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^lillAf 



A GRAMMAR 



OK THK 



KACHIN UNCUAGL 



BV 



**«V. O. HANSON 

II 






\^ 



RANGOON. 

AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, 
^ D. PHINNKY, SUPT. 



Ln^^%i-No 



PREFACE. 

This attempt to explain the laws oC the Kachiu limgUa 
does not preteod to ho exhaustive in all its details. Ni 
ther do we wish to be dogmatical upon any of the nuuiero 
points, where further investigation no doubt will thrc 
new light. All the help at pretscnt available has be< 
utilized, but owing to the great uncertainty that ever 
where confronts us, any one attempting a work liko tli 
must to a great extent rely solely upon his own judgmcii 

The system of writing employed i< that adopted 1 
the Qovurnment of India, to which has been addcil a i'n 
explanatory notes. No alphabet adapted to the needs 
an alien tongue will ever do full justice to the Hunie, uni 
it has grown into and become one with the language itse 

In spelling and pronunciation we have mostly roli< 
upon the opinions of such Kachins us have been able U 
some time to use the system employed. Some of t! 
Kachin sounds are extremely difficult for a European ei 
to get correctly. Where a number of educated Kachii 
agree uppn a given point, their judgment can as a rule I 
relied upon and followed. 

The Southern Kachin, or Chiughj)aw, us spoken in tl 
Bhamo district has been taken as our basis. Still wv ha\ 
everywhere attempted to call attention to the difference 
b<ith in pronunciation and idjiomatic usages, found in diHoi 
ent localities. All we hope is that this work ma 
prove a guide to further study of this difficult but intercstiq 
dialect. 

0. li. 

Bhamo, May, 1896. 



Q 



f ' 



KACHIN GRAMMAR. 

\ 

INTRODUCTION. 

1. The Kachin, or more properly the Jinghpai 
or Chinghpaw, language, comprises one of tl 
branches of the great Mongolian family. In ii 
nature and genius it is strictly monosyllabic, bii 
many indications are at Imnd to show that it lid 
entered 'upon its agglutinative stage. Its Grart 
mar agrees in the main with the rest of the (1« 
lects belonging to the same stock, and its voaibi 
lary presents a strong relationship with Ijurniesi 
Shan and Chinese. Other dialects kindred i 
Kachin are also spoken in Upper Burma, of whici 
the most important are Muru and Atsi, the oii 
known as Lashi being but a modification of th 
latter. The origin of these dialects would b 
an interesting subject in itself, but must as yet b 
regarded as undetermined. 

2. The vocabulary in Kachin is not as meagH 
as has often been asserted. It must contain abou 
12,000 words, which is sufficient to express mon 
than ordinary thought, and to describe almost anj 
phenomenon in everyday life. Its grammar i] 
remarkably full and even exact, and not withouj 
serious difficulties to a western mind. To thini 
and speak as a Kachin is no easy matter, unj 
the main trouble in understanding even ordinan 
Kachin must be sought in the fact that the fulj 
force of their numerous particles and other granij 
matical peculiarities have not been sufficientlj 
mastered. I 

d. The Kachins, never having been a literarj 
vA people, being broken up into a great number o: 



y 






S KACIIIK ORAMMAB. 

tribes, clans and famiiies, cannot be expected to 
afi^ree with each other in all particulars regarding 
pronunciation or vocabulary. More or less impor- 
tiint differences may be noticed in almost every 
village, or at least among every family and tribe. 
To treiit of all these differences and peculiarities 
would be an endless and useless task. It will be 
necessary, however, to point out the general varia- 
tions, characterizing and distinguishing the repre- 
sentative branches of the whole Kachin race. 

4. For the sake of convenience, we will divide 
the whole Kachin race m upper Burma into three 
p^roat divisions, which we will call, the Southern 
Chinghpaws, the Cowries, and the Northern 
ChinghiKiws, without attempting any definite de. 
msircation for either, and in a general outline 
notice the chief differences in their otherwise 
c:oinnion language. 

(1) S. Chinghpaw, Cowrie. 

(a) Difference of vocabulary : 

Dai, to be sharp ; Jung. 

Hkali, fever ; Ara. 

Madi, to be moist ; Ke. 

Ijilsi, to be lean ; Miikhru. 

Upreng, a quail ; Galik. 

Anhte, we ; I or i hteng. 

Nanhte, you ; Ni or ni hteng. 

A, sign of the genitive ; Ya or ye. 

Ai, a general connective; De. 

(ft) Use of different performatives : 
Bungli, work ; Mangli. 

Gintawng, the morning star; Kantawng. 
Shingtiii, a worm ; Dungtai. 

Nhtu, a sword ; Ninghtu. 

Nbung, wind ; Mabung. 

U£M. The use of ning in Cowrie where the 
S. Chnig. has w, is very common. The n should be 
considered an abbreviation of ning. Thus the Cowrie 



INTKODUOTION. 



would say ninf/htoi, where the S. Ghing. use nhtoi. 

(c) Different use of aspirates and ialials : 
Hkyen, to cut jungle ; 
Hka, a river ; 
Muhkawn, a maiden ; 
Hpun, wood ; 

• H^xin, to create ; 
Pyaw, to feel happy ; 

Rem. The use of the aspirates, just illustrated, 
which runs all through the Cowrie dialect, must 
bo considered one of its chief characteristics. 

(d) Different use of final letters and syllables : 



Shen. 

Kha. 

Makhawn. 

Pfun. 

Pfan. 

Praw. 



Mang. 

Mashang. 

Kabum. 

Majoi. 

Nai. 

Mahiwt. 

introduced into 

Shian. 
Shizau. 



Ma, a child 
Musha, a person ; 
Kabawng, to hurst ; 
* Miijaw, because ; 
Na, from ; 
Malut, tobacco , 

(c) Use of Chinese words 
Cowrie : 

Hking. a saddle ; 

Jarit, food for a journey ; 

(2) The differences between the S. and N. 
Chinghpaws are to a certain extent the same as 
those between the S. Chinghpaws and the Cowries. 
The Kachins north of Myitkyina, on both sides of 
the Irrawaddy, all have a tendency to use the final 
m/ where the S. Chinghptiws would end in a vowel. 
The use of the pronouns also more often agree 
with the Cowrie, than with the S. Chinghpuw. lie- 
sides these, the following peculiarities may bo 
noticed : 



(a) 



S. Chinf/hpaw. 


N. Chinohpaw, 


Use of different words : 




Tam, to seek ; 


Bram. 


Shtiman, to bless ; 


Kulitan. 


Noihkrat, rubber ; 


Ganoi. 


Shat mai, curry ; 


Si. 



8 KAOHIK OBAMMAB. 

Hpa, what ? Hkai. 

Gude, how many ? Gillaw. 

Rbm. This list might be somewhat enlarged, 
but it should not bo thought that these and simi- 
liar words are unknown in different localities. No 
S. Chinghpaw would have any difficulty in under- 
standing one from the North, even though his own 
idiomatic usage may be different. 

(6) Different pronunciations of the same word; 

Chyn, to know ; Chyoi or Chyeng. 

(c) Different usage of the same word : 

Ngawn, to rejoice, considered indecent by 
many of the N. Chinghpiiws. 

Num, a woman, considered disrespectful 
in some localities N. and also in certain 
cases by the S. ChinghiKiws. 

B. Words intro<luced from kindred dialects 
will naturally vary in different localities. Thus 
the word for taxes is generally kame or hkatisi 
in and aroujid Bhamo. In the Mogaung district 
hpunda was often heard, and ka^tawk seems to be 
confined to Myitkyina and surroundings. The 
words used to designate Government officials, for 
example, imiy be : du ni ; atjyi ni; atsu ya ni;hkun 
m orjfatt m, all excxipt the first being borrowed 
from the Burmese or Shan. 

6. The same word, even in the Siune locality, 
may luive different pronunciations. Thus kdktip, 
a hat, niiiy also bo pronounced Idkup; punykum, a 
chair, lifkum; nlung^ a kind of root from which a 
yellow dye is extracted, sluHung; shinglung or yan- 
lung. The general tendency is to intercliange / 
and m^j and sh. Thus Idhkam or mtfhkam^ a trap; 
jdhpaivt or shdhjHiivt, a morning. Such peculiari- 
ties as, mdli ftiangli or bungli^ work ; mdla^ minla 
or numla^ a spirit, deserve attention, but do not 
appear to be very numerous. 



INTBODUOTION. 9 

7. In view of the great diyersity and differences 
in pronunciation, it will not be insisted upon that 
the way an individual word is spelled in this work 
must correspond to its pronunciation by each and 
all of the Kachiu tribes. The same must bo said in 
regard to idiomatic usages. A very common idiom 
in one district may be very little used in another. 
Besides, the Kachins themselves distinguish be- 
tween the "children's language" {ma ga); tlie lan- 
guage in everyday use (uufioi ga); and the ** Ian- 
gUiige of the elders** (sillang ga\ and each may bo 
Siiid to have some distinct feature of its own. At 
present our only attempt is to present the 
general broad outlines of the language. 

8. Some attention must here be paid to the 
religious, or the nat, language of the Kachins. 
The definite meaning of all the terms used in con- 
nection with the nat worship is not known to 
the average Kachin. All have a general idea as 
to their import, but only the "elders" {sdlang ni)^ 
the Nat-priests, {duuisa m\ the professional story- 
tellers (jai wa ni\ and the nat prophets {myihtoi 
ni), are able to give the full meaning of the words 
and phrases they employ. It is a great mistake 
to think that the long and tiresome raphsodies. 
to which a visitor to a Kachiri village may have 
an opportunity to listen, are all a meaningless 
jargon. Every word and sentence has some mean- 
ing. No doubt a large part of this vocabulary 
echoes reminiscences from an earlier date, and is 
antiquated so far as its daily use is concerned, but 
a still larger pirt is still in use, especially among 
"the elders" in 'conversation among themselves, or 
in general consultations. No one can have a com. 
prehensive knowledge of Kachin without a fair 
understanding of this important and interesting 
part of the language. 

9. l?he figurative and conseqaently, what we 
for want of a better term, may call the poetical 

a 2 



10 KAOHIK OBAMMAB. 

structure of the not language is very marked. In 
c^onnectian with thii) the following points may be 
noticed : 

(a) Employment of unusual terms. Thus, water, 
n/sin, is here called dinf/t-u; liquor, jam, is called 
Iipant/; an egg, udi, is ailled hkaklum- 

(b) Figunitive names for common objects. 
Thus, water, ntsin, may be called mn hpungsan^ 
It hpunf/nan or lain ydlu; jttru, liquor, may be called 
Idmu sdlat; wK eggs. '>awi Inim; tea, a hog, mahkaw 
hkiuf/yi. 

Rem. Often diflerent names are employed by 
the tJunisa, jai wa and myihtoi. Thus mahkaiv 
hkuif/yi, a hog, would by many be called myihtoi 
/y«j "prophetical Language", while a phrase such as 
j% nma hpri nhpra, "before the begiiining" would 
be ctilled^ai tm ga, "the story letter's language." 

(c) The parallelismus menArorum, or the at- 
tempt to unfold the same thought in two succes- 
sive parallel members of the same division: 

Shulung mahtim yin nga ga ; 
Shala mahtan hpyin sa wa ga ; 
Akawng giniigai ya du ga ; 
Marawn gindai ya pru ga ; 

"Let us piss the Slullung tree ; 
Let us go by tiie Shrda tree ; 
We will arrive at tlie low hill ; 
iict us go forth to tlie high hill." 

Hkauka ningshan manau n rat, 
Si my an ari hta gau n hkrat. 

"Dancing on the sword's edge he is not 
hurt, 
Walking on a cotton thread, he does not 
fall/' 

\d) In connection with the paralldistnua mefn- 
broruin^ which is the most characteristic of the 
religious language, may also be noticed the use of 
couplets. 



IKTBODUOTION. 1 1 

Wawri hpe mSngkwp ; wawren hpe makawp ; 
Lamun lam wunli Ian; latsa lam wungau hpan. 

Here tvawri, a cold, has as its couplet uuwren; 
mdkawp, to protect, mdngatvp; lamun and Idtsa^ a 
hundred ; wunli and tmingau^ blessing, and Ian and 
hpan^ to create,. are all couplets. A structure like 
the following is also very common : 

Ja li la ni hpe, ngai gun ring ring, 

Ja tsen ma ni hpe, ngai hpii ding ding. 

**I take perfect care of golden youth, 
I guard the golden maidenhood." 

(e) A certivin attempt to metre and also rhyme : 

Tsingdu : "ngai nau nem, 
Tsingman : ngai nau gyem, 
HtiiW Matsaw ga n dap, 
* Ntsang ga n hkap." 

10. It should not be supposed that every nai. 
priest repetits the same formula verbatim et liter- 
tUitn, as his predecessors or associates in the pro- 
fession. The general outline is the same every- 
where; but the form of the vocabulary is left to a 
large extent to the choice of the dumsa himself. 
Thus here as everywhere else, it would be difficult 
to say exactly what is the stiindard to follow, and 
must for the present at least be left to the indi- 
vidual judgment of each one interested in tluj 
strange beliefs and traditions of an equally strange 
people. 



Abbreviations. 

The following are some of the abbreviations 
used :— 

a, .. Adjective. 

. adv. .- Adverb or adverbial, 

coup, .- Couplet. 

comp. .-- Compare. . 



KAOHUr OBAMMAB. 



ex. 


.. Example. 


ffftlflU 


.. Gram mar. 


inter. 


.. Interrogative. 


n. 


-. Noun. 


N.L. 


. . Nat or religious language^ 


num. 


.. Numeral. 


par. 


.. Particles. 


per. 


.. Person. 


plur. 


.. Plural. 


pron. 


.. Pronoun or pronominal. 


Keni. 


.- Remark. 


sing. 


.. Singular. 






ORTHOOBAPHY. 



13 



PART I. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Th£ Alphabet. 

§ 1. The Kachiii Alphabet contains fourteen 
vowels, atid thirty-one conson'mts, or in all forty- 
five elementary sounds. 

§ 2. Powers of the Kachin vowels. 



Vowcli. 

a 

H 



e 

e 
e 
1 



o 



u 



Sound of a, as in father. 

Represents a varying vow- 
el sound, always some- 
what suppressed. 

Short sound of o, as in 
ten, met. 

Long sound of a, as in ale. 

Sound of ay, as in prayer 

(a) Sound of i, as in ma- 
chine, when standing 
alone, or at the end of 
a word or syllable. 

(A few exceptions are 
here found.) 

(J) As initial or in the 
middle of a "syllable, it 
takes the short sound 
of i, as in tin. 

Nearly the long sound of 
0, as in old. 

Sound of o, as the Ger- 
man moglich, or almost 
that of u in murky. 

(a) Sound of oo, as in 
moon, when initial, by 
itself or at the end of a 
word or syllable. 



La, to take. 
Galaw, to do; Ma- 
gwi, an elephant. 

Kem. to tend. 

lie be, in vain. 

Hpa galaw na i ? 
what shall I do? 
Myi, the eye. 

Ti-nang ; Hkri- 

tung. 
Ing, to overflow ; 

ning, thus. 



Wora,that,(Corap. 
8 35, 2, a.) 



Uri. a pheasant; 
u, bird ; lu, to 
have. 



14* 



KACHIH OBAMMAB. 



11 

ai 

an 

aw 
oi 



(b) When in the middle 
of a syllable it takes 
the sound of oo as in 
wool. 

U, as in tub, plum. 

Long sound of i, as in 
aisle. 

Sound of ow, as in cow. 

Sound of aw, as in law. 
Sound of oi, as in oil. 



Numsha, a women; 
mung, also. 



Mai, good. 

Kau, to throw a- 

way. 
Baw, the head. 
Roi, to deride. 



Rem. (a) The letters o and u have been intro 
duced in order to faciliate the writing of kindred 
dialects. It should be noticed, however, that sounds 
are found in Muru, Lushi and Atsi not provided 
for in this system. 

(b) The usage oi c au distinct from e is some, 
what doubtful. The real existence of o, except as 
au interjection may also l>e questioned. The ex- 
ample given may also be pronounced ivawra. 

(c) The Kiichin tones often determine, if a 
vowel is to be pronounced long or short, in 
fact each vowel, may have aH many variations as 
there are tones. 

§ 3. Powers of Kachin consonants. 



Umm. 


Puwcni. 


ExHinpleit. 


b 


As in English. 


Ba, to be tired. 


ch 


As ch in child. 




chy 


No equivalent in English. 
(Comp. Bur. oqj.) 


Chya, to paint. 


d 


As in English. 


Du, a chief. 


g 


Hiird sound of g, as in go. 


Ga, the earth. 


gy 


A combination of hard g 
and y. 


Gyit, to tie. 


li 


Ah in English. 




• 

J 


As in English. 


Jum, salt. 



OBTHOOBAPHT 



15 



hk 
kk 



hky 



I 

m 

n 



ng 



ny 

P 
hp 

Pf 



r 

8 

8h 

t 

ts 
bt 



As initiul almost like gk ; 
when final like k in Eng- 
lish. 

Combination of the kand 
y sounds. 

Aspirated k. 

A harsh guttural sound, 
stronger than the Ger- 
man ch in madchcm, 
used mostly by the 
Cowries instead of hk. 



Ka, to write; htak, 
to guess. 

Kyem, to put a- 

side- 
Hka, a river. 
Kha, a river. 



Makhawn, a mai' 
den. 

A sound somewhat softer Hkyet, a valley, 
than ch, but varying to 
a great degree in differ- 
ent localities. 

As in English. 

Sound of m as in English 

(a) Sound of n as in Eng- 
lish. 

(h) When stiinding alone, 
or immediately preced- 
ing another consonant, 
only its pure consonant- 
al sound is lieard. 

As initial without an equi- 
valent in English, as fi- 
nal like ng in bring. 

No equivalent in English. 

Almost a bp sound. 

Aspirated p. 

A blending of p and f; 
mostly used by the Cow- 
ries instead of hp. 



As in English. 



It 



II 



*t 



ft 



Almost a dt sound. 
A blending of t and s. 
Aspirated t. 



Lam, a road. 
Ma, a child. 
Nam, a jungle. 

N gjHa^w, not to do; 
nta, a house; n- 
gam, a precipice. 



NgJii, I; leng, a 
cfirt. 

Nyet, to deny. 
Pat, to obstruct. 
Hpai, to carry. 
Pfun, wood. 



Ri, rattan. 
Sa, to go. 
Sha, to eat. 
Tai, to become. 
Tsun, to speak. 
UtUi to dig. 



16 KAOHIN OBAMMAB. 



V 


As in English. 


* 


w 


If »» 


Wa, to return. 


y 


t »» »» 


Ya, now. 


z 


1 


Zup, to congre- 




i 


gate. 



RsM. (a) The tendency among the Kachins is 
slightly to aspirate nearly all of their dentals, gut- 
turals, labials and sibilants (Conip. § 4). Thns 
b, d, g, 8, etc., are often, strictly speaking, not pro- 
nounced eX2ictly as they are in English. These 
jN'culiarities vary, however, in diftbntnt lociilities. 

(h) The ch sound as differtMit from the hky is 
questionable. The pure h is never found as an 
initial. The sound of v which by some is pronoun 
ced as vf, is by some Cowries, in certain words 
only, usetl where y would be used by the Ching 
hpiiws. 

(c) Before the labialu b, p, hp and m, the per 
formative n ( Comp. Introduction 4, (b) Hem- ) 
pirtakes of the m sound. Thus nba, is often pro 
nounced mba, 

(d) When n precedes g and y a hyphen is in 
serted between these letters when they are meant 
to be sounded separately. Thus : n-f/a; n-gam; 
n-ganff; n-yatvt. The same is true when two 
vowels combined as a diphthong are pi*onounced 
separately, ua-um and not iiaum, 

§ 4. Classification of the Consonants. 

The consonants may be divided into seven 
classes viz : — 



Dentals : 


d, j, ch, t, ht, ts. 


Gutturals ; 


k, hk g, ng, kh. 


Labials : 


b, p, hp, ra. w, V, pf. 


Linguals : 


1, n, r. 


Palatals : 


QY, ky, hky, ny, y, chy. 


Sibilants : 


s, sh, /'. 


Aspirate ; 


h. 



ORTHOORAPHir. 17 

}} 5. The Tones in Kaohin. 

(a) The tones of the Kachin language, although 
not of 80 greiit importance as in Chinese or 
Shan, must however be carefully mastered and 
practised, as accuracy in speaking dei^nds to a 
great extont on the power to enunciate them cor- 
rectly. 

{b) The tones often give to a vowel naturally 
long, a shorter Honnd thnn it otherwise would take, 
and vice versa, 

(c) Five tones are easily distinguished in Kachiu, 
and may, for lack of better tonal marks, be indicat- 
ed by the numerals 1, 2, 3, I, 5. 

(1^ The first tone is the natural pitch of the 
voice, with a slight raising inflection at the end. It 
may be ciilled the natural tone. 

(^2) The second is a bass tone ; it may be called 
the f/rare tone. 

(3) The third is a slightly higher tone than the 
second, being pronounced with an even prolonged 
sound : it may be called the risinf/tone, 

(4) Tho fourth tone is very short and abrupt ; 
it may be called the abrupt tone. 

(5^ The fifth tone is somewhat higher than the 
third and is uttered with more emphasis ; it 
may bo ciiUed the emphatic tone. 

The following words may be used to illustrate 
the power of the tones : 

IVa 1, a hut in a paddy field ; tea J, to return »* 
to pay back ; wa 3, a male human being, a father 
(Corap. § 27), a tooth, the thread of a screw ; 
wa 4, to weave a mat, a hog; iva b^ to bite, an 
intensive verb, par., bamboo, when used in compo- 
sition (Comp. § 30.) 

Nf/a ?, to be ; nfj/a 3, to speak, cattle; nt/a 4, to 
bend or incline the head, to be aslant; nga 5, fish. 
a 3 



18 KAririN GRAMMAR. 

Taw 2, to gamble ; iaw H, to rei'liiie : fnw 4, to 
>>e scarce : taw 5, vorl>. |)iir,, if, 

Hka I, over np:aiiiHt ; hka 2, to bring from a 
short (! istimce ; A/a 4. a rivor, wat<.*r in a riv«r 
or lake, to b<» dividcil: hka 5, a <lobt: hka 5 or 
2, a verbal emphatic aRHei'tativt*. 

{(t) Out of a vocabulary of over 7,0<X) words 
the following C4iI(*ulutioii8 may be approximately 
i!orrect. About i'(K>^ words tike all the tones ; 
1,000 or more tak«* two or throe, while the rest 
would seldom have more than one. It is not 
to U* expected, liowever, tli;it uniformity in this 
should b<* found among all the Kachins. Import- 
nut diffeiynces are found, even within compara- 
tively short distam*e8. 

S 6. Formation op SvLTiARLKS. 

Originally Kacliin, like all the binguages of the 
Mongolian stock, must have been purely monosyl- 
labic, as a large part of its vocabulary still 
Hhows. Nevertheless a large jiercentage of words 
Sire dis>iyllabic. and their number is rapidly in- 
creasing. Tlius it will l>e necessary to notic(> the 
following peculiarities of syllibication : 

(a) The performative a is often used in the 
formation of genernl words. Comp. jj§ 12, 3, a: 

(/>) The syllables (Htiff, f/unis hkum, sum, itum^ 
hpuuff, itiuff and shint/, must all* be regarded as 
geueral jKn^formatives, eneh with a [vculiar force 
of its own. As a rule : 

/)inf/t fjum and hkum jHtint towards the agree* 
able, beautiful, faultless, or straight. 

Sum, uum and hijun//, winy with them the idea 
of fulness, completeness, abundance or grandeur. • 

Ninff and shint/ liave a telic 'iigVuVvc.viW^vi. 



ORTHOGHAPIir. 19 

Rem. The niiiff and nam are often abbtvviutefi 
to n; shhiff often becomes shii; (Hntf and tfum become 
dd or f/it. 

(c) Acconting to our Hystoni of writing tlio 
))orfonnHtive8, ////, Av^ fdtt, Iti, mti^ hpit, etc., ought 
also to U^ regiirdwl as short HyllableH. Ga-hiw; 
hka-nu; hpalitau. 

(r/) Tlie n before a hyphen, or when serving an 
the sign for the negative, uv as a pronominal p»ir- 
ticle, bnng an abbreviation of natiff, nhiff or //mw*, 
should U* regaixled as a short syllable. Comp. §§ 
3, Hem. d; 67, a; 65, a. 

Bbm. For further illustrations on syllal)ic<ition 
com)). Kachin S])elling jiook, paragraphs 1 to J9. 

§ 7. Accentuation. 

(a ) In words l)eginning with any of the jwr- 
formiitives //<f, htt, hf^ etc., the itccent always rests 
on the ultima, such words being really in tlie 
Kachin mind juonosyllabics. This is also true 
when ciise endings or otiier particles an; added. 

Kashii'; kasha' gaw ; kasha' ni h\n\ 
Kabii'; kfiba' hpe: kabii' ai gaw. 
Masha'; mrisha' gaw ; mrisha' kaw na. 

(//) In pure dissyllabic W(»rds the accent rests 
on the first syUalde. Gum'ra ; numsha. The 
same is true when a single |)jirticle is affixed, )mt 
when two are re(|uired the accent is shifted to thr 
ultima, and if a trisyllabic alHx is utuHl the 
first syllal)le of the affix will take the accent. 

Oum'ra hpe; gumri' kaw ua ; gumra kaw' uuh. 
La'sba h|H?: lasha' h|H) gaw; lasha kaw' de na, 

(c) With verUil roots of one syllable, or with 
any verl)s, with the above mentioned performatives, 
the accent i$ retained on the ultima throughout 
all its forms of inflection, provided that the tense 
^lul mode jKir tides are words of one syllable oidy. 



20 KACHZN ORAHMAB. 

If, as in some forms of the Porfuct Indicative, a 
dissyHabic tense affix is used, the accent is trans, 
ferred to the first syllable of the tense particles. 

Sa'; sa'ai : su' sai ; 8;i ngut' ma sai. 
Galaw'; galaw' sai ; galaw ngut' sai; galaw ngut' 
ma sai. 

(d) When two words, (generally verbs) are 
united in such a way that the last is used only 
to strengthen or complete the meaning of the first, 
the accent usually rests on the auxiliary, even 
though a particle should be affixed to it 

Bai wa'; bai wa' u ; la kau'; la kau' ya e ; 
Ru bang'; ru Ixmg* rit; shat sha'; nliat sha' 
myit dai. 

(e) In tht^ Imperative the accent rests on the 
root of the verb, but when a prohibitive particle 
precedes (comp. {} 64, 7), the stress of the voice 
naturally falls on this word or on its auxiliary. 

La' u; sa' niu ; sa' ma rit. 
Hkum' gahiw ; shum' sii myit ! 
Ukum giilaw ef; hkum' mani myit I 
Hknm sa wa myit'. 

^ When the negative is used, the stress of 
the voice is always thrown Ixick on the «. 

N' gilhiw lu; i\' kaja; u mu lu. 

^ 8. Punctuation. 

(a) The punctuation marks in Kachin are the 
same as in English, and are used in the same way 
as far as the principles can be carried out. 

, Comma. ! Exclamation point. 

; Semicolon. — Dash. 

: Colon. ( ) Parentheses. 

? Interregation point [ j Brackets. 

. Period. 



! f 



PART II. 

ETYMOLOGY. 

§ 9. The words in the Kachiii language may 
be dividAd into eight classes, viz : Nouns, Adjec- 
tives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Postpositions, 
Conjunctions, and Interjections. 

NOUNS. 

§ 10. The Nouns in Kachin, as in other Ian* 
guages, may be divided into Pro})er and Common 
twuns. 

§41. A prO]K)r noun is the name of some |Kir. 
ticular people, jx^rson, place or thing. Kx. Jinff- 
hpaw, a Kiichin ; Ma Gam the first born Hon ; 
Shingra him^ the Eden in Kachiii tradition. 

Rem. When the names N Gam^ N Naw^ N La, 
N Kaw, N Roi, tjtc. (Conip. app. 1 ) with their 
performative Ma for children, are used with the 
whole chiSH of first, second or third born etc., as 
is common among the K.ichins. these names may 
also be regarded as common nouns, but bein^ 
at the same time nami^s for individuals, when sn 
used they come under the head of prof.er nouns. 

§ 12. Common nouns are such as atpjily to all 
the members of any one class, fjimily or kind of 
objects. Tlioy may Ik» divided into four classes ; 
vi'/ : 

1. Primitii'es^ or sucli as can be applit^d to each 
individual of a class or group of obj<Tts. Kx. 
nta, a house, f/w, a chief, ^/<m/a, a \yony. 

2. Compounds; these are formed by uniting : 

(a) Two nouns ; Ex. ridawng, a pole, from /•*, 
a rattan, and dawng, a log, or something long and 



22 KACHIN GRAMMAB. 

round; ski laika, a iiGW8[>aper, from M^ news, ami 
laikay a book or lett^^r; hkddawntj hkahing^ a young 
cricket, from hkihluwiig u cricket and hkdhing^ the 
young of animals; (?innsu kitsJta^ a 04ilf, from (htmsu, 
a row, anil kdsha^ a ytmng out*, lit. a child. 

{b) A nuun anil a verb; Ex. jutt prn^ sun rise. 
from jan^ the sun, an<l pni^ to jjioceed frcnn. 

(c) A noun and an adjective ; Kx, inyit kiiha^ 
)>ride, front myii, mind, and ktilta^ hv^ i>r gi'eat. 

(r/) A verb and a noun, coinmoidy united by ai 
or in the Cowrie diilect by de; Ex, mtisu ai md- 
s/ui, a liar, from Hutau^ to lie, iind indsha, a (lerson; 
shawnfj ttpanif a beginning, from shatnitf, to Ik^ first, 
and npant, a fonndation. 

{e) A nuun, verb and a noun, generally with the 
use of a coniu^ctive; Ex- n<fa rem ai rndsha^ a herds- 
man, from /<//f/, cuttle, #e//i, to tend, and mdsha, h 
jHU'Bon ; HJuJa, the one prejMiring the fowls at a 
nut offering, from ii, a fowl..7M, to offer a fowl, and 
ta a male being. 

3. />«frl(;a^//^^s, nouns of this class are formeil 
in the following ways : 

(«) From roots of simple verbs by prefixing 
the jjerformative a; Ex. ami/int/, a name, from 
myinff to name; alaa a temptation from lau t<» 
tc^mpt. 

{b) By the use of the ixaforujiitives yd, ka^ la, 
mr^ /#, etc., with simple verbs; Ex, f/tlsaf, a fight, 
from satf to fight; mttuej), a (Kivement, from mp, to 
|>iive; mttkaiHy a su])})Ort, from kam, to believe or 
trust in. This way of forming nouns is especially 
common in the religious or Nat language. 

(c) Jiy adding the n(uin shdra, a place or occa- 
sion, with or without the connective, to a simple 
verb; Ex. hkrii fthihUy danger, from likritf to fear; 
sa ai shdrttf occasion for going, from $a to go, /.aai 



teTYMOTiOOY. 23 

or na lam ara sometinies used \\\ the wmw wav ais 
shara; sa na lam iiga^ there is occasion for going:. 

(d) By the use of the connective ai Jind tlie 
nominative sign gaw; Ex^Mi/e la ai i/aw, Siilvii- 
tion, from hl^ye la, to save. Very ofUm the ai is 
nsed alone in snch combinations. 

(e) By the use ai' the affix hjja, with a simple 
verb ; Ex. sha hjxi, fooA, from sha, to eat; mauhpa^ 
a wonder, from mau to wonder; In h^Hij drink, from 
/«, to drink. These combinations are rare. 

(/) A noun, liff/iU, a tliief, is in some dialecrtifci 
forrae<l from l(fffUf to ste^il, l)ut seems to )yo without 
analogy. 

(//) A few nounsare formed by the combination 
of a verb and a noun, the ptn*formative of tht* 
noun being lost : Ex. hpt/en mu, a Uittle, from 
hpyen, war, and mw, from amu, work. 

4. Foreign nouns, introtluced from Shan, Bur- 
mese or Cliinese. Theses words should not be con- 
founded with such roots as are common to all these 
languages. (Comp. app. II.) 

(tender. 

§ 13. The Kachin language recognizes three 
genders : masculine, feminine and common or neu- 
ter as it may also be called. They may be di«. 
tinguished in the following ways : 

1. By the use of different words, as : 
kdtva, a father ; kdnn^ a mother. 
katsa, a father-in-law; kdnan, a mother-in-la w, 
dingla, an old man ; mimgai, an old women. 
ngasu, a bullock ; dumsu, a cow. 

2. By prefixing, laslia, male for tlie masculine, 
and numsha, female for the feminine, as : 

lasha vui, a boy ; numsha ma, a girl. 
lasha mdyam. a male slave; numsha mdyam^ 
a female slave. 



24 KACHIN GRAMMAR. 

3. By pi*eiixiiif( shtfifinfff for the iiiaac aud nhdyi 
for the fern, us : 

shdiHufi nha, a mix ; shai/i sha, a daughter. 

4. By iiffixinv: /mfor the nuiBc. and jan for 
the feiu. as : 

iiiifdu ftfi, a husUiiid ; m(^fhijat%t a wife. 

5. Tlio ;>oiuh3r8 of brutes, birds, etc., are dis- 
tiiiguished by affixin<r /« (Cowrie i-ang) for the 
male, and yi, nitd suiuetinies iu the religious lan- 
guage hkn^ for the fern., exept as shown under 
5i 13. 1. 

(fioi /a, a male dog ; tjm i/i, a bitch. 

u la, a cock ; u yi, a hen. 

a la, an ox, (N. L.); w hku, a heifer, (N, L.) 

6. Nouns of the common or neuter gender are 
the most numerous in Kachin, as nearly all inani- 
mate things wouhl full under this class, the ten- 
tie ncy Ixjing to overlook any relation ofgeiider, 
which does not cxMisist in the distinction of the 

NUMDER. 

§ 14. The Kachin nouns have regularly only 
two numbers the singular and the plural, but in 
certsiin instjinccs by the help of the dual pronouns 
and words indiciiting duality, the dual is also re- 
cognized. (Gomp. ^ 46. 47.) The plural is not 
always indicated when no ambiguity is likely to 
occur- Sometimes a noun is used in its generic 
Bt^iiae, and has the same form in all its numbers. 

§ 16. The plural is indicated in the following 
ways : 

I. By the affixes wt, tUe or hteng. Ni is the one 
ill most common use, and is often used collectively. 
'Ex. masha ni, the persons, jau ni instead of jan 
aat ni, the sun nats ; Sima ni instead of sima 



ETYMOLOGY. 26 

utaslui ni, the people of Sinui. HU is generally used 
with adjectives of iuiinbor or quantity, as, nulsha 
nlantf htP^ all (the whole number) of the persons. 
Hteuff is mostly used to specify things in general, 
as : (lax t-ai hfent/, these tilings ; hihhan hflika, yai- 
tsu lUenr/f these drie<l fishes and prawns. Coinp. 
the Use of A/<Mmd htenff with the pronouns. 

2. By the use of the adjectives mahkra^ law latv, 
shitffUf yawuffy etc., (Comp. § 35. 2-b.) which all ciirry 
with them the i(lea of multiplicity, fulness or 
coUectiveness, as : ida mahkrn^ all the houses; ma 
law law^ a number of (many) chihlren ; amyu haw 
shtfffUf all tribes and races ; yawnff In wa uu) n't^ 
bring all (the things) here. 

ii. By the use of a numeral adjective, either 
preceding or following the word, as: U Idhkawpif/, 
two fowls; mdsum niny, three years. 

4. By ivpeating the last syllable of a word, as: 
nmyn myUy all races. 

§ 16. The dual is made by adding yaw, both, 
(Cowrie yew), or prefixing an or shan to the noun, 
as : shi kitnu k(fwa yangaw, his (lit. both his, etc.) 
father and mother ; ndai shan la yaw, that couj)le, * 
these two ; an hpu an uaa w/, our (yours an<l miiio) 
brothers and sisters. 

Rem. (a) Certain well known words like w/yo, • 
cattle, w, fowls etc., often omit the plural signs, 
being used as collectives ; nhi a nya nyai rem na^ 
I will tend his Ciittle ; dai ni w/ai uya lany wa, 1 
will offer (any species of the !x)vine genus) to-day. 

(b) At times the plural cjui only be inferred 
from the connection ; uta hfpran e\ between the 
houses; si ua hpe^ those dying. 

(c) When an adjective like nialikra or law law 
follows a noun, the plural sign always follows the 
adjective and not the noun to which it belongs ; 

G 4 



20. KACHIN ORAMMAR. 

hpyen rndsha imhkra ni sa *i^i iiul 84n\ all tlie 
soldif^rs have gone. 

Cabc. 

8 17. Theiv are pi'Ojjerly speaking no declen- 
sions in Karliin. The rehition of nouns expressed 
in the Latin languages by inH(3ction8. are here 
indicated by the piirticles affixed to the noun, 
without any cliange of the word itself. In the 
voetitive, however, the iNirticle is oft^Mi prefixed. 

Thk Noninativk. 

ii )8- (a) The only rral nomhiative ])article is 
i/aa\ which ilenoten the subject or agent of the 
verb; shi r/aw hpti ii t/tffafv In ai\ he cannot do any- 
thing. Gaw is however often omitted in general 
usage, as the verb.il pjirticles would prevent any 
misunderstanding as to the jx^rson or thing refer- 
red to: Hf/a/ sa ita inif/at\ I will go. 

(/>) Gaw is often used with dai or u<fai\ its 
noun being understoixl but not expressed. Dai 
ffan\, that (tiling); luJai f/aw jaw e, give (this near 
thing) to nie. (Oonip. § 35. 2-a.) 

(f) The adversative ]>OHt|)osition8 chyam or 
rhyawHif are commonly uned before f/aw, for the 
sake of definitness or em]>ha8i8; nffoi chyawin <jaw^ 
as for me, or as regards me; nauhte chyannn (jaw 
H uitfdat myit (iat\ as for you, you do not obey or, 
you, (in spite of it all) do not obey. 

Thk Gknitivk. 

§ 19. (<i) The genitive in Kachin is generally 
ti pure })Ossessive, and is known by the particle a, 
(Cowrie ya, ye or e\ affixed to the noun ; M a 
laika rai In fli, it is his book: auhte a ttta^ our 
house. 



I 

I. . 



ETYMOIiaOT. 27 

(b) Sometimes the nouu denoting the thinir 
possessed is re^jeuted before and after the word 
representing the }>osse8sivey in which case the a 
•is generally omitted ; pidai t^umm shi gumra jfu' 9 u 
at, this (horse) is his horse. 




claw. 



(d) Tlie genitive m.iy at times be used as a 
dative; na a matu instead of nang h'pe nkftu^ for 
you; pujai a hpa f/(tlaw ntaf insteiid ♦)f Hffai trnt- 
fa Ifpa etc, what do you do for me ? 

Thk Dative. 

§ 20. (a) The jiarticles of transmission are 
hpf*, (Cowrie j)fe, and by some /««), and kaiv\ fiffCLt 
hpejawe/ give to me; nint/ rat slit nhanhtf kaw 
hid (la saij he gave this order to them. The 
hpe in common usage is often abbrevii4te<l to e/ shi 
ejaw u/ give to liim. (Comp. S :f3.) 

(b) The particle miHu,oiitti couplet »M/ira, or 
Ijoth together, are used to express the person or 
thing in respect of whom or which anytJiing is 
done; s/n mdtu wfat dai f/ti/aw we at, I did it 
for him; na nsha vuitu ttutra sJuUantf n, persevere 
for the sake of your child. 



(c) A dative of time is sometimes especially in 
tlie religious languuge, expressed hy the use of <*, a 
f/oi fftiri f. at (the time ol) the cock-crowing. 



The Accusative. 



rii 



8 21. A noun in the accusiitive is often use*! 
without any determining particle, and is distin- 
guished only by its position in the sentence ; ntsin 
la tea Hi, bring water, tif/ai f/umra jawn nngai. 1 



2S KACHIN OBAMMAR. 

ride a iK)ny. Hpe or hpe gaw; ai-e however used 
when irreater clettnioss is roqiurecl, nga% sht hpe 
II fsawnnffai I do not like him, shi hpe gaw kamng 
rat shamying ya na n ni ? how will you name 
hiin. ? 

The Locative. 

55 22. The lociitive is expivsaed by the use of 
r/caiKl ^, the last piirticle having the force of in, 
at or among; ntjai wora shara de sa mdyu nngai, 
1 fl«8ire to go to that place; ntfai hkan i hkrit 
ahara law nga ai, there is great danger in this vi- 
cinity- III certain localities the t» is exchanged for 
#11, ami the iwrticles ua and Ida are used much in 
the Kaino way as this lociitive; dai nuire hta in 
thiit city, m a myi na hpa wja n (a? what is in 
yonr eye ? 

The Ablative. 

5J 23. The ablative is Uninoil by the use of na, 
from, kaw ana, or tie na; nye nta ua, from my 
iioiiiie; iJai hpatd shi kaw una ngai sa m at, I 
came from him this morning: wora mare de na, 
from that city. GeneniUy kaw is used with per- 
soiiH, while de is impersonal. 



Thk Instrumental. 



m 



^ 24. The instrumental is formed by the use of 
Me with; hpri hie dit u ! nail it with iron ; nhtu 
hie ktiiUam a ! cut with a knife. The hie is often 
shortened to e, or by some changed into ax in com- 
iiiou si)eech, nhiu e or nhin ai kdhtam a / 



The Vocative. 



K 25. The vocative, as in Burmese, is often in- 
dicated by the simple stress laid on the word. 
G^,«ofmiPs however in irrave discourse the inter- 



Sometimes however ni grav 



KTYMOLOGY. 29 

jection precedeB, but more coinmouly the {larti- 
cle e is affixed, uufsha ! lasha i^ man ! 

Rem. (tt) The nominative, genitive and objec- 
tive particles when united to the definitive adjec- 
tives wjai mi, nkau mi. etc, the plural ending 
ni and the conditional pOMtpositions yanff and Janr/, , 
always follow these pirts, and not the noun 
to which they lielong; //«'/' nr/ai mi f/aw^ one dog; 
wora m(fsha ni hpe, those persoiks ; anhte sa f/attf/ 
//«//?, if we go, shanht^ ni a fi^umra hknm In mt/if, 
don't tiike their pony. 

(6) It should be borne in mind that none of 
these particles are applied with grammatical 
strictness in common sjK'ech. Great freedom is 
exercised among tlie different tribes in all the 
peculiarities of their unsettled dialects. 

§26. The most common fKirticles indiaiting 
the cases my be illustratett in the following pjira- 
digm : — 

Sing. DifAil. Marul. 

C masha gaw, masha yan masha ui gaw, 
Nom, I masha chyawm gaw, raasha ni chyawni 

( gaw, ^ gaw, 

Geu. raasha a, masha yan a- iniUha ui a, 

Dat. masha hpe, or kaw, masha yan masha ni hpe or kaw, 

hpe, 
Aoc. masha hpe, masha yan masha ni hpe, 

i masha na, hpe, 

nta e, masha ui nna, 

masha de, masha yau na, nta ui e, 

Abl. masha na, or kaw masha yan nta ni de (rare), 

nna, na, or kaw mfisha ni kaw nna, 

nna, 
Instr. masha hte, masha yan hte, masha ni hte, 
Voc. masha e, masha yan e, masha ni e. 



to KACHIN ORAMMAB. 

Pkculiabitxkb of thk Nounb. 

jS :?7. Nouns iiidicutiiig family relutioiis have 
laclt tliroo distinct forms showing their relation 
to the spoiiker, th^; ]X3rHon sfioken to, and the per> 
loii 8ix)koii of. Kx /m, a father; w^^'(or ny^ a) wa, 
(iiy father : $4uhi, a father ; a, no doubt being an 
Abbreviation of the 2n<l )M'r. sing, pronoun tmny; »ia 
(or Hu a) nwa, your father ; kilffxi, a father, the 
M, always iiidiciiting the 3nl }>er. sing, or plural; 
«lii a hiitta, his father. 

nye siui, my chiM, anlUi' a shUf our child. 
m nsha^ your child, nanhte a ttsha, your child. 
shi kilsha^ his child, nhanhte a hfiflui, tlufir child. 

* Rem. (a) Many Kachins often use the ka 
both in the 2nd and 3rd per. plural, thus say- 
inj( nanhte a ktUva instead o\ Htm\ ktUha instead of 

W»//tf, etc. 

('0 '^^lii^ i>se of the nouns enables a Kachin to 
leave out the pronouns in general conversation, 
without danger of being misunderstood, the [>er80n 
always being determined by the form of the noun, 
Cluw, nha ni i\ (niy) chihlren, instead of nye or 
"/yflV slia Hi <V nshii lu u sha ni hjM*, to your child- 
J*»Mi and grand-c'hiidren. 

§ 28. The performative « is frecjuently uued 
>vith monosyllabic nouns in an enumerative dis- 
course; nffai yatv a nyn^ a ja, a »han lu at rai, I 
l^«'ve cattle, gold and meat. 

!} 29. The words for year, shdniny ; mouth, 
^hi\ta; and day, slulni^ etc, always drop their per- 
^orinutive slid in composition. Ex. mitsum niny, 
three yeiirs; ninif mi, one year; kashuny ta^ the 
^'^»ld season, lit, the cold months; ni ni, two days. 

!i 30. Generic terms such as Idgatf bee, Idpti, 
*^H»ke, lose their performative la when one of its 
sjxjeies is named. Thus yat yuny (commonly pro- 



t I 



RTYMOLOOY. 31 

nouiioed //tY ynfiff), large yellow bee, instead of 
Idf/at gnng; pti hki-am^ tlie cobra, instead of Idpv, 
hkram; hdHHi, bimltoo, /m ijat^ the f/u/autocMea 
ahftodlmta, 

ADJKOTIVKS. 

§31. Adjectives may precede or follow the 
noun. If preceding, are always connected by «?, 
(Cowrie de\ to the following word, Jnsha ma 
h'dja, a goo<l lK)y ; kaja ai miuisha, a goo<l women. 

Clabbbs op Aiueotivkb. 

§ 32. Adjectives may be divided into two ge- 
neral classes, viz : Descriptive and Definitive. 

§ 33. DescHjitive atijectires may Im^ dividtMl into 
two classes : 

1 Primitive or uiulericeih There are few adjec- 
tives of tl^is class, all the words serving as such 
being verbal roots. Some of the most common are 
the following : hf hi\ vain ; /i7a, useless ; shanmff^ 
first : AAru, good ; yawnt/, all ; (frau, great. 

2. Comj)oun(ts: These are formed in the follow- 
ing ways : 

(a) By the use of the performatives i/ii^ kd, Id, n, 
etc., kdinan^ useless, from iwaw, to Ik» empty; kdhta^ 
upper, from lUa, upon; kdha^ big, great, from fca, to 
bo first. To this class belong a great number oi 
adjectives the derivation of which am not now bt 
traced with certainty, kdji^ small; (fdlu^ long; Idvuu 
lower; kdta, inside ; nhku^ inside ; yman or nituf 
nan, new ; dinf/sa or ninf/sOy old : f/ddun^ slioi't 

{b) By the redupliciition of a verb.il adjective 
ding dint/, true, from dint/y to be true; fsawn 
tsawm, pretty, from /sawm, to be pretty; lav Ian 
quick, from laUy to bcv quick; hpra'r lipran', wliit<^ 
from hf^raWf to be white. 



l2? KACHIN ORAMMAB. 

- (c) By prefixiikg the iH)rforinative a to a nottn 
jr a verb, nchyang^ black, from chymuf^ blackness; 
r*a, broken, from Aa, to break. 

(jl) By the combination of a noun and a verb; 
svu/du sha, lierbivorous, from tsinffdu, grass, and 
ihOyto t»at; myit kifh/etf luisty, {iiissionate. 

(e) By prefixing the negative n to a verbal ad- 
ectivo, u htijay KhI, from AdfjfVi, to be good. 

(/) ^y ^'*^' combination of a noun, the nega- 
nve w, and a verb, asak n rami//^ inanimate, from 
tsah'f life, and nurntf^ to contain. 

(//) J3y the use of the connective at, when real. 
y a ixirticipial adjective is formecl, tsap ai md- 
(ha, a standing [x^rson, or the person who stands, 
i'rom tsaj)f to stiind ; f/nj) ai m^o^ a sleeping man, 
iVom yfipy to sleep. 

§ 34. In this connection must also be noticed 
mch indefinite adjective phrases as are formed by 
the repetition of a verb, connected by m^f , indica- 
ting fulness or comprehensiveness, nya mdnija^ 
ill that is, all existence ; hkawm mdhkawm^ all 
things walking, from hkawm^ to walk; tu m(ftu, all 
that grows, from /w, to grow ; j)i/en mdpyen, all 
Hying things, from 7>^e/^ to fly. To express this 
idea differently, the idiomatic usage would require 
that the verb be connectt^d by ai to either 
haw^ kind, or /at, thing; hhawin ai l)aw nlatu/, all 
things walking, all walking kinds; tu ai rai ma- 
likraf all that grows. 

UfiM. The mil is no doubt a shortened form of 
ma, to be finished. (Comp. ^ 35. 2. d) 

§ 35. Definitive adjerthes are of three kinds, 
viz r Articles, Pronominal and Numeral. 

1. Adides : {fl) Xdai^ for things near at hand, 
itai for things at a distance, are often in careful 



■TTMOLOOT. 88 



■peaking used as the Definite Article in 
nffat shi hjpe dai $mm jaw^ rat it munff M n lit 
hkrawaif ffl^ave him the paddy* but he did not 
agree to take it ; fidai btim gaw ja ja t$aw aiy tho 
mountain is very high/ 

{h) The Numeral adjectives mi, ma, ngai ini^ 
Idngai ngai^ etc. (Gomp, §§ 37, 38,) are often used 
as indefinite articles; gm mi ngai hpe kdiva sa, a 
dog bit me; gumra ngai mi ngai mu ai^ I see a 
pony; ga langai ngai sha^ only a (lit. one) word. 

2. Pronominal adjectives may be classified as 
follows : 

(a) DemonstfxUive: These are, ndai, this, dai^ 
leoiv, or wawra, htawm and leva, which all majr 
be translated into that. Nditi tea, this person ; 
dai nia, that house. (Comp, § 36. 1. a.) TKom, is 
used of objects on the sftme level with the speaker, 
htawra, with things above, and lera, with things 
below him. Woi'a gumra hpe sa yn su / go and 
see that pony; htawra nta hpe ja ja tsawm ai^ 
that house (up there) is very beautiful; lera hka 
nau sung ai, tliat river (down there) is too deep; 
ndai i/ang, this thing. 

Rem. (a) The above named adjectives become 
plural by the use of ni or hU^ (Gomp. § 15, 1) and 
may l3e translated into those, these, or with tho 
personal pronouns plural you, or they, as deter- 
mined by the connection. Ndai ni ngai n chye 
nngaif these I do not know; wora ni sa shdga suf 
go and call those (over there;) or, go and call tliom; 
htawra ni gdlawmd sai, they (or those up there) 
did it; lera ni lung md rit! you (down there) come 
up ! ndai ni, these things. 

(b) Some Kachins seem to use ura^ instead of 
wora, when a small distance is indicated. 

(6) Distributive: The most common of these 
are: 

o 5 



84 KACHIN OBAMMAB. 

ShagUf every; used mostly with noims indioating, 
division of tribes, time or places; amyu baw 
shagu^ every kind and race; shdni ahdgn ahdna 
shdgUf every day, every night ; shara shdgu hkan /, 
at or in every place. 

Mifffii^y the whole, every; used only with nouns 
indicating place; mung mdgup na, from every 
country; mung uufgu]) lUa^ in the whole of (that) 
country. 

Gu ffu each, every one; gu gu jaw u. give to every 
one, or give all around. 

JOidaif hidai mung or kddai raiti mung, often 
abbreviated to, kddai rai ti m', whoever, any one, 
no owQ^ according to its position; Jrrf^/at n chyi^ no 
one knows ; kddai mung chye ai, any one knows ; 
kifdai rai ti mung sa mdyti ai sa lu ai, whoever de- 
sires to go, may go. 

Nga mduga^ every, each and all; mdsha nga 
mdnga « na rai, every person, or each and all 
must die, 

A form gdde ai mung or gdde ai muk, is freely 
usod instead of kddai etc.; gdde ai mung n chyi, no 
* one knows; gdde ai mnk gdlaw lu ai, any one can 
do it. 

(c) Reciprocal: Those in common use are: 

Shdda da, each other, one another; 

Ldngai hie Idngai, ono another, one by one ; one 
after another. 

Ex. Nanhtd shdda da tmn mu, tell one another; 
shanhte shdda da n tsaw n ra ma ai, they do not 
love each otiier; shanhti ldngai hie ldngai jaw mu I 
give (them) one by one; shaidUe ldngai hte ldngai 
du md ra na, they will coQie one after another. 



ETYHOLOGT. 35 

(</) Indefinite: These are quite numerous, but 
the following are in most common use: 

Mahkra (from, ma, finished and hkra, until») 

• nlanffiemd t/awng, having the meaning of all; nutslut 

mahkra, all persons; shanMe nlang sa wa md aai, 

they have all returned; arai yanmg jaw rit, give 

all the things; (on the last Ex. Comp. Ji} 64. 2.) 

Nlang is often followed by the plural hU and 
yawng by hteng for the sake of emphasis; nanhU 
nlang hte sa md nV, come all of you; nang grup 
gmp arai yawng hteng e yu mu! see or behold all 
the things around hei*e. 

In the religious or N. L. nvimerous combina- 
tions, such as: danghta, dingtung, dingyawng, ding- 
tawng or hkumhkam, are used with tho samii force 
as mahkra etc It would be impossible to 2)oiiit 
out any fixed law by which each or nny of these 
adjectives are governed. They are all used inter- 
changeably, some being preferred in some lociili- 
ties more than in Others. Pi ding-yawng lun u! 
pa dingtawng gun tif bring all of any worth; lit. 
all solid substance. 

Ttf/7, all, the whole, always used with nouns of 
time; shifni tup, all (the whole) day; shdna tup, the 
whole night; ahtfning tup tho whole of tho year; 
ndai ning tup, throughout this year; this whole 
year, pmt tup, the whole age. 

Ting, all, the whole, used with nouns indiciting 
location; dai nta ting hta, in the whole house; 
Jinfjlipaw mnng ting hta, in the whole Kachin 
country. 

Gum gum, hkum hkum, and sometimes num, all, 
complete; arai gum gum kdja nga ai, all tho things 
are good; mdsha hkum hkum gdlaw ma ai, all per. 
sons do it. 

Hpahpa; Idma ma, some, nhkau mi, some, few. 



KAOHIM QBAMMAB. 

Ihai hpa hpa nga at, there is some rice, (a usage 
her rare;) n^ffu Idnia nui jaw e! give me some 
); mdsha nkau mi shat sha nga aia at, a few 
sons are eating; gumra nkau mi sha nga ai, here 
only a few ponies. 

. Numeral adjectives are written as follows: 

Langai, 1 

Liihkawng, 2 

Masum, 3 

Mali, 4 

Manga, 5 

Km, 6 

Sanit, 7 

Matsat, 8 

Jahku, 9 

Shi, ^^ , 

Shi langai, 11 

Shi lahkawng, 12 

Hknn, 20 

Hkun langai, 21 

Stim shi, 30 

Mrilishi, 40 

Latsa, 100 

Nitsa, 200 

Masum tsa, 300 

Hkyingmi, 1,000 

Mun mi, 10,000 
Mun lahkawng, 20,000 

Sen mi, 100,000 

Wan mi, 1,000,000 

Ri mi, 10,000,000 

86. There are properly speaking no ordiiials 
iCachin, but shawng na or sliawng de^ &t^ ol\i^x^ 



ETTMOLOOr. . > 37 

used for first* and hpaiig na or hjpang de for seoond; 
shatong na rndsha, the first person; hpang de sa at 
nUlsha^ the person coming second. After this the 
order is expressed by repeating the ciirdinnls after 
the nouns, dai uuisha manum sa tsun u! go nnd 
speak to the thinl person; wora fjumra iiuili hpe sa 
la su\ bring the fourth pony. 

§ 37. In ordinary usage the Itf, of ldnffat\ is 
often dropped and the form mi^ is added to the ngai; 
mdsha ngai mi^ instead of mdsha Idntjai mif which 
however would be correct. 

§ 38. Instead of Ungate ov its second form ngai 
mi, the simple forms mi or ma^ are often used with 
familiar words; sometimes Id, is prefixed and mi, or 
ma, affixed to the noun; la/) ma ov,lap mi, one 
rupee instead o£ laj) lifngai mi\ laning mi, one 
year instead of slufning Idngai mi. 

§ 39. The form ni, is in certain instances used 
for lahkawng; ni ni, two days; ni ning, two years; 
ni tsa, two hundred. 

§ 40. (a) In a few cases something like the Nu- 
moral Auxiliaries in Burmese are also found in 
Kachin. (Comp. Jud, Gram. 8 98.) Kdtva yan mi, 
one bamboo; yan describing the thing as long and 
straight; nlung tawng mi, one stone; tawng point- 
ing out the thing as round or cubiciil, or as ap. 
proaching these forms; gdra singkawng, one sing- 
le hair. 

(b) A dual is here often found: dumsugap mi, 
two (or a pair) of cows; wa dwi mi, two (or a pair) 
of hogs; u n-f/up mi, two fowls; mdsha tsiim mi, two 
huihan beings; pat man mi, a pair of tumblers; 
kyepdin man mi, a pair of shoes 

Rem. Here ought also to be mentioned the pe- 
culiar auxiliaries, out of superstitious fear, used 
by the Kachins when attempting to count the 



.38 KACHIK ORAMMAB. 

itart. Tliejr are couiiUhI by some as follows others 
inaj use forms somewhat different, 1, hkttbaif 
2f hkahatvHfj^ 3, ihimhrnntf^ 4, ngatJi^ 5, ngada^ 
^fdiWidUf Itdnnufitt H, duuulat, ^^(himdHy 10, (/wm- 
^1, II, diwidaif \2, (hiiiJKiivntf etc. 

Comparison op Adjectives, 

§ 41. The Positive <lo«;ree is expressed: (a) by 
the simple use of the aiTjective, as laslia kdja, a 
good man, or (//) hy the use of the compjirative 
adv. zatvn zawn^ (Conip. § 78,) or hte. Ndai gumra^ 
ivora gumra zawn zatvn ktfja nr/a ai rai, this pony 
is as good as that; mlai (jaw wora hte mdven, this 
is the same as that. 

{} 42. The Comjtamfive is exi>n»88ed either: (a) 
by the usecl of hte and f/rau, or (b) by the use of 
Piachying^ often pronounced lavhying. (Conip. }5 79.) 
Hdai laika gaw wora laika htv grau hfja ai, this 
l)ook is bettor tliiui that; lit. this book as (com- 
pared) with that book is more good; ngi' nta shi 
n fUa hte nachging kdja ai, my house is much bet- 
ter thjin his. This last usage is not very common. 

(( 43. Tfie Sujierlatice is formed by the use of 
A/n (by some /i/^) with htum or uhtum^ the end, 
perfection, either preceding or following the ad- 
jective; ndai laika tnahkra ni hta htuin ktfja or, hija 
htum ai, this is tiie best book of all; dat iva shi hte 
nhtiun n hkru, that man (compared with him) is 
the worat. 

NOUNB USED AdJEOTIVEIiY. 

§ 44. The fojiowing classes of nouns are often 
used as adjectives. 

(a) Proper nouns such as names of races, coun- 
tries, towns etc., Inglik mung dan, the country q{ 



BTYMOIiOOt. 39 

England; Myen ga^ the Burmese Language ; Sin- 
kai mdref the town of Sinkai; the Chinese for 
Bhamo. 

(b) Common nouns qualifying a following noun: 
hpri nfUj an iron house ; sinpmw mAffa^ the east 
side, 

{c) Generic nouns, such as names for tree, 
flower, plant, etc., when following the names of 
their species, make these occupy an adjective posi- 
tion. Maisak hpuHf teak woo<l; mdri party n> rose; 
lit. the dew flower. 

PRONOUNS. 

§ 45. The pronouns follow the siime law as the 
Nouns in regard to Gender, Number and Case. 
Nf/ai nsa In, I cannot go, 7if/ai^ beingleither mascu- 
line or femenine as the case may be; shanhti ni 
they, a usage found at times; ngai hpe^ to me. 

§ 46. The Pronouns may be divided into four ' 
classes, viz : Personal, Possessive^ Interrogative and 
Reflexive, 

§ 47. Pebbonal Pronouns. 

8ing\ Dual. Plur, 

Ngai, I; i4n, we (two;) ^/lA^^, we (three or more;} 

NanQt you , thou ; Kan, you (t wo ;) Nai^h tg, you , ( three or 

more;) 
Shi, he, ahe, it. ;S7iaii, they (two.) ;Si/tan//^^, they, (three or 

more.) 

Rem. It will be noticed that the plural forms 
av^ts etc., are formed by the dual and the plural 
sign hti. Some Kachins «eem to observe an addi- 
tional form, namely a w/i^e etc, (forme<i as before by 
hte, with,) when just three or any other definite 
number is indicated. In this case anhte^ etc., would 
only be used when the number referred to is in- 
definite or unknown. 



I 



B8 KAOHIN GRAMMAB. 

stara. They are oounteil by some as follows others 
may use forms somewhat different, 1, hkabaif 
3y hkabatvnff, 3, dninbnmf/f 4, ngoMy 5, ngada, 
6, dun^Uf 7, dunuKty 8, diimlat^ 9, dunufu, 1 0, dum- 
dif 11 fduiiidai, \2f dund/awng etc. 

Comparison or Adjectives. 

g 41. The Positive degree is expressed: (a) by 
the simple use of the adjective, as laslia kdja^ a 
good man, or (/>) by the use of the comparative 
adv. zawn zawn^ (Comp. § 78,) or Me. Ndaigumra^ 
ivora gximra zawn zawn kaja nga ai rai, this pony 
is as good as that; ndai r/ato wora hte mdren, this 
is the same as that. 

S 42. The ComjMmtit^ is expressed either : (a) 
by the used of hte and f/rau^ or (b) by the use of 
nachying^ often pronounced lavhyimj. (Comp. §79.) 
. Udai laika yaw wora laika hte gran kaja ai, this 
book is better than that; lit. this book as (com- 
pared) with that book is more good; ny^ nta shi 
a nta hte nnchging kaja ai, my house is much bet- 
ter thiin his. This last usage is not very common. 

§ 43. Tfie Superlative is formed by the use of 
}iia (by some hte) with htnm or tiJitumf the end, 
I>erfection, either preceding or following the ad- 
jective; ndai laika mahkra ni lUa lUnm kaja or, kaja 
htuiH aif this is tlie best book of all; dai tva shi hte 
nhtum n hkru^ that man (compared with him) is 
the worst. 

Nouns ubjsd Adjeotively. 

§ 44. The following classes of nouns are often 
used as adjectives. 

(a) Proper nouns such as names of races, coun- 
tries, towns etc., Inglik mung dan, the country of 



BTTMOtOQT. 39 

England; 3fyen§a, the Burmese Language] 8in- 
kai mdre^ the town of Sinktii; the Chinese for 
Bhamo. 

(h) Common nouns qualifying a following noun : 
hpri ntUf an iron house ; sinpmw mtf/j/a, the east 
side. 

(c) Generic nouns, such as names for tree, 
flower, plant, etc., when following the names of 
their species, make these occupy an adjective posi- 
tion. Maisak hjMHf teak wood; nuiri pan, a rose; 
lit. the dew fk)wer. 

PRONOUNS. 

§ 45. The pronouns follow the same law as the 
Nouns in regard to Qender, Number and Case, 
Nffai n sa lu, I cannot go, nf/ai, beingleitlier mascu- 
line or femenine as the case may be; shanliU ni 
they, a usiige found at times; nyai hpe^ to me. 

§ 46. The Pronouns may be divided into four' 
classes, viz : Personal, Possesm^e, Intertvgative and 
Reflexive. 

§ 47. Pesbonal Pronouns. 

Sing: Dual, Plur. 

Ngai, 1; iln, we (two;) 2I /i/t<^, we (three or raore;^ 

Nang, you, thou; Nan f yon (tv^'oi) Nanht^^you^ (three or 

more;) 
;Sf/ii, he, »he, it. S'/ean, they (two.) iS)/tan7<^t\ they, (three ar 

more.) 

Rex. It will be noticed that the plural forma 
anht(! etc., are formed by the dual and the plural 
sign hti. Some Kachins «eem to observe an addi- 
tional form, namely awA^e eta, (form e<i as before by 
hie, with,) when just three or any other definite 
number is indicated. In this case anlite, etc, would 
only be used when the ninnbor. referred to is in. 
definite or unknown. 



40 KACHIN ORAKMAB. 

§ 48. Instead of the pure Ohinghpaw anhii^ 

tlie Cowriea use f, or i htenff^ the last form also 

Ix^ing common among the Northern Kachins. In- 

Btead of nanhte^ ni or ni hteng^ are used in the same 

localities. Vrequeutly hkankti^ is heard instead of 

sHatMit and among the tribes just mentioned, 

auch forms us shan htenr/, or shan ni\ are also found. 

The 3d. Per. Sing, shi^ is by some pronounced hki/i. 

^an//f in a direct discourse is often pronounced 

ning; ninff gdlaw ndai, you did it. Some, probably 

influenced by Atsi, use nf/Uw instead otnyai, when 

speaking ad versa tively; nf/aw n lu, I (as for me 

I^ have it not. 

§ 49. The Possessive is rendered by the addi- 
tion of a, either expressed or understood, (Comp. 
§ 19. a) to the personal pronouns, or by the change 
of the form of these pronouns. 

Sififf. Dual. Plur, 

Nyi or tnjQai a, my; An a, ours; AnfiU a, oura; 

Xa or lui a, your; Nan a, your; NanJitif a, your; 

Shi a, hifl, hen, iU. Shan a, their. Shmiht^a, their. 

Rem. Instead of tt^^, nye a, may also be used; 
njfi a gumrUf my. pony. The simple from s/if , is 
oftdn used without the a; slit hlslia, his child 
(Comp. § 27i) The forms an a, etc., are use4, 
but many prefer to say an hlhkawny a^ etc; nan 
lahkawnff a nta^ your house; shan lahkawng a li^ 
their boat. 

§ 50. The following are the Interrogative Pro* 
notms: kddai who ? gara or gAra mdhtang^ which ? 
and hpa (by some Northern Kachins hkai) what ? 

EfiM. (a) The Inter. Pron. do not as a rule 
ask questions by themselves, but are generally 
followed by a verbal inter, indicating number, 
person etc. 



BTTMOLOOT. 41 

Ex, Nang kddai? who are you? a more ex- 
act way would be to say: nang f^adai rai n ta? 
nang gam la nidyu ? or, nang gdra la nuiyn n ta ? 
which will you take? gat-a mahtang grau niai at 
i? which is the best ? nang hpa galaw n ta ? what 
are you doing? Only in an abrupt almost disro- 
spectful manner would: nant/ hpa galaw ? be used 

(ft) An inter, auxilijary mi or nie^ (probably 
from the numenil form wit, one; (Comp. S 31) in 
often, for the sake of definitness, used with both 
the pronominal andadverbuil interrogatives. With 
some im\ or uie, are used interchangeably, but 
others only use mi, with the pronominal and me, 
with the adverbial inter. (Comp. § 80.) ///>a mi 
gdtaw n ta? what (one thing) are you doing ? udat 
mdsha kiiba gaw, kddai iva mi mi ta ? this large 
person — who is he? or who is etc. gdra mi la na u 
ta ? which (one) will you take? 

8 51. Tlie Reflexive Pronouns, are formed as 
follows: 

(a) By the use of hkum^ nan, or Ma, added to 
the personal pronouns; hkum, is the one in gener- 
al use and nan, or htla, may be added for the sako 
of emphasis. 

• 

Ex. Ngai hkum sa na, I myself will go; naut/ 
hkum fjttlaw na, you yourself will do it; ski hknnt 
nan tsun sai, he himself said it; ski nan gat ai, 
he himself is running; nanhtd lifla dai amu gtllaio 
na myit dai, you yourselves will do the work; shi 
hkum lala hpdga n ga ai, he himself does not tmde, 

(h) By a combination of the demonstrative pro- 
nominal adjectives dai, or mlai, with general noun 
particles. 

Ex. Daide, that thing itself; dai or ndaini, 
those or these things themselves. At times daif is 
reduplicated following the Pers. Pron. when it 
06 



42 KACRIM QBAMUAB. 

takes the meaning of self; n/;ai dai daif myself; 
luing dai dai, yourself; shi dai dai dau sat ai, he 
hanged himself: lit. killed himself by hanging, 

(c) By the use of hkmi, alone, following the 
Pers. Pron,; nt/ai hkmi lunf/ na, I will go up 
myself; 7ianfjf hkrai hti u! read yourself; shanhtc 
hkmt (hi w*a at; they have come tlicmselvee. 

Rem. Hkmif always carrying with itself the 
idea of exclusiveness or se]nration is more definite 
than hkum, 

(d) The reflexive tiiiant/f himself, herself, your- 
self (either singular or plural,) or with the pos- 
sessive flf, your own, his own, etc. stands without 
analogy, but is a form very much used; tinany 
hie sen/ji ai amUf work concerning himself; A'rfr/a? 
mum/ tinnn// a lam tsaw ai, every one likes his 
own way; tinany ni a fjtunm, their own pony; 
shi yaw tinany a ya 2>ui w chyc ai, he does not even 
understand his own words. 

§ 52. There are no relative pronouns in Ka- 
cliin, but relative clauses are rendered: 

(a) By the use of the general connective ai; 
(Comp, § 85.) nt^i hpe yumhpraw jaw ai wa, the 
man who gave money to me. 

(b) By the use of a verbal noun; shiftynoi ka- 
ta de nya ai yaw, the thing that is in the basket. 

(c) The distributive pronominal adjectives ka- 
dat muny, and htdai rai ti muny, may often 
be translated as compound relatives, whosoever, 
whichsoever. Kddai, rai ti muny sa nuiyu ai sa In 
ai, whosoever wishes to go may go. 

VERBS. 

§ 53. In respect to usage, Kachin Verbs may 
be either Transitive or Intransitive. Ex. anu^to 



\ 



ETTXOLOOy* 42 

beat; satf to kill; tu, to gi-ow as a flower; buiu^^ to 
blow. Transitive Verbs are sometimes made fi*om 
Intransitive in the following ways: 

(a) By the addition of a final consonant; uiddit^ 
to moisten, from iiuuli^ to be moist. In all such 
cases the preceding vowel is necessarily shortened. 

(6) By the shortening of the intransitive verb; 
mdlan^ to straighten from malanf/, to be straight. 

((?) By the use of an aspirate of the same class; 
hpawtiffj to collect, unite, from pawntj^ to be collect- 
ed. (Comp. Judson's Burmese Grammar § 106.) 

§ 54. There is no passive voice in Kachin, but 
JKissivety is expressed as follows: 

(a) By the use of tlie accusative with a transi- 
tive verb as; Gam fjaw Ma naw hpe dnu aai^ which 
may be translated: Ma Na>Y was struck by 6am. 
Tlie most natural way, however, is to translate 
with the active use of tlie verb, thus. Gam struck 
Ma Naw. 

(h) By the use of the tones; raw, (the quick 
tone) to liberate; raw^ (the grave tone) to be liber- 
ated; sht hpe rafv kau u! set him free; sAt gaw 
raw nga ai^ he is made free; shi ratv at tva r^, he 
is a liberated man. 

(c) By the use of hkrum^ to meet with; expori- 
ence; slU [/aw tsaw ra at law hkrum ai^ he is 
much beloved; lit. he is meeting with much love; 
dai uia gaw anu hkrum sat, that child was beaten; 
lit. met a beating. 

Causative Verbs. 

§ 65. A great number of Verbs are used as 
causatives, by the help of verbal particles, preform- 
atives, or verbal auxiliaries. Thus: — 



44 KAORIN OBAMXAB. 

(a) By prefixing sha. or ja, (Comp. Introduc- 
tion 6.) to the root 0/ a simple verb; jahkrit^ or 
didhkritt to frighten, cause to be afraid, from AArrtf, 
to fear; didngiUy bring to a close, aiuse to finish, 
from nfjut^ to be finished; shdnein^ humiliate, cause 
to be low, from ncm, to be low. This is a very 
common usage. 

(h) By the use of shdngun^ to cause, to send; 
shi hpe sa shdnffun uf send him ! lit. cause him to 
go; shi hpe hkum sa shdntjun^ don't send him; lit. 
cause him not to go. 

(c) A very common causative is formed by the 
following verbal piirticles, thus: — 

2d. Per, Siiijj. n ga 2d. Per. Phir. inyit ga. 
2Jd. „ „ u gu. ;kl. ,; „ luu gu. 

Ex. Naiiff laika hti n ga» uang hpe ngni tsun fie 
ai\ I am telling you so that you mny bo induced 
(caused) to read. 

Dai lilt tu u ga ngai hkai we at, I am sowing the 
goed, BO that it may grow. (Comp. §59 g.) 

Nanhte n mdsu my it ga, naiHUi hpeyxJbakjaw nid 
fit gay I punish you so that you may not lie; lit. to 
cause you not to lie, I etc. 

(c/) In close relation to this is an idiom which 
may be regarded as partaking of the Optative 
Torce. It is formed by the combination of the ex- 
hortiitive ga^ (Comp. § 64 5,) and the Affirmative 
possessive particles (Comp. § 60. a.) 

1st. Per. Siug. li ga. Ist. Per. Plur. ma li ga. 
2d. „ „ lit ga. 2. „ „ ma lit ga. 
.Id. „ „ iu ga. X „ „ ma lu ga. 

Ex. Nyi rai law liga, may my riches increase, 

Na mung dan mdden tva lit ga, may your oowtv^ 
try extend. 



ETTMOLOOr. ^y 

Nanhii a kdbu gdra law tva md lit ga, may yoitt: 
happiness increase. 

Kex. («) The n, in § 55. c. may be exchanged foj* 
tf, when special emphasis is placed upon the ol>- 
ject; nang laika hit u ga^ iiga de ai^ I told yoii, that 
you may read the book. 

(b) The form liga^ may also be used as a pure 
causative; ng^ 8iU law It ga^ ngai hpdga ga nngrfii^ 
I trade, that my possessions may increase. 

Classes of Vebbs 

§ 56. All verbs whether transitive or intrahs. 
itive, may be divided into two classes, viz: Sim- 
ple and Compound. 

1. Simple verbs express a single idea of stjite \ 
or action, and are to a largo extent represented by 
monosyllabic roots. Sa^ to go; wa» to return; }#m, 
to see; gdlaw, to do. 

2. Compowkd verbs are formed as follows: 

(a) By prefixing shd.jd, sd, or tsd^ to a simple 
verb or noun root; jdhttim^ to finish, from htum, 
an end; jdhhxd^ to drop, from hkrat^ to fall; tsih 
satig^ to lighten, from sang^ to be light, not heavy. 

(ft) By combindirig two verbal roots; kaleng 
taw, to recline; tsun chyai^ to converse. \ 

(c) By the combination of a verb and a noun; 
mi prn, to bleed, from sat, blood nnd prn^ to pro- 
ceed from. 

(r/) By oouibinding an adjective and a verb; 
kdba tva, to grow, from kdba^ big and tm, to move. 

(e) By combinding an adverb and a verb; bai 
way to return, from bai^ again and wa^ to return. 



AS KACHIN OBAItltAB. 

(/) Many verbs are formed by repeating (a) 
the last syllable of their preceding noun, or (b) by 
repeating the noun itself; kdKup kup at, to put 
on a hat; kyepdin din ai\ to put on a pair of shoes; 
nanisi «i» to bear fruit; ^^t tsi, to give medicine, 
from tsi, medicine; da da^ to weave; from da^ a web. 

^17) To this chiss must also such verbs be re- 
ferredy as are formed by a, continuative, even 
though the a, is seiKirateil from the verb, root in 
sjielling; a ma^ to be in u stsite of seeing; a kdrum^ 
to be constantly helping; the a, giving to the verb 
the idea of piX)traction or continuation; dhi yaw 
gdloi many a nulchyi nya at, he is always ill. 

The Accidents of Verbs. 

{$57. No inflections and conse<iuently no change 
of the verb itself is possible in Kachin. All acci- 
dents of mode, tense, number and person are ex- 
pressed by the use of verbal particles following 
tlie verb. These particles, which are very numer- 
ous, give to the language when rightly used, a 
great degree of flexibility and definiteness. 

Modes. 

§ 58. The Modes arc six in number, viz: The 
J»$Jinittve, Affirmative, Inflkattve, Potential, Sid)- 
jiuiciive and Imperative, 

Rem. (a) The particles of Mode and Tense can 
often not be separated, as the special function of 
the verb is not so much to express time as progress. 

(b^ As a general rule ai, in all its combinations, 
It at, fulai, nnyai, riny nyai, etc. may be said to 
represent the Affirmative and Indicative in nil 
the tenses, being with dato and tdiv, (Comp. 
§§6]. 63) the only pure mode par. in Kachin; we, 



ETTMOLOOT. ^| 

m*. etc. for the Present, se^ sa, and its modificatioi 
Hdf for the Past, and na» for the Future, may M 
regarded as tense particles only. 

(c) Aif either in its usual fbrm, or abbreviate4 
to a, is frequently used ai a sign for an indefinite 
present; ngai gdlaw nufyna, I wish to do it; avhti 
a sa Hf/a ai\ we are going, 

(rf) No separate particles are found for the 
Dual, these being the same as those of the Plural. 

<i 59. The Infinitive Mode. 

(a) The Infinitive is used to express intention/ 
design or result; ntsin In na vf/ai sa nnf/ai, I come 
to di'ink water. It may also be used as a verbal 
noun or substantive, and thus become the subjcK^t 
or object of a verb; antlu^ hpe kifrnm im pru sa^ 
our help is coming; mdchtfi va hjye yu mnf help 
^ the suffering. 

(h) The simple unmodified verb, in general 
^ speaking, often stands for the Infinitive; anhit' 

nam hlyen sa na^ we will go to clear jungle. 

(r) JVa, is the usual Infinitive sign to which the 
verbid auxiliary n^a, is sometimes added; nan^ 
hjjet/a tsun na, ski hnifj nu ai, he came up to speak 
to you; naulUe hpe. shddum ua nt/a, anhh^ tsun //o 
at. we speak to reniind you. 

I (d) Hkra, may at times 1x3 used in the same 

' way as na; ga tsun hicra mjai sa se ai, I came to 

speak. 

(e) Among the Cowries an infinitive in r/e. ia 
often found; mdlikmi gtflaw <le % sa sa, we came 
to build a bridge. 

(/) Mifjaw^ preceded by wa, (Comp. § 87) may 
also be rendered as an infinitive; mlai li mn na 
mtfjauf shi yu fva sai\ he went down to see this 
boat. 



48 KAOHIN OBAMMAB. 

■I (0) Very oftea the most natural way to trans- 

1/ late the forms u ffa^ mu ga etc. (Comp. § 55. a) 

would be by the help of the infinitve; iai ama 

galaw u ga sht hpe sht shangnn saij, he sent him to 

' do the work. 

* li 60. The Affirmativb Mode. 



The particles belonging to this mode, directly 
affirm, either (a) possession real or supposed, or 

S!i) tt state closely related to the subject or the 
irect object. , 

1. PRESENT, 
(a.) Peesbkt Absolute. 

Ist. Per. Sing, li ai. l.st. Per. Plur. ma U ai. 

2d. „ „ lit dai. 2d. „ „ mu lit dai» 
8d. „ „ lu (li. 3d. ,, ,, ma lu ai. 

Ex. Nyi a laika rai li ai, it is my book. 

Na (or na a) gwnra rai Hi dai, it is your pony. 

Nanhti a pAlawng n rai ma lit dai^ it is not 
your coat. 

Ng^ ahkving gdrai n dth li ai, ray time is not 
yet fulfilled. 

NanhU a ahkging ga du nga md lit dai, your 
time has now come. 

(h) Pbesemt Conjectubal. 

1st. Per. Sing, na li ai; Ist. Per. Plur. na mu li aL 
2d. „ II na lit dai; 2d. „ ,, na ma lit dai. 
3d. „ „ ni^ lu ai; 3d. ,, ,, na mu lu ai. 

Ex. Ngi a laika rai na li ai^ it may be my 
book. 

SJianhti a nta rai na md In ai, it may be their 
house. 



>i-' 



f / BTYMOIiOOY. 49 

Rbh. The same particles are used when pre- 
ceded by an adverb of time indicating the past; 
mdni ngai mu at gumra nanlite a gumra rat na md 
lit daif the pony I saw yesterday may be yours. 

2. PAST. 

This is formed by prefixing sa^ to the particles 
of the Present Absolute, but in the plural the 
8(ff must follow the plural sign la/f. 

Ex. Dai laika nye laila rai sif li ai, that book 
became mine. 

Wora fUa kdba ma ning anhti a }Ua rai tva ma sa 
.li ai, that large house became ours year before 
last. 

Ndai amu gaw ngut mat sd li ai, the (my) work 
is completed. 

Anhts a ^itsa p, dai nhtoi gingdawn gaw htoi pru 
nkf 8d li ai law, the morning star shone over iis. 

3. THE FUTURE. 

.1st. Per. Sing, rai na ra ai, or, mi wa na ra at\ 
etc.; the same particles being used all through the 
singular aiid plural. 

Ex. Dai gumra ny^ gumra rai tta ra ai, that 
pony will become mine. Shi a yi nyi a yi rai iva 
na ra ai, his piddy field will become mine. 

Uem. I have not been able to satisfy myself, 
that the above particles are very commonly ob- 
served except in certain localities. Still there 
can be no doubt that they are everywhere known 
and occasionally used, especially among the older 
X people, 

» i o 7 



^0 kachin qsammab. 

§ 61. The Ikdicatiys Modb. 

The Indicative mode, describes in a general way 
that which is or, that towards which un action has 
been, is, or will be progressing, being loss emphat- 
ic and of wider usage than the Afhrmative. 

1. PRESENT, 
(a) Present Indefinite. 

The present indetinite, simply describes a state 
^r action as now existing. 

" 1st. Per. Siiig. nngai. l.st. Per. Plur. ga ai. 
2d. u 11 ndiii. 2d. ,, „ inyit dai. 
M, „ „ ai. M, ,t „ ma ai. 

Ex. N(/ai laika ka da nngai^ I am writing a 
letter. 

Kang nia galaiv itdai, you are building a house. 

Shi dai amu galaw ai^ he is doing the work. 

A^ihti nang hpe san ga ai^ we are asking you. 

Nanhtiyup nga myit dai^ you are sleeping. 

Shanhte Jam hkawm via ai, they are walking. 

Ilfijii. The Cowries as a rule drop these particles 
imd substitute shi, for the ai, both in the singular 
and in the plural; shi galaw shi, he is doing it; 
gdrai n mgin shi, not yet ripe; shanhte gtUai n dn 
ffcf, they have not yet arrived. 

(b) Present Indefinite, used chiefly with verbs 
of motion such as, m, to go or come; dn, to arrive; 
Inn/Zf to asceml; gu, to descend, etc, 

l»t. IVr, Sing, ring ngai.. 1st. Per. Plur. ra ga ui. 

2d. M ,, rin dai. 2d. „ „ luu riu dai. 

:)d. „ M rn ai; (or. :M. „ „ raa ra, or ma 
ru ui.) rii ui. 



BTYMOIiOOT. 51 

Ex. JV^i m ring ngait I am (in| the act of) 
coming. 

Nang du tin dai^ you are arriving. 

Shiyu ra ai^ be is descending. 

Atihti hat iva rd ga a?, >ve are returning. 

(c) Desoriptivb Present. 

(a) The ptirticles hero illustrated are used 
with great freedom both in the present and in 
the past rComp. ^ 61. 3. d.) The sanie particles 
may also follow either the subject or the object 
according to the emphasis laid on the one or the 
other. Thus in the sentence, ugai slit hj)e tsnn m 
aif I am telling him, the toCf nujy follow ngaif or 
shi hpe; nang nta gdlaic mi ai\ you are building a 
house; here //'w, may emphasize the fact that gon 
are building, or the other fact that you are build* 
ing a house, As a rule in sentences like these 
the particles follow the object, the subject being 
followed by the ])articles of the Present Indef- 
inite, (a.) 

(ft) The Ist. Per. Plural, when, subjective, lias 
two forms; ga, when the object is in the singular, 
and gaw, when in the plural. 

The 3d. Per. Plural, when objective, also has two 
forms; WMie, when the subject is in the 1st. Per 
Singular, and, mUy when the subject is in the 2d, 
or 3d. Per. Singular. 

(c) The following list and examples will illus 
trate the change of particles, as they are governed 
either by the subject or the object. The formi 
not exemplified follow the analogy of the Present 
Indefinite. 



V 



52 KACHIX QBAMMAB. 

Sub. Obj. 

Ist. Per. Sing, we 

id. ,, ,, wu ai, de ai or, di ai. 

3il. „ „ wu ai. we ai, 

1st. * ,, Flur. ga ai or, guw ai. mi or, mi ai, 

2(1. „ „ mi ai, ma de ga or, ma de ai, 

3d. „ „ lime ai or| mu ai« 

Ex. Ngailaikaka da we at, I uiu writing a letter. 

Nang hkauna gdlaw wu ai^ you are preparing a 
piddy field. 

Ngai nang h^fe tsnn de ai, I am telling you. 
Shi laika lUi wu ai^ he is reading a book. 
Atihtii nang hpe tsun ga ai, we are telling you. 
AniUd slmnlUe hpe tsun gaw ai, we are telling 
them. 
Nang aniUe hjjejaw mi ga mi, give thou to us. 
NanMe ngai hpe tsun mi ai, you are telling me. 

NanhU hpe ngai tsun mif de ga, I am telling you; 
(or let me tell you.) 

Ngai shanhte hpe tsun mne ai, I am telling them. 

Shi slianlUe hpe tsun mu ai, he is telling them. 

Rem. Two other x>lural forms are also found, 
viz: md we, and shdjang. Md tve is, in certivin lo- 
calities, used interchangeably with mne. Shdjang, 
is a general plural of a pirtitive force; anhtc ndai 
(fa na slidjang ga ai, we (all, each and all) hear 
this word; nanhtc mung im shdjang myit dai, you 
also hear; shanhtd shdga shdjang ma ai, they are 
calling. 

1i. PRESENT PERFECT. 

let. Per. Siog. ni ai. 1st. Per. Plur. sa ga ai. 

2d. „ ,« nit dai. 2d. „ „ ma nit dai. 
3d. „ „ sai. 3<l „ „ ma sai. 



BTVMOLOOY. 5i 

9 

Ex. Nffai hka de m ni ai^ I have gone to the 
river. 

2iang amu kdja gdlaw nit daij you have done a 
good work. 

Shanhte sa wa ma sat, they have gotio. 

Beh. Some Kachins use stnff ngai^ instead of 
ni aif and sin dai^ instead of nit dai. 

(6) A Present Perfect, somewhat more emphat- 
iO| is often formed by the use of nt/ut, completed, 
finished, before the above named particles. 

Ex. Nffai dai amu t/dlaw Uf/tU ni ai^ I have 
done the work. 

Shanhti gat de sa ngxtt ma sai^ they have ^one 
(lit. finished going) to the bazaar. 

3. (a) PAST. 

1st. Per. Sing, au ai. Ut. Per. Plur. saga or, saga w ai. 
2d. „ >> au ai. 2d. „ „ ma nu ai. 
3d. „ ,t II u ai. 8d. /, ,, ma nu ai. 

Ex. Mani ngai ka fva se ai^ I was plaiting a 
basket yesterday, 

Nang ma na sa lagu nu aiy you went stealing 
night before last. 

Maning aniUe hpagaga sa ga ai^ we were tmding 
last year. i 

Shanhti galaw ind nu ai^ they were doing it. 

Rem. (a) It will be noticed from the above ex- 
amples, that this tense is generally complemented 
by some adverb of time adding to it a certain de- 
finiteness. The particles however would ho euf. 
ficient to express the time intended. 



54 KAOHIN GBAMMAB. 

(b) Certain Kdchins affix an at\ after the 2(1. and 
3d. person, both singular and plural in this tense, 
apparently for emphasis. 

Ex. Shi (/(flaw nu ai^ he did it, would be, shi ai 
f/dlaw nu ai; nanliU ai shaamq de hkraw md nu ai, 
instead of, nanhti shawng etc., you agreed to it 
before. 

(b) A Past Indefinite is frequently luade by af- 
fixing ^a, to all the forms both singular and plural. 

Ex. Nfftti f/iilaw wi, I did it. 

Nan// mdnimj mung anhU yi galaw sa, we made 
a {liiddy field hero even lust year. 

(c) All the forms of the Descriptive Present 
(Conip. § Gl. c) may also be used in the Past, when 
the speaker^ as is connnon in Kachin, in thought 
remains in the present, but by the connection 
shows that the action belongs to the jxist. 

NanlUe ngai hjxi tsim mi ai mdjau\ ngai nutdat 
nngaif because you told mo I obeyed. . 

Often, however, the modified form of sa, sd^ 
prece<les, while the ga, (Comp. {} 61. c. c.) is drop- 
pod for ai, 

Nanhti\ hjfe ngai tsun uut sd de ai ga, the words 
I told you. 

4. (a) PAST PEllFEOT. ! 

Ist. Per. Siug. yii «e ui. 1st. Per. Plur. yu sa ga ai. 
2d. „ M yu Qu ui. 2. „ „ yu ma nu ai. 
3d. „ „ yu uu ai. 8. „ „ yu ma nu ai. 

Ex. Oai de gdrai n du gang dai du tva hpe ngai 
tnu yu se ai^ I had seen the chief, before I arrived 
at the bazaar. 



BTYMOLOGT. 55 

Nanhti M hpe tsun yu sd ga at, rat ti tnung sht n 
fnddat at, you Imd told him, hut he does not obey, 

(b) A second form of the Past Perfect is made 
by substituting ga^ for yw, followed by the parti- 
cles described under §61. 1. a. 

Ex. Ngai laika gdrai n shdrin yawj^ jdru nr/ai 
lu ga nngaij I drank whisky before I had learned 
to read; lit. before I lejinied books. 

Mdswn niiu/ haw una sht dai amu gdlaw ga ai^ he 
had done the work three years ago; lit. from three 
years. 

Rem. (a) The difference between gu, and ga^ is, 
that gUf points as a rule to a single act completed* 
in a single moment, while //a, indicates that the 
state or action had been going on, or had been hab- 
itual before it was brought to its final close. 

(b) In this, as in the case of the Present Per- 
fect (Comp.Jj 61. 2. b.) ngut, may be used with or 
without the se, etc. 

Mdsum ning me, ngai dai amu gdlaw mujt se at\ I 
had finished this work even three years ago. 

6. THE FUTURE. 

• 

(a) The ordinary future is formed by the use 
of fuif followed by the particles under § 61. 1. a; r^ 
is, however, used instead of at, in the 3d. person 
singular. 

Ex. Ngai dai mdre de sa na nngai, I will go to 
the village. 

Shi gdlaw na re^ he will do it. 

Nanhte dai amu gdlaw na myit dai, you will do 
the work. 



56 KAOHIN OBAMMAB. 

(6) A more definite future is formed by tu», fol* 
lowed by the particles as described under § 61. 1. b. 

Ex. Nanhte kaw yat yamj nt/ai sa na Hng ngai, 
I will come to you after a little while. 

Nyi hpu hjMui de du na ra ai, my brother will 
come to morrow. 

AniUe wora shara de sa na ra ya ai^ we will go 
to that place. 

Dai nintj nanhti gdlaw na md Hn dai, you will 
do it this year. 

(c) An immediate and somewhat emphatic fu- 
turoy is formed by the use of ga, with the parti- 
cles of the Descriptive Present (c.) In fact in ordi- 
nary speaking it would be impossible to distinguish 
the two forms except by tone and connection, and 
from the fact that at, would never here be used. 

Ex. Dai laika nt/ai nang e jaw de ya^ I will 
give you the book. 

Ngai shanhU hjpe tsun ma ive ga^ I will tell them. 

tn the 1st, and 2d. person singular na^ abbrevi- 
ated to n, is sometimes used. 

Ex. Ngai dai hti n ga^ I will read it; some* 
thing like: " let it alone," or "don't trouble your- 
self about it,*' is here implied. 

Na}ig gdlaw na nga ra na. You will do it; (upt 
he or 1.) 

(d) A general future following the analogy of 
the Past Indefinite, used mostly among the Cow- 
ries, is formed by the use of ra na, in both singu-. 
lar and plural. 



; f 



BTTMOLOOT. 67 

Ex. Ngai galaw rd na, I wiU do it. 
Shanhti galatv rd na^ they will do it. 

(). FUTURE PERFECT. 

iBt Per. Sing* ngut na re ai; 1st Per. Pliir. ngut na rfi ga ai; 
2nd „ „ „ „ wu dai; 2nd „ „ „ „ mu dai; 
3rd ,; „ „ „ ru ai; :3rd „ ,. „ „ m&ruai. 

Ex. Dai ahdta f/drai n si yang, ndai amu ngai 
t/dlaw ngut na re ai, before the month is out, I 
will have finished this work. 

Jan gdrai n du yang^ shanhU ngut na md ru ai, 
they will have finished before sunset. 

§ 62. The Potential Mode. 

The Potential Mode asserts capacity or necessity, 
and is rendered as follows : 

1. As a compound verb, by the use of lu, to be 
able, followed by the i){irticles of the Affirmative 
and Indicative modes. 

Ex. Ngai gdlaw lu nngai, I can do it ; shahliU 
laika hti lu ma ai, they can read; nut ni ngai gdlaw 
lu se.ai, I could do it day before yesterday; nang 
gdlaw lu nhtawm ^,n gdlaw nit dai, you could have 
done it, but have not ; lit, you can do it, but you 
have not done it, (Gomp. $ 61. 3. d.;) hpatvt de 
shi dai amu gdlaw lu na^ he can do the work to- 
morrow. 

2. By the use of the adverb nhttn, may, proba- 
bly ; ngai sa na nhten, I may go ; ngai laika hti 
shdrin na nhtm, I may probably learn to read. 

3. By the use of lu, or lu na, must ; nang ndat 
gdlaw lu na, you must do this ; hiMwt de nang gat 

a8 



58 KAOHIN OBAMMAB. 

degaluna rin dai^ you must go to the bazaar to* 
morrow ; nanhte ya nta de iva In na myit dai, 70U 
must now return to the house. (Comp. § 64. 6.) 

4. Daw^ might, usually with the verbs In^ and 
M//a, always has reference to the past whether com- 
pleted or incompleted. 

Ex. Dai hpawt nam/ iUa i mja daw, ngai myit 
nna sa nnf/ai^ raiti muny naiuf n nga ndai\ think- 
ing that you might be in your house this mornmg, 
I went, but you were not there; shigumhpraw Idtsa 
In daw shi nayu nna sa san wn ai^ haying heard 
that he might have one hundred ru})ees, he went 
«im1 asked. 

Rem. Chye^ to know, is often used with the 
same meaning as lu\ thus: shi dai amu f/dlaw chyi 
aif he knows how to do the work, may only be an 
otiier way of s^tying, he can do the work. 

$ 63. Thb Subjunctive Mode. 

1. The Subjunctive Mode expresses a thing as 
possible, conditioniii or hypothetical. Its particles 
are as a rule preceded by the following ixirticles 
indicating number and person: 

1st Per. Pliir. ga; 
2ud Pen Sing, n; 2nd „ „ myit; 
3rd „ „ a; 3rd „ „ ma. 

2. The pjir. for the Present or Future are : 

Yanff or yan/ji gaw, if; dam or dam yang^ if, in 
case that; daw^ if, supposing that. 

Ex. Nang jdm lu yang, nang na ndai^ if you 
drink liquor you will be drunk ; nang ndai ni hpe 
galaw n ydng gaw, if you do those things ; ngai si 
tmit dam yang, nys arai mat ma na ring ngai, in 
case I die my i^roperty will be lost ; nang qvLtti- 



ETTHOLOOr. 59 

hpraw lu daw^ gumra tia^ig imlnlu ndai^ if you had 
money, you could bny a pony ; nanff ndai n niu lu 
daiVf tnyi hten nga mlaif if you can not see this you 
are blind. , 

3. A Past Perfect is formed by the use of taw, 
if, in case-^had. 

Ex. Dai hpaivt tmng nta i wja n taw^ t^ai hte 
hkrum na^ if you had been in your houso this 
morning you would have met me ; nanff nang nga 
taiv ngai yung n si na rai, if you had been here, 
my brother would not hiive died; shi kdji nga a 
yang, laika shdrin a taw gaw, sht laika chye na sai^ 
if he had learned (books) while small, he would 
have known; nanhte uuini sa myit taw gaw. shanhtd 
hte hkrum na myit dai, if you had come yesterday, 
you would have met them. 

Rem. a general Subjunctive probably never 
used except with the Ist Persons Singular and 
Plural is formed by the use of mi. 

Ex, Shi nga nga nga ngai myit.tmw ai r^ at 
//It, dai^ nang hie hpa seng n ta? if I desire that 
he shall remain, how does that concern you? 

t^ 64. The Imperative Mode. 

1. The simple form of the verb when pronpunc* 
ed with the emphatic tone, often stands for the 
Imperative. 

Ex. Shihpe hkyela^ save him; nr/ai hpejan\ 
give to me;, nyi ga mddat ya, listen to my words, 

•?. The verbs sa, to come, ?m, to return, jaw, 
to give, hkan^ to follow, and their cognates, are in 
the imperative proper, followed by the locative 
rt^, when a motion towards or in behalf of the 
object is implied. 



60 KACHIN GRAMXAR. 

Ex. When calling in a gener* ( Sing. Sa 9*i^, oome here, 
al way from a distance. ( Plur. Sa mdrit, com^hen. 
When calling known per* ( Sing. Wa tni, come here, 
sons ut a near distance, ( Plur» Wa md Wi,coine here. 

Nang ijaio rit^ give here; mlai ugai hpe jaw rit^ 
give this (thing) to me ; ngai hpe hkan md rfV, fol- 
low me. 

Ukm. The ivUf may be used as u polite expres- 
sion when addressing visitors, thus implying that 
as frionds they are recognized as being on family 
terms. 

3. The general Im^x^rative signs are somewhat 
numerous and may be explained as follows : 



1st 


Per. 


Sing, 


e; 








2nd 




it 


u, nil 


L, su, sit; 






3rd 




n 


u or, 


wu; 






1st 




Plur. 


mi; 








2nd 




t» 


mu, : 


ma nu, ma su, 


ma 


sit; 


3nl 




>» 


mu. 









Uf and mu, are used in ordinary i*eque8ts or com- 
mands ; nUf is more urgent than u; su, directs at- 
tention towards a known object «ind implies im- 
mediate action; stV, stands in opposition to rit, and 
implies motion away from the subject. 

Rem. In the N. L. a form nitf is found as a 
couplet of both rtY, and sit, 

Ex. Sa u, go, (you may go;) sa nu^ go, (at 
once;) sa tea su^ go, (at once over t\iQTQ\) gdlaw n\d 
5tt, work, (at once;) nanhte nlang gat de sa n%d sit, 
go to the bizaar all of you; amugdlato mu, do the 
work; ngai hpe ntsin jaw e, give me water; shanhtf 
hpe kdrwn mUy help them; anht^ hpe jaw mi, give 
to ug. 



I I 



ETYMOLOOT. 6 1 

4« When more emphasis or urgency is required , 
the aboye particles are strengthened by law, or 
j^aWf and the verb itself may take the auxiliary 
(lot, to hand over, set free, let go. 

Ex. Dainraishihpejaw (lot u law^ give tliat 
thing to him ; anIitP hjje jaw dat^ni yaw^ give 
to us. 

5. The Exlwrtative; this is formed by affixing: 
ija, ov fjfaWf to the simple verb. 

Ex. Anlite ffMaw (fdWy let us do it. 

Rawt mUf nam/ mi sa tea gay arise let us leave ; 
lit, return from here ; anhti^ hpun sa htn ffa, let 
us go and pick wood. 

6. A Command of necessity is formed by adding 
In na, to the simple verb. 

Ex. Ndnff dai amn t/dlaw lu ua mlai^ you must 
do the work ; nanhti laika shdrin lu na myit daf\ 
you must learn books, which is equal to, learn books. 

7. The Prohibitive. 

(a). The prohibitive particle is hkumt by some 
pronounced t^Auiu, (Cowrie hpung^ov pfanif^) and 
may be used with tlie simple form of the verb. 
The proiiibitivo always precedes the verb, hkmn 
f/alafVj doii*t do it ; hkutn (suHf don't speak. 

As auxiliary iiiirticlos, always following the 
verb, are often added for the sake of empliasis, tV, 
or nitf for the sing, and myttj for the plur. 

Ex. HkuiH f/iflaw ei^ don't do it. 

Hpany ile hkum /jdlaw nit, don't do it afterwards. 

IVora dehkum sa myit, don't go over there* 



62 KAOHIir QRAMMAR. 

Rkm, JSif, is used in reference to an instantane. 
t out state or action, while nit, carries the prohibi- 
! tion into the future. 

(by The negative adverb gdrai, either alone or 
it with AArum, may at times sei^ve as a prohibitive. 
IS (Comp. 8 74. b.) 

Ex. Gdrai rai, don't do it yet ; lit not yet do 

■' it. 

Gdrai hkum sa, don't j^o yet. 

Rbm. (a). The Cowries instead of gdrai mi, 
would say gdrai shu. 

(by LUf is at times especially in the N. L. used 
as a prohibitive with or without hkum; hkum 
gdlaw bit don't do it ; pung mdshaiot ma ni i 
indtmw hkiutgga yai na hi^ you who prepare the 
pung^ (a kind of imt offering,) do not saitter around 
the offering. 

§ 65. iKTlSKaOGATlVfiS. 

1. In asking general questions the interrogative 
particles may be preceded by rai ; shawng na IcLsha 
qaw kddai rai ta '^ who was the first man ? shi hpa 
gdlaw na rai ta ? what will he do ? 

2. In direct questions, besides the general con- 
nective aii almost any one of the particles belong, 
ing to the Affirmative and Indicative modes, may 
precede the interrogative particles. Those in 
most common use, however, are the following: 

(a) Pbesbnt. 

1st Per. Plur. ga; 
2nd Per. Sing, n, wu; 2nd „ „ myit; 
3rd „ ^, a; 3rd ,; „ ma. 



ITTXOLOOr. '68 

(b) Past. 

1st Per. Plur. 8& ga; 

Snd F^r. Sing, wu, rin, nit, 2ud ,, ,, ma rin, mX nu» 

lit; ma nit; 

8rd ,, „ wu, ra; 3rd „ „ ma ru . 

(c) PUTUEB. 

Ist Per. Sing, na; Ist Per. Plur. na ra ga; 

2nd „ „ na rin; 2nd „ „ na ma rin; 

8rd n M naruor, ra; 3rd „ . „ namaruor, ra* 

Bkm< In the Future na, followed by the parti- 
cles of the Indicative Present is a frequent idiom. 

3. The interrogative i, used very freely bjr 
some Kachins, is by others restricted to questions 
put to one's self or in behalf of one's self. 

Ex. Ngai hpa galaw na i? what shall I do ? 

Shanlite kaninq di na ma i ? how will they do 
it? 

Shi ffade sa na ra i ? where will he go ? 

AnhU kadai hpang de sa na t? to whom shall 
we go ? 

4. Tttf is used when information is sought, in 
reference to a perfectly unknown subject. 

Ex. Nanff hpa yalaw n ia ? what are you 
doing? 

Shi kanang nga a ta ? where is he ? 

Nanhti gdde nga myit ta ? how many are you ? 

Shi Ape kdning ri ai tva n nang ngu tvu ta f what 
kind of man do you say he is ? 

^a ingi kaning rai hpaw Ut ta f how were your 
eyes opened ? 



64 KAOHIN OBAMMAB. 

Hpa mi ftanhti shi hpe n am tva nut rin taf why 
did you not bring himji^ 'shi gaw k&ning rai na m 
ta.^ what will l)ei!Onie of him, or, what will he do? 

6. Nif is used where some knowledge, real or 
supposed, is implied, either (a) for confirmation, 
or (b) to ascertain, if the stiito or action is still 
continuing. 

Ex. Nilai un, tlai hpyi aha ai wa n rai ni? this 
is the begger, is it not? nanhU shat sha tiga myit 
ni? are you eatuig? shi tsun ai (/a nang n kam u 
ui/ don't you believe his words ? tmnhU a dunisa 
iiing nga ai, n rai md lit ni/ thus your Dumsa said, 
is it not so? nanhtc hjie mung lau kau mtf nit ui? 
have you also been deceived (and dci you still con- 
tinue in this stsite?) 

(j. Hka, and ka, are found with questions, ini- 
plyiiig a strong uncertainty or surprise. For the 
uiike of additional emphasis the inter, t, is freely 
used with these particles. 

Ex. Shauhtc ilai amu chye galaio ma hkaf do 
they really know that work, or, to do that work? 
nang Mgen ga chye n hka i? do you really know 
Burmese ? ngaigin dichyeka i? how can I know? 
^hiny ngu aiga gaw^ hpa nga ai yailu ai ka iP words 
Hpoken thus — wluit is he really saying? or, what 
is it he said ? 

BbM' l^he hka^ should not be confounded with 
the same par. used as an affirmative; shanhti Myen 
ga chyima hka, may be translated: do they really 
know Burmese? or, they do really know Burmese. 
The diflfercnce is indicated by the tone. 

7. Tile inter, sign for, (a) questions of alterna- 
tives, or (b) for indirect interrogations is Amm, 
which may or may not be preceded by the most 
common particles of the Present and Future. 



BTTMOLOOT. 66 

Ex. Ngai gdlaw na Arun, n gdtaw na kun^ ngai 
n chyi nngaif I do not know if I shall do it or 
not. 

Nang gdlaw m n kun^ shigalaw na a kun^ tigai 
hie n aenff nngai, it does not concern me, whether 
you will do it or he, (will do it.) 

Shi nang e nga at kun, shanlite san ma ai^ they 
asked, whether he was here; natHUi hpa sha na 
kun^ hkxim myit rn myit^ be not anxious for what 
you shall eat. 

8. Among the Coteries laio^ and among other 
tribes le^ are used as interrogatives mostly in re- 
tortive questions; ngai le? mo? do you mean me ? 
Iqm gdlaw law? what am I doing? 

§ 66. Q(/0TATI0K8. 

Da, generally preceded by the particles illus- 
trated under § 65. 2. a., is always used as a sign of 
both direct and indirect quotations. 

Ex. ^ang sa lu na, tsun n da, you said, you can 
go. 

Ngai n sa lu^ ngu a da, he says, I cannot go. 

Anhti gdloi njaiv ga ai^ nga tna da^ they say, we 
will never give it ; dai lam n kdja, nga a da, he 
says, that the road is not good. 

$ 67. The Negative. 

1. A question is not answered by yes, or no. 
as in English, but the verb or the whole statement 
is repeated for the affirmative, and n, is prefixed 
for the negative. 

Ex. Na hkum pyaw n ni? are you well ? lit. 
does your body feel comfortable? affirmative, pyaw 
at, negative, npgaw ai; nang sana n taf affirmative 
sa na, negative n sa na, or, n sa na nngai, 
9 



66 XAOHIK ORAMUAB. 

3. The Modal adverbs (Comp. § 83.) can only 
be used after declarative Bentences, to which as- 
Bent or dissent is expressed. 

3. For the nse of the Prohibitive negartive, 
see § 64. 7. 

§ 68. Pabtioipleb. 

While there are no proper participles in Kachin, 
participial constructions are formed as follows : 

1. By the use of the adverbs j/anfff f/Mf/ ffdw 
and sluiloi, 

Ex. NJai hka rap yang s/ii shang si mi, he was 
drowned (while) crossing the river; shat sha nga ai 
shaloi shi yup nga ai, he was sleeping while editing. 

2. By the use of the conjunctions, let, nhtawm, 
and ninglen, 

Ex. Sa let sfia na, eating while walking ; sa let 
got aif goes running; sa nhtawm mdhlcawn nga ai, 
goes away singing. 

3. By the use of the connective av, gat ai 
gumra, a running horse; tsap ai fva, the standing 
person. (Comp. § 34. 3) 

§ 69. AuxiLiABY Vebbs. 

The following verbs may be designated as auxil- 
iaries : 

Nga, to be, exist, to remain, to have; always 
with the idea of stability or constancy; shi nang i 
9a nga ai, he is staying here; lit. he came and is 
remaining here; shi a nga nga ai, he is staying; 
ndai li hta kddai yu nga n ta? who has gone 
down into the boat ? 

Tai, to become; only used with iva. 



<tTMOIiOOT. * 67 

fVa, io move, to become; tat iva, to become; sa 
im, to go; yu wa, to descend;- lufuji iva, to ascend; 
nffai shi hpe tsi jaw ai mdjaw shi bran iva 8at\ he 
recovered beaiuse I gave him medicine. 

Bat or r^, te be, to exist, (simply affirming the 
fact. of existence,) to be truly so; nanff ma ma ri^ 
you are only a child ; ndai ga rat nga ai mi, this 
word is true. 

Fa, to give, have; used with verbs denoting a 
mental faculty or act; chyi ya^ to know; mu ya, 
to see; myit ya, to think; shi ngai hpe chyi ya ai^ 
he knows me. 

Kau, to throw away, get rid of; ntsin ru kau 
mUf pour out the water ; na^mt hkum kahai kati 
mUj don*t throw away the fruit. 

§ 70. Otu£B Vebbal Pabticleb. 

Besides the common particles already given, 
others of which some in different combinations do 
the service of verbs, are used as qualifying parti- 
cles with regular verbs. The most common of these 
may be divided as follows : 

1 . Tempobal. 

^1, near, at hand, about, at the point of; M 
shot sha ni ai, he is about to eat; daipoi du ni aif 
the feast is drawing near,. or, is near at hand. 

Mitgang or, makang^ to be nearing; in the act of 
arriving ; tvora li du tnagang ^a, that boat is draw- 
ing near ; uiam ting ai ahkying du mdgang sai, the 
paddy sowing season is at hand. 

Boif finished ; amu ngtit hoi sa, the work is fin- 
ished. 



68 XAOHIir ORAMMAB. 

3. Declarativb. 

JEatMi to be willing; ndai tndsJia dai amu kam ffd- 
law aif this person is willing to do the work; ngai 
n kam galauf at, I do not wish, or, I am not will- 
ing to do it. 

MifpUf to wish, long for, desire; shi sa mdyu at, 
he desires to go; shi nmuf hj)e kdrum mdyu ai, he 
wishes to help you; ngai shi hpe ma mdyti ai, I 
wish to see him. 

Baif if> repeat; bai yalaw na n mat\ to do it 
over again is not good; anJU^ dai amu bai galaw 
mdyu ga at, we wish to repeat that work. 

3. Emphatic Abbebtativb. 

Mif also; ngai ri sa na kun/ may I also go? ngai 
rigdlaiv tia, I will also do it. 

Law» and yaw, give additional foroe to what has 
been said. 

Ngai sa fia law, I will go; ya gdlaw mu yaw, now 
do it; ning rai shi tsun ai law, thus he said. 

Le, and in the N*. L. its couplets, are often used 
in the same way as law; gdlu tndhkawng hkan nit 
le, kdha mddung gaw hkan site, follow the long 
road, follow the big piith. 

jRai, with the idea of truly, surely; ngaihpe hkan 
yang gaw, tiang lam n dam na rai, if you follow me 
you will not lose the road, or, you will surely etc. 

8 71. Verbal Couplets. 

1. Two synonyms are often combined for the 
sake of additional force or perspicuity; kdbu gdra, 
to be happy; tsaw ra, to love; gdlu kdba, to be 
great; Kdrai JCdsang gdlu kdba nga ai, God is great. 
These combinations are often used as substantives 
with the verbal auxiliaries. 



ETTXOLOOT. 69 

3. From this clasa of words the pure verbal 
couplets must be distinguished. These are formed 
by uniting two symphonious words, identical in 
meaning and usage, either for the sake of empha- 
sis or simple redundance; hfji kajaw^ to be small; 
gumle gunHau^ to overthrow; kiisxUc kdsak, topsy 
turvey; mddat Wirfm, to obey; kdjam f/dlam, to dis- 
turb. 

3. Couplets may be parsed either separately 
or as combined verbs according to their relation to 
each other, or to tlieir position in tlie sentence. 

ADVERBS. 

§ 72. ClABSEB of AdV£RB8. 

Kachin Adverbs are of two kinds, viz.: Proper 
and Compound. 

1.' ProjHur Adverbs^ are primitive and underived, 
such as, lila^ in vain ; nachying, very ; chyang, 
quickly. 

2. Compound Adverhs, being very numerous, are 
formed as follows: 

(a) By the reduplication of a simple verb; dan 
dan, plainly, from dan, to show; leng leng, brightly, 
from leng, to be bright. 

(h) By prefixing a, to a verbal stem; aldtvan, 
quickly, from Idwan, to be quick. 

(c) By prefixing a, and afhxing aha, to a simple 
verb; aloi aha, easily, from, lot, to be easy; atsawm 
sha, y^ell, properly, from tsawm, to be beautiful. 

(d) By the use of the negative n, before a verb; 
n kajn, badly, from kaja, to be good. 

(e) Adverbs of time are formed from nouns or 
other adverbs by prefixing the demonstrative ad- 



70 KAGHIN GRAMMAR. 

jectives ndai or dai^ for the Pcesenti nid^ ma or, tnoi, 
for the Past, and htd or, hpra^ for the Future, or, 
by afiSxing de, for the last named tense. (For Ex. 
see § 74, 1.) 

(/) A number of adverbs are formed from 
nouns or adjectives bj the use of the Locative case 
particles; Idgaw de, afoot, from, Idffaw, a foot; n 
hku dCf inside, from nhku^ the inside. 

8 73. When an adverb modifies an adjective or 
a verb it generally precedes, but follows when 
used with an other adverb. 

Ex. Ndai nutsha law kdja, this person is very 
good. 

Aldtmn gat at gtimm, a fast running horse. 

Rpaid de jau jau sa mw, go early to-morrow 
morning. 

In regard to their meaning and usage all adverbs 
may be divided into the following classes: 

§ 74 Adverbs of Time. 

1. The most common are those formed accord- 
ing to 8 72. 2. e. viz. : 

Dai nt, to day; dai hpawt, this morning; dai na, 
this evening; dai ning, this year. 

Mani, yesterday; mdningf last year; m/fna, last 
night; mAyat^ just now. 

Ma nif day before last; ma na, night before last; 
im ning, year before last; $na ni hpaid\ morning 
before last. 

Mm ning^ three years ago or more; nioi fnoif long 
ago. 

Htdning^ next year. 

Hpra ni^ three days from now; hpra ning^ three 
years from now. 



BTYMOLOOT. 71 

Hpatd de, to-morrow; hpaui na de, to-morrow 
night. 

Mem. (a) Another form for the Future, mostly 
used by the Chinghpaws, is made by the help of 
diUf between, betwixt; hpafvt din nt, day after to- 
morrow; hjMtd din hpawt, morning after to-mor- 
row morning. 

(6) The Cowries generally use hpra^ where the 
Chinghpaws use din; thus: lipra ni^ with them 
would mean, day after to-morrow. 

2. The most common of the regular adverbs of 
this class are the following: 

Na, a long time, ago, since; shi si ai gaw na sai^ 
it is long ago since he died; na, is often reduplicat- 
ed; kdga mmiff / shi na na nga sai, for a long time 
he has been in another country. 

Odrai, not yet, usually followed by the negative; 
shi gdrai n gdlaiv hi ai^ he cannot do it yet; gdrai 
raif don't do it yet; lit. not yet do it. 

She, when; shindai chyi ai she, when he knew 
that. 

Hkra, until; ngai du ai du hkra nga nga t<, re- 
main until my arrival; hkra, might also be regard- 
ed as a conjunction. 

Yat, in a moment; yat nhtang iva, I will return 
in a moment; yat gdlaw na nngai, I will do it ini- 
mediatelv. 

Kdlanglang, at times, sometimes; kdlang lang 
nittg rai byin wa sai, sometimes it happens thus. 

Jang, when; at the time that, pointing towards 
a completed action; shi dai gatsun ngvijang, when 
he had spoken thus; anhte ftdai amu gdlaiv ngut 
jung, when we have finished this work. 

Yang, when; indicating the action as incom- 
pleted; nang ndai gdlaw gang, when you do this. 



73 KAOHIN OBAMMAR. 

The yaufff is often followed by ffaw; naiJUi ndai 
galaw yatig gaw nffai hpe dume law^ remember me 
when you do this; yatig me, may be used in the 
same way. 

Shaloiy when; at that time, or moment; sAt ning 
rai tsun at shaloi anhte uufJat sa ga ait when he 
spoke thus we listened; daishaloi sluinhtia poi kd- 
ha nga nia ai^ at that time (then,) they Iiad their 
great feast. . 

Lang lang sha, seldom; nang i lang lang sha md- 
rang htu ai^ it sehlom ruins here. 

TiUt generally reduplicated, titt tiU^ always, ever; 
ski gaw dai sluira e tut tut nga na ri ai^ he will al- 
ways stay at that place. 

Nde de, nde law^ or nde nlaw, so long; ngai gaw 
nde de natilite hte ran nga se at, I have been with 
you so long. 

Shawng de, or, shatang na, before; shi gaw nyi a 
uhawng de rc ai, ho is before me. 

3. Other adverbs of this class such as, gdloi 
mung^ for ever; hpang de, afterwards; ya hkring nia 
or, ya hkring sha, in a moment, after a little; ya i, 
just now, and gdde n na gang, without delay, in a 
moment, will be easily understood and need no 
further explanation. 

§ 75. Advesbs of Place. 

Among the numerous adverbs belonging to this 
class, the following are in most common use: 

Ldhta or kdhta, above, at the higher place, over- 
head; shi gaw ldhta de na du sai,. ho lias come from 
above. This as well as most of the adverbs of this 
class may also bo used adjoctively ; lUaw ldhta 
mung na nufsha^ a man from the upper country. 

Ldwu, below, the opposite of ldhta; shitjaw nang 
Idivu i nga ai, he is hero below; le ldwu mung de ngai 
sa na nngai, I will go to the lower country. 



' XTTXOLOOT. 78 

Nfu^ iznder, below, beneath; ndai wa gaw itte 
npu i nga at, the hog is under the house. 



Uang^ nang /, nang de^ here, at this place; 
nang nga at, he is here; nang i sa md rit, come 
here. Nang, is often pronounced ning. 

WOf or, watVf wo de, ^vo nang, tvora de^ (Comp. § 
35. 2. a.) there, over there, yonder; shanhU iva 
nang nga ma sat, they are over there; tvora de hpa 
n nga^ there is nothing over there; ivo de sa mu, go 
over yonder, 

HfaWf Jitatv de, htaw nang, htatvra de, over there, 
up there; lUaw nga at, it is up there; lUatv de ma lu 
at, up there it can be seen; htaw nang shdraw lata 
nga at, there are many tigers up there; Mawra de 
ngai lung tva na migai, I will go up there. 

Le, le de, le nang, lera de, there, down there; turn* 
liU hj^ rat letn de sa myit ta!^ why did you go 
down there ? 

Shatmig^ shatvng de, before, in front, ahead; ngai 
shawng de sa iva na nngai, I will go ahead; tmng 
sliawng a tsap nga u, you stay in front. 

Rpang,hpang de, after, behind; sJii tnahkra hpang 
de sa at, he goes behind all. 

Man, man g, man de, before, in the presence of; 
shi fnan de shi pru tva sa, he went before him; 
shanhti a man i sliang mu, come before them. 

Shingdu, or, shingtu, behind ; nge a shingdu de 
tsap mu, stand behind me. 

Shingkan, outside; shingkan de ja ja kdslmng ai^ 
it is' very cold outside. 

Ntaio, outside, in front ot\ ndai chyinghka niaw 
^e pru mu, go outside, or, in front of the door; nia 
Q 10 



74 KAOHUr GBAICHAB. 

nUiw i hpun law nga ai^ there are many trees in 
front of the honse; nta ntato grup grup jaja tsawm 
ai^ it is very pretty all around, outside the house. 

Kdtaf in, inside; nam kdta de dusat dumyeng law 
nga at\ there are many animals in the jungle; ndai 
sampu kdta i hang u, put it inside the box. 

§ 76. Advebbs of Manneb. 

The most common are the following : 

Satmifff fully» perfectly; umi sawng rai sa, it is 
perfectly good; mahkra Men sawng rai sa^ it is all 
completely broken. 

Bi bif in vain, perfectly useless; shinanghpe ndai 
gunJipraw hi he jaw kau ai, he gives you this mon- 
ey in vain. 

Katnan, for no purpose; nan^ kdman sa ndai^ you 
go for no purpose. 

Xi7a, in vain, for no reason; lila ngai shdga ai n 
raif I do not call without a purpose. 

Ldgaw r/e, afoot; ahi Idgaw de sa sa^ he went a- 
foot. 

Aldwan, quickly; aldwan sa ritf come quickly; 
aldwan gdlaw mUt do it quickly. 

Tat pat, slowly; ya/ gat gdlaw mu, do it slowly; 
$hi yat gat dn ra ai, he is coming slowly. 

Angwi, or, angivisha, kindly, softly, tenderly; shi 
angwi sha ga tsun ai, he speaks tenderly; angtvi, is 
often reduplicated; angtvi ngivi gdlaw mu, dp it 
tenderly. 

Nl^en, perhaps, probably; s/« du na nJUen, he 
will probably come. 



STTKOLOOT. 76 

Dan daHf plainly, distinctly, openly; ffa dan dan 
tsun u, speak distinctly; ndai amu sht dan dan gdlaw 
nu aif he did this work openly. 

Leng leng^ clearly, openly; slit ga tsun yang sht 
lenff leng tsun at, when he speaks he speaks clearly. 

Ding ding^ truly, perfectly, completely; shi ding 
ding sara na^ he will really go; n-gu JUe u ni gaw 
ding ding tna sa, the rice and chickens are com- 
pletely exhausted. 

Maif well; ndai gdlaw gang gato mai a, if yon do 
this, it is well; ndai law niai a, this is very welL 

§ 77. Advebbb of Cause. 

MdjaWf (Cowrie mdjoi,) dai mdjaw^ because of, 
for that, for this reason, therefore; shi ning de gd- 
law ai mdjaw ngai mdsin patvt nngai^ I became 
angry because of his doing this; gumra mdri ai 
mdjaw ngai sa ni ai, I went in order to buy a pony; 
shi n gdlaw nvdyu ai, dai mdjaw ngai gdlaw se aif 
as he did not wish to do therefore I did it The 
forms shingrai mdjaw, dai re ai mdjaw, are used 
as the above, and need no further illustrations. 

Kdning rainme law, because, for this reason. 

• 

JRem, Nearly all of the conjunctions . described 
under § 81. may at times be translated as adverbs, 
always being in some way, closely connected with 
the the preceding verb. It would be impossible to 
lay down any definite rules, as to when one or the 
other of these expressions should be used, but must 
be learned by observation. 

§ 78. Advebbs of Compabibon. 

Grau, more than; shi gaw ngai hte nuim grau lu 
aif he has more paddy than I; ndai ma wara hti 
ngai grau tsaw nngai, I love this child more than 
that one. 



76 XAOHIK OBAXMAB. 

Mdftn^ the same, juBt as, alike; nan a ga mdrm 
rat wyit dai, your worclB ugroe, lit. are alike; ngai 
tsun at JUe mdren gdlaw u^ do as I told you, ndai 
gumra toora gumra hte mdren hpu ai^ this pony is 
as expensive as that one. 

Zawn, or, zawn zaimi,aH, in the same way; ngai 
gdlaw at zawn gdldiv mu, do as I do. 

Dai hta kdga, or, simply, hta kdga^ besides, 
moreover apart from; gunilipraw shi jatv, dai lUa 
kdga arat law law shi jaw ai, he gave money and 
beside this many otlier things; shi hta kdga kddai 
n gdlaw lu at, no one apart from him can do it. 

Hte^ like unto, as; ndai tvora hte gddaw ai^ this 
resembles that, lit. this like unto that etc. 

Ddranif about, like as, according as; gutnhpraw 
lap shi ddram shi lu ai, ho has about ten rupees; 
shi ngai hpe jaw dat ai ddram ngai haijaio wu ai^ 
I gave back according as he had given me, 

Bern, In the N. L. nna, often abbreviated to n, 
18 used very freely, instead of zawn; du sdlang ni 
n hkti n'rawn nga via hLagaw^ may your chiefs and 
elders grow fat (or be at general ease) like heifers. 

§ 79. AdVEADS op DfiOBEB. 

Ai, somewhat, to a certain degi*ee; dai nuntsha ai 
n kdja, that women is somewhat bad. 

fl^rfwoi »wi, nearly, almost, not far off; shigdnoi 
fwisisa, he almost died; ndaitoa hpe ngai gdnoi 
not hkra nngai, I nearly hit this man. 

• Naehging, or, lachying, very; shi nachying yak ai, 
he is very diflBcult; nachying gdlu kdba ai tva^ a 
very great man. 

Apa^ much, very much; sJii sluU apa sha ai, he 
eats very much rice. 



. / XYTKOLOOT. 77 

Z«, ▼erjf much; la la ai law^ I am rerj tired. 

Ndai hie tc^, so much, to this degree; ndai hie 
wa shijaw at, he gave so much. 

NaUf much, Ver j much, too much, too; nau ru ai 
wa, a very difficult person; .5/»i shat nau sha at\ he 
eats too much rice. 

Jaja, very, very much; ngai shihpe jaja tsaw 
nngai^ I love him very much; instead of jaja^ gd- 
raif or, ffrai, is used in some localities. 

Sha, only; lot loi sha jato.u, give only a little; 
ngai %nam sha lu nngai, I have only paddy. 

Jan, more than; nta sum shijan.ai, more than 
thirty houses. 

N-ga, more than, over and above; gumra Idtsa 
Me n-ga nga ai, there are. over and above a hun- 
dred ponies. 

Nde law, nde de, or, shade, this much, to this de- 
gree; nde law shi shdrang ai, this much he per- 
sisted. 

Pgi, even; ngai pgin gdlaw lu, even I cannot do it. 

§ 80. Intebbooative Advebbs. (Comp. g 60. b.) 

1. Of time: 

Oaloi, when? ndai amu gdloi.bgin a ta? when did 
this thing happen ? gdloi bat tva na n f^^y •^kbn 
will you return? gdUi ngai shi hpe mu (u na i? 
when can I see him? gdloi ine sa n ta? when did 
you come ? 

Odten, how long? until when? gdten du hkra 
'ip nanhti hte ngai nga na mgit ni? how long shall I 

\ be with you ? 

2. Of place: 

Qdde, where ? whither ? ndai lam gdde du n ni f 
I wheriB does this road le<Kl ? ya shi gdde ngaf where 

"^ is he now ? 



78 XAOVUt dBAlCMAB, 

Oifde na^ OT^gdie nnaf from where? whence? 
mnhti gdde nna rai myit ta? where are joa from ? 

Kdfiang^ where? whither? shikdnang ngaf where 
isbe? 

Kdnang^ kdtiang na, or, kdnang nna^ whence? 
ya kdnang na rai wa sdta? where do yon come 
from now? 

/2em. GddCf and kdnang^ are generally used in- 
terchangeably, but the tendency is to nse gdde, 
with pLices thought of as distant, while kdnang^ 
is limited to places supposed to be near by. 

3. Of manner: 

Kdnhig^ kdning raif kdning rai nnie^ kdning di, 
the last often changed to gin di? how ? in what 
way? ngai kdning rai gdlaw lu na if how can I do 
it ? kdning rai ntne hgin lu a hka i? how can it hap- 
pen? n shdrin iaw^ gin di diye lu na a kun? not 
having learned how can I know it? 

4. Of cause: 

Hpa raty when the cause is thought of as dis- 
tant, and nhpa rai^ when near, (Cowrie pfa, or, n- 
pfa «it,) why ? hpa mi gdlaw nu ta? why did you 
do it? nplia rai gdlaw ai if why shall I do it. 

o. Oit quantity: 

Odde^ gdde fne, or, gdde tni, how much? how many? 
gdde jaw n ta? how much shall I give you? mdsha 
gdde nga ^na ta? how many persons are there? 
fiatig gdde mi jaiv mdyu n nif how much do you 
wish to give ? 

Rein. The tones of gdde^ where etc4 and that of 
gdde^ how much etc. should be carefully distin-. 
gnished. The first takes the short abrupt, and 
the last the emphatic tone. (Comp. § 6: 4. 6.) 



BTTKOXiOOT. H 

^§ 81. NUMBBAL AbTEBBB. 

Lang^ times; Idhkaumg lang saau^ go twice; isdni 
thi lang shi galaw saif he did it seventy times. 
Lang, is used in a number of combinations such as, 
lang mi, oiice; lang nuU-ang mtJc^ once; gifde lang^ 
how many times ? lang mi dm shi galaw at, he did 
it only once; lang mdrang mule sha shi n gdlaw lu, 
he could do it not even once; gade lang tsun myit 
ni? how many times did you si>eak? 

Ngai muk, once, singly; shi ngai muk sa ai^ he 
went once (rare;) usually used as a numeral adjec- 
tive; ngai muk n nga, there is not even one thing. 

Bak bakf untold numbers; mdsha bak bak nga md 
saif there are numbers of beings. 

Rem. (a) In the N. L. lamun^ latsa, and Iddit 
frequently combined with lang^ are freely used 
when an indefinite number is indicated; lamun lam 
tvunli ngai lan^ Idtsa lam ivumgau ngai hpan, I 
create hundreds of ways of blessing, meaning, an 
indefinite number of blessings. 

(b) In ordinary usage these adverbs may also 
be regarded as numeral adjectives. 

§ 82. COBBELATIVB AdVEBBB, 

Ningf or, ning de^ shing^ or, shing efe, all mean, 
thus, and are used interchangeably. In the same 
way, ning mi, and sliing rai^ are used with the 
same meaning. 

Ning slii tsun nga ai^ thus (in tliis way) he 
speaks; shing rai gdlaw mu, do it thus. 

§ 83. Modal Adverbs. (Comp. § 72. 2.) 

Odja truly, really; gaja gdsat ma ai i? do thejr 
really fight? 

Odja sin tndi wa aif truly he is recovering. 



80 KAOHXir QBAXXAB. 

Ahka^ truly, verily, indeed; $h% a gdlaw nga 
dkka^ he is actually working. 

Rax sa^ it ia right, may at times be used as our 
yes, (Comp. § 69;) rat sa ning rat nga ai^ yes, it is 
BO; shi gdlaw ai zawti^ mt ^^ it is right as he 
does it. 

Nrai, it is not right, not according to fact, 
may at times be used as no, or, not; n rai, ning 
rai n nga ai^ no, it is not so; nang gdlaw at zatim 
n rait i^ i^ not as you do it. 

Kani\ or, kdni gaw^ well I I do not know; kdni 
gaiVf ngai n diye nngai^ well, really, I do not know. 

Shdtaf I do not know the thing; shdta^ shi myit 
ngai n chyi^ 1 do not know his mind. 

Rbx. Kdni^ has reference to the subject only, 
while shdta^ points towards the object. 

Other words or expressions indicating assent 
and at times used as our yes, are the following: 
ara^ yes, usually followed by rai sa; ara^ ara rai 
sa^ yes, yes, so it is; au^ yes^ used mostly by the 
Kachins up north; tidaWf yes, used mostly by the 
women. 

POSTPOSITIONS. 



Should be regarded ^VStlBel^^;:iiv^ only. The 
rebtions of nouns to the other words in a sen- 
tence expressed by prepositions in English are 
^ere mdicated by postpositions, answering the 
questions: whence ? where ? and whither? Begard- 
0? ^^^ postpositions the following should be 

n/fx? ^if"""*^^ ""^ ^^ '^^ adverbs of place and some 
01 the others, may be used as postpositions with- 
out any change of the word itself (Comp. § 76.) 



. ETTMOLOOT, 81 

(b) The postpositions always follow the noun 
to which they belong. 

(c) When the noun is followed by its case end- 
ing, the postposition is always placed between 
the noun and the case affix. 

(d) Some postpositions are compound, being 
formed from two or more words of the same class. 

We need to give only a few examples of the 
most common postpositions as they will be easily 
recognized: 

■ 

Orupf often reduplicated, grup grup^ around, 
about; hpyen mdsha ni nilai mdre gmp gnip nga m& 
saif the soldiers wore all about (or round about) 
the city. 

Ntsa, or, ningtsa^ upon, above; slit dai nta ntsa i 
nga ai^ he is upon the house; sumivi ninr/tsa slii 
lung tva sai^ he went (ascended) above the clouds. 

Zat, beyond, on the farther side of; dai rat ivora 
hpun lai nga a% that thing is on the farther side 
of the tree. In the N. L. yin and hpyin are used 
in the same way; sunvsai data gamig yin sa iva ga; 
ahawng htunibyen hpyin sa uu ga^ lot us pass be- 
yond the great post, let us pass beyond the paddy 
mill. 

LdpraUf or, kdpran between; ndai mdre toora him 
lapran e nga ai, this village is situated between 
the mountains. 

KaWj in, with; ngai sht haw nga nngai, I am vrith 
him; dai sumpti kaiv hang u, put it in the box« 

flifa, in, more, commonly used for in than kaw\ 
sau ndai pymgdin hta ru hang u, pour oil in the 
himp; ntsin hta dai hang u, put it in water. 

Hte rau, with; shi ngai hie ran nga ai, he is with 
me. 

oil 



8S KAOHIH QBAUCAB. 

NMcu^ or, htahkt^t in, into; nta nhku i ahi $hang 
saif he entered into the hou«e. 

Na, from; shahhti a kaang na ^i pru tea sai^ he 
went out from their midst. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 
The conjunctions may be classified as follows: 

§ 85. COPULATIYE. 

Aif is a general connectivoi and although at 
times it may be rendered as a relative, often it 
has no corresponding meaning in English; sat at 
wdshaf a murderer, lit. the man who kills; ngai 
hkatvm at shaloij when I was walking; shi hpa ga* 
law at tV what is he doing ? galaw shangun at hte 
mdreHf as he was caused to do. 

Ht€f and; gnmra Idngai nie hte^ duntsu Idngai me 
ngai dtU kau se at, I sold one pony, and one cow. 

Kna^ and; ngai sa nna dti se ai^ I went and 
arrived. 

Jfa, and, besides that; gm mat ^^ wa^ u ma ngai 
ra nngai^ I want dogs, pigs and fowls. 

Haiti m* (pronounced, raitim^ Comp. §86.) and, 
is also used only in enumerative discourses; Myen 
masha rai tim, Sam ni rai hm, MitiHi ttxi ni rai tim 
ndai amu chye ma aif Burmans and Shans and 
Chinese know this work. 

Mung^ also, and, likewise; ngdi sa mm^ shi mting 
sa fMf I will go, and he will also go. 

Dai Ivta kdga^ also, besides that, moreover; ngai 
n/a gdlatv, dailUa kdga ngai li gdlaw na nngai^ I am 
building a house and also (besides that) a boat. 



ITTMOIiOOT, 88 

Nde munff n^^ moreover, lit. this maoh and 
over; over and above this; ngai lap sum shijaw, nde 
mufig n-ga mam nawjaw Be ai^ I gave thirty rupees, 
and moreover, I gave paddy. 

ShdMf or, shaUn gawj then, how then; nang li n 
lUf ndai hka mung sung at, shalai gaw^ nang kdning 
rat rap lu nawu ta f you have no boat, and the river 
is deep, how then will you cross over ? 

Dai rai yang^ or, shing rat yang^ therefore, since 
it is so. 

§ 86. Advsbsativs. 

7t, rai ti^ rai ti mung^ the last often abbrevi- 
ated to, rai ti m\ but, however, nevertheless, al- 
though, notwithstanding; amu yak ti ngai dang lu 
na nngai, the work is difficult but I will overcome 
it; ngai nanhti hpe tsun md sd de ai, rai ti mung 
nanlUs n mddat myit dai, I told you, nevertheless 
you do not obey; ngai amu lu rai ti mung ngai sa 
na nngaij I am engaged (lit. liave work) but will 
go however. 

§ 87. Causal. 
These are all expressive of reason or cause: 

MdjaWf that; dai indjaWf for; ning rai^ or, shing 
rai mdjaw, because of, since. All these combina- 
tions may be used interchangeably. 

8hi ngai hpe mdtsan dum ai mdjaw ngai kdlm 
nngaif i rejoice because he has mercy on mo; ngai 
hpe kdmm na mdjaw shi du sat, he arrived that he 
might help mo; ahi Idgu ai^ dai mdjaw anJUe shi 
hpe rim la ga ai, he was stealing, for that reason 
we captured him; shing rai mdjaw, ahhti n Jikraw 
ga ai, since it was so, we did not agree. 



<8i KAOHIN OBAMXAB. 

Nhtatrnn^ (from htawtn^ after,) nhtatam me^ since, 
because that, seeing that, inasmuch as; nang gdlaw 
nlUaivm me ^^ngai n gdlaw nngm** nga mfitit, since 
you have done it, you say, I have not done it; 
nang hka de sa nlUamn hka nja tea ndai^ although 
you went to the river (or, you having gone, etc) 
you did not bring water. 

Nlen or ninglen^ but, because, inasmuch; ngai 
chye nlen nang hpe a san nngai^ imismuch as I 
know, I ask you. This may also be translated, I 
know well enough, but because of this, or not- 
withstanding, I ask you. 

Gawp^ because of; shi a gawp ai ngai a nga nga^ 
because of him I exist. 

Kilning rai nme law^ for, since; kdning rai nme 
hWf shi hpe nuhlun ya na ngai shdrang nga ndai, 
for, I am en<loavoriiig to show him. This is a very 
common idiom in Kachin, always having a pre- 
ceding sentence as its antecedent. 

§ 88. COKDITIONAL. 

/ang^ if; dai rai yang^ if it is; sJiing rai yang, if 
10; shi sa yang anhts sa ga ai, if he goes we will go; 
^ai rai yang t ngai hpa n tsun lu ai^ that being so, 
I can say nothing. 

8he^ whatever, however; ^ngai hpa gdlaw ai $he^ 
i n hkraw ai, whatever I do, he disagrees with 
it; she frequently has only a copulative force. 



I , BTTIIOLO0T. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

i S 

' ' § 89. The following are the most oommon 

AWf ezprejBsive of surprise or satisfaction. 
Akf expressive of pain. 
Aj or, df responsive, expressive of assent. 
Ala^ expressive of earnestness. 
AdatVf expressive of attention. 
Oaif kai, or hkat^ be ready, now do it! enough 
0, many and various usages. 
Goif ffoi e, wonderful ! really I 
We, expressive of haste. 
i f j He, threatening, rather disrespectful. 

AsJie, what ? how is it ! ah ! 
MaWf here I take it! 
Rat tawf what then ? eh ? 
Aiatvf what? hay? now then! 
HtaWf or taio^ look up. 






t 



3 






■ \ 
1 






86 KAOHIM QBAMXAB. 



APPENDIX I. 
KACillN NAMES. 

ICales: (Sh&dang sha.) Females: (Shayi sha.) 

Ma Gam, the 1st borni Ma Kaw- 

Ma Nawy tbe 2nd born, Ma Lu. 

Ma La, the 8rd born, Ma Boi. 

Ma Tu, the 4th borni Ma Htu. 

Ma Tang, the 6th bom, Ma Kai. 

Ma Yaw, the 6th born, Ma Hka. 

Ma Hka, the 7th born, Ma Pri. 

Ma Yun, the 8th born. Ma Yun. 

Ma Kying, the 9th born, Ma Kying. 

Kying nang, the 10th bom, Kying nang. 

Rem. (a) When grown persons are indicated N 
is generally substituted for Ma, thus,^NGam, 
NKaw, NNaw, etc, 

(b) Besides these general names others are also 
used as more respectful or familiar designations. 
Some of these may bo thus illustrated: 

Ma Qam, may also bo called: Ma Shawng; Ma, or Shawog 

brang. 



„ Naw^ » 


l> M 


•1 


Baw Naw; Qrawng Naw 
Baw GrawDg. 


H U, 


,l> l> 


II 


La nau; La doi« 


M Tu, 


II II 


•1 


Lum, Tu Lum. 


.. Tang. „ 


II II 


II 


Quo, Ma Qun. 


« Yaw, „ 


II 11 


fi 


Htung, Yaw lltung. 


.. Hka. „ 


n II 


II 


Tawm, Hka Tawm, 



APPBKDIZ, n. 87 

Ma Kaw; may also be called: Ma Sbawng, Hkin Nl^u, 

Chyem* 



M 


I«. 


»l 


» 


•1 


1* 


Ma Baw, Baw, Baw Tawng. 


»l 


Boi. 


M 


H 


M 


It 


Ji, Roi Ji, Nau, Boi Nau. 


M 


Htu. 


H 


>• 


M 


M 


Ma Lum, Htu Lum. 


>• 


Kai. 


>» 


» 


M 


»l 


Htang, Ma Htang. 


»» 


Hka, 


>» 


W 


M 


l» 


Tawm, Hka Tawm. 


»* 


Pri. 


•1 


w 


» 


» 


Pri Lum, Ma Ti. 

i 


1 
1 






1 

1 

APPENDIX. II. 



1. The following vocabulary will give Bome 
idea as to the similarity between Kachin and Bur* 
mese. In many instances, however, it would be 
, impossible to say with any degree of certainty 
whether a word has been borrowed from the Bur- 
mese or Shan. Thus the word for an image of 
Gaudama, pronounced Hpm or Hpara^ no doubt is 
to be derived from the Shan £[jpya, rather than the 
Burmese a^cps* 

1. Words most likely derived from the Bur- 
mese. 

AmUf work, »)• 

Akyu, favor, grace; mc^u 

Akyaivnfff because of, 0M@38t« 

Ahkang^ permission, affair. oooSt. 

Agyang^ habit, behavior, »flq|§i 

Amyaif profit, gain. oogoSi 

AmyUt A l^in<l| tribe. odt^u 

Ana, a disease. oofoi 



98 



XJLOVm> OBAKXAB. 



Apf to hand over. 
^^9 an office, 
Upf to rule, 
Uiaumg, a peacock. 
JDek^ a treasury. 
Ddmya^ a robber. 
Duhka, misery. 

T>dsikj a seal. 
DdffUf power. 
Oaivng-latang, a large bell. 
JIatVf or HkatVf to preach. 
JcLtvnfff a school. 
Jaritf food, provision. 
Xini/Uf an'iron style. 
KyijUy or cht/fju, grajce. 
Skatdinff^ a sheaf of rice. 
Xam, a road. 
Mandan, a charm. 
Nffdrai^ punishment, hell. 
SaksCf a witness, testimony. 
Seng, a shop. 
Sdiiia, a master. 
Sdnat^ a gun 
Taf(rn^ i«n, to beseech. 



»«p« 

COqjO^ta 

cd£i« 



2. Boots in Kachin and Burmese derived from 
a common source: 



Anif to be near. 
Akaivky knock, rap. 
Bat^ to wind^around. 



oofi 



APPIHBIZ n. 



f 



Bung^ to concord. ^ 

Bya^ to show, exhibit. §• 

Dan^ to be worthy of. cofa 

DUf to put. oooti 

Datt^, to have something in common. cobS* 

Crtvi^ a doTg. 

JTa, to dance. 

Katiff^ custom, duties paid. 

KUf to worship. 

Ku, a bed, a table. 

Kahtapf put upon. 

£irftm,.bambbo, 

Katuatif to encircle. 

JKbt, to hide from. 

iiKa, to be bitter. 

Hkurif to be dry. 

Hkye, to save. 

Lttf a verbal emphatic. 

Zram, to expose to the sun. 

Lif to be heavy. 

Li, a boat. 

Law, verbal emphatic. 

Latdf to escape. 

Loif easy. 

Ldffu, to steal. 

Ldpan, a flower. 

ilfan, true. 

il/^nam, smell. 

Mali, four. 

ififnt, yesterday. 

Mdnga, five. 

ifyt, the eye. 

J^^a, the ear. 

ol2 



©gf 

eg?.. 

CCOf« 
GCOOa 

cgoS. 
cgoS. 

?., 

oftN 

G03t« 

dlt 



' f 



90 KAOHIir OBAIUCAB. 


« 


NatfBlinAt. 


foSfl 


Nif to be near. 


^ 


Nf/a,tiHh, 


cite 


Nenit to be low. 


?§. 


Ngam^ to be saltish. 


c?. 


Pot, a feast. 


^- 


Pyen^ to fly. 


4' 


Hta^ to arise as billows. 


COa 


(3) Aspirates changidd into sibilants. 


Asak^ life. 


SOOOcSa 


Sat, to kill. 


oaoS* 


St, to die. 


Q03> 


fift, fruit. 


cSiii 


SunisaWf a key. 


003^* 


' Sunfff to use. 


O^la 


SiUlh to be careful. 


wdS. 


Sluif a child. 


a»ot« 


S/mi, only. 


039t 



This list might be indefinitely enlarged, but the 
above examples may be sufficient for our purpose* 
It is easy to point out similarities in numerous 
cases even where, because of the lapse of time, 
more striking and interesting changes have taken 
place. 

II. Words derived from Shan may be classified 
as follows. 

Shan word. Kachin 

equivalent. 

(1) Qeneral words; 

Bye jau, to resolve, Myit da. 

Dakhpai, a paddle, Lisham. 



APPBVDIX ni. 91 

Danam, a shore, river bank; Hka kaa. 
Mai na, a nail. % 

Ling, to serve at a feast; Jan. 

(2) Noons in Hkaw, a palace: 

Hkawhkam, a king, ruler. 
Hkawseng, oouplet of 
Hkawhkam. 

(3) Nouns in Jau, a chief, prince: 

Jaubu, a military leader. Du. 
Jaukang, a custom house 

officer. 
Jaulung and its couplet 

jauhpai an elder in a 

village. 
Jau padu, a gate keeper, 

(4) Nouns in Nam, water: 

Namdau, a pitcher. 

Nam man, oil; Sau. 

Nam hkun, a well; Hka htung. 

Nam woi, Shan sugar. 

Nam ling, dropsy. 

Nam ya, starch. 

Menu The names of the months are often given 
in Shan among the Kachins. (Oomp. App. III. 2.) 



APPENDIX III. 

KAOHTN TIME. 

1. SEASONS. (Du hkra ladaw.) 

(a) Oinhtawng ta, the dry season. (October- 
March.) 



It* 



92 



KAOHIV ORAXMAB. 



Linam ta, the rainy season, (April— September.) 

(&) Within these twoguneral divisions, the fol- 
lowing sub-divisions are found: — 

1. Ginhtawng ta: 

Mangai ta, tlie time for the new rice. (October 
—November.) 

Kashung ta, the cold season. (December- 
March.) 

2. Lanam ta: 

Nlum ta, the hot season. (April to middle of 
May.) 

Htingra ta, the paddy planting season. (Middle 
of May — June.) 

Mayu ta, the paddy growing season. ( July— 
Septeroiber.) 

Rem. Some give only two months to Kdshung 
ta, namely December and January and call Febru- 
ary — ^March, Htamtgga ta, or the real dry season. 

2. MONTHS. (Shita.) 
Kachin Names: Shan Names: 
Kala, Lunjing, 

Maji, Lungam. 

Maga, Lunsam, 

Luusi, 
Lunha, 
Lunhuk, 

Lunkyet, 

Lunbot, 

Lungau, 

Lunsip, 

Lunsipet, 

Luiisip sawng, Soptomber. 

Rem. a month, wliich alwa3's means a lunar 
month in Kachin, is roughly speaking the time 



Hkrii, 

Ra, 

Wut, 

Shala, 

Jahtum, 

Shaugan, 

Shimari, 

Gupshi, 

Guptung, 



October. 

November. 

December. 

January. 

February. 

March. 

April, 

May. 

June. 

July. 

August. 



I ( 



APPXHDnc III. 93 

from one new moon to the other. Any diyision of 
weeks, is not found. Educated Kachins, however, 
are beginning to name the week days beginning 
with Sunday, as the first, second, and third, etc 

8. HOURS OP THE DAY. (Shani ahkying.) 



Yuptung, a 


bout 12 o*c 


Jock 


midnigh 


Hpung tsin so, 


„ 1-2 


If 


A, M. 


U-goi. 


3 


}f 


99 99 


Gintawng pru, 


4 


i» 


99 99 


Manap, 


5 


It 


99 99 


Jan pru. 


6 


tt 


99 99 


Jan da hkaw mi lung, 


7 


f» 


99 II 


Jan tsing law tsan, 


„ 8-11 


91 


99 91 


Jan pung ding ga, 


M 12 


99 


M. 


Jan kayau, 


„ L-2 


19 


P.M. 


Jan kadang. 


„ 8-4 


99 


99 99 


Jan nuiaw mi rawng, 


5 


99 


19 91 


Jan shang madu, 


6 


99 


91 99 


Nrim, 


7 


99 


19 91 


Shang tawm. 


„ 8-9 


99 


91 »9 


Pran tawui. 


„ 10-11 


f9 


>9 19 



The meaning of the terms used to indicate the 
divisions of the day may also be given: 

» 

Yuptunfff time of deep sleep; hptitiff tsin se^ the 
morning breeze; tirffoi, the cock-crowing; gintaumg 
pru, the rise of the morning star; jan da hkaw m 
lung, the sun having ascended the length of one 
weaving board; jan tsing laio tsan, the time when 
everybody is out; jan pungding ga, the sun straight 
above the top of the head; jan kdyau, the sun on 
the descent; jan kadang, the sun rapidly descend- 
ing; jan nmaw mi rawng, the sun at the hight of 



94 XACRm QBAXMAB. 

one mmtOt a festal pole; Jan shang mddu^ the sun 
about to enter; nrtm, the evening; shang tawm^ the 
time when all enter their houses; pran tatmn^ the 
time when the young people are enjoying them- 
selves. 



APPENDIX IV. 

KAOHIN WEIGHTS, MEASUBB8, AND 

MONEY. 

1. WEIGHTS. (Shenaibaw.) 

Lem mi, the weight of one malem, 

(a kind of seed) 

Dum ,1 equal to two lems. 

Pe „ „ „ „ dams. 

Mu „ „ ., „ Pes. 

Oahkan, the half of a viss. 

Joi mi, one viss. 

2. MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

(Shudawn ai baw.) 

Lamyin chyang, the breadth of a finger-nail. 

Layung tscn, one finger's breadth. 

Lahkawng pren, two „ ^, 

Masum pren, three ,, » 

Mali pren, four „ „ 

Lilhpa mi, the breadth of the hand. 

Gumdum, from the end of the thumb to 

the end of the first finger. 
Gumchyan, or lahkam, from the end of the 
thumb to the end of the second finger. 
Latup dawng, from the elbow to knuckles on 

the fingers. 



APPnBIZ IT. S5 

Dawng mi, from elbow to the second finger* 

tip. 

Sinda ga, two daumgs. 

Lilami a fathom. 

8. MEASURES OF CAPACITT. 
(Shadang ai b^w.) 

Latnp mi| One handful; the hand nearly closed* 

Lapai mi, two lutups; one open handful. 

Laku mi, two hlpais. 

Jure mi, two lakus. 

Bye mi, four jares. 

Jik mi, four byes; the fourth of a basket. 

Hpai mi, two jiks; the half of a basket. 

Dung mi, two hpais; one basket. 

Jaw mi» ten dangs, or baskets. 

4. MONEY. (Gumhpraw.) 

Ka mi, one pie. 

Hpaisah, „ pice. 

Pe mi, „ anna. 

Mu mi, two annas. 

Hti mi, four annas. 

Lap, or, gyap mi, one rupee. 

Rawng mi, two and a half rupees. 

Hkan mi, ten rupees. 

Oa hkan, fifty rupees* 

Pan mi, seventy-five rupees; one gn* 

hkan and ton rawngs. 

Joi mi, one hundred rupees. 



>•» 



CONTENTS. 



Pbbfaos, Faob. 8 

IntboduotioNi ,, 6— 12. 

m 

PART I. 
ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Sbmiomi. 1 

The alj^abet: nvLmher of lettevB, ... J 

Powers ofKachin voivds: Rem. (a) .use 
of o^ and n; (b) use of ^, i and o/ (c) tones 
as affecting the vowels, ... ... -3 . 



Potoers of Kachin consonants: iRem. :(a) 
aspiration; (b) use of ch, hky, A, and 
n, before labials; (d) use of hyphen, 



Classification of tJie consonants, 



4 



Tones: (a) their importance; (b) powers; 
(c) numbers; (d) how distributed, ... ^6 

Formation of syllables: (a) a preforma- [ 

tive; (b) force of ning, ding, shtng etc; (c) 
preformatives gd^ kd^ Id, etc.; (d) n before 
a hyphen, ... ... ... 6 

Accentuation^ ... 7 

Pufictuatiofif ••• 3 . 

o 13 



SXOTIORS. 



••• ••• 



98 ooMTuin. 

PART II. 
ETYMOLOGY. 

CltABBaS OF WOBDB, 

Nouns. 

Nouhb: Pitjper and Cotnmotii ... 10 

Prtyper NoHns* Rem. Names such as 
N-Gafn etc. ... ... ... 11 

Camnwn Nouns:/ 1. Primitives; 2. Com- 
pounds, how formed; 3. Derivatives; 4. 
Foreign Nouns, ... ... 12 

Gender: how distinguished; 1. use of 
different words; 2. prefixing laslia^ and 
numslui; 3. shading, and sJulyi; 4. affixing 
^va, or jan; 6. gender of brutes etc. 6. 
Nouns of Common Gender, ... 13 

Nun^r: how indicated, .. ... 14 

Pluml: 1. ni, hte, lUemj; 2. tmhkra^ law 
taWf etc.; 3. Numeral Adjectives; 4« re- 
petition of the last syllable,... ... 15 

Dual: yan^ shan^ nan, etc.; Rem. (a) col- 
lective nouns; (b) plural inferred from 
connection; (c) position of plural sign 
with adjectives, ... ... 16 

Case: how indicated, ... ... 17 

Nominative: (a) ffatv; (b) ndai gaw; (c) 
chyam etc, ... ... ... 18 

Genitive: (a) possession; (b) inversion of 
the possessive; (c) genitive of quality; (d) 
genitive as a dative, ... ... 19 

Dative: (a) /ipe, (Ae,) ka?v; (b) matu etc. 
(c) dative of time 1', ... ... 20 



contents. 99 

Seotioni. 
Accusative: hpe^ or^ hpe gaw^ ... 21 

Locative: de^ /, at, hta, na^ ... 22 

Ablative: na, haw nna^ de nna^ ... 23 

Instrumental: hte, e^ai^ ... ... 24 

Vocative: o, ^, 

Rem. Ta) position of particles (b) free- 
dom in tiie use of the particles, ... 26 

Paradigm, . . ... ... 26 

Forms of Nouns indicating family rela- 
tions etc., ... ... ... 27/ 

Preformative a, with monosyllabic 



nouns. 


... 


28 


. Change of words in shd^ ... 


•• . 


29 


Change of forms of generic terms, 


... 


30 


Adjectives. 






Position of Adjectives, ... 


... 


31 


Classes of Adjectives, 


... 


32 


Descriptive: 1. Primitives; 2. Com- 
pounds, ..• ••• 


33 


Indefinite adjective phrases; Rem. 
rivation of Wkl, 


de. 

... 


34 



. Definitive: 1. Articles, (a) cfat, ndai; (b) 
Numeral adjectives serving as articles, 

2. Pronominal Adjectives: (a) Demon- 
straiite, rfa«, ndaij wora^ htatvra^ lera; 
Rem. (a) their use with ni; (b) ura in- 
stead of wora; (b) Destributivc, slidgu, 
mdgup etc. (b) Reciprocal, shdda da^ Id- 
ngai hte Idngai (d) Indefinite, mahkra, tup 
ting etc, 

3, Numerals ••* .•• ••• 36 



100 



OONTJnrTB. 



Formation of ordinalsi . . . 

Ld^ in ordinary usage, ... 

Use of mt, ma etc. 

^1, instead of /^7iA:au^itgp. .. 

Numeral auxiliaries, (a) yati, tavmg etc 
(b) dual forms, Rem. 

The Positiye degree, 

The Comparative, 

The Superlative, 

Nouns used adjectively, ... 

Pbonouhb. 



••• 



Sbctiqhs. 
36 

37 

38 
39 

40 
41 
42 
43 
44 



Position of Pronouns, 
Glasses of Pronouns, 
Personal Pronouns, Rem. . . . 
Peculiar forms, 
Possessive Pronouns, Rem. 

Interrogatives: Kadat, gdra^ hpa; Rem. 
fa) pronouns and verbal interrogatives; 
(b) use of mif and fne^ 

Reflexive Pronouns, (a) AArum, Idla^ nan; 
(b) dai de etc. (c) use of hkrai; Rom.; (d) 
VLBe of tinanfff ... 

Relative clauses: (a) use of at; (b) use 
of a verbal nou n. 



••• 



VXBBB. 

Transitive and Intransitive verba, 
Passivity: how expressed, 
OkQsatives: how formed, Bern. 



45 

46 
47 
48 
49 



60 



61 



62 



• •• 



58 
54 
56 



ooirrsirTS. 101 

Seotionb. 

Glasses of yerbs: 1. Simple, 9. Com- 
pounds, ... ••• ••• 68 

Verbal Particles, use of . . . ... 67 

Number of Modes, ••• •> 58 

Infinitive: (a) its usage; (b) single use 
of the verb; (c) na; (d) hkra; (e) de; (f) 
majaw; (g) u ga etc^ ... ... 59 

The Affirmative: 1 Present; (a) Pre- 
sent Absolute, li, lit dai, lu, etc. (b) Pro- 
sent Conjectural, na It at, na lit dai^ etc. 

2 Pastt sdf before K, etc., 

3 Future, rai na ra ai, etc. Rem.. ... 60 

The Indicative: 1. Present; (a) Pre- 
sent Indefinite, nngai, ndai, ai, ga, myit 
dai, ma; (b) Present Indefinite with . 
verbs of motion, ring ngai, rin dai, etc., 
(c) Descriptive Present, we, tvu, de, mi, 
mu, etc. 

2 Present Perfect; ni, nit dai, sai etc., 
Rom. (a) sing ngai, instead of ni, (b) Pre- 
sent Perfect with ngvi. 

3. Past; se, nu etc. Rem. (a) use of ad- 
verbs with this tense; (b) use of at; (b) 
Past Indefinite with sa; (c) use of parti- 
cles in the Descriptive Present. 

4. Past Perfect: yu se, yu nu, yu sd ga, 
etc; 2nd. form Of Past Perfect in ga; 
Rem. (a) difference between yu and ga; 
(b) Past Perfect with ngui. 

5. Future: (a) Future with na; (b) >mi 
with particles of the Present; (c) Pilture 
with ga; (d) use of rd na, 

6. Future Perfect: re, urn, ni, rd ga; mu 
dai/mdru^ ... ... ' ... 61 



102 ooktjbvts. 

Sbotionb. 

Thb Potsntiaii: 1. Use of lu; 2. ad- 
verb nhten; 8. lu^ or, lu na; 4. daw with 
the verbs lut and nga. Rem. chy^ used as 

The Subjunotiyb: 1. Particles in gen- 
eral use; 3. Present and Future, yanff, 
dam^ daw; 3. Past Perfect with taw. Rem. 
use of mt, ... ... 63 

Thb Impbbatiyb: 1* Emphatic tone; 2. 
rU^ with verbs of motion; 3. Imperative 
signs e, u^ mu^ mi^ mti, eta, 4. dat^ law, yaw 
as omphatics; 5. Exhortiitive, ffa^ gaiv; 6. 
strong command, lu na; 7. Prohibitive; 
(a) AArum, etc. (b)^^mi; Rem. use of s/m, 
as taif •.. •.. •*. 64 

Intbrrooativeb: I. Rai in general 
questions; 2. general particles; 3. force 
of i; 4. ta; 5, ni; 6. hka and ka; 7. kun; 
8. 2at(^, and Ze, ••• ••• ••• 65 

27a, sign of quotations, ... ... 66 

The Negative: (1) use of n; (2) modal 
adverbs; (3) Prohibitives, ... ... 67 

Participles: (1) yaw^, shdloi; (2) Zc<, 
nhtamn, ninglen; (3) the connective at.... 68 

Auxiliary verbs, ... ... 69 

Other verbal particles, 1. Temporal; 
S. Declarative; 3. Emphatic Assertatives, 70 

Verbal Couplets, ... ... 71 

Advbbbb. 

Classes of Adverbs: 1. Proper; 2. Com- 
pound, •.. ... ... 72 

Position of Adverbs, ... ... 73 



covtbvtb* ]103 

Sections. 

Adverbs of Time: (1) forms in dai^ md^ 
nuif hid etc. (2) regular adverbs of time; 
(3) forms as ^^2ot mim^i etc., ... 74 

Adverbs of Place: Lahta, Idtim^ nang 
MaWf taonanff etc., ... ... 75 

Adverbs of Marnier: Bi bi^ kdman^ aid- 
tvan etc., ... ... ... 76 

Adverbs of Cause: Rem. Conjunctions 
used as adverbs, ... ... 77 

Adverbs of Comparison: 6mu, gatm, 
mdren etc., ... ... ••• 78 

Adverbs of Degree: Xt, nadiying^ apa^ 

SflCLf 6 vC« , ... ... ... i«9 

Interrogative adverbs: (I) time, gdloif 
(2) place, ffdde, kdnang etc; Rem. diflFer- 
ence between, gdde and kdnang; (3) man- 
ner, kdnhuj eta (4) cause, hpa rat; (5) 
qtianiitg, gdde; Rem. tones of </<rrfe, ... 80 

Numeral adverbs lang, bak, etc. ... 81 

Correlative adverbs ning, shing etc., ... 82 

Modal adverbs gdja, ahka, rat. kdni^ a% 
etc. Rem. difference between it^ni and 
shdtOty ... .... ... 83 

Postpositions. 



Force and position* (a) adverbs of 
ace used as postpositions; (b) postposi- 
tions following the nouns; (c) postposi- 



place used as postpositions; (b) postposi- 

_ ' ns; (c) 

tions and case endings; (d) compound 



postpositions; most common postposi- 
tions, gmp^ ntsUf lai^ Idpran etc. '... 84 



104 OONTWVB. 

SBOTIOH0. 
COHjrUNOTlONB. 

Copulative: aif hie^ nna^ munff, shoUri 
ffUWf etc*! ••• ••• ••• 85 

Adversative: ti, rai tit rat ti mungf ••• 86 

Causal: majaw; nlUai0n, ti/en, etc., ... 87 

Conditional: yan;!/, etc., ... ••• 88 

Intebjeotionb. 

List of Interjections, ... ... 89 

APPENDIX. 

I. Kachin names. 

II. Comparative vocabulary. I. ^Burmese and 

Kachin. II. Shan and Kachin. 

IIL Kachin Time. 1. Seasons; 2. Months; S. 
Hours of the day; meaning of terms* 

IV. Weights, Measures and Money: 1. Weights: 
2. Measures of length; 3, Measures of 
capacity; 4. Money. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page 6— -Line 9 from the foot, for performa- 
tives, read preformatives; the same 
misprint is. found in two or three 
other places. 

„ 15— Line 7, for kk, read kh. 

,f „ — Line 9, for m&dchen read m&dchen* 

„ B9— Line 15, for femenine, read feminine. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



TERMS OF RELATIONSHIP. 

1. For the use of some of these terms in differ- 
ent persons and numbers, see § 27. 

2. Terms of relationship have a wider applioa. 
tion than with us. Thus a man's brothers would 
call his father-in-law by the same appellation as 
he himself. 



Aum nip 
^ Dama^ 



Dm fe, 



Ghi, 



Oaida, 



Paternal ancestors. 

Maternal ancestors. 

(1) A husband's relatives; (2) all 
tribal families with which inter, 
marriage is allowed, viewed from 
the male side; (3) sometimes 
used as a respectful term for a 
son-in-law. 

A maternal great gra<nd-mother, a 
mother's father's mother. 

(1) A father-in-law, a husband's fa- 
ther; (2) a brother-in-law, a hus- 
Ixind's elder brother; (3) a pater, 
nal aunt 8 (moi a) husband, or bro- 




wife's brother's children. 
A widow; also called //aidajan. 



a 14 



106 KAOHtN OBAMHAB. 

JaHf A sister, (generally thought of as a 

younger sister) of a man. 

Jfy See aji ni; a grandfather, see jihkai, 

Ji duri^ A maternal grandfather. 

Ji Are, A paternal great*grand father. 

Ji he dfvif A maternal great-grandfather, 

Ji hkaif A paternal grandfather. 

Ji tvoi^ Ancestors, viewed collectively 

Hkau, (1) Cousins, a paternal aunt's male 

children when addressing the mo- 
ther*8 nephew and vice versa; (2) 
a brother-in-law, a wife's bro- 
ther's, used on both sides; (3) a 
polite term between young men 
of equal age and standing. 

Hkai dwi Same as woi divi but more respectful. 

Hkrif (1) Cousins,. a paternal aunt's (moi a) 

female children; (2) a paternal 
aunt's husbiind's sisters; (3) the 
children of a sister, either a 
nephew or niece; (4) a son-in-law; 
(5) a respectful compellation used 
by a man, when addressing a wo- 
men of equal age and standings 
not being a relative. 

Ma^ A child. 

ifot, (0 ^ piternal aunt, a father's sister 

whether younger or older; (2) a 
mother-in-law, a husband's mother. 



BUPPLBMXKT. * 107 

Madujan^ A wife. 
Mddu wa^ A husband. 

Mdyu, (I) A wife's relatiyes; (2) all trib- 

al families with which intermar^ 
riuge is allowed, and from which 
wives may be taken 

Mdya iama^ Relations in general; see parts. 

Nay {}) ^^ elder sister; (2) a husband's 

elder brother's wife, a sister-in- 
law; (3) cousins, an uncle's or 
aunt's female children older than 
the speaker; ^4) a respectful and 
friendly compellation addressed to 
a female acquaintance, older than 
the speaker. 

1 Nam, (1) A sistor-iii-law, a wife's younger 

sister; (2) a sister-in-law, used 
by a husband's elder brother; (3) 
a daughter-in-law; (4) the chil- 
dren of a brother-in-law; (5) a 
nephew or niece, a wife's brotner's 
children. 

^t, (1) A. mother-in-law, a wife's mother; 

also the mother-in-law's sisters. 
(2) a wife's brothers wife, a sister- 
in-law. 

Ning^ {\) h. sister-in-law, a husband's sis- 

ter; (2) a wife when addressed by 
the husband's aunts; (3) a com- 
pellation between women of equal . 
age and stimding addressed in the 
way of aflfftction or frieadship. 

^u A mother. 



108 KAOHIN OBAMMAA. 

i^^Ut (0 -^ younger brother or sister; (9) 

cousins, an uncle's or aunt's chiL 
dren younger than the speaker; 
(3) a brother-in-law, a wife's 
younger sister's husband; (4) a 
sister-in-law, a man's younger bro- 
ther's wife. 

Ndoif 0) ^ mother's younger sister, an 

aunt; (2) a father's younger bro- . ^ 
ther's wife, 

• 

N'ffjfif A bastard. 

SpUf 0) ^^ elder brother; (2) cousins, an 

uncle's or aunt's male children 
older than the speaker; (3) a 
brother-in-law, womans elder sis- 
ter's husband. 

Matf (\) A, sister-in-law, a wife's elder sis- 

ter, addressed by her husband or 
vice versa. . (2) an elder brother's 
wife; (3) a husband's younger 
brother. 

Sha^ A child, a son, or a daughter. (2) 

a nepliew or niece, a wife's younger 
sister's children. 

Shingkrat A widower. 

8hu^ 0) ^ grandchild; (2) a sister's chil- 

dren s (hkri ni a) husbands and 
children; (3) an affectionate term 
used by old people to children. 

Shu mdihif Des<^endant8 of the third generation. 

Shu rndsha^ Descendants of the fourth generation. 



t 



BITPPLBXBVT. 109 

Sku mdsha f ^^^^^^^^^^^^ *^*®^ generation. 

Shddang sha, A son, 
Shdyi sha, A daughter. ' 

Tung J (0 '^ mother's elder sister, amater- 

nal aunt; (2) a father's elder bro- 
ther's wife. 

TsQ^y (1) An uncle, a mother's brother 

whether younger or older; (2) a 
father-in-law, the wife's father; 
(3) a respectful compellution used 
by a woman when speaking to a 
man of equal age and standing. 
• 

Wa^ A father. 

Wa dif (0 ^'^ uncle, a father's elder brother; 

(2) a mother 8 elder sister's (Tung 
a) husband; (3) a rest)ectful des- 
ignation when addressing an el- 
derly man. 



Wa daif (1) An uncle, a fathers younger bro. 

' ther; (2) a mother's younger sis- 
ter s (Ndoi a) husband. 

Wot, See aiooini. 



Wpidwif A maternal grandmother; see hkai 

dwt. 

Woike^ A paternal great-grandmother. 

Wot ke dwif A maternal great-grandmother. 

Wot hkai, A paternal grandmother^ 



110 KAOHIH OBAMIUB. 

Tunfft A brother, (generally a younger bro- 

ther) of a woman. 



READING LESSONS. 

The student will find some easier reading mat* 
ter in the Kachin Spelling-book, The examples 
here given are chosen to illustrate the general 
style of Kachin story telling and religious lan- 
guage. 

1. mAnau mAnau ax lam. 

Moi shawng e munau kadai mung n chye galaw 
ma ai. Dai shaloi jan sha ni sha chye ma ai rai 
una, shanhte manau galaw ma ai shaloi, u mahkra 
hte hpe shuga mu ai. Dai rai nna u mahkra jan 
ga de jun manau sa manau lawm ma ai. Dai hpahg 
shanhte bai wa ma yang, si myin nga ai lagat hpun 
langai mi mu ma ai shaloi, Nnying nyet u nyet 
nna, Sha gaw, nga ai. Npring pri u mung pri ma- 
nau galaw nna, Sha gaw, nga ai. Dai gahkan nna 
jan sha ni a len ningli chyaw, u sha ni manau ga- 
law ma ai. Dai hpang u sha ni a len ningli dai 
chyaw, Shingra wa Oumja, Madai num Upraw 
nga, yan la manau ma ai. 

2. SHAWNG HKA HKRAT SI AI mISHA. 

Jahkrai ma langai mi Hka makau hkan e.nga 
hkan hkawm nga a yang, dai hka makau e tu ai 
hpun langai mi hta shatung shang nga ai hpe 
krau kau wu ai. Dai hpang shi bai hkan hkawm 
a yang, dai yang na hka laing hta rawng nga p' 



■UPPLBXXirT. Ill 

b&ren lingai mi phe shi a sumgawn hte kubai ding- 
grup tawn wn ai. Shaloi gang la yang, ja ai ma- 
jaw, hka kau e tu ai bpun langai mi hta, dai sum- 
gawn Bumri matu ahi gyit tawii da kau nna, ntu de 
wa mat ai. 

Shi wa mat ai hpang, buren a numsha kasha langai 
mi hka kau de pru nna, dai shatung krau kau ai 
hpun hpe, Nang kaning rai mai mat n ta? ngu nna 
san wu ai. Dai hpun gaw, Jahkrai ma e tsi nna 
mai mat nngai, ngu nna htan wu ai. Shaloi dai 
baren numsha, Dai jahkrai ma nang de bai n sa na 
a ni? ngu wu ai. Hpun gaw, Sa na ra ai, ngu wu 
ai. Shrdoi baren numsha, Jahkmi ma sa yang ngai 
hpe shaga tsun e, ngu wu ai. 

Dili hpang jahkrai ma sa du ai. Shaloi baren 
numsha hpe shaga tsun wu ai. Dai baren numsha 
jahkrai ma kaw sa pru nna, Nang ndai hpun hpe 
chye tsi ndai, nye a wa mung machyi nga ii ai; wa 
hpe mung tsi ya e, ngu wu ai. Shaloi, Nwa hiJe 
ngai tsi shamai ya de yang, nang h)ja 3 a na n 
ta ? ngu wu ai. Baren numsha gaw, Wa hpe nang 
shamai ya jang gaw, nang kaw ngai wa na nngai, 
ngy wu ai. Shaloi dai jahkrai ma gaw hkrutum 
du hkra gang gun da nna, nta de wa iiiat ai. 

Hpang jahpawt shi bai sa nna, Nwa loi mi n 
mai lit ni? ngu nna Ban wii ai. Hkrutum du hkra 
mai sai, ngu wu ai. Shtlloi jahkrai ma shi a sum- 
gawn hpe lahput du hkra gang gun kau da wu 
ai. Hpang jahpawt bai sa nna shawng jahpawt na 
hte maren san wu ai. Baren munsha gaw, Lahput 
du hkra mai sai, ngu wu ai. Dai hte maren la- 
hpawt rai loi loi gang gun kau ya nmi, hpung e ma- 
hkra gang gun kau ya wu ai. Dai rai nna baren 
wa mai mat ai. Dai majaw baren numsha jslbkrai 
ma kaw wa ai. 

Shing rai aiian htinggaw ra^f ti wgu. twsc ^\ ^Vv^ca.^ 



112 * KAOHtK OBAICXAB. 

masha ni shfiwa tsun galaw sa ma ai. Dai rai nna 
baren numsha jahkrai ma hpe: Qka e nga m&nga 
hpu yung hpu ju ni bkrai rai ma ai, nang nga 
hkum la wa: sa gaw sa lawm an, ngu wu ai. 

Shana de tsun galaw ngut nna wa ma yang, ma- 
aha ni jahknii mu hpe manawu mu ai majaw 
n-gang matu e sumrawn langai mi matep ya mu 
ai. Shin^ di matep ya mu ai gaw, jahkrai ma n 
chye wu ai. Nta du wa yang, shi a madu jan, 
Hm i hpu rawn mauam ai, ngu wu ai. Jahkrai ma 
gaw, Ngai hpp. n la wa nngai, ngu wu ai. Rai ti 
mung, shi tam yu yu wu yang, n-gang matu e 
sumrawn langai mi matep nga ai, mu wu ai. Dai 
majaw dai baren numslu hka de hprawng sa wa 
nna, shi a kawa nga ai laing kata de shang mat wa 
ai. Dai jahkrai ma chyawm gaw, shi a madu jan 
sfaang mat wa ai laing makau na nlung hta sa 
hkrap dung nga nga re ai. 

Shing rai shani shanang sa hkrap hkrap re ai 
majaw, baren numsha shi a kiiwa hpe, Wa e ja- 
hkrai ma nlung hta sa hkrap hkrap rai nga ai, woi 
la na kun? ngu wu ai. Kawa gaw, Woi hi u, ngu 
wu ai. Dai majaw dai baren numsha dai nlung 
ntsa e shi a kara hpyan lam da wu ai. Jahkrai 
ma bai sa dung jang shi a kara e hka laing de shi 
hpe karawt dun bang la wu ai. Shing rai shi si ai 
majaw shawng hka hkrat si ai gaw, dai jahkrai ma 
re ai rai. Dai gawmai gawsha giUu ai majaw ya 
masha hka hkrat si ai, shingrai Jinghpaw masha 
ni myit ma ai. 

3. NAT NAWNG AI. 

(OoMP. Intboduotion 8 — 10.) 

Dumsa: Uka hpawl Matsaw manam nga, 
Ntsang manam sa ni e; 



•UPPLBMEHT. 113 

Mji| ngai hkringwa, u si shan la lung 

da ma la, 
U ya shan hkut la mala, ngu ma de ai; 
Mutaaw du gumlan, Ntsang du gam- 

hpan. 
Mali la ni hpe, lamun lam wnnli Ian n 

ngan, 
L&tsa lam wunboi hpan n jan; 
Ouri ahingnat, pawn dingbat tai ndai: 
Ya muli la ui hpe, rat gungli yawn da 

mu, 
Rang gungsi dawn da mu. 
ULij hat: M' rai law I Hkring wa e, 

Lamun lam wunli Ian da sing ngai, 
Latsa lam wunboi hpan da ni ai; 
Shayi gits ha ra, shadang gitsha ja. 
Laja hpun hpawng in, garai na ma sai. 
Lahkru hpun hpawng in, kahpyai na 

ma sai; 
Lamun htinggaw yii nna lat, 
Latsa litinggaw pru nna prat; 
Dumsa, jai wa, chye mu ga, 
Bawmung'bawman deng mu ga; 
Buwa ninggawn e mangoi na ma nu ai, 
Ntsang gadan e noi na ma sai; 
Buwa ninggawn e ri, Ntsang gadan e si, 
Hka shatam yang, rai bpunghpa bye 

rap hprang, 
Hkarang shatam yang, hkyet hkyau- 

lang ai yang ; 
Bum tsaw bum e loi, 
Bum law bum e hkroi ; 
U ri in ri, u gan in kri ; 
Kaji ni a hkringjung hpunda dep, 
Kawoi ni a hkringmang hpunda lep; 
Mare liiasit ai pasi rai, 
Kinhtawng shadiyup ai pali tai ; 
Hpaji num, hparat hkum na ma sai ; 
Tam n tarn rai yang lu, 
Bram n bram rai yang ku ; 
o 15 



114 KAOHIK QBAMHAB. 

Sat pungting e ning ngai, 
Gan pungting e chjai ; 
Hpa n nga, kungla laka n ga ; 
Ngai Matsaw marang ai giro, ^ 
Ntsang sliingkang ai kabu na ma sai, 
Hkringwa e ngai Matsaw Du shing Ian, 
Ntsang du shing hpan da sing ngai : 
U si shan shulet ya o, 

U ya shan shukyet sa e. 

< 

I>f7HBA : M' rai law t Mali La Nau hta na, 

Nat htingtsam jung ai malaw, 
Ji htingtsam jung ai shaw; 
Nang Matsaw krang de kSnawm, 
Ntsang hkungri de gumbawm ; 
M^ i, hkinjawng la hkalai masha e, 
N-gu rung, nhpang htung, 
Shadu ngut, shanai hkut, 
Hpaw goi ningdung e mayawn, 
lll^aw lap ningtsing ai shabawn ; 
Hpaw ngup reng, hpaw ga tseng, 
Matsaw krang e lau, 
Ntsang hkungri hta hkrau rai sai ; 
r Hpaw dung nawn la, 
Hpaw lang krawn sha ; 
Hpaw dung kawai n* lun, 
Hpaw lang makai n* gun ; 
Matsaw htawt htang hta na mang mu 
lu, 

Matsi tsa hku chyu ; 
Matsaw krang na rawt, 
Ntsang hkungri una htawt ; 
Miitsaw hkring-yu gamoi, 
Ntsang hkringdat wundoi ; 
Hkrun e hkum yan, 
Lam e hkum hpyan ; 
Htaw Matsaw hkring-yu shanap, 
Ntsang hkringdat shahkap. 
Dai ni, na udung manu, u la shinggu 
hpe, 



•UPPLBMBNT, 115 

Htaw Blatsaw iilawng hta lup, 
Ntsang nlawng hta sup, 
Htaw de lamun ning rem, 
Nang de lamun ning ningran, 
Htaw de latsa ning hpyem, 
Nang de latsa ning hkrau hkraiu 
Matsaw sumri hta nu, 
Ntsang sumdani hta gu ; 
Matsaw hkring-yu e uu sin, 
Ntsang hkringdut e pru lang lungga 
nga sit e. 

Rbm« The above example of the Kachin reli- 
gious language gives in the main the thought, 
style and contents, as used in their everyday cere, 
monies. The vocabulary and order of proceedings 
will vary if it is a Mu nat^ Ga nat, or Mdsha nai 
that is addressed. The usual order, however, is 
as follows : — 

1st. Praise to the nat, extolling his greatness, 
ability to help, and willingness to hear. 

2nd. Answer of the nat. making known his 
abode, demands and general interest in the case 
at hand. 

3rd. Statement of the case ; help desired for 
whom and what ; the nat asking particulars in re- 
gard to the offering, altar, performer, phice, and 
time. 

4th. Sacrifice promised ; time, place and other 
particulars stated ; oomp. Spelling-iiook § 30. 

5th. Preparations and slaying of the sacrifice : 
the nat priest recites a formula for each part of 
the ceremony. 

6th. Exhorting the nat to accept the offering 
. and remove the trouble. ' 

The part here given is an outline of the formu- 
la used in part 6. The name of the person for 
whose benefit the offering (in this case a fowl,) 
has been made, is La Nau ; comp. app. 1. Rem. (6). 



VOCABULAKY. 

This Yocabulary contains a little over one-fifth 
of all the words in Kachin. Its chief aim is to 
^ive the primary meaning of the words used in 
the Grammar and Spelling Book. 

For grammatical 1 terms and phrases, and other 
parts already explained, the student is referred 
to their respective sections and paragraphs. 

Compound words are given in a limited number, 
as they will be easily recognized, the rules for 
their formation having been mastered. 

No attempt to indicate tones has been made, 
but their importance should not be overlooked ; 
oomp. § 5. 

The words in a have been placed after the full 
vowels. 



A. 



A 

Aba! 



Adipakripjadv 
Agam 



Agung 
Agyang 
Aka 
Akawk 



par. 
n. 

V. 



D. 



n. 



V. 



V. 



for the various uses of this parti- 
cle see § § 6. a; 12. 3. a; 19. a; 
56. 2. g; and 72. 2 b. 

blessing, happiness ; a. fortunate; 
a nga at iva 

to hinder, impede, interrupt; to 
strike against a thing as when 
walking; comp. hai. 

forcibly; by constraint; comp. dip. 

modesty, honor; v. to honor, rev- 
erence, again jaw. 

a temptation ; generally agung 
alau; comp. gung and lau. 

habit, behavior aquired by prac* 
tice: comp. Bur. odo:|§a 

to bo striped; to variegate with 
lines of different colors. 

to^knock lightly, to rap. 



XAORIV GBAIOUB. 



H7 



»S 



Aklgawng 
Akroi 

>f »noi 
Akyn 
Ahka 
Ahkang 

Ahki 

Ah king 



Ahkum 

Ahkying 

Ali 



f> 



ama 



All 

Ala 

Aloi aha 
Alawan 
Am 

„ mat 
Amang 
Amu 
Amya 
Amyat 
Amjing 

>i dang 
Arayu 
Ana 



adr, 
y. 

▼. 

n. 

adT. 
par. 

n. 

n. 



n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 



n. 

n. 
adv. 
adv. 

V. 

v. 

a. 
n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 



in a moment ; at a twinklings; in- 

vtantlj; akdjaivng aha. 
to press a matter, as a question ; 

to entreat. 
to be8e6oh;ady, earnestly, eagerly, 
favor, grace; a result, Bur. ooajja* 
see § 8-1. 
permission, commission, position; 

Bur. 99a€ta 
a custom, a tribal usage; also pro- 
nounced ahke; 
a general custom or usaffe; comp. 

hking; ahtung ahking; also, habit, 

manner, 
see hkum, 

time; comp. flatten and Bur. oo^f* 
an attendant; see next, 
attendants, people in waiting on a 

chief or other person of impor. 

tance; comp sdlunp sala. 
a disease, epidemic; ( Cowrie; ) 

comp. ana* 
a religious offering; Bur. oo^i 
see § 72. (c ) 
see § 76. 

to be stupefied, amazed, aatounded; 
same as above; shanhteammat ^na ai 
blackish,. or copper-red. 
work, labor, business; Bur. »){• 
to tear, lacerate, as a tiger his prey, 
gain, profit; Bur. odgoS- 
a name; see raying, 
to install in an office. 
a race, tribe; a kind, sort; Bur.99(j|ii 
a trace, faint mark after some- 

thinglost oralmost effaced; comp. 

Spelling Book § 28 ; a remoant, 

residue, as of former habits al- 

most overcome ; kani lu ai myit 

naw ana nga ai, 



118 



TOOABULiJlT. 



AnA ftkra 



Ann 

Ani 

Anin 

Aim 

Anhte 

Ang 



Aogawk 



Ap 



l» 



da 



1 



Apa 

Apang 

Aprup 

aprap 
Apjet 

Ahpraw 

„ hUp 



„ rawng 
Ara 

ft ra 
Arang 

An 

If jaw 
Arut 

„ kau 
Araw 



n. 



▼. 

T. 
T. 

pron 

V. 



adv. 
I- n* 

▼. 
▼. 

adv. 
a. 

V. 

n. 
n. 



a. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

V. 



a foreboding, premonition ; ana 
akra ya ai^ he gives (evel) pre- 
monitions; comp. hkatv ya. 

illness, sickness; a malady, epide* 
mic. 

to be near; see ni, 

to compress, pack, make compact 

to beat, Htrike; comp. kayat, 

for anhte and an see § 46. 

to have reference to ; to allnde, 
hint at ; shihpe ang nna tsun at; 
comp. sai(^. 

directly, straightforwardly. 

a person somewhat, irrational, silly, 
puerile ; comp. mttna. 

to hand over; Bur. 9o5- 

to commit, deliver, empower ; see 
parts. 

see § 79. 

spotted ; aieng apang. 

to be speckled. 

fault, guilt, an evel deed ; Bur. 

appearance ; likeness ; personal 
presence ; comp. nsam^ 

beautiful; pleasing form and coun- 
tenance. 

see parts. 

fever; (Cowrie.) 

to have fever. 

capital, money invested as in trade; 
comp. atu. 

punishment, correction, discipline. 

to punish, chastise ; see parts. 

to rub, scour, polish. 

to rub out dr off; see parts. 

to swallow eagerly ; to gulp ; dai 
shut mai ngai hpe araw shd- 
ngun e. 



KAOHIK OBAIOUB. 



119 



} 



Aral 
Arawng 

»» nga 
Asak 

Asi. 
Asawng 

< 
Ashu 
ashan 
Ashun 
„ awan 
Ateng 
Atu 
Atu 



Ahtik 

„ abau 
„ „ gawn 

Ahtu 

Ahtawk 
Ahtoi 
„ rawng 



Atsam 



Atsat 


V, 


Atsi 


V. 


,, J^ 


V. 


Atsin 


V. 


„ sha 


adv* 


Atsin atsii 


V. 


Atsu ) 
atsam 

< 


•« 


II* 



V, 

n. 
n. 

V. 

u 

V. 
V. 

a. 

V. 

n. 



n. 
n. 

V, 
V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 



V. 



things, property, goods ; see rat. 
glory, power, honor ; mostly 

arawng sadlang. 
to be glorious ; see parts. 
life; age; Bur. »c»fl6» 
fruit; comp. si and § 28. 
to ridicule, mock, deride ; comp. 

rot. 

animals of all kinds. 

to shake, stir by shakixig. 

same as ashun* 

see apang. 

to shine ; atu kabrim. 

interest, as on money ; Bur. oocQt; 
the Kachin term is gumhpraw 
kdsha; comp. arang. 

a history, especially of an individ- 
uals pedigree. 

same as ahtik; most common. 

to relate, narrate the history of a 
certain person 

to strike against; comp. htu; to 
push, crowd. 

to touch lightly ; 

light ; see htoi 

the name Of a traditional person ; 
see Spelling Book § 19, third 
part ; also called Ahtoi rawng^ 

pyi. 
to be decayed, crumbling ; comp. 

tsam- 
to chopi mince ; atsat atsa, 
to gaze, stare at. 
see parts. 

to be quiet, silent ; atsin nga at. 
quietly, silently ; calmly, softly, 
to keep quiet. ^ 

pain, suffering, affliction. 



120 



TO0ABI7LAET. 



Awu 
tt ftsin 

Awoi 

Aya 

Ayan 

Ayun . 
Ayai 

Azin 



n. 

n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 
a. 

n. 

V. 

adv. 
adv. 



E 



par. 



£t 



par. 



9t 



ft 
I 

In 



hteng 



Ing 



pron. 

If 
par. 

adv. 



V. 
V. 



pollution, corraptioa ; comp. wu. 

same as atvu; most common. 

to pollute, defile, befoul; see parts. 

see supp. part 1. 

a place ; situation ; Bur. socpi 

continuous, uninterrupted ; colnp. 
yan. • 

fine dust, powder ; ayun ayaw. 

to scatter, throw things around ; 
ayai kau at. 

see next. 

. accurately, percisely ; in all res- 
pects. 

E. 
see § § 20. (a); 24 and 64. 3. 

see § § 20. (c); 22. and 25. 

see § 64. 7. (a) and comp. Bur, 

I. 

see § 48. 

see § 65. 3. 

as, like as; used mostly in the re- 
ligious language, and often ab- 
breviated to n; in itself maybe 
a shorter form of nna; comp. 
§ 78. Rem. 

to overflow, inundate; shdu ahaing; 
see Spelling Book § 27. 

to conceal, hold back, as a part of 
truth ; by some pronounced yip. 



XAOBnr dBAlOlAB. 



191 



> f 



par. 



o. 

see §§ 25, and 89. 
U. 



Bbx. 
by some 

U 
U 
U 



Many of the words here spelled by u are 
pronounced as wu. ^ 



*v 



U 
Ubya 



»f bya 
Udang 

Udat 

Udi 
Udnng 

>» uli 

Ugaw 

Ugawn 

UgOi 

If If ^* 
„ kan 

,, kawn 



„ hka 



V. 

par. 
par. 



n. 



n. 



V. 

n. 
n. 

n. 

n« 

n. 

n. 
n, 
n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 



4 

to overflow, deluge; see tVt^. 

tee §§ 64. 3, and 56. (o.) 

a preformative mostly used with 
names of human beings (males,^ 
and sacrificial animals; by some 
changed into mdf thus fnOli in- 
stead of tUi. 

a fowl, a bird; by many pro- 
nounced wu or aum. 

a foBtus; the young of viyiparous 
animals (not human,) in the 
womb; comp. tibya. 

to cast the young, as cattle. 

a cross for the slaying of sacrifi- 
cial animals. 

a pasture; place for grazing; udiU 
shdra. 

an egg; see di, 

cattl6 or fowls for sacrificial pur- 
poses. 

same as uiung: in common usage, 
breeding stock. 

the horn bill; Buceros rhinoceros. 

a chisel. 

the cock-crow; see app. III. 8. 

to offer a fowl to a nat. 

see § 12. 2. (e.) 

a jungle fowl. 

to drive away birds, as from a 
paddy field. 

a crow, a raven. 



o 16 



iii9 



TOOABX^iABT. 



X71ikam 

9, hkai 

9, hkrnpg 

»* ft t«i 

»f la 
TJli 



XJli 
XJlawng 

crioi 

'■ trma 



XJxnat 
XJman 
Uni 
-Up 
Ura 
Ura 
Uri 
tiruhg 

^ Uraw 

Uai 

Ushat 

Utawng 

Ubtan^ 

Uhtum 

Utsa 

Utsip 



V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 



n. 
n. 



n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 
a. 
n. 
n, 

n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 



to trap, insnare ai birds; see parts. 

small chickens. 

living animals; opp. to tin. 

medicine as given bj the nats. 

a cock. 

a living male human being; oomp. 

kabanff; mostly used in the N. L. 

and by some pronounced mdli. ' 
see wait; a mafe. 
an inclosure for domestic animals; 

a barn, 
a buffalo; comp. nga loi. 
the youngest male childin the fa- 

mily of a chief, succeeding his 

father. 

? pregnancy of irrational animals, 
eathers. 

domesticated animals; opp. to ujrat. 
to rule, preside over, 
a pigeon. 

see § 35 2. Rem. (b.) 
a phesant. 
horns; more common forms nr hg 

or ngarung. 
a bird's cage; a basket for lihng.' 

ing fowls to market, 
a dead animal; N. L. comp. u 

hkrung, 
fodder for cattle; pasturage, 
a peacock. Bur. gooTSi 
a kind of fish; used as nat offer* 

ings. 
to be sterile; used of animals* 
a sparrow, 
a bird's nest; comp. tsip. 



KAOHIir QBAXMAB, 



Ai. 



An 
Auk 

If di 



Aw 



laB 



AI. 



par. 
adv. 



see§§ 12.3. (d.); 24; 68; 61. U 

(a.); and 86. ''" 

866 § 79. * 



AU. 



i :i 



adv. 

V. 
V. 



V. 



, I 



Awlaw 


V. 


Awng 


V. 


Awng 


V. 


Awza 


n. 


Ba 

ft 


V. 


Ba 


V. 


Ba 


a. 


Bak 


n. 



see § 83. Rem. 

to Bnap, snatch at as a dog; coinp; 

Bur. uoS. 
see parts; ma Idngai mi hpe gtoi 

auk di nu ai^ , , ^ 

AW. , . 

I 

to open a little; di kap aw kau di; 

coup, of hpaw; figuratively, 

to speak; open the inouth ior^ 

speaking, 
to consent; regard as oorrecti 

good, or just, 
to be happy, satisfied, content; to 

be fortunate, prosperous; comp. 

shdraiong. 
to overcome, beat, conquer; Bur. 

a custard-apple; Bur. g<»9. 



B. 



to be tired, out of breath, fatigued; 
comp. AArt, tsu^ and pH. 

to carry a child on the back ac- 
cording to Kachin custom. 

a word of respect, used by a young, 
er child to an elder brother or 
sister. 

see § 81. 



• " f 



1S<4 



TOOABTTLABT. 



Bam bam 



dn 
byau 



Bang 
Bat 
Be be 



Bu 

91 kiflhaii 
Bu 

„ hkawm 



^ htawt 

Bubn 
Bulap 
Bom 
ft yan 
Bum 

Bung 



▼. 
n. 

V. 

y. 

n* 
n. 

V. 
V. 

adv. 

Y, 
V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 



V. 

a, 
n. 

He 

n. 

V. 

n. 



to be damp, dank, moist; comp« 

mddi^ and nyaw. 
see Introduction 9. (b.) 
to rest, have leisure, cease from 

work; comp, sa^ and rau. 
to obstruct; to put up a temporary 

barricade; conip. pat» 
thatch -grass before it is cut. 
an ear ornament; the flat silyer 

ear-bob. 
to put or place on or in; to pour, 

ru bang; comp. tatofi^ a,nd da. 
to wind around, encircle; conip. 

Idbatf ffumlatf and Bur. ucS. 
see § 76. 
to put on, as a pair of trousers; 

comp. hpun, 
to have f over, hkali bu ai; to be 

hot with ra^e, ninff-yun bu at. 
to be torn with rage; also called 

htan kdshan. 
a habitation, birth-place; place of 

origin, 
to visit, especially early places of 

Labitation. 
inhabitiints of a certain place; 

nanhU kadaibu ni.f who are you? 

lit. where is your birth-place, or 

habitation, as the case may be. 
to change place of residence; lit. 

move from the birth-place, 
stout and short: stubby, 
the betel leaf. 
a mountain, 
a mountain range, 
to swell, as the limbs when dis- 

eased; comp. baumi. 
a bamboo used for cooking pur- 
poses. 



XAOHZH OBAXKAB. 



126 



Bung 



Bung 



91 
9t 



sha 
ski 



• t 



Bunghkn 

Buoghkum 
Bunghkam 
BuQghkaw 
„ „ khaw 
Bungli 
Bai 

• 

Bainam 
„ „ kasha 
Bau 

Ban 
„ dum 
,9 masam 



Bau 
Bau 

Baw 
„ sang 
,9 daw 

Baw 

Baw 



9, hkai 
Baw 



•T. 



n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n, 
n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 



V, 
V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 



▼. 

n. 



to agree, correspond, „«.^w«.-w, 

resemble; anhte a htung hking 

bung nga ai; conip. app. II. 2. 
see fibung. 
a mild breeze, 
a whirlwind, 
a haze. 

a stockade, wall around a village, 
a chair; a stool. 
a pillow, 
a turban. 

to put on a turban, 
work; comp Introduction 6. 
to repeat; oomp. 70. 2 ady. over 

again, 
a goat; comp. nam fo, nam yi. 
a kid. 
to take care of; to provide for; 

comp. pau* 
a gong. 

to sound a gong; see parts, 
the three gongs used at a death 

dance, {kdhung dum,) namely the 

dingngut bau^ duptatvng bau^ and 

htinglai bau, 
to l)ecome fleshy, large; used 

mostly in the N. L. 
to practice magic; to conjure, 

charm. . 
a kind, sort; a race,* comp. amyu, 
a person of the same tribe, 
relatives of' the same tribe, 
to pack; arrange a load in proper 

order, lit baw at. 
to uproot; to pull, as a plant out 

of the ground; to extract as a 

tooth; comp. mdgang. 
to replant; see parts, 
the head. 



186 



TOOABVLABT. 



Baw mnng 


n. 


Bawm 
Bawng 


V. 
V. 


• 

Bawng 
„ dung 


n. 
n. 


Boi 
Boi 
Boi 


par. 

V. 
V. 


Baren 


n. 
n. 


Bra 


V. 


.. wa 
Brak 


V. 


Bram 


V. 


Bran 


V. 


Brang 
,, ram 
Bru 


n. 
n. 

V. 


Bya 


V, 


Bya 
,. dan 


V. 



the man next to the chief in a Eft- 
chin village; bawmunff baumiang. 

to swell, as from dampness. 

to consult, counsel, deliberate to- 
gether; comp. salang hawng. 

a man in confinement* 

one confined in fetters or chains; 
a prisoner. 

see § 70. 1. 

to swarm as bees, Idgat boi at. 

to lend as money or rice on inter* 
est; comp, hkoi. 

an alligator. 

a cave where an alligator dwells/ 
(Kachin tradition;) also a figura- 
tive name for the house (Ming^ 
nu,) of a chief; comp. mdraw 
lungpu, 

to scatter, disperse; disban.l. 

the same, see parts and § 69. 

to wander about, rove, stray, brak 
hkamn ai. 

to seek, hunt for; used mostly up 
North; comp. tarn; hkai mi bram 
n ni ? where a S. Kachin would 
say, hpa mi tarn n ni? 

to revive, convalesce bran wa; to 
reanimate, bring to health and 
strength, bran shdngun ai. 

see shdbrang and comp. § 29. 

a youth, see parts. 

to conduct funeral ceremonies: 
shanhti dai Lddn taa Pungngang 
hpe kabung Idhkwi dum nna bru 
mii ai. see spelling-book § 29. 

to destroy, demolish; degrade; 
comp. Men, run^ and bgak mat. 

to show, exhibit; comp. app. II. 2. 

same as bt/a; most common form; 
see parts. 



I« 



xxama OBAiouit. 



127 



Byak 
9, mat 
Bye 
Byeng.ya 


V. 
V. 

n. 
n: 


Byet 
Bye jau 
Byik 
Byin /^ 


n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 


Bying 
,. tu 


n. 
n. 


Byawn 
Byawng 


V. 
V. 


Byawn 


V. 



to be spoiled. 

to be ruined, destroyed; see parts. 

see app. IV. 8. 

wisdom, understanding; oomp. 

hpaji and the Bur. ugo. 
a maggot; worms, as in a carcass, 
see upp. II. II. (1.) 
to be obstructed, closed, 
to happen, chance, take effect; 

comp. words in S 69. 
a kind of tree, 
a place where the Bying grown; 

hying tu mdli ai ngat, see (tarts, 

and comp. spelling-book § 30. 
to proceed out from; opp. to lup» 
to melt, as wax before fire; comp 

tun, 
to lead to as a road to a certain 

place; ndai lam ivora hkran 

hyaivn. 

CHY. 



Chya 
Ohyam 

Chyam 



Chyang 
Chyang 

Chyang 



Ohyap 



T. 

V. 

V. 



V. 
V. 

V. 



V, 



to besmear, paint over; comp. a} 

to try, experiment; 

same as chyam^ see parts. 

to spi-ead; to extend in all direc- 
tions; to be over*spread; myi* 
hprqp liimu chyam hkra htai Am. 
trim ai, 

to be black. 

to hire, as a day laborer; to ser?e; 
nchyang chyang ai, 

to hurry; mostly used as an adv. 
chyang chyang; comp. § 72. 2. (a;) 
chyang chyang di u, do it quickly. 

to know, as a dog his master's 
voice; dai gwi shi mddu a nsen 
chyap ai; to be acquainted with. 



128 



TOOABUXiABT. 



Oliyat 



Ghje 
Ciyen 



>» 



„ mi 
Chye 



ft na 



Chyi 
Cliyim 

»f yu 

Chying 

„ dawt 
Ohyinghka 
GhyiDghkye 

Ohying. J 
hkyen J 

Cliying. ) 
hkrang ] 

ChyiDgnam 

Chyip 



If chyip 

Ohyu 
Ohyu 

Ohyu 
p, chyu 



V. 
V. 
V, 

n. 

V. 



V, 
V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 

n« 

n. 
n. 

V. 



adv. 
n. 

V. 

lU 
V. 



to be narrow, close, so as to hardi- 
ly admit of passage, chyat at 
shdra; to stick, be fast as when 
attempting ta pass a too narrow 
place; sin cfiyat nuit sat; comp, jot. 

to pick, as a fowl. 

to divide in halves. 

to split in two equal parts; see 
parts. 

one half of a thing. 

to know; pronounced chyeng and 
chyiti in different localities; see 
Introduction 4. (2.) (b;) chye is 
freely used with its couplet 
chyang; comp. Chyi ning chyany, 
the omniscient one. 

to know; to understand; see parts. 

see parts, and comp; § 69. 

to set fire to; comp shachyi. 

to taste. 

to try by tasting. 

the common, long native drum 

a large ancient kind of drum. 

a door. 

a hook, a bracket* 

a bamboo floor; bamboo flooring. 

the native mustard plant. 

the sesamum plant. 

to be in order; mostly used in its 

transitive form shdthyip; ndai 

arai shdchyip u; comp. § 65. 
properly, thoroughly, chyip chyip 

Idjang u. 
lead; by some pronounced ju. 
to depend on, to stay with; ndai 

ma narig i chyu nga ai 
milk, 
to suck; to nurse as a baby. 



• ( 



XAOHUr OBAiatAB. 



129 



Ohyuralaika 



Chyup 

Chyai 

Chyai 



Chyawm 
Chyawp 

Chyoi 
Chyoi 



,, chyoi 

„ pra 
. ^ Chyuwi 



n. 



V. 

V. 
V. 



par. 

V. 
V. 



adv. 

V. 
V. 



Da 


V. 


Da 
„ da 
„ hkaw 

1 


n. 

•V. 

n. 


,, lim 
Da 


1 

V. 


Da 
,,ndaigaw 


par. 
par. 


Daga 


n. 



a book of genealogies and general 
information comp. Spelling book 
§ 28. 

to absorb, suck up. 

to revolve, turn around as a wheel. 

to do a thing for the sake of plea- 
sure; tsun chyai, to have a friend- 
ly chat; hkawm chyai, to walk 
for divertisement; nga chyai to 
visit. 

see§ 18 (c.) 

to wear, as a finger.ring, lachyaivp 
chyawp ai- 

see c/iyt\ 

to bo beautiful, pure, clean; trans. 
shdchyoi, to beautify, make 
clean; to adorn. 

in a beautiful manner 

same as chyoi; see p^irts. 

to sew, join by needle and thread ; 
comp. Bur. q|6. 

D. 

to put, place; to cause to remaia 

in a given position, thus,^au; da^ 

bang da etc; comp. tawn. and 

Bur. c»ot 
a web. 
to weave, 
the pole around which the warp 

is fastened, 
a batten, 
to ciist lots; throw the dice; to 

gamble; comp. hpaida da, 
see (} 66. 
used as this or these before a quo* 

tat ion or an enumerative dis- 

course, 
a hot-bed for paddy, also called 

hkauffa. 



Q 17 



X80 



TOOABULABT. 



X>an 
Dan 

„ dan 

Dang 
Dang 

» si 
Dang 

Pang 

ft katt 
Uanghta 
Dap 



f. JWBg 

Dap 

Dap 
Dat 

„ kau 
De 



n. 

V. 

par. 
n, 
n. 

V. 



V. 

adv. 
n. 

V. 

V. 

adv. 

V, 
V. 

' a. 
n. 



V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 

V. 
V, 

par. 



see app. II. zi« (!•) 

to lose the waj, lam dam at; to 
err, dam shtd. 

see § 63. 

see supp. h 

a country; coup, of mung. 

to be worth, worthy of; to be ac- 
ceptable; comp. gififf and Bur. 

Gofa 

to cut in two, as a rope; sumri 

dan u. 
to show* to indicate, point ont; 

comp. madun and bya. 
plainly, clearly; see §§ 72. h (a.); 

76. 
see app. IV. 3. and Bur. o»€t 
to choke, smother, suffocate; 

comp. dau. 
to die, as by suffocation, 
about; inam dang masum dang rat 

nga au 
to be able; to overcome, over- 
power, conquer, 
to overthrow, subjugate, 
see § 35. 2. (d.) 
a fireplace in or outside a Kachin 

house; tUaiv dap^ lupdaw dapy 

nla dap; a camp, hpyen dap; 

comp. Bur. oo6 
to prepare a camp, 
coup, of hkap; comp. Introduction 

9. (e.) 
ashes; tuan dap, 
to loose, set ftee, liberate; comp. 

raw. 
lo send away as free; comp. § 64. 4. 
'to found, build as a village or a 

large house, 
see § 22. as a verbal par. see § 61* 

1. (c.) 



XAOHIir ORAMXAR. 



181 



De na 
De ai me 



par. 
adv. 



Den 
Dep 
Di 



Di 
Di 



Di 



da 



» 



hkrat 



Di 

„ bu 
Di 

„ di 

„ kawp 
Dik 



Dim 
Din 



da 



Din 
Ding 



V. 
V. 

y. 

V. 
V. 

V. 

V. 

V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 



V. 
V. 

adv. 



V. 
V. 



/ 



see § 23. 

whenever, age after age; often 

ffdlai de ai me,' coup, of jaw ai 

me; de ai me hkum yUf jaw ai me 

hkum pru. 
to cast out, expel; mostly used in 

in the form shdden. 
to reach up to a thing; dep n ni? 

can you reach it. 
to do, make, form, fashion; often 

used as an auxiliary; galaw di, 

pyau di, 
to close the eyes myi di. 
to set aside, leave out as one of a 

party, 
see part; nchyang ngai mi ngai di 

da na* 
to pick, as fruit from a tree or 

flowers from a stalk, 
to pick and throw down; to fall 

from a height, 
the common rice pot. 
a large bowl, or pot. 
an egg, see tidi. 
to lay an egg. 
the shell of an egg. 
to bo satisfied, myit dik, ai' to be 

complete, fulfilled, ahkytng dik 

sai, 
to obstruct, hinder, prevent, 
see parts, 
see § 74 (a.);. AAra nang de din nga 

aif in this case din may be trans- 

lated as a noun, an intervening 

space, 
to put On shoes kyepdin din ai; 

comp § 66. 2. (f.) 
to be straight, rectilinear; in a 

moral sense to be honest, up- 
right, true-, corn^. % ^, b. 



132 



TOOABULABT. 



Ding bat 
Dingda 
>» diag 
»f dung 

„ dung 

»f gam 
t» grin 
.• grup 



t* 



>t II 



khu 
la 



ft 
99 



hkru 
hkrawn 



„ man 

,y ,y hkrum 
., nyawm 
.•ru 
„ sa 
„ sa 

9. si 
ft 8i 
>» Bing 
„ tawk 
,. H dan 

„lita 



Dip 
Dip 



n. 

n, 

adv. 

n« 

a. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 

n. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

a. 
u. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
a. 

V. 
V. 

n. 

n. 

V, 
V. 

n. 



V. 

V. 



an arcb; see part; 

the south; comp. nda. 

see § 76, and comp. man tnan. 

the north; also length in opposi- 
tion to breadth. 

BOO g 36. 2. (d); also pronounced 
dinutung* 

a locust; ding gam yaw. 

to bo firm, durable, permanent. 

to cover, as with a net; suingatun 
kifbai dinggrup. 

a family; all within a house. 

a married man; also called hiing- 
gaw rawn at tva, 

a bamboo drinking vessel. 

to pass through as a pole through 
a basket, 

an old man. 

honest, true; see parts. 

retribution; a woe; 

to suffer punishment, or woe. 

to bond low. squat; Bur. g5. 

see Introduction 9. (a.) 

old; comp. ma. :\ 

to do with full determination, 
dingsa sa nna gtilatv. 

to beckon; question by a sign. 

a small boll. 

the common small lizard. 

to cut across; go a short road. 

to shorten, abbreviate as in speak- 



mg. 



the world in which we live, ding- 
hta ga, as distinguished from 
kdtsan ga; also called chyinghta 
ga. 

to press on or down. 

to force a person to do a thing; 
comp. kamt/et. 



KAOHIV OBAKMAB. 



18S It 



' \ 



Dit 

Du 
Du 
Du 

ft hkra 
Du hicra ) 

liidaw ) 
Dum 

Dum 
Dum 



Dum 
Dum- 
brung 
etc. 
Dumka 

Dum- ) 
hpawng ) 
Dumsa 



„ „ sha 
Dumsi 

„ „ prung 
Dumsu 

,, „ kasha 
Dung 
Dungji 
Dup 



Dut 

Dili 
Dai 
Dai 



V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 

adv. 
u. 

V. 

n. 

V. 



n. 
a. 
n. 

n. 
n. 



V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n 

V. 



V. 

V. 
V. 

a. 



to nail, fasten with a nail; to driye 

as with a hammer, 
the neck, 
a chief. 

to arrive, come to a place, 
see § 74. 2. 

see app. III. 1. 

to remember, be conscious of; to 

feel; comp. hprang, 
a bin, granary; ntam dum 
to play an instrument, suwhpyi 

dum; bau dum; to clap the handi 

hiia dum. 
see app. IV. 1. 

see S 40. Uem. 

an orujimental bamboo case, as for 

a fan; from mlum and ka 
a temporary collection of small 

houses; see parts- 
a nat-priest; see Introduction 8— 

10. V. to perform the duties of 

a dumsa, uIbo callod dumaa ffdlaio, 
to receive the piy of a dumsa. 
a porcupine. 

the spines or quills of a porcupine, 
a cow. 

a calf; see i:f 12.2. (a.) 
to sit; to perch. - 
flour as used at a nat offering, 
to pound, crush by pounding; to 

set in order by pounding; N-gawn 

iva Idmu ga hpe dup sai, 
to break off; to break as by pull. 

ing. 
to sell; opp, to mdri. 
to be sbarp', Co^tV ouyiq* 
see § %h. ^. (,a.^ 



184 



TOOABUIiABT. 



Dai 
Dai 



Dai 
», daw 

,. „ sh&ra 
Dau 
Dau 
Daw 

Daw 
Daw 



Daw 

Daw 
,. hkrawng 
„ hpum 

Dawm 

Dawn 

Dawn 

Dawng 

Duvng 



,. hkawn 
Dagam 
Dugup 
Dugraw 
Dttram 
Daren 

Daru 
Daru 

Dru 



pro. 
adv. 



conj, 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V, 
V. 

n. 
par. 

V. 

Y. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 



V. 

n« 

V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

adv. 
n. 

V. 
V, 

a. 



iee§6l. (b.) 

for dai with adverbfli of time ioe 

§§ 7a. 2. (6.); 71 !• forady. of 

comparigon see § 78. 
see § 85. 

the navel; see shddai, 
to be born; lit. cut the nayel, 
place of birth, 
to kill by hanging, 
to be enttingled; comp. khang. 
a pack, a load on a beast of burden; 

also the basket used, 
see § 62. 4. 
to break; divide in certain parts; 

n. a part, division, 
to have something in common; to 

be related; Bur. coo6, 
a post; see shddato, 
a staff; comp. suntdoi 
the large post in front of a Kachin 

house, 
to take back, withdraw as a thing 

offered; da^inn la. 
to geld, castrate, as fowls; (Shan) 

comp. dawnfff mawn. 
to angle comp. hkan, hkwi. 
see app. IV. 2, 
to suddenly project out from; to 

become visible, dawng pru., 
a flag, banner; sail of a toat. 
to sweiir; take an oath; to curse, 
same as dinggup; to bow down, 
to put on, as a finger-stall, 
see § 78. 
dysentery; ddren ren, v. to suffer 

from dysentery, 
to rebuke, scold, threaten, warn, 
to butt; ddru hkat; bainam ddru 

hkat au 
great»^exoellent; coup, of mdgam. 



./ 



XAOHXH QXAinUB. 



186 



\ i 



DIaik 


n. 


.. kap 


V. 


Dwi 
Dwi 


▼. 

a. 



Oa 


n. 


Ga 


par. 


Ga 


V. 


Ga 


n. 


•„ law 


V. 


„ ISchyam 


n. 


0am 


n. 


Gam 


V. 


Gani 


V. 


Gan 


n. 


Gang 


n. 


Gang 


y- 


Gap. 


V. 


Gap 


a. 


Gat 


n. 


Gat 


V. 


Gat 


n. 


„ baw 


n. 


„ nu 


n. 


Gin 




„di 


adv. 


„ digram 


n. 


ft hKa 


V. 



a stamp, a seal; Bur, oftdBd; also 

pronounced dasik. 
to stamp, seal; also called dajHk 

dawk. 
to be sweet, 
see § 40. (b). 



G. 



the earth; the form aga is also 
used; also soil or a division of 
land; comp. mung. 

see §§ 56. (c,d;) 61. 1. (a,) 4; 64. 6. 

to cleave; split lengthwise. 

a word; speech, language; y. to 

speak ga ga au 
to quarrel; usually ra laioga la; n. 

a quarrel, contention, 
meaning, sense, import of a word. 
see § 11. iiem; app. I. 
to avoid, refrain, abstain from, 
to be lucky, fortunate: gam raumg 

at tva; comp. iiur. o6. 
property, wealth; sut gan. 
steel. 

to pull, draw, tug; comp. kdrawi, 
to fire as a gun; to shoot as au VLr- 

row; pata gap. 
see ^ 40. b. 
a bazaar; (Shan.) 

to sow, scatter around; tdi gat at. 
a bee; see § 30. 
wax. 

a hornet; also gatnu Iddung^ 
a general preformative; comp. § 6.b. 
see § 80. 3. 
a spider, 
to distinguish, discriminate se* 

parate. 



186 



TOOABUXiimr. 



,, hkrang 


adv. 


,, htawng 
Ging 


V. 

n. 

V. 


Gingwang 


n. 


Gu 


V. 


Gum 


a« 

V. 


Gum 




»f ba 


n. 


„ din 


n. 


If gai 


u. 


II gum 


a. 


II gun 


n. 


II lau 


V. 


9, lawt 


V. 


II tpaa 


n. 


„ hpraw 


n. 


11 ra 


n. 


1. ring 
II fit 


n. 
n. 


„ rawng 


V. 


II rowt 


V. 


• 





back and forth, to and fro; gin- 

hkrang hkawm at, 
to play as a child, 
see app. III. 
to be worthy, deserving; often 

used with dan; ging dan, 
suburbs, circumjacent parts, as a- 

round a village; a district, 
to be full, complete; to have ar^ 

rived, used of time, ahkying guai. 
see § 35. 2 b. 
to bow the head or body, 
a preformative; see § 6. b. 
elephant grass as used by the nat* 

priests; gutniba gungji. 
a ball, a globe; v. to round, make 

globular; also to collect, gather 

in a heap, conip. WikaivtL 
an old woman, 
see § 35. 2. d. 
guardian nats; gutngun gumjhai; 

see parts. . 
to cause mischief, to trouble; n. a 

mischief-maker, a rebel, an un- 
ruly person; shi gumlau kdba 

rat nga at. 
to jump up and down as for joy. 
a fortune-teller; a creator, gwvdan 

gumhjjan^ see parts, 
silver; money. ^ 

a pony, a horse. 

a blessing, favor; gumring gumrat. 
a necklace; a silver ring worn 

round the neck, 
to be proud, puffed up, arrogant; 

n. pride., 
to creep, crawl as a snake; gum- 

ratf/t hkawm at. 



KAOHIV OBAMIUB. 



18T 



Gnn 



„ miga 



• V 



T. 



n. 



Gung 
Gung 
Gung 


T. 

V. 


Gup 


t 

V. 


Gai 


n. 


Gaida 
Gau 


n. 

V. 

• 


Gaw 
Gaw . 


par. 

V. 


Gaw 


V, 


Gaw 


V. 


Gawmai 


n. 


Gawk 
Gawm 
Gawn 


n. 

. n. 

V. 


Gawn 


V. 


Gawng 

GkiwngQgu 

Gayrp , 


n. 

n. 

conj 



to carry a burden on the back; to 
oarry as money, a small knife 
etc comp. hpai; to suspend from 
the shoulders. 

the side of a Kachin house set 
apart for the women, and store- 
rooms;, opp. to lup taw in&ga. 

to tempt, entice, decoy; comp. Idu. 

poison; comp. iuk, 

to be mature, ripe, fully devel- 
oped; see kung. 

to put on and wear as a hat; 
kagup gup at. 

the Kachin ginger plant, of which 
there are several kinds; gai dawt, 
gai gyeng^ gaiji^ gai hkaw etc 

a wiiiow. 

to walk us on a rail or ropo{ see 
Introduction 9< c; to cross as a 
uarrdw bridge; comp. Bur. cjt. 

see (^$i 18; 61. 1. c; 63, and 64. 6. 

to fill up as holes or depressions 
in a road; lam hku gaw ai, 

to peel, take off as the bark of a 
tree; hpun hpyi gaw ai 

to found, lay a foundation, erect, 
build; nta npawt gif,w ai. 

misfortune, calamity; defilement^ 
pollution; the usual form is gaw- 
nwi gawsha. 

a room. 

a large deep drinking vessel. 

to relate, narrate minutely as a 
tradition or history; see ahtik. 

to consider, inquire into; comp, 
sawn s^ndpdgawn, 

a spinning-wheel; a machine. 

a pagoda. 

see § 8 7 



a 18 



188 



TOOABdLABT. 



Gawt 



Gawt 



Goi 
G&de 

,» dun 
Gadaw 

„ dawng 
„ doi 



If 



91 



a 

6 



9» * 

., li 

lu 
la 



lu 



ft Itin 
„ lai 

ft la« 



If law 
ff law 



V. 



V. 



adv. 

V. 
V. 

a, 

V. 

adv. 
pron 

V. 
V. 

I ▼. 



V. 



V. 
T. 
V, 

ady* 

V. 



to drive as cattle, dunmi ni nau 
gatd yang gaw si na ma at; to 
drive as a caravan. 

to destroy; punish, avenge; to ra- 
vage in fierce anger; natgatU at/ 
shdraiv gawt ax. 

to swing; n^goi goi ai. 

see § 80. 2, and 6; 81. 

to be short; opp. to galu. 

to compare; to be alike, to resem- 
ble, (Cowrie) eomp. kdzawt* 

steep; hilly; lam gddaumg. 

to cut, to clip; mostly used by the 
Cowries; comp. dan. 

see § 83. 

other; mdsha gale. n. a part re- 
maining. 

to put on and wear as a necklace; 
gumrit gdli ai. 

to be long. 

to roll around as in dust, wallow 
as in mud; also to daub, stisep 
as in a fluid, comp. Bur. ogt 

to recall, bring up again, as an old 
nearly forgotten aebt, hka gdlu 
ai; to call for vengeance, sai^ or 
tsu gdlu ai; to repe<it itself, as a 
misfortune, gawmai gawsha gdlu 
ai. 

to thrust, pierce, as with a spear; 
ri hte gdlun u. 

to change, as clothing, comp. kdhti 
gdlai; to exchange, barter. 

to turn over; to roll over, to roll, 
gdlegdlau; to be unsettled, in- 
constant, without certainty. 

see Introduction 4. 2. 

to do, work, labor, amu gdlaw; to 
serve, provide, gdlaw jaw^ or gd* 
law ya. 



KAOHZH OBAXXAB. 



139: 



GUaw 



u 



If l»w ja 
„ loi 



9» 



mai 



» nung 



99 



99 



99 



noi 
ra 
ra 
ri 



Grin 

Garu 

. Grup 

Garai 

barai. 

Grau 

Grau 

Gasat 

Gaten 
Gwi 
Gyi 
Gyin 



▼• 



n. 
adv. 

V. 
V. 

adv. 
pron 

V, 
V. 

a. 

V. 

postp 

adv. 
adv. 

n. 

a. 

V, 

adv. 
n. 

* V. 



to pacify, spttle, as a quarrel, 
n-gung gdlaw at; to pay indemni- 
ty, as for a broken marriage vow, 
ngai en la ttng yang gdlaw mi; 
to pay a certain sum to an elder 
sister, who according to Eachin 
custom is disgraced by her 
younger sister being asked in. 
marriage, kdna hpe gdlaw na; 
money or other articles thus 
given are called shingkawt aija, 

indemnity paid, as for a broken 
marriage vow. 

see §§ 74. 3. 80. 1. 

to strike with the back of a knife 
or sword, n-gung gdrnai. 

to delay; to be slow in acting; 
comp. Idnyan, 

see § 79. 

see § 50; 

to be happy, to rejoice; see IcdhtL . 

to shake, as from a chill; to 
tremble. 

unalterable, immutable, an« 
changeable; dinggrin, 

to shout, yell, raise a war*cry;. 
comp. mdrawn, 

see § 84. adv. around, in a cirde, 
on every side. 

see §§ 64. 7. b; 74. 2. 

see gj} 79, and comp. jaja, 

a dooly, a litter. • 

see § 42; adv. see § 78. 

to fight, engage in a combat;, 
comp. sat. 

see § 80. 1 . 

a dog; Bur. cgi 

to fall in, as a river bank, 

to be pressing, urgent, serious; to 
b.e shortened; shdgyin. ' 



140 
Gjip 

Qi it 
Gyoi 



TOOAatTLABT. 



Ja 



• • 



J» 



Ja 

Ja 



.. li 



»f 



tsen 



Ja 
Jan 

Jan 



V. 
V. 

a. 



„ k&dADg 



„ mai 

I, aha 

miya 

Jang 

Jang 

Jang ) 
Jat 



} 



▼. 



adv. 

V. 

n. 



n, 
n. 

V. 

n. 

n. 

n. 

v.. 

n. 

adv. 
n. 

n. 

V. 
V, 



to b^ faded, wilted, Bhrnnken; 

comp. nyip. 
to tie, bind, sumri hie gyit u« 
unstable, c)iangeable, unsettled. 



J. 



to be hard opp. to kya; a. strong, 

hard, intense, comp. n-gunjaai; 

myitja ai; janja at, etc. 
see § 79. 

to draw or bring water, hka ja at. 
gold; property; the amount ne- 
cessary to procure a woman in 

marriage, 
a chief, or other male members of 

a community; N. L. 
females, especially of a chiefs 

household so addressed by the 

nats. 
to open the mouth widely; thus 

ja la, to gape, 
a respectful female designation; 

ngaijatif my wife, or my (elder) 

sister; comp. supp. L 
the sun; also the sun nat; jan m, 

the sun nats. 
for this and other divisions of 

time, see app. III. 8. 
to shine, emit light, 
an eclipse; lit. the sun swallowed 

by a frog, 
see § 74. 2. 
a steelyard, a Roman balance; 

(Chinese.) 
the second spokesman in a mar- 
riage affair, 
to add on to, increase, augment, 
to stick temporarily 4ks on sand or 

in mud ; li jat mat sa; oomp. mdra. 



KAovnr CBiJaUB. 



14kl 



VK 



J»P 

Je 
Jen 

Jen da 
Jep 

Jet 

Jeyang 

Ji 



Ji 


n. 


Ji krawng 


n. 


,» nn 


n. 


Ji nma 


u. 


Jik 


n. 


Jin 


V. 



Jing 



Jinghkam 
Jinghkn 

„ „ hku 
Jinglam 
Ju 



Jn 



▼. 

T. 

V. 
V. 

V. 

V. 

n. 



V. 



n. 
n. 

T. 

n. 

V. 



n. 



to be hot, pungent to the taste; 

oomp. mdjap. 
to tear, rend, as clothing^^e kau ai. 
to hang up, suspend as a skin 

when drying in the sun. 
see parts- 
to prevent, hinder, prohibit by laiir 

or action, 
to binder, prohibit, forbid, as a 

child from doing a thing, 
to draw an inference; pass an 

opinion; to judge, 
coup, of nat; ji jaw not jaw €ti 

mdsha. 
see supp 1. 
a mosquito* 
the common fly. 
time before the present order of 

things; see Introduction 9. b. 
see app. IV. 3. 
to be ready, as for work, or as 

food for eating; comp. hkut; sJu^ 

jin sd ni ? 
to vie, emulate compete, contend 

for superiority; gat jing yu gcg^ 

let us compete in running; also 

pronounced hkying, 
the large horso-fly. 
a friend; jinghku jing-yu ni, 

friends, 
to make friends, 
the trunk of an elephant 
to burn, as wood, hpun ju ai; to 

roast over a fire, shan ju ai; to 

offer a chicken or hog to a nat, 

ujUf ivaju. 
a thorn, 
to penetrate, prick as. a thorn; to 

be pricked by a thorn. 



149 



rooivOhkXT, 



Ju 



T. 






Ju mSjat 
Jum 
Jum 
Jumpha 



Jun 



Jun 

Jung 

Jung 



Jut 
Jai 



a. 

V. 

n. 
n. 



V. 



V, 
V. 
V. 



„ wa 

JhVL 

» jau 
Jau 
n gawng 

Jau 

Jaw 

Jaw 
Jawm 



n. 

V. 



n, 

a. 

adv. 

par. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
adv. 



to snatch, to aeiase abruptly and 
repeatedly, shdraw ju at mdjaw 
u, toa ma mi; fig. to be impu^ 
deut, brazen, grasping, ju ai wa^ 
comp. nju* 
endless, unceasing, everlasting, 
to take hold; to hold, grasp, seize, 
salt, 
a band, strap by which something 

is carried; also pronounced 

jingpha. 
to happen in accordance with pre- 
diction or wish; myihtoi ga jun 

at; mdtsa ga jun ai; comp. dik 

and yam^ 
to raise as a post of a new house, 
to be sharp; (Cowrie;) see dai 
to be sot, firm, established; myit 

jungai; mdchyi jung ai, a chronic 
. disease; comp. noi. 
a corner, 
to spend, as money; to be current 

as certain kind of coined money; 

daibaw gumhpratv nang e n jai 

lu ai. 
see Introduction 8 --9. 
early. 

early, in good season; comp. § 73. 
for words in Jau, see app. III. II. d. 
a man skilled in any art; ndanjau- 

gatontj an archer, 
to serve as before a chief or at a 

special occasion comp. pdjau. 
to give, becaune requested or 

otherwise inclined; comp. ya. 
see app. IV. 3. 
together, in company, in union; 

jaivm gdlaw mu; jawm sha mu; 

nanhii jatmn.sa md su. 



XAOHUr OBAXMAB. 



148 



Jawn 
Jawng 



«v 



Jawng 

Jawng 

Joi 

Ja 

Jabu 



„hka 
,, hkan 
,, hku 
ff hku 
„ hkyi 
,, hkyawn 
p hkrai 
•f nun 

„ hpu 

„ hpawt 

ftrang 
„re 

„rit 

„ru . 

„rawp 

„hte 

,y hten 
„ „labye 
„ htuk 



V. 

V. 



,y htum 
„ htung 

„htai 



n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 



V. 

n. 
n. 
a. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 
n, 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 

n. 



to ride a pony or in a carriage; 

gutnrajatvn at; lengjawn au 
to engage in rivalry; to compete^ 

contend, amu galaw jawng at, 

also pronounced sliing jattmg; 

comp. jing. 
an umbrella; comp. Bur. o!J|8t 
a school, monastery, Bur, Qnc|96t 
see app. IV'. 1 and 4. 
see Introduction 6 and § 55. 
liquor drawn from the rice (tsd\ 

after the best part (inachyan) 

has been prepared, orarawn. 
to separate, disunite; comp. hka, 
a fresh water crab, 
juice, sap of vegetables, 
the number ninQ] jdhku shi, ninety, 
the barking deer; Bur. ^, 
a wolf, 
an orphan, 
the mother of N-gawnwa; Kachin 

tradition, 
the price, cost, charge, worth of 

anything; comp. hpu, 
the morning, 
a threshing floor, 
see. app. I v. 3. 

a frontier, boundary; latna gajdrit. 
native liquor, 
a Burmese zayat. 
cause, occasion, provocation; shi 

jahte tarn at; comp. mdra, 
to destroy, injure; comp. hten. . 
a cripple; a lame person, 
to adj.uBt/ put in order, comp, 

htuk; to spell, 
see app. III. 2. 
a great nat, much feared among 

all the Hill-tribes of U. Burma, 
a mat for a floor or a bed. 



144 



TOOAIULABT, 



Ji htau 
„ wat 



T. 



Y. 



Ka 


▼. 


Ka 


V. 


Ka 
Ka 


V. 

n. 


Kam 


T. 


Kam 


V. 


Kamhtaw 


post] 


Kan 
Kan 
„ mise 


n. 
n. 

V. 


Kandang 


n. 


f, leng 
Eang 


n. 

T. 



Kang 

Kang 
Kang 



V, 



n. 



V. 



to ahont, call aloud; oomp. fOru. 
adv. loudly, jahtau shdaa u. 

to force, as money, on raise pre- 
tence; to pick up a grievance; to 
accuse wrongly for the sake of 
causing trouble. 



K. 



to write; Uiika ka at; ka ifa, to 

compose, see parts, 
to embroider, mdka ka; mark with 

different colors, 
to dance, Bur. co; comp. mdnau, 
a basket; a wicker basket; the 

liur. §£t; comp. Mngnai. 
to believe, have faith in; comp. 

sham^ anl tndkam. 
to be willing, disposed, inclined, 

ngai kamgdldw na; comp. mdyUf 

and § 70. 2. 
for, on account of; comp. mdtu 

and mdra. 
sulphur, brimstone, 
the stomach, abdomen, 
to have a motion of the bowels; 

to have diarrhoea, 
a carrying-'pole such as used by 

coolies. •' 

a yoke for oxen, 
to be stretched, tight, tense, opp. 

to nu; comp shdkang. 
to go free, escape as when fired 

at; gap rat ti mung kang nna n 

hkra at; comp. Bur. €X)£t 
custom, duties paid on goods; 

comp. Bur. oo^t. 
to be dry, as rice dried in the 

sun; n-gu kang ai. 



XAOHIN Ol^AMMAB* 



146 



Kap 

Kat 

„ kat 

Ke 

Kinding 

Ku 

Ku 

Kum 

Kumba 

Kumbai 

Kumgyin 
Kumla 

Kumhpa 

Kum taw 



Kun 


par 


Kung 


V. 


,, dawn 


V. 


Kaidawn . 


n. 


Kau 


V. 


Kau mi 


a. 


Kaw 


par. 


Kawng 


n. 


Kawiig 


n. 


Kawp 


n. 


Kawp 


V. 



V. 

▼. 

ady, 

V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 

n. 
n. 

n. 

n. 



to build as a house or a village, 

fUa kap^ kdhtaumg kap; to stick, 

adhere to, comp. Bur. fo& 
to be satisfied; comp. hkru. 
enough, in a sufficient degrree; 

anhtc hh'u hkru kat kat slia ga at, 
to bo wet, moist; comp. tnadi 

(Cowrie.) 
a figurative mifne for the earth; 

see SpellingJiook $ 27. 
a bed, i/up ku; a table sha ku; a 

platform; Bur. ^, 
to trust in; to pay respect, to wor- 
ship; comp. naw. 
to put up a partition, wall; sha- 

kum kum at. 
to fold, double, crease; pdnep kuftu 

ha u. 
the spleen; also pronounced kan- 

hat or kanpai. 
a cucumber, 
a sign, token, indication; tUa gd' 

law na kmnju nga, 
a present, gift and offering as to 

a nat. 
the man who follows the JVau- 

shawnf/ in a dance, 
see ;^ 65. 7. 

to be mature; same as gung. 
to praise, coup, ot shdkawn. 
a capon. (Shan.) 
to throw away, give up, abandon, 

part with; comp; § 69. 
some: usual form nkau mi. 
see § 20. 
a tusk, 
a hil]. 

a crust, rind, shell, 
to abate, cool down; mdain kaufp 

at. 



o 19 



146 



TOCABUIiABT. 



Koi 



„ ., hkup 



hkrawng 
hpan 
sliingra 
Kttup 
„ ba 
M bii 
9, bun 



I 
I 



ft 



bung 



♦» t» 



dum 



»» 



brim 



„ brawng 

.1 bye 
>« byaw 
,y dum 

„dai 
,, dawn 



V. 



V; 



a. 



V. 



V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 

a. 

V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 

V. 

V. 

T. 
V. 
V. 

pron, 



to be hungry, n. hunger, kaum 

hpangkdra hkrum at. 
to go out of the way; turn aside 

from; avoid. i 

a middle, midst, centre, kdang i 

tsap II. 
to divide in two equal parts; to 

have reached the half as of a 

road, lam ktfafiff hkup at. 

to divide in halves. 

to put a thing so as to balance. 

the traditional home of the first 
human beings; Kdang Shingra ga 
kaw nna du at len. 

to cover; cacth as fish with a cast- 
ing-net. 

big, large, great; opp, to kdji; kd- 
ba tva, V. to grow. 

to rejoice, be glad, happy; kdbu 
gdra. 

the ringed white ant, eaten by 
the Kachins. 

tho death-dance; coup, of Idhkivi; 
see Spelling Book S 29. 

to play and dance the death* 
dance; comp. ndaw. , 

to be bright, shining; kdbrim rat 
nga at. 

to act roughly; to stir up a tu* 
mult; to be unruly. 

to step on, tramp on. 

to cook, soften by cooking. 

to whisper; speek with a 8up« 
pressed voice; comp. kdhte. 

see {}S 50. 62. 

to be rambling, incoherent, bro- 
ken, without order; ndai tna hti 
kddawn at. 



KAOHIH aBAMllAB. 



ut 



<\ 



Kidawng 

„ gam 
». gat 

pgyi 



gum- 
hkawng 

„ jau 
„ jawng 
„ kang 
„ hkyin 



„ la 
» lang 

19 lang 
„leng 



V. 

pron 
n. 

V. 

a. 

V. 

a. 



y. 



u. 

V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 



n. 
n. 



adv. 

V. 



to Btumblo, fall, be upset. 

other, another, not this but the 
contrary, opposite. 

clay. 

to run; to flee; comp. gat. 

the yellow beads, usually worn 
by a chief; beads, in general. 

good, well; proper, agreeable; n 
hfja, bad, unwell, improper. 

to confuse, create trouble; to act 
contrary to law or order kdjam 
ffdlam amu gdlaw ai loa. 

little, small, unimportant; opp. to 
kaha\ kdji tva. v. to grow small; 
kdji shUj adv. a little, in a small 
degree or quantity. 

to be very hot; jaw nau kdjet ai. 

to be rumored, spoken about; to 
be famous, noted. 

publicity, notoriety, fame; a. fa- 
mous, etc., k(fjat gumhkawng 
fjdra at (or tsaw ai) wa, a man 
who seeks fame or notoriety, 

to ciitch, as anything blown away 
by the wind. 

to be startled, scared; tu twitch 
nervously. 

to roast, toast, bake by a slow 
fire; Bur. f»6. 

to put or collect into heaps; to 
crowd together as several fami- 
lies into the same house; also to 
marry a deceiised brother's wife; 
gaicla kdhkyin^ same as gaida 1\ta. 

see app. HI. 2. 

a kite, a hawk; also pronounced 
gdlang; see lang. 

see § 74. 2. and comp. lang, 

to lie down, to recline, yup kdleng 
ai; comp. taw. 



148 



TOOABULAST. 



$9 



man 



%9 mo 
„ myet 



„ nan 
i. nang 

f. ning 
t* f» f 
ft nang J 



•• 



nu 



»f 



ft 



nut 



nau 



„ nawn 
„ nawng 
., nawng 

ftnga 

»ng»t 

>t ngai 
MPa 



V. 

adv. 



V. 



n. 

V. 

adv. 
adv. 
adv. 

adv. 

n. 



n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

V. 

V. 

V. 
V. 



to slice; to out into parts. 

see § 76 and comp. nian; this term 

is more and more used as the 

Bur. o»coroot 
to struggle, kdmu hkat at; to force 

against one's will; comp. kdmyet, 
to hit, as when anything falls 

upon anyone, i/at hpun ngai hpe 

kdmyet at; to force, induce by 

force; comp. dip. 
see § 27. and supp. 1. 
to cling to, follow as a child its 

mother, 
see {} 80. 2. 
see $} 83. 
see (j 80. 3. 

any-where, every-where. 

see § 27. and supp. 1; comp. nu; 

figurative usage: the main idea 

or stay, the principle part, the 

first cost; wan Jinghpaw ni a 

kifnu f-ai nga at; ga kdnu hkrai 
. hkrai tsun u. 
to go backwards, recede, draw 

baclc; kdnut tea. 
see supp. 1. 
to associate with, to accompany, 

implying intimacy, 
to thrust, push, press against 

with force, 
to be swarming, to abound as the 

sea with aquatic creatures, 
to bend or shake as the head, to 

bend backward a little; comp. 

nga. 
to shake back and forth; to shake 

as the hands, 
to remove; to put out of the way, 
to mend, to patch as old clothes. 



KACHIK OBAMMAB. 



149 



Kipat 

If pn* 
•iPftw 

II prop 
„pru 

„hpa 
„hpu 
„ hpret 

„hpru 

„ hpraw 

„ra 
lira 
II ran 



II rang 
II rap 



II 



ren 



y, ri nkri 
II ring 



II 



ru 



// 



y, rum 

f, ran 

rawt 



V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 
V, 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 



/ 



V. 

V. 
V. 

r. 



id cIoBOi obstruct as a road or 

passage, 
to pack as earth around a post; to 

fill as a grave, 
to break open; explode with a 

sharp crack or sound, 
to itch; to feel a hot, itching sen- 
sation, 
to indurate, harden; temper as 

steel, 
the shoulder, also csilledldpha. 
see hpu and supp. 1. 
to strike with the flat of the 

hand, 
a covering for rain, made of kau 

du leaves; also called dwi. 
to be full of sores; shi hkum ka* 

hptatv hpi/e ai; n. sores, 
huir of the head; comp mun. 
to shako, vibrate; comp. shdra. 
to divide, apportion, distribute; 

ktiran Idjan, same as kdran; 

kdran da, kdran jaw, see parts, 
to bring to an edge; sharpen as an 

edge-tool; nhtu kdrang u. 
the lower screen over a Kachin 

fire-place; comp. lup duiff, 
to be lonely; to be in mental un- 
rest, myit kdren, 
trouble, anxiety, 
simple, unaffected, in the natural 

state; usually kdring kdrang; 

na'ng kdring kdrang ai mdsha 

hkrai hkrai, 
to shake up ah I down, as when 

washing a bottle, 
to help, assist, aid. 
to dry, over a fire, mam kdtau ai; 

shan kdran ai. 
to pull, drag, \iaw\. 



150 



TOOABULABT. 



Karoi 



u. 



», ft Jtt»g 

Kra 

Krn 
Kran 

Krung 

Kre 

Kri 

Krin 
Kruui 



Kru 
Kruw 



Krawk 



Kasa 



91 



Bl 



„ BUk 

„ aha 



V, 

V. 

V. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

11. 

V. 
V. 



a. 
n. 



V, 



n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 



bamboos placed outside a Kachin 
house to indicate that some one 
is doiid, and not yet sent to the 
nat-country; also pronounced 

to make a kdroty see parts; also 
called kitroi rou 

to warm one's self by fire or in 
the sun; tvan km^jan kra at. 

to project, protrude, jut out. 

to cut off as a tree close to the 
ground; hpun kran kau at, 

an altar; U8cd mostly in the N, L. 
comp. hkuni/ii. 

to finish, bring to a close; the 
form shifkre is mostly used, 

pith of a tree; also the inner §olid 
substance of a tree, hpun kri, 

to be bare, naked, vacant; 

to cut oft', prune, lop as superflu- 
ous branches, si mat at Idkung 
Idkying ni shi krum kau at 

the number six; comp §35. 3. 

the chest, or the pfirt of the body 
just below tlie chest, regarded 
as the seat of the affections; us- 
ual form kraw liVvang^ but also 
Ciilled hnwHt/ Idivant/. 

to dig, as into a tree; to exaiyate 
hollow out, form a Ciivity, as in 
a rocky mountain side. 

a messenger of a chief; an am- 
bassador. 

a pattern; a model for imitation; 
kilsi kdmang, 

8ee§ 71. 2. 

a child; kdslui alat, the first born 
male child; kdsha hpuntjidim^ the 
last born child. 



KACHnr OBAMXAE. 



151 



Kishin 

o shin 

,, shn 
,, shu 



,, shun 

,. „ kashe 
„ ehung 
» If ta 
^, shawt 



„ ta 
„ ta 



▼. 
n. 

i 
I 

V. I 
I 

n. 

V. 

II. 
▼. 

adv. 
n. 



„ tawng 

,, hta 
„ htam 



»9 



htan 



„htap 

„ hte 
fy htet 



»• 



hti 



,, htigalai 



T. 

adv. 

V, 

n. 
▼. 

V. 
V. 

V. 

V. 



„ hti gari^ v. 



to wash the hands or bodj, koshin 

kdmun; oomp. m^ and hkrut. 
to dislocate as a joint; also to 

sprain, oomp. kdyaw. 
a grand-child; see snpp. 1. 
to cool, as by putting a hot iron 

into water; ganff kitpm at sfttilai 

ktlshu kdu at. 
to wrest, take by force, coerce, 

kdshun la; comp shtlnyen. 
robbery; extortion, violence, 
to be cohl; to freeze, 
see app. III. I. 
to slip, lose foot-hold; nyi^ Idgaw 

kififhatti ai. 
see § 75. 
nothing, not any thing, kaia n ftga 

ai; a. destitute, stripjjod, emp. 

ty; ktUiH k(Uva kMa ai madia; 

ffunJipraw kiHa nt/a nne/ai; v. to 

be free from, not guilty of, ru 

kiUa hka kdta ai iva; postp. 

without, wanting, 
to stumble, as over an obstticle; 

to fall as on a slippery road, 
see § 75. 
to cut; chop, as with an ax or 

sword, 
the forehead; also pronounced 

hfhtan. 
to add by placing one on another; 

comp. htap and Bur. oo5. 
to whisper, tsun kdhte ai. 
to be warm, hot; comp. kajet, jan 

ja, and lum. 
to sneeze, 
to change as clothing; n. a change 

as of clothing, 
to be grasping, close-fisted; harsh, 

rigid, austere. 



1IS2 



TOOABUIiABT. 






»» 



99 






tsap 

tBl 

tfli 
,y y, kutsan 
tsing 
tsing 81 



99 



9* 

99 



>» 



99 



»» 



tsu 

taut 

wa 



o wa 
wa 



»> 



ff 



wan 



,1 wut 
„ waw 

«ya 

„^an 



.1 yat 

»yin 



^yttn 
„yau 

.•yaw 



n. 
n. 

V. 

a. 



V. 

V. 
V. 

a. 

V. 
V. 



V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 

T. 
V. 



V, 
V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

V- 
V, 



V. 
V. 



a village; comp. mdre^ and hiawng^ 

see supp. 1. 

to sift. 

the realm of the dead, the Hades 

in Kachin tradition; katsan ga^ 

opp. to dingltta ga. 
to winnow by tossing up and 

down, 
to be cool; idsin kat$ijaw e. 
to be silent, void, solitary, 
empty; void, solitary, 
to be green, raw, unripe, 
to be withered as a limb; to be 

pilsied, Idgaw lata katsing si ai 

mdsha. 
to roll up, as a mat. 
to wiix?, clean or dry by rubbing, 
for nouns in t<«i, such as wa dot, 

wa (H^ etc., see supp. 1. 
bamboo, 
to bite, as a dog; comp* tndkra; 

also to ache, kdioa nidchyi ai. 
to go around as for inspection or 

visiting; kdivan hkawm ai; kd- 

^van yu ai; to encircle; comp. 

Uur. o^t 
to blow, as with the mouth, 
to lift, elevate from the ground, 
to itch; kdya ana; n. itch, 
to be ashamed; bashful n. shame, 
to go or draw in a long straight 

line; comp. yan. 
to strike lightly; comp. anu. 
to turn about, turn around; 

cliange as the mind myit kdyin 

at, 
to leak as a house or vessel, 
see app. III. 3. 
to mix; to unite by mixing. 



KAOHIir OBAMXAB. 



168 



Kiyaw 


▼. 


II yawp 


V. 


Kayawt 

Kya 

Kyem 


V. 
V. 
V. 



Kyit 



Kyaw 
Kazut 



V. 



V. 
V. 



to sprain, overstrain the liga- 
nittuts; comp. ktlsliin. 

to wrap up, wind around as cloth- 
ing around a child. 

to limp; comp. yawt, 

to be soft, not hard; opp, to /a. 

to put. asi(ie, as valuable clothing 
not for everyday wear. 

to f^ird, to girdle, as with a belt 
or sash; Mnqkyit kyit at; shi 
hpajet la nna kyit wu at; comp. 

to be blind, myi kyaw at. 

to stiiy, remain in a place without 

any special purpose; dai mdsha 

nany i a ktfzut nya at. 



HK. 



n 



Hka 
Hka 

Hka 



Hka 
„kap 

• • 

„lu 

„ htang 
„ wa 

Hka 



„hktt 



par. 

V. 

V. 



n. 

V. 
V. 

V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 



see § 65. 6; comp. § 5. c. 

to be bitter; comp. jap and hkri; 

Bur. ^1 
to separate, divide, comp. daw; to 

be separated, disjoined, severed; 

comp. jdhka. 
a debt, grievance; comp, ru* 
to pay or settle a debt, 
to incur a debt; n. a debtor, hka 

kap at iva. 
to collect a debt, 
a debtor; same as kka kap, see 

parts, 
to avenge or revenge; see parts, 
to pay a debt; more common than 

hka ya. 
a river, a spring; water in large 

quantities; comp. ntsin, 
the upper part of a river; opp. to 

hka nam. 



o SO 



1&4 



TOCABUIiABT, 



TXkahktnU 
^9 matsup 



»» 



»t 



nam 



Ban 



Hkali 
f » fi bu 



„ „ kawp 



Hki^m 



Ukaii 



Hkan 
Hkan 
Hkan 

ff bawp 

9» sawt. 

„ tarn 
Hkan 

Hkaug 
Hkang 



n. 
n. 

n. 

n. 

n. 

V. 

V. 



V. 



V. 



n, 
n. 
▼. 

n. 

V. 

n. 



V. 



Ukanghkyi 
Hkansi 



n. 
n. 



muddy, unclean water. 

a confluence; a place where two 

or more streiims meet, 
the lower parts of a river; see 

hka hku. 
clear, pure water, opp. to hk<i 

hkdnu; corap. Bur. cqosfi 
fever; comp. ara. 
to have fever, 
to alxite or be abated as fever; 

comp. kai(^; the verb, hkali bran 

at, is also used, 
to receive, accept; to bear, en- 
dure; usual form hkam la; comp. 

hkap^ Bur. 6, and pahkam. 
to fish with an oixlinary net; sum- 

gawn hte hkan ai; nga hkan ai 

mdsha^ a fisherman; comp* dawn 

and hktvi. 
a wild cut. 
see app. INT. 4. 

to follow, go after, chase; to imi- 
tate, copy; comp. nang, 
followers; usual form hkan baiop 

hkan nang ni, 
to imitate; play the part of an 

other; see parts. ' 

to seek, pursue; see parts, 
a phice, circuit, any indefinite 

space, shiiraw ivora hkan i rai 

nga ai. 
to prosper; shi a kdshu kdsha ni 

ring tva hkang tea ma ai, 
a trace; a foot-print, a track, la- 

gaw hkang; a scar, nma hkang; 

hkang hkang, v. to imprint, 

make a mark as by pressure, 
a lion, 
a tax, tribute; see Introduction 5. 



KAOHUr OBAWUB. 



166 



Ukap 
Hkap 



Hkat 



Hkat 
Hkawan 
Hkayawm 
Uki 

Hkik 



V 



hkik 



Hkindang 

Hkinding 

Hking 

Hking 
Hking 

H kiujawng 

Hku 

Hku 



Hku 

„ malang 
„ waw 
Hku 
„Wku^ 



V 
V, 



V. 



V. 

n. 

V. 

a. 

adv, 
n. 

n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 

D. 

11. 

V. 



V, 
V. 

n. 

V, 



to reach up to, attain to; comp. 

dap and Bee Introduction 9, e. 
to watch, wait for, hkapyu; to 

meet, intercept, lay hold of, 

hkap la, hkap jahh-um; comp. 

also such phrases as hkap san^ 

hkap shajtU; to accept, agi*ee to, 

hkaj) hkmiv at. 
to discuss; fight with wordsj 

ndamig hkat at; to keep up, as 

a heated conversation, iidang 

kalang hkat at. 
to be burnt, scorched, parched, 
the eomuion curry cup. 
a cigar, 
to be tired, fatigued; comp. ba; 

hkum hki at; myit hki ai. 
to be beautiful, elegant, hand- 
some, 
beautifully, gorgeously, 
hooks or buttons; also pronounood 

hkaidanjf. 
a pole used for shutting a door; 

comp. hting grang, 
a sieve; hking hking, v. to sift 

with a sieve. 
a saddle, gumra hking, 
a custom, precedent, habit; comp. 

htung. 
a uat-priest uf the second ord^r. 
a piith. a road; comp. lam. 
to make or become friends, jit^- 

hku hku ai; to tame, as a wild 

animal, nga uzai hku ai. 
a hole, perforation; a rent, iis. 

sure, 
to open widely, 
to make a hole, perforate, 
starvation^ famine, 
to be starving, famishing. 



166 



TOOABUIfABT, 



Hkum 



Hkuni- ) 
hkrang | 
Hkum 

Hkum 



9» 



9* 



litsin 
ma 



f PWP 
„ tawng 

Hkun 
Hkun 
Hkun 

Hkiing 



Hkungga 
Hkungga 

Hkungri 
Hkungran 



Hkut 



Hkai 



n. 



n. 
par. 

a 

n. 
a. 

n. 
n. 

a. 

n. 

V. 
V. 



n. 
n. 

V. 



▼. 



V. 



an animal body; a principal part, 
as laika hkum; a mass or por- 
tion of matter, as nhtai hkum; 
pron. see § 61. 

a shape, form, appearance. 

see S G4. 7; v, to forbid, prohibit; 

to obstruct, hinder, hkum da, 
see § 35. d.; as a preformative, Bee 

8 6. b. 
the long white pumpkin, 
one, single; also hkum mi; comp« 

§ 38. 
mud, mire; mortar, 
a solid piece of wood or stone, 

used as for a stool, 
twenty 

see Introduction 6. 

to be dry; used of clothmg; oomp. 
kang and hkraw. 

to intercept, to stop, hpun kdwig 
hkung at mdjaw nbunff n hkra 
ai; to overshadow and thus pre- 
vent growth, h^m hkung ai md- 
jaw mam si mat sa* 

to respect, honor, reverence; 
hkuuf/ga lara (?i. 

an animal offered as a sacrifice; 
com p. kumhpa and shdgu. 

a common nat altar; comp. toic^n. 

to marry, also pronounced hkin- 
ran; identical in meaning are 
the terms num to, and num 
shalai. 

to be ready, prepared; shot hkut 
m; to be settled, ss in mind or 
opinion, mi/it hkut sai; comp. jin. 

to plant, replant, hpun hkai sa; to 
narrate, tell a story, maumdtvi 
hkai ai. 



KAOHIK OBAICICAB. 



157 



HkAinu 

Hkau 

Hkau 



Hkauna 
f» tf P* 

„ „ galaw 
Hkaw 
Hkaw 



Hkaw 

Hkaw 
„ dung 

Hkaw 
Hkawm 



pron 



n. 
n. 

V. 



n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 



V. 

n. 

V. 

a. 

V. 



r ( 



Hkawng 


V. 


Hkawng 


V. 


Hkawt 


V. 


Hkoi 


V. 


>i ya 
Hkoi 


V. 
V. 


Hkigrnwi 
Hkagrit \ 


n 
n. 



see § 60. 

maize, Indian corn. 

see supp. 1. 

to agree with, be on friendly 

terms, ngai shi hpe hkau at; to 

be suitable, proper, hkau ram; 

see parts, 
a lowland paddy field; opp. to yi. 
a tract of land cultivated as a 

lowland paddy fi(>ld. 
see pirts. 
to spill, 
to foretell a happy, fortunate 

event; hkaw ya, opp. to ana 

akra ya 
to evacuate the bowels, kan hkaw 

at. 
for nouns in hkaw see app. III. 2. 
to reign, to exercise sovereign 

authority, 
useful, proper; w hkaw^ inferior, 

useless, good for nothing, 
to walk, comp. sa; for such forms 

as hkamn fam, hkawm chyai^ 

hkawm hkan^ see parts, 
to bark, as a barking doev^jahkyi 

hkawny ah 
to roll up, sumri hkawng u; to 

wind into a ring, 
to feign, pretend, hkawt hkyai; to 

act without design or purpose, 
to borrow money or rice; comp. 

shap, 
to lend, 
to scatter as a flock of birds, u ni 

hkoi mat sa; to lift as a cloud, 

snmm hkoi mat sa. 
filth, dirt; Kkaqruioilcap^^'^^TXs^* 
an insect; \\%wa\ ^oxm likagHt \vkA- 

dawn^ shingtai suit^ra. 



1&8 



YOOABULABSr. 



Hlcadawn n. 



Hkyamsa 

Kkyongnia 
Hkye 

Hlcyon 

Kkyen 

Hkyeii 

Hkyeng 
Hkyop 

Hkyet 
Hkyct 



Hkyi 

Hkying 

Hkying 

Hkyun 

Hkyawt 



Hkala 



.. lew 
,. „ aha 

»i Iwng 



n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 

&• 

V. 
V. 

n. 



n. 
n. 
a. 
n. 

V. 



V. 



V. 
V. 



a cricket; hkddawn hkalung^ see 

parts, 
happiness, pleasure, rest; Bur. q6i 

a goose. 

to rescue, save as from drowning; 

com p. Bur. aoS^ 
to clear jungle, as for a paddy. 

field ; nam hkyeng yi hkyen, 
frost, snow, ice; hkyen hkratt see 

piirts. 
to be in sorrow, distress; conip. 

yawn. 
rod, crimson, 
to break in small pieces, ahkyep 

hkyep ai, 
to fall, as a river; to dry up as a 

liquid, 
a level stretch of gtound between 

two hills; ahkyet hkyau lang; 

comp. hhfraWf and kiJdit. 
excrement, dun//. 
time, see ahkyiny. 
see, § 35. a. ' 
the kidneys, 
to expel, force away, drive out, 

as nuts or persons possessed by 

nats, nat hkyawt ai; hpyi hkyawt 

ai; to break away from a habit. 

kam hkyatd ai, 
to wound, as by a weapon, nhtu 

hie hkdla ai; also pronounced 

hkia; hkala nha, n. a wound, cut, 

slash, laceration; comp. nnia, 
to deceive, mislead; comp. lem, 
to procure through deception, 

trickery or artifice, 
the young of any kind of animal; 

gumra hkdluni*, nga hkalung, u 

hkalung, shingtai hkalung. 



KAOHIM OBAMMAB. 



169 



Hk&Ian 
Hkra 



▼. 



V. 



Hkra 
Hkra 
Hkra 



Hkfaii 



Hkraiig 



n. 

adv. 

n« 



II. 



V. 



Hkilrang 

Hkrap 

Hkrat 



n. 



V. 



V. 



Hkven 



v. 



Hkri 
Hkn 
Hkri 

Hkri 

Hkrilikraw 



V. 

n. 

V. 

▼. 
n. 



to allnre, ^ntioe, tempt, seduoe; 
tK)rap. lau, 

to hit, as a mark; to come in con- 
tact with, to experience to suf- 
fer, ru yak ai slii hh^um ai hkra 
at; com p. hkrum, 

a tripod, 

sea jii 74. 2 and comp. du hkra. 

the right in opp. to the left, pdi; 
hkra UHa^ hkra Milffa, hkra n- 
hkrem, seo parts. 

a side, as of a river, luke, road, 
field etc; wora hkran, that side; 
tidai hkran, this side. 

to release, liberate; mostly used 
as the coup, of hkt/e; hkye la^ 
hkrauf/ la; to pnss or send 
through; comp. hkren. 

dry land; opp. to hka; hka, hka* 
ranfff Idmu mahkra. 

to cry, to weep; hkrap ngu hkrap 
ngoi, see parts. 

to full; to fall behind, hpawj 
hkrai at; to give, contribute, 
gumhpraw hkrat at; to bear, give 
birth, used of animals, dumsu 
kasha hkrat ai 

to pierce, send clear through; 
adv. throughout, from side to 
side, from top to bottom; npawt 
ndunff hkren yu ai^ lit. he saw 
(from) the bottom throughout 
(to) the top. 

to braid. 

see Bupp. ] . 

to be sour, acid, as fruit comp. 
hka, 

black varnish, used by the Ka- 
chins. 

a joint. 



160 



TOOABULABT. 



Hkring 

Hkringdat 

Hkrit 
.y shara 

Hkru 

Hkru 
llkru 



Hkru 

llkruda 
Hkru turn 

Hkrura 



Ukrung 
Hkrup 



Hkrut 
Hkrai 



Hkrai 



n. 

V. 

n. 
v. 



V. 
V. 



n. 

XI. 

n. 

V. 



V. 
V. 



V. 
V. 



a. 



to delay, wait; hkum hkring u; 

adv. see S 74. 3« 
the dwelling place of a nat; 

hkring-yu hkrinffdnt 
to fear, be afraid, 
danger, occasion for fear; see 

parts, and coinp. § 12. 3. c. 
to be full, satisfied with food, 

shut hkm sat; comp. k(U and 

lawHf/. 
to burn, consume by fire; comp. 

nat. 
to be good, mostly used with the 

negative; n hkru, to be bad, 

wicked; comp. n kdja and n 

shawp. 
see app. III. 2. 
a dove, 
the ankle; also pronounced hka- 

rut urn. 
to meet, encounter, bkmm yu; to 

experience, comp. hkra: to suffer, 

as punishment or illness; art 

hkrum at; mdchyi nidkaw hkrum 

at. 
to live, be alive. ' 

to behold unexpectedly; to come 

upon suddenly or by surprise 

hkrup yu. 
to wash clothing; nba hkrut at; 

comp. kdshin and tnyit. 
to build a bridge, ftuthkrai hkrai 

at; thus, hkrai wa^ a large tra- 
ditional bridge; see Spelling 

Book § 27. 
alone, single; only; adv. hkrai 

sha^ only, solely, singly; pron. 

see § 51. c. 



KAOHIM OBAMICAB. 



161 



Hkran 



Hkraw 


V. 


Hkraw 


V. 


Hkrawn 


V. 


Hkrawn • 


V. 


Hkroi 


V. 


Hkwi 


T. 



V. 



to out out, as a nest of bees from 
a hollow tree; to dig into, as a 
worm into a tree. 

to assent, concur, agree to; yield, 
admit as right or best. 

to be or become dry; comp. kang 
and hkun, 

to be leaning on one side; a. recum- 
bent, hkrawn taw. 

to thrust or conduct through, as 
a bar through a hole; to pass 
through or by; comp. hyatvn, 

to ascend, go upward; mostly N. 
L. coup, of loi; comp. hmg. 

to search for, follow after, pursue 
for the purpose of killing or 
catching; shan hkwi ai^ to hunt, 
comp. gyam; nga hkmai^ to fish, 
especially by the use of a dam, 
couip. dawn, and hkan; mdsha 
rim na hkwi ai, to seek in order 
to arrest any one. 



L. 



La 



La 

r 


n. 


La 


V. 


La 


• 1 


La 
La 


n. 
adv. 



n. 



a race, according to Kachin tradi- 
tion, formerly inhabiting the 
Kachin mountains; La hip, long 
mounds, or elevations of the 
earth, found in the Kachin Hills, 
supposed to be graves of the La 
people. 

for words in la or lasha see § 13. 
2—5. 

to wait, keep watch for; comp. 
ala; la nga w. 

to shut, as a door, la da; opp, to 
hpaw. 

La or Ma La see app. I. b. 

see § 79. . 



o 21 



1€S 



TOOABUIiABT. 



Ija 



».bat 


V. 


Ijachyawp 


n* 


Lakle 


n. 


Lakhtak 


n. 


Ijam 


n. 


Liam 


V. 


Lam 


n. 



V. 



fi "ho 


n. 


Lan 


V. 


Ijang 


adv. 


Lang 


y. 


Lang 


V, 


Lang 


n. 


„da 


n. 


• • 


n. 


Langchyi 


n. 


Lap 


n. 


Lap 


n. 


Lat 


n. 




• 



to take, accept; to kau, to remove; 

^la sa^ to take, convey; la im, to 
bring. 

to refer to, have reference to; 
also lakapf see parts. 

a finger.ring; lachyawp chyatvp ai\ 
to put on and wear a finger- 
ring. 

magic, enchantment; lakle sdra^ 
see parts; comp. mamlan. 

time during which a person ex- 
ists; de ffiileji ^voi lak htak; Bur. 

same as lalam; also used as a verb; 

see app. IV. 2. Bur. c6, 
to spread out, expose to the sun; 

jan lam at; comp. Bur, cgji 
a road, way, street. Bur. co5t; an 

antecedent, cause or reason, same 

as the Bur. ooc@o6t, hpalatntsun 

my it ta? lam kdjikdhxi tstm mayu 

at mdjaw sa ya ai; lam mi yaWf 

adv. again, moreover. 
a crossing fork of two roads, 
to create; coup, of hjxin. 
see § 81. 
to oifer cattle as a sacrifice; nga 

lang ai; comp. ju, 
to carry in the hand, comp. gun 

and hpai; to take or bring along, 
see kalang, 

an eagle, a vulture; Bur. co8too. 
a hawk; comp. Bur. cd€iu){ 
a tower, turret; a watch-tower, 
a leaf; hpim lap; shatmai lap. 
one rupee; see app. IV. 4. 
the first born; see kdsJui lat^ and 

comp. Bur. coofS. 



KAOHIK OBAHKAB. 



168 



Le 



Le 


adv. 


Le 


par. 


Le 


Y, 


Lem 


n. 


Lem 


V. 


Len 


n. 


„hta 


V. 


Len 


V. 


Leng 


n. 


Leng 


V. 


ff leng 


adv. 


Leng 


n. 


Lep 


V. 


Let 


par. 


Li 


par. 


Li 


n. 


Li 


V. 


Li 


u. 


i, shap 


V. 


Liia 


adv. 


Lim 


V. 



Ling 



n. 



V. 



thoughts, fancies, le le waw waw 

prtisai; v. to be dim, blinded, 

myi le le rat n^a at. 
see § 75; /em, pron* a. see § 85. 2. 
see §§ 65. 8; 70. 3. 
to have jmssed through or be- 
yond; comp. lai and ffdle; shi dai 

hJcu hta U; comp. hkraitm. 
see app. IV. 1. 
to deceive, cheat, delude; comp. 

hktflem and Sur. c65« 
a custom; comp. lai len, 
to follow an example, to imitate, 
to go about, to visit from place to 

place; to ramble, le^i hkatmn ai; 

comp. Bur. cq^« 
a wave; Bur. ^Su 
to be light, bright, visible; comp. 

Bur. co6tii 
plainly, clearly, openly, distinctly, 
a vehicle, cart; a wheel, 
to overtake, to come up with, to 

catch as in a pursuit, 
see § 68. 2. 
see § 60. 1—2. 
a disease; the Cowrie word for 

ana. 
to bo heavy, not light; opp. to 

satiff; Bur. coot; comp. nufjtin, 
a boat; any Sailing vessel; comp. 

Bur. Qcqu 
to row; lihtUt ^o push, propel a 

boat with poles, 
see § 76. 
to overflow; reach a certain height 

as water at a flood; to cover as 

water a bridge, mdnkrai lim mat 

sai. 
to use as paper money instead of 

silver; maisau gumhpraw ling ai. 



164 



VOGAB0l«ABY. 



Ling 
Lit 

t 

x. 

Lit . 
Lu 

Lu 

Lu 

LulcBuk 

Lum 

Lum 



Lum 


n. 


Lum 


V, 


Lung 


V, 


Lung 


n. 


t> br^ 


Hf 


„ likrung 


n. 


11, 


f. pu 


u. 


» seng 


n. 


Lup 


n. 



„ makoi 



li. 

par, 
par, 

V. 
V. 

n. 

▼t 

y. 



V. 



to be of equal weight or value; 

kctfii jot mi guiiihpraw jot mi ling 

ai, 
a burden, a load for a human be* 

mg. 
see, li and § 60. 
see § 60; lu or lu na, §§ 62 and 64. 

7. b. 
to drink; to smoke; luJipa, n. drink; 

Imha, food; comp. shahpa. 
to be able, can; to have, possess; 

comp. su. 
a body of warriors, hpyen luksuk; 

forces, troops. • 
to be round, globular; comp. 

tawng, trin, tvan; Bur. o^i 
to bo warm as clothing; tepid, 

lukewarm; comp. kdhtet; Bur c^, 
see app. Lb. 
to receive and care for, willingly 

and with pleasure; lum la ai; 

dai iva ngai hpe lum la ai, 
to ascend; go up; opp. to yu. 
a stone; only used in composition; 

comp. nlung and § 30. 
a stony tract of land, 
pebbles, gravel, 
a rock, a bowlder, 
a CJivo; comp. nhkun and ginlawng 

hku» 
a precious stone, 
a grave; the structure over a grave; 

comp. mung hku; v, to bury; 

mang lup ai; mang makoi ai^ 
to bury; having especial refer-* 

ence to sending the spirit to 

the nat country; comp. shdbawn 

dat; the lup mdkoi, niay take 

place years after the mang lupf 

or mang mdkoi. 



KAOHIK OBAMJUB. 



166 



Luphka 

„rim 
Lupding 



ft 



daw 



Ltii 



Lai 
Lai 

Laika 
Lau 
„lau 
Lau 

Lauhki 
Law 

Lawk 
Lawm 

Lawng 



n. 
▼. 



n. 



V. 



V. 

n. 

V. 

adv. 
y. 

n. 
par, 

n. 

V. 
V. 



the ditch around a Kachin grave. 

a burial place; lupra kdncHf v. to 
preiwiYo the place for a grave. 

to put on the rafters for the roof 
of a grave. 

the upper screen over a fire-place; 
comp. kitrap; lupding nhtu^ a 
largo sword given at a wedding 
or settlement of a grievance. 

the chief fire-place in a Kacbin 
house; the place where friends 
or visitors are received, lupdaw 
dapf or daw dap; the Inp daw dap 
has four di'Visions, viz. UiHa 
duUf nhtiing dun^ Idtou dtm^ and 
nhting htang dun; the two first 
are reserved for visitors, or 
friends especially honored. 

to pass by, go beyond; to over- 
step, transgress, usually with 
htaui; shi tdra lax wa htaivt wa; 
postp. see § 84. 

silk. 

a habit; custom, a model, pattern, 
lailen; comp, ningli. 

a book, Uiili laika; a letter. 

to haste, be in haste. 

quickly, instintly. 

to tempt, persuade; influence for 
good or bad; comp. agung alau. 

distilled liquor; comp. jam. 

see §§ 64. 4; 65. 8; 70. 3. adv. law 
lawj comp. § 72. a. and 79. 

a compartment of a paddy field. 

to be with, aoconipany; to coexist, 
be a part of. 

to bet, to strike in a wager; comp. 
taw and Uur. ccoofi 



166 
Lawng 



,1 dat 



Lawng 



Lawt 



Lawze 
Loi 

„ loi 



Laing 

„ban 
,, ban 



f> 



bu 
„ bau 

„bawp 
„dap 



If 



di 
di 



n. 



V. 



V. 



V. 



n. 

V, 

n. 



n. 



n. 



n. 



n. 
n. 

n. 
n. 



adv. 
n. 



yOOABULABY, 

any iiiBtrument/ such as a knife, 
bone, piece of leather eto., with 
which a man has been killed, by 
the means of sorcery; oomp. bau. 

to send a latvnff by the help of a 
nat or witch; also called Imimff 
latvng at. ^ 

to be satisfied, satiated, glutted, 
comp. kkni; to satiate, gorge 
one's self, as with food pro- 
cured accidentally and unexpect- 
edly, sha lamif/ un md sat. 

to be free, at liberty, unre- 
strained; comp. Bur. cgo^; to es- 
cape, gain liberty; to be exempt 
from; comp. raw. 

a mule, an ass; comp. Bur. ccoo. 

to bo easy, not difficult; opp. to 
ru; Bur. cgoSt 

a little, a few, a small quantity, 
see § 79; loiloi sha^ adv. little 
in a small degree. 

a deep part of a body of water; 
opp. to rat/ hka Iding, comp. ing 
and Bur. s^rS. » 

a rest, a time of rest, loban nhtai; 
comp. ban. 

a collection of fantastically paint- 
ed posts outside a village; also 
the place inside of such posts. 

a pair of trousers; comp. tw, 

a history; comp. ahiik abau; Idbau 
gawn, see parts. 

the calf of the leg, Idgaw Idbatop. 

the place on a nat-altar where the 
offering is put; also called hkri- 
dap, 

see § 81. 

the nose; Iddi hkii^ a nostril; Cow- 
rie nddi. 



XAOHIV OBAXICAB. 



187 



LSdu u. 

,1 ff hkrom n. 



91 dan y. 
„ dawn - n. 

,tg«t n. 

» g« V. 

„ gaw n. 
,» „ ht.on V. 

„ gawn V. 

If gawt I V. 

„ gyim V. 



„ ja V. 



>i jang V. 

„ kan n. 

„ kang I n. 

„ kap n. 

If ku n. 

„ kung n. 



„kung ] n. 

„ chyit n. 

f, hkam n. 

9, hkap n. 

„„dan V. 

„ hkat V. 



a Bet time; a definite period. 

to pass, as the time of one year, 

thus to be one year old; Iddu 

lai, see parts, 
a scrape, 
to stretch the hands forward; lata 

lifdawn at. 
bees, 
to steal; n. a theft or a thief; tdffti 

laffiU, see S 12. 3. f. 
a leg, a foot, 
to bo lame; see parts, 
to be lazy, indolent, idle; Idgaum 

ai wa, 
to scoop up with the hands; lata 

hie Idf/aivt ai. 
to withdraw secretly as from a 

company, hlgyim $a ai; also pro- 
nounced maf/yim. 
to be bad, difficult us a road, latn 

hfja at; to grow worse, as a state 

of illness, mtichyi Idja ai. 
to prepare, put in order; to repair, 
a hollow cylinder worn in the 

lobe of the ear. 
a ladder; a flight of stairs; Bur. 

a x^air of pinchers or snuffers. 

see app. I V . 8. 

the larger branches of a tree; la- 

kuHf/ Idkyintj nif branches, large 

and small, 
a stick or wooden spoon used for 

stirring rice while cooking, 
flax or hemp, 
see app. IV. 2. 
the largo sinew of the ham. 
to hamstring, to hough, 
to kick as a horse. 



168 



VOOABULABT. 



3Lahlni 
», hkawn 



f» 



hkawn 



yy hkawng 
„ bkreng 



ft 



ff 



hkrn 
hkwi 



ft 
ft 

99 



la 

lam 

li 



,, ma 
,9 man 



91 



mik 



9* 



mu 



»f »f 



ma 



V. 



n. 



V. 



a. 



n. 



n. 



V, 



„ „ mung 



>i 



mun 

yp myin 
yi nam 



pron 
n. 

V. 

a. 
n. 

n. 
n, 

V. 

V. 

adv. 
n. 

n, 

n. 
n. 



to care for, protect, guard; usual- 
ly with its coup. Idnu. 
a bracelet; lakkaivn hkatvn at, to 

wear aB^racelot. 
to collect as money, gunihpraw 

lahkawn, hkuitsi hthkatcn at; n. 

a collection; comp. hta. 
the number two; see § 35, 3; la- 

hkawHf/ preUf see app. VI. 2. 
a fence around a grave; lahkreng 

mdnaUf v. to danoo around a 

grave, 
the hoof; lahkru ga^ v. to be cloven- 
footed; to part the hoof, 
coup, otktibung; by some regarded 

as a soixirate word, and used for 

the doath-danee for persons of 

importance, 
see ^ 51. 

see app. IV. 2; and comp. lam, 
to bo greon, savory as green grass; 

t$it hit ai tsingilM. 
see § 35. 2. d. 
a wbile, a short interval of time; 

ngai n nga ai Idtnan i. ' 
a supernatural sign or occurence; 

comp. Bur. ^SoS- Idmik kunUa, a 

miracle; see parts, 
the firmament, heaven; comp. mu. 
to be cloudy; overdrawn with 

clouds, 
to be alternately cloudy and 

clear, 
see § 81. 
a large joint; comp. hkrihkraw; a 

joint, as of bamboo, 
nails of the human body; dawsi 

talons, 
see app. III. 1. 
booty, loot; captives taken in war. 



KAOHIK OBAMKAB. 



L&ni 



»» >f 



sat 



>t nmg 
•»nga 
u ngang 



•,ngu 
» nyet 



» nyau 
f, pa 



„pai 
., pai 

I, pu 
„ pawp 

„ pran 
,, Pri 



ft 



)f 



p 



hpa 

hpa 
lipan 



hpu 
hpum 



„ hput 
„ hpaw 



n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 
n. 



n. 



n. 
n. 



n. 
n. 
n. 
n, 
postp 

V. 

n. 

n. 

n. 



V. 




11 
li 



a 22 



a day; lit. one* day; oomp. $ 88. 

opp. to Una, a night; Bee nu 
a day's journey, lam Idni «< 

hkawn ai; see parts, 
a year; comp. niug and § 38. 
^ild plantains; comp. Idngu. 
the head man or leader of a band 

when on the war-path; opp. to 

lifjjap; the W/ap although in the 

rear may 1x5 the real loader, 
the plantain tree; hfnf/u hpm^ 

lantju si; see piirts. 
to be slow, 
a cotton gin used by the Kachins; 

a gin such as used by the Pa- 
. lawngs is allied ItUlang. 
a cat, from nyau^ to mew. 
a rafter extending from, the plate 

of the building to the ridge; 

comp. sh<fre, 
see app. IV, 3, 
see hHung. 
a snake; comp. pu, 
a snail, 
sed § 84, 

to sprinkle, as for the sake of pu- 
rification, 
the shoulders; also pronounced 

kdhpa, 
see app. IV. 2. 
the palm of the hand, lata Id- 

hpan; the sole of the foot, Idgaw 

Uhpan, 
to see, behold, stare at; Idhpn yu 

ai; comp. hpu. 
the forearm; hfhpum Idhpaw^ the 

arm. 
the kueo', Idhput \ytMX, d\^ \.^ Vty&^l. 
n leaf, couaVvVct^vV ^'^ t^Tv ^^\:v3kft ^\ 

U8o; con\\\ U'p^^o \sxA^Syy^. %*. 



170 



TOOABULABY. 



Li&hpaw 
,, hpawt 



„ hpawt 



„hpra 
»f hpri 
>i hpyen 
„ hpyaw 
tu 



tf Ba 
ffBa 

f* fi 



81 









BU 



..ta 
„tung 

ft tup 



n. a bow of the ordinary kind, uaed 
for clay pellets; comp. ndan. 

y. (to keep closely, be unwilling to 
part with; to regret the loss of; 
shi kasha hpe jaw kau na shi Id- 
hpaivt tiffa at; n Wipauif not to 
begrudge, or spare; shi d kasha 
hjpe shi n lahpawt ai, gunHipraw 
hpe muntf n lahpawt at. 

V, to be or become worthless, use- 
less, ready to throw away, Id- 
hjMwt mat at; shan lahpaiat mat 
sai; n lahpaui^ to be in a desir- 
able condition, not spoiled or de- 
stroyed; nam si ngam da rai ti 
muny n lahpawt nga ai. 

n, } dry leaves on the ground. 

n, a rake. 

n. the lap; bosom. 

V. to wliistle. 

n, a violent wind, a gale, hurrican; 
lam rUf V. to blow a gale. 

n. a vein; also a sinew, a tendon. 

n. a word of contempt; comp. mnat. 

V, to die by accident; considered 
very disgraceful, and unfortur 
nate; thus, lasa ga^ the land of 
those having died by accident. 

V. to be poor, lean; opp. to hptm; 
Cowrie inahkru, 

n. a whip. 

n. news about a death; lasu . su ai 
V. to call to a funeral. 

n. see latung. 

n. the hand; also the arm; lata la^ t. 
to choose, select; see parts, 
the first wife among two or more; 
the second is culled Idshi^ and 
the third Idpai. 

n. I the fist; see also app. IV. 2, 3. 



KAOHIK OBAMHAB. 



171 



Latsa 
fftsa 

„hta 
„ htan 
M htin 
„ wan 



„ wi 

„ wai 



>f yang 



,>yit 
If f> yit 



a. 
n. 

adv. 

n. 
v» 



V. 

n. 



n. 



n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 



» »y 



tsen I n 



one hundred. 

fih^rs or toes of the human bodj 

viewed collectively, 
see § 76. 
the forehead, 
the heel; Idffaw Idhtin. 
to be quick, rapid in progreas; 

larau Idivan at tva; oomp. aid- 

wan. 
to How as water; hka Idwi at. 
to put on, as a shawl; to be warp- 

ped up as in a blanket; nba hia 

Idwai au 
a plain; low, level land in dis- 
tinction from mountains or high- 
. land; Idyang ga^ opp. io J)um ga. 
a reel. 

a fan; comp. usS. 
to fan. 
a separate finger or toe; comp. 

yung. and the Bur. oooS^t 
see app. IV. 2. 



M. 



Ma 



Ma 

Ma, or ma 



u. 



V. 



a. 



I 



a chilil, comp. htsha; tna jdngau 
a buby; a servant, a personal at* 
tendant; shi nye a »>ia rat nga at/ 
comp. all a)na; the inhabitants 
of a village or members of a 
clan; anhtt^ Idhtaw nm ni rat go. 
at; young and professedly imma- 
ture people in general; ndai kd^ 
htaivng e nia hkrai hkrai rat nga 
at; comp. Introduction 4. d. 

to be finished, ended, exhausted; 
comp. mat. 

see §$ 31. 38; verb. par. see §§ 60. 
61; with adv. §§ 72. e; 74. I; 
conj. § 85. 



173 



tooabulaby^ 



Ma 

f gung 

.p lau 
,y sbat 



Maja 
Mak 

Mamu 



• f >9 

Mam 



mu 



Man 

Mau 
Man 



Man 



Man 
t, e, etc. 
„ pyawng 
„ yawng 

Mang 

Mang 



n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 



n. 
n. 

u. 



V. 



n. 



V. 

a. 

V. 



V. 



n. 

adv. 
n. 

V. 

n. 
n« 



a pony; (Shan or Chinese.) 

a nuire kept for mule-breeding. 

a stable-fed pony or horse. 

paddy, or other feed for a pony; 
(Chinese.) 

same as ma lau; often used by the 
Cowries where the Jinghpaws 
would use, ffumra sluit. 

fury, violence; comp. aja atva. 

shot; mak nu, a bullet; mak hpau^ 
shot. 

a iHiriodiciil fit or epilepsy, sup- 
posed to be caused by the pos- 
session of nats. 

to have an attack of fit, or epi« 
lepsy. 

the rice plant or grain; paddy; se- 
veral kinds are distinguished 
such as, yi mam^ hkauna mam^ 
or nhpraiv mam^ nbaw niam^ and 
nhkye mam, 

to bo empty, vacant; comp. ka- 
man and Bur. <^. 

see ^ 40. b. 

to be wont, accustomed, used to, 
and thus acquired a habit of; shi 
dai amu man di mdsha* 

to be true, faithful; coup, of dinff 
or tenfj; man at dang, a true, 
accepted measure,, evei'y where 
used. 

thu human face; comp. myi man, 

see 55 75, 

a field -glass; see parts. 

to be face to face; adv. face to 
face. 

sacrificial meat, eaten only by 
grown people. 

coup, of myit^ myit mang; v, to 
dream; see yup mang. 



XAOHIN OBAMICAB. 



173 



Mang 

Mang 

»f gang 
f, galang 
,, kasbin 

,f sharawn 



n. 
n, 
n. 

V. 
V, 



^ hta 



Map 



Mat 



Mo 
Mi 

Miwa 

Minla 
Mu 

Mu 

'Mu 

Mu 



V. 



V. 



V. 



pron 
pron 

n. 

11. 

V. 

n. 
par. 

V, 



to be sbaded, to reflect difTerent 
colors; chyatiy nuinff at, hkyeng 
ntanf^ at, hpraw mart/ at. 

u corjise; u dead body; vutsha 
manfff nga inanff^ u mang. 

leprosy; manggang kap ai^ v. to be 
leprous. 

a herald, a precursor; also an exe- 
cutioner; (Skan.) 

the ceremony of washing the face 
of a dead person with his left 
hand. 

to put a corpse in state in the nat 
place, after having been washed 
{fnang kdstiin,) and properly 
clothed. 

to remove a corpse from the 
death-chamber to the nat i)lace; 
thus the ma7ig kifshiUf manff 
sluft-awUf and tiuing jang, (see 
njang^) are included in the %Hang 
hta. 

to defraud, cheat, swindle; map 
aha at; comp, maiv; by some pro- 
nounced mawp, 

to be lost; to have disappeared; 
mat mat, to have perished, come 
to an end; comp. ma and shdmat. 

see § 50. b; comp. nine^ § 80. 3. 

see i$ 50; numeral a. see § 35. b. 
verb. par. §§ 61. 1. c; 64. 3; 63. 3. 

a Chinaman; also pronounced mn- 
wa. 

a ghost, a spirit; see Introduction 6. 

to see, behold; comp. mdda and 
gu; to find, opp. to tarn, 

see app. IV 4. 

see §§55. c; 61. 1. c; 61. 6; 64. 3. 

to be agreeable to the taste, to be 
palatable; Ham si mu au 



174 



TOOABULABY, 



Mu 



„ nwa 
Muk 
Muk 
Muk 

Mun 



Mun 

Mun 



Mung 



>f 



kan 



Mung 



Mung 
Mup 
Mut 
Mai 

Maiaw 

Maidang 

Maikyu 



n. 



V. 

n. 

n. 

ady. 

V. 



n. 



a, 
n. 



n. 



n. 



n. 



pron 
v. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 



the heaven, the sky; oomp. Idmu 
and Bur. ^uSi; the nat ruhng 
the 8ky, mu nat; thunder, a 
thunder-clup, mu nqoi, ^ 

to Btriko, as lightning; oomp. 
Bur. 8e5igi68. 

a thunuer-bolt; see parts. 

bread; Bur. c^f . 

see 8 81. 

to be isimple, somewhat foolish; 
muk muk- re at wa; comp. a- 
ngawk. 

hair of the body; comp. kdra; 
beard, fur, feathers; nga mun, u 
mun, 

see 8 35. 8. 

luck, fortune; often used as a 
coup, of gam; mun ratvng ai^ v. 
to be lucky, fortunate, success- 
ful. 

a country; a kingdom; a division 
of land; comp. ga and dan; Myen 
mung dan hten mat sai^ Sam mung 
8am ga naw rat nga ai; also 
pronounced , ming. 

the whole earth; the world; mung- 
kan ga i nga aim. 

a word, coup, of ga; words as 
given by the nats; nat tsun ai 
mung^ nat tsun ai ga, 

see $} 52; conj. see §§ 65. 86. 

to split bamboo; kifiva mup ai, 

to bo blue; 7nut mut, bluish. 

to be good, well, proper, accepta- 
ble; comp. kdja, 

a species of reed; Bur. ocu. 

the buttocks. 

the bamboo out of which the com* 
mon drinking-cups (dinghkru) 
are made. 



KAOHIN OBAXHAB. 



176 



Mailak 



Mailang 
Idfaisau 


n. 
n. 


Mau 


V. 


„hpa 
Maudung 


n. 

V. 


Muum&wi 


n. 


Maw 
Maw 


inicrj 

V. 


Maw 


V. 


Mawra 


V, 



Mawn 



Mawn 

Mawn 
Mawn 



Moi 
Moi 
Maa 



// 



u 



n. 



V. 



V, 
V. 

n. 



n. 
adv. 

V. 



n. 



a stick driven into the ground for 
tying purposes; a tent-pin; 
f Shan;) coinp. app. II. 2. 

a log, as used for timber. 

paper. 

to wonder, marvel; to be aston- 
ished, amazed. 

a wonder, murvel. 

to bo barren, unable to bear chil- 
dren; comp. uhtum. 

n story, narrative, tale; comp. 
hfbau. 

see $ 8U. 

to pur|)0se, design, promoditate; 
comp. mawn. 

to defraud, cheat; imwstui; comp. 
maj), 

to tiiste, by putting a little in the 
mouth; to nibble, to sip, mamn 
di; jtfru lot mi mamn iH yu w. 

to pur])08e, have under consider- 
ation; amu galaw mawn at; 
comp. maw, 

to geld, castrate a hog; comp. 
(laivn. 

to adorn, dress in fine clothing. 

the padding, (generally in the 
form of pillows,) used with a 
pack-saddle. 

see supp. 1. 

see §8 72, e; 74. 1. 

to be speechless, incapable of ut- 
tering distinct sounds; not as 
strong as n shaga In at, by which 
our dumb, or mute are ex- 
pressed; ulso pronounced tma; 
comp. Bur. ». 

the Adam'Ba\»\jle' the crop of a 
bird. 



176 



V 



TOOABULABT. 



Bf&um 



Vi 



»» 



ft 



»f 



ft 



un 



ut 



bai 



da 



„dat 



n. 



V. 



V, 



V, 



V. 



»t 



dat 



n. 



«t n <^ft 



V. 



''^ 



M 



f» 



ft 



f» 



den 
di 



din 



dit 



V, 



V. 



n. 



V. 



to hold shut up as in the mouth, 
fUsin nuiHtn at; malut maum ai; 
to .liBBolve on the tongue, maum 
aha ai. 

the cocoanut; Ihir, o^^i niaun 
hjmhy mtfun si; see parts. 

to Bwnllow, same as m^yu; also 
tU: dai hpe ut di w. ( 

to turn iiround, change a course; 
coinp. hat iind $hdl)ai; anhtf yat 
sximhiang mdhai bai ba^ 

to observe, look at, notice with 
aire; to keep the eyes on; mdda 
yu ai; comp. wi«, 

to listen, harken, tsun ai ga tnd- 
dat ai; to obey, mind, Met da ai 
ga mddat ai; mddat mdra ya ai, 
or, mifdat mdnat etc. 

a direction, order, injunction, of- 
ten i\\ the form of a will, as 
when dying parents give the fin* 
al instructions to their children; 
miUlat ga; mifdat tsun ai, v. to in- 
struct, order as stated; shi gdmi 
n si yang mtUlat shi tsun iii; 
coinp. mdtsuu, 

to leave, let remain, as one tree 
out of a number, the rest hav- 
ing been cut down or pulled up; 
nanqjan gale haw kau nna^ kdang 
na uuulat da mu, 

to widen, enlarge in space; mdden 
tva, to be enlarged, extended. 

to be wet, moist; comp. mddit; 
and § 5H. a. 

a partition; a wall regarded as a 
partition; mddin din, to separate 
by a partition. 

to wet, to n:oisten, comp. mddi. 



KAORIV jaRAMXAB. 



177 



Miidn 
„ dung 



tf 



dim 



M dai 
dni 



n 



»» 



dawn 



„ doi 
f. ga 



,» gang 
» gang 

M gap 

ng»ni 
Mgup 
», gaw 



n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 



V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 



par. 

V. 
V, 

u. 
a. 



u inastt^r. lord, owner, proprietor; 
coinp. {J 13. 4 and Bupp. 1. 

the warp; the biisis, foundation 
or first principle of a thing:; 
eonip. kanu, 

to show, exhibit to view ; to «x- 
plain, inform; coinp. dan. 

to i^roan, moan; miKhyi ni mtfjaw 
mtUlai tH/a ni, 

a great nat espocially luniored by 
the chiefs and other men of in- 
fluence; viitflai lu/JitawHf/f Hii al- 
tar in the miUfai dajj^ (see parts. ) 
set apart for the mddai nai. 

to vomit, throw up. as a babe; 
coinp. fUijHit, 

a respectful name for the breasts 
of M female; tmuJoi chyu hpantf. 

to shield, defen<l; coup, of mtt- 
(jaivp. 

a side, margin, any outer i^>ortion 
considered ajKirt from, and yet 
in relation to the rest ; thus. 
hkra nuUfa, jxi/ miff/a^ ufJaimttf/a, 
worn miU'a; c(»mj). uhkrem; one 
of the four quarters of the hori 
zon, a point on the compass; aVw- 
pmw intffia^ sinua m(>f/n. 

sees 70. 1. 

to weed, as a piddy tiehl ; j/t nitt- 

(fang at. 
to cover, to oversprcMid, to seal 

up; n. a cover, a lid. 
the ridge of a house; nta uidgum, 
see § 35. 2. b. 
to be bent, crooked; conip. Bur. 

cooooS; n. the roof of a liouse, nta 

mdf/aw. 



o 23 



178 



TOOABUbAKT. 



liCSgavp 



„ grang 



»• 



gwi 






tt 



ft 



jap 



J> 



M 



.n 



fj« 



ft -.jwng 
MJwn 



ff J«> 



V. 



n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 

n. 

V. 

n. 



n^ 



V. 



n. 



11. 

V. 

n. 



V. 
V. 
V. 



to defend; o&mp. ^^^dga; fndgaup 
ind^a, tt. a defence, or a defend- 
er; a protection, or a protector^ 

a tick. 

to graap; clutch, as a tiger its 
prey; comp. manat* 

new sprouts; the place from wbich 
new sprouts appear. 

an elephant; N. L. uufnanff md- 

to be bent, curved, curled. 

a knot; conip. i^it. 

to watch; to bo on the lookout; 
to be vigilant. 

the woof, ^mtjan ri; comp. ^Uf^ 
(lung; a ivspectful name for a 
woman; see^^en. 

red pep})er; pepper in general; 
comp.^'a/>. 

to be miierly, stingy, close; rndji 
ai iva, n a stingy person, a mi- 
ner; f/a nufji ai loa^ a quiet per- 
son, not given to much talk. 

steadiness, perseverance; rndji ji, 
V. to be persevering, unwavering, 
steady in mind or character. 

soot; imn mdji. 

to be genuine, true, legitimate. 

a centre; the nucleus around 
which tilings are gathered; from 
ju, to gather at a common, cen- 
tre; comp. ddju. 

to adhere to; to be }X%rsistent, 
firm, immovable. 

to be heavy; only used of human 
beings, myi mdjnn ai, 

to bless, consecrate, set apart for 
certain use by blessing; udi fnd* 
jai oiy to bless the egg used 
while seeking the pre per place 



KAOHIW OBAXXAB. 



179 



M&jiftW 



« »» 8* 



11 ^ 



„ ka 
„kH 
,9 kan 
„ kai. 



;, kaa 



,1 koi 
„ kvdog 
„ ki'et 
„ kri 

,; krim- 



adv. 
II. 



u. 



u. 



u. 

T. 

a. 

▼. 
potitp 

V. 
V. 
V. 

Hi 



V. 



for a grave; shot nnan Makti at; 

jdru fHdjai at; ndaw uufjaiat; 

comp. shdnuiH, 
gee 5} 77; coiij. see S 87. 
original nature or custoni, 9iidjoi 

I'hyanff at haw; comp. samnmnj^; 

adv, because of cufrtoni, or for 

-no ])articalar purpose, tmijoi 

hkawm at\ 
words without piirticulur mean- 
ing still in use; see also Intro- 
duction 7. 
indiaitiou as of ability, skill or 

talent; couip. katna; dutnm nui- 

ka pru nga ai; also abilitj, ta- 
' lent, ndai ma ndup nufka kap ai, 
embroidery ; comp. ka. 
to bite the lip, as when angry; 

iUen nulka^ com}), mttkrang, 
see app. iii. 2; also pronounoetl 

miff/a. 
to speak hastily and impatiently, 

as when angry; nutkan la ai iva. 
to put up in a bundle; diat vufkai 

ai; n. a bundle, 
beside, at the side of; tUa nufkau 

c nga ai. 
to hide, both in trans, and iutransw 

sense ; to bury, lup nut koi ai. 
to hold between the teeth or the 

lips, 
to bite off, as a piece of bread from 

a slice, 
brass, copper, tin; nulkri hkyeng\ 

copper, makn hpmiv, tin, uufkri 

tsitf brass, 
to smart, as the eyes, $f^i nulkrim 

ai; to be set on Q^ge^ as the 

teeth, iva mdkHm ai. 



180 



VOOABUIiABY« 



Makii] 
„ cliyaii 



99 



>f 



»f 



clivi 
kkii 



hku 



,, hkain 
*, hku 
,, hkai 
,. hkuw 

,, kkuwn 
,, hkuwn 

„ hkawiig 
„ hkyit 
„ kkrni 
„ la 

„ lang • 
„ lap 



19 



li 



„ li Ilka 

9, li tail 
,. ling 
„ lu 

„ lut 
„ law 



n. 



II. 



V. 



V. 



n. 

II. 
II. 
u. 
n. 

n. 

V. 

V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

a. 

n. 

n. 
a. 

V, 

n. 
V. 



the three stones supporting a 
iM'oking pot. 

till' first Aiid best part drawn, as 
of liquor, tea, etc., jd^-u mdchyan^ 
jhdap mdchyan; comp. jahu, 

to be ill, sick, not well; coup. 
nutkaw, 

to open, as the mouth in astonish- 
ment. }hau uuihka nga; to be 
opened, as u door. 

the brim, or upper edges of u ves- 
sel; opp. to htumpa, 

a trap; comp. hkam, 

a noise, sound; comp. pisen, 

a hook; hpri mdhkai; v. to hook. 

chaf!', the coarser part of husk; 
comp. hkuHfjivi, 

a young girl, a maiden. 

to sing, cliaut; tndhkafvn mdngoi 
ntja at. 

to gather, collect, hoard. 

to scratch with the nails. 

a bridge; comp. hkrai. ' 

to pry, bend ojien with a lever. 

see $ 53. b. 

to forgot; coup, mdli; mdlap mdli 
kau at; see parts. 

the number four; uutli shit forty; 
mdb' pren, see app. IV. 2. 

the Kuchin name for the Irra- 
wadtly. 

a crane. 

a forest, woods. 

to sciild; soften by the means of 
hot water. 

(obacco. 

to loosen or be loosened, as a nail, 
rope etc.; to be out of joint. 



KAonnr osawcar. 



1st 



Uiilawng 



„ Ham 

., nam 

It ■"^P 
, tiat 
., n«ii 

., iti 



thtt largest pnrt oriide of a thing, 

divided in two unequkl parti; 

uiiilatoHi/ Milffa, uul^H ntaga. 
^ 3B mud, cear.y; ooinp. 

ongawk. 
food eutuii lit It fuimnil toutt, 

iHiUia uliat; maiia tmtjaw, cnrr; 

iKiten with tliu tiulHa; uultia mv, 

to uiit the fooil at u fiincnil 

feiist, (diiire8|iectful;) imttia sha. 
to eiiduiv, reiiiitiii firm ua umler 

ti-iiil; f/ilih H^iH rai ti miinfi, 

iii/ai a mrtaa uga at. 
to Hinuil: II. siiiull, iK-oiit; ciiiii|i- 

Bur. t«' 
a vinitoi'; ii gueat; nutlet ttuthpnuuj I 

uuinam. to Iw a stranger or su- ' 

jutirui^r ill a, pl.iw. 
n 00)11 [Nin ion. tiHiiuciatt^i Cowriti 

i-UMuan;/. 
SL-e app. 111. :t. jahpaiot manap 

jaujau i'. 
to griisp ov bold tightly; to 
null/ in. 

'am iiumeti at; tu 
k- 
to be uoft. smooth, pluasunt tu 

yesterday, couip. Uur. uc|, and 

nee !i 74. 1. 
to laugh, 
a price for something for sale; 

conip. jahjM. 
to l>e liabitiuil, customary and 

thus proper; lufai i/a manu ai. 
a moth; mitmit sha, v. to ]>> niotli- 

eaten, 
to tw\ftt. acTB^, bove-, to tub as 

A-rfyup at. 



laa 



TOOABUUARr. 



MltOM^U 



„ auw 



»t 



riiL 



>» 



»> 



rit 



fit 



„ nm 



„rnu 



u. 



V. 



,, liUWU 


: V. 


t» »g»^ 


i a. 


tf »gr«" 


11. 


,. i'H 


V. 


„ ra 


n. 


., itiHg 


11. 


»»•<? 


IL 


,y L'OU 


adv. 


,. ri 


V. 


„ ri 


n. 



V. 



V. 



V. 



Q. 



n. 



Vtk 



Q. 



a great feaat or dance; v. to danoe 

at a mdnau; comp. A-a, and nau; 

to spread the feathers of the 

tail us a peacock, 
to reach down and take or pull 

out, as money from a bag. 
to eny^ ; to view with jealousy, 
the number five; Bur. cT. 
see upp. ill. I. 

to put or be upon, t$uh-a tia au 
fault, couip. ra,- guilt, Uiifra nya 

ai; oouip. ynhak. 
T\i\Ti\i}^rang htUf v. to rain, 
a village larger than a ktthtauniy; 

a town. 
see § 78. 
to buy, purchase; uutn la^ see 

parts; opp. to dut, 
dew; corap. saitvan; man hkratf 

see parts, 
to have a strong desire ^ r; to be 

gi'eedy, as for any obji it of en. 

joyment; f/uvJipraw hta mt/ii md- 

rin ai tva, 
to choke, as when under water; 

shi lika lUa mtfrit si ai, 
to long for, to desire earnestly or 

eagerly, 
twins; V. to be alike and thus 

confusing, ffa nidrun ai. 
the spine, spinal column; rndt-uuff 

htinggiiy v. to. be tent, as of age; 

mdiiAng fUinggaw^ to be hump- 
backed; 
an individual, a single person; 

mdrai gade sa tm ta? 
a kind of ti*ee from which a nar- 
cotic bark is obtained, used in 

fishing; mdrau ru ai,- comp. n«. 



KAOHIK OBAXMAB. 



18S 



Mkraw 



11. 



if 

ti 



ff 



rawn 

Ba 



•an 



\^ sat 



9> 



>f 



sen 



Bin 



It .1 P*^t 

Bit 



i» 



»> 



19 



8U 



sum 



p sawn 
„ aawp 
,, aha 



„ akang 



V. 

V. 



V. 
V, 
V. 

n. 

▼. 

11. 



llv 
V. 

n. 



n. 



a standing opinion, report, or ni. 
mor, beooniiDg, or being ticted 
upon by, a nat, (the trnlraw neti^'S 
to the hnrt of the individual 
unless propt*rly propitiated; tiuf- 
raw knp or latti, v. t )be under 
tho influence of the thtUnw,' ma- 
rate raw or hpii^ to propitiate; the 
f mi raw by sacrifice; c(»up. nhkair 
hkp-aw, 

to shout, scream; conip. t/iiru 

to be acrid, biting to the t^iste, 
and thus causing an itching nen- 
sation; flat uanm natsa at. 

to be beautiful, pleasiuit to aiglit 
or hearing; nH>ra bum t/a a uitt- 
san nga ai. 

to mark, sign, distinguish by a 
mark; m/isat laika, n. a mark, a 
sign. 

to point, make jiointed; to he 
pointed, and thus sharp. 

the mind; comp. sin, and t/ijyfV 
fnasvi. 

to be angry. 

a comb; v. to comb; comp« f/uty and 
pdhi, 

to lie; to feign; to make a false 
pretence; nutm ai au, n. a liar. 

the number three; Mttstim pren^ 
see app. IV. 2. 

sharp bamboo soicks, or slats. 

to stroke, to pat. 

a man, one of the* human race; a 
stranger, another than one's 
self; mtfsha num, another man's 
wife. 

a house and premises, outside a 
village, where common sacrifices 
are offered on special occasions. 



X«4 



YOOABULABT. 



UflLi 

»* tep 

»» til 

• « til 

.f tu 



„ tai 



„ litan 



„ htaug 



11. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
II. 



I 



par, 

V. 



n. 



•. tsa 


V. 


9, tfian 


V. 


•• M dum 


V. 


^. tfiat 


V. 


,9 tsat 


n. 


•» tsi 
•t tsing 


n. 

V. 


„ t8Ut 
„ tBHW 


a. 
n. 



V. 



piH>n 



the small of the back; the waist. 

to lick, to lap. 

to put close, to tie together; to 

clip, sandan htenuftep au 
ail end, extremity, iK>int; comp. 

nchyan. 
children, oft'-spring, issue; M^at si 

ti mung^ uyc a mAtu Uf/a nz/a ai, 
seeSiiJOb; 
to join, coniuK^t, link; to mediate. 

to bring together by mediation, 

jis two p'lrties at war, miftut ya; 

nuHtU uuttm, adv. successively, 

iri onler; mifttU vidnoi ka da u. 
vengeiince, revenge; comp. tai; 

uuHai datrp, v. to avenge, re- 
venge; n. an avenger, 
to swear, curse; m(Usa fja^ profane 

liingmige. 
to b(f poor, destitute, helpless; 

coup, mdyan. , 

to have pity, coinpission; see 

parts, 
to despise, scorn; matsat diabat, n. 

refuse, foulness, dirt; a., disgust- 
ing, distasteful, 
the number eight; 
a wild beast; mdtse W/ye, wild, 

ciirnivorous animals, 
leaven, yeast, 
to keep in mind, myit hta nUltnng 

da at; to mark, observe, 
a stopper, as for a bottle, 
the upper region; the space above 

the clouds; matsaw ya^ or ntsany 

ya. 
to be engaged, bound by pledge 

or contract; mdhtan da ai n%im, 

n. a betrothed woman, 
see § 50. 



KAOHW OBAKMAB. 



ml 11 



M&hti 
„htaw 


ftya 
„yam 

., yat 


t. yat 

»y« 


II y« 

II ya 



If yu 
If >f ^ 

„ yawn 

Myan 

Mye 

Myen 

Myi 

Myi 
yy man 
„ pruwi 

,, hten 
„ htoi 

Myiprap 

Myin 

Mying 



▼. 

V. 

▼. 

n. 

V. 



adv. 

V. 

n. 

V. 



V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 

n« 

n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 

V, 



Myit 'part 

a 24 



to pinoh. 

to spit; mdytn vulhtaw. 

to chew, nuiBtiaite. 

a slave; see § IH. 2. 

to increase in number, as children 
or the young of animals; to 
teem, bring forth in abundance, 
mifyat nuit/a. 

see § 74. 1. 

to swallow; comp. mdtUf and Bur. 

see supp. 1. 

to wish, desire, long fof*; comp. 

kam, 
to be common, in general usage; 

viiit/u ga, 
see app. III. 1. 
to join the hands, as in an act of 

worsliip; lata tnayawn. 
to be flexible, ductile, capable of 

being drawn out. 
to settle, as a grievance; dhka 

mye at. 
a liurman, mye^i masha; myen 

munQt myen //a; see parts, 
prior time; adv. before, formerly, 

previously, 
the eye; comp. Bur. <|c6. 
the face, tlie countenance. \ 
tears; myi pfuwi pru^ V. to shed 

tears, 
to be blind; comp. kyaw. 
a propliet; comp. gumhpan. 
lightning; comp. liur. 8. 
to bo ripe, as fruit; comp. kufig. 
to name; comp. amyiny^ and Bur. 

og§. 
to waab. tVv^ fecjb\ ywshn vm^^ ai; 

comp. kdsliin. 
Bee §§6\.\. «^\^^-^-^- 



M 



180 



TOOAl^ULABr. 



Myit 
„ mu 



99 



ru 



,f wang 
Mazing 



n. 

V. 
V, 

V. 

V. 
V. 

V. 



Na 


n. 


Na 


n. 


„na 
„8hi 


V. 

n. 


Na 


adv. 


„ chying 


adv. 


„kru 


V. 


Na 


V. 


Na 

• 


pron 


Na 


n. 


„ hpang 
Nahking 

ft htai 
Nam 
Nam 

Nam 


V. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 



mind, emotion, thought; fconp. 
rnang. 

to be hard, obstinate; see parts; 

to be settled, convinced, ready to 
agree. 

to be troubled, see parts; n. trou- 
ble, distress; mt/it ru myit ra. 

to be doubting, uncertain. 

to think; reflect in mind, to pon* 
der; also called myU lu. 

to X)ut in order, arrange; conip. 
liljany da. 



N. 



time in duration, oomp. ahkying; 

na na^ adv. see § 74. 2. 
a period of four days set apart for 

the shttdip }iat 
to observe the duties of the na. 
a period of two days for the same 

purpose, 
very; used only in composition; 

comp. la. 
very, exceedingly; beyond what 

is right or proper, 
to be gluttonous; nakru hkinjin, 

n. a glutton, 
to feel; comp. dum. 
see § 49; noun affix, see §§ 22. 23; 

verb. par. §§ 69. c; 60 b; 61. 6 a. 
the ear; v. to hear, na na at; 

comp. Bur. ^Ii 
to bo deaf; comp. Bur. ^otuSi 
a harrow; from /iA:au-na, and liking. 
a native plough, 
see supp. 1. 
to bo soft, fine in texture; ndin 

nain, a. soft, fine, 
a jungle; comp. ihalitlff. 



KAOHDf OBAXXAB. 



{ 



187 



Namchying 



n. 



wPan 
„si 
Nam 

Nan 

Nang 
Nang 
Nang 

Nat 

Nat 

M jaw 

wra 

,, kawa 

„ htawt 
Nem 
Nem 

Nep 

Npp 

Ni 
Ni 



n. 
n. 
n. 

pron 

pron 
adv. 

V, 
V. 

n, 

V. 

n, 

T. 

n. 

V, 

v.. 

V. 
V. 

par. 



the bright top-part on tho taft or 
crest of certain birds; Uffaw 
hkungrang hpe gaw nantchying 
ya dot 1VU at; he gave the ufjfaw 
hkungrang his (bright) ** top- 
feathers;" V. to be fleshy, ruddy, 
healthy looking. 

a flower; see parts. 

fruit in general; comp. asi. 

water; (Shan.) for words in nam 
see app. II. ii. 4. 

nan, and nanlit^, see §§ 47. 48. 49. 
61. 

see § 47. 

see § 75. 

to be intoxicated, jdru nang at; 
to be in a stupor. 

to burn, destroy by Are; foan JUe 
not kau at; comp. hkru. 

a nat, Jiur. ^ f>5; comp. Introduc- 
tion 8— 10. coup. ^'i. 

to offer to the nats; anhti ji jaw 
nat jaw at mdsha rai ga at. 

a place set apart for the nats; 
from nat, and sham. 

to punish as a nat; to be ill on ac- 
count. of the nats. 

a bamboo vessel used in the nat 
service. 

to be shorty low, not tall or high; 
6omp. Bur. f§. 

to regret and thus to repent; 
mgit nem, ytibak nem; Bur. ^§. 

the mucus of the nose; comp. ^5. 

to spread as a mat or cover; ja^ 
lUai nep; panej) nep at. 

to bo near, not ctistant; comp. 
Bur, ?i and § 70. 1. 

see §§ 15. 1; 61. I; 65. 5.; pron. § 
48. 



188 



TOOABCIiABT. 



:Ni 


a. 


mi 


n. 


-Ni 


n. 


Ni 


V. 


Ning 


n. 


Njng 
Ning 


adv 


»» jap 


n. 


Nip 


V. 


Nit 
Nu 


pur 
n. 


Nn 
Nu 


par, 
n 


Nu 


n. 


Num 




„ dan . 


V. 



Num 


n. 


y, nnan 


n. 


p 8a 


n. 


„ 8ha 


n. 


Nai 


V. 


Nai 


n. 


„ hkyeng 


n. 


„8am 


n. 


>f tung 


n. 


Nau 


n. 


Nau 


adv. 


Nau 


v. 



see § 39. 

a day, opp, to na; comp. shdnif § 

74, and Bur. of . 
see supp. 1. 
to be tiune, domesticated; opp. to 

tsai; comp. Bur. f u5, and shdni. 
a year; comp. shdning and §§ 29. 

38. 
see «$ 82. 

see ^ 6. b.; Introduction 4. b. . 
strength, valor; ningjap fwrng^ v. 

to exhibit strength or valor, 
to overshadow, shingnip nip; comp. 

Bur. ^5. 
see §§ 64. 3, 7. a; 65, b. 
a mother; comp. kdnu, 
see J$§ 61. 3, 4; 64. 3. 
the brain; comp. Bur. St«|9<:S. 
to be slack, not stiff; nlcang; shin^ 

gri wu at. , 

see § 6. b. 
to prevent, hinder; to intercept, 

conip. dan; coup, numtmn; md- 

hpring gtvi lawng imu hkum num* 

dan, may the barking of the dog 

not prevent etc. 
a woman; comp. Introduction 4.c. 
a bride; see pirts. 
a person appointed to attend a 

bride on her marriage day. 
a female, opp. to lasha; numsha 

ma, a young girl, 
to be elastic, tough, 
the yam root or plant, 
a yam with a dark purple root, 
the common sweet potato, 
the common large kind of yam. 
see supp. 1. 
. see § 79. 
V. ' to dance; see mdnau. 



KAOBIH OBAJCXAB. 



18» 



^ 



Naubaw 
.f dat 

V 

„ shawng 
„ tung 

Naw 



Naw 
Nawn 



" Nawng 
Nawng 
Noi 



Noi 
„ hkrat 

Nga 



Nga 



n. 

n. 

n. 

V. 

adv^ 

V. 



n. 



▼. 



V. 



V. 

n. 

V. 



V. 



the time when the mdnau will 
begin. 

to break up from a feast; n. the 
time for breaking up. 

the leader in a danoej see parts. 

the time during which a manaa 
is held. 

to pay respect to, to greet as a 
subject bis ruler; to worship, 
coup. leu. 

yet, still, besides; lot lot naw Jaw 
mi. 

to consiler, reflect, deliberate; 
coup, sawn; mostly used with 

. the neg<itive; hpa n naivn^ hpa n 
sazvn yu at; comp. gatvn. 

a lake, pond of any size; comp. 
Bur. £^6. 

to give a prepared sacrifice to the 
nats; nat nawng ai. 

to hang, suspend, noi da; to be 
conjoined, closely unitea with; 
comp. Jung; thus mdnoi^ to ad- 
here to. be united with. 

to be elastic; comp. myan. 

Indian rubber; comp. Introduc- 
tion 4. 2. 

to speak; comp. n^u, ga^ and isun; 
mostly used when quoting, or 
questioning something said in 
the past; shi ning nga ai; shi 
kdning nga a (a ? 

to be; see §§ 69, and 5. 5; nga nga, 
to be fixed, staying, remaining, 
or established; nga mdnga, a. see 
§ 34; nga yatvng nga 6m, n. all 
that is, the world; see parts. 



i90 



iTOCiBi;i*A»r. 



fggtiin^i 



ft tpi^w 

„ pra 

tf .tang 

Nga 

Nga 
Nga 
Ngam 



Ngam 



jNgaJQg 
Ngang 

tiga 
Ngv* 

Ngai 



▼• I to b9 prosperwB, and ttiui to 
have plenty and be contented; 
con p. nffamu; also used as ^n 
adv. shi ngamu ngamai a nga 
nga at. 

U» cattle of the bovine genus; oomp. 
yam nga, 

J9, I a tamed bison; nga hpato lam^ a 
wild bison. 

n. { a heifer; oomp. upra. 

n. 1 An ox; a beast of burden, epmp* 
iUang. 

n« fish, a fish; comp. Bur. d\t 

Q« dried fish. 

n* the scales of a fish. 

v. I to be aslant; to lean a little to 
one side, n gt/eng at; fiomjp. 
kdnga, 

y, to be old; to lean, as it were, 
towards the grave; shi aprat nga 
at; shi aprat n nga jai si mat sat, 

V. 1} to leave, let remain; to set aside, 
ngam da; comp. di da, mddai da^ 
hit nga, and git nga. 
to taste of salt; tp be properly 
salted; jum ngam at; used most- 
ly by the Kahko's where the 
Jinghpaws would say, jum mu 
ai; opp. to jum hka ai, 

y. to be firm, strong, durable; comp. 
gang. 

V. to be salacious, lecherous; ngang 
nga ai, to live in an unrestrained, 
salacious, riotous manner. 

y, to speak, tell, declare; comp. nga^ 
and ngd. 

y, to be finijshed, completed, done; 
comp. krCf and § 61. 2. b; coup. 
dui, 
pron' see §§ 46. 47; a. § 37. 



KAOtftt OBIXMIS. 



Itll 



Ngawiif 



Ngati 



o gum 
Ngoi 
' Ngwi 
N 



fi bang 
»> bang 
„ bung 

,. baw 

Nda 



„ dan 
„ dang 



▼. 



n. 



n. 



n. 



▼; 



par; 



n. 

n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 



n. 

V. 



to be pleasant^ agreeable; to tt> 
joioe^ be happy; coup, of pyaw; 
comp. Introduction 4. c, and 
ngm. 

timber, material for a house; the 
pieces of timber, serving as 
joists for a floor ar^ named, 
dinghat^ ngawlang^ or nffauring, 
dinghkan, and tUu; the chyhig- 
hkyeUf is put on the tdu; comp. 
Idpa, share^ shddata^ hkatUaj ma- 
sen, 

the ornamented binder, by the 
stairs of a Kachin houso. 

a sound, a noise; v. to produce a 
sound, 

to be gentle, mild, peaceful; ngtci 
ngaiv7if n, peace, happiness. 

sign of the negative see § 67; siga 
of the second per. sing. 8ee§§ 
63. 1; 66. 2; c6nj. as an abbrevia- 
tion of ttna, see in; as a possible 
abbreviation oining^ see Intro- 
duction, 4. b. 

a cover, blanket; comp. hpajaumg; 
nha hpun, v. to cover, as with a 
cover, blanket etc. 

rattan ring worn by the Kacliin 
women around the waist. 

the back part of a Kachin house; 
opp. to ndaw. 

the atmosphere; air in motion, 
wind; nbung bting, v. to blow. 

see mam. 

width, breadth, in opp. to length; 
comp. ding dung; galu mdfa, nda 

^ndga. 

a bow. 

to dispute, contest; ndang hkal, 
to deny, contradict. 



▼OOABUIiABT. 



,,de 
9, deu 



•. dai 
,9 dum 



tt 



dung 



„dup 
„ daw 



N-ga 
N-ga 
Nga 

» f, kaleng 

N-ga 
N-gam 



adv. 



y. 



a. 
n. 
n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 



N-gamjraw n, 
N-gang n. 
N.gu n. 



n. 
n. 

V. 

adv. 
n. 



to promisey as a nat, an offering at 
a stated time; nat ndat at. 

here, a shorter form of nang de; 
see also § 79. 

to be bold, fearless in speech; to 
be blustering, assuming, ndenja 
or tai; ndai tva nden ja at tva ri 

see § as. 2. 

a bottle. 

an upper end, opp, to npatfft/ a 
top, extremity. 

the jack tree; ndunff hpun^ ndung 
si, see parts. 

a blacksmith. 

the s^Kico outside the front part of 
a house; comp. nhang; ndaw kd- 
hkrang, v.. to dance a funeral 
dance around the gdrat; comp. 
Idhkreng mdnau; ndaw rif n. the 
two spears carried in front at a 
funeral dance; ndaw law — c/im, 
comp. nau law etc; see also ka- 
bung dum; the kabung dum al- 
ways takes place inside, and the 
ndaw kdhkrang outside the 
house; .also pronounced ntatv; 
see S 75. 

live coal; 'ivan n-ga. 

a sheath, for a knife or sword. 

the front part of the body; man 
mdga. 

to lay prostrate on the back; also 
csiUed n-ga kran; comp. n-gum up. 

see § 79. 

a precipice; an abrupt or steep 
descent; comp. nhkap. 

a locust, 

a shield, 

husked rice. 



KAOBIK OBAXXAB. 



198 



N-gnng 

N-gup 
N.gup 
N-gun 



a. 



N-gaw 



n. 



N-gaw gawk 
N-gawn wa 



n. 
n. 



N-goi 
„ jf la turn 
N-grau 

N-gyi 
Nja 

n Jang 



n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 
a. 

n. 






{f kau 

„ chyang 
I, hka 
,9 hka 



a. 



n. 



a. 

n. 
n. 
n. 



the back of a sword; opp« to 
nshan; n-gunggamai^ see parts. 

see § 40 b. 

the mouth; the bill of a bird. 

strength, force; n-gun duty v. to 
put forth strength; n-^tiM^a, to 
be strong; n-gun yatvm^ to lose 
strength. 

love, affection, benevolence; n*gato 
nwai, most common form; n-gaw 
nnyeng^ love as between children 
(tnd piirents; deep, affectionate 
love. 

a scorpion. 

the great progenitor of the Ka- 
chins, and the former of the 
heavens and earth; N-gaiim tea 
Mdgam; see parts. 

a swing; see goi, 

the rain-bow. 

the white-handed gibbon, or long- 
armed ape; the hoolock monkey. 

a bastard. 

dear, beloved, adorable; coup, n- 
pra; comp.ja, 

an altar in the 7iat ra, on which 
a corpse is laid, and on which 
the spirit is supposed to reside 
until sent to the nat-country. 

rough, violent; ravenous, vora- 
cious; comp.^M. 

the knot of hair on the top of the 
head; njawjaw,^v. to do up the 
hair in native fashion. 

see § 35. 2. d; also pronounced 
nhkau. 

a coolie; comp. chyang. 

a smoking-pipo. 

the chin. 



o 26 



194 



VOOABULABT, 



mikap 

Nhku 
,9 hknn 

9f likye 
»f tkyi 
hkjmu 



99 
99 



hkrem 



,y hkmt 
>9 lang 



f9 



99 



99 



11 
lim 



M lung 
f. law 

,y mai 
,1 mut 

i ,, maw 
,9 maw 



H 



na 



,9 nan 
„ nang 
„ ngai 
II ngan 

„ ngawt 



n. 

postp 
n, 

n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 



n, 
a. 
n. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

n. 

^» 
n. 

n. 

n. 

pap. 

a, 

n. 

par. 

V. 

n. 



a steep hill; oomp, n-gam; a* iteep, 

somewhat precipitous, 
see § 84. d. 
a hole in the ground, a pit; oomp. 

liku^ and gifdatvng hkt^. 
see tnam nhkt/e. 
a knife. 

a sickle, a scythe, 
a side; comp. gdrep^ and maga; 

nhkrenx d$ kaleng^ or taw^ v. to 

lie on the side, 
a grind-stone, 
see g 35. 2. d. 
seed, grain used as seed; mum nlif 

or man lu 
an after-growth, as of grain; an 

after-math; a gleaning, 
to harvest an after-growth; to 

cut an after-math; to glean, 
a stone; comp. lung. 
to conquer, gain a victory, hpgen 

nlatv at; comp. pddang. 
a wound, a cut, a laceration, 
a tail. 
a harvest; nmut ta, time for the 

harvest, 
a festal polo; comp« app. III. 8. 
a high-road; nmaw lam. 
for the usagids of this word see §§ 

23,85,78. 
to be new; opp. to nsa. 
or nnang natvn^ an earth-quake, 
see § 61. 1. a. 
to be untiring, indefatigable; coup. 

of n jan; gun n ngan, hpai njan. 
odor as from fields or gardens; 

comp. sung. 



KAOHIK OBAMHAB, 



196 



Npan 









pang 



,9 bpat 



„hpu 



„ ra 
„ren 
,, rum 

II rang 
I. sa 

II 8a 



,1 sam 
M san 

••Be 

„ „ rawng 



ft 



81 



n. 



adv. 
n. 



V, 



n. 



n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 

V. 

n. 



n. 
adv. 



n. 

V. 



n. 



„ o^ nai Bi I n. 



the front part of a Kachin house, 
(covered but without floor,) 
where the animals are kept or 
fed, and general work is done, 

see § 75. 

a place, as for the head or feet, 
law nhpaufff Idgaw nhpang; a 
foundation, origin; coup, of 

to vomit, throw up; used mostly 

of grown persons; conip. md- 

daivH. 
dust, as from a road; nhpti mawng^ 

V. to be dusty, clouded with 
. dust; nhpu hpan^ to fly about as 

dust. Bur. (^, 
a bone, nrut nra; charcoal, 
a measuring rod; shddawn nren. 
a help, or a helper; nrum ntdu; 

comp. kamm, 
a horn, 
to be old; often pronounced ninff- 

sa, or dingsa, 
breath, life, nsoi nsa; nsa sa, v. to 

breathe, to inhale; nsa shaw^ to 

exhale; iisa )Ui, or Arau, to expire, 

give up the ghost, 
power, ability; mam hkrat^ v. to 

display, exhibit power, 
as, like as, similar to; dai gumra 

nye a gumra nsan nga at; comp, 

sam, and zawn, 
(good) substance or quality, 
to bo of good, substantial quality 

and thus nourishing; rise rawng 

at mam; nai se. 
an ear of c«rn», also pronounced 

Srain and Yi^xVi^ ol ^ V\\A%* 
.arkneaa. 



196 



TOOABULABT, 



ITflin Bin 

,. sun^ 
„ sawn 

,p shang 
„ shawng 
ff ta 

9f tawt 
,9 htan 
,; „ shai 



f» 



htang 



y, Men 
ff htu 
„ htung 



yV htaw 
htawm 



ft 



f9 



htoi 



V » ttoi 
tea 
tain 



ft 



f» 



wa 



„ wawt 
Nye 
Nyet 



Nyet 
Njen 



V. 

n. 

V. 

n, 
n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

y. 

V. 

adv. 
n. 
n. 



n. 

adv. 
n. 



V. 

adv. 
n. 



n. 

n. 

pron 

n. 



V. 



V. 



to be dark. 

a grave; nsung hku. 

to mimic; n sawn n sang dif to 

mock, ridicule, 
the loins. 

a beginning; oomp. shatvng. 
a house. 

a threshold; a door-sill, 
to act on the opposite, 
to be contrary, opposite; adv. 

against, in opposition to. 
to turn around; adv. around, 

round about, 
see § 76. 

a long knife, a sword. ' ^ 
a bamboo water .vessel, in which 

water is brought and kept in 

the house. i 

a brand, 
see §§ 68. 2; 67. 
light; the light of day, and thus 

a day, opp. to nsin; nhtoi slULgu 

ai^ an even day; nhtoi shdje, an 

odd day. 
to bo or become light, 
or postp. see |i 84. 
water as used for drinking, or 

household purposes, 
an axe. 

a diviner; oomp. shdba ivawt. 
see § 49. 
the name of a traditional bird, 

Nnging nyet w, see next; Nnying 

nyet u nyet nna^ Slia gaw^ nga ai^ 

Npring pri u muftg etc. 
tooeny, disown, contradict; comp. 

ndang. 
to take, procure . a thing oh false 

pretence, nyen la at. 



XAOHIir OBAIUIAS. 



197 



Nyip 

Nyung 

„ nyung 
Nyui 

Nyaw 



N-yun 



Pa 



Ph 



Pan 

„ hkung 

Ban 

Pan 



V. 

T. 

a* 

V. 
V. 



V. 
V. 



V. 



n. 



n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 



to wilt, be wilted, dnll, faded; 
comp. nyuu 

to be of u sad outward appear- 
ance or countenance. 

sad, melancholy. 

to be withered, faded, as a flower; 
comp. tmi. 

to be shrunken, wrinkled by con- 
traction; fig. to have an empty 
(contracted) stomach; to feel 
pains of hunger, kan nyaw ai; 
comp. gyaiv or kyaw. 

to be angry, raging, without suf- 
ficient reason. 

to be angry as before; see part. 



P. 



to be flat, level; comp. pai^ and 
Bur. got; a tract of land used for 
lowland paddy cultivation, hkau- 
na pa; comp. prang, 

solid substance, flesh or bone in 
distinction to life or breath; nat 
yaw /Ml n sha at, nsa ska sha 
ai; that which remains after 
the liquor or juico is extracted; 
natmi pa hkrai hkraif jdhku n 
rawng ai; comp. nse^ Bur. 006 
and 03006; coup, pi, 

a flowf r; comp. nampan^ and Bur. 
of. 

a kind of flower; a word of en- 
dearment among women; 

see app. IV, 4. 

to grow bodily or mentally; to 
improve, mature, comp. hpan; 
shdlan ai iva gaw pan ai, shdyun 
ai iva gaw kajun ai* 



198 



▼OOABULABT. 



Pang 

Pat 
Pat 

Pat 

Patbau 

Pe 

Pu 

Pu 



Pu 

„ hkla 
,, hkram 
„niii 
„ htum 
Pu 



ft 
It 



nu 



\ Pung 

{ Pung 
i It ding 

J „ kum 
(. ft tpraw 



Pup 
Put 
Pai 



n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 



n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n, 
n. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 

n. 



n. 

V. 



V. 

n. 



a part, subdivision, as of a tribe, 

clan, or congregation* 
amber; glass, 
to obstruct; to shut up, as an old 

path; comp. bat. 
to be flat; pat paty a. flat ai>d al- 

most round; shabi/inff pat pat. 
a club, a mallet, 
see app. IV. 1, 4. 
to bloom, spread open as a flower; 

comp. Bur. -^t n. a bud. 
to be tired, ache, as from over* 

work, or when putting forth a 

continued effort, comp. tsu. 
a snake; comp. lapu, 
a kind of serpent, 
a cobra. , 

a python, 
a viper, 
the bowels^ intestines, guts; comp, 

kan. 
the large intestines, 
the small intestines, 
a green bamboo vessel in which 

rice is prepared, 
the head; used only in composi- 
tion, 
the top of the head, hawpungding; 

the top of a hill or a mountain, 

bum pungding, 
the skull; pungkum nra^ bones of 

the skull, 
to be gray-haired; conp. punglatv; 

punghpraio ptinglaw at gaw kd- 

niug n di, 
to kiss. 

to grumble, scold; comp. ngun, 
the left; comp. hkra; pai mdga^-^ 

lata; see parts. 



XAOHIH OBAMICAB. 



199 



Pan 



T, 



Paw 
Paw 



Pawn 

> 
Pawng 

Poi 

PSdang 

ff gawn 



9, hkam 

„la 

„ lamia 
„ len 



»f 



li 



„ lawng 
Pro 
Prang 



V. 



V. 



V. 
Y. 

n. 
n, 

adv. 



n. 

n. 
n. 

n. 

V, 

n. 
n. 

V. 



to protect, lead; oomp, lau/ to add, 
mix, as poor elements or parts 
with good ones, for the sake of 
fraud, ga pauat; kanipau at; 
hpalap pan Hi. 

to be plentiful, not scarce. Bur. 

to appear, to make an appearance; 
to come forth, as a prophet or 
some great personage, paiv pru; 
Bur. coT. 

to carry in the arms, as a mother 
her child; comp. (a. 

to add, collect, unite in one; Bur. 
.cul6t 

a feast; comp. mdnau; Bur. gi 

a victory, cOmp. (/any, and nlaw; 
padanff mdndu, see parts. 

without thought, or considera- 
tion, n gawn at; carelessly, neg^- 
ligently, without thought or 
concern; pdgawn gdlaw at. 

a security, one who goes in secu- 
rity; comp. hkam. 

a missil, an arrow, bullet, a can- 
non ball; comp. mak. 

a butter-fly* 

the sting of a bee; the point of a 
serpont*s tongue. 

a strip of bamboo, used for mats, 
baskets etc; and for general ty- 
ing purposes; liur. ft 

to split pdli; pdli mdli, to whittle 
a pdli. 

a jacket, a coat. 

a mat or a mattress, used as a bed. 

to be clean, pure, beautiful; oomp^ 
chyoi. 

to come forth, as insects or worms 
after a rain; hdhun prang ai. 



soo 



▼004BULART, 



Prang 
„ ugam 

Prat 



n. 
n, 
n. 



Pre 

Pren 



V. 
V. 



Preng 



Pri 



Pri 



V, 



V. 



V, 



Pru 



V, 



Prat 



Prai 



V. 



V. 



Praw 
Pbi 



V. 

n. 



a plain; a moor, < 

a partridge. 

a rabbit, hare. 

age, comp. asak; an age, genera* 
tion, cycle; prai iup^ a yrhole age, 
see § 35. d; adv. ever, perpetu. 
ally, eternally. 

to be equal, similar, matched; 
comp. bum/, 

to be flat, comp. pa; aga gaw pren 
pren pa 2x1 nga at; to be equal, 
on the same line or order, most- 
ly used as an adv; hpyen ma ni 
pren pren ^m pa (sap nga ma at; 
also pronounced hren. 

to be straight, not crooked; to be 
tall and straight, as a tree; comp. 
dingy and gang^ 

to be smooth, even on the sur- 
face; shtUlaw a pri sha gcflatv u; 
ndai pri )iga ai. 

to pervade, diffuse, spread oyer 
all the parts; dai ga mung pri 
rai mi; to be filled with; Man- 
maw ga kdla pri rai &ai, 

to go or come out; pru sa, pru tva^ 
see parts; comp. shdpraw; to 
rise as a celestial luminary, jan 
prUy shdta pru, 

to boil; to bubble as water when 
boiling; to sprout, tsingduprut 
ai. 

to be effaced, worn away, hkang 
prai mat ai; to be erased or ob- 
literated, laika tsi prai mat ai; 
to be leveled to the ground, as 
a former grave, prai mat ai lup, 

to raid, burn and plunder; bu 
praw de nang gang ningjap mang. 

a comb; comp. mdsit. 



KAOHIir OBAMKAB. 



SOI 



jtrui 


n. 


If teip 


n. 


y. htau 


n. 


Pyen 


V. 


Pyengdin 


n. 


Pyeng 


n» 


Pyet 


V. 


Pyi 


adv. 


Pyaw 


V. 


Pyawng 


n. 


Pyawng 


V. 



cotton; comp. si/ pdsi gap, see 

parts, 
a bat. 
a horn, trumpet^ bugle; pdhiau 

duftit see parts, 
to fly; Bur. ij. 
a lamp. 

coup, of mOshang. 
to crush; to flatten by pressing, or 

squeezing; to lower by pushinn^ 

downwards; pyet rat u. 
see § 79, and comp. Bur. 06, 
to enjoy one's self; to be pleased, 

happy; comp. ngatvn; Bur, cijS. 
a tube, a pipe; the barrel of a gun, 

sdnat pyaiong; comp. Bur. gf • 
to float, either by wing or sail; to 

glide easily and quickly; u 

pyawng mat wa at; It pyatong 

hkatvm at. 



HP. 



Hpa 

Hpa 

Hpa 

Hpa 
whpa 



„rai 
Hp'aji 



„ „ dan 
Hpajet 
Hpajawng 
o 26 



V. 

▼. 

n. 

pron 
n. 

adv. 
n. 



V. 

n. 
n. 



to rely on, trust in, depend ion; 

comp. shamyetf and Bur. c/l. 
to be thin, not thick, opp. to htai; 

Bur. i/li 
a thick rice-gruel; hpamdlum^ see 

parts, 
see § 50; Bur. ooouoo or 000. 
something, any thing unknown 

and undetermined; a. see § 35. 

2. d. 
see § 80. 4. 
wisdom, understanding; crafti* 

ness, cunning; coup, hparat; 

comp. Bur. ogo, and byeng^ya. 
seepa.*.ts, 

a towel; a handkerchief, 
a cloak, mantle, (Shan;) comp. nba. 



202 



▼OOABTTLABT. 



Hpalap 
Hpam 

Hp^n 
Hpan. 

Hpan 



Hpang 



Hpang 
Hpang 
» gttra 
Hpe 
Hpu 

Hpu . 

Hpum 
Hpum 
Hpum 



Hpun 
Hpun 



n. 



V. 



V. 



V. 



V. 



▼• 



adv. 
n. 

V. 

par, 
n. 

V. 

V. 

V. 

v. 



n. 

V. 



tea; the tea plant; also pro. 
nonnced hpdlap. 

to be numb, bennmed, without 
feeling; lat/aw hpam at; n-ma 
hpam au 

to create, form, set in order; coup, 
Ian; Bur. o^; hpan da. 

to manipulate the body in native 
fashion, as for cramp or general 
debility; hkum hpariai* 

to indicate, denote by a promise or 
temporary gift, any permanent 
gift to be given in the future; 
hhhjnuvi kiUluny hpan at; slid- 
hrai hpan at; comp. shdhpan, 

to begin, make a beginnpg, ndai 
amu nang hpang u, or gdlaw 
hpang u; to start at a work so 
as to establish a claim, ndai yi 
ngai hpang tve ai; to be first, to 
havu begun first, ndai amti ngai 
shatvfig gdlaw hpang fve ai; comp. 
nhjxing. 

see § 75; hpang hkrat, see parts. 

see Introduction 9. a. 

to be thirsty; comp. ra, 

see §$ 20. 21. 

see supj). 1 . hpu shatvng^baW'-^doif 
see parts, and comp. app. I. b. 

to be of value, worth; to be ex- 
pensive; comp. jdhjAi, and mdnu. 

to hold in the arms, to embrace. 

to be fat, corpulent, plump. 

to lie down, to lay; used of ani- 
mals, and especially of birds 
while hatching. 

manure. . 

to dress; to put on and wear a coat, 
pdlattmg hpun ai; comp. also nba 
hpuny Bur. ^t and jdhpun. 



KAOHIN OBAMIUB. 



S0» 



HpUQ- ) 

palawng } 

npan 
„-dawng 
,, hkaw 
>* pyen 

Hpunda 
Hpunda 



HpuQg 



„ rawng 



Hpung 

Hpung 
Hpungdim 



Upuugkawp 



Upuiiglum 



Hpung) urn 
Hpungtang 



Hpung-yawt 
Hput 



n. 

n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 



n. 



V. 



n. 

par. 
n. 



p 



ba 



Hput . 



n. 



n. 



n. 
n. 



V. 

n. 

V, 

n. 



clothes. 

a tree; wood. ; * 

a log, a large piece of wood. ; 
an ordinary log. . * 

a plank, a board; comp. Bur. ({£§ 

got 

see Introduction 5. 

a standard, mark, distinguished 

pro-eminence; anhti ji tvoi ni a 

hpunda n dep hi ga at. 
glory, honor, hpunt/ ^hingkang; 

coinp. Kur. cx^^i 
to bo possessed of glory, great in- 
fluence, or a commanding apt 

pearance. 
a gathering, congregation; a here!, 

a flock; mdsha hpung; sdgu hpung. 
see § 6.1. 7. 
the last child born, hulia hpung* 

dim; sometimes used in opp. to 

hpung gam] see pirts. 
the heavy skin enveloping tho 

lower parts of the elephant bam* 

boo. 
a nat x>nost of the third order* 

the one arranging the parts of 

a sacriflce; coup, hpungli, 
hot water; comp. lum^ and ntsvu 
the echo; the reverberation of a 

sound ; hjyungtang tang^ v. to echo, 

to cause an echo, 
to swim, hkahpung-yaivt at; co^Ip• 

hyau, 
the knee; comp. Idhput. 
to bend the knee; comp. guwlba; to ' 

sit down, to squat in iiative 

fashion, 
the measles; hpid Hput ai^ v. io 

have the measles. 



904 



TOOABULABT. 



Hput 



Hpai 
Hpaida 
»» >» da 

Hpaisan 
Hpaurang 

HjMkW 



Hpaw 
„da 
„dung 



Hpawini 
Hpawm 

Hpawm 

HpawQ 



HpawQg 
HfMiwng 
Hpawt 
Hpoi 

Hplga 



T, 

n, 
a, 

n. 

V. 

y. 



n. 



n. 
▼. 



V. 



a kind of basket; the Bur. tjoS. 
to carry on the Bhoulder; oomp, 

gun, and lang. 
Bee app. IV, 3. 

dice, pieces used in gambling, 
to gamble; to cast lot; oomp. 

Bur. <^. 
see app. IV. 4. 
to be naked; to appear without 

clothing; comp. singgu krin. 
to open as a door; opp. to la; coup. 

of tvaw; to bubble up as water 

out of a spring; fig. to speak, 

comp. aw. 
comp. Idhpato, 
a leaf laid side-wajs, 
a lesif (lahpaw) laid length- wise at 

the bottom of a bundle or pack* 

et, (rndkai.) 
a middle aged woman, 
to be bitter, acrid, as certain kinds 

of fruit; comp. A&tfp. 
to act in concert, or partnership; 

comp: jawm^ and Bur. ocB. 
to collect into one place or centre, 

comp. gumhpaum; hpawn di at; 

hpaivn taion da at; uhinggyin^ 

and Idhka^vn, 
to gather, congregate; comp. ^up, 

and Bur. coai^i 
li raft, a float; Bur. g«o6; hpawfig 

yaiong. y. to float a raft, 
see jdhpawt; for ady. in hpawtf 

see § 74. 
to lose or haye lost taste^ flayor 

or relish, as salt, fruits, or 

fluids; comp. $hd or jdhpoi. 
trade; hpdga ga^ y. to trade; hpd* 

gay is at times used for traders 

(hpdga nidsha,) or a carayan. 



K40HXK OBAMKAB. 



806 



HpSjau 



Hpra 
Hprangi 

Hprang 



Hprang 

Hpri 

Hprim 

Hpring 

Hpraw 
Hpraw 

Hprawn 



n. 
adv. 

V, 
V. 

V. 

n. 

V, 
V. 
V. 

n, 

V. 



Hprawng 


V. 


Hpya 


V. 


Hpya 


V, 


Hpyan 


V. 


Hpye 


V, 


Hpye 


▼. 


Hpyen 


n. 



a servant at a feasti or before a 

person of importanoe on special 

occasions; comp.jau. 
see §§ 72. e. 74. 1. 
to hew off, fashioni as a post, with 

a sharp instrument, 
to be near to or pass by, as a road 

by a village; dai lam tvora led- 

htawng de hprang sa au 
to wake, yuj) hprang; come into 

consciousness; often used as a 

coup, of dum, 
iron*,^ hjm shin^gritf n. an iron 

chain; see parts, 
to move, fly about as a bat; nrim 

rim patsip hprim. 
to be full, as a vessel of water; 

often used as a coup, of ding* 
to be white; n. whiteness, 
color; appearance, relating more 

to color than form, 
to run away, elope, num hprawn 

ai; to call on a nat, coup, of 

natvn. 
.to run away, abscond; to flee, to 

bolt; hpa mdjato hprawng nni? 
to cut in pieces, divide, as parts of 

a sacrifice; Bur. got 
to rob, plunder, as a caravan; 
. comp. kashun; hpya sha, to live 

by robbing especially traders, 
to spread out, unroll; to expand; 

comp. ^an, and Bur. g{. 
to carry a sword or a oag in na- 
tive fashion; nhtu hpye; tingsan 

hpye ai. 
to wound by a cut, stab etc; to 

break open as sore; comp. rat* 
an enemy, an opposer; comp. gum* 

lau. 



8oe 



TOCABUliABY. 



99 



kawft 



Hpyi 

■ 

yy hpun 



Hpyit 

Hpyau 



9* 



n. 
v; 



n. 

V. 



V. 
V, 



a war; comp. mdjan; hpyen gdmt^ 
Y. to fight, see parts; hpyen md- 
sha^ n. a soldier; /i;^en shdmaum^ 
to set in array, prepare for an 
engagement. 

a witch; a man Or a woman pos- 
sessing an evil spirit. 

to be bewitched, or under the in- 
fluence of a witch; for forms 
such diH hpyi lu — sti, and shuwf^ 
see parts. 

the skin, bark; shan hpyi^ hpun 
hpyi- 

to assume a false appearance; to 
feign, practice hypocrisy, see. 
parts; hpyi hpun ai wa, n. a 
hypocrite, a pretender. ' 

to err, sin, transgress; coup, of 
shut; Bur. g6. 

to hang, be suspended, as a bell. 



R. 



Ra 



Ra 

11a 



Ba 
Ka 
Bam 



*}, 



ram 



Uam. 



V. 



V. 



n, 
pair. 

V. 

ady. 
u. 



I 



to wish, desire, long for; to like, 
and thus to desire, in the last, 
sense as coup, of tsaw. 

to be even, smooth, not rough. 

to be wanting, lacking; to be im- 
perfect, deficient in a moral or 
ethical sense. 

see app. III. 3^ 

seo§ 61. Kb. 

to be enough, moderate, reason- 
able; conip. hkau, 

moderately, temperately, reason.' 
ably. 

the age of puberty; la ram^ hkatvn 
ram, youth, having arrived at 
pubescence. 



KAOHXlf OBAXXA^. 



«)7 



Ban 



Ran 
Rap 

Rat 

Rat 

Rem 
Ren 

Reng 



Rap 



Ret 


V. 


Ke 


V. 


Ri 


a. 


Ri 


par 


Ui • 


n. 


,. jit 


n. 


» ri 


V. 


Ri' 


n. 


,,jinghkyen 


V. 


,, nhtn 


n. 


Ri 


n. 


„ hka 


n. 



V. 



▼. 



n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

V. 



Vr 



to be scarce, as work, amu ran at; 
to be few and far between, as 
large trees in a paddy field, 
hpun ran ai. 

to become cold and stiff, as a 
corpse, mang ran au 

to cross, as a river, bridge etc; to 
cross by swimming, wading or 
any other way. 

see supp. I. 

to wound, as by striking against 
a sharp obsticle. 

to tend, watch, as a heni of cattle; 
nya rem, n. a herdman. 

to be too long, as a rope used for 
carrying purposes; sumrtnauren 
at; thus shann ai, to lengthen. 

to be of fine, good, and substantial 
quality, reng ai pdlaivng; to be 
quick, coup, of hlrau, reng Idrau 
tna n%; to be uncommon, distin- 
guished, comp. £ur. 09130^1, shi 
i-eng ai iva rai nga ai; to act 
boastingly, to feign; comp. did^ 
reng. 

to cut, to clip, to shear, za'nd'au 
hie rep ai; comp. zen, 

to saw, isingnt hte ret ai. 

see raif and § 69. 

see § 35. 3. 

see § 70. 3. 

a cord, string, thread, yarn. 

a skein or hank of thread. 

to spin, p^iwre yarn. 

a spcur. 

to throw a spear at anything dis- 
tant; comp. gdlun. 

weapons of war; Bur. coo6f c6, 

the ratan vine. 

a specie of ratan; comp. Bur. @5^, 



208 

Rim 

Rim 



Rin • 
Ring 
Rip 



Rit 

Hit 
Ru 



Ru 
Ru 
Ru 

Ram 
Ram 



Rum 



Ran 

Rung 
Rai 



v. 

V. 
V, 

par. 
par. 



v. 
pur. 

V. 



n. 
n. 

V, 

n. 

V. 



V. 



n. 

V. 



TOOABULABT. 

to catchy seissoi arresti rim la; M 
hpe rim la u. 

to become dusk; comp. nrtm, and 
hprim; see app. III. 3. 

to grind, as in a mill; comp. htum* 
rin. 

see § 65. 2. b-c. 

see§ 61. l.b;5. b. 

to pound the paddy for the first 
time; to take off the larger husk, 
tnam rip ai. 

to braid; to twist, as while twist- 
ing a cord, shingri rit ai. 

see § 64. 2. 

to be hard, difficult, troublesome, 
bad, usually with yak; ru yak ai 
didra law nga ai; at times ru is 
used with hka as a noun; ru hka^ 
8 grievance, difficulty. 

the root of a tree; hpun ru, 

a vine, a climbing plant. 

to pour out, spill, shed; comp. ru 
hang — dat — kau. 

a water-fall; rum hkratf see parts. 

to have a common centre or ori- 
gin; kdnu katva rum ai;. comp. 
mdrum, and daju. 

to fall out, as the teeth because of 
age, iva rum ai; to break off, as 
small pieces from an edge-tool, 
nshan i-um ai; to pick off, as the 
grains from an ear of corn. 

to tear down, as an old house; 
comp. bya; nta run kau na. 

a court-house; Bur. ^i 

to be, see § 69; to make, create, 
coup, of shai, see Spelling Book 
28; to put up, stay as over night 
in a place, dai na wora nta hta 
anhti rai na ga ai; rai «a, adv. 



ICAOHIK OBAKHAB, 



209 



Rai 
Raw 

„kau 

Rawn 
Rawng 

„ gawk 
„ chyang 
Rawng 

^ Rawng 
Rawt 



Ran 



Rau 
Roi 



n. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 

li. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 



V. 



poBtp 

V. 



Sa 
Sa ' 
„ la 
Sa 



V, 
V. 
V. 

par. 



a 27 



see § 83; rai ti etc, conj. see §§ 
85.86; verb. par. soe § 70. 3. 
interj. see § 89. 

flee arai; from the verb rat. 

to untie, loose; raw dat ai^ see 
parts; also to be imtie<l, etc. 

to set free; fig. to loose, as from 
guilt, to forgive. 

to be slant; mdhkrai rawn at. 

an animal of the tiger specie; 
comp. shdraw, 

a leopird. 

the black leopard, 

to hold, contain; to include, com- 
prise, inclose. 

see app. IV. 4. 

to rise, arise, as from sleep, yup 
rawt; to start as oh a journiey, 
dai ni rawt hlia^mn na; to begin, 
as a work, hpdtja rawt na; rawt 
JiLawm — ruftjt sa^ — rawt iva, see 
parts. 

to bo free; to have leisure, ran 
nga at; rau n nr/a di; comp. ban 
and Ulan; n. a time of loisure. 

with; soe § 84. 

to deride, laugh at, jeer at; to 
treat disrespectfully, saucily; 
comp. asawftf/. 



S. 



to rest; to cease from motion or 
action, through desire of rest. 

to go; to come; comp, wa, hhamn^ 
and § 64. 2. 

to bring; see parts, and comp. la 
sa; sa la wa rit^ bring here, 

see § 61. a. b. 



n«v 



TOOABULART. 



99 99 



hkgkVk 



Sam 
Sam 



San 
San 

Sa.ng: 



Sap 



n. 

V, 

n. 

V. 



V. 
V. 



Sc^t 



V. 



V. 



to pack, crowd into, as paddy in a 
basket, mam sak au 

a witness; a testimony, evidence, 
Bur, oDcScco. 

to bear witness, give testimony; 
see parts. 

a Shan; Sam munff, Sam masJm, 
Sam hking, see piirts. 

to appear, seem; rat sam at, it ap. 
pears to be so; ntsin n raumg 
sam at, there does not seem to 
be any water. 

to ask a question, to inquire, in- 
terrogate; shi hpe san u. 

to be clear, pure; to clean, purify, 
corap. Bur. od^i to mend, feel bet- 
ter, as after an illness. 

to use one object, instead of, and 
in the same way, as another; 
thus to use paper notes instead 
of coin, maisau hte gtmihpraw 
sang at; comp. ling; to pay as 
with Ciittle, rice etc., whien cash 
is not obtainable, iiga sang at; to 
give, as a cow instead of a slave 
at a marriage, mdyam sang ai 
nga; to treat a free person as 
though he were a slave, mdgam 
sang ai; to call by a false name, 
amying sa)xg ai, 

to put something between two 
parts, as when packing, Wipatv 
sap ai; to make divisions, as be- 
tween different layers. 

to kill, mdsha sat ai; to quench, 
extinguish, as fire, wan sat ai; 
to cut down, as trees for timber, 
hpun sat ai; to stop, as a discus- 
sion, ga sat ai; comi^. gdsatf and 
Bur. cooS. 



KXCBim QBAMMAB. 



dil 



8e 

Se 

Sok 



Sem 

Sen 
Seng 



' Seng. 
Seng 



Seng 

Sep 
Sep 



Set 
Si 



Si 

Si 

Sim 

Sin 



par. 

V. 
V. 



V. 

a. 



n. 

V, 



n. 

V. 

n. 



V. 
V. 



n. 

V. 
V. 



see § 61. 3, a, and 4. a. 

to cut or pick oiF, as flesh from 
bones; comp. ffu, and sep. 

to land, as a boat at a landing 
place; to be moored alongside a 
wharf, $ek nga at; Bur. d^; It 
sek ai shdra^ n. a landing plao6. 

to be even; of the same form 6r 
height; opp. to mdhtviff. 

see S 35. 3. 

to concern, relate to, appertain to; 
dai ngai lite senq ai amu; comp. 
Bur. d^6. ' 

a shop, a stall; Bur. d^£. 

to remove, clear out, as things 
from a house, nta seng ai; to pu- 
rify, cleanse; in the last sense 
as coup, oi yeng, 

a top, a child's toy; seng htawk^ v. 
to play with tops. 

to peel, as patotoeS; comp. se. 

scales of a fish or other kinds of 
animals; sep gu, v. to scale, as a 
fish. 

to add on to; to enlarge by addi- 
tion; comp.^a^ 

to die, expire, mdsha si ntai at; 
comp. Bur. co3; to be extin- 
guished as fire, wan si nuU sat; 
comp. litan, 

a kind of pottage; comp. Intro- 
duction 2. a; St si v. to prepare 
the SI. 

fruit; Bur. c8; also pronounced 
asit nanisi; or hpun si, 

to stop, abate; to become still, 
quiet; comp. Bur. g<S. 

to watch, look after a thing; to 
protect, keep as from harm; in 
the last usage as coup, of bau; 



aia 



TOOABUIiABT. 



t3m 
Sin 


n. 


»f du 
„ Jawng 

„ >VttWp 

Sin 


n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 


,. na 
»> l>raw 
Sing 


11. 
n. 

V. 


Sing 
Singgu 


par 

V, 


„ „ krin 


V. 


Singkawiig 
Singwum 


a. 
n. 


' Sit 
Sit 


par 

V. 


Su 
Su 
Sum 


par 

V. 
V. 


Sum 
Sum 


n. 


„ bum 


n. 


„du 
„ doi 


n. 
n. 
n. 



ndai arai hpe sin u; ngai shanhti 
hpe lau fia sin na fna m ai, 

hail; sin hkmt^ y. to hail. 

the liver; oomp. mdsin; a general 
prolormative. 

the cliest, the thorax. 

see app. IV. 2. 

to bo irritative, easily provoked. 

tho lungs. 

to be dark, comp. nsin; to become 
dark. 

tho west. 

the oast; comp. mrl^a. 

to draw up a pUin, to make pre- 
parations, nta sing ai; da sing 
ai; comp. Bur. ao6, i 

see § 61, 2. Rem. 

to Ih3 naked; also pronounced sin- 
gu; comp. hjyaurang. 

same as singgu; most common; see 
parts, 

see § 40. 

briars, thorns; a bush; comp. hpun 
singtvum^ and Bur. coooQ. 

see § 64. 3. 

to move towards one side, ngai 
kaw sit u; comp. Bur. sqoS. 

see $ 64. 3. 

to awake, gup su; comp. hprang. 

to lose, fail; not to gain or win; 
gumhpraw sum mat ai, 

a tout, a booth* 

a general preformative, pronoun- 
ced sam^ by the Cowries; comp. 
§6. b. 

a heap, as of stones, also pro- 
nounced sumpum, 

a hammer. 

a rod, a cane; a sceptre. 

a fishing net. 



XAOBIK OBAKHAB. 



91S 



Suinla 
„ nep 
.. P» 

„p8W 

„ prang 
II pi**' 

» i»py' 



„Bbi 



Sung 

Sung 

Siiiig 

Sat 

Sun 
Sai 

Sni 
Saidairng 



an image; a picture. 

an anvil, 

a box. 

a bunch of fruit, ntiaHpaw; a 

cluator, aa of grapes, 
a kind of long vine-like Jangle 

grass, 
a brad, an awl. 
a wedge, 

a fluttt; uny wind iiistruinoDt. 
u vord, a rope; aitmri suuidam. 
a key. 
a i>oeticiil imiiie Tor lieaven; «tfm- 

SlJiy liDHH. 
see ;i 36. 3. 
bellows, 
a cloud; by some KacbinB also 

mist; comp, saiivan. 
smell, sceut, as from clothes or 

flowurg. 
to use, inake use of; comp. Bur, 

s^t asunff, n. a usage, 
to bo deep, not shallow; opp. to 

tanif; hka swii) at. 
property, wealth, riches; comp. 

flBJi, and Uur. a), 
a giirdon. 
blood;vory often pronounced osat; 

sat pm, V. to blood. 
SCO t] 61. 2. 
a chiiiii, as used with a watch. 

comp. hkt/tn, and 
krat, Bee parts, 
uBciouB, as fruit; 

tallow. 

nporary service; 
1/ ga saw at. 
oxplore, ransack; 
' sawk nti^i. 



'SU 



TOOABtriiABt. 



Sawn 
Sawng 
Sawt 
Sawt 
Saup 
„di 

II gu 
II lang 
„lat 

iiltt 
,lung 

„ lam 
I, ma 
„ myit 
,, nat 
unit 
II ngum 
M «gau 

II P© 



lira 
iihti 



V. 

adv. 
V. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 

n. 
n. 

n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
a. 
n. 
n. 



n. 

n. 
n. 



8hl 
Bha 



ni 



n. 



to caleulale, compute, reckoki; 

sawn yu at; comp, nawn. 
much; a. many; generally $q,tmg 

saivng. 
to aim at, have reference to; also 

pronounced sut, 
to make a false pretence; to act 

the hypocrite, 
to be heated, sweaty; to be warm, 

sultry, 
to take heed; to be careful; n. at- 
tention, heed) caution; Bur. cocS. 
a sheep; Bdgu mun^ see parts, 
an elder of a Kachin village, 
sweat, perspiration; sdlat pru — 

shang — see parts. ' 

vapor, steam, 
disciples of a nat, sdlung sdla; 

cpmp. alt atm, 
the heart. 

smell, scent; comp.. sdngau. 
a needle. 

a gun; $anat gap, see parts, 
see § 35. 3. 

the wild peach; sdngum si, peaches, 
scent, smell, as from boiled flesh; 

comp. sung, scent from powers, 

sdma, and nngivaL 
a disciple, a follower of a teacher; 

Bur. ooo^. 
a teacher; Bur. docp. 
a rich man; comp. Bur. oji^t and 

guntnt (Slian.) 

8H. 

for the use of this combination 

see .§^ 6. b. Bem.; 66. a. 
a child; comp. § 27; and supp. 1. 
see § 19. 



1L40HIK OBAMXAlb 



$x& 



Sha 

„hpa 
Shan 



i> bpyi 
Shan 
Shang 

Shap 



Shat 



u 



V. 

n. 
n. 



n. 
pron 

V. 
V. 



n. 



n mai 


n. 


„ naw 


n. 


She 


par. 


Shen 


V. 


Shi 


a. 


ghi 


pron 


Shi 


n. 


Shimfirl 


n. 


Shim 


V. 


Shing 


adv. 


Shing 




,f ban 


n. 


„dit 


V. 


„ du 


adv. 


,fgan 


V. 


,t kan 


adv. 


» kawt 


V, 


„kra 


n. 


„let 


n. 


„ma 


n. 


„ na 


n. 



to eat; oomp. Bur. eai; to derive tk 

living from, gdlaw Aa. 
food; generally lusha sluihpa. 
ileshy also pronounced, ashan; 

game, '^lang i shan law nga at; a 

common deer, 
skin, parchment. 

for shan^ shatHiU etc. Bee §§ 47^-49. 
to enter; to go or come in; comp. 

shami, 
to borrow, shap la; to lend, ahajp 

ya; the indentical article m 

quofttion to ber returned; comp. 

hkou 
boiled rice, ready for food; shot 

shay see parts; comp. niamt and 

n-gu. 
curry. 

water in which rice is boiled, 
see §88. 

to weigh; comp. §f » and hpan, 
see § 35. 8. 
see §§47.— 61. 
news, tidings; ndai kdja at M rat 

nga at; shilaika m a news-paper, 
see app. III. 2. 
to put away, hide as for future 

use; comp. kyem. 
see §§ 82. 85. 

a general preformative; see § 6. b. 
a spade; the shoulder-blade, 
to kick forwards; comp. Idhkdt, 
see § 75. 

to intercept; to obstruct the view, 
see § 75. 

to step or jump over a thing, 
a widower, 
the fcongue. 
the back, 
a rod; 



TOOABULABT. 



ngna 
»» nip 

„ noi 

9« rit 

„ tai 
y, tawt 
8ku 
Shu 
Shum 

Shup 

Shut 

Shai 

Sliai 

Shau 

Shaw 

Shawn 

Shawng 
Shawt 

Shan 



„ ba wawt 

fi if lap 
y, bam 



n. 
n. 



n, 

n. 

n. 
n. 

V. 

n, 
n, 

V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

adv. 

V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 



V. 



a shadow. 

the shadow as from a tree or a 
human body; shinynip nip v. to 
shadow. 

the common kind of basket car- 
ried by women. 

a revolution, an appearance, a vi- 
sion. 

a cord, a string, 

an insect; a worm. 

to junipi leap. 

a.grandchild; see supp. 1. 

a frog. 

to be salt, taste of salt; jum shufn 
ai. > 

to wring, squeeze out, as water 
from a wot rag. ' 

to err, make a mistake; comp. 
hpyit. 

to differ, vary; to be different, di- 
vers, not the same. 

to cross as the hands; lata shai at. 

salpetre, nitre. 

to take out, extricate; bring to 
light; derive from. 

to bring or cause to pass through, 
sJiifshawn; to have been through. 

see 8 74. 

to dig out; to scoop out; to exca- 
vate. 

to flood, cause a flood; comp. itty; 
aJuHi shAimj^ n. a flood. . 

the brinjal; shaha si, see parts* 

to devine; to find out the will of 
the nuts by the means of divi- 
nution;comp. shdman, and nivatvi. 

a long and broad leaf used for di- 
vination. 

the braying of an ass; a loud cry, 
as of a human being. 



KAOHIir OBAJOUB. 



217 



8hSba 
„ bawn 
ff bawQ 



„ brang 
„ brai 
ft byi 

f, chyut 

H ,, da da 
jf dan 

,1 dang sha 

„du 

„ dung 

„dai 
daw 
dawn 



i» gan 

ifg« 

i»g«P 

If ja 



„kap 
„kap 

„ kum 
,9 kut 



V. 

n. 

V. 



n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 

n. 

V, 

n. 
w, 
n. 
n. 
n. 

V. 
V. 

n. 
a. 

V. 
V. 



n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 



to be unskilled; destitute of prac* 
tical knowledge, shdhu at tnasha. 

a bundle, a bunch; shattnai shd- 
bamt; v. to bundle; comp. nhtan, 

to send away; to give permission 
to leave; especially applied to 
the ceremony, by which tho 
spirit of a deceased, (tsu nat^y is 
sent to the country of the anoes- 
tors, (kdtsan ga) 

a young unmarriea man; a youth. 

wages; pay for service. 

the cheek; 4 the side of the face 
below the eyes. 

to drive out, expel; comp. cten, 
and shapraiv, 

see § 35. 2. c. 

to show, to explain; shdpraw shd- 
dan; comp. dan. 

see supp. 1 . 

to prepare, as food; shot shddu at. 

flour. 

the navol; comp. dai. 

a post of any kind. 

to measure; comp. app. IV. 3. 

to call, to talk aloud; oomp. gdru^ 
jdhtau^ and mdrawn, 

a star. , 

see § 35^. 2. b. 

to double; to be double; ga aha* 

to put forth strength, to exert 
one's self; to try; comp. shdkui, 
and shdrang, . 

the lower jaw. 

to fasten; to cause to sticky or ad- 
here to; comp. kap, 

a partition, a wall, a fence.' 

to try, endeavor; comp. shdja. 



28 



218 J 
Sh&k^wn 

„ • kram 



„ krop 
„ la 
„ Ian 

.» lip 
loi 



»f 



ff 



man 



,y man 

,j mat 

mni 



91 



9f 



mu 



„ myot. 


V, 

r 


ff na 


V. 


ft w« 


n. 


yi nam . 


n. 


If ni 


n. 


ff ning 


n. 


»f ngan . 


n. 


„ ngai 


V. 



f, ng^n 



ff pre^ 



1 1 



n. 



Si 

n. 

V. 

n. 

adv. 
n. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

V. 



V. 



.1). 



VOOABULABT. . 

to praieo, glorify;, to give thanks;' 

coup, kungdawn, 
onions; sh^kau^^hkyeng — hpraWf 

800 piU*t8. J 

to take leave; to bid farewell; sha- 
kram ai ga, n. a parting saluta- 
tion. 

a bed-bug. 

see api). Ill, 2. 

to support; revive; give strength 
or aid to. 

a cockroach. 

see 55 74. 

a blessing, benediction; sho^nan 
gUf V, to bless. ^ 

a small kind of bamboo used for 
divination. - 

to lose; cause to disjippear. 

to cure, make well, to heal; comp, 
fiiai; coup, shami, 

to move, stir; to- shake, as the 
leaves before the wind; coup, 
shdmatol; nam lap slidmu shd:, 
mawt rai nga at. 

to loan on; to confide in, to trust 
in, shihnget shdnat; comp. /i/xi. 

to make known; to inform, com- 
municiito; comp, «a. 

night in opposition to day, 

the ginger i)hiut or root. 

day; comp. shtUmf and tihtoi, 

a year; comp. § 29. . ,. 

see app. III. 2. 

to bear, bring forth, give birth; 
also pronounced ^'rfn^at. \ ti 

to Bond, dispatch as a person; (o bQ. 
distinguished from slulgxtn^ to 
send, as a letter. . - - 

beans, pease; a leguminous plant; 
of any kind. 



>n 1/ 



KAOHIN GBAMHAB; 



fS« 



8h%prut 
yf praw 

„ ra. 



K 



It 



n 



)i 



rm 



o 



raw 
raw 



„ ta 
„ ta 



ft 



tan 






tu 
„ wa 



r » 



WOl 



„ yawt 



• .f 



Ta 
Ta' 

Tttk 
Tam 



V. 

V. 

n. 
V. 

n. 

V. 



^« 



n. 
n. 

adv. 
n. 

V. 
V, 

n. 
adv. 



n. 

V. 



par. 
n. 

V. 
V. 



to cook, boil. 

to send ont or forth, to bring oat 

a place; comp. § 12. 8. o. 

to bear; to have patieuco, endu< 
ranee; comp. shdja, . 

a place once used us a paddy field, 
but overgrown. 

to teach, instruct; to chastise; 
shiirin achyin; shitrin la^ shdrin 
t/ttf see parts. 

a tiger. - . 

a jungle fire. 

8eei:f 83. * : ' : • 

the moon; a lunar month; coiup. 
app. III. 2. and ta. ' ' i 

to revile, speak lightly of; to treat 
with contumely. 

to joke, jest; to trifle with; to 
blame, put blame on any-one; 

an assembly, a congregation; a 
public act done by common con- 
sent, shtiwa amu. 

formQrly, anciently, in times past; 
shdwvi nioi moi anhte nmg rui 
f/(tlaw S(i f/a at. 

a female; sJufi/i sha, a daughterjt 

to mourn, lament; to bemoanj be- 
wail; coup, shiirung; hlsha si 
mat ai majaw, shi shdrung sha- 
yawtrai nga at. 



T. 



see § 65. 4. 

a month; only used in composi- 
tion; comp. § 29. and app. III. ]. 

to con jectu re, guess. 

to seek, search for, look for; tam- 
hkawm — sa, see parts. 



320 



VOOABULABY. 



Tang 

Tang 
Tem 

Ten 



Teng 
n teng 
Tinang 
Tin 



Ting 
Ting 

TiugnyMig 

Tingsan 

Tingse 

Ting-ye 

Tu 

Tnk 

Turn 

Tun 

Tung 

Tung 
Tup 
Tut 
Tai 



V. 

T, 
V, 

n.' 

T. 

adv. 

pron 
conj, 

V. 



a. 

V. 

n. 

n. 

n. 
n. 

V, 

n.* 
n. 

V. 

V. 

n. 

a. 

ady. 

V. 



to pawn, to mortgage; tang da^ see 

parts, 
to be shallow; opp. to sung, 
to be sober, calm, serious; tem si 

at mdsha. 
time, looked upon in its totality; 

comp. ahkying^ aprat, na^ and 

lakhtak; also pronounced aten, 
to bo true, honest, upright; to be 

correct, accurate, 
truly, honestly; teiuj teng maniinan 

myit mu, 
see § 51, d. 
see § 86. 
to be short and rounded; tin tin, 

a. d^Tarfish, undersized; ndai wa 

gaw tin tin hu hu toa rat nga ai. 
see § 35. d. 
to plant highland paddy; mam 

ting ai ahkying du sai. 
a low stool, used esi>eciiEilly by 

the nat priests, 
the common Kachin bag. 
a stringed instrument of any kind, 
a broom; ting-ye ye ai, v, to sweep* 
to grow or sprout as a plant, 
poison, venom, as of a snake; comp. 

gung. 
the seed or kernel of fruit in ge- 

neral; namsi ttnn. 
to melt, dissolve, as salt in water; 

comp. byawng, 
to rise, swell, as a river after a 

heavy rain; hka tung wa sau 
see supp. 1. 
see § 35. d, 
see § 74. 
see § 69. 






I , 



KAOHIK GBAMMAB. 



2S 



Tai 



Tau 
Tau 



Tau 



Taukawk 

Tauhpau 

Taw 



▼• 



V, 



V. 



V. 



n. 
n. 



Taw 



Taw 
Tawm 



Tawm 



Tavm 



Tawn 

Tawp 

Tawng 

,, marang 
Tawngban 



V. 



par. 

V. 



V. 

n. 
V. 1 



to retaliate, to render like foi 
like; nffai hpe shi hdyai at majate 
shi hpe nf/ai kdyat tai na nngai. 

to consider; to have regard for; 
comp. Bur. cooocS. 

to advance towards, to go in or- 
der to meet; shi hpe sa tau u. 

to support, render assisUince; 
slianhte anhti hpe amu gdlaiv tau 
ma ai, 

a turtle, a tortoise. 

a cannon; a large field -piece. 

to recline, /to lie down, kaleng 
taw; to be scattered around as 
small things on a floor; nang i 
aini kdji hijaw taw nga ai. 

to be scarce, rare, few; lusha taw 
ai; jum taw ai; dai ning^ mdkaw 
si taw ai, 

see § 63. 

to be absent, as from home, to be 
away, for one reason or an other; 
shanhte tawm mat tva sa; to have 
completed, finished, as some 
kind of work; n-gu hpai tawm sa, 

to be short; too short, as a piece 
of gAvm^nt; hptm pdlawng taunn 
nga ai, 

to be blunt, dull, us an edge-tool; 
opp. to dai: dai nlUugaw jaja 
tawn nga ai, 

a kind of nat altar for the mdsfia 
nat; tawn hkungri, 

to put, place; tawnda, tojputdoWn, 
establish. 

a short period of time; dai kd- 
htawng i tawng mi shi nga nga at, 

a season, an interval. 

to implore, entreat, to apologize; 
Bur. cooo6tu^. i 



Sii2 



yOOABOIiABY. 



'IVira 

» 

,y ilara 
», hkaw 



V. 
V. 



Tsa 


n. 


Tsam 


V, 


Tsan 


V. 


< Tsang 


V. 


Tflap 


n, 

V. 


Tseng 


V. 


Tsot 


V. 


Tsi 


V, 


„ sura 


n. 


) „t8i 


V. 


. Tsing 


V. 


„du 


n. 


Tsingri 


V. 


Taingrot 


n. 


Tsiu-yain 


u. 


Taip 
„ tsip , 
Tsit 


V. 

a. 



law; any particular principle 'or 

law; Bur. oocp. 
to administer the law, to judge, 
to preach, announce the law; see 

ptirts. 

TS. 



I •* 



see supp. 1. 

to be decayed, rotten, dilapidated; 
Ilia isam ai, 

to bo far, distant, not near;' opp. 
to ni; comp. t/a, *..' ; '. 

to be troublod, perplexed, afflict- 
ed; rti tsang at ngai law hkrtim 
ntif/ai. 

a boar. ' * 

to stand; ^o stop: comp. JUir. ofi, 

to bo done properly and com- 
pletely; nta ngut iseng raisa. "• 

to be alert, energetic, wide awake; 
dai tset ai via rat nga ai. 

a drug of any kind, medicine, 
paint, 

a doctor; see parts. 

to administer medicine. : ■ 

to be fresh, green; comp. katsing; 
to soak as in a liquid, to drench, 
steep; comp. Bur. 85, 

grass, weed; herbage in general; 
tsingdn tsingman. 

to trouble, persecute, overrun, 
tsingri tsingrat; also pronounced 
zingrL J 

a Haw; comp. ret, 

c^ilaniity, ovel, danger; tein^goin 
tsindam hhram ai^ sou parts, 

the nest of a bird, .. ;. :.. .. 

to build a nest.; ...•.v.> I'v ;»J 

yellow or green. 



KiOmS OBAXKAB. 



228 



IW 



Tsu 



Tsu 



Tsum 
Tsuni. ". 

„ chyai 
„ ghuna . 
Tflau . . 



14 



Tbuw 
Taawm . 



Tsawp 



Tsabyi 



p • 


V. 


f 


« 

V. 




*■ ■ ■ 

1 




• 

a. 




▼• 




V. 


< 


V. 


♦ 


n. 


• 


' 


' 


V. 


• 


y. 


I • 


n. 


• 


. 




n. 




■ 


;■ 


• 






to be sour, spoiled, putrified; sfuU 

mat tsv mat sa; coiiip. j/at and 

the liur. cgi . 

to be weary, worn witb fatigue; 

to be tired, stiff; ny^ a hktim tsti 
. mat sat,, 
the spirit of a dead person, ready 

to enter the hind of the ances- 
tors; tsu dumsa. see parts, 
see § 40. b. 
to speak, tell, say; comp. w/ya, and 

nffu, 
see parts. i 

see parts, 
a son of a chief; a prince; isau 

f/am — /a— <t« etc.;8ee app. I. and 

comp. zau, 
to (U'^ire, wiHh, love; comp. ra, 
to be beautiful, pretty; to bo g;ood, 

pun*; tsatmn pra at. 
the body apart from the soyl,. 

hhim tsawp; a skin as shed by u 

serpent, Idpu tsatvp, 
the grape vine or fruit; wine; tsa-^ 

hyi hpun — si^-^jahku, see parts; * 

Bur* otjS. 

HT. 



Hta 

Hta .y. 
HUx 



) » • . 






ntak : 



^ • ' .4. 



n 



V. 

par, 

V. 



V. 



to swell, rise as the sea; to roll in 
large billows, hka hta at; Bur. oo. 

see § 22; i>ostp. 8 84. 

to pick up, take up, as from the 
lioor; to pick as wood, hptot hta; 
to collect as taxes, hkansehta; to* 
acci'pt, as a new doctrine, ttUxi' 
unan hta la at\ 

to chiingo, turn back, as from the 
path of duty; to ajioMtati/e. 



224 



YOCABULABY. 



Htam 

Htam 

Htan 

Htan 

Iltang 
„ dip 
Iltap 
Htut 
Hie 
lite 
Hten 
liten 

Hteng 
Ilteag 

Htet 

Hti 
Hti 
Hti 

Htim 

Hting 
„bu 

im 






ra 



Htingra ta 

Htu 

Htu 



V. 
V. 
V, 

n. 

V. 

n. 

V. 

ptir. 

V. 
V. 

par. 

V. 
V. 
V. 

n. 

V. 
V. 



n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 

n. 

V. 
V. 



a part, a division, a share; dai 
gnmhprato htam shi hta kdran u. 

to increase; conp, ot law; law wa 
htam wa, 

to reply, answer, respond; ngai 
shaya yang gaw htan u. 

to raise as a ladder against a 
house; Idkang htan at. 

a mould of any kind. 

to mould, to cast. 

a luyor, stratum; comp. kdhtap. 

to be thick, not thin, it hfa ai. 

see §ti J 5. 47. 

see §§ 24. 42-43; conj. § 86. 

to suppose, presume; comp. fihten, 

to destroy; comp. jdhten; to be 
destroyed, ruined; comp. run. 

see §§48, 15. 

to measure as grain; tnam hteng 
guu. • 

to instruct, give instruction; to 
order, htet da; see parts. 

to rca<i, to count; hti yu at. 

see app. IV. 4. 

to leave or remain behind; tulai 
wa nta de hti nga ai; comp. di. 

to dart, to spring ui)on, as a tiger 
its prey; shdrawhtim ai. 

a gtiiioral preformative. 

a neighbor. 

a family, a household. 

the house of a chief; a palace. 

the site, of a house; a building- 
place. 

see app. III. 1. 

to dig, delve; comp. Bur. o^* 

to push along as a small carriage, 
leng htu ai; to push, impel as a 
boat with a pole, li htu ai. 



KAOHIN OBAMHAB. 



326 



HtU 

Htuk 

Htum 

Htnm 



Htnng 
Htni 



V. 
V. 

n. 
n. 



Htai 
Htan 



Htaw 
Htawkdang 

Htawm ^ 

Htawng 
Htawt 



Htoi 
Ht&ning 



n. 



V. 



V. 



V. j 



t 



a. 
n. 
n. 



n. 



n. 



adv. 



to pound paddy in native fashion, 
mam Mu au 

to put things in proper order; to 
adjust, arrange; comp. jahtvJc. 

an end, a termination, extremity; 
comp. Jdhttim, 

a mortar; a mortiir for pound- 
ing paddy; fUumbt/en — ffafonff^- 
tawm/, different kinds of paddy 
mortars; htumrtHf a paddy mill. 

a precedent, custc»m, usage; comp. 
hkiuf/, and Bur. o^t 

to interpret ;i8 a dreani» or an un- 
usual supernatural appearance; 
yup mang htai a^i; shiuf/ran htai 
at. 

to be keen, clear-sighted, acute of 
intellect; myitlaw law htai ax wa. 

to strike, cut down, as with a 
sword; to kill by a single stroke; 
nga ilu htau kau sai, 

see § 36. 2. adv. see ij 75. 

cholera. 

the future, htatmn prat; adv. after, 
afterward; (/<flaw nf/ut ai htatmn. 

a prison, a jail; Uur. gooo6. 

to change, as a place of dwelling; 
to move; anhtv wora kdhtamig de 
Imhtaui wa mdi/u ga ai. 

light; htoi htoi ai, v. to give light; 
comp. nhtoi, 

next year. 



W. 



Wa 
fVa 



n. 



a 29 



for the different usages of this 

word, see § 6. 
a father, comp, Ewij^* U and § 27; 

wa doi, aoa di, %^^ «vrg>^, \« 



%«; 



TOOABUtiABT. 



/Va 
iVa 



\Vn 



n. 

v. 
par. 



„ ngttu 
Wh 



y> 



J» 



Wa 

,y klawi 
„ wnggung 
\Va 



f» 



ra 



Waduyftn 

Wakang 

Wamudai 

VVahpaiig 
Warn 

Wan 
„ daw 
„ preii 

W»n 

» grwng 



n. 



a. 

n. 
n. 
n. 

". 
n. 
n, 
n. 
n. 
n. 



u. 
n. 
n. 
11. 

II. 

V. 

II* 
II. 
II. 
n. 

n. 



a hut, small house in a paddy 
6eld;hkauna iva; yi iva, 

flee Jf 69. 

an intensive particle used with 
adverbs; nachying tva ahdrang lu 
at fHtfsha; gdja tva teng teng gd- 
law at. 

a mule human beiiiQ, a man; oomp. 
such eombinatians us, du tm, sd- 
tang wa, and myilitoi iva; nilai 
wa^ tliis person. 

a man, liaving reached maturity 
and independence. 

a tooth; conip. Uur. qgoi. 

the socket of a tooth. , 

the gum; iva kam, a molar; tva 
man, the incisors. 

a hog. 

a wild boar. 

a flea; ciilled by some toa hklai. 

the bristles on a hog'a back. . 

bimboo; comp. § 30. and 13ur« dli 

a kind of bamboo; tva law — nuing 
— mungy different kinds of bam- 
boo. 

the elephant bamboo. 

a centipede. 

a manger; a trough for animals. 

an orchid, wa mddai pan; by some 
Ciillod wundai pan, 

a brick-building. 

to dare; to have the courage to do 
a thing; comp. gtvi, and Sur. b, 

a dish, bowl, plate, hka tvan. 

a glazed earthen dish, bowl etc. 

a plate or saucer. 

fire, pronounced tvawn, by the 
Cowries. 

a flame; v. to burn, tvan ja ja 
gnmg nga at. 



\ 



KAOHIK QBAMMAB. 



«l 



Wan kra 



>t 



f? 



99 



hkut 
iiat 

uhtaw 
„ tthnchyi 
„ wut 

We 

Wing 

Wo 
Wii 

Wu wu 



Wuudung 

Wut 

Wut 

Wai 

Wai 



Waw 



Wuw 

I. kap 

Wrtwm 

Wawt 
„ bying 



V. to wurm one's self by a fin*, h 

shung ai ma jaw tvan kra at. 
n, smoke; fcan hkut hkti^ v. to smokei 
V. I to set fire to, to burn as a hoiw 

. I or a villa j«;e. 
n. ' a live coal; a fire-braiul. 
V, to set fire, to ignite; coiup. cAyt. 
V. to light a fiix*; to make a fire, 
par. see $f 61. 1. c. 
n. a compound, a yanl, an unclosuro; 

! Ihir. o6i 
adv^J see § 75; a. § 35. 2. 
V. to pollute, make unclean, tvu kau 

ai; conip. awu, 
n. a murmur, a half suppressed com* j 

plaint; tru wu (li (It kdba rat nfi 
! ai, 
n. a centre, a central part, 
n see app. HI. 'J, 
n. a briok, Hur. o^o5. 
n. a whirlpool, eddy, hka wai; Hur. h 
V. to fade, become faint, to die as a 

flower, nampan fvai ai; comp. 
• the piirase a htum u wai^ not end- 1 

iiig, not fading. 
V. to oi)en, coup, of hpaw; to make a 

hole in or through, to perforate; 
to have a hole, ]ierforation, 

puncture; udai maisau fvaw mat 

sai, 
n. a cold, a headache U^CiiuBe of a I 

cold; coup, hpumlaw; wawri waw- 

ren^ a cold or the eftect of a cold. 
V. to catch a cold; also called ivaw 

shanf/y see pirts. 
V. to rise, as a blister or bubble; to 

be bloated, inflated. 
n. tUe eomuvnv kiiul of land.leech. 
n. 1 a Nvatev \e^c\v. 



328 



VOOABULABY, 



Woi 



Woi 
Woi 
„ shin 



Ya 

Ya 
Ya 
Ya 

Ya 

Yak 
Yam 



V. 



Yam 
Yaii 
Yau 
Yaii 



Yaug 
Yang 

Yang.yi 

Yat 

Yat 

>i yat 

Yat 
Ye 



11. 

n. 



to lead, guide, conduct, as from 
one place to an other; tvoi la, woi 
hkaHf see parts. 

see supp. 1 . 

a monkey. 

a kind of monkey. 

Y. 



V, 



n. 



adv. 

! V. 
! V. 



to give; comp. jaw; to pay, as a 

price for a thing, 
millet. 

a species of wild goat, 
n. I a day; a natural day of 24 hours; 

comp. nhtoif shitni, and Bur, c^cS. 
see § 74-3; now, the present time; 

comp. J3ui\ uo^. 
to be hard, difficult; comp. ru, 
to enslavt), mdt/am yam ai; to be 

turned, domcHticated, as animals; 

f/am Uf/a^ u. dumestiaited ani- 
mals, 
a large glu/od water chatty; a jar. 
see $ 16. 
see ;ii tU. 
to be extendotl; to move or pass 

on uninterrupted; comp. ayan; 

to procei'd consecutively one 

after the other; hpym mdsha ni 

yan sa wa nga ma ai. 
a goat, (Chinese.) 
see J} 74; verb. par. see 63; comp. 

jauf/. 
potatoes; (Chinese.) 
to be rotten, putrid; mostly used 

of eatables; comp. tsu. 
to be slow; comp. Unyan. 
slowly, in a slow manner; seejj 76. 
see § 74. 
to be daring, bold, brave; comp. 

Bur. \t 



n. 
par 

par 
! V. 



n. 
adv. 

n. 

V. 
V. 

adv. 
adv. 

V.