(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A Grammar of the Italian Language"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



iv. 



CORSO DI STUDIO ITALIANO, 

Oft A 

CovwL or J9vQDT roa tbx Italian Lakc^vaos, pr^arad 
if Jk, Bacsi, Instfttctmr in Harrard Vmimnkf ; and 
for sale by C. C. Little dz> Co., Washington Street, 
Boston ; and at theU||aug|XzBooK8TORB, Cambridge. 

^tr py TUM -L. 

[UHIVERSITT] 

A GRAMiffAR OF TfeKOXMdAS-'I'neuioc ; a New Edition 
i it iw d and 'iapfoff ed, with ibe addition of Practical Ezerciaea and 
numerona lUoatrationa, drawn from tlie haliaxi Claatia WritajQf. 
1 Tol. ISmo. 

PART II. 

Eaccolta DI Fatolk MoRALi, or a Ccinection of Italian 
Fableo in Pfoaa and ¥aff*a» wi^ Interlinear TranahrlionB. 1 fol. 
ISmo. 

PART III. 

ficxLTA DI Pftoss Italiaitb, or Extracts from the Works 
titb» iMit Itdian Proia Writers, 1>oth Ancient and Modern. 1 toI. 
Iflmo. 



PART IV. 

Teateo Scblto Italiaho, or a Selection of Italian Dra- 
mtf, from the Works of Goldoni, Nota, Giraad, Alfieri, Monti, and 
Manzoni, with Notes. 1 voL ISmo. 

PART V. 

I PoBTi Italiani MAeeiORi, or Extracts from Tasso, Ari- 
osto, Poliziano, and Petr&rca, and the Inferno of Dante, with Ana^ 
lytical and Historical Notes. 2 vols. 12mo. (Hie first yolume is 
in Press.) 

PART VI. 

4. 

CoNTERSAzioNE Italiana, or E Collection of Phrases and 
Familiar Dialogues in Italian and English. 1 vol. 12mo. 

PART VII. 

A Ket to the JSxERcisEB contained in the Italian Gram- 
mar. 1 yol. 12mo. (In Press.) 



At the Bookstore of C. C. Little & Co. may be had 
also the following Works of the same Author : 

I. 

Rudiments of the Italian Language, or Easy Lessons 
in Spelling and Reading, with an Abridgment of the Grammar. 
Adapted to the Ci^>acit7 of Children. 1 vol. 16mo. 



II. 

Mrs. Ba&bauld's Hmifs foe Children, in Italian ; being 
a Sequel to the " Easy Lessons in Reading/' in the aboyemen* 
tioned Radimenta. 1 yol. 16mo. 

III. 

A CoMPARATiyE View of the Italian and Spanish 
Lanovaoks, or an Easy Method of Learning the Spanish Tongue 
for those who are already acquainted with the Italian. 1 yol. 12mo. 

IV. 

A OOMPARATITB YlEW OF THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE 

Lajiovaoss, or an Easy Method of learning the Portuguese Tongue 
for those who are already acquainted with the Spanish. 1 toI. 
12mo. 



CORSO DI STUDIO ITALIANO. 



PAET I. 
ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



CAMBRIDGE: 

rOLSOM, WmisIsSf AUD THUEtTORy 

rmimM to nn vtnwmaurw. 



Mian GRAMMAR* 



ITALIAN LANGUAGE 



L^i^€ 



BY 0^<^^T.<^^u 

H] 

laSTRUCTXB in HABTARD CHITIBSITV. 



PIETRO BACHI, 



A NEW EDITION REVISEU. AND IMPROYED, 

WJI^ THE ADDr^OR OF 

PRACTICAL EXERCISES AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS, 

DRAWN FROM THS ITALIAR CLASSICS. 






BOSTON: 

CHARLES C. LITTLE AND JAMES BROWN. 

LONDON: 
RICHARD JAMES KENNETT. 



M DCCC XXXTllI. 



77' 
p.. ■>■■■ 



Entered aecordiof to act of CongreM, in the yeer 1899, by 

PISTmO BACHI, 

I the Clerk's office of the District Ckmrt, for the EKstpct of MaftaelMifetts. 



"De exUris hominihus jam nunc dicam, quorum de- 
merendi, si tibi id cordi est, persane ampla in prcesens 
oblata est occasio. Ut enim apvd eos ingenio quis 
forte floridior, aut moribus amcenis et. elegantibus, 
hnguam Etruscam in delieiis habet pvscipuis, quin et 
in solidd etiam parte emdiHonis esse 9%h% ponendam 
ducUy prsesertim si GrsBca aut Latina vel nulto, vel 
modico^ tinctu imbiberit. Ego certe istis utrisque 
Unguis, BOB extremia tanUmunoda labtis madidus, aed, 
si quis alius, quantilm per aanos Houit, pocults ma 
joribus prolutus, possum tamen nonnunquam ad ilium 
DanUm et Petrarcam^ aliosque vestros complurimos, 
libenter et cupide comissatum ire. Nee me tam ipss 
AtbenaB AtticaB cum illo suo pelhicido Uisso, nee ilia 
i^us Roma 8U& Tiberis np& retinare vahierunt, quin 
twpe Amum vestrum et Fssulanos illos colles invisere 



MiLTOJi. E^piit, ad Benedictun^ Buommatlei ; 
Fkrent.y Sept. la, 1638. 



PREFACE 

TO THE FORMER EDITION. 



As A hatural conseqiieiice of the general advancemeiit of 
this coontrj in literature, the importance attached to an ac- 
quaintance with the Italian Language, as a part of polite ed- 
ncation, has considerably increased. Not only does it now 
enter into the circle of the elegant stndies of females, as the 
handmaid and ally of the ornamental arts, but the spirit of 
its higher literature begins to be understood by the culti- 
vated of both sexes ; and within a short time a place has beeo 
conceded to DdnU and T^&sso in the same academic course 
with Homer and Virgil. 

But while the other languages of the continent of Europe 
have possessed the advantage of a variety of good gram- 
mars written in English, the Italian Instructer has had the 
mortification to see in almost universal use the farrago of 
Fenerdfit,* to the disparagement of his native tongue and 
the perplexity of those who would learn it It is true, that 
other grammars are extant of various degrees of merit, and 
those of GaKgndni^ SantagniUoy and Feigont are entitled to 
much praise ; the first two, however, are hardly known here, 

* Venerdm was a native of TfrJicn, a small town of Burgundy, in 
France ; bis real name was Vigneron; but, having learnt Italian, and 
wishing to teach it in Paris, he Italianized bis name and called himself 
a Florentms, The CompUU Italian Master by SignSr Vener6ni was 
written for a few crowns by RotilHy the extraordinary adventurer, 
Who has left us his histoiy in the romance entitled The Unfortunate 
^rtapoUtan* 



FBCFACE. XI 

and the last, which is perhaps the best of tbem all, has been 
eoofioed principally to New- York; where indeed the want of 
a suitable g^rammar. has been far less felt than in otber places, 
from the singular good fortune of that city in enjoying the 
lifing instruction of the venerable Da PSnte, whose own writ- 
ings, in prose as well as in verse, form an integral and perma- 
nent part of the noble literature, which he has done so much 
to propagate in America. 

The field, therefore, was open for attempting to treat in 
English the Grammar of the Uaiian Language in a man- 
ner better suited to the wants of the public; and the au- 
thor, in entering it, has flattered himself that he should 
render an acceptable service, if, afler a thorough study of 
Italian writers on their own tongue, and a diligent examina- 
tion of the labors of his predecessors both in Great Britain 
France, and Germany, he should be able to produce a more 
complete, and methodical, and, at the same time, strictly prac- 
Ucal treatise, than now exists in Engli^sh, however far he 
might fall short of that perfection of which ho has the idea. 

In the Mroduetion are given very summarily the principles 
of general grammar, and the terms are defined in which those 
principles are afterwards applied to the Italian tongue. 

The Part devoted to Pronunciation afibrds, it is believed, 
naore full information on the subject than can elsewhere be 
fonnd ; and, as the words are carefully represented by English 
coDsbinations of letters of equivalent sound,* students who can- 

* The vowel a is represented by (he combination of letters ah, pro* 
noQoced without aspiration as in the words sirrah^ hallelujah^ &c. : «, 
by ay, as in day, except when It occurs before certain consonants 
with which in English it has what is called the short sound, nearly 
lesembling the sound in Italian, as in the syllables /m, e/, &c. ; be- 
fore r, however, e is sounded long, like ay : », by ee, as in sleep : u, by 
oot as in ooze. In the combinations k;y — g;y — /,y — n,y, a comma 
is inserted to prevent the letter before it from coalescing with the y, 
which Is to be pronounced with the following vowel as if it began the 
syllable. 



KU PmCFAOX. 

■ot avmil t h e i se l f w of «nl ill■tnwtNlil^ niaj jet nmke teeh aa 
i^proKinifttion to a juot f^foaoBeiatioB, as to yeroeivii «Bd et^oj 
in a good^degree the rhythm aad JMrnaoaj -ci the ckaae ao- 
tfaors, and, with few erren to uleaia, be prepared to take ad- 
vaatage of future opportnaitiea <^ iapreviag 4heir proouoGift- 
tkm by intevooone witii acoonpliahed speakars of itha Jaa* 

In treating of the difierent Parts of Speech, in the division 
called AmaUgfff while the aothor has wished that nothing 
should be wanting to the oonpleteness of 4his part of his tre^ 
tise, he has striven so to methodise the various particulars that 
they should lie ready fbt use. The verbs, especially, are givea 
with unexampled fulness; and to both the rogulu* and irregular 
verbs are annexed the poetical Jhrw^ which censtiUite no aaaQ 
difficulty for learners, even in reading the older prose writew. 
Tbis is an advantage not afforded to the sasM extent i^ aoy 
preceding grammar. 

As to the S^niMXfB, few seattOTed obsenvlieBS enlxan to be 
found in the best grammars. These are here digested under 
Iheir proper heads, inc re as e d by various new oties, and all of 
them supported by citations irom those Qasaics from whose 
authority no appeal can be allowed, though colloquial osage 
may in a few instances be at variance with them. 

The Qrtt^gnyAyiflqptains the result of ji^hat has been writ- 
ten by Italian authors p%, th«>sot]ject, and such ndes as haiss 
been deduced fireoFtb^^^lPAge of th^ii^ wiiteis. 

Throughout the Oramntfr, 4^ dhoold be observed, the 
principal rules are placed loder their appropriate heads, in 
large type ; exceptions to general rules and subordinate <ibser- 
vations are printed in smaller type. Every Italian word of 
more than one syllable is carefully ^eoented, that the mere 
perusal of the Grammar may operate as a perpetual lesson 
in pronunciation, preparing the pupil to read currently the 
first author put into his iiands, and sparing the instructer the 



PRBFACE. Xlll 

trouble of moeh incnlcatioD. For an ajitlogoos reason, every 
Italian word and sentence is accompanied by a literal English 
version, which is often indispensable to the beginner, and can 
rarely be nnnsefoL 

The author is well aware of the amount of indulgence 
which his English style will require on the part of his readers, 
whose very pursuit of a foreign literature implies a degree of 
cultivation in their own, which must make them impatient of 
the constraint and want of idiomatic propriety they will here 
meet with. Grammatical propriety, however, and perspicuity 
were the highest qualities to which he could at present pre- 
tend, in a language whose idioms are so remote from his own ; 
and, if he has been in any good degree successful in attaining 
these, he relies on the candor of ingenuous scholars to attrib- 
ute his defects to the difficulty of the case, and not suppose 
that he undervalues or is insensible to the charms of a good 
style ; which would indeed be inexcusable in one whose ambi- 
tion it is to spread a knowledge of the most graceful of mod- 
em dialects: 

** lUam, qnidquid agit, quoquo vestigia movit, 
Componit furtim subsequiturque Decor." 

TiBULL. i. 4. c. 2. 



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION. 



The flattering reception, which the former edition of thia 
Grammar has met with, both in this country and abroad, and 
the wide circulation, which in a few years it has obtained in the 
different quarters of this Uaion, Lave made it the duty of the 
author to redouble his eSbtta to approach nearer to the end 
which he originally proposed to himself. 

A long experience in teaching, the useful suggestions made 
to him by friends who have been using bis'book both in private 
and public instniction, together with aa incessant study of his 
native tongue in the works of the classic writers, have enabled 
him to make such improvements, as to render the work more 
deserving of the public favor. 

But the light, which the writings of M6rdi^ Compa^ndnij 
Rom6nij Ambros^li^ Lucehesiniy and others, have shed on Phi- 
lology, in Italy, has given origin, within the last few years, 
to so many valuable treatises on Grammar, that, to derive ad- 
vantage from their works, and to suit this book to the present 
times, it was necessary to remodel the former plan, and intro- 
duce such changes, as appeared to be required by the philoso- 
phy of the language, and the progress of grammatical science. 

To obtain this object, the Grammar has been newly writ- 
ten, the arrangement altered, the method simplified, and the 
^style generally improved. Several remarks,, which had been 
found useless, have been omitted, and many important rules, 
which had been omitted, have been introduced. The verbt 
have been better displayed : and the Syntax has been increased 



by flererai impoftaBt chftpten, meb m thoM mi tho iligwMii •/* 
IForciv, the «%reemefil ^Porlie^plef, Itc 

Sensible of the troth of the priiici(de, that a grammarian 
ought not to limit himself to a mere ezpomtion of principles, 
but should deduce them ftom sound reason and verify them 
by the authority of the classic writers, -^(*^Grammaticorum 
sine ratione testimoniisque auotoritas nulla est" — San cr. 
JIftnerv. L 1. c»2,) — the author has, in this new edition, endeav- 
ouxed first to write and explaia bis rules, and then to add, by 
way of illustration, ^e classical authorities, which have furnished 
him the Exum^Us corroborating the principles he has Jaid 
down. -^^^ 

Convinced, too, of the advantage which ^j^sf^^nt •ottQMly ^ \| 
derives from the practical application ofpabstcaot privMe^ T 'p ''. 
he has introduced, in each chapter of thv TSrammar, one or ^ 
more JSzercifes, as the subject or the impoVtanee of the rules' ^ '^ 
seemed to require. 

The ExampUif as well as the Exerti9e$, have been chiefly 
drawn from the writers of the fourteenth century, such as AMe, 
PefrtSreo, B^eedeetb, VHUdm^ 41lc. ; in many instances from those 
•f the sixteenth, as MaMao^ Chdeeiardini, AridtlUt, Tdsso^ 
1^. ; and, when these have failed to supply apposite illdstra- 
tioM, from the best poets and prose writers of the eighteenth 
century, and from those among the modems who have distin- 
guished themselves for purity ef diction and elegance of style, 
as AyUri^ F6scolo^ BSitOy Mcmz^ni^ Sic. 

To prerent any interruption in the regular progress of the 
different 'parts of the book, and to reduce the principles to a more 
eompact form, i^ was at first thought advisable to throw into an v 
Apptndix^ at the end of the volume, certain lists of words and 
supplementary remarks, which fbrmerly occupied a place in the. 
Aneiogjf ; but the size, which the work had already attahied. 



XTI PmErACE. 

4«ieiiiiiiied the aatbor to raMnre it to be pablished in a eepafrnte 
form, particularly as ita oniMioo at preeent aflbcta in no maa- 
ner the coin(deteiieat of the Grammar, however useful such an 
appendaife might be. 

Some improTeroenta haye alao been made in the typo- 
graphical execution of the work. The most important parta 
of the rules hare been printed in Haiiei. In the examples^ 
which immediately follow, the words which dbectly ilhistrate 
the rules are printed in smaul. capitals; and the whde of 
these examples, which always recur in the succeeding citations 
from the classics, are there printed in shall capitals, to en- 
gage the attention of the learner to their connexion with the 
longer passages, from which they were at first detached. 

Should the volume appear to any one larger than is necessary 
for common use, he should observe, that, of the whole number 
of pages, 351 only are occupied by the rules qf the languagt 
and their immediaU ttttis<rahoit#, and that the remainder of the 
book is filled by Exereiitt (which are commonly printed in a 
separate volume), and by a collection of eigkUen hundred cita- 
tions from the classics, which exhibit all the principal phenomena 
of the language, in a f<mn which gives the student ready access 
to a high authority for, and a happy exemplification of, every 
principle, thus making him familiar beforehand with the idioms 
and constructions, which would be the chief impediments in 
hii reading the most difficult authon. 

As to the mode of using this Grammar, the author would 
recommend the following plan. Let the principles first be prop- 
erly explained and exeso^ilified by the instructor, and let them be 
properly learned and recited by the student This done, let the 
instructor point out the application of them in the citations from 
the classics which follow the rules of each chapter, and let the 
student account for them (and for as many others as he may have 



PRSrACB. xvu 

already learned)^ bj pataing the words which ftMrm the aabjecti of 
the rules with which he is ahready acquainted ; and, when he 
baa become ^miliar with them, let him be directed to write out 
the Exercises. This method, if strictly adhered to, cannot 
fail to provehighly useful to the learner, and satisfactory to the 
teacher. 

Desirous that his book should not fall short of that perfection, 
which grammatical science seems lately to have reached in 
Italy, the author has spared neither expense nor diligence in 
procuring aU the best treatises on the Italian language, which . 
have hitherto been published in Europe. Some of these have 
been of great assistance to hfan in his labors, and in many in- 
stances lie has not hesitated to adopt from them miGiny excellent 
hints and valuable remarks. Still he trusts, that the manner 
in which he has combined his scattered materials into a body 
of principles, all illustrated by a variety of unquestionable clas- 
sical authorities, will secure to his work the character of origi- 
nality, so far as this can belong to any grammar of a language 
long since settled in its usages and idioms : 

'^Eliamsi omnia a veteribus inrenta sunt, hoc tamen erit 
semper novum, usus et dispositio inventorura ab aliis." 

Sbnbc. Epist. 64. 

Cambridge, SepUwhtr^ 1838. 



A LIST OF WORKS 

■XAMIHBB WITB EBPSmBNCB TO TUB OOMMLATIOlf OP THIS 

GRAMMAR* 

AlbArti {di VtBoMuSmi, FVaneisco cTj^ Dizion&rio UAiyersdU* 
Critico Enciclop^ico della Lingua Italiana. Lt!tcca, 1805. 
6 vol. 4to. 

Merfi (de FiZleneuve, Franf&is <f ), Grand Dictionnaire Fran- 
^ois-Itilien, et Italien-Fran^ifl. Baasano, 1831. Syol. 4t6. 

Mgmr6tU lF)r&ncl8C0), L^ttere Filddgtcbe, racotite da Baiv 
tdomm^o Gdnba. Ven^sia, 18SI6. 1 yoL Jdma 

AUumo (DrantUeo), Le Riccb^aR d^Da Lingua adpra 11 Dec*- 
merdne. Ven^zia, 1557. 1 yoL 4to. 

•SxnbroMi {Drancisco\ Manudle d^Ua lingua Italiina. Milano, 
1829. Ivd. 12mo. 

Barberi (J. PA.), Grammaire des Grammairea Italiennea, on 
Coon Coraplet de Langne Itallenne. Paris, 1819. 3 voL 8yo. 

, Petit Tr^or de la Langne Fran^aiae et de la Lan- 

gne Italienae* Paria^ 1821. I voL 8yo. 

BmnUi (Jo9nh\ A DictiooaiT of the Engliah and Italian Lan- 
guages. LondoQ, 1^5. 2 vols. 8yo. 

BMoU {DanUU\ Trattito dell' OrtografU luliina. Mil6no, 
183a lyoL 12mo. 

Bazxarini {ArUMo), Ortografta Enciclop^dica Universale. 
Ven^zia, 1824. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Biwibo {Piitro), Pr6ae, n^e qnili ai ragi6na d^Ua Volg^ Lin- 
gua, c611e Gii!inte di Lodovico Caatelv^tro. MiMno, 1824. 
1 voL 12mOb 

Bergan^ini {GvAhirPUtro), V6ci Itallioie d' Aut6ri Approviti 
dalla Crtleca, nel VocaboUurio di ^aaa non regiatr&te. Ven^- 
zia, 1745. 1 voL 4to. 

BiagiolHO.), Grammaire Italienne l^^mentaire et Raiaonn^. 

Paris, 1825. 1vol. 8vo. 
Barm (PatqadU^ Principj delP irte^ Etiniol6gica. Nipoli, 

AiotM (CkoFUt de)^ TraiU de la Formation M^canique des 
Langnes. Paris, 180L 3voL 12kna 



WORKS EXAMIinBD. XIX 

JMm (DonMo JhiiMo), Oaaerffuabni abipn la Lf ogna Tosdoia. 

N4pofi,1759L iTol. Iteo. 
Biittel (/. B.) Memoires sor la Lanffae CeltiqntB. BeaaneoD, 

1760L 3voL ibL 
BuommaiUi (BenetUiio), D^lla Lfngna Toneiim, libri DAe,c611e 

B6te di AnUm-Maria Salvini. Mil4oo,1807. 9 vol. 8ya 

Oflrf^ (Oiia^ipe) Oramm&tioa d^lla L(Dgaa Itali&na, compiMta 
»dle miglion mod^rac Gramm^tiche. Tir^nze, 1^3. 1 vol. 

13ID0. 

CcnrdMli (Francisco), DizioDdrio port4tiIe d^Ua Lingua Italitoa. 
Boldgna, 1838. 2 vol. 8vo. 

C^ardiieei (Facdndo), Elem^nti della Lettdra, ed Ortografla Ita- 
lidna. Sidna, I8d8. 1 vd. 870. 

CiMori (AMnio), I>i89ertazi6iie sdpra lo Stdto ddUa Lingua 
ItaMna. Verdna, 1810. 1 vol. 4to. 

OMrdttt (MelM6r), Skgg'i sdlla Filoeofta d^Ue Lfngne, e del 
GdBta Mildno, 1821. 1 vol. 12roo. 

Cmdnio [alias MamhUK {Marc-Antdino)], Oe8eryazi6ni d^lla 
Ungua Italidna, illnstrdte ed accrescidte da Laigi Lambdrti. 
Milano, 1811. 4 vol. 8vo. 

CUiadini {Cilso\ Le Origin! ddlla Toscana Fav^lla. Sidn!^ 
102a 1vol. 8vo. 

CompagnSni (Gtusippe), Te6rica dd' Vdrbi Italian!, regolari, 
axwmali, difettivi, e ma]-n6ti ; compilata sdUe 6peTe del Cin6- 
nio, del Pistoldsi, dei Mastrofini, e d' &hri pi^ uMstri Gram- 
m&ticL Livdrno, 1830. 1 vol. 8vo. 

OfrHciiU {ScdvttdSrt), Rdgole ed Osservazidni ddlla Lingua 
Toecdna. Bassano, 1827. 1 voL 8vo. 

CoureU ( Gtb. de), Nudva Gramm&tica ddlla lingua Italidna per 
griUli&iiL Liv^nK>,18ia 1 vol. 8vo. 

DalmMro, Osservazidni intdrno 411a Lingua Itali&na. Vendzia, 
18tt]. 1 vol. 8fa 

Da-P&nU (Lorenzo), Elemdnti ddlla Lingua Italidna. Nuova- 
Y^Kk,im. iTol. tSkatk 

DdP JrU d&ia Pordto, conaiderdta nd* rM M6di ddila sda 
IkpwmiAne. MUdno, 1837. 1 vd. 8iro. 

Dd-Miiro (Fincdnzo), Grammdtica Ragiondta ddfla Lfnirua 
itaUiiUk Mpofi^idM. 1 vdL 8va ^ 

DuMt-dt-Traey (AnUnio Luigi Clmhilte\ Granmfitica <}ene- 

lilt, odito Aaftotai ^' ^ ■ " 

1817. 3yoL 8vo. 



idlt, odito Aaftotaaidm di Qtedpoe CoouMgodM. MMno, 
-317. -^ ' ^ 



I 
XX WO&ES BXAM1V£D. 

DmimAn^ delU Lingaa lUliiBa. Pidor», 1817. 7 «pL 4ta 
D6Ui€ (LMibvico), Osaenraadni idUa linfM iUliiMu Yes^sia, 
1562. IvoL 8vo. 

EUmMi d^lU lingM Italiina ad two d^Ue 8cu6U. Vett^iia, 
i8ia Ird. 8ro. 

d^Ua 6rammitica« e d^lla OrtofrafU Itali4na, ricavati 

dal Pallayicioo^ B4rtoli, Rog4cci, BuooMMitUL N^i, 1839. 
1 vol. 12mo. 

FdeciMH iJicopo), Ortografla Mod^ma Italiina. N4poli, 1831. 
1 vol. 4to. 

F&rarii (Octam\ Originea Liagiie Itafics. Patavii, 16761 
1 voL foL 

FomoMcarxy Tfaeoretiscb praktbche AnleitODg zor Erlernimg 
der Italienischen Sprache, in einer neuen, und fiMslicheren 
DarstelluDf. WieD, 1630. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Fran$6m (iS3f(/aito), Grammitica Iiiferi6re d^Ila Liiuraa Italt^uuL 
Mil4no, 18X2. 1 vol. 12nio. 

OaHignmii (/. A,)y Grammar and Exercises, in Twenty-four 
Lectures on the Italian Language, enlarged and improved 
by Antonio Montncci. London, 1823. 1 vol. 8vo. 

QiambuUAri (Pier-Dranc^9eo)t Lezioni, aggil!intovi I' Orifice 

d^lla Lingua Fiorentina, altrim^nti il ulllo. Milano, ]o27. 

1 voL l2aio. 
GiannUH {Leandrdo)^ R^gole Grammatickli per chi vu61 par- 
lire, e acHvere coiyettani^nte Tosdino. Lucca, 1820. 1 voL 

12mo. 
QifU (OMfaaM), Lezidiii di Lingua Tosdina. Ven^sia, 1733. 

1 VOL 8vo. 
G»rfia (Jlfc<cMr),Ideologia. MUiJio, 1823. 2 vol. 8vo. 
G&rio {A, f.), Sl6ria Antiqiiiria Etrdsca. Fir^axe, 1749. 

1 vd. 12bo. 
Oran DuswtUno d6Ila Lingua Italiina. Bol6gna, 1838. 7 vol. 

4ta 
QrA$$i {0iM9ippt)t S4ggio lat6rno ai Sio6nimi d^Ua Lingua 

Italiina. Fir6iize, 18&. 1 vol 8va 
Jii^ganafiii (Or. J^), Neues Deutsb-Italkniflbea Hmd-Wor- 

ter-Bocli. Lotpaig, 1799. SvoL 8vo. 
JMUn*, {QiM9ippe), Princfri Etomeiitiii d^Oa lingwt Italiina. 

1104110,1899. iToL 8va 
Limml (Omu. SjfkriM, Bleateti ragiod^ Mk liagoa To- 

scina. LMmo, 1806. 1 voL 8va 



WORKS KXAMINBO. XXI 

XrMdhtfim (Cteire), DeU' Illii8trazi6ne d^le Uagw AatkiM 6 
Mbd^roe, e pniicipalm^nte dell' IuB4im. lidcca, . 

2?d. 8vo. 

MHir {Jindr4a}, MUa Unmm Compile d' Itilia. Vea^sU, 
1823. Ivol. 12mo. 

ifiiiim (I>o«lmeo JfoHa), Le»6Di di lingua Tosei^ MiUmo, 
1»^ 1 vol 13ma 

iforfiigrM^fu (€fM2aiiio), Nudvo M^todo per la liagaa Itali4iia la 
phi Sc^lta, esteosivo a tdtte le Lingue. Milano, 1743. 2 yol. 
4to. 

MaHrofini ^MArce), Teoria e Pnwp^tto, ossia Dizioii4rio Ciitieo 
d^' V^rbi Itali&ni cooiagiti, specialm^nte d^li an6iiialiy e 
ma].ii6ti. R6ma, 1814. 2 vol. 4to. 

MtuMti (Francheo), C6reo di Lingua Itali^Uia. N&poU, 1833* 
1 voL 8vo. 

.Mbesiii^J^ Ortografia Italidna. Napoli, 1829. 1 voL 12mo. 

Meidinger^ Praktische Italienieche Grammatik, wodurch man 
diese Spracbe auf eine ganz neue, und sehr leichte Art 
in kurzer Zeit grundlich erlemen kann. Leipzig, 1821. 1 
voL 8?a 

Men^gio (Egidio), Orfgini d^Ua Lingua Italidna* Parigi, 1669. 
1 vol. foL 

MmUni (Bened6tU>), D^lla Co8truzi6ne Irregol&re d^Ua Lingua 

Toscina. Verona, 1744. 1 voL 4to. 
Mimo (Oioviitnt), SinUissi, Fr&si, e V6ci per perferzionind n^Ua 

lingua Italidna. Milano, 1809. 1 vol. 8vo. 
M5nH ( Fific^nzo), Propdata di alcdne Correzi6ni ed Aggidnte al 

Yocabolirio d^ila Cn^isca. Mildno, I82a 7 vol. 8vo. 
JIfifiect (Dominieo)f Nn6va Grannndtica Italidna, formdta su i 

Principj di Grammdtica Generdle. Ndpoli, 1832. 1 voL 12mo. 

Murai&ri {Ludovlco ArUdnio)^ Dissertazi^ni 86pra le Antichitd 
Italtdne. Mildno, 1751. 3 vol. 4to. 

/Atpidne [Francesco Oaledni), DelP t^so e dd'Pr€gi d^lla Lingua 
Italidna. Mildno, 183a 2 vol. 12mo. 

Mil {lMrHao\ Diziondrio Ortol6gico Prdtico d^a Lingua Ita- 
Udna. Pavia, 1825. 1 vol 8vo. 

NSUi9a Ortogrctfta Italidna, con I'Aggidnta di vdrie y6ci Odbbie. 

Pddova,l&25. IvoL T^Jmo. 
OiwriH l^/UeoUil Diziondrio di V6ci Ddbbie Itali&ne. Ndpoli, 

178a lvoL4ta 
Orhgrxifla d€Ua lingua Italidna. HOdno, 1829. 1 vol 18mo. 



xadi woiuM kxamDibb. 



(•MoMo), An KltaiiiiHiy ItaliM OffsmiMr. 
182& Ivol laoMw 
ParinH (Mare^ni6nio\ Aonotazi^Di al Dizionirio Italiino, che 
a iltopa in Bol^gat. M6deiia, 18S)6. 3 vol. Svo^ 

PerM (VincttU), Grammaire Italienne compoa^e d'aprte lea 
BMitteiua Aateun at GramiBaineiH dltalie. Paris, 1815. 1 
YoL 8vo. 

PefMaiim(€Mtfcofiia),Tratt4tod^UftL(ngiia Italic Ven^na, 
iSia IvoL 8to. 

Pexxdna (Jnt^), Ossenrazibni coDcero^nti 411a Lingua Italiina, 
•d 4i 8u6i Voeabd4ij. Pinna, 183a 1 vd. 8to. 

PittoUsi {Giam-Bamsia), Proep^tto d^' V^rbi Italiini regoldri 
eirregoldri. Pisa, 18ia 1 yol. 4to. 

P(inza (MMle)^ L' Annotat6re d^gti Err6ri di Lingua. Tori- 
no, 1829. 1vol. 8vo. 

, Gramm&tica d^lla Lingua Italiina. Torino, 1834. 1 

vol. ISmo. 

Pu6H ( Bati^io), R6gole ElemenUri d^a Lingua Italiina. N&- 
pdi, 1836. 9 vol. 12mo. 

R^bi (Cdrlo CosUknzo)^ Sin6nimi ed Aggiiinti Itali&ni. Ven^- 

zia. 1817. IvoJ. ,4to. 

Aofvuint(Gtov4iim),Te6ncad^lla Lingua Itali4na. MiUlBO,]835. 

2 vol 8vo. 

— » Te6rica d^' Sin6nimi ItaliinL MU&no^ 1835. 1 vol 

8vo. 

, Dizionirio Generile d^' Sin6nimt Itali&nL Milino, 1836. 

3 vol. 8vo. 

y Os8ervazi6ni 86pra Varie V6ei del Vocabolirio d^Ua 

Crdsca. Milano, 1826. 1 vol 8vo. 



^, Opikacoli Sc^lti 8i!illa Lingua Italiina. MiUno, 1826. 1 

vol. 8vo. 

Eotdtco (Girdlamo), D^Ua Lingua ToM^&na, Diiloghi S^tte. ,Mi- 
Umo, 1824. 3 vol. 12mo. 

R6$Ur (Gideomo), Os8ervazi6ni GrammaticUi int6nio ilia lin- 
gua ltali4na. Fir^nze, 1826. 1 voL 8vo. 

f Element! GramoMiticili Eagioniti di Lingua ItaliioNU 

Fir^nze, 1827. 1 voL 8vo. 

SalvUU {LeonSrio\ Awertim^nti d^lla Lingua a6pra il Dec»* 

mer6ne. Milino, 1810. 3 vol. 8vo. 
SimUgntllo (M.), A Complete Grammar of the Italian huh 

guage. London, 1838. 1 vol. 13mo. 



WORKS EXAMINED. XXUl 

SeaUiSF6e%d6MUnga^ltBmm,c<mnigo\e^OmermaUad. 
MiUura, 1828. 1 vol 13mo. 

SoJme (ihmUseo), Grammitica RaffiofData d^a L(ii|raa Iti^ 
liina, c6Ue Aggidnte di Antonio Biancbini Br^acia, 189a 

1 TOl. 12lD0. 

SoU^ lMaUio\ 8i!iI1o St&to pres^nte d^a Lingaa Itali&im. 
(itti deU' Ac4d« Itil., voL L) 

SarM {Pier-Daminie0\ £nidim^Dti d^lla Lingua ItaH&na. 
Milino, 1831. 1 voL 12mo. 

8fmd(^9ra {PISeide), Pro0od(a Italiioa, e^a Gidnta di tre hrM 
Trattiti ; V iifio d^a Z, o sda TarieU ; e 1' &ltro dell' E 9 
O ; U t^rzo d^Ua bo6Da e r^a ProDiinzia. Ven^sia, 1880l 

2 vol, 8vo. 

2\>mmasio {^Picadb), Nu6vo Dizion&rio d^' Siii6iumi d^Ua Lin- 
gua ItaMna. Fir^nze, 1830. 1 vol. 8to. 

TW^t (OtiMol Origine dilla Lingua Itali&na. Soldgna, 

1831. 8 vol. Sva 
V6nzon (C6rlo AntMo), Gramn4tica Ragion&tad^lla lingua 

ItaMna. Liv6nio» 1834. 1 vol. 8yo. 

, DizioD&rio Univers&le d611a Lingua Itali&na. Livdmo, 

1827. 3 vol. 8vo. 
Vdrehi {BenefUUo\ U £rcol&no, o Ragipnam^nto s^lle LingUjB, 

ed in paiticolire d^lla Toscina e fiorentina. Milino, 1803* 

1 vol. 8vo. 
Fentrnd {M. JL), A New and Complete Italian Grammar. Legw 

liom,18a4. IvoL 18mo. 
rw!aboi6rio d^gli Aecad^mici d^la Crtisea. Ten^zia, 176a 

7 voh 4to. 



, cdlle Aggiunte di Antonio C^sarL Verdna, 

7 voL 4to. 

UnwendU d^Ua Lingua Italiina. NapoU, 1629^. 



ripiimi]5 vol. 4to., [che cont^ngono le l^ttere A — RU. 

(6peca in c6reo.)] 
ZatuMtti {Giavdnm), Nudvo Dizion&rio Port&tile d^lk Lingua 

Italiina. Livdmo, 18Sb'. 1 vol. 16ino. 
Zciti {Eomualdo\ Graromaire ItaUenne, et Thames sur la IxHr 

gue Italienne. Paris, 1823. 2 vol. 12mo. 



A TABLE 

OP TBS ABBKSTIATIOH8 OP TBK KAMB8 OP AVTHOBt AKS OP 

THE W0BK8 QUOTED IN THIS CKUiHAS. 

Aon. Paiib« o. Pandoyhti (Jgmilo\ <Tratt&to M Goy^ibo 

d^Ua Famiglia,' p4gina o. 
Alam. Colt o. o. ^amdnui (Luigi), ' I^ CMvazi6me^^ ISbro 

o. p4?. o. 
Alberg. No?. JStbergdli-CnpuMli {Fnnc^aco), 'J^wOUJ 

Albert. ) ^^tbertdno, Gi^dice da Brescia, VolgarizzB- 

Abertao. c. o. { m^nto d6' ' Tre Tratt&ti,' capUoio a 

. o. o. , , Tratt&to o. cap. o, 

Alf. Fil. o. o. 7 ^JUri ( VitUSrio), ' Trag^die,' Faipp%, atto 

Filip. o. o. \ 0, sc^Da o. 

Antig. o. o. , Jinitgont^ itto o. sc^na •. 

SauL o. o. , !&/«/, 4tto o. ac^na o. 

Alg. lett Alfrar6Ui (FraDc^sco), 'LUUrt: 

Alfeg. ) Mim (Aless&ndro), < L^Uere e Rime,' 

AUegr. o. J .pag. o. 

Amu*. Cof. o. o. Amhra (Francesco d*), ' La O^mUkia* 

com^dia, ktio o, sc^na •• 
Am. Ant ^ ' AmmaesirainMi digU JMUkij' racedhi e 

Amm. Ant d.o.r. o. > volgnrizz^ti da Fra Bartolooom^o dm, Saa 
— » -i— a o. o. ) Concdrdio, disinhusdSme a rmbriea o. am- 

maestram^nto o. 
Amor. JSmorHli (ikrlo), * Vtiggio ai Tre Laghi ; 

Ma^gidre, di Luc^o, e di Cdma' 
Amk Car. V^di dr., Caro, 

Ami. Yang. * ^noiaxidni 86pra gli Evangi^.* (Tlite a 

no. eitdio nH Vocabolirio d^Ua Cn&eea. ) 



Arioat > AridMio (Lodofko), < OrUndo /VridM,' c4ii- 

-»— For. o. o. ) to 0. 8i4aza o. 

B. y^di Boce. 

Barb. Gr. Or. Bwrbfri (J-Ph.), < Grammairtt des Grom- 

maires lUxViennesJ* 
BeDine. BeUineiSni (Bprnirdo), ' Rime.' 
Bemb. > B^iii6o (Pi^tro), « ^^rui di Yen^zta,' Kb. #. 
— Stor. o. o. J p4g. •. 
Lett o. o. o. -^ < LHUn Yolg&ri,' VolikBe •• Kb. o. 

p4g. o. 
BeB.Yareh. Yedi FardL 



TABU6 OF AUREVIATIOIVS. XXV 

letLo. J Mtterao. 

Benv. Cell. Ore£ a CeUini (BenvtwUo)^ *Tratt4ti (dde] dell' 
« ^ , _Oit*wH«, ed^llaScultiira,' pig. o. 

Bef.Taa8.lett T4wa (B^nuWo), « XK<Wer«.' ^^ 

Bern. OrL o. o. .^^rm (Frwc^aco), • Oiiteilo JimaiMntta,' 

G&oto 0. aULnza a. 
— Rim. 0. o. , • Bime Buritehe,'^ vol. o. p&g. o. 

^^*^T * > Bo«<«w (Qioviiiai), * Decamerdne,' iitlra. 

Introd. ) 

Proem. -*«^Deeam.' iVx>6nio. 

g.o. Proem. , gwndta o. Proimio. 

g. o. n. e. ■ ' , giomdta o. novOla o. 

g. 0. cany. ^ — — , ^ giomdiia o. cotiz^tm. 

ConcL , . Condu$idne. 

Coib. V<di Lab., Laber. 0. 

•:r"^;^ > .*.^»itfo,'p&g.e. 

^ o. o. [ f * Fummlna; lib. o. ntimero o. 

^J- C ^, ! ' LiAtrUOo d' Amdre,' oaaia « il Cor- 

Tea. o. 0. » * Tw^ufe,' cdnto o. at&nsaa. 

Teatam. , « TuUmhUo: 

.. Via. o. ? 

-Vtf.Amor. 5 ,**'^morrf#ar«f5iic,'c4ntoo. 

Com. Dant .: , < CmnitUo adpra i prlmi Dioiaaa^te 

Ciati dell' In«rno di i4ile.' ^^ 

— -VitDaoto. y'yUadiJMnkJiiigkUrVpkg.o. 

BoctmL BoccaHfd (TraiAno), ' RaMuMi di Par- 

niaao.' 
Boez. Varch. a o. V4di Farch. 
Borgh. Rip. 0. jBorg^t (Rafl&^o), « fl JZu^^o,' Diim. a 

Toac o. , (ViaUioo), « D^Ua iWcrfna, e d^'Ue 

^ ^ t6e Citti,' diac^Jrao, p4g. 0. 
Arm. Fam. a —^, * DeUUrm d/lle Jbm^lie Fioren- 

wie,* diac4^T8o, pig. 0. 
Bott. Stor. Am. L o. BdUa (Cktlo), *&ifia UUa Gu^rra d^Ua 

Indep«iid4Dz»4^gli SUtti Unit! di^m^'. 

CO,' lib. o. 
W >J%^i«Utta Utel, *I1 TVj^' volgamafcto 
Bnmet Tea^ o. o. J da Bdno Giambdni, lib. a, cap. Jf'"^^"^ 
— ^Pat^flo. n,*IlArf4«a,'oap.o. (5ntofe««<n. 

iia,c«^Hfr\to2abol4ria) ^^ 




XXVI TABLE or ABBREVIATIONS. 

Baoin. ) BuommattH (Benedetto), < D^lJa Lingua 

Ling.Tosc.o. V Toscdna, Libri Dde,* lib. o. tmttito o. 

o. o. S cap. 0. 

Buon. iBuonarrSH (Michel-Angelo, il v^cchio), 

Buonar. Rim. o. ( * .Rbne,' pks. o. 

-— Fier. Introd. i (Michel-iB^lo, il ^^vane), 'La 

f Fiira^ com^dia in cinque giorn&te, htU^h- 

o. o. o. J ffiornita a. 4tto o. sc^na o. 

Bnrchiell. p. o. a. o. BurckUUo^ * San^tti,' oir/e o. ionHto o. 
But Com. Dant Biiii (Francesco di B&rtolo da), < Comlnto, 

ovv^ro Lettdra sdpra il Podma di DdtUe,^ 

Inf. Purg. Par.o. Infimo, Purg<U6rio, Paradiso^ c&nto o. 

Cant. Carn. o. CMx CarruueiaUsckij pkg. o. (7V5to a 

phma^ ciUUo ml VocaDoUirio.) 
Car. } C6ro (Annibal), ' JUtUre Familiiri,' p4rte 

Caro. l«tt. o. o. ) •. p4ff. o. 

Matt 8. o. , * Afciitoeeint,' mmitio a 

Casa Galat o. Cd$a (Monsigndr Gtov&nni d^Da), * II 

CMatio,* pii. 0. 

lett. o. , ' LiUereJ l^ttera •. J^ 

Caatigl. Coftk 0.0. C(M(^fl»dne (Baldaas&re), < 21 Oo^lko,' 

Cavalc. > CavAUa (Fra Dom^nico), Volgarizzam^nto 

Att Apoit o 5 d<$gli ' AtH diffii .^pdHoli,' p4g. o. 

— Espoa. Simb. , ' Bsposixidne del Simbolo d^gli 

o. o. Apdstoli,* lib. o. pks. •. ' 

Frutt Ling. , * Tratt&lo d(? FHUH diOa lAnguaJ 

— ^ Med. cnor. , * Medidna del CitSre* 

Pungit. o. , * PungUinfpjLa^ cap. o. 

Speech. Cr. < Spicchio d^lla CViSre.' 

Stolto. , Trattito d^lle *Tr^nta ShUizie 

deir U<Smo,' pig. o. 
Cavalc&nti. < Esposizione delle sue Canzoni.' 

Cecch. Dot o. o. C^tM (Giovan-Maria), ^ La 2>6/e,* ooro^dia, 

itto o. Bcdna o. 
Esalt cr. , * L' EsaitaziSne dUla Cr6ce,' com6- 

dia, itto 0. sc^na o. 
Inc. o. o. , • Gl' Ineantisimif^ com^dia, (itto o. 

ac^na o. 
Spir. o. o. , * La SpirUo,^ com^dia, itto o. sc^- 

na 0. 
Cesar. Cesar6*H (Melcbi6r), Tradud6ne dell' < IIS- 

ade d' Om^ra' 
CinoiL t o. (Sn&nh, ^ Oaservazidni d^Ua LSngua Itali- 

ina,' t&m9 o. 



TABLS OV ABBREVIATIONS. XXVIl 

Class. ^ Es^m|Ho tir&to ds Atitdre Cldssico^ del 

qa^e non si rim^mbra il odme. Occdrre 
rarissime vdlte. 

Cort. Osserv. CorlicUli (Sa]vad6re), < R^eole ed Osserva- 

ziSni della Lingua Toecana.' 

Cr. > Creschm (Pi^tro dd'), * TraU4to delP Agri- 

Cresc. o. o. o. I coltdra, lib. o. cap. o. ndm. o. 

CroQ. Mor. ' Cnhtiea di Giovliniii MoriUL* 

Cms. ^ ' Vocabol&rio d^li Accad^mici d^lla CH- 

Cn!isea. S '<^' 

DaDt. Inf. o. \DdnU AlighUriy 'Divina Camm^dia,' hifkr- 

f 910, G&nto 0. 

— Put. & Purg. o. t , * Conun.' PurgaiSrio, c4nto o. 

— Par. dc Parad. o. ) , , Parcuii$o^ cinto o. 

Con?. , * Contfivio,^ 

Rim. ,'Bimc' 

m^n. \ ^^«««^» (Bernardo), * 6pere.' 

ScisDL p. o. ' , ' Scitma d' Inghilt^ria,' p6g. o. 

Colt , * CoUivazUne Tosc^a.' 

Tac. ann. 1. o. o. , Vol^arizzam^nto d^gli * Ann6H di 

ComiUo TdcitOf* Ub. o. p^. o. 

a,^, f , Volgarizzam^to d^Ue ^ StSrie di 

I=:Sstar.o.a.i I^^o.' «b. o. p4g. o. 

Tac Genu. o. , Volgarizzani^nto d^lla * Germdnia 

di Tdcito7 p&g. o. 

Vlt Agr. o. , Volgamzaro^nto della « VUa di 

Giulio Agricola di Tacito,' ipkg. o. 

— Tac.Perd.Eloq.o. , Vofgarizzarodnto del *Di&Iogo ddl- 

le Cagidni ddlla Perddta Eloquinza di 

T4cito,'j)4g. o. 
Tac. Poet o. , ^Posiilie k\ primi s^i libri d^Ua silia 

tradazidne d^gli AtmdU di Tdcito,^ pkf» o. 
Declam. QuintiL C. Volgarizzam^nto d^lle ' Dtdanutzidni di 

QuirUili&nOf t^sto a pdnna di Matt^o 

Caccini. ( CttA^o nei Vocabol4rio.) 
Demetr. Segn. o. Volgarizzandnto d^lla * Locuzidne di Demi-' 
' trio Falireo ' di Pi^ro Signi^ p4g. o. 

— RiT Ital 1 o ^ ^^^^^ (C&rlo), ' Rivolvzidni d' Bdlia,' lib. 
CO. ' ' ) ^•^i'-^- 

Letter. , • Discdrso Sdpra le Vicdnde ddlla 

LeUtraii/riu^ 

Lett \ , * Sdggio sdpra la LetteraHara Mati- 

- ' r. ^ ' ' 



Sag. Letter. ^ dma.* 



XZVllI TABLB or AKnUBYIATfOKf. 

Dep. Decttfek a 'AnnotasiM e IMie6rai sdpra aledni In^glii 
M i>eeafiiafdfM di Giovimiu Bocc4cck>y 
fttti 44' Dtp%Mi ' [eMUi dal 6raB-I>6c« 
CMmo I. P inno 1585, 



di qjflV 6pera], p4ff. o. 
- ■ ^ di?^WI 



per la ^•rrMi6oe 



DiaL S. Greg. m. Volgaraxain^nto d^' • BiUogki H &tn Ore- 
Din. Comp. o. o^ Om p ^Lg m \ihiko\ * Stdria, ovr^ro (Moftca 



FioreatSiM^ lib. o. p4g. o. 
?*n I>seteiM^fuf»' di Vktk 
0.0. ^0. cap. 0. 



Dittam. ? < D I>seteiii^fuf» ' di F&»o d^li Ub^rti, li¥. 



Eriz. Giora. Er^xzo (Sebasti&no), < Le S^i QwnMt? 

Fav. Esop. ow Volfamzam^nto d^Ue 'Fk99U cT E$6p>y^ 

0. (!l¥««o a F^HJM, otffo iia< Vo- 



eabol4n(M 
Fior. Vt c o. « Fi&rt di Vtrthy* cap. o. 

— AM.Tbf.o.S ^^^^'•d'Apul^C'pig.o. 

— dial. bell. dmuo. .'DiOogo dMe BdUat dOt D&tt- 

ne,' p4f . a. 

diao. aa o. , ' Di$e4T90 digH AnimiU^^ pig. o. 

Lac. o. a , * I Z^rufi,' com^dla, 4tto o. ac^na o. 

nov. o. • , « JVWOe.' novella o. 

Trin. a o. — ^ — , ' TVintoo,' com^dia, 4tto o. ac^na <k 

Foac. jntivalo (l}ga), ' Eaftme Crftko d^ Coftunen- 

tat6ri di IMuile.' 
Fr.Giord. IFn Oiord^no da Rip4Iti, 'Pr^&he,' 
Fra Giord. o. ) pkg. o. 
& Pred. a , t^ato (a p^nna) fiblpuM, ;»r6dMO o. 

{CSidto nd Vocabol&no.) 
Fr. GuiU. >JWi OuiU^iu d' Ar^zzo, 'LHien^' Mtte- 

Fra Goitt lett o. $ tera o« 
FraDC. Barb. o. o. Bariterino ( JVone^tco), < Docnm^nti d' A- 

iB6re,' poeafo, pkg. o. Y^rao a. 
Fr. Sacch. ^ 

Fran. Saccb. > V^di SmedL 

Franc. Sacch. S 
Fris. Elog. Gain. IH8i(PMo\'SUgit^di QaKUo OaKUU 

^ ^ j GeOi^ Galilei, * Saggiat6re,' p4g. o. 

Macb.Sol.a , 'latdria e Dimoatrazidni intdrao 

ftDe .Mifecto Soiiri, e Idro aocid^nti,' 
(k4g. 0. ' 
Gang. ? Ooiigafi^' (GioTan-Vino^nzo Aatdflio [P&- 
lett S V^ Clem^te XIV.]), ' IMtre.* 



TABUS or ABBRB7IATIONS. 



XXIX 



CrMBi Stot.CHv« 
NaoL 1. o. c. o. 

Gio. Fior. Pecor. 
g. a n. o. 

Gia & Giov. TiSL 
1. a c. o. o. 

GiroLlett 

Gold. 

AwenC 

— *— Ver. Am. 

Gr. 

, S. GlT. 0. (K 

Gnin. Gram. 



GeU. I am (Giovam-Battiflta), < La dm,' di&k>go 

— Giro. o. 0. i o, pkg* o. 

Giamb. L o. OiambulUH (ner-Franc^sco), < Stdria d' 

Surdpa,' ft^. o. 
OionndiK (Pi^tro), * Skiria CMk del R^gno 

di NiipoU^ M, o. cc^. o. 

V^di iSiw QUn. Peeor^ 

VWni (Giovdnrd), <St6ria,' Ub. o. cap. o. 

B<!nik 0. 
Gird/(h' (Gir^ldo), ' LmenJ 

> Goidli^' (Ckr]o\ < L' .^roenhiri^ Ooor&to,' 
{ eom^dia. 

-^-'— <I1 r^ wimlco/ com^dia. 

iVolgarizzam^nto d^* < Or6di di San GM- 
mio,' cap. o. pag. 0. 
V^di Barh. €hr. Gr. 
Guar. Pa«t.f1d.o. a Guorin^ (Giovam-Battiatk), ^Partdr F^do^^ 
&tto 0. sc^na o» 

Ouiecur^^im (Fraiic^aco)^ < SlfdrM (T JUiZus' 
lib» o. p&g. 0. 

Gtiuio Gi^dice dille Coldnne di Ifeasiiia, 

Voljramsam^to d^lla < Stdria d^Ua Gu^r- 

ra Troi4iia' p&g. o. (TUto apinna^ckdto 

nd VocaboHmo.) 
Incer. e. o. ' Rime Antiche d' MeirU Autdri^* eanxdne o. 

Lab. o. Y^di Bocc Lab^ Labtr. 

Laac SibilL o. o. Grazzini ( Anton-Franc^o) d^tto il XcUco, 

^ La sA^4ty* com^dia, kiXo o. 8c6na o* 
Spir. o. o. , * La ^pinUda^ com^dia,. 4tto o. 

■c^nao. 
Lib. C«. lialatt VolgarizEam^nto del < lAbrOy oasfa Trattdto 

dilU C6ra di tdtte le Malamo.^ (Tiilo 
, aphtnOf cUMo net Vocabol&rio.) 

libr. Adorn. Donn. * L^ digU AdamamMi ddU ZMiifie.' 

(TWO a pinna, eUdio nd Vocabol&rio.) 
}Lii^ {hoT^nio), <I1 MaltnaniUt Racqui- 

> 8t4to,' c&nto 0. st&nza o. 
VcIgarizzain^Dto d^lle 'D^ehe (Prima e 

T^nti) di IMo LM>,' dka o. (JUo a 




Lipp. M. o. a 
— — Malm* o. 0, 
Lit. dec. o. 



Lod. Mar. Rim. o. 
Lod.Noy. 
Lor. Med. c. o. 



phina, tiUUo nd Vocabolirio.) 
MarUm (Lod&nko,) • JUme,' p4g. o. 
LSdoh (Fraticeaco), < /iavdUJ 
MMici (larhno de), *Caiiz6m a B4Ho, 



XXX TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

Nenc. o. , * La Nhieia^ st&nza o. 

Arid. Prolog. (Iroreiwino de\ ^Ariddiio^* com^ 

ilia, PnUofo. 

o. o. , * And6iio^ 4tto o. sc^na o. 

Macb. >Jlfae^r^' (NioooU), ' bUkrit Fkmniin^' 

— Stor. Pior. L o. J ttfc. o. 

Coin. , * ComidieJ 

lett , • Latere.* 

Mandiag. , • La Mindragora,^ com^dia. 

Princ. , ' U Pnnc^fe: 

Maestruzz. o. o. Volgarizzam^to d^Ua * S6mma Piean^Ia, 
d6tta il Maestrka^^ lib. o. cap. o. (TVfto 
aphtfuty ciidto nel Vocabolino.) 

MafT. Mer. o. o. Afo^ (Scipidne)^ 'Mirope^* trag^dia, ktXo 
•.sc^oa o. 

Manz. Prom. Spoe. Manzdni ( Alesa&iidro), * I Pnmim SpM^^ 
c. o. cap. o. 

Matt Frao. ) Franzdsi (MatUo), ' Riwu Barl^he,' ?ol. o. 

— Franz. Rim. ao. \ P^. o. 

Matt Vai. o. o. Vul&ni (MatUoy St6ria,' lib, o. cap. o. 

Mes. Bin. Rim. 1. o. Messir Bino^ < Bime Bail^ache,' lib. o. 

Cin. o. dno da Piatdia, * Rime.' p4ff. o. 

Metast Artas. o. o. Afeto^<(ino (Pi^tro), ^Jbia$ir9€j^ Aimma, 

&tto 0. 8c^a 0. 

lett , * UtUrtJ 

Miliz. Art Dis. M^ia (Francesco), <Dizion4rio d^lle B^U 

JrH del Dit^^: 

''V^^l'o'' JVediZ-n. *.««-. 

Nov. Ant a ' U Novellino^ oeda C^nto Abr^ An&che,' 

nov^Ua o. 

Ovid. Pist Volfftirizzam^Dto d^e 'Pinole d* OpUIm.* 

(T^sto a phma, cUMo nd Vocabolirio.) 

PalL PaUavickno, * Concilio di Tr^nto.' 

Pass. 1 

Passav. 0. f PussavAtiH (Fra J&copo), < Sp6eMo ek Vim 

Ver. Pen. I PemUnzOy p4g. o. 

Spec Ver. 5 

Pen. 

Past Fid. o. o. V^di Guar. Poit. Fid. o. o. 

Pataff. 0. y^di Brun.y BruneL Paiaff. 

Pecor. g. a n. o. Gfib. Fior. Pecor. 

Petr.; ) PetrArca (Francesco), * Rime.' 

g. o. \ , * Rime,' wiiUo. o. 

c. a > , , canxdne o. 

lett. , * IMUre IhmiUdrV 



V 



TABLE ON ABBRSTIATIONS.* 



XSlf 




Tridnfo tP AmdreJ 



UonL ilL o. 



» aw. o. 



, * Yite d^gli Udmini SUuiri,* volg^- 



rizz&te, p4g. o. 
PirndUi (Lorenzo), < ^(befe.' 
Polixi&no, (Agnolo), < iSSfinze per la Gidstra 

d^GiuIi&no,' c&nto o. stinza o. 
Pros. Pior. o. ' Prdse FiarerUinej^^pkg. o. 

Red. annot Ditir. It^di (FTBnc6aco),^ ^nolazidni al sdo Di- 

iirdmbo,* 

* OonsMi M^.dici, vol. o. pkg. o. 

, ' B&ceo in Toscina,' ditirdmboj pkg. o, 

, * Esperi^nze intomo ilia generazi6ne 

degV hisHH,'pkg. o. 
— , * LitUrt Familidri,' yol. o. p6g. o. 
, ' Osservazifkii inuSrno &lle Vkpert^ 

l^ttere, yol. o. p6^. o. 
* Ricttiirio Fiorttmno,^ p4g. o. 
'iiime .tfnlicAe, O00ia. Racc61ta di Son^tti, 

Canz6ni, ed iltre Rime di div^rsi antichi 

po^ti To8c&Di,' pdg. o. 
Bosdsco (6ir<Slamo), * D^JIa Lingua Toeci- 

na, Dialogbi S6tte.' 
SacchiUi (Fiinco), 'JVoviOe,^ novella o. 

, * jRime,' ^g. 0. 

O'ptre uivirae^^ pig. o. 



Piffo. Pav. 
Poliz. St. o. o. 



cons. o. o. 

Ditir. o. 

Ins.0. 

^— lett o. o. 
— r— Vip. o. o. 

Ricett Fior. o. 
Rim. Ant p. o. 

Rosiseo. 



Sacch. n. a 
— riDi.0. 

Op. diy. o. 

Sag. Nat esp. o. 



* S&ggi di WcUurdH Esjfferiihze,^ fktte nelP 
Accad^mia del Cim^nto, d^^scritti da Lo- 
renzo Magaldtti, pig. o. 
Salv. Ayrert yoL ^ Slti^imih' (Leonirdo), ^^ertimhiH d^lla Lin- 
• Ob 1. o. > gua B^pra il Decamerdne,' vol* o. lib. o. 

o. ow o. 3 cap. o, 

— Granch. o. o. , * II Grdnehioy com^dia, itto o. sc^- 



nao. 



O.O. 



nao. 



y'La Spina,^ com^dia, atto o. sc^- 



SdyiB.Pros.To8C.d..SU9im (Anton-Maria), ' Pnht To9cdne,* 
pig. •. 



XXXIl TABLB OW ABBBSriATIOffS* 

Seal, a AgOBt Volgariznun^nto d^Ua * Sdiia dd Paiadin^' 
attribuUa a Sam^ Jg^siitto. (TViio ap^ 
no, ciidto nel Vocabol^no.) 
Segn. Crist instr. ? S^gneri (P&ok>), * U CnsHAno JMndfon^Ua 
' o. a * $ 86a L^gge,* p4fte o. rag jo naaa^ nto ft> 

Mann. Marx. o. , ' Afdmna dell' kmma,'iii^ di Attr- 

zaugidrnoo. 

Not. a ^, , m^ae di A <iti^a i* re . gidrno a 

Sen. ) Volfranzzam^nto d^e ' PiaMe ifc' iS^iitta»' 

Pist o. s P&tola 0. 

Ser GioT. Fior. i 

Pecor. fSar GiovAnfU FierttiUno^ <D Pecon^' 

— Gia Fior. Pe-4 gwnMa a noa^tfa o. 

cor. g. o. lu o, J 
Soav. Nov. iS^ibe (FraDc6ace) < Abv^ Mor41L' 

Sod. Coit. b. iSkM&Hiit (GiofaB-Yitt<kiol < La CoMicgirfwtf 

d^eVitH'p4g.a. 
St Agoat Citt Dio. VolgariKzam^nto d^Ila < CSiU di IM di 
o. o. Smnt JSgotikiw^ lib. o. cap. a. (Titto a 

]»^i»fia, ^UAq nd Vocabolirio.) 
Stor. PiatoL pu a ' iSkirie PitUUn^ oiv^ro d^Ue cdae aTtenile 

in Toacina dal J900 al 1348/ /i^g. c 
Star. Semif. o. Vol^arizzasi^nto delU< Siberia diiiSMii^bal^ 

Tasa. Am. o. o. ? IttM (Torqolito), ^^mUUOy F&vola Boa* 

Amint o. o. { cher^ccia,* atto o ac^na a. 

Ger. o. o. ^ * GenutdSmme Uberktm, cinto a. at^B- 

aa •• 
Teor. Verb. Ital. < TeJnca d^ FMfi Baiiimij' di Gioa^ppe 
part o. §. 0. Compagadni, fSrU o. p ar dg rtifo o. 

—"llUt ^ IWommA- (CMiadio), « i:,A<«!' 

Tratt aegr. coa. ^TnOUUo dHU StgrHe c6h dMt D^nm: 

donn. {l^iUo a p^iwio, eiUdo nd VooaboMLrku) 

Vanz. F^mn (C^rio Antdoio), < Granmitiea lU- 

gioo4ta d^la Lingna Italiina.' 
Varcb. ) vZ-cki ( BeDed^tto)iTraduzi6ne d^lla < Coo- 
Boez.o.a S solazidne Filoadfica di &^ici», Ub. o. in4- 

aa & riina a. 
Ercol. o. — ^ , * ErcolAn», oaakt Ragionan^JOito adl^ 

k lingue,' p^. a. 

• Rim. o. .I— 'i^ai«/ p4g. o. 

Sen. ben. o. o. Tradazi6ne d^' Ubri d^' 'Bent^^K Shur 

ea^ lib. o. cap. a. 
Vaa. Foadcn (Giorgio), 'TratU^^Ual^ttdara.' 

ViU. V^di Gw. i^ Giaa. Fitf. 



TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS. XXXlll 



MarUlHlY'mc^nzo), ^mme e L^ttere,' p&g. o 
' VUa d% SanC JhU6mo.' (TUto a phma^ 



Vine Mart rim. o. 
Yit S. Ant 

cUAto nd Vocabolirio) 

— a Cater. * di Stwto Caterina da Si^na.' 

— a Franc * di S6n FranchicoJ 

r- & Gioy. Gnald. < •= di San Gi^mm-BaUUldL, Ma d^Ua 

(Gnad. lib.) o. LibreHa de Guad&gni, p&g. o. (Cii6io 

nd Vocabol^o.) 

— Sa PP. a o. > Volg:anzzam^nto d^lle ' VUe de S6nH Pd- 
Pad. a 0. S ^' ▼^^ <>• ?^S^ ^' 

Zan. da Strat o. o. Zan6hi da Strdia, Vol^rizzam^oto d^' 
^ Mor^ di San Greg6rio M&gno,' lib. o. 
ndm. 0. 

Zibald. Andr. a o. ' Ztbaldtine^ ow^ro Libro di V&rie Cdse,' 
t^^sto a p^nna di Andria Andreini, pirte 
0. pkg. 0. {CStdio nd VocaboUirio.) 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



INTRODUCTION. 

VtRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing correctly. 

SpEAKiife and writing are the expression of our thoughts 
by teords. « 

Wo&DS may be considered as articulate sounds^ or as s^^ 
of our ihovghts. 

Words considered as articulate sounds, are formed of 
sj^iables, and syllables of letters, 

Stllables consist of one or more letters pronounced 
by a single impulse of the voice, and constituting a word, or 
partof a word. 

Words that consist of one pliable, are' called monosyllMes; 
thoee that consist of two syllables, are called dissuUdtXes ; and 
those that consist of more syllables, Bi^cdHed potysyltables, 

Lbttsrs are certain figures or characters, which represent 
sounds and artieutations. 

Sounds are simple emissions of the voice ; and articula- 
tions are the modifications which sounds receive by tiie 
movements of the organs of speech. The letters which repre- 
sent the sounds, as, a, e^ t, l^c, are called votods ; and those 
which represent the articulations, as, 6, c, i^ ^c, are called 
eonsonardSy because they can only be sounded with a vowel. 

The union of two vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of 
the voice, is called a diphthong; and that of three vowels pro- 
Bounced in like manner, is called a triphthong. 

Words considered as sieNs or our thouohts, are 
divided into several classes, which constitute the diflferent 
parts of speech. These in Italian ai^ nine; viz. the 
article, noun^ pronoun^ verb, partxciptt^ adverb^ prepositionj eon- 
jtmetion^ and inUrjectum. 

Of these nine Parts of Speech, the artide^ noun, promwh 
w6, and partie^pUj are tarlable, that is, change their ter- 
mination ; the rest are invariable. 

1 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

The Artiglk 10 a word placed before a noon to denote 
the extent of its signification ; as, «Z, lo, 2a, ' the' : — il U^, 
( the book*; lo sprtine^ * the spar* ; la. c^kfo, ' the house*. 

The NocH is either stih$Umtiot, or aSeeUve, 

A SuBSTAifnvs noon is a word, which serves to denote a 
person or thing; as, Pt^fro, * Peter* ; idU^^mva*; vufu, < rntne'. 
, Snbetftntiye noons are either prop^ or comifion. 

A proper noun is one, which is individually applicable to a 
person or thing ; as, C^Mtre, ' Cesar* ; IMia, ^ Rome*. 

A common noun is one, which may be applied to all persons 
or things o^the same kind ; as, wkno^ ' man* ; dtth, * city*. 

Some common nouns are also called coUeetwtj from their 
presenting to the mind the idea of a collection of persons or 
things ; as, gMe, ' people* ; esircUoj ' army*. 

An Anjccnyx noun is a word added to a substantive to ex- 
press its quality ; as, dtitfo, ' learned* ; h^Qa^ * beautiful* : — im ud- 
WW d6tto, * a learned man* ; una bAlla cttth^ ' a beautiful city*. 

Adjectives may express the quality of an object, either a&fo- 
luUhfy that is, without any relation to other objects, or rdatMy 
to other objects ; which produces different degrees of qualifica- 
tion : these have been reduced to the foUowing three, viz. the 
posidvt^ etmparalxvt^ and mpeHalwt. 

The potiiwt is the adjective itself, expressing the quality of 
an object, without any relation of comparison ; as riceo^ < rich' ; 
>NJoero,'poor*. 

The ecmfmra lm t is the adjective expressing a relation of 
superiorvfy, tii/mori(y, or e^uoftfy, between two or mofe objects 
in conuMurison ; as, piUjnUno^ or «i rieeo, * more, less, or so nch* ; 
jMiis maio, or «i pdiero^ ' more, less, or so poor* : — PUiro ^ phi, 
or Hiiro af ceo cK JhmmdiOy ' Peter is more, or less rich than 
Thomas'; Tmmiuo ^ PtCl, or m^ko r6vEB0 di P<iM>{o, < Thomas 
is more, or less poor than Paul*; FMro e TmmSuo mino si bIc- 
CBi, or si f6vbri ahu Piuio^ < Peter and Thomas are so rich, 
or so poor as Paul*. 

Th» SuperiaHot is the adjective expressing the quality of the 
object in the highest degree of superiority, or the lowest degree 
of inferiority. 

There are two kinds of snperlative, the rdativt^ and the 



Th e rdatht superlative ejq^tesses the superiority or inferi- 
7*^ ^/.f* ®y^*> ^^ relation to others j as, tZ jms or U mim 




is the most, or the least nch^— Paul is the most, or the least 
poor, of all*. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

The absciuU superlatiTe shows that the object spoken of 
possesses a quality in the superlative degree, but without 
reference to any other ; as, rieMs^imo, « very rich* ; poverlMtmo, 
' very poor*. 

A great number of Italian nouns are susceptible of a change 
of termination, which, modi^ing the primitive idea expressed 
by them, augments or diminishes their signification ; as, wkno, 
^man*; oM6inE,. Marge man': ruscHio, 'brook'; RUscsui^To, 

* small brook'. The nouns thus altered, are called auom enta- 
TivEs and diminctites. 

With nouns are usually classed the numerals, which are 
either cardinal^ or ordinal. 

Cardinal nmnher$ are those, which determine a collection of 
objects, with regard to their number or quantity; as, «no, 

* one' ; dUciy * ten . 

' Ordinal numbers determine objects with regard to their order 
or arrangement ; as, prkno^ ' first' ; dicimOf ' tenth'. 

Italian nouns are varied by gender and numher. 

Qtndtr is a division of nouns accordi])g to sex. Nouns 
denoting males are moBcvline; nouns denoting females are 
feminine* This division, which properly regards only nouns 
having sex, is in Italian extenaed also to all other nouns, 
though they have no sex ; so that every noun is either of the 
masculine or feminine gender. But there are certain nouns 
which belong to both genders, and these are said to be of the 
e e mm on gender. 

Mrniher is the designation of one or more objects. There 
are two nmnbers, viz. the singular and pharaL The singular 
designates one single person or thing ; tne plural^ more than 
one person or thing. 

The various relations of nouns, which in Latin are denbted 
by different terminations, or cases, are expressed in Italian 
by certain prepositions placed before them ; and for the nom- 
inaHve and aeeusaHve of the Latin, have been substituted the 
terms subjectioe, and objective ; and for the genitive, dative, and 
Maivej — ^the terms rekdion ojf possession, of attribtdion, and of 
derwatwnm 

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, already 
expressed, to prevent it^ frec^uent repetition ; and like the noun 
is either Mitoanlm or o^fedtve. 

tMtstantive pronouns are either personal, conjunctive, reUdioe, 
or interrogative ; and a^eetive pnmauns ore either possessive, 
demonstrSive, or ind^finUe. 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

The personal pronouns are those, which mark the jHrsant. 

The persons are three, viz. the Jirsl, second^ and third. The 
first is tne person speakmg ; as, w, * P ; tk^ ' we': — the second 
is the person spoken to ; as, <u, ' thou' ; vdi, * you' : — and the 
Mrd is the person spoken of; as, iglxy * he' ; illoj * she' ; iglino, 
iUenOy * they'. 

The cor^unctwe pronouns are those, which are always joined 
to a verb. They are derived from the personal pronouns, and 
are divided into conjunctive, properljr speaking; as, mt, * me', or 
* to me' ; ^ * thee', or * to thee' ; «, * one's selT, or * to ones' 
self: — ^Mi dwUe, * it grieves me' ; ti pdrUi, * he speaks to thee' ; 
81 IddOf *he praises himself: — and reUdwe conjunctive pro- 
nouns ; as, n6, ' of it, of him, of her', or * of them' ; — ne vorrH 
vedir la jint, * I should like to see the end of it'. 

The relative pronouns are those, which refer to a person or 
thin^, that has oeen before spoken of; as, dbt, * who' or *• he 
that'; ekty U qu&U, 'who', or * which that':— chi si vrnMa si 
es&ttOy 'who', or * he that humbles himself exalts himself: f iio- 
mOf CHE or i{ q^XLS scrivCy the man, who or that writes'; il libro^ 
CHE or U quXLS io li^Oj ' the book, which or that I read'. 

The person or thing, which relative pronouns reter to» is 
called the «fi<ece<f»i<. 

The mterrogative pronouns are those, which are used to 
interrogate, or ask a question; as, chtf *who?' che^ 'what?' 
qu6le ? * which ?* — chi i ? ' who is it ?' en*; fate ? * what are 
you doing ?* <^uiLE volute f * which wDl you have ?* 

The possessive prononns are those, which mark the possesion 
of a person or a thing ; as, mlo, ' my', or * mine' ; iui^ ' thy', or 
« thine' ; suo^ ' his, her, hers', or ' its' : — Mio Jrat^, ' my bro- 
ther* ; U Tt^o capp^UOf * thy hat' ; quisto i st^o, * this is his, hers', 
or 'its'. 

The demonstrative pjronouns are those, which point out the 
particular person or thW of which we speak ; as, qtUslo, ' this' ; 
qu^loy ' that' ; eoUsiOf ' that near you' : — quifesTO gtdvme, ' this 
youth' ; quiLLO spieckio, ' that looking-glass' ; cotesto lihro, 
' that book near yon'. 

The indefinite pronouns are those, which express a person 
or thin^ in a general and unlimited sense ; as, aleuno, ' some 
one' ; ogni, * every' ; nUnte, * nothing'. 

Italian pronouns, like the nouns, are varied by gender and 
number. 

A Verb is a word, which by itself implies affirmation ; as, 
isswe, * to be' : — ^^ssere anuStbile, ' to be amiable' : and neces- 
sarily supposes a subject and a ^udity, to which it affirms that 
the subject is, or is not attributed ; as, la viaxili i ahabile, 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

' virtue 10 amiable' ; ia pigeIzja turn ^ lod^vole, * slothfalness 
IB not laudable'. 

There is but one verb, strickly speaking; issen, *to be'; 
because this alone expresses affirmation. But there are other 
words, which in themselves contain both the verb issere^ and 
the qualihff which it affirms to belong to the subject of which 
we speak; as, am&re (issere am&nU], 'to love (to be a lover 
of)* ; sprezzdn (isstre sprezxdnU)^ ' to despise (to be a despiser 
of)': — egH kuAfigU t ajiAute), *he loves (he is a lover of)'; 
&la spm^zzA (iUa e spRczziNTs), 'she despises (she is a 
despiser ot^ ; and to these has also been fi^ven the name of 
oerM, and tney are used to express the quality of the sutgect, 
or the action it performs or it undergoes. 

Verbs are commonly divided into acUvt^ passive^ neuUTf fro- 
wnnmal^ and iiniptrsondL 

AcUvt verbs are those, that express an action, which iUls or 
may immediately fall upon an object; as, amdre, 'to love': — 
amare la viRTJk, ' to love virtue'. 

The object upon which the action of the verb fklls, is called 
the re^funenor coN^ifetTient of this verb. Besides this first com- 
plement, which is called citred, manv active verbs may have a 
second complement, which is called indirect; as,fcrtoere. 'to 
write' : — saivere tVA L^TTsaA, ' to write a letter* : — scHvert 
WM UtUra AD UN AMico, ' to write a letter to a friend.' This 
last, however, properly speaking, is rather a comipkmeni of the 
prtpotUwnj which always precedes it. 

Pasnve ver\>s are those, that express an action which falls 
upon the subject ; as isstre arndto^ ' to be loved' :— iji yirtiIi i 
amAtOj ' virtue is loved'. 

Neuter verbs are those, that express a sUte of being, or an 
action which does not fkll dhrectly upon an object; as, (hrmkre, 
' to sleep' ; mukere^ ' to be noxious'. 

Pronommal verbs are those, that are varied with two pro- 
nouns of Uie same person ; as, v^ni2er-si, ' to sell ' or ' to be 
sold': — quisTO jJbro Bivituk e4a-o, 'thw book sells', wr 'is 
sold deaP. 

To pronominal, properly, belong r^Uctwe and reciprocal verbs. 

R^ctive verbs are those, that express either the action of a 
sabjei^ which acts upon itself; as, winder-oi, ' to defend ones' 
self 'b — fo MI diftndo, ' I defend myself; or an action of the suAh 
ject, which terminates finally in itself ; hByfdr-Bi vn dovire ' to 
make to ones' self a duty':— ioLi si faun dovire, 'he makes to 
himself a duty'. 

Reciprocal verbs are those, that express the action of several 
subjects, who act respectively the one upon the. other ; as, 
asMr-ni ; ' to assist each other* ; 1161 ci awHimoy ' we assist 
each other*. 

1* 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

Un^tersonaly or, as they are asually called, trnftmrnal verbs, 
are those, that are used only in the third person singular of 
each tense ; as, exeadSrt, ' to happen*: — accdde^ * it happens'; ac- 
eiMt^ ' it Imppened' ; aecaderhy ' it will happen'. 

There are moreoveV two verbs, which generally assist to 
vaiY other verbs, and which, consequently, are called wsxtHary 
veris: these are, crv^ 'to have'; and^mre, *tobe': — jlyLke 
UUOj *to have read' ; issE&E parHio^ * to (be) have departed'. 

Italian verbs are varied by muKHij tense^ ntunfter, and perswL 

MhhI is a particular form of the verb, which shows the man- 
ner in wluch the action, or the state of being^, is refNresented. 

There are five moods, viz. the in/hntive, indicative, conjunc- 
Ovcj condiiionaly and imperative. 

The ntfinUive, represents the action in an indefinite manner, 
and with^t distinction of person or number ; as, tcrtvere, ' to 
write'. 

The indicative represents the action absolutely, and without 
dependence on any other word ; as, io scrko^ ' I write'. 

The cot^unetive represents the action as dependinjgf upon 
another verb with which it is connected by a conjunction ; as, 
friajrna, che io sckIva, ' it is necessary, that I write'. 

Tne conditional refvesents the action with dependence upon 
a condition ; as, io scrivew^i, oe potissiy ' I should write, if I 
could'. 

The imperative represents the action in commanding, exhort- 
ingj or intreating ; as, scrhi, * write tliou' ; tcrxUlCj * write ye' ; 
tcntruimo, ' let us write'. 

ESach of these moods, except the imperative, has different 
tenses. 

Ttnte is a distinction of time, which shows when the action is 
done. Time, sfaictly speaking, is either prewirf, past, or fiOure, 

The present denotes the action doing by a subject at the 
Terv time in which we are speaking ; as, io cAirro, « I sing'. 

The past or preterite denotes the action done by a subject 
before the time in which we are speaking; as, io caittAi, 'I 



i fiitmre denotes the action to be done by a sulnect after 
the time in which we are speaking ; as, io cAimcRO, * I will 
sing*. 

The preterite is divided into imperfect and perfecL 

The imperfect expresses an action done in a time past, but 

present in respect to another action done in a time also past ; 

as, io caktAva, quhuk vdi entrdste, * I was singing, when you 

came in*. 
The perfect expresses an action done in a time completely 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

piat, and without reference to any other action ; as io casttXi 
uft' Arioj ' I sang an air'. 

Tenses are either ^pU or c(nnpound, 

SimpU tenses are those, which are formed without the assist- 
ance of either the auxiliary verbs avh'e, * to have', or issere, 
•to be*; as, pddo, *I speak'; vhmi, *I came'; loderd, * I, will 
praise'. 

Compound tenses are those, which are formed of the simple 
tenses of the auxiliary verb avire^ * to have', or 6ssere, * to be', 
and the participle of the verb varied ; as, ho paridto^ ^ I have 
spoken' ; sdno venuto, * I (am) have come' ; avrb hdMoy or sorb 
UMtOf *I will have praised,' or * will be praised'. 

Each tense contains two numbers ; the singvkar andp2t<ra/. 

The number is singvlary when one single subject causes 

the action of the verb ; as, fo mdngioy * I ear ; — ana it iBplurcd, 

when more subjects contribute to the same action; as, n6i 

mangiAmo^ * we eat'. 

Each number has three persons^ which are denoted by the 

'4Ua,'Bhe'; 

or dleno, 
* thou seest'; 

i^Li or £ixA 'Me^ 'he or she sees' : — if6i vedidmoj ' we see' ; 
v6i fMUte^ ' you see' ; ^oiaivo or j^lleno vidonoy * they see'. 

The assemblage of several verbs, forming all their moods, 
tenses, numbers, and persons, according to the same rule, is 
called a eomugaHon. 

Such verbs as conform to the rule of any conjugation, are 
called regtdcar ; and such as differ in any respect, are called 




Terbs which are not used in certain tenses, numbers, or per- 
sons, are called defective. 

The Participle is a word which partakes at the same time 
of the nature of the verb and of the adjective ; as, a$ndnte, 
* loving* ; anM>, * loved.' It partakes of the nature of the verb, 
because it has its signification and has reference to time ; as, 
onubi/e (che kuA) Dio, ' loving (who loves) God' ; amAto (che t 
AMiTo) daDio, ' loved (who id loved) by God' ; and it partakes 
of the nature of the adjective, because, like an adjective, it 
qualifies a noun ; as, wimo ONORiTo, * honored man' ; tmiu pro« 
viTA, * tried virtue'. 

Participles are divided into present and^o^. 

The present participle expresses the action of the subject, or 
the quality of a noun, at the moment in which we speak ; as, 
emMe^ Moving' : — dinna amAnte, * a loving woman'. 

The past participle expresses the action or quality as per- 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

fected or past; tj^temiido, 'feared': — eaaiigo tbmiI^to, * feared 
piuiisluneiit'. 

With the participle is usually classed the e£auifi>, which, 
like the participle, is an inflexion of the verb, but has nothing 
in common witn the adjective. 

Italian participles are varied by gender and number. 

An Advxeb is a word, which serves to modify a verb, an 
adjective, or another adverb, expressing the manner, or circum- 
stances of its signification ; as, ow, ' more' ; wkiUet ' very' ; dU- 
(tntemeti^e, ' distinctly' i—^gU paHa DisTiNTAHitNTK, ' he speaks 
distinctly' ; Me mbhTO sScio^ 'you are veiy wise' ; piii atnce- 
ramhUe, ' more sincerely'. 

Adverbs are divided uto those of quaHty, order^ time^ pkKc^ 
qwmUty, companion, ifc* 

Adverbs of quaUhf are thosOj which express the manner In 
which- things are done ; as, iomanUHtt, ' wisely': eUgmdemhtUj 
' elegantly' ; meofrnderaUtminUy ' inconsiderately' : — igH phua 
SAviAMiiiTc, ' he thinks wisely' ; &ia sctive EUBGAifTCMSiiTE, 
*she writes elegantly'; h&nno agUo iNcoNsroxKATAniifTE, 
* they have acted^inconsiderately'. 

Adverbs of ortfer serve to express the arrangement of things 
in regard to one another; %b, pHmOj 'first'; pdiy 'then'; 3b 
p rwcyio, ' before' ; in tigiuto, ' afterward' : — ^peIm a andr^mo in 
/hbieuiy ' we will go fint to France'; p6i m JMa, ' then to 
Ital^'; DA rmiNcfpio ndhe evitkrt U fiuUe, 'we must before 
avoid evil'; in sieuiTO n dive far dd hine, 'afterward we must 
do good'. 

Adveibs of Hme are those, which express some relation of 
time; as,i6^ ' vesterday'; dggi, 'to-daf'; dom&nif 'to-morrow': 
— lo vidi i^ai, ' I saw him yesterday'; vihu 6eoi, ' come to-day'; 
partirb domIni, ' I shall depart to-morrow'. 

Adverbs of /pfoce serve to denote the situation or the distance 
of an object ; as, q^ ' here' ; ^ ' there' ; vtdno, ' near' ; Ion- 
t6no, ' nr* : — sow qui^ ' I am here' ; guardMe lA, ' look there' ; 
jto auk vicfifo. ' he lives near here' ; i irdppo LOifTino, ' it is 
too tar*. 

Adveibs of qwrntitf arc those, which modify an object in re- 
lation to quantity ; as, pdeo, 'littie'; asM, 'much'; MaMnza, 
'enough':— fdrta assai, 'he speaks much'; ri/Utte f6co, 'he 
reflects littie' ; ne ha abbastAkxa, ' he has enough of it'. 

Adverbs of cosuKirtfofi serve to denote the different deerees 
of quality of the objects compared ; as,|mk, ' more' ; nUno, 'less'; 
ceti-^edme, 'so— as' :— T anort v6U rtii diUe rioMzze, ' honor is 
worth more than riches' ; U 9uo eu6rt non k m£n IMo dd vito, 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

' her heart is not lets beautiful tlian her face' ; 4gH wm h si do- 
ciU c6Bfc ^ vtvdce, * he is not so docile as he is lively'. 

Adverbs are either simple or compound. Simple advecbs are 
those which consist of a simple word ; as, awi, * here'; pdi, *then'; 
Wfie, * well'; and compound adverbs are tnose, which consist of 
an adjective and the word minte, ' manner' ; as, dolctnUnlt (con 
ddUe m^Me), ' sweetly (in a sweet mannerV. There are besides 
several expressions, which in several woros announce the same 
idea that might be expressed by one adverb ; as, di bjuki gr&do, 
' willingly' ; qudnto prima^ * very soon' ; aW improwiso, * unex- 
pectedly' ; and these are called adverbial phrases. 

A Preposition is a word, which is placed before a noun, a 
pronoun, or a verb, to show its relation to some other word ; as, 
tn, * in' ; anty * witn' ; sinzaf * without' : — non e in cdsa, * he is 
not (in the house^ at home'; verrb con vdi^ *I will come with 
you' ; sj&ifZA andarpiudUelunghey * without going any further'. 

Prepoeitions have several denominations, viz. of piace, order, 
Kme, urdon, opposUion, ifc, according to the several relations 
theV express. 

The word which follows the preposition is called its regimen 
or complement. 

A CoFJONCTiON is a word, which serves to join words and 
sentences together ; as, e, * and' ; n^, * nor, neither' ; ma, • but' ; 
nondhUno, 'nevertheless': — biUa e hudna, ' handsome and good'; 
Ri mdngia vii hive, ' he neither eats nor drinks' ; igli ^ pdvero 
MA onorMo, ' he is poor but honored' ; iUa k mdUo gidvane, e 
NONDiidENO i mtiUo sdma, * she is yet very young, and never- 
theless she is very wise'. 

Besides the general use of connecting words and sentences 
toj^ether, conjunctions sometimes express the particular point 
ofview in which the mind considers the words and sentences 
80 connected ; hence the division of conjunctions into exptica- 
<tw, adversative, aUemative, conclusive, ifc. 

An Interjection is a word, which is used to express an 
emotion or affection of the mind ; as, ah! * ah !' oh! * oh !' aimi! 
'alas!' 

The affections of the mind may be of joy, g^'tfy indication, 
eonten^ Sfc. which give to the interjections different denomi- 
nations. 

Of the foregoing Parts of Speech, some are occasionally em- 
ployed, when they are not absolutely necessary to grammatical 
construction, but serve, nevertheless, to give strengUi and 
energy to the discourse; as, gih, mica, pure, m&i : — oiA. iMo non 
vdglui, *may God forbid'; non son uic a fdvoU, *they are not 



10 INTRODUCmON. 

iibles*; la 069a andih pur cot!, *the tSS^m went off so'; vis a, 
cht ^U eamtcoy 'yes, that I know them'. These words, when 
80 used, are called xzfletiyes. 

Words form the whole subject of Grammar. They may 
be either expressed by the tfoict, or represented in wrUmg by 
characters. 

The collection of letters of which the words of a language 
are formed, is called the Alphabet. 

That part of Grammar, which teaches how to express the 
sounds of words, is called Paozf unciation. 

That part which treats of the different sorts of words and 
their various modifications, is called Analogy. 

That part of Grammar, which treats of 'the connexion and 
right order of words among themselves, is called Stutax. 

That part, which teaches how to write words c<Mrrectly, is 
called Orthoorapbt. 



^t UBB4 



OF TRB 



(uinvERs: 

ITALIANALPHABET. 



Thb ItpUan MphtAei contains t%o«nty-tv»o leitert, 
which the modern Romans, following tb? Latb, name 
and prionounce as follows : 



(F5f«e) 


(Name) 


(Pton.) 


^ (#iaiiw) 


(Naaui) (Proo.) 


A a 


a 


ah 


M m 


«ra flQ^' 


B h 


be 


hay 


^ n 


en ayn 


C e 


ce 


may 


O 





D d 


de 


day 


^ P 


pe pay 
qu too 


£ e 


e 


ay 


i\ 


^ -^ 


ef 


^ 


' er «yK 


f 


&cca 


^cSk'-kah 


S t 
T t 


es fl^ 

te .% 


1 % 


i 


ee 


V « 


u 00 


i i 


5 


^ 


y « 

Z z 


ve ray 
z6ta dsayf-tah 


The Florentines, on the authority of th^ " Fftthers of 


ibe Language/^ * 


ftame and 


pronounce them as follows : 


A a 


(Nvw) 
a 


(Pron.) 
ah 


JIT m 


(Naow) (Proo.) 

emme aym'^may 


B h 


bi 


hee 


JV W 


^nne ayn'-nay 


C t 


ci 


tkee 


O • 





D d 


di 


dte 


P P 


pi jow 
qu icoo 


E € 


o 


ay 


i I 


F f 


6ffe 


ayp'fay 


*n« ayr^-ray ' 


f 
H % 


g* 


jee. 


S s 


^»e a^-toy 


6c€a 


ahk'-kah 


T i 


ti <•» 


I i 


i c6rto ee cor'-to 


U u 


a 00 


/ i 


ihlii€ 


ee hon'-gc 


V 9, 


vl .we 


L I 


me 


aylf4a^ 


1 Z z 


aii«ii dmi^'UA 


•EM MitA c0tdU 9&n» milH Ui6U, 


And of roeb ohm, then we BMny to 


©••T.) 


ifDoraoit, thftt do ool know •▼•9. the 




Be mighi thMt to, If (oekinf at yo« 
at the fame tlmo, be thoaMOnnk (bat 


^^raraioci. (Boeo. 


f.«.n.&.) 


7o«liadl«afa«dy«or#4^ 



E fe ei^tArt tAaU tedia, mim^ lit- 
•.13.) 



Ajid ca«Md n» maogr coovanti to be 
ba!lt ae the«6 are iMtnt in the m-b^ ' 



Id ALPHABET. 

Of ibe3e twenty-two letters, wJ, 17, /, O, U, are 
vwels; B, C, D, J*, G, L, JIf, A", F, Q, «, S, T, 
F', Z9 are c^n^iiav/t; / is constekred as a^yaioef ; and 
jB is a simpte sign^ having up iotmd. 



The Latin ktten Kky Xo?, Ty, have noplace in 
the Italian Alphabet. 

Instead of A;, either c or cA is used ; as, 

ShaafSa^ e caUndi $ccrh Without (kil b v the kal^da 

cttgnU^ Bujftdmdcco. (Boo^ Bnffkloiacco will be captain, 
g. 8.n.9.) , 

Didva mn cxfrte €d mn He aaid a Kyrie anf a 

Sibtcliit. (Bocc. g. & n. 3.) Saactm 

X is sometimes traoslaled into i or «# , and sometimes 
into ec ; as, 

^ccuxrdbd io pima eBimfU So dtat I mi^ fizst settle 

dia a iMx v&L (Booc Intr.] example to all of yoo. 

Un M^vcme hr A^^e, dU Tliey aeat a ydang man, 

«mte n^ JBtBiMU-e.mandS' Mhew of Aefxa, caHad Alex- 



rono. (Bocc g. 2. n. 3.) ander. 

Sfyra gH MU p^igi^ t sS- It [the wind] leaToa it [the 
fra r ecc^e (^m M Usda. doat] upon the high palaces 
(Bocc. g. 4. Proem.) and the lofty towen. 

The wofd ' Xeix0i' b wilUen with an «, — 90fM ; bat ike w«rd ' Xao- 
fhm' is written wtlbmiiar, — j:;^iii0,*tfa«8amBder': to dMocuiib 
itimma^iitfo/SBiiit* 

For T has been subsl^tuted t ; as, 

Figgis Hmgt4ei6ghijMr' I aoe lar from the ATexaian 

f^im^ (P«lr* 0. SaS.) and Stygian lakM. 



The English and German W ir, in translaUng proper 
names, b commonly <;hanged into u when it is a vowel^ 
and into a or y when a consonant ; as^ Niuion, * New- 
ton': Fd&iutfin, 'WaJlenstem'; G«fe#, * Wales*' 



PART I. 
ITALIAN PRONUNCIATION. 

CHAPTER I. 

SOUNDS OP THE VOWELS. 

A is sounded like a in the English word fkthtr ; as, 

(Pronoonoe) 

XrA, ah'-rahy altar; 

JUrnAj ahZ'-mah, sou]. 

E has two sounds, one opeUy the other close : 

E open is sounded like ai in the English word 
fjar; as, 

timely iBi'-mahj theme ; 

vtnoy VBi^-nahf oats. 

E close is sounded like aiin the English word 
jpAin; as, 

liga, M^'gah, alliance ; 

ffiE^o, tnax-laky apple. 

/ is sounded like ee in English ; or like t In the 
English word machine ; as, 

inno, eenl'fiOy hymn ; 

liie^ leef4(ttfy s&ife. 

O has two sounds, one open^ the other close : 

O open is sounded like o in the English word 
cord; as, 
6^ ftol'-to^ blow ; 

r6«o, r&sah, roee. 

9 



14 PRONUNCIATION. 

O close is souDded like o in the English word 
bone; as, 

JhUa, fot4ahy crowd; 

6ra, of-rakf hour. 

U is sounded like oo in the Elnglbh word ooze ; as, 

iJjo, o</-jo, use ; 

ttUo, tooif-U, all. 

When these vowels are at the end of words marked 
with an accent, they have a quick and sharp sound, 
which very seldom occurs in the English language ; as, 

hontkf (on-tail', jroodness ; 

<#fe, ohf-Jhfj in troth ; 

bah, hah'tee^y bailiff; 

fold, fah'Mj bonfire ; 

tnbHf trtt-hoofy tribe. 

[For Rokt how to Dotermina whon the ▼ownls JC, O, are Proaonacod fpra, 
or d»»e^ MO AprxHoiz, A.] 



CHAPTER II. 
PRONUNCIATION OF THE CONSONANTS. 

Italian consonants, except C, G, JR, iS, Zy are pro- 
nounced as in Elnglish. 

C followed by the vowels e, t, is pronounced like 
ch in the English words CHcrry, cnilly ; as, 

c^no, chm/ -nahj supper ; 

ci6o, chee-bo, fooo. 

G followed by the vowels c, i, is pronounced like j 
in English ; or like g in the English words Ge»i, 
Gincer; as, 

«^» *4«^-/o frost ; 

9kro jce'-n>, torn. 

jR in the beginning of words, or in the middle 



CONSONANTS. 15 

when it begins a syllable, is pronounced like r 
in the English words nuin, moBtne ; as, 

BvpCf xocf-pay^ rock ; 

fitaR«, maJjf'Toy, tea : 

But at the end of words, or when it ends a 
syllable, or when preceded by another conso- 
nant, or when doubled, it has a rolling sound to 
which there is nothing similar in the English lan- 
guage, and which can be acquired only by oral 
instruction ; as, 

pen, pmpf, for ; 

ivdo, avr-io, steep ; 

dtBOy cJr-tro, black ; 

dKKido, of'TU'doj horrid. 

in the beginning of words, or when preceded 
or fdlowed by another consonant, or when dou- 
bled, is pronounced sharp, like s in the English 
words saint, puke, discount, assembly; as, 

s&nto, Bohnf'to, saiit ; 

f'daa, jayl'-sah, mulberry ; 

SCO, ayf-skah, bait; 

2^880, layBf-BQ, boiled. 

Between two vowels, and in the last syllable 
of all substantive and adjective nouns that end 
in ise, uso, usa, it is pronounced j^r, or softWke 
z ; or like 5 in the English word rose ; as, 

viso, veef'Zo, vIm^ ; 

palise, pah-layf'Zay, manifest ; 

ofruso, ah'hof/ 'Zo, abuse ; 

cof^so, con-focf 'Zah, confounded. 

In the last syllable of all adjective nouns^ end- 
ing in 6$o, 6sa, it is pronounced Bharp ; as" 

virhuiso, t;eer-too,</-so, virtuons ; 

tnaesldBa, mah^'Stof -Boh, majestic. 

cannot be submitted 'to certain rules. It can 
only be said, that, in the beginning of words, or 
when single, it is pronounced j/Za^, ox soft like ds 
in the English word WinDsor ; as, 

zodkaco, dao-deef ,ah-ko, zodiac ; 

zanzara, dsaMt-dsoA'-roA, gnat. 



16 PRONUNCIATION. 

When preceded by a consonant, or when fol- 
lowed by two vowels, or when doubled, it is 
pronounced sharps like t$ in the English word 
oenejiTs; as, 

edlza^ kahP'tBohy stocking; 

frdzioy rrahf'Xaeeiahj grace; 

bdUzzot htylrkn/'tBah, beauty. 

In the last syllable of words ending in dnza, 
inza, &nza, it is pronounced something like z in 
the English word razor ; as, 

d&fiTMy daknf'Zahy dance ; 

dtnUnzoj Mmi-mc^'Zak, clemency; 

Idnza^ lor?'2ah, panther. 

[For a !iit of Words ▼VTing (torn tho geiMral Bolai, rotpectiic tlM Proooacia- 
tioQ ofZ, MO Arpxiioix, B.J 



CHAPTER m. 

OP / ANI> K 

is considered as a vowel in Italian. It is used 
instead of n, at the end of words, in the plural of 
some nouns ; * and it is sounded like ee in the 
English word ^se, each e being distinctly pro- 
nounced ; as. 



S;1«« 


ItimpUf taymf-feyey 


temples ; 
stodies. 


H has no sound. It is only used to denote the hard 
sound of the consonants c,^', before the vowels e, 


i; as, in 






CHUArrtt^ 
gniro, 


kee-iakr^'Tahj 
getf-rOf 


clerk ; 
guitar; 
Moor; 
dormouse: 



* We yory ofton ia books meet with words io which i it used instead oft, either 
at the beciDoinff or ia the middle of words ; as ia jiri lostoad of i^ * yesterday' : 
JwHUco instead of Mwridieo, ' lawAif : nAta instead of a^io, * Tezation* ; Idrdje 
in<*toad of l^4ie, * bookseller*; bot this use ia disi^proYed by correct writors. 



DOUBLE CONSONANTS. 17 

To proloog the sound of the vowels a^ e, t, o, u, 
in the inteijections, 

an! dhf ah! 

deu ! d(w / alas ! 

ih! £€! jh! 

\poH ! p6! pooh! 

i«h! 00/ uh! 

To distinguish the words,* 

I have, HO, o, j r o, 0, or; 

thou hast, Hiii, aft^,cc, ( ^. ) di, a^,ec, to the ; 

he has, ho, oA, r ^^™ Jo, a^ to ; 

they have, H<inno, aknf'Uo, j ( annOf aknf'UOf year. 

And in each case it is a sign, a mark of distinction 
rather than a letter. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DOUBLE CONSONANTS. 

Cc followed by the vowels c, t, is pronounced like 
tch in the English word waxcH ; as, 

accMOf aht'chtnfnf'toj accent; 

occi^, ahX-chee^'dee/), slaughter. 

Gg [followed by the vowels c, i, is pronounced 
like dg in the English word /onoe ; as, 
oGQ^tio, o^Aayt'-tOy object ; 

od')€€'deef, now-a-days. 



Ch followed by the vowels €, i, is pronounced 
like k in the English words, Kcp^, Keep; as, 

cHino, kc?-wo, inclinecl. 



* Some lue tb« ^«i>« aecaU ioatead of * to distinfiiish thet© woidi, writing <J, 
•I hare'; a« « thfu bait*; d,*he ha«» ; Amm, •they hare'; « i*»«"5^7 
that wo dittlnriiah tho wori i, ' it ia' } W * thoro^ n4, '"•iJJjfVl.J^ ft 
'and'} Za/tS*; iM,«of it'; fce.} which modo •^""■Jo ^..?I!rStlr 
•implikaa the ortbojrlphy of tho woid., and din»enao. with a uaeloa. lottor. 



18 PRONUNCIATION. 

Followed bv the vowels ifl, i«, io, tu, it is pro- 
nounced like fci in the English word Kindf as, 

CHfAcc, kjjahf-ww, key ; 

CHf^ k^ya/^ahy church; 

cBu^mo, , kj&'fnahj hetd of hair ; 

CHtiba, k,7oo'-<a^ hedge. 

ff A followed by the vowels e, i, is pronounced like 
g in the English words Gtty Giddy ; as^ 

QBimboy gaofrnf-boy crooked; ^ 

OBtro, g^-TOy dormouse. 

Followed by the vowels la, ic, to, iu, it b pro- 
nounced like ^t in the English word evide ; as, 

em&ndoy gjakpf-dah, acorn ; 

ouUrcty g^oy^-rah, quiver ; 

QBidt^. gyjw-ioy button; 

UgGah/axOy ^oifg'g^oot-saky baking-pan. 

Gl followed by the vowel t, and in all words in 
which i is followed by another vowel, is pro- 
nounced like U in the English word brtLLtar^ ; 
as, 

eLt, hj^^f the ; 

iehij mf-Xifeey he ; 

vdQiAOj v</'l,Yak, desire ; 

ckoiAOy eheef-i^Oj eye-brow: 

But in all words in which gli is followed by a 
consonant, it is pronounced like gl in the Eng- 
Ibh word GiAnm€r; as, 

neGughOey na^-g\ee^minf -Uttf, negligent; 
ttnajAcdnoy dm*gl€e-ifc<A<-no, Anglican. 

It has the same sound in the words, 

dnoLiy a&fi^-glee, Englishmen ; 

dfiGLta, aW-glee^ England. 

Crti followed by the vowels a, c, t, o, ti, is pro- 
nounced somethmg like ni in the English word 
mtNion; as, 

tMgdQmOi mah-gahf-nyjahy blemish ; 

ooN^Oo, ah'iiyytaf^'tiy lamb; 



SYLLABLES. J9 

inedoyitOf een-ifc(/-n,yee-(o, unknown; 

hUdGVOf &fe-««/-n,yo, need ; 

iesudof u-xk^yo</-do, naked. 

Sc followed by the vowels e, i, is pronounced 
like sh in the English word SHe//, smp ; as, 

sc^no, shayf'fwhy scene ; 

sciima, ^ 8hee-iti«e,aA, ape. 

i&A followed by the vowels e, i, b pronounced like 
«fcin the English words SKetcA, SKi//; as, 

scH^mo, sko^-no, mockery ; 

8CHi/a, ' Bkeef'fo^ ekiff. 

Followed by the vowels fa, ie, io, in, it is pro- 
nounced like sJc m the Engl'ish word SKy ; as, 

8CHi(i«o, sk^ahf'Vo, slave ; 

scm^no, 8k,y«^-na^ the back ; 

scnithpOf Bk,y<^'po, musket ; 

scBtiima, 8k,yoa-ma^ firotii* 



CHAPTER V: 

OP SYLLABLES. 

Cia', dS, ciuj are pronounced like cha, cho, choOy in 
the English words chahti, cHop, cH005e ; as, 

ciAlda^ chMM'da, wafer; 

Ci6i7^w, chomf-pOf clown ; 

cit rma^ choor'-wa^ crew. 

Crid, gi6y giuy are pronounced like ja, jo, ju, in the 
English words jat, jove, jury ; as, 

QiiUo, jahZ'-to, yellow ; 

oi6mo, jor' -no, day ; 

Gn^5to, ju'-«to, just. 

Sda^ scid, sciu, are pronounced like sha, sho^$hoo, 
in the English words sha/Z, sho^?, shoo/ ; as, 

sciXme, shah'-mc^, swarm ; 

scidtto, 8ho2'-to, loose ; 

sciug^, shoo-go^-fo, wiped. 



20 



PRONUNCIATION. 



Gud, guiy gut, are pronounced like gua^ gue, gui, 
in the English words /anevAge, lanoviit, hnomd ; as, 



QvAneioj 

eutrra, 

evida, 


gwhjr^-rahy 
gweo^-dahj 


Qud,gu£y qui, qu6, are pronounced like i 
quoj in the English words qjJAlityy iiirEstt 
qvotei as, 


iivotididno 


kwBhnf-to, 
kway'-^, 
kween'-to, 
, kwxy^ee-deejohf'no, 




CHAPTER VI. 



cheek, 

war; 

guide. 



how-much ; 
this; 
fifth; 
daily. 



DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS. 

Italian diphthongs are so pronounced as to give to 
each vowel its proper sound. They are generally di- 
vided into two classes, the long and the short. 

Long diphthongs are those, in which each vowel is 
as distinctly pronounced as if they formed each a sep- 
arate syllable ; as, 



de 

di 

do 

du 

ea 

ee 

H 

io 

iu . 

Od 
ut 



mXi, 

Aura, 

VEEfn^fnzo, 
/ei, 
^oio, 
Jt\jdoj 
v6i, 
coMey 



ahfyKy-ray, 
mah'jee, 

P9hfy0-l0y 

Bh'yOO-rahy 
6o'-ray,ah, 
vay,ay-mayn'-za^, 
Zay',ee, 
ay',o-io, 
/ay',oo-«fo, 
vc/jCe, 
kOyOr^'tcnf, 
ko'lo&yee. 



air; 

never ; 

a paul ; 

breeze ; 

the north-wind ; 

vehemence ; 

her; 

iBolus ; 

feud ; 

you; 

cohort I 

that>one. 



GENERAL RULES. 



31 



Short diphthongs are so proDounced, that, of the two 
vowels, one is so faintly heard as to seem blended 
with the other ; as, 



id 

ii 
i6 

yd 
u6 
vi 
v6 



ciMo, 
pi6va, 

qvAfUOf 
gvtffa, 
qvifUoy 



pee,&'Vah^ 
pee^o&'tnah, 

kweenf'tOf 
loo,c/-no, 



breath; 
heaven ; 
rain; 
feather $ 
how-much ; 
cage; 



thund 



er. 



Triphthongs are generally classed with the short 
diphthongs, and are pronounced, 



dio 

iSi 

udi 

vdta- 

udio 



gilOy 

mitu 
bv6i, 

gVilOy 

cu6io, 
laecivbi, 



ghhf,yo, 
mee,ay',ee, 
6oo,(/^e, 
firwah',yo, 

CWt/jVO, 

la/U-ckoOf&yee^ 



mne; 
oxen; 
wailing; 
leather ; 
siares. 



CHAPTER VU. 



GENERAL RULES ON THE ITALIAN PRONUN- 
CIATION. 

Italian words are pronounced exactly as they are 
written, there being no silent letter except h. 

Every vowel always preserves its proper sound, inde- 
pendently of the consonants which accompany it.* 

* There is, perhep*, no freater difficnity for foreigners in pronoaneinf Ital- 
iea, tbeo that of the ToweU JB, O, whose foand. either open or elo$t, often 
detennioee the sigaification of words ; as in «€<«, pesco, t6«M ; e6tto, /Sro, vito, 
which pronounced with E end O open, mean, * honey*, *a peadi*, * theme'; 
* neeli', * the bar', * Toid' : and pronounced with C and O c/o*f, signify, * apples', 
' 6shing*, * fear'} * with the', * a hole*, * tow*. 

[For a list of Words of Similar Orthography, bat of Different Signification* 
distingaiabed by the Different Sound of £, O, see Arpcin>iz, A. (SI)] 



*» PRONUNCIATION. 

When consooaDts are doubled^ each of them is sepa- 
rately pronounced ;* as, 

JraULJ.0, Jrah'Uni^Ao, brother ; 

oDixJBBo, akA'»doV'ho, ornament; 

-eaadre, mfr-n/-ngf, error ; 

oTTT^zzt, ahi-trwftf'Beej utensils. 

If a word ends with a consonant, and the following 
word begins with a vowel, the consonant of the former, 
in the pronuociation, is joined to the vowel or first syl- 
lable of the latter ; as, 

pen Armk-ey pt-K^-mdrt^ /Hiy-rah-ifw/-rfly, 

for love sake ; 

what anguish; 

^ofiD* ifti^, gran-D iii-rtto, grafcn-deen-vee'-ia, 

great invitation. 

When gli precedes a word beginning with a vowel, 
the vowel or first syllable of the latter is joined to gU, 
so as to form a single syllable ; as, 

oLi ontki, GLI o-ndri^ l,yo-fu/-ree, the honors ; 
fr^Li 6ccAt, be-QLi dc-cAt, hay-lfyot-kee, beautiful eyes. 

In all Italian words of more than one syllable, there 
is always one, upon which the voice, in pronouncing 
the word, is heard stronger than upon the others. This, 
which is generally efifected by raising the voice upon 
that syllable and letting it fall upon the rest, is com- 
monly called the ionic accent of the word. The sylla- 
ble upon which the tonic accent falls, is pronounced 
longer than the other syllables ; each of which is not to 

* The importance of the obsenraoce of this lule wiQ at once ba pereeiTed by 
the learner, when, in advancinf in the ttudy of the laacaage, he obaenret a ml 
number of words written with a doable cotwonant, whose aifnification woald be 
entirely altered |>y proooancini; them with a «i>ifle eoMooant; as fai cteme, 
Jidcce, ^r^sao, rdsM, «^aa«, $6n:t0, ^car% *tasael% ^ear*, *red% *mw% *«leep*: 
which pnmottoced with a sinf le consonant, cAas, Jl6co, fri—^ rds«, Wmc, sdKe, 
signify * dear', * hoarse', ' taken% *rose\ ^eveninf*, *Iam'. 

TFor a list of Words, whose Sifnificatioa is deMrmined by the PronoBcialioQ 
or double Cootooants, see ArrBSotx, C] 



OK'ddh^ 


wave: 


ddt^hkyl-ld, 


bird; 


kj-hdhfid, 


ebony; 


dh'Tnii'Btkth, 


amity. 



EXERCISE. 23 

occupy more than half the time employed in pronounc- 
ing the accented syllable ; as, 

d^da, 

ibano, 
amtsTA. 



EXERCISE ON THE PRONUNCIATION. 

CidrOf citron ; c^nertj ashes ; cHehre, celebrated ; cicatrice, 
scar ; ctctddia^ chit-chat ; cipdUet^ onion ; cidncict, story ; ciarldre, 
to prate ; ctdldoy wafer ; eUlo, heaven ; cUco, blind ; cioccoUtU, 
chocolate ; einkcOf stump ; ct6, this ; fanciuUoy child ; cvlmna, 
crew ; civffb, a tuft of hair ; ghUc, people; ginere, gender ; 
giro, turn ; g^dnte^ giant ; gindcckio, knee ; giardknoy garden ; 
gicunmAiy never ; gidUoy yellow ; gitimoy day ; gidgo, yoke ; gto- 
cdrtdoy merry ; guhancy youth ; gviignoy June ; givJkoy gay ; 
gmdicty judge ;^^iu^icdre, to judge ; rdme, copper ; rooina, ruin ; 
ofTTrfrf, horror; paridrcy to speak; yjfrro, iron; <Ho, border; 
merely reward ; hdrdoy bard ; arroveUdrty to be angry ; irrefbrey 
to ensnare ; crudiUy cruel ; fdrzoy force ; terrMrioy territory ; 
icaidrtOy tartarean; scHvitey health; sirvoy servant; 86rUy fate; 
tircy sire ; sdprcLy above ; cotHy so ; singotdrcy singular ; sdUy sun ; 
tUy upon ; suptrdrcy to surmount ; />a2^,'manifest ; corUse, cor- 
teous ; i;p^, expended ; risoy rendered ; rdscty rose ; spdsiiy 
spouse; mcr, laughter; mtMo, muse; vtrfudw), virtuous ; con- 
fuaoy confounded ; zdUcty clod ; zioy uncle ; zuppo, soup ; zerbinoy 
a spark ; ximdrroy night-gown ; p<kszoy a well ; carizzey caresses ; 
carrdtaay couch ; idzzdy cup ; ammcazdrey to kill ; pixsicoy pinch ; 
(irza, barley ; zizzdnto, tare ; rizzoi shade ; i^izto, vice ; zoUcoy 
rude ; leikziay joy ; nazt(^, nation ; timpjy temples ; stluijy stu- 
dies ; tshnpjy examples ; viajy vices ; ecckdjy slaughters ; attgurj, 
auguries ; hOy I have ; hdiy thou hast ; hoy he has ; hdnnoy they 
have; ah! ah! deh! alas! t%/ ih! poh! pooh! ti^/ uh! accidio, 
steel ; accintOy accent ; accidi6$0y sluggish ; Idccioy noose ; fde- 
eioy face ; lacciudoy snare ; ogg^Uoy object ; soggidmoy abode ; 



24 PRONUNCIATION. 

pi4iggia, rain; rdggioy ray; a^^tiuda, addition; dggi, to-day. 
eJUiOj quiet; ekino^ inclined; ektnMno^ cherubim; Mmieo, 
chymist; clUrmes, cochineal; ckimhxi, chimera; chicckessUij 
whosoever ; chidve, key ; ckUgtrOf cloister ; dkty<a, hedge ; dUa- 
mdrcy to call; ckUsOy church; Mddo, nail; chUrieoy clerk; 
ghimboj crooked ; ghermtre^ to gripe ; gkbro, dormouse ; gkinbkz' 
zoy whim ; ghenkUy gore, ghiMnda^ garland ; ghiAia, gravel ; 
ghidccto, ice ; lusinf^iiire, flattering ; prtgkUra, prayer ; ghidtioy 
greedy; <i;ggfttuzza, baking-pan ; /^git, children ; ,^|g2i, leaves; 
jngii^u^ to take ;famigliaf family ; mtigliej wife ; orgdgiio^ phde ; 
imbhiglio^ embarassment ; foglMoj leafy ; fy^uSU^ son ; ntgH- 
ghiza, negligence; negUUo^ neglected; AngH, Englishmen; 
imgUoj England ; angiicdnoj Anglican ; casipdgfia, the coonti7 ; 
me^gn&mimth magnanimous; ingegfUre^ engineer; ^pignert, to 
push ; magnyUo^ magnificent ; signtbre^ sir ; Ugno, wood ; ignu- 
do^ naked ; sc^^a^ descent ; scemArtf to diminish ; scittro^ scep- 
ter ; tdnwdy ape ; acismoj schism ; sciagura^ misfortune ; s ei i m e, 
swarm ; teiane^tOy hipped ; scitera, science ; coacUnzoy con- 
science ; scidceo^ fodish ; jcidrrey to loose ; sciugaidio, towel ; 
sciugdrty to wipe ; tchi&vo^ slave ; MckuaUArej to tear ; stkUna, 
the back; sckUUo, candid; s ek idppOf musket; sMuma^ froth; 
guadagn&rtj to gain ; guirrOf war ; gtuardart, to look ; guerine, 
to beat ; guhrioy squint-eyed ; guidot guide ; guidarej to guide ; 
gudttro, four ; qwditiiy quality ; qtMro^ picture ; qudUj which ; 
^u^aiOy this; gn^reui, oak ; gtM^ quiet; ^ubiciici, fifteen ; qukvi^ 
there ; quoHdUmOj daily. 



PART II. 
ITALIAN ANALOGY- 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 

(VcariahU) (hsKmabU) 

L' AbtIcolo, the Article; L' Avy^bio, ,ihe Mverb; 

iL N6m£, the ^oun ; la PRSPOsizidifX, the Prepoai- 

[turn; 

iL PROM6ifE, the Pronoun ; la Coifoiuifzi6NB, ihe Confunc- 

[Hon; 

It, V^EBO,' ihe Verb; l' iNTlBRiiezidins, ihe Merfec- 

[tians 

JL PARTicipio, ihe Participle : 



CHAPTER L 

ARTICLES. 

There are three articles in Italian ; i/, fo, /a, ' the', in 
the smgular ; i or K,* gli, le, ' the', in the plural number. 

B, lo, and i or ft, gli, are used with masculine, la and 
hy with feminine nouns. 

if, and i or li, are put before masculine nouns begin- 
ning with a consonant, except z, or s followed by ano^ 
ther consonant ; as, 

iL rraUUOf the brother ; i rigUu/dU, the children ; 

IL uarUo, the husband ; li rddri^ the fathers. 

• We meet wiUi K freqaentif in ihe ClftMlef, etpeeially in poetry } bat modern 
Mrritert genertlly nee t in prefiirence to it. 

3 



26 ANALOGY. 

Lo and Wt, are put belbre masculine nouns b^inning 
with Zy $ foUowtd by another consonant, or a vc^oel ; * 

as, 

LO sio, the uncle ; gli t/^bri^ the zephyrs 

LO Btr^yUof the noise ; ei.i nrrdm, the spars ; 

LO mnoUmte, the innocent man ; gli UMj the eyes. 



XlCXPTIOVf. 

The noun Dio, ' God', before its plartl, Det, * Gods*, tikes the 
artkle^^'; ss, 

GLI D6i, 'the Gods., 

After the preposition per, <for, by, er throsi^', whether the 
noons begins with z, #, or sny other cansonmtU, the srticle lo is more 
properly used ; ss, 

per LO amdrty for the love ; per lo brdccw^ by the arm. 

In the plnrsl, howsYer, if the noon begins with any consonant 
but s^ or s foUewed ky mmoiker com9onmU, we msy use indifiersntly » 
either ^^» or ^*; as, 

per GLI hdsehij throogh the woods ; 

per LI r^gui} through the regions. 



La and h^ are put before all feminine nouns begin- 
ning either with a consonant y or a vowel; as, 

LA aeina, the c^ueen ; lb eorfesle, the courtesies ; 

LA sordOo, the sister; lb mAdriy the mothers ; 

LA nobOth, the nobleness ; lb inune, the souls. 

The articles /o, /a, before a noun beginning with a 
vowel ; and gU, Uy before a noun beginning with t, e ; 

* Poela very often qm U balbro mmiim beciBniaf wiUi other eooaooato tb«B s, 
ot^ffOowd *v ^»otk$r eommmmUf sad tf belbro mamm Wfiaahif wiih tkon 
eonaooaati) u, 

Lo oiSrm m 9?mU4n^ § Pitrkritn^i The day wm elotinc, and the dusky 

(nut.l]if.&) air} 

S^gmitU w »r <w iL •wUmUdSy • am- Next followed the tplendid aod horn- 

•rM^PriSmiXU ; (Boee. Vie. 1.) orable PrieiTalte ) 

Ou uimd seMdmU^ okMU, § p4rU Tean off the boefba, beaCa dowa, 

/k^rif (D%ni.luC9,) '^ awl haili away } 

bat ia pioae thia nsafa ie, by all food writeia, eareAilly avoidod. 



ARTICLES. 



27 



generally drop o, a, i, e, and take an apostrophe instead 
of them;* as, 

(for i«te;J '"«'>««' (forlM'^^Ah^i-fi™' 

(foriliS;.!**-"" (for«%. !*«»'"'«• 

Sometimes the article il drops the i after a word 
ending with a vowel, and takes an apostrophe instead 
of it; as, 

e' I. viM, } and the coun- tucio 'i. cdlooy ) the blow 

(for E IL vi90% I tenance ; (for tudo il cdpo), \ issued. 



EXAMPLE t. 



L' vn fraUllo l* kliro ahbam- 
donata^e la sor^lla il fra- 
TELLO* 6 spesse viiUe la ddnna 
IL suo mae£to. (Boco. Intr.) 

E eks ma0gi6r coea e, li pJL- 

DEI e LX MAORI, I FIOLIUOLI di 

vint6re e di servire MckivdvanO' 
(Bocc. lotr.^ 

tiA RxiKA non H aapeva «axt- 
dre d'uiBre la hobiltJL e lx 
coRTXsf X <ie2 gi6cane re. (Nov. 
ant 16.) 

Aim isUUe gudri a levdrH il 
me, U quale lo trxipiro dei cft- 
ricdrUt § delle bisHe aveva disto. 
(Boee. g, 7. Proem.) 

Jtvivan lo iWNOcf ntx per fal- 
sa nupitidne aeeuaaUt, (Bocc. 
g.a.n.7.) 

E eon am6r si Idgna — Ch' ka 
n edldi oli sproh, »k duro il 
rreno. (Petr. s. 140.) 

Ludwrn GLi oconi su6i piu 
eke LA Stella, (Dant. Inf. 2.) 

.^ tempo DiOLI Df I /oW 6 
hugidrdi, (Dant Inf. 1.) 



One brother abandoned the 
other, and the sister the brotib- 
er, and oftentimes the wife her 
husband. 

And what is more, the fath- 
ers and the mothevs shnnned 
to visit and serve their chil- 
dren. 

The (^neen could not be sat- 
isfied with hearing of the no- 
bleness and the' courtesies of 
the young king. 

The kinff was not long inget- 
ting up, whom the noise ofthe 
beasts and of those who loaded 
them had already awakened. 

They had accused the in- 
nocent men on a false suspi- 
cion. 

And complains of love, that 
has so sharp spurs, and so hard 
a bit. 

Her eyes shone more than 
the star. 

In the time of fabled and 
false deities. 



• Le drofM the e aooMtimeff, aod takes 
poetry, even before worde begioninf with 
asonfrm l'ajmm jrfA ntfre. (D.Iof. 6.) 
GA«to i,>*nii» rieU9€, (Tan. Ger. 1.) 



an apostrophe instead of it, ebleOy in 
any o.ber Yowel } as, 

They are amidst blacker seoU. 

I sing the pioos arms. 



28 



ANALOGY. 



Sempre Umendo psh lo brIc- 
CIO LO mjermo, CBocc.g.2.n.8.) 

Pkr lo 9UO AMORB oiumqut 
a %6i Hpiega, (IHiit. Porg. 1.) 

Ldteimu anddre per I4 iu6* 
S€UeK£oiii. (Dant. Parg. 1.) 

L* Ahim A tua ^ da vUtdie oft- 
<a, — LA ^KoZ tiKJlfe JiaJU L* uoMO 
iMgMbra^ — SUthl d* <mraU tm- 
presa lo rivUve, (Dant. Inf. 3.) 

/ pmuUr son taetu x* l yffo 
tm $6U^^' L d^rfoco, (Petr.) 

Z^firo tAma^ b'l M temj^ 

ddiee faimgUa. (Petr. ■. 269.) 

DdaiA 6c€ki vdstri nscfo *l 
coLPO moridU, (Petr.) 

Del hel paese Id dovm 'l si 
Mc^na. (Dant Inf. 33.) 



Holding alwajs the aick man 
by the arm. 

Then lor hn love eondeeeend 
to oar desires. 

Let ns pass throng thy ee- 
▼en regions. 

Thy soul is by rile fear as- 
sailed, whieh oft, — So overcast 
a man, that he recoils — ^From 
noble undertaking. 

The thoughts are arrows, 
and the eoantenance a sun, — 
and the desire fire. 

Zephyr retnms, bringing 
back flowers, and herbs, his 
sweet family. 

From yoor eyes the mortal 
blow issued. 

Of that fair land where «i is 
spoken. 



When the articles il, lo, la ; % or Zi , gJiy le, are im- 
mediately preceded by the prepositions rft, *of'; a, 
* to'; duj * from or by' ; in or ne, ^ in' ; con, * with' ; 
per, * for, by, or through' ; su, * upon' ; fra or ira^ 
' amongst' ; in order to aroid the harshness of sound 
produced by two monosyllables coming together, they 
are united to them, so as to form a single word ; as, 

a i, Ai, to the; dagH, dAoli, from ih- by the ; 

#tt loy Bt^LLA, upon the ; irale, tkAlle^ amongst the. 



Vnian of the Prtpontions di, a, da, in or he, con, 
PER, su, FRA or TRA, With the ArticU 

iL, the; 
diU, 

tn or neiZ, 
per 0, 



DEL, 


of the ; 


AL, 


to the; 


Dkl^ 


from or by the ; 


HBL, 


in the; 


COL, 


with the; 


PEL, 


for, by or through the ; 





ARTICLES. 


99 


trail, 


SUL, 


upon the; 


PRAI^ 


amongst the. 


f 


1 or lAf the^ 




a i or di lij 


dAi or DthLlf* 


of the; 


a t or a /i, 


Ai or Ai,Li, 


to the; 


dai or da H, 


dAi or t>A£lIj 


from or by the ; 


morneijOT in or fu 


ilif vti oridujLi, 


in the; 


coH % or con It* 
peri or per h, 


c6i or c6lu, 


with the: 


F161 or pti.Li, 


for, by or thro.' the; 


su i or suU^ 


Bt^I or 8t^I*LI, 


upon the ; 


Jra i arfra K, 
traicfrtraUy 


prAi or frIlli, 
trAi or trIlli, \ 

uOy the; 


amongst the. 


dilo, 


D^LLO,* 


of the; 


afo, , 


ALLOy 


to the; 


dalo, 


dAllo, 


from or by the ; 


inownelo, 


JEnfcliLO, 


in the; 


canioj 


C6I.I.0, 


with the; 


perlo. 


rihisOf 


fi)r, by or thro.' the; 


sulo, 


SI^LLO, 


upon the; 


Jralo, 
traio, 


prAli.0, 7 
trAllo, $ 

GLI9 the; 


amongst thee. 


ig: 


DioLI* 


of the; 


Aeu, 


to the ; 


** 


DAei.1, ' 


from or by the ; 


moriie^ 


ntoLiy 


in the; 


conglij 


c6eLi, 


with the; 


perftU, 


FtOLI, 
Bt^OLI, 


for, by or thro.' the; 
upon the; 


irmgk. 


frAqli, } 
trAoli, ^ 


amongst the. 



* Po«Ui very ofUn i 
Wi mM nrntcdtt U ei^l H fiUa ndb- 

M«<— OU, tvfragrHsnta dal fwrbr di* 

v^lL— Jfm JkgjfUM DA I v6ggL e oa 

LzvklL (Petr.cl4.) 

Da l* ^ta, e da li JUr idntro « 

fan »4n^^P6Hij eimtcin tariaM coUr 

vbite. (DMt.P«if.7) 

« M PHre, al WMo. a lo £Mnte 
Umtl^—CvAciA " fUHa* t4m U Pa- 
rUim, (DiAt. Par. 97.) 



I tiMm fepuate } m, 

Nor erer did the akj eonoeel to thick 
a eloody that, orertaken by the ftary 
of the wfaiid,it would not floe iWm the 
hilli, and the vaUeye } 

By the herbe and flowers, plaeed 
in that reoeee, in color all wonM be 



} 
* OI017 to the Father, to the Son.— 



And to the Holy Spirit,' ranff 
Thro«ffao«ft all Paradise* 

8» 



le oon*— 
' alotid— 



90 



di lOf 

Ml or tie Zo, 

fraUiy 
tra loy 



ANALOGY. 


' 


LA, the; 


' 


D^LA, 


of the; 


XlJLA, 


to the; 


DibXA, 


frwn or by the ; 


IftLLA, 


in the; 


COLLA, 


with the; 


FiLLA, 


for, by or throogrh the ; 


81}I.I.A, 


upon the; 




amoDgst the. 



LE, the; 



diU, 

ale, 

dale, 

in or nele, 

eonUy 

sule, 
fiaU, 
traky 



oiLLE, 


of the; 


A1.IX, 


to the; 


Dil.LE9 


from or by the ; 


vtLLK, 


in the; 




with the; 


Piux, 


for, by, nr throofh the ; 


SI^LLK, 


upon the; 


P&1U.E,? 


tmongstthe. 



DH^ at, daij fUi, c6i, pti, tut, frai or trot, followed 
by a noun beginning with a coosonant, drop the i, and 
tike an apostrophe instead of it ; as, 



nt' TrMij o€ the meadows ; 
dA' varMij by the relations ; 
c6'a4g8^ with the rays; 

8i5' lAbrif upon the books ; 



A' c<Mi, to singing ; 
ifi' eiarcftm, in the gardens ; 
f£' Mdn^ through the moon- 

[tains; 
TiU' Ftdri, amongst the flow- 

[ers. 



Pel, p6llOf piUay and ptllij pigli, piUe, in elegant 
style are better written per lo, per la, and ptr K^ per 
gli, per le ; as, 

FsaLoDuco, bymygmde; mL-LKpidh, through pity; 
pn. OLi deehi, through the fck le JrrkuH, on account of 

[eyes ; [the leares. 



ARTICLES. 



31 



And scrupulous writers before noun& beginning with z 
or 5 foUowed by another consonant, use c<5Bo, traUo, 
cMoy traUa, and cdgli, trdgli, c6lle, trade, and sugli, 
alwa3rs separated ;* as, 

coif LA z&zzera, with the 
[head of hair ; 

coiv OLi Bcitkcki, with the 
[ignorant ; 

su oLi sctu/t, npon the 
[shield. 



co:r i*o ^vUnddre, with the 
[splendor ; 



su I.O su6Uo, 



T&A L« ST^tfe, 



upon the 
[enamel ; 
among the 
[stars; 



EXAM1»LX8. 



CmiM trf hiicidi sereni sono 
le sUUb omamento del ciilOf e 
x^LLA frtmODera i fiori d£' 
frIti, e Die* cdUi i rioesiUi ar- 
huseilU ; eon d£' iMudevcli co- 
slwmi, B d£' -Bogionamenti belli 
f&no i leggiddri moiti. (Boco. 
g. 6. n. f ) 

E divenuti piu lietif su si U- 
varomo, ed k* stidnt, ed k* cahti 
ed a' 3dlli da capo si dierono. 
(Bocc. g. 3. Proem.) 

Ok, 9venturdia! ehe si dird 
DA* TMoi fratelU, dV PARiifTi, 
oi* Tictnt, qudndo si saprd, ehe 
tuniqui tromta ? (Bocc. g. 8. 
n. 7.) 

Qudndo re' oiARDf5i entrdte, 
dioUsa la dilie d ta mdnoy cogiiite 
U rdssy e laseidte le spine stare. 
(Bocc. g. 5. n. 10.) 

Omhr6se sehe, 6ve pereSte U 
sole, — Che vi fa c6' §u6i rAogi 
dUe e superbe. (Petr. 8. 129.) 



As in the bright clear sky, 
the stars are the ornament of 
the heavens, and in the spring 
the flowers are of the meadows, 
and the verdant shrubs of the 



hills, 80 witty sayings are the or- 
naments of pruseworthy man- 



ttty saym 

of pruse 

ners and fine conyersations. 

And having become more 
gi^, Uiey arose and gave them- 
selves once more to playing, 
singing, and dancing. 

Oh, unfortunate woman ! what 
will be said by thy brothers, by 
thy relations, Dv thy neighbors, 
when it shall be known, that 
thou hast been found here ? 

When you enter into the 
gardens, extending your deli- 
cate hand, you cull the roses, 
and leave the thorns. 

Shady woods, where strikes 
the sun, which renders you 
with its rays so lofty and noble. 



And in pMtiy ev«n before noani beginninf with any other letter ; at, 

CON ];a c6im ogAiia. ReboM the beatt with iharpenod 



Ba» UJUre, 
(BuU Inf. 17.) 

ViM SeUn—CoH ou Otti sHdieki 
OricU Hv*mte. (Petr. Tr. Pam.) 



Uil; 

I law Solon with the other liz of 
whom Greece boasti. 



33 



ANALOGY. 



B qmndi passdi in terra 
i^Atniaxi^ ddve ^U udmini e U 
fimmine vatmo tn xdeeeU su v£* 
■611TI. (Boec. g, 6. n. 10.) 

Ld»cio lo /eUf e vo pf nSlei 
p6mi — Promissi a me psr lo 
verdu niscx, (Dant Inf. 16.) 



Om aveelii rip69ti^D±* Bet 
vestigi epdreif — Jhte6r trI' fi6- 
Rie Verba. (Petr. c.26.) 



Pbe 6 LI 6ccHi mi jmjjo den- 
tro ia minU. (Rim. ant. p. 49.) 

Era *lfi6moek' al Sol si soh 
loraro — rsR la pixtI del ruo 
FaUore i red, (Petr. ■. 3.) 

Cfiimsc nel b&ace per lx fb6n- 
Di omhrdM. (Bocc. Tes. 5. 33.) 

CO* LO 8PLBin>6R eke sua beU 
Una adduce, (Inoer. c. 4.) 

AVm errar coh gli 8ci6ccbi. 
(Petr. c. 47.) 



And then I passed to the Und 
of Abmzzi, where men and wo- 
men ffo in wooden ehoes np 
over tne mountains. 

I leave the gall, in quest of 
the sweet fimit, which has been 
promised to me bj mj iaithfal 
guide. 

Thus would that thou, (O 
heart,) hadst still preserred 
some of the beautiful footsteps, 
here aad there, arooofst tne 
flowers and the grass. 

It passed through my eyes 
to my mind. 

It was the day when the rays 
of the sun grew pale, through 
pity for his Maker. 

He arrived in the wood , shady 
on account of its leaves. 

With the splendor which 
brings her beauty. 

Do not wonder in error with 
the ignorant. 



The Endisb indefinite article a, an^ is expressed in 
Italian by the indefinite pronouns uriy una, una, accord- 
ing to the rules already given with regard to the articles 
Uy lo, la, * the' ; as, 

UN uercalAnU, a merchant; ^no sptn^iio, a breathing-hole ; 
t5^FA Ffdmmo, a flame ; ^va. ziba, a goat. 

Uno, like lo, before a noun beginning with a vowel, 
drops the o, but takes no apostrophe mstead of it ; una 
drops the a and takes an apostrophe ; as, 

UHurfwo, a man; vn*(mbra, a shade; 

VHAim^, a love; UN'6ro, an hour. 

When a noun is taken in a partitive sense, the Eng- 
lish adjectives some and any are expressed by the 



ARTICLES. 



33 



words dely diUo, diUa, in the singular ; and dii, digli, 
diOe, or alcuni, alcuney in the plural ; as, 



DEI. rAmty some bread ; 

ALc^NK cote, some things ; 
DtGLi STromSntiy some instni- 
[ments ; 



dell' 6lio, some oil ; 
ALci^m udmniy some men ; 
D^LLE ardnee, some oranges. 



EXAMPLES. 



In Parigifu vv grmn her- 

CATAKTS. (BOCC. g. 1. U. 2.) 

ira Arrigiiccio vv riero u6- 
Mo, e VN v6rU. (Bocc. g. 7. 
11.6.) 

N&Ut qual groUa davaalquan- 
to IwKU UHO spirAolio foito nd 
monU. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

Uif ToUref UN am6re ci ha 
simpre tenuH legaH e cott^uiUi, 
ed vn uedesimo ip6rno ei diede 
al mcndo; vidceiavi, poiche U5* 
6ba ci tdgUe, eke stmUemenie 
tsA ued&ma FiimiA ci con- 
sumi. (Bocc. Filoc.) 

OU diidi del piliiE e del cd- 
do. (Flrenz.) 

Umo de famigUdri di Mes- 
ser JVert aeeese il fu6co, e p6' 
sta la padella s&pra il trejypii, 
e dell' olio mcssovif comincid 
ad atpettdre, the le gi&tani gli 
rittdsgero del resee. (Bocc. g. 
To. n. 6.) 

Di niima e6ta servieno, chedi 
p6rg§re ALCt^HE cose dagl' in- 
firmi addamanddte. (B. fntr.) 



There was in Paris a great 
merchant. 

Arriguccio was a haughty 
and strong man. 

In which grotto came some 
light throuffh a breathing-hole, 
opened in Uie moan tain. 

One willy one love, has al- 
ways kept us bound and united, 
and the same day gave us to 
the world ; may it please you, 
then, since the same hour takes 
us from it, that one same flame 
should consume us. 

I gave him some bread and 
some cheese. 

One of the domestics of Mes- 
ser Neri kindled the fire, and 
having put the frying-pan up- 
on a trevet, and havmg put 
some oil in it, he began to wait 
that the young women should 
throw into it some fish. 

They ^rendered no service, 
but to reach some things called 
for by the sick. 



34 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE I. 

[Let Um le«raer bare pat tka rigbt Aitfeto tMOfdinf to thm ceaiw marked, 
•gaiast tlM Italian doom, and tke aamber of tbe saae, as iadieated hj tfea 
EagliiA worai.] 

The sacred Tiber, the Egyptian obelisks, the temples 
sdcro 7^Mre,m., Egtxiam oMiseki^^ tempjtm. 

Still dark with the vapor of the sacrifices, the Flavian 
dne6raf6seki »^p6r«pn. aacnft^^m., FldmQ 

Amphitheatre which lies like a mangled giant,* the 
atyUeatro^jm.* U quale giace tdmt shrmnatt^ gigomU^.y 

colomns which describe the customs of the soidienr, 
eol6muj[. dU dMcrvBtmo eo stu mdntef. mSkxUf,, 

the triumphal arches, the space of the Forum, the 

mansolemns, the majestic rains of the circuses and of the 
moMSolH^^ maestdM* rmiUy^f. ctreW,m. e 

baths, and all the remains of the Roman sj^endor, 
tirmef.f e tuiti avanxi,m. Rom&M? splmiidHxM,*f., 

M the mind I withf I deligfatfiil wonder. 
em^umo dii»m#,m. | H I Mave maratigUM. 

Nero to iq)pease them, ordered that the &«ce8 of tke 
Jfer6ne per appaddr^ /t,t bandi eke fdad^m, 

emperor 1 should be borne I with the laurel. The 
imperatort^m, \ H portdssero | aUoro^. 

senators complained I against I the insolence of the 
senaldri^. si dolevano \ di \ huoUnzaf. 

plebeians, and the plebeians I against | the avarice of the 
pUbei^.t e pl€bSi,m. \ di \ avarixtA^f. 

magistrates and of the great 
fHagi$trdH,m. e grdndijoa. 

* In tbn and the followinf ExereiMs, tho nurabera affixed to tbe Italian word* 
are ioteoded to denote the order in which they are to be placed ; ae, * JTUvie* «i|fl- 
t0A<ro>%— «i|^dtro FUHrio. 

t When an Eoflish word or phraee cannot be rendered llterallv, bat bj an 
eqaiTaleot Italian word or phrase, they are both ineloded between braeketa f 1 ; 
at, ♦with'conf di,'or. 

X The eifn ^^ if need to denote, that the worda nnder which it !• foood, are to 
be joined In one } ae, per ttfpatiAr^iiy-per afpatiML 



ARTICLES. 35 

He proposed that (the) honors [should be renderedl to Galba, 

and that the ' memory of Piso also I should be celebrated.! 
e eke ^ mtm&ria^^i. di^ Pisomfl ancht^ \ si eelehrdtse^. \ 

He departed I to I carnr I to I the temple of (the) 

— Parti I per \ pwtare \ in I t6mpio,m, 

Cencord the standards of the empire. (The) princes 
C&me&rdia/^. insegnSff. impero,m, prineipiftn, 

do more I with their I reputation and I with their I 
fitmo piu I eon la | reputazidne e \ eon U \ 

jadvice, than I with Uieir I hand and I with their I arms. 
ccnngliOf eke \ eon la \ mdno e \ eon U \ drmt. 

Not pardoning, hs in (Uie) other arnfies, the first faidt^l 
Jfon perdondn&feome in dltri eserdtitULf prima fdltafij 

nor the second, but I he who I left the standard 
ne seeondaft.f ma \ chi \ laseidva ins^gnUff. 

was immediately beheaded. It appeared to him that he heard 
era subitavndnte deeapitdto. — pdrve* QU} senttrtfi 

I about I (the) mid-night people descend in the house. 
I tuM^ I * mezzandtteff. persdne^^ scendere^ « edaa/f. 

Having entered into the tower, she be^^an to weep. For 
• Enhrdta torref.f — eommcio a pidngere. Per 

the pain he felt, he be^[an to roar, so that he seem- 
aoldr^m, — senttto, — eomtncid a mugghidr, ehe — par6va 

ed a lion. Fleeing through the woods. 
lednCfisL Fuggendo per bdsehijm. 

He was seen by a companion I of his. I Having 

— Fu vedtUo da eompagnofm. \ sibo,* \ — >- 

caused him to come Itol a gossip tofhers.! He save 
FaUo^ lo ventre \da\ eomdre,H. \ sua.^ \ — mede^ 

to him a purse with some florins I in it i 

g/»* ^ bdrsa*f. eon^ ' fiofinifm. \ dentrtfi, \ 

Having found in the g^arden some capons, some wine, and 
* Travdti ortOytn. eapp6ni,m.y vino^m.,- f 

some ^fiTS^y ^^ supped (entirely at his ease.i 
icm|f., — eend \ a suo beW agio] 

" Bm6k words, m, though neeoMary in EDglkh, aro not to bo ozproMod in 
Italian, are in tliis part markod with a daafa | and •neh worda aa aro nooootanr 
in Italian, bat aro not ozpreiaod in Bngiith, are in thia laafoaffo iotrodoood, 
'in iuliea, and ineloded between parenthoaCs ; aa, *Be propoMd that (t*a) honora 
ahoold bo roDdorod*,~iVa|»da« cm H rmiitfff gli endH. 



36 ANALOGY. 



CHAPTER 11. 



SUBSTANTIVE NOUNS, 

All Italian substantives end with one of the vowels 
o, o, e, i, u..* It is these vowels that show their gender 
and number. 



GENDER. 

Nouns ending m o are of the masculine gender ; as, 

Ubro^ book ; spicehioy nurror ; 

oriudlOf watch; scritUHo, scmtoire. 

XXCEPTION8. 

Proper names of women ; as, 
Sdfo, Sappho; E'ro, Hero; C^^wfo, Calisto ; 

ErdiOf Erato ; ^troppj Atropos ; AUtto, Alecto : 

Some contracted noons, generally used in poetry ; as, 

t«maro,(for> .^.^. teMiudo,(fot\..^^^ Otrtdgo, (fori Car- 
immdgiXe) i''''^' testudiiu) J^rtoise; Cart^) Jthage; 

And the noons, 

manOj hand ; ceo, echo, 

are feminine. 

Some nouns of animate beings ending in o, in the feminine 
change o into a; as, 

cMmho^ pigeon ; cokhnbn^ hen-dove ; 

cawttto, horse; cavAUAy mare; 

gtfctto, cat; gdtUy she-cat 



!?Mr..S!?!!Jr *' *"•» "• **»• •■'y exc«ptk»i to tbif rule. But, tbes. w« oraet 
mluttan wHh muy mmum, whiefa, in ooapomtioD, are nsde to end witii a 
f2!5S?LV»"^ ^*V*" prtncipla., irbieli will be oxplaiiMd In Pmt /F. wheo 



SUBSTANTIVES. ' 37 

Nouns ending in a are of the feminine gender ; 93, 

edsAf house ; strdiA, street ; 

port A f door i cMis Ay church. 

SXCKPTIOMf. 

Proper namM of men ; ah, 

EtU4it JEa^as ; Andrea, Andrew , ToMa, Toby ; 
^tcilOyAUiU; Battuto, Baptist ; Liica, Luke,: 

Nonns ofproieaiions exercised by men*; as, 

mriistOy artist ; seriba, scrivener ; Mlekimista, alohymtai; 

l^g^sta, lawyer ; poeta, poet ; tbanista^ cabinet-maker : 

Nonnsof dignity ; as, 

papa, pope; dioca, dako ; g&rdrca, bigh-priest ;' 

ptiridrea, patriarch ; mondrea, monarch ; dtmdrea, demarch : 

Noons derived from the Greek, ending in ma, mma ; as, 

tUma, climate ; diadema, diadem ; poima, poem ; 

prismtf, prism : enimma, enigma; pro^dmnui, programma : 

Noons' formed of a verb and a noun ; as, 

pascHbUlala, logger- aoMtinflzxa, hypocrite: guardardba, the ma** 
[head ; [ter of the wardrobe ; 

And the following, 

g^d, sofa ; $6rra, ; $eil6ma, long discourse ; 

seipa, sot ; cdnapa, hemp; baccald, cod-fish : 

are masculine. 



The noons, 
idioU, idiot; tremiia, hermit; aii4u:ore/«, anchorite ; 

ip6erUa, hypocrite; ap5stala, apoftote; patri6tta, pAinoi; 
dtieida, deicide : pmrricida, parricide ; rtgUtda, regtoide ; 

JWiltet^t fratricide ; Qwucida, homicide ; iii4i(r»et4<a, matricide ; 
mKimgomUtm, antagonist; rcgalista, royalist ; -mofwrpoluta, monopo- 

Hirt; 
IMjdi. Deist ; oteiMta, atheist; CalmmiMta, Calfinist; 

CAo. 

ar* of Um oonmon finder. ' 

4 



38 ANALOGY. 

Some DamM of amiiMile beings ending in a, in the miifnilini 
cittnge a into o ; w, 



** M^Ay she-wolf; 
^▲9 she-bear; 



cATH>,8tag; 
Aupo, w(Af; 
iktOy bear. 



The nouns, Umoj fnamik^ drdmmti, podedhy in the significa- 
tion of * theme', ' planet', * drama', 'civil magbtrate', are mas- 
coline; and in the signification of 'fear*, 'cope', 'drachm'^ 
'poweP,.are feminine. 



BXAMPLBS. 



OtdedUo Ju n. lisao ^ekiU 
9cri99€, (D&nt. Inf. 5.) 

Ofrm eke dMo dire di qmelU 
eke isctmo dIllo scrittoio fra 
laghUe c6Um perma nelt oric- 
€hw. (Casa Galat 86.) 

di akiiaiihi di quS»t9 comUUo 
eon AtLMkTA MAHO pervSmurpol 
lido. (Ghiid. 60.) 

TdU eke di Lmtdmo — Jf6IU 
9aUi ico TElfTA riouo nd tn. 
(Docc. Tes. 11, SO.) 

Viro dird fdroe, e pmrHt mon- 
tigno^Ck' i Matt' <ranitt dOia 
paopRiA iMioo (Petr. o. 4. 8.) 

. SUc6me qmdndo il Colombo 
ti pdme — Prdsao al eompdgno. 
(Dant Par. 25.) 

* <Aiun« MUrim a un? dquiU 
i Vmvir vtnio ura colomba. 
(Booc. g. n.) . 

/» cAsA Tu* s6i orgogitdto e 
hueompcrMUe ; m ed»e aUrui, 
4miU e di$iUsoo, <Vsteh. Sen. 
ben. 3. S8.) 

Mise dieoenzidme viLLA OHii- 

•A, Umindo oSUa edntro ml Pi' 

pa con eirti cordimdli ed <i/frt 

^^irid. (GioT. ViU. L 4, 21, 1.) 



The book and he who wrote 
it were [to ob] Galeotto. 

Now what iQUBt I saj of 
thoee, who come oat of their 
study amoDff the people witik 
a pen over tBe ear. 

The inhabitaotB of this eaatle 
witharmi in their hands reach- 
ed the shore. 

Snob that at a distance 
sonnded in the vaUejs like «. 



Perhaps I shall tell the truth 
and it will appear false, that I 
felt mjself drawn away from 
mj own body. 

As when the dove alights 
by his mate. 

No glory comes to an eagfe 
from having conquered a dove. 

In thy house thou art prood 
and insupportable : and at the 
houses of others, humble sad 



He put dissension in the 
ehurch, plotting against the 
Pope with certain cardinals 
and other priests. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



lxgIbta, cSb fdsse fino al aiuf 
t^mpo. (Giov. VUi. 8. 65, ».) 

M mio signdre niUa Ubermlitd 
• Qv^L gran morarca non eide. 
(Red. Vip. 1. 7.) 

E easijignrdmdo 7 ParatUsOf- 
Ccmviin saildr lo sagrAto fox- 
ma, — Cdme eki trudza sio cmm- 
»dn reciso. (Dant. Par. 23.) 

Rahaldo, lAifTiNpfz^, gabba- 
dHf—Cht a quel d'aiiri pan dn- 
fM e €&ti set, (Lipp. M. 7. 68.) 

Orjbdgci 6ra auisTO n^o bci- 
l6ha, ehetuttvivi cdmineidto di 
cdid Id. (Salv. Spin. 1. 3.) 

PmMty le quMi lo Spirito 
Sdnta s^a la lingua delP. u6mo 

£d ^NA LtiPA, dU di tuiU 
krame — Semkravaeiarca, (Dant 
Ittf. 1.) 

Ed Uatf 9iano a lei, tcmr 4* 
iammneckiafiUa vn Lvrogrdn- 
de e UrrikiU. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 7.) 

PerocM si mt ed^oa IL Lt^v- 
«oTiMA. (Dant. Inf. 4.) 

DmvoiLVtK tAma aeeiocM tu 
Hsdipe. (Dant. Inf. 2.) 

Lo BSL piAH^TA, ckeodanuir 
cst^f6rtm — Faciva ttUto rider 
VOrienU. (Dant Purg. 1.) 

JlUdA^i Idsdo tVA FlAN^TA 

di tendddo vermigUo, (Bocc. 
Toatam.) 

DaiMMA 6 itn componimenio 
p6etko rmpprssenta^VQ. (Crd- 
laa.) 

Smz* issa non fermai piao di 
dbIhma. (Dant Pnrg. 31.) 

i^Mndo verrd' lor m iMf CA po- 
niiTA. (Dant Inf. 6.) 



He was the greatest and the^ 
wisest lawyer, that had been 
seen until bis time. 

My master in li'berali^ does 
not yield to that monarch. 



And with such figuring of Pa- 
radise,— The sacred strain most 
leap, like one that meets-A sad- 
den interruption to his road. 

Ribald, hypocrite, mocker of 
God, who 'add five to that of 
others, and take out six. 

19ow finish that long discourse 
that thou hadst begun about 
that man. 

Words, which the Holy 
Ghost put into the mouth of the 
ignorant man. 

And a she-wolf who seemed 
to be laden with wants of every 
kind. 

When le ! near her, came 
out from a thick hedge a large 
and terrible wcdf. 

For my wide theme so urges 
me on. 

That thou mayestbe reliered 
from this fear. 

The beautiful planet that in- 
vites to loVe, made ^1 ibiB 
orient laugh. 

t bequeath, moreover, a oope 
of crimson silk stuff. 



The drama is a poetieal 
coiiipomtion to be represented. 

Without which, I did not 
rest a moment 

When shall come the Fewer 
adverse to them. 



40 ANALOGY. 

Cdmt piu tdsto poti, n*and5 a As sooo as be eoold; he went 

eoluifChein luogo DZL vo^msTk to him who filled Ibe place of 
9*ira. (Bocc. g, 3. n. 1 .) * PodeetA. 



NouDS ending in e are some of them masculine, and 
some feminine ; as^ 

c6rmmy m., poem ; fldc^f f^ reaping book ; 

c6Ue^ ol, bill ; siipiE.^ f., hedge ; 

fiirm, iiLy flower ; rUv^^ f^ snow. 

Those ending in gt^ le, r/te, re, «e, nie^ are generallj 
masculine ; as, 

rtos, king; i^lk, path; 

Jmu^ river; eu6KEy heart; 

om^sE, utensil; moNTE, mountain. 



KXCIfT lO VI. 

The noana, 

Ugfi law, faidnge, phalanx; £arm/«, laijnx; 

iiute/e, dispoaitiofi ; pr6U^ offiipring ; 9e/<e, akin ; 

H/«| bile; vdZ/e» yallej; tpsrboU, hyperbole; 

dmia, arm; /dma, banger; sphfu, hope; 

«eure, hatchet; pdZvere, dust; vepre, brier; 

<6iT«, tower; /c6Ar«, fever; mddre, mother; 

froMtf phrase ; buiose^ dungeons; ghtU^ people ; 

mhdii mind ; UnU^ lens ; patenU, patent ; 

corrente, current ; sorgetUe^ source ; scminUy seed ; 
are feminine. 



Those ending in be^ ce, J7e, te, ve, te, tne, one, are, 
generally, feminine ; as, 

jif^BE, commou people ; cteafHcB, scar ; 

n^PB, hedge; drrE, ait; 

eibuivE, key; «tfriR, series; 

tmiii4gi!fE, image; tncu^ftrrE, anvil ; 

ragibvE, reason; nasi6KE, nation. 



SUBSTAimVtt. 41*^ 



BXCSFTIOVf. 



TI»n<mnM, 



6Ue, elk; pSset, fith; mamtUs, b«llowi; 

t6ii€4^ eode; edlie^ ehftlice; vintUe^ ▼ortaz ; 

f^ pepper; nresepe, stable; ritipt, recipe; 

waU, bard; ld/t«, milk; tiiiuit, limit; 

a brief; cmcidve, eonclare ; oreAt/rave, architraTe; 

hair; eardine^ hinge; onifisie, confine; 



disordnUy^aoTderigluiine, ffloe; pe&iu^ comb; 

hm^toMM, stick; nuUt6tUy brick; jNirQfitee, comparison; 

ro linsevliae. 



Tbelionns, . 

^bere, air; edbtcre,* prison; c^iMre^* aaiies} 

. drfcwie, tree; /^^Isfore, thunderbolt ; ^frMe^j foi^etAi 
/Me, fountain; Jwu^j rope; Ir^ beam; 

griggtj* flock;^ ean»6rUj ccmsoit; eridtj heir; 
parMe^ parent; 
•re ^tho common gender. 



Names of animate beings, ending in e, are generally of tiie 
eoDunon gender; as, 

UprE, hare; UrpWy snake. 

The noun dim&ne^ when it means 'to-morrow', is masculine; 
but when it signifies Hhe beginning of the day', is feminine. ^ 

The noun m&rgmey when it means /scar*, hi feminihe ; but 
when it means ^margin,' ' extremity', is of the common gender. 

The notms/ifcnie, andyine, when they mean 'foot-soldier*; and 
« «m' or ' design', are masculine : but when they mean ' ser- 



Tant'; and * end' or * termination', are of the common gender. 

T]i» nouns cMe, and drdintf when they mean ' host', an * inn- 
keeper'; and 'order*, a 'command', are masculine: but when 
tibey mean 'host,' an 'army'; and 'order', 'arrangement', or a 
' regions <Nrder', they are of the common gender. 

* Cimerg^ c^MT*. trnd grdgg§, in tho plaral Dumber, e^uH, ^priMM', timtHf' 
. «ihM> ; uia grigjfi, »«oekil^r»r« femMlM only. 
t 9ri%U aei /fMi, in ptoM, m* ftmiaiM oaljr. , 



ANALOGY. 



EXAMFLBt. 



ciuis. (?etr. s. 153.) 

Haisim era m6Uo hhu ^fo»»^' 
te, e am buona nipi. (oaceh. 
n. 91.) 

VtMgenU dUa rtra ^uic grmn 
Tr6um. (Dant. Inf. 3.) 

1^ rivo JCdefUM ckiarissiwutt 
U fmaU ditMM montagncUa di- 
Mtnderm t» t^NA tAllb ombe^ 
•A. (Boec g. 1. n. 1.) 

SerrdU U ceUa c6Lt,A CHiivB, 
dtriUmments sen mmdd aUm cdmS" 
ra deiioJSlkau, (Bocc. g, 1. n.4.) 

Vhm$ dtX cUlo itma coldmbm 
iidMcmeiwuni99,efmeMoUbeC' 
C9BBI. cIlicb, tuito 'I tdmgu4 
nkesf. (Pan. 186.) 

Ed Ivviy oitre a qu^Mto, TAbrb 
Ufik FRisco. (Bocc. Intr.) 



Map^ieehi Tabrb a divenir 
' B«diiAmemMiic»3.(Bocc.Ainet.) 

Ed §mtrdia net chiIbo fobtb 
HsttaaimMcnelU deque, (Bocc. 

ABMt) 

MHrntomo alla f6btc sipdMe^ 
TQ a sedere, (Bocc. g. 6. d. 1.) 

Aim ered0 vv lisFs, ekekmH 
imr eotcado mecrho. (DitUm. tf. 
IS-) 

Te nam eolomba, fB« vblbroba 
giMTE conoeetndOf con tuUm la 
firm di peraeguite hUendm, 
(Boec. g. 8. n. 7.) 

JjBBtUto eemfre jferdsthm 
di Jar Hne, dieendo: ' Ditndn 
fmn bene*; e sempre l*vn di- 
mInb diwidndarkvTBooiukHM, 
(Albertan. c. 61.) 



EonioB BBiig of him a nido 



Thu was wdl f rtifiMlbjra 
ditch, and by a good hedge. 

I beheU a throng npon the 
riiore of a great stream. 

A. stream of very clear water, 
which djtcended from a little 
hi)] into a shady yalley. 

Having locked the crll with 
the key, be went dittetly to the 
" ^ 7 of the Abbot. 



There descended from Hea- 
▼en a dove is white as saew, 
and, having pat its b?ak into the 
chalice, it drank all the blood. 

And there, besides this, the 
air is a great deal more fresh. 

Bot when the air began to 
be good. 

And having entered into the 
clear fountain, she plnnged 
herself into the water. 

They sat around the feuntain. 

I do not believe a seipeat, 
who has a heart so cruel. 



Knowing thee to be not a 
dove, bat a veoomoas serpent, 
1 intend to persecute thee with 
all my power. 

The fool always delays to 
do good, spying: * To-morrow 
I will do good/ And one to- 
morrow ever requifles another. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



4a 



i^idmief&i desio tnjkfim la 

I»f. 13.) ^ 

8i fic^rdo Ui dtnere avere 
^»A MAKOiHB, a guaaa (Ttttui 
troceUm^ tbfra Vorieckia stni- 
9tr^ (Boce. g. 5. n. &) 

Isfomdo s{u>f ed dmbo le pen- 
Uti^Fdtu iron fUtra^ e i mar- 
•i» d*tMdto. (Oant. Inf. 14.) 

FotdmeMi eUa nfucanddtta 
Illa MiaouiB ddCdJUa Hpa, 
nuejoMdo seawtpammo, (Firenx.. 
Aan.) 

Mtmddndo cmqmecento rkmi 
tiBiBULf m del eomtddo di Ft- 
rinxB. (GioY. Vill. 1. 7. o. 109.) 

DoLOB^flo jriU eke aUro—Se' 
fitt0 FAMTS. (Bocc. Tes. 4. 
23.; 

Jhi^ Oimeamino im edta I^ha 

PABTB ATTBHpJLta. (BoCO. ff. 

5. n. 5.) 

Om v&tmo a Liiro pfiiB per- 
(Boco. g. & n. 4.) 

Qaetim fit MsA rivm dM* im- 
psrmt&re Jtrrigo, (Giot. Vill. 
r?. c 22.) 

VoUndo IL •to oaTB eM0r 
fdgmiOt primierameute oli <{ie- 
lb r ima. (Boco. g. 1. n. 7.) 

Gtn tfVBewM fi«l nostra bene 

ATTBVTOBATO OSTB. (GlOT. 

yUL 1. 11. o. 53.) 

CmigregdtnA nithLA, e gran- 
dtj s roDBHoBA 6n*. (Bmo. g. 
2. D. 7.) 

MtrA ma intcndert l' 6bdibb 
48U«dM. (Cub, lett 8.) 

3b cmi joiia msii/e Mtrd bi- 
•BABoAtO !•' ^BDIVX dHU c6»9. 
(Bbm. g. 9. n. 9.) 



Whan I awoke before the 
morning, I heanl my eons Boh 
in their slumber. 



He recollected that ihe ovght 
to have a scar, like a croe% 

•above the left ear. 

• 

Ite bed and sloping sides, and 
both the margins, were petri- 
fied. 

After that she came to the 
margin of the high bank, we 
escaped by swimming. 

Sending five handred GhiF> 
belline foot-soldiers fh>m the 
territoiy of Florence. 

Wretched more than any 
other, thoa art made a servant 

Giacomino had in his boose 
an elderly servant maid. 



A man who had come to a 
happy end. 

This was the end of the Em- 
peror Henry. 

His host desiring to be paid, 
he first gave him that one. 



Thus he fell in with our for 
tunate army. 



He collected a fine, large and 
powerful army. 

From Mr Annibal Ruocellai, 
von may hear the order which 
I have given to him. 

If we should consider with 
found Bund the order of things. 



44 AHALOGY. 

Jrmtmm >% ttteldto «l Mi». nMDt mMii^ ihmmmtttwtmt 

Stor. Pwtol. p. 171.) reTMkd lb* Mbject to tlw 

C diik« 

J» A« avifs f^Mpine jpaesA I have alwaji iMd a special 

tfiOTsitee Ai. ydtTBo 4u>nis. derotioii to your order. 
(Boce. g. !«. n. I.) 

M4emp9dd4imFafmhm^ U Um ttaaa of tha said Papa 
jfaat <t cwiwcrt la uiunh 6b« Inaaaant, watiaatitiitodllMar- 
DiKB de> #Va<i JKbari. (GioT. d«r of Um Miner Friaia. 
Tin. 1. I.e. 94.) 



Nblnni ending in i are some <^ them iimtulme, u4 
tome feminbe; as, 

€tM$9tf ULf eclipse ; cHn^ t^ cfiaw $ 

stoaal; Uii^t^ tkeiis. 



Reuna of dignity, aej 
laA, bailiff; pdrs, paer; gwardmnffiXH^ iiaapar 

*[orUMeeal: 

Tba noun d%^ < day', and its eomponnds ; as. 
teani^ good day ; wsTTsd^i noon ; H&^ aov-a-daysi 

Novas Ibnnad of a vetb and a noon in the plnral; as^ 
UmUei, dnnoe; gr^guiMamH^ hypocrite -, gwrnrdafonim, porter; 
t s rtf iy rfiifft ,glotton; rafriadida oli, ajwtcist ;• rviarfgafi, tooth draw- 

{^' 

And the Ibllowing, ^ 

aloaO, alkali; wmU$m^ a mb e eees ; xdant, many-andraw ; 

•Wteei, alphabet; harhmgUMmi, owl', M^rrattOfu, delay; 

cr ew irt, oriason; Hem^ dieeis pn mnsia] ; sppifi^sii, notioa ^ef 

[ahoMOtolet: 
ara mtaenUna.' 

'^ -m. a iniii,*qaneri»;,isoftha nninnnn gander. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



45 



Noons ending in u are some of them masculinej and 



some feminine : 



as, 

mSu» m. diU; 

ragikf m. ragout-; 
wopr ap piijL^ m. overpluB ; 



griif^ crane ; 

tnbiif. tribe ; 
giovtntii^f. youth. 



EXAM P LK S. 



Significata gran seeco nsUa 
tignemU 9tdtt^ evoi neUa mo- 
miitu di ausLLo KcclIssi 
rrmmgoper^o tP deque. (Giov. 
VUI.Lll.c2.) 

(^itH, eke i mSdiei ndatri chidr 
nan crIsi. (Bern. Rim. 1. 16.) 

drngaido intSmo i guoi TAtid- 
•! tSlbi. (Arioflt. Fur. 38. 79.) 

H nUdieo sifiee l6ro tne6ntro 
dieind^ eke Iddio di88e46ro il 
boovd). (Bocc. g- 8. n. 9.) 

Il maggi6r CACciADiJLyoLi 
mom, i in Toeedna. (Lor. Med. 
Arid. 2. 5.) 

MatdH edee kdnno piii del 
zk9Mi,eeon disoniete, (Demetr. 
S«Bg. €7.) 

Cemmeerimo dal 
DSL Gitt'KMi. (Giov. Vill. 
e.2) 

Lm§eia98e Uro vn per ecnto 
di qu6nto kdnno, e gyadagnds- 
Momsi qiudl uno col sudore del 
p6U0j c6me eomdnda la oiiizfi. 
(Dav. Sciein. p. 38) 



Il uint i caldo ed 6 irba, il 
eki wime e ditto eon simiglidnte 
mime, (Or. a:78. 1.) 

io ko giudiediOf eke egli sim 
otmmdi Shu eon qudleke freno 
ritmure t edldi impeti d^lla 
$6 A oioYSMTii (Fireas. Asin. 
17a) 



It announced a great drouffbt 
in the following summer yanaaf- 
terward at the opposition of that 
eclipse, a great abundance of 
water. 

That, which our physicians 
call crisis. 

His famous peers surround 
him. 

The physician went to meet 
them y wishing God would give 
then a good day. 

A greater exorcist is not to 
be found in Tuscany. 

But such things more become ' 
a merry-andrew, and are in- 
decent. 

We will commence from the 
beginning of Genesis. 



That he should leave them 
one per centum of what they 
have, and that they should earn 
that one by the sweat of their 
brow, as is commanded in Gen- 
esis. 

The dill is warm, and it is an, 
herb whose seed is called by 
the same name. 

I have thought, that it is 
now proper to moderate, with 
some restraint, the warm im- 
pulses of his youth. 



ANALOGY. 



. Adjectives, yerbs, adrerbs, preposiHoDSy when used 
substantively, are of the mascuIiDe gender ; as, 

h4ttOf beautiful; segmlhrtjioc<m(dmJiB; 

ddve^ where; qwSmdo^ when; 

cdme^ bow; perchi^ wby; 

sif yes; no, no. 

The names of the days of the week, except Dami- 
nicCf * Sunday' ; and those of the months, are masculiiie ; 
as, 



MareqUii^ Wendnesday; 
Jfynity April; 



S^Aaio, Saturday; 
\^gdU0, August 

Names of trees are masculine ; as, 
<ilmo, elm-tree; mMo^ myrtle-tree; 

fuke, walnut-tree; Uwndne^ lemoa-tree. 



fft^cia, oak-tree ; 
are fcmmina. 



BXC£PTIOM8. 

9iU, Tina; 



gtticttf^ brooflttf 



Naiaes of fruits are femimne* } as^ 



pim^ 



pear; 
plum; 



Pdmo, apple ; 
elirov citron; 
are masculine. 



orAncfo, orange; 
cm^gio, cherry. 



SXCXPTIOVS. 

pijw, pma ; 



dittero, date; 



Some masculihe nouns, when used to denote a femi- 
nine object, take a different termination ; as. 



amkeOf friend, ra. ; 

cugino, cousin, m. ; 

gefMre^ father; 

mrfdre, author; 

poilOf poet; 

taeeriUiej priest; 

ducoj duke ; 

p ii ne^ prince ; 

re, king; 



owncOf 

CUgbMj 

poeUMa 



friend, f. ; 
cousin, f.; 
mother; - 
autbogreae; 
poetess; 



saeerdoUtmj juriestess; 
ducMBBo^ ducheae ; 
prinapissOf princess; 
regina, ' queen. 



* Th«M ftra MMrtUy fonMd f ran U 



m of u—j chMfJBf • iote « ; •>« 
V } #^lto, ' iDalb«n7-Cra«* ; /«tftA» 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



Some oaflMs of ammale beings denote the feminine 
by n different word ; as, 

iMJMio^iiian; d^tmoy woman; 

*rfro, bull ; vdeca, cow ; 

p(kxo^ pig; Mia, bow; 

Some in the feminine take a difierent termination ; as^ 



e^ne, dog; 
ledne, lion; 



edgfta, bitch ; 
leon6ss€ij lioness; 



And others are either masculine or feminine, and 
designate both genders; as, 



akvo, m., crow ; 



panUrOf £, panther. 



BXAMPLS8. 



Le dSfmne, pumdfi arrivano a 
mtarania dmU perdono il b^llo 
mQla gUnmUudine. (Libr. 
Adorn. Donn.) 

Ls regina a PUomtna voUdia, 
U impdte il segvitjoui. (Booo. 
g. 3. n. 3.) 

Il inSvb to ho giit penidtc. 
(Boco. g. 2.) 

SarH conthUo di soptrc il 
duiiioo. (Peir. 8. 306.) 

Dw.L c6mk non ti tdgUa il 
9%wcBii H dird. (Booc.TUoc.) 

Son eirta del ■). (Bocc. g. 
7. D. 7.) 

dascimo rUpdat i>kl no. 
(Booc. g. 1. D. 7.) 

^neSra ix. Mxrcol&dU « '^ 
Tmercfl, e il SJIbato. (Maes- 
tniss. 1. 33.) 

VAuond MOUtmro^Crioeopik 
wohmtUr mei eStmo inlho. ( Alam. 
Gok. 1. 16.) 

La Tfrx Appo u6i i mtM oh 
noodiUa. (Cr.4.Ll.) 



When women arrive at forty 
years they loee the beauty of 
yonth. 

The qoeen turning to Filo- 
, ordered her to continue. 



I have already thought of the 
where. 

I should be happy to know 
the when. 

Do not trouble jrouraelf about 
the how, I will tell yon the 
why. 

I am certain of the .affirma- 
tive. 

Every one answered in the 
negative. 

Even Wednesday, and Fri- 
day, and Saturday. 

« The amorous myrtle gnmo 
better in the whoW bosh. 



The 'vine among mm is voiy 
well known. 



46 



ANALOGY. 



§ susf HE. (Bc^. Amet. 15.) 

Fsan quel dtilefruUe del mal 
6rto — Ch€ qid riprindo dattero 
per Ff CO. (Dant Inf. 33.) 

E di quhto contigiiofu au- 
tiicc tma ck'ibht ndme PUisso. 
<Bat. Com. Dant.) 

D6nn4 e nume getUrieo dUla 
F^MMiNA dilla spizU umdna. 
(Crtwa.) 

JICi towihud^avirfdito mat^ 
*Vidre al le6sr dllla cdrne d'u- 
mi LXONissi. (Red. Ins. 11.) 

/Hfr« mdUe biduche eolomtk* 
aggiugne^dii di beUltza vs n±- 
mo c6rvo, che «n ednOdo cigKO. 
(Bocc. g.9n. 10.) 



I keep for thee molbtrciea, al- 
monds, tnd plums. 

He — am I, who fratt from 
evil garden brought ;— Aad here 
my fig is with a date repaid. 

And the author of this ooim- 
set was one who was named 
Polisso. 



Woman is the ffenerie i 
of the female of the human 
species. 

I recollect to have made the 
lion eat of the flesh of the li- 



Amongst many white doTos 
a black crow adds more beatkty 
than a white swan. 



NUMBEK, or FORMATION OP THE Pl^UBAL. 

Masculine nouns, encHng b o, a, e, form the [Airal bjr 
changing 0, a, e, into »; as. 



lihroy book ; 
cavdiio, horse ; 
poitAf poet ; 
cUmA, climate ; 
/drE, flower ; 
Upr^ hare; 



a6n, books; 

cacaUif horses; 

portly poets; 

dimty climates ; 

jSdri, flowers; 

Uprij hares. 



Fenunine nouns, ending in o, e, form ihe plural by 
changing o, e, into t;. as. 



mdnOj hand; 
drte, tfrt ; 
fdiUEy fountain; 



nkbti, hands; 
Mtf arts; 
fdniiy fountains. 



Feminine nouns ending in a, form the plural by chang- 
ing a into e; rs, 



cAiA, house ; 
m^A, table ; 



cdtE, houses ; 
m^K, tables; 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



49 



Nouns ending in », ti, or in ic, or with an accented 
vowel, do not change their termination in the plural ; as, 



istasjf extacy; 
grvy crane ; 
spiciEf sort; 
TE,* king ; 
ctitAt* city ; 
virtik^* virtue ; 



htasij extacies ; 
gra, cranes ; 
spiciEf sorts; 
TE, kings; 

cittX, cities ; 
viri^y virtues. 



The following nouns in the plural have an irregular 
formatioo : 



IHo, God ; 
tuhno^ man ; 
hue, ox; 



DHf Gods; 
udminij men ; 
budi^ oxen. 



EZAMPZ.E8. 



Aiv.i^Hi CAviLLi si dipuiano 
m vtttura, aJUri a eaf7«.(Cr. 6. 9.) 

E^ divua la thra in s^ttb 
cUmi. (But. Cora. Dant.) 

Ed io *l provdi sul prima 
ixprir DE* Piori. (Petr. c. 38.) 

C<Slle mie uksi avrii eid 
pdstoin thra — Q,ulste mtmora 
naidse. (Petr. s. 29.) 

Qualeuna d? hte nitti — Chiu- 
da omdi ouiste d^b f6kti di 
pidnto, (Petr. c. 46.) 

£ di qukUo un mizzo biechitr 
perudmadisse Lllz prime m£»- 
•B. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 2.) 

E quisto i hsere in isTASi. 
(Bat. Com. Dant) 

Lb oru hdnno un l^tro r«, 6 
HUte lo sirvono. (Fior.Vt. c. 19.) 

Di* eudU animdU Mdno q%tdsi 
»n£mCc LE spiciE. (Cell. Circ 
2.29.) 



Some horses are destined for 
harden, others to the carriage. 

The earth is divided into 
seven climates. 

And I experienced it at the 
first blooming of the flowers. 

I should have already with 
my own hands laid in the 
ground these wearisome limbs. 

Let one of these nights 
close these two fountains of 
tears. 

And of that [wine] he should 
give half a tumoler to each man 
at the first course. 

And this is to be in extaoy. 

The cranesshaye a king, and 
all serve him. 

Of which animals, the spe- 
cies are almost infinite. 



to tlM fSMfSt lOto. 



50 ANALOGY. 

LEcrrrlJ^iumidU, «im« Cities are unfriendly, the 

ih6H!ki^A* miH9€mtUr%. {?^tr. wood, ate friendly to my 

c. 37.; thoughU. 

TutH 1 Rioi «W ii^6ndo sono AU the kings in the world 

mhu> a. v69tro tpd^f. (Fr. Guitt. are inferior to your husband, 
lelt. 10.; 

Tdtto ©LI nil ^ aW«o in Soon the go dsof the Abyss 

varie uirme^Canedrrtm ^6gmi in different ban<^, rush from 

SSdni^JTitts p6r««. (Tass. aU sides to the lofty gates. 
Ger. 3. 5.) 

Vtrtnd» MOLTI ii6iiijii nil- Seeing many men frequent 

U eSrU del wddre mdre, (Bocc. the court of her ikther. 
g.4.n.l.) 

Perehi ttdditintu, dU i au^i. Wherefore it happened, that 

gU dsimiy U ph»r€, per It eamm the oxen, the asses, Je |^to. 

Sm^wM^HPNTCBSoB. Introi) went astray through the fields. 



Many nouns in o in the plural end in », and more 
elegantly in a ; as, 

W-o,fi.t, . \„^,\^- 

Some have only the termination in a in the plural ; as, 

mMo, mile ; ^"^f^* miles ; 

«(£b, bushel; mtA, bushels; 

Mdoo, egg; wkA, eggs. 



(Psr a lilt of Wei* is •, askiac the plaml is « or «, m6 Appbsbix, D.] 

Abo, * laughter* ; m^iMfrA>, • limV, or • member of the humui 
body*, form Uieir phnral in % and a ; iW, riiOy 'laughter*; m^ 
hri^mimbra, « limbs* : but riso. ' rice' ; wUwArOy * member of • 
eoiporatioii or political body*, form their i^oral in % only; Hm, 
* rice* ; wUmbri^ * members*. 

G4ti9, 'exploit*; >iitfo, *the fruit of a tree'; toiio, *fife- 
irood,* form their plural in % and a; g<Miy g4tia, ^expkMts ; 




uui/; Wfii, « gestures *;yWilli, * produce* or * income ' ; Ugm^ 
* biUets of wood*, 'ih^, or ' coaches*. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



51 



Ossoy * bone', has a treble termination in the plural, making 
iitn, 698t^ dssoj ' bone6\ 

When these nouns take the termination in a in the 
plural, they become feminine, and receive the article U 
before them; as, le aniUa^ * the rings' ; le miglia^ * the 
miles ' 5 lefnUtay * the fruits' ; U 6$$e or le Sssa^ * the 
bones.' 

Finally there are, in Italian, as well as in all other langnafes, 
some nouns which have only the singular number; as, all 
proper names,* names ofmetals, and the words froU, * genera- 
tion' ; proginie^ * progeny' ; siirpei * race* ; mine^ * morning' ; 
midCf ' honeVf' ^^c. ; and others which have only the plural ; as, 
larij ^household gods'; annMi, * annals'; cahdni, * breeches'; 
vAnniy ' wings' ; fdrbici, * scissars' ; ndzze, * nuptials' ; tsitpAt^ 
' exequies' ; rinx^ ^ the reins' ; m6Ue or mMi^ * tongs' ; sphne or 
jp^', » spices' ; Jrdge^ * the skin over the nostrils of a horse' ; 



EXAMFLES. 



Fdtton prestdre a Maddrmd' 
Oiaeowuna «n ui* su6i AiiiLLi, 
fuiin par tita mogUe spotd la 
C J iina, (Bocc. g. 5. n. 4.) 

Lalinga gulrra — CJie del- 
r'AV^LLA /e' a\ aite spogUe. 
(Dmnt Inf. 28.) 

E^lla fcce portdre i die cap- 
pom Ihriy t m6lt£ u6yA 
frUcke. (Boec. g. 7. n. 1.) 

Lascidrano anddr Caiandiino 
eon LB maggwr Rf sa dd m^ndo. 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 3.) 

Lo SpirtO DALLE hUlB MiM- 

BSA teioUo, (Petr. s. 359.) 

Tanto piu celebrd Tibhrio 
sds cisTA in sendto. (Day. 
Tac. anil. L 2.) 

Viveano quasi cSme bistie di 
pmJTTA, e di ghidnde. (Giov. 
Vill. I. 1. c 23.) 



Having asked Madonna Gisr 
comina to lend him one of her 
rinfffl, there took Catharine to 
wife. 

That long war, in which was 
made the rich booty of the 
rings. 

She caosed to be brought 
the two boiled capons, and 
many fresh eggs. 

They let Calandrino go with 
the mateit laughter in the 
world. 

The spirit freed from "Ibe 
beaatifol limbs. 

Tiberius celebrated so much 
the more his exploits in the se- 
nate. 

They lived like beasts on 
firuit and mast. 



Hied ftlMi m the plorml ; as, i Ckiabrira^ i FiUOia, i JUdi, « MemiM^ i OiidLt 
t^mg&m, • tSmti 6iiri nMkwd 9 9rrgUtkmimi imgigni, * Uie ChiabrerM, the Fiti- 
mUs, tiM KedU, the Mentinis, the Gaidif, the fragoiib, and m tuny other tob- 
UsM aod moat worthy fOBioaea.' 



52 ANALOGY. 

ilfuoeo eriseeper lk L^iifA, Fire is increased bj wood, 

epiinte pik ce na mitti mag- and the more yoa pat on, the 

gxore si fa. (Fr. Giord. 146.) larger it becomes. 

Fu r/m solamhUe ticcTJO, ma He was not onW killed, bat 

fino all' 688A divorato. (Bocc. devoured eren to the bones. 
r2.n.9.) 

Ltk srfHPB non fa U singu- Family does not make ez- 

Idri pers6u« ndkiliy ma U singu- traordimiry persons noble, bot 

Idri persdne fdnno nobiU la extraordinary persons render 

rrf ftPB. (Dant. Conv.) their family noble. 

Crista voUe per sua presfma Christ wished to honor with 

onordr lb adzzR di Cdna Ga- his presence, the nuptials of 

Ulia^ s quttfifdre il primo imra* Cana of GalileOf and there to 

Mo, (Cavalc. Esjios. simb. 1 .) work the first miracle. 



Independently of the cliange of termination, there are 
in Italian many nouns, which in the plural undergo a 
certain change of orthography. 

Thus all nouns ending in ca^ ga^ in order to preserve 
in the plural before the vowels t, e, the same soued 
which c, g, have in thesii^ular before the vowel a, take 
an hj in the plural after the consonant c, g ; as, 

mofufcrcA, tnonarch; tnondrcHT, monarcbs; 

cotf^eA, coUea^e; coUigsiy colleagaes; 

mdfuzcA, nun; mdrutcBty nuns; 

viroAf rod; vh^Be^ rods. 

Nouns ending in <ro, go^ consisting of two syllabtes, 
also take an A in the plural after c^g ; as, 

^udco, ^K>rt; giudcBty aportB', 

Iwiooy place; hi6gB%^ places^ 

KZCXPTIOII8. 

Oreco, * Greek* ; pdrco, *hog' ; in the plural make, Grid, * Greeks'; 
pdret, ' ho^.' Mdgo, ' magician', in the plural makes either mdgni^ 
or mdgiy ' magicians*. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 53 

Nouns in co, go, of more than two syllables, if co, go, 
are preceded by a consonant, take an A in the plural ; 
and if they are preceded by a vowel they are written 
without A; as, 

hifiUco, laborer; hijdeni, laborers; 

Mir^o, inn; ofWiynt, inns; 

M^cfico, physician; vU(Hci, physicians; 

UOoHo, theoloipan; tec^ei, theologians. 



EZ€ EFT IONS. 



The following nouns, 

carieot cbarffe ; 
f6ndaco, warehooMj 
pdrroeo, parson ; 
stdvutco, stomach ; 
mdnieo, handle; 
trqfieOf trading ; 

in the plural make, 

earicBi, charges ; 
findacuit warenonses; 
pdrrocm^ parsons ; 
stdmacBi, stomachs ; 
wuinieHi, handles ; 
tre^ficBt, tradings ; 



dbhUgo, obligation; 
^P*^£Of expedient; 
eaidiogOf catalogue ; 
impiego, employment ; 
^^V^t punishment; 
tnirigo, intrigue; 



MUgBt^ obligations; 
ripu^if expedients; 
catdfognif catalogues ; 
impiegai, employments; 
^dgni^ punishments ; 
tntrigmiy intrigues. 



Several other nouns in co^go, are indiflerently written 
with or without the h ; as, 



flieii£oo, beggar ; 
s^itivoco, equivoque ; 
didloQOt dialogue ; 
apdloao, apologue ; 



beggars ; 



mendicBi, > . 
or mendictf ^ 
eguivoemL [ 



didlogBtf 
[ or didhatf 
C apdlogui, 
I or apoloQtf 



dialogues ; 
apologues. 



[ For alirt of NottOi eBdiiif ia m, t«, and makisg Um plvnX is d, fi, sr •*•; 
fU, MS Amiiois D. (9l)) 

5* 



54 ANALOGY. 

Nouns ending in cia^ gia^ and cda, ggia^ unaeeenitdj 

form their plurd by changing a into «, and suppressing 
the*; as, 

i<b»ciA, lance; WncB, lapces; 

/nfaiGiA, fringe } /rwiGE, frmgea ; 

yr^cciA, aiTow; yWccE, arrows; 

jwdGQiA, strand ; pidsot, strands. 

Nouns ending in do, gio, and ccio, ggioj unaeeented, 
form their plural by changing o inio », and suppressing 
the i that they have in the s.ngular ; or what is the same, 
by suppressing only the o ; as, 

Wcio, kiss; Wci, kisses; 

JHeiOy honor ; friei^ honors ; 
^cio, snare ; ^ci, snares ; 

rdeeio, ray ; itkeei, rays. 

But if cirt, ^ and ceia, ggU, or cio, ^ andiron, ggio are oc- 
e«iil«d, the i is neyer anppreseed ; as, 

a^ofA, elegy; eUgie^ elejriee; 

farmaciky pharmacy ; faimaciCf pharmacies; 

f^oio, reading-desk ; i^ggih reading-deska. 



Nouns ending in ddojghio, glio, form the plural by 
suppressing the o ; as, 

dccBio, eye; ifccHi, eyes; 

MN^oHio, bellowing; mkgem^ bello wings; 

aai&LiOy rock; $€Abi^ rocks. 

Nouns ending in aio,'^ 6io, also form theur plural by 
suppressing the o ; as, 

ybmAiOy baker ; fomki^ bakers; 

JUatbiOf spinning-wheel; fiaibi, spinning-wheels^ 

All other nouns ending in io, if to is unaccented^ 

* MoatnoQfw in 4Uo and al«din^br»; M».UkfHMW UbrAno^fartdwoxfinuw^; 
wfaan tli«y take UtU last tenuinatioo, in tbe plural tbey luake Hirwri, * bookMl- 
Ian' : ArWi, * bakan' ; accordiac to Um general rale. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



55 



form their plural by changing to into / ; but if to is oe- 
eerUed, they form it by changing the o of to into t ; as, 



studio, study ; 
hen^flziOy* benefit ; 
rio, rivulet ; 

desioy desire ; 



stttdi, studies, 

henrfhi, benefits; 

fii, rivulets ; 

desii, desires. 



The noun «i(5Wte, * wife', forms the plural by suppres- 
sing the e ; mSgli^ * wives'. 



EXAMPLX8. 



La ctmtessa MaUldafondo un 
ndhile montuttrio di rndsACBH. 
(Giov. VUI. I. 4. c. 20.) 

R di eke cot/et ndepte iron U 
stUU^ht lu6ghi 6Ui ed eiltti. 
(Petr. c. 44.) 

7Va bruUi p6rci piu degni di 
gaUt, — Che d* dltro dbofixto in 
umdn vso. (Dant Purg. 14.) 

/ sdvj si vartironoy e tomdrsi 
d* Idro ALBERGUi. (Nov.ant. 6.) 

$i su6l ricdrrere n& mdli. 
•perieMsi d'Hioici eceellentt. 
(Casa. Jett. 4!>.) 

Pontndo Uro grandissimi 
ciucHi di monUe. (Stor. Fist. 
170.) 

Le rispdste vive, U novefe vi 
irano, e gli ap6i.ogi. (Pros. 
Fior. 6.) 

Spdrti eoetdro ver lapiccola 
ed$a, pdrte n* ando n6lla cirU, e 
p&ste giU lor LiifCB, awenne 
eke ino di l6ro giud la sua 
lArcia net fieno^ (Boco. g. 5. 
11.3.) 



The countess Matilda found- 
ed a noble convent of nuns. 



On the day when this lady 
was born, the stars were in 
high and chosen places. 

'Midst brute swine — Worth- 
ier of acorns than of other food 
— Created for man's nso. 

The sages went away, and 
returned to their dwellings. 

In dangerous diseases' we 
are accustomed to have re- 
course to excellent physicians. 



Laying upon them 
great imposts of money. 



very 



There were witty answers, 
stories, and fables. 



These having spread them- 
selves throuffh the small house, 
and having mid down their lan- 
ces, it happened that one of 
them threw his lance into the 
hay. 



* Maajr noona hi x«#, end 
•r mmQ%9X but, howarer 
hn^ixM or hwM/Uiy * b*n4fita< 



I alto in «t«or#<o f u, hm^no or hee^fkctOj aertkvi» 
they mav aad, oonaUutly form the fUiral u i ; w, 
its'; MrHw or Mn^jj'MrrteM*. 



56 



ANALOGY. 



Cfid niUa sammitd di* yiu 
alti m&md apparivcno i mieoi 
dilla surginU luce. (Bocc g. 
6. proem.) 

Le gioednde dde^ t U Imteive 
ELEoli, a tutte U dUre studidse 
drii amtipdngoHo. (Dav. Tac. 
Perd. Eloq.) 

lo soUva isser uno degU 6c cat 
del capo vdstro. (Pecor. g. 4. 
n. 2.) 

Mi parea per tidto^ dove che 
io mi volgesti, sentire Mt^Gcni, 
urli, e strida di diversi e fero. 
dstimi afdmdii. (Lab. 29.) 

CkegiSva dunque^pereke tut- 
ta epMme^La mia harckcUa, 

poiehi infra gH bc6gli E' 

rittamta, (Pelr. c. 39.) 

D6muj nSi sidmo gidvarU 
rotufkif^DeW drte nostra bu6n 
maestri assdi. (Cant Carn. 
34.) 

// qtuUe, liB liberdli sttJdj 
ammaestrdiof sommaminte i ra- 
lordsi udmini onordva. (Bocc. 
Vit. Dant.) 

Appresso eostdro le sirdcekie 
e le m6gli IdrOf iiitte di brine 
vestitej vennero. (Bocc. g. 3. 
n. 7.) 



Already on the ttmimit or 
the highest monntaiiM appeared 
the rays of the ruing light. 

They prefer the merry odes 
and the laaciYioos elegies to all 
the other studious arts. 

I used to be one of the eyes 
of your head. 

I seemed to hear, wherever 
I tnme<l, the bellowings, the 
bowlings, and the cries of dif- 
ferent and Tery ferocioos ani- 
mals. 

What does it avail to spread 
all the saib of my bark, if she 
is impelled aoMng the rocks. 

Ladies, we are young bakers 
very well skilled in our art. 



Who, being well skilled in 
liberal pursuits, greatly honored 
learned men. 



After them came their sisten 
and their wives, all dres s e d io 
mourning. 



VARIATION OF NOUNS. 

Italian nouns are varied by means of certain preposi- 
tions placed before them ; viz. di, ' oP, in the genitive, 
or relation of possession ; a, * to', in the dative, or rela- 
tion of attribution ; DA, * from or by', in the ablative, 
or relation of derivation. The nominative, or subjective, 
and the accusative, or objective, are distinguished by the 
place they occupy in the sentence. 

Proper nonns are generally varied with iheprqwsitions 
only : common nouns with the prepositions and the ar* 



SUBSTANTIVES. 57 

tkles i/, loj la ; i or li, gli, /e, * the'. When commoD 
nouns are used in an indefinite sense, they are varied 
i^itb the prepositions and the pronouns Uno, utiOj ^ a '^ or 
* an' ; alcuntf alcine^ *• some'. 



Variation of a Proper JVoien. 

SnbjectiTe (N.)» — Charts CflBsar ; 

C Possession (G.) — di Ces tre^ of Csasar ; 

Relation of < Attribution (D.) — a Cisare, toCflBsar; 

( Deiivution (Ab.) — da Chare^ from or by Ci 

Objeetiye (Ac.) — Cisare, C»sar. 

Before a noun beginning with a vowel, the preposi- 
tion di drops the i and takes an apostrophe in its stead ; 
and the preposition a takes a d after it ; as, 

(for S;\^J of Anthony; (f„/ArS'5'» ^"*'°' 



Variation of Common JVouns. 

Masculine Noun, beginning with a Consonant, varied 
with the article iL 

Singular. Plaral. 

SabjectiTe (N.) — U UbrOf the book; t or li libri, the books ; 

- ( Poss. (G.) — del libra ^ of the book ; del libri, of the books j 

Relat ^ Atlr. (D. V-oZ libro, to the book ; di Hbri, to the books ; 

f Der. (Ab.) — dal libra ^ from the ddi Hbrit from the 

[bool^ ; p>ooks ; 

Objective (Ac.) — il libroy the book ; t Ubri, the books. 

. * To foeilitnteihtt Variation of these and other noann, to those who are ac- 
otstomed to the If«£m DtdtMtwn^ we have added to each rafstaen the Initial of 
the name of the correapondinf ows in Latin; ihuf (N.) standa for noiimMtive i (G*) 



58 ANALOGY. 

Masculine Noun, beginning with a Consonant, varied 
with the article lo. 

Singolmr. ^ PlaraL 

SnbjeotiTe (N.) — lo spUchiOj the mirror ; gli sftcekif the mirrors ; 

' Pom. (G.)—d6llo tpieckio, of digit spiceki, of the 

[ihe mirror ; [mirrors ; 

RelatJ ^^^' (^') — ^^ specchiOf to dgliBphuki, to the 

I [the mirror; [mirrors; 

Der. (Ab.) — ddllo tptcchio, from ddgK spieddf from the 

^ [the mirror; [mirrors ; 

Objeetiye (Ac.) — lo spUcHo^ the mirror; gliipeeehi, the mirrors. 



Masculine Noun, beginning with a Vowel. 

Shigvlar. Phuml. 

SnbjectiTe (N.)-» V amieo, the friend ; gU air. it, the friends : 

Toss. (G.y^dl' amU?, of the digU amiei, of the 

[friend ; rfrMnds ; 

U^I^A^ J Attr. (D.) — oZZ' amieo, to the dgU amieif to the 

I [friend ; [friends ; 

Der. (Ab.) — dalV amico, from ddgU omiHy from the 

[the friend ; [friends ; 

ObjectiTe (Ac.) — P amico the friend ; gU amiei, the friends. 



Feminine Noun, beginning with a Consonant. 

Singular. * Phiral. 

Subjective (N.) — la cdsa, the houee ; U case, the houses ; 



Relat. 



Attr. (D.)-dMa e«a, to jbe ' > ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ 

[house ; y ' 

Der. (Ab.) — ddUa cdsa, from' daiU cast, from the 

[the houee ; [houses 



CM>jectiye (Ac.)— la cdsa, the houie ; U com, the houses. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 59 

Feminine Noud, begianiDg with a Vowel. 

Sinfolar. Plural. 

SobjectiTe (N.>- V dninaf the soul ; U dnime, the souls ; 

Pom. (G.)-&W dnimo, of the^ _ > ^j^ 4^^ .^f th, ,o„i,; 

Rolat.^ '*'*«'• (»•)-««• ««^ to tj^^^ I <jHe dmme, to the .o.Ie ; 

Der. (Ah.) — doll' dmntOt from ddUe dnime ^ from the 
[the soul ; [souls ; 

Objective (Ac.) — V dnima, the soul ; le dnimc, the souls. 



Variation of Common JSTouns used in an Indefinite 
Sense. 

Masculine Noun. 

SingiiUr. Plural. 

SobjectiTe (N.) — un ucceUOf a bird ; ale^lmi ucceUi^ some birds ; 

r Po«. (6.) — <r yn wciUo, of a d* mUM uceHUy of some 
I [bird; [birds; 

»-.!•♦ J Attr.(D.) — ad unttccellOf to vk ad alcutd ucccUL to some 
***•*• S Third; [birds; 

I Der. ( Ab.)— ia «m iccceao, <{a olcttm ttccd^, firom some 
(^ [from a bird; birdi; 

Objective (Ac.) — un iicceZ^, a bird ; alcuni weeUi, some bird«. 



Feminine Noun. 

Sinfalar. Plwal. 

SnbjectiTe (N.) — ibia me^ an apple ; aleime mele, some apples ; 

' Poss. (G.) — cf ima milaf of an d* aleune meU, of some 

[apple ; [apples ; 

Relai. J ^^^' i^') — ^ ***** meto, to <ki aleune fnele, to some 

neiac^ ^^^ apple ; [apples ; 

Der. (Ab.)— 4ia ^buiineZa, lia oZc^kne meUf from some 

[from ao apple ; [apples i 

Objective (Ac.)— ftna jmcU, an apple > oMns mcUt tome apples* 



60 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE II. 

[Tb« leanMr will aapply the artiel* aecordinf to the €}«nder of the nooae, 
•mi will fona their Phiral aad nrj them, eeeordiof to the precedia; rvloe.] 

The study of (the) belles lettres. The country of the 
Mtudio h6Ua IHttra. pais€ 

Amazons. The fable of the trogB, The virtues of the 
^mdxone. fivola rdna, virtH 

Romans. The hatred of the enemies. The poets of (ike) 
Romdno. 6dio nenuco. poela 

Latiam. 
lAxio. 

lie gnYe praise to the valiant,* consolation to the infirm,* 
— D&oa lode vaUnle^ etnjbrto iMjermo, 

example to alL* He has bought the horse of the prince for 
esempio tiUto. — Ha comprdto eaitaUo primeipt per 

a small sum of money. (7^) fortune is sometimes 
pietela 96mma dmndro. f^rtitmt i pi4Uke voUa 

unjust towards C'ome) I unhappy creatures, I who deserve 
ingiista verso alcuni \ imfdiccy \ cht miriimmo 

a better fiite. He proposed the model of the future 
migli6T torte. — PropSse modillo Mwtmire' 

government, avoiding all the things, which I bad | 
govemo^y scanzdndo iutte c6sa, che \ erano \ 

lately displeased. The prince took the public 
freseamente spimciiUe. p r in e ip e tdlse * pubUdF 

books I firom the hands I of the 1 questors, and 

them I to the prctors 
nt^ I pr€l6r€. 



I entrusted I them | to the prctors. 
diede cur a* | ' 



The cries nxHi(ihe) bowlings of the eava^res spread (ti^) 
ttrido € iirlo suivagio tpdrsero 

. terror among the Europeans* Thousands of people, who 
ttrr&re Europeo, Migtidio ^e«^» dU 

were tMresent at the speech of Re|ruln8 to the Romans, 
ermno presnU a orazUne . Regolo Rowmmo, 

* TV tt« MlMKt, t0 Ot iMrmy. te cff, here used iathe plvml avaftM. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 61 

wept; and he departed to return to Carthage, as he 
pidnsero; ed 6gH pariUsi per riiomdre Cartdgine^ come — 

had promised, amidst the acclanwtions of the multitade. 
mveva promisso, fra acdamazidne woUilvdine. 

Thetis, wishinff to render Achilles hivulnerable, dipped him 
Tetide, bramdndo di rtndere AchUle invidneTdbUe^ immerst* lo^ 

in the river Stjx, holding him by one I of his I heels. 
fiime Sttge, tenena(K,Jo per uno [ dille \ calcdgno. 

They conducted him to the spot, and by throits and 
condusstrc^ Lol sito, e eon mindccia e 

promisor they disposed him to ascend the walls. 
pTQmessa dispdsero^ lo^ a salire m{iro. 

He led I into I the field twelve hundreds of buffiiloes, nine 
— Mend \ a \ edmpo dodici centindio di bvfalaj ndve 

hundred cows, many calves, and over a thousand hogs. 
cento vdcca, assdi' vitellal, t oUrt a mxlU porco. 

She had 1 her (cheeks all* burnt by the many tears she 
Avita I U I gudncia tutte drte per molie lagrima — 

had shed. Weeping, she I fell I at I his I feet, 
. Piangin&t — | si lascid cadirt^ \ a*3 | gUX \ pied^f 

and humbly asked | his I pardon | for I (the) past 
ed umitmtnie domando^ \ gli^ \ perdondnza^ 1 «'»^ I * paisdti* 

iDJaries. I There was found I in a. city of Lycia, a 

oUrdggio? I Si trovo \ in cittd di lA'ciaf 

book, which had brass leaves, — (the) leaves of brass. 
Ubro, . ehe avca — .— /6glio rdme. 

Galandrino waited all the following evening with his 
Cmlundrino steiU txUta vegnent^ seraX con s\ioi 

contrivances to catch a bat 
arUfido per pigUdre vispistr^llo. 



m ANALOGY. 



CHAPTER ni. 



ADJECTIVE NOUNS — COMPARATIVW AND 
SUPERLATIVES. 

Italian Adjectives end with one of the vowels, o, a, e. 

GBNOER. 

Adjectives ending in o, are masculine, and become 
fenunme by cban^ng o into a ; as, 

vkimdsA, \ virtuous , IfancmUA vkimkJL, U virtuous 

[youog woman : 

tmciroy } sincere, ^ amdm mcSrOy m., sincere love ; 

tUicirAt ^ blameless ; ( nmtwrjL sinc^A, f., blameless na- 

[ture. 

Adjectives ending in e, are of the common gender ; as. 



r mSdo cortisEy m., courteous 
, . ) {manner ; 



cort^E, m. & f., courteous ; j .^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ courteous' 
C * [soul : 

i consigiiofuUlE, m., faithful 

fediltt m. & f., faitkf\il ; ] [counsel ; . 

( gtddAfodilEy f^ ftuthlul guide. 



rtfKMATION OF THK PLURAL. 

Adjectives ending in o, e, form the plural by chang- 
ing o, e, into t ; as, 

<tmino, } ^^lUrhtM • 5P***<^^^ mtUno, s^ delightful pleasare ; 
amini, j "« » (lud^i amim, p^ delightful places : 

prvahUE, } J CgintEprudMm, s., pmdent people ; 

ymrfifTtlr S P^^i^^ ' i whmni prudMi, p. m., prudent men ; 
^/^^* ' ( virgini prudhdi^ p. C, pradent virgins. 



ADJECTIVfiS. 63 

The adjectiTe beUo, * handsome', * beaiitifi4'> before nowna be- 
giDning with s foUowed by snolker eansonant, z, or a vowel, makei 
ocgli in (he plural ; at, 

heohi 5T6cchif beautiful mirrora ; 

bechi naffiri, beautiful sapphirei ; 

ktoiA 6cehif beautifixl eyes. 



Adjectives endiog in a, form the plural by changing a 
iuto c 5 as, . 

prezidsk, ? „-^:o„g. S «i<«a preztdtA, s., precious jewel ; 
prezuk^y i Ft^ivu«» , ^ pi^fy^ prexiosmj p^ precious stones. 



Adjectives ending in cOf go; ca, ga ; cioy gio; da, 
gia ; chios ghia^ glio ; and ioj in the singular, £^bW| 
in the plural^ the rules already given for the fortmfiion 
of the plural of Substantives. 



AGREEMENT 07 ADJECTIVES. 

Itdian adjectives agree with their substantives in gen- 
der and number ; as, 

lidmo dAto ed ammaesMto, a kiurned and well-instnicted 

man; 

bu6n± e vtrtudsA ghUE^ good and virtuous people ; 

valordsi whnini, biUK ddnnz, brave men,, fair women, pretty 
Uggi&ik^ guhani, youths. 

EXAMPLSS. 

Grdndt intendtmhUo i quelh ^reat is the understanding 

d'vH v6mo virtuoso, cdmejk of a virtuous roan, as he was. 
cestui. (Ft. Sacch. n. 75.) 

Ui SibiUa ^ bellusima' kak- The Sibylis a very beauti- 

cn^iXAy^^ne a//6i)dto, e viSTUiS- ^fvL\ young woman, well bred, 
8 A. (Lasc. Sibill. U.) and yirtuousl 



64 



ANALOGY. 



.Via manifesta la chrnhnay e 
si.vcf Ro am6re, che il ditto re 
vortdva el ndstro comune. (Giov. 
Vill. 1. 1. c. 2.) 

Questa HATt^RA id sko foL' 
tdreunUoj — Qudlfu credta, fn 
siJfC^RA e htiCna. (Dant. Par. 7) 

O AKIMA C0RT1E8K MaiUOTa- 

na. (Dant. Inf. 2.) 

fn dubbio stdto si Ki.Di£L 
coKsirjLio. (Petr. c. 49.) 

Prese a perauadir Tibirio, 
ch' e' tiotsse fu&ri di TKina^ in 
LuuGui AM^Ni. (Dav. Tac. am. 
4.95.) 

Lacndt^ secjndo ch* io posso 
far conghittiura, che e ^uillo 
che i pritd£hti u6mini chtdma- 
no indovindref tu mottfi d'essere 
innamordta agramente. (Firena. 
A sin. 150.) 

Virgine sag^, e del hcl 
numero vna — DelLe he Ate vtn- 
GiHi pRCDifciiTi. (Petr. c. 49.) 

Jn me movindo dS^ BEviLi 
occur i rdi — Cria d' amor pen- 
siiri. (Petr. s. 9.) 

£ trovo in qu6lla cassa nioltc 
pRXZi6sK Pi^TKK, e Ugate, t 
scidlte. (Bocc. g. 2 n. 4.) 

Rice HI d6lU prede di' Fio- 
rcntini. (Giov.Vill. 1. 9. ^. 320.) 

MClti chcrici, eziandio da li5s- 
cHE pdrti, comincidrono a vt- 
Jiifc al sirvo di D'lO. (Vit^S. 
Giov. Gualb. 295.) 

D'«n medcsmo peccato al 
manda lkrci. (Dant. Inf. 15.) 

Qu6lU drehe d'argcrUo, — Cht 
Uimeresii piinc di tcsorOj — 
Spdrte son piint di vesctche 
DUHK. (Tass. Am. J . 2.) 



Let the clemencj, and sin- 
cere lore, which the said kinp 
bore to our commmiitj, W 
manifest. 

This nature with its Maker 
thus conjoined, — Created first 
was blameless, and good. 

O courteous Mantuan soul. 



In a doubtful condition so 
faithful counsel. 

He undertook to persuade 
Tiberius, that he should lire in 
some delightful place, oat of 
Rome. 

Therefore, as far as I can 
conjecture, which is what pru- 
dentmen call to guess, you ap- 
pear to be greatlj Ib love. 



Wise Virgin, and one of the 
beautiful number of the blessed 
prudent virgins. 

Turning the .beams of her 
beautiful eyes to me; creates 
thonii^hts of love. 

And she found in that chest 
many precious stones, some 
set, and some not set. 

Enriched with the booty of 
the Florentines. 

Alany cler|nrmen, even from 
distant parts, began to come to 
see the servant of God. 



By one same sin polluted in 
the world. 

Those chests of silver, which 
you would imagine to be filled 
with treasures, are baskets filU 
ed with empty bladders. 



COMPARATIVES. 



Cm per li gran wkyj H eon- 
fissa, — Che la Fenice muore, e 
poi rinoMCe. (Dant. Inf. 24.) 

U6mo d6tto dille scriUure, 

KD AMMAKSTRATO tUUa Jidt dt 

Crista. (Add. Cayalc. Att. 
Aport. 113.) 

. Mia terili* e questa — Jidta di 

BC6nA X Y1RTC68A GENTX. 

(Arios. Fur. 18. 82.) 

(^udnti val6rosi u6Miiri, 
qudnte Bi^LLK D6ififK, qudnti 
LEOGiADRi Gi6vivi, la scra ve- 
giKfUti nell* dltro wiondo cendro- 
no can li loro passdti ! (Bocc. 
Intf.) 



So mighty sages toll, tlMLi the 
Phoenix dies, and springs forth- 
with renascent. 

A man learned in Holjr 

Writ, and well instructed in 
the Christmn faith. 



This is my sister, hom of 
good and virtuous people. 

How many braye men, how 
many fair women, how many 
pretty youths, the coming 
evening, supped in the other 
world with their d eparte d 
friends ! 



UBflT: 



COMPARATIVE! 



niveesit:-' 

Comparatives are generalJj fo^'^^O'ft^wJWSA'Jb^^ ^ 
the ad^ectiffe or positive the adverb |nV, *toI^Sb%x* -'^"'^^^ 
press a relation of superiority : meno, ' less', to express 
a relatioQ of inferiority : and si or cosi; * so', tanto^ * so', 
* so much' ; quantOj ' as', ' as much' ; quanto ptii, « the 
more' ; quanto meno, ^ the less' ; <dtrettdnto, * as', * as 
much' ; to express a relation of equality j between the 
objects compared ; as, 

lielo, happy ; nil li^to, more happy ; 

aUira, proud ; mtvo altAra, less proud ; 

b^UOf beautifbl ; si or cosi b^ll a, so beautiftil ; 

sdno, healthy; tAvtobAso, so healthy; 

famdsog famone; quanto fam690, as famous; 

ttUiho^ proud ; (jtrXitTo- phl^-altii^ro, the more proud ; 

nocinU, guilty ; qua5to utyo ifoci^TE, the less guUty ; 

conlMi, pleased ; j ALTTRETxiNTO^^c^N. J ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Comparatives of superiority and inferiority generally 
require before the second of the objects compared, or, 
what is the same, the second term of comparison^ the 



C6 ANALOGY. 

preposition di, * than% if it be a subsiantive noun or pro- 
noun j or a numeral adjective ; and the conjunction cAe, 
« than', if it be any other ndjeciive^ a verhj or an ad- 
verb ;* as, 

nil lido Di ME, more happy than I ; 

MEW hUlo DEL viso, Icss beautiful than the face ; 

riik Di MiLLE scdglij more than a thousand rocks; 

Pill firie c::b satio, more strong than wise ; 

non nine odtnifin che ? not less odoriferous than are the 
attvole spizit, ^ drugs ; 

Fiu hiUa CHE itfXri more handsome than jever. 

Sometimes these coroparatires are formed by the adverbs miglio, 
* better', and peggiOj ' worse' ; and then they alwinrs require ^, or 
fAe, before the second term of comparison; according to the gen- 
eral rale ;* a^ 

MKr.Lio d' ALTi;r, dieeimilia better than another ten thou- 

dobbrCf sand pistoles ; 

una deUt P£i6io maritdtt oneof the worst-married that 

CHE sf A, * there is. 

Very oflen the second term of comparison is a verb undersl96d 
or a profumn and a verb, and then this second term of comparison 
jilways requires eke before it ; as, 

storgevasi rih pompa cue , there was perceived more 
[scorg^yasi] Icaltdj pomp Ihan sincerity. 

pii^ bzUa CHE [r] iina lamia. more beautiful than a lamia. 

scappo p^GGio CHE [scdppa] he fled worse (niore Tiolent- 

un toro, ly) than a bull ; 

iTUtndi uioLio ch' io non thou understandest better 

hagiqno, than I can speak; 

* ThiB, howoTor, U not without oxcepUoDy u we oot seldom meet, in tli« 
Clanics, with oxpresflioni tiiniUr to these .- 

ir%nd6n*a n\l HOa a$$ai chi 'l A womsD a great deal more bean 

t6LS. (Petr. e. M.) tiAil than the sun. 

Rtpmfktmei uhno edre^nt tCttb Do we-conaider ouneWes lea« dear 

r 4Ure f (Boce. Introd.) than all the othen ? 

r» 90 utoiAO cHB Scrao 4i^aM/«r 1 know how to do what I wisk, bet - 

o^'cikf Uv^^. (Boce. f. 9. n. &.) ter than any other man. 



COMPARATIVES. 



(W 



Comparatives of equality always require before the 
second term of comparison another adverb correlativo to 
that by which they are formed. Thus, 



SI or cosij 80, as ; 
ianio, so, ' 80 much ; 

qu&nlo, as, as much ; 

quttniopiiij the more; > g, 

qudnto ffi^no, the 1^88 ; 
aUreMnto, as, Us much ; ^ 



qu6ntOy 
tdnto, 

idntopiu, or 
t6nto tnhw, 



as; 

as; 

\ the more, or 
\ the less ; 



tanto mSno, or / the less, or 



tdntopiu, 



, qudfUoj or ahne, as : 



I the more ; 



a HHa come hiUa, 
TANTO «<lno qi^iNTO io. 



QCArrro 
tAitto 



f^ffli) (*ra famaso, 
^fiaj ^a beUissimOj 

QVANTo Piu aUi^ro, tXnto 
M^o amoio, 

quAnto Mi^ive nor^nff, taxto 
nii impazUnle, 

altrettAxto contMi, come 



as glad as fair ; 

as healthy or strong as I ; 

as much as he was famous, 
she was heautiflil ; 

the more proud, the less he- 
loved; 

the less gnilty, the more im- 
patient; 

as pleased ae if the Duke 
had come. 



Sometimes come, 'as % and quale ^ ' as ', ' like ', are used to fbrin 
these comparatives, and then they require the correlatives cosi^ 
' thus ', and tale, * such ' ; as, 



tt^u^il freddo mi offese, cosi il 
cdldo mi fa noia, , 

ai ALE [c6Ipo] OMfio da in pa- 
rite, TAi. [colpo] rid re, 



as the cold injured me, thus 
the heat annojs me ; 

the ass who kicks against the 
wall, receives such a blow as 
he gives. 



Tdntc, fudnto, altrettdnto, and qudle, and their correlatives, 
<f^tnetimes are made to agree with the nouns with which they are 
i.-ed ; as, 



tdnU voltu qudrUt., 

fudn<E HE teggono, tdntr. 5C 
desiderano, 

cinqudnta PaUmdstri, taltreU 
tdntfi Avemanx, 

pmgdto di tdlm monetk, qudli le 
derrdtr. h-ano stdf vend4Ue, 



as many times as ; 

as many as they see, so many 
they desire ; , 

fifty Paternosters, and as many 
Ave-Marias ; 

paid in such money, as the 
provisions had been sold for. 



^ 



ANALOGY. 



Oiten the adverbs cost and tanto are suppressed, and 
ihe comparative is formed by the use of their correlatives 
only; as, 

[cosi] bianco come w^re, white as snow ; 



Vattendtrb [tanto] quanto 



I will wait for thee as loug- 
as thou wishest! 



To increase or diminish the force of comparatives, 
we make use of the adverbs irippo, m6lto or assai, or 
via or vie, * far', ' much,' or * a great deaP, before piu, 
and meno ; as, trdppOj mdlio, or audi piu — via or vie 
piitj * much,' or * a great deal more ' ; trdppo, moUoy or 
asiii wUno — via or vie meno, ' much ' or * a great deal 
less ' ; as, 

tr6ppo piu yUa, a great deal more beautiful ; 

h6lto piu cdrt, much more dear : 

ASSAI ri^ luctTitt, far more bright ; 

VIE prt /(We, a great deal rowe strong ; 

MOLTo MEN fdrii, ' imicli less able. 



EX A» P L £ 9. 



La rividi piu lUla c meku 
ALTERA. (Petr.s.261.) 

vTe55un tisse g'tammai piu 
Di MK Li^TO. (Petr. c. 7.) 

Deh! senonkai deu viso U 

GT MEN 8ELI0. (AflOSt Fllf. 
C. 4.) 

JC sperdndo tenire in migHCr 
porto — Poi mi condusse in riu 
i>i mfi.iE gco-Ji t. (Petr. c. 21.) 

SappidU cht quelle cdmere sv- 
no NON m£no ADORiriRE, ciii: 
ti^Ho i b^ssoli dclLT. sriziF 
d^le vCstra hotUgn. (Bocc. g. 
a n. 9.^ 

Saro fill ^HK MAI DELL A. 

(Petr.) 

i^Hlo^ che raise m]£glio 
i»- Altrje dikcimIlia d^bbre. 
(Bocc. g. 10. n. 9.) 



I saw her again, more beau- 
tiful and less proud. 

None ever lived more happv . 
than I. 

Ah ! if thou hast not a 
heart Ie4js beautiful than thy 
face. 

And hoping to come to a bet- 
ter harbor, be conducted me up- 
on more than a thousand rocks. 

Know that those chambers 
are not less odoriferous, than 
are the boxes of drugs in your 
shop. 



1 shall be 
than ever. 



more beautiful 



That, which was more valu- 
able thaji another ten thousand 
pistoles. 



COMPARATIVES. 



» 



id son pur t^NA di^lle t^g- 
f-io MAtLiTkrE femiru che sia 
mi mondo. (Firenz. Luc. 4. 1,) 

ScoBGEVAsi in ^uesto parldre 
di THb^rio fiu pompa che le- 
altA. (Dav. Ann. Tac. 1. 1.) 

UHla e una giovane guaggiu 
che i riu b£lla che i^ha la- 
mia. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 5.) 

Ff OGIO ens UN TORO SCAPPO 

dnW altar e, (Day. Storio.) 

5^' SdviOT *KT]£lfDI ME* CH'l' 

50S iia(ji6no. (Dant. Inf. 2.) 

V6lta ver me si lii^ta c6.mb 
BELLA. (Dant Par. 2.) 

Seio avessi cosib^lla c6tta 
COME ELLA. (NoT. ant 25.) 

Tahto il fdccia Dio sano 
deiU r6ni quanto io. (Bocc.) 

ClcAifTO trd* cavaLieri tRk 
it Marchise fimoso, tAhto la 
ddnna tra tiUte I* dltre ddnne del 
mondo iSftA BELLfsnuA. (Boec. 
g. l.n.5.) 

Tafto piu eieco ton %o di it 
ucAKTo piik s&t^ am&nte. (Guar. 
Pait. Fid. 3. 3.) 

E^SSa TAIITO FIU JMPAZIEN- 

•txmente sditenHa quesia n6ia 
dcAMTo M^iro si sentiva Nociif- 
TE. (Bocc. g. 7. n. 5.) 

Dilla venuta de^ cavalieriy i 
Fiorentinifurono altrettAnto 

CONT^ltTI, COME SE FOSSE VENlJ- 

To IL DiJc'A in persona. (Giov. 
Vill. 1. 10.) 

Demetrio, ndstro amtco, tiidl 
dtrCf che ALTRETriiiTO gU i del- 
le parole dilla fille genie ^ au au- 
to di^ su6ni che fa il rento. (S«n. 
Pint.) 



I am indeed one ttf the wont- 
married women in the world. 



There was perceiyedJn this 
speech of Tiherioi more pomp 
than sincerity. 

There is a yonng woroas 
here helow more beautiful than 
a lamia. 

He fled from the altar worse 
(more violently) than a bull. 

llion art wise, and under - 
standost better than I can speak. 

Turning to md with aspect 
as glad as fair. 

If I had so beautiful a dress 
as she. 

May God make him as strong 
in his loins as I am. 

As much as the Marquis was 
famous among the knights, the 
lady was beautiful among the 
other ladies. 



I am as much more blind than 
thou as I am more enamoured. 



She 'bore this yexation so 
much the more impatiently, 
the less she felt g«ilty. 

The Florentines were as 
pleased with the arriyal of the 
knightSy as if the Duke had 
come in person. 

Demetrius, our friend, used 
to si|y, that it happens with the 
words of foolish persons, as it 
does with the sounds which the 
wind makes. 



70 



ANALOGY. 



£ coMK IE irdpp^ frAodo 
juista nytu mi opf^sb, cosi il 
CALDO uHncominciaa w at gran- 
iissima nbik. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

AssAi dee ^astdre a eiaseunOj 

it *QUiLB ASIKO DJL IN PARiTE, 

TAL ricAve', senza tolere dltre 
ingiuTtdre. (Bocc. g. B. n. 8.) 



TaNTE volte aVAlTTE clU 

nclU memdria mt ri^ne. (Bocc. 
FUoe.) 

Jfon sihto i giovani d* una- 
rojaintif mm avAVTX he teg- 

oOSa, TANTE KE DESfDERA!«0. 

(Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.} 

Lm mat tin M si vudU anddre al 
. la ehiesat e quivi dirt cutacAv- 

TA PATE^HOiTRI K ALTRET- 

TA^a-v AteharIb. (Bocc.g. 
3. n. 4.) 

Videsi Di tal MOifiTA paga- 

TO, dUiiLI LE DEBRATB iRA50 

stAtb vbnd<^te. (Bocc. g. 6. 
11.5) 

Vn, vestiminto di lino sotHrts- 
simOf e bianco cqhr b^^te. 
(Bocc. g. 10. n. 6 ) 

I'o voUntieri — T' attesde- 
Ro avJbrro vroi. (Maff. Mer. 

4.2.) 

TnopfO piu bklla gli pdrvc. 
«Ae stimdlo non atia. (Bocc. c. 
7.n.7.> 

Molto pto 6c/^c e piu cake, 
ckcndinon sidmo, {Bocc. Intr.; 

Ond' ella fcsU — LccfwTE 
Piu ASSAi di q^cl eh" fll' era. 
(Dant. Par. 5.) 

Vedi Sansone — Vie piu for- 
te CHE SAVio. (Petr.Tr. Amor.) 

E^Ue s6no molto men f6;*ti 
*k9 gli udmini a sostenire. 
"^oce. Introd.) 



And as tha •zceearre cold 
]a»t night injured me, thus the 
heat begins now to ftnnoj me 
great]/. 

It ought to be qoite softcient 
for any one, that < the ass who 
kicks aeainkt the walJ,receiTe9 
such a blow, as he giyes/ with- 
out wishing to cause any far- 
ther injury. 

As many times as she comes 
into my remembrance. 

foung people are not satisfi- 
ed with one ; but as many they 
s«e, so many they desire. 



In the morning we most go 
to church, and there say 6ny 
Fatemoiters and bs many Are- 
Marias. 



He saw himsilf paid in such 
money as the provisions had 
l>een sold for. 



A garotent of linen rtry fine, 
and white as snow. 



I will wait for thee willingly 
as long as thod wishest. 

She appeared to him a great 
deal taore beautiful than he 
had imagined. 

Much more fair and much 
more dear, than we are. 

Whence she became far more 
bright than she had been. 

See SampBon a great deal 
more strong than wise. 

They are much less abU 
than men to bear. 



COMPARATIVES. 



EXERCISE III. 

He has no other — more children than him. I know not, who 
— A«» fCon} — figUudlo lui. — 5o2 /fon,l chi 

coukl recover I my property | more properly than thou. 
pQSS% riscudtere \ il otto | converuvole te. 

Peter, who had more desire of eating than of sleeping, 
Pietr9f che aviva vdglia mangiore dormiref 

asked whether there was any thing I for | supper. We 
domanddva se vi fosit alcurui c6$a\ da \ cena. 

are less powerfiil than the Greeks, "the^ have more 
sUmo poderdso GrecOf esn h&nno 

bratery, wealth, and wisdom than we. Who | would fare I 
pivdezza, tesdro, e 8aj>ere ndi. Chi | staribbe \ 

better than I, if that money* were mine? In this 
fFitf, se quel dendro fottero miii f questo 

reason the nights are longer than the da^s. He began 
stmgidne nitU sono lungo d%: — Comineio 

to coast along (the) Barbarj, robbing evezy-one who 
- a costtggidrt — Barhena, rvhdndo citacuno che 

1 was less powerftil I than he. I i do not 1 say, that it 
I jMtteva meno | lui, \ non \ dieo, eke 6i 

is not a sin, but God pardons I (oH I greater sins to 
ria» nor^ — pecediOy ma Iddio perddna j (it?) | grdnde a 

I bim who 1 repents himself. It appeared that she was 
1 chi 1 peute* w.* *-— Paria che ilU fosse 

whiter than (Ihe) snow. She afflicts more than she con- 
hieMeo . nite. — 'AffAgge — cwi- 

soles (nU). 

None in this wretched world was so miserable as I 
ffHtno quisto sdagurdlo mdndo fu mtsero i# 

am. Am' I not as beautifulf as (ji) the wife df 
. s^m^ io3 Abnt beUo sia mdglie 

Richard T' Who commended bim so much as thou ? 
Rkeiard^f CIU samfnemdo^ ii* <■ ^ 

• TlktU »4m«y, in the plur*l nomb«r. 



72 ANALOGY. 

The master gvre as much fkith to the werdfl of Bruno, as 
muhtro dUd* f6d§ p€r6U Bruno, 

was due I to anj truth. 1 I began I 
H MreM« C4mvenutti \ qualumpts weritd, \ comincid? | 

to flee as much as I could. I will defend her certainly 
•.^fuggtri^ '— P«<^*. Po dtfenierd^ la* - per ceitol 



as much as I | shall be able. | 



paird- I 

The more the heart is excited, the less can (the) 
cuh-^ 6 cmnm6s99t jmd 

man express I his t feeling. The more crazy he i:i 

than you, the more he is enamoured. As J it came into his 
voij — t innemordio. \ £ii vhtne in 

mind, 1 so he did. I wish to ^o to hear (the) mass, 
ptmUro, I — fece. Fo v6gUa andar§ miss; 

and recommend myself to God as much as I can. 
e rmccamdniMT^mi Dig — ' — p6sso. 

His I presence | will make it appear to us | much more 
L« sua I preshtza | celo fard partre f | 

joTfuL I For I (the) which object (the) fortune was i a great 
aUegro, \ A \ qudU sggcttfi fortima fu? \ 

deal more I propitious to him. This family is far greater, 
» I prspizia^ gU.^ Que^to famigUa i grdndtj 

and a great deal more known. A great deal more pure 
eonosduta., pinm 

than a white dore. 
Candida colomha. 



SUPERLATITES. 



Relative superlatives are formed by ' prefixing^ the 
article^ fl, t or /t, * the', for the masculine, and la, /«, 
* the', for the feminine, to the comparative ; 'as, 

jnw fArUy more strong ; il piu/drU, the most strong ; 
jw^rezzrfft, more graceful; ipmvezztki, the most gracefhl ; 
min^fiUca, less fresh ; %a nUnaJHsea, the least fresh ; 
pi^ hOle^ more li^autiful ; lb pik 6^ the mo«ft beaatiful. 



SUPERLATIVES. 73 

When tbefle superlatives are followed by a second 
term of comparison, and this is a noun or a pronoun^ 
they require the prepositions di^ < of or in '; fra or. trUf 
* amongst' ; after them ; as» 

U piufMe Di TiiTTi gli the BtroDgest of all men ; 

i piu vezzdsi fancvuUi the most gracefiil children in 
Dsx. MoivDO, the world ; 

UfriuperfHteTKA^TAwTj, the most perfect amongst so 

many. 

If the second term is a verhy the superlative requires 
the conjunction cAe, * that' ; after it ; as, 

U piu/dke che'm tr6ti the happiest man that can be 
sUio It sUUe^ found under the stars ; 

U jnu sdvto u6mo che the wisest man ever was in the 
r68SE al mdndo, world. 

When the object compared, or the^r^f term of com' 
parison, precedes the superlative, the article of this 
superlative is generally suppressed ; as, 

UJidre [il] put billo, the most beautiful flower; 

V eth [la] menjrisca, the least fresh age. 

Absolute superlatives are formed by changing the last 
vowel of the plural of adjectives, into issimo for the 
masculine, and into issima for the feminine ; as, 

6^1, beautiful ; ^^ssimo, very beautiful ; 

riechEy rich ; WccWssima, very rich ; 

/«w., faithful; l:fSZi.h«'y«^f»i- 

A few adjectives take the termination irrimo^ for the 
masculine, and irrimay for the feminine, in their super- 
lative ; as, 

ciledre, celebrated; cek&iaRiMO, very celebrated; 

sUubrt^ wholesome ; «ifii5iaB.iMA, very wholesome ; 

<l«rc, wy^t^i oetRRiMO, very severe. 

7 



74 ANALOGY. 

These superlatives may be also formed by prefixing 
the adverbs trippOy mdUo, or wiU, * very', to the posi- 
tive; as, 

pihu^ foil; Tm6ppo pi^w«, very foil; 

rdr«, rare ; m6lto nire, very rare ; 

vtcim, near; assAi ricim, very near: 

Or by making use of such expressions as, s6pra 6gnx 
aliroy * above every other one' ; sCviza mddo^ • exceed- 
ingly' ; tSnza fine, ' extremely' ; fu6r di mis^ra, * be- 
yond measure' ; fcc. ; as, 

s6pra ogvi AhTKofdiee, happy above every other one ; 

gr6$90 siNZA M 6do, exceedingly coarse ; 

hedta sivzA. liicE, extremely blesaed ; 

doUnU ru6R di MisiiiiA, grieved beyond measure. 

Very often we form them by repeating the adjective ; 

vfoo, lively ; ' vivo vivo, very lively ; 

picdno, small ; piecino Picciifo, very small ; 

Unia, slow; /^nte lAwta, very slow. 

To increase the force of superlatives, we use the 
adverbs, jHtf, * more'; mSltOj * much'; tanto, * so much'; 
before them; and sometimes we raise the repeated 
adjective to the superlative degree ;* as, 

Fiili nobilissimoy very noble ; 

if6LTo beUUsifnOj extremely beautifol ; 

tAitto hemssimOf so very beantifol ; 

gr&ndi eRAimissmi, exceedingly great 

There are a few adjectives, which beside their regular 



* Thit fonn offlzpreMion ii fbond in tb« 9UxUtt el«Mic«, tkoofh rtry mUom 
adopted by modem writon. 



SUPERLATIVES. 



75 



Italian form, retain in the comparative and superlative 
degree the irregular form which they have in Latin ; as, 



budno, 



[good ; I or mioli6re, J ^®^^^ ' 



catiho, \ piU cattivo, 
[bad ; { or PEoei6RE, 

[great; { or taAGGi6iuB/ J S^^^^T^y 
pUcoto, ^pii^ piccolo, > ^^^^^. 



[small ; ( or mir6re,* 



or 6TiiMi, r^' 



to which may be added, 

suPERibRE, superior; | ^^So,' J ^*^^*'»^ ' 
iifFERi6R£, inferior; iiifimo, lowest 



XXAMPLEfl. 



Rmeeontano ancdra^ eke tra 
l&rofu EfreoUf il piil ports di 

TtJTTI GLI UOMINI. (Det. ToC. 

Germ.) 

E'ran i piU htiUf e i Pi^ vkz- 

ZOSI FAMCldLLI DEL MONDO. 

(Bocc. g. 3.) 

£ di tdrtoU ho preto ima, 
nidiata — Le piu b£lle dd 
mdndo. (Bocc. Amet. 15.) 

Tra tAiiti, e $i h6i vSUi il 
pia pxRpiTTo. (Petr. s. dOl.) 



.They relate also, that among 
them was Hercules, the strong- 
est of all men. 



^ They were the most beau- 
tiful and the roost graceful 
children in the world. 

And I haye taken a nest-fhU 
of turtles, the most beautiful in 
the world. 

The most perfect amongst so 
many, and so beautiful coun- 
tenances. 



* From tlMte two comparativoi aro derived the fabttantivei maggi6r$ and 
wm&r*^ which, need in the plural, are eauiTalent^-iiuygtdW, to *parentr, * aneet- 
ton*, *toperiora*} — mindri, to *inforiora'; at, 

d* n6i MAO0i6ai ; Diiobelient to hia parente. 



DinMUidnU 

(Paai.) 

Cki fitr U iiAOOi6a tudil (Uant. 
Int. 10.) 

Epmrdium rinie 4iHta reverintm AlH 
ifAoai6mi, tU dibiu mantuetiidine 
iUi Mi«6iu. (Boco. Com. Dant. 
Inf. 8.) 



Who ware thj anceitore .' 

Therefore he neither treaU with 
due reverence hii iuperiore, nor 
wit|i due miMnera hia inreriore. 



76 



ANALOGY. 



Sttrd iL riik FKLicm, « eon- 
tinto v4mOf chb si tr6vi sotto 
LB 9TKLLB. (Maccb. Com.) 

]^gU era il rixi sivio, td U 
piU ameduto vouo cin al 
MoiTDo roMB. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 
10.) 

Il FIOKB Ft^ BiLLO idZ* €<d 

iuf5tra. (Lod. Mart. Rim.) 

QnH fu6co, ch'io pensai, eke 
fosse spento — Da l'btI mbic 
FRitCA. (Petr. c. 13.) 

Jissdi sostinne — Per bbllIs* 
siMO awidr quisli al sua tewtpo. 
(Petr. s. 172.) 

Fdtta fare imm RiccBissiMA 
cor(ma d'6ro e dipietre prezuise, 
per earondrsi re di Lombardia. 
(GioT. Vm.l. 11.C.76.) 

Per la loro singcidr pielcL 
versa fuisla Samta Side, e verso 
tuUi ndi, euoi FKOELlstiMi Mfr- 
vUdri, (Casa, lett. 23.) 

^chUa, ingegner Celebes- 
miuo tra gli anHeki, CSegn. 
Critt. instr. 3. 2.) 

n reobdrbaro si i loro medi- 
citia SALUBfaiuMA. (Tratt. 
•egr. COB. donn.) 

U Duca di Ghdderi, acc^r- 
RiMO mnUco sua. (Guicc. Stor. 
6.) 

Ae dmbit0 pu»Um eks non siin 
di queUif eke dirdnno U c6se 
detU isaer troppo pi£hb di mdi- 
tie di ddnct, (Bocc. Concl.) 

Som uoLTO RARE a ceredre le 
noHzU, (Borgh. Tobc. 352.) 

E un giomOf AtsAi ticIsi 
dilla edmera, sioo vudismi, 
cominciirano a ragiandre. 
(BocB. n. 1.) 



I ahaU be tba moat happjr 
and tbe most contented man, 
that can be found under the 
Btara. 

He was the moat wise, and 
the most waij man eyer wbb in 
the world. 

The most beautiiiil flower of 
oar age. 

That fire, which I thought 
would be extinguished bj raa- 
turer age. 

This one suffered much in 
his time for the love of a yery 
beautiful person. 

Haying caused to be made a 
yery rich crown of gold and of 
precious stones, in order to 
crown himself king of Lombar- 

Through their singular piety 
towards this Holy See, and to- 
wards us all, iu meet fiuthfal 
seryantB. 

Archytas, a yery celebrated 
architect amongst the ancients. 

Rhubard is for them a yery 
wholesome medicine. 



The Duke of Ghelderi, his 
most seyere enemy. 

Ko* d<»obt I »i all, that there 
are many, who will say, that 
the things which 1 haye said 
are yerj full of words and idle 
stories. 

News is yery rare to be 
found. 

And one day, yery near that 
room, they began to talk aaiK^ng 
themselyes. 



SUPERLATIVES. 



77 



JEftmdva il prhue sopra 

OflVI iLTRO FSlIcX. (BoCO. g. 

a n. 7.) 

l/o0u> nuUeridUf e oB68to 
sivzA MoDo. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 6.) 

Fdmmiy eke fuoi^ dilla sua 
grdzia digno, s^nza fIhx o 
BEAT A. (Petr. c. 49.) 

DOL^HTB F06b DI MIS^BAi 

sinx* alcun indvgiOf cid eke il 
fx domanddva fece. CBocc. g. 
2. n. 7.) 

E^bbe un cavaUOj e dd* su6i 
/dnd U/ice vivo vivo scorticdre. 
(Nov. ant 54.) 

Ban, • divento Piccf n piccino. 
(Buonar. Tier. 2. 4.) 

Eflla Ben va notdndo l^nta 
LinTA. (Dant. Inf. 17.) 

Id^o fice Vu6mo piu kobi- 
lIssimo che gli aJUri animdli. 
(Cniaca.) ^ 

Vide Vdmbra sua molto bkl- 
LiSBiMA. (Nov. Ant 43.) 

Ajpprisso i qudli Biancafiore 
vimva tInto BSLLfssiMA, che 
ogni comparazidne ci soria 
scdrsa, (Bocc. Filoc. 7.) 

Qfnde pr6ta tUUo stdmaco 
travdgU graitdi orabdUsimi. 
(Red. cons. 1. 16.) 

I'o non potr6i trattdre per la 
salute d6' mUifratiUi con mag- 
uioR affezion itdnimOf ni con 
MioLioR m6do di qu^llo^ ehe ho 
to traUdXo. (Caso. lett 21.) 

Col PEGGioRB sptrto di R(h 
magma — Troudi itn tal di vH^ 
dU per sn^ dpra — In dnima in 
Coato gid si hdgna. fDant 

Inf. sa) 

Ondenel c^rckio MmoRX in 
etimo 6 constmto, (Dant. Inf. 
11.) 



He thought the prince happy 
above every other one. 

An exceedingly coarse and 
uncouth man. 

Make me, O von who can, 
extremely blessed lady, worthy 
of his favor. 

Grieved beyond measure, 
without any delay, he did that 
which the Ring wished. 

He had a horse, and caused 
it to be flayed all alive by his 
servants. 

He came near dying, and 
became very small. 

It went on sailing very slow. 



. God made man much more 
noble than the other animals. 

He saw his shadow extreme- 
ly beautiful. 

Next whom came Biancafiore 
so very beautiful, that every 
comparison would fail. 



Wherefore he experiences 
exceedingly great pains in his 
stomach. 

I could not act for the wel- 
fare of my brothers with greater 
interest, nor in a better manner 
than that in which I have 
acted. 

In company with the worst 
spirit of flomagna I found such 
an one of you, as, for his do- 
ings, even now in soul is plung- 
ed in Cooytus. 

Whence in the smaller circle 
is eternally consumed. 

7* 



78 ANALOaV. 

U qumie daUa pdrie svpkri- Which from the saperuw to 

ORK aUa iHFXBioBX da U suo the inferior part fires its sweet 

dolcty e eoHsondnU su&no. and harmonions sonnd. 
(Declam. Qaintil. C.) 

Le vdltevUne iT ottimi vim. The cellars full of the hmat 

(Bocc. g. 3.) wines. 

'■~ Batindo stdto in tila un Having been in his Kfe m, 

pissiMo uomo. (Boco. n. 1.) very bad man. 

La mIssima mttivitd di* rdggi The greatest power of Iho 

sUdri. (Sag. Nat. esp.) solar rays. 

Le mInimx alterazioni del The smallest alterations of 

Sriddo. (Sag. Nat. esp.) cold. 



£X£RCIS£ IV. 

Let the strongest of all the Romans come forwtrd. 

— » * » tiUXtfi ' Romdntifi Vinga^ iirndtui* 

The rostra were immediately covered I with the 1 
* T6itr€^ Fwranol suHtmmint^ eop6rH* | d6* \ 

heads of the most illustrious patricians. He caused, in 
ftf«rAto ^ Ulustrt? patnzio} — Fiee^ 

a short space of time, | to be made I one of the nK>st 

beautifti], and of the lai^st, and of the richest palaces, 
hiUo grcmde rieeo ptUdgio, 

which • had ever been seen. I esteem him the most 

fistero^ wmH* stdti veduti. Po r^ptOo^ il} , 

handsome, the most a^eable, the most gracefhl, and the 
M^, fnadvoUj leggiddrOf 

most wise kniffht that 1 can be found I in the kingdom of 
sdvio cawuUre | travdr si posta^ \ t reSm^ ^ 

France. He was the most amusing man in the world. 
Frdncia* — E^ra. soUazzivole u6mo mdndo. 

She is the most happy woman in the world. The 

— JS' 1 3 fetUc* ddnna^ mdmdo. 

planet most remote from the earth. The most furious 
pian£ia r9m6to tirra. « fitri^s^^ 



SUPERLATIVES. 79 

enemies with I their I tall persons, and long spears strike 
fiemico* I le loro \ alto pers&nay lungo dtta fedUcano 

I from a distance. | 
da diacdtto. \ 

Having taken a very large stone, she I let it fall I into 
Pr6sa grande jfiitra, — | la laaqio eaddrt | in 

the welL The stone in reaching (in) the water made a 
p6xio. pietra r— giungindo dcqua fice 

rery great noise. They were dressed I in I a garment 
griindt Tumdre. E'rano ves^i | di \ VMtiminio 

of very fine linen. She was a yery heantifVil woman, 
sirtttU* lino,^ E'ra — dduTia, 

wise, and very virtuous. He is a veiy austere man. A 
sdvio, ofUsto. E'gli c dcre^ udmoA 

very celebrated poet They would commit themselves 
eelebre poita, E'lle vorrebbero^ metter^ n^ 

quite alive I to the flames. H You are exceedingly good. 
9i«o* I nel fudco. \ — ^te bii6no. 

I will be' the best husband in the world. He was 
Po sard mairito m&ndo. E'gU 4ra 

the worst man, that I perhaps oyer was bom. I Be sure* 
udmOf I f&rse mdi naseesse. \ Si6te cSrto, 

that I haye a greater desire I of it I than you. The 
che %o ko^ — 3 vdgUa^ | nel | voi. * 

very great confidence which he has with us I makes him say 
3 em^nza^ ch^ — Aa6 con' noi^ | Gliel fa dire^ 

We have drunk I of the I best wine. He 
— Abbidmo bevuto \ d' un \ vino. 

idoes not pardon him I the smallest fault The highest 
Jfon gh pmrd6na | cdlpa. 

parts were wrapt | in I a dark cloud. 
p^trte irano awolu | d^ | oscuro* nSbbia.^ 



1 



80 ANALOGY, 

CHAPTER IV. 
AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES, 

AUOM£NTATITI^8. 

There are three kinds of augmentatives ; those, that 
express bigness or grandeur ; those that express vigor 
or beauty ; and those that express contempt. 

To express bigness or grandeur^ we change the last 
vowel of nouns, if masculine, into 6ne, 6zzOy and, if 
feminine, into 6ne^ ozza; as, 

cappiUo, hat ; capptUbvE, large hat ;* 

forisA, country girl ; ybre«6zzA, fine country girl ; 

6^0, handsome ; heUo^E^ large and bandBome ; 

JriscAf fresh ; Jresc6zzA, fine and fresh. 

When a feminine noun takes the termination <^«, in the aug- 
mentative, it becomes masculine; as, 

donriAf f.f woman ; donnbvE, m., large woman ; 

eampdfikf f, bell ; campanoNE, m., large belL 



To express vigor or beauty, we use otto, ocdoy for 
the masculine, and dtta, dcciuy for the feminine ; as, 

giovaKE^ youth; giovanbnPTo, handsome and 

[Tigorous youth ; 
hiUx^ fair ; beUdcciA, very fiur ; 

grdadm^ large; grandbiTx, handsome and 

[large; 
gross A, large ; gross6cciA, very large and finn. 

* It if impouiblA to give io anj other tonfoe the lb II and exact meamof oC 
Italian AugmeoUtives ao4 Diminatives ; the translations, therefore, tbroagbout 
this chapter, most be regarded as attempts at expressing bj several vocds, 
and as far as the English permits it, the change of signification wh ch, in ItaJiaa^ 
is effected by a simple change of termination, forming one of tbe striking beaatiee 
of this language. 



AUGMENTATIVES. 81 

To express contempt, we use the termiQatioDS accio, 
azzoy asiro^ for the masculine, and accui, azza^ astray 
aglioy for the feminine ; as, 

UJbro^ book ; /t&rAccio, bad book ^ 

pdpolOi people; jntpolkzzo^ populace; 

gUvanE,^ young man ; ^fiovatiAsTRO, contemptible 

[young man ; 
gMm^ folks; gen^ioLiA, rabble. 



We can join the augmentative termination of bigness 
to that which expresses contempt, and that of contempt to 
that of bigness; and thus form a double augmentative; 
as, 

iM^mo, man ; omAccio, bad man ; onucciCyNE, iv vety 

[bad man ; 
nWWOy ribald ; nftaW6NE, great ribald ; ribaldov A' CCIO^ veiy 

[great nbald. 

And sometimes by repeating .the termination of con- 
tempt, we form a treble augmentative ; as, 

Mnco, wbite; HancisTao, whitish; 

WoncASTRCyNE, slightly whitish; WoncASTaONdccio, of a 

[dirty white. 



SXAMPLBS. 

Per in einpo cappellohi Having on their heads Terr 

U dUa ^lagnuola, (Lmc. large hats after the Spaniah 



BibiU. 2. 2.) faahion. 

E'ra una piaeSwdt, e fresca She was a pleaaant and fresh 

roBKsozzA. (fiocc. g. 8. u. 2.) fine country girl. 

Jfon vidi mdi u&mini piu I never saw more large, 

BBLLoNi. (Care. lett. 2. 1^.) handsome men. 

Vedi tUf d6rma mta, edme le Dost thou see, my good 

TtoMtre sdno tutte rnKSOozzx ? woman, how ours are all fine 

(Agn. Pand. 47.) and fresh ? 

'^^lU guagnel, tu B6i uv bsl In truth, you are a fine large 

DonHoHS. (Bern. rim. 2. 7.) woman. 



82 



ANALOGY. 



Sandte il campahqhx. (Boo- 
nar. Fier. 2 . 3. 9) 

11 valoroso, e gid hd giota- 
n^TTO ^Icilnade fu. moUo famo* 
so. (Mmtt. Franz, rim. lt>9.) 

Ok ! c6me SUa I bra^ e frt- 
scoeeia, • belloocia. (Lm. 
Spir.) 

Po avea una eonea assdi 
ORAHDOTTA. (Mofl. Bin. rim. 
1.202.) 

E'Ua 6 oROssocciA, iarehid- 
ta, e giuliva. (Lor. Med. 
Nenc.) 

Fec^ egli di quelle un famdso 
librIccio. (Allegr. 92.) 

Po no% son ndio dilla JeeeUt 
del poroLA'xzo. (Bocc. g. 10. 

n. 8.) 

Mi non temidmo <r tim oio- 
▼abAstbo. (Day. Tac. Ann. 
L) 

Gu«2<hMi, ^li aecoUelldnti 
OtuUdno^ le ciurme AppoUindrey 
turn cdme capitdnij ma liccnzidsi 
epigrif cdme la lor gkbtaglia. 
(Dav. Tac. Stor. 3.) 

Aeeddde, che ouesti omacci6ki 
Jurono 8conosct7t*i ds henejtcj 
rice^iUi da Gidoe. (Fir. dial, 
bell, donn.) 

Quel RiBALDoificcio ddfra- 
tello ka consumdto tinto. 
(Cecch. Dot. 1. 2.) 

Essendo quisto un e&rto 
BiAHCASTROHACCio senza trdp- 
po bdrba. (Fir. no?. 7.) 



Rinf the large bell. 

The Talorooa and hand B oaae 
and vigorous yooth Alcib i a d e e 
was yery fiunous. 

Oh ! how very fresh, and 
fair she is now. 



I had a pan rery handsome 
and large. 

She is Tery large and firm, 
well-limbed, and gay. 



He made of them a &moas 
bad book. 

I was not bom of the drags 
of the popolace. 



We do not fear a contempt- 
ible young man. 

Julian led the gladiators, 
AppoUinaris the rowers, not as 
captains, but as licentious, and 
slothful men, like their rabble. 

It followed, that these Tery 
bad men were ungrateful fbrtM 
benefits received from Jupiter. 



That yery great ribald of the 
' brother has consumed so much 



This one being a certain 
man of a dirty- white (p*Io) 
color and without much beard. 



AUGMENTATIVES. 83 



EXERCISE V. 

rThit and the following Exercise on Diminutives, are introduced 
•ofely for the purpose of habituating the learner to the formation 
of MUch words ; but as all nouns are not susceptible of the same 
modification, and as the employment of one termination in prefer- 
ence to the others depends entirely on usage and euphony, nothing 
bat constant reading, and the study of the classics, can teach the 
proper use of these words.] 

He is a coarse and I good-for-nothing I man. That 

— Ef grdnde,* ft3 | da niiUa* \ udmoX Cotesta 

is a dhrty, ugly servant The kitchens of (the) great 
e sudiai^ fdnle.^ eucina 

gluttons are always filled I with I cooks. I Go home, I 
gMUo sdno tempre pUno \ di \ cudeo. \ And&tevene a cdsa \ 

great contemptible fool, you appear to me I to be beside I 
seioecdnCf voi parete^ mi^ \ uscito \ 

(of) yourself. Take that large cup, and wash it well. Thou 
v6i, Piglia quel tdzza, e IdvtK^lo bSne, Tu 

art a fine large woman. He had in that chamber a 

set ddnna, E'gli aoCva quello camera 

large old chest, which had been made I since the time | of his 
eassdiUf che Sra fdtio \ fin ddllo \ • » 

fiither's grand-father. He bites them all with that ugly ^ 
pddre* d^olo.l E*gU mdrde^ le^ tuUe eon quello 

mouth. This great fool I wants to teach me how to know I 
hdcca. Questo pSeora \ mi vudl far eondseerc \ 

(ike) thin^, as if I were bom yesterday. Each of 
ed«a, cdme se io fdssi ndta ieri, ogniuto* — 

them had a bad large sword. They opened a large box 
— Apeva^ spdda. — Aprirono edssa 

I of I th^ir father. I speak only of ungrateful, and very 
del I Idro* pddre.^ I'o pdrlo sdlo ingrdtOf e 

proud men. Ring the large bell, behold the council of 
sup^rbo — . Sundte eampdna^ ecco eonsiglio 

the widows, that enter. People, that are bom of the dregs 
«€4dra, che intra. Genie, che i ndta fSccU 

of tlie rabble. I I never saw I men so very handsome. 
p6polo. — I Non mdi mdi \ u6mo cot\ hiUo. 



84 ANALOGY. 

She would appear to you a€ne large woman. They I scat- 
E/tU pmrreUe* viX beUa femina. — \ 

tered themaelvea I through that rabble. 
Si tpdrsero | per quello eiurma. 



DIMINUTIVES. 

Diminutives may be divided into four classes, viz. 
those that express kindntss or tenderness ; those that 
express smduness or prettiness ; those that express 
annpassion ; and those that express contempt or indigo 
nation. 

To express kindness or tenderness, we change the 
last vowel of nouns into ereUo, for the masculine, and 
into er6llat for the feminine ; as, 

vicchiOf old man ; vecc^a^LO, poor old man ; 

pcbzA, fool ; pozzEB^LA, poor little fool. 

To express smallness or prettiness, we use the ter- 
minations tno, etto, ellOf uccio, uzzOj for the masculine, 
and ina, etta^ ellay uecia, uzza ; for the femmine ; as, 

yoMcnU/o, boy; fancwXkvo^ little boy; 
ru8c4Uo, brook ; rtucdtirTO, small brook ; 

faUstrA, window ; JmestrtLhJL, little window ; 

bike A f mouth; 6o€ci^ccl4, pretty little mouth ; 

umido^ damp; umiduzzo, slightly damp. 

Some feminine nouns take the terminationB ino, eUCf eUo, in the 
diminutive, and then, they become masculine ; is, 

edsAf f., house ; casino, m., small house, or 

[conntry-honM ; 
eapdnnA, f., cottage ; cap^tnAno, m., little cottag« ; 

pdrtA, f.j door; portiLLO, m., small door, or 

[carriage-door. 



To express compassion, we use the termination «c* 
ciudlOi for the masculine, and ieciudlaj for the feminine ; 



DIMINUTIVES. . 85 

. and all those terminations used to express smallness or 
prettiness; as, 

luhno, man ; omicciu6LO, poor little inan^ 

ddnnA^ woman ; dbnnicciu^LA, wretched little woman ; 

To express contempt or indignation, we use the ter- 
minations icciattOj icciaitolof for the masculine, and 
iccidUa, iccidttolaj for tlie feminine ; and all the termi- 
nations used to express compassion, except ino^ and ina ; 
as, 

-«i^^ «.«« . S (wiicciXtto, \ despicable 
""^^ "'*" J \ omicciiTToio, \ puny fellow ; 

No rule can be given how to determine in which sig- 
DiBcation the terminations ino, itto^ ello^ uccioy {tzzo^ 
icciudlo, are used; the connexion of the words, is the 
ooly guide. Thus, 

fbnifuij woman; vttefeminisjAjL, vile, contemptible little 

[woman f 
gi&nnty giri; g'en^Ue gtbtnrttLLA, genteel little giil ; 
tujmo, man ; hu6,io omicciu6Lo, good, poor little man. 

Very often, instead of diminishing the substantive we 
dimhiish the adjective which quahfies ii ; and sometimes 
we diminish both the substantive and the adjective ; as, 

JgliwiU Unerij young children ; figlivniU /enenfeLLi, very young 

[children; 

h6cca piccoUu little mouth ; hocc^cciA pieeolktsA, prettv 
^ [little mouth ; 

C (/onnicciu6LE vedovtTTEj 
Mme vidove^ widowed women ; < wretched young 

i [widowed women. 

Besides the above terminations there are some nouns 
which have a peculiar ending in tlieir diminutive ; as, 
jKoie^ part; poreiciiLLA, small part ; 

UuM, light; iHmiclNO, small light; 

hi^ncoy white; WancoLiNA, pretty white: 

8 



t^ ANALOGY. 

Others have quite an irregular tennination } as, 

mercdnUj merchant; mereantubho, little miserable merchant ; 

pdglia, Btraw ; pagHacA, small piece of straw ; 

hdcioy kiss; &act6zzo, cordial smacking kiss ; 

amArOf bitter; amar6eifOLO, bitterish. 

[For a Liat of »och DimtnatiToi, see ArpEi«Dix, B.} 

We may join two different terminations in the formation 
of diminutives ; and then we form a double diminutive^ 
which sometimes, besides the idea of kindness or tender- 
ness, expresses also that of prettiness or compliment; and 
sometimes serves to diminish the object still more, and to 
convey also the idea of prettiness ; as, 

cattho, miserable man ; caitivthiaOj a wretched man ; 

cottiuELLU'CCIO, wretched little man ; 

Ziftro, book ; Hbrtrro^ small book ; /t&rETTl'NO, pretty little 

[book. 
Sometimes we make use of the diminutive termination 
to diminish the augmentative; and when we wish to 
express contempt for the object represented by the 
name already diminished, we augment the diminutive ; 
as, 
Iddro, robber ; ladrosK, iiigliwayman ; ladronCE'IAjO ; 

[pilferer ; 
ddniA, lady ; (iiimi!izzA, petty lady ; (iomuzzA'CCIA, 

[pretended lady. 

Finally, such is the genius of the Italian language in 
this respect, that we may even modify the verbs and 
adverbs by one or more i^Uables added to them ; thus, 

r to give many 

From haci&re, to kiss ; we mak« ftociuccHiARE, < ^™® kisses 

' J one alter 

' another ; 
" e«„M«.toaing; « j o^faXTjSk J to hun. ; 



DIMINUTIVES. 



87 



EXAMPLES. 



M6tt8i *l ysccbier£l canu- 
to, e bidnco. (Petr. s. 14.) 

O pazzkr£lla, iu non sdi 
gtiiilo eke si tfdtto. (Macch.) 

Che ancdr m' odidsti tssendo 
FAWciuLLiHo. (Bom. Ol. 1. 
21.) 

Che non per vista j ma per 
swino 8 ndto — D' un riAcel- 
L^TO| ehe quivi dUcende. 
(Dant. Inf. 34.) 

Vtde enirdre un t6po per la 

FI9ESTRELLA. (MoT. aot. 90.) 

(lueUa BOCcY^coiA sdmta. 
(Bdllinc.) I 

Dubito eke Tum tia un pdco 
OMiDizzo. (Crosca.) 

Dal -rimopidno di auisTO 
CABIN o si scende in Mire stdnze 
s6Uo terra, (Borgh. Rip. 132.) 

Che abbidmo ndi a fdre, se 
nan a mendrlo in uu^sto ca< 

PAKK^TTO. (BOCC. g. 3. D. 1.) 

SdUesvdficOj e fu giunto al 
ponriLLO. (Lor. Med. c. 119.) 

Un oMicciuoLO di pieeola 
amdizidne. (Franc. Sacch. Op. 
diT. 134.) 

Avete v6i mdi pdsto mente a 
quisle DOlflVICClUOLE ? (Agn. 

Pand 6.) 

E'gli t un cSrto omicciAtto, 
cA« non c nessun di vdi, che ve^- 
gendolo non VavSsse a noia. 
(Lor. Med. Arid, prol.) 

£ vi mdndano, a lor capric- 
cioj ^li omicciAttoli non so- 
lamente, ma i barbassdri. (Al- 
ley. 181.) 



The hoary and white-headed 
poor old man moves on. 

O poor little fool, you don't 
know what has been done. 

For you hated me firom the 
time I was a little boy. 

Discovered not by >ifitht, b«t 
by the sound of a smaU brook 
that descends there. 



He saw a mouse enter 
through the little window. 

That divine, pretty little 
mouth. 

I doubt whether it is not 
somewhat slightly damp. 

From the first story of this 
small house we descend into 
other rooms under ground. 

What else have we to do, 
but to bring him into this little 
cottage. 

He climbed the fig tree, and 
reached the small door. 



A poor 
condition. 



little man of low 



Have you ever thought of 
these wretched little women ? 



He is a certain despicable 
puny fellow, that there is none 
of you, who on seeing him 
would not dislike him. 

And they send to you, ac- 
cording to their whim, despi- 
cable ignorant men as well as 
great and learned. 



ANALOGY. 



ViL rsMiKifcLLA in Pugluk il 
ffrimd: (Petr.) 

ITna oKifTiL piacevol oio- 
▼iii]£lla. (Mm. Cin.) 

IM uv6y ouiccivdho. (Boec. 
C. 3. n. 1.) 

/pioLiuoi.i omcdr tbhkil^l- 
LI. (Fir. Ditc. an. 79.) 

Con ina bocci^ccia ficco- 
LXIIA. (Bocc. g. 4. D. lO.j 



ftuSsU 
dot£ttk. 



doni«icciu6le tk- 
(Agn. Pand. 6.) 



Esshidogia una partic^lla 
dSUandaepassdi: (Bocc g. 1.) 

Jhcnio nn i^rmciNo in mA- 
f^, (Matt. Fran. Rim.) 

C&n qmeUe au9 man-ne biam- 
•OLiVK. (Fir. Asin. 41.) 

MKRCAifTr<^LO di qvAttro dt' 
nari. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

7V« xcceioy t Uglio^ « kruei^ 
H, € PAGLil^cuB. (Car. Matt. 
..8.) 

iSe non m* avessi data tal 
BACi6zzo. (PaUff. 9.) 

Di sapore amaroovolo, 
mbUoarre, e pensirativo. (Ri- 
oetU Fior. 19) 

Ritornt dlla ccrte piu gidUo^ 
tpiu CATTiVKL:.l5ccno. chemdi. 
(rranc. Sacch. nov. 74.) 

Mi kdnno pcrtdio qui il li- 
BRKTTiNo degli enlmmi del Si- 
gnur CoUellini. (Red. lett. 2.) 

Vi pregOf eke, inninzi eke 
eoteato LAif DROKcsLLo vdda al~ 
trJve^ mi f accidie render e un 
miopdio 4f uJse. (Bocc. g. 8. 
■.5.) 



A Tile, contemptible littl* 
woman, in Apulia captivate* 
him. 

A genteel, agreeable little 
girL 

A good, poor little man. 

The jonng ones [of the 
dove] yet very young. 

With a pretty little mouth. 

These wretched yoom^ 
widowed women. 

A 6mall part of the. ni^ht 
having already pawed. 

Having a small light in hi* 
hand. 



With her 
white hands. 



small prettj* 



Little miserable merchant 
worth four farthings. 

Between vetch, darnel, 
shavings, and small pieces or 
straw. 

If thou hadst not j^ven me 
such a cordial smacking kiss. 

Of a taste bitterish, vet j 
acrid, and penetrating. 



He returned to the court 
more pale, and wretched than 
ever. 

They have brought me here 
the pretty little book of enig- 
mas of Mr Coltellini. 

1 pray you, that, before 
this pilferer goes elsewhere, 
you would make him return to 
me a pair of spatterdashes ^ 
mine. 



DimNUTIVES. 



EssendonU aeeatiata un p6' di 
jyAMJJZikcQiJLsalvdtica, (AUeg. 
57.) 

AUdr la baciccuhiai. (Pa- 
taff. 9.) 

Accertdtevif eke io "vi p6rto 
un, bsii6nk grandone. (Car. 
lelt. 1.) 



HaTingr obtained somewhat 
of the character of an oncoatk 
pretended lady. 

Then I gave her manj little 
kiBset one afler another. 

Be assured, that I love joa 
hugely. 



EXERCISE VIj. 



The little boy^ took out all the flowers, that he 
gidmne trdsse tutto fi^re, eke Sgli 

had in the little banket With a pretty little mouth, 
aretu eanestro. Can b6eca^ 

whose lips looked like two little rubies. I Dost thou 
le evil Idbbro parevano — dike rubtni. \ tu* 

think I that I will suffer that thou I shouldst pawn my | 
Credit \ eke io sdffera eke tu \ tn' impegni la \ 

little gown? He conducted me through certain 

gonnSUa'^. E'gli mise* mi* per eSrta 

remote narrow lanes. Like the little sheep that 

JudrdimdnOf* strddaA C6ine 

come out I of the I fold, I first one, 
Sscomo I dal \ ekiuso, \ ad una, 

three, | and the others remain a little timid, lowering 

aUerdm- 

IS I 

She was 

E'Ua Sra 



pScora, eke 

I then two, | then 
I a duef I a 



tre, 



dUra etdnno 



down I their I eyes and I their I nose. 
do I ^'^ I 6ukio e I iZ I muso. 



6,vuday 

Clothed I in 
VestUo 



sackcloth, with a miserable little hat 



edceOf con — ftil 

somewhat slightly malicious. 
alqudnto malizUso. 

little book in his hand. 
likro — mdn». 

roe I of a discreet little smile. The other was a child 
avdra \ dieereto rteo. dUro Sra fimciuUo 

not yet one year olU. 
7um* ane6raX im< Anne^ 



cappello. 

I have found him with a 
Vo Ao9 trovdie^ lo^ eon 

I Do not be sparing with 
I J^on voglidie Sseermi 



very small, who | was 
pUeolot che | avca^ 



90 



ANALOGY. 



Who is this contemptible little man, that has come | t9 
Chi i guesto mdmOf eke e' vcnuUi^ \ « dir 

insult I us in our house ? He had i on I his head 

a torn little cap. Little boxes made I of I boards. 
r6tto keretla. 



cassihu fdtti \ c9n 



blind 
eieco 



Accompany the little master. Thus the 
Aeeompagndie pads 6iu. Cost 

child flatters (the) lovers. The 
fanciiMo lusinga amanU. 

having heard these words, said, Have a 
wUte questo par^Uf ditte^ AkkiJiU 



litde 



poor little woman. 



very 



UtUe 



(of) , patience. 
jtazUnza. 



CHAPTER V- 



NUMERALS. 



CARDINAL NUMBERS, 



UfM, 

qMtrOf 
#^ 

fkto, 

ndotf 

widicij 

d6dkL 

tridiA, 

quattthrdiei, 

gtikndtciy 

dieiagsitUj 

dieidtto, 

dkianndvef 



one; 
two; 
three; 
four; 

six; 

seven; 

eight; 

nine; 

ten; 

eleven ; 

twelve ; 

thirteen ; 

fourteen ; 

fifteen ; 

sixteen; 

seventeen ; 

eighteen ; 

nineteen ; 



twenty; 



vtnfimo, 

veniiiue^ 
ffentUrif 

venKcin^ue, 

vefUisitttf 
vtni'dtio, I 

ventindoe^ 
trintoy 
trtnJtimo, 



twenty-ooe ^ 

twenty-two; 
twenty-three ; 
twenty-four ; 
"twenty-five i 
twenty-six ; 
twenty-seven^ 

twenty-eight ; 

twenty-nine ; 
thirty; 

thirty-one; 



trtnidno^ thirty-eight ; 

quarinUa, forty; 

cmqmdmUty fifty; 



dueeMo, 

duchUo. 

or dughUo.^ ^ 

irtcifdo, three hundred; 

quaUrocMOf four hundred 






mUU, 

duemilay 7 
or dutnihiy \ 
tremUoj 



NUMERALS. 
s€SM^t»ta^ sixty ; 

seitSUat seventy ; 

oUanta^ eighty ; 

nm^dmia^ ninety ; 

hundred ; diecimUOf 

two hundred ; cerUomUoy 



91 

thousand ; 
two thousand ; 
three tliousand; 



millechUo, or ) eleven hun- 
mille € caitoy I [dred; 



mUidney 



ten thousand ; 

hundred thous- 
[and; 

million. 



The numbers ventisH, ventisltie^ quarantasHy oUanituettej are 
•ometimes contracted into venzii, 'twenty-six* ; venzittef ' twenty- 
fleren' ; fuaranzeif * forty-six* ; ottanzlUtf * eighty-seven*. 

CentOf when followed by qttardnta, einqudntu, sestdniaf settdnUtf 
loses its laat By liable, and makes eenquardnta, *one hundred and 
forty'; eencinqvdntay * one hundred and fifty*; censessdntaf 'one 
hundred and sixty'; censettdntaf ' one hundred and seventy.' 



CardiDal numbers^ except lino and its compounds^ are 
generally of the common gender ', as. 



iitte dfifiiy m»y 
quktdici sUUe, f , 



seven years; 
fifteen stars. 



The Italians make use of these numbers, instead of the 
ordinalj to indicate the days of the month ; and then 
they are preceded by the masculine articles % or li; or 
by the words at, &/K, or addi ; as, 

u vENTiquATTRo OtugnOf the 34tb of June; 
it dici6tto di DicMbrty on the 18th of December; 

iLLi quATT6&oici di GentM^y on the 14th of January ; 
iddI i>6dici di Mdrxoy on the 12th of March. 



sxcspTioir. 

The first day of the month is indicated by the ordinal number 
prisie, * first,' preceded in like manner by U, «Z» or ^di. 



92 ANALOGY. 

When they are used to indicate the hours of the day, 
they are preceded by the feminine article la, It ; but 
then the word ora, ' hour'; ore, * hours'; is either ex- 
pressed or understood ; as, 

LE DiJE 6rt^ two o'clock ; 

LE quAxTRO [6re], four o'clock. 

Una, and its compounds ventuno, trentuno, &c., 
before feminine nouns, like other adjectives, change o 
into a ; as, 

uniL LIBRA, one pound ; 

nwardunjL ruota, ninety-one wheeU. 

When cardinal numbers are used as substantives, all 
but ire and those ending in t, are made to vary in the 
plural ; as, 

doe cmqaxy two fives ; 

tre fuwi, three nines. 

Mdle and miliont, in the plural make mila and mt/to- 
ni; as, 

dicidtto mIla, eighteen thousand ; 

un mHidne di bulioni, a million millions. 

SXAMPLXS. 

ViveUednni ven7.ki. (Franc. Ho lived twenty-six years. 

Sacch. rim. 40.) 

JVe figlid TEWziTTE dello It [a scorpion] brought forth 

9tis$o colore. (Red. Ins. 47.) twenty-seven [scorpions] of the 

same color. 

Dintro la ciUa di Roma vi Within the cit^ of Rome 

36no ouARAirz^i cfiiese cmrdina- there are forty-si^ cardinal 
lane. (Bran. Tes. 3. 3.) churches. 

Un fnUUnej e ottakx£tti One million* and eighty" 

nUgliaiaf e einquecent0 fiorini seven thousand and five hand' 
d*&ro. ^av. Tac. Fost. 4^.) red gold florins. 

AvSndovi in quel €on€ilio There bein^ in that counci- 

cmiiQ.VAHAfiT6Uo vescovi. (Petr. one hundred and forty-eight 
Uom. ill. 82.) bishops. 



NUMERALS. 



93 



CKMciNauArcTA di* audi cava* 
kiri mandd inconira alV dtte d(^ 
Fmrtndni, (Gioy. Vill. I. 9.) 

Pik di CKifSETTiiiTA anni 
mitiv&rono gli DH tinza idulo. 
(St. Agost. Citt. Dio. 4. 31. 

La voglia e la ragion combat* 
ttW kdnr.o — sitUj e bktt' Anni. 
(Petr. a. 80.) 

Qcfifr>ici st]£llb, ch* in di- 
fiers€ plage — Lo ciilo aovivan 
4i tdnio streno. (Dant. Par. 

la) 

Di Fcrria-a^ li tkntiquAttro 
On^oKo, Mtllt stichUo setie, 
(Bent, lett. I.) 

A'l DICIOTTO DI DlciHBRX. 

(Dav.) 

A'LLr QUATTOROICI DI G«M- 

viio. (Macch.) 

IZ deito dnno add! dodici di 
JMArzo. (Gioy. Vill.) 

Cke draif — Sono lx auAT- 
TRo. (Class.) 

E'eeaii la nottt, eceo lb di5x 
«RB, 6eco U qudttro. (Firenz.) 

T6gU t^^A Lf BRA di eastrdn: 
(Barchiell. p. 2. 8. 1.) 

JPUre RoTAKTi^NA rii6ta. 
(Dant Cony.) 

E dieidmo due cfiiQui, dve 
•UH^ TRX Bovi, perehd quisti 
mmmerdlif sempre cht stdnnoper 
austanHvif si dectinanot (Baom. 
Liag. Tosc. 2. 8. 13.) 

Efran per numero diciotto 
mIla. (Beiub. Stor. 12. 176.) 

Al p&dre Carrara rknda in 
mia nomt um m 1.16.1 b di kilio- 
Ni di taliUi. (Red. lett. S.) 



He sent one hnndred and 
fifly of his horsemen against 
tha Florentine host. 

They adored their gods, with- 
out idols, for more than ontf 
hnndred and seyeoty years. 

Inclination and reason haye 
'striven for seyen after seyen 
years. ^ 

Fifteen stars, which in dif- 
ferent spheres enliven the. 
skies with so much serenity. 

Ferrara, 24th June, 1607. 



On the 18th December. 



On the 14th January. 

On the 12th of March of the 
said year. 

What o'clock is it 7— It ia 
four o'clock. 

Behold nif^ht, behold two 
o'clock, behold four o*cloc.k. 

Take one pound of mutton. 

Other ninety-one wheels. 

And we say two fiyes, two 
sevens, three nines, because 
these numerals, when thej 
stand as substantives, are de- 
clined. , 

They were eighteen thous- 
and in number. 

Give to father Carrara, in 
my behalf, a million millions 
of salutations. 



94 



ANALOGY. 



ORDINAL NUMBERS. 



first; 
second ; 
third ; 
fourth ; 
fifth; . 
sixth; 
seventh ; 
eighth ; 
ninth; 
tenth; 

> eleventh ; 



> twelfth ; 



• thirteenth; 



Primo, 

secondOf 

Urzo, 

qudrtOf 

qvinio, 

ottdvOf 

ndnOf 

d^cimoj 

decimoprimOf 

*und^cimo or 

undic^simoy 

decimosecondo, 

*duod6cimOf 

dodictmo, or 

dodic^simo, 

*decimotirzoy 

terzod^ctmoj or 

iredicisimo, ) 

*deciinoqiidrtOy 5 

qwaiodicimo^ or > fourteenth; 

auaUordiUsimOf 3 

^dectmomtknto, S 

quiguMcimOj or > fifteenth ; 

aumdii iaimo^ 3 

*decimosistOt S 

sestodScimoj or > sixteenth 

sedxc^simo, 3 

*dec%mos6tHmOf } 

settimodidmo, or V ®7^"'*i. 

diciassttUsimo, S ' 

*decimottdvo. 5 . 1. 

Dttod^cinw, or S^'^*'^. 

diciotUsimo, S ^^°^' 

^decinumdnoj S • 

nonod^cimo, or > .'.u . 

diciannav^mo, S ' 

w!fl"^'''' twentieth; 






*ren/f«moj»rt«o, )t^„t 
mffe tmoprtmo or > is„/. 

ru/o, or > 

» J 



vtge tnwprtmo or > g - 
veniutt^stmo, ) 



vigesimosecdndi 
ventidtUsimo. 



twenty- 
second ; 



^trentesimoprimoy /thirtv- 
trifresimopTimo, or > - V 



.first; 



m!f±^''' Ifortieti.; 



qiutdragisimo, ) 



quinquagisimOj or 
quingent^simo, 

^stssaniisimoj or 
*5ettan<^i?M) or 
*ottan/^*mo, or 
*iu>vafil^mo, or 



cent^simo, hundredth ; 

ducentisimoy or ? two 
dttgenUsitnOy ^ hundredth ; 
trecent^mot three hundredth; 



> fiftieth^ 

> sixtieth; 

> seven- 
5 tieth; 

|ei«h»ieth: 

> ninetieth ; 



mUUsimOy 
mUianistmo, 



thousandth; 
millionth. 



* We mark with an aaterisk thote, amooftt Uia differant Btmet of th« ntrnv 
nambori, that are roost in «■•. 



NUMERALS. 



95 



The ordinal numbers from prima to didmo, and veri' 
tesimo^ irentesimo^ &^., before feminine nouns change o 
into a; and in the plural change o into t, for the mascu- 
line, and a into e, for the feminine ; as, 

la primA donna, the first woman ; 

U UrzE. PERcossE, the third stripes ; 

Ic cinqaanUsimk. lettera, the fiftieth letter ; 

1 jnina* Di, the first days : 

And their compounds, quariodedmoy dedmosittimoy 
kc., change both the last vowel of the last, and the last 
vowel of the first of the two component numbers ; as, 

la quartAiUcimjL condizi6ne, the fourteenth condition ; 
la decimAsitttmA stoltIzia, the seventeenth folly. 



XXAMPLS S. 



Delle qudli la prIma 
ckiameremo PampineUy la se- 
cdnda Fiammitta, Filom^na la 
terza, ^. (Bocc. Introd.) 

Xesskno — Ia secdnde aspetld- 
va ne 1.E tekze [percosse.j 
,Dant. Inf. 18.) 

Frd Chuittonef nilla li^ttera 
ckt nel miit cddice ^ la cinuuam- 
T^siifA. (Red. annot. Ditir.) 

E nt Di PRiMi deniro al 
ditinseno — ffascchnmo. (Bocc. 
Arast. 96.) 

La dUARTAD^CIMA CONDI- 

zidnE, cbc deve avert la confes- 
stone f si i accderdta^ (Paasav. 
176.) 

La okcimas£ttima stolti- 
ziA, ^ di guktti che voglionofug' 
gir: (Cavalc. Stolt 228.) 



The first of whom, we will 
call Pampinea, the second 
Fiammetta, the third Filorae- 
na, &c. 

None waited for the second, 
nor the third [stripes .] 



Era Guittone, in the letter 
which in my MS. copy is the 
fiaieth. 

And in the first days we 
were horn in the divine bosom. 



The fourteenth condition, 
which the confession ouffht to 
have, is that of being early. 



The seventeenth folly, is 
that of those who desire to flee. 



♦ Pr\mi is •omotimet utod as a ■ubitanlive, and then hai the signification of 
' Aoeeston*, * paronts* ; a^, 

FitrmminUfurQ avvirti —Jtmi e They were f.crccly adverse tome, 

d» mUi paim, f a mia fdrU, (Dant. to my anceiitorii, and to my party. 

laf. 10.) 



M 



ANALOGY. 



COLLECTIYE, DISTRIBUTIVE, AND P B «K 
PORTIONAL NUMBERS. 

Collective. 



Pdto, 

♦ 



a pair ; 



cinqtiimzy the number of five 



getHnOf 



decina^ 



the number of 

[seven ; 



dodUina ) 
or dozzinai 



ten, or half a 

[score ; 



a dozen ; 



venHntt, a score, or twenty ; 
trenikna, thirty, or a score 
[and a half 



quarantkna, two scores, or 

[forty 

ctnqtumtina, fifty, or two scores 
[and a half 
sessantinaj three scores, or 

[six^ 
?e^anmui, seventy, or three 
[scores and a half 
o^tontimi, four scores, or 

X [eighty 
novani'moj ninety, or four 

[scores and a half 
c^n<Yniku>, a hundred ; 
miglidioj a thousand ; 



Distributive. 



Unametd, 
tintirzo, 
un qitMo, 
un quiniOf 



one half; 
one third ; 
one fourth ; 
one fifth ; 



un shlOj 
un siUimo, 
un oUavOy 
vol nomo^ 



one sixth ; 
one seventh ; 
one ei^rhth ; 
one ninth ; 4^« 



D6p 
qtt&druploy 



Proportional 



double ; 
triple; 
quadruple ; 



quMuplOf 

dicuplo, 

dniuplo^ 



quintuple 
ten-fold ; 
a hundred-fold. 



Collective, distributive, and proportional numbers fol- 
low the rules of other adjectives. 



* TWIlM, ^uattrina^ «el»a, ottkna Ac, ar« aoTnetinifta oaed by tb« It lita» Im 
•MnmoQ UDj(u«|{e, to expreaa Mho number of thr^e*, * f four', *of rix*« *«^ 
•ifhi*, itc., bat tb«jr have D6T6r b«eB onployod b/ good wriurs. 



NUMERALS. 



97 



With numeral adjectives are generally classed the fol- 
lowiog words ; viz, 



ambidutf 
ambedue, 
amhoduej 
'anuTidue, 



ambiduo, 
ambeduoy 
amboduoy ^ 
amendiLto,i 



both, both 
of them. 



andn^ ambidue^ ambidui, 

dmbcj ambtdue, ambedm, 

onbOj 

amenduniy 
conendwfiCy 
entrdmbi, 

A^nAif its compounds, and amendinni^ are used in 
speaking of masculine objects : dmbe^ its compounds, 
and amendune, in speakmg of feminine : the others 
may be used for both genders ; as, 



Ambi amXmti, 
ambidue sXvj, 
dmbe le Lucr, 
ambedue D6ififE, 
ambo coNvi^Rsi, 
dmboiiE brAccia, 
mnenduo gli emispi^ri, 
amendue i.e sf6nde, 
amenduni p6rci, 
amendime c68E, 
SoFRo.xiA erf OlIndo 
d'una ciitdde erUrambi, 



both lovers ; 
both sages ; 
both eyes ; 
both women ; 
both turned ; 
both arms ; 
both hemispheres ; 
both shores ; 
both hogs ; 

both things, dr both of them ; 
Sofronia and Olindo both of 
the c(ame city. 



EXAMPLES. 



FfLKSO e TfRSi AMBi novelli 
AicJofTi. (Vine. Mart rim. 

X'^KO e VkhTKO sAVio dicea 
vero, percid ad ambidi^x donoe. 
(Nov. ant. 23.) 

E tUn nel cu6r punUe in bk 
LB Ltici — Ck'iUa strdda d'amdr 
mi furon duci. (Petr. c. 8.) 

AUora AVBBDt^B [d6nne] 
erUr^rono nella fossa. (Not. 
ant. 35.) 

Alfine ambo corv^rsi al 
giusto seggio. (Petr. c. 48.) 



, Pbilenus' and Thyrtii bath 
new lovers. 

Both sages told the truth, 
therefore he gave to both. 



And let the heart bear pun- 
ishment for both eyes, which 
led me to the road of love. 

Then both [women] entered 
into the ditch. 

Finally both turned to tli« 
seat of justice. 
9 



96 



ANALOGY. 



Ckm iMBO LB BEicciA mi 
prise. (Daski. Infl 19.) 

il •attfine^D* imxndi^o oli 
SMisriRi. (Dant. Inf. 20.) 

Per eid tremdttina AMXHDt^x 
uc frosDB. (Dant In£ 9.) 

Amicin^Hi [p6rei] m6rti 
c&ddero in terra. (Boec In- 
trod.) 

J{6Ua 96ttra eUxiSme sia, H 
Uhre qua! fiH vi pidee d^lx 

DI^X [OOSe], O AMXHDl^lfK. 

(Boce. g. 7. n. 1.) 

CdH Bononji, OhivDo igli 
•^apjdUa — D' ima dudde eh- 
TRAMBi, e ^uma fede. (Tass. 
G«r. 3. 16.) 



He aeiidd me witk both 
anni. 

The confine of both hemi- 
•pherei. 

On aeeonnt of which both 
shores trembled. 

Both [hogs] feU de«] to the 
earth. 



It is at your choice, to take 
wbich of tne two [things] yoa 
like best, or both. 



She is called Sofronia, be 
Olindo, both of the same city 
and of the same faith. 



EXERCISE VII. 



He sent his brother with six cohorts, and five 
— Hondo 9U0 fraUUo co6rte, e 

hundred horsemen 1 to I T^rra di Lav6ro. He made him 
copoUo I ml ^ fSc^ GUI 

grieve for this sin forty days. He passed I from | 
pianger* — quSsto pecedio d3. — Posed \ di | 

Tnnis I to I Apulia with more than eight huidred Spanish 
TuniH I in | PugUa Spognvdlo* 

horsemen. Metellus was already in Lombardy 1 with | 
catoUert} MeUlh Sra gid LombortM | cma\ 

his army of three legions, who was coming | from I 
tuo* ^9t^ Ugtdne, ' eke venito \ di \ 

Prance. Being abready about (to) thirty years old. 

Fr^mda. Eeeindo gid dipreseo* —3 * ^„no5 v^cckio.^ 

I hare here two hundred livres, I with | which I intended 
P(^ Ao ««t* lira, \ di \ aid io voUva 

to have bought a farm. And this was four hundred years 
eomprdre podere. E eid fii anno 

before (Oiat) Rome i was beguii. I He was of the age 
6mt dte R6ma*\si eMiifiicid«fi.M — E'ra — eta 



NUMERALa 99 

of twenty-six or twenty-seven (years). One hundred and 
o dMno. — — 

seventy archers. He sent one hundred and fifty I of 
sMgittdrio. — Mandd — ^ \ dt' 

his soldiers. 
9UO fiiUe. 

They went to Messina the twenty-fourth of December. 
— Atddrono DicvmJbrt' 

He I was baptized | on the sixteenth, in St John's. On 

— I BatUzzStn \ San Qiovdnni, 

the eighteenth of December, having heard of the insurrection 
Didmbref udita rivdUa 

of the le^on, I he went out 1 (of) the palace dressed I in r 
Ugt6n€, I «* KJci I — paldgio vestUo \ ii \ 

black. . The first of the month I will pay you. Come at 
miro. mete — pagkero' vi.^ VtniHt a 

(iht) six o'clock, and we will speak I of it I He arrived 
■ . • — parlerhM^ I n«.* | — Oiunse 

at Milan at (the) one o'clock I in I the night At (the) 
• Mildno • - I di \ notte, A 

twelve o'clock l I went to see I our ambassador. 
I I mt poTiai dal • I mhiro awibasdaddr; 

It I was worth I thirty-one livres* Thou didst usurp one 
— I VaUva I lira. UsurpdsH — 

hundred and seventy-five thousand gold florins. | He came 
— tPdra^fiarinol, \ Si 

to an agreement t I on 1 condition of paying sixty thousand 
attordb \ \ eon ] wndixidne pagar% 

ducats to the conquerors. Salute him I for me i a thousand 
duoa^ vmcUore, SalutAte^^ l^ | hmw^ I — * 

millions of times. 
vata. 

Here be^rins the eleventh book. He arrived happily 
Qui comtncia » K6ro.* — Arrivd fdieenUfUt 

to the fortieth year I of I his life. Contradictmg (to) 
anno \ diUa \ eiio vita. CotUradieendo 

himself in the fourteenth chapter. Boniface the Eighth 
f ^ medenmo « eapUolo,^ Banifixu^ — * 



100 ANALOGY. 

being Pope in Rome, the Abb^ of Cligoi came to the 
Essendo' pdpa* » Roma,' '<> jSbbdU^' »» " vcnnt' 

court. I In I the time of the Emperor Frederic the First. 
edrt:* | "^ | " tempo Imperatore Fcdertco — 

The twenty-first stanza. 
stdnza. 

He had tied both i his I feet 11 bit 1 both I my [ 
— Jiveva legdti \ % \ pUde. \ Mi morsi | 1^1 

hands through raef. They entered both I into | the garden. 
man9 per &l6re. — Enir&rono \ in \ gmidino. 

I gave it to both. 



CHAPTER VI. 
SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS. 

PERSONAL AND CONJUNCTIVE PBONOUNS. 

The Italian persoaal pronouns are the following : 

Sinfolar. Plniel. 

Iflt Person, to, m. &.f., 1; jioiy m. & f., we ; 

2d Person, te, m. d^ f., thou; v6i,m.A.r., you; 

1 ^«-. •"«' Ullt^no, j 

\^ot e$8a,f.i she or it; or esse, f., 

Sinfalar and Plural. 

oj D - ^ jt c ^ one*8 self, himself, herself 

3d Per«>n, sc, m, & f , J .^^,j. themselves. 

Conjunctive pronouns are derived from tlie personal 
pronouns, and are divided into conjunctive, properly 
speaking, and relative conjunctive pronouns. 

Personal pronouns are varied with the prtpontiotis 
only. 



PERSONAL PEONOUNS. 



101 



VARIATION or PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



io. 
smevLAB. 



Perional. 
SabjectiTe ^N.W-i<>, 

C Fofls. ( G. V— di wie, 
Reliat ^Attr. (D.5— a me, 

C Der. (Ab.)— cto tiw, 
Obj«ctive (Ac.)— »te, 



Conjonc BelAt. 



mt, 



f?ii, 



of me; 
tome; 
from me ; 
me: 



Sobjectire 
Relat. 



PLCRAL. 

Penonal 



Objectiire 



>ctive (N.V- not, 
CPoM. (G.)— dindt, 

. ^Attr. (D.)— aTt^ 
(Der. rAb.V^dandi, 

jtive (Ac.) — n^f, 



CoDJuflc. ReUt.. 



ne or cij 
ne or cj) 



we; 
of lu; 
to Qg; 
from ni ; 
110, 







TV. 






SINGULAE. 






' Penooal. 


CoDjime. 


Relat. . 


Sabjectiye 


(NO-Cu, 




thou ,- 


(Pose. 


. (G.)— rfito, 




of thee ; 


Relat. Attr. 


IpS^aU 


«i 


to thee; 


(Der. 


(Ab.)— <to<«, 
(Ac.)- «e, 




from thee; 


Objectiye 


<», 


* thee: 




PLURAL. 






Pericnfel. 


CoDJanc. 


Relat. 


Sabjective. 


fN.)-rat, 




ye CT you ; 


(Pose. 


(G.)— dir^-, 




of yon; 


Relat. Attr. 


(D.)— avdt, 


»»» 


toyoa; 


^Der. 


(Ab.)— Ai tdi, 
(Ac.)— tdi, 




from you ; 


Objective 


vi, 


you. 



kou. 
smecLAR. 



PtrMBil. 
Subjective (N.)— 6gli, 

CTom. (p.)— (fiZtrt, 
Relat J Attr. (D.)^aluL 

(Dtx. (Ah,)^ da liit 
ObjeetiTe. (Ac.)— Hi, 



Coi^ane. R«lat 



gU or U, 



9» 



Uotlc, 



he: 

of nim; 
to him; 
from him ; 
him: 



102 



ANALOGY. 



PLURAI.. 

PanoBftl. CoQJunc. Relat. 

SubjectiTe (N. ) — egli or egUno, 

(Pom. (G.)— ifi/oro, 
Relat. 2 Attr. (D.)— « Wra, Zoro, 

CDer. (Ab.)— d« Zdra, ne 

ObjoctiTe (Ac.) — l6ro. gli or lij 



JU, 



they; 
of them ; 
to them ; 
from Uiem ; 
them. 



±sso. 

SINGULAR. 



Per«onaI. 
S ubjective (N . V— esso, 

(Pom. (G.y—d'^ssoy 
Relat ^Attr. (D.)^ade»so, 

I Der. (Ab.l— ^ isso^ 
Objective (Ac)— i$so, 



Coojunc. Relai. 

ne, 
lo. 



he ^w it ; 
of him or it , 
to him &r it , 
from him or it. 
him or it : 



PLURAL.* 



SubiectiTe 

(Poee 

ReUt. <Attr. 
(Der. 

ObjeotiTe 



Parsonal. 
(N.) — es9i. 

(Ab.) — 4a essif 
(Ac.) — Sasif 



Conjuiic. Relat. 



gU or lif 



thev ; 
of them ; 
to them; 
from them ; 
them. 



FJ.LA. 



SUVeULAR. 



Penooal. 
Subjective (N.)--^tta, 

(Pom. i^.y-diUi, 
ReUt. J Attr. (ID.)— a/«, 

(Der. (\b,\^daUl 
Objective (Ac.) — Zct, 



CoDJanc- Relai. 

she ; 

Kc, of her ; 
^'j to her; 

ne, from her ; 
'«, her : 



PLURAL. 



PerMHU). 
Subjective (N.)— 61U or iUeno, 

(Pom. (G.>- AWro, 
ReUt \ Attr. (D.)-^ a l6ro, ' 

(Der. (Ab.)—<iaWro, 
Objective (Ac.)— <dro, 



Coojanc. R«Ut. 



l6ro, 

I*, 



nc, 



thev; 
of them; 
to them ; 
from them , 
-them. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



103 



E88Ji. 





SINGUI^E. 








?onona]. 




Conjune. 


Reltt. 




8ubjecti?e 


(N.)-^w«, 
(G.)-«f^«i, 








abe or it ; 


( F089. 






we, 


of her or it ; 


Relat ^Altr. 


(D.)— ad Sssa, 




'«, 




to ber or it ; 


(D«r. 


(Ab.)- da hsa. 






7U, 


from her or it ; 


ObjectiTe 


(Ac.)— €880, 




^, 




her or 1. . 




PLURAL. 








Peraonal. 




Conjuoc. 


Relat. 




Subjective 


(IfO-e*»e, 








they; 


(Poes. 


(G.)— if'^Me, 






nt. 


of them ; 


Rclat. <Attr. 


(D.>-arf^5W, 








to them / 


(Dei. 


(Ab.)-^^e, 
(Ac.>-eiw, 






n«, 


frcftn them; 


Objective 




««, 




them. 






sl. 










PenonaK 




Coo June. 


ReUt. 




Subjective 


(G.)— rfi^a, 


• 






.... 


(Pou. 








of one's self; 


Relat. JAttr. 


(D.)— as^, 




51, 




to one's self; 


tDer. 


(Ab.)— da*J, 








from one's sell; 


Objective 


(Ac.)— 5e, 




«, 




one's self. 



Jo, tti, tgli^ ella ; noi^ vai^ egli or eglino^ elk or 
elhno^ are- applied to aDiraate beiogs ; esso^ hsa ; esn, 
esse ; sif may be applied both to anioiate and inapiroate 
beings. 

The pronouns hso, essa^ are used sometimes to express 
the self-same J the very object of which we speak ; and 
then they are elesantly supplied by the words dessOy 
dessa, but in the stAjective only ; as, 



in ^SSA luce, 
isBO Mtsair Teddldo, 
tu non p€tr d^so, 
eU* ^ hen otssA, 



in that very light ,* 
the «ame Messer Tedaldo ; 
thou dost not seem thyself; 
it is she, herself. 



* 8iin QMd to expresi a relation of identity with the subject, and hat mo Smk- 



104 ANALOGY. 

In fkmiliar conyeraation, the Italians very often employ Uti, and 
Ui, as sobjectives. instelid of Sgli and ella; bat this usage, 
though authoiixed by some writers, ought never to be followed in 
the written langaage. 

We find also in some classics egU and SUa, used for lid and lei ; 
and SUe for l6ro ; as, mtmdria tf^iLLA, 'memory of hei* ; e ttuht 
di man con £lle, ' and'striking of hands with them' : and iilo for 
cffli and for lui ; illi for iglvno and for liko ; as, £llo piusd per 
I isola di Unno^ ' he passed by the island of Lemnes' ; ptdriatida 
KLLO, ' gaard yourself against him* ; |£lli ttdvanovtnaurosi^^ihBj 
were pensive' ; eiC dlcuna gloria' i rei avrSbber i i^uu, * for the 

Sdlty sonls woold derive no glory from them' ; this license, never- 
eless, must be left entirely to the Poets. 

La for ilia, le for SUtnOf and ^t for Sgli and for eglino ; as, la 
mi scusij * excuse me* ; lb nu &cauo, * tell me* ; gli Sra qta, * he 
was here*; &c.', are contractions, which, however common they 
maj be m Tuscany, and supported hy the authority of several 
writers, are notwithstandiufir to be carefully avoided in the written 
kmguage, especially in an elevated style of composition. 



The pronouns io, /u, igti, eUa^ esso, are often used 
as mere expletives ; as, 

s^ io moriMH io, if I should die ; 

tu dC fue pardUy tc, thou mayest say what thou 

[pleasest; 

Eefci ^ una compoiswne a it excites pity to see him ; 
[vedMo, 

tLLA ntm andrb. cosi, it shall not be so ; 

§»diiKmo con tsso lui, let us go with him. 

loAS sometimes written t' ; and 6gli, eglino^ are con- 
tracted into iiy and often written e' ; as, 

i' non so ridire, I cannot say ; 

ti dSbhe avir inUso, he must have heard ; 

ti sigittAro in suUa spidggOy they leaped upon the shore ; 

t' ptnsby he thought ; 

domandb cki t^fksero, he asked who they were. 

When the pronouns mc, ie^ se, are preceded by the 
preposition con, 'with', we often transpose the preposi- 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



105 



tioQ^ make an elision of tde n, and form of them a sbgle 
word ; as, 



conmcy 


MECO, 


wkh me; 


am tty 


Tico, 


with thee ; 


con si J 


sAco, 


with one's lelf, himself, &c. 



We find in the classics ndseOf voaeo; used foixon noi, * with us', 
and eon voi, * with yon* ; bat these expressions have become 
obsolete. 



Italian personal pronouns are very often suppressed, 
the termination of the verb being sufficient to indicate 
the person ; as, 



andiitmo [n6i] a Rdma^ 
[hgli] domanddehi/dssero, 



let uit go to Rome ; 

he asked who they were. 



The English reflective pronouns myself, thyself, our- 
selves, &c., are expressed in Italian by the personal 
pronouns, and the word siesso, pa., sUssa, f., or me- 
disimo, m., medesima, {., for the singular ; and stissi, 
m., stcsse, f., or medisimi, m., tnedesime, {., for the 
plural; as, 



Ist 
Per. 

2d 
Per. 



BiogaUt. 
f to sUssOf 



Plural. 



1 



3d 
Per. 



or medtsimOf m. 

to stessUf 
or fmedesima, f. 

tu siesso f m. 
tu stessa, f. 

egU stissot 
ox esso sUssOftn. 

6Ua stessOf 
or essa sUssOy f. 

se stessOf m. 
si steata, f. 



> myself. 









r ndi stissi, 

I ndistcsse, J-o^welw , 
[_or medesime, f.J 



]^y^- { ^If&'t.lyo-^-'-^ 



) himself, 
5 or itself; 

J herself, 
or itself; 
Tone's self, 
J himself, 
1 herself, 
I or itself; 



ef^lino stessi, 
or issi stessif m. 

elleno stessSt 
or esse sUsse, f. 

sc sUssi, m. 
ai atesae^ f. 



them- 
selves. 



106 



ANALOGY. 



EXA MPL BS. 



Vtd* x0 iH isfA Li^cx altre 
lueem: (Dant Par. 8.) 

(^U^uaunque U maggi&re a 
dietott* dnni non aggjugnesscy 
qudndo isso MBSsiRTEDiLDo, 
HechMsimo venne a mdrte. 
(Boco. g. 3, n. 3.) 

Tv NOH mi PAR Diuo. 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 3.) 

Ell' ± BIN DissA, aneora i 
in vita, (Petr. f . 290.) 

Chefarebb$ egU s'lo MORf ssi, 
f o ? (Maeoh. Com.) 

Tu Di' ttJb parole, tc ; »• 
per me mon mi terrd mdi sdlva, 
senHnonlaincantiamo. (Bocc. 
g.7.n.l.) 

£'«LI A I^VA-COMPASSlOlfX A 

v^DiRLo. (Macoh. Com.) 

E^LLA VON AVDRJL COSl, cA' io 

non te ne pdghi. (Bocc. g. 9. 
n. 5.) 

AHDLilfO cow 1^180 LT^I A 

R6ma. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 3.) 

V HOH •o hen ridIr com' t* 
V* entrai. (DaRt. Inf. 1.) 

£'l Dl^BBB AViRE INT^SO, 

cAe tu jragidni di Uu. (Gell. 
Circ. 2. 39.) 

Oiuf ii SI «iTTAR tutti iir 
6t5^lla 8PIA001A. (Dant. Porg. 
2.) 

La6nde £' gli PBNsd di roZ4re 
la seguSnte matAna riftordre. 
(Bocc g. 10. n. 9.) 

Mendti i gentiluomini nel 
giardinOf cortesemente gU txy- 
MANDO, CHI £^ r6MXRo. (Bocc. 
g. 10. R. 9.) 



In that very light 1 saw 
other laminaries. 

Although the eldeat was not 
arrived to the affe of ei^teen, 
when this uune Afeeier xedal- 
do died yerj rich. 



Thon dott not teem to me 
thyself. 

It is she herself, she is yet 
alive. 

What would he do if I should 
die? 

Thon mayest say what thon 
pleaseet; as for me I shall 
never consider myself safe, if 
we do not enchant her. 

It excites pity to see him. 



It shall not he so, that I wiU 
not pay you for it. 

Let us go to Romd with him. 

I cannot say how I entered 
it 

He must have heard, that 
thou speakest of him. 

Wherefore they leaped all 
upon the shore. 

Therefore he thought to 
restore them on the foUowing 
morning. 

Having led the gentlemen 
in the garden, he covteously 
asked them, who they were. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



107 



E in segno di eid, ne rito 
Mi«o delle sue cost 'piu care* 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 9.) 

Miofiglio op' ^ t perche. non 
^t£co? (Dant. Inf. 10.) 

Quel giamo ch' to lascidi 
grave f epensdsa — Madonnaf e*l 
mio cor seco. (Petr. 8. 212.) 

Po M ED^siM o non 80 . quel 
ch'V mi voglio. (Petr. a. 103.) 

E tri^TV BT^sso, talora a me 
usbergo di mm gUrim tu sembri. 
(AlC Saul. 2. 1.) 

Ma com* d, che si gran romdr 
non suone^Per dltri messij o 
per Lii ST^ssA il sentaf (Petr. 
8. 213.) 

JVim come fidmma che per 
fbrxa e spentay—Ma che per 
si MZDtauA^i consume. (Petr. 
Tri.) 



And as a proof of this, I will 
take with me those things 
which are the most dear to her. 

Where is my son, and why 
is he not with thee ? 

That day when I left my 
lady serious and pensiye, and 
my heart with her. • 

I know not myself what I 
want. 

And thou, thyself, sometimes 
seemest to me the shield of my 
glory. 

But how is it, that so ffreat a 
rumor does not sound through 
other messengers, or that sue 
does not hear it herself. 

Not like a flame which is 
extinguished by force^, but like 
one which consumes itself. 



EXERCISE VIII. 

I know, better than any other man, how to do 
sOf — dltro udmOj — far 

that which I please. God never will have 
eid che voglio. Iddio mai non avrcL 

mercv I on I me for this sin. Thou wilt ask 
misericordia \ di \ quksto peccaia. dirdi* 

her whether she wants any thing. You appear 
lei ae vudl nulla. parete 

to be a man of God, how do you say such 
u6mo DiOf come — ' * dUeii^ eotisto 

words? Without expecting any reprehension from 
pmr6laf Shiza atUndere rtprensione 

you. The magistrate begun to have pity 

Podestd, eonSneid ad avir compasn6ne' 



108 ANALOGY. 

I upon I her. She pleaaes me so moch, thit I 
I ia I *. piiice* mi* tanto, che 

couW not express it Having taken leave I of | him, 
potre^ nonl 4ir^ lo. Preto eommidUi? I ^'^M ' *t 

he I returned I to his house. They neyer retnm 
I «^ tomo I — cdsa. mdi non rindano^ 

it, and we return it I as soon as I we have 
Za% « rendidfiu^ Id^ \ come I — abbtdww^ 

used it We are ready* I to I do it, since 
adaperdta^ lal. sid-mo presti I di \ fdr,^lo, poichi 

it pleases you. She would drive me out of the 
vidc^ vi^' , seaccerMt* mO- fu6r — 

house. I have spoken I to him I of you. We 
edsa. *o» rkgiondtc^ \ gli^ \ 

make better work. You promised I to me I I *^ i 
faccidmo lavono. promeltiste^ I mil | \ di \ 

let me speak I with I your wife. | Be 

fdr^mi par tare \ con la \ Jt>6stra* d6nna\ | Stdie 

joyful, I you are in your house. I Do not trust j 
lietamentej \ sicit rostra^ cdsa^. \ ^ftm vi fiddle \ 

to I them. They* had all gone to church. 
di cram0 tutt€ anddte ckiSsa. 



It is he, himself. She I does not seem i | to t 
— £' — I nan sembra \ \ di \ 

bo hersei£ Many years (thejf) have not passed. 
Czser , ' mdltc^ dnnt^ * ^ sono^ non* passdtz^. 

They went with him. Come with me. I I have 
~ Anddron Finite \ nan 

nothing | to do with thee. We have seen, them 
koniinU \ a fax — abHcano^ veduti^ di^ 

ourTclves. She herself has brought I them I to me. 
5 *a3 portdte^ ) U" \ Me^\ 

Thou hast said it thyself. They began to 
Aih** dkUt^ La^ comtnadrom^ a^ 

speak amongst themselves. 

ragionare^ Seco^ ». 

* Tk0ff, in tli« femiAiao fender. 



CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNSv 



109 



lit Per. 
3d Per. 

3d Per. 



Cof^unctive Pronauni. 

SingaUrk Pl«n1. 

Sto you ; 

to tliem ; 
them; 
to them s 
them. 



ti T^ Arf J to thee; 



] 



vif m. &> f.f 



I^li or li* m.y to him or it; IdrOy m., 

tl or lo* m., him or it ; gli or !»,• i 

^,* f., to her ^r it j Wro, f., 

^fl,* f, her or it ; i«,* f, 



^ 5t, m. & f., 



3d Per. 



Singular and Floral. 

to one's self, ^ Tone's self, 

to himseliy j himself, 

to herself, >«t, m. A f., ^ herself, 
to itself or I itself or 

^ to themselves; J \^ themielres ; 



C of him or it, 1 C from him or it, 

«, m. & f, < of lier or it, > nc, m. & f., < from her or it, 
^ of them; ) ^ from them. 



Mij tii ne or ti, tn, are applied to animate beings 
only ; the others may be applied both to animate and 
inanimate beings. 

Conjunctive pronouns take the place of personal 
pronouns, when these pronouns are in the objective or 
relation of attribution^ and are closely connected with 
a verb ; as. 



m potUe Uhre [for poUte tdrre 

Am], 
non Ti pSssono mwhere [for 

non pissono mudvere Tc], 
HE Borihht gran Indaxmo [for 

sarMe a if6i gran 6tteW}» 



you can take away from 
me; 

they cannot move thee ; 

it would be in us a great 
fault; 



* The prononnfl il^ lo, la, li, glif /«. appear, in orthogrphy, to be th^ tame 
worda^a* the iirticletiZ, <«, Is, </, gU^ U. The learner, howeTer, will ohaerye, 
tkal when Uio words ti, lo. &c., are followed by a noun^ a verb in the ti(/Cni<t«« 
■»ood,or any otktr wtrd used as* iieim, they are iilway« artieUt t bat whea 
they are Hollowed by a Terb in a tenae ol the tndicativ , the conjunOive, or ihe 
•••A'CieiMl mood, or when they are jirined to a vtrb, ihey ai^ ulwaye conjum«W9€ 



10 



no 



CI ka gmMH [for ha gmd&H 

eu vhmt a imewMa ffor v^- 

ne a wutmkia a 1s(u\ 
LI #t ^fti moflrto [for #t ira 

WMttriio A liii], 
u cond&nm [for eOfuttiim 

l6ko], 
u. Mamd [for dkunn^ li!^], 
x^ avisse fdtto doUnU [for 

m>is9tfiato iM\ doUnU;\ 
isAWumdb [for wumdb h±t]j 
isM poU$9€ iomire [for poU$9€ 

tomdre a l^i], 
I.B doner6 [for dmuri i^mo}, 
^ra pariiio i^no [for ira pa- 

ruto A i«6fto], 
81 vide davdfiH [for vide da- 

vdnti A st], 
SI Uucid cadire [for Uucid ca- 

dirt 8&], 
mipidzi di wxrliarm. [forjnd- 
ctcmt aiparUart di isso], 
a qudn'% ne riaeivmo [for a 

quAiiH di uofto giaeivtmojj 



ANALOGY. 

it haf guided us ; 

there came into his udnd ; 



he had shown himself to 

him; 
it should condemn them ; 

she caDed him ; 
it had afflicted him ; 

he sent her ; 

it might cause her; 

I will give them ; 

it had seemed to them ; 

he sees before him ; 

she let herself M; 

it pleases me to speak of 

it; 
from as many of them as 

were abed. 



If the coDJuDCtive pronouDS miy ti^ ct, t^t, /$, lo^ le^ la, 
M, fUf are followed by a verb beginoiog with a vourdj 
they commooly lose the t and take an apostrophe in its 
stead; as. 



u'kArdito, 

l' offendSvcLj 
nC AvrimmOf 



he has bruised me ; 

thou suckest us ; 

he offended them ; 

we should haye from him. 



When they are preceded by a verb they are joined to 
it 80 as to form one single word ; as, 



danArmi^ 


to giye me ; 


fitrveT^ 


it appeared to thee ; 


mmMnOy 


to send him; 



CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS. 



11 



ei.1, 



dicdndoj^if 



be being in want; 
telling bim. 



In using; the pronouns «/, 2o, li^ gli^ la^ U^ we follow 
the rules already given with regard to the articles U, loy 
/a, ' the ' ; as, 



iL consMif 
cki LO scrisse, 
L* Atnerdf 
9hi AsptUSva^ 



thou consentest to it; 
he who wrote it ; 
I will love him ; 
be expected them. 



I am; 

whether thou hast minded ; 



The pronouns mt, ti, d, vt, n, ne, are often used 
as mere expletives ; as, 

to MI sdnOf 

9e tuTi ?tAi pdtto mhde^ 

3 imprt chttu ci vwerdij as long as thou livest ; 
<idehevdiwi dUe^ what you say ; 

81 tcfci dd paUgio, he went out the palace ; 

the If B fkst dd budn what had become of the good 
tuhnOf 



SSAMPLSf. 



r<M MI POT^TS Tdaiui qudnU 
tatgOf e DoniRMi, sieedme vdgtro 
Momo a chi vi fidee, (Boce. g. 
3. n. 9.) 

8* 6gU pArtbti il fdUo vm 
eotl grdndCf che tnn ti rdssoiro 
Mu^TBRi a pietdte oleoma U 
mnare Idgrimtf iU gli uwdU 
priegkif muovari almino questo 
s6lo mio duo. (Booc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

II MAHDARLo JudH di cosm 
ndttra eoai infermo re ■arxbbk 

ORAM BlitlMO. (BOCO. g. 1. n.I.) 

U vdstro sSnnOf piu ehe il 
nditro uvvedimentOf ci ba oui- 
BATi. (Boce. Intr.) 

6i80<i9iRD00Li itnm buSna 
puuUUd di dandri, oli tj^iink 
A MBMoRiA tm rieco Qimdeo. 
(Boce. g. 1. n. 3.) 



Ton can taka kway firom ma 
all I haTa, and give me, lika 
one of your men, to whoinao- 
aver it pleaiai yon. 

If my iault appeared to thee 
■o great, that neither my bitter 
tears, nor my humble prayen, 
can moTe thee to pity, at 
least let thb single act of mine 
moTe thee. 

To send him out of our house, 
80 infirm aH he is, would ba ia 
us a great &ult. 

Tour wisdom, more than our 
foresight, has guided us. 

Being in want of a good sum 
of money, there came into his 
mind a rich Jaw. 



112 



ANALOGY. 



11 aeguinte A mpfarve fwr 
vindne Cristo a RubSrio, Diciw- 
DOLi, che infdrmm di lebbrdso 
LI 81 iRA hostrIto, voUndo 
prov6re Im tim fietd. (GioT. 
TiU. 1. 4. •. 18.) 

O LI. cohdIhvi « temptlem0 
pidfiitf. (Petr. 1. 214.) 

^Msai voUe invoHO IL cbiamo. 
(Bocc. g. 4.11.6.) 

3e d'ynm e6sa 961a nam Lo 
ATissi la fortuna rirro do- 
LitiTK. (Bdco g. 5. n. 1.) 

^d ima /•r possessidne la ne 
MiHDd. (Bocc g. 5. B. 7.) 

Cttmrneid admhUdret mm guSl 
9UO guarddr eos^ fiso movess* 
la sua rusticiid ad aleima eoBa, 
eke V9rg6ena lb porisss tor- 
iTARB. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 1.) 

S eUe wipidc€iQn9, i« lb •» 
DOHEKd. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 9.) 

Jfi i£mA amedra lor par^to 
dtctma voltaf tdmto /^aiamSnle 
eamtdr gli MsignrndU, qvdnio 
fuelU matUna parevm, (Boec. 
g. 7. Proem.) 

DavInti si t^dr du«j eke 
vireo Ini row una luntima in 
mono veniimo. (Bocc. g. 2. m, 
5.) 

Efssa Bopra U p6no del CdnU 
•I LASCid eon la Usta CAoiRR. 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) 

E'gli m PlIcR 91 PARLARRE. 

(Bocc. g. 1. n. 7.) 

E'^lif piananUnte anddndo^ 
A auAifTi VK GiAcivAnOf a tuUi 
in stvUl manidra taglid ieapdlU. 
(Bocc. g. 3. n. 2.) 

M' HA con un hdat6ne tuUo 
r6tto. (Bocc. g. 7. n. 7.) 



The foUowiBg 4ay, Chrwt 
appeared in a Tision to Robert, 
■aying to him, that he bad 
shown himself to him in th^ 
form of a leper, to try hia pity . 



Or it should condemn them 
to eternal woe. 

She called him many times 
in TaiR. 

If fortune had not afflicted 
him in one thing alone. 

He sMii her to a Asm af 
theirs. 

She began to doubt, lest her 
looking so fixedly should moTe 
his oncoRthneos to do some- 
thing, wkieh might aanae her 
shame. 

Kyoii like tiiam, I will giTe 
them to yon. 

Nor had it erer seemed to 
them, that the nightingales had 
at any time song so cheerfbUy , 
as tfaiey appeared ta do thiat 
morning. 

He sees before him two per- 
sons, who came towards nim 
with a lantern in their hands. 



She let her head faO on the 
bosom of the Count. 



it pleases me to speak of it 



He, walking softly, from aa 
any of them as were abed, cut 
tdn of hair in the same man- 



He has bruised me all over 
with a stick. 



CONJUNCTIVE PRONOaNS. 



118 



£ neU* Hima p6i «i mal 
c'imh6llk. (Dant. Inf. 12.) 

Diehkdo eke quello che dovSa 
d^enderUVovrrnvDirA. (Far. 
Esop. 67.) 

Se Sgli sapSsse Umordr Vorto, 
to mi credo, eke not n^ATKkMuo 
ku6m nrvigio. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 
1) 

JVS iu VL coHSjfiHTi, AmOre. 
(Tias. Ger. 2. 15.) 

CtaUoUoJu U libra, e ohi lo 
•CRf 8flB. (^Dant. Inf. 5.) 

Po ho amdto, ed amo Ouiscdr- 
dm, e qudnto viverd L'AHBRd. 
(Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

Gli ASPBTTiYA. (BOCC. g. 

3.n.7.) ^ 

I'o III BONO tin povero peUe- 
grino. (Boco. Filoo. 1. 5.) 

Po non so, sb tu t^hJli posto 
iii£irTK, eonu ndi sidmo tenuie 
striUc. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 1.) 

Cont^ ddnno ti rieorderdi, 

t^MPBB CHB TU CI VITBRil, del 

ndme mio. (Bocc. g. 6. n..4.) 
Amddie, goedel&ni; v6i non 

smp6U CIO CHB TOI TI DfTB. 

(Bocc. g. 6. n. 6.) 

Del PALioio s'usci, e fag- 
gissi a edtm, (Bocc. g. 2. n. 8.) 

L« dinna »e ne venne, e dbi. 
Buon uoMO dotiumdd, chk hb 
yo^z. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 2.) 



And in the eterntl [life] 
thus miserably thoo sockesC Vf . 

Saying that he who oo^ht to 
have defended them, oflSnded 
> them. 

If he knew how to cnltiyate 
the garden, I believe that we 
■hoald have from him good . 
service. 

Nor then dost consent to it, 
O Love. 

The book, and ^e who wrote 
it, were [to as] Galeotto: 

• I have lored, and love Guis- 
cardo, and will love him as 
long as I live. 

He expected them. 
I am a poor pilgrim. 

I know not, whether thou 
hast minded, how close we are 
kept. 

To thy sorrow then wilt re- 
member my name, as long as 
thou livest. 

Go away, fools ; you do not 
know what you say. 



He went out the palace, 
and fled to his house. 

The woman came, and asked 
what had become of the good 
man. 



When the pronouns m», ti^ glij ne or a, vi^ n, are 
iroroediately followed by the pronouns lo^ 2a, gU^ /t, /e, 
n«, they are generally united and form a single word ; as> 

mi loj M^LO, him or it to me ; ct /t, c^li, them to us ; 

ti lay t4LA, her or it to thee ; vi gii, vAoli, them to you. 

10» 



114 ANALOGF. 

Unionof the Pronouns Kt^ n, gli, he or ci, ri, si, 
vnth the Pronouns lo, la, gu, li, nk. 

Miy to me } 

miUf (inmte) Miw>,* f teiii; him or it to me j 

mt la, (mostrAte) mAla, r**o«^>l her or it to me 5 

Zi V { (preetite) ^ mAli, ' > (leiwO them to me ; 

( (g*^) ^ Die of it, or tfl^ 
mi n€, (ddte) nAwi, ^ me of them ; some of it^ 

^ [or some of them. 

Ti, to thee ; 
ti lo, Tito* (invio), (I send) him or it to thee ; 

Hla, T±LA (m69tro), ('/Mov; her or it to thee; 

(tgft, T*GLI ) 

H% Tin > (presto), C/toirf; them to thee; 

file, tAlb ) 

, , , , $C/fftoe;totheeofit«ort9 

tine, TiifE (do), J » [thee of them ;&c. 

eui to him or ber ; 
gU lo. ^LitLO (inyia), \ ^ '^^ ^""f j^i?. 

^ te, oLitLA (mbetra), j (^ '*^^ '^ ''[^11^ 

^K K, ei.iifeLi J . ^ ^^, i (he lends) them to him or 

ghle, otitLE S^*^ " ( [her; 

C^^ gives) to him or her of 

to him or her of them; 

her of it, or to her of 

[them; &,c. 



((hegia 
,. 5 oLiAifE ? / ,. . iit,orto 



'^ SoDM writer* qm these prononnf , with exceptien of ftUUf lU., tepftrate ;— 

MB LO tB LO, MB 1K> •r OB LOf JcC 



CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS. 
N« or CI, to us J 



115 



or 



wS'lo,! (-osttAt.) j^^^^ r*Ao«,; her or it tow; 



or ct gii, 



V or cioLi, J 



«5k, > (P«««*t«) C*^L,'?^'««"l''emtou.; 



orctfc, 



vilo, 
Vila, 



V or cAlk, 



(ddte) ci^N£, 



$ (give) to us of it, oi- to us 
i [of them; &c. 



v% 
vilcy 

vi ne. 



9% lo, 

sila, 
9iUy 



VI, to you ; 
vAlo (ioviAmo), fwe lenrf; him or it to you ; 

vAla (mo8tri4mo), rw^J^koirjherorit toyou; 

v^n V(pre«ti4mo), ftre ienrf; them to you ; 
viifB (diAmo), 



J ('tw give) to you of it, or 

} (to; 



► you of them; &c. 



SI, to one's self; 
sELo (inviano). 
s£LA (mbetrano), 



SlfeOLI 

sin ^ (pr^stano), 



S(t?iey send) him or.it to 
[themselyes ; 

^ /'«% *Aotr; her or it to 
) [themselves ; 



It ne, 8BNB (ddnoo), 



Utheylend) them to them- 
i [selves ; 

(th^give) to themselves 

or to themselves of 

[them; &c. 



^ofit, 



Mehf telo, glxHo^ nelo or celo, velOf selo^ fee., 
before a verb beginning with a consonant, except «, and 
^ followed by another consonant^ often drop the o ; 



116 



ANALOGY. 



and before a verb beginniDg with a vowel^ drop the # 
and take an apostrophe in its stead ; a^, 

MEL Difte, he told it to me ; 

TM. Trarrdj I will draw it for yoa ; 

' rum OLi^ cddi^ I did not conceal it from hiM ; 

eLiiL' Apirgij I revealed it to him ; 

cbl' AvitefSUta, yoo have deceived as ; 

8ek' Entrdy she entered. 

Wheq the pronouns mt, rf, ct, vi, gli^ le, fac., are 
preceded by the adverb icco^ ^ behold', they form with 
this a single word ; as, 

iceonU, behold me ; 

^coct, behold us ; 

^ccole, behold them. 

When the pronoun lo is preceded by the adverb non^ 
'no, not', it is, more elegantly, changed into (land joined 
with the adverb in a single word ; as, 

noti tZ, NOL vSde, she does not see him ; 

nan U, ifOL nigOf I do not deny it 

B1AMPLB8. 



Tu rf4' difdrunho vedere ne 
»m. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 4.) 

MxL dImb il pddre mio, chHo 
mi guarddssi — Di par gid 
mat nella Meuenia u piede. 
(Maff.'Mer. 3.4.) 

Per vedcrfdre U tomo a qui' 

macckeronif e tdruzKm una so- 
t6Ua. (Bocc. g. B. n. 3.) 

Sinza olcun maestro to til 
trarr6 oUimamSfUe, (Bocc. 
g. 7. n. 9.) 

fo non mene maramglioj tU 
T^ME so ripigli&re. (Bocc. g. 
3. n. a) 



Thoa sayest, that thoa wilt 
make me see it amongst the 
living. 

My father told me, that 
I, should take care never te 
set my foot in Messenia. 

To see those ^ maccaroni 
falling down, and give myself 
a bellyful. 

Without any roaster, I will 
draw it for you very well. 

I do not wonder at it, nor de 
1 know how to reprove you for 
it. 



CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS. 



117 



Po fKira ttubbidir disideroso 

NON OLI^L CBLAI mtt tuttO 

GLi^L* APiRsi. (Dant. Inf. 
10.) 

GU OMui noi ahbidmo qu&U 
CKGLi deggidmo. (Bocc. v. 
10. U.S.) ^ 

La ddnna tuUndo queatOj e 
dopo moUe neot^erniAziini 
fiiUUuLn^ dal Zippa^ credindolo^ 
I disse. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 8.) 

Vedindo Vuomo la semplicitd 
dsl fandidlo gli^ne vennc 
^ittd. (Matt. Vill. 10. 30.) 

Vdi c»l' atxtb fatta. 
(Bocc. g. 6. n. 9.) 

(^udnfA c^HB vedete v6i, le 
md bdUzzt sUn fdtu edme le 
mU? (Bocc. g. 4. n. 2.) 

C6me quitto amtentUa mi sia, 
bruvemenU vxl fard ehidro. 
(Bocc. g. 10. n. 4.) 

Mi pidce di fdrvMUM pii^ 
Mdre ecn ima jnceola novUutla. 
(Bocc. g. 1. n. 3.) 

in procesMO di timpo be lb 
riprise, (Bocc. g. 7. n. 3.) 

- Ses' ENTRd nella edsa del 
pover Momo, (Bocc. g. 5. n. 3.) 

Lo gcoldre, accost&tosi aWu- 
scio, disse : '^ E'ccom ^t, ma- 
ddmui** (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

E'ccoLRy ehe ella medisima 
ptangindo meV ha riportdte, 
(Bocc. g. 3. n. 3.) 

E^Ua o lo aprizza^ o hol t^db, 
• won 8*avDede. (Tass. Ger. 2. 

ifi.) 

Po ifOL pdeso negdr. e nol 
irieo. (P6tr.8.m) 



I, who was desirouf of obey- 
ing, did not conceal it, but re- 
Tealed to him all. 



*> We have such friends as we 
choose them for as. 

The lady hearing this, and 
afler many confirmations of it 
made to her by Zeppa, belicT- 
ing it, said . 

The man seeing the sim- 
plicity of the boy, took pity up- 
on him. 

Ton have deceived us. 



How many of them do yon 
see, whose beauties are such 
as mine ? 

How this happened tn me, 
I will explain to you briefly. 

It pleases me to make you 
more conscious of it, witli a 
small tale. 

In the progress of ^time he 
took them back. 

She entered in the house of 
the poor man. 

The scholar, coming to the 
door, said : ** Behold me here, 
madam." 

Behold them, which she her- 
self weeping has brought back 
tome. 

She either despif^s him, or 
does not see him, or does not 
understand. 

I cannot deny it, and do not 
deny it. 



118 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE IX. 

But what wishest thou that I should say to her 
Ma eke vudi eke dica* 1 

for you, I if it happens that I diould speak 
datimpdrte, \ se avvUne eke faeiU^ 

to her? They will rob us, and perhaps will tmke 
1 ? ruberdnnt^ ", e3 /or#«* torrtfaww« 

(to u») eren I our I life. I will lodge yom 
» dneke | la \ vita. albergkerSi > 

willinfi^ly, as I can. The youth told him erei^ 
volmuUri, edwM potrd. giovanitto dits^ * dgwi 

thing. J will pardon him willingly, and pardon 
eita, — ferdonero^ * VoUnl%iH\f c* ptrdamti' 

him now. He gave to him i his | benediction, 

* oraK — DUde^^ \ la 9ua \ h cn edixidn a, 

holding him for a very holy man. How | does 

it appear I to thee? Have I weU kept I my I 
pdr^ I 1 ? hfii ^ ben* seriaUfi \ iJ^ \ 

promise to you ? My brother writes to me, that 
promeesa^ l ? mte9 fratilh^ Scrive^^ \ eke 

without anj fail, 1 1 should send I to him one thousand 
thua oleum faUo, \ dbbia manddd^ \ * 

gold florins ; | otherwise I I his | head will be cut off 
dkiroa Jiorino^ ; I se fum» \ \ la' \ testa* sard^ tagUdt^ 

(to kvn,) I have not deceived you I to | depriTC 
*. Ao» ncm* inganmaU^ * \ per \ tor^^ 

you of I your property. I Certainly although thou 
— I il vdstro, I Certo quamtiinque 

affirmest it, I r do not believe I that thou believest 
afdrmi* \ ' I nan er6do* \ ek^ • crSdaf^ 

it Having turned himself to I his I wife, he 
7. Volto I la I mogUe, — 

asked her if she had had them. If thou I dost 
44fmandd' ^ le* avessi^ aviUi^ ^. Se \ nen 

not do it, I thou wilt repent thyself of it so many 
fdP lol, I 3 pentcrdi^ " «w * tdnlia 

times, that thou | wilt, die | of it. 
it6lta^ eke | vorrdi morire^ \ 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 119 

He granted it to him freely. I want to ffo 
eoneedilit? ' LdberamitUel, — Vdglio andSre 

I and I tell him, that he I should go away; I Leave 
a I dir^^ i, eke \ sine v&a, \ Ldada^ 

me, I beg it of thee (ihte of it). That which he 
, Jfrego* — — — I . qttillo eke 

afterwards said to me, I do not dare to tell it to 
p6i divteS 1 , non dso dir^^ 

you, if first you do not pardon me. The song 
, se prima non perdandte^ i. * canzon? 

being finished, the master said: *'What dost thou think 
FiniUk^, maestro dksse : '^ Che — — — 

of it (dots U aptfear to thee of it)?^ You did not 
pdre» ' ?" mm 

belieye it, when I told it to you. Having kept 
tredevdte* i, qudndo* dissi^ * . Avendo,^ serbdti* 

tbem full a year I to I return them to him, I gave 
gU} bet^ < dnn(/> \ per* \ render''^ • 8^, ^ dildt" 

them away for the love of God. BehoM me; what 
11 — — amdr Dio, ; eke 

I do you want i of 1 me? Behold one (of theml 
voUte \ da \ f l^unaS « 

b«hold another of them. 
^^tnedltra^ *. 



RELATITE AND I N T E R R O G A T I T E 
PRONOUNS. 

Relative Pronouns. 

Siiifolar and Plural. 

Ckij m. & f. who, he or she that, they that ; 
M,Zti\''^^' which, that; 

Biofolar. Plural. 

qudle^ m. &> f. who, which, ^tidii, m. &> £ 

Chi refers to persons only 5 che^ cAt, qudky both to 
persons and things« 



120 ANALOGY. 

Che is chiefly used in the iubjedivej and cii m all 
other relations^ but the subjective ; cki^ quaky are used 
in all their relations ; as, 

CHI offhuU, (kUoy he that offends, hatee ; 

A CHI non si wUtte nati* to him who does not set him- 

gAndo, aeW" navigating ; 

quiUoj CHE io eircoj she, whom I seek ; 

gjt 6ccki Di CHE io parlAi, the eyes of which I spdce ; 

A oil si amm/dglia^ to which she unites herself; 

DAcAi fdsse r it^Otria ri- from whom the offence wa« 

eevufOj received ; 

iL quALB ira piacivoU who was an agreeable young 

gidvane, in»n > 

wrisso Alul quAlb ska n- near which should be situated 

p6sto un dtUtHvoU pidno, a delightful plain ; 

iifio dA' qvihi h-a ckiamd- one of whom was called Pam- 

to PanfUo^ philus ; 

t wkiU i>±Lhm quiLi roe- whose names I would relate. 

eonterHy 

Cui is generally used instead of dli, cAc, quale ; as, 

iwn guardAndo ei3ii [or chi] not minding whom she jeered; 

wwtteggi&ssej 

cotHy cdi [or cbb] igli ami&r she, whom he loved ; 

w, 

cMiyC<xi [or II. quixB] he,whonjLlkilled. 

io iicci#t, 

CAe is sometimes used instead of quale ; as, 

un eatecdih-y che [or n. i^uX- a knight, whom Italy honors ; 

lb] li&Lia ondrOf 

la mis^ria ib che [or k^l- the misfortune into which she 

i«A quli.E] ira vemda, had fallen : 

Sometimes, it is used with the article t7, in the fngnifi-* 
cation of la qudl cdsa^ * which thing' ; as, 

iL cHB [or I.A quiL c6sA] which thing displeased them; 
dispUtcque Idroj 

BBi( CHB amtdidosij which thing h^ having ob- 

served* 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 121 

Sometimes it is used in the signification of eosa^ 
* thing' ; che c6$a, ^ what thing' ; as, 

un bd CHB [or una billa a fine tiling ; 

c6sa], 

j^nz& 9apir cam [or chk without knowiDg what things 

c68a] sperdre, to hope : 

And sometimes it is equivalent to the English pronoun 
'what' only; as, 

CHI doidre io sinio, what pain I feel ; 

CHE ci&nce tu di*, what stories thou tellest 

Che before a vowel drops the e, and takes an 
apostrophe in its stead ; as, 

cb' isgli i u9&to, which is wont ; 

^ ca' io parl&ir of which I spoke. 



Qu&le b sometimes used, instead of cAi; aSj 

J(BU i ^uAle [or cHi] cridCf foolish is he who helieves ; 
quALS [or CHi] pi& possiSdCf he who [possesses] }ias more : 

And sometimes it is equivalent to die English pronoun 
* what ' I as, 

quiiiEyoMe.k eagidnef what the cause was ; 

quAlb ySMe r dniino di Ui^ what her mind was. 

Qmhf unless followed by z, or s followed by another 
comonantf in the singuhr dirops the e ; and in the plu- 
ral makes quai^ and qua*f as, ' 

quii. amore, what love ; 

la quAL edgOj which thing ; 

t quAi t^*, which vices ; 

dOe quA' liUere^ to which letters. 



To avoid the ambiguity, which would arise in Ital- 
ian, from the inversion of the different words of a sen- 



U 



m ANALOGY. 

teocei when the pronouns che^ quaUf refer to the 
oifeet of tbe proposition, tbey are changed ibr the 
pronoun etd. Thus the pbraiBe, * the city which the 
wood conceab'i if ^ ci^' is the svbject of the proposi- 
tion, b rendered la dtta che or la <iUA'LS il b6$€o a$c6n- 
de, < the city which conceals the wood' ; but if * city' is 
the objed of the proposition, then it b rendered la dttd 
c(a Ubdico atcdnaej * the city which the wood conceals' ; 
as, 

fMrfMo CBE jDi» nan Unu. the man who does not fear 

God; 

r «rfMo ci2u 96tmo pigUOf a man who is seized by sleep. 



Instead of JK cut, del or dilla quah^ dii or ddh 
qutii; da cut, dot quale; cKm eki^ col qMe; per ews, 
per lo quaUy &c., we often find used the adyero inie^ 
which dien assumes the nature of a relative pronoun ; as, 

qM 9o^fkn 65nB [mr ni thoae sighs with winch I 
dni io fitidHiMi U eudrtj nourished my heart ; 

niUa prigidne 6si>m [or in the prison from which she 
dIlla quiLK] i scMoj is released ; 

^gm Idceio 6icds [or col every tie with which my 
quXui] U mio c6rt k heart is bound ; 

qiMo useiudio 6ia>x [or that littk door through which 
pxa LO quiLB] ira m^ he had entered. 

Mfio, 

Before a vowel, oiide drops the e, and takes an apos- 
trophe instead of it; as, 
oim'io, of which I; 

own' Am, through which he [was] had. 



Cki^ chey CMt, are varied with ihe prepoiitiotu only; 
quhk is varied both with the jFreponTumt and the artUle 
a or /a, < the', accordbg to tbe gender of the object it 
refers to. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



133 



The prepositions dij a, are often elegantly eoppreesed before 
csai as. 



in edsa [di] cui Ira morio, 

96i [a] cut foriima ha p6$to 
in mdno tlfrinOf 



in whose house he had died ; 

yon, into whose hands fortune 
has put the reins. 



XZAMPLBS. 



Chi o.^FiiTDE, 6dia, e nan 
dinUntiet^, (Dav. Tit. Agt,) 

4lucl piaeSref ch' tau ± 
vsATo di d&rt A cMi Urdpwt ik>h 
SI Mi-rtE ne* suH pilaghi na- 
TiGAKDo. (Bocc. Proem.) 

QuKLLA, cb'Io c£rco « nmi 
ritrdvo in terra. (Petr. s. 34.) 

GlI OCCBl DI CR'fO FAElIi 

slcaldmnhUe. (Petr. s. 251.) 

MdlUmngli animali a ei^i 
SI ah«6glia. (Daflt. Inf. 1.) 

ySUa m&nU riiomdndosi eki 
egU Sroj e audi Fdssn L'liroit^- 
lUA RicxTirrA, « pareiU, c i>a 
cvj. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

DianSOf il aolLi, 6Ure ad 
dgnidltro, iRA PUoiTOL ofo- 
▼aub. (Bocc. Introd.) 

Vna montdgna d$pra ed^rta, 

TnisSO ALLA aviLE UH BKL- 

r.fssiMO pidna « dileUSvole sia 
ripdMa, (Bocc. Introd.) 

Di* auiLi t^No iEA c^Uo-* 
mato PamfIlo. (Bocc. Introd.) 

SSue gidvani d6nnt^ i h6iii 
D^LLB auAi.! ia m prdpria fir- 
maraccanUrH, (Bocc. Introd.) 

Net OUARDAMDO Cl^I MOT- 

TBGOiissE, credipdo vincere fu 
vinta, (Bocc. g. 1. n. 10.) 

ColAi maritdndOf ci^i soli 
amAva. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 6.) 



He that offends, hates, and 
does not forget. 

That pleasure, which it is 
wont to give to him who does 
not set himself naTigating 
too much through its seas. 

She whom I seek, and do 
Aot find on earth. 

The eyes of which I spoke so 
warmly. 

Many are the animals to 
^which she unites herself. 

RoTolTinff in his mind, who 
he was, and what theoflblioe 
receiyed was, and why, and 
ifirom whom receiyed. 

Diondo, who was agreeable 
beyond every bther young 
man. 

A mountain rough and steep, 
near which is situated a yery 
beautiful and delightful plaia. 



One of whom was called 
Pamphilns. 

Seyen young women, whose 
names 1 'would relate in their 
true form. 

Not minding whom she 
jeered, belieying to conquer 
she was conquered. 

Marrying her, whom he 
loved. 



194 



ANALOGY. 



CoL^i, cdi lo vccisi. 
(Boce. g. 10. n. 8.) 

Sdprmil mdnte TarpU^ e^n- 
itAlia titUm oikSra. (Petr. c. 

Diana, ck4 conoteita la mi- 
•<RIA IH CHB Biamc^fidre ink 
TBBl^TA, t«nip«rd /a #ti« tr« ecu 

" 9fihta. (Bocc. Filoc. 1. 



fT' 



JvStan senttto percki prSsa 
la Mnetia fAsse ; ii. cnT f&rU 
Dif piicttvB LdB«. (Boec. f. 4. 
n. 3.) 

Del cbb ATTzot^roii Jlfof- 
cMa^ disse, (Day. Stor. 1. 4.) 

JMt fMtreOA VV BXL CBB <*/#• 

itnufiuhra, (Bern. rim. 1. 74.) 

La gidvatu frist htdna augu- 
fw d' avSr fuUto n6m% uSio, 
« eowUneid a spbbIji fin&A 
f APin CBB. (Boce. ^ . 5. o. 3.) 

iH# U M, CBB DouSax le 
•ivTo. (Boec. g. 5. b. 10.) 

P0 mon JO dU Jndreuceio, ni 
CBB ciiifCB «om quelle^ che rv 
vi\ (Bocc. f . 7. n. 5.) 

F6LLB A auAL cr£di, dU 
»<r smSi eotuigli mmdver pcssa 
VdrdiAe del cUlo. (DitUm.) 

QuiL pid ginte possi^db — 
CoUd i piu tia' ni6i nemid av- 
vdlio, (Petr. c. 99.) 

La6ndt f&Uo ektamdre il 
Sinisedleo, e domoMddto quAl 
FOSSE del Tomire la ca6i6pb. 
(Bocc. g. 6. Proem.) 

La d6tma, ccnoteSndo avAL 
f60SB L*AifiMO VI Lir, lascid 
•Ure U pardle. (Bocc. f . 3. n. 
8.) 

QuAl amori avribhe i tosjnri 
di lUofditi a Gisippo nel eu6r 
semHreyse non eoeteif (Boco. 
f . 10. n. 8.) 



He, whom I killefl. 

On the TmrpeiRB monntmiB^ 
O Song, thon wilt eee a knight, 
whom all Italy honor*. 

Diana^ who knew the min- 
fortune into which Biancafiorw 
had fkllen, moderated her anger 
with a proper restraint. 

Thej had heard why NtnetU 
had been taken; which thing 
displeated them mnch. 

Which thing MarceBoa h«T- 
ing obeerved, said. 

It appeared to ma a fine thinif 
to be ont of it 

The girl tmA it as a good 
omen, to hare heard this name, 
and began to hope, withoot 
knowing what [thing] to hope. 

God knows pt] what poiB I 
feeL 

1 know not what Andrenceio^ 
or what stories these are which 
thoa tellest. 

Foolish is he who belioTes^ 
that he can change the decrees 
df hearen bj. his deliberations. 

He who hss more subjects, 
is snrrtNinded by BK>re enemies. 



Having, therelbre, eansed the 
senechal to be called, and bar* 
ing asked what the cense of the 
noise was. 

The woman, knowing what 
her mind was, abandoned the 
conversation. 

What lore conld the sighs 
of Titos, hsTS caused Gistppns 
to feel in his heart, if not that of 
her. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



135 



La auAL c68A vtgghido An- 
drekcdo, (Boec. g, §. n. 5.) 

I auAi Tfej procedcno da 
ipUtU veUndsa radiee, (Amm. 
Ant 317.) 

A'lle Q,vk* LitTSKB io mi 
rimetio, (Ctsa. lett 18.) 

Che aUinde ciasciin uom che 
Dfo i?oir TEME. (Dant Inf. 3.) 

E cdddi edme l'u6ii ciSft 
BOKKo rfcLiA. (Dant. Inf. 3.) 

Vdi che ascoUdie in rime 
spdrMe it tu&no — Di auii sosrf- 
BJ o9d' fo xuorIva il cuorc 
(Petr. •. 1.) 

N^LLA b£lLA rRIGl6lfE omd' 

6ra ]& scioLTA — P6co era itdia 
anedr V dlma gentile. (Petr. e. 

t dggio in 6dio la speme, e i 
deUri — Ed ogni laccio okde'l 
uio COR ^ Avrf NTO. (Petr. a. 
75.) 

Per oviLLo usciuulo, okd* 
£ra £ifTRATo, il mUe fudri. 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 2.) 

il buihi. uomOf IS CASA ct^i 
MORTO f RA, dUse. (Bocc. ff. 4. 
n. 8.) 

Vol, Ctt FORTtJNA DA POSTO 

i!« MA^o il Mno — Delle belle 
ecntrdde. (Petr. c, 29.) 



Which thing Androneoi* 
seeing. 

Which Ticee proceed from 
this yenomoofl root. 



To which letters I refer. 



Which waits for erery 
who does not fear Qod. 



And I dropped down, like a 
man who is seiaed by sleep. 

You who hear in scattered 
rhjmes the sound of those sighs 
with which I nourished mj 
heart 

The gentle soul had been but 
a short time in the beautiful 
prison from which she is now 
released. 

I hold in hatred the hope, 
the raTinga, and eyery tie with 
which my heart is bound. 



•ut him out of that little 
which he had 



She put nira 
door tnrough 
entered. 

The. good man, in whose 
house he had died, said. 



You, into whose hands for 
tune has put the reins of the 
beautiful countries. 



EXERCISE X. 



lie detenmned | to find | who had done thi«. 
— Pentd I di voler trovare \ avesn^ fcUte9 quSsU*, 

This wretched little man who ia here, I saw there 

11* 



136 ANALOGY. 

tbiDgs fltden with him whom afterwards I killed. Render 
Jwrt^ eolui uoetsi. Bendi^^ 

me at least the clothes I (of mine) I (the) which I have 
mlmhuf pdnno \ mtet | k^ 

left there. CHu) Piamm^tta, whose hair* was curly, 
lascidtV vi^, , cmpSUo erano er^spo, 

long, and of the color of gold. This is the ring^ 
lungo, e — — dro. i^uisto i andio, 

which she already carried I to | France the first 

time that she made that journey I with her | 
vdlim fice fuel eamniino \ col \ 

brother. Neither I, nor the one ^om whom I 
fraUUo. , ni coliti 

received her, I ever knew I whose daughter I she 
eMi* > InonsmpimmomdP] * figSuOt^ \ n 

was. I She, who knew well, that which ^e had 

to do. Having turned herself to Pampbilus, who 
rn^far^. RMUa PanfiU, 

sat I at I her right, pleasantly said to him. The 
Mi(^p«4 t d^' I 'u^ dtatra? piMcevolminU* di$$<? • » 

first (of whom), to whom the queen gave I such a | 
]nimo* » 2 " » « 7 regima^ impdaeil \ tmP \ 

charge, was Pbilostratus, who bejran in ibis way. 
cdrtctflO, fig FiUatratOy - eotmmeio fuesto numiera. 

Are you that woman, who must come to speak 
SUU ^ qucllo ddniuif iovite'% vtmirt^ a* parutr^ 

to him ? The young man is the son of Landolphus 
'7 guhane e — figUMo Lmnidlfo 

of Procida, by (iht) whose means thou art a king; 
, per 2 f^pera^ se* — re; 

the younff woman is the danshter of Marin Btigaro, 
gidvane i — figUudlm , 

{(he) whose power causes that thou art not now I sent 
poienza fa > 3 «4i* ^^^4 6gg%^ | acac- 

away | from I Fschia. 
rt^ti* \ di \ 

* Ifair, m t}i« phirftl ninber. 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 1«7 

The woman, heariDg him epeak whom she held 
ddnnUf udindo cestui parldre ttitSva 

for a domb roan, | was quite amazed. I I She went 

<nit I of the church, by that wav through which he had 
I • ckiesoy^^ Peri quello* vitfi 4 » _ erd» 

come. Now, I determine | without any other delar, 

and I take | that man whom you wish most To 
e I ii jngltai \ * vu&i^ piuA 

(ike) which, 1 could not resist, for any thing in 
, * fotriV nonfi resittere^^ ' — — cdsa^ 

the world. By the hundred steps by i^hich 
3 m^ndo,* Per scagltdne per 

I one ascends 1 to the Tarpeian rock. I At | (ihej 
si 9dl€ I Tarpeo . | Di \ 

which thing, all the others frightened began to 

e6$a, tuito dUro spavcntdti tomincidronc^ a> 

flee. He saw the lady, who loves my brother. 

/iiggire,* tide ddnna^ dma mio frateilo. 

Behold the young man, whom his daughter loves. 
£'ceo ^idvaiUf iua^ figlia^ dma,* 



Interrogative Pronouns. 

The relative pronouns cAt, the^ and quale or quali, 
when used to ask a question, become interrogative 
pronouns. 

Chi always denotes a person : che denotes things, or 
the quality of persons and things : quale or quali denotes 
both persons and things, or the qualities of persons and 
things ; as, 

CHI tOte v6i ? Who are you ? 

CHI ^ qutsTi ? Who is this one ? 

CHE [etmi] hdif What ails thee ? 

CHB v6ko i f What man is he ? 

CHB 011AS161VI ? What prayer ? 



128 ANALOGY. 

ilvAL DiivoLO ? What demon ? 

QuiL PAi^RA ? Wbat fear ? 

iluAu LE66I ? What conditions ? 

AUbough both cbe and quale denote thin^ or the qualities of 
persons and things, it is nevertheless to be observed, that, whea 
we inquire of an object without reference to its intrinsic aoht, 
i^udU is generally used; but if our inouiry refers to the intrinsic 
iriprit of the object, we use che in preference ; as, 

^UAL Ju la cagidnt ? Wbat was the cause ? 
ftu^L ducefia iigno f What leader would be worthy ? 
CBE ginib c f What [kind of] people are they ? 

cHK pecedH k&ifdtu f What [kind of] sins hast thon com- 

[nutted > 



Cut is often used as an ioterrogative pronoun, in- 
stead of chi ; as, 

Cwt cui [or con chi] Ui With whom hast thou been ? 



The pronouns cAe, and quale or quidi^ are used abo 
in exdamaiiims ; as, 

CHS vtduia am6ra ! What a sad sight ! 

quXL pMvtrt ! What dust ! 

^uX I maHkri ! Wbat tonne nts ! 

Interrogative pronouns are varied with the />rcponrion* 

only. 

EZAMPLKS. 

Dt qucii ni. io, ne 7 du<^a mio Of whom neither I nor my 

sacc6rse — Se wm qtuindo gri- leader was aware until they 

ddr: "cm siix* voi ?' (Dant. exclaimed : " Who are jon ?" 
Inf. 25.) 

Cm -k <kv£m che cosi starnu- Who is this that sneexes 

tiscef (Bocc. g. 5. n. 10.) thus? 

Che ail rv, Bdcca 9 CDant. What ails thee, Bocca ^ 

Inf. 32.) 

Chb uomo ii€Ostui? (Bocc. What man in this? 

IT. 1. n. I.) 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 



129 



a 4tire,€mmmimdndof CBoec.) 

QoiL nikjoi, titdeeaf (Dmnt.) 

QiTALi Liooi? fuaUmindecef 
Qvku PAilai? fBocc. g. 10. 

n. a) 

JMi ^ewUf auiL FU LA CA^ 

oidiiv per lagudls v6i eon lux tti 
turkdsUf (Boco. g, 3. n, 7.) 

QUAL Dl^CC FIA DioifO dl 

Urof (TtM. Ger. I. 58.) 

Chb GiHTB i, clu par nel 
4ma H vintm f (Dant Inf. 3.) 

Chb pbcoIti nil (u rirro 7 
(Bocc.) 

Cob ct}i tt cii^Di tu if sbbb 
triTO ? (Bocc. g.'Z.n. 6.) 

Ah! CBB VBD^TA AMIbA t 

triaU I (TtM. Ger. 19. 106.) 

QoIl fMT V&ria atisa — Pol- 
▼BRB t* viggioi (TtM. Ger. 
3. JO.) 

Qoii HABTf Ri ! (Crutca.) 

£ M M«jt pidngi, di cAe vian- 
gerswUif (Dant. Inf. 33.) 



And what prayer are you 
wont to say, wben you travel ? 

What demon touches thee ? 

What conditions ? what 
threats ? what fear ? 



But tell me, what was the 
cause that you were displeased 
with him ? 

What leader will he worthy 
of them? 

What people are these, who 
seem so overcome with woel 

What sins hast thou com- 
mitted'? 

With whom dost thou think 
to haye been 1 

Ah! what a bitter and sad 
sight ! 

What dust do I see spread 
through the Bir 4 



What torments! 

And if at this, thou dost not 
weep, at what art thou accus- 
tomed to weep ! 



EXERCISE XI. 



What fear have you? Who 
patira avSte f 



Who knocks below? 
jneckia laggik f 

chastiBed you thus? What do we do.^ What do 
emttigi^ ^ m* €Ot\f — • faccidmo^f — 

we wait for? What uo we dream of? What sleep, 
— €tUmtUdmof — - sognidnutf *6nnOf 

or what lethargy has lulled thus I thy I virtue? What 
o Uidrgo ha sopito* eosi^ \ la tAa \ virtit f 

chaiDs, what prison, what crosses I would be sufficient ? j 
eat4na, cAreere, cr6c4 \ ci busterfbbtro f \ 



130 ANALOGY. 

Who docfi not know that without money* (ike) idleneas 
-r- nan m sSnxtt dmaro ppUramerU 

cwinot subaiat? "Woman, what doat thou do?" to 
nonpud durdrcf •* Ddmui, — tt^ fiPP* 

whom the woman replied: "Doat thou not aee it?^ 
ddnnM rispos* . " tm* AVm'^ vidi^ !•• f 

Whatia this secret? And what ia thia auppoaition ? 
c ectesto seereU f E ^ quisU, wutpponanne f 

What thing is that which you have made me eat? 

cosm e questo — aveU^ fdtU^ 1 maugidrtT 

" Bir, 11 must I ask I your | pardon I for j 
'*Sign6re^ \ a me c^mviine \ domanddrs^ \ vi \ perddme \ di | 

a great fiiult." The master said : " And I for | what?* 
gT(tn. failo:' • nuUttr^ Disse:* " E \ di \ P* 

What I wilt thou pay | me 1 for? | What coolt^st 

9 I pagkerdi tui \ ^ \ DiP \ potri.t^ 

thou do me? If thou doeat so, what | ahall ve 
/ib-e3 \t Se fdi cotk, « | vhrUi 

Vive I I on ? I Alas ! and in what manner? The admtnd 
n6i9\ \din\ Oimi! € mbd^f * ammadgUt^ 

asked him then, what tiling had brou^t him to 

D9VM,ndd^^ » a/Wr«3^ • cdtaf ttvesst? cendaUol^ **«• " 

that Doat thou know who those are, (ike) whom 

thou wiahest (tkat) I should be burnt? I The king rejdied I in 
vwH I s'drdanor \ re rispd9e\dM 

the negative. I What sins hast thou committed, that thou 
nd. I peeedto hdi • fdito, — 

wiahest to confess thyself. | In 1 what have theee 
rudt» conftssdre ii^. | Di | • iWniw* ^«««t«* 

two young men offended thee? But what? they are 
» ^wwic* ofew3 \f Ma ? 89% 

human faults, and usual faults, 
umdfui' 6«i//).i,i t usdta^ *e6lpa.i 

Oh, what a bitter sight! What glorious triumfte! 
O, — amdrai peduta.'i glorided* tridnfd^ ! 

What splendid spoils! O, my son, what flame 
supirha sp6gliaf O, mid^ figliudll, fidti' 

is kindled for thee ! 

' ^\f»nef. ia \hm ploral Dumber. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 131 

CHAPTER VII. 
ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Th£ Italian possessive pronouns are the following : 

Singokr. Plural. 

JBOf m. mia, f. my or mine, win m. mie, f 

tio, m. tuM, t, thy or thine, hiHf* m. /ve, f. 

suOf m. euOf f. his, her, hen or itf , swH,* m. 5110, f. 

ndsiro, m. ndstra, f. oar or oan, nostril m. iK^tr^, f. 

v6stro, m. vdttraf f. your or yoors, v^ffn, m. vdstre, f. 

ftir/i theirortheir. {gl^frit'' 

t2 ido ^grno, my bark ; 

la TdAjIgUolUUty thy little daughter ; 

i 8u6i awersdrfj their adversaries ; 

le 1168TUI p&mpt^ our pomps ; 

t2 L6fto otuftfcre, their deportment ; 

le 1.6RO jMmrfle, their words. 

BHo^ t&o, sia^ nSstrth vostro, and l6ro, are lometimes used with 
the article anbitantiveiy. — U imo, Utuo, il suOf &c.; and then the 
word a9Sre, ' property', » understood ; and they are equiralent 
to • my property*, * thy property*, Ac. ; as, 

mdmgi dsl st^o, let him eat of his own [proper- 

non mangtrd i>bl hostbo, he will not eat of ourt. [ty ;] 

* Poet! fbr the take of Rhynie. often oao nAi, v6t, iutemd of nii, * wo^ Wi, 
• yoo*. This liMDM it exteodea abo to tnii, sudi, whleb in poetry are often 
ehaofed into l^ < thy «r tUae } «M, < hie, lle^ hen er iU| their er thtirt*} ae^ 

MIX f^U#— Medntra,*' mi Hqi^r, *< Seldom happena,'' repUed he ta 

'^ cJU, di atj '1— Mcefa *l ceami&fie etol^ me, ** that any one of ut goea throof b 

p0r fadl le vdde.— ^er' d, cA* d;<r« the way, which 1 am coiaff. Bat I 

JUim fuof giA wv'ii^CtngimriU da wae there below onee before, oo^jared 

mmSU £rSdf» erduia,— Gfte rfcMiidga by that erael Erichtho, who recaUed the 

pMre d* €4rri tu'i.** (Dant Inf. 9.) ehadea to their bediea." 

Ti0l»tk^tSLmUidU€9tMWmhawv% Aa noon ae 1 reaehed the foot of hi« 

^OmmtiAwmifmm pdf, • jM «vdA tomb, he looked at me awhile, and 

eAMndee— JW dtoumdd t *^ OA f^ H then, aimoat whh oontenpt, he aeked 

mmggiAr TMi*^ (Dant. laf. 10.) ««!«* Who were thy anceetore.* 

JVdi ««rdaie e parferdme a tu'i. We wiU hear a»d apeak to yoe- 
iDaat-IalS.) 



lad ANALOGY. 

Jlfi^ tudi, n&$tri, and Ur#, are also vtad rabtUntiTelj,-^ wnig 
t lii^ i sm6if i n6siri, i Uro ; and then the word pmrhUit *■ relations' -, 
amiHf 'friends*; eaimpdgnif '^companions*; fmmUiarif 'domes- 
tics* ; 9olddtiy * soldiers* ; or segudet^ * followers*, is nnderstood ; 



and they are eqaivalent to ' mj relations*, ' thj friends*, * his 

jwniens*, ' onr domestics*, ' jonr soldiers*, ' their followers* ', as, 

incdtUrm k* Miii, against my relations; 

frtgdt0 vk* 9v(>i, reqaested hy his friends. 



Possessive pronouns are sometimes expressed by the 
'ConjuDCtive pronouns mt, tifgH^ le^ &c., and we say * Mm'U 
prindo in brhccia^ instead of loprimdo nette m i'e br&eeiaj 
' I take him in my arms' ; vm sigitio ai jn&K, instead of 
#t giito at suoi piidi^ * he threw himself at her feet' ; 
be.; as, 

m tt stnkgge U cudn^ my heart meltB; 

«Li ttgttt^olcdUo, she threw herself OB his neck t 

81 Uueid eatcAr rtcuciiM, he let his hook iaU. 

To avoid the ambiguity which in many inslaaces 
would arise, in Italian, from the indiscriminate use of 
the possessive pronouns tuo^ s&Cf tvAi^ t6ef wben 
these pronouns do not relate to tlie subject of the prop- 
ortion, they are changed for the personal pronouns di 
/dU,^ di ISij 'of him,' * of her'. Thus in the phrase 
* John bves Peter and his children,' if the pronoun his 
relates to JoJbi, the subject of the proposition, it is ex- 
pressed by t ««^; as, Oiavanm bma Piitro e i svbiji- 
giiudiif ' John loves Peter and his [John's] children' ; 
but if Ait does not relate to John, but to Peter^ the ob- 
ject of the proposition, then it is expressed by t di lui; 
as, CKovanni oma Piitro e i di tiiiJigUu6lif * Joho toves 
Peter and bis [Peter's] children^: 

wumd6 ad ueddert v6o he sent to kill his fiither (the 
pddrty fkther of him who sent] ; 

siuL sorHla e t /^g^ di her sister and her children [the 
Lii, children of her sister]. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



133 



The proaoans suoy «t^ stuli, siU, are very often expressed by 
a luij di IHf even in^ cases when no ambiguity would arise ; as, 



la ingratUudine di li^i, 
dOa ed$a i>i Lii, 



bis ingratitude ; 
to her house. 



Possessive pronouns are generally varied with the 
prepositions and articles. 



■ ZAMPLE8. 



Dietro al Mf o LioNO, che can- 
tdndo vdrea. (Dant. Par. 2.) 

Se tu H eonUnti di lateiare ap- 
prisso di me questa t6a figlio- 
L^TTA, to la prenderd voUjUUri. 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 8.) 

A Ui triburd parve lu6go e t^m- 
po d'assaJttre i suoi AyvERsiBJ. 
(Liv. dec. 3.) 

Pdssan v6shi triMif e vostre 
p6mpe. (Petr. cap. 11.) 

JVon um6n veramhUe ma diiA' 

no — ^LOR ANDAR ^tf, t LOR 8&ntC 

par<5l£. (Petr.Trionf.) 
OrM Airoi DEL si^o, s'igU neha^ 

M DEL ndsTRO HON mahgerI 
tgU, (Bocc. g. 1. n. 7.) 

Perchd quilpdpolo h »\ empio — 
IneSntra k* m i£i in ciaseuna $ua 
l^ggC' (Daot. Inf. c. 10.) 

Vcanentf pregdto da* 8u6i, a 
Cki&Mn. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 8.) 

ICelptn$6rlo mi si STRtrGOE il 
c<Sre. (Maff. Mer. 4. 7.) 

Piangindo oli 6i oitt6 al 
c6li.o. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

Si 1.A8C16 cascIr l' uhcIno 
d' pUdi. (Dant. Inf. 21.) 

igH lo MAlIDd AD UCCIDERB 

st^o PADRE. (Class.) 



Behind my bark, which singing 
cuts its way. 

If thou art willing to leave with 
me this little daughter of thine, I 
will take her with pleasure. ' 

This appeared to the tribunes a 
proper place and time to assail their 
adversaries. 

Your triumphs and your pomps 
pass aWay. 

Their deportment and their holy 
words truly were not human, but 
divine. 

Let him eat of his owd property, 
if he has any, for he will not eat 
of ours. 

Why is that people so fell against 
my kin in all their laws. 

He soes to Chiassi at the re- 
quest 01 his friends. 

In thinking of it my heart melts. 



Weeping, she threw herself on 
his neck. 

He let the hook fall at his feet. 



He sent him to kill his father, 
[the father of him who sent.] 



12 



134 ANALOGY. 

Mia mddre 6ma eguahnSnte My mother lores eqiwlly ber 
BtA 80r£llA| X I riGLii dI lici. tbter, tnd her children, [the chiK 
(Crusca.) dren of her sister.] 

Avindo rigu&rdo dlLA iitoRA- 
TiTtJDiwE n LtJi v6r§c nrfa m4- 
dre mostrata, (Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) 

C 

LA < 

8.) 



Avindo rigu&rdo dlLA iitoRA- Consideriog his iogratitude 

TiTt^DiNE EI Lt^i v6r§c iitia m6' Aowa towards my mother. 
're mostrata, (Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) 

Comineid a ripar&rn vvAno Al- He began to resort near ber 

LA CAS A Di l£i. (Bocc. g. 2. n. bouse. 



I every where. 
per tuito. 



EXERCISE XII. 

He loved more (the) my life than (ike) your 
amd piii vUa 

benevolence. Fearinfif that he I shdnld be I reprehended, 
benevolenza, TemhiSo — | non fitse \ ripriso, 

he kept (the) bis love concealed as much as he 

— terUvafi • * am&re^ na8c6$o^ — * — 

could. Since thoa art my friend, I will show it 
pothm.* PerdU $H atmco, wuegnerd* la^ 

to thee. (The) thy virtue is great, and known 

* virtii ^ m6Uo, e conoseiuto 

In coming out (from) the church 
— UsUndo ckiSta 

he saw this count, and (the) his little children, who 

— tide quisto e&nte, e figliudio, 

asked alms. She refused to be famOiar with 
addomandSnanc^ Um6nna^, rifiutdva — — 

hm-^(the) (his familiarity.) The holy Friar, who had 

dimeetiehizza, $6rdo Frate, azic^ 

confessed him, having ascended | (on) I the pulpit, 

began to preach wonderful thin^ of him, and 
eomineid^ a* prediedre^ maramglidsa^ c^ifi * * «* 

of (the) bis life, of (the) bis fastings, of (the) bis 
» • rifa', • • digiuno^, ^ " 

simplicitT, and of (the) bis innocence. I often observed 
semplieiti^t «>♦ ** *• tnnoc^itsa.*? ^890 mirdoa 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 135 

how much the son had run of (the) his luminous 
qudnto a $6U^ aviste^ tra$c6rto* * ® luminSto^ 

journey. But what I shall we say I to those who 
viaggio.'' Ma \ dir^mo nSi \ coldro 

feel so much pity I for | (the) my hunger ? The 

public places of Rome are full of ancient likenesses 
pubbUco* lu6go^ R6ma son piino antica immune 

of (the) my ancestors. It is not my intention I to I 
maggiSre. — ^* JVbn* intenziSne \ di | 

explain I at I present, that which the laws of (the) 
$pugare \ al \ pres^nte, quiUo l^gge 

friendship demand. I I did not seek I I to I attach 
amidzia vogliono. \ non cercdi \ \ di\ impSrre 

an}r blemish to the honesty, and to the purity of 
aleuno mdcola onestd, e chiarizxa 

(the) your blood. Who could reply to (the) your 
idngue, saprihhe rispondere 

wise words? In (the) happiness they are unhappy, 
$avio par6la? feUciid bSuo mUero, 

in (the) riches poor, and in (the) their adventures 
ricchezza mendieOf e ventura 

unfortunate. 
seiagwdlo, ^ 

The lady then said to that one: **Come, and 
ddnna cUlora* dUte^ * eolui^ : " Ft^ni, e 

ask thy property — (the) (thine). I have not deceived you 
domdnda . ho^ non} inganndto* • 

I to I rob you of your property— (the) (yours). Not only 
I per I t6r^ — — • • J^on aoUtmSnte 

hast thou gambled my property— ^/A«^ (naine), but thou hast 
m'h^ giuoedto — , tna h&i^ 

also prevented (the) my going. He I astonished ^ I 
idpra^ ci6* impedUo anddta, — 1 F6ee maraviglidre \ 

I his I father, and all (the) his relations, and every 
I a I padre, e tutH , « das- 



136 ANALOGY. 

one else who knew him. Minghino with (the) his com- 
nm dUro eonose^va* *. 

panions concealed himself in the house of a friend 

ripSse* $i} — cdsa amicd* 

of his. Cimon, who had already descended with 

(the) his troops, i had determined I I to I flee I into | 
• ' — • , I avea prho cofutglio \ \ di \ fttggire \ m | 

some neighbouring wood. 
alcuno mono* seha}. 

I Feigning I not I to I know him, I she 
I Fatto semlndnte \ non* \ di} \ eonotcer^ , | $i p6$e a 

sat I at his — (to him at the) feet I set in 
$ed6re* \ — — * ' piedt. pSa^ — 

my--(to me in the) heart I to I give thee that which 

— t a — cuore \ di \ ddr^ qtUUo 

thou wentest seeking, and I have given it to thee. 
anddvi ceredmU), e - diSdi^ • ^, 

Per6tto recognised him, and weepins^ threw himself 
riecmdbbe^ S « piangenao giu6* tt* 

at his — (to him at the) feet, and embraced bim, sayinr : 

— — * * piide, . e abbraccid^ Uo, dicing • 

*^My father!*' Tedaldo speaks with the woman, and 
«*ffito* Padre r'^ parla ddnna, e 

frees her husband — (the husband of her] from death. 
libera — marito mSrU. 

He sent him to kill his father — (ih^ father of Mm 
tnandd* * ad ucddere padre — — 

who sent). My . father loves his brother, and his 

padre 6ma JrcUiUo, e — 

children — (the children of him— iitt hrothery 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 137 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

QtUsto, m. quiata, f. thii ; 

queUo^ m. quelle, f. that ; 

cotesto, ID. eotesta, f. 7 .u * .« 

or codlsto, m. codistk, f. J ***»* "»«*' y°" 5 

eostuiy In. be, this mau ; cosUif f. she, this woman. 

eoluif m. he, that man \ eoUi,f. she, that woman. 

cotestittf or ( he, the or that ) coteitii, or C she, the or that wo^ 
eodesttUf m. ^ man near you. 3 codestH, f. { man near you. 

Plural. 
Quiitif m. quisle, f. these. 

quelUj m. quille, f. thote. 

coUsli, ra. eoteste, f. ) ., 

coslSrOf m. & f. they, these men, these women. 

col6ro, m. & f. they, those men, those women. 

eotestSrOf or J they, the or those men near you, 

cod€st6ro, m. & f. ( those women near you. 

EUto, ista, for qu^slo, quSsta, * this,' have become obsolete. 



Qtie^^o, quelloj and cotesto or codesto, may be used in 
speaking of both persons and things; costal^ coluiy and 
cotestui or codesiui, denote persons only. 

^6sto and co^r/tit are ennployed to point out an object 
near the person speaking ; cotesto or codestOy and co^e^- 
iui or codesiuiy to point out an object near the person 
spoken to ; and quello and coliiiy to point out an object 
at a distance from both the person speaking and the 
person spoken to ; * as, 

* From the pronounf <pU»to,qiUilo, aod eoUsto or codisto^ lome derive the adverba 
fKl or fud, eolt or eold^ eo»U or ecttd, which are a«ed to deilgoate a place, according 
to the mle already given for the um of the pronouna : fajiog, qui or qud, * there,* in 
pointing oat a phce near the person speaking ; eoHi or co«Ui, * there near jou,' in 
pointing oat a place near the peraon spoken to; and eoli or ecut, * there,' in pointing 
oat a place at a distance both IVom the person speaking and the person spoken to. — 
(7^ ruU u eorreetf but at to UU deriiMifteii, it appears to ««, that Uu pronoun 
qoteto it derived from the adverb qui and the pronoun 6sto, qu(t)6sto, and the pronoun 
mttUo fnnn the adverb qui and the pronoun Mlo, qu(t)«llo } rather than that qui ie 
derived fivm qoAsto er qn^Uo.) 

12* 



138 ANALOGY. 

quisTO denArOf this money ; 

qui^LLA [d4hma,] that lady ; 

coTisTi pdrmi, those clothes ; 

cosTi^i* ^ «m sdU, this woman is like a sun. 

coLi^i ehe ne tnma, that man who sends as. 

baiUU cote8t6eo,* heat those [boys]. 

This rule is equally observed, when the pronouns 
questOy quelloj and coiesto or codesto, point out an abstract 
substance, or a thing which is in the person speaking, 
the person spoken to, or the person spoken of; as, 

qui^sTi sospbif these sighs ; 

qu^LLA aUegr^zzoy that merriment; 

coTi^sTE pardle, those words. 

Quelle f followed by a noun beginning with a vowel drops the o and 
takes an apostrophe in its stead ; and followed by a noun begioning 
with any consonant but Zf or • followed by another consonant, drops 
its last syllable. Followed by a noun beginning with a vowel, s, or • 
foUotoed by another consonant^ in the pliual it makes quegli ; as, 

qu£l Fossente i itrcole, that powerful one is Hercules ; 

quill' kltro i DemofintCf the other is Demopbo6n ; 

qd£gli kngeli, those angels; 

QufoLi spin/t, those spirits. 

QuilH, followed by a word beginning with a consonant, is contracted 
into quH, and often written qud*; as, 

q,v£i iy6lei lumif those sweet lights ; 

Qu£* compdgni, those companions. 

Qu6sta, followed by the nouns mattina or mane, * momim^ ' ; s^ra^ 
' evening * ; ndttCf * night * ; often drops the first syllable, and forms with 
them a single woi-d ; as, 



• ■ I 



qtUsta mattina, sTAMAXTiifA. J this morning; 

qiUsta sera, stas^ra, this eyening ; 

qtUsta nStte, stanotte, to-night, or last night 

* Obtenre, that aftor tb« prononni e««<it», ectkL, eet$*tM or eodul^. Sec. w Bersr 
uto the tobstaiitiTe ndmo, * man *, or ddnma, * woman *, in Um feminine ; tod do not 
■ay cottiti tUfmo, eoUi ddnna ; hot simply eokkL Cm * this man * ; eoUL fat * that w»- 
man > ; &c. : e»$lM, eeJiu, eotut^ &e.. eontalniag in themtelret botli the «K«Imm 
pronoQM fuisto, quOUt coUsto, Ace., and the wi» f enf far proooon Hii, or III fai the 
fominioe, ate— ««ffit»or«iil«(ekli,*thieman'}MMiorf««IcM<,«thatf ~ ~ 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 139 

Quesio, quelloy and cotisto or codesiOj are often used 
substantively, and then they are equivalent to quhsta cdsa, 
* this thing ' ; quella cdsa^ ' that thing ' ; &c. as, 

wUio quE^sTo (or qu^sta having heard this {or this thing) ; 
c6sa^ 

cotb'sto (or cot^sta c6sa) that (or that thing) ought not to 
non n vorribbe fdre^ be done. 

We say sometimes in questo, in questay in quelloj in 
quellcj and then the words isidntey ' instant ' ; momento 
stessOy ' very moment ' ; ora siessay ' very hour ' ; occasiSne 
stessa, * very occasion ' ; are understood ; and in quesiOy 
in quilla, are equivalent to « in this very moment,' ' in 
that very hour ' ; fcc. as, 

nf Qu£sTo sopprawinne la at this very instant came the 

/dntCy servant ; 

vidi m quE'LLA iina ndve I saw at that very moment a 

piccioUtta, rather small bark. 

Quelloy in speaking of a city, territory, country, fac, 
is equivalent to citidy ierritdrioy paescy he, ; as, 
qu^L di PerugiOy the territory of Perugia ; 

qufL di BirgamOy the country of Bergamo. 



We very often use quesiiy quegliy and coiesii or codestiy 
in the singular, in speaking of persons, but in the sub- 
jective only ; and then questi is equivalent to quesV udmOy 
* this man ' ; qu&gli, to quelV udmOy * that man ' 5 cotesiiy 
to coiest^ u6mOy ' that man near you '; as, 

qcjisTi ^ U mio Sign6rey « this is my master ; , 

quioLi ^ Cdcoy that is Cacus ; 

coT^STi, che ancdr vivty that one who is yet alive. 

When qt^li ii so used, in the plural, it makes qtUglino (qtUgU 
wSmini), * those men.' 

QuigU followed by a word beginning with a eonsorumt is, like qttdlUy 
contracted into qu6i^ and often written q%U * ; as, 

Qtjii cheju pr99hUe^ he who was present j 

qui' rtip^f e, that one answered. 



140 ANALOGY. 

Questo and quelloy and quesii and qu^lij sometimes 
serve to denote two objects already spoken of; questo 
and quesii being used for the near, and quello and quegli 
for the distant object ; and then they correspond to the 
English expressions the latter and the former ; as, 

qu^sTi 81 fridono cnir dd' the latter think to derive their 

gU iddU il ndnisUro ministry from the gods, the 

qu^LLi U segrHo, former, their secret ; 

qu^OLi vtuUe, che io tt perdd- the former demands that I 

nt, e qufsTi, che in te in- should pardon thee, the latter 

eruddisca, that I should he cruel with 

thee. 



To the above demonstrative pronouns may be added 
do, 'this or that'; which is equivalent to questo, 
quello, and cotesto or codesto ; in the signiBcation of 
questa, quella, or cotesta or codesta cosa, ' this, that, or 
that thing near you ' ; but it never refers to a person ; as, 

ci6 ch" io nt sinto, that which I think of it ; 

cV h ci6 che tu dV ? what is that which thou sayest ? 

ci6 vdUo, having heard this [thing.] 

The Italian expressions, do die, questo che, quello che, 
generally correspond to the English pronoun what, used 
in the signification of * this which ' or ' that which ' ; as, 

ci6 CHE tu hAi ajhrt, what thou hast to dp ; 

quiLLO CHE didva Mriano, what Adrian said. 



Demonstrative pronouns are varied with the prepo^ 
sitions only. 

Sometimes the preposition di, *of,' is suppressed before the pro- 
nouns eoattd, eolm^ and eotetttU or eodethd^ and the pronouns are 
put before the noun with which they are connected ; as, 

oZ cosTi^i Umpo {for al t^mpo in the time of this one : 
Til coetiii). 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

by the couDsel of (hat one ; 

for the deeds of those. 



141 



ptT lo coLti eonngUo (for per 
Jo consiglio oi cojui), 



perle co8t6ro Spere (for per 
le opere di costoro); 



SXAMPL B 8. 



Sign6ra, teniie qv^sTO d£na- 
Ro. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 1.) 

Le mte nSttifa trUie, e x giSmi 
09cCari — Qu^i.la, eke n'ha portdto 
ipenaiSr mUi. (Petr. s. 260.) 

Veggindovi cot^sti panni, vi 
ho ereduto lui, (Bocc. g. 2. n. 2.) 

Co»\ cosTEi eh* k tra le d6nne 
vn s6le. (Petr. s. 9.) 

La donnoy che coLt^i chb a te 
me iifviA — Spesso ^al a6nno la- 
grimdndo desta. (Petr. s. 8.) 

PereM ^att£te v6i cotk8t6- 
BO ? (Nov. ant. 45.) 

Che fanno mico om6i qu^sti 
sospiRX, — Che naseian di dolOre ? 
(Petr. c. 33.) 

I'o giudicherdi ottimamente fat- 
tOf ehe qu6llaf6»tay qu^lla alle- 
oRizzA, che noi poUsaimo, pren- 
disnmo. (Bocc. Introd.) 

V6i mi parite tiSmo di Bio, 
edme Ate v6i cot^ste par6le 7 
(Bocc. g. 1. n. 1.) 

CoKU ch* I sicoh QU^L possiir- 
TR tfinie ^RcoLE, quell' altro 
DsMordNTE. (Petr. Tr. Am.) 

QXTiOLI ANOELI, t QuioLI 8Pi- 

RiTi. (CinoD. t. 4.) 

Qnii i>4$Lci Lt^Mx — S'aeqahstan 
perventura^enonperarte. (Petr. 
0. 224.) 

E co$i la portd a qui' m6i 
COUfkani. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 8.) 



Madam, take this money. 

That lady who has taken away 
my thoughts makes my nights sad, 
and my days gloomy. 

Seeing you with those clothes, I 
took>you for him. 

Thus this woman, who is like a 
sun amongst the other women. 

The lady, who often wakens from 
his sleep, weeping, him who sends 
us to thee. 

Why do you beat those boys ? 

What do these sighs which 
sprung from grief do now with me? 

1 should think it very well done 
that we should take that enjoyment 
— that merriment, whicli we could. 

You appear to me to be a man 
of God, now do you say those 
words ? 

That one who is with him, is 
that powerful and strong Hercules, 
the other is Demophoon. 

Those angels and those spirits. 

Those sweet lights are ac- 
quired by good luck and not by 
art 

And thus he carried her to those 
companions of bit. 



143 



ANALOGY. 



Di quhi0 di sTAMArrf va $mri 

U tenuio m v6L (Bocc g. 10. n. 

StimAitv Sra unfimciuUoy e or 
$an v^eckio. (Pctr. ell.) 

igUcil sTAs^RAoentctoimd^* 
$u6i/rmt6Ui, (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

Ubbriaco^ fastidiSso, tu nan e* 
entrerai sTAifdrrK. (Bocc. r. 7. 
n. 4.) ^ K 

Uditoqu^sto. (Pctr.Tr.Tcm.) 

FigUttSla miay cot^sto won 

SI VORR^BBK FARE. (BoCC. g. 8. 

11.8.) 

Ill qrisTo ul rAifTK di Ui 
soppRAvrf NICE. (Bocc. g. 8. D. 

Com*V viDi i5if A NJLvE piccio- 
i^TTA — renir per V aeqt^m verso 
nSi m quKLLA. (Dant Inf. 8.) 

Patsdndo per qn^LLO di Pk- 
Rt^GiA. (Stor. Fist 50.) 

QuiSTI ± IL Mio SlOIflSRE, 

questi veramente h Messer Tor6Uo, 
(Bocc. g. 10. n. 9.) 

QiT^GLr i C'kco—Che $6tto il 
$as$o di monte Aventmo, — Di tanr 
piefeee spesse volte Ideo. (Daot 
Inf. 56 ) 

COT^STI, CHE ANc6r VIVE, C 

non si nSma, — Guardarc' to per 
veder, •* il condMco. (Daut Par. 
11.) 

Qu£gli5o rivoleano i l6ro straC' 
ei, (Bocc. g. 9. n. 2.) 

E disse eSse—IncredibUia qo^ i, 
CHE TV pRcs^NTE. (Dant. Par. 
17.) 

Qd£' Risp^flE : " Po Mono cadu- 
to in unaJos$a:\ (Nov. ant. 36.) 

AVm solamcnte il pdpolo, ma i 
nSbilit e i $acerd6ti : qn^sn si 

CR^DOirO Av£r dAgM IDDff IL 
MIHISTiRO, Qu£lLI IL 8EGRETO. 

(Dav. Germ.) 



Of this of this moraing I am ib- 
debced to you. 

This morning I was a boy, aad 
now I am an old man. 

There came this eTenii^ one 
of her brothers. 

Dnmkard, troublesome man« 
thou wilt not enter there to-nigfat. 

Having heard this. 

My daughter, that ought not to 
be done. 

At this very instant her serraiit 
came in. 

As I saw at that very moment 
coming through the lyater towards 
us a rather small bark. 

Passing through the territory of 
Perugia. 

This is my master, this is truly 
Master Torello. 

That is Cacu9, who oftentimes 
shed lakes of blood under the rock 
of Mount Aventlne. 

I should like to look at that one, 
who is still alive and does not tell 
who he is, to see whether I know 
him. 

Those ones wanted again their 
rags. 

And said things incredible to him 
who was present. 

That one answered: ** I have 
(alien into a ditch." 

Not only the people, but the no- 
blemen, and the priests : the latter 
think to derive their ministry from 
the gods, the former, their secret. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



143 



Qir^oLi vu6lx, che lo ti psr- 
i>6if 1, E qn^sTi CUE, eSntro a tma 
natura, m tx incrudelIsca. — 
(Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

A voUrvene <2tre cio ch* (o ns 
•£ttTO. (Bocc. g. 1. D. 3.) 

Pa via, figliudlo, ch* ib ci6, 

CHE TU Dl' ? (Bocc. g. 1. D. 1.) 

Ci5 uDiTO ii addoloraoano gli 
aUUif e fremevano i ndstri. (Dav. 
Stor. 1. 2.) 

7\i sdi ben cio che tu hIi a 

FAJIE. (Bocc. g. 9. D. 6.) 

V 6$te udendo quiUo che la 
dSnna dieSvay e <id£l.lo che di- 
ctvK Adrianoj comineid a cri- 
dere, ehe Pinuceio sogndae. — 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 6.) 

Al costtJi TiMPo. (Giov. ViU,) 

Per i<o coli^i coNciiGLio. 
(Bocc.) 

Per le cost^ro 6pxrx. (Bocc. 
g. 5. n. 1.) 



The former demands that I 
should pardoD thee, and the latter 
(hat, against my nature, I should 
be cruel with thee. 

To tell you that which I think 
of it. 

Away with thee, my son, what 
is that which thou sayest ? 

Having heard this the auxiliary 
troops were grieved, and our own 
were in a rage. 

Thou knowest well what thou 
bast to do. 

The host hearing what the lady 
said, and what Adrian said, began 
to believe that Pinucdo was 
dreaming. 

In the time of this one. 
By the counsel of that one. 

For the deeds of those. 



EXERCISE XIII. 



i SID is that which (the) divine justice has 
peec&to d divino giiutizia Jul* 



This SID 



not wished to leave unpunished. 
non} voltUo taseidre impunUo. 



May God grant 
— iHo dia* 



you that jojr, and that ffood which you desire. 
> alUgretzaf e bine desiderdtt 



What is that secret of which you speak? 
^ $ecr6to — parldte? 



desiderdle. 
At this 



none dared 
niuno ardt 



answer. 
rispSndere. 



That 



was a 



trifling 
pieeiolo 



144 ANALOGY. 

thing, and thou didst well to do with it what thou 
e6$af e fae6$H bine a fdr^ ne — 

didst (wiih it). There was in that court this usage. 
fachti^ fw*. ^ra edrie u$dnza. 

Passing hy the cell of this one, he heard the 
Ptuadndo davdnti cilia , — $enti 

noise which they — (these ones) made together. He 

Hhiamdxzo faeevano' vwSme^. 

I did not work i at ^ all, hut a thousand times i a | 
non lavordva | puntOf ma - v6lia | U \ 

day, he would rtin to the window I to I see this 
d\, — eorreva finhtra \ per \ vedere 

woman. It appeared to him to he safe, and out 
— parcel * • issere sicuro, e fu6r 

of the hands of those who had taken him. 

mdno avhanc^ priso^ ■ 

Those ones make me enter here I to I deceive 

fdnno* » entrare* d? | per \ inganfidr^ 

me. Having departed from that one with ((he) whom 
PartUoii 

he had been so lon^, I he came I I to I England. 

— ^a* stato^ lungamenie^ | sSne vinne \ \in\ hfighUUrra. 

I will pay thee I for I this time, and I for I 
pagherd* * I ^'m vSltd, e \ di \ 

that. I have heard what you have spoken of me. 
ho intiso — avite*' ragiondto* * » 

And on thb occasion I he perceived I I that he had I 
Ed I «' acc6r$e \ \ (xvire | 

a very beautiful woman for a wife. I Dost thou 
billo donnd - mdglie, \ JVbn 6di 

not hear I what he says ? This one is the arch- 
ttt I dtee? card' 

bishop Rugg^ri. That one is Brutus. Conceiving 
viacovo 6 Bruto. Prendtndo 

a sudden hope of being able to return once more 

- $nbUa sperinxa pottre riiom&c^ anc6ra} 



INDEPINITE PRONOUNa 



145 



in the royal state, i by I tbe coanael of that one. 
« reile* tUte^, \ per \ coruigHe^ — » 

All those who believe so are deceived. In ^proa 

and . in Rhodes the rumors and the distxurbancea 
e R6di ■ rum^re* «* • iurbaminto^ 

were spreat, and lasted a long time I through I the 
Jwnmo^gr&fuWf < - lungo ttmpo \ per \ 

deeds of these ones. 



INBE PINIT 

Of indefinite pronouns, 
the singular, and cannot 
plural number : 

qMche^ m. & f. 

fkiiinquty^ m. & f. 
chx9io6gixa^ m. dL f. 
chi che^ m. & f. 
diicchessic^ m. ^ f. 

che chey m. & f. 
tktcchessia^ m. & £ 

qualunmu^ m. dL f. 
qualsivoglia, m. 8i f. 
qualsisiaf m. Sl f. 

nii//a, m. dt f. 
niMef m. dL f. 




the following are used only in 
be put before nouns in the 



some, any ; 
all, every ; 

/ whoever, whosoever ; 

> whatever, whatsoever ; 



whosoever, whatsoever ; 



> nothing. 



lino, m. 



unOy t 



one; 



un&UrOf m. ftn&UrOf f. 

qualcuno, m. quaMtna^ f. ) 
qualcheduno, m. qwdcheddtu^ f. ( 

13 



another; 

some, some one, 
body; 



140 



ANALOGY. 



cuudmoy m. euueima, £ ^ ereij oae, every body ; 



no one, nobody. 



verimOjBL 


9eHifiii,f. 


or fMM^cno, m. 


1MMICIUI,f. 


naiifu^zD. 


nnifM(,f. 


or nUmOf m. 
ft^Ufe,iii. 





XZC XPTIOVS. 



Cy^y before nmnenl a^l|ecthre«, as in the phrasee Sgni d&e mSn, 
' ereiy two moDtba ' ; 6gnt $Hp6gme, * every lix peges ' , 6gm ditci 
•o/d^, 'every ten foldien' ; and ia Ae word 0gmutmH^^ Ihn day of 
AU-aaintf ' ; is used with Douns in tfie phiraL 

^K^Uelktf has been used, by some writersywidi noons in Ihe^oralyas, 
qyaiehe vMU b6$ekif * some green woods ' ; but such examples are not 
to be imitated. 



The followiog are used io both numbers ; 



Stogiilar. 

Ude^ m. dt f. inch ; 



PlanL 



^'^""•^^•S^'';' """"^ "" coMZi,m.&f.|^'.«°^^ 



o/cvno, m. 
tdcuna^ f. 

tMnOj f. 
drtot m. 



Saome, some 
one, some 
body. 



> certain ; 



tUaaOfUL 
$U§sa, ' 

metUaima, 



,m. } 

,f. f 

«mo, m. r 

rimo, £ j 



same: 



oleum, m. 
alciiru^ f. 
tolunt, m. 
fofiiiie, f. 

c^rfi, m. 

jl^sn, m. 

tnedisimiy m. 
fneddmme^ f. 



f some, SOI 
^ ones ; 

> certain; 
Vssme; 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 



147 



MrOfUU 

tuUa,f. 

alqudnio, m. 
atqttdnia, f. 

i&nio, m. 
tdnia^f. 
cot&fitoy m. 
coidnia^t 

aUreMnhf m. 
aUreUAntayf. 

fdeo, m. 
p6ea,f. 

mdltOi m. 
mOia.f. 

tnhtpOf m. 
trdppOf u 



> other; 

jail; 

) a little, 
S somewhat ; 

^ 80 mnch ; 

* as.machy 
I as much more ; 

a little, 
i a few 5 

^rnnch; 

* too much ; 



dUrifjxu 
6Ure,f. 

tuUij m. 

alqu&nHyTD. 
alqu&nU, f. 

tdniif m. 
fdn^e, f. 
eotdnii, m. 
eo/<in<e,f. 

a2fre(/(&n<t, m. 
oUrMwde, f. 

/MicAi, m. 
pdcAe, f. 

m(iZ<t, m. 
nuiUe^f. 

tfypptfltk, 
troppcyt. 



> others ; 

Sail, every one, 
every hody ; 

} a few, not 
5 many ; 



> as many ; 

} as many, as 
I many more ; 

^few; 
(many; 

> too many. 



ChiunqtLej ehistvdglia^ chi che, chicchessiay qualc&no, 
qualchedunOj ogn&n&, talitnOj are applied to persons only ; 
the others may be applied both to persons and things. 



J^Ma^ niinitj ^ nothbg,' mean 
any thing,' and nes^no or niss&no^ 



also * some or 
ne&no or ni&nOy 



verunoj ^ nothing, no one, nobody,' mean also ^ some or 
any thing, any one, any body ' ; as. 



se iffii si serUisst NiiivTX, 
non rimarr^bbe a soiienh' 

p4na NEssdNA, 
Mt va in 91^ Bf IwSgOf 
s* ^^ ha bofdAU vsat^NA, 



if she wants any thing ; 
if he felt any thing ; 
there would not remain any pun- 
ishment to suffer; 
if he goes to any place ; 
if he has any good quality. 



148 ANALOGY. 

Alc&nOf * some,' b sometimes used instead of niknoj 
* oothiog».]io one ' ; as, 

eki ▲i.ci^NA gl6ria ovrMero^ for they would derive no glory ; 
che jLLctvA via darMe^ which would afford no way. 



A'ltro is sometimes used instead of aUra cdia^ * some 
or any thing else ' ; as, 

avrUH <UUo Lltko ; thou wooldat have said some- 

thingf else; 
k&ifSMo kisTKO ? hast thou done any thing else ? 

A'ltri is often used in the singular, in speaking of per- 
sons ; and ^hen it is equivalent to altr^ uomOy * another 
man,' or * another person,' * others ' ; as, 

fUv^ni kLnipotHi Are dC neither you nor any other man 
ififwnr Mia veduia^ can say that I have not seea 

it; 
per nonjiddrmene ad Utu, not to trust to other persons. 

When altri is thus used, in any other relation, than the 
subjective or the objective, it is changed into altriti; as, 

ho dUto mdU d* AJ^nti, I have spoken ill of another ; 

le preMerH ad altei^i, I would lend them to others ; 

eke U} da altki^i turn da that I ^oold not be heard by 
iM^, any other person, 

A'ltri is also used in a distributive sense, and then it 
corresponds to the English pronouns one — another; 
the one — the other ; some — others ; as, 

iLTRi fa rhrUj td Iltki vdZ- the one makes oars, the other 

ge sarie, twists ropes ; 

iLTRi sen v&da errdndo, Al- let some go wandering, let 

TRi rimAnga ucciso, iLTai some be killed, let others 

idol si Jaccia un ddUe place their happiness in a 

SgvL&rdo^ sweet look* 



INDEFINITB PRONOUNS. 140 

Altr&i is sometiniBs used with the article, and then 
the words avere^ sostanzaj * property ', « patrimony ', are 
understood, and P oftr^t is equivalent to < another's pro-« 
perty ', ' patrimony *, &c. ; as, 

domand&r l' altri^i, to demand another's property 

logorSr DBLi.' ALTv6j^ to use the property of others. 



iPno and idtro are sometimes used with the article, 
r too, r aliro; and then T uno corresponds to the one, 
ike former, and P aliro to the oiher, ike laiier. U'no 
and aliro J when so used, in the plural make^Zt imijgli 
itltrij for the masculine ; and le une, le alire, for the 
feminine; as, 

Peih j.^ t^No, e Is* JLlt&a avia age had changed the one and 

tratformAHy the other ; 

e dxll' i5ve, e dsll' altra and with the one and with the 

/deci quiUo che cridiy other do what thou thinkest 

OLI t$if I ttnUfiii Annibale, eLi the former fearing Annihal, the 

ALTRi FUippo, latter Philip. 

The expressions P uno e P aliro, P tuna e P idira ; gli 
uni e gli aliri, le line e le altre, correspond to the Eng- 
lish pronouns boih^ both of them ; as, 

l' i^ivo E l' altro c6mOy both horns ; 
l' tvA E li' AI.TRA gifUloy both stafs. 

Uun P aliro, P una P altra ; gli uni gli aliri, le une 
le alire, are equivalent to the English pronouns one 
another^ each other ; as, 

81 AMATANO l' UN l' Iltro, they loved one another ; 
l' 1711 l' altro iniMi art- intent to look at each other. 
guartUtrn, 

In imOi is equivalent to the EngUfh expiestiofi at the$am€iime; mb, 

Mi9ta mi w6de, tna nr vn fug- he sees me sad, but at the same 
^dtUsiio co$petto, time to flee from his presence. 

13* 



150 ANALOGY. 

SifU* 6Uro fomettmes corra^oods in Enfiab to wiihaut doubt, cer- 
tainly, &c. ; na, 

4gH tsif s' khTRo $ttri eotrtf be without doubt is with the 

king. 

Per 6Uro means othenoike, thi$ exctpted, 09 for the reat, &c. ] as, 

FBR ia«TKD sMo, e etwftduto, as for the rest, wise and pmdeot. 



Tale in the singular often drops the e and makes tcU ; 
and in the plural is contracted into taij and sometimes 
written ta^ ; as, 

talJu nUa etHk^ such was oiy star ; 

Til dimostraxidnii such demoDstratioDS ; 

ta' po/d^ such palaces. 



Indefinite pronouns are generally varied with the pre- 
positions only ; except siessoj medSsimo, aliro^ wbrch are 
varied with the prepositions and articles. 

The prepositions di, a, are ele|^Dt)y suppressed berore the pronoun 
oltHd ; and sooretimes the preposition di is suppressed, and alirui placed 
between the artide and the noun with which it is connected ; as, 

U fi&ghe [di] aUrid, the wounds of others ; 

lafortuna si fa [a] aUrui ine&niro, fortune goes to meet others ; 
bagnSto^ neW ai^tri^i s^mgue^ [for bathed in another's blood. 
nel edngue di altrm]. 



To the above pronouns may be added cM, quale^piij 
menOf parecchiy parecchie, and siy which are also used as 
indefinite pronouns. 

Cki is sometimes used instead of alc^no ; as, 

inquisioldcopubcmrivdr cm in tiiis place may arrive some 
U frastdrnt, one who will distarb thee : 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 151 

and somstimes instead of nesstino; as, 

quivi non h chi Ugga, rU chi there is no one there who reads, 
scHvOy and none who writes. 

Chi is also used ia a distributive sense, and then it is 
equivalent to the English pronouns one — another ; the 
one — the other ; some — others ; as, 

port indo, chi Juhi^ chi Me carrying, some flowers, some, 
ador\fere, e chi diverse ma- sweet herbs, and others, dif*- 
niert di spezieriey ferent kinds of spices. 

Quale is used in d distributive sense, and corre- 
sponds to one — another; as, 

quAl se n' andb in contddoy e one went into the country, and 
quii. quhy e <^ual Ih^ another here, and another 

there. 

Piii ditid parScchij parecchiej as indefinite pronouns, are 
equivalent to the English pronoun several; as, 

piO gitirniy several days ; 

PARiccHi dUrif several others ; 

PAM^ccHiE 6re, several hours. 

Piu and meno sometimes take the article, — il piu, U 
meno ; i piu or le piu, % meno or le meno ; and then U 
piiij i piu or le piu, are equivalent to the most, the 
greater part ; and il meno, % meno or le mino, to the leasts 
the smaller part ; as, 

IL piO dd thnpo, the greater part of the time ; 

I PI 6 morivano, the most of them died ; 

LS PiO n trovdvano in Ber- the greater number of them 

linxiine, were found in Berlinzone ; 

U Paradiso h n^i m^no, Paradise is for the smaller 

number. 

Si is used for both genders and both numbers in the 
objective only, and corresponds to the Eu^lish words 
one, we, people, they, S^c. ; as. 



Va ANALOGt. 



81 vSie^ oi 

81 ^ dMiOy we have said ; 

81 vidtro, people saw ; 

SI pronUUono [mdUe] ocite, they promise many things. 

Si and the verb, in these and similar expressions, 
hold the place of a passive proposition^ and may be 
equally well rendered in English by the verb to be ; as, 

81 rtfuUssero gH ondri a {M- honors should be rendered 
5a, e 81 ceUhrdase la me- to Galba, and the memoiy 
mdria di Pisone^ of Piso should be celebrated. 



When si is followed by the particle ne, we change the 
f of si into e ; as, 

non sc NX iravtrMt uno, they would not find one. 



^ EXAMPLBS. 

Tu le dirSi, s' i6ixA yv6is ir6i> Thou wflt ask her, whether she 

i^. (Bocc. g. 9. D. 6.) wants any thing. 

M domandb se ioLi si sBirTf s- He asked him whether he felt 

ix FiisTE. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 3.) any thing. 

Che Noif RfMARRf BBS ▲ SOS- That there would not lemaia in 

TXiriER piiTA ivBssiS^ir A nel pytrgw- pur^toiy any punidiment to snfi^ 

tdrio per gU peecdH, (Pass.) for sins. 

Se Fi&ppo VA 6ggi in int5ir If Philip goes to-day to any 

litrdoo. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 3.) place. 

Per le tentaxiSm si pr6va V By temptations it is proved 

vdmOf s' ioLi ka BoirrATs ts- whether a man has any good qiiil- 

st^KA. (Pass. p. 47.) ity. 

Ch' ALct^KA GLORIA f tH Fot the giulty would deriTe 

AYBf BBER </' ellL (Dant. Inf. 8.) no glory frcnn them. 

C%* Axci5irA vfi dar]£bbx a Which would afford no way 

eJd $u fosse, (Dant. Inf 12.) to him who shoold be above. 

i^LTRo ATRf 8TI oiTTo, se tu Thou wovddst haTc said another 

m* ae^ssi veduto a Boldgna, — thing, if thoa luKlst s^ea me in Bo- 

(Bocc. g. 8. n. 9.) logna. 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 



153 



O, Altro bJu tu FATTo ? (Bocc. 

D. 1.) 

N£ ydiy Ni ki/TRi eon ragiSne 
nUpotrd piu dIre ch' fo non l* 

IbBIA VEDt^TA. (Bocc. g. 1. O. 8.) 

Per HON fidArmene oil altri, 
io medisima tel son venuta a H' 
gn^ieare. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 2.) 

To ho D^TTO M AL d' ALTRI^I. 

(Bocc.) 

Che f o da altri^i ehe da IH 
VDi^o MOH siA. (Bocc. g. 8. d. 5.) 

Al.TRl FA RiMI, ED A1.TRI 

t6i<gx 8ARTE. (Daot Inf ) 
Ai<TRi disperso — Sew vada 

XRRAIVDO : ALTRI RIMANGA UC- 

cfBo : — Xltri, in cure d* am6r 
$o6ve immSrsOj — Idol si fac- 
ciAy UN o6lce 8GUARDO, tin mo. 
(Tasfl. Ger. 4. 18.) 

Con le vSei umiH, e mansueie 

nel DOM ANDAR |«* AI«TRt$I. (BoCC. 

j.4.n.2.) 

8i dispSst a voter logorJLr 

DSLI«' ALTRI^I. (Bocc g. 4. D. 10.) 

Tdnto L* etI I*' i$No e l* JLl- 
TBO, <£a quSUo ehe esser solAano^ 

gli AT£a TRA8FORMATI. (BoCC. 

g. 2. n. 6.) 

Che le tnie e6ae ed ilia ti neno 
raecomandatef e qu^llo dell* 
ihrs c DCLi.' Altra fAcci, che 
csiDi. ehe tieno eonsolaziine 
deir anima mia, (Bocc. g. S. d. 

'•) 

Immagin6i di voUr fiart, ttc- 
t&me feeero i Saguntini, o gli 
Ahideiy oli i^ni temI^nti Anni- 
BALE Cartaginise^ s olx Altri 
FjLfppo MaeedSnieo. (Bocc. 
Flamm. 6. 53.) 

8eald6va il iol gih l' t^No e l* 
Altro c^rno *- Del Tauro, (Petr, 
cap. 1.) 



Ob, hast thou done aoy thing 
else i 

Neither you, nor others cao any 
longer say rightly that I have not 
seen it. 

Not to trust to others, I myself 
have come to inform thee of it. 



I have spoken ill of others. 

That i should be heard by no 
other, but by her. 

Some make oars, and others^ 
twist ropes. 

Let some of them go dispersed, 
and wandering : let some be killed : 
let others, plunged in the cares 
of pleasing love, place their hap- 
piness in a sweet look, a smile. 

With humble and mild words in 
demanding the property of others. 

She disposed herself to use the 
property of others. 

So much had age changed the 
one and the other from what they 
were used to be. 



Let my things and her be re- 
•commended to thee, and with the 
one and with the other do what 
thou thinkest would be of any con* 
solation to my soul. 

I thought of doing as the Sagun- 
tines and the Ahydeans did, the 
former fearing Annibal the Cartha- 
ginian, the latter Philip the Mace- 
donian. 

The sun was already warming 
both the horns of Taurus, 



154 



ANALOGY. 



I.* ii.TmA rr±JAJL — Ch* td e6r90 
ddmiovwerUumedSfmo? (Petr. 
•.S66.) 

L' tnr I.* ii.TEO di egudU 
mm6r€ si amItaho. (Bocc) 

L' Ulf X.' il.TBO ▲ ftlOUAROim- 

81 urttvn. (TsM. Ger.) 

BfisTA ogn6r mi t^ox, m^tta 
^ «^ro, MA nr uir dax^ f^o cos- 
p^TTO wvQoim, mi vide, (Alf. 
FUip. 1. 1.) 

£ei.I SSHI* IlTRO 8A&1 COL 

KB. (Mafi: Mer. 2. 3.) 

Rioco, < sItio, m attbd^to 
PBK Iltbo, ma aoarU$imo, — 
(Bocc. g. 6. D. 2.) 



Where is tiie beaotiAil brow aid 
both those stirs which gave light 
to my life ? 

Thev loved one anothef with an 
equal love. 

Intent to look at each other. 



He sees me always sad, sad it Is 
true, but at the same time he sees 
me flee from his presence. 



He without doabt is with the 
king. 

Rich, and wise, and prodeBt 
otherwise, but very aTaridoos. 



Lb PiioHB ALTXt^i. (Petr. s. - The wounds of others. 



RkArdati ehe tma tiUa $^tua 
jnii, 9u6le omerAre, ehe la roR- 

Tt^KA SI FA ALTR^I IKcdZTTBO 

col «bo UitOf e eol grhn^ aphio, 
(Bocc. g. 6. n. 10.) 

NXLL* ALTBI^I siHOUX g^ 

BAGMATO e ^nto. (Petr. s. 29.) 

Tal fu mIa STi^LLA, « toi fiAa 
aiidasSrU, (Petr. s. 182.) 

Qjuiste TAi dolar6$e dimostra- 
zi6hi Mon trdppo vedute^ e cofUh- 
•cUUe, (CastigL Cort L 3.) 

E fieer ta* palIoi, e tt^ ma- 
rcH^Jje, eke non H potr6hbe dure. 
(Ft, Gior.) 

Iir QuisTO Ldco di leggier puo 

ARBItIr CHI Tl FRASTdRHI. — 

(Maff. Mer. 3. 4.) 

Qui Ti NON i ehi ragiSni — IH 
Critto, ne chi l£oga, iri chi 
scrIva. (Dant Par. 12.) 



' Remember thftt <Mte ahd &o 
more, it is wont to happen, that ibr* 
tune goes to meet others with joy- 
fol countenance, and open boMD. 



Already bathed and stained with 
another's blood. 

Such was my star, and sudi my 
cruel &te. 

Such painful demonstrations are 
too often seen and known. 



And they made such palaces, 
and snch wonderful things, that 
cannot be described. 

In this place may easily wnxn 
one who will disturb thee. 



There is no one there who talks 
of Christ, no one who reads, ao 
one who writes. 



INDEFINITE PRONODwa 



155 



M^i anddoctno attAmo, pom- 
tIvdo rUUe mdni, cbi fi6ri, cbi 

iBBS ODOSfFERX, E CHI DIY^ B8B 

MAmiRE Di spezierIx. (Bocc. 
iDtrod.) 

EUlor dSnne, e ifigKuSKpiC' 
eioUtti, ^vii. be n* and6 iif cor- 

poveramSnte in am^se. (Bocc. 
g. 2. 11.3.) 

Pi^ Gi6RNiy«/tcefii/n/6 nao^^ii- 
f»fi47. (Bocc g. 2. D. 7%) 



Many went about canying in 
their bands, some, flowers, some, 
sweet berbs, and others, different 
kinds of spices. 

And of their wives, and yoimg 
children, one went' into the conn- 
try, and one here, and another 
there, poorly provided. 

They sailed happily several days. 



Con PAR^ccBi Xltri. • (Petr.) With several others. 



Durd per lo $p&zio di par£c- 
CHiB 6re. (Giov. Vill.) 

Ii. Piii DEI. t£mpO| Si Stan- 
no a ntangidre, e poUrvre. (Dav. 
Germ.) 

I pii!i sinza alcuna/^bbre^ o 61- 
fro aceiddnte morIvano. (Bocc. 
Introd.) 

Mdso ri8p6$e, ehe lx piu si 

TROViVAHO IN BeRLINz6i7X. — 

(Bocc. g^8. n. 8.) 

II paradIso ]^ nfi m£ko, e 
non dH piii, (Segn. Mann. Marz. 
«.) 

C6me 81 v^DB. (Bocc. e. 10. 
n. 2.) 

C6me s' i d£tto. (Dav. Ann.) 

YIdxrsi in qwillo esirciio sol- 
dati v'cehi, ehe non avivanofatto 
mMgudrdia, (Dav.) 

Qti6nto c6se eli si prom£tto- 
EO tuUo *l di. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 1.) 

Propbse, ehe si rxkd^ssero 
OLi oii6ri a GIlba : e?ie anehe 
SI cxi.ebrIsse la mem6ria di 
PisdffE. (Dav. Stor. I. 4.) 

Noif SE HE TROVEr£bBE UN 

maggi6r mdL (Bocc. g. 2. fin.) 



It lasted for the space of several 
hours. 

The greater part of the time 
they pass in eating and dozing. 

The most of them died widKmt 
any fever, or any other sjrmptom. 

Maso replied, that the greater 
number of them were fotmd in 
Berlinzone. 

Paradise is for the smaller num- 
ber, and not for the larger. 

As one sees. 



As we have said. 

People saw in that army old sol- 
diers, who had never beefi on 
guard. 

How many things they promise 
him the whole day. 

He proposed, that honors should 
be tendered to Galba, and that the 
memory of Piso should also be eel* 
ebrated. 

They would never find^ one 
greater. 



156 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE XIT. 

Whoever does otherwise sins. There most be 
/a* aUrimeiUi^ pecca, V% dive eMsert 

some deception. Let as give this bread to eat to 
mginno, Diamo pane a mangi&re 

some one. He commanded that every one shcmld 
— Comandd andaa* 

f o tp rest himsel£ That we I might not cause I 

*e* ff* riposare^ si}. Accioeehi \ nen dessmo | 

(to) any one I to I think of us. Each 

^ < I da» I pensare* — — . 

one* of us knows, that the greater part of (^) 
«a, * * pdrte^ * 

her friends — (hers) are dead. You will receive a 

• t^fuv* m6rto.'' rUeverete - 

hundred for every one. Every mother is a nurse 

mddre i - b6iia 

of her children. Without aoy delay, he did what 
figUu6lo, Sinsa indugiOf — fice 

the king ordered. No f body perc.eived I it I 
re eommanddva, per$6na aeedrse^ | sene.^ \ 

Here it seemed to me that I saw— (to see) noj sanctity, no X 
Jluim — pdrve^^ ^ v^der^ * santit^, * 

devotion, no I good deed, or example of life. 
divozione^^ • buSno* Spera^, o* esimpu^ ^^ «te". 

Where every word, every phrase, every mode of 
(yve pardlOj frdie, modo — 

expression is explained with clearness. To-morrow I 

viSn spiegato^ eon} thiarezza?. doman^ - 

shall dine with some friends. Some companies of 
Pranxerd^ eon amieo, eompagma 

Belgians collected in haste, and a band of Vitellians. 
Belgi fSitto furia, e mdno VtteOidnL 

* Each on«, in tb* fbminine fender. 

t N9t here in the •ignifleation of luit one, imii«. 

X AV» in the fignification of not amy. 



INDEFINTOS PRONOUNS. 157 

Noir I hove nothing more I -to I fear. Who — (to 
Otnai - kd* * ;nii» | ia | temSre, 

(the) whom}* I had been obliged to live I for several 

I &d eonvenuto tivere' * | — ^ * 

▼ean 1 like 1 a deaf . and dmn6 person. I never 
amio* I a g%d$a d? \ - 96rdc^ . «^ mtUoloK non 

Ishoold come I I to the end I of it 1 ^or 1 several 

Said the barterer': f^Mnst I say] more — (an/ 
DUh barattiSre: \**Bd io a t&r\ — ^ 

tAher thing)." Not j being - able I to be seen ),y 
." Jfon 1 poiende \ ,i$9ei* veduta* I 

-way other, he threw himself I on his knees I beforo 
» — gittd' «i* I ginoeehidne^ \ dav6nu^ 

tier, and said. I determined (myself) I to [ tell ^ 
J«*, « t^se, - DeHberSi^ mt \ di \ dir^ 

It rather to you than to others. With (the) humble, 

And mild words in {4heJ asking the property of 
€* mansuito* v6ce^ domanaSre — ' — 

others — (the others'). lie will l)e with him without 
. ■ sard? * • thua} 

doubt — (any other thing to the contrary). He see^ 

me I at the I (ime) same time fly from his presence. 
* I t» I — fifgk^ ca9p6tie. 

Some make oars, and others twist ropes. Soppose 
fa rSmCf a vSlge $m€L Fingite 

IobI the contrary, that that be not a comedy, but 
a I tmUr6no^ no* turn* eomnUdta, ma 

a tragedy, and that of the actors some diould speak 
tragi^a^ e tedJt&ntt faxAu 

Bolognese, others Venetian, that one Bergamasque, this 
, Venexi&not Bergam6»coy 

* IfkMtyiatlMftiniaiMftiutor. 

14 



158 - ANALOGY. 

oDe Neapolitan, and that one Milanese. (The) one* 

of them had a heautiful and large mattress of 
^ aoSa bello* e* grdndt^ materd$so^ ■ 

cotton I o*^ I ^6' headf and the other ♦ a very 
bambagia^ \ in \ — capo, e ^ 

large basket full of things. Some went I into I 

gr&de paniere pieno e6sa, $€n* andd \ tn | 

the country, and some here, and some there. 
— €ontddo, e quity e Id. 



CHAPTER Viri. 
OP THE PARTICLES JSTE, CJ, Vt 

With pronouus are generally classed the particles 
wc, ct, ©t,f which never vary, and always refer to some 
person, thing, or place, which has been spoken of 
before. 

JVfi may refer to one person or thing, or to more 
than one, according to the number of the objects, which 
have been mentioned ; and then it is rendered in Eng- 
lish by — of him^ of her, of it ; of them ; vnih Aun, « 
with hery &C. ; a/ Aun, &c. ; some ofiij some of them ; as, 

NE pdre innanujrdtoy he seems enamoured of her ; 

a gudnti 2fB giacivano taglxb he cut off the hair 6f as maay 
t ct^fdU, of them as slept ; 

* Tk* otu^ the otkety in the femlniat fender. 

t These pezticlei, in orttK^rtphy, appear to be the nine Wotdt aa the coojttoed^ 

eronoona m, a, v< : their di/&rence in tignifieatioo, howetret, if eaaiJjr i ~ • - 
J the maaoing of the aeatAioe ia which they are oaed. 



PARTICLES A!B, CI, VI. 159 

mm ifE pat^a 'pag6re % eal' I could not pay for my shoes 

z&riy with it ; 

<e If E maravigUb, he wondered at h ; 

NE ho prisoy I have taken some of it, or 

some of them. 

Ae may also rpfer to the plate, which one comes 
from, or goes to; and then it corresponds to the Eng- 
lish adve.rbs — Aence, thence ; as, 

m^FiE v^iift, I came thence ; 

fiikndo NE andrHt ? when shall you go hence ? 

and sometimes to an indeterminate place ; as, 

HE IportAta dal vMo, it is thence carried away by the 

wind. 

Ci, viy refer to a place, 'and correspond to the Eng- 
lish adverbs — here, there 5 hither, thither ; as, 

CI ha ventUo, I had come hither ; 

non yi poU tntr&ref he could not enter tAither. 

Ci, properly, refers to a place near the person 
speaking, and vi, to a place at a distance ; as, 

CI s6no stdto altre v6Ue, ' I have been here formerly ; 

Je lu mat v r tdrni, if thou shalt ever return there. 

This distinction, however, is not. observed \^hen the 
particles ci, vi, and the conjunctive pronouns ci, vi{ 
would be brought together, as in io vi vi condurro, — 
v6i CI ci avete conddtti ; 10 which case, to avoid the harsh 
sound produced by the repetition of the same word, * 
we say, without regard to the distance of the place, 

io Tx ci condurrb, I will conduct you thither; 

vdi VI ci avHt conddtH, you have conducted us hither. 

* An inttonco nevertheloM, ii met with in Boccaccio, in which d it used 
initead of ri, without the occurrence of the repetition of tlio word on account 
of tlie conjuoctivo pronoun : 

AW CI 96no in ni(tn luUgo aJMbrntM There aro nowhere dwolliosi fo near » 
9i rrisso. che tu di gi6mo Ti voUui that you could ariire there before fun- 
— '-^-t, (G. 5. n. 5.) Mt. 



160 ANALOGF. 

Cf, vij may refer also te persons or things, and tbea 
thej take the signification of the persons or things, 
which they refer to ; as, 

.pem&sUamef — ci pensdif iid yoa tbink of me?— T 

thought of yoa. 

haderHt a ci6, or a quitto ? will yoa attend to this ? — ye% 
— tH, Yi h<idtr6^ I will attend to it 

Of, vt, are used sometimes instead of guistOy queUo^ 
tide, kc. in the signification of ~t to iiy in tV, from it^ 
&c. 5 as, 

CI irovtrima bwhn eoflip^iuo, we shill find in it ft good com- 
pensation ; 

asceltdi auhlt pcar6U 8^na I listened to these words with- 

ritpdnaeKrif oat reply^g to them ; 

io mm Ti conseniUy I did not consent to it 

When the particles ct, rt, are followed by the pro* 
nouns tby la, K, gti^ {e, they are generally united to 
them so as to form a smgle word ; as, 

TiLo ovte conddUo, be had conducted him there^ . 

ing^noH di nien^KLO, coBtnv« to keep htm there. 

The particles ne, c», «t,. are often used as expletives ; 
as, 

ITE andd per la cAfnerOy he went through the room^^ 

ciascun che ci ndsee^ erery one who is- born ; 

fbheyi.mojiy where Cohere] died. 



XX AMPLE S. 

jtglUpWMmenie^ ondAnda^ a- He, wtlUug 8of)ljr^ cut off tSe 

QviHTi in mUlla ea$a us giac£- hair ofas mftoy of thun as slept io 

YANo TAGUO I cap£lli. (Bocc that house.. 
g.3.n.«.) 

Jilt ddvan si p6co sal&ro, che They gave me sa small a salary, 

io vov HK poTiTA oppifia PAOA- that 1 could hardly pay for ms 

AX I calzIbi. (Bocc. g. 2l d. I.) shoes with it.. 



PARTICLES JVE, C7, FI. 



161 



Quand* to m^nk 
(Bocc. g. 3. D. 1,) 

La centre p6$ta in dito, vn ^ 

PORTATA DAL vf RTO. (FaSS. tf. 

Hq. c. 4.) 

.tf'nzi CI £ra TEJitJro |)er rfo- 
v^r^ft ammonire, (Bocc e. 1. n. 

S\ tardi vi giunse, ehe, es$Sndo 
lepSrte serrate j e i p6nti levdti, 

KlfTRAR VON VI POli difUrO, — 

(Bocc. g. 2. n. 2.) 

VeTan%6nte ci i6NO Co Iltrb 
t6lte 8TATO ; ma $\ ni* avea la 
pattra di me trdtio. che cos), cdme 
$e mat non ci Jossij d* esserci 
$t6to mi ricorddoa, (Lab.) 

Se igli avviine, che tu mai vi 
t6riii, fa ehe tu non jn mat piu 
gel6$o. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 8.) 

V<Si VI CI av£te coHDdm. 
(Fr. Sacch.) 

PtllSASTE A MB ? — «l CI PJEW- 

Jii. (Beinb.) 

Per avrentura P Spera nSatra 
potra iaaere anddta di modo, che 
fldt ci trov£r£mo, coW aiiito di 

/>U>, RU<S5 COMP^NSO. (BoCC. g. 

2. n. 7.) 

Qu£sTE paiuSl]:, non dna vSU 
to, « siifZA risp6ndervi alai- 
na c6$a, ascoltai con gr&oe d- 
nimo. (Bocc. Fiain. I. 5:) 

Binfrranzidndo Iddio, chb 

COBDd^TTO VKL* AVJ^A. (BoCC. g. 

2. n. 4.) 

Sdppi se egli $a lavordre, ed 

IHG^GNATI DI RITXMiRCKLO. — 

(Bocc.) 

ChetanUnte he ahdo pbr la 
ciuERA infino dlla finistra, — 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 7.) 



viRHi. — When I came thence. 



The ashes placed on high, is 
thence carried away by the wind. 

Nay, I had come hither in order 
to admonish him. 



He arrived there so late, that, 
the gates being shot, and the 
bridges raised, he could not enter 
thither. 

Truly I have been here former- 
ly ; but fear had in such a manner 
deprived me of my senses, that 1 
recollected as little of having been 
here, as if I never had been here. 

Ifit happens that thou shaltever 
return there, take care that thou 
be no more jealous. 

You have conducted us hither. 



Did you think of me ? — yes, I 
thought of you. 

Perchance our buMness may 
take such a turn, that we shall 
find in it, with the assistance of 
God, some compensation. 

To these word?, more than once,\ 
and without replying to thera any 
thine, I listened with a serious 
mind< 

Thanking God that had con- 
ducted him there. 



Learn whether he knows how 
to work, and contrive to keep him 
there. 

Gently he went through the 
room fts far as the window. 



14* 



ie2 analogy: 

Mxturdl ragi&ne^i di ciabc^b It is a natural thing im every one* 

ORE CI NASCE, Ui tuo oiU, quonto who is bom to helpy-preserre, and 

fmdf aiutdre^ e eonservdre, e di' defend his life, as much as he can. 
flndere. (Bocc. Introd.) 

Cestui dirfett JmsaUm, d6fb This one destroyed Jerusalem , 

▼X Moal, tra d' ^tnSn e di fioiu, where there died, both by arms and 

eentindia di tmgU6ia di Oimdiu of hongery hondftds of tbousand a 

(Petr.Uom.iU.^.^ .^ of Jews. 



EXERCISE IV. 

The miserable Landolfo, although the day before 
nii$ero , aneoraelU ' dk^ davmU^' 

had called (the) death many times, seeing it near, 
avS$8i^ chiam6tc^ • m&rte' m6Uo^ v6lU* vtdimdo^ prisU^ 

was afraid of At He wished that I should see 
6hbe^ paurcfi K — VSOt wedhH 

all' the holy relics, and they were so many, that, 
$6nt0 reUquia, e — ^- fimm tomto, ,. 

if I wished to relate, them to yoo, I never should 
M voUssi? cont&re^ ' • *, mon' rsr- 

coD»e to an end (tf ihem). ^Oh, my master t% 
r^jf » — c^ » . "OA, n^u^ maistror\ 

said Bn!ino, ^ I I do not t wonder (mftd/) at it,- 
didoa , ** I nan \ marcnigUi^ >^ **, 

for I have heard say, that they say nothing — 
eM ho tu^o dire, — ^- -— 

I (do not I say anything) of it" But yet coming ' 
non I dkand* »- *." Ma pure umcUo^ 

oat thence, he began to wonder (kimsdp I more 
,. — incamineii^ * moramgUSre^ «• [ «i- 

and more. 
e6ra jnit.' 



Cause ((he) generosity | to be painted I 
F6te^^ * eorte^ \ d^nngete^ \ 



here.- 



PARTICLES NE,CI, VL im 

I Pretending I Ito I I have I returned' there 
Sembiante faeindo \ \ di\ \ essere^^ \ tomdto^ ' * 

with a great deal more merchandise than before. 
eon mercanxia prima. ^ 

I - 1 cannot I ^ell ' relate how I entered there. The' 
I non MO I b6n ridire c6me etUrw? >. 

chorch is so full, of people, that no * person can 
chiisa i b\ piena- ghUe , per$6na pud^ 

any more enter there. Andr«<kcio, feaHng, entered* 
pHi} entr&re^ . *, , temindo, entrd* 

there, and entering there he thought within himselfl. 
*, e enirdndo^ — pen8& con* •«.> 

If I I can affect I I to I bo dumb^ I shall be- 
Se I so far vUta \ [di \ i*$er mutolo, *' $ard^ 

peceived tiiero surely. 
rieewto^ ' per eirto,^ 

They t replied; "It is I very I true; since thou 
rupdsero: •<- ^« | Bene^ \ v6ro^ perehi 

art the one who makes us stay here. Alas! Z^ppa, 
8ii fu? * stdre* >. OhiffUl ,. 

what does this mean ? Haye you then made me 
9u6l * rfir?» av6te* » Dunque^ fdUo* « 

oome hero for this? I will cause it* I to be 
vm^^ » ? fard* « | d^An- 

pafaited I here, I in such a manner, I that ^ neither 
grre* | ^. S I di maniSra^ \ n6 

you nor any other one fwill be able ( to tell me 
ni — I potrd* \ dire* > 

any longer, that I have not seen it4 These persons § 
/»&,« * ' dbbiifi non"^ veduta^^ «. 

make mo enter here [to I deceive me. We wish 
fdnno*^ * entrdre^ ^ \ per \ inganndr^ vogJidmo 

* Ab, hor« in the fi|nifieaUoa of iw o««. t 7^, in tbo ftmioifte gtodttr* 
X M [the genenwity — la eorUt^},' in the ftralaio* geodn.- 



164 ANAUOQY. 

to go I and I see this boly man ; but I, for myself 

anddre \ a \ vetUre scrnio ; ma , me, 

do not see how we can ^ get there. 

nan ' vedo c6me — possidmo^ pervenire? ^ 



CHAPTER IX. 
VERBS. 

All Italian verbs are classed in three different conju- 
gations, which are distinguished by the terminatioD of 
their infinitive. 

The Jirst conjugation comprehends those verbs, 
which in the infinitive end in are ; as, amXRE, * to 
love.' 

The second comprehends those verbs, which in the 
infinitive end in ere ; as temtHE, ' to fear.' 

The third comprehends those verbs, which in the 
infinitive end in ire; as, seniiRE^ 'to hear,' or 'to 
feel.' 

All the verbs of these thpee different conjugation's, 
whether regular or irregular, are conjugated or varied 
with one of the auxiliary verbs, avere, * to have, ' or 
isserej * to be '. 

VARIATION OF VERBS. 

Verbs may be varied m four diflferent ways ; viz. 
affirmatively^ negatively, interrogatively, and interroga- 
tive-negatively. 

In the variation of Italian verbs, the personal pronouns 
are generally suppressed, the persons being sufficiently 



AUXILIARr VERBS. . 1» 

indicated by the different terminations ; but when dif- 
ferent persons have the same termination, the pronouns 
are expressed, to avoid the confusion which might then^ 
arise. ^ - 

The pronouns are also expressed in the imperative 
mood; and also when verbs are varied in the interrogative 
form, since then the transposition of the pronoun distin-^ 
guisbesy in,ponversation, that form from the affirmative* 

In varying the following verbs, we have given, between 
parentheses, the poe^tca//orm«, or the peculiar inflexioq'a 
to which poets have submitted some of the persons of cer- 
tain tenses of these verbs. Some of these are elegantly 
used even in prose, and some are entirely confined to^ 
verse ; in jorder to disnnguish the latter from the former^ 
the latter are printed in Roman characters. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 

Variation of the Verb Av6re affirmatively. 

U INFINITIVE. 



Simple TenfM^ 

1. — PrMcn/. - 
jSvSre, to haye. 



Compound Todmi* 

2. — PoW. 
av6re avUUo, to haye had.. 



3. — Future. 



tmere ad avere. > . . . , 
i8$ere per avert, V tohavetohavi 
dot>irt Wirt, 5 to be about to 



have, or 
haye. 



4. — Present 
avindOf haviog.*. 



5,— Pa#<. 

avindo avulOf hayibg had. 



V 

166 



ANALOGY. 



e.-^PrtsenU' 



mfinte, s. 
avenHf p.* 



> having. 



PAETICIPJLS. 



7. — Poj*. 



wnUo, m. s., cmtti, p. > ... ^ 
amUa\tB,, orw/c, p.» 5 *^ 



II. INDICATIVE. 



SIMPLX TEIf8£S« 



SiDgttkr. 



Floral. 



lit p. ho or d, I have; 

[(agRte). 
2d p. h&i or di, |thou hast; 
'8d p.Aa or A(ave), he, she, or it has ; 



1. — Present 

abbiamo (av^mo). 



avite, 

hdnnOf or itnno, 



we hare ; 

you have ; 
they have. 



1st p. to aviwj 
[or ae^a,t 

2d p. ttvhn, 

8d p. igli or ilia 
l^viva or a 
[via (avia), 



I had, or did 
[have ; 
thou hadst ; 
be or she had ; 



2. — Imperfect, 
avevdmOf 



jwe had ; 



avevate, you had ; 

av4vano or avS* they had. 
[ofur (avieno), 



Istp. 6bhi, 
2d p. avisti, 
Sd p. 6lAe, 



S.^ Perfect. 



I had ; 
thou hadst; 
he or she bad ; 



Ikiodmmo, 

aoes/e, 

lUbberOf 



we had; 
you had; 
they had. 



Istp. avrd, 

2d p. ttvrai, 
8d p. aord, 



I shall or will 
[have ; 

thou wilt have ; 

he or she will 
[have ; 



4. — Future, 

avrSmoj 



avrite^ 
avrannot 



we shall hare ; 

you will have ; 
they will have. 



J' The prtteni partieiple of the verb avire asreea with the ntjeet of the propoei- 
tioQ in gender and ««m^«r. The past partiapU agreei, tomelimes, with the o^ftcC 
in gatder and iNtmber. 

t Some sojr ac^tw, ^, omd txi, &.c. instnad of ffr(h?a, * I had ' ; in. * I was ' : 
aaidea, * I lored * ; dec, but ihi« uaago which, indeed, -preseoti the aerantage of 
lliatiof oiihing the JirH fiom the third i>enoo of the imperftct of Terbty is cootrary 
if the authority of the best classics. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



167 



COMPOCMD TERtKS. 
Singular. ' _ Plural. 

5. — Compimnd of the Present, or — Second Perfed. 



1st p. ho^ amitOf jl have had ; 
2d p. htti Ofmio, thou hast had ; 
8d p. Aa aouto, be or Bho has 
I [had ; 



abbidma cmuto, 
avete cn>uio, 
hdnno aviUo, 



we have had j 
you have had ; 
they have had. 



6. — Compound of the Imperfect, or — Pluperfect 
lMtp» io ao6va aeuto, \ I had had ,I| av'evdmo avuto, \ we had had. 

7. — Compound of Vie Perfect, or — Second Pluperfect, 
1st p. 6bbi avuto, \ I had had. 

8. -^ Compound of the Future, or — Fuiure Anterior. 
1st p. cmrd avuto, | I shall or will have had. 



111. CONJUNCTIVE. 
SIMPLE TEnSEB. 

1. — Present. 



l«t p. io 6bbia 

Zd p. tu abbta or 
[<J*«(4ggl), 

8d p. igli or 61- 

[/a 6bbia 

[(aggi*)> 



Ut p. i^ aoisti, 

2d p. tuavS$$i, 
Sd p. a9^$$e, 



that I have, or 

[may have ; 

that thou have ; 

that he or she 
[have ; 



abbiamo, 

abbiate, 

dbbiano, (afgia- 
[no), 



that we have ; 
that you have ; 
that they have. 



2. — Imperfect. 



if I had, or should 
[have ; 
if thou hadst ; 
if he or she bad $ 



\ave88imo, 

^aviste, 

avhtero (av6s- 
[sino), 



if we had ; 

if you had ; 
if they had. 



COMPOUND TEIfSES. 

3. — Ompound of ihA Present, or — Perfect. 



1st p. So abbia Ithat I have had, 
[ao^to, Jor may have 



abbiamo avuto, Ithat we have had* 



168 ANALOGY. 

4.— C(mpouni of the hnpetftdj or -- Pluperftd. 
Itt p. fo aUsn avuiOf | if 1 had had, or diould haro 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 



SnrPIiE TEHSZ. 



Siacokr. 



PhmL 



lit IK aorii (a- 
[vrfa), 

2d p. murUH, 

M p. mtfrMt 
Kafria), 



I shooldv would, I 

[or could have; I 

for might have; 

UiovL woukist| 

[hare ;| 

he or ihe would 

thareji 



1. -A- Present 

aorcfnmOf 



aor^«te. 



iano or oori- 
eno), I 



we riiould ^r 
[would have; 

yoa would have ; 

they would have. 



COMPOUND TENSE. 



litp. atrH ao4- 



3. — GoffipounJ o/*eA< iV««esi<, or ^ Pa§k 
anrhmmo amUo^ 



I dkould, would; 
\or could hare: 
[liad ; or might! 
[have had ; | 



[wo«ld have bad. 



y. IMPERATIVfi. 



tflt p 

dd p. ^^ (4g. 



have ihoa; 

lel Um or her 
[have;! 



ahhi&mo %6if 
abhiaU vdi, 

a6(iafto (iggia^ 
[do) iglmo or 
[<f2Zaio, 



let m have $ 
have jre; 

let 



• Th« /r»e ptTMM of the i mp m r ^a in ^ in all vwba i» mmtiwg. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 16^ 

Variation of the, Verb Av6re, negatively. 



I. INFINITIVE. 



Simple Tensea. 
1. — PrtsenL 
J^on av6re \ not to have. 



Compound T«iiim. 
%'^Pa9t. 
non avire 09(^0, \ not to hire had. 

S. — FiUurt. 



non (tvire ad aodre, > ^ , a x i_ 
~ma«Jre per «.«•«.<•» »f »•» *L'?TV* 



e£Bi7in>. 



4. — PreaenU 
non av6ndo, \ not having. 



5. — Past. 



non avindo • I not having had. 
{av(Uo, ' 



II. INDICATIVE. 



Siogalar. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



1. — Present. 



Plunl. 



1 st p. [So] non hoAl have not ; 
2d p. non hat, thou hast not ; 
3d p. non ha, Ihe or she has not; 



non abbidmOf 
non avite, 
nonhdnno, 



2. — hnperftd. 



Istp. io non 

[avha^ 



2d p. non avhdy thou hadst not ; 
Sd p. ^gli or ilia he or she had not; 



[non aveva, 



I had not, or did 
[not have ; 



non ttvevdmOf 

non avevdte, 
non av^vano, 



S. — Perfect. 



Istp. nonibbiy If had not; 

2d p. non air^sfi Jthou hadst not ; 

3d p. non ibbe, |he or she had not; 



non avimmo, 
non avS$te, 
non SbberOf 



15 



we have not ; 
you have not ; 
they have not. 



we had not ; 

you had not ; 
they had not. 



I we had not ; 
you had not ; 
they had not 



170 



ANALOGY, 



SiBfnlir. 



PtanL 



1ft p. fum mordf 
Sd p« fUMi ovraHf 
8d p. fiofi offrdi 



IihaUorwiDnot 

[have; 

thoo wilt not 

[have; 

he or she will 

[not have ; 



Future, 
fiofi avrefHOf 

non aorite, 



we shall or wffl 
[not have ^ 
yoawifi Dot have; 

they wiD not 
[haTe. 



COMPOUND TKNSES. 

5. — Second Perfect, 
Ist p. [U>] non ho amUOj \ I have not had. 



Istp. io non 

[dbhia, 
2d p. tu non 

[dbbiay 

dd p. igli or 6Ua 

[non dbbia. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

l.^Preserd. 

non iibbiamOf 



that I have not, or 

[may not have ; 

that thou have 

[not; 

that he or she 

[have not j 



non abbidte, 
nonabbutnOf 



2. — hnperfecL 



Ist p. io non \i( I had not, or 
[ae^tt, [should not have; 

Sd p. fti non lif thou hadst not ; 
[avSsBt} 

8d p. non ao^S' if he or she had 
[se, [not ; 



non avistimOf 
nonav^ite, 
non ao€89ero, 



that we have not; 

that jou have 
[not; 

that they have 
[not. 



if we had not ; 
if you had not; 
if they had not 



Istp. nonavrei. 



2d p. non avre- 

[sti, 

2d p. non atrih- 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — PrtsenL 

non QvrinunOf 



I should, would, 

[or could not 

[have ; or might 

[not have ; 

thou wouldst not 

[have; 

he or she would 

[not have ', 



non avrittCt 
non aoribberOf 



we should or 
[would not have; 



you would not 
rhaTe ; 

they would not 
[have; 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



171 



6infalar. 



V. IMPERATIVE, 



Istp. 



2d p. non avire* 

[tit, 

3d p. non abhia 

[egU or 6lla^ 



have not thou ; 

let him or let her 
[not have ; 



non abbidmo 

[not, 
non abbidte vM, 

non dbbiano 
i^gUno or SlUno, 



Phiral. 

let us not have; 
have not ye ; 



let 



them not 
[have. 



Variation of Averef interrogatively. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 

1. — Present. 



Ist p, hoio? Ihave I ? 
2d p. hditu? hast thou ? 
3d p. ha igli or has he or she ? 
lella?] 



abbidmo nSi ? 
avete v6i ? 
hdnno egl\no or 
leUeno? 



have we ? 
have you ? 
have they ? 



2. — hnperfect. 



Ist p. aoSva io ? 
2d p. av4vi hi 7 
3d p. anina 6zli 
[ord/to? 



Ist p. ibbiio? 
2d p. avisti tu ? 
3d p. 6bbe 6gH 
[or iUa 7 



hadl? 
hadst thou ? 
had he or she ? 



avev&mo ndi 7 
avevate v6i 7 
avSvcmo iglino 
[or elUno 7 



had we ? 
had you } 
had they ? 



3. —Perfect. 



hadl? 
hadst thou 7 
had he or she ? 



av6mmo ndi 7 
av6ste v6i 7 
6hbero iglino or 
l6U€no7 



had we ? 
had you ? 
had they ? 



* The teeond pergon of the imperative of Italian verbf, prtesded by the nega- 
tire partiele non, m changed for the present of the i^limtive of the tame rerbi : aa, 
«•» aoirt (instead of non dbbi), < have not [thoa].' PoeU. howcror, and Arioato 
ftod AI6eri in partieoJar, have oaed both forms iAdiscriminately. 



172 



Biofikr. 



ANALOGY. 

4, — Future. 



Flwnl. 



1ft p. avrd io 7 

2d p. avr6i tu 7 

8dp. amrd 6gli 

[or iUa ' 



shall or will I 
[have ? 

wilt thou have ? 

will he or she 
[have ? 



)n6i7 



atrete v6i 7 
avrdnno igUno 
[or eUcno 7 



shall or will we 
[have ? 
win yoQ have ? 
will they have ? 



COMPOUND TENSES* 



5. — Second Perfect. 



Ist p. hoio avutOf or | have I had P 
{ho avuto to ?i 



1st p. ctorH io 7 

2d p. amristitu7 

8dp. avribbe 
[igli or ilia 7 



III. CONDITIONAL. 

l.-r- Present. 

awhnmon6i7 

\aor68te v6i 7 



should, would, or 

[could I have ? 

wouldst thou 

[have ? 
would he or she 

[have ? 



avrdbbero eglino 
[or Slleno 7\ 



should or would 

[we have ? 

would you have ? 

would they have? 



Variation of Avere, interrogative-negatively. 



I. INDICATIVE. 
SIMPLE TENSES. 

1. — Present, 



Ist p. nonJufio? 

2d p. non }i6i 

[tu? 

8dp. non ha 

\egUot6lla7 



have I not ? 
hast thou not ? 

has he or she 
[uot ? 



\non ahbi&mo n(^t7lhave we not ? 



non h&nno igli- 
\no or iUeno 7 



have you not ? 
have they not ? 



2. — Imperfect. 



Ittp. non av^lhad I not ? 

[Co?| 



fnon avtfvdmo ihad we not? 
\n6i7\ 



Z.^ Perfect. 
1st p. non ibbi (o 7 | had I not ? 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 173 

1st p. non avrd to ? | shall or will I not have i* 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

5. — Second Perfect. 
1st p. non ho to avutOj I have I not had ? 



[or non ho amtto to ? \ 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present. 

1st p. non avrei io ? I should, would, or 
I [could 1 not have ? 



T^ariaiion of the Visrh Essere. 

1. INFINITIVE. 

Simple Tenwi. Compoond Teoiei' 

1. — Present. 2. — Past. 



isiere, | to be. 



issere stdto, m. s. 

J A^^ ^ - r •- have been. 
essere stata, 



tatot m. 8.1 

ftdta, f. B.C 
[s<ate, p.*/ 

!!r*^ ? to be about to be, or 
, ' C to have to be. 



3. — Future. 



Essere per 6ssere. 
av6re od Essere, 
dovire issere^ 

GERUND. 

4. — Present, 5. — Past. 

essindo(s4ndo\),\ being. || ess^ndo s/^^m. j ^^^.^^ j^^^ 

* The voft partidide of the verb ^«««re, alwavs (^e«« with the t^eet^ in fender 
and nnmber : thai we ta.y, io »6no atdto^ if the labject ia mascalioe singUMr: Io 
s6n0 tUkOy if feminine singular : and n6i sidmo ttdu, if the lobject ia masculine 
plooral ; ndi sUamo tUus, if feminine ploral, and so on. 

t Some anthors, and MacbiaTelli in particalar, have used this ibrm consUn tly in 
prose. 

15» 



ANALOGY. 

PAKTICIPIJE. 






7.-^PiuL 



ato, m. 8. \ 

[staH, p. ( 

^dta, f. 0. ( 

iMtaUy p. ) 



$tdto. 

[sta 

stdta 

I 



beeo. 



II, INDICATIVE. 



SIVPI.E TBIfSBS. 



8ui|«kr. 



Pfanl. 



h^Prtseni. 



Ist p. to sdtiOt |I «m ; 
2d p. $H or te*, thou art; 
Sd p. i, he is i 



tfiomo (s^mo), Iwe are ; 
sUtt (s^te), you are ; 

6glino sSno, [they are. 



2. — Imperfect 



Ist p. io iroy 

2d p. M, 

Sd p. ^^(i ^ro. 



Iftp. ««, 
2d p. jTOfh', 
8d p. yk (&c), 



I was; 



thou wast; 
he was; 



eravamo (^ra- 
[mo),t 
erovcU^f 
6rcmo, r 



we were; 

you were ; 
they were. 



3.-- Perfect 



thou wast ; 
he was; 



\fummo, Iwe were ; 

ifiste, you were ; 

[furano (lunno, they were. 

[furDO» furo, fur,| 
I [orforo). 



4. — Future, 



1st p. sard ((la), 

2d p. soroi, 
Sd p. $ard (fia, 
[fie), 



I sh^l or will be ;' 

thou wilt be ; | 
he will be ; 



aarite, 

saranno (fiano, 

[fteno). 



we shall or will 
[be; 
you win be ; 
they will be. 



• Th«M fomu are cht^UU, 
t Old writ«n bavia oted 
iahii Flte. 



irawu «T«n ia proae, aad Alfieri has ftOowtd Umit 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



175 



Singiiltr. 



Ist p. io $6no 

[st6to,m.f 
8tdta, f., 
ad p. 96i stdtOf 
[-a, 
8d p. ^ stato, -Of 



Fhifal. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

5. — Second Perfect, 
I have been ; 



thou bast been ; 

he or she has 
[been ; 



siajno stdti, m. 
Istdte^t 

sUte stdtif -e, 

6glino sono ti&ti, 
[or iUeno states 



we have been ; 

you have been; 
they have been. 



6. — Pluperfect, 



1st p. io 6ra $td-\l had been ; 
[/o, -a,| 



I erav6most6ti,'e,]we had been. 



7. — Second Pluperfect. 
1st p. fid 9tdto,]l had been ; liyummo atdti, -e, Iwe had been. 

8. — Future •interior, 

Ijtp. sardstdiOjll shall or m\\\\8arimo st^^i, -eJwe shall or will 
[-0,1 [have been; li ) [have been. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



1st p. iosUlf 
2d p. Cu sta or 
8d p. 6gU sui, 



1st p. io fiasi 

[(jussl)/ 
M p. tujoiii, 
8d p. f6$$e, 



that I be, orl 
[may be j 
that thou be ; 

that he be ; 



SIMPLE TENSES. 

1. — Present. 
sidmOf 



aidtCy 

nano or sieno. 



if I were ; or 
[should be; 
if thou wert ; 
if he were ; 



2. — Imperfect, 
f^siimo, 



fi$ie, 

fSssero Cfossino), 



(hat we be ; 
that you be ; 
that they be. 

if we were ; 

if you were; 
if they were. 



♦ This form, u wall uf\uM, and fimtto OMd by Villaoi, BfaduaveUi, Goicdar- 
diai, evsa ia proM, bas becom* obf^UU. 



176 



ANALOGY. 



Siafskr. 



Ptanl. 



COMPOORD TX1C8KS. 



a — Pop/cd. 

1st p. itf «ta «/a-jthat I have been,:' sidmo statij -e, .that we have 
[to, -a, [or may have [bee n. 

I [been ; < 

4. — PluperfecL 

1st p. to fSssi {if I had been ; \\f5ssimo $tdtif -eJtf we had been. 
[staio, -a,\ " 

IV. CONDITIONAL, 



SIMPLE TKNSS. 

1. — Present. 

Ist p. $ar6i (<a-|I fhoald, would, | sarimmo. 
[riot, f6ra),| [or could be; 
[or might be ; 
thou wouldst be ; 
he would be ; 



2d p. iar^sti, 
3d p. tar6bbe 
[(sariaj fora), 



sar^ste, 

8ar6bbero (sari- 
[ano or saneno, 
[forano), 



we should or 
[would be. 

you would be ; 
they would be. 



COMFOUI^D TENSE. 

2. — Past. 



Iflt p. 8ar:'i sta- 
[to, -a, 



I should, would, 
[or could -have, 
[been; or might 
[have been ; | 



sarSmmo 






we should, 
[would, or couM 
[have been. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



1st p f 

2d p. «ia or siilbe thou ; 

9d p. fia Sglif I let him be ; 



siamo nSi^ 
sidle v6i, 
siano or sieno 
[igUno, 



let us be ; 

be ye; 

let them be. 



REGULAR VERBS. 177 



REGULAR VERBS. 

f^ariaHon of Active Verbs. 

Active verbs, in the compound tenses, are varied with 
the auxiliary verb av^re, '^ to have.' 

PJRST CONJUGATION?. 

Variation of the Verb Amare. 
(Paradigm of the verbs ending in are.) 



jSm-arc 



I. INFINITIVE. 


Simple Tenaei. 


Componod Tenset. 


1. — Present. 


2. — Past. 


to love. 


avire amdto, to have loved. 


3, — Future, 


T.t!^j1!.r'Z'L I to have to love, or 
. t7:eZ:r7r S tobeabouttolove. 


GERUND. 


4. — Present 5.-— Past, 


loviDg. avendo am&to^ having loved. 


PARTICIPLB. 


e. — Present. 


7. — Past. 



am-&ndo, 



rnn-^aUCfB.f am- ^i^yij,- am-dto, m. s., 

■ ' !», p.* 5 »• 



l-dnH, 



,J^-f'> Sieved. 
[am-dte, p. ;* 3 



• TtM prtmUpartieMe of aetivt verb§, like that ofov^, agr^ttwiih the tmbjeetot 
tke propoeition in gnuter and numbtr. The pott ptaHeifle agr—^ ■omeUmei, with 
the o^feci in gmider utd nimhw. 



178 



ANALOGY. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



Singular. 



Istp. 6m'0, \1 love, or do; 
[love, or tm 
[loTing; 

2d p. dm-i, thou lovest ; 

3d p. am-a, he loves ; 



SIMPLE TKirSKS. 

1. — Preseni. 

am^idmOf 



dm-anOf 



PlunL 



we love; 



yoa love ; 
they love. 



Ifltp. 



2d p. 
3d p. 



ioam'<am,H loved, or did 
I [love, or wa?| 
[loving ; 
arn'Ovif jthou lovedst; 
6gU am-, he loved; 



2. — bnptiftd, 

am-avamo, 



am-avatt^ 
atn-^xeanOf 



we loved ; 



'you loved ; 
they loved ; 



1st p. am'oit 



2d p. 
Sd p. 






3, — Perfect, 
I loved, or d\6]\am-6mmo. 



thou lovedst ; 
he loved ; 



[love;] 



am-date, 
am-drono (am- 
[-aro or arnrdr). 



we loved; 

you loved ; 
they loved. 



Istp. am-erdj* 



2d p. 
8d p. 



atn-erdiy 
am^erdf 



4.-- Future. 

I shall or wi\\]\ am-er^mo, 

[love J 
thou 4;vilt love ; ! am-erite, 
he will love ', M am-erannOf 



we shall or will 
[love J 
you wOl love ; 
they win love ; 



* The rerbi of this eonjagatioa in thtfkture and the eonditiomdl. chaoge the « of 
their terminatiooa for «, and make om-erd, Btc] owh-erH, Itc; ioitead ut am Mri, IbCj 
Qm-mriif.9tc 



REGULA& VfiRBS. 



179 



fiingQlar. 



Plural. 



COMPOUND TEWSES. 



5. — Second Perfect. 



1ft p. ho^am6to, 
2d p. Jtdi amatOf 
8d p. Aa amdtOf 



I have loved ; 
thou hast loved ; 
he, she, or it has 
[loved 5 



I abbiamo amdto, 
' avSte amdto, 
I h6nno amato^ 



we have loved ; 
you have loved ; 
they have loved. 



6.- 
1ft p. lo ao^vall had loved ; 



• Pluperfect. 

\\aoevdmo cundto, I we had loved. 



7. — Second PluperfecL 
Ist p, ebbi amdto, | I had loved. 

8. — Future Anterior. 
1st p. avrd am6to, \ I shall or will have loved. 

III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



1st p. io dm-i 

2d p. ^ am-i, 
3d p. igli dm-i 
[(am-c), 



SIMPLE TEN8E8« 

1. — Present, 

am-idmOf 



that I love, .or\ 
[may love ; 
that thou lovest ; 
that he loves ; 



am-idte, 
dm-inOf 



2. — Imperfect. 



Istp. ioom-fSfft, 

M p. tu am-dssi, 
5d p. am-d88e. 



if I Ioved» or 
[should love; 
if thou lovedst ; 
if he loved ; 



am-d$8imOy 

am-dste, 
am-dfiero (am' 
[-assino), 

COMPOUl^D TEIfSES. 

3. — Per/cc/. 



that we love ; 

that you love ; 
that they love. 



if we loved ; 

if you loved ; 
if they loved. 



1st p. to dbbia amdio, 



that I have loved, ot 
[may have loved ; 



180 



ANALOGY. 



4. — Pluperfect 
1st p. io ap^sii amdtOf | if I had lo^ed. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 



Singular. 



Ist p. am-erH 
[(am-eria), 

2d p. am-erSsti, 

Sd p. am-erebbe 
l{am'eria)j 



SIMPLE TEN8K. 

1. — PresenL 

tun'eTemmOf 



I should, would, 

[or could love, 
or might love ; 
thou wouldst 
[love ; 
he would love ; 



Plural. 



we should, would 
lor could love ; 



am-erhte, • 

am-eribberoiam' 

t'trianoy am- 
•erieoo), 



you would love ; 
they would love. 



Ist p. avr€i amdto, 



[compound tense. 
^ — Past. 



I should, would, or could have 
Poved ; or might have loved. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



1st p I 

2d p. dm-a'tUf love thou ; 
3d p. dm-i e>ili, | et him love ; 



am<dtno n6i, 
am die v6i, 
dm-ino 6glino, 



let us love ; 

love ye ; 

let them love. 



Besides the foregoing changes of termination, there 
are some verbs of the first conjugation, which undergo 
in some persons and tenses a change of orthography : 
Thus, verbs ending in care, gare, in order to preserve 
the hard sound of c,^, in all their inflections, take an 
h after those consonants whenever they are followed by 
e, « ; as, cercare, * to search ' ; pregare^ * to entreat.' 



REGULAR VERBS. 



181 



Vanaiion of the Verb Ccrcitf c. 
(Paradigm of the verbs ending in ckre^ 

U. UTDICATITS. 

ffiofiibr. 



lit p. e^e-o. 



2d p. eh'ea-if 
Sd p. UrC'O^ 



I search, or do 

[search, or am 
searching; 
dum searcMft ; 
•he searches; I 









1st p. eereH-€rd, 



2d p. cerea-erSif 
id p. e«rcH-srd, 



4 — fVihire. 

I shall or will eerea.'erhno^ 
[search; 



thoa wilt search ; 
he will search; 



eercH-erite, 
ctrcH'CrSrmOf 



we search; 



yon search; 
Uiey search. 



we shaU or wiD 

[search; 

yon will search ; 

they will search. 



UI. GONJUNCTITS. 
l.'-PresenL 



1st p. (0 e^£H-tithat I search, or 



[(c^rcH-e), 
2d p. tu e^rcH-i 

3d p. 6gK dren-i 
[(c6rcB-e)y 



[may search ; 
that thoa search ; 

that he search; 



esrcH-t^imo, 
cercH,'46Jtej 
eercK'inOf 



diat we seardi; 
that you search; 
that they search. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 
h — Prtseni. 



1st p. eereH-^rii 
[(cercH-eria), 

2d p. cercM'er^- 

[*«, 

2d p. eerca'CrSh- 

[6e(c«rcH-«Ha), 



I should, would, 
[or could 

[search ; or 
might search ; 
thou wouldst 

Jsterch; 
search; 



eetcn-ttimifno^ 



eereu'eriite, 

eereU'erMero 

[{eereu-erictnot 
cercH-erieno), 



we should, would, 
[or could search ; 



you would search ; 
they would search. 



16 



189 



ANALOGY. 



y. nfPERATtVX. 



PlinL 



1ft p 

9d p. e^e-a tu, 
Sd p. thcB-i 



•etrch thoa; 
let him, her» or it 
[search; 






letiueeaidi; 

search ye; 

let them search. 



Variaiion of the Verb Pregkre. 
(Paradigm of the verbs ending in gare.^ 



II. INDICATIVE. 



Itt pt pf6g'Cf 



2d p. prim-iy 
8d p. pTig-Qf 



1 entreat, or do 

[entreat, or am 
entreating ; 
thou entreatest ; 
he entreats ; 



1. — Pruent 

pregB-i&mOf 



pr^g^Cy 
pr^'Ono, 



we entreat; 



yon entreat ; 
they entreat 



1st p. prtgvi'Crd, 

2d p. pregn-erdiy 
8d p. pregU'CriLf 



I shall or will en< 
[treat; 
thoa wilt entreat; 
he will entreat ; 



A.'-'Fuiwre. 

pregB-erhnoy 



pregn-erStCf 
pregR'tr&Mio , 



we shall or wiU 
[entreat; 
you win entreat ; 
they win entreat. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1,'— Present 



1st p. U pregn-i 

[(pftgH-e), 

2d p. (u pregU'i 

8d p. SghpregU'i 

[(prlgH-e), 



that I entreat, or 
[may entreat ; 
that thou entreat; 
that he entreat 



pregH^i&nOf 

pregB'idte, 
prign-inoy 



that we entreat ; 

that you entreat; 
that th4y entreat 



REGULAR YERSa 



183 



Siafokr. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 



1. — Present 



Phnal. 



Ill p. pregm-erSi 
[(piegH-«r£a), 



2d p. pregH-ere 

3d p.mrega'erib' 

(he (pregH- 
-eria). 



I fhould, would, 



:? 



'or could en- 
treat ; or might 
Jentreat ; 
tfion wouldst en- 

S treat; 
en 
[treat 



pregM'ernunOf 



pregB-erisie, 

pregfi'er6bhero 
UpregB-eriofio, 
[pregH-erieno), 



weshould.woold, 

iar could en* 
treat; 

yon would en- 
[treat; 

they would en- 
[treat. 



y. IMPEBATIVS. 



l«t p 

2d p. preg-a tu, 
8dp. Pf^-t 



entreat thou; 
let him, her, or it 
[entreat; 



pregu-iAmo nSif 
preg-diev&i, 
prQ^-ino igU- 



let us entreat; 
entreat ye; 
let them entreat 



Verbs ending in ciitrej gxare, drop the «, which foHows 
c, gi whenever ci, gij precede e, » ; as, haciare<i * to 
kiss ' ; fr^iare^ * to adorn.' 

Variaiion of the Verb Baciiore. 

(Paradigm of the verbs ending in dhrt.) 

II. INDICATIVE. 



Ift p. h&Cl-Ci 

9d p. frdc-i, 
8d p. h&Qi»a 



'L'-Pre$enJL 



I Um or do Use, 

[tff amUasing; 

tbbukisseat; 

he" 



frac-fim0| 
bdoi-ano^ 



weklia; 

youUM; 
th^UM. 



I8ft 



ANALOGY. 



Sinraltf* 



PlonL 



4u — Future. 



Istp. bac-erdf 

2d p. hac-er&f 
3d p. &ac*erd| 



I thall. or win 

thou wilt kiss ; 
bewiUkiss; 



bac-er^e^ 
bac-erdnno^ 



we diall, Of will 

yoa win kiss ; 
tbeywfflUss. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — Present 



IM p. io hdoi 
[(b&c-e) 
2d p Hi frdc-s 
Jde. %l» (<io-t 



that I kiis, or 

[may kiss; 

that thou kiss; 

tiiathekiss; 



bac'^6m0f 

&ac-fa<Sy 
bdc-inOf 



that we kiss; 

that you kiss; 
thattheyl' 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1*'^ Present 



Istp. hac'«ni 
[(bac-erfa), 

2d p. dao*€r^stt, 



3d p. bac-er^^e he 
Ubacefia), 



I should, would,! 

[or could kiss; 

[or might kiss;' 

thoo wouldst 

[kiss; 

would kiss; 



bac'trimmot 



bac-erhUf 

bac-eHibero 
[(bac-erianOf 
[bao-erieiio)| 



we should, wouI4» 
[or co«dd kte; 

yon would kiss ; 

they would Un. 



V. IMFERATIVE. 



i>,[kiss' 
K, lletl 



Istp.. . 

2d p. b&ci-a tUf hdss thou ; 

3d p. bdc4 igKf |let him kiss ; 



\baC'%dmon6it 
Ibaci-aU v6i^ 
\bac4no ^gbn^ 



let us kfai ; 
kiss ye; 
let them UsB. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



185 



Fariaiion of the Verb Fregiare* 
(Paradigm of the verbs ending m gi&re.) 



lU INDICATITE. 



Phm]. 



'Ptcstnt* 



1ft p.>9^lGI-0, 

2d p.yWo-i, 
8d ^.Jr^Qi-Of 



2d p./reO'CrSi, 
8dp.y9-eo-erdy 



I adorn, do adorn, 
[or am adomiog; 
thoa adomest ; 
he adorns; 



freo'idmo, ' 
freoi-dte. 



4u'^Ihaure. 



I shall or will 
[adorn; 
thoa wilt adorn ; 
he will adorn ; 



freG-erimo, 

Jreo-eritef 
fieo'erdnno. 



we adorn; 

yon adorn; ^ 
they adorn. 



we Shan or will 
[adorn; 
yon will ailom ; 
they will adorn. 



111. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — PreseiU, 



1st p. io frSo-i 

[(fr^o-e), 
2d p. tufrio^, 
3d p. igli fi^Q-i 



that I adorn, or\ 
[may adorn ; 
that thou adorn ; 
that he adom ; 



fieo'idmOf 
fi^Q'ino, 



that we adorn.; 

that you adom ; 
that they adom. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 
1. — Present. 



ItXp. frtO'erH 
[(freo-eria). 



I should, would, 
[or could adom ; 



2d p.y^cG-«J^s<i, 

I. fteO'erihbi 
[{freQ-etU 



bou wouldst a< 
[dorn ; 
3d p. freO'erihbt^e would adom 



for might adom; 
th( 



freo'erimmCf 
freo-er^ite. 



freo'eribbero, 

Kfreo-erianOi 
reo-erieno), 

16» 



we should, would, 
[or could adom ; 

you would adom ; 

they would adom. 



186 



ANALOGY. 



CUitfiilir* 



PlanL 



▼. IMPKRATIYS. 



1ft p I 

2d p.>S^oi-a fuJadora thou ; 
3d p.frio^ 6gU,\Ut him adom; 



firtQ'ldmo nSi, 
freoi'dte o6t, 



l«t us adorn; 
adom ye; 
let them adom. 



Verbs ending in tare, in which ia form one syllable, 
drop the % whenever it is followed bj another « ; as, 

jyoi&rej *to annoy.' 

(Paradigm of the verbs ending in tare.) 



ift p. ndi'O, 

2dp. n6-t, 
Sd p. nSi-a, 



II. INDICATIVC. 
1. — PresenL 



I annoy, do an 

fnoy, or am 
annoyhigj 
thou annoyest ; 
he annoys ; 



not'dt€f 
n6i»anOf 



we annoy ; 



jrou annoy; 
they annoy. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



Istp. io nS'i 

[(n6i-e), 
2d p. Hi no-i, 
8d p. 6gU n6-» 
[(n6i-e), 



that I annoy or 

[may annoy ; 

that thou annoy ; 

that he annoy ; | 



1.-^ Present. 

nO'idmQ, 



no'tdief 
nS'inOf 



that we annoy ; 

that you annoy; 
that they annoy. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Istp I llno'ldmo, 

2d p. n6i-a tUf vumoy thou ; || noi-dte, 
9d^.n6-i6glh Pet hun annoy ; \\iUhinOf ' 



let us annoy ; 

jannoy ye ; 

let them annoy. 



REGtTLAft VERBS. 



187 



Verbs ending in tare, in which ia form two syllables, 
drop the t, only when it would be followed by the vowels 
ia; as, 

Infii&rej * to send.' 

II. INDICATITS. 



Siognkr. 



2d p. mvi'i, 
M p. invi-a, 



1. — Present. 



I send, do Bend Jl in»-%dmOf 

'or am sending ; 

ioa sendest ; inn-lite^ 
he sends ; || irwi-ano. 



Planl. 



we send; 

you send ; 
they send. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



The verbs of this conjugation are c6mmonly divided 
into two classes, those ending in ere (long)y and those 
ending in ere (short) : both of these in the perfect have 
two terminations, ei and 6tti ; except a few which have 
the termination ei only. 

Variation of the Verb Tem^re. 

(Paradigm of the verbs ending in ere (long) ; and of 
those which in the perfect end in e» and 6tti.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 



fiimpte TsDsei. 

1. — Present. 
Tem^rSf |to fear. 



Compound T«nfM. 

iL-^Past. 
D av6rs iemCtto^ |to have feared. 



186 



ANALOGY. 



a^JWifre. 



mo6re a temSre^ 
i—ereper 
dao6re temirCi 



?^[V ) to htTe to fetr, or 
l^f^ C to be about to fear. 



ex&uirD. 



4.— Prefent 5.— Poji. 

|feacing; iaoindo teaniiOf jhaTing terad. 



PA&TICIFLX. 



i€m-4nH, p.. 



jfearing; 



tem^utOf m. ■., 



7.-^PasL 

fearocL 



6to,p., ) 



11. INDICAT17E. 



Bingabr. 



8IMFLS TEASES. 



1.— Prejent 



PhmL 



Istp. <^m-o. 



2d p. tim-u 
8d p. Hm-^, 



I fear, or do 
[fear, <ir am 
[fearing; 

thou feareat; 

he fears; 



tem-idmo (tern- 
[•emo), 

tem^te, 
tim-ono. 



we fear; 



you fear ; 
they fear. 



^-^ItHperftd. 



1st p. So tem-iwAl feared, or did 



[or iem-iat 

2d p. tetn-My 

8d p. 6gU tern- 

[•coa or tem-ia. 



[fear, or was 

[fearing; 
thou fearedst; 
he feared; 



tem-evdmOf 



tem-^vdte, 
tem-ivano or 
[tem-iano, 
[(tem-ieno). 



we feared; 



you feared ; 
they feared. 



EEGULAR VBRBa 



189 



PImL 



1st p. ien^±i or 

f(0m-^TTIy 
(tem-^O, 
2d p. tem-esHy 
dd p. tom-i or 
[tom-^TTE 
[(tem-^)i 



I feared, or did 
[fear; 

thou fearedst ; 
hefiMured; 



tctn^cmtnOf 



tem-tfiono or 

ftem-iTTBRO 
(tam-^roytem-^r) 



we feared; 



yoo feared ; 
they feared. 



lat p. fem-erd, [I ihall dr wOU 
[fear; 



2d p. tem^erdi, 
8d p. ien^eriy 



4. — Future. 

t^tn^trirnOy 



thou wilt fear ; 
he will fear; 



tem'^ritef 
tem-^rdnnoy 



we shall or will 
[fear; 
you will fear ; 
Ithey win fear. 



COMPOUin) TENSES. 



5. — Second PafeeL 
1st p. ho Um&toji I have feared ; || oMndmo iemCstoJiwo hare feared. 

6. — PUqfeifect, 
1st p. io aoiva UndUo^ | t had feared, 

7. — SsconJ P2tfper/^ 
1st p. 6Un iendUo, | I had feared. 

Q.^- ISOure ^Mericr. 
IsC p. amrd temdtOf \ I shall or will have feared. 

UI. OONJUNCTiyS. 





8IHPX.E 


TENSES. 




L— iV«teiU. 




1st p. (<» <^fll-fl, 

9dp,tu tim-a or 

[fifmn, 

tdp-^K^m-o, 


that I fear, or] 
[may fear; 
that thou fear; 

that he fear; 


tem-4dmOf 
tem-idtet 


that we fear ; 
that you fear; 
that they feaiw 



190 



ANALOGY. 



BufOMf* 



Hbml 



fl^hqperfecL 



Utp.iotem-iMnili I feved* or 
[should fear ; 
tdp,iu tem-4$sit if thou fearedst ; 
8d p. tem-4$se, if he feared ; 



ttm-4$nm0f 

tem^i$iero (tern- 
[-^saino}] 



ifwe£Bared> 

if you feared; 
if they feaied. 



COMPOnRD Tsnsss. 



a — Pa/ed. 



l8t p. i0id66ia /emwtoJthat I have feared^or 
I [may hare feared. 

4— Pitipej/erf. 
lat p. iff aoi$$i temuto, \ if I had feared. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 
8IMPI.E TKH8B. 

l.—Prt9enL 



1ft p. iem-erH 
[(tem-eria), 



I Aouldy would, 

[or could fear ; 

[or mi^t fear ; 

thou wouldst 

[fear; 

8d p. tem-^rihbehe would fear; 



2d p* t€tn>'€r6ttif 
[(tcn^-eria). 



t€m-^r6tHM0f 



tttH'Crihhtro 
[(tem-erianoj 
[tem*erieQo), 



we ifaoald. wookU 
[or coiudfear; 

you would fear; 

they weold fear. 



COKPOUIO) T£H8E. 

3. — Poji. 

Ist p. aor6i iem&tOy 1 1 should, would* or could havia 
[feared 5 or o^|;fat haTe feared. 



y. UffPERATiyE. 



Iflt p I 

fld p. Um-i (M tfear thou ; 
td p. t4m^6gU, |let him fear; 



tem-idmoi^ 
tem-ite t^ 



iletoafear; 



tearve; 
Um-ano igUno^ jlet them fear. 



REGULAR VERBS. 191 

Variation of the Verb Tessere, 

(Paradigm of the verbs ending in ere (short) ; and of 
Uiose which in the perfect end m ei onlj.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 

Bimpte TmiMi. Compound Toimm, t^t ^ 

1. — Prewtrf. 2. — Pa»<. 

TigB-^rCf |to weave. || ai>6re itttido^ |to have woren. 

S^Ii?/«^'&* ? to have to weave, or 

eiRUND. 

4. — Prweitf. 5.— Pa#<. 

<eM-^fkIo, Iweaving. g cmindo te$9iiUo, jhavhig woven. 

PARTICIPLE. 

6. ^Present. 7.-^ Past. 

1 1 lte$$-utef p., ) 



II. INDICATIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



SisgoUr. Plonl. 

1. — Present, 



Ut p. UsS'Oi ll weave, or doi 
I [weave, or am 
I [weaviDg; | 



tess-idmo ^tess-iwe weave, 
[-emo), 



190 ANALOGY. 

Uif.io tui-^va or tes§^ 1 1 woye, or did wetTe, &r 

[WW weaving. 



3, — P«/«d. 



Istp. tew-iiy 



8dp. teM-^s<f, 
Sd p. <Mf-i(l6w-|he wore ; 
Ho), 



I wore, or did 
[weave ; 
thoa wovest ; 



te99-4mmo, we wove ; 

teu-iMU, you wove; 

feM-iBoiro(to0»- thej wove. 

[^fO)J 



4.^fVi<ttre. 
Ist p. te$9'^rd, 1 1 shall or win weave. 

COMPOUlfD TBlfSES. 
5. — iScCOfM^ P«r/^. 

Ist p. ho teuiUo^ 1 1 have woren. 

6.— PZt9>e3/ect 
1st p. {• wsina te$$(ttOf 1 1 had woven. 
7. — iSSBCOtuf Ph^perfett 
1st p. ^56t toM^o, 1 1 had woven. 

8. — Fidwrt Alienor. 
1st p. word tesntto, \ I shall or win have woroi. 

m. CONJUHCTITK. 
BIMPLX TEirSE. 

I. — Present 
1st p. io UsB-Oy I that I weaTO, or may weave. 

1st p. io iei$^$$i^ I if I wove, or should weave. 

COMFOUITD TEirSES. 

B.-'Pafed. 
1st p. 4a aWia (eat^, | if i wove, or should weave. 



REGtTLAR VERBS. 193 

4. — Plvper/kct. 
Ift p. io ao6M$i testdOOf ( if I had woven. 

IT. CCmOITlOKAL. 

8IMF£X TXKSE. 

1 — Preseni. 

1ft p. i€$s-er6i (teu-^xU), 1 1 ^ould, would, or could weave ; 
I [or might weaye. 

COMPOUIID TEirSE. 

Itt p. amrii U$$(UCf J I Bhould, would, or emAd have 

1 [woven ; or might have woven. 

y. IMPERATIVE. 

l»tp I 

2d p. U$9-i In, I weave thou. 

I^wtlhtor Yertiiof tli«Seeoikd OoDJngation, thtt in the pmf^ end in ^, <>r 
ini<uidtfttt,M«AmifDix,F.] . 



Verbs endtng in cere (long)^ in order to preserve the 
<oft sound of cJn all their inflections, take an % after 
^at consonant, whenever it is followed by a, o, it ; as, 

Tacere, * to be silent.' 

(Paradigm of verbs ending in cere (long)*.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 
PARTICIPLE. 

7, — PflJ*. 

Uui^ODt m. 8,, taci-{Ui, p., 7 ^^^^ ^. ^. 
teCT W, f. 8.. iaci-{U€, p., 5 ^° '"^"^ 

ikI*?^*^ ▼•riM m ■objeet, alM, to mbm irfnimritim, which wiU bo notioed i 

17 



194 



ANALOGY. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



PhinL 



lftp.f^-o*(t£e- 
[ci-o), 

8dp.<tfe-«, 



Ifltp. ^ <a£i-« 

[(tltcci-a), 

2d p. fu toci-a 

[or <ci6-t (t4cci> 

8d p. isU tde: 
[(tacci-a), 



lamdleot; 

tbou aifalent; 
he is iQent ; 



taa-ono (t4cci 
[.ono), 



we are aOoit; 

yooare rilent; 
they a 



UI. CONJUNCTITE. 
1.— Preteitf. 

thatlbesnentyorj tae-iiimo, 

[may he silent ;. 
that thou be «•; iac-lSie, 
[lent;' 



that he be silent ; , tSei-4tno (t4cci- 
V. IMPEKATITE. 



that we he silent; 

tiiat yon he si- 
Pent; 

that they he si- 
[lent. 



Istp. . ; . . 
9dp,t6e-i ft«, 
8d p. idct'O (tac 
[ci-a) 6gUi 



be thoQ rilent ; 
let him be silent; 



tae-i^Mo ndif let ns be stlent ; 
Utt'He v&i, be ye silent ; 

tdei'^no rticci-let them be m- 
[-ano) egHnoy [lent 



Verbs ending in Ore ($hort) take an i after c, in the past pmrtie^ 
only ; as, I. p6se-ere, * to feed • ; 7. — pa$ci'UU>, m. B,fpa$ci-uiiy p. ; 
pa$ei'4Ua, f. s. ; pOMCi-vUf p., * fed.' 



Verbs ending in tere drop the t, whenever it is fol- 
lowed by another % ; as^ 

EmpierBj * to fill.' 

(Paradigm of the verbs ending in itre.) 



1st p. impi-o^ 



II. INDICATIVE. 

J.— PrMent 

|1 fin, or do fill, or\\emp'%6mo (emp-Iwe fill ; 
I [am filling;" [-i^mo),| 



* 7\ida, profiooDc« both tho RomaiM and FkrentioM, followiag the ot^bomnaks 
•f the bMt proM writan (and not CdccM, ai poet* have, •omatimes. been ob^etf to 
Mj), to ilMfingnbh this ftom fAccio, a fom or tho Toib <ecci4r<, * to Uaaio.* 



REGULAR VERBS. 



195 



Singular. 

2d p. 6mp-if Ithoa fillest; 
Sd p. impi-e, the fillsi 



PliinL 



Sn^i-ono, 



lyoo fill ; 
they fill. 



1ft p. U hnpi-a 
C(^mpi-e), 

zap. tu empi^ 
[or hnp'i, 

3d p. iiti impi'U 
[(^mpi-e), 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — Prweni. 

emp-iate. 



that I fill, or 

[may fill ; 

that thou fill ; | 



that he fill; 



impi-ano, 



that we fin ; 
that you fill ; 
that they fill. 



y. IMPERATIVE. 



latp. . . . 
2d p. Smp-i tu, 
Sd p. hnpi-a 



fiU thou; 
let him fill ; 



emp'tatnOf 

empi-ite, 

hnpi-ano, 



let us fill ; 

fill ye; 

let ^^m fin. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



Tbe verbs of th is coDJugation are divided into three 
classes, those which, in the present of the indicaiivej 
end in o ; those which end in isco ; and those which 
have both of these terminations. 

Variation of the Verb Sentire. 

(Paradigm of the verbs of the third conjugation which, 
in thejpre^en^^of the indicative^ end in o only.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 



Simple Tentat. 
1. — PresenL 
9€iu4re^ |to hear. 



SL'-Patt. 
II aoSre sen^y tto have heard. 



MP 



ANALOGY, 
a— IWure. 



dovSre\eniire, ' $ to be about to bev. 



4u^Pn$ent. 
9efU4mdo^ (hearing. 

& — JfVewnt 



H a»ini0 #e»lito, fhKTteg baud. 



PAATICIPI.I. 



•eiU-tto, m. a., 

[aeiU-Iti, 
fefi/-lto,f. 



7. — P«i«. 
hettd. 



n.a., ) 



Biafolar. 
lit p. a^fi<-0; 



U^9iM^, 



Sd^.f^x, Rehears; 



U. INDICATIYX. 
S1MPI.X TXirSBS. 

1. — P^-eMftl. 

teiif i'A»0| 



I bear, or do 
fhear, or am 
[hearing; 

thouheafeat; 






PkuaL 

we bear ^ 



yoabaar 

Uhey' 



1ft p. %o MiU-lva I heard, or did 
[hear, or was 
[hearing; 

tboahearaat; 

be heard; 



[or aenHa, 
9d p. aent^, 



8dp. iffli 99nt' 
(•MorMol^ 



•JL ^^ JHtptTfBCt* 



weheaid; 



a«ti<-(mm0 or 
[temi-itmo 
[(aent.ieno)J 



yoaheaid; 
diey beard. 



1st p. Mll<-i>, 

2d p. sentAfH, 
3d p. Mll^i(8ent• 
t-io)J 



I heard, or did 
[hear; 
thouheaidBt; 
he heard; 



a — Per/ed. 
seiU- 



$eni-irono (aent- 
[-(ro, aen^tir). 



we heard; 

you heard; 
they beard. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



im 



BiBfiihr. 



1st p. $ent'irdf 

2d p. $ent4rdif 
Bd p. $eril-ird. 



I shaU or wUll 
[hear ; 
thou wilt hear ; 
he will hear; 



Future. 



PhvaL 



sent-irSUf 
$efU''irdnnOf 



we win hear ; 

you will hear ; 
they win hear. 



COMPOUND TEirSEfl. 

5. — Second Perfect. 
IsC p. Ao $efUkOf 1 1 have heard. 

6. — PluperfecL 
l«t p. io aviva sentUo, \ I had heard. 

7. —Second Pluperfect. 
Ist p. 6bln sentUo, | I had heard. 

^ 8. — Future Anterior. 
let p. anrd eenAto^ \ I shaU or wUl have heard. 



let p. io Unt'Aj 

8d p. fu UnUA. 

[or $6nt'if 

3d p. igUsint-Af 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
SIMPLE TEIfSES. 

1. -^ Present. 

$ent-idm0, 

ient-i&tCy 

sint'Avo, 



that I hear, or 
[may hear ; 
that tiiou near ; 

that he hear ; I 



2d p. ftf tent-Usif 
Sd p. $ent'U$e, 



2. — Imperfect, 



if I heard, or 
[should hear; 
if thou heardst ; 
if he heard ; 



aent-Unmo, 



that we hear; 
that you hear ; 
that they hear. 



sent'UUf 
$ent'U$ero (sent 
[-issiDo), 



if we heard ; 

if you heard; 
if they heard. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

a — Pcr/erf. 
1st p. So dbltia ieniUo, I that I have heard, or 



[may have heard. 



m 



ANALOGY. 



4. — PUtptrftti, 
1ft p. \o a96$$i MfHito, | if I had bevd. 



IT. CONPITICmAL. 



Bfngiilur* 



8IMPLK TSH8K. 



l.^Pn§uU. 



l8t p. serU-irii I shovld, woidd, 

[(sent-iria), {or could hear ; 

[or might hear > 

2d p. Bent-ir^Mtif ^oa wouldst 

(hjMirj 

8d p. seni'irGtbe he would hear ; 

[(«en^tfib), 



$ent'irimm0. 



ient'iriate, 

sent'iribbero 
i(9ent^iriano)f 



[or could] 
you would hear ; 
they wmdd ha«r. 



COBfPOUlTD TEN8B. 

2. — Past, 



l8t p. aorii aenitto, 



I ahouldy would, or could liATe 
[heard ; or might hare heard. 



y. IMPERATIVE. 



I8t p. . . . I . 

2d p. sent-i iu^ hes 
3dp.«^fU.A^^Zi,|let 



jhear thou ; 
him hear; 



sent-idmo ndi. 



let I 



liear ye; 

let tliem hear. 



Variation of the Verb Elsibire. 

f Paradigm of those verbs of the third conjugation, 
which, in the present of the indieativej have the termin- 
ation isco only.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 



Simple ToDMS. 
1. — Present. 
EsUhWe, |to offer. 



a. — Past. 
U avere esibUo, |to bave oflered. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



199 



moire ad eMre^ ) . • ^^^ . -. ^ 



4. — Prtaent 



5. — P«<. 

II oe/fuio eM&U^^ [baying oflered. 



PARTICIPLE. 



6.^PretenL 



7. — Poat 



**!H»^'»:' J offering. 



eanXhiiOf m, s., 
[tf«t5-i^, p., 

enb-tia, f. s., 
[e#t6-i<e, p., 



Singnlar. 



II. INDICATIVE. 
SIHPLB TENSES. 

1. — Present. 



lat p. Mift-Jjco, 



2d p. enfr-fioi, 
8d p. emXhiMcs, 



I offer, or do 
[offer, or am 
[offering ; 

thou ofiecest ; 

he offers ; 



esib»i6mOf 



esib4ie, 
eHthiBcono^ 



PlmL 
we offer 3 



yon offer ; 
they oflbr. 



3. — Imperfect. 



Iflt p. (a t$Qh^»a or eaiMn, i I offered^ or did offer, or 
I [was oflfenng. 

3.^Pft/ed. 
Itt p. etib-U, 1 1 offered, or did offer. 

4. — JV<ure. 
1st p. eft5-tfd, I I shall or will offer. 

COHPOUND TElfSBS. 

5. — &con<f Per/id. 
1st p. ho esihitOf \ I have offered. 



900 



ANALOGY. 



6. — Pluperfid. 
Itt p. io a»i9* etibUof \ I had offered. 

7. -^Second PhipetfttL 
Itt p. €libi esibUo^ \ I had offered. 

8. — Future Jb!derwt\ 
1ft p. ttvrd enbUo, \ I shall or will hkve offered* 

III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
SIMPLE TEN8B8. 



Siofular. 



Plural. 



Itt p. io enb- 

[•fsCA, 

2d p. tu esib- 

f-f f CA, or esib- 

dd p. igh esib- 



that I offer, or 
[may offer ; 
that thou offer ; 



1. — Frewfil. 

esib-idmo, 
etUh-idte, 



that he offer ; 



esib'iscAHO, 



that we offer ; 
that yoa offi»r ; 

that they offer. 



2. — Imperfect, 
1st p. io e$ib-Usif \ if I offered, or should oflbr. 

COMPOUlfD TENSES. 

a— Per/ect. 

Ist p. (o Mia eaibUo, i that fhave offered, or 
I [may have offered. 

^-^PluperfecL 
1st p. io aoS$$i esibitOf | if I had offered. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. ' 



SIMPLE TENSE. 

1.-^ Present 

1st p. €silhir6i (e0ih4rla), i 1 should, would, or could offer ; 
I [or might offer. 



' REGULAR VERBS. 901 

Siagnkr. TinnL 

coMPonin) Txnsx. 

1ft p. atvrH eniUo, 1 1 should, would, or could hxw 

I [offered; or might hive oflfored. 



r. IMPERATIYE. 

IeiUh-idmo, (let us offer; 

etib'Ue, loffer ye ; 

en6-l8CA|ro, |let ^bfim oOTer. 



1st p I II c*wK*wV| net ub dxii 

2d p. esifr-lsciy offer thou ; || etib-Ue, |offer ye ; 

Sd p. taUhUcjLi [let him ofl^ ; 



Variation of the Verb Abborrire. 

^Paradigm of those verbs of the third conjugatiouy 
which, in the present of the indicativey end both in o 
and iico.) 

I. IMFINITIVE. 
flfsBpla TsBSM. Compound Tsdim. 

1.— PrvMfif. 2.^ Pad. 

Marr-kef |to abhor. || aoire dbhorrUo, |to have abhoned. 

a — JWure. 



dov6re abborrire, J to be about to 



abhor, or 
abhor. 



OEEUlfD. 

4. — Prtseni. 6. — P^wl. 

Mcrr4nd0f labhoRiug, ||a«^ndo afrborrito, (having abhoned. 

PAATIGIFUE. 

a — Present. 7. — Pm*. 

a550rr-i/o, ol s.. 



:s:;;tg';;' }«^<'"^- 



a550rr-i/o, ol s., \ 
\ab^iorr''Ui, p., I 

abborr-Uaf f. s., i 
[a&6MT-<le, p., 7 



•bhorrad. 



302 ANALOGY. 

II. INDICATIVE. 
SiDffibr. Ploni. 

8IMPI.E TBN8S8. 

1.— Pretorf. 

I abbofT'iamo, 



Istp.dbbSrT'OfOrf abhor, or dot 

[a&frorr-isco/ [abhor, or am | 
I [abhorring ; 
2d p. aBb6rr-if or thou abhorrest ; [ abborr-itCf 

[oMorr-fsciJ ! 

8d p. oMdrr-SfOrlhe abhon ; oM^-oho, or 

[flMoiT-facXy' '! [oMorr-fscoHo, 

2. — hnperfecL 



we abhor; 

yoaaUior; 
they abhor. 



1ft p. ^ abborr4oa or a&5ofT-ia/ I abhorred, or did abhor, or 
I [wae abhonkg. 

S.-^ Perfect 

lat p. dbboTT'H, 1 1 abhorred, or did abhor. 

4. — IVrftirc 
1st p. mbhorr-irdf 1 1 shall or wiD abhor. 

COMPOUND TElfSKS. 

5. — Second Perfect. 
1st p. Ao dhborrito, 1 1 hare abhorred. 

6.— Pluperfect. 
1st p. io oo^ abborrito, 1 1 had abhorred. 

7. — Second Pluperfect. 
1st p. ^&U oMorri^o, 1 1 had abhorred. 

8. — FuXure Anterior, 
l^p. affr6 abhorrito, 1 1 shaD or wiU haire abhorred. 



Siofiikr. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



III. CONJUNCTIYE. 



SIMPLE TKN8ES. 



iBi p.ioahbSrr- A, ih^i I abhor, or 
[or abborr-iuck, [may abhor ; 
2d ^tuabbdrr-A, that thou abhor ; 

ior abbSfT'i; orj 
abborr 'ischfOT 
obborr»f9CBi, 
3d p. igU abborr- that he abhor } 

i-A, or abborr- 



1. — Present 

abborr-idmOf 
abborr-idte. 



abbSrr'AHOfiT ab- 
[6<NT-fscAiro, 



Phirftl. 



that we abhor ; 
that you abhor ; 

that they abhor. 



2. — hnptrfecL 
1ft p. id ahborr-Usi, I if I abhorred, or should abhor. 

COMPOUICD TBNSSB. 

3. — PerfecL 

lit p. \o abbia ahhorrito^ I that I have abhorred, or 
I [may have abhorred. 

4. — Pluperfect. 
Itt p. io aoesH abborrUo, \ if I had abhorred. 

IT. CONDITIONAL. 



SIMPLE TENSE. 



I. -- Present. 



1ft p. dbborf'irH (abborr-ir(a)J I should, would, or could abhor ; 
I [or might abhor. 



COMPOUND TENSE. 



fl^Past. 



1ft p. aorfi abborritOf 1 1 should, would, or could hare ab- 
[horred ; or mig^t hare abhorred. 



954 



ANALOGY. 



T. ntpnuTiTE* 



F|BCftL 



Iftp. . . . 

2d p. abbdrT'if or 

[abbarr-iaci tu, 

8d p. abb6rT'A/» 

Xabborr-iucA. 



abhor tlMHt; 
let him abhor; 



oftbvrr iaMO 
abborr-Ue v6i. 



n^et 



Of abhor; 
abhor y«; 



oMrr-AirOy or 
[oifrofT-lvcAiro 



let dien abhor. 



[Foraliil<»rY«rfaiorai«TIiM Oo^jafttioo, tbal in Um fmaac 
«od fli •> in l«M, or In • and Um, sm AmxMX, 6. 



•rtba 



Verbs ending in ctre, in order to preserve the soft 
sound of the c in aU their inflections, take an i after that 
consonant, whenever it is foUowed by a, o ; as, 

Ciicirc, * to sew.* 

(Paradigm of the verbs ending in dre.) 

n* INDICATITE. 

1 Preseni' 



1st p. e&ti'Oi 

2d p. ^-t, 
3d p. eiiC't, 



I sew, do few, or\ 
[am tewing ;j 
thoa fewest ; 
he sews; | 



[-uno). 



we sew; 

yoasew; 
they sew. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



1ft p. i^ dMi-Oy khat I few, ct 
[may few ; 
Sdp. fvdicr-tf Cfaatlhoasew; 



S»r e6e-i. 



that he few; 



1. — iVctent 

cueofdmo, 



that we sew; 
nvt yev iew; 
that tibey sefr. 



REGULAR VERBS. 905 



V. IMPERATIYE. 

Sinfokr. PlnraL 



1st p. . . . I II cuc-^Smo nfif 

2d p. euc'i iu, Uew thou ; eucAte v6L 

8d p. euei^a egU)iet him sew ; 11 euei-ano eglifio. 



let us sew ; 

sew ye ; 

let them sew. 



BEHARKS ON THE FOREtSOING VERBS. 

There are some verbs of the third conjugation that 
belong also to the second ; having two terminations in 
the injfinUive, one in ire, the other in ere ; as, 

appfHrtj appitere, to desire ; 

xnghtaUiret inghioUeret . to swallow: 

some, that belong also to the ^r^< conjugation ; having 
the two terminations ire and are ; as^< 

impazzkre^ impatzdre, to grow mad ; 

ineoraggirtf incwaggiirtt to encourage : 

and some others, that belong to all three of the conju- 
gations; as, 

niggkrt^ rUggert^ rugghidre, to roar ; 
oUrtf 6Urtj oUzzdrCy to be fragrant 

These verbs are differently varied, according to the 
conjugation to which- their different terminations re- 
spectively belong. 

The verbs of the second and third conjugationj b 
the Jirsty second, and third persons singular of the 
present of the indicative and conjunctivCj and in the 
neond and third persons singular of the imperative, 
baye constantly the accent on the penultimate syllable ; 
as, timo, timi, time, — tima ; sintOf sinti, sente, •» 
fintOf &c. Of those of the first comugation, some 
bave the accent on the penultimate syllMe ; as, bmo, 
^i ama, — - am* ; and others, on the antepenultimaU ; 

18 



906 ANALOQY. 

aS) wiArmoro (< I murmur '), mdrmorij mdrmora, — mor- 
mori, be. 

[For ralei ibr detOTmioiac wb«m t^ vecbi of the int ooiuvgBtioo, io theji'iit 
x>f tki iulieafive, c«i^im«eiM, and Mip«ratao«, Imto tbo ocentf oo tbe pnultimmi or 
Ute dC^MmittMMto «yII«M«, mo Amirstz, H.] 

Ambirej * to crave,' id the Jirst person plural of the 
present of the indicaiivef conjunctive, and imperative ; 

— and in the second person plural of the pre^enf of the 
cot^unctivcj makes abbi&mo ambizioney — abbiate ambi- 
zi&nej to distinguish these persons from the correspond- 
ing ones of the verb ambiarCj < to amble.' 

Ardire, * to dare,' in the first person plural of the 
present of the indicativCy conjunctive, and imperative ; 

— in the second person plural of the present of the cott' 
junciive, — and in the gerund makes, (Abiamo ardke 
or ardiminto, — abbiate ardtre, &c., — avendo ardire; 
and not ardiamo, — ardiate, — ardendoy which come 
from ardercy * to burn.' 

Bollire, * to boil,' in the first person plural of the 
present of the indicative, conjunctive, and imperative, — 
and in the second person plural of the present of tbe 
conjunctive, changes // into gl, and makes bogUamo, — 
bogViiUe, to distinguish these persons from the corre- 
sponding ones of the verb bollare, * to stamp,' Mo set a 
seal.' 

Gioxre, * to rejoice,' in the first person plural of the 
present of the indicative, conjunctive, and imperative, 

— in the second person plural of the present of the 
conjunctive, — and in the past participle, borrows the 
corresponding forms of the verb goder^ and makes 
godiamo, — godiate, — goduto. 

Smaltire, *.to digest,' in the first person plural of tbe 
present of the indicative, conjunctive, and imperative, — 
and in the second person plural of the present of the 
conjunctive, m^kes proccuri&mo di smaltire, --^ proccuri- 
ate di smaltire ; and not smaltiamOy — smidtiiUe, which 
come from smaltare, < to enamel.' 



REGULAR VERBS. 307 

S^ggercj * to suck,' in the past participle borrows 
that of succMare, and makes succhiaiOj ^ sucked.' 

Many regular verbs, in some tenses, have also an 
irregular formation, which will be noticed in treating of 
Irregular Verbs. 



EXAMPLES. 



igU t il virOf ch* io ho amIto, It is trae, that I have loved, 

etf Xmo Ouiseardo, e. qudnto and do loye Guiscard, and I will 

viverd io V amero ; e $e ap- love him as long as I live ', and if 

frisio la mSrte s* Ima, non nd we love after death, I will not 

rimarrd d* amIbIo, (Bocc. g. 4. cease to love him. 
lul.) 

QiUl che n6i cerchiamo di - That which we endeavour to 

fiig^e. (Bocc. lotrod.) avoid. 

Ch^ n6i non p&eohiamo e6se For we do not ask for vulear 

96zz4^ e non U laseXamo pre- , things, nor let others ask fer 

oiBX. (Albert. 2. 10.) them. 

Bacer^te U pU a JV^stro You will kiss the feet of Our 

SignSre a nSme mid. (Bemb. Lord [the Pope] for me. 
Lett) 

Bontd non i che sda memdria No virtue lends its lustre to his 

mJoi. (Dant. Inf. 8.) memory. 

Ouardate, ehe *l venir au non Take heed that your comhig up- 

vi m6u (Dant Purg. 9.) ward does not harm you. 

Tbm^tte di non doviroi 6$- He feared he should not be re- 

$ere rieevHUo, (Bocc. g. 3. n. 1.) ceived there. 

Ah rdppero le u6va digli They broke the eges of the 

dfpidi, t TESs^RONo U tile d6* asps, and wove spider's webs. 
rSgnoU. (Mot, S. Gregor.) 

^ ^^ggif co8\ le divine e6me The laws, divine as well af 

U wn6net Ticiono. (Bocc. g. 6. human, are silent. 
IL 1.) 



906 



ANALOGY. 



jCmo, eke la sera davdnti ee- 
ndto non 0060^ da fame eowiritta, 
a pdseere V irbe si dUde, e pas- 
ci^A edme poU, jnangindo^ a 
v&tj pensiiri diUa 9ua fidura 
vita M diide, (Bocc. g. 2. d. 6.) 

SoiHin per$6na in di eapUano, 
^•"E di fma UmJLananza empi u 
it^^tto. (Taft. Ger. 11., 66.) 

JSMer non pud, ehe qudP an" 
geUc* dlma, — Jfon siirr^ '/ iu6n 
ddr amor6$e n6te. (Petr. c. 86.) 



She, that (he erenhig 
had oot supped, compelled by 
hunger, began t»feed herself on 
herl^, and alter she had fed b«r- 
self as well as she could, weeping 
abandoned herself ta the TikUMSi 
thoughts of her future life. 

Do thou support the office of 
captain, and supply ttie want of 
my absence. 

It cannot be possible, that that 
angelic soul does not hear the 
sound of tiie amorous notes. 



V&in per tSnto a Qiaaibbe, e 
n ssisfscoRo le eodd^faeiani 
magpdrij ehe dar$i pdsaano a 



vdmtm fireetUri, 
».) 

M lo JvtfKdito etd ehe tide 
▲bb6rrs. (Dant. Par. 26.) 



They go thereibre to Jacob, 
and ofer him the greatest satis- 
faction, which could be giren to 
(Segn. Pred. strangers. 



And tiie vpstartM abhon wint 



he 



Mbarrinte, [eioi] ehe abbor- Abhorring, [that is to say] that 

rIsci. (Cr^sca.) abhors. 

Con tal eura mine, — Che It is with such care, that ditt 

la piaga da Uxzo st Bict^ciA. wound finally heals. 
(Dant Purg. 26.) 

Tu anedra non 961 ben temper Thou hast not yet moderated 

T&to in qrUsta virtU di appktirb thyself in the Tirtue of ' ' ' 

gU ondri. (Casa, lett. 70.) honor. 

La 4neditaxidne le moelrSna, 
ehe SUa dovisee APPiTERB, e dO' 
mandare. (Seal. S. Agost.) 

E non par mica verg6gna, — And it does not seem to be a 

Tra i bieehUri impazur tre shame to get crsfty among i 

tdUe r 6nno> (Red. Ditir. 37.) three times a year. 



MediUtion taught her what 1 
ought to desire and ask. 



La ddnna sentioa si fitto do^ 
l6re, ehe qu&$i n* ha per im- 
FA^ziRX. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 10.) 

E *n etU cor qu^i fkro le6n 
RtS^GOE, — > La n6Ue allSr, quantP 
io posdr dovrii, (Petr. s. 228.) 



The woman was so much af> 
flictedy that she came near being 
crazy. 

And in my heart, Bke a fierce 
lion, it roars in the ni§^t wbeo I 
ought to repose. 



REGULAR VERBS. 200 

Va cdme U6ne, ehe ruooiscb, It goes, like a lion that roan, 
cerc6ndo cm p69$a dworoare, seeking whom he may devour. 
(Cavalc. Med. cuor.) 

Po$ciachhHfu6co alqudnto ibbe After that the fire had roared 
BVOGHiATo. (Daiit. Inf. 27.) awhile. 



EXERCISE XVI. 

\Jj»t the leurodr change the terminationa (trt^^ire^ ire, of the iofioitiye mood of 
the foUowing Italian rerbe, for the particular terminations tliey respectirely take 
ia tb« pertoa and tenie indicated by the English, according to the foregoing 
Pandigms.] 

FIRST COlfJUe^TIOir. 

L 1.* — To love. 4. — loving. 7. — loved. 11. 

Amdre, am^e, am-dre. 

1, — I love, thoa speakest, he sing^ we play, yoa dance, 
am-dre, parUdre, eant-dre, ton-are^ ball-dre^ 

they study. 2. — I walked, thou passedst, he called, 
ttudi-are. eammin-6rey pass-dre, cMam-dre, 

we prattled, you confessed, they ordered. a — I 
eiarUare, eof^fesB-dre, ordin-dre, 

confirmed, thou didst deliver, he considered, we preserved, 
eofrferm-dre, eonsegn-dre, connder-dref conserv-dre, 

you advised, they disputed. 4. — I will expect, thou 
conngH-dre, contrast-dre, a$pett'dre, . 

wilt imagine, he will assault, we will dedicate, you will 
immagin'dref assaU-dre, dedie-dre, 

nmare, they will seek. 5. — I have praised.f IIL 

OMsiewr-dref ctrc-dre, lod-dre, 

1. — I may fiut, thou may est hesiege, he may ride, we 
digiufhdre, aasedi-dre, eavak-dre, 

may punish, you may provo, they may practise. 2 

eastig'dre, prov-dre, pratu;-dre. 



« To &cilitate reftrenee, we use, in this and the following exercises on rerbs, the 
UMilerf , which we have affixed to the Hkoods and Isnsts in the Paradigms^ 
ipoQnd 
Mnses* 

18» 



t The learner can fi)rm the compound tenses of any of these rerbs by joiniag 
their fmtt pm iiti f lt to the simple unses of the auxiliary verb av4r*t < to have.' 



dK) ANALOGY. 

I mi^t refiue, thou mightest invent, he imgltt accept, we 
rifitaSref moent-are, aeeeti'6re, 

mi^t accompany, jou might experience, thej might ad- 
aeeompagn-dre, tpenmeni-^ej mmmmuAr* 

minister. IV. 1. — I wonld prolong, thoa wooldst wa- 

-A-e. prolusg-^re, anritie- 

tore, he would eat, we would pray, you would envy, 
-6ref mcMgi-^e, preg-^re^ mMi-iret 

they would tire. V. — ask thou, let him judge, let 

anfwi-Srt, datnand-6r€, giudMartt 

OS change, carry ye back, let them wait. 



SECOND coirjuexTioir. 



L 1. — To fear. 4. — fearing. 7. — feared. IL 

Jhnire, tern-ire, tem-^re* 

1. -<- 1 believe, thou feceivest, he sells, we repeat, yea 
erH-ere^ riciv^ere^ v^iui-ere, npit-eref 

enjoy, they depend. 2. — I wove, thou didst beat down, 
geiUre, dipind-ere, tese-ere^ iMatt-en, 

he rivaled, we debated, you exacted, they consented. 
eon^t-ere, dibaU-eref etHg-en, aeetUt-ere. 

3. — I mowed, thou didst beat, he groaned, we sheared, 
mUi-ere, bdU-erey. gim-ere^ tdnd-ert, 

you reflected, they turned. 4.-— I wiU provide, thou 
ryUtt-ere, tnUse-ere, protved-^re^ 

wilt fill, he will rage, we will feed, yoa will loee, tiiey 
^tnpt-ere, frim-ere, jM!be-€re, pML^ere, 

win press. m. 1. — I may cleave, thou mayest render, 

prhn-ere. find-ere, rindrere^ 

he may resolve, we may re-ei\joy, yon may unweave, 
fieSlV'ere, rigod-^re, «fdj»-<re, 

they may succeed. 2. — I might yield, thou - mightest 
$uee6d'ere. eid-^re^ aseSh' 

absolve, he might mnt, we might dissolve, you might fill 
-ere, eeneed-^e, di $$ 6 h grs, rUmpi- 



REGULAR VERBSw 311 

again> they might sock. IV. 1. — I would combat,^ 

-ere> sugg-ere. comb6lUere^ 

thoQ wouldst precede, he would hang up, we would sell 
preUd-ere, appind-ere, rio6ruU' 

owt again, you would proceed, they would succumb. — 

V. — desist thou, let him drink, let us accompli^, recede 
deiiit'€re, biv-ere, eSmjA-ere^ rie6d'ert% 

ye, let them pour out* 



THIRD CONJUeATIOH. 

L 1. — To hear. 4. — hearing. 7. — heard. II. 

SenlAre, aenUtre, seiU-ire, 

1. — I sleep, thou consentest, he understands, we rejoice, 
domAref eon8ent4re, cap-ire^ gHhire^ 

you transfer, they serve. 2. — I fled, thou embellishedst, 
tratfer-vre^ terv-ire, fitgg-ire, abell-ire, 

be animated, we weakened, you attacked, they admonished. 
anim-irey indebboUire, cusal-ire, ammon4re, 

3. — I constructed, thou conceivedst, he banished, we 
eostrthire, eoneep-^e, bandAre, 

assisted, you supplied, they finished. 4. — I will favor, 
oceudrire, suppl-ircj fin-ire. favor-ke, 

thou wilt differ, he will cure, we will hinder, you will 
differ-^e, ' guar-ire, imptd^re, 

infer, they will grow proud. HE. 1. — I may assent, 

N)/er4re, insuperb-ire, a$8ent4ref 

thou mayest flirnish, he may chide, we may boil, 
fim-vre, garr-ire, bomre^ 

you may crave, they may establish. 3. — I might 

amMre, $tabil-ire, un^ 

imite, thou mightest betray, he might nurish, we 
4re, tradAre, nmir-ke, 

* TIm Diunbdr of lulian ragnlar wbi in iri is lo imAD, that, haYiiif already am- 
ploTad them all in thli ExereiM, wo hare bean oblifed to make om of somaTtifaa 
which, in tome of their teniee, art ■abject to oartau irregvlaritiaa, whioh wUl ha 
attioMi nodei krtgvOar Ftrbt. 



212 ANALOGY. 

might warrant, youmi^t encourage, \hej wight i^eed. 
• garani-iref tneoragg-ire, ptat^re, 

rV. 1. — I would restore, thou wouldet quench, he 

restUu^rCf fop-irtj 

would exhaust, we would define, yon would ascertain, 
e$aur-ire, d^m-hre, ehiar'tre^ 

they would season. V. — act thou, let him hear, let 

eond4re, og-ire, sent-ire, 

us dare, obey ye, let them punish. 
ard-iref obbcd-ire, pim-ire. 



VARIATION OF PASSITE YERBS. 

Passive verbs are formed by joining the verb essertj 
< to be,' to the past participle of active verbs. 

Passive verbs, therefore, through all their tenses^ are 
varied with the auxiliary verb issere. 

Variation of the Verb Essere Amato. 
(Paradigm of the passive verbs.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 

Simpto Tmmi . Compooad TeMes. 

L^PresefU. fL — PasL 

1 loved. 



ramAto, m. f., \ II ^ stdto am6to,m^.^ \ . 

1 [-»! P» I to be \\i$$e' J Bt6H amdH,'' p., f { 

} am&to, t 8., I loTcd. \\ re \ stdta amdta, f. i ., ( \ 
V ['^fV^^ II ^ state am6u,p., /' 



3.^Future. 
X^Ti^r $ ^"^ i^t 'r-Cp^" ^ to be about to be loVcd. 



SS^e^lwm lamao,m.B..^vS *^h,.yeiohelaved,ar 



* TlM M<« JMKsdpltf of pudT* TmIm, lilM tl^ 

of tha Vfb in gtUtr and w—li r . '' 



mindo 



REGULAR VERBS. 313 

4— P^went 5. — jPflwt 

UpJ being !r«.l*'4«'»^.^ iSjiS* 



1 Offtl^, f. 8., I 



lored. 



>been 






[OM^, m., 
orndtOf f. 
^^Wi omiito, 



II. INDICATIVE. 
8IHPLB TEN8B8. 

1. — Present, 
I am' loved ; 



PhmL 



thou art loved; 

be i» lovedy the 
[is loved 



si6mo amdd, m. , 
lam6te, t] 



we aie loved ; 

nite amdU, -e, you are loved ; 

igHnoBdnoatnA" they are loved, 
[fi, 6lleno -e. 



*> P* m a»ui<o, 



2. — Imperfect 
I was loved ; 
thou wast loved ; 



he was loved, she 
[was loved ; 



eravdmo amdH, 
eravdie amdHy 



3. — PerfecL 



^P*yof<t oma- 
Wp./u anidto* 



I was loved ; 

thou wast loved ; 

he was loved, she 
[was lo?ed ; 



fummo amddf -e, 
J6sie amati, -e, 
fiwono amdtit -e. 



we were loved ; 
you were loved; 
they were loved. 

we were loved ; 
you were loved; 
they were loved. 



l«tp. sard amd- 



•. [to,-fl, 

Wp. uard amd- 
[to,^ 



I shall or will be 

[loved ; 

thou wilt be lov- 

[cd; 

he will be loved , 

Tshe wiU be 

[loved ; 



4 — Future. 

sarimo arndtif-e, 
iorite amdtif -e, 



Bordnno agndti. 



we shall or will 
[be loved ; 
you will be lev- 
ied; 
they wUl be ]ov« 



211 



ANALOGY. 



COMPOUND TBN8K8. 



Bliifokr. 



PtenL 



5.— Second PafeeL 
1st p. io $6no std-\l have been lov- ! iidmo stdH amd-hn hkve been 



tp,io $6nostd-\l 
{to amdlo, 
litdtaamdtaJi 



ted 



lH,$tdUttm6ui 



[loTed. 



6.— Pluperfect. 



Isi ^io 4ra»tdto amdto,8td-\ I had been loved. 
Itaam6taj( 

7.^ Second Pluperfect. 

Ist p. fid itdto amdiOfitdtal I had been loved. 
lamdta,\ 

8. — Future Anterior. 

1ft p. $ard $tdto arndto, $t6ta\ I afaall or wQl have been loved. 
lamdtafl 



III. CONJUNCTIYB. 



SIMPLX TKN8K8. 

1, — Present 



Ist p. {0 «$a amd- 
[to, -a, 

2d p. tv Ho amd- 
[to, -a, 
8d p. egh na 
[amdto,illa-at 



that I be loved, 

[or may be Ipv- 

[ed; 

that thou be lov- 

[ed; 

that he be loved ; 

[she be loved ; 



fidmo ommUs, -e, 

ndte amdti^ -e, 
nano omdHf-Cf 



that we be loved; 



that you be lov- 
[ed; 

that they be lov- 
[ed. 



2. — LnperfecL 



1ft p. io fian'if I were loved, 

lamdto, -a, [or should be 

[loved ; 

2d p. tti fitsiKthwi wert lov- 

[amdto, -a, [ed;; 

8d p. fS$8e amd- if he were loved J 

[to, -a J [she were loved; 



fSsiimo arndtif-ef if we were loved ; 

■I 

fiste amdH, -e, if you were lov- 

I H' 

fiuero amdti, -e, if thty were lov- 



REGULAR YERSa 



215 



COMPOUND TEN8XS. 



3.-^ Perfect. 

Ut p. lo <ta Mio amdto, ttdta [ that I have been loved, or 
lamdta, \ [may have been loved, 

4. — PluperfecL 

Ist p. {of6s9i tidto am6to, $idta ( if I had been loved. 
[amdta, | 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 



Shigalar. 



SIMPLE T£H8E. 



1. — Present, 



Floral. 



lit p. $arH amd 
[to, -fl, 

Mp. »ar6$ti 
[amdto, -Oj 

«<lp. $arihhe 
[amdto, -a, 



I should, would, 
[or could be lov- 
[ed ; or might be 
[loved ; 

thou wouldst be 
[loved J 
he would be lov- 
ed, she would 
be loved ; 



iarimmo amdtif 



we shouldfwould, 
[or could be 
Poved ; 



$ar6iteamdti,'ey yon would be 
[loved } 
they would be 
[loved. 



saribhero amdtif 



COMPOUND TENSE. 
2. — P<W^ 



1st p. earH ttdto amdto, ttdta 
[amdta. 



I should, would, or could have 

[been loved ; or might have been 
loved. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



l»tp. . . . 
^P* jSt amdto, 
'dp. 9ta amdto, 



be thou loved ; \ 

let him be loved ; 
[her be loved ; 



si&mo amdtif -«, 

[nSi, 

tidte OTitdti, -e, 

U- 
[no, -e 6Ueno, 



let us be loved > 

be ye loved ; 

let them be lov- 
[ed. 



910 ANALOGY. 

Many active verbs become pcisswe by taking the 
particle si : — domanddrsi^ ^ to be asked ' ; but then 
they are used in the third person onlj/y — as, si domandAj 
^ it is asked ' ; si ]& d<muindaiOj *it has been asked ' ; Sic* 



VABIATION OF NEUTER TEBBS. 

Neuter verbs are generally varied with the auxiliary 
verb isserey ^ to be/ according to the conjugation to 
which they belong. 

Variation of the Verb Partire/ 

(Paradigm of the neuter verbs.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 

Simple TeuM. Oompoaad Tenitf. 

1. — Prewnt fL-^PasL 

PiurHre, > |to depart \\iMMerepcariUo.ms.'i,p.,\tohare d^- 
■I Ipartita, t s. -f, p.,^ [ptrted. 

a— JVrfure. 
doviripa^e, * J to be ibout to depi 



,or 
I depart 



GSRUIfD. 

4. — Prcwftf. 5.— Pa<f. 

partindo, Id^parting. || essindo par^f \ having departed. 



t^^Sict^jiri^s^^sj:^ 



REGULAR VERBa 217 



PARTI CIPLK. 

6.^Present. V.^PasL 

partite, p. / 



ffi^i:^''' ]^^^-^- 



II. INDICATIVE. 
SIMPLE TEN8E8. 

1. — PresenL 

let p. pdrto, 1 1 depart, or do depart, or 

I [am departing. 

2. — bnptrfeeU 

let p. io parAva, i I departed, or did depart, or 

I [was departing. 

a — Perfect. 
1st p. partUy 1 1 departed, or did depart. 

4. — Future, 
Ist p. pwrtirdf \ I shall or will depart. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

5. — Second Perfect. 
Ist p. io idnoparHtOf-atl I have departed. 

6. — PlupetfecL 
Ist p. io 6rapar^o, -a,| 1 had departed. 

7. — Second Pluperfect. 
Ist p./rn J9ar(i<a, -a, 1 1 had departed. 

8. — Future Anterior p 
1st p. Mfd partito, -a, \ I shall or will have departed. 
19 



218 ANALOGY. 

III. CONJUNCTIVE, 
8IMPLK TEirSES. 

Tu — PrtsenL 
Ist p. io pdrtOy I that I depart, or may depart. 

2, — In^terfecL 
Ist p. io parHssif \ if I departed, or should depart 

coMPouni) Tzirs«8. 

S. — PafeeL 

]0t p. U) tiapartUo, -a, 1 that I have departed, or 
I [may have departed. 

4.— 'Pluperfect. 
1st p. ioj6$$ipar6iOy -a,[ if I bad departed. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 



SIMPLE TENSE. 

1. — Present 

Ist p. partirHf | I should, would, or could depart ; 

I [or might depart. 

COHPOUNP TENSE. ^ 

Ist p. $arH parfUo, •a, 1 1 should, would, or could have de- 
[parted ; or might hare departed. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 

iBtp... . . I 

2d p. pdrtt tu, I depart thou. 



REGULAR VERBS. 219 

There are some neuter verbs which require to be. 
varied with avere ; as, vivere, * to live ' ; dormire^ * to 
sleep ' ; iacere, ' to keep silent ' ; parlare, ' to speak ' ; 
gridare^ ' to cry out ' ; ridere, ' to laugh ' ; scherzirej 
*to sport'; pranzare^ Mo dine'; cenare^ 'to sup'; 
passeggiare^ * to walk ' ; cavalcarCj ' to ride ' ; navigare^ 

* to sail ' ; tardare, * to retard ' ; indugiare^ * to delay ' ; 
kc.: — ho vivUkto, ' I have lived ' ; ho dormito,,^ I have 
slept ' ; ho iaciitto^ ' I have kept silent ' ; &c. 

Others are indifferently varied with the auxiliary 
avire^ or essere ; as, durare, * to last ' ; succombere^ * to . 
sink under'; ammutirey 'to become dumb'; impallidire, 

* to grow pale ' ; &c.: — e duraio or ha durato, ' it has 
lasted ' ; &c. 

Others may be varied with either avere, or essere ; as, 
worire, guarire ; but the change of the auxiliary alters 
their signification: — avere mdrio, 'to. have killed'; 
issere mdrtOy * to be killed,' or 'to be dead ' ; avire gua- 
^tOy < to have cured ' yhssere guaritOy ' to be cured,' or 
*to have recovered.' 



Doverey * to be obliged ' ; poiere, ' to be able ' ; voUrCy 
* to be willing,' ' to will,' * to wish ' ; when joined to a 
pronominal verb ; as, arrendersiy ' to surrender one's 
self '; /rcwani, 'to restrain one's self '; j^erdem, 'to 
lose one's self ' ; require to be varied with issere : — 
« i dovuto arrenderey ' he has been obliged to surrender 
Wmself ' ; non mi son potato frenarey ' I have not been 
^ole to restrain myself ' ; ti sei voUto perderey ' ihou 
^ishedst to lose thyself.'* 



* 'Hoj oftlM forefoing verba are irregular, as will be shown in their proper place. 



990 ANALOGY. 



TAIUATION or PRONOMINAL VEBB8. 

Pronominal verbs are varied with the auxiliary issere, 
^ to be,' according to the conjugation to which their 
termination belongs. 

F^ariatian of the Verb Pendrsi. 

(Paradigm of the pronominal verbs.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 

Sinpto TiMiMt. Compoond TeoMs. 

X.— Prt9enJt, 2. — Pa$L 

Pendr'Si, I to repeot one's Uhsef'ti penHto, Ito hare repealed 

I [selC II I [one^t eelf: 

S, — Future. 

ifi^^. I *o have to repent one's self, or 
H^^^S^ C to be about to repent one's seUl 



av^r'ii a petUtre, 

euer-ni 

dovir-n 



eXRUND. 

penUndO'iif (repenting one's Uestindo-H penii'\hM,ylDtt rq>eotad 
I [self. II [to,| [one's self. 



PARTICIFLK. 

6. — Pre#«ii/. 7. — P««. 

pentUo-HfTa^,, '\ 

[perUiti'Mi, p., f [having] repent- 
penfUa-siy f. s., / ed one's setf. 

[pen^ie-«i, p., ) 



peftUnU'tif s., > repenting one's 
pwt^nH'tii p., 5 self. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



331 



II. INDICATIY^. 



Singolftr. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



1. — Present 



Floral. 



Ist p. io tnip6n- 
[to, 
24 p. tip6ntif 

3d p. tip^nte, 



I repent myself; 

ip< 
[thyself ; 
he repents him- 
[self; 



n6i ci perUidmo, 
vi pentUcy 
si pintonOi 



we repent our- 
[selves ; 

you repent your- 
[sehres ; 

they repent them- 
[selvet. 



2. — Imperfect. 
Ist p. mt jpenftoa, 1 1 repented myself. 

3. — Perfect. 
Ist p. mt pentii, \ I repented myself. 

4. — Futiare, 
Ist p. mipentird, \ I shall or will repent myself. 

COMPOtTND TENSES. 

5. — Second Perfect. 
1st p. mi 96na pentUo, -a, 1 1 have repented myself. 

6. --Pluperfect. 
1st p. mi ira pentito^ -a, 1 1 had repented myself. 

7. — Second Pluperfect. 
ist p. mifui pentito, -a, 1 1 had repented myself. 

8. — ISiture Anterior. 

1st p. mi tard pentUo, -a, 11 shall or will hare repented 
I [myself. 



}m ANALOGY. 

III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
8I1IPLK TEIVSKS. 

1. — Present, 

lit p. mi pSrUa, | that I repent myieU; or mk] 

[repent 



1st p. mipentiiny I if I repented royself, or should 



Imperfect 

ntedro^ 

[repent myeelL 

COMPOUND TENSSS. 

3, — Perfect. 

lit p. mi sia pentUo, -a, I that I have repented mjrself, or 
I [may have repented mjBelf. 

4. — PluperfecL 

1st p. mi/6ssi pen6to, -a, | if I had repented myself. 

IV. CONDITIONAI^. 
SIMPLE TENSE. 

1. — iVetent 

1st p. mi penHriit I I should, would, or could repent 

I [myself ; or might repent myself. 

COMPOUND TENSE. 

2. — Pot*. 

1st p. m' sarii pentilo, -a, I should, would, or could have re- 
[pented myself; or might have 
[repented myself. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



293 



l8t p. • « . 

2d p. p^ti-ti tu, 



8d p. si p6nta, or 
[ pinia-si Sgli, 



V. IMPERATIYS. 

Plonl. 
peniidmo-ei n6i, 
ptntite-vi v^i. 



repent thyself ; 

let him repent 
[himself; 



let us repent our- 
[selTes ; 
repent your- 
. , ' [selves; 

Si pentano or ;let them repent 

IpSntan-sil [themselves. 
Sglino, I 



A great number of active and neuter verbs may become 
pronominal by the addition of the conjunctive pronouns 
mt, ii^ n, he, either in the objective or in the relation 
of attribution ; atod then these verbs are varied with 
the auxiliary issere, ' to be ' ; as, loddre^ * to praise ' ; 
darCy ' to give ' ; tacere^ * to keep silent ' : 

mi »6no d&to un cdlpo^ I have given [to] myself a 

blow ; 
H bH ddto per vinlo^ thou hast given thyself up as 

conquered ; 
si i loddlo, he has praised himself; 

ci sidmo iaciuH^ ve have kept ourselves silent 



Usage, however, in some instances allows us also 
to employ the auxiliary avere^ ' to have ' ; but then the 
conjunctive pronouns m», tiy si, &^. are abvays in the 
relation of attribution ; as, 



tndo sdno or miV ho gothtto, 
ido sH or td^ hat creduto, 
seP i or seP ha bevuio, 



I have enjoyed it ; 
thou hast believed it ; 
he has drunk it 



294 ANALOGY. 

YABIATION or UNIPE&SONAL TKBBS. 

UDipersonal verbs are generally varied with the aux- 
iliary avere, ^ to have,' accordiog to the coojugation to 
which they belong. 

Variation of the Verb Piovere. 

(Paradigm of the unipersonal verbs.) 

1. INFINITIVE. 

Binple TeiMM. Coapoond Teowt. 

l.^Pre$enL 2. — Pott 

PiSwere^ \io nin. I mAre piovuto, |to hare niaed. 



avire a pidvere, > to have (o raio, 
6uere per piovere f ytabtt about to r 



or 
rain. 



OERUND. 

4— Present 5.—PatL 

piovMio, Iraining. || aoindo pumUo^ [haYiiig rained. 

PARTICIPLE. 

6. — PrttenL 7. — PaH. 

piovinte, jraioing. \lpiovuiOf trained. 

II. INDICATIVE* 
SIMPLE TE1I8E8. 

1. — Preseni. 

cd p. piSve, ] it raina, it does rain, or it k raia- 

I [tog. 



REGULAR VERBS. S235 

2. — Imperfect. 

3d p.piovSva, or piov^, | it rained, it did rain, <w it was 

I [raining. 

0.--- Perfect. 

8d p. piavi, piovitte^ or pi6vve I it rained, or it did rain. 
[(piSbbe). I 

4. — Faturt. 
3d p. pioverd, \ it will rain. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

5. ^Second Perfect. 
8d p. hapiovuto, | it has rained. 

6. — Pluperfect. 
8d p. av6va piovuto, | it had rained. 

7. — Second Pluperfect. 
8d p. ^6(tf piovuto, I it had rained. - 

8. — Futttre interior. 
2d p. ctvril piotruto, | it will have rained. 

III. CONJUNCTIVlE, 

SIMPLE TENSES. 

1. — Present. 
3d •». piSva, I that it rains, or may rain. 

2. — Imperfect 
3d p. piovSise, \ if it rained, or should rafaL 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

a — Perfect. 
3d p. dbbia piovuto, I that it has rainedy or may have 



1 



ly have 
(jaiaed. 



226 ANALOGY. 

4. — Pluperfed. 
3d p. aoiise pioviUo, [ if it had rtined. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 
SIMPLE TBffSE. 

1.— PreaciU. 

8d p. pioteHhbt (pioveria},! it would or coald raiD, or mi^t 

[lam. 

COMPOUITD TSlfSE. 

2. — Pot*. 

8d p. anribht pioviUOt I it irould or coald have rained, &r 
I [might haTe rained. 

Y. IMPERATIVE. 

8d p. pi6v€^ I let it rain. 



The following are the unipersonal verbs most ia use : 

aggwm&re, to be day ; j«r«^., ? to freeze- 

annoUdre, to grow night ; i eckiaccxaref V ' 

twrndrty to thonder ; [far/r^do, to be cold ; 

pufvere^ to rain ; j/ar cki&ro, to be light ; 

rfUutndre, J to deluge; far cdldo, to be hot; 



nevicdre, to snow ; 

tempuidre^ 



> to hail ; 



few vMOf to be windy ; 

far buon Umpo, to be good weather; 
far caUivotimpo,io be bad weather. 



The following verbs, though tiot unipersonal in ihem- 
selvesj are often used unipersonally, and may have the 
third person plural, as well as singular } and are varied 
with the auxiliary issere, * to be ' : 



REGULAR VEUBS. 



227 



aecadire, 
(nwenire, 
oecdrrere, 

(^ppartenirt^ 

hastdre, 

hisogndre 

mvenire, 

importdre, 

iipindere, 




to belong ; 
to be enough ; 

> to be needful ; 

to be important; 
to depend ; 



\ru»isctre^ 
dispicLcirty 
spiadre^ 
parirt. 
sembrare, 
spettdre, 
toccdrCy 
far udpo, 
far d* udpOj 
far meshiriy 
fardimestihi,] 



to displease ; 

to seem ; 
to belong ; 

to be necessary. 



To ibese may be added all verbs which become 
passive by taking the particle «, either before or 
after them ; which are varied in the third person both 
singular and plural, and with the auxiliary essere ; as, 
vedersiy < to be seen ' :— • 5* vede^ ' it is seen ' ; si sdno 
vedutiy < they have been seen ' ; biasimarsiy * to be 
blamed ' ; si sdno biasimatiy * they have been blamed ' ; 
kc. 



E^ssere, * to be,' is also used unipersonally, both ia 
the singular and plural, when it is joined to the particles 
^ or «i ; as, esserci or esserviy ' to be here,' or ' to be 
there.' It is varied as follows : 

f^ariaiion of the Verb E^ssere, unipersonally used. 



I. INFINITIVE. 



Simple Tensei. 

1. — Present 

^••er-H or e«f er- | to be here or\\ 
I'Vi, I [to be tbere. 



Compound Teniei. 
^.-^PasU 

i'ff::^ htdtilp., '(to have 
JTl 8tdta,{.s.y (been there. 
■^' latdie,p,, y 



3. — Future. 



^••JJ^-ci or isser-vi per latere, 
^^'Ci or avir-vi ad iaaere: 






have to be there, or 
be about to be there. 



238 ANALOGY. 

eULUND. 

A.-^ Present. 5. — Pojt 

2^2^°' } Acre being. ^,,,(^^- or J'S^^I f ^ 



there 

bUTHIg 

been. 



PARTICIPLE. 



If. INDICATIVE. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 

Sittfwlw. Finn]. 

I. -^ Present, 

8d p. e* ^ or o' ejbere is, or there||cts^fU>orin«^fU>Jlhere are. 

2. — Imper/ecL 

3d p. c' ^ra or o'lthere was ; lie' irano or e* Ithere were. 

[^raj 11 l<irano, \ 

Zdp, ciju or ml there was ; \\ci Jurono or vi Ithere were. 

4. — Future. 

8d p. et sard orttbere ahaU or winilct acnrdnno or mltbere shall or.will 
[riford,! [be;" [»ardnno,\ [be. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

5. — Second Perfect. , 

8d p. e' ^ or o* ^Ithere has been ; \\ci sSno or vi «^no|there have 
l$t6to, m., -a, f.,| 1 1 Istdti, m. , -e, f.,1 

♦ Wanting. 



RE6ULAB V£:RBS. 229 

Sfaicniv. Finn], 

a — Pluperfect. 

Sd p. e* 6ra or v'lthera had been ; lie* ^ano or o* ^o- 1 there had been. 
[6ra 8tdt0f -a J II [no s^d/i, -ej 

7. — Second Pluperfect. 

3d p. d ^ or oiithere had been ; iiei furono or mlihere had beep. 
[Ju 8tato, -a,[ II ifirono 8tdH,'e,\ 

8. — Future Anterior. 



8dp.et«ardorinlthere will have 
[»ard stdto, -a , [ [been ', 



d sardnno or ml there will have 

Isardnno stdtU [been. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
SIMPLE TENSES. 

1. — Present. 



^ p. eitiaor m 

[Ha, 



that (here be, or 
[may be ; 



et ^nOf vi sta-'ithat there be, or 
[no-j or ciiieno A [maybe. 

[visieno, | 

2. — Imperfect. 

3d p. dfSsBe or! if there were ; orllei fissero or m'lif there were; or 
{vifSssCjl [should be ;ll [fossero,} ^ [should be. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



a -^PerfecL 

^ p. d sia or vilthat there lAn 11 et tiano or vi da- 
[da8tdto,-ai been; I {noBtdtit'e, 



that there have 
[beeny#r may 
[have been. 



4^.-^ Pluperfect. 



^ P- eifieee oriif there had been ; 
W/»f«e MtdtoA 
[•«, I 



ei f^ero or vt'lif there had beea. 

if6$$ero BtdtiX 
-e, I 



20 



290 



ANALOGY. 



Siofwlar. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 



SIMPLE TEN8B. 



h— Present 



Plaral. 



9d p. ei Morihbe 
[or vi ioribbef 



there should, 

[would, 4>r could 
be ; or might 
[be; 



! ci sarebbero or in ithere sboold, 

[MT^dfrcro J [would, or could 

I ^ rl>e ; or mi^C 



COMPOUND TEN9£. 
2. — Pojt 



8d p. ct sarSbbe^ihere should, 
[or vi sar6bb€ [would, or could 



[stdto, -a, 



[have been; or 
[might have 
[been; 



ei 9aribbero or i7t!there slMMikli 
[$arihb€ro Mta- [would, or could 



[/t, -e, 



[have been; or 
[might bare 
[be^. 



V. IMPERATITE. 



8d p. ci «la, m 

[sia, or Aa-d^ 



let there be ; 



ci siomo, oi ji«-|Iet there be. 
[»»p, or «an-ct,| 
[mn-oi. 



The verb averts *to have,' is often substituted for 
the verb hsere when unipersoDally used, and then it is 
varied after the same manner ; as, averei or avervi, * to 
be here ' or * to be there ' ; ci Aa or vi hay * here is ' or 
* there is-^ ; ci hanno or vi hannoj * there are '; &c. 

The verb av6re, not only may be used with propriety for the verb 
i$$€re, but is also elegantly used in the singular, although the notm to 
which it is joined is in the plural ; as, qudnte mig^ eiuA? * how many 
miles is it ? * £bbbti mSUi uSmini, * there were a great many men 
there'; &c. 



To express in Italian here or there it some ^Uj here 
or there are some of themj we join the particle ne, < of 
it, of them,' to d or vi^ and say, issercene or iuervene^ 



REGULAR VERBS. 



231 



avSrcene or avirvene ; as, cen^ e or ven* ij cen^ ha or 
©en* Aa, * here is some of it,' or * there is some of it ' ; 
cHe sdno or vine sdno, ctrC hanno or ven^ hannOj * there 
are some of them ' ; S^c. 



XZAlf PLS8. 



Per eirio ehi non v* 6$na, da 
v6i non de$idera d* fssERB amI- 
TO. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

A)^ eratAk PARTiri gid da 
iUo^ (Dapt. Inf. 82.) 

DoRMfro HAi, hSUa d6nna, wt 
hr6ve aShno. (Petr. 8. 284.) 

Fu aceu$6io faUaminte the 
dovia av£r m6rto tin u6mo, c6l- 
la wiSglie, e eon tutta lafamiglia. 
(Vlt. S. Franc ) 

TarguiTtio 6Ha fine wv M6itf o 
per gU figliuSU del $oprad6tto 
Mdreo Mrzio, (Giov. YUI. I. 1. 
C.2.) 

LaseidU eo»tm dUemie miue 
eke 'Lo ouARitCAHO. (Yarcb. 
BO€Z. 1. 1.) 

MiofraUllo per miragr&zia di 
Dio i guarIto. (Red. lett. 1.) 

E *l PBMTiRsi, e 7 conSseer 
ekiaramSntef — Che qu6nto vidce 
ai mSndo i un Mve sonno, 
(Petr. 8. 1.) 

Vdlle qudli faeilmSnte tu ti 

SARllb8TI POTATO ASTBlf^RE. 

(BAacb. Com.) 

Se io ddUa verita del fdito mi 
rdfsi 8COSTARB voliJta, Of^il 
htn eanuto tdtto dUri ndmi roc* 
eontdAa. (Bocc.) 



Surely be wbo does not love 
you, doe8 not desire to be loved 
by you. 

We bad already departed from 
bim. 

Tbou hast slept, beautiful wo- 
man, a short sleep. 

He was falsely accused to have 
Icilled a man, ^with bis wife, and 
all bis family. 

Tarquin at length was killed by 
the sons of the above mentioned 
Marcus Martins. 



Let him be cured by my muaef. 



My brother has recovered through 
the mere mercy of God. 

And to repent and to know 
clearly, that what pleases . the 
world is a sbort dream. 



From which thou wouldst have 
easily abstained. 

If I had wished to depart from 
the tnith of the fact, I should have 
known how to relate it under dif- 
ferent names. 



932 



ANALOGY. 



Jceheeki m^ e $edndalo non 
nB noMchae^ mk ne t6no taci^ta. 
(Bocc. g. 3. D. 3.) 

EUaJu $6via eirto, e di grand' 
)imOf — Un* aitra si sARi' 



[sar^bbe] dIta «u/ pidngere. 
(Ceccb. Inc. 1. 1.) 

EgU ^ ndtte buiaf e piotigginaf 
e par che na per pi6vkb ptu for- 
te, (Saccb. dot. 28.) 

Ci 8<Sjf o diUe 6Ure dSnne ossdL 
(Bocc. g. 3. D. 3.) 

Ckttdlca, e oudndo a5ii6tta e 
qudndo aooiorna. (Ariost. Fur. 
27.12.) 

Non altranUrUi a lui AvvinNB, 
ehe aJ Duca atvxhi^to £ra. 
(Bocc. 9. 2. D. 7. 

E che i mxj dibhano da tutti 
BiAsiMiaii. (Pass.) 

QUAITTE liiCLIA CI HA ? — 

HkccxnjtpiudimiUanta, (Bocc. 
g. 8. n. 3.) 

Lit ddve cxh' A una^ che h 
m6Uo c6rta, (Bocc. g. 3. o. 4.) 



That DO eril or scandal sboiUL 
arise from it, 1 bare kept sileot . 

She was wise surely, and of a 
great mind ; for another woold 
hare given herself to weepiDg. 



It is a very dark night, and it 
drizzles, and seems as if it would 
rain harder. 

Here are many other ladies. 

He rides botfi when it grows 
night, and when it is day. 

It happened to hire not other- 
wise than it had happened tb*the 
Duke. 

And that vices ought to be 
blamed by all. 

How many miles is it? It Is 
an infinite number. 



Where there is one [way] which 
is very short 



EXERCISE XVII. 



[TIm latfhier, in the Ibllowia; exorcise, will pot the jMfC pmrHeMs of paesijt 
mbt. And or mch ntwUr ftnd premo m imai verbe •• are varied with tfie verb ietwrc, 
both in the matemUmt and /tmuMine gender, by altematiog the gender at each 
■a u bare done in the English with the third person etngalar.] 



PASSITB YEftBS. 



I. 1. — To he loved. 
J^sere tundto, 

4. — beitig believed. 
Sssere ereduto. 



2. — to have been feared. 
^8$ere »t6to tennUo. 

5. — having been heard. — 
^ere Bi&to tmUiio, 



REGULAR VERBS. 233 

U. ^ 1. — I am praised, tiiou art invited, he is expected, 
loddtd, inviidto, aspettdio, 

we are called, you are assured, they ai;^ punished. 2. — 
ehiamdto, asneurdto, cdstigdto, 

I was sought, thou wast advised, sht was prayed, we 

were accompanied, yon were envied, they were assured. 
(Mccofnpagndto, invidiSto, assicurdlo. 

3. — I was assailed, thou wast besieged, ^e was ordered, 
OBsaUdtOy cusedtdto, ordindto, 

we were confirmed, you were delivered, they were 
eor^firmdto, coruegndto, 

accepted. 4. — J shall be proved, thou wilt be asked, 
acctitdio. provdio, domanddto, 

dte will be admired, we shall be paid, you will be 
ammirdto, pagdto, 

honored, they will be blamed. 5. — I have been 
anardto^ bianmdto, 

robbed.* — ^ III. 1. — I may be believed, thou mayest 
Tubbdto. ereduto, 

be received, he may be beatenj we may be preceded, 
rieevido; battutOf preeeduto, 

you may be provided, they may be sold. 2. — I 
proweduto, vendiUo. 

miffht be punished, thou mightest be furnished, she 
pufiUo, formto, 

might be hindered, we might be attacked, you might 
impeSto, aaaamo, 

be betrayed, they might be supplied. FV. 1. — 

iratmo, suppUto. 

I should be admonished, thou wouldst be wounded, he 
ammotiUOf fi^^t 

would be banished, "we would be encouraged, you would 
ftoiidSto, incoraggUo, 



• The l«an»r ean Ibnn the coapoand teniM of any of theM rwba hj joinUif the 
p€UtpmrtieifU to the eompoaod teoMS of the verb i»90r4» 



234 ANALOGY. 

be obeyed, they would be invested. V. — Be tfaov 

abbetUto, mottle* 

allured, let her be Httened to, let ub be employed, be 

aUetidtOf aseoUaio, impitgatOy 

ye trusted, let them be saved. 

fitUdo, ialwUo. 



NEUTCR AUD PROIfOMIlfAL VSRBS. 

I. 2. — To have departed. 5. — having repented 
partUo, *^ - ptwtiU^ 

one's self. 11. 5. — I have delayed, thou hast kept 
•«.' indugi6io^ ' tadu- 

silejit (thyself), he has gone out, wo have cured, you 
to* aV UBcUo, guarito, 

have praised yourselves, they have lived. 6. — I had 
• hdatd^ «,* twuto, • 

wounded myself, thou hadst become, dumb, the had 
ftfiUi* mi,^ ammuHUf ' 

corrected herself you had grown childish, they had 
riendula^ H,^ rimbambito, * 

seized (themselves). 7. — I bad dined, thou hadst soiled 
impadronUo* si}. pranz6to, * imbraitdit^ 

thyself, ^ had grown mad, we had lost ourselves, you 
H}, impaxatOf ' smanitt^ a*, 

had spoken, they were dismayed (Gumsdnes), 8. — 
parUto, ' sbigottitii^ <i>. 

I shall have sailed,' thou wilt have complained (tiofself)^ 
navig^io, ' lamentitcl^ tP, 

tike will have recovered, we will have taken leave 
guseUo, * UemziaUj^ 

((mrsdves), you will have walked, they will have married 
sPf pasteggiatOj * maritdta^ 

(themsehes). III. 3. — I may have rejoiced (myself), 

M*. * raUegr&to mi}, 

tkou mayest have sported, he m«y have colored himself^ 



REGULAR VERBS. 1)35 

we may have gone near, yon may have riaen (youradvesX 
awidndio, • alzato^ w*, 

they Biay have arrived. 4. — I might have enriched 
arrivdto, • arrieMU^ 

myBelf, thou mi gh test have slept, the might have 
an*, dormito, * 

instructed herself, we might have sunk under, yon 
iitrwto^ $i^f tuccombuto, 

might have assembled yourselves, they might have ' 
• riumtol* w*, 

grown pale. IV. 2. — I should have married myself, 

imfallidito. ' ammoglidtc^ im}, 

thou shouldst have grown proud, he would have rejoiced 
insuperbitOf ' railegrSta^ 

himself, we would have cried out, yon would have 
«\ griddto, • 

enamoured yourselves, th^y would have beeome cruel. 
Umamoratc^ vi\ itiferoc^o. 

V. — Defend thyself, let her imagine herself, 

difindere^ ti, - immagindre* «?, or immagindre^ 

let us help ourselves, ennoble yourselves, let them 
•i, . aiuldre^ ci, fmnobitire^ m, risptU 

respect themselves. 

ior^ •»», or rispeUdre^ si. 



inHPERSONAL VSBBS. 

I. 1. — To rain. 4 — raining. 7. — rained. To 
Pi^vere. pidvere. pidvere. 

have rained. IL 1. — It is day. 3. — it grew 

piovtUo. aggiomdre. annot- 

night 3. — it lightened. 4. — it will thunder. 5. — 
tdre, baUndre. tuondre, 

it has snowed. 6. — it had happened, 7. — it had 
nemedio, awenuto* , 

frozen. 8. — it will have seemed. III. 1. — it 

gMto, eembrdtc. 



336 ANALOGY. 

may freeze. 9. — it mif hi thaw. 3. — it may have 
geldre. dimaidre. 

been cold. 4<»it might have displeasecl. TV. 1. — 

fdUo dido, di$piaa(uto, 

it would be important 2l — it would have belooged. 
importdre, cgpparUmio, 

— V. — let it be sufficient 
hmstdre. 



issBRCi er isBBRn, Aviaci or Aviavi. 

L 4. — There being. n. 1. — here is, or there is, 

«• . jSmct*^. ei ^9tere, or ot avSre, 

there aie. 2..<» there was, there were. 3. — 

ei isiere or avSre, vi iuere, H * anfire. 

there was, there were. 4. — there will be, mg., there 
9t isserCf ei Sstere, vi av^rey a 

wiU- be, plur. S, ^- there has been some of it, 9mg^ 
€Boirt, ti i»$eri* n^', 

there has been some of them, jidir. IIL 1. — that then 

ei avire^ m^ vi 

may be, Wng., that there may be, plwr, 2. — if- there 
atire, ei 6»sere. ot 

were some . of it, mg., if there were some of tibem, plmr, 
meh^ ne^t ei issere' ne^, 

IV. 1. — there should be, stRg., there diould be 

VI cJMf€y CI OVei'C 

some of them, phtr. — ^- V. -— let there be, Mg., 
ne^. ei aoire, or 6$$ere^ d, 

let there be some of them, plur, 
vi hteri^ ne^, or avire^ vi^ ne. 



IRREQULAR VERBS. 237 

CHAPTER X. 
IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Thb irregularities of Italian Verbs are chiefly confined 
to the perfect tense of the indicative mood, and the past 
participle. * 

Some verbs, however, are also irregular in the present 
of the indicatitt ; and then they are irregular likewise 
in the present of the conjunctive and in the imperative. 

When verbs are contracted in the infinitive mood, 
they are contracted also in the future tense, and in the 
conditional mood.^ 



In those tenses in which verbs are irregular, the 
irregularity, generally, does not extend to all the 
persons : thus, with very few exceptions, in the perfect 
of the indicative, the second person singular and the 
Jirst and second persons plural'^ — and in the present of 
the indicative and conjunctive^ and in the imperative, 
the first and second persons pluralj — are regular. 



Id the variation of these verbs, we will give only those 
tenses in which they depart from the paradigms already 
given, to which we must refer for the formation of the 
other tenses. The persons which are irregular are 
here primed in small capitals. 

For the assistance of learners, we have added to each 
verb, the auxiliary with which it is varied in its com- 
pound tenses. 



ANALOGY. 



VARIATION or THE IRREGULAR TERES OF THE FIRST 
CONJUGATION. 

There are but four simple verbs in the first conju- 
gation, which are not varied like amare^ viz. 

And&rt^ to go ; \fi^ to do or to make ; 

d&re^ to give ; I siart^ to be, to dwell, to stand, 

I [w to stay.. 



Andare, 
(Varied with h$ere.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 

Jhul6re, | to go. 

GERUND. PARTICIPLE.- 

anddndo, Igoing; |i andato^ |gooe. 

II. INDICATIVE. 



SiDgukr. 



'Present, 



Ist p. vo, or vi- 

[DO,* 

2d p. vkif 
8d p. TA, 



I go, or &in go- 

thou goest ; 
the goes; 



andi6mo, 
anddttf 

VAlllfO, 



A, — Future. 



Pluni. 



we go; 

you go; 
they go. 



Itt p. andrd [by contraction for I I shall or wQl go. 
landerd"] , | 



* Anddr* it abo a d^ktiot verb, wnd borrowi tbeM fbrmi lirom the Latin t 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



239 



8iii|pii]ar 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. 



l0t p. io tAda, 

2d p. tU ViDA 

[{vddt), 
8d. p. igK viDA, 



that I go or may 
that thou go ; 
that he go ; 



Prestnt. 
arididmo, 

andijite, 

VADAHO, 



Plural. 

that we go ; 
that you go ; 
that they go. 



lY. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — PresenL 

Istp. andrH (andrfa) ^hy contrec- | I should, would, or could go ; or 
[tioD for anderit (anderia)], | [might go. 



T. IMPERATIVE. 



1st p. . . . 
2dp.TA(iw*')#ti, 
3d p. vIda iglif 



go thou ; 
let him go ; 



andi6mo n6i, 
and6ie v6i, 
vAdaho eglinOf 



let ua go ; 
ye; 
them go. 



go ye; 
lett" 



Andare is sometimes varied with the conjunctive pro- 
nouns mij tif si, dj vij si, and the particle ne ; thus, me 
NE vo, < I go hence ' ; te ne vai, ' thou goest hence ' ; 
itc. Me^tej &c. are then mere expletives. 

The compounds of andare, as riandare, signifying 
'to go again', be. have the same irregularities. 



XXCBPnONS. 



JUanddrtf aignifyiDg ' to examine * or Mo go over again ' ; and 
tratimd&ref * to go beyond ' ; are regular and varied like amire. 



The verbs mandare, * to send ' ; rimandare, * to send 
tack again ' ; iramandare, * to transmit ' ; comandare, 
' to command ' ^ dimandare, ^ to ask ' ; &lc. are not 
derivatives of and&re, and are varied like amare. 



940 



ANALOGY. 

Dare. 

(Varied with avtre.) 



I. INflHITITC 

D6ref \ to gi^e. 

asRi/HD. PAmriciPLK. 

Iginag. II dHo, {gives. 



II. INDICATITE. 



1. — Present 



Ijt p. ^, 

2d p. DAI, 



1st p. D^TTi, or 

[DliDl (dUi)^ 
Id p. -DiKfTI, 

Sd p. d£ttb, or 
[DiiDB (di^o, 



I gnre, or am 
[giving ; 
tbou givest ', 
be gires ; 



date, 

DARHO, 



a — P«/erf. 

I gsTe; or did.j oiMMO, 
[give;! 

tbou gayest ; |{ bkstk, 

be gave; DErTKRO,orDi£- 

[dfro (diSronOf 
[didrOfdUrjd4f- 
[iio,di^iuio>d^D- 
(no). 



J give; 

yon give; 
tbej give. 



we gave; 

ymrgave; 
ibey gave. 



4. — JWure. 
Itt p. DAB^, 1 1 sbally or will give. 



Ittp. idolA, ^t I give, or 
[may give ; 



Sd p. fv of A, 01 
[pii. 
3d p. igU DtA, 



ni. COKJUWCTIVE. 

I. — Present 

di&mo. 



tbat thoa give ; 
that he give; 



DfAirOyOrBlnro, 



that we give ; 
that yon give ; 
that diey give. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. Wi 

2. — laiperfut 
1st p. io Dissi, I if I giive or should give. 

IV. CONDITIONAI4. 

1. — Present 

Ist p. OARl^i (dada), I I should, would, or could 
I [give ; or migfat give. 

V. IMPEBATIVE. 



Istp. . . . 
3d p. d£a egUy 



Singular. Ploral. 

didmo ndi, 

rive thou ; ddte vSi, 

let him give ; Df aito, or dI xho 

UgUnOf 



let us give ; 

give ye; 

let them give. 



The compounds of darcy as rid&rCj * to give again ' ; 
addarsij * to devote one's self ' ; &c., have the same 
irregularities. 



The verbs dbhondare^ * to abound ' ; accommodare, 

* to mend ' ; hadare^ * to mind ' ; accordarcy * to grant ' 5 
circondarBy ' to surround ' ; fidare^ * to trust * ; freddare^ 

• to cool ' ; gridarey * to cry out ' ; guardare, * to look '; 
guidarcj * to guide ' ; lodare^ * to praise ' ; predare, * to 
prey ' ; ricordare^ * to remember ' ; ritnediitre^ * to reme- 
dy ' ; stddarBi * to warm ' ; secondare^ * to second ' ; fac, 
are not derivatives of rfrfrc, and are varied like amare. 



21 



343 



ANALOGY. 



Fare. 
(Varied with avire\) 

I. INFINITIYE. 
FiBS (ficere),* | to do, or to make. 

eSRITin). PARTICIPLK. 

faeSndo, [doing. ] g fItto, (done. 



SiacBkr. 



II. INDICATIVE. 

1 



PhirtL 



lit p,fo(f(ieeio),l do or am do- 



2d p. FAi (faci), 
3d p. fa (f&ce), 



Prweni. 
facciIho, 



(hoQ docet; 
be does; 



rJLifvo (Jan)f 



we do; 

yoado; 
they do. 



3. — - Imperfect. 
let p. iofadva or faeSa (ftSa), | I did or was doing. 

S,-^ Perfect. 



Uip.r£ci{fii), 
2d p. FAcisTi 

[(/<«««0,| 

3d p. rtcm (Je% 



I did; 
thou didst ; 
he did ; 



facemmo ((im- we did ; 

[mo),| 
faeitU (f^ste), .you did ; 



F^csRo (y^rofio, 
■[r^mo, lero, fef, 
[fi^nno, fen), 



they did. 



i. — Fuiure. 
1st p. FAR^, I I shaH or will do. 



* This Terb belong! properly to the ■eeond oonjogatioo, it belu but a c 
ion of fiUtr*, now become obsoteU, of which it retaini many of the tome. 



IRREGULAR YERBQ. 



243 



Binfvkr. 



1ft p. io wkcciA, 

2d p. iu rkcciAf 
3d p. 6gH ric- 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — PresenL 

TACCliUO, 



that I do, or may 
[do; 
that thou do ; 
that he do ; 



FACCliTX, 

fXcoiaito, 



PlnnO. 



that we do; 

that you do ; 
that they do. 



2. — Imperfect, 
Itt p. iofac6$n ((iaa), | if I did or should do. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present. 

Itt p. FARii (fiuia, &r6'), I I should, wouJd, or couJd 
I [do ; or ooight do. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



lit p. . . . 
2dp./a(/(i')<u, 
3d p. ricciA 



do thou ; 
let him do ; 



I facciAmo, 

FicCIAlfOy 



let ut do ; 

do ye; 

let them do. 



The compounds offdre^ as assuefare, * to accustom ' ; 
confare^ * to suit,' ' to agree ' ; coniraffarCj * to mimic,' 
* to imitate'; disfarcj * to undo'; misfarBf * to do wrong ' ; 
liquefarej * to melt ' ; sopraffare, * to overpower ' ; *ttt- 
pefhrcj * to stupefy,' * to astonish ' ; 8ic., have the same 
irregularities. 

Sodirf&re or sodditfdre, ' to satisfy,' is both regular and Wreguiar. 



The verbs olfare^ * to smell ' ; schifare^ ' to shun ' ; 
irionfarej * to triumph,' are not derivatives oi farcj and 
are varied like amdre. 



^44 



ANALOGY. 



Stare. 
(Varied with essere.) 



I. INriNITIVE. 

1.— iVwent 



Stdre^ 



I to stand, to stiy, 
lodwellyortobe. 



sidndo. 



0UIUKD. 

jftandiog. 






II. INDICATIFE. 
1. — PrtMtid. 



JPAJUriGIPLS. 

{stood. 



Planl. 



Ist p. Sto, 

2d p. STily 

Sdp. «(a, 



1st p. STf TTI 

2d p. srisTi, 

8d p. ST^TTE 

t(»«). 



I stand or am 
[standing; 
thou standest ; 
he stands ; 



nkwaot 



a — Pei/ec*. 

I stood ; I ST^MMO, 

(hoUStOOdst; ;i STisTK, 

he stood ; P scTf-rrBRO^st^ro, 

I [st^r, sti^ro, 

li [sU^r), 



we stand; 

you stand ; 
they stand. 



we stood; 

you stood; 
they stood. 



1st p. 8tar6, 



4. — fWitre. 

I I shall or will stand. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



Istp.iosrlAy jthat I stand or 

I [may stand ; 

8d p.' w niAf orjthat thou stand ; 

fSTllJ 

Sd p. 6gK STf A, [that he stand ; 



h^ Present 

sHdfHOf 



ttidie, 

stI AHOy or STfs 



that we stand ; 
that you stand ; 
that they stand. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



S45 



%, — InptrftcU 
Ist p. lo sTisBi, ^ I if I stood or shouM stand. 

IT. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Prtstnt, 

lat p. sTAR^i (staria), I I should, would, or couTd 
I [stand; or might stand. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



SiDfolsr. 

htp. . . 
2d p. sto {st&) 
[tu, 
3d p. sTiA igli. 



Plorm). 



stand thou ', 
let hun stand ; 



stidmo, 

StI ANO, or STM- 

[no 6gKnd, 



let US stand ; 
stand ytf*; 

let them stand. 



SiarCi is scwnelimes varied with the conjunctive pro- 
nouns, mif tij si, hc.j and the particle ne : thus, me ne 
fto, * I remain here ' ; te ne siai, * thou remainest 
liere'; he. — Me, te, &c. are then mere expletives. 

The compounds of siare, as contrasiare, signifying 
* to stand against ' ; distare, * to be distant ' ; insthre, * to 
entreat ' ; .risiare, * to stop ' ; soprastdre or sovrasidre, 
signifying * to delay,' * to differ ' ; &c. have the same 
irregularities. 

xzcEPnoifs. 

Contrast&re^ signifying^ • to deny,*' • to dispute ' ; soprastdre or so- 
9ra$Uiref signifying * to stand over,* * to threaten *; ostare^ ' to oppose *; 
fcil^e, * to remain '; are regulcw, and are varied like amdre. 

The verbs accosiare, * to approach ' ; acquisiarey * to 
acquire' ; costdre, * to cost '; manifesthre, * to manifest ' ; 
ftiiixTt, « to pound,* are not derivatives of stdre^ and are 
varied like aman. 



21» 



M6 



ANALOGY. 



The foregoing verbs, mmddre^ iart^ f^rty and sidre^ 
in all those forms in which, when they are simple^ they 
form but one syllable, ha?e in their compounds the ac- 
cent on the last. syllable ; as, co, da, fe\ sta : — rtrd, 

* I go again ' ; rida^ * he gives back again ' ; disfV^ 

* he destroyed ' ; instep * entreat thou ' ; &c. 



XXAMPLX8. 



Va il cavSl per Gio, — Per 
Anda VA il bdf — E T a»ino per 
Ani. (Fran. Sacch., rime, 9.) 

Or vi%^ ek* un sol volire h 
d* amendue. (Dant Inf. 2.) 

QliUsio.ndUo dal sSnto vfeehio 
»m MK aiid6 moUo consolai; 
(Vil. S. Ant.) 

Prima eh* 6itri dindnxi H ri- 
VADA. (Dant. In(. 23.) 

RiixDa le edse^ ehe iu gH hat 
ditU di me. (Salv. Granch. 2., 5.) 

S&nom6lti^»\ Ueve fantada, 
che in tutte U l6ro ragwni tra- 
flAHDANO.t (Dant. Conv. 17S.) 



La senUnza la quale San PU- 
fro D^TTK cdntro Jinania, (Ca- 
▼tic. Pungill. 97.) 

Jl e6nte pideque mSUo qtUsta 
domdnda^ e prestaminte rispSae 
iK M, e gUile di£dx. (Bocc. g. 
2.11.8.) 



The horse goes by (Tt^, tlie ox 
by A'nda, and the ass by ^rri* 



Now go, for one only will is in 
both of us. 

Having heard this be went to 
the holy man quite consoled. 



Ere any one repasaed befon 
him. 

Examine the things, which thou 
hast said to him of me. 

There are many of so light a 
mind, that in all their reasom'oga 
they [go beyond the question] 
wander from the subject of them. 

The sentence which saint Peter 
gave against Ananias. 



TYixs request pleased the count 
much, and he immediately replied 
that he would, and gave them to 
him. 



• Different itdmrjtetiamt need by the Italwoi io driviog thoee uimale. 
t We are mwue thmt lome copies of the CWuvIvm have frsiiMliu*; fratdwd!—, 
however, ie the htttm' fodimg. 



IRREGULAR VERBa 



217 



JE U budn nuU$tro del parlor And the good master of correct 
pr6prio [Dante] disae .* lo roi speaking [Dante] said : / [made 
wtci al mostrato innanzi un p6co ; myself 1 drew a little nearer <a 
eVer me si rJ^CE, ed io ver lui JUm who had been shown me; 
mi w±i, (Dep. Decam. 99.) and He drew near me, and I drew 

near him. 



Mt infimo non soDisrAKO 
tziandto le preziSse cdae. (Fr. 
Gbrd.) 

J5 quk conoieny eh* t* quisto 
pi$o p&rti — Per Ui, tdnto eh* a 
Dio 81 soDDisFACciA. (Daot. 
Pte. 11.) 

y^gg^ndo che da niun cono' 
uiuto v' ira, ai 8t£tte. (Bocc. 
g. 6. n. 6.) 

P6s$o favelldre, s* io v6gHo ; e 

*« nd, si ME NB p68$0 STARE. 

(Fr. Glord. S. Prcd. 82.) 

Ma pctura e pietade copttra- 
•T^TTE — jli nno crvdel ardvre, 
(Ovid. Plst.) 

Kdde 96lte addivi6n, che alV 61- 
tt imprise — Fortuna ingiuri- 
^a non cowtrIsti. (Pctr. 
c. 11.) 

MartucciOj vt^eindo la gio- 
9<Me, maravigliandonU sopra- 
STiTTE. (Bocc. g. 6. d. 2.) 

Siinza montdre al ddsso — 
DelV drco, 6ve lo scdglio pik so- 
▼RisTA. (Dant. Inf. 18.) 



In hell even precious 
give no satisfactioo. 



thing* 



And here I must bear for it diis 
weight, till satisfaction be made to 
God. 



Seeing that he was known by 
none, he stayed there. 



I can speak, if I'wish; if not, I 
can refrain from it. 



But fear and pity stood against 
my fierce desire. 



Seldom it happens that Fortune 
docs not oppose great undertak- 
ings. 

Martuccio, seeing the lass, won- 
dering at it, tarried. 



Without ascending on the top 
of the arch where the rock is more 
jutting. 



248 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE XYIII. 



rin thU and tbo following ezercisei on hrefular Verbs, have been introduced m%nj 
of tboM tcKm, which, although they are, or, from the aimilarity of their tormioa- 
tionf,aeem to be, derived from the limple iiregular verb* hero given, are yet ttypvlar. 
Tbia bai been done with a view of early accustoming Ura learner to make the neeea- 
iary discrimination.] 

I. 1. — To go. 4. — giving. 7. — made. n. 1. — I stay, 

JiruUare, ddre. fire, atdre^ 

thou sendest, he gives again, we melt, you entreat, 
manddre, riddre, liquefdre, instdre, 

they go over again. 2. — I gave, thou accustomedat, 
rianddre. ddre, astue/dre, 

he stood n gainst, we asked, you granted, they triumphed. 
eontrtutdrej dimafiddre, aceorddre^ trior^fdre. 

d. — I stayed, thou sendcdst back, he devoted himself, we 
stare, rimanddrtf adddre^ si^ eon- 

imitated, you delayed, tliey transmitted. 4. — I will make, 
traffdre, aoprastdrey tramanddre. fdrt^ 

thou wilt oppose, he t^ill go again, we will trust, you will 
osidrej rianddre, fiddre, so- 

stand over, they will praise. 5. — I have gone, thou 
vrastdrey lodare. anddio, 

hast made over again, he has remained, we have given, 
rtfdtto, restdto, ddto, 

you have commanded, they have manifested. III. 1. — 
oomanddtOf mantfeitdlo, 

that I deny, that thou mnyest go beyond, that he may 
eorUrastaref traaanddre, soddiS' 

satisfy, that we may pound, that you may attend, that 
fdre, peatdref baddre, 

they may cost 2. — I might astonish, thou mightest 
coatdre. atupefdre, pre- 

pray, he might approach, we might disdain, yon might 
dUSare, accoatdre, aehifdre, acal" 

warm, they might abound. IV. J. — I would do wrong, 

ddre, abbonddre, miafdre, 



IRRMGULAR VERBS. 



tMB 



thou wooldst acquire, he would command, we would scold, 
€uqiUst6ref eomanddre, gridare, 

yoo would smell, they would cost V. — so thou, let 

olfdrBf eoitdre. , anS&re^ 

him ^ve, let us make, stay ye, let them dispute. 
^ddn^ firtt stdre, afnte$idr4. 



YABIATION OF THE IRREGt7LAR YERBS Of TBE SECOND 
CONJUGATION* 



Variation of the Irregular Verbs in Sre (long). 
The simple irregular verbs in ere (long) are the 



following ; viz. 



cad^e, 

diasuatUre, 

doUre, 

dovh-e, 

giac^re^ 

ptjorire, 



to fall ; 

to dissuade ; 

to grieve ; 

to owe ; 

to lie down ; 

to seem ; 



parsutuUre, to persuade ; 
piach-e, to please ; 

pMrt^ to be able ; 



rimanirt, 

aaperCf 

aeiUre, 

tacire, 

tenure, 

valhty 

vedirtj ' 

voUrCf 



to remain ; 
to know ; 
to sit down ; 
to be or keep si- 
to hold ; [lent ; 
to be worth ; 
to see ; 

to wish, to will, 
[or to be willing. 



Cadere, 
(Varied with essere,) 

I. INFINITIVE. 
Caddre, [to faH. 



PARTICIPLE. 
II eadulQ, Ifanen. 



») 



A^ADOGY. 



II. laOICATITE. 



1« "-^PrtttMim 



td p. eddi, itboa bAett ; 



[m#, cadcBo), 
ci^MM (cdM^ they fro. 



a — Pq/eet 



1ft p. CA0OI (c«'|I iell; 

2d p. eade$Hf tboa feDetC ; 
id p. cXi>Dx (ca- be fell ; 
[d^o, eaditU, 



1ft p. caderd (coikd). 



iwefidi; 



eadisU<, 'yov fell ; 

ciDDKBo(cad^ro/the7 fidL 

lnc,cad6iten),\ 



Fuiwe. 
I I fhaU <v will &U. 



III. CONJUNCTITE. 



1. — Pretctit 



Ist p. io c<i<ia 

td p. tuedda 

8d p. 6gH edda 
[(cdggia)^ 



thft I fall or 
[may Call ; 
that thou fall ; 

that he fall; | 



eadidmo (caggili- 

[mo), 

eadidte (caggia- 

Cte), 

cddano (edggia- 



that we hU ', 
that yoa &n ; 
that they fall. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present 

Ist p. caderH (cadrSi, cadenaJ I should, would, or could faH ; or 
[cadria>,| [might ftU. 



Y. IMFERATIYE. 



1st p. . . . 
td p. c6di hi, 



&11 thou. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 1251 

The compounds of cadire^ as euxadere, ' to happen '; 
decadire, * to decline ' ; ricaderej ' to fall again ' ; fac., 
have the same irregularities. The poetical forms, how- 
ever, hggio^ ^ggi(*i aggiamoy Aggiono, aggianOy are pe- 
' culiar to cadere and not met with in its compounds.* 



Dissuadire, 
(Varied with either avere or essere.) 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

Dissuaddre, |to dissuade. || dissvAso, jdiasuaded. 

II. INDICATIVE. 



Ist p. Dissuisi, 
3d p. dUnujuUiiii 
8d p. DissuisBy 



SinfaUr. Plaral. 

S.-- Perfect. 

I dissuaded ; distuadimmo^ we dissuaded ; 

tiiou dissuadest ; di$8U€uU$te, jou dissuaded ; 
he dissuaded ; dissdasero, they dissuaded. 



Dissuadircy properly speaking, is a compound of the 
Latin verb suadere, as well ns persuadire, * to persuade,' 
which has the same irregularities. 



DoUre, 

(Varied with essere^ and the conjunctive pronouns, mi, 
tt, 5», &c.) 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

DoUr-iif to grieve. || doluto-ii, |grieved. 



* OfriMiA^jGttUleohasnMdHed/fk. 



9fi8 



ANAX-OGY. 



II. INDICATITi:. 



BiogaMi. 



nanl. 



1. — Frweirf. 



l0t p. mi d6lgo|1 grieye ; 

[(ddgUo) 
2d p. It Du6u, 

8d p. «i DUdLE 

[(dole), 



thou grievest ; 
he grieves ; 



d Docu.iiifo (do-|we gtiBve ; 

pteo), 
vi doUte, yoQ grieve ; 

n D^JLiQoKo (do- they grieve. 

[gtiODO), 



a — Po/ecfc 



Ist p. ml d6l8i, (I grieved ; 

8d p. <i <ioi^«li, thoQ^vedst; 

8d p. ft DOLSEy |he gneved ; 



eidoUmmOy 
vidoiStU., 
ft d6ijierOj 



iw, Iw 

RO, Itl 



we grieved ; 

on grieved; 

Ithey grieved. 



4. — JWiire. 



1st p. d^rrd [by contmetien fon I shall or wiU grieve. 
[doterd»],| 



HI. CONJUNCTITE. 



1st p. mi d6loa 
Ud6gHa). 

2d p. a DOLOA 
[{dSftUa), 

8d p. si DOLGA 

iiddglia). 



that I grieve or 

[may grieve 
that tboQ grieve 

that he grieve ; 



L-^PresenL 

d dooliImo, fthat we grieve ; 



m DoeuATS, 

ft B^LOAIfO (dS- 

[glicmo), 



that you grieve ; 
that they grieve. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present. 



1st p. dorrii (dorria) [by contrac-l I should^ would, or could grieve ; 
[tion for doltrdi (doIeria)t],| [or might grieve. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Istp. . ^. . 
2d p. DUOLi-fi, 

3d p. si DdLOA 



grieve thoQ ; 
let him grieve ; 



DOGI«lAMO-ay 

doUtevij 

ti D6L.OAiro {dd- 

IgUano), 



let OS grieve ; 

grieve ye; 

let them grieve. 



• To diatingoitk it from daler^^ ftitara of the T«rb dottre, < to doiVuid.' 

t To dntiani^ tkem ftom Mir« (Gloria), ibnns of tb« «OBditaoMJ«r the vwb 
M^^ < to deftaad.' 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



253 



The compounds of doUre^ as condolire^ ^ to condole ' ; 
&c. have the same irregularities. 



Dovirt. 
(Varied with avire.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 

Dwire (dev^re*),|to owe. 



PARTICIPLE. 

II dtmUo^ lowed. 



Istp. divo, or 
roiBBo {dig' 

^ p. dim (d^*), 
W p. dhe^ or 
[DiBBB (dee. 



Singnlv* 
I owe; 



II. INDICATIVE. 
1. — Prt$€f)t. 



Phml. 



thon owest; 
he owea ; 



DOBBiiMo {del* 
-WdmOy deggid- 
[mo, dev^mo), 

dovite, 

divonOf or d^b- 
[iono iddggiO' 
[no. d^ono, d^n- 



we owe J 



you owe; 
they owe. 



S.-— Perfect. 

Ist p. dovii or davitH, | I owed. 

4. — Future, 
Ui p. doverd or dovrd^ \ I shall or will owe. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1.^ Present 



Ittp. to DiBBA 
M p. iU DiBBA 

[(d^ttta), 

M p. ef^b DtBBA 

mggiah 



that I owe, or 
[may owe 
that thou owe ; 

that he owe ; 



DbBBiiMo (deg- 

[(giamo), 

ooBBtiTB (deg- 

IgfdU), 

DiBBAKO (dig' 

[giano), 



that we owe ; 
that you owe ; 
that they owe. 



* TlM LiOin ddm^ from which d0oir$ dmnrm i 

23 



lofito 



354 



ANALOGY. 



IT. CONDITIOKAL. 

l.^Pre$enL 

Ist p. danerH or iovrU (doverft 1 1 thoald, wooldi or coold owa ; 
[ordoTrfa), | [migl4 

▼• IMFEBATITX** 



Giacert. 
(Varied with either avire or ittere.) 

I. INTINITIYX. PA&TICIPLB. 

Qiachtf |to fie down. J giaddto, paio down. 



KBfQMT* 



U. INDICATIYE* 



L^PreieiU. 



PImL 



Itt p. oiicciOi 11 lie down ; n oiacciImo, iwe lie down ; 
2d p. gi&dt thou liest down J gio^te, yon lie down ; 

8d p. gideCf Ihe liet down ; llGiiociovo, ithey lie down. 



a— Pei/ecl. 

Iflt p. oiicqin, ll ky down ; || giacSmmo, 
2d p. giadsHf thou kyest down; gUuitte^ 
8d p. oiicqus, Ihe ky down ; \ eiicqumso, 

III. coKJUNonrc. 

L — iVewnt 

lit p. io eiJLccxA Jthtt I lie down or giacciImOi 

[may He down ; 
8d p.dioiicciAythet thou lie gUuliU^ 

[down ; 
3d p. igU eiic- that he lie down ; oxicozAVo, 

[CIA, 



we ky down; 
yon ky down ; 
they ky dowB. 



that we Ko down; 

that yon Ho 

[down; 
that they ia 

[dowm. 



* Blriecly b wuttinc." — Tmt. ▼«&. ItaL, Part. IL, $. «. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



355 



▼. IMPERATIYE* 



Biofolar. 



Plural. 



Itt p. . . . 

2d p. gidei tu, I 

8d p. oiicciA ] 



lie (hou down ; 
let him lie down; 



oiacciImo n6i, 
giacete v6i, 
oiicciAiro ^glU 
[no, 



let U8 lie down ; 
lie ye down ; 
let them He 

[down. 



The compounds of giacercy as soggiacirtj *to be 
subject ' ; he., as well as piacSrey and its compounds 
compiacirey * to please '; dispiacere, * to displease '; fac. 
have the same irregularities. 

Piaeire and its compounds eamfriache, &c., in the second person 
phwal of the present of the conjunctive, and in the second person 
plural of the imperative mood, make piaooiXtx, d&c. 



Parire. 
(Varied with hsere.) 



I. INTINITIVE. 
Pwrirey tto i 



PARTICIPLE. 

n paruto (pdrso), Iseemed. 



Singular. 
I 



II* INDICATIVE • 

1. — Present* 



Plural. 



1st p. Piio, 

2d p.pdn, 

9d p. pibre (pdr), 



1st p. pIrti 

[(pdrsi), 
2d p. paristi, 
8dp, pIrvb 

[(pdrs*), 



thoa seemest; 
beseems; 



paridmo, 
parite, 

pdronOf or pIio 
[ho, 



we seem; 
you seem ; 
they 1 



a— Per/cct. 



I seemed ; 

thou seemedst ; 
be seemed ; 



parimmOf 

pariste^ 

pIetxbo (pArsC' 
Iro), 



we seemed ; 

you seemed; 
they seemed. 



356 



ANALOGY. 



4. — JWure. 

1ft p. jMnrd [by cootnctioii for I I diaD or will teem. 
Oorerd*], ' 



Sinfakr. 



III. CONJUNCTITE. 



1.— P^^tent 



1ft p. itf PilA, 
2d p. hf PAUL, 

8d p. €gU pIia, 



thit I seem or\ 

[m»y seem 
that thou seem ; { paiItx, 
that he seem ; I piiAHo, 



Plsnl. 



that we seem ; 



thatyoa 
thmtthey 



IT. CONDITIONAIm 

1, — Present. 

Ist p. parrH (perr(t) [by contnioi I should, would, or could seem ; cr 
[tion for parerH (parerit)t]}| [might seem. 



V. IKFERATIYE. 



Istp. . . . 
8d p. pdri tu, 
3d p. piiA igti, 



1 

seem thou ; ' 

let him seem ; | 



paridmo n6if 
pariU v6iy 
piiAMo igtino. 



let! 

seem ye; 

let them seem. 



Persuadere. 
( See di$$uadire, p. 261.) 

Piacere. 
( See giae^-Cf pp. 254 and 255.) 



• To diatinjubh it fVom p«arerd^ (iitare of the rerb pmrdre^ * to pury,* * to adorn.' 

t To dbtiDgnbh th^m firom porcrrft (paieria), corrtfpoodiaf toram of tbo voib 
yordrf, « to parry » ; Aw, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 257 

Poiere. 
(Varied with either avire or issere.) 

I* INFINITIYE. PARTICIPLE. 

PoUrtt |tobeable. ^potiUOf " ~ jbeenable. 

II. INDICATIVE. 

Binfular. Plural. 

!.-»- PrtserU, 



iBi p. p6sso, 

2d p. pu6i 

8d p. Fuo (jfuStef 
frote), 



I am able ; 
thou art able ; 
he if able ; 



rpot£- 
[mo), 



posbiImo (poU'We are able ; 
you are able ; 
they are able. 



potitCf 

p6ssoiio (p6nnOf 
[p6n),i 



• Future, 



lit p. potrd [by contraction for I I shall or will be able. 
ipoterdn, ' 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

1. — PreaerU* 

1st p. pdssAy I that I be able or may 

I [be able. 

IV. CONDITIONAL* 

1. — Present, 

Ist p. PotrH (potria) jhj contrac-| I should, would, or could be able ; 
ftion for poterh (poteriayt]| [or might be able, 

[poria), I 

• To diftiognkh H (ram poterbf ftitnr* of the wnhpot&rtj * to pnuM.' 

t TodSitiogoiih thorn ftom ]»ot»^(pol«Tla), oorrespondiof fbrnnoftho TOrbp««drt, 

*tOpfOM.' 



ANALOGY. 



▼. IMPKRATITE.' 



Biofolar. 



PloraL 



Istp 

2d p. p688a hit 
8d p. p688a 6gUf 



be tbou able ; 
let him be able ; 



possiAMO fi^ llet QB be able ; 
POS8IATK v6if I be ye able ; 
pdssAHO igkno, |let them be abi«. 



Rimanere. 
(Varied with essere.) 



1. INFINITITE* 
Runan6re, |to remain. 



PARTICIPLE. 

IIrimIsto (rim^) ^remained. 



n. 1NDICATITE. 



Ist p. &IMAHOO 

[(rimigpo), 
2d p. riminif 
3d p. rimant, 



I remain ; 



'PrtsenL 
Wrimamdmo, 



thou remainest ; L rimanite, 
he remains ; [\ RiMJurcoif o. 



1st p. rimXsi, |I remained ; 1 
2d p. rimane$tif thou remainedst; 
Sd p. rihIsx, |he remained ; { 



rimttnitntnOf 
rimarU$te, 

RIMASSRO, 



4. — Fuittre, 



rwe remain; 

you remain ; 
;they remain. 



IT 



jwe remained; 

ou remained ; 

they remained. 



lat p. rtmarrd [by contraction for i I shall or will remain. 
[rimanerd], \ 

* " Obterre that grammariAM believe that thu verb bae «• imfarMtiM ; becaoM, 

"they 



MuaretiMi beci 
le MS not. But 



thej tay, we canoot oommaad an^ one to have a power wbieh be baa not. '. 
have not reflected that one can give power, wbeo be if able to do to ; a* ia the c 
with God in relalion to all tbiogi } and ai, to a emaUer extent, may be the ease 
man and certain relatione of man. Whicb ideas beio* snacepUbie of being ezp 
•d abo in tbe imperatiTe nood, rf»e» r m uir es that tbis vefb tkmM set ie to oaai^ 
dtprned of it.» — Teor. Verb. Ital., Part. H., $. 199. 

Besides, tbe verb ptire does not mean only *^m»irp6tm§ vw«i^ «• velMiCd ame4 
rs,ssati4fazu^»«i«ceiKtfitfe; elU »m 4 ^impre U v6rbo dii poiUtfid, $ Mgti tmwL** — 
Dep. Decam., 104. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



359 



III. CONJUNCTIYE. 

Siofolar. PHmL 



lltp.fORTviNOA 

[(lima^na), 
Sdp.hf&iMlffOA 

[(riroagna), 
8d p. egU kimIn- 



that I remain or 
[may remain ; 
that thou remain ; 



that he remain ; 



1. — Present. 

rimanidmo, 
rimanidtey 

RlMiHGAirO, 



that we remain ; 
that you remain'; 
that they remain. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 



1. — Present, 



lit p. rimarrH (rimarrCa^ [hy con- 
[traction for rimanerei (rimaoe- 



I should, would, dr could remain ; 
[or might remain. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Ittp. . • . . 
2d p. ftmint tu, 

3d p. SlMAfVOA 



remain thou ; 
let him remain ; 



rimanidmo n^, let us remain ; 
rimanSte v6ij I remain ye ; 
RiMAirGAKo let them remain. 
l6glino^\ 




Sapire. f/'uin V 2 E S I T ' 

(Varied with avert.) \ , J - h...'T^ >* \ .• 



I. INFINITIVE. 

'Sopors (8av^re*),|to know. 



PARTICIPLE. 

I BOpiUo, |kDown. 



II. INDICATIVE* 

1. — Present. 



lit p. so, |I know ; 

2d p. all, thou knowest ; 

dd p. sA (s4pe), Ihe knows; 



sappiJLmo, 

sopite, 

sJLnno, 



we know ; 
you know ; 
they know. 



* Thia/orm, m«t.with in Daate, Alamaoni, and otlMr poatt, 1im beoom* oftvoMf. 



960 ANALOGY. 



Ist p. fippi, ' 
2d p. 9€miUi, 
8d p. 8SPPS, 



Siafukr. PlonL 

Z. — PerftdL 



I knew ; 
Ibou knewMt ; 
be knew; 



\$QphMMf Iwe knew ; 

\$api$tet lyouknew; 

|s£ppKRO, |ihey knew. 



4. — JWnre. 
Ist p. $aprd [by contraction for 1 1 aball or will know. 

III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

L — PrtsenL 

lat p. (o fippiA, I that I know, or may know. 

IT. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — P^-esciO. 

1ft p. 9apr4i (saprfa) \hv contnc- i I shouldy woold, or could know ; 
[tion for 9(^^€rii (naperia)], | [or might know. 



▼• IMPEBATITE. 



Istp. . . . 
2d p. sIppi tu^ 

8d p. SJLPPlA^g^ti, 



know thoa ; 
let him know ; 



sappiIho n6ij |let ns know ; 
sappiItb 961, 



ft, liet ns knc 
i, know ye ; 
itfiojlet them 1 



8JLppiAjio%mioJlet them know. 



The compounds of tapire^ as ruapirtj * to learn,' or 
^ to come to know ' ; follow the same irregularities. 



Sedire. 
(Varied with avert.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 
Stdire (i^ggere*), | to sit down. 

Thii Twb, now booooM 0*MliCf, it ttUl omI io muj oftko/pfrntoftht 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



261 



eSRUNO. 

9€dindo (8egg^Ddo),|8itt]Dg. 



FABTICIPJLE. 

seduto, (seated. 



l8t p. cii^DO, or 

[8*OGO(»^ggi0), 

2d p. 8t£di, 

8d p. 81^ DE (8^ 

[de)J 



Singular. 
I sit; 



II. INDICATITE. 



■ Present, 



Plural. 



thou sittest ; 
he sitB ; 



sedidtno or beg- 

[giImo (sed^ 

[ma), 
sedite, 
siiooNOyOr 8£g- 

[gono (s^ggio- 

[no), 



we sit ; 



you sit ; 
they sit. 



S. — Perfect. 
l8t p. iedii or seditiit \ I sat. 

4. — Future. 
1st p. sederd* (sedrd), | I shaU or will sit 

III, CONJUNCTIVE. 



1. — Present. 



Istp. io siiDA.or 
[siooACs^ggia), 
2d p. tu 8iioA,or 

[s^ooA (s^ggia 

[or 8^g^), 
8d p. 6gh tiKOA, 
[or siooA, 



that I sit, or may 
[may sit ; 
that thou sit ; 



that he sit; 



sediSmo or seg- 

[giImo, 

sedidte (seggia- 

[te), 

9lfDAMO,Or8io- 

[gamo (s^ggia- 
[no). 



that we sit ; 
that you sit ; 

that they sit 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present, 

1st p. sederii (sedr^i, sederia), i I should, would, or could sit ; or 
I [might sit 

* Mattrofini propoMi siederdf and in the oonditional riedtrii ; but this, which 
iadatd woald present the adranUge of distin^ithiitf these forms f>om the eoire- 
■poodhig ones of the verb aedhn, * to appeaw,' has oot been adopted by the generality 
<H Italian writen. 



902 



ANALOGY. 



y. IMPERATIVE. 



BiBfoIar. 



1ft p. 



2d p. siioi tu, 
8d p. siiDA, or 
[fiooA igU, 



At thou ; 
let him sit ; 



PlQimL 



sedidmo (seggi^- 
[mo) n6i, 
seditt i6i, 

8I]£DAlfO,0r8£o« 

[gamo iglin^^ 



let lu ait ; 

sit ye; 

let them ait 



Sedire is sometimes varied with the pronouns mi, 
ti, ft, &ic., and then it requires the auxiliary essere ; as 
fill iiidoy < I sit (myself) ' ; ii sii sed{tto, < thou hast sat 
(thyself)'; &c. 

The compounds ofsedire^ as possedire, * to possess ' ; 
risedircy * to reside * ; toprassederCj * to supersede * ; 
have the same irregularities. 



Tacire. 
(Varied with avire.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 



TaeSre, I to be^ or keep fd-ll taeiuto, 

I peDtll 



PARTICIPLE. 

[been aileot 



II. INDICATIVE. 



1. — Present, 
lit p. tdeio (t&ccio), | I am silent 

S.'-Perfhd. 



Ist p. Ticqui, 
2d p. taeiatit 
/8d p. Ticqax, 



I was silent ; 
thou wast silent ; 
he was silent ; 



taeSmmo, 

tac4$te, 

tIcqukro, 



I we were aileot ; 
you were silent ; 
they were aUent 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



268 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

I. — Present 
1ft p. U tdeia (ticcia), | tlmt I be dlcDt or may be filent 



▼. 


IMPERATIVE. 


Istp. . . . 
2d p. (dd fti, 


1 be thou sUent. 



Tacire is sometimes varied with the pronouns mt, 
iij si, 8cc., and then it requires the auxiliary issere; 
mi tacioy * I keep silent ^ ; si e iaciiktOy \he has kept 
silent'; &c. 

The compound of tactre^ — riiacere^ * to become 
once more silent ' ; follows the same irregularities. 



Tenire. 
(Varied with avire.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 
Tenirc, |to bold. 



PARTICIPLE. 
II tenidOf IboMeo. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



BiBffolar* 



Iflt p. T^GO 
((t^gno 

fA P* TXiHl (t< 

3d p. TliRS, 



PlnraL 



1.— Prweirf. 




I bold; 
tbou boldest; 


teni6mo (tegni- 
[mo), 
tendte. 


we bold; 
you bold ; 


beboldt; 


TiHOOVO, 


tbeybold. 



964 


. ANALOGY, 






Biafolar. 


PlonL 


a— Pfl/eci. 




Istp. Tfirira, 
2d p. teniMti, 
8dp. TillRI, 


I held ; 

thouheldett; 

beheld; 


tenAmmo, 
tenhte. 




we held ; 
you heM ; 
theyhefcL 




4. — JWnre. 







Iflt p. tend [by coatractioo for 1 1 dial! or will hold. 
[<€nerd], | 



III. CONJTJlfCTIVE. 



1. — PrtMtnL 



Istp. \0 TfRGA 

2d p. tU TEIIOA, 

8d p. igh TiNOA 

[(t^a), 



that I bold ori 
[may hold ; 
that thou hold ; 
that he hold ; 



tenidmo (tegni- 

[tnoV 

tenidte (tefrnate), 

TillOAMO(t^gIia- 

[no), 



that we hold; 

that you hold ; 
that they hoU. 



lY. CONDITIONAL. 

h^PrtsenL 

Ist p. terrH (terrfa) [by contrac- | I should, would, or could bold ; or 
[Uon for tenerA (leoeria) ] , | [might hold. 

y. IKPERATITE. 



latp. . . . 
2d p. Tiiiri (t^') 

3d p. T^ITGA 

[(t^goa) 6gU, 



bold thou ; 
let him hold ; 



ienUano (tegni- 

[mo) ndif 

Unite v6i, 



let OS hold ; 
hold ye; 



TfiroAHo(t^KDA- let them hold, 
[no) egSnoJi 



Tenire is sometimes varied with the pronouns ffU| 
tij n, &c., and then it requires the auxiliary essere; 
as, mi sano ien^^iOj * I have holden or restrained myself ' 5 
8cc. 



IRREGULAR V£RBS. 



965 



The compounds of ienercj as appartenerey * to be- 
long ' 5 €uten6re, * to abstain * ; aitenire^ * to attain ' ; 
contenire^ * to contain,' ' to refrain ' ; deienSre^ * to 'de- 
tain '; manienirej < to maintain ' ; ottenere^ ' to obtain ' j 
raiienerej * to stop,' * to restrain ' ; iojienire^ ' to sup- 
port,' * to sustain ' 5 kc. have the same irregularities. 



VaUre. 
(Varied with either avtre or essere,) 



I. INriNITIVE. 



PARTICIPLE. 



VaUre^ ]to be worth, or\\valuto (vziso), [been worth. 

I [toav^iLlI 



Sinfular. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



1. — Present. 



' Plural. 



l«tp, Ykhdo 

3d p. 9dk (rao, 



I am worth ; 

thou art worth ; 
be is worth ', 



I foalidmot 

valiU, 

YALOoiro, or va- 
[gliono, 



we are worth ; 

you are worth j 
they are worth. 



3. — Pcr/«/. 



*d p. valesH, 

^ p. TALSS, 



I was worth , 
thou wast worth; 
he was worth ; 



vaUmmOf 
vIlsero, 



we were worth ; 
you were worth ; 
they were worth. 



4. — Future. 

1st p. tarrd [by contraction for I I shall or will be worth. 
IvaUrd], ' 

23 



ms 



ANALOGY. 



8iiiC«lir* 



ni. coNJUNCTin* 



1» ^" JnTCfWli. 



Fhval* 



1j( p. So tIloa, 
[or tIoua, 



tint I be worth| 

[or may be 

[worth; 

fti TixoA^that thou be 

[worth ; 

that he be worth: 



2d p. 

[or YkaiAA, 
8d p. igU tIloa, 

[or TioiXAy 



toMmCf 



YkuoAKO, or ▼! 

[GUAlfO, 



that we be 

[worth; 

that you be 

[worth; 

that 4he7 be 

[worth. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Pretent 

1st p. fforrii (rarrCa) [by coDtrac- 1 J should, would, or could be worlli ; 
[tkm for valarei (Valeria)], I [or might be worth. 

V. IHPEBATrVE. 



Istp. . . . 
2d p. vaH tu, 

3d p. TALOA 

[(vigUa) igU, 



' r tali6mo ndif 

be thou worth ; {{ tntUte v6if 
let him be worth ;| valgako, or va- 
'i [(GUAHO igUnOi 



let us be wordi ; 
be ye worth ; 
let them be 

[worth. 



The compounds of vaUre^ as disvalerCj ' to hurt ' ; 
equivalerej * to be equivalent ' ; invalere, * to lose worth 
or strength ' ; prevalcre^ ^ to prevail ' ; rivaUrej * to re- 
cover worth or strength ' ; have the same irregularities. 
Of the two forms of the present, however, that in cdgo 
is belter adapted to them; and disvalgo, *I hurt'; 
eqtdvalga^ « let it be equivalent ' ; invdlgano, * that they 
lose strength ' ; fcc., are oftener met with in books thaa 
disvagliOi &c. 

^e poetical form prevaUo^ * prevailed/ of the past participU of 
prtvaUre, has been used by c^ood writers even in prose. HwaUre^ 
In the same participle has invMso, * [having] lost strength *; only. 



IRREGULAR Y£RBS. 



267 



(Varied with avere.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 

Vederty \ to see. 



OERUITD. 



i»ed6ndOt or VEG-lseeiog. 



PARTI CIPLS. 

\V6duto {vUio)f Iseen. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



Singular. 



FluraL 



1. — Present 



Ist p. vidOty±Q'\\ see; 
[oo, or y^OGioJ 



2d p. v6di {ye), 
3dp.v^4tf, 



thou seest; 
he see^ ; 



%edidmo^ or ysg- 
[giaho, 
vedete^ 
v6donOy yioGO 

[no, or yio- 

[giono. 



you see ; 
they see. 



1st p. vfDi (vid-II saw; 

[di),l 

2d p. vsdesU, {thea sawest; 
3d p. VI DB, ihe saw ; 



S.-- Perfect. 

vedSmmo, 



I ved68te, 

, vf DERO (ylder), 



you saw ; 
they saw* 



4. — Future. 



Ist p. vedrd [by contraction for 1 1 shall or will see. 
[vederd], I 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — Present, 



that I see or mayl 
[see; 

that thou see ; 



1st p. io v^da, 

[yi^GGA, or 

[yiooiAy 
2d p. /u o^(ia, 

tyioGA, or 
yicoiA, 
8d p. 6gli o^ctaJthat he see ; 
[yfooA, or 
[viGoiA, I 



vedidmo, or yso- 
[oiXmo, 

vedidte, or yso' 
[oiIts, 

vSdanoj yfooA 
[no, or y^o- 
[oiAiro, 



that we see ; 
that you see ; 
that they see. 



968 



ANALOGY. 



fitngnkr. 



lY. COKDITIOKAL. 



1. — Prcwn^ 



FteraL 



1st p. f>edr6i (vedrU) [by contrac-t I should,, would, or eoidd tee ; 
[tion for vedcrii (yederia)],; [might m 



▼/ IMP£RAT1TE. 



Iftp I 

2d p. v6di(y^*)tuy see thou ; 
8d p. vida, Tix3-|let him see ; 
~OA,or TiooiA 



[: 



vedidmo, or vko- 
[giamo nSi, 

vedite v6%, 

tfddano, y£gqa* 
[ifo, or t£g- 
[oiAifo iglino, 



let U8 see ; 

see ye ; 

let them see* 



The compounds of vedircj as anttvedercy * to fore- 
see * ; awederey * to perceive * ; divedercy * to be sen- 
sible, of '; prevedercy * to foresee ' ; prowederej * to pro- 
vide * ; rawedSre, * to amend ' ; rivedere, * to see again ' ; 
travedirey * to see one thing for another'; &c., have 
the same irregularities. 

jSntiwdite, awediref divedere^ travedire, in the past pmiie^ 
make ooly mUivedutOf < for^seeu ' ; awedutOy ' perceived * ; diosduiOf 
< been sensible of -, traveduto^ * [having] seen one thin^c for another ' : 
and dwedirCt prevederCj provveddrey rawtddrey travetUrej in thefiUun 
and conditional are never contracted, and make dwederd, * I will be 
sensible of* } prevederih ' I would foresee ' ; dec. 



VoUre. 
(Varied with avere.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 



VoUre, 



to wish, to willJI oo/tf/o, 
[ortobewiIIing.il 



PABTICIPLE. 

been willing. 



IRREQULAR VERBS. 



909 



Ist p. TOOLio, or 

[vo', 

M p. yu<5i (viio- 

Hi, Txj^y 

3a p. TUOJLK (vo- 

Pe), 



II. INDICATIVE. 
SiagolAT. 

1. — PresenL 

I am willing ; 

thou art willing} 

he is wilKng ; 



flaraU 



tooliAmo (vol^- we are willing; 

[mo), 
volete, you are willing ; 

I 

vdoLio!fo (von- they are willing, 
[no, von), I 



1st p. v6li.i 1 was willing ; 

[(v6lsi»), 
2d p. voUati, 



W p. y6u.b, 



thou wast wil- 
[Kng; 
he was willing ; 



3. "^Perfect. 

volimmOf 
voUate, 

V^LLERO, 



we were willing; 

you were wil- 

[ling J 

they were wil- 

[ling. 



4. — Futttre. 



Ist p.vorrd {by contraction for I I shall or will be willing. 
[co/er<)t], I 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



l»t p. io t6oliA) 



1. — Present, , 



that I be willing or may 
[be willing. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. • 

1. — Present, 

^■tp. vorrii (vorna) [by contrac- | I should, would, or could be wil- 
[tion for volerii (▼oleria)^], | [Ung ; or might be willing. 



*VH^ a« well u v6l»t and v<(2««r». hu beeome oftfoldte; and tho few examplefl 
2[* Bad in Dmnte, Arioeto. Berni, and Taaeo, oof ht not to authorize ibe nse of theen 
fjvf > whieh ^u^ilj beloof to the jMi/Mt of tiolgtre^ * to turn ' ; nod not of voM^ 

(0 be willing.* 

t To dletingoiiih it from ihnjktMr* of the verb veUre, ' to fly.* 

t To dittingttieh them from $ho eorrtspondiof fora« of vidr% * to fljr.* 

•23 



VffO 



ANALOGY. 



Y. IMPEBATIFE. 



SiBfolar. 



Plwai. 



1ft p« . . . I 1 

2d p. T66IJ tUf be thoa wflHng ; 

3d p. t6qlia .let kim be wtl- 

[egliJi ping;, 



▼OOXJAMO fl6t, 
▼OOLIATI 06t, 
TOGUAMO 



letoibewflGiig; 
be ye wflliiig; 
lee them be wft- 



The compounds of voUre^ as disvoUre, * to desire the 
contrary of what one has wished ' ; rivolirej * to wish 
again,' or ' to be once more willing ' \ have the same 
irregularities. 



SXAMPLKf. 



E CADDi, eSme e&rpo mirto 
clDs. (Dant. Infl 6.) 

B Hm6re, mSUo pih che la f&r- 
za dille ragiSni, lo d|»8u1sx. 
(Fn. Gior.) 

lA dove piii mx d^lsb [doisi] 
AUri 81 du6l.e, e doi^ndo addot- 
dice U mio dolore, (Petr. c. 22.) 
« 

Di niuna com durdr z>OBBii- 
MO, la qu61e dbHafirta (T q^en- 
dere, (Bocc. g. 4. n. 10.) 

Q^ieti h eoHn, ehe oiacqux 
9(»ra npStto—Del n^etro PeUi- 
edno. (DaDt. Par. 25.) 



And I feU, as a dead body &H8. 

Fear dissuaded him a great deal 
more than the power of reason. 

Others grieve for what I most 
grieved, and grieving they assuage 
my grief. 

We ought to endore nothing 
that has the power of ofiending. 

This one is he, who lay upon 
the bosom of our Pelican. 



• It hat beaa aMeriad that vtUre bat no taijwrttiv*, bot tha tUfhtaM aoqaaioi- 
taea with oar elaMio writarajnifht oowriooe aoj ooa to tha cootiarj : 



YSauiUtu vmir em mUo, (Booe. 
f. 9. n. 10.) 
\6aumincmrm. (Gr. 8. CHr. lA.) 



Ba than willinf to come with aa. 
Baveefaarity. 



IRREGULAR VERBa 



271 



Or H piicciA grad^ la sua Now may his coming please 
9emUa. (Daot. Purg. 1.) thee. 

Abn 90, $e a ia6i quiUo se ne I do not know, whether it wlU 
PARRA, ehe a me ne PARiiifiBB. appear to you so as it would ap- 
(Bocc. Introd.) pear to me. 

Cofi velSei eeguono % stt&i^ vi- Thus swift follow their hoops, 
nUf — Per simigUdrn^cd Punto approaching in lilLeness to the 
qudfUo 
§u6nto 
(Dant. Par. 28.) 

Fo non mori\ e non Kiuisi 
efco. (Dant. Inf. 34.) 

OffidCf ben s£ppe' che dirsi 
DdntejqudndOjfiel C&nto D6cimo 
deU' infimo, indusse Tarindta 
a d^U quille par6le, (Salviat. 
Arrett. 1. 2. 12.) 

OU 8coo£ifDo in piume in 
fdma non si vUn, n^ »oito c6Ure, 
(Dant Inf. 24.) 

E giammdi p6i la mia Hngua 
non TAcqos, — Mdntre poteo. 
(Petr. c 4.) 

M6rto che ibbero Costandno 
^o fratdUOf loro due xiNNKRO 
'* imp^rio. (Petr. Uom. ill.) 

M r un mi v4Rr£bbs, ni 
r aUro vdoLio ehe mi vioLiA. 
(Bocc. g. 3. n. 1.) 

^ eravam pariUi gid da iUo 
— CK i' vf Di duo gMaeddH in 
^ma buca. (Dant. Infl 82.) 

Iddio y6LLB, in qudtta tUa, 
prwdre ndi di quSski luce. 
(Bant. Conv. 114.) 



p6fmo» — E p6ssoN| Point as near as they can ; and 
a vedir eon subUmi. they can the more, jthe loftier 
their vision is. 

I did not die, neither remained I 
alive. 

Therelbre, Dante knew well 
what he said, when, in the Tenth 
Canto of the Inferno, he induced 
Farinata to say to him those 
words. 

For neither hy reposing on 
feathers, nor under a coverlet, is 
fame won. 

And never afterwards was my 
tongue silent, whilst it could 
[speak]. 

After they had killed Constan- 
tino their brother, both of them 
held the empire for themselves. 

Neither the one could, nor I 
wish that the other should, avail 
me. 

We had now left him, when I 
saw two spirits by the ice pent In 
one hollow. 

God wished to deprive us, in 
this Ufe« of this light. 



879 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE XIX. 



I. 1. — To fell. 4 — lyin^ dowtt. 7. — renwiined. 
Cadire, giacSre. rimanire. 

- — II. 1. — I grieve, thou art able, he sits, we seem, 
(hUref potirCf setUre, jKirer«, 

jou owe, they know. 2. — I dissaaded, thou heldest, 
dovirCf sapere, disstLadere, tanire, 

he wished, we pleased, you saw, they were worth. 
voUrej piacerCf vtdire, vcdire. 

S. — I fell again, thou please dst, he was subject, we 
ricodire, compiacdre, soggiacirCf ri- 

learned, they sustained. 1 prevailed, thou tnaintaiDedsC^ 

iopdre, soiterUre. pnvaUre, manisnerCf 

he was silent again, we declined, you foresaw, they 
ritacere, deaid^re, antweddre, n- 

wished again. 1 condoled, thou poesessedst, be ab- 

volere. eondoUrCf poMsedere, asUz 

stained, we provided, you hurt, they snper- 
rUre, prowedSre, disvalire, aoprasse- 

seded. 4. — I will grieve, thou wilt seem, he will be 
dire. dolere, parire, pot6- 

able, wo will remain, you will know, they will bold, 
re, rimanirey sapire^ tenire, 

IIL 1.— rl may entertain, thou mayest lose strength, he 
trattendrCf inxKjdirt, rov- 

may amend, we may displease, you may reside, tbey 
vtdere^ di$piac6r€^ rUaUrtf eon- 

may contain. 2. — I might foresee, thoa mightest pleast 
tenure. antioedere, npiad' 

again, he might see again, we might preside, you might 
re, rivedSre, presedire. 



belong, ^ they might hate. IV. 1. — I should grieve 

ienire^ malvedere. ridok^ 

again, thou wouldst come to know, be would attain, 

re, ri$ap6re, mttaUre, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



273 



we would be sensible of, you would provide, they would 
divederef \ prowedire, raV' 

amend. ^ — 

9Cdir€. 



•Know thou, let him seem, 
BoperCf parire^ 



let 



us see, 
vedire^ 



please ye, let them be able. 
piac6re, poUre. 



Variaiion of the Irregular Verbs in ere (short) •. 

There are about four hundred verbs in ere (short), 
that are irregular; but, as their irregularity, generally, 
depends on the letters which precede "that termination, 
they may be reduced to the following fortt/rone ; viz. 

Verbs ending in 
ire, preceded by a votpely as, ^risRE, 
hire, 



Urtf preceded by 



dire^ preceded by-< 



gire^ preceded by 





« 


oaadrBEBX^ 


r^.! 


<C 


ClidCERK, 


I»; 


« 


flf^ddCERK, 


l"5 


« 


VtNCERE, 


[r: 


<c 


/^RCERE, 


r**; 


11 


invkDERZ, 


i\ 


tt 


/^DBRE, 


i 


« 


rioEHE, 


6; 


tt 


rODERE, 


«i 


tt 


aZ/ljDERE, 


r; 


tt 


<iRDERe, 


in; 


tt 


aCC^NDERE, 


inl 


It 


fCiNDERE, 


6n; 


tt 


mpdNDERE, 


iu; 


tt 


cAll^DERE, . 


U; 


tt 


C^l^DERE, 


lei; 


tt 


conciDERE, 


fj; 


tt 


dirlGERE, 


V 


tt 


[^GGSRE, 


tt 


O^LGERE, 


V 


(t 


gtUNOERS, 


dr; 


tt 


5/>ARGER£, 


tr; 


tt 


m^RGERB, 


6r\ 


tt 


/7dRO£RE, 


k; 


It 


dufrt^OGKRE, 



to draw, 
to absorb, 
to cook, 
to aflege. 
to conquer, 
to twist, 
to invade, 
to offend, 
to laugh, 
to gnaw, 
to allude, 
to burn, 
to kindle, 
to cut asunder, 
to answer, 
to shut 
to ask. 
to grant. 

to direct, 
to read, 
to turn, 
to arrive, 
to spread, 
to dive, 
to oflfer. 
to destroy. 



(Class 4th.») 
(2d.> 




(ist.) 



(3d.) 
(5th.) 

(l9t.) 

rsth.) 

|(4tb.) 
I (2d.) 

;(lst.) 

(2d.) 
(4th.) 



• For the conTenicnc« of learners, and the purpofe of rendorins more simple ^e 
rariatjon of these Terbs, they here been arranged .in eUuget, To facilitate loie^* 
eoee, wo be^e indicate the clou ia which they will be foanO. 



974 

gnire, 
guire, 
lire, 

mire, preceded by \ V 

nire. 
Tire, 

tire, preceded by 

wire, preceded by 

These verbs are chiefly irregular in the perfect of the 
indicative^ which ends in si or tsi ; and in the past 
participle, which ends in 50 or sso, in to or ito^ or in sto. 
We shall, therefore, first classify them accordrag to the 
termination of their perfect and participle, and then we 
shall vary one of each class, and such of the same class 
,as may be otherwise irregular, and note, by way of ex- 
ceptions, those verbs which depart in any respect from 
their paradigm. 

[The letterr a, «, a«, httteeen fftmUkesesy prefixed to the followinf Teibe, denote 
the aMxtUary with which they are rarieU : — (e), aoir$i (e), intni (ae), iicter 
av6re or latere.] 

FIRST CLASS. 





ANALOGY. 








M, C^LTKBS, 


together. 


1 




** spiav^BM, 


to extingQiili. 




'< A/tnauEKE, 


to diBtinguiflh. 




" fV^/LERC, 


to root up. 






" e8prfME&E» 


to express, 
to assume. 


Si 




** p^ERB, 


to put. 


(5lh.) 




" eSrKKK^ 


to niD. 


(Ut.) 


^; 


** seudrzKE, 


to shake. 


l(3i) 


u; 


^ disc^T^KM, 


to discuss. 


**; 


*' rir^RTBRE, 


to return. 


SJJ 


«; 


" eonndTTKVLE, 


to connect. 


i; 


** serfFERE, 


to write* 


(44.) 


6; 


«« mu6tERE, 


to more. 


(8d.) 


li 


** O^LTEREy 


to turn. 


(2d.) 



Infinitire. Perfect. Partidpfo. 
d -dere, ^ 



lofioitiTe. 



•dere, 
'dere, 
-dere, 
•dere, 
-dere, 
Sn-dere, 
tui-dere, 
dr'-gere, 
ir 'gere, 
-rere, 
r 'tere, J 



.as,^ 



(a/ 



inVA-DERB, 

/i-DERE, 

rf-DERE, 

r6-DERE, 

a/il^-DERE« 

(ae) aR-OERE, 
(a) aCC^N-DERE, 
'a) cAl^-DERE, 
a) JpiR-GERB, 

|ae^ mi^R-OEEE, 
ae) c^r-RERB, 



Perfect. 
invd-si, 

ri'Bi, 

rd'Si, 

allu^t, 

or-si, 

aeei'Si, 

chm-si, 

spdr-st, 

mir-Bi, 

rivir'Bi, 



Paitieipls. 
tn9d-so. 

U90. 

ri-so. 
rA-so. 

dr-so. 

fl<rc^-so. 

cAiv-so. 

8p6r'9Q, 

mer-'BO, 

c^-ao. 

ffip^r-so. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



275 



SECOND CLASS. 



loSaitire. 
'here, 
n 'Cercy, 
r -cere, 
I 'gerey 
n 'gere, 
or-gere, 
'gliere, 
-gnere, 

, -fere. 



Pwftct. Partidpla. 



-«, . . -to ; . . aa,-* 



InfioitiTt. 
(a) riN-CKRjB, 

(a) tOR-CSRE, 
(a) r<$L.GERB, 
(e) ^MN-GERE, 
m /idR-OBRE, 
(a^ C<5-OI.lERE, 
Ta) 5p^-ONERE, 

(ae) ^iia/in-ouERE 
(a1 tfo^Z-LEREy 
(a) a««i^.MERE, 

(a) »<5l.-TERE, 



Perfect. 

vin-81, 
tor-si, 

tH$i-gl, 

gjun-si, 
coZ-si, 



Pttrtloiple. 

»(5/-T0. 

giun-TO, 
por-To, 

aperi'To. 
distiiv-To, 

aasuti'To, 



THIBD CLASS. 




7a) tfOfici-DERE, eoficS'Bn,conci'SBo, 

(a) Wf N-DERE, «ci.8SI, «Ct-8SO. 

#W ..^. . , (a) «»pri-MERE, e»pr^.88i,e5;;r(^.88o. 

-m, . . -w; . . as,^ (a) »cu6-tere, »c^.88i, m^sso. 

(a^ rfwciJ-TERB, discu-ssi, discu-Bso. 

(a) conw^T-TERE, conn^- 8 SI, conne-s80. 

,(a) mu6-ysRE, md-ssi, m^sso. 



FOURTH CLASS. 




.-Mt;..--</o;..a8,« 



' (a) ck6-cerb, 
fa) a<Utr-c£RE, 
(a) c2/ri-6ERE, 

(a) Z^G'GERE, 



c5-88I, eS'TTO. 

acUiu-BBij addS'TTo. 
dir6-BBi, diri-TTO, 

le-BSJ, W-TTO. 



I a; (cu-GKKE, /e-8SI, /e-TTO. 

(a) di«<rtJG.GERE,<Jwfrw-8si^w<ru-TT0. 

(0 arrf-VERE, *Cfi.88I, »CK.TT0. 

L(a) /r<i-ERE, trd'BBiy trd-TTO. 



FIFTH CLASS. 



^ ^dereA ^ 

a -dere, i-., 

'tiere,) 



'H, . . -5to 




n^dsr-DKRB, ni^-8i, mpd-sro. 
eAiii-DERE, c^-8i, cAie-sTo. 

l^d-lfERE, pS'BJ, pd'BTO. 



276 



ANALOGY. 



Variaiion of the Verb Invadere. 

•(Paradigm of the First Class of the verbs in 
ere (shart).) 



I. INPINITITE. 

Inv6'T>tRE, |to invade. 



PARTICIPLE. 

{j tno^-8o, I'lavaded. 



8ia|iiltr. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



S, — Perfect. 



let p. ffira-sf , 
2d p. invadistif 
3d p. invd'HKj 



I invaded ; 
thou invadest > 
he invaded ; 



invadSmmOf 

intadette, 

tnod-sERo^ 



Plural. 



we invaded ; 
you invaded ; 
they invaded. 



The verbs evadere, * to evade '; — Udere, * to ofiend *; 

— ridere, 'to laugh ' ; dividere, * to divide ' ; conqui- 

dercy * to conquer ' ; intridere, * to temper ' ; uccideref 

^ to kill ' ; — roderej ' to gnaw ' ; -^alludere, ' to allude ' 5 

. del&dere, ' to delude ' ; iUudere^ * to illode ' ; — arderej 

* to burn ' ; mdrdere, ' to bite ' ; — accendere^ * to kin- 
dle '; incindere, * to set on fire '; offendere^ * to offend *; 
scindere, * to descend ^ ; spendere, * to spend ^ ; tendere^ 

* to stretch ' ; vilipendere, * to vilify ' ; — chiadere^ * to 
shut ' J ^- sparger e^ * to spread ' ; — mergere, * to sink'; 
tirgercy ' to wipe ' ; aspergere, ' to sprinkle '; — cdrrerCj 

* to run ' ; — rivertere, * to turn ' ; and their compounds, 
have the same irregularities. 

The compounds of edrreret — oee^rrere, * to occnr * ; 8oee6rreret * to 
0iic€our ' ; In the future and the conditioned are often contracted ; and 
make aeeorrd, *■ it wlH occur ' ; aoccorrebbe, * he would succour.' 

Dif^ndere, ' to defend * ; pirdere, * to lose * ; and rendere, « to ren- 
der/ are hoth regular and irregular; and make in Qieperfeeit dj/endH 
or di/eai, * I defended ' ; and in the jpartiewU, d^enduto or difUQ^ 
'defended'; &c. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 277 

jFifiuifre, ' to cleave ' ; is both regular ^nd irregular; and makes, 
in the perfect, fendii or fiaai^ * I cleaved ' ; and iu the partieipUf 
jTenduto and fiaso, ' cleaved.' 

Prindtre, * to take ' ; and ridere, ' to ghave ' ; are both regular and 
irregular in the perfect ; but in the participle are irregular only, and 
mftke pr6$Of * taken * ; and rdso, ' shaven.' 



The verbs pendere, * to hang ' ; spUndere^ * to glitter '; 
venderCy * to sell ' ; strldere,* * to shriek '5 and their 
compounds, are regular j and are varied like iessere. 



Variation of the Verb Assorbere. 

(Paradigm of the Second Class of the verbs in 
ere (short).) 

1. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

jf««dr-BiAs, |to absorb. || asaSr-To, (absorbed . 

II. INDICATIVE. 

SiogQltr. Ploral. 

S.^ Perfect. 



Itt p. asadr-si, 
2d p. auorb6atif 
8d p. aaaSr'BZf 



I absorbed ; 
thou at)sorbedst ; 
he absorbed ; 



I aaaorbimmo, 
aaaorb^ate, 
osa&r'M^tLo, 



we absorbed ; 
you absorbed ; 
they absorbed. 



Verbs ending in glUre^ gnire, and liref besides the above, have also 
other irregularities, as whl be seen by the foUowbg Paradigms : 



« AlfiMMO Varaao Ims writtsii ttrit^, * h« ihriekod > ; and ttri$$ro, * Mmj ibrkk«<L' 

24 



'278 



ANALOGY. 



Cdgliere. 
(Paradigm of the Verbs ending in gUire.) 



I. INFIIflTIYE. 



C6§unLEf or ito gather. lle^LTo, 

[e^RRE (cor),! '' 



PARTICIPLK. 

[gathered. 



Siofotar. 



1ft p. c6glio, or 

2d p. c6gU, 
3d p. edglie, 



II. INDICATIVE. 

J. — Present 

coglldmOf 



PIoraL 



( gather or am 
[gathering ; 
(hou gatherest ; 
he gathers ; 



coglUle, 
c^liano, or e6i> 

[OORO, 



we gather ; 

you gather ; 
ihey gather. 



3, — PerfecL 



1ft p. c6lsi (co- 

2d p. eojglUtli, 
8d p. COLSK (co 
[g^^,cogli^tte), 



T gathered ; 

(hou gatheredst ; 
he gathered ; 



eogliSmmOf 

eoglUst^, 

c6l.se RO (cogH^- 

[rono, cogliette 



we gathered ; 

you gathered ; 
they gathered. 



4. — Future. 
1ft p. eoGLiERO, or eoRRo, I I shall or will gather. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



1st p. io eSglia, 

[oteOLQKj 

2d p. tu edglia, 
[or e^LOA (c6gli 



[or colghi) . 
l£U cigUa, 
[ore^LGA, 



Sd p. < 



that I gather or 

[may gather ; 

that thou gather; 



1. — Present. 

coglidmOf 
eoglidte, 



that he gather ; 



cSgUano, or c6l- 

[OAlfO, 



that we gather ; 
that yoa gather ; 

that they gather. 



IRREGULAR V£RBS. 



'Zf9 



lY. COXTDITIOITAI.. 

, J. — Present, 



lit p. eoouxB^i, or eoKRti rco- I I should, would, or could gather : 
[gliena, or conia) , | [<^ niight gather. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



SioguJar. 



PIuraL 



latp. . . . 
2d p. c6gH (c6') 

**P' e6glia/MT 
[COLOA 6gU, 



gather thou *, 
let him gather ; 



eogltdmo n6i, 
eogliete v6i, 

cSgliano, or e6h- 
[gano dglinOf 



let ui gather ; 
gather ye ; 

lerthem gather. 



S^^ere. 
(Paradigm of the Verbs ending in gnire.) 

I. IIIFiniTiyE. PARTICIPLE. 

9piQwzRm, or Ito eztiogubh. llfp^sTo, lextiDguiflhed. 



lit p. sp^gno, 01 

[sp^NGO. 

2d p. spSgni, 
3d p. sp6gne, 



I extinguish or 
[am extinguish- 

thou extinguish 



he extinguii 



II. IflDICATIYE. 

I. — Present 

spegnidmo, 



[est; 
ishes ; 



spegn^e, 

spSgnonOt or 
IspiaooMOf 



we extingubh ; 

you extinguish ; 
they extinguish. 



3. — Perfect. 
Ist p. spoils I, I I extiDguiahed. 



W) 



ANALOGY. 



lU* COHJUHCTITX. 



!• *^ PmtwL 



PhmL 



Utp.U 9pigna,^ihMi I eitingufob, ] j^m^WSmm, 
[or ij^^ifOAJ [or may eztln-'l 

I [gui»h ; [i 

id p. ftf tpigna^ that thou extin- «p<^ui<e, 
[or tptfHGAi [guish ; 



[(sp^gni), 
td p. a^&' »pigna, 'that be extin - 
[or tp^xvoA,! [guiah i 



spignano or 

[jp^NOAJIO, 



[gviflh ; 

tbat you ejrtm- 
[guiali; 

that tbey extin- 
[futoh. 



T. IMPBRATIYX. 



latp. . • . 
td p. $p6jgmtu^ 
td p. ipegna. or 



exf incuish thoa ; 

let bim extin- 

[gttisbj 



sp€gnt6mo n^t, Ilet us extinguiflh ; 
wpegnite vdt, eztin|i;uish ye ; 
tpignanoy or jlet Uiem eztm- 

[jp^iroAHo [goiah. 

[6glmo, I 



(Paradigm of the Verbs ending in Urt.) 

U IVFUriTITK. PA&TICIPI.K. 



99QLMMZ, 



(to root Up. 



P ivihro^ 



Irootedup. 



It. INDICATITK. 

1.— PrcMfiL 



M p. aeM<N or 

id p. aW2^\ 
td p. tffiUe, 



I root op; 

thou rooteat up ; 
ba roots up; 



$v6UonOt or iveh 
[eoHO] 



we root op; 

you root up ; 
tbey root up. 



lat p. av^si, I I rooted up. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



3S1 



III. COffJUNCTITX. 



Singular. 



Ist p. io niUOy 

[or 9odZoA, 
2d p. tu sv6lla^ or 

[or flv^lghi), 
3d p. 6gli avilla, 
[or svelGAf 



that I root up, or 

[may root up ; 

that thou root up; 



1. — Present. 

avellidmOf 
sveUidte, 



Plural. 



that he root up -, 



8p6llano, or 9v6l- 

[GANOj 



v. IMPERATIVE. 



I«tp 

2d p. MvilU tUf 
Sd p. nella, or 



root up thou ; 
let him root up ; 



avelUdmo n6i, 
8velleie v6i, 
8v6llanOf or 8v6l 
[gano iglino. 



that we root up ; 
(hat you root up ; 

that they root up. 



let us root up ; 

root ye up j 

let them root up. 



The compounds of assorbere, ' to absorb ' ; cdglierey 

* lo gather ' ; and the verbs vlncere, ' to conquer ' ; — 
iorcere, * to twist ' ; — volgere, * to turn ' ; rifidgerey 

* to shine ' ; — gittngere, « to arrive ' ; miingerej ' to 
roilk ' ; pungere, * to prick ' ; tufigere^ ' to anoint ' ; — 
pidngere^ * to weep ' ; frangere^ ' to break ' ;* — cingerey 
*to gird'; fmgere, * to fain'; pingere, * to paint'; 
«ping«re, * to push ' ; tingere^ * to tinge ' ; — porgerCy 

* to offer ' ; accdrgercy ' to perceive ' ; sdrgere^ * to rise ' ; 
-^sciglierej * to choose ' ; scidglierey * to untie' ; tdgliere, 

* to take away ' ; — distinguerCy * to distinguish ' ; estin- 
fftiere, < to extinguish ' ; — avellere, * to pull by force ' ; 
dioellerej * to pluck up ' ; — ass&merej * to assume ' ; — 
vdlvercy < to turn ' ; and their compounds, have the same 
irregularities. 

^ifulgere has no participle. 

S6^ere has been hj poets changed into aurgere, and so throughout 
"• inflexions : — aurst, * I rose ' j aurto, * risen * ; &c. 

Stringere, * to bind ' ; md its compounds, as aitringere. * to con- 
strain * J &c.. In the participle makes atritto, « bound * ; aatretto, « conn 
•trained ' ; he. 

«j4» 



W2 ANALOGY. 

StpSUeref < to expd ' ; impdiUre, < to impel * ; ratiUere, * to repd ' 
in the pefftct make e$p&lH^ * I expelled^ ; impttUi^ * I impeUed ' 
rqp>idnt * I repeDed '; and in tbe pmrtidfU^ etfmlio ^ ' expelled' 
m^ulao, * impeUed ' ; repulso^ * repelled.' 

InvSherey * to ioyolre ' ; and depSherCf < to devolre ' ; in the^cni- 
e^le malce mvoluUf, * ioTolved ' ; devoluto, * deTolred.' 

Prew&meref < to presume * ; and ria$$itmert, * to re-aMaora ' s «m^ 
vere, * to absolve ; ditwdivere^ < to diseolve ' ; and rii^liMre, * to re- 
flolTo'; in the perfect are both regular and irregulwr\ and make 
prenanH orprennui, < I presumed '; a$soh6i or attdin^ < I absohred '; 
ace 

A$96h»ert^ dis$6here^ and ris^here in tbe partiaplle nake^ a$9eiHUy 
* absolved ' ; du$oUUo^ < dissolved * ; risoHuo, * resolved.* 

The verb $6lvtre^ < to untie,' * to solve/ is rtguUxr^ 
and is varied like iissere. 



F'ariaiion of the Verb Cooc^dere. 

(Paradigm of the ITiird Class of the verbs in 
ere (short).) 

I. INFINITIVE. PABTICIPLB. 

C<me^DXBK, |to grant. || eoned-^o, |granted. 

II. INDICATITE. 

Sittfolar. Plural, 

a — Per/erf. 



1st p. eonei-ast, 
2d p. eoneediatii 
8d p. conc6'9»t, 



I granted ; 
thou grantedst; 
he granted; 



ecneedimmoj 

eoneedeste^ 

c^me^^sxso. 



we granted; 
you granted ; 
they granted. 



The verbs sdndere^ ' to cut asunder ' ; — esprimere, 
* to express ' ; — scudtere^ * to shake ' ; ptrcu&terey « to 

• For this mHm^ w«,geiMraIly, rabatittile dStei6U»t a eorrMModisf fcm «f tkt 
T«rb Maddglur*, * to <linolTe'> } to disUogaitli it fiom tbe word AMiNite, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 983 

strike '; — dtsc{tiere^ * to discuss '; conc^tercj * to shake ' ; 
— connettere, * to connect ' ; — mudverCj * to move ' ; 
and their compouDds have the same irregularities. 

Hedhnere, * to redeem ' ; in the perfect makes redimi, * I redeemed * ; 
ind in the pmrtieiple^ redeiftiOf * redeemed.' 

Mittere, * to put ' ; and its compounds ammitteref *■ to admit ' ', eom- 
miUere, ' to commit ' ; &c., in the petfect make mUi, * I put ' ; ojimiH- 
fi, * 1 admitted ' ; &c. 

Cfaneidere, * to grant ' }^intereideref * to intercede' ; preeidere, * to 
precede ' ; and sueeedere, ' to succeed/ are both regular and irregular, 
and make, in the perfect f concia$i or eoncedii, * I granted '; and m the 
participle f eoneisao or eaneediUo, * granted ' ; &c. 

ConrUttere, si^niiylng < to reason/ is regular^ and makes, in Uie 
perfect^ eonnettn, * I reasoned ' ; and in the participle^ connettutOy 
* reasoned.* 

The verbs cederty * to yield ' ; accedere, ^ to accede ' ; 
eccWcrc, * to exceed ' ; procedere^* * to proceed ' ; -^ 
presdnderCy * to prescind ' ; — premere^ * to press ' ; 

Simerey ' to squeeze ' ; — rifletierey ' to reflect ' ; and 
iercy * to beat ' ; and its compounds, are regular y and 
are varied like tissere. 

IHJUttere, when applied to < light/ ' sound/ &c., in the participU 
nukkes riflesso, * reflected.' 



Variation of the Verb Cuocere. 

(Paradigm of the Fourth Class of the verhs ending in 
ere (short).) 

I. INFINITIVE. PABTICIPLE. 

Cu^CKRi, Itocook. ||c6-TT0, jcookod. 

• or Uiis r«rt», Caatig liooa has OMd pro€4s$€, * b« prooMdcd.* 



284 



ANALOGY. 



Biiifitor. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



3. — Pft/Wrf. 



Iftp. e^tti, |( cooked ; 

2d p. cocitUy Ithou cookedflt ; 

8d p. c5-s8K, [be cooked \ 



C^tSKAO, 



PlaraL 



we cooked; 
yoa cooked; 
they cooked. 



Aidiuert, 
(Paradigm of the Verbs ending in ucert,) 

I. IIIFllflTITX. PARTICIPLE. 



Addtc 

[addt 



, or \io 



allege. 



\add6iTOf 



[alleged. 



II. IIVDICATITE. 

3.— Perfect. 
Itt p. addt»»tf I I alleged. 

4. — Future, 

Itt p. addvtaib [by contraction I I shall or will allege, 
[for adducerd]f \ 



lY. CONDITIONAL. 



L — Present. 

1st p. addxrRit£i (addurria) [by t I should, would, or could allege ', or 

EcoDtractioD for a€Uiueer6i (ad- [might allege, 

duceria)], | 



RUiuere, * to thine * ; and traHuere^ « to shine throujih * ; are neTer 
contracted in the infinitive^ and raake, in the Juture^ ruucer^y * it wiH 
thine ' ; tralucerd, * it will shine through * ; and in the conditional^ 
rilucerebbe, ' it would shine ' ; &c. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 285 

DistHtggere. 

I. IKPIWITIVE. PABTICIPLE. 

'^^^l^T^'^''^' ||rf«WTTO, .destroyed. 

n. IWDICATIVK. 

let p. distr6Bsx, | I destroyed. 
l»t p. distrvQQEBh, or dUtruRBd, \ I shall or will dettioy. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present 

Irt p. dwftroGGEKfei, or dUtrm- I I should, would, or could destroy ; 
[E& (diitruggeria or distnirria}, | [or mi^t d^rt^I 



Striggere, « to melt * ; is never contraeted hi the k^nUwef a&d 
makes, hi the Jvture, only $truggerd, * I will melt' j and Ui the con- 
^»*ional, strvLggcrHy * I should melt.' 



TVdere* 

I. INFINITIVE. FA&TICIPLB. 

TrdKBM, or trdn- Ito draw. ii <rdTTO, | drawn. 



* Fitea the Latin traktrtf eoovertod abo by th« Italians into trdgwmr$, now 
eoms 0ftMte«, bat of wiiich it x«taini many of tho forma. 



S86 



ANALOGY. 



Siafttter. 



U* UfDICATIfl. 



L — Present 



Plaral. 



lot p. trdaao, 

2d p. trdi, 

8d p. trde {irifr. 



I dnir ; 

thou drawest ; 
he draws j 



/rolamo, or froo 
[oiJLmo, 
trtUte, 
trdQQOBO (tr&n- 



we drmw; 

you draw ; 
ihjy draw. 



1st p. trdsMi, 



3. — Perfect. 

I I drew. 

4. — Ftthtre. 



IsC p. trasLO^ [by eoDtraction for | I shall or win draw. 
ltraerd],\ 



III. COlfJlTZfCTIYX. 

1. — Present 



1st p. io trdoQAf 

2c^p. tu trdaoAf 

3d p. ^ trdQ- 
[OA, 



that I draw or 
[may draw ; 
that thou draw ; 

that he draw i 



tra%dmOf or /roe- 
[gjJLmo, 

traldie or trao- 
[oiIte, 

trdoQAMO, 



that we dftw; 
that you draw ; 
that they draw. 



IT. COlfDITlONAL. 

L — Present 

Isi p. troBBii (trarria) [by contrac-j I should, would, or could draw ; cr 
[lion for traerei (traeria)] j [might diiw. 



T. IMPBRATIVX. 



Istp. . . . 

2d p. trcd tu, 
8d p. trdQQX 



draw thou ; 
let him draw ; 



tra%dmo or traa- 

[oiIho, 

traetef 

trdQQAEO^ 



let us draw ; 

dmw ye ; 

let them draw. 



IRREGULAR VERBS.' 287 

The compounds of cudcere^ * lo cook ' ; iraertj * to 
draw * 5 and the verbs .t/irfwcerf, * to induce ' ; cond{icer€j 
♦to conduct'; deducerey * to deduct '; jjrorfiicer«, *to 
produce *; ridt^cere, * to i educe ' ; seducere, * to seduce 'j 
iraducerty * lo translate ' ; — dirigere, ' lo direct ' ; erU 
gere,* ' to erect ' ; negligere^ * to neglect ' j prediligerej 
' to have a predilection lor ' ; — UggerCy ' to read ' 5 
rigger Cy * to support ' ; prodggere^ * to protect ' ; — 
struggerej * to melt ' ; — scrivere, ' to write ' ; anj^M^ 
compounds, have the same irregularities. J^^S^ l.'3/f,1 

T\ggtrt,\ « to fix » ; in/iggere, ' to infix ' ; ^''^/^^^¥«k1n«!!fiF *7 7> ^' "' 
in the participle end both in ««o and tto ; and niaklyy8At)rfiy?hr%* ^^ ^ *- 
• fixed * ; tf^sso or iw/tTTo, * infixed * ; &c. — -^ffi^ 
erociftggere, * to crucify ' ; pTtfiggrrej * to prefix * ; t 
make affitutOf * affixed *; croc(/i8»o, * crucified *; &c. — < 
thrust into ' ; $€onfig^erey * lo defeat ' ; friggere, * to fry * ; j 



, ■* to affiX(*$:ir 



to fry ' ; offiiggerey • lo afflict * ; ififiiggerey * to inflict ' ; end in Uo ; 
and make cotywTTO, * thrust into ' ; fmro, ♦ fried * ; if]fUrTO, * inflict- 
ed'; &c. 

JtUucere, * to shine * ; tralueerey * to shine through ' ; are both regit' 
tar and irregular ^ and make rilueei or rilussi, * 1 shone ' ; trainee or 
traluasey * it shone through ' ; but they have no participle. 

Esigeref * to exact * ; in the perfect is both regular and vrreguloTf 
and makes eiigii or csdssif * 1 exacted ' ; and in the participle makci 
esdito, * exacted.' 

Vtvere, * to live '; in the participle makes vivtito or vissutOy * lived *; 
and in the future and cogiditional^ is often contracted into viwd^ ' I 
will Uve *; and vivrei (vivria), • I would live.' 



* Erigert ii oAon br poett contracteil into irgere, bat then hat no partieipU, 
Hm ir<« roeniioAeii by Majitrofini, notwith^^tanding iu duriviiion from erittOf paiti- 
etplo of erigerey \% uieU in Italian aa an adjectirc, bat not aa a participle. 

t FlggertymnA tome of iU eompoonda, a« affiggert, kjc.y are sometimei spelt with 
CM g only : —figert, qffiger§ \ and then make, lo the perfect,/Uif t^ffUi ; and in the 
pmrt»eipl*,/Ho,qfl90i &c. 



268 



ANALOGY. 



Variation cf the Verb Risp6Dclere. 

(Paradigm of the Fifth Clcss of the Terbs in 
ert (short).) 



I. INTINITIVE. PABTICIPLE 

iZofi-^HDSBS, |to tDfwer. g rupS-MTO, 



II. INDICATIYE. 



fliiifvkr. 



PlnraL 



■PerfocL 



Ut p. fiq^^ti, 
^ p. rispondistiy 
8d p. mp-6flB, 



I tnswered; 
thou aasweredst ; 
Im answeied ; 



riipomddntmo^ 



you answered; 
<bey MKwered. 



Ckiidere. 



I. WfFIKITITE. 

C&t^DEBX, |to ask. 



PARTrCIPLK. 

I chUno, jasked. 



II. IirDICATIYX. 

l.—PresenL 



[(chi^ggio). 

2d p. tkUdi, 
3d p. ehUde, 



I ask ^r am ask- 

thou askMt; 
he asks; 



ehie£6fno(eMeg' 
[gidmo, cbied^- 
[roo). 

ehiedete, 

chiedono IchUg- 
[giono, chiig' 



we ask; 



yoaask; 
ihey ask. 



a-.P«r/ed. 
1st p. chU9ij 1 1 asked. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



289 



Siogulaf. 



III. CONJUNCTITE. 

1. — Present 



Plural. 



[may ask; 
that thou ask ; I 



lit p. io ^Aiecfajthat I ask, or 

UekUggia, 

[ekUgfra), 
2d p. lu ehieda 

HehUs^gia, 

[ehUggay 

[chiegehi), 
8d p. igU rhUda that he aak ; 

[{chUggia, 

iehUgga), 



,ehUdidmo(chieg- 
[gtdmo). 

ehiedifite (ehieg- 
igidte), 

ehiidano (ehUg- 
[gianOf ehiig- 



that we ask ; 
that you ask } 

that they ask. 



v. IMPBRATITE. 



litp 

2d p. ehUeU tUy 
Sdp. dU^cta 
{(thUgga)6gU, 



ask thou ; 
let him ask ;• 



eMediAmo n&i, 
ehiedite v&i, 
ehiidano {efUfg- 
[gano) igUno, 



let us ask ; 

ask ye ; 

let them ask. 



I. INFIWITITE. 
P^BS,or^^BRX;|to put. 



P<hure* 

PAKTICIPLB. 
B pSsTOf Iput 



II. INDICATin. 

1. — Present 



lttp« p6nao 
Wp.j>^, 



Iput; 

thou puttest; 
he puts ; 



ptmidmo^ 

ponite, 
pSnQono, 



we put ; 

you put ; 
they put. 



S.'-'PerJhci. 
1st p. p6n, 1 1 put 

4. — iWtfre. - 

^•t p. pdud [by contraction for 1 1 shall or will put. 
[jKmerd], | 



900 



ANALOGY. 



Siofolar. 



III. CONJUHCTITK. 



h-^Preteni. 



FtemL 



1ft p. io p&noA 

2d p. Ill ponQjL 

dd p. egU jtouQA 
[(pogna), 



Ist p.|»orr£i (porria) ([by contrac- 1 I tboold, would, or coold pot; or 
[tioD fotponeret (pooerk), | [ml^t pat. 



(httlput; [ 


ponidmOf 


thatweptit; 


that thou put; 


pomdU, 


that yoo pot ; 


that he pat ; | 


pdnoAiio^ 


that they pot 


IT. COlfDITIOBAK. 




1. •— /VCMIU. 





▼. IMFERATirSi 



Ift p.... I 

2d p. p6ni iu, put thou ; 
3d p. j>^aA /^|let him put ; 



jpomdmo n6if llet us put ; 

\pmUte v6if Iput ye ; 

\ p6nQ Awo igimoji\tt them put. 



The verbs corrispdndere^ ^ to correspond ' ; asc^nderty 
' to conceal ' ; nascdndere^ * to hide ' ; — richiedere, * to 
request ' ; — and all the compounds ofpdnere^ * to put ' ; 
have the same irregularities. 

A$e6ndert and tyuedndere, in the wjtrtiapie, end also ia 90, making 
a$e6sOf ' concealed* ; and na$e690, * hiddeu.' 

F6ndere, ' to melt,' and its compounds eoriflhidere, < to confound ' ; 
Ate in the peffed make f6si, < I melted ' ; -eon/il^Bi, * I confeonded' ; 
fcc; and in the partidpUffiBO, < melted ' ; coi|n^so, 'confounded ' ; 3te. 

FSndere » also reg^ihr, making also, in f^keperfect, fomdH^ and 
in participle ffondfkto. 



Tdndere,* * to shear ' ; and tcemert^ * to distinguish ';f 
ducemere^ * to discern ' ; conchmerey * to concern ' ; are 
regular^ and varied Uke tissere. 

* The p«rUeipl« C^M, 0rroiwoaat7 auribot^d to Umitn, If a eootnetka tftMil** 
parUeiple of Om vsrb tMdr», ■ to theftr.' 

t MamooiliM wriUM m^wc, *ah« dirtkigQlibwl » ; and MtfrMvw, < they dMs* 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



391 



Fariation of other Irregular Verbs in ere (short), not 
included i» any of the preceding cUxsses. 

To the above five classes of verbs in ere (short) 
must be added the verbs, 



condscere, 
tfisetrt^ 



to know ; 
to grow ; 
to hurt; 



n&8cert^ 
rdmpere^ 



to be born ; 
to break ; 



which, in the perfect j end in 66i, cqui^ ppi; and in the 
participle^ in iitOj to, tto : thus, 



Infinitive. 

COnoSCERB, 
Cr^CERB, 

nii(k;ERB, 
tuftacERE, 

n^MPBRB, 



Perfect. 
COTK^BBI, 

nd-cqur, 
fki-cqui, 
rA-PFi, 



Partioipla. 

conttsci'^TO ; 
crtsd'tTo ; 
7ioci-i5TO; 
nd-To; 
rd-TTO. 



(Varied with avere.) 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

^^^widiecre, ItokDow. H eono^et-t^TO, f known. 



Biofnlar. 



^»t p. eon^-BBi 

. [(conosc^i), 
*5 p. eonoseiiti, 

** p. COIt^.BBB 

[(cono8C^)y 



II. INDICATIVE. 



^—Perfect 



Plural. 



I knew ; 

thou knewett ; 
l\e knew ; 



conoseimmo, 

eonoicisie, 
eon^B9RRO, 



we knew; 

you knew ', 
Uiey knew. 



9» ' ANALOGY. 



The compounds o( condscertj — and the verb crSscerey 
^ to grow/ and its compounds, — have the same iirego- 
larities. 



JViioccre. 
(Varied with avcre.y 

I. imriKITITE. PARTICIPLE. 

A\»6ctre, |to hurt. || nod-^to, fhuit. 

. II. INDICATIVE. 

SiDfohr. PlunL 

Ut p. ii^CQUi, 11 hurt ; || n^dmmo, pre horC ; 

Sd p. nociMUj thou hurtett; I noeSsie, lyou hurt ; 

Sd p. n6-c«i7B, |be bun ; l| n6^q.vuLO, Itbey hart. 

Rmudcere^ * to hurt again,' — and the verb iiajfere, 
^ to be born ' ; and its compound rinascere, ^ to be bom 
again,' — in ihe perfeciy have the .same irregularities. 

MMtere, and Its compound rmoMcere, in the partieipU make ndrT^ 
' been born ' ; rtno-To^ * been born again." . 

The verb p6seer€f ' to feed,* although it has the same terminatioo ae 
eowSBcere, eriictre, nAscerc, is zegiUcw. Th^ verb miseer^^ '^S'^'" 
iog * to pour,' is regular , but d^^nityiog ' to mix/ in tlie forticipU^ it 
vrrtgidart and males misto, * mixed.' 



R&mptTt. 

(Varied with avirt.) 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

Rknpert^ |eo break. || r^-rro, jbrokeiu 



IRREQULAR VERBS. 



309 



Slnfiilar. 



Plunl. 



a— Pei/ed. 



Itt p. r6-ppi 

[(roppi,romp^l), 
2d p. rompiBtu 
8d p. H<-ppB 

[(r6ppc,rompi). 



I broke ; 

thou brokeat ; 
he broke ; 



romphnmo, 
rompdite, 

rU-PPERO, 



we broke ; 

you broke ; 
they broke. 



The compoands of rompere^ as corrAmpere^ * to cor- 
rupt ' ; dirdrnpercj ^ to break ' ; be, have the same 
irregularities. 



P^ariatum of ike Verb Severe. 

Bivere^ * to drink,' is a r^ular verb ; but, as it has 
been by poets so contracted as to give it the appear- 
ance of an irregular one, we will here give its variation. 

Severe. 

(Varied with avere.) 

!• IN^INiriYE. 
{Bi9€re) 6er«, | to drink. 

•XKUND. PARTICIPLE. 

^94Hdo (be<ndo),|drinkiiig. H hevuto, (drunk. 

U. INDICATIVi:. 



l?PWw(b^o), 



1. — /Ve#cnt 



IdriDk; 
thou drinkeft; 
he dfinkt; 

35* 



bevidmo, 
beviU (heite), 
bfwmo (biono), 



we drink ; 
you drink ; 
they drink. 



9M 



ANALOGY* 



2. — Imperfect 
Itt p. io bev69a or bevia^ | I drank. 

2^-- Perfect 



PhuaL 



Ift p. bev6i or 
Tbevitii, b^vti 
[(W*«), 
2d p. btvetti, 
3d p. 6eo^ or be- 

[vStte^ B<y VK 



I drtnk; 



thou drankett; 
bo drauik ; 



bevifnmo. 



bevieu, 

bevirono or be- 
[v6tterOf b£v- 
[vzRo {bebbe- 
Iro, b^yyoQo), 



we drank; 



you drank ; 
Ihey diaok. 



4. — fWur*. 



1st p. {beverdf 
[bevro) berd, 

2d p. (bevetSi) 

[beriiJ 

Sdp. (beverdf 
[bevra) btrd. 



I thaH or will 
[drink j 
thou wilt diink; 

he will drink ; 



(beverem^t be- 



[yT4mo)ber6fiU), 
beverite) bereU, 

(beterdmto} be- 
[rofmo, 



wewflldiink; 
yoo win dfink ; 
they willdxiBk. 



III. CONJITHGTITE. 



Idtp. ie bSva 

[(bea), 
2d p. tu b^va 
[(b^vi;b^a,b^i), 

id p- igli bivQ 

[(b^a), 



that I drink or 

[may drink \ 

that thou drink ; 



thathediink; 



l.'^PrenwL 

betiamo, 
bem&Uf 
ocMiiui (beaiK>}y 



%^]mptrfeeL 



1st p. \o bevitsi jif I drink ; 

[(be^s8i)J 
2d p. <u fret^tnif thou dihtkest; 

[(be^)J 



8d p. bev68»e 

[(be6««e), 



if he drinks ; 



bevStsimo (be^ 

[simo^y 

bevitU (l^^te), 

beviMtero (be^s- 
[8ero,be688ono}y 



(hat wedndc ; 
(hat you drink; 
that they drink. 



if we drink; 
if you drink; 
if they drink. 



IRREGULAR Y£RBS. 



895 



Siofalar. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 



1. — PreaenL 



Plan]. 



Ist p. (heverii 
[(beyena)) berU 
[(ben'a), 

2d p. (beveristt) 
[ber6ttii^ 

3d p. {b€ver6bbe 

[(beveria)) be- 
T^bbe (beria). 



I should, would 

tor could drink *, 
or might drink ; 
thou wouldst 

[drink ; 
he wooid dfiok ; 



{bever^mo) be- 
[rSmmOi 

{bever6ste) heri- 

{bevtribhero {bt- 
fveriano, bntfi- 
\tno)y ber6bbero 

\eno)f . 



we would drink ; 

you would drink ; 
they would drink. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Ittp. . . . 
Mp. bivi (b^l) 

S4 p. biva (b^a) 



drink thou ; 
let him drink ; 



bevidmo nSi, 
beviU(be4te)v&i, 

bevano (b^ano) 



let U8 drink; 
drink ye ; 

let them drink. 



The compounds of biverej as imbiverey * to imbibe ' ; 
ribivere^ « to driok agaia ' ; have the same irregularities. 



REMARKS ON THE FOREGOING VERBS. 

All verbs ending in {tcere^ as add&cere^ * to allege ^ ; 
^ndtieere^- * to induce ' ; fiic. in the participle^ besides 
<^hanging cere into tiOy change also the u into o ; and 
"»ake adddttOj ' alleged * ; inddito, ' induced ' ; iic. 

^tOueere, « to shine ' ; and tralueere, « to thine through ' ; have no 
Hrttcfpte. 

Verbs ending in gliere^ as edgliere^ * to gather'; 
^^gUere, « to take away *; *&c., in V^e perfect and parti- 
^ple retain tbe I of their termination ; and make c6im. 



996 ANALOGY. < 

* I gaihered '5 c<Jl<o, * gathered ' ; tdiAtj * I took away ' 5 
be. 

All verbs ending in ndirt, as acdndere^ ^ to kindle ' ; 
sdnderCy * to cut asunder ' ; rispdndertj * to answer '; 
be, in the perfect and the participle lose the n ; and 
roake accisiy ' 1 kindle'; accisOj * kindled' ;. 5cim, *1 
cut asunder' ; be. 

Verbs ending in ngere maj end also in gnere^ and 
vice versa \ thus, giungere or gii^erey Mo arrive*; 
spegnere or spkvgere^ * to extinguish ' ; fac. When 
they end in gnlrel in the perfect and participle they 
retain the n of their termination ; ana make spimsij 
' I extinguished '; tpestOj ' extinguished ' ; be. 

The tr»Dt posit ion of the n is Terbs id f)^£r« ousbt not to be mtde ex- 
cept in those hiflexions in which ng is followed by e oti; as, gitrngo^ 
' 1 arrive/ #ttiOKiy * thou arri?est ' ; gtuune^ * he arriTes ' ; gmanidmto^ 
* we arrive" ; giuGit6te, ^ yoa arrive ' ; giiingono^ * they arrive ' ; and 
vice versd in verbs in gnire, it ought not to be made but in tbos^ inflez* 
ions in which gn is followed by or a ; as, nivoo, i I extinguish ' ; 
i^gni, * thou extinguiahett ' ; &c., apinaa, < that 1 extingoiBh ' ; dbc. 

Verbs ending in igere and tmere, as dirigere, ' to di- 
rect ' ; esprtmerCf ' to express ' ; be., in the perfect and 
participle change the i into e ; and make dir£sti^ < I 
directed ' ; dirttto^ ' directed ' ; esprUsi, * I expelled ' ; 
e^rtsiOy ' expressed ' ; be. 

The verb redtmere^ ' to redeem ' ; and verbs ending 
in ^tmere^ as ass^tmercj < to assume ' ; be., in the per- 
fect and participhi change the m of their termination 
into n, and make redivsi^ \ I redeemed ' ; as^Nn, < I 
assumed *; ai^N^o, * assumed ' ; be. • 

The verbs traere^ * to draw * ; pdnerCj * to put,* and 
their compounds ; and all verbs ending in gltere^ {tcere, 
Agg-crc 5 as cdgliere^ * to gather ' j addj^cere^ * to allege ' 5 
dutr&ggerej Mo destroy '5 are, in the infinitive con- 
tracted into trdrre^ f^rre^ edrre, addiurre^ distrurre ; 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



US7 



and make, in the future, — irarroj * I will draw' ; porroj 
* I will put ' ; &tc., and in the conditional^ — trarreiy ' I 
j^ould draw ' ; &c. 

JRUueeref * to shioe * ; traluceref * to shine through ' ; and struggert, 
< to melt' ; are never contracted in any of the above inflexions. - 



All verbs ending in ere (short), preceded by the 
diphthong uo (accented), as cubcere, ' lo cook ' ; «cu6- 
tere, * to shake ' ; mvbvere,' * lo move ' ; nvbcere, * to 
hurt * ; fee*, in the perfect and participle, — and in aU 
the inflexioifs in which the diphthong loses the accent, 
drop ihe u ; and make, cdssi, « 1 cooked *} cdttOj 
* cooked ' ; scossi, * I shook ' ; &c. — coctamo, * we 
cook ' ; scoteie, * you shake ' ; movero. * I will move ' ; 



scoteie, * you shake ' ; moveroy 
nocerebbe, ' it would hurt ' ; S^c. 



XXAMPLB0. 



Ad anUndue mUsti flni ha qu\ 
▲ixdso parimente il Signdre con 
un tal ditto, (Segn. Mann. Nov. 

JVbn istitte gudri, che igli per- 
dA to m$ta, e la par6la, (Bocc. 
g.4.n.7.) 

QtUita v6lta to dird, c6me n 
dU^^^s- jy Sssermi p^rsa anch* 
to la lUeiatura. (Buon. Fier. 2. 4.) 

TagUdndo U FKiroi qudti tt»- 
fino S dhiH. (Bocc. Filoc. I ,) 

Colui Fi^ssK vn rrimbo^ a lAo 
— Lo evSr eke in tia Tanngi an- 
dk n c6la. (Dant. Inf, 12.) 

Cheaper V eff6tto di* su^md* 
pemUri, — Fiddndomi di lidfio 



To both these objecti hat the 
Lord here equally alluded with 
such words. 

It was not long before he lost 
both his sight and speech. 

This time I will say, as we are 
wont to say, that I have qnissed 
the object in view. 

With a cut he clove him as 
far as the chin. 

That one smote in the bosom of 
God the heart which is yet hon- 
ored on the Thames. 

That, through the effect of Wa 
evil thoughts, I, trusting in hun, 



998 



ANALOGY. 



ySfft PRiso, ^- E pSseia m&rto^ 
dkr noil h meitiirL (Dant. Inf. 
38.) 

Prisa la pidstra, la rad£i da 
UUU e due U bande. {Benv. 
CeU. Oref. 85.) 

E $ieo av6re una proeiUa ▲»- 
•6rto — Tdnti prineipi iUustri. 
(Ariost Fur. 14. 6.) 

Vdi troverite lo spetidU per 
la tia, che andrk a c6rrs la 
mmtra di' eonfitH. (Fir. Trio. 
1.2.) 

J^i poita ne c6loa mii» ni 
Oidve — La prhiUgL (Pctr. f . 
46.) 

Se 6gU [fl yfno] sdppia di sSe- 
CO o dbbia odor eaitivo^ cdceinvisi 
dSntro fidccole aecise, t vi ti 
ftpJ^iiOAifo. (Sod. Colt. 99.) 



WM tak^n and tftervrard pat to 
death, there is no need that 1 
should tell. 

Having taken the metal, I 
shared it on both sides. 



And that along with twin ooe 
storm had swaDowed up so many 
iiiustrious princes. 

You will find the apothecary mi 
the way, s^ing to take the 
ore of the coiSiections. 



Never may a poet gather of it, 
nor Jupiter give it any privilege. 



If it [the wine] tastes too dryer 
has a bad odor, let lighted torches 
be thrown into it, and be extin- 
guidhed in it. 

Simpre la proetimdna irha Let the grass always l>e polled 
dattSmo H sviLOA. (Cresc. 5. up around it. 

Che CrUto apparve d* due cA' 6- That Christ appeared unfb the 

ratio in ota, — Gid bi^rto /u6r two upon their way, new>iisen 

ddlia sepuicrdl buea. (Dtot. Purg. ftom his vaulted grave. 
8L) 

In onordre altrin teniva la bSr- 
$a 8tr£tta. (Bocc. g. 1. n. 8.) 

Del bH fddo di Uda mi dioiUe, 
— E nel eiil veloeisnmo tn* im- 
pdi«8K. (Dant. Par. 27.) 



Ch* ^ di t6rbidi ntwoU mvo- 
Ll^ro. (Dant. Inf. 24.) 

Clodio dUde moneta d* gOdiei, 
efu ASsoLi^To. (Sen. Fist. 97.) . 

Quieto p08$SrUe mio nSbih ar- 
ddre — Mi soU^na da Urra^ e pdr* 
ta il core — Dov* irper eua virtU 
turn gli t coK oisso. (Buon. Rim. 
60.) 



He kept his purse close in hon- 
oring others. 

From the laif nest of Leda rapt 
me forth, and wafted me on foto 
swiftest heaven. 

Which is wrapt in turbid mists. 

Clodins gave money to the 
judges and was acquitted. 

This powerful ardor of miiie 
elevates me from the earth, and 
carries my heart, where by its 
own power it is not* permitted .to 
ascend, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



290 



A eke, e c6nu coves oirTB 
JhnAre — Che eonoiceste i dub- 
bi6ti desin ? (Daot. lof. ^.) 



By what and how did Lore grant 
that you should know your uncer- 
tain wishes? 



Rzd£bto, da Redimere. 
sea.) 

M MfsE diniro SUe segrite 
c6te (Dant. Inf. 3.) 



(Cm- Redeemed, from to redeem. 



He led me on into those seclud- 
ed regions. 

JV% dnche hen capiseo V iUa- Neither can I understand the 

n5ne ehe fa j3p6Ue^ del dovh'si inference which Apelles makes, 

coneidere qu6lehe lume RirLisso that some reflected light must be 

dlla Urra, (GaK Macch. sol. 168.) granted to the «arth. 



Qudndo Fet&nie dbbandondU 
frini, — PercJU "l eiil, c6me pare 
anc6r, ti cdsss. (Dant. Inf. it.) 

Ddto che quista ragiSne si 
poUt$e AODdccRE. (Borg. Rip. 
30.) \ » r 

^, simpre ehe verrit prapSii- 
to, ADDURRi^M o simUi antiehi e- 
impj, (Dav. Stor. 3.) 

.£r suSno, ehe n fa niUe sehe ' 
dtti^ eaeciatdrif perefU li edni 
TRAOOAiro al iudno, (But. Inf. 
31.) . 

Via eSria e spedita-^TRAn- 
itiBBB a Jin quest* dspra pina, e 
d&ra. . (Pctr. c. 18.) 

SSno Ff so in un Hmo, che non 
trdtfafondo, (Vit. SS. Pad.) 

Lo TRArfrro il mirdf ma nitUa 
«•»«. (Dant. Inf. 25.) 

ISSber^ sp^rio od d* suM mdm' 
M Avrfsso. (Petr. •. 113.). 



When Phaeton abandoned the 
reins, whence heaven, as it yet 
appears, was wrapt in flames. 

Even could this reason be al- 
leged. 

Whenever it' shall be conven- 
ient, we will always allege simiiar 
ancient examples. 

k is a sound, which is made by 
hunters in the woods, thai the dogs 
may come to that sound. 

A short and expeditions way 
would bring to an end this severe 
and hard pain. 

I am fixed in a marshy soil 
which has no bottom. 

The pierced spirit looked ob 
him, but did not speak. 

Free spirit et still confined to 
its limbs. 



Tmtd di tr&r dilla prof&nda He tried to draw from the deep 
jn^ga 2a cohfItta saitta, (€hiar. wound the fixed arrow. 
P*stFld.6,7.) 



£ tdnta gr&zia s6vra me Rii.i^f - 
•a. (Dant Par. 22.) 

l^ lues $UUe tSnebre rix.it* 
c4tt«. (Arr.Vang.) 



And to much grace sboM over 
ae. 

Light shone in Ae da ikn ees. 



300 



ANALOGY. 



Esirro, 4t Kdfere. (Cnuct.) Egacted, from to exact. 



Che gU fiuse o$curdtm la fdma 
ii^ prinapj delta siui milixia da 
mi pSpolo TiTt^To in lunga pdee, 
(Ouicc. Slor. 5.) 

Ma U hen viMtJTO vfechie i* «•• 
megn&oa 4S mastrdre la 9eritd dil- 
tocdfo. (Fireos. Aaiiu} 

Tivmo, com* io $an Tfaso,* 
(PeU. t. lib.) 

jiUSra dimandd eSnu $i ehia* 
mdva qtiell* iaola ;fu ri sp6sto per 
U mmindrii che per antico n chior 
m&oa Jeru$aUm. (Giov. ViU. L 
4. e. 18.) 

JV2 pmd grdxia negdr ehetugH 
OHiioGiA. (AUm. Colt 1. 10.) 

E Bene vinne a pdiiERB 6ste a 
FUeoU. (Pccor. g. 11. n. I.) 

Per duo fiammitte, che vedkm- 
mo fiSrre. (DaDt Inf. 8.) 

Cht poRRk hen la nUnte e 
r mumtto, (Fraoc. Barb. 16S.) 

Lo duca ed Uf, per qu6l eammi- 
iMAScdso, — Enirdmmo a ritor- 
ndr nd chidro m&ndo, (Dant. 
lot 84.) 

La pietd dP duo oogndii, — Che 
di trudna tidto mi cokfi^sk. 
(Dant. Inf. 6.) 

TiUte le eampdne che erano in 
quiUo IrovSronsi^dsi tutte won- 
Di^TBy e6me fiaeero colate nella 
fomdee. (Matt. VUI. 3. 42. ) 

H SaUu&no con6bbb eoitui ot' 
timaminte i8$ere eaputo uedr del 
Idecio, U gudle davdnti d' piidi 
tho gU aoia, (Bocc g. 1. n. 3.) 

Ben ti die ricorddr, che non H 
v6cQUB. (Dant InC 20.) 



Tbat die Taoie of the begimiiiii^ 

of bit military Kfe sbottld be ob- 
acured by a people wbo had Kv«d 
in loDg peace. 

But the weU-Uved old matt «•- 
deavoured (o show the trutk of 
the thing. 

I shall Kve as I have IlTed. 



Then be a^ked how that 
waj called ; be was answered by 
the sailors, that anciently it wbs 
called Jerusalem. 



Nor can he deny any fiiTor ihml 
yoa may ask. 

And eaae to eacaaip at Reaofo. 

By two small flames, which we 
•aw kindle. 

He who will reflect weD. 



My g^de and I entered by flmt 
hidden way to return to the brigbt 
world. 



Pity for the kindred shades, 
whence grief wholly ovefcaaa 
me. 

An the bells which were there, 
were fonnd almost all melted as if 
they had been put in a femace. 



Saladin saw that he had 
how to get out of the snare, which 
be had spread before his feet 

Thoo oogfatest to remember well, 
for it did thee good terrice. 



> By eoatraelioci for wU tik U, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



aoi 



Jlnd6nnt a Pctvia per una dU' 
edrdia n JLta tra quiUi di Beeche- 
ria. (Din. Comp. 3.) 

Laeittadindnza, ehe h or hIsta 
— Di Cdmpi, e di Cerialdo, e di 
Figghkie,-' Pura vedSasi neW ul- 
timo artiiU. (Dant. Par. 16.) 

V un d4lU oudH, anc&r non h 
«wtt* Anni — Rupp* io per un, 
che dintro v* annegdva. (Daot 
Inf. 18.) * 

E mdngia, e b£e, e ddrme^ e 
veste pdnni. (Dant. Inf. 33.) 



He went to Pavia on account of 
a dissension sprung up among the 
people of Beccheria. 

The citizens* blood, that now is 
mixed from Campi, and Certaldo, 
and Figghine, ran pure through the 
last mechanic's veins. 

One of which I broke some few 
years past, to save an infant who 
was drowning in it 

And eats, and drinks, and sleeps, 
and puts raiment on. 



EXERCISE XX. 



L 1. — To gather* to allege, to destroy, to draw. 
CSgUere. adducere. distruggere, trdere. 



to put to take away. 
p6iiere. tdgliere. 



'. — cloven. taken, shaven. 
findere. pr6ndere, ridere. 

kindled. devolved. bound. redeemed, extinguished. 
aecindere, devSlvere, $iringere, redimere, spignere. 

cooked, janswered. bom. directed. lived. broken. 
cvi6eere, ^tup&ndere. ndseere. dirigere. vhere. rdmpere. 

alleged. n. 1. — I gather, thou extinguishest, he 

oddmeere, cdgliere, MpSgntrCf ri- 

reduces, we ask, you draw, they take away. 

d6eere, ehtSdere, trdere^ tdgliere. 

I absorb, thou choosest, he rises, we assume, yon 
ou6rbere, tcigUere, s6rgere, assumere, a- 

compel, they root up. 3. — I offended, thou vilifiedst, 
ttringere, ivillere. Udere, vxLipindero^ 

he ran, we bite, you sprinkled, they kindled. 

correre^ tnSrdere, <upSrgere, aeeendere. 

I expelled, thou invadedst, he knew, we wiped, 

etpiUere, inioddere, conSseere^ icrgere, 

96 



302 ANALOGY. 

yon shot, they descended. 1 cat aaander, thoo 

ehmdere^ $e6ndere. s^nderCf eon- 

grantedst, he redeemed, we sheared, yoa chose, they 
cidere, rtd&mere^ tSndere, $eeglierej rnidt^ 

put 4. — I will succour, thou wSU drink, it will occur, 
tere, toecdrrerc^ b6vere, ocedrrere^ 

we will shake, you will draw, they will destroy. 

BCuStere, trdere, diMtrvggere. 

I will put, thou wilt move, he will turn, we will untie, 
pdnere, muSvere, v6lvere, $d6gUer€y 

you will reflect, they will melt. IIL 1. — I may 

rifUtUre, stHtggere. d^ 

distinguish, thou mayest milk, he may know, we may 
tingueref mungere, ndicere^ proUg- 

protect, you may cook, they may conquer. 1 maj 

gere, eudeere, tenure. scte- 

choose, thou mayest fry, he may request, we may 
gUerCf fi^^e, riehUdere, eontreg^ 

oppose, you may hurt, they may drink. IV. 1. — 

ponersj nuSeere^ bivere, 

I should drink again, thou wouldst break, he would 
ribSvere, frdngere, rilu- 

shine, we would lire, you would produce, they would 
cere, tfmere, produeere, cri- 

grow. V. — write thou, let him feign, let us answer, 

seere, aaioere, fingere, rupdnderef 

pour ye, let them feed. 
mitcerCf pds€€re. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



d08 



▼ARIATION OF THE IRREGULAR TERB3 OF THE THIRD 
CONJUGATION. 



The following are the simple irregular verbs of the 
third conjugation ; viz. 



marire^ 
saUrCf 



!lo say, 01 
to tell ; 



to die ; 
to ascend ; 



seguire, 

useire, 
venire* 



to follow ; 
to hear ; 
to go out ; 
to come. 



Dire. 



(Varied with avere.) 



didndOf 



I. INFINITIVE. 
DIre (dicere),* \ to say. 

GERUND. PARTICIPLE. 

jsayiog. || Dirro (ditto), Isaid. 



II. IKDICATIVE. 



Singular. 



1. — Present, 



1st p. t^O, 

2d p. did or of, 

W p. Mee, 



1 say ; 

tliou sayest ; 
he says ', 



diciSmo, 

dItk, 

dieonOf 



2. — Imperfect. 
1st p. io diciva or dic^a, \ I said. 



Plural. 



we say; 
you My ; 
they say. 



• Tbii Terb.balongt, properlf , to the wscond conjaaation, it b«in« hot a ooatraa- 
»oa Qf dictre, iow bocomo obtoUtt, of which it retaiiw many of the foroM. 



3W ANALOGY. 

Btngalar. 



Z.--PafuL 



1ft p. utssi, 
9d p. <ii<re«fi, 
Sd p. Disss, 



mid; 
tbou saidest ; 
he stid; 



I iHtimmo, fwe said ; 

dieHte^ you said ; 



DfssEBO, 'they i 

4. — Fulure, 



1st p. Dind [by coDtt»ctkMi for I 1 shall or will say. 
du€rd],\ 

III. CONJUNCTITE. 

1. — Prtstnt. 

1st p. itf (&ca, I that I say or may say. 

2. — ImpfrfccL 

Ist p. (a ittedsM, I if 1 said or should say. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Pre9eni. 

Ist p. dir£i (diria) [by contractioD | I should, would, or could say; or 
[for dleerii (diceria)], | [mi|^ My- 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Istp. . . . I . . . . 
2d p. dI* tu, Uay thou ; 
Sd p. dUa 6gli, I let him say ; 



Et us say; 
yye; 
t ttiem say. 



dieidmo nSi, [let us say ; 
dItb v&i^ 
dieano igltno^ 



The compounds of rfire, as rw/irc, * to say again ' ; 
eontradlre or coniraddire, * to contradict * ; interdirty 
* to forbid ' ; bendirey * to speak well of * ; maldtrBy * to 
speak ill of; have the same irregularities. 

Benedire, * to bless/ and maladire or maUdire, * to curse,* In the 
perfect f are both regular and irregular, and make llenedii or beiudU$iy 
' I bleitsed ' ; maledii or maledisn, *■ I cursed.* 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



305 



Morire, 
(Varied with cssere.*) 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

- Mofiref |to die. H ii6rto, |dead. 



Itt p. H1|6rO, or 

[md6io (iiioio) , 
2dp.Mu6Ri, 

3d p. MUORK 

l{mu6r) 



Siofolar. 



II. INDICATIVE. 
I. -- Present. 



Plaral. 



thou diest ; 
he dies ; 



moritef 
Mo6Ko?fo,oriiD6- 

[i05o (moio- 

[no). 



we die ; 

yon die ; 
tliey die. 



4. — Future. 
Ishp. morird or morrdf \ I shall or will die. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — PresenL 



111 p. Itf mv6ra 
[orHu6iA(nn6iii). 
td p. fu &iu6ra, 

[^■D6iA(iii6ni 
ormoia, mori), 
•d p. ^gU Mv6- 

[»A, or MUdiA 
(mora or moia). 



that I die, or 
[may die ; 
that thou die ; 



that he die; 



moridmOf 
moridte^ 



mu6rano, or 
[muoIano (md- 
[rano or moiano), 



that we die ; 
ttiat you die ; 

that they die. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 
1. — PrtsenL 



^ P- morMi or fnorrii (mo^iria I I should, would, or could die ; or 
{or iiiorria), | [might die. 

, * Mtrtn a«y b« varied •Ino with avira ; hot then, m we have already obeervad 
r^t*... .. - f«o •€«;•• verb, end •ifoi6ee« to kilV and not 'udla.* 



^JOS^ H tAkes tlM naiofe ofe 



2G« 



306 



ANALOGY. 



y. IMPERATITE. 



Biafalmr. 



Istp. . . . I 

2d p. M u6ri tu, {die thou ; 
8d p. MudRA. or let biui die ; 

[hd6ia (mora 
or moia) 6gli, 



nval. 



' moridtno not, 
I mo6ra5o, or 

[Hu6lAK0(m6- 

I [rano or moia- 
I [oo) igUnOf 



let us die ; 

die ye; 

let Ihem die. 



The compounds of morirey as premorirty * to die be- 
fore ' ; &ic., have the same irregularities. 



Salire. 
(Varied with either avSre or essere,) 



I. INnNITITE. 

Saike («aglire*)4to asceod. 



PARTICIPLE. 

$aRto, [ascended. 



II. INDICATITE. 
L — PresenL 



1st p. siL.GO, orjl asceod ; 

2d p. soli or sa-!thou ascendest; 

[^eii (sagli), 
8d p. sale or sa-!lie ascends; 

[Uice (8%lie),j 



aaUdmOf or sa 
[guamo, 

sIlgoko, or ia 
[liBCono (sa- 



we ascend; 
yoa asceod ; 
(hey ascend. 



fimMofftbt 



* From thia Tcrb, now beeom* obsoUU, aro derived maoy of Uie 
modem vurb«a/frt. 

f The forms aaliMi and tagUhmo, of the prtsent of the t»rfic«tn»« mod of tbe 
imptratiot ; and tagliAmo and sagUdU^ of the frtfut of the eonhautio^ Aiood* are to 
be preferred when taU, eaii^uee, eefklf<, might be confiMUidea with i 
and salidte, conetpondtos tenae* of the rerb saUrty *• to aalt.* 



IRREGULAR VERSa 



907 



Siofolmr* 



PlonL 



a — Ptrftct, 



2d p. satitH^ 
3dp. #a/i (96Ue, 
[salio) 



I ascended ; 
ihou ascendedst ; 
he uceoded ; 



8<tlirono{86Uero^ 
[saliro, salir), 



we ascended ; 
you ascended ; 
ibey ascended. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1.-— Present. 



l8tp.S0 8AL0A,0r 

[Bali$ea{8dglia), 
2dp. fusiLGA,or 

[M/i«ea(salghi). 

3d p. ^gli siLOA, 

[or saliiea. 



that I ascend, or 

[may ascend ; 

fhat thou ascend; 

that be ascend ; 



saU&mOt or sa 

[OLliHOy 

MoHdte, or sa- 

[gliatb, 

SjiLOANO, or sa- 

[Useano (si- 
gliano), 



that we ascend ; 
that you ascend ; 
that they ascend. 



IMPERATIVE. 



Utp. . . . 

2d p. »dlU or aa- 

[lUei tUf 

Sd p. sIloa, or 

l$aU$ea igU, 



ascend thou ; 
let him ascend ; 



saUdmOf or sa< 
[GLiixo ndi, 
iolite vdif 

9AI.GAN0, or sa- 
lUiCcmo igUnOi 



let us ascend ', 

ascend ye ; 

let them ascend. 



The compounds of snlire^ as risalire^ ' to reascend ' ; 
asMoliref * to assail'; &^., have the same irregularities. 



306 



ANALOGY. 





Scguire. 






(Varied with either avere or essere.) 


1. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 


8eguire, |to follow- H tegmto. 


{followed. 


II. INDICATIVE. 




SiofvUr. 


PlonL 


1. — PreaenL 




1st p. siguo, or 
[hi£guo, 

2d p. $6^ui, ot 
[si£oui, 

Sd p. sigtu, or 

[8ISGUE, 


I follow ; 
thou foUowest ; 

be follows; 1 

1 


seguidmo, 
fegwte, 
iegtwno, or 

[sl^OUOHO, 


we follow \ 
you follow ; 
ihey follow. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



h-^PrestfU. 



1st P' io M^gtMJihtX 1 follow ; or 



[or m^GUA 



2d p. tu $6i^ua, oi thai thou follow ; 



[si^gui), 

Sd p. egti atgua, 

[or uiiavA, 



[may follow; 



that he follow; 



tegmdmOf 
seguidUf 



$6gtumOf or 

[siiGUANO, 



that we follow ; 
that yoo follow ; 

that they foOow. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Istp. ... 

2d p. s^snti, or 

[tiioDi tu. 

3d p. Ugua, o 

[siiauA egli, 



follow thou ; 
let him follow ; 



$egui&mon6if 
$eg%dt€ vSi, 

sfguanot or sii- 
[ouASo igUnOy 



let m follow ; 
follow ye ; 

let them foHow. 



The compounds of seguire^ as corueguirBf * to obtain ' ; 
imegvire^ * to pursue ' ; proteguire^ * to prosecute ' ; 
9U$8^uire^ « to follow immediatelj after * ; have the 
same irregularities. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



d09 



Udire. 
(Varied with avere.) 



I. INFINITIVE. 
Ui&re (odire*), |tohear; 



PARTICIPLE. 

II udiio, ' |heard. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



Siogolar. 



1. — Present, 



Irt p. 6do, 
W p. 6dk, 



II hear ; 
thou hearest ; 
be hears ; 



udidmo, 

dDONO, 



Plural. 



we hear ; 
you hear ; 
they hear. 



4 — Future, 
Ist p. udird or udrd, | I shall or will hear. 



l»t p. So 6da, 
2d p. tu 6da 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

1. — Present. 
ttdidmOf 
vdidte^ 



that I hear or 
[may hear; 
that thou hear ; 



that he hear ; 



6davo, 



that we hear; 
that you liear ; 
that they hear. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 



I. ^Present. 



*8t p. udirii or itdrii (udiria or | I should, would, or could hear; 
[udiiii), I [or might hear. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



htp I 

^ p. <5di 'tu', ' hcar'thiu'; * 
*> p. 6dl fgli, jlet him hear ; 



udidmo nSi, 
udite v6if 
6daso igUno, 



let us hear ; 

hear ye ; 

let them hear. 



* From Ibis Ibrm, now obtoleUt are derived ddo, ddi, ^.> of udire. 



310 



ANALOGY. 



The compouDds oft* /'zre, as riudiref * to bear again'; 
Sic. have the same irregularities. 

E$audire, < to grant ' ; U regular , and Tacied like esitfire. 



Dscire. 
(Varied with issere.) 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

Ui^e (e9cire*),|to go out ; || ustito, [gone oot 



Sin^lar. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



i. — Present 



Ist p. isco, IT fi^ out ; 

2d p. £sci, thou goest out ; 

3d p. iscK, (be goes out ; 



fiscidmo, 
usette, 

iSCONOy 



PluraL 



we go oot ; 
you go out ; 
they go oot. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



Iflt p. io isCA, 

2d p. tu f SCA, 
8d p. 6gU iscA, 



that I ^o out, or 
[may go out ; 
that thou go out ; 
that he go out ; 



1.^ Present. 

uteidmot 



v*cidtet 
1 iscAKo, 



that we go •lit ; 

that yon go oot ; 
that they go out. 



V. IMPERATIVE. 



Istp 

2d p. f SCI tu, 
3d p. £scA igli. 



^o thou ofit ; 
let hiin go out ; 



useiatno n6i, 
ttsette v6i^ 
iscAifo igtino, 



let us go oot ; 

s^o ye out ; 

let them go out 



The compound of uscire, — riuscire^ *to succeed,' has 
the same irregularities. 



* From thi« rerb, now become obtolettf are derhred the fbrau <«c#, ^wcs, Ibe., of 
the Terb lueire. 



IRREfiULAR VERBS. 



311 



Vef^e, 



Ventre. 
(Varied wiih issere.) 

INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

|to come. II tektJto, jcome. 

II. INDICATIVE. 



Singiilar. 



1. — Present 



Plnrai. 



l>t p. TiwQO 

2a p. yifNi, 
W p. viitHx, 



I come ; 



ihou contest ; 
he comes ; 



venidfno (vegnd- 

ventte, 

yiiiooHo(v^gno- 
[no), 



we come; 

you come ; 
ihey come. 



l«tp. t6hki, 
M p. venUti, 

W p. villHK, 



S.---- Perfect 



I came; 
tbou camest ; 
he came ; 



ventmmo, |we came ; 

venUtef you came ; 

v£nnero (veni- they came. 
i [ro),| 



4 — Future, 

l«t p. verrd [by contraction for I I shall or will come. 
loenird], \ 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



^P. Co TilfOA 



1.— PrM«rf. 
that I come or 



WP.^^1 






[(f<giia)J 



[may come ; 
that thou come ; 

that he come ; 



venidmo (vegn&- 
[mo) 
verndte (yegn&- 

▼iifOA5o (ve- 
[gnano), 



that we come ; 
that you come ; 
they they come. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — Present 

*•* p. 9errii (verrfa) [by coDtraction I I should, would, or could come ; 
[forventm (veoiria)], I [or might 



313 ANALOGY. 

T. IMPERATIYE. 

Bbifakr. Pisral. 



1ft p 




'v€m6mow6i. 


let us CO 


9d p. yi£!fi ftt, 

Sd p. viNGA 


come Uiou ; 
let him come; 


come ye 
let thorn 



Fcnire is sometimes varied with the conjunctive 
pronouQS m», tiy si, &^. and the particle ne ; thus, mk 
NE vengOy ^ I am coming thence '4 te ne vieni^ ^ thou 
art coming thence ' ; &c. — Me^ te^ &c.| are then mere 
expletives. 

The compounds of venire, as conventre, * to agree ' ; 
divenire, * to become * ; invenire, * to find ' ; prevenire^ 
* to anticipate'; sovve ii. e, *to assist'; &c. have the 
same irregularities. 



Variation of the Kerb Offerire. 

Offerire, * to oflFer,' is both regular and irregular ; 
and it has, besides, been so contracted by poets, as to 
render it important to give here its variation. 

Offerire. 

(Varied with ai^re.) 

I. INFINITIVE. 
Offerire or offrire, | to offer. 

OBRUHD. PARTICIPLK. 

^ffler6ndo or otferiog. i|(offerito) orriR-loffered. 

\pffrendo,i \V [to,| 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



313 



II. INDICATIVE. 

1. — Present. 
lit p. offerUco or Sffro, \ I offer. 

2. — Imperfect, 

Ist p. ia offiniva or offirivafOr offeria I I offered, 
[or offria, \ 



Sio^ar. 



Plural. 



. Perfect. 



Irt p. offerU^ of- 

UrtifOT OFFiRSl, 

2d p. offerUti or 

loffrxBti, 

3d p. offer\,offr\, 

tor orribasx, 



I offered ; 
tbou offeredflt ; 
he offered ; 



offerimmo or of- 

[frimmoj 

offerUte or offri- 

[ate, 

offerirono or of- 

[frirono (offer(< 

[ro or offriro, 

[offerir or offrir), 



we offered ; 
yoa offered ; 
they offered. 



li [or orriR8£R0, 
4 — Future, 
l«t p. offerird or offrird, \ I shall or will offer. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

1. — Present. 
l*t p. io offerUeay oJfrUea, or Sffra, \ that I offer, or may ofier. 

2. — Imperfect. 
lit p. io offerissi or offirUn, | if I offered, or should offer. 

IV. CONDITIONAL. 

1.^ Present 

Itt p. offtririi or offrir^i (offerirfa | I should, would, or could offer ; 
[or offriria), | [or might offer. 

V. IMPERATIVE. 



1st p. . . . 

2d p. offeriici or 6ffri <u, ] offer thou. 

27 



314 ANALOGY. 

The rerb sofferirej ^ to suffer/ has the same irrego- 
laritjes. 

Oonferiref * to confer' ; d^eHn, * to dfflbr ' ; mferiref < to infer ' ; 
prqfeiiref « to proffer '; rtferire, * to refer * ; tnrferiret ' to tnusfer *; 
•le nerer contracted ; and in tbe petfict and pwrfAdpU have the 
terminations in it and tto only; and make» eonfaUi < 1 confimed ' ; 
dH^crU, < 1 differed ' ; cofrferito, • conferred '; fcc* 



REMARKS ON OTHER YERBS IN (re. 

The verbs convertirSy * to convert ' ; sovveriirey * to 
subvert ' ; are both regular and irregular^ and in tbe 
perfect make contertii or conve'rsi, * I converted ' ; 
soweriii or sovve'rsi, < I subverted ' ; and in the parti- 
ciple^ convertito or conve'rso, ^ converted ' ; sovvertiio 
or sovve'rso, * subverted*' 



Dtoejitre, * to divert ' ; ptrvertirt^ * to pervert * ; have tbe 
tions in 8 and ito only ; and make dwetln. * I diverted ' ; pervertti, 
« I perverted * ; dioertUo, * diverted * ; pervermo, * perverted,' 

Appanre and comparire^ * to appear ' ; and their 
compounds, are both regular and irregular^ and in tbe 
perfect make apparii or appa'rvi {apparsi) ; eompom 
or coMPA'Kvi (com pars!) y ^ I appeared ' ; &c., and in 
the pardciphj apparito or appa'rso ; (comparito) com-* 
PA^MSO, * appeared ' ; inc. 

Aprircy * to open * ; coprire^ * to cover * ; and their 
compounds, in the perfect are both regular and irregu- 
lar, and make aprii or ape'rsi, ' I opened,' coprii or 
cope'rsi, ' I covered ' ; &c., but in the participle are 
irregular only ; and make ape'rto, ' opened ' ; cope'r- 
TO, * covered ' ; &c. 

• A few initancM maV be fbrnd anonf Um clasncf in wbl«h riffrwi, * I ra fcn a ^, ' 



IRREGULAR VERSa 



315 



SXAMPLB8. 



Ji M a /rate of ssx : « DiUo 
newranUnU." (Bocc. g. 1. a. 1.) 

E Mu6ioiiro 971 quhta fSlle 
tperdnza, (Gr. S. Gir. 2.) 

Dieai int6ndere,per lo pSdre e 
per lo figliuSloy ttiuti coloro, ehe 
SALooNo, e i$c6ndono per retta 
Snea, (Maestruzz. 2. 28.) 

OmV to per lo tuo m6* p6nso^ 
t diteirnOf— Che tu mi sioci, 
ed io sard tua guida, x(DaDt. Inf. 

JPiorentmo — Mi simbri vera- 
ninte quaruP io V 6do. (Daot. 

Iotas.) 

Qt«U fscK alcuna v6Ua di 
gdl6ppo — Lo eavaliir di schUra^ 
the eavdkhi, (Dant. Purg. 24.) 

^ Aiindo fdtto Jure un grandM- 
vifno fu6co in una ida cammind' 
to* in quclla ib vb y^rre. 
(Boccg. 2. D. 2) 

JWn4n« 6gli 6cchi mi si fu 
off£rto — Chi per hingo sU^n- 
«w pwiafideo, (Dant. Inf. 1.) 

Tali eSse, propbrItb eosl in 
^trdUo.hdnno qu&lehe difficoUd, 
^ ^utr comprise, (OaU. 228.) 

Per lo audi i ehi erAda — Pih 
we 7 mbndo in Cads coNTicB- 
■0. (Dant. Inf. 12.) 

ApparI una gran morlalUd, 

^^\ Stdndo eostui nel 

Pnndpio del suo eapit€m6to, ap- 
PARvc un edsOf ee, ..... 
(Fianc Sacch. n. 158.) 

OH aeeorgim^nH e le copiRTB 

Vie^Po Mmi tutu. /Uant. Inf. 



27.) 



Vo seppi tutte. (Dant. Inf. 



To whom the fiiar faid : ** Say 
it frankly." 

And die with this foolish expec- 
tation. 

For father and son, must he 
understood, all those who ascend 
or descend in a direct line. 



Wherefore I, pondering for thy 
profit, devise, that thou mayest 
follow me, and I will be thy guide. 

Florentine thou seemest to me, 
in truth, when I hear thee. 

As sometimes one knight pricks 
forth at a gallop from a troop of 
ranked chivalry. 

Having caased a large^re to be 
made m one of her halls, there she 
came. 



There presented itself to my 
sight, the form of one, whose voice 
seemed faint through long disuse of 
speech. 

Such things, spoken so in ab- 
stract, are difficult to be compre- 
hended. 

Whereby, there are some who 
deem that the world has ofleo 
been turned into chaos. 

There came a great mortality, 

kc He t>eing yet in the 

beginning of his captaincy, an ac- 
cident there happened, &c 

I knew an subtleties, and cov- 
ered ways. 



816 ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE XXI. 

I. 1. — To say. 4 — contradict 7. — blessed, eome. 
Dire, emUradtre, benedire. verAre. 

died. advised. offered. transferred. II. 1. — I die, 

morire, amertite. offerire. trcuferire, moriret 

thoa ascendest, he follows, we hear^ you go oat, 
iaiirCf Btguire^ udtre^ usare, 

they come. 2. — I languished, thou saidst again, he 
venire, Imigvire^ ridxre^ j»re- 

anticipated, we contradicted, you re-opened, they re- 
verwre, ' ^ . . - 



covered their senses. 3. — I cursed, thou reascendedst, 
venire maledire^ risa^e, 

he became, we suffered, you diverted, they referred, — 
divenire, fofferire, divertirey r\fervre. 

I appeared, thou finishedst, he opened, we heard, yoa 
apparire, Jinire, aprire, seti^re, com- 

agreed, they covered. 4. — I will say, thou wilt arrive, 
renirey eoprirc. dire^ pervenire, 

he will die, we will differ, you will discover, they will 
morire, differirty seoprhre, a»- 

ftssail. ni. 1. — I may die before, thou mayest obtain, 

BcUire, premorirej eonsegtdre, 

he may hear again, we may convert, you ma^j* find, 
riudire, convertire, tncentre, 

they may succeed. 2. — I mi^ht say, thou mightest contra- 
riusare, due, con- 

diet, he might bless, we might forbid, you might say again, 
tradire, benediref interdire, ridire, 

they might curse. IV. 1. — I would assist, thou wooldst 

maledire, sovvenire, sof- 

suffer, he would forbid, we would re- assail, yon would come 
ferire^ interdvre, riatsalire, riveni' 

again, they would hear one thing for another. V. — con- 

re, iraudh-e, prO' 



DEFECTIVE VERBSa 



ai7 



tinue thoa, let him^rant, let us prevent, proffer ye, let 
segv&re^ e$awwe, prtvenke^ jw<j/<jHr«, wv- 



them subvert. 
vertue. 



[For a TiMt tf trrtgvlar Verbt, im Apniivpix.] 



CHAPTER XI. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



Defective verbs ending in ere (long) : 



Calire, 


to care for; 


pavSre^ 


to fear; 


eolirt or c6Ur€^ 


to adore ; 


siUre, 


to be, or keep, 


Ucirt & Iki- 


J 




[silent ; 


re, or Ucert 


^ to be lawful ; 


soUre, 


to be wont ; 


&. licere. 


3 


stuph^. 


to be astonished. 


Defective verbs en 


ding in ere 


(short) : 


A'lgerey 


to be chill; 


riidere, 


to return ; 


dngere, 


to afflict ; 


sirptrty 
aoffblcere or 
soffolgtrty 


to creep ; 


arrdgerty 
edperty 


to add ; 
to contain ; 


> to support ; 


dUrere, 


to ask; 


tdugere, 


to touch ; 


convdUrej 


to convulse ; 


t6Uere, 


to take away ; 


JUdtrtj 


to wound ; 


Uhperey 


to be benumbed ; 


lucere. 


to shine ; 


itrgere. 


to urge ; 


tmilcere, 


to assuago ; 


tfigere. 


to be vigorous. 




Defective verb 


s ending in ire : 




to go 5 


olire. 


to smell. 



a7» 



2^ ANALOGY. 

VABIATTON OF DEFECTIVE TKBBS. 

[TImm TeriM are uMdoniffla Um U$ut tod parttiu, which am hen ftMs.] 

Calire. 

I. INFINITITE, 

L— Prwent 2.— Piwt 

Ca2dr«9 |to care for. |] ^f«ere eoHuOf |to bare cared lbr> 

eERUHO. PARTI CIPI.B. 

eaUndo, [caring for. [| ealuto, |cared fi>r. 

II. INDICATIVE. 

fihifoUr. PlsraL 

1.-^ Present. 



3d p. cole or cdi,ihe cares for. 'I 

2. — hnptrftCL 

I !• . ■ . 

8d p. calevg, or 'he cared for. .... 

[caUa, I I 

a — Per/ect 



t : : : : 



dd p. cJLlsb, ibe cared for. H , . . . . 

III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

1. — PretenL 
.... 11 



8d p. cioLiA, 



that he care for/ 1 
[armaycarefor.il 



4. — JmperfeeL 



8d p. edU9»e, 



if he cared for, or 
[should care for. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

Slnfolar. PIonL 

V. IMPERATIVE. 



319 



3d p. cioLiA ^^2t,*|let bim care for. 



CaUre is generally used with the conjunctive pro- 
nouns mt, /t, d^ vi^ gli ; thus, mi caUy « I care for^ ; d 
caUva^ * re cared for ' ; Sic. 



CoUre or c6lere. 





I. INFINITIVE. 


(Colore or cdlere), | to adore. 




II. INDICATIVE. 




1.— Prwcn/. 


l«t p. (colo), 


I adore ; 




Sd p. (c6le). 


he adores. 





Lecere & licere^ or Ucere & Ucere. 

I. INFINITIVE. 

(Leeire & licirey or I to bo lawful, ii <fMere Ucito or I to be 
[Ucere & tuere), \ II \licito,\ \ 



lawful. 



* As it bat been qaeitioned whether caUrB if used io the imferat'.vty w« cite flrom 
tiM ela«ic« tlio following examples to prove llial it u aa oied : 

AV» M M oa'clia no^ io so bm iodd Do not trooble yoanelvea tbont it, I 

dU mj/o. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 6.) know very well what I am doing. 

Dtl c6m* non U caolu, U perehi tt Do not trouble tbyeelf about tbe how. 

«rd. (Bocc. Filoc. 6 ) I will tell ibee tbe why. 

Or M A«ttdiito — &m U ndttro easUUa Now if, in tbe mean time, oar eaatlaa 

9gpH9^H • »irte — Von ce iie ca'olia. are oppreited and eonqoerea, let oa not 

(TaM. Oer. 6. 11.) care afwut it. 

t From thii form are derived i UeitOf * it is lawful *', ira or Jk UdtOf * it was Jaw- 
ftol ' : sard licUo^ * it will be lawAil ' j &«., which are uied to lopplj the tatwM in 
whieti l«c4n ii defective. 



SIO 



ANALOGY. 



If. INDICATIVE. 



Siofotar. 



L — /Vefent 



td p. 2^ or JSee, lit is lawfsL 



i,|itLkwf«l 



PtanL 



Pavere. 

I. INriNlTIYE. 
(PaT^re), | to fear. 

II. INDICATIVE, 
1. — Present' 



dd p. G»4ye), Ibe fears. 



u • • • 



Silire. 



I, INFINITIVE. 

(SU^re), I to be» or Iceep, aflent. 

II. INDICATIVE. 
1. — Preseni. 



Sd p. (siU), 
8d p. (sile), 



tlioaartyorkeep-. 
[eat, silent *' 
he ia, or keeps, 
[mlent; 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



321 



Solire, 



SoUre. , 

I. INFINITIVE. 

{to be wont. \\es8ere mSIUo,* |to be wont 

GERUND. 

•oUndOy I being wont. || 

II. INDICATIYE. 

Bingtiltr. 



Floral. 



1ft p. SdGLIOy 

M p. 8u6li, 

8d. p. 8U(Sl£ (96- 



1. — Present. 
I am wont ; 



thou art wont; 
he is wont; 



800LIAM0 (sol^- we are wont; 

[mo), 
8ol6te, 



8(5gliono, 



you are wont ; 
they are wont. 



2. — Imperfect. 
Ist p. io soleva or tolea, \ I was wont. 

III. CONJUNCTIVE. 

1. — Present. 
let p. io s6oLiA, I that I am wont, or may be wont. 

2. — Imperfect, 
1st p. io soUssi, I if 1 were wont, or should be wont 



Stupere, 



I. INFINITIVE. 

(Stup^re), I to be astonished. 



' From this form are cierived 86no g^UtOy * I fim wont * ; M t^UU^ * thou watt 
ot ' } 4bc<, which are ofteo used iiMteaU ot$oglio ; —Itni i Ibo. 



ANALOGY- 



Siacvkc 



3d p. (ttnpe), he it trtonbhfxi. 



II. INDICATIVE. 
L — PretetU. 

U::::: 



FtamL 



Aig, 



ere. 

I. INFINITIVE. 
(i%ere), I to be chilL 

II. INDICATIVE. 

3. — Perfect 

1st p. (ilsi), [I wu cbill ; '; (algemmo), 
SBd p. (alg^sti), thou wast chill; l (al^^ste), 
3d p. (alse), he wa chill ; |l (abero). 



we werechOI; 
you were ckiD ; 
they weie cbiO. 



Anger t. 



I. INFINITIVE. 

(ingere), 1 to afflict. 

II. INDICATIVE. 
1.— Prwefrf. 



3d p. (ioge), |it afficts. 



2 ImperfecL 



8d,p. (ang^va), fit afflicted. 



I:: 



DEFECTIVE VERBa 



Jlrrdgere. 



I. INTINITirS. 

JSxr6ger€^ I to add. 

eSRUND. PARTICIPLK. 

arrogdndoy laddiDg. ||arb6to, or Aiuidsojadded. 

II. INDICATIVE. 

Blofalai. Plnnl. 

1. — Present. 



tat p |. . • . . I ctrrogidTno, 

8d p. arrdge, the adds ; | arrSgono^ 

2. — Imperfect, 
l«t p. (o arrogha or arrogiaj^l added. 



1st p. ARR^SI, 
2d p> arrogiiiif 

3d p. AJU108B, 



I added ; 
thou addedflt ; 
he added ; 



we add; 
they add. 



arrogSmmo, Iwe added ; 
arroeeste, lyou added ; 

ARBOSSBO, Ithey added. 



C&pere. 

I. INFINITIYE. 
(C4pere)y | to contain. 

II. INDICATITE. 

1. — Present 

I II 

8dp. (e4pe), lit contains. » 

2. — bnperfecL 
Sd p. (capita) ^ |it contained. 1 1 






334 



ANALOGY. 



ChSrere. ' 

I. INFINITITE. 
(Cb^rere), | to ask. 

II. INDICATIVE. 



l.—PresenL 



1st p. (ch^ro), 11 tsk ; 
Sd p. (ch^re), the asks. 



PfaumL 



Convelkre. 

I. INFINITIYE. 

ConviUere, \ to cooyulse. 

GERUND. PARTICIPLE. 

cofwelUndo, IconTulsing. I| Goifvi^Lso, Iconvulsed. 

II. INDICATIVE. 
h^PrestnL 



3d p. eowo&Uf the convulses ; \\conviUonO9 |tbey coovqIm. 
2. — Imperfect, 



8d p. eonvelUva 
[or eanoelUa, 



conveUetMuw or 
leorwdUa$uff 



3d p. eonveUerit,\be shall or will 
I [convulse ; 



he convulsed ; 

4. — fWurc 

eonveUerdnno, 



they coomlMd. 



they shaD ct wffl 
[convulse. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



m 



III. CONJUNCTIVE, 

SiofBlor. Plnnl. 

2.— /mp«/ce<. 



3d p. eanvelldssey 



3d p. convtlle- 



if he convulsed, 
[or should con- 
[vulse ; 



convelUsserp, 



if they couvuls- 
[ed. 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 

h— Present. 



he should, would, 
[or could coD- 
[vulse ; or might 
[convulse ; 



conveVerdbbero, jthey should, 

[would, or could 
convulse. 



Fiedere. 



I. INFINITIVE. 
FUdere, * |to wound. 



GERUND. 

WfiedendOf {wounding. 



1st p. Jiddo, 
2d p. Jiddi. 
M p. JUde, 



II. INDICATIVE. 

1. — Present. 



I wound; 
thou woundest; 
he wounds ; 



fi6donOf 

2. — Imperfect. 
l:it p. lofiediva or fiediOf | I wounded. 

S.-- Perfect. 
1st p.JUdii, I I wounded. 



they wound. 



* Anoient writeri said abo figgtrt^ * to wono^, to striko *; firom which are de- 
rivad tbo forma firgono. * they itriko ' ; which wa moot in tha j^maestraminti i 
aod flgiia, *• it ttrifcaai* Id tha htfinio of Danto. 

28 



ms 



ANALOGY. 



III. CONJUNCTITE. 



L — PnmhI. 



-Flwal 



litp.10 






Zdp.ifUJUda 



\gujttaa 



d»tl woood; 



that be wouDd ; 






that they woynd. 



Isi p. iofi4iUs$i^ liflwoooded. 



lAcere. 



I. 


INTINITIVE. 




GEBUND. 


LueerCf 


|to shine. | lucindo, 

11. INDICATiYfi. 
1. — Fre#eia. 


Ishining. 


1ft p.. . . 
2dp./ttn, 

Sdp.ltfM, 


• 


tbou sfaioest; 
he shines; 


1uei6mo, 


we shine; 
you shine. 



a. — hnptrfiet, 

1st p. So huiva, I 1 shone. 

a— Per/ed. 

1st p I || lucimmo, 

2d p. hiohH, thou shonest ; : hiUste, 
8dp I |l 



we shone ; 
yott shone. 



1st p. lueerdf 



4.— JWtir«. 

I I shall pr win shice. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



9»7 



Bingokr. 



III. CONJUKCTIYE. 



1. — Present. 



1st p 

2d p 

8d p. dgii (I6ca), 



lue%dte, 
(l4c«Do)» 



thtt he thine ; 

8. — Jmperfed, 
Iflt p. lo luUsiiy 



Plural. 



ithtt we ahine ; 
that you thine ; 
that they thine. 



if I shone or should thine. 



IT. CONDITIONAL. 

1. — PresenL 

Itt p. lueerH (Incerfa), | if I should, would, or could 

[shine; or might shine. 



(M6lcere)y 



'Mdkere. 

I. INFINITIVE. 

I to assuage. 

II. INDICATIFE. 

1.— Pre#«nt 



2d p. (m6lci)y thou assuagest ; 
8d p. (in6lee), 'he assuages. 



Itt p. io (molc^ 

[v»), 
Qd . (mokevi), 
8d p. igU (mol- 
[c<Ta), 



2. — Imperfed^ 
I astuaged ; 
thou astuagett ; 



tnou astuagett 
he attuaged. 



8i6 



ANALOGY. 



RUdere. 

I. INriNITITC. 

RiSdertf \ to return. 



Singular. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



1. — Present 



1st p. riidOf |I retUTB ; 

2d p. riidi, Ithou retumest ; 

3d p. rMe, [he returns j 



riidono. 



1st p4 io rUdeva 

[or riedea, 

2d p. riedivi, 

3d p. 6gU ried^a 

[or riedia. 



% ^-^ hnperfeeL 
I returned; 



thou retumedst ; 
he returned ; 



Plural. 



they return. 



riedhfono or tie- 
[d6^no. 



they returned. 



III. CONJCTNCTIVE. 
1. — PresenL 



l»i p. UriidOj 

2d p. (tf riidal 
3d p. igU rUaa, 



that I return ; or 
[may return ; 
that thou return ; 
that he return ; 



riidanc, 



that they return. 



Serpere. 



I. INriNlTIVE. 
(Sirpere)f |to creep/j 



GERUND. 

I {sirptndo), Icreeping. 



DEFECTIVE VERBa 



Sfngolar. 



II. INDICATIVE. 



Plural. 



1st p. ($4rpo), 
2d p. (ierpi), 
3d p. (»erpe), 



I creep; 
thou creepest ; 
he creeps ; 



(s6rpono)f 



l»t p. io {$erpi' 

2d p. (»erpim)y 
3d p. igU {serpi 



I crept ; 

thoQ creptest ; 
he crept \ 



{serpivano). 



[they creep. 



they crept. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — Present 



Iflt p. io {96rpa), 

2d p. <if (sdrpa), 
3dp.<<^K(«Aya), 



that I creep ; or 
[may creep ; 
that thou creep ; 
that he creep ; 



(sirpano), 



that they creep. 



Soffdlcere or Soffdlgere. 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

(8o0lto)f Isapported. 



{SoffSkere or ito support 
i9oJf6lfrere, \ 



II. INDICATIVE. 

1. — Present 



3d p. (so0lce or 
i8o0lge), 



be supports. 



^^ Perfect. 



3d p. {soffbhei) |he supported. 

as* 



ANALOGY. 
Tingere. 

I. iNTiNinyE. 
(Tingere), | to toucb. 

II. INDICATIVE. 



Siofokr. 



h^PresenL 



3d p. (tinge), (he touches. 



PlwaL 



TdUere. 

I. INFINITIVE. 

(ToUere), | to take away. 

n. INDICATIVE. 

h — Present. 



1st p 

2d p. (toUi), 
8d p. (toUe), 



thootakestaway; 
be takes away. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 
1. — Present 



2d p. <u (toUa), 
3d p. igli (tolla), 



that thou take 

[away ; 

that he takeaway. 





DEFECTIVE VERBS. 




V. IMPERATIVE. 




Singular. PJoraL 


3d p. (tok) igli. 


iet him take 
[away. 







381 



EstdUerCj < to lift * ; compound of tdllere, is not de- 
fective but in the participle^ and in all the persons of 
the perfect of the ir^dicative. 



Tdrpere. 

I. INFINITIVE. 

(Torpere), . | to become numb. 



Itt p. (torpo), 
3d p. (torpe), 



II. INDICATIVE. 

1. — Present. 
I become numb ; 
he becomes numb. 



III. CONJUNCTIVE. 



1. — Present, 



Itt p. io (l^n><^)> 
2d p. tu (torpa), 
»dp.%«(t6rpa), 



that I become 
[numb ; 

that thou become 
[numb ; 

that he become 
[numb. 



338 ANALOGY. 

Urgere. 

I. INFINITITE. 
Urgere, | to urge. 

II. INDICATIVE. 

Siofatar. Plnrtl. 

1. — Present 



9d p. (urge, |he urgef. II 

2. — hi^perfecL 

I II 

Sd p. igfiurg^valhe uiged ; urgSvano or wr- 

[or ^irgiaji \\ [giano, 



Vigere. 

I. iNriNITIVE. 

(Vigere), | to be Tigorons. 

II. INDICATIVE. 

1. — Present 



they urged. 



Sd p (vige), |he is yigoroos ; 

4u— Future. 



Sd p TigeriL), it will be rigor- 

I [OIM. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



833 



Gire, 

I. INFINITIVE. PAHTiCIPLE. 



II. INDICATIVE. 

Bingolar. Plur«i. 

1. — Present, 



Istp. . . . 






gxdmo, 
gite. 


. 


^l . . . 


• • 


. • • 


we go; 
you go. 






2. — Imperfect 




l8t p. gUja or 


^, 


1 I went 
S.-- Perfect. 




Uip.iogU, 




1 1 went. 
4. -^Future. 




^«tp.^>d. 




1 I shall or 


will go. 






III. CONJUNOTIVE 


. 


l«tp. . 


. 1. . 


1. — Present. 




^P 


1 


. . . 






mai we go, or 
[may go ; 
that you go. 






2.-/II1 


perfect. 




^«P.wg«,«, 




1 


if I went, 


or shot 


jid go. 



334 



ANALOGY. 



lit p. gir6i (girit), 



V. CONDITIONAL. 



I should, would, or could go ; or 
[mi^t JO. 



1ft p. 
9dp. 



y. IMPERATIVE. 



gidmOf 



let us go ; 
go ye. 



ire. 

I. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. 

Fre, |togo. II 1*0, Igone. 

II. INDICATIVE. 

Siofular. PIonL 

1. — Preient. 



2d p. 



2. — Imperfect 



1st p. ^ tea, llweat; 
Sd p. igli ioa, Ihe went 



loono, 



2d p. Uti, 
«dp. . . 



a — Perftci. 
thou weutest ; 



{^o, fr), 



you go. 



we went. 



they went. 



Utp. 



2d p. 
3d p. 



3d p. 



2d p. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

4.— JWtirf. 



335 



Siofular. 



irimOf 
irdnOf 



IV. CONDITIONAL. 



(iriano), 



V, IMPERATIVE. 



Ue, 



Plural. 

we shall or will 

[go; 

you will go ; 
jthey will go. 



they should, 
[would, or could 
[go; or might 
[go. 



go ye. 



Olire. 

I. INFINITIVE. 

Olire^ I to smell. 

II. INDICATIVE. 



1st p. u> otha, 

2d p. otwif 

3d p. 6gH oUva, 



I smelted ; 
thou smeliedst ; 
he smelled. 



2. — ImperfecL 
oHvanoy 



they smelled. 



396 



ANALOGY. 



KZAMPLEf. 



Cali^ftdogli vie piu la salute 
pr6pria the gV interiasi di* Semi- 
fontisi. (Stor. Seiuif. 86.) 

Lo eu&r che 'n muI Tamigi an- 
e6r si cdi.A. Dant. Inf. 12. — 
C6la, eio^ c6le. (Butt Com. 
Dant.) 

Quantunque dUa natura umd- 
na L^CE — Jivdr di lume, (Dant. 
Par. IS.) 

E di* netMci pate e di* $og- 
giUi. (Ta«8. Ger. 1. 88.) 

Pr6$o dalnu6vo ednto, stt^pk e 
sfLB. (Boez. Varch. 3. 12.) 

Jk) dubito ehe VosBtgnoria non 
dbbia oceupdto U primo luSgo 
fiiUa grdzia di Sua Btatitudinc, 
U qudle 83l.£ta 6 1 sere il tmo, 
(Cas. lett. 19.) 

ki^^i ed drai gran Umpo. 
(Varch. Rim. 3 ) 

Tatita pawra e du6l P 6lma 
trista ANGE. (Petr. 9. 236.) 

Arr6sero ginfe nudva per sei 
Pricrdti, (Giov. Vill. 9. 2.) , 

Sc di $ap6r ch* io ^ ti cal 
eotdnto. (Dant. Inf. 19.) 

Chi aa edme difinde e eSme 
fire, — Socc6r80 d* audi perigli 
6Uro non ch£re. (Tass. Ger. 2. 
85.) 

J)6po aleuni strdni afwolgtmin" 
H cased mSrta, coNvtrLSA e in- 
tirizzUa, (Red. Vip. 1. 83.) 

" O figHudW* tOsse, " qudl di 
quista griggia — 5* arrista pun- 
to , gidce pot cent* dnni — Sdn- 
za arrostdrsi qudndo *l fdeo U 
riooiA." (Dant. Inf. 15.) 



Caring more for his own safety 
than for the intereata of the Semi- 
phondans. 

That heart which is yet hooored 
on the [bank of the] Thames. 



Whatever of light is allowed to 
human nature. 



And fears both his enemies aod 
his subjects. 

Transported by the new sang, 
he is astonished and Iteeps silent. 

I doubt whether your lordship 
has not occupied the first place in 
the favor of His Holiness, which 
was wont to be mine. 



1 was chill and burned for a great 
while. 

So much fear and grief afflicts 
my sad soul. 

They added new people for six 
successive Priorates. 

If it imports thee so much to 
know who I am. 

He who knows how it [the hand 
of God] defends, and how il of- 
fends, asks no other assistance in 
his perils. 

After some strange whirlings, she 
fell down dead, convulsed and stiff 
with cold. 

" O son,*' said he, '* whoever of 
this throng stops one instant, lies 
then a hundred years, without any 
ventilation, when the fire smites 
him." 



DEFB<?ITV% TI&BS. 



SB^ 



the la iUUa. (Daot. lof. 2.) 

E gid U 86le a mixta Utza 
KiiDB. (Daat. lof. 84.) ' - 

CH pud dbr eSme sfiiPA, o 
e6me erisea, — GUI dtk piu IdU U 
fieo? (Tws.Ger. 12.45.) 

Perehi la vista tua pur si lor- 
t6lqz^ Laggih tra T 6mbre M- 
tU smoMziedU 7 (Dant. Inf. 29.) 

fs sonfilta da Dio, sua merely 
tSk^ Che la vSstratnisiria non 
mt tIm 6B. (Daot. Inf. 2.) 

Che dona e t6llb dgni dUro 
henforiuna. ( Arios. Fur. 27. 84.) 

Si la granjrdnte e le gran cdr- 
na xfT6i.LK. (Tass. Get. 4. 7.) 

A* Gf6c% — RfttvtMr non xiR- 
?i ki^aU Idblnra, (Buoa, ^iec 
2. 6. 6.) 

Che V una pdrte e V &Ura lira 
td iwBM — Tia lin sondnda eon 
A d&lu nSta. (Pant. Par. 10.) 

Per mosirdre she la earitd s(m^ 
pre TioBRl in l6r&, (But. Par. 
7.) 

£ la ingegndsa phehia al pii- 
mo alb&re-^GivA preddndo or 
(mo or dUro fi6re, (PoUx. SL 1. 
26.) 

Its, edidi sospirital/riddo edre, 
(Petr. fl . 120.) 

Meseoldto insUtne eon quiUo 
a mdlte dltre edse, ehe per la 
giardmo pLi¥A^Q. (Bocd. g. S.) 



Her eyes were brigliter thaa the 
•t»r [ofday]. 

And now the fun returns widiin 
one hour and a half of noon. 

Who can say how the ire 

creeps, and already increases on 
ereiy side. 

Why dost thou fatten thy sight 
below- among the maimed and 
miserable shades ? 

I am so made by Ood, thanks 
to his grace, that no sufferance of 
your misery touches me. 

For fortune giires and takes 
away every other good. 

So high he raises hlf great brew 
and horns. 

To the Greeks the speech does 
not languish in tb^if lips. 

In which the one part draws and 
the ether pushes, ^sending out a 
tihjdiog sound of note so sweet 

To show that charity wiD al- 
ways be in vigor Mnong them. 

Ajid the Industrious bee, at the 
first dawn, was rifiing now UdM 
and now the other flower. 



Go, warm sighs, to dM cold 
heart. 

Mingled with the seent of (any 
other thiqgs, which through Urn 
garden spread their fragrianc*. 



As meet of the foregoing de/eeUoe oerhs are of rare ocGurrancoi and 
a be need with propriety only in verse, an JExertiso upon them has 
len bere thought needless. 



29 



ANALOGY. 



GENSRAL REMASILS OIT ITAUAH TSBBS* 

Verbs, which in the mfinitivt end m iarey ere cht err, 
kn \ as /A'liBt ^^o make ' ; <^Mi;mE, < to weave ' ; udViuL^ 
* to bear * ; foUovftd by a word beginning whh a con- 
tonanl^ except z ov $ foUoufed by another consonant, 
efUn drop the last vowel; as, 

WAM. nifisa^ to make defence ; 

T^ssEn TtscfJle, to weave baskets ; 

in>Ui jnovmof to hear news. 

Those verbs, which, by contraction, end in drre^ &rrey 
irre; as, frA'RRE from traere^ ^ to draw * ; tmp&RRE firoai 
imponerej * to impose ' ; tn^roJc'RRE from introd^tcere^ 
< to introduce ' ; drop the Za«^ syllable ; as, 

TJU.a Nom pv^ he cannot draw^ 

iicp6r I'^sgij -to impoee laws } 

ifiTaoDu'a costume^ to introdace a custom. 

The first and third persons plmral of tenses of 
verbs ending in mo, and no, ro; as, erat^o, *we 
wereJ ; parlavavo, « they spoke ' ; caddeno * they feB * ; 
ofien drop the last vowel ; as, 

bratJLm Tortm, we had departed ; 

PABJiivAN B^, they spoke seldom ; 

cii>DBR fid holUnte st6gno, they fell into the boilhig lake. 

Those /person; which end in nso;.as, saranno, 'tbey 
will be ' ; hanno, < they have ' ; drop the last syttor 
&Ie ; as, 

lutti SAJLkii serroli, they shall all be dosed ; 

r MAif vr6prio a nMa^ they really hate him. 

Infinitives of verbs, and the first and Mrd persons 
plural of their tenses, drop constaMly the last v^uni 



REMARKS Olf T15RBS. * 9W 

or syllable^ when tbey are foHowed by a €onJunetiv4 
pronoun; as, 

FA&Liiine, to speak of it ; 

▲NDiAMVt, let U8 go thither ; 

▲lUTAROivmiy they assisted me ; 

DiiDERg^t, they gave him. 

The third person singular of the present of the tn- 
^ Jicaiive of the verbs calire, * to care for ' ; doUre^ * to 
grieve ' ; rimanerey^ to remain ' ; solere, * to be wont ' ; 
ienere^ * to hold ' ; valirCy ' to be worth ' ; volere^ * to 
be willing ' ; venire * to come ' ; and the second person 
singular of the imperative of the verbs rimanerey tenere^ 
ventre; drop the last vowel^ especially when they are 
followed by a conjunctive pronoun ; as, 

«e «t oAi. D« ffM, if you care fot me ; 

Du6iJ» elC io H 9ino9 ?. does it grieve thee that I con- 

quer thee ? 

8i76Lmt abhagli&rty it is wont to dazzle me ; 

• Ti^N vol CiMo, ehe holds from Heaven $ 

tawkKti con ndi, remain with us ; 

non si vuol nine, it must not be said ; 

TT£sne quh, come [thence] hither* 

The first person singular of the present of the indica- 
tive of the verb dssere, * to be ' ; and the second person 
singular of the imperative of the verb pdnere^' * to put ' ; 
drop the last voufel, and when followed by the conjunc- 
tive pronoun m», they change n into m ; as, 

r son coZ^ I am she ; 

p&vmi ivt H Sot utfidt % put me where the son kills.lhe 
fi6riy flowers. 

All forms of verbs followed by a conjunctive pronoun 
(as we have already observed, p. 110, and the foregoing 
examples clearly show,) are joined to them so aa to form 
OM ehigie word. Now, if the form of the verb consifts 



9M ANALOGY. 

of one syllable ; as, i^ 'h is'; Aatv a, <ithas'; A\ 

* tell tbou * ;Ji\ ^ make tbou ' ; «a, < be or k knows; ^^^ 

* I go ' ; Sec. ; or if it bears tbe accent on the last syUa- 
bk ; as, diro^ ^ I wiU tell ' ; mottro^ * be showed ' ; &c. ; 
in bebg joined to a conuinctive pronoun, the consanami 
of tbe pronoun is doubled^ and tbe acctnt when mark- 
ed is iuppreued ; as, 

emn caiuio d^tUa w^ewUria t has it escaped from your mind? 

hmmwU a Ud eomlutfs, she has reduced me to such a 

coDilitioii; 

arvi Uai^ there are heds ; 

diumi^ wuiMro mid, tell me, mj master ; 

JkrU ben utUtrt^ make thyself to he heard well ; 

MiJo IddiOf God knows it ; 

ftoument a gtdsa ^TMe, I go on like a blind man ; 

dinnHpenk' V v^wn, I wiU tell thee why I 

mubvcci im' ^si&rs, he showed as a qwrit 

sxcBPnos. 

The g oi tbs prooemi gU^ b neTcr doubled, althoagb tbe 
of tbe Terb is always sttpyra«ed; at, 

MAiTDOGU dieind^ sent liim word. 



Tbe forms '/rat, ' thou drawest * or * draw tbou ' ; trae^ 
* be or it draws * ; of tbe verb traere or trirrey * to draw * ; 
when joined to a conjunctive pronoun, drop tbe last 
Yowel, and require that tbe consonant of tbe pronoun bo 
doubled ; as, 

franzif I0 ScHcca^ except Scricca ; 

tramuidi 9wm kUrg9^ k draws me from a mortal leth- 

argy- 
Finally, infinkivei of verbs, like present partidpleM in 
English, are often used in Italian ai 9yit$ianiivt$ ; as, 
Uparlare^ * tlie speaking ' ; f abbraecUre^ * the embrac- 
ing '; tV fa^ellaret * the manner of speaking ' ; and then 



RflMARES O^ VERBS. 



dtt 



have a pJural, which they forHi like substantives, by 
changing e into i ; as, 

U sizzi petridn, 



gH abhraecUnf 
ijtr^n fatveU&n^ 



immodest [spealdogs ct\ con- 

versatioDs ; 
the [embracingrs or\ embraces ; 
one's own manners of speaking. 



BZAMPLBfl. 



Dindnzi a Jui ntm vdle — 
Nasc6ndsr, n^ fuogib, n^ far 
DirisA. (Petr. 8. 203.) 

£ v^e un u6m r.anuto air dm- 
frre anUne — T^sser fisc^lle 
iUa sita griggia acednto, (Tass. 
Get. 7. 6.) 

Ed ma — JDi quista c6$a ui>ia 
JKtmmdl ifOviLLA. (Bern. Orl. 
19.) 

Tbar itSUo U d&nL fidneo 6ltra 
"OH pu6tx. (Tass, Ger. 19. 28.) 

E Uggi imp6rre, ed introdi^r 
coardME,— £<i drii e eulto di 
9€rdee Jfume, (Tass. Ger. 1. 9.) 

N6i kratAm partIti gii da 
^Uo. (Daot. Inf. 82.) 

P4Ri«iTAii Rino ton vSei sodvi, 
(Dwit. Inf. 4.) 

E amendue — CIddxb nel 
mixxo del BOuJttrr^ stIgno. 
iBint Inf: 22.) 

Tt/TTi SAB AN skbbXti — Qudn- 
d0 di Jinaffh owl tomerdnno, 
(Jhnt Inf. 10.) 



^ TAUO L,* HAB 
W»l6H A IfOlA. 



pr6frio t 8u6i 
(Bern. Rlm.> 

29» 



Before him it does not avail to 
conceal, to fly, or to make defence. 

And she sees a hoary old man in 
the pleasant shade, weaving bas- 
kets by the side of his flock. 

And she does not wish to hesr 
spealung^ about this thing. ^ 

He cannot draw his feeble frame 
much further. 

And to impose laws, and to in- 
troduce customs, and arts, and Uie 
worship of the true God. 

We had already* departed from 
liim. 

They spoke seldom, but wlth^me- 
lodious voices. 

And both fell into the middle of 
the boiling lake. 

They [the sepulchres] shall all 
be closed, when they [the spirits] 
shall have once more come here, 
returning from Jehosaphat. 

8o much his own diildren hate 
him. 



3«l 



ANALOGY. 



(Bocc. g. 1. n. 7.) 

AxDiiHTi, htm wn rniiu [di 
▼ed^rlo]. (Not. Ant) 

AiirriBMnii ilk bine^ (Boco« 
g. 4. proem. } 

DiiDXR«u (Bocc. g. 7. D. 4.) 

Sb ti cal di me, Ptnke wUeo 
HnQ a paligio. (Bocc. g. 8. n 5.) 

Che aoiiUf ^idUno f I>v6lti 
C0^ CH* lo TI viHCo ? (Boec. f . 
7. n. 7.) 

Jll5rff ha spinto quil moI, e^ 
ABBAQLi Ak •v6lui. (Petr. f . lil 1. 

K *l 4%6hm itifigno che vaJm 
CiiLo — i'er grdxia tiAh d^iT 
twifiK^rlair 4p6Uo,. (Petr. c. 5.) 

5f^fTt e bimJLnti coif koi, m <i 
pi^. (Vit. SS. PP. 2. 817.) 

CamArc, Sgli if oh si tu^l dI be. 
(Bocc. g. 4. D. 2.) 

Adridno cKmc: ** 51, TiiirifB 
auk." (Bocc. g. 9. n. 6.) 

r ioif coL^i, che H dii tSnta 
guhr^ (Petr. f. 261.) 

P6yMi 6rE 'l «ol uccioB i 
wi6ta e 'I irba, (Petr. 1. 113.; 

Ora BVTi coM <^o daixa mx- 
ifdBiA GAO^o? (Bocc g. 10. 
n. 6.) 

P ffiU at CUlo ; ed babmi a 

TAL COHD^TTO. (PctT. 8. 247.) 

Ed ATTT L^TTi, du vt porrih' 
herfrik b6Ui the quiUi del D6ge 
di Pin^gui. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 9.) 

DlMMI, » AisTBO Bfo ! DUCBU, 

•lOiidBB I (IHnt, Inf. 4.^ 



It pleeaet bm to ipeak of il. 

Let MS go [tlBtberX I AhmH hm 
glad to fee it. 

TheyaMwted bm wbO. 

TbejgtTe him. 

If yoo cBre for me, come with 
me u &r ae tlie palace. 

What ails thee, AoicMno ? Doe* 
it grfere thee thus that 1 cooyier 
thee? 

Death has exthiguMied that Mm, 
which is woot to &szle me. 

And the noble Bund which hm 
hojds from Heaven, thro«^h the 
£iFor of the immortal Apoll^. 

Stay and remain with as, if thou 



Gossip, it must not be said. 

Adrian said : " Yes, come [thencel 
hither." 

I am she, who caused yon so 
much grieC 

Put me where the son Icills Ae 
flowers and the herbage. 

Now has it so sooe escaped frem 
your mind ? 



She is gone to Heaven; and 
has reduced me to sucha-conditioB 

And there are beds, which wevld 
appear to you better than those of 
the Doge of Venice. 

Tell me* my amstor ! teD me, 
mysirei 



REMARKS ON VERBS. 



348 



Qridafhief patti bbv SBtr- 

tI&b. (Bocc g. 8. n. 6.) 



Cry out lood) make tbyself to bo 
batfd weU. 



Sau«oId2>Io. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) God knows it. 



VOMHXIVX A OT7I9A ]>' 6tmO iStl^ 

Ma luce, (Petr.) 

DiBOTTi perch' V Ttnm, e 
qvileh*%o 'nUsi. (Dant. tnf. 2.) 

MosTRocci uif' 6mbra dair {in 
cAiU sUa, (DboL Inf. 12.) 

E fer Uttera mandogli Diciir- 
^OtChe da Brandixio H dov^s$e 
Uv&Ti, (Oio. VUI.) 

TRAims IiO ScRfccA, — C%6 «^p- 
M/or le moderate epiee^ (Dant. 

(/do U la v6ee — IH Ddvid 7 
• . . Trammi di mortar letar- 
00. (Alf. Saul. 8. 4.) 

E *u e(u> PARX.ARX, e *l hel vi- 
9o,ele ehi6me — Mi piaequer ei 
(Potr. c. 7.) 

Aon hdnno parSle rU FATSLLi- 
lu pr6prj. (Varch. Ercol. 829.) 

Li aozzf parlari eorr6mpono 
ft \ru6ni ooukmi, (Albert c 10.) 

Le Unere IdgrUne, gli abbrac- 
ciARi, e gli otUmH bdei, (Bocc. 
g. 1 n. 5.) 

OeUHidlDiof gUMtorwfA' 
u — £ giiuHtia e eperdnxa fin 
M^ duri, — Driaszdte fi6i vheo 
«u Ilti lAiiai. (Oaot. Pur. 19.) 



I go on like a blind man without 
light 

I will ten tbee wby I came, and 
what 1 heard. 

He ihowed uf a spirit by Itaelf 
retired apart 

And send him word by letter, 
that he should depart from Brun- 
duiinm. 

Except Scricca, who knew how 
to lay out his fortune temperate- 

Ho I hearihe Toice of David ? 

It draws me from a mortal 

lethargy. 

And her conversation, and bto 
beautiful countenance, and her hair 
pleased me ^o 

They have neither words nor 
manners of speaking of their own. 

Immodest conversations corrupt 
good morals. 

The affectionate tears, the em- 
braces, and the chaste kisses. 



O ye elect of God I whose lof- 
ierings both justice and hope miti- 
gate, direct our way towayrdf tho 
steep ascents. 



M4 ANALOGY. 

CHAPTER XII. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Itauan participles may be considered either as ybnu 
of the verbs from which they are deriFed, or as adjee^ 
iives. 

Considered as adjectives, they follow the same ruies 
as adjectives with regard to gender and number. 

Present participles end in e, arc of the common gen- 
der, and form the plural by changing e into i ; as, 

{imperatdm hnonjant^, m. ■., 
[ingmUitk; 
{it^iiitfii UmpeMnh, m. p., 
[tostihifw. 



Present participles are somethiies used substantiTely, as 
' lorer ' ; aseoUdnti, * listeners ' ; they follow however invariably the 
same rale. 



Past participles end in o, are masculine, and become 
feminine by changing o into a ; they form the plural by 
changing o into t\ and a into e ; as, 

fordtOj > ...^ J . i membro fordtOy m, s., pierced limb ; 
JcritA, I P*®"^^ ' I g6U fordiA, L s., pierced throat ; 

ace^sit > tindled • J ^'*^ aee^it, m. p., kindled beacts ; - 
occesK, 5 ^^^ ' IfidtnmE aecist, t p., kindled flames. 

Some verbs have a fidure pariieiple ; as, dwraJtvro, < to last ' ; 
faUuro^ * about to do ' ; fiUwo^ ' future ', or * to be ' ; peiiiuro, ' about 
to perish ' ; venturOf * about to come * *, which follow the same rales 
•s pttst participles. 

Many past participles of rerbs of tbe^r^ corgugation 
are frequently contracted j as, circo for cerdx/o^ * search- 



PARTICIPLES. 815 

ed ' ; iesto for desikXo^ * awakened ' ; mdzzo for mozzixo^ 
'cut off' ; be.; these, when contracted, are alike the 
first person of the present tense of the indicative moodf 
and are subject to the same inflections as the other par- 
Uciples which are not so ; as, 

po] drcot I setrch ; eSrco, tetrched ; 

[io'i ddstOf I awake ; . desto, awaken ; 

[fio] tnSxzo, I cut off; mdxxo^ cut off: 

diwlOf awaken ; u6mo ddstoy m. s., man awakened ; 

fli^sjrA, cut off; mdno m6zxAf Lb., hand cut off; 

e^rc&s, searched ; provinem c6rehm,i, p., proyinces 

[searched. 

Italian participles agree with substantives in gender 
and number; as, 

mhUm awizzA, * mind accustomed ; 

rdggi perdutMf lays lost ; 

e69m iapulKf things known ; 

eSiM diUm, things said. 

[For • Lift if CanlraeUi PartU^Ui, m% AmmDiz l.j 



Italian participles when used as adjectives form their 
comparatives and superlatives^ according to the rules 
already given ; as, 

Iiie^f, bright; pii^ Luciirrc, more bright ; 

noUnte^ guilty ; vi.vo nocAivte, less guilty ; 

amdto, loved ; m6l.to amato, very much loved ; 

rioeritOf revered ; ix. piii ri vsrI to, the most revered 3 

inisndintep versed ; ihtsn oshtIssiho, very well 

[versed. 



ANALOGY. 



SXAllFI.Ef« 



Sitehi ^l tuo cu6r^ qnantdmque 
fm^9 gioe6ndo — S* apfre^inU 
dOa Ti^RBA TRioirrAifTK, — Che 
Uita vien' per quisto Hera tdndo, 
<D»nL Par. 22.) 

t/na ndveport6nte udmNi tbm- 

PSBtInTI, PKRICOlJklfTI. lOGGIA- 

oiMTi a tdnti mar6si. (GioF. Vill. 
1. 11. c. 3.) 

Qudiufo legg^mmo U disidto 
ri$6 — jtsfer kiddie dm eotdnto 
AMAtfTx. (Daot. lof. 5.) 

dd, ehe awenuto ira, dietmUi' 
mhUe narrd, eon gran maravigUa 
digU AScoLTAirri. (Bocc. g. 10. 
n.4.) 

... £ ipiA forJIto tuo m£m- 
BRO, e qudl m6zzo — MMtrdiee, 
d^aegua^lidr $arebbe nuUa — // 
m^oo della n&na bdlgia $6zzo. 
(Dant. Inf. 23.) 

Un dltro ehe porata aioia la 
a<SLA. (Dant InC 2a) 

Supirbia, intndia^ e avarizia 
$6no — Le tre famUe c' hanno % 
cu6ai Accfsi. (Dant Inf. 6.) 

E vide prhto a U le riinMX 
AccisE. (Dant. Inf. 2a) 

E ehe Q prineipe ne nomindtee 
dSdUi, DURATt^Ri eimiue Snni. 
(Dav. Tac. Ann. 2. 40.) 

Fdtto avia prima e p6i ha 
pATTf^Ro. (Dant. Par. 6.) 



So thai tfoy heart should 
Itself as jo3^l as it can to the td^ 
umphant militia [ehurch], whSck 
joyfully proceeds through this 
round space. 

A ship carrying men, wrecked, 
endangered tod subject to so m»Aj 
storms. 

When we read of those dear fips 
so rapturously kissed by one lo 
deep in love. ^ 

He related distinctly what had 
happened, to the great wonder of 
the listeners. 

. . . And if some should hare a 
Kmb pierced, and some cut oflT, tbey 
could badly equal the vile mode « 
punishment of the ninth bolge. 

Another who had his throat 
pierced. 

Pride, envy, and avarice are dM 
three sparks which have kindled 
their hearts. 



po futtJro m* h gid nel 
tnpitto. (Dant. Pur. 23.) 

Piii atdenteminU cireano i se- 
eolari le e6$e pcrii^rk, ehe n6i 
U utUi. (Cavalc. £spos. Simb. 1.) 

VigOdte <r Sgni tempo, stceA^ 
tidte a^pu di fuggire T ira vxir- 
Tt^&A. (CavaicTrutt. Ling.) 



And sees near her the 
kindled. 

And that the prince should ap- 
point twelve of them, who were to 
laat [or remain in office] five years. 

He had done [that sign], and 
afterward he was to do again. 

Future time is already in my 
presence. 

Men in the world seek with more 
eagerness perishable things, tluA 
we do useful ones. 

Be dways diligent that yott 
may deserve to avoid approacmg 
wratiu 



PA&TlfclPLEa 



Perchi, estdndo cisTo, £li pdr» 
we stn&r9 teindere neUa easa per- 
t6ne. (Bocc g. 8. |i. 7.) 

Vn, eJC avea V 4ma e T 6Ura 
MAI M^zzA. • (Dant. Inf. 28.) 

Jhindo cj^RCHE fn6lte pRovf n ce 
CmtiSine, (Boco. g. 10. o. 9.) 

ljU86i guil, eh* V piu brdmo ; 
^- La M^NTz a 



edho St aft£zza 
toiUempidr $^a eotUl 
W.) 



(Eefr. 



^9ia la luna pbadiS^ti t ra<3oi 
»U(«. (Petr. c. 38.) 

Po non ho quisle c6%% sapX^ts 
i&* otcint, ilia medesinia miU ha 

ViTTK^ (fioCC. g. 3. D. 3.) 

On^ illafissi — Luc£ntk vih. 
at>& di quel eh* eW ira. (Dint 
Pw.6.) 

E'isa tdnto pik impazUnte 
tOitenh)a quista n6ia, qudnto 
MiHO 9i sentiva noc^nte. (Bocc. 
g. 7. Q. 5.) 

m6lto avato euorct 6gni 
pio uffieio vino ie 6 fotntto. 
(Bocc g. 4- n. 1.) 

Tra i qiidU U maggiSre e il vih 
buerIto da tuHU a quille stagiS" 
^t^ra Jucopo di Carino, (Matt. 
Vm. 1. 72.) 

M$t4fane h persSna hvten- 
BiirrfssiMA — Dcila eesiUura. 
(Cwsch. Spir.5.6.) 



Because, being awake, be teem- 
ed to hear people descend into the 
boose. 

One Tvho had the one and tfie 
other hand cut o(L 

Having searched through mai^ 
Christian provineeSr 

I left what I desire most, and 
I have my mind ao accustomed Ie 
contemplate her alone.. 

The moon had lost her rayii* 

I hav6 not beard these thipgs 
from the neighbours, she herself 
has told them to me. 

Whence she became far more 
bright 4ban she had been. 

She bore this vexation so muoh 
the more latiently, the less she felt 
guilty. 

O very much loyed heart, I have 
done towards thee all that I eould. 



Aiiiongst whom the greatest and 
the most revered by all, at th«l 
time, was Jacopo di Carino. , 

Aristophanes is a person yety 
well versed in writing. 



ANALOGY. 



EXERCISE XXII. 



Before (io fBkt) his eyes thej «lew her crjmm 
Pretinf sua* Sceki^^ sf^endr^ eU^ grMr^ 

fbr mercy and assiftanee. To lim, restdinir in Flan- 
— merc^ * jtun»'', igU^ dkamrdr* FjUtm' 

4efi^ crnne a desire | to | bear. Apollo boldiogf tint 

part of the Heaven, which he sow traverses, was embel- 
pW > deU^^ — ^r% tmc^rrer^ flIM- 

Ushinir more (iht) their works. In a book which I iDteiid 
(ir«< pf^> * ImAr^. Rh^ • ' " ' 



to I make, God granting it, on vulgar eloqa 

di I fire, Dio eonUier* — , di Tolg&r* tle^pdmatL 

It happened that dunng t^e war the qoeen of Franee 
durdrt gu6rra r^ina Prdmcim 



I fell very siek. I 
rnmnudd granemUnU. | 



After that the lady had made herself te h% 
Poiedkl ddtmrn mvir^ /ire* a* pr»- 

beMRight very moch. They I had \ all their heads 

•nrronnded T with I oak leaves — leaves of oak. 
imghiriMndare^] di} \ fimda* * fm6reu^ 

(Hu) my skin is bronzed (on me ^ and (Ike) 
tnia pMU 4$ser§ aUnrumn tdpradi Io, 

ay bones are dried np I on acrooot of | the heat 

Nor were the faults of the Vitpllians punished, bait 
Jfd is9tT9 faUm ViteUUm^ piattre, w 

well paid I on | the otb^r side. The jealous man 
km fmg&n\dm, \ dUro parU. * gel^ Memh^ 

bad put some little stones in I his I mouth. Ther» 
mtSr^ miUer^ mUumt' fUtrtfi ' I '"* I *^ccs. 

is a tree more above, 1 whose fiiiit I was bittaa 



ADVERBS. 



d49 



by Eve. HoW many verses I have already spread 

jtoa, Quanlo verso — av6re gid spdr- 

about All were beaten with (the) rods in the middle 

gere, Tutto ^ssere bdlUre v6rga mizzo 

of the square, and bad (llu) their head cat ofL They 



piazza. 



Usia? tagUdre^. 



have promised, and sold me to a merchant, who 
tnir^ prometteri^, * vindert^ M*^ tiureSnU, 

I is to carry me I to the Sultan in the Levant 
I <£^'» portdr^ mi* \ » Solddno* — Levdnte. 

Let the ages to come judge from this who 
— ' eUt* venirtfi esiimdre^ Qutnct^ • 

Otho *was. The present (age shall hear) and the 
Ou&rufi issere', • prestiUe^ mondcfi udiri^ — • 

future 4ges shall hear (the) my protestations. 
isscre^^ — udiri^ * • proUsta^. 



^%^ 



CHAPTER XIII. JUlJri v'EIlS.' 



ADVERBS. 

SIMPLE ADVERBS IN C O If M O IT USE 



Adverbs of Time. 



ogp^ 


to-day; 


didnzQ 


} 


Ur^ 


yesterday ; 


inn^nzijX 


►before; 


domdnxy^ 


to-morrow ; 


prima. 


s 


drd) 


1 


testi, 


jost now ; 


adUsOy 


>now ; 


p6i,§ 


^ 


nUA 


V 


d6po,\\ 
pdacxoy 


> afterwards ; 



• From th« Latin is ind mane, t From th« Ijatfa mode. 

X From di, M, and tho Latin mUt : — tha Celtic ant, * opposite.* 
^ From Iho Latin pons t — the Celtic hwo or 6011, chanf ed into jm», * tke laat.' 
N From tbo Coltie ^, • after,* and /m, * the laat.* 
30 



aso 



ANALOGY. 



wit, 

iahSilOy 
imUra, 

imitSra, 
0gn6ra, 
aU6ra^ 



alwmyt; 
never: 




always ; 
then ; 
immediate] J i 



prtgio^ 

Una, 

ttUinio^ 
fraWmU, 



qoick ; 
kalow; 

early; 

lale; 

already; 
f in the 
[ time; 

whilst. 



9}^ 

colij 

coHxA 
eo$td\ 

indi, 

quindi^ 

quinciyli 

coHincif 

d6v€y 
ddnde, 




of Place. 

alir6nde, 
09^mque^ 
dovunqutf 



thence; 

from thence ; 

from hence ; 
\ from thence, 
[ where yon are 

> where ; 

> whence ; 



MroM 
d^tUrOf 

diiiro,\i 

rimpiiiOf 
vicCno^ 

6Ure, 




op; 
down ; 
upon, above ; 
under, below ; 

within; 

without ; 

before; 

behind ; 

ILside; 

around; 

opposite; 

near; 

far; 

beyond. 



• From tbe I^itin tmfer : lh« C«teie ektmfotttwtp, *■ witlioat^ ami «r or cr,*«ai.' 

t From Um Lfttin smhimdt, X Proa tbo Latin luate itram 

^ Prom tha Latin tUie, iBae. | From tha Latin pu and iif i> , ittm . 

T From tbb Latin gvt and MM. 

•• The Latin mipm- .• — tka Oakio anf, * apaa.* 

ft Tba Latin nb^ tuUut : — the Celtic tmk, * ondar.* 

II From tbe Celtie panielea m and ire, 

^ Tbe Latin /0rw,/«ra#t— tbe Celtic >r, * oat.* 

II II From tbe CelUc a», < Ibr,* and taU, * oppoiha.' 

Vir From tbe Celtic dr«, * back.* —* Fttm tba Celtk tor, • cirela.' 



ADVERBa 



dU 



Adverbi rf Order. 



Pria, 
prtmOf 
p6if 
d&po. 



minoy 



first; 
then; 



indi, 
quindiy 
apprisso,* 
in/tnf. 



\ afterwards ; 
finally. 



Adverbs of Quantity and QualUy. 



Bine, 



more; 
less; 

much; 
well; 



tr6ppo,\ 

gudri^ 

Idnio, 

p6co^ 

affAUoy 

\mdU, 



too much ; 
not much ; 
so much ; 
little ; 
any at alL 

badly. 



Adverbs ofAffirmaiianj J^egaiion^ and Doubt. 



hint, 


yes, 

, indeed ; 
certainly ; 
weU; 


davriro, 

difdUi, 

apptmtOf 


} indeed, truly, 
^ in truth ; 
exactly so. 


WfU < 

mdi, 
giammS, ! 


no, 
inot; 

never ; 


mirjOy 
punfoy 


J not at all. 


F^rse, 
circa, 


perhaps; 
about; 


prissOy 
qudsi, 


about; 
almost. 


Adverbs 


of Comparisi 


on and 


Interrogation. 


edifie, 
pik, 


so, thas ; 

as; 

so, as ; 
more; 


minoy 
Untoy 
qudntOy 

OrgUiSOy 

a-mSdOy 


less ; 

so much, as ; 

a,; 

; like. 


♦ Prom the Cehi 
t From tho CoItU 
t Fram tho Lttio 


eprm,«n6«r.» 
} ttvpa^ < troop,* ( molt 
gtrrm « — tho Collie i 


itodo.' 





ass 



ANALOGY. 



Ovef 

d&ve? 

quindof 



> where, 
I whither ? 

whence ? 

when? 



chit 

perche? 
qudidof 



' how ? 

why? 
how mach ? 



Adverbt of Choice and Demonstration. 



Anzi, 
prima, 

Eceo, 

§eeoqui, 

eccoquH, 



(rather; 

behold ; 

ihere is, 
here are ; 



sooner. 



I pitUt6sto, 
I piupristOf 



eccoli^ > there is, 

eccoii, \ there are ; 

quttTuTUcOj whenlo. 



The adverbs 6ggiy * to-day ' ; tcrt, * yesterday * ; and 
domanij * to-morrow ' ^ are often used as substaotives ; 
as, 

this day ; 
yesterday ; 
to-morrow is Friday. 

Maij ' never,' is sometimes used in the significatioQ of 
* ever ' ; as, 

what savage women were 

there ever ? 
as beautiful as ever ^ 



quM) di iT 6eei, 
H gxSrno di i^ai, 
DOMAAi i Fenercft, 



qudi hdrbart/ur nil ? 

eoH hUlQ c6meju m ai, 

Qui, yi/a, * here'; and qvinci, * from hence '; indicate 
a place near the person speaking : cosll, cosiAj * there 
near you ' ; and costinci, * from thence where you are *; 
indicate a place near the person spoken to : and /t, la ; 
colij cola; ivi, quiri^ * there ' ; indi^ 'thence*, and 
quindij ' from thence ' ; indicate a place at a distance 
from both the person speaking and the person spoken 
to ; as, 

cosi qui mi di$st, so he said to me here ; 



ADVERBS. 358 

q;aif!icinon pdssa mAi dnima no good spirit ever passes 

huSneif. hence ; 

UnU hHU gidvani e/a costA so many beautiful girls as 

sdnoj there are there near you ; 

dUel costInci, tell it from where you are ; 

rU Li gudri lantdno, not far from thence ; 

vudUi cos\ colI dove 8ipu6U so it is willed thete, where 

eid che si vuSle, will is power ; 

qnivi si pidngon li spiddti here they wail their merci- 

ddnni^ less wrongs ; 

eomand^Ue eht iifDi mm u- he ordered her not to go out 
sdsstj from thence. 

58, * yes ' ; and no^ * no ' or * not ' ; are sometimes 
used as substantives ; as, 

fl mio NO, my negative ; 

H sdo s), his affirmative ; 

f^evond cdpo mi ienzSnc^ yes and no struggle in my 

head. 

Si IS used sometimes instead of the conjunction e, 
^ and,' and may be rendered in English by the word 
ioth; as, 

Blper la sitafirma, e si per la both for his personal beauty and 
nobiltik detpddre, for the nobility of his father. 

•ATo sometimes takes the place of a whole sentence ; 
as, 

vciisserOi o vo [o non voles- whether they wished, or not 

sero], [or they did not wish] ; 

^lUtlo che io avrd fdUo, e qutt what I shall have done, and 

ehe no [e qu61 che non avr6 what not [and what I shall 

fiitto], not have done], 

JVb is used only in answering a question, or when 
^d absolutely : non, in all other mstances, and par- 
ticularly when the negative is followed by a verb or 
another adverb ; as, 

ffgndr, NO, no, sir ; 

30« 



354 ANALOGY. 

nom/amitieo^ if o, I do not nje^ no ; 

Ko, per qtUUo nom riwutn^ U no, the bargain will not be 
mercdiof broken ofi' on this accoatf. 

O^ve^ * where,' in poetry, is often changed into «' ; 
as, 

u* 96no i virsi f where are the yerses ? 

u' son gidnU U rime f where are the rhymes gone ? 

The adverbs Jcnc, gid^ mal^ m'lca^ p^miOy non, iecOj 
are often used as mere exfletlves ; as, 

#i B^ifE, yes indeed ; 

oil Dio non vSgliOj may God tbrbid ; 

ngidce m ai simpre in gkidecio, lies always frozen j 

non uicx di p6co qffdref not at all of little cosise- 

quence ; 

non k Fi^NTo mdrtoy be is not at all dead ; 

nqfplna ancSra non ha, be has bardlj yet; 

icco, non to dir di no, . I cannot say no. 

XZAMPLKS. 



QvisTo nl D* 66GT ^ itdto daio This day has been given to kings, 

are, 9 soldatiif e a skfdtta gin- and to sultans, and to stmilar pe»- 

U,^ (Bocc. g. 10. B, 10.) pie. 

Qudnto igt /k ii< gi^rho di What was ordered to me yesler- 

liai impdsio dUa sua partenxa. day at your depariure. 
(Red. Lett.) 

DomIni k VxKxaDi, e ti »e- To-morrow is Friday, and die 

r^nte d\ S&baio, (Bocc. g. 2. n. following day Saturday. 

Qvii BARBAma ruR mIt, gtidi« What savage women, what Saia- 

Sarat&ne ? (Dant. Piirg. 23.) cens were there ever ? 

Coal i 6ggi B^LLo U eUlo The sky Is as beautiful to-day as 

cdifB ru MAI. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 10.) it ever was. 

Qu\ fUi con Pan\fUo, e cosl Here was I with Pamphiliis, 

qv\ Ml nfssE, e co$k quXfadmmo. and so he said to me here, and so 

(Bocc Fiamm. 4.) we did here. 



ADVERBS. 



355 



Qui RCi Roir PAS9A MAI AN IMA Hence no good spirit ever past- 
Bu6Nik. (Daut Inf. 3.) es. 



Veggtndo tante b^li^e gi6- 

TAItl CH£ COSTA SOiNO. (BOCC. 

-JUoc. 2.) 

DlTET^ CC»8Tf KCI, 96 flOW, V dfCO 

tiro. (Dant inf. 12 ) 

Nli Ll 6UARI LONTAI70 /f/df di 

via — ITn suo btl v6lo lasciava 
fiigg^do. (Bocc. Vis. Am. 2U.) 

VuoLsi c:o8l colA. d6ve 81 

PUdTE — ClO CHE SI Vu6LE,«/»?tt 

fion ditnandare. (Dant. Inf. 3.) 

Qui VI 81 PIANGOPC LI SPIKTATI 

dInn I : — Qui VI ^ Mensdndro, e 
Dionisio firo — Che jV Sicilia ' 
ao6T dolorSgi dnni. (Dant. Juf. 
12.) 

Comand6lle chc Indi non 
vscis»m infino a tdnto, the egli 
the V atca rinchiunay non V a- 
prisse, (Passav. 78.) 

Tdnto vale il mIu no quanta 
IX. ado 81. (Cecct). Esalt. cr. 2. 

Cht 81 E WO KEL CAPO III TEN- 

s6kA.* (Dant. inf. S.) 

Era CimSne, si per la siJa 
r6RMA, e 81 PKR LA robiltA. e 
ricehizza del -padre, qudti nolo a 
eiaseuno. (Bocc. ^. 5. n. 1.) 

fo vi dird qc^llo chr io avr6 
fItto, e qu£l cue mo. (Bocc. 
g.2.n.l.) 

nfami^U&re rhpSse : * SiQ56r, 
»o,* (Bocc. g. 1. u. 7.) 

Disse allSra Pirro : * Now r ar- 
m^Tico, Ko\ Sign6ra,* (Bocc.) 

No, PER ^d£llo Non rimar- 

Itl IL MERCATO. (BoCC. g. 7. n. 

S) 



Seeing so many beautiful gtrlf 
as are there near you. 

Tell it from where you are, or 
elde 1 draw m}* bow. 

Not far from thence flying out of 
the way, slie left a beautiful veil. 

So it is willed, there where will 
is power, and ask no more. 

Here they wail theic merciless 

wrongs : here dwells Alexander 

~ and the fietre Dionysius, who 

wrought for Sicily many years of 

woe. • 

He ordered her not to go out 
from thence until he, wlio had 
Fhut her up there, should come to 
open for her. 

My negative is as good as his 
affirmative. 



For yes and no struggle in my 
head. 

Cimon wa9, both for his person- 
al beauty, and for the nobility and 
wealth of his father, known to tl« 
most every one, 

I will tell you what I shall have 
done, and what not. 



The domestic replied : < No, sir.' 



Then Pynrhus said : * I do not 
rave, Madam, no.' 

No, the bargain will not be brok- 
en off on this account. 



• « At wir 'twixt will and will not.* — SHA»»r«AB«, MeoHtrt/or Mttmrg, 



dSS 



ANALOGY. 






T» LK nine ? (Petr. c 46.) 

PiMe CaioxilrtfM ; ' Si Bibn.* 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 6.) 

B negromdnte du$e : ' Gil Df o 
mm ToouA.' (Bocc. g. 10. d. 5.) 

ZPtta parte del m&ndo i, eke ti 
oiicK — Mai s£mprs ui ouiio 
CIO. (Peir. c 6.) 

IPna ne dirdj now micK d* mS- 
flM Di f6co Arrias. (Bocc g. 
10. D. 6.) 

Teddldo voK t rtmo ifdRTO. 
(Boccg. 8.n.7.) 

i^sto n6$tro fanduUo^ U quAU 
APpiifA anc<Sra Koif HA quottSr' 
did dnnu (Bocc. g. 4. n. 8 ) 

l^co, io HON so 6ra dib di vo. 
(Bocc. g. 8. D. 7.) 



ire the rfayoiefl goBo ? 
Cd«Ddiioo repied: <Tm in- 



Tbe Decromaocer repfied : 'M^ 
God forbid.* 

There is a part of the worid 
which lies always iioxeii. 

I win tell yoQ one, not at aO of 
a maD of little cooseqaenee. 



Tedaklo is not at an dead. 



- This boy of ouis, who is hacdly 
fourteeo years old yet. 



1 cannot now say ne. 



COMPOUND ADTXRBS. 



Compound adverbs are formed of ao adjeciive^ and 
the siibsuntive menie^* ' manner.' Mente being of the 
feminine gender requires that the adjective be of the 
s^me gender; as. 



s^imA, wise; 
ofi^s^A, honest ; 
cartisK, courteous; 
pmddntz, prudent; 



SAYIA-Hiirrx, in a wise manner, or wise- 

tiy; 

oHBSTA-M^irTE^ in an honest manner, or 

[honestly; 

C0BTX8B-ic£vTB, in a courteous aaanner, 

[or courteously ; 

PBU]>KiiTB>ic]6irrx, in a prudent manner, 

{or prudently; 



• From tb« Celtie mtnt^ * nnnMr.* It is froa this laofvafe that Um Lttiaff 
borrowed their nieii«, and formed toch expreesiooe m /erti mnu^ darm mmu^ 4 e M 
td flMUfe, See., which afterward* paeeed to the ftaliaiMf as jdaa wt4mts io Boeeao- 
eio (g. 9. n. 9.) : ^fftUmAta wthtU io Arioeto (Orl. For ); etima mhttt io Monti (Banv.) 
nay prove; an boosh thej are nowceoerallj written in one word ; aa,>Wt«Bi^«l% 
' atronf ly '; eJaarmmtmU^ * clearly ' } dewttamiiOMf * deTootly ' ; mwam t t n t; * wiaelj ' j 
^lli ra e wa i rfa /^ *alfcctio oai ely ' ; tUmamiiUty 'etemaUj' ; lie. 



ADVERBS. 



357 



If the adjective ends in le,* or re, for the sake of 
euphony the final e is dropped in the formation of the 
adv^erb ; as, 

/eHivolr.^ raerry ; festevol-m^nte, merrily ; 

particoldrR, particular; particolar-m£>te, particularly. 

Sometimes the adverb is an adjective only, without 
the addition of the word menie ; as, 

CMiARo [for chiaraminie], clearly ; 
DOLCE [for dolceuUnU,] sweetly. 



The following are the 



Adjectives commonly used as Adverlfs.f 



FSrle, 

96do, 

dUo, 

hasso, 

eirioy 

irisUf 

liito, 

dSlce, 

ckidro, 

McUro, 

gchikUo, 

pidnOy 

Unto, 

prdntOy 

rdllo, 



very strong ; 


Idnto, 


so much ; 


fnst, hard ; 


rdro, 


iHrely ; 


soAly ; 


sSlo, 


only; 


low; 


tiitto. 


all; 


certainly ; 


p6ro, 


little 5 


sadly ; 


m6Uo, 


much ; 


merrily ; 
sweetly ; 


trdppo. 


too much ; 


. 6^.70, 


handsomely ; 


clearly ; 


bti6nOy 


very well ; 


darkly ; 


apirtoy 


openly ; 


candidly ; 


sicuro, 


surely ; 


low, softly ; 


dimtsso. 


lowly ; 


slowly ; 


sommhsOf 


humbly ; 


readily ; 


virino. 


near ; 


speedily; 


lontdno, 


fur. 



* This rulA with tr^gnnl to adjociives ending in /« if not without czccptiont, as 
nay bo «Pon in the following pii4itiig<!<4 : 



8imu.xmiHte Unul tim* d"* Adimo, 
(Dant. Inf. 3.) 

p0 ia rivigrio Hdrti umiLVHd^te, 
(Pou. 11.811.) 

UmiuxmiiUe ei priigo, ( Boee. ) 

C6s« rAde rdlU uidfa per lo e<«iiHi)M, ma 
^OLumiiUefvia. (Matt. Vill. 9. 28.) 

t In order lo know wh«n lho«o word-* Jim atl'isclioen^ and wh"n adorrhs^ it b Vkf-^ 
Acitol to ob«crv« whether, in thedwcouue, ihcj are added to, or jued for, a ■«!>- 



In liko ronnner Adam*s ovil brood. 

I see hor remaining humbly. 

I humbly entrffiit you. 
A ihiiiff M'Idom uiod by tlio community, 
but urtttlully done. 



aao ANALOGY. 

Adverbs formed of an adjective, and the adverbs 
pristOf sovenUy periempo^ adagio, voUniieri, affatto, 
may be used in a comparative and superlative degree, 
which is formed thus : 



tranqwUnmintt, 
T\\i Iranquiliaminte, 
iranquUl'issiMA-minltf 

felicenUniey 
M E 'v o ftliceminie, 
ftlic-i sd I M x-mkirtt, 

schiettoy 

Pill or M^ifo 8chttit0y 

schitti'issiMA-mtnte, 

liUo, 

Pill or MB!f into, 

litt- 1 ss I UA-minte, 

voUnliiri, 

T\\i or m£no voltntiiHj 

voUmlxer-i^si^A-minUf 



tmnquilly ; 
more traDquilly ; 
very tranquilly : 

happily ; 
less happfly ; 
very happily: 

candidly ; 

more or less candidly ; 

very candidly: 

merrily ; 

more or less merrily ; 

very merrily : 

willingly ; 

more or less willingly; 

very willingly. 



The adverbs hene, *well'; and male, * badly'; in 
their comparative and superlative, make, 

MioLio, better; 

OTTiM A«ien/e or 6en(s8iMO, very well : 

pioGio, worse ; 

pEssiM Am^rUc or mafissiMO, very badly. 

Assai, in the superlative makes assaissiuoj ' very 
much.' 



■Untiv*, or not ; for, if lo, they are wIJocUtm $ oUmtwim Ikoy un adwcto. TfaM, 
in these examples. 



fl* t* mtritdi di v6i m$»6i rbeo, 
(Dftnt. Inf. 36.) 

Sifno imantf6tt9 di r6co Whim. (Boee. 
f. 1. n. ].; 

E per poco, m tu mi iicisn^ eke ie 
MdAssi di qui a Peritola^ i« cride eh* io 
9i axdriu ( Bocc g. 8. n. 9.) 

the word p6eo U an adverb in the fimt ioiUnca, where it modifies the verb ; 
hot it \* an adjective in the other two, where, in the fimt, it is adHeH to tbe sab- 
stantive /rtf«««, and, io the seeood, suiuls tot a soUtantife : beinz aqoivalaQt to vtfM 
fd*a, • JUUe thiDf .» » -• 1 r 



If I desenrad of joo eitbv 
Uule. 

A aiaoifeat sifa of littla 



How^Tftr littlo joa should ask 
go to Perctola, I believe that t 
fo there. 



ADVERBS. 



89» 



Benej pScOy adagio, piano, tanio, as we have already 
observed at p. 86, iiave also a diminutive, 

pretty well ; 
very little ; 



beniso, 
pochiyo, 
pocoiATfo^ 
poefiETri 



uxo,) 



' very slow ; 



€idagii90t 

pianlso, 

<an/i.NO, / J. ^ 

/On/INBTTO, J^^^T^^^c. 



Bene, has also an augmentative : benbifz, * very 
well.' 

ADVERBIAL PHRASES IIT COMlfON USK. 

a mino cA«, unless ; 

St non ch$,\ except; 

da per tiUlo, ) ^„«.«„i,^-. . 

pe/s^idSve, ^everywhere; 

ad un trdtto, at once ; 

dilitll-^'^-^^^^^^^y' 

dt gran (Ungn, by far ; 

a liingo anddre, in tlie long 

irun, in time ; 
I all one's 
[might ; 
di mdUi vdgiia, unwillingly ; 
a un di prisao^ almost ; 
(i' alidra in ^v^since that time ; 
d^ 6ra inndnzi, henceforth ; 
in quH mintrty in or at that time ; 
di pinnto in pUnlo, exactly ; 
di pdnto in bidnco, point blank; 
di qudndo in qudndo, ^ now 
di trdllo in trdlto, > and 
di tdnio in tdnto, } then ; 
U pia per lo piii, on the whole, 
[at the utmost 



i)i#£(&t<o, suddenly; 
^ h6Uo^ presently ; 
VI un httlino, in an instant ; 
in un bdlter d* Scckio, in the 
[twinklincr of an eye ; 
p6cofa, a little while ago; 
frapSco, in a short time; 
un pixzoftty some time, ago ; 

dOltt6ltty at times; 

aK* improvvisoy unexpectedly ; 

dHa ventitra, at random ; 

fltt* dvoenire, in future ; 

a mmido, in detail ; 

««ic^iu/i7, by turns; 

« gdra^ emulously ; 

« c^, by chunce ; 

« iirioy wrongly ; 

Ptr accidtnte, ^ 

per s6rle^ > by chance ; 

per auvenidra, ) 

pur trSppo,* too truly, too well ; 

difrhcoj newly ; 

<K hu6n grddo, willingly ; 

^ma/gr4</o,ngain8t one's will; 

^nza menoy positively ; 

T^&rUo prima, very soon ; 

^•iuLpdsla, ? at one's 

« «6o Bknnoy \ pleasure ; 

•« Bhmo, seriously ; 



* An aiftieal ezprewion for tbo phrasot i pub tb^pto vh-o^ * it li too tnio '; i nrat 
^^9tQ hime^ * It i« loo welL» 



t An MifiUal expreviion for the 
**ii t * hud it not b«oo.' 



phrMO tB ifoif /tfM«i or fdase »t6tfi, cbb, * wort it 



aao 



ANALOGY. 



■ X A M P LKI. 



SAniMilifTE si fjm6$ona l6ro 
' cima. (liio. Vill. I. 8. c. 1 ) 

Mdngiano e6' forettiiri fcsi k- 
TOI.IIEMTC. (Oav. Geno.) 

V dUre donne. wdita PampiniOf 
atitn f^i^ riu particui.akh£.ntk 
tra ti cotninciulo a trattdr del 
m6do, (Bocc. lotrod.) 

A»sdi la V ke !6r chiabo T mb- 
iota. (Daiit. luf. 7.) 

C6me DOLCE par la, e dolce 
ride, (Petr. s. 12(>.) 

Qudiido pure m6nea dcHe e6»e 
nel hioa^ttf dive noi »iamo^ ee 
n' andidmo t« vn ditro rxucis- 
simah£>tc. (GJI. Circ. 1.31.) 

JVe^xun riMe giammdi piit di 
me i.i£ ro. ( Fetr. s. 7.) 

Qnetta gratsrzza non impedt- 
see U rieeviminto dtl meldllo, 
6nxi V acciVa piu volentieri 
deW dttra ttrra. fBeo. Cell. 
Oref.) 

Po m* afterrJi volehticri9m- 
MAutitTK da coa\ fdUa prcpoia- 
si&ne. (Red. Coos.) 

n qudle jpd ottixax^.tte la 
Ikigua tapia. (Bocc. g. 2. d. 9.) 

Tu ti pUti ifALi}«!*jHO con eo- 
lui al qudle iu denideri the gli 
DH nSceiuno, (Varcb. Sea. Beo. 
6.) 

Ohf mi rallegro AssAissnio — 
Vedirvi vivo e proiperdeo. (Ainbr. 
Cof.6.6) 

J^/i $tan pur bekiiy eon qudUe 
bdrse — Di rdso al cdllo. (Buoo. 
Fier. luUod.) 



Thus wisely tbey delivered 
message. 

They e*t merrily with 



The other ladies, having beard 
Paiiipinca, had already begun i 
paiticul^ily to devi:ie the i 



Their words reveal their fiicilt 1 
clearly. 

How sweetly she speaks, a 
how sweetly sbie smiles. 

Whenever things are i 
in the place where we are 
go 10 another very happily. 



None ever lived mote 
than [. 



i«»ppy 



This richness [of this earth] 
does not prevent the metal beio^ 
received in it ; on the contrary it 
receives it better than the other 

earth. 

I would abstain yeiy willingly 
from such preparation. 

Who knew already the languagp 
very well. 

Thou conductest thjrself Tery 
badly with him whom thou wisheit 
that the gods should injure. 

Oh, T rejoice pretty moch (• wtm 
you alive and prosperous. 

They look pi^tfy well with thoM 
bags of satin hung to their necks. 



ADVERBS. 361 

Piaceiavi di preitare un poco- May you be pleased to lend to 

iJiro— w9 qu6$ta pinna Urstan- this pen for a very little while 

e6io dito. (Daot. Rim.) your wearied fioger. 

Conviene un tantin^tto lo- You ought to praise me a little. 
ddrmu (Salvia. Pros. Tosc. 1.) 

AMsieurdtevij ehe io vi p6rto un Be assured, that I love you 

M-Kv6nm gramiihie. (Car. lett. 1.) hugely. 



EXERCISE XXIII. 



Where I wast i thou yesterday a little before (to the) 
I f6MH I gUfr- 

day ? Where dost thou run ? What fury urges thee 
no 7 — • cSrrere^ ? Juna sospingere^ * 

on ? Where dost thou go ? Wait for me. Ah ! 
— ? — * anddre^ 7 AspeU6re^-^ . Deh ! 

how I can this be .' 11 have seen him here 
I die poiSr qu6$to* esaer^ 7 \ av6re* ved6re* * • 

to-day. There I must be I there some places I covered i 
*. I eomniTu^ hier^ \ * luogo \ na$e6so \ 

with small bushes and ffrass, where the hares now 
virgulio erbOf Upre 

and then I can I conceal themselves. It is not 
I p6$8a7u^ I nascSndere^ *. — isaere^ * 

this the earth, which I touched before. The boy 
tetrinOf toeedre . ^fanciiillo^ 

not answering him, he began to call more loud. 
* rUpSndere*^^ ', eomincidre chiamdre 

You are now already old and 1 can I ill endure 
issere vicckio \ poUte \ durdr 

fatiffue. Without I thinking I at-all, as if he I had 1 
fattea, S6nza \ pmadre^ \ >, qudsP — | ootfsse* | 

thoufifht a long time — (much time), he I said. I I It 
pensSri^ — * tempi^, — | disae. 

31 




909 ANALOGY. * 

beboTes (U) me I to so soon to Fkireoce. Ah ! jes, 
eontiin^ > * | mnd£re Firinxe. Dek! , 

for the love of God I let it be done 
per am&r Dio \ f&eeiasi 

recehredy a little while ag^o, letters 
rieivere, , UtUra 

I Go, I and 1 see I who cries above. How (wmA) 
I r&\ I I «^ I pidngere 

far are we from (Ike) oar quarters? I See i who 
cMsere^ * anUrdda t \ Vedif \ 

knocks below. He hoped I to I be able to have 
piedudre — Sper&re \ di \ paUr aofrt 

the city of Locca easily. He | goes I nmnin^ hen 
eiUd « * ag^PQleK \ va \ tdrrere 

and there as if he were crazy. The 
s€ — ittere pdxxo. 

returned | after | ((ke) her chest, and carried it back 
ritomdre | per | • oUm*, • r^ortdrt^ * 

there from-whence she had taken it TeD me, whence 
* » — tnir^levdre^ ». JK'^ , 

art thou, and of what condition art thoo ? 
i§9ere — , eondixidne — f 

And he I replied 1:^1 am I from I Syria, and I am 
! rirpdte \ : « 6M9ere \ di \ SiriOy - ^ncra 

a kipff.** He acts carelessly. And | haTing been 
- re, operdre trasettrdU. \ — 

pot I in prison, he I was I cruelly treated by them. 
md$$o I prigiSne, —\fu\ erudd^ trattdre^ > \ 

Observe it more particularly. And having departed 
Oteervdre^^ patiieoldre. peafitm^ 

(himself) ftom thence, he I went I (thence) to Naples, 
«t , — \mndd* I fM> JCdpoK, 

where he | lived I most tranquilly. 
vi$$e I trmnquUh. 



PREPOSITIONS. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
PREPOSITIONS. 



r&xpo8iTioirs iif common dsk. 



tn,§ 
per. 



Mipray 
s6Uo, 
Jra, 
tra, 
infra, 
Mra, 
prima, 
d6po, 
dnzty 
inn&nxi, 
din&nzi, 

davdntij 

dUtro, 

didiUro, 

iniro, 

dhitro, 

fu6ra. 

Mri, 

wfudri, 



of; 

tQ, in, at ; 

from, by, on, at ; 

in, on, upon ; 

with ; 

through, by, on ac- 

fcount of, in order 

[to, for ; 

> on, upon ; 
under ; 

> amongst, within ; 

> in, in about ; 

before ; 
after; 



s 



before, in the 
presence of; 



> behind ; 

> in, within ; 

) out of, without, 
{ besides ; 
except, excepted'; 



accdnto, 

alldtoy 

attomo, 

dattdmOf 

adddsso, 

prissoy 

apprissOi 

vtcino, 

lungiy 

lontdnOy 

4ppo,|) 



wo, V 



^ aside, about, 
\ near, by ; . 

* about, around ; 

on, upon, about ; 

near, almost ; 



> far^ from ; 

at, with, in com- 
[parison with ; 
towards ; 

> beyond, besides; 
along ; 



vir80,% 

dUra, 

6Urty 

lungoy 

Jlno, 

sinoy f tin, until, 

in/lnOi ^ as far as ; 

insino, y 

a/rdn/e,tt ) 
nmpitto, > opposite ; 
dinmpitto,) 
8enza,il without ; 

ecclUOf > except, excepted ; 
trdnnCj ) 



* From the Ctltio ia, a sign ofqaaliflcation. t From the Celtie lU, * at.> 

t Prom the Celtic a, < near,' * joioiDg with.' $ Prom the Celtic «•, * in.» 

II From the Latin apud: — Celtic op, * joint,' UtUched.* 
^ From the Latin ventu t — Celtic gwero, •to tnm.» 
** From the Celtic con, a sign of oppoeitlon ; and Uraek, * side.' 
tt Prom the h^iia fimu ? — CelUo>e», * before.* 

It (And «daza and mm, need by old writen,) lirom the Latin «iM t — Celtic «y, 
*Wint,» «i»rlration,» 



364 ANALOGY. 



circa, ^ 

incirca, > about, alpiost; 

intdmo, 3 



secSttdo, 



con/<5rme, 5 



The nature of most of the foregoing prepositions is 
such as to admit of no other significations than those 
which have been given above ; there are however some 
which are made, in Italian, to express so many differeDt 
relations, that it has been thought indispensable to add 
the following remarks : 

The preposition di may express a relation of passes^ 
iion, of extraction^ or of qualijication ; asj 

U dmdro 01 LtSi, his own money ; 

Jiglio DEL TiGLivoLOy SOU of the son ; 

la stdiua di mIrmo, the statue of marble ; 

u6min% di eR6680 uvofeNO, men of dull understanding. 



A may express a relation of aitributiony of end or 
tendency of action, or of proximity to a place, person^ 
or thing ; as, 

▲L t£mpo deW imperad6re in the time of the emperor 
FfiDERieo PafMO, Frederic the First ; 



* From Um Ij^tin jutta .• — Celtic tyu»U^ * to adjut.' 

t Some of the foregoinf prepotitioM are the aame as the adrerbi ; as, 9^ 
*r«, »6U0f primMj Offriac^ ddpo^ tUntT9y d\fu&ri, &c., which, when tbej ai* 
followed or precedea by a nouo, a proooun, or a vetb which they soTeni, are 
idways prepoeitiooa, but otherwiae are adverba. Thoa ia the £)lJowia; ex- 
amples, 

Or vim mittiti avAtdf k» ti verrb Ar- Now go before, I wiU follow altar 
fbb'mo. (Boec. g. 3. D. 5.) thee. 

D6Ua mddre dilla giAvan* prioM, • "^^7 ^^^ ^**^ tarpriaed by the ao- 
Arras uo da Cwrrido aoprofpriti fbro- ther of the girl, and afterwardi by C«r> 
na. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 6.) rado. 

the word an»rrfaM, hi the first instance is a frtposidom because it forema tfaa 
prooooD l> } but in ihe second is an adonh becamae it fa^ems no oUier wt»d. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



365 



chi il vdslro Ugn&ggio Aif- 

DiSSE A POVERTADE, 

trovIndosi a ParIgi, 

ALI.ATO JlI«I.A d6n1«A, 

iP AYVICINAVA ALL£ t£rRS 



lei him come to see her ; 

that your lineage should be- 
come poor ; 

finding himself in Paris ; 
by the side of the lady ; 

he approached the land of the 
Duke. 



Da may express a relation of dertWion, of rfeparttire, 
of separation, of dependence^ of difference^ of designa- 
iionj of destination, of similitude, oi fitness, aptitude, or 
capability, o{ presence, of passage through or by, of un^ 
certainty of number, of time, of place, of loneliness, or of 
instrumentality ; as, 

Clfio DA Pist6ia, 
fc grdzit v^NQoNo da Dio, 
tornIndo da Parigi, 
partiti da cot^sti, 

m' AI.LOIfTANA DAL Y6LeO, 



DIP^NDE DA qjJ^L T^VTO, 

altr' u6ho da qu^LLO che 

io s6no, 
GugliUmo DAL CdRNO, 

c68e DA margiJLrr^ 
u6mo DA p6cOy 
ovdnti DA si, 
DALLA clsA d^a dSnna, 
DA notXnta m(la bScche, 

DA ORAN t£mPO, 
DA quiSTA piRTE, 

DA me, DA per v&i, 
•dificdto DA TARquiNio, . 

31» 



Cino of Pistoia ; 

favors come from God ; 

returning from Paris ; 

go away from those spirits ; 

she separates me from the 

common people'; 
it hangs upon that point ; 
a different man from what I 

am now ; 

William [sumamed] from the 
Horn ; 

eatable things ; 

a foolish roan ; 

before himself; 

before the house of the lady ; 

above ninety thoosand mouths ; 

a long time since ^ 

to this side ; 

of me ; by yourself; 

built by Tarquiiu 



966 ANALOGY. 

Besides the above relatioos, the preposition da is 
ofteo used to express with brevity the habitation of a 
person ; and is equivalent to the words a casa, a casa 
dij * to one's house ' ; * as, 

DA [or a cdsa dt\ me, to me [or to my hoose] ; 

DA [or a c4sa dt] lisij to bis house ; 

DA [or a c6$a d%] lit, to her house ; 

DAL [or a c69a del] CardinMe, to the Cardinal's. 



In expresses a relation of interioriiy, or a relatioo 
between two objects of which tbe one contains^ and the 
other is contained ; as, 

darmiva iif uw LETTiccin6- he slept in a litde bed ; 

I.O, 

c6rsi IN MERCATO, I ran to the market ; 

6ra IN PakIoi, in un ALBia- there were in Paris, in a ho- 
eo, , teL 

The Italians consider as co»/at«t«^-objects, the rf«- 
visions of iimCj the parts of one^s body^ the apparel we 
toear^ and sometimes even the surface of bodies ; as, 

cMo novUle racconidte in one hundred stories related ia 
Diici oi6rni, ten days ; 

pudica in faccia, chaste in her countenance ; 

la cor6na in fb<Snte, the crown on the forehead ; 

IN isiTO di peregriniy in pilgrim's dress ; 

gU fUrono straccidti i pdnni all the clothes he had on were 

IN i>6s80, torn ; 

IN mIre, e IN T^RRA, ou the sea, and on the land. 



Con expresses a relation of company ; and the Italians 

• Th« lulian ha* dmived Uili osag» firom the C«ltie tengiuf*, in wliieb tlM md 
Ai was a sTooBynM of, and oftaa uad for, Um word om or ctef, * hahit ai ioa * ;~ 
tto Om of the ItaUan. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



S67 



generalJy consider as companions the instruments, the 
means, or the manner in which an action is performed, — 

vhigo a desindre copr y6i, 

che CON lo STii.E, CON la p^n- 
NA, o coi. penn]£llo noYi 

faUndogli cinno c6lla Mi- 

NO, 

incomiTtctd a dire con i^mil 

V6CE, 



I come to dine with you ; 

which with his style, with his 
pen, or with his pencil, he 
could not paint ; 

making him a sign with her 
hand; 

hegan to say with a humble 
voice ; 



CON fatIca gli rispSse, 



with difficulty he replied to 
him. 



Per expresses the way through, or the means by, which 
a thing is done; the reason why, or ihe object for which, 
it is done ; it expresses also a relation of space with 
regard to time or place ; and a relation of instrumentali" 
'y> of qualification, of destination, or of distribution ; 
as, 

through me you go into the 
city of woe ; 

at whose entreaties I have 
aided this one ; 

not on account of the cruelty 
of the beloved lady, but on 
account of an excesssive 
flame; 

I go for the sweet fruit ; 

remaining for several days ; 

through the fields, through < 
the streets, and in the hous- 
es they died ; 

promised to me bj my sure 
guide ; 

he is reputed a holy man ; 



PER ME 8% va rUlla citih do- 
UrUe, 

PER LI Ct^I PRI^ioHI COSiiii 

soryvenni, 
non PER crudeltA. diUa 
ddnna amdta, ma per so- 
viRCBIO Fu6co, 

vo pi' d6lci p6mi, 
PER Pill Di dimordndo, 
PER H cAmpi, per le vIe, e 
PER le clsE morieno, 

promessi a me per lo verI- 

CE DtJcA, 

i nptUdto per banto. 



farii per Currddo 6gni c6sa, I would do for Currado every 

thing ; 

^Hd duedU,rmtL imo, ten ducats each. 



866 ANALOGY. 

Pp- IS also used to entreat or to swear ijf ; as, 

FKR quUla p4ce die per v6i by that peace which is pre- 

#' asprtti, ditene . . . . , pared for yoa, tell us .... ; 

Ti oit^RO, P£& quiUo am6rt I swear to thee, by that lore, 

eke to tip6rto, eke . . . . , which I bear th^ tliat .... 



The preposition a, as it was meotioDed p. 37, fol- 
lowed by a word beginning with a vowel takes a d 
after it, and su followed by another u takes an r 'yjuora, 
fiiorij and fino, sinOj injlno, insinOj followed by a word 
beginning with a consonant often lose the Icut vowel i 
and verso, loses the last syllable ; as, 

AD v6mo d* tnteUitto, to a man of sound jodgmeBt ; 

#ttR vn* 6sse, upon a board ; 

ifcpiN Da 6ra, henceforth ; 

v6lta TER Me, turned towards me. 



SZAMPLS8. 



E eon II. dknIro di li^i U And paid him with his own 

pagd. (Bocc.) money. 

Fu ricLio DCL FiGLJU^LO dd He was son of the son of the 

Conte <r Artese. (Gio. Vill. 11. Count of Artois. 
54.) 

La axATOA dt marmo, o di The statue of maible, or of 

Ugnoy o di metdlhj rimd$a per wood, or of metal, remaining thefe 

memdria d* alritn valerUe u6mo. in memory of some great man. 
(Dant. Convir.) 

J^ono udMiiri e fimmine di They were men and women of 

or6s80 ivG^aifo. (Bocc. Intr.) dull understanding. 

Al t£mpo deli.' iBTPKRADdRc lu the time of the empeior 

Fkderigo Psiifo. (Bocc. g. 10. Frederic tibe First 
n.9) 

Chi not eride, t£nga 6gU a He who docs not betieTO It, let 

TXD^RLA. (Petr. 8. 210.) him come to see her. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



dG9t 



A vSi non vi saribhe onSre 

CBS 'l v68TRO ItlGNAOaiO ANDA8- 

sx ▲ povertAds. (No7. Ant. 46.) 

TroyAndosi igli una v6Ua jl 
'PilbIgi in pdvero stdto, (Bocc.) 

Allato JLLLA t)6nva lo p6$e. 
(Bocc.) 

Alls TiRRE del Di^ca s' ay- 
viciNAVA. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 7.) 

^leco Ciw DA Pi8T<5iA. (Petr. 
Fr. Am. 4.) 

Da DlO T^NOOZTO le orazie. 
(Bocc. g. 10. D. 3.) 

Da Par! gi a Odnova tornJLn- 
ito. (Bocc. g. 8. D. 9.) 

E tu ehe si* costly dnima vtoa, 
— Partiti da cotj^sti che son 
m6riL (Dant. Inf. 3.) 

QjtUsta s6la hjh. v6lgo m' ai.- 
x,02fTAirA. (Petr. c. 19.) 

Da qjjti* PlJuTO — Dip^nde 
U Ciilo e tutta la natura, (Dant 
Par. 28.) 

Qaand^ 6ra in pdrte altr* u6m 
PA Quiii CH* i* »6»o. (Petr. a, 

1) 

H qudle avia ndme Guoli^lmo 
OAL C6r5o. (Gio. Vill. 9.) 

Le COSE DA MARGIARB flOfl St 

stimano daW dso o daW affitto, 
ma dcdla eonsuetudine. ( Varch.) 

Tu «^* piu DA p6co ehe JUdso, 
ehe si lasddva fUgg^ire i pisei 
edtli. (Lasc. Spir. 5. 7.) 

P6eo ATiNTi DA nif vide h 
eineri rimdst <r A'ttUat flagillo 
di Dio, (Bocc. Floe. 4.) 

Dal f rale partUosif dalla casa 
n* andd d£lla DdNMA. (Bocc. 
g. 3. p. 8.) 



It would not be honorable to 
you, that your Hneage should be- 
come poor. 

Finding himself once in Paris in 
poor circumstances. 

By the side of the lady he put it. 

He approached the lands of the 
Duke. 

Behold Cino of Pistoia. 

Favors come from God. 

Returning firom Paris to Genoa. 

And thou who standest ther«, 
living spirit, go away from thoso 
spirits who are dead. 

She alone separates me from the 
common people. 

Heaven and nature hangs upon 
that point. 



When I was in part a different 
man from what I am now. 

Who was named William [sur- 
named] from the Horn. 

Eatable things are not valued 
from their use or their taste, but 
from habit. 

Thou art more foolish than Ma- 
80, who let the cooked fish escape 
from him. 

At a little distance before him- 
self, he saw the ashes left by 
Attila, the scourge of God. 

Leaving the friar, he passed be- 
fore the bouse of the lady. 



37(1 



ANALOGY. 



StwidvaH (n6re in Fhrinxe da 

■OTANTA mIlA sdcCHF., tftt «5- 

fnini, fimmine, e faneiulU, (Gio. 
ViU. II. 93.) 

Gid, DA GRAIf T^MPO fluUo piu 

ne eonStei. (Alf. Fil. 4. 2.) 

Si dura p6ca faAca a farlo m- 
ckifuire da qu^sta o da qu^l- 
LA PARTE. (Mach.) 

P6$eia rispdte lui : " Da me 
mm »^nm.** (Dant. Pur. I.) 

Voi v€ ne otfvedrHe da per 
t6i nel Uggere quisto frammin- 
to. (Red. lelt.) 

U eatmjnddglio fit SDiriciTO 
DA TarquIkio, asseiUdto da 
BrennOt e bbtrdto da CamiUo, 
(V»nz.) 

T5ma qui da me. (Mach.) 

^dunqut, anddtevene da li^i. 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) 

Essjindo Salabaitto da l^i cm- 
^lo utia iira, (Bocc. g. 8. n. 10.) 

Dal cardihal di Mor6ne, of' 
pina arrivntOf andarono tutti gH 
ambaseiculori, (Pall.) 

Iir UN LETTicciudLO assiH jfic' 
eolo $i dormi va. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 7.) 

fo c6nAt IK m£rcato per dir- 
ielo. (Mach. Com.) 

* ifeRA IW ParIgI. in UN ALB^R* 

oot aiqudnti mercatdnti JtalidnL 
(Bocc.) 

Intindo di raccnntare cAnto 

NOVfLLK. RACCoKtAtE III Dlici 

GIiSrrl (Bocc. Intr ) 

PudIca in paccia, e neir on- 
ddre onista. (Dant. Pur. 3f) 



It was thought that thete y 
in Florence about ninety thoiiMed 
mouths, among men, women, and 
children. 

It is already a long time raiee 
thou forgottest them all [thy pangs 
of remorse]. 

One meets wtih very little £ffi- 
culty in making him lean to this 
or to that side. 

Then he replied to him : « I 
did not come of myself." 

You will perceive it by yoonelf 
in reading this (ragment. 

The capitol was built by 1^ 
quin, besieged by Brennus, and 
delivered by CamiUus. 

Return here to me [<yr to tibia 
my house]. 

Go, then, to his house. 



SaUbaetto having gone one eve^ 
Ding to her house. 

All the ambassadors west to tbs 
Cardinal of Morone's, as soon as 
he arrived. 

He slept in a very small bed. 

I ran to the mar'ket to tell it to 
you. 

There were in Paris, in a hotel, 
a number of Italian merchants. 



I intend to relate one hundred 
stories, to be related in ten days. 

Chaste in her countenance, and 
modest in her carriago. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



371 



PulgSvami giU iir ]rR6 htb la 
coR6ifA. ( Dant. Pur. 8.) 



The crown shone already on my 
forehead. 



Iir ABiTo Di PZRKGRfNi. (Bocc.) ' In pilgrlin*8 dress. 



T\ilti i pXnni gli fi^rono in 
d6sso stracciati. (Bocc. g. 1. 
n. 1.) 

Comandamento ibbero dal lor 
comune d* abbaUere la fSrza d6' 
Viniziani in mjLrb, b in t£rra. 
(Gio. VUI.) 

Signdre, io viirGO a dbsinArb 
CON y6i, e con i.a vdsTRA brioa- 
TA. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 3.) 

anuria cSsa fiij ehe egli con 

LO STILE, CON LA P^NNA, O COL 
FXKll^LLO NON DIPIGN^SSR Simile 

a quella. (Bocc g. 6. n. 6.) 
E r invUd ad atnricinarsiy fa- 

C^VDOGLI ciflNO c6lLA MjLnO. 

(Bocc.) 

Ineomineid con i^mil vdcE a 
dIkb— (luil cV io v6* all* dltro 
ednio dffferire. (Arios. Fur.) 

TUOf non restdndo di pidngere, 

COli FATICA COtl GLI Rl3p6sE. 

^Bocc. g. 10. n. 8.) 

Pbr he si ya n£lla citt\ 
DOi«iNTR, — Per me si va neW 
eUmo dolSre^ — Per me si va 
tra la perduta g6nU. (Dant. 
lof. 3.) 

D&nna sciae dal eiiflOf per li 
cdi PRiicHi — Villa mia com- 
pagnia cobtCi sotv^nni. (Dant. 
Purg. 1.) 

Non per crudeltX d£i.la 
imSiina amAta, ma per sov£k- 
CHio Fu6co fUlla nUnte coNcir- 
TO da p6co regoldlo appetUo. 
(Bocc. Proem.) 

L&seio Io file, e vo r£* dolci 
p6mi — Prom^ssi a me per lo 
▼BRicB Dt^CA. (Dant. Int 16.) 



AH the clothes he had on were 
torn. 

They were ordered by their com- 
munity to destroy all the forces, 
which the Venetians had on the 
sea, and on the land. 

Sir, I come to dine with you, 
and with your company. 

There was nothing, that he 
could not with his stjHe, with his 
pen, or with his pencil, paint like 
it. 

And she invited him to approach, 
making him a sign with her hand. 

He began to tell with an humble 
voice what I choose to leave for 
the next canto. 

Titus, without ceasing from 
weeping, with difficulty replied to 
him thus. 

Through me you go into the 
city of woe, through me you go 
into eternal pain, tnrough me you 
go amongst the damned spirits. 

A dame descended from heaven, 
at whose entreaties I have aided 
this one with my guidance. 



Not on account of the cruelty 
of the beloved lady, but on ac- 
count of the exceftsive flame kin- 
dled in his mind ,by an unruled 
passion. 

I leave the gall, and go for tho 
sweet fr4jit promised to me by mj 
sure guide. 



S7!l 



ANALOGY. 



Q^Avi PKR Piik d1 dimokInoo. 
(Bocc g. 2. D. I.) 

Per U TfLLx, e psti li ci.if pi ; 

PVK JLS Vix, X PER LE cisB, di 

<ft e lit ndUe, morieno, (Bocc. 
lutrod.) 

E$Undo Bt6to vn fistimo u6- 
mo in vUat in m&rU i riputato 
PER sIrto. (Bocc. g. 1. d. 1.) 

FO FARil PER CuRrIdO 60III 

c6sA, du io poUiti. (Bocc. g. 2. 
n. 7.) 

E dU l6ro Diici ducjLti per 
tJifo. (Bocc.) 

O ijnriti eUtti, — Per nviLVJL 
PACE — Cfi* io crSdo che per toi 
tiUH 8' Aspim, — DItehe d6ve 
la montagna gidce, (Daot Pur. 
S.) 

PV TI Glt^RO PER QU^LLO. im- 

UssolubiU am6re che io ti 
p6rto, che ti qu^pio mise non 
usdrii, che tu tni rivedrdi. (Bocc. 
Fiam. 2.) 

JVon pare i$idSgno ad u6mo 
D* iiitell£tto. (DaDt. Inf. 2.) 

Baituti in sur uk' Isse eol 

eoUiUo. (Dav. Colt.) 

O'gni 6Ura e6sa, Aa t>6stra U' 
beraminte inwin da 6ra. (Bocc. 
g. 4. n. 4.) 

V6lta ter MEy mi ^$$e, (Fi- 
renz. Asin. 'o25.) 



There remeining for Kvenl 
days. 

Through the villages, and tbtong)! 
the fields ; through the streets, aod 
in the houses, both by day aod by 
ni^t, they died. 

Having been a very bad rom in 
his life, he is in death reputed a 
holy man. 

I would do for Cunado cYwy 
thing that I could. 

And gave them ten ducatB eaci 

chosen spirits, for that pesce, 
which, as I deem, is for all of yoa 
prepared, tell us where the moan- 
tain low declines. 

1 swear to thee by that indisso- 
luble love, which I bear lhce,thal 
the fourth month will no* P*** 
ere thou wilt see me again. 

It does not seem undeserted to 
a man of sound judgment 

Beaten upon a board with » 
knife. 

Let every other thing be fredy 
yours henceforth. 

Turned towards me, she sud. 



PREPOSITIONS. 373 



EXERCISE XXIV. 



He gave us the key of his house. This gentle 
— d6rt^ » » ckxavt< » ^ ^^.e t ^entiP 

lady being very oflen urged by the messages and 
Mom? tsStere^ stimoldre ambaiddta - 

by the entreaties of each one of them. Both in- 
priSgo t in- 

flamed by a fierce vengeance, turned towards (io) these 
^amm&rt — fer6ce* vendUtta^, rivdlgere 

walls (tiu) their sword still warm I with I civil blood. 
mwro firro caldo \ cU \ eivU^ sdngut^, 

I It is believed that he is I the richest prelate that 
I Si eride ehe tia \ ricco preldto 

there is in 1 has I the church of God (from) 

— — I dbbia I chU$a Dio 

the Pope excepted. They were all garlanded I with | 

leaves of oak. We will give thee so many blows 
fSgiia* » quireia\ ddr? * 



with 


one of these 


iron 


bars — 


— bars of iron 


«r 




— 


— ■ 


pdlo firro 



upon (the) your head, that we will make thee fall 
, fdr^ * cadi- 

down dead. I have a farm very near to the bank 
^* mdrto. anire podere ii«i 

of the river. Then came the time of going out 
fiume. venire Umpo H$^e 

Hftinst the prince, who was approaching (himself) 
prdnee, awiem^r^ • 

^adv to the lands of the Duke. They made him 
' Urra Duea. — 

— — he was put to sit down just opposite to the 
— desert nUitere sedere 

Joor of the room, whence the abbot was obliged 
"••^ edmerOf abdte dotire 

33 



374 ANALOGY. 

to come oat into the I dining room | . Here tboa 

seest a temple by-tbe-side I of I the sea. The em- 
•ed!^« Hmpio \ m \ mart. ' an^ 

peror bein^ one day between these two sages, the 
feratSrt* ^sere^ gi6rno ^ tmo, 

one stood on the right I of him I , and the other 

on the left. Having gone out from the city they 
« — tWMtra. UMtArt ciili, 

pot themselves on the way. He pat a ring on 
mA(ere» #t» — «Ja. — Mittere • mtiOc^ ' 

the finger | of I Torello. Looking fixedly in his 

— ^o* I •• I *' Guarddre^ — — 

fkce at him fixedly in the face, in order to 

— — JUo 1^90, 

see whether he was speaking seriously. Having 
wedere $e din . 

put (himsdf) on a great black pelisse, be arranged 
MiUere^ tUro' S — aceamcSn^ 

himself in that in such a manner, that he looked like 

a bear. With the best harmony in the world all 
&r9o. migli6r p6ce w^Smdo tmUt 

(and) four dined together. He began with the 
qudttro detindrt insieme, — ineomincuirtF • * 

piece of wood to five him the greatest blows in 
st6ee4ifi • ddre' Ol^ maggiSre c6^ 

the world, now on (the) his head, and then on 
mimdo, — tigia, e 

ythe) his sides. 1 wish first to go to Rome, and 

— fidnco, voUre — tmdare HSrna, 

there to see him (the) whom thou sayest to be — 

— veddre dhre — — 

that he is — vicar of God on earth. There sounded 
69sere viedrio Db tirrm. 3uondft 



PREPOSITIONS. 375 

through the city a wonderful report, that the tomhs 
dtUi mirdbiW vice}, ' * t6mhaP 

of the Scipios I were discovered I . By that steep 
' * Seipi6ne^ \ si fdsntro 8Cop6rie^ \ . scosciao 

way I arrived at the tombs of the valorous race, 
ftc — giungere avillo valordso* sHrpe^, 

Neither by letter did she dare I to I let him hear it 
JVa Uttera — ardire \ di \fdre^ « sentirc^ »^. 

Not seeing through the wood any path. You will 
veddre , tiha aeniidro. ri- 

receive a hundred (of ihem) for every-one. He went to 
citert^ — cinta^ * * cioBcuno^ anddre 

Eavenna in-order-to speak to the army. No, I never 
parldre armata, , — 

will mention it y^W. not mention it ever. With 

— — » dvre^ « *. 

a low voice he replied thus. This ferocious man, 
^ tcUao v6ce — rispondere^ *. feroce* uSm^^, 

having usurped with (the) frauds and with (the) I acts of 
usurpdre frdde \. vio- 

violence | a throne not his own, sought I to I pre- 
'^a I trdno — , cerwe^ \ d? \ man- 

serve it with (the) terror and with (the) cruelty. 
tenere^^^ » » « terrSre* * » » erudeUd\ 

Without any fail I promise to thee, upon (the) my 
uleun Jallo jprom6ttere^ ^ mio 

faith, that within among a few days thou wilt 

fit — — p6eo dl tro' 

^d thyself with me. I wish that we should de- 
^^^ » * ». voUre sedn- 

wend (urUU) there below. 
dere giU, 



376 



ANALOGY. 



CHAPTER XV. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 

C ONJUNCTIO If & IN COMMON U8E< 



O, / 

snoy 

che, 
pure, 

^ 
drmi, 

dnche, 
dnco, 
eziandio, 
altrest, 

anc6ra, 
eppdre, 

ovviro, 

oppiwty 

ntmminOy 

ntmm&nco, 

neppurtj 

nednche, 

tampScOy 

nettampScOy 

ie m&i, 

stprirty 

se peroy 

se non, 

se non che, 



and; 

or, either ; 
nor, Deitber ; 
if, whether ; 

ibut; 

that; 

iyet, neverthe- 
less; 
yet, already ; 

inay, rather, on 
the contrary ; 

\ also, even ; 

ialso, even, a- 
gain ; 
yet, neverthe- 
less ; 

- or, either ; 



neither, 
' not even ; 



if ever, 
if indeed ; 
if however ; 
unless, except, 
but; 



non gi^ 

non s6lo, 
non che, 
purch^, 
a miiio cht, 
dnzi che, 

dnzi che no, 

cosi, 

cdmCy 

siccdme, 

sicch^, 

cost che, 

talchi, 

giacciU, 

cio^, 

cioi a dire, 

vdle a dire, 

oLmino, 

almdnco, 

di tnu, 

iniUre, 

oltrecchi, 

oUraccib, 

d'aitrdnde, 

dunque, 

adunque, 

dnde, 

ladnde, 

quindi, 

percid. 



( not at all, not 
\ indeed ; 

> not only, 

I not merely; 

provided ; 

unless : 

rather, sooner; 
C rather than not, 
3 raUierwthan 
f otherwiae *, 

so, thus; 

as, like ; 

so, thus, 
wherefore ; 
so, so thai ; 
Bmt9 ; 
that is; 

. that is to sty; 

> at least ; 
moreover ; 

besides, 
' besides this ; 

• then, 

I therefore ; 

' wherefore, 
j whereupon; 

5 therefore, (or 
\ which reason; 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



377 



aecwf 
acciocch^ 

poscutcfU, 

perocck^j 

imptrocch^ 

perciocch^ 

in^fterciocch^ 

conciosiacchky 

henchi, 

comecM, 

aovegnach^ 

ancarch^ 

contuitoeh^ 

nonostdnte, 

nondimino, 

nierUedimino, 

eon tiiUo do, 

nanperidnto, 

turn per guisto, 

eidnonosUhite^ 

cidnondirtUnOj 

tuUaxjia, 



in order that, 
to the end that 

for, why ? 

hecause ; 
i| because, since, 
C as, afler ; 

because, 
whereas, 
as, since ; 



although ; 



even that ; 



still, 

nevertheless, 
' notwithstand- 
ing, for all that 



in s6mma, 

in fine, 

sia eke, 

vu6i, 

del risto, 

per dttroj 

tdntOf 

qu&nio, 

qudndoj 

quand* dnche, 

in guisa che, 

in modo che, 

inmani^rachef\ 

di mddo che, 

dimaniirachefj 

intdnto, 
fraUdntOf 

mintre, 

mentrecchi, 

sdlvoj 

eccitto, 

trdnne, 

fiiorchif 

fSrae, 

6ra, 



in short, 

in conclusion ; 

whether, 

or, either ; 

otherwise, 

besides ; 

as; 

as ; 

when ; 

even when ; 

80 that, in snch 
a manner ; 

in the mean 
time, mean- 

; while, whilst ; 

[ whilst, 

\ whilst that ; 

^ save, saving, 
except ; 

perhaps ; 
now.* 



Many of these conjunctions, as nondimSno, eid non ostdnte, &c. 
contain in themselves a pronoun, a preposition, an adverb, &c. ; but, 
from their office o( joining sentences tofrether, they are commonly 
reckoned amongst conjunctions, though in net they are but conjunctive 
phrases. 



* Some of these eo-Munetiona might bo miataken for prepositions or tidverbs, aod 
the Mi^muUsm cn», for the rsUUivo proitouji ohe, * who/ ' which,' * that ' ; their 
i^MTacter however will loon be ascertained by cooiideriog the office which thejr per^ 
form In a eentodce. Thui in the following example! *. 

Iddkc mi ha fhHo tdnta grdua^ che U God has granted me such a fitTor as to 
a'hsi la mia m6rU ho vemto aUiud di* enable me to see somo of my brothers 



jmUifmiOtL (Boco. g. S. n.5.) 

AtUm^pnUUa ira, « A'ifzi supirha the 
no. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 1.) 

rn ira Aen eoH, ma rum psr noMtra, 
a'ksi per Una iiiftrmitd, (Bocc. g. 3. 
m. 1.) 
tb« worddmsi is a vrwMiCum In the first instanee beoaose it gwwms fa mU mirU : 

32» 



before ray death. 

Bhe was a little advanced in years and 
rather proud. 

I was indeed not natorallty so, but by 
a disease. 



878 ANALOGY. 

The conjunction ne is sometimes used in the signifi- 
cation of c, ' and ' ; as, 

d6lei v± edri^ sweet and dear ; 

parW is^ 9cris9h I spoke and wrote. 

Ma is often used in the signification of pt«, ' more ' ; 
as,* 
MA eke 6no, more than one ; 

mm MAchtdi 90$plriy no more than sighs. 

Che is sometimes used in the signification of /m or 
trOj * between ' ; as, 

migUo ii diecimUa ddbhrtf more than ten thousand pis- 
CHE tn gi&ie^ e chs in toles between jewels and 
dendri, money. 

Pi^re IS often used in the signification of ancdra, 
' also,' ^ even ' y itioy tolamentCj ^ only ' ; as, 

i pt^RE pecc6tOj it 18 also a sin ; 

«' <o ov^Mi aMo Ft^EE fin had I had eyen the slightest 

pensieriazOf thought ; 

neUitra rum csvia im pur di- natore had not only painted 

pifUo, there. 

The conjunctions quant^nque^ sebbene^ benche, come- 
chi, awegnachij ancorche, contuttoclie, are generally 
followed by one of the following conjunctions, piire, 

k ii fto aiverh in the Meood becaan it wudi/Ut the rtrb ira : ud it k a wj'Mi-ri*^ 
in tb« last became it e^niueU Um claaae (6ra) ftr nmlitra wiifa (tea) ptr Ah 
i^fiirmitd. 

And In tlie fbtlowinf t 

Comimei6ron0 # Are, ohb fuOla, crs TbeT began to ny that wbat ba bad 
igU aviva ritpdsto, mm vmIm m dtr wfO- replied was withoat meaniaf . 

the MH c*e Ii a coi^wnUion, beeanae it evnwuU dkrt^ with what follows ; and 
the tteand b arcfatwe prmtomMj beeaose it reftrs to qmiOsj its ntiteJtnt. 

* From these and similar examples it seems as if the Italian sm were deriir«d ftom 
the Latin sm/w .- — the Celtic mmi, « great.' 



CdNJUNCTIONS. 379 

nonosi&nte, nondimeno^ nientedimeno, con iMo cid^ do 
nan ostanie^ do non di meno^ non pertanio^ non per 
questo iuitavia ; as their correlatives ; as, 

coHECHi v4m c6se ^li aw although it passed through hk 
ddsst per io penniro di mind to do various things, 
fdrCf pt^AE ddihero . . . . , yet he determined 

Often the correlative conjunction is suppressed ; as, 

,^rrig{tcdo, cowtuttochA Arrigaccio, although a mer- 
fSsse mercatdnte, ira [non- chant, Tras a proud man. 
dimfeno] unJUro u6mo, 

JSTon soloj non cAe, are followed by ma, ma ancdra ; 

as, 

gta bine di coHjfdUe edse non it is well to reprimand for 

CHE gli amid, ma git stra- such things, not only friends, 

niiri di ripiglidrej but even strangers ; 

U vino NON s6lo confSrta U wine not only assists the 

naiurdl cal&re, ma ano6]ia natural heat, but it clears 

ckiaryica U sAngtte, the blood. 

JSTon che is often an elliptical expression for the 
phrase non solamente dico che, ma, ' I say not only 
that, but ' ; as, 

spiro trovdr p%et<^ non che I hope to find not only par- 
perdSno [non solamente don, but pity ; 
Dioo CHE sph'o trovdr per^ 
dSno, HA ptetd], 

avrihhero potuto mu6ver la they could have not only 
guhrOy NON CHE diftnder- defended themselves, but 
si [nico NON solamente even waged war. 
CHE avribhero potiUo di- 
Jindersiy ma mudver la 
gu^rra], 

Tanto is followed by quanta, and sometimes hy che} 
corresponding to the English words both . . . and ; as, 

TANTo cHmK QuiNTo odtti, botb raw and cooked ; 
TANTO mdschi, che Jlmmine, both men and women. 



380 



ANALOGY. 



The conjunctions e, o, followed by a word beginning 
with a vowel often take a d after them ; and jTt&re, ^»- 
p{ire^ opp&re, almeno^ nemmino, 6ra, anc6ra^ followed 
by a consonant drop the last vowd ; as, 



diprCf CD dspre baitdglie, 
OD 6mhray od u6mo drto, 

che U cuSr mi pr^me giik pur 
pmsdndOf 

ek* Aifc6R lassii vedire spi- 
ra. 



hard and severe battles ; 
whether a spirit or a living 
man; 

which to think of oppresses 
my heart ; 

which he hopes to see also 
there in heaven. 



P^ire^ gid, 6ra, are sometimes mere expletives ; as, 

la c6sa andd pur co5i, the thing* passed just so ; 

fSsstro hsi pur oil dispSsti, would that they were disposed; 
6KJi U ptsrdlefUrono ass^ now the words were many. 



XZ AMPLE!. 



Se gU Scehi $u6i tt fur d6lci, 
nA cari. (Pelr. c. 40.) 

Qudnio di lei parlXi^hI scRfs- 
•I. (Petr. 8. 296.) 

Or eui chidmi tu Iddio 7 JtgU 
non 6 MA cuz Hho. (Nov. Ant 
78.) 

^uim, §ec6ndo ch» per ascoU 
t6rty — JVbn av6a piantOy ma che 
DI 808pf Ri — Che V aura etima 
facivan tremdre, (Dant. Inf. 4.) 

DonSlle CHE iir gioie, e che 
in voieUamenti d* 6ro e iV arUn- 
to, X CHE IX denjLri, qu6Uo che 
wilse nUgUo d* dltre DiEciMfiiA 
imSbbrx. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 9.) 

E pogndmo, che non lo faeeid' 
mo a maUzia, pure nieniedimS- 
no :k pi^RE PECOATO. (Cavalc. 
PongU. 195.) 



If her eyes were iweet and dear 
to thee. 

How much I tpoke and wrote 
of her. 

Now whom callest thou God? 
There is no more than one. 



There, as weH as my ear covkl 
note, no other plaints were heard 
than sighs, which caused the eter^ 
nal air to tremble. 

He gave her between jewels, 
and gold and silver vases, and 
money, what would be worth 
more than ten thousand pistoles. 



And let us suppose, that we do 
not do it through malice, yet 
nevertheless it is also a sin. 



CONJUNCTIONa 



881 



O, 8* fo AT^ssi avtJto piJrb 
tm PKNsiERtS^zzo di fare V una 
di quiUe edse, che o^ d^e^ eredete 
v6it che Iddxo m' avetse tdnto to* 
stenuta ? (Bocc. g. 1. u. 1.) 

Noif AY^A P0R NATt^RA ITI 

dipIntOi — Ma di noavitd, di mil- 
le odSri — Ft facia vn incdgnito 
indistinto, (Daot. Pur. 7.) 

COMECH^ viRIE C6SE GLI AH- 
DA88X PER LO PERSl^RO DI pi- 

RB, pt^RE, vedindo U re, delibx- 
r6 (Bocc. g. 2. n. 2.) 

]6ra Arrigi5^ccio, cowtutto- 

CHi rdsiX MERCATJLHTEy VV Fli- 

Ro roMo. (Bocc. g. 7. n. 8.) 

«^ V6i STA B^NE DI cos) PATTE 
*C68K, If ON CHE OLI AMIcI, MA 

OLi 8trani:£ri di RIPIOLIARX. 
(Boccl g. 2. n. 3.) 

Il vixo HON s6lo conp^rta 

IL NATURAL CAL<SrE, MA ANC<SrA 

CHI arI PICA IL. SANOUE tdrHdo, 
(Cresc. 4;48;2.) 

SpiRO TROVAR PIEtX, NON CHE 

PXRDdNo. (Petr. a. 1.) 

Tdnte tmglidia armdH, a pU e 
a eavdlloy AYRiBBERo, eon dltro 
edpoj pottJto mu6ver la ou£r- 

BA, NON CHE DlpiNDERll. (DaY. 

8(or.) , 

I frutti aSno sanissimi TiNTO 
CRtJDi, quANTO c<Stti. (Red. 
Ifitt. 2.) 

Dimdrano aaliibreminte in 
9^ir aria di eoUifta, tanto mAs- 
^1} CHE riMMiNB. (Lib. Cur. 
Malatt.) 

ie dette naxiSni Sbbero di^rk, 

*D isPRE BATTAGLIX. (Gio. VlU. 

^>- 6. c. 29.) 

" Miserhe di «« ," griddi a ltd, 
•^"Qu<ii ehe tu sUjon <Smbra, 
OD iroMO ci^RTo.'* (Dant Inf. 1.) 



Oh ! bad I had eYen the slight- 
est tiiought of doing one of those 
things which you say, do you be- 
lieYe that God would haYe assisted 
me? 

Nature not only had painted there, 
but of the sweetness of a thousand 
smells had made an unknowni un- 
distinguishable fragrance. 

Although it passed through his 
mind to do Yarious things, yet, 
seeing the Idng, he determined 

Arriguccio, although a mer- 
chant, was a proud ilian. 

It is well for you to ^reprimand 
for such things, not only your 
friends, but even strangers. 

Wine not only assists the natu- 
ral heat, but it clears also the 
turbid blood. 

I hope to find not only pardon, 
but pity. 

So many thousand armed men, 
on foot and on horseback, would 
haYe, under another captain, not 
only defended themselves, but 
waged war. 

Fruits are Yery wholesome, both 
raw aud cooked. 



In that mountain air both men 
and women Uyc in Yery good 
health. 



Said nations had hard and se- 
Yere battles, 

«• Take pity upon me/' cried I to 
him, ** whatever thou be, whether 
a spirit or ^ living n^an." 



ANALOGY. 



TV 9m6i dk* W rinmaviUi — 
Ditper4i0 doior eke U em^ md 
pr^me — Gia rum. FKHskmoo, prim 
de io nefaciUi. (DanL InC 33.) 

Per mirar la sembidnza di Co- 
Urn, — Ch* aiic6r lassu nel del 
wzD£mE spERA. (Petr. s. 14.) 

La cos a avdo pvr cosl. (Bocc 
g. 2. n. 5.) 

(yra rdsscRo £sn pur glI 
DUpdsTi a pentr«. (Bocc loL 

6ra le par6le F^Ro?ro as- 
ill, ed il rammuriehio diUa dvn^ 
na grdnde. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 6.) 



oU ibe detpente gHef, wfakfa to 
think of oiJfwei R M my heut, hdoiR 
I teUit. 

la order to see the iaa^ ef 
Him whom he hopes to aee dM 
iheiem heaveo. 

The thing happened jast so. 

Now would that were dl^ossd 
to come. 

Now the words were many, and 
the sorrow of the lady great. 



EXERCISE XXV. 



The waters, and the air, and the hranches, tad 
dequa, Suroj rdm^, 

the little birds, and the fishes,- and the flowers, and 
uccello, pescCf fi^re, 

the £rass speak of love. | I do not go awav I 
erba parlare amore. \ . non^^ mi}^ ailontatul^ I 

neither from (Uie) Mount Parnassus, nor frora the 
' « » MSnte^ Pamduof • » • 

Muses. And it appears to me to see with-her la- 
Mu9(^, » par6re*^ » vedir^ » dtht- 

dies and damsels, and they are savins and beech-trees. 
na donzdlla, r— issere abete fdggio. 

Neither by message, nor by letter did she dare | to | 

let him know it I Nimrod was the first king, or 
fdrglielo sapSre. \ JVembrStle issere re, 

ruler, or collector (of assemblage) of people.* I wiD 
rett^re, ragunatore eongregaztdne ginte. dt- 

* People, in the plnnl^pecfUs, 



CONJUNCTIONS. 883 

tcU perhaps a thing not credible, but true. Ho waa 

^^ c68a credibile, v6ro. — ^fare 

not only killed, bat devoured even to the bonea. 

ucciderCf » divorare^ « » ^«to*. 

He lost every hope, not only of I ever having her 

— pirdtrt? Ogni^ 8peranza\ | dovirla mdi 

a^fain, I bat even I of seeing I her, "And for what rea- 

rtav6re, ved6re — . " . ^>.. 



son ? " said Ferondo : " Because thou wast iealous." 
gi^ne?*' dire : " issere gelSso" 

Alexander although I he had I great fear, yet he 
Me$$Smdro \ — aviss^ \ grdnde} paurd*^ — 

I remained I quiet.- Surely, although thou affirmest 
I tUUe I dUto. Certo, affermdn^ 

it, I do not believe, that thou I believest I it « Go 
'» — , I creda^ \ ». ''Jijiddre 

then," said the lady, "and call him." Since you 
," dire d6nna, " ehiamdre^ ." 

promise me I to I pardon me, I will tell it to you. 
pnmitier^ ' | di* | perdondre^^ *, « dvre^ « 7. 

Therefore I stop (myseff) ; but why goest thou ? 

— arresldre* ^ ; ' anddreP > 

Although we are in the month of July — be of July, 

— — — isscre^ ^ Luglu^, 

II thought I this morning I should freeze — to 
mi son ereduta \ matlina — o«- 

freeze. I wish, that she I should send I me a small 
sidirdre. — FoUrey \ mdndi^ » 



lock of the beard of Nicoslratus. Now it happened, 
ei6cca bdrba J^licdstrato, — awenirtt 

that the king of France He I was guardin^r 1 the 

re Frdncia — | j^ra a guardare \ 

passes with more than three thousand horsemen, between 
pdsio trtmUa eavaliire, 

German and (between) Lombards. Provided I you have 
Tedi$eo Lombdrdo. | a v6i t&a 

the mind I I to I keep secret what — that which I 
U eu6re | | dt | tenir $ecr6to 



884 



ANALOGY. 



win Btj to yoa. 



The cranes 



I hare I 



only 



leg and one foot vl see, that he wishes, that I 

gSmha pU, vedere, vUrtj 

I shoold do I what — that which, I never — not ew, 

I fdcdm I , ^ \ 

wished to do, that is, that I I should relate 1 fttej 

moUr^ fart, , | raeainti \ » 

his wickedness. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
INTERJECTIONS. 



iir TsajECTioNs IN coxxoif use. 



tk! t! 
ih! 

oh! of 
uh! 
6h%! 

M! 

&d ! 6i ! 
<ihi! 

dekl 

dok! 
ah^ahl 
eh, eh! 
oh, oh! 
poh! 

puh! pu! 
Ha! 
oU! 



ah ! ha ! alas ! 

eh! 

ih! 

oh ! ho ! 

uh! 

ah ! alas ! 

ihere ! ho hey ! 
ho there ! 

ah ! oh ! 

ah ! alas ! 
^ ah ! alas ! pray ! 
I prithee ! 

oh ! pshaw ! 

ah, ah! 

eh, eh ! 

oh, oh ! 

poh ! 

Su ! pooh ! 
alloo! 
holla! ho there! 



ahiml! aiml! 
ehime! eitni! 
ohimi! oime! 

[onU! 
oUi! 
oxsl! 
gudi! 
aitUo! 
oDio! 

16890 ! 

Idssome! 
dhi Idsso ! 

p6vero me ! 
misero me! 
meschino me ! 
doUnU me ! 

me bedto ! 
mefelice ! 
bedto me ! 
fetice me ! 



» alas (me) ! 

alas (thee) ! 

alas (him or her)! 

woe ! 

help! 

oh HeaTens! 



'wretched that I 
am ! nnfbrton- 
ate that I am ! 
wretched me ! 

^poor me ! 

happy that I am! 
*^ happy me! 



INTERJECTIONS. 



385 



eoHI 
si! 

p^e! 

cSmel 

iu! 
oriu! 
»u, su ! 
via! 

via, via! 
eh via! 
veri 



dnimo ! 
cwrdggio ! 
f&kcu6rt! 
hint! 

hr6oo! 

hu6no! 
viva! 



80 ! thus ! 

> y*, certainly ! 

yet! 
^ bow! how then! 
I why ? why so ! 

f up, up ! come ! 
i come then ! 



away! 

fie ! fie upon ! 
fi)r shame ! 
o fie! o fough! 

f courage ! 
i cheer up ! 

well! 
J bravo ! 
( very well ! 
good 1 ^ 
long live ! 
eh viva! ewlva /huzza ! 
cdpptri! 

oh hilla ! fine ! 

keo! lo ! behold ! 



f ay ! heyday ! 



dUo! 
sta! 
ohh! 
gu&rda! 
largo ! 
pidno, 
addgio, 
zi / ziOo ! 
Mto! 
non piit ! 
bdsla! 
siUnzio ! 
tacUe ! 
anddte ! 
haddte ! 
alP Ma ! 



haU! 
stop ! 
take care ! 
have care ! 
beware ! 
softly ! gently ! 
slowly ! 

st! whist! hush! 
quiet ! still ! 

> enough ! 

> silence ! 

away ! 
^ mind ! 
\ have care ! 
sidle aW iria ! > beware ! 
di grdzia ! pray ! 
per carila ! for charity's 

[sake ! 
per am&r del cii- for heaven's 

lo ! [sake ! 

mtrcl ! > mercy ! 

miseric&rdia ! \ mercy upon us ! 
posMile ! is it possible ! 

app&nto ! exactly ! just ! 

pensdte ! just thinn ! • 



The interjections lasso, pSpero, miseroj meschinOj 
heaio (me !), are mere adjectives, and when used by 
^female, take the feminine termination : — lassa, pdve^ 
ra, misera (me !), fac. ; and in the plural make, lassi, 
p6veri (ndi !), &c., for the masculine ; and lasse, pdve-- 
r^ (noi !), fee. for the feminine ; as, 

lIssa MX ! in eke maV 6ra alas ! in what evil hour was I 



MX! 

ndequi, 

MisBu ii6i ! ehe eUtm, se Id- 
dioeildseia? 



born ; 

miserable that we are ! what 
becomes of us, if God for- 
sakes us ? * 



* It Is importint lo obMrro, thmt, u MNne of th«t« inUiijeetiou «• nMd to 
*^pf«n i t f ki un t^ %ad ovon emlrory, em^tians or ^gbetians of tbe mind, their ozAct 



•ifoiScat 

or giro ri«e to tho oxotunatioii. 



33 



386 ANALOGY. 

Bravo ! ziiio ! chito I are also oit^eeiwesy and, wbeo 
used 'in speaking to a female j or to w^ore than one wuHe 
or femahy follow the same rule ; as, 

BaivA ! eSwu qudndo f braTo ! as when ? 

siTTi, tm p^ ! hash, a little ! 

Bravo! is also used io its superlatrire, and makes 
bravissimo ! bravnsima ! bravUsim ! bravissitnej * bravis- 
sirao !' 



■ X AMPLXf. 



OmU ! lAssA MX ! doUnte me ! Alas ! mifofftimate Ibmt I am .' 
la CHS mal' 6b a aic^ui. (Bocc in what evfl boor was I bom. 
g.T.ii.2.) 

IflsBKi if6i ! CHX siIm, SB Id- Miserable diat we are ! what be- 
Dio CI iJkscLi ? (Alf. Saul. 1. 1.) comes of us, if God fMsakes is. 

BaiTA! c6mb qulHDO ? (Manx. Bravo ! as wbea ? 
Proffl. Spos. c. 1.) 

Zim, uir p6* ! eJC iOe d&rmo- Hush a little! for Aiey are sleep 
no, (Bijon. Fier.) ing . 

Mauy of the foregoiug interjections are elKpiieai 
expressions of, and eq%tivalent to, perfect sentences ; as, 
oldy for instance, which stands for O [tti, che set] lA, * O 
thou, who art there ' ; orsuy for oRa [levati or levateni] 
8U, * now rise up * ; via, for [vd* or andatt] via ; cketo, 
for [sta or slate] chk'to, * be still ' ; coraggio, for [iMU 
or cAbiaie] cora'ggio, ' have courage ' ; vioa, for v(va 
[egli or ella lungameniey] ' may he or she live loog '; bene, 
for [sta or va] be'ne, < it is well * ; bravo, brava, for [#n 
or n&c] braVo, braVa ; oh beUa, for oh [qmista e] bb'l- 
LA, 'oh this is fine ^; fcc. ; to which may be added mkneo 
male, or mino male, * less evil,' * not so bad,* * better so *; 
which is often used as an interjection, and is equivaleot 
to the phrase [t/] m a^ls [i] ma'nco, or me'no, [cAe hom 



INTERJECTIONS. 887 

saribbe stiUOj se la cdsa fdsst andata altriminii,] ^ the 
evil is less thao if the thing had happened otherwise,' 
* it is not so bad as if it had happened otherwise,' ^ bet' 
ter so than otherwise.' 



EXERCISE XXVI. 



Ah ! how many steps thou losest through the for- 
pd$80 — phdtre^ * « bH- 

est ! «< Ah ! " I said he, I ^ valiant men, ah ! com- 
wi* / I diUa — , I « ^Mrdt uSmo, com- 

panions, ah ! brothers, keep (the) your place." Alas ! 
P^igno, fratilh, tenire ludgo.** 

mercy ; for heaven's sake ! Alas ! blind ungrateful world ! 

6rbo ingrdto* mdndo^ ! 

O ! happy souls ! Wretched that I am ! I have 

loved thee more than (Ike) my own life. Fie ! go 
ttmdre^ ^ — tUa. . andare 

on. Is it possible, that thou I art I alive ? Marry ! 
6Ure. I m | vivo ? 

I recant (mysdf.) How many tears, alas ! have I 
ruRr^ *. Idgrimaf avirt — 

already shed ! Woe to you, perverse souls ! i never 
Mpdrgere / prdva^ dnima^I \ non is- 

hope I to see the heaven again. Hush ! hush ! other- 
pwdttmM I vtdir eUlo . 

wise we begin again. Holla ! where art thou ? Come ! 
— i$$ere da-capo. i§$ere 7 

let us see. Up, up ! citizens, let every-one arm himself 
vdire, citta^no, — » armdrc* , * 

speedily to the defence. Oh ! thou art in great haste 
9€l6ce difisa, avire — gran frittar 

Alas ! how miserable is (the) our fortune ! *^ The cava- 
qudnlo mUtro* 6ssere^ fortuna/ • cava- 



868 ANALOGY. 

lier sud: ''I wish to leaTe tiiee, and serve God." 
Wre'JKre*; " voUre — Uucidr^ •errir Dio^ 

The demon repUed : *• Pshaw ! why wiahett thea to 

leave me ? " O poor me ! (that) I I shaU never be pwd 
la$eiare * ? " I non $4trd mM pm tmo- 

affain I I for I any thing. Pray ! my friend, why wishest 
nS I I a I * om>^\ voUre 

thou I to rive thyself I this trouble? "Alas!" said the 
I etUrire iiJ 1 foAea? « " *re 

other, « what is Aat which thou sayest ? " Come ! 
hsere «r« 7 " 

fo, I will wait for thee in the house. Away ! do 
mMr; . asptttin* — * — <d#a. — 

Dot have any fear, I will carry thee to the hooie 
avh- — paura, p6nm^ * — «•• 

safe and soond. Silence, sob. do I not make noiw | ; 
•aiM* « whioK , figUMOy^ \non far romSre \; 

let (the) thy father sleep. Oh! you make me laugh. 
hucUtre * — geniUir^ donmreK fitr^ ^ rWerc. 

He cried out: •• Oh, oh !" I at | (the) which cry te 
— Griddre .• " \ P^\ P^ 

cranes begran to fly. Oh, blind ! oh, wretched £ oh, 
grk eommddre fitgg^e, tUca! ' 

foolish man ! oh, how infirm thou art ! Alas (kirn) ! 
m6U9 — / qudmJto i$^rmd' — isstre^ ! •' 

wretched (kirn) i that the hog had been stolen iroai 
/ , * pdreo e$$er^ imMdrti* 

him — to him. Heyday ! how well in tune she is ! 

Courage, yoonfir men, let us assault manly, and with 
, gwrnne, ' a»9aUdrt vwiU, 

cheerful front, these drowsy peofde. Away, slay there 
aiUgro firSnte dorwufUdue, , — 

with the other dogs. 



PART III. 
ITALIAN SYNTAX. 

CHAPTER I. 
ORDER AND POSITION OP WORDS, 

Words may be arranged in Italian either in the 
natural order of the ideas which they are used to con- 
vey ; as, to son rifico^ e spendo %l mio in metier tavohf 
* I am rich, and spend ray money in keeping a good 
table ' ; or in a somewhat different order^ in which ctt- 
phony or emphasis is consulted ; as, in quilla dinor&n^ 
do^ pico o nienie potribbe del s^o vaUr dimosirhre 
[for potrebbe dimosirare p6co o niSnte del sito valdr, 
aimorando in quilla], * He could show little or nothing 
of his valor^ remaining there*' Hence there are two 
different constructions, the one called simple or direct^ 
the other inverse or indirect, 

SIMPLE CONSTRUCTIOir. 

Iq the simple construction^ the subjective is always put 
iefore the verb. It is generally a pronoun, a noun, an 
<^ective or a verb used as a noun, or a phrase } as^ 

10 dmoy, 1 love ; 

Pi^TRo fdgge, Peter flies ; 

iL B^LXO pidctf the beautiful pleMe»; 

33« 



890 SYNTAX. 

IL sdo paelIrb mi pi&cque \hfT $ptaking\ her cwwerMoHan 
«i, pleased me so; 

cum Tu CON N^i Ti amliv- we should beyery ^l^d^ifthau 
•▲, n* i c6ro^ wouldtt remain wtth us. 

The objective is put after the verb. It is generaUy 
a pronoun^ a nouUf ao adjective^ a verb^ or a phrcue ; as, 

guard&U me, look ai me ; 

6mfi GuisciaDO, I love Quitcard ; 

pMono IL BiBLLo, they lose [the beauHfiU] the 

lieauty; 

aohido eompiiito il sdo can- haying finished herjinging ; 

Tini, 
iignjfico iL riTTo c6mb sta- declared the fact as U was. 

If the subjective or objective have an article^ this 
article is put i'^re tAem ; as, ■ 

oLi ti^mtni «dno c4po (f^ [the] men are the head of wo- 
fimmine^ men ; 

IL capii&no cddde^ e sconcids- the captain fell, and sprained 
si IL piide, [the foot] his foot. 

The a^'ectives belonging to the subjective and ol^'ec- 
tive are put immediately after them ; as, 

gli seot&ri morioerIti em- the v>eU-hehavtd and dUigent 
LieiNTi st^diano, scholars study ; 

il maUtro prhnia gli scoldri the master rewards the aUen^ 
ATTiNTi e sTUDidsi, Hvc and studious scholars. 

Any other word which is dependent on the subjective 
or objective is also put immediately after them ; as, 

la virtk di PloLoyti rtco- the virtue of Paul was ac- 
nosciida^ knowledged ; 

nconosctva nii discendinti it acknowledged in the de- 
la virtu del padre, scendants &e virtue [of the 

father] of their father. 

The relative pronoun is put after its antecedent j as, 



ORD£R OF WORDS. 381 

Idi seoUartf U ^uXle na$c6so the scholar, tdb had concealed 
eroy himself. 

The adverb is put immediately cfier the verb^ which 
it modifies ; as, 

&ma ARDSif TEMiNTE la gl6- he loves glory ardently, 
ria, 

The preposition is put before the word, which it gov* 
erns ; as, 

' Di silva iif $Uva dal crudil she flies Jrom wood to wood to 
9* irw6laf avoid the pursuit o/'t^ fero- 

cious animal. 

The conjunction is put between those parts of a sen- 
tence, which U connects ; as, 

gli avj^eUiUi, e t pisci, b t the little birds, and the fishes, 
,fi6rif £ r ^r&o, and the flowers, one? the 

grass. 

The interjection has no fixed place, it having no in- 
trinsic relation to the other words ; it is, however, gen- 
erally put at the beginning of the phrase ; as, 

oiMi ! che i quiUo, che tu alas ! what is that you say ? 
dV? 

KXAMPLKS. 

io b6so aicco, e spin do il I am rich, and spend my money 

ido iR MATTER TAVOLA, ed onS- in keepine a good table to enter- 

ro i miH eancUtadini. (Bocc. g. tain my fellow-citizens. 

9. n. 9.) 

Iir ^uiLJLA DiMORAMDo, Foco He could show little or nothing 
o vi^RTE P0TR]^BBx DEL sijo of his Vdlor, remaining there. 

VAL^R DIMOSTrIrE. (BoCC. g. 

10. n. 1.) 

to ho amdtOf e amo Guiscar- I have loved, and love Guis- 
Do. (Bocc. g. n. 1.) card. 

Pi^TRoBoecatndMgardQQBCon Peter Boccamazza flies away 
r AgnoUUa, e truSvti ladrSni. with Agnolella, and meets with 
(Bocc. 5. n. 8.) thieves. 



392 



SYNTAX. 



Ii. Bii.LO riioB 6gU Sechif e si 
ammira, (Yas.) 

E 'L 81^0 PA BLARE, t 7 b^l tAsO, 

e le ehidme mi piAcoukr ii, ch* 
io V ho dindnMi 6gli occhi, (Petr. 
C.7.) 

ChX TU con vol TI RIMAH- 

GA per quhta tha^ h' ± ciao. 
(Bocc. g. 5. n. 3.) 

GuardJItx me, elu $on di pista 
prhfa. (Pign. Fa v.) 

Le d6nnej ^tidndo arrioano a 
qtMrdnta dnnt, p£rdono il b^l- 
LO d6Ua gioventudine^ e ticquU 
9taiUf il Hllo matrondle, (Lib. 
Adorn. Donn.) 

Aviif DO gid coMPidro la b6lla 
nii^a IL ft^o CAiiTARE. (Bocc. 
Am.) 

A lui si raeeomanddf e stoivi- 
wicb IL fAtto c6nb stava. 
(Ser. Giov. Fior. Pecor.) 

Gli u<Smini 86no d£lle f£m- 
MiNE CAPO, e iinza V 6rdine Idro 
rdde v6Ue riesce aleuna ndstra 
opera a laudivol fine. (Bocc. 
Intr.) 

Il capitAito cJIdde, e scov- 
ciossi XL piiDE in firma^ che 
non poU stdre in piedi. (Matt. 
Vill. 9. 11.) 

Gli scolAri moriobrJIti b 

DILIG^NTI ST^DIAKO. (Cort. Os- 

senr.) 

Il maestro pr£mia gli scolI- 
ri ATTiNTi B studkSsi. (Buom. 
Ling. Tosc.) 

La viRTii Di Paolo ru debita- 
nUnte ricoitosciiS'Ta. (Cavalc.) 

Ma la rieordivol pdtria Riqo- 

NOSC^VA trit* DISCEKD^NTI LA 

viRTi!l DEL pIdrb. (Bott. StOf. 
Am. 1. 9.) 



The beautiful please* tbe eyes, 
and is admired. 

And her conversation, and her 
beautiful face, and her hair pleas- 
ed me so, that I have her before 
my eyes. 

We should be very glad, if thoa 
wouldst remain to-night with as. 

Look at me, that ant depiiTdd 
of sight. 

Women, when tbey arrive to 
the age of forty, lose the beauty 
of youth, and acquire that of ma- 
trons. 



The beautiful nymph having 
finished her singing. 

He recommended himself to 
him, and declared tlie fact as it 
was. 

Men are the head of women, 
and without their management it 
seldom happens that any under- 
taking of ouiB succeeds well. 

The captain fell, and sprained 
his foot in such a manner, that be 
could stand no more. 



The well-behaved and diligent 
scholars study. 

The roaster rewards the atlen-- 
tive and studious scholars. 



The virtue of Paul was duly ac- 
knowledged. 

But the mteful country ac- 
knowledged in the descendaats the 
virtues of their fiither. 



ORDER OP WORDS. 3d3 

Lo scojArm, il qu Ilk, in tul The scholar, who, when it grew 

fire diUa ndtte, eol suo fanlt^ night, had concealed himself, with 

pre$90 diUa torriUaj vasc6bo his servant, near the small tower. 
iRA. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

Piitro kvLh ARDSNTiMiirTs LA Peter loves glory ardently. 
GL.6RIA. (Cort. Osserv.) 

Di sf LVA IN s£iiVA DAL CRU- She flios from wood to wood to 

D^L s' iNvdLA. (Ariost. Fcir. 1. avoid the pursuit of the ferocious 

S4.) ' animal. 

V deque pdrlan d* amSre, e The waters speak of love, and 

V dura, e i rami, — E gli auoil- the air, and the boughs, and the 

zjiTTi, B 1 p^ci, X I ri6Ri, B little birds, and the fishes, and the 

l' £rba ; — Tutti ineiime pre- flowers, and the grass ; entreating 

gdndo eh* I' sempr* dmi. (Petr. all together that I should always 

8. 239.) love. 

OiMib ! CBS 1^ QtiBtt.0, CBB Alas .' what is it you say ? 
T17 nf ? (Bocc. g. S. n. 1.) 



INTER8E CONSTRUCTIOM. 

With regard to inverse construction no certain rules 
can be established, it varying according to the taste and 
ear of the speaker or writer. It can only be said, that 
in this construction the subjective may be put after the 
verb ; as, 

ehUse l' IifPERAT6RE dlla the Emperor asked of the Diet 

DiUa tremUa cavUliy three thousand horses ; 

prlsemi alldra la mIa sc6r- then mv guide took me by the 

TA per mdno, hand. 

The objective may be put beft>re the verb ; as, 

s^inf^ignano il l6ro t£mpo they endeaTour to pass away 

di eansutndre, their time; 

GRiifDi Bis TIE hdnno n& 16- they have, large beasts in their 

ro bSschi, woods. 

The adjectives belonging to the subjective or the 
objective^ may be put before them ; as, 



3M 



SYNTAX. 



quaatknque /toe T6ia>o e tkhougrh he was tifootM muu 
6EU8S0 %»imOf 

The other words dependent on the subjective or ob- 
jectivey may also be put before them ; as, 

U [di] ctii ndme ira lifigt- whose name was Ephigenia. 
iHo, 

The adverb may -be put i^ore /Ae »cr6, which h 
modifies ; as, 

pi£T03AM:£nTB tl c^toiit^toci, she did call him wUk a lamei^ 

tabu voice. 

The preposition may be put after the wordy which »^ 
governs ; as, 

io Ti verrd AFP&isso, I will come q/Ur thee. 

■ XAMPLXt. 



CniitB L* iHPERATdRX IlLA 

Di^TA, j>er tale impre$ay TREni- 
LA CAVALLi, € sedteimUa fanti. 
(Mach. lettO 

PRiscHi all6ra la Mf a 8c6r- 
TA PKR mIno. (Dant. Inf. 18.) 

8' INC^OITAlfO IL l6rO T^HPO 
DI COR8UMARB. (BOCC. g. I. O. 8.) 

OrANOI BfilTIB HAIVIfO N^* LO- 

RO b6schi. (Dav. Germ.) 

QUANTt^NqUK F<SS8K T<SjIDO K 

GRdsso uoMO. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 3.) 
Il ct^i n^Smg iRA EfigrhIa. 

(Bocc. g. 0. D. 1.) 

AbmM v6Ue, la n6tte, pibtosa- 

M^NTB IL CHIAhIvA. (BoCC. g. 

4. D. 5.) 

Or via ! mSttiti ttv6nH, io n 

TBRR^ APPR^SSO. (BocC. g. 2. 

n. 5.) 



The Elmperor asked of the Dieti 
for such an undertakiDg, three 
thousaod horses, and sixteen thou- 
sand foot-soldiers. 

Then my guide took me by dit 
hand. 

They endearour to pass awiy 
their time. 

They ha^e hrge beasts in their 
woods. 

Although he was a foolish sin- 

Whose name was Ephigenia. 

A great many times, daring the 
night, did she call him with a li- 
raentable Yoice. 

Come ! walk before, I wiD cose 
after thee. 



ORDER OP WORDS. 395 

These inversibns are very common id Italian, and 
add great expression and beauty to the phrase ; but in 
using them we must always consult euphony. A learner 
ought never to avail himself of such liberties, unttl, by 
a competent knowledge of the language, and a long 
perusal of the classics, he be able to appreciate their 
value and to make use of them with propriety. 



EXERCISE XXVII. 

Rome was full of funerals, the capitol of victims. 
Jt6ma piino mortSrio; campidSgUo vktima, 

I routed three legions, and three lieutenants. This house 
atterrdre legidne, leg6to. edaa 

is built I on I a high situation ; it has gar- 

dens, it has proves, it has plains and hills. . The 
dino, — b6$eo, — pianura eoltina. 

conversation of Montanus pleased so-much the sen- 
parl&re Montdno piaeire send- 

ate, that Elvidius Priscus hoped I to 1 be able to 
to, lHvidio Priseo sperdre \ di \ potire db» 

conquer even Marcellus. Many wives have spoiled 
bdttere MarciUo, * m6glU* > guastdre 

(the) their husbands. He made him dress nobly. 
marito. — fire* ^ > ve$tire* ndbU^. 

Fulvios, who had been consul, and had already I tri- 
PuhriOf — — i$$ere c6n$ole, — — | tri- 
umphed over the I Gauls, the most illustrious of (iht) 
onfatdre d6' \ Gdilo, iUwtre 

thy followers, was killed by the Patricians in a bath 
itgudce, ueMere Pddre bdgno 

together with a son I of his I as beautiful as innocent 
figlwSlo* I — * I — Itggiddro innoehUi. 



aw SYNTAX. 

There came a merchant I of Cypras, I mnch beloiFed 

— Vtmkrt mereatdnie \ C^irtdno, \ * wm drt^ 

by him. Thoa seest, that it is aseleaa to pray 
* *. vidSrty — imiiUe — — 

and to weep -^— (the praying and the weepiog.) 
— — — pregdre pUmgmrc 

Nothing elae has been left to me of the inherit- 
• — iuer^^ — . riaMnh'«^ » » « ere*- 

ance of (ihe) my ancestors, except (ike) my honor; 
<A» * » * doolo\ w u _ onewUti 

and that I intend 1 to I guard, and I to I preserre 
' inUndere^ \ di \ guarddre, \ di \ servdre 

as long as I live (the life wXL last to meV 

- — dw^dr^ ^ 

To be contented (the being contented) t with I (tke) 

— — 6$Mere eontinto \ di \ 

his own condition, to moderate (the) excessive desires, 
prdprio itdto, moderdre $ovSrehio^ detidMo^, 

not to allow himself neither to be transported I by | 
loiddrt^ — tra$p«rt£re \ ad \ 

excessive joy in (the) prosperities, nor to be overcome 
eeceseivo gma proiperiiiL, — dbbdttere 



by I (Uu) misfortunes, form the character of a 

in I diigrdMtay firmdre cmrdtUre '^^fiS*^ 

man. He could not appease the angry OMther with 
uSrno^. — poUrt^ * altutdrt^ • irSt^ mddn^ 

any act of generosity. Plato assets, that ia 
niino — — larghSssa, Platon^ Jfermdre^f — 

literary disputes (in (the) disputes of (ike) letters) 

di$ptU(gn6ne UiUrm 

it is more useful to be conquered (the being 

— utile — — 69 

conquered) than to conquer. 
i^meere vineere. 



CONCORDANCE C^ WORDS. 397 

CHAPTER II. 

CONCORDANCE OR AGREEMENT OP WORDS. 

COIfCORDANCE OT A R T I C I. E S . 

Articles agree with nounsy in gender and number ; 
as, 

ijjfratello, la. sorHlA., the brother, the sister ; 

LI pddrif LE mddrt, the fathers, the mothers ; 

LA ddnriA, il maritOj the wife, the husband ; 

I JigliuSij, the children. 

EXAMPLES. 



L* unfratSllo V dltro abbando- One brother abandoned th« 

ft^9a,eLA 8ob£lla IL FRAT^LLo, Other, and the sister the brother, 

« Bpisse voile l& d6niva il 9uo and oftentimes the wife her hu9- 

marIto. (Bocc. Intr.) band. 

E the tnagfp6r c6sa 6, li pI- And what is more, the fathers 

SR] e LE MAORI, I Fiai.iv6i.i di and the mothers shunned to visit 

visitdre e di stnnre .$ehivdvano, and serve their children. 
(Bocc. lutr.) 



COirCORDAlf CE OP ADJECTIVES. 

Adjeciivesy as we have already observed at p. 63, 
are to agree with their tubsianiiveSi in gender and nutn^ 
her ; as, 

xi6mo d6tto, hu6nK g^nte, a learned man, good people ; 
BiLLE (/dnnE, leggiAdri fair women, pretty youths. 
fanciiiUiy 

34 



a08 SYNTAX. 

Adjectives are also to agree with personal^ conjunc- 
tive, and relative pronouns, in gender and number ; as, 

to (fem.) son vivA, I am alive ; 

v6i (masc.) siite Lowxiifi, you are far ; 

▼I (fern.) Idseio lIbera di I leave you at the disposal of 

JVicolticcio, Nicoluccio ; 

per rendirci (masc.) f6rti to make us strong and invin- 
td iNvincij^iLi, cible ; 

qudndo la vldero s6la, when they saw her alons ; 

li qulLi irano moHo li^nghi, which were very long. 

When two or tnore substantives singular of the same 
gender come together, the adjectives belonging to them 
are put in the plural, agreeing with a noun of the same 
gender understood ; as, 

LicrA e CALLiMACo [qu^sti Lycias and Callimachns {these 
dde individui] s6no Riccni, two individuals] are rich ; 

MarIa e LuciA [quests due Mary and Lucy [these tipo girls] 
fanciulle] s6no p6vere, are poor. 

If the substantives are of different genders or different 
numbers, the adjectives are put in the plural, agreeing 
with k masculine noun understood ; as, 

iL PADRE e LA mIdre dU- the father and the mother of 
la Lisa, coyr£:iTi, Jlcero Lisa, both glad, expressed 
grandissimajlsta, very great joy ; 

LA c6rte TtJTTA, I sovR^i^i the whole court, the cK>ye- 
s6no sommaminte coNTiN- reigns are well satisfied^ 



TI. 



BXCEPTION. 

If, however, one of the substantives ii preceded by the prepoMtioo 
amt * with,* * in company with ' ; then the adjective or participle used 
as an adjective, may aarce either with the other substantive, or with a 
noun in the plural uuderstood ; as, 

essindoai Dion£o con gli dltri Dioneo and the other youths hav- 

giovani utsso a giucdre, ing set themselves to play ; 

essindoH la xxSmta gol 016- the lady and the young Baas hav- 

TANE p6sti a tdvola, ing sat down to table. 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDS. 399 

When there are in a phrase several substantives of 
different gender and different number, separated from 
their adjective by a verb either expressed or understood ; 
the adjective is put in ihe plural, agreeing with a mascu- 
line noun understood ; as, 

I.E mle cAsE ed i LudcHi my houses and the public pla- 
pubblici di Rdma, son pi6- ces of Rome are filled with 
Ni (P antiche immdgini, ancient images ; 

IL PADRE di lit e LA. mAdre, both her father and her mother, 
[ess^ndo] dolor6si di [being] grieved at this acci- 
qulsto accidinte, V al&vano, dent, relieved her. 

If several names of inanimate beings occur in the 
same phrase, and they are not separated from their 
adjective by a verb ; this adjective agrees with the near- 
est noun ;* as, 

imdri e 6l6ria nu<Sva, new honors and glory ; 

con bdrba e crini baonati, with a dripping beard and hair ; 

r ima e V ^ltra man m6zza, both hands cut off. 

The adjective agrees also with the nearest noun, 
when there are in the same phrase several substantives, 
and the quality expressed by that adjective is affirmed 
or denied to belong, successively or alternatively, to 
either of them ; as, 

PiUro Mar(a ^ m6rta, either Peter or Mary is dead ; 

n^ Franchca, ni GiovAnni neither Frances nor John has 

non i PARTiTO, gone ; 

un tizzOf un carbSne, tJna a brand, a coal, a spark might 

TAviLLA i iTTA ad cppic- sct fire. 

cdrfudco, 



*• Contrary to thii rule if the following example in Boccaccio : 

8e C09i giidAio aviate^ &la avrihhe eoH If you had cried out so, it (the crane) 
I.' a'ltba co'mjia, e P dUro pU fii^r woi^ld have likewiiie put out the other 
uaitda'ta. (G. 6. n. 4.) leg and ihe other foot. 



400 



SYNTAX. 



EXCKPTIOIfS. 

Ao adjective accompanied with a sub^tantire feminine applicable to 
a man, is put in the mtuculine gender ; as, 

LA PKRsdMA quando i trlboiJl- when a person is afflicted ; 

TO, 

QU^LLA b£stia [di TiSfaoo] ha that stupid ass [TofoMl was dl»- 
pur DisposTO, posed. 

The adjective mezzo, ' half/ when it preeede$ a substantive, agreet 
with it in gender \ but when it foUow$f it remains invariable ; as, 

in suUa mtzzA Kd-TTEt " about midnight; 

una Hbbra e m£zzo di casir6ne^ one pound and a half of mutton ; 

ventitrl e ufzzo cardti^ twenty-three carats and a halC 

The adjective sMvOy signifying * except ' ; remains invariable ; as, 

f Ilvo Ul Mdrea TYivigidnOj except the Trevisan March ; 

sIlvo quclH diUe edse eceettu- except those of the families ex- 
6ie per Gfdbellini, ' eluded as Gfait>eUlDea. 



SXA1CPI.X8. 



U6mo dotto dille SeriUure. 
(Cavalc. AtU Apost. 113) 

JVdta di Bu6i«A e virtudsa 
€£kte. (Ariost. Fur. 18. 82.) 

Qudnte aiLLx d6n9K, qudnii 

LKGGIADRI FANCltJLLI, la sira 

vegninte, nelV dUro mdndo ce- 
narono con li loropaisdti ! (Docc. 
Intr.) . 

fo SON vfvA, la JAo merch, 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 9.) 

Considerando, ehe v6i si^te 
ddlle vSstre d/mne lontaki. 
(Bocc. g. 10. n. 9 ) 

MaddnnOf omdi da Sgni pro- 
mhsa fdttami to vi assStvo, e hi- 

BEBA VI lAsCIO DI NlCOLI^CClO. 

(Bocc. g. 10. n. 4.) 



A man learned in Holy Writ 

Bom of good and virtuous peo- 
ple. 

How many U\r women, how 
many pretty youths, the coming 
evening, supped in the other 
world with their departed friends ! 

I am alive, thank God. 

Conpidering, that yott are &r 
from your wives. 

Madam, I free you from all your 
promises to me, and 1 leave you at 
the disposal of Nicoluccio. 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDS. 



401 



^gH vUne ad unire la ma poa- 
sSnza eSlla ndsira debol6zza, per 

R^NDERCI FORTI ED INVHrClBILI. 

(Gang,) 

Li qu&H^ QUANDO la tIdero 
86i^, dissero. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 3.) 

Jiless&ndro, levdtosi preata- 
mdniej con titito che i pdnni del 
morto aviise inddsso, li quali 
£rano molto nJNOHi,»«re andd 
via altreal. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 1.) 

Messer LfciA b CALLfMACo 
SON RfccHi. (Macn.Com.) 

Ma Mar! A e LucIa sono p6- 
TERK. ^ (Macb. Com.) 

PerdieSnCf e *l pAdrb b lA 
MADRE d£lla LisA, cd ilia al' 

tre$\ CONT^MTIy GRANofssiMA 

FisTA r£cERO. (Bocc. g. 10. 
n.7.) 

Dovevate dirmU che la c6rtb 
TtTTAtChe I sovrAki s6no som- 

MAMflTTE CONTiNTI. (Mctast. 

Ictt) 

EssiKDOSI DiOItio C05 GLI AL- 
TRI Gl6vAI«I Bl^SSO A GIUCArE. 

(Bocc. g. 6. n. 10.) 

" EsS^NDOSI LA D6lt5A COL Gl6- 

▼AWE p6sti a tavola per cendre, 
(Bocc. g. 5. n. 10.) 

Le mI e case ED I lu6ghi Pt^B- 
BLici Di Roma sow pi£i«i d* an- 
tIche iMMAGiNi d6* miii mag- 
gi6n. (Bopc. g. 10. n. 8.) 

Tl padre di l^i e la mAdre, 

DOLOROSI DI QufsTOACCIDflfTE, 

in eid che si potSoay l* atAvako. 
(Bocc.g. 10. n.7.) 

E cSsa manifestUsima, che ( 



gi jum f>i6ne in eontulta $e ha 
a rifiutdre V occasiSne d* acqui- 
gt6re os6bj k gloria ruoVa. 



(Guicc.) 



He comes to unite his strength 
with our weakness, to make us 
strong and invincible. 

Who, when they saw her alone, 
said. 

Alexander, getting up quickly, 
although he was dressed io the 
clothes of th^ deceased, which 
were very long, went away like- 
wise. 

Messer Lyclas and Messer Cal- 
limacbus are rich. 

But Mary and Lucy are pooi. 

Perdicone, and the father, and 
the motber of Lisa, and herself, all 
glAd, expressed great joy. 



You ought to have told me, that 
the whole court, and the sove- 
reigns are well satisfied. 

Dfoneo and the other youths 
having set themselves to play. 

The lady and the young man 
having sat down to supper. 

My houses and the public places 
of Rome are filled with ancient im- 
ages of my ancestors. 

Both her father and her mother, 
grieved at that accident, did all In 
their power to relieve her. 

It is a manifest thing, that none 
comes now to a consultation 
wbeiher he is to refuse the oppor- 
tunity of gaining new honors and 
glory. 



34* 



409 



SYNTAX. 



V Oe6ano tifara d6Ua d6$tra, 
un omaccione con barba k crI- 
VI BAGKATi. (Add. Car. lelt.) 

Ed un, ehe av6a l' tyx b 
l' jLltra MAir udzzkf — Diase, 
(Dtnt. Inf. 28.) 

Pi£tro o MarIa ^ m6rta. 
(Mach. Com.) 

Ni Franc^sca Ni GioTAifiri 
MOH i partIto. (Buod. Tanc.) 

Ulf TfzZO, VN CARB<5lVX, tJnA 
FAVILLA t ItTA AD APPICCAE 

Fv6co. (Cavalc.) 

La fkrsona qjjivDO £ tribo- 
lXto ii dice e pitua, the Idd\o 
V dbbia in 6dio, (Fra. Giord. 
Pred.) 

Li priighi non giovdvano aU 
cuna edsQy perchi qu£lla b£s- 

TIA £RA PITR DISPOSTO O VoUvC 

(Bocc. g. 7. n. 4.) 

VUniene iir si^lla m£zza 
ifdTTX. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 7.) 

7\igU t^NA l! BBRA S m£zZO DI 

oasTKdNE. (Burch. p. 2. s. 1.) 

La moniia di vehtitr^ b m£z* 
zo carIti. (Giov. Vm. 1. 8. 
C.58.) 

Rend6gH la Signoria di Lorn- 
bardiOj salvo la Marca Triti- 
oiiif A. (Giov. Vill. I. 3. c. 6.) 

Feeero Srdine e dterito^ ehe 
eiascuno potesse uscire dtd bando, 
sJIlyo qu£lli d£lle cAse ec- 
cbttuAtb per GhibellIivi. 
(Giov. vm. 1. 6.) 



As for the Ocean, H U fo be 

rci resented on the right, »a a 
large inao with a dripping beasd 
and hair. 

And one, who had both hands 
cut off, said. 

Either Peter or Mary is dead. 

Neither Frances nor John has 
gone. 

A brand, a coal, a spark might 
set fire. 



When a person is afflicted, peo- 
ple say and believe God hates 
him. 



Entreaties were of no use, be- 
cause that stupid ass [To&no] 
was dbposed to wbh 

Come about midnight 

Take a pound and a half of 
mutton. 

The coins of twenty-three ca- 
rats and a half. 



He restored to him the Signo- 
ry of Lombardy, except the Tre- 
visan March. 

They ordain«d and decreed, that 
every one could return from ban- 
ishment, except those of tlie fejii- 
ilies excluded as Ghibellines. 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDa 



. 403 



CONCORDANCE OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 



JVumeral adjectives agree with their substantives, in 
gender and number ; as, 



Plai6nt vtvitte oxTAWTtrNO 
Inno, 

pdre descindert dltre novan- 
tiJna ru6ta, 

U T^Rzo 6i<$Rrro daW appa- 
rizidne dti sopradHli si- 
g^h 

in quH prImi 61<$rni, vi vo- 
id s6pra la tksia un^ dqui- 
la, 



Plato lived eighty-ono years ; 

lie seems to descend ninety- 
one more circles ; 

the third day after the appear- 
ance of the abovementioned 
symptoms ; 

in those first days, an eagle 
flew over your head. 



EXAMPLES. 



^bbidmo di Plat6ne, ehe h' 

so VIVETTE OTTANTtJMO A51f0. 

(Dant. Conv.) 
Jp6i per la medesima via pXre 

DESCilVDERE AlTRB NOVAJITt^NA 

eu6ta. (Dant. Conv.) 

jS^nzi qudsi tutti^ infra il t£r- 
zo gi6kno dall' apparizi6ne 
d£i sopraoetti s£Gni,rnonvano, 
(Bocc. Intr.) 

£ ehe ik qu£i prI mi gt<$rni, 
di 8ul monte d&lla TnnitAy vi 

VOLO SO PR A LA xisTA DH* iqOI- 

LA. (Beuib.) 



They say that Plato lived eighty- 
one years. 

Then he seeras to descend nine- 
ty-one more circles by the same 
way. 

Nay almost all died the third 
day afler the appearance of the 
abovementioned symptoms. 

And that in those first days, on 
the mountain of the Trinity, an 
eagle flew over your head. 



CONCORDANCE OF PRONOUNS. 



Adjective pronouns agree with their substantives, in 
gender and number ; as, 
tenile (ju^sto dbn^eo, take this money ; 



404 SYNTAX. 

non rimearjibbt a sostenir there would not remain any 
MESst^NA piiiA, pinkhiaent to sufier. 

SSCSPTION. 

The pronoun ttUto, preceded by the preposition per, ' through * ; re- 
maios invariable', as, 
per Tf^TTo R6ma\ [through all or] all over ItooM ; 

per Ti^TTO la cd$a, all over the bouse. 



Possessive pronouns agree with the thing possessed, 
and not with the possessor ; as, 

M6nna Giot&nna sen' andS- Monoa Giovanna osed to go 

va con quislo si^o Fi- ^ with this sod of hers ; 
gliu6lo, 

Fresco aviva itna b^a nep6- Fresco had a niece. 

TK, 

The relative pronoun quale, ' which * ; agrees with its 
antecedent, in gender and number ; as, 

quU cu6re, il qulLB la lU- that heart, which propitious 
ta foriima win avia peiitto fortune l^d not been aUe to 
aprire, move. 

If the antecedent consists of two cr more nouns of 
different gender or number, the relative quale agrees 
with tiic nearest noun ; as, 

la virtu ft T on6rb del quA- the virtue and honor with 

LE ^ dolAta, which she is endowed ; 

I ^uAli t^mpj e cappiUe r»- which temples and chapels he 

empU di paramifUx, filled with ornaments. 

EXAMPLES. 

Sigrk&a, TE5f TE qu^sTo de- Madam, take this money. 
kXro. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 1.) 

Che K05 RiuARRfsBE A SOS* That ther^ would not resMki 
TES^R piiVA KEsst^NA ficl purgG' in purgatory any punishment to 
tdriopergUpeeedtL (Pass.) suffer for das» 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDS. 



405 



S6no stdto PER TtJTTo R6ma. 
— L* ho cercdto per tOtto la 
els A. (Salv. Avvert. vol. 1. 1. 3.) 

Mdnnx GiovArna con qu^sto 

bUo FIGLIUOLO SEN* ANDAVA itt 

eonlddo. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 9.) 

Uno, ehe si ehiamd Fresco, 
▲y£va (5na 8i5a nepote. (Bocc. 
g. 6. n. 8.) 

Qu£l cuore, il quAle la li£- 
ta fort^na di girolamo n'on 
AVE A poTtJTo APRiRE) la misijia 
P aperse. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 8.) 

La tirtCi e l* on6re del 

qU^LG i DOTATA. (BoCC. g. 5. 

n.6.) 

OUre di quetto, fice fart altdri 
e eappelle spLendidissime^ i quJLli 

T^MPJ E CAPp£i.LE RIRMPlib DI 

PARAM^NTi. (Mach. Sior. Fior. 
1.7.) 



I have been all over Rmdo. — 
I Iiave looked for it ail over the 
bouse. 

Monna Giovanna used to go 
into, the country with this son of 
hers. 

A certain man, called Fresc6, 
had a niece. 



That heart, which the propitious 
fortune of Jerome had not been 
able to open, was opened by his 
misery. 

The virtue and honor with which 
she is endowed. 



Besides that, he caused very 
splendid altars and chapels to be 
built, which temples and chapels 
he filled with ornaments. 



CONCORDANCB OF YBRB8. 



Verbs are to agree with their subjectives, either ex- 
pressed or understood, in number and person ; as, 



io it core SOLE r6, 
▼<Sr non udIste, 
[fo] BRAMO la morte. 



I will gratify thee ; 
you did not bear ; 
I desire death. 



When the subjective consists of several nouns, which 
all concur simuhaneously to perftrm the action of the 
verb, the verb agrees with a noun in the plural under- 
stood ; as, 

consIglio e RAoidi'VE [qu^- advice and reason [these tUfo 
8te diic cose] CQi«fDdcoNO things] lead to viatory ; 
la pittdrioj 



406 



SYNTAX. 



1 



CalandrI to, Bri5xo,« Bur- 
falmXcco [qu^sti trc sog- 
g€iii] vANNo cercdndo di 
trovdr V elitr&pia^ 

n^ LA StTA PARTITA, fl^ LA 
SI^A Lt^.NOA DIm6rA, ni LA 
SVE.XTURAtA 8t5A ll6RTe, 

mt P hAnno potato trdr- 
re (/aZ cu^re, 



Calandrino, Bruno, and Bufikl- 
macco [ihtst three persons] 
go in search of the kelio- 
trepe ;• 

neither his departure, nor hid 
long absence, nor his la- 
mentable death, has been 
able to take bira out of my 
heart 



When (here are in a phrase several subjeciiveSf anJ these are of two 
or more diffnent persons ; as, io e tu,* I and thou '; tu ed ^gfi, * thoii 
and he * ; Slc, the verb agrees with a personal pronoun in the plural 
understood. 

Thus, If one of the subjeclives i9 io,*l*; the pronoun understood 
with which the verb will agree, is nSi, * we ' ; if one of the subjeclives 
is tUf and io is not one of the others, tho pronoun understood is voij 
* you ' ; and if the subjectives are all of the third person, the proooua 
understood is eglino, ^lleno, or ^sst, * they ' ', as,t 

TO dalP dn Idto e St£cchi thou on one side and Stecchi on 



Idto e 

dalV dltro [voij.nu VKRRfTE 
sosten£ndo, 

c6me sdl tu, ehi Mio marIto o 
io [noi] ci 8ii.M o ? 

ioLi e £lla [^ssi] crrJIrono 
tin p6co di edme s€U6ta, 

tu, £oli. Sf no, e io [noi] pi- 
glierAmo uno per 

vorr6i che v6i o ioLiiro mi di- 

cisTK, 



the 
me : 



other [you] will support 



how dost thou know' who my hus- 
band and 1 [we] are ? 

he and she [they] supped on a lit- 
tle salt bcaf ; 

thou, he, Cyrus, and I [we] will 
take a man for 

I wish that either you or they 
would tell me. 



If the subjective consists of several nouns, and the ac- 
tion of the verb can be performed y either -successively or 

* A kind of precioat itone, which was bolievod to possess tho rirtua of reader- 
inf invUible tho persons who oarriod it aboot th<un. — See Oaot. lof. 91 ; Doco. g. 8. 
n. 3; Franc. tSacch. Op. Div. 93. 

t There ere two examples in Dante in which this rale appears to hare been dis- 
regarded for the sake of rhjme : 

TMfto ehe il dd'ca. ed I'o nal Ufno As soon as mj leader and I entered ia 

ro'i. (Danl.lnfS.) the boat ; 

Di* qu&i ji^ i'o, ni il ou'ca mi'o Of whom neither I nor my loader was 

s'Acco'asB. (Dant, Inf.) aware; 
bat aach lioeosea are not to be foltowed. 



CONCORDANCE OF WORDS. 407 

alternatively, by either of ihenii the verb agrees with the 
nearest noUn ; as, 

MudvASi LA CaprIia « la may Capraia and Gorgona rise 

Gorg&tiOj from their foundatioos ; 

quM^oriuna o DESTino quag' what fortune or destioy brings 

giu ti M^NA ? thee here below ? 

non dnna^ nan SIlla 8i- neither Cinna nor Sylla ruled 

6i90REG6i6 lunganUnte, long. 

Sometimes one of the nouns, which form the subjective 
of the verb, is a word which in itself includes the signi- 
jkaiion of all the others^ and then the verb agrees di- 
rectly with this word ] as, 

nl v6{, nl JLltri mi potrI neither you nor any other one 
piu dire ch^ io non V Mia will be able to tell ine any 
vedtUOj longer that I have not seen 

it; 
n2 jjiSggia'cadiUa, n^ dcaua neither the rain which had fal- 
gittMa^fU lii.TSiO VMiDORM len, nor the water which 
gli BPEQii±vjL, they threw on it, nor any 

other wet thing extinguished 
them. 

If the subjective .consists of two nouns, the one of 
which is, as it were, a pari of the other which expresses 
the whole, the verb agrees with the whole, and not with 
the part ; as, 

la maggidrpMe di* su6i 66- the greater part of his friends 

If o mSrti^ are dead ; 

ilina infinxUi di strom£nti a great number of instrumentfl 

FdRono prepardti, were prepared. 

Sometimes the noun expressing the whole is under- 
stood ; as. 



la maggiSr partita [di indi- the greater part \of \ 
viduij Ft^BONO mdrti, viduals] were killed, 



the indi' 



406 SYNTAX. 

When the subjective is a collective noun, the tterb is 
put in the singular ; * as, 

perchi qu^L ihSpolo i si hn- why is that people so feU? 
pio? 

m'iippABi t^ffA e^NTE (P 6- a troop of spirits appeared to 
nime, me ; 

TEniA iiAOGi6a fr6tta di there came a greater crowd oi 
Romdni, Rooiaiis* 

If the subjective is a verb used as a nouriy or a phrasej 
the verb is put in the singular ; as, 

iL TOLiRE soTTOMi^TTCRE LE the wish to oppose mj strength 

Mis f6rze a GRossissiMi to very heavy burdens is the 

p£si, m' i iogidne di qid- occasion of this weakness. 
sia inftrmU^ 

Sometimes the subjective of the verb is represented 
by the relative pronoun cAe, ' who,' * which ' ; and then 
the verb agrees wiih the noun or pronoun^ represented 
by che ; either expressed or understood ;f as, 

i' son Beatrice che ti f^Lccio I am Beatrice, who bids thee 
and^rCf to go ; 



* loitancos may be qaotad from tho clasf ics, however, ia which the ««ri it p«t a 
the piwral-f aa, 

L*iniiock€^^K'LVAOK'KrzaU6rcAH- The hymn, whi^U tboee people thtm 
TA'KO. (nant. Purg. 32.) tang. 

PoUte v^dire edme il comu'its ro'roLO Yoa may aee how ignorant of tbe tnm 

s'aAHO ignordtOi dd virp IdAo, (Giov. God the comnMm people wore. 
Viil. 1. 1. e. 26.) 

La bu'a ri.Mi'oLiA atb'taivo nn di One day his family took a potter fer 
priso %n paUMio per wudleverit^ (Nov. bail t 
Am. 83.) ^ 

hot thia naag e ia carefully avoided by modem writen. 

t £xamplea may be fooad, nerertbeleaSf in which the verb mgrea$ AreeUr with 
the r*luUve pronrnmn eA«, wiihout any reference to the noon or pruootto, which it 
represeou; aa, 

fo 9on eoUi, cbb ti vxh tdnta guirra^ I am ahe. who canaed thee eo mmek 

— E coMvi^ «4m giornata inndnu sera, trouble, aiid who cloaed her day betee 

(Peir. a. 361.) iu eveoiog. 

Or 9g* tM quitla CorUeo, chb trmAto Now art thoa that Corisea, who haa 

«* MA in tdnti m6dil — Orriae*. son ben betraved roe in to man; different waja? 

U,— OH* AgU decM tudi — Un timp9 —1 am indeed that Coriaca, wlio waa 

w%} ai cdro. (Goar.Paat. Fid. fi. &) oooe ao dear in your eyea. 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDS. 



409 



io son eolid, che t^nni dmbo 
It ehi&vif 

poHtif [tu] che mi euiDi, 

O Jrdliy ry6i] che si^te 
gi^inti aW occicUnte, 

uno di^ aUU Riei, cht Assi- 

SI(RO Tkbtj 

iano di (^uj^gli, cAe t2 p6se&o 
in cr6ce, 



I am he, who held both the 
keys ; 

poet ! [thou] who art my guide ; 

O brothers ! \you] who have 
now reachedthe west ; 

one of the seven kings, who be- 
sieged Thebes ; 

one of those, who put him on 
the cross. 



XXAM PLX8. 



Io Ti consoLSRo di coii lungo 
de$io. (Bocc. g. 7. n. 7.) 

GraxiSte dSnne, v6i hok ud(- 
STB fSrse nuU dire, (Bocc. g. 3. 
o. 10.) 

Cfu per mindr martir la m6r- 
Ts brImo. (Bocc. g. 4. Canz.) 

CoWSiOLIO K RAGldNE CONDI^- 
COKO LA VITTORIA. (DaV. St.) 

CalahdrIno, Brt^ro, e Bur- 
falmAcco vanko cercakdo di 
TROVAR l' elitr6pia, e Calan- 
drino $e la cride avir trovdta, 
(Bocc. g. 8. D. 3.) 

N£ LA ft} A PARTItA, Kit LA 
B-6a Ll^lf'oA DIM^RAy fit LA SVEV- 
TtTBATA 8|5a MORTE, ME L* ukn- 
HO POTATO TrArRE DAL Cu6rE. 

(Bocc.) 

Tu dall' tJH lIto, e StiScchi 

DALL' IlTRO, mi VERRiTE SOS- 

TSi^VDo. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 1.) 
" Come " dUse la dSnna^ '* sai 

TU CHI Mfo MArItO O fo CI BIA- 
MO?" 

l^LI X iLLA CENArOKO UN 
p6cO DI cArME 8ALATA. (BoCC. 

g. 7. n. 1.) 

35 



I will gratify thee in so long a 
desire. 

CharmiDg ladies, perhaps you 
never heard say. 

I desire death to lessen my suf- 
ferings. 

Advice and reason lead to vic- 
tory. 

Calandrino, Bruno, and Buflbl- 
macco go in search of the JieUo' 
tropef and Calandrino believes he 
has found it. 



Neither his departure, nor his 
long absence, nor his lamentable 
death, have been able to take him 
out or my heart. 



Thou on one side, and Stecchi 
on the other, will support me. 

** How ddst thou know," said 
the lady, ** who my husband and 
I are?" 

He and she supped on a little 
salt beef. 



410 



SYNTAX. 



Tu, KOLI, SiRO, X lo PIGLIX- 

r£iig tvo PKR ..... (Mach. 
Mandrag.) 

VoRR^i CH^ t6i o ^oLmo MI 
BicisTX. (Ben. Varch.) 

MuovAsi T.A CafrJLia k la 
Gorg65a, — E fdecian sUpe ad 
ji^mo in $u la fice. (Dant. Inf. 
c. 83.) 

QdAL rORTdWA O DESTfNO, — 

^'nzi r ultimo di, QUAOGiii ti 
ii£if A ? (Dant. Inf. 15.) 

NON CInNA, NOW SiLLA, 81- 
GNOREGGIO LUNGAMflfTX. (DaF. 

Stor.) 

" Fated dipmgere la Cortt^a** 
— "i'o cila fard d^nngere di 
maniira, che mai vt v6i, wi 
i.LTRi» con ragidne, m potrJL 
piii dIrb, ch* io NOV i.' Xbbia 
vediJta, ifU conoseiiUa,** (Bocc. . 
g. 1. n. 8.) 

Ni pi6ggia caoi^ta, vi Ac 
QUA gittAta, ifk JLltro umid^- 
RE oLt spEGMf TA. (Dav. Ann.) 

Ciaseuna di n6i sa che d£' 
sciSi s6no la maggi6r pJLrts 
H^RTi. (Bocc. Intr.) 

Una infinitX di strom£5ti 
da dar martSrio f<5rono pre- 
parJLti. (Fir. As. 71.) 



La maggior partIta n5R05o 
(kJrti e taglidti, e parte priei. 
GioT. Vill. 1. 7. c. 19.) 

/>tmmt\ PSRCK^ qui L p6polo 
i SI £mpio — Incdntr* d* miAi in 
ciatcuna ma Ugge 7 (Dant. Inf. 
10.) 

Da man tinUtra m' apparI 
iJka g^ntb — D' i.ifiME, c?ie mo- 
vieno i pid ver n6i. (Dant. Purg. 
3.) 



Thou, he, Syras, and I, will 
take a man for 



I wish that either you or they 
would tell me. 

May Capraia and Gorgona nst 
from their foundationa, and dam up 
the mouth of Amo. 

What fortune or ^destiDy brings 
thee here below, before thy last 
day? 

Neither Cinna, nor SyDa ruled 
long. 

" Cause Liberality to bo paint- 
ed there." — " I wUI cause it to 
be painted there in such a maimer^ 
that neither you nor any other 
one, will be able to tell me any 
longer, that I have never seen it, 
or known it." 

Neither the rain which had fal- 
len, nor the water which they 
threw on it, nor any other wet 
thing exiinguished them. 

Every one of us knows, that 
the greater part of our friends are 
dead. 

A great number of instruments 
of torture were prepared. 

The greater part were killed 
and cut to pieces, and some taken. 

Tell me, why is that people so 
fell against my kin in all their 
laws ? 



On the led hand appeared to 
me a troop of spirits, that moved 
their steps towards us. 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDS. 



411 



P&if VEiriA VAO61611 fiu5tta 
Di RomIhti. (Franc. Sacch. Rim.) 

SignSr mto, il vol£re to lb 
mi'e forzb sottom^ttere a 
GRossfssiMi p^si m' :t cao^6nb 

DI qU£STA INFERHItI. (BoCC. g. 

10. n. 7.) 

r iON Beatrice, che ti fAc- 
cio andIre. (Dant. Inf. 2.) 

io SON COLtJi, CHE T^Nlfl 1m- 

Bo LE cHilvi — Dc/ ct«5r rfi Fe* 
dengo. (Dant. Inf. 13.) 

JPo cominridi : " Po£ta, che 
MI GufDi, — Chiarda la mia vir- 
til #' eW i po$86nter (Dant. Inf. 
2.) 

" frJIti," dusty " CHE ver 
Unto mUia — Pengli siete 
oitJhti all* occidente.** (Dant. 
Inf. 26.) 

Dicindo : « Qu^Z /w T UN d^*^ 

sfTTE r£gI, — Ch' ASSf 8ER Ti- 

B«." (Dant. Inf. 14.) 
Se tu fSsai stdto iJno di qu£- 

OLI, CHE IL p6sER0 IN CBOCB. 

(Bocc. g. 1. n. 1.) 



Then, there came a greater crowd 
of Romans. 

My lord, the wish to oppose my 
strength to very heavy burdens is 
the occasion of this weakness. 



I am Beatrice, who bids thee 
to go. 

I am he, who held both the keys 
of the heart of Frederick. 

I began : '^ Poet ! thou who art 
my guide, consider well if there is 
sufficient virtue in me." 



" O brothers ! " said I, *« who 
through perils without number 
have now reached the west." 



Saying : " That was one of 
the seven kings, who besieged 
Thebes.** 

If thou had been one of those, 
who put him on the cross. 



C ON CORD AICCE OP PARTICIPLKS. 



Participles, ad it has been already mentioned p. 345, 
when used as adjectives, agree with substantives in gen- 
der and number, and follow in this respect the rules 
already given with regard to the concordance of that part 
of speech ; as, 

LlEr, in vdno merch addo- he killed her, while begging 
mandIwte, ufdse, in vain for mercy ; 

6XU D6rf!fE ASPETTANTi sx he addressed himself to the la- 
riv6lse, dies [who wete] waiting ; 



413 



SYNTAX. 



the fCBdesftB, haTiofr hetrd 

the request and the propCMiil, 

reeoWed ; 
after harioF viewed the gmr- 

deaand t£e bouse of Measer 

Neri; 
the ladies and geDtlemen [that 

had] coDected in the paJace ; 

the riofi^ and the garland, 
Twhieh she had] received 
iTom her new hvshand : 

the king with his attendants 
having moonted their horses. 

Tor RmUt bow to 4§Urmuu wboa Pm-tiapUt mro «Mrf u «4ffdiMt ui vhM «a(,aM 
Caxrtma. on PABTicinjtt.] 

BXAM FLBS. 



U etOMiiirtf vpSta ul no- 

MilTDA € LA MlOriaTA, 

paidU U eiardinoy e i^ 
cisA di Mt$9h Nhri Mt 
vediJta, 

it ndRKE e i cAVALiiai nd 

paU^ RADUNATI, 

l' a5£lla e L4 coR6:rA 
AVIATE dal mUvQ spStOy 

iL EB c4' su6i COMPieiVI 
rimontIti a ccmitte, 



F61co^ da doiSr vinio, tirdia 
fiidri una tpaday Lii, iv yIho 

MBBCA AVVOMAKDjbrrJS, ITCCitB. 

(Bocc g. 4. n. 3.) 

Alls ndirsK AfpxTTiLim si 
n.lO.) * 

II CAVALliRX, UDfTA LA DO- 
MANDA X LA rROF^RTA dUUt 

ddnna^ tico proihSsb. (Bocc g. 
10. n. 6.) 

Jl qtidle, foichA il oiABDfir 

tuttOf E LA CA8A DI MSSS^R Ni- 
RI lEsBX TEDI^TA. (BoCC. g. 10. 

o. 6.) 

E sentindo le d^mite b* caira- 
LiiRi NEL palAgio del cdnte ra- 
DU9ATI. (Bocc. g. S. n. 9.) 

La d6nna e l' AiciLLA b la 
cor65a att^te dal Ku6yo tptSso 
quHvi Uueid. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 9.) 

Il re c^* 8u6i compaoih, ri- 
MoifTATi A cavJLllo, ol rt&U 
oitiire it nc tomarono, Bocc. 
g.lO.D.6.) 



Foico, overcome by grief, hav- 
ing drawn aswordykiUea herwhile 
b^gisg in vata fot aiercy. 

He addressed himself Co tim 
hdies who were waiting, aad said. 

The gendeman, harving beaid 
the request and the proposal of 
the htdy, resolved. 

Who, after having viewed the 

girden and the bouse of Me 
eri. 



And bearfog tiiat the haes wl 
gentlemen had collected in the 
palace of the count 

The lady left there the rings 
and (he garland which she had 
received from her new husband. 

The king with bis attendants, 
having mounted their horses, le- 
turned to the royal palace. 



CONCORDANCE OP WORDS. 413 



EXERCISE XXVIII. 

Then that ma^anifjQous Pompey, who (the which) 

tnagndnimo PompiOf — 

boasted (himself) continually, that where he I struck I 
vantdrt* * amAnuo, \ percuoUsse \ 

the earth with (Pie) his foot (the) entire legions 
tirra — piS * intiiro^ legiSne* 

I would come out I from it 1 , fled not only from 
iar6bberd* u$cit^ \ ne* | tJvggire 

Rome, but from (the) Italy also. He is of a won- 
J^SmOf — Itdlia — . mara- 

derful agreeahleness ,and (of a wonderful) vivacity. 
v%gU6$o* ptacevoUzza^ ' • 34 brio^. 

And the preparation, and the joy, and the other 
appar^eehio, alUgrezza, dltro 

thinors were described to-him heyond (of) the truth. 
e6sa • dipinger^ , * maggiSre vSro. 

(The) my guide and I descended the mountain. 
— duca sc6ndere - mdnte. 

The greatest part of (the) men are ambitious. He 
maggidr pdrte u6mo ambiziSso. — 

commanded that all (the) his family should appear 
Comandare tutto farniglia ©ernre* 

before him. Know, that I am Bertrand de Born, 
» *. Sapire^ Bertr&m dal BSmiOj 

he who gave (to the) King John the mischievous 
ddre re Giovdnni mdh 

counsels. The filial respect and (the JUid) love. 
toi^io, * filidle^ river 6nza* ' < — amSr^, 

Great,* small,* rich,* and poor,* no one can escape 
Ordnde, piccolo* rUeo,^ pSvero^ nestuiw potire iottrdrre^ 

(himseifto the) death. Many were accused this year. 
mdrte, M6U0 ' aectisdre* * dnno*. 



* Or§at, twuUlt riehy p««r, aro h«r« uMd in th« plural nnmber. 

35« 



414 SYNTAX. 

And ifa« embracing (Uu) her infmnt I baTe looked 

all oter the street. Callimachna and Ligarins have 
tutto'per^ gtrdda, Caltt ma c Q ligmw ' 

told me, that the doctor and the ladies are coming 
^^ ', doUdre dStma wemre 

to (^) charch. Neither thoo nor I am rich. I 
ekUta, ficco. 

am the ghoct of Capocchio, who falsified (Ost) metals 
6mhra , faUdrt meUOm 

I bj the power of I alchemy. He I feU in lore I 

I with I a noble-lady, held in (ikt) his time * Ibr 
I iy» I « gentUdonna? tenert* • • Uw^ — 

one of the most beautiful, and of the most amiable 
— UUa, Uggiddrm 

that were in Florence. Pride, envy, and ararice 



are the three sparks, which have inflamed all 
fax^Uay aecinden? — 

(iht) hearts. I saw a man, who had both (At) 
> eu&r^, — Vedirt uamo, dtabo 

his hands cnt-ofi^ and another who had (tkt) his 
— mono mSzzo, « J — . 

throat pierced. For (iht) which, reasons, (tkt) oar 
gdla* foraU^, cdsOf 

sapper having been disturbed, I not only have not 
cena — stwrb6re, • * 

eat it, but not even fhave) tasted it. Nor 

trangugiare* *, ' • OMttiggiart^ K 

the excessive maternal pity and joy permitted it 
$oprabbonddnu maUma;* pietd} * aUejgrixju^ peraUUer^ *. 



7\««, Id iif pImnL 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 



415 



CHAPTER ni. 



REGIMEN OR GOVERNMENT OF WORDS. 



BXeiMEir OF SVB8TANTITB8. 



A substantive may be dependent on^ or in relation 
vnihy another substantive ; and this dependence or rela- 
tion, which may be expressed in different manners, 
forms what is called the regimen or the complement of 
the signification of substantives. 

When of two substantive nouns the secdnd, which is 
dependent on the first, conveys an idea of possession^ 
extraction^ or qualification^ (as when it expresses prop' 
erty; paternity^ or filiation; the material, the place, or 
the quantity of a thing ; a family name ; or similar cir- 
cumstances ;) it requires to be preceded by the preposi- 
tion di ; as, 



r 6cdiio DEL cu6re, 

gfi dnni dUJta htcamaxiSne 

del Figiiu6lo di Dio, 
vei^Sgna i mddre di oifXSTA., 

iinafontdfna di mIrmo bian- 

chissimo, 
Certdldo i un castiUo di 

Vald^lsa^ 
iorchiiiH di l(bbra, e ior- 

chiitti DI uJtzzA lIbbra, 

Ju aalvAto da cirH di cdsa 
Di' BiaDi, 



the eye of the heart; 

the years of the Incarnation of 
the Son of God ; 

shame is the mother of modes- 
ty ; 

a fountain of very white mar- 
ble; 

Certaldo is a castle of Vtldel- 
sa; 

wax-tapers of a pound, and 
wax-tapers of half a pound 
each;, 

he was saved by some people 
belonfiring to the house of 
the Atrdi. . 



416 SYNTAX. 

There are some adjeetioe pronouns, which when used $vb$lanH9tiy 
follow the same rule ; as, 

fadvaun TOCO TUB Lvco^ he kept a little bank ; 

spalancdndo TJbfTo di qola, opening his throat [mouth] wide. 

The preposition di is often elegantly Buppressed after the word cd$a 
followed by a family name } as, 

m els A [di] M€B9ir Guaspar- in the house of Messer Guaspar- 

Rfiio, rino ; 

in cisA [de] gli Albizzi, in the house of the Albiizi. 



When the second substantive expresses the form or 
similitude of the Jirst^ it requires to be preceded hy the 
preposition a ; as, 

dhiH A bIschbri, teeth like pegs ; 

bertttdccia ▲ oRdifDA, * a cap like the eaves of a 

house ; 

bdrba a LDciorcoLi, a beard like two wicks of a 

candle. 

When the second substantive expresses suitableness, 
convenience, or derivation as to one's country,* it re- 
quires to be preceded by the preposition da ; as, 

et^ DA marIto, an age suitable for marriage ; 

timpo DA cofTF^RTO, time of consolation ; 

Guufdfto DA Ore m6n A, Guidotto of Cremona ; 

Giacomin da Pat! a, James of Pavia. 



* ThiM if limited, howeveri to the caie when the tubttantlro ii r pn^er name ef 
n cUff, UnoTiy vUlagt, or cattle \ for, whea the tubitantive ii r proper name ofR jtixf- 
40m, provimcSf or itlaud, it is always preceded by the prepotilion di ; as, 

JAeee U mAnaeo : ** Poedno iauhe mdr- The monk replied t " I am dead abo, 
tCy ef&i oi SARDiGKA.." (Bocc g. 3. n. 8.) and I was of Sardinia." 

Instances are also met with amongst the classics, in which the preposition di ii 
ased even in the case when^ according to the rule, da oof ht to be osed ; asi, 

Lo prlmo Podestd fiu Meea^ PaxAno The first Podesta was Mester Paxxioe 
di* Pdtzi DI FiRK ifZB. (Stor. Pist. 50.) de' Paui of Florenee. 

CdOa firta di* diui Or^^%i oi RdMi.. With the assistaaoo of the t«id Oniai 
(Qio. Vill. L 9. c 39.) of Rome. 

n aignOr qUmindo MalaUeU oi Ri. Gismondo MalatasU of Rimini. 
Miiri. (Car. lett. 3.) 



GOVERNMENT OF WORDS, 



417 



■ XAMPLEf . 



V am&re prMto ekiudc V 6c- 
OBio DEL cu6rb. (Amm. Ant d. 
5. r. a.) 

Oih irano oli ivvi d£lla 
fnttt\fera Iitcarhazioicb del Fi- 
oLiuoLo Di Dio al numero per- 
oenith (ii 1348. (Bocc Intr.) 

VERGOGlfA k mXdSS DI OIIE- 

stI, e vuUstra d' innocenza, 
(Amm. Aot. d. 6. r. 7.) 

Afe/ mizzo del qudl prdto ira 
thrA foittIita di mIrmo bian- 
CHiisiMo. (Bocc. g. 8. Intr.) 

CbRtXlDO k UK CASTILLO DI 

Vald^lsa, U qudle quantunqtie 
fkeiol fia, giii di m6lH uStnini ed 
agidii fu abUMo, (Bocc. g. 7. 
n. 10.) 

pna grands Area tutta fomiia 

di TORCHliETTI DI LiBBRA, B la 

chi^ia e le eappiUe <r int6mo 
yihu di TORCHifm di m£zza 
Ubbra, e spi$$o di que' di lIb- 
BRA. (Borgh. Arm. Fam. 23.) 

Fv ieampdto e salyJLto da 

CiBTI DI ciSA Di' BIrDI. (Glo. 

Vm.l.l2.cl7.) 

Pi Ati im eirto LudovicOf il 
9v^ ttv6a di m6lti dandri, c 

FAciTA UB POCO DI BJLnCO. 

(Firenz. As. d* Or.) 

•& iPALAirciLKDO p6i tXbto DI 
SOLA. (Lip. Malm. 7. 85.) 

Stktero piit ^ni % due gi&nani 

IIV ciSA Me88£r GUAfPARRliro. 

(Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) 
Con ^dnde patera e perisolo 

',8A GLI ALBIZZI. 

c. 17.) 



fj^yittgi III cL 
(ObTVm. 1. 12. 



Selfiflfanesf shuts the eye of the 
heart. 



The jrears of the fruitful Incar- 
nation of the Son of God had 
reached the number of 1848. 



Shame is the mother of modesty, 
and the mistress of Innocence. 



In the middle of which field 
there was a fountain of very white 
marble. 

Certaldo Is a castle of Valdelsa, 
which, although small, was for- 
merly inhabited by many and 
wealthy people. 

A great coffin rarrounded with 
wax tapers of a pound, and the 
church and the chapels full of 
wax-tapers of half a pound, and 
often of some of a poond each. 

He was rescued and saved by 
certain people belongfaig to the 
house of tfte Baidi. 

There was a certain Ludovico, 
who had a great deal of money, 
and kept a little bank. 

And opening hit mouth wide. 

The two youths remained for 
several years in the house of Mes- 
ser Guasparrino. 

In great fear and daneer he took 
refuge in the house of the Albizzi. 



418 



SYNTAX. 



Con qu6i $u^ Diirri ▲ bis- 
cHicRi. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 2.) 

Con quiUa bkrettJLccia a 
GR<$ifDi, e con quella bIrba ▲ 
LUCiGKOLi. (Buon. Fier. 2. 3.) 

Ess6ndo eUa gid di ktI da 
marIto. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 4.) 

La dSnna a eui piu t^mpo da 
coNFoRTc, ehe da riprensi6ne 
paria, (Bocc. g. 2. n. 8.) 

GmDoTTo da Cremoita Idscia 
aGiAcoMiif DA PavIa una sua 
faneiuUa, (Bocc. g. 5. n. 5.) 



With thote teeth of big lare 

pegs. 

With that cap of his like the 
eaves of a bouse, and that beard 
like two wicks of a candle. 

She beiog already of an age 
suitable for marriage. 

The lady to whom this appeared 
more a time of consolation, than of 
reprehension. 

Guidotto of Cremona leaves a 
daughter of his to James of Paria. 



REeiMEN OF ADJBCTITBS. 

The regimen or complement of adjectives is generally 
a substantive, a pronoun, a verb, or a phrase preceded 
by a preposition. 

Adjectives signifying knowledge or ignorance, praise 
or blame, possession or privation, abundance or scarcity, 
require that their complement be preceded by the prepo- 
sition di; as, 



dStto D^lle Scritti^re, 
ignorantissimi n±lla mbdic(- 

NA, 

giMne di etA., beUissima 
DI f6rma, ckidra di eiff- 

GUE e DI COSTT^MI, 

prSde D^flc Armt, ma d^' 

, costiJmi vizidso, 
ahhonddnte di orXno, di 6r- 

ZO, DI BESTIAME, C DI 

pisci, 



learned in the Scriptures ; 
very ignorant of medicine ; 

of yonthful age, of very bean- 
tiful form, and of distingnish- 
ed birth and manners ; 

brave in arms, bat of vicious 
habits ; 

abundant in ffrain, barley, cat- 
tle, and fish. 



Adjectives signifying similitude, inclination, suitable- 
ness, advantage, tendency, or ihexonirary, require their 
complement to be preceded by the preposition a ; as, 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 



419 



la bdrba A' su6i CAPieLi the beard like his locks ; 
simiglidJiU, 

edse piu dttt i' BEviTdai, 
che kUe s6brie d6nne, 



provinct dediie Ills Irmi, 
niuna cSsa ^ cosi contrdria 

▲L DiciTdas, 
grdve ioLi u6mini di pervir- 

si costumif 



things more becoming to 
drunkards, than to sober la- 
dies; 

provinces addicted to arms ; 

nothing is so unfavorable to a 
speaker ; 

odious to men of wicked habits. 



Adjectives signifying departure^ distance^ separation^ 
require that their complement should be preceded by the 
preposition da ; as, 

iaxdi vUle l6ro pXtrie, exiles from their countries ; 

JV disgidnto daW ^niho U made the soul disjoined from 

passibile intdlittOf his passive intellect ; 

ima navicSlla di pescai6ri a small fishing boat distant 

separdta viW ^ltre ni- from the other vessels. 



Some adjectives^ as contento, ' contented,' ' satisfied ' ; 
presto, * prompt,' ' ready ' ; accdndoy « disposed,'- ' in- 
clined ' ; may have a complement preceded by either the 
preposition di or a} as, 

content with what was given 

to him ; 
be satisfied with the will of 

God; 

prompt to greet his fellow- 
citizen ; 

ready to slander every praise- 
worthy thing ; 

I am disposed to pawn these 
garments ; 

more inclined to believe the 
evil. 



cowt£nto di quiLLO, che 
gli ira ddtOf 

stdte coNTiNTi kUa volon- 

Tl di Dio, 
pr£9Ta di fare FiSTA al 

suo cittadinOf 

pr£sti a m6rdere 6gni 

laudkvol cSsOy 
86no acc6ncia d' impegnar 

qucste r6be, 

piu ACc6rfCIA A CREDERE U 

mdle, 



490 



SYNTAX. 



XZAMFLBf. 



E»Und0 muUio Ddrro DixxK 
ScRiTTi^RX, ed awunmeitrdto delta 
/ed€ di QrUto, (C«f. At. ap. 113.) 

M61H vi s6no d^lla mxdiciva 
MvoRAiiTltsiin. (Lib. Cur. mal.) 

IPna di Uro bi xtI oidriif x, 

DI r6xMA BXLlisiIMA, CHIARA 
DI lilf OUX X DI COlTt^MI. (BOCC 

Ham. 1. 1.) 

CaoaUSre pb6dx d£llx Ibmi, 
MA Di* cotTi^Mi Yizi^fto. (Past. 
Spec. Ver. Penit.) 

Upaiit h granc^nmo, e mSUo 

▲BBORDAlfTX BI GrIhO, DI 6r- 
SO, BI BK8TlillX| X DI pi»OI. 

(Glamb. 1. 6.) 

Limga la bIrba, e di pet 
HdncQ mitta, — Poritna^ i* svoi 

CAPiOLI SlMlGLlijITX. (Dast 

Pur. 1.) 

C6sx pra Ittx 1' xxYiTdxi 
CHK Illk s^bbix ed orUsie d6ii- 
Nx. (Bocc. iBtr.) 

PROyfifcx naiuralminte d£- 
DiTK ALLK Armi. (Giaiub. 1. 8.) 

NitfVA C6SA i COSl COIfTRARIA 

Ai. dicit6rx, e6me il mawife$to 
meeoneiametUo, (Aoub. Ant. d. 
11. r. S.) 

La viia de }m6ni h ^mprt 

•RATK JkGLl u6mIIII DI PXRVIrSI 

CosTi^Mi. (Amm. Ant d. 14. 
r.l.) 

Colore, the sono isuLi dali.x 
l6ro pItrix, desiderano di tor- 
nartii. (Fra Giord. Pred.) 

SiecM, per sua dottrina, rf ' 

DIBGII^irTO — DaLL' AHiMO IL 

passIbii^x iiiTXLJLiTTO. (Daot. 
Pur. 26.) 



Being very iMroed in tbe Sciip- 
turefl, and well instructed in tbe 
Christian faith. 

TThere are many Teiy i|;nocaat 
of medicine. 

One of tbem of youthful age, of 
most beautiful form, aod of disdn- 
gubhed birth and manners. 



A cavalier bfKve in arms, but of 
vicious habits. 

The country is very vast, and 
very abundant in grain, barley, 
cattle, and fish. 



His beard, raized with hmry 
white, Mke his locks, descended 
low down. 



Things more becoming to < 
ards, tluin to sober and modest In- 
dies. 

Provinces naturaUy addicted to 
arms. 

Nothing is so unfavorable to a 
spealier as the evident dreMtng op 
of language. 

The life of the good is always 
odious to men of mcked habits. 



Those, who are exiles from their 
countries, are desirous to retom 
there. 

So that, by his wisdom, he made 
the soul disjoined from his passive 
intellect 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 



491 



IVood per amenlwray alqvdnto 

•KPAftilTA dIlLE IlTBE Ifivi, 
t^llA NAVIC^LLA DI FXfCATORI. 

(Bocc g. 6. n. 2.) 

Covt£kto di ^u^llo, chx dJU 
TO GLi ]^RA, mit non ehUdea, 
(Vit. S..Aiit.) 

J? jvend, pddre e mddre mia, 

•tItK CORTilTTI ALLA TOLOHtI 

DI Dio. (Vit S. Gio. Batt.) 
QjueW 6nifna gen^ fit cos\ 

rRXSTA — Dl FARK AL CITTADf N 

sdo quivi f^sta. (DaDt. Pur. 6.) 
Dar matiria 6gr ttmidi6$if 

TKLari A IfdRDXRE 6GIfI UkU- 

DlfivoL c68A. (Bocc. IntT.) 

Per me soiro acc6ncia d* im- 
psonIr per te qufsTX bobb. 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 10.) 

Jm ginte i piii ACc6irciA a 
cr](derx il mIlx, ehe il bine, 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 6.) 



He found by chance, a tmall 
fishing boat somewhat distant Crom 
the ouer vessels. 



Content with what was given 
to him, he asked no more. 



Therefore, my parents, be satis- 
fied with the will of God. 



That gentle spirit was so prompt 
to greet there his fellow-citizen. 

To give occasion to envious per- 
sons, ready to slander every praise- 
worthy thing. 

As for me, I am disposed to 
pawn for thee these garments. 



People are more inclined to be- 
Meve the evil, than the good. 



RXeiMXlf OF TZRB8. 



Verbs may govern^ or have for a eomplementj a noun^ 
a pronoun^ another verb^ or a phrase. 

The nouns and pronouns governed by the verb may 
be in the subjective^ in the o^ective^ or in any other re-- 
lation preceded by a preposition. 

The verbs governed by another verb may be in the 
indicative, in the conjunctive, or in the infinitive mood, 
either in the objective or in any other relation, except 
the stdjective, preceded by a preposition. 

The verb issere governs a noun in the subjective, and 
18 consequently construed with two subjectives, called, the 
36 



4« SYNTAX. 

one, the subjective before^ and, the other, the suhjedivt 
after J the verb ; as, 
io sSno Is A stbitturIta I am the unfortuDate Ginevra ; 

GllfiVEA, 

i v^ri atnfci 86no ^va c6sa' true frienda are one thiog 
iniUmty together. 



Active verbs govern a noun or a pronoun in the objec- 
tive ; as, 

io ho am&io td dmo Guis- I have loved and love Gwb- 

claDOi card ; 

mdlH sdnno m6lte c6se, e many know many things, and 

nofi sdnno si MEoiaiMi, do not know themselves. 

Many active verbs, besides having a noun or a pronoun 
in the objective, or, what is the same, a direct regimen, 
may govern a noun or a pronoun in any other relaiiony 
except the subjective^ preceded by a preposition, and 
thus have also an indirect regimen ; as, 

io non la vendii l6ro, ma I did not sell it to them, but 

iasi ME l' cnrdnno infold- they must have stolen it 

tOj from me; 

per premidre U cavali^re in order to reward the gentle- 

dell' on6re riceviUo, man for tlie honor received; 

s^ AD 6uNi si5o SERvioio of- hc t)ffered himself to servo her 

firse, in every thing; 

*' ingegno di riv6lger\^ da he endeavoured to dissuade her 

PROFoniMiMTo siJUro, from BO cruel a proposal 



Passive verbs govern a novn or a pronoun in the re- 
lation of derivation preceded by the preposition da; as, 

igli DA ME ira egualminU he was equally loved by me ; 

amdto, 

Efigtnia DA m6lte v6bjili Iphigenia was received by 

DdNNE diRddifu rictviUOy many noble ladies of Rhodes. 



GOVERNMENT cfr WORDS. 423 

Sometimes instead of da we find the prepositioa per used by good 
writers ; as, 

la piU hiUa edsa, the giammdi the handsomest object that was 
PKR ALcdNO vcduta f6iS€f ever seen by anybody ; 

PXR rlLSA l6dx di stdUo ^tre to be deceived by the false praise 
inganndto, of fools. 

Neuter verbs, strictly speaking, have no regimen; but 
as some of them are often usedy in Italian, active ly^ they 
follow, when so used, the same rules as ojJi^^S^li 

as, j^y^^ T-»B«^>f; 

^^ or THB ^ 

cendrono un p6co i>i cIrnk -they ^^PP#Tf^'M'^%^^^^S T 7 

quaniiinque Am6rt i li^ti although I^^^^/f^l^S^tf^^^ 
VM^i^koi^ piu volenJtari cht willingly iK;;^MBUJ>aIacQ^ «^ 
LE p6 VERB CAP AifxvEyii^'h', than m pooF 



Pronominal verbs govern the pronouns mi, /i, ci, «t, 
^», with which they are varied, in the objective } as, 

lo HI Itvdi diritta, I stood up ; 

lo scoUre s' esercildvoy the scholar took exercise. 

Many pronominal verbs, besides the above, which is 
their direct regimen^ may have an indirect regimen, or, 
what is the same, may also govern a noun in any other 
relation, but the subjective, preceded by a preposition j 
asj 

V aiirisii d^lla mIa dim6- thou grievest for my^stay ; 

EA, 

la ciitUt s' arrendio a C£- the city surrendered to Ciesar. 

8ARE, 



Unipersonal verbs, generally, have no regimen ; there 
are instances, however, in which some of them govern 



4M 



SYNTAX. 



a word in the relation of attribution, preceded by tbe 
preposition a ; as, 

edme aec&de i' Bu6in, ooti as it befmlls good pe<^kle, 80 it 
accade i' CATTivi, befalls bad people ; 

qiUsta noviUoj la qu6U ▲ MX this novel, which I ' am to re- 
i6cca di dov6r dirt^ late. 

BZ1.1CPLSS. 



Signdr mw, fo »6no la miMra 

STKMTUIliTiL GU^TRA. (BOCC. 

g. 5. n. 9.) 

I viRI iiMfci s6nO t59A. C^tA 

iHSi^ME. (Am. ADt. d, 18. r. 1.) 

io HO amIto xd kuo Ouis- 
cIboo, e qudnto viverd io F ame* 
rd. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

M6lti ii6ltx c68x sXnvo, si 
-WDisiMi Hoir slimo. (Am. Ant 
d. 5. r. 8.) 

fo HOW LA TEITdAi l6rO, MA 

Assi quiwta n6Ue me l' ▲▼kIhho 
hibolIta. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 10.) 

Per premiIre il gatali^rk 
dell' ok6re RicEvt^TO da ltd, 
(Bocc. g. 10. 0. 6.) 

Sodd^/ece 6lla $ua damdnda, 
e si AD 6gki sto skRvioio of- 
F^Rsx. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 8.) 

Con pardle assdi b* ihgegh^ 
DI rivolgerla da propoi«im£n- 
to 81 fi£ro. (Bocc. g, 2. d. 6.) 

Cost iCLI DA MK £rA ECU AL- 
MONTE AAfiTo, com* ieli me amd' 
va, (Bocc. Fiam. 1. 6.) 

Efioehia da MdbTB ir6BiLr 

d6nNE di R6oI WU RICXTt^TA. 

(Bocc. g. 5. D. 1.) 
CosUi isser la T\h niLLA 

COSA, CHE OIAMMil PER ALCt^ITO 
TXDI^TA FOSSE. (BoCC. g. 5. D. 1.) 



Sir,] tm the anfortanate, wretch- 
ed Gineyra. 



True fHendf ue one thmg to- 
gether. 

I have loFod tnd lov« flnwctid, 
wid I thall loTe him as loac m I 
Kto. 

Many know muay diingf, and do 
not know themselFea. 



I did Dot uSi it to them, bat 
(hey most have stoleo it from oie 
lastDlght 

In order to reward the gentle- 
man for the honor he had recetyed 
of liim. 

He complied with her request, 
and offered himself to serve her in 
every thing. 

With a rreat many words he 
endeavoured to dissuade her from 
so cruel a proposal. 

So be was equally loved by me, 
as he loved me. 



Ipbigenia was received by many 
noble Udies of Rhodes. 



She was tbe handsomest obyect 
that was ever seen by anybody. 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 



425 



Mi^Ko 2 ister torritto dot sd- 

viOf che PER FALSA LODE DI STOL- 

TO^ssER INGA51IAT0. (Amm.Ant. 
d. 3. r. 6.) 

Cenarono uir poco di cIrne 
8A.I^TA. (Bocc. g. 7. n. 1.) , 

QUANTI^KQUK AmORE I Llih-Ix 

PALA6I e le morhide cdmere, Piii 
yolenti^ri cue le povere ca- 

PANNE, ABITl. (DoCC. g. 3. O. 10.) 

io MI letAi dirItta. (Bocc. I stood up. 
g. 7. n. 6.) 

Lo scolAre b' esercitAta 

per riscalddrti, (Bocc. g. 8. n. 
7.) 

. D£lla mIa lunga dihora 

T* ATTRf 8TI. (BoCC. g. 4. O. 6.) 



tt is better to be corrected by 
the wise, than to be deceived by 
the false praise of fools. 



They supped on a little salt 
meat. 

Although Love dwells in gay 
palaces and sumptuous apartments, 
moire willingly than in poor cot- 
tages. 



The scholar took exercise to get 
warm. 



S* arrendJco la cittA. a Ci- 
8ARE. (Gio. Vill.) 

Cove accade i* buoni, cosl, 
fratillo^ mi pare the aeedggia 
a' CATPfvi. (Fra. Guilt, leti.) 

Qu^sTA novella, la quale a 

ME TOCCA DI D0v£r oIrE, VOglio 

ve ne renda ammaeatrdle, (Bocc. 
g. 1. n. 10.) 



Thou grievest for my long stay. 
The city surrendered to C»sar. 



Brother, I think that as it befalls 
good people, so it befalls bad peo- 
ple. 

I wi«h, that the novel, which I 
am to relate, may make you wise. 



ooTXBNMXNT OF VXRB8 — Continued, 

A verh governs another verb that depends upon it, in 
the injinitive mood, whenever the subject of the princi- 
pal (governing) verb is the same with that of the de- 
pendent (governed) verb ; as in the following example 
of Boccaccio, Proem. : 



assdi tnanifesiamhtie p6s90 

C OMP R £n D E RE, quillo isStT 

viroy che s6oliono i sAvj 

DiRE, CHE 86lO LA Hisi- 

RiA 2 sinza xnvidioy 



I can easily believe, that that 
is really true, which wise 
men are wont to say, name- 
ly, that poverty alooe is not 
envied ; 



where posso and sdgliono govern comprindsre and dtre 
86» 



iSW SYNTAX. 

in the infinitive ; because, in the first instance, to, which 
is understood, is the subject of pdsso and at the same 
time of comprendere^ that depends upon it ; and in the 
last, shvj is the subject of tdgUano as well as of <fire, 
that depends upon it. 

The infinitives^ depending on another verb which 
governs them, may be either in the oijectivt^ as in the 
foregoing example ; or in any other relation, except the 
subjective, preceded by a preposition ; as, 

niga d' Ayiiti RicEvt^TO U he denies to have received the 

oenejlcio, benefit ; 

dohbidmo impttrdre a tac£- we must learn how to keep 

RK, silent. 

If the subjects of the two verbs be different, then the 
principal verb governs the dependent verb m a tense of 
the indicative or conjunctive mood, preceded by the con- 
junction che ; as, 

so io hine^ che £gli ne I know well, that he carried 
PORT^ (ind.) r 6nima mlo, away my soal ; 

io cRino, CHE le 8u6re I think, that the nans are 
siEif o (conj.) a dorinUre, asleep. 

By a peculiarity of language the conjunction ehe is sometimes sop- 
pressed ; as, 

er6do, [che] igU $e n* and6 I believe that he went away. 

(ind.), 

temindo [che] non gU JlTtb- fearing lest it shoold happen to 

iHssx (conj.), him. 



The dependent verb is put in the indicative, when 
the principal verb implies affirmation, knowledge, or 
certainty of action ; as, 

vi nico, c^' ^ i mdrlo, I tell yoa, that he ii dead ; 

80 cV ^ k cost, I know that it is 00 ; 

6gti STA hinty s6lvo che gU he is well, except that he hat 

DU61.E U e6po, the headache. 



GOVERNMENT OF WORDS. 



437 



The dependent v6rb is put in the conjunctive^ when 
the principal verb implies will, desire, entreaty, com- 
mand, hope, fear, pleasure, displeasure, permission, pro- 
hibition, negation, shame, blame, adulation, wonder, 
surprise, supposition, conjecture, judgment, belief, ques- 
tion, doubt, ignorance, uncertainty, or future action ; 
as, 



I wish that thou shouldst know ; 
I desire that it should be put 
in execution ; 

she begged bim to come ; 

he ordered one of his domes- 
tics to bring him into his 
house; 

dost thou hope [or believe] 
that Nicostratus would ob- 
serve loyalty ? 

I fear Uiat excessive grief 
will destroy the heart; 

it displeased them, that the 
Perugians should have brok- 
en the league ; 

let us suppose that Jupiter be 
the soul of this world ; 

that which the soul judges to 
be well done ; 

I believe that he loved me ; 

he asked, what that was ; 
I know not what to think, or 
what to sa J. 

The verb is put in the conjunctive, when it is depend- 
cn< upon a unipersonal verb, such as sembrare, ' to seem '; 
parere, * to appear ' ; mostrhre, * to show ' ; bisognare, 
* must ' or * to be obliged ' ; &c. ; as, 

m s^MBRATA, ch^ Avifsx it appeared to me as if he had 
v6gUa di ridirt, a wish to laugh ; 



io v6' che sippi, 
DEsiDERO che SAA p6sto in 

tatcuzidne, 
FREoivA che ne vEivissE, 

coifAifi>6 ad un di^ audi 
famiglidri che ndla siia 

Cd$a il MENiSSE, ^ 

sp^Ri hi che Nicdstrato an- 
DAssB la lecUii^ ritrovdn- 
dof 

TiMO [che] U savirchio af- 
f&nno non distri^goa il 
cor, 

oispiAC<^UE l6ro, che t PerU' 
gini Av^ssERo r6Ua la 

supp6ngasi c?ie JiippUer siA 
dninio di quisto mSndo, 

quUlo che V dnimo oit^niCA 
che si A. ben /alto, 

ci£do [che] mi portAsse 
amSre, 

DOMANDivA, chc Clb f6S8E, 

non so che mine piNsr, o che 
mi DicA, 



4aB SYNTAX* 

ff PAR che tu siA m6rtOy it seems as if thoa wert 

dead; 

m6stra che. Roma si reg- it shows that Rome was under 
e£ssf: a signoria di rt^ the government of kings ; 

BisoGK^vA cht PARTissE it WES necessary that he shoold 
r indom6niy set out the next morning. 

The dependent verb is put in the conjunctive^ wheo 
preceded by a comparative or a superlative ; as, 

coHH Ju dal pddre tAnto this young woman was as dear 

AM At A, quIrrTO alcima to her father, as any other 

JiscHuSia da pddre rdsam child ever was to a parent ; 

giammaij ^ 

bra iL viik sivio ed tl piik he was the wisest and the 

AvvEDt^To %i6mOj che al most prudent man that there 

m&ndo f6ssx, ever was in the world. 

The dependent verb is likewise put in the conjunctive 
when It is preceded by the relative pronouns, cAt, * who*; 
and quale, * which,' * what ' ; as, 

quivi non hra chi U smarriU there was no one there who 
fine RivocAssE, could restore to her her lost 

spirits ; 
dicindoli qcALS voi^se, asking him which he would 

prefer. 

The verb is also put in the conjunctive after the 
conjunction «e, *if';* the ad^verb quando, used in the 
signi6cation of * if,' ' provided ' ; and the adverbs ove, 
ddve, both in the signi6cation of * if,' * when,' ' in case 
that,' and in tlieir proper signification of * where ' ; 
as, 

SE d* isser mentovdto laggHi if thou dost not disdain to 1m 
i>^G^i, mentioned there below ; 



• liMUneea are, MrerthelM*, to be Jbodd, in wfaieli Ura mtI h pot ia Um inHMtiwi 

Jfb* »o,»w av6i fmiUo m m pavrA, I do not know, whother it wiU Moa 
•*• « M* iM PAEUMB. (BoocUlr.) to yoo, M ii wooU M«n to BO. 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDa 



429 



io vSgUo p6rrt fine iUe iiit I wish to put an end to dij 
angdaee quiNDo tv v6tiLi, suffering, if [or provided] 

thou wishest it; 

6ts eoH non f6ssk, if [or when] it will not prove 

so; 

d6vx iu non v6eLi cosi fart^ if [or when, or in case that] 

thou dost not wish to do so ; 

vSmmene in f^isa d* 6rho, I move along like a blind man, 
ehe non sa 6ve si yXda, who does not know whither 

he goes ; 

io non so i>6vE io tnifdgga^ I know not whither I should 

fly. 

[For • List tf Vmh9 govoraing a iwim or uiotbtr vtt^^ •itber in the tf fl /gutto t, or in 
any vOitr r«(a<Mii, frtotdad by a fr^fomtUm^ M« AprainuK K. J 



■ XAHPXiE 8. 



htgrdto ^ ehiU heneftdo hAqa 

D* AY^R RICEVt^TO. (Am. Aot., 

d. 17. r. 2.) 

"DoBBikno parlando iHPAiiiRS 
A TACERS. (Am. Ant. d. 7. r. 8.) 

So io BiKE, CHE stanStte Aoli 
us port6 l* iiiiMA mIa. (Bocc. 
g. 4. n. 2.) 

io mi cRino, che le suore 
8i£ir tutte A dormIre. (Bocc. 
g. 8. n. 1.) 

ro GRino, ±QU 8r n' ahd6 
disperdto, (Bocc. g. 3. n. 7.) 

TbmAkDO, non OLI AyVEN18SE 

quillOf che gU avtinne, (Bocc. 
g. 5. D. 6.) 

Vl dCcO, CH' ]£gLI i MORTO. 

(Bocc.) 

So CH* foLi i cosl, ma non 
ne eomprendo la ragidne. (Class.) 

^OLI 8TA b£nE, salvo CHE GLI 

DOOLE iL cIpo. (Baurb. Gr. Gr.) 



He is uograteful, who denies to 
have received t benefit. 



We must, in speaking, learn how 
to keep silent. 

I know well, that last night he 
carried away my soul. 

I believe that the nuns are all 
gone to sleep. 

I believe, he went away in de- 
spair. 

Feariog, lest it should happen 
to him, what in fact happeneKl to 
him. 

I tell yon, that he is dead. 



I know it is so, but do not 
understand the reason. 

He is well, except that he has 
the headache. 



430 



SYNTAX 



SennueeiOj fo t6* che sAppi 
m qudl maniira — TraUdto s6no. 
(Pclr. •. 89.) 

Pereid desIdero che sIa p6- 
8T0 19 ESECUZIOKE. (Cas. lett. 

Jl chiamdva^ e pregXta che 
BE yebI ssE. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 5.) 

Comand6 ao uir v£* suoi fa- 

MIOLIARI CUE iri^LLA 815a ciSA 

iL merAsse, e gli fachit dear da 
mangidre, per Dto, (Bocc. g. 2. 

SpAri tu, che Nicostrato ah- 

DisSE LA LEALtI RITROtIiIDO, 

eke tu $ervdr vu6i alui? (Bocc. 
g.7.D.9.) 

CA* io t£mo, lasio ! vo 'l so- 

y^RCHIO AFFAHNO — DlSTRt^OOA 

IL COR. (Petr. 8. 84.) 
DispUcquE LORO grandtmSnUf 

OBE I PERUoijri ROTTA At£sSERO 
LALiGA. (GrtO. Vill.) 

SuppoRGASi perdt che Ji^ppx- 
TSR 8iA, a m6do iSrOf Irimo di 
QuisTO m6rdo. (St Aug. Cit. 
Dio.) 

Cke tu fieci, qu£llo che 

L' IrIMO ti GII^DICA CHE BEE 

sIa fjLtto. (Bocc. g. 1. Q. 6.) 

Cr^do mi portjLsse am6re, 
e che di me non fosse m6no ar- 
dente, (Ariost) 

DomARdAvA, CHE CIO FOSSE. 

(Bocc. g. 7. n. 4.) 

Nor so che m£re p£rsi, o che 
HI DfcA. (Petr.) 

Mi 8EMBRATA,CHE AT^SSE v6- 
GLIA DI RIDERE. (Bocc.) 

jfe' PAR CHE TU Sf A MORTO, che 

a sinti tu 7 (Bocc. g. 9. d. 3 ) 



SeDDacctOy I wish that Aoa 
shouldst know in what muioer I 
am treated. 

Therefore I desire that it sboidd 
be put in execution. 

She caJkd him, and begged him 
to come. 

He ordered one of his domes- 
tics to bring him into his house, 
and cause somethinj)^ to eat to be 
given to bim| for God^s sake. 

DoJtt thou belieye, that Nkos- 
ti^tns will ohserye the loyahy to- 
wards thee, that thou dost towatdf 
him ? 

So that I fear, alas !. that ex- 
cessive grief will destroy the heart. 

It displeased them excee<fingly, 
that the Perugians should have 
broken the league. 

But let us suppose, that Jupiter, 
as they will have it, be the soul 
of this world. 



That thou shouldst do, what 
thy soul judges to be well done. 

I believe that he loved me, and 
that he was no less ardent in love 
than I. 

He asked, what that was. 

I do not know what to think, or 
what to say of it 

It appeared to me, as if he had a 
wbh to laugh. 

It seems as if tbon wert dead, 
wbat ails thee .' 



GOVERNMENT Of WORDS. 



m 



E eoaH mostra che R6ma si 

KXOOisSB A SIOKORfA DI RE Cifi" 

to einquantaqudltro dnni. (Gio. 
VilL129.) 

E eke bisognJLta chk part! ssb 

Is* IHOOHANf. (BOCC.) 

Cosrii Fu DAL pIdre tIkto 
teneramdnte Au ATA, nvknTO al- 

Ct^KA dllra FIGLIUOLA DA PA- 
DRE rossE GiAHMAi. (Bocc. g. 4. 
n. 1.) 

JEgfi iRA IL PIU sAtIO ED IL 
PIJ^ AVTEDt^TO UOMO CUE AL m6n- 

DO rossE. (Bocc. g. ]0. n. 10.) 

Quf Ti HON iRA CHI cou dcquo 
fr6dda o eon dltro argomtnto 

I.E SMARRItE f6rZE RIVOCA88E. 

(Bocc. g. 2. n. 6.) 

DiciNDOLI QUALE VOLisSE, O 

suhito restituire il iuo pSreo^ o che 
6sli anJasse al retlore. (Franc. 
Sapch. 146.) 

Grazie riporterd di te a ISif — 

Sk d' isSER HERTOvAtO LAGGui 

D^GNi. (Dant. Purg. 1.) 

fo vdoLIO AlLE Tt^B ANG^SCEi 

qvjLndo TV meditimo yogli, 

PORRE pfNE. (Bocc.) 

6vE cosi NoN jt'dssKf io mt n- 
marrd giudSo com* io mi s6no. 
(Bocc. g. 1. n. 2.) 

E T)6VT. TU KOIC y^GLl COSl 

FARE, raceomdnda a Dio V dni- 
ma tua. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 4.) 

V6mmene ur guIsa d' 6rbo 
gdnza luce, — Che how ba 6vz 
si vkoAfC pur si pdrte, (Petr. 
•. 16.) 

£ecoli iuUi fuSri ; fo hon so 
p6ve io m Fi^GQA, d6itt io mi 
fuue&nda. (Mach. Com.) 



And thus it shows, that Rome 
was under the government of kings 
one hundred and fifty-four years. 

And that it was necessary that 
he should set out the next day. 

This young woman was as ten- 
derly loved by her father, as any 
other child ever was by a parent 



He was the wisest *and most 
prudent man that ever there was 
in the woild. 

There was no one there who 
could either with cold water or 
by any other means, restore to her 
her lost spirits. 

Asking him which he would 
prefer, either that he should return 
him immediately his hog, or that 
he should go to the rector. 

I will return thanks to her for 
thy favor, if thou dost not disdain 
to be mentioned there below. 

I wish to put an end to thy 
troubles, if thou thyself wishest 
it. 

If it will not prove so, I will 
remain a Jew as 1 am. 



And if thou dost not wish io 
do so, recommend thy soul to 
God. 

1 move along like a blind man, 
deprived of light, who does not 
know where he goes, and yet he 
departs. 

Here they are all out ; i know 
not whither 1 should fly, where I 
should conceal myself. 



438 SYNTAX. 



ftXttiKRH or prnKvosiToaj. 

The regimen or complement o( prepositions is geo- 
erally a noun, a pronoun^ or a verb, either id the obfeo- 
tivej or in any other relation^ except the 9vbjectioe^ 
preceded by another preposition \ as, 



io n<n% d&oa l6eo per lo iiio 
coEPO at tn^passdr di^ r^ 
«». 

wclgiansi cIrca m6i le <^ 
ghirtdnde^ 

ttft gt&mO, DI^TRO XANeii- 

RE^laggiu ven<done^ 
cowdncio a f%6gntrt t6pRA 

4»«ii» PRisso ▲ Salerno I 
itna cdsta, 

lontAivo da 6eKi u6mo, 



I ^ve no way for the raj« to 
pass through my body ; 

the two garlands [of un&d- 
ing roses] wreathed abost 
us; 

one day having come theov be- 
low, after dinner ; 

he began to moam over her ; 

Tery near Salerno there fies 
a coast; 

&r from every man. 



[for t List rf Pr^mkimu forerntof tka ii / t cti pt or aay tdktr rtjwtim |iMiJi^ 
hf m fr^9mti$n, Me ArraiiBiz I*] 



sxamplks. 



Qudndo $* atcortir cV io von 
dXta l6co — Prr lo hIo corpo 

AX TRAPASsIr Di' RioGI. (DtOt 

Purg. 5.) 

Cu$i di quille sempitimc r6se 
— VolqejLrsi circa h6i li p^s 
ohirlIsdr. (Dtot.^Parad. 12.) 

Uw OlORNO, DliTRO HAKOIJLrR, 

LAoatu Txm^TONK, in un ednto 
iSpra un cariUo si p6se a tedire. 
(Bocc g. 4. D. 1.) 

CoMUfCI^ A PlAoiTRRX 86PRA 

Bi Li I, non altranUnU che $e 
m6rtafi$$e, (Bocc. g: 8. n. 7.) 



When th«y perceived, that 
through my body I gave no way 
for the rays to pasf. 

Thus about us wreathed the 
two garlands of unfading roses. 

One day having come there be- 
low, after dinner, he seated hintself 
in a comer upon a cushion. 

He began to mourn over her, 
not otherwise than if she had been 
dead. 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 



433 



Assii psisfo A Sal£rho i Very near Salerno there lies a 

i5if A c<SsTA U mdre riguarddntet coast looking upon the sen, which 

la qudle gK abitdnli enidmano la the inhabitants call the coast of 

eSsta di Mdffi. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 4.) Amalfi. 

Da una pdrte dilla idla, assdi In one comer of the hall, very 

roiiTANODAooNi u6ifo,co//a<^- far from every man, he sat down 

na »ip6$e a aedire. (Bocc. g. 5. with the lady. 
n. 6.) 



REOIMSIT OF CONJUNCTIONS. 



There are some conjunctions ^ in Italian, which have 
a verb for their regimen, which they require to be put 
either in the indicative, or the conjunctive mood. 

The following are those, which require the verb to 
be put in the conjunctive mood : 



Acciocchi, 

€fffinchi^ 

abhtnchly 

oncorche, 

awtgnacki, 

betuM^y 

eonuM, 

contuitocfUj 

quantunque, 

ithb^ne, 

tuUochb, 

avanti che, 

anzi chCf 

inndnzi che, 

prima che, 

a mino the, 

a condin6ne 

che, 
con pdtlo chCf 
pwrthhy 
e6me8e, 



I' 



in order that ; 



though, 
although ; 



^ before, 

' sooner than ; 

except, unless ; 

on condition, 
[ provided that ; 

as if; 



comunquty 

concioaiach^ 

cdso che, 

in cdso chty 

ddio ch€y > w . 

8upp6sto che, \ grant that ; 

finckly 



however ; 
whereas, since ; 

in case that ; 

I suppose, 



finidniochly 
injino che, 
insino cAe, 
sinchiy 

nonostdntechey 
per Uma che, 

qtuUdra, 

quan(P dnche^ 
sty 

shiza chty 
sdlo chty 



tiU, until ; 



notwithstanding 

that ; 
for fear that, 
lest; 
if, when, 
whenever ; 
even when ; 
if; 

without ; 
only that* 



^ Tb« following lof Uncof aro, oovorUioloM, mot wiUi ia tbo olMtles, in whieh 

37 



434 



SYNTAX. 



To which may be added the conjunction ptrehi^ used 
in the signification of *• although/ and < in order that ' : 
also the conjunctions che^ ' that ' ; ^e, ^ if ; qvando, in 
the signification of ^ if/ ' in case that,' ' provided ' ; and 
the adverbs 6ve, dSve, both in their own signification and 
that of the conjunctions * if,' * when,' * provided ' ; as 
has been already hientioned at p. 428, in treating of the 
regimen of verbs. 



Se requires the yerb in the eonjunctioef when it expresses something 
contingent or doubtful: but wben it expresses t nare, natural, or 
expected eircum$tctnee, or wheo the action of the verb is entirely jMsf , 
the verb is put in the in^catioe \ as, 



81 tu ti CALi io non H verrd 
diitro di galSppOf 

€^nU sx io p6s80 adoptr&re 

aleuna cSsa, 
n6i gliilo farem fdre^ ix tu 

TOBRAI, 

s' io MERiTii di v6i nUntre 
eh' io vust, non vi movite, 

ss eli 6cehi su^ ti rjiRdSki 

fZ edri, 
9* io oiisi fdUOf e tu falsJLsti 

ti ednio. 



if thou do cast thee down, I can- 
not chase thee on foot ; 

tell me whether I can do any 
thing for thee ; 

we will make her do it, if thoo 
wishest it ; 

if, Hring, I merited aught of ywi, 
move ye not ; 

if her eyes were dear and sweet to 
thee; 

if I spoke false, thou falsely efarap- 
edst the coin. 



th« •oajaoetioni amegnaeki, hmehif otmtehi, amtuUockij nbUne, Mn OMd vhk a 
vtrk in the indicative mood : 



ArrmQUXcnh q^d di nikno s'ra ah- 
da'to a lavor^TM, (Boce. g. 8. n. 7.) 

Bbkcb* a me n*n fa^btb «dt dU v6i 
giMiufdtU, (Bocc g. 9. D. 10.) 

Lc 911^ U gidvane ffc^mmhUe iais, 
COM BOHi 4Ua non ee %e acc6sob. fer 
quitilo ek' i» vdfgm. (Booe. g. SL n. 6.) 

8i rie^miMub U ptirra edntr* gU Jtre- 
filU, COIfTCTTOCHd lul Mgrito biha'- 
•BBO gU JbretkiU kn traUdU d* aeedrdo 
ci'MifrmAnL (Gio. ViU. 1. 11. o. 56.) 

Pereki tsBBs'ifB t gUvami P AOMs'if- 
TAHO, ^ lun tdnnQ A p&i matUnirU. 
(60IL) 



8iiic«, that day, no one kad fOtta to 

work. 

Although I ncTar thought jmi ware a 
jndge. 

Whom the yoaog aian ardeotlj lovea, 
aHboogh she doee not peroeiva it, for 
what I fee. 

They renewed the war aguatt tka 
Aretines, althongh in secret tM Arstiaee 
reraeined on terms af peace wkk tiM 
Floreotioee. 

For, althongh yoong men anlarga tkaaa 
(the cities), they know not bow to gor- 
ern tkam afterwards. 



GOVERNMENT OF WORDS. 



435 



■ XAHPLKS. 



AccioccHi piU avdnti non 
fotA 88 B il prince ver^e. ( Bocc. 
g. 2. n. 7.) 

PeroeM Atn6r V avia ffiaferi- 

iOf ABBXMCHi le PARBSSK 6S' 

ter tradita. (Boqc. Ninf. Fies.) 

Aless&ndrOy AifcoRCHi gran 
paura AvissE, tUUe pur chHo, 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 1.) 

^\uno dUrOfper quANTt^^KQUK 
▲tAsse afi;{Uo T av9eiUm6ntOf 
pctribbe eki io mifign C9n6icere» 
(Bocc. Fiam.) 

TiTTTOcHi questa ginte ma- 
ladetta in vera perfezidn giam' 
mdi non vAda. (Dant. Inf. 6.) 

To non ti coneederd quSUo the 
iigtUtOj perehif DiTocHi n6i ee 
K DiAMO, non percid resHdmo 
debU6ri. (Varch. Sen. beo. 6. 9.) 

BicOf ehe coHt^NQUx $i six, 
igli ha tdnte dre la ndtte qudnU 
Ud\, (Ser. Brun. Tei. 2. 44.) 

La medicina da guarirlo so io 
ir6ppo bine fare, TVKcnk a v6i 
Df A il cu6re di $egreto ttnire cid 
ehe Io vi ragionerd. (Bocc. g. 3. 
n.8.) 

NoivostAnte che f68te pregd- 
io da iulti i eittadini^ ehe gli do- 
vSiie perdondre. (Zibald. Andr. 
3.3.) 

Or v6* ehe tdppif ivitiBZi che 
piii AUDI, — Ch* ii non peeedro. 
(Dant. Inf. 4.) 

Seguird V 6mbra di qiUl d6lce 
Iduro, — FiiroHi V ultimo d\ 
OBidoA quest* 6cehi, (Petr. c. 7.) 

Ch* io spiro — FdmU immor^ 
i6lt PEBCHi la edrns muoia. 
(Pelr. c. 18.) 



In order that the prince should 
not approach any further. 

Because Love had already 
wounded her, although she thought 
she was betrayed. 

Alexander, although he had 
great fear, remained quiet. 

No one else, however acute 
perception he may have, could 
know who I am. 

Though this accursed race never 
can reach true perfection. 



I will not grant thee what fol* 
lows, because, suppose we should 
give them to them, we shall re- 
main no less debtors. 

I say, that however it may be, 
there are as many hours in the 
day as in the night. 

The medicine to cure him, I 
know well how to apply, provided 
you have a mind to keep secret 
what I shall tell^ou. 

Notwithstanding he was besged 
by all the citizens to pardon him. 



Now I wish thou mvyst know, 
before thou passest any farther, that 
these did not sin. 

I will follow (he shade of that 
sweet laurel, until death dose 
these eyes. 

So that I hope to make mytelf 
immortal, thoogfa the body die. 



436 



SYNTAX. 



Lm *ncomimeid c hdittrt pkr- 
Cuk 7 PAl BASSE. (Bocc. g. 9. 
n.9.) 

Ss TV Tl cIlI, Io IfOH TI VER- 

m6 DiiTBo Di oal6ppo. (Dtot. 
Inf. 22.) 

C<ieeta via fa pawra, e Dfmrx 

SE fo POSSO ADOPERiRE ALCd- 

MA c6sA. (Bocc. g. 2. D. 8.) 

Noi OLI^LO FAR^H fJLrE, O 

vSglU iUa o no, se tu yorrIi. 
(Bocc g. 9. n. 5.) 

O Viii ehe tUte due ddtUro md 
unfii6co,^ S' fo heritIi di y6i 
mAntre ch* fo vfssi, — 8' fo 
meritAi di ^61 iuidi p^o^^ — 
QuSaido rul tndndo gK alti virti 
icrUn, — NoNYiMoy^TB. (Dant. 
Inf. 26.) 

Ji^nxi la v6cc al $uo nSme 
rUekiM, — Se gli 6ccbi su6i ti 
FVR d6lci ni cari. (Petr. s. 40.) 

S' fo DfsSI FALftO, K TU FAL- 

SASTi iL c6nio, — Di$$€ Sin6ne» 
(Dtnt Inf. SO.) 



He begin to beat ber in ordtr 
to cure ber. 

If tbou do caft tbee down (faito 
tbe pitcb) I cannot cbase thee 00 
foot 

Drive away fear, and tell me 
wbetber I can do any thing fiw 

tbee. 

We will make ber do it, whether 
she is willing or not, if (boa wirii- 
eat it 

O ye, who dwell two spiritB 
within one fire, if living I merited 
aught of you, whatever may have 
been tbe measure of that desert, 
when in tbe world I wrote my 
lofty verses, move ye not 

Nay let thy voice celebrate bar 
name, if her eyes were ever dear 
and sweet to thee. 

If I spoke false, then falsely 
stampedst tbe coin, said Sinoo. 



EXERCISE XXIX. 



A ffood man, desthate of money, and of poor miad. 
oti6n ti6mo, p6vero moniitty ' ttriUo^ i ' 



Deprived of every virtue, and full of every pride. 
Voto valdff jnhio orgdgho. 



Of ancient blood, and 
• Anthco^ sdngue,* * 



(o/) 



noble 
nSbile* 



manners. 
eoatume. 



Marauia'' of Monferrato was a man of 
Marchif u6mo 



great 



The 
valor. 



With some ffood wine, and some preserves she re- 
aiqudnto ni6n vit%o, alqtUmio conftito — ricom- 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 437 

cruited bim. (The) pride is ha(^d by (is odious 

fertdr^^ * $tg94Tbia — — — odidso 

to) God and bj — ^ (to) (ike) men. Tbey foment tbat 
Dio — u6mo, — Fomenldre 

I bad disposition I of thein, inclined to (ike) ^vil. 
I genidecio \ — , inclindre mtUe. 

Ready to do virtuously I to I others that, which she 
PrdfUo^ • operdre'' wrtudsti^ \ in*\ » ', 8 _ 

wonld (ikat) should be done I to I her. In exchange 
twWre" « isiere^* operdre^^ \ tn» | »<>. edmbio 

for that, which I received. She left at liberty 
, rieivere, — eoneidere^ '® libertifi 

evenr-one until (to) the hour of (the) supper. This 

youDff-woman is neither from Cremona, nor from Pavia, 
giaotme * non^ , , 

nay she is from Faenza — ^ (a Faentine). He wished, 
— — — FaerUino, — VoUre, 

that I should see all the holy relics. Show me 
vedire ednto reliquia. Moitrdre,^ 

the way, that goes to Rome. I myself know not, 
eammkw, anddre R6ma. nudesimo taping \ 

what (that which) I wish (far myself), I know 

— 3 4 1 ^i^f^i «. •. $ap6r^ 

not, who thou mayst be, nor by what means thou hast 
>, , mddo — dseer^ 

come here-below. I Beiuff much pleased I with the 
venke^ . 1 PiaUndogK mSUo \ ~ 

manners of the bojr, he asked who he was. 
mddo fanctuUo, — domanddre 

He be^an pleasantly to speak, and to ask who 

— Commeidre piaeSvole ragiondre^ — domanddre 

he was, whence he came, and where he was-ffoing* 

— , — penke, — anddre. 

He was disposed to ffo wherever it was (to) her 
di$p6$to aiM&re — 3 i t 

37» 



438 SYNTAX. 

I i^eMore 1 to go. As I armed | on the oCber aide, \ 
I a grdda* \ — — . giungtre | di U, \ 

there was one who seemed lo know (that he 

parire — — — 

knew) all ((he) mj sins | bj heart |. Do thou 
«ap^«* 1 * * peeedto* | a wUnte | . ~ * 

sUy (th!jf»tif)y whom I by I the fashion c^ thy nrb 
SoBtan^^ ^ I « I — -. 4kib$ 

we deem to be — » (seemest to-os to be) some native 
— — BttHbrdr^ » — — 

(some one) of oar evil land. If I had this 

pr&otfi Urra}, — 

money,* I would lend it* to thee immediately. Who 
den6rOf pre$t&rt^ ' ' incontaniiUe, 

would fare better than I, if that mon^yf were mine? 
stare , Aendro 7 

Whenever you wish, I will take you a great part 
— voUrCf porUr^ * — grdn firU 

of the way I on horse-back I . He might govern sucli 
via I a eavdUo \ . — r6ggere^ fuitf* 

a part (f^ ii) as he should wish. He asked of the 
' pdrte^ * — — volere*. — Domand&re — 

host where he could sleev. (The) virtue will not 
6ste i$so poUre dormnre. wik 

be conquered by (the) misery. Many • novds 

Ss$ere tineere misinM. na9iUm 

I come into my mind I I to be i related by me. 

Ood feeds the angels and (the) his servants 1 with I 
IdiUo pdicere dngtlo * $irvo^ \ di \ 

love and I (unth) I eternal jov. Let there be this 
amdre \ di \ 9empiUrfM^ gamdio^, — • * 

law in (the) friendship, that I of I (the) friends we 
ligg^ a 4 amuAzicfi, ^ | do* | • mmkc^ — 



t That mmtfff in Xh9 pbtnU, 



GOVERNMENT OP WORDS. 439 

should ask but an honest thing. Deliberate all (the) thy 

things with (the) thy friend, but always before (of) him. 
edeer 4 » — amico^, — 

I A I friend who is a time-server (according to 
L* I anAeo — — — — 

the time) will not be constant in the day of (the) 
thnpo stare fhmo d\ 

tribulations. I refrained (mysdf) I from I speaking 
tribolazidne. — trdrrtfi ^ | di* | parldv' 

until we reacihed (to) the river. The flatterer is 
* — • • fiume*, adulat6re 

I (even) I like that voice, which replies 1 from I the 
dneo I v6ce, riepdndere | d6po \ 

mountains and the walls to him-who cries-out In 
m6nte muro griddre. 

order that the world should know her and love her. 
m&ndo eondicer^ " amdre — . 

Aldiough positively it displeases her. And what dif- 
stritlo — dispiacire^ ». d^f- 

ference there is between these and the other visions, 
ferinza — avire vUidne, 

since the learned men speak of it, I will not write 
dottdre parldre^ *, — — ' scrivere^ 

it here. In order to prevent, I say, in case that 
* . salvdrCf — dire, 

we I should do I otherwise, that this I should be I the 
— I fachido* I altratn6nte\ — — | fira^ \ — 

cause of blame and ipfnominy to us. Whereupon he 

— — bideimc^ * tgnominicfi — — . 

said to me : ^ Although thou rendest away all my 

— ; " diichiomdr^ mi* 

hair, I will neither tell (thee), nor show (U to) 

— — » rflie* * , » mostrdre'^^ "^ — 

thee, who I am." 

IS • 7 8 »» 



44(r SYNTAX. 

CHAPTER IV. 

USE OP ARTICLES. 

Articles are used, in Italiao, before all commoD Doaas 
•mployed in a detenninate sense. 

Courts may be employed in a determinate sense in 
three different ways : 

First, when, in naming an object, we intend to desig- 
nate the whole species or kindj to which that object 
belongs ; as, gli udmif i, * [the] men ' ; the noun u6mimi 
being taken in the whole extent of its signification, the 
article rK shows that all the individuals composing the 
human Kind are here spoken of. 

Secondly, when we intend to designate a doss cf ofr- 
jt^s of any kind 5 as, ^i u6if ini mWu^', * [the] virtuous 
men ' ; here the noun u^mtnt, expresses only a certain 
number of men, its signification being restricted by the 
adjective virtudsi. 

Thirdly, when we intend to designate one particular 
object of a kind or of a class ; as, T uomo di c&i vi 
parloj ^ the man of whom I speak to you ' ; the noon 
u6mo being taken, in this case, individually, and the 
article used to express the man spoken of : 

oLi u6Miiri s6no diiAA rtmr men are the bead of women ; 
MI29X e6po^ 

6L1 udiinri di quUia tirra the people of thifl land will rase 

si Uverdnno a rotnSre^ in an uproar ; 

se l' v6u [con ctU to pdili] if the man [witk wham Ikou 

H ficda liihtra'mknit cid^ sptakest] will do for thee 

ehe H tifo dir prigOy ane&r freely, what tboa antreatestt 



ti pUkeia di mmcy do thoa fbrther be {leased 

to declare to oa. 



USE OP ARTICLES. 



441 



When the noun is sufficiently determined by the 
nature of the thing, or by the circumstances of the case, 
the article is generally suppressed^; as, 

cost cavjLli.1, u<Smini fur 

vittime, 
quivi sospIri, 



piiifTi, ed 
liiTi Guii risondvan, 

s6nI, cAlfTI, TESTiR, Giu6- 

CHi, vivjLnde, qudrdoptid 
cu6r pensdvy pud chiider 
hdcca, 



thus horses and men were vic- 
tims; 

there sighs, lamentations, and 
loud moans resounded ; 

music, singing, dresses, games, 
viands, all that the heart can 
think of, and all that the pal- 
ate can desire. , 



The article is also suppressed when the noun is used 
as a mere sign of qualification of the objects expressed. 
This is generally the case, 

First, when the noun is preceded by the verb issercj 



to be ^ ; as, 

i^RANO U^MINI e F]£KHINB 

di grdsso ingigno^ 
<tf, che 8±* u6mo, dovrlsH so- 
ptre dHU c6se del mdndo. 



they were men and women of 
dull understanding ; 

thou, who art a man, oueht to 
be acquainted with the af- 
fairs of the world. 

Secondly, when the noun is preceded by one of the 
prepositions, £r, Jt, da, con, in, pef, senza ; as. 



usdrono fu6cki di soMrra, 
che si apprhero a cImpi, 
viLLK, c AS jLli, 

n nutrisce di pane e d' jLc- 
quA, 

mdrsi da pt^Lcr, da m6sche, 

DA TAPAlir, 

coir b£' MdTTf, e coic ri- 

8p65TB pronte, 
vinne ereschido iic Xwjfi, in 

PER8^?rA, e.d IN BBLLfZZA, 

per PAtJRA cT altrUi, e per 
servdre la mia/dma, 



there issued flames from under 
the earth, which set fields, 
villas, and hamlets on fire ; 

he feeds on bread and water ; 

bitten by fleas, by flies, or 
gadflies ; 

with witty sayings, and prompt 
replies ; 

grew up in years, in stature, 

and in beauty ; 
for fear of other people, and 

also to preserve my lame ; 



449 



SYNTAX. 



coH pensero di ftrtj tivxA I shall dQ b<s witfaoat fail. 
faLlo, 

Thirdly, in comparisons of tqnaliiy^ when the noon is 
preceded by the adrerb come^ ^ as,' ^ like ' ; as, 



not! c^ME udMiRi, ma ^tuiit 
c6he b£sti£ morivanOf 

pariva chc ruggisse c6mk 
LE6:f E, e ieZi^se c6me pi- 
CORA, e ragghidsse c6mr 
Asiffo, 



thev died not like men, but 

almost like beasts ; 
he appeared to roar like a lion, 

to bleat like a sheep, and to 

bray like an ass. 



When a noun is ennployed in an indeterminate sense 
the article is never used ; as, 



qvdl che tu sii, od ^mbra oef 
u6mo CiRTO, 

non u6h, u6mo giiifbh 
pdrmi vtdire d6n!te < doit* 

ZiLLE, e sMlO ABiTI C 



whatever thou art, whether a 
shadow or a living man ; 

DOW I am not a man, man I was 
formerly ; 

I seem to see ladies and dam- 
sels, and they are firs and 
beeches. 



The article is also never used when a noun is preceded 
by a demonstrative or indefinite pronoun ; as, 

this little boy began to be fa- 
miliar ; 

how do you say those words ? 



QUiSTO GARZONCiLLO «' tn- 

CQtnincid a dinusticdre, 

c6me dUe v6i cot^ste pa- 
r6le? 

pariva qu&La eoTJlLB irfer- 
mitA trasportdrtf 

con 60NI SOlLECITdniNE, 

con 6gni ing^gjvo, e con 
6gni Arte si proccdcciano 
di riducere a nidla la Cri- 
sOdna religidnCi 



it appeared to communicate 
that same sickness ; 

they strive with all their zeal, 
and their power, and their 
skill, to overthrow the Chris- 
tian religion. 



USE OF ARTICLES. 448 



sxcipnoK. 

When a noun is preceded by the indefinite pronoun tutiOf the article 
if H$ed afttr the pronoun ; as, 

tOtti I piKsiiRi, Ti^TTO LO all the thoughts, all the attentions, 
STt^DiOy e Ti^TTE LE OPERI, and all the actions. 

The article, however, is omitted when tdtto is used as a mere 9ign 
ofqiudifieation; as, 

n^ sidm tiSttx FiMMiNE, we are all women ; 

tinne il p6nte edntra t6tta. kept possession of the bridge 
TosciwA, against aU Tuscany. 



When sereral nouns come together before or lifter 
the verb, and the article is used or omitted before the 
first of them, this article is to be repeated or omitted 
before every other noun in the sentence ; * as, 

Jj&cio iSlffa vinse la tirtiI, Loci as Sylla sinrpassed Caius 
e I TRidif Fi, e I siTTE Marias in courage and in.the 
consolJLti di Cdio M&rioy number of his triamphs and 

consulships ; 

nh TEccHiizzA, nl infer- neither age, nor sickness, nor 

mitX, n^ PAi^RA di mdrte^ the fear of death, could deter 

ddlla sita malvagitd V hdn- him from his wicked course. 
no poMo rimudvere, 

* Ezanptoi ar« found in th« olaniea, DtrarthoItM, in which thif mle is not 
i%oroQiljobMrT«d; as, 

Aii^nx, e L* iBji id rt. (Boee. g. 5. Tho Ioto and ang*r of tho king, 
n. 6.) 

Crep&la ptr lo lu'itoo « per TBXTs'a- Broken long thwiie and brsadthwiso. 
so. (Dini; Pur. 9.) 

^ru r6LTi B^oHi, $ lb nioioB A'lpi, In the thiok woods, and aiaon| the 
« disb'btb tPBi^ncHB. (Boco. g. 3. nigged Alps, and in lonely cares, 
n. 10.) 

In the following examples : 

Soprmwiniuro i coi«r6aTi id orrs'a- There arrived the enconrsgements and 

TB m' P'eneiidni. (Gnicc Stor. lul.) the offers of the Venitians. 

Se, MX. ndMB tu'o « riputaxio'i«b dti Whether, with his name and the rep- 

pAdref ritorndre nigU. it&d audi di P$- otation of his (kther, he ooold not return 

riAgiapvUva, (liach. Stor. Fior.) to his own esUtes at Perugiat 

tlM omission of U before p/fftru^ and of la or cdvut before rijptitasttf as, are raanffest 
mrron of grammatical ceneerdoiics. 



444 



SYNTAX, 



BXAMPLIt. 



Gli u6vivi B6no d£llb win- 
MINE cipo, e Unxa V orditie l6ro 
r6dc v6lte riisee alcuna nSatra 
6pera a laudivol fine. (Bocc. 
Intr.) 

Gli uomini di qu^sta t£rra, 
pedindo eid^si LKTKainifo a ru- 
mcSeb. (Bocc.) 

8b l* v6m ti fAccia — Libb- 

RAM^HTE Cl^, CHE 'L Tt^O DIB 

FR^GA, — Spirito ^ncareerdtOf ah- 

C<SbTI PlicCIA — Dl DIRNEC^IIM 

r 6nima si Uea — In quisti nSc- 
chL (DiDt. hif. 13.) 

Cosl CAVALLI, u6h1KI FUE 

▼fTTiME. (Day. Ann.) 

Qolvi SOSPIRI, PlAllTI, BD iLTI 

ouAi — RisowAVAH per r dere 
sinza sUlle. (Dant. lof. 8.) 

S6lll, CAMTI, TESriR, 6iu6cill, 
▼ITJLUDE, QuAwTO PUO CUOR 

fehsAr, PUO chi£dcr b6cca. 
(Ariost. Fur. 4. 82.) 

^RAjrO UOMIIfl E FiaiMIIfB DI 
OROSSO INGicifO. (^Bocc. iDtr.) 

TU, CHE si* COMO, DOVRl^m 
■Ap£bB DiLLR C68E DEL M6lfDO. 

(Bocc. g. 7. D. 2.) 

UsclROlf FudcHI DI SOTT^RRA, 
CHE 81 APFBiSERO A cAmPI, YIL- 
LB, CA8AU. (Bocc. g. 3. D. 3.) 

Si iiuTRf8CB DI p>Lnk E d* kc- 
QUA. (Bocc g. 8. n. 3.) 

JVbn altriminli fan di stale i 
edni — Or col ciffo or e6* pii, 
qu6ndo son morsi — da ptJLci, 

O DA MOSCHEy O DA TAfJLnI. 

(Dant. iDf. 17.) 

CoR Bi' Hd-rri, b cor risp^stb 
pr6rte. (Bocc. g. 5. fin.) 



Men are the head of wonn? 
and without their minagemeot it 
seldom happens that any under- 
taking of ours succeeds wdL 

The people of this Itnd, sedag 
this, will rise in an uproar. 

If he [thil man] will do fcr 
thee freely, what thou entredwt, 
imprisoned spirit ! do tboo w- 
ther be pleased to decbre tow, 
how in these gnarled joints tM 
soul is tied. 

Thus horses and men were fie- 
tims. 

There sighs, i«"«"*«**<*i^ 
loud moans resounded through fte 
starless air. 

Music, singing, dresses, |IB»^ 
viands, all that the heart can thuU 
of, and aU that the palate cm de- 
sire. 

They were men and wooenof 
dull understanding. 

Thou, who art a man, ought to 
he acquainted with the thingt* 
the world. 

There Issued flames from vbdMt 
the earth, which set fields, nlW, 
and hamlets on fiie. 

He feeds on bread and water. 

Thus use the dogs in wma^ 
to ply now with their J««^r; 
now with their feet, when Wteo 
by fleas, or flie?, or gadflies. 

With witty sayings, and pio"** 
replies. 



USE OF A&TICLES. 



445l 



La Violante v^nirx crxsc^n- Violante grew up io years, in 

DO ed IN ivMi, 4d in persova, sUture, and io b^uty. 

KD IN BJBLLizZA. (BOCC. g. 2. 
D. 8.) 

Co8i m' i eonventUo fdre, e 1 have been obliged to do so, 

PSR FAt^RA d' altr^i, b pxr for fear of Other people, and also to 

SBRTARX LA F^MA tUUa mia preserve my character. 
&ne9tit, (Bocc. g. 8. n. 5.) 

Scl Uinto vi diro. elu e6me^ tm- I only tell you that I shall, 

p69to m* aoete,^ cosi frhsero di without fail, do what you have 

fIrx siirSA FALLo. (Bocc. g. 3. ordered. 
n. 6,) 



Noir c6iiB oomni, ma quasi 

COMB sisTlX MObItANO. (BoCC. 

Intr.) 

PaR^TA CHE RUQoisSE COMB 
LCONB, B BBlIsSB COMB PicORA, 
X RAOtfHliLsSB COMB ASINO. (Dial. 

& Greg, m.) 

*' MUer6re di me,'* gridM a Hd, 
— " QuJLl CHE Tu sfi, OD 6mbra 
OD voHO ciRTo.** — JUspSsemi : 
" NoN uoM, u6mo oil FlJl." 
(Dant. Inf. 1.) 



CV io V ho nSgU Scehi, e tbdAr 
$eco pArmi — D6hnb x dohz^l* 
LB, e soKO AsiTi E piooi. (Petr. 
s. 143.) 

QniSTO OARZONCiLLO S' IM- 
COMIRCIO A DIMBSTICJLrB COfl 

quisto Federico, (Bocc. g. 5. 
n.9.) 



They died not like men, but 
almost like beasts. 



He appeared to roar like a lion, 
and to bleat like a sheep, and to 
bray like an ass. 



** Have mercy on me," cried 
I to him, " whatever thou art, 
whether a shadow, or a living 
man." He answered me : ** Now 
I am not a man, man I wao for- 
merly." 

Whom I have before my eyes, 
and I seem to see ladies and dam- 
sels with her, and they are firs and 
beeches. 

This little boy began to be fa- 
miliar with this Frederic. 



V6i mi parHe u6mo di Dio, Tou appear to me to be a man 
COME d(te voi corisTB PAROLE ? of God, how do you say those 
(Bocc. g. I. n. 1.) wofds ? 



Ma ttnc6ra U iocc&re i pdnmi 
ddgti irrfiirmi adopefdti PAitf va 

$6eO QUBLLA COTAlB INFBRMITJL 

iicltoccaidrTRASPORTiRB. (Bocc. 
Intr.) 

38 



But even to touch the clothes 
used by the sick appeared to com- 
municate with it the same sickness 
to the one who had touched them. 



446 



SYNTAX. 



E per quSlU che io efdrnt, coh 

OOHI 80LLKCITt)^DI9E, CON OOHI 

iNoioHo, B con OGin Ibtb, nd 
p6re che si procAcciaito di ridi^- 
csRE A nti^i^f € di eaccidre del 
mdndo LA CristiAha rkuoionx. 
(Bocc. g. 1. n. 2.) 

Ti^m I PBRsiiRi diUe fim- 
mirUt tiJtto lo STt^oio, ti5ttb 
LB OPBRB, a fduna dltra ^^a 
^ctnOf $e non a eignoreggi&re 
gU u6mm. (Bocc. Lab.) 

Ricdrdim ehe moi siiii ti^ttx 
FinMisx. (Bocc. Intr.) 

E quHy che, $6lo, — CoimA 
tiJtta TosciiTA TiirirB u. pohtb. 
(Petr. Trionf. Fam. c. 1.) 

O'nJe Li^cio SIlla, ehe yiHiB 

LA riRTlk, E I TRIORFI, E I silTB 

coirtoLATi DI Ciio MJLrio, si 
fP chxam&re^ U Felice. ( Daran.) 

Che uSmo i eostui, U qudle tit 
TKCcBiizzA, iri imfbricitI, ifi 

PAl^BA DI MORTE dIlLA SI^A 
MALYAOITJL L* hAvRO POTt^TO 

rimu6tbrb ? 



And by what I can judge. It 
aeems that they Btrive wim al 
their zeal, and their power, and 
their skill to overthrow the Chris- 
tian religion, and to drire it from 
the face of the earth. 



Ail the thoughts, all the 
tion, and all the actions of ^ 
tend to nothing but to mle aver 
men. 

Remember that we are aH wo- 
men. 

And he, who alone Irapt pos- 
session of the bridge against all 
Tuscany. 

Therefore Lucius Syila, who 
surpassed Caius Marius in eour^ 
aee, and in the number of his 
tnomphs and consulships, nukde 
himself to be called the Umppy. 

What a man is this, whom nei- 
ther age, sickness, nor the fear of 
death, could deter fix>m his wicked 
course. 



It has been said, that articles are u^d before nouns 
employed in a determined sense ; adjectives^ verbs^ ad-- 
verbsy and preposiiionSy therefore, when tised as naitiu, 
in thai sense^ require the article before them ; as, 

sol <r ima Mdra /Me mu6- from the same clear fbuiitaiii 



ve iL d6lce e l' amXrq, 

IL nXscbr grdnde i cA»o e 
mm virtiL^ 

sarH coviinto di sapire il 

quiNDo, 
IL d6vs io ho gii^ pensAto, 

IL c6mb hoioben veditto^ 



springs the bitter and the 

sweet ; 
to be born in high life is a 

chance and not merit ; 
I should be happy to know 

[the] when; 
I have already thought [of the] 

wbere; 
I have already seen [the] how ; 



USE OP ARTICLES. 



447 



II. pxacHi it (firo, 

ci i ijs PRO, e 'l c<Sntro, 

son eiria dtL 82, 
ciascUno rispdse deh no, 



I will tell you [the] why ; 
there is something to say for 

and against ; 
I am certain of the affirmative ; 
every one answered in the 

negative. 



KXAMPLXS. 



Cofi SOL D* tNk CHIARA r6ir- 
TX vha — MuoTS il ]>6lcx b 
V AMARO. (Petr. 8. 181.) 

Ii. nIsckr grAndx i oiso 
s SDK riBfrii. (Metast. Artas. 

1. 1.) 

SaR^I COHTiHTO Dl SAPiRX IL 

qvkwDO. (Petr. s. 306.) 

' Il D6ys (o ho oiA. pensIto. 
(Bocc.g.2.) 

Il c6mk ho fo bin vkdi^to. 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 6.) 

Del e6me non H e&glia^ il 
pxRCBi Ti DiR^. (Bocc. FUoc. 

«•) 

SieeJU ci 1 il pr6 x 'l con- 
TRo. (Gio. Vill.) 

S09 ciRTA DXL sl. (BOCG. 

g.7.n.7.) 

ClASCt/IVO RISPOtE OIL NO. 

(Bocc. g. 1. n. 7.) 



Thus, from the same clear, living 
fount, springs the bitter and the 
sweet. 

To be bom in high life is a 
chance and not merit 



I should be happy to know [the] 
when. 

I hare already thought [of the] 
where. 

I have already seen [the] how. 

Do not trouble thyself about 
[the] how, 1 wiU teU you [the] 
why. 

So that there is something to 
say for and against. 

I am certain of the affirmative. 



Every one answered in the 
negative. 



The names of abstract substances ^ and those ofgems^ 
metab, liquids, and provisions, require the article before 
them, when used in a generic sense ; as, 

laudhol cdsa ^ n^* principi prudence is praiseworthy in 

LA PRUD^NZA, rulers; 

l' ^ro, e LE p£rle, e i fi&r the gold, and the pearls, and 

litrmh^Xi e bidnchi, the red and white flowers ; 



448 



SYNTAX. 



viepfik diiet si ir&ia h* Ic- 
quA e *L piifE, che hit 
e^MME e l' <Sro, 



water and breail are awc e tei 
thaD gems and gold. 



BXAMPLES. 



Laud^tol c68a, € n§ce8t6ria 
mdUo i vi* PrIrcipi la frv- 
DiHZA. (Bocc. Filoc.) 

L* 6H0, B LB piRLB, B I Fi6k 
TBBIlfGLI K BlllfCHIy — Son J9fr 

nu acSrhi e ptlenoH tUeehi. 
(Petr. 8. 38.) 

VlBPPIli d6lCB tl TROTA L* ic- 
QUA B *L PAHB, — ChB LB oiM- 

Hb b l' <Sro. (Petr. Trionf. c. 6.) 



Prudence is praieewoitby, and 
veiy necessary to rulers. 

The gold, and the pearb, and 
the red and white flowers, are to 
me sharp and poisonous tbomi. 

Water and hread ase tweeter 
than gems and gold. 



The names of heaven^ the earthy and the 8ea ; 
of the cardinal pointi ; of the four quarters of the 
world ; also of kingdoms^ provinces^ mourUainiy aod 
riverSj when, in speaking of them, we consider tbeir 
whole extent^ take the article ; — but when we speak of 
any indeterminate part of them, they refuse it ; as, 

ira stdto tdnto Umpo sinza 

vedire il ciiLO, 
LA t£rra ^fridda e sicca^ 



andM su per lo mIrb, 
ira gih l' ori^ntb tiUto 

bidnco, 
non solamhite il levIntb, 

ma qudst titito il pon^ntb, 

il amosctva, 
tttUa l' £ur<Spa ^ riputdta 

striUo cotj/lne, 
l' ItIlia h tt&ia piu v6Ue 

soggiogMa dd* bMari, 
sMvo LA MiRCA Tritigia- 

WA, 



he had been so lonff withoat 
seeing the heavens [the sky] ; 
the earth is cold and dry ; 
thou didst walk on the sea; 
the east was already bright ; 



not only the east, bat also the 

freatest part of the weet, 
new him ; 
all Europe is considered to be 

a narrow limit ; 
Italy has been several times 
subdued by barbarians ; 

except the March of Trevigi ; 



inghioUUa da ima eruziSne overwhelmed by an eruption 
~ d€is VbstJtio, of Mount Vesuvius ; 



USE OP ARTICLES. , 449 

&la i tagHdia cKsll' Adibe^ it is interaectecl by the Adige : 

FUse sdnto in TiRRA ed &ra He lived a saint on earth and 

i in ci^LO, now is in heaven ; 

U c&mpo Cristi&no passb in the Christian camp passed to 

ORiiNTS, the east ; 

le gl&rie (P Italia, the glories of Italy ; 

e6me filde di nht in Alpc like flakes of snow on the 

9ima vMo, summit of the Alps, when 

the wind is hushed ,* 

mi dissetdi con Acqua di Siiv- I quenched my thirst with the 
HA, water of the S«ine. 



n LdziOj < [the] Latiuni ' ; whicti always takes the article : and 
fda^ Mda * ; O'ma, < Ossa ' ; which always r^se if. 

Names oi seas take the article ; as, 

iL Meditxrranxo, l' Adri- the Mediterranean, the Adri- 
Itico, atic ; 

l' Eoio, the Egean ; 

l' ATLjLrcTico, IL PAcirico, the Atlantic, the Pacific. 

Names of diies^ islands, and lakes take no article ; as, 

FiRiNzs, R<Sma, MARsi- Florence, Rome, Marseilles ; 

OLIA, ' 

CipRo, Scio, Crista, Cyprus, Scio, Crete ; 

Idgo MAGeidRE, di Lu«ano, lake Maggiore, of Lugano, of 
di C6mo, Como. 

EXCBPTIONS. 

The following names of cUies and ialandSf however, take the article ; 
viz. iL Cdiro, ' Cairo ' ; la Mirdndola, * Mirandola ' ; la RoceSUa, 
'Rochelles'; l' ^ia. •Aix';— il Q^Uo, 'Giglio'; la Caprdia, 
* Capraia ' ; la Gorgona^ ' Oorgona ' ; and perhaps a few more : i^so 
the names of those islands wnlch are spoken of io the plural ; as, 
LS Baiedrij Mhe Balearic islands'; lx FiHppinet 'the Philippine 
islands ' ; lk Moluuhe, ' the Molucca islands ' \ &e. 

The names of the following islands^ mav or may not take the 
article ; viz. i/&a or l' Mba, * Elba * ', 8ard6gna or la Sardigna^ 

38» 



450 



SYNTAX. 



( Sardi^ ' ; CSrsiea or la C^tiea, < Conicii' ; akOia or la. AOm, 
* SicUy ' ; InghiiUrra or l' ii^^bitt^rra, < England ' ; >l^n^ or 
L' hldnda, * Ireland.' 

Names of eitieSf kc., alifays take the artide when frtceded by as 
adjective ; aa, 2a fr^Oa Firinze, * [the] beautUbl Florence ' ; &c. 



BZAMFLI t. 



TjLrto Tiitro iRA iTJlTo aiH- 

SA VKD^RB IX. CdCLO. (BOOC^ 

g. 8. n. 8. 

La t^rra 1 FRioDA K sic- 
CA, — V Acre h eSldo e imido. 
(Bran. Tea. 1.) 

Per la qual tu su fkr lo mIrb 
avdjLti. (Dant. Par. 24.) 

£ra OlX L' ORlilfTE Tt^TTO 

Biiiico. (Bocc. g. 5. 0. 1.) 

Nob SOLAIlilfTB il lbyaiitb, 
MA GlA QUASI Ti5tTO 1L POR£hTB 

per fShna iL coiio9c±r A. (Bocc. 
g. la n. «.) 

TiJtta l* Eur6pa i rifutAta 
sTRirro confInb. (Buom.) 

Fi5t temiie ehe l' ItIi^ia i 
stjLta piu toltb soogiooIta 
DA m6ki aABBABi. (Buom.) 

Sendiffli la Signoria di Lorn' 
bar€^, BALYO LA MIrca Triti- 
of AHA. (Gio. Vm. 1 8. c. 5.) 

(yve reetd un thnpo ibohiot- 
TfTA la eitt& d* Ereoldno da i^^ba 

BRUZIONB DEL VBSt^TIO. (GSDg. 

lett.) 

6lla i taoliIta dIll' Adi- 
QX, fiume, e6nu $6i, amemnimo. 
(Aigu. lett.) 

YfatB siirro ib t^rba, bd 6ra 
A IB ciiLo. (Tasa. Ger.) 

OiSt */ sieto dfmo vofgia the 'b 
OniiKTB — Pass^ il oImpo 
CristiXito aW dUa tmpriea. 
(Taas. Oti,) 



He had been ao long witikovt 
aeekig ^e sky. 

The earth is cold and dry, and 
the air warm and damp. 



By which thoa didst walk on 
the sea. 

The east was already bright. 

Not only the east, but abo die 
greatest part of the weat, knew 
him by reputation. 

vAH Europe is considerad to be 
a narrow limit. 

Ton know that Italy haa been 
several times subdued by many 
barbarians. 

He restored to him the amnory 
of Lombardy, except the mrch 
of Trevigi. 

Where the dty of HercolaneoB 
was overwhelmed by an eruption 
of Mount Vesuvius. 

It is intersected by the Adige» 
a very pleaaant river, as tkoii 
knowest 

He lived a saint on eartiiy and 
now is in heaven. 

It was already six yoais since 
the Chiistian camp ptesed to te 
East on their great imdertaklng. 



USE OP ARTICLES. 



451 



Ls 96mm4 OLomni d' It Alia. 
(Baom.) 

Piovian. difli6eo dOaliUfiide, 
— Comb di k^tk ih Alps siazA 
TiHTO. (Dant. iDf. 14.) 

Mi DI88KTAI coir IcqUA DI 

SiRiTA. (Vanz.) 

Ma Is* Eeio, ma l* AtlXn- 
Tico, non e^ca di eomprindt' 
re, « «a d^ne ch9 H non pud, 
(DavftD.) 

PerM FiRiKzs t cittd iiomi- 
ndnte, e imitatriee tU Roma. 
(Daran.) 

Marsullxs [MARflfoLiA], sic- 
e&me v6i sapite, k antica e nobi- 
U»mma dttd. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 3.) 

Oui8c6rdo, re di Cipro. (Eriz. 
Giorn.) 

Che U hi&de — Ogn' Uola di 
Gricia a Hti sol miita, — £ Scf o 
pietrdaa gU veruUmmi e CejIta. 
(Tass. Ger. 1. 78.) 

Vidggio d* tre Idghi : Mao- 
eioRs, DI LuqIho, e di Como. 
(Amor.) 

Jl ednte Quido dihhA Mimiii- 
DOLA, mdsso ddUa mur^ficenMa 
di L&rSnzo, p6se la «iki abilO' 
n6ne in FirlnMt, (Macb. S(or. 
nor. 1. 8.) 

Mu6va$i LA CaprIia « la 
GoRGONA. (Dant. Inf. 83.) 



The very great ^ories of Italy. 



There fell down dikted flakes 
of fire, as flakes of snow on the 
summit of the Alps, when the 
wind is hushed. 

I quenched my thirst with the 
water of the Seine. 

But he does not try to compre- 
hend the Egeaa sea, and the 
Atlantic ocean, and he knows he 
cannot. 

Because Florence is a powerful 
city, and the rival of Rome. 

Marseilles is, as vou know, an 
ancient and very noble city. 

Guiscard, king of Cyprus. 

That every island of Greece 
should reap corn, and stony Scio 
and Crete should make wine for 
him alone. . 

A journey to the three lakes : 
Maggiore, of Lugano, and of Co- 
mo. 

Count Guide of Mirandola, 
pleased with the munificence of 
Lorenzo, fixed his residence in 
Florence. 



May Capraia and Gorgona rise 
from their foundations. 



Dio or Iddioj ' God ' ; and names of persons^ when 
used in their full meanin^^ never take the article ; but, 
when we limit their signijicatian to designate a particu- 
lar object, they always take the article ; as, 

Dio ct mdndi Mne, God help us ; 



45a SYNTAX. 

iDDio ditp6it aUnnUnie^ God ordained otherwise ; 

Af6lloJu vtdiUo sadUtrt U Apollo was seen shooting the 
PiUne^ serpent P)rthon ; 

ov* £acoLE segnd K nUn where Hercules fixed his boon- 
rigudniij daries; 

Om^ro, ViaeiLio, e DXitte, Homer, Virgil, and Dante: 

II Dlo dOla guirra, The God of war ; 

l' Ap6llo dd Bdvedire^ the Apollo of Belvedere ; 

l' jfeacoLB Famhe, the Farnese Hercules ; 

!«' OMiao Farrariit, the Ferrarese Homer [Ariosto]. 

Agreeably to this principle the noont Dio, Mdio, in the pha^, 
when speaking of the deities of the heathens, take the article ; as, 

se fdsse piaciuto dau Dii, if it had pleased the Gods ; 

ol' Innf I, U qtuUi govimcmc the Gods, who goyern our affidn. 
le nSstre e6ie. 



They take also the article^ when they are preceded 
by aa adjective ; as, 

l' onnipatlntt Dio, the almighty God ; 

iL gr&ndc AchIllk, the great Achilles ; 

l' tn/e/ice PaiAMO, the unhappy Priamus. 

They take the article when they are used to desig- 
nate personsyamt/uir/y or publicly known ; as, 

chiamdto il GbrbIno, having called Crerbino ; 

aviva amdta la Nin^tta, he had loved Ninetta ; 

LA MADOAL^ifA, LA Mari- Magdalou, Marianna. 
Anna, 

But when names of persons are preceded by one of 
the nouns Sere, ' Sir ' ; Messere, * Master ' ; maistrOj 
' roaster ' ; Don, * Don ' ; Ddnna, * Donna ' ; JVole, 
* Friar or Brothe* ' ; Sanio or S&nta, * Saint ' ; they re- 
fuse the article ; as, 

Sksl BrwMo, Sir Brunetto ; 



USE OF ARTICLES. 458 

MssfliE GugUUmOt Mr. William ; 

MAisTRO M&mo, master Adamo ; 

Don PUtrOj Don Pedro; 

, FrXte MbMo, Friar Albert; 

San Maurizioy Saint Maurice ; 

SjLhta VerididnOj Saint Veridians. 

Jfames of persons, preceded by the nouns rdpa^ * Pope * ; Re, 
' King/ aie better used without the article ; as, 

P^i/Mi Oiovdnni, Re Carlo, Pope John, King Charies. 



Surnames or family names take no artichj when pre- 
ceded by names of persons ; but when they are used to 
specify a person of such a family j also when we speak 
of ceiibraied men^ and when they are preceded by a 
tUle^ the article is used ; as, 

Gu^iUmo RossigUdne^ Ou- William Rossiglione, William 

gliamo Owardastdgno, Guardastagno ; 

iL GuaadabtXoiio, il Ro8- Gdardastagno, Rossiglione ; 
•ioli6ne, 

iL PrtrIrca, il Boccic- Petrarch, Boccaccio; 

CIO, 

IL eardirUa MazzaeIni, cardinal MazzarinL 

iN'ames of the months take no article ; as, 

Usitto^GsLVvkiofiiVdset^ the sixth of January was for 

the axe ; 

U primo e H see&ndo di Ae6- the first and second of August 
STo/iiron le martmoj were for the hammers. 

Names of the days may be. used with or vnthout the 
article 'y as, 

MbrcoledI, d6po desin&re^ Wednesday, after dinner ; 
IL SIbato maUina si parti on Saturday morning he left 
di Firinxe, Florence. 



454 



SYNTAX. 



BXAMPLEt. 



EntrAndo dSntro dk$9t : << Dio 
CI MiirDi BinB ; eM i qud f " 
(Bocc. g. S. Q. 2.) 

iDDfo, giuMto riguarddiore di' 
gli altrui mdritiy AhTKAuitrrm 
DISPOSE. (Bocc. g. 2 n. 8.) 

CKt ro veraminte tsdi^to 
Apollo SABrriRB il veien6$o 
PiT6irB. (Darao.) 

fo ei compS/fni era»dm viechi 

queilafiee str6Ua, — Or* £eco- 
lb SBOir^ LI 8u6i biouIroi. 
(Dant. lof. 26.) 

OlfiBO, ViRGlLIO, B DIrTB 

kan lascidto niUe piiture l6ro 
m6Uo di che fitre alT immagmch 
^va del leggUdre. (Fosc.) 

Il Dfo d£lla ou^RaA. (Ce- 
sar.) 

L* Ap6lL0 DBL BSLTBDiBB. 

(MiUz. Art Dis.) 

L* 0m£R0 FBRRABiSB. (Mo* 

tast. lett.) 

Sb ioLI Dil POSSB PlACn^TO. 

(Bocc. FUoc.) 

Gl* IddIi, LI qniLi di$p6ngo- 
no e ooTiBNAH n6i, e lb hosteb 
cosB. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 8.) 

L* oifBiPorivTB Dio, e mtse- 
rieordidso giudietf naicdnde dal 
iuo giudieio i n6$tri/6Uu (Pass. 
Ver. Pen.) 

E vidi *L grIhob Achillb, — 
Che eon amSre alfine eombattio, 
(Dant Inf. 5.) 

il quale mdUo auLta av^ta 
LA NiFirrA. (Bocc. g. 4. d. 8.) 



On entering said : ^ God help 
us ; who is here ? " 

God, ^tkt just rewarder of peo- 
ple's merit, ordained otherwise. 



For ApoUo was really 
shooting the yeaomoos serpent 
Python. 

I and my companioiis were tir- 
dy with age, when we came to 
the strait pass where Hetcake 
fixed his boundaries. 



Homer, Virgil, and Dante have 
left in their pictures much to do 
for the imagination of the reader. 

The God of War. 

The ApoUo of Belvedere. 

The Ferrarese Homer [Azioeto]. 

If it had pleased the Gods. 

The Gods, who dnpose o^ and 
ra&irs. 



gorem, as and our i 



The almighty God, and merdliil 
judge, conceals our sins from his 
judgment. 

And I saw the great Achilles 
who fought with love to the end. 

Who had ardently loved Nlnet- 
ta. 



USE OP ARTICLES. 



455 



E ehm6ndo la tjfidno dUa ${ia 
fiicda — HispSsi : *» Siete v6i mil, 
S£S BRONixTo?" (Dant. Inf. 
15.) 

Mxflsf R GooLiiLM o RoiaigliS' 
tu dd a mangiare 6ila m6gUe iua 
il eu6re di SfrtsiR Gugli^liio 
Guardastdgno, (Bocc. g. 4. n. 9.) 

Vii$* ieli a n6i : *« Ouarddte, 
ed attendite -^ Alia miahia del 
MAESTRO Adamo." (Dant. Inf. 
80.) 

TOrto farH dUa tT\finUa virtii 
delP eccellentisnmo Doh Pi£tro 
de ToUdo. (Bern. Tass. lett.) 

FrItk ALBiRTo dd a vedire 
ad Uma dSfina, ehe V dgtiolo Oa- 
hriSle (Bocc. g. 4. n. 2.) 

Can una i6lla utUul V Srdine 
di Sah MaurIzio. (Den. Riv. 
Ital.) 

Pareva pur Santa VcRiDiiNii, 
ehe dd a beeedre dlle serpi, (Bocc. 
g. 6. n. 10.) 

Mdrto Papa GiotAkni, e non 
avSndo potuto Re CIrlo attend' 
re ehe si fSsse rifdtto wn Pdpa 
PranzeMB. (Gian. Stor. Giv. Nap. 
1. 20. c. 6.) 

Il Guaroastaoho ri$p6$ef ehe 
Unzafdllo il d\ seguSnte andrih- 
be a eendr con &L II Rossi- 
GLi6irRy udendoqtU$to, pen$d il 
iimpo isser venuto di pQterlo ue- 
eidere, (Bocc. g. 4. n. 6 ) 

U esqxnMiezza dei, Petrarca, 
dliro niune diUa n6$tra volgdr 
poena. (Buom.) 

n J[>ee€uner6n dei, BocojLccio 
i di grdn lunga il migli6r Wtro^ 
ehe Abidmo infdtto d* eloqu&nza 
ItaUSna. (Den. Sag. Letter.) 



And inclining my hand towards 
his face, I answered : *' Sir Bm- 
nett0| are you here ? *' 

Mr. William Rossiglione gives 
to his wife the heart of Mr. 
William Guardastagno to. eat. 

And he said to us : '* Regard 
attentively the woe of master 
Adamo." 



I should do wrong to the hn- 
meose merit of the most excellent 
Don Pedro de Toledo. 

Friar Albert gives a woman to 
understand, that the angel Ghtbriel 



With a bull he instituted the 
order of Saint Maurice. 

She seemed Saint Veridiana, 
feeding the serpents. 

Pope John having died, and 
King Charles having not been 
able to obtain that a French 
Pope should be re-elected. 

Guardastagno answered, that he 
would without fail sup with him 
the following night. Ro9si|lione, 
hearing this, thought the time of 
murdering him was com^ 

The exquisite elegance of Pe- 
trarch, another god of our Italian 
poetry. 

The Decameron of Boccaccio 
is by far the l>est book which we 
have in point of Italian eloquence. 



4S6 SYNTAX. 

Il carsuIl MAZKABln, lUIi- GtniiBal Maszaiini, in ItiMn 

6no ancSr i$$o. (Den. Rif. ItaL mtoo. 
L 28. c. VL) 

St f L sisTo Di GkhvJLio fu If the six^ of Janoaiy wis fiw 

L* iflCBye IL pbImo e il sKcdvDO the axe, and the first sad second 

d' Agosto rlhu>HO lk mart^lla. of Aogiut were for the hs— ims 
(DaFsn. Stor.) 

McrcolxdI, Ddro DisufiRK, Wednesday, after ^nner, they 

QMtidirono da pik pdrH quigH del assailed from difiereot qoaitscs 

UUo ddgH Mimdri. (Gio. Vill. ^kmo who sided with the AdfaaaiL 

c. ao.) 

Venuta m Firitute la noviUa The news hsTing reached Flor^ 

il Wenerdk s^m, il SIbato mat- eooe oo Friday eyeoiag, Messei 

TfMA. Jfess^ GiamberUUdo si Giambertaldo left Flonnce on Ss«- 

partI di Fisiteu. (Gio. Vifl. urday moiafaig. 
I. 7. c. SI.) 



A Doun preceded bjr an tU^eetive takes the article 
btfore this adjective ; as, 

IL ORAN m6Uf IL oRAii vtc- the great evil, the great am, 
e6tOf IL GRAK fdUo adope- the ^at crime commiftled 
r6H da OiHppOf by Guippua. 

Nouns also take the article when preceded hj an 
ordinal tmnJf^j or a posseaive pronoun ; * but thej 



* Thb rate with r«fard to p $ ta« m iv t vtmomu bat not boon ttiietlj feOovod bf 
tbo oarly writon, at may bo Mon by tbo foUoviof otimploi i 

CW»* i* o^dr^MM fail o>Wiii> ivtffC#, Aa toon at tbOT ■ball mo tbat book 

— JMjuAl n »er\mm tktti tv6i DitTMM'' opao, in which all tbeir sint Ofo wfittoo. 
oi. (Dont. Par. 10.) 

Pdnam r6»rmi xai^im • vteraa Yoar trianphi tmd jo«v poap foia 

rduPB. (Potr. Trionf. Tamp.) away. 

QfUtU. Ir« di IHtf c wteTBA coaaaai- Thk wrath of God ttot down opoa 

6nm msnditA tdprm i m&rtAli. (Boee. mortah for oar eenoetiaa. 
Intr.) 



Baiidat thoro art ia Italian aavetal nodot of ospconioB, Mch m m nfta p <H i . *at 
my ploaaaro * iinaUt a^Mc, 'in hb oaoM ' ; cdntru Ha vdfiia, f agaioit lus will * ; 
Ac, in wUeb, by a pooaUaiity of laogoafo, tho orticia is o^pmtly a^p p iwii rf ; oa, 

fononpdtsofmrciUotfi'iddtAnU I oannoi mako warm and cold woashv 

r6rrA. (Boee. g. 5* n. 4.) at my pleosoro. 

Qmisti •griia, iiv lu^o iv6itB, il (r^ffo This ooo hlamii, ia hia (Ooakiv^) 

•^kre. (Taas. Gor. 9. 53.) aaraa, thair ozeoanTo daxiof. 

Alio, o6iiTaA tu'A T«auA, attr^Mb >l And I foido him obowhoro 

tea. (Potr. a. 99.) hb wiU. 



USE OF ARTICLES. 457 

refuse it whea they are preceded by a dem»tuirativej 
interrogative^ or indefinite pronoun ; as, 

II* TEif TisiMO Cdnio^ the twentieth Canto ; 

I.A prIma canz6nt^ the first song ; 

i*A hU p6iria^ my coantry ; 

iir t69Tbo amUo^ your friend : 

* quisTi tospirx^ these sighs ; 

qxTJlL paiara f what fear ; 

quAL^NquE ^LTRA fdiUt, any other woman ; 

tvA. cotIl mezzaniti^^ such a middling course. 

SZCBPTIONS. 

When the nouns are preceded by the indefinite pronouns, tinOf 
* one • ; dUrOf * other * ; st68$o or medisimOf * same * ; they are used 
with the artiele ; as, 

l' i5na e L* Altra mdno, the one and the other hand ; 

nSh'LA MsnfsiMA eittd, net me- in the same city, in the same day. 
nisiMO gidmo. 



Sometimes the notin, which is preceded by an ordinal 
number or a possessive pronoun^ is understood ; as, 

non strxngindosi nille vi- not confining themselves in 
v&nde qudnto i prIhi, n^ eating like the former, nor 
nel hire qudnto i SBcdNni, in drinking like the latter ; 

sSma d? 6Ur% 6meri che ddi a burden for stronger shoul- 
Tv6if ders than thine. 

When the nounj which is preceded by a possessive 
pronoun, is one of those which express kindred or rela- 
iion, quality or rank, and this noun is in the singular 
number, the article is suppressed ; * but, if the noun is 
in the plural, the article is always used ; as, 

* NoiwithttandiBf tUf, uMCancM at* o(Un foand in ezetllrat wiitMt, in wliioii 

39 



406 



SYNTAX. 



Mio rieLio ov' d 9 

Bt^o pioRE djlct wMi dAi^ 

nt, 
m(a mIdrb, unfraUUo mi- 

nArtj edioy 

tnhia tico ti^a udoLis, 

HfMiUdUodiFiUppo,U96to 
a salute di t^o m arIto, 

U dird a ido FRATiLLOi 

t68TRA SOR^LLA, vdSTRA 

^, 

St^A EccBLL^ifZA h bacio la 

mdno^ 
wHdmo as»6i hhu con St^A 

Alt^xza, 
gP inUrlsn di S(^a MaestI, 



where u my gon? 

his father did us many iDJariea : 

my mother, a younger brother, 
and I; 

take thy wife with thee ; 

the noble action which Philip 

had done for the safety of 

her husband ; 

I will tell it to my brother ; 
your sister, your aunt ; 

His Ezcellency kissed her 
hand; 

we stand very well with His 
Highness ; 

His Majesty's interests : 



Guarddi nd visa &i mi^i I looked upon the countenance 
riGLiu6Li, of my sons; 

rtngrizio le L6ro SiONoaiE, I thank your Lordships. 



When the noun is separated from the profioun by an adj^ethe 



Um articl* if M$ei befbra noons of kindrtd tnd fvaUcy in the tingviar, proeoded 
by potseuivt prmumns ; am, 



M?ce6 ih Tv'o FioLio. (Gnnr. Put. 
Fid. 1.) 

JtriU GrenAieOf cht ddpo U m6rU da. 
■n'o rA'onn, ri»$$ la «c«td<c (Piraoz. 
lott) 

Fidir p%6i con qudnto offittto, — La 
vU« t* awUMchia ol id'o MAiiTo. (Tan. 
Amint. 1. 1.) 

Jivindo rigudrdo duLA VdtTRA Eocsi^ 
LB'HSA. (^KSC. f. 5. n. 9.) 

JSrdird di pdrgere ipriigki miii diXA 
V6«TaA ALTK'itA. (Bocc. g. 3. n. 6.) 

La Bv*l M AMTiu (Dav.) 



Bahold tby ion. 

Arela of Cyrana, who, alUr har Ah 
tbor'a daath, diroetad tha aohool. 

Tbon mightatt soa with what afibotioa 
tha Ttne aotwinaa itaalf romid her hwa- 
band [tha oak]. 

Payi^ raftrd to yoor EzeaDaDCj. 

I will taka tha UbartT of adTmoeinc 
Boy prayari to yoot Hisfanaak 
fiii Majeaty. 



USE OF ARTICLES. 459 

pltced between Aem ; and when it b preceded by the pronoun Uro, 
* their * ; in which ctses the article is ueed even in the nngviar } as* 

AL. mio dispiktIto pddre^ to my cruel father ; 

I.A l6ro figUa, LA L^RO io* their daughter, their niter. 
riOay 



The ariicle is also suppressed^ when the noun, pre- 
ceded by a possessive pronoun, is also preceded by a 
numeral adjective, or a demonstrative or indefinite pro^ 
noun ; as, 

can quisTO siiojigliuiioy with this son of hers ; 

quiLCHB siio amico^ some of his friends; 

6eif I mio ufficio^ all my obligations ; 

Kii^N v6$tro f&tlOy none of your business ; 

ciRTi 9u6i amid, certain friends of his. 

The relative pronoun quhle^ * which,' when preceded 
by its antecedent, requires the (article ; * but it refuses the 
article when it is used in the signification of cAt, ' he 
who ' ; when it expresses doubt , or when it expresses 
similittule ; as, 

si^TTE oi6tani d6nnb, i n6' seven young women, whose 
mi d^LLE, qniLi raccon- names I would relate ; 
ierii, 

qulL pih ghUe possiidcy he who has most people [sol- 

diers] ; 
qu^L gturrUro Cristidno, like a Christian warrior ; 
qjjlh piu vi pidce dHUt dite, which of the two you like best 

The words signdre or signdra, when used subsiati' 
tively in the signification of the master or mistress of a 

* la po«tr7, bowaT«r, tha artieU it olUa ra^prccMif ; u, 

oiTA i^d'cs, «UA'LB,m trt jMTftfiM O diriott light, who, ona labflUDce in 
— Ed Imm ««^»za, U CUl govirni § H tbrae parMoa, goTamait Haavan and iba 
m6ndo, (Bocc. Amat. 98.) woild. 

£ fu^' .• " IH rddo — /jicdnCro," mi And ha rapliad to ma t **It aaldom 

ritfdMf **eJU 4i ski — Fieeia *l oaumI- happana, that any ona of na makaa tha 

ao aleuHtfr^jjA'iM la vdd»." (Dant. Jooraay whiah I am foinf .** 
laf, 9.) 



460 SYNTAX. 

thing, take the article i but when used adjectively as 
titles or epithets^ they take the article^ when we speak 
of J and they re/We it, when we speak tOj a person ; as. 

Us sieif^as [di qu^sta dtaa] the master [of this house] is 
^ iMcUo, ^ne oat; 

LA 8ieN6aA ^ occupito, the mistrefls is engaged ; 

v6i fu\ stUe iL 8ioif6aB, yon are the master here ; 

11. 8ieM6a Cdrlo D&ti ed il Mr. Charles Dati and Mr. Aa- 

8ieN6a Andria Cavalc6nti^ drew Cavalcanti ; 

IL 8ieif6a Cardin6U Sjpi^ Cardinal Spinola; 

noloy 

IL sieifdn wutttMse e la the marquis and the connteai : 

sieN6EA conUssa^ 



O Si6n6r AtMk! O Bfr.. AchiUes ! ' 

vtditt^ 8ieiT6Ri, com* igU see, sirs, how he had left me ; 
tn' (xoia lasdato^ 

8ieN6ai e ddnne^ v6i dovUe gentlemen and ladies, yoo 
sapirt^ moat iounr. 

Agreeably to this rule, the words ngnSre and sigyuira^ take the 
ar^Uf when used to exprtss * our Lord ' [God], and ' oor Lady ' 
[the Virgin] ; * and refiue it, when used with the adverbs si, < yes ' ; 
and no or fum, * no ' ; in affirmative and negative phrases ; as, 

IL SiONORS, Jesiif our Lord, Jesus ; 

LA Sign 6ra delle Grdziet our Lady of the Graces ; 

Sign6r si, yes, Sir ; 

KOH SiQudRA, no. Madam. 



* lo the following imtancM tha article if rappreued befoio the word mgnirt^ 
preceded hy the ppMfsive pronovn ndjlro x 

A eiA v^mo Siawdu lascUb U ekiAvL To whom our Lord [Christ] left tlM 

(Dant. Per. 94.) keys. 

^uiaao tu6ro odZZa — N6rrmo Sioivd- Whet treasmetdid ov Lord deaead 

KS %% vrima da Ssn PUtro^ Chs ftni^- of St. Peter, before he pot the keja into 

M U ehidm m eiut baha 7 (Duit. lof. 19.) his charge ? 

8i die issmre lo cavalUre asUtUnU, • A IcnigbC ooght to be abstinent, and 

OpmnAre i! Fentrdi, m rimew^r&mxa di ought to ftst on Friday, in coanmeaMifa-. 

ifOSTio Siontes. (Not. Aot. 51.) tioo of [the death of] oor Lord, 



USE OF ARTICLES. 



461 



Finally, there arcL several expressions in Italian, in 
which the article is always suppressed } as, 

unddre a c^ba, ▲ PAiJLeio 
or A c6rte, a ii6zzk, a 

F^STA, A CHliSA, 



to go home, to court, to a 
wedding, to a feast, to 
charch ; 



stdre or issere in cXsa, iir 

BOTTiOA, Iir PlizZA, IN 

cittI, in campAona or 
contJLdo, 
useire di cIsa, di cittI, di 

CONTADO, 

avtr fAhe, s^te, cIldo, 

fr£ddo, 
avere in mA.no, nUUere in 

B6CCAy 

mendre a bpIsso, tenir ri- 

TOLA, 

e&rrer rIschio, rinder c6nto, 
ddre 6kih9e, prestdr f£de, 



to live or to be at home, in the 
shop, in the sqaare, in the 
city, in the country ; 

to ^0 out of the house, of the 
city, of the country ; 

to be hungry, thirsty, warm, 
cold ; 

to have in hand, to put into 
one*s mouth ; 

to take one to walk, to give a 
dinner ; 

to run a risk, to give account ; 

to give orders, to give credit 



BZA1CPLX8. 



Quisto h dunque il oran 

mIlE, lis ORAIC PBCcirO, IL ORAR 
rlTTO ADOPXRATO DA GlSIPPO ? 

(Bocc. g. 10. D. 8.) 

Di nu6va pina mi eonmin far 
v^rsif — E dar matiria ah vxir- 
T^tiMO cAhto — D^LLA prI x A 
CAJfzdirs, cV i de" BomnUrsi, 
(Dant. iDf. 20.) 

La Mf a pXtria mi ha nutri' 
c&to iaviamSnU. (Am. Ant. d. 
9. r. 6.) 

Fo vi vSfUo dvre eioccht il 
▼68TRO AMico mi fle€ stamdne. 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 8.) 

Che f Anno omdi mSco q,jr£»Ti 
fotplRi ? (Petr. c. 88.) 



qVAL f At^RA 



qttdU mindeee^ 
(Bocc. g. 10. D. 8.) 



Is this, then, the great evil, the 
great sin, the great crime com- 
mitted by GIsippus ? 

I must write verses respecting 
new torments, to be the subject of 
the twentieth canto of the first 
song, which treats of those who 
are sunk in woe. 

Mv country has brought mt up 
wisely. 

I wish to tell you what yoar 
friend did to me this morning. 

What do these sighs do with 
me? 

What laws, What threats, what 
fear? 



4aa 



SYHTAX. 



86* tu fiii eh0 qvALt^irquB 
Iltra doloroiiUa rLvrm, (Bocc. 
g.8.n.7.) 

Per t^if A corih mbzzanitI, e 
per e9ntenitire & pSpolo, eUssero 
due eavoHdri Frdii GauMnti, 
(Gio. VilL 1. 7c 13.) ^ 

Ed taif th* a9ia l* i^ka b l* Il- 
tra MAN mdMMO, (Daot. Inf.) 

E IliLLA MSD^SIM A CITTjL, fUl 

miae mediwimo di ^prile, vkl 
MEoisiMO Gioavo 9Hf neW imno 
tnWe irechito quarantdtto, ^ da 
quiata Hue qiUUa luce Ju toUa. 
(Pelr. lett.) 

MoUi dltri eervdoano una mez- 
z&na via^ hoh sTRiiiGiifOosi iiiL- 
LK rivktTDm quimro i prImi, iri 
HBL b£rb QuJbnro i iBCiSiiDi. 
(Bocc. Intr.) 

Chi f&rU ondre — k p' Iltri 
6meri ft<5MA, oHc da' tuoi. (Petr. 
t. 6.) » 

Mio FfoLio ov' i, e pereJU 
non i Ueo 7 (Dant inf: 10.) 

Sl^O PiDRB CI r£cB MOLTI 

DAM HI. (DaT. Stor. 4.) 

MfA mJLdRB, riT FRATiLLO 

MiirdRK, BD fo, eUtrn^ re$iaii 
neW estrSma tni$iria. (Soar. 
Nov.) 

ro vSglio ehe tu ti v6da, e 
Miiri Ttco Ti$^A m6olib. (Bocc) 

Inteso iL ifdsiLB JLtto di 
FilIppo, usAto a sat.i^b di st^o 
MARiTO. (Giral. lett) 

po il diro a mlo frat^llo. 
(Bocc.) 

VdsTRA 80r£lla mi mamdd 
a edsa M6nna Lessdndra, v6- 
STRA zf A. (Ceccb. Dot. 2. 2.) 

£ S^A EcCBLL^HZA LS BACI& 

LA uAifo, (Car. lett.) 



AH tiioa Biore tibaa toy 

weeping 



To obsenre racfa a iBid&i( 
eouf»e, and to wntiafy the people, 
they elected two knlgtUs [of the 
order of] Joyous Friars. 

And one, who bad die one and 
^ other hand cut o£ 

And in the same city, in tfie 
flame month of April, oa tbt same 
flixth day, in the year ooa thou- 
sand three hundred and forty- 
eight, that li^t (Laura) was 
taken from this Ught. 

Many others chose a method 
between the two, not confining 
themselFes in eatfav like the for- 
mer, nor in drinking like the latter. 



For to do her honor is a 1 
for stronger shoulders than thioeu 

Where is my son, and why is he 
not with thee ? 

His lather did oa Biany iafw- 
lies. 

My mother, a younger brodm', 
and I, have remained in extieine 
misery. 

I wish that thou shouldst go, 
and take thy wife with thee. 

Having heard of the noble ae- 
tion, which Phillip had done for 
the safety of her husband. 

I will teD it to my brother. 



Tour sister sent me to 
Lessandra*8, your aunt 



And His Excdleacy kiaaed her 
hand. 



USE OP ARTICLES. 



m 



N6i due, $ec6ndo ehe a me 
pdre, STiAMO Assii Bim coif 
8t^A Alt^zza. (Fnrenz. disc. an. 
14.) 

Gl* ivtbr^ssi di St$^A Mak- 
8t1. (Bent, lett.) 

Omi* io GUARD ii — Nil vlso 
k' mi' rioLfluoLi sinzafar rndt- 
io, (Dant Inf. 33.) 

A ehe riap6ndo^ prima che io 

BIXGRJLzII lb L6rO SlORORfE. 

(Berob. lett.) 

P6ae Iddio nelP dnimo ai. mIo 
dispietIto pIdrb. (Bocc.) 

Stntendo gU Jtmdii, the MeS' 
ser BuondelmSnte at^va tSlta 
t»n' altra mSglie, e non voldva 
LA l6ro [FioLiA, soh£ll a] f Ju- 
rono insieme. (Gio. Fior. Pecor>) 

M6nna Giovdnna coir QuisTO 
m'6o FiGLiudjLo $en* anddva in 
contddo. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 9.) 

Per eonAglio di qxtIlchb st5o 
AMfco. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 1.) 

O m6lto amdto eudre^ ooni 
uio uFpfcio v6r80 te 6 fomUo. 
(Bocc. g. 4. n. I.) 

Aw di NiiJir v6sTRo fItto 
f* impdeeiano. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 8.) 

Gli v6nneun misio da ciRTi 
9v6i grcmdiisimi AMici. (Bocc. 
g. 4. n. 10.) 

SiTTB GIOY^NI d6nHB, I h6mI 

D^LLE QUALi to in prSpria /6rma 
RAccoNTERii. (Bocc. lotr.) 

QuXl PIU ciNTB possiipB, — 
Colui ^ piU dd* 8u6i nemiei av» 
v6Uo. (Petr. c. 29.) 

VivhH QuiL ouBRRiiRa Cri- 
anknoy e ednto, (Tasa. Ger. 8. 



We two, as it seoms to rae» 
stand very well with His High- 
•ness. 



His Majesty's interests. 

Whence I looked upon the coun- 
tenances of my sons without say- 
ing a word. 

To which I reply, before thank- 
ing your Lordships. 

God put into the mind of my 
cruel father. 

The Amidei hearing, that Mes- 
ser Buondelmonte h^ taken an- 
other wife, and wished no longer 
for their [daughter, sister] met to- 
gether. 

Monna Glovanna used to go 
into the country with this son of 
hers. 

By the advice of some friend 
of his. 

O beloved heart [object], all 
my obligations towards theo are 
satisfied. 

They do not meddle with any 
of your business. 

He received a message from 
certain very great friends of his. 

Seven young women, whose 
names I would relate in due form. 

He who has most people [sol- 
diers], is surrounded by most ene- 
mies. 

Thou livedst like a Christian 
and holy warr|or. 



464 



SYNTAX. 



^TtUa v6ttr€ eUxiSne «ld di 
tSrre q^vku nil yi piacb d^llv 
DifEtOf se voUtey a men du t , (Bocc 
g. 7. n. 2.) 

Il •lovomx i uicfTO. (6r«m. 
Oram.) 

La tioNdfiA A occvpIta. 
(Vim.) 

y6l qui II^B IL 8101f6EX. 

(Bocc.) 
Il Siok6r CIrlo DIti, il 

8l01f6R AoOSTfRO* NiLLI, ED IL 

8i6ii6r AndrIa CavalcInti «t 
MoHUano caranUrUe, (Red. lett.) 

Il Sionor cardiitalb Spivo- 
LA, n6itro legdto. (Bent. lett. 1.) 

Il 9ioh6r m<U$tro, il •ion^r 

MARCHisB, B LA tlGlf^RA COV- 

TissA. (Gram. Gram.) 

O SiGivdR AcHiLLB ! (Guid.) 

E a* ffUldni rwSltOt dUte : 
" Ved^tb, 8ioi(6ri, com' £qia 
m' at^a lasciAto neW albugo 
in amiae" (Bocc g. 9. n. 4.) 

SiGIfORI B DdlfHB, t6i DOv£tB 

SAPiRE, eke (Bocc. g. 6. 

D. 10.) 

Jinddranoy e phuomi ehe iro- 
vdrono il Siororb, Gxsii. (Vit. 
S. G. Bat.) 

E dal btiSn u6mo fitrono dthA 
8iqf6ra DiLLB Grazie raceo" 
manddte, (Vit. S. Cater.) 

" SiGif6R 81, da cavaUire^ 
gridd il eSnte. (Manx. Prom. 
Bpo8.) 

Noir SiGNORA ; ^ in ecmpagnia 
iT unforestidre. (Gold. Avvent) 

Oiunti A ci.8A del pddre diUa 
fmeiuUa. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 10.) 



It is at yoor option to tiSkm 
which of the two you like beat, 
or, if you with, both of them. 

The matter i8 gone out. 

The mistreaa is engaged. 

Tou are the master here. 

Mr Charles Dati, Mr. Augustine 
Nelli, and Mr. Andirew Cai^canti 
salute you affectionately. 

Cardinal Spinola, oor legate. 



The master, the' marquis, axkd 
tlie countess. 



Mr. Achifles ! 

And turning to the rustics, he 
said : ** See, 2rs, in what condi- 
tion he had left me at ^tkt inn.** 



Gentlemen and ladies, you most 
know, that 

They went, an*! I imagine that 
they found our Lord, Jesus. 

And by that good man tiiey 
were recommend€kl to our Lady 
of the Graces. 

"Yes, sir, [it is &e act] of n 
nobleman,*' crie4 out the count 

No, madam ; she Is acconpi^ 
nied by a stranger. 

Having arriyed at the house ef 
the father of the girL 



USE OP ARTICLES. 465 

BentM % dttadini non dbbiano The citizens sometimes go to 

a far c6$a del mSndo ▲ palXoio, court, though they have nothing 

pur talv6lta vi vdnno. (Bocc. in the world to do therd. 
g. 8. n. 5.) 

<Ar&pd ariati amico si caro^ You would not hare so dear 
per cut maXlevaddre tu anddssi a friend, for whom you would go 
A c6rt£. (Senec. Pist.) into court as bail. 

Che ▲ m 
'Bi'tsA an 
g. 7. n. 6.) 

OH sban 
tutu DI ci 
(Gio. Vill.) country. 



Che ▲ ii<$zzE, o A risTA, o ▲ That she might go to wedding, 

CBifsA anddr potSsae. (Bocc. or to a feast, or to church. 
. 7. n. 6.) 

OH sbanc^ uscirono qtUtsi Almost all the outlaws went 

tutu DI cittI, e DI coHTADO. out of the city, and out of the 



When we wish to designate a portion or a number 
of the objects in a class^ this may be done in four differ- 
ent ways : 

First, by naming only the objects of the class ; as, 
ho bu6n vino^ or buSni vini, ' I have good wine,' or 

* good wines.' 

Secondly, by using the preposition rfi, *of'; as, ho 
i>i budn vinOy or di budni wmi, ' I have [of] good wine,' 
or * [of] good wines.' 

Thirdly, by ttsing the same preposition and the arti" 
cle ; as, ho del budn vtno, or d^i bu6ni t;ini, ^ I have 
[of the] good wine,' or * [of the] good wines.' 

Fourthly, by using the indefinite pronoun iino^ itna^ 
^ ^^ or ^ an,' in the singular; alcHniy alcune, * some,' in 
the plural ; as, ho vs budn vino, or alcuni bu6ni vim, 

* I have a good wine, or ' some good wines.' Thus, 

orAndi b^stie, groat beasts ; 

Til AMPissiME, very extensive walks ; 

DI hiUi gioiilltj [of] beautiful jewels ; 

pi hu6ne merinde, [of] good lancheons ; 

p£llb canxdni, e t>£ aonitti, [of the] songs and [of the] 

soqnets ; 



406 



SYNTAX. 



DiciLi amUi, e d£' 9erv%d6ri, 

tvA lor soriUa, 
ALC^Ki su6i vtcim, 



some [of the] friends, and 

[of the] senraDts ; 
a sister of theirs; 
some of his neighbours. 



SXAMPLB8. 



GrIndi sisTiB fidnno tW l6ro 
bdichi, (Dav. Ann.) 

Esio av6a tIb ▲mpIssimb. 
(Bocc.) 

Po ho Dl Biu.1 QlOliLLI. 

(Bocc.) 

Avivan da lid J}i audirs mb- 
BiRos. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 9.) 

Commeid a fire d^llb cas- 
e6hi, b Di' sosAtti. (Bocc. 
g, 7. n. 3.) 

Fditi pre$taminU chtamdre ■ 

Dioi.1 AMfci, B d£' 8BRT1D<5rI, 

(Bocc. g. 10. D. 9.) 

Avivano tvA lor lORiLLA, 
cAiamdto LUabitia. (Bocc. s- 9. 
D. 6.) ^ * 

Tro96Uo eon alci^^ki tu6i ncf- 
si. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 8.) 



They have great beasts in their 
woods. 

It had very extenaiYe walks. 
I have beautifol jewds. 



They had from him good Iod- 

cheons. 

He began to write songs and 
sonnets. 



Having caused some friends and 
some seirants immediately to be 
caHed. 

They had a sister of theiis> 
called Elizabeth. 



He found him with some of 1^ 
neighbours. 



The English make use of the article before an or- 
dinal number joined to a proper name ; as, Leo thb 
Tenth, he, ; before a noun in apposition, or imme- 
diately following another, of which it expresses a 
quality ; as, Mr. Grant, the son of John, 8tc. ; also 
in speaking of quotations, or of the division of a book ; 
book THE Jirst, chapter the second, be. : in Italian, 
however, the article is suppressed ; as, 

it cardinMe Richelieu, primo cardinal Richelieu, thk gnme 
viinisiro di Luigi DecimO' minister of Liouis the Thix^ 
iirzo, teenth ; 



USE OP ARTICLES. 467 

giomSta nSna^ nov&la oUdva, the ninth day, novel the eighth. 

In speaking of buying and selling any thing, the 
English article a or a/», used with noUns of number^ 
measure, or weight, is expressed in Italian by the arti- 
cles s7/ lo, la I as, 

U frunUnto si vendiva ad the wheat was sold at eighty 
ottdnta lire il mdggio, livres ▲ bushel. 

The same article, a or an, in Italian is suppressed : 

First, after ,the verbs to be, to become, with a noun 
expressing the country, profession, dignity, or any other 
quality of the subject of the verb ; as, 

Viildrio Siri, JRalidno, Vittorio Siri, an Italian; 

/ki poita, I was a poet ; 

sarHe eapit&no, you will be a captain ; 

diverrcL cardindle, he will become a cardinal. 

Secondly, with a noun of the same kind after the 
verbs to make, to create, to appoint, to elect, to choose, 
to declare, to proclaim, whatever may be the subject of 
the verb ; as, 

fhcdo malisedlco, he made him a marshal ; 

lo dichiarb motto, she declared him a madman. 

Thirdly, before a noun in apposition, or qualifying 
another which precedes it ; as, 

^ U Tamigi, Jiiime d' hghH- the Thames, a river in Eng- 
iirra, land. 

Fourthly, before the title of a work ; as, 

discSrso di Luigi Quicciar' a discourse of Laigi Guicciar- 
dini, ' dini. 

BZAMPLKS. 

Ix. OARDiifiLB RicKBLiKU, Cardinal Richelieu, the prime 
Tsdmo MiNitTBo Di Lufoi Dxci- minister of Louis the Thirteenth. 
MOTfaxo. (Den. Letter.) 



468 



SYNTAX, 



GiORVItA 96tAt HOTiLLA OT- 

tIta. (Bocc) 

FU9d la mita del pdne ^ al 
frizso die il pdne aorebbe avuto, 
9t IL fbumIhto 9i fi>9%e vendiUo 
a lIbx trentatrd il h6ggio ; e 

•I YXlVDiVA fIkO ad OTTANT'A. 

(Manz. Prom. Spos.) 

VlTTORIO Sfsiy iTALlilfO, yti 

tUnidgrafo diUa edrU di Frdneia, 
(Den. Letter.) 

PoiTA rtiy e coruM di quil 
giuito — Figliudl d* Anclme^ the 
venne da Tr6ia, (Daot. Inf. I.) 

Jn Mgo di qu6Uo che mSrto 
irOf U BOiHttti, e rfciLo tiw 
maliscIlco. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 8.) 

SUL TahIoI, rit^MB d' IlfOHlL- 

TiRRA. (Bocc. Com. Dant.) 



The niatfa day, do¥»1 the cigbtfa. 



He fixed the price of bread, as 
if the wheat were add at Airty- 
three Uvrea a bushel ; and it was 
selling as high as eighty. 



Vittorio Siri, an Italian, wi 
historian to the court of France. 



I was a poet, and sang of that 
just son of Anchises, who came 
from Troy. 

He substituted him for the one 
who had died, and m«de bin his 
marshal. 

On the Thames, a rirer in Eng- 
land. 



DisciSrso di LuIgi Guicciar- A discourse of Luigi Gulccardini 
dChi di magistrdti. (Mach.) to the magistrates. 



EXERCISE XXX. 



The good, which man can derive from a thing, 
giovamintOf u6mo potire eavdr eSsa, 

consists either in (the) its utility, or (in iht) pleasure. 
eansistere — uHUf piaUre. 

He advised the king to wish for peace, and not war. 
— Cot^ortdre re voUre — pdce^ gmtrra. 

I know (of) many fine things, and (^ beaatiful little- 
sap6re mdlto b6Uo c6sa, b4Uo ean^ 

Bongs, and I I wish I to tell thee one* of them. 
z6ne, — I v6*^\ ^ dke^ »^ * *. 



* Dm, ia tbo./^«iaMM gfiid«r. 



USE O'F ARTICLES. 469 

The qae«ii hxcnng torned (hersdj) to Filomena, or* 

dered iier I to I continue. Now yoa say, that i^ 
p6rri^ > I I 9egttit6re. • d^e\ 

I of I all thingpi created for man, the faculty of 
Jra I tuUo c6$a eredte — — , — -^ 

speech (speaking) is that which properly and par* 

pcwUtre, prdprio par- 

ttcularly helongs to (is for) man, speaking I may 

tUoidre — — ti^fiu^, parldrt | ii 

be said I with reason to be an excellent tbinff* 
pud d^ I ina^iMt — — — Sttimo^ «d«<?. 

And being asked by her (of) the reason (why), he 

— domanddre , — 

related to her I word for word I his whole dream. 
rateonidte^ * I ordinataminte^ \ — •(^gn^. 

I I can I not say how, nor if the effect is true ; but 
— I to« I > («r« , ^tto 96r0 ; 

I believe H ibr certain. I . hope, ((kttt) you will 
erideri^ * effto, — Sperdre, 

not permit, that I, for I the great I love I bear 
$offerire, , | tSnto e idle \ am6r9 --• — 

yon, should leceive death I as I a reward. It ap- 
— , rieheri^ mdrte^ | per | — guiderddne, — pti^ 

peered to him, that he gave away, now to one^ 
Sre« S » i$$a^ don6re'\ • • \ 

and then (now) to another, casties, cities, and 

baronies. We have arms, men, and I well-fortified 
haroniia. drme, udmo, \ ben munUi 

quarters, and provisions for a long war. Speak to 
aUoggiamMo, vettuSgHa — lungo guirra, I^rddrCs^ 

hhn of past and present things, and of new foare. 
— pa$$dto^ • pre$6nU^ e69a\ • — nu6vo'' paunF, 

Weakness, fear, melancholy, and ijfnorance are the 
DthoUMxa^ HmSrCf maUtuon^ tgnordnMa 

40 



470 8YNTAX. 

sources of soperetitioo. The Romans were imired 
mrgimU trnfenUxiine, Bomhw OMwmtfirt 

to hardship, imtifaey and a military life. Italy is 

sitoated between two seas. Cane della Scalm ww 

ooft of the matest lords, that from the time of 
p& notiJbiHt nignSre, — — 

the emperor Frederic the Second | to this I I has 

been known I in Italy. The Tiber wa^es a great 
9ap6$9e I Baka, There bagnare — gram 

porticm of the state I of the Pope I . King Cbaiias 
pirte Sidto \ Pim^fid» \ . Re CMo 

died, when (the) his son I was I stiQ in Bornndy 
moHre, — ' — JigiiM6h* \ eeehM' \ * ^^g^ 

I onder the care of I the Duke Philip. The Aibo 
I mffr^eec m \ Duea Fi&fpQ. ' « 

separates it,* which, as yon know, flows from east 
Hmder^ ^, ~ — #o^<, e6rrere 9rUmU 

to west Rinieri king ' of Cjvna. Three yoong 
potUmte. re C^pro. giS- 

men love three sisters, and elope ^Aesiseisetj with 
•oae sin^ e^riUa^ fitggire* ^ > 

them to Crete. I see Fracastoro, Bevazzano, TnioB 
mene^ Crita. vedire 

GabrieL and farther on (more fiir) I see Taosow 

— « 2MKdfUI> «. 

The Greeks attributed them to thdr Oods, and to 
Gr6eo attriln^^ ^ Idd4o, 

those who performed those great deeds, idiich are 
eMi fdre grtm cdea^ 

recorded of Hercnles and Theseos, of Hector and 
Mrfoere EreSle TeeSo^ tttore 



' J, in tlM ytwfiiini fMdar. 



USE OP ARTICLES. , 471 

Achilles. He has thy sister for his wife. Thou wilt 
jSehUle. Morilla — mSgUe, — mf 

remember ((kyadf) | to I tell to thy father, that thy 
eorddre^^ \ di \ dire pddre, 

children, and his and my nephews, are not descendants 
figUudh, nepdtCf " * ndscenfi 

Ion their ' mother's side I I of I a paltiy-fellow. She 
per* mddre* \ \ da \ — pafUnUire, — 

made (to) her brother, and (to) her sisters, and (to) 
F6xe frutillo, sorilla, 

every other person, believe, that by the power of de- 
perM&fMf .erideref — indozzaminto de- 

mona this had appeared to them. Have yon heard 
m6nw €$$ere aeeadire^ ^ — vAre 

how your ffood brother-in-law 'treats your sister. This 
hu/kio cognate tratUare * aoriUa^, 

is my master. Without preserving faith to his friend 
sign&rt. aerbdre fid^ * * awSitt^ 

and to his master. Gentlemen, it is well to taste 
* • • nffnJbf^, Signbre^ igli lm6no — — 

(that we should taste) (some of) the wine of this 

a$$aggidre vino 

able man. Shall I tell it to the master or to 
vaienf v6mo, — din^ ' iignSre 

the mistress ? O, my Lord, when shall I ever 
»ign6ra ? O, ■ ', qv6ndo^ — * 

be happy ? A treatise I on I painting and I on | 
« Uito? Trattdto \ di \ pittura \ di \ 

sculpture I by I Leon-Battista Alberti. Guided by 

MCvUura \ di \ — 

(with the guidance of) Ulamane, a Persian. Having 
guida , Periidno, 

left Tauris, a royal city. In the times of the 

abbandcndre Tduridet reale^ cittd}. tempo 

emperor Frederic the Second. Under the pontificate 
mperatSre Federigo pontyicdtp 



471 SYNTAX 

•f Pope Clement the Sefeath. Twrnoj Jermaka 
P^ OmUnU , GentimUmme 

Delivered, Cuito the foortb, attna the third, the 
Uberdta, , , 

iret yeise. 



CHAPTER V. 

POSITION OP ADJECTIVES, 

Adjectives in Italiao, as we have already obs^ed 
at pp. 390 and 393, may be placed either brfore or 
after the subtiantivesj which they are to qualify ; as, 

'X^':^, \ [new sp«.««] bride; 

vim Bu65i, good wines ; 

bu6ne vwdndtj good meats. 

The tdpeetite it often separated finom itf siihstaotiv^ bf imathei 
word; m, 

un moruuUf di ddone «i«dt « coarent of wm$ rwj math ve- 

FAMdsOy Downed ; 

due edse rodlto &i mUi cost^mi two thiof^ nery much cootniy to 

contrIrib, my habits. 

There are, however, some adjectives which are to be 
placed after their substantives, and others which are to 
be placed before them ; as, 

JUra c RUDDLE, cmel monster ; 

indinazidne BissiTiCA, extravagant dispoeition ; 

BieLi dccki, beautiful eyes ; 

OR A If m^ great evil. 



POSITION OP ADJECTIVES. 



478 



Adjectives of nations ; adjectives expressing iaste^ 
stneUj or hearing ; denoting shape or form ; expressing 
colors^* the state of the elemeniSj and physical or 
mental qualities ; adjectives that may be used as nti- 
stantives ; that are formed of participles*; that govern^ 
or are connected withy any other part of speech ; are to 
be placed cfter the substantives ; as, 

dbiio ARABisco, 
yhvAIa LatIita, 
vino d6lcb, 
^r6e ODORiFXRK, 
wki Bolvi, 
l^rrt RiTdiiDx, 

rOMd* BlAlfCHI, 
itmpo TB1IPB8T680, 
Vicchio IRFBRMicCIO, 

pers&ne d6ttb, 

[UD g6bbo], s&rio edBBO, 



[acc^ao, da acc^ndere], Um- 
pada ACcitfA, 

Oau piiif X di vino, 



Arabian dresf ; 

Latin tongue ; 

Bweet wine ; 

Bweet herbs ; 

sweet voices ; 

round towers ; 

white rose-bushes; 

stormy weather ; 

siekly old man ; 

wise persons ; 

[a hunchbaek\y a hunchbacked 
tailor ; 

[lighJUdy ftom to lighlf], a light- 
ed lamp; 



cups filled with wine : 

To which may be added the following adjectives, which, 
generally y are put after the substantives ; viz. 

languid; 
importunate ; 
vicious ; 



Umgo, 


long ; 


eortOf 


short; 


f*fiT0, 


lazy; 


iMo, 


slow; 


nhUro, 


neuter; 


iniUro, 


entire; 



Idnguidoy 

importimo, 

vizidso, 

virluSsOy 

paurdsoj 

coraggiSsOf 



virtuous ; 
fearful ; 
courageous : 



• Inttaneet v feand, notwIthtUodhif, UMog th« po«Cf, in which adIeotiTM of 
•mtn are pat baibre the rabtUntiTM ; m, 

OM ^irkiUadprmH tb'm)b •ma'i.to,— There oo the greea emnel [Terduel 
M/mrmMir6tigli»fkritimdg»L (Daot. were toon shewn me the greet fpiriti. 



■■. (Petr. e. 4.) 

4Q0 



To be then eoreted with white fhntben. 



474 SYNTAX. 

And adjectives endmg ia eZe, and ik; Ut 
cnufiLfe, cruel ; | ctviui, oiriL 



Numeral adjectives, both cardinal and ordinaly and 
the adjective pronouns quitio^ ' this ' ; quiUo, ^ that ' ; 
coteiio or eodisiOj * that near you ' ; are to be placed 
brfore the spbstantives ; as, 

nt^B inni, ' two years ; 

6tto iMgiui, eight miles ; 

t2 Tiaxo fS}Am^y the third day ; 

\a siTTiMA c6sA, the seventh thing ; 

quisTo eoMtli^ this 4^a8tle ; 

quEU.' iiMO, that year ; 

corisTB l&gnmitj those tears. 

BXCSPT 

When the ordtnoZ Dumeral adjectives tre /otnad te « fmfvr w— t, 
or are iiMd in speaking of the dmmn of a %DQrk ; in which case tfaej 
areiMit q/)er thesuhetontivM;* as, 

Xhb&tio Orriro, Lsdvx D£- Urban the Eighth; Leo the 
ciMo, Tenth ; 

p&tU FRiMA, coru^ quABTA, part the first ; song the fourth : 

And the cardhuU naoMTal adjectives ventyno^ * twenty-ooe ' ; tmUU" 
nOf * thirty-one ' ; quararUunOf * forty-one ' ; Sec. ; which may be put 
either b^are or qfUr the sobstaatives. 

^ttmeral adjeetwes^ as we have already observed at p. 403, agree 
with their fu^s/anltotfs in gender and numker, * Now, by a pecoliaxi^ 
of language, if the numeral adjectives vtntwM^ tretUimo^ Uc^pretemt 
the 9ub$taniwet this substantive is put in the tmgylar ; but if the 

* Bat, wlwo, in ■peftking of books, the uUele if osod, wa Sad tbam, ia good 
wiitefft, both H^Mif aod ^«- tho •oUuothot; u, 

AVl Tsim'fiifo oA'irro id FurgaU- Id the twoodoih eaato oTUm Paijato- 

fitf, 4ili ncAmdo UgmmlegU 44? O^ ry, h» [DanUj tooes tho foosakcj of 

tkngi. (Fon.) tboCapeU. 

Maekianm, %u. lioao raiMo iUU MaebiATaL ia tbe flnt book mt tlM 

Jrt^TM Jn«»imtiiM. (Dmu) HiMoijofFJoMaoo. 



POSITION OP ADJECTIVES. 475 

Bimeral a^ljactives fiUaw the 9ub9taniio€y then the subitantiye is put 
in the plural ; as, 

novantuna rvota, ninety-ooe circles ; 

llTNi ventunoy twenty-ooe years. 

If there is any other toord connected with the substantive^ and this 
word precede* the adjectives verUunoy &c., it is put in the plural^ 
tboogn the substantive following the adjectives be in the singular \ but, 
if the word foUows the adjectives, it is put in the plural if it comes 
qfter the aubatantivef and in the lingular if it comes before ; as, 

Iltrx novantuna ru6ta, ninety-one circles more ; 

6nni trentutio iHTiRii thirty-one whole years ; 

veniutui pf ccoLA st^lla, tici- twenty-«ne small stars, very near 
Iff SIMS ira di Idro,* to each other. 



To which may be added the following adjectives, 
which, generally f are put before the substantives ; viz. 

•JwSnOf ffood ; 

cfdtimt had; 

grSnde, great ; 



JS?" S-^; 



hrdtto, ugly, bad ; 

riceoy rich ; 

p6vero, poor. 



There are some adjectives which may be placed 
either before or after the substantives, but whose posi-^ 



* Tbii QMge may appear contrary to reason : bat it is to be obaenred tbat tbete 
ftod aimilar exprenions are elliptical and stand for,— a'ltrb n ota'mta rudu, e v'wa 
WLV&tA, * ninety etrriw aiuione circle more ' j TB'.rtTi pieeole ttilUt ed v'»a ricooLA 
■Ts'iXA, MbK« noiHiasms tsa oi i.6ao. * twenty tmall stars, and one small star, aU 
rarj near to each other'; lie., which sentences were first abbreviated into.— > 
a'ltbb bova'ivta, « u If a ru6ta, * ninety and one circle more ' : tb'uti ed u'lf a 
rfoooLA stb'ixa, vicinissiMB, Ito.,* ' twenty and one small stars, very near, Ate.' 
mod afterwards into, — a'ltbb if ovantu'ma bu6ta ; — vszfTtJ'nA fIocola st^'ixa, 

TIOIViSSIMB, ftO. 

Hotwitbstaodinff this, there are Initaoeea of some writers niinf the smbstantive io 
Um pfatrol, oTon.when prteeded by the numeral adjectives ventimOf &e. ; as, 

£11^, sdJscdmOf 9iu> JigUudlOf e ttita ^nfeas, and Ascanius his son, and all 

sCia g^»t« db'llb VBifTU'if a If a'vi, la the crews of the twenty-one ships, were 

ditta rslM ^ct^lsa osn grimda amirs, received by the said queen with great 

(Vill.) honors. 

TWvsr^ V Cpara idX* Alees&ndro Yon will find the Opera of Alsxander 

Mir I'ndiepMsdrtarff quMlo,<thsMiAra in India 561 Udm shorter, than It has 

4«ldl«,ii561 vm'Bsi. (Metast. lett.) been hitherto. 



476 SYNTAX. 

tion affects the tignifieation ; as, gdUmtej gentile^ $Haj 
UrtOj ddppioj simplice. Thus, 

un eALART' u6mOf a good^ aa honorable man ; 

im u6mo eALiit tb, a eourteoua, a galant man ; 

un gbntil' uSmo, a ||rentleman, a nobleman ; 

ttfi tiSmo oEifTlLE, a civil, gende, coarteons, kind 



«m 86lo uSmOy a single man [one only] ; 

«m tM^mo 86lo, a single man Tnot married, 

withoQt family] ; 

{ma ciRTA MoMxHb certain [not well ascertuned] 

news; 
(ma noHzia ciRTA, . certain [ondoabted] news ; 

un ndppio amieoy a doable friend [two or equal 

to two friends]'; 
im amko d6ppio, a doable [false] friend ; 

un siMPLicE coniaSnOf a single [no more than one] 

countryman ; 
un eaniadino siicPLiCK, a simple [inezperieiiced] coon- 

tryman. 



Two or more adjectives, qualifying the same substan- 
tive, may be placed before or after the substantive ; as, 

vimiE e DiviasB novithy varioos and difforent new 

things ; 
con pinni isiKomi e istttQuiy with garments fall and loof, 
e v6e% dMiia e MAirsuiTs, and language humble aiM 

meek. 

Sometimes they are separated by putting one of them 
before , and the other or others after the substantives, 
which adds grace and elegance to thef phrase ; as, 

h6bile gidvane e b^ula, a noble and beaotifQl young 

woman; 
n6btli vtsHmhUi e r(cchi, rich and elegant clothes. 



POSITION OF ADJECTIVES. 



477 



SXAMPXiSf. 



W da. n^ pdrte dUa nuoya 
BPotA, ehe nelle mie eontrdde 
$* ^M, quSndo aleun foresiUre 
mdngia al eatwito delta 8p6sa 
l|u6vA .... (Bocc. g. 10. n. 9.) 

Ma r 6ra del mangi&re ven&ta, 
r abate e tutti gli dltri e di Budii b 
TiTAif Ds e di TiFi Bv6ni $ert^ 
furona, . (Bocc. g. 10. n. 2.) 

In quSete nSstre eontrdde fiif 
ed h aneSra, un MOHASTiRo di 
Dojfvs A sail rAM68o di eaniitd. 
(Bocc. g. 8, n. 1.) 

Mi eonverrh far Dt^s c6sx 

I|6lT0 Xi HIJ^I C08T15mI cohtrjL- 

lux. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 8.) 

drbero^ rxiRA CRUDiLE e «It- 
t^raa, — Con tre g6k eanmc^ 
minu Idtra — S69ra la gHite, 
che quivi d eommerea. (Dant 
Inf. 6.) 

OK itorpidH eaprieei diUa tda 
naturdfe ihclihaziohx BiiBiTi- 
CA. (Alleg.157.) 

EW ^ de* $u6i sioLi 6cchi 
9ed6r vdga. (Dant. Purg. 27.) 

Quiito i dilmque U grah mAlx, 
n ORAH pecedtOf it orah ^<<o 
odoperdio da Qisippo 7 (Bocc. 
g. 10. n. 8.) 

V aldte, con tutto che igU in 
^BITO ARABisco fSssCt d^o at' 
qudnto U raffigurd. (Bocc. g. 10. 
n. 9. 

La giStane ud6ndo la fat^ixa 
Lat^ma, dubitdf non firee dltro 
9^0 V aUsee a IJpari rUomdta. 
(Boec. g. 5. n. 2.) 

V uve irdppo moHire fdnno H 
▼(ho piii D6LCKy ma mino poiin" 
te. (Gr.4.22.) 



Tell the bride from me, that it 
is a custom in my country, when 
any foreigner goes to the banquet 
of the bride 



But when the hour of dinner was 
come, the abbot and all the others 
were helped to good meats and 
good wines. 

In this neighbourhood of ours 
there was, and there if still, a con* 
vent of nuns very much renowned 
for sanctity. 

I shall be obliged to do two 
things very much contrary to my 
habits. 

Cerberus, cruel and strange 
monster, through his threefold 
throat barks as a dog orer the 
multitude which is inunersed there. 



The lame caprices of his natural 
extravagant disposition. 

She is charmed to behold [In 
the glass] her beautiful eyes. 

Is this, then, the great evil, the 
great sin, the great crime com- 
mitted by Gisij;»pus ? 

Although he had on an Arabian 
dross, the abbot soon recognised 
him. 



The young woman, hearing the 
Latin [Itali^] tongue, feared, lest 
a contrary wind had brought her 
back to Lapari. 

Grapes, when too ripe, make 
more sweet wine, but less power- 
ful. 



478 



SYNTAIL 



JVii^ aiMoano ttttdmo^ par- 
tdfido niUe m6ni, eki fidriy cH 
iRBB ODORfrERX. « cHi divir$e 
manUre di ipesiene, (Boec.Intr.) 

Parl&tmi rSdo eon vdci 9oLyi. 
(Dant. Inf. 4.) 

S6pra le m^ara ditta eUtd edi- 
JU6 t6rai rit6>dx mSUo sp4$9e» 
(Gio. VUI. 1. 1. c. 88.) 

/ IdH diUe qudH oS«. tutH di 
Rosit BiiifCHi e vermtgU, e di 
geUofi^m 6raH0 chiu$u (Bocc. 
g. 8. D. 1.) 

€h>n 6$$a tiarte im t^mfo fie' 
rissimo e tkmpxst680. (Bocc 
g.6.D.K) 

Fo non vorrH, che n6i pigUdi- 
iimo un grdnekio, e eh* i* fiist 
qudlehe riccBio dibole o in- 
FXRMiecio. (Blach. Mandr. 4. 9.) 

Ma dSpo $i fa U FXRs<Sifs 
d6ttx. (Dant. Par. 22.) 

Cogtui fit WM di* piii ii^flmi 
mdstri di quiUa e&rU^ allUto di 
urn sIrto oobbo. (Day. Ann. 16.) 

^6Ue mdni le n p6nga una 
lAmpada AccisA. (Ann. Car. 
leU.) 

Con aledne tazzb in mdno 
FiiHB DI riKo, (Car. lett.) 

La risTAf ehi tmSl ehe^ tia 
Li5ifOA ftno a* piidit ehi corta 
/ino dUe ginScehia. (Car. lett.) 

Del lungo 6dio cirf l H prSgan 
fine. (Pelr. c. 41.) 

JWZ ditto dnno $i eomineid, e 
Ju Dds Anni segtUnH^ griaide 
e&ro di gr&no tfi Fir€n*e, (Qlo. 

ruj.) 



Many went about canying in 
their hands, some, flowers* some, 
sweet herbs, and others, difieieDt 
kinds of spices. 

They spoke seldom, but their 
words were sweet 

Upon the walls of the city be 
built round towers Tory frequent. 

The sides of which ways were 
all lined with white and red roae> 
bushes, and jasmine. 

With it [the night] aroee stoimy 
and Tery seTcre weatlier. 

I should not wbh, that we 
make a mistake, and that he It 
some feeble and sickly old i 



Bat make the persons, that fiil- 
low them, wise. 

Tins one was one of die most 
infamous monsters in that courts 
aud a pupil of a hmichhecked 
tailor. 

Let a righted lamp be put into 
her hands. 



Holding some cups filled with 
wine. 

As for her dress, some wiB 
have it to reach to her feet, others 
to her knees. 

They bee that you will pirt an 
end to the long dril hatred. 

In the said year, began in Flor> 
ence a great scarcity of com, 
which lasted for tlie two ibUowing 
yean. 



POSITION OF ADJECTIVES. 



479 



Thir castle is situated 
miles from Florence. 



eight 



IB qjjikno cAsriLLO p6ito pro- 
pinqiu> a Fir6nze ad 6tto mIolia. 
(Macb. Stor.) 

QudH mti, y^a il riEzo Almost all died within the third 
ei6R«o, marioano, (Bocc. Intr.) day. 

La siTTiBA cdsA eJie e* induce The seventh thing which in- 
m/ar penUinxa, ^ . . . . (Pass.) duces us to do penancOi is 

Le viti faeivano gran t^9ta di 
dovire QUKUi' in ho a$s6i uoe 
fSu-e. (Bocc. g. 1. n. 2.) 

Jil qudle la dSnna disse: " Tan- 
eridif terba cot^stb lIorimk a 
mino detiderdtafortuna," (Boco. 
g.4.n. 1.) 

1 ^tCrif gU seuUdri, e gU 
arcfutitti del ihnpo di Pdolo 
Qoimo, e di URBjLifo Ottavo, 
ffum eedevano qudsi per dltro ri- 
gudrdo a mUUi the maaero aStto 
Lk6jis Dkcimo, e Pdolo TiRZo, 
Juorehi nel nUrito di av6re ^er- 
ta e diaegndta la strdda, (Den. 
RiT. Ital. 1. 28. c; 12.) 

Peir&rea, pIbtb prima, cah- 
i6hk qvarta. (Crus.) 

P6i per la medinma tia pdre 
det^^lfdert Xjutrb jroYANTt^NA 
rv6ta. (Dant. Cent.) 

Tinnemi amUn ivni tzht^ho 
ardSndo. (Petr. s. 312.) 

Canidndo knwi TRsiiTt^Ho iw- 
TiRi ipiti, (Petr.) 

La nubil6$a cT Ori6ne gli ap- 
pari formdta da ybntt^na pfc- 

COLA STELLA, TICIMfsSIMB TRA 

DI LORD. (Tris. Elog. GaUl.) 

U SignSr Qiovdnni Corvino 
rithitdia <r i$$er fSitto OBNTiLB 
v6ico Vinixidno. (Bemb.Stor.4.) 

Mmwa ^ aBRiiL nel eiiU che 
M compidnge — Di qu^ato tm- 



The vines seemed as if they 
would produce an -abundance of 
grapes tnat year. 

To whom the lady said : << Tan- 
cred, save those tears against 
worse fortune than this." 

The painters, the sculptors, and 
the architects of the times of Paul 
the Fifth and Urban the Eighth, 
were uot inferior, perhaps, to those 
who lived under Leo the Tenth, 
and Paul the third, in any other 
respect than the merit of having 
opened and marked the way. 

Petrarch, part the first, song the 
fourth. 

Then he seemed to descend 
ninety-one more circles by the 
same way. 

Love kept me in a flame twenty- 
one years. 

I consumed thirty-one years in 
the study of the Muses. 

The nebula of Orion showed 
itself to him to be formed of 
twenty-one small stars, very near 
to each other. 

Mr. John Corvino, asked to be 
made a Venetian nobleman. 



There is a courteous lady in 
Heaven who mourns this hin- 
drance. 



480 



SYNTAX. 



Jioindo Uee l^meriM yXbii s 

DITiRSB VOTTrl pOM^te. (BOCC. 

g. 4- n, 1.) 

77 ^iMUe Ampia maUria nd 
pritta a dimo9trSart qu&$Ua e 
qm&ie «U la ipoeresia di* reHgiSiij 
c6* rknni lIrobi x liSngri, e 
c6* viii artiJieialminU pdlHdi, s 
c6Ue t6ci i^mili b marsubtx 
nel d0mmnd6r P MruL (Bocc 
g. 4. n. 2.) 

Om^tdo, aidio ui luiigo Irof- 
(dto d» doo^ l^rre per m4^ 
{ma ii6bii.b oi^yahb b BiixA, 
ehiamdta Ca9$dndra. (Bocc. g. 
6. n. 1.) ^ 

Maistre Maxtd*^ avindo pri$a 
per m^iglU 4ma bSUa e geiM 
gi6vane, di udeiu TBSTiifiiiTi m 
RiccHi la teiUva/ormta. (Bocc. 
g. 4. n. 10.) 



TMtred ht?faig roFoHvd In Uf 
lod TBiioui md HMhicnl w&w 
Uiiiiga. 

Which [proTBchJ tflbrds M5 bi&* 
pie mttter to riuw how gmt it 
tho hypocrisy of the mgiooB^ 
who have garmeDto fhll mod ioiig» 
and fiices made pale artificially* 
and language humble and me ek 
for the purpoM of getting men*c 
property from them. 

Ormisda, who had been loo^ 
talked of af about to many a 
noble and beautiful young woman, 
called Casnndra. 



Master Mazzeo. haring BBanied 
a beautiibi and noole woiDan» k^t 
her well provided with rich and 
degant ck>thes. 



EXERCISE XXXI. 



There was once (one time) a num of a baa- 

— £»$ere — v6Ua «^m# *e^ 

eficent heart This courtier had the mk fo ftune 

n^/ico* eu6re^. ■ c^rtigidno^ » 

(bad fortune) of losing the favor (Mm^ in die- 

fariufia — — — cad^ dS^ 

grace) of his master. The astrologer of the Cafinli, 
grdtia tigndre. aatrUogo Cat^fb^ 

after varioas observations, said. I have been wtitiBf 
edm OMHTvaaSne^ dire. — — — — 

so long (it is so long tiiat I wrke)^ that my 

hand I ought to be I accustomed to it The aflkirs 
mdno I doorSbbe S$*ere^^ | aw6xufi '. * etfs^ 



POSmON OP AWECTIVES. 4^ 

of tbwB Xjombards being prosperom^ N/9^ sinful woqwm 
* l^mbdrdo^ * proipero. , feo fimminQ 

w«fl over iqore deserviog (of) tk» fire than I ^ — t {f^ 
— tUgne^ * fu6co^ — — * 

I should be]. People really pio^s, are wi^e. Altboagb 
• *. Per86na v4rQ jno, sdoio, 

h9 knd a very long beard — rr^ (the beard gf^a^, 
' — — — — — baria grdnde, 

2%yiugy I from \ a very rich ^d grea^ merchant 
UerCf I di \ rieeo gran mertatdnte, 

beeomo a oobleoQan. He showed Iq him a ndb]^'^ 
dinenire* eavaliire^, ^- Mostr&re,^ eava- 

man, called - Philip Argenti, a' laan largp am) iobu8t» 
lUre, eJUamare f Hippo , ttSm grotidfi nerporuta, 

very ^isdainfMl, irascible, and passionate. Shft 
/6rte tdegmdso, irac6ndQ, hizzorro. — 

Ik te Md I J her I hands up, and I in J (tint) cip^ 
Tinga | | 2a | m4no dlto^ \ da | 

haod a whiite child asleep —^^ihat sleeps), 1 to J 
— bianco fanciuUo — dornwtf \ per \ 

represent sleep; i in I the other a black pnef seemingly 
tignificdrt ionno ; \ da \ n6ro — 

Mi}e«p ,,,-,«. (that seems to be asleep), I to represent J 
-^ parirt — — dormire, \ mgn^cki 1 

death. Immediately be collected a^ large, fine, ai^ 
m6rit, Priito — eongr^gdre grdnde^ bUl/o, 

powerful army.' Some (^ the) chenies are sweet, 
podcr6$o Sate, Urtc^ ' driSgia* d6Uet 

and some sour. I have many valuable precious stones. 
^ e6rto 6gro, mdlto rieeo preeidso pUtra, 

The Pope had kept in the college of Pisa (Pisan 

• Pdpa^ * tenere — — — Pi$6mo 

college), to learn Divine letters, Raphael of Riario, 
studio, impardre Ponl\fleio UlUra, RaffaSUo , 

a nephew of Count Jerome. The first and moit 
nipdte Cdnte Oirdlamo, 

• AV, fiw «# •••. t Oii. for ««t*«r. 

41 • 



489 SYNTAX. 

essential admntage, which I oagbt to hare been de- 
€isenzi6U friUto, \ «t* dov6ccfi riecttdre' 

rived I I from I the new studies, was the knowledge 
I I lii' I ' nxidwi^ 8tudio\ cognixithie 

of the ancient Latin and Greek authors. The Academy 
aniieo Latino Greco autdre. jSccad6mia 

of (the) Inscriptions and Belles Lettres is posterior. 
hcrixidne Billa LiUera pottoridrm 

to the Florentine Academy, and that of the Cmscm. 
Fitfren6no Aceadkmxa, — 

Lnlli was the father and creator of the French nansic 
podre eremtdre FranUte miuum. 

A certain kind and cha^tahle little-woroan. Cofoi- 
cirto eompassiorUvole cantmtivo ddnna. Com- 

punction does a great pood, and renders man httmble, 
punxi6ne Jare gran bine, rHdere wmio umiU^ 

and charitable. He was tall, and of very pleasing^ 
caritatho. grAnde, piac^vole 

and graceful deportment, and (a young man) of a middle 
grazmo manUrm, giSocMe miszo 

age. (Tke) their conrersation* having been long, and 
etd, ' ragionaminto* ■ * lungOy 

the heat excessive. Giving her to eat some roota 
edUdo grdnde. Ddre^^ da mangiSre rmdkt 

of herbs, and wild fruits, and dates. 
irbOf BnlvdUeo pdmo, ddltero. 



OmMTMCiMi !■ Um fbtnL 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 483 



CHAPTER VI. 
USE AND POSITION OP CERTAIN PRONOUNS. 

PERSONAL FROIVOUNS. 

iTAijiAfj personal pronovns^ as it has been already men- 
tioned at pp. 105, 164, 165, when they form the subject 
of the verb may be either expressed or understood ; as, 

(o vidi un' drca non irSppo I saw a good-sized chest ; 
grdndt^ 

MarsUioj cSme v6i sapUe^ h Marseilles, as you know, is an 
anlica t nobilissima citthy ancient and famous city : 

A<2 a negdrty ni a pregdre I am neither inclined to deny, 
[io] son diapdslOy nor to pray ; 

U che lieiamhUe [v6\] comr which thing yon will take in 
porUrile, good part 

When personal pronouns are expressed, they are gen- 
erally put before the verb ; but they may also be placed 
after it ; as, 

±Qhi atia V aniUo assdicdro^ he held the ring very dear ; 

J^ vSglio [io] oul iralascidr nor do I wish to omit saying 
di dire una cisoy one thing. 

When, however, a command is given, or a question is 
asked, or when, in narrations ^ the sayings or doings of 
a person are meniioned, the pronouns are always put 
after the verb ; as, 

mdngi [fuLi] dd sito, «' igli let him eat of his own proper- 
ne Ao, ty, if he hits any. 

che vdi [tu] fac4ndo per what art thou doing in this 

quksta conirddaf street? 

" dimmi il ptrchk^ dxss'^ lo, « tell mo the cause," said I. 

io non piangiva ; piangivan I wept not ; they wept 

iLLJ, 



184 ' STNTAX. 

When personal pronouDs are preceded by the adv^erbs 
dme^ siccdmCj ^ as ' ; quanta j ^ so much', < as ' ; they are 
put in the objective ; and consequently to, ^ I ' ; t», 

* ihou ' ; SgU, * he ' ; ella^ * she ' ; eglino^ ellenOj * they ' ; 
are changed into m«, * me ' ; <e, * thee * ; /6i, • him ' ; /ei, 

* her ' ; IdrOj * them * ; if the verb of which they are sub- 
jects is not expressed ; — but they remain in the subj^- 
tivcj and are never changed^if the verb of which they are 
subjects is expressed ; as, 

irano 8icc6iii l^i mciltnM, they were as malicioafl as he ; 
qoAifTo vK, pu6U issere oi- any one may be as afflicted as 
e^n doUnttf I : 

Se iofksi niUm vim p6ia A If I were in the street as he 

ieLi, is ; 

ft Mi f6»n in >Ata g6m< if he were within the hovn as 

BONO io, I am. 

When two of these pronouns come, one before^ and 
the other after ^ the verb issere^ ' to be * ; or cridertj 
Mo believe'; and these verbs imply an idea ofiransmu- 
iation from one to the other of the two pronouns ; 
that which precedes the verb, is put in the subjective, and - 
that which yb/Zotr^ it, is put in the objective ; as> 

credhxdoj ck* io f68si te, believing me to be tbee ; 

in€travigli6ssif che {£gli] wondered much tb&t he shoold 
r6s8E cREDi^To Li5t, be taken for bitn. 

If the pronouns to, tUy egliy illoj iglino, illeno occur 
with an infinitive^ and this infinitive follows the pro- 
nouns, the pronouns are put in the objective ; but if the 
in6nitive precedes the pronouns, the pronouns remain in 
the subjective ; as, 

udindo li^i con gti 6Uri is- bearing that be and his com- 

8£R fn6jio^ panions were dead ; 

eonoscindo i.ii non issBRs knowing that she was not of a 

di bu6n legndggio, good condition : 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNa 



485 



Abn basidndogli <P issER 
£gli dioeniUo ricchUsitno, 

disp6se di an dare tLLAtne- 
diaima per 4ssOf 



He not being uatisfied with 
having become very rich ; 

sbe determined to go herself 
after him. 



BZAMPLSf. 



MadSnna, fo vfoi questa aira 
al tCrdi uiv' Irca hon tr^ppo 
GmJLNOE. (Bocc. g. 4. d. 10.) 

Marsilia, come vdi 8ap£te, 
^ in Fro tin za s6pra la marina 
sitvaia, aictica e kobilissjiia 
ciTTJL. (Bocc. g. 4. D. 3.) 

TanerSdit jtk a negare vk a 

PREGARE SON DlSPdsTA. (BoCC. 

g. 4.nl.) 

Il CHE, se sdvj aiite, lieta- 
m£!«te comporter£te. (Bocc. 
g. 10. n. 8.) 

ioU AV^A Lr' AN^LLO ASsAl 

cIro per akuna virtUf che ttdto 
gU ira ddio ad inUndert, che 
igH avta, (Bocc. g. 3. d. 9.) 

N^ voGLio QUI tralasciAr di 
dIre t)ivA cos A, la gudle mi pat 
mdlto vdra, (Bote. Stor. Aioer. 
I. 6.) 

Or mAngi del si^o, s* icLi re 
HA, che del n6$tro non mangerd 
igli, (Boec. g. 1. n. 7.) 

O figliuSlat CHE vAi Tu a 
guenC ura, co$\ edla^ /ac£iido per 

QUisTA contra DA ? 

" DImmi *l PERCHi," diss* fo; 
** per tal coneegnot — Che se tu 
a ragidn di lui ti pidngi, — - Sap- 
piendo dti v6i $i6le^^ e la sita pec- 
ca, — Jfrl m6ndo bubo anc6r w U 
ne edngi," (Daot. Inf. 32.) 

fo jfoii piAivG^VA, $\ d^ntro 
impietidi : -^ Piang^van £li.i ; 
ed Anselmuccio mio — Dt9$e : 
" Tu gnardi »\ypddre ! che hdi?** 
(Daat lof. 83.) 

41» 



Madam, I saw late in the even- 
ing a good-sized chest.- 

Marseilles, as you know, is an 
ancient and famous city in Prov- 
ence, situated on the sea coast* 

Tancred, I am neither inclined 
to deny nor to pray. 

Which thing, if you be wise, 
you will take in good part. 

He held the ring very dear, on 
account of some viriue, which 
they had made him believe it pos- 
sessed. 

Nor do f wish to omit mention- 
ing here one thing, which appeait 
to me to be very true. 

I^t him eat of his own prop- 
erty, if he has any, for he will not 
eat of ours. 

Daughter, what art thou doing 
in this street, alone, at this hour? 

" Tell me the cause," said I, 
" on such condition, that if right- 
fully thou giievest for him, know- 
ing who yuu are, and his sins, I 
may repay thee in the world 
above.'* 

I wept not ; so petHBed was I 
within : they wept ; and my little 
Anselm criod : '* Thou loukefct so, 
father! what aiU thee ? " 



486 



SYNTAX- 



Coitif^f dbe Mr dierm pMe 

iAAHO 91CC6UZ V6l MALIlldsi. 

(Bocc g. 1. n. 4.) 

Siech^f qulvTO mi, tv&rk ^§- 
IKBB ALcdv DoUurtm, (Bocc. 
Ftloc.) 

Che d^iste v6i^ sb io f688i 
ii£lla viA c6iiB i ioLi, od 
icLi rossB IK ci.tA c6mb bovo 
fo? 

CiixDiKDo i$$o, CH* fo r^ssi 
TB, m* Aa con un bastSne tutto 
r6tio. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 7.) 

BdARAyioLidssi firte Ted&ldOy 
eke aleww in tdnto il 8omiglid$*e, 

CHB FOtfSB CBJCD^TO Lt^I. (BoCC. 

g.8.n.7.) 
Za gidrume, UD]£irDO li^i coir 

OLI il^TBI tSBEfL IfdRTO, Alfl^O- 

flR^iU« pidtue, (Bocc. g. 5. d. 2.) 

CoNOSCiffDO Lit NOV ]£88BBB 

oi LBGnAoeio eke dlla ma n^ 
•6tUd 6^ $U99e, tuito gdegndwo 
4^ie, (Bocc g. 8. n. 9.) 

Ma HOir BAsrAirDOOLi d* is- 
«BR l^GU e' tK^ e0m/)4^ in 
frrt^ve tempo diten&ti ricchIb- 
•iMi. (Boce. g. 5. D. 2 ) 

8ieo DiiPosB di pon mand&re^ 
ma d' ahdJLrb £lla mbi>£8iiia 
vsK iasow (Bocc g. 6. b. 9.) 



TbMe, who, on ttte othar aide, 
wwo M BiattciouB «■ ke. 



So that, M^b*^ MBj be^M 
afiiU:ted «■ I. 



What would you say if I were 
fd the street as he is, or he wHhin 
the housd as I aim ? 

Believiog lAe to be thee, he 
has broken all my bonei with a 
cddgel. 

Tedaldo wondered much, ihat 
any one should be so much Cke 
himself, as to be taken for him. 

The young woman, hearing, 
that he and his coinpanioos were 
dead, was vefy much griered. 

Knowing that she was of a 
condition that did not weH com- 
port with his nobtli^, he said widi 
disdain. 

But he and his friends Dtft bciBg 
satisfied with their having becMM 
very rich in a short time. 

She determined hot to »eiid, 
but to go herself after hifla. 



COHJUlf CT^YE FROiroVlfS. 



We observed (p. 109), that eonjunctwe pronowu mre 
«sed instead of pergonal pronounij when these pronouDS 
are io the objective or in the telntwn of aitribuiumi 
and are closely connected with a verb, of which they 
are the direct or indirect regimen. 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS, 



$sr 



This is always the case when there is but one per- 
sonal pronoun in ihe phrase in the abovemtniioned rela- 
tiansj when the emphasis does not fall upon this pro- 
noun, and when this pronoun is not in apposition with 
the subject of the verb ; as, 

m pot&e Idrrt qudnlo Ungo 

fior, A M£ potato idrrte, 

&c.], 
pteiosamhtte il chiamdva 

[for, cbiamdva i.ilu], 

CI facistt la hijk [for, a 1161 
tac^e, &C.J, 

l,E VI donerd [for, a t6i do- 
oer6 l6ro], 

But, if there are more than one personal pronoun in 
the phrase, in the objective or in the relation of attribu- 
tion; if the emphasis falls upon the pronouns; and if the 
pronouns are in apposition with the subject of the verb, 
or in apposition with each other; the conjunctive pro- 
nouns are not used and the personal pronouns retain 
their places ; as, 



yon can tak^ away ftotti me 
all I have ; 

she called hira with a piteooB 
voice 5 

you should put a trick upon 
us; 

I will give them to you. 



Mt fum ueeiderdi iu, 

<uo dirtj che i' sia un iUro 

poirisit v6i e me consoUurt^ 



ojfibi ME per nan 

nt fuj ed A l£i ed a me, per 
p^nadAiOf k iJtt dx Jug- 
girvii davimti^ td a m^ di 
stguHdria^ 



thou shalt not murder me ; 

I am wont to say that he is, 
another self; 

you might console both your- 
self and me ; 

I injured myself not to injure 
hira; 

it was, to both her and me, 

given as a punishment, to 
er to flee before me, and to 
tne to pursue her. 



Conjunctive pronouns are commonly put b^ore the 
verb, but may also be placed after it. When before 
the verb, they are placed immediately after the personal 
pronouns; and when after^ they are, as it has been 



488 



SYNTAX. 



already stated at p. 110, always joined to the yerb, 90 
as to form a single word ; as, 

he loves yon ; 

he gave him his benedictioo ; 

they will rati to oar bouses, 

and rob as of our property ; 
to send him out of our hoose 

would be in us agreat^uilt; 



igli VI aauf, 

dOdeoLi la sim henedizi^hef 

cgrrer&nnoci 6Ut cdse^ e T a- 
virt CI rnberdnno, 

U manddrho fu6r di cdsa ne 
SAKifiBE gran hi&simo, 

t^wtdronmi bine^ 

&m tucito di nUnte f 

mastr6cci un^ dmhrc^ 

We ha^e already bbserved (pp. 338-340), that iy\finitive$ and i 
other forniM ot! verbs, when joined to conjunctire pronouns^ drop their 
latt vowel; and that the consonant uf conjunctive pronouns (jsU only 
excepted) must be doubled when joined to those forms of verba, 
which either consist of one syllable, or end with aii accented 1 



they assisted me well ; 
has it escaped thy mind ? 
he showed us a spirit. 



When the verb is in the infiniiivef in the gerund, id 
the participle^ or in the imperative mood,* the con- 
junctive pronouns are always to be put after the verb ; 
as, 



ncoviiinc{6 a JhreiA i mag- 
gi6r piacin^ 

irovdndosi i^i ima wiUa a 
Parigi, 

son venula a ristordrrt d€ 
ddnni ovW, 



she began to do him again the 
greatest kindnesses ; 

he finding himself once in 

Paris; 
I am come to make thee some 

amends for the evils 8a»* 

toined ; 



* NoiwithaUndin; this rule the followinf exainr>lM may be cited tnm tkt 
clanica, io which the conjunclive pronoui ia put b^ore the imptrmtivti 



Fimmi riUrwir$ 6Uafrigi6nef « eehn 
fudnto ti pUue m /• vtigg^r*. (Boco. 
f. a. 0. C) 

^itddtt v6i e Sire c trovAr CaBkmme», 
e GLi Au cMs la cd#a i proeedAia bins, 
(Uach. C^min.) 

Edina lui : «* Con fi&ngef « earn IktU, 
— SinrUo flMMdOe, ti rimAsL*' (Dant. 



Caoee me to be carried back te mj 
prt«oa, and there caoae me to be ter- 
mooted as much at thoa pteoaeaC 

Co you and ^jrm* to ftod Goltimaebai, 
and tell him that the affair west oa 
weU. 

And T nid to him : «< In 
io woe, eureed spif it, do thoa rei 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 489 

ricorddndoTi <UUa tiui pre' bringing to thy mind thy past 
Urita vUoy life ; 

muSvari quisto adlo mio dtio^ let this act of mine alone move 

thee ; 
salutaloLO, il domandd $e igli afler he had saluted him, he 
^MoUiBMt niinte^ aslced him, whether any 

thing ailed him; 

Mlem bu6n amico^ be my good friend ; 

fiUtohA. prindere^ having caused her to be taken. 

XZCEPTIONS. 

When the adverb non, ' no,' or * not * ; precedes the verb in the tm- 
periUite, the conjunctiv6 ptonoons mui t be put hefire the verb ; as, 

non fi rinda ridteola, do not make yourself ridiculous ; 

non LE ddte ritta, do not mind her. 

Conjunctive pronouns are sometimes put beforef even when the 
verb is in the i$f{finitioe and in the gerund, preceded by the adverb 
non ; as, 

mi aria pronUtso di non s' al- she had promised me, that she 

lontandre, wouM not depart ; 

nan m vedindo giungere^ not seeing me arrive. 



The conjunctive pronoun Wro, * to them,' or * them * j 
id always to be put ctfter the verb ; as^ 

vediUi h6K0 in s\ pSvera con- having seen them in so mis- 
dizidtie^ erable a coodition ; 



mandd l6ro dichido . . • . , sent to them, saying 



When iSro is in the objective, the pronouns gli or 2t, for the rruueu- 
line gender, and le for the /(rmtiu'ns, sometimes talie its place, but then 
iheyfoUotD the general rule ; as, 

faedndoGXsi [or, fac^ndo l6ro causing them {her chUdrenl to 

(i suoi figli)] da bu6ni mac' be instructed by good masters; 
$iri insegndre, 

OI.I fiee [or, f(lce l6ro] im- she made them learo all good 

pardre iutU U bu6ne drti^ arts. 

When more than one conjunctive pronoun occur with 



490 SYNTAX. 

the same verb, they follow the same rtdes^ as when they 
occur with it singly ; as, 

c^' comp6gn% su6i sioLi be ate ihem with bis coin- 
tnanfi^df panions ; 

deliberdrono di </dreLiEi^ they determiDed to give her to 
per mSglie, bim as his wife. 

Conjunctive pronouns occurring in the same sentence 
with two verbs, one of which is in the infinitive^ are 
generally put before the other verb y as, 

io Ti v6^io dire, I wish to tell thee ; 

non eLiELO vdiva dirt, she would DOt tell it to hink 



When (be other verb is in the imperative, for (ben they mist be {Kit 
^fter it ; is, 

foTTi sentire, make (b3rsclf beard ; 

Idsdaum vedSre, let me look at thee. 



When conjunctive pronouns occur with the indefinite 
pronoun si, this is always put after, and sooieumes 
joined to them ; as, 

U bel che mi si m6stra, . the good which shows itself to 

mc ; 
qudnte cdse gli si pronUttono, how many things they promise 

to him; 

aitribuiscecisi a ndstrofSUlo, it is attributed to our fault. 

Conjunctive pronouns occurring with the adverb ecco ; 
and the pronoun lo occurring with the adverb non ; 
are put after them ; and, as it has been already stated 
at p. 11 6, forhi with them one single word.; as, 

kcoui, here I am ; 

noL ni^, I do not deny it 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 491 

The particles ne, * of him,' * of her/ * of it ' ; * of them ' ; 
and ciy * here, Wiher ' ; tJi, * there, thither ' ; follow the 
same rules as the conjunctive pronouns. They may be 
put either before or q/ifir the verb, except when ihe verb 
is in the infinitive^ in the gerund^ in the participle, and 
in the imperative ; in which cases they are always put 
after it ; as, 

mi pi&ce diparldrvz, it pleases me to speak of it ; 

niuno veggindos^ seeing no one of them ; 

trdiiartE la siia UUa r(}ba, having taken out ber beautiful 

robo ; 

giilSytfz iJbndaminH U re King Tarquin laid the founda- 

Tarquinio, tions of it ; 

#071 dispSsto ad anddrrt, I am disposed to go there ; 

U ctuko pdstovi tutta l^ irte, the cook having employed 

there [or in itj all his art ; 

faieci dipUigere la CorttsUi, cause Liberality to be painted 

there. 

If the particles a, ri, occur with one of the conjunc- 
tive pronouns mt, ti, ci, vi, usage strictly requires that 
the parlicles. should be placed q/ler the pronouns ; but 
they are someiime't put before them, particularly if cm- 
phony demands it; as, 

cosi6ro mi ci Janno er^rdre, ' they make me enter there [or 

into it] ; 

io ii CI vido iimprty I see you here always : 

Vi ti porrd (tna tavolitccia, I sliall place for thee there a 

small table ; 

dird che vj ci abbia f&lta ve- I will say that he has caused 
nire per dcndri, you to come here for money. 

When the particles ci, vi, occur with the pronouns, lo, 
la, Ii, glif le, they are generally put before the pronouns, 
and, as has been mentioned at p. 160, form with them 
a single word ; but they may be placed also after them, 
separately ; as, 

ittgignati di rilenSrcKho, contrive to keep him there 5 



400 



eYNTAJL 



fiMgnaUKndo Mdio the om- 



UuiDkinf God that he had eon- 
ducted him there : 



A<97a lita cdmera U ml#e, e she p«t him in her room, and 
dhdro iL Ti strr^ there she locked him in. 



BZAliPI.Ba. 



V6i MI poT^TK t6rrs quliiTO 
T^woo, e don^mu, »iec6me v6stTo 
u6mOf a chi vi pi6ce. (Bocc. g. 
8. D. 9.) 

Astdi vSUct la niite, pietosi- 

M^KTB IL CHIAHiVA. (BoCC g. 

4. D. 6.) 

Ma guardate eh6 v6i non ci 
PAcisTK LA BirrA. (Bocc. g. 
6.D. 1.) 

POHERO. (Bocc. g. 2. D. 9.) 

E udindo ehe igli awia m&rH 
diie canfesadri, diise fra $^ me- 
di$imo : *' Mb kozt uccioBRii 
TU." (Pass.) 

Tdnto p6$$o dispSrre di Im, 
eht io ^no uIre, chi eSrto i* 
si A oil ALTRO MB. (Firenz.) 

Ma, dimt v6i voUsitt jfter a9* 
Ptntvra,v6i potr^vtb toi b mb 

C0K80LAKB. (Bocc. g. 8. Q. 9 ) 

Orrin mb pbr von oppi*DBB 
LtJi. (Peir.) 

CoA NB rVf BD A Lil BD A 
MB, PER PiffA DATO, A Lit DI 

fuggIrni dayamti, ed a mb, 
die eid eotdnto P amdi, di se- 
ouitIrla. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 8.) 

Po $0 ehe £gli yi Ima. (Boce. 
g.8.n.7) 

DliOEOLI LA ft^A BBNEDIBI- 

6eb. (Bocc. g. 1. n. 1.) 
CoBRBRiffirpci Illb cAsb, b 

l' ATiRB CI BPBBrIbHO. (BoCC. 
g. h M. 1.) 



Yog ctn take away from dm 
all I have, and give me, Kke ooe 
of your meo, to whomsoever it 
ple«ies you. 

A great many tfanes, during tfie 
night, did she call him with a 
piteoua voice. 

But beware putting Btrick upon 



If you like them, I win give 
them to you. 

And hearing (hat be bad BBt»> 
dered two confessors, be said to 
himself : ** Thou shait doC mwder 
me." 

I ean so much depend ob hia^ 
that I am wont to say, that he 
is certainly another seiC 

But, if you wi$be1^ you might 
perhaps console both younelf and 
me. 

I injured mym^ lut to iniiBe 
him. 

Thus k was, 4b faolh her end 
me, given as a punishment, to ber 
to flee before rae, and to me, wtio 
loved her so much, to pursue ber. 

1 know Aathe levies yo«. 
He gaye him his boiedictioii. 

They will ran to our bowes, aod 
rob OB of our property. 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 



493 



II. MARDillLO FU6r DI cisA 
B% ORAH BllflMO. (BOCC. g. 1. 

n. 1.) 

AjutIbovmi 6Ue aivx. (Bocc. 
g. 4. Proem^ 

j&TTi ^^ lia siamdne u8c(to 
DI MiiTTE ? (Bocc. g. 7. n. 8.) 

MosTitdcci uh' 6m bra dalV (m 
edruo 86la. (Dant. lof. 12.) 

RlC«MIJI0l6 A fIrGLI I MAO' 

oi6b piAciRi. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 
10.) 

TboyJLndosi ioLi i^ha v6lta 
A ParIgl (Bocc. g. 1. d. 7.) 

/O 802r YSin^TA A RISTORiRTI 

i>£* dAnhi, U qudU tu hdi gid 
ATt^Ti per me. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 9.) 

FederigOf ricoroIndoti d^l- 

LA t6a PRXTiRITA tItA. (BoCC. 

g. 5. n. 9.) 

MuoTATi alquanto QuisTO §6* 
1.0 Mfo Itto. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

SaLUtItOLO, IL DOMANDd 8S 
81 BKNTfsSX NliRTR. (BoCC.) 

BikTMtihadunque, Umprt Bu6ir 
AHioo. (Gang, lett.) 

FIttala prestamSnte pr£n- 
DXRB. (Bocc. g. 2. D. 7.) 

Noir II RiiTDA ridIcola ^ea 
U uidnxe del m6ndo, (Gang, 
lett) 

Noir LB dAtx r£tta, ni piii 
la fiequentdte. ( Vanz. ) 

Noff MI TBDiNDO Olt^VOBRB 

tn UmpOf $e ne ritomdf benM 
MI aio6e$e PROMf sso di iroir i* al- 
i«oMTAif Arb fino al mio orHvo. 
(Vanx.) 

4d 



To 8^nd him out of our housO) 
M sick aa he is, would be in us 
a great fault. * 

They assisted me well. 

Has it, since this morning, es- 
caped thy mind ^ 

He showed us a spirit by itself 
apart. 

She began to do him again the 
greatest kmdnesses. 

He finding himself once hi 
Paris. 

I am come to make thee some 
amends for the evils thou hast 
sustained on my account* 

Frederic, bringing to thy mind 
thy past life. 



Let this act of mine alone move 
thee at least. 

After he had saluted him, he 
asked him, whether any thing 
ailed him. 

Be, then, always my good 
friend. 

Having caused her immediately, 
to be taken. 

Do not make yourself ridicu- 
lous respecting the customs of the 
world. 

Do not mind her, nor visit her 
any longer. 

Not seeing me arrive in time, 
she went back, although she had 
promised me, that she would not 
depart before my arrival. 



4M 



SYNTAX. 



YBDt^ri l6ro IV si f6tb»a 
ooNDixiovB ridSui, (Pocor.) 

E MAV06 Ldto Diciirso .... 
(Bott Stor. Amer.) 

/ oiid(t p nidi figli] faUvano 
ih^e ekt qu eono$civt^ e la 
madre rAci«i>o«u da 9v6n 

MAisTIU IirSBOHlEB, QLl vAcS 

imparIbx Tlhrrc lb bv6nb arti. 
(PMor. g. 10. n. 1.) 

CcmprdH i ampdni imUme 
06' ooHPJUn nil nioLi mam- 
Old. (Bocc. g. 9. D. 8.) 

DblibbbIboito di dIbqub- 
LA PBk h6«lib. (Bocc. g. 2. 
n. 8.) 

JtUmU qutih dkeioTi t6«lio 
DIBB. (Boco. g. 2. B. 8.) 

La ddnna ri»p6$tt eke mon 

OI.dil^ TOLl^TA ofBB. (BoCC. 

g.7.D.5.) 

Chidaf6rte, rim ben sBirrfBB. 
(Boec g. a B. %.) 

LitCIAMin YBDiBB o filio 

«^f»no. (Boec.) 

IX. BBir, CHB MI ti Hotnu. •»• 

t^mo. (Petr. c. 7.) 

QuilTTB odSE OLI 81 PBOMIBt- 

TOHo tutto 'I dk, (Bocc g. 8. 

B. 1.) 

AttbibuI«cb8i a irotTRO r 11- 

LO. (ClTllc.) 

Lo tcoldre, ae€o$tito$i dW 4- 
fcto, di$»e: * £ccomi 9»i| Afod^- 
fM.' (Bocc. g. a n. 7.) 

At dmU 6gU 6ra prSde, -^ Nol 
Biioo io, no. (Air. Stul. %. 1.) 

£lgU MI PliCB DI PABLijUTB. 
(Bocc. g. 3. D. 7.) 

Nll^VO TBOOfoDOlTB. (BoCC« 
g. 2. D. 2.) 



HBTiog ■Ota thorn nc 
•0 oiMorable % coaditioo. 

And soot to them, saying .... 

Vho [her children] astonlAod 
all those, who knew them ; ajid 
thoir BMtibofy caHsiiig tibem It be 
instnKted by good nastesiy node 
them levn tU good arts. 

Hs¥faig boucht the cspone, he 
ate them with fats compa^oat. . 

They determined to giro her to 
him as his wile. 



Listen to what I wish to td 
thee. 

The lady replied, that she would 
not tell it to him. 



Speak lood, make tibyaelf heard. 

Let me look at thee at my plea- 
sure. 

The good, which shows itself 
aboot me. 

How many things tfiey premiso 
to him aU day. 

It is attfibnted to oar &Qlt 

The scholar, coming to the 
door, said : ' Here 1 am, BCadam.** 

He was bnye in arms, I do not 
deny it, no. 

It pleases me to apeak of ^ 



Seeing no one of them. 



USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 



4» 



BixxA ROBA. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 9.) 

GxTTiSffNE 1 rOHDAMiNTI IL 

sx TARquiNio. (Dtv. Stor. 1. 3.) 
Po 80ir del fittto dI iposto ad 

AHDABTI. (BOCC. g. 1. D. 2.) 

Il cu6co prisolOf e postoti 

Tt/TTA l' IrTE (BoCC. g. 

4. n. 5.) 

FItsci dipInoerx la Corts- 
sIa. (Bocc. g. 1. n. 8.) 

C08t6rO mi CI FiVRO XHTRiRS 

per itnganndrmL (Bocc. g. 2. 
n. 5.) 

O TI CI r±DO siMPRR. (NoT. 

Ant. 67.) 

-Po Vl TI PORRd iJnA TATOLIJc- 

cii. (Bocc. g. 8.) 

PO DIRO CHS VI CI ABBIA FAT- 

TA TxiriRR pxR dxrIri. (Bocc 
g.8.n.6.) 

Iho£q5ATI DI RlTXRiRCBLO. 

(Bocc. n. 6.) 

RlRORAZliUDO iDDio CHB C05- 

i>6tto txl* ATiTA. (Bocc. g. 
2,n.4.) * 

NiLLA 81^A OJLmKRA IL MIIX, 
« BiRTRO IL VI SfRRO. (BoCC.) 



Having taken out seeietly her 
beautiful robe. 

King Tarquin faid the founda- 
tions of it. 

I am entirely disposed to go 
there. 

The cook having taken it, and 
having employed In it all his art. 



Cause Liberality to be painted 
there. 

They make me enter into it [the 
chest] in order to play &ome trick 
upon me. 

I see thee here always. 

I shall place for thee there a 
small table. 

I will say that he has caused 
you to come here for money. 

Contrive to keep him there. 

Thanking God that he had con- 
ducted him there. 



She put him in her room, and 
there she locked him in. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Possessive pronouns may be placed either before or 
^fter the nouos expressing the things possessed ; as, 

ia mIa pers&nOy % Miii m^t, my person, my misfortanes ; 
^ mimira mIb, U sAngue my limbs, fti|^ blood ; /^ 
. 8iJo, 

gli ikchi sudi, Vdrdine l6ro, her eyes, their management 



496 SYNTAX. 

In addreaing a person, however^ and in exchmationi, 
possessive pronouns are to be put after the nouns ; as, 

p&drt uio^JigUud mIo ! my father, my son ! 

Mlia M iA, Sigwir Mio ! my Italy, my Lord ! 

Possessive pronouns are always to be repeated before 
-nouns of different gender and number ; as, 

la LOR virtu, x lor costiitmi, their virtue, their customs, and 
e It l6ro manUn, their manners. 

But if the nouns are of the $ame gender and immicr, 
they may be used only once^ after the said nouns ; as, 

It HrdeckU t It m^li l6ro, their eisters and their wires. 
We have already observed (p. 132), that possesm 
onouns may be eapressed in Italian, by the conjunC' 
tive pronouns of that person to which the possessor be- 
longs. This is always the case when they are accon- 
panted by a noun expressing the limbs of the body or 
denoting ^part ofone^s dress ; as, 

St MI caccidsstr gli 6cchi if they should tear out my 

S for, Be cacciiBser i Miii eyes; 
CCHi], 

non Ti Jiaccdtt U c6LLo^for, do not break your oeck. 
non fiaccate il t6stro 
c6llo], 

The English possessive pronouns Ws, her, their j when they rrfir to 
one's own limbs or parts of dress, are expreued in Italian by w« ^P* 
junctive pronoun «; but when they rtfer to another persons awm 
or parts of dress, they are expressed by the conjunctive pronouns ^» 
/«, l&ro, according to the gender and number of the possessor ; Mj 

SI levd V anillo di dito [for, he took off the ring from 1«« 
]ev6 r anillo del sdo dIto], [oum] finger] ; 

risdhe di letdrsi le so Arte he resolved to take off W» [^ 
[for, di lev&re le si^s so in- shoes : 
"1^ 

Gli ruppe tutto il viso Ffor, he disfigured all his [another pff* 
r6ppe t6tto U siJo (or, a di son*8}fAce', 
Im) vfso], 



USE AND POSITION OF PftONOUNa 



497 



stratddiaLm la c^wwia [for, h»Tiiiff torn her [imother per- 
•tracd4ta k wtA (or, la di Ui) Mfr«] headdreif . 

Often the personal pronouns accompanying a noun 
expressing the limbs of the body, or denoting the parts 
of one's dress, are entirely suppressed when they relate 
to the principal subject of the proposition ; as, 

eirsi a cercdrmi U lAto c6Ua I laid immediately my hand on 

mdno [for, c6lla idA md» my side ; 
no], 

osciugAndosi gli 6cchi col bd dryinff her eyes with her beau- 
ts, [for, col si^o bel v€- tiful veil, 
lo], 

BXAHPI«XI« 



E $iec6me la mIa psrsoita 
ereidvat eosl U Mis belUtxe, di* 
uiti mjLli specidl eaghu^ muUif 
pUedoano. (Bocc. Fiam.) 

ffon son rimdie adrbe ni ma- 
tire ^Lz MEMBRA mIb dildytna 
son qu\ nUeo -— Col siirous st^o, 
e eon le it^x giuruiire. (Dant. 
Pttig. 26.) 

JBd irano oli ocohi 8u6i di 
qu4l eol6re ehe lo griflme, (Butt, 
com. Inf. 4.) 

Binza 1** tfRDiirx l6ro r6de 
v6Ue riisee dle(ma ir6sTRA ^era 
a Ittudivol fine, (Bocc. Intr.) 

Odddo mi si gittd dist6$o d* 
pUdi, — Dieindo : " FIdrx Mf o, 
ehe non m* aiuti ? " (Dant. Id£ 
33.) 

O fioliu6l mIo ! non ti die- 
pideeiOf— Se Brunitto LaHni un 
p6eo teeo -^ RUdma indiitro. 
(Dant. Inf. 15.) 

42# 



And as [my person or] I grew 
p, my beauty, the first cause of 
II my misfortunes, increased. 



I have not left yonder my limbs, 
either crude or in mature age ; but 
they bear me here, fed with blood 
and rinew-strung. 

And his [Cesar^s] eyes were 
as black as those of a lUTen. 



Without their management it 
seldom happens that any under^ 
taking of ours succeeds. 

Oaddo stretched himself at my 
feet, saying : ** My father, why 
dost thou not assist me ? ** 



O my son ! do not disdain that 
Brunette Latini should turn back 
a little, and go with you. 



SYNTAX. 



»U mddmo — AUe pi^ghe tmar- 
idH.'^Cke nelha e6rpo Um «i 
apUt teggio, (Petr.) 

O Siaa6B Mio ! qu6ndo $&rd 
W HUo ^ A 9etUr la vauUUa, 
ehe, na$e6§at — Fa dSUe f &ti 
t&an€ltUo$egrHo7 (Daot.Porg. 

ae.) 

BiguMla tra t&tU i tu6i nd- 
HU vSmim, ed ef^mtna la lob 
TucTo, 1 Lom com^Mi, X Lx l6bo 
MAviiRX. (Boce. g. 4. n. 1.) 

JSppriito eostdro, lk 8Ir6c- 

CB» X LX MOOLI LORO vStUUrO. 

(Boccg.8.n.7.) 

O fx S$n m cACciiiixm eu 
6ccBi o m tra699ero i oixn, o 
moM£6M$€rMi It mIki, a che $ari* 
io 7 (Bocc. g. 9. X. 1.) 

EgH i gran pttcdlo the is6i 
von VI riAcciTi il c6LLa 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 6.) 

E eotH Br lky^ l' ah^llo pi 
oiro, » diiUo al giudiee. (Pecor.) 

Ou6rda se dUri lo $e6rge, ed 
aHflnt ft xiftfLTK Di lxvIrsi lk ' 
tcixpx. (Lod. Not.) 

E to%\ dicMdo eon U pdgna 
TtSrro IL tSso oli ri^ppx. (Bocc 
g. 9. n. 8.) 

E stracciJLtali la ci^ffia, 
dte^a. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 8.) 

Dieheio $entU)a s\ fdito dol&- 
ret ehej di$to, cdhLAuino c6rii 
iubitaminie a cercArmi il lJL- 
TO. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 6.) 

E J&ccia f&rza af CWto, — 

AaCIUOilTDOSI OLI OCCHI COL 

XXL vf LO. (Petr. c. 11.) 



My Italy. aldKragh words will 
bxTO DO power to bal the XMrtal 
wooodf wUdi I tee, in eo grext 
X number, in your bexoliftil body. 

my Lord! when ihiD I re- 
joice toiee tbe Yeogeeoeef wfa6^ 
thy wrath, wdl pleMed, broods ia 
secret sileiice ? 



Look among dl yoor BoUeoieii, 
and examine their viftiie, their 
customs, and their manners. 



AAer these, came their oateis 
and their wives. 



If they shoidd tear oitf ay 
eyes, or draw out my teeth, or 
lop off my hands, to iHiat shoidd 
I be reduced? 

It is a great pity you do not 
break yoorneck. 

And &US he took off the ring 
from his finger, and gave it to the 
judge. 

He looked around lest he should 
be seen, and at last he resolved to 
take off his dioes. 

And thus saying he disfigxrad 
all bis fiice with blows. 



And bavins torn her headdress, 
he said. 

Which gave me such a pain, 
that, having awaked, 1 laid imi 
diately my hand on my side. 



And should cooipel Heaven [to 
have piw upon me^, drying her 
eyes wi(b her beautiful veil. 



USE AND POSITION OF PRONOUNS. 4d9 



ihdefinitk pronouns. 

The indefinite jfronounsj siissoj medesimoy * same ' ; 
and sometimes t&tiOj * all,* ' every ' ; are put either ben 
fore or after the noun ; as, 

quit dl ST^sso ; in quit me- that eame day ; in that same 
D^siMO dbito, dress ; 

Tt^TTS k ndtH ; le qudti c6$e every night ; all which things. 
tiJtte, 

TMo, followed by a numeral adjective, takes the 
particle e after it ; as, 

MH ^trhy all three. 

The indefinite pronouns verino, nessHno or nissi^noy 
ne^no or ntiino, nMo, * no one,' * nobody ' 5 and ni^lla, 
niSnte, ^ nothing ' ; as we have already mentioned aft 
p. 147, may have also the signification of ^ any one,' 
* anybody'; and * some or any thing'; aqcording to 
their respective position in the sentence. 

They have the^r*^ signification, — (of ' no one,' * no- 
body ' ; and * nothing '), when they are placed before 
the verb, or when they are placed after a verb preceded 
by the adverb non ; as, 

per vERi^N m6do poUva^ she could do it in no manntr ;' 

jxov fa edldo veri^no, it is not at all warm : 

NEsst^N si d6lse di servitu^ no one complained of servi- 
tude; 

Noif 8% pud firt nissi^rtA c6' no'Qdng can be done : 
so, 

NEt^NO ibht gH DH sifavori" no one had the Gods so fiivora- 

voli, ble ; 

ifoif ve n' i ifit^rto si camvo^ there is no one so bad : 

ift^LLO marHrio saribbe do- no torment were a well-pro- 

I6r compUOf portioned pain ; 



500 



SYNTAX. 



Noif gH fninca itI^lla, 
di irdLLA A ditpifi^ 
ifoir nefard irdLLA, 
RiiRTB iilo9 dd H» MiOj 

nov gli parrlbbe ni^ntb, 



he wants noUnk^ : 
let him despair of notikti^ ; 
I will do noikmg about it: 
I say; ntMng about thj cob- 
draon ; 

it would seem to him noikimg. 



But wheD they are placed after a verb not preceded 
by the adverb non^ aod when the phrase in which ^tbey 
occur implies a quesiionf or expresses a doubij the 
abovementioned pronouns have the l€ut significatioii» — 
(of 'any one,' * anybody'; and *some or any thing*);* 
as, 



9haaf6xt a v6% tbei^n prd^ 

se TXfti^ifo v^e la pina sikr, 

quAndo «' acchupww in nks- 
st^NO lv6go^ 

trov6$ii m^NO ehe eonireuH- 
Agst6Ua podeH&de^ 

U dirdi st tu6l ih^lla, 



without doing any good to 
yourself; 

whether any snt obeerres my 
sorrow ; 

when they eneam{r in cny 

place; 
was there found Oftyofie who 

opposed public power? 

thou wilt ask her, whether she 
wants oi^ffca^'; 



* There are 'mrtiinftfti, boweTer, ia cood wrHett, whidi tm 
with tbeM mlei ; u may be Men by the following examples i 



E mi6mi§ hsmu'iio n* ira stIm, «^ 
hto *n immeeiU jmt la fMs. (Stor. 
PittoL) 

<3U iioir liwirfili a iii<w<rt pirn 
HSMU'iiA n$l furgatdria ftrgU peudtL 
(Paie.) 

No* e* i ragUiu nmuv'WM. jm la 

witogridoiivtUdid, (Oel. Siat.) 

M6i iron mina Jard pvi ivic'ka. (Boee. 
f.8,n.a) 

(Mate ^Ua o^dis am giovbiiuo <fi /<Wma 
hib'ktb rigMordintU^ ilia «* oeetfa^ tfef. 
r b$iUtie, (Fir. / * 



2t ffMl 



. Alia. 40.) 



And wbea muf aaa was takes, ha was 
dbeetly hoag by the neck. 

That there woald net teaeain in ^«r- 
fatory muf poaishmeat to safftf fer sm^ 

There is no [or not ana] leaaoa why it 
shonU enter ia saoh a aeteminate de- 
ftee of veloeity. 

Be will aaver do ne aa- 
other [thiag like this.] 

As soon as she sees a yooth 
handsome, she ftUs in leva 
beaaty : 



with hie 



lo whieh the pronooos n$$timp, asssAac, aitaia are ased htttaad of < 
a, * any,» * anv per«m,» < tny thmg » j and mitUe instead of «a pdca, 
ttle," somewhat.' '^^ 



little, 



USB AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 



50] 



U ihmandd ae n serUUse he asked lum whether he felt 
ifiiiiTE, any iking. 



BZAMPLXf . 



Creduto abbiamo eke costH 
fUUa c6$a, ehe mi Ju ^uf l d1 
8T]lEs80 drsOy ttrdi$$e. (Bocc. g. 

5. n. 5.) 

Chuurddndo tra tnSlte, ehe qui' 
vi n' 6rano ih qu^l MKoisiMO 
Ibito. (Bocc. Lab.) 

H H f089ignu6l — Tt^rpE lb 
ikStti n umi6nta e piAnge. 
(Pelr.) 

Lb QuiLi COSE Tt/TTE t&no da 
isser diHgentenUnte eon$iderdte. 
(Cresc. 12. 2.) 

FraUUi miei, ehe and&te v6i 
eeredndo, a quest* 6raj t6tti e 
tbA? (Bocc g. 7. n. 8.) 

Q^&fldo v6nne il Umpo^ quilla 
nAsera per vbbi^h modo pot^- 
VA. (Vit SS. PP. 2. 21.) 

Anzi HON FA igli cIldo yb- 
Rl^No. (Bocc. g. o. d. 4.) 

NxssdN Di sBByiTii giammdi 
81 d6lsb, — JV% di mSrtef qtumV 
io di Ubertdte, (Petr. Tr.Mort 1.) 

NON SI PU5 COSA NISSt^BA fIrE 

a lor mSdo. (Bocc. g. S. n. 1.) 

Nei^no isBB mot oLi Dii si 
FAYORivoLi, ehe nel fiUuro gli 
pot6$8e ohhligSre. - (Bocc. Fiani. 

6. 84.) 

jtgH HON TB If' i Ifll5lf0 Sl CAT- 

rfvo, ehe non vipar6$8e uno im- 
peraiSre. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 9.) 

Niello martirio, fuorehi la 
Hm rdbbia* — Sar^bbe al tuo 
fiurSr dolor coifpiTO. (Daot. 
Inf. 14.) 



We supposed, that she had been 
burnt that same day along with 
the house. 



Looking among so manv wo- 
man, who were there, clad in that 
same dress. 

And the nightingale eyery night 
laments and weeps. 

All which things ought to be 
carefully considered. 



Brothers, what are you lookiDJg 
for, all three, at such an hour ? 



When the time arrived, that un- 
fortunate one could not do it in 
any manner. 

Nay it is not at all warm. 

No one ever complained of 
servitude or death, as much as 1 
do of liberty. 

Nothing can be done in their 
manner. 

No one even had the Gods so 
favorable as to oblige them to 
favor him in future. 



There is no one so bad, that 
you would not take him for an 
emperor. 

No torment, save thy rage, were 
to thy fury a well-proportioned 
pain. 



500 



SYNTAX. 



O'lule >Ufof «Meiai# ^Mcr Ml6^ 
cKe ifOH oLi MiiffCA jr6ta*A. 
(Ft, Gtord. 20.) 

CM in aicuna eSta pub «»€- 
r&rtt Di irt^ixA ti diipbri. 
(Boec Fian. 6. 86.) 

MriminH mSi iroir in fab^ 
VtlAsA., (Bocc. g. 1. D. 2.) 

Dbl Tt^o vrfiiUe stIto 
nivTS Df CO. (Bocc. g. 3. a. 6.) 

5e r ii^mo magn&mmo de$$€ 
bgni e6$a ptr am6re, mov au 

PAAB^BB ATiB OItO NC^BTB. 

(CaTtlc. Spocch. Gr.) 

Faritie ddnno a nSi, i iirzA 
riBB A r6t pb5 YBBt^iro. (Bocc. 
g. 8. n. 9.) 

AU6ra gu&rdo uU&mo^ sb tb- 

Bihro — TiDB LA PilTA idA, 

the m^ \a etmqtdio, (Rim. Ant 
96.). 

QoivDo •* AcoiaPABo nr bbs- 
ti^BO i.u6ao ptr esgidne di guSr» 
rm. (Buti. Puig. 7.) 

TBOT^ffl til JfilifM HTttBO, 
CBB COBTBADliftB XlLA PO- 

dbitIdb ? (Not. Ant. 21.) 

3\i i«B dibIi f ' 4Ua to6l bi^l- 
i^. (Bocc g. 9. n. 5.) 

Il DOM ABi>d SB igH si ■bbtIs- 
SB NiiBTB. (Bocc g. 9. n. t.) 



WlMiice UMy cafl hte ha^y 
who wants notmng. 

Let him, who can hope in any 
thing, despair of nothing. 

Otherwise I will nerer do any 
thing about it 

I say notibing about thy pree- 
ent conditioa. 

^ If the maffnanimous nan shovU 
give every uing ibr love, it would 
not seem to him that he had giveo 
any thing. 

Ton would Injure os without 
doing any good to yeoradf. 

Then I look around me to see 
whettier anv one obeervee that 
soirow, whioi has subdued me. 



When 6iey encunp la 
place on account of war. 



any 



Was there found aar oee in 
Milan, who opposed i&b pidAc 
power? 

Thou wilt ask. her whether die 
wanti any thing. 

He asked him iHiether he felt 
any thing. 



EXERCISE XXXII. 

lave pitjr I on I the afflicted. 
eompa^idne | di | mffliito. 

Dost thou know the dauffhter of Cidmpe ? May yoa 
eon6$cere* » figUu^t^ 7 



They rob yoa. 
rvbdr€ 



USB AND POSITION OF PRONOUNS. 509 

be plettMcl to bless ((he) my soiiL Let him call 
VoUre benedkre * dntmo*. Chiamdre 

the leadefs to a eooncil. What thou wishest tiiat 
tUua — eomfglio. • voUre 

I should say. She said : « How can that be ** ? 
dke. Ifire : •* poiSre qu6$t4J^ » »• t 

He replied : << Thoa wilt see it, if thou comest inl- 
ine: « vtdire vtfArt id- 

mediately.** I am here with one, who, I having | 
»io.'* f I per attre \ 

my name, wishes to be I myself I in ever^ thing 
nSme, volSre — | {<> | 6gm c6$a 

he does, or rather, that I should be he. He 
"~ —I » 

saw himself t deprired I of the hope of having her 
vedire \ priodrt \ tperauM — — 

for his wiib ( I to have to have I her himself), 

— — — I dov6re aohre \ 6gU, 

if Ormisda did not marry her. 
prSndere 

The Turk then said: <<If I were thou, I should 
Tureo dire: «* , 

perhaps infringe the law ; but as I am myself and 
/6r$e viol&re Ugge; percM io 

not thou, I will never do it" 
fum> m6t^ fdr^ »." 

I will tell thee the truth, companion, I like 
voUre t^e v6rOf eogio, — — 

her (she pleases me) so much, that I could not 

— piadre , pot6re 

ten it to thee. He sent her I word I that, with- 
dire — Mcmddre \ a dhre \ , 

out any more delay, she should do what (that 

— indiigiOf •* dov6re fdre — 

which) he had told her. I order thee to go — 



504 SYNTAX. 

(that thoQ go) immediately | after | thj fiOher. Ygo 

andari^ ineontaninU^ \ per \ pddre. 

promieed me I to I make me speak with (the) yomr 

prmniitere | di \ J&re parUarg * 

wife. I Pray, I leave me in peace. Why doet thou 

46imaK \ in grdinaf \ Uucidre pdce. CM — 

not reply, wicked man ? Art thoa become domb 

ritpdnaere, rio udmo ? divenire wntdU 

in hearing me ? Haying raised (Jur$eff I u^cm I her 

— udh^e ? — Lev6re \ in \ — 

feetl she said : " Brother, yon are (ike) welcome.^ 
pU, — ifire: ** FrgUUo, 



No, she woold not belieye it, and would tom me 
, cridere , ' Mcaeeidrt 

, oat of her house. He begged him that he would 

— — t6sa, — Pregire — ifwe- 

■how him how they did. << Then," said he, "kt 
gndre — fSare. « ," dfo-c , «* 

us do it" Say it frankly. (I)^ as for me, do 
f&re .** JJ^e eieuro. , — , 

BOt remember ' (myetlf of) it Having caused a pone 
ricorddre -r- Fdare * odrM* 

to be brought to her- (s€ff)t she put it (to km) 1 into I 
ventre* , — mSUere \ in \ 

his hand, and said : <* Count if they are five-hon- 

— $ndno, dhre : << Jhmoverdre — 

dred." He conquered Scotland, and was crowned 
." eonqiietdre Scdma, eonnare 

king of it I did not discern there any thing, 
re diacdmere e6$a. 

There is Minos I who I grins horribly. 1 wiii 
etdre \ e* | ringhidr^ ortibOe,^ /&• 

cause it to be painted there. Where art thou, good 
re dif^ere — , ii&nm 

woman? Here I am (hehM me)^ what dost 

d&nna? — — — 



• USE AND POSITION OP PRONOUNS. 505 

thoa wish ? We i^q (behold us) ready to obey 

» dofnand&re^7 — — prtmio ubbu^e 

yoa. 

My friend and not the friend of fortune. My 
amieo — — fartuna, 

father told (it to) me, that I should take care (my- 
* dtrt?' • >, guardare 

9€iP of ever setting foot in Messenia. O Samuel, 
giammdP p6rr^ pi6de^ ' *. , 

once my true father, dost thou command it ? I As 
viro pddre, impSnere 7 \ Per 

much as I thou 1 valuest I - my affection. I In order I 
qudnio \ \ dbbii edro \ amor. \ Per \ 

to die as your daughter, and not as your enemy* 
mmire — fig^t — nemiea. 

He let fall his hook at his (own) feot Weeping 

— Laseidre casedr widno — pidde* Pi^ngere 

he threw himself I on I his (anMer perBOftCt) neck. 

— ^dre I a I — — e6Uo. 

The unfortunate ones wept, scratched their (ovon) faces,* 
meechkna — pidngere, egraffidrt — tieo^ 

tore their (own) hair.f In thinking of it I shud- 
Hrappdre — capiUo. penedre — — ratea- 

der (myself aUt over) and my heart melts (itself), 
prieeidre tutto — euSre etruggere 

He remained there all the niffht with certain 
— Stdre •— nStte eirto 

snares of his | to I catch a bat No§ person per- 
artyizio*^ * | per \piglidre p^trdllo. per$6na aC' 

ceived (kmsdf) of it There is no one|| of them 
edrgere 

so Tounff, who could not know well how women 
Janevma, potire eonSscert^ ben^ fimmine 

* Pum to bo pot, in Um Italiu, lo the mifiilar. 

t IWr, in the plant J ««, In ih»fimimi»$, 

$JVk»fwM#M. HA>«i«,<brn«««^o»«,lntlwyi«*«iM, 

43 



506 SYNTAX. 

are. I hare . not slept any last nurfat Let Be 
— — d0rvi^€ paM$6io noite. 

one move himael^ or say a- word, if be does not 
tnudvere , fire m6ttc, 

wish to die. There it seemed to me to see no* 
voUre mmire. * — parere^ ^ vedtn^ * 

sanctity, no* devotion, no* grood work, or example 



i» 



of life. Has any one been here ? ft ihae is 
u ,^11. t 4 s 1 ; 

any one, who wishes I to bet I a snpper, I wiD 
, 9oUre I nUtter 9U \ dmOy w»H- 

do it willingly. If Philip goes any where (fn 

Ure polentUri. FiBpp^ andart — — 

any place), follow him (approach thyself to him) 

/tf^o, — — €iee99i&re 



IB 



some manner. I have nothing | to | fear now. 
qu6Uhe mSdo. \ da \ fem6r€ omdL 



Thou knowest nothing then. 
BOpire dumjue. 



CHAPTER VII. 

YERBa 
POSiTioir OF TEnns. 



Verbs are generally placed after their $ubjectives ; 
but if « command is given, or a question is asked, or a 
toish or imprecation is expressed ; the verb is to be put 
brfore the subjective ; as, 



X Mk^ tn M Mi. 



VERB& 507 

spin OA 81 fi^ ifSatri piUi let every spark of yenomoos 
doNi sciRTiLLA (/» pe«<i- disdain be extinguished in 
fero MiUgnOi your hearts ; 

ACciifDAsi in quiUi ARniiv- let there [in your hearts] be 
TE fiXmma di aineiro kindled a fervent 0ame of 
um6rt, sincere affection ; 

che yu6L dir quisTO ? what can this mean ? 

▼OLissE IddIo che U gua- would to Heaven that his gaz- 

tdrmi gli/Ssse bastdto, ing at me had satisfied lum ; 

MAXAD^TTA s^A LA CRUDBL- cuTsod be the crueltv of him, 

t1 di eo/6i, che nd ti fa who causes that I should 

vedh^ see thee. 

The verb is likewise put before the subjective^ when 
it is neuter and is preceded by a sentence or part of it ; 
when it is preceded by a negative ; and when an em- 
phatical adjective introduces the sentence ; as, 

st^doei cos), viNNE (Ufa v^ [the bird] being so, a crab 
to sda UN oImbero, came up to him ; 

nk me ne BA tnAi farlAto nor has any one ever spoken 
ALci^NO, to me of her ; 

d61ce i iL BEiiEFicio, to do good is pleasing. 

Finally, the verb is put before the subjective^ when in 
narrations the sayings or doings of a person are re- 
laied ; when in exclamations it is accompanied by the 
word come or quhnto ; and when one of the following 
words ci, tn, ftfi, quif iviy quivi, ddve^ quindi, quanto^ 
eosiy ^— begins a sentence or phrase ; as, 

DissE LA pdNNA : <* C6me the lady said : '* How can that 
pud4sserqHidto7^ be?'' 

oh I c6me spisso cIscano i oh ! how often do old men fall 

viccHi in quisto err&re ! into this error ! 

H ce ne vEiiissE ALCt^if4, if some one should come here ; 

qui 86no QiARDiKr, here are gardens ; 

chx d qu&lo che non sAppia who does not know how in- 

quanto siA ioLi »n/*e- ferior he is ? 
ruiref 



906 



SYNTAX. 



SXAMPLSt. 



SpinOASI, SPfHOASl Ifil t6- 
tTBl p£tTI 6oKI SCIlfTlLLA OI 
PESTirBRO SD^OlfO ; ACCf HDASI 

nr qu£lli ARoiiiTB riiicMA di 
■ivciKo av6rx. (CtTalcanli.) 



Let every 9|>ark of 
disdain be exdnguished in your 
heart ; let there be kindled a fer^ 
vent flame of siDcere aflectioQ* 



td6l dir ^u^to ? What can this mean ? 



Chc 

(Bocc.) 

E YOLifcass IddIo, du U ihm- 
$6rvi o iL guatIrhi eu roass 
bastIto. (Bocc. g. S. o. 3.) 

MALADiTTA sf A LA CRUDKLTI 

OI coLt^i, CUB eon gU Seehi dil- 
la frorUe or mi ti fa vbdjMib. 
(Bocc. g..4.n.l.) 

E sTiHDoii cosl di m6la v6* 

gtia viHITB il^LA y6LTA it^A UN 

oImbbro. (Firenz.) 

Ni MB bb ha mAi parlXto al- 
ct^NO, ehe non tmeV dbbia dipin' 
ta egudle dUa mia CostMza. 
(GeU.) 

DdLox in dgni thnpc t il 
bbbbHcio. (Soave, Nov.) 

DflSB LA DOBITA : " COMB Pud 

issER QufsTo ? *' — « Disss Mcs- 
mSt JUxio : *< Tu il vedrdiy $e tu 
mini pr6$to.** (Bocc g. 5. n. 4.) 

Ob ! COMB spisso ciscAifo i 
t£cchi in QuisTO brr6rb ! 
(Gell.) 

£ 96 per iseiagiira rs bb te- 
iflasB ALCt^if A. (Bocc g. 5. D. 3.) 

Qui 86no oiARDliri, quii dlti 
luOgfU diUtUvoH. (Bocc. Intr.) 

Perehk^ chi k QuiLLo cbb 

NOV iipPIA QuImTO sIa iOLI 

iifFBRi^RB di firze 7 (Tolom.) 



And wovld (o Heaven, that Ui 
passing by, and gaming at me, had 
satisfied him. 

Caned be the cruelty of Urn, 
who causes that my eyes aboold 
•ee thee now. 



And being [the bird] to mel- 
ancholy, a crab came up to him. 

Nor any one has ever apokes 
to me of her, without describing 
her to me as equal to my Coo- 
stanza. 

To do good is pleasing at al 



The lady said : <* How can that 
be ?" — Mr. Lizio said : " Thon 
wilt see it thyself if thou 
immediately." 

Oh ! how often do <M men : 
into this error I 



And if, for our misfortone, some 
one should come here. 

Here are gardens, there pleasant 
places.' 

Because, who does not know 
how inferior he is in strength ? 



VERBS. 509 



UBS OF THE UfPERFECT AND FIRST AND SECOND-PERFECT. 

The preterite of English verbs answers to the imper- 
feet as well as to ihe first and second-perfect. In Italian 
these three tenses are rendered in three different fornis; 
/ lovedf for instancoi may be rendered by to amava, io 
amaif or io ho amhto ; but these forms are not indfferent- 
I7 used. • 

' We make use of the first, the imperfect^ when the 
action of which we speak was present in respect to 
another ^cuonpast at the same time; — canta'ta jt^^in- 
do vAi ven^ste, ' I was singing when you came ' ; e^rano 
a thvola quhndo n6i entrammo, * they were at table when 
we entered ' ; as, 

mMre STlrAif cbnAndo, while they were at supper, her 

vhine U maiHo^ hasband came ; 

meontrd la CaUUoj che TEiif- hd met Catella, who was com- 

▼A, ing. 

The imperfect is also used when we speak of an ac" 
tion become hcibitual^ or continued^ or repeated several 
times; as, 

io LAToalTA im Uro giar- I had the care of their garden ; 

andIva' at hdseo per le l^ I used to go to the for^ for 
gney wood; 

ATTieniTA iefua^ e fac^ta I drew water, and did other 
dltri servigitti, services ; 

h ddnne mi dItan si p6cOf the ladies ^ve me so little, 
che io turn ne poxf va ap- that with it I could scarcely 
phmpagdre i calzdri^ pay for my shoes. 

Finally, we use the imperfect in speaking of the 
a^e, narncj actions^ dispositions^ and good or bad qualp- 
tus of persons and things that exist no more ; as, 

nk pur in ikHri Ay^AjhrnUi^ be [Rinaldo] had scarcely fin- 
ished his third lostnim ; 
43* 



510 



SYNTAX. 



la mdgKey eke htMia at^a 

fWMCf 

xBA di buSna wthtUj e dife- 
lice ing4gno Mdio, e oel- 
iUsimofaveUat&ref 

PAR^TA S&nia VeridtAnOj 
cAe di^ beccare SBe iirpi^ 

iBA qu^^ gianR$u> vigo 



his wii«, who was called I«^ 

beUa; 
be [Joseph Warren] was of 

good mind, endowed with a 

happj genius, and a very 

fine speaker ; 
she appeared Saint Veridiana 

feeding the serpents ; 

this garden was very pleasaot- 



It may, perhaps, aariit the learner in making a proper use of thb 
tense, to observe further, that whenever the preterite id Englith may 
be turned into toae or were aB<l the preeent participle of the saaie 
verb, or into toed and the injimtioe of the same verb ; it b to be 
rendered by the imperfect tense in Italian : thus, if, without altetn^ 
the meaning, I or we eoobjed fory may be changed into / was or we 
WBBE LooKiif o foT, Or into i or toe vtmo to look for^ it most be 
rendered by io gebcIva, or nSi csrcavJLho. 



Tbe first-perfect is used to denote an action done in 
a period of time completely past ; as, 

poichk a m&rte mi sertii /e- 

riioy 
ATviiiifE cheUre di DrAncia 

Moai, 
Coidmbo PABTi per la sco- 

piria del nu6vo mdndo 

V dmto 1492, 

U eUresii qiMa iMt passida 
vtcvun s6gno, 

The second'petfeet is used to express an action done 
ID a period of time not specified; or, if specified, not 
completely past ; as, 

nay, I alwajrs loved tbee, and 
h( " ' " 



afler I found myself mortally 
wounded ; 

it happened that the king of 
France died;^ 

Columbus departed for the dis- 
covery of Uic new world the 
year 1492 ; 

I also had a dream last night 



dim <' HO s6mpre amIto, e 

Avtf TO cdro, 
v&i r AviTB compebAto, 

ed io noH r no vxrbi^to, 



ie)d thee dear ; 
yon have obtained it by pur- 
chase, withotit my selling it 
to yon ; 



VERBS. 



511 



m* AviTK rirro pfpidn cen 
iina stdtua di tndrmo^ 

gi^ s6no Slio dnnij V ho piU 
eke la nUa vUa amItoi 

mdlie iaUi HopkU s^ivon 
vAtts nd presMe tkoh, 



yoa hnve made me speak with 
a marble statue ; 

for these eight years have I 
loved thee more than my 
very life ; 

many useful discoveries have 
been made within the pres- 
ent century. 



The phrase / saw him this mornings If used in the forenowi, 
when the morniDg is not yet elapsed, is rendered by P ho vxdi^to 
stamat^a; but, If used in. the qftsmoon, when the morning is 
already elapsed, it must be rendered by lo vloi siamat^$ia. 



IXAMPLBt. 



MizfTRX StIvAN CXNisiDO, 
V^HNB II. MABItO. ffioCC, ff. 1. 

n.8.) 

llgli t9contr6 la Cat^ lla, 
CHB vBiiivA. (Bocc. g. 2. n. 5.) 

fo LAVORAVA VS l6rO OIAROf- 

iro bcUo e grCnde^ e, dlire a qui- 
stOf ANDAVA alcuna vSlta al b6- 

SCO PER LB L^GNB, ATT10K£va 
icQUA, B FActVA COtdH AlTBI 

sBRTiGiTTi ;^ ma le ooiut b mi 

DAVANO SI POCO, CHB io BOH NB 
POriVA APPiffA PAgIrB I CAL- 

iIbi. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

Ji1l6r Ni POR TRB Lt^STRI AY^A 

fobhIti. (Tass. Ger. 1. 60.) 

La m6glib, ohb Isabella 
AviA n6mb. (Bocc. g. 5. n. 1.) 

£rA di B061IA BiSTB, B DI 

fblIcb iBoioBO dotAto, b bbl- 

lisSIMO FAVBLXtATORB. (Bott. 

Stor. Amer. 1. 6.) 

Vna vieehiOy chs par^va SAn- 
TA VbbidiAiia,crb dA. beccIrb 
Illb siBPi. (Bocc g. 5. n. 10.) 

£ra qufsTo giardIno vioo 
uSlto, (Bemb/) 



While they were at supper, her 
husband came. 



He met Catella, who was com- 
faig. 

I had the care of a large and 
beautiful garden of theirs, and be- 
sides this I used sometimes to go 
to the forest for wood ; 1 drew wa- 
ter, and did other like services for 
them ; but the ladies gave me so 
little, that with it I could hardly 
pay for my shoes. 

Then he [Rinaldo] had scarcely 
finished his third lustrum. 

His wife, who was called Isa- 
bella. 

He [Joseph Warren] was of 
good mind, endowed with a happy 
genius, and a very fine speaker. 

An old woman, who appeared 
Saint Veridlana feeding the ser- 
pents. 

This garden wm very pleasant. 



m 



BYNTAX. 



rsftfro. (PetrO 

Arrtnuu «■■ il mm m FuJbi* 
CIA ■•■), ed in tiio Iw6g0 Ju 
eorondto UfigHmUo, (Bom.) 

C<H.dv»o PAMr) »Bm LA MO* 
risTA DBL irtr^To a^nM l' is- 
Ho 14M. (Tins.) 

fro d' Jd^, I0 fMm ti mnrii «cni^ 
to, mm t6nio per U tne^ q^&i^^ 
fir ^mo, d^ io ALtBtil ^oisTA 

]|6tTB PAVf iTA It Fict. (fioCt. 

g. 4. n. 6.) 

Xlfll T* HO siMPRB AMiT«» B 

AYi^To cIko tnniSfui od ^gm 
^Utro. (Bocc. g. S. n. 5.) 

Bd or voU$9e UAo eke U flXU 
r avissif pereid eke t6i h* avAti 

COMPBBiTO, XD lo IfOH L* HO 

▼ BHodro. (Booc. g. S. d. 5.) 

'* Che H p6re? HoW io Une 
In premiua 8trvdta ?** — *< Mes- 
§ir, no i v6i M* at^tb rirro 
fabiJLrc coh t^KA stItua di 
MAiufo.** (Bocc. g. 8. n. 5.) 

Poy mifcm me / oiA 16^0 6tto 
ivin, t' bo pi(i CHB LA mIa 
TiTA ahIto. (Boee. g. 8. n. 6.) 

M6ltb t^Tiia f cop^RTB sdirosi 

irXtTB HBX. PKBtilfTB ticOLO. 

(Vam.) 



After I 
wounded. 

It li^^Med tet tke king of 
Fnnoe died, and Ins een wne 
crowned in hi> stead. 

Colombw departed for fte db- 
corety of die Dt w worid ikm jenr 
1492. 

If I had any &itb in dreamt, I 
shoidd not have come here ; and 
not ao mvtth for the nake ef yoorB, 
as of one I also hftd test nighi. 



Nay I alwajra lored fliee, aad 
held thee dear beyond ereiy other 
person. 

And BOW would to Hearea that 
I had done so, becanae yon have 
obtained it by pordiase, without 
my selling it to you. 

<<What dost thou du^ of it? 
Have I not kept my prondae ? ** 
— ** No, fir ; you hare made me 
speak to a marble statue.'' 

Alas ! for dieae eight ymn ha«« 
I loved thee bmho than my veiy 

Many useful dfseoTeiies have 
been made within the present cen- 
tury. 



VflB or CBETAIlf TBirsKS OV THB IK:ilCATItB FOft fOMX OTBSR 
VBIfflKS OF THS SAMS MOOD ; A9D OF THK IH FriTITITS FOft 
CSftTAtH TSlfBKS OF THB INDICATITB, AlVD FOB TAB 00l»- 
JUIICTITB AND IMPEBATITB MOODfl. 

The present of the imdiccUi^e is sometiines used, •» 
narr<Hion$y for the Jtrst-perfeci ; as, 

AscE rfor, U9cl] ve^ce d^ he went quickly oat ef ttiat 
quUla idwkha^ tomb ; 



V£EBS. 513 

c6rrs [for, c6rse] aLpcUdgioy he ran to bb palace ; 

non i [for, ^ba] pih dObbia the way was no longer doabt^ 

la via, fol; 

non i pih oseUra la ndtte, the night was no longer dark. 

It is also used for the future; as, 

iomdne ifc [for, sa&I] P vUv- to-morrow will be the last day ; 

mo d\y 

che fardi tu, se iUa il dIck what wilt thou do, if she will 

[ior, DiiiX.] d'Jratilli ? tell it to her brothers ; 

se io infra 6tto gukni non vi if I shall not cure you in eFght 

GUARisco [for, euARia6], days, h^ve me burnt ; 

/dtemi bntgi&rt, 

se tu H ciLi [for, calerIi], if thou wilt cast thee down, I 

(o non ti vend diitro ai cannot chase thee on foot 
gal6ppo, 

The Jirst'perfect may be used for the presently as, 

or che AvisTi [for, che nil], now what ails thee, that thou 

ehe fdi coUU wo^ makest such a foce ; 

wfntVAino giUd tin gran to- Anichino gave a deep si^h. 

spiro. ha dtkina disae : The woman said : ^< What 

** Che avifiiy Anichino ? " ails thee, Anichino ? " 

The first-perfect may be used, also, for the second- 
perfect ; as, 

dnde f6sti tu [for, sfi st^to where hast thou been this 

tu] stamdru f — JVon so morning ? — I know not 

(he to mi fiJi [for, s6wo .where 1 have been ; 
stAto], 

scegltSstif [for, hAi sc^lto?] hast thou chosen ? — I have. 

Ho sctito, — Em6n ? — — iEroon? — Death. — Thou 

Mdrte. — L* avrdi^ shalt have it 

The second-pluperfect may be used for the first-per- 
feet; as, 

t^repueii^ifTo [for,oit^ifSEl the king arrived and said: 

c disse : << CavaHire, a quM ** Knight, what lady dost 

ddnruisiUu?*^ thou belong to?" 

atzdta la laniima, <bber vk- having raised the lantern, they 

n^To Jfor, TinsRo] il eat* saw that rogue Andreucdo. 
tivU di AndreiicciOf 



S14 SYNTAX. 

The Juture \i aded for the pretentj in dovh^kd ac- 
tions; as, 

wjlmrX [fbr^ f^rn pIrb] a perhaps it seems to yon, tbat 
v6if chit nan vi v^Ha bine, she does not like 70a ; 

gMe 9% apprista : EMra people approach : perhaps it 
SARi. [ibr^yWve i £2t?im], is Elyira. 

The future^-anttrwr is used for the second-perfect^ 
in doubrfid casts ; as, 

▲TRd d£tto [for, f^rse ■• perhaps I have sud, that I am 
DiTTol, che ho da oiuldre to go to Venice. 

The infinitipe may be uaed for the third petsoo 
singular of the present and of the imperfect of the 
indicative J and their compounds j depending on another 
verb of the same mood ; as, 

ctmdseo W isfeBRS [for, Me I know tfa«t h« is a wicked 

^ k] urn wuM^ utim0, maa ; 

udindo UreH mMeedka is- the Ung hearinf that Us fu- 

sxa [for, dbs U moHsedk^ tier was dead ; 

<&▲] mdrto, 

h* e(mioerrh avirt n^la inem6» then must keep in thy mind, 
Wo, Iddio issERs sTiTo tbat God has been the crea- 
[for, ^ ItUdo^ i stIto] tor of heaven and earth ; 
crt€U6re del cUlo, t diUa 
tirra, 

s' acc&rst V\abiUt Avia hait- he found out, that the abbot 
eiiTo [|for, che f obiite aviU had eaten dry beaRs. 
MAireiATo] /doe s^cd^ 

It may likewise be used for the third person singular 
of the present and of the imperfect of the conjunctive, 
and their compounds ; as, 

St cr4de ^ssrrr Tfor, ehe ^ he is thought to be one of the 

siAJ lino d^ piu riechi pre- ncbest prelates in the worid ; 
l6Udd m&ndoy 

Ma, eredindo lid £bu%k [foTf she, beliorinf that ho was 
efte ^ FdssB] Ou&oo, GisippiMi, answered yoa ; 
rtipSsediHy 



T£RB8* 



S15 



di OuMBdnb ho to gik mico I have alreedy detenniiied 

ffite partUo che rinnt within myself what to do 

[for, che fie DiBBA fIbe], , with Guiscard ; 

mtdindo UA ^sbxk torh Ato b«lieviDff that he had returned 

[for, die Mi f68Bx toe- fVom tne wood. 
viTo]dalo6seo^ 

Finally, the infiniiive is used for the second person 
singular of the imperaii»e mood, when preceded by the 
negative ; as, 

ei^ von tek£k,* do not fear that ; 

If onmt ToccinBy do not touch me. 



EXAMPLES. 

AscB vxLooE OA Qu^LLA T^M- He Went quickly out of that 

BA, c6rrk al palIoio ; non h tomb, ran to his palace ; bis steps 

fHi meerto U mo pda$o, mon k were no longer uncertain, the way 

n^ Di^BBiA liA TiA, VON i Ti^ was no longer doubtful, the night 

osct5RA LA h6ttb. (Alborg. Nov.) was no longer dark. 



QuUlo ehe mi dUe di /&re» si 
fiteia iSetg^ firciouhk domIhe 
i x' Ultimo tA che \o dibbo 6$- 
sere a$peUdto. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 9.) 

Che farXi tv, sb £lla u* 
dIce a' FRATf lli ? (Bocc. g. 8. 
■.8.) 

Se fo fiiFRA drro oi6riii roii 
▼I euARfsoo, fItbmi bruciAre. 
(Boce. g. 8. n. 9,) 

6b TV TI cIlI, fo MOit TI TEB- 

b5 Di^TRO DI OALOPPO. (Dant. 
Inf. 22.) 

Ob CHB ATiSTl, CHE wJil 

corijL viso. (Bocc. g. 7. n. 9.)- 

ABICHfNO 0ITT6 UB ORAROfs- 

smo sospiBo. La ndRNA, gtuW' 
ddiolo, d(s8E : ^ Che at^sti, 
AmcHfwo ? DwiUi eos), ehe io H 
tineo," (Bocc. g. 7. n. 7.) 



What b to be done, let it be 
done immediately, for to-monow 
will be the last day of my being 
expected. 

What wilt th<m do, if she te& it 
to her brothers ? 

If I shall not cure you in eight 
days, have me burnt. 

If thou wilt cast thee down 

ante the pitch], I cannot chase 
lee on foot 

Now what ails thee, that thou 
makest such a fiice. 

Anichino gave a very deep 
sigh. The lady, having looked at 
him, said : « What ails thee, Ani- 
chino ? Art thou sorry, that 1 con- 
quer thee ? " 



• TImm oimI tiialhr •spNnioM oagkt to ba ranrdod, howavw, as •^oiralsM to 
tkb phTMM {H eowAid^ — U Mdrto,— ti e»ndgh» m) oiA kok TmaBa, (o) itoR 
■1 tocoa'bs, Sm., * (I) do (oonmaod,— Mbort,— ooqdmI the*) oot (to) few that, 
not (to) tooeb mo *; Im. ; ia wtOoh tho worda oootainod witliin j 
Mj tu ppw ais d bj tUftU. 



516 



SYNTAX. 



61ms FOSTI TV tTAVlirS ? — 

NoH to 6tb mi rdi. (Bocc. g. 
9. n. 8.) 

ScBouitn ? — Ho 8oix«TO. 
— Elf ov ? — MoBTB. — L* Avmii. 
(AU: Andg. 4. I.) 

lo and£i>a per grdnde bi$6gno 
in $ervigio ddlla mta d6nna^ il 

BB PU QltfllTO, B DflSB: '* Cl- 
TALliBE, ▲ ^UAL d6bVA 8^' 

TU ? " (Nov. ant. 85.) 
Alzata alqudnto la/laiit£k- 

ITAy iBBBR TBD13tO IL OATTITl^ 

Di Ajtobbi^ccio. (Bocc. g. 2. D. 
6) 

Eht^! edro amieo, parrI a 

▼6l, CHB now T1 VOGLIA sf HB. 

(Gold. Ver. Am.) 

GivTB si APPRiftA : ElvIra 
tARJL. (Air. FU. 4. 1.) 

AtR^ D^TTO, CHB HO DA AN- 

oiRB [a VBiiiziA], per 6fta Ht- 
Ura ehe trdUa di wno xi#. (€U>ld.) 

ConOSCO Lt^l <S8BRE UN If AL- 

rioio i76mo. (Gc Cvf.) 

Ud^vdo jl rb iT InghUtirra 
n. maliscIlco Assbr morto. 
(Bocc. g. 2. n. 8.) 

Ti gobtbrrI timpre at^rb 

BiLLA HBIfdRlAy iDOfo isSKRB 
triTO CRBATOR DBL CliLO, B 

BiLLA T£aRA. (Bocc g. 8. n. 4.) 

igH 8* aoc6riib l* abate at^r 

mangiIto pItb siccHB. (Bocc 
g. 10. n. 2.) 

Vhifu a cSrte V abdte di CU- 
grUfil qudle Ml cr^db issBUB tSuo 

Di* PIU RICCHI PBBlItI DBL 

HdBDO. (Bocc. g. 10. n. 2.) 

l^LLA, CRBDilfDO Lt^l iflBBR 
GitCpPO, RltP^SB DI •). 



Where htst (boo beem tUs 
morDing ? — I know not when I 
have been. 

HMt thoo choeen? — I hBive. 
— ifimoB f — Deiitti. — Tboa dmlt 
have it 

I waa going oa an impoftaat 
errand in the service of my ladVt 
when the kfaig arrived, and said: 
** Knight, what lady dost tboa be- 
long to?** 

Having raised the bntem a 
Uttie, they saw that lOgBe Ar- 
dreucdo. 



Come! dear friend, peihaps it 
seems to yon, that she does Hot 
like you 

People a{>proach : peihape it is 
Elvira. 

Peihaps I have said, that I am 
to go to Venice oa account el a 
letter which concerns my und^. 

I know that he is a widrad 



The king of Engtand heaikig 
that bis famer was dead. 



Thon must keep always in thy 
mmd that God has been the crea- 
tor of heaven and earth. 



He found out, that the abbot 
had eaten dry beans. 

There came to court the abbot 
of Cloov, who is thought to be 
one of the richest prelates In the 
world. 

She, ^ believing ttiat be wss 
Giiaippus, answered yea. 



VBRfiS. 



517 



I have already determined with- 
in myself what to do with Guis- 
card ; but God knows what to do 
with theCi for I do not. 

Believing that he had returned 
from the wood, he thought of 
repiimandiDg him severely. 

Do not fear that, for thy min- 
isters are not inferior to thee in 
cruelty. 

Let me alone, do 



Di GvimcAkdo ho (o oil 
nice pRiso partIto chs farhe ; 
ma di te sallo Iddw, eh^ io non 
$0 ehe fArmi. (Bocc. g. 4. n. 1.) 

CrXD^IVDO Lt^I isSER TORVi- 

to DAL B<5sco, atmisd di riprin- 
derlo fSrte, (Bocc. g. l.-n. 4.) 

Cio Hoir TKM^R, eki in eru- 
delUlL son pdri — J tu&i nwAstri 
a te. (Alf. FiUp. 4. 2.) 

IA»damit iroir mi tocoAre. 
(Bocc.) 



OF THX TKirSSS OV THB DXPENDKKT VS; 

IBMTBnCS. -^ *ii , , jv, r 

--'u li \i. ^ 

When, Id a compouDd sentence, the principal vera is 
ID the present of the indicaiiw^ or in the future^ the 
dependent verb must be put in the present of the can- 
junctivey if we mean to imply the present or future time ; 
and in the imperfect of the conjunctive^ if we mean to 
imply the past ; as. 




io oniDO (urM eke mMi e 
pi^^gg^ sippiAff di ckt thn- 
pre sIa la mXa vUc^ 



comvxkrI che tu g6da di ial 
desioy 

CR^DO mi PORT A A 8S offidre, 

QiJjDicnRtJifacUmhUe qudn- 
io mi rdasi ralkgr^^ 

When the principal verb is in the imperfect or the 
perfect of the indicative^ or in the conditional^ the de- 
pendent verb is generally put in the impetfect of the 
conjunctive ; as, 



I believe that, by this time, 
mountains and plains know 
what is the condition of my 
life ; ^ 

it is proper that this wish of 
thine should he gratified ; ^ 

I belteye that he loved me ; 

you will easily imagine how 
much I rejoiced at it 



apphia SApivA ch/i far si 

DOVisSBy 

44 



he hardly knew what to do ; 



51B 



SYKTAX. 



B0MAif96 oM p^MB fo CO- the Mke4 wb^ wis tbe oaiee 

dkt aTAK^BBx wU^io di flK» who would be happier than I, 
«e fuA* (ienirt f688BRO if that money were mine ? 



In tufp ^ nU vt or comiMcma/ phrases, tbe tsipn^er of 
tbe indicatiee in English, — had, tiwu, or isere, is ren- 
dered in ItaliaQ by the im p cr fi e t of tbe eor^nctiffe ; -bs. 



it coH fUM rdssB, io fum vi 
potrH prtttdn umgrdsmti^ 



[if it wot not so] were it not 
80,1 coold not lend yon a 
farthing; 

iif I &ai( not the fear— -if I 
was not afraid] were I not 
afraid of my father, I woold 
#saeh him hev to leplgr ; 
$e ATissi }Pf^^ denAri, -tig's IF I had this money, I would 
prtMerh meanitnUnie^ lend it to thee immediate* 



se non Avissi paitra di wdo 
p&drt, io gU mttgnerU la 
ri$p6^aj 



BXAMPLSt. 



A dk* io mi cniuio ok4i, chb 

■^VTI, B riioGB, — £ iitMM, € 
Uloe siPnAII Dl CHB tbmprb — 

8iA LA ■£▲ tIta. (Petr. t. 22.) 

JDi 1AL dmIo oovtbvbI ohb 
TU e^DA. (Dant lot B.) 

CiiiDO SI pobtIibb ab6ilb, e 
dk€ di me nim rdsBB in^fto or- 
4Mb. (ArioatO 

GflTDlOBB&jL TACnJiflfTB 

TO. (Bant lett.) 

ArFivA MMjf^iwA cmm >PBm m 
novissB. (Bocc. |^ 2. n. 8.) 

DoBAirnd LA maolBA qoAL 

f668B la OAOldlTB DBL L^BO BO- 

■^B. (BMe.g.6.) 
Chi •tarAsbe mAolio ni hb, 

■B ^uiLLI PBhIri F6a«BBO Blil? 

(Bocc. g. 8. n. 6.) 



«D <faat IMiefe,ifaat,hylMi 
time, mouataJM, and plaiai, and 
rivers, tod woods know what ia 
tbe condition of ny fife. 

R it p«Mr llwt d^ wish ol 
thiaeahoaidbefMtifiad. 

I believe that be lored me, and 
that be was no leas aident In love 
dianl. 

Yon win easily Imagfaie how 
mvch I rqjaiead -at it. 



He^han^y 



ataa«i. 



The oneen arfied what was the 
eauae of flieir noise. 



Who wooM be more biqipier 
I, If tiMt money were mine ? 



VMBS. 919 

9x 09tA wo» rdtss, £d voir ti Were it not so, I could not 

roTB±i PRxsriRK va or6mo. lend yoti a larUung. 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 10.) 

Ss io HON ATisai pai^ba si Were I not afraid of my father, 

■fo fIdrx, fo oLi iNSxaNBRii I would teach him how to r^ply. 
I. A RisrdsTA. (Mach. Com.) 

Ss io Aviesi quisTi dehIri, If I had this money, I woidd 

to T^GLi PRxsTKii]£i iNcoRTA- lend it to thee immediately. 
H^HTx. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 10.) 



OF THE MAIIN&E 07 EXFRBSSINO THK BNeLUH FJIS6SNT- 
JSJkMTlClFLM IIT ITALIAN. 

'The English present-partic^le may be expressed in 
Italian : 

First, by the gerund of the corresponding verb ; as, 

YMam£»T>olo comumhre cSnu leeingf him wagte away like 
la tUve al $6U^ snow in the sun ; 

DoaifiifDO git p6irvt di ve- [sleeping or] whilst he was 
dir§ la dmnm t6a, asleep, it seemed to him 

that oe saw his lady. 

Secondly, by the conjunction chcj or the adverb 
fuindoy mi a ten$e of the indUaiiMe mood ^ as, 

p&i ch' iBBi kiposXto U having rested my weary body 
e6rpolAs9o^ 

quAifo' iBBE D^TTo ct^ f^ having said this, he took op 

prist U UsMo tnUero e6^ once more that miserable 

dinU, skull with his teeth. 

Thirdly, by a preposition and the verb m the inftni^ 
five; as, 

eonsumd quiUa matUXna in he spent that momia^ in look* 

cercIbK, ^ ing afler them ;. 

crido chs It suSrt sUntitUt a I believe that the nuns are all 

DOKifiBx, [sleeping or] asleep. 



SaO SYNTAX. 

When the English present-participle has before it a 
preposition, such as of^from^ mth^ on, i^yfor, vnthoui^ 
before, after, be, it is always rendered in Italian by the 
corresponding verb in the infinitive with a preposition. 

If the participle is preceded by the prepositions of, 
from, with, they are expressed in Italian by the preposi- 
tion diy attended by the infinitive ; as, 

(Aki il piaUrt di txd^rIo, I had the pleasure of seeing 

him; 
Bia wC impediice di ri^fo, yoo preycnt raeyrom dmng wo ; 

conUnto d' AviRki trov^ta, being content wHk having 

found her. 

The preposition <m, before the participle, may be 
expressed by the prepositions dt, or in ; as, 

•t rdnta D* AviK la Ukro co- he values himself on being ac- 
noichtia, quainted with them ; 

' joU FAKTiKB gH iow4mu di on his departure he recoDected 
Ui, her. 

The preposition in is rendered by a, or tn ; as, 

eke JL FAR cid voUs$e aildrlo, that he would assist him «• 

doing that ; 

avia Nsi quBTia p<ipolo au- in appeasing the people he had 
torUh ed Arte^ both autlu)rity and art 

The prepositions for, mthout, before, after, tic., are 
literally translated. 

If the participle is preceded by the preposition by, 
this preposition is generally omitted in Italian, and the 
participle rendered by the gerund of the corresponding 
verb; as, 

gli scMri tmpdrano U rigole scholars learn the rules of a 
di igna lingua STUDiiifoo- language by studying them. 



VERBS. fKH 

But if we wish to express the preposttion^ then the 
verb must be put 19 the infinitive^ and by rendered by 

U dMno GiiAio rixduxid la the dmne JnliaB checked the 

j e rf m cfc x dd aA0 tsireito seditm of his aimy Uf only 

-co^ Bnt $6U: *^Jik M^ nynut i "^AhEomins!" 
riUI'' 

SXAMPLB8. 



VxooiEKDOLO Co consnifijiB 
c^Ms n fa J^A niTs al sdLX. 
(Bocc. g. 8. n. 7.) 

DORM^HDO flLl pIrTX ill 96- 

gno Di TXDjibRX xa. d6iira iiSa 
«iuidr |>er un b6$co a$$di biUo. 
(Bocc g. 9. o. 7.) 

PoICh' IIsBI BiPOWkf IL C^R- 

po Lltso, — BipriH via per la 
pi^ggia diUria. (DaDt. Inf. 1.) 

Quakd' £bbx Dirro ci6, c^^K 
6ee1n iSrtiy — RiPiiisB il ris- 
tBio mIsuo c6' DiiiTi — Che 
fiav all* 6$8o, eSme d* un ean^ 
firH, (Dant. Inf. 33.) 

TiUto U fimaninte di quii^LA 

■▲TTfKA COKSOvd IH CBRoIrLI. 

(Bocc. g. 8^ n. 3.) 
P9 mi cm£do c«b lb sij^bb 

Bttn Tl^TTB A SOBMf RB. (BoCC. 

g. 3. n. I.) 

Jl/bn prima di iiri iBBi il fia- 
GliRB DI YBBiRB, til edia delF 
ambaeeiaddre del re di FrdnuAa^ 
(Bent) 

8e mm dC iiXA m ' ihpbdIicb 
bifIrlo. (Metistlett) 

Corrf HTo DI ATkn trotIta 
tiiomina. (Bocc) 

tgli SI tIntA D' ATiR LA 

l6ro coHoto^HZA. (Gold.) 
44* 



I seeing bfan waste away as the 
snow does in the sun. 



Whilst he was asleep, it seemed 
to him that he saw, in a dream, his 
lady eoing through a yeiy beautlM 
wool 

Hafteg rested my wearied body, 
I made my way through the de- 
serted shore. 

Having said this, with looks 
askanse he took up once more that 
miserable skull with his teeth» 
which were as strong upon the 
bone as those of a dog. 

He spent all the rest of that 
morning in looking after them. 

I believe that the nuns are all 
asleep. 

Not before yesterday did I have 
the pleasure of seeing, at the bouM 
of the ambassador of the king of 
France 

Except that you prevent mt 
from doing so. 

Behig content with havhig found 
PhiloBMna. 

He values himself on being ac- 
quainted with them. 



an SYNTAX. 

Nkl partIrs ou soTTiim On his dcptrtore be recoUected 

Di Lii, ehe miicrm rimd»a ira, her, whom he h^d left so mieefm- 

(Not. Adl) We. 

Pregdndolo cum ▲ far gi6 Begg;uiff that he would anist 

TOLissB ▲iTARi.o. (Bocc. g. 6.) him in doing that 

AriA VEL qnsrlR p^polo av- In appeasing the people, be bnd 

toritI bo Irtr. (DaT. St 9.) hotb authority and ait 

6u tcoiJLRi iMPiRARo LS R^- Scholars learn the rales of a 

eouB DI tit A lIkgua studiIr- language by studying then. 
IK)LE. (Rosaaco.) 

Il ditIvo Gii^Lio Rimrix^ The dl^hie Jufins checked liie 

1^ iXDfzioiiB ^EL st$o xsiRciTO seditlon of his army by only sny- 

coL Df R 84Slo : <* Ah QdirIti I** ing : " Ah Romans ! " 
(Dar. Ann.) 



OF THB WAT OF RENDBRllie IIVTO ITALIAN THE RirGZ.rSH 
FARTICLB to, BEFORE THE IirFUffTITB OF TSRB8. 

The particle io prefixed to English verbs is used 
sometimes as a mere sign of the infiniiivej and souse- 
times as a preposition. When it is a mere sign^ it is 
never rendered in Italian, except when the infinitive is 
used as a noun, and then it is expressed by the article 
U or lo. When to has the force of a preposition^ it is 
rendered by the prepositions dij o, per. 

When the infinitive of verbs can be expressed in Ital- 
ian by a noun ; as, — < to read is useful,* la lettura 
e {^tile ; — * always to study is fatiguing,' lo studio 
continue ifaticdso; — the particle to is rendered by the 
article il or lo; — il liggere e iitUe, * to read is useful ' ; 
— lo studiar simpre e faticoso, * always to study is 
fatiguing'; as, 

k impSse ii. seguitIre [or, she ordered her to coDtinae ; 

IL FROSBemHiNTO], 

l' ASTZvttLsi [or, l' abti- to abstain from what jdeasec, 
jxtvzA] da qud chepi&cc, is true virtue ; 
i v4ra virtUf 



VERBS. 538 

Ja dSnna veggindo che il the woman, seeing that to 
preoIre nonievo/^a [or, pray was useless, had re- 
cJit LE preohi£re non It course to threats : 
V€U6vano]y rieSne ai. mi- 
nacciAre [or, ihut mi- 

IflcCE], 

But if the iDfinitive cannot be expressed by a nounj 
the particle to is rendered by a prepontion. 

If the particle io is preceded by a verb signifying re- 
membering or forgetting^ pleasing or displeasingy rejoic- 
ing or grieving^ oxoning or denying^ permitting or pro- 
Mbitingy tellings declaring, affirming, supposing, suspect- 
ing, fearing, commanding, askings entreating, doubting, 
protnising, odviHng, concluding, finishing, proposing ; 
or by any verb implying desire or aversion, it is rendered 
in Italian by the preposition di; as, 

a me pidce di dbvi ima no* it pleases me to tell you a 

viUa, story ; 

m' ^ eadiUo ntW dnimo di it has occurred to my mind to 

dimostr&rvi, show you ; 

a me apparliine di ragunU^ it belongs to me to speak ; 

re, 

6ma d' issert sveglidio a he likes to be awakened by 

su6n di trdmbe, the sound of trumpets. 

The particle to is translated by the preposition a, 
when it comes after verbs signifying beginning, teach- 
ing, learning, attaining, insisting, persisting, proceeding, 
Ttmaining, continuing, opposing, contributing, engaging, 
liking, accustoming, encouraging, obliging ; after verbs 
implying inclination, difficulty, application, thought, re- 
luctance, fitness ; and after verbs signifying motion ; as, 

eomincid a. ehiidere perddno, he began to ask pardon ; 

igli i hHMo A Ttd^rt, he is ugly to look at ; 

quAtdo m^ hra cib cdro ad how pleasim^ it was to me to 

udire I hear this f 

c^ not cride, vinga a ve- let him who does not believe it, 

dirla, come and see her. 



SN 



stutax. 



And wfcener er for Ae pflrtick *>, jom«d with ike m- 
finitive of EngTisb verbs,, can be substituted the phrases 
tit order to^ — with the design iff'^ it h rendered ia Ital- 
ian by the preposition per ; as. 



FBR moBTRimm if avh^ a 
grAdo la sAa wemiUm^ 

cSp 6rto 9A0 F£& AlVritL" 
to, 



to shofw how agreeable lui 
wait waatD'him; 

the fawbaadnaii, wham CImat 
choae to aasist him [to be hk 
bel|NiiatB] m hk •«■ faidsiL 



aaAmpLBi. 



La rejfna, a FUbmina 9oU6ia^ 
£B iM p<S8c u. wieurriMX. (Bocc. 

E rttuL viBTthnr, — H saf^b- 

SI AlTEiriR DA ^v£l CBB PllOBy 

— Se 9u^/ che pUtee offtndt, 
(Faff. Fid. a. ».) 

La d6b9a TBO^iirDa chb il 

fllBGABB HOir EB TALiVA, BI* 
c6riiB AL MIlfAOCliBB. (BOCV. g. 

7. n. 4.) 

A HE FllcB DI dIbTI t^RA VO- 

hAlba. (BMe. g. 5. Bb 8.> 

M' i CAiyi^To iTBLi.' lirnro di 
DiMOBTBARTi niUa novilU, eht 

a me tdcca di dirt (Bocc 

g.I.n.5.> 

A MB omSi AFPAsnliiB or ba- 
OKwiBZ. (Bo«e. g^ & n. ai) 

ImA mSgHo D* iMBRB fTB- 

•ai1t9 a eviSir os TB<Sii»Bv e ro- 
di viv6la, (Det. Sior. ) 
Jl nUdieo connrci^ a cuftDig' 

RB^PBRD^VOu (Bocc. g. 8. D. 9.) 

£o£i i d^fhrme di edr^, bbi^t- 

TO A TBOiRB. (Yvcblr) 

O qcrliiTD M* tfRA Old cIbo 
▲o UDi&B ! (Bocc.) 



Th» queen, IbTing tmed to 
Phifomenm, ordered Eer to cea- 



To know bow to ibfteln Sum 
wfaaC pioico, wfaeo Ibtt wkuk 
ploMes is iojanoas, ii tree vir- 
toit. 

The women, eeeieg fhet to 
prey wai uwlew, bad vecovrM to 
tfareets. 



It pleeeee me to Idl^oa^eeCoij. 

It has' o c c Bf fe d to Biy adad to 
dmw to yoo, in die stoiy wbiA I 
am to tell yoo, 

If ow It boODgs to me to ^mbk* 



He likee bettor ta be i 
hy die aoawi ef bumpt to, and the 
noise of arms, than if the aoond 
of cilheins or Tioti. 

The phyridao begia to ask 
pardon« 

He to dflferam^ in bto ] 
and ugly to look at. 

Obewptomtog itwaa toaiato 
bear this! 



VERBS. 525 

Chi nol cRiDB, rtvoA ±qli Let him, who does not helieye 

A ▼Jcni^RLA. (Petr. s. 210.) it, come and see her himself. 

Credindo eosiui dsaere un gran Believing that he was a great 

barbaibSrOi per mostrarb di roan, to show how agreeable his 

at£rs a grIdo la si^a teri^ta, visit was to him, he ordered that 

4ina gran edppa dordta, la qudle a^large silded cup, which he had 

Javdnti av4va, eomandd, ehe fc$- before nim, should be filled up 

9e empiiUa di vino, e portdta al with wine and given to the gentle- 

gentUuSnw* (Bocc. g. 10. n. 9.) man. 

Zkfm^nieo Ju ditto, ed io ne He was called Dominic, and 

pdrlOf — Siee6mB ddi** agrIcola, I speak of him, as of the husband- 

CHK Cbisto — El^ssx all' 6k- man whom Christ chose to be his 

TO si^o PER aiutIrlo. (Daut. helpmate in his own garden. 
Par. 12.) 



EXERCISE XXXIII. 

IWoidd to Heaven I that my fortune would allow me 
Fdccia U Ciih \ fortuna ddre 

I to I put them in execution^ They came in sight 
di I mdttere Spera. — — — 

of - ■ (saw themselves near to) a small-castle I from 
— vcddre viemo ea$teUo | di 

which, having been seen, I about I twelve men suddenly 
, vedSre,\ defi \ * finti^ iuhito^ 

rushed out upon them. Finally, no (not any) virtue 



I 



usctr^ — 

can be found I in those, who have given themselves 
ft tr6vc^ I , 6i$ere ddre 

I up I to gluttony. Oh ! how true these things 
inprida \ gSla, c6me v6ro c6$a 

are. It was the castle of one of the family of the 
— ca»UUo — — — 

Orsini, and by I good fortune I his lady (a lady of 

, per I Ventura \ — — — 

his) was there. Words I are not necessary I in this 
Par6la \ nan lri$6gnano I — — 



sm SYNTAX. 

boflineM ihete\ The mother rai4: '^(Q wm) daofffatac, 

— mddre Dire: « /gSwdfa, 

what wann I am yoa taUdng aboot?" 
cM4t I Jk egii?" 

The father^ I oo account of I the love (Ikat) he bore 
pddre, I jper r amSre prnlan 

her, took no care (ffaTe hlm«rif Bttle care) [ to f 

, ^ . ^ a^e* |»fo» «ira^ | dih | 

marry her ajfain, and it seemed not oKKlest (thins) F in | 

her I to I ask it (of kirn). Who was a Terr 
• I iP I riehUdere^ — OMtf 

and handsome | man « [, And he saw a 
UUo \<Uaap€r96na\. ' -^ vtdir^ • 

dressed in black fbIlowin||^ (to come after) her. Bat 

— — hrunti^ — venire* dUtro^ •. 

the knMt wlto saw th£r cried I fhmi afkr | ta iim. 
caoalUre mdtn* ^ grMre \ di Unitko \ 

The fcXhmog dar the Saht^ caused a most beantdbl 
$egv6nU di < ^ fdr^ • ffifoi* 

aid rich bed I 190 be put np I nr a Itose haS. 
» licc^ Utto^ I y«4re* | • • «nm» Mf. 

Testferdfl^ I at [ tfaar hour we were in WtgeBxu He 
tiri I a- \ 6ra — — 

was one of those men, who are more attached to liberty, 
w&mo^ » > eiffemidnk^ filerf^ 

than to IH^. Three months ago there was a conflkgratioii 
vita. mi$e Jm mdndim. 

A noisy event happened this year. Feroado was 
gtrepaStcl* aw e m m^wto* aecadirt drnio. ' Asere> 

<]irite pale. 
iutto pdUido. 

To-morrow will be a holV-dky. If thou wit touch 
D&tnSH — Jttta. to€edre 

her with this [ written paper, F she will fbllow thee 



[ written paper, F 



VBRB6. SSn 

unmediatBljr* He said he miu ^eifidkiw find odle. fie 
incarUaninte. — Dire pirfido vUe. — 

took a Jei^ and threw hiniftlf .down froin the olher 
Prindere $dUo^ gUtdxa — 

aide. JETe Uiought that .1 thk man j ' was aooh as 
jjdrte. — J'eniire — | eo$tvi ) dovSre essere 

the wickedness of the iBiu^ndians required (it). From 
mahagitd BotgognAne rickiedere 

these I it was heard I in the neighboarin^ fields, that 

Temi was guarded 1^ foor-hnndred hoisemen. If he 
guarddre queUtrotdnto ^eaadlio, 

thinks tint the republic needs -*«— (has need) that the 
cfSdere — r^piibHea — bU^gno 

senators should speak freely, why does he enter into «e 
9enat&te parldre Hbero, tntr&re ' 

triflii^r details ? JDo jiot make a noise. . .She saw 
<WloJ? cUa^ ? fare — tiripUo. — t<m6seer^ 

i^learlr that Jier vision bad-been true. She, who was 

aot m physician, believed wilheiit amr doaht, that he was 

dead. Do jmI flatter ilqraalf. 

Come into the honse, for I believe (iU^ it is 
KmSre ^^ba, eridere 

I belter I that Jhe. should not eee tfaoe. What dost 
I 6^ffi« I vedire 

thou wish that I should asay to hei, if I should happea 
votire . ^e , — . — — 

ta (it happens thit I should) speak to bar? He 

re JmOkkre 7 — 



asked him what had become of the other ieff of the 

J>9maml6re dipenire — cdecM 

cnne. He wac disposed 1 to I ffo wherever she 

«ri. .«ip^« I di I mnddre d4mm9M€ — 



598 SYNTAX. 

pleased (H wis agreeable to her). I never ehoold 

— — a grddo — 

liaTe believed, that he would act 00 (was capable of 

credere, — — — aig^6ee 

doisg this). Who would have been the one (that}, 

far ^ — — , 

that would not have (set himself to) run-away. 

Ustrt mettere /vggh^^ 

The king having ordered. Setting fire | to I 
re 0rdindre, Apfiee&re \ ftr | 

•veiy plaee. I met them riding post That day 
U»i^. — IneontrArt c&rrere p6$ta, gi&nu 

having passed. Having ^>ne writing. When she 
paaedre. >intra 9efi9ere, — 



began to sinff. 
eominei6re cantdre. 



He forbids him to produce the proofii of his 
— vieidre prodwrre pnt^om 

innooenee. I am very gM to see yon (I re- 

innoc6nxeL — — — — — — — — ra<- 

joice mifm^ wmA at seeing you). It is a crirae m 
legrdrt ved6re — deStto 

TVre to have a great fortune.* It be|[ins to rahL 
liro gran Mne. — Contmddre pidcere, 

I beseech you to grant me that favor. If it was 

— pregdre aceorddre favSre. — 

a fank to leave tliee^ behold I make amends fiir 

e^pa laseidre , ieco — — — ~ 

It (I amend it). He likes to play. I did 

— ammenddre amdre giuocdre. — Jmn 

90 (k) to oblige yoo. She speaks dns to 

— at^Hgdre — Parldrt 

vex me. 

tormentdre 



'iiVrteiu, in tW jPteMi. 



PAftTiCIPLEa 



CHAPTER VUI. 

PARTICIPLES, AND USE AND POSITION OF CERTAIN 
ADVERBS. 

▲ emBXHXlTT or FA»TlOlPLXf« 



It has already been observed (p» 344) that participles 
to Italian are considered and crften used as adjectives^ 
and that, when so used, (pp. 345, 411) they agree with 
siibsiantives in gender and number. 

This is always the case with present-participUsj which 
coDStantly agree in gtnder and number whh their ni6- 
ject-j as. 



ima nivs poktAntx iM^mt- 

ni TXMPIilTllfTI, PEEICO- 

iJLifTi, soeaiAC^irTi a tdn^ 

ti mtar6siy 
presinie 6gH 6eehi su&i l^i 

eaiDixiTK wierci svtndro- 

no, 
^tte dSnnm aspettAnti «t ri- 



a ship carrying men tempest- 
toesed, endangered, and sob* 
ject to 80 many storms ; 

before his eyes they slew her 
[who was] crying out for 
mercy; 

he addressed hiin8e1i*to the la- 
dies [who were] waiting, and 
said. 



By a peculiarity of language, and in imitation of the 
ablative absolute of the Latin, we often find in good 
writers a preseni-participle with its noun or pronoun, 
independent of any verb, and standings as it were, alone 
in a discourse ; as, 



qudndOf sopmAVTKeifiifTK 
I.A If 6TTS, sixrse un Umpo 
Jierisnmo ttemptsi6so^ 
CUare parU asseUalaminte^ 
uniiiTi ii6i, dilla vUa e 
dmamSrte, 

45 



when, night coining on, there 
came very severe and tem- 
pestaous weather ; 

CflBsar spoke much to the point, 
[whilst] we [were] hearing 
him. abont lire and death. 



«TNTAJL 



With regard to the agreement of past^partidpUsf the 
following are the most sure rules : 

When the poit-pariiciph is joined to the verb eesere^ 
< to be ' ; or to such verbs as ventre, restart or r»Mi- 
nere^ tedirsi^ &c., used in tbe signification of Mo be ' ; 
it is to agree with the subject of the verb, with which it 
is joined, in gender aod nmmbtr ; as, 



issi iron di frfyidi tH quir- 
eia iif«Hr&i.AjiDiTi, 

li^tm runirt, wm hen ta- 
eiTc, 

wUntrt dC iLLA [Ia liti^Al 

fioft T<if«A [for^ nofi sIaJ 

usiTA dafamSm scrittirs 
proceurtro ckt [ioLi] ftisTi 

[for, sill iMPiKeiTo in 

quistacikiLt 

ioLi rimIsk [fbr» ru] ma- 

mATIGLliTO, 

il W^vcmB fi|/aIicB si vioc 
[for, ru] Msfo TRiTTO tn 
pngi6nt^ 

But when the past-participle is joined to the verb 
avire, * to have ' ; — if this verb is used, instead of 
isserej in the signification of Mo be ' ; or is used in tbe " 
signification of * to hold,' * to possess ' ; &cc., as an ac-- 
tive and not an auxiliary verb ; tbe participle agrees 
with the object of the verb in gender and nttmber ; as. 



thej were gulanded witii oak- 
leaves; 

nor were tbe fiielta of Vitel- 

tim' troopa ptmisJied, kNut 

well paid; 
whilst it [the language] is not 

adopted hj cekbrated wri- 

ten; 
I shall endeavour that he mmj 

be emidojed in this city ; 

he was astonished ; 

the unhappy youth was soon 
taken to prison. 



per nan poiirH vedht f a- 

TR^STI [for, H SAR^BTl] 

CAvixi git Seeht^ 

t^ av£a [for, s^ £ra] Hf SSI 
aleunK petritxzE in bdcca, 

into che forIta av^a [for, 

TRlciA, POSSED^a] U gMjLf 



thou wouldst have torn out thy 
eyes, not to see thyself; 

he had put some small stones 
in his mouth ; 

one who bad his throat pierc- 
ed; 



AGREEMENT OP PARTICIPLES. 



581 



I kave a mind so accus- 
lomed to conteooplate this 
lady alone ; 

although they bad uosheathed 
their swords; 

I did not hear these things 
from the neighbooFS ; 

the moon had lost her rays. 



m^ [fi»rc Tiifoo] H AvviaoA 

/a niintE a contemplAr m^ 

la cosUif 
bmchi AT^ssEao [for, tb^ 

N^SSSRO] Ie ap&dE lOOUAI- 
NAT«, 

noil HO qtiUU cd$M Bkr^tM 

AYiA ta lima PBan^Ti i 
8udi r6ggh 

If the verb avere^ to which ihe past-participle is joined, 
is u$ed as an OMxiliary verb, in order to represent the 
idea o{ past time, which could be equally expressed by a 
single form of the verb, which the participle belongs to ; 
then this participle remains inixariable ; as,^ 

e6mt (o atr6 dIto [or, da- 

&6] lAro 6gni cdsa, 
cbrcAto ho [or, CEacit] 

simprt soUt&rta vkr, 

ta' dA DiMOSTaiTo [or, fin 

DIMOSTR6] la cagiSne dd 

l6oiiuUe, 
cKi quisle c6se ha makifk- 

aTATO [or, MAlflFKSTd] ol 

maistrof 

When the past-participle is preceded by one of the 
pronouns m», ti, ci, ot, n, «/, /o, /a^ /», gli, 2e, nf , cAe, 
c6i, jno/e, ^ti&K, gtion^t, as objects of the verb, the parti- 
ciple agrees with the pronouTW, or the objects represented 
by them, in gender and numier; as. 



as soon as I shall have given 
to them every thing ; 

I have always sought a solitary 
way; 

he has manifested to me the 
cause of thy evil; 

who has told these things to 
the master ? 



Ula medisima mele ha nf t- 
TE [or, mi ha dxtte <^u^- 
STE c6se], 

U libirto dicha aviri^A isso 
vccisA [or, avkre isso uc- 
CiSA LA o6ifNA], 



she herself has told them to 
me; 

the freed-man said that he had 
killed her himself; 



SYNTAX. 



In CI Ail 6gg% ^kmt$ MLiTi- 

cjLtk [or, kSi Dii.iTiciTx 

if6i], 
Im QvMe h raee&nt0rd ver 

/£nfi acc6rtx [or, Jirt 

▲cc6rtk ydi], 

davitUi tnhm fItta, 

c6\ igli eoUmio amIta 

h tUhmif Lf QuiLi hi lUd 
AT^Ti per Me, 



tkoo hast delif^ted u 00 
toHlajr; 



which I win relate to atow 
you; 

she eaoaed the waiter to be 
giYen to her, which she had 
prepared the day befi>re ; 

■eeing soch a Imdy, and one 
whom he had loved ao 
BQch; 

the eTilfl which tboa hast sus- 
tained OD my account. 

The partidplt^ however, remaios invwriabU if it is 
accompaDied by an injinUivey and the -abovementiooed 
pronouns are the objecti of this infinitive ; as, 

U edit che gih avfva uniTo 
DIRS, cht tnmo imUrvenviU, 

t6ttt «' 99rk riTTQ MQRiRS, 



la difmoj la q%idU U limgo 
vagheggiire won aUffa ro- 
t6to iiu6vkr£, 



the things which he had heard 
of as having happened ; 

he win have put yoo all to 
death ; 

the lady, whom his long adnn- 
ratien had not been able to 
move. 



Finally, past-pariidples may be used, like present- 
participles, absohUely ; the gerund of the verb iuere^ or 
avtrty being generally understood ; and <Aen, if the 
gerund understood is euindo, tbey agree with the mi-* 
ject^ and if tntndo^ with the object of the propositioB ; 



as. 



iL famiglidrR eit^KTO [fbr, Uie domestic having arrived, 
xasiiiDo eitfnTo], e dIte and having consigned the 



[for, AVAllDO niTK] JK 

Uttenty e fItta [for, a- 
viivDO fItta] Pcmbaid^ 
Ia, Jh am gran JMa riee- 



the letters and delivered the 
message, was received with 
great joy. 



AGREEMENT OF PARTICIPLEa 



■ ZAX PLXf. 



UlTA VXVK P6RTAlfTC U^MUfl 

nEM^xsrijiTi, fxricolIkti. soo- 

eiAC^KTI A TANTI HAr6sI. (Oiov. 

vm, 11. 8.) 

PRKsiEirTK Igu 6ccri 8v6i 
UEi gridAittb MXRoi e aiuto 
uwmmkBOMO, (Bocc. g. 4. n. 4.) 

Alls i>6irNx aspkttAiiti si 
KivoLSK, ■ Disss. (Bocc. g. 9. 
n. 10.) 

QaijTDo, sopRAyTxairiiiTB la 
]r6TTB, eon 4s$a insieme si^rsx 

VII T^MPO FISaisSIMO S TEMPS- 

fT680. (Bocc. g. 6. D. I.) 

Cf BARS PARL^ bSllo € ASSXT- 
TATAM^NTS, UD^RTI ROI, D^LLA 
▼Ita S DibLLA MORTB, qudfldo 

dit$e (BruD. Tes. 8. 84.) 

£s8i ^RAjr t{UH Di fr6iidi 

QmfllCIA INOHIRLANDATI. (BoCC. 

g. 9. n. 1.) 

Ni itwLAifo Lx fIlts J}±* Vl- 

TBLLlllfl PVniTB, MA BXH PA- 

OATB. (DtF. Stor. 8.) 

Ma $ia$i {ma LfifovA nSMe^ 
p6co U gioverd MinTiis ce' ^lla 

MOB TBBGA VsAtA DA FAJl6si 

■siutt6bl (Bwmb.) 

8e non mi $ard Ueita ^ tpfh- 
•drloy FBoocuRSBd almino chs 

BisTl IHPISoItO IB ^uiSTA OIT- 

Tl. (Goki.AvF.) 

ioLi snclfs xaratioliIto 
UUa bHMa mvModiM. (Boccal.) 

E iL gi6tahx urFsxics si 
▼iox t6sto da ima iquddra di 
»aUUiti ciaoGBsivo « tbItto 

IB PRIGldBS. (SOBF. NOT.) 

45* 



A ship carryiDB mea tempest- 
tossed, endangered, aud subject to 
SO many storms. 

Before his eyes they slew her 
[who was] cr]ring out (br mercy 
and aasistiiice. 

He addressed himself to the 
ladies who were wailing, and said. 

' When, night coming on, there 
came with it very severe and ten^ 
pestuous weather. 

Cesar spoke finely and much 
to the point, we hearing him, 
about life and death, when he 
said 

They were all garlanded with 
oak-leaves. 



Nor were the fkults of Yitelllus* 
troops punished, but well paid. 

Bht however noble a language 
may be, this will be of little use to 
it, whilst it is not adopted by cele- 
brated writers. 

If I am not allowed to mairy 
him, 1 shall at least endeavour 
that he Biay be employed ia tills 
city. 

He was astonished at the bad 
invention. 

And the unhappy youth was 
soon surrounded 1^ a band of 
sateUltee Bud takim to prison. 



sa4 



SYNTAX. 



Di u $U9$m 9 erg g n dm ittU 
PXR NOR porivn TSDims, t' 
▲rmim catJLti au 6ochi. 
(Boec. g. 8. n. 7.) 

▲LCt^MB FnVl^XXB IH BOCCA. 

(Bocc g. 7. D. 6.) 

Ub ^ttr# CBB POkItA AT^A LA 

o6la. (Dsot. Inf. 28.) 

etf BO tl ATvixBA — La mAbtb 
A cobtbmflJLb 96ia toMtH^ — Ch* 
^ttro-non tidt (Petr. s. 80.) 

BBjrcni ighno Arf mbbo nd 
LB sfJLdb isouaibItb e memSte. 
(Amm. Ant 11. 1. 12.) 

fo BOB BO QO^STB CdlB BA- 
PI^TB DA* Vicfvi ; ^LLA HSOftl- 

HA, fh^e di te dolendon^ hb lb 

HA D ^ TT B . (Bocc. g. 8. Q. 8.) 

AviA LA v&MK^ etUndo mel 
mim del eiilo, pbrdi5ti i mio- 
•I fuoi. (Bocc. g. 6. Intr.) 

C6mb Io atr6 lobo 6«bi cma 
dJLto. (Bocc. g. 2. D. 8.) 

CbBcItO bo siMPBB fOLlTl- 

BiA TiA — Per fiiggbr pfe$f im- 
§6rdi e IdShL (Petr. • 



Being BihBiiied of tb jself, 1 
wouktet hBYe torn oot tlqf €J*eSy 
not to tee tbyaelt 

The. jeakHM bbbo hid piit Boia 
floiall Btoncfl in his dmhiA. 



Anoaiw who ted Ui 
pierced. 

I have fwgolten wbit I Hiaot 
desire : and my Blind is so ec- 
cusConsed te contemplate this lady 
alooe, thai H percet?es BOtT ' 
else. 



Aldioogh Oteyhad 
and used their swordi. 



he»X 



altfio«i|^ In 
of heaven, had kMt 



I did not 

from the neighbours ; she 
complaining bitterlj of tiiee, 
told them to me. 

The 

middle 
rays. 

As I shafl ha?e ghm to I 
evefy thing. 

I have always soncht a toKfiaiy 
way. in order to avwi theee detf 
and bKnd minds. 



) 
Domefudditt u* ha dihmtrI- 

TO LA CAOIOJTB DBL Tt^O HALB. 

(Bocc. g. 6. n. 4.) 
•Chi ittri eke tu, ha Qvisrs 

o6sB HABIPBStXto AL HAisTBO ? 

(Boc;p. g. 8. n. 8.) 

1l lib^rto dioAya at^la 
isso ucciSA, e Boidtcdto P ta- 
gUuria del jpadr&n $uo. (Day.) 

8e f» iiri ct eiffiigg^tH^ rv ci 
bIi 6«oi tIbto oiLmcATB ehe 
nmna di te ti die rmmmmrieAre. - 
(Bocc g. 6. n. 6.) 



tOBM tiM 



God has 
ofthyevfl. 

Who else bat 
tiMse things to the 



The freed-naa said that ho had 
killed her himself, and thos afeng- 
ed the offence done to hb i 



If fhou didst sflBet «s yeeteiday, 
then bast defighted as so mudi 
to-day that none of us can ,coai- 
plainof thee. 



USE AND POSITION OP AbVERBS. 



585 



La Quix.c, piacevSU d6nnet io 

EA.CC01iTKRd PER rillTI ACCdRTB 

(Bocc g. S. n. 8.) 

E quSsto ditto, n r£* nAnm 
V arduoUtiOf ntl quiU ha l* ke- 

QUA, CHB II. J)\ DAYAVTI AViVA 

fItta, e tulta la biwe. (Bocc. 
f.4.D.X*) 

U qu6le cotl fXtta d^itva, 
% cti -taiA corijfTO amIta 
ATibA, per m6^ie TCDAjrixwt. 
(Bocc. g. 9. D. 90 

Fo tSno vtnitta a ri$tordrH di' 
DANifi, I.I QjakiA Tu hIi gUt 
AvtJxi F«a MX. (Bocc. g. 6. n. 9.) 

Le c68S CHK OiA ATAyA UDfTO 

dIrk, CHS iK ndite f raho irtbr- 
f xirdTS. (Bocc. g. 9. n. I.) 

JDim^tie, un uSm $6lo — Si 
partird, ehe non V avrHe offiso, 
— Qu&ndo tiJtti t* avrA. fAt- 
TOMORiRB? (Ariost Fur. 11 8.) 

La D6itjrA, la quXlb il i.t}ir- 
Go taqhkooijLrx, V armeggidre^ 
U maltifiSte h 176 verb ron Avi- 
TAHo poTtJTo, mSiserd le «^t- 
tuose pardle, (Bocc. g. 5. n. 9.) 

GitSirro ad&nque 11. FAHioui- 
RB a GSnova, b da'tb lb l^t^ 

TBRB, E FA'tTA l' AMBASCIA'tA, 

Fu d6Va d6nna coR orar Ff sta 

RIOBTI^TO. (Bocc. g. 2. D. 9.) 



Which, kind ladles, 1 wiH re- 
late to show you 

And, having said this, she caus- 
ed the yessel of water to be given 
to her, which she had prepared the 
day before, and dranli it all off. 

Who seeing himself united in 
marrim with such a lady, and one 
whom ne bod loved so much. 



I am come to make thee amends 
for the injuries thou hast sustained 
on my account 

The things which he had heard 
of as having happened by night 

Then, shall a single man depart 
from hence, when he will have put 
all of you to death, without having 
been at all hurt by you ? 

The liiidy, whom his long admi- 
ration, tournaments, serenades, 
were not able to move, was mov- 
ed by his tender fiords. 

The domestic, having arrived at 
Genoa, and having consigned the 
letters and delivered the messase, 
was received by the lady with 
great joy. 



USE AND POSITION OP CXRTAIir ADTKRBS. 



Adverbs^ as we raoDtiooed at pp. 391, 394, may be 
put before or qfier the verb ; they may be put, also, 
oetween the auxiliary and the pwrtidple^ aod between 
two participles '^ as, 

In sii B^ifB e6m€ h eSm thou knowest well how I am 
agidtOf situated; 



980 SYNTAX. 

FSBSTAififrTB ^ ATTmnA'- gweUj [a wqU3 teiied her bf 

fum HO mAi pdiciA poTt^To I could rieep no longer after 

irm staVa ii6lto ma'ub (^ liad been veiy badfy ad- 
comeLiA^TA, Tiaed. 

The adverb fum, < no or not ' ; is always pot hefwr^ 
tbe f€ri; as, 

iroN FAUiirtco, amrfdiwis X do aoi rave, Madam ; 
HON v' AccoaeiTK dke n^* do yoa not pereeive that we 
•ttea^rw? ai 



When the adverb non is employed to deny several 
objects^ and these ^precede the veri, tbe adverb is put 
befort tbe ii^iiiu, and not before tbe verb ; as, 

NOH Pi6eeiA, Noir eaA^irnOi neither rain, nor haH, nor snow, 
nom if^vB, Noir mneiA^oA, nor dew, nor froat fidla a- 
If ON bb(na jnii #u oMe, hove. 

The adverb «i&t, whtcb in itself strictly means ' at any 
time,' may be put either before or o/icr tbe 9»i; 
when, however, it is put before^ it takes tbe significatioB 
of never f and when cjier^ it takes that of ever ; as, 

li pr»^ eke ma^i nicHi I beseech thee never to tdl, 
Jr m^rmi veddiOf that thou but aeen aia ; 

% Pem^ni ma'i ft vdLiAao tbe Penigians never wished to 
dUkmdrt ad aiedn aecMOf condescend to come to any 

agreement; 

qu6i hMart TVWL UA^i \ idtat barbarians were ever! 

U ci6h i 6ggi eoH HUo e6me the sky is as beantifol to-day 
ri7 jf a'i, as ever it was. 

The adverbs rum mil, * not ever,' * never ' ; occurring 
in tbe same phrase, are generally equated by tbe verb ; 
and then non^ ^ no or not ' ; altoays precedes^ and 
< ever * ; tdwaye foUowe tbat verb ; as, 

io NON m6ngio ma% I never eat ; 

PMi mm ieUUermA'i ptg- tte arts nwarfimd wows | 



USE AND POSITION OP ADVERBS. 



HON sPK&ia di vedSrmi in never hope to Bee me again on 
Urra nil, earth. 

But they may be used, also, united ; and then, if mai 
precedes nouj they are to be put both before the verb ; 
if it follows mm, they may be put after it ; as. 



io hJLi non d6rmo!| 

ehe fhro hIi noit sTaiii ok, 

g%ur6gU di uii non niaLO, 

amici fedtii p6s8on diten- 
Tia HnCf siuUiti non 

Mil, 



I never sleep ; 

who never knew how to use 
arms; 

she swore to him never to tell 
it; 

the^ can, indeed, become faith- 
ful friends, but subjects nev- 
er. 



SXAMPLXf. 



Piniseeio, tu uii B^ira c6icx 
io fOHO AOliTO. (Bocc. g. 9. D. 

6.) 

H qudle paxfTAM^HTX •* at- 
txhtIta 111 a o63:.a di oosTlbi. 
(Bocc. g. 9. n. 7.) 

Po VOV HO mil f680ia tov&to 
DOBMiaa. (Bocc. g. 9. n. 6.) 

E ch* eW iRA btIta h6lto 
mIlb coniioliIta. (Bocc.) 

JW««« dl\6ra Pino : " Now 
FAaNfTico, no, Ma.i>6mna." 
(Bocc. g. 7. n. «.) 

Now t* AccoRoirs r6i, ohs 
ir6i fiiic vimMi, — JV(&ti a for' 
mdr P angilica jfoff6Ua, (Dant. 
P«rg. 10.) 

Perehi won pi6goia, non 
oaiifoo, iroir irj^vs, — Nos au- 
•lioA, voir BRfif A Fii!k air cios, 
— Che la $eaUtta d6' tre grddi 
hrSve, (Dant. Purg. 21.) 

Ti paiiEoo oHB mXi ad dUima 
petwdna d(cbi d* xrtKta vid^- 
TA. (Booc. g. 2. a. 7.) 



Piauccio, thou knoweat well 
how I am aituated. 



Which [wolf] quickly aebed her 
by the throat 

I could deep no longer after 
that. 

And that ahe had been very 
badly adviaed. 

Then Pyrrhua said : « I do not 
rave. Madam, no." 

Do you not perceive, that we 
are worma, made to form the 
winged insect imped with angel 
plomea. 

Because neither rain, nor hail, 
Bor mow, nor dew, nor froat, ever 
fidla above that abort hkkier of 
three steps. 

I beseech thee never to tell to 
any ono that thou haat seen me. 



as SYNTAX 

Mil y^LLBBo oichmIkb a» al- nercr wiabed to 



ct^B ACCORDO. (IfBtt. YUl.S. S9.) coBe to Boy agreciBient. 

QoAi bIbbarb rum mai, giub' Wbmt btrbtiians, wfcat 

SarmA^s / (Dant. Pmg. S3.) were ettr ! 

Cotl k 6qgi BiLLo iL oiiLo The iky if as beaotilal to-daj 

c6uK TV Mil. (Bocc f . 6. B* 10.) a« ever it wtt. 

^ l« d^iMfM, io B«ji mXikiio If tea iMtMt, I mw ea*; if 

Mil ; $e fw viggH^ Io mIi bob tboo art watcliiiig, I nerer ri e e p. 
ooRiio. (Panav.) 

M fn^lo mextOf l* imri « ia DuriDf this &&e, the arts a^d 

MMfCimsia itoit isr^rrBm mIi commerce nerer fiiied wone in 

pf ooio m Firinzt. (Giov. Yin. Florence. 
9. It.) 

Nob srsnln di TsniRHi ur Never hope to eee aae again en 

TinnA nil. (Petr. s. 2ISL) earth. 

PSpolo ignudo, pao6ntoWj « A race poor, (earM, and indo- 

MnlB, — Cum fmbo ifli *«» lent, who never knew hew tn «e 

stbIbob. (Petr. c. 6.) anni. 

E gi9b6oli di nil bob dIrlo. And die swore to him never to 

(Boce. g. 8. n. C) teM iL 

AmSoi FsniLi POssoB DiTSB- The Americans can Indeed be- 

tjLr BiBx gU JSmerieim ogF J^ come tlie fiythlbl fiiends oi tiie 

"ifi, sl^Dom HOB mku (Bott ff aghsh, hnt idjeeU never. 



Ito 



Iter: Amer. L 6.) 



EXERCISE XXXIV. 



mnt some (ofkU) tine I to 



sole I her weeping. To him, then reeidioif is 

raecmuoUure^ | • jn6ngert*. , — dmufrire 

Ireland, cnme the desire of hearing. (The) nven 
Mdnda^ venire — 96glm tiUirt. Hes 

of (the) blood extinguished the rising flasie. Happy, 
idngtte etth^uere* > ndseer^ fidmnu^. Fence, 

and fortunate, and eqjoying | for ever I the frnit 



USE AND POSITION OP ADVERBS. 539 

of tbeir lore. You* aro not tfie ftnt, not wfll ym be 
amdre. pAm», — 

tfao HlsIv tlMLt 16 imposed opon. I know not whether 

thou I hast fiohicled ) how cloee wef are kept 
I e kdi pSsto in metOe \ ttritto* — » fen^re*. 

'n»y having arrived at the city, 1 went I with 
Bm99^ » ptrven^t* .» * d«i», | ne aiul<$r<mii» { ' 

Mr* ToreUo to his hoase^ whem fifty of the 
Me9Ui^ • » » e<i»a», cm^tionla 

principal citizens were come to receive tfaeoh The 
maggi^rt citiadino venire rieevSre 

message which I have given to him | to 1 deliver 
tommeenSne ddre \ di \ rtferire 

to the king. Thou knowett what is the offence, 
re, Bophm ingUtfim^ 

whick thou hast given me. Master, I have seen 
fdre Mmhtroy 



a tiling which troubles me. One who had 

e6nM diepiaeSre* 

the one, and the vother hand cut off. Each oiie§ of 

tmOf 6Uro nwn mo%w6cre* 

them bad her right breast cut off I in order to I 

^ — dvnitf^ MommiUa^ taglidnF, \ per \ 

] carry I I the shield I I in I battles. They) are 

I poriare \ \ lo seudo \ | 6tia | battdgliei. 

handsomer than the painted angels, which yo« have 

bitio dipiitte^ agnoU^f 

often-times shown me. Thoof hast been with that 

piit vSlU mo$tr6re . c^- 

hdy, whom thou hast deceived. 



I have caused tlie greater part of my possessions to- 
— fire ■ uiaggi6t* pSftt^ • • poestseiAn^ vAm- 

■*■ 

X i£MM, io th« yfaral. % Emekom; in the fmitdM. 



540 SYNTAX. 

be-Mld. They w«« f^d that th^ kad (ofhafing) 

dertK — Rimumere eomUmio — — — 

suocMsfblly (with saccesi) known how to mock te 

— §uc€4$$0, tapir e — — uditnikrt 

ftTarice of Calandiino. I No sooner I had she entered ftnlBJ 
•MniBMi I J(fl pritma * | — _ enAribv^ ^ 

the room, than the (beatmg ^ the ofiemt du) polee 

< eomero*, du battimhUQ — ~ f6im 

returned to the yonth ; and hating left it (she ha?- 

ritomSre gi&tane ; — — — 

mg departed)^ it [the pnlae] left him also (it ceased). 

par^e, — — — — — — — eesfdrc 

Is not this the land, which I first I trod with 
terriHt prim \ Im- 

mj feet I ? Ciaeeo replied : " T^on knowest veir 
dbv |; ' BUpimdereK- " — MtpSre -^ 

well, that I shall come." Who quickly opoied 
hSne, venire." prettameuU mpnrt 

the door. The Dettl said once to St Mae»iu8 : 
pdfia, Dwodlo dir€unm96Ua San Maeana : 

** If thou art always watching (watchest), I - never 

« - - - v6ghare, 

sleep; ii thou I usest all thy eflforts I in thy woda 
dormkrei \ H 4ffiUiM | — _ _ 

— (working), I never rest (ha^a never rest).* 

operirCf — — nanmai rtpd^oJ* 

Did not thy master say, that we should cany 
padrdne ^tf parUrt 

home I these things? Caring (km$eiP neithn 
medta | e&$a? Cuf&e 

for I the palaces, nor I for I the ox, nor I lor I the 
d'^ I pal6gio, \ di \ Mm, | d» | 

horse, nor I for I the ass, nor | for I the money,* nor 
tam&Oo, I di \ 6mm, \ di \ dendn, 

I for I any other thing, which he had seen. 
di I c6$a, — * vedir^. 

« JfeMy, fai tlM jrfwai. 



EXPLBTIVES. 



541 



CHAPTER IX. 



EXPLETIVES. 

[Altbrnigh maaj of the followinf words hare beeo alreadj mentiened is trMtiof 
of tb« differant Pwto of SpMoh, which thoT rotpeetirelj beloog to, it hu, 
iMTertholoas, not boon thoo^t attogelh«r OMleM to prttont them hore ooee 
mora oolted io a Unf lo ebo|»tor.] 

BiLLO : 

Your suit of clothes is finished. 



Ii. vSitro ves^io i b^ll' efMo. 

(Fir.) 
per BiLLA padra gtUd U ban- 

diire del eamitne. (Cron. 

Mor.) 

per BiLLB 9Ctitte di lor mdno 

tro. (Boec. g. 9. o. 9.) 

B£nE, ben, B£' : 

Oli damanddij st gli hastdva 
V Anmo di eaceiMo Via; ed 
Mt ri9p6§e: ** Si mAmJ* 
(Bocc. g. 9. n.5.) 

egli i quiun malvdgio uSmo^ 

eke m^ lia iagliMf la h6r9a 

eon BBN eknio Jmini (f 6ro. 

(Bocc. g. 9l n. h) ' 
** Bi'," rispof to, ^'Mesihe^par- 

lerhn p&i; — /Am Me qui 

per er quMe fiaedmoJ*- 

(Bern, Risk) 

CI; 
Shnpre ehetu ci vwerAL (Bocc. At long as thou Uvest 
g. 6. n. 4.) 

la d6nna e Pirro dicivano .* the lady and Pynrhus said : 
^* JV!6i ci eeggUkno.^ (Bocc ♦« We will sit down." 
g.7.n.9.) 

CON: 

Sldai CON mico. (Petr.) He is with me. 

ipiro d" aashte amU H^ Uhm I iMpe I shaH h«?e a ine thne 

CON Ueo. (Bocc. g. 8. n. 10.) —^^ ""-^^ 
46 



through fear he threw down 
the standards of the com- 
monwealth. 

they were bound to each other 
by fine obligations written 
witn their own hands. 



I asked him, if he had courage 
to send him away; and he 
answered: **Yes,truieeif." 

Iiere is a wicked man, who has 
cot ray purse with yVitf one 
hundred florins of gdd. 

" trefl, Sir,** answered I, ** we 
will speak afterwards; do 
not make now such a noise 
here." 



with thee. 



543 SYNTAX. 



tcco 



Ed icco PiHro ekimmi «ir And I0 Peter called at the dMr. 

ii$eU. (Bocc 9. 5. n. 10.) 
icco, GMHUiAto, m U pi6ee Aere, JohB, thoa widieat that I 

ek* io dMnga Cr idi dmo . should become a Chiietmii. 

(Bocc. g. 2. 11.2.) 

6GLI: 

i»Li ^ itna compa tMne a vt- It excites mtw to see hioi. 
dMo. (Mach.CoiD.) 

Hon ti fa wuMri U «KHo^ t< it is not necessaiy to teft it, 
iti^HtofmMateu. (Sen.) thy face oumifests it 

£lXA: 

^LLA fMfi tmdrk coH. (Bocc It shall sot go on so. 

g. 9. n. 5.) 

senon tk^Hlaka tncidfottto except that she wished to sImw 

moiMre, ck* iUa ^retMe^ by this, that she is coaite- 

<LLA. (Bocc. Corb, 79.) oos. 

tSSO: 

.^ndiim^ aR(ma-eom£9m>tkL Let as go to Rome wMi him. 
(Bocc g. 3. n. a) 

jtf90, M an ezpletiYte, k wmariabUt ind may be i»ed •qaaOy wtM 
before a masemimt mad % fimm n e pfnona, both umgmlar lod pfmrml ; 
aa, eon ^sao m^m, ' with mt*; am tea C^e»,' whh thee * ; cm» teo 
Itit, ' with \dm'i eon teo l^t, < with her/ or ' with you '; e«fa 4mo 
n6i, * with u»*', eon teo s^ < with you ' ; eMi teo l6r», < with Ifaea/ 
or ' with you : ' 

fJUi 6Ua JkUsira^ e ekii ma la , e go to the window, and caD 
ift* c^ vinga a dtiMrt eon her, and tell her to ooine 
±9ao ifdi. (Bocc g. 8. n. 8.) and dine with as. 

GIA: 

Gil Dio non v6gKa. (Bocc May God ibcbid. 
g. la n. 5.) 

non erido io wX ckt m aviu a I do not think yoa take it iU. 
nOo. (Varch.) 

fO: 

aufar&AeigU$' io tnori$$i, What would he do if I siio«M 

fo ? (Macb. Com.) die ? 



EXPLETIVES. 543 

comeM 6gni dUro udmo mdUo although every other person 

(H lid $i IfkUj io nUne pSsso praises him much, I can 

piico iodArty io. (Bocc. g. 10. praise him but little. 
n. 3.) 

Mil: 

Una pMe del m6ndo h^ cht There is a part of the world, 
n gidu — Mil i^pre in which lies always frozen. 
gkSceio. (Petr. c. 5.) 

«* cSfMy^ disse Ferdndo^ " ddn- " how," said Perondo, " am I 

quetdno iomMo^^^Dia' dead, then?" — The Monk 

8t il mnaeo : " Mil #1" replied : << Yes indeed.'' 
(Bocc. g. an. 8.) 

MI: 

/e MI s6no un p6vero peUegr^ I am a poor pilgrim. 
no. (Booe. fHloc. 1. 5.) 

%o HI crido ehe le sudre iien I believe that the nans are all 
Mte a dormire. (Bocc g. 3, asleep, 
n. 1.) 

MfCA: 

Son novUU e vkrtj non son These are troe news, they are 

HicA fdvole. (Fir. Trin.) sot Mies. 

non Mi OA UHSta n^ maUridie ; not an idiot nor a vulgar man ; 

ma scienzidto, e di aedto in- but learned, and of an acute 

gigno. (Casa. QoL) mind. 

NE: 

CheiaminU »' andd per la cd' He went tranquilly through the 
mera insino 6Ma finidra. room to the window. 
(Bocc. g. 3. n. 7.) 

andidnm ^, e laverindo tpae- let us go there, and we will 
ciatamMe, (Bocc. g. 1. n. 5.) wash it immediately. 

NON: 

Thno che v6i non mi abbando- I fear you will abandon me. 
nidU. (Bocc.) 

la qudl modhtia ditbito che which modesty, I doubt, may 
votigUiia danndio. (Tolom. be hurtful to him. 
lett) 



544 SYNTAX. 

6RA: 

lM/0EfcstomteiV^«i4- Ah! would that Um^ had 
to. (Boce^ g-S.lL 9.) drownad thee. 

6tLA c4c v#fTd litr fiiMa t imw what does thia aeaa ? 
(Bocc g. 7. B. &) 

P6l: 

AWi f6i P^ Mdnto an ^ What VM told aaa k aoC live. 

cMt. (Boec) 

W ttaii an a^na p^ Ftioiiii A I have not coaae t» the reaahi 

fmr^S EMm. (Car. ktt) tion of leaviag RoaM. 

PtTNTO: 
Sham atyatftr ptf kto. (Bocc) WitboiitheiBgfirigltfeiiedfllflfi: 
TViUUa WW 2 i^ifTO aiMa. Tedaldo ia not a< ad dead. 
(Bocc f . a n. 7.) 

PI^RE: 

Zrfi ete «mB FUK caai (Bocc The affiur went off ao. 

f . 3. s. 5.) 

JkHwMcUtmwdwMriqmM dehmtahowMhaiwhoBtfaaB 
BfUee. (Bocc «;&.«. 10.) likaat. 

SI: 

Dd pmUgms'u9^efii^Mi Hew6]rto«torihepalaac,«Bd 
m cAm. (Bocc g. % nTa) fled to hk hooae. 

si: 

^ I tdmta ia iiwywli, a la So fi«at m the j a a ja ta i asd 
anMrMftKaiiiI&. (Bocc the bmicjoT God. 
g.LiLL) 

TI: 

/a aon ao ae In T* kki p6do I know not, whether dioa haat 
m ai a rf c . (Bocc g. a b. 1.) 

TU: 

Tu a* Hu par6kf'a\j. (Beacg. Thoa aiafeat mf whet thae 
7. n. I.) 



ELLIPSIS. 545 



TIJTTO: 



Ldi dArmOf ud&ndo cotHd par- The woman, hearing this man 

Urt U audit iUa crediva speak whom she thought 

m^tolo, T17TTA sUfrdt (Bocc. dumb, was quite amazed, 
g. 3. n. 1.) 

IJNO: 

Vu6ituqudPi6wo? (Bocc.) Dost thoa want that one ? 

VI: 

VM non sapiU dd ehe v6% vi Ton do not know what yon 
diie, (Bocc. g. 6. n. 6.) say. 

Vf A : - 

** Va viA,^ rtspSse ; ^eeideheiu **Qoawettf/^ answered he ;^and 
vu6i,eMaJ* (Dant Inf.d^.) relate what thoa pleasest" 



CHAPTER X. 

OF THE ELLIPSIS. 

Ellipsis is a figure Id grammar, which consists in 
the omisnon of one or more words in order to add con- 
ciseness and elegance to the phrase, without alSecting its 
clearness. This figure is very frequent in Italian, and 
offers one of the principal difficulties in the grammatical 
analysb of the Classics. We will here give some exam- 
ples in which the ellipsis is employed, supplying the 
words which are omitted^ that the learner may familiar- 
ize himself with similar locutions. 

Ellipsis of the Substantive: 

Rbgpe [la n4ve] in mdre. He made shipwreck. 
(Umsca.) 

mi $cu$6i [d^lla c61paj di db, I exculpated myself from that 
(Class.) fault 

4e» 



540 



vnrfAX. 



Ale$$6ndro mu6re [per am6T«] 
di quilki vidwa, (Bocc.) 

e<mo8eindo ehe ^vi non tra 

fludg^o] da ptdngcre 
Bocc.) 

bAitami pa disgr^a] di iiMe- 
re stdio $eheridto una v6Ua, 
(Boec^) 

»o ei tomerb, e dardUene tAntt 
[bdase], eh' io H farb irUto 
per tiUto il Un^Ot ehe tu^i 
vwerdL (Bocc. g. 4. n. 2.) 

nHtno mdle $i fiee tUUa eadu- 
ta, quantimque alqudnto co* 
dU$e da 6Uo [lu6go], (Bocc 
g. 2. n. 5.) 



Alexander dies for that iridow. 

ItDowing that there was no 
place to weep ..... 

it is enough to -have been in- 
sulted once. 

I will retnm, and give thee so 
many blows, that I will make 
thee aony as long as than 
liyest. 

he did not hart himself in fall- 
jf, although he fell from 



igh place. 



Ellipsis of the Adjective : 



E ehnpre p6i per [budno] da 
mdUo r ^be^ e per amieo, 
(Bocc. g. a n. 3.) 

Ju [4bile] da tAnto, e tAnto 
sippe fdre, eh' 4gU paeifi- 
eb il JigHudlo cot pAdre, 
(Bocc. g. 3. n. a) 

A^n &uep%^y ehe cib Qiiceio 
BaUna gli €n)isse fdtto, per- 
eioeehl tkol eonoseiva [ca- 
p4ce] da Unto. (Booe. g. 6. 
n.10.) 

U re g;U ekiambi e quH^ JT**^ 
do U videro^ tinnern [im- 
m6bili]. (Nov. Ant) 



And considered him always 
afterwards as a very good 
man, and as a friend. 

he was so able, and knew how 
to do so much, that he re- 
cendled the son with the 
father. 

he did not suspect that Goocio 
Balena had done this to 
him, because he did not 
think hiro eapable of so 
much. 

the king called them, jad 
they, when they 
stopped. 



Ellipsis op Relative Pronouns: 



Etaminidmo se diUe e6$e [che 
si s6no] ditte ne hafbti^ o^ 
eima, (Mach. Princ). 

la d&nna gH flee oppreMre 
pdnni [i qu&Ii ^ranol ttdti 
delmariUK (Bdcc. g.3.iw9.) 



Let us examine if he has done 
any of the things which have 
been said. 

the woman caused clothes to 
be prepared for him, which 
had been her hosbandV 



ELUPSIEL 



547 



HwmMU^ fMM FeMli» Ce- Umto nii him Pttiliof Ceri- 

rUiU [il qiimle ^ra] fuggUo alls, who had Moaped Drom 

ddUe gviutdU di VU&Uo. the giiaydc of ViUliini* 
(Dav. Ste .) 

Ellipsis ojt tbk InfinitiTd of Verba: 

JhuUUe per [pr^ndere] i$$i. Go afler them. 

(Bocc) 

otU i^ fdtf non vi pud [pene- hare the suncaimot penetrate. 

trire]. (Claaa.) 

io ira un asindceio eke non I was a great aas that could 

0olee# [aoetea^re] &i vUo. not endure life. 

(Firenzp) 

Ellipsis of the Verb in the Indicative Mood: 



Tessa, do you bear what I 
hear? 



Ti$$a, 6di iu quit ek' io [6do] ? 

(Bocc. g* 7. n. 1.) 
quiiti i U etwiiSno, gli ditri 

[86no] da nOtta. (Dav. Stor.) 
6rajtarinte $MUo di Veepa- he was a near relation of Ves- 

•tttee, e [toi] $MUtU di ein- pasian, and a good soldier. 

to. (Dav^0tor.) 



this is the captain, the others 
are of no account 



Ellipsis of tse Verb m the Conjunctive Mood: 



ijfA ha qi»Ma einm, e ntm 
e&tibhe ehi [pot^sse] «m»- 
gidrUh (Bocc g. ^ B. 3.) 

tnnrH gridiio, §e non [(^e 
st^to] ehe igli mi ckUee 
mercl per Iao, e per «df . 
(Bocc. g. an. 3.) 

ah ! ah ! se non [f6sse] cA' to 
ho revtrhixa a vdi, pddre, 
io dMi pitxe il beW on&re 
d^Hmifm. (Ma^.CoM.) 



Here is Ihie supper^ and there 
k BO one to eat it 

I would have eried oat, had 
it not been that he besought 
mercy both in the name of 
Ood and In your name. 

ah ! ah ! were it not for the 
respect that I bear to you, 
lather, I would tell the great 
honor he does me. 



ELUvata er the Gerund : 

[Ess^ndo] dwdnte la guhra* [Being] during the war. 
(Bocc.) 



M8 



SYNTAX. 



tirio. (Bocc) 
[eduiikdo] giknto UfamifUifrt 
a G^notHi, e [av^ndoj cbite 
le Uttere, e [a?^ndo] fdtta 
P omkiMtdla (Bocc.) 



baniff seen the soliUiy pt>e o . 

the domestic having^ artived at 
GeDoa, and having* conai^- 
ed the letter and deliTered 
the message 



Ellipsis or tee Participle : 

Se hti mi eaeeiA$$er ^H 6eM If they shoold tear oat mj 
_ _i_ — ^, ^. r_jr^^-i n syes, to what shook! I be 

reduced ? 

if it had not been for the Hirt 
Priesty whom curses lignt 
on. 

bad be not been a yoong 
man, he would have had a 
great deal to soffsr. 



a ehe •ofre \o [nd6tto] ? 
(Boccg.9.n. 1.) 

$€ wm f6$$e [st4to1 U Qran 
Prite, a eii sum prindu. 
(Dant Inf. 37.) 

it fMnfi$$e [stdto] dk' igU 
^a gidvanei 4gh mvriSbe 
avitto m6Uo a iosienire. 
(Bocc. g. a n. 7.) 



Ellipsis of Adrerfos: 



Ora [cos)] fi$*&ro Uti pur Would that they were diipQs- 

giik dup6$ti a eei^re, eke -^ * '"^^^ ^* 

vcraminU potr6mmo dire la 

fortima i$$ere frnforeggi^tn- 

te. (Bocc. Intr.) 
Ml indndo fumjkr mUdperwdme 

rtalm^nte] rMe^ — Afmr 

lor prb ... — Com* io d&po 

eotii purdle fitie, (Dant. 

Inf. 2.) 



ed to come, that we might 
truly say that fortune is fit- 
▼orable. 

Bsrer among men did any with 
sQch speed haste to ^ir 
profit ... as I when these 
words were spoken. 



Ellipsis of Prepositions: 



la ed9a [di] quisH usurdL In the house of these usureis. 
(Bocc.) 

ierviva [a] c6rH pe$emUri. 

(Bocc. g. 9. n. 1.) 

Ui6va m6lto [in] la ekUea. 

(Bocc. g. 3. n. 4.) 
ieditte re [per] dnni qt^ndiei. 

(Crusca.J 



she served certain fishennen. 
he frequented much the church, 
he reigned for fifteen years. 



MODGS OF ADDRESS. 540 

eeuerimo [coo] un p6eo di we vUl sup upon % little salt 
cAme saldta, (Bocc. g. 7. meat 
n.l.) 

Elixirsis OF ConJQDCtionB : 

Fo steo la u&i&ra [e] teentu- I am the miserable and on- ^ 

rdia Ziniwa. (Bocc cr. 2, . fortunate Giaevra* 
n. 9.) 

redZ nol^ro, [e]ang4Hco intel' a royal nature, and an angelic 

UttOf — [ej Chiar* dlma^ [e] mind, and " clear spirit,^ and 

prSnia insta, [e] Seehio e«r- a quick sight, and piercing 

9Uro. (Petr. s. 201.) eyes. 



REMARKS ON THE DIFFERENT MODES 
OF ADDRESS IN ITALIAN. 

V The Italians have three different modes of addressing 
a person ; — viz. the second person singular ^ tit, * thou ' ; 
and its inflexion^ ti, *to thee,* *thee': — the second per- 
son plurcdf t6i, * you * 5 and its tn/lca?ton, ri, * to you/ 
^ you ' : «^ and the third person singtdar^femimney c'll a, 
and its inflexions j lb, la; representing the title V6rrRA 
SiQNORiA (generally contracted into Vossiovoiua, and 
often written V. S.) , * your worship/ * your lordship/ 
'your ladyship'; whether the person addressed be a 
man or a tooman. 

' The second person singular ie used in addressing a 
person of inferior condition ; as by a master speaking 
to a servQntf by a parent addressing a child. Likewise 
husbands and mves^ brothers and sisters^ and any two 
intimate friends fidopt it in speaking to each other. It 
is also used in poetry^ and in addressing the Divinity. 

The second person plural is used in addressing a 
person of equal rank with the speaker, but not par- 



590 SYNTAX. 



tieahrij itimtte wkh him. Abo bjr children 
tj^ their fmraUs^ bj kdies jpedbng^ to gemflewtem 
h is Ekewise used b mdJrtstmg artucmSj tradeswtemy 
diwlti f, be. 

The tkird persm^ Mgmlmrj femmuUf is used io md- 
irtMtimg a smptriar^ or one- towutb wtkom the q>eaker 
wishes to exhihit speeUd dvUiiy and respect ; as by^ m 
senrant to hb nofto*, bj a tradesman to a gentlewm, 
be. LadUSf and penmu respeetabU for th^ ^gie or 
ojEce, are addressed in thb mode. 

It b to be obserred, that when the second person 
pbarmlf t&i, and its vsjUaiom^ ti, are used, the werh is 
pot in te phftnl ; iMDt aO the other words, sodi as 
m^ecttoesj par^apUs^ be., agreeing with the smbfccL, 
remain m die ski^wlar^ mascnfine or feminine, accord- 
ing to the gemder of the person addressed ; as, 

•^ S^fairs, SAmiTK rtqMl> joo, Si^ wffl be respected ; 

«^ Sgmitk^ siirs jMa, joo, Madaa^ are wbe. 

When the tkird person simgwiarjftmimm^ nfvLA^ and 
its iw^tgionf, Ls, la; or the tide YossroHOBiA, are em- 
plojed, the verb b put in the skigmlar ; and die words 
agreeing with them take the ftminm e gender^ whether 
the person addressed be tnaseuUme arfersimine ; as, 

C yoo \Ba\j or joor lordabq) wiS 

*^* '^•^•^*^'HI«<^^<yoa piada«],4i- your bdjd^ 
f wmbe respected: 

Syoa [Sr] are, or yottr lordahip 
ship is wbe. 

Where two or more individuals are addressed in die 
third person, the third person plural^ femimney c'lleno. 



MODES OF ADDRESS. 551 

and its injlexifmj l6ro; or the titles Vostre or le 

YdSTRE SiGNORiE, LE SlONORlE L6rO, LoR SiGNORI, 

are used; the verb being put in the plural^ and the 
words agreeing with thera, in the plural feminine ; as, 

t yoo [gentlemen], or your lord- 
^Aeno, or /■ V69lr% Signo- 1 ships will be respected ; 
rim SARiif flo rifpettto, S yon [ladies], <n' your ladyships 
f win be respected : 

Syou [gentlemen], or your lord- 
ships are wise ; 
you [ladies], or your ladyships 
are wise. 

Some Italian Grammarianf aMert, on the authority of Bembo, Benti- 
vdgUOf GangOfUlH, and other modern writers, that this agreement in 
gender of aajeetwes and participle$f with the word Voieignoria or the 
pronoun iWi^ when used in addressing a man, ought to take place only, 
when the verb isiere, ' to be,' stands between them ; as, 

iUA, or F. S. ± mSUo ddttA, you [Sir] are, or your lordsliip is 

very learned : 

but if anu other verb stands hetvoein the word VottignoAa or the 
pronoun eUa and the aijeetiioe or partkipUj these are made to agree 
with the perton $ign\fiea by those ; as, 

V. 8.f or Ma pjLtLm6Uo pensie* you [Sir] seem, or your lordship 
rdfo, seems very thoughtful. 

If the verb happens to be the auxiliary iisere, and the partidple of 
another verb, then this participle agrees in gender with the word F. S. 
or the pronoun iUa, and the following adjeetive or participle is made 
to agree with the person iignified by them ; as, 

illA ft i MosTRiTO, 9ign6rm, you have shown yourself, Sir, both 
nonmino$6mOfehebenigno, wise and kind. 



Adjectives of natione agree always with the jvertMi eign^d by the 
pronoun 6Ua or the word V. 8.', %», 

SUa Mnta dubbio i MomdnOf you, Sir, without doubt are a 

Roman; 

le Signorie LOro iordnno edrto you, gentlemen, are certainly l(al- 
Mmidnit ians. 



S5t SYNTAX. 

Besides the aboretiMBtioiied iBodes of address, the 
Italiana oftea use tb^ deosoesiratHre proBOwis ^meOOf 
quilkij and tbe woids giivmne^ mimo^ i itm a ^ io qpeakiog 
to a person whose nsHie b uokDOfm to them ; and aaj 
quel gidvane^ < youog mao ' ; qudP uono^ * good mao ' ; 
&c.; as, 

mm niUst i^ qjota ciiTAia, take eve^ yoong maa, for tfaoa 
ckttu f uyiww, decetrest thyself; 

^qBU.' vte BABB^io, dbt what is the inatter, good man? 

v4i #tife wMo aUiiru, q,u±L^ yoo are very prood, my good • 
UL DdmiA, troman : 

but this way of addressing people, is only ttsed by 
superiors towardt tbeir wferiors. 



Tbe foDowiog are the Titles used by tbe Italians 
in addressing tbe different qualities of persons : viz. 
in sptMkii^ to a esNTUcMAK, Sig$^irej < Sir ' ; Fea- 
iignaria (written, V. S.), « your worship,' * your lord- 
ship ' : — to a PERSON or rank, or to a ifeBLSMiN, 
lUuitritiimo {lUmh)^ ' naost illustrious Sir'; Vimi- 
gnoria IUM$tri$$ima {V. S. l^&O^, < Yoor most fllus- 
trious lordship ' ; Eecdlenzaj * &Lcellency ' ; Vdttra 
EcceUenza {V. £.), « Your Excellency ': — to a 
PRINCE or THE BLOOD, AUlzzoy ^ Highncss ' ; Fiif- 
ira AlUzzaj * Your H^bneas': — to a Enro, Sirty 
* Sire 'j -Afoej^a, * Majesty ' j Vdstra Maesta {V. M.), 
« Your Majesty ' : — to an Emperor, Sirt^ * Sire ' ; 
Mauiiy * Majesty ' ; Maesta hnperiidey * Imperial Majes- 
ty ' ; V6itra Maesta In^eriale {V. M. I.) 'Yoor Im- 
penal Majesty ' ; V6sira Maesta Reale e JbnpenUe (V. 
M. R. /.}, 'Your Royal and Impernl Majesty ':— to 
a Monk, Padre, * Father ' ; Vdstra Patemiia {V. Pta), 
' Your Paternity ' : — to a PtiiEST, Reverindo, ' Re?- 
erend'; Vdstra ReverSnza (V. B-), *Your Rever- 



MODES OF ADDRESS. 558 

ence ' : — to a Bisbop, Monstgndre^ * Right HoDorable '5 
EeeeUinza Reverendissima, * Mo«t Reverend Excellen- 
cy ' ; Vdstra Eccellinz'a Reverendissima {V. £. Rema)^ 
*' Your niost Reverend Excellency ' : — to a Cardinal, 
Eminknza^ < Eminence'; Vdstra Eminenza {V. EmSa)^ 
* Your Eni]n6nee';-«*to the Pope, Saniiiciy * Holiness'; 
Santo Padre, *Holy Father '; V6$ira Saniiti {F.Std), 
•Your Holiness'; Vdstra Beatit&dine {V. BSdni)j 
*Your Blessedness.' 



[P«r nbutratimu of tiM abof^ RtmaHu m tM» Dit^rent Mod§t tf MAnu im 
M a Kmt, — the AaChor^ Coitfmw»A%to*nm iTAiaA^iiA, whort thoy bare h—n 






PART IV. 
ITALIAN ORTHOGRAPHY. 

CHAPTER L 

OP ACrCENTS. 

The accent, in Ortbograpby, is a small $ign placed 
upon the vowels of words to determiDe their pnmacft- 
dation. 

There are two accents in Italian, the grave and the 
acute. 

The grave accent is an oblique line drawn from the 
trft to the right (') ; and the acute, an oblique line 
drawn from the right to the left (^). 

These accentf are p^oerally put on all words in which a letter or 
aylUMe has been suppr€$$ed\ as in nmtio from natirOf < native ' ; 
in which v is suppressed ', frirtk fiom mrCtCTK, miiicox, or vvtum^ 
* Tirtue ' ; in which If , ife, e, are suppressed ; flic 

And on those words in which the sam«nef t qf spelHng might pro- 
duce a cof^fimon of sigwfieaiwn ; as in ptrdy < but * ; baSa., ' power' ; 
hM. to distinguish them from pero^ ' pear-tree '; krfui, * nurse * ; fcc 

The grave accent is put 

On all contracted neuns of more than one syllable ; 

as, 

cariU [carita/e, or caritaiic], chtrity ; 

merck [mercede]^ mercy : 



ACCENTS. 



555 



On tbe names of the dags of the week endiog in 
»; as, 

Jjantii^ Monday; Venerdij Friday: 

On the compounds of che ; as, 
percnib, because; bencnk^ although: 

On the compounds of tre ; as, 

nenltTmi, twenty-three; centoTUi, one hundred 

[and three: 

On the Jirsi and third persons singular of the future 
of all verbs ; as, 



comrOf 
temer6f 
senUrdy 



I will 



[ love ; 

fear ; 

[hear; 



OfpierJL, 
femerJL, 
seniiriL, 



C love ; 

he will < fear ; 

(bear: 



On the third person singular of the perfect of all 
those verbs in which the frst person of the same tense 
terminates with tufo vcwels } as, 



cantAf, 


(»*"»; 


cani6f 


Ceangr; 


credit, 


I Relieved; 


cred±f 


he Helteved 


dormii, 


(slept; 


domXf 


< slept: 


On tbe words 






mill, 


half; 


crtmislf 


crimson; 


haccalkj 


cod-fish; 


so/A, 


sofa; 


eaffk, 


coffee; 


z^ 


tafftsty ; 


Uuik, 


tawny; 


aloes; 


falh. 


bonfire ; 


alcaHf 


alkali; 


•Ui, 


fy; 


co/1, 


J 


ors<iy 


come ; 


eolX, 


\ there • 


cosit 


so, or thus ; 


costL, 


^ ftU^g%J , 


iesiky 


just now ; 


costXf 


y 


aimikl 


alas! 


olXl 


ho there ! 


aimil 


okkl 


take care ! 


On the words 






M. 


thifi, or that; 


giK 


already; 


f^ 


below ; 


9ul, 


here; 


jn^f 


more; 


qui, 


tn^. 


may, or can ; 




, 



556 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



which are written with a grave accent in order to show 
that the two vowtU are to be pronounced both hi one 
iyttable: 

And on the words 
(noun) 
-i{?erb) 

WadTerb) there; 



ft. 



day; 
Jj^vea; 
lis; 



I affinnatiTe particle, or adverb) yes, or so ; 

(11 



I negative particle, or conjunction) nor, or neither ; 

personal prononn) one's self ; 

nonn) tea $ 

I conjunction) for, or because ; 

in which the grave accent is used as a WHirk of dUime- 
Hon between them, and the words 

* j(p«po.ition) \frL,^b,i 

e, (conjunction) and ; 

^ j(«acle.»rconjo«UT.p«np«n)jJ;j^5^. 

A, (conjunctive pronoun) one^ self; 

' fie, I relative particle) of it, or of them ; 

oe, (conjunction) if; 

<e, (personal pronoun) thee, or to thee : 

dU, (relative prononn) who, which, or that 

The acute accent is put 

On the i of the terminations ta, u)> of nouns, when the 
iufo vowdi are pronounced in two distinct sylUddes ; as, 
magia^ magic; tfefio, desire: 

On words in which the stre$i of the voice, by a 
poetical license, is tranrferred from one syllable to 
another ; as, 

nsiSIe [for simile], similar ; ocekno [fir oc^ano}. 

And, sometimes, on the words 



ineorOf 
fSlgorty 
9*guUo, 



anchor; 
thunderbolt ; 
suite; 



ntiiart, 
t^nere, 



Bectar; 
tender: 









■> 




APOSTROPHE. 557 




Qgutsh tbem from the words 






filgare, 
nettartj 
ttnertf 


[anc6fa], 
[folgdre], 
[nett&re], 
[tenure], 
[aeguitol 


yet, also, or again ; 

B{rfendor; 

to clean ; 

to hold ; 

Mowed. 





These are all the cases in which the accents are used, 
except that, in some baok$ which teach the principles of 
the language, the acuic accent is employed \o facilitate 
the pronundatian to learners. 



CHAPTER II. 

OP THE APOSTROPHE. 

The apostrophe is a small sign, like a comma ('), 
inserted between two words to mark the elision of a 
vowel. 

The apoftrophe is generally used at the snd of those wards that 
Urmmate with a vowel, followed by a wifrd that begins with the same 
wawel; as, 

[bu6nA Avirent&m] hu&n* ±ttentura, good fortuae ; 
^4nda sdifizio] grantT mdiflgio, great edi6ce : 

And at the end of words that terminate with a Towel followed by a 
word that begins with any otiier vowal, whsnmfer it is neeessaryj to 
render the prtnwntiaHsn more agreeakie ', as, 

Equate o6mo] quetf v6mo, this man ; 

quillo Albero] queW Ubero^ that tree. 

The Italians write with an apostrophe 

The articles /o, la^ * the,' making an elision of the 
vowels Oj ay hefore words beginning with a fsowel ; as, 

r Afiiico, the friend ; f tmnocknxa^ the innocence. 

47» 



5M OftTOOGRAPHY. 

Hmm irticlei are aito written tomfMinee wiihmtt an < y e j|iuj rih « ; «^ 

lo AM^c, tba love ; U Mnergia^ ibe energy. 

Bat wbeiv to b fiUewed by an o, and le is followed ^ an «, tbcy 
are ahoitys written wUh an t^ostr^jj^^ u, 

f vm&re^ tbe honor ; V kama^ tk^aool: 



The article jf/j, < the/ wben it isfoB^wed by an i; as, 

gCtngigni^ ^«r greniMes ; ^ kM, tbeiMs; 

The article Ze, ^ the/ when the following word hegins 
with e ; as, 

rxrevie, thehereaiet: T BflUNde, the etaendalioiM. 

Sometiraet tbej write also with an apostrophe the article t7, ' the * ; 
after a word ending with a «otoW» and mMlie an eMsioo of the Towel 

t^Uo 'I mSndo^ aU the world; §6frA 'Ip&ia^ upon te bcoMt: 



The words m», * me ' ; ri, ^ thee ' ; ct, * us/ or * here* ; 
w, * you/ or * there ';«*,* one*s self; nc, * of it,' or 

* of them ' ; "* hence,' or * theoce ' ; 5e, * if * ; di, ^ of ; 
when they •oome iefart a votifel ; as, 

fN;* ing6im§f I deceive myself; 

f iauf, ha loves thee ; 

€* ini^nde, he onderstaods us ; &c. 

And the words i\ l\ di\ h\ da\ c6\ «<*, pP, IT, 
9i\ di\fi\ ti\ p6\ mi\ mi\ v6\ U\ &c., abbreviated 
from 4o, *r; «, « he,' or •they'; rfci, «of the'; Ai, 

* to the ' ; daij * from or by the ' ; e&ij ' with the ' ; net, 

* b the ' ; p^i, * for or by the ' ; iet, or Wne, * band- 
some,' or * well ' ; Uij * thou art ' ; rfict, * say thou ' ; 

fktj « he made ' ; vidi^ * see thou ' ; foco^ * Kitle ' ; mi- 
gUo, * better ' ; «Wo, * mode ' or « manner ' ; tdgHo^ 

* I wish ' ; iiimif < hold thou ' ; be. 



APOSTaOPHE. 568 

The apostrophe ought never to be used when the 
elision of the vowel might produce, in nouns or adjec- 
tives, a confusion of gender j of number^ or of relation 
among themselves : 

Thus ihe feminine of all the adjectives of the eommw^ 
etnder^ like innocinUj ' innocent ' } erranUy * wander- 
ing ' ; fac. preceded by the article fo, * the,* are written 
without elision, /a innocinte^ *• the innocent woman ' ; Ik 
erraniey * the wandering woman * ; to distinguish them 
from the masculine^ V innoeinte '[lo innoctete], < the in- 
nocent man'; V errante [lo errante], Mhe wandering 
man ' : 

Those nouns which in the plural do not change their 
termination, as, effigie^ * image ' ; estasi^ * ecstacy ' ; pre- 
ceded by the article Zc, *the,' are written without elision, 
Ze efftgie^ ^ the images '; /c estasij < the ecstacies ' ; to 
distinguish them from the singular^ V effigie [la efiTgie], 
* the image ' ; P istasi [la ^stasi], * the ecstacy ' : 

And the preposition rfcr, * from or by,* expressing the 
reiaiion of derivation^ followed by a noun beginning 
with a vowel, as dx amAre^ ' from or by love ' ; is written 
without elision, to distinguish it from the relation ofpos^ 
session^ d* amdre [di amore], * of love.' 

JVbr is the apostrophe to be used when the elision of 
the vowels would change the sound of the consonants ; 
as in gU, * the,' followed by the voweb a, e, o, tr , where 
the elision of the t would render hard the liquid sound 
of the gl ; as ih 

gP AvAriy ) C ^' Avdriy the miseni ; 

gPndUHy fix.) gltEdUH, the edicts; 

gl' 6cchi, I '^' \ gh 6cehi, the eyea ; 

gP vccMU^ ) f i<i ucce^ft, the birds. 

For the same reason, ci, * us,' or * here ' ; and words 
ending in ce, ei ; ge, giy are never written with an apoS" 
trophe before the vowels a, d, ti ; since the elision of e, f, 
would give to the consonants a hard sound ; as in 



980 ORTHOGftAPHY. 



foe ATdMu. 

'Afn^tdu, 
^ AwUmiy 



yScK ArdMtf bornjii^ li^t ; 
for { ddUi AcUntij sweet accents ; 
fndggR ApriAe^ smuiy fdaces ; 
p^ggi AwUm, i^esMBt bilk. 



Fioallyy words that end with two voweh, as ctmbiOj 

* exchange '; tUbbiA^ ' fog ' ; though followed hj another 
vowel, do not receipe an apostrophe ; 

XZCXFT 

A fiw 9^rh9f •oOag in i9,ts«^o, 4%fco, wUdi folloivcd bj fo, 

* 1/ ire written 

90gt y^ I wiffa ; mi degF y, I giievv. 



Likewise words that are marked with a grave aceeni^ 
ik3felicit&f ' happiness ' ; gioveniu, * youth ' ; be. do iio^ 
receive an apostrophe ; 

mSCBFT 

PerM^ bmuki^ tnd an tfie other eonpouDdf of dbc; asy 
jMrdk' ^ iKfM, becauie be said ; ieiMilk* ^Os/^tMy aldKNii^ Ae WML 



CHAPTER lU. 

REDUPLICATION OF CONSONANTS. 

The Italians unite all words as they pranatsnee them ; 
and in those words in which a consonant is pronounced 
with double force, they double the consonant in writ- 
ing ; as, 

dBBUgo^ obligation; imudgine^ imsge; 

faccMtOj bosineas ; Ug^nimo^ lawfoL 

Consonants are generally doubled 



REDUPLICATION OP CONSONANTS. «1 ^ 

In words compounded of one of the particles a, o, 
i or tn, si^ se^ ni^ co or con^ so, su, da, ra, Jra, and of 
any other word beginnit^ with a eonsonant ; as, 



[a F^na] . oTpina, 


hardly ; ^ 


[o v4to] OYviro, 


or else; 


[i or ts Ri^re] iKtiigdrtf 


to water ; 


[si c^ine} Mccdme, 


m; 


[sB Bine,] MBB^ne, 


although ; 


[Ni M^nol neuMinoj 


Bor yet ; 


[co or CON Mu6- coMMudvere, 


to move ; 


vere] 




[so Lov&re] sohi.ev6re, 


to raise; 


[su c^dere] succidtre^ 


to succeed ; 


[da B^ne] (iaBB^ne, 


honest ; 


[ra cdnto] racc<fnto, 


relation ; 


[faa m4aBo] froMuisMO, 


put between : 


In words compounded of a verb 


► ending with a vowd 


bearing the accent upon^ it, and of a 
as, 

[hA LO] ^LLO, 


corgunctivt pronoun ; 


he has it ; 


[dirA vi] . rfWvvt, 


I will tell you ; 



'When the verb is followed by the pronoun gli^ when tho g it never 
doubled: 

In all words compounded of an adverb, a preposition^ 
or a conjunction, ending with a vowel, and of any other 
word beginning with a consonant ; ^s, 

[61trB cid] dUrtccii, besides that ; 

pi eid] loBBxky there below ; 

[gil M&i] giaHH6ij never ; 

[s^prA ff^me] sopranndmt, somame ; 

[x T<ae'\ tVFure, and yet. 



Ml ORTHOGRAPHY. 

CHAPTER IV. 

INCREASE OP WORDS. 

The increase of toords is the addtium of" a voted or 
a consonanty either at the beginning or at the end of a 
word. 

When the words mi, * in ' 5 con, * with ' ; nqn, * no,' 
or * not ' ; per, * for,' ' by,' or « through ' ; zrefoUotped 
by a word beginning with an t followed by anoiher con- 
ionant, as, STrada, svaveniOj scrive, scherzo ; to avoid 
the harshness produced by the meeting of these coo- 
sonants, the second v>ord commonly ic^es an t before 
it; as, 

IN istrdda, 1 Cin ntrdda, m the street ; 

CON tspcninto, f :jjgfg- j ^r 7 eon spavMo^ with fn^bt ; 

HON uerive, r Snon scrivc, does not write; 

psa lechinoy } f per scA^rzo, in jest 

In poetry, however, this rule H not 90 itricthf observed na m prose ; 
since the mereaot (addmf a ayllobU to, the word), wooU be oden 
faDcoflipstible with the mesaofe of the Tens. 

The preposition a, Mo,' and the conjunctions e, * §nd '; 
o, * or ' ; when followed by a word beginning with a 
vowel, sometimes take a d after them, to prevent the 
Aui<ii«; as, 

OD tfno an tno, , oae after another ; 

omArt eo 6cfto, lore and bstred \ 

•D m o^ 00 in <irra, either in heaven or on earth. 

And the prepositions iu, insit, * upon ' ; fathwed by 
another u, taie an r after them ; as, 

sum, i7n imfnfe, upon a hill ; 

inn^R vn pdlco, apoo a stage. 



DIMINUTION OF WORDS. 663 

CHAPTER V. 

DIMINUTION OP WORDS. 

The diminution of words is the suppression or re- 
trenchment of a letter or a syUabhj either at the end or 
in the middle of a word. 

The Italians retrench the last vowel of words ending 
in c, o, preceded by one of the consonants Z, m, ti, r, 
forming with them a syllable hy themselves ; as in 
4a-LE) * salt ' 5 tc^-Mo, * man * ; ma-NO, * band ' ; cu<}-re, 

• heart ' ; nuA followed by a word beginning with a con-- 
sonant ; as, 

8AL comime, common salt ; 

u6m m c^ricy courtier ; 

MAir j>% dSnnOf lady's hand ; 

cu6r Do2en<e, grieving heart. 

But \( Uflo; ne, no ; re, ro, do niy< .^mn a wyUMe by themseWeSy 
but in concurrence with toy other consonant, as in S6fO'Qvm, * Sopho* 
cles ' ; ^'noLo,.* Englisbrean * ; vI-oxe, vineyards * > p<!-ONo, < pledge'; 
a-CRXy *sour * ; pl-QROf * lazy * ; the words are never retrenched* 

When e is preceded by rr, as in coni/^R-RB, *to 
conduct'; and o is preceded by Z/ or nn ; as in yiin- 
ciiiL-Lo, * youth ' ; A&n-no, * they have ' ; they retrench 
the wkole syllable ; as, • 

CON Dt^R s^co, to conduct with one's self;. 

FAiicit^L Yesz4isoy handsomc youth ; 

!«' Bin RubdlOf they have robbed him. 

The last vowel of the words Ano, < a or an ' ; bene^ 

* well ' ; budnoj * good * ; and the last syllable of the 
words bUloi ' handsome ' j quelloy * that * ; grande, * great *;. 



S64 ORTHOCnUPUT. 

when tbej nre /Mowed by a word b^imnimg wtth a 
consonantj are alwajf$ rttrendked ; as, 

m ridn^ a flower ; 

mmmridm, thoc dcacnaj tit; 

bv6r Tina, good wine; 

BBi; rnM a, beaatifiil Bneadow ; 

quiL i.tfr^ that book ; 

aaAif nercAlj, great market ; - 

•aAif otitty great citj. 

The 2aj< vowel of the word iS^fiu^e, < Master ' ; and 
tbe lost syllable of the words Frate^ * Brother [Friar] '; 
Santo^ ^ Saint ' ; when they are used as titles ; b abo 
retrenched before a consotumi ; as, 

Sieifda Cirio, Master Charles ; 

FaA Q io wi$ mi f firolber Jelm ; 

Sam Piofe, Saint PaoL 

Words ending ia a are neper retrenched ; 



au6ra, * Sister ' ; wUdi, when M$ed m$ a HO^ loMS tke e; at, 
Su6b MoHa, Sister Maiy ; 

and 6ra, 'now/ with its compooDds aU6rm^ mmeSrOf tMrmt Btc which, 
h^fwrt a con$«iumtf may be retreocbed ; as, 

oa dT, bow sqr ; 

AX.L^ T&iiy then I saw; 

Avcda tiimg§t ha weeps stiB ; 

TALda T^fgMa, seoietlBMa he is awake. 

Words ending in t are never retrenched ; 



A^i, 'out'; and the sceeiMl persoti of ttMmfertHm ef TeHis 
ending in fi^e, airs; as (i^flM, < hold thou'; et^m^'coBM tlMm'; frees 
fejfiee. < to bold'; eevlae^'to come*; which h^fhrt a esiMMMnI 
lose their t; as. 



DIMINUTION OF WORDS. 565 

fv6r Dt ciitit, out of town ; 

Ti^ir qMdsto, hold this ; 

TiiN prdff<«, come quick' 

Words ending in «, and wards accented on the last 
syllable, are never retrenched. 

Words ending with two vowels are never retrenched ; 



When the two vowelt aie preceded by n, at in Jtntdiri^f * Anthony ' ; 
tesHmShio, ' tesii^ODy ' ; in which case they majf be retrenched ; as, 
ARTON-Moria, Anthony-Maria ; 

TxsTac^v rerdeet true testimony. . 

Words retrenched in the singular, are never retrench- 

ed mtk^ plural ; ' 

xzeirr 

OrdndCf * great * ; which in its phiral grdndi, also, loaee the last 
etfUabU', as, 

oaAR rerieoKf great dangers ; 

ORAjr RieeMzzef great riches; 

and such words as eavaUirej ' cavalier * ; demdmo, < demon ' ; &c. 
which, in poetry, may loie the last vowel or vowels^ even in their 
plurals ; as, 

le d6nne, i cay AiaitL, the ladies, the cavaliers ; 

t DEM<5ir durif the cruel demons. 

Words, which would be retrenched before a word be- 
ginning with a consonant, are always tvritten with an 
apostrophe bqfore words beginning with a vowel; as^ 

helP hspdttoy handsome appeatance ; 

queW kreo, that bow ; 

grantP udmo, great man ; 

Frat' AlbMo, Brother Albert ; 

8im^ AnMoy Saint Andrew ; 
48 



566 ' ORTHOGRAPHY. 



JJ*%o^ *a 9r tn/ and its com^^yMdM; qtuile, <whidi'; 

*good'; bSm£,*we\Vi Stfw^e. < Master ' ; S^tSra, 'Sister'; and the 
i^fimtwe, and ybrms of Mrdf ending in i, m, n, r, wluch do n»i rectm 
an 9po9lbrQfkt \ as, 

im Afiii«o, * a friend ; 
a2etm oddrs, no smell ; 

qiM Ardire, what daring ; 

bv6n udNM, good man ; 

ben ificSfO, ^ well engraved ; 
Sigmhr On^ifiriOj Master Ono&io ; 

SwSrAmgiUem^ Sister Angeliea ; 

&nd6r A sp6»90^ to go and take a Walk ; 

oNridm Atmdto, we have loved ; 

amdrdn Ks^ift, they will be exempted ; 

$ariihtr ir$i, they would be bnmt. 

Words are never retrenched^ wheo tbej are followed 
by a Zj or ao sfottowed by another consonant ; or when 
they are at the end of a sentence ; 



In poetry where words are sometimes retrenched, even before a g, 
or an f fouawed by tmother eonsonatU, on account of the measure or 
the verse. 



Some words, when they undergo some alteration, lou 
a vot^d in the middle^ particularly if the tonic accent of 
the word, by such alteration, is transferred to the fol- 
loufing syttabU ; as, 



&C7^no, 


good; 


hanUsimo, 


very good; 


tuSnOf 


thunder ; 


lofM&re, 


to thunder; 


sudnoj 


I play; 


joiitfwo, 


we play. 



Some compound words lose a letter^ or a syllable in 
their composition ; as, 



[i6n fl^rs] ierwArOf kfl 



DIMINUTION OP WORDS. 



507 



[adtTotfoa] 
[doMiiii mattina] 
[o^nTO cinquliDta] 



domattina, 
eeneinqudntOj 



under ifround ; 
to»m(Nnt>w morning ; 
one hundred and fifty. 



Infinitives^ and those forms of verbs that end in U, 
we, moy nOy when joined to a conjuiiciive pronoun, drop 
tbeir final vowel ; as, 



[amlirE lo] 


afikiRLO, 


to love him ; 


[duolE ti] 


duShTi, 


it grieves thee ; 


[vi^DE s^ne] 


Vi^NSENE, 


he comes thence ; 


[andi&mo yi] 


amUduri, 


let us go there ; 


[oiut&rono ci] 


aivtdroifciy 


they assisted us. 



The first and third persons singular, and the third 
person plural, of the imperfect of the indicative of al! the 
verbs, which in the infinitive terminate in ere, ire, 
generally drop the v ; as, 



^^glinotem^vano,] 

igli |~nti^»J 
^glino sentivano,] 



io, 

igli, 

iglino, 

^li. 
iglino. 



>i€mia, 
iemianOf 

iseniia, 
sentiano, 



I 

he 

they 

I 

he 

they 



> feared ; 
feared ; 

> heard ; 
heard. 



The words cavalli, capelli, coltilli, fratilli, ruscelli, 
quilli, belli, dilli, alii, daUi, nilli, pilli, cdlli, sulK, 
train, and quali, mali, tali, f*gliu6li, may be contracted 
into cavai, capH, coUH, fratH, ruscci, quH, bH, dei, &i, 
din, nH, pH, c6t, s{ii, trhi, quai, mat, thi, figliuAi; 
which, when they 2ire folloieed by a consonant, it is more 
elegant to abbreviate, and write with an apostrophe ; as, 

caod^ leggihi, light horses ; ruscH* ridinti, smiling brooks ; 
eap^ bidncki, white hair; qui* signSri, those gentlemen; 
coU4^ pimginti, sharp knives ; bi* castitmi, good manners ; 
Jraiff camdli, own brothers ; di* nemiei, of the enemies ; 



SOB ORTHOGRAPHY.. 

d*p€trMif to the ytaenta; M'Mtdbt, amongfl tbe woods ; 
d4^ iidri, bj the robbers ; qm^ 4Mr\ wlnt peiiis ; 
mffkiaigni^ in the necessities \ md* ftrntiirij nwlieioos tbooffats ; 
p^ e6mpi, through the fields ; W di$aksi^ sach discourses ; 
cS* (Uniif with the teeth ; JigHuff mzser- very miserable sons. 
Hi* m6nt%y upon the mountains ; [rimt, 

The word Sglino^ * they ' ; often loses its last syllable 
and makes igli ; and igU, * he,' or ' they/ may be 
contracted into it, and written 'i\ * he/ or * they.' 



This is all that needs to be said on the diminution or 
retrenchment of words ; except that the rule respecting 
the retrenchment of e, Oj when preceded by Z, m, », r, 
does not hold in certain instances, where such retrench- 
ment would produce a harsh sound. Thus the words, 
cdmsj ' how'; nSmCj * name'; animo^ ' courage'; chiaro^ 
« clear'; riro^ * rare'; niro^ * black'; dhro, * bard'; o$e^ 
ro^ * obscure '; &c., are never written cam, nam, dmni, 
dUar, ntry rar^ dtir, osc&ry ficc. 



THE KNO. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PREFACE to tbe former Edition vii 

" to the present Edition . . - . xi 

A LiBT OF Works examined with Reference to the Com- 
pilation of this Grammar - - - - xvii 

A Table of tbe Abbreviations of the Names of Authors 

and of the Works quoted in this Grammar - - xxiv 

ITAUAN GRAMMAR. 

INTRODUCTION 1-10 

Italian Alphabet 11, 12 

PART L — ITALIAN PRONUNCIATION - 13-24 

Chapter I. — Sounds of the VovotU - - . 13 

" 11. — Pronuncia*umo/*tt« Coil wnoirff - - 14 

« IIL-0/JaiufH 16 

« IV. ^ Double OmaonanU . - - - 17 

« y.^OfSyllablea 19 

" VL^lXphlhong8and7^i>kihong9 ' - - 20 

** VIL — General Rules on the Italian Pronunciation 21 

Exercise on the Pronunciation - - . - 23* 

PART II. — ITALIAN ANALOGY - - . 25:^388 
Parts op Speech ---.... 35 

Chapter I. ^.articles 25 

UnioQ of the Prepositions with the Articles - - - 28 
Exercise I. ....... . .34 

Chapter U. ^ Substantive Mmns .... 36 

Gender 86 

Number, or Formation of the Plural .... 43 

Varifttion of Nouns 66 

ExiECIiE II 60 

48* 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 
CHAFTUt nL — MecHvt JVbuiu. — Qmparalwes and 



Gender --' ® 

Formatioii of the Plorel - 6S 

Agreement of Adjectivet •• 

Cbmparaftoet ------- 65 

EXXRCIBS III. 71 

SuptrUUxoes -------- 72 

ExBJtciix IV. W 

Chapter IV. — A^gmttMiMtM and Dimsfmimt - 80 
JiugwuniativeM --------SO 

EZERCUB V. 83 

JOiminuHvet' ®* 

£XXRC18B VI. * 

Chapter V. — AWwcnrft 90 

Cardinal Numbem -.-•---90 

Ordinal " Jf 

CoUectire, Dtitribtitiye, and Proportiooal Numbers - 99 

ElERCISB VII. « 

Chapter VI. — Substanl^iyt Pirmotrnt - - - 100 
Peraotud Pronouns -------160 

Variation of Personal Pronouns !•! 

Exercise VIII. ^^ 

Conjundiff9 Pr&nouns - - - - - . - 109 
Union of the Pronouns mi, fi, gU^ hs or d, «i, si, with the 

Pronouns lo, la, gU^ (t, ie, ne - - - - - IM 
Exercise IX. US 

BdaHve Pronouns - - - - - - H^ 

Exercise X. 125 

ItUarogaHvt Pronsmns ------ 127 

Exercise XI. 1» 

• Chapter VII. — Adjtdivt Pronouns - - - 131 
Possessive Pronouns - - - - - - 131 

Exercise XII. l« 

Demonstrative Pronouns - - - - - - 137 

Exercise XIII. MS 

Ind^fimie Pronouns - - - - - - 145 

Exercise XIV. l5« 

Chapter VIII. — Of the Partides Ne, Ci, Vi - - 158 
Exercise XV. M 

Chapter IX.— Verbs 164 

Variation of Verbs - - - - - ' - 164 



TABLE OF CCWTENTa 

Auxiliary Verba . - - * - . - 165 

The Verb jMr0,affifiD»tiTtlj 165 

« « negatively 169 

" " interrogatirely - - - - • - 171 

" ** interrogative-negatiyely - - - 172 

E9$ere 178 

Begular Verba - -- - - - -177 

Active Verbs — First CoirjueATioN - - . 177 

Amare, paradigm of the Verbs ending in dre ... 177 

Ceredref paradigm of (he Verbs ending in edre ... 181 

Pregdre, parad^m of the Verbs ending in gdre - 182 

Bacidref paradigm of the Verbs ending in eidre - . . 188 

Frt^iare, paradigm of the Verbs ending in ei^re - - 185 

^oidrty paradigm of tlie Verbs ending m tare ... 186 

Invldrtt paradigm of the Verbs ending in lore - - 187 

SXCOND Co.'VJUeATION 187 

Temirt^ paradigm of the Verbs ending in the i$ifimtive In 
€rt (long) \ and of those which in the perfect end In ii 

and ttti 187 

7\U#erey paradigm of the Verbs ending in the infinitive in 
ire (thort) ; and of those which in the perfect end in 

it only - 191 

TacSrCf paradigm of the Verbs ending in cire • - 193 

^mpiere, paradigm of the Verbs ending in iere • • - 194 

Third OoicJUOATiocr ---.-- 195 
Sentirc, paradigm of those Verbs of the third conjugation 

which, in the present of the indicativef end in o ooly 195 
EeH^Cf paradigm of those Verbs of (he third conjugation 

which, in the preeent of the indicative^ end in i$eo only 198 
jibhorrirCf paradigoi of those Verbs of the third conjugation 

which, in the present of the indicative, end both io p 

andisco --- 201 

CudrCt paradigms of the Verbs ending in cire • - 204 

Remftrks on the foregoing Verbs .... 205 

EzBRcisK XVI. - - 209 

Pasnve Verbs 313 

^f ere ^mdto, paradigm of the passive verbs • * 212 

Neuter Verbs 216 

Partire, paradigm of the neuter verbs .... 216 

Pronominal Verbs 220 

Pentirsif paradigm of the pronominal verbs ... 220 

Unipersonal Verbs -----. 224 

Pidvere, paradigm of the unipersonal verbs ... 224 

Jltssere^ unipersonaUy used ..... 227 

EzxRoisx XVII. 282 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Chaptsr X. — hrepdar Ferh§ ----- 237 
Irregular Verbe of the Fiest CoiixueAnoif - - 338 

J§nd4kr9 <- as 

D6re U9 

F^ 241 

sure »«4 

ExucuB XTIU. 248 

Sbcord CoifJusATioif — IrreflTular Verbs io art fl^ng) 249 

Cmdire 249 

J)i$nuMre, doUre 2S1 

Dot^re 26S 

Oiaeere 254 

Pmr6re 256 

PertmatUre, piaeire 266 

Poiire 267 

Mimanire .-.-..-- 2S6 

8ap6re 259 

Stdire 260 

Taeere 2a 

Tewh-e 20t 

VaUre 965 

Veddre 267 

VoUre 268 

EzBRcisB XIX. 272 

IrreffulftT Verbs in ire (short) ----- 273 
ifivSitre, parftdinn of the Jirsi ela$» [invddere, Udere, r(- 
dere, rddert^ aUudere^ 6rd€re^ accenderef ekniderey spar- 
gere, nUrgere, e^ere, riverUre] of the verbs in ire (ikort) 276 

Jii$6rbere^ partdigm of the eeeond eUee [a$»6rbere, v^memre, 
t&reerey vSlgerej gmngtre^ pdrgere^ dMmguere, s u ii 

tnere, vdhere] - - STH 

CdgtierCf paFadicm of the Verbs endiiig in gUire - • 278 

Spegnere, paradtji^ of the Verbs endiDi^ io gnire • • 279 

MMere, paradigm of the Verbs ending in Ure ... 280 

Concidere^ paradigm of the f^d date Uoncideref Bcindere, 
esprimtref $cu6tere, diseutere, eonnittere, muovere'] - 282 

Cu6cere, paradigm of the fourth eUu$ [eubeere^ difig tre^ 

ligger6f eerivere"] • - 282 

Adttueere, paradigm of the Verbs ending in {teere - - 284 
VUtrvggeref trdere 266 

Migpdnderef paradigm of the Jifth eiaee - - 288 

Cfuedere 288 

P&nere 280 

Other Verbs in ire (short) 291 

Can6$ceref eriuere ....... 281 

Jf^tScere, ndacere ....... 202 

* Mdmpere *--.292 

Bivere .... ..... 293 



TAM-B OP CONTENTS. 
RemarkB on the ibfegoing Verba . . - - 295 

EXBRCISB XX. - - 301 

Third CoNJUGATiew - - - - - - 303 

Dire 808 

Morire 805 

SaHre 806 

Seguire 308 

Udire ..---.-.- 309 

Uscire 310 

Venire .811 

Offerire 812 

Remarks on other Verbs in ire - - - - 314 
EXKRCJ8E XXI. 816 

CHAPTER XL — De/ecKw r«?*t - - - - 317 
Defective V^rbs ending in cre-fUmg) ... 317 

CaUre 818 

ColSre or c6lere, Ucire & lieSre or Ueere & Ueere - - 819 
Pwoire,sU6re ... . - - - - 820 
SoMrefStupire - 821 

Defective Verbs ending in ire ($kori) ... 323 

Algere^dngere 822 

JlrrSgere, eapere ..---•- 823 

CfUrere, eonveUere 824 

FUdere 825 

LOcere 826 

Mdicere 827 

RUdere, sirpere 328 

Sqfftleere nr »q0lgere 829 

TSngere,t6Uere 330 

Tdrpere 331 

IPrgere, vigere - 332 

Defective Verbs ending in ir« > - - - 833 

Gire - . ^ 333 

Pre 884 

Olire 386 

Gbneral Remarks on Italian Verbs - - - 338 

Chapter Xir.—Pariicio/w 334 

Exercise XXII. -848 

Chapter Xlir. — ^di^ft* - ' - - - "2^ 
Simple Adverbs in common we —of Time - - - 349 
Plaie 350 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Ordar^ quantity y qualUy, ajfirmatum^ fu gaHm ^ domU, eoot- 
parUonf mterrof^aium ...... S51 

{^mee^ demotutrdtion - 351 

Compound Adverbs ------ dS6 

Alfjeciivti commofdy tuedtu Mverht - - - - 357 

Adverbial Phrases in common use - - - - dS9 

EzKBCifE XXiri. 961 

Chaptee XIV. — PrepowKoiw 363 

PreposiUont in common use • 861 

ExKRCiti XXIV. 875 

CHAPTca XV.— Cbfi^dioiw - - - - -876 
ConjuDcUoDs in common um ..... 376 
ExsRcifx XXV. 388 

Chaftbe XVI. — /nferfedtsnt 384 

InteijectioDs in common use ..••-. 384 
EzK&CisB XXVI. 387 

PART m. — ITALIAN SYNTAX - - -389-558 

Chapter I. — Ordrr and Ponium qf Wardi - - 389 
Simple Construction ....... 389 

Inverse " 898 

Exercise XXVII. 8W 

Chapter II. — Concordance or •^gnemeni qf WordM - 397 
^ Concordance of Articles - - - - - - 887 

" of Adjectives 897 

«< of Numerals 403 

*« ofPronoons 408 

*« ofVcrbs 408 

« of Participles 411 

Exercise XXVHI. - 418 

Chapter III. — Regimen ot Govtntmtni of Words - 415 
Regimen of Substantives - - - • - - 415 

«* of Adjectives 418 

" ofVerbs 421 

" of Prepositions - - - - . - 433 

** of Conjunctions ..... 48S 

Exercise XXIX. 486 

Chapter IV.— C7«eo/w^i^icIetf 440 

Exercise XXX. - « 468 

Chapter V. — Posiium of w^eciive* - - - -472 
Exercise XXXI. - 480 

CbajpterVI.— Use and PoiUianqf certain Pronouns -483 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Personal Pronound 483 

ConjuQctive " 486 

Possessive *• 495 

Indefinite *« 499 

ExERCisK XXXn. 502 

Chapter VIL—rei** 506 

Position of Verbs - -606 

Use of the Imperfect and First and Second Perfect - - 609 
Use of CerUin Tenses of the ladicative for some other 
Tenses of the same Mood ; and of the Infinitive for cer^ , 
tain Tenses of the Indicative, and for the Conjunctive and 

Imperative Moods 612 

Of the Tenses of (he Dependent Verbs in a Compound 

Sentence • - 617 

Of the Manner of Expressing the English Present-Participle 

in Italian - * - 519 

Of the way of Rendering into Italian the English particle 

7b, before the Infinitive of Verbs .... 522 
Exercise XXXIII. 525 

Chaptbh Vin. — ParHcipUs, — Use and Position of 
certain Adverbs ------ 529 

Agreement of Participles ...... 629 

Use and Position of certain Adverbs .... 635 

Exercise XXXI V. - 688 

Chapter IX. — Expletives 541 

CnjLVTMX.— Of the Ellipsis 545 

Remarks osr the Differeiit Modes of Address in 
Itauait -- - - - - - - 549 

PART IV. — ITALIAN ORTHOGRAPHY - 554-568 

Chapter L—Cy w^cccnfe 554 

« 11.— Of the Apostrophe - - - - 557 

" lU,-^ Reduplication of Consonants -• - 560 

«« IV. — Increase of Wwrds ... - 562 

« Y.^DimiMdum of Winds - - - 563 



M 
96 
33 
35 
36 
t( 

43 
44 

64 
€6 
6B 

87 
80 
u 

156 
161 
173 
179 

M 

193 

958 
987 
906 



300 
348 



370 
389 

394 



395 
406 
419 
455 
458 
463 
468 
477 
479 
401 
405 
500 
501 



15 

14 

19 

8 

99 

13 

95 

41 

13 

14 

6 

1 

17 

4 

96 

34 

4 

IT 

90 

91 

94 

95 

18 

6 

6 

40 

14 

93 

10 

37 

30 

1 

5 

19 

97 

90 

96 

5 

96 

30 

8 

5 

39 

36 

96 

5 

9 



OOERIQENDA. 

For, H««d, 

a MWact aod « fMiityt ^ » J« i i i cr ,Md»|iiaii!yof wMcfc it 
wlucbllafliniM that Um nib- ^gbrmM thmtnu^or it mai,tt- 
J«et i«,or k noc suriboted, trihmUd f tbo mkjmt. 







HSBCA'TArrB, 


ummcATA'tnm. 


'^S^ 


«3r 




LimiM. 


D«T. Tac. am. 


Dav. Tae. aaa. 


A<ld.CaTalc 


Oavale. 


i*» 


r#* 


UMloisSO, 


umoc'aao. 


baciccchia'i. 


BACICCCHIA'r. 


MkmUmmm, 


.WWedflm*. 


QlMblt«o6tB, 


Qai»l«ctea. 


Put. U. Hike. 4. 


PaM.976. 


§»th*$Ut*, 


dM«r««edta. 


thai thou loTMt, 


that thou love. 


th«t balQfVS, 


thatbeleve. 


i, 


in. 


M intlM OMe, 


aiif theeage. 


eottflkrro. 


Cei^TTO. 


*E kindle % 


< I kindled.' 


M rnUe, 


Mmig*. 


Arr. Vaof . 


Ana. Vai«; 




JtrkMim, 


P^SxTVr. Am. 


Peti.TnAm. 


BoecFloo. 


Bocc niee. 


Maeh. Corn. 


Hack. Com. 


rnmn4UL 


naa^edtt. 


£phis«D», 




xsr 


K&!^ 


tiaLIBBA'lfO, 


nouKaa^e. 


4rtflf«, 


MH9, 


Ginn. Stor. Oiv. Nap. 


Giaa. Stor. Chr. Mkn. 






rioaio6ai. 


rieufei. 


paoMA rro, 




TrSu^loff. QaliU 


Lipari. 
FrkBkv.GalQ. 


iMajOQ, 


laeethee. 


oUposto, 


DuHtno, 



HspM, 



A ajhm ctfi$t «% 

137 13 thoM, 

** 14 these near jsm, 

138 30 •TAMA^rriiiA, 
143 19 oteTvi, 

** SM Exaaoine, 

ADDENDA. 
;Booe. f . 3. n. 7.) 
;Boco. g. In. 1.) 
Daot. Faf. 9L) 
(Boce. f . 5. a. 3.; 



itamattIka. 



Enaoisfl XIIL 




Boee.) 



;. 5. a. 3.) 
f.7. a.4.^ 



THIS BOOK IS DTJB ON THE LAST DATB 
STAMPED BELOW 



AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS 

WIUL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RmJRN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $l,00 ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



FEB 3 1947 



J^L 1 .. 



* * yv a- 



J 



-42Ajir!5am^ 



I8Jun'55LPT 



•rr^ 



'11 ■O.-.J ^J 



T 



SANTA P.M 






^EP^^frJSJO^l 



■J 



H 




1 

1 


\ 


y. 


^ 1 


}- ^^1— 


_ — \ 

\ 

i 






jT.* 


1 










^B^.^ 


r 








I LD21-I00m-12.-43(ST.^G -^ 











U.C.BERKELEY LIBRARIES 




I ii[i 



CDm,3a3abB 



^^ ^yr 



■^ 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA UBRARY