r«<rf20v Cyr. iv. 5. 5. T$ ftirav t£v rti^^iif, the distance between the walls, 
L 4. 4. *Ey fiiir^ iifitSf xai fianXivs ii. 2. 3. Mi«'0V«'i • . rns 9'o(^ia( PL 
Pol. ^265 b. Mir«^ti r«i; ^aretfAov »a) rsif r^^^ou i. 7. 15. Mi;^(< r«« 
Mfj^/eef rufous lb. "OiTiV^ir lai/rik>» i. 7. 9* A«i/Xnf <r«)Anr «r«^«iVt» 
Enr.'Hec 48. B*»^0v itiXms .£sch. Ag. 210. ITXnr/fv iTvaM r«D rf/^tv 
viL 1.39. 'E«'Aif«'ia^«r . . ri^v ix^m Cyr. iii. 2. 8. ITf^Mv r«f; «'«r«. 
/Mv ii. 4. 28. U^iri$9 rm oirXmf iii. 1. 33. "Tvt^ii ^ttfMU iEsch. Ag. 
232. -^ It will be observed, that, in some of these examples, tbe word gov^ 
eniing the Gen. is used in a secondary sense. For the Dat. after some of thesg 
words, see §§ 399, 405. 

e. Gknitivib of Besxbiengb^ Explanation, Emphasis, &a 

^39S. The constituent genitive has likewise other 
iises, of which the principal are those of simple reference^ of 
explanation^ and of emphatic repetition. 

Note. In some of these nses, the Gen. rather denotes a relatioii between 
two expressions for the same thing, than between two different Udngs, In such 
cases, an apposUxoe might be snbstitated for it (§ 333. 6) ; and, indeed, in 
some of the examples which follow (particularly with the compounds of A- 
privaHve, § 383. N.), we might regard the Gen. as in apposition with a sub- 
stantive implied. 

«. With Substantives. H^i^rtt • . r«v xf^tit^uf, pretext for assembling, 
L I. 7. T^mvv fAwwf fu^iif, three monthi pay, i. 1. 10. &uf£r*u rSx«f, the 
snd [sc, of life], which is found in dtath, or amply, deatii, iEsch. Sept. 906. 
e«»«r«i; rtXtvriw Eur. Med. 1 52 (cf. BUv riXtvrn Soph. CEd. C. 1 473). TI^^m 
Tfit fttrm^lxt Soph. (Ed. C. 725. E/ ^i^xs fAniSi* t^rxt ff<pUt t$v A^xXXxyn^m 
rtS xttStwv Th. vii. 42. Miy« . . xV^f^ * * "^^^ l/Avrihos, a monster of a gmA 
(§ 385. l). At. Lys. 1031. 2m( fi,'ty$9r»v Xt^f^» S<^ ^- 357 (cf. E«««. 
tdXXu r«» Ix«^«v, xxXit rt xi^f*'^ '^ <^« Gyr. i. 4. 8). Ti xA*^ **^ 


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9v»vSf At, Nab. ^ 'S^thimrS*. itdfurtXv n xfi/'^ QT'* ^ ^* ^* ^'^ *^' 
«4lf ^iX^f mrtfiMt TUt »mfti^»^4ttf, on account of hU $igter*s being denied tht 
fionor of bearing the aacred baeUt, PL Hipparch. 229 c See also § 333. 6. 

/3. With ADJEcnvBS. "A^'msg ii tl/At affUuit itetttttf^ and I am ehUdleee at 
to nude children^ Cyr. iv. 6. 2. *fi rUia itar^it itvirt^m, Eur. Here 114. 
"XpXtt ^/x«» Id. HeL 524. "Av-tv-X^s ^tt^iu* XtuxSt Id. Ph. 324. TlxtiyHf 
Ja^in Ar. Nab. 1413. X^ti^rm . . Jti^firetTcs Th. ii. 65. "Atrxtvtf . • 
it^ittUtt Soldi. EL 36. 'At^Jf^H S^t ^(nww lb. 232. "Afttut tM* rnt 
Ae»i Id. (Ed. C. 865. *£» A^pmXu $Ui r«v ^4f^» «'«^srr Cyr. iii. 3. 31. 0(«. 
m iT wpXXdv [sc d^««'«i>;], j/vm ors very audaeioue [bold with mach boldnees3» 
Ar. Nub. 915. 0v7«ni^ . . yof^su i^n i^aia Cyr. iv. 6. 9. TiXfi«v iimm 
r«f . . i^tr^f PL Leg. 643 d. Tv^X«« ^ r«v «UX»v Iwdfrmf Sjmp. 4. 12. 

y. With Adverbs. *E(Srr»4 A^v, i»i/f«v 7i*t»4is cT will be permitted wt, at 
far a$ respect* him, Cyr. iii. 2. 30. "O/MtPt r»Ts rvpXdtt Hv ^fAif, Xnnti yt rSw 
iftirif^f i^^mkfuift * ^ aU the good oor eyes would do as,' Mem. iv. 3. 3* 
KjKkSf «'«^ii«'X«v nuratf it is well mtutUed in regard to the voyage, Th. L 36* 
T«v ir^U *ASnfm,Uvf wXiffV MrnXSt $Uit»Ts U««m ^ ^iXtf nttiitiraficu Id. iii. 92* 
tnt ri I**} 0^f»n( vm^»w x^'*l^i ^' ^* (See also § 363. /3.) ^TpAt 
Avrtu ifiit§iit9 yttUimt r«v i^t mvTtvt rSn *£XXifr«fy H. Gr. vi. 5. 38. 

%. With Ybbbs. Tiff WtiCiXm§ . . nn^SnUrrm [» it »iv^vv« •'«-«], 6e% 
in danger of the fine for faim aecueation, Dem. 835. 14. Td^dv . . r«» fth 
w(0Tifa(, rif V UrtfMi^nfj having bestowed upon the one, and denied to the oUter, 
the honor of eepuiture (r«^«v defining «T^iiv implied in WfrUmt and AnfiUifmu 
$ 383. «), Soph. Ant. 21. 

§ 396. General Remark. Great care is requisite in 
distinguishing the various uses of the Genitivo, inasmuch as, 

1 .) The Gen. may have different uses in oonnec^on with the same word ; 
•8, with linsim and «Xva* (§§ 356, 375, 380), with hpfutt (v^ 357. N, 380), 
with «'XMfi»ri« (5§ 351, 367), with ^tftTrif (§§ 349, 362. Z), with ^if^ 
and vfUet (§$ 347, 363). — The ose of the Gen. with substantives is ea* 
pedaCy various. 

2.) A word may have two or more adjuncts in the Gen. expressing differ- 
ent relations ; as, ^AsAtm^tt (§381. y\ V^m (§ 391. t), rvyx»*»t and ^iumt 
(§ 380. «). See § 393. ). , • 

C. The Dative Objective. 

^ 397. That towards which any thing 
nJNDS (§ 339) may be resolved into, i. That 
cowards which any thing tends, as^ an object of 
approach; and ii. That towards which any thing 
lends, as an object of influence. Hence the 
Dative objective is either, (i.) the Dative of Ap- 
puoACH, or (ii.) the Dative of Influence; and 
we have the following general rule : The Object 
OF Approach and of Influence is put in the 


by Google 

1t8$ WfJKtAt. — SATITB. [BOOK H& 

Dative; Or, m other words, irfnce neither ap- 
proach nor influence are regarded as direct action^ 
An Indirect Object i^ put in the Dative. 

KanBB. «. Hie Dot, of afproaeh ia cowmonly asLpreaaed in Eng. by 
file prepoation to, and the DaU cf m/Inmce^ bj the prqxMitlona to and for, 

fi. The l>jasvK oajBorpn ia the uimw w at the GENmrs ; Ihe AA 
^ approach oontraathig whfa the Otm. of dtpart m e, and the Dai. of h^mtmm 
fpHh the Om, of oaum. See §§ 8S8, S99, 345. 

(i.) Dathtb of Appkoach. 

§308. Approach, like ita opposite, departure {% ^4IS^^ 
may be either in place or in eharaeter* Hence, 

Rule XVII. Words of nearness and like^ 
NESS govern the Dative. 

KoxBB. •• Worda of ffttmw aie ra^ated to thoaa of ncarmw, m the aame 
mauner aa worda of dutmeikm aie ralated to thoee ci aqMratkm (§ 346. N. V 

/S. Fbr the OeMm after aome wwda 6t ncamem and Bkenea, aee §§ 389^ 

1. Datwe of Nearness. 

^399* Words of nearness may imply either being near^ 
coming near^ or bringing near ; and to this class may be re- 
ferred words of union and mixture^ of companionship and ti»- 
tercowrse^ of meeting and following^ of sending to and bring" 
ing to^ 6£c. Thus, 

TltXArmt • . rjf tUHf, to approach the entrance, iv. 2. 3. 07»w xt^d^mg 
mMi9, havhg mited it tM wine, i, 2. 13. *£^/'0rr«i ^/»rv, <A^ wtU foBom 
fcm, iii. I. 3(?. ni/i«'«f avr^ £^^1X09, sentUng a maunget to him, i. S. 8. 
1R»rif v'Xnrtairdr^ ^i^^tt 2fv^if »m^4fiw( vM. 3. 29. 2«} «'iX«# S^»MPf 
f;^ii* iBsoh. Sup. 208. ^Eyyiig nftTv yr/Mau Cjr. iii. 2. 6. Ini^ru X^ 
f^, ri^ 1 1 iff Ut/vMf PL PhflBdo, 100 c (Cf. § 394.) Vtirif •i»m «$ 
*Exx«^^i ii. 3. 18 (cf. § 389). "^rtra^tvnrt , . Jlfim Tt^rmpi^nt iL 4. 9. "Amm 
«f l«'i«iVi| 4^(f fr»«frffr, <at dayln-eak,* i. 7. 2. 'Oftau . . r^rir *£xX9r 
wr^^TMrthv^dfutM H. Gr. iiL 2. 5. *Ay«^fpiy^if«i 70?; *nBxXn«viv* 8. Si 
£i ifAtXtif»i'rti9 l»i/vy Mem. i. 2. 15. 2«f»^«rii J^iX«r<k ytuftitm lb 
12 (cf. lb. 48, and § 389). 'A^m<V . . einitirmft U. 6. 28. E«i»»f t^ 
4/imV r«v wXtx^Uv ($ 367) PL Bq>. 370 d. Kattmvttf «XXi(XMf PL Legi 
844 0. '^X^ »«ir«ria» aXXnX«if 11 «>*>? ytw$ ^vfts PL Soph. 257 a, 
'AiTtffrf r^ Stf^Zvrt ISilxXithftt Vu, 8. 1. Ot/ri r«n Kv^y /Sf«/ 4liX< 
L 2. 26. AlrSf &pix»9r» lb. 4. 'Aptttunktu 2«^iW ^X^i Th. L ta 
*H»ti fifiut ifii^ A^tfTds Cyr. vL 3. 15. *H»i ^0/ ^ivu, it belonged [came] to 
me by birth, Soph. (Ed. C. 738. TA !<«*«) <r^«<ni»#fr« Cyr. v. 1. 15 (see § 364> 
IXiiTTtfvrtr iri^y Soph. EL 747. Tk rourott tnix^via «'i(r;^«fr*f VU 
Tim. 88 d (cf. § 389. R.). 'A»«X«v#«^f «f ^^ru PL Leg. 836 o. Tf 
^l(4v^ ^»iXf» *>•• vuKTt^niv ^$a'i%')^iff4at C^T. vlii. 6. 18. A<i)«;^«i 


by Google 

m^ 1.] OF APPiaAOS. — or iim.WNCB. 967- 

MxU^f v«. 2. 5 (er. $ 889. B.). "H liml»x^ «9 «^^«> ^•^Um)! pyr. 
i. 4. 17. Am^ Mytr^g «vrf viL 3. 16. Air^ r« »S^ •C^S*' lb. 29« 

RwifARica «. Traffic is a species of interoonrse ; henoe, IlirM w^imftai 
wm rk x^**^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^"^^^ "^ ymfm- your pigsf Al. iiik. 813 
(§ 374). 'Clfirtfim/ f0$f I wiU btqf of you, lb. 815. '^ym Wfutfuu rlfkt 
At, Ran. 1229. 

/S. A substantive is sometimes rqieated in the Dat^ with an ellipsis, to ex- 
piess auccesshn ; as, 'AxxA ^ « v « ^if»t OHntQM ^ofAw afXt^'ty, but daughter 
t^nm Mlaughtar [aUnghtm' foDowitag daoghterj hoi destroyed the houee of CEM» 
put, Eur. Ph. 1496. Vk ri»ruf e^ir»9 Ar»it 9oph. EL 295. 

2. Dative of Likeness. 

^400* Words of likeness include those of resemblance^ 
0ssimilatian^ comparison^ identity^ equality^ 6cc, Thus, 

*0/»tfi«i tmV iXXuf, Uke the rest, yi. 6. 16. "E^ ^ Sa^ fih »v» tf/ta^w, 
hut me he <Bd not likem to a god, Apol. 15. T« AXn^u Uifut^i to uhri rf 
iXJt^ HvMi, he thought smeerity to be the same with foUy; ii. 6. 22. 1r«arf 
• . rtirttf k^$ifMf, equal to these in number, Mag. Ec^. ii. 3. 'OfAtitt rett 
iXXati Mem. iv. 7. 8. *Offta»^ \a»rh iXXf PI. Rep. 893 c '0^«i«r4| 
Si^ PI. The»t. 1 76 b. Ti rf »«>^ Jl,v«/»tf<«v Mem. iii 8. 4. *0^«7v*»m«* 
9« #M mJ r«tfr« Mem. iv. 3. la *0^tf)^«/ft«f liXiV'PL Epin. 987 b. 2ii. 
MM 7^ ^* IfASfi iftTf Cyr. ▼. 2. 25. 'AxxnXott i/A»0»tif0vfrit lb. iL 
I. 25. Kxtd^xV ^"^ 0/t,»r(»iw${»f yttifk%t§f iii. 2. 4. *0^<i$»v^«f XfAsi 
PL Rep. 330 b (cf. § 389. R.). Utt^^tiyfimrm, 9/A§taw»in t»7s w»9n^»7s 
lb. 409 b. n^p^^^if 4 rvxn rt»/t^ ^Afu Enr. Ion, 359. 2^^ i^f t- 
f irrirfVf Ar. Vesp. 1102. Tk ik »^im . . h wu^avXn^iM rctg lXa^:» 
mt i. 5. 2. *AA.>A ^iXtrip^ /tk* i»tm»t ii* 1* 13. n#T«^? ^ Jl«Vim^«r9 
«^ j^r« PL Crat. 402 a. li^^iiriM tU T»{iri\j^ ri uvri, § 39] nfut mi* 
rut iiL 1. 30. 'By rf myrf 4Mv^v»y rsTt ^vX#T«r«if »Mt^§»fMu Th. vii. 77. 
*0^ ifiuii fttmt lyinr* l» futr^if Enr. Ph. 151. Ov imk) «*» rvirru rks tfmt 
wXnyht ifui I Ar. Ran. 636. TmIt I» «-•» 7r«v 4^9 t^rj, ' on an eqo^ly with 
«■»' Hkr. 8. 5. *0 #i)ii;«f ktt^el r«^ k^iuitt r$h l^xH*'^ ^* ^^ ^* 
65* AiiiXt '<^uxkt if»^ii^49t T9tt JUf^f *PL Tim. 41 d. 'JfiiXiust 
rstt kisy^fift Buig ^ymp. 8. !• , 

(ii.) Dative of Inflitbmce. 

^ 401. The Dative of influence expresses a 
person or thing which is affected by an action, 
property, &c,, without being directly acted upon. 

Influence has every variety and degree. On the one hand, 
it may be so immediate^ that it can scarcely be distinguished 
from direct action, and the Dat expressing it is used inter- 
changeably with the Ace. ; and, on the other hand, it may be 
so remote^ that it can scarcely be appreciated, and the DaU 
expressing it might have been omitted without impairing' tha 


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Jfi^r 8TNTAX. •^ DATIVB* [bOQ^ lOk 

Rule XVIIL The object or influence is 
put in the Dative. 

§ 4L09* The Dative is governed, according to this rule 


o. Words of ADDRESS, including those of call and commcmd^ 
of convefsdtian and reply y of declaration and confession^ of ex» 
hortaiion and message^ of oath and promise^ of reproach and 
threatening^ &c. Thus, 

Ovr«f Kv^^ f7«'f f, tAif man «i«f to C^nM, L 6. 2. Tf^;^f IC**, 
etJlfd ami to ChareluUf L S, 12. Ai«Xf;^^ifrff AXXnXMf , Aaoen^ conueraaa 
iptM each other^ ii. 5. 42. Tm> n Mtv»Xii^Mf mvrttitt /tii h»ytn vii. 2. 12. 
At y^< rh* ftavniav r^ 2«»^rfi ilL 1. 7. T^ 'EytMcX/y IXfXi^«vri L 8« 
18. T»T( 9t»firx9i( tyx*** IxiXfvf iv. S. 13. *H flrc^MxiXf tfr<f r^ i^Svrt 
itm^k vrdvTtut ^tivftetrrn PL CoDT. 182 d. 'AXXiiXoif ^<f»iXfV0»r« iv. 8. 3. 
*A^ifyifr«« T0i/r^, ri rM ttvrtti^ttifAnt y'lL 2. 26. 'AyyfXX«vr< «'«^ 
rr^armraut L 3. 21« IlA^ii^yKXf rtilf ff^v^^^X^ ^* ^*^- *T«'<r;^f«S» 
^«i rM ^«x« T«X«vrflc i. 7. 18. Ov /tifA^t/Aat^ i^tit raurMs Mem. iii. 5. 20* 
E/ ^ rif flcvTf^ . . •yt<^/{«i lb. ii. 9. 8. 'H«'i/X«vv cvrf Y. 6. 34. *£«if. 
^v^f rwf *'EXXf)r< fv^xttmrarfat iii. 4. 36. *Oiroraf vrXaravs «'«-iX«f ^#- 
/v^/^i) Ar. Nab. 1008. 'AvirXi * cvrf j *A«'0XXa>v iii. 1.6. 'Onri^ avrf 
^mtriurii if* vL 1.22. *0 0^*}^ fAmtrtt, the prophet to the ThradanM^ 
\»t,the Thracian prophety Eur. Hec 1267. 'Axx' ^v</ iti^l vatra Eur. Med. 

§ 4L03* /?. Words of ADVANTAGE and disadvantage, in« 
eluding those of benefit and injury y of assistance and <«roice» 
of favor and fidelity ^ of necessity and sufficiency ^ of fitness and* 
unfitness^ of convenience and trouble^ of eo^e and difficvlty^ of 
sa/e^y and danger ^ &c. Thus, 

n«(vr«rif . . vflTif^;^! rf Kii^f, ParytoHe favored Cym»f i. 1. 4. X^4^ 
9tfAa , . rtlt K^fir^ twe/v/ <o tAe Cretane^ iii. 4. 17. "Ov^ iSv r^ mr^mrtf 
0-vfi(pifP iii. 2. 27. 11^ ir^^^ii i^' «a*'*'» Soph. (Ed. C. 1774 (cf. §'389. IL> 
A^'flc^A afjt^9ri^»tt Cyr. viiL 5. 22. IL^tirvM lavr^ iii. 1.4. Xf«^«» 
Irr/y Avry viL 6. 4. Avf/nnvifittv** vmV ftu^axUtf Ar. Nab. 928. OS^mt 
\C»nt»yt aXXnXut iv. 2. 26. T»6r§it \9r%»»v»%7r% ▼. 8. 21. 07 rM 
d^D^f r«r^fy 11.5. 14. T«7(r ^avave-t «'X«f>r«f tfvdb ^S^iXi? iEsch. Pem. 
842. 'AvfifM^'tint mf%Xnfik»r» Id. Pr. 501. T»7t p'iXms a^nyttv Cyr. L 
5. 13. *0j ^^iXnn rtf*»ffi79 vrar^i Ear. Or. 924. 'Ei* mhr^ rmvra X** 
^irtttrat ii. 1. 10. riircf) Jvrif Kv^^ ii. 4. 16. AiT Wt^miut rie 
1m^09 Ui^^ &^fi iii. 4. 35. U4kx£t ftiv eu htiru (§ 357) Cyr. i. 6. 9. 
^'Kfiui ftif »fxii flTf^) r^vritf rm tifn/^itm Y, 7. 11* Xaf^<«v «»«y«v fMt^Un 
M^mvrti tiixn^tu vL 4. 3. *Ev«;^X«iirvT« ^i) r^ v/Mtrt^f tuitufAouf ii.5. 13, 
*E^i^ TiM ifAvf^Mf tlfu I V. 7. 10. *£/M«'«^<«f y«^ rM j Zfvf viL 8* 4« 
Tff nXtxtef. ffl-^fflTf i. 9. 6. E? il^^«rr«vr« cv^-f Cyr. L 4. 18. 'Axxy 
vi^4 V«^ X^^ y* rnr^* «(^;^i<v ;^^0»9f I Soph. Ant. 736. *^rei/A»»t iTmu 
•irf r«vf iVflTMif L 6. 3. 'OJ** » . ififix»*»i tl^Xtut rT^r$vfMirt L 2. 21. 
*H r^ttxutt TMf ^wh JLfiMxi^. Uwn ivfAtvig'Tt^m iv. 6. 12. *Ar^« 
^&rrf^«» yl r«i «7)«A> viL 7. 51. '£«*<»/» ^0 v« v /m/ Urit lb. 54. 


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♦« 1 ] Oy INFLTTBNCE. 9R 

§ 404* /. Words of appearance, mcluding those of 
seeming^ sJunoing^ clearness^ obscurity ^ &c. Thus, 

n«ri ^ffX«» lyitir; it was evident to aH^ B., Gr. vi. 4. 20. !S«} mS %n 
XiwM Uiv iyit flTi^} r«i/ ^»«tf*» iL 5. 26. ''A)ifX«v ^iv flravr} itvfi^mvt^ t^rif 
ri f*iXK§9 Viu vi 1. 21. A/V;^vvir^«/ ^imi ^«»« L 7. 4. M« inttliJii/ AfuV 
iL S. 9. TmIf ^ «'ciW» Uf<»vvr«f iv. 5. 33. n2(r« r«^Sf Yect 4. 2* 
AvTMir «'^X«» ^Aivirai i "ilLffiiarfif iii 4. 2. A«^C«v<iv t«w itoXtfAitvg . • 

d. Words of GIVING, mcluding those of offerings paying 
distrilnUingy supplying^ &c. Thus, 

Aiittri TH mvT^ Kif(«f fAv^Uvt ^a(u»6Uf, ccnd Cyme givee him tern thotua$td 
dories, ii. 6. 4. Tp Z* 0S9 fr^mrif rirt ikve'tim»% Kv^t furfit i. 2. 12. Ti^ 
}\ £Xka ZtmftTfimt r»it g^^artiy^ti yu, 5, 2, T»if fT^aTtiytf iai^tu lb. 3. 
T»7s Xa^SyTi maTifAt^ig'fin lb. 4. ETn^ l^f) lriXf< Ti 2f^ni, «v;^ filfrwr 
IriXti i^v-aUf if St rt l^«} ^«/ir ffrt^»7rtj »mt HXXa bfut k^tt^ititt^ vii. 6* 
16. 0«i^axf$ «V4'«rir l«'«^ir^ff^«yiu. 3. 20. Tnv r«fr ^«t> ^«ri* JptTv PL 
Apol. 30 d. 2^ 'H^axXir 3«^ff^ar»» Soph. Tr. 668. B«r<Xtr ^m,0^it 
iy. 5. 34. Ovn iMimf fri 1^1^111 /Ata-ft'^iriti i. 3. 9* 

«. Words of OBLIGATION and value. Thus, 

T«7f rr(«rM^«i( iftiktrt fisffios, pay urns due to Ae eoldiera^ i. 2. 11. B«* 
riXir j» «-«XX0i/ «^i«4 yf»MM'« (§ t;74), *worth much to the kio^/ iL 1. 14. 
*A|i»# . . ;^ay«r0v rj ^iXu, meriting death from [to] the city, Mtm. i. 1. 1« 
*Ilf «v» £|4«y ffjf $MfiXi7 itpuvtu, ' unworthy of the king/ or ' disgracefbl to* 
the king,* ii. 3. 25. *TfU9 $tnrat ;^«^iv L 4. 15. 

§ 4cOS. (• Words of OPPOSITION, including those of eofi' 
eerUion^ dispute^ enmity^ resistance^ rivalry^ warfare^ 6do, 

Asftif vfth JifTtrd^mi, fo oppoee to you famine, iL 5. 19. 'E^/^avriC 
M 9-1^ r«f Mf, contending with him in tkitt, L 2* 8. *^f IImXXi^}/ t 2^v Eur. 
Iph. A. 183. *Avt/«i Hfrnt vtuf 9t»X%fAmt L 8. 17. ^rnftJU^tvrn nbr^ 
iL 5. 28. Tv^mtft i^-ttf \x^Of ^*v^H'9 '^ *•(*•*( l»«yr/«f Dem. 72. 2. 
*H/«ry ltafTti^$Tmi viL 6. 5. 'AyriflTf^fv X«^o r^ fiairrf iv, 2. 18. 
Otfri fimnXiT itfTttrtf^fA^tm, rnt k^x^* (§ ^'^3) '^ ^* ^^' *AXX«r(i». 
r«r«r Taunf Dem. 72. 1 (cf. ^ 349). 'TflrfrrifvMi «VTMir ^Atnteut r«X. 
^r«mf iiL 2. 11. T^ 8^ li^iX^ «'«Xi^4«f L6. 8. Tte-en^i^fu , . ito- 
Xtuavvtmi, 1. 8. O&^iJf ttitrf i/i««;^f<r«L 8. 23. <|>«/Mb ya^ M«^«^«lv/ 
rt MMM «'(«»iy)tfyiv«'«« t^ /3«(C«^y Th. L 73. 'IX^rftfvvTdci . . «XXif< 
Xmt. Ar. Ach. 24. *Clf l«'<C«vXiv«4 «vrf L 1. 3. 'E^-iCtvXti I/m/t.^ 
29. Ai»m^ifH90g rf ff-AT^/ PL Euthyph. 4 e. 

tj. Words of YIELDING, SUBJECTION, and WORSHIP, including 
those of homage^ obedience (cf. § 377. 1), prayer , sacrifice, 
&c. Thus, 

TLmtra r$it ^Mt 9it0x»* oU thinge are iubfeet to Aegode, ii. 5. 7. *E^ 
•i SiXirt w%ittff4Mt, you are not wUHng to obey me, i. 3. 6. *£iv /mm «'ti 
r^ff ri, (^ yoK unfl Utten to me, L 4. 14. ESxt^^»t ^9it • • ^•7*% *o pray to 
the god§^ iv. 3. IS. *H rr^rtd #m ifttr* vi. 6. 31. Tirtxat^n-e-mi rit 
itemftip K^f i. 4. 18. £i iir»x*^t**t t^rm A mu^ t/ tefits 'viL C 43* 



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(V yiw r« &it4»**t TU. 7. 29 (cf. § 377. 1). Kv^^ )r«X^f «'i«^«^;^f T 
L 9. 17. 'AflTi^rtry IWv^ ii. 6. 19. "E^vt rf A</viL 6. 44. Quffiatw 
iirtUi rjf d«^ ▼. 3. 9. S^ayfcfcr^Ai ry «M^f iv. 5. 4. '0^;^ifr«/ftt<- 
»•< SfMrjy Ajt. Lys. 1277. 

§ 406* &. Words expressing a mental act or feeling 
which is regarded as going out towards an object ; as those 
of friendship and hatred^ pleasure and displeasure^ joy anc 
sorrow^ contentment and envy^ belief and unbelief trust and 
distrust^ &c. Thus, 

Kv^y ^<X«/ri(«v, more friendly to Cyrua^ i. 9. 29. '£;^«Xl«'«4»«9 
CMir r«^niyMV, loere aii^ry vnth Ihe generals, L 4. 12. 'E«*/rriMv ^i^ «»«'t^ 
ybr <A^ irusUd himj i. 2. 2. £vy«r»«r ';C'^' «vr^ i. I. 5. Kaxiraus 
TMf ''ExXdw ii. 5. 27. T9UT4tf Hfffti Kvf0t i. 9. '26. Mi»*r» ff^^xxtr* 
T^ i|a«r«ray ii. 6. 26. ,Ov^im «?r«f X*''i**f ^f ^/X««f «7a^«7( Mem. ii. 6. 
S5. £!? r<y« fS^Mn »«} v/iTv »«) i^M a;^^ifAiv6v yi. I. t&9. *ll^^/^«»r« 
*^X^f*'f Tf> KXm»^;^^ i. 5. 11. X«Af«'«lf ^t(« v'tf'V flrM^tftfri ir^M^/teMr^* 
1. 3. 3. 2ri^7«<y T«7f itmf»vrif, 'to be content with,' Isocr. 159 e. *Ay«. 
«'nr«f rMJr «^«'(«y/t6i»Mf Dem. 13. 11. <I>^«»a>v r^Tf (paufiHf vrXevrovvn 
i. 9. 19. 'Xl» \y«* rw ov ^0»iiV« (^ 376. C) Qyr. viii. 4. 16. 'H^mf Aflri- 
rTir* ii. 5. 15. Tif rixv IXr/r^j Th. iii. 97. *'£rr«#ffy ««'«(«t/y7i; w 
«'^9^^Miri i. 5. 13. 'AfCfiiip T0t( ytyttnfAtvMf vi. 'J. 14. 0ai;^«^« )) 
tS ti ««'«»Af/ru ^«tf w» «rvX*rf Th. iv. 85. *T«r«<rr •»#"#••» •/ n>J»*( ««rff 
Cf^r. i. 5. 1. — Some of these constructions may perhaps be referred to the 
instmmental Dat. (§ 416). 

§ 410T. i. Words expressing the power op exciting, 
emotion ; as, pleasure^ displeasure^ care^ fear^ &c. Thus, 

'A**! ;^^«vt##«i rtlti er^atrmrtuiy to dufUaae M« aoldierSj ii. 6. 19. *£{^^ 
fttknfitt it thaU he my caret i. 4. 16. *0r< «vrf ^Sx«<, [that it should be 
A care to him] that he womld take care, i. 8. 1 3. Atk ri fitikuf S^-drn, thromgh 
«ft« interest which all fett^ vL 4. 20. Zti*) rSv fZt, «7)' iyit, f*ixu ^ittn 
(§376. ^)£mr. Herad. 717. ^£i ^i\rar»v /t,iXfifA» 'itliftam ^ar^t JBsch. 
Qu). 235. Ml T«/MiXfi fAst, it is a regret to me, I repent^ Cyr. y. 8. 6. Bft- 
«i«/B»iXm ri rM t^n^a i. 6. 7. (See § 376. X) TmV ^Iv ff-AXXflr^ , , H^texst 
iL 4. 2. *H^«» fufjtftMSivn ri veifut ^v iy. 5. 27. *T^y Mvo-aw Xv«'ir(«tff 
ifTst$ iL 5. 13. <^fCi («r«r«v r»7s vrtktfAitif iii. 4. 5. 

X. Verbal Adjectives and Adverbs, having a passive 
signification. The property expressed hy these verbals nas 
relation to an agent ; which, as if affecied by the property, is 
put in the Dat. Adjectives of this kind usually end in -rd^ or 
:Teo«(§314). Thus, 

SaofAmerh vras-i, wonderful to off [to be wondered at by all], iv. 2. 15. 
"H/iTv • . tfT/MM itdtrm iftnrim, I think that every Ihxng should he done hyns^VA* 
1. 35. T^ /»)v «7jM»)i fi»»X»fiUf§9 Jtvttftu, TMf *f»s« ^n X»r«v ertnwM ««tX#i7f^ 
'an object of envy to his comitrymen,' i. 7. 4. *!»• ^mi i ^flr^cxf «r«;«t 
2 iL3. 20. 0/ vTTafUi . . er^»7»v0i v^ot rat irnykt ^i«C«r«) yiytsyrm^ *cao 
be passed by those who ascend [become passable to those who ascend]/ iii. 9. 
2S. 'SLlteritirsw ^ IwrmZtm roTf •'•Xi^W iii 4. 20. TlTmme§ . • i/A l»«v 
l««C«TiM, 'Ibv ■■ to past [to be paasad by ua]/ ii 4. 6 


by Google 

€B. 1.] OF IMFLUBMCB. Wfl 

§ 408. X. Substantive Verbs, when employed to de- 
note possession. These verbs and their compounds are used 
with the Dat., in a varifety of expressions, which are variously 
translated into English, Thus, 

'Evvavfia, Kv^f (iet^ikum j^v, here Cyrun had a palace [there was a palace to 
C^TUs], i. 2. 7. TtfiV }^ tnrt'^ia t^h ^y, ihey had a suspicion, or they suspected, 
i. 3. '21. Ase/Ms ^yi9^T• rtit fr^etritiTMs, [to the soldiers there came to 
be a nmnmgj the soldiers began to run^ L 2. 17. 'IW-i v-m^tf eiU;^6vtiv ii>eti, 
so Ihut all were ashamed^ u. S. 1 1. ffCitd^x** y'^f ^ ^1"^* ^*'^'** ^' ^* ^ ^* 
'fit vi/ff uvroif tif f**Xf* [.^^ Wrt] 1. 2. 1 5, *As«iy»fi i^ fMi [sc. i^rt]j I cam 
now compelled, i. 3. 5. *'Hv aurf v-iXtfietf he made war, i. 9. 1 4. UiXts • • 
^ Svtfita 2<rr«»ff» a dty named SittacCf ii. 4. 13. *lS,yivtr» xui "ExXnvt ttmi 
]^a^Qeify . . W9^ivtffi»i, both Greek and barbarian cotdd go, i. 9. 1 3. Oh yk^ 
Sv afi^cMs vi^irrn^tn iv. 7. 2, Ntif vm lf^frr<y.. eith^) ytvirfiai vii. I. 21, 
OiiintfiS fif^f fttrtifi iii. 1.20 (see § 364). T/ ya^ ifr *£^i;^^<r xo) »»X»ms i 
for what has Erechtheus to do with jackdaws [what is there to ErechtheuS) and 
also to jackdaws] ? Ar. £q. 1022. Mf}^v Civat ro) »eci <I>/X/«'«'« v'^ayju*, 
that you had no connection with PhiUp, Dem. 3-^. 7. T/ r^ vo/a^ xa) r^ /3«« 
r«»^ ; Id. 855. 5. 'Exi/v^ fiovXtfAtvf rmvr* Irvi, these things are [to him 
willing] according to his will, or agreeable to him, H. Gr. iv. I. 1 1. Ei alrSf 
y% fti fiovXtfiivf Ur)9 A^»K^inf6tu PI. 6oi^. 448 d. E7 vet HhofAittf ifrif, if 
it is your pleasure, PI. Phiedo, 78 b. QiX»frt xdfAt) t6vt &v Hv Soph. CEd. T. 
1356. *H» ^ «v rf *AytifiXdf «;^^«^«y^ rauva, 'displeasing to Agesilaoi,' 
H. 6r. V. 3. 13. N<»/f -«r(«r^i;^0^iyf H* v» itt^'i rZv 'Eyt^raivvf * were ti» 
Hicias had expected,' tL vi. 46. 

^ 400* ^. And, in general, words expressing any action^ 
property^ &c., which is represented as being to or for some 
person or thing. Thus, 

n^titiw rM, / drink to you, vii. 3. 26. Ktvard^tet uvnTf lirtinfof, Ihqf 
node for them a cenotaph^ vL 4. 9. Mtyirrty xiwfASf mfi^i, the greatest orna- 
ment to a man, i. 9. 23. "il^m h ivtUm r»7f «-«X<^Mf , it was time for tht 
memy to withdraw, iii. 4. 34. 'Sr(aTtv/»* mtrf rvnXiytra L 1 . 9. *0i Xi«- 
|«r«^y umvr(»r4yu V. 6. 36. B«#<Xti«y «T;^i ry g^ar^av-if iv. 4. 2. *E;^^«» 
yk^ xmi avrif »vrf fut^vvfi^mt vii. 6. 39. *H^v «-0y fiuffit dfrnv-fiJlen lb. 40. 
"E^v e-mv-S rfiti Ar. Ran. II. 34. "Etfyuv r%x9Wif ^*f^^ vfXifut* ^i^ 
^h. Sept. 416. '£^ 2) f»/f»H4 ^x^ff*** »f*^u 2»(t, ' awaits me [is wait- 
ing for me],' Id. Ag. 1 1*49. Jfifn/Mv &^m vftTv Unw iv. 6. 1 5. n««>i xMit 
iTvAi xAi «ya7»«r«v M^ivrut ilL 1. 43. Aatiriv /Mt %W%it iii. 2. 29. *Ay«- 
/«tf . . «7r<9( TJi rr^avtf vi. ^ 20. *H . . iretr^tftt vfiTv oi»ia PI. Charm. 1 57 e. 
Sivf Zt irvyx^nv alfrf i. 1. 10. 'T/mms if^^ ttnu jtai irmv^tia »eii ^IXttfg 
I 3. 6. *I^Kri« «f ^VMMJKJ vii. 3. 27. T(<if(i< . . trXeus vl 4. 2. Ai 3) 
07r«^ TtTir ^» v^'tH^vyUtt i^sMrmi iv. 5. 25. 'H ^ [sc iJif r<w] 3««C«»« ri» 
wTfiip iii. 5. 15. KfltjMbf lyiw 7»v«MMf Mtri ervyS Soph, ifait. 571. Ai/r« 
n ^^MMT ;^i^«'/rrf atam; Eut. Hipp. 189. 

^410* Rebiarks. 1. The remoter relations expressed 
by the Dat (§ 401) are various in their character, havii|^ 
lespect to place^ time^ sensa^ion^ thought^ feelings expression^ 
action^ Ac. Thiey are expressed in two ways; (a.) by the 


3* by Google 


Dat. simply, and (b.) by an elliptical form of conatruetion, in 
which the Dat is preceded by tig. Thus, 

'"H. 0ffKti ecSrti itrriv , » M it^it iiV rov Tlivrtv iifvrXiefri [ac ript or 
tft\t this Thrace it upon the right to one eaUmg into Gie Pontus, or as you sou 
\nto the Pontus, vl 4. 1 (cf. Th. i. 24). ^Hv V nfMt^ ff^n ^tirifov «'Xi«f ri 
»»i, and it was now the second day of my voyage [to me sailing], Soph. Ph. 
S54. Svoftipf •/ . . • «|X4<« d/*av(tifitit while he was sacrificing the sun icaa 
ecHpsed, Hdt ix. 10 (this mode of defining time by a Dat. with a participle 
te especially Ion.). K4# r<V ;^««'»f r^fV UrU w^ikti^i^t^s i 'siaee this 
evenV Soph. (Ed. T. 735. T« fth i^mv kversfAi^^ ^SfMi evx &yei9 S«#. 
ftiv nv, * to the external tonch,' Th. iL 49. E7 ytvfaT^Sf m tiifn [sa ^aivu}, 
*• as you appear to one beholding/ 'in appearance,' Soph. (Ed. G. 75. 'E/uo} 
ya^ twrts £it»4S if fp»$ Xiyttv 9'i(pd»tf frXi/mrv J^fiftiat o^Xtrnautf ' accord- 
ing to my judgment,' Ear. Med. 580. Kmirot r' ty*» V/^»»r« roTs ^(•^•li 
019 tZ Soph. Ant. 904. . E^uw yc^ «iv Z^>Mrift is l^«2 [sc Hixtt], ^»ri, 
' as it seemed to me,' ' in my opinion,' lb. 1161. Oh fta rn Ai\ tpi, «v 
»9Vf, tSt y ifiti u»^$ar^, *AXk' m ^f-^'it ^* ^' i7<v? ^nf^t PL Itep. 
536 c. Ti fAh oZ% *iwn(Mii «'«>.X« »tii uXXot ira^aXi^itri • •, TMwm ^t 
Th. ii. 51. 0i«f yit^ Ur«^ii fu, rf^i V »ix»f^'*h * so far as lay in him,' Soph. 
Ji^» 1128. ILtx^v yei^f if yi^tvrtf ^^cvfra.Xftt oiit, ' for an old man [aa 
joumejrs are to an old man],' Id. (£d.'C. 20. T«^i )t ftAXt^rm. ^avnn (mX- 
fSfnfi f*»i, f»D^«fr«rt uvafAivut, but this most of aU remember [for me], Ipraig 
you, never to defer, Cyr. L 6. 1 a *£« ri ftot (ixi^pdfa ^aX^u Soph. EL 887. 
Offi»i r«i IxtUouf rsitt iymitvf ra «rf^<iM^ peciitts nxnffut Cyr. i. 3. 15. OS' 
rm$ \yi r«« . • ruyt iixata ^etvrawitwn idn cix^xCti lb. 17. 

Note. The use of the Dat. to express remote relation is particularly firo* 
<pent in the pronouns of the first and second person. In the Greek, as in our 
own and in other languages, the Dat of these pronouns is often inserted, slmfdy 
to render the discourse more emphatic or subjective. Observe the exampkt 
Just above. 

J 41 !• 2. Words governing the Gen. sometimes take 
a Dat. in its stead, to express the exertion of an influence ; as, 

*'S.yt7Ts y uhrm§ i nm/id^xtif, and Ute bixiUff led the way for them, L «b 
guided them^ iv. 6. 2. Ol yk^ ^Xiirvrru rots rufXeltf iiy»ufiufiu An Hut 15* 
'HfitTv vmnv ilnyv/ntft Soph. (Ed. C. 1589. *Ay««^r«i (ia^Ck^Mi /3«f. 
Cx^9s 0««f Eur. Iph. T. 31. ^H SnCat^i* thiw^m £y«| Id. Ph. 17. Aa^ 
ya^ tux «(^|f4 SfMf .£sch. Prom. 940. Mmx»f ^^ '- f^*^ vXifMVt mptct^m 
C;yr. vii. 2. 26. ^ fiiCnxtf hftTw i ^itn i Soph. (£d. C. 8 1 . Tli^t»y$9 
Xtris rHvii flit fttrn^iut Eur. H^ticL 452. T« k»^» fi/uh . • irfcxmTaXm/*^ 
Ctifttf L 3. 16. Tv^»»Mf U«-«^y fA%il<rraf El*. Ph. 40. Cf. §§ 347, 350^ 
424. 2. 

§ 4L 1 3* 3. A Dot, depending upon a verb is often used 
instead of a Gen, depeAding upon a substantive ; as, 

0/ . . Tr***! u&T»7t ^QiVTUit the horses are tied for them, = «/ Tnr«« aurSs 
ZQiPruit their horses are tied, iii. 4. 35. *H . . rov itarrit a^x^ Xit^ig-ipf 

tttv^a xartXt^ti vL 2. 12 (cf. "15 r« Xf<^ir«^«v *^;C^ ''•'' «'«>"'»J xurtXv* 
vi. 3. 1). Atk ri 2iir«riS(^«i airf ri fr^Artvfin ii. 4. 3. T«r; fia^Cd» 
f»if r«y n itt^t uwiPavew .«'«XX«2, xai rSt /«*«•{«? . . iXn^iti^mv iiL 4. 5. 
h/ttf yvm^ur0% Ts\fs U ff x*^f ^^»* mt^i^ws [•« i» rjf \^mt X^'A 



H Google 


S9. Ovxlri #«! rixMi 44»rrM ^«0; £ac Ph. 1547. 

Note. The Dat. (chiefly of the po'sonal pronoun) is sometimes placed M 
a simple adjmict of the substantive ; ibid in some instances, whoi so placed, 
appears to depend strictly upon a participle understood. Thus, 'Av-iSktirt . • 
«r^0« Tfif viaf hfAlt iriXtv, look upon our new state (i. e. the new state estab* 
lished for. ns in the dialogue), PL Rep. 431 b. 0< ^i ^^< fiitf . . «v vra^t' 
ymvT9 Hdt. i. 31- 

§ 413* 4. Sometimes two datiyes following the same 
word, especially in Epic poetry, appear to be most naturally, 
though not unavoidably, referred to the 2^fjfici xa&* oXov xal 
fidQog (§ 334. 9) ; as, 2&ivoq sfiSaX* ixaa?^ xa^^/^, imparted 
strength [to each one, to the heart] to the heart of each one, 
-^.11, *A/a/Affirovi ijydavs &vfi^ A* 24. Cf. ^ 438. /?. 

D. The Dative Residual. 

^414. The Dative residual is used in ex- 
pressing adjuncts, which are not viewed as either 
sulgective or objective (^^ 338, 340. a). It simply 
denotes indirect relation, without specifying the 
character of that relation; or, in other words, it 
denotes mere association or connection. Hence we 
have the general rule : An Attendant Thing or 
Circumstance, simply viewed as such, is put 
IN the Dative. 

Notes. «. In aooordanoe with this rule, the Dat. is sometimes nsed in 
expressing an a4jimct, which, upon a more exact discrimination of its char- 
acter, would be expressed by dther the Gen, or Ace, See §§ 340. «, 341. 

fi. The Dattvb residual is expressed in Eng. most frequently by the 
prepositioa with, bat likewise by the prepositions 6y, in, ut, &c. C£ §§ S45. N., 
S97. «. 

^ 41tl. ThB Dative residual may be resolved 
into, (i.) the Instrumental and Modal Dative, 
and (ii.) the Temporal and Local Dative. 

(i.) Instrumental and Modal Dative. 

Rule XIX. The means and mode are put in 
the Dative. 

§ 4 1 H. Instrumentality and mode may be either ex* 
ternal or internal^ and mode may apply either to action or con* 
dition. Hence, to these heads may be referred, 
25 • 


by Google 

294 * SYNTAX. — DATIVE. [bOOK Itt 

1.) The instrument^ force^ or other meanSy with which any 
thing is done, or through which any thing comes to pass 

AifTov a»09r/{u rtt «'aXrf , one shoots him with a dart, i. 8. 27. 'E^iAtm 
<« . . ifrnx^, pursued leith cavo/ry/ vii. 6. 29. Qaveir^ ^h/mm/h, to pun^ 
ish with decUK Cyr, vi. 3. 27. ^^tiimn itetCuivovrts i. 5. 10. *lff«'i rif 
»|/»>i lb. 12. Aif»tg ^ptviov^viii. 3. 17. Ati^ctf irifuiL 9. 1*4. A«. 
y«if Jffrfi«>i ii. 6. 4. Ttx/Mti^tg'fieu J* 5» ry ^»Pv iv. 2. 4. Fc^jf^a % ivSt 
l^iwyfAtfti ^Xoiotf Wra i. 2. 5. *0<rXi«/tiyM S«(a^< L 8. 6. *fltx6io/*n- 
f^ivov frX/y^tfif iL 4. 12. £<;(«« ayiCi} |f v/xf ii. 5. 22. Tots ll XttitofAi* 
votf U Ilk«ram9 ikfiifrtfj rhv yiiv i'ipov* Th. ii. 12. £7;^0y htvUg Tjf &»^«/^ 
vi. 4. 23. *A<r«^»fir»ii ti^-y vii. 2. 32. <I><Xif ^ly *«) tvvti^ Wt/AUtot 
ii. 6. 13. 07^^^ «'a^my, Tourtvg fiyura n uxfanie^ rifi ^ &^t»ie^ i? 
kfuXiief, avtivai Cyr. viii. 1. 16. H^avattt fiiv y% Sf|« «'avr« r^ af^^tftriwf 
yvufAi^f rxTf ^i x*i^*^ oirXepo(n^»t, itev^ofiuu ^i r^ TfTiry, Wy ^* iv«v4*/«ff 
tivuT^iypM tJj Taw Virir«t/ pufitip Cyr. iv. 3. 18. Yioivets jtivnrtts rSf fiiptart 
PL Leg. 6si c. 'H ro7i /StXt^'/y l^io-/; lb'. 717 a. T^ yk^ )«X^ tS ft^ 
Itxetlcf KTvtfAar ovxi rfl5^«T«i Soph. (Ed. C 1026. — The Dat of the missilo 
with verba of throwing will be specially observed. 

§ 4 1 7. Remark. Dative of the Agent. The Dat. 
sometimes expresses that through whose agency any thing takes 
place ; as, 

Tlavd* rifiTv trurwuTflM, aU things have been done hy tw, i. e. our worh is done, 
i. 8. 12. El Vt rt KaXit . . Mw^axro UfAtv vii. 6. 32. Tit vru^et »t»avfitifm 
t7n rf 2i«^»» vii. 2. 18. To7f Tt Kt^xv(eci0n , . 4vx l«f»w# Th. L 51. 
TeTf "EXXi}*'! fjufo7vT» Id. iii. 64. Ti^orviXois ^vXeiv^treu Soph. Aj. 
539. "TW «•«/ iv^(pa{ tl^yafrect xetxei Eur. Hec. 1085. T<»i y«f <r#r at 
. . ir^of<pe^»y eixovffetifi ivesi * through whom,' i. e. * from whom,* Soph. EL 
226. Ai^xTo 6t ^xrivT^af, received from him the sceptre^ B. 1 86 (the Dat. 
following. Uxofieii, instead of the Gren. with ita^Aj is especially Epic, and 
might perhaps be referred to § 409, thus, took for him the sceptre), (difu^n 
• . lixrt V%ira$ 0. 87. 

Note. This use of the Dat. is most frequent with verbs in the Perf. and 
Plup. This DATIVB OF THE A6EMT with passive verbsj and that with passive 
nerbals (§ 407. »), might periiaps have been referred to the same analogy. 

§ 41 8. 2.) The way or manner ^ in which any thing is 
done or affected, together with attendant circumstances. Thus, 

Ou yaf x^etvy^, dkkk rty^ . • vt^or^trun, for'Hhey advanced not with 
clamor, bid in sHence, i. 8. 11. tla^t^Juv ohx ^9 /3ia i. 4. 4. Tlf<rt^ *^? 
i xiXtua-i i* 5» 8. *^^xii9«0V ivk x^»r9s ii^»v9Ti rS 'i^'wy i. 8. I. "Ti- 
XaTf Tu7s xi<p»Ka7t Ir rtji vroXi/Aif ^tttxiviwtuuf lb. 6. A^o/am ^Uf Ib^ 
18. Ttvrtf rSf rfoit^ Wt^tvfinw vroLdfAWt rirvot^ iii. 4. 23. Wt^ttAfU" 
fei.,r^ 0^f lb. 30. Tag-fiitf it^d^ug PL Pol. 280 d. 

Remark. The pronoun avrig is sometimes joined to the Dat. of an i 
ciated object to give emphasis ; as, M*!r ^fiZf avTa7s ra7s Tftv^tn »ar«)vrji, 
test he should sink us, triremes and all [with the triremes themselves], i. 3. 1 7. 
Ho)<.k»vf yk^ idn avTott vols ^ivvtts xetTax^fifAtig-fittv'a.t Cyr. i. 4. 7. T^m^ttf 
mirtlis vkn^M/AMfi hi.^fiei^nvav Isocr. 1 76 b. — The preposition vvp, whidi is 


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omnmon in mch adjimcts if the aMs be omitted, is sometimes expressed eren 
with it ; as, *0«'»f . . ^«w mvr$7ft r«4t xfi^its Urtrf*M*» Pl« Bep. 564 c. 
Gf. H. 498 and T. 482. 

3. ) The respect in which any thing is taken or applied (cf 
^437). Thus, 

IlXn^u yt nfiSf Xu^ynf , infenor to u$ in number [in respect to nmnberj, 
vn. 7. SI (§ 349). TliXtf . . Qa-^Prnxt iwoffrt i.4. 11. T9 iv-i/tef Xii> 
n^ntvat rSf ^ikttf i. 9. 24. T^ ^"^P ^C'^X^'f ii« 6. 9. X^iv^ari ttal 
rifintif r*&rmt W'Ku^tKrtt'n (§ 351) iiL 1. 37. Tawf ^v^'^'f lp/«^«»i- 
0ri^9t lb. 42. 'kv) II /Aiv^ it(4i^ott0-if »t iit^'tTg hftSit iiL 2. 19. Tf ^i X* 
rig'Tf T»v U-XsTiMV fiXm^fot Th. iv. 73. 'P/^^ fih ftikav tf»i «. 304. 

§419. 4.) The measure of (ii^crence, especially %illi 
the Comparative. Thus, 

X^«»^ ^ t-vx^f S^n^^h and mmetime after [later by a considerable time], 
L8. 8. n«XXf^ 3^Tt^99 ii. 5. 32. N«^i^*fv, iff /aIv ^»rr49 tXfioi, t0- 
09VTf aivm^mrx tuM^rtri^f fiartXu ftM^^^fiat^ $ff it (rx^Xasart^ePf r « «■ « v r y 
itxiw rv9ayti^%f4m (ianXu fr^anvfioj thinking that [bj how much] the more 
rapidly he should advance^ [by so much] the more unprepared he ehotUd find the 
hhtg for battle^ §fc,, i. 5. 9. 'Eviayvf «'(irCim^«;, a pear older, Ar. Ran* 
1 8. n^vXaU flr^XXfTh.vii. 80. X^«v^ ^iriarfira «'«XXf Hdt. iL 1 lOw 

5. ) The Dative with xQoiofiai^ to use [to supply one^s need 
with, § 284. 3]. Thus, 

M«yri»^ X^M**9f ^t^ng dtvination, Mem. i. 1 . 2. *E;^(«ir« reTg ^htss, ' em- 
ployed,' i. 3. 1 8. Tm( 1v9-»it i^i^rtt xfi'^'^h * manage/ i. 9. 5. Xit/Uivt 
;^^w§ipk%w, ' having met with,' Dem. 293. 3. T«vf X€»if*Mvt ^vrff ' asso- 
datmg with,' Mem. iv. H. 1 1. *Hi Ku^st ^'•Xtfiitf i;^(ifr«, which wa» hoeiile to 
Cjfruty ii. 5. 11. Ipoi^Bt 9rtJafii¥Mi ix^n^* ^ b\ 13. 

NoTB. N«^/^*» has sometimes the Dat. after the analogy of ;^^««/mm • 
•a, BurUut inrnftMs M^j^«rTf # , ' observing,' Th. iL 38. Eve-tUif ^ly «»)•. 
0%0i iu'fuZ** Id. iii. 82. 

(11.) Temporal and Local Dative. 

^ 430. Rule XX. The time and place at 
v^HicH are put in the Dative (cf. ^^ 378, 439) ; as, 

1. Tdcb. T^ Vi^rt^ai^ [sc. «^i^a] Hxtv tiyytXtf, but the next day 
Aere came a messenger, i. 2. 2 1 . "pMtro ya^^ mmuriti r^ fifAi^f fAaxuf^ett /3«- 
tttXia i. 7. 14. TJ vm^atet ov» ipavna'af ci iraXifuai, «v)i rjf r^irif • 
r^ ^)*7fr«(rff, vuttrit ir^tfriX^tfVTif, tcaretXatfjtCivtvrt X"^^'^ v^t^il^ov, *but 
on the fourth, having passed them in the night (^ 378),' iii. 4. 37. Av^av- 
%(»( Tt rri WfVfif vv»r<, Ivti S^fi^of «i', Ir^fittivtv H. Gr. ii. 1. 22. Tf/ry 
tcriv) avnx^n •'' "A-vi^ov lb. i. 4. 21. T^ ^* Wicvn ?r«j, ^ nv *OXvft.wikt, 
^ ri frmhitv h/»a K^txipas lb. ii. 3. 1. T£ i* aurci XC^*^* ^'^ ^ ^ same 
time, lb. t. 2. 1 8. *0 Tt ^Ayn^ixdaf XV^V *^'*^ «7iriy, * at length,' lb. ir. 
1. 34. *tit ^xarvi^f XC*^V «X«;^«i/f n xmi rixv itft^tnf Eur. Tro. 20u 
Cfc §§ 378, 439. 

2. Place. Tm r^iitam rd rt f/La^miiwi xtti "^atXaftTin luti IIX«r« . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


m7(, the victorie$ at Maraffum and Stdamii and PlattBo, PL MeoAS. 245 a. 

841 b. Tnf v-aXmitf ^riyiv tcviti^mt vfrt SmlZvt Soph.Tr. 171. &u^m,t0^ 
K%tf*.U»» Id. (Ed. C. 401. 2«?f «r«y rrS^n vti(p9ts lb. 4)1. *0^«7f «»- 
»Ai?v i^f/rov Id. Ant 226. Ki/>fy«» ati ^^ ASytf^ov £iir. El. 763. 

§ 4S 1* Rkmarkb. «. To the local daitvis maj be referred the 
use of the Dat to denote person* among whom, or m it^Aom any i&tn^ oceure ; 
«8, Avvafitf tivfi(atit§if l;^c<9, * among men,' Eur. Bac 310. £v^i/ft«ruf 
TMf r«rf oivfi^miftt PI* Prot. 343 C* Ovx «y i^tv^»u ifit) itfut^rUt UtHf 
<«^«», 'in me/ Soph. (Ed. C 966. Oat »«) *0^if^^ Ai«/tif2iif xi^ii, 'in 
Homer/ PI. Bep. 389 e. 'OWnij y«f «ir^ C^/»*w] >^«f «'' «» *Ayii- 
mfAvova, PI. Leg. 706 d. 'A^iff'^trU T^wirrii* Z. 477. "Otfv »(ir«f Irr} ^. 
Yt0^r0 itaf» Kv^A^vim «. 7 1 . 

/3. The nee of the local datths in prose is chiefly confined to those ad-- 
ffer^ of place which are property datives ; as, TM/ry [sc. ;^^f ]• in AU region, 
here (iv. 5. 36), v^i, here (vlL 2. 13), f and jTatc^, loAere (iL 2. 21), ^UUL^^ 
sIievAere (ii. 6. 4), »v»Xy, w a eircuUj around (L 5. 4 ; iiL 5. 14), «Zmi 
(.s«7»y), erf Aome (i. 1. lO), 'A/iiMiri (» *Ainuui), ai Athene (vii 7. 57). 
890 §§ 320. S 379. m, 

E. The Accusative, 

^499. The office of the Accusative is to ex- 
press DIRECT TERMINATION OF LIMIT (^ 339) ; and 

the general rule for its use is the follovnng : An 
Adjunct expressing Direct Limit is put in 
THE Accusative. 

RKMARg. In a genera] sense, all the obliqub oases may be said to ex- 
press limit ; bnt the Gen. and Dot, express it less simply and less directly 
than the Aee* In some connections, however, these itutirect caeee are used 
interchangeably with the Ace. See §§ 341, 401, 414. «, 424. 2. 

The Accusative, as the case of direct limits is 
employed, — 

(i.) To limit an action, by expressing its direct 
object or its effect. — 'Ace, of Direct Object and 

(lu) To limit a word or expression, by applying 
't to a particular part, property, thing, or person. — - 
Ace. OF Specification. 

(hi.) To express limits of time, space, and quan- 
tity. — Acc. OF Extent. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


(iv,) To limit a woid or expression, by denoting 
degree^ manner^ &c. — Adverbial Acc. 

Notes, (o.) These nses are not only intimately allied, bnt sometimes blend 
irith each other. (6.) For the tue of the Acc to denote the tubject of the Iff 
/initive, see the syntax of that mode. 


^493. Rule XXI. The direct object and 
the EFFECT of an action are put in the Accusative. 

AmC^ Tirr«^i^vn»} taking THssapheme^f L 1. 2. 'l^onTro rnv rvX* 
X»yn9t he made the levy, i. 1. 6. *T«'4tf«'riv< riAi vrifr i. 1. 1. Ai«C«X» 
Afi Tot Kv^«v lb. 3. ^tXtluwa «^r«y lb. 4. *0 ^\ Ki/^«r vifiXaCm r»vg 
ftvy4vraf, fuXXil^etf rr^ArtufAm IvtXii^nu "M-iXnrof lb. 7. 

Note. The distinction between the direct object and the effect of an actioil 
Is not always obvious, and i^ sometimes appears doubtful to which head aa 
adjunct is best referred. 

^ 434* Resiabks. 1. The term actum is employed in this rule to 
denote whatever is eigni/ied by a verb ; and the rule properly applies only to 
the adjuncts of verbe (§ B92). Adjectivei and noums^ however, sometimet 
take the Acc. after the analogy of kindred verbs ; thus, 21 . . ^v|<^«f , abk 
to escape you. Soph. Ant 788 (cf. *B /Ah ^vyt> rt{ Id. £L 1503). 'Ea'4. 
rrtj^fvif ^ ^ftt.f rk «'^«rir«0yr« Cyr. iii. 3. 9. *£|ii^ir^ %i*tu rk l^titrtifum 
PL Charm. 158 c. T« ri fiUTUt^» ^^ttrt^rtif PI. Apol. 18 b (cf. T^9 
furtii^v f^evTtrrm Symp, 6. 6). X»k§ ^^•vffAV'it iBsch. Cho. 23. Tn$ 
B^vfitCiftv ^^im Xuirns Id. Ag. 103. Ivvifrc^a . . Maxk lb. 1090. See 
atso ^ 431. 1. 

2. Many verbs, which according to the preceding rules govern the Oen, or 
the Dat; are likewise construed with the Accusative (see §§ 341, 401, 
42!2. R.); as, *il^tXtif f/u* t«cv ^tXavt, . . /SA^rriiv ^\ rtiiit Ix^fvs PL 
Bep. 3S4*b (cf. § 403). n^«i;^«tfriv W /«Hrm nf^it iit 2. 19 (cf. § 350). 
*Ami^ uarn^X^ ^h*^ ^* Euthyd. 283 b (cf. § 350. R.). Avtrnfiut •Sri n 
mlfiivtat ii. 5. 4 (cf. ^ 375. /5). Mfr«)«rf » murttf wu^»vf iv. 5. 5 (cf. 
Tb. 6, and § 367). Aiytn n UUivty »vr«vf vii. 5. 9 (cf. § 402). 

^ 43tS* 3. Attraction. A word which is properly construed other- 
wise sometimes becomes the direct object of a verb by attraction (§ 329. N.), 
especially in the poets. This sometimes results in hypaUage, or an interchange 
of construction {tnraXX»y4i, exchange). Thus, E/ 3f fA £^* mt) Xiyn V^n^x** 
[^« fAi Xiyntt or Xiytnt]t if you bad aboays begun your addresses to me thuSf 
Soph. £1. 556. Atrv'irmv yitg . . »«r«(^«, / will begin lamentations for my 
r, Eur. Andr. 1 199. Cf. §§ 427. 9, 431, 433. 

%l. A verb, of which the proper ol^ect or effect is a distinct sentence, often 
takes the subject (or some other prominent word) cf that sentence in the Acc, 
bgr attvacUoB ; as, "Htiu alrlw.trt ^ir«« ix*h he knew [him] that he aeeu- 
pied ^centre, L 8. 21. Tkt yk^ iittfStXnf r«v i^utv Mttnteap, fui «'ff» 
MM'«A.«f#t/i| iiL 5. 18. "B-Xtyx** «^» nvxXf 9t»9»9 x^f^** ^'** ^^'^^^^^ ^ 
lb, 14. OU»f l^f»t i^» f* mmre^tt^vy^fH ir. 5. 29. 'CU kf ^ 
KmXXif*ax»*t ^ Urslu iv. 7. 11* 


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5. PERiFimAsis. The place of a verb is often supplied by an Ace. of th§ 
kindred noun joined with such v^ba as v-otiv (or more frequently v-dnofAtu), 
Myvyl^Ut Tifififiu, &C. ; thus, Kv^fit l^irmnv xai ti^t^fii* rHv *EXX«y«> ivoinr$^ 
[= V^^ru.ff% mm) fi^iP/iti^t T»us "EXAifva*], Cyrut made a review and numbering 
of [= reviewed and numbered] the Greeka, L 2. 9. ^l^firant ^•mrm lb. 14. 
Tnv ito^tUf WattTra i* 7. 20. 

6. Such periphrases sometimes take an Aoc by virtue of the implied verb , 
as, 2»ivi» fih »«} «v2^««'«3« i^vmyiiv <r«»ir«/*iMf [= i^a-ar* J, Th« 
viii. 62. Th X'^i'^* »«T«Jf«/a»7f Xi/av Wm7t» [^ Ix«»A«ti<] lb. 41. 'A 
Xfif ri fitr^ivf . . f9-ovihf ix^tv [= rwnJ^i/y] Eur. Here. 709. T« J* •» /m«-- 
rf H Xnrrtv lirxuf 3oph. (Ed. C. 583. T</ »ti raxuf i5J* «»•««■«■»» •Ifittyaf 
• . 'A^ajMi^ytfVA [^ r/ wX* a»0^i«>«-A>i tl/Mt^ug *AyetfAifAUva\ Id. £1. 122. 
In like manner, Tovr* K&f* t^u vrifits [==t r4vr» »a) iy^ 9r»tu\ Eur. Ixm^ 
fi72. Yet see §§ 333. 5, 434. 

§430* 7. Ellipsis. The ver6 which governs the Ace. is sometioMS 
imStted; particularly, 

«.) In EMPHATIC ADDBESS ; as, OJ«f , S ri ♦•! [sc xiyat OT »ax£], Tim 
Ihere, hoi you / mean^ Ai. Av. 274 (§ 343. 6). 21 J^, A rnv uvtvfat U 
leQtit xa^a, <phst n xara^nl f»,n ^ti^axiitat r£i% \ Soph. Ant. 441. 

/3.) In ENTREATT ; as, M^, it^U ft SiMV [sc ixtrtv»i]y rX^s /t,t v'foiaSwtUf 
I beteech you by the gods, do not forsake me, Eur. Ale. 275. (Observe the 
arrangement, which is frequent in earnest entreaty ; and compare, in Lat., 
Per omnea te deos oro Hor. Ode i. 8. 1. Per te ego deot oro Ter. Andr. 
ui. 3. 6.) 

y.) In PROHlBniON; as, Mi^ r^tias Irt [sc vtott7T%\ No more delayg! 
Soph. Ant. 577. Mii fttt /lu^iavf, fttiil "iiffcofUos ^ivovs [sc Xiyt], Doni 
talk to me cf your ten thousand or twenty thousand mercenaries^ Dem. 45. 1 1. 
Mn fMi ir^i^aurn Ar. Ach. 345* 

J.) In swearixg; as, Oy, rotV "Oxvfi^cv [sc ofitvvfu. Cf. § 428], No, 
by this Olympus I Soph. Ant. 758. Ov rkf Atis ttfr^avait Id. El. 1063.^ 
By this eUipsis may be explained the use of the Ace with the particles vW, 
»«/, and ftei (of which the two first are affirmative, and the last, unless pre- 
ceded by mt, commonly negative), acc(mling to the foUowing 

Special Rule. Adverbs of swearino are followed by the Accusative ; 
as. Nil A/«, Fes, by Jupiter I i. 7. 9. Nee) r^ 'Sui vi. 6. 34. *A>.X«, fiuk 
rovs B^uvg, ohx tyotyt tiurovg hti^M, but, by the gods, I will not pursue them^ 
i. 4. 8. N«i fiti. Aia, Yes, indeed I v. 8. 6. 

§ 4b» # • 8. The Ace, required by a .transitive verb is sometunes omU' 
ted; as, 'Ov-irt n vr^is S^m^ fitvXMrt hmrtkUmt [sc. rtiv #)«»] i. .5. 7. (X iv. 
5. 11. Avxiof Hxxft [sc w !«•«•#»] i. 10. 15. Compare Tltt^tXavfws 
CjT, viii. 3. 28, with ^'EXauwrdt riv lit^tf lb. 29 ; and Ha^t^Mutrnf j^ 
TrfTtfy, with n^««-fX«i/yA>i* xhrdlt Cyr. v. 3. 55, ^ 

9. An elliptical or unusual construction of a verb and Ace is sometimes 
employed, especially by the poets, «)r energy of expression ; as, "E^i^ 
[= Ki't^m W«'tu'\ ^oXvxtfMv ^efof Soph. Aj. 55. AJf* i^tuf» [«» m/ia rnv yn9 
hutf txtx, or alfitart rh* ynt iJii/ra] lb. 376. Tiyyu imx^um 4;^w»f Id. tr. 
849. Thrift fiw Eur. Sup. 1205. Cf. §§ 425, 481, 433. 


by Google 


1. Aecusative of the Direct OhfecL 

^498* I. Thb Ace. is often translated into English with 
a preposition ; thus, 

'Ofitpg/u Si«vf nmi Stif, 1 twear by godt and godde»$e$, vi. 6. 17. OZru 
ft^f yk^ «vr««v Wui^»^»Afnt for them have been gmUy of perj^try against tftem, 
UL 1 . 22. *H/tf«f . . %Z vfiS*, doing well to m, L e. treating m$ wdl, ii. S. 23. 
*0 h giyXts iuvmrmi Wrk iC»X§»f, the siglut te equivalent to ieven obdU, i. 5. 6. 
OtXif iXX» itnufitivfi U. 2. 13. M«;^«r B^a^^tTrt, you have no fear of batHetf 
i'lL 2. 20. ^uXnrrifittf»p . • H/tms, guarding against au, ii. 5. 3. *A,*'»ii\u 
uirti itari^t, having run away from ^eir fathers, vL 4. 8. *0 neXaut fi 
•tXirui, the jackdaw hat departed from me, L e. has ^ft me, Ar. Ay. 86. 'H/- 
^xMnfUv »mi ^0Vf »mi Mf^vrtvf vr^aitttntu nvriv, we were ashamed before hoUh 
gods and men to desert him, iL 3. 22. A/V;^vvira< ri ir^»yfim, he is aJutmed 
of the act, Eur. Ion, 3G7. T^vf yk^ tuftCtig Sf«} ^vne^ntfrm ai ^ni^twi, for 
the gods do not refoice in the death of the pious, Id. Hipp. 1340. A7 n . 
Xo^vtvri, r«v r«^iav Immx*** *danoe in honor o^' Soph. Ant. 1153. *Ex<ir- 
rtr . • "A^ri^Mf Eur. Iph. A. 1480. 

§ 430* II. To this head may be referred the use of the 
Ace. with VERBS OF MOTION, to denote the place or person to 
which (§§ 339, 422) ; as, 

*X^ti%Tat riw dX4^, wiU eome to a woody spot. Yen. 10. 6. 'Arrv Ejt>. 
f$ii49 /MXtif Soph. (Ed. T. 35. *Hx^«« trnr^is i^x»'^* '^^^" ^^' ^ ^93. 
Ilv^«tff yns frXii/r "htXnimf Eur. Med. 7. *A^i»tT» ;^^«v« lb. 12. Tiiy^t 
MBtfrr«Xt7f ;^^«v« lb. 682. "BCnt rikf fuXiprnt lb. 92a X^tU r'n n Btr. 
r«X«^f ;^^«Mi «'S^«'K I Id. Ale 479. Ky/#nv )* «&^»My r»fi* A. 317. '^Cnt 
fUt y, 162. 

NoTBB. «. Hus nse of the Aoc is chiefly poetic, and eq>ecia]ljr Einc^ 
Instead of the common o(»istniction with a preposition. 

/3. The poets soYnetimes even join an Aec of the place with verbs of stand 
ing, sitting, or fying (as implying oeet^pation) ; thos, 2rif/* at ^» i^ rifi* 
k/u^n^ r^iUt, ml V \fimi* kXX»9 atfitw Ear. Or. 1251. 0«rr«vr* k»(a» lb. 
S7 1. T^iwain nmfitlttv <p6tCH lb. 956. Tiir§9 . . hntn xtTrai Soph. Fh. 144. 

§ 430* III. Cattsatiyes govern the Ace, together with 
the case of the included verb ; as, 

Mj^ /» kfmfAf^0fit nnnSf, do not remind me ef [canse me to remember] 
my woes, Ear. Ale 1045 (§ 376. y), 'Ay»^yffr*» yk^ iftrnt *ni rah . • 
mfltnaus iii. 2. 1 1 (§ 424. 2). 3»uXu n y«v#» it^Sraw kn^drav ^U» i Ear. 
Cyd. 149. T««v ^mhtt .* ytverie* nlfmrtf PI. Rq>. 537 a (§ 375. «). 
UoXXk Moi nUa nni vntrtUvk imv;^mw &/»mt PL Goi^. 522 a. See alw 
S 357. 

Rkmark. Hie verbs h? and xt^ axe sometimes constmed by the poets aa 
eam s at iv e s ; thas, 2) hi n^«^if#i«f , you have need of Qt needs yoa of] a Fro- 
metheus, JRactk. Prom. 86 (§ 357). Uifu itaXXau ^i hi Ear. Blpp. 23. Ti 
yd^ /» titi vrKihut { Ear. Sappl. 789 (cf. 2f/ n yk( vemiimt ri h7 Id. Med. 
565, and § 403). Ti xr* ^'^•^ « ^^ ^' ^^"^ (^"* Person reads T/ hit f i'- 
JUv, denying that this use of x€^ '^ Attic). 1\ x^ • • «m)«w y» 14. 


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2. Accusative of the E^ect. 

% 4l3'It The EFFECT of a verb includest whatever the 
agent does or makes. Hence any verb may take an Ace. 
expressing or defining its action. The Ace. thus employed is 
either, «. a novn kindred^ in its origin or signification^ to tbs 
verh^ or /?. a neuter adjective used substantively^ or /. a noun 
simply defining or characterizing the action, 

m. KiNDBED Noun. 

had ffomed ^is ncce$9, vi 3. 6. 'Cls «»/v^vy«v fiUv ^Sfith A<^ teeun a Hfe we 
Uve, Eur. Med. 248. ^r^avnynfofrei ifitl raiirnf rhf wv^amytav i. S. 15- 
Tafju7v ya/Mf rav^i Eur. Med. 587. Ti <r(««'yf XSn t«9 TmvpfTcir4f yi>MV i 
lb. 1041. *^Eitrtf*tXovvrai ira^aw iirtfitiXtiaf PL Prot. 325 e. B«^<XiuB» itatrmv 
iiKMiardrnv fiartktvofAtvM PL Leg. 680 e. ^tvyiraf Jtutpvyim* lb. 877 c 
T«v hfiv MMXoOfAttov itiKifMV Wr^arfuffrnt Th. i. 112. *H«^ay ^^o^nfitu ^tnit 
£ur. Ph. 1379. Ilt!itif*» »ovpot U ni/f i^n^art iEsdi. Pers. 305. Atutmtf 
^«ir/«tf Vt^yfia i^eixtfrof lb. 79. Tifv^' ^'^•wfiaxai* Xh^av Soph. (Ed. C 1166. 
*n^;^0«>y«'0 rfi9 »a^it»/ay vL 1. 7. Tlo^turth i* ^fuf r»vf ir^Tw$ fraJfAt^ 
U. 2. 12. "Ex^w rh Sin iu. 1. 6. "^^if hyn<nw«M . . Hn iv. 1. 24. T^i. 
«*! r«i r^i^^fiui Siwt Hdt. yi. 1 r9. 

Beuabks. 1« In like maimer, an adjective sometimes takes an Aoc. of the 
Ipnjlred noun (§ 424. 1) ; as, Mitri rt tf<p»s m r^r Ixtnttt g^^flat, ftnrt kftM- 
ths «^» eifiuifimv, being neither wise wiUi their wisdom, nor foolish with their fol* 
ly, PL ApoL 22 e. 1Smx»us vtarat x»»iav PL Rep. 490 d. A0vX«f rkt ^- 
y'trrat B^ttvrtmi xui i»vXtm$ lb. 579 d. 

2. It win be observed, that usually an adjective is joined ynih the Ace. 
of the kindred noun, and the whole phrase is an emphatic substitution for an 
adverb. Thus, *Xls &xiv^Sv0v fiSew l^£fi.$v = 'fU atxtt^vvMt ^Sfitv. This ad- 
jective not unfirequently occurs with an ellipsis of the noun ; as, T0 Ht^ftxh 
'fix**'*'* ['^ hx^f^^ ^i- ^* ^0* Hence appears to have arisen the c(»i8tnio- 
tion in § 432. 

^ 4L33* fi. Nbuteb Adjectivb. 

Tttmvra /th vrt^aitixit vttaura ^ A. t^i, [he has done such things, and 
sajs such things] such has 6ee^ his conduct, and such is his languags, I. 6. 9. 
Xiyui ovx <^;^«^i«'ra iL K'l3. T»vt« x^^igantTcu lb. 10. Ti^ Avx»*» 
Uu^t L 2. 10. Mfi^U '^%uitv0en L 9. 7. W%ya ^^wnf»s iii. 1. 27. *A»i. 
x^ayi TI •••Xi^ixiir viL 3. 33. 'SL^ntarhti ri rp fr^xrt^, to maie soms 
use 0/ the army, Cyr. viiu 1.14. Ti aorS Xi^^V * ^^ would you do with 
him? lb. L 4. 13. T/ vtftitiw »«) ^tip^avrtxig fixiirtif i why do yom 
(ook gram and thoughtful? Eur. Ale 773. K«X»» /SxStr* Id. Cyd. 553. 
Kxi9'ro9 (IXtTti Ar. Yesp. 900. 

Remarks. 1. This construction (upon which see § 431. 2) ia closely al- 
ii^ with the adoerbial use of the neuter adjective § 440), and is, perhaps^ 
its origi^. 

2. The Me, of the neuter adjective is very extensive in its use, and oftea 
occurs where a substantive would have been constnicted differently ; thua, 
T^#i ftUrt «rXi«yixr«v »i>x p0';^i/vir«, It fnh rf B-i^tt r#? nkUv, i» h r^ 


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Xtif^t rtS ^^;^««# Agw. 5. 3. XP. 'Of^^m rt\ AIK. T«if ^v;^fvi 
At. Plat. 896. 

S. The Ace of the neuter pronotm is sometimes used to denote that on oe» 
eowU of which any thmg is done (viewed originally as the effect or reeuH of 
the action); as, *A V 9x009, but what I came for, Soph. CEd. C. 1291. 
T« vr' iyi t^itivhv, therefore [on acoomit of these things] / made haste, iv. 1. 
21. T; rA ity^k Mr«#Ct#i<av, 'why/ vL 3. 25. T«vr* i^inifkn* Id. (Ed. 
T. 1005. 'AXX' »hrk rmura mmi y«w Hm PI. Plot SIO e. Ni^r«r«f V 
If n^Mi^lwv i xmi fu y^t i9r%\%infA'^%9 'Btxa, Hec IS. *E»«7v« ^ ktOfui, 
irt fMi ^MiTMem. iv. 3. 15. 

NoTB. So with ;^fii>Ms thitig, expressed, Ti ;^#ii/m( »fr««i i «% db ifnw 
A« th^ret Eur. Herad. 633. See lb. 646, 709 ; Id. Ale 512 ; &c 

§ 433* y. DsFoimvB Noun. 

<t»iC«y fixiit»t9, lookmg terror, Mach, Sept 498. *H fiwXh . . KXi^p* 
fivrv, the eemate looked muetard, Ar. Eq. 629. 'A^n Wt^uiratf .£sch. Sept 
53. *Ax^ii«» Wtttt Ar. Av. 1121. 'At^ttv r«v 2ir»Xj»«» vi. I. 6. 
*EXa'i)«f XiytttL 2. 11. *0Xvfii9ria uin»v»o'ri, having conquered in tht 
Olympic gamci, Th. i. 126. Nm»ffx«rf vauf^axi^t Id* vii. 66, Nimxhxo. 
r« •vriv «'ay»^«Ti«y Symp. L 2. 'H9r«v/^«vr0 ti irmi%s (Mf eirmit»9, • . 
^dXn* ti »mi flTvy^^v »«) ir«7»^i»r<«v Iti^m iv. 8. 27. n«XX«| 
0^dxng irmfrm IscMcr. 71 e. Xt^nytvvrtt ^mg') Affie-tm, Dem. 535. 13. 

3. Double Accusative. 

^434. The same verb often governs two ac- 
cusatives, which may be, 

I.) The DIRECT OBJECT and the effect, in apposition with 
each other (§ 331) ; as with verbs of makings appointing^ 
choosing, esteeming^ naming, dsc. Thus, 

'BmriXim n Ivtin^mt^ they made you king, vH. 7. S2. Sr^Aruyty ti mMv 
kiriittlii, and he had appointed him general,!. 1,2, Tlmri^a ^fiti inaXttrt, 
you called me foAer, vii. 6. 38. *0m; V kv iaivriv tXnrai rr^«nfy«v v. 7. 
28. OSg ti 2v(M Si«tff iv«/(*«^«v i. 4. 9. *0v *rv«^a^f AMfeif^ny «'«rii^ 
Eur. Sup. 1218. "OtoftM ri n uaXtTv iftZf XV^* * I^ I^^^ ^^^* ^f^- 
rr«»XSi RXm^avto t«v uiit ivt^Ut /tM* i^^^M^ar* kyaiiit PL Meno, 93 d. 
0i}( nytfAitnt eriX%M9 ivrasitvftt^ft PL Rep.' 546 b. Ku^h t» er^tinv/im 
mmritii^t }»)i»« fM^, Cyme divided the army into twehe parte, Cyr. viL 
5. 13. 

NoTR. The infinitive $Thu is often used irith these verbs ; as, N«/im^« yk^ 
ipMt I/m) iTvm Ml) ir«T^i^» »«2 fiXtvt L 3. 6. 2«^<rrj^» ^ tm Ufuml^tpet , • 
cjf if»)^ ibm PI. Plrot 311 e. 

§ 43«S« II.) The DiBECT OBJECT and the effect, not in 
apposition ; as with verbs of doing, saying, ^. Thus, 

Ef rif rt kyatif 4 nmnU er»t^0%t%9 ahrn, if any one had done him any 

good or evil, L 9. 11. Tk ^iyifrm nnxk l^ya^i /»!»«< rkg itiXut PI. Rep. 

495 b. *H)i»i$r«^tf revTtf •»)•» vii. 6. 22. *Hx/«m( rmvr 4SfiX««-ti 

itrnfrnt IHm. 855. 7. ^AvrtrUetrfni iUnf Ix^^*^* Eur. Herad. 859 



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TmSra nmi »«/vC^ir* mMv Id. Bac 616. *Orav U ra7t r^ayaf^ieus mXXH 
>.»vs ra Ux»Tm xiyttwif, 'say the worst things to each other/ Mem. ii. 3. 
9. II0X3S 9-($s vKXwf fit^ii ilit7ir»f Soph. £1. 520. T« # t ^ v ' l«-ii » « - 
X«^' l»%h»»$ Id. Aj. 1107. "Emi »Xv«f, «S vvv rv niv^* mrtfAal^tts wiXtp 
Id. (Ed. T. SS9. '£^fv#i(^«» •»)» #« Id. (Ed. C. 1145. T/ . . y^d^ 
ypii$9 it n fMVwetii U rm^ifi Eor. Tro. 1188. TtfZrn t^^'t i;^^«i^<r 
r* lyti Soph. £1. 1034. *n^»«r«» «ri^vr«f row fr^ariwrdtf r»tn fttyU'rtvf 
if»»vg Th. viiL 75. M«Xir«f ^ iy^aypetra rnv ^^a^iiy ravmv PL 
ApoL 19 a. Tm^ti fu lvfT»xi*^t^ 7*^^** Eur. Tro. S57. Krvflrnrs 
xfira fAiki&v trXttytiv Id. Or. 1467. *AA.X' ^7y«v 7^»«ir #0 imc^a »««-«#• 
/«0«>« Id. HeL 835. 'Avmitig-ai ^•vXfiat ioayyiXim f$ Ar. Plat. 764. 
"ilLXTtminf i rii9 &» "Mm^Sih fudx"* ^'^ ^m^ta^tus ftnnfttf /Rftchin . 
79. 36. 

§ 436* ni.) Two OBJECTS differently related, but which 
are both regarded as direct ; as with verbs of asking and re- 
quiring^ of clothing and undothing^ of concealing and deprvo" 
ing^ of persuading and teachings &c. Thus, 

Kv^v mirttt 9rX»m, to ask vetseU cf Cyrus, or to asft C^n» for oetteb 
i. 3. 14. M«V«i /Mi K^v^ffi r«f>r«, i& not Aide <Au /rom me, .£sch. Pr. 625. 
*H/euBf ^ kvrtfTt^tt T»v /Aivfiit, but us he robs of our pay^ vii. 6 9.^ 
^ I ) a «* » ( < y rhv ffr^arnyUt^ to teach you the military art^ Mem. iii. i . 5. 11^ 
rl /A% ravra l^vr^f ; Mem. ill. 7. 2. 'Avn^i^' n^f ^#wi r i» *IXi^ «»• 
Mt/;, ..ay}}^«^r« r i/»< ytfy«rx«, <r«r)ai t« Eur. IjA. T. 661. T«rAtfr« «^ 
^ Ziv, «r(«r7(i«r« Soph. Aj. 831. 'Tftas Tt fia^tXtht r« cvXa avmtrs 
ii. 5. 38. *E«» «'^«rT*fri atwrw t« ^C^f^'^'h ' demand,* * exact,* vii. 6. 17 
Oi A«x^«} . . riXn Ttuf xarairXiofraf il^iktyov iEschin. 69. 29. TmSrst 
it^$v»mXt7T» root fvMPrat Cyr. 1. 4. 4. Tovr» ftlt ^ /Uff mvaytia^i f» 
PL Rep. 473 a. T«»^ly latvrtv [sc ;^<riwya] Uimy n/i^/t^t C}T. i. 3. 17. 
T«» ^tifitof vfiSv ^Xetitecv Hfi^'ifx*^ Ar. Lys. 1 156. 'Ex^i;*r» l/ul x^ffni- 
^Mv Wfinra Msch, Ag. l'J69. *A^atftta'lfat revs U^txtutraf "lEXXfiimf ri^w 
yh i.«3. 4 (cf. § 41 1). "O; ^i . . -^tXav SfAfi avrov^artts Soph. (Ed. C 
866. . T^y /Mi* yk^ Sf«y rov^ m^awwt fftf^vXttxAft Dem. 616. 19. 2) 
ravTA ^ff T%i§»tii Soph. (Ed. G. 797. Sv ri ytt^ ^1 iv^vf rtvra . . iitmi^ 
iivts Cyr. i. 6. 20. 0^» iti^n rwri y h lixfi rt Soph. Ant. 538. "Of 
ri KttXvrn r« )(^v Id. PhiL 1 24 1 . ri/v«r»' a^iVrar Xi^va* 'A;^i^«yr/Ay «*•• 
^%urm,t Eur. Ale. 442. IIw ^* v<ri^«7i<f «-«J« ; Eur. Hec 812 (cf. '0 
»«X0««( /M* «7;^ir«i, §428). Xf«« y/(ir« . . alXfitiv (. 224. Atar^iCif^a 
'Axeutus St yeifAov fi, 204. See also ^ 430. 

(11.) Accusative op Specification. 

^437. Rule XXII. An adjunct applying a 
word or expression to a particular part, prop- 
erty, THING, or person, is put in the Accusative; 

T^ x*'i* hhfitUav, [bound as to the hands] with his hands bound, vi 1. 8« 
H»r»fAift KtUvdt 09 » fit a, tZ^»s ^ud vXii^ttv, a river, Cydnus by name, two 
plethra in breadth, i. 2. 23. Tldfra x^airtarot, best in every thing, i. 9. 3 
(cf. §359. /»). *AitorfitnPi»ru rag »%^ttXa.(, beheaded, ii 6. I, 29. T« Zrm 
Ttr^virnfAMv iiL I. 31. &«ivfAtiruu ri ntiXXtt »mt ri fitiytttt ii. 3. 16. 


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llXniof m W;^/Xi«i iv. 2. 2. Timt^ttg . • §h mXXw iUfr»f 1^$vs rl ftti»*t 
»») ri itXmraf tivMi, WMttiXaut il rk fSrttf »a.) rk f^«'^««'^f» «'»»r« 
IvrtyfAifvt mvfiifitufV. 4. 32. Atifif u/u r»6m9 rjf» rix^n* CjT. viu.4. 18. 
n«A.4v rnt •i'ilt tbiriav viL 1. 25 (cf. § 393. y), 'Or* H /am ;^^«'j^Mi 
lr«iL5. 23. Cf. §§ 369, 418. 3. 

§ 43 8* Rkmarks. ft. This use of the Ace is oft«ii termed tyntc 
docket from its analogy to the rhetorical figure bearing that name. 

fi. Where a verb is in this way followed by two accusatives, the constmo* 
tion (which is most frequent in Epic poetry) may be often referred to the 
^^^tifiia Ktt^' 7X*9 »mi fiii(§S (^334. 9); as, Utitof ri t^of ^vytv %^x§t ciif- 
TM9, What language has eecaped [you, the hedge of the teeth] the hedge of your 
teeth! «. 64. T^yyi . . AiV i^ria ^vfMf T. 406. Cf. § 41.S. 

y. An Aoc of specification sometimes introduces a sentence ; as, T«^ 
fftitTM "EXXn^etfy rovt iv r^ *A.fif tlxavvTatt, •iitU tt g-m^lg Xiytrmi, i2 
itrovT»4, 'but as to the Gre^l/ Cyr. ii. 1. 5. Ti filv »vf ^vvray/ia riit 
rirt w^Xtniat »«) r«v XC^**** *''"' *^^ XC^f^*^** htrtXig-mfittv, V^u^xavvrtf 
%tinX»tTat Isocr. 264 c To ^ «r«v«v r«y xttrilt r«v wiXtfiavi fitti yiimrmi n 
VtfXvf Th. ii. 62. T«vr ity^99ifAtvt rtvrtvf , • iniin ^t^tr^^rasv PL Leg* 
761 e. — This construction may usually be referred to anacoluthon or eUiptis, 

y The Aoc. is sometimes used in exclamationSf to specify the object of 
emotion (cf. §§ 343. 2, 372. •, ^; as, 'Lw, m Xiy*ims /a 0^99 mn^MSt oh, oh 
for the fate of the mehdhue ni^dingale, .£ech. Ag. 1 146. Aiivo yt rit x^ 
^Oxtb ri9 v'm^k r«tff fi(»r»tH «/;^0^iMy, 1/ ftnii^on vtrnirf i ^dXn Ar. Av« 
1269. — This construction, whidi is unfiiequent, should periiaps be referred to 

(ill.) Accusative op Extent. 

^439. Rule XXIII. Extent of time and 
SPACE is put in the Accusative (cf. ^^ 378, 420) ; 

«. TiMB. "EfAtMP ftfti^mf Wri, he remained eeven dags, i. Q, 6. *'E2dtt(0» 
«r«Xvf X(**** ^* ^* ^* ^^* mlxt^itU Uiavrcp ii. 6. 29. "KvXto* fifAi^mp xai 
wvxTx vi. 1 . 14. TL»(tvi/Aif»t r» XiT»f rns nfitf»e iii* 4. 6. Tevs fth ym^ 
xvvat v«y( ;^«Xi«'«vi rkf fith nf/ii^f itiia^tf rkf il vuxrxf it^taivt • tovt$9 ^^ 
fiv f§0^(0tnTt, rk^ 9VXT» fU9 ^iftf'in, T9IV il nfti^av i^n^trt V. 8. 24. 01 t^m- 
x»9rm, irn ytyvirit, * thirty years old,* ii. 3. 1 2. Tni* ^vyari^a rav xtfAm^x'* 
iv«rffy if^c^«y yiyatfAnfa>%fH9 iv. 5. 24. T^«rifv ftfti^xf mvrtv Uxovrot Th. viii. 23. 
Aixartv atixf^T^uf ir»s Eur. Bhes. 444. *0t vUmxi rmvrm t^/c frn, ' these 
three years,* Lys. 109. 12. 

/3. SpACB. *EJ^XtiV9U %tk ^(vyimi ffrtJ/Mt Tv«, ^m^a^aiyyas ixrttj he adr- 
vaneee throu^ Phrygia one daj^B-march, eight parcuangs, L 2. 6. 'A«'t;^«vr« 
rw ^TttfAW 0Tmii»ut «'tvrt»«i)t»« ii. 4. 1 3. lAv^ittf lf*i yt xmrct ynt ifyviott 
ytvUfixt vii. 1 . 30. T« fiiX»f ttvrSv xm) ItvXm^itD [sc. hmrr*)fitm] ^t^tr^oj rSt 
Iltf^ixHv ff^tvhnZ* iii. 3. 1 6. '0«'«r«y ^\ x^thtttlluaf u "EXXtivif , rt^wrn 
iftiXsf Wtn>mj^»0(t7v ^««;^«/civ0v« Hu iiL 3. 10. 

Note. In the simple designation of time and place, the oENmvE common- 
ly expresses the time and place m which (■> 378) ; the dative, at which (i 420) ; 
imd the agcusattve, through which. To a certain extent, however, the officiet 
9t the •e\'6ral cases blend with each other. 


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(iv.) Adverbial Accusativb. 

^440. Rule XXIV. The Accusative is often 
used ADVERBIALLY, to cxprcss degree^ manner^ ot" 
devj &LC. ; as, 

To^f r«» r^««'«». tn this way, or tfnUf L I, 9. T«» ttltrw r^iirow tI. 5. 6 
(cf. T^ «vr^ ^e*^V iv. 2. 13, and § 418). Tix.»s ^l f7^i, and Jhudfy [at 
the end] he $aidj ii. 3. 26. *A^;^ji» fth ^Xtvrnfeu, *in the first place,' 'at 
all,* yii. 7. 28. *0 «(^X«f kx/^hv ^iiCam iv. S. 26. 1»vt$v ^i^tv^ on ac- 
eount of thisj Mem. i. 2. 54. Kvvit ^i»n9, Uke a dog^ iEsch. Ag. 3. K«i 
^•v y i^xiif, ' opportonely/ Soph. Aj. 34. *Xm^iett iHxt^rit At. Ach. 23. 
T*i» J^nv i^etymuv Hdt. ii. 2. SvrT^mr^ai rifv r«;^/«'rify [sc. ^^ov] L 3. 
14 (cf. i. 2. 20). Ovxtftfv, i^n, »«i w*!^ ^«XkfMU 0vptC§u>.ivu9 rnv yt irftirm* 
litt^j^na-»fu», ' for the present,* Mem. iii. 6. 10. See § 3^0. 3. 

§441* Remabks, «. This mle applies eqsecially to the Aoc nemt, 
of adjectives J both sing, and plur. ; as, T« «^;^«(r«v, formerly, i. 1.6. T^ 
fuv . ., r» Ii, partly . ., parUy, iy. 1. 14, y. 6. 24. M<»f «> ili^vyt W /m^ 
Kara^tr^a/inviu i. 3. 2. Tu^'h perhaps, yi. 1. 20. T« A.M«r0», henceforth^ 
ii. 2. .5. E7 rivtff fiXytt ^f r« r«>/&« ^i/rii n v^«^^ n «^^0ri^« PI. Gorg. 
524 b. T»fvT»t yk^ *Xn6n irt^i^v /Sar/Xit/f i. 8. IS. ©fz/ctfu^i^ri^M ^ 
«r«X« iv. 5. 36 (cf: § 419). See especially § 162. 

/}. A strict analysis would refer the adyerbial Ace in part to the Ace. of 
^<!c£ (§ 432), in nart to that of specification (§ 437), and in part to that of 
extent (§ 422. m.). 

^ F. The Vocative. 

^443. Role XXV. The Compellative 
of a sentence is put in the Vocative (^^ 329. N., 
340. a) ; as, 

Kxia^X* ««< n^tf^f vi, . . »vx Ivrt « n w'Mirri, Clearchut and Proxetms^ 
you know not what you </6, L 5. 16. ^Xl ^mvfMtffuiratrt «»^(*r«'i, mosl 
wonderftdman, iiL 1. 27. 

§ 443* Remabks. ». The t^ o/* address, in Greek, as in other 
languages* is commonly £. 

/S. The term of respectful address to a company of men is kfi^tg, with 
which may be likewise connected a more specific appellation ; thus, 

*0^«ri fihy Z kfl(tt, you see, gentiemen, iii. 2. 4. "Axi^ts ^rfmnSTtu, ^ 
BmvfUX^Ti, feUowsoldiers, do not wonder, u 3. 3. *fl iv^^H "EkXnvif IL 3. 1 8 
*0 Iv^^ff ^r^timyti »»i X,§;^£yi iii. 1. 34. 


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olS.] abibotitb.— *aobebiceict. 805 



- 1 Agreement of the Adjective, 

^444. Rule XXVI. An Adjective agrees 
mth its subject in gender j number^ and case. 

Hie word adjeetive is here used in its largest sense (§ 7S). Thus, n«^. 
hi^t ftiyttt ky^itt* ^f/*>» itXti^nt, a largepark fuU of wild beoMti, L2, 
7* Tif wm%i Aft^oriftt, both thg chUdrem, i, 1. 1. A/ 'I*>y<»«) ^ikttf 
. .liid/Mttti lb. 6. Ttv^i rif r^i^tn lb. 9. *£;^*>y Wxirmg ;^iX/«tff 
»«} ff'iXrcrri^f 0^f »«; •»r«»«r/«tff L 2. 9. 0i«vf wafr«n tuti «'ii- 
r«f vL 1. SI. 

Notes. «. An a^ective either assists in describing the thing which is 
■pdien of, or forms a part of that which b said a^ it. In the former case, 
the adjective is said to be used as an ^pith^ (i«'iVir0v, from \w$Tl§nfAt, to add) \ 
in the latter, as an attribute (attributus, ascribeS). In the sentence, " A good 
man is merdfol,'* " good " is an epithet, and " merciful " an attribute. The 
l^greement of the attribuf with its subject is fiir less strict than that of die 
tpithet ; while the agreement of the pronoim (§ 495) is still less strict than 
that of the attribute, 

fi. An exception to this rule, which is merely apparent, consists in the ose 
«f the maeculim form for the femtnime in a^jectiyes of three terininationB 
(S 133. y, ^). 

^ 44tS« Remarks. 1. Infinitives, clauses used substan- 
tively, and words or phrases sp<^en of as such, are regarded 
as neuter ; thus, 

"ESniif ifn llytfiiivm mru9, it would be fooS^ to aek a guide, LS, 16* An 
X»9 it trt iyyvt irtv fim^sXiut ^9 ii. 3. 6. Ov r« ^9 wtf) irXiUrsm wm- 
ri»9, &XXit ri iZ ^ FL Crito, 48 b. 'Tf^Uf, Z Si^^u 'A^iim7«i • ri V 
*TM£I2 hruf tSitttf rk9 wiXt9 Xiytt, Tou, meu of Athene ; and when I eay rov, 
I mean the etate, Dem. '255. 4. T« MH »») rl OT ir^on/i/^ivft, the not 
fmd the jropri^fixedf PL Soph. 257 b. I^n^tu . . r^ »»i* m&ri, to uu the 
phraee neJ* uiri lb. S52 c. 

KoTB. Grammarians often speak of a word, with an ellipeb of the part of 
speech to which it belongs ; as, "Ernv « [sc rvyW^ci] AkXu «vt) r»v li, 
the [coniunction] aXXA ie instead of H Soph. CEd. C. 237, Schol. At/**!/ 4 
[sc «'ei/irif] ^li, Ithe proposition] itd te wanting^ lb. 1291, SchoL 

^446. 2. In COMPOUND construction, both syllepsis 
and zeugma are frequent (§ 329. N.). («.) In syllepsis^ when 
persons of both sexes are spoken of, the adjective is masculine ; 
when things are spoken of, it is commonly neuter ; as, 


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XfMt>MT»ut ytytvfiftMVf Cyr. iii. 1. 6. AJht ri xal irXlvht x») ^vXtt tuu 
»i^»fMt itraKTMs (aXv t^fiftfAtta 9V^h ^^^i^^tfiM Wrn Mem. iii. 2. 7. 

(/?.) In zeugma^ the adjective sometimes agrees with the most 
^prominent substantive, sometimes with the nearest ; as, 

'E«rT» ifidXivt »«J tifiuoCoXttf *A.rrixavs, seven Attic oboU and a half, i, 5. 6- 
Uv^ifitv^s ' • T'v ^T^t/tCixt^n* »«) T»s 9KVS Av'tXnXtffiira Th. yiii. 63. . I^u» 
im fi ytnaTxett fuv»^f*»^»v^ae Cyr. vii. 5. 60. Mnr^of ri »ai reo foS «r«l|lr 
Soph. (Ed. T. 417. 

§ 44 7. 3. Ellipsis. The subject of the adjective » 
often omitted, especially if it is a familiar word. The words 
most frequently omitted are, 

a. I^Iasculine, avfi^ or &v4^M9rest man, XV^^** time; as, ^otra^i ft t»a- 
0^ro9 rav$ Xaurov [sc. av^^a;], and that each one should arrange his Mn [men], 
I. '2. 15. TaI» iret^a fiaa-iXiaie i. 1. 5. Tti/s ^tvyotrast the exUeSy lb. 7. Tmtf 
meixov^yevs xa) xhtxovg [sc ay^^jw^rtft/;] i. 9. i 3. *lS.fTKvfiei tf*uvxf tifci^as r^Uf 
iy if [sc X^^*v\ Ki/^0s tffrixrf /vf y i. 2. 2> >. *Ey tovtm xa) *&ti0tXtvs 3i|A.«f «» L 
10. 6 (cf. 'Ev revT^ rif XV^V i^* 2. 17). 

/3. Feminine, ^vvn, woman^ yn or x'^S** ^*^ *^^ff t^^^y* fi/t(^«, <^ayt A^**S 
hand, yvuftfiy opinion^ fAot^n, portion, m^x, season ; as, 'H YLiXtrra [sc ytfVH\ 
i. 2. 1 2. Uo^tvtr^ut atf ha (piXixg 11* 3. 27 (cf. *'Oms hx (f>iXixs tUs X'^C^ 
itv-ulu i. 3. 14). E/; r^y (piX'txv \Xh7v vi. 6. 38 (cf. £/; ^/X/av ^fi* x^ixMT§ 
V. 1. 1. See also 5 421. /3). Tijy Xw<rn» [sc S^ov] Tro^iuirofAiSx iii. 4. 46. 
Ka/ ttVTd} /&iy ay We^tufiyiffxv p at aXXot^ rx ft inrol^uytx ovx np xXXi^ «| txptj 
ixSfjyui iv, 2. 10. 'lifTts fAxxfXf iii. 4. 17. T^ uffrt^a'a [sc if/Kf^a] '^ 
i^xvno-u¥ ai ^oXifAiat, avhi r^ r^ln^t v^ ft Ter«^r»! iii. -J. 37 (§ 420)« *E» ft 
<T ^'?'? [^^' ^•'^'3 ^* ^' ^ 2' '^^ ^*l'^ <"* *^* '^V^^ i. 5. 1 . 'Ev x^ivTt^x vi. 
1. 14. 'E* rns vtxurns [sc yvAr^u;] ivr^xrrav irxvrx, ' according' to the vota 
of the majority,' vi. 1. 18. *Acra Tins t^ns [sc. /tta/^ay], on equal termSy Th. L 
15. *E<ri r^ ?rsi xxt ofAolx Id. i. 27. *H fri^^aifAtvn, destiny ^ Eur. Hec 43. 
•A«-« o-^aJruf [sc af^af], from the firsts Th. i. 77. 

y. Neuter, ^^xyfix or xfif**^* affair, thing, fAi^as, part, irXnfiat, coHectum, 
hodtff cr^xrtv/AX, military force, xi^xg, wing of an army, x^V'^t ptace, ground; 
as, Tx fUf ^h Ki/^09 [sc. ^^xy/xxrx^ , ,, TX fifiiTt^a L 3. 9 (cf. Tie 'Oi^ufSit 
ir(xyftx*rx vii. 2. 32). EiV re tttov [sc. XZ^C-*^ *• ^' ^- T* Wtr^^ux, the 
necessaries of life, i. 5. 10. T^ Svn, really, v. 4. 20. Btva^Svrag *Ex.Xn- 
fnxx, Xenophon*s Affairs of Greece, or Greek History. ^E^txvfiunA ri [sc 
fiti^as^ rni <pxXxyyaf i. 8. 1 8. Ta ft^ia rav xi^Xras lb. 4. Tau . . l^tvtxaS 
Jsc. ^XnSavi or vr^xrivfAXTai^, the mercenary force [= taJ? |tya>y, t»c merHe- 
naries'], i. 2. 1. Toy 'EXXwyiXfly [= rZv 'ExXji'yAiy] i. 4. 13 (cf. i. 2. l). T« 
^vviCTHxaf (cf. T^r^ ^vvt^To/a-i) Th. viii. 66, Ta d-^Xt; ^«^ «*«( ^XX«y alxvfit 
x^ffitiuv Eur. Here 536. T0 xa/vov to fifitin^ov v. 7. 1 7. T0 ft tvaivuptav L 3. 
15 (cf. T« tVMvvfitav xi^xf i. 8. 4). 'Ey vto hfiJtXif [sc. X'^(^v] ^^* 2» 16. 'A^i 
rtfi/ v'v/'uXtfv i/« Ttf v'^atb iSxXXav iii. 4. 25. See also § 379. a. 

Notes, (a.) In cases of familiar ellipsis, the adjective is commonly said 
CO be used substantively. The substantive use becomes especially prominent in 
•uch expressions as, TaTs fiiv uuiri^oti iutrfttvi^i, ' your foes,' H. Gr. v. 2. S3 ; 
•O T Ixtivav Ttxeiv, * his father,' Eur. El. 3S5. (b.) The substantive omitted 
if lometimes contained or impUed in another word ; as, ^AfitvyiaXiva* U rm 


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•-H; 2.] * SB OF NEVTER. 807 

WtKfSv [sc. AfnuyitiXMv} iv. 4. 13. Titt^ytTt rif filt irtXXnv [sc. yyi*] Ar« 
RccL 592. KjbX«(7#» y 'I«»«rrn» ^i • rturo [sc 0V0^] ^a^ trarTi^ thro EuT. 
i^. 1 2. (c.) In the phrase Iv n/uiri^tfy, m our palace^ at our court (Udt. L S5, 
yii. 8. 4), there is either a doable ellipsis for the sake of dignity (Iv tifAtri^^it 
§txov ^ttfiMfiv) ; or a blending of the two forms of expression, iv h/Mtf o7»ff 
and if iif/UTi^f »f»^ 

§44 8. 4. Many words which are commonly employed 
as substantives are properly adjectives, or may be used as 
such. Thus, 

'O^frtit TH indent Mff (xnd Orontes, a Persian nuxn, L 6. I. *'X1 afv^^w 
^r^ttviSrtki^ . . ^v^^aIv wr^mrny!*^ iii. 2. 2. *Av^(« vf«v/«y Cyr. ii. 
2. 6. Nt«v/«f kiytus Eur. Ale. 679. "^XXnf rts ivn^ Cyr. vi. 3. 
11. *ExXiiv' U $4x»f Eur. Med. 1331. 2r»Uv y *^XXifv» Id. Herad. 130. 
'£xx«t)«f yni Soph. Phil. 256. 2r^«er/a( 'EXA.«^0f Eur. Rhes. 233. 
rc/v«rx« T^««^c Id. Andr. 867. T^«^^«( x^i^vU Id. El. 1001. 2xi;^})v if 
«7/Mv .£sch. Prom. 2. Ti;;^«i 1\ ^trrt^ Id. Ag. 6G4. — These words, as sub- 
stantives, are commonly appellations off persons or countries, M^y ytnn, yn, 
Ac, being understood. 

§ 449. 5. Use of the Neuter. The substantive use 
of the neuter adjective (§ 447. a) exhibits itself in a variety of 
forms. Thus, 

«.) A neuter adjective with the article often supplies the place of an a6" 
tiract notin; as, T« )' k^rXwt »a) r§ itXnfii XtifjuT^t re mt/re rf iiXtPt^ iTvam, 
Imt nncerUy and truth he thought to be the same with foUy, ii. 6. 22. Svv r^ 
}<»«/y (cf. Mir« i^$»im.s) lb. i H. Tc ^aXi^rcv [= n ;^«Xi«'0rif(] r»v trvtv/Mi- 
T»f iv. 5. 4. Ov yaif i^tiftif irr/v i i^t^v* ro m'oXv xeu ri oXiyov, *the much 
and the little,* vii. 7. :t6. T« vri^riv [==: *» vrUrtf] lli. i. 68. Aim, ri avaU 
0^tir0f vfAiit lb. 69. *twi yk^ rsu ^t^tx»(»y( rni 9i»nt Id. vii. 73. To y 
Xftiv Tr^iiviAw Eur. Med. 1 78. T^ ^^xAXcrr^vn rns yvtifitttft the [differing] 
difference of o^ptnion, Th. iii. 1 (Thuc. is especially fond of this use of* the 
Partic). T« ^iv hhit mvrou . ., ri ^\ ^a^rtft/v, his [being afraid] fe(ir . ., 
htU his confidence. Id. L 36. *£y rf f4.ii fAiXiritrt lb. 142. 

/3.) Neuter acyectives (both with and without the article) are used with 
prepositions to form many adverbial phrases ; as, 'Avi rov mtrofieircvt of their 
own accord, i. 2. 1 7. *Ev yt rf f«vf^^, openly, i. 3. 21 . Atit r«;^tA>v, rapid' 
fy, i. 5. 9. 'E^ Uw iii. 4.47. '£« rti* ItnarSr iv. 2. 25. 'A*** r»v ^^iir«9 
iv. 3. 9. KjBTft raurti, m (Ae «ame way, v. 4. 22. *£«•) 'htl^m. vi. 4. 1. Am^ 
<ratfif, throughout, vii. 8. 11. 

§ 490* y.) Neuter adjectives are used in connection with words of 
difi^vnt gender and number (commonly as appositives, § 331) ; as, 4>«Ci^4(. 
rmm V k^nftim, and toUtude is the most terrible thing of all, iL 5, 9 (cf. Svf*^ 
CsvXh ii^o xvif** ^ Theag. 122 b). Ti «Zv raura Urif t ii. 1. 22. Tavg 
tk ^TttfMvs i9'0(»f 99/itiZtTt iifeu iiL 2. 22. 'M.uxnvmt fux^iv «v, Mycena was a 
small affair, Th. L 10. EuCm» y»f avrsig . . wsivTtc fTv, for Eubcsa was every 
thing to them, lb. viii. 95. 'Ar^ivSrrf^tfv yuwh Avi^ie PI. Rep. 455 e. "At^^tf 
H iiftirtfM irXwe'tM iiV)v tviiv lb. 556 d. ^Enrafm ri fiti^iv iTvtfi Eur. Rhes. 
818. 11^;^ rif «v^v [sc 0vr«] lb. Ph. 598. TJiv /in^h uf ri ^iv Soph. 
EL 1166. T«i;r» ^ ^vv«r«v i^cvn, 'an impossibility,* PL Pamu 160 «• 


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Aju^m tut^M w »»^f \ Id. Hipp. Haj. 288 c. "^lyt f ;Xr«rw wiXif E«v 
Med. S29. Otftat ykf vf*ii r^r^i yn* Ktftvfiiat rk ^^Zr ictg^ett Jb. 916. 
K^ivd^m. V ifrHv tSp ifuiv r« fiikrarm j£8ch. Eum. 487. — In these casefl^ 
■n adjective agreeing in gendei and namber with the sabstantive would either 
express a different idea, or would expi»8s the same idea with less emphasis. 

^.) The neuters itXtUf or rXMv, fttTdv or lx«rr«v, ?r«y, Ae*i^<V) and «>} ara 
•ometimes used as indeclinable a^jectiyes or substantives ; thus, 'Mu^tm^g 
trXirtfv 11 i^hxtt, myriadt more than twelve in number, y. 6. 9 (cf. Kfirts «'Xi/- 
• Vf H i|9»«vr« iy. 8. 27). Mirltff irXUr 4 r^tSf fiifitSv L 2. 11. OSnts ttu^ 
rm irHv wXitv n rirr«^«»«yr« H. 6r. iii. 1. 14. "AXtn, $h fimt ^udif rrm* 
%mvf the Haly»f not leu than two ttadia in breadth^ y. 6. 9. Oaiu^ ^ifuXm- 
0ms «v /Cf r«y n *Xtiq^utmt Cyr, yii. 5. 11. *A«'«»ri/y«v«'i rSf iiii^v »v fjkun 
^vtrmMfUut vi. 4. 24. 4>^«t;^«t»f ^a^ tturS •v» 7X«rr«y rtr(at»i0;^tXit09 
H. Gr. iv. 2. 5 (cf. 'S^tv2»fnrmt . . tint IXmrrcvs rir(mxo0'imv lb. 16). IIsA.- 
Tdfrm.) «r0y [= Ttfturt §foi\ ^ia»W6t, targeteere as many as two hundred, 
yii. 2. 20 (cf. 'H^iTf rM-Ai/rtfi Sdtu t^cvt rv «f«f ii. 1. 16). Aiitn . . Sfn 
ftfmaiv* Eq. 4. 4. AiPavs • • «r«y fivaaUyg »») 9'Xi7$9 »«) ^ir«» Mi^. £q. 1.16 
(cf. *OXoir^ix"^f ifia^iaievs xa) ftti^tvg »«) IXarrtug iy« 2. S). "Or* «b)^y ^ 
r»u ftfi^h Avrig-Ttit vTt^ Soph. Aj. 1231. - Tl^wrat • • t« ftniXv Svth Eur. 
Herad. 166. K^i/rr*> tatv W ^n^t* Id. Tro. 412. Aantwrtt i7v«i ri, appear- 
ing to be something, i. e. of some consequence, PL Gorg. 472 a* (If ^f|)<y and 
r2 did not here remain without change, they would be confounded with the 
masc, and the expressions would lose their peculiar force.) 

Notes, (a) So, with th^^lur. form instead of the sing., Ilft^^^ivii nftU 
^( ^Xiit ft r^tTs PI. Menex. 335 b. (b) In some of these oases, the neut. 
•4jectiye appears to be used like an adverb. See § 529. i3« 

§ 49 1* t.) A neuter adjective used substantivdy, or as an attributa 
of an infinitive or clause of a sentence, is ctften plur, instead of sing. (§ 336) ; 
as, £i r6ur$ ri i^uXifAivct Atrt^ohitit Hi it ravrd rt lf%iXuvr;^ this which 
is due should be paid, or if both this should be due, viL 7. 34. Ov r«i7r« 
Af^^y lf;(^«^MM . . • *t y»( retvrat Xiytfin A^^2,7, *Or»y /eiy ri Jkyniiv 
tX'^'h «'<Bf«»«AM/ri /M iiri ravrn Symp. 4. 50. IX fU» ro^tburn XC'I 
r«iiry, xXatuv iXttvUg Ar. Thesm. 1062. *A^' thx S^c*t raU » Soph. (Ed. C 
883. *AiteXX»n TaV nf . , i naxk nank rtXSv, ' it was Apollo,' Id. (Ed. T 
1329. Ovx "latnt r«J« liV/y, there are here na^onians, Th. vi. 77. 'A)iiy« 
rm jfy i«'i;^fi^iry^Id. i. 125. Ati^yftiv*, itt 7m»i, nfy^i xmrinvuf Soph. 
Ant. 576. OSt 9lt wa^tb^arin ratt *k6n*mUts Urn Th. L 86. 

Note. This use of tiie Plur. for tiie Sing, appears to have arisen from 
the want of a noun, or definite object of sense, to give strict unity to the con* 
option. It is very frequent in demonstrative pronouns, «Qd in verbals in ^«i 
and -r'ff- 

§ 493* 6. An adjective often takes a substantive in the 
Genitive partitive^ instead of agreeing with it. In this con- 
struction, the adjective is either in the same gender with the 
substantive, or in the neuter (commonly the neut, sing.). 

"hUai rk ^waviaTa rSv w^ayfAirttJt [for ir^Ayfutrtt], fAtiSi r«vf iZ ^(•uSitmi 
nm Mv4f0w»n [for ktfi^^ws}, nether virtmms actions [the virtuous of action^], 
•ar wim mm [tha wise of men] Isocr. 34 d. AmtMt^mrii rt [for Xm^m'f^^ 


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^B. 2.] STNBSIS. 

nif Tjf], mmte distinction [something of distiw..^ 
*^>*« [for kZ^kit ^atfnfha^ soft cheek [softnesseB 
'kMfiM^ . . ^tmt Soph. Ant. 1209. 

Note. In this way, greater prominence and distinctness of expression, 
and sometimes a species of independence or abstractness (§ 449. «), are given 
to the adjective. Upon the whole sabject, see §§ 358 - 862. 

§493* 7. Stnesis. The adjective oflen agrees in gen* 
der and number with the idea of the speaker^ instead of th^ 
subject expressed ; particularly with, 

m. Ck)LLBCTnrB Nonifs^ and words used eoOectivefy ; as, *H Tt fi9vxh . ^ 
^M A'yf0W9Ttfj and the aewtte, not ignorant^ H. 6r. ii. 3. 55. K^etoyii i* r$v 
*EX>.f;M»0v ^r^artVfAartt [^^ 0^^»rtmTtii\ "tiomiXiv^fiivrnv ill. 4. 45. Tj^v iroXt* 
[w»Xirati] . . Sfrat Th. iii. 79. hivZet , , ivrUrti k^ *A0nfetlot9, ^tfi/Xn- 
/ < y r • c lb. 2. N « t7 V i» rait *AfitivSv Hxat/^av !«*/ n *AXxiCi^'ifiv, is «tXt(/r«y- 
rms Id. vi. 53. Ov)' S(9i$ ivg^f*»uf A«'a^^uCii7 fiaitt, itvh^a^fii^w fitCfUrts 
iSnMvs XiVtff Soph. Ant. 1021. 

^. Words in the fhiral used for the emgukir (chiefly ri/*us for iyi) ; as, 
'LsfrtM^tv • . ir^arwirvvv, tpe [=» /] AewecA you, falHng down, Eur. Here. 
1206. *HXi«» fitter ufifAif 6m, %^tif A ^^^» $u ^•v>.6fMu lb. 858. Aut»ifu^4m 
• . »(«rif^rr« Id. Ion, 1250. 

^. Nouns of which the gender does not foUow the sear (§ 75) ; as, ^fi 
^/Xr«r , I? «'i(i«'rc r//M<t^*^f ruivn>, deareat, moat fondly cheriehed aon, 
Eur. Tro. 7S5. T^^' l^»«f . Mar^awrm. Id. Bac. 1307. Ti»f» ^af^ti Urn* 
tmCaivrtf Ar. Pint. 292. KtXXino^tiyt Buvrtliof Ar. Ach. 872. Tk riXn 
n»TttCa9r»( Th. iv. 15. 

X Words for which othdk? might have been used ; as, *H vig'st [as urn* 
ftm,^ w^Sre* tl^^ara yiufiat rtUg *A/«ir«/«<f, XtyiiAtftt Th. iL 47 (cfl Tj ^» 
•Zf *i^/*m lb. 51 ; yet see § 450. y). IlSra il yifttt [ss x»«f] ^^v>-ar* 
..^jir*»» Eur. Tro. 531. 

I. Words governing a ftenitioef to which, as the more important word, th« 
Adjective conforms in gender and number ; as, ^iXrtir AJyt^hv fim, dearest 
majei^ of JEgisthus, iBsch. Cho. 893. T^«/«y Ikivrtg inir»r *Afy*iM* wvix§t 
Id. Ag. 577 (cf. «). To 7fk rSv irgtrCuri^$t9 . . ^tm^tuvrtg PI. Leg. 657 d. 
Tit rit ^mniftn • . «'«i«i/^|y«i Soph. Phil. 497. *A%»vm ^fayy»f ifvifiattf »««^ 
mXMl^»9r»t oUr^f Id. Ant. 1001. — In these expressions, the Gen. and the 
word whidi governs it usually form simply a periphrasis^ and are treated ao- 

§ 494* 8. An adjective sometimes agrees with a Greni- 
dve implied in another adjective (commonly a possessive) ; as, 

Ti ci9 [» rMTj pJfnt U^fut, the gift of you alone. Soph. Tr. 775. ToTg 
ifHTifit [j^n/uif] ttbriiv ^ix§t9, <mr own friends (§ 505. S), vii. 1. 29. 
T« v^iri^' aurSf ^MiXiVxiri Dem. 25. 5. 0^«fy«v . . iftif rit ttltrnf 
MbcUl Ag. 1322. T«v i/»«y fdv mitrtv rtZ r»^m^99 . . /3/«» Ar. Pint 
33. TOif^k %w0rnfv nnnd Soph. (Ed. G. 344. 2k f il»V«' "^ t^iytU* 
fe«rv*«ff 4fc»«C«i>«»r«i PL Conv. 194 a. G£ §§ 332. 4, 383. «. — Inlika 
masoar, a« the Dat. mii^ be used tat the Geo. (§ 412), '^/Ut^n [— ^J 
Utem iftsx^ n^n^ • • ti^M^f JBa6b, Fkw 144» 


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§4»55. 9. Attraction. An adjective is sometimes at-^ 
tracted by a substantive either, (a,) governing^ or (/J.) in ap* 
'position with^ its real subject ; as, 

«. Taiif/LOf mlfAet . . ^ttr^ify the blood of my father. Soph. CEd. T. 1 40O 
OvfAdf . . 9raif xatiif Eur. Andr. 584. H'uuv m'^os &Xkti9 l^riav 0'»(tv0'»fim* 
Id. Ale 538. MtX«va g-ToX./tc¥ «'i«rX*)y lb. 'il5. ^tTnes «»^^«y ^vtmtfcm 
Soph. Ant. 793. HaXtag xo*r»u ^ivit Id. Ph. 1123. *H ri*»«» Jjfr c^^tt 
. . (ikafrov0-a Id. CEd. T. 1 375. — In most of these cases, the Gen. with the 
Vord which governs it may be regarded as forming a complex idea, which thf 
adjective modifies. This construction is chiefly poetic 

^. 0/ yct( i^fimXfM), uAxXjwtw St [for *»M-«f ], for the «ye«, bang the i 
beautiful of objects (§ 450), PI. Rep. 420 a Twg y«^ fniyt^rm i^fifMifrnxi" 
Tag, avMT»Vf ^ Svrettf ftiyirrnv ^\ aZ^Bt* [for 0vr«(] fiXdCriv xeXiMf, ««'«X- 
Xdmiv ilvhv PI. Leg. 735 e. TLeivTa & ^n »>s l^iag alrks auras [for athrit 
«rr«J if1lraXMfAZi1^afA^9 PL Parm. 1 53 a. "HXiCf . • <r«yr*)v XafAT^ararai, the nMy 
the most splendid [sc thing] of all things^ Mem. iv. 7. 8 (this is the common 
construction when the superlative is foUowed by a Gen. partitive of different 
gender from the subject of the sentence). 

Note. An adjective is sometimes, in the poets, attracted by*ja Yoc ; aa^ 
"OkCn »S(t yifota [for SxCiag, »*f(c, y,], may you be happy, boy, Theoc 1 7. 66» 
. 'lit ^vcTfiv* rv, Ivrrnn [for -•f] . • ^etnif Soph. Ph. 75d. Cf. Sic venias ho* 
dieme TibulL L 7. 58. 

§ 4«SO* 10. An adjective sometimes agrees with a sub- 
stantive instead of governing it in the Gen. partitive (§§ 358- 
360) ; as, 

Ili^i fiiras fuxreiti about midnight [the middle of the night], i. 7. 1 (c£ 
"Ev fitU^ fvxran Cyr. V. 3. 52). Ai« ftivnt ^\ rns iraXtatg, and through the 
midst of the city, i. 2. 23. T* &XXa rr^arn/^o*, M« rest of the army, lb. 25. 
'Ey V Hii^etft fiks itwi, and going on [the extremities of the feet] tiptoe. Ear. 
Ion, 1166. 

§45y. 11. Adjectives are often used for adverbs and 
adjuncts, and, by the poets, even for appositives, and dependent 
clauses ; to express, 

•. Toes; as, *A.^tx9Wfrm • • r^tratTst [= rn '•^'«» V^ff ]» **^ arrive on 
A« third day, y. 3. 2 (g£ iii. 4. 37, and % 420). l,»»Tctia$ ^r^anitrtt U. 2. 
17. n^tfr^^ft Kii^tfv . . a^intr^ L 2. 25. T$X$vr£f ij^aXiitaunv, at last 
he became angry, iv. 5. 16. 

fi. Place; as, ^xfivavfM* l^atii^tat, we encamp in the open air, v. 5. 21 
(cf. 'T*** ttis ail4(iecs iv. 4. 14). At^tof ^ftyyifitvaf vi. 1. 23. 'E^i/M^ 
l<pirTi»i Soph. CEd. T. 32. 0tiX£ffftaf lx(i^PaTt lb. 1411. ^atrft %' 
vtrt^irovTiaf Id. Ant. 785. 0i;^«/«v 9t;^nh Id. EL 313. Mir«»v/«i«f 
&T»e, nmid the waves of woe, Eur. Ale. 91 (§ 383. a). UaXXk 3* a^S ravras 
[srr«vr*} or r^i, § 421. /3] ir^aCaTa, and I see here many aheep, iiL 5. 9. 
*T3^afAfif S^av atvrie tin* Our at, i^*f, i^trhv ^^a^i^^trat, *here he COmes,' 
PI. Rep. 327 b. *Cii init S^^«) as CAe man if Aere, Soph. CEd. C. 32. II*. 
ftvavrati yk^ •T^i ^ rtfts lb. 111. *AXX* SfV iwdlsiv l» Hfntn rig t(X%rm 
Eor. Ale 137. 'Or %1fi *0(irrir# Id. Or. 380. *Ie«f \%%'!%st . . ^i^rms. 
* aiU there.' #. 339. 


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y. Maivnkr; as, TLvnZM\y.nr6 . . at *EXXif rircvrMKXA) VtfXf if }»«0r»4, <ft« 
HelluponHc eitiei contributed wittingly ^ i. I. 9. *0 fih \»ifv itttvUf (cf. *0 fih 
Ixavfitf raXewrntfSf) Mem. ii. 1. 18. Oi ti ^r^mriZTm,* i^f^«yr« n^imf xa.) 
th4ut i?«'«yr« JLg'fAtfti vii. 2. 9. Kar^ytriy raS' 9(xi»f i^acut Soph. (Ed* 
C. 1637. 'A»i/#«i r^i;t:*» '^'> *<^^ *^^ speed, Ar. Plut 229^ Tws nxpeht 
uwfiriviovf ««'i^i^«r«y H. Gr. U. 4. 19. 

i, Effect; as, l&S^ti/i»f [^^m tS^ti/Mf iJvtu] . • tutfAnvtf ^rifia, hutk 
your mouth to silence [bo that it should be silent], ^sch. Ag. 1 247. T*ly «**>» 
^^S^xTMv if/tfiMTttp ntrtifuptst [deprived of your sightless eyes] rendered 
sightless by the loss of your eyes, Soph. CEd. C. 1200. 2v xai ^ixatif «)/- 
»9Uf ^^tvetf wa^ag-w^ Id. Ant. 791* Mi/^«»' IxnvS Xiyn Id. Tr. 679* 
X«^ rtlin^n • . iirxUetf Ear. Ale. 35. 

I. Various Relations and CmcuifSTAirGEB ; as, *Axx«i il ^r«v l|«. 
xt&x'*^*** iV***?;, * bemdes,' i. 7. 1 1 . Ov ><'«^ ^v X*f*f '^^ £ X X « «v$iv ^Iv* 
)^0» i. 5. 5. SvXifas watatfi/iiftUt made of wood, y. 2. 5. *A9^(o^ii(»» 
[ss ^y^^«; ^«(iyr«f] . . »1fMir»f, hondddcd blood, Soph. Ant. 1022. M«r^«. 
xrir«9 aJfui, the blood of a mother slam, Eur. Or. 833. ll»Xvl»x(v9 
[sss ^-oXXHv imx(v»09] itipvav Id. El. 126. MiX«^<rft<rX«i/f wr»kfAtvi Id. 
Ale. 819. *A(ifrix**( • • «y^» Soph. Aj. 935. *0$«/;^ii^i [=•$«'' 
;^ii^«ir] rtrv xrcMT^ .£sch. Cho. 23. YlafA/tnTif [= «'«»rwy /ciirt^] ri yij 
Id. Pr. 90» Tovit iffAfi^rtt^ [=> «'«»rw( or xxri 9ritr» fji,nrfi{\ vix^w 
Soph. Ant. 1282. *EXiy«| »^<rr«^«»Tif[= i^tvrtt fAOtfrtf] Id. Ph. 1338. 

§ 458* Notes. 1. In cases like the above, the adjective form ap- 
pears to be assumed through the attraction of the substantive, or in other words, 
for the sake of binding tc^ther more closely the different parts of the sen- 
tence, and giving greater unity to the expression. It will be observed that, 
m some of the examples, the adjective simply forms an emphatic pleonasm. 

"?. In some instances, a Genitive unth its adjective appear to have been chang- 
ed into two adjectives agreeing with the governing stUtstantive ; as, Uivrtif r* 
Aiymitn [for «'«vr«» r AiyttUu] Iv* a»r«v «X<^iy«v, and upon the harbourless 
coast of the jEgean Sea, Eur. Ale 595. ll§rxfAi^ ^^f^Hf *"• ^^^^ irtrxfuS 
N^ri^«tf] xm^f, unth the oar of the nether stream, lb. 459. 

3. Derivative and compound adjectives are formed in Greek with great free- 
dom, and the latter, especially among the poets, often appear to have taken 
the place of a simple adjective or noun, by a species of emphatic or graphic 
pleonasm; as, 'iitvtifiiruxMt [s^ /juvavfl irtiXtvf, singly-bridled [=s single] 
horses, Eur. Ale 428# *Ay'%Xate fiovfUatf [= ^«5»] Soph. (Ed. T. 26. — 
The poets often repeat a noun in composition with i- privative or a similar 
word, to express emphatically the idea of negation or of evil; as, "M-nrn^ Afin' 
Ttt^, our [unmotherly mother] mother, yet no mother, Soph. El. 1 154. Tafi»f 
AyMfM9 Eur. HeL 690 (cf. Innvptis . . nuptiis Cic de Or. iii. 58). *Cl wmrt^ 
mvi^atrt^ iEsch. Gho. 315. 

^ 4«59« 12. Anacoltjthon. An adjective sometimes 
differs in case from its subject, through a change of construc- 
tion (cf. § 333. 7) ; as, 

Bifif . . fifxiiv iret^xyyiXXu XaCirrH r«wf iv^fxt, he commands Xenias tit 
• eome, taking his men (cf. HmfmyyiXXu ^4f ri KXia^xf >^^»*'*'* ^»m), i. S. 1. 
^imCanUrmt /aUtu i TX»u$ ahr»it U^f«yi} ii 4. 24. *K^»Cx't^ns . . t^ 
^m PL Lig. 986 a. See the syntax of ^he Infinitiy* and PartidpU. 


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NoTB. The VM of other cases with the Oemiue partUkfe (as in §§ 3M 
866) maj be referred to simple ellipsis. 

IL Use of the Degrees. 

[The following observations apply both to adjbgtivbs and advebbs.] 

^ 4mO« I. Words are compared not only by inflection 
(§§ 155-163), but also by the use of adverbs denoting more 
■0 and most ; as, 

MeikXtP flx«*i mon agreeable^ Soph. Ph. 886. Tdn ft^Ju^a ^iXwt, <ft# 
moit Jriendfyy viL 8. 1 1. *il wXitfTtt fui(M Soph. EL 13^26. 

NoTBS. (a) The two methods are sometimes nnitad for emphasis or 
perspicuity (c(. ^§ 161. 1, 462) ; as, 0av*w )' «y tU fuiXXev ivTvx*f^*tt <9 
T^ifj and dying he wovld be happier, /or happier Acm Umng, Ew. Hec 37 7« 
Tif tiXXff fiaXXtv ifitm^^(»s i Mach. Sept. 67 3» TltXv 0S9 t^iTrTtv . . fuHX- 
X^f «Mv. 6. 11 (ef. lb. 12). yUXt^rm hnirttrtf Th. vii. 42. TJ^y vrXts^rw 
n^ivTwt ^sSv Kf/g-^/v Enr. Ale. 790. *ft fiiytrrtt Ix^/rrti ywmt Id. Med. 1 323. 
(6) So the Comp. and Sap. are united, ^H wm^Zf tnhm wxi»f afti^m IxfitS^ 
Ix^i^rtt In fiet Soph. £1. 201. 

§461. II. The COMPARATIVE is commonly construed 
with the particle ^, than^ or with the Genitive of distinction ; 
and the superlative with the Genitive partitive. Thus, 

^XwffK morn (AaXXn n • • 'A^ra^S^^ny, hmng him more Ihan Ariaxerxea^ 
L 1. 4. See §§ 351. 362»^, 363. y. 

Rebiarks. 1. The Comp. is sometimes construed with other partides, 
which commonly strengthen the expression (cf. 460. «) ; as, "EAxxtt* . • w^i 
TOO ^tvytiv, more honorable [in preference to fleeing] than to flee, PI Ptuede, 
99 a. *Kvr) r§9 «'A.i«y, more [instead of you] than youy Soph. Tr. 577. 
Tlv»voTt^at «*«(« r« . . fitnifianuifttftbf more frequent [beyond] than lAr 
recollections^ Th. i. 23* Hfh i^ttfretf . . irXiiAr, more [in comparison witk 
all] than aU, Id. vii 58. IXi^ft r^v ^utraf ft^eirt^u PI. GoTg. 487 d. 
"Err/v woXt/A^f evx (i*Xciv re w'Xitfv, ikXXk ^aveivfis, [war is not of arms tha 
more, but of expenditure] war does not require arms more than money y Id. L 83 
(§ S87). Tat»r l^rl x^iivvtt ^xhv ux *A^'yt!ois frwtTvf 'better [but not to 
fall] than to fall,' Eur. Heracl. 231. *A.'roSvnf»cv^^ *^oTt^§f irftp inXt 
ylynirfiat o79t n^ttv Cyr. V. 2. 9 (cf. Hfiri^of n 01 ^iXtt itet^n^Kp lb. vit 5. 41), 
Otf ir^oTt(»¥ Wa,v0ttfT»y Xms . , xari^Tfi^av Lys. 174. 6. 'Eir} yet^ri^t xvvn- 
^•f n, 216. — In the most of t!iese examples, two forms of construction ap- 
pear to have been united. 

2. The construction of the Gren. with the Ck>mp. is often dliptieal; as,- 
*Eirii irXttMv X(^*^y ^' ^*^ f* Ji^i^xuv toTs xirttf riiv Mait, since the time ia 
greater, which I must please those below, than those here [than that during which 
I must {Jease those here], Soph. Ant. 74. See § 391. y* 

S. By a mixture of the two methods of construction which belong to th« 
Comp., — (a) When a numeral, or other word of quantity, follows ^Xmss^ 
itXim, ixmrrtfy or ftt7»v, ii is sometimes omitted, though the Gen. is not em* 
ployed; as, * iL*«»'rti*tv^i rHv ivi^Sf §v puTdv v^vraxa^icuf, *not less than 500^ 
vi. 4. 84. See § 45a ), andof: Abn ompfiMt erant qtdngmUi, C3$m. yUL lOu— 



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QH) To the Gen. gvnnud by the Oomp., a qwdfieatiaa if somedmes mmeud 
with if ; a8» T/ r«i)^' Av tv^nf* ii^«y ivrv;^i#Ti#«», j| «r«i^ ^i/iMM ^«#vXi4v#i 
Eur. Med. 553. Tmt y«tv r «^/y*> rtii ^^ttZv, i vuf ^i^u Soph. Ant. 1090* 
OJ ri &f ftM>iX$9 ^w«tiim0ui rtg . ., H t»ut» i PI. Gorg. 500 0. See also 
§ 464. N. — (o) The Gen. sometime^ follows Ht instead of the appropriate 
case ; as, Oi it^fu itxitf rns iifU^s, I ^m 9 i^»m rrm^mf H. Gr. iv. 6. 5 
(see § 4S9). 

§ 403« III. The positive is sometimes added to the su- 
perlative for the sake of emphasis ; as, 

*Sl momSp udrnt^rtt O mkst rf the vUe, Soph. (Ed. T. S34. 'kymiSt Iwwim 
M^mrt^Tdt £9 iit^'tvt Cyr. L 3. 15. 

Elj() ^i«^), iMiJ it»f*fti»^», »ti) fAta^mratr%y 

T/ #•/ «r«r' Irr m«^' { •v» i^U( i TP. lL»^mrH» kl* Pax, 189. 

Notes. ». By dombUng the Pm. or fhe Stip., we obtain simibr forms of- 
expression, the one lees and the other even more emphatic than die above ; aa^ 
'Ajpnr affnrvt, horribk of the horrible^ i. e. most horrible^ Soph. (Ed. T. 465. 
Aukaia itikaittt Id. £1. 849 (§ 362. t). "Erx^r Ux'^^"* muxd, the mod 
molent of the most vioieiU reproaches. Id. Ph. 65 (of. §§ 161. 1. 460. «> *0 
)fi itxit Iv raTf fi.%yi^T»$t ftXytgrn Hitat PI. Crat. 427 e. 

^ FVom the doubling of the Sup., as in the last example, appears to have 
•risen the phrase U r$!t, whieb is used with the Sup. to increase its force, and« 
as an adverbial expreasion, without ch&nge of gender ; thus, '£» rt!I$ [se. ir^ 
rtt] «'^M, Jirwt [among the first] of aUj Th. L 6.. 'Ev rtltf w^n Id. iii. 
81. 'E» ro7t ^y.u0Tm ^n 9n%s lb. 17. 'Ev r97t ;^»XtvtiTtirM hny9f Id. vik 
71. 'Ef r9Tt fUXt0T9t, most of aU, PI. Crito, 52 a. 

y. The numeral tff is sometimes used with the Sup., to render the idea of 
hsdmduoKty prominent ; as, ^kj?^« \i ^"kuwrst . ., Js y% 999 9t9n(, IXm/iCavi, he 
received the most presents^ [at least being one man] for a single indioiAuti, i. K 
more than itmy one man besidef L 9. 22. liktT^rm tst lifit^ . . h>9AfU9§s S9pe» 
Xu9 Th. viiL 68. 

). The Greeks are fond of expressing the Sup. negatively ; as, Olx ^»mv« 
[=s fuiXt^^tb], not the least, espedaUyy Mem. L 2. 23. *A»^^*rv sit r«>y aitnst^ 
r9tvAT999 Th. L 5. Msyirr«y ti K9ti ou^ lixt^rat Id. viL 44. 

§ 463* IV. Certain special forms of comparison deserve 
notice ; e. g. 

1.) The Gomp., with a (3en. expressing Aope, duty, power of deteriptton^ &a ; 
•i, MaT^m lx«'i}«f , greater than could have been hoped, above hope^ Modi* Ag. 
iG6. M«XX«v rw V9fr9f, mare than is proper, too much, Mem. iv. 3. 8. K^t> 
#>•» X9y9», beyond description, Th. ii. 50. 

2.) The Ck>mp. followed by ^ netri, or sometimes jf ^9$ ^ as, Mii^, I 
Mttrk ^ait^9t [sc. irrif], [greater than is in accordance with tears] too great foe 
tears, Th. viL 75. BiXr<«v9$ n *mr &»f (999-99 Mem. iv. 4. 24. Mft4^«# . . H 
nar \fu iteti c\ \^iu({t9, too great for me and you to discover, PI. C!rat. 392 b. 
*E»}utrTi(9H . . 11 ^(9t Tfi* i^flc;ri'«f Th. iv. 39. Cf. PraHum atrodus, 
ptQ mmnero pugnantium Liv. 21. 29. 



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S.) Hie Comp. fbDowed by < *Wi (or ii) and the InfinitiTe ; as, B^«;^m* 
fm iiMivri^tv 4 m i&»>t7W««, they ihot [a shorter distance than they most in 
order to reach] too $Mort a dUtanee to reaeh, iiL 3. 7. ULit^»v n »f^Tt ^i^tn 
ivtrnffPtu , »«»o Mem. iii. 5. 17. — We likewise find the Infin. without m^t* or 
mtt and also the Pos. for the Comp. ; as^ T« ytu vUn/** ftul^cf n ^i(tt9, for the 
malady i$ too great to bear. Soph. (Ed. T. 1 293. Ttt^uvh vfJSf n IrnvMi lytut^* 
T*(ii9, your mind i$ too loeak to pereevere, Th. iL 61. "^ux^if, t^ Ji^rt X««. 
earfm lerlf Mem. iiL 13. 3. 

§ 4 S 4* 4.) The Comp. and Sop. (tsx the moat part joined with ah^) 
followed by a reflexive pronoun, to denote the comparison of an object with 
itself; the Comp. representing it as above that which it has been or would be 
in other drcomstances, and the Sup. representing it as at its highest point. 
Thus, *A»^(Mrt^9s yiynreti »urH aurtS, he becomes more manly than he waa 
before, PL Bep. 411 c "O^^ lufmrmrt^M aorti atvrSn Xyiyvnr* Th. iiL 11. 
"On luflTmr9f vrnvr^ rmvrtt ^fffia, uhem you were thf moit skilled m these mat" 
ter$ Aat you ever were, L e. u^en your Mil in these matters was at its highest 
point, Mem. i. 2. 46. "W avris a&rw Tvy;^a9U fiiXTt^r9i A* PI. Gorg. 484 e. 

Note. To the Comp. thus construed, a specification is sometimes annexed 
with if (§ 461. 6) ; as, Avtm \avrSt [S«^/«Xuwt<^«i ^Viv], WuBkw f^ttfn, n 
Wfh fuJuf, they have themselves more confidence when they have learned, than 
tikey had btfors learning, PL Prot. 350 a. T« y vviXt^a* nvrSp rns lil^m 
Mifie'Tt^w »M itburov Urtv, j} it ftnV tfnfinfa* Th. vii.' 56. 

5.) Two eomparatives connected by tf, to denote diat the one property exista 
in a higher degree than the other ; as, ^r^nrnyti ^XtUnt n fitkrUng, generah 
more numerous than good, Ar. Ach. 1078. 'jTU k»y$y^^»t Itn'tismv M ei 
ir^»ymyirt(»9 rp kn^anwttf 4 •X«^l#n^«» Th. L 21. Il^i^S/A^ fmXkes I 
^efmri^a £or. Med. 485. 

^469. V. The comparative and superlative are often 
used without an express object of comparison. In this case, 
the siTFERLATiVE increases tfie force of the positive, while the 
COMPARATIVE may either increase or diminish it, according to 
the object of comparison which is implied. Thus, 

*A ^ofMi0mrar% M^mwty O most wonderful man, iii. 1. 27. *£i Sm^ 
fmnirmr§t viL 7. 10. Tiii» r«;^imiv, immediately ^ iii. 3. 16. IlXt/iv [sc r«5 
Yt»9T9f^ XiXtnrett, [more than is proper] too much has been said^ Eur. Ale. 706 
(cf. M«XX«y r§u ^i$vT»tt § 463. 1 ). Nuwri^*; £t is ri &(X***> heing too young 
for the command, Th. vi. 12. Mec^^ort^tP . . lmyfi^»^^eu, it is rather long 
[than otherwise] to relate, PL Conv. 203 a (cf. ^ 464. 5). *0 ^ avialUrt^is 
ri rt Amn^ivttT*, but he answered them [somewhat more insolently than ha 
might have done] with a degree of insolence, Th. viii. 84. MiXot iSmtt, 
ity^tinirt^n, an energetic strain, somewhat rough, Ar. Ach. 673. Tm h Irl- 
(Mv nmi Akaytirt^n, ' quite confounding,' Th. vi. 46. Tit riv ^«'ii^«ri^«v, one 
of the more inexperienced, v. L 8. 

Note. The Comp. and Sup., when used without direct comparison, an 
said to be used absolutely. When thus employed, the Comp. is often trans- 
lated into Eng. by the simple Pos., or by the Pos. with too or rather ; and the 
Sup. by the Pos. with very. In addition to the examples above, see § 466. 

^466. VI. The degrees are more freely t»/^cA«ii^«l 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


and mixed^ than in English. It may be however remarked in 
general, that the use of a higher degree for a lower renders 
Sie discourse more emphatic, and the converse, less so. Thus, 

TavTtif fUXicrtL [for ir^Xv ^XXm] rnt »i^nf k^^att^ivekty this the chooies far 
rather than the mrgin. Ear. Iph. A. 1594. Si?* . . fittxa^rmr^fj more completefy 
happy than you, X. 482. 'A|i«X«y«ir«r«» rSf it^tytytvti/iitMf, [the most re* 
markable of thoee which had preceded it] more remarkable them any which had 
preceded it, Th. i. 1. ^fl fiiXrtm riv a-Kvrov ^iXtt Ai, Pint. 631. T« »«X- 
Xtrrn • . r*** «'^«ri^«#y ^ti»t Soph. Ant.. 100. *H^» i yt(mirt(»t [for yt 
^irartf], the oldest of tw (though none of them were old), Cyr. v. 1.6* 
"E^) ^t»(it ritnixt* [sc faiWot^ § 460], j} »t/y«if yXvxis, his death has beem 
more hitter to me than sweet to Ihan^ Soph. Aj. 965 (cf. ^ 464. 5). *Ayi«^. 
yn iri^vrtf mt ixiytbt [so. *Xnyki] irc/n/iv, ^tey all cried out ihat he had given 
him too fao blows, y. 8. 1 2 (cf. § 465). 'XI ^iXa yvfrnxSp^ O [beloved of] 
dearest of women. Ear. Ale. 460 (§ 362. 0* Oi waXXdt, Ae greater number, 
or th^most, Mem. i. 1. 19 (cf. 0/ wXtTrrts lb. 11 ; Tmi ^Xu^rt H. Gr. il. 3. 
34). 'Oxly»vf . ., ri h W0k6 1. 7. 20. 0< ^ yt^atrt^H, but the [older] old 
men, Cyr. i. 2. 4. 0/ ftiw tin rnt rin ir^trCvrifttf l^ttttttt ;^«/(»«(^My Mem. iL 
1. S3. 'Iirff'av • • *mXmir%^»9 iy. 5. 35. T< vuvn^tfy, Z ^x^xrtt, yiyw*9y 
what new thing has happened, Socrates, PI. Eutiiyphr. 2 a. Ni*>ri(»v nvkt 
WitvfAtlviTH ir(ay/Amrm9, * a revolution/ H. Gr. v. *2, 9. Oifih xmfeTif**, 
nothing [more recent] new, PI. Ph»do, 115 b. Ov yk^ %*i(«p w»XXtixJs 
kxwM lb. 105 a. n«XXi^ J» «v ^iXrr«y nurait ffri^irixt, ' not well for them,' 
Cyr. v. 1. 12. T/ ^m ^^y Inrm xtHtn \ what then does it profit me to livef 
Eur. Ale. 961 (cf. T/ W i^«2 0y ni^hg Mach. Tr, 747). <t>Mif»«» kf^fih 
Wftytvirrt^BS, 'oldest,' «. 156. 



§ 467. The article (o, ^, to) appears, in the Epic lan- 
guage, as a GENERAL DEFINITIVE, performing the office not only 
of an article as usually understood^ but still more frequently 
of a demonstrative^ personal^ or relative pronoun (see §§ 147, 
148) ; as, ^ ^ 

•O yi(m, Oie old man, A. 33. T« r Utrx, ra r Irrifitm A. 7a T£ ^ 

M^Mvn Ji;^ir^«M, and accept this ransom, A. 20. *0 yei(, Jbr he, A. 9. *Ei^ 
i r»v$* ZffMiiH A. I 93. T«y, u^iom, A. 36. Tk f4.h wcXit* l| W^iiafAU, rk 
^iiUtrrett, 'tiiose things which,' A. 125. 

Rekahks. 1. These uses are intimately allied, inasmuch as, — (a)*Th« 
art, as usually understood, is amply a less emphatic form of the detmmstr* 
pron. Compare, in Eng., " That man whom you see,** and '*The man whom 
you see." — (6) Tho personal pron. of the •'d Pers. is a substantive demonstr, proiu 
Compare, in Eng., * Those that love me,** and " TTtem that love me ** ; " Those 
that seek me," and " Th^ that hate me," Prov. viii. 17, 21, 36. (The per 


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818 SYNTAX OF THE JlRticls. [book HI 

•onal pron., like the art, is oommonly ten wn^fhaHe fban the demeintnitiTt 
osually 80 named.) — (c) The demonstr. pron. used conmctively becomes a 
relative ; as, in Eng., " Blessed are they that mourn." — Observe the resem- 
blance in form between the English article the, and the pronouns thaty thisj he, 
they, &c. ; the derivation of the definite art in the French, Italian, &e^ from 
the Lat demonstr. Ule; and the extensire use of the German articla (kr 
die, doB, 

§ 4:S 8« 2. Ib Epic poetry, — (a) The article, in its proper nae aa 
Boch, b commonly not expressed. The same omission prevails to a great ex- 
tent in other kinds of elevated poetry. — (b) When used aa a personal pro- 
noun, it is most frequently connected with the same particles as in Attic Greek 
(§§ 490, 491) ; and is not unfrequently followed in the same sentence by the 
substantive to which it refers ; as, 'H 2* 2r«'ir# n.»XX»s 'Ainvn, and $he, 
PaUas Minerva, followed, «. 1 25. AJ V iitifiolimv *Ainvmm r% nmi "Yi^n ^ 
SO. Cf. § 499. — (c) As a demonstrative, it sometimes follows its substan- 
tive before a relative ; as, 'Aittmi/AWM itifm r«v, «« »• ^iMnv i^ix^fi^mt n, 
73. Sw/iricw* TMiv, Ai WinXXi E. 319. — {d) The article when used as a 
perseoal or demonstrative pronoun has sometimes, from its position (see 
$ 491. B.), or for the sake (xP the metre, the same form in the Kom. with tha 
oommon rehitive ; as, *0t yk^ huraurn Miv^ for he returned last, «. 286. 
Mff^ Is ^»yu Z. 59. *0 y«^ yi^s Uri ^pifrm*, ' for this,' Y. 9. 

3. In the later Ion. and in the Dor. writers, this extended use of the articU 
was, in great measure, retained. £. g. in Hdt, the relative has in iha Norn, 
aing. and pi. the forms it, iu ^'t »^f »h v*^ * f>^^ ^^ elsewhere the r* forma 
of the article, except after prepositions which suffer elision, and in the phrases, 

4. Traces of the earlier and freer use of the article likewise remained la 
the Attic and common Greek ; so that we shall treat of the Att use of the 
article under two heads, (i.) its use as an article, and, (n.) its use as a pro' 
noun, combining with the latter the use of the relative forms (§ 1 48. 2) aa 
demonstrative or personal. We ou0it, perhaps, te premise, what might ba 
inferred from ^ 467. 1, that no predse line of division can be drawn betwee*. 
the use of the article as sud^ and its use as a proaoun. 

I. The Article as an Article. 

^469. Rule XXVII. The Article is pre- 
fixed to substantives, to mark them as definite. 

NoT^i^ 1^ The Greek article is commonly translated into English by the 
dejinite article the ; but often when used substantively, and sometimes when 
used adjectively, by a demonstrative pronoun ((§ 476, 479, 486. l). With a 
participle following, it is most frequently tran&'ated by a relative and verh^ 
preceded, if no antecedent is expressed, by a personal or demonstrative pro- 
noi^ (§ 476). It is often omitted in translation, especially with proper nameSf 
abstract nouns, nouns used genericalbf, vmdi pronouns (§§ 470, 471, 473); and 
must be often supplied in translation when not expressed (§§ 485, 486). 

2. A substantive used ind^itdy wants the article ; as, E«X^ yk^ Sv- 

0avf^, ^mfl itv'h^t ffWMtiai^ ^^f i(pu\»fAini, a favor due from a ^ood mum k 
•A excellent treasure^ laoct.Sh, See§518.«. 


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CILS.] with GEIfBSie^ ABSTRACT NOUNS, &C. 317 

§ 470. A substantive used definitely is 
either employed in' its full extent^ to denote that 
which is knoum, or, if not employed in its full ex- 
tent, denotes a definite part. 

A.) A substantive employed in its full extent^ to 
denote that which is known^ may be, 

1.) A substantiye used genericaBy, i. e. denoting a whoU ckua; as, i &*t^m 
irofj fiuM (referring to the whole race), n ywtit woman, «/ &vi^m^»i, men, «/ 
*A^ifP«7M, t^ ^MenioiM (the whole nation). Thus, '0 ivi^ttires ^Mftfirtf'* 
mttfMivfin, man wa» named &f6^at^9tt PI* Crat. 399 C. *0 yc^ fVfitCavXog mm) I 
^int»(p»9Tiu • • tv ravTf wkiicrov »XXn>.tff iui(pi^9V^iv Dem. 291. 1.5. Kau rSp 
'£xx4y*>» h.tx''^ i^Xirai . . r^teutsfUvg, *of Greeks,' L I. 2. Of. § 485. /S. 

Note. To this head may be referred substantives used dtstrilmiivefy, whidi 
eonsequentlj take the article ; as, KS^»s vvirj^vcTr^i . . r^ «^«^/x« r«S 
ftmm rif ^r^armTif, Cyrus promises three half-^kirics [the month to the sol- 
dier] a month to each soUiery i. 3. 21. — Even with %xmfr»s • as, "ISjumrm vi 
th^u eoch nation, i. 8. 9. Ejira r^ i^Xlmt titatwrt ^u» /Atm Th. r. 49 (cH 
*£»«rr«y «rx«» iiL 5. 10. For the podtion of i»»rr»s, see § 472. u, 

2.) A substantive eiq>ressing an abstract idea ; as, *H «^ir«, virtue, A tutnim, 
vifie, 4 fft^im, wisdom, r« iimXiv, tins beautiful (§ 449. m)» 'H rtt^fo^Am, »«2 4 
lyj^ruet, »ui n Jik»n Gyr. vii. 5. 75. Ct § 485. fi. 

3.) An injinitive or clause used substantively, or a word spohen of as suchf 
•8, T« ^y, to live, Kfe (^ 445).. Atk ri ^tUlfiou, through fear, y. 1. 13. E/f 
r« fiin ^tk r« iyyuf titmt ^Mf$au vil 8. 20. T« «y0^« I &v^(t>9'»f, the name 
HtS^i^of PI. Crat 399 c. T« /m/mk h fAtix»9^ lb. 415d. T«ih»ft» r$if 
4^(1 r If V lb. e. (In the three last examples, the article conforms by attraction 
to the noun following, instead at being neuter (§ 445), inasmuch as the word 
iftfiui expressed sufiftciently shows that &*t^mic»t, &c., are spoken of merely as 

^471* 4.) The name of a monaSc object; i. e. of an object which 
odsts singly in nature, or which is so regarded {fMw%tx,U^ single) ; as, i ilTast, 
Ae sun, If riX^rif, tite moon, fi yii, tite earlh, i »b^mfit, the heavens. Thus, "Exu 
«^«^» 11 yfi ti^i rav •h^fav, the earth receives nutriment from the heavens, (Eo. 
17. 10. Cf §485. ft. 

5.) The name of an art or science ; as, *H Ur^tz^ mmi n ;t;«Xxii;r/xii jmiI 
I rtnrsftxn, medicine and brasiery and carpentry, (Ec. i. 1. Of. § 485. ^. 

6.) A proper name, which has been before mentioned or implied, or which 19 
well known; as, Kv^n H fAiret^i/A^trtu . « 'AvaCamt aZv i Kv^tff, But he sends 
for Cyrus, Cyrus therejfore goes up, i. 1.2. Asa ^(uyiag . .. Trie ^^vyiat 
w»\$9 i. 2. 6, 7. Ki7^«f 9^» K/Airr«r tU rn* KjXixtav A^a^ifiiru, Cyrus sends 
the aiician qeeen to Cilicia, i. 2. 20. 'T«4( rnt *£A.X«$«f, in behalf of Greece 
(their native land), i. 3. 4. Cf. § 485. #. 

NorcBS. (a) Fcoper names appear to take the article, from their being, m 
their origin, either adjectives used substantively (§ 448), otjummfA nouns used 
distincti^ (§ 479). Thus, *H 'ExXmt [sc. y«]. [the Greek land] Greece 
(plOBp. JS w^imd, the land of the AnglM» in French UAnglettne^ Seetland, 



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Ireland) ; 'O TXXiirrM r«f , [the sea of Helle] the HeUeiptmt ; 'O Ili(i»xSi 
[sc. i»i»J, [the Illustrious Man] Pericles; '6 ^'i\t9"r»St [the Horse-lovwTj 
Philip ; 'Afn^ Mprt; t# yivof xat rtSfOfAa rwr» tx*** ▼• 2. 29. (ft) The ad- 
jective coDBtniction is especially retained in names of rvoerg ; as, *0 "i/Laiafi^H 
wrufitif i. 2. 7. T«(/ Um^fv§u ^•ret/Ativ lb. 8. So, in Eng., the Qmneeticid 

479. B.) A substantive not employed in Us 
extent may be rendered definite, 

I.) By a limiting word or phrase. 

This word or phrase is usually placed, either between the article and its tub-' 
ttanttve, or after the eubstantive ; and in the latter case, the article is often re- 
peated, either for perspicuity or emphasis. Thus, ^*x(' «'«v Mfi^/af r%ix*»t% <u 
far as the wall of Media, i. 7. 15. T^ «'s^} Wv Ilii^KMi rfr;^«f H. Or. iv. h, 9« 
Ta fiMKfii T%$xn VAPV K»(i*fii$0f lb. 4. 1 8. T« ri?;^*; r« IIi^iy^/«r vii. 2. 1 1 
(cf. K«; T«NB7(«i«w r« rt?;^*; •'micTXav Th. i. 108). T« ^v lrw/i» [rtTxtl 
«"(• rfff EaXix/«f . ., r« ^ il^tt r$ itfi rns ^ufittf i. 4. 4. *0 r^ff /3«nXu»f 
^«yM»«f «^X^«f iL 3. 28. T« rns v*u ^ifotrtt ri^vfif 7^«» Pl« P(d- 281 a* 
£y r«rf tuif*m4f rmTg piri^ r*? «y)/«v r«tf «'«^<^ r«r Ktyr^/rifv «'«r«/iMv iv. 3. !• 

Notes. «. On the other hand, words and phrases not belonging to the 
definition or description of the substantive, but to that which ia said about U 
in the sentence, either precede the article, or follow the substantive wUhout (Af 
article; as, "On »tfof i ^iUf tin, tea) «/ k^x'frtt g'Sot, ti^at the fear was ground* 
less, and the generals safe, ii. 2. 21. IftXnf ix**^ ^^^ ««^«A-ffi>, having the head 
bare, i. 8. 6. '£x«i/v«v a»i^ »f»'r&f fi^ouvrt r^ Iv'V'^ lb. 1 . Karirrtf riy «yr/« 
•» rhf ^tikayyti L 10. 10. "Eirir^f nytfAoti rSf 'H^^xXtT, follow ffercu^ 
les as leader, vi. 5. 24 (cf. T^ 'H^i/aw *H^axXi7vi. 2. 15). A/a /Kir«v )l 
TM va^aitiwtu, throng the midst of the parh, L 2. 7 (§ 456). *£y «^ ^y^ff 
/tir^ Dem. 848. 13 (but, To /uiroy ^ripof, the centre division, L 8. 13). IlA* 
ilMv r«v l^trMm ffttfrat, full of the necessaries of Ufe in great abundance, iv* 
4. 7. Tit li Wiritiim w»XX» h kafcCatUf iv. 1.8. 2uf ikiydif rats «^ 
mvTOf, with those about him few» i. e. with few attendants, L 5. 1 2 (but, 2m 
^0tf ixiyuf trtfi ultrif, with the few about him), *£«'i;^«r^r«i 0X99 r^y fi 
Xa77», i. 2. 17. Tfff mf*i^»f aXns iii. 3. 11. !!«#'< . • tm; x^truTf »u) rasg 
^iSruTf ff'Sriy, to all the judges and aU the spectators, Ar. Av. 445. TiXJ^ i|v 
Siicava t) ;^itf(«, ^ country UHU all bare, i. 5. 5. *1S»«rr0y r« i^y^f L 8. 9 
(^ 470. N.). T^ »i(«f U<iri(0y vii. 1. 23. *Aft,(piri^a ra Zru, both his ears 
iii. 1.31. Abrif riv A«»«yi, tM^jpartofM themselves, vii. 7. 1 9 (but, T^^ «»«« 
AAxttn, Ihe same Spartans). Touf rt ati^ctg ctur^vg ii. 5. 39. 

/3. When the substantive is preceded or followed by successive modification^ 
the article is sometimes repeated with each ; as, T« |y *A(»«2if ri r»u Ai«f 
Avxulau h(9f, the temple of Lycaan Jove in Arcadia, PL Rep. 565 d. *Ev rS 
Tttv Aio$ rjif f^tyia-Tif U^rp Th. L 126. T£ n nixn rit lavrSf rk fuut^ 
HutriXtectv lb. 108. 

§ 473. Remarks. 1. It is common to employ the arti« 
cle even when the substantive is rendered definite by a posses* 
sive or demonstrative pronoun ; as, 

«. POMBBEVB. 'O i^ «-«n$e, AQf father, L 6. 6. 'O^/m f^/»i» [«-«i 


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1^ § 39] Cyt. yiiL 7. 26. T^y i/t$ri^t x^i''^ ^^' ^* ^- '^t **l^ ^t ^f^' 
Wff yii. 3. 39. 

/3. Demonstrauvb. The pronotms «Jr«( and Xt%^ as themselves beguming 
with the article ($ 150), do not take it before them, and {K%im follows thdr 
analogy. Hie arranganent, therefore, with these pronouis is the same as in 
§ 47 i^. «. Thus, T«vT«f rk% wi\u%^ thete ettiet, L 1. 8. T«y &9i(» rwr»9 
L 6. 9. T«y^t rif r^i^»p, L 1. 9. *0 /cl» Jifhf Hi ApoL 29. '£»iifiif rnr 
i^i^«f 1. 7. 18. 

Note. Hi proee, when the article is omitted with a demonstrative pronoun 
and a common noun, the pronoun is usually employed as a mbject, and the 
mtnm as an aUrUmte; thus, "Ern ^v 70^ «'ii>mi «0m rafitfr f^ <^ «* mait»- 
fttt poverty, CEo. 8. 2 (c£ Ajj^m 11 iv^tm lb.). EJvnng yii^ mSm fttyiem . • 
l9^nr« Th. i. 1. 'ASm a,Z &xxn v-^ifanf HfU 1.7. 

§ 4:74. 2. Upon the same principle, the article is pre* 
fixed to words and phrases, which are joined with a proper 
name or a personal pronoun to give definiteness or emphatic 
distinction; as, 

T^ /3«riXiv0yr« *A^r«^t(^iiy, [the reigning Artaxerxes] Artaxerxei Ute khiff, 
L 1. 4. MtMry i 0irr«X«f, Meno the ThesMoHan, i. 2. 6. 'Evvm^m, « SviyvU 
ri«f ywfh, rtS KiXiiun fim^tkittf lb. 12. 'A^irrtf^nAMv riv fit x ^99 \wt*ctX»&m 
/tiMv Mem. L 4. 2. 'Eyw . . i V^nvarmUtt . ., v/At7t ti »l l^nxarn/MiyM v. 7. 9* 
H ri\iu¥ Xyv, /, <ft« wretched one (by eminence), i. e. mo«< miserable. Soph, 
EL 1 138. *0(«v ^1 riv 2v^rnv§9 Id. CEd. C. 745. '0 watrknfittP lyti, /, the 
aa-wretched. Id. (Ed. T. 1379. Tip war^o(pirrni, rh itetCn /«i lb. 1441. So, 
iHien the pronoun is implied in a verb, *S\x%Ki(Mt9 i raXeif Soph. Tr. 1015* 
"O rXfifun . . K»m Eur. Andr. 1070. 

KoTB. If, on the other hand, no disttncHon i$ detignedy the article is emittedi 
m, Bif^ *A/«N»r«f, Xenophon^ an Atheman, L 8. 15. Tltfrayvt M^ 
TUf^f lb. 1. *Eyef rdkat, I, unhappy man, Soph. (Ed. C. 747. 'A^X»«» 
fuu itiernfs lb. 844. 

§ 47ff« 3. An adverb preceded by an article has often 
the force of an adjective. This construction may be explained 
by supposing the ellipsis of a participle, commonly ofv or ytwo^ 
fitvog. Thus, 

To vvv X(*^^* ^ [00^ *^«] /»*•»»* time, vi. 6. 1 3 (cf. T« Strn W9 xt*' 
»#» Eur. Ion, 1349). *E» r^ v-^iehv [sc ytPd/Ait^i] Xiy^ii, 1. 1. *0 rav 
$«r«Xit»« •PT«f, »mXieafr4f v» rir$ fia^tXintSy ^'ar^if % rw 9V9 CJyr. iv. 6. 3. 
Tj^y rnfU(w V*e<*» i^* 6* 9* 1**f« «?»«)• i^tfP iii. 1. 2. Tm« ir«vi/ r«y #v^. 
rimrZ9, the beet toldiere, Th. viii. 1. KtHfAtu rtv fl'«X«i Soph. CEd. T. 1. 

l^OTBS. (a) This adjective may again, like any other adjective, be used 
cither em btt a ntivefy or adoerbiaUy (§§ 476 - 478). (h) A prepotition with it9 
earn may be used in the same way ; as, T«v ir AiX^m; x^nfm^Uu, ^ Deiphie 
otade^ Cyr. viL 3. 15. 'A^fU9ia . . h «'^«f Irfri^av, IFestem Armenia, iv. 4. 4. 

^ 47<l. 4. The substantive which is modified is often 
•omitted ; in which case the article may commonly be regarded 
as used substantively with the word or phrase following (see 
^^447,469.1). Thus, 


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880 , BTNT/IX OF THE ARTIOLS. [60'>K Itl. 

TSf irm(k ^anXitt [sc it^^Siii], of Hum fhm Ae ktng^ i. 1.5. T»» in^l 
Tfif Bfi(»ft those engaged in the hunt, or the hunters^ PI. Soph. 220 d. O/ rtS 
\nfAMt Th. vlii. 66, 01 t hhf . . xai m I|«, ^oCA those wWiin, and those wkh- 
mitj ii. 5. 32. T« iriftif roS woraffv, the opposite side of ^ tvoer, iji. 5. 2 
Tm; «'^r«, i. 3. I. £iV ToSf*9'aXt» [to if^mXtv], back, i. 4. 15. Oi i» r«» 
lfl'i»uy«| Mose o^ the country beyond, y. 4. 3. T«V rn'm^ov^t rSf ^iwrmv i. 5. h5. 
Ti r« nttXvov t7ii i/riX^irv| u^Ao^ ^ toot which prevented their entering, iv. 7. 4« 
'0 Mn^v *l», he that is nothing, Soph. Aj. 767. T«v /«i}^ty [0»r«f] lb. iSSl. 
See ^ 450. 

Note. The phrases «/ a^f / and $i wtfi, fbllowed by the name of a person, 
commonly indude the person himself, with his attendants or aseociatcB ; and 
Qometimes, \>y a species of vague periphrasis, denote Utde more than the permm 
merely. Thus, Oi »/w^i 'A^ieiTof, [those about Ariseus] Artceus and those with 
him, iii. 2. 2. 0/ ^t^) StvafUvra, Xennphon with his men, viL 4. 16. Oi il 
hft^ Ti^a-apifvtiv iii. 5. 1 {cf. Ttgva^i^vnf xa) ot rtw etur^ lb. 3). T^ht' AfA^i 
&fn^»)L^of xai *E(«riyi^ffv, Thrasyllus and Erasinides with ihdr eolleagmes, 
Mem. i. !• 18. Oi fut irt^) rahg Ko^ivfiUut if ry Nf^^ n^nv, *i ^l Aunihufii^ 
nt »«} tl ^vfAf»a;^9t l» r!f 2t»uiifi, ' tiie Corinthians with their allies,* H. Gr. iv. 
2. 14. TltrrantS rt net} Siafrtg, net) tSp i/^t row MiXiiritfy &nXn9 Fl. Hipp. 
Maj. 281 C. 

^4yT. 5. When the neiUer article is used substantively 
mm a word or phrase following, (a.) the precise idea (as, in 
English, of ' thing ' or ' things^) must be determined from the 
connection, and (/J.) not unfrequently the whole expresaon 
may he regarded as a periphrasis for an included substantive. 

», Tk rw y^^t$, ffte ecHa of oZi age, ApoL 6. T« &fA^) rh iriks/xav, rntZf- 
tmy exercises, Cyr. ii. 1. 21. T«* ••if) Xl^o^itov, f^ fate of Proxenus, ii. 5. 
37. 'Ey tmV i^ttvt0, [in tiie above] m tAe preceding narrative, vi. 3. I . Ti^ 
^|y ^ Kvftv )«X«y «Ti tfifrA»f t^u ir(»f fiftaf, £a-9't( ru ^fcirt(» 9'(§( lxt7f»f, * the 
relation of Cyrus to us is the same as ours to him,' i. 3. 9. Ta wm^' iftsi 
IXi^im ifr) rSif alxot, to prefer remaining with me to returning home, i. 7. 4. 
*£«ri3 ft rk rSf di«ry xeikiis t7;^fy, and when the gods had been duly honored, ilL 
2. 9. Tk m^) rUf ^xtif, the circumstances of the trial, PI. Phsedo, 57 b. 
'Xm(Uo<P9s jotlv if^fi TtTiXivrnxti, . . ra )' ixttvov Ni*ry *A.e-iva7ct ff'MfiXatCi, 'ksB 
place or office,* vi. 4. I 1. *&9r$ffrnfjfint tnett r«y afupi tx^us, to be skilled in 
tactics, ii. 1.7. Toug rk *Afintxittt (pfovauvrxf, those that favor the cause of the 
Athenians, Th. viii. Si. <^^09t79 rk v-^os o-i vii. 7, SO. T« r£f kktittf, the 
habit of fishermen, CElc. 16. 7. 'flf Ti r» rou ^trxfitov tvrttt i^c^rwnro, * tb« 
diversion of the river,' Cyr. vii. 5. 1 7. Tl rov ^Ifivxiiw l^ww vt^tfiUai, to be 
in the condition of the horse of Ibycus, PI. Parm. 1 36 e. Athinn ri rZt ^xiimt, 
ft> have the boyish fear. Id. Ph»do, 77 d (§ 432). T« r»d 2a<paxXioi/f, what it 
eaid by Sophocles, Id. Rep. 329 c. T« r«y ^x^cfran, the convenience of thoet 
who are present, Id. Gorg. 458 b. See § 447. y. 

$, To Tw Tu;^fiSf the course of fortune, = n rvx^i fortune, Eur. Ale 785 
T^ rSf tmuftdrtitf, the state of the winds, s= rk irnvfiutra, the winds, Dem. 49 
7. Ti ft rZv ;^f ff/MKr«y, but the matter of the money, 5= rk %(nf**'ra. Id. 47 * 
24. Tk rns i^yns = n i^yn, Th. ii. 60. •Ea-iftii rk fixtrtXittt, extoUed <fte king^ 
H. Gr. vii. 1. 38. Tk ^tSt atrtt fiauki/ctv Uroi Eur. Iph. A. 33. Tk ^ 
tdfmt ykf Wx« w^tra vXw W»$ Id. HeL 276. Tlj ^Jk rtr rtJff Ar», rkfui [ti 


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i^ n iyttj S* tvxi rtt^9m Id. Andr. 235. £i ri cM' f^«m «^i(f« Soph. 
EL 1203. See §4 447. y, 453. u 

^4T8. 6. The neuter accusative of the article is 
often used in forming adverbial phrases (^§ 440, 441), in con- 
nection wifn, 

«. AiyVERBS (§ 475. a) ; as, T^ «'aX«i [sc. ^], a« to Aat whidi wtu ofdd^ 
L e. fbmurhf, aneientfy, PL Phodr. 251 b. Tl w^Miw, before, L 10. 10. T^ 
w^it Eur. Ale 977. ItSfitweiXn [ri fft^-aXtv], back^ vi. 6. 38. T9 yt wa^ecu^ 
v/m Ar. yesp. 833. T« VK^tCw-ay Ag. 7. 7^ T« o-^^r** PL Tiin. 41 b. 

/3. AixmcnvBS ; as, T« w^Sra*, at /irst^ L 10. 10. T« ^^Zrm, firU^ Soph. 
Tr. 757. Ta w^irt^f, before, W. 4. 1 4. T« r^/rdv i. 6. 8. T« w^Latn iii. 
4. 7. T«tfX«;^irr«y [r« lxi;^irrM], of /leof^ y. 7. 8. See § 441. 

7. PBEPootnoMB followed by tiieir cases ; as, Ti &^i rM^i, <m toAat cfUr 
this, I e. henoefbrth, €jr. v. 1. 6. T« l» r$Stt lb. 5. 43. T« it^h lrflrie«», to 
<fte •oett, vL 4. 4. See § 475. b. 

^479. 11.) B J previous mention, mutual un» 
derstanding, general notpriety, or emphatic distinc- 
tion ; as, ^ 

k0ard a noi$e paatinff through the rani$f andinqtnred what th* nam imu, L 8. 
16. 0/ I' lirftiMUMf (tXxi'^ Miifittn nnic i»Tw^» i* tg^^rneat »4 *%X>'ims • 
ivi^ yof rnt »«tfitnf ynkt^tf ^v, . . r*>v ^ Ivwivt i Xi^at IrtwXnr^ 
L 10. 11. Tit wXtTa alTU9 L 3. 16 (cf. AiVm ^Xo7u lb. 14). A«t/A4^ 
^ff ^f«rf, « r4 «'«r* fiV)v «i ^f«/Eur. Or. 418. "On Si^^ns S^rt^^v ay%U 
^ ri^v ita(i0fimr«9 ^Tfmrtat i)Jify 'that innameraUe army/ iiL 2. 
13. Tiv«i 9'0$9tif ra wkkk irvtvftar* U^ Sv AifXtit $opb. EL 56S. 
Tif Afifa ifSf I u$ TBB MAir [L e. Artaxerxes], L 8. 26. 'AvMMXtfvimi 
r«v ir(«l«r4i>, exclaiming, ' the traitor I ' vL 6. 7. *A»a»»X»v9ris rit $u» 
i^yirtif, rif Mfi^m r«» mymfit Cyr. iiL 3. 4. 

^ 480« Remarks. 1. From a reference to something 
which precedes, or is mutually understood, the article may be 
even joined, 

m.) With an brcBBSooAnviB PBOSomr ; as, 'AxXa roUtn, tfn i *Ir;^«^- 
XH^ ^iXm 91 . . hnyn^»*i»*» • • Tk «*«?«) I^nv \y«t, I will then, taid Ischom* 
achus, relaU to you other thingt, [The what ?] What are they f said I, (£a 
10. 1. KP. *A Y ift^^t fUXier», raZi* Stxtt Pfdettu *ET. Tit ^$7m 
r»yrai EuT. Ph. 706. TP. Ila^^jM h ^aufia^rif. 'EP. To rs % Ar. 
Pax, 696. *EP. OJa ft UlXtu^it ifairvHeiat 9W, TP. Tk r'n lb. 693 
(Tk plor. with reference to «mi, and rt sing, for plur. ; cf. Ti «vy raVrei Uriv i 
$ 450. y). Etf « rt wahTt ht' rt fA% ri itivif l^yartt i Eur. Bac. 492. 
n«ri^y «p» iftnirtfov r^ t7}n PL Phado, 79 b. See § 528. 1. 

/I. With a Pbbsonal. Pbokouh; as, Atv^* ^, JT )' ^f» »v^t iiftSv n 
9m^aCmXX$*t i . . IIm, l^f iy«M, Xiyf4f, nmi ireifk vitat r§us vftut \ WtB 
pou na^ said he, e&me hither directly tousf Whither, said I, do you say, and 
to whom [as the you ?] do / po, in going to you f PL Lys. 203 b. Tiv i/»l, 
Hbf iNi^ L e. MM, o^ whom you spoakf U. PhiL 20 a. 


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7.) With a Proboun of Quautt or Quabtitt ; as, T« rtwvv Um^ 
much a dream aa I have de$cribed, or, nuh a dream a» Ais, iu. 1 • 3. *Ay4^m» 
#«^y r«» rf»r§f Mem. L 5. 2. Tiif mXMamv J^^nv PL Leg. 755 b. 

2. A naameral preoedeJ by &fnfi, about, has commonly the artide, the roond 
namber being apparently regarded aa an object familiar to the mind, or as a 
definite standard to which an approach is made ; thus, "A^fiarm . . a/&pt rk 
•7x«ri, chariota about ffte [number of] twenty^ L e. about twetity w namber, L 7 
10. TliXru^rmi ^ Jifi^l r«vf 3wr;^<X<Mff L 2. 9. 'Aftfi rm Wfrnnavrm Im ii. 
6« 15« So, £/f r« |jMtr«v m^ftMTm Qjt, vL !• 50. 

^481. III.) By the connectioihin which it is 
employed; as, 

'had sooceeded to the throne [sc of Persia],* L 1. 3. *Ic9mt M rut Bu(m» 
L 2. 11. Ai k0y;^ut uui as rm^ttf uuru^puf iyty90fT« u 8. 8. 0< )' 
iflTM ixfi0f v^if VMS tr^t^iXuuug, l^nrtin r$uf af^;^«vr«f n, 3« 8. 

§ 483* Remark. With substantives which are rendered 
definite by the connection, the article has ^ften the forc«» of a 
possessive (see § 503) ; as, 

*EC»vX»ro rii wu7^% u/Ap^ri^m vu^mui, he withed [the] hi» diUdren to ba 
boApreaetU, L 1. 1. Ti^va^i^fnt liaCtiXXu rap KS^op ir^if r«v Ji^iXpi* Ib« 
3. KSfif n uuru^ni^auf atari r$» £ffaur§f r§9 B-aifdum Uiiv, ««) 
damCkf M ri* ?«'«'•» ru ituXrk iif rkf X*T(Uf tXuC$u8,S, 

§ 483. IV.) By contrast. 

This may give a degree of definiteness to expressions which 
are otherwise quite indefinite ; and may even lead to the em- 
ployment of the article with the indefinite pronoun tig. Thus, 

*£y ixeia-r^ r^tTf &t^fUf, Jy di ftif ivd IxCdvrif tts ru^t litfro rk ov^Xm, i ^ 
iif tfitttf 'of whom two . ., bat the third,' v. 4. 11. T£v }i irtXiftittv ai fitiv 
rjnt aiafiofit$9»t araXtv Xi^u/Mf . ., 0/ ^ artXXoi • • (puufM ^auw ^tvytarif, 
* some . ., but the most,' iv. 3. 33. "Iw^tug . ., rahg fiif ntuf aru( ifui^ 
rdht }il rf KXtd^xv *»ruX$X$t/*fii»0Vf iii. 3. 19. Cf. § 490. R. 

§ 484. General Remarks. 1. The article is some- 
times found without a substantive, through anacoluthon (§ 329. 
N.) or aposiopesis {anoaitontiaig^ the becoming silent, i. e. the 
leaving a sentence unfinished, from design, strong emotion, or 
any other cause) ; as, 

'H TsJt &XXu* 'ExXnyMV f i^Ti ;^(fi »uxi»9, t7r ayf^tav, i7rt uui 

kfA^irt^a ravr* $iviTv, the , whether I ahould aay cowardice, or /oUy 

cf the rest of the Greeks^ or both these together, Dem. 231. 2i. Tnt yu^ 
Xfinsy tl^n rig iari a^»(piu xa) •?«, fiei^Tu^et v/tTt ira^t|0/MM PL ApoL 20 e. 

Mu riv 1 oh au yt. Not youj by (the name of the god omitted, ai 

the old grammarians say, through reverence), lb. Gorg. 46*6 e. « 

§48ai. 2. Omission of the Article With substan* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

eB. 3.] OMISSION. 

fives which will he at once recognized as definite without the 
article, it is often omitted ; particularly with, 

m. Proper names, and other name* reeembUng these from their being speeialfy 
appropriated or familiar appeUaiioiu of pereoru (§ 471) ; thus, AsaCeiXXu rev 
KSfou . . "2vXXa/AU9u Kv^«» i. 1. 3. U^if KS^n lb. 6, 7. Il^it rif Kv^m 
lb. 10. *a ^ K»^6( lb. 7, 10. KSe^f ^^ L 2. 5. See L 5, 1 1, 12. EiV rJb 
K$Xt»mf i. 2. 20, 21. Elf KiXutiat lb. 21. *A^m nXif ^vf$fri ii. 2. 13. 
"AfMt r^ hxi^ iu$/*i9f lb. 1 6. Ttitt &^x^w* ^' S«X^ A**}; , . . tms rnt yn§ 
Rep. Ath. 2. 4. Ttfr* /ub xark ^^X»TTa9 A(;^»uft9, . . rtig il »«t« ^y lb. 5« 
n^tf Irff-i^^v, . . W(os tilt v. 7. 6. "On fii(ut$ • . f i^ii, virsf 'ii lb. 7. T2 
Ituivttw irX«r*y. • • "E;^*r yt etirSv *a) ri»9a »ai yufrnxat 1. 4. 8. Amiuf i* 
xmi «vr«y »«2 ^y»?»« xm.) «'«?)«; »«) ta ;);(i}jiM(r« yii. 8. 9. St** r*?; B^t 
lu.1.23. n^ tSp ^St lb. 24. 2v» :^Mr« yii. 7. 7. Xl^of i^i«fy v. 7. 5. 
Aixtuit Irri xmi w^cf Buiv xmi m-^ig mvi^m^vn L 6. 6. T« r^*; rout ^ttUt • • 
rk w(0t rths M^am^iut Lac 13. 11. — Hence fiafiX$v(, in its fiuniliar appli- 
cation to the ^ng of Pereia^ commonly wants the article ; as^ Tie^ivirmt 
m fianXUf goee to the king, i. 2. 4. Cf. T«y fim^sXU iL 4. 4. 

fi. Abstract nouns, names of arts €tnd sciences^ and generic t^rms (§ 470) ; 
thus, E?^0f iTxtri ^a^Sv, S-'ptf 21 Ixarov IL 4. 12. T« iv^ts wtmatrra wMf^ 
»x) ri 3yf/6f w%9rnxo9ra iiL 4. 10. *T^» xiXXavt «c) ^tyiStut itimynrtv Cyr. 
Viii. 7. 22. Qau/Ativieu r« xaXXtt xmi rl fiiytias ii. 3. 15. R«) kfiftUt, mU 
0t0^(00-vni, xai 2txM00'vfn PL Phsado, 69 b. Fut^ySav n xm) rht wtXtfumk* 
rix^nv (Ec 4. 4. 'On W) S«»«T«y MyMTo L 6. 10. 0i«riCirr«T«y • • (Am 
if0^»i^0t PL Leg. 902 b. 

§ 41 80* y, Sabstantives followed by Ae article wUh a d^/bung word 
0r phrase ; thns, Kv^io kwri/Anrm A xi^mXn xa) x*k ** ^'^ ^* ^^* ^* '^^ 
rxffi^y tivrit riif Htw^ivrt vi. 4. 1 9. 

KoTES. 1. Proper names, followed by the article, are rarely preceded bgr 
It, exo^ with special demonstratiye force. Tlius, lia^urmrtt • . A f/^n^ni^ 
L 1 . 4. ^d(pxinTtt }i i ^rv/x^xXtit . ., ^ttx^eimf ^ i A^xtif i. 2. 3. '£» 
Xij»/»0y))r9» r^ xmrxtrt^i^xf *ACuiou L 1. 9 (of. *£» rw ^^^avn^au L S. 4)u 
Bat, '0 % iiXavtV « *AfAC(axuirti(, but that Silanus the AmJbraciot (who had 
been the chief soothsayer (^ the army), vL 4. 13. 

2. In this ccmstructioQ, the sabstanUve is sometimes first introduced as m* 
definite, and <ft«M d^ned; and this subsequent definition sometimes respects 
simply the kind or class. Thus, K^^yn A M/)«i> »«X0v^iv«, a fountain [that 
called Midas's] vAtcA teMU coffcrf the fountain of JUidas, i. 2. 13. n«XX#} )) 
rr^tfv^tf) «/ /(»fy«XM, afu/ mof^ struthiy the large ones, i. e. ostriches, L 5* 8 
Ei^MB . . wxx» rx 9'Xxrix, * of the broad kind,* v. 4. 29. 

X 7W or more nouns cot^pUd together ; as, IIi^} ^ r*>f rMMv^i t/ n »«»X^ 
litX^iiV, •?«» 'Hx/tfv n jc«2 nXnvfif xx) iwr^mv xx) yiis xxi xtfii^dg xmi ki^t xai 
wv(it xx) Smarts xx) ifif xxi \nxur0U \ PL Oat. 408 d (cC Th HXtn, 'H n- 
X^Mi, T;^ ifr^x lb. 408, 409). See other examples in § 485. 

I. Ordinals and Superlatives; as, Kx) T(ir»f irt rl^wtXifut InXi^fw Th« 
fi. 103. EiV 'Irrtfiv, rnf KtXtxixt U^eirnf viXif L 4.. 1. 

§ 41 8 7* 3. The PARTS OF A SENTENCE may be ranked as foDow^ 
with respect to the frequency of their taking the article : (a) An appositiMf 
Impended for distinction. See ^§ 472, 474. {b) The subject of the sentanosu 


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(e) An cuguHct not yovermd by a pnepotkion, (d) An edjunet gooenud iy m 
prepoiition. (e) An attribute. This commonlj wants the article, as amply 
denotmg that the subject is one of a dass. To this head belongs the second 
Ace. after verbs of making, naming, &c. (§ 434). 

4. Hence the article is often used in marking the aubfect of a tentence, aiMi 
aometimes appears to be used chiefly for this purpose. Thus, Wi ^uyh t7ti i 
i^e!i0S, kU ibe departure abtnUd be a JUght^ vii. 8. 16. 'Eifitv-iftov I' mv r« x^- 
fi$M I 4. 6. *Ra-af H l^tttci ui wXu^rat, and the greater part was apdt, v. 4. 27 
(-§ .455). YirnXwri y% aMoXa^iav ri u«ci rSf fihwt i^^trfiat PI. Phaodo^ 68 «b 
*A^* eZv wm^*k$iwim Mf ayai§) m^ *a»u »i kyafiJ rt xat 6t tutMsi { Id. 
Qotf^ 496 c T« ht in»r* iitut Uri*, twice fne i$ ten, Mem. iv. 4. 7. Oi 
fti^t htvug •vhh &K\» n fU^ui tiViv ivt^m^ot, ten thousand horsemen are noA- 
ing dse than ten thousand men, iii. 2. 18. K«} GEOS h *0 AOFOS St. 
Jn. 1. 1. 

lit y s^h "' ^ K?* /^i* i*^' nnripnut, « 

T« narhifuv ^t ^jfy nari ftfiti^iratm £ur. PoL Fr. 7. 

^488* 5. There are some words, with which it is especiallir impor- 
tant to observe the insertion or omission of the article ; as, "Axxo ^t rv^riv 
ftm, and another army, i. 1. 9. To &XX* fr^anvfia, the rest of the army, L 2. 
^5. ^Aftptx^ivnt »«} AxXst, 'and others,' iv. 2. 17. *£ir0(ti/^«r»y, S »! £X}iM, 
*Qie others,' 'the rest,' lb. 10. tlaXu rw fr^artafcecr^s, 'much (^, iv. 1. 11* 
*£• /At ^ ireXo Tw *ExXti9t»dS, 'the greater part,' L 4. 13. TlaXXdi^ mang, 
hr. t>. 26. TtfVf woXXouf, the most, lb. 24 (§ 466). *0xiy9i a^ihtifn^fj fm 
died, iv. 2. 7. IIXi/ap r§vrt0f JiirtXmvtt i ix^*f ^ ** ixiyi, 'the few,' *tha 
aristocracy,' Bep. Ath. 2. 10. See § 472. ». 

6. When two words or phrases are connected by a conjunction, if th«y no* 
fer to different objects, the article is more frequendy rioted; hut otherwise 
not ; as, T« Ti fiafCa^mot »eti to 'ExXv mxav ivravfia 0r^tirivfA» i. 2. 1 . T*l» 
^XX^uf ntt) rZf fiei^Cufw lb. 14. Tcvg itt^roht »») tSvoug »et) fitCaiouf i. 9. 
90. Tiif Wfiefitv pdX/ae o^oftv^fAara xee.) ^iffriots i* 6. 3. '0 $' etu ^tit *rkX»»t 
rSy &9r»rr» XV^* ytyoftig ri neti A 9 net) i^ofittvif U-n f*ov9f PI. Tim. 
38 e. 

7. When two nouns are related to each other in a clause, and have the sama 
extent of meaning, the article is commonly Joined with both, or with neither s 
4U, HXnhi f^v X''t** **^ M^tt^ttf i0';^u^a««v«'«, t»7s ^ ^n»in vm «2«iy »«) rf 
Xt#«^r^«4 vkt ivvdfutf a*^*ns i. 5. 9. Ovii^or &^a . . Xv^trtXkm^s* ikiinim 
%ix»tominm Pl> Rep. 354 'a. Avr<riA.i^ri(0y h atitxiet rnt %tmai»^9fit lb- bb 
*H ^tofAttwt ^dffMtna [awoi4^ov^» rix*fl]* • • *H tms i^^ott rk i^irfiutra lb* 

§ 4 8 9* 8. The Insertion or omission of the article often depends, both 
in poetry and prose, upon euphony and rhythm, and upon those nice distinctumM 
in the expression of our ideas, which, though they may he readily fdt, are often 
transferred with difficulty from one language to another. In general, the inser- 
tion of the ardde promotes the perspicuity, and its omission, the vivacity of dis- 
joaana. It is, oonseqaently, more employed in philoeophiad than in rhetoriccu 
compoation, and far more m. prose than tn poetry. It should be remarked, 
however, that, even in prose, tiiere is none of the minutise of language in 
rhich manuscripts differ more, than in respect to its insertion 'or oniisaiony 
••pedaUy with proper names. 

9* The article is sometimes so dosely united with the word JbDowlng, tiftal 


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CM. U,] . IT&E AS A PRONOUN. 325 

» Mcond article u prefix^ as if to a shi^e word ; thus, Ao'^^f ^l i xatrk 
rmlrif [a* r# avri, § 97. N.] «Xf}^f yiyvifiuat, sri^i r$ B^atn^tv [= t$ 
I«V{«», § 39] <Sv, »«) «^f) r^ T«|iT«i> . ., xai i r»v ^mri^ov ic6»Xef PL 
Tim. 37 b. Ti n ^tirt^^v jmi) ta r«&r0» lb. 44 b (see §§ 479, 480). TS* 
r$ ftnytf [sc. S¥rt0v]i thote who are Hiat which i$ nothing^ Eur. Tro. 412 (see 
5§ 450. 1^ 476> 

IL The Article as a Pronoun. 

§ 490* A. The ARTICLE, if we include both its aspirai* 
ed and its t- forms ^ is used as a pronoun, by Attic writers, 
only in connection with certain particles. 

Note. By the use of the article as a pronouny is meant its §ub$ta»ahe mm 
independent of a modifying word dr phrase (§ 476). This use is explained, 
as in the case of otiier adjectives (§ 447), by the dlipsis ift a noun. As a 
pronoun, the article in Attic writen is either demonstratioe or personal, the 
cases in § 493 excepted. 

I . "With fiWand H; aa, *0 ^ [sc. miiX^s] v'lihraty and he ^the brother] 
kpemutdedy i. 1. B. 0« ft.h fx*^^** KA.i«(;^«« )t wtf/tfitUf they (Ghirisopbus 
and Meno) wentf but Clearchtu stayed, IL I. 6. lilas n Ktti/At'ntv Xt«/ nxXu 
%4xam$j U II rSf fteiXjer lyti Soph. (Ed. C. 741. 

HmMAHK. The artide with ^iv and ^i is commonly used for contradisHnc 
(ton (cf. § 483), and we may translate i /i,h . ., « ^t, this . ., that, the one , ,, 
the other, one . ., another, &c., and ti f^h . ., «i Vt, these . ., those, some . ., otpers, 
&c Thus, *0 ft,h fietivtreii, i il ^tt^^nT, Ae one is mad, the other is rational, 
PI. PhiBdr. 244 a. O/ f^h i«-#^it/*fT», «l V tixtrr; the one party (the Greelss) 
marched on, and the otfier (the Persians) followed^ iii. 4. 16. BanXsw rt ««) 
el "EiXXmis • 't cl fAiv iui»o9Tt( . ., o* ^' a^^d^tvrtt, ' these . • those,' i. 10. 4. 
Tivt fi,h ttirSf a^izrun, rtvs V i^iCaXir, ^some . . Others,' L 1. 7 (§ 362. «)• 
*Ev fiXv &fa T»7s ^vfipwufAiv, U il r»7t *3 PI. Phsedr. 263 b. "E^urx f«vfry 
9'afftiv ti»»u6VTts, i^tXi^avrt rovro ^iv \» rnti 'rovro ^\ l» rns Rep. Ath. 2. 8. Tit 
fat iiretfitt, , . riXot ^l Ketrixretu, he received some wounds, but finally- slew, 
L 9. 6. *0 /4v ^f;^fv, «/ Ti WttiotTa, he (Gearchus) commanded, and the rest 
obeyed, ii. 2. 5. Tff fuv yk^ »f»l»¥, rp ^\ tSoiov, iu^iw6/A%f ro S^of, for we shall 
find the mountain, here easy, and there difficult, of ascent, iv. 8. 10 (§ 421. /3). 
Ti fiiv ri fia;^if*tfoi, ra ^ *ai av»ir»vafAtv»t, * [as to some things . • as tO 
Others] partly . # partly,* *now . . now,* iv. 1. 14 (§ 441). 

§ 419 1« 2.) In poetry, with yi^ ; as, n«^' Av^^tff ^avarim Sfn^f 
I y^ fciyifraf etlrtif ruyp^tuu %$^vl^uit, * fijT he,* Soph. EL 45. Tnt yii( 
wi^nm. fitirfig Soph. (Ed. T. 1082. T« yof . • ^irawf fti^n, for this is a rare 
ht, Eur. Ale 473. 

8.) As the subject of a verb, after xec), and ; as. Km) rh mtXtwrn "iav^eu, 
and that he bade him give it, Cyr. i. 3. 9. K«2 «•«» k^ax^iimwieu Xiytvtu lb. iv. 
S. 13. 

Rbmark. The j7roe/t^« m the nominative (i, 4, tt, at, § 148) require, from 
the very laws of accent, that the particle, in connection with which they 
are used, should follow them. If, therefore, it precedes, Uiey become orAotone, 
•r, m other words, take the forms which commonly belong to the relatioe pro- 
SMN ($ 148. 2). This ehange takes pkee with nmi onifiMrmly, and with U 


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when it follows iT foi t^n (§ 228) ; thus, Km) is yetv/Min, ond he uxmdenif i. 
8. 16. Em) a, "Ov» ituptifinfUf i** iipti PL Conv. 201 e. E«) t1 il*«f vii 
6. 4. ^ }' 7f, said he, H. Rep. 327 e. ^H i' is, i Tx»v»m, coai Ae, L •. 
Olaueo, lb. b. *B, V H, ecdd ihe, Id. Cony. 205 c 

^ 493* B. The article in its t- forms likewise occun, 


1.) Before the rekOhee it, iwt, and tUf ; as, T«tf ; 7^riy, of that whu^ ia, 
PL Phffido, 92 d. Ili^) ri l^* f XomTrcu Id. Phil. 37 e. Em) rip if f^ 
^ifitirtif vourau t4itMt LjS. 167. 15, Tlt^ rt^wi rSf ireu wt^) recurd %ln 
PI. Soph. 241 e. n^flntxfi na) fuvth rtus olit^t^ oSrss Dem. 613. 9. — The 
sentence introdnced by the relative may be iQ^uded as a defining claute, to 
which the article is prefixed (see § 472). 

2.) In particular forms of expretdon ; viz. 

«. n^0 rod (also written ^^drau), before this; thns, T« yt ^^i tw wmTf 
Met PL Ale 109 e. 01 V eWtrai fiyxtvwn • «XX* •vk at w^irw Al, Nubb 
5. 0/ ir^o r$v ^/Xm, ' former friends,* Eur. Med. 696. See § w5. b. 

$. T^, [through this as a cause, § 416] for tfiis reason, therefore; thoa^ Tf 
rgi . . ftSikXev vM^rUv PL Thest. 179 d. 

y, T« yty followed by in ; as, T« 71 1^ aHa, irt * ., UUs I loeU know, thai 
• ., PI. Euthyd. 291 a. T» 71 l^ xaretfanriof . ., iri Id. PoL 305 c 

%. The article dotdded with »«/ or ilf ; as, E/ r» »m) t« mln^if iffi^mitH 
«vT«r}, 0V» »y ««'i^«yty, tf this man had done this and that, he would not ham 
died, Dem. 308. 3. T» nau rk ^iwtnim Id. 560. 17. *A<pt»ft!vfMu in ris 
km) rffv,. I go to this one and that, Lys. 94. 3. With the article again re- 
peated ; "Oil ya^ ri »«2 to ^un^Mt, not) ri fin votnrait for this and that tof 
ought to have done^ and this not to have done, Dem. 1 28. 1 6. "Of %(pn )«ry aSrm 
Wfa^ifUff^xi xtv^uvtvtn rif fr^etrnyn, i*m /mi rk ti ret yttnrtreu, kXX* i^mf 
ret, *• not these or those, but these,* Id. 1457. 16. The nominative it neu Z§ 
(§ 491. R.) occurs, Hdt. iv. 68. 

3.) Through poetic license, in imitation of the earlier Greek ; as, T«y . • 
fiUef, him destroy, Soph. (Ed. T. 200. TeiTf ft,et f4,i\iff§eti, take care of these far 
me, lb. 1466. M/« yat^ ^i^X^ * ^^^ uv't^akytit fiir^iew ij^iet Eur. Alc 883« 
'Arri^tff, eretv ^fitvetrtv, ittreXat r% rHv .£8Ch. Ag. 7. 


This substitution of the r- for the aspirated forms (§ 147) occurs in no 
Attic writers except the tragedians, and scarcely in these, except to avoid hia* 
tus, or lengthen a short syllable. Thus, Krtltde-a roht »u xs^* xratttv, having 
slain those whom she ought not to slay, Eur. Andr. 8 ) 0. T^r ^h, rev fvt >^i- 
yut, the god, whom you now blame, lb. Bac. 7 1 2. l^etTt inufav, hrn a^rtees 
fiekuf \pifAiw6et, TO ^* eZrei Xiytt \ Soph. (Ed. T. 1054. 'Aydk/^et^' 4»(kf 
rSt . . a«'t0-Tf(i)/ IfMtvrev lb. 1379. "Ayet . . ittxvuveu, ri f*nr$ yn . • it^eer* 
"iilirm lb. 1426. 

Remark. On the other hand, the aspirated forms are sometimes foand 
with fnU and Vi for the r- forms (§ 490. 1 ) ; thus, HeXut •Exx^f/'W, 1$ 
pX9 ktettiSw, tit ett ^ ravt ^vyxiett uardytf, * some destroying, and to otben» 


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CA. 4.J FRONOU?f. — AGaEEMENT. 327 

DeDU 248. 18. *A# ^v ttardXupt m-ikug r«rv i^ruyiirifsfff rnkf ^ if^0u 
[d. 282. 11. Tfiiftm y •$§ ft^9 SuMu^t SxC0¥, rtltg )* tig ftiwf il»u Eur. Iph. 
T. 419. So, '0«4 A^y • ^ M )•, mmdimu • ^ a< oCAer time*, Th. TiL 27 
tM M Yen. 5. 8. 



L Agreement of the Pronoun. 

^494. Rule XXVIII. A Pronoun agrees 
with its mbject in gender ^ number^ and person. 

By the $utjeet of a prommn is meant the tubttanthe which it repremHta, 
The role, therdbre, has respect either to ttibttantive pronowuy or to adjeetiee 
pronoun* tued 9ub$tantivefy. The constmcticni of adjective pronouns regarded 
a$ $uch belongB to Rulb XXYL, and even their substantive use is explained 
by ellipsis (§ 447. a). Thus, 

"Bm^tXtvf riig /th ir^is Ittvrif p. e. /3«riXS«3 ^fiCfifX)); «^» jMnr^y Ihg 
king did not perceive Ihe plot agahut himedf^ L I. 8. 'Av* rnt Jt(X**f* ^9 
[so. it^x^*\ mt/r§9 ^ttrfdwnv Iv-tinn, from the government, cf which [goverm- 
ment] he had made him eatrap, i. 1.2. Hmfrvt ifi . • &fi^*4^o¥Tttt lb. 
ll^ig r$9 tiitX^off itt IwtCdvXtMi air if, *0 H WilStrm {% 490) lb. 3. 
*Tm«« • *, ^«'«' i^^i iv. 6. 14. &tuffAmm» wttug, h . . %thttg Mem. iL 7. IS. 

§ 49«i. The remarks upon the agreement of the adjec« 
TivE (§§ 444-459) likewise apply, so far as gender and nam' 
her are concerned, to that of the pronoun, and some of them 
*o even a greater extent (^ 444. a). Thus, 

a. BfAScuLons Form fob FEMmiNB. 

"O^^rt^ tl rit x^t^i ^* ^ ^*f ^^^ ^^ nfXXafiCantv AXXnXtt* Woinrt^^ 
dkfi^ivAP T0vr«v T(a«'«fyr« w^ig ri itaxt^Xvtn iXXnXat Mem. ii. 3. 18. 
See § 444. fi. 

Note. In speaking of persons vaguely , or generally, or simply as permma, 
the masculine gender often takes the place of the feminine, both in pronouns 
and in other substantive words which admit it: thus, Uh •Ig r oh xcn* 
l.'^ r^ fttir^f] ft 0/wrX4?y Soph. (£d. T. 1184.. Ov^i y«^ xetftHi ira^;^0rri 
fuett Jf ri»«i v'^dey/yurm Id. El. 770. "H ^rtT^^t ovva fitoe-x^t »w» ati^trmi 
Ttnvtvrttg &XXd»g [ss rixr«vr«r SxXn»] ^ur. Andr. 7 1 1 . ^vuXtiXuifaet* 
mg i^ »mratXiXufAf»,Utu ihxptti rt »«2 i,hX<piiaT Mat «»i<v^<«i r«rat/r«4, Ji^r 
fShtu If «^ UKtif Tt^wm^avxathixm T»t/g IXtvfiftvg. . . JLaXtiriv fAv *Z» 
Wrtf, Z S^^x^n;, rtvg tiniitvg wt^io^Sf difXXvfitifdug, miuvmrtf ^ 
re0'eir§»g r^iftt Mem. iL 7. 2 (cL lb. 8). See § 336. «. 


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§ 4l94w b. UsB or itaE Nbitibr. 

T/ yik( T«ur»v f/ntxet^tMrt^ttf r»v yp fiu^in^^t i Cyr. viii. 7. 25 (§ 44 5} • 
'Efii(ivr»f*t9, %*i^ hfitZf xeii avet^rnvrat Wtin^t iv. 1. t^2« T/y *um m9 if»s» 
Xtyn^Mv ahrU ^»vX.%fffi«t fitnr nkifitot finr aXm^ava ipaitiwimi rut vtnwrtt % 
*EJ«*i4 y &9 afA^ori^tt rauraf tt . . Mem. i. I. 5 (§ 450). — The nemier 
referring to words oj other geuders, and the neuter plural for the mngmUm 
(§§ 450, 451), are particularly frequent in pronouns. 

c GoKPeuND GoM/nsvoinHr. 

*A^Ta«^0« »c) 'HUf^liairntt ol ^wav iu 5. 35. Ti§\Xt>ut ti &*i^ tuti ym 
9m7naf xetXett xt^^i^, tSt $v Xfli^tr^oi )inrii, aXX* aUT0) • . ira^i^atrmt ylL 3 
3 1 . *Aff^a\u«tTf »eti tSxXnaVf M §vr» ituretwn^ircu CyT. viii. ^. 22. n«XXA 
V i^ w^oCara »a) tttyaf »c) 00Vf xiti §960$, & it^»ia^i9rct iiL 5. 9. 'AfrotX- 
XtiyuTtt wtXifittv »m) »4fiu90it9 »ui Ttt^axnit i'f i» • • s«^rr«t^ty fsocr. 163 b. 
See ^ 446. — Zeugma is fiir less frequent in the construction of the protunm 
than in that of the adjective, 

§497* d. STjnfiSis. . 

T« 'A^m)/»m iwXirt»h, Jv 3l(x$ KXta9t0^ iv. 8. 18. T« )0|«»v« Iv 9-Xi^ 
Pttf •?«'i( h»tU»»^t9 PL Phadr. 260 a. B«riXtw • . • «/ I' ^«qi^«i>rff i. 

10. 4 (cf. lb. 2 and 5). Oi»r^« yk^ wtwi9fiaf*»9, 4 . . »•«!» xaHrx'* IXv-t^ 
Eur. Iph. A. 985. *n ^iXl« >^tr;^«b. If . . iT^^ff Soph. PhiL 714. ^H i7«#ik 
•«} trserti ^vxh, tlxv ^ i«'»Xi«'«»» hftmt i Qjnr. vii. 3. 8. TlxMrt, ..••>; 
Eur. Suppl. 12. See § 453. 

Notes. I. In the construction of the pnmonn, the number u often eham^ 
for the sake of indwidualizing or generalizing the eKpressaon ; as, "O^rtt I* 
Jip»9t7T9 . ., ir«£yTCf . . ^miri/ufrcrd, oimI whoever came, he tent them aM 
back, i. 1.5. 'ArWZ^iTAi Wirraf, ^J" iSv «ri^irpy;^iiw» PI. Rep. 566 d. *0< ^ 
»a/A9if rZ9 atx%TZ9f 'r»»rt9 ft X^tfAtXfiTMt 9'£9rt09f tvttt ^t^awivfirmt 
(Ec. 7. 37. T«c;r«i/f . ., f I9 , , w«XXa) Xvnritt lb. 21. 8. "AXX^Wf >* 
UtXiPi Xfyiiv, di« r/ ?»a^T0f WXnyfi, and he bade the rest say, on what ae- 
eount each one had been struck, y. 8. 12. H^fiin Ivi Xniwr^, •Z9'ti9a$ 
ftr» tx^9 Tt vii. 3. 16. nir^Mtv XtfCm . . fT*; T««^r«f Irri, »m} t«» m^* 
Indfrotf hti9tTfuu vi» 6» 33. *Hv et^i49ia r«>v d-iX0»r«v JMfiwivfi*, Tr** 
r<f «70ir0 Kv^dv ttiffin^trfat L 9. 15 (see lb. 16). 'Hv Vt rtf rwran Tt irm» 
^aCai9u, ^nfititt9 avTtif Wi6ifa9 Cyr. i. 2. 2. Ei )i ri iSaxt? irXi«v Irr* 
&y»fi97s, T0VTM9 /utrt;^0v^« Eur. Ale 744. *AXnffit ^* ^iXag • . • tSw 
mftfifitof w woXvf, he was a true friend ; of whom the nunAer is not great. Id* 
Suppl. 867. AuT»v(y§t, «?iri^ nai fM9M ralt^ov^t yn9 Id. Or. 720* d«- 
(rctv^»9r»ii$ «V4^ • sSs ^h net} Wuivit ts 9'Xn^»s PI. Bcp. 554 a. 

2. A pronoun often refers to a subject which is implied in anoAer word («f. 

§ 454); as, Oipyii • . if 'Ki(»v(a9, M9 tLVTSi9 [i. e. TMV %M^XV^il9'\ 
sli^yiTtiu he flies to Corcyra, being a benefactor of tlieirs, Th. i. 136. 'Avi 
TltX0ird99in^ov , ., tl TATir^i »^i<Vr9i/« iiri Id. vi. 80. Tiis ift^nf ivtt^Hav, 
Ir [i. e. i/ui] fitriT 0xyi7rt Soph. (Ed. C. 730. UlaT^^a ^* irrla xaiTt^xd* 
^n, auT$t ^ . . fTiVyii Eur. Hec 22. *Avv/(»iy«i«f , Jv [i. e. d^(v«/(V»3 ^' 
l;^^r TUX*** lb. 416. 

§498. e. AiTRAonoir. 

A pronoun is sometimes attracted by a word in its own dause, or a word In 
•Hwtition with its real talas^ct (cf. § 455) ; as, Btedv^n* ^7Mr4» }m0if, ^irie 


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[A>r lori^] l^ mA\Xi^09 x**^^^ ^^** ^ *^ 9^ y^> °* ** retidenee, Bium^ 
toftidi u my jmult town, vii. 2. 38. *£^r/«f , •»' oSrt ivuuri^cit x^V^^ ^^* "^ 
5« 56, Ottih S^m»v itetyiyiftifiat irM^v * ^rfrt^ [for flfri^, § 445] vofii^v fiiXi* 
mv ft7N»4 x«XA,i«'rffv ^ir«X07i«; ApoL 3. 0«(ri7v • • . avr« yk^ tif »v ^tifiti- 
Tvf k^uXXmyn JEaxAk. Pr. 754. *£ir2 vvXcf rnt KtXtxiat xai Ttig 2t;^/«f« 
THrtfv ^ r«»r« [for « Jt«i] )v« «^<;t'' ^* ^* ^* ^^ ^'*^ ^' avfi^tivtif irig •u 
maXif, S wdfra V*f **** ^^ Mftiittm i PL Leg. 937 d. — This oonstroctioa 
may be commonly explained by dlipna ; thus, 'E^ritifi tZ [x''V*^'i '^' *'^' 
rt^tv X'*€^» ^ hearth, than whkh [spot] tii€n it no hotter ipot, 

§ 4199* Additional Remarks. 1. A pronoun, for the sake of 
perspicuity or emphasis, is often used in anticipation or repetition of its eubfeel, 
or is itself repeated; as, T/ yikf r»vr§u fMtxafMTi^tv, t»v y^ /Atx^^at i For 
what i$ happier than tftif, to mingle with the earth f Cyr. viii. 7. 25. T«i/r«« 
rtfi£fMUf rnt b VL^uratviicf rtrn^tttt PL Apol. 37 a. , KiTytf xaXXro, Ttxv*^ 
Sfi'trtira rtft,^f Eur. Ph. 535. 'Ayim$ ^ i *A^xat xa\ '^atx^xriti i *Ax»i*s, 
xal r»urtt &^i§xfirtif, ' these also died,' ii. 6. 30. BaB«-iXi« . .^ wx tila o rt 
^u air 09 ifisvat ii. 4. 7. *AXxiZ$£hns . .» f^TM »axiry«( nfAtXnffiv avrcv 
Mem. i. '2, 24. 2»i>^«4 ^t, aT^^ Avri fioi trt^t ri, aT^f mv 4-1^1 I/a), t^urd fAts 
ftift^ Cyr. iv. 5. '29. 0W« U vt . . 7;^;*" ^^ Wt^tilxi r«i Q£c. 3. 16« 
"Em ^«^ r4f «v v^iwct Ytva^rnt ^iXtg rts £ur. Andr. 733. 

Note. Homer often uses the personal pron. cS^ with its noun following ; 
aa, *Hv &^ «i ^t^tiwtt9 ix* vtf^in Xmtn N. 600. *nS ftn iyu^n '^auftxmaw 
tlhrt^k»9 \. 48. Cf. ^ 468. b. 

^ oOO* 2. A change of person sometime^ takes place ; — (a) From 
the%nion of direct and ineUrect modes of speaking, especially in quotation ; as, 
'Ajyur m9 fimrtu99 tivif ixw^iittt Sf . . xxxratof, take o^ of the way a eente* 
Jem man, me, who have elain, Soph. Ant. 1 339. Kmi tvrt t<pn ** i/iXuv ir«(iv. 
t^§xt, v^a^kmCaltt UtXvTxe Ix irmtrit v«v ^rfxrivfiartf, 'Ey« ya^i** 7^*f» 
•*#T^«" iv. 1. 27. S^i. 3. iiO; iii. 3. 12; iv. 1. 19; v. 6. '25, 26.— 
(&) From a speaker's addressing a company, now as one with them, and noir 
tm distinct from them; as, Aupfixwut v fit is ut i^n* T«(a;^^y 4 artfAj; nfiSe 
naiiernxit* i$ixxrt yik^ . ., «7riMf vtivxafittt Isocr. 141 d. 

II. Special Observations on the Pronouns. 

^ ffOl* Of the observations which follow, many apply 
equally to pronouns and adverbs of the same classes, 

A. Personal, Possessive, and Reflexive. 

§ ff03» In the use of the pronouns, especially those of 
the classes named above, it is important to distinguish between 
the stronger and the weaker forms of expression ; that is, be- 
tween those forms which are more distinctwe^ emphatic^ or 
promincTU^ and those which are less so. 

I. In the weaker form, the first and second personal pro- 
nouns are omitted in the Nom,<t and are enclitic in the oblique 
cases sing. ; but in the stronger form, they are expressed in the 
iVbm., and are orthotone throughout. In the weaker form, the 
THIRD personal PRONOUN is omitted in the Nom.^ and is com- 


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monly supplied hy avrog in the oblique cases ; in the stronger' 
form, it is supplied by o and og, whicii are simply distinctive 
and are limited in their use (§§ 490-492), and by oviog, ode 
and ixBivog, which are both distinctive and demonstrative. Thus, 

'AfTArrA rAMt £iri^««a rM, Siri« »«) rv I/U0} d^iiu^as rov av^A, I gave ytm 
back every thing aafct when you. aiso had shmon to me the man, v. 8. 7. 'Ey^ 
^tr, 4v alv^^if, ^n vfAUf l^ecitH • ^Vm; 3t xeii vfAUf S^i l^atvig'trt, Ifiui fitiXn^t 
^ finlKtri fA% KX>^0r 9t/t,/^iTt i. 4. 16. OJti yct^ fifctTf Ixtifcv trt fr^artSTtu, 
Ivt/ yt oh 0un^9fA%6et ethrSf^ dSrt ixitfof in rifup fn^fioiirns !• 3. 9* OSrt rv 
ixiifas <ptXt?s, tSrt ixuveu A Mem. ii. 7. 9. ^X^ ^^ '''^ A''" ^*^'^* MsvAry jMEi M 
^vv Afi'T^, rtf ^\ thiivvfitov K-Xiet^p^of, xeii at Ixtivov i. 2. 1 5. Kv^»s ^< x«< l^^iit 
r»ur$u i. 8. 6. Tovrf fvyytvofutivos 9 Ea/^d;, nya^^n rt ttvronj xa) ^livfiv avrSf 
i. 1. 9. 'H^* aZv d-«ytrrai Soph. Ant. 751. Kcr^f r« xi/ir4t/ 0'ri^9^ir«>, xa^ 
r£ii Id. Aj. 10S9. See §§ 490-492. 

§ tJOS. II. In the stronger form, the Gen. subjective 
(§ 393. 5) t^i^A a substantive is commonly supplied in the pirst 
and SECOND persons, and sometimes in the third, by the poS" 
sessive adjective (cf. §§ 457, 458) ; in the weaker form, it is 
often omitted, especially with the article (§ 482). The Gen. 
objective (§ 392) sometimes follows the same analogy. Thus, 

** Olu yi^ rw fiaxii'^^eth '' ^^^h ''«•' a^*^^** ; ** " Nfl Ai*,** f^i» 6 KZ^ot^ 
** f7fri( yt A«(»i»v xat Tla^ufeiTitog Itrri ^ats, Ifcis ^i «5iX^«f ** i. 7. 9. T«S» 
^MfAtirw wrt^ninveu, . . Ilf ^2 taIv v/Atri^etv tiyafiHt ii. 1 . 1 2. Kf /y«v rt jmb) 
rnv t^ ?0'0v »0iv^v ;^<^^4f Soph. Tr. 485. Ta von kix^d the marriage you talk af^ 
Soph. Ant. 573. T0 rh .yk^ "A^yts «v Vtltx lyti Eur. Heracl. 284. 2«» 
%(t¥, Z 'E\i9n, *the dispute for you,' Eur. Hel. 1160. Evm/^ »«} fiX/^ vy 
l/ttjj, good-will and affection to me; Cyr. iii. 1. 28. OiX/oe ti? r>», foue to you^ 
vii. 7. 29. Mn fAiruf^ikuf rat rvs Ift-ns ^et^ieisi that you may not regret your 
present to me, Cyr. viii. 3. 32. Qfi^t avfMf Mach. Pr. 388. See §§ 454, 

Notes, (a) The possessivb pronoun is modified like the personal pronomm 
of which it supplies the place ; as, Tof yt rh {}^§et>.fAh\ rod v^tvZitits, at least 
yours [your eye], the ambassador, Ar. Ach. 93 (§ 332. 4). See § 454. So^ 
since trirftog may be followed by the Dat., as wdl as the Gen. (§§ 403, 411), 
AfttTt^ou [= hfMf\ 9'eTfAoUf xXutoif Aadeixi^etig'iv Soph. Ant. 860. (6) The 
only POSSESSIVB of the 3d Pers., which has a place in Attic prose, is o-f irt^«f. 
their ; and even this is used rejUxiodyj and with no great frequency. Thus, 
£ls Xv^an ^otoufrae ravf w^iri^ovfy when they saw their own men in distress^ 
Cyr. i. 4. 21. (c) The Dat for the Gen, belongs particularly to the weaker 
form of expression. See § 4 1 2. 

§ tS04« III. In REFLEX REFERENCE, the Weaker form is 
the same with that of the common personal pronoun ; the 
stronger form is the so-called reflexive (§ 144). The weaker 
form belongs chiefly to those cases in which the reflex refer* 
ence is indirect and unemphatic ; the stronger, to those in 
which this reference is either direct, or, if indirect, is specially 
emphatic or distinctive. Thus, 


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Oir. 4.] PEBSONAL, POSSESSnrE, AKD reflehve. 331 

UfdrTtri iw7»9 Af r$ ^ftTw J!ntr4% ftdXifra ^»/i^i(U9, do whatever you think 
win be moat advantageous to your$elve$y ii. 3. 2. KtXtvtvtt ^ta^tiffecvTit ahv»7t 
wit m'^dCarUf rii ft^v uvt»9 XmCttty ra ^l r^iV/r tLweicvvat vi. 6* 5. Kui •ur»t 
^ Sv ^%T6 wiwiv 04 tifUi, raxv uvrov tZ^t Kv^f* ^«Xa/ri^«y, n laurSf I. 9* 29. 
*iU 1^09 i^ftSpTus xaJ* avT0Vft fu^Sf 9af*ii«9Tt( iir« f^»( firlai V. 7. 25. Al* 
ytt* ri ixiAfviff «»«■««>;, 7ri 0iiih £f Srrdf r^iTf uyayutv rj|y rT^urteit, n Stf§» 
pSn vii. 5. 9« £iV Thf laurtu rxjfv^y • • tS* vi^^ avrov • . . irt^) rhf avT0y 
ff»n9in9 L 6. 4. 'ExtXivi r«t)# ^iXtvg tms ra ItturSv wat/AKTu ayounv t^^ut 
^C«XXfiv rc!ur0» rn ;^'A.«y, in fnh vttfUvru raits \uurtiii piKovf aytffm L 9* 27t 
Tiaiu9 y hXtxiut Ifutvri^ ix^up uvti/iU»\ • • *£«» rnfi$^$9 w^aiti Ifuturov iU. !• 
1 4. *'Et/MtvTSf yt ^tJMM rtf*(i^JMM vii. 6« 1 1 • Ti»XX»v /am ^axaI ^irv lb. 1 8. 
2v fi%9 iiyovfAivtg mvTMS WtJ^nf^Uvf cTroM ftmvr^ ixitvat il ri i^Steci ti;^^ifiivt9 
Ip' Uurauf Mem. ii 7. 9. 'A^iXi?* i(^« «vr«ly L 3. 11. TiaXXet^kuytdVf 
ifuiv aurSi* Uixurt ilL 2. 14 (§ 352). 

§ tSOtS* Rebcabks. 1. As prononns are used mainly for distinction^ 
the ehoioe or rejection of a pronotm in a particular instance depends greatlj 
upon the use of other pronouns in the connection. The use of the pronouns 
is likewise mnch influenced in poetry by the metre, and even in prose^ to some 
extent, by euphony and rhythm. 

2. "With respect to posmoir, the weaker form of the Genitive^ fh>m its want 
of distinctive emphasis, commonly follows § 472. «, but the stronger form, and 
the possessive adjective, § 472. I. Thus, 'EfriX«/uC(ivt7ai tthrtlv rnt Jruas rv* 
7. 1 2. "Hr ii Tig uvrSt r{t^^7 Tat y^vfiat iii* 1.41. T^ € ttvrav • •y 
ri filv Xttvrau vSfca 1. 9. 23. *H Ixttvatv SS^tf «a2 n tifAtrifa viraypia iii. 1. 21. 
Tk inral^vym rk tninaui, 3. 1. *Avi^tfii^t fAav rn iiro'orf}* Ar. Plut. 12. 
T«r ^9 rh Xfuiurw PL Gorg. 488 a. 

S. The place of the Oen. possessive of the reflexive pron. is commonly sop* 
pBed in the phir. by the possessive pron. with «vr«w. In the sing, this fbna 
of ezpressioii is poetic ^ See § 454. 

§ oOo« 4. The Aird person being expressed demonstraiivdy in other 
ways, the pronoun sS became simply a retrospective pronoun, L e. a pronoun 
xefening to a perstm or thing previously mentioned. As such, it p^ormed 
the office both of an unemphtUic reflexive (§ 504), and of a simpie personal 
pronoun, and was sometimes used as a general reflexive, without respect to per- 
■on. ^Q this last use, it was sometimes imitated by its derivatives (even in 
the Attic, by lavraS and e^pirt^ag). Thus, BaoXtuatn fAirk v^ivn [rss tz/ttTv], 
' among yourselves,' K. 398. Aai/uifn ata-tp [=> ^atg'\ aivMratg at, 402. 0{i. 
fh ^riv [<Bs IfAetig'^ ^X"* 'itiaTyfaivav ^ri,( nXm/*ti9 v. 320. Ai?' n/tSig dn^ir^eu 
\mvravg [=b i^futg avravg'], ace ou^ to €uk ourselves, PL Phtedo, 78 b. EvXa- 
Cti/^iVM, iwaag fiii lyi iiri w^oivfAtug iftm \atvrat \jsst ifAaturat] rt »ai) uftug 
Viatvatr^watg lb. 91 c. EJl«/« . . uM w^ig tturtif Soph. El. 283. AUx^ntg 
waki9 rhf atirig atvraS, you yourself disgrace your own city, Id. (Ed. C. 929. 
OS^ yat( ril9 iatvraS [as rutvraSf] 9U y% "^^x)^* ^Vf* Mem. i. 4. 9. Mi^«» rh 
mhrng Mu SmS^ Ag« 1397. £7n^ M^ wtmfUtg avrah [s> ^^v ahrZ'9\ 
f^M^i^in Dem. 9. 13. l^%r\^ C** ^^•^'^f?] ^^^ f^nri^t rinr dfisiCns 
Ap, tOi. 4. 1327. 

^ tSO 7* 5. Some of the forms of «^ are used with great latitude of 
Dumber and gender ; thus, (a) f$if and »/v commonly sing., but also plur. 
(flspedaHy v/v) ; as, tit, him, .£soh. Pr. 333, her, Eur. Hec. 515, it, Soph. Tr. 
145, Am, masc So(^ (Ed. T. 868, fem. Id. G^d. C. 43, nent. .fisch. Pr 


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55 ; fcU, them, Ap. Bh. 2. 8 : (&) rf c properly plor*, but also (egpec^ILy hi 
the tragic poeto) sing. ; as, 0*^1, themj masc. A. Ill, fern. Soph. (£d. T. 1 505, 
him. Much. Pr. 9, Aer, Eur. Ale 834 : (c) *^f /» rarely smg. ; as, Horn. H. 1 9 
1 9, JEsch. Pers. 759 : (d) t commonly sing. masc. and fern., bat sing. neuU 
A. 2:^6, plur. Horn. Yen. 268. (e) So the derived possesnves; as, !«;, their 
Hes. Op. 58 ; ^pinfos, his. Id. Sc 90, Find. O. 13. 86, my, Theoc 25. 16S 
(§ 506), thy. Id. 22. 67 ; wipmlrt^, his, Ap. Sh. 1. 643. 

6. The place of av as a reflexive is commonly supplied in Att. prose by 
ImvTdv, and as a simple personal pron., by mvrit. The plund occurs f^ 
oftener than the singular, Tdiidi, except the Dat., is in Att prose very rare. 
The disuse of the Nom. sing, of this proh. (§.143. 4) is explained by its re- 
flexive character (cf. § 144). 

7. A common reflexive is sometimes used for the reciprocal pronoun ; as, 01 
yt, a¥Ti ^fv Tou (Tvn^ytTf lavrtTe rat fv/A^i^afra, l^rti^iaH^ouffif dkXnXoif, ««) 
^§cf9U0n imvreiis fit»XX.ev n 'rotg dXXote «ii/fi^u9r«ts Mem. iii. 5. 16. 'Atri i(p9^»t 
fiiimtv \atvrks, nhioti iXXnXoLt loi^tut lb. ii. 7. 1 2. 2t/yNyi»if»«rt /kit «XX«XMf • 
r*>» ^ ^oXtfMttf ti fl'tfXA.oi ft,h wvvnrrnvTm,i fAti* letvrSit Cyr. vL 3. 14. 


§t5©8« The pronoun alxoq marks a return of the mind 
to thp same person or thing (§ 149). This return takes place, 

I.) In speaking of reflex action or relation. Hence 
avioq is used with the personal pronouns in toiming the re* 
FLEXivES. See §§ 144, 504. 

II.) In designating a person or thing as the same which 
has been previously mentioned or observed. When thus em- 
ployed, amog (like the corresponding same in English), being 
used for distinction^ is preceded by the article (§ 472). Thus, 

T^ tX ahriji *>/^i^j ond ujton Me same day, i. 5. 1 2. %U ri mM •';^i^iMi 
1. 10. 10. Ourof ii airif, and this same parson, vii. 3. 3. 'GxiTmi vk »»vA 
Mem. iv. 4. 6. Tttlrit Utt^x** ^- ^- '^^ (§ 3^)* ^^ § 4^* 

^ t)i09» III.) For the sake of emphasis, one of the most 
familiar modes of expressing which is repetition. When cRiog 
is thus employed in connection with the article, its position con- 
forms to § 472. a. Thus, 

Avrot Mi»«v iCtuXtrt, Mono himsdf wished it, ii. I. 5. "Ofrts . . «Mf 
fMtat hfMjf, »lros ^il^atf ^tius, eturif V^a^arnwus rmiXmit rsitt rr^arv^wf 
iii. 2. 4. Kv^fff ^a^tXeivvtf aurat ^Vf Tliy^urt i. 8. 12. Avra rm d^'i 
r*>» oiKtSf l^vXet, the very wood from the houses, iL 2. 16. Kai SjoriCitf'rK- 
<r»y »v7o IfTi ^ravTotv ^vut at^^viff, ' the very most religious,* PI* Leg. 909 b. 
OvTot y ttZ <rf* alrtlv ^etwiX'tvs rtrayfAtfiia-ay, 'before the person of the 
king,' i. 7. 1 1. H^cf etlrS^ ry fr^nuiJuiTt^ [by the aanjiy itself] close to the 
army, L 8. 14. 'Ttri^ eeirov rav i»urZf vr^otrivfjtarot, ' directiy above,' iii» 
4. 41. Ei ethroi oi vr^aTtZrai . . a*;^wvTa, *of their own accord,' vii. 7. 33. 
E4 etbralf rait dfl^^t ffv'ipletra icmtri, * with mm|5ly the men,' it 3. 7. *E«» 
rts &vtv rav wirov ra a-^a* etvra iff^iifi ' by itstif,' or * alone,' Mem. iii 1 4. 3 
Altravs ratff vr^atrnyaus d^a»aXi^»$f having eaUsd the generals apartf viL 3. 35* 
8m §§ 418. B., 472. •. 


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cv. 4. J Avtog. 333 

^ St 0» Remarks. 1. Hie emphatic mirof is joined with pronouna 
in both tlieir stronger and their weaker formM. Hence it is often used in the 
Nominative with a pronoun which is understood (§ 502). Thus, 0/ li vT^otTtS* 
rmtf •* Ti avTtu Ixutav »«} •/ &XX«tf * both his own,' i. 3. 7. Avt9v nvrett 
Xnx^tf on thii very account^ iv. 1. 22. Avr^ l/no) . . io^u PI. Phsedo, 91 a. 
AvTf ft$4 Uiztf lb. 60 c 'flf muTos ^h ifitXoytTg i. 6. 7. *ils t^n ethris lb. 
6. Abrit 0v WmtUv0tii (£c. 7. 4. Aurit i^rathiuroi lb. 7. Avrif gifUf 
h ^n^f ii* 4. 16. Avtm »mi§u0t%t they themsdoes bum^ iii. 5. .?. ^leUfias «v. 
r«# r^ r^Atf/M^ ^nr«, ' that he himself healed,* L 8. 26. Xm^u mhrif, he gom 
mlone, iv. 7. 11. Avra) yA^ if/iu, for we are l^ ourselves^ PI. Leg. 836 b. 
2TP. Tit r«f «Jr*f Av*-; T^s n^ifAai^a$ «i^f^\ MA0. Avr«f. 2TP. T/f 
«vr«f I MAe. ^mM^mmt. < [Himself] The great man. What great man? ' 
Ar. Nub. 218. 

2. In like manner, mvrJf is used without another pronoun expressed, in tha 
oblique cases of the third person ; as, AH^m mysvru mlrSf ri mm) rp yinmuif 
\ringing presmts both for himself and for his wife, vii. 3. 16. "Etn/t^^^if . • 
fTfrnrmrmf sSg Mitivv iT^i, tut) mvrov i. 2. 20. IlekXevt filw rSt «f«'«^«yr«f 
diriznivrnv, $1 Ti »m,) mvrSt iritaw i. 10. 3. 

Notes. «. From the gradual extension of this use to cases in which there 
was no special emphasis, appears to hare arisen the familiar employment of 
mirii in the obUque cases^ as the common pronoun of the third person. Sea 
§ 502. In this unemphatic use, mvrit must not be^ a clause. 

/3. SoraetiiQes (chiefly in the Epic), mMt occurs in the oblique cases, with 
the ellipsis of a pron. of the Ist or 2d Pers. ; as, AirSv yk^ mwvXofMfi* «^(«« 
ViffiP [sc nfcHf] M, 27. Avrnv [sc. ri] Z* ^7* 

§ S 1 1 • 3. The emphatic miris often precedes a re/lexioe, agreeing 
with the subject, of the latter. Hyperbaton (§ 329. N.) is sometimes employed 
to bring the two pronouns into immediate connection. Thus, 'AirsxriTmi Xi* 
ytrmi mttrig r^ \mvT»v ;^i/^2 *A^rmyi^0fiv, and he is said [himself} tviA his own 
hand to have slain Artagerses, i. 8. *24. 0/ H ^ExXnuf . . mureii If lavrSw 
lx^(»»f*t * by themselves,' ii. 4. 10. T« il r^«y uM tuti* mvri MUpra Mem. 
iii. 14. 2 (cf. lb. 3, and § 509). * TmV r aMt aurw ^riftM^tv fim^uvtrai Maeik, 
Ag. 836. T«%y wakeufrhv rvv 9'a^af»^vdti%Tmt I*' nurif morf Id. Ft. 920. 
See §§ 464, 506. 

4. The emphasis of alirif sometimes lies in mere contradistinction ; as, *Axx* 
mbrk ftyS • . . rd* ^i»r»it % ^rnfAara nutvfmru ' those things I omit ; but 
hear,* iEsch. Pr. 442. "Ort »m) W) rk nVia, hp* elirtf ftitm h»u n in^a^m 
Ttibt M^iwvt tiyuf, mMi fih sv ivfrnras &yuvj n V lyx^eirtim Mem. iv. 5. 9. 
*0f, £ ^-Mi, ri r* 9V» Ixifv mdnretfVt rl r murdf, who involuntarily have slain 
icth you^ my son, and you, too, my wife, Soph. Ant. 1340. 

5. The use of mvrig with ordinals deserves remark ; thus, Utftukiit . . rr^«- 
mytf &* *AJwmit0f yt»mr»f mvrif, Pericles being general of the Athenians [him- 
self the tenth] with nine colleagues^ Th. ii. 13 (cf. * A^j^^^r^Jirsv . . (itr «Ex- 
X«v Ttna fr^mrnywvrtf Id. i. 57). *E^iirtft'4^eif Au^tzkiu 9'if/t9'r»f mMf 
^T^myiv Id. iiL 19. 'IL^iin vr^t^Cturnt h*mr»g mvrit H. Gr. ii. 2. 17. 
But, with the omission of mvritt Am^tTt' . . XmC»n mMw [i, e. r^y t^X^*! 
tOsMttt * with six confederates,' PI. L^. 695 c 

C. Demonstrative* 

$ ff 1 9* I. Of thd PBIMIRT DEMONSTRATIYBS, the mOTO 


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S4 suTTAX or THE FftoicouK. [book hx 

^ and f^irfif is imw9( * the nearer and mare famHiaf 
m mm; or ^dc ^§ 150). Thas, 

"Eo l«i;«««f im^ Ml m^miTmmt mmmm rmmmn, if thom tkomU wish Up 
ihy wJ «w> lygg tfcw^ PL rWdr. 231 c *£»f7f«« /u* rsJUif^, ««r«f 

Kom. «. TW tw waarht tamUmtd to Mik the comwetMn of the morb 
■Bnn with tlH xbab^; m «r the ^oT wUh the pntad, oi a «9n^ with 
in JbafiMfiw, of that whkk km iam ■iiitfimrf with that wfaidi a pmea^ be- 
fmz n, 4c TfaH» T«fr [ec Stf-n] Um* «v>« UiyM, Atf tv <*at vftusft / 9aidL, 
Ar. Ach. 41. T«vr tttM- " K t w f I r BJ jgwt , i^k r* rvyyim lainn^ EoE. 
HceSOC T3'l»;W,il0VH*«f/9«k»^ U-llfid. 98. *m* Irr' Ui/y* 
r>;^^ i 'If.^YmMfkm Soph. AbL 384. 

^ Omr witlein BSifci the i JuMim and Uiw the extraordmary ; to, 
*E^«rrff rMrrwc rs tmc vaJLvnXaTf ;^«twmc, A«am^ o« CAe ricA Umics wpkkk 
Aof are im Ok kmk ef mmrv^ L 5. 8 (see Cjrr. L 3. 2). rcy«*«ri ^ifw 
W i ^ t s^ /uy«JL« «^ i^M*^ Kg>> iirry wt LuJm; , x. «>. X^ ' that wcHiderfal 
CaffiatzatuB.* Deat. 301. 17. Tm *A^imi^ iMtI»0w Id. 34. 20. 

§ S 1 S. n. The proDouDs ovroc aod odi have in general 
the saine force, and the choice between them often depends 
upon euphony or rhythm ; as, rovrm %pil(lv x^^^ jtods /^^ nartag 
aiSuw Soph. Ant 981. Yet they are not without disdnction. 
oirog^ as formed by composition with avro^, is properly a pro- 
noun of identificalum or emphatic designation (it may be re- 
garded as a weaker form of o auro^, the same^ ^ 502) ; while 
odty arising from composition with dt^ is strictly a deicHc pro- 
noun {dtixuxog^ from dtUrvut^ to point out)^ pointing to an 
object as before us (see § 150). Hence, 

1.) If reference is made to that which precedes^ or which 
is contained in a subordinate clause^ ovtoc is commonly used ; 
but if reference is made to that which follows and is not con- 
tained in a subordinate clause, ode. Thus, 

Ttitfiv(t0f % r§vT»v xmi v-t^i, and cf this (which has been stated), this (which 
follows) i$ alto a proofs L 9. 29. '£fr2 tovvi$ Hif«^» raii sTri, to thU Xtm^ 
ophon replied as fottown, ii. 5. 41. T«vr«, X rt av ^m^ r«4# StMf, 4r«r;^ii» HL 
y. 6. T«vr« y% WUrm^t^ §rt fio^img , . fi^u V. 7. 7. T»ut» ir^ifT§9 n^tfrm^ 
woTiftf Xiftv f7if iii. 1. 7. 

Note. To the retrospective character of 0vrf may be referred, — (a) Iti 
use, preceded by »«/, in making an addition to a eentence, the pronomi dther 
serving as a repetition of a tubttantive in the sentence, or, in Uie neuter Aee, 
or Nam, (commonly plur,\ of the sentence itself (cf. §§ 334, 451). The oon- 
Btruction may be explained by elHpsis. Thus, BU§vf w^»mu wu w^XXaW K- 
X*^f»h »«2 roirtuf [sc Vix^eieu] /ityetko^^tvrSgj it becomes you to entertam 
many guests^ and these magnijicentlg, (Ec. S. .5. lufufJix*'* }tiirir«M, »«} r«^ 
ran vrXuitti* Mem. iL 6. 27. *F,Can^tirBt9 rp AaMtlalftout nmi reuiru {tC imm* 
9'ttv] ttioTUt they assisted Laoedamon, and [they did] that knowing^ Ag. 1. 38. 
Mt»w»« ^l Ptm l^ifrf/, Ku) ravrtt wetf 'A^iaitp ^v, but Meno he did not nsk fit^ 
md that althongh h<e u^u from Arimis, ii. 4. 15. ^tfvXmJ^ ri^ wijutt msi 


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rm.»rm Jtrtixi^rtp •Zrm* Ag. 2. 24. — (6) The lue of rwr» and rrnvrm in of- 
toU ; as, " ^A^' ti wXtwlost athwart fAaj^wvrat tiUToi Svng 9fXifA§v kiXnreii \ ** 
" N«) v^M y% [sc Ur^:* \^n, * Certainly it is so/ PI. Rep. 422 b. 11. 0*f. 

Pax, 274. BA, *AXX* tlfm/Uf, O. Taurd ftn, i^Wi^ ^miT Id. Yesp. 1008, 

^ S 1 4« 2.) "Odt surpasses in demonstrative vivacity ; but 
ovTog in emphatic force and in the ex^en^ of its substantive use. 

01 A. *B. Tofh ^f»Zug I 'AFP. TtST»9, hin( ttrtffs, (Ed. I* this the mm 
you speak off Mess. The rsar man, whom pou behold, Soph. (Ed. T. 1120. 
0£P. n«r«» &^'i^a »«} Xiyu$% 01 A. T^y^', it irA^iimt lb. 1126. 2^ 
rcT^^t T»7s 9ra^9U0t fin ii. 8. 1 9. 'EjitraXi^rivru rtft^i o*** «lly}^« • . . Wii »uTog 
muT»§ ifMk0yu yi. 6. 26. 'H^f «'«iir}i ketCivrtt, taking u$ who are hert^ Th. 
i. 53. 

Note. To the dmc^ power of 0^1 (§ 51 3), may be referred the very fre- 
quent use of this pronoun by the Epic and Dramatic poets for an adverb of 
place (§ 4.57.*^) ; and perhaps, in no small degree, the general fact, that it is 
£» more extensively employed in poetry than in prose* ' 

^ S 1 S* 3.) In the emphatic designation of the firsi and 
second persons by a demonstrative^ odt commonly denotes the 
* frst person, as the nearer object ; and ovrog^ the second. In 
denoting the frst person, the demonstrative may be regarded 
as simply deictic {§ 513) ; in denoting the second^ as expres- 
sive of impatience^ authority^ contempt^ familiarity ^ &;c. For 
the use of ovto; in address^ which is employed both with and 
without av, see § 343. 3. Thus, 

^ ^^'X ^^ *'''^* kfi^ [=> S/MtQ, •uV lym iTfi rMf, do not you dig for 
this man [for me], nor yet I for you, Eur. Ale 690. ^Mvt £f reSt^t rkti^it 
[» ItUS] Ifn^fSt Soph. GBd. T. 534 (but, *Afiif ^* [» ri/], m l«i»i», tU 
TfiCmf iXf lb. 1 1 60). Ttirii yt T^^rnt irt, at least, while I am yet aUoe, Id. 
Tr. .305. T£i% [b iifuTt, § 450] . . wtfra naXurtit, nmi fuXaxtf JEacYu Pers. 

1. Our$ffi Afh^ [aa ry] 0y irmv0irai ^vd^Sv- Eiiri fA»t, Z "^x^ttrif, »vm 
•Ir^C^if PL Gorg. 489 b. OZrof vv, m irfieCv, [This you, or Ton there, 
§ 457.' /3], Ho there I old man, Soph. (Ed. T. 1121. OSret ru, ^Zf hv0 
ixfiif X Ho vtUain I how earnest thou hither f lb. 532. Atfru vv, ir$7 vr^i^it % 
Ar. Thesm. 610. OZth, ri ri^Mt . . fikiirus i Fellow! why that solemn look? 
Eur. Ale 773 (§ 432). See § 348. 3. — This use of 3fJi is very frequont in 
the tragedians. 

^916* ni. Other compounds of aiiog and ^« (§ 150. a) 
are distinguished in like manner with oviog and oSt ' thus, 

*0 KS^t k»9vrat Tov TmC^vty rtimurm, r»tdit ir^if nvrit IXf^i Cyr. V. 

2. 31 (§ 513. 1). *0 /A\f •Srt0s ifwt* ii. 3. 23. Kxie^x^s fiU tow r«. 
wuvra tWf Tt0^m<pi^nf tk Zii itirniAupin ii. 5. 15. OS rat t Irr) ^in»$ 
XiyAn, Z^Tt n m'ti^mi Ib.« *EyinT» •Zvtt, Zrirt^ fh tkiytg vii. 2. 27. 
T«r«vr«» tt^tv, 7r« §h rZv nxZtrm* %1n ii* 1* 9. *H^i7f r»rour»t Strtf, 
ZfVf rv ifff lb. 16. *^ft»Tt r«r«i^i Svrtf lin»Zf*t9 rot ^riXi« ii. 4. 4 
(§ 514). *0P. "Tirtirrtt •Jrai yiyfZr»u iroXu. FIP. Tosavrm * fttrttrm 
ykf kfUtH yvf^, 'Even so,* Eur. El. 644 (§513. b). 


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§fflT. Of the indefinite pronouns^ the most extenshro 
in its use is ti^, which is the simplest expression of indefi- 
nileness or general reference. As such, it is not only joined 
directly with substantives^ or used by itself substantively or 
adverbially, but it is also joined with other pronouns^ with nw- 
merals and other adjectives, and with adverbs. It more fre- 
quently follows the word with which it is thus joined, and is 
never placed at the beginning of a sentence, unless perhaps 
when it is emphatic. It is variously translated into English, 
and is sometimes best omitted in translation. Thus, 

"Ji^i^vrii rif iftirn^h a certain man asM, ii. 4. 1 5* Ila^k Xm^ttvi Ti»<, 
with a certain QutrOn, H. Gr. v. 4. 3. T^***^ mi, m 9ome way, il. 2. 17 
£? ry v^irj^uri n, if he made any promim to any one, L 9. 7. Aciimry • r 
«if tx*** ^ make a mpper of what one has, or each one has, ii. 2. 4. £^ ftb 
rtf ii^v ^li^itt, *• each one,* B. 38'2. BLn? rtt l»t7949, there ,are those who 
hate him, or many a one hates him, Dem. 42. 1 7. "U T4vm ii ait^Um »T^a, I know 
[either some one or none] scarcely an individual, Cyr. vii. 5. 45. *H fi,h yk^ 
y(»^n M»r »iiT»d Totmit rtt nh f"*^ ^ accusation against him mas som^hing 
Hie this, or to this effect, Mem. i. 1 . 1 . *0«r«/«y Tn£f liftiif trvx^** what sort 
of persons they found us, v. 5. 1 5. Tlif^n rts tifi x^i"^ ^***^ extennve a conn' • 
try it was, ii. 4. 21. Has JJ rtt . .*?» yi ri, tSu ttX^pu, HmfttT; and every 
one presented at lea^ some one thing of what he had taken, Cyr. v. 5. 89. Aiyu 
nf i7f, CI oertain one speaks. Soph. Ant. 269. *H^i^«f fiU iCh/Awavrm rimf, 
some [i. e. about'] seventy days, Th. vii. 87. Tirra^' arrm ftvfMtru PI. Phsdo^ 
1 12 e. Tnv tXeifef, »»Xfp rt xt^f^"' ^7^* ^* ^* ^* ^^ wXXtjf rivi vwhirrt^sv, 
not inferior in any great degree, Th. vi. 1 . Tl»XXwe 2i nvg iXtyftaig mum ntd 
nnrtt, * quite a nomber of turnings,* Cyr. i. 3. 4. JAjMif n fii^^s, quite a 
small part, Ifo. vi. 14. Mjn^v nvtg H^im, worth but little, 1. 19. 
*Oxiyi rMs Svrtf, being [some few] but few, iv. 1. 10. *flf iumt rttn kiyug 
Ivimfuv r»v ^Xn/Mirts ttvau, ' what a fearful one,* or *how fearful/ Mem. i. S, 
12. 'Eyit rvyx»*^ iwtktirf*»f rtg Zv nti^tt9»t PL Prot. 234 c £i/iM r»f 
yt>.M§f inr^ii lb. 340 d. "iimXkiv rt tt^tuetmt, will tuffer somewhat more, iv. 
8. 26. ^Urrov rt avrUanf ; Did he die at aU the less f v. 8. 11. 2;^i^f «v 
irarit d ^r^arta vi. 4. 20. Oti w^vu^rt ftfi/Z" nf(pnXlt Ctvsu ravre vi. 1. 2d« 
n^^ n iiruMtvtiv CBc. 9. 1. Ata^t^ivr^s rt Th. i. 138. 

§918* Remarks. «. T)s may be regarded as the Greek uui^finUr 
artide; but it is not commonly expressed with a substantive, unless somt 
prominence is given to the idea of indefiniteness. See iv. 3. 11, and § 469. 2. 

^. TU is sometimes emphatic and consequently orthotone (yet editors differ) ; 
■8, 2iftvun0ieit ^s Tt Urt, to pride themselves as if they were something, PL 
Phsedr. 242 e. £JsA«'if up^ Civnt r\ rilt rtrt)nvrnxo<rt, I am confident that 
there is something for the dead, Id. Phsdo, 63 c. "E^t^t r) u^tTv, he seemed to 
[say something] have reason or to be in the right. Id. Amat. 133 c 

y. An indefinite form of expression is sometimes employed for a definite ', 
thus, E/ »vf rtt rturttf v(pi^tt Itcvriv, if therefore^ one gives himself up to these 
[s=if I give myself up], Cyr. vii. 5. 44. BavXtut^^t, wHf rtf rwt i^^^ne 
Av-iX^, to counsel, how one [«= we] shall drive off the men, iii. 4. 40. Knnes 
9»u rtfi [«= rw] At. Ran. 552. E; /liv rtt if fifins awtimt, if ome 
'^■^ you permit] us to depart, iii. 3. 3. 


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CH. 4.] RELATIVE. 3W " 

E. Relative. 

§ ff 1 0, I. Relatives refer to an antecedent either as <i^ 
nite or as indefinite ; and are, hence, divided into the definitb 
and the indefinite relatives* 

Remarks. 1. In the logical order of discourse, the antecedent, according 
to its name, prteedet the relative, but this order may be wverted, whenever 
the perapicmty, energy^ or beauty of the sentence is promoted by the change. 

2. Indefinite BELAnvES are formed, either from the defiaite rdatioet by 
adding vU or a particle (commcmly «»), or from the ftmple indefinitee by pre- 
fixing h (in the shortened form'«.) ; tiins, tgrtt or U ttv, whoever ^ ««*•?«;, cf 
what kind woever, i9rirHt f*ow much §oever, iirort, wheruoever. See §§ 153, 
SI 7, 328. 

§ S30. II. The definite relative is often used for 
t le indefinite^ as a simpler and shorter form ; and the indef^ 
NiTE sometimes takes the place of the definite^ giving, however, 
a somewhat different turn to the expression. Thus, 

$aic ufiUing to incur danger ^ these he both made rulers^ i. 9. 1 4. '^x«i«y irMtrm 
iffm umv^tfAa Uifttv vi. 3. 19 (cf. R«/iiy S<r»trtt ertjt Urvy^dvonv »m»0t/A(f 
lb. 15 ; and, *lSJ»*T»f iratrMt i^-iv^tuf WtxAfA^mn rl xi^etf vi. 5. 5). 
.*0(«ri 7li T^t TiT0afifM»us afrt^rimtf •0vtt Xiym . ., and »ee the perJUjf 
of Tiuapherne$, [one] a tnan who saying . ., iiL '2. 4. Ov» «<V;^vMr^i tvrt 
S-toi/f •St avfif^irufSf •Irtvif ifti^avrtf . . mx»kmXiX9ri U. 5* 39. Td^H 
rux'^t >.ii^r«y ^m^ikitttt Irrtf . , /3<«rii/ri/, * one who will live»' £«r. 
Ale 239 (see lb. 659). Nm?! IsiTy**, ifrtv* a^r'mt /mXiTv i^iS^tr^A i 
Soph. (Ed. T. 1034. X«Xi«'ik ^y tx tra^vrm, Mrt ivi^Ht rr^ar«y«y rM«v- 
Tt0w rn^ifAiSm ill. t^. 2 (> 521. ^). See § 525. /S. * 

Notes, (a) After the phural ir^lyrf (, off, 3rr<r and 2t &* ai^ used in Hxb 
singular^ but Xrt and tirAtf-M in the plural. See above and §§ 497. I, 521. 
(6) The use of on indejiniie relative referring to a definite antecedent belongs 
particularly to those cases in which the relative danse is added, not to diMtin' 
guiihf but to characterize, thus representing the antecedent 9& one of a dose* 

§ S31. III. The relative should correspond with its an- 
tecedent in specific meanings as well as in grammatical form. 
Thus, the definite relative with ovio^ should be og ' with lo*- 
ovre^, olo^ ' with joaoviog^ oaog ' &c. The exceptions to this 
rule arise mostly from the use of a simpler^ more familiar^ 
or more emphatic pronoun^ in the place of that which is 
strictly appropriate. Some apparent exceptions arise from 
ellipsis. Thus, 

MnV WiiVfttt* Timomt W^nc iff [=« •7»f] ir»XX6i . . rvyx^**'^**i JkkXk e9§ 
TfiXixavTHf ri fiiytff ^y [«» ^X/jcnv] ftit$t Mv eh rSf wt |yr«y nr^eme4mi )0- 
wfi§tm$ • finV (kyMir^v Xiett vkt vtoiurttt k^ivkt Jy [»■ a7ivy] nei tms fM^ktit 
f/tirteTiv, Jixx* Iztifttg St cviiU &v ir«v*)^f »$ivt0vnetit, ' sudi glory as many ob- 
. tain, &&,' Isocr. 40m d. ilrnvrttt, Seot [for J, or sc r«r«vr«ry] th KmerttXei 
w^e9 A/^«t«»r«i, * of all who muster,* or 'of all, as many as muster,' L 1. » 


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(dl IIS#»^ tU Myx''^ iC2« L 8. 1). ns>, Um lyJ^ Om^i** tu. 6. S«. 

fmtf Srsmf i^ftiinrtu ^tk xmm KMfitmj^an hr. 3. 2. 

F*-*»«^ «. *Of 11 abo «Md lor mW widi an dfipos of the antecedent , 
mtt *Emfwt^ iw fih [as r«M9r«f mW] i^ « lomg as yo« art anAa< [as such as*] 
fM ore, PL PIuBdr. S43 a. *n* yt Sk t^^ Id. Tliect. 197 m. 

$, Tht place </ a nlatiTa praioim ia often aoppfied by a bxlaiiyb advkbb, 
chkdj in deaignatkna of jdaet, time, and wmmmgr; aa» E;^ X*»t^i «^" •^•^ 
rm ^rnXmrrm*, to a plaes [wfaeoce], from wluA Aof would bekoU <*« sea, rr. 
7. SO. '£» rf S^ twiturtf U»«m»» It. 8. 25. T* miri rxifui . . ^rfri; 
«{ WfSrtfw futx»yi^9H ^99 fu, th€ aame order [aa] ii»A that in wkiek he Jint ad- 
waurrd to the Aoltic, L 10. 10. *0/M<k y«^ /m» ^mmSti «>«r;^m, Srwt^ d 
rm «r«XX« IWmw ^M'fTt i^^riw-A^ur* Sjmp. iv. 37. Kc} tf-M ^«2 «>«^f, «f 
ly^ SiJUi Soph. (Ed. a 1124. 

§ S93« IV. The relative pronouns belong to the class 
of adjectives (§ 73), and, as such, agree with a substantive 
expressed or understood. This substantive, or one correspond- 
ing to it, is also the antecedent of the relative. It is commonly 
expressed in hut one of the two clauses, more frequently the 
former^ but often the latter ; and may be omitted in hoth^ if it 
18 a word which will be readily supplied (^ 447). Thus, 

her the toldiers, which [aoldien] Memo had, L 2. 20. *A9r§9'ifi^^)mt w^it U»- 
Wf [ac ri rr^iCrtir/MK,] 8 tT;^!? rr^«rtv/MK, to $emd bach to Am the farce Mfhieh 
he had [what force he had], lb. 1. KS^h % f;^«» •Ss c?^««, and Cyrue hav 
img Ae wten whom I haoe memOomed, lb. 5. £<V ^ nv afUtpre msi^ns [ac 
m8rn h mv^h] /AtydXm rt iw ir. 4. 2. Kartt0^Mttm?^»9rd rt ^f «^;^m X*^* 
L 9. 19. A«i«yTif [ac. r^ravrevt fitSt,"] Ut iir«f ^tif vii. 8. 16. *£rs^ 
y^ fir«*, 9Ut9 %Sxf*^ ^'^f '^' ^*^ ^^* ^'^'t '7' l^^^^^f* *E^^cMMfv fiwm^ 
I^Eor. Or. 1184. 

TtwafATtyg. 1. Other words, bdonging alike to both danses, are subject to 
A similar ellipsis ; thus, Tsrrafiffns lin^u9ti [sc. tx»t*]t ^vt n ttlrit i«-«rUf 
^X#i» ix'^i THsMophemee appeoared, haxing bc^ the canalnf tahich he had Ann- 
aa^ brought [had come having], ilL 4. 1 .i. OTf v9r»vT»t9 irift rwi^c, h-m* 
hfu»f trfixttrtu [sa OTe Wfi»urtu rxi'^tt iri^l rtwirtn, 9t^ Sratt hfuf rxi^tg 
w^fUirmi] PL Bq>. 533 e. 

2. It win be observed, that when the antecedent is expressed in the samt 
danse with the relative, it is commonly pat at the end, as though the rest of 
the danse were regarded as modifying it like an adjective. See § 526. 

^ o33« 3. The ELUPSis of a demonstrative pronoun beibre the rela- 
tive is veiy freqnent ; as, indeed, of the whole antecedent^ when it can be sup- 
plied from the relative. When this ellipsis of the antecedent takes place, trr 
often unites with the relative to form a spedes of compound pronoun or advert 
remaining itself unchanged, whatever may be the appropriate number, tenae^ 
or mode. Hius, Tl^tfCaXXttrt m-^UCue w^Sr** fth 'Siu^lrt^v, Srt i^X"^ 
fffir*' trri V el [^ss $g-u9 J* ixtTvu, #7J »«) StvefUfTM, they proposed as oai- 
bassadors, first Ourisophus, because he had been chosen commander } and some 
also [therA were also those who proposed] Xencpho% vi. 2. 6. Uxk* *Ii^», »«• 


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*Ax«uS9f »•) \frn Jtf Mkkttv livSv Th, iii. 92. K«2 7r<r< fih ttt mItSv xati- 
CmX»9 H. Gr. ii. 4. 6. "Errjy eS^rtvets atfi^at^tn riPavfcetxaf Sir} r«^/f i Mem. 
i. 4. 2. (Cf. EiVi y avrSf $S$ «v)* ^f m-mvTmv'dfi itetCaiuTt ii. 5. 18 ; *Hr«9 
)i «7 MB) wv^ «'f«0-i^f(«f V. 2. 14 ; and, with the nngular for the plural in the 
Imperfect also, *Hy m rtVTMt r«» ^^MifiSt eSs wmvu fiMx^aut HXatntv L 5. 7« 
See § 364.) 'Hf m2 «vr^ /«ir«^iXm W 3fn, «o <Aa< [there were times 
when] mmutimf he even. rtgreUed i^ IL 6. 9. *£rr4 % l»^«, om^ ihere are piaceg 
where, or m «om« placet, Cyr, viii. 2. 5. 'E#r<9 ^r^c rif &» vftMf V^A^rttrweu i 
/« there any way m toAicA one could deceive you 9 <nr, U it possible that one should 
deceive youf v. 7. 6. Ob yk^ U4* Xwu /a iXu$ Soph. (Ed. T. 448. 

Notes, (a) FVom a similar union of in [p-» in^rt] with the relative^ have 
arisen the compounds f mm, some, and ImWi, «(Miie<»m«. (6) The ellipsis some- 
times extends even to the substantive verb itself ; thus, *'Ow^v [for *Erriv 
Trttf], M tome p2acei^ Lao. 10. 4. 

§ ff34. V. The intimate relation of clauses connected 
by a relative pronoun^ or a kindred particle^ often produces 
an ATTRACTION, sometimes simply affecting the position or 
form of particular words^ and sometimes even uniting the 
two clauses in one. Not unfrequently a combination results, 
which may be regarded as a species of compound or complea 
pronoun. Thus, 

^SftS. A.) A word or phrase is often made a part of 
the relative^ instead of the antecedent^ clause ; and sometimes 
the two clauses are blended in their arrangement. Thus, 

A§y0»t iMMf^st, tSt eu i»er»x**f ^**' 9**t*'^y ^^^ ^ '^ tidings which 1 
bring you, Eur. Or. 853. EiV 'A^^ivrnt n^uv, i$ *Ofivruf ffx* ^«^>-nf mm 
tliaiff9»i [for wKXhf »ui ivimifAfm] iiL 5. 17. EiVI n-mtV, 8* l| l/sng 
;^i^ n«Xv)«^«» t» rt vrmr^if Iv H/tMs tx^h ** ^> 'tell me respecting my 
•on Polydorus, whom you have,' Eur. Hec. 986. Tavrti* y t^v ^iirwvuv, 
h 0v ri9 9%n^i9 mwitirmf Soph. Ant. 404. *Eri^a rotavrm, d in nnt rk 
f»9Tmef*UTa vv* iwu^iuf ixnin ftaX»uet9'Pl Theffit 167 b. OtTrM, lire) 
tviittt 4ei99r$ ri ir^uyfun, kwix^^nm" [f<nr l«'t2 Sirf^vre ri vfiyfitUt ivfutt 
A«^;^«^iir«»], ^ese, u^en they understood the matter, immediately withdrew, H. 
Gr.iiL 2.4. See § 523. 

Remark. We observe this construction particularly, 

«.) In expressions of time and possibility with the superlative ; as, ITn^du 
rtfiuin wtt^utm, trnv rJix**^n iinw^u^ftiim [fbr wtt^titm r«;^<rT«, irmw 
hmir(uli^fi%^u], we ihaU endeavour to be present [most quickly, when] as soo% 
as we have accompUshed, Cyr. iv. 5. S3. *iU «'«;t;irr« X»ff v^i^ttmv, Uuttrs 
iv. 3. 9. '£«'t2 ixtt rnx*'^'h • • u^ii*^»t as soon as he had come, he sold, vii. 
9 6. '^yuy9 . . iirseeut lyit wXiiertvs Hvtafttif* 1 have brought [the most 
wuich] as many as I could, Cyr. iv. 5. 29. "^X"* lir^uf is n» iutnTut «'Xi/- 
^rsvf, bringing <u many horse <u he should be able, L 6. 3 (§ 52 1 . ^). *0.f /«ii- 
Xt^rm iiutUTS Wttt^v^TSfAiff i. 1.6. 'Awny^r* • . t^t liwavrt ^^•rtvarm 
vL 6. 1. 'Ex«v»«»f if ^t/MKTo h rtix'^^'h riding as fast as was possible, Cyr. 
T. 4. 3. Hi/etfMU f Itnarh [sc. irrtu] fiaXtrru L 3. 15. AiiC«if«f . . it 
slew n [sc iv] fiaXteru in(puXayitiin>K ii. 4. 24. "Eats &9 ruvra it fn 
[«■ Irtrri] fitem yUnrm Mem. iv. 5. 9. 


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NoTBb The word denotiag potnbHity ia efteD underatood ; thus, *CU tA^ 
X*^^» [sc. %y9UTn i*] 9§^iv%v4mi, to marth a» quickly at postable^ i. 3. 14 

S. 27. *Iy« ttf «'Xf7rr*i ftlv hfMtv It T0i( ttrXM; i^s*, m IX«;^irrM )i futui^* 
^«ri lb. 28. AtmCiCm^tif ttf riit *Ar#«» art rd;c00rm [sc. mt ivtnrmt'] vii. jT. 8 
(Sri in this oonstructioa with the Miperiativt i» the itrater o^ «0-r<r, used aI- 
verbiaUy), "(hrmi §ri &irm^etir»%vet0'r§rmr9t kdCu fia^'tXitij that he might take 
the king at unprepared eu poteibky i. J . 6. *0r> «rX(iVT0»f xa^ fiiXri0r9Us lt> 
•Otr^j r JS^rr« -fiach. Ag. 600. •Or#» r.jt''*'* ^V^- EL 1433. 

^.) In the use of the uuii^t^, which, even in composition with ot (§ 519. 
f ), often seem to belong in force to the aBteoedent cla ise ; thus, 'HytfAspm 
mirtTr Kv^«^ S^rn . • *«•«{•* ["" hyfii9m rmk, h]% to aek Cyrus for tome yuide^ 
who kvhU conduct them, i. 9. 1 4. "E^n in [=» W, •] ri ni,xnr» j Is there 
aught in which I have wronged you f i. 6. 7. Kmi <Ux«y JfirrfWK «iii i^Mi/uist 
V. 5. 12. Ov ^lAT^/Cwy, iir»v fin iin0trtr/A»u tnn» . . S»a^i^ir«, * [anywhere, 
when he did nol] except where,* L 5. 9. See §§ 520, 523. 

§ S36« B.) The relative takes the case of the ante- 
cedent, - This is the common construction, when the antece- 
dent is a Genitive or Datioey and the relative would prop- 
erly be an Accusative depending upon a verb. Thus, 

*£» rZf wiXtM9, Zw Tt00u^i^nf Iroyx*'** ^X**** f^^^ ^ cities, tMA 7^ 
tofihemM happened to Aaoe, i. 1.8. T^ uth(i, S av XXnvh^ ^lif/itut I wiU 
9bey the wmn, whom you may ehoote^ L 3. 15. 'A^/m o^ UWc^wf, ^ M»r«irli 
i 7. 3. (€£ '£* rmt 9er»Amu ^ . • iwHn^mf iv. 1. 1. Vtitf nrnnrtv^ A U 
wm Tmix''* tXmCsw iv. 7. 1 7.) Tsortf*, J» rv h^irttS. ^== i rv )irir«i»««« 
§ 434] mmXits (£c ii. 1 . 'A^:^«yr«; l«'«ii< iTf »ttTt0T(i^i'"9 ;^wf»« i. 9. i 4 
(§ 592. 2). Htv f«^^ fl;^** Mxin^y w'irr^ ^v^ Soph. (Ed. C :i34. Mm-js. 
ii^ivf «J«^ uMt ix**f ^'^«*f Hem. ii. 7. 13. JLufuivit yt S^th •leo k'tyut 
V. 8. 3. 

Remarks. «. If the amtbgedent is a demonttrative, it is commonly omit-^ 
ted; as, 2m> [so. Intifts] sis l;^«, with thote whom I have^ \di. .i. 48. 'A/*^ 
J» iT;^«» iv. 5. 1 7. *A»^* Jy iv Wait* i. 3. 4. *H/U4«X4«ff wuTt ^riiv «J c^*- 
n(«» f^i^o lb. 21. *£^X4fri ^i v«vr« mc rjf v^rt^if 7«'^«rr< ii. 2. 18. 

^. Sometimes, though rarely, the Dot, and eren the Nom, are attracted ia 
like manner ; as, ^Clw [>= Ui/»«v, tTf j MrrUf w-oXXsotj many cf those whom 
he distrusted^ Cyr. v. 4. 39. '£^ Jy [= ixf/v^y, 18] ^t^' ixttTi^iv yiytnt, from 
oith either party^ Isocr. 69 c ( 450). BXeiv'Tt^fiat if J*? 
fW w»^r»ftMir«-«M, to be injured by those things which have beer. 
I respect to which preparation has been made by as], Th. viL 
^rte rSf h ir»f4 2a^^<( Hdt. i. 78. — When the subject of a 
the verb, If retained, becomes impersonaL CL § 529. 

foUowod by fi^yXu may, as if a compound pronoun (§ 534), 
iteoedent in any case ; thus, Hi^} l\»Xuy9»*T»v, n ixx»u ««•«• 
, respecting Polygnotut, or any other one whom you pteattf PL 
Urn, n Urit fi»vXu AXXsg m^Jftst Id. Oat. 432 a. OU re^ 
%9rm Id. Gorg. 517 b. Compare, in Lat., quivit. 

LDVKKB8 are likewise affected by attraction ; thos, A«um^ 
■ UiiVif J{r«v] iiriiifitr* vteuhui^ they inunediatefy brmighi 
[whence] from the places where they had put them fat m^ilg^ 


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TiL i. 89. *E» }i yiif, S^iy [«: •S] ^^»v»ut$ Soph. Tr. 701. Xm^up ^%in 
Z^4t [^ IxiTri jffrtv] ;^^0y«t »^v^^«vrs Xif0'0^y ^f/Mif £ar. Iph. T. 118. (X 
§$ 527. R.,5Sl./3. 

^ ff37« C.) The ANTECEDENT takes the case of the relo' 
live. This is termed inverted attraction. Thus, 

AvfiXif «vr^ i 'ArtfAXivv ^iMj; [= B^tovfl •!( tiu d-vKv, Apollo made known 
to him the gods to whom he muet sacri/iee, iii. 1.6 (cf. Q>uvafA%t§s »ts AnTXtf 
i ^lit lb. 8). "Ori \m»{heufiin9t wmvrw [^s ^avT»]i <^' iiavreiij -rt^^etyirtt 
i7iy H. Gr. i. 4. 2. *A»^«y0»r« /«b ^y^ 4r«XrnM> [:=■ 4r«X/rai$] J» k^ixtv 
X^ova Id. Med. 1 1. T«r^f [=» AT^i] )* i!«'«'i^ i'VAf^i i| •xC/«»ff il^}}X«v iv^tv- 
r«i ^/«i», x'^V^^* ^(^^ '• Soph. Tr. 28S. Aiyn y Sf l^friirr*rjBiy a^ritf ifui 
rTi/;^»»Ti ^itf^t, ri;^C«X0tf TvwjMni' W. QEd. C. 1 150. T#» Jiy^^a rwr^y, ^v ariJ- 
Xci ^nnrr, . . oSrif Urn Meih Id. (Ed. T. 449 (§ 499). Karv^^irtts K tdt 
Vfctri^tuf ^«rl t%M, i? ri avrit ^ik^^a/uv, etvr*) alrft iiV/y V. 5. 1 9. 

RwMARK. Inverted attraction appears also in adverbs ; thus, Bntm uitPif 
[s «i7ri], «^i» «-!( iTxu, to retem MttA«r, valence he came. Soph. C£d. C. 1227. 
Kec) «XX«ri [«=s JiXXax^u], hrt &9 m^imif, iya^-n^svfi 0% PL Crito* 45 b. GL 
$$ 526. I, 531. /I. 

^S38'. D.) The two clauses are hr aught into one by 
tlie ellipsis of a substantive verb (cf. § 538). This is termed 
condensed construction, or condensation. The verb is 
omitted either (a.) with the antecedent^ or (b.) wUh the reUb* 

a.) With the Antecedent. We here distinguish the foK 
lowing cases : — • 

1 .) After a demmutraiim proiunm or artieUt the rblatiyb is also om^ed^ 
and the auteckdjest takes its place in the construction. This form of con- 
densatioD is particoUuiy frequent in qnutume and exclamatkmSf especiallj with 
the poets. Thus, T/ r«)' mli^^t [» Ti Wn rih, 8 •vift'\ » What it (Ms, 
which you tayf Eur. Ale. 106. T// 1»^^ riwV [=r/f AfVf irri ?^i, Sf"] M 
fKtiwmt i^£ ^ What man it thie^ whom I tee by the tenttf Id. Hec. 733. T/ 
TWT a^x^^** ini^rut ttMxiv i Soph. CEd. T. 1033. Oiatv 7;|^i^yct rn*^* tipSvttsX 
What a viper is this, which thou hast produced I Eur. Ion, 1262. T«vr« fch 
ttiiU ^muftMvh Xiynt PL Prot 3 1 8 b. TiV • ^iict [== T«$ Wr$ t trofitt, Ss} 
mlfrm 1»tra { Soph. Ph. 601 (see ^ 480. «). KaXi* yi f*»4 rtSnihs l^«ffii%« 
0Mf, the reproach which you have cast upon wte is an honor, Eur. Iph. A. 305. 
In the following sentence, there appears to be a union between an exclamation 
without a verbf and a relative clause ; T«tv ift^g fit ^»rh( B^ttftiravg ttlxttt 
[=*n ^«i»«T«i «/»!?;, 0tJf i^i fl'arJi^ If^it]! The cruel death my father saw! 
Soph. EL 205. — Expressions like the following are still more elliptical ; "^vim 
4 T^iiTVfyim [=s IrW x**V*^i ^ T^t^u^yiu] uttXuraty where there is a place, 
which is called Tripyryia, H. 6r. v. 1. 10. 'Ev f nmXtvfitf ri ^^.v, in which 
ii that which we call ufb, PL Phssdo. 1 07 c. 

2.) OVU'it with iwTtt §u (or sometimes St •&) forms a species of compound 
p ronoun (§ 524) ; as, OtiUU Uvtt mm Ji^iltrat, there is no one^ who will not 
not refrain, Ven. 1 2. 14 (c£ OvhU h, o^rtg $h» wit* H. Gr. vii. 5. 26). K«. 
^mytXSf At nfu»9 »Mf t^rtt m/^ every body would laugh at us, F\. Hipp. Bf^f. 
999 a. Oikk it six^ rZ^' mHiu Soph. CEd. T. 373. Ouitm ' - m^mi 


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NoTBb The word donotiBg posnbaity U eften imderetood ; thus, *CU rd- 
X*'^» [sc ^mrh iTv] «'«fftfi^4u, to martk a» quickfy aa possible^ i. 3. 14 
IKv £* ir»^tv0i/Atfid n «; ^r^Xirr«4«, mm} . . tn M^art^ra /mb;^«//«i/« iii 
S. 27. *'!»• «f •'XfTrr*! /«if 4/U4v* iv tmV t<rX»n Znv, m iX«;^irq-M )l futtfi^p* 
^«r< lb. 28. AMiCfCtf^i/T f/f rht 'Ar/«v 7r4 «^e(;^4irr« [sc. a» ivntteu'] vii. -^. 8 
{in in this construction with the Miperiativt b the Nfoter o^ S^rst, used «^> 
verbialfy), "O^mt %ri ivm^mir»iua¥viv»rot XdCt ^^tXim, that he might toAt 
the king aa unprepared eu poeeible, i. 1.6. "Or* •'Xi/Vr^cf nai /9iA.r/#r«Pf Ih 
"Owms y Sierra iEseh. Ag. aOO. "Or** r^;t:'^*^ ^^P*^ ^ ' 't^^- 

/3.) In the use of the indefinite; which, even in composition with »s (§ 519. 
2), often seem to belong in force to the aBteeedent daise ; thus, ^J^ytf^ita 
euvti* Kv^«^ Uth . • m^aiti [»> hyp^itm r#vA, h], to tuk Cymt for some gmide, 
who kvhU conditct them^ i. S. 14. *£>»» i n [=3 W, #] ri ii}4»«r« t /« cAere 
aught in which I have wronged you f i. 6. 7. K«j «biX«v 7yr<v« jn i^M^fuim 
V. 5. 1 2. Ov har^iCMff Wtu fth iwt^trtrftdv tvtnm . . i»«^i^iT«, * [anywhere, 
when he did not] except whera,' i 5. 9. See §§ 520, 523. 

§ ff 36* B.) The RELATIVE takes the case of the ante- 
cedent. • This is the common construction, when the antece- 
dent is a Genitive or DativCj and the relative would prop- 
erly be an Accusative depending upon a verb. Thus, 

*£» rif iriXimv, Sw Htf^m^i^nt Irvyxan* t^**** from, the citieSf which 7^ 
gaphemee happened to have, i. 1 . 8. T^ «»)('• tf at tXn^h, irtifeftast I wiO 
obey the »um, whom you may ehoootj L 3. 15. 'A^im v^^ 2xWi^i«f» nt MM»mvh 
L 7. 3. (Gf. '£* rrni ^^niaJu ^ • • Wtin^at iv. 1. 1. Tm; nrnn0t%, A U 
«-«? Taix'^ tXmUt iv. 7. 17.) T^vr^v, Jt 0v h^wtvS. ^^tl 0v )i«'ir«/ff««, 
§ 434] maXus (Ec li. 1 . "A^^^fvrMf I«'«<i4 iSs HotTtw^i^'^t X'^(*f i. 9. 1 4 
(§ 522. 2). Htv ^1^ t^x** M««T4^ m'l^rif /lipf Soph. (Ed. C :i34. Umv- 
)/^( f^*!^ «vWf ix^'f 0'*T»u Hem. ii. 7. 13. XAtfiitit y% Svth •^•o Xiyaif 
V. 8. 3. 

Remarks, a. If the amtbgedent Is a demongtratine^ it is commonly omit^ 
ted; as, Svv [so. Im/vm;] tJg tx*** *'^^ thoee whom I have, vii. .i. 48. *A^«fi2 
«v iT;^*! iv. 5. 1 7. *A»^* Jy itf f «*«#•» i. 3. 4. *H^«Xmv waft 3iwrt<» tJ »^- 
ri^0» i^^t lb. 21. *£^X4fri )i 9'«(ilr« •!$ rj p^ri^itf tir^arrt iL 2. 18. 

^. Sometimes, though rarelj*, the Dot, and even the iVbm. are attracted im 
like manner ; as, ^Hp [»= Ui/y«», tTf] M^rtt, m-oXX^uf, many cf thoee whom 
he distrusted^ Cyr, v. 4. 39. *£^ Jy [= i«i/i»«y, 18] /«f^' Ucri^«>v yiyut, from 
what he has been with either party^ Isocr. 69 c ( 450). BXam-rtf^at h^* tSw 
[»B l»t/Mf», iS] Ji^ vw^rxftMrroM, to be injured by those things which have been. 
prqKured ^ m [in reelect to which preparation has been made by us], Th. viL 
67. Oi/ii* »« %tBiri$ rif h «-•;< la^hf Hdt. i. 78. — When the subfect of a 
verb is attracted, the verb, if retained, becomes impersonal. CL § 529. 

7. The relative fallowed by fi»yXu may, as if a compound pronoun (§ 524)^ 
agree with the antecedent in any case ; thus, Hi^i llaXvyt^ireVi Si ixx^u •t0» 
[==> i*rtva] ^tuXUf respecHng Polygnotus, or any other one whom you please^ PL 
lo, 533 a. T« }U«, n Urtt fi»vXu ixx$f i^Jfjut Id. Oat. 4S2 a. 0& r«^. 
r«» St ^wXu tl^yatwrat Id. Groig. 517 b. Compare, in Lat., quivit* 

>. Bbuitivb adverbs are likewise affected by attraction ; thus, ^tnfsk 
K»9T9 ibfttt Ui* [s» Imuiiv in-tv] £«'(^«^i»r« wattat^ they hnmediatsfy Umighi 
over their children [whence] from the piaees where they had put them fat mfii^ 


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IIl i 89. *E» ^ yiit, Uif[^9Si] w^»S»tw Soph. Tr. 701. Xm^v ;0^ 
i^4, [^Xxuft iirtv] x^**^ M^uyprntrt kn^»fU9 Viftrng 'Ewr. Iph. T. 118. GL 
§5 527. R., 531. ^. 

§ ff37« C.) The ANTECEDENT takes the case of the rela- 
live. This is termed inverted attraction. Thus, 

AfiTXiv «tfr^ i *AirokX.vf SfMir [= ^cvs"] •!$ tiu ^tip, ApoUo made known 
to him the gods to whom he mu9t Moerifieef iii. 1.6 (cf. 0v^mftt9§s ols ittTXif 
i S^tit lb. 8). "On \a»iimfMnt 9rm*r»09 [=» ir^fTm], Zt ^Uvrmt^ -rim'^ayirit 
i7i9 H. Gr. i. 4. 2. *A»^«»0vr« f^h fvy^ 4r«xrnklv [ss irtXirois] Sf k^ixiv 
X^ofa Id. Med. 1 1 . Tcr^i [^a AT^i] )' il^-rf^ *i^»ift* ^ •A.CiAry il^}fX«» idftv- 
0'<Bi /3i«r, ;^«»««vr< «'^«f ff"! Soph. Tr. 288. Aiyf V Sg IjMfrf «rr«xf » A^ritti ifiei 
rrf/;^«yr4 ^iv^«, fufiCmktv yvtifui* H. GSd. G. 1 150. T«v 4iy^^« r«tfr«y, jv rii-' 
X«i ^UTtT^, . . iSrof Urn Mah Id. (Ed. T. 449 (§ 499). K«ri;«(/r«f ll, »St 
vfUTi^cvt fmri i7mm, i7 r< «vr«v f iXn^/Miv, «vr«2 cTnti iiV/v ▼. 5. 1 9. 

RwMARK. Inverted ftttraction appean also in adverbs ; thus, Bmmm Muhw 
[s xiTrt], Syiv «^ iTxM, to retem MttA«r, u^ience he came. Soph. (Ed. C. 1227. 
Kect «XX«#t [b3 JLXXmx^t ^m £» 4^/»|^, iyttm'n^twi n Fl. Crito* 45 b. C!& 
$$ 526. 2, 531. /L 

^S38'« D.) The two clauses are hr ought into one by 
tlie ellipsis of a substantive verb (cf. § 538). This is termed 
omitted either (a.) mith the antecedents or (b.) wUh the rela^ 

a.) With the Antecedent. We here distinguish the fol« 
lowing (^ases : — 

1 .) After a demotutraUM proiunm or ar<ae&, the relahvb Is also amiOedf 
and the aktbckdksit takes its place in the ooDstmction. This fonn of con- 
densatioD is particiilaiiy A-equent in queetione and exclaauiiiomSf espedallj with 
the poets. Thus, T/ rSi* mit^^t [» Ti Urt rSii, 8 »viff'\ » What ie this, 
which you May f Eur. Ale. 106. Tiw ivi^ rirV [= r/f Jifn^ Un t^i^ St] M 
wxntmt i^ i WTuit man ie thie^ whom I nee by the tenttf Id. Hec. 733. T/ 
r«t/r «^;^«r«f Intirut nmxip i Soph. (Ed. T. 1033. OToiff l;^i^v<Bf rifv^* t^S^mgl 
What a viper i$ this, which thou hast produced I Eur. Ion, 1262. T»vr» fiit 
ttiilv ^ttofiet^rif Xiytit PI. Prot. 318 b. TiV • 9ri4»s [~ TU Urt i irifitf, Se} 
mvTtof 7»fr« I Soph. Ph. 601 (see ^ 480. a). 'KmXot yi /its rtSfU^og i\mni^t» 
0mgj the reproach which you have cast s^pon me is an bonor^ Eur. Iph. A. 305. 
In the following sentence, there appears to be a union between an exclamation 
without a verb, and a relative clause ; Tcvs If^ig lit v'arhf ^avaravf mUug 
[=*n ^dpaTM aUus, stg tl% varii^ ^f^i] ^ 7^ crud death my father saw I 
Soph. EL 205. — Expressions like the following are still more elliptical ; "^vin 
4 T^i9v^yim [ss Uri x*'V**y 8 T^iW'v^y/c] naXtTrtUi where there is a ptace, 
which is called Tripyryia, H. Gr. v. 1. 10. 'E* ^ nnXwfti* r« ^Jf.y, in whidi 
is Aat which we eaU ufb, PL Phssdo. 107 c. 

2.) Olflitg vnth (Urtg sh (or sometimes tg »lt) forms a species of compound 
p ronoun (§ 5^24) ; as, OiihU i^rig him Ji^lirai, there is no one, who will not 
not rrfram, Ven. \'2, 14 (cfl OvliU S»^ •rrtg •h» £%f H. Gr. vii. 5. 26). K«. 
vmygXif Af nfuif tliiiig Xertg «/^ every body would laugh at usj Fl. Hipp. Mai* 
999 a. Oiitk is «A%^ rii»r i»i^tu Soph. (Ed. T. 373. 0^im# ^ - sy^sk 


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!#«,] tr§tf »i wJifrmv i* vfiZt xmi* nXtxieiv v-aTtif itnv PI. Prot. 317 C Ov* 
itv) irf •&» Jt9r»xfnifnt»f Id. Meno, 70 c. FIi^} tSv ttiiifa zitiUfw [=«v^m- 
»/v^t/f«# iTf,] iprt9* $vx ivifiutttv »t ir^iytvti Dem. 295. 7. — So, with an in- 
terrogative for siiiiif, Titm tU^h hriva $v /3^«;^i<f vr^t^ivu AirorTvrt«rfmt 
Th. iii. 39. 

§ S30* b.) With the Relative. This occurs with 
the relatives of comparison^ oloc, otto^^ rilUoq^ which then unite 
with the substantive or adjective following, to form a species of 
compound adjective. To this, as to other adjectives, the article 
may be prefixed (§ 472). Thus, 

X«^i^0/«ir«» «7y rM itftf^t \j=» itvif^ vmvt^ ms rv *T], obliging a VMtn such 
a* you are [a SUCH as tou raan], Mem. ii. 9. 3. 0/ ^1 «7«i kti^ vf/n7{ ati^tf^ 
but [the SUCH AS TOU men] men of your rank^ or men like you^ Cyr. vL -J, 2. 
n^0( An^^at r«X^ff^«vf MUf mm) *A0nfmUvs Th. vii. 2 1 . "Ovth t»v *tiyu Htw 
iu*»T»T»v [= TttwroUf »li{ irrt ^i/»0r«r«f3« ^^ ^*^ bang [such as is mopt 
dreadful] of the most intense kind PI. Conv. 2'20 b (see iv. 8. 2 ; vii. 1 . 24). 
M«;^«i^/«y trtfy ^t/iiXut Aa»»tnxn* [=» roo'cuTtVj t^n irr) ^tmXti Acxmmjbii], a 
knife about the $ize of the Spartan tmall-awordf iv. 7. 1 6. £ix«; Hvl^m nvpiv^ 
nXi»09 0»vuu^t%i9 \j= TtiXixavTtf, nXixcf &»uxvi/inf i^rs^t i^tXMeu At, Ach 
703. Auvcf rMTif fiXix»i^t 9^9 Id. EccL 465. — In like manner, Tev m-g^trrm 
•9r$i »vx 0vvn( rns r^ta^cg PI. Phsdo, 104 a. 

Rebiarks. ». A sabstantive of a different number following the relative 
remains in the Nominative ; as, Nf«yisf V »uvf [= rtwrovft '''^3 *'^* ^ y****^ 
men such as you, Tm •Imn^ mvrif ivrttv^ of men Wee him, H. 6r. L 4. 16. 

^. In this construction, 7r«f is commonly used in the neuter form ?r«y, as 
indeclinable^ and may be often regarded as a mere adverb (§ 450. }, 6) ; thus, 
0< IvrirtTt T§vT§u §e»9 l^axi^tot, * as many as 600/ or, * about 600/ i. 8. 6. 
AmCin , , Sf0f r^i^^oiuMt* i^rc* vii. 3. 23. 'Airi^u «ir«v irtt^u«ruyyfif, * about 
a parasang/ iv. 5. 10. Ka) v'^oCxret U»* ^uftmra, and sheep [as many as the 
sacrifices would be] enough for sacrifice, vii. 8. 1 9. So, doubled, •Or#i» Set9 
0riXn* Ar. Yesp. 213. See § 450. %, 

y. In the Epic, the demonstrative is sometimes expressed instead of tha 
relative ; as, TvfiC»9 , . liriuxia r^tot [==s r»T»9, Mt Irn Wtitxnt] It, 246. 

§930. E.) A eelative pronoitn takes the place of a 
demonstrative pronoun and a connective particle. 

The term demonstrative pronoun, as here used, includes the personal o r o m atm 
and the article. See § 467. 1. Of this form of attraction there are tw« 
kinds, according as the demonstrative bdongs to the first or the secotd of tbt 
two dauses which are united. 

a.) When the demonstrative belongs to the first clause. In this kind of 
attraction the pronoun is commonly either governed by a preposition or adverb^ 
or is itself used adverbially. Thus, '£^' f [= i^ri tovt^ iirrt] fih xuiuf rat 
xvfAxs, upon this condition^ that they ijiould not bum the villages, iv. 2. 1 9 (cfl 
•E^ri TdiVJi, *frTi Th. iii. 114). "E^* f « [=s M Tturtf, Hfrt] tXmu rvX* 
Xiyut, for the purpose of coUecting [for this purpose, that we might collect] 
vessels, vi. 6*. 22. Mi;^^^ •!> [= tw xt^****'> ^""j •'^•»» •"•'*' [***« ^i™* when] 
they saw, v. 4. J 6 vcf. Mi;c^i reiriwV.f/, X»k Th. L 90). 'ULixV •^ C=" «'•«' X*** 
^fi/, Mm"] im xxvfMt w iutxtrxt •ixuv At^Qntwdt, * to the region where,' i. 7. 6 


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Aamfyit ^Xt* *^ {r^ ^*^ riwpj «?] ^^A.if fir* i7v«i, ' M fkr 88,' QjT, ▼. 4« 
16. *£«^ 9'(»wifi^umf rwt *kfnv»Xmtut f*ixi* •*'«''«(' uvr»i mktutHf H. Gr* 
It. 5. 12. *£j^ Sr»v awt^n/^n^ «inot A« Aoif been abroad, viL 8. 4. *£v ^ )l 
wrX/^MT*, oiui whUit they were arming, ii. 2. 15. OJr^f ^i ^0i fix»t fiiyi* 
rr«f, «?!»««' [«J tn»m "b r«vr«v 7n»«, 7r«] *Arftiiaf ^rpytT, * becanse,' Soplu 
Ph. 585. *Ar/' Jf [-» *Avr} r«^M«, 7r«], 6eeaMM^ Id. Ant. 106*8. Ov )mi7 

fmyu m*f «ir«ri fiauXtsra Mem. ii. 1. 18. 

NoTB. Hdt. sometimes uses ftixv ^ '^^ ^^'^ ^ * oompoond adverb goy- 
sniiig the Gen. (§ 394) ; as, Uixt' •^ **^** wv^ymt L 181. Mi;^i U99 
wXniti^f Jiyefit iL 1 73. 

^ o3 1 • b.) When the demonstrative belongs to the aecond elauee; aa. 
Tit •Srt0 /tmiurt, i^nt [3=3 ti^rt i»fif«#3 $v /3«vXir«i f§i ^iXf in»t % WTut ii 
90 mad, that he doet not wish [or as not to wish] to be your friend f ii. 5. 13 
(see lb. 6. 6 ; viL 1. 28). *AwiiM9 Irri . ., •Irnu i^iXti/ri, it i$ the part of 
thote without reeouree^ that they should wish, or to wish, ii. 5. 21. Oln Imp 
•0r« fA£^»§, 8s S«»i7» iff Soph. Ant. 220. T«#0ii^ro ikyg, tu [«= JSwrt «^ 
r«v j 9'0r 9U XtXnnrmi, such grief, that he will neoer forget it, Eur. Ale. 1 98* 
KmTtittTtiftf* rn* n yuvTuM, »1»u Jiti^if [aaSfri rtsoureif Jtvl^eg] rrf ^Mr«, mk) 
riv Avi^f «7«ff l^in rMCvrnvj yiftaixm KaraXtvif* •vxir S^tr; comimiseralt' 
ing, bodi the wife, that she had lost such a husband, and the husband, that, leaving 
eueh a wife, he would never behold her more, Qyr. vii. 3. 13. 0/ ^ Itw^iviw 
rrlff«r4», eUv U h/itt k^iXiwmt Ear. Ale 948 (§ 425. 4). 

Notes. «. Akin to this oonstmction is the extensive nse of the rdativi 
hi explanation, or the assignment of reason or purpose ; aa, Q^nufutm* wttttt 
it • . 2t^tt you conduct strangely^ [who give] that you give, or m giving, Mem. 
iL 7. 13. "OirXn nrSitrm, Mt ufttnevM-su r»vt Aitxwtrmt, they prepare arma^ 
that with these they vmy repel assailants^ lb. 1. 14. R«) v'oXu wifA^^n' rti^ 
Zertt ^nf^vu, and send »w«« one to the city, to give notice, Eur. Iph. T. 1208. 

/}. Belativb adverbs likewise exhibit this form of attraction (cf. §§ 526« 
%, 527. R.) ; as, £v)«//«<v9 ya^ ^t ktn^ X^nmr*, . . «f [ss«r< «0rwf] itUme 
•ei yivwim XriXtvrn^ for the man appear&i to me happy, that he died so fear^ 
lessly and nobly, PL Phsdo, 58 e. 2«^'y r ii^i-^tf *EXXkt, m ff^^tf nnXSt 
Kor. Iph. T. 1180. 

^ S33* Rebiark. Forms of comparison are especially 
liable to attraction and ellipsis (cf. §§ 391. y, 461) ; thus, 

M«Mf n Svrtt t/Mtn t^r^nrrtt, i^if [=» Intlittf, i^t^^ £9 fctr iXX«09 Jhrttt 

[like things, which] things Uke to those which,* v. 4. 34. *Ekv ftU ii m-^mJ^t 
I trn^u^Xn^ith •itf**^ nni ^^irivt i;^^nT« tmV l^iftt i* 3. 18. OSrt yk^ wv^it 
4tr ktr^Mit vvrifTt(99 fiiX»t, mp {j=^ T»tovT»v, •?«*] ri rmt *A(Pfaiirut In^t* In 
^t^ "^tft Eur. Hipp. 530. T§e»vT0if Tg hm^i^uv n/tis ht rHv ^96X009, *r«» 
4 fU9 ^tyXM k»9fTit TMt i%f^irati vvif^irtyr^y, rtfikt Tt . . Inivrnf itt trtsiTf, 
' insomuch as this, that slaves,' Cyr- viii. 1 . 4. 'tt^tZw ftivw rt iyiyftt^uev, 
3#«y [^7r«» rwT*^ in] Hxcv* 'AJtitetTot tttat, *so far as this, that I heard,' 
tu. 1 . 45. T«f julv kfi^n v§r»VT09 iyiyvM^»»f, in [= i0»9 r«vr«, in] iTf nfftS* 
gfti V. 8. 8. Aiiftfn^ff yiyfivm Ti» Tt;^w»» r$vvr^, i^cf iU9 rk adrw fiitM 
Iwtiu PI. Euthyphr. 1 1 d. 'Efri / w rUth irXti^T^p fnn^a fiXwvf, Sry«^ 
umi ff»9M 0i)iy fftittii * inasmuch as,* Soph. Tr. 3 1 2. HfuXSitrtt 2m» £• 
isMf nM4fit I4MM tit ri ^um»irtu00m4, 'until,* vi. 3. 14. 


by Google 


NoTB. *Or0» «v, [jtist to ranch as not to be] onbf not, bR but, is used tm % 
•mple advorb (aUo written ir«r«v) ; thus, T«» fiixxowm »tu ?«-«» «v ^ra.^»rrm 
9§X»ft4f Th. i. 36. "Or** w m-m^im K^n vn. 2. S. 

^ ff 33. VI. A RELATIVE sometimes introduces a clause 
which ^cr.) has another connective or a participle absohtie^ or 
wluch (/?.) is properly coordinate; and, on the olhor hand, a 
COORDINATE CLAUSE sometimcs {y,) takes the place of a rela^ 
live clause^ or (d.) is used in continuation of it. Thus, 

«. TI«X>.i^ Mv ttiftTv 7;^Mii» 'OXe/y^iM ftfi», d rir u Vfott^ofrt, tint £» ««n»* 
A.«y«v, <fte Olynthians could now mention many Odngs, which, had they then for^ 
seen, they would not have pervthed, Dem. 128. 17. "Oc WtHii narifMht . ., 
UiTvff . . my»m0tt [when who perceived . ., he compelled] who, when kt 
pereehed . ., compelled, Lac. 10. 4. Olf i|0y [= «?, i|«9 «vT«r«j Wtr* l;^!!* 
ret rZf wnriw, 0vo » Ix^nv PL Rep. 466 a. Cf. . 539. 2. 

/L Tuaur» ^nfMu fAatrmm) im^i^mw • J» itr^krMr r» /Mf^lt, SucA tMngs went 
decreed by prophetie reaponaee ; to which do you pay no regard, Soph. CEd. T. 
783. 'OP. lfnf»f Jif»f fiftHf ifX/rat M f^p^ ^^ Xt*^*- IITA. *H 
u^mt W xf<>A*« > ' I Wl^ will decide what ?J Jiiu2 what will Htit decide f 
Ear. Qb. 756. 

y. *lS^tTd0€U . • '0}i;rrl«, ^ 2/re»^«y, ^ a(XX«(;f /ivfiwg «y ri; i?***!, to c 
t%Me«, or Sisyphue, or [one might mention ten thousand others] ten thouaaud 
o^ere whom one mij^ mention, PI. Apol. 41 b. 

^ 034« ). KSfi— }lk furctwinnn^^t Jtiri rnf i(X^*i ^f tcirif emr^timn 
U'Mitf'i, nmi fT^Tfiyif Si avriv airdt^t L 1. 2. This constmction is adopt- 
ed chieflj to ayoid the repetition of the rdatiTe, in aooovdaBoe with the Mf 

Bemark. The repetition of the relative is commonly axiold* 
$d^ either by ellipsis^ or by the substitution of a demonstrative 
or of a personal pronoun , as, 

*A^«UK i\f Sf ifUif n^iX»fuv ^nXia nmttVTavmt, nai [sc if\ X^t»mmf»tit *mk 
[sc. *mi tfJ] lX«C«/«iy 9rt0rk fail ^^•iai^M etXy-nXtutt and Ariaua whom we 
wished to make king, and to whom we gave and from whom tee received pledges 
that we would not betray each other, m, 2. 5. 'ExirMi, tif rt fsiX-u riif morih 
^vxnft ky-Xk fih ^iftaret ^kmtTofnf ^Urt PI. Phaedo, 82 d. 'H^«f h, Mf 
nfitiftitv ju^v cv^iU ^tifirm, irr^etriwafAtv }>\ i«^ avrif iii. 1. 17. IlMf. ^ 
\»%7iit im» i «M^ if iru9%4n^a iif^^y »«•* '^ jMm f$eika i^ixttt B-muf*d^tiv mtnri* % 
Where now ie that man, who hunted with ue, and whom you seemed to me greatly 
to admire f Cyr, liL 1. 38. *£»•?»«/ reiwt, olt 9V» i^a^H^evi' $i Xiynrig, $Vi>* 
\fi>Mn Mttreut Dem. 35. 3. Kut »»» W xt^ ^^» i ifrii IfifmvSf ^aTt Ix^ai^t- 
ftmsf fu^u h ft 'ExXnwt gr^mrit Soph. Aj. 457. — So, when the pronoun is 
ftpeated in the same sentence (§ 499); as, VvtetTna fidfCm^, iv xt^ ^ 
\Xm99%i9 r^itV v«^ NiiXtir foAt, 'whom you ought to drive [her],' £ar 
* • , 649. 

F. Complementary. 

^ ^3tS. From the connective^ and, at the same time, tii- 
definite character of the complementary pronouns and adverbi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

en. 4.] COA.PLBMENTART* 34fr 

(§ 329. N.), their proper forms are those of the indefinite rel- 
tUives, (^ 519. 2). But, when there wiH be no danger of mis- 
take, there is often employed, for the greater brevity and vi- 
vacity, in place of the full compound form, one or the other 
element, either the relative or the indefinite. Of these, the 
latter is far the more frequently used, but 'with this distinction 
from the indefinite in its proper sense^ that the accentuation of 
the compound form is retained, as far as possible. Thus, 

n^^f lnX»9 t%mif t ri §i «EXXm *£>.Xf}fif ifr«»(«ir«vfr«M, befbre it it evident^ 
mduit the other Oreek$ will answer^ i. 4. 14. H^h ^Xtv f7m<, ri ir»tnf»v0n i 
iXXt "EKXnns lb. IS. 'iU InXtin, eSf rt/tf i. 9. 28. 'H^ir*, rit i ^i* 
fpC»t ifff. . . Kmi 4iffr«, i rs tin ri wuvinfMi i. 8. 16. ^my^v^n f^vSt, 
irrtt r AXnSns Irriv, tf n ftk fiX^t Ear. Hipp. 924. *Oir •'*•*$ /aU >.•• 
yMg Wun KS^oVf iXXy yiy^m^rmt ii. 6. 4. *0^*ly, Iv 9lot$ Wfiiv iii. I. 15. 
Ovx «T)«, »St inr§ wi4V i* rax**** '^^ Ivt Sit rtt ^%vyt* aw$^Uy$tt •S^ 
tit «'«r«» &t fttirtf ^4r«)^«/if, «m^' 7<r«»f Mv.tls l;\;v(«t x^t^*^ iirt^rmin H* 
5. 7. T« rUf r»x9f 7^ J^^»fU, «7 itftCn^trmt Eur. Ale. 785. "HvnCtvXtmr^ 
n vftif £* rhv f^X*** irttMrti. 7. 2. 0/ )* nf^r^tw auriv r$ ^r^drtpftM^ 
iwiff ri tin »«2 M rifi ^»mXtyf»if»9 ir* 4, 17. *H^r« ttvrif, wir§9 

§ ff 38* Remarks. 1. The mdefinites thus employed 
and accented are termed in Etymology, from the most promi- 
nent of their offices, interrogatives (§§ 152. 2, 317). As 
complementary words, they were employed in indirect ques- 
tion ; and hence appears to have arisen theur use as direct 
interrogatices^ through an ellipsis. Thus, from the indirect 
question, Einiy ilva ypwfitjp (jc^ig nfQi j^g nogtlag^ say^ what 
opinion you have respecting the march (ii. 2. 10), by the omis- 
sion of finiy comes the direct question, Tipa yywfttiP exfig nfQl 
j^g nodtUb; ; WhU opinion have you respecting the march 7 
So, from M^cnt ovy nqog ftt, il iv v^ tx*it^ tell me, therefore^ 
what you have in mind (iii. 3. 2), comes, Tl iv v^ l^crc y What 
have you in mind 1 

Notes. «. In other languages, as the Lat., with those derived from it, 
and the Eng., the oomplementaiy use of the nmple relatives has prevailed ; 
and hence, in these languages, the general identity of the relatives and the tn- 
terrvgaiives, Thns, who, which, when, &c, are both relative and interrogative. 

$. In direct qaeetion, the Greek employs only one of the two shorter ibrms 
above mentioned, bat in exclawuUum it employs both ; thus, 07/iam, m-mrtfj rt 
C*»t I ««« /*' tl^y^ut ! O my fatiw, toAo/ have you said! how you iremi 
met Soph. Tr. 1203. OV t^y k»»vft^i\ «?« %* tWo'^%ir0\ ir»9 T k^tl^h 
^fitl Id. (Ed. T. 1223. 


as an echo to an interrogative^ has, for distinction's sake, its 
full form ; thus, 

AAM. T/f 9^ Ji AIK. [Sc 'Ef^fr] *Orr«f i TUximt xa^t^^ri^. 


by Google 


Lam. For who are you f Die [Do you a«A] ifso f A good citizen^ Ar. Adi. 
594. XAP. OJr«, ri ^itlt i AION. '0 r» ^•mi Id. Ran. 198. ETe. 
Tiv« y^»^n^ n yiy^at^rtu \ SUKP. "HvriyAt Ov» ttyivvnt ifA9ty% %9»%t 
PL Euthyphr. 2 b. KA. n«>f iS» r«tfr« y %rt ^vyx^t'^f*** t 'A0. "Owttti 
VJ Siif nfuf • • i»in rtt rv/A^ttvietf Id. Leg. 662 a. 

3. A complementary clause often expresses merely a con- 
dition or a circumstance ; and the complementary construction 
is sbme times used where the relative might have been. Thus, 

Aii\ Krtt lrr«, give it, whoever she may be. Soph. EL 1123. T«y ify^ 
iitmviii r0ur0ff Xfrtt irr}, ynt Id. (Ed. T. 236. AavXtvi/iut ^taTg, i rt «'m^ 
i<V2v •/ ^i«/ Eur. Or. 418. Ka4 l»»ftivt »(inn twi^ytin iTnt/, 2^ n rtfy;i^df4 
fi»vXifiH9»( »artfyei^ta-^ai i. 9. 20 {cf. "Stn^^yif . . ttvau rtvrtff irtu lb. 2I)« 
"HJirr iSy »»aua'eitfn t» Sf9fA», rig gSrtf irri ^tsvos Xiyiit [= Mr«/EM( r#iJT#«, ##- 
rtf], most gladly i^iotdd I hear the name, who there is of such power in speaking 
[ss the name of him who is], iL 5. 15. ^AJXrn i^in^ti &* n/Mif iti^ts a/ui* 
90ttt Zfn iii. 1. 21. 

^ «S38. 4. Condensation. The antecedent and com- 
plementary clauses are sometimes brought into one by the el- 
lipsis of a substantive verb (cf. § 528). The verb is omitted 
either (a.) in the antecedent^ or (/J.) in the complementary 

«. In the AMTECBDENT CLAUSB. This occuiB with adjectives of admiration, 
which unite with the complementary word (commonly S^ts or ig) to form a 
complex adjective or adverb (cf. §§ 528. 2, 529) ; thus, 0««^MtrrJiy «r«y 
[ss (davfitc0riv la-rtv, Srtiv] «'f(i rl 9'^0fvfiiat l^'h ^ ^ ufonderful how much r»- 
gard he has for youy PL Ale. 151 a. 'i/Ltrk ti^tir^t ^avfitcrrw irw Id. Rep. 
850 d. 0fliv/ii06rr«y 7iv«;^^0y0ir 0r0t Id.Epin.982 c ©«v/K«rTiwr ifr; [assGcv. 
fMLfriv irr^v, <&;] Wtlftn^ Id. Phiedo, 92 a. QatUfActrrcis /mi iTirif 4w$ 9rm^ 
Jtf|fl5» lb. 95 a. 'AfAn^ayov ««•«» X('*'** **" inconceivably Inng time, lb. 80 c 
*A»ij3Xi^/'i ri ^01 rarif i^6aXfAo7( ifAri^ava* r$ tlof Id. Charm. 155 C 'T***^- 
^uZ( if x^k" ^^' Conv. 173 c. *Hj» «•!{} mhrn S^Xtt u^t^^vnt •^•s Ar. Plut 
750. 'A^0V0i or«i Hdt iv. 194. 

/3. In the complementary clause. To this ellipsis may be referred the 
employment of a complementary word (commonly with tZf or ^ii ), as a mere w- 
dejinite; thus, Mn^ ivvnaovv fjttfSif [^s^ fuffiiv ma^ irrtt oSf iTtj] <r(«rc4nf- 
0-as, not demanding any pay whatever [it might be], vii. 6. 27. "H «A.X' •ri- 
ft/?, or any thing else whatever^ Cyr. i. 6.22. 0«5' irtoin 9rt^t tout»v WifAttiftm, 
he made not the least mention of this, lb. 1 2. *Oirti0fov*, in any way whatever, 
lb. ii. 1 . 27. *'Ot»u 'hn ^ra^nyyvnfMrosi some one whosoever it might have been J 
having suggested it, iv. 7.25. "Err* yac.^ iriavf ^r^iyfiet orv in #«••»#■»»• 
tx^^'Ti &fAtiv»v uyvaitv tt yiyftia-nttf ; PI. Alc. 143 C. Migr* Imnaviav fimV iu 
vnm KtM,rn(*.U$$ PI. Leg. 919 d. E7 t<# <Ui»«if» i^ri^out Cyr. iii. 2. 23. 

Note. For an additional remark upon complementary words, see § 539. S« 

G. Interrogative. 
§ ff 39. The interrogatives are, in Greek, simply the in- 
deAnites toith a change of accent. For their origin^ their com* 
plementarv use, and their use in exclamation^ see §§ 535, 536 


by Google 

CH, 4.] INTBRROOATIVE. "AlXof. 847 

For the ase of the article with interrogativefl, see § 480. For ezmnplet 
of comieH$ed mttrrogative §eiUencei, see § 528. 1. 

Remarks. 1. The netiter rl anites with several pariiclet to form tUiptiad 
exprt$mon$ ; which, with various specific offices, s^rve in general to promote 
the vigor and vivacity of the discoorse ; as, T/ yti^ [sc. Irri», or xiytrt] % 
£(}C»frMt mf»»ftifnit9 v^y, iyti rtfi Ifititt^tit tifu t ' What then ?' v. ?• 10. Ti 
•Sv I V. 8. 1 1. Ti a t Mem. iL 1. 3. Ti inrm ^ Yect 4. 28. 

2. The Greek idiom (a) admits a greater freedom than the English, in the 
eofMfniefMm and poeiHon of both interrooaitvs and oompuekkhtabt 
WORDS ; and even (6) allows the use of more than one in the same clanse. 
Thus, — (a) T/ . . i%wv ^0t0V9Tm, r«i;r« zttriyttitjuif m{fT$Z \ [Having seen him 
doing what] What have you eeen him do, that you thue Judge of himf Mem. i« 
8. 10. "Or** Ti Win^MO't, 90fA4tii muT0Vt r«tf ^^•vr/^iiv i lb. 4. 14. '£y« «?v 
rtv l» «>«/«« «r«Xi«»« rr^arnyif ir^0r%enm ravrm ir^til^ut t iii. 1. 14. £7 rtt 
i^r9 ^fuitt «'*'» rl f^mv ti^tv «/ ^tty^tip^i iwtrr^fitnt PI. Prot. 812 0. '*Imi ri 
[so. ^yinirmi] vmurm, Xiytts i [That what may be] WWi what intent, or Wky^ 
do you eay thief Id. Apol. 26 d. HTA. *ilt ri ^ ri^t t 'OP. "iU m /m- 
nv0tit ^i rSrm Eur. Or. 796. 'On ^ r/ yi [sa l«-r/y] i [Because there is 
what?] Why to f PI. Charm. 161 c. ETr ix«v*«^iy«»», »«) pC(«^0f»iv»f, »«) 
r/ »a*0f 0u^) ir««';^«yr*>», «'«#« 4 »i»0Vfii9n furrii y%y09% w^iI^tmv, ' what evil 
not suffering?' i.e. 'suffering everj evil,' Dem. 241. 28. Cf. §533.-^ 
(ft) Tif rivpt ufrtii irrt, ytfnrtrtii ^«m^«v, it will become evident who ie 
guilty [and] of what, Dem. 249. 8. Titatt «?»» Ipfi, v«*« rivm* iS^0i^%» Mv 
fiui}^09M tU^ytrnftiuott 4 «r«i)«f ^« y0n0n t Mem. ii. 2. 3. II«rf(«f d^ 
irirtf09 mlfJSiu \ Eur. Phcen. 1288. Tit it «r« wif0t nmnSv ykwHrai Id. 
Ale. 213. Aivrriri, . . •7« ir^^f •7«»» i»)(«ly «r«#;^M Soph. Ant 940. Oi)* 
l;^«f, lir« w^ff ir«ri(«y Tlw Id. 1342. 


§ tl4LO. The pronoun aXXog is not only used retrospect^ 
weiy^ but also pros^pectively and distributively ; that is, it may 
denote, not only a different person or thing from one which 
has been mentioned, but also, from one which is to he men- 
tioned ; or it may, in general, denote a difference among the 
several individuals or parties which compose the whole num- 
ber spoken of. 

When &Xk0$ is proepeetive, and is followed by another 4ixx«f or an equiva- 
lent pronoun used retroepeetively, it is commonly translated by one. When it 
is dtetributive, it is combined with another 4txx«f , or with one of its derivatives^ 
and is commonly translated by two pronouns, as one . . another^ titie • • that, 
&e., the sentence being resolved into two. Examples are subjoined of &kX$t 
and its derivatives, as used, ■ 

«.) RErROSPBcnvELT. "0^0^ ^ Snmfif t^ytp U) t^uv »({«, IXXy iirrf »• 
ik>M li ix^vf i'«^iiv, «lxXf iwTfh AxXf iH^r^vf W0n7f, ' for one man to boil 
meat, for another to roast it, &c/ Cyr. viii. 2. 6. MiiMtrif H rm^f vke 
l^»l^f, rjf «lXXif iir«^iMfr«, ' on the next,' iii. 4. 1 . See § 457. •• 

§ 94 I • /3.) Pbospbctivelt. Ti n 2XX« Ir/^urt, mmi fuf(t§¥t Umnt 
im^u»0vt, both honored me in every ofher respect^ and gave me ten thouaand da^ 
rice, i. 3. 3 (§§ 432, 488. 5). Ov»y £XX« ^^ila^rtt 4 )«f«r«trif , hamng done 
m tt hing eHee Hum ravage, H. Gr. vii. 4. 17. 


by Google 

' Bit SYNTAX OF THS V£Rfi. [bOOK lii 

Xkmii. (a.) Hie neuter 4XA.« is often used wkh r«, r)^ «v)m» and put^ 
with the ellipsis of a verb, coaunonly v-oim, ^^g^^tfy «*««%«*» «</m'* or yi^f^fuu 
thus, Ti iU.X« fJrM [sc. \^»lnfeti\ n ivtSovktv^av i What el»e have they done bm 
plot agamti utf Th. iii. 39. "AXXt t/mv ^ . . ayuvtt^tlfAiSa \ ii. 5. 10. *Ymuvh 
§»Si* ixx««} r«vf itt^rMximts ^i^nXavtutf ihar»y Mid nothing but,' Crr. !. 4. 34. 
El . . /»i»^v &XX* *f fAirifiyxtt lb. 6. 39. — (b.) Hence arises the use of &XXt 
rt Ht or, the H omitted, »XX» rt (also written AXXan), as an hUerropatiM 
phrase ; thus, 'AXX* t< j} «-i^i irXi/rr^w <r«^ » /)o yoi» [do any thing else than 
i^aid] iwt rtjfard k qf the kifhat wntnpUnctf PI. ApoL 34 o. "Axx* « « 
•i)if MvX^ i Does amy Hhimg whatever forbid? W, 7. 5. 'AXX* rt «v» M yt 
^tXMti^hSi ftXni^i r§ mi^^H t -Oo not them ihe CMMtoM /ooe ^<a» f PL Hipparchi 
836 aw * 

^ S49« 7.) PnO HP g UMVBL Y and ReTBOSPBCTIVKLT. 'AXX«s 4[XX9f 
iI^jM, OM d!re» up anoAer, v. 8. 1 5. 'Axx«f MXX09 . . U^tuny th^ were daek^ 
vtgy im4 agamti mother. Soph. EL 738 (of. $ 145> Tir tiXXn, «XX«#' &t*. 
ftt, mmome, and them the other, lb. 739. "AxXtfn mtt) &XX»Tt, [at one tane 
and at aaetiier] now amd them, ii. 4. 36. So, when two are spoto of, *OU%* 
fH <r^ ln^#» mtiu, M« out <lrtAa M« otfAer, vi. 1. 5. 

).) DiBTBZBunysLT. OJrM /mI», i? Kxam^x^ <xx«« 1xx« xs>^ t&ess «m% 
CZMTCsftiM^ at^, one o»« Am^ omf another anotiier, iL I. 15 (§§ 451, 497. l)k 
0/ tt w«XvwM . • MxXh ^X^ Ir^crir* iv. 8. 19. Ov /ikv trt «f»«M, «XX' 
4A.X«f iUuu/«% na Ibnpier m a body^ hut tome in thia direetUm^ and othert hi Aai^ 
L 10. 13. ia»mZ» )i ixXm iXXm U 6. 11. 'Axx«n ^XXy mtfUipm GU 
Or. t 6. 8a 



L Agreement of the Verb. 

^ ff4S. Rule XXIX. A Verb agrees ^ tb 
its subject in number and person ; as, 

*%ym X^^^uu, Ishaa take, i. 7. 9. 2u ^f; u. 1. 13, *H<r^i»u Ac^tTcy 
t !• 1. *TfAt7t J«$iri i. 4. 15. Atttxiritr rit faXttyyt 18. 17. 

KoHb. AoBSEBrEMT, whether in the appotUhe, the adjective, the prow win, 
ir the veirft, has the same general foundatiuQ, and, to a great extent, the sama 
irarieties and exoeptiooa. The four roles of agreement may be thus presflBtad 
In a tabular form : — 

AnAppoarnvB^ ' "J Cask. 

An AixnscnvB f agrees with f Gendeb, Number, and Caae. 

A Pronoun f its subject in f Gender, Number, and Pbrsos, 

A Verb J J Number, and PersuiV 


by Google 

CH. 5] AOREBMBlfT. — ELLIFSIb. ^9^ 

§ 944. Remarks. 1. In compound construction, both 
s^Uepsis and zeugma ave common (§ 329. N.) ; thus, 

*Air«XiX0iirA#i» nf^t Htvimt »mi Ylmwimv i. 4. 8. Kv^0v dmrifmrai n »•• 
^aXh mm) ^tif h )i^c. B««'iXivf )) »«) «4 rvf cthrSf 2j4wxmv uVvifrrii i. 10. 1 
B«riXitff )) »«2 •! rtrv «VT^ r« ri ifXX« vaXXa ^/fli^fr«^«v«'i lb. 2. Ki/^df ri 
»«2 « rr^ATi* iTfli^Hx/i, »«i \yi ftT9 i. 7. 16. 'Ey^r jmb) ^-^m fia^titf #i;/»^a^ff 
«^«'Xiiy^t#« Ear. Ale 404. 2v )' 4 /tMxm^lm f/utxti^tit B-* i vis 9'iri$ if»tr»f 
Eur. Or. 86. A»»ut rv n »«} Si/*/«;«« PI. Pluedo, 77 d. Cf. §§ 446, 497 

NaTB& «. WlMn the sabjeot is divided or dUirihmted, the verb sometimefl 
agrees with the wkok, and sometimes with one of the parts ; thas, "O^'n Uv. 
/«tr0 %K»0r»fy where they each could, iv. 2. 1 2. 'Ai»f«r«M»r« ^, 7ir«v Irvyx'^ 
Mv tumo'TOf iii 1. 3. n^^yrif ^ t^rM »««-« lf^y% it wXaifiif *\n^u mvi^atvtn 
t»»0'r»9 ri Uttf W$^to*r9 L 8. 9. 'AXktg vfit &kX«9 ^^iCaXXo H.Gr. iL 3. 23, 
OJtm . . £xx«r ifXXAc Xiyu u. 1. 15. See §§ 360, 497. 1, 542. ). 

fi. In syllepsis, the poets sometimes adopt the following arrangement (termed 
by grammarians l^^ifiM *Ax»fAmn»if) ; TYp^^Xtyiiat* r« fuvrn ILmn^rit w 
». 513. El )i »"A^fi« i^x^nfUxnt 9 OmCai T. 138. 

§ S4LS. 2. Ellipsis. When the subject is sufficiently 
indicated by the form of the verb or the context^ and no stress 
18 laid upon it, it is commonly omtted. This remark applies, 

a.) To the first and second personal pronouns^ and likewise 
to the thirds when its reference is sufficiently determined by 
the connection; thus, *ETif\ df f^ax^vu Jagtlog . ., //SovAero, 
and when Darius was sick^ he wished^ i. 1. 1. See § 502. 

Note. The personal pronouns are implied in the very affixes of the vert). 
See§§ 171, 172. 

§ ff46« b.) To the third personal pronoun^ when refer- 
ring to a subject which is indefinite^ or general^ or implied in 
the verb itself; thus, 

*E«rt} 0VH9»ira0%^ when U ffrew darh^ Oyf. iv. S. 5. "Erurt, then wa$ am 
earthquake, Th. iv. 52. EctSw^^i ;^mm rn* G^axiry «Xiiv, mmH rovt it^rmfuvt 
iffilt Ar. Ach. 138. '0^/') h, it was late, ii. 2. 16. ^» &f^} Ay0fitf xXn- 
Stufav L 8. I. *!!( ?0ixi», as it seems, vi. I. 30. 0^r*> ^i ixu, [and it baa 
itself thus] and thus the matter stands, v. 6. 12. *Ey rovref Zr;^fr« vi. 3. 9. 
fittXit Urat vii. 3. 43. *E)iiXM#i )i Mem. i. 2. 32. *n# ft avr^ «» x»tv- 
Xt*^* InU when [it did not succeed to him] he met with no success, Th. I 1 09. 
Kicrib htx^ifu »vT0it iv. 8. 20. tinx^f ^*h ^^^'^ ^ "^^ ^f <* ^o^ or tAer« 
must be fghting, ii. 3. 5 (see §§ 357, 430. R.). '£>W fttXwu rt^) r(«^nf 
«vr»», [there shall be to me a care] / will take care of 0uir support, Oyr. iv. 
5. 17 (see $ 376. ).). Ta?; /mI» ir$t00ftitts avr^ a-tni^t^t, rttf ti fiii truhfAtvMt 
fiurifittXi Mem. L 1. 4. Aiysv^th irt W) r«t;r« tfx**rai, * they say,' Cyr. i. 
S. 6. K«2 a&ftv fiirrM «&ft r0vr«» •••^•rt Ifeirat (cf. Ttltv^tni ra iXiyiT#) 
i. 8. 20. "Ov-if «'«#;^*v«-iv If rMf fttymXott iiymrt Th. vii. 69. OJri £;« «v- 
««2MM7f V^ . . i^^Mvv ^^X^ it is not ri^ then to return mn injury, whatever 
om may suffer^ PL Ciito, 49 c *H rw •Itehu itiiftu 1«^mb/;«1, J wn JUss, 
Aefolfy oftmis supposing that he knows what he does not know, PL ApoL 29 b. 
%ni IriXriy^ [sc i 0nXnr$y»rns], when [he blew the trumpet j tht trun^ekf 


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Mov, or at ike mmmd tf the tnmpet, L 2. 17. '£r«^(irM ^•It *£XA«ri Wf rmX 
irsyyt uL 4. 4 (ct *E* r»»rf wn/uittu i r«X«'4y»nif iv. 3. 32). '£»n^k>^ tu§ 
VSD^Xnrt [m. ; sii(»^ frodamatiom waa wuMde to the Greek$, iiL 4. 36. Tm m. 
#M9 v^v «vr«» «MKyMvrtr«4 Demi. 465. 14. Oi90p^Miu [sc a mm;^**;] ^ 142. 

Konoi. «. When die pronoon is wboOj indefinite in its reference, or, in 
other words, when the verb simply expresses an action or state wUboat predi- 
cating it of anj person or thing, the verb is termed imperwonal (in, not^ persdna, 
per9tm\ A Yerb thns employed is a compendioas form of expression for the 
kmdred nomn with a $m b$ tamth e (or oAer appropriate) verb; thns. It raime 
s= There is rma, or 22am foBs, An impersonal verb» from its very nature, is 
in the Sdpere, ting,; and an od/eefme joined with it is in the fteat. $i»g*^ or sk 
the nemt. pbtr.for the §ing. (§ 451). 

A. A Terb is often imtrodtued as imp ereo na l, of which the subject is after- 
wards expressed in an Inf, or dittinet damm ; as, 'Erti V i^»u mirS On «v 
^ivfr/«u, amd when, now it teemed beet to Am to marekj L 2. 1. 07t umin»u us 
Km^TttXtS «'•)/•* ii^^tritu i. 9. 7. AiX«« jf», iri \yyv$ mv ^mrtXtus n* ii* 
3. 6. Ou» h XcCiTf, [it was not, to take them, t. e. there was no such thing 
as tailing tbem] it waa not poeeible to take Aem^ L 5. 2. "E^n km^Cifut lb. 3. 
'E^irrtf vfM v-trrk XttCuw^ it i$ permitted pom to take pledgee, ii 3. 26. *£(•- 
e^if iffPt you earn see, iiL 4. 39. *£ytffr« . . 9r*^%vtH$u L 9. 13. See § 523. 

y. Personal and impersonal oonstnieti<His are so blended and interchanged, 
that it is often difficult to determine, whether a verb is to be regarded in a par- 
ticular instance as pereomal or i m p e rm mal^ and whether a neuter pronoun or 
adjective connected with it is to be regarded as Nom. or Aec,; as, T/ iu «»r*v 
miruf t [What needs him, or. What does it need him, § 432] What need i$ 
there that he ehould aekf ii. 1. 10. For the change of impersonal to personal 
constructions by attraction, see § 551. 

I, For the construction of verbs with the Gm. pabthive, see §§ 361. /i, 

§ 547. 3. The SUBSTANTIVE VERB is very often omitted^ 
especially if it is merely a copula. Its omission is particularly 
frequent with verbals in -tiogy in general remarks and relative 
clauses^ and with such words as avayxti^ Xff^^'^t <<x<Ki ^<f<^t 
xaiQOQ, (upa, dijlog^ hoifiogy ipifovdog, dvvntog^ olog le, ^^diog, z^" 
X%nQg. Thus, 

Tm/t* $¥ «roifiTi$f [ec irrij, Ai$ must not be done, L 3. 1 5. *£? rf i'^ff 
§Stv at vtiyeii, in the cave, whence the springs, i. 2. 8. nM*«/M», «v ri tZ^t 
rrmhft (cf. Ov ^9 ro iv(os) L 4. 1. Av#;^^n«'r««« <7mm mvdynti tirmxr^vf m«f 
(cf. *A*ay»ti yif l^rn) iii. 4. 19. *ilt ri t!»it iii. 1> 21. "^^m Xiytr L 3« 
12. Ankof ydf u. 4. 19. Cf. §§ 528, 538. 

§948. 4. Stnesis afiects the number of the verb in 
two ways : — 

I.) A plural verb may be joined with a singular NonLy if 
more than one are referred to ; as, 

Ti irXn40t l'^tifi0»9T»j the majority voted, Th. i. 125. 'O IXX«r rr^M^ 
dwiCttt909 Id. iv. 32. Atifitariivnt f^trk rSt J^vrr^arnySv ^Kum^vAvtv wwi t ^m 
^m Id. iii. 109. Ti Tli tm? r^crCvrt^Mt if^v . . nyvf^ttm PL L^. 657 ^ 
8es %^ 458, 497, 544. «. 


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§ 940. II.) A singtdar verb may be joined with a pZu- 
ral Nom, regarded acs but a single object of thought This 
occurs chiefly in two cases : — (a) When the nominative is 
neuter, according to the following 

Special Rule. The Neuter Plural has its 
VERB in the singular. 

That the want of agreement has in this case become the nile, seems to haTO 
arisen from the fact, that the- neater plural commonly denotes a mass of lifeless 
things, and likewise to be connected with the usage in §§ 336, 451. Excep- 
tions are, however, frequent ; chiefly, when things that have life are denoted, 
or when the idea of plurality is prominent, or in the non-Attic poets for the 
sake of the metre. Thus, T« ivirn^um ifriXivi, provisions failed, iv. 7. 1. 
Ilk»7a T vfiTf 9'aftrTtf V. 6. 20. T«vr« iii»ii ttipikifAa tivat, these things [or 
this] seemed to be useful^ i. 6. 2 (cf. § 451). *EfTeiv0» Kv(^ ^aviXim h U 
2. 7 (cf. lb. 8). *Efrm.Z9a ^r«v^ rk "ItntvUtot ^mfix%m lb. 23 (§ 336). Ik 
•rtXn rSt Attztiectfitviatf ifiio'tipra ectHriv i^S4r(ft>^«y, * the rulers,* Th. iv. 88 
(cf. § 453. y). 'Tv-f^v^M AfAMTa ii. 2. 15 (cf. iv. 5. 25). Tk vvoT^vytm, 
iXtivnTt iv. 7. 24 (cf. I. 5. 5). *Hr«v ti rmvr» Ivo v%txn i« 4* 4. ^etvi^k 
if at ami Tr^r^v »«) M^itmp tx^n ir«XX« i. 7. 17. T« V H^fAttrtt I^c^avt* i. 
8. 20. 'Arr(« It rj fvsr) «yi^if»«», H iifM9 rkt S^*t rnt fu*r»( Ifi^mfi^u 
Mem. iv. 8. 4. '^ym yifsfr* A. 310. For such examples as 'Orri iaUrmt 
?. 131 •see § 837. 

Note. In the following example, apparently upon the same principle, a 
series of feminine plurals denoting natural phenomena is followed after an in- 
terval by a substantive verb in the singular ; Km) yk^ wtix^au xeu ;^«X«^«i 
»«} ifvriCm l» «rXi«N|/«« »mi titfWf^Ui «*!() ikXnXa rSf rfvratf yiytireu S^«« 
^iuHf PI. Conv. 188 b. Cf. b. 

(b) When the verb precedes^ and is hence introduced as 
though its subject were, as yet, undetermined (cf. § 546. fi). 
This construction is almost confined in prose to tan and ijy 
(compare, in French, the use of il est^ and il y a). Thus, 

'E#ri yk^ Xfjt9ty% *a) fim/t0) »a) U(k, for [there is to me] I have both aUar$ 
and sacred rites, PL Euthyd. 302 c *Hv V kfifiWXtxrtt nXifMtKtt Soph. Tr. 
520. Trri T»6rt Itrrit rit fiiat PI Gorg. 500 d. Tiytnrmt . • k^X'^* '*'* **^ 
yA/ii Id. Rep. 363 a. See ^ 523. 

Remark. A few other examples of the Nom. pi. masc. or fbm. with m 
verb in the sing, occur in the poets ; as, K«/emm »«riy«>»«^iv Hom. Cer. 280. 
TfA9$t , . rtXXir«i Pind. 01. 11. 4. This construction was termed by the 
eld grammarians "Sxnfut Il$9^ei^i»if or B«Mwri«f. 

^ SSOm 5. Attraction. The verb is sometimes attract- 
ed by a word in apposition with the subject ; usually an attri' 
hue coming between the subject and the verb ; as, 

r^ X»»(*»9 r»»r; 7wt( r^^n^o *£?»{« '0)«} U«X«i/»r«, this placet wkidk 
VM before called The Nine Ways, Th. iv. 102. "li^m li )^« Xipm I 
Dt^iMi y'4'nXti Id. ilL 112. 'Airct ^ r§ /*ir«» ralv ru;^*fv j?r«f 0rii%iot 
^t7s L 4. 4. 


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8^ sri^rAX of thb verb. [book in 

^ffSl. 6. A verb, of which the proper subject b an 
bij. or distinct clause (or which is impersonal with an Inf. or 
clause dependent), oflen takes for a Nom. the subject of tha 
Inf. or clause. In this case, the Inf. sometimes becomes a 
Part. Thus, 

Aiyt^mt 'k^iXXttf \»1%7mu TAat^vvat^ ApoBo i$ mid to have ficoftd Maratfat, 
•« \iy%Ttu^ *Aw$XXm9m i»M4^«i M«^rtfa», it if aotd^ that Apollo flaytd Mar^ 
t!fa»y L 2. 8 (cfl Xiyvrm ti ami r«m rnXX^n nt^«-«{ . . )i«»i»)v»(vuv L 8. 7). 
*£X(^«vr« «Mf, it yty^ttVMWt Vect. i. 1. 'O *Ara'v^t9t iit rii* X'*i** Mvrti 
iftiecXuv iiyyiXXtrtu CyT. V. 3. 30. *n« »yyiXXMr0 o fiU Il*la-»»'i^9$ rtrtXtth- 
mx^f, that [Pisander was announced as having died] it was annou needy 0uU 
Pitander weu dead, H. Gr. iv. 3. 13. *0tt.cX»y%7rett vfif ravrmv »^MnrT0t 
in yivirfai i. 9. 20 (cf. ^OfAtXaytsTati . ., r0vs ^Mvr«c l» rSv rtfutirttf ytyt* 
piwmi PI. PhflMlo, 72 a). *0 ftif 0V9 9'^trCvTt^H wm^itt irvyx*** [=»T«v fr^tr- 
CvTt(09 v^fiTtat Irvyxavijt the elder, therefore, happened to be preeent, i. e. it 
happened, that the elder was present, L 1. 2. "On vmn^iratvi yi ilrn, 0vh\ A 
Xm,vfeiv»u0'tf [= Xmvfeifti] (£c. 1. 1 9. *A^«iri» ^nrn^vr Xyt* [ — *A^»myi Ifi^ 
^tnrnuv], it will be enough that I should die, Soph. Ant. 547. "AXts [sc U/^] 
wovouo"* iyti Id. CEd. T. 1 06 1 . T«^«i;r«i* m^nii ft rM^firtu f^Mt, * it is enOU^ 
that I communicate/ .^sch. Pr. 621. Ou wf»^n*$fU9 n»Xa^M rMt, it doei 
not belong to these to ptinish us. Ear, Or. 771. K^i/r^«» ys^ "Ai^t ntv^mf^ 
for [he were better lying] it were better he were lying in the grave, Soph. Aj, 
635. AiiXit Tf iv trm^iP, Srt v^t^t^oCtirc, it was manifest to all, thatjte wag 
exceedingly alarmed, Cyr. i. 4. 2 (cf. "On fih r^eH^a htiinf^v, wttrt VnXts 
lytrcTtf H. Gr. yi. 4. 20). AfiX«f h &vmfitv»ti it was evident that he was sad, 
or, he was emdenHy sad, i. 2. 11. "^rifym* i\ ^»n^s fi\f h stiiivm, h'f ft 
f «i*f <p/X6t tJvas, T»vrif 7i»^X«f lyiyftr* IwtCtvXtvttf ii. 6. ^3. Sir »h h/Mv )/• 
ntust *t itvnx»^*^trittt, it is therefore Just that ymt should requite us, Cyr. 'rr. 1. 
20. TfVf 0$^ovt . . ^•XX9U y%M [_=vXX»v iu ifu] fimT^mx*ft Xiy$t9, 
(much is wanting in order that I should call] / am far from calling the wiss 
fVogs, PI. TheflBt- 167 b. 07 rt^avrtv Vtoun fAifitivfiat r«» ir^^irfirm rnf vfU' 
ri^f Isocr. 300 a. In like manner, Avroo iXtyu hn^atros ««r«Xit>r^M, 
when he had [wanted little of] narrowly escaped being stoned to death, i. 5« 14. 
See § 546. y. 

Note. Sometimes the two modes of construction are united ; as, 2m yk^ 
in Xiytrat iraw yt rt6t^mw%Zf$au i 'Av^XX^v, nmi #< fr«yr« \»%t9f «nJifU9t9 
ir^cTTiiv Cjr. vii. 2. 15. "JlyytXreu » » n rt ftaj^n vaw Ifj^b^k ytytAttu^ 
»a\ U ai/Tfi vaXXoiff . . rt^vavxi PI. Charm. 153 b. "Eio^tt tivrif, fi^ovrnt 
ytwfiUnt, a-xnTTis wmm %U t^v ^ar^tfttv »tMi»9, jmci i« T«vr«v XtifiTtfiai 
«*««■«» jii. I. 11. 

§ tf 53* 7. The verb t^n is often separated from its sul^ect bj sonM 
of Uie words quoted ; and is often thrown in pleonasticalfy ; as, " £^ Xiyut,^ 
t^n, '*£ ^iftftia,** i KiCn#, " Vou speak well, Simmias,"* said Cebes, PI. Ph«dis 
77 c 'O 'H^dc«Xiif &*»U0at rmvrai, ** *n yvffu,^ i^n^ " Svcftm ii 0m r/ irnt i* 
Biem. ii. 1. 26, •A«-#«^mr«M i Xfi^/r«^«f • "Bxii^o," ttfn, "<r{#f rk i^" 
W. 1.20. Scev. 1. 2; vi. 1. 31. 

II. Use of the Voices. 

^ ff ff 3. For a general statement of the use of the voices, 
see §§ 165, 166. Irregularity and variety in their use arise 


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OH. 5.J 


eliiefiy from the follo\nng sources : — (a) From the use of 
the same verb as transitive and intransitive^ or as causativn 
and immediate. See § 555. — {b) From the formation of v 
new theme^ with a strengthened meaning. See ^^ 265, 319. 2 
— (c) From the variety and extent of the refiexive uses of thf 
verb, and their intimate connection, on the one hand, with thi 
intransitive^ and on the other, with the passive use. Sci- 
^§ 165, 166, 557-561. — (d) From a transition of meanin* 
in the verl^. See %^ 556, 56 L 2. — (e) From ellipsis, Se~< 
§ 555. 

§ tlff4« As m most of the tenses the same form is bo^ 
tnid. and pass.^ it is but natural that the distinction should ht 
sometimes neglected in the Put, and Aor. (§ 166). This oc 
curs chiefly, 

«.) In the use of the Fut» mid. for the Fut. pass., as a shorter and m<m 
flophonic form ; thus, *E| ifit0u Tifn^nrtu, he shall be homored bjf me. Soph. Ant 
SIO. "^Yn^t »«/* n^» »J0-tTaci rri* fif^iff Eur. Or. 440. M««'riyM0'i«-« 
0r(tCXM0trtUf itin^treiiy \»xotu4nff%T»i rit^fiaiXfMt PI. Rep. 361 e. 

/3.) In the nse of the Aor, pass, for the Aor, mid. This occurs chiefly b 
dqxmemtM (§ 166. 2), and in other verbs in which the proper passive is want 
log or rare. Thus, *B.'ytir^ti n »vTiv» admired Aim, i. 1.9. Atei)nx^ifr$, 
JiXXiikMS, having conversed with each other, ii. 5. 42. ^vmKXayivn i. 2. 1 
Atn^ten lb. 14. *H^^if lb. 18. *'Eivwihv»v iU. 1. 35. *EinfttktiPtifirt lb 
88. OtfCff/iyrif AxXnXtvt ii 5. 5. 

Notes. (1.) Whether verbs of the classes jnst mentioned employ th( 
wwL or the pass, form of the Aor. must be determined by observation 
(8.) Sometimes, though rarely, the Fut. pass, occurs as mid., and the Aor 
wtid, as p€tss. ; thus, *Eirtfukn^n0i/*»Mu Hem. il 7. 8. K^cir;^!?* I^mtj iutf 
Knr. Hipp. 27. 


§ tl«5tS. I. In many verbs in which the active voice i« 
commonly or often transitive, it is likewise used intransitively 
or reftexively (§ 553). This use may be often explained by 
the ellipsis of a noun or reflexive pronoun (§ 427). Thus, 

*0 21 ^a0tX%vt rmvnf /»!» «v» nytv [sc. r« rr^tirtvftM'^ , but the king did not 
pead on bis army] advance in this direction, i. 10. 6. "A^i ^ come now, ii. 
2. 10. <I>(^i 2jf r»/9V9 Rep. Ath. 3. 5. B«>.A.* [sc. ff-ict/ro] I; ne^Mxeit ! 
[Throw yourself to the crows] Go, feed the crmos ! Go to the dogs ! At. Pint. 
782. 'H2«vJ| iwf fsc iavrivl, giving [himself \ up to pleasure, Eur. Ph. 21. 
*A»«»«X(Hrr , J netrtyvnr»9 ntt^m Id. Or. 294. 'Evrct/^iv i^iXavftt i. 2. 7 (cf. 
§ 427). OSt« 21 txt*f and thus [it has itself] the matter stamfx, v. 6. 12. 
£T;^«» htuif, they were in a sad condition, vi. 4. 23 (see ^ 363. B). Tl^om 
rS;^ii» [sc. rif 9w»], to give attention, Mem. iv. 5. 6. *T«'«2(i« vi/nv [sc. 
ImtfTs] V. 7. 12. Ilct/i r*? X6y0v Ar. Ran. 580 (cf. i. 6. 6, and see § 560. 1). 

Notes, (a) T<;^m nsed reflexively with an adverb is commonly equivalent 
it sS/14 wHfa an adjective; thoii EvMixiwf l;^Miv »> Evva/jmi cW** i. 1. 6. 


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^AHfitMi T;^«yrtf wm'AJOfMt Svrtt iii. 1. S. The poets even join l^« wi& aa 
affective ; as, 'E;^' ^fvx*e, [hold still] be quiet, Eur. Med. 550. (6) For tba 
'uUranwtioe use of the aecond tenses^ see § 257. fi. 

^ tSSG. 11. The active voice, through a transition of 
meanings sometimes supplies the place of the passive ; as, 

Ev k»»vmt to hear agreeably^ and hence, from the bewitching sweetness of 
praise, to be commended or tpoken, well of; as, lAiy» ^\ tZ mkoum u^i t\an4ff» 
X*^'*"* M^atwut vii. 7. 23. *!»« /mi avrd k»$VMVt »»»£f, that thef 
themsetvei may not he tpoken HI of. Rep. Ath. 2. 18. ILXv^t^JivmXxtSt to he 
called a coward, iEsch. Pr. 868. (Of., in Lat, bene audire, male audire.) 
'Ari^Mviv VW9 N<x«»)^«tf, he [died] woe killed by Nicander, t. 1. 15 (see 
§ 295, »TtIfJ). *^v9ar» . . IXfiV . . Ovr^f i«X«. He was able to take 
it . . /if ac^tM lAttf toi^, iii. 4. 12 (see § 301. 1). 01 ixv^vretxiTts '^- 
)/*>y vvri T0V }nfitov, thoee of the Rhodiant who had [fallen out of the city] been 
banithed by the people, H. Gr. iv. 8. 20. "Ori ^tvyttv otxthv vvi vw ^li- 
fitu, that they were [fleeing] banished from home by the people, H. Gr. i. 1. 27. 
ArsCii«f (ptvynrm inr* MiX/tav, accused of impiety by Melitus, PL Apol. 35 d 
(§ 374). Kmra^rkt v^' vf^St, appointed by you, D