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Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845, bj C. D. 
Clevzland, in the Clerk's Office of the Distriet Court of the United States, 
in and ^ the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 




Nq. t George stre«|. 










Th> first edition o€ this Grammar» of two thousand coptes^ 
having been sold in less than ten months, the editor has careibl- 
ly revised the present Ste^-eotjrpe edition, and has endeavoured, 
by some emendations and additions, to malce it still more worthy 
of the fevonrable estimation of the public. He feels indeed, 
with others, that it is a great evil to have the successive editions 
of school books continually undergoing alterations and enlarge- 
ments ; but as this edition was to be sent forth to the world in a 
permanent form, he thought it advisable to introduce a few 
alterations, and, in his view, decided improvements, without 
changing the form or character of the work. Accordingly, by 
enlarging the page a little, and compressing the four conjugated 
verbs into a smaller space, he has been enabled to introduce 
the new matter without increasing the size of the book. But 
these alterations will occasion little or no difficulty in referring 
fi^om this edition to the former, or from that to this : ibr in the 
Syntax, to which reference is more frequently made, and where 
the pages of the two editions differ most, the number of the 
rule will be an unerring guida Soon, however, the old edition 
will be entirely gone ; and where this alone is used, the most 
minute references can be made, not only in the Syntax, as be- 
fore, but throughout the whole book, by the number of the sec- 
tion—the Et3rmology being numbered from } 1 to } 263, the Syn- 
tax from { 1 to { 246, and the Prosody from { 1 to } 125< 

In justice to himself, and in reply to some remarks that have 

been made in a certain quarter, from interested motives, ' that 

this edition is little or no better than others of the same work,* 

the editor deems it his duty to state, somewhat more in detail 

than formerly, in what respects his edition differs from all 

OTHERS, and what it contains over and above all other iditioks 

of Adam's grammar, published in this country. 

1* 5 



1. The remarks on Gender, page 19,^are new. 

2. The lists of regular Nouns of the first, second, and fourth 
declensions, found in other editions, have been thrown out of 
this, as entirely useless ; and the spaces they would have occupi- 
ed have been filled with lists of Irregular Nouns^ and those which 
present some peculiarities. See the lists { 10, 11, 12 and 13, on 
page 21 ; — ^the Alphabetical list of Irregular Nouns on pages 46, 
47, 48, 49 and 60 ;— the lists of Irregular Nouns, } 58, 69, 60, 61, 
62, 63 and 64, which have been much enlarged ; and the lists, 
} 65, 66, 67 and 68, which are entirely new; — and the termi- 
nations of the five declensions, on page 53. 

3. The following entirely new matter is also to be found among 
the NOUNS. The remarks on the several cases, with their 
powers explained, } 15; — the declension of Deus in flill, under 
{ 22 ; — the decleni^on of Delo», of Androgeos^ and of barbttont 
under { 23 ; — ^the exceptions in the vocative singular, under } 43 ; 
— ^the third and sixth paragraphs under the fifiJi declension, 
under } 51 ; — and the remarks on Proper Names, } 70. Besides 
this fiew matter, the Defective Nouns, } 64, have been arranged 
in alphabetical order, and the list of Redundant Noims, } 69, has 
been much enlarged. 

4. Among the ADJECTIVES, exceptions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, un* 
der } 82, are greatly enlarged, as will readily be seen on a com- 
parison with any of the common editions of this work. The 
two first paragraphs on page 73, upon the numeral letters, are 
entirely new; as are also the three first paragraphs under } 91 • 
The paragraph 2, imder } 101, is greatly enlarged, and the whole 
article { 102,. upon Irregular and Unusual Comparison, is new. 

5. In the PRONOUNS, observations 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
So and 21, under } 108, are entirely new, 

6. In the VERBS, the remarks on the various tenses, com» 
prising all of } 104, are new : likewise the second, third and 
fourth paragraphs under (115. The Deponent and Common 
Verbs, { 128, have a different arrangement fix)m that which ob- 
tains in other editions of this grammar, they being placed here 
next to the verbs which are given as examples of the several 
Conjugations. The formations of the tenses under { 130, 131, 
132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138 and 139, are greatly enlarged. 


7. The most impartmt dtemtion» perhap8,that has been made 
by the editor in his edition of Adam's Qrammar» is to be Ibund 
in the Conjugation of the Verbs» It is well known to every 
classical scholar, that while the Perfect Participle of a greater 
part of the Latin Verbs, is in use, the Supine is rarely found in 
the classics. It is therefore obviously proper that Latin Verbs 
should be conjugated with the Perfect Participle, rather than 
with the Supine. Dr. Adam, on the contrary, in conjugating 
the Verbs, gives the Supine almost uniformly, without any classi- 
cal authority for its support, and all the common editions have 
followed carefully in his steps. For instance, the Boston edition 
of Adam's, from page 118 to p^e 164, is the same as the old 
Edin^ur^ edition of 1793, toiidem verbis^ with the trifling ex- 
ception of five or six lines of the Irregular Verb Prosum, Thus 
have the errors of the old editions of this work been perpetuat- 
ed. In this edition, however, the editor has rejected entirely Dr. 
Adam's article on the verbs, comprising about thirty^wo page»^ 
and bcu3 inserted matter altogether new, comprising about nxty^ 
five pages^ fi^om page 112 to page 176. The Verbs- are, there* 
fore, cimjagated with the Perfect Partici^^e, if it be used ; if not, 
the verb has an asterisk (*) prefixed to it, and one of the fiiture 
participles is inserted. The fiitures RUS and DUS, when ibund, 
are indicated by the letters R and D, and the Supines UM and 
U, by M and U. In the notes under the verbs will be found such 
parts of them, as seldom occur in the Latin authors, with the 
classical authorities for each. In the common editions of Adam's, 
not a single classical authority is given ; while in this, there are-* 

In the First Conjugation, 774 

** " Second, " 406 

** « Third, «* 1147 

" " Fourth, " 360 

M «♦ Irregular and Defective verbs, 424 


classical citations. 

The editor is aware that much space has, in consequence of 
these numerous additions, been given to the Verbs, but he be- 
lieves IhiM; it could not be better filled. Not only will it afford 


the advanced scholar much satk&etlon to be able to aseertain 
readily, whether any part of a verb which he may wish to em- 
ploy, has been used by the best Roman writers, but it is highly 
important that the scholar in the grammar-school should b^in 
right, and not, in after years, be obliged to do, what all know is 
so hard to be done — unlearn what has been learned amiss. 

8. The articles j 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 
214, 215, 216, 217, 218, on the Defective Verbs, are new. 

9. The articles } 222, 223, 224 and 225, on Redundant Verbs, 
are new. 

10. The Remarks on the V^b, } 230, on pages 176, 177 and 
178, are not found in any other edition. 

11. In the PARTICIPLES, articles } 233 and 239, are new. 

12. It will be seen that the PREPOSITIONS are entirely re- 
modelled, and instead of the meagre page, which is given to 
them in all the preceding editions of Adam's Grammar, they 
here occupy eight pages. The original import of each is en- 
deavoured to be given and illustrated, and the secondary mean- 
ings traced to the primary. See pages 184 — 192. To the PRE- 
POSITIONS IN COMPOSITION, four pages have been devoted 
instead of a thurd of a pag^, as in the Edinburgh edition. See 
pages 192—195. 

13. Articles } 255, 266, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262 and 263, on 
the Signification of Words, are entirely new. 

14. In the SYNTAX, the following articles are entirely new: 
— the remarks on Simple and Con4)ound Sentences, } 4 and 5 : — 
articles } 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11, under Rule II;^articles } 24, 25, 26 
and 27, under Rule III ;—a5jicle } 35, under Rule IV ;— Articles 
} 44, 45, 47 and 50, under Rule VI, explanatory of the govern- 
ment of the Genitive by another noun, and the different senses 
in which the Genitive is used ; — article } 51, under Rule VI, ex- 
plaining the use of the Dative for the Genitive ; — article } 60, 
under Rule VII, giving the different significations of the • Abla- 
tive of duality ;•— article ^67, under Rule VUI; — article }73, 
tmder Rule IX; — article 5 82, under Rule X, comprising nearly 
two pages of adjectives governing the Genitive, with the classi- 
cal authorities ;— articles { 90 and 91, before Rule XII, explaining 

the fimoe and tme of the Dative caae;— art&des { 106 and 109^ 
under Ride XTIT ; — the note explanatory of Rule XV , and arti- 
cles } 118, 119, 1^ under that Rule;— the note to Rule XVII, 
and under this Rule, part of articles } 131 and 136, and the whole 
of the articles ; 132, 133, 136, 138, 141, 142 and 143, the three 
last comprising about four pages of verbs, governing the Dative, 
that are * variously construed ;' — article } 145, explaining what 
are usually considered as • redundant Datives ;' — articles } 148, 
149, 150, under Rule XVIII ;— observation 3, under Rule XIX ;— 
nearly all of observation 1, under Rule XX; — article } 1% ^u^- 
der Rule XXI ;— the note to Rule XXII ; — article } 161, under 
Rule XXITI ; — observations 3 and 4, under Rule XXVI ; — obser- 
vations 2, 3 and 4, under Rule XXVU ;— articles j 172 and 173, 
under Rule XXVin, explaining the construction when the active 
is changed into the passive verb ;^observations 6 and 7, under 
Rule XXX ; — ^part of observation 2, and all of observations 6 
and 7, under Rule XXXI ;— observations 4 and 5, under Rule 
XXXVm ; — ^part of observation 3, and all observations 4 and 5^ 
under Rule XXXIX ; — ^most of article { 196, and all of article 
} 197, under Rule XL ; — ^Rules XLII and XLm ;— observation 3, 
under Rule LUI ;— articles { 220, 221, 222, 223 and 224, giving 
rules for the use of the Relative with the Indicative and Subjunc- 
tive modes ; — and article } 234, under Rule LXII. These additions 
to the Syntax, comprise about SEVEN HUNDRED LINES, 
while in all the other editions of Adam's Grammar, which have 
iallen under the editor's notice, this division of it (the Syntax) 
corresponds exactly with the Syntax in the old Edinburgh edition 
of 1793, with but a few trifdng exceptions. 

15. In PROSODY, the following articles are new ;— article } 17 ; 
—exceptions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, under { 40-^— the 9th, 10th and 
13tb, observations under J 42 ;— exception 4, under } 49 ;— article 
{ 62 ;— exceptions 1, 2, 3 and 4, under { 63 ; — all of articles { 73, 
74, 76, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 86, 87,-88, 89, 90, 91 and 
92 ; — ^which present a clear view of all the different metres used 
by Horace;-^nd articles } 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 
114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124 and 125, which 
exhibit all the combinations of the preceding metres found in the 
same poet Besides all these new articles, the ** Figures of Dic- 
tion" have been enlarged from the old editions ; and many new 
subdivisions made throughout the Prosody. For instance, ex- 


i:;^tions % 8 and 4, under } 48, are, in the other editions of 
Adam's con^xised in one: but they are entirely different in 
character, and should be made distinct by division, both from 
the foct of their difference, and for easy and intelligible refer- 

Such are the chief additions which the Editor has made to 
Adam's Latin Grammar, and by which, he trusts this work, 
originally of great merit, and deserved celebrity, has been ren- 
dered still more valuable. The original work has been used 
nearly half a century in all the best schools and colleges in our 
country, and those who have temporarfly resorted to other gram- 
mars, have at length come back to this. It is true that some of 
the Rules of S3mtax, of the original Edinburgh editions, and of 
those hitherto published in this country, have not been expressed 
with the greatest clearness and precision, but every intelligent 
instructor would of course explain and illustrate whatever there 
appeared to be that was ambiguous or obscure. Taken as a 
whole, however, the original work of Dr. Adam has risen higher 
!n the estimation of the editor, the oftener and the more critical^ 
}y he has examined it. It has been his aim in this edition, to ex- 
plain the little that was ambiguous, and to illustrate the little 
that was obscure; and, by supplying some deficiencies, to make 
it a manual to which the student of the higher classics might 
constantly refer with pleasure and satisfaction* Whether he has 
succeeded, he leaves for the decision of those who are decided- 
ly the best qualified to judge^the Classical Teachers of our 

RiiUideiplu, Jaawoy 1, 1887* 


T^ III ,1 



Orthoosapht, which tteaU qf LeSr 

teri 15 

IXphthcnigs 16 

Syllables 16 


Ei<MofcOOT| wkkk treat» of Words . 17 
DiTiiioD«f WiaHHor PulB of SpMch 17 

I. NooB or SabstaatiTe 16 

Latin Noam 19 

Gendenr 19 

Number 2S 

Case 22 

Declension of NoiiiH 83 

Fint Declension 24 

Second Declensian 25 

Third Declewioa 29 

Fourth Declension «••— S^ 

Fifth Declension ••.,,...•«,••. 52 

Irre^lar Nouns 53 

Heterogeneoos 53 

Defective in Cases 56 

Defective in Number 58 

Redundant 62 

Division of Nouns according to 
their Signification and Deri- 

vatkm 65 

Adjective 67 

Firrt and Second Declension ... 67 

Third Declension 69 

Rules for the ibimation of the 

Ablative ..70 

Numeral Adjectives 78 

Comparison of Adjectives 76 

Irregiilar Comparison 77 

IL Pronoun 79 

1. Simple Plronouns 80 

2l Compound Pronouns 82 

3. Reciprocals 84 

QX-Verb.... 85 

Voice , , 87 

Mode 87 

Teose 87 

Number mud Penoa 89 

CpivvgatioQ of YaSa 89 

First Coqiagation ., 93 

Second CoQJugatioQ •••«•••••• 97 

Third Conjugatiaa 99 

FoQith CoiQugatmi 102 

Deponent and ConmiOQ Verba . 104 

Fonnatkm of Teana 106 

SigniiScalaaaof Tensss 109 

Vorbs of the Fiist Coqiugatini 112 

Seoood 122 

Thifd 129 

FouTtfa 160 

Irregular Verbs •., 159 

Neuter Paaive 168 

Defective 168 

Impersmal 171 

Redundant Verbs 172 

Frequentative 175 

Inceptive 175 

Desiderative 175 

Remarks on the Verb 176 

IV. Participle? 178 

Gerunds 180 

Supines 180 

V. Adverbs 180 

VI. Prepontions 184 

Prepositions in C(»npositiflii . . . 192 

Vn. Inteijections 195 

Vm. Conjunctions 196 

Signification of Words 197 

Terminations of Words 199 

PART in. 

Syntax or Construction 202 

Division of Sentences into Simple 

and Compound 903 





I. SmPLC Skntinobs 203 

Conooid, or Agreement of Words 203 
Govemment of Words in Sim- 
ple Sentences 208 

Government of Safastiintives .. 208 
GoT^nmient of Adjectives .... 213 

Government of Verbs 221 

i. Verbs governing one ease ... 221 
iL Verbs governing two cases . 232 
Construction of Passive Verbs . 237 

' Impersonal Verbs 239 

GoDstruction of ttie Infinitive . . 241 
Gonstmction <^ Participles, &c. 242 

■ ■■ Geronds 243 

■ ■ Supines 245 

Gonsbuetkm of Adverbs 246 

Prepositions .. 249 

Inte^ections . . 251 

Construction of Circumstances 251 

COMFOUNO Skntences 256 

Construction of Relatives 256 

Censfruction of Conjunctions . . 260 
Construction of Comparatives . 263 
Ablative Absolute 265 



Figures of Syntax ....« 267 

EUipsis 267 

Pleonasin 268 

Ensilage 268 

Hyperbaton 269 

m. Analyas and Translation ..... S70 

IV. IHfierent kinds of Style ....... 273 

V. Figures of Rhetoric 274 

1. Figures of Words, or Tropes 274 

2. Repetitioa of Words 277 



a Figures of Thought 278 

Prosodt, tokich treats of the Quan' 
tity of SyUaiies, of Accent, aaid * 

Verae 281 

Quantity of Syllables 282 

1. Quantity of First and Middle 

Syllables 283 

2. -Quantity of Final Syllables 289 

Quantity G^ Derivatives 292 

Quantity of Compounds 293 

Verse 294 

Diflerent Kinds of Feet 294 

Difierent Kinds of Verse 295 

Cffisjira 296 

Iambic Measure 298 

Choriambic 299 

Ionic 300 

Figures in Scanning 301 

Figures of Diction 303 

Difierent Kinds of Poems 304 

Combiiution of Verses in Poems ... 305 
Diffirent Metres used by Horace» 

and their Combinations 306 

Index to the Odes of Horace 309 


Punctuation, Capitals, Ac. 310 

Abbreviations,^ 311 

Division of the Roman Months . . ,1 . 311 
Of the Reckoning of Money .....*.. 313 

Roman Measures of Length 314 

Measures of Extent ....... 315 

Measures of Capacity 315 and 316 

Weights.. 317and318 

Moneys 319and3S0 




Thb following rules fbr the Pronttnciation of latin, are sach as pre- 
vail in tiie Eng&h Universitiea, and in the principal CoUegta in the 
United States. They are in accordance wiUi the standard laid down 
W Walker, (which it is desuable should he adopted whetever the 
^Dglish language is spoken,) that the Latin should be accented and 
ponounced by us, according to the prevailing amloffies of our own 
language, without regard to the proeodial accent and quanti^ of ihe 


§ 1« In words of two syllables, the penult is always accented ; aiy 
fia'-ter^ ^f-Zum, na'-vis, 

§ 3« In words of inore than two syllables, the accent is regulated 
))y the quantity of the penult Of this there are three eases: L Iffh» 
penult is long, it is accented; as, tHnol^bam^ o-mi'-eus, «e^^'-^rut. 
2. If the penult be short, the accent is on the antepenult ; as, ^kam'-i- 
Ais, leg'^-re, 3. If the penult be common, the accent in prose is on 
Ae antepenult; as^ voZ'-w-cm, ib'^uque, ten'-e-hris: but genitives in 
ki$s in whieh i is common, accent theur penult in prose ; as, u-nt'-tct» 



§ 3« in MoROflrTLLABLBs wheu the vowel is the final letter it has 
its hmg sound ; as, da, me^ si, do, tu : otherwise it has its short sound ; 
hSfjam^ etf tn, non^ nunc 

Exc. 1. Custom, in disregard of analogy, has given to all termina- 
tions in e«, and the plural cases in os, the long sound ; as, 6«, amdres, 
pesy pronounced like the English word ease : nos^ Aos, popiiloSi p^^ 
nounced like ose iA dose. 

Exc. 2. Post is pronounced like the same word in English: so also 
are its compounds; as, post-quam; but not its derivatives; as, fOs* 

§ 4« In DrasTLLABUBS the vowel of the first syllable, when it comes 
b^re another vowel, or- a single consonant, has the long sound; Iks, 
Ca-to, re-iy t-6«V ho-nos curi i but when it comes before two consonmiil 


or a double cooBonant, it has the short sound ; as, tonnlem, fteMiim, 
iUlef Unp-guSf bux-us, 

Exc. If the vowel be followed by a mute and a liquid, it has the long 
sound ; as, ta'-cra. 

§ 5« In PoLYSTLXiABXjBB, whon the penult is accented, its vowel 
before another vowel, or single consonant, has the long sound; as, 
{Hrd''torj jpe-ci-e'-t, a-mt'-cu«, mul-io'-rum, «e-cft'-riM : but before two 
consonants or a double consonant, the short sound ; as, 0-f9Uin'-fur, do-» 
cen^'tuTf ex-tin^'guo, reB-pon'^deksf Ti'bul'4u8^ 

§ 6« But if in PoLTSYiiLABLBs the antepenult be accented, iter 
yowel has the short sound ; as, trad'-Mu^ ex-er'-d-^tu, nd'-i^a^ ser» 
mon'-l-fti», tan-tum'-md-^o. To this rule there are the following ex» 

Kxc. 1, When u comes before a single consonant, and when an ac* 
cented vowel comes before another vowel, they have the long sound;, 
as, du'-bu-e^ ju'^dirceSf (hce'^a-nus, mu^i'-e-reSf fro<Vrbu''e-raiU. 

£xc. 2. When the penultimate vowel is e or t before another vowel, 
the antepenultimate vowel, excbft i, has the long sound ; as, gra'-ti-^ 
ag'gre'-iluor inro'-pi-a, mu*4i-er^ per-fid'-i-e^ Scip'-i-o, 


^ Tfm JE and (E are pronounced as e would be in the some ntuatiott ; 
as^ (B'-ttu^ pa'^na^ ctBt'-i'ta, 

ySm At, ei, ot, and yi, generallv have the vowels pronounced 
separately in prose. When followed by another vowel, the t is joined 
with that vowel, and takes the sound of V in jfoiah ; as, Maia^ Pompeius ; 
ptonounced Ma'-yOj Pom^'-ytu» 

§ 0« AUf when a diphthong, is pronounced like aw ; as, laus^ pro- 
nounced like the English laws. In the termination of Greek proper 
names, the letters au are pronounced separately ; as, Ar-che-la'-^us. 

y 10« Eu and ui when diphthongs are pronounced like long u and 
«/as, Or-pkeusy cui^ huic, 


§ 11» C and O are hard before a, o, and ii, and soft before e, t, 
y* as, 

carpo like card, cera like cenl^ 

cdo *• colt, cSnu - dide, 

eubnm ** cucumber, cyenu» - cyde, 

gam ** gave, gettduM <* gf^ 

gcrgcn ** gone^ gigas ** giant 

guMuM « gust, gyrus ^ gyP^ey. 

% 12« Ch has always the sound of ft, as, charta^ machtna, pio* 





§ 1« Grabimar is the art of speaking and writing 

Latin Grammar is the art of speaking and writ- 
ing the Latin language correctly. 

The Ruditnents of Grammar are plain and easy instructiaofl, teadi- 
mg begmners the first priiiciples and rules of it 

Grammar treats of sentences, and the several parts of which they 
are compounded. ■ ■ 

Sentences consist of words; words consist of one or more syllables; 
syllables of one or more letters. So that Letters» Syllables, Wordsi. 
and Sentences, make up the whole subject of Grammar. 


§ S« A letter is the mark of a sound, or of an articulation of sound.' 
That part of Grammar, which treats of letters, is odled Ortho* 

The letters in Latin are twenl^-five : . A, a; B, b; C, c; D, d; £, 
e; P,f; G, g; H,h; I,i; J,j; K, k; L,l; M,m; N, n; 0,o; P, 
p; Q,q; R,r; S,s; T, t; U, u; V,v; X, x; Y,y; Z, z.* 

Letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants. 

Six are vowels ; a, e^ t, o, u^ y. All the rest are 

A vowel makes a full sound by itself; as, a, e. 

A consonant cannot make a perfect sound with* 
out a; vowel ; as, 6, d. 

A vowel is properly called a simple sound; and the sounds formed' 
by th6 concourse of vowels and consonants, articuktte sounds, 

■' I I I >ll I > t >H »< H » «■I....I-. I 11 

*In English there is one letter more, viz. W. 



ConsoDants are divided into Mutetf Semi-voweh^ and DouMe Ckm» 

A mute is so called, because it entirely stops the passage ef tiie votoe ; 
as, jp in ap. 

The mutes are, p, b; t^d ; c, X:, 9, and g ; but 6, cK, and g^ perhaps 
may more properly be tenned Semi-miates; because their sounds 
may be continued, whereas the sound of p, t, and kf cannot be pro- 

A semi-vowel, or half vowel, does not entirely stq;> the passage <^ the 
voice ; thus, (d. 

The semi- vowels are Z, m, n, r, «,/ The first four of these are call- 
ed Liquids^ particularly I and r; because they Qpw softly and easily 
after a mute in the same syllable ; as, bla^ stra. 

The mutes and semi-vowels may be thus distinguished. In naming 
the mutes, the vowel is put after them ; as, pe, be, &c. ; but in naming 
the semi-vowels, the vowel is put before them ; as, el, em, &c. 

The double consonants are, jp, z, and, as some think, j. X m made 
up of cs, ks, or gs. 

In Latin, z, and likewise k and y, are found only in words derhed 
&om the Greek. 


§ 3» A diphthong consists of two vowels forming 
one syllable, and pronounced by one impulse of the 

If the sound of both vowels be distinctly heard, 
it is called a Proper Diphthong; if not, an Improper 

The proper diphthongs in Latin are commonly reckoned three ; 0«, 
etiy et ; as in aurvmy Euras^ omneis. To these some, not improperly, 
add other three; namely, at, as in Maia ; di, as in TSroia; and t», as 
in Harpuia, or in cut, and Ante, pronounced as monosyllables. 

The improper diphthongs in Latin are two; oe, or when the vowels 
are written toff ether, « ; as,* aetas, or ataSf oe, or cs ; as, poena, or 
ptzna ; in both of wHich the sound of the e only is heard. The an« 
cients commonly wrote the vowels separately ; thus, aetas, poena. 


- § 4« A syllable is the sound of one letter, or of 
several letters, pronounced by cme impulse of the 
voice ; as, a, ad^ cum. 

In Latin there are as many syllables in a word, as there are vowels 
or diphthongs in it ; unless when tt with any other vowel comes afler 
g, 7, or « ; as in lingua, qui, sttadeo ; where the two vowels are nqt 
reckoned a diphthong, because the sound of the u vanishes» or. is little 


Words consisting of one syllable are called Ma* 
nosylkAles ; of two, Dissyllables ; and of more than 
two, Polysyllables. But all words of more than one 
syllable are commonly called Polysyllables. 

In dividing words into syllables, we are chiefljr to be directed by the 
ear. Compound words should be divided into the parts of which they 
are made up ; as, ab-iitor, inrOps, propUSr-ea^ et-enim, vel-ut, Slc, 

Observe, a long syllable is marked with a horizontal line, [-] ; as in 
vmdre ; or with a circumflex accent, [ a 1 ; as in amStris, A short qrl- 
l&ble is marked with a curved line, [ w J ; as in omnUriis» 

What pertains to the quantity of syllables and to verse will be treat- 
ed of hereafter» 


§ 5« Words are articulate sounds, significant of 

That part of Grammar which treats of words is 
called Etymology or Analogy.^ 

All words whatever are either simple or compound^ primitive or de^ 

The division of words into simple and compound is called their 
Figure ; into primitive and derivative, their SpecieSj or sort 

A simple word is that which is not made up of more than one ; aiy 
piuSf pious ; igo, I ; ddceo, I teach. 

A compound word is that which is made up of two or more words ; 
or of one word and some syllable added ; as, impius, impious ; dedCceo^ 
I unteach ; igdmeU I myself. 

A primitive word is that which comes from no other ; as, pius, pious ; 
disco, I learn ; ddceo, I teach. 

A derivative word is that which comes from another word ; as, piitas^ 
piety ; doctrlna, learning. 

The diflerent classes into which we divide words are called Parts of 


§ 6« The parts of speech in Latin are eight, viz : 
1. Noun J Pronoun J Verbj Participle ; declined. 

* All words mav be divided into three kinds ; namely, I. snch as mark the names 
of things ; 2. sacn as denote what is affirmed eoncemmg things ; and 3. such as are 
signifieant only in coiyancticMi with other words; or what are called SubstanHves, 
JJtribaftitpest and Connectives, Thus in the firflowix^ sentence, «* 7%e diligent boy 
reads lie lesson oarefuJlly in the school^ and at home,** the wm^s 5oy, lesson, schod, 
home, are the names we give to the things spoken of; diUgent, reads, axrefvA^, 
mnm what is affirmed oonceming the boy ; the, in, and, at, are only significant 
when joined with the other words m the sentence. 



2. Adverbj PreposUion^ ItUerjectum^ and Conjunct 
Hon; undeclined.* 


A noun is either substantive or adjective.t 


§ 7« A Substantive, or noun, is the name of any 
person, place, or thing ; as, 6ay, school^ book. 

Substantives are oi two sorts ; proper and com^ 
mon names. 

Proper names are the names appropriated to in- 
dividuals; as the names of persons and places; 
such are Ccesar^ Rome. 

Common namesy stand for whole kinds, contain- 
ing several sorts; or for sorts, containing many 
individuals under them; as, animal^ man^ beast^ 
Jishy fowlf &c. 

Every particular being should have its own proper name ; but this is 
impossible, on account of their innumerable multitude; men havQ 
therefore been obliged to ^ive the same common name to such things 
as agree together in certam respects. These form what is called i^ 
genus, or kind ; a species, or sort. 

A proper name may be used for a common, and then in English it 
has the article joined to it ; as, when we say of some great conqueror. 
**He is an Alexander;" or, ** the Alexander of his age." 

To proper and common names may be added a third class of nouns, 
which mark the names of qualities, and are called abstract nouns ; as, 
hardness, goodness, whiteness, virtue, justice, piety, &c. 

When we speak of things, we consider them as one or more. This 
is what we call Number, When one thing is spoken of, a noun is said 
to be of the singular number ; when two or more, of the plural. 

* ThoM words or ports of speech are said to be dedined, which receive di^renl 
changes on their last syllables, or their ttrminations. 

The changes made upon words are hjr grammarians called Accidents. 

Of old, all words, which admit of difierent tenninationa» were said to be dedined. 
But Dedention is now applied only to nouns. The changes laade upon tbe verb 
are called Conjugation. 

tThe adjective seems to be improperly called rumn : it is only a virord added to 
a substantive or noun, expressive of its quality ; and therefore should be considered 
as a difierent part of speech. Bat as the substantive and adjective together express 
but one object, and in Latin are declined «fier the same manner, tfiey tew both 
been comprehended under the same ^meral name. 

LATIN KOirillS,— «■VDBB8. 1$ 


To Latin nouns belong Gender^ Number^ and 


% 8* There are three genders ; Masculine^ FemU 
nine^ and Neuter. 

Gender is llie diBtinctioii of dex. In the nature of things, thereforoi 
there are bat two genders, the Masculine and Feminine. But in Latin,. 
Gender is not only a natural distinction, but also a grammatical diatri' 
bution of nouns into sorts or kinds, with respect to the terminations 
of adjectives with which they are construed. Liber, *a book,* is mas- 
culine, because it is joined with that termination of adjectives which is 
applied only to males. Ratio, ' reason,' is feminine, because it is joined 
with that termination of adjectives which is applied only to females. 
Qpi», *a work,' is neuter, because it is joined with that termination of 
adjectives which cannot be applied either to males or female& Neuter 
is a pure Latin word, signifying ' neither :' when a noun, therefere, is 
said to be of the neuter gender, it means simply that it is ' neithei* 
masoaline nor feminine. 

Grammarians distinguish the genders by the pronoun hic^ to mirk 
the masculine ; tec, the feminine ; and hoc, the neuter. 

Nouns which have either the masculine or feminine gender, accord- 
ing to the sense, are called common ; as, eonjux, ' a spouse ;' hie con' 
jux, * this husband ;' Iubc oonjux, ' this wife ;' parens, * a parent ;' metis 
parens, * my fether ;' mea parens, ' my mother.' 

When under one gender a noun signifies both the sexes <^ bmtes, it 
is called epicens ; as, hie passer, ' a sparrow,' male or female. 

The distinction between the common and epicene may be thus 
marked. Words of the common gender are those which under one 
termination include both genders, but for distinction require an adjective 
of i^asculine or feminine termination ; as, hie parens, or htec parens ; 
but epicene words are those which express both sexes under cme fixed 
gender ; as, hie lepus, the male or female hare. If hie parens might 
denote both father and mother, it would be epicene; but since for 
mother we must say h<Bc parens, it is common. If we might say Ate 
lepus, this male hare, htec lepus this female hare, leptts would be 
common ; but as hie lepus expresses both, it is epicene. 

General Rules concerning Gender, 

% 0« 1. Names of males are masculine; asb Humerus, Homer; pdter, 
a fetber ; poeta, a poet 

2. Names of females are feminine; as, Hilina, Helen; mUlier, a 
woman ; uxor, a wife ; mater, a mother ; sdror, a sister ; TeUus, the 
goddess of the earth. 

3. J^^Quns which signify either the male or female, are of the com- 
mmk'&vti^; thet is^ either msscuUne or feminine; as, hie 6ot» an ex; 
h€Bc bos, a cow ; hie pdrens, a fether, htte p&rens. a mother. 


4. Nouns admitting^ either the masculine or feminine gender, inde- 
pendently of the sense, are called dovhtful; as, hie or htsc unguis^ 'a 
Snake,' either masculine or feminine ; hie or hoc vulgus, ' the rabble,' 
either masculine or neuter. 


' Obs. 1. Tlte names of brute animaU commonly follow the gender 
of their termination. 

Such are the names of wild beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, in which 
the distinction of sex is either not easily discerned, or seldom attended 
ta Thus passer, a sparrow, either male or female, is masculine, he* 
cause nouns in er are masculine ; so dquUa, an eagle, either male or 
female, is feminine, because nouns in a of the first declension are femi-- 
nine. These are called epicene, or promiscuous nouns. When any. 
particular sex is marked, we usually add the word mas or femina ; as^ 
mas passer, a male sparrow ; femina passer, a female sparrow. 

Obs. 2. A proper name, for the most pari, follows the gender <^tk» 
general name under which U is comprehended. 

Thus, the names of months, winds, rivers, and mountains, are ma»- 
euline ; because mensis, ventus, mons, and Jluvius, are masculine ; as, 
hie Aprilis, April ; hie AquUo, the north wind ; hie Afrieus, the south 
west wind ; hie THb&ris, the river Tiber ; hie Othrys, a hill in Thessaly. 
But many of these follow the gender of their termination ; as, hesc 
Matrdna, the river Mame in France; htec JEtna, a mountain in 
Sicily ; hoc Sdracte, a hill in Italy. 

' In like manner, tJie names of countries, towns, trees, and ships are 
feminine, because terra or rigio, urbs, arbor, and ndvis, are feminine ; 
as, h<ec Egyptus, Egypt ; Sdmos, an island of that name ; CSrinthus, the 
city of Connth; pomtu, an apple-tree; Centaurus, the name of a ship. 
Thus also the names of poems, htec Hias, -ados, and Odyssea, the two 
poems of Homer ; htec JEneis, -idos, a poem of Virgil ; hac Eunuchusj 
one of Terence's comedies. 

The gender, however, of many of these depends on the termination ; 
thus, hie Pontus, a country of that name ; hie Stdmo, -onis ; PessU 
nus, '■untis ; Hydrus, -wntis, names of towns ; htsc Persis, -^dis, the 
kingdom of Persia ; Carthago, -inis, the city Carthage ; hoc Albion^ 
Britain ; hoc Ctere, Redie, Praneste, Tibur, Ilium, names of towns. 
But some of these are also found in the feminine ; as, Gelidd Prteneste, 
Juvenal, iii. 190 ; Alta Hion, Ovid. Met xiv. 466. 

The following names of trees are masculine, disaster, dleastri, a wild 
olive-tree ; rhamnus, the white bramble. 

The following are masculine or feminine ; e^isus, a kind of shrub ; 
rabus, the bramble-bush; larix, the larch-tree; lotus, the lote-tree; 
cupressus, the cypress-tree. The first two, however, are oftener mas- 
culine ; the rest oftener feminine. 

Those in um are neuter ; as, buxum, the bush, or box-tree ; ligustrum^ 
a privet; so likewise are sitber, -iris, the cork-tree; sUer^ •iris, the 
osier; rCibur, '■iris, oak of Uie hardest kind; Acer, '•iris, tiie »ft[rfe» 



The place where trees or ahrabe grow is commonly neuter; as, «r- 
bustunif quercHum^ escvletum, BoHctumtfriUicetumf &c. a place where 
trees, oaks, beeches, willows, shrubs, &c., grow ; also the names of fruits 
and timber ; as, pomum or mcdum^ an apple ; fUrum^ a pear ; ibinumf 
ebony, &c. But firom this rule there are various exceptions. 

§ 10* The following aoun^ Me Masculine and 
Feminine, both in sense and granunatical construo 
tion : 

AddetctM, a young man 
or woman, 

Affmist a relation by mar- 

AttUsteM, a chief prieat 

AuctoF, an author. 

Augur, an augar. 

Bos, an ox, or cow. 

Ganh, a dc^, or Inteh. 

Civit, a citizen. 

Comesr a companion. 

Cor^ux, a husband, or wiie. 

Cmsors, a consort 

Contiua, a guest. 

CustM, a Mper. 

Dux, a leader. 
Exui, an exile. 
Hbspea, a host, a guest 
HoMis, an enemy. 
Infant, an infant 
Interpret, an interpveter. 
Judex, a judge. 
Juvinit, a youth. 
Milet, a soldier. 
Afimtops, a burg e s s . 
A^mo» nobody. 
Far, a mate, husband, or 

Parens, a parent 


by the ftther's 
Prat, a surety. 
Pnetul, a priest of Man. 
Princms, a prince. 
iSaeeraos, a priest, or priert» 

Saldtet, a life-guard. 
Stts, a swine. 
TVseis, a witness. 
Vmlct, a prophet» ar pio> 

Vema, a slaye. 
Vrndex, an avenger. 

§ lie The following are Masculine or Feminine 
in sense, but Masculine only in grammatical con-* 
struction : 

ilrfi(^, an artist 
AfUMX, a soothsayer. 
Coaet, a person haying but 

one ^e. 
fifties, a horwman. 
JSadex, an outlaw. 

Fur, a thie£ 

Haret, an heir, an heiress. 
Homo, a man or woman. 
Index, an informer. 
Lairo, a robber. 
Zi6M, children. 

a workmi 


"ear, a workman, 
a fcotBMn. 
PugU, a boxer. 
Senex, an old penoQ. 

§ 13e The following, though Masculine or Femi- 
nine in sense, are Feminine only in grammatical 
construction : 

Copue, fiiroes, troops. 
CiMtodue, guards. 
Excuibue, sentinels. 

OptnB, labonreiB» 
Prciet, an offipring. 

Sobolet, an oApiing* 
Y%i&s, watchmen. 

§ 13« Sonie nouns signifying Persons are Neuter 
with respect to their termination. 

ii4sro9nfl( -a jester* 
4i(«i2i%aiwliaiy troops. 

Maneipium, a slave* 
iSsmUKSi, a slave. 

22: NUMBSR. — CASEd. 


§ 14. Number is the distiQCtion of objects, 
whether a? one, or more than one. 

There are two nmnbers, the Singular which 
denotes one, as Aomo, * a man ;' or the aggregate of 
many taken collectively, as, multUudo^ *a multi- 
tude;' and the Plural, which denotes more than 
one, as homines^ ^ men.' 

Some Latin nouns of the Plural number signify 
but one, as, Athence, * Athens ;' others signify one 
or more, as, nupticB^ *a marriage,' or 'marriages.' 


V X 3« Various methods are used in different languages to express 
the difl^rent connexions, or relations of one thing to another. In Eng- 
lish, i^d in most modern languages, this is done by prepositions, or 
particles placed before the substantive ; in Latin by Declension or by 
different Cases, that is, by changing the termination of the noun ; as, 
rcjc, *a king;' regis, *of a king.' 

Cases are certain changes made upon the termination of nouns to 
express the relation of one thing to another. 

They are so called from cddoj ' to fall,' because they fall, as it were, 
from the nominative, which is therefore named casus rectus, ' the 
straight case,' and the other cases, casus obliqui, ' the oblique cases.' 

There are six cases, the Nominative, the Geni- 
tive, the Dative, the Accusative, the Vocative, and 
the Ablative. 

The Nominative simply expresses the name of a person or thing, and 
marks the subject of discourse, as Alexander interfecit, ' Alexander 

The Genitive generally expresses the relation of possession or pro- 
perty, and in English it has the sign of before it, or 's (s with an apos- 
trophe) added to it, as Amor Dei, ' the love of Godj' or ' God's love/ 
Domns Ctesdris, * the house of Csesar,' or ' Ctesar's house.' 

The Dative is used to mark the object to which any thing is refer- 
ed, whether it be acquisition or loss, and is generally txanslated wiUi 
the signs to and for, though sometimes its true force can only be ren- 
dered by, from and by : as, Hoc mUii datur, * Ihis is given to me ;' Ho& 
mihi seritur, * this is sown for me ;' Hoc miki adimlftur, ' this is taken 
away from me.' Nee cemttur ulli, * nor is he perceived by any one.' 

The Accusative indicates the object to which the. action of the verU 
passes ; as, Alexander interfecit Clitum, ' Alexander slew ClitusJ' 


The Vocative points out the object called npon or addresaed, with or 
without the sign O, as O fells fimter, 'O happy brother,' or 'ha^py 

The Ablative, (compounded of the preposition ab, ^from,' and hUum^ 
the supine of /ero, * to take,') often implies 'a taking away.' It also 
denotes concomitancy or accompaniment ; as, Ingressus est cum gladio, 
'he entered with a sword,' i, e. having at thatjkime a sword along with 
him. When the preposition cuoi, 'with,' is not expressed, the Abla* 
tive may be considered as the cattse^ manner^ or instrument^ as. Inter- 
fecit eum gladio, ' he killed him with a sword ;' that is, a sword was 
the instrument with which his death was efBscted, In English, the 
Ablative has before it the signs unth^ from^ far, by, in, through, 


Beclensioa is the regular distribution of nouns according to their 
terminations, so that they may be distinguished fix)m one another. 

§ 16« There are five different ways of varying or 
declining nouns, called the Jlrst, second, third, fourth, 
and Jifth declensions. 

The different declensions are distinguished from 
one another by the termination of the Genitive 

The Genitive <^ the First ends in <e. 

Second in t. 

Third in is. 

Fourth in {Its, 

Fifth in ei. 


§ X 7« Nouns of the neuter gender have the Accusative and Voca- 
tive like the Nominative in boSi numbers ; and in the Plural, these 
three cases end always in a. 

The Nominative and Vocative* singular generally, and the Nomina- 
tive and Vocative plural always in all Declensions end alike. 

The Dative and Ablative plural end always alike in all declensions. 

The Accusative plural of the first, third, fourth and fifth Declensions - 
Is formed from the Accusative singular by changing m into s. 

The Ablative singular of the first, third, fourUi, and fifth Declensions 
is formed fit>m the Accusative singular, by dropping m. 

The Genitive plural is formed from the AbUtive singular by adding 
rum in the first, second, and fifth Declensions, and um in the fourth. 

Proper names, for the most part, want the Plural. 

— — — - - - " — " ■ — ■ 

* Greek noun in 8 generally loie • in the VocatiTe; aa, Thomas, Thoma; An- 
iiases, Aitehm ; Piiris, Pari ; Pantktu, Panihu ; PaUaSf •anUs, Patta, nanes of 
men. But uoana in es Of the third declension, oftener retain the « ; at» d AcAtZZe«, 
rarely -e; SocrilUef, seldom -e; and sometimes noons in is and «u; as, O Thcdst 
MyiUt Pallas, -Sdis, the goddess Minerva, &c. 



§ 18« Nouns of the first declension end in a, e^ 
a$9 es. 

Latin nouns end only in a, and are of the femi- 
nine gender : those ending in e, as^ and es are Greek. 

TBElOllATIORfl. . 

StngvOar» FtttraL 

Nom. ) ^ Nom. > ^ 

Voc. < * Voc. J * 

Gen. I Gen. ar 

Dat I ^ Ace. OA 

Ace. am, Dat 

AbL ^ AbL 


Poma, a pen. fern. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. penna, «r pen 

G. peniUB, ^.... of a pen 

D. petmie, to or ybr a pen 

A. pennam, a pen 

V. penna, • Open 

A, penn&, with a pen 

N. penne, pen» ; 

G. pennftram, ^ pens ; 

D. pennis, to or far pen» , 

A. pennas, pen» ; 

V. penn», Open»; 

A. pennis, unth pen». 


Exo. 1. The following nouns are masculine. Hadria^ the Hadria- 
tic sea; c&meia, a comet; planeta, a planet; and sometimes, talpa, a 
mole; and ddma, a fidlow-deer. Pascha^ the passover, is neater. Prnn* 
deetae, * pandects,* is rather masc. than fern. 

Exc. 2. The ancient Latins sometimes formed the genitive singular 
in at; thus, aula, a hall, ffen. auldi: and sometimes likewise in at, 
which form the compounds (xfamllia usualhr retain; as, mdUr-fimUia»^ 
the mistress of a family ; genit matris-jamilia» ; nom. plur. matre»' 
famUia», or matres-famUiarum, 

Exc. 3. The following nouns have more frequently abu» in the 
dative and ablative plural to distinguish them in these cases from mas- 
culines in iM, of the second declension : 

Antou the aoul, the life. 
Dea, a goide»». 

Filia, & Nata, a daughter. 
laberta, a freed woman. 
Mtila, a ahe-mule. 

Equa, a mare, 

Famtila, a female servant. 

Thus, de&bus, Jilidhu»^ rather than JUii», &c. 

But when they are construed with DuSbu» or Ambdbu», or the dis- 
tinction is clear from the context, the termination is in is only : thus 
Cicero has dudbu» animi»: hut Livy xxiv. 26 has duabus filiabus. 



§ 10« Nouns in as, es, and b, of the first declen- 
sion, are Greek. Nouns in as and bs, are masculine; 
nouns in b are feminine. 

Noana iniw (ure declined like pennm ; only they have am or an in the 
accusaUve ; aa, JEiuag, .tineas, the name of a man ; ^en. JSneaidaX, 
•H8» ace. "Omt or ^an^ voc -a, abL i. So Boreas^ -e«, Ske north wind; 
tiaras^ -«, a turban. In i>ro8e they have commonly am, but in poetry 
oftener an^ in the accusative. Greek nouns in a have sometunes also 
an in the ace. in poetry ; as Osta ace. -am or -«it, the name of a 


Nom. AnchiMB, PenalSpe. Thyestefl, EpitSme. 

Gen. AnchSnB, Penelopes, Thyestae, Epitomei, 

Bit. Anchiiw. PenelSpo, Thyeste, Epitoma, 

Aoc. Anchutea, PenelSpen, Thyesten, i^iititaieD» 

Voc. Anchise, or a, Penelope. Thyesto, ora, EpitSnie» 

Abl. Anchifie, Penelope. Thyeste, Epit&me. 

These, nouns, being ptoper nunea, wairt the pliml, nnleas when 
several of the same name are spoken of, and then they are declined 
like the plural of penna.* 

The Lath» fireqnently turn Greek naons in e« and e into a; aa, Atnda^ for 
AtndeB; Pern for Peru»^ a Persian; geometra^ for 4imj a geometrician; Circa, 
for Circe; epUSmOj for -me, an abridgement; rranuii^ft&a, for ««e, grammar; rkUo' 
rictt, for -ce, oratory. So CUnia, for CUnku, &c. 


^ 30e Nburis of the second declension end in er^ 
tr, urjtis^um; os, on^ (ps and on are Greek termina* 

Nouns in um and on are neuter: the rest are 


Singular, PluraL 

Nom. er, tr, itr> «j^ ttm ; o«, on Nom. l-^^^ 

GeiLi, Voc J*^'* 

Dat > ^ Gen. arum. 

Abl. J * Dat ) . 

Aoc. untt or like the nom. AbL > 

Voc. e, or like the nom. Ace. os, or a. 

* The accuaatiTB of noons in es and e is found sometimes in on. We some^es 
find die genit plural contracted as, CaHcol&m, for deUcoUirum ; ^iteSdum, for 





a «on-in4atp, masc. 




Nom, ggner, 

a soivdnrlaw, 

Qen, genSri, 


a sonrin-law. 

Dat. gengro, 

to, or for 

a son4n4aw. 

Ace. genSrum, 

a sonr4nrlaw. 

Voc. gener, 



AM. genSro, 

with, from, or by 

« 9on4n4aw, 

JVom. genSri, 


Gen. generorum, 



2>at. generis, 

to, or for 


Ace. genSros, 


Foe. genSri, 



A62. generis, 

loith, from, or 


After the same manner decline, sdcer, -eri, a &ther-in-law ; puer 
-^ri, a boy: So furctfer, a villain; Lucifer, the morning star; Mul' 
ter, an adulterer; armiger, an armour-bearer; presbyter, an elder; 
Mtddber, a name of the god Vulcan ; vesper, the evening ; and Iber, 
•m, a Spaniard, the only noun in er which has the gen. long, and its 
compound Celtiher, -eri ; Also, vir, viri, a man, the only noun in ir, 
and its compounds, levir, a brother-in-law ; semtvir, duumvir, trium- 
vir, &G. And likewise satur, -uri, full, (of old» saturus,) an adjective. 

§ 21« But most nouns in er lose the e in the geni-: 
tive; as, 

Ager, a field, masc. 


N. figer, a field, 

G. agri, of a field, 

D. agro, to a field, 

A. agrum, a field, 

V. ager, O field, 

A. agro, with a field. 


N. agri, fields, 

G. agrorum, of fields, 

D. agris, to fields, 

A. agros, fields, 

V. agri, O fields, 

A. agris, with fields. 

Aper, a wild boar. 
ArbYter, & -tra, an arhitra- 

tor or judge, 
Aaiter, we south vnnd. 
Cancer» a crab Jish. 

In like manner decline, 

Cilper, a he-goat 
Coluber, & -bra, a ser^ 

Culter, ike andier of a 

plough, a knife* 

Faber, a workman. 
Mag[ister, a maiter. 
Mbiister, a servant. 
Onager, a wild ass. 
Scalper, a lancet 

Also, liber, the bark of a tree, or a book, which has Ubri ; but Hber, 
free, an adjective, and Liber, a name of Bacchus, the god of wine, 
have libSri. So likewise proper names, Alexander, Evander, Perian- 
der, Menander, Teucer, Meledger, &c. gen» Alexandri, Evandri, &c. 

sscaND DBCLBHsioir OF iiotms* 


DOiiiiDiiB^ a hrdf masc. 

Singular, * 

N. ddmj^fia, a lord, 

G. domtiii, of a lord^ 

D. domino^ t . . to a lord, 

A. domjtnum, a lord, 

V. domlne, O lord, 

A. domino, totf A a lord. 


N. ddmYni, lord8, 

G. domindnim, of lords^ 

D. domXnis, to lords, 

A. dominofli Jordlf» 

y. domXni, O Zorcb, 

A. dominis, wUh lords. 

Re^num, a kingdom, neat 


N. regnum, a kingdom, 

G. regni, of a kingdom, 

D. regno, to a kingdom, 

A. regnum, a kingdorn, 

V. regnum, O kingdom, 

A. regno, u^£A a kingdom. 


N. regna, kingdoms^ 

G. regnonim, o/* kingdoms, 

D. regnis, to kingdoms, 

A. regna, kingdoms, 

y . regna, O kingdoms, 

A. regnis, toi^A kingdoms. 


Exc. 1. The following nouns in «a are feminine ; hvmus, the ground ; 
alvus, the belly; vannus, a sieve; miltus^ vermilion; also, Domus^ 
*a house,' partly of the fourth Declension. 

And the followiog, derived from Greek nomu in os, 

Abysmifl, a boUoaden piL DialectuB, a diakot or 
AntidotuB, a pretervative 

against paiacn» 
AictoBy the BeoTf a eon^ 

stdlation near the north 

CarlMsus» a taS. 

To these add some names of jewels and planls, because gemma and pianta are 
feminine, as, 


net of epeet^ 
DiametroB, the '' 

a circle, 
Diphthongns, a dipk&ong. 
Eremm, a deoerU 
Lecy thus, a wd. 

MethSdiui, a method, 
PSriSdos, a period. 
PerKknetne, the drcmmfet^ 

Phanis, a walch4oiter, 
Piinthus, the fool cfapiUar* 
Sj^Sdut, an aatemhly. 

TSpaaos, a topos. 

''a» Egyp- 
tian reed^ 
of vMch 
paper wu 


BysBus, fine fiax or Unen, 
Costus, cosfmary. 
Crocus, «q/fron. 
HyssSpus, hyssop. 

Amethystus, an amethysL 
ChrysoUthui^ a chrysdiie. 
Chiysophrasus, a kind of 

Chrystallus, crystal. 
Lencochrysus, a jacinth, 
Sapphiras, a sapphirei 

Other names of jewels are generally masculine ; as, heryUuSt the beryl ; carivk- 
caduSy a carfoanclef pyrdpus, a ruby ; emUragduSi an emerald : And also names of 
plants; as, atp&r&guSy asparagus or sperrowgrass ; eOeboruSf ellebore; nqthUnus* 
radish or oolewort ; intphuSf endive or succory, &c 

Exc. 2, The nouns which follow are either masculine or feminine : 

AtSmas, an atom. 
Atianus, the frail of the 
palm tree, otntment. 

BarbYtiu, a harp. 
Camelus, a camd. 
Coins, a distaff. 

GrosBUS, a green fig, 
Penus, a store-^ouse. 
Pba8§luB, a little sk^. 

Esq. 3. Fin»,. poison; pBl&gus, the sea, are neuter. 

38 8BCON0 DscLBirsioir OF iroimift. 

Exc. 4. Valgus, the ccwimon people, is either masciiline or neuter, 
but oftener neuter. <• 

Ezo. 5. SexuSf i, a sex, of the Second Declension», is neut ; but 
Sexusy ^, of the Fourth Declension, is masc. 


§ 32« Proper names in iu$ lose us in the voca- 
tive ; as, Hordtiusy Hordti ; Virgtlius^ Virgtli ; Geor^ 
giusj Georgia names of men: Ldrius^ Ldri; Minciusj 
minci; names of lakes. Filius^ a son, also has Jilt; 
genius J one^s guardian angel, ^eni; and deus^ ja 
god, has deus in the voc. and m the plural more 
frequently dii and diis^ than dei and dels. Meusj 
my, an adjective pronoun, has mi, and sometimes 
meus, in the vocative. 

1 . Other nouns in nu have e;m tUbdiariiu, UMlarie, a letter-carrier ; pint, pu, A» 
So these ejutheta, DUtuBj DeUe; Tirynthius, J^ryrUkifi; and these possesHvet, 
Laertiiu, JMrtUi SSiumius, Satumiei ix, which are not considered as piopef 

2.The poets sometimes make the vocatiye of nouns in us like the nominative ; asr 
fiuviut JUUfntUt forfuvie LnOme. W\x^. This also occurs in prose» but more rarely ; 
thus, Audi tUt popmvMt ibr papule. Liv. i. 24. 

3. The poets also change nouns in er into us; as Evandery or EvandruM^ vocative, 
EnanitTt or Ewmdrl. So Meandert Leanderf TynUter, Teucer, &G. ; and so an- 
ciently puer in die vocative had puire, fipom puirus, 

4. Note. When the genitive singular ends in ti, the latter t is sometisies taken 
away by the poets jbor the saker of quantity ; as, tugur% &i tugurii ; inghA, for 

5. The Genitive plural brum in many wonhi, especialfy those which denote money» 
weight and measure, is often contracted into «m, as SetUrdum^ maimiimt modi^m, 
ttdentumj for Se^ertionajh nummorum, &c. So also, Deumt UbSriimtfabritm, duwn- 
tfir&m, opp'id&nh exitHan, prodigi&nij factum ; and in poetry, Teucrumj Graiiim, 
Argwumi Dana&mt FeUt^um, &c., for Thicrorum, &c 

6. DeuSf ' God,' masc. is thus declined. 
Singttlar. Plural, 

N. Dens» God, 

G. Dei, ....• of God, 

D. Deo, to, or for God, 

A. Deum, God, 

V. Deus, O God, 

A. Deo, from, or by God, 

N. Dei, Dii, or D!, . . . the Chds^ 
G. Deorum, or Detm, of the Gods, 
D. Deis, Diis, or Dis, to the Goda, 

A. Deos, the Gods^ 

V. Dei, Dii, orDi,..Othe Gods, 
A. Deis, Diis, or Dis, from or by 

the Gods, 


§ 23« Os and on are Greek terminations ; as, 
Alpheos, a river in Greece ; Bion, the city Troy ; 

.raiBD DXc&Bnsioir om Hovni. 


and are often changed into ti$ and um, by the 
Latins; Alpheus^ Iliumj which are declined like 
domtnus and regnum. 

1. Nouns in 60« or Bus are sometimes ocmtracted in the Genitiye ; as, OrphiuSf «en. 

OrphHt Orphei, or C^^hu So Tfteseus, PromdhfuSt &c But nouns in eus, wnen 

eti IB a dipnthon^, are of the third declension. 

2.Some nouns m oe have the genitive singular in o; ac^ Androgeotf genitive Am- 

dro^eOf or -H, the name of a man ; Aiho», AthOy or -t, a hill in Macedonia : both ik 

vehich are also found in the third declension ; thus, nominative Androgeo^ genitive 

Androgednia. So AlhOf or Aikom, -anis, &c. Ancientlv nouns in oir, m xmitatifMi of 

the Greeks, had the genitive in u; as, MiTtandru, Apolloddru, for MhuatdritApoUo' 

dorL Ter. Panihus has Paatku in the vocative. 

3. Nouns in os have the accusative in «m or on; a8,JE>efus, or Defof^ accuMliva 

Ddum or Ddan^ the name of an island. 

4.S(une neuters have the genitive plural in ^; as, Qeorfflea, genitiye pfainl 

OeorgfcoTi, books which treat of husbandly, as, Virgil^s Oeorgtdks. 

Greek nouns of the second declension are thus declined : — 







Androgeo, or i. 






Androgeo, or on. 







Barbtton, a lyre. 

Singular» PluraL 

N. barbYton, barMta, 

O. barblTb', barbYt&n, 

D barbYto, barbltis 

A, barbtton, barbfta, 

Vy barUton, barblta, 

A. barblto. barblftis. 


§ 24e There are more nouns of the third declen- 
sion than of all the other declensions together. The 
number of its final syllables is not ascertained. 
Its final letters are thirteen, a, e^ i, o, y, c, dj /, n, 
r, $j /, X. Of these, eight are peculiar to this de- 
clension, namely, t, o, y, c, d, l^t^x ; a and e are 
common to it with the first declension ; n and r, 
with the second; and 5, with all the other declen- 
sions. A^ t, and y, are peculiar to Greelc nouns. 



Nom. a, 6, t, &a 

Gen. 18. 


Ace. OR, or like the nom. 

Voc. like the nom. 










«Ill, or tuin. 



Sermoy a speech, masc. 


N. sermo, a speech^ 

G. sermonis, of a speech, 

D. sermoni, to a speech, 

A. sermonem, . . '. a speech, 

V. senno, O speech, 

A. sennone, with a speech. 

Honor, honor ; masc. 

N. hoDor, 
G. honoris, 
D. honori, 
A. honorem, 
V. honor, 
A. honore. 








Ropes, a rock ; fern. 


N. rapes, 

G. rapis, 

D. rupi, 

A. rapem, 

V. rapes, 

A. rape. 








Ars, art ; fem. 


N. ars, 

G. artis^ 

D. arti, 

A. artem, 

V. ajs, 

A. arte. 

Turris, a 


N. turris, 

G. turris, 

D. turri, 

A. turrem, 

V. turris, 

A. turre, or ri 








tower; fern. 









N. sermones, speeches^ 

G. sermonum,/ of speeches^ 

D. sermonnHis, to speeches^ 

A. sermones, speeches, 

V. sermones, O speeches, 

A. 8ennoiiibu3» • • • with speeches» 



N. nox, 

G. noctis, 

D. nocti, 

A. noctem, 

V. nox, 

A. nocte. 

night; fern. 


Miles, a soldier ; com. gen. 


N. mUes, 

G. milYtis, 

D. miltti, 

A. miUtem, 

V. miles, 

A. milite. 








Pater, a father ; mase. 


N. pater, 

G. patris, 

D. patri, 

A. patrem, 

V. pater, 

A. patre. 

Sedile, a 


N. sedile, 

G. sedilis, 

D. sedili, 

A. sedile, 

V. sedile, 

A. sedili. 








seat; neut 

sedilYbtts, . 





N. carmen, 
G. carmtoiSi 
D. cannYni, 
A. carmen, 
V. carmen, 
A. cairnXne. 

a verte ; neut 








Iter, a journey; neut 


N. iter, 

6. itinSris, 

D. itingri, 

A. iter, 

V. iter, 

A. itinSre. 

Lapis, a 


N. lapis, 

6. laptdis, 

D. laptdi, 

A. laptdem, 

y. lapis, 

A. laplde. 

Virgo, a 


N. virgo, 

G. virgYnis, 

D. vir^i, 

A. virgtnem, 

V. virgo, 

A. virgYne. 








stone; {em, 


lapYdes, ^ 
« lapidYbosi 

virgin; fern. 








AiiYiDa]« an 


N. anYmal, 

G. animalism 

D. animali, 

A. anYmal, 

V. anYmal, 

A. animali. 

animal; neat. 








Opus, a work ; neot 


N. opus, 

G. opSris, 

D. op^ri, 

A. opus, 

V. opus, 

A. op^re. 








Caput, a head; neat 


N. caput, 

G. capYtis, 

D. captti, 

A. caput, 

V. caput, 

A. capYte. 








Pfirens, a parent; com. gen. 


N. p&rens, 
G. parentis, 
D. parenti, 
A« parentem, 
V. parens, 
A. parente. 


N. p&rentea, 
G. parentiim,* 
D. parentYbus, 
A. parentes, 
y. parentes, 
A. parentYbusL 


N. poema, 
G. poem&tis, 
D. poemati, 
A. poema, 
y. poema, 
A. poem&te. 

Poema, a poem ; neut 




poematYbus, or poemfitis, 



poematYbus, or peem&tis. 

* NouDB in 71« and <u form their genitive plural in turn and im, but oflener admit 
9. 83mGope of Uie i 




A, JE, /, OTid y. 

§ 25« Nouns in a, e, t, and y, are neuter. 

Nouns in a form the genitive in atis ; as, diadema^ diadematis, a 
crown ; dogma, dogm&tis, an opinion. 


Numisma, a coin. 
I%imnay on apparwon, 
Foevaa, a poem. 
ScfaSma, a scheme, or 

Sophisma, a deceUfid argu- 

Btemma, a pedigree. 

NoiiDB in e change e mto i« ; as, rete, refis, a net So, 


^Imgina, a ruZdZf . 
Apophthegma, a 

/n'tAy saying. 
Aruma, sujeet apices. 
Azioma, a plain tnUh. 
Diploma, a charter. 
Epij^ramma, an inacrip' 

Stiraia, a mark or hrandt a 

Str&tagema, on orf/W eon- 

Thema, a theme» a subject 

to write or speixk on. 
T5reunia, a carved vea- 


Ancile, a shxdd. 

Aplustre, the fiag of a 

Campestre, a pair of draw- 

CochleSie, a ^hmm, 

Conclaye, a room. 

Crinale, a pin for the hair. 

Cubile, a couch. 
Egmle, a ^aile /or horses. 
Laqueare, a ceiud roof. 
Mantile, a towd. 
Monile, a neddace. 
N&vale, a dock oipUwefor 

Ovile, a sheep fdi. 
Pnosepe, a daU; a 

Sec&le, rye. 
SuTle, a som^abs. 
TibiSle, a stocking. 


Noona in t are generally indeclinable; as, jrummt, ^m; ting'ihiri, ginger; bat 
some Greek nouns add itis ; as, hydrHmUi, hyiromtSttM, water and wosj sodden 
together, mead« 

Nouns in y add os; as, niio^y, mxiyos, an herb; ansyf «yof, vitrioL 

§26a Nouns in o are masculine, and form the 
genitive in onis ; as, 

Sermo, sermonis, speech ; draco, drUcdms, a dragon. So, 

Agaso, a horse-keeper. 
AquYlo, the north wind» 
Arrhabo, an eamestpennyj 

Balatro, a pitifid fellow. 
Barabalio, a stutterer, 
BSiio, a Uockhead. 
Bnbo, an otol. 
Bufo, a toad. 
C&lo, a soldier's dove. 
apOt a capon. 
Carbo, a axd. 
Caupo, €m initrkeeper. 
Ceroo, a cobbler, or one who 

fcOows a mean trade, 
Cfniflo,. a frizder of hair. 
Crabro, a wasp or nomeL 
Curio, the ch»ef of a ward 
' or curia. \ 

Equiso, a groom or osUer. 
Erro, a wanderer. 
Fullo, a fuller of cloth. 
Helluo, a glutton, 
Histrio, a player. 
Latro, a robber. 
Leno, a pimp. 
LQdio, & -ius, a player, 
Luroo, a glutton. 
Mango, a daoe-merchant 
Mirmillo, a fencer. 
Miirio, a foci. 
Mucro, the point of a wea- 
Mulio, a muleteer. 
Nebiilo, a knave. 
Pavo, (^peacock. 
Pero, a Kind of shoe. 

Pneoo, a common crier, 

Pnedo, a robber, 

Pulmo, the lungs. 

Piuno, a little aald, 

Salmo, a salmon. 

Sannio, a buffoon. 

Sapo, soap. 

STj^ho, a pipe or tube. 

Spado, an eunuch. 

Stelo, a shoot or sewn. 

Strabo, a goggle-eyed per- 

Temo, the pole or draugHf^ 
tree. * 

Tiro, a raw soUier. 

Umbo, the boss of a thieUL 

V^iOio, a sh^iherd. 

VSlo, a vohtnUer. 


Exc. I. Nouns in io are feminine, when they signify any thing with- 
out a body ; as, ratio, rationis, reason. 

Caplio, a qmrk, 
CautiOy coifliofiy core» 
Goncio» an asseaMy, a 

Ceaem, a yidding, 
Dictio, a word. 
Deditio, a surrender. 
lioctio, a leaaoni 
LegiOk a legion, a body of 

MmitiOt menium. 
Nutio, a notion or idea. 
(^inio, an opinion. 
Optio, a choice. 
Qratb, atpeetsk. 


Peaao, a payment 

PerdcMllio, treaeon, 

Portio, apart. 

P5tio, drtnk. 

PrudJftio^ treackery. 

PlowriiitkH a jtrotcr^ationf 
ordering cUizene to be 
dain, and oqn^eoating 
their ^ecte. 

QoBBrtio!, an inauiry. 

RebelliOy rebellion. 

Resio, a country. 

Reutio, a telling. 

Reli^io, rdigian. 

BSaoBuo, a dackemng. 

Sanctio, a ooftjEnnafMNi. 
Sect», the conjieoaiiom or 

forjfeiittre of ont^agaods> 
SldYtk^ a wnUiny. 
Simo, a eiuing. 
Sc&tio, a italion. 
SotpKcio, mietrutL 
Transl&tio» a traneferring. 
UsacapiOk the enjoyment of 

a thmg by preecrwtiam, 
VanOiiSoy freedom from lo- 


VMo, an t^gpariiion. 

Bat when they muk any thing which hoi a body, or agnify mmibeia, Ihey av» 
maflculine; as, 

CurciOio, the (hroaUpipe, 

Fapilio» a buUerfty. 
Vu^o, a dagger. 
Puao, a UtUe child- 

Scipio,a ttaff. 
Scorpio, a acorpion. 
Septentiio, <te MoriA. 
Stellio, a Uxard. 

Unio, apearL 
VeepeidUo, a bat. 
Temio, tie namber An» 
Quatemiov fe 

SSnio^ six. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in do and go, are feminine, and ha^e the genitive in 
inis; as, drundo^ arundinu^ a reed ; imago, i$naginis, an image. 

.£rugo, rust {of &ra«0) 
Callgo, darkness. 
Carmago, a gristle. 
Crepido, a f^eekj bank. 
Fanligo, a miature. 
Ferrugo, rust {of iron.) 
Formido, fear. 
Grando, haiL 
Hirodo, a horse4ee^ 


HirondOfa swallow. 

Interc&pSdo, a space be- 

Lanugo, <2oum. 

Lentigo, aphnple. 

Origo, an origin. 

Pbrrigo scw^, or scales in 
thenead; dandruff. 

Propago, a lineage. 

Riibigo, rust, fmdew. 

SarOgo, a frying^ 
ScEturigo, a spring. 
Teatiido^ a tortoise. 
Torpedo, a numJbnesg. 
tJl|B}, tte nolural mouAaw 

m the earth. 
VllStado, JUnftA. 
Vertigo, a dizzinees. 
Virgo, a «tf^gtn. 

But the ibllowing are masculine : 

Cardo^ -Xnis, a hinge. 
Codo, -onis, a letMer a^ 
Harpigo, -unis, a drag. 
Ugo, -Onis, a spade. 

Margo, -bus, the brink of a rtoet; 

Ordo, -Inifl, order. 
Tendo, -&ub ; a tendon. 
Vdo, -dnis, a Unen oi woeUen sodL 

Cu/ndo, desire, is often masc vri^ the poets ; but in prose always fern. 
EzG. 3. The following nonns have ^tnis: 

I Nemo, -ynia, m. or £ no body. 
Turbo, 'loiBj m. a whirlunnd. 

Apollo, -ICnis, Ae god ApoUo. 
Homo, -Ihis, a man or woman. 

Cdro, flesh, fern, has camis. Anio, masc the name of a river, 
Anienis. Nerio, Nerienis, the wife of the god Mars ; from the obso- 
lete nominatives Anten, Nerien, Turbo, the name of a man, has 



. Exa 4. Greek nouns in o are feminine, and have its in the jmnitive, and o in tiie 
other cases singular; as Didot the name of a woman ; genit. Didus ; dat. Didd, &c 
Sometimes they are declined regularly; thus, DidOf Didonis: so echo, ^u, £ the 
resounding of the voice from a rock or wood ; Argo, -us, the name of a ship; hdlo, 
-onia, £ a. circle about the sun or moon 

Dido, Dido, the name of a wtnnan, fem. 

Norn, Dido, 
Gen, Didfis, 
Dat, Dido^ 
Ace, Dido, 
Voc. Dido, 
AbL Dido. 

. The form Dido, onis, is not to be imitated. 

C, D, L. 

§ 27e Nouns in c and / are neuter, and form the 
genitive by adding is ; as, 

Antmai, aribiUUis, a living creature; iarQl,-Slis, a bed-cover; hsUc, kaLui», a 
kind of pickle. So^ 

Cervical, a bUster, 
CubYtal, a cushion 

MTnerval, entry^money, I Puteal, a weOrCooer* 
Mlniital, minced meat, | VecHgal, a tax. 

Except, Consul, -ulis, m. a consuL 
FeU fellis, n. gaU, 
Lac, lactis, n. mUk. 
Mel, meUis, n. honey. 

Miigil, -His, m. a muUet^Uh. 
Sal, s&lis, m. or n. salL 
S&les, 4um, pi. m. toitty sayings, 
Sdl, sGlis, m. the sun. 

D is the termination onlv of a few proper names, which fenn the genitive fay 
adding is ; as, Dsmd, DaxfUis. 


§ 28e Nouns in n are masculine, and add is in 
the genitive ; as, 

Canon, -onis, a rtde. 
Demon, -6n)s, a asirit. 
Dolphin, -inis, a adphin. 
GnGmon, -onis, Ike code cf 
* adiaL 

Hymen, -enis^ the god of 

lien, -Snis, the wilt 

Ptean,.-anis, a song, 

Fh^ognOmon, -onis, one 
toho guesses at the die- 
positums of men from the 

Ren, renis, the reins. 
S^en,.-enui, the sdeen. 
Sy ren, -enis, f. a Syren. 
Titan, -ftnis, the sun. 

Exo. 1. Nouns in merif are neuter, and make their genitive in inis; 
t^Jlumen,Jlumlni8t a river. So, 

Abdomen, the paunch. 
Aciimen, dutrpness. 
Agmen, an army on march. 
Alumen, alum. 
BYtumen, a kind of day. 
Caciimen, the tap. 
Carmen, a song, a poem. 
Cognomen, a sir-name, 
CoTumen, a support 
Crimen, a crime. 

Discrimen, a difference. 
Examen, a swarm of bees. 
F5r&men, a hole. 
Germen, a sprouL 
Gi^men, grass. 
L^umen, ^ kinds rfpuise. 
Lumen, light 
NOmen, a name. 
Numen, the Deity. 
Omen, a presage. 

Put&men, a ntit-sfteO. 
Sagmen, vervain, an herb. 
Semen, a seed. 
Specimen, a prwjf, 
St&men, <Ae vxiarp. 
Subtemen, the vyoof. 
Tegmen, a covering. 
Vimen, a twig. 
VSlumen, a folding. 

The ftUpwing aovam are likewige neoter ; 


Glntea, -1ms, ghte. 
Unguen, -Inb, cinimenL 

Tngoen, 4ium, ike grcin. 
Pollen, -" ■ " 

•hua, finefiour. 

Exc 2. The foUowing masculines have Ims; peeUnt a oomb ; tiiMcen, a tmin* 
peter; ^ftioen, a piper; and o^oen^ or o«c¥itM» sc. UtiSy £ a bird which ibreboded 
py singing» 

Exa 3 The fbllowinff nouns are feminine ; Sinion, -Snist fine linen ; Hedtm, 
•9nis, a nightingale; htucfcn, -SnUt a bird called the king's. fisher ; looii, -iknt, an 

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns hare cmtUt as» LaSnUdon, -onCif, a king of TVojr. So 
AckHron, dfomaietm, FhaUhon, Ck&ron, &c 

AR and UR. 

§ 29« Nouns in ar and ur are neuter, and add is 
to from the genitive ; as, calcar^ calcdris^ *a spur.' 

GattnrfHttcis, ike throoL 
Jubor, -axis, a sunrheam. 
Lacunar, -aris. a ceiling, 
Muimur^-uris, a noise. 

Ebur, -oris, n. ivory. 

Far, &nriB, n. com. 

Femur, -oris, n. the Udgh, 

Furfur, -uris, m. hrcau 

Fur, furis, m. a thief. 

Hepar, -atis, or atos, n. ike liver. 


NectBT, -aiis, drink of ike gods. 
Pnlvinar, -Sris, aviuow. 
Sulphur, -iiris, sulphur. 


Jecur, -oris, or jecYnoris, tLAeU\ 
Rubur, -oris, n. strengtlu 
Salar, -Siis, m. a trout 
Turtur, -iiris, ro. a turtledove. 
Vultur, -urn, m. a vuUure. 

ER and OR. 

§ 30« Nouns in er and or are masculine, ajid form 
the genitive by adding is ; as, 

Anaer, ansiiris, a goose or cander; agger^ -^irist a rampart; Aer, -his, the air; 
career, -2frt>, a {Nrison ; osier, ^tris, and otaes, -is, a plank; doior, -drts, pain ; eolor, 
-oris, a colour. So, 

Actor, a doer^ a pleader. 
Creditor, he that trusts or 

Cmor, gore, 
DeMtor, a debior. 
Fcetor, an iU smdL 
HSnor, honour. 
Lector, a reader, . 
lactor, an officer among {he 

Romans^ ioho attended the 

Livor, pcdenesty malice. 
NTdor, a strong smeU. 

Odor, and -os, a smdL 
Olor, a swan. 
Pastor, a s^xllsnt. 
Frastor, a commander. 
Pudor, ihame 
Rubor, Uusldng. 
Rumor, a report. 
^por, a taste. 
Sartor, a cobbler or iaUor, 
Sator, a sower, a father. 
S5por, sleep. 

Splendor, brightne* 
Sponsor, a surety, 
Sqna&lor, fWdness, 
Stupor, aviness. 
Sntor, a sewer, 
Tepor, warmih. 
Terror, dread. 
Timor, fear. 
Tonsor, a barber. 
Tutor, a guardian. 
V&por, a vapour. 
Venator, a hunter. 

Rhetor, a rhetorician, has rheioris; castor, a beaver, -oris. 



Exc 1. The following nouns are neuter : 

Acer, -eris, a maple tree^ 

Ador, -^nUffine voheaL 

jEo uor» -orii^ d plaint (he tea. 

Cia&ver, -^lii, a dead carcate. 

CXcer, "eoBy vetches. 

Cor, cordis, the heart 

Iter, itineris, a journey. 

Mannor, -oris, maiUe. 
Pap&yer, -eris, poppy. 
Piper, -eris, pepper. 
Spinther, -ens» a daapk 
Tuber, -eris, a aweUuig. 
Vhett, -eris, a pap, or jatMU. 
Vet, veris, the apring. 

Arbor, -orie, a tree» is fern. Tuber, 4ri$, the firuit of the tafaer>traeh is uaic hot 
when put for the tree, is fern. 

Exa % Noun» in ber have hrtM, in the genitive; as, hie iMttp imbHM, a «howtor. 
So Ineuber, Oabber, Sac 

Nouns in ier have fris ; as, venier, ventrit, the belly; piUer, patrie, a fttlier: 
friUer, 4ris, a brother ; ac^'Uer, 4ris, a hawk ; but crSier, a cup, has crSteri» ; 
adter, "irie, a saviour ; liUer, a tile, laUrie ; Jupiter, the chief of the Heathen gods, 
hm Jama ; litUer, 4ris, a little boat, is masc. or femin 


§31« Nouns in as are feminine, and have the 
genitive in cUis: as, ceias, astdiis^ an age. 

JEkboB, the tummer. 
¥vbtaB, piety. 
F5testisuB, power. 
Pr5bltas) ;proU(y. 
SatiStas, a gUu or diaguA 


SlknultBS, a feud, a grudge. 
Tempestas, a tune, a tern- 


Veiettaa, truth. 
Voluntas, toiU. 
VSluptas, pleaaure. 
Anas, a duck, hmjaniUiai 

Exc. 1. As, assis, m. a piece of numey,(x 
any thing vhuh may be divided 
into tuieR» porta. 

Mas, maris, m. a male. 
Vas, vadybs, m. a aurety 
Vas, visis» n. a veaaeL 

Note. All the parts of aa are likewise masculine, except unaa, an ounce, fem.; 
as, aetlana, 2 ounces; quadrana, 3 ; iriena, 4 ;^ quincunXf 5 ; aemia, 6; aeptunx, 7 ; 
bea, 8; dodrana, 9; deaOana, or diemus, 10; deunx, 11 ounces. 

Ex.c. 2. Of Greek nouns in aa, some are masculine, some feminfaie, some neuter. 
Those that are masculine have antia in the genit as, glgaa^ gigantia, a giant ; Sdd^ 
maa, -antia, an adamant ; IUi^i>haa, -antia, an elephant TlxMie that are feminine 
have Hdia, or Odoa ; as, lampaa, lampHdia, or lampHdoa, a lamp; dromaa, -Mia, £ a 
dromedaiy ; likewise Areaa, an Arcadian, thouf^ masculine» has ArcHdia, or -itdoa. 
Tbtme that are neuter have ^Uts; as, buciiraa, -iHia, an herb; arfocrcoj^ -Utia, a pie. 


§ 32e Nouns in es are feminine, and in the geni- 
tive change es into i^ ; as, 

rupee, nqria, aT rock ; nubea, nubia, a doud. So^ 

iMea, a plague. 

JEdm, or -is, a ten^ ; plur. 

a Aouse. 
Cautes, a rugged rodu 
Glides, an overthrow, do- 

Cr&tes, a hurdle. 
Fames, hunger. 
FYdes, afdale. 

Moles, a heap. 
Nates, the buttoch. 
Palumbes, m. or f. 

PrOles, an offapring. 
PiibeB, youSL 


Sepes, a hedge» 
Soo61ea, on offapring. 
Strages, a daughter. 
Strues, a heap. 
Sudes a atake. 
T&bes, a consuotpCton. 
Vulpes, a/ogr. 



Exo. 1. The following noans are maBcnlifie, and most of them like- 
wise excepted in the formation of the genitive : 

Ales, -itis, a Urd. 

Ames, -itb^ afoider'a staff. 

Aries, -elis, a ram. 

Bes, besns, 1xoo4hird» ofapownd. 

Cespes, -ituB, a turf. 

Equee, -itis, a horteman. 

Fumes, -litis, /tie/. 

Giuges, -Itis, a vMrlpooL 

Hiraras, -edis, an heir. 

Indices, -etis, a man deified, 

laterpres, -etis, an interpreter, 

LYmes, -itis, a Umii or bound. 

Miles, 'ttia, a soldier, 

Obses, -Ddis, a hostage. 

Palmes, -Ttis, a vine^ranc^ 
Paries, -etis, .a waiL 
Pes, p6dis, the foot 
Pedes, -Ytis, a footman, 
Poples, -Ytis, the ham of the leg, 
Prsses, -Ydis, a president 
Satelles, -lUs, aiife-guard. 
Stipes, -Ytis, the dotxofa tree, 
Termas, -Itis, an oUve bough 
Tr&mes, -Ytis, apath, 
Veles, -idfly a Ughi-armed soldier, 
Vates, vatis, a prophet. 
tfenes, Terris, a boar-pig,. 

But ak$t fluZes, htsreSt inUrpres, obses, and vales, are also used in Ifae fenmune. 

Elxc. 2. The following feminines are excepted in the fermation of the geni- 
liYe : 

Abies, -etis, afir4ree, 
Ceres, -eris, iM goddess of com, 
Mercer, -edis, a reward, bire. 
Merges, -Itis, a handful of com, 
Quies, -etis, resL 

To these add the following adjectives : 

Ales, -Ttis, swift 
Bifpes, -edis, twofotited, 
Qttadriipce, -^iiBffourfooted, 
Deses, -fdis, dathfuL 
Dives, -Itis, rich 
Hebes, -etis, dvM. 
Perpes, -etis, perpetucd. 

Requies, -Stis; or zequiSi» {of the fifth 

dedension) resL 
S^es, -etis, growing com. 
Teffes, -etis, a mat or coverlet, 
Tudes, -is, or -Itis, a hammer. 

Praepes, -etis, swift-winged. 

ReseS, -Ydis, idle, 

Sospes, -Itis, safe. 

Superdtes, -ttis, surviviiug. 

Teres, -etis, round mid umg, smooth. 

L5cuples, -gtis, rich, 

Mansues, ^tis, genUe. 

£xc. 3l Greek nouns in en are commonly masculine; as, hie iUSnUees, -is, ■ 
Persian sword, a scimitar : but some are neuter ; as, hoc cUcoOhes, an evil custom ; 
hippamitnes, a kind of poison which (p>ws in the forehead of a foal ; pltn^ees, the 
herb all-heal ; nepenthes, the herb kill-grief. Dissyllables, and tiie monosyllable 
Cres, a Cretan, have -etis in the genitive ; as, hie magnes, magnetis, a load-stcxie ; 
fi^f^es, -etis, tapestry ; libea, eds, a caaldion. The rest fi^w tbe general rule. Smne 
proper nouns have eidier -etis, or ts; as, DUres, Dsrefis, or IktriB; which is also 
sometimes of the first declension. Achilles has Ax^UUs ; or AekiUi, ccmtracted for 
AdnUH, or AchUlei, of the second declension, from AchxUhis, So Ulysses, Phicles, 
Verres, AristaUles, &c. 


§ 33« NouDS in is are feminine, and have their 
genitive the same with the nominative ; as, 

auris, auris, the ear; &vis, avis, a bird. So^ 

Apis,a bee, 
Bilis, the gaU, anger, 
Ciassis, afiMt. 
Felis, a cat. 

F5ris, a door ; tfiener plur. 
fores, -ium. 

Messis, a harvest or crop, 
N&ris, the nostril, 
Neptis, a niece. 
Ovis, a sheep. 
Peliis, a j^n. 
Pestis, a plague. 


Rudis, a fid, 
Vallis, a valley. 
Veetis, a garment. 
Vitis, a vme. 



£xo. 1. Thfl foUowing now» are taatKnUim, voA 6uak ^ genitiTe acoovdiog to 
the general rule : 

Atis, axis, an oxle-tree, 
Aqu&ljflp a waler-pcA, an 

Callia, a beaten road* 
Caiilis, fhe tlock of an herb, 
Collja. a km. 

Cenchris, a kind ofterpenl, 
EnsoB, a sword. 

FasciB, a bundle. 
FSci&liB, a herald. 
Follu, a pair ofbeOowe. 
FusdB, a etqjfi 
Mensis, a month. 
Mttgnis» or 'il, a muUet^ 

Orbis, a drde, the world. 

Fkitru6U8,.a cottein-gemum 
Piscis, a^fisk. 
Postis, a post. 
Sodalis, a coamamon^ 
Torrii, a fre^rand. 
Unguis, the nail. 
Vectb, a lever. 
Venauh a worm. 

To these add Latin noons in ms; mpSni», bread; crviM, the hair; tgnu, fire; 
/»m«, a rope, Sic But Greek nouns in nis are feminine, and haTe the geniliTe in 
Itji*; as, tprannist tpnauMiM, tyranny. 

Exc. 2. The IbUowing noaos are Ao masculine^ but feim their genitive d^ 
ferently : 

Cfnis, •iTris, ofAeA 

Cucumis, •«, or ^ia, « eueumier. 

Dis, ditis, the god of richee; or ricA, 

an adj. 
GUs, fl^ri^ o darmmaey a vaL 
Impuois, or impiibes, -is, or •ens, mot 

Lapis, -Vffis, a ekme, 

Fvlvie, and dm«, are sometimes feminine. Semie is also aometimes neuter» and 
dien it is indeclinable. Pubis and impHbia are propeily adjectives ; thus, Pubo' 
Hbue oaulem folii», a stock with downy leaveq. Virg. JEn. xiL 419. Impube cot' 
pus, Ihe body of a boy not having yet got the down (pubes, -ts, £) of jouth. 
HoraL Epod. 5. 13. txeanguiSf, hCoodless, an affective» has exaanguia m the 

Exa 3. The ibllowing are either raascnline or feminine, and ferm the genitive 
aocordii^ to the general role : 

Pftbis, or pibes, -to, or e^teiwr, 

Fulvis, ^ris, duet 
Quiris, -itis, a Roman. 
Samnis, -Vtis, a SamnOe. 
San^piis, olNsis, UeodL 
Semis, -jssis, the half of anything. 
I Vumis, or <«r, -eria, a pHoughahare. 

FkiMttheendi ^ao^Hehoimdarieeqf a 
feld, or terrUoriee, is alwaya maie. 
Serobis» or scrobs, « ditek. 

AnauBt a rioer. 
Aogam, 9 anake, 
C&n&Us, a canelKie^iye. 

Exc. 4. These feminises have %dis: Ca$ei$, 4dis^ a helmet; cu^rie, -%^ the 
point of a spear; copit, -Kiu, a kind of cup; prommlna, '^IdiM, a kind of dnnk, me- 
theglio. Lut «tiife, f. has Rtis. 

Exo. 5. Greek nouns in is are generally feminine» and form the geni- 
tive variously : some have eo$ or tot ; as, hisrisis, '■eos, or -tot, or -it, a 
heresy ; so, Sdlttt, f. the foot of a pillar; phrans^ a phrase ; ;>^ittt, a 
consumption ; poesia, poetry ; metrdpdlis, a chief city, &c. ^me have 
€di9, or idos; as, Pdris^ 'idU, or -idos, the name of a man; otptt, 
-icltt, £ an asp; iphemiriSf -kitt, t a day-book ; irtt, '4dii, f. the rain- 
bow ; pyxU^ -idis, f. a box. So JEgis^^ tiie shield of Pallas ; cantharis, 
a sort of fly ; periscilis, a garter ; proboscis, an elephant's trunk ; py» 
rdmis, a pyramid ; and f^^^rtt, a tiger, -lijtt, seldom tigris : all fern. 
Part have t^tt, as, Psopkis, -idis, the name of a city : others have fmt ; 
as, Eleusis, -intt, the name of a city ; and some have enHs ; as, Stmois^ 
SimoentiSf the name of a river. ChdriSf one of the Graces, has Chariiis^ 




§ 34« Nouns in os are masculine, and have the 
genitive in dtis ; as, 

n^Spos, -oUs, a grandchUd ; tHoertUm, 'Ciu, m prioM» abo ftsk 

Exa 1. The following are femimne : 

Eoi, eSis, ihe montinr. 

G1<M, gliiria, the huncan^B aukr, or bro» 

AtboBf or -or» -oris, a hist. 
Cos, cotis, a u^eMone. 
Dob, dotis, a dowry. 

Exc 2. The fbUowmg masculines art excepted in Ifae geoidve : 

Flos, fluiis, aJUnoar, 
IKnos, or -or, 'OnB, honour. 
LaboB, or -or, -oris, Imbour, 
LepOB, or -or, -oris, toit 
Mos, moris, a custom. 
Rob, riiris, dew. 

CosloB, -odii, a ke^er, also fiaa. 
Heros, heKJls, a Jiero. 
MiBos, -oil, a king tfCrdt» 
Tros, Trois, a TV. 

Bos, bSvis, m. or 1. on 0« or am. 

I. ufl < 

Exc. 3L Os, onif, a bone ; and os, oris, ttie moath» are neuter. 

Exc. 4. Some Greek nomis hare disy as, hetos, -oCs, a heit^ or gfoat matt: So Jlfi- 
nos, a king of Crete; Tros, a Trojan ; Ikos, a kind of wolC 


§ 35a Nouns in i^ are neuter^ and have their 
genitive in oris ; as, 

pectus, peetihis, the breast ; tetgfus^ ten^wriSf time. So, 

CTurpuSi it soayi 
Decos, honour. 
Dedecos, disgrace. 
F&cTnus, a great action. 
Foenus, usury. 

FkTgtM, ceZel. 
Littas, d ^ore. 
NSmns, a groife. 
FSons, oottte. 

Elxc 1. The following neuters have his: 

AcJM, che^. 
Fonus, ajtmend. 
Foedns, a covemtnL 
Genus, a hind, or Idndred» 
Glomus, a due, 
JJstag, As suh. 

Miinns, a gift or ^jfue. 
OLuM, pot-SarbSk 
Onus, a burden. 
Opus, a work. 
Pondus, a weight 

ViSnoB, provuionSt 
fignw, a pledge. 
Stercus, dung. 
Tergas, a kiife. 

SeShis, a erinle. 
Sidos, a star. 
Vellus, aJUece qfwooL 
YiscoM, an emratL 
VolnuB, d wound. 

Thus a(^is,funhis, &c Glomus, a clue, is sometimes masculine, and has «Io> 
mi, of the second declension. Vinus, the goddess of iove, and vHUus, old, an aqjeo- 
tive, likewise have his. 

Exa 2. The following nouns aM fominine, and form Ihe genidve Tarioudj : 

Incus, -ndis, an anvil 
FsiivtB, -ndis, a pool, or morass. 
Pecus, -adis, a tkeep. 
Subscus, -udis, a dove^aiL 
Tellus, -oris, t%0 earth, or goddess of the 

Jiiventus, -utis, youth. 
Salus, -atis, safOu. 
Senectus, -utiis^ old age. 
ServKtus, -utis, slavery. 
Virtos^ -atis, virtue. 
Intercus, -iitis, an hydrepty, 

Intercus is properly an a^jectiTe» haying aqua understood. 



£xc. 3. Monosyllable! of the neuter gender have urisy in the genitive ; as, 

CruB, cruris, the le^, 

Jos, juris, law or r^ht ; also broih. 

Pus, puris, the corrupt maUer of any tore. 

Rus, runs, (he country. 
Thus, thuris, frankincense. 
So Mus, muris, mase. a mouafi. 

Ligus, or -^tTi a Dgurian, has Ug^ris ; H^nUt masc. a hare, leporisi sue, masc. or 
fern, a swine, suis ,* gruSf masc. or rem. a crane, gruis. 

(Edipus^ the name of a man, has (Edipodi^ ; sometimes it is of the second de- 
clension, and has (Ed^ The compounds of pus have odis; as, tripus, masc. a 
tripod, tripodis ,* but Utgqpus, -odis, a kind of bird, or, the herb hare's-ibot, is fem. 
Names ot cities have ttntis; as, TrapHzuSt Trtqfexuntis ; Opus, Opunds ; ISefkhus, 
•witis, Jericho. 


§ 36« Nouns in ys are all borrowed from the 
Greek, and are for the most part feminine. In the 
genitive they have sometimes yis^ or yos ; as, 

Hffic chUys, chelyis, or -yos, a harp ; CUpys, Ckmyis, or -yos, tbe name of a man ; 
sometimes they have pdis, or pdos; as, Iubc ddamysy ch&mpdiSt or chlampdos, a 
soldier's cloak; and sometimes ynis, or yttos,* as, TrSchys, JVachynis, or TVti- 
chynos, the name of a town. 

^8, AVS, EVS. 

§B7« The nouns ending in cbs, and ausy are, 

JSs, aeris, n. brass or money. I Laus, laudis, £ praise. 

Fraus, finudis, t fraud. | Pnes, pnedis, m. or £ a surety. 

Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have the geni- 
tive in «0« ,* as, Orpheus, Orpheos; Tereus, Tereos. But these nouns are also frand 
in the second declension, where eus is divided into two syllables: thns, Orpheus, 
genit OrphH, or sometimes contracted Orpkei, and that into Oiji&t 

iS with a consonant before it. 

§ 38« Nouns ending in s with a consonant before 
it, are feminine ; and form the genitive by chang- 
ing the s into is or tis ; as, 

Trahst tri&is, a beam; scobs, k^bis, saw-dust; hiems, hihnis, winter; gens, gen» 
Hs, a nation; stips, sCipis, alms; /«rs, partis^ a part; sors, sortis, a lot; mors, -tis, 

Exc. 1. The following nomis are masculine: 

Chalybe, -jrhis, sted. 
Dens, -tis, a tooih. 
Fons, -tis, a weU. 
Gryps, gryphis, a griffin. 
Hydrops, -Opis, the dropsy. 

Exc. 2. The following are either masculine, or feminine : 

Adeps, adYpis, fatness. | Serpens, -tis, a serpent. 

Merops, -opis, a woodpedser, 

Mons, -tis, a mountain» 

Pons, -tis, a bridge. 

Seps, sepis, a kind of serpent ; bat 

Seps, sepis, a hedge, is iem. 

Riidens, -tis, a caJble. 
Scrobs, sci^bis, a ditch. 

Stirps, stirpis, the root of a tree. 
Slirpt, an offspring, always fern. 



AtOmmst a WSDg «nature» ui ftimd in all fha gndan, bat moit fi^qiMilly in 

the feminine or neuter. 

Exc. 3. Poljnsyilables in q>8 chang^ e into i ; as, hoc fortepM, for^tjriB, a pair of 
tODgs; princepsy -^tpis^ a prince or pnnce«; parOcM -d^ a parfwrj bo like» 
wise ccMe&A, coBiibWt an unmarried man or woman. The compounds of ctfpttf have 
ti^^plUi* ; aa,vrcBoep8, prtecipfitis, headlong ; anceps, omd^^/UiM, doubtful ; bioqpt, -iifpUUp 
tno-he»d&i. Avcept^ a fowler; has aucuptt. 

Exa 4. The following feminines have dis : 

FroQs, fiondis, the leaf of a tree. 
Glans, glandis, on aeortL 

Juglam, -dis» a walnuL 
Lens, lendis, a att 

So ISfr^^pene, libripendiet m. a weigher; nefrene, -diSf m. or £ a grioe, or pig; and 
the compounds of cor ; as, concors^ eonctwr^^ agreeing ; dieeoTM^ disa greei ng; veeare, 
mad, &C. But /rons, the finehead, has froniUf fern, aiid lene, a^ldnd of poise, le»» 
tu, also fern. 

Exc. 5. lensy going, and jtoiens, being able, partidples fiom the verbs to and ateiK 
with their compounos, have eunti»; thus, teru, ettaA'»,' quietui, queunti»; rmene, 
redeuntie ; nequiens, nequeunUe: but ambiene, going round, has ainbierdis. 

Exa 6. Tiryn», a city in Greece, the birth-plaoe of Heioulea, has Ti ry n Ai» 


§ 39« There is only one noun in /, namely, cdput, 
capUis^ the head, neuter. In Uke manner its com- 
pounds, sifuiputj sintnpUisj the forehead ; and occt^ 
putj "ttisj the hind-head. 


§ 40a Nouns in x are feminine, and in the geni- 
tive change x into cis ; as, lux^ lucisy Ught. 

Appendix, -Tcis,^ an addi- 
tion^; dim. -icvila. 
Celox, -ods, a pinnace. 
Cervix, -icis, Ute neck. 
CYcatrix, -ids, a tear. 
Comix, -icis, a crow. 
Cotumix, -i<^ a quad, 
Coxen^ix, -Kcis, the hip. 
Crux, crucis, a croee. 


Fffix, -ds, drege. 
Falx, -ds, a scythe. 
Fax, -acis, a torch. 
Filix, -fcis, a fern. 
Laxo, -CMt a plate. 
Ludix, -Icis, a sheeL 
Meretiix, -icis, a courtezan. 
Merx, <M, merdumdiee. 

Nutrix, -ids, a mirae. 
Nux, niicis, a nuL 
PIbx, -ftds, peace. 
Pix, p¥cis,^»fdk. 
Radix, -icis, a root. 
S&lix, -Ycis, a willow. 
Vibix, or -ex, 'idMfAemark 
^ a wound. 

Exc. 1. Pblyayllables in ax and er are masculine ; as, thorax, -ade, a breast- 
plate; Corax, -dcie, a raven. £r in the genitive is changed into Yets; aM,poUex, 
•4cis, m. the thumb. So the following nouns, also masculine : 

Apex, the tufl or tased on 
the top of a priest*» cap, 
the cap itself or the tap 
of anything. 

Artffex, Oft artist. 

Camlffex, an executioner. 

Caudex, the trunk of a 

Cimex, a bug. 
Codex, a book. 
Culex, a gnat, a midge. 
Frutex, a shrub. 
Index, an informer. 
Latex, any liquor. 
Murex, a smU fish, pur- 


Pudex, the breech. 
Pontiifex, a chief priest 
Pulex, ajZea. 
R&mex,a rupture. 
Surex, a rat. 
Vertex, the crown ef (As 

Vortex, a uihidpoA. 



Vertex, a wether dieep, has veneeU; fmmaex, a mower of ha^i fcmiaXeia -, 
rttex, m. -&:m, a vine-branch cut offi 

To these »»ivM^iiliTifl« add» 

CiUix, •!(», a cup. 
Calyx, -ycis, the bud of a flower. 
Coccyx, 'f^iB, or -^cis, a cuckoo. 
Fornix, -tcu, a vault. 

Oryx, -;ygi8, a toUd goat 
Phcenix, -icia, a bim so caUed. 
Trildox, •lieu, a gre^ or offtet of a vine ; 
also fern. 

But the jfollowmg polysyllables in ax and ex are feminine : 

Fornax, -&cis, a furnace. 
Panax, -ilLcis, the herb aU-heaL 
Climax, -acis, a ladder. 
Forfex, -Ycis, a voir of scUeors. 
H&lex, -Sds, anerring. 

Exa 2. A great many noam in « are either masculine or feminine; as, 

SmUax, -icis, the herb rope^oeed. 
Carex, -Ycis, a sedge. 

Supellex, aupellectidis, hoatdudd fund 

Calx, -CIS, ihe hed^ or the end of ant 

Lunax, -&cis, a enaS. 

thing, the goal; but calx, Ume, is al- 
ways fern. 

Cortex, -Ycis, the bark of a tree. 

Hyrtrix, -Ycis, a porcupine. 

Imbrex, -fcis, a gutter or roof tile. 

Lynx, -cis, an ounce, a beast tfvery quick 

Exa 3. The following nouns depart from the general rule in forming the fl^ 

Obei^ 'Xds, a bolt or bar. 
Perdix, -icis, a partridge. 
Ptimex, -Yds, a pumice stone. 
Rumex, -iSis, sorrd, an herb. 
Sandix, -Tcis, a purple colour. 
Sllex, -Ycis, a fint 
V&rix, -Icis, a swoUen vein. 

AquXlex, -egis, a toeH^naker. 
Conjunx, or -ux, iigis, a husUmd 

Frux (not used), fiugis, £ com. 
Grex, gregis, m. o^ £ afiock. 
hex, iSgis, £ a law. 


Phalanx, -angis, £ a phalanx. 

Remex, -Ygis, a rower. 

Rex, regis, a king. 

Nix, nivis, £ snow. 

Nox, noctis, £ night. 

Senex, senis, & -Ids, (an adj.) eld. 

Eza 4 Greek nouns in x, both with respect to gender and manner of declen- 
sion, are as vanoos as Latin nouns ; thus, bombyx, bombycis, a silk-wonn, masc. 
but when it signifies silk, or die yam spun by the worm, it is feminme ; onix, masc. 
or fem. onpchiSf a precious stone ; and so sardonyx ; Idrynx; laryngis, fem. the top 
of the windpipe ; Pkryx, Phrpgis, a Rir^iian ; mdnx, -lu^is, a mbulons hag ; strix, 
'Igis, £ a screech-owl ; Styx, -ygis, £ a nver in nell ; Hylax, ^ctis, the name of & 
dog; Bibrax, Bibractis, the name of a town, d^. 



The dative singular anciently ended also in e; as, Esuriente leoni ex ore excuU 
pitre pradam. To pull the prey out of the mouth of a hungry lion. LnciL Htsrel 
pedepes, Foot sticKs to foot Vii^. JEn. x. 361. for esurienU and pedi. 


§ 41e Ekc. 1. The following nouns have the ac- 
cusative in im. 

Amussis, £ a mason's rule. 

Biiris, £ the beam of a plough. 

Cann&bis, £ hemp. 

C^ksiimis, m. a cucunAer. 

Gummis, £ gum. 

Mephitis, £ a damp or strong smell. 

Rftvis, £ Aooraeneit. 
Slh&pis, £ mustard, 
SXtis, £ thirst. 
Tossis, £ a cough. 
Vis, £ strength. 


To these add proper names» 1. of cities and other places; as, J7t#- 
panis, Seville, a city in Spain ; SyrHs^ a dangerous quicksand on the 
coast of Libya ; — 2. of rivers ; as, IHbiris, the Tiber, which runs past 
Rome ; Bcefw, the Guadalquivir, in .Spain ; so, A26w, Araritf Athi' 
sis, Litis, &c. — 3. of gods ; as, Aniibis, Apis, Osiris, Serdpis^ deities 
of the Egyptians. But these sometimes make the accusative also in 
in ; thus, Syrtim or Syrtin, Tibirim, or -tn, &c 

§ 42« Exc. 2. Several nouns in is have either em 
or im ; as, 

Aqualis, m. a vaUr-paL 
CULvis, £ a key. 
Cutis, f. the s&n. 
Febns, £ a fever» 
Navis, £ a $hip. 

Pelvis, f, a basi». 

Pappis, £ ihe stem of a 

ResHs, £ a rope. 

Secoris, £ an axe. 
SSmentis» £ a eowutg. 
StrY^flis, £ a horm^mb. 
Toms, £ a tmoer. 

ThoB natem or novtm ; puppenh or pupptm^ &c. The ancients said, avim, aurim, 
odnit pettim, vattim, viUm, dec. which are not to be imitated. 

§ 43« Ekc. 3. Greek notins form their accusative 
variously : 

1. Gree^ nouns, whose genitive increases in t< or ot impure, that is, with a can- 
sonant eoing before, have the accusative in em w a ; as, lampaa, lampUdi»^ or Jam* 
piido$, lamp&dem or lampdda* In like manner, these three, which have is mure 
m die genitive» or is wiui a vowel befiire it: TVos, 7roi>, Troem or TVoo, a Tro- 
jan; heros, a hero; Mnois, a king of Crete. The three following have almost 
always a; Pan, the god of shepherds; cether, the sky; delphint a dolphin; thus, 
Pana, (Bthiray ddphma, 

2. Masculine Greek nouns in », which have their genidve in u or os impure, 
form the accusative in im or in ; sometimes in fifem, never Ids ; as, Pihitf Piiridis 
or PartdoSf Parim, or Parinr sometimes Pdrldem, never ParltUu — So, DB^knie. 

3. Feminines in t5, increasing impurely in the genitive, have commonly idem or 
ida, but rarely im or tn ; as, Mis, Etidis or Etidos, Etidem or Etida ; seldom ELim 
or Elin ; a city in Greece. Iix like manner feminines in y#, fdos, have j^dem or 
^da, not ym or yn in the accusative ; as, cKUimys^ pdem or §da, not cUomyn, a sol- 
dier^s cloak. 

4. But aU Greek noniw in is or/ys» whether masculine or feminine, having is or 
OS pure in the genitivd, form the accusative, by chanjpng « of the nominative intu 
m orn ,• as, metamorphosis, -eos or -ios, metamojpkdsim or -in, a change. Tethys, 
-yos ot -yist TeOiym or -yn f-the name of a goddess. 

5. Nouns ending in the diphthong eus, have the accusative in jri ; as, TkUeus, 
Thesea; TydeusTrydea. 


Many Greek nouns, particularly proper names, drop « of the nominative to form 
&e vocative; as Daphnis, Dapkm; Paris, Pari: Tethys, Tethyf jmmpus^Me- 
tampu ; Orpheus, Or^vea ; Chefys, Chdy ; Poesis, Poisi Nouns in as, antts, make 
Hie vocative in a or in an ; as, PaUas, PaUa or PaUan ; CaUAa», CalAa or CaU 
chan : some in es make it in e« or e ; as, Socr&tes, Chremes, Hercules, AMUs, &c. 


Bxcnnom in tbs ablauts tanavLASL. 

§ 44« £xG. 1. Neuters in 6, a/, and ar, hate i in 
the ablative ; as, sedilej sedili ; ammaij animaii ; cal" 
car, calcdri. Except proper names; aB^, Prmneste, 
abl. Prceneste, the name of a town ; and the follow- 
ing neuters in ar : 

Ftf » fiffrCt con* 
Heper» 4lt«» (heUver. 
Jnoar, -ire, a mm-beam> 

Nectar, -are, drink cf the gods. 
Par, p8re^ a matdktapair. 
Sal, i&le, or 4, m. orxL «ott. 

Exo. 2. Nbuns which have im or in in the accusative, have i in the 
ahlative, as, vts, vtf^ vt ; bat cannabis, BtBtis, and TY^m, have e or t . 

Nouns which have em or tm in the accusative, make their ablative 
in eori; as, turris, turret or tuni; but r6«(M, a rope, unl eiUw» the 
skin, have e only.* 

ibccL 3. Adjectives used as substantives have commonly the same ab- 
lative with the adjective ; as, bipennis, -t, a halberd ; mdldrit^ -i, a mill- 
stone ; quadrlremis, -t, a ship with four banks of oars. So names of 
months, AprUis, -i ; December, -bri, &c. But rOdiSf £ a rod ffiven to 
gladiators when discharged ; jUvSnii, a young man, have e omy ; and 
likewise nouns ending in «2, a?, ceps^ oxns; as, 

A6'6ieBceiiB, a young man. |Princepa,aDrtiRce. I Toneitt, a Sroo^. 

InfiuQB, an infant. \ Senex, an t/d man. \ VYgil, a toatdanan. 

Exo. 4. Nouns in ys, which have ym in the accusative, make their 
ablative in ye^ or y ; as, Atys^ Aiye, or Aty, the name of a man. 


§45« 1. The nominative plural ends in et, when the noun is either 
masculine or feniiinine ; as, sermohes, rapes. 

Nouns in is and es have sometimes in the nominative plural also eis 
at is; OB, puppes, puppeis, or puppis. 

2. Neuters which have e in the ablative singular, have a in the 
nominative plural ; as, capita, itinira : but those which have % in the 
ablative, make ta ; as, sedilia, cakdria. 

* Several noaHB which have only em in the aeeiuative, have e or t in the aUa- 
txve ; as, /fnts, supdkx, Mcttf, pukU, a champion; mvgU or mngUiM ; bo rtu, ocdt- 
put: Abo namea of towna, when the question is made by vbii sm, haHOtat Cartko' 
^Ifiie or CVniAo^Ynti he lives at Carthage. Sa,cn)i9,da88i$,9or8,imber,angui*,ams, 
potti$,fiutiM, ommt, and iVnis ,* hut fhese have oflener e. CanSU» has only i The 
roost ancient writeia made the ablative of many other nouos in t ; as, aUSU, cam,, 
lajM, otfi ; Ac 



§ 46» Nouns which in the ablative singular have t only, or either 
e or i^ make the genitive plural in turn ; but if the ablative be in e 
only, the genitive plural has «m; as, Medile^ $edilh sediiium; turriSf 
turre or turri, turrium ; caput, capUe, capitum, 

Exc 1. Monosyllables in as have turn, though their ablative end in 
6 ; as, HUM, a male, mare, nutrium ; vas, a surety, vadium: but poly- 
syllables have rather um ; as, civUaSf a state or city, civitdtumf and 
sometimes dvitatium. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in es and w, which do not increase in the genitive 
singular, have also ium ; as, hostU, an enemy, hostium. So likewise 
nouns ending in two consonants ; as, geng, a nation, gentium ; urbSf a 
city, urbium. 

But the following have um; parens, votes, volUcris, pdnis, jiMms, 
opes, forceps, and cants. Horace, however, has parenUuin, Od. 
iiL 24, 21. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns form the genitive plural in ium, though 
they have e only in the ablative singular: 

Arx, ards, £ a castle. 

Caro, camifl, tfleA. 

CohoFB, -tiB, £ a company. 

Cor, ocndis, d. the kBort 

Cos, cotis, £ a Aone or wteMoiM. 

DoBj d&JM, t adotay. 

Faux, faucis, £ the jaws. 

Glia, glirifl» m. a rot 

Lar, larifl, nh a houatkdld gtd. 

Linter, -tria, m. or £ a Uide hoaL 
Lis. litis, £ ttrife. 
Mas, maris, m. a mourn* 
Nix, nYvis, £ enow, 
Nox, noctiB, £ the mgkL 
Os, ossis, n. a hont. 
Quins, -Ytis, a Raauau 
Samnis, -tis,iii. or £ a Sammte. 
Uier, utriB, m. a hattU. 

Thus Samnitium, lin^rium, Zttfvm, Ac, Also d^e oompoonds of tmda and as: 
as, se/fhrnxi seyen ounces, s^ptundum; heSt eight ounces, Aem'tcsi. 

BoSt an ox or cow, has boUm ; and in the dative, bdlnts, or bdbtts. 

Greek nouns bave ^nerally ion ,* as, MUeUo, a Macedonian; Arabs, an Ara-' 
bian ; .^ithiopat an Ethiopian ; mcnocitros, an unioom ; lynx, a beast so called ; 
TArav, a Tluracian; Macedtrnvtm, AriUnan, .^thiapym, monooerdtum, lyncum, 
ThrScttnu But those which have a or «is in the nominative singular, sgraetimes 
form the genitive plural n^ dfi ,* as, Epigramma, ^iginmmHtnm, or epigrsmmiU^ 
an epigram ; metaniorphons, -tum, or eAn. 

Obs. 1. Nouns, which want, the sipgular, form the genitive plural as if they were 
complete ; thus, mdnes, m. souls departed, manium ; ceUUea, m. inhabitants of he»> 
ven, etdttum ; because &ey would have had in the sing, mams or manes, and 
cotes. But names of feasts often^ vary their declension ; as, SatumSUa, the feasts 
of Saturn, Satumalium imd SaturnaUdruM. So, Bacchanalia, CtmpUaUa, Ter- 
minalia, Ac 

Obs. 2. Nouns which have tics» in the genitive plural, are, by die poets, often 
contracted into 6im; as, noomliMii for nocenthtm : and sometimes, to increase the 
number of syllables, a letter is inserted ; as, ccttitmum, for ee^um. The former of 
these is said to be done by the figure Syncope ; and the latter by Epentkisis. 


§ 47« Exc. 1. Greek nouns in a have commonly tis instead of 
tibius ; as, poema, a poem, poem&tis, rather than poemaohus, fh>m the 
old nominative poematum, of the second declension. 



Exo. 2. The poets sometimes form the dative plural of Greek nomis 
in 9t, or, when the next word begins with a vowel, in sin ; as, Trodsi 
at TVoMtn, fyt TroddUms, finom Troas, TYoAdis or Tro&dos, a l^ojan 

Exo. 3. Bo$, BXk ox, has bdbus or bubus ; Sus^ a swine, «ttv&t», 
subtis, or svbus, 


§ 4S« Exc. 1. Noans which have ium in the genitive plural, make 
their accusative plural in es, eis^ or is ; as, partes^ partiwn, ace. partes^ 
parteiSf or partis» 

Exc. 2. If the accusative singuhr end in a, the accusative plural 
also ends in ii# ; as, latnpas, lampddem, or lampdda ;. lampMes or lam-' 
pddas. So, TVot, 7Voa« ; heros^ heroas ; JEthiops, JEtkidpas, &c* 


Lampas, a lamp, £ lampddis^ or -£<2o«, -a<2t, -aJem, or -a<2a) -a«, -^tde. 

Plur. -acTe^, -ddumj -ddibus, -ades, or -a(2a«, -a<2et, -a<2{6i£t. 
TVoas, f. TVooiiM, or -dot, -di, -dem, or -do, -cw, -de, Plur. TVo^Ulet, 

-i2u9fi, ■'dibus or ^ or -«tn, -({«t, or -das, -des, -dibus, 
TVos, m. TVoM, TVot, IVoem or -«, TVo*, TVoc, &c. 
PhiUis, f. Phillldis or -<2o«, -<2f , -«lein or -c7a, -i or -is^ -de, 
Pdris, m. Pari<{t# or -dosf -<2i, -^ievt or Parim or «tii, «t, *^^« 
Chldmys, f. chlam'jdis or -$ilot, «^cli, -yclem or -$i^ •^, «$efo, &C. 
Cdpys, m. Cspj^ or -$o», -yt, -ym, or -yn, -y, -ye or -y. 
MitdmorphSsts, t'isos -dosj or -eo^, •«, -tm or «tfii -t, -t, &Cr 

§49f The following is an alpbafoetical Jist of 
most of the irregular Nouns, botn substantive and 
adjective, of tiie Third Declension. 

A* ' 



Amuflsis, ....... 



Aquafis, §....... 


Ab and amipounds 




Anceps,t •• 




Bilibris, « 

Ace. Sing. 



im, or em, 
im, ...... 

mior m« 


9 or i rare, 




i or e. 


eor 1. 

e or 1. 
e or i. 
e or i. 

1 ore, 



Gen. PL 
tiom, reiker turn. 



itam, (ia, nom,) 


rmxD OBCuovnoir op momm. 


Ace. Sing^. 



Can&lis, ... 
Cannabis, . . 
Carthago, II . 



Civis, ... 
Classis, . 
Clavis,§ . 
Cor, .... 


un, enif 


Cacumis, .. 

Capio, compoundf 

of, tn-ceps,, 
Caput, compound», 

v^HOBS, • * . ( 

Compar,t ...( 
Compos,* ... 
Concolor,* . . 
Color, eomp. of^ * . 
Corpus, eoffip. of, in 

-or, • . . . 
Consors, f. 
Concors, . . 
Decnssis, . 



I>egener,t ....•• 


Dives, * 


Familiaris,! . . . .^ . 


Febris, § 




Facio, comp. of, i^n 


Ganaape, {perhaps 


GU». I 

im, em^ 



i or 6. 
i or 6. 

e or L 

i or e. 

e or 1. 




e or i,. 


e, .... 

e or i,. 
ole, ... 
e, . . . . 
c, .... 



i or e rarely^ .... 

cor I, 

e or i, 

e, oomefimet i,. • 

ior e. 



Gen. PI 
















Genus, eomp, of, tn 




HoB^pea^adj,* .... 








ImpoB, * 

Impar, t 

Impubea, * 



Labea, '. . 


Lens, § 



Locuples, adj, '» . . 




Molaris, t 




Memor, adj.f (cilim 
Memoris,) .... 


Natalis, I 

Navis, § 


November, {and 


Occiput, § 



Os, oBsis, ....... 

Ovis, * 


Pelvis, § 

Par, m. iff, 

Par, n. 

Ace, Sing, 


im, in, 

tim, tern. 


im, em, 


em, un, 
im, em. 

All, Sing, 



e or 1. 
e or L 

e, .. 

ote, . .. 
e or i,. 
ere, . . < 
eor i, 

e or i. 


e or 1,. 

eor i. 

e or i. 
eor i. 

1 or e. 
i or e. 

1 ore, 
e or i. 

eor 1. 

i or e. 
e, . . . . 
1, . 





um, ium Beldom, 



lum. : 



um, ium oeUoM* 






* Semel apud Ciceronem murvm. 



• •* 

PaloB, ....... 







PartioepSft. .• 
Pauper, • . . . , 
Pes, camp, of* 


Pneceps, * 




Quiris, . . .^ . . . . . 












Septum, .... 
Serapis,]] . .. 
Seztang, .... 
SeztiUs, .... 
Sinapifl, .... 





Strigilis, . . . . . 
Supellez, § . . 
Senez, * .... 
Sospes,*... .< 
Superates, * . 






Ace. iSu^r. 


• ••••••• ••••••• 


infi- em» 
UB) em» 
em^ im» 



em, im seldom^ . . 

mi, m, 


e or I. 
e or i. 
ior e. 
i or e. 

eor i». 
e» ..., 
e or i». 



ior 6. 
i or e. 

eor L 

eor 1. 
eor L 
i or e. 
e^ .... 
eor i. 


i»e raro. 

i or e. 
eor u 
e or L 
ior e. 


ite» .... 
ite, . . . . . 
ici, or e, 

i, e, ide. 
i, e. 
i ore, 

Oen. PI 








itiom». itniii. 









Trioorpor, * . 
Triciupis, * . 





Vis, pi. vires, 

Un|rui8, .... 
Volacris, t . • . 




Vetus,* .... 


Volacris, t . . 

Ace, Sing, 

im, em, 

un, em, 


All, Sing^ 

1 or e. 
i or e» 

eor 1. 

e or I,, 
e or L 
i or e, 

e or 1, 




Oen, Plur. 











am, iam 


um, iom 


* Those thus marked, have e only in the ablative, and wn in the 
genitive plural. 

f Those having i, or 6 and t , in the ablative, and um in the genitive 
plural, are thus marked. 

X Such substantives have t, because they are formed from adjectives, 
having i only in the ablative. Though used as substantives, they are 
in reality adjectives, the substantive with which they agree being un* 

} Substantives, thus marked, take either termination indifferently : 
those not marked take, in genera], the first termination mentioned. 

II Carthago and such nouns have e or t when at a place is signified, 
that is, when the question is made by vJbi * where V The names of 
gods, rivers, &c., in is, take, in general, im or in in the accusative, 
t or sometimes e in the ablative. 


§ 50« Nouns of the fourth declension end in us^ 
and u. 

Nouns in us are masculine ; nouns in u are neu- 
ter, and indeclinable in the singular number. 

Singvlar, PhuraL 

Voc. J*"»»^"» Ace. ^01, or us. 

Gen. 68, Voc. 3 

Dat ui, Gen. uom, 

Aca um, !>*«• jlbu^ 






FmctxsBf fruity masc. 


N. fructiis, .fruity 

G. fract^ of fruity 

D. iructui, to fruity 

A. fractam, fruU^ 

V. iractus, O fruit, 

A. fructu, with fruit. 


Corau, a homy 


N. oornu, a horuj 

comu, of a horn. 


D. comu, to a horn, 


cornu, a horn, 

cornu, O horn, 

A. cornu, with a horn. 



fiructus, fruittf 

fructuum, qfjruit9f 

frnctlbug, toJruit$t 

fructus, fruits, 

iructus, O fruitM^ 

fructibus, ...... with fruits. 



cornua, horns, 

comuum, ofhoms^ 

comYbuB, to horns, 

cornua, horns, 

cornua, O horns, 

comYbus with horns. 

Exa 1. The following nouns am feminine : 

AcoBj a needle. 
Anus, an old toomaiu 
D5mii8,a house. 
Fieaa, afg. 

Idii8,-uam, the idee of a 

Manua, ike hand. 
FenoB, a ttore-house. 

PortTcas, agaBery. 
SpecnB^ a am. 
TT¥biiB,a tribe. 

Penue and epeau are aometinies masculine. F%ctUt penut, and domus, with WTa- 
lal othen, are also of the second declension. Ckmricomust m. the sign Capricorn, 
although from comu, n always of the second aecl. and so are the compoands of 
mamu ; umm&nttSi havinff one hand ; centtmUntte, Ac adj. Quercue, an oak, baa 
fuercorunit and -uKin, in the gen. pi. Venus has versi, veriorum, vertie, as well aa 
lis reguiJu cases. SenStue has also Sti, in the gen. ; so ornatue, 4: bat these fimna 
are not to be imitated. 

Domue is but partly of the second declension; thusr 

Ddmus, a house, fern. 


N. domns, a hoiue, 

G. domfls, or -mi, ... of a house, 
D. domui, or -mo, ... to a house, 

A. domnm, a house, 

V. domus, O house, 

A. domo, with a house. 


N. domus, houses, 

G. domorum, or -uum, of houses, 

D. domlbus, to houses, 

A. domoe, or -us, houses, 

V. domus, . .^ O houses, 

A. domlbus, with houses. 

Note. Domiis, in the genitive, signifies, of a house ; and domi, at 
home, or of home ; as, meminiHris domi. Terent. Eun. iv. 7. 45. 

£xc. 2. The following nouns have ubus, in the dative and ablative plnraL 

Specus, a den. 

Acus, a needle, 
ArcuB, a bow. 
Artua, a joint. 
Genu, (he knee. 

L&cus, a lake. 
Partus, a Hrth. 
Portus, a harbour. 


IMbus, a tribe. 

Vera, a «ptf. 

Partus, genuy and veru, have likewise Wus ; as, porCibus oxportvbus. 



£xc. 3. Jesus, the venerable, name of our Saviour, has um in the 
accusative, and i« in all the other cases. 

Nouns of thv dedension anciently belonged to the tUrd, and were de- 
clined like gruSt gruia, a crane ; thus, /ructut, /ruchdf, fntctuit fritctuem, /ructut^ 
JtuOue i fructwes, fructuum, frucHUbus, fructues, ytuetues, fntautbus. So that sill 
Ihe cases ate oontracted, «aeefyt the dative singular, and genitive fdund. Is «ome 
iwTtiefs, we BtUl ind the senitive singular in «is ; as. £ju$ anvM cautt, fi>r anfia. 
Terent Heaut ii. 3. 46. and in others, the dative in u ; bb, Reaiatire impHit, fiir 
impetui. Cic. Fam. x. 24 Esse usu st&t, for usui. Ih. ziii. 71. The gen. plur. is 
sometimes contracted ; as, currum, fir curruum. 


§ 51a Nouns of the fifth declension end in e^ and 
are of the feminine gender. 




4icc. em, 
AbL e. 




Nom. p 
Ace. Ses, 
Voc 5 
Gen. erum, 

^*- |ebiis. 


Res, a thing, fem. 

^. T«s, a things 

G. rei, of a thing, 

D. rei, to a thing, 

A. rem, athing, 

V. res, O thing, 

A. re, tDith a thing. 


N. res, things, 

G. renim, of things, 

D. rebus, , to things, 

A. res, things, 

V. res,. O things, 

A. rebus, with things. 

Adas, (he adge iff a thing, 

or an army in order of Macies, leanness. 

CKries, tvUenness, 
Cnriiries, the hair, 
Facies, ikefao^ 
Cl&cies, ice 

In like manner decline, 
Ingiuvies, gluUony, 

Materies, matter. 
PemYcies, destrucUon, 
PKlttvies, a looseness 
^bies, madness. 

Sanies, ^rw». 
Scabies, the aoab, or iich. 
Series, an order, or roM>. 
Species, an iwpearance, 
■SuperfYeies, the mttfaee. 
Tempenes, Ie3f^>sra£eiiess. 

1. Except dies, a da]^, masc. or fem. in the siqgolar, and always omso. in the plmal ; 
and mmdies, the mid-day, or noon, masc. 

2. The poets sometimes make the genitive, and more rarely the dative singular, in 
e; as, Jde, for fdei Ov. M. 3. 341. 

3. Gen. Die, Viig. G. 1 206. Sallust, Jug. 52, 106. Acie, Sallust Dat Die, Plant 
F&de, Gell. Ftde, Sailust, Jug. Hor. i.* Sat. & 96. We find such Gemtives also as, 
Acii, Pemlcii, Ftdl, &c A few have their Genitive from the Third, as, ItXquiee, 
ei, or tds, rest. PUhes, the common people, makes plebis, jplebii, or plebi; Fdmis, 
hunger, f&mis, or fUmei. 



i.The noons ofdiis dectenaion are few in nnmber, not eiceeding fiftr, and teem 
anciently to have been comprehended under the third declension. JMloat of Ifaem 
iivant the genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and many, the plunl altogether. 

5. All noons of the fifth declension end m iet, except three ; /ae«, fiiiih ; spet, hope ; 
re«, a tiling ; and aU noims in ten are of the fifth, except these fimr ; dAte», a fir- 
tree; &rie8, a twnnp&ries, a wall; andjuie*, rest; whicn are of the third declen- 

6. Of the fifty-eeven noons of this declension, only two, jRet, and Die*, are com- 
plete in the pluraL The following plurals occur: Nom. or Aoous., Acies, Fitcia, 
£iume9, Pr^htiea, SdUriesj SpicieSj S/iS«, SuperficieM^-Gea. Fdciirumt Spicierum, 
Spenan, Mstihrieum, Luxurieum. — Vht or Abl. SpibuSi Superfid&u». * Spidirum 
•t Spiciebug ndim dicere, ne si latiue quidem aid poiasit — Cicera 


















us, er, urn, 


d, er, um, 























M. N. 


em, — 

^ or U 


es, ft, ift, 

um, or ium, 

es, fi, is, 
es, ft, ift, 










us, uS, 

Ybus, or Hbus, 



us, aii, 
us, ati, 
Ybus, or tibusL 

















§ 52e Irregular nouns may be reduced to three 
classes, Variable^ Defective^ and Redundant. 


Nouns are variable either in gender, or declension, or in both. 

Heterogeneous Nouns. 

Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneous, and may be 
reduced-to the following classes : 

1. Masculine in the singular, and neuter in the plural*. 

Avemufli a lake in Canqtama, AeZZL MseniUus, a hiU in Arcadia. 

'Diadfm.QB, a hill in Pkrygut. Pangaeus, a promoiUary in T&roos. 

Ismaixis, a hiU in Tkrace. Tcnarus, a promontory in I/tecma. 

MassYcns, a hm in C€tmpani<i, famous for Tartarus, helL 

excdteni wine* Taj^getus, a hill in Laconia. 



Tbtm, AvenuhAvemorum ; Dindpma, -dnim, Ac Th«M are Clioaght by sonift 
to be properly a^ectives, haviDg mans undentood in the nngular, and ju^ oi 
oacum^buh or the uke, in the plural. 

2. 19o9c, in the nng, and in the plur, masc, and neuter, 

Jocus, a jest, pi. joci and joca ; Ideus, a place, pi. loci and hca. 
When we speak of passages, in a book, or topics in a disoouise, led 
only is used. 

3. Femimi%e in the singvlar, and neuter in the plurai. 

Carbdsue, a sail, pi. carb&sa ; Perg&must the citadel of Troy, pi. 

4. NeuLter in the singular, and masculine in the plural, 

Ccdum, ^l. cceHf heaven; Elysium, pi. Elysii, the Elysian fields; 
ArgoSf pi. Argif a city in Greece. 

5. Neuter in the Hng, in the plur. masc. or neuter. 
Raetrunif a rake, pi. rastri and rastra ; fnenum, a bridle, pL fr<eni 

6. Neuter in the singular , and feminine in the plural. 

JDellcium, a delight, pi. delicue ; eputum, a baaquet, pL ipHUe ; M- 
neum, a bath, pi. Mnem aad balnea. 


§ 53e Nouns which vary in declension are called heteroclites; as, 
vaSf vdsiSf a vessel, pi. vdsa, vasorum; jvM^rum, jugiri^nn acre, pi. 
jug^Uf jug&rum, jugeribus. which has likewise sometimes jugirie^ 
ana jugere, in the singular, from the obsolete jugus, or jvger. 

When a noun is compounded with another noun, if they be both m 
the nominative, they are both declined : as, 

Respublica, a commonwealth, fem. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. respubltca, 
G. reipublYcs, 
D. reipubltoiB, 
A. rempublYcam 
V. respublica, 
A. republtcft. 

N. respublYce, 
G. rerumpublic&runi, 
D. rebuspublYcis, 
A. respublYcas» 
V. respubttciB, 
A. rebnspoblYcisL 

JuBJurandum, an oath, neut 
Singular. Plural. 

N. juBJurandum, 
6. jurisjurandi, 
D. jurijurando, 
A. jusjurandutD, 
V. jusjuratodum, 
A. jurejuTtndo. 

N. jurajuranda, 

G. — : 


A. jurajuranda, 
V. jurajuranda. 
A. . 



1£ a BOfiiiBative be combined with an oblique eafle, then the oomina^ 
live only is declined ; as, 

Pater&miiias, a master of a family, maac; 

N. paterfiunilias, 
G. patris&miliaB, 
D. patrifiunilias, 
A. patrem&milias, 
V. paterfamilias, 
A. patre&milias. 

Some nouns are both of the second and third declension ; as, 




N. G. 
CEdtpus, \^ 

N. G. 
Achilleus, j ei, 




eum, } 
or eon, J 








V. Ab. 

eo; 2d Declen. 

eu, — ; 8d Declen. 


I o ; 2d Declen. 
I 6de ; 8d Declen. 

^ lem« 
( or len, 



eo ; 2d Declen. 

le ; 3d Declen. 

Jupiter^ vis ' strength,' and Bos ' an ox' or * cow,' are thne declined; 


N. JupYler, 
G. Jovis, 
D. Jovi, 
A. Jovem, 
V. Jupiter, 
A. Jove. 


N bos, 
G. bovis, 
D. bofri, 
A. bovera, 
V. bos, 
A. bove. 

N. vis, 
G. vis, 
D. — 
A. vim, 
V. vis, 
A. vi. 



N. vires, 
G. virium, 
D. virlbin, 
A. vires, 
V. vires, 
A. virYbus. 


N. boves, 

G. bonm, 

D. bobus, or bubus, 

A. boves, 

V. bovesi 

A. bobus, or bubus. 


§ ^4« Nouns are defective either in cases or in 

Nouns are defective in cases different ways. 



Some are altogether indeclinable, and are there- 
fore called Aptota, or Aptotes. Some are used only in 
one case, and are therefore called Monoptdta ; some 
in two, and are therefor^ called Diptota ; some in 
three, and are therefore called Triptota; some in 
four, and are called Tetraptota ; and some in five, 
and are therefore called Pentaptota. 

The following list contains most of the nouns that are defective in 
case: — 

AbactuB, ace pL; a drimng away. 
Accitiu abL ; a oaUing/or. 
Admiasu, oil. ; admisnon. 
AdmonUu, aU. ; admonitioiu 
iEs, not used in gen. pU 
Affata,a62.; an ocMreM»?^ ;—^ affatus, 

Algus, nam.; algum, ace; algu, or «o, 

abL; cdd. 
Amb&ge, ail. ; a unnding story ; -jd. am- 

bftges, -¥bua. 
AmiflBum, ace, ; a loss. 
Aplustre, nom. and ace ; the fag of a 

ship ;'-~pL apluBtria, or aplustra. 
Arbitrata, aid. ; judgment 
Arceasltu, (M. ; a sending for, 
Asiu, nom. ace. ; a city. 
Astua, nom.; aatu, abL; craft; — aatus 

Caooetnes, nom., ace. ; an evU custom ; — 

caooethe, nom. pi. ; •€, emd -es, ace. pL 
Cetoo, ace; a whale; — cete, nom. and 
Chaoi, nom.y ace. ; chaOi abL ; chaoe ; — 

but, signifying a deity, Chaon, ace. 
CircumspectuB, nom. ; -urn, ace ; a look- 
ing around. 
Coacta, abL ; conrirainf. 
Ccelite, abL; pi. entire; inhabiiarUs of 

Commutatum, ace ; an aUeralion. 
Compedis, gen. ; oompede, abL ; a f titer ; 

—pL oompedes, -Ibus. 
Concessu, am. ; permission. 
Condiacipulatu, abl ; companionddp at 

Cratim, or •em, ace ; -e, gbL ; a hurdle.; 

— pL crates, -ium, -Ybufi. 
Daps, nom., scarcely used; dajus, gen. 

ex.; a feast. 
Datu, abL , a giving. 
Derisui, daL; -am, ace; -lu abl.; ridi' 

Despicatui, daL ; contempt. 
Dica, nom. ; dicam, ace ; a legal process; 

— <Iica8 ace pi. 

Dicis, gen. ; as, dicia gratia, for form*s 

DitiOnis, gen.; -i, dot; -em, ace; -e>. 

ail. ; power. 
Diu, abt ; in the day Ume. 
Divisui, dot. ; a dividing. 
£bur, i»ory ;— not used in the gen., daL, 

and abl. pi. 
Efflagitatu, abL ; importunUy. 
£jectus, nom. ; a throwing out 
Epos, ace. ; an epic poem. 
Ergo, abL ; for the sake. 
Evectus, nom. ; a conveyance 
Fex, dregs, wants gen. pi. 
Far, com, not used in me gen., daL, and 

Fas, nom., ace. ; right. 
Fauoe, c^; the throat; — pi. fences, 

Fax, a torch, wants gen. pL 
FemYnis, gen. ; -i. dat. ; -e, abL; the thigh ; 

— pi. femlfna, -Ybus. 
Flictu, abL ; a striking. 
Foris, nom. snigen. ; -em, ace ; -e, abL ; 

a door ;—pl. tores, -Ybus. 
Fors, nom.; -tis, gen.; -tern, ace; -te, 

abl.; choMx. 
Frustratui, all. ; a deceiving. 
Fruz, fruit, nom., scarcely used ; — ^firugis, 

gen., &c 
Gausape, nom., ace, abl. ; a rough gar" 

ment ; — gausapa, ace fi. 
Glos, nom., voe ; a husband's sister. 
Grates, ace. p2. ;—gratYbus, a£/. ; thanks. 
Hiems, winter, not used in gen., dot., and 

Hippomanes, nom. 

Hir, nom. and ace ; the palm of the hand. 
Hortatu, abL ; an exhorting ;--pL hoiCatY- 

Impetis, gen. ; -e, abL ; a shock ;-^. im- 

Inconsultn, abL ; without advice 
IncYtaa, or -a, ace. pL; as,ad incYtaa re- 

dactUB, reduced to a strait 
Indnltu, oNL; indulgence. 



Inferie, ncm. pL,' -m, ace.; 9Qorifice$ io 
the dead. « 

Inficias, €ux, pi. ; a denial; as, ire infidafl, 
to deny. 

In^tiis, oU. pZ. ; against one^s will. 

bgiMBo, dta ; wUhout leave. 

loqoies, nom. ; disquiet. 

Instar, jumu, ace ; a likeness. 

Inteidiii, d^ ; in the day time 

IfiTit&tu, «6/. y* €tn invilatum. 

Jovis, noiR., rarely used ;— ^. Jo'ves. 

Irnsoi, dot ; -um, ace. ; -u, aU. ; dm- 

Ju^eris, gen.; -e, abl.; an acre;^-pL 
jugera, -am, 4biu. 

Joma^cdd.; command. 

Lftbes, a spat, wante 

Lucii, abl. ; light. 

Ludificatoi, d<U. ; a mockary. 

Lux, Ught, wants the gen. pL 

Maadktu,aH.; aconanana. 

Mane, nofu, ace. ; maoe, orAfOtL ; morn- 

Mel, honey, not used in gen., dot, and 

MeloB, ace; mdody ;'-mfSi.e, wau, ape 

Ifetee, fear, not med in gen^ dat^ and 

Miflsu, abL ; despatch j-rfil. wumaa^ -Xboo. 
Monitu, aU. ; cuimonition ;^-pU lotxAtxaL 
Natu, aiL ; by birth. 
Nauci, gen. ; as, res nanoi, a thit^ of no 

Nefas, mm., ace ; wickedness* 
Ncfmo, nobody, wants tbe voc. and iStnepL 
Nepenthes, nom. ; an herb. 
Nex, detiuh, wants the voc. ; — ^neces, nam., 

ace pi. 
Nihil, or nihYlom, nom.; 4, ^en.; -um, 

occ. ; -o, abl. ; nothing, 
Noctu, obL ; by night 
Nuptui, dot. ; -um, ace ; -u, abL ; mar- 

Obex, nom. ; -Teem, ace ; -¥ce, or -jTce» 

a&Z. ; a bolt ; — pi. obtces, -jiclbus. 
Objectum, ace ; -u, abl. ; an interposi- 
tion i-^-pi. objectus. 
Obtentui, doL ; -u, oM. ; a pretext 
Opis, gen. ; opem, ace ; ope, a52. ; kelp ; 

— pi. entire. 
OpposlTtu, abl.; an opposing ;-~~pl. opp(K 

Opas^ nom., ace; need. 
Qb, the mouth, wants the^efi.jpl. 
Panaees, nom. ; tm herb. 
Pax, peace, wants gen. pL 
Peccato, aU. ; tinmng. 

Pecudid, moil; 4, dai. ; 

abL ; — pi. entire. 
Pelade, nom., ace pL of peliigiis ; the 
Ptn&isBU, aU. ; permission. 
Piscatoa, nom.; -i, gen.; '4am ace; -a, 

abL ; a JMing, 
Pix, mteft, wants gen. pL 
Pcmao, abL ; in weight. 
, Pred, dat ; -em, ace ; -e, abL ; prayer ; 

^~pL entire. 
IVocerera, ace ; a peer ;— jil. entire. 
Proles, offspring, wants gen. pL 
Relattt, abL ; a rdation. 
Repetimd&rum, gen. pL ; -is, abL ; extor* 

Rc^atu, aJUL ; a request 
Rus, the caantty, wants gen^ dtiLt and 

Satias, nom.; -item, aee; -iimt abL; 

Secns, nam., ace ; sex. 
Situs, nom. ; -am, ace ; -u, abl. ; sitiuh 

Hon ; — BtUis, nam. aud ace pL^ -tboM, 

Situs, nom. ; -am, ace ; -q, aU. ; rusi ,"— 

situs, ace. pL 
Soboles, qffqning, wants gen. pL 
Sol, the sun, wants gen. pL 
Soidis, gen. ; -em, ace ; -e, abL ; fiA ;^^ 

pL scraes, 4ani, &c 
Spontis, gen, ; -e, abL ; of amis own ae- 

Suppetifle, nom. jA. ; -as, ate ; sttppUes, 
Taoum, nom. ; 4, gen, ; «o, dU. ; gore. 
Tempo, nom., ooc, aoa pL; a vofe m 

Thus, not used in die gem„ dat^ and abL 

Veprem, ace ; -e, abL; a brier f^-^ en- 
Verberis, gen. ; -e, abL ; a stripe ;—pL 

verbera, -am, -Thus. 
Vesper, nom. ; -eor •i,.abl. ; ihe evening. 
Vespera, nam. ; -am, ace ; -erk, abL ; the 

Vesperus, nom. ; -o, dat ; -nm, ace ; -Ob 

abl. ; the evening. 
Vicis, gen. ; 4, dat ; -em, ace. ; -e, abl. ; 

change ;--pl. entire, except gen. 
Virus, nom^ ; 4, gen. ; -us, ace ; -o, abL ; 

Vis, nom. ; vis, gen. ; vim, ace ; yi, abL ; 

strengA ;—pl. vires, 4um, &c. 
Viscus, nom. ; -eris, gen. ; -^re, abL ; an 

internal organ, 
Voo&tu, abL; a oaUing t^ywA^Oas, aoe. 

Voliipe, or volup*, nom., ace ; pHeasure, 

To these may be added nouns of the fifth declension, which eidiar want the 
plural, aa most of them are abstract nouns, or have in that number only the nomi- 
native, accusative, and vocative. Res and dies, however, have the plund enlira. 



For the me of the vocative, also, of many wordt, no claflncal aathority can be 
found. * 


§ 55e Proper names of persons strictly want the 

§ 56e Proper names of places are used in the 
singular or plural only ; as, 

Italia^ * Italy;' Athenae^ 'Athens.' 

§ 57e Most names of Virtues, Vices, Herbs, 
Metals, Minerals, Liquids, Corn, most Abstract 
Nouns, &c., want the plural ; as, 

JusHtia^ 'justice;' Inertia, 'sloth;' .^num, 'parsley;' Argentum, 
' silver ;' Aurumf ' gold ;' Lac, ' milk ;' Triticum, ' wheat ;' Hordeutn, 
' barley ;' Avena, ' oats ;' Juventiis, ' youth ;' Pueritia, ' childhood ;' &c» 

§ 58e Masculines wanting the Plural. 

Aer, aeris, the air. 

^ther, -eris, the «Ay. 

CestuB, •!, the girdle of Venus. 

Flfmiis, -i, dung. 

Hesperus, 4. me evening star. 

LimuB, -i, sHme. 

Meridies, -iei, mid-dav. 

MunduB, •!, a wonums ornaments. 

MuBCUB, -i, moss. 

Nemo •Inis, c. g. nobody. 

P£nu8, -i, or fis, d. g. idl manner of prooi* 

PontoB, -i, the sea. 
Pulvis, -erii^ dust. 
Sabulo, -onis, gravd. 
Sanguis, -!niB,Mooi2. 
S5por, -Oris, </e«9. 
VetemuB, -i, letnargy. 
Viscus, -itbird^me. ' 

59e Feminines wanting the Plural. 

Argilla, •mtpoOet's wrQu 

Fama, -«e, fame. 

Humus, -i, the ground. 

Lues, -is, a plapie. 

PlebB, plebis, the common people. 

Pubes, -is, the youth. 

Quies, -etjs, rtist. 

SUuB, -ttds, safety. 

SlftiB,--iB, thirst 

Supellex, -ctnis, hous^etd furniture. 

Tftbes, -is, a consumption. 

Tellus, -uris, the earth. 

Vespera, -s, the esening. 

§ 60e Neuters wanting the Plural. 

Album, -i^ an album. 

Balaustium, -i, the fomer of a pomei- 

granate tree. 
Barathrum, -i, a gulf. 
Cflenum, 4, mud. 
Cr&cum, -i, saffron. 
Diluculum, -i, the dawn» 
Ebur, -6ris, toory. 
Fel, •felliB, galL 
Gelu. 'inv. frosL ' 
Glastom, -i, uioad. 

( Gluten, -Ynis, or 
) GIutKnum, -xi^ue. 

Gypsum, -i, imtfepfatfer. 

Hepor, -atis, ike liver. 

HTlum, -i, <Ae black speck of a bean, 

Jubar, -aris, a sun^team. 

JuBtitium, -i, a law vactUion. 

Lardum, A, bacon. 

Letum, -i, death. 

Lutum, -i, day. 

Macellum, -i, die AamUes. 

DBrsoTivs Noinrs. 


MSne» Ae morning. 

Nectar, ana, nectar. 

Nihil, nil, nlhniim, i, noMng. 

NYtrum, i, nitre. 

Oniamim, i,fat tripe» 

Opium, i, opium. 

PelaguB, i, the ten, 
k Pennm, i, or 
\ PenuB, 5ns, prcwiwmt. 

PYper, eris, pepper. 

Pi^lubium, i, a denre, 

l^bolom, i, aamd. 

SU, ■!]]■, (iieiit)Mtt. 
S&lom, i, me tea. 
Seniam, i, old age. 
SUTnApi, in», muttard. 
Tabum, i, gore. 
Ver, ^eria, epring. 
Vetemum, i, lethargy. 
VimB, it poimm. 
Viscum, 1, hirdUme, 
Vitram, i, wood. 
ZiogYber, eiis, ginger. 

§ 61a Names of Gaines, Feasts, Books, &c^ 
wanting the Singular. 

ApollinSres, ium, games in honour of 

Bacchanalia, ium, or urmn, 14« fetal* of 

BttcoUca, Gram» or dn, a book of pasto- 

Chajrisda, Oram, looef easts. 

Dionyaia, the feast of Bacchus, 

Georglca, Oram, or on, a work on hus- 

HienMofyma, Orum, Jerusalem, 

iifctine^ feasts qf Jupiter J/UiaUs. 

Olympia, ike Ohm^ne g 
la, rites of Bacchus. 

railia, a feast in honour qf Poles. 
FarentiUia, solemnities at the funeral of 

a parenL 
Pythia, games in honour of ApoDo» 
Quinqu&traa, nam, and 
Quinqn&tria, Oram, A ium, feasts m Ao- 

noiir of Minerva. 
Suovetaunlia, ium, a sacrifoe qf a swine, 

Syracuse, &ram, Syraeuse. 

h 62a Masculines wanting the Singular. 

Antes, -ium, fore-rank, 

Cancelli, lattices or windows» made unth 
cross-bar St Uke a net; a raU or baius- 
trade round any place ,* bounds or 

Cani, gray hairs, 

Casses, -ium, a hurUer*s net 

Celeree, -um, the light-horse, 

COdlcilli, writings, 

DruYdea, -um, w Druids, priests qf the 
andent Britons and Qauls, 

Faacea, -ium, a bundle qf rods carri- 
ed bqfore the dnef magistrates of 

Faati, -Oram, or fastua, -uum, calendarSf 
in whiiA were marked fesHud days, the 
names of magistrates, &c. 

Fmea, -ium, the borders of a county, or a 

F6n, the gangways of a sh^f seats 

in the circus; or the ceOs qf a tee* 

Furfures, -um, scales in the head, 
ln0ri, the gods below, 
LaurYces, youa^' rtMits, 
Lemures, -urn, M&roWnt, or spirits in tho 

Liberi, children, 
Loceres, -urn, a third pari qf ih» early 

M^jOres, -um, ancestors. 
Manes, -ium, spints qf the dead, 
MliiOres, -um, mocesfora. 
N&ULlea, -ium, parentage, 
Pandecte, pandects, 
Posteri, pakerity, 
Proceres, -um^tAe nMes, 
Piigill&res, -ium, writingAahles, 
Sentes, -im, Aorns, 
Superi, -um, & -Orum, the gods above. 

§ 63a Feminines wanting the singular. 

Alpea, -ium, the Alps, 
Ampitis, d^cultus, 
Antite, a forelock. 
ApKiue, gewgaws, 
Afgatis, quirks, witticisms. 

BTgB, a chariot drawn by 

two horses. 
TVIge, — by three, 
Quadiigs, — by four. 
Braccc, breeches. 

Branchis, -the gUls qf a 

CnarYtea, -um, the threa 

Cutell», panniers. 


]>X1*X0TITS irOUNf* 

ConaB, a cradle. 
Declmm, tUhea. 
Diro, in^ffreotttUms, the fw 

DTvYtiiB, riches, 
Dryadefl, -um, the nfmph» 

of the woods. 
Ezcubis, toatohes. 
Exse^uisB, funtrgls. 
Exiivue, spoils. 
Facetiae, pleasant sayit^gs. 
Facalt&tes, -um, & -iuxn, 

one^s goods and chattels. 
Fenae, ndydays. 
Freces, -kim, the lees of csL 
Gides, Axusk, Cadiz. 
Grates, thankM. 
Hy&dea, -um, the seven 

Induciae, a truce. 
IndiiTiae, clothes to put on. 
Ineptia, siUyi stories. 

Infetiae, sacrifices to the In- 

InsXdiae, snares. 

KaleodaB, Nunae, Idus, 
-uum, names loAtcA the 
Remans gave to certain 
day» in each monfft. 

Lapfcidlaae, stone quar- 

LiteraB, on epistU, 

Lactee, 4uiii, smaU en- 

M&nuhis, tpoUs taken in 

MYnae, {kreatSk 

MYnatiae, Utile niceties, 

Nage, trifles. 

Nundtnse, a market 

NuptiaB, a marriage. 

(mciast treats. 

OpSne, workmenm 

ParietYnae, oU uMtUs. 

Pftrtes, -iiim, a party. 

Ph&lSnB, tngipaigs. 

Plage, iicf«: 

Pleladea, -am, the seven 

Pnesti^, «ncftofifmoits. 
I^imYti», first fruits. 
QuisquYlMB, sweqnnas. 
ReliquisB, a remainder. 
Saleof», rugged pkiees. 
SaliniB, «2^nlK 
Scahe, a loader. 
SdBjSbnSf a spring. 
ScopoB, a besom^ a broom. 
Tenebrs, darkness. 
Therm», hot baths, 
ThermOpjHae, stroke ef 

mount (Eta. 
Trie», toifs, 
Valv», /nding doors. 
VersYli», the seven stars. 
VindYd», a daim <f l^ 

erlyt a defence^ 

§ 64« Neuters wanting the Singular. 

Atta, pMic odStGi records. 

Adversaria, a mjemarandum book. 

.^BtWa, sc. castra, summer q^aarUrs. 

Arma, arms. 

Bellaiia, -Srum, swedmeaU. 

Bona, goods. 

Brevia, -ium, skdves. 

Castia, a camp. 

Charistia, -Crum, a peace fssOL 

CYb&ria, victuals. 

CSraYtiB, an assemUy of ike peopie to 

make lawSt elect magistrates^ or hold 

Crapondia, ehiidren*s bauHee. 
Conabula, a cradUt an origin. 
Dicteria, scoffs^ wOticissM. 
Exta, the entrails. 

Febroa, -5nim, purifying saer^eeSk 
Flabra, Uasts of wind. 
Foria, muck. 
Fj^ga, strawberries. 
HySoraa, sc. castra, wbOer quarters. 
nia, -ium, the entraSs, 
Incnn&bula, a cradle. 
ioBeotOt insects. 
Justa, funertd rites. 
lAmeota, lamentations. 
Lautia, provisions for the entertainmem 

f^ foreign amhauadors. 
Lusfira, dens qfwild beasts. 
Mftgilia* -iom, cotfo^gai. 

Mmnia, -ion» A -iuram, the weUs ef a 

Multicia, garmemis finekf wrought^ 
Mania, -ioram, qfices. 
OtfpsL, the sacrearites of Bacchus. 
OviUa, -ium, on indosure where the peopie 

went to give their votes. 
FSleftria, -inm, Ae dewlap cf a beast. 
FSiaphema, off Mngs the wife brings her 

hudfond accept her dowry. 
P&rent&lia, -ium, sdemnitiesat the funeral 

of parents, 
FhdUn, love potions. 
PraSbia, an amulcL 
Prscordia, thebowds, 
PrincYpia, the place in the camp where the 

generats tent stood. 
Pythia, gamee tn honour efApdlo. 
Rostra, a place in Rome made of^beaka 

of ahipSt from which orators used to 

make orations to the people, 
Scruta, old clothes. ' 
Spons&lia, -ium, espousals. 
Stati va, sc castra, a standing camp, 
So5vetaunIia, -ium, a sacrifie of a saome, 

a sftMp, and an ox. 
Tiliria, -ium, winged shoes. 
Tesqua, rough piaces, 
TxeoattOf Iks seats where the rmaets siiim 

UteosYlia, 4am, utensiSU. 



§ 65« The following Plurals are sometimes found 
in the Singular. 

AnnSles, iafn, anndU. 
Ante, door-pasis. 
Aigatie, wUticuau. 
Artus, uum, the joints. 
BigaB, a chariot drawn by 

two horses. 
Caases, iiun, a hunier*s net 
CoelYtes, um, and uum, the 

CycIadeiE^ um, the Cyda- 

dian i^nds. 
Declms, tithes. 
Dine, the Furies. 
DrfMea, um, the Dryads. 
Epuls, a banquet. 
EnmenMes, um, the Fur 

Facetie, jXeasant sayings. 
FidSs, ium, a stringed in- 

Frftga, 5ram, strawberries. 
Gemim, twins. 

Gens, the cheeks. 
Habens, reins. 
Hyades, um, the Hyades. 
Ine^tie, silly wiL 
Latebne, lurking* places, 
liberi, children. 
Majores, um, ancestors. 
MSnes, ium, the shades. 
Map&lia, huts. 
Mlfnutis, liule niceties. 
Naiades, um, fountain 

Nares, ium, the nostrils. 
Nates, ium, the buttocks. 
Obli via, forgetfulness. 
OffiiciaB, cheats. 
Optlmates, um, TuUes. 
Palearia, ium, the dewUgt 

fJchb. pastures. 
Pen&tes, ium, househeUd 


FlialenB, trappings. 
PlSri^ue, many. 
Prooeraa, um, nMes. 
Pii^Il&ria, ium, or 
Pugill&res, ium, a noie-book. 
Quadif ge, a chariot drawn 

by four horses, 
Qufntea, um, and ium, dii- 

RelKqui», a remainder. 
^Uebne, rugged ptaoes. 
Sc&le, a looaer. 
Seotes, ium, thorns. 
Singuli, one by one. 
Spmia, spoils. 
Superi, the gods above* 
Tnnatn, seats for the row- 

ers in a ship. 
Utenania, ium, utensHs. 
Vepr§s, um, braaMes. 

§66» The following Singulars are sometimes 
found in the Plural. 

Acomtum, wolf^s-bane. 
Aer, eris, the air. 
JEb^ aeris, brasSt inoney. 
^vum, an age. 
Allium, garUc 
Amicitia, /nenJs&^* 
Avena, oats. 
Balsiunum, bdlsagn. 
Calor, oris, heoL 
Caro, camiB,^«&. 
Cera, uxuc. 
CYcuta, hemlock. 
Contagium, a contagion. 
Crocus, saffiron. 
Cruor, una, blood. 
Ciitia, the ddn. 
Ebur, oris, ivory. 
Electrum. amber. 
F&r, fiuris, com. 
Fervor, oris, heai. 

Furor, oris, madness. 
Fiimus, «miofce: 
Gloria, glory. 
Hordeum, oaxley. 
Ira, ai^er. 

Jiia, Jans, jv«fioe, hx». 

I^anguor, 5ri8,/atnlfieM. 
Latex, Ycis, limurt waier. 
lignum, loooa, a log. 
Llfquor, Oris. Umwr. 
Lux, luoia, lighL 
Marmor, Sria, marlAie. 
Mel, mellia, honey. 
Mors, mortis, dewh. 
MmidYtia, nearness. 
Neqnitia, toicAiedfneM. 
Nex; necis, crud deaiUi. 
Oblivio, Qxm, forgetfulness. 
Pslea, chaff. 

Fix, pYci8,^wdk. 
PulviB, ens, duML 
Purpiira, jiutTife. 
Quies, gtis, rest. 
Hus, rCris, dew. 
Rubor, Oris, rednea. 
Sal, s&lis, {masc) saU. 
Sol, solis, the sun, a day. 
Sopor, Oris, sleep. 
Sulphur, uris, sulphur. 
Tepor, Oris, heat 
I'error, Oris, terror. 
Thymum, thyme. 
Tin>ulu8, a thistle 
TristYtia, sadness. 
Verbena, vervain» 
VYgor, Oris, strength. 
Vmum, lotNe. 

§67a The following differ somewhat in mean- 
ing with respect to the number in which they are 




iEdeii is, a temple* 
MAcB, ium, a houee. 
Auxilium, aid. 
AuxHia, auxiliary itvape. 
Bonum, a good thing. 
Bona, property. 
Career, a priwn. 
Carceres, a goal 
Ca8truin,a caaUe, 
Castr^ a coMp, 
ComYtium, a part tjf the 

Comitia, an auefoMy for 

CSpedia, ae, delicacy, 
CupediaB, Irani, and 
Cupedia, Gram, dainties, 
Cupia, pletUy 
FaccUtas, ability. 


Facultates, wealih. 
Fala, a trick. 
Fale, tcaffclding. 
Faatus, UB, pride, 
Fastus, uum, and 
Fasti, drum, a calendar. 
Finis, an end. 
Fines, boundariee, 
Fortuna, Fortune, 
Fortun», li/tck, wealth, 
Furfar, bran. 
Furfures, dandruff, 
lilera, a letter of the aU 

Ldterae, an epistle. 
Lustrum, a space of fxe 

Lustra, dens qfvM beasts. 
MSBf custom. 
Mores, manners. 

Opis, gen. hdp. 
Opes, am, power t wealtlL 
Opera, labour. 
OjperBdt workmen. 
Pl&ga, a cUmaie. 
Plagae, nets, toils. 
PrincKpiura, a beginntftg, 
PrincYiua, the general's sitU' 

ation in a camp. 
Rostrum, a beak. 
Rostra, the devoted place at 

Rome from which orators 

Rus, the country. 
Sal, saU, 
Sales, iDtttietfin*. 
TSrus, a bed, a tuft, a cord, 
T5ri, brawny musdes. 

§68« Plurals sometimes used for the Sin- 

AnYmi, courage, 
Aure, the air. 
C&nna. a AeeL 
Cervices, the neck. 
CoUa, the neck. 
Comae, the hair. 
Connubia, marriage» 
Corda, the heart 
Corpora, a body. 
Currus, a chanoL 
ExUia, baniAmsnt 
Frig5ra, eoUL 
Gaudia, joy. 
GiMoSim, grass. 

Guttiira, the throat 
Hjrmenaei, marriage. 
Jcjiinia, /a^>jr, 
Ignes, love. 
Inffutna, the groin. 
Jubee, a mane. 
Limina, a threshold, 
Littora, a shore. 
Mensse, a service (NT course 

of dishes. 
Naeniae, a funeral tUrge, 
NumYna, the divinity, 
Ora, the mouth, the'cotmie' 

nan ce. 
Oic, confines. 

Ortus, a rising, the east 
Otia, ease, leisure, 
PectiSra, the breast 
Rictus, the jaws, 
RObora, oak, strength. 
I^entiaf silence, 
Stnus, the breast of a Rth 

man garment 
Teds, a torch. 
Tem^ra, time. 
Thalami, marriage, or mor- 

T^ri, a bed, a couch» 
Viae, a journey. 
Vultus, the countenance. 
ThuiBL, frankincense. 



Noans are redundant in different ways: 1. In termination only ; as, 
arboSf and arbor, a tree. 2. In declension only. ; as, laurusy genit lattH 
and iauHlLa, a laurel tree ; sequeHeri -trt, tor -tm, a mediator. 8. Only 
in gender ; as, hie or hoc vulgus, the rabble, 4. Both in termination 
and declension ; as, m&tiria, -<p or matereiSf -««i, matter ; plebs, -ig, the 
common people, or plebes, 'is, -It, or contracted, plebt, 5. In terming* 
tion and gender ; as tdnitrus, -^, masc. tonitrUf neut thunder. 6. In 
declension and gender; as, penus, -t, and -^, m. or £ or penus^ 'Qris^ 
neat aU kind of provisiaos. 7. In termination, gender and declension ; 
a«^ <BiheT^ -^rts, masc. and (Bihrot -^« fern, the sky. 8. Several noune 
in the same declension are difibrently varied ; as, tigris, -is or -|<2is, a 
tiger ; to which may be added noons which have the same signifieatioii 



in different numbers ; as, Fidena, -« ; or FideMSf 'drunit the name of 
a city. 

The most numerous class of redundant nouns consists of those which 
express the same meaning by different terminations ; afi, mendoy -<b ; 
and mendum^ -i, a fault; cobsU^ -idis ; and cassidOf -<s, a helmet. 

The following list contains most of the Redundant Nouns of the 
above mentioned classes. 

Abosio, and -us, -its, an abute. 
Acinus, and -um, a grape-Uone. 
Adagium, aiui -io, a /iroeerft. 
Admonitio, and -us, -us^ an advUing. 
^ihra, OTui i£ther, the dear sky. 
Afiecdo, and -us, 'US, qfecHon. 
Aeamemno. and -on, Ag<imemnoni 
Auibaster, -tri, and -tram, an edaiatter 

Alclnus, and^mskt a grape-stone» 
Alimonia, and -um, aliment- 
Alluvio, €oui -es, afiood. 
Alveaiium, and -are, a beehive. 
Amaracus, and -um, sweet marjoram. 
Anclle, and •ium, an oval sldud. 
Anfractum, and -us, -»«, a winding» 
Angiportom, and -os, -ib, anarrow way* 
Antiaotas, and -um, €m antidUe. 
Aplosire, and -um, the Hag, colours. 
Aranea, and -««, a spider. 
Arar, m»d -aris, the river Arar 
Arbor, and -os, a tree. 
Architectos, imd -on, an archiiect. 
AUBgena, and -gen, a woodcock. 
Avaritia, and -ies, avarice. 
Augmentum, am{ -men, increase. 
Baccar, and -aris, a kind of herb. 
Baculus, ajid -um, a staf. 
Batteiis, and -um,,a bdl. 
Barbaria, and -ies, barbarism. 
BarbUos, and -on, a harp. 
Batillus, and -um-, afire diovd. 
Blanditia, and -ies, flattery: 
Baccltna, and -urn, a trumpet. 
Bura, and -is, a piough4mL 
Baxus, and -um, ^boa>4r«e. 
Cahmuster, 4rt, and -trum, a cri^r^-pin. 
Callus, and -um, hardness of the skm. 
Cancer, -iiri, or -ihris, a crab. 
Canitia, and -ies, hoariness. 
Capus, and Capo,'a capon. . 
Cassfda, and Cfassis, a helmet. 
Catinus, and -am, ajiaUer. 
Cepa, and -e, an onion. 
Chiroffraphus, and -um, a hand-uniting. 
Cingula, -us, and -um, a girdle. 
Clypeus, and -um, a dd^d. 
Cdchlearium, -ar, and -are, a spoon. 
Colluvio, and -ies, fJUh. 
Commentaries, ana -am, ajoumaL 
ComfAges, and -o, a joining. 
Conatum, and -us, -us, an aUempL 

CoocinnYtas, and -tjido, neatness. 
Conger emd -grua, a large ed. 
Consortium, and -io, partnership. 
Contagium, -io, and -es, centacL, 
Ccxnus, -i, or ^, a comd4ree. 
Costus, arid -am, a kind ef shrub. 
Crocus, and -am, saffron. 
Ciystallus, aiui -am, crvsiaL 
CubYtos, and -um, a cmiL 
CupidTtas, and -pido, desire. 
CupresBos, -t, or •««, a cM»rvt»4fer. 
Culeus, and -am, a leathern bag. 
Cytisus, and -om, the shrub tr^oiL 
Delicia, and -um, a ddighU 
Delphlnus, and Delphin, a ddpkin, 
Desidia, and -es «MA. 
Dictamnus, and -um, diUany, 
piluviam, and -ies, a ddug». 
Domus, -t, at -its, a house. 
Donas, and -am, the bade 
Duritia, and 4es, hardness. 
Ebenus, and -um, dwny. 
Efiigia, and 4es, on image. 
Elegeia, and -us, an degy. 
Elephantos, and -phas, an ei ep ka n t 
Esseda, and -um, a charioL 
Evander, -dri^ and •dros, Evander. 
Eventum, and -as, -^is, an evenL 
Exemplar, and -ftre, a copy. 
Ficus, -t, or -us, a Jig-tree. 
Fimas, and -am, dung. 
Fretum, and -us, -^ a strait 
Fulgetro, and -um, lightning. 
Galerns, and -um, a hut. 
Ganea, and -um, a sublerraneoits room. 
Gibba, -os, and er, -ihi, a ftunesft. 
Glomus, <, or -iris, a ball of thread. 
Glatifnum, and -ten, glue. 
Gobius, and -io, a gudgeon. 
Gruis, and Grus, a crane. 
Hebdoniada, and -mas, a week. 
Helleborus, and -um, hdld>ore. 
Honor, and -os, honour. 
Hyssupus, and -am, hyssop. 
Ilios, and -on, Troy. 
Jncestam, and -us, -««, tnoesf. 
IntiibttS, amf -am, endive. 
Jugulos, and -um, the throat 
Juventa, -us, and -as, youth. 
labor, €ind -os, UAour. 
Lacerta, an2f -us, a Uzard. 
Lauras, *t, or -itf, a hxurd. 



Lepor, and •os, voiL 
liDraria, and -um, a hook-cote* 
ligur, and -as, -vru, a lagurian, 
Luplnus, atut -um, a lupine, 
Luzuria, and -iop, luxury. 
Maeaoder, -dri, and -drus, Maoander. 
Materia, and -ies, materials. 
McdimnuB, and •um, a nuantre. 
Menda, and -um, afauU. 
M iUiaiium, aitd -are, a mi2e. 
Modiua, a»c{ -um, a metuure. 
Mollitia, and -ies, mifineu. 
Momentum, and -men, motum. 
Monitam, aiu2 -us, an admoniiion, 
Mugil, ani -His, a mullet. 
Mulcifber, -2fn, or -hris, Vulcan, 
Mulctra, and -urn, a mHk-paU. 
Munditia, and -ies, neatness. 
Muria, and •ies, brine or mdde. 
Myrtus, -t, or •&«, a myrtle. 
Naidus, and -um, spikenard. 
Nasus, and -urn, the nose. 
Neoesslftas, and -ado, necessity. 
Nequitia, and -ies, wickedness, 
Notitia, and -ies, AnotoZer^e. 
Oblivium, and -iot for^etfulness, 
Obsidium, and -io, a siege. 
(EdTpus, -t, or od m, CEdn/ncs. 
Orpheus, -«t, or -eos, Orpheus. 
Palatus, aiu2 -um, the palate, 
PalumlML, -es, and -u<, •&«, a pigeon. 
Papyrus, am? -um, papyrus, 
FaupertOB, and -ies, poverty. 
Pavus, and «o, a peacock. 
Penus,' -ori«, or -t», and Penum, pro- 
Peplus, and -wa, a veil 
PerKus, -€1, or -eos, Perseus. 
Pileiis, and -um, a hat 
Pinus, -t, or -us, a pine4ree. 
Pistrlna, and -um, a bake-house. 
Planitia, and -ies, a plain, 
Plato, €md -on, Plato. 
Plebs, and Plebes, -ei, <^ ooiniROft|Mqpfe. 
Postulatum, and -io, 4 request 
Praesepes, «is, onti -e, a stable. 
Pnetextum, and -us, ^, a prtlext, 
Prosapia, and «ies, lineage. 
Rapa, ami -um, a turnip. 

Reqnies, -.itis, or -H, reif. 
Rete, and -is, a net 
Reticulus, am? -um, a small net 
Rictum, and -us, -m, (he mouth. 
RuBcus, and -um, butdier's broom, 
Seevitia, and -ies, crueUy. 
Sagus, ane? -um, a soldter*s doak. 
Sanguis, and -snaen, Uood, 
Satrapcs, and Setiaps, a satrap. 
Scabntui, tmd -ies, roughness, 
Soobis, and Scobs, sawiusL 
Scorpius, and -io, a scorpion. 
Scroois, and Scrobs, a aitch, 
Segmentum, and -men, a piece, 
Segnitia, and -ies, sloth. 
Senecta. and -us, old tige. 
Sensum, and -us, -£«, sense. 
Seps and sepes, a hedge. 
Semester, -trt, or -frts, an umptre. 
Sesama, and -um, sesame. 
SibHus, and -um, a hissing. 
Sin&itt, and -is, mustard. 
Sinus, and -um, a milk-paiL 
SperuB, and -um, a spear. 
Spurcitia, and -ies, fiUhiness. 
Squaiitiido, and Squalor, fiUhiness» 
Stramentum, and -men, straw. 
Suflimentum, and -men, a perfume, 
Suggestus, and mm, a pulpit, 
Supp&ruB, and -um, a veU. 
Supplicium, and -icatio, a siqipUoaiion, 
Taous, and -um, gore. 
TapSlum, -ete, and -es, tapestry. 
Tenerltas, and -tudo, sqfmess. " 
Tiara, and -as, a turban. 
IHgnus, antf -um, a /i&inX^ 
Tigris, -i>, or -Vdi's, aHger. 
Titftnus, ancf Titan, T^on. 
Tonitruum, and -trus, thunder. 
Torale, and -al, a bed covertTig. 
Trabes, and TVabs, a beam^ 
Tribiila, and -um, a thre^ng machine. 
Vespers, -perus, and -per, the evening. 
Vetemu^, and -um, a lethargy. 
Vinaceus, and -um, a rrape-stone, 
Viscus, and -um, bird4ime, 
VulguB, masc and neut, the common 

To these may be added some* other verbals in us and to, and Greek nouns in o 
and on ; sM,Dio and Dion ; also some Greek nouns in es and e, which have Latin 
forms in a ; as, Atndes and Atrida, 

Some proper names oi places also are redundant in number ; as, Argos and 
Argi ; Cuma and Ctana ; Fidena and Fidaue ; Thehe and TheUe. 

The different forms of most words in the above list are not equally common, and 
some are rarely used, or only in particular cases. 

Note, The nouns which are called variable and defective, seem originally to 
have been redundant; thus, vdsOt -drum, properly comes from txuum, and not from 
vas ; but custom, which gives laws to all languages, has dropt the singular and 
retained the plural ,* and so of others. 

DIVISION OF notvn* 65 



§ 70. The name of a particular person or thing 
individually is called a proper name; as, 

AH christian and surnames of men, as, Patdus, Cicero^ Charles, 
Frederic, &c. ; the names of cities, mountains, and rivers; as, London, 
Andes, Missouri But a name which belongfs to several Uiings of one 
kind is called a common name; as, homo, *a, man;* rex^ *a king;* 
fiuvirts, * a river/ 

The Roman names of men generally consisted of three parts, as, 
Marcus, TulUus, Cicero : 1. Marcus, the pr<Bnomen, which answered 
to the Eoglish christian name. 2. Tullius, the nomen, distinguishing 
the gens, which included many families. 3. Cicero, the cognomen^ 
which denoted the familia. Sometimes the family was sabdivided, 
and distinguished by a fourth name called the agnomen ; tiius, Publias 
Cornelius Scipio Africdniu, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Anaticus, If 
Cicero had had only one daughter, she would have been called TuHia ; 
if two, Tullia major and minor ; if, more, TuUia prima, secunda, Slc. 
If a person was adopted by another, he took his name with an agnomen, 
ftyrmed ftom his original nomen ; thus Octavius, when adopted by Caius 
Julius Csesar, took Uie name of Caius Julius Ciesar Octavidnus. Freed- 
men took the pranomen and nomen of their masters, with a new cog' 
nomen. Sometimes the order of the names was dianged ; and under 
tlw Emperors the pnenomen was put last ; thusy L. Anneus Seneca and 
L. Annieus Mela were two brothers. 

h 71« A substantive which signifies many in the 
singular number, is called a collective noun; as, 
populus^ a people, exercUus^ an army. 

§ 73# A substantive derived from another sub- 
stantive proper, signifying one's extraction, is call- 
ed a patronymic noun ; as, 

Priifmldes^ Ifae ton of Priamm; ^Uian, the dau^ter of JSetea; Nerine, the 
dau^ier of Nereos. Patroi^mics are generally denved from the name of the 
fiither ; but the poets, bjr whom they are chiefly used, derive them aleo from the 
grandfather, or from some other remarkable person of the family; sometimes like- 
wise from the founder of a nation or people ; as, JEHdldet, the son, grandson, great- 
grandson, or one of the posterity of i£acu8 ; Romuttda, the Romans, from their 
first king Romulus. 

Patronymic names of men end in des ; of wo- 
men, in 25, a«, or ne. Those in des and ne are of 



the first declension, and those in is and a5, of the 
third ; as, Priamtdes, -dee, &c. ;* pi. -cte, ddrum^ &c. ; 
NerinCj ^es ; Tynddris^ -tdis or -tdos ; jEetiaSj 'odisy 

§ 73» A noun derived from a substantive proper, 
signifying one's country, is called a patricd or geu' 
tile noun ; as, 

Troft TrtMt a man bom at Tifny ; Troa», -^ist a woman bom at Troy. SiciiluB, 
-t, a Sicilian man ; SiciUit -idis, a Sicilian woman ; so, MUc^kio, -ont«, ^rpltuu, -iUis, 
a man bom in Macedonia, at Aipinum ; from TrqjOt SiciUd^ Macedonia^ Arpmtan. 
But patrials for the most part are to be considered as adjectives, having a substan- 
tive understood ; as, RomanuSt Aiheniensit, &c. 

§ 74# A substantive derived from an adjective, 
expressing simply the quality of the adjective, with- 
out regard to the thing in which the quality exists, 
is called an abstract ; as, 

JustttiOj justice ; bortiUUt goodness ; dulcedot sweetness ; from juaUu^ just ; houmtp 
good ; dulcUt sweet 

The adjectivet from which thett^ abatracts come are called concretes ; because, 
besides the quality, they also suppose something U> which it belongs. Abstracts 
commonly end in a, as, or do, and are very numerous, being derived from most 
adjectives in the Latin tongue. 

§ 75e A substantive derived from another sub- 
stantive, signifying a diminution or lessening of its 
sigmfication, is called a diminutive ; as, 

L0>eUu8ya, little book; chartula, a little paper; oputculmn, a little work; cor- 
cuZum, a little heart ; reticulum, a. small net; Kiibmum,a small form; lUpUluat^ 
little stone ; cultdlua, a little knife ; pageUa, a little page : from ttber, ctiarta, opus, 
cor, rUt, tcamnum, Upix, cuUer, pSgina. Several diminutives are sometimes form- 
ed from the same primitive ; as, from puer, puerulue, pudlus, puellulua ; firom cista, 
cialula, dgteUi, cisteUula ; from homo, hamuncio, homunculue. IMminutives for the 
most part end in Iils, la, lum, and are generally of the same gender w«th their 

When the signification of the pfimiiive ia increased, it is called an ampupicative, 
and ends in o ; as, cUpUo, -onis, having a large head : so, nSso, l&beo, bucco, having 
a large nose, lips, cheeks. 

§ 76e A substantive derived from a verb is cali- 
ed a verbal noun ; as^ 

Amor, k>ve; dodrina, learning; from Hmo, and doceo. Verbal nouns are very 
numerous, and commonly end in to, or, im; and ura ; as, lectio, a lesson ; SmSior, a 
fover; luctus, grief; ereOlilra, a creature. 




§ 77« An Adjective is a word added to a sub- 
stantive, to express its quality; as, durus, hard; 
mollis, 5o/?-* 

Adjectives in Latin are varied by gender, num- 
ber, and case, to agree with substantives in all these 

Adjectives are varied like three substantives of 
the same termination and declension. 

All adjectives are either of the first and second 
declension, or of the third only. 

. Adjectives of three terminations are of the first 
and second declension ; but adjectives of one or 
two terminations are of the third. ' 

Exc. The following adjectives, though they have three terminatioi», are of the 
Ifaird declension : 

Acer, fharp, 
Alacer, duerfuL 
Campester, odonging to a 

Celeber, famous. 

Ccler, swift. 

Elqueeter, belonging to a 

Paluster, marshy. 

Pedetter, on foot 
Saluber, tekoUi 
Sylvestor, woody. 
Volucer, swifu 

Ride for the Qender of Adjectives, 

In adjectives of three terminations, the first is masc., the second 
fern., and the third neut. In those of two terminations, the first is 
masc. and fem., and the second neut. Adjectives of one tennination 
are of all genders. 


BdntM, masc. 6onii, fem. honum^ neut good. 



N. bdn-us, 



N. bdn-i, 



G. b6n-i. 


G. bon-orum, 



D. bdn-o, 



D. bon-is, 



A. bdn-um, 



A. bon-os, 



V. bdn-e> 



V. bon-i, 



A. bOn-o, 



A. bon-is, 



* We know things by their qualities only. Every qualitjr must beloiig to some 
subject An adjective therefore always implies a substantive ezpressecTor under- 
stood, and cannot make fbU sense without it 

t An 'adjective properly has neither genders, nninbefi, nor cases ; but certain 
terminations answering to the gender, number, and cose of the subrtantive with 
which it is joined. 


T^ner, tenSra, tenSrum, tender. 

N. t&i-cr, 
G. ten-^ri, 
D. ten-Sro, 
A. ten-gram, 
V. teii-er, 
A. ten-^ro, 












If. ten-Sri, -SraB» -Sra, 

G. ten-erorum, -eraram, -erdramr 

D. ten-dris, -Sris, -^ris, 

A. ten-€ro8, -^ras, -dia, 

V. ten-6ri, -fine, -€ra, 

A. ten-firis, -firis, -firis. 

Asper, rot^A. 
Cnter, {hardly tuedi the 

In like manner decline. 

Gibber, crookicu^sed. 
Lacer, torn. 
Liber, /rce. 

M&er, wretched. 
Proeper, proapercui. 

Also the compounds of gero and^ero ; as, UMfy^er^ bearing wool ; opfifer, bring- 
ing hdp, &c Likewise, SUur, aatura^ acaurumt full. But most adjectives in er 
drop the e ;■ as, Ster^ otro, atrumt black ; gen. tUrit air<B, cOri ; dat €aTOt atrcBt atro, 
&C. So, 

JEgeTt nek. 
Creb«', frequetO. 
Glaber, smooth. 
Integer, entire. 
LudYcer, ludicrotu. 

Macer, 2ean. 

P^Yger, black. 
PYger, dow. 
Pulcher, fair. 
Ruber, red. 

SScer, mcred. 
Scaber, rough. 
Teter, ugly. 
VEfer, crafty. 

Dexter, right, has -tn, -trum, or -tere, -tSrom. 

§ 79e Obs. 1. The following adjectives have their genitive sin- 
gular in ins, and the dative in t, through all the genders ; in the other 
cases, like bonus and teneri 

Unus, -a, -um ; gen. nnios, dot uni, one. 
Alius, -Tus, one of many, another. 
NnliuB, nullius, noR«. 
Solus, -ius, aume. 
Tutus, -ius, tohcle. 
Uilus, 4as, any. 

Alter, alterius, one cf two, the other. 

Uter, utiius, either, whdher of the two. 

Neuter, -thus, neither. 

Uterque, utriusque, hath. 

UterlYbet, utriuslYbet, ) xohich of the two 

Utervis, -triusvis, > youpleaee. 

Alteruter, the one or the other, alterotrius, alterutri, and sometimes alterius utrioa 
alteri utri, &c. 

These adjectives, except totun, are called partitives ; and seem to resemble, in 
their signification as well as declension, what are called pronominal ac|jectives. In 
ancient writers we find them declined like bonus. 

Obs. 2. To decline an adjective properly, it should always be joined- with a 
substantive in the different genders; as, bonus Kber, a good book; bona penna, a 
good pen ; bonum sedUe, a gooa seat But as the adjective in Latin is often found 
without its substantive joined with it, we therefore, m declining bonus, for instancy 
commonly say, ionic», a good man, understanding vtr, or homo ; bona, a good wo- 
man, understanding foemfrui ; and bonum, a good thing, understanding negotium. 

*T6taa, so great, is regularly declined. 




N. ielix, 

G. felicis, 

D. felici, 

A. felicem, 

V. felix, 

A. felice, or 

Fdix, masc. fern. 


' felix* felix, 

felicis, felicis, 

felici, felici, 

felicem, felix, 

felix, felix, 

in nU the slenders. 

and neat.; happy. 



N. felices, 
6. felicium, 
D. felicYbus, 
A. felices, 
V. felices, 
A. felicYbus, 




felices, i 









PrtBiens, masc. fem. and neut ; present. 


N. pneHsens, -sens, -sens, 
G. pnoHsentis, -sentis, -sentis, 
D. priB-senti, -senti, -senti, 
A. priB^entem, -sentem, -sens, 
V. prse-sens, -sens, -sens, 
A. pre-sente, oriindU the ger^ 
senti, ) der9. 


N. prsHsentes, -sentes, -sentia, 
G. pne-sentium, -sentium,-sentium, 
D. pne-9e.ntYbus,-flentYbu8,-BentYbas, 
A, pne-sentes, -sentes^ -sentia, 
V. prsB-sentes, -sentes^ -sentis, 
A. pnB-sentYbus,-eentYbus,-eentYbas. 

Aniens, -tis, «ia2. 
AtiDz, -OciB, crud. 
Audax, -aciB, A -ens, -tis, 

EUa, -Ids, tDoven with a 

douhle thread, 
C&pax, capacious. 
Cicur, -tins, tame, 
Clemens, -tifl, merdfuL 
Contumaz, etuibom. 
Demena, mad. 
£dax, ghUUnums. 
EffYcaz, effectucd. 
Elegans, kandaome. 

In like manner decline, 

Fallax, deceit/id, 
Feraz, fertiU. 
Fercn, fierce, 
Frequens, frequent 
Ingens, ht^e, 
Inen, -tis, duggith, 
Insons, gvUdess, 
Mendaz, lying, 
Mordax, buingi aoHricoL 
Pemix, -icis, atoift 
PervYcax, wdfid. 
Petulans, frouyard^ mntcy, 
Pregnans, with <Aild. 

BSoeim, Jret^ 
RSpeoB, sudden. 
SSiflax, -ftcis, sagacious. 
Salax, -&cis, lustfuL 
S&pient, wise. 
Solen, shrewd. 
Sons, guUiy. 
Tenax, tenacious. 
Trux, -ttcis, crud. 
Uber, -ens, fertde. 
VehSmens, vehement. 
Velox, -Ocis, swift. 
VBrax, devouring. 

Mitis, masc. and fem. ; mite, neut ; meek. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. mitis, mitis, mite, 

G. mitis, mitis, mitis, 

D. miti, miti, miti, 

A. mitem, mitemj mite, 

V. mitis, mitis, mite, 

A. miti, miti, miti. 

N. mites, 
G. milium, 
D. mitlbus, 
A. mites, 
V. mites, 
A. mitYbus, 














Acer or acris^ masc. acriSf fern, acre, aeut sharp. 
Singular, Plural, 

N. a-cer or acris, acris, acre, 

G. a-cris, a-cris, a-cris, 

D. a-cri, a-cri, a-cri, 

A. a-crem, a-crem, a-cre, 

V. a^^er or acris, a-cris, a-cre, 

A. arcri, a-cri, a-cri. 

N. a-cres, a-cres, a-cria, 

G. a-crium, a-crium, a-crium, 

D. a-crtbus, a-crtbus, a-^rlbus, 

A. a-cres, a-cres, a-cria, 

v. a-cres, a-cres, arcria» 

A. a-crlbus, a-crtbus, a-crlras. 

In like manner dldcerf or alacrU^ ciler or celiris. So also, acer^ 
campestert eeleberf equester^ paluster, pedester^ aalubert Sylvester^ 
volucer, which have two terminations in the nom. and voc. sing, mascu- 


§ 81ft Adjectives of the third declension have e or t in the ablap 
tive singular : but if the neuter be in e, the ablative has t only. 

§ 83» The genitive plural ends in turn, and the neuter of the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative, in ia; except oomparaiivest 
which have um and a. ^ 


Exo. 1. The following have e in the Ablative singular, and um in the Gen. plur. 
They are scarcely ever used in the Neuter singular, and never in the Neuter plu- 
ral. Alei, ttu, ' winged,' * swifl ;* Bij^ Mis, * two-footed ;' Cai^a, lftt<, ' unmarri- 
ed ;* Ccmpo$t aUa, * hieiving obtained one's desire ;* Diacolor, orist * of various col- 
ours ;' Hospes, ^fM, ' hospitable ;' Impos» otitt * without power ;' Iimp&bes, Urii, * un- 
der age;* JuvUniSt U, 'youn^;' Pauper, iri», 'poor;' Tuber or rubes^ fr««> 'Aill 
grown ;' Redux, uom, * returning ;' Senex, terns, ' old ;' Sospes, IHs, * safe ;' Svperstes, 
Vis, * surviving ;* Tricunis^ ms, * three-forked ;* (fricu^ifldef Ido, Ovid) ; ^FV^yes, 
Uis, * three-footed ;* Vigu, His, * watchful.' Also compounds in geps, teX, coaroR, 
and OENXR ; as, Bieorpor, oris, * two-bodied ;* Dricorpor, oris, * diree-bodied ;' though 
ArHfex, ^tcis, * artificial ;' Deghter, iris, * degenerate ;' Particeps, "ipis, * partaking m ;* 
Prvnceps, ^pis, * chief;* have also t ia the Abl. 

Exo. 2. The following have e or i in the Abi. mn^. and um m the Geo. plur. 
IHves, Kis^ * rich ;' Incps, epis, * needy ;' QaadrvpleXi \cts, * four-fold.' 

'sharing;' ExsorSt Us, * riven by 
the Abl. and icL, turn, in the Nom. 
t, and ia, turn or um. Sons, tis, 

* guilty,' aiid Insons, Hs, * guiltless,' nave e or t, and Gen. plur. turn, or um, Memor, 
oris,* mindful,' has t and um. Uher, Ms, * frmtful,' t, a, and um. Vetus, iris, * old/ 
has t or e, and a, and um. Par, vHris, * equal,' has only i in the Abl. sing, and in 
plur. to, titm ; but its compounds nave e or t. 

Exa 4 The following have the AbL in e or t, and want the Neut plur. Cois- 
coZor, oris, 'of the same colour;' Versic^or, oris, 'parti-coloured;' Ikses, Idis, 

* slothful ;' Hebes, Uis, * blunt,' «dull ;' Perpes, itis, «perpetual ;' Prtspes, Uis, * swift;* 
Reses, idis, ' idle ;' TVrec, Hits, * round.' Of these, Pra^>esonly is found in the Gen. 

Ezc. 5. Exspes, 'hopeless,' and Pads, is, e, 'able,' are only used in the nsmi- 
native. PoUs has sonetimeB poUs in the neut. 


Tlie Neuter Phu, * nwro,' is thm dedioed : 

Singular. PhtnL 

N. Plus, N. Plone, •€% -aoria, 

G. Flurifl, G. Plnr-iiun, -ium, 4uiii, 

D. D. Plurnras, •Ibus, •Kbue, 

A. Plus, A. Plor-es, *m, -aoria, 

V. V. ^— 

A. PlurnMis, -Ybus, •Xbus. 

.A. Pluie or i. 

§ S3# 1* CompantiTes and ai^ectives in n«, have e more frequently tban i > 
«nd participles in the ablative called absolute have generally e; bb, Tiierio reg- 
laanle, not regwxntit in the reign of Tiberius. 

2l A^jectiTes ^ned with substantiTes neuter for the most part have % ; as, vio- 
tna. ferroy not wctnce. 

3. Different words are sometimes used to express the diflfer^it genders ; as, victor, 
Tictorioos, for Hie masc. victrixt for the fern. Viclrix in the plunl has likewise the 
neuter gender; thus, vidnces, victrida; so, ttUor, and uUrixt revengeiiiL Victrix 
is also neuter in the singular. 

4. Several adjectives compounded of cUvua, fnenumt baciUum, arma, iugum, 
limuSy tommu, and anhnut, end in is or «« ; and therefore are eidier of the first 
and second declension, or of the third ; as, dedtms, -«, and de^ivuM, -a, -urn, steep; 
tmbiciUu, and imbecUhu, weak ; temaomm», and «emisoiiintis, half a sleep ; emalsuj^ 
and exanhnutt lifeless. But several of them do not admit of this variati<Mi ; thus 
we say, magn&ntmu», flexanimuBt ^r4B»u8, levuomnua ; not magnanhniM, Ac On 
the contrary, we say, punUan^bms, it^ugit, ilHims, tnaomm's, extostnis ; not puaidtt' 
tSmutt &e. So, aemianhnit, inermu, guhHwuM, aecBxi», deeRiriM, procRviss lareiy 
temianhmu, Ac. 

§ 84e Adjectives derived from nouns are called 
denominaiives ; 

as, cordstus, mor&tus, ctgUtHs, HdHaumCinut, eorporiu$f agrUfi», mtSvui, fte.| 
firatn cor, mos, codum, aditouu, &c. 

Those which diminish the signification of their piimitives, are called Dimifu- 
TivES ; as, mUeUus, parvului, durhuaUuMf Ac Those which signify a great deal 
of a thing, are called amflificatives, and end in otict, or enlus ; as, vindfus, «tn<^ 
lentus, much given to wine ; oph-dmsy laborious ; plumbosusr full of lead ; nddoaut, 
knotty, full of knot»; corpuleniiu, corpulent, &c. Some end in tus; as,auri<uj^ 
having long or large ears ; ruuutus, having a large nose ; UtertUut, learned, dec 

§ 85e An adjective derived from a substantive, or 
from another adjective, signifying possession or 
property, is called a possessive adjective ; as, 

ScuOcuMy pHUmuttj herSiSt oiifmu, of or belonging to Scotland, a lather, a master 
another; from ScoUa, pater herut, and alius. 

§86a Adjectives derived from verbs are called 
verbals; as, 

amalfUis, amiable ; ocqKa, capable ; doffUi$, teachable ; fiom amo, ctfia, doeta. 


§ 87# When participles become adjectives, they 
are called participials ; as, sapiens^ wise; acutusj 
sharp; disertusj eloquent. 

Of these many also become substantives ; as, adoleteens, avUmanSt rudens, «er- 
penst advocStuM, ^poiMU»^ natuBf legaitu ; tponn, nata, tertat sc. corona, a garland ; 
praietta^ sc. vetti» ; ddfUum, decritumj pr€Bceptum, «n/iim, tectum, votum, &c. 

§ 88e Adjectives derived from adverbs are called 
adverbials ; 

as, hodiemus, from hodie ; crasdnus, firom eras ; binus, from his, Ac. There are 
also ac^ectives derived from prepositiims ; as, contrarius, from contra ; antScui, fiom 
ante ,* posGcue, from jxwt 


§ 89e Adjectives which signify number, are di- 
vided into four classes, Cardinal^ Ordinal^ Distribu 
tivcj and Multiplicative. 

1. The Cardinal or Principal numbers are : 

Unus, one 

Dao, tiDO 

Tree, three 

Quatuor, four 

Quinque, fae 

Sex, six 

Septem, seven 

Octo, eight 

Ndvem, nine , 

DScem, ten, 

Und^im, eleven 

Duod^im, twelve 

Tred^im, thirteen, 

QuatuordScim, fourteen. 

Quind^im, fifteen, 

SezdScim, sixteen 

Septend^cim, seventeen, 

Octod^cim, eighteen, 

Novemdecim, nineteen 

Viginti, twenty, ^ 

Vififinti anas, or ) . . 

Una. et viginti, 5 twenty^. 

KS^nS:! '^y*^- 

Triginta, thirty, 

Qaadrfiginta, forty, 

Quinquaginta, fifty, 

Sexa^taf sixty, 

,1. • . • < 

. I. 

4«. . . . r 


3. ... 


4. ... 


5. • . ; 

. V. 

6. • • • ' 


7. ... 


o. . • . 

. VIII. 

y. • . . 


10. . . . 


11. . . . 

. XI. 

12. ... 

. xn. 


. xin. 

14. . . . 


16. . . . 


16. . . . 

. XVI. 

17. . . . 

. xvn. 

18. . . . 

. xvin. 

19. . . . 


20. ... 




^S6, ... 


30. ... 


40. ... 


50. . . . 

. L. 

60. ... 

. LX. 

• •'••• 


• • • • IjXX. 



• • • • xo* 


• • • • o. 


• • • • \jG, 


• • • • Ov/O. 


• • • • C/GCXJ. 




• • • • mJG~, 


. . . • IX>C* 


. • . • DOCU* 


. • . • I^GC/IXJ* 


• • • • Ax. 

Septnaginta,*. •«....... seveniy. ; . . 

Octoginta, eighty, 

Nonagintaf • . • • • ninety, ^ 

Centum, • .... a hundred, .«.,.••.... 

Ducenti, -s, -a, two hundred, 

Trecenti, -e, -a, three hundred 

Quadringenti, four hundred, 

Quingenti, five hundred, 

Sexcenti, six hundred, 

Septingenti, ttven hundred. 

Octingenti, ............ eight hundred, 

Nongenti, nine hundred, 

Mille, a thousand. 1,000. 

ms^S^"^ \ '" ^^ thousand. 2,000 MM. 

BpS-?""! -^'^-«^- 10.000.. ...XM. 

Vi^^mille,*' *^ I --twenty thousand, ....20,000 XXM 

To mark numbers the Romans employed the capital letters, I, V, X, 
L, C, which were therefore called Numeral Letters. I denotes one ; V, 
five; Xften; L, fifty; C, one hundred. By the repetition of either 
of these, its value was repeated; thus, II signifies ttoo, XXXX, ft>rty; 
CCC, thre^ hundred. But V and L are never feund repeated. 

When a letter of less value stands before one of a greater, the greater is 
diminished by as much as t&e less stands for : but when it comes after 
a greater, the greater is iticreased by as much as the less stands for ; 

rV. Four. 

V. Five. 

VL Six. 

IX. JSine. 

X. Ten, 

XI.: Eleven. 

XL. Forty, 

L. Fifty. 

LX. Sixty, 

A thousand was marked thus, cia. which in latter times was con- 
tracted into JL Five hundred was marked thus, lo, or, by contrac- 
tion, D. , 

The annexing of a. U> to. makes its value ten times greater ; thus, 
130. marks five thousand, and Jooo. fifty thousand. 

The prefixing of c. together with the annexing of a. to the number 
CIO. makes its value ten times greater ; thus, ooioo. denotes ten thou- 
sand ; and oooiopo. a hundred thousand. Tl^e ancient Ropmns, accc»d- 
ing to Pliny, proceeded no fiirther in this method of notation. If they 
had occasion .to express a larger number, they did it by repetition ; 
dius, ccciooo. ccGiooo. signified two hundred thousand, &c. 

We sometimes find thousands expressed bv n straight line drawn 
over the top of the numeral letters ; thus, lii. denotes three thousand ; 
X. ten thousand. ^ ^ . 

The cardinal numbers, except unus and milie want the singular. 



KUlffBSAL ADJECflVfeff. 

§ 00» Unus is not used in the plural, except when joined with a 
suhstantive which wants the singular; as, in tents iBdilmSt in one 
house. Tereot. Ean. ii. 3. 75. Utkb nupluxs. Id. Andr. iv. 1. 51. In 
una mcenia convenh-e, Sallust Cat 6. or when several particulars 
are considered as one whole ; as, una vestifnenia, one suit of clothes. 
Cic. Flacc 29. 

Duo and tres are thus declined : 



N. duo> 
6. duorum, 
D. duobus, 

due, duo, 

duarum, duorum, 

duabus, duobus, 

A. duos or duo, duas, duo, 

V. duo, duae, duo, 

A. dudbus, duabus, duobus. 

N. tres, 
G. trium, 
D. tribus, 
A. tres^ 
V. tres, 
A. tribus. 













In the same manner with duo, decline ambo, both. 

All the Cardinal numbers from quatuor to centum^ including them 
both, are indeclinable ; and from centum to mille, are declined like the 
plural of bonus; thua, ducenti^ -i<B, -ta; ducentdrum, 'tdrvm, -to* 
rum^ &c. 

MUle, the substantive, makes Nom. and Ace. mille, Abl. mUle ; as» 
miUe hofninum, *' a thousand men ;' mUli hominum, ' with « thousand 
men.* In the plural it is perfect. Z>tio miUia hominumf 'two thou- 
sand men f Trium miUium hominum^ Trtbus mUHbus honanum, &c. 

MiUe, the adjective, is plural only, and indeclinable ; as, mUle homU 
nesj * a thousand men ;' mille hominibus, * with a thousaml men.' To 
express more than one thousand, it has the numeral adverbs joined 
with it ; as. Bis mille homines^ ' two thousand men ;' Ter miUo homU 
nes, &c. 

2. The Ordinal numbers, are, primus, first ; sicundus, second, &c ; 
declined like boniLs» 

3. The Distributive are, singali, one by one ; bini, two by two, or 
by twos, &C.; declined like the plural of bonus» 

4. The Multiplicative numbers are simplex, simple ; duplex, double^ 
or two-fold ; triplex, triple, or three-fold ; quadruplex, four-fold, &c. ; 
all of them declined like felix ; thus, simplex, Acts, die 

§ 91« The Cardinal and Distributive numbers may be thus dis- 
tinguished ; the- Cardinal expresses a number absolutely, as, one, two, 
&c.; the Distributive are those which distribute the same number to 
every single person; as, Dedit nobis oecem libros, 'he gave us 
together ten books ;' d6dit nobis demos libros, ' he gave us each ten 


But poets, and sometimes prose writers, use the Distributive fbr the 
Cardinal numbers, particularly with substantives which are plural only ; 



88, bituB nupH4gf 'iwo weddings;' bituB litems *two epistles;' not 
du(Bt for du<B liter€B would mean two letters of the alphabet. 

The Multiplicative numbers are also sometimes used for the Cardi- 
nal by the poets ; as, Duplices t^ndeiu ad sidira palnuu^ instead of 
duas pdlmas. 

The interrogative wordg to which these numerals answer, are quot^ 
quotiLS, quoteni, quotiea, and qudtuplex, 

Quot, how many ? is indeclinable : So to^ so many ; tdtidem^ just 
so many ; quotquot qubtcunqne^ how many soever ; aliquot^ some. 

The following Table contains a list of the Ordinal and Distributive 
Numbers, together with the Numeral Adverbs, which are often joined, 
with the numeral Adjectives. 


PrTmos, •«, -am. 


Tertids. « 









Duodeclmus. - 

Declbnos tertius. 

Decljiius quartus. 

Decimus quintus. 

DecfmuB sextua. 

Dec¥muB septifmus. 

Decimus octavos. 

DecYmoB nonoB. 

YigenYmoB, viceftYmoB. 

VT^esimos primus. 

Tngesimus, tricesforas. 


Qoiuq uagesYmos. 















Ks millesYmuB. 


Sin^uli, -IB, •«. 












Tredeni, t6mi deni. 

Quatemi dexiL 


Seni deni 

Septeni deai. 

Octuni deni. 

Noveni deoL 


VTcgni singiili. 











Quater centeni. 

QuinqoieB centeni. 

Sexies centSni. 

Se{>tieB centenL 


Novies centenL 


Bifs miUSni. 



Bis, tMoice. 

Ter, tkrice, 

Qu&ter, four funcs* 

QokiqoieBf Sx. 












Decies ac septiaB. 

Dedes ac tx^liea. 

Decies et novieB. 


Vicies semeL 


















Bib millies. 

To the numeral adjectives may be added soch as express division, proportion, 
time, weight, Stuc ; as, IfijtarCituB^ triparGtutty &c. ; dnplusy tripluSt &c. ; 5mu«, fri- 
mu9, &c. ; biennis, triennis, «kc. ; bfmestris, trimestris, &c* ; nttbris, tnMnrisy Ac ; 


hhOriua, iemariuB, Sic, ; which last are applied to die number of any kind of thii^ 
whatever ; as, versuM «enAnuj, a vene ox six feet; denSritu manmui, a coin of ten 
aatee; octoeenSriut «mer, an ol^ man eighty yean old ; grex centendriuMt a flock 
of an hundred, Ac 


§92e The comparison of adjectives expresses 
the quality in different degrees : as, durus^ hard ; 
durior, harder ; durissimuSj hardest. 

Those adjectives only are compared whose signi- 
fication admits the distinction of more and less. 

The degrees of comparison are three, the Po5i- 
Hve^ Comparaiivej and Superlative. 

The Positive seems improperly to be called a 
degree. It simply signifies the quality ; as, durus^ 
hard ; and serves only as a foundation for the other 
degrees. By it we express the relation of equality ; 
as, he is as tall as L 

The Comparative expresses a greater degree of 
the quality, and has always a reference to a less 
degree of the same ; as, durior^ harder ; sapientiorj 

The Superlative expresses the quality carried to 
the greatest degree ; as, Hurisstmus, hardest ; sapi- 

entissimusy wisest. 




§ 93« The comparative deg^ree is formed from the first case of the 
pomtive which ends in t, by adding the syllable or for the mascalino 
and feminine, and us for the neuter ; as, 

Norn, altus, altOt altutnt 
€ren. alti: 

then addiuggf or and us, we have altior, tdHor^ altius. 

In adjectives of the third declension, the Dative is of course the first 
case that ends in i, as, Nom. mitis. Gen. mitiSf Dat* miti; then by 
adding or and u<, we have mitior, miiiori mitius. 

comrjLRiaonf of ADjrBcriysff. 97 

Mitior, meeheTf ib thus declined. 

Singular number. 

Nom> . . » Mitior, mitior, mitias. 

Gen. Mitioris, mitiOris, mitiorii, 

Dot, Miiiori, - mitiori, mitidri, 

Ace. Mitiorem, mitiorem, mitius, 

Voc, Mitior, ; mitior, mitios, 

Plural number. 

Nom Mitiores, mitiores, mitiora, 

Gen Mitiorum, mitiorum, mitiOrum, 

Dot. MitiorYbos, mitiorlbos, mitiorYbiu, 

Ace. Mitiores, mitiores, mitiOra, 

Voc Mitiores, mitiores, mitiora, 

Abl MitiorYbos, • mitiorYbus, ....'.. mitiorYbiu. 


§ 94« The Superlative degree is formed from the same case by 
adding sstmus ; as, Nom. altus^ Gen. oZ/t, Superlative aUisHmtu. So^ 
mitts f Gen. mitis, Dat miti. Superlative mitissimus. 

If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed from the norainar 
tive by adding rlmue ; as, pauper ^ * poor ;' pauperrimus^ * poorest' 

The Comparative is always of the Third declension, the Superlative 
of the First and Second. 





Bdnus, mSlior, optYmus, 




M&lus, pejor, pessYmos, 




Magnus, major, mazYmus, 




Parvns, mYnor, mYnYmus, 




Multus, plurYmus, 




Fem. Mnlta, plurYma ; neut. multum, plus, plurYmum ; plur, multi, 
plures, plurYmi; multie, plures, plurYme, &c. 

In several of these, both in English and Latin, the coroparatiye and 
superlative seem to be formed from some other adjective, which in the 
positive has fidlen into disuse ; in others, the regular form is contract- 
ed ; as, maximus, for magnissimus ; worse for worsest. 

§ 96» These five have their superlative in Rmtis : 

FadOis, fiMsUior. ftdUYmut, Muy. " ImbSciilii, imbedllior, imbedUteas, 

Griidlis, eracilior, gradllfoius, lean. weak' 

HimOJB, numilior, aamilllfmui, hw. S)fm¥lif, nmilior, nmillferaf , Itke. 




§ 97# The* following adjectives have regular com- 
paratives, but form the superlative differently : 

otter, ctteri(»r,-cillmitf, near, &Xi. 
Dexter, dexterior, dexlTmus. righL 
Sinister, sinisterior, sinistlfmuBfTef^ 
Exter, -erior, extlmus or extremus, out- 
Inferos, -ior, infimus or imus, hdom. 
Interns, interior, intlmUB, inward. 

M &tdnM, -ior, matunYmus, or matorii^- 

mos, ripe. 
Poeterus, posterior, postremus, behind. 
Siiperus, -rior, supremus lor summua, 

VetuB, veterior, veten^us, eU. 

§ OSe Compounds in dicus, Idqutistficus, and vdhu, have entior^ 
and entissimns ; as, maUdlcus, railing ; m&lSdicentior, maledicentisH' 
mug: So, magnil6quu8t one that boastetb; bineftcust beneficent; 
mdiiv&luSf malevolent ; miriftcus^ wonderful ; 'entioTt -entitsimtni^ or, 
mirificisHmtut. Nequam, indeclinable, worthless, vicious, has neqvior^ 

There are a great many adjectives, which, though capable of having 
their signification increased, yet either want one of the degrees of com- 
parison, or are not compared at all. 

h 99e The following adjectives are not used in 
the positive : « 

Deterior, worse, deterrtmus. 
Ocior, swifter, ocissYmus. 
Prior, former, primus» 

Prdpior, nearer, proxYmus, neatest 

or next. 
Ulterior, farther, ulttmus. 

§ 100« The following want the comparative : 

Inclytus, incl^tisstmus, renowned. 
M^rttus, meritissYmus, deserving. 
Ndvus» novissYmus, new. 

MupSrus, nuperrXmus, late. 
Par, parissYmus, equal. 
Sacer, sacerrYmus, sacred» 

k lOle The following want the superlative : 

Addlescens, adolescentior, ycfung. 
Diiiturnus, diuturnior, lasting. 
Ingens, ingentior, huge. 
JiivSnis, junior, young. 
Opimus, opimior, rich. 

Prdnus, pronior, inclined down-- 

Satur, saturior, full. 
SSnex, senior M. 

1. To supply the superlative of juv^nis^ or dd^ecenst we say minHmus nato, the 
youngest ; and of seneXf maximus wUu, the oldest 

2. These also want the Superiative : Adjectives in oZts, ?2t«, and bflis, and many 
in anu9, ^vis, and inguus ; as, ccqntaliSy * capital ;' regaiis, * royid;' dvUtx, * civil ;' 
juvinfyt < youthful;' tcieral^igf 'tolerable;' arcSnus, 'secret;' da^visy 'bending 
downwards ;' procTwiSy ' down-hill ;* longinquuSy * far off;' propirumue, * near,' &c. 
Sopie ane found only in the Positive ; the compounds of Geto and TerOy participles 
in rut and dusy aiM adiectives in hu-nduty imtu, inuSy ivuSt or us. Also, almus, 
* chenshkig ;' taimu < bald ■' daudusy ' larae ;' dmrus, ' out of die furrow *' ' doting ;*^ 



dubiM$, 'doubtful f eghiut, 'indigtDt;' «qyiwiniaMK, *ooiliugeoni;' 

fulf mint^, wondenul;' rudii, *new/ *rade;* «o/oua, 'f&;* oacutw,' * empty;' 

oidf Aru, * oommoD,* &c. Bat manj of theee admit of stagis, Jkfimw, Maxiaii, 

3l AnfMor,. former; aHqmor, wone; aAHor, better, ore only tmnd in the ooaf* 

4. Many adiecidves are not compared at all ; such are fhoee oompoonded widi 
Duns or Term ; as, ver^color, <^ i 

nouns or verM ; as, vertucoior, ot diveia ookxm; seitfy^, poifonous; alaOb 
tives in its pure, in hms, intM, onw» or fmua, and mminutiveB ; as, dibius, * doubt- 
All ;* vScuus, emoty ;' fugWmts, that flieth away ; m&ti^mu, early ; c&ndna, shrill ; 
l^VhttuSt lawful; Undlus, somewhat tender; majugcOluft &c; together with a 
great many otheis of various teimihatioas ; as, aimuSt grecbus ; ^0ooa^oci«, soon 
<Hr early ripe ; nuruSt ilgenus, l&cer, mimor, aospei, &c. 

& This defect of comparison is supplied by potting the adverb magis before the 
adjective, for the comparative degree ; uid tmde or nMueVme for the superlative ; 
thus, i^enuSf needy t magis eghau, more needy i valde or maa^hne e^hau, vttf% or 
most iMedy. Which form of comparison is also used in those adjectives which ave 
r^raiariy eompared. 


Apricus, aumny. 
Bellus, fine* 

Celer, swifl. 

Communis, cctiunon 
Consultus» skilled, 
Crispus, curled. 
Diversus, different. 

Dives, rick, 

Falsus, false 
Ftdus, faiikfuL 
ImbeciUus, weeA, 

Jojunus, fasting' 
Inf inltus, indefinite. 
InvictoB, unconquered. 
Invisus, hated. 
Invitus, reluctant. 
LTcens, eaAravagant. 
Mellitus, honey^. 
Nequam, wicked. 
rStia, or Pote, able. 

Anterior, formert Caes. 
Apricior, Pitn. 
Bellior, Varr. 

CSlerior, pasnm. 

Commanior, SueL 
[Consultior, Tertul] 
Crispior, FUn. 
DiversiOT, CM. Lucr. 
DivTtior, Ovid. Cic. ) 
Ditior, Hot. ^ 

Falmus, Petron. 
Fidior, Uv. 
ImbeciUior, Cic, 

Jqiinior, Cic 
Infinittor, Cic 

Ilnvictior, 5. Avgust.] 
nvTsior, Mart 
Invitior, Plaut. 
Llfcentior, Cic 

ApricissYmus, Ccium. 

BellisB&nus, Cic 
4 CSerrfaiuB, passim. 
I Celerissbnus, Enn, ^ Cn» 

CommunisBlfmui, SueL 

Consultisrimus, Cic 

CrispisBYmus, Cdum. 


DivYtissYmus, Cic 

DitissYmus, Vtrr. 

Falsisslfmus, Coium. 

FidissYmus, Cic Ovid. 

ImbeciliissXmuSy Senec. 

InvictissYmus, Cic et oL 
InvisisBYmus J'liff. Sense 
InvitissYmus, Cic 

NSquior, Cic 

Potior, «unm. 
Satius, cetteTf passim. 
Sequior, loorse, Ij», 

Sylvestrior, Plin. 

MellitissYmus, Apid. 
NdquiasYmus, Cic. 
PersuasissYmus, Cic 
PStissYmus, passim» 

Sylvester, or ) 
Sylvestris, woody. ) 
Supinns, lying on the back. Siipmior, Mart 


§ 103e A Pronoun is a word which stands tn- 
stead of a noun* 

* Thus, / stands for the name of the person who speaks ; ihou, for the name of 
me person addressed. 



The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen f eg-o, 
/u, sui ; illcj ipse^ iste^ hie, is, quis, qui ; ineuSj tuus, 
suus, noster, vesler ; nostras, vestras, and cujas. 

Three of them are substantives, ego, tu,sui ; the 
other fifteen are adjectives. 

N. ego, 
G. mei, 
D. mihi, 
A. me, 

A. me. 



of me, 


with me. 


N. tu, thoUf 

G. tui, of thee, 

D. tibi, to thee, 

A, te, thee, 

V. tu, Othou, 

A. te, with thee. 

* or yoH. 



N. noe, we, 

G. nostHim, or nostri, of us, 
D. nobis, to us, 

A. DOS, us, 


A. nobis, with us, 

Tu, thou. 


N. vos, ye or you, 

G. vestr^lm, or vestri, q; you, 

D, vobis, to you, 

A. vos, you, 

V. vos, O ye or yotf , 

A. vobis, with you. 

Sui, q/* himself, of herself, of itself. 



G. sui, of himself, of herself, of itself, 
J), stbi, to' himself, to herself, &c. 
A. se, himself, &c. 

V. -^ 

A. se, with himself, &c. 



G. sui, of themselves, 
D. sibi, to themselves, 
A. se, themselves, 


A. se, with themselves. 

Obs. 1. Ego wants the vocative, because one cannot call upon himself, except aa 
a second person; thus, we cannot say, O egOt O I; O nost O we. 

Obs. 2. 3ftAt in the dative is sometimes by the poets contracted into mi 

Obs. 3L The genitive plural of ^o was anciently noarortan; and nottr&rum ; 
of tUt ve^rdrum and vestr&runif which were afterwards contracted into nostrum 
and ve^rum. 

We commonly use noatr&m and verirUm after partitives, numerals, comparatives, 
or superlatives ; and nostri and vestri after other words. 

Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either 4o not know, or do 
not want to mention. They also serve to shorten discoune, and j>revait the too 
Irequent repetition of the same word ; thus, instead of saying, when Camr had 
conquered Qautt Qsmr turned CkBaafs arms agmnet Catenas country^ we say* When 
Caesar had conquered Gaul, he turned hi§ arms against his country. 

siMPix PRONoumr. 


§ 104« The English sabetantive pronoQiis he, the, «St, are ex- 
pmsed in Latin by these pronominal adjectives, iUe, «tfe, hie, or ie; as, 

IRe, for the masc. iUa, for the fern. iUttd, for the neater, that: or 

tue, ne ; u 

M, sne ; luua 

, 11 or inai : 



N. ille. 



N. illi, ill». 


G. illius. 



G. illorum, illarum, 


D. illi, 



D. ill is, illis, 


A. iUum, 



A. illos, illas, 


V. flle. 



V. illi, illffi, 


A. illo. 



A. illis, illis, 


Ipse, he himself, ipsa, she herself, ipsuTn, itself; and iste, ista, ietad^ 
are declined like Ule; only ipse has ipsum in the nom. ace and voc* 
sing, neut 

Ipse is often joined to ego, tu, sui ; and has in Latin the same force 
witn self in English, when joined with a possessive pronoun ; as, ego. 
ipse, I myself. 

Hie, hiec, hoc, this. 

N. hie, 
G. hujus, 
D. huic, 
A. hunc, 
V. hie, 
A. hoc, 














N. hi, 
G. horum, 
D. his, 
A. hoe 
V. hi, 
A. his, 














Is, ea, id; he, she, it; or that. 

N. is, 
G. ejus, 
D. ei, 
A. eum, 



A. eo, 





N. ii, ee, ea, 

G. eoruro, earum, edrum, 

D. iis or eis, iis or eis, iisoreis, 

A. eos, eas, ea, 


A. iis or eis, iis or eis, iis or eis. 

(iuis, qu4B^ quod or quid? which, what? Or quis? whol or what 
man? qu<B? who? or what woman? quod or quid? what? which 
tbiiig? or what thing? thus, 




N. quis. 

quae, quod or quid. 


qui, quiB, 

G. cujus. 

cujus, cujus. 


quorum, quarum. 

D. cui. 

cui, cui, 


queis, or quibus. 

A. quem. 

quam, quod or quid, 


quos quas. 




A. quo, 

qu&, quo. 


queis, or quibus. 




• § 105« Qui, 9«<B> quod, who, which, that: Or vir qtdf the man 
toko or that ; foemina, qtUBf the woman who or that ; negotium quod^ 
the thing which or that : genit vir ct4;i£«, the man whose or o/* whom ; 
mulier cujus^ the woman whose or q/* whom ; negotium cujtLs, the 
thing o/ which, seldom whose, &c. thus, 


N. qui. 



G. cujus. 



D. cui, 



A. quem, 




A. quo. 




N. qui, qu8B, quae, 

G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, or quibus, 

A; quos, ' quas, que, 


A. queis, or quibus. 

The other pronouns are derivatives, coming from ego, tu, and sui. 
Mens, my or mine ; tuus, thy or thine ; suils, his own, her own, its 
own, their own ; are declined like bonus, -a, "um ; and iwster, our ; 
vester, your ; like pulcher, -chra, -chrum, of the first and second de- 
clension ; noster, 'tra, -trum, 

1. Nostras, of our country; vestras, of your country; cujas, of what 
or which country ; are declined like felix, of the third declension : gen. 
nostratis, dat. nostrdti, &c. 

Pronouns as well as nouns, that signify things which cannot be ad- 
dressed or called upon, want the vocative. 

2. Metis has mi, and sometimes metis, in the voc. sing. masc. 

3. The relative qui has frequently jul in the ablative, and that, which is remark- 
able, in aU genders and numbers. 

4. ^ui is sometimes used fat quia : and instead of cujus the gen. of fttts, we find an 
adjective pronomi, cujus, -a, -um. 

Simple pronoons, with respect to their significations, are divided into the ibllow- 
iBg classes : 

5. Demonstraiifjest which point out any person or thing present, of as if present : 
Ego, tUt kic, istSy and sometimes t2ie, m, ipse, 

6. Rdatives, which refer to something going before : iKe, (pse, isfe, Ate, is, qui 

7. PosKSsiveSy wl^ch signify possession: fneus»iuus» suuSt noster, vester, 

8. Fatrials or Gentiles, which signify one's comitry : nostras, vestras, cujas, 

9. Iniern^atives, by which we ask a question : quis t cujas t When they do not 
ask a question, they are called Indefinites, like other words of the same nature. 

10. Reciproads which again call back or represent the same obiect to the mind : 
«tit and suus, 

§ X00« Pronouns are compounded varioudy : 

1. With other pronouns ; as, istkic, istJuBc, isthoc, isthuc, or istuc Ace. Zslhunc, 
itthanc, isthoc, or i^uc. Abl. Isthoc, isthoc, isthoc: Nom. and ace. ^ur. neuL 
isthcBC, of iste and hie. So illic, of Hie and hie 

2. With some other parts of speech ; as, hujusniodi, cujuemMi, &c. m^man, tecum, 
secum, nobiscttm, vobiscum, qnocmn, or qu^cum, and quihusaim : cecum, eccam ; eccos, 
eccas, and sometimes ecca in the nom. seng. qfecce and is. So eUum, of ecce and ille. 



3. With wme ■]^[]ftUe added ; as, fuiie, of te and tr, uied onljrin dw nom. i^«(m<> 
ftUJfniet, auimelf through all the caaes, thoa, mehnet, tmmett Ac of ego, tu, «us, and 
nut Instead oftumet in the nom. we say, tutimel: Huxinej kcBccine^ Ac in all the 
cases that end in c ; o£ hie and dne : iMe^ite, <u^9ee, au&pte, noatrStpU^ vUlritptef in 
the aUat fem. and scmietinies rneopie, tucj^, dec of mens, &c. and'^.* Aioce, mboo^ 
kooce ; hujuace, hiacey hoace ; of kic and os: whence kufusdmodi, ej/uaoemSdij cujua" 
cemSdi. So, WEM^ the same, compounded of ts and dan, which is thus declined : 

N. idem, 
G. ejusdem, 
D. eYdem, 
A. eundem, 
V. idem, 
A. eddem. 









N. itdem, esedem, 

G. eorundem, earundem, 
D. e'isdem, or iisdem, 

A. eosdem, easdem, 

V. iidem, eiedem, 

A. elsdem, or iisdem. 









The pronouns which we find most frequently compounded, are guii and qid. 

Q^iM in oompositioa is sometimes the first, sometimes the last, and sometimes 
likewise the middle part of the word compounded ; but qui ia always the first 

V 10 T# 1. The compounds of ^>. in which it is put first, are quisnam, who? 
md^riam, quisquam, any one ; quiaque, every one ; qmsquis, whosoever ; which are 
mus declined : 




qusnam, quodnam or quidnam; 
quepiam, loodpiam or quidpiam ; 
qaasquam, quodqoam or quidquam ; 
quaeqne, quodque or quidque; 
quidquid or quicquid; 


ciigusquun ; 
«ujusque ; 
ci:UU8cuju8 ; 


cuique ; 

And so in the other cases according to the simple quis. But (puaqms has not the 
fem. at all, and the neuter only in the nominative and accusative. Qmsiquam has 
also ouicquam ibr quidquam; accusative quenquam, without the feminine. Hie 
plural is scarcely used. 

2. The compounds of pns, in which quis is put last, have qua in the nom. sin^. 
fem. ; and in the ncMninative and accusative plural neuter, as, td^qms, some; ecqwu, 
who ? of el and qui» ; also, ne^uts, »qm$, numauig, which for the most part are read 
separately ; thus, ne quis, ti quis, man quis. They are thus declined : 


AIYquis, allfqua, allfquod 

Ecqtiis, eoqua or eoqua» eoquod 

Si qui^ ^ qua, si quod 

Ne quis, nequa, nequod 

or allfquid; 
or ecquid; 
or si quid; 
or ne quid ; 


alici^us ; 
si ci^jus; 
ne ci:gu8>; 
num ci:uus ; 


alYcui ; 
si cui; 
ne cui; 
num cm. 

Norn quia, num qua, num quod or num quid ; 

3b The compounds which t&ve quis in the middle, are, ecquisnam, who? 
quisquet gen. umuscv^u*que, every one. The former is used only in the dobl aag. 
and the latter wants the plural. 


4 The eomponnds of fut are qmctmjue, whoMMvw; quidam, Mne; ^uifii&ef» 
quwii, any one, whom you please ; which are thus declined : 

Norn, Gen. DaL 

Quicunque, quBCunque, qoodcunque; cujuscunque ; cuicunque ; 

Quidam, qiuedam, quoddam or quiddam; ctuusdam; coidam; » 

Suiltbet quffillbet, qoodlYbet or quidlXbet; cujiwirbet; cuilibet; 

Quivw, qu«vi8, quodvia or quidvia; ciyusvia; cuivia. 

^ 108« ObB. 1. AH these compounds have seldom or never qveis, hutqvUms, 
in their dat. and abl. plor. ; thus, aliqutbuat &c. 

Obs. 2. Qui», and its compounds, in comic writers, have sometimes guis in the 
feminine gender. 

Obs. a Quidam has quendam, quandam, quoddam or quiddam, in the ace. sing, 
and quorundam, quarundam, quorundam, in the genitive plural, n bemg put uistead 
of m, for the better sound. 

Obs. 4. Quod, with its compounds, dtiquod, quodvi$, quoddam, &c., are used when 
they agree with a substantive in the same case ; quid, with its compounds, attquid, 
quidvis, &c., for the most part have either no substantive exprfwed, or govern one 
m the genitive. For this reason, they are by some reckoned substanUves. 

Obs. 5. AJtquis and Quidam may be thus distinguished ; the former denotes a 
person or thing indeterminately ; the latter, determtruUely. 

Obs. 6. Uter refers to two, and is therefore jcnned to comparatives. 

Oba. 7. Quia may refer to many, and is therefore joined to superlatives. 

Obs. 8. Hie and JQfe are often found to refer to two words going before them. 

Hie usually to the latter; iZZe to the former. 

Oba. 9. As demonstratives. Hie refers to the person nearest to me ; Ztle to the 
person nearest to you ; lUe to any intermediate person. 

Obs.ia IZZe denotes honour: Jste, contempt: as,iUeviri istehomo. 

Obs 11. Tuus is used when we speak to one ; as, Sumne, Corieiane, in tuts cof- 
tris oapUva an mater t Veeler, when we speak to more than one ; as, Ccom, mtse- 
rem^i qobU veetrL 

Obs. 12. Alter is in general applied to one of two ; Alius to one of many. 

Obs. 13. Quivis, * any whom you please ;' Quis^m, * any one ;' and Vttus, * any,* 
are thus used : Qtdvis affirms; as, Quidvi» miki sat' est, *anv ibine pleases me.' 
Vitus never affirms, but asks or denies, as also Quiaquam. Tnus, Nee uUa res ex 
omn^fbus me angH, ' nor does any of all these things distress me ;' Nee quiaquam 
eorum te nodt, * nor does any one of them know you.* In an interrogative sen- 
tence, as. An quisquam dubU&vil t i will any one doubt V UUus is used in the same 

Obs. 14. Mei, lut, aui, nostd, vestri, the genitives of die primitives, are generally 
used when passion or the being acted upon, a denoted : thus, amor met, means * the 
love wherewiA I am loved.' 

Obs. 15. Meua, tuua, auus, noster, vester, the possessives, denote action or the pos- 
session of a thing; as, amor meua, is * the love which I possess and exert towards 
somebody else.* 


Obs. 16. Sui and suns are called Reciprocals, because they always refer to some 
preceding person or thing, generally the principal ^noun in the sentence ; thus, 
C^smr ArUmsto dixit, non aeae (Cssarem) Gallia, sed Qatlo^ aibi (Cssari) belhtm 
intuHiae, ' Cesar told Ariovistus that he had not made war upon the Gaub, but the 
Qauls upon him ;' in which ae and aibi refer to Cesar, the principal noun. 

vjttsi. -95 

Obe, 17. The Reciprocal* may l&ewiBe be applied to the word whidi fifiowa the 
verb, provided that it is ci^ble of being turned into the nominatiTe witfiout alter> 
ing the lense ; thus, TrahU iua quemque votuptat, (Viig.) ' his own pAeaeure allarea ^ 
each ;' in which sua refers to yuemquet the object of the yerb, beonuse it may be- 
come the subject, as in the equivalent expressioa, Quiaque traUtur a vob if ia u iud, 
* each one is aQured by his own pleasures.' 

Obs. 18. Stttu is iometimes used in the aense of vmadme prepriuMt * pecnliar;' 
as, SabcH ma thura mittunt^ * the country of the Sab» pioauces firankincense pecu- 
liar te itself It sometimes indicates * ntness,' or ' congniity ;* as. Sunt et wa dona 
fMrenti, (Virg.) ' there are likewise ibr my father fit, af^tropriate, or suitable |ne> 

. Obs. 19. 8uuM is often used without the sabstantiTe beipg mentioDed; as, «Ktan 
cttique trihuitOj * give evefy man his own ;* {negctium, * thing,' being understood.) 
8m retpandenaU, «his aoldiea,' or 'oountiymMi answered^ (eieet or milUe* being 

Obs. 20. The reciprocals alone are used with quuquet and they are ffenerally 
ideced before it; as, Pro m qtasque acrittr intemtat ammum^ liv. net eat» one mr 
himself give his most critical attention ;' Sut cujuaque oMmaatU aotem est» Cic. 
' every animal has its own peculiur nature.* 

Oba. 21. SUsif and sometimes tiU, mUn, &c^ are need fixr the sake of elegance, 
when not indispensably necessary; as, Eapiai mOd hoc n^ottum, Ter. < despatch 
this business for me.' 


§ 109e A verb is a word which expresses what 
is affirmed of things ; as, The boy reads» The sun 
shines» The man loves. 

Or, A verb is thai part of speech which signifies to 
be, to do, or to suffer. 

Verbs, with respect to their signification, are 
divided into three different classes, Active, Passive, 
and Neuter ; because we consider things either as 
acting, or being acted upon ; or as neither acting, 
nor l^eing acted upon ; but simply existing, or exist- 

* It is called a Ver& or Word by way of eminence, because it is the most essen- 
tial word in a sentence, without whidi the other parts of speech can form no com- 
plete sense. Thus, Ike dUigetU boy reads kU ksmm with care, is a perfect «entenoe ; 
out if we take away^M affirmation, or the word reads, it is rendered imperfect, or 
rather becomes no seralence at ail ; dius, the diligent hoy his lesson wUh care. 

A Terb therefore may foe thus distinguished from any other part of speech « 
Whatever word expresses an affirmation, or assertion, is a vert> ; or thus. Whatever 
word, with a substantive noun or pronoun before or after it, makes full sense, is a 
verb; as, stones /«22, Z walhtwalk thotu Heie/oU and vxdk are verbs, beoause 
they eontain an afixnnation ; but when we say, a long vodlk, a dangerau9 fidl, there 
is 09 affirmation expressed ; and the same words waik and fall become substamivea 
o# BOunA. We often JBnd likewise in Latin the same word used as a verb, and lUso 
as aome other part of speech; thus, amor, -oris, love, a substantive ; add amor, I 
am loved, a vero. 


86 tttttBs. 

' ing in a certain state or condition, as in a state of 
motion or rest ; &c. 

§ 110« 1. An Active verb expresses an action, 
and necessarily supposes an agent, and an object 
acted upon; as, amdre^ to love; amo te, I love 

* 2. A vierb Passii>€ expresses a passion or suflfer- 
ing, or the receiving of an action ; and necessarily 
implies an object acted upon, and an agent by 
which it is acted upon ; as, amdri^ to be loved ; tu 
amdris a mc, thou art loved by me. 

3, A Neuter verb properly expresses neither ac- 
tion nor passion, but simply the being, state, or con- 
dition of things ; as, dormio^ I sleep ; sedeoj I sit. 

' § 111 • The verb' is dao aalled Trmui^itm when (he Bcdon' pdsseM 
over to the object, or has an effect on some other thing ; as, scribo lit^ 
^for, I write letters: but when the action is confined within the a^nt, 
and passes not over to any object, it is called hUransiiive ; as, ta&fSSjo^ 
I walk ; cicfTO, I run ; which are likewise called Neuter verbs. Many 
'Verbs in Latin and English are used both in a transitive and in a^ in- 
transitive or neuter sense ; as, sistire, to stop ; incipiref to begiir; dUF- 
rdrCf to endure, or to harden, &c. 


' Verh^ which simply signify being are likewise called Substantive 
verbs; as, esse or existiref to be, or to exist. The notion of existence 
is implied in the s^ification of every verb : thus, / love, may be 
Tosolved into J am loving, 

"When the meaning of a verb is expressed without any affirmation, 
or in such a form as to be joined to a substantive noun, partaking therein 
by of the nature of an adjective, it is called a Participle ; as, amans, 
loving ; amdtus, loved. !But when it has the form of a substantive, it 
is called a Gerund, or a Supine; as, amandum, loving; amiiumi to 
-love; am&tu, to love, or to be loved. 

A verb is varied or declined by voices^ Modes, 
Tensesj Numbers, and Persons. 

There are two voices ; the ^c^tWand Passive. 

\ The modes are four; Indicative, Subjunctive, Iny^ 
perdtvvie, and Infinitive. 

vmmw^ 87* 

The tenses are five ; the Present^ the Preter-im- 
perfed^ the Preter-perfect^ the Preter-pluperfect^ and 
the FutUre, 

The numbers are twoj Singular and Plurals 
The persons are three ; Firsts Second^ and Third, 

I . • ■ 


§ US» Voice expresses the difierent circumstances in which we 
consider an object, whether as acting or being acted upon. When the 
action is confined to the agent or nominative, as, cado, ' I fidl ;' or when 
it is exerted by the nominative upon an external object, as, amo vtnim, 
'I love the man,' the Act^e voice is used; but when the aetioo is 
exerted by an external object upon the nominative, the Passive voice is 
onployed, as, vir amatur, ' the man is loved.' 

As an Active verb denotes thai the nomipative to it is ddng some- 
thing, and a Passive verb, that something is done to it, or in Uie lan- 
^fuage of grammarians, that it is sufiering ; hence, to distinguish whe- 
ther an English verb is to be rendered in Ditin by the Active or Passive 
yptee« nothing more is necessary than to consider whether the nominar 
tive he doing or sufiering; as, 'John is building,' Joanne» mdificat: 
* The wall is building,' mums adificatur. The English is the same 
in both examnles ; but in one, Jdm is active, in the other the wall is 

§ 11 3» Modes or moods are the various manners of expressing 
the signification of the verb : 

The Indicative declares or affirms positively ; as, amo, I love ; amibOf 
1 shall or will love ; or asks a question ; as, an tu amas ? dost thou 

The Subjunctive is usually joined to some other verb, and cannot 
make a full meaning by itself; as, «i fTie qbsecret^ redibo^ if he entreat 
me, I will return. Ter. 

The Imperative commands, exhorts, or entreats ; as, ama, love thou. 

The- Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb, with- 
&at limiting it to any person or number ; as amdre, to love. 

§ 114« Tenses, or Times, express the time when any thing is 
supposed to be, to act, or to sufiTer. 

The general divisions of time are into present, past, and future ; bat* 
grammarians make five tenses, namely : the Present, the Pretei^imper" 
feet, .the Preter-perfect,. the Preter-pluperfect, and the Future* 

08» VJBBM^ 


1. The Present tense denotes that an aotion is going on ; as, tBd\/lcat^ 
* he builds.' Historians and poets sometimes describe past actions in 
this tense, in order to give animation to their discourse, by brin^fing 
them, as it were, under immediate observation. Thus, Livy, Ad equU 
tes dictator Ai>\cfLAT obtettatu vt ex equU dbbcbiidaiit, ' the dictator 
Jlies forward to the cavalry, beseeching them to dismount from their 

2. Any general custom, if still existing, may be expressed in this 
tense ; thus, Apud Parthos signum datur tympano, et turn tubd, Jus- 
tin. * Among the Parthians Sie signal U given by the drum, and not 
by the trumpet' 

3. In Latm, as in English, this tense oia^ expreaa futurity ; as, mutm 
mox navYgo Epheswn^ Plaui ' as soon as I sail,' or * shall sail to £!phe« 


4. The Preter-imperfect expresses an action as pcussing soinetinM 
ago, but not yet finished ; as, €BdificaJbatf * he was building.' 

b. It likewise denotes what is usual or customary; as» aieftol^ *he 
was wont to say.' 

6. When we mean to say that an action has taken pUuce, without 
particular reference to the present, or has taken place within some pe- 
riod of time not yet fully past, we use the Preter-pwfect tense, as, 
omniTi, ' I loved,' or ' have loved.' 

7. It is sometimes used instead of the Pluperfect indicative ; Qiue 
postquam evolvit, caeoque ex^mit acervo, Ovid, * which after he sorted 
^d sorted) and took (bad taken) from the ccmfused mass.' 

8. It is poetically used instead of the imperfect or pluperfect sub- 
junctive; as, nee veni nisifata^ Virg. 'neither would I have come un- 
less the fktes,' &c., for venissem. 


When we mean to sav that an action was completed before some, 
other past action took place, we use the Preter-pluperfect tense, as 
hostes superavSrat, ' he had conquered the enemy' before tiie succours 


IClFutare time is expressed twovdifierent ways. When we mean to ex- 
press that an action will be going on, some time hence, but not finished, 
we use the Future indicative; as, Cmnabo ^I shall sop;' but when we- 

(H)iii^KC7ioN OF vwrnmrn M 

mean to say that an action will be finiahed before another actioo, also 
future, takes place, we use the Future subjunctive ; as, Cum coenavero, 
proficiacar^'vrhen I have supped»' or 'shall have supped, I will ga' 


§ 1 1 5» 1. Number marks how many we suppose to be, to act, or 
to suffer. As one or more persons may speak, be spoken to, or spoken 
of; there are turn numbers; the Singular, which speaks of one, and the 
Plural, which speaks of more than one. 

2. Person shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied, whether 
to the person speaking, the person spoken to, or to some other person 
or thing. There are three persons in each number : in the Singular, 
Effo, 'V is of the first; TV, *thou,* is of the second; and iZIe, 'he,* 
or JR2aj *8he,* is of the third person: in the Plural, Nos, *we,' is of the 
first; Vos, 'ye,' or 'you,' is of the second ; iKt, (masc.) 'they,' or JBte, 
(femO ' they,' is of the third person ; and to each of these the verb has 
appropriate variations in its terminations. 

Qiff takes the person of the antecedent 

Ipse may be joined to any person, according to the sease. 


§ X18« A verb is properly said to be conjugated, when all its 
parts are properly classed, or, as it were, yoked together, according to 
Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Person, 

The conjugation of a verb is the regular formation and arrangement 
of its several parts, &c., according to the difierent voices, modes, tenses» 
numbers and persons. 

There are four conjugations which are distin- 
guished by- the vowel preceding re of the infinitive 

In the first conjugation it is a long ; as, Amdre» 

In the second conjugation it is 6 long ; as, 

In the third conjugation it is e short ; as, Le- 

In the fourth conjugation it is i long ; as, ^t/- 

Exicept ditre, to give, which hwi ft abort, and alao ite oompomids ; thai» dranm' 
dUre, to ■anouod ; droaiuUimut, -dUltM, <VBtbamt •dUbo, Ac 

The difierent conjugations are likewise distinguished from one an- 
other by the diflSstent terminations of the following tenses: 



AcrrivE VOICE. 

IntUeative Mode. 


L 2. a 

Present Tense. 










•o, -a», 
-60, -e«, 
■o, -is, 
4o, -n. 






I. ^yisam, 
3. -ebam, 

3. -ebam, 

4. -iSbam, 


-iSbat ; 





1. -abo, 
Z -ebo, 

3. -am, 

4. -iam, 







iSub;unciite Mode. 
Present Tense. 






1. -em* 

2. -eam, 

3. -am, 

4. -iam. 









1. -&rem, 

2. -^rem, 

3. -erem, 
^ -irenu 





Imperative Mode. 







1. -a or -&to, 
ft. -e or -ito 

3. -e or -Ifto, 

4. -i or -ito. 


-ate or fttote, 
•#te or etote, 
-Yte or ttote, 
-lie or itole, 




Indicative Mode. 

Present Tense. 

1. -or 

S. -60 

3. -or 

4. -io] 

, -iiis or -&re, 
r, •Srii or -are, 
, -erhi or -J?r©, 
r, -iri» or-it«, 



; -ftmor, 
; .emur, 
; -imor, 




oomvexnovs op vimas. 


I. •&bar, -ibaris or -abare, -^batur ; -abftmur, -ab&myni, 

2. -ebar, -eb&ria or -eb&re, -ebatur; -eiAmur, •ebimiju, 

3. •eber, 4ib&n8 or -elAre, -ebalur ; -ebamur, -ebambii, 

i. -iebfur, >ieb&ris or -iebare, •iebatur; -iebamur •iStemYni, 


1. -ftbor, 

2. -ebor, 
a -or, 
4. -iar. 

-aberis or -abere, 
•eberiB or •ebere. 
-erii or -ere, 
4ens or -iere. 


-abitur; -abimur, -abYmYni, •&biintiur. 

-ebytur; -^bYmur, -eblfmbii, -Cbmitar. 

•etur; -emur, -«mlfni, -entur. 

-ietur; -iemur, -iemlni, 4entiir. 

1. -er, -eris or -ere, 

2. ^8jr, -eiri or -eare, 

3. -«r, -iris or -are, 
4L 4ar -i&ris or -iare. 

Subjunctive Mode. 
Present Tense. 

•i&tur ; 







1. 4Lrer> -arerui or -arere, 

8. -erer, -creria or -erere, 

3. •eier, -ereris or -erere, 

4. -irer, -ireris or -Irere, 


-eretur ; 





1. -are or -Etor, 

2. -ere or -etor, 

3. -ere or -Iftor, 
4> -Ire or -itor; 

Imperative Mode. 

3. 2. 

ator ; 4Lnifoi, 

^tor ; -emTni, 

•Ytor : -llnlfni, 

-Itor ; -im£Qi, 




Obmrve. Verbain u> of the third eot^ugation have iura in the third penon plixr 
of the present indie, active, and iuntur in the passive; and so in the imperative, 
iutUo and iurUor. In the imperfect and future of the indicative they have always 
the terminations of the fourth conjugation, iebam and iamj iebar and ior, &c. 

The terminations of the other tenses are the same tharagh all the oonjagatioiMi 


Iitdicative Mcdt. 









Petf. -i, 
Flu. -cram. 




Subjunctive Mode» 


-erunt or ere. 

Fut. «ero, 

^ * 












Hiese TeiMea» in the PwoYe Voice, «le ibmied by the Firticiple Perfect, and 
Ifae auxiliaiy vert) «urn, which is also uised to expren the Future of the Infinitive 

§ 11 7e SUM is an irregular verb, end ia thus ooojogated : 

•• • 

Pm> Indie Pro. Infin, Peif. Indie. 
Sum» MM» fui Tube, 



Singular. Plund. 

dl. Sum, lam. 

§2. Es, TkouartfOryouan. 

^aEat. Hstc 

Sumus, We are. 
Estis, Ye or you are. 
Sunt, 'neyare. 

mpEEFEcr. was. 

1. Eram» I woe. 

2. Eras, Thou, watt, or you teere. 
a £rat, Heuxu. 

Er&muB, We 

Eriitis, Ye or you were. 

Erant, 7ft«y were. 

nniFECT. hanoe been or tms: 

1. Fiii, Ihaeeheen. 
% Fdteti, Thau katt been. 
a FUit, BeAiufteen. 

FoYmus, We have been. 

Fnistis, Ye have been. 

Fuerunt, or -Sre, They have been. 

rLiTFSRncT. had been» 

\. Fu^ram, I had been. 

2. FuSns, Thoa hadOL beei^ 

a Fu&at, 2fe had been. 

1. Ero,f«lla2lfo. 

2. Erie, ThouwiUbe. 
a EntrBetoJUfo. 

Fnerftmus, It'e had been. 
Fuer&tis, Ye had been. 
Fuerant, They had been* 

ronniE. ehell orwiR.* 

Eritaras, Wed^eMbe. 
ErYtis, YewOlbe. 
Erunt, Tt^y «id be^ 


1. Sim, I may be. 

a Sis, Thou mayeel be. 

3. Sit, He may be. 


STmas, We may be. 
Sitis, Ye may be. 
Siat, They may be. 

iMrERFBCT. might, could, would, or thould. 

1. Essem, Imigkt be. 

a Eases, Thou mightett be. 

a Esset, Ik might be. 

Easemus, We might be. 
Eawtis, Ye might be. 
Esaent, 'I%ey might be. 

* ShaU and lotB are always employed to enresa future time. 

WUl, in the first peraon amgular and plural, promiaea or threatens; in the second 
and third penons, only ibreteUs: ehaU, on the contrary, in the first person, simply 
fixelells; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, 4>r threatens. But 
the contrary of this holds, when we ask a question; thoa, « I «Jhott co^** **y(Hi «ilf 
go," ezpreas event only; bat "wiU yoa goT imports intentioni and^'sMlgor^ 
refers to th« wiM of anoidifliv 


nuxoT. may hne, 
1. Fu£rim, I may have been, [ Fuerifmas, We may hone Saea. 

2. Fa£n9> T^ou mayeel hone been. 
3L FoJirit Ife may Aave 6een. 

Fuerlftis, Ye may have^been. 
Fueiint They may have been. 

rLUFXKFECT. might, could, would, or ehouU have ; or hoi. 

1. Fuiflwm» I might have been. 

2. Foiases, 7%oumigktetl have been. 

3. FiHHet, Hs might have been. 

FuiflBemm, We ndght have beta. 
Fuiasetu» Ye might have been. 
FiUHent, They might have been. 

FUTUXX. ikallhave. 

1. Fuero, I shall have been. 

2. Faeris, Thou vnU have been. Fueritis, Ye wSU have been. 

3. Fuerit, He mtU ham been. 

Faerfmos, We tkcdl have been. 

Fuerint, They wiU have been. 


Z Em or eeto, Be thou. I Este or Estote, Be ye, at be you. 

a Esto, Let him be. \ Simto, let them be. 


P11X& Ease, To be. 

rxEF. Fuiaw, Tohavebeen, 

FUT. Ease fbtorai, •«, -uin. To be about to be. 

Fuiflse futdn», -a, -am, To have been about to be. 

roTUUB. Futuras, -a, -um. Ahout to be. 

Obs. 1. The penonal proaouns, which in English are, for the moat part, added to 
the verb, in Latin are commonly onderBtood ; because the several peisons are dis- 
tinguished fitMoa one anodier by the difierent terminations of the verb, though the 
peisons diemselves be not expressed. The learner, however, atfiitt magr b^aeflusr. 
tome4 to join them vnih the verb ; thus, ego sum, I am; to e», dkou art, or you ape ; 
«Be ert, he is; fios sunau, we are; &c ^ ego amo,I love; (»aiiMM^tlK>il wven^or 
yon love ; file amat, he loveth or loves ; noe amanme, we love, &c. 

Obs. 2. In the second perMm singular in Ei^lislu we oonmionly use the plunl 
form, except in solemn discourse ; as, t« es, thou art, or muck efiener, you are ; tu 
eras, then wast, or you were ; tu eie, thou mayest be, or you may^ be ; Ae. fla^ <at 
anmot Ihoa lovest, or you love ; tu amobas, thou lovedrt, or you loved ; Ac. 


Pree.Ittd. Free» Inf. Ferf. htd. Supine. 

^118e Amo, amSre, amtvi, moMvan, TeUmk 


TKtssENT TXNSE. love, do love, or am loving. 

A.Am^ lime. ^ P. Am4mus, We love. 

Axa.ti»,J%enloveaL Am-ftti% Yeotyonhvi. 

Am-at, He hvee. Am-ant, They love 


IMPERFECT. tMM 20vt«i^ Dt iftc? lave, 

S, AnK&baia, /imm loruir. P. Am-abftraofl, Ife were boin^. '" 

Am-ftbas, .'I%oA «xuC tom'fi^. Am-ab&tis, Te or you loere lodbi^. 

Am-tbai^ His hxm fovu^. Am-ibant, They were lomng* 

PERFJECT. hanoe, 

S. Am-KVi^ /^oe Zooed P. Am-mvTmus, TY^ Aaoe looetf. 

Am^viati, Tfuiu kcat loned, Am-avistis, Ye or you htfwe Unei-. 

Am^vitt Be hat loved. Am-avenmt, or ) y^ ^^^^^ loved. 

■AVOXSy J "^ 


S. Aiii4Yeniii, I Mad kxed, i*. AnMiveramut» We had laved, 

Am^Yenui, T%ou hadat loved. Am-averatia, Ye or you had loved, 

Am-«verat, Hehadloved. Am-sv^iant, They had loved. 

tarcKE. ehaUorwia. 

S. Am^bo, I ekaU love. P. Am-abYmiu, We AaU love. 

Am-ftbia, Thou wilt love. Am-«bftii, Ye or you wiB love. 

Am-ftbit, He will love. Am-&bunt, They will love. 


PREmrr tense, may or can. 

S. Am-em, I may love. P. Am-9mxm, We may love. 

Am-et, T^ou mayeet love. Am-Stia, Ye or you may Iom. 

Am-et, He may love. Am-ent, TTiey may love. 

. I , . / ...... . . * ; 

1HPCRFXCT. might, could, would, or thouU. 

fl Am Brfim, T might frrrff P. AisKaetmm, We might love^ 

Am-ftraa, I%ou miighieel leme. Am-arttis, Ye or you might love.' 

A»4Mt- ibmightlove.^ Am-arent, They might uve. 

PERFECT, may Adoe. 
& AoMtveran, I may. have loved. P. AiiMiverilimaa, We may have loved. 

Am-averint, They may have loved. 

PL17PBRFECT. might hoVC. 

8. Am*«viaBein, I might have loved. P. AnMHriaaSmtia, We mxght have loved. 
AnHiTi-ea, I ^«JP**^*«« AiiMi™5lia.| ^? ^ "^^ *«« 

Am««iaBet» Bf might have le^ed» Anwrnawnt, "" 

^Tlie aeooDd peiaon of the jnefeent «ubfoncdvo, alid the aeoond penon of the 
perfect, are uaed for the imperative ; as, ne me ATniraAa, 'do not touch me' ; nee 
fiZoe juvsRXS, ' nor aaaiat them.* 

The firat pemn plural of the pwa e n t snlgunctive ie uaed only m encouitt i ng or • 
feaolYiDg; as, monaaiacr, * let us die ;* m arma rvaiius, *let ua ruah to arma/ 

#ntMr c^HJUoXftoH orvim^. 

FUTUKE. «loBAoVfe 

$. Am-avSfo, JsAaaAoM loeetf. 
Abmit&m, Thou wHt have Uned, 
AnMiYwit, He loia ikwe ^ooedL 

p. Am-aveiYmcM, We ahalL have lomi. 
Am-aveiint, TUjf wUl ham Unei. 


Simg, % A1114 or am-itcH 
3. Am4Lto, 

Phir. S. Am-&te, or am-atOte, 
3. Am-anto, 

Laoeihou^QKdoikon Ume* 

Love ye, at do ye kne, 


FRKS. Am-ifBi 

wfn» fiMB aiQAtavua, -a, -un, 
uMe aiaatarai, -a, -omt 


To have loved. 

To be about to love. 

To have been about to love. 

PUDL Am^ana, 

jpirr. AiiMttttrui,-a,-iim, 



Norn» Am^Mliuii» 
Chen. Am-andi, 
jDldtf. AoMUfdOk 
Ace, Att-andaoi, 
AbL Am-ando, 

Former. Am-fttam, 
Idttter. AmrWtaf 


To lomngt 




To love. 

To love, at to be laced. 


Prtf. Iridic. Pree. Infin. Perf. Part 
§ 119a Amor, anlii, amitua» 7b ie ImmT. 


FXiMBirr tKNSE. am,- 

SLAm-or/ ' , lamloped. 
Am-irii or -Kra, Thou art Uvea. 
Am-itar, He ie loved. 

P. Am-imnr, 


. Am-antur, 


Ye or you are loved. 

They are loved. 

O^pKlLfSCT. «MM. 

S. Am^baTf 



Y Thm^jfioatUvei^ 

P. Am^biinur, We were loeed. 
Am-abamlni, Ye or you vera hvedi 
Am-abantur, They were kved, - 

ram 0QNJU0A90N OF VWBik 

PERFECT* have been, wu, or am. 

i^ing, AnMm sum or fai, 

Am&tut es or fiiistC 

Am&tus ett or fait, 
PZiir. Am&ti tnmnifl or fufmus, 

Amftti, estis or foistui» 

Am&d SQiit or fuenmt or fuSre, 

/ have been loved. 
Thou hoA been Unei, 
He haa been laved. 
We have been laved. 
Ye or you have been loved* 
T%ey nave been loved. 

rLUPERFECT. had been. 

Smg. Amatufl eram or fbenuiv 
Am&tus eras or faenu, 
Am&tufl erat or iuerat, 

JPhtr. Amftti erftmna or fuerinoa, 
Amftti er&tia or fueriitifl, 
Am&ti erant or fuerant, 


S. Am-ftbor, / ehall be loved. 

^^"^^'^^ThauwUt beloved. 
Am^blftur, He lottt be loved. 

I had been laved. 
Thou hadtt been loved. 
He had been loved. 
We had been loved. 
Ye or you had been laved. 
They had been loved. 

AaU or win be. 

P. Am-abKmur, We ahaU he laved. 
Am-abimtiii, Ye or you wUl be knved. 
Am-abuntor, They tM be loved. 


may, or can be. 
I may be loved. P. Am-£mur, We may be loved. 



Am-Sria or.§re, Thou mayeel be loved. Am-emXni, Ye or you may be loved. 
Am^tur, ' He may be loved. Am^entur, They may beloved. 

IMPERFECT, might, could, would, or Aould be. 
I might be loved. P. Am-oremnr, We might be kved. 

S. Am-ftreri _ 

Am-ariris or ) Thou mighieet be 

-ar§re, ) laved. 

Am4U«tur, He might be loved. 

Am-arentur, Thty might be loved. 

PERFECT, wuty have been. 

Sing. Am&tus aim or fu&rim. 
Am&tus sis or fueiis, 
Am&tus sit or fuerit, 

Plur. Am&ti simus or fiierlmus, 
Am&ti sitis or fueriftis, 
Am&ti sint or fuerint. 

I may have been laved. 
Thou mayeet have been lated. 
He may have been loved. 
We may have been loved. 
Ye or you may have been loved. 
They may have been laved. 

PLiTFERFBCT. might, could, wouU, OT thoidd have been. 

Sing. Am&lus essem or fuissem, 

Am&tus eases or fuisses, 

Am&tus esset or fiiisset, 

Am&ti essemus or fuisaSmos, 

Am&ti essfitis or fuisiStis, 

Am&ti essent or iiiissent. 



Sing. Am&tus fuSro, 
Am&tus fuSiu, 

Plvt, Am&ti fuerimns, 
Aia&a fuerirtis, 
Am&ti fu&int. 

Imtght have been loved. 
Thou mighleet have been laved. 
He mi^hl have been loved. 
We fmght hace been loved. 
Ye or yw might have been laved. 
They might have been loved. 

Aall have been. 

I ehaU have been loved. 
Thou w3t have been loved. 
He wHl hate been lovid. 
We ahaU have been loved. 
Ye or you will have been loved. 
They wiU have beenUved. 



Sing. 8. Am-are, or am-itor, 

3. Am-ator, 
Phar. 2. Am-amtni, 

3. Am-antor, 


Be Aou loved. 
Let him beloved. 


pRis. Am-int 

PEHF. Esse or fuisse aiQatiif, •«, -urn, 

FUT. An&tam iri. 


To have been foved' 

lb be about to be loved. 

rJOLF. Am-atus, Hh -um, 
FUT. Am-andus, -a,-uiii. 





Pree. Ind, Pres. Inf. Per/. Ind. Supine. 
D5ceo, dScere, docui, doctum. To teadi 


«ndk, or am feodUnf . 

S. Doc-60, 



p. Doo-enw, 


jS. Doc-eboni, 

P. Doc-ebamns, 





P. Doo-uTmus, 
or -uece. 


S, Doc-ueram, 




tbatt or utitt, 

S. Doc-«bo, 

P, Doc-eblmiu, 



<S. Doc^am, 

P. Doc-eamua, 


might, touU. unuldf 

& Doc-erem, 

P. Doo-eremoa, 


S. Dootterim, 

P, Doc-uerifmtiB, 


fHtgM, eouUL laauid, 

or alkould MM. 


P. Doc-iiiasamua 










;5. S. Doc-e or doc-€to, TVocft tkou. 

3. Doc-eto, Let him teach. 

P. 2. Doc-£te or doc^etute, Teaek ya or 


3. Doc-ento, L^t them teach. 



PRES. Doo-ere, To teach. 

FERF. Doc-aiase, To have taught. 

PUT. Ease doo-tuniB, -9, To be aBont ta 

-um, faocft. 

Fuisse doo-turua, To have baet^ 

•a, -um, about to tetKh, 




PRES. Doc-ens, Teaching. 

FUT. Doo-turus, -a, •um, Aboui to teadi. 


Former, Doo-tum, To teach. 

Latter, Doo-to, ToteachortobetaughL 


Norn. Doc-endumi 
Gfen. Doc-eddi, 
Dot. Doo-endo, 
Ace Doo-endora, 
AbL T)ot>eado, 

Of teaching. 
To teaching. 
With teaching. 

k 121« DSoeor. 


Pre», /i^fi. 




Doo^ru or doKsero, 

p. Doe-taiur, 


S. Doo-Sbart 

Doc-ebaBs, or doo-ebare, 


Per/. Part 
doctos. To he tavghL 


■■ Umy wot, or mm. 

S. Doctus sum or fui, 
Doctiu 68 or fnisti, 
Doctin est or foot, 

P. Docti sumus or fabniu^ 
Docti estis or Matis, 
Docti nut or faenuit at 

iS. Doctus eram or fuSiBm, 
Doctus eras or fueras, 
Doctus ent or fueiat, 

P. Docti eriUnus or faeriUnns, 
Docti er&kis or fueratis, 
Docti erant or fueraat 



S. Doc^bor, 

Doo-ebSris or -etiete, 

P, Doc-ebYmur, 




Doo-e&ris or •eSjre» 

P. Doo^&mur, 



VPSvKMSy C^MS^^Ba ■^^/«■■CSy ^^b vMWhB ^^p* 

& Doc-erer, 

Doc-er6ris or -erire, 

P. Doc-eremnr, 


t)i8y Aflw ttm. 

S. Doctus aim or fuerim, 
Doctus sis or fueris, 
Doctus sit or fuerit, 

P. Docti simus or fuerYmus, 
Docti sttis or fnerTtis, 
Docti sint or fueiint 


mdiiM, ONiId^ «oouJd, or ahoulrf Aom 

S, Doctus essem or fuissem, 
Doctus esses or fuisses. 
Ductus esset or fuisset, 

P. Docti essemus or fuissSraus, 
Docti essetis or fbissetis, 
Docti essent or fuissent. 


£>. Doctus fuSrOy 
Doctus fuens, 
Doctus fuerit, 

P. Docti fuerYmus. 
Docti fuerYtis, 
Docti fuerint 


Sing, 9. Doc^ra or doo-€ftir, 
3. Doo-etor» 

Phtr. 2l Doc-emlhi, 
3. Doc-entor. 

Be thoit Utt^kL 
Let him be taught. 

Be ye taught. 

Let them oe taught. 





PBRF. Ene w fuiae doctos, •«, ^mn, 

FDT. DDOtomiii, 

TV» iha«e teen loa^At 
TV) ht ab€ut to be laugkL 


mF. Doo>tiu, •«, •am, 
ruT. Doc-endos, «a, -mn. 


To be taught 

Free. Ltd. 
§ 122« LSga. 


Preg. Inf, Perf. Ind. 


ImCqou Tb 



P. Leg-Iiniu, 

& Leg-ibam, 

F. Leg-ebijans, 



<S. Leg4, 

P. Leg-Ymi», 
Leg-erunt or 


iSL Leg-ftun, 

P. Leg-erimui» 

5. Leg-am» 






& Leg-am, 


p. Leg-amm, 
' Leg-&tis, 


ffiigkt. oohU, wbmUi 

5. Leg-erem, 

P. Leg-er§mm^ 



£?. Leg-erim, 

P. Leg^erifmue, 




S. Leg-imraii, 

P. Leg-iartmne, 




£>. Leg-ens 

P. Leg-erimuf, 



S. % Leg-e or leg-flo, 

p. 2i Leg-Yte or leg-itute, 
a L^-tmto, 



Read ye or your 


PRE8. Leg-Sre, 
PKaF. Leg-ine, 
FUT. Eew lecturtifl, -a, -mn, 
Fiune lecturns, -a, -urn. 



Tb be eAottt to read. 

To have been about to read. 




PRKS. Leg-ens, Reading. 

FUT. Lectunu»-a,-aiB, About to tetid, 


Former, Lec-tom, To read. 

LaUer. Lectu, To read or lobe read. 


Norn. Leg-endum, 
Oen, Leg-endi, 
DaL hegrendo. 
Ace L^-endttBi 
AbL heg-eoAo, 

Cff reading» 
Tb reading. 
With reading. 

Fret, hidic. 
§ 123e Ugor, 


& Leg-w. - 
Leg-eris o^ -^fti, 

p. Leg-Ymur» 


Fret. Jnfin. 



S, Leg-etMir, 

L^g-ebarifl or -eb&re, 

P. D9g-ebamur, 

Ferf. Fart 
lectus, 7b be read. 


MMB MOTf tons CTtUK. 

S. Lectus som or fbi» 
Lecti» es or fuktit 
Lectus est or foil; 

P. Lecti sumus or fuimufl^ 
Lecti estis or foistis, 
Lecti sunt or ftiiroiit er 


S. Lecttis evatti or fuehim, 
Leetui ems or foSras, 
Lectus eftit or fueiaty 

p. Le(iti er&iiius or fderaiaos, 
Lecti eratis or faeriltis, 
Lecti erant or fueiant 


ahalif or uritl bu 

jS. Leg-ar, 

Leg-&ri8 or -in, 

P. Leg-emur, 


S. Leg-ikp, 

Leg-ftns» or -aie, 


P. Leg-imaf, 
Leg-aitilhi» . 


«MigAI, amid, woui4, or jAoiiU te. 

5. Leg-erer, 

L^-ereris or -erere» 
Leg-erg tur, 

P. Leg-eremur, 

fnaifi hant bun, 

S. Lectus sim or fuSnitt» 
Lectus sis or fueris, 
Lectus iriit or fuerit, 

F. jLecti simus or fuerTnkus» 
Ziecti sitis or fueritis» 
Lecti sint or fuennt 

mifhty eotdi, wouUt, or f Aoiilcr JuOt le«L 

S. Lectus essem or fuissem, 
Lectus esses or fuisses, 
Lectus esset or fuisset, 

p. Lecti essemns or fuissemUS» 
Lecti essetis or fiiissetis, 
Lecti essent or fuissent 


f AAS A0O6 Mill» 

£>. Lectus fuero, 
Lectus fueris, 
Lectus fnerit, 

p. Lecti fuerYmus^ 
Lecti fueiids, 
Lecti fuerint 

S. 2. Leg-ere or •Iftor, 
3l Leg-itor, 

P. 2. Leg-imYni, 
3. Leg-untor, 


fie ihou read. 
Let him be read. 

Be ye read. 
Let (kern be read. 





PKRF. Erne or fuisw leetqs, 

POT. Lectum iii. 



To hone (men TttuL' 


FBRF. Leo4i]8, -a, -um, 
FUT. Leg-endiw, •«, -um, 




§ 124a Example of a verb of the third conjuga- 
tion ending in to. 


Pr€$,lnd, PrtM^hif, Ptrf^Ind, Su^ 
Capio. CapSre, CSpi, Captiim, to «oAe. 


5. Capio» 

P. CapYmoB, 


S. Capiebam, 

P. Capieb&mus, 

S* Cepi, 


P. CepYmuB, 


Coperimt, or 


iS. Cepeiam, 

P. CepertmuB, 


5. Capiam, 

P. CapiemuB, 





S, Capiam, 


S. Caperem, 


S. Ceperim, 

P. CeperYmoB, 

S. CepiBBem, 

P. CepiartmuB, 

S. Cepero, 

P. CeperYmuB, 



2. Cape €T CapYto, 
a CapYUx 

2. Caplte or Capitute, 

3. Capiunta 

PRES. CapSre, 
PERF. CepiBie. 
FUT. Ease captoruB, «a, tmi, 
Fuwe capturuB, -a, um. 


PRESENT. Capien 
VUTURE. Captiir 


Former. Captum 
Zoeter. Captu. 







Gen. C 
DaL C 
Ace. C 
AbL C 










FovrATH coiTivaATtoii^ or VlSMt. 


Prea. indie. 



Per/. Part. 

§ 12(5. Capior, 


Cajrtu», To he taken. 





& Capior, 

Caperia or Capere, 

iS. Capieba». 

Capieb&Ha, or -b&re, 

S. Captua sum or foi, 
CaptOB es or fuisti, 
Captus es or fuit. 


P. Capi«bamnr, 


P. Capti sumus or fuimiis^ 
Capti estis or fuistis, 
Capti sunt or fuerunt or 



S. Captus eram or fueram, 
Captus erds or fueras, 
CaptuB erat or fuerat, 



S. Capiar, 

Capieris or capiSre» 

P. Capti eramufl or fuerami 
Capti eratis or fueratis, 
Capti erant or fuerant. 


p. Capiemur, 





S. Capiar, 

Capiaris or tepiare, 
Cfepiatur, ' 

$. Caperer, 

Cltper§riB or ««rcre, 

S. Captus sim or fiiorim, 
Captus sis ot fhens, 
Captus sit or fuSrft, 

P. Capiamur, 

P. Caperemur, 

P. Capti simusor iuerimu% 
Capti sitis or fueritis, 
Capti sint or fuerint 



S. Cfiiptus e«sem or fbiMsm, 
Captua eaaes or fuisaea, 
Captus easet or fuiaset, 


S.CupbaB fuero, 
Captua fueria, 
Captus faerit. 

p. Capti essetnuB or fuiaaSn 
Capti essetia or fuiasitia, 
Capti esseut or fuiaaent. 


P. Capti fuerimus, 
Capti fueritis. 
Capti fuerint 




2. Capere or capitor, 

3. Capftor. 

2. CapimYni, 

3. Capiuntor. 

PRE8, Ca 
FERF. £^ 

FUT. Ca 


se or fttiase captuk, -a, -uiii. 

ptum in. 

PERF. Captus, -a, -um. 

1 FUT. Capiendua, -a, -um. 


Pres. Indie. 
^ 126« Audio, 


Pres. Inf. Perf. Indie. Supine. 
audlre, audlvi, ' auditum. 

FOOttm OONJliOAtlON OF VStlBft. 








Ami; or am haartng» 




•AsJt or wilt. 

iS^ Aad-io, 

& Aud-iebam, 

S. Aud-ivi, 

S. Aad-ivenim» 

S. Aud-iam, 











P. Aud-Tmus, 

P. Aud-iebamus, 

P. Aud-ivYmus, 

P. Aad-ivera- 

P. Aud-iemns, 



















mighty eouid. uKiuld^ 


migMftmttdy teould, 
or ihauU kove. 


& Aud-ian, 

S> Aud-irem, 

& Aud-iverim, 

S. Aud-ivisaem, 

S. Aud-iviro, 







. Aud-iret, 



Aud-i verit. 

P. Aad-iftmcB, 

P. Aud-iremus, 

P. Aud-iverl- 

P. Aiid-iyuse- 

P. A«d4v«rXknu4 












Sing. % Aud-i oi 

r -ito^ Hear thou. 

a Aud-ito, 

, l£t him hear* 

Plur. 2. Aud-ito 

or 4tute, Hear ye or you. 

3. Aud-iiu] 





PRES. Aud-ire, Th hear. 

PERF. Aud-iviaBC, To have heard. 

FUT. Esse aud-ituru8, -a, •um» To be about to hear, 

Fuisse aud-iturus, -a, •um. To have been about to hear. 


PRES. Aud-iens, ♦ Hearing. 

FUT. Aud-iturus, -a, -urn, About to hear. 


Former. Aud-itum, To hear. 

Latter. Aud-!lu, To hear, or to be heard. 


Nom. Aod-iendum, Hearing, 

Cren. Aud-iendi, Of hearing. 

Dat. Aud-iendo, To hearing. 

Aoc. Aud-iendnm, Hearing. 

AbL Aud-iendo, With hiring. 

* Free. Indie. 
§ 137# AUdior, 



S. Aud-ior, 
. AUd-Iris, or -Tre, 

P. And-Imar, 


Pres. Infin. 





S, Aud'iebar, 
Aud-iebaris or ) 
-ieb&re. ) 

P. Aud-ieb&mur, 
Aud iebantur. 

Perf. Part 
liudltus. To be heard. 


S, Anditus sum or fbi, 
AudTtus 68 or fuisti, 
Audittts 68t or fuit, 

P. Auditi suraufi or £fittavm^ 
Auditi estis or fuistis, 
AadT6 sunt or ftt^runt 
or fuere. 




had ban. 

S. Auditos eram or fuerem, 
Auditus eras or fueras, 
Auditus erat or fuerat, 

p. Auditi eramus or fueramui, 
Auditi eratis or fuer9.tis, 
Auditi erant or fuerant 


S. Aad-iar, 

Aud^ierifl or -tSn, 

p. Aud-iemar, 


may or eon fa. 
S, Aud-iar 

Aud-iaris, or ) 
-iftre, 5 

p. Aud-i&mor, 

mvM, eouU, HNwl^ or «koiiM fa. 

S. Aad-irer, 

Aud-ireris or 

p. Aud-irSmur, 





mighty eouU, would, or i A«uM Aaw faen. 

S. Aoditiu eBsem or fbisaeni, 
Auditus esses or fuiases, 
Auditus esset or fuisset, 

p. Auditi essemus or fuissemus, 
Auditi essetis or foissetis, 
Auditi essent or fuissent. 

jS. Auditus sim or fberim, 
Auditus sis or iiieris, 
Auditus sit or fuerit, ' 

P. Auditi simus or iiieif- 
Auditi sitis or fiierltis, 
Auditi sint or fuSrint. 


S, Auditus fuero, 
Auditus fueris, 
Auditus fuerit, 

p. Auditi fuerfmus, 
Auditi fuerVtis, 
Auditi fuerint, 

S. 2. Aud-Tre or -itot, 
3. Aud-itor, 

P. 2. Aud-imYni, 
3. Aud-iuntor, 


Be thou heard. 
Let him be heard,' 

Be ye heard. 
Let tkem be heard. 


PRE8. Aud-iri, 

PERF. Esse or fuisse auditus, -a, -um, 

FUT. Auditum iri, 

To be heard. 

To have been heard. 

7b be about to be heard. 


PERF. Aud-Ttus, 
FUT. Aud-iendus, 


To be heard.^ 


§ 128e A deponent verb is that which, under a 
passive form, has an active or neuter signification ; 
as, Loquor^ I speak ; morior^ I die. 

A common verb, under a passive form, has either 
an active or passive signification ; as, crfmiwor, I 
accuse, or I am accused. 


Most deponent verbs of old were the same with 
common verbs. They are called Deponent^ because 
they have laid aside the passive sense. 

Deponent and common verbs form the participle 
perfect in the same manner as if they had the ac- 
tive voice ; thus, Lasior^ Icstdri^ Uztaitis^ to rejoice ; 
vSreoTj vereri^ veritus^ to fear 5 Jungor^fungi^functuSj 
to discharge an office; potior^ potiri^ pdtUusj to 
enjoy, to be master of. 

Conjug[ation cf the depcmeiit verb Mirer ^ ' I admire.' JUtror, mi^ 
rdris or ««re, 7inrta% mvriiua. 


rRE8. Miror, Itdm&n ; ttdririi or -&ra, Atm adaure&t, ^. 

IMF. Mirabar, ««baris or 4bare, &&, I admired^ ^c. 

TVtJf. Miiatiu sum, or fui ; mirtLtus w or luitti, &c^ I have, ^c. 

PLUP. MiratuB emtn, or faeram, &c., I had admired, ^c. 

FUT. Mirabor ; mirabeiis, or mirabere, &c., I thaU admirt, fc 


FUCS. Mirer; mirSrif or -ere, &c., I may admire, ^ 
IMP. Mirftrer ; areni &r -arere, &c., / might admire, ^. 
VSBX. MiratuB sim, or fuerim, dsc., / may hate admifei, ^. 
tLDP. MirtCusessem, or fiiinem, &c., Imighi have admired, ^c, 
FUT. MiratoB ero, or fuero, &c., Z ehaU hmoe admired, ^e. 


pfcES. MiriiJ^ or mirator, &c., admire thou, or do fftou admire, ^ 


PRKS. Mir&ri, to admi/e. 

PERF* MirfttQS esse or fmeae, to have admired, 

FUT. Miratoras ease, to be aboid to admire. 

Mirattim iri, to fe about to be admired. 

Mirataros fuiwe, to have been about to admire. 

Mirandus fuiHe, to have been about to be aimittd, 


PRtt. Mirans, admiring. 

PERFk Miratiu, having admired. . 

FtJT. in Rus. Mirat&rus, tAout to admire. 
BOB. Minuidiu, to be admired. 

Mifalidani, -di, -do, and -daxD. 

-* Mirfttuoi, miratu. 



§ ISO* There are four principal parts of a verb, from which all 
the rest aife formed ; namely, O of the present, / of the perfect indica* 
live, RE of the infinitive, and UM of the supine.* A verb is com- 
monly said to be conjugated when only these parts are mentioned, be- 
cause from them all the rest are derived. 

The first person of the Present indicative is called the Tkeme, or 
the Root of the verb ; because firom it the other three principal parts 
are formed. 

All the letters which come before 'dre, -ere, 'ire, or -ire, of the in- 
finitive, are called radical letters, because they always remain the 
same. By putting these before the terminations, all the parts of any 
regular verb may be readily formed, except the compound tenses. > 


Indicative Mode, 

§ 130 The Imperfect indicative is formed from the present^ by 
changing o, in the first conjugatbn, into dbam ; as, amro, amr-dbtmi :-^ 
in the second conjugation, by changing o into bam ; as, doce-o, doce- 
ham : — in the thin! and fourth conjugations, by changing o into ebam ; 
as, leg-io, leg'iham ; audvo, aiidi^ebam. 

The Pluperfect indic<itive is formed from the perfect in all the 
conjugations by changing t into iram ; as, amdv-i, amav-iram ; docu-i^ 
docuriram ; leg-i, leg-iram ; audiv-i, audiv^am. 

The Future indicative is formed fix)m the present, hj changing o, 
in the first conjugation, into dbo ; as, am-o, am-dbo ; m the second 
conjugation by changing o into bo ; as, doce-o, dochho ; in the third 
and fourth conjugations, by changing o into am ; as, leg-o, leg-am ; 
audi-o, avdiram. 


SubfuncHve Mode, 

§ 131* The Present subjunctive is formed firom the present 
indicative by changing o, in the first conjugation, jnto em ; as, am-o, 
am^em ; in the second, third, and fourth conjugations, by changing o 
into am ; as, doce-o, doce-am ; leg-o, leg-am ; audi-o, audi-am. 

The Imperfect subjunctive is formed, in all the conjugations, firom 
the present infinitive, by adding m ; as, amdre, amdrem ; docere, do- 
cerem ; legire, legirem ; audire, audlrem, 

* It is, however, much better to conjugate verbs with the perfect passive 
participle than with the supine, for it is more in accordance with other lan- 
guages, while the supine occurs biit seldom in the Latin classics, compared 
with the perfect participle. 


The Perfect subjunctive is formed from the perfect indicative, by 
changing i into erim ; as, iamo-vi, amaihirim ; docit^y docu-irim ; leg-i^ 
leg-irim; audtv-ii audiv-erim. 

The Pluperfect subjunctive is formed from the perfect indicative, 
by changiog i into issem; as, amdv-i, amav-issem; docu-i, docu- 
issem ; hg-h leg^sem ; audiv^ audiv-issem. 

The Future subjunctive is formed from the perfect indicative, by 
changing i into iro; as, amdvHj amav-iro; docu-i^ docuriro; leg-i^ 
leg-ero; audiv-i, audiv-iro. 

Imperative Mode, 

§ 13S« The Present imperative is formed from the present in- 
finitive, by taking away re; as, amare^ ama; doceref doce; tegire, 
lege ; audire^ audi. 

Ififinitive Mode, 

^ 133* The Present ir^nitive is formed from the present indi- 
cative, by changing o, in the first conjugation, into are; as, am-o, 
otn-are ; in the second and fourth conjugations, by changing o into re ; 
as, doce-o, doce-re; audi-^y audi-re; in the diird conjugation, by 
changing o or to into ere; sa, leg'O^ leg-^re ; cap40f cap-^re. 

The Perfect infinitive is formed from the perfect indicative, by 
changing i into isse ; as, amdv4y amav^se ; docu-i, docu^se ; leg-i^ 
leg-isse; audivA^ audiv-isse. 

The Future infinitive is formed from the supine, by changing m 
into ruSf and adding esse, or fuisse ; as, amaXv^^m, amatu-rus, esse or 
fuisse ; doctu^m, doctu-rus, esse or fuisse ; lectu-m, lectu-rus, esse or 
fuisse ; auditu-m, auditu-rus, esse or fuisse, 



§ 134* The Present Participle is formed firom the present in- 
dicative, by changing o, in the first conjugation, into ans ; as, am^^ 
am-^ns ; in the second conjugation, by changing o into n« ; as, doce^^ 
doce-'ns ; in the third and fourth conjugations, by changing o into ens ; 
as, leg-Of leg-ens; audi^, atidi-ens, 

.^ The Future Participle is formed from the supine, by changing m 
into rus; as, amatu-m, amatu-rus; doctu^m^ doctu-vus; lectu-m, 
lectuHTus; auditw-m, auditu-rus. 


• § 1.3 5* The Gerunds are formed from the present participle, by 
changing s into dum, di, and <2o ; as, 

aman^; aman^um, aman-di, amajirdo; 

jdocen^s; docen^um^ docen-di^ docenrdo; 

legen-s; legen-^um, legen-di, legen-dof 

audien-s; audien^dumn audien^i, audien-do» 



V0E1IA.TI0N or THIS TBli9E8 IN T«S PA«»|V9 yOlPS. 

jTidicative and Sttbfunctive Mode$, 

§ 136« The Present^ Imperfect, ^ad FtUure Indicative ; and the 
Present^ and Imperfect Subjunctive, are formed from the correspond- 
ing tenses in the active voice. 

From those tenses in the active voice which end in o, the saoie 
tenses in the passive are formed by adding r ; but from those which, 
in the active voice, end in m, the same tenses of the passive are 
formed by changing m into r. 

First Con^atioO' 

Prea. Indie, 
PtiL Indie 
Pres, Subj. 
Imp. Subj. 

Active, Passive. 

amo, amor, 

amabani, am&bar. 

amabo, amabor. 

amem, amer. 

amfirem, am&rer. 

Second Conjugatim. 

t " ^ \ 

Active. Passive. 

doceo, doceor. 

docebam, dooebar. 

docebo, doeebor. 

doceam, docear. 

docerem, docerer. 

Tkird Cmjvgatkm, 

t ■ ■*■ ■ ' A 

Active. Passive. 

lego, le^r. 

logSbam, legjSbar. 

legam, legar. 

legam, legar. 

legerem, legerer. 

The other five tenses, namely, the Perfect and Pluperfect Indica- 
tive ; and the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future SubjuiKtive, are com- 
posed of the perfect participle, ^ec^u^ed with the tenses of the verb 

Imperative Mode. 

§ 137« The Imperative Passive 10 the same as the Infinitive 

Infinitive Mode, 

§ 138« The Present tense of the Infinitive mode is ferroed 
from the i^nitive Active, by changing e, in the first, second, and fourth 
e(H\jiigations, mto i ; as, amar^, amar4 ;. docer-e, doeir^ ; audir^, 
auJkr4; and in the third conjugation, by changing ire into «; as, 
leg-ire, leg-i. 

The jFWune h^nitive is composed of the fcfmer supine, and irt, 
(which is the infinitive passive of the verb eo, to go,) as» amatum iri ; 
doctum iri ; ledum iri. 


§ 130« The Perfect Participle is formed from the former supine, 
by changing m into «; as, amatu^m^ amdtvr-s ; doctu-m, docturs; lec^ 
tu-m, lectths ; atidttu^m, audttu-s. 

The Future Participle is formed from the present active participle, 
by changing s into dus ; as, amans, amandus ; docens, aoceitdvs » 
legens, legendus ; audiens, audiendus. 



^ 140« The tenses formed fiom the present of the indicative or infinitive, 
sigmfy in general the continuance of an action or paaBi<Mi, or represent thera as pre- 
sent at some particular time : the other tenses express an action or passion com- 
pleted ; but not always so absolutely, as entirely to exclude the continuance of the 
same action or passion ; thus, Amo, 1 love, do love, or am loving; €uniAamt I loved, 
did love, or yma loving, &c. 

Amavi, I loved, did love, or have loved, tkat is, have done veith loving, &c. 

In like manner, in the passive voice ; Amor, I am loved, I am in loving, or in 
being loved, &c 

Past time in the passive vmce is expresBed several diflbrent ways, by means of 
the auxiliary verb nan, and the participle perfect ; thus : 

Indicative Mode, 

, Perfect AmSiuB stun, I am, or have been loved, or tflener, I was loved. 
' AmShu fui, I have been loved, or I was loved. 

VlnpetSdcL Amlttut eram, I was, or had been loved. 
AmOtus fuSram, I had been loved. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Periect AmStus sim, I may be, or may have been loved. 
Amatua fuihim, I may have been loved. 

Pluperfect AmSius esaem, I might, could, would» or should be« or have been 

AmiStun fuxaaem, I might, could, would, or should have been loved ; 

or fhad been loved. 

Future. AmStus fvXro, I shall have been loved. 

The verb sum is also employed to express future time in the indicative mode, 
both active and passive ; thus : 

Amatwnts sum, I am about to love, I am to lov6, 1 am ^ing to love, or I will 

love. We chiefly use this ferm, when some purpose or mtention is signified. 
AmStus ero, I shall oe loved. 

Obsi 1. The participles nmatus, amalurus are put before the auxiliary verb» be- 
cause we commonly find them so placed in ^e classics. 

Obs. 2. In these compound tenses the learner should be taufht to vary die paiw 
ticiple like an adjective noun, according to the gender and nuniber of the difierenC 
substantives to which it is applied ; thus, amStus est, he is or was loved, when 
applied to a man; cmSia est, she was loved, when applied to a woman; amOium 
est, it was loved, when applied to a thing; cmUUi sunt, they were loyed, when ap* 
plied to men, &c. The connecting of syntax, so &r as is necessary, with &e inflec* 
tion of nouns and verbs, seems to De the most proper method of teaching both. 

Obs. 3. The past time and participle perfect in English are taken in dififerent 
meanings, according to the different tenses m Latin which they are used to express. 
Thus, ** I loved," when put fer am^xtm, is taken in a sense diflerent fifom what it 
has when put for amdvi ; so amor, and amStus sum, I am loved ; amSiar and amS- 
tus eram, I was loved ; amer, and amStus sim, &c. In the one, loved is taken in a 
presen t, in the other, in a past sense. This ambiguity arises fiom the defective 
nature of the English verb. 

Obs. 4. The tenses of the sulgunctive mode may be variously rendered, accord- 
ing to their connexion with the other parts of a sentence. They are often exjiressed 
in English as the same tenses of the indicative, and sometimes one tense is appe;* 
rently put fer another. 



Thin, Qwui itUdtfgant, quaUn tiu As if tfaey undentood, what kind of penon he 
is. Cic. In fw^m»» juria» putet. You would think, d^ Oy. ElSquar on tUeamt 
Shall I speak out or be silent ? Nee vos arguerim, Teucriy for arpiamy Virg. Si 
miid (e fvg^ett a^o periirim, ibr peribo. Ter. Hunc ego si poUa Uuttum tperdre 
addrem ; Et perferre, worWy potSro: for poluiuem BoApossem. Wii%. Singuta quid 
repirami Why should I mention every thing? Id. Pradicires mikty You should 
have told me oeforehand. Ter. At tu dictis, ASbdne^ manereSt Ought to have stood 
to your word. Virg. CiHuh credidirim, I should sooner believe. Juv. Hauiirel 
ensiSf The sword would have destroyed. Virg. FuhirU ir&H, Grant or suppose they 
vreie angry. Si idftdua.^ If he did or should do that Cic. The same promiscu- 
ous use of the tenses seems also to take place sometimes in the indicative and 
mimitive ; and the indicative to be pot for the subjunctive ; aa, Animus mcmanuse 
horrfAy luctHque rtfugit, fat refugit. Virg. FiUrcU meUua, for fuisHt Id. Inxidim 
<2i^M9 eratt RxpuateL Sail. Q^amdiu inportum vents? for venittL Plaut Quam 
tnoae tuaffgo EJphUum, for mmigabo. Id. ISi n hie sis, aUter tenkuu. Ter. for e$ie$ 
and ssnftreSi CaJto c^^rmat, se vivo, iUttm turn triumphate, for triumphaiurvm tste^ 
Cic. PertuSdet CkuGco, ut ooaqOrel, for occupet, 

Obs. 5. The future of the subjunctive, and also of the indicative, is often ren- 
dered by the poescnt cS ike sulgonctive in English ; as, mn hoc faaet, arfedbrit, 
unless he do this. Tar. 

Obs. 6. Instead of the imperative we often use the present of the nil^onctive ; 
as, vdleeut forewell ; hue venias, come hither, &c. And also the future both of the 
indicative and subjunctive ; as, non ocddes, do not kill ; ne feciris, do not do ; 
valUig meque amSbu, fkreweU, and k>ve me. Cic. 

The present and the preter-imperfect of the infinitive are both expressed under 
the same form. AU the varieties of past and future time are exp re s sed by the 
other two tenses. But in order properly to exemplify the tenses er the infinitive 
mode» we must pot an accoaative, ana some other verb before each ef them; 


Didt me tcribire ; he says OuA I write, do write, cr am writin|[[. 

DUnt me tcritXre ; he satd fftof I wrote, did write, or was writmg. 

DicU me tcripneae; he says thai I wrote, did write, or have writlen. 

Dimi me tcr^pMee; he said that I had written. . 

Vicit me acn^urum esse ; he says tkcti I will write. 

Disii no$ acnptHros ease ; he said that we would write. 

JHat no8 tcnpturosfuigae ; he says thai we would have written. 

DicU Uth-aa aeribi ; ne says that letters are written, writing, or in writing. 

IHxit liHraa tcribi ; he said thai letters were writing, or written. 

Didi Uihtu tcripitae esse ; he says that letters are, or were written. 

Dicit lit^ras scnptasfuisae ; he says thoA letters hieive been written. 

Ducii Hthas scrrptas fuisse ; he said that letters had been written. 

IHcit litiras scnptum tri ; he says thai letters will be written. 

Dixit litiras scnptum iri ; he said that letters would be written. 

The future, scriptum iri, is made up o£ the former supine, and die infinitive p^ 
■ive of the verb eo, and therefore never admits of any variation. 

The future of die infhiitive is sometimes expressed by a periphrasis, or circum- 
locution ; thus, scio fore or futurum esse vi scrtbard, — vi Uterce serihantur ; I know 
that thoy will write, — that letters will be written. Scivi fore or /vtHrum esse ut 
scribirent, — ut Utira scriberemtur ; I knew that they would write, &c. Sohrifu^ 
ffirum fuisse ut lxUr<e scriberentur ; I knew that letters would have been written. 
This form is necessary in verba which want the supine. 

Obs. 7. The dififerent tensQs, when joined with any expediency or necessity, are 
thus expressed: 

&ri&em{iiiii eat «nJU, puXrOt ntbie, Ac,, UlXras; I, the boy, we, Ae., most write 

Scribendumfuit miki, puXro, nobis, Ac - 1 must have written, &a 
Scribendum erit mihi ,- I shall be oUiged to write. 


8do mnibendum ens mUd UtXraa; I know that I moit write lettem 

acribendumfmsae nuki ; that I must have written. 

Dixil acribendumfore vuM ; he said that I should be obliged to write. 

Or with the participle in dua : 

LUirw maU aerihendtB mihi^puBro, homintbua, Ac^ or ame,puira, Ac^ lettert are to 
be. Of must be written bv me, by the boy, by men, Ac Slo, Utitm aeribenda erant^ 
fuentnt, erunt, Ac Si UUhrm acnbenda ami, eaaenitforent, Ac Sdo Utihtu acru 
oendaaeaaef I know thai letters are to be, or must be written. Schn UtXraa acri- 
bendaa fuiaae ; I knew iJuU letters ought to have been, or must have been written. 


§ 141« Compound tod simple verbs fotni the preterite and lupine 
in the same manner ; as, 

VOoo^ vdcovt, vdcoticm, to call ; fKS rivdcOf revdcdvi^ tewdediwn^ to 


Exckl. When the simple verb in the preterite doubles the first 
syllable of the present, the compounds lose the former syllable ; as, 
petto, p^^i, to beat; ripeUo, ripidi, never repgpiili, to beat back. 
But tiie compounds of io, «to, disco, and posco, follow the general rule ; 
thus, idiaco, edidici, to get by heart; depoico, depdposci, to demand: 
so, pTiBcurro, prtBciicwrri / ripungo, ripipugi. 

Exo. % Compounds which change a of the simple verb into t, have 
e in the supine or perfect participle ; as, fado, feci, factum, to make ; 
perftcio, perfici, perfedum, to perfect But compound verbs ending 
m do and go; also the compounds of hdbeo, pldceOi $&pio, #a/to, and 
atiUuo, observe the general rule. 




§ 143« I. Verbs of the First Conjugation have 
are in the infinitive, dvi in the Perfect, and dtus in 
the Perfect Participle passive ; as, 

Amo,' amftre, amavi, am&tas, r. d. love. 

Verbs marked thus * have no Perfect Participle 

Verbs thus marked t have no Perfect active. 

The Futures eus and dus are expressed by e. 
and D. ; and the Supines um and u, by m. and u. ; 
those verbs, therefore, which have not one or more 
of these letters prefixed to them, are deficient in 
those parts respectively which those letters signify. 

*Abuiido.*R. overflow. 

Accuso,* R. D.M accuse. 

Adumlxo/ delineate. 

.£dinco,^R. D btUld. 

JEqvLOf* R. D. .... levd. 

JEatimOf'' R.D. value. 

«Ambulo,* D. M. ...: vxilk. 

Amplio,* D. ..« enlarge. 

•Ai^gario,'* . . . press forpuUic service. 
Appello," D. caU. 

Apto,'« D. ft 

Aro,'* R. D. plough' 

^Ascio^'* ckip udth an axe, 

*Au8calto," Usten. 

*Autunio," suppose. 

tBaaiV*D. Uss, 

*BeUo,'* R. M. uMgewar. 

Beo,'» Ikss, 

♦Boo,*» beOmo, 

Brevio," shorten. 

In the following Notes are contained such Parti- 
ciples in Rtjs and Dus, and Supines of the verbs, as 
are found in the classics now extant ; together with 
the less frequent and irregular formations. 

^AmaiuruSt GelL 1. 3. 4. Anumdus, Ovid. Amasset GelL Amowo» Plaot — 
^AbundaluruSt TertuU. — *Accusatum, Terent Accusaturtis, Li v. AccusanduSt 
Cic. — *The PUrticij^es in n«, rus and dus^ do not occur. — ^.^iklUlcaturus, Cic 
Verr. .Xd^canduSt Cic. Fam. — *u3SquaiUrus, Claud. JEguandus, Ovid. — ^^sti" 
maturust Qnintil. ^sdmandus, GelL — *AmbuliUum, Plant ObambuUttum, Plant 
DeanJbiddJtum^ Terent Ambukmdus, Gels. Ambuldiur, impers. Varr. — *Ampli' 
andus, CeLk — ^^ Angaria has no participles. — * ^J^ppeUandus, Cic Appeilassis for 
appdUmiris, Terent — ^*Aptandus, Claud. — »» The Participle Arans occun only 
in Cic. de Senect c 16. AraturuSf Tibull. Arandiis, Virff.— '«Of this verb 
Ascieter only is found, Vitruv. vii. 2. — ''None of the Participtes are to be found. 
AuscuUatHtur, impNors. Plant — *' None of the Participles exist: autumoMtur, pass. 
Plant — ^^BasiSvi seems not to exist: BasiStus^ Mart xii. 59. Basiandus, Mart i. 
96.-'^*BelUUum, Nep. DebeUStum, liv. BeUaturuSy Claud. BeUantur, *they 
fight,' Viig. JSfL xi. 660.— '*BeS<et; Ter. Andr. Be&tus, said to be the Perfect 
Participle of Beo, is used as an adjective. — ^^Bount, as if from Boo, bofis, Pacuv. 
Bovantes, as if from Bovo. — *^Brevi&vU, Quint xil 10. Brevidtus, Sidon. 



Casio,* carve, 

Calceo,*!). thoe. 

«CalcKtro,* kick. 

CantD,' wL nng, 

Caplo,*D.ii. «nss. 

Cannli»,* atrdwooL 

Castigo,' D. WL cAojftae. 

t*Catoiiudio, ,.,.JlQg onthsMhouUen. 
CelBhto,'' D. make fa 

Celo,* D. conoeaL 

Centario»* divide into oeniuriee. 

Certo,*"!). E. tlrive, 

Cog¥lD.'> thinJL 

Comp&xi,'* D. compare, 

CtMicilio," E. D. reamdle, 

Cooudftro,'* E. D. coneider. 

Cranio,**]). bum, 

Creo," ]L D. Creole. 

Cnicio," D. .*• tormeiU, 

Cul|)o,'* E.D (dame, 

Cuirao,** o. ', vedge, 

Curo,*" E. D. care, 

0aiiino,*' R. Db M. antdemn* 

DecSro," D. adorn. 

Decurio,** divide inio con^aniee. 


Desidero,** R. d. deeire. 

Deatitno,** d. tietdeeign, 

Dico)'* R. D. M. dedicate, 

DictD,'' dictate. 

Dolo,** ke»,cut 

Dono,'^ R. D. bestow. 

DupUoo,'* R.ik daabU. 

I>uio,"r. harden. 

EflSgio," portray. 

tEmacio,** emaciate, 

tEnadeo,'* D. etftain. 

EquJto," ride. 

Eno,'' wander, 

ExiatYmo,** E. D. u. think, 

Ezpluro,'* D. M. march. 

tEznunio, aquene oat btood. 

Exulo,«« R. M. bebameked, 

Fabrfoo,** d. frame. 

tFaacio,** moatke. 

Fati|^*' E.JK wearif. 

Featmo,^* R. hasten. 

Firmo,** R. D. strengiken. 

Flaglto,^ o. M dewmnd. 

*Flagio,«*R beonjre. 

n^D. Sow. 

■ The Particiidea in 9i«, rus, and dtu, of Ccaco, Ctdo^ and Codatro, do not occur 
in the classics. Caiassis ibr CaHavhitt Festus. — * Odceandus, Phsdr. — * CkmtO^ 
fum, Terent — * Capistitm, Plant Captandu», Plant — 'The Paniciplea lu, rtM, 
and due are not to be found. CarminStuSt Plin. N. H. ix. 3& — * CaeHgOlnmt Plaut 
CcutiganduSf Lit. xxxix. 25. — ^ Cdebranduit Catul. — * CekmduSt Just — *Cefi- 
turiUvittVaX. "Max. CentttriatuejlAy. — '" Cerfotttrus, Ces. Certandue^lAv. Cer- 
tstue, * contended for,* SiL Mvltum cerUUo^ ' after much contention,' Tadt Ann. 
like aiK^ito, 'it being heard;' comjaerto^ *it being discovered.' CertUuTt imneis. 
Pacuv. — ' ' CogitMuruSj Hirt — *' Comparandugt Terent Comvaramt fat Ccm" 
parcmhilf Plaut — " CofiaZtofuriM, Caesar. ConcQiandtu, Ovid. — **Contidera^ 
i&ru$. Curt ConsideranduSf Apul. Flor. Condderaviaoe pio coimderaem. Quint — 
** CoTurematHrwtt liv. Cremandus, Ovid. — **Creaturu9, liv. Creandut, GelL 
The Participle in ns does not occur. — ** CrtieianduSt Ovid. — ** CtdpatunUf Apul. 
Ctdpandtu, Apul. — '* Cuneandue, Plin. — *^ Curat^ruty Plaut Curandui, Cels. 
Curasgi»i for curavhiSt Plaut — " Dttmnatom, Quint JOamnaiums, Ovid. /Xnn- 
nandtu, Ovid. — *' Decorandtis, Cic. — " DecuriassCy Cic. pro Plane. DecurUUue, 
liv. — **The simple Xitneo, 'I draw lines,' has no Perfect now extant IdneSiua 
is found in Plaut DeHneaoit^ Plin. It has no partidples. — ** Denderaturu», Plin. 
Desiderandue^ Cic. — *^ Destinandtu, Vitrov. — ^Du^Uumt liv. i. 7. DicafSnM, 
Plin. Dioandus, Plin. — •• DictatuSt Juv. vi. 390 — •• The Participles in ns, n«, and 
dtM, do not occur. Dclavitt Cic. DotatuSy Juv. xii. 57. DolXre^ 3d Coqjugation, 
Lucr. ; hence, ddtltus^ Varr. — *** Dona<ttrt£«, Apul. Met Donandtte, Hor. — *' Du- 
plicaturut, Cic. Att v. 18. Duplicandu8t liv. xxvii. 11. — *^ DuratUrus, hactLn. 
^^EJMUtts, ApuL — **£maaAtu«, Colum. — *»The perfect of this verb cannot be 
foundT Enudeatust Cic. pro Plane. EnudeanduSf Cic. — *'EquitStu8, 'ridden 
over;' Claud. EqwOOa cohortt ' infantry intermixed with cavalry;* Inscript ap. 
Murat — *''Err&tus, * wandered over;' Virg. JEn, iii. 690. ErrStur, impers. Virg. 
G. iii. 249. Err&to mtAz, for cum errav^ro^ Cic. — **ExistimStUt liv. Existima^ 
iuruji, Cic. Exielimandus, Val. Max. — **ExplorlUum and Exptorandtu, liv. — 
*^Exulatum, Liv Exulat&rus, Justin. — ♦'Faftrtcor, deponent, Cic. Off. i. 41. Fabri- 
candue, Sil. — **Fa8ciiUu», Mart. — **Fatigandu9, Cic. OfC iii. la — **Festinaturft8, 
Plin. Festinarentur^ Tadt Hist iii. 37. FeOinanturt Tacit Germ. c. 20. — ♦*jPir- 
thafurus, Justin. Firmandtu, Colum. — **FlemtStu8, Tacit FtafriUUunif Cic. FlO' 
gitandus, Justin. — **fZ(i^ra<Snu, Cic. DefiwrOtuSy Cic Cat iv. ^-^^FUUue, 
* blown ;' FtatuMj * cast,'- * coined ;' Gell. FkmauSt Cic. CooJUmdtts, ibid. 




Formo,^ lu u. form, frame. 

tForo,"D. liore, 

Fneno,* bridle. 

Frsudo,*D. defraud. 

tFiio," crumbU. 

Fugo,« R- D. put to flight. 

Fundo^^R. found. 

tFurio,* madden. 

tGaleo," put on a helmet. 

0«8tio,M>D. hear. 

tGlacio, to conceal. 

Gravo,*i d. to uxigh down. 

Gu8lD,^D. to taste. 

Habi to,^ D. M to dweU. 

t*Halo, breathe. 

*Hio,"D. to gape. 

Huino,*' R.i>. to bury. 

HyemOy^ii. winter. 

IgnGro,^^ luo. he ignorant 

Impero,*^ n. D command. 

Imdetro,^ r. o. obtain by reauesL 

Inchoo,*' R begin. 

Indago,*^ R. D. trace out. 

IndYco,^ R. D. M. «Aoul 

tinebrio,** inebriate. 

Initio,^ initiate. 

InquYno, pollute. 

Instauro,"" D. renew. 

Intro,^ R. o. '. .. enter. 

Invito,^ D. invite. 

IrrIto,"D. provoke. 

Itero,"" D. u. do again. 

Jacto,'" R. D IhroWf ooasL 

JadYoo,*^ R. D Jv%^* 

Jugo," D. coume, 

Jugulo,"* D. H. butcher. 

Juio,** D. swear. 

LabOro,"" r. d laJboar. 

Lac^ro,*> D. tear. 

*Lacto, sucfde, wheedle. 

Lanio,^ d. butcher. 

Lequeo,'^ ensnare. 

Latro,* bark. 

Laudo,^ R. D. praise. 

Laxo,^* o. loose. 

Lego,^ dqnUe, bequeath. 

Levo,« R. D. Itghten. 

Libero,** r. d. free. 

^Formaturust Justin. Formandus, Stat. Syl. — 'The Participles ns and rus are 
not in use. ForStus, Vitruv. Forandus, Cels, — • The Participles ns, rus, and dus, 
do not occur. FremaiMSy Hirt — ^The Participles ns and rus are not fai use. Frau- 
aus, * having committed a fraud ;' PlauL A sin. Fraudandus, Quint Curt. Frau- 
dassis for Fraudaviris, Plant. — * Friatus, Lucr. — • FvgatUrus, Ovid. Fugandus, 
ibid. — "^ The Participles ns and rus do not occur. — ® FuriHtus, Virg. .^n. ii. 407. — 

• Qaledtus, Juv ^^(xeOandus, Stat. Theb. — " OravatuSj * weighed down/ 'over- 
powered ;' liv. XXV. 24. Crravatus, ' indignant,' * weaivof bearing,' * disdaining to 
carrv ;' as if from a deponent Oravor, Hot. iv. Od. ii. ^7. Chravandvs, Propert — 
^ Tne Participle Ouslans occurs only in Petrpn. c. 33. and Gallus i. 96. The Parti- 
ciple in rus is not in use. Ou^andus, Cels. — ^^ HabiiaUan, Plant. Hdbiiandus, 
Ovid. — *^JKam2u«, Pers. — ^^The Participle ns is not to be found in the classics. 
Humaturus, Sueton. Humandus, Virg. i£n. vi. 161. — ^*Ih/emdtum, Nepos. — 
" J^gnoratus, ' not known ;' Cic. IgnorSius^ ' undiscovered ;' &lust. — ^ ImperMw- 
rus, Csesar. — ** The Participle in ns seems not to exist. Impetralurus, liv. /in- 
petroTuius, Val. Max. Impetrassere for imperaturum esse. Plant. — * Inchoaturus, 
Curt Ad inchoandam rem. Liv. — ^^ Indagatur, depon. The Participle in ns does 
not occur. Indagaiurus, Apul. Indaganaus, GelL — ^Indicatum, Lav. Indioor 
turus, ibid. Irdicasso for indicavero, Plaut — ^ InthriaJbus, Plin. — ^Initidri, 
depon. ' to begin.' Invtialus, Cic. Tusc. Initiantes for qui initiantur, Vitruv. No 
other participle. — ^ Iw^urandus, Gell. — '^Intretur, pass. Tadt ItUrari, i^d. 
Intr&ri, impers. Caes. IntraiUrus and Inirandus, Liv. — ^ Invitandus, Suet In- 
vitassitis for invitaverttis. — ^Irritandus, Liv. Irritassis for irrita^ris, Plaut — 

* IterStu, Plaut Iterandus, Colum. — ^^ Jactattirus, Cic. Jactarulus, Ovid. — 
>^ Judicalurus, Caes. Judicandus, Cic. Judicassit for judicavirit, Cic. de liCg. iii. 
3. — ^Jugandvs, Hor — ^JuguUttum, Cic. Jugulandus, yeH. Max. — **Juratus, 
'sworn;* passim. JurOtus, 'sworn by;' Ovid. Juratus, 'having sworn;' Cic — 
^Laboralus, 'wrought with labour;' Virg. i£n. i. 643. LaborStus, ' calaniitous ;' 
Val. Flac. Laborandus, Plin. LaborStur, impers. Cses — ^ Lacerandus, L^can. — 
" Lanidius, Met Laniandus, Liv. — ^ Laque&re, Manil. Laqueans, ibid. Laquea- 
vit, Luctat No other parts of this verb are to be found, maqueo is^ore usual, 
though its Perfect is not found. lUaqueSius, Cic. — ^Lalr&lus, ' barked at' La- 
tretur, Impers. — ^ LaudatUrus, Nep. Laudandus, TiDull. — *^ Laxandus, Plin. — 
*'The Pftrticiples in ns, rus, and dus, do i)ot occur, /jcgstus, • lefl by will.' Lego- 
^i^, used substantively, 'a person sent* 'an ambasMidor;' paBsim. ~^ *^ Levat&rus, 
Curt Z>t»»2u«, Vire. Geoig. Letxxsso for I^vavihro, Exm. — **LU)eraturus, IA\, 
lAberandus, Cic. lAberasso for JUberavero, Plaut 



ligo, Hud. 

liquo,* Dw meU. 

lAtOy* appease by tacrijice, 

Loco,*]i. D, place, let 

Lustio,^ D. survey, 

Luxuiio, be wanton, tUwuncl. 

Macto,*D. day. 

Maculo, etain, 

Mandofi^ v. command. 

ManducoJ chew. 

*A&aio, fiow. 

Matuio,B D. ripejhluuten. 

Memoro^^D. u. teU. 

*Meo,^" go, pass. 

^Meridio,^' m deep al noon. 

*MiRO,^ R. u. depaH. 

^Mmto,^ R. M serve in war. 

tMlnio,^^ D. patntred. 

MinistTO,'* serve. 

Mitigo,^ D pacify. 

Monstro," R. show. 

Muto,^R. o. change. 

NaRo,^R.o. teU. 

Nato,*R.H swim. 

*Naa8eo,'^ loathe. 

Navigo,*' R. o. sail 

Navo," R. D. a^ vigorously. 

Nego,** R. D. M deny. 

*No, swim. 

NomliM},* R. D. mane. 

Noto,*D. mark, 

Novo,"r. d, renew. 

Nudo,*D. make bare. 

Nuncupo,* R. Db name. 

Nuntio," R. M tdL 

*Nuto, R. nod, 

Obsecro^'^R. d. beseet^ 

*OlHeinpeio," R. obey, 

Obtrunoo," r. kiU, 

Qnero,** r. d. load, 

Opto,"* D. wish, 

OrbOy^R. deprive, 

Orno,*' R. o. adorn, 

Qro,*»R.D.M. beg, 

Pftoo,* subdue, 

Paro,^R. D. prepare. 

Pfttro,^^ R commiL 

*Pecco,«*R. sin. 

Pio,* D .propitiate, 

Placo,^R. D. appease. 

Ploro," D. M oewttil. 

Porto,* R. D. u carry. 

Postiilo,^ R. D. M demand. 

Privo,* D. deprive. 

Probo,^ R. D. M. u approve. 

Profligo,»^ D rout, 

Propero,** D. hasten, 

♦Proplno," drink to. 

^UquanduSt Cels. The Participles ns and rus do not occur. — ^UiStus, Virg. 
JEju iv. 50. Litandum, * sacrifice must be made ;' ibid. JEn. v. 118. — * Looaturus, 
lav. LocanduSy Ovid. Looassim for Locaverim, Cic. de Leg. — * LustranduSt Viig^ 
^n. — * Mactandas, Ovid. — • Mandaiurus, Cic — "^ Manducatur, depon. Pompon. — 
« Maturandus, Caee. — » Memor&tu, Sail. Cat c. 7. Memorandus, Vir]^. — " Me&ris,. 
llor. i. Od. 4, 17. Meavisse, Tacit Means, Lucan. No other Participles occur. — 
^^Meridi&ri, depon. Cels. The Perfect is not in use. Meridiatwn, CatuU.-— 
^ Migrdtu, Liv. Migraturus, Suet Mieraniur, osa&. SiL Mi^rUwr, impers. Cic. 

Migratum est, impers. Liv. i. 11 ^MuUStum, Terent MUitaturus, Liv. Aft/t» 

tabUur, * shall be served ;' Plaut — " The Perfect does not occur. MniOtus, Cic. 
Miniandus, Plin.' — " Vasa ministrandis cibis. Tacit — *• Mitigandus, liv. — "Mtm" 
slratuniSy Curt. — ^Mutandus, Cic. — ^Narraturus, Stat, rfarrandus, Justin.— 
» JVa/o/tfwi, Cic. iVotaffiruit, Ovid. JVattltor, Ovid. — " iVatt«eBn«, Cic The other 
Participles are not found. — " Navigatus, * sailed over ;' Tacit Germ. c. 34 Navi' 
ffandus, Ulpian. Navigatur, pass. Plin. JVowa^tir, impets. Cic. — ^NavatUrus, 
Curt Navandtu, Tacit The Participle in ns dcjes not occur. — •• Negatum, liv. 
Negaturus, ibid. Negandus, Ovid. Negassim for Neeavirim.-^^Ifominatilrus, 
Suet Nominandus, Curt. — ^Notandus, Hort Art Poet — «^ iVowrifinwt, Curt 
NovanduSy Ov. — ^Nudandus, Csbb.^^^ NuncvpatUrus, Justin. — ^NunHdtum, 
Sail. Jugur. c. 108. Nunliaturus, Liv. — » Obsecrandus, Plin. ObsecratUrus, Ter. — 
« Oblemperatum esset, impers. Cic. — » Obfruncaturus, Justin. — ** Oneraturus, Plin. 
Oflerandus, Suet — » Optandus, Stat — » Orbaturus, Ovid. The Participles in ns 
and dus do not occur. — ^ Omaturus, Claud. Omandus, Cell. — " OrOtum, Cic. 
Oratvtrus, Tacit Orandus, Viig. iEn. ii. 232. — » * Ad pacandas Hispanias/ Cces. — 
«» Paraturus, Justin. Parandus, TibuU. — «' • Pads patrandcs merces,' Liv. — «Pec- 
catUrus, Cell. — *■ Piitttis, Ovid. Piandus, Ovid. — ** Pkuxtiurus, Justin. Placan- 
das, Stat Achil. — «P^Stowi, Cic. PZoran«f««, Stat Theb. — *« Por^ofu, Plin. 
Portandus, Virg. /En. ix. 312. — « Posttdatum, Caw. Postulaturus, Liv. Postulan- 
dus, Cic — « Privandvs, Cic. — <» Prob&tum, Cic. A tt Probatu, Cic. Tusc. v. i. — 
«» The Participles iw and rw« do not occur in the classics. — " JPro/^erondu», Virg, 
Georg. — "NiHie of the Participles are found. 



tPrepitio,^ o. t^ppeaae. 

Pusiio,«iu fgf^ 

Puuo,' D. beat, 

Purgo,«R.D.u cleanse. 

Pato,«D. prune, think, 

Quano,' d shake. 

RadiOfT emit rays. 

JRaptD,^D. dragabauL 

Recapero,* r. d. m recover. 

Recuse,'* R. D. refuse. 

Repudio," R. D. rtnect. 

Reaero,** d. umock. 

*tRetalio, retaliate. 

Rigo, looter. 

Rt^o,** R. D. M aA. 

Roto, teihirl. 

Saciiflfoo,** If sacrifice. 

Sacro,*^ D. consecrate, 

Sofflno,*' o. fatten. 

Sarto,"R. dance. 

Salato,^R.M salvle. 

Saiio,i*R.D. heaL 

Satio^ satiate. 

Satuio,» MgluL 

Saucio,*^ D. wound, 

tScreo," hawk, 

*Secundo,' prosper, 

Sedo,** D. M. aUay. 

Seryo,^R.D keep, 

*Sibno, hiss. 

Sicco,** D dry. 

SigiK>,''R. o. mark out. 

SimSlo,* pretanL 

Socio,* D. associcUe. 

^Somnio,"' dream. 

Specto,'* R. 0. M. behold. 

Speio,*' D. hope. 

*SiNro,*' breathe. 

Spolio.'^D. H rob. 

SfMimo,*^ foam. 

Stillo,*' drop, 

Stimtilo, goad, vex. 

Stipo, stuff, guard. 

tStrio, jlute,a&Aumn. 

tSuccenturio," recrwi. 

Sudo, svoeaL 

Suffuoo, ttrat^gle, 

Sugillo,"D. iawnt,jeer, 

Supero,*R.D. overcome. 

Suppedlfto,^ afford.^ 

^SuBurro,*^ whisper. 

Tardo, slop, daay. 

Taxo,^ D, rate, reprove. 

Tempero,^ r. ix temper. 

Tento,^ R. D. M try. 

Terebro,^ bore. 

Titiibo,^ • stagger. 

Tolero,*' R. D. u wor. 

Tracto,^iK u handle. 

*tTripudio, dance, caper, 

Trucido,*» R. D. ML 

Turbo,«>iK disturb, 

Urobro,^iR. shade. 

*Vaco, want, be at leisure. 

> The Perfect does not occur. PropitiStus, Tsicit Propitiandus,Gei\. — *Pug' 
naturus, Liv. ExpugnSivm, Justin. Oppugnandus^ Geih — *Ptdsandus, Hor. — 

^ Purgdtu, Plin. Expurgatu, Terent — ^Pvtandus, Catull. — • Quasmndus, Ovid 

nRaduUus, * shining:* passim. RadUUus, 'illuminated;' Lucan. — ^Raptandus^ 
Sil. — * RecuperStxmi, Justin. Eecuperaturus, Cses. Recaperandus, liv. — ^Becu' 
saturus, Sueton. — ^^ Repitdiaturus, Sueton. Repudiandus, Cic. The Participle ns 

ciples ns and rus do not occur. — ^' SaUatUrus, Sueton. — '" Salutatum, Sail. Salu- 
taturus, Cic. — " SanatUrus, Gaes. Sanandus, Senec. — * The Participles in ns, rus, 
and dus, are not found in the classics. — ^ Sauciandus, Cohua. — "Neither the 
Perfects nor the Perfect Participles of Screo and Excreo are now in existence. —> 

^ The Participle ns only, is now extant — »* Sedatum, Plaut Sedandus, Cic 

^ Servandus, Ovid. — *• Ad. corpora sicoanda, Plin. .— ^ Signaturus, Plin. Signan» 
dus, Stat — ^Simulandus, Sail. — ^Sociandus, Hor. — ^ SomnkUur, depon. Pe- 
tron. — *i Spectatum^ Ovid. SpectatUrus, Suet. Spectandus, Stat Theb. — " Spe- 

Max. — ^ SuperatUrus, Cic. — *^ Suppedilor, depon. Cic. — *^ SusurrStur, impers^ 
*it is whispered about;' Terent — *^axandus, Senec. — *' Temperandus, Suet— 
** TentStum, Terent TentntUrus, Virg. iEn. iv. 293. Tentandus, Virg. Georg. iii. 
8. — **The Participles ns, rus, and dus, are not found in the classics. — ^Tthubih 
tus, 'stumbline;' Virg. JEn. v. 331. — « Taierdtu, Cic. Thleraturus and Toleran- 
dus. Ibid. ~ « Tractratu, Plin. Tractandus, Ju ven. — « Trucidandus, Cic — » Tur- 
batur, impers. pass. Virg. JExl. Es\. i. 12. Tui^basao for Twbavero — ^' UmbtalW' 
rus. Honor, et Martial. 




*Vapiilo,> M. beheaten. 

Vano, dtversify, 

Vasto,* lay waste. 

VellTco,* pluckf raUat. 

Verbero,* R. D. beoL 

^Vestitgo, aearchfor. 

Vexo,* D, tetutf harass. 

^Vindemio,' gather grapes. 

Vibro,^ D. brandish. 

Vi^lo,-" A. Di M. «date.' 

Vitio,*ix «^... mHate. 

Vito,»D.u. «ton. 

Voco,"]L D. caU. 

♦Volo» Jly. 

Voro,"R. devour. 

VvHtgOf^ E. D. publish, 

yulneio»>* D. wound. 

143« n. DEPONENTS. 
Deponent Verbs are formed like Passives ; as» 
Mir-or,'* -an, -&tas, u. r. o. admire, — So, 

AbOmYnor,^'' d. tMor. 

Adulor," D. jTawm, flatter. 

JSmulor,!* JX vie wUh^ envy. 

*Apncor,* bask in the sun. 

AroTtror," r. d. think. 

AspemoT,^ d. despise. 

Avenor,** d dislike. 

Aucupor,** R. hunt after. 

Auxnior,* hdp, 

Cauflor,"* plead tn «eeeuM, VUxme, 

Calonmior, . aceuee ffiimiytOoiwnmaie. 

^COmisBor,*' M. reveL 

CbToStort^ aecongxsny. 

Conciunor, harangue, 

^ConTlbuIor,* m discourse.' 

Conor,"* D. endeavour. 

^ Vtandatumt Plant VapuJandum, Terent. — "Ad vastandos acros, liv. x. 33. — 
«The rarticiple VeUicStus, ocean only in Paulin. Nolan. — * Venerat&rus, Suaton. 
VerberanduSj Apul. — * VexanduSy Cic.-^'The I^uticiple ns only is fbond in the 
claasics. — "^ VibrSius, Virg. VibranduSt Claud. — " Vtolaium, Cic. VioUuiirus, C«u 
Vidlandus, TibolL— » ViHandus, Suet--^ » VitOtu, Hot. i. Sat 4 115. Viiandus, 
Hor. ii. Sat 3. 14. — " VocaturuSy liv. Vocamdus^ Ovid. — ^ Devdaturus^ ApuL — 
'' VoraturuSy Justin. DevoranduSt Apul. — ** Fui^^atiini^ Claud. Vu^gfomiu^ 
Suet — ^ Fu/n£ranJu«, Hirt 

'" MtratUy Senec. Mlraturus, Ovid. Mtrandus^ Stat 3f iramlfM is generally 
construed as an Adjective. — "A6dmYnafw2us, Quint. AbemitndrUurt jem. Vep> 
riuB — >BA<2tt2am2u«, Val. Max. AduUtri, pass, to be flattered, Cic Off i. 26.— • 
>>^inu^9u2u«, Plin. ^mulaviris, act Apul. ~» " ApracSre, act Mlad. — **ArM- 
fr<E<tfru«, Apul. ArirUrandus, Ulpian. ArtlUrantur, pass. Ulpian. ArbHrSbuni, 
yiaxLU—^AspemStus, despising, having despsed, Viiv. GeOTg. iii. 393. et passim.- 
Aspem&iust pass, despised, Liv. xxxiv. 40. Amernandus, Virg. JEil xL lOe. Ai- 
pematur, pass. Cic. — ^Aversatus, disliking, Ovid, et jgossim. Aaers3fif^ pass, 
averted, Aurel. Vict Aversandus, Liv. xxx. 25. — ** AucupSturus, Cic. The ac- 
tive form Aucupo occun in Senec. - Hence, Aucupatus^ pass, sought after, Lact 
Aucwj^Uus, in an active sense, does not occur. — ^ Aua?QiekuSy having assisted, Stat 
Atucuto, Gracch. Hence Aus^iUuSt pass, aided. Lncil. — ^ CausanduSt given in 
some Dictionaries, does not occur in the classics. Causabor, pass. Ovid, oe Nuce, 
125. where Salmas, Heins. and Burm. read Ckiusa habeor. — " Comissstum, Liv. xl. 
7. Terent Some write ComessoTt others Comissor, or Comussor ; but Comissor is 
generally found in ancient books and inscriptions. — ^ Comttstust attending^ hearing 
attended, Cses. B. G. vi. 7. ConOto, act Propert Comttor, pass. Ov. Tnst iiL 7. 
47. Hence Comttatus, attended — ^ ConfsMidJtumy Terent. ConfSJbnd&bunt in 
some old edd. of Plant Most ii. 2. 78. ; but the true reading is conturbSbunL — 
*> CdnanduSt Css. B. C. i. 31. i. 65. Condrem f(Hr cdndrer, is quoted by some gram- 
marians from Ennius ap. Prise. ; but it cannot be found either in the ed. of Puts- 
chius, Hanov. 1605, or in that of Kiehl., Lips. 1819. 

118 ^i 

Cmmfien,' qtif.ter. 

Conleraplar^ tuw. 

Crimliuu,* u. blame. 

Conclor,* ddtti/. 

Defiieor,* a. K. . erOrtat, pray ^oinK. 

■Digladior. /our. 

DSrabior,' rule. 

Epular.'K-D. /hoL 

F&ra,' or f ire, O- «peoit 

Feiior,<°K. keephaUiay. 

^Frummlor," M- provide com, fwoge, 

r™,., rs 

Glorior,» K. o. boat. 

GiUulOTi" 1^ IV . . r^ohe, amgraialait. 


OF T^BSe. 

ImltoT,» u. B.IX vmtots. 

Iixlignor." D. cfa'aAiin. 

Influor," D. demy. 

'iDJunoi. iiijun. 

Inaeclor." „ pnmie. 

InUioi," « Utntwait. 

Jacaor," dart, 

Jocor," ^eit 

l^Lor,? X.O. ^. retokr. 

lAmeaW.^D. kniil. 

'Lignor,** H. ga&er fiuL 

M8dfcor,«''i'D. ".'.!!".',",'.".!".'... cure. 

Mfidltor," medilate. 

Mertxr.^M. R-o. purc&ua 

Minor, lireateB. 

HBKKa," D. pity. 

>TliePaiticid«uiiu,riu,itti(,doDatoccur. Cmafcs, act Vur. HenceCni- 
■picotur, Vbit, Sc Sell Jug, c. 49L But Coniiu in ihe laat penage leadi ean^iid- 
(ur. — I Coalenalo, Apol. & Plant, p^i»- Hence Conlai^plMit, SnfMfiiMf, AOr 
mian. CoiUnmiMnu, fieufurimc CiirL lii. 4. etponinL * In cmtCR^AiiiAi, raboi,' Cie. 
Nrl Dear. i. 37 — ■ Crimino, Plaut. Hence Cnmtn&fa, aocned, Hwin. lEL Cri- 
fnlindfu, having BcciBed. penim. Crwilndfun. Lit. ii. 37. — * Cincfti. Fluil. Henc« 
■ Ciactita, Mm,' hia fkiih wai arreated, SiaL Theb. though it may be cmumwd ao- 
tivelf ■ — < DipriclUui, haTing entreateil. Cic Oral. iL 4ft el puaim. DfprMMu, psa. 
deprecated. Jiulin. Tiii.5. aiksd. Apul. MeLiii. p. S9. 0^fl>KcaiiiH, Cic de Amic. ell. 
ZJepricd/firul^ Hirt *Ad pacem diprKcandum,' Cic 'D^rtcandte malerolelinet 
cauH,' piD Balb. niii. 1.~~* Damlnari ' rmistSnit, VaL Mai. 

£iniiaiida,t(ibeealen,Ovi(l. — ■FilintU liL Fitmutatat ocean 

only Ld TertuL de Res, Car. c, 47. where m. vi. 22. JnXwSoTic 

JirueuT.T.X. FiiaiuJaliaiilanilroi ^37% Fnac viii. p. 

793. hut without anthorily. fiMu, Vit) , Lucan. i'Biiaiio lor 

J^H, CUo R. R. F^ur. pan. Sueion. i. Dear. i. 37. FiriS- 

(8™», Sidon. The Participlea in n» an he claaoca — "FVfi- 

maaaaai, Cic E|in. ad Act Cn. B. C Rud. i. S. 23; Trin. 

ir. 2. 22. — <■ atdrimsrut, Suetun. G 17. — ■> OnuSIdbni, 

Cic. in Finn, c 22. EIr^iil3iiu, Cic. Fi , Fnnlon. — <• Ihrto, 

-ai.Priac iJortor. pan. Gell. IV. 13. 1 quaa ilorfiniAu,' ^ 

Jualin. li. 9. lS.-~"Im1talu, Val. Mai. TmlW&rut, Cic AtVandut, Cic Off 
JaOlo, Vat, — illndignandtii, Ovid. Met ~- " From in aitd FSteer; nme dnive it 
Anm H >iui ntn'rt >TifT nTF^fa T„f^/4/,r Jrifiliandoa, Ovid.-^*Jiuwfa< Plant. 
hwcUlju. haviiM inveiglied agninal, 
"iMlili(lsfrjiK,Cailiilr. " 

.» and FScio, and _ _ _, 

Hanea iiuMtiMiu, prased on, pureued. Uirt 

l^eit, ffiiL iL 96> M |—i1iH Intedani att, _._. , ,„__ _.. 

tfJial.inaiiBiecnae*arvirg..£n.i.719. BccdrdingtaBeiimi*. JnMJiUnnu. Hirt. 
■hi legBtii iiMld)BaAii,'Cicpn)CoBl. c21. — •'^OciUMhitfiafcDndinGelLiTi. 
19. 4. and JJkStatu. jpaaa Lacan. iii. 56S. JUcSiatut, bovine hnried. Vi/g. j£d. ii. 
S76. el paNim.—"Juca6K Plant.— ■^Lsti), liffahit, I glaidai, Liv. ap. Noa. 
Hence ZoMliu, gladdened, Virg. Mn. lii. S4]. Latstoi, having rekriced, Cic. 
FhiL □. 4. et panim. Xoildlunu, Cic de Div, ii. ft Xatanifiu, Cic Leg. ManiL 
c 1. Theaa two panBgei may beconiCmecl actively, oA, at propter, being under- 
Blood. — •> LamtKiatiiT, jMBS. impen. Apol. Met. Lammlltia, lainenled, m. lA- 
mematae, having lamented. Cic TuM^ i. 31. et pawnL lemtKta>i%t, nmnoii. de 
Nep. — "Xva^im, liv. i. 35. Tbia vetb has na Fanicjple.— "^«ctg^ Tenot 
HeneeX>HtBiu,Virg..£n.ivL694. — "Af&ftcdn. Imrinr, Sil. Mtdian.™ 
.■_:. -^, ^ .^__ r. : ,™ "-ore JtfftttoiMi ■ - ■ 


s, tingere, Vii 

>. Cotun 

aindut, Tibull.— "ilf&fUiiiitur, psM. Minuc Fel. Hence MtdOalv, jmm. Cic 

paaiim. MWHafM. act. -T-'- ' ' .._ -. j.. ..u.. ■ u_ 

catkn. Plant. MtrcBiat, hi 
«in. ." ■ ~ 

act. Thii doex not orcnr an fraquenily ag the oil 
iha, havii^ bought, Cic ibrcatut, paia. Flin. 
ic — ojVIWlRBdiu, CicdeOr. i. 37. 



MSSderor^i V. D rule. 

M5dulor,* D. play a tune. 

Moror,» R. D. rfetey. 

Mutuor,* borrow. 

Ne^otior, trafic. 

♦Nagor,» .» trifle. 

Obtestor,' heteech. 

Operor,^ twwA. 

Opinor,^ u. R. D think, 

Opttfilor,» M. hdp, 

O}»unor,i0M cater. 

Otior, " beatleiture. 

Pabulor,** m. d. graze^ forage. 

Palof,** vxmaer. 

Pejppontor," m enquire. 

PericUftor," D. fnake trials be in danger. 

Pifloor,*'M ^h. 

Fopulor," R. D. lay waste. 

PrBdor,>"M. pbmder. 

FmhoT,^ f0hL 

Praeniior, nutke pntea. 

¥recor,^ M. u. R. D. pray, 

Reooidor,** remeaUiar, 

Rlmor," search, 

Rixor," scdd. 

*Ri]stioor, dujeU in the country. 

Sciscitor,** M inquire, 

*ScItor,*M ask, 

Scrutor,"' search, 

Sulor,'' D. comfort 

S}Mitior, vxdkabout. 

Speciilor,* M. R view^ spy. 

Stiptilor,* stqndate. 

Suavior, kiss. 

Suspicor,* suspect. 

Te8tDr,*> witness. 

> MadXro, Pacuv. ap. Non. vU. 23. Hence, ModSraturj pass. Modh-atu, Liv. ir. 
87. Mod(Sr€mdus,Cic. de Orat i. 19.— * Modulatus, pass. Quint, ix. 2. Hor. i. Od. 
92. 5. al. paflsim. ModiUandus, Hor. iL Ep. 2. 143. — ' Mihraturus, Propert. iii. 20. 
12. Morandus, Hor. Art Fbet 223. — *MiUuOt Ciedl. ap. Non. Hence, Mutua" 
tuSf bonowed, Plin. Mutudtus^ having bonowec^ Val. Max. The Participles in 
n5, rwf, and dus, are not found in the dmnics. — ^ This verb has no Participles. — 
* OUestdtuSj pass, conjured, Apul. Obiest&us^ having entreated, Sallust Uatil. c. 

sanOy Sre, avi, atuSt is more usual. Opsonavit, Plant Obson^tOj Terent 
sdn&tum, Plaut Some write (^sono ; but contrary to its derivation, dipov, i\\.-^viQv, 
opadniumy any thing provided for food, except bread and wine ; and particularly 
fish. — ^^OtiStus occun only in Sidon, Ep. liL 1. It has no other Participle.^ 
^PsbulStum, Plaut Pshutandus, Colum-^-^This Verb is chie% used'm the 
Present Participle, Palans, Liv. i 11. Virg. xii. 73& al. passim. P&UUuSt dispers- 
ed, wandering, liv. Psldre^ act occun in the Satire of Sulpida, vs. 43. — ^ Per- 
conio, ApuL Met Perccmtantur, nass. Gell. Hence, '{u^tio perccniato* Apul. 
Met PercontStumy Ter. — ^ PhiaSiaius, pass. Cic de Amic. c. 17. PMdttStus, 
having made trial, Cic. pro Quint, e. 31 . al. passim. P^ridttandus, Cic. Catil. i. 5. — 
^PiscStum^ Plant The Participle Piscans occurs only in Festus. — ^'' Popidavit, 
Propert Hence, Populor, pass. liv. and Po^lStuSj Cic. PopnlStus, act Stat 
Theb. etpassim. PoptUsturuSt CaNi. B. G. FopuUmduSy Ovid. Met — ^Prado, 
Prise, Hence PrcedOtum zn, Plaut Preedstumy Liv. iv. 56. — ^Preeliant, Enn. 
ap. Non.- — " PrhiOy Prise. Hence Pritoonfur, pass. Varr. ap. Non. and Pricatus, 
prayed, supplicated. Pr^catus^ having prayed, Cic. Tusc. i. 47. et passim. Prica' 
turn, Liv. vii. 31. PricatUy Stat Then. PrUcSiuruSf Ovid. Pricandus, Tacit 
Ann. — ^JUcardSoUy Ann. ap. Non. Hence, lUcordatuSy remembered, Sidon. 
ReccrdStuSt having remeihbered, Ovid Met et passim. * Ad ea ricordanda^* Cic. 
pro Syll. c. 26. — ^Bxmabam^ Jul. Valer. RtmSvenh Accius ap. Non. Hence, 

KhnStus, pass, investigated, Sidon. * Rhnandis offensis sagax,' Tacit Hist i v. 11 

^Rixant, Rixent, RixarenU Varr. ap. Non. ' Cum rixStus esset,* Cic. de Orat. c. 
59. — ^ SdsciUaret act Plaut Hence, ScisdUiUus, asked, Ammian. Scieditatus, 
having inquired, Petron. ScisdiUltum, Ge^. — ^Satsbatt Ammian.; but Vales, 
and Gronov. read nosc^&bat. Sdtiltum, Virg. JEn. it 114. — " Scrutarit pass. Am- 
miaa xxviii. 1. and ScrvtcUuB^ searched after, xv. 8. Scrufdtus, having searched, 
Plin. xjdii. 6. et passim. — ^ Solandu», Ovid. — ^ Spifcidaiian. Sail. ^g. c. 116. 
SpScuUUuruSt Justin. 'Ad spicuUmdos actiis Hannn>ali8,' Justin. — ^Stkmlat, 
Symmach. Epist. Hence, StfpulaTi, pass. Sueton. and SCfpulatuSt contracted^ Cic. 
pro Rose. SttpMaius^ having stipulated, ilnd. c. 4. et passim. The P&rticipJes in 
n«. r%Uy and (fu<, are not fouira in the classics. — ^Su^ces^ Plaut — *^ Testo, -as. 
Prise, but without example. TeStatuSy attested, liv. xxxiv. 41. al. passim. TesfS- 
tusy having called to untness, Cic. Fin. ii. 20. et al. passim. * Hoc testandum est,' 
Cic. Orat c. 68. 


Tator,^lx defend. 

Vigor,* wander. 

Veoeror,'D. worMp. 

Venor/iL Aunt 

Venor," be employed, fre^iuent, haujU, 

\Qc\Sfm* hafd. 

h 144« iiL EXCEPnoNa 

•Crepo,' crfpare, crSpui, make a nojae, 

*C)ibo,' ctibare, ciibui, , ctibitum, lie dawn. 

Do,* dfire, d&li, d&tus, datum, dftturos, dandos, give, 

Ddmo,^ ddinare, ddmui, ddmttus, ddmtturus, domandus, .... conquer, 

Frtco," frYcare, frtcui, frictus, or frYcatus, frYcandus, ruh, 

Jiivo," jtivare, juvi, jutus, jtivaturus, jiivandus, Ae/jju 

1 Tuteft'j^ Plant Tvia, Fbcuv. ap. Non. Tutant, Nst. ibid. Tiitarel, Poia- 
poo. ibid. Hence, Tutantur^ pan. Plant and THiMus^ defended, Symmach. Ep. 
IX. 11. TiUStu»^ having defended, Ovid. Tr»t. v. 6. 15. et peaAim. Tutandus, 
Phasdr. — * VTI^ant, Enn. ap. Non. vii. — ' Vhitro^ Plant Hence, VinirStuSt Hor. 
Sat ii. 2. 124. Vii^^. JEa. iii. 460. ViSnXrShu, having worshipped, Propert VinH- 
randue, Cic. A^. li. 35. Viig. ^n. ix. 275. &c. Viniranies, i. e. VhiM. ^ram 
danies, H^gin. Fab. Ixxv. which is not to be imitated. Yet this, according to some 
etymologists, is the original meaning of the word. — * VenStumj Viiv. iEn. iv. 118. 
Plant ven&tu9^ having hnnted, Ovid. Fast Venor, pass. Enn. ap. Non. — ^Vereor, 
though ffenerally rank«l with Deponents, is merely the Fbssive of Verm ; * nam 
qni in auquo loco, ant re immoratnr, quodammodo in ea hoc et illuc sese venat et 
qnasi volutatur, ant oorpore, ant mente.* FacciokU. — ' Vot^ifilrant, Varr. lAv. ^. 
12. viii. 38. Vodtflhratus, Colnm. 

^ So Concr(tpo^ I rattle, ring. *Di8crtp0f I dififer in sound, I disagree, makes tit, 
or dm: Diecr^puU, Hor. Art Poet 219. Diecripavit, Clc. de Or. iii. 30. IncrmOf I 
sonnd, strike, chide, uif sometimes Svi; Jncre^vUt Plant InCrhiUus, chidden, 
liv. xxiii. 2& Incrip3tu9t Prudent Cathem. vii. 195, where the Juntine ed. has 

Jncr^tttis. The Perfect uid Participles of Ricripo, I resound, do not occi^r 

^Cuoaue, QnintiL viii. 2. CubSris, Propert IncubSveret Plin. Incubid, Virg. 
JExL viL 8& et passim. Supercubaese, Ajral. Met CfiiVfioft Cic. pro Rpsc. in- 
ciibandus, Plin. When the «miponnds of Cubo take an M, they are of the third 
oraij. — * So four Compounds, CircumdOf I surround ; Petnando, I destroy ; Sdtiado, 
I give good bail ; Venumdo^ I set to sale. The other Coxnpounds are of the third 
Conj. Datum iriy Cm. B.C. D&turus, CBtuW. Dandus, Cic. Off. i. 21. The first 

Strsoh pass. Dor, does not occur except in Diomed. i. p. 375. — ^Dom&vi, Ennius. 
omavlrunU Flor. Dom&tus, Petron. Hence DvmatQr, a tamer, TibuH. iv. 116. 
Domlturue, Virg. Georv. iv. 102. Damandue, Propert ii. 34. 50. So Edomo, I 
subdue ; Perdomo, I subdue wholly. Perd^lmVurua, Justin, ii. 13. — ^^ Some Gram- 
mars and IMctionaries ^ive this verb a Perfect in -aei ; but no such Perfect exists 
now in the Latin classics. Frictue, Jtiv. Sat vi. 577. Fr^cStus, Plin. Fricandue, 
Plin. Ajkcatue, ApuL Met Confrlcaiue, Plin. Defrictus, Colum. DefrtcSius, 
Colnm. Jn/r^(ca<us, Plin. iVfnc^tM, Apul. Met PerfricSlue, y'ltmy. Rgfrica' 
iuru», Cic. The Perfects of Confi^ico and InMco seem not to exist — « JSviTrtn/, 
Catnll. Ixv. 18. and in some edd. Juirint Vossius quotes JuvOvi from Manilius. 
JUv&rit, Pallad. but Gesner reads luoO^ Jvtue, Tacit Ann. Juturue, Colum. 
Ji<»2fttrt», Sail. Juff. c. 47. Juwmdu»,0\\d. Adjuvi, C\c. Adjulro, for adjwOro, 
Cic. de Senect c. 1. Adrutas, Macrob. AdjiOvm, Com. Nep. Adjutunu, £«iv; 
Aijwoaturu», Petron. c. 18. Adjuvandux, Cic. 


♦lAbo,' I&bftre, — ^ i labaase, droop, toiter. 

L&TO,' Iftvare, iavi, kutus, or lotusi or Iftvatus» lautnm, or 

Iftvatam, l&vAtQrus, l&vandufi, wash. 

♦Bftco," micare, mYcui, , w6r«te, glitter. 

N6cOf* nScare, n&;avi, or n^cui, nScatns, n€c&turu8, n^candus, . . kilL 

*Nexo,* nezare, , , ^ tie, knit, 

Pltco/ pllcare, , pltcatus, or pltcttus, fold. 

Poto,' pot&re, potavi, pOtas, or potatus, pbtum, or potatum, 

pdturus, or potaturus, potandus, dririk. 

S^cOk" B^care, secui, aectus, a^aturas, adcandos, cut. 

* Of the Perfect of L&bo yre find no trace in the claarics, except that we read 

LSba$m in Plin. xiv. Sa — > JUtvo, ^ ^re, &c Hor. iii Od. 12. 2. iv. Od. & 26. i. Sat 

& 24. Ovid. iv. 34a Virg. Geon. iii 221. JEn. iii. 66a Plaut paanm. L&v&viU 

Plant ItfttfiM, ac pro Deiot c. 10. Hor. iL Sat 3, 282. Ter. and Plant Lotut, 

Stat LUvatus, Plant Lautumy Ter. and Plaut L&vatum^ Hor. i. Sat 3. 137. i. 

Sat 6. 12d. & Ter. UhOturuB, Ovid. Faat iii. 12. L&wmduM» Ovid. FMt iv. 136. 

& Plin. — ' M^cidt Ovid. JlffoAvifrt/» Sollin. c. 53. Dindco^ I %ht Sm^ Bometimea 

lit: JJ^nUcSvi, Sueton. DiaCicuit Ovid. jytnUcOivmUf Cca. R G. iii. 24. Emlco^ I 

apring forth, I shine forth, ut, hrt: EwXad, Virg. iEn. ii. 174 et paaiim. Quintil. 

i. 6. nnda fiuilt with thoae, who, too scrupulooaly foUowinc analogy, preferred 

JBmtcavi to Eirilcm, EmVcaiUnUy Senec. ad Helv. 11. The rerfocta of Interm^co, 

I «hine anHMig, and Promico, I spring out, do not occor. FrcmlamdmM, Nw. ap 

Non. i. 329. ^*NiScS»i, Cic. pro Leg. Manil. c. & Niknd, Phcdr. JV&diM, SaU. 

Jug. c. 50. et al. passim. NecUu in some edd. of Cic de Le^. iii. 10. ' Ihfoprie 

nXcStuB, FERKO, nectuM vera alia vi peremtus.' NiciUurut, Ovid. Nicandua, Juv. 

Sat vi. 596. Entno^ apj(aiKiai. EnicOt I slay, ut, ctu$; sometimes Svt, iUu9: 

EnXcui, Sueton. Enk^Sm, Plaut EntcassOt fix enKcSvUra, Plaut Eneehis, Cic. 

de Divin. EiUcStus, Plin. ErUcanduSt Cels. The Perfect of Intemicoj I utterly 

destrov, and its Participles in ns, ruSt dus^ are not found in the classics. Jntemica- 

tut, Plaut InUmectus, auoted from Cic. Phil. xiv. 3. doea not exist in correct 

copies. — * Nexo has neither Perfect nor Participle. See Necto and Nexo, thiM 

Coi\j. — *The perfoctB Phad and PhcSvi are found only in Priscian, and without 

example. PUcStua, Lucr. vi. 1085i Ptk^tus, Mart Dvpttco, I double ; MuUi- 

ja^co^ I multiply ; Rihottco, I unfold, make at», atui. RipttauM, Plin. Rfp&catus, 

Plin. and Ri^ctus, Stat SWv. Supptico makes ovt, and has no Perfect Participle. 

Suppticaiumj Plaut Supfi(cSiuru$j Ter. SupptiauaiM, for SvppUc&Uri», Plaut 

BuMcumnu, Cic. Att. v. la * Ad DuptUxmda verba,' liv. xxvii. 11. Applfco, I 

apply, Imptko, I entangle, make im, ttus, and &«t, Stu», Comphco, «i, Ttof, and 

dft(«. Coma^cSvi does not occur» Appticui, Justin. ApptlcSm, Cic. Appttditu*, 

Plin. ApphciUus, Cffis. B. C. iii. 101. &c. ApptldUurua, Justin, /amffevt, Virg. 

i£n. xi. 761. et mssim. ImpiicSvi, liv. /inp{&^(£i(«, Hor. Art Pbet 423, liv. i. 31. 

et passim. Im^mcatus, Cas. R G. vii. 73, &c, Obs. hnptft^tus morbot not tm;?/)'- 

eSto«; ImptUMuruSt Ov. Exptko makes ut, ttu8, and dvt, a/us. , When it meana 

to explain, Svi, Slut, are the more usual fonns : in the sense of wnfdding, ui, \tua 

are more usuaL ExptUnii, Petron. VinF> Georj^. it 280. et al. passim. ExplfcSvi, 

Plaut and Cic. GeUius remarks^ that jSxptian was more usual in the time of 

Cicero, than ExptkSvL ExptUMwna, Stat Theb. ExpitkSturua, Caes. R C. i. 'iH. 

Compticui, Senec. Con^cSUa, Cic. Ctm^c^ftus, Apul. Met — '' Pdtua mm, for 

jMtdvi, Varr. Potus, act Cic. Fam. vii. 2Z. Ovid. Pota$ pass. Cic. Ovid. Hor. 

Potdtua^ Cic. Tusc. v. 5. Poturua, Plin. Pot&furua, Sueton. PdAim, Virg. Eel. 

vii. 11. Pctatum, Plaut Pglanduat Ovid. Epcto, I drink up, makes epotati, 

ipatua; Perpolo, perpotSvit and haa no Perfect Participle, nor the Participles in 

rua and dua. Epoto, haa not the Participles in nt, ma and cftM. — "Sfotit, Viig. 

GeoiY. iii. 444. al. passim. SicSvi, mentioned by the Oxford Commentatoia on lily. 

and by some others, does not exist in the classics. Sectua, Cic. Tusc. ii. 53. et al. 

passim. SUdUSrut, Colum. Sioandtta, Ovid. The Compounds make «t, ctua^ 

Precaico, I chop ofil pare off, and Reaicoj I cut ofii in, cfi<«, rarely atua. PrcBaXcSiua, 

Apul. Met RiaXcSiuSt Apul. The Perfects of drcumaicat I cut about, and Inters 



*SOna,' sdnftref «dovi, ^ Bdoaturus» sOiiaiidiu, 0ounS<, 

*Sto,' stare, st^ti* , Btaturas» . ,. ^ • . • . . 9tmt4* 

^Tdire,' tdnare, t0pui, , thunder. 

Veto/ vStare, v^tpj, vetttU9» forbid. 


§ 145« Verbs of the Seccxid Conjugation end in 
.-60, and change -eo into -are long in the Infinitive ; 
into ui in the Perfect ; and into -Uti^ in the Perfect 
Participle Passive ; as, 

Mdneo,* mftndre, mOnai, mdnYtuB, b. d. advise, 


Admoneoi* R. Di admcnisk, 1 Pnemioneo» forewamt 

Commoneo» • •• toanu | *Aiceo,'' o. fte ^ord, drive away. 

«&;o, intenect, are not in use; nor the Participles Inierteetus, P^mciuM. Inter' 
Micandui, Colum. BXtHoandus, Cic. Cat ii. ft. 

^ SonXre, third Conj. Lacr. Soni/, Accius, ap. Non. Sununif AcciuB et Ena. 
Smlvif Non. SUnut, Import SonSvMnt^ Tertull. whence SonaturuSt Hor. i. 
Sat 4. 43. SonanduSy Ovid. Sanantury peas. Allnnov. ad lav. i. 107. For At^o, 
I resound ; Circumsonp, I sound around ; Distonot I am discordant, we find no Per- 
fect RhonOy I re-echo, makes avi ; IVfonii. Consono^ I sound together; Ex^no, 
I resound ; InsSno, I resound ; PerfSno, I sound loudly ; PrtB^nOyi mmnd hefore, 
make td. Yet PersonSvity Aj^ul. Met ReBonil, lor retmnaiy Accius ap. Non. Retlo- 
nunty Accius et Enn. ap. Prise. — 'I^Stvruty Lucan. et Liv. iii. 60. The Com- 
pounds, CoMlOy I oonsiBt; Exloy I exist, appear; IrwtOy I press on, am near; ObtlOy 
oppose; PerttOy I nersist; PrcMtOy I suj^pass, make ttSHy ttst&rus. Preulandns, 
Ovid. Liv. X. 96. Cic. Fam. vi. 8. Afto, I stand near, sfYft, ttllurui; Porcin. ap. 
Prise. ProttOy I stand to be hired ; ResiOy I remajn, make sHfi, without the Perfect 
Participle. AnUttOy or arUisio, I excel ; OtrcufiMto, I stand about; tnlersto, I stan<i 
between ; Sujper8t0y I stand over, make sf^ft'» without the Perfect Participle. See 
Cic. de Inv. Css. B. G. DislOy I am distant, I difier; ^ti&ato, I stand under, I bear 
up, have neither Perfect nor Perfect Partidple. ' Multa qu» in prsteritis eflerun- 
tur, ad ststo, commode reduci possunt' FacddaL See the Compound^ of SiUOy 
third Coi^. PrtBStSvi, Ammian. PnettatftmuSy P^ul. Dig. Prcsstttum» in some 
edd. of Cic Fam. vi. 8. — * ToiCtmu9y third Conj. Varr. ap. Non. I 945. T&nSviy 
fiiven by the Oxford commentators on Lily, and oyGesner in his lliesaur. Lat and 
Tohiviy quoted from Flautus, do not exist AUanOy I astonish, m, ^tus ; CireumtiinOy 
I thunder round, «t ; hUonoy I thunder on, ut, Stus ; IntotiSmy Paulin. Kpist Into' 
vsiusy thundered on, Hor. Epod. ii. 51. JZAono, I resound, has neither Perfect nor 
Perfect Phrtici^e. — * Vitaviy Plant according to the Mss. of Langius imd seven 
others. VWhsistiy v& 46. aooordinff to five raatine Mbs. and thrra others. Se« 
the Dolphin Plautus, printed by Vfupy. VUdrnty Pers. Sat which some have alter* 
ed to "MlSvUy others to ritsbit, VHSrHtramy Plafic. ad Cic. Fam. x. 23. where the 
ed. Vindel. 1469. and the Aid. 1533. have v&uliram. Some from Stat Theb. iii. 71. 
cite v^/5tom ,* but the two Mss. at Cambridge, one in the Peter-house Gcd. and the 
other in St Jolm*s, with more than twenty printed copies, have in this passage 

* ManlturuSy Propert i. Monendus, Plant — « Admontturus, Ovid. AdwiorHtum, 
Cic. AdmSnenduSy Plin — ^ ArcenduSy Cic. Off i. 34. 



CoUkceo,*». <.«... re$train, 

Exerceo,*D. .....<< exercise. 

H&bed,*]u .<.<» htne. 

Aittkilieot* lu IX r.« 4., admiituse. 

GSWbeD,*Db reatrain. 

InhTbeo»* ix ...«•«««<•. «.<<.. Atmier. 

£xh!beo»'B. d. $kow. 

'^PerMbeo»^ d. ««««<<««.<.*... report. 
Vrohlbeo,* tu d. «*....«<««.... hinder. 
Posth&beo, «.<• «<«rf«.w«.tf.- poUpone. 
Pmbeo,"* A. D. w«< ..««<<.«... a^bni 

Debeo," R. D. «... otoe. 

il£r6o,>*it dewrte. 

CommCreo," ..<«... deserve well or ilL 
I>emereo,u n. earn. 

£^aagreo, ....^«4. .«.^ «4 merit 

*Penner80v tervemwar. 

Prum£red»** deserve. 

Terreo,»». terrify. 

Abstenws" ....<.<.«.«.<..... cfeter. 

Conteneo,» ttffrighL 

Detetreo,!* IK deter ' 

Eiteneo, «.«^«4<^«4..4 scare. 

Perterreo» *... ....^ frighten. 

Taceo," JL 0. be silent, conceaL 

§ 146« Neuter Verbs of the Second Conjugation 
generally make -ui, and have no Perfect Partici- 

'^Aceo,'^ be sour. 

•A«o,«" be dry. 

^al^^'iu beu)arm,hoL 

*Candeo** be uikite, hat. 

*C7&hJeo,* ....«....« be hoary. 

*Cano,^m want 

ClSxeOy*" be bright, renowned. 

Doleo,"^ E. D. •• grieve. 

]^eo,*ii. loont 

*£Afiieo^" be raised above. 

*Flacoe&** • wither. 

^Flureo," JUmrisL 

*Horreo," d. be rough, tremUe with add* 

♦Jiceo;**iL lie, 

*ljKttgaeo,'^ni, languish. 

^Lateo,* he hid. 

■ ^LYceO)" bsptU to mds, be valued. 

*Madeo,* be wet. 

•NYgreo» behlack. 

*Kii)eo,^ /. shine. 

1 CcSrcendus, Celt.^*Exereendui, Cie. d« Omt I IVt.-^* HiSfitvruM, Cic. Philipi 
io. 27. mbsndus, Ovid.— «A^Xfttturu^ CvaeU Adh^Oendui, Aiw».— • C^fben* 
due, Ceb. CehOessit, fbr cohlAugrit, Lo«r. iii. 44S.— • JfiAX&emfiw, Sen. — ^frfty. 
£K»nM, PetroD. £dkl&eniM, Plin. £|M8t--*P^AyfefMitM,Cic. The PeHqct Piir- 
ticfpte, and the Partioipleft in ns and rtu do not oceur. — * PriihBgiU&rus, Lir. xTxi. 
^ Proh^Oendus, Ci& Off i 25. Pr<;%¥fe««>, m, i^ for ;iroMdeaifi, or prmbuhim, 

Flsat _ » PraHttfirus, liV. Prtsbendus, Cic. Off L 41 " /)eS!l&nt<, Curt Z)«6t<tt 

iri, ibr (2e6tteiM tV», ap. Vlp.^^MBT^&rus, Cic. Acad. t. 7. Liv. ii. ZB.-^^Com- 
mIMtus, pa». Plant CommMtus, having deserved, comeh from the Deponent Com- 
fnirior. — ^* Ddmirendus, Colum. i. 4. The Partici|^ea in ns and rus do not occor. ■ — 
^ Prcmiritus, paaa. Plant PromMtus. having deserved, fiom Prdmhtor, Virg. 
i£n. iv. 333. * PronUrendi, Kmuris stiklium,* Saeton. Calig. c 3. — ^Terrendus, 
AuL GelL — " AAsiert^tus, Liv. — >* Conienitus, Virg. -An. nf. 507. — » DUerren- 
dus, Hirt & G. — «* THatai, concealed, Virg. Ma. iv. 67. TSOiurus, Cic. 7^ 
cen^M, Hot. Qb& The Paiticiples in nM, rus, and dus of CommSneo, Posthdbeo, 
Cbmmireo^Emihreo, Abiterreo, Conlerreo, ExUrreo, Perterretf, do not oceor in the 
dasrics.. Pemkireo has no Participle. 

« Acui, Ulpian.— * Anitf, Prudent —** C2^ui, Stat Theb. OOtmrui, Ovid — 
^Ckindui, Ovid.— «Canin, Ovid. Fast ni. 880. C&nBret, Propert—" Ctirwi, 
Plant Carilurus, Ovid. Met — "Ctofitt, Sueton.—* DMui, Virg. JEn. i. 673. 
mtltuM est, fyr dHhiU, Inscr. Doleatur, Ibr doUat, ibid. DSZeri, Stat Dostums, 
liv. xzxix. 4a ^2Slemhi«,Ovid.— »J^iCicinBrutc.67. J^YtSnit, Tertol. 
EgU&rus. See Sdop^ — *The Perfect of the siihple Mtneo does not occur. 
&flimi, Veil.-— *^JPIaeinM^ Varr. where Gesner reads FUtcmt. *Placoente, sen- 
mtia,' Mamert ^"lilonn, Ovid — »Hormi, Ovid. Fast. iL 508. J%>rrefMi«s, 
Virg. JEn. ix. 112.— ««J^feut, passim. Jikimrus, Stat Theb.— *Zaiigiilt| three 

SrlL Lncan. viL 245. Ovid. Met — ^Uitui, Virg. JEn. i. 134. et peasira. — '"iJtcut, 
ic -^» MUdui, Ovid » JVlJjrMt, Colum — * JSTUui, TibuU. 



«01eo,i mnitaemdL 

*PalIeo,« bepak, 

*P&reo,* M. R. , . appear, obey, 

*P«teo,* be open. 

*PercaUeo,* be hardened, underttand 


•Pl&ceo,« pieaae. 

*PubeoJ arrive at puhertv, 

"♦Puteo,* glhSL 

"'Putreo, he roUen, 

♦fiigeo,» he$tiff. 


•Rttboo,» feivrf. 



•Studeo,» rt«^. 

*Stupeo,i* be amazed. 

*Tepeo,*" be toarm. 

*TOTpeo,^ be torpid, numb. 

•Tfimeo," nodL 

*VIUeo,«R. be able. 

*Vigeo,** be ttrong. 

♦VKreo,» begreetu 

To theie add the Actives 7*imeo,^ ere, ui, endus, fear: and Nlkxo,^ ere, ui, n^ 
turn, h^turus, hurt Also Stieo,^ ere, ui, iUendua, keep silent, conceal. 


§ 147« Verbs in -heo and -ceo : 

Jiibeo,^ jiibere, jiissi, jussos, jussurus, order, 

""Sorbeo, sorbere, sorbui, , * sup. 

Ddceo," ddcere, ddcui, doctus, ddcendus, teaek. 

Misceo,'' miscere, miscui, mistus or mixtus, r. d. mix, 

'OZui, Hor. The.pomppunds of Oleo, when they sienifV to tmeU, make ui: 
Adoleo, I smell, burn, ui, V arr. AduUus, Antias ibid. AdoCendue, Ovid. Obt^eo, 
smell, ui. Plant BM^Steo, smell strongly, ut ; R)^olulSTat, had got a scent, Capi- 
tolin. in Gordian. Subl^o, smell a litue, ut ; but of this there is no classical proof: 
Subdevi certamly does not exist Perolesee, to have smelt stronely, is cited fivm 
Lucil. by Prise In the signification, to grow, fprow out of use, fade, &c., they make 
KVi : Ab^o, I effiice, evt. Cell. Aholitus, Tacit Abohtunu, Sueton. Abolendus, 
Sueton. Adeieeco, I grow up, evi. Sail. Jug. c. 2. Adoleue, Ovid Exoleo occurs 
only in Prise. Exolesco, I lade, evi, Flin. ExoiUue, Cic. pro Mil. ObedUo, or 
Obsol^co, I grow out of use, eot, Cic ManiL c. 17. Obsotetui*, Cic Inclenco, I 
grow upon, implant evi^ GeU. Inoiescendus, Gell. The Perfects Abolui, A.dobd, I 
nave crOwn up ; Adolevi, I have burned. Exolui, IntHui, do not occur in ^e 
entire hody of classical Latinity. Priscian, gives Aholui, but without authority. -— 

*PaUm, rropert — *P&rui, Mart PSriturus, Justin. PirUum, S3rmmadD 

^P&tui, Ovid. Met — ^PercnUui, Cic Milon. The Perfect of the simple CaUeo 
does not occur. — *PUicui, Ovid. — ""PUbui, Ulp. Pig. — ^Putuit, Hor. ii. Sat 4. 
66. So the Mss. of Cruquius, Torrentius, Bentley, three of the Harleian Mss. in 
the British Museum, and most of the modem edfd. Piitruit, one of the Harleian 
Mss. with the edd. Mediol. 1477, Florent 1482, and some others. — *Rfgtd, Ovid. 
Met iv. 554. — *• Riibui, Ovid. — " Sordid, Alcim. — *• Squaltd, Paulin. Nolan.-- 
»» SOidui, Cic — " Stupid, Val. Flac — » Thnd, Mart. — " Torpui, Ovid. ^ " 1^ 
mm', Ovid. — » F^ta, TibuU. VmiHrus, Cic — » AncienUy VUgo. Vfgui, Ovid. 
Met XV. 436. — » Vtrui, Flor. — *» Ttmui, Cajs. Ttmendue, Hor. — « Nocui, Cic 
Att et passim. Noxim, -is, -it, for nocu^rim, Lucil. ap. Fest in ' Tama.' Noditum 
iri, Ca» R G. v. 36. NosdUurus, Cic OfE Noeditus, Vet Interp. — » SUid, Senec 
Med. SttUum est, August de«Civ. Dei. SUendus, Ovid. 

^ Anciently JUsL See Quintil. i. 7. Jussurus, Lucan. — <* Sorbui, Plin. Sorjm, 
niomed. but without authority. A&sor&ta, Plin. Absorpsi,Ijac9n. Ezsorbui,Tha. -^ 
^ Docendus, Cic. de Or. it 11. -—^Mistus seems preferable to Mixtiis; though in 
the ancient Mss. of Virgil and Iiiscript ap. Manut this Participle is written wilh 
XT. which is approved of by Dausquius. Mislurus, Lucan. Miacendus, Ovid. 

Sriiceo,^ nralcSre, nralsi, mQlmis, mulcendus, •.••••• soothe, 

^Luceo,* lucere, luxi, — , , » thifie, 

Tuoeo,* tac§re, tacui, tacitus, r. d shine. 

§ 148« Verbs in deo : 

Ardeoy^.ardere, arsi, arsus, araurus, < bum, 

Aud^o,' «mdere» ausus sum, ^usunis» aadcndus, dare, 

Graudecn' giudere^ gavisus sum, gavisurus, rejoice, 

Mordeo,^ mordere, mdmordi, morsufi, mordendiu» bite, 

^Pendeo,^ pendere, pSpendi, — , hang, 

Prandeo,* prandere, prandi, pransus, pransurus, dine, 

Rideo," ridere, ifsi, riisas, risom, risiuniSy ndendns, i laugh. 

*S^eo," sSdere, s^i, , sessuBi, sessurus, tU, 

Spondeo,^ spoodere, apdpondi, sponsus, promise, 

Suadeo," suaddre, eaasi, soasus, soisorus, siradeiidiis^ advise, 

Tmideo,^^ tondere, tdtoodi, tonsas, clip, 

ViAeo,^ vKdere, Tidi, visus, visam, Tiao, vlsuras» videndtu^ see. 

' Mtdsi, Enn. ap. Prise. The Participle Mulfus is used only in the sense of 
swea, as in Plant or mixed with honeys as in Colum. Plin. xxii. 24, Mulcendus, 
Ovid. Penmdsi, Pacov. an. Gell. Permuhus^ Cses. b. o. iv. 6. Permulcbu, SalL 
in Frag. Hist iv. ap. prise. 1. 1. Gell. i. 11.» where some read PerrnvhttB, — -So the 
Compounds, VUueeOf 'dawn;' EHiceOf * shine ibrtfa;* PeUUceo, *dkine through;' 
Prcduceo^ * shine before/ without the Perfect P&rtidple. But PoUuceOj * I <^r in 
sacrifice/ * prepare a banquet' * consecrate,' makes xi, ctus. — * TadiuSf Terent 
Ihciturus, Cic, TncenduSy ibid. — * Ardui, Inser. ArdttHrini^ Inscript Arsut, h| 
the sense of tothU, Plin. JlrsSrus, Ovid. — *iit«t, lor ausuB maiit Cato ap. Prise. ; 
hence Ausimy for at(«2frim, Liv. in Pnef. AusinU Sfat Theb. AtttHrimj Lactant 
where Cellarius reads ausis, Auaut, Virg. JEn. vi. 624. AtisfiriM, Ovid. Auder^- 
dus, Liv. XXXV. 35. — "Gatnsi, for gmnsus «urn, Liv. in Odyts. «p^ Prise, ix. 868. 
OainsimiSt Terent Gaudenduti pass. Symmach. — ^ Mimordij Gell. The Ccmoi- 
pounds do not double the first syllable: Admordeo, admordi, admorsut, &c. Yet 
Adm^mordi, Piaut Mordendus, Ovid. — ^The Participle Pensus^ occurs only in 
the compound, Propendeoy Pen. Sat PeMurut comes from Pendo, -is, of the tnird 
Coi^., which also makes P^tpendi. — *Some give diis Verb another Perfect Pran- 
9U8 sum. See liv. xxviii. 14. Pransfints, Plaut — ^Rido, -is, Lucr. IrriduTU, 
Brut ap. Diomed. JRSdeart pass. Ovid. IGdetur, Mart JRxsua eat, was laughed at, 
Val. Max. RtsuruSy Plant IGdenduB^ Hor. Runtm, Cic /msuin. Plant Deru 

sum. Id. — ^^Seswm, Cic. Sessurus, Hor. Art Poet Sideatur, impers. Gell 

" Spopondt, Liv. ; never Spospondi. The Compounds do not double the first 
syllable : Despondeo, despondi, aesponsus, Cic ; yet De^plopondi, Plant Spipondi, 
Valer. iSjpoTuf ^fml, Tertull. — i* jSwasus, Plaut Svosttrus^ Quintil. iii. 8. Su&den- 
dus, Traian. — i^The Perfect though not found in the classics, is acknowledged by 
all the old Grammarians; and is c^ifirmed by the Compound Dit^andirat in Varr. 
ap. Prise, ix. p. 868., and Deque iSUmdii in £jin. ibid., though Detondeo genemUy 
makes Dltendi ; see Colum. vn. 4. ; and so the other compocmds, without douUing 
the syllable to, — " Vtsutn, Cic. Vtsut Juv. Vimnts, Yvt^, Georg. ii. 68. Ma. v, 
107. Videndus, Terent We use die tense V^his, -it, -tnt, imperatively, when 
we disclaim the care of any thing, and leave it entirely to others. Viderint alii, 
let etiiers look to it; for it is no concern of mine. The passive Videor is often 
Hind in a neuter sense, I seem, I appear ; and generally with the datives miki, tibi, 

FWeOTMlftt, V^dmstfbi,^. 



§ 149« Verbs in 'gea : 

*Algeo,^ algSre, alsi, , be cM^ shiver with <iM. 

Augeo,' augere, auxi, auctus, aucturus, increase. 

♦Fulffeo," fulffere, falsi, ^ , shine. 

Indulgeo,* inaulgeife, indolsi, indultas, b. o indulge. 

♦Lugeo,* lugere, luxi, — -, lugendus, mourn. 

♦Mulgeo,' mulgere, mulsi, » .* mdk. 

Tergeo,^ tergere, tend, tersus, .^ wifpe. 

*Turgeo," turgere, tursi, — — , , «wett, he ongr^'. 

♦Urgeo,' urgerei urai, ^ urgendus, press. 

S 150« Verbs in -ieo and -Uo : 

Cieo,'** ciere, [civi,] cttus, stir up. 

Compleo,^^ Gomplere, complevi, completus, JiU, 

D^leo," delire, delevi, deletus, delendus, blst etU. 

Fleo," flere, flevi, fletus, fleturus, flendus, weepC 

Sdleo,^* sdlere, sdlitus sum or sdlui, . « be accustomed. 

§ 151« Verbs in -weo, -gtieo^ ^reoy -seo : 

Ccnseo," censure, censui, census, censendus, .......... think, judge. 

*HiBreo,*' herSre, haesi, , htestirus, stick, hesitate. 

*Marieo," m&nere, mansi, , mansum, mansiirus, stay. 

Neo,^^ nere, nevi, netus, spin, 

^Alsify Hor. Art Fokt 4ia Alsiiui, Cic. Aft iv. 8., as if from Alma.—^AuC' 
turuSy Ltv. i. 7. * Ad fru^ cntgendas,* Lucr. Anxim, -{>, -U, for aueeamy -of, -at, 
or auxirim, -m, -it, liv. xxix. 7. — « Fulceo^ Diditoed. Fulgo, Prise. ridffUr Luer. 
FulffirCt Virff. JEn. vi. 827. — * Indvitux, Ovid. Indulturu$t Ulpian. Inau^endus, 
Ul plan. — * Laixti, for Ittxistif Catall. iMsenduBy Ovid. JJigetur, impers. Catull. — 
• Multi, Virg. Geors. iii. 400. * Mvlxif diflerentie causa, ouidam protiilenint, qaia 
Mulceo qaoque Mulin £icit* PrUc. in. p. 870. Neither Mulxi nor Mtdctus occurs 
in the classics. — ^ Tet^untr Cic. TergunlvVt Varr. l. l. Tertti, for tersislii Cata)l. 
' Tergendut mensis utilis/ Mart The Participles in nti and rus do not occur. — 
8 TursirtUy Enn. ap Prise, ix. p 870. Turgo and Tvrgit occur in the ancient Glos- 
saries. — 'Sottne write Urgueo, contrary lo the opinion of Longns, Papir., Cassiodor.. 
Bede, Dausq. ; but Pierius on Virg. iEn. v. 202., Barth., Heins., Cort., Drakenb. and 
Oudend. seem to prefer it, from its more frequent occurrence in Mss. Ursi, Cic. 
Urgendus, Quintil. — " Cm properly belongs to do of the Fourth Conj., which 
see in List i. The Perfect CO, mentioned b^ Charis. iii. init. takes place only in 
the Compounds. Citus, Cels. Conalxis^ Ovid. FjoHtus^ Virg. iEn. iv. 301.— > 
>^ Of the simcde Verb we find only PUntur. Ccmplerunt, for camptevinmiy Caes. 
B. G. * Ad tosBM, complendtu* Hirt B. H. — ^DUenduSt Cic. pro Leg. Manii. c. 
7. — ^FlesBe, for flevisae^ Plin. FtHtiSy Virg. Mn. vi. 481. FlVurun, Hor. Epod. 
v. 74. Ftendun, Ovid. Triat — " Soluh-at, Sallust, in Fragm. SciuMntf CcbI. 
Antipater ap Non. Solltus sum, Cic. de Orat. i. 90. et passim. Salens, Plant. ~> 
>^ Census, Liv. iii. 3. Recensus, Sueton. Censitus^ Cod. Justin ; hence RXeentatMf 
Sueton. CensendvSf Ovid. — ** Hasurus, Ovid. — " Manstiy for nuintisUy Ludl. ap.- 
Gcll. Mansum, Terent Mansunis^ Vir;?. i£n. iii. 85. Manenda, Lucr. — ^ NStM, 
Ovid. Nesse, Claud, in Eutrop i. 274. N&us, Aldm. Avit. 




8foeo^^ flStiere, 86niii,<dnect08, ^rtMo old, 

TSneo,' ISneTe, tSnni, tentus, tenturos, tSnendus, hold, 

Torqueo,' torquSre, torsi, tortas, torqaendus, whirl, 

Torreo,^ torr^r e, torrui, tostus, • roa$t. 

§ 152« Verbs in -veo: 

Cftveo/ c&vere, c&vi, cautos, eautam, cayendus, hew^e of. 

^Conniveo/ connivere, connivi, ^ wvk ai, 

*r&veo,' flLvSre, fevi, , fautunis, favour, 

*Ferveo,' fervSre, ferbui, —^9 • • boUf be hot 

Fdveo,' f&veret ^vi» fotus, fbvendus, cherish, 

Mdveo,*" mdvere, movi, mdtoB, mdturus, mdvendas, , . move, 

*Pftveo," p&v^re, pavi, , pftvendus, ,i fear. 

Vdveo,^ vdvere, vdvi, vdtua» vow, 

§ 153« The Perfects of the following Verbs are 
doubtful : 

*Dii'¥b0O,u ni, .. . count oiwr, dittribute. 
Frendeo,** ui, freniu or fresuB, . gruuh. 

*Fngeo,>* frixi, &cold. 

*Fn»Qde6," ui, hear leave». 

Splendeo,!' ni, Odno. 

Stndeo»iii, hiM9,creak. 

Vieo,^ vievi, viStUB, hind vritk twigg, 


^ Shmit SuetoD. ShteduM^ Lucr. Sail, in Orat — * Thnn, Vifg. Geoig. iv. 489L 
et peasim. Thwoi^ Chans. TVf/Ixt, FeatuR. TWnMnit -4», <i, Acdna et PtocuT. 
ap. Non. iL 838. 7>^nisK, Pacuv. ibid. Tentus, held, Ammian. TWiffinu, Claud, 
de Torp. 19. 'Hnendus, Ovid — * TVrfiM, Vif|[. jEn. iv. 575. 80 Conlm^ -a, 
•tuBt whirl aboQt; DeUwipieo, -a, -Iub^ turn aside; bat the PMicipIe />dom« is 
used fa^ Cato api Prise, ix. p. 871., and the SujMne Tormna is giren b^ Prise, ibid., 

bat without authority. Torquendu$^lAv.Jxrr.b * Torrttt, Ovid. To<f ««, Cio. 

Tosc. iii. 19. et passim. — *Ca»i, Tor. Cic. et passim. Cautus, legally secured, 
Hor.; avoided, Plaut; defended, Mart Cauiue is a oontraction of CiMhu. It ia 
more frequently used in an active sense, cataioiu, circummect Cattfitm, liv. 
CUvendu*, Propert Cic. Or. ii. 195. CiMhrem, tor cUverem, Tibnll. ; hence CiMtt 
Hat, ii. Sat 3. — "Connxoi, Cassius ap. Prise, ix. 866. Plaut 'Dum egO connixi 
somne,* Turpil. ap. Prise. 1. c. '„ but this seems to come from Connnot -is, of tha 
third Conj. Conntvire, Calvus ap.- Prise, ibid. At all events ConnXvi is more cer- 
tain, and more consonant with analogy. — '' FSvi, Cic. pro Plane. * Huic Roma ita 
i^u/um est, ut,* &c. Spartian. Fau/ur»«, Cic. — "Fer6tu, Pallad. j[>p/er6iit, Cato 
R. R. c 96. Conferbuh Cela. Fervhii, Cato R R. c. 157., where some Mss. hava 
ferbuiriU 'Ffrvit aqua, et fervel; fervU nunc, fervet ad annum,' Ludl. ap. 
<^ntil. Fervat Pompon eC Accius ap. Non. Fervire^ Virg. Georg. i. 455. — "Fovt, 
Virg. i£n. xii. 430. Fotua, Viig. JEsu i. 699. F^oendus, Colum. vi. VL—^Mut^ 
rutylAv. Afouenifuii, Virg. Georg. ii. 418. Mostis, for mdvitfis. Mast Morunt, for 
tndverufU, Sil. — "Psvt, retron. Exp&vi, Hor. i. Od. 37. 23. PHvenduSt Flin. — 
*• Volun, Cic. de Nat Deor. — ^JDHrlhui is found in dictionaries only. — ^^Frendui, 
Bibl. Vulgat Fsalms. xxxiv. 16. Frendi, Lowe Gremm. p. 14. Freuus, Cels. 
Fresns, Colum. — '^Frurt, Diomed.; also Perfngesco naken perfrixit Cels., and 
Rtfngesco, refrixi, Cic. Att. 1. 11. — "Fronaui, Prise. — " Splenduit Charis. — 
^StrMlui. Prise. Stridire, Hor. ii. Sat 8. 78. Vid. Heins. et Burmann. ad Ovid. 
Met. ix. 171. * rostrisque ftrtdenClbut,* in some Mss. — '* Vievi, Gmmmatici. Vietvt, 
tofahtfacddt is used as a mere adjective. Vietut in Hor. Epod. xii. 7. is considered by 
some as an Anapest ; it would be more correct to make it a Spondee by Syncresis. 

128 tRGCnfD OONlVOAVZOlf OF VMtat. 

3iare60i I ^e, is said to haye Jifarcvi, which does dot ooeur in the dasttes; but 
H confinned by the compound Emarcesco, emarcuif fade away, PUb. zv. Si. 

§ 194« These Verbs have neidier Perfects nor 
Perfect Pdrticiples : 

*Albeo,* bewfdte. 

*Aveo, •.•^,... Covets 

«Calveo,* be bald, 

*Cev€o,' fawnaaadcg. 

^Cliido, be/anumt, existy 6e. 

^Denseo/ thicken, 

*Flaveo, heyeUow. 

*l*(BteOy 4 Btiink. 

'N^labrao.* bebare. 

fHebeOk - feduO. 

*HameO; iemouL 

^Laeteo» ,.. Buck.mUu 

*Lenfeeo, .\ bedow, 

*LIveo, .^ be bUuk and Uue. 

*MBceo belean, 

*McBteo,* grieve. 

*MvLC0o,^ ..^ bemoiditf, 

fNideo,^ thine. 

*Polleo, m,. be powerful. 

♦RSnTdeo» gUtter, 

*8dtteo,"> overflow^ 

*UV60,^^ bemoisL 

*Vegeo, bttirWig, 

§ 155* DEPONENTS. 
P6inc6or,'* «drier or -ere, -eri, -Ytas, . « , ^ pfifmise. 

Fateor,** fiunos, n. d. ccnfess. 

ConHteor,'* oonfeflsus, c . adcnoidedge. 

♦piflTTteor, , deny. 

JhSjfTtet))';" pfdf^nus,D dedare. 

liTceor,*" lYcifcU^, bid a price. 

♦Medeor," , d ... ctare, 

M&ereor," mtseritus or milBertus, pitv, 

Reor,"ratus, ..,. tkinL 

TSieoTt^ tuttus, D. aee, protect 

Vereor, verttus,** d fear. 

^Albui Grammatici. — * Calvi occurs only in dictionari^ — 3 Cevi, Valier. Prob. 
in Calhot. p. 1482. CevOt cevie^ cevi. Idem ibid. p. 1484. — * Denseo, den^^ Charis. 
iii. p. 233. See Heinsius en Ovid. Fast. iii. 820.-^* Of this verb GWiren£(bu8 only 
occurs, and that in Colum. ii. 9. 8. ed. Gem., where Schneider and others read 
clUeniihm. — * * Mcerui debuit iacere, sed in usu non est' Prise, viii. p. ^17. Some 

S've this Verb McBStus sum as a Perfect, which does not differ in si^incaticMi from 
Icereo, since MoBstue is a mere adjective. — "^ Mucui is found in dictionaries only. — 
B This Verb occurs only in Petron. * Areaqua attritis nuf^' &c. where others read 
rideL — *Riinlduity Gloss. Vett — >®* Prseteritum Sc&tui analogia defenditur, ut 
PiUui, JLMuiy &C. Facciolat — ^^Of this Verb the Participle Uvene only occurs in 
the classics. 

** PoUlcttuSf having promised, Caes. B. G. ii. 4. PoUtdUus, pass, promised, Ovid. 
PcitfceoTy pass. Ulpian. PoUiceres, act Varr. ap. Non. — ^FassuSt Plaut. Faasu' 
rue, Ovid. FSiendus, Id. Trist i. 9. 16. F&ieatur, pass. Cic. But see Elmesti. — 
^*Confe8su8, act Plaut passim. Confessus, pass, confessed, manifest, Cic. Quintil. 
et Plm. Confitetur, TpOBB. Ulpian. Confitendus, Cic. — ^Prdfesaugf Cic. passim.. 
Prdfeneus, pass. Ovid. ProfUenduSy Cic. de Orat Profltemtno, for prbfVeatur, 
Vet Tab. een. ap. Murator, p. 582. —>■ *• LicituSy Cic. Verr. v. 11. — ^ Mideor has no 
Perfect; but in its stead MedtcStus from MidlcoTy I heal, is used. See Diomed* i/ 
p. 376. MSdenduSy Stat. Tbeb. MMendo, pass. Virg. i£n. xii. 46. < Ut huic viiio 
mMeMuTy that this fault may be obviateo, Vitruv. — '^*Ipse sui vCMrety Lucr. 
Jfcf?»M<u»,-Phsedr. MisertuSy Justin. Misirerier, for m^streriy Lucr. MUire&ttir, 
pass. Cic. — >* Of this Verb the following forms only are found in the classics: 
KeOTy Hor. ii. Ep. i. 69. ReriSi Virg. -^^. vi. 96. Reririy for reris ne f Plaut Rere, 
Virg. iEn. vii. 437. Retur, Stat Tneb. Remur, Cic. Off! Reniini, Amob. Reti' 
tury Plaut ReboTy Cic. RebdrCy Virg. JEn. x. 608. RebStur, Cic. Rebamur, 
Plaut /Zetonfur, Cic. de Nat Deor. i?e&or, Senec. JRefittur, Plaut iSear, Id.. 
Rjbare. Rearisy Auson. Reantury Plaut Ratus, Cic. See Quintil. viii. 3. and Cic. 
Or. iii. 38. Wherefore this and many other Verbs might, with as much propriety» 
be classed amons the Defectives, as AiOy Inquioy &c. — » Tuoty Stat Theb. . Hence 
Tuiusy protected, Sail. Jog. c. 56. Liv. x. 37. TuVub^ Quintil. v. 13. Tuaiturj 
pass. Varr, TuenduSy Cic. Virg. JEn. ix. 175. — » Fifr^fu*, Cic. Virehdue^ Ovid. 
Met Vireriy pass. ' 




DSceC d^erct d^uit, it beoomes* 

Ltbet,' Itbere, libuit or lYbttam est, it pleases. 

Ltibet,' llibdre, liibuit or V&hitam est, U pteases. 

LYcet,* lYcere, lYcuit or lYcYtum est, iti» lawful, 

LYquet,* Itquere, liquit or lYcait, it is clear, 

MXagret,' mlsSr^re, mtedruit or mXserltum est, it pities, 

'Oportet,' dportere, dportuit, it behoves, 

P%et,* pYgSre, ptguit or pYgttam est, it grieves, 

Poenttev poenltere, poenltuit, it repents, 

Ptidet,** pudere, pUdait or piidttum est, it shames, 

Tcdet," taedere, teduit or tiesam est, it wearies. 


§ 157r Verbs of the Third Conjugation end in 
-o, and change -o into -i or -si in tne Perfect ; into 
-ere short in. the Infinitive; and into -t/fi$, -fti5, or. 
-sus in the Perfect Participle Passive ; as, 

TrYbuo, trYbu^re, trlbui, trYbOtus, r. d give^ divide, 

§ 1 58» Verbs in ^coj -cto^ and ^go generally take 

1 Diceant, Cic. DikniMnt, Sal). Jug. c. 5a < Si non dedMcui,' If I have not dia- 
honoared, Stat.Theb. — ** Sciendum, quod luBc omnia invftniuntur perftctorum 
declinaliooem, habentia in uau veterum, teste, Capio, Tigeo, P&Zeo, Taaeo, Pcsrateo, 
LlqueOt Ijfceo, LlbeOt Oporteo, quomodo, PlXceo, Contingo,^ &€. Priadan. zi. p. 
528. Li^hm hit. Plant. Aain. i 1. 9.— -"Xtiief it the ancient Ibrm tor LtM, 
especially in the comic -writen. laibet, Plaut LuhaU, Fteud. JJibere, Cic. Att 
iJbtcessit, for ttcuMt, Plaut Lk^um, hit, Cic LtdHxtm etMet, Id. Att. ii. 1.— 
^iSquirtU Cic. Nat Deor. i. 43. Liicuhrit, Ulp. Dig. For Hcmt some write Hquuit 
JJtdUum, which some give to this Verb» belong to Licet. — *3IUhrete, Enn. apw 
Non. MMfrireat, Enn. ap. Prise. * Ipse sui tmseret,* Lncr. JHs^fnti^ Apul. Met 
Af Iserttum ««r, Terent — ^Qporte&mf, Terent 0{portei>A Id. Andr. ^Oportuhrint, 
Cecil, ap. Prise Oporteto, far oporlealtVet. Leg.->-"Pymf, Petran. PigUum, 
Sil. Pigeru, Apdl. Met Pigendu», PVopert — *P<BnUimmt, Pacuv. ap. Non. 
PoBriUena, Cic. Phil. ni. 3. PdmVfinrs, Quintil. Pemltendus, Colnm. liv. i. 35. 
Some write ParMet with JE ; and so it is in an Inacript ajp. Grut p. 502., and in 
some ancient Ma. of VinlL Gellius seems to have written it in the same manner, 
since he derives it zvii. 1., not from Pana, but from Pane, or Pioturia — TfPudeo, 
Plaut Puient, Terent Pudnmnt, Lucan. PMttum ett. Plant PS^ttvai eeeet, 
Cic. — " Tadui, Sidon. Ep. TcMim eU, Plaut Moetei. So Pertcedet, pertaduit, 
pertauum est, Cic. Vira. JEa. ▼. 714. Periaduieeent, Cell. i. 2. Some (n the an 
dents used to write PhUsum, (as from C<Edo, Conclsum,) which ia disapproved of 
liy Cic. Omt 159. 

100^ tttlftt^ C0NJV6ATiOlf OF VBttlSW 

-51 / but the letters cs and gs unite to form x r as, 
Dico, I say, (dicsi) dixi ; Regb^ I rule, (rea^i,) fil5J?i. 

§ 150« G before -fw5 becomes- c; as, LegOj I 
read, (JegUu$y Icgtus) lectus ; Jungo, 1 joiti, ijungt" 
tusy junorua) junctus^ &c» 

^ 160# B before -si and -im becomes p ; as, 
Nuboj I veil, hupsi, nuptus ; Scrtboj I write, seripsij 

§ 161« jR before -si and -tus becomes ^; as, UtOj 
I burn, ussij ustus ; Geroj I carry, gessij gesttis. 

§ 162« D and ^ are generally dropped before -st, 
-sus, rtus ; as, Claudoj I shut, clatisiy claususj Dividop 
I divide, dtvisij divlsus ; LcBdojl huTty IcBsi, Icesus ; 
Idbdojl play, /tlsi, I'ksus ; Phmdo, I applaud, jD/bfi^sz, 
phmsus ; Rddoj I shave, rfisi, rilto^ / Trudo^ I thrust^ 
ffa^, ^m^u^ / Vddoy I go, ^si / Flecto, I bend, {fi^csi^ 
fiexiy (^Jle0$us^ Jlexusj &c. 

§ 163« 1> and f sometunes become s before ^; as,- 
C^i^o, I yield, cessi^ cessvs^ Mitto, I sei^d, misi^ mis- 
sus ; Qudtioy I shakcy quassia quussuSy &c 

§ 164« G is sometimes dropped before -^t and 
'Sus / as, SpargOj 1 scatter, ^parsi^ sparsus / Vergo^ 
I incline, t?em, t^erscrs ; Mergo^ I dip, mersij mersuSf 
&c. So PardOy I spare, drops c in par sums; and 
Po^co, I feed, (kops c inpastu^. 

§ 165» Verbs in -«co change -«co into -vi for the 
Perfect, and drop sc before -tus ; as, Cresco, I grow, 
cr&)iy cretus ; Noscoy I learn to know, n&oiy ridfus. 

§ 166» ilf and n are frequently dropped both in 
the Perfect and Perfect Participle ^Passive ; as, 
Temnoy I despise, temsi; FrangOj 1 break, yreg"i. 

matM eojxfVQAVum of rwrnm. 181 

firaetus ; R/umpo^ I InirBt, r^pt, ruphis^ dsc. JIf be* 
comes 3 before -5t in Prgnno, I press, pressi^ pressus : 
n becomes s in Pono, I place, posui^ positus. 

^ 167« Verbs changing -o into -t for the Perfect, 
and into -itus. tusy or ^sus^ for the Perfect Participle 
Pas^Fe : 

^AlNtoo,^ abnnAre, abnui, ---^, abnuYturciB, abiiaeadaa, reftue. 

Accoodo,' aocend^re, aeeendi, accensus, settm fire. 

Acuo^' ficu^re, ficni, ficiltaBf ftcuendtu, sh/arftn, 

Appendo, append^re, appendi, appennu, ««^Jk. 

Arguo,* argfaSre, argroi^ argutna, argulum, argfuYturaa, 

argraendtn, *Aoio, finnt^ tieeuse, 

^Batuo,* batu^re, faatui, -*— , batHeadna, beai. 

Btbo,* bYbSre, btbi, bIbHus, btbendus, . . : drink. 

♦Congruo,' congniSre, congjai, —^^ come together, agree. 

D^fendo,* defendSre, defendi, defbnsaa, s. d. toara offl 

*De^^ degere, degi, , degendus, Uoe^dweU. 

£do, dd0re, ^; esns, Asam, Taurus, ^endus, eat» 

Etno,*' ^m6te, emi, emtus, emturua, Smendus, huy. 

focUdo," exctld^re, excudi, excuans, • shake out, stamp. ^ 

Exao»'* exuSre, exui, exiitus, exuendus, put off, strtp^ 

Ferva See Ferveo, Second Cooj. List vilL 

Findo,*^ findSie, fidi, fissaa, findendus, cleave. 

Fundo,** fimd^re, fadi, fuaus, iUsunia» fundendua, pour» 

Ico,** ic6re, ici, ictos, icturus, ', irike, 

1 Neither the Participle AlniituM |ior the Snpiiie Ainutum are ftnnd except in 
dictionaries. AJbnuiturus, Sallust Fragm. Hist. i. Ahnvendus, l^ec. — *' Aocen- 
dendis ofiennonihaB callidi/ Tacit Ann. — *Aciitu§, Priac.; but it is lued aa a 
roere Adjective. Acumdu$t Cic. Phil. ii. — *Argtnf I4v. ArgtUus^ Phiat Argu- 
turn, Supme, Fettns. AmKfinr», Sallqst Arguendus, Tacit — * fiShd, Cic Fam. 
BMuewuB^ Nsv. ap. Fmgent. 81. Some incorrectly ivrite Bofltce ; hence BaUu' 

turn, VetL OI088. — •BHithu, Piin. Valer. BAendu», Ovid. — * Congrui, Val. Flac 

^'Difenturus, Claud. DefendenduBf Can». B. G. & Terent I>ifennim, Nepoa. 
Defengu, Sallust — " The Perfect of Deg9 occurs only in Austm. Epist xvii. ad 
Symmach., where some copes have Degufmn*- Dqfendti$, Cic. de Amic. — '*See 
Irregular verbs. — ^ £mtu$, not Emptut ; because F. is never inserted in the Pre- 
sent Ema. So Sumitts^ Comtutj Demtua, &c. See the old Grammarians, Terentius 
Scaurus and Marius V^ctorinus. EaOuru», Justin. Emendut^ Cic. Emiatim, for 
imMm, Plaut — >*The Perfect of the simple CSdo does not occur. It makes 
Owtt according to some; according to others, Cudi See Priscian. x. p. 889. In 
Colum. zi. we have Excudit, and \in. 6. Pereudgrint, Tbe Pbrtici|^ Cuau» does 

fecit ; Kcet quidam fin pntaverunt' Prise, x. p. 890. F^dMt, Gels. Fmdendua, 
Cehi.^»Fusuru8t Lucan. Ftmdenduw, Curt — "Of this Verb the following 
forms only are found : If^Sre, infin. Plant JRrtf, Lucr. IiHtiat C<bL ap. Prise, x. p. 
886. Idltur, Plin. Idtmur, Lucr. Icit perf. Plant Icltraa^ Cic. in Pison. Ictn», 
TurpiL np. Ncm. Iciase, Cic. pro Balb. /cftM, passim. Icturit Senec 

192 THiiD oonnraATioir of vmmwa. 

Inibuo,' imbufiiCi imbui, imbflUuv imbueiidas, iatbnu. 

Induo,' induere, indui, indutus, jpui on. 

Idsuo,' ioBDere, ineui, insutiu, tow itt, join to, 

•Lambo,' IwnWre, Iambi, liet. 

I^gOt* ^Rfire, \6g\, lectus, lebturua, tegendua, gather, read. 

*LiDquo, liuqu^re, liqni, , linqueodua, ieoie. 

*Luo,' lufire, lui, , luTtuniB, luendua, pag, alone. 

Mando,' mandere, mandi, mamus, mandeoduB eketo. 

MStuo,' mStuSre, mfitui, m^tiitiia, tDdtaendna, fear, 

Mlnuo," mlnoere, mitiiii, mlnutus, mlnnenduB, leuen. 

Pinso," pinsere, pinai w pinsui, pinaltos, pinsua or piBtus, bake. 

•Pluo,"* plaere, plui or pluvi, ;■ mtn. 

Prehendo," pr^headCre, pr£hendi,'prebcQSUSi m. J>,or 

Prendo, prendEre, prendi, prensua, r. n take, aeize. 

*Paallo, Dull ere, p«alli, , .-. play on on inttrvmenl. 

Rumpo, rampfire, rupii.niptus, ruptiiruB, D. break. 

Ruo, mere, rui, rtitus, lulturua, rvth, /ail. 

'Scfibo," sc&bere, Bcabi, $cratclu 

*S<;aiido," scuidSre, Bcandi, , scandetidae, cHtnb. 

*8ido,'' Bidere, aidi, , tink doun, 

SolvO)" «olvfie, solvi, sOlutus, aOlutOruB, d loote. 

'Imbai, perf Catall. Jahuaidia, Cuit — > fnlui. Gc. Tuk. IndOut, Vag. 
.£n.ii. 276. II bw no other Fsnicic^e. — ■ The Ferfecl af tha rimple <Su oecun 
onljinPriic.; but we hare Iiuun-i, PUn. JnniitKt,Cic. andTniuirar.Ijv. Sitia, 
OtuL Stmifu, Cel>. Attattit iaei ata occat. Cmiiului, Plaut, CiTaaatuoa 

titiu, Plin. Diavlut, Ovid. Dittuadia, 

iViac. lambui, BibL Vlll^l^ Friician ibid. 

It mitbontv. Imnid, -it. -nn', Csiiiodar. de 
. lAgtndvt, Ovid. — ■ ' lictaM, 
an. PhiloM. c. 7,. Kd locui ille 
FacdelaL FOHctui, Vii^. Georg;. iv. IS7. 

lati, Junin. * Tn pisLeridi U dicnaoft Lon- 

, vluit: So wril« Vmto, JjuVirat, Claud. 

blul&nit, AugiuL iSuoidut, Plin. DAu. 

nilui, altinuiiHliiIi eBevoluarunt; aeduea- 

,-iv. Mhhu», Quinlil. JUinufciirfiw. C*l». — 

• Mttu, Tarmt. Jlf»uJuf. Luct. JUifruobfui, Saoec — '^JftnunJui. Cic OS— 
" Piiufrunl. Vbtt. R. R. Ptntai. Pompon, ap. Dtoiued. PintUia, Calom. Pfiiu. 
VitruT. Pia^Fim.— '^ «uBftBtPlaut The Perfecl PW 
according Id Vano L. L. Tiii. 60, had the Gm srllabls locg. Bee Luo. — " FrmtU- 
-Ti. Sial. Theh. FriAeMkTat. Ovid, lO. PrMend«nAi«, Ovid. Some »-- "— 
mila, oihera iVccnila. See Dauagu. in Onbc 
w, Jmiin. — " Thia Verb ia monly used in die 

Rutm 11 found only in the NeuL jd. R&la t , 

maliMlhoUlonginUiBiiQlpiefiu/u*. Rultunu.O^a. Dirvaydft.Vea. Obn. 
aidui, Coiam. — " SnOieral, Lucil. None of the Pardeipl» are Ibund. — "The 
Perlecl Scaadi^caaaot he fouod : Aitmvorlh dtea KandiMie. Uv. ni. 62, ; but dio 
reading ia etcaidisie, atcendiuf. Cic. ComrrridlTiit, Virg. jEn. iv. 646. Dratendt- 
n'f. Liv. invi. 7. Yet DrtcenOdit, GeJl. DtKxnildtrta, ibid. Aieadi, Cic pt> 
Dam. c. 28. Samdendiu, Propert AKziuiinK. TibulL Aieendaidii$, Cte*. & 
C. — " Sidlrat, Slat Sylv. SsdlriU Coliim. Cmtiiltranl, Tadt Ann. The Pef> 

feet Sidi i - _ . . . 

SMeo. — *_.„„ 

Sclvaidiit, Flin. Epiat. 


*e|^o,* sptiSre, spai, ^ tpU. 

fiUfttiH),' st&tuSre, st&tai, stfitutus, st&taeDdus, , ; place, 

^f&temoOf* sternudre, sternui, , sneeze, 

Btndo* strid^ie, stridi, , hisSf creak. 

Tilbuo^* trlbii^e, trtbui, trYbatus, trlbutCmifl, d ^'v^. 

YertOf* yerr^re, yerri, yersas, yerrendus, drti«ft. 

Yerto»^ yertdre, yerti, yenus, yersurus, yertendos^ turn, 

Tinoo,' vinc^re, loci, yictus, yicturas, d conquer, 

Volvo," yoly^re, yolvi, ydMtOB, yolyendns, roll, 

§ 108« Verbs changing -o into ^si for the Per* 
feet, and into -tus^ or -susy for the Perfect Partici- 
ple Passive : 

Carpo,^ carp^re, carpsi, carptus, carpendus, pluck, 

Cedo," ced^re, cessi, cessus, cesaurus, • yield, 

Claudo,^ claudgre, clausi, olauaus, clausuros, claudeodus, shut, 

*Cl6pp," clSpSre, clepaif 1 steaL 

Como,** comSre, comsi, comtus, deck. 

Demo," demure, demai, demtus, demturuB, demendus, .... take away. 

DlvYdo," dividere, divisi, dfylsos, divisuraa, o divide, 

Gdro," ggrSre, gessi, gestus, geetunis, gSrendus, carry, 

Lffido," ItedSre, liesi, hesus, laesum, leaurus, hurt, 

Ludo, lud^re, luai, lusos, lusurus, • ptay, 

Mlergo,^ mergSre, mersi, mersus, mersurus, dip. 

Nubo,** Dub^re, nupsi, nuptus, nuptum, k. veil^ marry, 

^Spidsae, Solin. This Verb has no Partidpie. Remuiritt Cic. Nat Deor. JfZe- 
tpuendtUt Aal. Gell. — * StUtutugt Varr. SOhiendtUt Colum. CensOtuendus, AuL 
GeVL.^* Sternuihrit, FUn. —^Stndihraf. See Strideo, Second Coqj. list, ix.— 
* TWnUurutf Ovid. Met. Tr^^uendus, hnet. — * Verrirint, Hieron^. in Helvid. in 
fin. The Perfect Verri occurs nowhere else, except in Charis. iii. n. 216. ; and in 
Prise. X. j^ 900. Bat Servius on Viiv. JEn. i. 63. gives VersL Vernts, Propert 
Vor8u$, Plaut Verrendus, Ovid — ^VerH, Cic Propert The Perfect Verti, 
fonnd in Ovid, ex Pcnat i. 9. 53., does not come from VertOt as some suppose, but 
fiom Vergo. See Heinsius and Burman on the passage. VertuSf Hot. in. Od. 29. 
2. et passim. Vernirug, liv. Vertendus, Colum. — ^Victurus, liv. . Vmcendv», 
Martial. — " Vobd, Virg. vi. 746. Votutua, Virg. Georg. iu. 521. Vclvendu», Cic -- 
^ Carptut, Ovid. Camendus, Cic de Orat iii. 49. — '^ Cessi, Ovid. Cette, fer ces- 
SMse. Lucr. Cesttu, Lay, CenunUt Tacit Ann. — ^Clattsi, Hor. ii. Od. 4. et 
passim. Clusi, Nummos Neronis, ap. Patin. Claudo, •>« for daudu» sion, I am 
lame, has no Perfect ClaunUf Virg. .Xn. vi. 7S4. et passim. Clunu, Senec. 
C&iM&riM, Ovid. Clttudendug, Ovid. CiudentftM, Scribon. Larg. c 42. The Com- 
pounds drop A of the root — ** Clepsi, Manil. Clepntt for depsMtt Liv. xxii. 10. 
The Perfect Clepi is feand in Cic. de Leg. ii. 9. This Verb nas no Pisirticiples. 
CleptM is found only in dictionaries. — ^* Comtu Tibull. See note on Emo^ -fere- 

Soing| list — ^Demtit Liv. Demturtu, Justin. DimenduB, Cek ^DiewsaB, for 
wtsistet Hor. ii. Sat 3. 169. Dhnsunu^ Liv. DMdendus, DftfldunduBt Au). 
Cell. — ^ Oealuru», Lucan. Oirendus^ Cic. de Senec. — ^LeBgum, Cic Faro. 
XtBsurua, Lucan. The compounds make Udi; AlBdo, I dash against; CtJUdOf I 
dash tf^ther; ERdo^ I dash out; iZ^o, I dash against — ^^UuMUt played, Ovid. 
Trist deluded. Id. Fast ZusSrujt, Id. Trist^-^MernirtfS, Ovid. 



Plando»* plaudiSre, pUuei, plausus, plaudendus, . . applaiid by cUmping 

the hands. 

PrSmo,' prdm^re, pressi, pressus, pressurus, d press. 

Promo,' promere, promsi, promtus, promturus, promexulus, . bring o%U, 

Rado,^ r^ere, rasi, rasus, radendus, shave. 

*Repo,* repere, repei, , creep. 

Jlddo,* rodere, rosi, rosus, rosurus, gnaio. 

Scalpo,' Bcalpere, ecalpsi, acalptus, seraich. 

Scribo,® scribere, ecripai» scriptus, scripturus, d torite. 

Sculpo," sculp^re, sculpsi, sculptus, sculpendus, carve. 

♦Serpo," serpgre, serpsi, , ^, creep. 

Spargo," sparggre, sparsi, sparsus, sparsurus, s spread. 

Sumo,^ sumere, sumsi, sumtiis, 8umt]uniSy d take. 

♦Temno,^ temnere, temsi, , temnendus, despise. 

Tergo. See Tergeo, Second Conj. List V. 

Trudo,'* trudSre, trusi, trusus, thrust. 

Uto," firSre, ussi, nsius, urendus, hum. 

*Vado," vad^re, yasi, , go, 

Vergo," verggre, versi, versus, incUne. 

1 Nupti, Cic. peBBiin. Nnbuiy Valer. Prob. in Cathol. Nupia mmh Cic. ' Notus 
atfpCut,' Plant Nuptum, Caee. B. G. We should always say^, * Nuptum dare eollo- 
c&re/ never Nuptutt as is ibund in some grammars and dictionaries. See Draken- 
borch on Liv. i. 49. Nupturus, Ovid. — ^Plausus, Vij^. Geoig. iii. 185. Plauderi' 
du», Ovid. PlodhVf Varr. ap. Non. whence the compounds, Compiddo, I clap 
together ; Ea^odo, I hiss or clap ofi) explode, &c — * Pressurus, Ovicu Primendus, 
Cic. Tosc. The Compounds make prUno, pressu pressus ; Ccmprtmo^ I press 
together; Exprimo^ I squeeze out, &c. Dipreswm eunt, Plaut — * Promturus, 
Apul. Florid. Prbmendus, Cic. Depromtunit Plaut See note on £010, foregoing 
I^t — • Rasi, Plin. xxviii. 4 Radendus, Tacit Ann. — • Rosisse, Plin. Circum- 
rosHritt Plin. CorrosHrint, Cic. de Divin. ii. 27. Perroshinty Cels. Rosus, Stat 
Rosurus, Phiedr. The Perfects of Ahrbdo, Arrddo,' Erodo, Obrodo, PrarodOf are 
not found in the classics. — ^ Scalpsi, Plin. Scopus, Cic Acad. Circutnsoalptus, 
Plin. InscalptuSf Plin. tiiough Circumscaho, Inscalpo, do not occur. Exscalpo, 
Varr. L. L. Quintil. Exscalptus, Cnto, K. R. — ^Scripsti, for scripsisU, Plaut 
Scripse, for scripsisse, Auson. Scripiurus, Tacit Ann. Decemvir legibus scriben- 
dis, SuetcHL Vescrihendus, Aul. Cell. — 'Diomed. i. p. 574., does not admit of 
Sculpo ; but derives the Compounds, Exsculpo, Jnsadpo, from Scalpo. It is reject- 
ed also by Gesner in his Thesaur. L. L. Sculpsit, Ovid, where scnne read Scalpsii, 
others Sculpit or Sctdpit. Sculpendus, Vitruv. ' Scutpendis gemmis laus/ Apul. 
where others read Saupendis. Cf. Plin. xxxvi. 4. — ^Serpsi is ibund only in Fes- 
tus, lib. zvii., where he says, *Serp8itf antiqui pro serpsirit usi sunt' — ^^ Sparsi, 
Virg. Georg. iv. 28. SparsuruSy Ovid. SpargenduSy Veil. The Compounds make 
nergo, spersi, spersus, — ^Sumse, for sumsisse, Nsbv. ap. Gell. SumturuSt Ovid. 
SumenduSj Sueton. The difference between Sumo and Aa^o is this : Sum^us, 
ipsx; acf^fmust as alto. — ^ Temslre, Lucil. where Scaliger reads T^ernnere, sup- 
posing the Perfect to be Temm. Temsi does not occur euewhere in the classics, 
except in the Compound Contemsi, Cia ]nx> Mur. Tibull. T^emtus occurs only in 
the Compound Contemius, Cic. Temnendus, Ovid. — ^* IVusi, Claud. T^rusus, 
Tacit — " Ussi, Plin. Urendus, Hor. — " Vasit, TertuU. It occurs nowhere else, 
except in the Compounds Evasi, Cic. Catil. InvS^, Cic. Phil. Pervasi, Tacit 
Ann. Evasurus, Liv.^xxv. 11. Invasurus, x. 35. Invadendus, xxiii. 44. Perva- 
sums, xxxvii. 26. — " Versi^ Ovid. See note on Verto, foregoing Dst Verxi, 
Diomed. but without example. The Compounds, Dcver^o, I mcline downwards, 
Evergo, I send forth, Invergo, I invert pour out have neither Perfect nor Perfect 
Participle. Yet we read in Festus, ' Deversus, dicebant, deonum versus.' Versus, 


§ 169« Verbs making -xi in the Perfect, and -xus^ 
or 'Ctus in the Perfect Participle Passive : 

*Ango,' angere, anxi, , ttrangle, vex. 

Cingo,' cingere, cinxi, ductus, cingendus, . • • . • surround, 

Cdquo,' coqHere, ooxi, coctus, coctum, cdquendus, cooki 

Dico/ dicere, dizi, d ictus, dictu, dictuirus, dicendus, say, 

Diltgo,' diltgere, dilcxi, dilectus, love dearly, 

Buco,* duc§re, duxi, ductus, ductum, ducturus, n. lead, 

Emungo,^ emudg^re, emunxi, emunctus, wipe, 

Extioguo,^ extinguere, extinxi, extinctus, r. d q%te7ich, 

Figo* f Igere, fixi, fixus, fixurus, j^x, Jfasten, 

Fingo^" fiogdre, finxi, fictus, fingendus, f^gn, form, 

Flecto," flectere, flexi, flexus, flectendus, bend, 

*Fligo,» fliggre, flixi, , dash, 

Fluo," flu^re^ fiuxi, fluxus, fluxurus, JUno, 

IntellYgo,^^ intellYgdre, iBtellexi, intellectus, intellectu, 

intellectunis, intelligendus, under Hand, 

Jungo," jaog^e, juaxi, junctus, junctunis, d join, 

^Mingo, ming^re, minxi, , mictum, make water, 

Mungo. See Emungo, 

Necto," Hectare, nexui or nexi, nexus, nectendus, knit, 

Negngo,*^ negltggre, neglexi, neglectus, r. d neglect, 

^Anxity Gell. Hie Participles Arums and Andut, and Supine Anxuntf given by 
Prise, do not exist eisewtiere, though Scali^er would read. * Anctos, excruciatos/ in 
Festus, where others read Antios. — * Ct'nxt, Viiw. JEn. v. 13. Cingendut, Ovid. — 
t Coxi, Cic. Tusc. Coctum, Plant CoquenduSyld. — *J)ixti, dixis, for dixitli, diX' 
hisy Gell. Dixe, for dixisse, Varr. ap. Non. Dictt for rftc, PJaut Dictu, Plin. 
DicluruMylAy. DicenduSjVeVt. — • An irregular compound of liJ^o. DSexi, Cic 
Fam. So Cdttgo, I collect, coSext. CoUectu, Plin. — • Duce, for due. Plant. Duxti, 
for duxisti, Varr. ap. Non. Ductum, Caes. B. C. Dudurtu, Lav. i. 44. Ducenduit, 
Cels — 1 Emunxti, for emunxisti, Plaut. The simple Mungo occurs only in the 
Vett Gloss., and in the various reading of a Fragment of Cato, where the text has 
emungerUur. — ^Some derive Extin^uo from Tin^uo, 'quia ignis aqua tinctus 

. . Affixit, 

affixist^ Sil " Fingendus, A uson. — » FUctendus, Plin. — ^ Ftixi, Lucr. Some 

cite Flictus from Virgil, but no such Participle occurs in that poet. Affiictu$, Cses. 
B. G. et passim. Conf ictus does not occur. — "l^iarM, Apul. Met Fluxurus, 
Lucan. Flucturus, Pnsc. — "An irregular compound of Ugo. InteRexi, Cic 
Tntdlexti, for intellexisti, Cic. InteUexes, for inteOexisses, Plaut Intdtigi, for inld- 
lexi, Ulfuan. ap. Voss. TnieUectus, Ovid. Tntdlectu, Nepos. InteUeclurvs, Ovid. 
TnteUigendus, Cic. — ^Juncturus, Lay. xxix. 6. Jungendus, Cels. Adjunctum tri, 
Cic. Fam. — *'The imperfect tense of Mingo and its Compounds are scarcely ever 
found. Minxi, Hot. Art PoKt. 471. Meio, which is of more frequent use, has no 
Perfect, though Valer. Prob. Cathol. p. 1483, gives it Mexi, and Diomed. L p. 366, 
MeiSvL The latter also gives Mio, -is, 4t, but cites no example to prove either. 
Mictum, Hor. i. Sat 8. 38. — " Nexui, Sallust Fraem. Nexi, Propert Annexvi, 
Plin. Connexui, Claud. Rufin. Innexui, Virg. J&i. v. 4125. Nexus, Cic. Tusc. 
Annexus, Id. de luv. Connexvs, Id. Nat Deor. et passim. Tnnexus, Virg. ^n. v. 
510. Ntdendus, Hot. — ^An irresular Compound oi Ugo. Neglexi, Cic. Fam. 
et passim. Neglcgi, for neglexi, AEadl. Macer ap. Diomed. Neglecturus, Caes B. 
G. NegVigendus, Id. B. G. 


Pango^^ pongSre, ponxi or pegi, poctus, pancturus» 

pangendus, drive in, fix, fatten, 

Pecto,* pexui or pexi, pectSre, pexus or pectttus, 

pectendus, comb, dress, beat, 

*Pergo»* pergere, perxexiy , perrecturus, go forward, 

*Piango»* plangdre, planxi, , plancturua, heat, bewaiL 

Plecto/ plectdre, plexi, plexus, plectendos, « , . twine, 

lUgo,* rSgSre, rexi, rectus, recturus, rSgendus, rule, 

Stiugua See Extinguo, 

Stringo,^ string^re, strinxi, strictus, stricturus, ' 

atringendus, tie hard, graze, strip, 

Struo," struSre, atruxi, stnictus, atruendus, build, 

Sugo,' sugSre, auxi, suctus, suck. 

Surge," surgdre, surrexi, surrectus, aurrecturua, • me. 

T^i" tSgSre, texi, tectas, teetdrus, tSgendua, cover, 

Tingo," ting6re, tinxi, tinctoa, tincturus, d dip, die, 

TrSho,^' tr&here, traxi, tractua, tractdnia, d draw, 

Ungo,'* ungSre, unxi, unctus, ungendua, anoint 

V^bo," y^hdre, vexi, vectoa, vecturus, carry, 

♦Vivo," viv€re, vixi, , victurus, live. 

§ 1 70» Verbs changing -o into -m* : 

*Accumbo," accumbSre, acctibui, — — , lie down, 

^Thu Verb should be carefully diatinguishfed fTomPSgo, Uat zvi. Panxi, 
Coium. Pegirii, Cic. de Leg. (ubi Steph. et aL PWighii) ; Pegt, Fkcuv. ap. Fest 
PactuSt fixed, fastened, Pallad. PancturuSt td. Pangendus, Colum. — *Pexisti, 
Mecanas. ap. Prise. Pexui, plerique ap. Prise PecGvi, Asper. 1. c. et ap. Prise. 
The Perfects of Dqtecto, I trim, I cuiry, and JUpecto, I comb again, do not exist. 
PexuB, Hor. L Epist i 95. et passim. PecfUtu», Colom. PectenduSj Ovid. Impexus, 
Hor. though Jnwecto does not occur in the classics. — 'Porgo, Dicr. L 930. Per- 
rexit Cic. pro Plane. Perrecturus^ Cic Tusc. — * Planxi, Stat Thebi Plancturue, 
Germanic, in Arat 196. — * Pledo, in the sense of trnpAco, necto, texo, has the Per- 
fect Plexi, liv. Erotopesgn. ap. Prise, ix. p. 903. The Perfect Plasui, given hy 
Voss. Gram. v. 31, is feund only in St Jerome's translatiini of the Bible, called the 
Vulgate, Jud. xvi. 13. Plecto, m the sense of verbiro, has no Perfect, and is scarce- 

Carm. Becturu», Manil. Regendu», Ovid. So the Compounds Arffgo and Erigo, 
I raise up; LMgo, I direct; Corflgo, I correct; Surrigo, I raise up; Porrigo, I 
stretch out, sometimes contracted to Porgo, whence Porxtt, Stat — ''Strinxi, Stat 
Strictus, Id. Stricturus, Sueton. Stringendus, Cic. Off — ^Struxi, Ovid. Met 
Struendus, Tacit Ann. Obslrvctum hi, Justin. — *Suxisse, Cic. Tusc. Suctus, 
Pdlad. — ^ Surrexi, Cic. de Inv. Surrexti, for surrexisti. Martial, v. 80. Surrec- 
tus,. JAv. passim. Surrecturus, Colum. — ^Texi, Propert. Hecturus, Lucan. 
T^endus, Ovid. — ^^Manut Pier, on Virg. Dausq. and Broukhus. on Propert pre- 
fer Tinguo, Tinxi, Ovid. Met Tinctus, Hor. hi. Od. 10. 14. et passim. TinctU' 
nw, Ovid. Tingendus, Frapert — "Trcutt, Senec. TVocfus, Ovio. Met TractU' 
rus, liv. xxxiit 9. TrSAendus, Flin. Atiractum hi, Cic. Att DistrShendus, 
GeU. — ** Some write Unguo, whence the Perfect Ungui,. ap. Prise, but without 
authoritv. Unxi, Ovid. Unctus, Hor. Ungendus, Cels. — " Vexi, Cic. Nat Deor. 
Vectus, Viiv. iEn. i. 528. et passim. Vecturus, Claud..-» Vixi, Cic Off iii. 2. et 
passim. Vixet, fer vixisset, Virg. JEn. xi. 118. Vwebo, Nonius ap. Vos. v. 35. 
VictUrus, Cic Verr. iv. 47. Cos. & C— ."The Compounds of Cuba, of this Con- 


A]ov^ Slete^ &lui, &lYtus or altus, ftlendos, ^ . nowri$K 

Assdro,* assSr^rc, assSrui, assertus, &. d agiertf claim, 

Colo,* cdlere, cdloi, caltus, cdlendus, iiU, «torn, warihip. 

^Compesco/ comp^Sre, compescai, ■ ■ , oompescendus, rex^ratn. 
ConB^ro," cons^rSre, consSrui, cimaeTtus, coosertunu, . , join together, 
Consulo,* consiilSre, consiilui, consultus, consaltiuii, 

consulturtts, ccmstilendus, eomuU, 

Depso/ depsere, depsui, depstus, knead, tan leather. 

DesSro,^ desterere, deaerui, desertus, deserturua, forsake, 

♦Desterto," destertere, destertai, — , oeaee snoring, 

^Dissgro," disserere, disseruif j discourse, debate, 

Ezcello,^^ excellere, excellui, excelsus, be raised high, excel. 

Exsero," exserere, exserui, exsertus, put forth, 

*Fr6mo," fremere, fremui, , fremendus, roar, 

♦Gemo," gemere, gemui, , gSmendus, groan* 

Geno," g^nui, or 

Gigno, gignere^ genui, genttus, gSnlturus, beget, produce, 

Insero/" insSrdre, inserui, insertua, ins^rendus, ingraft, 

*Mala See Irregular Verbs. 

Mdlo," mdlere, molui, rodlttus, , grind, 

♦Nolo. See Irregular Verbs. 

Occiilo,^ occiilere, occiilui, bccultua, hide, 

jugaUcm, take M in the imi}erfect Tenses, and drop it in foiming the Perfect and 
Supine. Accubui, liv. xxviii. 18. Diacuhui, Cic. Diaculfttum, Plant 

>A2ui, Hor. Atttu$, Cmt AZet», Cic. Nat Deor. AJendu», OviA. — * The Per- 
fect of Uie simple Siro^ I knit does not eiiet now. Its Participle is Sirtus, Lncan. 
passim. Aasind, Ovid. Afserfu«, Sueton. AsgerturtUt Sueton. Claud. Assfrefi- 
du8t Sueton. Jul. So the other Compounds, Consiro, I join tofretber; DtUro, I ibi>- 
sake; Dit^hro^ I discuss; Edissiro^ I declare, discourse of; JExsh'O, I put forth; 
Jnntro^ I mgraft. — * C^ut, Virg. ./£n. i. Ift et passim. Coiendust Curt — * Com- 
pescttitf Ovid. The Perfect Participle does not occur in the clasrics : yet we have 
*8axo compeadita,' in an ancient inscription. The Steipine CoawudUum m finind 
only in Pnscian. x. p. 687. Compeacendus, Plin. Epist — 'See Assifro. CanaeriU' 
rvSf Liv. vi. 12. — ^Consului^ Caes. B. C. ConauUuB, Stat Achili. CoruuUtan, 
Plaut Baoch. Contulturuf, Tacit Ann. ConaOIendu», Aul. Cell. Contt^turutt 
ap. Fortunat Carm., is a barbarism not to be imitated. — "'Depndt Cato R. R. 
Depmy Varr. ap. JVon. Condepsui^ Pompon, ap. Prob. Perdepwit Catull. D^Bttit, 
Cato R. R. It has no other Participle. — ^ Vegirui, Quintil. Desertus, Cic. Fam. 
/)eMr<ttru«, Terent Andr. *Des^rendcB Italie co^jui^tio,' Liv. xxiv. 43. — ^De»- 
tertuL, Pers. This Verb has no Participles. Slerttd^ the Perfect of the shnple 
Sterio, does not occur in the classics; but it is given by Prise x. p. 903. Stertens, 
Cic. de Div. — ^See AsstSro. Disaertus, disputed, debated, occun only in St 
Jerome on Isaia. xi. 4. — " Ezcelieas, of the second Conj. is found in Cic. Fra^. 
ap. Prise. The simple Cello does not exist ; thoueh many ^rammare and diction- 
aries give it the Perfects CS^di and CeUm, Cwirentur, i. e. moverentuTt is read 
in Servius on Vire. Georg. ii. 389., and CiUetUur, for movcniur, in Isid. Excdluiy 
Gell. AnUcello, I excel ; PrcecelltK I surpass, Ricello, I move or draw back, have 
no Perfects. See Percdlo, list xviii. Cdtue and Excdsus are used adjectively. — 
"See Aft^o. Exaertust Fhiu passim. — ^^Frhnuu Martial. Frthnendus, Stat 
Theb. — " Gimuh Propert G^mendua, Ovid. — " Oinunty Varr. ap. Prise. Ginertdi, 
Id. R. R. Ggnvi, Cic. Nat Beor. Genttua, Virg. JEji. ix. 642. et passim. Ghifiu- 
nta. Curt *Gignend€B herbea aptior,' Curt. — ^'See Aaa^ro. Insirendua, Cels. 
See Siro, List xviii.— ^^^fo^ut, Petron. Sat Mmtua, Caes. R G. — ^" A Cora- 
pound of CoU>, Occului, Ovid. Met Occuhva, Virg. Georg. iii. 397. et passim. The 
other Participles do not occur. 



Pdno»^ pdn^re, pdsui, pdettos, pdsKturus, d. put^ piace^ 

Sterto. See Desterto, 

^StrSpo,' strSpSre, strdpui, , ........... nudce a runse^ murmur, 

Texo,' tex6re, texui, teztus, tezendus, weave, 

*Tr€ino,^ trSmSre, t^gmai, » tr^mendus, tremble, 

*V6lo, See Irregular Verba 

Vdme,' vdmgre, vdmuif vdmttus, vdmYtCbrus, d , . . . cmt up, 



§ 171» The following make -m; 

Arcesso,' arcessSre, axcessayi, arcessitus, arcessiturus, 

arcessendus, . ^ caU, send for, 

*C&pe89o,' cftpessSre, c&pesslvi or capessii, , c&- 

pessiturus, c&pessendus, take in hand, 

^Incesso,* incess^re, inceanvi or incessi, 9 attack, 

L&cessot' l&cessSre, lacessivi, l&cessii or Iftcessi, Iftces- 

sitos, l&ces^turos, l&cessendus, provoke, 

PSto/* p^t^re, p^tivi or pStii, pStitus, pSUtum, p^titu, 

p^tlturus, p^tendus, ask. 

Qusro, quferSre, qatenvi or qutesii, qusesitus, quesi- 

tam, quesiturufl, querendus, seek, 

F&cesso^ I execute, go away, makes f&cessi^ focessitus. 

§ 172« Verbs doubling the first syllable in the 
Perfect : 

*Cado," cfidSre, c^Ydi, ^ casurus, ..♦..., foil, 

^Poam, Ctes. B. C. Ponvi, Plaut Pseud. So AjmSsivi, Plant Mil. iii. a 30. 
Conrnosivi, Inscnpt Depionoi, Plaut Cuh;. iv. 3. 4. CatuU. ixxiv. 8. Depon$se; 
fat aepownMse^ Cfatal. Vii^g. de Sab. Eanmfrviy Plaut ImpoMoi^lA.. Xm^sisse, 
for inq^shnsse, Most Opposhn^ Curt lu^osivi, Asin. Suppoinvit True. Terent 
Eun. PotUuSt Virg. Eel. li. 54. et paasim. Postus, Lucr. Postt&rtM, Ovid. Met 
Ponendu», Cic. Orat ProBj^oAtum in, Terent Eun. — ^Str^mif Virg. ^n. viii. 2. 
The Participle in n$ only is found in the classics. — * Texut^ Martial. Some dic- 
tionaries ada Text, which, however, does not occur in die classics, except as the 
Perfect of T^o. Textus^ Ovid. Fast TexenditSf Vire. Geoiv. ii. 371. — * Tritoiw, 
Virg. iEn. viii. 2%. Trhnendus, Stat Theb. — » l^uf, Pdrs. Sat Vomitus, 
C<sT. Aurel. VoniUuruay Plin. Famefufux, Lucr. — ^Arcesso, not accerso, Voss. in 
Etym. ArcestSvi, Cic. Quint Arcessitu», Propert ArcessUunUt Plaut Cas. Ar- 
ixssendus, Cels. — "* C&pessm, Tacit Ann. CUpessii, Aim. xii. 30. C^pkanturuM^ 
Apnl. Met Tacit Ann. CUpessendus, Plin. Panee. — " /TiceMm, Plin. Incettsiirintt 
Tacit Hist ii. 23., which is also the Perfect of incedo, I ^. — ^L&cetmri, Coium. 
lAcewoit Cic Fam. L&cessn^ Liv. xxviii. 12. LScesgisth Cic. Phil. Ufcemius, 
Virg. iEn. vii. 526. lAcessUuruSf Liv. LUcessenduSt Cses.RG. — ^PeGvi^ Cic 
PiHi, CflBs. B. G. Pitiase, Cic. PiOtus, Ovid. Met Pmium, Catull. Pmtu, 
Claudian. R^pitUuiriy Liv. iii. P&Jtums, TibuU. PHendua^ Propert — " Qvcb- 
«tin, Cic. Qucbtii, Cic. pro Quint c. 3. Quaaituty Virg. iEn. vii. 758. et passim. 
Qucpn^um, Terent QjutBnturuSy C\c. Quterenif us, Lucr. Ea^isifum, Plaut In- 

JuUUumy liv. xl. 20.'-^Fiice88iri8y Cic. F&cetsitsety Tacit Hist Neither the 
'erfect F&ceanviy nor the Participle F&ceinuy javen in some gnunman and dic- 
tionaries, occurs in the classics. F&afsniuty Cic. Verr. iv. 64. — ^C^di, Virg. 
i£n. i. 158. et pasnm. Cssurusy Cic Ca<fi/, fordidat, Plaut 


Ceedo,' ciedSre, c^idi, csesus, ctesurus, d. • cut, beat 

*Cano,' c&n6ret cecYni, , canendus, sing, 

*Curro,' currere, ciicurri, , cursunis, run. 

*Disco/ disc^re, dldYci, , discttunis, discendus, learn. 

I^illo," failure, ^felli, falsus, fallendus, deceive, 

Pago,' pagere, pepYgi, pactus, bargain^ lay a toager, 

^Pafco, parcgre, peperci or parsi, ■ , parsurus, spare. 

^Pedo, ped^re, pepedi, Hor. 1. Sat 8. 46. , «ep3w. 

Pello,^ pellere, pSpiili, pulsus, pellendus, drive. 

Pendo, pend^re, pSpendi, pensus, pensurus, weight 

^Posco,^ poecSre, pdpoeci, ' , poscendus, demand, 

Pungo,'* pangere, piipiigi, punctus, pricAr, sting. 

Tango,^ tangere, tetYgi, tactus, tacturus, tangendus, touch. 

Tendo,*' tendere, tetendi, tensus or tentus, stretch. 

Tundo,*^ tundgre, tiitiidi, tunsus or tusus, beat^ pound. 

Also Pario, I bring forth, List XXV. 

§ 173» The Compounds of do make -cUdi^ -ditus : 

Abdo," abdSre, abdtdi, abdltus, abdendus, hide. 

Addo,'* addere, addldi, addYtus, addlturus, d add. 

Condo," conddre, condYdi, condYtus, condendus, ^ . . hide, lay up, build. 

^ Chiidh Juvenal» Ccbsus, Liv. CtBSuru», Justin. Cadendus, Cic. Oct^mtm trt, 
Cic. Alt — « Cidini, Viix. Geoig. i. 378. 6t passim. C&nSriL, fat cidinhiu Festus in 
* Rumentum.' CUnuh K>r cMnt, Serv. ad. Virg. Georg. ii. 384. hence C&ntturu», 
Valgat. Apocalypfl. viii. 13. Ckmte, for ciMte, Carmen Saliare ap. Van*. L. L. vi. 3. 
C2n67u2i/«, Stat Theb. — " Cucum, Cic Cteum» Gell. Cum«ei, Tertull. Cur- 
»urn8t Ovid. -~ * Didich Cic. de Senect. Ditdftunuiy Apul. Fragm. ap. Prise. Dis- 
cendus. Plant — * Fffelli, Cic. Falna nnn, I am deceived, Plant F^dtftus sum, 
Petron. FdUendus, C&tall -^^Psguntf Quintil. P^W, Quintil. Pegi, Prise, 
but he does not prove it l^ any authority. Paxim, tor pijfflghim, I will lay a 
wager, Plant PatUus, Cic. Off i. 10. See Pango^ List xiii. and Pacitcor, Ijst 
xxix. — ' P^percit Cic Parn, Terent ParcuiU for parn't, NaBV. ap. Non. Parto, 
for pepperciro. Plant Parc'Uum eM, in some edd. of Plin. xxxiii. 4., where Har- 
duin reads jKirci. Parmirus^ IAy.-—*Pi^iUi, Liv. Pulsij fi>r pipiili, Ammian. 
but this is not to be imitated. Pu2«t{«, Cic de Orat PetUndu*, Justin. — *P^ 
pendit Justin. Pendissent, Liv. xlv. 26. So in all the Mss. and in all edd. except 
Sigonius and Drakenborch., who read from conjecture, phienditsent See Voss. 
Gram. v. 26. PenmSf Ovid. Met Pensurus^ Liv. — "Popoaci, Cic. Peposci, 
Valcr. Antias ap. Gell. vii. 9. D^tpoaci^ Cic. Expupoaci, I^v. Ripopoaci seems 
not to exist in the classics. See Mordeoy Second Conj. List iv. Poacendus, 1^1. 
Puscttus, ^ven by Priscian and other grammarians, does not exist — ^Pupuffi, 
Cic. Pepugit Atta ap. Gell. Punxi, Diomed. i. p. 369., but without authority. 
Pupugiratt with the second syllable long, occurs in Prudent Puvctua, Cic Of 

Pacuv. ap. Fest Tiagi, Cic. Tlaxia, for tUCfgtris, Varr. ap. Non. lacturua, Cic. 
Tangendua, Hor. — ^^Tttendi, Virg. JEsi. v. 508. Tendiati, Projjert in the Mss. and 
early edd., but two Vatican Mss., and the edd. since Scaliger, have Tiexiati, Cat' 
hfiaa iendtranU Senec. Tenaua, Lucan. Tentua, Lucr. — " Tiitudi, Varr. de L. L. 
Tunait Diomed. TuaerunU Nsv. ap. Merulam in Collect. Fragm. Ennii p. 42. 
Tunsva, Virg. Geoiv. iv. 302. Tuaua^ Vitruv. The Compounds of TangOy Tendo, 
and Tundo^ drop the reduplication of the Perfect The Compounds of Tundo 
make tudi^ tuaua; yet Detunava, Apul. Met Ohtwnauay Virg. Georg. i. 252. TU^ 
tunaua. Plant — " Abdenduat Liv. — ^AddVUruaf Tacit, Ann. Addendua, Ovid. — 
*' Condendus^ Liv. 


Credo,^ erSdSre, credldi, credttus, credttOnis, d. beUeve. 

Dedo,' deddre, dedldi, dedttus, d^Iturus, d turrender. 

Dido,* didSre, didYdi, didttus, give out, divide, 

Edo,* edere, edidi, edYtus, edYturus, edendus, publish, 

Indo,* indSre, indtdi, indttus, indendus, put in, 

Obdo, cM^re, obdtdi, obdttus, oppose, 

Perdo,* perdSre, perdVdi, perdYtus, perdltum, perdYturus, 

perdendus, destroy, 

PrOdoy' prodSre, prodYdi, prodYtos, prddYtunis, proden- 

doB» betray, 

Reddo,' redd^re, reddYdi^ reddYtus, reddYturus, restore. 

Subdo, Bubdere, subdYdi, subdYtus, put under. 

Trado," tradSre, tradYdi« tradYtus, tradYtunis, d deliver, 

Vendo,'" vendSre, vendYdi, vendYtas, vendYtllruB, d seU, 

§ 1 74« Verbs that cannot be classed with any 
of the foregoing : 

*ConauYni8CO," conquYniscere, conqaexi, ^ steop^ sit^ squat. 

FSro, ferre, [ttilij [latus, laturusj f^reodus, bear, suffer, 

Conf ido," conir IdSre, conf issas sum or conf idi, rely on, 

M^to,** m6t£re, messui, messos^ mStendus, mow, reap, 

Mitto," mittSret misi, missus, missurus, mittendus, send, 

Percello," percellSre, perciili or perculsi, perculsus, .... strike, shock, 

^Riido," rudSre, riidivi, , bray like an ass. 

Scindo,*^ scind^re, scYdi, scissus, scindendus, cut, 

1 CredUuru$t Gell. Credendui^ Cic. pro C<b1. — * DedUurut, Oes. R G. Deden- 
du8, Cic. — *The Participles in nSj rus, and duSf do not occur. — *Edituni9, Sue- 
ton. EdendtUt Cic. Fam. — *Indendu», Cels. — *PerduiSt perduiU perduinU for 
verdas, at, anfy Plant. Perduunt, for perdunt. Plant PerdUunif Sallust Catil. 52. 
jPerdUuruSt Cic. do Orat Perdendus, Ovid. — ' Prodvity in Lege Censorina ap. 
Feat Prddlturus, Terent Prodendu», Cic. — ^Reddibo, Plaut Redditu in", 
Paul. Dig. ReddUuruSt Tacit * Ad vota Herculi reddendo,* Justin. — * Tradtiu 
tri, Paul. Dig. Tradlturtu, Liv. TrSdendus, Cic. de Orat — " VendUurus, Plaut 
Vendevidu», Cic. — ^ Conquexi, Pompon, afx Prise. — ^ TuU comes from the obso- 
lete Tuld, or Tolo, whence TWiro, -tu^ -am. See Diomed. Hence TiUuli, Plaut 
TUvlisaem, Terent Andr. TituHro, Plaut TUulistey Rud. See note on TdUo, 
Ferre is a contraction of Firire. Lotus, seems to be formed from Tulatus. See 
Voss. L^urus, Hor. F^endus, Cic. — ^*CohfUu8 sum, Caes. Confiderunt, Liv. 
Fisus sum. The Perfect of the simple Fldo, given by Prise, viii. p. 818. Charis. and 
Diomed. does not occur. Fldebo, Naev. ap. Non. — "^* Messui, Cato, ap. Prise. De- 
messui, Ctes. Hemina ap. Prise. Messum feci, for messui, Charis. Another Perfect, 
Messivi is quoted by Prise, but he condemns it Messus, Virg. JEn. iv. 513. Mi- 
iendus, Cic. — " Mm, Ovid. Met iii. 38. et passim. Misti, for rrusisti, Catull. Mis- 
sus, Vlrg. ^n. iii. 595. et passim. Missurus, Hor. Art Poet 476. J^RUendus, Jos- 
tin. — **Perc£iZt, Val. Flac. Terent. Cic. pro Mil. Perculsi, Ammian. Percuhit 
in some edd. of Horace, i. Od. 7. 11., and Terent Andr. i. 1. 98. ; but the true read- 
ing in tiie two last passages is percussU. PercuUt, passively for perculsut fuit, 
Flor. PercuUus, Catull. passim, which is also often confounded with Percusstts. 
See. Bend, on Hor. Epod. xi. 2. Burm. on Ovid. Met iv. 138. — " Persius Sat iii. 9. 
makes tiie first syllable in Rudo long. Rwtwi, as if from Rudio,'Apul Met Rudi 
occurs only in grammars and dictionaries. — ^" Sc'idi, Stat iii. Sylv. Scisctdi, Afinn. 
ap. Prise. S^UcUdi, Gell. ScissuSf Liv. passim. Scindendus, Liv. Abscissuru^, 
QuintiL Discindendus, Cic. 


S^ro,' s^rSre, sevi, sUtus» sUturus, Bdrendus, sow. 

♦Sino,* stnfire, sivi, , stturus, suffer, 

*Tollo,* tollere, toui, ^ toUendus, raisSj lift up, 

SustollV Bustell^re, sustiili, snblatus, sublaturus, . . raise^ take away, 
Velio/ vellere,^ velli or valsi, volsus, vellendus» ptiU, pinch, 

§ 175» Verbs forming the Perfect by transposi* 
tion or elision : 

Cerno,* cemSre, crevi, cretius, ceraendus, siftf distinguish^ see^ de- 
cree, <J»c. 
Sperno/ spernSre, sprevi, spretus, spernendus, separate, spurn, despise, 

Stemo,^ stemSre, stravi, str&tus» stern^ndus, strew. 

Tero/ tSrere, trivi, tritua, tSrendus, rub, wear, 

Bleto,^ sist^re, sttti, stfttus, stop, make stand, 

iSm,Cic. VeiT. iS^m, Tibull. «SerturiM, Plin. SJ^reiM^M, TibolL Shntndus, 
Varr. R. R. ConsirOf in the Beme of aowing, plantings makea m, ttus ; in die bbdm 
of joinxnst puiHng together, it makes end, ertua ; as in Quintil. DecL ix. 3. Ovid. 
Heroid. Epwt ii. aS, &c. Yet ' arb5rem cmtiSruisaet,* IAy. x. 24.» where some read 
tiruiMet, othen coruhnsaeL Conserlurus, lAv. vi. 12. Asteriurus, Saeton. Coit' 
e^endus, Amob. So, Inaltro, I sow, plant, evi, itus; Ineh^ I ingraft, innocnlate, 
insert, ind, ertue. Yet these are sometimes used one for the wier. /iMttSnu^ 
Colum. See Siro, List xviii. — *iStrt, Cic. SUurue, Cic. Plant SU, for sbri, Vair. 
ap. Diomed. Terent Siirit, Uy^ ScuUs, Cic. Sisaem, Lit. iii. 1& Smi, for nvi, 
in some edd. of Plant and Terent Andr. i. 2. 17. Bnt this may haye arisen fiom 
the similarity of n and v in the andent Mas. — * ToUiate, Ulpian. Die. Todit, Pen. 
Sat iv. 2., which is undoubtedly a Perfect, and the readvag of tin die Mss. and 
printed copies. See the passage, and Scaliger on Varr. R. R. i. 69. T&iUi, Diomed. 
See following note. ToOendus, Hor. i. Sat 10. 51 — « SuatoOXre, Plant SuatoOe, 
Plant PoBU. SustoOi, inf. Plant SuatoUena, Catull. SuatoOatd, Id. SuatMat^ 
Plant SuatoUU, Seren. Samm. xxxviii. 716. SuatOU,, Cic SvUSiua, Caea. B. G, 
iSuHsfi^ru», Cic. Att — *F«ai, Cic. Verr. Fif2n, Lucan. FuZn«, Propert Vd" 
2eiuiu«, Colum. So XveZfo, I tear away ; Ate/b', Curt. Avu^', Lncan. Av^en- 
dua, Cic. Verr. DneUo, I tear asunder; DwdH, Hirt. B. A. Dhndai, Senec. Hip- 
pol. EvdLo, I pluck up ; JEvettt, Cic. pro Sext c 28. Phedr. ii. 2. 10. Emdai, 
Quintil. Decl. Evellendua, Cic. Pnsvdlo, I pluck before ; PravelU, Tertull. adv. 
Gnost c. 13. Pnevulaiy Labr. ap. Diomed. RHdlo, I tear away; RtvdU, Cic 
Revidai, Ovid. Met In the former passage Heins. and Burm. read ritveUit, and m 
the latter rivdli ; which renders lUvuUi doubtful ; though Pierins reads so in 
Virg. Ma. iv. *27. the Vatican Ms. Convdlo, I tear in pieces, makes ConveUi, Cic. 
pro. Dom. c. 21. ConveUendua, Cels. iii. 4. Coavulaurua, Cic. 2. DeveUo, I pnll 
away, Develli, Plaut Powi. iv. 2. 50. Pervdlo, I twitch, FerveUi, Cic. Tusc. ii. 
Asoon. InterveHo, I jduck here and there, Jn/erv«2n only, Colum. v. 10. — «The 
Perfect Crevi is used in the signification of I have decreed^ Cic. de Leg. iii. 3. / 
have readved, Plaiit / have taken poaaeaaion of an inheritance, Cic. Att vi. 1. / 
have percervei, i. e. I have heard, Titin. ap. Prise. In this sense it occurs nowhere 
else. Cemo, I see, has no Perfect. CrUua, separated, sifted, Pallad. Cemendua, 
Ovid. — '5prcm, Vii)?. ^En. iv. 679. Spretua, Id. Georg. iv. 233. Spemendua, 
Colum. — ^StrSvi, ViTg, JEn. viii. 719. et passim. Strarat, Manil. Straaaet, Varr. 
ap. Non. Stratua, Virg. Eel. vii. 54. et passim. Stemendua, Liv. — • 3V5w, Hor. i. 
i^t 1. 45. et iMussim. TViati, fbit tnviati, in some edd. of Catull. See Tergeo, 
Second Conj. List v. Iriiriati, for tn/rmsft, Terent TVna, for trivi, Plaut Hence 
AttHndaae, for aUriviaae, TibuU. TrUua, Ovid. Tirendua, Ovid. Art Am. — » The 
Perfect StUi seems to be used only in the sense of appearing in court to a aummana, 
or of appearing to one* a recognizance. See Cic. pro Quint c. 6. Com. Nep. Att c. 
9., and particularly Aul. Gell. ii. 14. The grammarians make the Perfect SdHp 


§ 1 76* These change the vowel of the root : 

Ago,^ fiffere, egi, actus, acturus, agendus, do, drive, 

Franffo, frangSre, fregi, fractus, fntcturus, d break. 

Ltno, hn^re, livi or levi, Ittus, anoint, daub. 

To which add AUicio, Capio, Facio, Jado, and Pario, from List 

§ 177» These Verbs in -sco make -t?t, -tus : 

*Cresco/ crescSre, crevi, , grow. 

Nosco,* noscere, novi, notus, nosctturus, hoscendus, . .. learn to know. 
Ignosco,' ignoscSre, ignOvi, ignotus, ignotOnis, igno- 

scendus, pardon. 

AgnoBco,^ agnosc^re, agnovi, agnttus, agndturus, ag- 

noecendos, recognize. 

Cognosce,^ cognosc^re, cognovi, cognttus, cognYtu, cog- 

nYtiiras, cognoscendus, know. 

Pasco,* pasc^re, pavi, pastus, pastum, pasturns, pascen- 

dus, feed. 

Quiesco,^" quiscSre, quievi, quietus, quiettirus, resti 

when the verb is used abeolately, and St&tui, when it is used actiyely. But they 

adduce ^--^ c.w^^ ^;_ r^^ o_^-.-j nnL-__ r^ j ^ . - 





cumnOo, has neither Perfect nor Perfect Participle. 

^ Egit Etor. Actus, Id. iii. Od. 7. 5. et passim. ActuruSt Lav. Agendus, Cees. B. 
G. Axim, fijT egltrvniy Pacuv. Vid. Voss. Gramm. — * Fregi, Ovid. Met. Fractus, 
Cic. Phil. Fracturus, Claud. Frangendus, V^U. — *Some grammars and diction- 
aries give us three perfects for Lino : lam, Lem, and lAtd ; and the Oxford anno- 
tators on lily add a fbordi, JJniu Iavi, Juvenal. Sat. Quintil. Lem, Hor. {Obteve^ 
runfy Gell.) ; and this seems to be the Perfect of the obsolete Leo. For IatU we 
have only the authority of Prise., who quotes OWtnemnt from Varr., where no 
siich wora is to be found ; and of Voss. Gram. v. 29., who cites lanisU, from Quin- 
til. Decl. i. 15., where the Mss. and best edd. have Lusisti. iJinii is a contraction 
of Unwi, and comes frofU Lfnio of the Fourth Conj. So Obttni^rit, for dbttnivhit, 
Paul. LUus, Plin. Idsse, for tivisse, Spartian. in Adrian. — * Crevi, Cic. Cretus^ 
bom» descended, comes by Sjmcope from creatus; neither does the Supine Cretum, 
nor the Particiide Creturus, as coming from Cresco, occur in the classics. Cresse, 
for crevisse, Lucr. — ^Novi, Ter. Iwsti, noram, nosse^ norim, &c. Cic. passim. 
Nomus, for notHmus, Enn. ap. Diomed. Notus, Cic. passim. Nos&Uurus, Liv. viii. 
32. ap. Ainsworth. Noscemus, liv. — ^.&ndvt, Cic. Ignotas, EHrt. Igndturus, 
Cic. IgnoscUurus, Hso Frugi. Ignoscendus, Virg. Geoig. iv. 489. Ignosset, for 
iffnovis»!t, Sil. — ^A^dvi,Cic. ^^pnorun^ Ovid. J^¥fu«, Tacil. Ann. Agrtotus, 
Facuv. ap. Prise. i&ndfttru«, Sallust Hist ii. ap. Prise. Agno8cendus,SSl. — ^Cog- 
novi, Viig. ^n. ix. S^. Cognossem, Cognbram, Cognoro, &c. Cic. passim. Ce^- 
iCttus, Cic. Off i. 6. et passim. Ccgn^to, Val. Mat. CogiHturus, Auf. Gell. C(^- 
nos<xndus, Ovid. — •JPSw, Tibull. Paslus, Cic c. 25. Posfum, Plant Pasturus, 
Varr. R. R. Pascendus, Hor. Pascor, in Plin. ix. 3. Virg. Georg. iii. 314. iv. 181. 
JSn. ii. 471. Sec. &c., may be considered as a Deponent (see Serv. on Virg. JEn. i. 
189. ii. 215.) or as a Passive, with a Greek construction. But the former seems 
preferable. Prise, cites tfie Supine Compescftum, but without authority. Com- 
pes&Ua, Inscript — ^* Quievi, Virg. iEn. vi. 226. Quietus is used as an adjective. 
Quieturus, Cic. de Orat. 


Scisco,^ sciscSre, sclvi^ scltus, sciscendus, ordain, 

Suesco,' suesc^re, [suevi,] suetus, be accustomed, 

§ 1 78» Inceptives in -sco, when their Primitives 
exist, have no Perfect of their own. The follow- 
ing, whose Primitives are obsolete, make -m ; 

Co&leeco,' coalescSre, coalui, co&lUus, grow together. 

"'Conaanesco/ consanescSre, coosanui, ^ » . . . . grow eound, 

"'Consenesco/ consgnese^re, consdnoi, 1 grow old, 

^Kllonttcesco,* conttcescSre, oonttcui* f be eilent, 

♦ConvSlesco,' convfilescSre, convalui, , grow strong, 

^Crebresco,^ crebreecere, crebrui or crSbui, » increase more and 


"^DelKquesco,* delXquescSre, deltcui, , become liquid, 

♦Delttesco," delltescere, delYtui, , lurk. 

^Dulcesco," dulcessSre, dulcui, j grow sweet, 

"'Duresco,'* duresc&e, durui, ^ • grow hard. 

^Elan^esco,*' elanguescSre, elangui, ^ become foMe, 

'"Emarcesco,*^ emarececSre, emarcui, , fade awaif. 

*£rubesco,^ eriibescSre, er&bui, ^ Hush, 

^Evanesco,'* evanescdre, eyanui, " ■ , evanYturus, disappear, 

*Evile8co," evilescdre, evilui, , grow cheap, 

♦Exaresco," exarescere, ex^rui, — ^-, grow dry, wither, 

*Excande8co," excandescdre, excandui, , . grow hot^ he enraged, 

♦Exhorresco," exhorrescdre, exhomii, , shudder, dread, 

*Expalleaco,** expallescSre, expallai, , turn pale, dread, 

♦Exltmesco," extYmescSre, exttmui, , be afraid. 

♦Frftcesco," McescSre, frftcui, , grow mouldy, 

♦Inaresco," YnarescSre, Ynarui, , grow dry, wither, 

♦Incrfibresco," increbrescSre, increbrui or increbai, , increase, 

grow frequent, 

n ' 

> Savi^ Cic. Off Scitus» decreed, Cic. de Le^, i. 15. Sdacendus, ibid. Sdacor^ 
depon. Prise. ReacUuvi, Terent — ^SuhA^ dissyll. Propert.; but this seems to 
come rather from Sueo of the SeeoDd Conj., which we find in I^icr. i. 54. 301. 
SulrunU for tuhoerutU, Cic. de Nat. Deer. SuerinU dissyll. for tuivirintt Sil. Suesti, 
for sueviMi, Cic. Fara. xv. 8. Suetus, Lucan. or Suetus.Hor. i. Sat 8. 17. — * CoHluu 
^llust. Jug. CoHtitus, Tacit Hist iy. 55. — ^CcnsSnui^ Cels. — *C<msinui, 
Ovid. — • Conticuif Ovid. — "* ConvShdy Ovid. — ■ Crebretco and its Compounds make 
hui oftener than hrui : CrebueraU Apul. Met al. crebruerat, * Libri et Mss. variant, 
et cum iis eruditorum sententie.* Facdolat — •DcZtcut, Ovid. Trist— "jDeftiui, 
Ces. B. G. Though DilUeo does not exist now, yet we find its Participle DetUens 
in Plin. xxxv. 1. — ^^DuLcuu Paulin. Nolan. Dutcii occurs in Lucr. ii 473., where 
some read Dulds ; others Dulcet^ as if from Dulceo. — " Duruit Ovid. Met Dureo, 
mentioned by Prise., and by Servius on Virg. Georg. i. 91., does not exist — ^Elan^ 
gut, Val. Fiac. iv. 572. — ** Emarcuh Plin. — *• Erubuit Ovid. Fast — " Evanuit 
Virg. iEn. ix. 668. EvSnlturug, Lactant —" £fw/«t, Sueton. Claud. — » £rarwi, 
Cic. Fam. — »• Excandui, Cic. Tusc. — •• Exhorrui, Ovid. Met Yet Exhorreat is 
found in Colum. x. 164. — " ExpaUui, Hor. — " Exftmui, Terent Hec. Exttmeren- 
tur occurs in Tacit Ann. xv. 71., but it is rendered doubtful by various readings. — 
" FrUcui, Cato, R R. — ■* Inarui, Colum. — ^ Some prefer writing Increbesco. See 
Crebreaco. Incrtbrui, Cic. Orat c. 20. Phil. xiv. 6. 


"Hnddlesco,* inddlescSre, inddlui, ^ inddloflcendns, •« grieve. 

^Innotesco,' innotescSre, innotui, i become knotpru 

^Intiimesco,' intumescere, inttimai, — ^, begin to stoell. 

*Irrauce8C0,* irraacescdre, irraucui, , grow hoarse', 

'''M&cresco,* mficrescSre, macrui, , grow lean, 

^MaturoBCo,' maturescSre, maturai, ^ ripem 

*Obbrute8co,^.obbrute8c$re, obbriitui, ^ become brutish^ or seneAeer. 

^Obcallesco,* obcallescSre, obcallui, ■ , become calUms. 

't)bdure9co,' obduresc^re, obdurui, grow hard. 

*Obin11teaco,'* obmiltescdTe, obmutai, — -^ grow dvmb^ become silenL 

^Obstttpesco," ob6tiipe8c£re, obstiipai, — -^ be amazed, 

^Obsardesco," obaurdesc^e, obsurdui, — -^ grow deaf. 

♦Pfir&resco," pSrarescSrei p^rarui, ^ ...^ grtno dry, 

^PercrCbresoo," percrebrescdre, percrebrui or percre- 

bui, be divulged, prevail. 

♦Pfirhorreaco," p^rhorresc^re, pSrhomii, , shudder^ dread, 

♦Perttmeaco," pertYmesc^re, pertYmui, ^ pertY- 

mescendus, fear greaUy. 

^Rdcrudeaco," rScrOdesc^re, r^rudui, , grow raw, be eore again, 

*R£laiigiiesoo,'' r^Iangaeac^re, rSlangai, ~— , be lof^n&l. 

*It6vYre8co,*' rCvYresc^re, rSvYrai, , become green again, 

^Vilesco,*" vllescSre, vilai, i become worthies», 

§ 179* These make -evi: 

Addlesco;" fiddlescSre, &ddlevi, fidultus, grow up, 

Exdlesco,'' exdlescSre, exdlevi, exdletus, grow old, 

Mansaesco," mansuescSre, mansuevi, mansuetus, grow mild, become 

tame; make tame. 

To which add : 

Exardesco,** exardescSre, exarsi, exarsiis, be inflamed. 

^RSfrigfesco,'* rSfrigescSre, rSfrlxi, ■ , ^010 cool, 

♦R^vivisco," rdviviscSre, r^vixi, ■, rCvictdrus, revive, come to 

. We. 

> Indoluit Ovid. Trist fndoletcendus, Sidon. — * Irmotuit Ovid. Am. — * /n^mut, 
Ovid. Fast — ^ Irraucuirit^ Cic. Or. i. 61., where some read irrausirit. — ^MUcnd^ 
Featus in * Curionem.' — * MSturui, Ovid. — ^ Obbrutm, Festus in * Obrutuit' — > 06- 

caUvi, Gels • OWfirwi Cic. Tusc. — » Obmulm, Plin. Virg. Mn. iv. 279. — " O^ 

Btupui, Cic. de Div. — " Obsurdvi^ Cic. Somn. Scip. — " PerraruU Colum. — " Per- 
cra>rtdf Cabs. B. C. Percrebui, Cic. Verr. Tacit. Ann. xii. 6. — ^Pgrhorrui, Ovid. 
Met vi. 704. — *• Perttmui, Nepos in Alcib. c. 5. Yet Pertfmens, Lactant Perflf- 
mescendutt Cic. Fam. i. 9. — " Kecrudui^ Liv. x. 19. — ^Rdanguij Ovid. Amor. ii. 
9. 27. — ^RHitruif Auct ad Heren. iv. 34 RhArens occurs in Albinor. ii.^13. — 
" Vilui, Avien. in Arat 318. Of this Verb the Perfect only is (band. See Evi- 
U9CO. — "S ^ See Oleo^ Second Com. List ii. Adotuit in the same sense. Van*, ap. 
Prise. AduUuSt Cic Tosc. ExUeo^ mentioned by Prise, does not exist in the 
classics. — ** Manguhai, Lucan. Mansuetus, Varr. K. R. ; bat it is eenerally used 
as a mere Ad|jective. — ** Exarsi, Vii^. i£n. viii. 21 9. Exarsus, Cod. Justin. — ^ Rt- 
frixi, Cic. mfngui, Veget. R V. — ■ " /Jfwri, Cic. Verr. Yet Revivent, Paulin. 
Nolan. Revicturttft Senec. Med. 

*Mblle800, grow soft 

*PiiigaoKX)^ grow /at, 

*Plametoo, befedged. 

*PiierBM», playiktcMld, 

^Ranceaoo, growmouldf. 

*Repuenuno, ^KomeehUdwi, 

*SterYIe0OO, grow barren. 

*TeiwnuKO, or 

*Tenere8oo, growiender. 

*Uvew)Q, gro»"*^'^ 


1 180« The foHQwing Inceptivea, tbomgh having 
no other verbal form, want the Perfect: 

*i£gro800, grcwdck. 

*DTtt:800 grow rich. 

*GTand«BCO, grow big. 

*Gr«vesoo, grow heavy, 

YFStiMXH gape, grow fnnL 

•Incnrveaoo, bow down. 

*lnl!egnaoo be renewed, 

*Juvene800, growyoung. 

*LApYdeecOk P^^/i' 

*Mite80o, growtmld. 

§ 181# Twelve Verbs of the Third Conjugation 
end in -to: 

AUfeks^ allYc^re, allexi or allYcui, allectus, aUXciendos, oUwr^ 

Asplcio,' aspicgre, aspexi, aspectus, aspYciendus» behold, 

C&pio,' c&p6re, cepi, captus, capturas, cfipiendus, take. 

Cupio, cupere, cupui or cupii, cupitus, cupiendus, desire. 

FikciOf* f ftcdre, ^i, iactus, ftctam, &ctu, facturus, 

f^ieodos, do make, 

Fddio,* fikigre, fbdi, foesus, dig, 

*FiijgiOf* fiig§re, fa^i, , ftigttilnus, fttgiendus, ^, 

J&cio,^ j&cSre, jeci, jactus, j&ciendus, CQtL 

Paho,^ p&r^re, p^pSri, partus, p&rlturus, pfiriendos, bring forth^ pro» 

cure^ get, 
ConcUtio,' concutere, concussi, concussus, conctitien- 

dus, shake, move violently, 

^Allexi, Plaut. AlHtui, Piso. Hist ap. Pruc. et Hvgin. Pbgt Astran. Cbaris. iU. 
p. 217., and Diomed. L p. 364., give Alttceo, -es ; and the latter ados that ABlkio 
was the ancient ^mn. AUedurus comes from AWfgo, AUideaduSj Ovid. Art Am. 
EtlciOt I draw out, makes EUcui^ Liv. t. 15. Jaexi, Amob. Iltfcio, I inveiglet 
lUexif Plaut Sallust. Cat c. 59. Pe^ia, I entice, deceive, Pellexij Cic. pro Cluent. 
Cerent. PeHicui, Liv. Lnodam, ap. Prise. Pdtlceo, -es, Charis. — * Aspexi, Cic. 
passim. Aspexit^ for aspexhit. Plant Aspectus, Tacit Agric. r. 40. Ajsj^cienduM, 
Ovid. Inspecturus, Viig. i£n. ii. 47. Inspiciendus, Ovid. Perspecfu, Festus. — 
* Ccpi, Propert Captus^ Cic. Cat iii. 7. et passim. Exceptum in, Cic CkmturuSf 
Sueton. Vesp. CSpiendus, Terent CapM, for ejtoif si cts, Cic. Orat 45. ^uintiL 
i. 5. Capso, ist it, for cepiro, is, it, Plaut — *F%ci, Viig. Eel. i. 6. et pesrim. Fao- 
tus, Cic. Verr. vi. 18. et passim. Factum tri, Cic. Fam. Fadu, la. ibid. vii. 3. 
Facturus, Liv. xxvi. 25. Fdciendus, Val. Flac. FSci, for fac, Val. Flac. FUciem, 
for /&ciam, Catn ap. Quintil. Faxo, -is, -it. See Irreg. Verbs. — • Fddi, SSL Fos- 
tus, Plin. * Ad fodiendos, puteos,' Hirt R Alex. — *Filgit Stat Theb. Albinov. 
shortens the first syllable ; * Sic illi vixere, (fuibus fuit aurea virgo, Que bene 
pnecinctos postmodopulsa /u^'t ;* unless this can be accounted for by Heterosis. 
FugUurus, Ovid. Fvgienaus, Cic. Off ' Mors f vi^Ytur,' Cic. de Leff. — * Jici, Liv. 
i. VL et passim. Jactus, Virg. Eel. vi. 41. et pasBim. Di^xium, Hor. R^jectumf 
Cic. J&ciendus, Curt Abjenturvs, Cic. Adftdendus, Quintil. — " P^jfri, TibuU. 
P&rii, for pipiri, Cato, R. R. P&nbit, fyrpdriet. Pompon, ap. Non. PUnre, for 
pfrire. Emu ap. Varr. L. L. Partus, Virg. JEn. vi. 89. Partus is used like th» 
"Participle of a Deponent in Colum., kavivg brought forth. PlMtHrus, Cic. Orat 
P&riendiLS, Cic. Fam. — ^'See Quatio, List xxviii. Concusti, Juv. Sat. x. 328. Con^ 
cussus, Virg. Georff. i. 159. Confutiendus, Cels. Discussiirus, Liv. DisctUiendus, 
Cels. Decussu, Plin. 



R&pio,^ r&pSre, r&pui, raptos, rapturas, rftpiendus, huOc^ 

*&&p]o9* 8&p€re, s&pivi or sftpii, — -» savowTt be wUel 


§ 182» To which add four Deponents in -ior: .'. 

Gr&dior,' grfid^ris or grfid^re, [g^ij gressiis, . . . go, walk, advance, 
Mdrior/ mdr6ri8 or mdrCre, mdri or mdriri^ mortuus» 

mdrttuniB, die, 

Orior/ dr^riB or drSre, driri, ortus, drYturus, driundus, me, spring up, 
P&tior/ pHt^ris or p&tSre, p&ti, possus, passurus, p&ti- 

endus, suffer^ endure, 

§ 183# The following have neither the Perfect 
nor the Perfect Participle Passive : 

*AnibTgo, doubL 

*Claneo,^ §ound tu a trumpet 

*Claiido, ....- belame, 

*Cluo,^ be famous. 

*Gli8C0,* grou), iiicrecue. 

^Gruo,** crunk Uke a cranes 

•Nexo» bhid,tie. 

*^tago, be bunly eaqiloyed. 

Salio,''* I reason vvith nit, makes taUus, taUurus ; but has no Perfect. 

§ 184» The Perfects of the following are doubt» 

Frendo," frendSre, frendi, fressus or fresus, . . gnash the teeth^ hreak^ 



^R&pm^ Phsdr. Raphie^ Vire. uEn. i. 382. et passim. lUtplurus^ Stat Theb. 
R&]fimdu8t Ovid. Dtreptum% Su. Eraftum, Terent PnayjOum, Plaut — *Siir 
/not, Naev. ap. Prise. SUpistif Mart SH^issely Plaut Rud. iv. 1. 8., where Pris- 
dan, viL y. 328. ed. Krehl. reads s&puisset ; but two of Krehl*8 Mss. of Priscian 
have s^iwett and another adptviMeL The editio princeps of Plautus in the 
British Museum, the Mediol. an. 1490^ and the edd. of Carpentar, Lucas Olchi- 
nenns, and Lambinus, exhibit s&pmuel ; but the Bumey Ms., No. ^8., in the 
British Museum, all the Palatine Mss. and the edd. since Lambinus, have eUpisset 
The Mas. of Bohte seem to have the same, since he does not mention a various 
reading. lUi^Ho, I savour of) makes m, tt, or m .* RXs^pwit SueUm. 12£a^ut, Cic. 
RSi^nsH, Plaut Risipiiete, Terent Comflpui and Deripuit the Perfects of Con- 
Hpio, I am perfectly in my senses, and DenpiOt I am foolish, occur only in gram* 
roars and dictionaries. — *The infinitive does not occur except in the Compounds. 
Oreseue, Virg. i£n. vi. 633. The Compounds make grhlior: Progridior, I ad- 
yBncetprogridirit or progr^Sdh^f pr^mi^ pr^greesue, pr^easuruSf &c. — * M6f^ 
mur^ Enn. ap. Prise. Jnon, Tlbull. Monri^ Ovid. Met Mortuus, Cic. passim. 
Moritunte, Tacit Hist iii. 10. — *Orirt, Lucr. Cic. Quintil. Ortufy Hor. OrUU- 
rus, ibid. OriunduSy deaoendet, Liv. i. 49. et passim. — ^PateuSt Virg. i£n. i. 2(X3. 
et passim. Pasturue, Ovid. PHiiendue, Id. Trist — '' Some give this verb the Pe» 
feet Clanxi, others Clangui; but we have not any authori^ for either. — * Cbn't 
Prudent Cluinntt Auson. Prof. — * OUtco seems to be an Inceptive. OUe^hrUm, 
pass. Sempron. ap. Non. — ^This Verb occuis in the Carmen de Philom. t. S3i, 
and in Paul, ex Festo. — ^* Neither Aero, X«, nor Nego, as, has a Perfect S«e 
Neeto, List xiii. — » SaWfrent, Sallust ap. Prise. Saaihre, Lncil. SaUunt, Id. a^ 
Diomed. SaUua, salted. Colum. Salsurue, Mummius ap. Prise. See SoUuk 
Fourth Conj. List iv. — ^* Frendi and Frendui are given in some grammars onA 
dictionaries. See Frendeo, Second Conj. List ix. 


B^go»^ filgfire, fnxi» fiictm or frixufl» • firy^ forch. 

*¥jaso! f iirfire, f iirui, , he nuidj rage. 

Lingo,' liog^re, linxi, linctus, lingendus, lick, 

Pando,^ pandSre, pandi, passus or pansiis, open. 

Qa&tb,* qufttSre, quaasi, qoasstiB, shake^ agitate. 

*yiBOt* visdre, visi, ^ go <ee, vint. 

§ 185. DEPONENTS. 

Amplector/ amplectSris or amplectSre, amplecti, am- 

plexus, amplectendas, emhrace^ encircle. 

Apiscor,^ ftpiacSris or ftpiscSre, apisci, aptus, get* 

Ck)mmIni8cor,* commYniscSris or commtniscSre, oom- 

- mlnisci, commentos, devise^ invent. 

Complector," complectdris or complectSre, oomplecti, 

complexus, enibrac^^ compass^ comprehend. 

^Def^tiscor," def^tificSris or def^tiscere, defetisci, ^ ...he weary. 

Expergiscor,'* expergiscSris or expergiscSre, exper- 

fi^isci, experrectuB, awakCf rise. 

Fruor,^frugris or fhiSre, irui, frattas or fnxetas, fhittu- 

rus, fruendus, enjoy, reap the fruits of. 

^Frixi, Diomed. Fricbu, Celt. Frixtu, Cela. Sidon — «Furm, Seir. ad. JEn. 
i. 45. ^ Furueruntt Sedul. i. 196., where some read /eroenmt; JF^wrift^ PUxl zzxiiL 
53. edd Haiduin. Bipont Miller. Franz. Futrit in the edd. before Haidoin. FwrO, 
Brotier.; bat he doea not aay on what authority. Furo^ fuiiHM, and all the pep* 
aons of the Fatures and Imperative are nowhere to be fbond. We meet with 
Furlmus and furant in Senec. Ep. 95. f^rio^ if, Sidon. Carm. xzii. 94. — * Linxi, 
given in grammara and dictionaries, doea not occur in the claasics now extant Yet 
we have Xinctos, FUn. xxxv. 15. and Un^endut, xxxi. 9. — ^PonJt, Prise, x. p. 
891. ; but he cites no authority. Pasautt Ovid. Virg. iEn. L 483. et passim. Pan- 
sua^ Vitruv. The Compounds also want their Perfects. Diapandoj I spread abroad, 
has only Z>i«pon«u«, Phn. JExpando^ I spread out, Expaatut^ Taat Kst Caedl. aa 
JNon. '£xpansu$, Plin. Omando^ I spread over agamst, Oppanua, Tertnll. ApcS. 
Oppan8U8t Id. Propando does not occur; yet Prcmossu^, Apul. Florid. Propon- 
«tf«. Id. — *Quiun IS Ibund only in grammara and dictionaries, ^missms, Ovid. 
DecuMUy Plin. See Concuiio, List xxv. — *The Perfects Vm, Imnti, RM», are 
found only in gramjpars and dictionaries. 

. ^AmplectOt is, Prise, and Diomed. Ampkxitur, ampkcHi, jxm. Prise, vili. p. 791. 
Amplector, am. Prise, ibid. AmplexuSj having emwaced, 6vid. Anmtexu», pass. 
Petron. ap. Prise. Amplutiendus, Manil., where some Msis. have aa^^xctandu». — 
^ApiKuntur, pass. C. Fannius ap. Prise, viii. p. 791. Ap(ut, PUtut 'Apitcendi, 
ftvoris facultas,' Ttecit Ann. i. 31. The compounds make -qiftM. — * CommSfniaiit- 
■Mts, act ApuL Met Commentua, having devised, Cic. Nat Dear. CcmmentuM, 
pass, feigned, fictitious, Ovid. — ^ComplectOy act Pompon, ap. Non. CcmpUctit 
paas. Cic. ap Prise. CSonmlnrus, having embraced, Stat Sylv. Ccmfitxu», enfiild- 
ad, interwoven, Lucr. and Plant Amra. — ^DepUiaoaMt Flis. as it fiom DefHH» 
«sr. Difeaaua is a mere adjective. The aunpla FUtiacor oocuia in Lucr. v. 3091 
FUdaco^l fiunt am exfaaostea, VaL Flac. and Stat Sylv. passim. — ^EapemduM 
eawem, Cic Att — ^FnOiua, Senec Epist. Fructua, Lucr. iii. 953L Perfructua, 
de. Fragm. ap. Prise, x. p. 883. Fru^turuaj Cic. Tusc. JFVuttfimm, Apiu. ApoL 
where some read Fructurum, See Voss. Anal. iiL 38. Fruemftia, Ovid. 


Fangor/ fungSriB or fyxkffite, fliDgi, fimctus, fancturus, i%$charg€^ per'* 

form a duty, 

*Irascor,' irascSris or irasc^e, frasci, — ^, he angr^\ 

Labor/ l&bdris or kbSre, labi, lapsus, lapsfiros, glide^ slip, err, fdi 

gently^ decay, 
Ldqnor/ IdquSris or iGqoSre, Idqai, Idctitus, lOcHtu- 

ruB, Idquendus» gpeak. 

Nanciscor»* oancisc^ris or nanciscere, nancisci, nactus, find by chance^ 

find, obiain, 
l^nsccst^ nasc^ris or nasc^re, nasci, natas, n&tu, nascY- 

turus, be bom, spring up, 

Nitor,* nit^ris or nitSre, niti, nixus or nisus, nlsurus, strive, endeavour^ 

he in labotnr» 
Oblfviaeor,' obliviscSris or obllviscSre, oblivisci, obli- 

tus, obliviscendus, forget 

Pficiscc»',^ p&ciscSrifl or paciscere, paciaci, pactus, p&- 

ciBceodus, ,,,,, bargain^ 

PrdfYciscor,^ prdf Yciaceria or prdnciacSre, prdf Ycisci, 

pr6fbcUis, prdfecturus» set out on a journey, go, 

QuSzor," quSr^ris or qu^r^re, qu^ri, questus» questum, 

questurus, quSrendua, lament, bevmil, 

^R&nYiuacor," rSmlniscdria or rdmlnisc^re, rSmlniscit 1 call to 

mind, recollects 

*RiQgor, rii^&ris or ringpere, ringi, , .... grin, show the teeth, 

S^uor," s^udris or s^uSre, sequi, s^cutus, sectiturus, 

sSquendi», follow. 

^Fkngit TMUM. Bei. P^iui ap. Paul. Dig. Functus, Hov. F^neHirus, Apah 
Met ' Aa suuin ratuitui fvngendumy Cic. Tusc. iii. 7. -^ ^Irat^et act for iratcit 
rompon. IrStut is an adjective. — * Lapw», Val. Fhie. Some Mm. of Viigil hav0 
iopnlt. Geoig. iii. 448. and Uoimi», ii. 305. Laptnirus, Ovid. — * LuauhTf toquis, 
act Fetfon. Fn^. TVag. Vkutus, Cic. LociUUrus, Ovid. VSquenaua, Mart ▼. 
K.^-'*Naciu$, Cic. in Olrat et passim. Nanctus, optt codd. Liy. xxiii. 2. and 
Flaut — * NSius, Terent Andr. et passim. NSiu, Plin. vi. 33. NaulUurM», PaUad. 
/oil.. Ntuc^t ibr nosct, Cato R. R. ; bat tiie reading is doubtfal. — "* Nunt», Ovid, 
passim. NUus, Cic. pro CluenL c. fi7. Vitniv. i. 2. In all the Mss. of livy, NUu$ 
s more freq[uent than Nixus, Some distinguish them from each other» thus : JVtxut 
CORFORK, nt»u8 ANiMO ; but flns distinction does not appear from the classics. iVistt- 
ru8» Ctts. B. C. ii. 37. Anhitor, I lean upon, makes AnnixuB, Virg. JEn. i. 148. el 
passim. ; AnmtuSt Liv. v. 25. Ccnntter, I strnegle, bring forth, Conmuna, Liv. u 
33. et pesnm; Conmsus, Val. Flac. iii. 198. Emtor, I struggle hard, bring forth* 
JSnixm, Liv. vL 21 et passim. Emtus, Cic. an Q. Fr. iii. 9. Diomed. i p. 371. 
confines Enixus to the nboor of bringing forth, and takes Eni9u$ in a sense of 

«enered earerfton ; bat this distioctioa is not favoured by Mss. authority. JhnUor, I 
lan upon, InnisuM, Cns. B. G. ii. 27. et passim ; Inmau», Tacit Obniivr, I stnicgle 
■gaintt, O&nttiM, Viig. ix. 724. et passim. Obn'tsut, Liv. xkxiv. 46. RhvsUtr, ire- 
nst, has no Perfoct Fiurticiple Passive. SnbnUtnr is not found m the classics; yet 
Subnixus, Virg. JEsl i 510. et passira. — ^ ObtUuB, Cic. Oblwiacendus, Hor. ~ * FA- 
euco, Nsv. ap. Non. Foetus sum, Cic. Serviua on Virg. ^n. xi. 133. gives this 
Verb another PeTfocfe,Fhj)igt. See Pdr^o and P^]^. Lists, xiii. xvi. Padsoendtm, 
Ammian. xxti. 12l— ^oPr^nCetaco, Plant Mil iv. 8. 19. Frofectus sum, Cic. pas- 
sim. Fr^eeturus, Juttm. ~ " Quctftw sum, Liv. Questvm, Nepos in Chabr. 
Plaut Questurus, Stat Theb. Quirendus, Ovid. Met — ** RXmfms&f, Rufus apk 
Auson. Epigr.—* UiSfettftts sum, Viig. Eel. x. 23. et passim. SXcuturuM, Lucan. 
Skpundus, Ovid. iSiijiiO^ Prise viii. pw 799. 

i!Hm coKiveATioir ov txxbs. 149 

TcKxr,* tudris or taSre, — -^ ttitus, taendus, fee, prated* 

iJiciscor/ uIciscSriB or ulciscSre, uiclsci, ultus, ultuniy 

ulciscendus, avenge^ punish. 

Cftor ' titSris or tLtSre, ttti, dsus, tisQras, tltendas, use. 

*Ve8Cor,* vescSris or yescSre, vesci, — -^ vescendus, .... /eerf upon. 


Ning^' ninffSre, ninxit, . • 
YespSrasci V vei^rascSre, 

ii snows, 

U draws towards evening. 

>See Tueor, Second Coiq. i>. 140. — * ITZtoj «itm, Propert. Ultum, Salluft Jo^. 
e. 71. Tftcit Ann. iy. 73^ Vkitcendus, Cic. Fam. lii 23. Uldseirem, EbA. aj^ 
Nob. Ulciaci, peas. Sallust Jug. c. 34. Hence UUut^ ayenged, poniflhed, Liy. ii. 
17. — 9 fjlor, pass. Noyiui ap. Gell. Vto, i», Cato R. R Usus nan, Nepoa Att. 
VturuSt Cic. Verr. Utendus, Cic. Venr. iy. 18. — «V4B«ce<,TertuLde Jcgjiin. cfi.» 
quoting the Old Teat Num. zi. 4., where the Vulgate has, 'Quis dabit nobis ad «m* 
omdum caraesf Veacaidua, Plin. xx. 5. — ^ NingUur, pass, impen. Apul. Florid, u 
^ 2. Ningunlt Lucr. ii 627., where sottie read phypaU. Nhxirii, Accius ap^ 
PriK. Nwgtiit is approyed of by Pierius on Virg. Georg. iii. 367.; and by Prise 
ibid^ Nvngit hy C^pet de Verb. Dub. p. 2249. — « YetptiraKU has no Perfect 
ViespllraMoen» occurs m Nepos Peiop^ o. 2.» and in Tacit. Ann. zyL 34. 





§ 186» Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation end in 
-io, and change -to into -is long in the Second Per* 
son Present ; into -ivi long in the Perfect ; into -irq 
long in the Infinitive, and into -itus long in the Per^ 
feet Participle Passive ; as, 

Audio/ audire, audivi or audii, auditus, auditum, aaditu, 

auditurus, audiendus, Aear.-^S(H 

*Cio,*cTvi, movet excite. 

Condio,' ivi or ii season. 

Custudio,* ivi or ii, D. keep. 

*Donnio,* ivi or ii, m. r. D </eep. 

Erudio,* Ivi or ii, d instruct 

Eflurio, ivi, to desire, to eat. 

Exptedio,^ Ivi or ii, disentangle. 

Finio,^ ivi or ii, R. D. finish. 

*Ge8tio,* ivi or ii, 2eap, desire. 

Impedio,*'* Ivi or ii, d. entangle. 

Mnsanio," ivi or ii bemads 

Initio,» Ivi or ii, ensnare. 

Lenio,** ivi or ii, D. mitigttiA. 

Mollio," Ivi or ii, D. soften, 

♦Miigio,»» Ivi or ii, beuopK 

Miinio," ivi or ii, r. D fortify, 

Mutio,"ivi, mutter. 

Nutrio," Ivi or ii, D nourisA. 

Partio,!* Ivi or ii, R. divider 

Polio,» Ivi, D. pdiih. 

^ Attdibamj Ovid. AudFibis, Plant Many of the Verba of this Coni. making -m» 
have also -it in the Perfect Audii, Virff. Eel. vi. 83. AudUum, aor. AudUu, 
Css. B. Afr. Auditurtis, Lucan. Audiendus^ Caes. B. G. — 'Cm, Tacit Ann. xv. 
33. & Plant The Participle Citus exists only in the Compounds, Concitus, sumr 
moned, Val. Flac. excited, Lucan. v. 597. Exdius, called out Virg. Mn. x. 38. 
ExatHruSt liv. Excibatt Liv. xxxii. 13. See Cteo, Second Conj. — * Condivi, Cic. 
pro Clueut Colum. Condii, Varr. R. R. CondHus, Cic. de Orat iii. 25. — * Cus- 
tddibantt Catull. CustodWUur, Plaut Cuslodivit Plin. Custodii, Sueton. CvMo- 
disset, Auson. Epist Custoditus, Ovid. Custodiendus, Caes. B. G. — *Dqrmibo, 
Plaut Donmvit Ovid. Doradh Cic. Att. Dormttum, Hor. i. Sat 5. 48. JDorml» 
iurusy Cels. Dormiendus, Catull. — ' Erud^j Cic. TnsC i. 26. Erudii, Val. Flac. 
E^uditus, Cic. paissim. Erudiendus, Ovid. — "* Expidibo, Plaut Expidivi, Lav. ix. 
9. ExMii, Val. Flac. Expedisses, Cic. ExpMitus, Cic. Mil. c. 10. * Ad ej> 
pediendas pecunias,' Sueton. Jul. — ^ Finwi, Ovid. Met Finiif Id. Fmltus, Ovid. 
Trist FinltUruSt Id. Art Am. Frniendus, Tertull. Scorn. — * OesGbant, Plant, 
GesCm, Geli. Oestierunt, Veil. — ^ImpUdtvi, Cic. ImpMii, Hor. i. Sat. 6. 27. 
Ovid. Met Impjiditust Cic. pro Ccel. et passim. Impidiendus, Ovid. Met — *^ In- 
sdnwi, Plaut. Insanisti, Cic. Or. c. 67. — ^IrrUwi, Colum. Irretisaes, Cic. Catil. 
i. 6. IrrifUuSy Cic. Fin. v. 18. et passim. — ^*JJmbam, Lembo, Virg. JEn. v. 527. 
vi. 468. Propert Lemvu Cic. Att vi. 2. Leniif Id. Phil. ii. 45. Lenttus, Liv. i. 
16. Leniendus, Cels. Leniundus, Saliust Cat c. 48. — >« Jkfafntn, Veil. Molliif 
Ovid. Met MMUus, Sil. MoUiendus, Cic. — " M&gtvi, Prop^ Mueissent, Liv. 
i. 7. — ^*JM<gnio, anciently. Munwi, Cic. Cat i. 4. 3funn, Nep. Hannib. c 3. 
liv. ix. 29. et passim. MtinUus, Cic. passim. MunUurus, Hirt MunienduSt Cic. 
JtfuniHs, Veget de R. V. — " MuGvi, Plaut MiUUus, Terent — ^" Nuirtbam, VWf^. 
.£n. vii. 484. iN^rtio, Rhemm. Nutrimus, for NUirhffmus. Nutrtior, for ni^to, 
Virg. Geocg. ii. 425. Nutrivi, Senec. Nutrii, Pert. Sat Nutrissent, Ovid. N^ 
trltus, Hor. Nutriendus, Cels. — ^^ParHor, depon. W\x%. J^ i. 198. et passiiik 
Parfiot, Saliust Jug. c. 47. Partisses, Lucil. ParGtus, Cic. Orat. iii. 30. ParCitA' 
rus, Caes. B. Civ. i. 4. — *<> PoRvi, Phodr. PifRtus, Cic. passim. PoUendus, Vitruv. 
PHTtbant, Virg. uEn. viii. 435. 


Pttm^ iTi or ii, D. jnmii&. 

BSdlU)»* ivi, cnwn, endrcU. 

Sdo,* scTvi, u. ft. know. 

•Servio,* ivi or ii, M. aerve, obey. 

SOpio,* iW or ii, ZatSoilem. 

sdifOio* ivi or it, csfaWi. 

Tinnio,^ ivi or ii, ft. HnkU. 

Vestio,^ ivi or ii, dothe. 

§ 187*. The following are irregular either in the 
Perfect, or Perfect Participle Passive, or in both : 

AmYcio/ imtcire, Smixi or fimicui, ftmictus, SLmYciendus, clothe» 

Ap^io,*^ &p€ifre, &p^rai, iipertus, aperturus, fipSriendos, open, 

BuUio," buUire, ballii, builitus» boil, buoble. 

CompSrio," compgrire, comp^ri, compertas, r Jind out» 

Fircio," ftrcire, farei, farctas, cram, 

Eastldio,^^ fastidire, fkstidii, fkstiditus, iasUdiendus dUdain, 

Faleioj" ililcire, fulsi, fultus, fulciendus, prop, 

*Gltltio,'' j?Iutire, glutii, , stoaUow, 

♦Grannio, grunnire, grunnii, , grutU, 

Haurio," haurire, hausi, rarely haurii, haustas, haus- 

turus or hausurus, hauriendus, draw, drink up, absorb, 

*Lascmo»^ lascivire, lascivii, , be vfonUm, frisk, 

^ Pumvi, Apui. Met PumV, Sueton. Jul. c. 74. PtmtMc, Tib. c. 61. PuhUus, 
pmiihed, Cic. Inv. PunUus, having punished, Cic. Mil. Puniendus, Cic Pceni- 
hatt anciently, Lucr. See Munio in this List. — ' Ridhiuvit, Sueton, where Baum- 
garteitCrusiufl reads ridimiiL RUdhmtutt Tibull. passim. lUdiw^iai, Virg. Ma, 
X. 5^. — *Sdvi, Terent * Pro «ctvtsse, rectius dicimus 9cit$e.* Facciolat ScisiCt 
Liv. Ovid. Fast SciBtij Ovid. ScUaerdt Cic. Att. The Participle Scitu» is used 
in an active signification, knowings threwd. ScUuruSt Liv. iii. Senec. Epist 6, 
Sa^<lfacUe,Terent. — «;Servnn,Plaut.21. SeroU, Veil Servisaei, Cic. Seroistit, 
Liv. ServUum, Viig. iEn. ii. 786. ServUum est, impera. Cic. Or. SeroUiaa, Plaut. 
Servibot Merc — *oopivi, Liv. Sopiit, Veil. Sopiirat, Tibull. Soputu, Ovid. 
Met Sopltus, Virg. ^n. x. 642. et passim.— «^V^YZivY, Plin. Stmiig$etj GeU. 
SUHaiUus, Lucr. — ^ Tinnwi, Tinniit Plant Tinrnturua» Sueton — * VeaGvi, Cic 
de Nat Deor. ^ Veatiirint^ Colum. VeaGtua, Propert passim. — *Am1cui, Brut ap. 
Diomed. Amixi, Vanr. ibid. Some add AtiHam^ but without anthori^. AmuAua, 
Hor. iim)cten<2us, Fronton, ad M. Aurcl. — ^^ApMbo, Plaut Apirui, Liv. pas- 
sim. Some think the Perfect Aph-ii might also be used, reading in Cic Att. vii. 
3. Apirih^tmtis, where the true lection is ApirtUrhnut. ApertvM^ Cic. passim. 
Aperturua, Liv. Apiriendua, Sallust Cat c. 58. — . " BicZZti, Apic BuICUua^ Veget 
Veter. — " Compirty Cic passim. CompeHiu, Cic. passim. Compiriort depon. / 

know aasuredly, Sail. Jug. c 49. Hence Compertua eat, for compirit, TertuU 

>' Far«i, Senec. Epist Farctua, Cic. passim. *Ita in meiioribus Ubris exaratum 
est' Voss. Anal. iii. 33. Some write Fartua. The Oxford Annotators on Lily 
quote Parcilua from Cicero; others quote it from Varro; but this appears to be a 
mistake. Faraua, Hygin. Fabi — "Fosfkfu, Mart FaaGdivi is found only in 
fframmars and dictionaries. FaaddUua, Ovid. Trist FasGdiendua, Plin. — >* Fulau 
Cic Ftdxit Prise. Fukwi, Vet Inscript. sub Honor, et Theodos. ap. Murator. p. 
466. Ftdtua, Vinf. Eel. vi. 53. FulcUua, Ccel. Aurel. Tard. Fulcaendua, Cels.— 
^ Glutiaaet Juv. Sat iv. 28. GluHvit found in grammars and dictionaries, does not 
occur in the classics. 'Mors gludia,* TertuU. adv. Marc — "Gfrtmnuse, Juv. 
Orunnivi is found only in OTimmars and dictionaries. — ^Hauait Virg. JExi. i. 742. 
tiauriif Varr. ap. Prise Bauatva, Val. Flac. et passim. Jiauaea, Solin. Hauritua, 
i^ul. Met Hauntumt ibid. Hatirltu, ibid. Jiautturuat- Cic Hauaurua, V^rg. 
Mn. iv. 384. Hauriturtta, Juvenc. Haurienduat Colum. Hcatribant, Lucr.— i 
^laacwiaaal^ Cell. 

183 jrovsTR coirjuGATioif op TSBIM. 

^LYgfiriV H^uriie, lYgparii, ^ • feed deUctOdy, 

♦Obedio,' dbidire, 0b^ii, , dbedittlnm, • ohef; 

Qperio,' dpSrire, 0pSrui, dpertus, dp^riendos, cover, hide» 

♦Prostlio,* prostlire, prdsYlui or prosYlivi, — , sally forth, 

R^p^rio,* r£p6nre, rSpgri, rdpertus, rSperturas, d. Jhtd, 

*Sievio,* flsvire, sievii, , siBTitdrus, rage. 

*SiliOj^ sftlire, s&lui or s&lii, , • leap, 

Sancio,* sancire, sanxi or sancii, sancitus or sanctus, 

sanciendus^ establish, ratify^ 

Sarcio,* sartoa, sarci, sarcire, patch, repair^ 

Sarrio/^ sarrire, sarrivi or sarrui, sarritus, sarriendus, . . . weed with a 

hook, hoe, 

8entio," sentire, sensi, sensus, sensurus, feel^ perceive, 

SSp^lio," sSpSlire, s^pglivi, sepSlii or siSp^li, sSpultua, 

s^pulturus, s^p^Iiendus, hury, itttetf, 

S£pio,'* sepire, eepei, septus, hedge in, enclose*^ 

*Sitio,^^ Sitire, sttiit , • . thirst, thirst iifier,* 


^X*)|grSrii,Hor. OMg^riit Cic. Catil. ii 5. Ufgunoi, given in gFEUnnkaTS and 
dicdonaiies, do«8 not exist. — ' Ohedibo, Afnui. ap. Nan. Obedigtet Apul. Fl«rid. 
Obedivi is not found in the classics. ObedUurua^ Flin. — * Opihrui, Terent Opet' 
tuSf Virg. Georg. i. 465. et passim. OpirienduSt Celi. — ^FroMuiy Val. luc* 
Lucan. PrdslUm, Curt vii. 4., and so some read in liv. 1. c. ; but tlie Pen^t in 
«« seenw more correct See S&lio in tliis List 7Vo9i«y/to, I leap over, maker 
TVantfflui, liv. i. 7. Tran^rtvi, Plin. et Plant or IVan^ii, Hirt TtaniUiendui, 
Ovid. — » "RXpirU Ovid. Met et passim. WUen the first syllable of this Perfect ia 
made lonp, some double the P. RSpertus, Virg. JEn. vL 343. Riperturutf Curt. 
Riperienatu, Cic. Jf2?p2r5fto, CsBcil. et Pompon, ap. Non. — ^ Stevit; OetX. Sttvit, 
for Saviity Ovid. Met SavUvm est inopers. cruelty was exerciKd, Liv. i. 1. Curt 
viii. 10. 6. StBWtUTUiy Liv. Stewbat, Lucr. — "* SlUui, Virg. Georg. ii. %4. Ovid. 
SiUiit Claud. See Heins on Ovid. SHEwif found in grammars and dictionaries, 
does not exist in the classics. So Ditilio, I dismount, I alight, desllui, Virg. JEn. 
zi. dOl. ife^i Ces. B. G. iv. 12. ExMio» I spring forth, «a:«)fZta, Plant earaYltt, SiL 
Sub^o, I spring up, tubsHui, Propert iv. 8. 46. subAlii, Senec. Epist 13. Three 
have ui only: Astdlio, I leap npon, €uMuL Val. Flac. i. 258. Dissilio, I fly asun- 
der, I burst disillm, Virg. Mn. lii. 415. ImHUo, I leap upon, in^m, Ovid. Met. 
Ju. 367. & Plant See Pro^Uo.—^ Sanxi, Cic. Tusc i. 27. Liv. xxiv. 8. Propert 
Sanciit Pompon, ap. Diomed. Sancivi is quoted by Nizolius from Cic. pro Plane, 
where no such form is to be Ibund ; and by others irom Liv. x. 9., where the Ms*, 
and best edd. have Mnxi. Sancitus, Cic. de Harusp. Resp. Sanctus, Liv. x. 9. ^ 
Quintil. Sanciendus, Liv. viii. 7.' — *Sarch Cato R. R. Satius, Juvenal, iii. 254. 
et passim. * Sardendas in&miaB,' &c. Cas. B. C. iii. 74. — ^ Sarrivi, Colum. SarrtUp 
Cato R. R. Sarrii, given in some dictionaries, does not occur, except in the vari- 
ous reading of Cato. Sarritus, Colum. Sarriendus, Colum. — " Sensi, Caes. B. G. 
V. 32.&Hor. Sensti, for sensisti, Terent Sensus,Amoh. Sensurus, Ovid. Met. — 
B 5^if^vt, Senec. Epist iS^^n, Petron. «S^^t, Pers. Sat Si^ndtus, Virg. JEil 
n. 2o5. et passim. S^iUtus, Cato. ap Prise S^jndiitrus, Sidon. Carm. SUpHien» 
dus, Cic. Tusc. ii. 13. — "Dausqu. Cellar. Nona. Pier, write Stepio, with a diph- 
thone ; Voss. Heins. Erythraeus and others write it with a single vowel. iSepn, 
Cic. ram. xv. 4. Nat Deor. Virg. Mn. i. 415. & Tacit Ann. Dictionaries ^ve Sepnd, 
Sqntum; but neither smiius, nor sipUum have any place in the classics; nor is 
irSphn to be found, with the exception of the contracteid form s^ssent in Dv. xivi» 
39., where the true reading is smsissent. See Gronov. on the passage, Voss. Anal, 
xii. 33. Septus, Virg. JExi. ix. 551. et pesshn. — ^* Sitisti, Justin. StGaid, given, liy 
gramman and dictionaries, does not occur in the classics. 


&]ff]0,' suffire, Buffi], saffitosi soffiendos, fiuidgatt, 

♦Vftgio,* va^ire, vagii, ^ cry at a ehiltL 

♦V&uo,* venire, veni, ^ yentunis, cobm, 

Vincio»* viacirey visadf vinctufl, Yinctunu» vincieodiis» » • • «.. • ^ • bind, 

§ 188e These Verbs end in -eo : 

*Eo/ irerii or ivi, ^ iturus, '. go, 

♦Queo,* quire, quivi or «juii, — , be Me. 

'"N&jueo, n^ulre, nSquivi or nSquii, ^ cannot. 

Veneo,* venire, venii, ^ venituniSi ^ be bM. 

§ 189» The Perfects of the foDowing Verbs are 
doubtful : 

*Cambio,* eampii» eroAofi^e. 

*EMnieatk> M ivi, hemad. 

Eflatio,*^ Ivi, itui, .... apeak foUithly. 
*Ferio,«f8rii,D. ttrike. 

*Iippiok'* Tvi, B. heUmr-eyed, 

*Raacio,M Twm, B. hekaorm* 

SalUo,** ivi, Itoi, R. D. 9ea9onwUhmlL 

. § 190* These have neither Perfects nor Perfect 
Participles ; 

«BaHratio,!' stammer. \ «F^^Qeio, he feme, 

*Cecatio, be dim-eighud. \ *Gaimio, 9^^" 

1 Sfidfii, Propert. iv. 6. 83. See Broakhus & Bormaii on the psnace. tSuffUue, 
Ovid. Fast Sufiendve, Colttin. — *The author of the Cannen de PmJom. makea 
^he .fijat svUable short Vs^i» Ovid. — ' Vembo, Pompon, aa Non. Veni, Cic. 
VenturuSt Viiigf. vL 66. Vhulur, ventum eel, impers. passiin. JnveiUu ardtia, Plio. 
ii. 46. — « Vinxiy Vir^. iEn. xi. 81. VinxtuM, 6vid. et passim. VincOirue, Viiv. 
Geor^. ii. 94. Vinctendue, Cic. -^*Jvi is rare: it occurs in AaL GelL xiiL 12. 3. 
lit Liv. Cic. Fam. Vim. iEn. i. 37& et passim. These Compounds make U: Abets 
I depart, SbH; ilifeo, f approach, ^tt ; Anieeo, I 0> belbfe, onlen; CoSo^ I meet, 
coH i Exeo, I go out, exit ; InUreo, I die, uUirU ; Inlroeo, I enter, introii ( Prodeo^ 
I come forth, prbdii ; traneeo^ I pass over, traneU. But Ineot I enter, makes Inn, 
Cic. et passim; Ynt, Stat Theb.' Obeo, I go about, undergo, die, obtvi, Virg. iEn. 
vi. dOZ. Obit, Lucr. Pireoy I perish, pHhrH, Ovid. PMvi occuts ddv in Apul. 
Met PrcseOy I go before, praihd, Plin. prtm, Uv. PrmCtreOt I go beyooo, or»f j!rti, 
Ovid. Art Am. et passim ; praUnviy Apul. Met JSftfeo, I return, rtdiiy Cic. et 
passim; rftlTvi, Lucu. ap. Non. Subeo, I go under, sfiKin, Ovid, «fifth*, Hor. i. Sat 
Q 9.1 . r/«rtzii. do.. — • OuivL Virflr. ^n. vi. 463. Tewnt Oun. T.iitf>p. iri. MR. Smi 

9. 21. Mrt£«, Cic. — • Quivu Virg. iEn. vi. 463. Terent Quti, Lucr. vi. 855. See 

the classics. Some give this Verb a Supine, Vinum, which is a noun, and one of 
its component parts, {VHum eo,) and of which the ablative Vefto occurs in Tadt. 

Gti, Grammatici. Effumu»y Cic. Di v. — ^ FTtriiy Acron in his commentary < 
i. Od. 7. 11. The Perfect of the Compound BXfSriOy I strike again, does not oc- 
cnr. '— ^JJppim, Grammatici. UppitunUy Plin. — >*The Perfect Anm, and Su- 
pine Rausum occur only in Prise, x. y. 907. /Zousfiros, Lndl, an. Prise, itnd.— 
^SdOhoiy or «ofiot, Grammatid. SaHduSy or «olites, Cdum. Smaturu»y Ncv. api 
Prise. iUd. SaUiendutf Colum. The Participles Saleug, Golum. and SaleSrme^ 
Mumm. ap. Diomed. L c. come from SaUo, ie, of the Third Conjugation — ^*B(d^ 
butim in some dictionaries. 


*G]5cb, .••. duck tu a hen. 

*Grandio, make great 

*Hinnio, neigk. 

*In«ptio, trtjle. 

*Plrario» itcktUotie. 

*Rugpki, ••.. roar a» u Uoft» 

*Steio /orMe^ 

*ScSturio ; guekoat 

•Singoltio, ..,..eob. 

^Tuno, cofigk. 

PUmc, I beat, paye, has no Perfect; bat the Perfect Ftoticiple PikoHM ■ tawii 
in Vanr. R. R. i. 51. 1. and in PUn. ix. 10. 

§ 191a DEPONENTa 

Blandior,^ -Iris er -ire, -Iri, -itus, soothe, flatter. — So» 

Largior,* give Uiertdly, laviak. 

Mentbr.'B. He, 

Mulior,^ o. aUeagd Bometking difficuUj 


Partior,*D. :, divide. 

P5li(Mr,* ft. D. obtain, enjeyJ 

Sortior,^R. drawtabs: 

§ 192a' EXCEPTIONS. 

Aflsentior,* assentiris or assenUre, assentiri, acBensos, 

assensuros, assent, 

ExpSrior,* expSrlris or exp^rire, exp§riri, expertus, 

expertarus, expSriendus, '. try. 

M^tior," metiris or mStlre, metiri, mensus or metitas, 

metiendus, measure., 

OppSrior," oppSriris or oppSrire, opp^riri, oppertus or 

dpp§ntus, opp^riendus, wait /or. 

Ordior,^ ordiris or ordire, ordiri, orsus, ordiendus, begin. 

^ BlancRiuSf Ovid. Met. Blanditus, pass. Verrius ap. Prise, viii. p. 792. — ' largiot 
AcciiiB ap. Non. Hence LargituSf pass. Tibull. Lar^us, naving bestowedv 
Cic. — *Mentio, Prise. Hence MenGtuSt pass. Virg. Mb. li. 422. Ovid. Mentibor, 
Plaut Men^tuSt having lied, Propert MenGtUnu, Ovid. — *MSliebaturf pass. 
Apul. Met. MoiUus, Ovid. Am. Virg. Geoi^g. i. 494. Moliendue, Cic. Orat. — *Par> 
fitoit, Cic. de Univ. Partiendue, Cic. See Partio, list i. — *This verb is some- 
times used by^ the poets in the Third Coi\j. in the Pres. Indie, and Jmperf. Subj. 
See Virg. JEm. iii. 55. Ovid. Met ziii. 190. Also in the Pres. Infin. Poti, PteuT. 
ap. Non. vii. 66. PoGoU, Plant PoOtus, Caes. B. G. et passim. PoCuUrus, Cic 
Tusci.37. Poftumfus, Ovid. Met ^^;Sor(ifus, Virg. iEn. viii. 444. & Ovid. Sor- 
Gturus, Cic. — ^Afwntio, act passon. Hence Ateeruus, pass. Cic. Acad. iv. 31. 
Aseenstttf having assented, Cic A«sens«nis, Cic. — * Eacpiiibis, Catull. £xpeffu«', 
Val. Flac Experturutj Ilaut Expentuni», Cato R. K. Expliriendu»t Ovid — 
^ MetxStuTt pass. Amob. Hence Mensus^ measured, Cic. N. D. ii. 27. Menmt^ 
having measured, VaL Flac. v. 476. MeSiutf Claud. Ep. Metiendue, Cic. Orat c^ 
57. — i^Omerfiiir, Terent OppBrUit», Plaut Opplhiendutt Tacit Ann. iv. 6.— » 
" Ornts, Virg. JEn. vi. 125. et passim. OnZitos, pass. Sidon. Epb Ordiendus, Cia 
Leg. L 7. 



lAiV ALPHABETICAL LIST of the preceding verbs qf the 
fa(wr conjtigations for easy reference, J[f the compound verb cannot 
bfi" found in this list^ look for the simple ; then refer to it on its page^ 
avbd the compound may be found in the notes,^ 

AtidD .... Page 


Abominor .... 


Absterrao .... 


















































Aacupor ..... 



























































Augeo 126 

AuBCulto 112 

Autumo 112 

Aoxilior 117 

A^eo 128 

Avenor 117 

Balbatio 153 

Basio 112 

Batao 131 

Bello 112 

Beo 112 

Bibo 131 

Blandior 154 

Boo 112 

Brevio 112 

Ballio 151 

Cado 138 

C®oo 113 

Caecatio 153 

Casdo 139 

CjbIo 113 

Calceo 113 

Calcitro 113 

Caleo 123 

Calamnior . . . . 117 

Calveo 128 

Cambio 153 

Cdndeo 123 

Caneo 123 

Cano 139 

Canto 113 

Capesn 138 

Capio 145 

Capto 113 

Carao 123 

Carmino 113 

Carpo 133 

Castigo 113 

Catomidio .... 113 

Cauaor 117 

Caveo 127 

Cedo 133 

Celebro 113 

Celo 113 

Censeo 126 

Centario 113 

Cerao 141 

Certo 113 

Ceveo 128 

Cieo 126 

Cingo 135 

Cio 160 

Clango 146 

Clareo 123 

Claudo (&e^ame) 146 
Claado(sftu/).. 133 

160;Clepo 1331 

Claeo 128 

Clao 146 

CoalMoo 143 

Coerceo 123 

Cogito 113 

Cognoaoo 142 

Cohibeo 123 

Colo 137 

ComiflBor 117 

Comitor 117 

Commiiiiaoor.. 147 
Commereo.... 123 
Commooeo . . . 122 

Como 133 

Comparo 113 

Comperio 151 

Compesco .... 137 
Complector . . . 147 

Compleo 126 

Concilio 113 

Concionor .... 117 

Conditio 145 

Condio 150 

Condo 139 

Con&bulor ... 117 

Confido 140 

Confiteor 128 

Congrao 131 

Conniveo 127 

Conor 117 

Conqainifloo . . 140 
Conndero .... 113 

ConflfMOor 118 

Conaaneaoo . . . 143 
Conaenesco . . . 143 
Consero ...... 137 

Consisto 142 

Consulo 137 

Contemplor... 118 
Conterreo .... 123 
ConticcBoo.... 143 
Convalesco ... 143 

Coqao ,.. 135 

Crabresoo .... 143 

Credo 140 

Cremo 113 

Creo 113 

Crepo 120 

Creaoo 142 

Criminor 118 

Cnido 113 

Cubo 120 

Culpo 113 

Cuneo 113 

Cunctor 118 

Cupio 145 

Curo 113 

CCDTO 139 

Ciutodio 150 

Damno 113 

Debeo 123 

Decet 129 

Decora 113 

Decurio 113 

Dedo 140 

Defendo 131 

Defeti«Qor .... 147 

Dego 131 

Deleo 126 

Delineo 113 

Deliqueaoo.... 143 

Delitesco 143 

Dementk»... ... 153 

Demereo 123 

Demo 133 

Denaeo 128 

Deprooor 118 

Depso 137 

Deeera 137 

Deaidero 113 

Desiato 142 

Desteito 137 

Destino 113 

Deterreo 123 

Dico,.b6 113 

Dioo,-eie 135 

Dicto 113 

Dido 140 

Difiiteor 128 

Digladior 118 

migo 135 

Diribeo 127 

Disco 139 

Dissero 137 

Diteaoo 145 

Divido 133 

Do 120 

Doceo 124 

Doleo 123 

Doio 113 

Dominor 118 

Domo 120 

Dormio 150 

Dono 113 

Duco 135 

Dulceaco 143 

Duplico 113 

Dureeco 143 

Duro 113 

£do(eaf) 131 

EdorfmUuA).. 140 

Effigio 113 

Effiitio 153 

Egeo 123 


Elangaeaco . . . 143 
fimacio ...... 113 

Knnarcesco : . . 143 

Emereo 123 

£mineo 123 

£mo 131 

Emungo.... .. 135 

faucleo 113 

Eo 153 

Epulor 118 

^uito 113 

Erro 113 

Erubesoo 143 

Eradio 150 

Esurio 150 

Evanesoo 143 

Evilesco 143 

jExardesoo .... 144 

Exaresco 143 

Ezcandesco... 143 

ExceHo 137 

Excddo 131 

Ezerceo 123 

Exhibeo 123 

Exhorresco . . . 143 

Existimo 113 

Exisio: 142 

Exolieflco 144 

Expallesoo.... 143 

Ekpedio 150 

Expergiscor. . . 147 

Experior 154 

Exploro 113 

ExBanio 113 

Exaero 137 

fxulo 113 
xterreo 123 

Extih^o .;... 135 
£xtimeBco.... 143 

Exuo 131 

Fabrico ...... 113 

Facesso 138 

Facio 145 

Fallo. 139 

Famiilor 118 

Farcio 151 

r«ri8, or Fare.. 118 

Fascio 113 

Fantidio 151 

Fateor 128 

Fatigo: 113 

EatiEico 145 

Fave»: 127 

Ferio 153 

Feriof 118 

Fero. 140 

Ferocio 153 

FerviBO 127 

Fervo. 131 

Festlno 113 

Figo 135 

Find© 131 

Fingo 135 








Flecto ........ 

Fleo , 






















Frnmentor .... 





Fulcio ....... 


Fundo, -are.. . 
Fundo, -ere.. . 







Gannio.. .. ... 


















































































Gmvo.... .... 114 

Grunnio 151 

Gnio 146 

Gusto 114 

Habeo 123 

Habito 114 

Hasreo 126 

Halo. 114 

Haurio....... 151 

Hebeo 128 

Hinnio 154 

Hio:.. ....... 114 

Horreo 123 

Hortor 118 

H.umeo 128 

Humo 114 

Hyemo. ...... 114 

Ico 131 

Ignoro 114 

Ignosco 142 

Imbuo 132 

Imitor 118 

Impedio 150 

Impero 114 

Impetro 114 

Inaresco. 143 

Incesao 138 

Inchoo 114 

Increbresco . . . 143 
Incurvesco . . . 145 

Indago 114 

Indico 114 

Indignor 118 

Indo 140 

Indolesco 144 

Indulgeo 126 

Induo 132 

Inepdo 154 

IneDrio 114 

Jnhibeo 123 

Infitior 118 

Initio 114 

Injurior 118 

Innotosco 144 

Inquino 114 

Insanio 150 

Insector 118 

Insero 137 

Insidior 118 

Instauro 114 

Insuo 132 

Inteeraaco .... 145 

IntcUigo 135 

Intro 114 

Intumesco ....144 

Invito 114 

Irascor 148 

Irretio 150 

Irrito 114 

Irraucesco.... 144 

Itero 114 

Jaceo 123 

Jacio 145 

Jacto ..«•.«• ^» 114 

Jaculor ««{is 

Jocor ^ lis 

Jubeo ,. 224 

Judico 114 

Jugo il4 

Jugulo 114 

Jungo |35 

Juro 114 

juvenesco..,. 145 

Juvo 120 

Labo 121 

Labor 148 

Laboro ,, 114 

Lacero. ...•«• 11^ 
Lacesao 138 

Lacteo 128 

Lacto ,. 114 

Lfiedo... 133 

LsBtor 118 

Lambo 132 

Lamentor .... 118 

Langueo ..... 123 

Lanio.... .... 114 

Lapidesco .... 145 

Laqueo 114 

Laacivio. Idl 

Largior.. 154 

Lateo 123 

Latro 114 

Laudo 114 

Lavo ........ 121 

Uxo 114 

Lego, -ere .... 132 

L^, -ilre .... 114 

Lenio 150 

Lenteo 128 

Levo 114 

Libero 114 

libet 129 

Liceo.. 123 

Liceor 128 

licet 129 

Lignor 118 

ligo 115 

ligurid 152 

Linquo 132 

Lingo 147 

lino 142 

Lippio 153 

Liquet ....... 129 

Liquo 115 

Lito ns 

Liveo 128 

Loco 115 

Loquor 148 

Lubet 129 

Luceo 125 

Luctor 118 

Ludo 133 

Lugeo 126 

Luo 132 

Lustro 115 

man of vbsbs. 


JMaceo. ....... 



!.Mftciilo ^« «« . . 



Maodo, -ere. . . 




tMansuesoo ... 
Marceo ...... 

'AlatoiD.. ...... 

JVfaturesco». .. 
Medeor ...... 















Miulo,. ...... 







Muereor ...«. 






Moderor»... .. 



Molo ..««.... 





.liloiistro.... .. 








^.MUlgeo . 



































































Muto . . .^ .... 


Naodsoor .... 




Nauseo ...... 


Navo ......... 

Neco .... .... 

Neclo.... .... 






Nexo, -ere .... 















Nugor ....... 




Natrio ....... 

Obbrutesco .... 



Obdnresoo .... 

Obedio.... ... 

Obliyiscor .... 

Obmuteaco . . . 


Obstupesoo . . . 
Obeuraesoo . . . 
Obtempero... . 







Operor .... . .. 

(^iDor ....... 








Ofior. .«...••. 

. 1« 


Ofdior.. ...... 

. 164 


\^WOO m m m m •#•• 

. 115 









. 119 



. 148 


Paoo.. ........ 





. 139 





. 119 



. 147 





Parco. .«....• 

. 139 



. 124 



. 145 


Paro .....*..■ 



Pftrtio ..«. .. . 

. 150 



. 154 



. 142 



. 124 



. 146 



. 115 



. 127 



. 154 



. 115 



. 136 



. 139 



. 139 






. 139 



. 144 


Percalleo. ... 

. 124 



. 140 


Percontor 119 


Percrebraaco . 

. 144 



. 140 



Perhiheo .... 

. 136 


. 123 



. 144 


P^riclitor. ... 

. 119 


Permereo... . 

. 123 


Perterreo. ... 

. 123 


Pertimeflco .. 

. 144 



. 138 



. 129 


Pingaesco ... 

. 145 



. 132 



. 115 



. 119 






. 115 




. 136 
. 134 



. 136 



. 121 



. 115 






. 132 



. 129 



. 128 



. 150 


Polllccor .... 

. 128 



Flmo.. ISB 

Pbpalor 119 

Porto 115 

Pteco 139 

Posthabeo.... 123 

Postulo 115 

Potior 154 

Poto 121 

Pnebeo 123 

Pnedor 119 

Praelior 119 

Pnemior 119 

PreiQODeo.. .. 122 

Praodeo 125 

Piecor 119 

Prebendo..... 132 

Premo 134 

Prendo 132 

Privo 115 

Piobo 115 

Prodo 140 

Proficiscor.... 148 

Profiteor 128 

Profligo 115 

Probioeo 123 

Piomereo 123 

Promo 134 

Propero 115 

Propino 115 

Pioiatio 116 

Prosilio 152 

Prurio 154 

Ptallo 132 

Pabeo 124 

Pudet 4. 129 

Pueraaco 145 

Pagno 116 

Pufao 116 

Piin^ 139 

Punio '151 

Purgo 116 

Puteo 124 

Puto 116 

Putreo 124 

Qusro 138 

Quano 116 

Quatio 147 

Queo 153 

Queror 148 

Quieaco l<tt 

Radio 116 

Rado 134 

Rancesco 145 

Rapio 146 

Rapto 116 

Raacio 158 

Recordor 119 

Recrudeaco... 144 

Recupeio 116 

Recuto 116 

Reddo 140 

Redimio 151 

Refiigcioo.... 144 

Repjo 196 

ReumgaeM» . . 144 
Remuufloor . . . 148 

ReDideo 12B 

Reor 128 

Reperio 152 

Repo 134 

Repudio 116 

Repoenico . . . 145 

Reseio 116 

Retalio 116 

Revivitoo .... 144 
Reviratoo .... 144 

Rideo 125 

Rigeo. 124 

Rigo 116 

Rimor 119 

Ringor 148 

Rizor 119 

Rodo 134 

Rogo 116 

Roto 116 

Robeo 124 

Rado 140 

Rugio 154 

Ruo 132 

Rumpo 132 

Rusticor 119 

Secrifioo 116 

Sqcio 116 

Sevio.... .... 152 

Sagino 116 

Sagio 154 

Salio 152 

Sollio 153 

Sallo 146 

Salto 116 

Salute 116 

Sancio 152 

Sano 116 

Sapio 146 

Sarcio 152 

Sarrio 152 

Satago 146 

Satio 116 

Satoro 116 

Saudo 116 

Scabo 132 

Scalpo 134 

8cando....... 132 

Scateo 128 

Scaturio 154 

Sdo 151 

Sdodo 140 

Scisco 143 

Sdantor 119 

Scitor 119 

Screo 116 

Scribo 134 

Scrutor 119 

ficulpo 134 

Seco 121 

Sectindo 116 

Ltn OF VBBB6* 

Sadeo 125 

Sedo 116 

Seneo 127 

Sentio 152 

Sepelio 156 

Sepio 152 

Sequor 146 

Sero 141 

Serpo 134 

Servio 151 

Servo 116 

Sibilo 116 

Sicoo 116 

Sido 132 

SigDO 116 

Sileo 124 

Simulo....... 116 

l^gultio 154 

Sino 141 

Sisto 141 

Sitio 152 

Socio 116 

Soleo 126 

Solor 119 

Solvo 132 

Somnio 116 

Sono 122 

Sopio 151 

Sorbeo 124 

Sordeo 124 

Sortior 154 

Spargo 134 

Spatior 119 

Spccto 116 

Speculor 119 

Sperao 141 

Spero 116 

Spiro 116 

SpoUo 116 

Splendeo 127 

SpoDdeo 125 

Spamo 116 

Spao 133 

Squaleo 124 

Statuo 133 

Stabilio 151 

SteriloKX» 145 

Sterno 141 

Stemuo 133 

^torto 138 

Stillo 116 

Stimulo 116 

.Stinguo 136 

Sapo 116 

Stipulor 119 

Sto 122 

Strepo 138 

Strideo 127 

Strido 133 

'Stringo 136 

Strio 116 

Struo 134 

Studeo 124 





Succenturio. . . 









Soppedilo .... 


















































26 Toauo ....... 154 

25. Tutor 120 

19 UlcMoor 149 

40 Umbro 116 

16 Ungo 136 

16 Urgeo 126 

43 Uro i:% 

53 Utor 149 

16 Uv60 1!» 

16 Uveaco 145 

36 Vaco 116 

34 Vado 134 

16 Vagio 153 

16 Vaeor 120 

36 Valeo 124 

19 Vapolo 117 

41 Vario 117 

16 Vasto 117 

25 Vegeo 128 

29 Veho 136 

39 Vellico 117 

16 Velio Ml 

16 Vendo 140 

36 Venio&Veiieolda 

34 Veneror 120 

16 Venor. 120 

39 Verbero 117 

27 Vereor 128 

45 Vergo 134 

16 Veirio 153 

24 Verio 133 

16 Versor 120 

26 Verto 133 

34 Vescor ,149 

41 Vesperaadt.... 149 

23 Veatigo 117 

19 Vestio 151 

38 Veto 122 

24 Vexo 117 

36 Vihro 117 

51 Video 125 

16 Vieo 127 

16 Vigeo 124 

41 VUeeco 144 

25 Vincio 153 

22 Vinca 133 

24 Vindemio 117 

27 Violo 117 

27 Vireo 124 

16 Viso 147 

40 Vino 117 

36 Viio 117 

38 Vivo ^. 136 

33 Vocileror. 120 

16 Voco 117 

16 Volo,-vis .138 

34 Volo,ftr© 117 

28 Volva 133 

24 Vomo ..«. . ..138 

39 Voio 117 

49 Vovoo 1?7 

16 Vulgo 117 

26 Vulneia 117 



§ ld4» The Irregular Verbs are, Sum, * I am ;' 
J?o, * I go ;' Q^eoJ ' I am able ;' Fo/o, * I am willing;' 
JPcro, ' I bear or suffer ;' Fio, ' I am made,' * I te- 
come ;' JErfo, * I eat,' and their compounds. 

SUM has already been conjugated. After the same nuuin«r are 
fbrtned its compounds.^ 

Proeom, to do good^ has a d where «urn begins with e. 
Prosum, prodesse, profui. 

Indicative Mode, 

P^ Pro-sani, prod-es, prod-est ; pro-stimus, prod-estis, &c 
Imip. Prod-Sram, prod-Sras, prod-erat ; prod-eramus, &c. 
Per. Pro-fui, pro-fuisti, pro-fuit ; pro-fhtmus, pro-fiiistis, d&c. 
Pi4J. Pro-fuSram, pro-fuSras, pro-fuerat ; pro-ftieramus, &c. 
FuT. Prod-€ro, prod-^ris, prod-Srit ; prod-erYmus, &c. 

Subjunctive Mode 

Pr. Pro-sim, pro-sis, pro-sit ; pro-simus, pro-sitis, pro-sint 

Imp. Prod-essem, prod-esses, prod-esset; prod-essSmus, &c. r 

Per. Pro-fu6rim, pro-fuSris, pro-fuerit ; pro-faerYmus, &c. 

Plu. Pro-fuissem, pro-fuisses, pro-fbisset ; pro-fuissemus, &c. 

For. Pro-fuSro, pro-fu€ris, pro-fu^rit ; pro-fuerlinus, &c. 

ImperiUive Mode, 

pR. 2. Prod-es or prod-esto, 2. Prod-este or prod-estOte, 

3. Prod-esto; 3. Pro-sunto. 

> Compounds of £rt(ifi>—A&fUffi, I am absent; Adgum^ I am present; Deirum, I 
am wanting; Intersum, I am present; Obtum, I am against, I hurt; Potntm^ I am 
able; PrtBgum, I am before, I preside over; Prosmn^ lavail, I do good; Svbtitmj I 
am under, I lurk ; Suvernan^ I am over and above, I survive ; and Jn«um, I am in, 
which wants the Perfect. Prosum takes d ailer joro, when the simple Verb begins 
with K ; as, Proiunh prade^, prodeue, dx. Compounds of Eo .* — AbeOt I depart ; 
AdeOf I approach ; AmeeOf 1 so before ; CoeVt I assemble, I meet ; Exeoy I go out ; 
IneOj I enter; hUireOi I perish, I die ; Introeo^ I come in ; Oheo, I am about, I man> 
age, I die ; PHreo^ I perish ; Pneeo, I go before ; PttBtireo, I pass by ; Prddeo, I go 
fwth ; jR&feo, I return; SiibeOt I go under; TVanMo, I pass over; VeneOt I am sold. 
Compound of Queo: — Ntqueo, I am unable. Compounds of Volo: — Nolo^ 1 am un> 
wining; MiUoy lam more willing. Compounds of Firo: — Ajfh-o, I bring; AnUi- 
firo, I prefer ; AufirOt I take away ; Circumfiro, I cany round ; Ccnfirot I contri- 
pate; Dlflro^ I convey ; DiffhVf I disperse ; Effiro^ I carry forth; InflSro^ I bring 
ia; Offh-Oy I ofler; Perfiro,i. carry through; Prcgfirot I prefer; Projtro» I bring 
ibrwufd ; JUfhv, I briiig back ; Suffifro, I take up, I endure. Compounds ofEdo: 
•^Adido, I devour; AmMdo, I eat around, I gnaw; Camido, I eat up; EsttdOt I 
consume ; Pirikioj I eat through. 


naa»vhAU yxkb»* 

Pb. Prod-esse. 
Pbr. Pio-fuiflse. 

Ir^nitive Mode, 

For. Esse pro-iutAnis, -a^ -iim. 
Fuiflse pro-fattkrus. 


TvT, Pro-futurus. 

§ 195« PoflBUM IS compounded of p9li$, able, and mm : and is 
thus conjugated : 

PoBBum,' posBe, pdtoi To be able. 

Indicative Mode, 

Pe. Possum, pdtes, pdtest; 

Imp. Potr^ram, -^ras, -Srat; 

Per. Pot-ui» «uistiy -uit; 

Plu. Pot-uSram, -uSras, -u^rat ; 

FuT. Potp^ro. -€ris, -€rit; 




potestis, posront, 
•eratis, -£rant 

-uistis. \ ""^'"^' 
' { or -uere. 

-ueratis, -u^rant 

-erltis, -^runt 

Subjunctive Mode, 

Pb. Pos-sim, -sis, -sit; 

Imp. Pos-sem, -ses, Hset; 

Per. Pot-udrim, -uSris -uSrit; 

Plv. Pot-uissem, -uisBes, -uisset; 

Firr. Pot-u^ro, -u^ris, -uSrit; 
















Pb. Posse. 

Infinitive Mode, 
Pee. Potuisse. 

The re$t wanting. 

Note: Po88um wanta the Fat Infiii. and hai no Gerands or Sapines. Patau 
is oooaidered as a mere A4jective, and not as a Participle. 

> Po88um is compoanded ofpctii and mtm. They sometimes occur separately* 
(Virg. iSn. in. 671. xi. 148. Ter. £un. il 2. 32. Aoelph. iv. 1. 5. Locr. i. 451. B. 
849. 911. IV. 7ia v. 71& Catoll. lxzi. 7. lxxv. 24. Varr. R R. ii. 2. Cic. Tusc. n. 
]6. Gell. six. 9, ^c.) and then potls is Masc. Fem. or NenL and Plur. as well as 
Sing. Cf. Plant Peen. i. 2. 17. We find the following fimns also:— Pciieew/iR, Plaut 
Pars. I. 1. 41. Potemel, LuciL ap. Non. t. 96. where some read Patin^- CC 
Ascon. in Divin. Verr. 13. Poftssum, Plaut Cure. v. 3. 23. Potaiemt es, iU Cic in 
Arat 304. Plant Bacch. iv. 5 2. Most ii. 2. 34. iv. 2. 6a Potestur, Lucr. in. 
1024. Ptouv. ap. Non. x. 34. cC Pier, ad Vire. JEa. viii. 402. PouShar, Cat R.. R. 
154. PossSeur, Claud. Quadriff. Ap. Non. X. 30. Potest, Lucr. i. 665. Ter.'Eun. 
IV. a 24. Chaiis. iii. p. 231. cites, PoteOe, pHlato, pdiettdte, pomaUo, but withoot^ 



Imp. Ibam, 
Per. Ivi, 
Plv. Iv^ram» 
Pot. Ibo, 

§ 196. EO,' ire, ivi, 

hidicative Mode, 


is, it; imus, itis, eunt 

ibas, ibat; ibaoras, ibatia, ifaant 

iviati, iyit; ivlmua, iviatia, iySrunt or iv£re. 

ivSras, ivSrat; iveramua, iveratia, iv^rant 

ibis, ibit; iblmus, ibYtis, ibunt 

Pe. Earn, 
Imp. Irem, 
Per. Iverim, 
Plu. Ivissem, 
Fur. Ivero, 

Subjunctive Mode, 

eas, eat; 

ires, iret ; 

ivSris, iygrit ; 

ivisses, ivisset; 

ivSris, ivSrit ; 

















In^erative Made. 


If\fimHve Mode* 


Pr. Ire. 

litote,"^*^- P«.IvisBe. 

Fur. Esse itunis, -a, -um. 
Fuiase iturus, -a, -am. 


Pr. lens. Gen, emitis. 
Firr. Iturus, -a, -um. 



Eundo, &C. 

The oompouiidB of £o are ocxungated after tiie nme maimer; ^, ^ ear-, e2^, 
y»-, tfiler-, ofr-, r&{-, «Sft-, pltr-, priB-y ante-, prdd^eo f only in the perfect» and the 
tenaee Ibnned fiom it, they are usually contracted; thuB, Adea» aan, aekkm a^m, 
adUum, adirey to go to ; perf. Adii, adiuHy or adUtiy &c. adiiramy adUrimy &c. So 

likewise venso tvnti, ^ to be sold, compounded of venvm and eo.) But ambio, 

'Wiy •itam, -ire, to surround, is a regular verb of the fourth conjugation. 

* Of this Verb the Infinitive Fusive In occurs frequently joined with the Perfect 
■Participle Passive of other verbs. We also find the Imporsonals, Ilur, tS&Xy IteCair, 
«•etar, i&tt»r, iTiim, est, §rc» Virg. Ssi. vi. 179. Plant True. in. 1. 81. Senec. Med. 
46(X Cic. Att II. 1. Exmdu» occurs in Claud. Eatrop. n. 419. luany Itse, Cic 
Phil. XII. 12. Verr. in. 44. and in Ovid. Propert Stat Sil. passim. I$Gs, Lncan. 
VII. 834. Jbm, tes, itt, Cic. Agr. ii. 25. Cf. Tibull. i. 4. 23. Senec Benef. ii. 1. 
Apol. Met vi. p. 122. Most of the Compounds of Eo make n in die Perfect, rather 
than hn. Adeo, IneOy PratereOy SvieOy TVoniwo, being used transitively, are found 
m the Passive. Cic. Q. Fr. i. 2. 5. Ofiic. 1. 19. Ce». B. G. vii. 9. Cic. Tusc. v. 19. 
Manil. iv. 396. Juv. zvi. 2. Ambio is ocmjugated regularly like Avdio, Veneo, 
vsmt is conjugated like Eo ; vet we find Vemet, Muzator. p. 1311. n. n. 2. Vlaear, 
kid VmeOtur, Diomed. i. p. 365. YhuiMM, Sedul. Hymn. i. 21. YiiHtum, (^U|iiiia) 
X. p. 907. 




Eo, like other neater, verl», n often rendered in English under a panre fbrtk 
thus, tC he is going ; wit, he is gone ;^ ^virat, be wss gone; tvjsrit, he may be gone, 
or shall be gone. So, vhnt^ he is eoniing ; vhtitf he has eone ; teniratt he was 
come, &€» In the pasnve voice these verbs finr the most part are <Hily useid imper- 
sonally ; as, ilitr ab illo^ he is (roing; vewUtm em. ab UUs, tney avs come. We find 
some of the compoands of eo, nowever, used personally ; as, pericUla adeuniur, are 
undeigone. Cic. LUtri dbj^Gni adUi sanf, were looked inta Liv. Fkmen ped^- 
bui tranmi p04$U Cips; InimicUuB mibeaatur. Cic 

QUEOt I can, and NEQUEO,^ I cannot, are conjugated the same way as eo ; 
only they want the imperative and the gerunds; and the participles ana seidqn 

§ 197« VOLO* velle» vdluL To wiU, or to be witting. 

Indicative Mode^ 

Pb. 7&I-0» visy vult; Toltimus, Toltis, volunt 

iMjf, Yol-^baro, -dbas, -ebat; -eb&mua, -ebatisa -^bont 

Per. Vol-ui, -uisti, -tiit; -utmus, -uistis, -airontor-ndre. 

Plu. Vol-u€ram, -uSms, -uSrat; -aeramus, -aeratis, -uSrant 

For. Vol-AiD» -eoy -et; -emus, -dlia, •■•■^ 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pe. VeliiD, veliir Telit; 

Imp. Vellexn, vellea, yellet; 

Pmu Vol-u€rim, -u^ris, -uSrit; 

Plv. Vol-nissem, -uisses, -uisset; 

FuT. Vol-n^ro, -n^ris, -u^rit; 






▼elitic^ Telint 

▼elletu^ vellent 

-uerYtis, -uSrint 

-uissetis, -uissent 

-nexltis, -uerint. 

Infinitive Mode, 
Pr. Vf^Ie. Ptt. YoIuiM. 

Tbe resi not used. 

pR. VoleiMb 

> Of Queo and Nequeo these forms occur: Quti, Priscian, x. p. 905. 907. QuiiU 
Accius ap. Macrob. vi. 1. QuimiSt Juvenc Hist £v. ii. 679. Qtasamt, Auson. 
Epij^r. oxxxiz. 7. Quisae, Lucr. v. 1421. Qtctens, ApuL Met vt 113. ix. 906. 
QftUur^Cmdil. ap. Diomed, i. p. 380. Quiiu», Id. ibid. Apul. ApoL pi 408. Terent 
He(^r. IV. 1. 57. Qveim^r, Cadi, api Diomed. i. p. 380. Qiiatftir, Luer. 1. 10431 
Queaatwt, Plant Pen. u. 2. 18. QMHrtum, (Supine) Priscian, ix. p. 867. NiquistenL 
liQor. IV. 1S48. Sallust Jug. c. la NeqmJtwf, Sallust, Jug. c. 34. Plaut Rud. iv. 
4 90. iVsgitttett, Pacuv« ap. Fest. et Cato ibid. ArauUus, Caper Priscian. x. p^ 
699L Npgmens^ SqUubC, Fiagm. ApuL Met vut p^ VSH Auson. Prof, it snb^ fitt. 
Aramian. zv. 10. 

s VU, mUttwUfg, oE, as th^ w«re anciently wiitteB, «elr, vdUU^ (Auson. Effigik 
xxxnt Tar. Andt. v. a 1. Pkiit Most in. S. 6a 71. Novins a|i. Non. z. l^m^ 
•w^iwmmfftiflBs.of a»ft>, viSm. MUi». la LadL Hb» 4z.vtt. ay^ Nob. m. 89. m4 

Plaut Aain. 1 2. 96. we find V^Slam lor v&inu 

nsaouLAa vbbm. 


§ 198« NOLO/ ndle, noIuL To be unwiUing. 

Pb. Nolo, non-vis, 

IifP. Nol-eb^un» -ebas, 

Psft. Nol-ui, -uisti, 

Plu. Nol-uSram, -uSras, 
FuT. Nolam, noles, 

Indicative Mode. 

ncm-vult; oolttmiu, iioooyii1U% noluat 

-ebat; -Qbamos, <^tettf, -dbant 

w • A* i -uerunt 

-uit; -ulmus, .uietis. J or-uere. 

•u^rat; -uetamus, -uer&tis, -uSrant 

nolet; -nolemus, Hioletisp -polent 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Nolim, nolis, 
Imp. Nollem, noUes, 
Piou Nol-uSrim, -ugris, 
Plu. Nol-uissem, -uisses, 
Put. Nol-u6ro, -uSris, 









-uSrit ; 













2. fifing-. 2. Plur. 

p J Noli or J nollte or 

^^ ( Nolito. ( nolitote. 


Pb. Nolle. 
Per. Noluisse. 


Pr. Nolens. 

The rest wanting. 

§ 19!9ii MALO,' roalle, malui. To be more willing. 

Indicative Mode* 

Pr. Mal-o, mavis, mavult; 

Imp. Mal-^bam, -ebos, -ebat; 

Per. Mal-ui, -nisti, -uit; 

Plu. Mal-uSram, -u^ras, -u8rat; 

FuT. Mal-am, -es, -et; Sac. 

maltimus, mavultis, malant 
-ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant 

-utmus, -utstis, j '^l^^^e^ 

-ueramtis, -ueratis, -u€rant 
This is scarcely in use. 

^Nolo is a oontniction of non volo. For ndntna "we find neviSt Plaut Trin. v. 2, 
33. Most. III. 2. 75. ibr nontmU, nevciU, Flaut. Most i. 2. 29. . NoUts for nonvuiUUt 
Lucil. ap. DiodiMi. x. p. 381. Putsch. 

s Malo is a eoDtmction of mUgU, or m&gi tHOo. Of this Verb we find tho follow* 
ii^ twins : Mtlv(^ Plaat Asin. v. 1. 8. ^n. i. 8. 90. mfivofef , Asin. 1. 1. 106. mA^ 
immd^ Nasv. ap. Pest in *Staprum;* m&vifluit, Petran. Fraffm. mSvUim, Plant 
Trac. IV. 2. 29. mSvUMt, Capt ii. 2: 90. I^tid. i. 2. 8. mSvm, Trin. u. 2. 25. mA- 
vdlem, Plaut Mil ii. 2. 16. Amph. 1. 3. 14. Pwud. 1. 1. 12a 



Subjunctive Mode. 

Pe Malim, mails, malit; malimus, malitu^ malint 

Imp. Maliem, malles, mallet; mallemus, malletis, mallent 

Pkb. Mal-uSrim, -u^ris, -uSrit; -aertmua, -uerYtis, -ugrint 

Plu. Mal-aiasem, »Qi8se8, •nisaet; -uissemas» •uiBsetia, -uiasent 

FuT. Mal-ndro, -uSris, -udrit; -ueilmus, -uerYtis, -udrint 

Pb. Malle. 

Infinitive Mode, 
Per. Maluisse. The rest not used. 

§ 300« FERO, ferre, ttili, latum. To carry, to bring, or n^er. 


Indicative Mode. 

Pr. P«ro, 
Imp. Fer-^bam» 
Per. Tuli, 
Plu. Tul-£ram^ 
Firr. Feram, 

fers, fert ; 
-ebas, -dbat ; 
tulisti, tulit; 
-^ras, -Srat ; 
feres, feret ; 

ferlmus, fertis, fenmt 

-ebamus, -ebfttis, -ebaat. 

tullmus, tulistis, tul6runt or -ere. 

•erdmus, -eratis, -^rant 

feremus, feretis, ferent 

Pr. Feram, 
Imp. Ferrem, 
Per. Tul-€rim, 
Plv. Tul-issem, 
FuT. Tal-«ro, 

Subjunctive Mode. 

feras, ferat; ferfimus, ieratis, ferant 

ferres, ferret; ferrSmus, ferretis, ferrent. 

-Sris, -grit; -ertmus, -erYtis, -Srint 

-isses, «isset; «issdmus, -issetis, -issent. 

-eris, -grit; -ertmus, -erltis, -grint. 

Imperative Mode. Irifinttive Mode. 

t>- Fe^ fi»»f«. 5f®rte, |.^,^.^ Pr. Ferre. 
P*- Fertp,^^'*«5 Kertdte,^^"^^- Per. Tulisse. 

Fur. Esse laturus, -a, -urn. 
Fuisse laturus, -a, -um. 


Pr. Fgrens. 

FvT. Lattirus, -a, -um. 


Ferendo, dic« 


1, Latum» 
% L&tu. 



F£tor, ferri, latns. To be brought 
Indicative Mode, 

Pa. F8rer, i^feJi©, |fertar; ferbrar, ferimfar, lerantnr. 

Imp. Ker-ebar, S^V^re |'eb2ttar;-«bft]&iir, -ebSmXiaifi-ebantiir. 

PKr. Latos gumi &e. latos fiii, Ae* 
Fw» LbUis eaun» ^cc latus ioSranv ^(se. 

Fr. Ferar. 
Ihp. Ferrer. 

Subjunctive Mode, 
or'^&re v^i^tor; ferftmori iunaStm, feiBntiir. 
orfe^re ' ^erretar ; ferrSmur, fenemlbi, fenentor. 

Per. Latua aim, &c. latua fUSrim, &C. 
Plu. Latua eaaem, &e. latua faiaaem, &c. 
Fur. Latua fuero, &c 

Lnpertaive Mode^ 
pR. Ferre or fertor, ftrtor; ferinYni» fesimfitfv 

/Ti/fnittve Mode, Participies, 

Pr. FeiTL Per. Latns, -a, -unk 

Per! Esse or fuisse latus, -a, -um. Fur. Feiendus, -a,^ -uiDr 

In^ like nmnner ore conjanted the Compnnde ef y^ ,* aa. a|^^afeitl», aUMun ; 
aufirot ahs^^ ahUUum ; d^re, dutSli, dUstum ; conflrth caniuU, coOHtuM t inf^^i^ 
ititvU, UUtium; qfflSro, obtuli, Muttm} effSrot exlvk dstum. So, ciratm^ pert 
tran»-t de-, pro-t ante-, pro-, refgro. In aome writera we find adfiim, ad^i, adUl^ 
tarn i cmdatum ; inlatum ; obftrOt ^* fi>r c^fhro, &e. 


Ofae. 1. Most part, of the above verbs are made irregular by contvactioB. Thosr 
nolo is contracted for non voLo ; nudo for moffis volo ; j^o, fer$t firt, &Ci for fenM^ 
ferk, &c Ferror, /erri» or ferre, ftftur, for ferrh-is, 4c. 

Obs. % The imperati^res of dicoy duco^ and filcio, are contracted in the aame- 
maniier with fer: thua we aay. die, due, fac; inatead of dice, duce, fUce, But 
tiMta eSbeok oorac iik«wiae in the rsgnlttr fimsi. 


§ 201« FIO,^ fiSri, (actus. To he made or done^ to become. 

Indicative Mode» 

Pb. Fio, fis, fit; fimnsy fitis, fiunt 

Imp. Fiebam, fiebas, fiebat; fiebamus, fiebatis, fiebant 

Pbb. Factus sum, &c. factua fui, &c. 

Flu. Factus eram, &c. fiictus fuSram, &g. 

Fur. Fiam, fies, fiet; fiemus, fietis, fient 

Svbjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Fiam, fias, fiat; fiamus, fiatis, fiaot 

Imp. FiSrem, fibres, fieret ; fieremus, « fieretis, fi^reat» 
Per. Factus sim, &c. fiictus fu^rim, &c. 
Plu. Factus essem, &c. factus fiiissem, &c. 
Fur. Factus fii^ro, &c. 

Imperative Mode, Infinitive Mode, 

l^- <Fi, !.#«. Jfite, fi„_^ Ph. Fieri. 

"• iFito,'*"'- i fitote, ""^'"- Per. Ease or fuiro factuB, -a, -urn. < 

Fur. Factamih. 

Participles, Supine, 

Pbb. Factus, -a, -um. Factu. 

Fur. Faciendus, -a, -um. 

Note.-— The Compoiuidfl of f&cio which retain a, have also /o in the paauve, 
and fac in the imperetiTe active ; as, calefacio, too warm^cafe^o, ocd^ifac: but those 
whi<m change a into i form the passive regularly, and haveyice in the imperative ; 
as, confido, confjce ; confiaori conftci, confectus. We find, however, confit^ it is 
done, and coi^irii de/Ut it is wanting ; inJU, he begins. 

§ 303* Edo,' dd^rS, edi, or esse, esiis, eat. 

Infinitive Mode, 

PretenL EdSre, or esse. Past. £dis8e. 

Future. Esorus, or Ssurum esse. 

.' 1 V^ietar^ the Passive of F&do^ very rarely oocun ia the classics. Fio was used 
in its stead. Fd&Uurf however, is read Nigid. ap. Non. x. 19. FUdStur, Petron. 
iSag. Priscian. vin. p. 101. Putsch. The Indicatives, 1^^«, FlmtM, and die Impe- 
ratives, Fi, Fito, JPtte, FUote, rarely occur. Fis is read in Hor. ii. £p. 2.211. 
JPtffitts, ArnoD. ii. p. 53. and in some edd. of Terent Heaut iii. 1. 74. ubi. al. 
Sumus. Fh Hor. ii. Sat 5. 38. Plaut Cure, t* 87. Fito, 2d Pars. Cato ap. Non* 
VII. 62. FUe, Plaut Cure. i. 1. 89. FUole, Cato. Crassus, liv. in Odyss. ap. Non. 
1. c. Of FUis no trace can be found. Fiens occurs oid^^ in Diomed. i. pp. 3521 
. 177. Fifur, Cato ap. Priscian. viii. )>. 789. Fiibantur, id. ibid. FUum est, Liv. 
in Odyss. ap. Non. 1. c. — Fio is sometimes used impersonally : FUt it happens ; Flh 
"bat, it happened, &c. 

* Edo is a regular Verb of the third Comumtion ; but in the Inllnitivv and ifr* 
perative Modes, in the Present-imperfect Indicative, and the Imperfect Sabjuno- 



Indicative Mode, 

Pret, Edo, 8dliii» or fii, &]Tt, or eat; SdYmiis, 

imp. Ed-^bam, -Sbis, -ib&t; -ebftmii% 

Peif. £d-i, -iati, -Yt; -Ymiis, 

P2u;>. Ed-Sram, •Srfta» •^r&t; 4SAinui, 

Ful Ed-oin, -^ -«t; -«miia, 

SdYtXb, or ettb, Sdnnt 
•ibUXi. 4bant 


•eAtiEi, 4Sranl. 

•§t)b, -ent 


Subjunctive Mode. 















ilRp. « 

? or 






















• _ 












Imperative Mode, 


No Srai permm. 

2l £de,eil¥tD, or fii^Mto, 

a *£d&t, edrto, or cito. 


1. ^Edlmiis, 

2. EdYte, edYtute, or «le. estute, 

3. *£dant edcmto. 




FuL in -RUS, Eaurus. 
Put in 'DVS, Edendus. 


Gea. Eden-di, 

Dot 4r ^N* Eden-do» 
NouL ^Acc Edendum. 


PortneTf Enun* 
LaUeTt Esu. 

tive, it assumes other forms, as if fiom the Verb Sum. Eam^ Cic. Nat Deor. ii. 3. 
£$te, * to be eaten/ Piaat Most iv. 2. 42. Es, Plant Cas. ii. 3. S2. Est, Hor. it 
Sat 2. 57. t Epist 2. 39. Viig. JEn. iv. 66. v. 683. Etfes, Val. Max. iv. 3. Esaet, 
Viig. Georg. 1. 151. Euemus, Terent Eon. iii. 4. 2. Eato, Cato R. R. 156. £cte. 
Plant Most 1. 1. 61. Etui, Gell. iz. 6. Eauru», Ovid. Heroid. Epist ix. 37. Eden», 
Ovid. Met ii. 76a Edendu», Cic. de Amic. 69. Ovid. Heroid. Epist i. 95. E»um^ 
Plant Sdch. i. 3. 29. E»u, Plant Paeud. iii. 2. 35. Ealum, Priscian x. p. 893L 
These ferms also occur : £sks «urn. * I have eaten,' Solin. 17— SP7. Edimf is, it, far 
Edam, at, a/, Plant Anl. iii. 2. 16. Pceo. iii. 1. 34. iv. 2. 45. Capt iii. 1. 1. EdUi» 
hr Ed&ti», Cecil. Nov. and Pompon, ap. Non. ii. 114. x. 18. Cf. Virg. JEn. xii. 801. 
Hor. Epod. III. 3. Comidim, m, U, Cic Fam. ix. 20. Plant Cure iv. 4. 4. Eairimf 
ftr Edirim. Apul. Met ivj). 152. 32. E»tur, Sen. de Ira, in. 15. Cels. v. 97. 3. 
Ovid. ex. Pmt 1. 1. 69. Fmut Poen. iv. 2. 13. — Of the quantitv of E» no proof can 
be fbond. It would therefiire be better to follow Servius, voSsios, Alvarez, and 
oAbbi who suppose it long, than protioance it short with some later grammarians. ' 

168 MBFScrivx v»wi# 



To irregular yerbe may properly be sabjoioed wliat are conunonl^ 
caHed Neuter Passitb Verbs, which, like JEo, form the preterite tenaeis 
according to the paaeive voice, and the rest in the active. These are, 
tdleo^ BoJere, solUuSt to use ; audeo, audere, ausuSf to dare ; gaudeOf 
gaudere, gavistts, to rejoice; J%do,-Jidire,ftsu8, to trust So, confido^ 
to trust ; and difftdo, to distrust ; which also have cowftdi, and dtffidi. 
Some add iTuereo, nuBrere, frussttu, to be sad ; but fntestus is general- 
ly reckoned an adjective. We likewise eajjuratut sum and candlus 
sum, fist jurdvi ajid ccendvt, but these may also be taken in a paasife 

To these may be referred verbs wholly active in their termination, 
and passive in their signification ; as, vaptdo, "dvi, -atom, to be 'beaten 
or whipped ; vmeo^ to be sold ; exuht to be banisfaed, &c. 


Defective Verbs are those of which several 
Tenses and Persons are not found in the ancient 
classics. The verbs usually so called are, 1. Aio^ 
' I say ;' 2. Inquio^ ' 1 say ;' 3. Fari^ ' to speak ;* 
4. Apdge^ ' begone ;' 5, Ave^ ' hail ;' 6. Salve^ * hail;' 
7, Ausim^ * I dare ;' 8. Cedo^ * give me, tell me ;' 
9, Confit^ * it is done ;' 10. Defit^ * it is wanting ;' 
11. Infit^ *he begins;' 12. Ot?a/, *he rejoices;' 
13. QijUBsoy * I pray ;' 14. Faxo^ * I will take care ;' 
1 5. Orft, * I hate ;' Memvni^ * I remember ;' C«pi, 
* I have begun ;' 16. Forem, * I should be,' 

/ § 305« Ind. PreB. Sing. Au>. FUmt Capt. 1. 1. 3. Aia, Hor. ii. Sat 7. (FL 
Ait, Terent Andr, v. 4. 4. Plur. AiutU, Terent Andr. ii. 1. 21.— Imp. Sing. Aiebam, 
Hor. I. Sat. ix. 12. Aiebasy Plant Men. iii. 3, 9. Atebat, Cic Verr. iii. 18. Plur. 
YAi^Snuu, Diomed. p. 371. Putsch.] AiebatU, Plant Capt iii. 5. la AiUtant, 
Sallust Cat c. 49. {Aibant, AcciuB ap. Priscian. x. p. 906.}--Perf: Sing. [Ai Prob. 
Gram. p. 1482. AisH, idem. ibid, et Aueustin. Epist 54. et 174. Ait, Etob. ibid. 
Pliir. AitUs, Gnmm. Aierunt, Tertul. ae Fug. in Persec. c. 6.] 

Sum. "Pre». Sing. Aia$j Plant Rud. ir. 4. 14. Aiatt Cic. de Fin. ii. 82. Plar. 
[AiUmuSt IViflcian. 1. 1.] Aiani, Apnl. Apol. p. 448. 

Imterat. At, Nev. ih>> Priscion. z< p^ 906. et Plant True v. 49. 

fIrticip. Aiens, Cic. Top. c. 11. et Apul. Met vi. p. 118. 

The Infinitive AUre, occnn in St AugiMlin, de Trinlt ix.'ia ^AM, do ymi -ww 
lol Plant Amph. 1 1. 168. Apul. Met l p. 6. The endenis wMte, Axw, ms, mU 
See Quintil. i. 4. Von. Etym. Lat p. 132. and AnaL in. p. 140. 

h 300# Inb^ Ptm- Sinf* ^i^mfli Cttul. x. S7. or laoiMii, Cic. Phil. ii. 44. 
/a^Hor.¥.47a Bimit, Neppi Aloib. c ^ ^ifulpiM, flflci. Sat 3l66. J». 
^i4ter, Anuibi. u. p. 44. inquiunt, Cic. Verr. vi. 14.— Imp. Sing, hmtiibat, «L ib- 
>^i&i/, Cic. Top- 12. Pltir. [Inqwbant, Grammatici.}— Fut Sin^. Inquieg, CltuU. 
XXIV. 7. InquuU Cic. Verr. iv. 1&— Perf. Sing. Zn^tcti, Cic. de Orat IL 64. 
•^tquit, Cio. pro Cluent. o. 34. 

SuBJ. Pros. Sing. Inguiat, Auct. «d Heren. iv. 3. 

Iwf^AT. Sji;^ /naaa^ T^ivat, ^QVlt. IV. 7. 1. /imvX&i, Plant AuluL iv. la $a 

Paaticif. llnquiau, GianmiaticL] 

Piqviot acooidiw to niuiazi, iil). x. is of the tbiid Coot, bat «ocoiding to Dio- 
nod. I. pw 975. or the iburth. InquiU occuis in ■ome edd. of OatulL' x. 14. aad 
InqtHi ioid. vs. 27. InauU and Inquam are of frequent occurrence!. Vid. Vom. 
fitym. Lat p. 133. and Anal. iii. 4a 

^207olilFZN. ii^lri Hoiat IV. Od. 6. 3& i^lirur, Viig. .£n. zt SO. 

Indic Prea. Sing. Fitur, he ipeaks» VaL Flaa iii. 61fi. Viig. iEn. i. 131. at 
paamm. FatuTt is spoken, Saeton. ap. Pnscian. viii. p. 793^— Fut Fdhor, Piqpfrt 
IV. 4. 1. FalUhtTt Cell. xv. 6. 

SuBj. Imp. Fdrer, St August Con£ i. 8. 

lnnBtAT. Fdre, Viig. .£n. v. 389. et passim. FBrnltno» Cato R. R. c 141. 

Pakticip. F^res. Fans, Plant Pers. u. 1. 7. Propert lu. d. 19.— P«)r£ FMif^ Viig. 
JBn. n. fl^ et passim.— Flit in -dus, FkmduSf Piicuv. ap^ Cic de Divm. t ol. 

Gkrunim. Fandi, Virg. JEn. x. 225. et passim. Fando, in or bjr speahiagf Stat. 
Theb^ L 655. Fando, hy report by heanay, Cic. Nat Deor. i. 29. 

SupiNS: Fstih Virg. Mn. xii. 25. 

For and F&ri* do not occur in the classics» although citad- by Diome4* t 9- 375. 
and by Priscian. vm. p. 791. Neidier does, Dor, nor the Subjunctives Jf^, XW. 
Similariy defective are the Compounds Afiri^ Bfarit Profitru 

^ 208a Impbrat. Sing, and Plur. -^a^S, is oomridered by sane as an 
Intenection. Apdgite is found in Oodeoiorpls ed. of Apul. Met i. p. 13. Elinanh. 
also m Cio. Fam. v. 10. Terent Kon. v. % 65. Plaut Cat. ii. & M. Amph. u. 1. 82. 
Where the best Mss. and most edd. have Ap&gi tt. See Faooltii^ Ltt., Lex> 

§ 309e Infin. AvSre, Martial, 1 109. m. ft. 

Impekat. Sing. Ave, Marlial, iii. 95. et passim. AvUo, Sallust Cat c. 35. Plnr. 
4^i, Gnit Imer. p. 735. n. 6^ SoeliNi. Cland. a. 21. 

The Eton and other grammars add Avetote for which there is no authorito'. 
Some write HUve, hHvere, &c. Qnindl. Inst i. 6. finds fault with many leamea 
inenof his day for writing and s^yinff ApUe, with the seooqd «yUahle4oos, in place 
otHdviUf wUh an aspiration and the second syll. short— The Verb Aveo, I cove^ 
is complete. 

^ 310e biFiN. SaMrtf Plaut Rod. i. 5. & Petron. a 9a 

Inix Fut Salvebi» (for Salve) Cic. Att vi. 2. 

Imfk&at. Sing. SalioCf Viig. Gea n. 173. JEjx. xi. 97. et wmxfi, i^kMfo, Fbat 
^ud. II. 4. a Men. v. 9. 17. Plur. SnLvHe, Plaut Trin. lu. 2. 39. 

■ iSalim) is homorously put in the mouth of a olown by Plautos^ Tme. B. S. 4. 7b 
«|# P«footivei Aw and Saioe, some add Vm, MUe, vHUbis» mmi Iwt th«ae 
Gome from Y^Uo^ I am well. 


§ 21 !• SuBj. PreB. Sing. Awim, Vii*g. Eel. iii. 33. et penim; Aum, Fetft 
et Lactant de Pass. Dom. vs. 66. where some read AusHris ; Ausit, Stat Theb. zii. 
101. Achil. I. 544. Plur. Ausint, Stat Theb. xi. 126. See Voss. de Anal, m, 
41. p. 124. 

§ 21 2« Impebat. Sing. C&2o,Cic. de Orat c. 86. et passim. Plur. CeUe, 
Plant Merc. v. 4. 4. £nn. ap. Non. ii. 122. Accius, ibid. 

Cido is used in the Plur. Cic. Senect c. 6. Cette is a contraction of CidUe, 
which last some cite from the Fragm. of Plantus, p. 1216. ed. Granov., but it is very 

§ 2 1 3« INFIN. Confttri, Caes. R G. vii. 58. 

Indic Pres. Sing. Canfit, Lucr. iv. 292. Terent Adelph. v. & 23. Plur. Con^ 
fhtnt, Amob. vi. p. 219. — ^Fut Sing. Conf'tett Lucr. iii. 413. 

SuBJ. Pres. Sing. Confuit, Colum. i. a Imp. Sing. ConfUlhret, Uv. v. 50. Cici 
ad Att XX. & VIII. 15. liv. v. 50. Plur. ConfiiSrent, Amob. ii. p. 73. 

§ 214« Infin. Defihi, Terent Hecyr. v. 2. 1. liv. ix. 11. - 

Indic. IVes. Sing. D^t^ Virg. Eel. ii. 22. et passim ; Plur. Difiunt, GelL xz. & 
— ^Fut Sing. Defietf liv. iic 11. ubi al. Difidet. 

SuBJ. Pres. Sing. Dtfiat, Plant Men. i. 4. 3. Rud. iv. 4. 63. 

§ 21 5« Indic. Pres. Sing. InjUt Virg. i£n. v. 708. Lucr. iii. 516. et passim; 
Plur. InfmnJL Mart Capell. ii. in fin. 

InftOt Yarr. ap. Priscian. vui. p^ 818. ' Infet ap^aii i. e. incipe/ in Gioasis. Some 
to these add ExpticUf it is finished. 

§ 210« Indic. Pres. Sing. [Ovas, Grammatici J Owl, VaL Flac. u.506i. iv. 
342. Virg. iEn. z. 500. 

SuBJ. Pres. Sing. Ovef» Stat Sylv. iv. 1. 8. — Past-imp. Sing. Ovaret, Gell. vi. 7. 

Partictf. Ovaris, Liv. v. 31. Cic. de Orat c. 47. et passim. Ovalus» PersiuB, 
IL 55. OvaturuSt Solin. cap. 45 — 57. 

GsBUND. Ovandi, Sueton, Claud, a 1. GelL v. 6. 5. 
§ 21 7« Infin. QucBsire, Plaut^^acch. ii. 2. 1. 

iNDia Pres. ^ng. Quaaot Terent Eun. iii. 2. 13. QiuBtitt Lucr. v. 1229. Plur. 
Q^(esumu8f SiL xvi. 250. et passim. 

Impxiut. QiuBse, Plant ap. Non. i. 213. iv. 39. 

Particip. QwBsenSt Apul. Met iv. p. 70. Elmenh. 

QiuBASt given in some erammars, does not occur in the classics. QnuBn, Pei£ 
Priscian, x. p. 505. ed. Krehl. Qtueswit, Sallust ap. Priscian. ibid, who says that 
QiuB»ivi is a perfect common to Qiubm and Quobto, 

§ 21 8« Indic. Fut Sing. Faxo, for fUciamt or/ec^o, Virg. JEn. ix. 158. et 

SuBJ. Per£ Sing. /Vunm, fat fedtrimt Plant Amph. i. 3. 13. et passim; Faxisr 
Terent Andr. iv. 4. 14. Faxity Cic. de Leg. ii. & FaanmuB, Plaut True; x. 1. 4a 
Plur. FaxitiSf Liv. xxix. 27. Faxint, Terent Heaut l 1. 9. et passim. — Imp. fkran, 
lor f&ciremt or /ectssem, Plant Bieud. i. 5. 84. 

9 219« These three, Odi^ CcBpi, and MhtCtnU are only used in the preterite 
tenses ; and therefore are called Preteritvoe Veria ; though they have sometimes 
likewise a present signification; thus, 

Odiy 1 hate, or have hated, odhumt odltrtnit odistem, odh'O, odisse. Participles, 
otus, 09uru8 ; exoaus, perosus. 



Ca^t I begin, or have begun, oaspfrom, -^'flt, ^aaem, -fro, -dsm. Sapioe^ oaqpAc. 
Pluticiples, oapUiS, coBpturu». 

MhnShth I remember, or have remembered, memin^ram, •Aim, -«»011, -fro, -iMe. 
Ihiperative, mementOy mementole. 

Instead of odi^ we sometimes say, osim mm : and always exonu, peronts turn, 
and not exddit peindi. We say, opus caepit JiXru or casptum esL 

The following Ibnns also occur: Odio, C. Gracch. ap. Fest Odivit, Cic. PhiL 
XIII. 19. OdiiU Tertul. de An. c. 10. Odies, Tertul. adv. Marc iv. 35. Omis 
man, Plaut Amph. iii. % 19. Gell. iv. 18. Osuntt, Cic. de Amic. c. 16. Odiendif 
Apol. de D. Plat iii. p. 631. Odieru, Petron. c. 132. Odientes^ Tertul. adv. Marc. 
IV. 16. Oderem et Oaere, infin. Charis. (ii. p. 228. Oiifur, Tertul. Apol. ni. in fin. 
Odiremur, Hienmym. £pist 43. — Ccepio^ Plaut Men. v. 5. 57. Cceptam, Cato a^ 
Fest CospHtf, Plant True. 11. 1. 23. Caspirety Terent An. ni. 3. 43. edd. Rivii, 
Faem. et Bothe; sic. codd. Bentl. Boecl. et Donat et Priscian. z. p. 879. Oepirit 
ai Ccepere, Plaut Peis. i. 3. 41. Coeptus ett^ Ca». B. G. iv. 18. CkBpturuSy Qumtil. 

X. 1. Plin. N. H. XVI. 25. Cf. Cscil. ap. Non. 11. 159^— itf^)fiiMt, Liv. apu Pxiscian. 

XI. p. 922. Auson. Prof, it 4. Sidon. it 10. ad. fin. iv. 12. vt 3. vit 6. 

Some to the D^ecdve Verht add JVovt, I know ; but this is the Perfect of No»cOt 
I am learning. ^ Voss. Anal. iii. 39. 

% 2].0ia Forem, ea, et, — ent, sab. imp. 'I should be ;' and Forct \sd, 
to be hereafter,' same as fiUnrum esse. 


A veib is called Jimpencmd, which has only the terminations of the third penon 
singular, but does not admit any person or nominative befSiife it 

Impersonal verbs, in English, have beibre them the neuter p rono u n if, which is 
not ccmsidered as a person ; thus, dUectat^ it delights ; dhxt, it neoHnes ; contingit, 
it happens ; evhUty it happens. 

1st Conj. 2d Coi^. 

lai. Peu Delectat, Deeet, 

Imp. Delecttbat, Decfibat, 

Pxx. Delect&vit Decuit, 

Plu. Delectaverat, Decuerat 

FuT. Delect&bit Decebit 

dd Conj, 












Sub. Pr. Delectet, Deceat 

Imp. Delecttret Deceret, 

Per. Delectaverit, Decuerit, 

Plu. Delectaviaset, Decuisset, 

FuT. Delectaverit Decuerit 











In€ Ps. Delect&re. 
Pkk. Delectavine. 




Most Latin verbs may be need impersonally in the passive voice, especially 
Neuter and Intransitive verbs, which otherwise have no passive ; as, pugnatur, 
fitofim', ciuTttur, eteifur; from pugjuk to fight; /im», to favour; curro, to run; 
venio, to come. 

Ind. Pit Pugn&tnr, 
Imp. Pugnabfitur, 
Pkr. Pugn&tum est, 
Plu. Pugnatum eiat, 
Fur. PugnabTtur. 

Fautum est, 
Fautum erat, 

Cursum est, 
Curium ent, 

Ventum est, 
Ventum erat, 

Vjtt itBl»VltD&l«lr VBRB8. 

Bob. Ffe. FvtgtOtm, r«v«ittnr, Cairfttur, VMiittlt^. , 

Ikp. Pc^naretur, Faveretur, CarrerStur, Venirfitor, 

Fek. PagnUum ait, Fautum at, Canum sit, Ventum ai^ 

Plu. Pugnatum easet, Fautum easet, CuiMim earat, Ventum enef. 

Fur. Pugn&tum fuerit Fautum fiierit Cunuro fueiit Ventum fueht 

Inf. Pr. Ptigniri. Favfti. Curri. Veniii 

Pbr. Pugn&tum esM. Fautum eiie. CnnumeMe. Ventum etie. 

Fur. Pugn&tum ill Fautum iii. Cunumiri. Ventum in. 

Oba. 1. Iroperaonal verba are acarcely uaed in the impentiTe ; but iaatead af 
that we uae Uie auhiunctive ; aa, delectet, let it delight; &c nor in the aupoie», 
participlea, or g^eruncu, except a few; aa, ptntHerUy -dum, -duij &e. Induoi ai 
pudendum et ptgendum. Cic. In the preterite tenaea of the paaatve Toice, th» 
participle perfect ia alwaya put in the neuter gender. 

Obi. 2. Gramraariana reckon only ten real impexvonal verba, and all in the aeoo&d 
conjugation; dlcel, it becomea; ptBtiUety it re|>enta; oportet^ it behovefe; mMBrtt, h 
|»liea ; fUgit, it irketh ; p^idel, it ahameth ; ticetf it ia lawful ; hbei or lubei, it pieoieth ; 
tadett It wearieth ; Ctquett it appeara. Of which the following have a douM^ 

ally in all the coqjugationa. 

In the firat, Juvat, tpedai, vHeat, 8Ua, covatea, prasUtt, resUtU &c. 

In the «ecotid. AppOret, atOnet, pMhtet^ debet, di/kt, nUetl, ttief, Aju^ «jdffeC, 
pUicel, diaptUxi, side^ wSiUt, Ac 

In the third, Aedldit, imlfpitt de^Xm'l, n^pkit, dse. 

&i the fourth, ConvSniV, exptdil, &c. 

Alao, inregular verba, Ett, cibestt prodett, potest, ivUrett, tupirett ; ^^ pr<Blirti, 
n^lqmt, and na^uZfur, «uM, eenferU refert, &e. 

Obo. 8l Under imperaomd wrba may be compk^hended thflM whidi etpresa tb^ 
operatiom or appearanoea of oaltire ; aa, Fidgwnttfidmlnait tiMa, grandOtat, gUat, 
pbalt ninigiik mcescUy advetpem^U &c. 

Obb. 4. tmperaonal Verba are applied to uiy pexaon or number, by putting that 
which atanda before other verba, after the imperaonala, in the caaea which they 
eovem ; aa, placet mt%«, tiftt, tJli, it pleaaea me, thee, him ; cr I j^eaae, thou pleaaest, 
&c. pugnatur ame,ate,ab i2Zo, I fight, thou figfateat, he fighteth, &c. So, OurrVut', 
venUur a «le, a te, dsc. I run, thou runneat dsc. FavHur tibi « me, Thou art 
&voured by me, or I favour thee, &c. 

Oba. 5. Verba are uaed peraonally. or imperaonally, according to die particular 
meaning which they expreaa, or the difl^rent import m the worda with wnich they 
are joined : thua, we can aay, ego piaceo iibi, I pleaae you ; but we cannot aay, n 
pXaceemuRref if you pleaae to hear, out si pUieet iibi auaire. So we can -tey, mtdim 
homyvi toKtmgunt, many thinga happen to a man ; but inatead of ego eonCfgi ettB 
dond, we muat either aay, me contigit esse domi, or mn'hi eontUgjt esse domi^ I hap> 
pened to be at home. The proper and elegant uae of Imperaonu verba can only b» 
acquired by practice. 


Those kt9 called ttsDviiDANT Verbs, which have different forms to 
express the «ame sense. Some are Redundant 1. in Signification ; as» 
Criminor, * I blame or I am blamed ;* 2. in Termination ; tis, FabrW^ 



and PtAHcor, ' I frame ;' 3. In Conjugation ; as, Lavo^ lavare, and 
1^190, lavetBy * I wash ;' 4. in Tenses ; as, Stie9co^ ' I am accustomed,' 
Peril Suevi and Siielus sum, 

§ 222« Verbs of the same signification used in different Con- 
jugations : 

Cieo, 68, *Ck>, 18, stirtq». 

Claudo, Is, Ckiiideo, es, be blame. 

*Deiiseo, ea, *Deii8o, as, thicken. 

Bxoetio, % Eicelleo, es, » excd. 

♦Ferreo, ea, *FerTo, fe, be hot 

Fildio, iSi Fodio, 18, dig. 

«Fulgeo, es, Fulgo, Ys, ihine. 

Lavo, ftSpLavo^Sa, toe»^ 

DfnOk &, Lbiio, is anouit 

*NexD, BS, *Mexo, Is, hut 

*01eo, es, Okv Ys, gmeU. 

*Scateo, 68, *Scato, Ys, cAountL 

*StrTdeo, es, Strido, ^ ,.,. creak. 

Tergeo, es,Teigo, Is, wipe. 

Tueor, eris, Toor, eris, . . behdd, prOteeL 

§ 223a Verbs spelt alike, or nearly alike, but differing in sound 
or signification : 

AbdYco^as, abdicate, 

Abdic»,Y8, refuse. 

♦AccTdo, 18, happen. 

AccTdo, Ys, aa short. 

Addo, Ys, .^.add. 

Adeo, is, goto. 

Aggero, as, heap up. 

Aegero, Ys, lay in aheap. 

AUego, Ss plead, send. 

AUeeo, Ys, choose. 

Apefio, Ks, call. 

Apello, Ys drive,land. 

♦Cado,ys, faU. 

Caedo, Ys, beat. 

C€do,16s, yield. 

*CaIeo, Ss, ; te hoL 

'*CaIleo, 68 be hard. 

^Cano, Yb, sing. 

*Caneo, es, betohite. 

*Careo, es, want. 

*Caro, Is, card wool. 

Celo, as, conceal. 

Cselo, as, carve. 

Censeo, es, think. 

Sentio, Is, .• .feeL 

Claudo, Ys, «Aut 

*Claado, Ys, ^ be lame. 

CoHYgo, Ss, tietogelher. 

OollYgo,!iB, collect. 

Culo, is, straiTU 

C5Io,Y8, aa^deck. 

Compello, as, accosL 

Compelio, Yb, force. 

ConcidOfYs, chop of. 

*ConcYdo, Si, fau. 

Conacendo, Ys, climb. 

Conscindo, Ys, cut in pieces. 

Constemo, Is,.. terrtfy. 

Ouisterno, &, strew over. 

*I>acldo, Ys, \„faUdoiwn. 


Decido, Ys, culteff. 

DecTpio, Sb, ^ deceive. 

*De8Ypio,Ys, date. 

DelYgo, as, tievp. 

DelYgo, Ys, chooee. 

Diligo, Ys, love. 

DIco, Yb, saiy. 

DYco, as, dedicate. 

Cdo,Ys, eoL 

Edo, YIb, ^peakj pvjtUsh. 

Educo, as, ' eduoaie. 

Ediioo, Ys, draw out, 

Effero, fis, mdkewOd. 

Effero, efien, carry off, Uft up. 

*£xcido,&, .../aaoKt 

£xcido,&, ctUe^ 

♦Ferio, 18, strike, 

Fero, fere, bear. 

Ferior, aris, keep hoUdaw. 

*Frigeo, 68, be COM. 

Frigo, Ys, fry. 

Fugo, as, puttoJUgU. 

♦Fugio, Ys, Jly. 

Fundo, aa, found. 

Fundo, Ys, pour ouL 

*Incido, Yb, faU into. 

Incido, IS, ctU. 

Tndico, OS, sftoio. 

[ndico, Yb prodaim, 

Inficio, is, injfecL 

Infitior, aris, deny, 

MntercYdo, Sb, happen, 

Intercido, Ys, cut asunder. 

Jaceo, es, Ue,Ue down. 

Jacio, Yb, throw. 

*L&bo,ft8, footer. 

Labor, eria» jNp, gUde 

*lMCtOt ia, sudu^ ssuk, 

*JLacto,a8, deeestte. 

*Lact60»9B, growmilky. 



I4g0k ii, ^end. 

Jjgo, U, gather, read. 

Uceo, es, be lawful. 

Liceor, iris, Ind for. 

LYquo, &8 mat. 

*Llqueo, es, becc&ie U^wd. be manifeet. 

♦Liquor, erw, mett. 

*M&no, 80, flow. 

*Milneo, 68, etay. 

Alando,aa, ....1.. deliver. 

Mando, U, eat. 

Met», Kb, mow, rea^ 

Metor, ark measure. 

Metior, iris, i . . . measure. 

Metuo, % /ipar. 

Miseror, aris, pity. 

Misereor, eris, pity- 

Moror, aris, dday. 

♦JJilCror, aris, play thefoM. 

MSrior, eris, die. 

*Nicto, as, wink. 

Nicto, ¥s, openasa hound. 

♦NYteo,* gtitter. 

NTtor, cris, atrite. 

Obsero, is, lock up. 

Obfls^ro, ts, sowt plant. 

•Ocrffdcrs, '. fall. 

Occido, Its, kill. 

Opcrio, is, cover. 

"OppSrior, Tri», uxiit for. 

Operor, aris, loork. 

Pando, fts, bend, bow. 

PiEtndo, fe, open, spread. 

P&ro, JUS, prepare. 

*P6reo, Jfs, appear. 

Pario, ¥s, beget. 

♦PXrio, «s, balance. 

^Pich), Hb, irepiu). 

PSdo, are, pr^ up. 

♦PendeO» ft, , hmm. 

Pendo, rs, WQgk. 

PercGlo, as, JiSer. 

Perc61o, lia, adotn. 

*Pennaneo, es, remain. 

♦Permalio, is, fhfi^yvfr. 

Pradico, is, puhHtJi. 

PnBdico,)f8, /oretei. 

Pnelego, as, . . bequeath in thejirstplaee. 

Pnelego, Ys, read io one, 

Prudo, IS, betray. 

*Prudeo, es, comeforik. 

•Recedo,&, raCire. 

♦Recido, is, , faUba^. 

RecTdo, IS, » ciU^. 

Reddo.Ys, rettofe. 

•, return. 

Refejo, refers, bring back. 

♦Refcrio, is, girike again. 

Rclego, as, remove. 

Relego,)f8, teadover. 

Sedo, as, aUay. 

*Sedeo, es, ..7^. 

•STdo,1te, sink. 

*Serp, % Mio. 

SSro, ft knittjoin. 

SgJD, as, Icck, boU. 

♦SticctdDj^Ys , falldown. 

Succido, IS, cutdowtt. 

*V8do,fa go,walk. 

Vador, aris givebail. 

*Veneo,Is, ...:.... he sold. 

*Venio,i8 come. 

Venor, aris hunt. 

VJDcicTs, bind. 

Vinco, IS conquer. 

Vblo,«s, ^ jly,kasten. 

♦Volcvis, %wiiling. 

§ 2 24« Verbs having the same Perfect: 

*Aceo. ScBi, be sharp. 

Crebco, crSvi, grow. 

*Fulgeo, fbisi, shine. 

■*Luceo, luxi, , shine. 

Malceo, tntdsi, soothe. 

♦PSveo, pftvi, : fear. 

♦Pendeo, p£pendi, hang. 

Acuo, acui sharpen 

Cemo, crevi^ takepossf£m- 

Fulcio, fidisii, . . .' jn'qp 

♦Lngeo, luxi, mourn. 

*Mulgeo, mulei, milk. 

Pasco, pavi, fggi. 

Pendo, pependi, ^ .^ . . . . yteigh. 

To these add Sto, Sisto, and some of their Compounds. 
§ 22<5« Verbs having the same^Per^t Participle: 

.OBroo,crSta8. sift. 

C i ft y; » ^ ergtui> grow. 

MKWfmt, pagans, baxifain* 

• ]9iCa>pac]U0. Icufatoager. 

>Bttiio>9ietQe, , faSen. 


PandO) passus, , 

P&dor, pMlHs, ....k :... h^ 

V^Tgn, vereixK Hu^. 

Verre, v«Ma8> bruA. 

Vvfto,nmmi .^ iu^n. 

jtasiUHtt o«r iSB viatB. 175 

lHniI¥A.T10N AND COMNMnTiON O^ TttlU». 


§ 226* Verbs are derived either from nouns or 
'from other verbs. 

Verbs derived from nomis are called Denomiim^ 
five; as, 

ComOf to aap; laudo, to pnuae; fraudo, to defnud; kaMo, to throw itooc»; 

cpirart to work; /rumentor, to forage ; lignor, to gBth«r fuel; die. from oena, lau9, 

fimuty &C. But when diey expresf imitation or resemblance, they are called Jm- 

■iathe ; as, Patritfo^ QrtBc&r, mtbula^ conucoTf &c, I hnitato or resemble my father 

^a Grecian, an owl, a crow, d^ from paier, Grtecut, bubo, cornix. 

; Oftboee derived fiom other Terbs, the fidhywing chltfy deaerve atlsnlii»; 
«aawQaly, FreiiyjaiUatinett IncepHvea, and Desidefativea. 

•* . 

§ 227e FREQUENTATIVE 8 express frequency of action, 
and are all of the first conjugation. They are fonnea from the last su- 
pine, by chan jring atu into ita, in verbs of die first conjugation ; and by 
ohangingf u into o, in verbs of the other three coi^jiigatioiis; wB^^dmno, 
•to cry, damito, to cry frequently; terreo^ ierrUo; verio^ versa; dor- 
nUOi dormilo. 

1. In like manner. Deponent verba form FrequeBtativea in or ; aa, «nmot, to ttueat- 
en ; mitCUort to threaten frequently. 

' & Some are formed in an irregular manner ; as, mUo^ from no ,' noacHto, from noaeo. , 
seitor, or rather sciatfUoft from 8cio ; pce^ito, fknn vaveo ; aectort fh)m sector ; loipiUort 
from loquor. So, qtuerlto, functtfy), agUo^fiiOto, dec. 

3. From Frequentative verbs are also formed other Frequentati ves ; as, curro, ouno, 
ettritto ; pello, puiso, pul^tto, or by contmction puUo ; capiot capto, captito ; cano^ 

j«dOt jactOf jacttto ; venio^ vento^ veTittto ; mutio, musso, (for mt^to,) musHto^ &c. 

4. Verbs of this kind do not alwajrs exprean frequency of aecieii. Many of them 
have much the same sense with their primitives, or expreas llie meaning moie 

- k 228« INCt^PTIVE Verbs mark the beginning or coatinaed 
increase of any thing. They are formed firon the Second person singular 
of the present of the indicative, by adding eo; as, caleo^ to be hot; 
cales^ calescOf to grow hot So in the other conjugations, labasco, firom 
UAo ; tretniecOf from tremo ; abdormiscOj from obdormio. Hieco, iVom 
kio, i% contracted for hiaseo. Inceptives are likewise formed from sub- 
"stantives and adjectives; as, puerasco^ from puer i dulcesco, from 
dtilcis; juvenesco, ftomjuvenU. 

All Inceptives are neater verbs, and of the third coiQugation. They want bodt 
the preterke and supine ; unless very rarely, when they oorrow them from their 

4 1S39e DSSIDBRATIVE Vsrbs BignUjf « ^enre or hitentioa 

t^ooio^ a tfaii^g. They are formed from the latter «afniBe by adding 

^.'rto, ana shortening the u ; as, c^sndftlno, I desire to sup, from tmmfkn. 


2. There are a few verbs in LLO, which are called DiMiNunvE ; m^ 
cantiUo, sorlnUOf -are, I sing, I sup a little. To these some add «iZ&ico, 
and candicOf -are, to be, or to grow whitish ; also, nigrico, JbdicOy and 
veWUso. 3. Some verbs in SSO are called Intensive ; as, CapessOffacesso^ 
petessa^ or petUso, I take, I do, I seek earnestly. 

4. Verbs are compounded with nouns, Tvith other verbs, with adverbs, and 
chiefly with prepositions. Many of the simple verbs ai:e not in use; as Futo, 
fendOt ipeciOf gruo, &c. The component parts usually remain entire. Sometiiuee 
a letter is addra ,* as, prodeo^ for pro-eo ; or talten away ; as, ti^iorlOf omiitOf tradi>, 
pejh'Ot pergOf debeo, prcsbeOf ^. for absportOf obmittOf transdot perjuror perrSgo, 
dehibeo, pr€BhibeOy ^c. So, demOt promo, sumot of de, pro, sub, ana emo, which an- 
ciently Bgnified, to <|#e, or to take away. Often the vowel or diphthong of the 
simple verb, and the last conscniant of the preposition Is changed ; as, darnno, con^ 
demno; calco, conculco; Icedo, colBdo; audio, obedio, ^. Ajftro, aufiro, collaudef 
imptico, ^c for ad/Hro, abfSro, coneUmdo, inpiiicoj ^rc 


Rem.'!. A Vkrb has been defined as a word which signifies doing, auffering, or 
being. It would have been more simple and much more intelligible to have said, 
A verb is thai part o/ speech which mentions some act, event, or circumstance 
of or concerning persons, places, things, or ideas; as, Ctesar vtcit, Caesar con- 
quered; /Soma ruit, Rome falls ; Argentum spUndet, silver shines; PrWtlas lauda- 
tur et alget, honesty is praised and starves. A Verb bein^ the most essential word 
in a sentence, and without which a sentence cannot subsist, any word that, |daced 
after the names of Persons, Places, Things, or Ideas, will make full sense, is a 
Verb. An £nglish Verb may be known by its making sense with the words he 
will, or it shall, placed before it ; as. He una conquer, It shdUfaU, 

Rom. 2. The letters which precede the Infinitive terminations, -ore, -ere, -^te, 
tre, are called Radicals, and always remain unchanged. Thus, Am is the radical 
part of AiTiare ,* Mon of Monere ; Rig of RS^h-e ; And of Audire, By prefixing die 
radicals to the changeable parts, or terminations, which are the same in all Verbs 
of a similar Conjogalion, every person of the simple Tenses of a regular Verb may 
be formed with the greatest mcility. 

Rem. 3. Verbs seem to have had but one uncontracted C(MDJugation originally. 
At present there are four Conjugations ; one uncontracted in -^re, as iJtg^e; and 
three contracted in {iUre) - are, as Amare ; in i^re) -ere, as Monere ; and in (iSre) 
-tre, as Audhre^ Charts. lib. ii. and some other ancient grammarians admit of hot 
three Conjugations ; and Vossius de Anal. iii. 33. shows the fourth to be a mere 
contraction of the third. 

Rem. 4 The Participles in -rus and -due in the Future Infinitive and the Perfect 
Participle in the Past Infinitive Passive ar^ used only in the fiom. and Aqimis. but 
in all Genders and Numbers ; as, Amaturue, -a, -urn, esse ; Amalur-um, -am, -urn, 
esse ; Amatur-i, -cb, -a esse ; Amatur-os, -as, -a esse ; Amatur-us, -a, -urn fuisse ; 
Amatur-um, -am, -um fuisse, &c. Amdt-us, -a, -vm esse ; Amatf-um, -anL, -urn esse ; 
Amal-i, -<b, -a esse, &c. In the Future Infinitive Passive the terminaticHi -urn of the 
Supine remains always unchanged. The Past Infinitive Passive seems to haw 
been anciently of no cerrain Gender. In Plautus, Amph. Prol. 33. we read, Juslam 
rem et facilem esse oratum a vchis volo ; and in Cic. Att viii. 18. Cohortes ad me 
missum facias. The Neuter of the Future in -rus is found construed io the same 
manner. See Cic. ii. Ver. v. 65. Aul. Gell. i. 7. Lambin. ad Plant Casio. ^. 
5. 37. Jan. Gulielm.-Qusist Plant p. 4. Voss. de Anal. iii. 16. Periaan. ad Sanct 
Min. 1. 15. p. 12d. 


, to^ & To th» ftjMttfc laiafciv» ftiaive tiii jyikbte -tr w ucinaiiilly «Med 
Mttrt early psets; ai, AmUHa- tSftAnutri; Fifia- for ^ti So IKcier, PeM. 
«It. 1. 88« 

Rem. 6. The Fiitare Infinitive Abtive occurs Mtnetimes in -t^ere: as, ExpuMu^ 
9ire, Flaut Amph. 1. 1. d5. hnpetrassJtre^ Aul. iy. 7. 6. Ouun. u. a. 2». MiL ir. 
3^361 Stich.i.8.2a Fftxmd&usKre, Capt i. 2. 6&_ 

Rem. 7. The Perfect Infinitive Active is frequently contracted ; the syllable vt m 
onitted before « ; as, Amasse^ Complesaey Nos$e, laae, dec. Also, Celue, Lucr. i. 
1104. Conmtnue, i. 234. Dhnaae, Hor. ii. 8at 3. 169. Dim, Non. v. 17. Prdduxe, 
Ter. Ad. iv. 2. 22. Prdmiam, Catul. ex. 5. Subduxe, Varr., &c. In the 4th Com. 
vi or V only is omitted ; as, Peritse, Flaut Capt. in. 5. 35. Periismt AnL u- 4. 2l. 
A similar contraction takes place in the Perfects of ihe Indicative and Sabjonctive; 
vi is dropped before «, and ve before r. Of Perfects in -om, Nopi and 3l!D«i alona 
admit of contraction. Als6, Dixit and Dixis, Cic. pn> Csdn. a 29. Qdntil. ix. 3. 
Terent And. in- 1. 1. Gell. vii. 17. Acoet^i, Virg.iEn. i. 205. 

Rem. 6. The Imperfect Indicative in the 4tfa Coi^. anciently ended in 4bam, and 
the Future in -Vm; thus, Scibo^ Flaut Asin. 1. 1. 13. Most iv. 3. 5. True. ii. 6. G9. 
Serwbaat Ter. And. 1. 1. 11. Flaut Capt ii. 1. 50. CtMidibmii, CotuU. lzxv. 319l 
Veatibal, Viiv. /Eiu viii. 160. Enidibo, Flaut True. i. 3. 3& iMrgOan, Baoek 
IV. 7. 30. &rvi5o, Terent Hec ill. 6. 45. HelOfiiC, Hor. iii. Od. 83. 1ft RMM- 
tur. Plant Epid. 1. 1. 22. &c. &c. 

Bern. 9. The termination 'ere in the third Penon Plur. Perf. Indicative is not so 
tiauai as ttiat in -erunt, especiaily in praise. 

Rem. 10. In the sacond Person Sing, of the Prannt tndic l^nive Ihe lerminafiMi 
•re for -Ha is rare. In Cicero -re for -rts in the Imperfect and Futaie IndicatiTa» 
and the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, occurs Iroquently. 

Rem. 11. The Present Subjunctive anciently ended in -im; as, Diam, Duts, DuU, 
Didnt for Dem, Dee, ^c Perduinif i«, it, inU for Perdanit as, ^ Vid. Plant 
Aasph. n. 2. 215. Aul. i. 1. 23. iv. 6. 6. Teient Andr. iv. 1. 42. Cic Cat i. 
9. Att XV. 4. Deiot c. 7. liv. x. 19. xzii. 10, &c We also find such fbmis aa 
Perduunt, Flaut Rud. Piol. 24. Credvu, Atnph. ii. 2. 40. Capt iii. 4. 73l True, 
n. 2. 92. Credvam, as, at, Plaut Foen. lit. 5. 2. Trin. iii^^acra. iv. 6. 6. Stem, et, 
^ At Si^ ^c Plaut Amph. Proi. 57. Lucr. n. 107a Telim. Bun. i. L 21. fWttf. 
for att Viig. JEn. x. 108. 

Rem. 12. The Future Subj. in a few instances occurs ifk -mo^ and the Perfect 
Subjunctive in -«mm ; thus, Uhxuso, Cic. de Seuect e. 1. A^^knunt, IMaut Pen. 
IV. 3. 9. JnoiteMieiir, Rud. in. 5. 31. /rrifoMM, Amph. t. 1. 296. Pbnt v. 2. 47. 
Stioh. II. 2. 21. ServaantU, Asin. iii. 3. 64. Casiti, iii. 5. 16. Pseud. 1. 1. 35. £1^- 
vasait, Cistel. iv. 2. 76. Servasao, Most i. 3. 71. UUxaail, Asin. iii. 3. 13. Pr«3U^ 
heaaia, Plaut Piseud. 1. 1. 11. Cic. de Leg. iii. 3. So Juaao for Jtaa&ro, Viig. ^n. 
XI. 467. 

Rem. 13. The Imperatives of Dico, DfU», Ftro, and FHoio, diop the final e ; thns, 
DtCf Due, Fttr, FUc. So fnglfr, Catull. xxvii. 2. But the Cofiipounds of F&cip 
retain the « ; as, CanfkM, PerfSch Diet, Duel, FUet, occur aDmetniMM in the earlf 
poets. Vid. Voes. Gr. p. 131. 

Rem. 14. The Present Subhinctive is frequently used for the Imperative ; a% 
Nl /iiciila, do not do it ; and sometimes the Future-Tndic ; as, A^ fxxAdea, tiiott 
shah not kill.- So Viflebia and VldUda in Cic. for V8le and V«c. The Perfect 
Sabjnnctive is used also in the same manner ; as, T& tfidirU, see you to it ; iVI dix- 
tfi^ do not say it 

Heat. 15. The termination -mltno in the second Pefson Sing. Passive, and -mfnor, 
fo r w w rt at, in the Plural, an exceedingly rare. Arhitriliiitnor, Plaut Epid. v. 2. 30. 
Pntgrtd^tnor, Pseud, iii. 2. 70. FinCtno for Pure, Cato, R. R. c. 141. 


Rem. 16. The Ihifd PeiBon in -lo and -nlo is used chiefly in law-givhur; mM^ 
S^ooB iULewOo caste, ptitdUm ccturUo^ Cic. Leg. ii. 19. Sometimas in (be ootaiic' 
writera ; as, PkormioTtem UtceatUot Ter. niomi. v. 7. 38. - ' : -, 

Rem. 17. The termination -tote is rare. It occurs in Ennius, Cicero, Ovid, and 
Flautus. See Voss. Anal. in. 4. 

Rem. 18. The Pftrticiide in 'nis^ and ttie Participle in -dut are found joined with 
roost of the tenses of Sum. But the P^uticiple in -ru9 does not occur joined with 


§ 231« A Participle is a kind of Adjective formed 
from a verb, which in its signification implies time. 

It is so called because it partakes both of an adjective and of a verb, havii^^ in 
Latin, gender and declension from the one, time and signification fiom the omer, 
and number from both. 

PiinicipleB in Latin aire declined like adjecUvea; and their signification is vafi' 
ous, according to the nature of the verbs from which they come ; only Participles ' 
in du9t are- alvmys passive, and import not so much future time, as obligation or 

§ 232# Latin verbs have four Participles, the 
present and future active ; as, Amansj loving ; drnd- 
turus^ about to love ; and the perfect and future 
passive ; as, amdtus^ loved ; amandus^ to be loved. 

§ 233« The Latin langaage has no participle perfect, that is, no. 
participle of a completed action, in the perfect; as, having' toritten; 
nor,, in the passive voice, any participle present, that is, one that ex* 
presses a state of siifering still goinjr on ; as, being written (that is^ 
being in the act of being written). The deponent is the only kind of 
verb which has a participle of completed action ; imit^us, * having 
imitated.' This defect must be supplied by a circumlocution. Tbus^ 
to express the perfect participle active in English, we use a conjunc- 
ti<H), and the pluperfect of the subjunctive in Latin, or some other 
tense, according to its connexion with the other words of a sentence ; 
as, he having loved ; quum amavisset^ &c. 

§ 234« Neuter verbs have commonly but two 
Participles ; as, Sidens^ sessurus ; starts^ aturus. 

From some Neuter verbs are ibrmed P&rfidples of the perfect tense ; as, Erra>- 
fus, fettinStut^ jurStuSy lahoratuSf vigilattu, cestStutf suddtus^ triumphatuSt regnStuiy 
decuT8u»j deifShis, emer^tua, emerm»^ oHihat, piaciUutt ntcceMus, occatus, &.C. ; and also 
of the future in dus ; as, Jurandus, vigilandus, regnandus, carenduSt dcarmiendus, 
eruhexendus, &c. Neuter passive verbs are equally various. Veneo has no parti- 
ciple : FidOj only fidens ana fiaus ; foleot aotenSt and aolUu» ; vaputo, u^iUanf, wid 
txqnJaturua; GaudeOfgauden8,gamsu9tBndffavi8urus; AudeOtaudenB^aumStautih 
nw, audendus. Ausua ia used both in an active and passive sense ; as, Ausi omnt^ 
imm&ne, nefas, ausoque poGtL Virg. i£n. vi. 624. 

: § 335« Deponent and Conunon Verbs have com- 
monly four Participles ; as, 

Loquena^ speaking ; loaUurus, about to speak ; locutuitf having spoken ; loquendus, 
to be spoken. Dignaris, voucbsafins: dignaturus, about to vouchsafe; tugnaiit*, 
having vouchsafedT being vouchsafed, or having been vouchsafed ; dignandus^ to 
be vouchsaled. Many partidples of the perfect tense fram Deponent verba have 
both an active and passive sense ; as, Abominaius, condtus, confeaaus, adortiu, am.' 
plexus, Uanditus, largUus, mer^u8i oiGtua, ie^aius, venerHtuSf &c 

§ 238« There are several Participles, compounded with in, sig- 
mfying not, the verbs of which do not admit of such composition ; as, 

Jhteiena, tasperam, in^cens fernon dicens, inopinans and necopinans^ imm^ena ; 
mccaua, impranaua, inconauUua, incualoditua, immeUUua, impunituat in^pariUua, tn- 
c&mitstua, tnamnptua, indemnOtua, indotatuat incorruptua interHtua, and tm^erferrV* 
£«9, inteaistua, ijutttaua, inopinaiua, inidttia, incenaua fin* rum censua, not registered ; 
vtfectua for tton factua ; inviaua for rum viaua ; indictua, for mm dictua, &c. There 
m a difierent incenaua from incendo ; infedua Snm infido ; uansua from vmUdeo ; 
indictua from indlcot &c. 

§ 337* If from the si^ification of a Participle we take away 
time, it becomes an adjective, and admits the degrees of compari- 
son; as, 

Amana, loving, amantior, amottHailmua ; doctua, learned, dodior, doetia^tmua ; or 
a substantive; as, Prcefecluat a commaoder or governor; coiuSmans, t sa hUra^ a 
consonant; con/{7ien«, £ ac. ferra, a continent; confluena, m. a place where two 
rivers run together; oHetUt m. sc. aoL^ the east; oodtdena, m. the west; dictum, a 
saying; scripfum, &c. 

9 238a There are many words in oiua, ifiit, and tittM, which, alflioog^ 
resembling participles, are reckoned adjectives, because they come from nouns, and 
not flora verbs; as, alstua, barbaiua, cordatua, caudstuay cntUUua, auritut, pelGtua, 
ten^ui; aat&tus, comntus, ntuutua, ^ vvinged, bearded, discreet, &c. But tmrS' 
tuMf jeeratus, argtntSiuaJferratuat phanbotua, gypaatus, aUeeOtuaf clmeatua,g€ie8tu9, 
tunicatuat larvStua, pamSiua, lymphaiua, purpurStuat prcetext&tua, &c., covered with 
gold, brass, silver, &c^ are accounted paniciples, oecause they are supposed to 
come from obsolete verbs. So perhaps adamiatrStua, frizzled, crisped, or curled ; 
eriaStus, having long hair ; perUua, skilled, &c. 

§ 239« There is a kind of Verbal Adjective ending in bunditb, 
formed chiefly from verbs of the first conjugation, which, in its general 
signification, very much resembles that of the Present Participle, but 
with the meaning very much strengthened, denoting an abundance or 
great deal of the action : as, vitabundus, the same with valde vituns, 
* avoiding much'. Sal. Jug. 60, and 101. Liv. xxv. 13. So, hcRsita- 
bundus, *' fiill of hesitation' ; mirabundus, * full of wonder* ; lacrima- 
bundiLs, * weeping profiisely'. Few are formed from the third conjuga- 
tion, fremebuTidtu, gemebundtA8,furibundtis, moribundtis, ludibundtts; 
one firom a verb of the second, pudibundu» ; and one from a verb of the 
fourth, lascivibundus. 

II. Some Verbal Adjectives in cundus have a similar sense; as, 
verecundus, 'full of modesty^; rubicundus, 'very ruddy'; iracundus, 
•fiiU of anger'. 

IM 44>V9Wff< 


§ 24tO^ GERUNDS are participial words, which 
bear the signification of the verb from which they 
are formed; and are declined like a neuter noun of 
the second declension, through all the cases of the 
singular number, except the vocative. 

There are, b^ ia Latin and English. MibetantiTee derived from the verb, whi<^ 
fo much repemble the Gerund in their ngnification, that frequently they may* be 
substituted in its place. They are generally used, however, in a raore.undetenm^e^ 
sense than 4ie Gerund, and in Enslish have the article always prefixed to th^, 
OThus, with the Gerund, Ddector legendo Cicerdriem, I am delighted with reading 
Cicero. But widi die substantive, iDdector lectidne CicerdnUt i am delighted vs^tE 
the rottdiqg of Cicero. 

The Gerund and Future Participle of Verbs in -to, and tome others, often take 
u instead ofe; as, faciundum, -di, -do, -dus; experiundum^ poUundun^ genmdum, 
pekmdumi ducttndian, Ao. ibr faeisHdum, ^to. 

§ 241t SUPINES have much the same significa- 
tion with Gerunds ; aiid may be indifierently ap- 
plied to any person or number. They agree m 
termination with nouns of the fourth declension, 
having only the accusative and ablative cases. 

Ttie former Supine ia commonly used in usx 
active, and the latter in a passive saase, but some- 
times the contrary; as, eoetum non vapulMum^ 
dudum conductus jui^ i. e, ui mpuldrem^ or verbe-^ 
rarer» to be beaten. Plant. 


^942« An Adverb is an indeclinable part of 
speech, added to a verb^ adjective, or other adverb^ 
to express some circumstance, quality, or manner 
of their signification. 

All adverbs may be divided into two classes, 
namely, those which denote Circumstance; BXki 
those which denote Quality^ Manner, &c. 


!• Adverbs denoting CIRCUMSTANCE are 

chiefly those of Placey Time^ and Order. 

§ 243« 1. Adverbe of PZooe are five-lbld, namely, such as aignifirf 

1. MoUon or rest in a flhce, 
XJbil Wkeref 

lUic, > 

Ifthic, > 7%ere. 

lU, ) 

IntUB TVt^'n. 

FSris ..., Without, 

t7bique, ,., Every tehere, 

Nasquam Nowkare, 

Altcubiy Some uhere^ 

XlYbi EUewhere. 

UbYvis, Any uhere. 

Ibidem, In the tame place. 

2. Motion to a piaee, 

Qoof Wk&r, 

Hue, aUher. 

&|: ™«»- 

Intio, In. 

Tina, OuL 

£d Tothatplaee. 

Ali6 To another place. 

AlYqud, To tome ptaee. 

Eudem, To the tame place. 

3. Motion towardt apiaoe. 

Qasmmmt WUAennardf 

Venus, •. . . . Tynoards, 

Honum, Hitherward. 

lUonam, Thitherward. 

Sunum, Upward. 

Deomunit Uownward» 

Aotfonniin, ...... .^onoord. 

RetronRun, Badaoard. 

Dextrorsum, Towardt the right 

Sinutranram, Thaardt the left 

4. Motion from a phee. 

Under ^fhencet 

Hinc, Hence. 

niinc. ) 

Isthinc, > \Thence. 

Inde, ^ 

IndYdem, f^romthe aame piaee. 

Aliunde, From dtewhere. 

AiVcunde, From eoaw piaoe. 

Sicnade, L^ from ami pkKO. 

Utrinqoe, , .On both tiaee. 

Siipeme, From ohaoe* 

lufeme, Frombdow. 

Oariltue, From heaeom. 

Fnndlfeui, From the graand 


& Jwofteii wro ugh o r by a ptaee* 

Thi» way. 

fcl "— »• 

Alii, AMOIker way. 

V 344e Adverbs of Time are three-fold, namely, such as signify. 

1. Some particular fOM, either preeent, 
pott, future, or indefinite. 

Nunc, Now. 

HSdte To-day. 

rZ\ ^ 

Heri, Yetterday, 

^Z,] ^^o"- 

Pridie Thedawbefora. 

Kudioi tertiiii^.. .. . Three daye ago. 

NufMT, IjUdy. 

Janijam, f ^..Freeen&y. 

Mo]^ > lamudiatdy» 

B&lhn, 3 By and by. 

PrGtYniM, Inttandy. 

fHfeo, Straightway. 

Cne, ,...» Tomorrow. 

Poitridie, The day after. 


PSnndie, TSoo daye henee. 

Nondum, » . .Not yet. 

Quando? Whenf 

Allqnaiido, ^ 
Nomnnqnam, > . . .S o a utim e t . 
Interdum, 3 « 

Semper,. Ever, idwayt. 

NuTV^msfi, ....,.., iVeoer. 

Interim, In the m/eantma. 

QuStrdie, DaHy. 


Din, iMig. 

Qoamdin, How long t 

Tamdin, Sohng. 

Jamdiu, 1 * 

Jamindem^ ) 



a Vici$$Uwde or r^pdHum cfime. 

Qaofies? Howoftenf 

Seepe Often. 

Raro, Seldcm. 

Toties, So often. 

AlX^uoties, For «everaliime». 

]uSm.| ^"^ 

itel ^^ 

Subinde, ) Ever and anon, 

Identklem, ) now and then. 

Semel, Once. 

Bis, Twiee. 

Tor, T%rice. 

Quater, Four tme$, 4re. 

3. Adverb» of Order. 

Inde, Tken. 

Deinde, After that 

Dehinc, Hencefarih. 

PoRO* ■«•••• .Moreover» 

Deincepi, So forth. 

Denuo, Aneto. 

DinYque, Fmdtty. 

Postrimd, LuUy. 

Primo, -uin, FirtL 

S^cundo, -um, Secondly. 

Teitio, .dm. Tkirdlv. 

Quarto, 'dm, Fourtluy, 4rc. 

II. Adverbs denoting QUALITY, MANNER, 4Scc., are eillier AUduU or Cm- 

Those called Abaoiute denote, 

§ 245* 1. QUALITY, simply; as, beni, weU; matt, ill; /orlUer, bnVeljr; 
and inniunemble omen that oome from adjective nouns or participlies. 

2. CERTAINTY; as, profectd, certi, «3n^ ptSni, no, iUtgue, tta, l^iam, tnJy, 
verily, yes ; qtddnh why not? omnino, certainly. 

3. CX>NTING£NCE; am, forte, fortanyfortaeeiSt fore, haply, perhaps, by chanoe, 

4. NEGATION; as, noa, haud, not; nequOquam, not at all; neuttquam, fay no 
means; m'inime, nothing less. 

& PROHIBITION; as, tw, not 

6. SWEARING; as, herde,pol, edipol, micaetor, by Hercules, by Pollux, Ac 

7. EXPLAINING ; as, u^te, tfldUlcet, ecSteet, mmrum, mempe, 1o wit, namely. 

8. SEPARATION ; as, wearwm, apart; «cp^d^im, separately; iigil,-Si!im,isad by 
one; i^ritim, man by man ; opptdatim, town by town, oc. 

9. JOINING TOGETHER; as, ^Hnul, und, piMter, together; ghiiraiaer, gene- 
rally ; un^vereatiter, universally ; plerumque, for the most part. 

10. INDICATION or POINTING OUT; as, en, ecce, lo, behold. 

11. INTERROGATION ; as, eur, qudre, guamobrem, why, wherefore? num, an, 
whether ? qudmiodo, gvi, how ? To which add, Vifi, qud, quorswn, unde, qud, quamio, 
guamdiu, ptotie». 

Those Adverbs which are called Comparalxoe denote, 

V 240« 1. EXCESS; as, «aide, ffuulme, moigniaptre, maximepihre, aummoj^, 
admodum, cppld6, perquam, Ungl, greatly, very much, exceedingly ; ittmis, MMitttiii, 

too much ; prorsus, penUu», omnino, altogether, wholly ; magis, more ; mdiw, better ; 
p^tu, worse, forduSy more bravely ; and opthnit best ; pestffmi, worst ; fortistUmi^ 
most bravely; and innumerable others of the comparative and superlative degrees. 

2. DEFECT; as, FemU, flr^ propemodum, pink, almost; p&rum, little ; pauli, 
paulu h anfvery little. 

a PREFERENCE:; as, pSHia, eHHue, rather; piStit^fmian, pnedipue, pneaertim, 
chiefly, especially ; tmd, yes, nay, nay rather. 



vduti, eeu, tanquamt quasi, as, as if ; quemadmSdvm, even as ; s^is» enouc^ « Ufdem, 
in like manner ; jtaOeh slike, equally. 

5.UNLIKENESS or INEQUALITY; as, altter, tecu$, otherwise; alidqui or 
aUdquint else ; nklum, much more, or much less. 

a ABATEMENT; as, senvm, paid&timt piSdiUentimt by degprees, piecemeal; vix, 
scarcely ; agr^j hardly, with difficulty. 

7. EXCLUSION ; as, tantianj tolum, nudd, Umtummodo^ dunteaai, demmni only. 


§ 247« Adverbs are derived, 1. from Substantives, and end commonly in 
tim or tua; as, Parfim, partly, l^ parts; nominStim^ by name; gener&Hm, by kinds, 
generally ; apeciatim : vkstxm, gregaixm ; raduMuSf from the root, dec 

2. From adjectives: and these aro by far the most numerous. Such as come 
fiom Adjectives of the fhvt and second declenaon usually end in « ; as, Uberh, 
f^ely ; meni, fully ; some in o, urn, and ter, as, fcdab^ fttitf atm, granfiter ; a few in a, 
ttes, ana im ; as, rscia, ttntiquUuaymrwdtim. Some are used twoorthree ways; as, 
primum, or -d, purl, -Her , eerf 6, -o; catUe^ -tim ; humani, -"Uer, -Ytus ; mdlid, pvbtt- 
dttus, &xi. Adverbs from A^ectives of the third declension commonly end m ter, 
seldom in « ,* as, tur^tter, febdUert acrlter, parUer ; fadUe, repente ; one in o, onmino. 
The neuter of Adjectives is sometimes taken adverbially; as, receru natus, for 
reoenter; perfidum ridens, for perfldiy Hor. mvUa reltictan», for muUum or vcddi. 
Vug. So in English we say, to speak loud, high, 4rc- for loudly » kighlig, ^rc Id 
many cases a substantive is understood ; aB,primS,jc. loco ; opiaio advenu, sc. lesi- 
pore; hdc, sc. vioy ^c 

Sl From each of the pronominal a^ectives, «2Ze, isle, hie, is, idem, ^. aro fhnned 
adverbs, which exptress all the circumstances of place ; as, from xZZ«, tZ/tc, iUuc, 
tSorstim, tfltnc, and iUae, So from Qfds, idn, quo, quanum, vnde and ^u^ ; also of 
time ; thus, quando, quamdiu, 4rc. 

4 From verbs and participles; as, casim, with the ^ge; punctim, wilb the 
point; strictim, closely; fiom coedo, pnngo^ stringo; amanter, prifperanier, dvU- 
tanter ; distinct^, emenddU, mtr^, inopinmd ; ^ But these last are thoqght to be 
in the ablative, having ex understood* 

6. From prepositioDs; as, tnluf^ ininK from «n ; tlandUmn, fion dam; tuku», 

from tuft, ^ 

§ 248« Adverbs derived from adjectives are commonly compared 
like Uieir primitives. The positive generally ends in e, or ter ; as, 
duri, facUe, acriter; the comparative, in ttf#; as, duriia, faciliilts, 
acriiU ; the superlative, in ime ; as, durissime, faeiUimi, accerrimi. 

Rem. I. If the comparison of the adjective bejrregular or defective, the compari- 
son of the adverb is so too ; as, ben^, melius, opthne ; maU, ptyits, pesAmi ; panem, mi- 
nus, mitiknd, 4r 'Um; madUm, plus, pUu'Unum; props, prophu, preactmi; ocyus, 
ocyssfme ; priits, primd, 'um ; nuper, nigterrhiU ; nw^ 4* noettrr, nMns0mi ; merUA, 
meritisAmo, 4rp* Those adverbs also are compared whose primitives are obsolete ; 
as, «epe^ smits, stspi ss tmhj pemtits, peniHits, venifisAme; satU, saUks; seats, 
ssdiiM, 4rc» Mag^ maxima ; and potius, poHs^tmum, want the positive. 

Rem. 2. Adverbs are variously compounded with all the di^rent parts of speech ; 
thus, postridie, Tnagnopire, maanmo^re, summopifre, Umloptre, wudtiinodis, omrn- 
modist quomodo, quare; ofpjOsUro ale, magna ojpHtre, ^. iZfoet, scilfeet, mdettceU 
of trs, scire, videre, licet ; Ultco, of in. hxo ; quorsum, of quo versum ; commanus, 
hand to hand, o€, cum or con and manus, endnus, at a distance, of e and immMs ; 
quorsum, of qua versum ; denuo, anew, of de novo; quin, why not, but, of, quinsf 
CUT, of cui rei ; pedetenOm, step by step» as it were, of pedem tendendo; 

IM psjmMnei«ira. 

of mie md m, ^ Wfm», fuooiM, uniMUtt ^ imnpif, neiit, akuU, vAOfVekHi, 
de$iq)er, insiiper, quampbrem, ^ of vibi and «M, 4^ «iWttc4tefitv<, of «unc <Im« 
lerftiM ; idenmem, of «2eoi eC uiem ; In^nieientiArusi, i. e. in Umpatt reruai j»feB- 

Obs. 1. The Adverb umot an eanndal part of speech. It only aervei to expreas 
shortly, hi one woid, what must otherwise have reomred two or more ; aa, 
mtpienUr, wisely, for cum tapienii& ; hie, for in hoc toco ; temper, for in omni 
toAp^n; mmdtbt «aA tiui ^for dMm vic(l6««; Jtfdbrcab» for iftnclUei me 
juvetf 4rc. 

Obs. 2. Some adverbs of lime, plaoa» and older, ara fiaooenthr «sed the one 
for the other ; as, «6i, where, or when ; indef from that place, from that lime» 
«dto that, next; kactinuM, hitherto, thus for, with respect to pUce, time, or 
otder, ^. 

Obs. 3. Some advei^s of time are either post, prtmnt, or future ; w^jam, already, 
now, by and by ; lAim, iong ago, some tinoek hereafter. Some adverbs of place are 
aqually various; thus, c«e pengrk, to be abroad ; ireperegr^ lo go abroad; rt£re 
jMv^i^ to letttm iiom abroad. 

Obs. 4. Interrogative advet^ of tune and place doubled, or compounded with 
cim^us, answer to the English acliection 8t>eeef ; as, vbiubi, or ubiounque, whereso- 
ever ; quoqub qubcunque, ^hitherBoever, &c The same holds also hi interrogalive 
words ; as, quotquatj or qujoteunque, how manv soever ; quBaitua^pJumtu»^ or juontea, 
tunque, how great soever; ulu/, or ntcim^, however or howsoever, d^-. 


A Preposition is an indeclinable word which 
i^hows the relaticHi of one thing to another. 

§ 1S49a There are thirty-two Prepositions which 
govern the Accusative. 

AD, eiptass e s toi^giunoliim or jw-qptafudy, and iti ganeiai aigmfieation isTO^ as^ 
od Carlhagtnemt ' to Carthage;' omnes ad unum, 'ail to a man.' At or on, as, otf 
pnsstitatam, diem, *at the appointed day; ad portam, *at the gate.' ArncA, as, 
aliquanto ad rem avidior, * a little too greedy after money.' It is also vised for «p- 
cundum, 'according t04' ai^ ad curtum hma, 'according to the course of die moaa*' 
For, as, rthus ad prqfectionem cogiparoHs, things being ready for a march. Bsrois, 
as, ductus ett ad mqgistrStum, ' he was led before a magistrate.* About, as, ad duo 
miUidf * about two thousand.' In comparison or, nikU ad Cku&rem, * nothing in 
comparison of Casar.' Bat all these difierent renderings may be refened to the 
simple significalxon of 'to.' — Phrases. Ad naumum, ' at most;' or * to the top^' ad 
tummamf 'in the wl^ole^ ad viJttmum, 'at last,' ' finally {' ad judfcem agJbre, 'to 
plead before a judge ;' ad haot ' in «ddition to this,' ' besides ;' ad decern atmoa, Cie. 
' after ten years,' or ' ten yean hence,' that is, up to the completion often yean ; ad 
manue ventre, 'to oome to a close engagement;* ad lunam, *by the light of the 
moonf ad amueeim, 'exactly,' (Uteredly, 'to a mason's nde.*) 

AD VERSXJSl or ADVERSUM. This is compounded of od, ' to,' and tlw paHi- 
oiple «ersMf, ' turned.' So tve have in English the same two prepositiQDs oompomid« 
ed in tiM word, «fotHmls.'. The general idea of this Preposition is that of ofpon- 

. nEBFOsinoifs. 185 

•inoSf DT tendency aoainst sometliing, and henos its geoeml toBamog la AOAlim ; 
9B, adversus ftotfem, * against ttie enemy ;* advernu legem, *oontnuy to law/ Heoce 
^ U agnifies opposition of place ; as, adversus Ibdiamf * opposite Italy/ From this, 
it signifies before, or m thc presence or, or towards; as, adver§iu me, *in 
jpy presence ;' piStaModvertug deot, *piety towaida the gods.' To, as, advertua humc 
lo^pd, < to speak to him.' 

ANTE denotes precedence of time or place, and hence means ' betorjei' It is 
opposed to Post ; as, ante, ncn post, decimam horam, * before, not afler the tenth 
hourf ante aciem, * in front of the army.' It also signifies priority in point of de- 
gree ; as, Una longi arUe alias specie ac pulchutudine, * one far above the others |n 
beauty and figure.' , It is sometimes used adverbially, but in all such cases some 
noun or aic[|octive may be supplied ; aa, iJie ante incessit, * he marched first,' that is, 
ante omnes, * before aU.' 

APUD denotes prewnce of place and person, and is said to be corrupted fiom 
ad pedes, * at the feet' It may generally be translated by ' at ;' as, apud forum, 
'at the Ibrum;' hence it is used fi>r cum, as, ccenavii apud me, *he supped with 
me;' potior apud exerdltum, *in greater credit with the army/ Hence it also 
signifies < near/ or ' by/ being used forjuxia ; as, sedens apud earn, *■ sitting by him.' 
From the notion of bodily presence, it comes to signify ' presence of mind ( as, tix 
sum apud me, * I am hardly myself;' tufac, apud te ut sies, Terent * take care to be 
self-collected/ From presence of place may easily be deduced its signification of 
inter, ' among,' as, ttpud majores nostros, * among our ancestors/ The difiference 
between Apud and Inter is, however, very clear. Inter means ' among/ or * in the 
number of,' as, inter amlcos, * among,' or ' in the mmiber of my friends ;' Apud 
means 'among,' 'with/ 'in the writings of/ 'in the customs of;' as, cqnid Cicero- 
nem, ' with Cicero,' or ' or in the opinion of Cicero ;* Apud Homerum invenio, * I find 
in the writings of Homer;' Apud Rmnanos mos erat, 'it was the custom among the 
Romans.' Another meaning is 'before,' as, causam apud regem dicSre, ' to plead 
before the king.' 

CIRCA, CIRCUM. This Preposition signifies approximation and oonytrehenskm 
of time, place, persmi, and number. It is derived from the Greek KtpKos * a circle.' 
Its- generic signification is 'about/ or 'round about;' as, circa portas, 'abotit the 
gates ;* pos£6ro die circa eandem horam capias admovi', * the next day, about the 
same hour, he advanced his army;' oppida circa septuaginta, 'about seven hundred 
towns;' circa deos reUgionesgne fuit negUgens, 'about the gods and their worship 
he was negligent' 

CIRCITER. This is nearly related to droa and drcum, but is principally used 
in expressii^ approximation of time ; as, cirdUer idus Mai, ' about the Ides of May ;' 
octSvam circiter horam, * about the eighth hour.' 

CIS expresses limitati<xi of space and time, included within some distaiit bound- 
ary or distant time, to the place where we are, or the time when we are speaking. 
Its signification is, ' on this side,' < within;' as, as Appeiwmm, *on this aide the 
Appeoine ;' df dies paucos, * within a few dasrs.* 


C]TKA<* like Cit,mpMmhmimAm witbm « csrtidit tomtesr; m dim Hkfi. 
1MMI, ' on th» aide the RUoe.* it abo meBni *tmoB,v op/ as, peooavi lOtru wogftit, 
*l hmve oommittad aa oflenceahort of guUt* Henoe finm tlie tigiuiioatiaB ef *iriiDrt 
of/ it ooDMi to imply «d^cicnoy/ and ■ naed for mm, *'mibemt,* as, Pkid¥u4m 
9btn€itraamidvmJfuUt*¥hai^m wm widwQt a livsi in ivory;* eHra tkme nwtmr 
tStenif * without this neceanfy/ 

CONTRA,t in its general ngnification, implies cppotitUm, and hence aignifiaw 
■ aqainst/ or * IN OPPOSITION TO ;' as, contra naturam, * against nature / contra ea> 
pecUUionemf * beyond expectation/ Carthago est contra Italiam^ ' Carthage is oppo- 
site to Italy/ It is also frequently used adverbially, agnifying, ' on the other hand i' 
' as, contra etiam» &c. Cic. <on the other hand also/ ^at contra^ fariqw jvhet, *he 
stands opposite and bids me speak / contra intueri aHqueniy * to look any one full in 
the iace.' Contra is sometimes used to express * price,* especially by Plautus, evi- 
dently from the idea of the value being put in the scale apposite to the commodity ; 
as, iwa caru* ettnuro contra^ * he is not dear for so much gold/ that is, *he is worth 
an equal weight of gold put in the o^gxMfte scale/ literodly — * he is not dear agaioat 
gold.' So we say, < worth its weight in gold.' 

dlOA, '«^WAisns/ as, ef^gfo cnimom, 'towards his friends/ * before,' as» qum 
moio trTga €Bdes htMtat, * who lives now befine our house.' 

£XTRAt implies something toiihout or beyond the limhs of the tiling spoken (^ 
and is opposed to Intra. Its general meaning is * without / as, ingenium m^gji* 
extra vitiOf guam cum virttUlbuSy ' a character rather without vices than acoompa* 
liied with virtues.' 'Beyond/ as, extra modum^ 'beyond measure.' Hence it 
easily passes into the sense oiSupray ' above/ or ' exceeding / as, esse extra cidpam, 
* to be above fiiult,' * to be blameless.* Hence it is elegantly used for PrcBter, * be- 
sides,* * except / as, neque^ extra imam antcieZcim, quisguam aderatt * neither was any 
one present, besides one poor old woman.* Extra jocum, * without a joke,* 'joking 

INFRA expresses inferiority or lower «tfuotton, and may generally be rendered 
by « beiow* or * beneath,* as, infra tectum, • below the roof/ infra «c, ' beneath him* 
sflif / magniiudine pttulo n^ d&pkmtois, *in size a litde infiirior to the elephant ;* 

* dtra is not immediately derived from Cw, but from its derivative Cifer ; and 
is, like ExtrOj Infra, Intra, Supra, Ultra, an ablative case feminine, governed by a 
or ab, and having parte understood with which it agrees. It governs the accusa- 
tive not by any -natural power of its ewn, but by an ellipsis of quoad, or quod 
ad... attinet understood after it Thus, citra Rubiconem, * on this side the Rubicon/ 
when fully explained, means, a cilerd, (or citra) parte quoad Rubiconem, or, a citra 
parte quoad ad Rubiconem attinet. Thus we see how prepositions are used even for 
whole sentences, for convenience of speech, and shortening those circuitous ex- 
pressions, the frequent recurrence of which would be very tedious and unpleasant 
in common discourse. 

• HV o b a i My the aUativ» ftminiae of the obsolete a^ctive CoHUms, just m, 
'Otra, «Klnft, t/^ra* intra, «nd -mtpm, am -die -ablaiirBB of ctter, tacfihrms, it^^iruM, it 
rut, supHrus. ^^ See note on Citru, 

t See note on Citra. 


4im, f williin tan il»y«.' 

-*"1irPER, "* BETWEEN* as, inter eos magTia emterttio fidU *fhera was « fraat strife 
%btw«en them.' As that whieh is between two pefsons toKf be lefei Te d to one or 
HMft tidier, tiller is often used fat innricem, *one another;* as, puBri amemt «nttf te, 
*tfae boys love one another/ It also means 'among/ *in the midst off as, mitr 
mevddum^^kkt^mM^^f^tmyf inter ommmwi»am,*4waag1kiirmb^a»: 

INTflA* is used to express the boundary within which any thing is oontained 
refening either to lime or space, and hence it signifies ' within ;* as, intra decern 
annost * within ten years,* intra murost * within the walls ;' intra verba denpiuM, 
'they commit o6^ce within wonls ;' that is, 'no offence beyond words/ 

JVXTA aigaito «qipnmmatitm or coaUguity, heiog derived from jungo, 'to 
joij».' {ti juimaiy meaning is ' near,' or * by the side of;' as, jiuetm vwrum, caMra 
pontUt 'be pitched bis camp near the waU ;' beoce it means proximilff of relatimi- 
ship ; as, vdocUaa juxta formidinem. Tacit ' ispidity is akin to cowardice/ Alao, 
' according to, as, juxia pr<8c^tum Thanietoclisj ' according to the instructions of 
Themistocles.' It is also used adverbially for alike, equally ; as, Eonan ego vUom, 
moriempu jtata <BeCimot *I estoem their life and death alike/ Sallost 

OB» in its laure geastal significatioii, is used to express the reason or cause of «ay 
^m^, and may be renderad by ^for' or ' on account of;' as, o6 qum^tim, *£x 
gain ;' ob kanc rem, ' on accomst of diis thing ;* ^also» ' befoee,* as, ob oouloe exi- 
tinm veraatur, * destruction is before my eyes.' 

PENSS is said to be derived fiom pema, * a store^hoose,' being used to-fltgniiy 
the absolute possession and power •vm' a &ing, as if it weie laid up at «or die- 
posaL Jts meaning is, * in the power, of,' or, in pobsbbsion of ; as, «le penee 
9tl unmn V0iti €U9todia wmmdiy ' in <ny power alooe is the custody of the vaatwiffild/ 
Also, ' with ;' as, penas te culpa eat, * the fault lies with you.' 

ESR, (derived probably from the Greek vipav, < to pass through,') is of eztmnve 
vm. itdenotes the cause, means, er instrument of an action, or tmnailioo through 
■oaM nednm, and may genevally be renderad by 'theodoh ;' as, ptr mme, per 
svo, f»er igmee, Hor. * through the sea, ihraogh rooks, through fire/ Alas» * ikraugk,* 
or '/or/ signifying continuation of space or time ; as, per irieaHtum, ' for the ^fpMO 
of three years ;' also, * through,' denoting tf le instrument or subordinate agency ; 
«a, per eerwun epietolam mieit, «lie sent the letter through a servant' Sometimea 
it ma^ be trandated « under pretenoe,' as, aliquem per fidemfalUre» * to deceive any 
one under colour of security/ Per se, ' of himself,' ' by his own exertions.' Per 
ludum et jocttm, ' iu sport and jest* Per me, * by ^my perraisHon/ Per eileuUum, 
' silently/ 

fONE is derived like posf,ffom the verb^^Mmo, and espeesses the sitnalion of a 
thing Mwitf or €tfter another in point ofphee ; but it is not used, like joes^ to sign^ 
the «ame velatioa in point of time* It is opposed .to Ante* It sHiy always he ren- 
dered 'BEHIND.' Pone <Bdem Caetorit, * behind the temple of Castor/ Itjsofken 
used adverbial^ « pone rnqmnst * fhUowing behind/ 

♦See Citra. 

ISiB mBFOfiivtoirs. 

I^0ST4iiBi dift wm» «igm and general «igaifieftliiGD as Pm^but i> uaad-ltMK- 
preM relations of time as well as place. Applied to plaoe^ pott monUm, * hfjmd 
the iDoaiitaiii.' In point of time, post mortem, *afier death/ Pott htmuurnktm^ 
moriam, 'since tiie memory of man.' It is oftmi joined with eo, fiirming tha ^- 
veib potlea, 'afierwaids,' thait is, 'alter these dungsi' and with .^uam, as, poti 
^tisiR,' after that' 

PRiETER unplieB eadusion, and may be translated 'kxoeft/ or 'but;' as, 
mmubut tentenUit prttter union condemnqtut -est, ' he w^as condemned by all the 
votes but one ;' neque Ulit veatUut, prater pdlet, * neither have they any clothing 
besides skins.' Hence it easily passes into the sense of' along,' or * by the side of;' 
as, prcBter oram BUrutci maris Neapalim transmitUy * he sent them by the shore of 
the Toscan sea to Naples.' Hence it means ' before,' ' in sight of;' as, prcBter o(^Uot, 
* before my eyes.' From the sense of ' exclusion,' it easily comes to signify, 
' beyond,' or * above ;' as, Horum Hie nihil egregie prttter c^era studebat, Tet^l 
'he inclined to none of these particularly above the rest' Also, ' conttaiy lof as, 
prcBter spem^ ' contrary to expectation.' 

PROPE, ' NEAR,' is rather an adverb, and, when it is followed by an accusative, 
ad or <qntd is understood. It is the neuter of the obsolete adjective prcpis, of which 
the oompamtive and superlative yet remain in proprior and proximut. Prope hat- 
Hum cattroy 'near the camps of the enemy;' prope catendat SexGUt, 'about the 
calends of August' It is oflen used adverbially; as, tapientia pneditut prope 
tingtdHriy ' endowed with almost singular wisdom.' 

PROPTER is derived from proptt and has the same general signification of con- 
tiguify. Its primary meaning is ' near,' or * bt the side of ;' as, In pratulo prop- 
ter Platonit ttatuam contedimutt Cic. * we sat down in a littie meadow by the statne 
of Plato.' Also, 'ON ACCOUNT OF,' 'FOR THE SAKE OF,** as, Nam propter frigoTQ^ 
frumenta in agrit nat&ra non erant, * for in consequence of the cold, the fniiti o€ the 
eartii were not ripe.' Propter miBericordiam, ' out of pity.' 

SECUNDUM. This preposition is the neuter gender of the ordinal ac^ective 
teeundut^ * second,' (which follows the first,) which itself comes from tequor^ 'to 
follow.' Its general signification implies the notion of ' following afler* sometfaiBg 
which has gone befbie. Here it is translated, 'next to»' 'afler;' as, Secuftdum ie 
nihil ttt mihi ttmiciut tdUiudinet Cic. * next to your company nothing is more agree- 
able to me than solitude.* As he who foUotot after another goes in the same 
direction, secundum signifies ' afler,' or * according to ;' as, omnia gtus teeundum 
naturam Jiunt, tunt habenda in boniSt Cic. ' all things which happen according to 
nature are to be esteemed good.' Hence it signifies ' in fovour of;' as, Nuntiat 
populo ponliptoes secundum ts decreoisse, Cic. 'he tells the people that the poa> 
tifices had decreed in his fiivour.' 

SECUS, as a preposition, is obsolete, being superseded by secundum, with the 
same sense. As an adverb it frequently occurs, but in a sense almost diametrically 
opposite, signifying divertity or opposition ; as, nemo dioet secus, ' no one wUl say 

SUPRA is in reality the ablative feminine ottvpirus, (see Ctira,) and impKea 
efemeton, and may be translated, 'above,* 'higher than;' as, t9^nu IttmMn, 
' above the moon ;' s^pra modutn, ' beyond measure ;' Tretprohibet tupra riaarum 

nwMtmoink IW 

■Mofc ikmn time.' Cmi AoiI(« M^im o^uf «ml, *diiee tlM«iMni3r «r» nii^ «t ImbA;' 
BMtiie phfue m^ra aqntf ii i»>dto«gni^* o Me e <diBgiyj^M^<iyr<icqpiit*awp 
fem ac aordfdu», * a fellow exceedingly contemptible and aoidid.' it ii ake OMd 
adverbially; at, omnia hex fum mpra et ntUer unum eiis, 'that all theie tbipgi 
which are above and below, are one sjnstem.' 

TRANS» <ovn,' 'ON ths oihbe sum,* «METOwm'iaoppoped to «caadii 
iled to ipidK» Tram wmft,*aienmib»mtk^ tmM§Miigpkntmn,*m^ 
of the JCupbrates.- 

ULTRA, * BBTOtcD,' ii referred to both place, time, and degne ; as, «Oiti ferml- 
ntfm tx^flr^ ' to wander bejrond the boundi ;* yltra lempus, * beyond the time f 
tdtra vires fenecUe, * beyond the strei^ of old age;' uUra mortem, ' beyend what 
was sufficient to occasion death*' 

USQUE ii msro pnpeily an adverb» «nd giwami the accosaliva by Ae fivea «f 
«tf «ndeietood. UssigmfiestaoaiB^'ASFARAa.' (r«itieil£30fia»,'aBferaaAfilett]s.' 
JU «a adverb it is ftequently and. Ueque mubo d e feni smrntf, ' wie wese be^ 4» 

VERSUS, * TOWARDS.' "nus preposition, like Ueque, seems to govern the «cca- 
sative by the ferce of ad, which, though sometimes omitted, is generally expressed. 
vamm, ' towaids BmndiMon.' 


§ 250« There are fifteen Prepositions which go* 
▼«m the Ablative. 

AtABpABa Tbispraiupiti(miideBTedih»alfa0Ors0k#Mb'fea»/widwi» 
pomaiypatioB signifies aiiSviMiiif. *WmQm,' mfQi^emmeqm9dmfikt,*(^vmi^em 
to Ihe apple,* that is, «from b^imi i i g to sad.' '«y MCAioif or/ Wr aft twinrwiia 
ciemsnecs^mtis, *a man very mild by leasoB of his ]irobi1f.' AJbo, ' ov vhb mm 
OF,* *T0 TAKE ANT 0NS*8 PAKTf as, a menAotio contra «emm store, * to stand fer a 
-fie in e p p usi ttou to trath.' A frmeipio, 'fWim the veiy fiist* A jmcA&im, «a feot- 
wan f a «triioaAics, ^an acooonlant' Afrig^Sre, « against Ihe cold. Hujttaa morte, 
'after his death.' 

AJBSQUfi, ^WITHOUT.' PrapotMonm «oM lAtfte app^^^Hm; ««e prapssi. 
la» avails nslfamg widnut prao£' Ntm lAejue eo emt, «fiir bad it f»t besn te 

CLAM* conveys the idea of privacy, or secrecy, and may be translated ' un- 
known TO,' * WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF.' Clom vito, 'uxiknown to her bua- 
band.* It is also used adverUdUy ; as, plwra dam de medio removebat, * he removed 
many more oat of the way privately.' 

■ " * "" ■ t ■»■ i n ■ I .w n fim^m-f^mrwrniti^-mm— v ii. >iii<i »»»>|'» 

*C\mn is «emetimBS iMnd with tm Aecnwliive; as, Cfam jMrtsw, Twpai. 
Ali% with «nativo;«B,«iftiirfBm,Ffant; and ovm wifk e OoiinnB, avp flton 

190 rosponTiOiifSi 

ODRAM BMrin Um «eiiial pratmos of a peson Uforg Mtfawa «n action « amii 
and therefore ngnifies * bkfoue,* *in the feksbncb of;' as, coram rege, «iotte 
ptesence of the king.' It is aiao uied adverbiaUy ; as, cum coram 9umu»,i\vf^BU 
D^e are together/ 

CUM, 'with/ expresses the society t presence^ or accompaniment of some tlmig 
or perBQQ with another. Vagamur egentea cum coi^ugibua et libSriSt ' we waodar 
in poverty with our wives and children ;* bdlum gerjhre eum JugurthOf * to eariy cm 
war with Jngmtha :' exit cum nunOot * he departed as soon as he saw the laesB^ii- 
ger ;' cum prim& luce, ' at break of day/ This preposition is always added to t]>e 
actives of the primitive pronouns, ego, to, and sui , as, mecum, * with me f nobis- 
cum, * with us ;* vobucitm, * with you/ 

"DE. The primary signification of this preposition is, derivation from something 
anterior, descent, effed, coneequence, or dependence ; and hence it may be translated 
< moM/ < OUT of/ ' OF,' ' on/ Epicuri de grege porcut, ' a hog of the herd of Ji^- 
coras.' Also, ' touching,' * oonoeming ;' as, <fe periaitis reipubUcm, * oonceming tt|a 
dangers of the republic' De aententi& me&, ' according to my opinion.' Somnu^ 
de prandio, * sleep after dinner/ De loco superiore, * fiom the higher ground/ Jh 
integro, ' afresh ;' de indtutria, ' on purpose ;' de tranaverao, * across ;' de meo, *9txo^ 
cost;' de die, ' by day ;' de impromeo, ' unexpectedly/ 

£, £X. This preposition implies moftoa ouJt of, dfiporiwrt from Ote interior of any 
place, and hence is translated * from.' It diflers from a or ab, in showing that the 
person or thing excluded had a more intimate connexion with that firom which it 
was excluded. De^ectue est e domo, * he was driven out of the house,' implies that 
the person. had been wuhin it ; but d^ectua est ab domo, *he was driven /rom the 
house/ shows merely that the person was around or near it Ex JEikiopi& est 
usque hoc, Terent *this woman comes as far as fh>m Ethiopia.' Ex quo in pfoovi^ 
dam venerunt, * fiom the time that they came into the province.' Ex mea sententia, 
'according to my opinion ;* magnA ex parte, * for the most part ;* poculum ex auro, 
^a cup made out of gold ;* ex equo, 'on boneback;' ex ordine, 'in order f ex ammoi, 
<lrom the heart f ex induelrih, * mi purpose;' ex tempore, 'without taking thought 
beforehuid/ ' suddenly ;' ex <Mo, ' on the whole.' 

PALAM is opposed to dam, and expresses something done (ypenly. It is tnu% 
lated ' BEFORE,' ' IN THE FRE8ENCE OF.' PoUom populo, * before the people ;' paku^ 
ommbus, * in the presence of all/ 

FRM, * BEFORE,' signifies precedence in point of situation, and hence precedence, 
iOfOompaiison of; or superiority. Pra ocuiis, ' before the eyes.' Hence the phnM 
prase ferre orgerite, ' to carry before/ or 'in front of a man/ means ' to profess/ 
' to avow,' ' to have the appearance of/ Pne nobis beaius est, ' he is happy in com- 
parison of us.' Also, ' through/ ' that is,' ' by reason of;' as, nee loqui prcB moerbre 
potuit, ' neither could he speak through giieC Pra muUitudine, ' by reason o£ th^ 

PRO, * FOR,' implies, primarily, tnterehange or substitution ; as, te, pro istis dicHs 
etftdsis, ulsiscar, Terentr ' for these reports and falsehoods I will pay yon hand- 
somely/ Catomihi est pfo centum mOtibuSt'Catam to me instead ^*&mX'v^*^ 
18 worth to me a hundred thousand/ Pro tempore, 'aocoiding to the time.' AlMI 

muwk,' «IN noirr OFf as, aedeiu pro <Bie CtM&riB, «eitti&g belbie the timiple 

BINE is in reality nothing but the imperative of the verb ainOt * to let alone/ and 
signifies priwUianf or being without a thing. SmepondirCf * without weight* 

TENUS, < UP TO,' * AS FAR AS.* Capulo tenus, Cic. < up to the hilt' AtOiotAus 
Ihuro tenus regnare jusauSt * Antiochus was ordered to reign as &r as mount 
Taurus.* Tenus is sometimes used with a genitive case, but the noun ]b then al- 
"MtfBiA the pluzal number; as, crurum temu, 'down to the legs {* ioMorttm te»u$, 
'tis ftr as the lips.' 

§ 231« Four prepositions, In, Sub, Super, and 
SxjBTER, govern the Accusative and Ablative. 

IN with an Accusative, ' to,' or ' unto,' or * into ;* as, Ex Asia tn Europam, 
exerditum trajic^ret * from Asia he marched his army into Europe.' Also ' towards ;* 
nBy indulgentia in liberos, 'indulgence towards children.* Infiammare populvM in 
improboSf * to inflame the people against the wicked.* In luceniy * until day.* In 
rem fuam e^ 'it is for your advantage.* Potestes inJUium^ * authority over a son.' 
/it dies, * every day.' Vivtre in diem, ' to live from hand to mouth.* 

IN with an Ablative, ' in.* Esse in numu, ' to be in one's power.' 'Towaids»' 
as, flip's tn hosUt ' merdful towards an enemy.' Hence it is even put for * con* 
ceming,' ' about,' or as we sometimes say, ' at;* In quo igUur homines exkorreseunt, 

* at whom then do men tremble ?' Also, ' among,' as, esse in claristltmus dvibus, * to 
be ranked among the most illustrious citizens.' * Within,* as, ialenta ducenta in sex 
mensibus promissa, * two hundred talents were promised within six months.* In 
primist or imprimis, * especially,' ' particularly.' 

SUB implies inferiority and contiguUy, When applied to tima it generally go* 
vems an accusative; when affiled to space it gmerally governs an ablative ; biit 
this rale is not invariable. With an Accusative. 'Under;* as, sub ^tsos wnirds, 
'under the very walls.' ' On,' ' about f as, Pompeius sub noctem nooes sdbni, * Fom- 
pey set sail about night ;' sub cantum gaUi, * at cock-crowing.' From the notion 
of proximity and inferiority which this word conveys, it sometimes signifies *nega 
after,* or * immediately following i* as. Sub eas literas statim recUata sunt tua, 

* immediately alter them your letters were read aloud.' Sub hoc dicta, ' at these 

With an Ablative. 'Under,* or 'beneath.* Maaiet sub Joioe frigtdo, 'the 
hunter remains beneatii the cold sky f Sub poena mortis, 'on pain of death;* Sub 
specie venatioms, 'under the pretence of hunting.* 

SUBTER is derived fiom Sub, and like it, signifies contiguity and inferiority of 
fiace, but is not referred to time. It governs ah accusative more frequently lluai 
an ablative. ' Under.* Subter mare, ' beneath the sea.* Subter densa teiiudine, 

* under a thick testuda* RkcUeo subter /itore, 'beneath the Rhsetean shore.' 

- SUPER expresses, ibr the most part, devotion, or a situation higher than ous- 
srtiwis , or the ofasject spoken o£ 

WiHi 9A Ag eawtiwt *tyom* «•tow^* Sniper Hfm,*wpmiih0kmkB: « J i f iii trf 
M^ famotiMnma nqter oeethru fuU cema, * the sajqier was ftmoat beyond «U ib^ 
mt' < Betidu,* m, PunSteum cverclteM si^wr moiivm eiiamfamet afidt, *ftmii# 
ako, bendes the disease, afbcted;lbe Carthagmian army.* , ^ 

^th an Ablative. Fronde wper viridh * upoa the green lea£* ContuiUani Mitt, 
figwr, 'they take coiiDBel about the war.* It is often used adverbially; as, uti» 
mgterque dictum ett, * enough, and more thaa enough baa been aaid.' 

(Xml There are five or riz i^Uablea, namely, am, di or dti, rs, a§, 00«, fA&h. u» 
oonmionly called Iiueparahle Pr^xmtionSr because they are only to be baad itt 
compound worda 


A, AB) ABS, signify privation, or sgBonifioii, and may generally be rendered by 
the English Of, as, duco, * to lead ;' abduco, * to lead ofi|' ' to lead away ;* nuveo, 
'to move ;* amoveo, ' to move ofi]* *tD remove ;* tdndo, ' to cut;' abtdndo, * to eut 
aff ' A is likewise added to nouns as a privaUve ; as, men», ' the mind ;* amat^ 

* vidthout mind,* * senseless,' * mad.* A6 is sometimes changed into au before wocib 
beginning with /, fi)r the sake of euphony; BB,ferOt *to bear;* aufero, *to bear 
ofl^* ' to take away ;' (in which verb the preposition ab resumes its place in thaae 
tensas which have not/, as, abgtidi, ablahtm ,-) /Mgio, * to fly;* ttujii^lio, *to iy ofi)' 
^tofly away.* Aht is used in eomposition before I; as, teneo, ^to hoU;* ahiHiUB^ 

* to hold off from,* * to abstain.* 

AD retains its primary signification of approcuA, or that of accession or attgmenia- 
turn, and may generally be translated ' to.* In the writers of the Augustan age it 
generally takes the consonant of the word with which it is compounded ; as, curro, 

* to run ;' adauro or accitrro, * to run to ;* fyo, ' to fix ;* adfigo or t^figo, ' b> fix in 
addition,' or 'affix;' lo^uw, «tospeak,** adbtquar or aOoquor, 'to speak lo^* *toid- 
dnss,** Nuo, 'to nod;* mnnno, «to nod to^* 'to assent;* ro^o, ' to ask ,** arrqf% ' to 
ask fiv one's so V *to claim,-' «icmo,*totake,-' «ssune^ 'to take to one's solC' *fD 
Msame;* ds^ «to give;* «Us^ «to give inaddltion,"toadd.* Italsomcrwawtiift 
significalion of the primitive; aa^ omo, 'to love;' cMttmo, «to kifveiKidi»'«tob* 
enamoDred of ;' Wo, ' to drink ;' oditto, « to drink haid.' 

AM is im inseparable preposition, being never found alone. It is from the Gkeek 
a/i^i, ' round about;* and may be translated 'around,' 'about;' as, uro, ' to bum f 
amburo, 'to bum all about f qvero, ' to seek ;' anqutro^ • to seek about,' ' to search 
eafefully.' Fro» the aignifintion «ajrosnd,' it ootoea to mean «on all sides,' « two 
ways;' as, ago, 'to lead;' auMgo, «to be led anund;' that is, *to doiibt,' ««» 
hesitate what course to take;' ai^rio, 'to take;' «nocpe, ' that whicdi may be taken 
two ways,' ' doubtful.' 

AMT£ aigniiiea^racaiZeiioe, and is translated ' before ;' as, cedo, 'to go;* awlecei<<^, 
'Jo 9» befcra ;' fero, 'to bear;' mnksfero, ' to bear before,' ' to prefer/ 

CUM signifies 'society,' ' participation,' or 'accompaniment;' but is changed int» 
MR bafine m; aa, uMaiere, «to relate;' oommemoto, 'to relate lqgethflr."ls 
roemocate;' or else into con, which varies its last oonsonam befoM aevaial 


[4fQ|»it; m,^^rm*^rmf tmemr^'t^vBk togMherf ago, 
*i » ihi f Y em a g ^vit€94^tivtg&, *to drive togwther,' 'to coitoct^ «Krtto.'toag^ 
^^«r *MVOlv» ,** ^DfMg^ cf^tfdgtfo, <to agitAte witk one's wblTf beiiee *to thiiikf 
'bom;' eoiMWfta or «<]grfMliM^ < htiTiBg ft partieipslioD of fairth/ or 'related {T 
jrtfili» «a oendidatef eom^wfieor, *4 leUow oondkUte,' or 'ivnX^ graHor^ 'm 
mlkif on^fmlior, * to oobm together f heooe * to engage in battle.' 

DE in coqipoi i tion takee the aeiiie of 1. privaHok ; 2. dhmmOion ; 3» removal ; 
^ 4etoeMti 6. eat^plaimi and noietimeB fiom tbe notioa of oompiletioa it Mgnifiea, 
^eaoen» Thim^h thcan, 'to adorn;' diddecora, *to diagraoe;' aperot 'to bopoif 
dtipirQ, * to be without hope/ ' to despair ;' menM, * the mind ;' demenM, * oat of one's 
mind/ *iaad.' 2./eeM^ 'to do;' d^ficio, 'to do less than one ought,' 'to iaiV 'to be 
deficient' 3l ferveo, * to be hot;' deferveo, ' to remove heat,' ' to grow oooL' 4. 
«odo^'toftllf dlM^dok'tofidldown.' 5./aw,'li>boand;' d^bnOi'to boond com- 
pletelf/ * to define.' 61 Jbigro, * to bam ;* deflagrOt ' to bam excessively,' ' to bom 
to ashos. s 

DIS, DI, is an inseparable prepoiition, denoting ' separation,' ' division,' ' denial ;' 
a% IroAo, ' to draw ;' dtsfr^o^ ' to paU asunder,' ' to disjoin,* * to distract ;' piUo, ' to 
IhJnfc;' ditj^iUK ' to tbmk difierently,' ' to dispute.' From < oeparaiioo' it comas to 
denote «distinctioof as./itdyooh'to jodge,^ dyiidfco. «to jadge betweaii,' «toda» 
tioguish,' ' to discern.' 

E, £X, geoBraUy signifies ' out,' and fiem diis sense all its otheia may be dedaeed» 
fBflfa as, ' privatioB,' ' peifaetion,' * elevation,' ' dadaratioo,' dee. Belbre eeitain eon- 
sonants e is only osed, and befixe /, « is changed into/ Thus, bUo» 'todrink^ 
e(i&o,' to drink out," to drink up,*' dica, 'to toll;' ee^rco, 'to tell out,' 'to publish;' 
leva, ' to lighten ;' deoo, ' to lighten out and oat,' that is ' to lighten thcMoughly/ and 
so ' to raise,' ' to elevate ;' «sdo^ ' to go;' «mk^o^ ' to go oat ofi' ' to escape ;' copco^ 
' to take ;' excipiOf ' to take out,' ' to except ;' quaere, ' to seek ;' exjuiro, ' to seek 
out,* 'to search,** aanguis, 'blood,** exmnguU, 'out of blood,' 'bJoodless;' onuno, 
* fife i exanimitt ' lifeless.' 

JN, in composition, changes its consonant before the other liquids into the liqaid 
it precedes ;* as, iUudo, from in and hdo, and befiwe 6 and-^ the n is changed into 
IB, as, imUbo, fiom ia and Ube. 

The signification of in is very various in oorapositkni, and in some cases even 
opotadictoiy. Thus it atngmenti, as mmw, ' to lessen ;* {mmmuo, ' to make lose 
npoQ lea,' or ' to make very amalL' Bat it is more freqnenfiy used in the sense 
of 'negation,' aa the « (Nrivative of the Greek, and the mh or m prefixed to words 
la English ; as, mund%u, ' clean ;' immundut,'* unclean.' But in aomo instances the 
augmentative and privative senses appear in the same word ; thus, trnpotena is used, 
ib the sense of ' very powerful,' that is, ' ungovernable,' and in the sense of ' wealc' 
' powerless.' It has ^so various other significations ; as, ludo, ' to play ;' iUudOf ' to 
play upon,' ' to moek ;* ponOf ' to place ;' trnpono, ' to place upon,' ' to put upon,* ' to 
impose ;' kabeo, ' to have ;* tnAAeo^ ' to have within control,' ' to check,' ' to rein in ;* 
olAesco^' to grow white;* tnoOesoo,' to begin to grow white;' «tdeo^ 'toiee/ diti- 
<(m^ < to see' or ' look against,' and thus ' to envjr* a person. 

^ Ufl^R has geneially the same meaning in composition that it has when alone. 
■Mtoly; 'hetweem'or'aaHRg;' as,jMiie,'toplaee;' InlSTpofU)^ ' to plaee between.' 


184 marosiTioii». 

m»,dico,*tomyi' iiilenltoo^'toMy betweeo^'aiidio'loibrbid/ ftointeidict;' vmni^ 

* to *oaiae;' mtervenio, * to oome between/ and thiu *to prevent* Tf nlrrmigmmiiij 
tm, inieificio, * to do thoroughly/ <to do up,* * to kilL' Perhaps in thm word tbe ^m? 
mitive meaning of 'between* may be traced, as /act«^ <to do,* 'to make;* uUerJkiu 
' to make* or < go between' a perran and the period of life to which he is aimiog» 
and thuB * to cut him oBT from the living. 

OB takea the senae of * before/ «agaimt;* ai, ruo, * to mrii;* oftnce^ *to nnk be- 
fore/ or * overwhelm;* loquor, *to Bpeak;* oUoquoTt *to speak agaimt;* duco,*to 
lead ;' oMuco, ' to drew over/ < to hide/ ' b> blot* Sometimes it increases the signi- 
fication : as, domtuh ' to sleep ;* obdormio, * to sleep upon sleep,' ' to sleep soundly/ 

PER retains its original notion of * transition,* or its secondary one of * intensity ;'. 
as, eo^ 'to go;' pereo, * to go tiuough/ and so * to go through life/ *to perish;* do,, 

* to give ;* perdo, * to give thoroughly,* * to give without hopes of recall :* and so * la 
fose ;* adoletcent, * young ;* peraddeaceiu^ * yety young*' Sometimes it is privative : 
as, fduBf * fiiithful ;* perfidu»t * perfidious/ 

POST takes the sense of ' behind ;' as, pcno, * to place ;* poatpcnot * to place be- 
hind' or 'postpone;* habeo, * to have,* ' to esteem;* poaUudteo, 'to esteem h 

PR£ takes the sense of ' precedence/ or ' prevention.' Thus, dico^ 'to tell; 
pradicOf ' to fiwetell ;' /oeto, * tt> make / pneficiot * to make first* or ' head/ that ia, 
'to set over;' claudot ' to shut / pradauda, ' to shut before a person can get in,' tfaaf 
is, 'to shut out* or 'prevent admissimL* From the notion of priority, it also ooo- 
veys the idea of ' excellence/ or ' superlativeness,* or 'excess ;* as, pctau^ ' power- 
ful ;* /n-ojpotefi», ' veiy powerful ;' maturut, ' early ;* prtemaiuru», ' very early,* ' too 
early,' ' premature ;* aUtret ' to stand ;' prjOMtam^ * to stand befora the rest,' ' to exceL* 

PRO in composition has generally the sense of advancing : as, moveo, * to move ;' 
promooeo, ' to move forward,* ' to promote ;* cedo, ' to go ;* procedo, * to go forward/ 
•Id prcx^eed ;' habeo, < to have ;* prokibeo, ' to have in advance* of another, and so in 
psevention of him, (Mr ' to prohibit* Sometimes it has the sense of ' substitntioo, 
as, curaior, ' a guardian ;* procurator, ' a guardian for another,' ' a steward ;' nomen, 

* a noun ;' j^ronoman, ' a word instead of a noun,' or ' a pronoun.' Also^ ' presence 
' publicity ;' as, pono, ' to place ;' prcpono, ' to place before' or ' in presence of othen/ 
< to propose ;' acribo, ' to write ;' proicribo, ' to write in the presence of the public,' 
or 'publicly denounce/ or ' proscribe;* i>oco, ' to call;* prcvooo, ' to call out before 
the public,' or * challenge.' 

RE is an inseparable proposition, and means ' back again/ or ' against;* as, capio, 

* to take ;' redpio, ' to take again/ ' to receive ;* pono^ ' to place ;* repono, * to place 

SE is also inseparable, and means 'apart,* 'aside/ as, «oco, 'to call/ tevoco, 
*to call aside / cUutdo ' to shut;* aedudo, ' to shut up.' 

SUB. The last consonant of this word'is frequently changed into others acconf«' 
ing to the word with which it is compounded. Most of its meanings in compoeitioq 
may be traced to its primitive signification of ' under;* and frequently co n eepsada 
with our termination ' iah ;' as, jacio, ' to throw ;' subfido, ' to cast under/ ' to sub*^ 

li?tBRl]&CTIOK8. \W 

jett;' rlrfttg, 'ledf tiArufuB, «reddish/ that ia, slitde «undei' led; rideo, 'to 
iMigh ;' mtbridea, * to imile ;' timeo, «tD fear;' raMnra, «to fear a little;* triMU, 
f md ;* tttUrittiar * a Utde Bad.' SometimeB it means somethiiig secret» or dandestane ; 
nfk, g9rf>, 'to cany;' niggera, «to carrjr under^' ' to sng^gest ;* daco, « io lead ;' mid- 
dveo, * to lead away/ * to withdraw privily.' 

SUBTER signifies simply ' under/ or * beneath ;* as, Zoftor, ' to glide ;' tublerlabor, 
* to glide beneath:* or something secret ; as, /ugiot * to fly i^ mUerfugio, * to fly away 
privily/ ' to escape beneath die shelter of something.' 

SUPER, * upon,' or ' over ;' as, gradior, « to go ;' mqMrgredior, * to go beyond/ or 
' surpass ;' acribo, * to write ;' myferacribo, * to write upon/ ' to superscribe.' 

TRANS in composition has the same signification that it has by itself; as, eo^ < to 
goY traneeo» * to pass over / adigo, * to drive f tranaadigo, * to pierce through.' It 
sometimes drops its two final letters before other consonants; as, do^ «to give;' 
iradOf * to give over to another/ and so * to deliver.' 


§ 253« An Interjection is an indeclinable word 
thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express 
some passion or emotion of the mind. 

Some Intoijections are natural sounds, and common to all languages; as, Ofc/ 

' Interjections express in one word a whole sentence, and thus fitly represent the 
quickness of the passions. 

The diflferent passions have commonly different words to expraa them ; iStixm, 

1. JOT ; as, etax ! hey, brave, lo ! ' 
' % GRIEF; as, oA, A«i, heuy eheu! ah, alas, woe is me! 
a WONDER; as, ptqw! O strange! vah! hah! 

4. PRAISE; 9M,eug9! well done! 

5. AVERSION ; as, eqUige ! away, begone» avaunt, oC fie, tush ! 

6. EXCLAIMINO ; as. Oh, proh! O! 

7. SURPRISE or FEAR; as, atat! ha, aha! 
a IMPRECATION ; as, tw/ woe, pox on't! 
a LAUGHTER ; as, Ao, Ao, ;ie/ 

10. SILENCING ; as, ott, 'se,|»x/ silence, hush, 'st! 

11. CALLING ; as, efto, ehSdvm, to, ha! soho, ho^ O! 

12. DERISION ; as, Am / away with ! 
la ATTENTION; as, hem! ha! 

Some interjections denote several difibrent paasioiis; thus, VA is used to e xpro a s 
joy, and sorrow, and wonder, &c. 

Adjectives of the neuter gend^ are sometimes used ibr intonections; as, Matumi 
with a mischief! Infandum! O shame! fy, fy! Miairtm! O wretched! Nefae 
O the vOlaiiy! -^ 

199 eoirjirKoarjK^iw. 


§ 254* A conjuncticNQ is an indediiiable wofd, 
which serves to join sentences together. 

Thufl, ** You and /and iht boy read Vhml," is one lentsnce mad» n]» of tkeae 
three, ly the conjunction and twice empfoved; Z reoci Finpil; IToii niii VirgUs 
The boy reads VlrgU. In like manner, ** You and I read Vurgil, ha the bo^ reeds 
Ovid," 18 one Beotence, made up of thi«e, bjr the coBJaaetionfraihl and buL 

Conjunctioni» acootding to the» difisrent meaaiiig, ate drvided int» the felfow- 
ing classes: 

1. COPULATIVE; a$,ettae,atque, {tie, and; itiam, fuom, Hem, ako; cum, test» 
both, and. Also their contraries, nee, nhpie, neu, neve, neither, nor. 

S. DISJUNCTIVE ; as, aui, w, vd, «ei^ rive, either* oi^ 

3. CONCESSIVE; as, efn, etiamn, tametti, Ucet, quanquam, quammi, diongii, 
although, albeit 

4. ADVERSATIVE; as, «ed; wrum, aiOem, ai, ast, atqui, but; tamen, atUbnen, 
venmUtmen, verumenimvero, yet^ notwithstanding, neverUieb 

& CAUSAL; as, nam, namque^ enim, fiv ; qma, quippe, quomam, becaose; fudd, 
that because. 

6. ILLATIVE or RATIONAL; as, ergo, ideo, igUur,idcirco,iliiqat^ibiK%&aBei 
puqfropter, quocirca, wherefore; pramde^ theielbfe; cum, quum, seeing, since; 
quandoqiMem, fiwasmuch as. 

7. HNAL or PERFECTIVE; as, tit, «f», that; to the end that 

& CONDITIONAL; as, si, sin, if; dim» m^do* d^mmpdo, pcovided, nyea oon- 
dition that ; eiqutdem, if indeed. 

a {;XCEFnV|: or SESrSICnVEi as»n!u»i%nnles^eicept. 

10. DIMINUTIVE; as, eaUem, certe, at least 

11. SUSPENSIVE or DUBFTATTVE; as, an, ofim, nym^ ncheMisri iM^ OUNom» 
whether, not ; necne, or not 

12. EXPLETIVE ; as, tnOen, vera, now, tmlf f qmdtm^tgtili^m, iadead. 

13. ORDINATIVE; as^ dstndle^ Aereafier; de/Hjue, finally,* weeper, nuxreotor ; 
caiirum, moreover, but, however. 

14. DECLARATIVE ; as, tidetket, eofflcet, nonpe, mmfrtim, &c. to wx^ namely. 

Obs. 1. The same words,^ are taken in dlfl&rent views, ate both adverbt 
and conrunetions. Thus, an, anne, Ac. are either inte i/c ygfl ft» adtxrbs, as, An 
sot6tt? Does he write? or, nupeiuim osiyii a rfioes» as, Neaaa a» scri8at^ I know not 
if he writes. 

Obs. S. Some ooqfunctions, aeeoidmg to their natural order, stand first in a 
aentence ; 9fi, Act oSg^» nee, wque, mUp «eZ, srae, td, md, vervm, wok, qHtm d tq Met m, 
^fiiocirca, ^putre, sin, nqufdem, prtBUrquam, &jc. : some stand in the seccmd puce ; as», 
AtOtm, vero, quomiet quidem, emm: and some nuqr indifier«itly be put «dier finC 
or second ; ai^ EAim, eqmdtm, Uoet, qumime, qumt^iam, Immmi attHmmh num q iit h 
qupd, quia, qiumiam, quippe, i^p0(e,.iii titi, ergo, tdea, igtbtr, iddmOi itSq^ pnoimst. 
propterea, «i, nt, nisi, dec. 


HkiciB aiosie the division of them Into Prepositive, SubfuncHvet and 
Common. To the subjunctive may be added these three, que, ve, ne, 
which are always joined to some other word, and are called Enclitics ; 
hsfiKuse, when put after a long syllable, they make 1^ accent incline 
to that syllable ; as in the following verse, 

Indoctusque pU<B, disdve, trochive, quiescit, Horat. 

But when these enclitic conjunctions come after a short vowel, they 
do not affect its pronunciation ; thus, 

AfbuteosftBtuSf montem&quefraga Ug^anL Ovid. 


' § 255« The signification of a Latin word is the notion or thought 
which it conveyed to the mind of a Roman, and to express this clearly 
in another language is often a work of no small difficulty, and consti- 
tates one of the chief advantages derived from the study of the ancient 
classics. To translate accurately and elegantly from one language 
into another, calls into exercise the highest powers of tlie mind y and 
hence a classical foundation has ever been considered by every intelli* 
gent scholar as the only basis of a truly liberal and solid education. 

Every word has a primitive and invariable sense, which it is most 
important to know. From this original signification the secondary and 
metaphorical are derived. This sense must be found 1^ separating 
Componnd words ; by tracing derivative words to their roots, and by 
resolving compound ideas or notions into their simple parts. Corporeal 
words, such as, ocvUus, maniw, &e. are easy, and seldom have more 
than one meaning. Incorporeal words, such as virtus., longitudo, nox^ 
&c. are more difficult, as well as more firequent with the ancients, and 
on these our greatest labour must be bestowed. 

The danger into which every English scholar, from the lowest class 

in the Grammar-school to the senior in college, is perpetually liable to 

run, is that of translating Latin words into those which resemble. 

them in appearance and sound; as, virtus, * virtue;' crimen, 'crime.*' 

Against this fiiult they should be continually on their guard, and to aid 

them in this, we shall briefly point out, first, some erroneous inter* 

]^tatk>ns, and second, attempt to facilitate the knowledge of the true 

meanings of words. 


199 mma^onxumft or wan% 

$ 250« False significaitioiis not to be adopted. 

firiTiiig after honour ^od pquiag cniv't atlf on oaftun oatwavd tfuag»; likiQg ttriM 
praised, to display one's self, and be in office. 

JE/^pMr is, prpperijTr ' a level,' or *-flat,' fipm optii^ 'iereil»' ' eten ;* iiMnee, 'th0 
sea,' because it vk leteL 

' .AffWBmcs, 'pieamnV «a gf u ea bto I» the sensesi' parlicnlBiiy to the eyes; tfienqe 
peculiaily applied to places and situatkne; a% Aorft' cnnemt, m^ anioBna. Abmo 
offiamus, 01. fmtuna amoBna, would be improper. Jt also mepMPS.* agreeable to the 
ears,' as, verba amcetuL 

Ammaif from ammo, * breath,' 'life/ denotes a living creature, and is therefixv 
applied to ^nno and buUa. 

Apparere, not * to appear,' that is, to seem, but to appear, that is^ * to be manifest ;* 
as, mendacium apparett *the fiiJsehood is apparent;' nanieM oppomA, «men are seen 

Arma are properly * arms for defence/ or < armour.;* ^eiOf ' we^xutsof oflence,' as 
darts, swords, &c. 

AxaxuBt (from avidus and (BrU,) 'desirous of gold/ ' avaiicious ;' not oovetow 

Calamftas is not every misfortune or, trouble, but somethiog ^pcompanied with 
loss, and must often be translated * loss»' * deprivation.' 

dement is not, generally, ' merciful,' but < soft,' ' mild,' gentle ;' ' one who is not 
easily provolsed.' 

Conoindire, not < to convince/ or convict» genen^y* but of a bad fba^, a| ot 
theft, error« &c In a good sense we use persuadere. 

Crimen, not ' trao^gressaoo/ unless tha> be implied in dia chn^^; but 'ehoiye/ 


Divert&re,. not < to stop at an iwv' but. 'to sapafate/ when a nmlter of peo|i« 
separate and go difl^rent ways. Lleoertere means * tp stop at an inn.' 

Exeutere, or eneUre, means, L <lo stand forth,' ' to be in sight»' <to appear »* 

/mo, not merely ' yes,' but ironically, something like our ' yea mdier.' 

hi/ans, (mm and/ons participle of/art, *to speak,') not every chiM, but 'an 
in&nt;' one that < cannot yet speak.' 

l£gemferre, 1. *to propose a law/ or 'introduce a bill ;' 8: ' to make or pas a 

Optfdot not every opinion, but such as * an ongroundod suspicion,' ' ftncy / epi- 
fiflri, ' to ftncy/ 'to tl:ank.' 

: Biem must be unde r stood accordii^ to the sulgect; it denotes lore ioObrf»- 
parents, chOdren, relatives, and benefector^, which will be. riMiwn by ^. 

name, hy the command, or with nopect to the itate; «a, bdbum. geftf- pMki, *%9 
ctny on 'war in the name of the alateV 8* 'nmyenal,' 'ooramon/ * mean.' 

SUtUtts, not merely*» ftri»^ hot «thosghtleBa^' ' hasty/ «mnple/ 

§ 9&7* To faeititate the knowte<]^e of the trae 
meaning of words : 

S^rst, we Bhoold oheenre wtoiee ft word itr derired, m, anmai, front 
mnnuh '1>^* tbeace 'animal,' or whaterer lives: — «^tfor, *a level,' 
from €muugf * level,' * even i*^^-Mollis, fiom moMis, (which is from 
«itoveo,) * moveable,* 'benfiing,' 'soft:' — momentum^ •movement,* for 
movimentum from nwveo; henee res magni momenti, ^a thing which 
has much weight in causing something, which was unsettled and in 
equilibrium, to be decided:' — -prudens for providenSj * seeing before- 

Second) the i]i^)ort of terminations should be 


1. In verbal nonns, the termination -ot (fima e d finom tnmiliveveitai bjr changing 
-ufit of the rapine into -w) denotes a man who performs the action ezprenBed by the 
verb ; as, vict^, 'a ooQ^neior/ lector » * a Header/ from vinco and Uga. 2. Hie ter- 
nunatioo -trixr formed ^m the same, denotes a fomale agent; as, uotria, 'a qod- 
queress.' 3. The termination -to of the third, and -u* of the ^orth decJensioD» ^* 
presa the state of the verb abstractly; a«^ actio, * a snit;* guMfaUb * arcniftoipts 
uUiOt ' revenge/ 

4. The terminalSon «itfu m (and sometimea -«mr) eapM s s es a means for the 
attainment of that which the verb denotes; as, ai^'itmtalaaM, 'a means of aiding/ 
fiom adjyvo; condimentum, «sometbiag for seasoning/ «seasoning»' fiom» eenrfo, 
documerUum, * a meam of instructing,' from doceo, 

. & -ettm, anpeodedt» the nameaof shmbaanl tnesr denotes a piaoe i«iiei» Ike^ 
grow in abundance ; as, fiom juercw^' an oak,' oomea^MereihMi^* a giore of oaks ^ 
fiom vimSf * a vine/ comes vtnefum, * a vineyaid/ 

6. -arium denotes a receptacle; as, aviarium, 'an aviary/ fitnn oot«, 'a bird;' 
ffnmarium, <a granaiy/ «idace where com is kept, from ^ywiicfli,*cont.' ^ 
seminarium, from aemtm ; aolumlmrittm, fiom oobontet* 

7. -He^ appended to the names of animals, denotes the place ia which they are 
keiftt ; atk bodih, ' ar stall for oxen ,** ejmle, * a stable for horses.' Sb, -caprUt, nale, 

iftUktt tVOHnMioii 4teii wUdi is fhe mart common, denotes, abstractty, the 
qaaHty of the a«yectivea .ta» vdtieh it com»; as» oli i Jtlto s , •eroel^/ ft o m aft w. 

806 mmnrncATWfm of 


1. •iUi and -HUU express, passively, the capability of any tliiDg ; as, amaSUist * ca- 
pable of being loved ;' jiZoeo&tfis^ ' capable of b«iig appeased.' Bsi,dooili$,fQl^UM, 
fragiUg, which seem to stand for dociHUia, faatfOis, &c» 

U. <a e xp ro ss es an indination to any thing, and generally one that is ftnlty ; pug» 
max, * dispoeed to quarrel.* So» edaxt loqua», ropas. 

% ^ett««nd -dtet denote the material, bat are thus distinguished : eus denotes the 
■olid material ; Stus what it is adorned with ; as, amtuMt * golden,* ' made of gold ;' 
aurSiM, 'gilded;* so, argenteut, argentStuM ; fBrreu8fferratu$, Ac 

4. -artiM generally denotes professicm and occupation; as, statuariuB, ettrhondnM», 
argentaritu, &c. 

fi. "fer or -feruit fi^om firo, denotes ' bearing ;' as, pintfer, * pine-beariog/ 

6. -alU denotes a resemblance or similarity ; as, regsUsj * kingly,' ' like a king;* 
but regiu8t * royal,* 'belonging to a king;' as, dlivi<UB reg&lett ' riches suited to a 
Icing;' dxoitxxB regitB, 'riches belonging to a kiog;' mttUbersHiM, 'suited to a free, 
well'bom man,' 'liberal,' 'genteel.' 

7. -Mtw denotes an abundance or fulness of any thing ; as, piscosus, * full offish ;' 
anndsys, ' full of years ;' verbdws, * full of words,' ' verbose :' so, vinotua, mactdo' 
SIM, &C. 8. The terminations -lentu» and -iius have nearly the same import ; aa^ 
«ieHoiluib/roiidtiZsalttf^Jlorlittf, hjeHjftdm»; dsc 


' 1. Qaam, 'any;' as, jutsjuotn, 'any one;' utquam^ 'any where.' 2. Cunquet 
* ever,' * soever ;' quicunqttet ' whosoever ;' ubicunque, ' wheresoever.' Que has the 
same Ibroe in many words ; as, utique, ' howsoever,' ' at all events,' ' certainly.' 


1. •4ino denotes inclination or desire ; as, ««urto, ' to desire to eat' Verbs of this 
termination are of the fourth conjugation, and are called desiderativet. 2, 4o de- 
notes repetition, as, dictiio, ' to say oflen.' 3. •«» expresses the beginning of the act 
denoted by the primitive ; as, aduoot ' to grow warm.' 4. Diminutives end in iHa, 
and denote a trifling insignificant action, as, cantUlo. 


1. O and ue, in adverbs of place, denote ' whither;' as, eo, quo, hue, utuc, iBue. 
S. Inc, ' whence ;' as, hinc, UHnc 3. Ic, * where ;' as, Aac, HHe. 

» _ 

§ 263« Third. In words which have several meanings, we most 
try to get the proper and first meaning, from which the rest may be 
derived, and see if there be a connexion between, the ariginftl and 
secondary sense which leads fhas one to the other. 

nejxiFicA'guam ^ waRm. 201 

Amtm I'* to fp wand* BOftt^, at item (mo to 9ik^^ 8L<toaafieitanolBee/ 
because at Rome the candidatea ' went round' to b^ lor roteB, or became eaag 
around fiv any thing showB a denre after it; hence» ambiiio, 1. ' the aolidting an 
office' by going round after it; S^'denra of hoooiK^' 'ambition.' 

Ango, 1. ' ta make narrow,' ' to tie fiist,' as the throat ; 2. ' to caoae anguish.' 

AdJHgo or Affiigo (firom ad and fiigo) 1. * to dash a thing against' something, aa 
the wall, the ground : 2. ' to drive to the ground,' < to make unfiNrtonate,' ' to afflict' 

CkaOiAu», * thidc*ekioBed,' ' having hard lumps'' fiott modi labour, whieh snj^ 
poses practice and e%)erience : 2. ' experienced,' ' skilfuL* 

Cakmittat, 1. ' i^juiy to the stalk,' (fiom ealamuB, * a stalk'): % *a great kiss' or 
' hurt,* or misfortune attended with loss ; as when one loses his property. 

Confiaart and refutare, 1. ' to quench boiling water by pouring in ooljd ;' 8L * to 
^amp, daye back, eonfiUe/ 

EgregiuB, 1. ' chosen fiom the 0Qck;' %> * eaceUenl.* 

GhBatia,l.*agreeaUene«B;' 9.gnaiakomim9, «th^ftveiir wfaicb an» haa with 
the people,' or * which he haa towards otbem i' 3. ' complajsanoa ;' 4. ' thanks.' 

Oj^Bndere, 1. inadvertenlly to tread or 'stumble «tgainst ai^ thmg;' 3. 'to find» 
meet with;' 3. *to hurt;' 4. «to commit a fault»' 'to ofiend;' & *to be unSOU^ 

Pertonot 1. ' a mask ;' 3. ' persoiw' ' part,' or ' duuacler,' whetfaes Bsal or uuaoBd, 
fbr the ancient actors wore * maski^' which oon^spondad to their awaimwl rhan>otot ;, 
3. ' person,' the man himself; mea persona, ' my person,' ' I.' 

Pro6u9, 1. «^good,' 'genuine,' 'sincere,' when anything is what it was takei^ 
for; as, aurum, prdmms 2. 'good,' 'honourable,' 'upright,' as, prohu amkuM, 'a 
amoeie friend.' 

Scrvpuba, 1. 'a small stone;' % any 'obstacle;^ 3: 'hesitBlkxi,' «onceitHtoty/ 

£lu£<ei«re,l.' to raise on high;' 2.'tohelp»''to8tand.b|r;' a«toli{ 






A SsRTKHox IB any thought 6[ the mind expressed by two or more 
words put together; as, I read; the boy reads VirgU, 

'' That part of grammar which teaches to pat words rightly together 
in sentences, is called Syntax or Construction, 

' Words in sentences have a two-fold relation to one ano^er^ 
namely, that of Ckmcord or Agreemdtat; and that of Govemmeni at 

' Concord, is when one word agrees with another in some accidents ; 
■8, in gender, number, person, or case. 

Government, vb when one word requires another to be put in a cer- 
tain case, or mode. 


§ !• 1. In every sentence there must be a verb and a nominative 
expressed or understood. 

2. Every adjective must have a substantive expressed or under- 

8. All the cases of Latin nouns, except the nominative and vocative, 
must be governed by some other word. 

4. The genitive is governed by a substantive noun expressed or an- 
derstood : or by a verM adjective. 

5. The dative is governed by adjectives and verbs. 

6. The accusative is governed by an active verb^ or by a preposi- 
tion ; or is placed before ue infinitive. 

7. The vocative stands by itself, or has an interjection joined 
with it 

8. The ablative is governed by a preposition expressed or under- 

9. The infinitive is governed by some verb or adjective. 


§ 2% The two general divisions of Syntax in 
this Grammar are into SIMPLE SENTENCES 
and COMPOUND SENTENCES. The latter wiU 
be found under rule LVII — ' The construction of 

§ 3« A Seuplm Sbntenom is that which has but ooe nominative 
and one verb; bb, praceptor docet^ *the master teaches;' a Cokfound 
Sbntbncs is that which has more than one nominative and one verb; 
as, pr€Bceptor, qui docet, labdrat, * the master, who teaches, is sick ;' 
h^ the relative pronoun qui introdaces another verb, docet, into the 

§ 4« In a SiMFLB Sentence there is only one Subject and one 
Attribute or Predicate, The Subject is the word, (whether it denotes 
a thing or a person) of which something is said ; the Predicate is what 
is said of the subject The father is learned. Here ' the fkther* is 
the Subject of discourse, or the person spoken of; * learned' the Pre* 
dicate, or what we affirm concerning the subject Sometimes the 
subject is accompanied by an adjective ; as, the fine book i$ lost ; here 
* the fine book^ is the subject, and * lost' the predicate. 

§ 5« In a COMPOUND SENTENCE there are either several 
subjects and one predicate, or several predicates and one subject, or 
both several predicates and several subjects ; as, ' My fother, mo^er, 
brother and sister are dead ;' — ^here, the predicate dead belongs to the 
feur subjects, father, mother, brother and sister, which taken together 
ibrm a phural ; the predicate therefore with the verb should be plural. 
The subject is often separated from its predicate ; as, 'my fiither, who 
has been absent many weeks, has not yet written ;' where the words, 
my father has not yet written form a sentence, between which another 
sentence, who has been absent many weeks, is interposed. In the in- 
terposed sentence, who vs the subject, absent Uie predicate. 


The following words agree together in sentences. 1. A substantive 
with a substantive. 2. An adjective withr a substantive. 3. A verb 
with a nominative. 

1. Agreement of one Substantive with another, 

§6» Rule I. Substantives signifying the same 
thing agree in ca:se ; as, 

CidSro orator, Cicero |he orator; Ciceroni» oratoria. Of Cicero the orator 
tJrbs Athene, The ci^ Atheiw ; Urbis Aihen&rum, Of the dty Athene. , 

§ 7# Thk addition to a Bubrtantive is called AppotUum, aad is pro- 
perly a ahoit «ode ef «peaking for ^*, ^««, ^usd, or «urn y*th^© 
verb «urn; as, Oic«ro, Consyl, Aoc /ect£, •Cicero the CaMwl did tlMt 
the same a«, Cicero, com constd esaet, hoc fecit 

§ 8« It i« not necessary that the nouns agwe in gender, nttopber or 
person; as, Magnum pauperiei opprobrium. Hot. where «yprojftiiftt, 
whioh is nenter, agrees in case with pauperiet^ fern. Bat, if it be pos- 
sible, they should agree in gender and number: thus, docml hob me 
usus, magister opHmus, * experience, which is the best master, taught 
me this:' if for u$um we subetitnie «tremMM^ fen., we iksM «ay, 
WMguU'4t optma^ 

% 0« The noun, pronoun, or adjective, in the answer to a question, 
must be in the same case with that word in the question to whieh it is 
an answer: as, Quit mundum creaviti Deu». Cujus opera nundHi 
creatusest? Deu 

§ 10« When a plural appellative is used as descriptive of two or 
more proper names of di^rent genders, it must be of the more worthy 
gender; as, Ail Ptolemaum (Xeopatramque regea UgiUi missi, Liv. 
in which regss is equivalent to regem et reginam, 

§ 11« Sometimes the latter substantive is put in the Genitive; bb, 
Foiu Timavij for Timamu, Virg. 

% Agreement of an Adjective foith a Substantive^ 

§ 12. IL Adjectives^ includinff Adjective Pro- 
nouns and Partici|)le3, agree with their Sttbstan^ 
tives in gender, number, and case ; as^ 

Bmut «kr, a good man < | Bom viriy good meA. 

FaBnOtmcusUh a diute wdrnan; 
Didce pomum, a aweet apple ; 

Dukiiapem», «Waet «ppiflik 

. And so through all the cans tnddsgiMa Of ctDOopariMMi. 

§ 13e Obs. 1. The substantive is frequently understood, or its place 
supplied by an infinitive ; and then the hdjective is put in the neuter 
gender ; as, triste, sc. negotium, a sad thing. Vu^. ; Tuum scire, the 
same with tua scientia, thy knowledge. Pers. We sometimes, how* 
ever, find the substantive understood in the feminine ; as, Non posterior 
resjeram, sup. partes, Ter. 

§ 14e Obs. % An adjective often supplies the place of a aibstan- 
tive ; as, Certue amtcus, ia sure friend \ Bona ferina, good venison ; 
Summum honum, the chief good : Homo being underst^ to amicue^ 
euro to fertna, and negotium to bonum. A substantive is sometimes 
used as an adjective ; as, inedla turba voeant, the inhabitants. Ovid. 
Popuium late regem, Virg. for regnantem, ' ruling.* 

AQmmaawT o» wobiw in sbxtbkcss. . Mf 

, §sX5« Obs. 3. These «djectivea, primus^ medius^ iJffmtw, eaetre^ 
mm9t ir^mut, imuh summiUy 9upremu$f rdiquus^ emUra^ usually sig- 
H^ the fir it party the middle party &c. of aoy thing ; as. Media noXf 
the middle part of the night ; Summa arbor, the highest part of a tree. 

^ 10« An adjective joined with two substantives of difibrent genr 
ders, generally agrees with that one which is chiefly the subject of di»- 
coarse, though sometimes with the nearest, although it may not be the 
principal one ; as, rum omnis error gtuUitia eet dicenda^ Cic. where 
dicenda agrees with «lnJtttui, mstead of dieendui, to agree with error. 
.Bat if the principal substantive be tiie name of a man or woman, tiie 
adjective agrees with it; as, Semiratnis puer esse credita est, Justin, 
not credittu to agree with puer. 

§ 1 7« Oba. 4. Whetber the a^^tive or «nbBtantiTe ougbt to be placed flnt 
in Lutiii, BO oertaiA rale can be given. Only if the Mibstantive be a monoiyllable, 
and the adjective a polysyllable, the aubetantiTe is elegandy pat fint ; aa, «tr di»- 
riaitmut, rea pnettantiulima, &c. 

3. Agreement of a Verb with a Nominative, 

§ 18e III. A Verb agrees with its Nominative 
in number and persoix ; as, 

Ego le^Of I read. 

7u «cn6ts, Thou writest or you write. 

PriBceptor docet. The master teaches. 

Noa leglmuf. We read. 

Vos amUUU, Te or you write. 

PrtBcqOores docent, Masten teach. 

And so through all the modes, tenses, and numbenL 

§ lOe Obs. 1. Ego and nos are of the first person; tu and vos^ 
of. the second person ; tfie, and all other words, of the third. The 
nominative of the first and second person in Latin is seldom expressed, 
unless for the sake of emphasis or distinction ; as, Tu es patronusy tu 
paler, Ter. Tu legis, ego scribo. 

§ 20e Obs. 2. An infinitive, or some part of a sentence, often sap- 
plies the place of a nominative ; as, MerUiri est turpe, to lie is base ; 
Diu non perlitatum tenuit dictatorem ; the sacrifice not being attended 
with fiivourable omens, detained the dictator for a lonf time. liv. 7, 8. 
Sometimes the neuter pronoun id or Ulud is added, to express the 
meaning. more strongly; as, Fac^e qwe Ubet, id est esse regem, 

§ 21e Obs. 3. The infinitive mode <^en supplies the place of the 
third person of the imperfect of the indicative ; as, MUitesfugire, the 
soldiers fled, far fugiAant, or /ugere cceperunt. Invidere omnes mihif 
for invidebant. This is called the historical infinitive, and is only 
used in animated narration. 


§ 2S4 Obs. 4. A collective noati may be joined whli a vet4> eitiier 
xjf the eingitlar or of the plural immber; as, MultituSo 9tat at stdtit; 
Ihe mtdtitude fitands, or stand* 

§ S3* A oollectiTe doud, when joined with a verb nnrular, ei pr eMca'many, 
inderad tt «tee whole ; hut ^hen jomM wifli a verb pltimi, og^es mamr tepar 
lately, or aa individual!. Hence, if an adjective or paiticij^e m mitgeinecT to me 
verb, ivhen of the singular number, they will agree both m gender and numb» 
tvith the collective noun ; but if the verb be pluMl, the adjective or participle wiu 
ife plural ako» and of the tanft gender ntdih the individaids of in^hich dke ooUectiVa 
iMm ia com poee d ; ai^ Pan eraM cam: Fart «fiiitM bttftanc, «c fbmiSttk* VU^. 
JEn. IV. 406. Mcuna para raplm,ae, wrjgf^tnM, liv. I. 9. fibmeitmepk hdwdvttr, 
though more rareW, the adjective is thus used in the aingular; as, Pwrtardmu, 
Viig. JESL VII. 691 

§ 24a Not unftequently a plural verb is used after vierque and qmague; after 
pm^..,par8i and lifter «lNif...<ttt«m; oi'(rfttr...<ateriHi,oiiaboount oTtheidaa 
of plttialitf which thejr inviDlve$ ai» «fcf^ eenoa «fe oaKri» aiw e toa oiiMrnt 

§ 25a The nominative fiuls to the third penoki of c^ttaih verbs; eftpftciilly 
tfiose which mean * to say,* ' to tell,' &&; as, otunl, dicvnU /erunt, narranlt that is» 
komhwi. So also with the third person of gum when 91a follows and reprasenta 
the solgect; as, <«( em dieai, fat eU aUfms qui ^'onl» * than iB iame one who saya :' 
so, aunt quot juwU, Oat. 


J 86a With certain %e^^ iiomiAatiw isaltvM wanting; te pktaive verba 
impersonally; as, pariSUuT mihi, * I am V''*^* fiteialiy, *K is aflared to na.^ 
So with the gerund ; as, miki eat eundiim, * I must go.* fio also in the expressioa 
«entt wuki in menlem iUiua dieU where t22ttui diei seems to stand fcr the nommative : 
but peihaps negaHt^ or ateifoorta fii to be supplied. 

§ 2 Ja Sometimes the Nominative vrhich &ils most be supplied fitxn tiie 
preceding sentence ; as, et, in fuem^prHimm pgretai tunt ioaon, TVq^ «ecafa^ (Liv. 
1. 1.) where the nom. hie fiom the preceding locum is rnkterttood with vocatur ; or 
better, et locua in quern e^eaai aunt Tro^ vocatur. Sometimes from the ibUowIn^ ; 
ai, toMkhcr agri, quod tafer urheik dc Fiihnaa eH, * there wta «0 mudi land laid 
wtiite as was bettreen Roma, &&4 (liv. 1. 14.) V/hMd idl|[0Vtnfling 4^ is fittn. «ft 
taatatur f and qaOd is ilsed> ai etewhere» fitar fwirfulwi 

Accusative before ike Il0lmHv^ 

\ 26a IV 4 The infinitivB modd haH ab aectisative 
before it j as, 

Oondeo te »af^ t ain jflad ^t you afd well. 1 

§ 20^ This role "wonld be better exjiressed thoi^-— ^llThe sobjedt of 
the infinitive mode ia put in the accusative case ; as, victoretn partete 
metis, aguum est, * it is right that the victor should spare the van- 

2' uished y for if the question be asked * who should 8^6 V the answer, 
bat is the subject of the verb parcere, would be * the victor,^ which is 
put in the accusative, victorem. So, miror te non scribere, * I wonder 
that you do not write,' whete the subject of the verb scribere, of whtitti 
the wonder is predicated, is te. 

AesBiofJIIir INT waK9« ¥^lfll ftfil^TPircss. Wi 

iMiiTQ l^fof e tUo iofiiiilif e in I^^tin» wbon H comes betw^ey^ two verlxi, 
witlipal ^Jipreipiflg iiiteotiDQ or «lesigp. Sometimes the particle i« 
omitted ; as, Aiunt r^i^m ttdprnU^e^ Tbey mj the kixig is eQipiogi 
that beings understood. 

§ 31 • Ofas. 2. The accoaatiTe b^Bsm th» infiqiliye always dejieiids n, 
soma other verb, oommoiily on a neater or sabBtantive verb; but seldom oa a Verl 
lakeil ia a^ active senile. ^ 

§ 32e Obs. 3. The infinitive, vn& the accnaative befbre it, seems sometimes 
t9 vipgly the plaoe of a nominative } as, 'i\u;pe et$ militem. /u^ite, That a fui^er 
iSioiifd% is a shamefiil diing. 

§ 33e Obs. 4. The infinitive esse or /«irae, must frequently be siij^plied» 
e^Mcially after participles; as, HotUtim aeer&Uum casttm futumque cognovi, Cic. 
iMBetiiiUM the safageot aad the i|ifi|SLtiv« nfp holfa uDderAo^d; as, PomctttM sus- 
^^nm* 8^ me 0$m, Ter. 

94e Obs. 6. The infiniUve may frequently be otherwise rendend by the 
cenJiiBetiens, quod, itf, ne, or aum ; cw, Omtdeo te veuere, i. e. quod valeas, ormnopUr 
tHOm bonam vaktuidintm : Jtuteo «o« bene eperSret or ul bene tperetia ; Prokiieo wm 
eanrCf or ne exeat: Non dubfto eum /ecMne, w much better, ^ta feciriL Sciowod 
Jffiue amei, Plaut lor jmum onidre. ARrcM', n potuUt ibr eiuyi pqtuiuf. Cic. ^ Jwmo 
9t(5ito<, fd pqpiflu9 BminuB cmn^e virtul^ ffqferAnt, lor pepvhm Romamum Wf 
jper4«s«^f^ M9aiiam9BnisaMjwr9tiifitt^Tt:iii^p^^ 
itaprtMnm 4H0. liv. uiL 53^ 

Y 3.9e Care should be taken in using tfus eonstfuction not te render Ae mean- 
ing ambiguous, as in the fiimous answer of the oracle ; 4io te, j^Saeidat Romanot 
vmoere poeee^ in which it could not be ascertained from the mere words, which 
party was to prove victorious. Here two accusatives beinj^ brought together with 
the active verb vmcere^ it is doubtful fifom the construction which is the su^ect 
•f po§mt v^ which the o^eat of etsoera. The ambiguily might b^ ps^veoted 
\ff e h a nyn g the aofive into the pesnve voice. 

Th% Mme CSflwe c/ter a Vmh «• fte/brs U, 

h 36e V. Any Verb may have the same Case 
^fter it 93 before it, uihm both WQr4^ refer to the 
same thing ; as, 

fro eum diKipHhuif I am a 8chp)Arr 

u vocHris Joarmea, You are named John. 

JUa incidU trnna, SSie virailis as a queen. 

Scio ilium haSeri teanentem, I know that he is esteemed wise. 

Scio vo§ esse dise^puha, I know that you are scholars. 

So Bedeo iratue, jaceo tupptex ; Evadeni dignif they will become worthy ; Retn- 
mtbticam defendi adoteeoens ; nolo eeee Zov^^im, I am unwilling to be tedious ; Maliffi 
vidM. (tmwiM, quvnf ptarum prudene. Cic Mm Ucet miki eeee negHgenO. Cic. 
JNaiura dedU omntbus' eaee beSUe. Claud. Ct^o me esse clemeniem ; cupio non 
piuari mendseem; F^ me mediiimi 9C. tf, ^e wiah^H I9 t)e iiec^r. Cif. iXaoe 
esw pater ; Hba est esse patremt sc eum, Ter. id est, domKnum, turn mperatorem 
esse» S u llti st- 


§ 37« ObB. 1. This rule implies nothing else but the agreement 
of an adjective with a sabstantive, or of one substantive with anotiier ; 
Ibr those words in a sentence which refer to the same object, most al- 
wa^iB ag;ree together, how much soever disjdned. 

k 38« Obs. 2. The verbs which most frequently have the same 
ease after them as before them, are: 

1. Substantive and neuter verbs; as, Suniy fio^ forem, and existo; 
eo, venio, gto, sedeo, evado,jaceo,fugio, &c. 

2. The passive of verbs of naming, judging, &c. as, DicoTt appellor^ 
vocor, nominoTf nuncupor ; to which add, vi&or, existltnor, creor^ con- 
MtitvoTf saltUor^ deiignoff 6lc 

' § 30« These end other like verbe admit after them only the nominBtive, 
acGoiative, at dative. When they have before them the genitive, they have after 
them an aocmatiTe ; as, Intireat ommum esse bonos, boL ae, it ii the interest of all 
Id be good. In some caaea we can me either the nom. or aoena. promiaciioualy) aa» 
Ctqrio did doctbu or doctum, ac me did; Cvpio etta cUmena, nonpuSari memos i 
mtU ette medius» 

§ 4:0e Oba. 3. When any of the above verba are placed between two nomina- 
tivea of di&rent numberB, they commonly agree in number with the finmer ; aa^ 
Dos 9et deoem fofenfti» Her dowiy is ten talenla. Ter. OanMa^wntaa «rtml. Ovid. 
Bat aometimea with the latter; aa, Amumdum irm amSru ttU^rSdo eat, The 
quarrela oS loven ia a renewal of love. Ter. So when an a^jectnre ia applied to 
two BubatantiTea of di£brent ffendera, it commonly agrees in grader with that aub- 
atantive which ia most the subject of ^ftscouiBe ; as» Oj^^um eat appdUUum Poai- 
donia. Filn. Sometimes, however, the a4jective agrees with the nearer substantive ; 
as, Non emma error aUdtitia eat dicendtu Cic 

§ 41 e Oba. 4 When the infinitive of any verb, particularly the anbatantive 
verb etw, haa the dative before it, governed by an boperaonal verb, or any otfaor 
word. It may have after it either the dative or the accusative; as, Licet imit eaae 
beOIOt I may be happy; or, Uoet miki eaae beS^am, me being underrtood; ihoa, Uoel 
mSd (me) eaae be9tum. The dative before ease ia often to be sopplied; aa, Licet eaae 
beStum, One may be happy, scil. aUcui, or Aomfot 

§ 42e Obs. & The poets use certain forma of expreasion, which are not to be 
imitated in praae ; aa, RmlU Ajas Jems eaae pron^foa, for ae eaae promepotem 
Ovid. Met xil 

Oba. 6. The verb to he, in En^liah, haa always a nominative ease after it 
aa, It woe I: unleaa it be of the infinitive mode ; as, / took it to he Ami. W 
often use, however, thia impropriety in conversation, It ia me, It ean^t be 
It waa kirn; for, It ia I, It eatmot be I, It waa he» 


§ 43« VI. One Substantive governs another in 
the genitive, (when the latter Substantive signifies 
a different thing from the former.^ 



§ 4i4tB Thifi rulo m^^lit be better expraped thiw : 

A Noun, whkU liiaaits the meaniflg of another 
Noun, denotiBg a difii^rent person or tiiiiiig, is pat i& 
the genitive ; as, 

Amor hudU, The love of pfaiaiiB. | Zjbx wAut<b, The law of nature. 

iloHM» Cm^«, The 119016 of Cariff. [ 

In the first ejounple amor means ^love' in ffeneral; hxudtM umits 
the afiection to the particular object, ' praise'. &, in the secoDd, domu9 
meaos * a house' in general ; (kMaris UMrrs the meaning to the pos- 
sessor, CoMor. 

§ 4Se Tlte Genitive bas tbree senses. 1. It is used activeiy or 
denotes an action, — that one does any thing; as, Victoria Cas&riSf 
* the victory of Csesar,' that is, which CiBsar gains. 3. It is used 
peMesmefy, denoting tiiat ^e (iiiog wbich is put in the Genitive has 
or possesses something; as, liber mSriSf 'the father's book,' 'the book 
which belongs to the fiither.* 3. It is used objectively, that is, denotes 
the object, whether person or thing, to which the action is directed; 
«s, aanor mei, ' love ror me.' In English the chjectime genitive is often 
rendered by some other verb than tif; as, ionging for rest, love to 

§ 40« Obs. 1. When one suhituitive ii governed by ajBother in t^ie genitive, 
it expretsee in grenend the re^tion «rf* property (u* poaaQMiQn, and therefore ii pflmi 
elegantly tuTBM info a posBendve adjective ; as, Jknaupatria, or patemaj a ^rtheris 
hoQfle; FUiu$ heri or &eri2is, a niaster^s son ; and among the poets. Labor Herculeut, 
for HercuLU; Ensis Etxmdrius, far Evandri* 

§ 47e Th» Genitive also aometimet ftUowe eabitBUtivef to denote their nae 
or aervice; «a, dad «oao, Cic. *piate ibr the sideboard.' Appqratua ur^ium eapug" 
nrndaruMt Liv. * Instruments fi>r attacking cities.* 

V 4Se Obs. 8. When the substantive qoiqp in the genitive .signifies a person, 
it may be taken eidier in an active or a passive sense ; thus. Amor tkiy tne love 
of God, either meaos the love of God towards us, or our love towards him: So 
etn^UaspcUrit, signifies either 4ie aflibction of» Atdier to his children, or theirs to 
him. But often the sufostaniive can only be taken either in an active or in a paa- 
sive sense ; thus, Timor Dei alwsy* impues J}euB timik/ir ; and Providentm Iki, 
Deu» proiOdeL So, oaritA» ifwifi M, amotion to the very mil liv. ii 1. 

^ 49e Obs. 3. Both the ibrmer and latter substantive are sometimes to be nn- 
dersitDod ; as, HecOSri* Androm&chef sdl. uxor ; Ventum eat ad Vettts, sciL adem Of 
temphim ; Ventum est tria mtUto, scil. ixMsuiim ,* three miles. 

§ $0e Instead of a genitive, verbal substantives are sometimes followed by 
the ease which the verb, from which they are derived, governs ; as. Quid tibi bane 
ouralio est remt Plaut ibr hujue rei, because curare gpyems an acc^tive. So in 
Cic Qiiodsi justitia est ebtemperatio acripHalegihus inttitutisgue populorum ; b^aofiB 

*-»^*'^*^^ 18* 

21Q oormtimsifT of siiBSTAirrtvEs. 

§ 5l« A dative may in many cases be sabstitnted for the genitive» 
with little change of meaning, as in English to or for may frequently 
be substitated for of; as, exitium pbcobi, ' a destruction to the flock :' 
quern exUum tamtis malis sperati$ 7 * what issue do you hope for, to 
so great calamities 1' Cjesajki se ad pedes projecere^ * they cast them- 
selves at the feet of Cssar.' Cui corpus porrigitur, * for whom the 
body is extended,' t. e. * whose body is extended.' In all these cases 
the dative is the remote object of the action expressed by the verb, or 
by the noun which is limited by the dative. Thus eositiutn means *d&» 
struction' in general, and the noun which limits its sig^fication, (pecus) 
is put in the dative, pecoru 

§ 5 2« Obs. 5. Some BubstantiYes are joined with certain' prepontioas; «s, 
AnucUia, irdmicitiat paxt cum aliauo ; Amor in^ vel erga, dtiquem ; Gaudium deref 
Curadeatiquo; MenHoilUus, veide iUo; Qimm ab armia; Fumu8 ex incenditsf 
Preeddtor ex aociis, for tociorum. Sail &c 

§ 53« Obs. 6. The genitive in Lalin ii often rendered in Engliab by eeveml 
other particles besides of; as, Descensus Avemi, the descent to Avemus ; PruderUia 
juris, sldli in the law. 

^ 54e SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS are governed in the g&ih- 
tive like substantive nouns; as, pars met, a part of me. 

V 5 Se So also elective pronoons, when used as substantives, or having^ a 
noun understood ; as, L^ier ejus, iUius, hujta, &c. the book of hinw or his book, sc. 
honCinis; the book of her, or her book, sc. foBmhuB. Ubri wrvm, or efirtim, their 
books ; Cujus liber, the book of whom, or wiioee book ; Quorum libri, whose books, 
&C, But we always say, meus Uber, not met; pater noster, not nostrii suumjus, 

§ 50« When a passive sense is expressed, we use «et, tut, sui, noairi, vestri, 
nostrum, vestrum f but we use their possessives when an active sense is exproased ; 
as. Amor md. The love of me, that is. The k>ve wherewith I am loved; Amur 
mens. My love, that is, the love wherewith I love. We find, however, the pos- 
sessives sometimes used passively, and their primitives taken actively \ as» Odium, 
tmtm. Hatred of thee. Ter. Phorm. v. 8. 27. Ijabor md. My labour. Plaut 

§ 5 7e The possessives meus, tmis, suus, nosier, vesler, have sometimes nouns, 
pronouns, and participles after them in the genitive; as, Pectus tuum hom^is sim- 
Mns, Cic. PhiL ii. 43. Noster duorum ettentus. liv. Tuum ^psius sludium, Cic. 
mea saripta, timentis, Sus. Hor. SoUus meumpeccStum eon^ non potest Cic. Id 
maa^inU guemoue decet, quod est cujusque suum maaStmk, Id, The reason of this is. 
because toe aojective pronouns are equivalent to the |[enitive of the penNmal ; as, 
pectus tuum hominis is the same as pectus tui, homims, &c. where kominis would 
agree in case with tui, 

V 58« The reciprocals SVI and SUUS are used, when the action of the 
verb is reflected, as it were, upon the nominative; as, Cato interfecit se. Miles <£e- 
/endit suam vitam ; Dicit se scripturum esse. We find, however, is or tZZe some- 
times used in examples of this kind; as, Deum agnoadhnus ex operibus ^us. Cic. 
Persusdent Raur&cis, ut una cum iis prcficisoantur, iot wu seeum* Cmu fiee 
page 84. 


§ 59» VII. If the latter Substantive have an Ad- 
jective of praise or dispraise joined with it,* they 
may be put in the genitive or ablative ; as, 

Vw timma prudenHa, or tfmtmAprwdeniiAf A man of great wisdom. ' 

Pu»probaindiflU,orprobAiiidole, A boy of a good dispontioii. 

§ 60« Thifl Genitiye or Ablative is called the GENTllVE or ABLATIV 
of QUALITY, and the role would have been better expressed by; saying ' an ad) ^ 
tive of detcripHon* instead of praite or dupraite, llbis Genitive or Ablative is 
used to express — 1. Property or charactxr; as, puer hcn<B indclis; adolescens 
' ntmmd tnrtuie. 2. Form ; as, mulier fomut pidchnB, or ^regia forma. 3. Worth, 
RANK ; as, homo parvi pretiL 4. Powxr; as, homo m juri», 'a man at his own 
disposal,' * one who is his own master/ 5. Weight ; as, lapis centum Ubrwnan. 6. 
Ton ; as, exilinm decern anmorvm, * a banishment of ten years.' 7. Length, Size, 
Ac ; as, testudo pedum KxagtiUa. 

§ Ole Obs. 1. The ablative here is not properly governed bjr the fttegmng 
substantive, but bjr some prepontion undenrtood ; as, ciesi. de, ex, in, &c* Thui^ 
Vir 8umm& prudenii& is tihe same with «r cum tummd pr u dentUt* 

§ 03« Obs. 2. In some phrases the eenitive is only used ; as, Magni farmka 
labaris, the laborious ant ; Vir imi subsdai, homo min'M pretii, a person of the 
lowest rank. Homo nulUua stipendn, a man of no experience in war, Sallust 
Non mtdti ctftt ho^i^ltem acchaie», eed ntuUiiod. Cic. Ager irium jueirum. In 
otluers only tiie aUative ; as, Ee bimo an^bno, Be of oood courage. Mvia mtntalan- 
ritate ad UUgandum. Cic Caplie aperto est. His head is bare ; obnoluto, covered. 
Capite et tvperciUo temper est rasis. Id. Mulier magno noAi. Liv. Sometimes both 
are used in the same sentence ; as, Adolescens, eximi& tpe^ sitmma virttUis. Cic. 
"The «blfltiv» mora frequently occurs in prose than the genitive. Qui nunquam 
e^ro corpore fdenrnt Cic. 

§ 03e Obs. 3. Sometimes the a4jective agrees in case with the former sub- 
stantive, and then the latter substantive is put in the ablative : thus, we say, either, 
Vir pr€BStanUs ingenxi,4}i pratktnti ingenio ; or Vir prtBstans ingemo, and sometimes 
priBSians ingeniu 

Obe. 4. Amonff the poets the latter substantive is frequently pat in the 
accusative by a CTreek construction, secundum, or quod ad being understood 
by the figure commonly called Synecdoche ; as, mUes fractus membra, i. e. 
/ractus secundum or quod ad membra, or habens membra frada. Herat. Os 
humerosque deo sinMis, Virg. 

Adjectives taken as Substantives. 

§ 64e VIII. An adjective in the neuter gender 
without a substantive governs the genitive ; as, 

l^Mium peainia. Much money. Quid rei est? What is the matter 7 

§ 05e Obs. 1. This manner ofexpro^nn is more elegant than MuUapecunia, 
and theiefora is much used bv the best wnters; as. Plus iioquenHts^ minus sapien- 
tia, tatUum fdei, id n^otii ; Qidoquid eratpatrum, reos didres. Liv. Id loci. Ad 
hoccutmis. SaUust 

% 08« Obs. 2. The a^feclives which thus aovem the genitive liko^ substan- 
tives, generally signify quantity; as, muUxan, plus, plurtmum, tantum, quantum. 


minMSt mMmim, Ac. To which sdd, hoc, Ulvdy uhd, id, fmd, aUtfmi, mtHvU, 
qvaddam^ &c. Phu and mnZ almost always govem dw genilive, and tfaerelbre by 
some are thought to be «ubstaiitiveB. 

§ 07a Tbnfusi with the ffemtiye always means 'so nuidi,' 'so many :* bat 
when it means * so great/ it is afwavs an adjective, and agrees with its substantive 
in gender, namber, and case, liius, tentos taSbw, 'so giMt a lafaDv; toitfum 
hMrUt *so much labour;* tantum negatixtm, *so weighty a business ; taaUm uttgotU, 
*ao much business/ or 'trouble:' it is therefore incorrect to say that tantum 
lahon» is put for Antes hAor. So with awBoUMm, * how much ;* as, ^^anttal^ tu^o- 
tium, ' how great,' or ' how important a tnuiness ;* gwmtum negotu, ' how b^uc^ 
business/ or ' trtHible/ 

§ OSe Obs. 3. NdtU, and ihese neKtar pionowis ami, fittt^md, Ac. ele^wtljr 
«govern neuter a^jacttves of the first and second deeTeBsiQB m (he genkiye ; af> 
fuJul nnceri, no sincerity ; but seldom govern in this maimer ac^eetiYes ef the thisi 
declension, particularly those which end in is and e ; 9B, N$gmd hotGk IxmhrenA, not 
hx^Ua: we find, however, qmcquid dviUs, liv. y. 3. 

§ 09# Obs. 4. Plural afi[jectives of tfaenenter gender abo govern Ifae genitive, 
eemmonly the genitive plaial; as, Angtata viOnum, Opdea Ucdrum, VdUiru ef mtta, 
looa bemg understood. So» AmOm curSrum, acuta eoKt, ac negctia, Herat. Aja. 
adjective, indeed, of any gender may have a jg^nitive after it, with a substantive 
undentood ; as. Amicus CcuHrU, Patria Vlyam, &e. 

Opu» and Vtus. 

§ 70e IX, Opus and Ums^ signifying neerf, re- 
quire the ablative ; as, 

jGrtipusjMCtuii^'niereisneedofnioiiey; l/sKS«trtf»s, Need of straogtli. 

§ 71e Obs. 1. Opu» and tisus are substantive nouns, and do notgoverp the 
ablative of themselves, but by some preposition, as pro or the like, onderilood. 
They sometimes also, although mote ramy, ^vem the genitive ; as, Ztffftopat's tipm 
eat, Qninct Opirte usua eat, liv. Tai^fona cpua eat Dv. 

^ 7Se Obis. 2. Opus is often construed like an indeclinable a^iective; as. 
Dux nobis opua 6s(. We need a generaL Cic. Dicea nummoa miki cpua eaae. Id. 
Nobia exempta opua aunt Id. 

§ 73e Hence it is seen that cpua is used in two ways; 1. Personaljlt, that 
is, it has its sutgect with which it a^prees in the Nominatiye, and is found in both 
numbera ; as, Uber eat mihi opus ; Uhn aoMt mihi opua ; Ubri mihi opua fuenmt, &c. 
2. Impersonally, with esf, like other impersonal verbs, in which case it has its 
subject in the Ablative ; as, AuctorUale tua nobia opua eat In both usages the 
person to whom something ia necessary, is put in the I)ative. 

§ 74a Obs, 3. Opi$8 is elegantly joined vnth thepeH^ct participle; as. Opus 
maturatOt need of haste ; Opus consuUo, Need of deliberation ; Quid facto uoua eat f 
Ter. Tlie participle has sometimes a substantive joined with it ; as, Jlli^t qpuafuH 
Hiriio convenlo. It behoved me to me#wi& Hirtius. Cic. 

§ 75e Obs. 4. Qpus is sometimes joined with tiieinfimtive, or the sntgnnctive 
vrith tc<; as, Simni forte ait, quod opua aii adri. Cic Nunc tSd opua eat, aapram 
ut te admrniiea. jplaut Sive opua eat tMserifflrs egma. Hbiat It is of^plftoad 
abeobOely, i. e. wittont depending on anycmar wwd ; as, sieflpics est ; ai-epngiit^&ic. 


1, A^ectives governing the Genitive, 

§ 76« X. Verbal adjectives, or such as signify an 

affection of the mind, govern the genitive ; as, 

Aiftdia eloruB, Deriroiu of fflcnry. 
Memor oeneficiorum. Mindful of favours. 

Aiftdia gtoricB, Deriroufl of fflcnry. IgnSrusfraudiSt Ignorant of fraud. 


§ 77« To this rule belong, I. Verbal adjectives in AX ; as, capax, 
edax, feraxy tenax, pertinax, &c. and certain participial adjectives in 
NS and TUS; as, amans, appitens, cupiens, insOlens^ sciens; eon- 
sultus, doctus, expertus, insuetus, insolltus, &c. II. Adjectives ex- 
pressing various affections of the mind ; 1. Desire, as, avdrus, cupidtt»^ 
studiostiSf curiosus, &c. 2. Knowledge, ignorance, and doubting ; as, 
emliidus, certus, eertiori conaeiue, gnarus, peritus, prudens, &c. J^- 
ndrus, incertuSj inscius, imprOdens, imperitus, immSmor, rudis ; 
ambtguus^ dvbitiSf suspensta, &c. 3. Care and diligence, and the 
contrary ; as, anxitts^ curiostts, solictttis, providus, diHgens ; incuru 
68U8f securusj negligens, &c. 4. Fear and confidence ; as, /ormidO' 
tosus, paviduSf timtdus, trepHdus ; impavidiis, interrttus, intrepidus, 
5. Guilt and innocence ; as, noxius, retu, suspectus^ compertus ; «ti- 
noxius, inndcenSf insons. 6, Power or might over any thing; as^ 
compos mentiSf ' master of his understanding ;' diva potens Cypri^ ' the 
goddess (Venus) mistress of Cyprus.* 7. Liberality, profosion, parsi- 
mony ; as, liberalise benignus, prodigus, profusus, parous, avdrus. 

V 78« To these add many adjeetiTeB of various nenifications ; as, €^er 'afi¥> 
mi f ardentt, audaap, aneraus^ diversu», ^n^utt erectia, fiuau»t fdiXt ftmM, fuTtnSj 
ingetUt inUger, Icetus^priBsUau an^hni ; modicus voH ; intiger vita ; seri sluaimrum, 
Hor. But we say, .^^er pecUbus, ardens in cupidiUie(hus, prcsstans dodrtnAy mo^ 
cuseuttuf LcBhu n^mot de re, otprcpter rem, &c. and never ager pedum, dco. 

§ 79e Obs. 1. Verbals in NS are used both as adjectives and par- 
ticiples ; thus, patiens algifris, able to bear cold ; and patien» algdrem^ 
actually bearing cold, ao, amans virtutis, and amans virttaem ; doc- 
tus grammaticiBy skilled in grammar; doctus grammati&mif one Who 
has learned it 

V 80« Obs. 2. Many of these adjectives vary their construction; as, ot^tia 
inpecuniis, Cic. Avidior ad rem. Ter. Jure oonsultua and oerites, otjurie. Cic 
Rudis Uter&rum, in jure dmU. Cic. RudU arte, ad mala. Ovid. Doctu» LaGfU, 
Laiinis lithis. Cic. Aetuetu» labdre, in Omnia, liv. MensoB herVu Virg. Inmi^ 
tu8 moribua Rom&nia, in the dat Liv. Laboris, ad onXra portanda. Can. Desuetus 
beUo el Uiumphie, in iha dat or abl. rather the dat Viig. Anxius, »oU<Htu8, «ecSruf, 
de re aliquA ; dUigens, in, ad, de. Cic. Negtigene in oHguem, in at de re: Reus de 
vi, crimiv^tbua. Cic. Ckrdor fattuM de re, rather duu) reu Cic. 

^ 8 !• Obs. 3. The genitive after these a4jeetivee is thought to be gevemed 
by caxuA, in re, or tn ne^aUo, oj some such word undentood ; as, CujMus ktudit, 
i. e. etmsA, or m re laudu, desirous of praise, that is, on account of^ or m the raattor 

214 oovvBiuujfT OF ABJflonvnu 

of nniie. But many of tli« adjectives themielTei wmy be « i MMied to onilsiB, ia 
their own ngnifieatiQb, the foioe of a mbifentiTe ; tkna, mitiiomu pmmnim, toad of 
money, is the same with habena studium pecutdtB, having a fimdneM for money. 

§ S2e The following Adjectivei are fcnad wiA tfie Genhive Animi: A^feo- 
Hor, liv. .^er. Id. AmenSt Virg. AnxiuM, SalL Au^v^tior, ApoL AverwHS, 
Tac. C^BCM» QnintiL Clnte«, Tac Cerfi», liv. Cooq^Sf, Ter. CmfUeru, 
Sueton. Ckmjirmaiutt Apul. Confusuf, Jiv. CrkHUa ^pea^ Hor* Hiftor, Stat 
J>tver8u8t Tao. and Ter. Dfifttti*, Virg. £rr2;g^»-Id. Erectus, Sil. JSieyfirtiti^, 
Claud. fxImifM, Stat. ExpUtus, Apul. ExternStua, Id. ^(i^mi^ Ter. /Vor, 
Tac Fe«<iiitM; Apol. JPirf«fi4, Vixg. FurmOtut, Sail. FttmM, Vbg. JOex, 
Apul. JmpoA, Plant Infelix, Virg. /ii^efu; IW /imSnim, ApuL Integer, 
Hor. LapmtSt Plaut Lasstta, Id. JfocCe, Mart ilfVaer, Plant JtticeSfiM, ApuL 
FnsBceps, Virg. Pr«cfon«, Id. J^JSoreMM. ApuL SlCinien^ I4T. Sutpmtug, 
Apul. Tlin/iM, Id. TTfnefi^, Id. TarrUu», liv. TVrte/tM, Sil. TurWua, Ta& 
V^l^ut, Catull. V2tMi(», Ta& VecwSr Apul. Fern», l%c. Vktuf, Virg. So 
A^fernM XaVnue, SiL 

1. These are followed by the Genitive INa■N^: JBmulm, SiL 4«dS>9.SlKt 
FsrvViiM, SiL Zcstas, VeU. Tb-dUtts, Plm. 

S. These by'MBNTi8:Z>i<iii«c, Ovid. /fi%pr, fl^. 4|aM^30k »1 JPiafaw^iii 
JP^eeiMtOvid. iS^iiuM, Plaut 

a Th«e by IftiE: iMi!ii^«ieu«»SBlI. jPen^p», Tac. Pflj^nu^CiirL JPWMen^ 
muB, SiL F^N^iMtems^ Id. 

4. These by Militia : Acer, Tac. Unjflger, Id. .fiigflSrms^ Id. Latms^ Hor» 
QpftMiB, Sa« AKrimiiM, Tao. 

5. nese by Bsixi: JSvperlut, Virg. Fe9tu$, Slat Ifitf^ ^()r. Proa^pte^ 
Tm. £?er«M,sa. IZl^tfes AaSonim, Slat 

6. These by Li^borip: AmAcZim^ SiL JiMtMeui» Cwh IvaoUtut, Tac XcBfiu^ 
Viig. Porfun^liM laborunif Viig. 2aiid!iiiic{MS teddrum, SU. jpfter JLflh&rumf Hor. 

7. These by Rerum : Fsmu», Vug. JaiperiiiM^ Ter. InMUOfOig, Senec iSeoori^ 
Ter. TV^i, liv. et SiL UfOQw^Bll 

& These by Yma 1 Fraclsnt§, Tse. Fi^amu, SS. tftniater, H 

9. These by i£vi: ^icdZes, SiL Fkniiat, U. AMfn», Vug. Muteus^ fiia. 
Minufr, Virg. Fodini^ AuieL Vict 

la These by Tui: Fidia^ima, Mrg. Sime/liM, Plant 

11. Thepeby9o|:4feaMr,Ap«L PMi«i6im6M^ Id. i^^dFigr.Tsc, ^b^^ 


IS. neae fay Moeuh; DiaermB, T^ fiMcfui^ Oind. Ifuaa, 8U. OirMs^ 
Claud. SpemenduM, Tac. 

13. SOt A^^mtmiuftts frugSfUOti», Senec. ./C^m^ absentiuQi,TBe, AZMHif ooa- 
riflii, flail. Durirtfaits, Cic. Jod, Orid. Pacts, Lucr. AjK&Y^ims pudSria, Tac 
AfuriMs furti, Ovid. Ardeng Cadis, Stat Argstos HlcInSrum, Plaut AnuHitt 
tomnlfiifl, liv. Abrox odiL Tac. AUoiOhi^ serpentis, Sil. Aiftdus laodis, Cic 
JB9mgnua vini, fior. B(b^Uu9, FSlemi, Id. Bfandug precom. Slat Cheats ftti« 
Lucan. FutStrit Stat CtdHdus temp5nni, Tac. Catus L9gum, Ausan. Ciller 
oandi, SKL Certiu destin&tiunis, Tac S^iCis, Ovid. Ci&ndwa unde. SiL €Jkk 
rimftmuB disdplTBe, VelL Cemmvne omnium, Cic. Conu^ v5ti, liv. Omttrmlt' 
nu8 jiigL Apul. : cf. Sil. v. 511. CridHhu adverri, SiL VminildHs^fmtts scelerum» 
Plaut CtqMior saliitis, Nepu Cvptdu» rSrum novarum, Sail. Danw£mdu$ iacti, 
SiL />e/i)nHMlfili,Id. JPb^iffifr artis, Ovid. Be^soeiM tedaB, SQ. Dsvtus «qui» 
Id. Reeti^U. JKf^flis lepOraan, ae facfiti&nmi, QrtulL /)unir «ortis, SiL 2K- 
«MM fiitiiri,. Hor. h&dOu mSdumm. Id. J^octnaSntw^ SiL DMm fM. fiH. 

•dVBRirKBZ^ ofr ADJBcnvss. 215 

Saatmtin, OM. MkhiiHtmM ftadi* QtXk. Dwnu «iris^ liv. Diiftor uiu, Ovid. 
W^MtHmua munlfncentiiB, Veil. £imiifni/ii» corporuoi, Senec Erecbu lingcw^ 
m, FoA'^Stat. £r«ors ciilpe, liv. Shxmdi,Hor, PiricuU,TeT, Exulpatiim, 
Hor. Mundif Ovid. Damus^ Quintil. Extorri» regni, Stat Exuiut ibrnnB, ISl. 
F«Bi2t» firngtim, Clsud. JbfAur atiDleiHa, Tao. Falaus cupid. Sil. FatijgrSlnxsDei, 
A.piu. Fe&t cerebri, Hor. 0|»{rufn, Sil. Fec^uxviicStat Maruetviarum, Hor. 
SamtUiSiX. J^%fe«MalmiO)*iim«Lacan. f tnm» ^p^dtti. Veil. i^AviM com&rani, 
8iL FnriHH&Atic/ir hoitium, Tac. Vir^uena bWvs, Tac. FruttrSiuB spei, GeU. 
FHgWxna rwkii, Flor. GfauifeM alti, Stat Gratftda metaili, Ovid. Impavidui 
■omiii, Sil. /mgrtffta Gomahii, Stat .A«»tcftt< fatari, Hor. Indecdra finrmse, Tac. 
IndctMu p&ciB, SiL InexpHbUia virtatiB, liv. Ir^rmus corporis, Apul. In^Sixa 
aalutis. Vug. JnnoruM consHii, Q. Curt JiMoZeiM infamiae, Cic. iiudietM/t, Tac. 
JncSifiatM Mrvitii. Sail. hMni sanguinis, Ovid. Int^er vlhe, Hor. Ufhi» V. 
Flac M^V^. AMiMtam, Stat Jnterrlto leti, Ovid. Ctej»(t,Vell. /n/r^%tfu« 
ferri, Claud. /ft«iMii« op6rii et labCris, TVic. Jni^(fu< laudis, Cic. X<etus frnguni, 
Sail. JjMsus maris et viarum miDftinqne, Hor. Lentua ooBpti, Sil. XSom opum, , 
Id. J^irotit pecaaias, Sell. iMgmdut finmc, Sil. Jf^tcfiit» runs, Apol. MStO^ 
/ettu8 cnmKaifl, Tac. Midvu» pacis, Hor> Fr&tns et sorOris, Ovid. MtUer ftti, 
Stt. Jl^&dcttfp^aiiiekTac. Kot», Pera. Oni|1^,Tbc. Dt^fnfitidatt, Id. Vfn- 
tmiiVell. Foiuptaf um, Tac. 3ftiii|/Vu« auii, Ckuid. i>n!Mt(« imperii, liy. iSer^ 
fnonu, Tac. iVo&^M fiuidi, Auson. Ao<u« f iigaram, Sil. JVtk^uf arboris, Ovid. 
(teaitaModii,Ta& 0*«Mta fem^utt, Hirt OCtfin stSdiorum, Plift. PArefctitis, 
Sil. P^toli^itf offenttonom, Tsc. Panmr aqrae, Hbr. Petffda pacti, ^. P^nn* 
famu disciplin»» Apul. P^fTifM juris l^(umqiie, Hor. Pertima dScendi, Id. PT- 
ger pericli, Sil. Potena l^ne, Hor.' JEitaiU, Sil. Voei,Ovid. Mdri» et teme tem- 
pestatumque, Virg. Prttc^wu virtcitiB, Apul. Pratda futari, Virg. Pr^BMan» 
«apientiae, Tac ProoaoB utii, Tac. Pt^vgtu regni. Id. Pr^Hnu ocoasioiiis. Id. 
Prcwp^a frugum, Hor. Punuscelerisrid. Serj^niuMfSaiL KeeCMSjiidieii.S^eCk 
Rudis literarum, Cic. SiUiaius caedis, Ovid. Saucius famaB, Apul. Sdtus vadO' 
rum, Hor. Smis occisiOnum, Tac. Seri studiGrum, Hor. Soler» operum, Sil. 
L$r€Bt Hor. S^iUu», ^iperum. Id. Sprlta vYgiMs, Bil. Studidgis^tmus mei, Cic 
Sumimu severYtatis, Tac. Superstea dignitatis, Cic. Surdu8 verYtatis, CoL 7hr- 
<{tt« f oge, V. Flao. V^fneni )$para, SQ. TVancM pgtfum, Virg. y^|nrit,Ovid. 
VBitdus Grandi, Tac. Vzrium, Id. Vanu9 veri, Viig. VhiXnaimu seneclB, SiL 
V}!Hi8 regnandi, T^ V)(gil annenti, SU. UiOia medendi, Ovid. 

^83« XI. Partitives, and words placed partitive- 
ly, c€»0Qparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and 
some numerals, govern the genitive plural ;* as, 

At^ms fhHoiei pku r m n, Some one of the philosophers. 

Senior fratrunh The elder of the orothers. 

Docliaafmug Romanorum, The most learned of the Romans. 

Qui< noaCrum, Which t>f us? 

Ufia mu8&ntmj Oue of Uie muses. 

OtAavfa sopeenf^M, The eight of the "wise men. 

§ 84a Adjeetit«3 txt called Partitives, or are fiaid to be placed 
purtifheiy, when they sigpiQr a part of any number of persons or 
tbingd, having aftet them in Engflish, q/'or among ; as, alius, nvUus^ 
tolfu, &^, ^ttt9 and qui, with their compounds: also Comparatives, 
Superlatives, and some numerals ; as, unus, duo, tres ; primus, secun^ 
d/a», &tt. To these add fAulfi, paud, plerique, medius, neuter^ quo- 
tum, iumwulH, 

* *t1afl is, These partitives, eomparathres dEC. denotiiig but a pan, are followed 
l^r ^ fitafttive dadotbg the whole 

216 oovj^EiomNT OF Aoameinvwm* 

§ 85« If tiie sabetaatiTd be a oolkotifid nomi, thegenitire Btofuk^ 
IB uaed ; as, totius ChrtBcia doctissimui. 

§ S6* Obe. 1. Partitives, &c. agree in gander with the substantiTet «viiiell 
they have after them in the genitive ; but when there are two substantives of dif- 
ferent genders, tiie partitive, Sic. rather agrees with the £>rmer; as, Indus fluwX^ 
nuM mas^hnus. Cic Rarely with the latter; as, Delphlnut animedium tetocisit' 
mum. Plin. The genitive here is governed l^ ex numXro, or by the same Mib» 
stantive understood in the singular number; as, NuBa tororwn, sdl. soror or ex 
«um^o sororum. 

V Sim Obs. 2. F^urtitivesy &o. are often otherwife oonstru^ with Ifae prapon* 
tions <2e, e, ex, or in ; as, Unua de /nOr^bua ; or by the poets, with onis or wter ; aa, 
PvicherrlMtta ante omnes, for ommtim* Virg. Pnmu» tnier omnes. Id. 

• V S S« Obs. 3. PiEurtitives, &c. govern ooUectivv nouns in Ae genitive singularp 
and are of the same gender with the individuals of which the collective nouR §• 
composed ; as, Vir fortisitmus nottrm civitStia. Cic. Maa^bmu atirpis, liv. UlOr 
mot orU» Britannofl. Horat Od. i. 35, 29. 

. V 8.9e Oba. 4 Comperatives are used when w» speak of two ; Supeilativea 
when we speak of more than two ; as, Magor fmtrum. The elder of tbe brotheit, 
meaning ttoo; Maa^fmMsfratrumt^^ eldest of the brothers, meaning more than teo. 
In like manner, «fer. altera neuter^ are ap[^ed with regard to two ; quia, unus, alius, 
muUAs, with regard to three or more ; as, Uier Vetlrum, Whether or which of 3rou 
tioo ; Qui» vettrum. Which of you lAree ; but these are sometimeB tt^en pronuscii' 
QUflly, the one for the other. 


2. Adjectives gonerning the Dative, 

§ 90« [The Dative, when compared witii the Accusative (which 
is the immediate object) may be defined to be thb case of the rb« 
KOTE OBJECT. It answers to the question, to whom? or for whom or 
what ? to what end ? to whose advantage or disadvantage ? The active 
Verb with the Accusative expresses the amount of the action done to 
the object, which object is put in the Dative» Thus in the expression, 
narras faimlam surdo, ' you are telling a story to a deaf person,* the 
two terms narras fahvlam (the active Verb with the Accusative) are 
required to express the amount of what is done, swdo. * to the deaf 

§ 91« But the Dative according to our English idiom must &e» 
quently be translated by from or of, instead of to or for. Thus, 
Brutus percussit pectus CtBsdri^ 'Brutus struck the breast of Caesar;* 
here the two terms percussit pectus, are requisite to express tiie action 
done to the object, which object the Latins elegantly put in the Da- 
tive, C<Bsari, * to Casar,' instead of the Genitive to be governed by 
pectus. Thus in Livy, I. 1. line 2d, the reading should be JE^em 
Antenorique, according to all the manuscripts : but in the school edi- 
tions and even in Drackenborch the reading is ^ned Antenoreque, 
probably, because the ablative could more easily be construed, after 
abstinuisse by the common rule of Syntax, *' A preposition in Cooch 
position," &c. It is here stated by Livy that the Greeks flbstinuisse 
omnejus belli * withheld every right of war.' To whom did the Greeks 

oovBBNmirr of adjbctivi». 217 

4$ tluB? to two penKNU, JBdmb and Antenor. The English idiom 
indeed states the persons from whom every right of war was withheld, 
but the Latin idiom, with no less elegance, states the persons to whom 
this act of withholding was done,] 

§92* XIL Adjectives signifying profit or dis- 
profit, likeness or unlikeness, 6ic. govern the da- 
tive; as, 

UtOi» heUo, Profitable for war. 

PtrmdotuB retpuUiOB, Hurtful to the oommonwealth. 

SinHUapairi, . Like to his fitther. 

Or thus, Any adjective may govern the dative in Latin which ha» 
the signs TO or FOR after it in English. 

To this rule belong : 

y 93« 1* Adjectives of profit or disprofit ; as, Benignutt honui, eommSdus, 
fauttus, feUx, fruetvosus, prtuper, aaluber, uttHs. — CalamitSsut, damnogua, dirus, 
«n'AiMiu, /uneitus, incommodus, inutUis, malus, noxiua, pemidotus, pe$Ctfer, 

8. Of pleasure or pain ; as, Aecqrtut, dukUt jgratuM, graAbsuf^ jucundua^ lotus, 
suavit* — Aoerius, amSnu, intiUtvu, i»fueundvM, tngrOtuMt meleslus, trittis. 

3. Of firiendship or hatred ; as, AddiOus, ts^uus, amictiSt henevioluSf hlandu», cearus, 
dedUuSf Jidu8^ JutUia, lenis, mttis, propUius. — Adversus, amulu», alienatu$, asper, 
erudait, contrarius, infensus, n^ettu», infidua, immtis, tninucua, mijvus, invmu, 
imikius, irStu», odionu, nupecUiSt trux. 

4. Of clearness or ofascurity; as, AperluSt certu9, comperfits, con^rieuua, imnu- 
futus, notua, pertpicuuM. — AnuMguuif avJbiuSt igndtua, imoertust obacurus» 

& Of nearness; as, AJjfmiM, fauOmua, pnprior, prcgilmus, propi-nquMS, aoebtt, 

6. Of fitness or unfitness; as, Aplus, appoflhu, aeammodiUus, hcdfUs, tdmats, 
^pporUmu. — JneptuM, inhailSlis, iaig)orluMu$, incontemau. 

7. Of ease, or difikult^; as, FadSis, hvit, dtvius, ptfwu, — DiffidSiM, arduus, 
grana, labcrioauat periadoaua, inwiua. 

& Those denoting propensity or readiness; as, FroaiM, procCivia, propenaus, 
promptua, parStua, 

9. Of eqoidity, or ine(]ua]lty ; as, JEquSlia, aqtuevu», par, compar, ayjmar. — /ne- 
fuaiis, vmpar^ dupar, dtaoora. Also of likeness or unliseness ; as, Stwrna, igmtHua, 
gemUnua. — Diaaukllia, ab^nva, alienua, oontermltiuta, diveraua, diat^lor. 

10. Several adjectives compounded with CON; as, CognSiua, communia, condHor, 
concora, eonflnia, congntua, conaangtdneua, conadua, conaenianeua, conaSnua, con- 
vadena, conHguua, continuua, ctmttnena^ conttguua; as, Mori air conCinena eat Cic. 

11. To these add man^ other adjectives of various significations ; as, abaurdus, 
eredvhiat decoruat defomda, intentuat obnoxiua, aubjectua, auperatea, auj^lex, aecundua, 
pra^Ot indecL * at hand,' &c. — ^particularly. 

k 94* Passive Participles, and Verbal Adjectives in Bius govern 
the Dative ; as, 

Amandua or omabtKa omvUAus, To be iQved bv all i))^n. 



So itfert ett ienfiaiw maitM; Opldm§ omidftitt put; AikOmda tat fuAi$ Otti- 
gentia, Cic. Sand omn'AuM calomda ed via lethL Hor. BeUa matrUuM delett^M, 
* Wats hated by mothen.' Hor. 

§ 95« Verbals in dus are often coDslraed with the prep, a ; as, DetA est vene- 
ranitu et cciendut a nobi». Cic. Perfect Participles are usually so ; as. Mors Crassi 
est a mxdUs d^Mih rather than «wMs d$|l£to. Cic Ats umtatus, rogSiw, pHtiUMis, 
&c. hardly ever tibi 

§ 96« ExdsuSf Perosust and PerttRsus^ signiQriDg actively* go- 
vern an Accusative ; as, 

Exosus TrqjSnos, Yixg. iMoemperdsi. Viig. PerUssus ignamam suam, Saeton. 

§ 97« Obs. 1. The dative is properly not governed by adjectives, 
nor by any other part of speech ; but put after £em, to express the ob- 
ject to which their signification refers. ' 

The particle to in English is often to be supplied ; as, iSimUis patri^ 
Like his father, to being understood. 

§ 98« Obs. 2. Substantives have likewise sometimes a dative after 
them ; as, lUe est pater, dux, or filius mihi. He is fiither, leader, of 
son to me; se^ Pi^stOium reii^ dectu amicM, &c. Hor. EMttium 
pecOri, Virg. VirhUibus ho$U$f Cic. Auoior tibi «Hm, *I advise 
thee.' See i 51. 

§ 99« Obs. 3. The following adjectives have sometimes the dative 
after them, and sometimes the genitive : Afftnis, sim^iSf communis, 
poTf pri^pHus,JiniHmius,fidus^ contemdnus, supersies, censcius, cqua- 
lis, contrmiriu», and adversus; as, SimUis ttbi, or rut; Superstes 
piUri, or patrisi Conscius Jhcindri^ or facinSris» Conscins and some 
others frequently govern both the genitive and dative ; as. Mens sibi 
conscia rectL We say* SUmUes^ dissindies, pmres^ dispareSf ^equdleSf 
communes, inter se: Par and commums cum aUfuo^ OvUm secum 
ipsa discors ; discordes ad oHa, liv. 

§ 100« Obs. 4. Adjectives signifying usefulness, or fitness^ and 
the contrary, have after them the dative or the accusative wiUi a jno* 
position; as. 

UiUis, inuittis, tiptnSt inepbts, natoa, comsMdus, vehemens, accemmodOiuSt idcngus^ 
hatHliSt inhalUlis, opporiimus, coiim mi ens, &c. aUad rei» or ad «ftpcui. Many other 
acyectives governing the dative are likewise construed with prepositions ; as, at- 
tenius qvantis, Hor. Attentus ad rem. TeT. 

§ XOl • Obs. 5. Of adjectives wiiich denote firiendship or hatred, or any other 
afiection of the mind towards any one. I. Some are usually construed with the 
dative only ; as, AffiJfQiSt arrogans, aspett cams, diffidUis, faSis, imnsus, iraius, 
offensus, su^pectus, alicui. II. Some with ihe preposition in and the accusative; 
as, AceriuSf ammiUuSt beneflcuSf gratiosns, injundsus^ liberalise mendaxt misericorSt 
cficiosuSf piuSf tmjfftw, prdlixus, seveniSt sordlduSt tormis, vehfynenSf tN ahqjjem. 
ni. Seme either vnth iSib dative, or widi die aocos. and ihe prepontioft iif, esga, 
or ADVERSUS, soinff before; as, Ccntumax, criminosus, dvrus, exitialfUiSf gramSt" 
hospUsMs, tmjKacaSUis, (and perhaps also inexoroMis and ifitderadHis) intquus, 
scents, Aucui or in AUavm. Senevolus, bemgitus, mUestus, aucoi or erga 

oovusNiEEzrr or ABJ»emvB8, 219 

Auau^. MiH$, comUs in at krqa Auauui and axjcui. Ptmficag adtebsus 
ALidUEM . Crudelis, is ALiau£M, seldom aucui. Amicus^ temulua, infensust in- 
festuSf ALicui, seldom in aliquem. Gratus aucui, or in, erg a, adversus ali- 
QUEM. We say alienus atUnii or alicujita ; but oflener a6 aiiquo, and sometimes 
aJ^^pio without the preposition. 

§ 102« AUDJENS is ecttistrued with two datives ; as, Rm diet» midima 
erat, he was obedient to the king ; not regis ; JXcto audiens fuitjussu magiairatiitm. 
Mep. Nobis dicto oudientM tmU, not diclig, Cio. 

V X03e Obs. 6. Adjectives signifying motion or tendency to a 
thing, have usually after them 'the accusative with the preposition ad 
or in, seldom the (ktive ; as, 

. J'rmuSf jprofensua, proc^vis^ cder, tardug,piger, ^ od iram, or in tram. 

V X04:e Obs. 7. Propior and proxtmtu, in imitation of their pri- 
mitive pr€pe, often govern the accusative ; as, Proprior montem, sciL 
ad. Sail. Proxinvus Jinem, Liv. 

y X03e Obs. 8. IDEM sometimes has the dative, chiefly in the poeto; as. 
Iiantum qui sertxU, idem facit occidenti. Hor. JupUer cmaVms idem. Viig. E&dem 
Utis censemus. Cic Bat in prose we commoniy find, idem^ qui» *tf oc, aigue, and 
^Iso lU, cum I ^», Feiivale&id, quondam Odem erant qui Am d e m lcu Cic. ±lst an^ 
mus erga te, idem ac fuiu Ter. Didnam el Jjunam eandem esse putanL Cic. Idem 
fadunU ut, &c. In eddem loco mecum. Cic. But it would be improper to say of 
the same person or thing under difierent names, idem cum ; as, Imou e&dem est 
ofM Diana. 

We likewise say, alius oc, atque, oret; and sometimes simVis and par. 
3. Adjectives governing the Ahlative, 

§ 100« XIIL These adjectives, digntts^ indignusj 
contentusj pr(BdituSj captus, and fretus ; also natus^ 
satus^ ortusj editusy and the like, govern the abla- 
tive; as, 

Dignus honoret Worthy of honour. C^atus ocTdis, Blind. 

. Contenius parvo. Content with Uttle. Fretus vifUms, TVustinff to his strength. 

Praditus virtute. Endued with virtue. Ortus r^glbus. Descended of lun^ 

So gemeraluSt creSius, prognStus, oriundus, procreiUug n^^tfva. 

§ X07e Obs. 1. The ablative after Uiese ^octives is jpvemed hy some 
pteposition understood ; as, Contentus parvo, scil. cum ; Preitus vtrV&ut, scil. tn, &c. 
Sometimes the preposition is expressed ; as, Ortus ex concubma. Sallust. J^iUus de 
nymphA, Ovid, and extorris. 

V X08e Obs. 2. IHgnus, indignus, contentus, and extorri$ have sometimes 
the Genitive after them; as, carmlina digna dea, Ovid. Indignus avdrwn, Viig. 
Augusti davi contentus, Paterc. Extorris regni, Stat 

S20 ooTSRNMtsirr of verbs. 

§ ].09« Mactef the vocative of the affective mactus, (that is, magig auctug, 
* more incresfled,*) and, l^ an Atticism, put for the nominative, also governs an Ab- 
lative. It was anciently used in the nominative : afterwards the vocative came 
into geneial use fiom its denoting a wish for a person's success, and having the 
force of a prayer that he mig^t be encouraged to proceed in his virtuous coune. 
Thus, jvhirem. made virtuie csne, Liv. ' I should wish thee success in thy valour/ 
I| is also followed by a Genitive ; as, maete e$lo mrfufif, * increase in merit,' * g^ on 
and prosper.' When used in the plural it admits CHily the ablative ; as, iMacb wt' 
tttte mUiieg Romani ate, liv. It is also used withoutacase ; as, smcCs/ Cie. * O «x* 

4. AdjecHoes governing the OeniHve or AbkUite. 

§ llOe XIV. Adjectives of plenty or want go- 
vern the genitive or ablative ; as, 

PlenuB ir*B or irA, Fall of anger, Inops raUonia or ratione. Void of reason. 

So Non inopes temporitt aedprodtgi tumus. Sen. Lentiilus non verbis inops* Cic 
Dei plena sunt omnia. Cic Mta^fma ^ucBque domus serms est plena wperM», Juv. 
Res est soUdtti plena timdris amor. Ovid. Amor et mdle et /elle est foBamdisitmuM, 
Vlant FoBCunda wrdrum poMtpertaa fugibtr. Lucan. Omnium consiUorum gn» 
parttoms. Curt Homo ratune par&e^s. Cic. NihU insidOs vacuum. Id. Vaeuat 
cadis hahUe manus, Ovid. 

LXXle Some of these adjectiveB are construed, 1. with the frenitive only; 
nignus, exsors, titipos, in^fotens, irrttus, UberdUs, munificus^ prtaargus 


§ 1 1 3« With the ablative only ; BeStus, differtus, frugtfer^ muCQMS, tentus, 
distentuSf tumxdus, turgtdus. 

§ XX 3« With the genitive rotHe frequently; Compos, eonsors, ^eikus, ex- 
htBretj, earners, ferCilis, indtgus, parous, pauper, pnxagus, aterttis, prosper, tnsatiatta, 

y X X4« With the ablative more frequently ; Ahundans, cassus, exlorris,fi»' 
tus, frequens, gravis, graxMus, Jgiinus, liber, locuples, nudus, oneraius, otmius, 
orbus, pollens, scliUus, Iruncus, mduus, and captus, 

§ XX 5« With both promiscuously; Copiosus, dives, fooeundus /erax, imanu" 
nis, inanin, inops, largus, modlcus, immodfetts, nimius, opulentus, plauts, potent, 
refertus, satur, vacuus, uber. 

9 X XOe With a preposition ; as. Copiosus, firmus, parSius, impariUus, inopst 
hutructus, a re attgu& ; wt quod od rem attquam atCtnel, in or with respect to any 
tiling. Extorris m sdo patrio, banished; Orba oh optimattbus concio. liv. iSo 
pauper, tenuis, fascundus, modlcus, parous, in re a&quA. Lnmiinis, tnSnis, fifier» 
nudus, soliUus, vacuus, a re dttquA. Patens ad rem, and in re. 


{ L mm oovBEimo miLT oive cun, 

1. Fer6< wAicA govern the QenUive. 

§ 117tt XV. fi^tcm, when it signifies possession, 
property, or duty, governs the genitive 5* as, 

Ea rtgi» pmare rebeMeSt «It boloi^ to ^e king to pooiih rebels.' MUUvm eif 
fuo dvdpardrej * It k the duty of aoidien to obey toeir geneial/ 

y 1 18e To tfak rale may be mferred die IbUowing end nmilar mcptemaonm. 
Buadert prindipi quod opoiieatt eticla' hAori» (Mt) Tm. QtoUs pe n dvire dipiat, 
Nen cpit etl «otfrcs. Viig. Ett koe OaBk» coumtettuttnis. Cm. Moris aniiqmjuit, 
PUn. Est morist * it is usual or customary.' Sometimes the preceding word is to 
be repeated; as» A4toiiMiItsre;it(mulier)i;gfftgia/onRa. Nef». Hipc /went etc Qpecos) 
Melibai. Vug, 

§ 119« Esse is also Ibllowed 1^ a genitive when it means * to be serrioe- 
able fi>r/ ' to be conducive to,' instead of the dative, which is more usual ; and this 
genitive is generally accompanied by the passive participle in dus ; as, qua CBxntamdm 
WterUUis esserU, liv. ' what might serve to equalize ^uai freedom.' Quoa tiutte 
consertxmdtB Uberlatis <Uque augenda reipuMiceB fuerttt. Sail. * what had tended 
originally to the preservation of liberty and the increase of die stato.' In such 
passages n^atium or instnaneatum may be supplied, as governing the nouns in the 

§ XSOe These neuter nominatives Meum^ Tuum, Suum^ Nos- 
trum, Vestrum, Humanum, Romanutnf &c. are excepted ; as, tmtm 
est, * it is thy duty/ Romanum est, ' it is the part of a Roman.' JZu- 
tnanum est err are, 

§ X21e Obs. 1. These possessive pronouns are used in the neuter 
gender instead of their substantives, met, fut, «ui, nostri» vestri. Other 
possessives are also construed in this manner ; as, Est regium, est hu- 
tnanumf the same with est regis, eH hominis, Et faeire et pali 
fertia, Romdnum est, Liv. il 12. 

§ X33e Obs. 2. Here some substantives must be andetataod; as, tfficiwn, 
mtcntut, res, negadumy cpus, &c. which are stxnetimes expr es s e d ; as, Munus eat 
prmdipvan ; TSuanesi hoc munuM. Cic. Neutltiuam qfficium UbXti ease homUnia puio. 
Ter. In some cases the preceding substantive may be repeated ; as, lUc Uber eat 
(liber) fratria. In like manner, some substantive must be supplied in such expres- 
sions as these : Ea aunt modo glorioaa, nemie patrandi belli, scil. caua^ or /ado. 
Sail. NihU iam aquandcs Ubertatia eat,£oiraa tequandam tiberUUem perttneU Cv. 

*8um never signifies possession» property, or duty. The rule 
would be much better thus : 

[Est takes a Genitive after it when the Latin 
word signifying Possession^ Property j Duiy^ Customn 
or the like, is understood between Ihem.] 



§ 123« Obs. 8. We say, Hoc est tuum munt», or tut muniris; 

So mo9 est or fuit, or moris, or tn more. Cic. 

§ 124« XVI. MtsereoTj miseresco and satago go 
vem the genitive ; as, 

Wsertre civium tuorum. Pity yoar ooimtrymen. 

fi»#x«;# ««^ ».;!».«. 5 He ha» hi» hands fall at home, or htm 

Samgaremmsaaruntr J eDough to do about his own afl&iis. 

§ X35e Obs. 1. Several other verbs amon||^ the poets govern the genitive by 
a Greek constniclion, poiticahirly such as signily some aA!ction of the mind ; as, 
AngOt decipiw, duimo, diacrvdor^ excrucio,falloaad/aUorffaatidiOf ineidea, kBtoTt 
miror, peruieo, duaeo^ vereor ; as, Ne anf^aa te an¥mt, PUuL LcA^rum dedpttur, 
Hor. Diacruaor mUmL Ter. Pendet mtAt an\muM» pendeo aritmi vel ariimo ; hut 
we alwajTS say, Peniemius euHaM, not animorunu are in suqiense. Cie. JuatUim 
prius mirer. Virg. In like manner, AbstineOf deOno, eUsialo, qmeaco, regno: like- 
wise, adtpiacoTt condioo, credo, fruArar, furo, laudo^ tibHro, lew, parti<^ipo, prohibeo s 
as, MaUnito trOrum ; DeiUne queretdrumj RegnSmi populorum. Hor. DeaiaUre 
pugncB. Virg. Qjuarum rerum condixiL liv. 

V X 36* ^^^ ^ these verbs are for the most pert dlflerently construed ; thus, 
Aiigor, deaipioy diacrudor, foUor, animo. Hoc Ofifmum meum excrucioL Faatidio, 
miror, vereor, aHquem, or tutquid. LaeXm cifquA re. Some of them are joined with 
the infinitive ; or, with quid, vi, ne, and the subjunctive. 

V 1 3 7e ,In like manner we usuallv say, Deifno attqmd, and oft oAcraco, to give 
over; Deaiato inoepto, de nejfotio, ab iUa mente; QuUaoo a labore; RegnSre im 
equiabua, oppfldia, so. in. Cic. Per urbea. Virg. Adipiad id; Fruatrdri in re; 
Furire de aaquo. Cic 

^ 1 2Se Obs. 2. The g^tive after verbs, in the same mapner as after ad- 
jectives, is governed by some substantive underetood. This substantive is different 
according to the different meaning of the verbs ; thus, Miaereor fratria, sciL eauait ; 
Angor aviimi, scil. doldre or anxieiSU. 

2. Verbs governing the Dative, 

k 129» XVII. Any verb may govern the dative 
in Latin, which has tJie signs TO or FOR after it 
in English ;* as, 

Fivia venit imperto. An end has come to the empire. liv. 

Animus redii nosCfbua, Courage returns to the enemy. Id. 

TiSt aeria, tibi metis. You sow for yourself, you reap for yomself. Plaut 

Non omnibtta dormio, I do not sleep for all, that is, to please all. 

* This rule might be better expressed thus : 

** The Dative follows many verbs in answer to 
the question, to or for whom, or what ? whereunto ? 
for whose enjoyment, advantage, injury ? &c., ta 
please whom ? for whom ? &c.'' See § 90 and § 91v 

oowsKMSirr of yxshs. 223 

So. :2Vbn fio&it fdltcm na<t «ttmi». Cic. MuUa mdU evamuU Aomf. Id. Sd lucU 
ttuan acderatu. Sen. Hcerei laUri lelhaUs arundo. Virg. 

But as the dative after verbs in Latin is not always rendered in Eln^lish bv to or 
for ; nor are these particles always the sign of the dative in Latin, it will oe ne- 
cessary to be more particular. 

§ 190« 1. Sum and its compoands g^yern the dative (except |»o«- 
9um)i as, 

Pr<Bfidl exercUm, He commanded the army. 

Adfitit pred&u». He was present at prayers. 

§ 131« EST taken for Habea, 'to have,' requires the Dative of 
the possessor and a nominative of the thing possessed ; as, 

Est miki liber, A book is to me, that is, I have a book. 

Sunt mihi libri. Books are to me, t. e. I have books. 

JHoo libros esse mUd, I say that I have boobs. 

This is more fteqaently used than habeo librum ; habeo libros. In 
like manner dsest instead of careo ; as, Liber deest mtAt, I want a 
book ; Libri desurU mihi ; 8cio libros deesse mtAt, &c. 

§ 132« To this rule may be added suppetit, suppeditaty used in a 
neuter sense, and foret^ and the verbs of a contrary signification, deest^ 
deforet, and deJU^ used for careo, or rum habeo ; as. Pauper enim non 
eat cui rerum suppeHt usus, Hor. So, Defidt ars vobis, Ovid. Lac 
mihi non defitf Virg. Hinc bonte artes desunl, Sail. 

§ X33« The dative is often understood ; as, 8U spes faUendif 
miscebis sacra prqfams, Hor. that is, sit spes tibi. 

§ 134« n. Verbs compounded with satis, benb, and male, govern 
the dative ; as, 

SaHsfadot aatisdo, benrfado, henedko, benevohf malefaciot maledico, tibi, &c. 

§ X35« IIL Many verbs compounded with these eleven preposi- 
tions ; AD, AMTB, CON, IN, INTKR, OB, FpflT, VB JB, PBO, 8VB, and SVPBB, arO 

followed by the dative ; as. 

1. AccedOf accreaco, occimiAo, ooguiesc», adeqt&to, adhcnreo, adjaceo, adna, adtUUo, 
adatOt adttipidort adtumt adversor, affulgeo, aUsbor, annuOf appareo, applaudot ap- 
propinquo, arrideo, aafnrot aswrUior, aeeideo, aesiato, assucsco, aseurgo ; — addo, aff^ro, . 
affigo, adjicio, adjungo, adhibeo, admoveo, advertOt aUfgOt tyapdno, appifco, advclvo, 

3. Aniecedo, antecdto, taiieeo, anUtto, anteveniOf anteverlo i—antefirot antehabeo, 

3. Cdh^ereotCdU^o, condtno, congruo, eonaentio, conaano, comfho, and, chie% in 
the poets, coio, concumbo, eoneurro, eonttnio i~^comparOf compotuit confhUf con- 

4. IruHdOt inctanho, indormio, tTiAio, tn^emiaco, inhareot tntiascor, imutor, inaideo, 
inxidior, tnsfo, inaiato, inaudo, inauUot tnnoJo, tnv^Vto, iUacrymo^ iUudo, immineo, 
immariort imm^or^ im^ndeo, inaum ; — immtsceo, «flipono^ imprfmo, infirOf iagiro, 
iMJiao, indUdot tiuAv, xnapergo, tnSro. 

& Iniercedo, itOer^ido, interjaceot vUeriritcOt interaumt intervenio i-^wterdko, inter' 


S24 oovsBnicsNT 09 vjhum»* 

ofttfufnt dbtrectOt obvenio, dwersor, occumbot occurro, occurso, officio i—obt^ieo, oifiauok 
tffiro, offundOt oppotio offendo, 

7. pQStfirOyposthabeOtpot^fwnOfpos^uUHpostscrtho, 

8. Pr<Bcedoy pr<BCUxro, myeeo, prtendeOt pndwxo, prtBttiieo, prmmm, pNBwUm 
pnevertor ;—pr<Bfiro, pr<B^ciOy pneponot prntendo, 

. 9. FrocidOtpTO(i¥xibotprqfUAotprofmgn^ 

10. Succedot niccumbo, mccurro, sufficio, sufrSgOTt mbcretco, tubtie»^ tvilbja/mk 
wbrepOy st^t/sum, gubvenio } — subdot subjiigo, tuanittOt suppono, subttemo. 

11. Svpercwrro, si^xrsto, tvpertumi supervenio, eupervtvo, 

V X 30<i Rem. 1. Some v^lis, compounded ^ith ab, de, ex, drflwn, and eon^ 
trOy are occasionally followed by the dative ; as, ahtum, desum, ddsbor, acdidOf cir» 
cunido, circum/tiHaOf circumjaceo, circumficio, coiUradux), contra^; a«, Seiia eapiti 
ddapaa, The garlands having fitllen from his head, Virg. Atm^iM nianait» acad^ 
runt tibi ? Phiut Tigris uroi dramfundUur, Plin. 

§ 137« IV. Verbs govern the dative, which signify, 

1. To profit or hurt ; as, - - 

Prqfiicio» proaum, piac€0, oommSdOf promfido^ eneo, mtbuK timto, conuSo for pros» 
pido. likewise, Noceo, officio, incomnioao, dispiUceo, insidiw. 

2. To fkvour or assist, and the contrary^ as, 

Faneo, gnUMlor, grattflcor, gfaior, ipwaco, iruhdgeo, pareo, od&ar, pUtudo, Um- 
dior, lenoti^taor, palpor, aatenior, suppUco, suipanuHtor, likewise, AiimHort ' 

dilor, tubveniot succurro, patrodfnort medeor, nudlcor^ opitulor. likewise, Deri^o, 
detriAo, invideo, CBmukr. 

8. To command and obey, to serve and resist ; as, 

Imp^iro, preedpiOt mando ; modihror, for modtan adhibeo. likewise, Pareo, au»- 
adio, obediot obsiqwfr, obtempihrot morigh-or, obaecundo. likewise, Fanmior, tertio, 
mservio, ministrOf andUor. likewise, Repugno, obtto, rduUor, rehitor, reettto, re- 
fr&gor, adverwr. 

4. To threaten and to be angry ; as, 
Jfiiier, commlnor, irAtniitnar, iraacor, ntcceiueo. 

5. To trust ; as, Fido, conftdo, credOf diffOo, 

6. To Ihese add Ceefo, c2e«p9ro, evoeKo, heereOy nvbo, op9ror, prcMtStor,pnBfxii^tc«tr, 
mipDttco ; redpio, to promise ; renundo ,* respondeo, to answer or satisiy ; iempSro, 
ttuaeo; vaco, to ap{dy ; convidott pqngi, madeo, pateo. 

§ 138« Exc. JubeOy juvo, ItBdo, offendo, deUcto, gvbemOf aie 
often, as active verbs, followed by an accusative. Jtibeo is followed 
by an accusative with an infinitive, and by the dative with an infini- 
tive, but rarely with an accusative alone : as, Jubeo tb bene «pfeKARs, 
Cic. r/5t BRiTTANtco jussit EZS17RGERE, Tac. Lex jvbot KA qVUBfO' 
denda sunt, Cic. 

§ 139« Obs. 1. Verbs governing the dative only, are either seu- 
ter verbs, or of a neuter signification. Active verbs govemiiitf the d»* 
tive have also an accusative expressed or understood. 


9 X40* Obs. % Most verbs governing the dative only have been enume> 
rated, because there are a great manv verbs compounded with prepositions, which 
do not govern the dative, but are otherwise construed ; and still more signifying 
advant^^ or disadvantage, &c. which govern the accusative ; as, LevOt erigOt (do, 
nutrio, amo, ditigo, vexo, crvciot aoersar, &c, attquentf not aifcuL 

§ 141» Obs. 3. Very many verbs which govern 
the dative are variously construed, still preserving 
the same, or nearly the same significations ; as, 

Abdicare : abdicare nAoisTRATtTM , ' to abdicate the magistracy ;' abdioare te oon- 
B17LATU, liv. ' to depose one's self from the consulship.' 

Acquiescere, rei, or ke, or in re, * to aj^prove of any thing,' * to be satisfied with 
aoy thing.' 

' Adsuescere, 'to be accustomed,' * to accustom one's self to anything;' Aucui, 
liv. 1. 19. — ^AD AuauiD, Caes. — aliqua re, liv. 31, 35. 

Adjacere, ' to lie next to,' * to adjoin.' Tuacus ager, Romano adjacet, liv. 2. 49. 
<sijaca mare, Nep. Tlmoth. 

Adspir&re, 'to favour.' AdepinU prima fortuna labou, Virg. 2. 385. *lbrCune 
favours the first exertion;' odeum. Gels. 

Adhsrdre, * to adherO'^to any thing ;' aUcui, or aHqutm, or ad aUquem. 

Adfi&re, ' to breatherupon ;\ ret or rem. 

. Adferre vim aUcui, * to do violence to any one.' 

Adrideo, *to sit by something,' with a Dative, Cic. Plane. 11. with an Accusative, 
Virg. JEsL 11. 304. 

Advolire, * to fly up to,' Of or o^ eics». 

Adscribere, * to admit,^ * to enrol as a citizen ;' cwUati, or in doUaUm, Cic. Arch. 
4. or m dmJUUe, Ibid. 

Advolvi genHnu, or genua, or ad genua, * to iall at (me's kneea.' 

Advers&ri, 'To be against,' * to oppose,' is always followed by a Dative. With 
an Accusative it occun in Tadtus, out the best editon substitute tnereari in aU 
such instances; 

Adspergere aliad cUiguid, * to sprinkle any thing on one.' 

Adnire maiff^us, or naves, or ad naves, * to swim to the ships.' 

Adulor, «to flatter,' * to caress.' AdulSri jMi, liv. 3. eO^T-adulan cmnes, Cic. 
adtdari Neronem, Tac. Ann. 


Allatrare alicm, or aJiquem, 'to bark at any one.' The Accusative is more 

Ant«cedere, ' to excel ;' antecedire beOuis, Cic. Off antecedire eum, Nep. Ale. 9. 

Antecellere alicui, or tdiquem, * to excel any one.' 

Antepollere, ' to excel,' dUcui, or aliquem- 

Antolre, ' to go before^' to excel' yirtus omnibus rdus aniat, Plaut AnUSre 
ceiiros, Cic. 

Antestare or antist&re, ' to stand before/ * to be more eminent,' ' to excel/ aliaii 

Aatevenire, 'to come before;* anieoenSre exercitum. Sail, 'to excel/ omn^&u$ 
KKBU8 antevenire, Piaat 

926 oovwmasivT of tubs. 

AntOTeitere, ' to come before :' mtror, tcftt, ROic otUewtHtrim, Tejmit ' I vfouUir 
how I have come before him/ Veneno damnationem aaUvertU, * h« antuaptliA 
h» condemnation by poison/ 

Apparire eonttdi, * to attend ;* •i soHrnn Jcm$. Res app9rtt mhL 

Appropinqu&re BriUanicBt or portaah or ad portam. 

Circomfondi dtiau, ' to be pat around any thing ;* ciratm^ua latbb mm Icr&s, 
*the multitude which surrounded my side, for lurba fuan circum latm tneum» ^ So» 
dreumjecta muUUudine homtnum tali» ffumlbtts, * when a multftode of men entirel/ 
■unounded the walls/ for muUUucUne komimuMJaeta eircmm Ma meenia. 

Ciroumdare aliquid alicui rei, *to put one thing round another;' ctrcumdHre 
tHijaid ret *to surround one thing with another/ 

Congruere, * to agree/ alicui, or cum re aliqua, or inter «e. 

Confidera rd or re, * to trust to any tftng/ * to confide in.' Also with de whea 
it means about; as, de mdule urbis confdire, Csbs. ' to have confidence about the . 
aaietyof the ci^/ 

Cur&re, * to take care of/ ' to care for/ is commonly followed by an Accusative ; 
as, euro ksmc rem. Yet it is also joined to a Dative ,* as, Quia tuo cibo curof, 

' Beflcere, 'to fail' commonly with an Acicusative; as, tempus te ddlcent, dc 
time would fail thee ;' sometimes also the Dative; as, tda nostris dglctrenU Cea. 
& G. 3. & ' our we^ions iailed ua.' 

Desper&re, *■ to despair of any thing,' * to have no more he^/ Sm dii^enms, 
Caes. ' despairing on his own account/ Also with an Accusative ; as, ul honorem 
deeperaeae tndeaturf Cic. We find also, detperare de aliqua re, Cic. The reason 
why desptro governs an Accusative, seems to be, that Sipero also gpveins one. 

Domin&ri, < to rule over;' cwmUm oris, Virg. in Cmtera ammaHa, Odd. 

EzcellereaZt'i«, 'to excel others,' oir inter sMos, 'among others,' or super aUos, 
'beyond othen.' 

Fidere aUcui rei, or aiiqua re, or in tdiqua re* 

Hafait&re in loco, * to dwell in a place f Uxum, ' to inhabit a place.' 

IgnoBcSre mild, or eulpm mete, or mtftt cu^pom, 'to pardon me/ or 'pardon my 

Impendere aUcui, * to hang over any one ;' or tdiquem, or in aH/ptem» 

Impertire, ' to impart any thing to any one ;' laudem alicui tsiperfiri. JaiperSre 
aiUquem osciSo. 

Incesrit thnor sr or euv, 'fear seises him.' 

Illudere, ' to make sport of/ BhuUh^ audorUati, Cic IBudire p racep t a. Ibid. 
Fn nos illudhre, Terent 60 also irridet «At or me, 

Insilire, ' to spring upon/ with a Dative, Ovid ; an Accusative» Hor. ; and also 
with in and an Accusative, CtB& 

Insultbre, ' to leap upon,' hence 'to insult ;' instdtare solo, Vtrg. ' to stamp on die 
ground.* Insultare aOquem, Sail. 

bicumbere, ' to fill upon ;' toro ; gladium, or in gladiwi* 

Incidere, ' to engrave/ ret, or tn rem, at in re. 

IndulgSra aUcui, or id eL 

Inhiare, ' to gape after,' * to desire much ;' inkidre auro. Inhiire bona ejuf. 

Inniti ret, or re, or tn re. Inr^ in aliquemt * to depend 00 any one.' 


JsM^y&i mUti, 6r me, * the thing is unknown to me.' 

M ^6ri eL MedSri ctqndiUUes, 

Medicari, * to heal,' used both with the Dative and Accusative ; the same as 
Mederi above. 

AfoderiLri, * to moderate,' * to govern,' ' to rule,' * to regulate.' Moder&ri fortunjb 
sues, liv. gamdium, Tadt. 

NooSie, 'to hurt,' ti, rarely turn. 

Nubere, liferally, ' to veil' one's seU) as the bride did at die raairiage eemnony ; 
hence * to many,' always applied to the woman. Jifubere vibo. Nigtta eti atm mo, 
seems properly to mean, * sne is with him as a married woman. 

Occumbere morti and mortem, * to die.' We also find. Liv. 1. 7. ocaanb^ marie, 
* to sink in death,' where the Ablative is governed by some prepositioa understood. 

Obrepere, 'to creep upon,' d or eusi; also tuammosi ad ioaoree. 

Obtrepere aurilnu, or aitres. 

OMnotftieei, or faii(M«s«;^iis, < todetract from him,' or *his deserts.' 

ObumbriLre, * to overshadow,* with the Dative or Accusative. 

Frvcedere, 'togo before,' *to precede;' pracedireiigmau *To eicel,** til vettna 
fortums meie pr<BceduxL 

PnecurrSre, ' to run beibre,' * to excel,' with a Dative or AeeoaaliTe. 

ftvrtira olfein, er (dtguem, ' to excel any one.' 

Praestol&ri. ' to wait ibr any one ;' dUad or aliquem. It is also found with the 
Genitive, eoMrHvm, fiKsenn. ap. Non. 

Facisci, dikm, or cum cdiquo. Padsci vUam ab eo. Sail. 

Procumb^ 'to&H ttpoD,' Isrrtf,* 4;embu9 eptai adgemim. 

T%mpatkn, *to nodeimto,' 'to tame;' also, <to gonrBm,* «to gwde;' ie mp e r u re 
Ut^gum, Liv. 'to subdue his tongue.* So, lempsmre laerymiM, 'to mode r ate hia 
grief:' also, temperare iras, Vlig. * to moderate anger.' 

% 142* Obs. 4. Many verbs when followed by. 
different cases are used with different significa-* 
tions; as, 

.3Bmul&ri oZifitem, 'to imitato any one with eraulatian,' *to rival.' Simdia 
ALicuJus iBmxdiri,. Liv. 1. 18. ' to be the scholar of any one.' But amuLori augdi, 
' to ^a\y any one,^ perhaps * an envious rivalry,' better expresses the idea. In a 
word, with the Accusative it seems to be used in a good sense, vrith the Dative in 

Accede iibi, 'I accede or assent to j^ou;' but hoc tihi aocedii ad iilmd, 'this 
mes to you in addition to that' Accedire ad auquem, 'to "approach to any 


Auscult&re aUcui, ' to listen to any one ;' also, ' to obey any one.' Auscntee 
aliquem, ' to hear any one ; also, ' to obey.' 

Cavere aUcui, ' to take care (rf'any one's salety ;' Caoere nbi ab Auavo, ' to take 
car6 of one's self against any one.' Cavere aliquem, 'to beware of any one;* 
CmOre auqvib, 'to guard against any thing.' 

Consulere Itftt, ' to take care for thee,' (not to give counsel ;) ConnuUre ALiQUiaf, 
' to consult any one,' ' to take any one's advice/ Conndire crvddiler, in ALiQUUf, 


« to piooeed craellv against any one/ Li v. 3. && OmnHo bon i, * I «bh aatMad/ or 
* pleated tfaerewiUi.* 

Ciipio libit * I am devoted to thee ;' Curtio AUdUiD, *I am desiious aileraoioe- 

Deficit mthi and me, * it &il8 me ;* Defioere ab . aliquo, * to revolt fiom anjr one ;' 
Deficire ab amicitia, ' to fiUI off from ; also, D^hre ad aliquem, liv. 82. 61, * to 
go over to any one ;' aloo, deficire AuauEM, * to desert any one.' 

Dare alioui literast * to give a letter to any one,' that is, ' to carry to another ;* 
Dcare ad AuauKH litenu, * to write to any one. 

Fac§re aUquidt * to do any thing;' quid huichomini fedas? Cic. ' what will you 
do with this man? 

Horreo tibi, 'I am fKghtened for thee,' on thy account; Horreo ALiauiD, *I am 
frightened at any thing.' 

Imponere omu alioui, 'to lay a harden on any one f' ImponHre alicui, ' to im- 
pose upon any one,' * to cheat' 

Incumbere ret, ' to letn upon any thing;' ad aXiqwMt * to bend one's self dofwii to 
any thing,' ' to exert great labour on any thing ; Incumbh'e ad rempuJbUoam, * to 
devote one's attention to the state.' 

Interest munu, * there is a wall between ;' hoe maanme inierett inter» &c. ' this is 
the chief difference between,' &c., also with the Dative in this sense. Interest 
pairiBt * it is the concern of the fitther.' Interette reu * to be present at a tailing.* 

Manet tM hdlwn^ * war remains fi>r thee ;' that is, * thou hast not yet peace,' 
liv. 1. SH. Manet me morSt * death awaits me.' 

Un (diauidf * to merit,' or ' earn something for one's self;' Merere equo, 
horse oack;' Merere or Mereri de^ * to deserve of another;' bene or 0ia2e, 

Merere «i&i 
' to serve on 
*well,'or *iU-' 

Metoo Ubi, * I fear for diee,' on thy account; Metxto te, ' I fear thee.' 

Peto vdkU * I seek for myself;' Peto dUquem, * I aim at somebody ;' Peiere alt- 
quern gladio, ■* to attaok any one with' a sword ;' Petere locum, * to seek a place,* * to 

PrsBstare alicui or aliquem, * to excel ;' prtBetare (diqmd. * to be answerable for 
something.' Ehptori damnum jfreBStari oportere» * the loss most be made good to 
the bayer.' Also, pneetare aticui official * to render good offices to any one f Prat' 
tare se virumforiem, * to prove one's self a brave man.' Praelat, * it is better.' 

Prospido aZteut, ' to provide for any one ;' Protpicere aliquid, * to foresee any 

Querere t&i aliquid, * to seek sqmeUiing fi>r himself;' quarh-e <diqmd, ' to in- 
ooire about any thing;' also, de aliquo. Sometimes, quterere de dUquo homine, or 
ae aHiqm re, means, * to institute an inquiry by torture about any person' or * thing.* 

Recipio tibi, * I give you certain assurance,' <I pledge myself to you ;' recif^o in 
monieBh * I retire to tha mountain.' Radpio ret amittiat, * I recover my loe^ goods ;' 
reeq>ire periculum fit se, ' to take the risk on himself 

Renuntiare ret, *to renoonce anvthin^,' *to resign,' Mo give up;' remaOiSre 
titiitt 'to renounce one's foults;' JCenuntUlre aliquem contulem, 'to proclaim any 
one as a consul.' 

RespondSre alieuit ' to answer any one ;' ret, ' to correspond to any thing ;* eaeitut 
non retpondet tpei, ' the event does not correspond to expectation.' 

Solve iibi pecuniam, 'I pay money to thee ;' tdvo te, * I free thee ;' aoheremnes, 
* to set saiL' 

Timeo tibi, ' I fear for you ;' te, * I fear thee.' 

«0¥SBiaiBNT OF TXSB8. 829 

V«eire, properly, ' to be al leinire ;* also, * to be witlioai«ometluiig ;* eoeare a sk, 
or KB, • to be free from a thing.' Bat wcare ret, * to turn one's wnole attention to 
a thing/ * to apply to a thing,' properly, * to be free from all other aflain for that 
one ;' «acare bteru, * to be devoted to letters.' 

Valere ret, * to be eervioeable.' This oonrtractioa m rare; the more mmal ia 
with the ablative ; valere «ZofuentMi, ' to be effictive by eloquence,' * to be itronsr 
in eloquence.' Valere a pecunia, Plant * to be well on the aide of money,' is saia 

§ 143« To this rule are referred many verbs 
which, among the poets chiefly, are construed with 
a Dative, after the manner of the Greeks, but 
which in prose are commonly found with the 
Ablative and a Preposition, according to Latin 
construction ; as Verbs of — 

1. Contending ; as, contendo, certo^ SeSo, Itictorf puttno^ aucui for cum dliqwk 
Sthis tibi certet^ Amyntaiy Viig. We also find Contenaere contrd or adversus aU- 
quern, Cic. Certare inter se, Cic. Pugnare contra or advereuSt Qoinct. inter se, 
Uort in c^quemt liv. 

2. DiFruuNO ; as, diatarti dietenGre, di a crepare , diatidere, d^erre KU auoui Ibr 
a re aHqua. We also find distant^ diseentiugU, diacrepani, diaauleni, d^ffiaruntt inter 
ae. Dialare nwUt, Ovid. Diaaentire, diaaidere cum aliquo, 

3. -ComNG TOOBTHER ; as, oofo, coneurrot ccneumbo, miaceo. Pladdia cokud inh 
mitkij Hor. Ccncurrlire hoatit Ovid. Concubuiaae dea, Proport Idiala Deo muUer, 
Viig. instead of cum placidia, cum koaU^ &c. We also find Cotre, concurrire, inter 
ae, Virg. and liv. Jutscere vinum aqua, or cum aquA, or aqu^ 

4. Kekpino, or Driving aw at ; as, Arcebia mmdo peccri, Viig. Sdatitium 
pecori defendiie, Viig. But these belong to verbs of taking away, which govern 
two cases, by Rule §5. 

5. Passive Vkbbs; as, Ncn intdHgor uOi, Ovid. /or ab vUo, Neque cemihtr 
«22», Virg. 

§ 144« Obs. 5. Verbs signifying Motion or Tendency to a thing, 
are construed with the preposition a<2; as, 

Eo, vado, eurro,propiro,feaGno, pergo, Jvgio, tendo, verga, inclino, &c. ad loeum, 
rem, or komfnem. Sometimes, however, in uio poets, they are construed with the 
dative ; as. It damor code, for ad codtmu Viig. 

§ 145e The Datives Mihi, TUn, Sibi, Nobis, Vobis, are very 
often added to verbs in a redundant manner, particularly in confidential 
speeches, letters, &4i. This is the case in Greek, in finglish, and pro- 
bably in all languages. E. g. Fur mihi es. Plant, * to me, (that is, in 
my opinion) thou art a thiev An ille mihi liber, cui mulier imperat^ 
' is he to me a freeman,' that is, ' can I think him a freeman whom a 
woman commands.' Tbeso pronouns, though generally considered 
redundant, have usually a certain reference to 3ie circumstances, or 
at least denote a participation in them by the person referred to m the 


2t0 GOTxsinuDiT om tskbi* 

8. Verbs governing the Acetuative. 

§ 146» XVIII. A verb signifying actively go- 
verns the accasative ; as^ 

Ama J}eum, Love God. RevtrSre parentei, Reverenoe your paranto. 

§ 147« Obs. 1. Neater Verbs aLso gpyem the Accusative, when 
the noun after them has a signification similax to their own, or when 
(be noun is of the same origin as (he verb; as, 

Vivire viCani, Ire iieft or viam ; Pugndre pugnam, Curire eursum ; Jjudlre ludum^ 
Seani aectam. Yet generally an acljlective, an adjective inoDoun, or piurtidple, is 
adaed to this aubetantive ; as, pugnare pugnam acerrtmam. So in English we say» 
< be died the death of a hero ;* ' f have fought the good fight }' * Afenylive a happy 
liie/ Many of these expressions are lunal with the best writers; as, Jtatni tterit' 
stmum jiajurandttm, * I swore the truest oath.' Some suppose that these aoca- 
satives are governed by some preposition understood, but there is no evidenco of 
this, and the ezpoeaions must be considered as belonging to the idioms of the hu»- 

§ 148« To this place must we refer latetj/aUit^fugit, prateritt 
which are followed by an accusative of a person ; as, lahUre fratrkm, 
Virg. Non tb fugit nee verd Cjssabem fefellit Cic. But laieo is 
often found with the dative ; as, uln nobis tarn diu latuit f Cic. 

§ l49e Sometimes a Preposition may be easily trndersfood ; as, prcpter, per, 
or fln, E. g. Doleo oatum tutan, that is, nroioter : so, horrere (diquidt sc. propter or 
6b : so also ardere aliqtiemt * to be inflamea with love for,' * to love passionately,' is 
probably &^prapier aUquem,: Fprtwisum ptufor Corydon ardebiU Auxin : ao, detpe- 
tueraUquam, * to love one desperately,' 'to die in love for one.' — Stygias jurammu» 
wndast sc per Slygias^ Ovid. DecurrHre tdtam, sc. per. So, pasd tylvas. Virg. * to 
be pastured through woods;' L e. *they foed on.' Ire exequuu, sc <ul, *to go to a 

V 1 50a But sometimes Prepositions cannot be readily understood. The 
simplest examples are those where id, quid, and similar fnonouns are joined to a 
vm ; as, hec aubito, * I doubt ^is,' for de hoc re. Perhaps in such cases ad^ * as to/ 
is the moat proper i»«poettion to supplv ; for qwxtdy mentioned by some, i» not a 
preposition. Vir^. Geotf^. 3. 421. Hhila cdUa tum^Uem, (for the ablative mbilo cUlo,) 
properly, * as to its hissmg neck,' ad or qaod atdnel ad understood. So peccare o/t- 
fnidt Cic Particularly to these cases belong those verbs which signify ' to tastd 
of/ ' to smell of;* as, redollre vinum, * to smell of wine.' But rMoleo is found 
with the ablative, as, redolent thymot Virg., * they smell of thyme.' See Rule 49. 
To these aeema to belong the formula magnam partem, * a great part/ maximam 
naHem, 'the greatest part;' as, libro$ meo§ maoitam pastsm amin, *1 have 
lost a great part of my books.' After Clamo, Crepo, QueroTf Feetina, the Acca- 
sative is remarkable, since aliquid cLamare^ &>c. seem to stand foialiquid dicers 
danuindo, &.c. Under this head we may place the singular expression, Baecha^ 
nalia vivurU, for invuta modo Baedumalium, or vivendo Bacchanalia exprimunt^ 

§ ISle Sometimes, instead of the accusative, neuter verba have an abl»> 
live; as, Ire dnMfre, ddire dolire, vieem nut ; gaindhregavdio; moriartHnnmoHet 
Wffre viUt ; ardet virgtne. Herat, hualre ateam, or -^ ; manSref pUtmre^ rer&r^ 
tUUdre, sudSre, oHqmd or aHquo. Eruhetch^ jura, Vli*g. criglne. Tacit, eqtn 
veAt. Curt 

ooTntmiBNT OF vnn. 

§ 1 53« Obs. 2. Several verbs are used both iq an active and 
neuter sense ; as, 

Abhorrere fiunam, to dread infamy. liv. 
a UtYbua: ab nxGre dncendft, to be 
averse from. Id. a meis morfbua ab^ 
horret, is inconsistent ttnth. Cic. 

Aboleie monumenta viri, to aMtsft. Vii^. 
illis cladis Caadioife nondam memona 
aboleverat, toas not ejaced Jromt they 
had not forgotten. I4v. 

Adolere penates, to burnt to sacrifice to. 
Virg. iKtasadoIeyit; adolevit ad acta- 
tem. Plant 

Deolinare ictam, to avoid; loco; agmen 
allqtio, to remove. 

Oegenerare anbnos» to weaken ; patri, to 
degenerate from ; a virtute majOnim. 

Durare adolescentes labure, to harden t 
Res darat ad breve tempus, endures ; 
In ttdtbcui dnriUre neqaeo, stay or re- 
main. Flaut 

Inclinftre culpam in allfquem, to layf 

UoB ut seqaar, inclinat animuB, tn- 

dines; adea incllnal; or incIuAtur, 

gives away. 
Laooriire anna, to forg^e ; morbo, e do> 

lore» e zenYbus, tobetU; de ro aliqn&, 

to be concerned. 
Morari iter, to stop; in urbe, to «toy; 

Hoc nihil moror. I do not mind. 
Propei^re pecuniam haeredi. Hor. in 

orbem ; ad imam sedem. Ov. 
Quadrare aeervura, to square. Hot. alT- 

quid ad normam; alYcoi, in aliqaem, 

ad roulta, to Jit. 
Soppeditare oojMam dicendi, tofumi^ ; 

SumptUB illi, or illi sumptlbaa. Ter. 

sappeditat oratio, is afforded; Mann- 

bis in fimdamenta viz sappedit&nmt, 

were sufficient. liv. 

Obs. 3. Tbote accmatives, hoc, id, mddt atiquid, quioquid, nihH, idem, iBud, tan- 
iMmt^uanUam; rnxdia, pauoa, dec. are often joined with neuter verba, having the pre- 
positions area or propter understood ; as, Id lacrfmat. Id succenset. Ter. Quid 
rides t quid ciamast Teient 

Obs. 4. The «ocnsative is often tmderrtood,* 7\im prora snerHt, sc. te. Va^ 
FfuaSlna prcBC^Uantt se. se. Id. Qu^cumique vntendXrat, sc. «e, turned or directed 
himself. Sail. OUiU sc mortem. Ter. Own fadam vitiSdh, sc. sacra. Viig. Or its 
place supplied by an infinitive or part of a sentence ; as, Reddes duice loqui, reddes 
ridere decorum ; for dukem sermonern, decorum risum. Bar. 

§ 153« XIX. Recordor^ memtni^ reminiscor^ and 
cbtiviscor, govern the accusative or genitive ; as, 

Recordor lecHonis, or lectionem, 
Obliviscor injuria, or injuriam. 

I remember the lesson. 
I forget an ii^uiy. 

Obs. I. These verbs are often construed with the infinitive or some part of a sen- 
fence ; as, Jl^kmlm videre virginem. Tec OhlUus est, quid paulo ante posuisseL Cic. 

Obs. 2. Memtni, when it si^iiee to make mention, is joined with the genitive, or 
the ablative with the preposition <2e ,* as, Memini aUcujxa, or de dtfquo. So, recor- 
doTt when it signifies, to reaoUect ; as, Velim scire eeqmd, de te recordire. Cic. 

Obs. 3. The pbrsae Venii mshi in wtentem, denotinff lemembrance, is variousljr 
construed ; as, Venit mihi in mentem hdsc res, hujus ret, de h&c re. IBki sdM ve;nxre 
in mentem ilHus temporis. Cic. In mentem vemt de ipeado. 

4. Verbs governing the Ablative, 

§ 154» XX. Verbs of plenty and scarceness for 
(he most part govern the ablative ; as^ 

Akundat difvitiis. 
Caret omni cufy&. 

He abounds in riches. 
He has no fitult. 

982 oovBBNMXNT OF vintm. 

' Verbs of plenty are, Ahundo^ qffluo, exubSro^ redundo^JhreOt wppe^ 
duo, scateoj &c. ; of want, Careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco^ deficwr, detiu 
tuor, &J0, 

Obflu 1. Egeo uid IruUgeo frequently govern the Genitive ; as, egeo connZti, Cic. 

Sef am, 'he needs money/ ^on tarn artis indigetUt quam laboriSt Cic. Careo 
x> is osed with a Genitive ; as, carendum Udy Terent Also, aoateo and abundo; 
aa, terra aoaiet ferarvmt Lucr. Abvmdan» with a Genitive in Virg. Eel. % 20. We 
also find careo, egeo, indigeo^ aoaieo, with pronouns of the neater gender ; as, id, 
quod, &e. nee quidquam egea, Plant So, id tuiu mxUet animu». Plant for ea re. 

Obs. 2. The ablative after these verbs is governed by some preposition under- 
stood ; and sometimes we find it expressed : as, Vaoat a culpA, He is fir^ fhnn 
fault Liv. ' 

§ 155« XXl. Utor, abutor, /ruor, fungor^ potior^ 
vescor^ govern the ablative ; as, 

Utitur fraude. He uses deceit AbidUur Ukria, He abuses hooka 

LX S6« To these add, gmdeo, creor, natcor^Jido, vivo, vicUto, ecnsto ; laborp, 
ill ;' pascor, emdor, raJtor, innUor, glorior, UBtor, ddecUir, dignor, exuUo, tto, 
&C. ; as, Qautkre bono, Cic Fortes creantur fortUnis, Hor. Ftumimhu» atdicee 
naacttntur, Virg. Fidere prudentiA, Cic Piaamu vivHre exuUnuuUur, CaesL Fid» 
viaUamua, Plant Mente tix constat, Cic JjaborSre pod&gra. Mart Oede ptud' 
<ur, Ovid. — — — ^,— — ■ .-^- r.r—T^ . . ^...^^^ 


promises. , , - „ *,- 

to an agreement" have supposed that it is the Dative which ibUows Sto : but this 

is not so, as might be shown by numerous examples. 

Obs. 1. Potior often governs the genitive ; as, Potiri urbis. Sail. 
And we always say, Potiri rerum, to possess the chief command, never 
rebus ; imperio being understood. 

Obs. 2. Potior p l(etor,Jungor, vetcor, epuUr, paacor, and gaudeo, sometimes have 
an accusative ; as, Pouri urbem, Cic. Offiaa fungi. Ter. Munira fungi. Tac. 
Ptucuniur sUvae. Virg. And in ancient writers ulor, abiUor, and fruor ; m, OH 
consilium. Plaut Opiram abuOtur. Ter. Depasco and depascor always tak^ an 
accusative ; as, J)epast?Uur artus. Virg. Gavisi sunt suum doCbrem. Cic 


1. Verbs governing ttDO Datives. 

§ 157* XXII. Sum used instead of q^ero (to 
bring) governs two datives, the one of a person, 
and the odier a thing ;* as, 

Est mihi vohqftsH, It is, or brings, a pleasure to me. 

*This rule would be better expressed thus : 

The verb Est, when it may be construed ' to redound to,* ' to bring/ 
' to be conducive,* ' to serve for,* is followed by two Dativesi one of 
which denotes the object to which, the other, the end for which any 
thing is, or is done. 

oovBKNiiBirr or vsufc. 8M 

$ 158« Two datiyea are also put after /Meo, A>, Mrfo» t^tmqmt^ 
iftnio, tnihWf jorc^ dues, opp&no, ossignOf ecao, cofnp&ro^ cutt% eo^ 
mUto, pateOf prqficiscor, suppedito, and some others ; as, 

Ducitur honori tibi, It is reckoned an honour to you. Id verHtur vuhi vitio, I am 
blamed for that. So, JMmf mihi mun^; DedU imhi dono; Ebibel siin laudii 
Venire, occurr^e auanlio atictd, liv. 

Obs. 1. Instead of the dative we often nee the BerainatiTe, or the aoctuatiYe ; as' 
£8$ eariimim peemi fer emHe ; Dare aHquid olttevi denvm, at dona; Dare fiLiam ei 
nuptanit ojr nujOui. When dare and other active verbs have two datives after 
&em, they^ likewise govern an accusative either expressed or undeigtoo4 ; as„ JDisre 
orimini a, sc. u^. 

01» 2. The dative ef the person is often ti» be supplied ; as. Est exen^jdo, iitdieh, 
prcBsidiot ueuif <&c scil. imaAt, oJIcut, Aoimnl6u«, or some sudi weid. se» ponHret 
cpponih'ef pignoriy sc. atkeux^ to pledge. Canhre receptui, sc. euie tTtUiiXbug, to sound 
a retreat; aabhe cwm quaitid, odi^ vohiptatif rdigtoni, atudio, btdibrio, deepiealui, 
&C. sc. aibi. 

Obs. 3. To this rule belong forms of naming: as, Eet mifd nomen AJexandrOf my 
name is Alexander; or with the nominative, Est mihi neawn iUeapomfor ; or Bwra 
larely with the genitive, Est imhi nomen Alexandri. 

2. Verbs governing the AccutaUve and the Genitive, 

§ 15&e XXIIL Verbs of accusing, condemmng, 
acquitting, and admonishing, govern the accusative 
of a person with the genitive of a thing ; as, 

Ar^tt mefkrti. He aceuses me o€ theft. 

Meipsum inertue condemno, I condemn mvself of laadnesB. 

JUum' homicidii abaeimaa, Th^ acquit nim of manslaughter. 

Monet me officii. He admnnmhea me of my du^. 

§ 160* Verbs of accusing are, AccusOy ago, apeUo, arcesso, an- 
^nlro, capto, increpo, arguo, defero, insimulo, postvdo, aUigo, astringOf 
urgeo, tnctwo, interrogo, con^Uo. Of condemning, damno, eoargtiOf 
convincOj prehendo, judico, plector, condemno, infdmo, noto. Of ac* 
quitting, absolno, solvo, libero, purgo. Of admonishing, moneo, ad" 
moneo, commonefaeio. 

9 lol The crime or punishment is sometimes put in the Ablative without 
a prepositfon bein^ expressed, after absolvOf liberOf darmo, condemno, &c. ; as, Con^ 
stuem regni susptcione absohoerunt^ Liv. Damnahis tu votis^ Virg. Crimen mio 
arguipouetj Nep. Dmeri paenSt, Cic. We also find Vamnarivatit which signioM, 
* to have gained one's wish;' properly, *ta be condemned to the discharge of the 
vow whidi he had made tor the prosperous issue of his undertaking,' which u a 
sign that he had gained his widu Such a person is said to be reus voti. Viig. 
JEn. 5. 237. 

§ X63e Obs. 1. Verbs of accusing and admonishing, instead of thffr genitive, 
frequently ^ve after them an ablative, with the preposition <2e ; as, Monere (d^fuem 
efieii, or de qffktio ; AecusSre a&quem jfurU, or ae furto» De «i coMfinmMft sunt 

Obs 2. Crimen and caput are pat either in die genitlvo or ablative; but in the 
ablative usudQv witbaat a prepention; as, DaminaTe, poskdSre, ebeoMre, eum 



mmXnif^ or fiootttv ; and mn^ne, or cc^fUe ; also iiSmltw mepeeeSto. Lit. And we 
alwa^ say, PUcUrt, pwnire atiguiem ceqaftte, and not oopUi*, to punish one capitally, 
or with death. 

Obs. 3. Many verbs of accusing» dec are not construed with the ace. of a penon» 
and the gen. of a thing, but the contrary ; thus we say, Culpo, r^prthendo, fax9, 
traduce, vituj^Ot catumniorf crinHnor, eaoctuo, Ac avaritiam aheujuti and not 
alfquem avariticB. We sometimes ako find acciuo, ineiaOf &c construed in this 
manner; as, AcciMSre inerOam adoUtcaUium, fi^r odofesoentef tnertus. Cic. Cu^^mm 
mrguo. Liv. We say, Agire cum atlquo furti, rather than aUtquem, to accuse 009 
oftheft. Cic 

Obs. 4. Verbs of accusinsr and admonishing sometimes govern two accusatives, 
when joined with hoc, iUua, istud, td, unum, muUa, dec as, Moneo, aocuto, te Ulud: 
We seldom find, however, Errdrem fo moneo, but erroriM or de errore ; except in 
old writer*, as Phiutus. 

§ 163e XXIV. Verbs of valuing, with the ac- 
cusative, govern such genitives as these, magnij 
parvi^ nihili; as, 

JEtttmo te magni, I value you much. 

§ X64# Verbs of valuing^ are, JEstlmo, existtmo, duco, fado, ha- 
beOf pendot puto^ taxo. They govern eeyeral other genitives; as, 
tanth quanta pluris, majdris, tninoriSf minimi^ plurimif maximi^ 
natict, pilijossis, nUifU^ teruncih hujus, fiocci^ pensu 

Obs. 1. JEstlmo sometimes governs the ablative ; as, JEtdmo te mumo, per" 
magno, parvo, scU. preHo: and also niMlo. We likewise say, Pro nikuo habeo, 

Obs. 2. JEqui and boni are put in the genitive after facio and consufo ; as, Hoe 
cnmndo boni, mqui bontquefado, I take this in good part 

Obs. 3. The genitive after all these verbs is governed by some substantive nndei^ 
stood ; as, Ar^tire dUqyem fyrd, soil, de crimUne furU: JEsClmo rem magni, sdl. 
pr^ii, or pro re magni prmi ; Coneulo boni, i. e. ttatuo or ceneeo esse, fachtmf^r 
munue boni mri, or anhai ; Monere atlquem officii, i e. officOt caueA, or de re or 
M^atio officii. 

3. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Dative, 

§ 165e XXV. Verbs of comparing, giving, de- 
claring, and taking away, govern me accusative 
and dative ; as, 

CompSro VirgiUum Homero, I compare \^rgil to Homer. 

Suum cuique tribu^lo. Give every one his own. 

Narrtufaoulam eurdo. You tell a story to a deaf mail. 

EripwU me morii. He rescued me finom death. 

§ X66« Or, — Ant AcrrivE yebb mat govern the aoctoatxve 
AND THE DATiTE, (juohen^ together toith the object of the action^ we 
express the person or thing vfith relation to which it is exerted ;) as, 

Legam lectidnem tibi, I will read the lesson to you. Emit Ubrum mihi. He 
bought a book for me. Sic vo$ non voUs fertie ardtra bovee, Virg. Pouperfas 


wp^ iuadel wuia hominihuM, advisee men to do bod tfaingi. Plant Imptrtkrep^ 
cwiiam,frumaUum, naves, arma aK^^bu», to order them to fumiah* Cca. 

Obe. 1. Verbs of compering and taking away, toge&er with some others, are 
ofien construed with a preposition; as, Vompardre unnm rem cum alidt and ad 
0(uan, or con^parihreres inter ee: EripuU ilte morti, morte, a or ex morte: MiiVtrt 
^piBtXiam aiteui, or ad at^uem: Intendh^ tdum attad, or tn attquem: Jnadire csri, 
unBa,or inmre ; and so in many others. 

Ofas. 2. Several verbs governing the dative and accusative, are canstmed diP 
ftrently; as, 

Ajpergihre labem aticm, or atiquem labe, to put an afiroot on one ; omit eangtSbu. 

Circumddre monua cpptdo, or cppldum mosnlftuf, to surround a city with walls. 

DonSre, prohibere rem aHadi or attquem re, to give one a present, lo hinder one 
fiom a Amg. 

£a»u$Sre 86 dtian, and tgmd altquem, de re { vtdetudinemeL 

Exprobrdre viHta» et, or tn eo, to upbnud. 

Gratulor tiH hone rem, hae re, in, pro, and de hoe re, I coogratulate you on this. 
MeUuM TuBo devictos hoatea gratuUUur. Uv. 

In^ierSre aaiutem atkm, or <idtqium aaliUe, to salute one. 

IndtUre, exutre 9estem eibi, or «e vette, to put <xi, to put offone*s clothes. 

Inlerdudire commeatum tdfcui, or ati^uem commeStu, to intercept one's provi- 

InterdixU OaUiam RomOniM, or RomOnoa QaUiA, he debarred the Romans fiom 

Invideo honari alicujue, Cic. honorem aUcui, Hor. in re aliqu&, Cic 

Levdre dciorem aitad ; delorem aliaguM ; aitguem doUre, to ease one's distress. 

LUare Deum aacris, and asera Deo, to sacrifice. 

MactSre hoaikim Deo, or Deum TiostiA, to sacrifice. 

3Rnari dtlqmd dttcui, or sometimes aHad aHquo, Cic. to threaten one with any 
thing; CtiU&ri gladio. SalL 

OoeupSre peeuniam aticui, and aptuf attguem^ i. e. pecuniam faenori locitre, to 
place at interest Cic 

Opponilre ae morti» and ad mortem. RentrndSre id ei, and ad eum, to tell. 

ReatituiHre aticui aaniUUem, or dtfjuem aanilati, to restore to health. 

Obs. 3. Verbs Bignifying motion or tendency to a thing, instead of 
the dative, have an accusative after them, with the preposition 
ad; as, 

Porto, fero, lego, •€», pracifftto, toO/o, trako, dueo, verto, indUo, auadUo f'also, hortor 
and invito, voco, provoco, arifmo, atimulo, eonformo, kuxaao ; thus. Ad laudem mHUea 
hortOiur ; Ad pmUorem komhtem traxiL Cic. But after several of these verbs, we 
also find the dative ; as, Injferre Deoa Jbitio, for in LaUum, Virg. Inrntdre atlquem 
hoapitio, or tn hoapilium. Cac. 

Ofas. 4. The accusative is sometimes understood ; as, NvtXre dtteui, scil. ae ; 
Cedire dtictd, sdl. locum! DetrtAHra atHcm, sciL laudem; IgnoacHre aticui, scil. 
eufyam. And in Englirii the particle to is olton omitted; as, iWt^]niAt{t6r«t^ 
gave me a bdok, /or to me. 

j)89 QoytaamNT of vwb«« 

4. Verbs goverrdikg two Accusatives, 

§ 167» XXVI. Verbs of asking and teaching 
govern two accusatives, the one of a person and 
the odier of a thing ; as, 

Pom^w tepaoem^ We beg pmm of the». 

Doctdt me grammatUxun, He taugnt me gramnuur. 

§ 168# Verbs of asking, which govern two accusatives, are Rogo^ 
orOf ex6ro, oftsecro, precor, posco, postiUOf reposeo, JtagUo^ &c. Of 
teaching» Doceo^ edoeeo^ dedoceo, eritdio. 

Obs. 1. Ceh likewise governs two accusatives ; as, Cddvit me hanc 
rem, He concealed this matter from me; or otherwise, ceZdvtf hanc 
rem miki, or celdvit me de hoc rCk 

Otm. % Vert» of wkinff and teaeluBg are oAenoonstraed with a prepaBt1|on; aa, 
RogSre rem ab atfquo: Doeere alf quern de re, to iniem ; but we do not Bay, docere 
aHqueni de gnutunattcat but mmmaOoam, to teach. And we alwi^ say with a 
preposition, Feto, ea^go aot abe te ; PercofitOTt scitoTt tcisdttor, ex or ate or te with» 
out the rarepoaitioB ; Ailcrre^fo, cohmUo te de re; Utfima&teehaecro; Eximtpaoem 
divum, Ibr atiw«. Vira. InstmOt instUuOtformOt ir^ormo oZtouem drClbua, in the abl. 
wi^ut a prep. Immto eum arCtbu»^ in or ab artibus. Also, instruo ai rem, or in, 
re, ignorantiam alicujus, Erudire allquem artea, de or tn re, ad rem, FormSre ad 
stiimumt mentem, studiit, atudiaepuL 

Obs. 3. Many other active verbs with the accusative of a person, 
take also an accusative of nihil, or the neuter pronouns, hoc, id, quid, 
&c., or of adjectives of quantity ; as, nee te id coneuto, Cie. Earn bsx 
nos Uxms admonuit. Sail. To this construction seems to bel<mg the 
formula, magnam partem, or mdximam partem ; as, Ubros meos hao- 
NAM PARTEM amisi, 'I have lost a great part of my books.' See { 150. 

Obs. 4. Allied to this is the Chreek Accusative, as it is called, which 
is added to passive verbs, in order to define more exactly the part to 
which the meaning of the verb relates ; as, redimitus tkmpoba laurOi 
— miles fractus membra, &c. In such cases the accusative is govern- 
ed by, quod ad, or secundum, or some other preposition understood. 
See i 63. 

5. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Ablative, 

§ 169e XXVII, Verbs of loading, binding, doth* 
ing, depriving, and some others, govern the accu- 
sative and the ablative ; as, 

OfiHral navet anro, He loads the ships with gold. 

y 17Ck» Verbs of loading are, Onifro, ettmvlo, premo, cpm^fmo, dmto, rep^ 
dm», omo. Unloading, levo» esoniro, dto. Of binding, aeiringo, tigo, aUtgo, deomdo, 
•iHwcfeo, irreUo, Ulagfueo, 4to. Of loosing, echo, exaolbto, Ubkro, laxo, emetUo, &c. 
Of depriving, privo, nttdo, orbo, 9pdUo,fraudo, emungo. Of dotibing, «ssfto, amino 
tnduo, cingo, tego, veto, cormto, sod calceo. Of vaaclotiung, exuo, ditdngo, ^ 


Obs. 1. The jirepoation, by which the ablative is governed after tfaeae verba, ii 
aometiines exprened ; as, SoiviSre attquem ex caUms. Cic. Sonietimea the ablative 
is to be sapphed ; as, Coaq^lei'iuives, sc. virist mans the ship. Viig. 

Obs. 2. Impleo, com^leOt and esrpZeo, sometimes take the genitive; as, Adoie§' 
coiUm sua temerUiUi» vmj^ liv. JBrroris Hit» et demeniuB compUho. Haut iim- 
mum aepUsse juvabit vUricia JUmmcB. Virg. And amcmff the more ancient writers, 
also «z^uro and obsaiuro ; as, Ha res vita me scUurantj rlaut IsUus absaturuhere^ 
Terent Several vary their construction; as, tndutt, exwi se vestibust or vestes sUn. 

Obs. 3. MiUo governs the Accusative of the thing nven in exchange, and the 
Ablative of that which is taken in exchanffe ; as, Muto Tibrum pecuTuA, Sometimes 
the preposition is expressed ; as, Mutare beUttm pro pace. Sell. 

Obs. 4 The following verbs are also found with the accusative of the object and 
die ablative wiUiout a preposition : Instrtio, /ormo, instUuOf imbuo, in/ormo, de/endo, 
arceOf pr<Mbeo, exclude, interdudo, pello» 



§ 171e XXVIII, When a verb in the active 
voice governs two caseis, in the passive it retains 
the latter case ; as, 

Accutor furti, I am accused of dieft 

Vir^ius comparShw Homero, Virgil is compared to Homer. 

Doceor grammaRcam, I am taught grammar. 

NcrniM oneratur ituro. The ship is loaded with gold. 

So, Scio Tumdnes accusaium iri furti ; — Eos ereptvm iri morti, morte, a or ex 

tMrrte ;—--^h-os doctum iri grammatlcam i rem cdatum iri mi/d, ox me; me 

celdtum in de re, &c. 

Sometimes the active has three cases,. and then, the passive has the two last 
cases ; as, Habetur ludibrio Us» 

V XTSe When a verb in the Active voice governs an accusative 
with any other case, it must be carefully observed that, whatever word 
is m the Accusative after the Active verb, that word, and no other, 
must be the Nominative to it in the Passive voice, and the other cobq 
remains unchanged. Thus, *I give you a book,' Librum tibi do; pas- 
sively, Liber tibi datur. * He told me this,' Hoc mihi dixit ; nassively, 
' I was told this,' Hoc mihi dictum est, ^ I present you with a book»' 
Dono tUn librum ; passively. Liber tibi donatur. This rule is simple, 
perspicuous, and founded on the best classical authorities — that, what- 
ever is put in the Accusative case, after the Active verb, becomes the 
Nominative to it, in the Passive voice, while the other case is retained 
under the government of the verb, by this twenty-eighth rule. Thus^ 
'I persuade you of this,' Persuadeo hoc tibi. Here the thing is ex- 
pressed in the Accusative, and the person in the Dative. The former 
therefore must be the Nominative to the verb in the Passive voice ; as, 
hoc tibi persuadetur^ *you are persuaded of this,' literally, 'this ia 
persuaded to you.' 

\ 1 73e But it does not follow that we cannot say. Ego dicor, lUe 
dicituTt or Rk dictus est. If the person be He to whom any thing is 


aaidt it nrast always be expreBsed in the Dative case, as in the preced- 
ing examples. But if the person be He or whom any thing is said, it 
may then be made nominative to the verb. Thus, * He is said to be a 
wise man,* iZ/e dieitur esse vir sapiena. Here Hie is the subject 
spoken of, the person of ttkom the assertion is made, not the person to 
whom the thing is told. In like manner, 'I believe yoo,' Credo tibi^ 
that is, ' I give credit to what vou say,' in the passive voice, tibi credit 
tur, not tu crederis. But the latter expression is correct if used to sig- 
niQr, not that credit is given to the words of the person, but that some- 
thing is believed of him, as the subject of discourse ; as, Tu crederU 
ene vir honus^ ' you are believed to be a good man.' 

Obs. 1. Passive verbs are commonly construed with the ablative and 
the preposition a; as, 

Tu taudarU a me, which is eaoivalent to Ego laudo fe. VirtuM dUiffliur a ndbis; 
No» dUigtmua virtutem. Oauaeo meum factum prdbari a te, or te probSre meum 
factum : And so almost all active verbs. Neuter and deponent verbs also admit 
tMsprepositioD,* «s, Mureatole coUmceL Cic Phal&ria turn a pauds vUeriiL Id. 
So^ Vaalhre ab koke ; CessSre apnetiis ; Mori ab enM ; PaH furari atfauid a6 oil- 
<mo^ &C. Also, Vemre ab AosfXfiits, to be sold ; VapviSrt ah atiquot ExmSre ab urUk 
Thus lilcewise many active verbs ; as, Svmiret peUrCt tdUre, pdUre, eacpectAv^ 
tmirt, &fi, ab atlqwk 

Rem. I. The prep, ii aometinieB understood after passive verbs; as, i)eslror oon- 
juge. Ovid. DMertM» tm» sc a. Tacit Tabids diaUngt^Uur und& (pd nt^gaL sc 
ab undA, is kept fitua the water by a plaok. JuvenaL 

Rem. 2. The preposition PER is also osed in the same sense wtdi A ; as. Per me 
drfmfd ett rttpMoOt or a me; Per mie reeUlututi Per me or a mefactum ett. Cic. 
fiat PER conunoiUy marks the instrument, and A the principal eflicient canse j as^ 
Ret agUurper creetkoreSf a rege, sc. a rege vel a UgdUo ^us. Cic Fam. i. 1. 

Obs. 3. Passive verbs sometimes govern the dative, especially among 
the poets ; as, ^ 

Neqve eeniHur «2£t, ibr ab vUo. Vug, Fir avdior «Si Qvjd. Seribene Vario, 
frr a Vario, Hbr. Hometta bonie viris otusruiiter, ibr a wis. Cic. Videos, to 
seem, always governs the dative ; as, Viaerie mtAi, You seem to me : but we com- 
monly 8^, Vmeris a met You are seen by me ; although not always ; as, NuUa hUl- 
rum avdua miftt, neque visa «ordrtar», for a me. Virg. 

Obs. 3. InduoTt amidor, cingor, acdngw, also emorf and ditcingor, are often ooq- 
■trued with the accusative, particularly among the poets, though we do not find 
them governing two accusatives in the active voice ; as, ImhOtur teelem, or «etfe. 

Obs. 4. Neuter verbs are fi>r the most part used impersonally in the passive 
voice ; unless when they are joined with a noun of a similar siimifieatioB to their 
own ; as, Pugna pugrUUa eeL Cic BsSum mtftroMiiir. Horat Passive impersoaal 
verbs are most commooly applied either to a multitude, or to an ixidividaal taken 
indefnitely; as, Staiur^ feturj cunrftur, vitiUur, vemUtr, &c a vobie, ab tfits, dce^ 
We are standing, weeping, &c Bene^ potest vtot a me, or ab ali^uo : I or any per- 
son may live well. Promsum est nobis optfmi a Deo ; ReciamStum est ah omnwus, 
all cried out against it Cic 

Obs. 5. They also govern the same cases as when used personally; as, Ut majo^ 
¥tbu9 wUu asstagiUurf «t suppHctim misere&tur. Cic. Except the accusative: fbrm 
these phrases, Itur Athenas, pugrUUum est biduumt domutur totam nojkm, the aewK 
sative is not governed by the verb, but by the prepositions ad and per understood. 
We find, however, Tbts mM domutwr hyemsi JMee mgibmiur amOrm; (ke4mi9 
mria qb orbe nostro nasflbw aditur. Tacit 



§ 1 74» XXIX. An Impersonal Verb governs the 
dative; as, 

EaqMU retpubttca. It is profitable for die state. 

Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, are usefc 
impersonally in the passive, and likewise govern the dative ; as, 

Favetur mihi, I am favoured, and not Ego Javeor. So, NocHw mihi, imperdtw 
•nM, Ac. We find, however, Hoe egoprcatrSre mpiror. Ego cur mmdeor, ibr m* 
perSiUTt inmdetur mihi. Hor. 

Obs. 1. These verbs, Potest^ ccepit^ inc^pit^ detHnit, debetf and solet, 
are used impersonally, when joined with impersonal verbs ; as, 

Non potest credi tibi, You cannot be believed ; Mihi mm potest noehi, 1 cannot 
be hurt; NegatjucundipouevivinnetfiTtute. Cic. Per virtutem potest iri ad astro. 
JUiorum laudi et gloria tnvideri sxHeL The imise and gioiy of othon are accue- 
tomed to be envied. Id. Neipjut a forOsifnus infirmisiKmo geiUri resisti posse. 

Obs. 2. Various verbs are used both personally and impersonally; as, VenU m 
merUem mihi htsc res, or de hoc re, or hujus ret, scu. memoria ; This tninff came into 
my mind. E^curamihihacrestordekacre. Doteo or dciet imhit id factum esse. 

Obs. 8. The neuter prononn ft is always joined with hnpersonal verbs in Eng- 
lish ; as, It rains, it twines ; Ac. And in the Latin an infinitive is commonly sub- 
joined to impersoxttl verbs, or the sobjunctiTe widi uf, forming a part of a sentence 
which may be supposed to supply the place of a ncnninative ; as. Nobis non licet 
peccSre, the same with peccStum ; Omnibus bonis expMit renqnditcam esse sahxxm, 
i. e. &dus reipubttctB exploit omnWus bonis. Cic. ActMit, evenitt eonttgitt ut ibi 
essemus.. These nominatives, hoc, iUvd, id, idem, ouod, &c., are sometimes joined 
to impersonal verbs ; as, idem mihi Hcet. Ci& Edaem licenL Catull. 

Obs. 4. The dative is often understood ; as, Fadat quod Ubet, sc. sibi. Ter. Stat 
casus renovHre omnef, sc. mihi, I am resolved. Viig. 

§ 175e Exc. 1. REFERTsnd INTEREST goYem the geni- 
tive; as, 

Rrfert patris, It concerns my iatfaer. Interest omniuM, It is the interest of aU. 

§ 1 76# But men, tua, ma, no^rat vestra, are put in the accusa- 
tive plural neuter ; as, 

Non mea refert. It does not concern me. 

Obs. 1. Some think mea, ttut, sua, &c. to be in the ablat sing. fem. 
We say either cujus intirestf and quorum inUrcMt ; «r euja inUfreii, 
from euju$t •«, -^m, 

Obs. 2. R^ert and intirest are oAen joined with these nominatives, Id, hoe, illud, 
gmii, fued, nihil, Ac also with common nouns ,* and witli tliese genitives, Thnti, 
quaikifmagfd,peirmagm,parm,plvrisf a». Hoc pond refert; Mlud mea mam, in- 
ttresL Cic. ifsque adeo magni refert studium. Lucret. Incessus in gravmi refert 


Bern. 2. They are firequenay conrtroed With these adverbe, TlmfMi^ . 
multum, plus^plur^um, tj^nUufih parum* maximi, vehemenUr, mmtau, ^cc as, !«•- 
damt qufid maxM reipuWca intereste judicabo. Cic. 

Rem. 3. Sometimes instead of the genit thw take the aocos. with ^^ jj^od; 
as, Qtttd id ad me, aul ad nuam rem refert. Persa quid rerum frerantf Of YfM 
importance is it ? &c. Plaut. Magni ad honorem nostrum tntiresL Qc. ; «rely Ul» 
dative: u, Die quid re/irat intra nalurtB fines wvcnfo, &C. Hor. Sometimes they 
are placed absolutely ; as, Magnopire mUresl oppiimx Ikiab^i^ it is of great im- 
portance. Cic. Permtdlum inOrest, qvoHs primus a^lhis «t Id. .Meone est fun- 
dSta levfUer fides, ut vbi sim, quam qui «m, magis refhat. Liv. Flurimum entm 
tnferJJri«, quims arC^bus, aut qtahus hunc tu moribus instituas, Juv. 

Obs. a The genitive after refert and inHtrest, is governed by some substantive 
understood, wi£ which the possessives mm, tuo, sua, && likewise agree ; as, InU- 
rest Ciceronis, i.e. est inter negotia Cioeronis. Refert palris, i e. refert se hoc res 
ad negotia patris. So, interest mea, est inter negotta mea. 

§ 177. Exc. II. These five, MJSJEjRET, PCENITRT, PU- 
DET, TJEDETf and PIGET^ go?em the accusative of a person 
with the geaitive of a thing ; as, 

Mish-et me tui, I pity you. 
Pcm^itet me peccati, I repent of my sin. 

Tadel me vita, I am weary of life. 
Pudet me culpa, I am ashamed of my 


Obs. 1. The genitive here is properly governed either by negdium understood, 
or by some other substantive of a sijj[nincation similar to that of the verb with 
which it is joined ; as, Mis(tret me tui, that is, negotium or miseraiio tui misgret me. 

Obs. 2. An infinitive or some part of a sentence may mipply the place of the 
genitive ; as, Pum^Uel me peochsse, or quod peccaviri$n. The accusative is fre- 
quently understood; as, Scelihrum sibenepcsiiUet, scil. nos. Horat 

Obs. 3. Misltret, poeriitet, &c. are sometunes used personally, especially when 
joined with these nominatives, hoc, id, quod, &c as. Ipse sui misihret. Lucr. Nomte 
hoBC tejpudent Ter. Nihil, quod paenitere possit, fadas, for cujus te poaiiiire 
posnt. Cic. 

We sometimes find misiret joined with two accusatives; w, Menedemi vicem 
muXrei me, scil. secundum or qwod ad. Ter. 

Obs. 4. The preterites of mstret, jmdet, tcedet, and piget, when used in the pas- 
sive form, govern the same cases with the active ; as, miseritum est me iuarum 
fortun&rum. Ter. We likewise fipd, miserescit and miseretur used impersonally; 
as, Miserescit me tui. Ter. MisereStur te fratrum f Neque me tui, neque tudrwn 
Uberorum miser en potest. Cic 

§178. Exc. m. DECET, DELECTAT, JVVAT, and 
OPORTET, govern the accusative of a perscm with the infinitive; 

Jklecua me studere. It delights me to study. 

Non decet te rix&r;i. It does not become you to scold. 

Obs. 1. These yerbs are sometimes used personally; as, narmon pansa deoeait 
Hor. Est o&quid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi Uceat. Cic. /mbc fada ab iUo opor- 
tebanL Ter. 

Obs. 2. Decet is sometimes construed with the dative; as, Ita nobis decet. Ter. 

Obs. 3. Oportet is elegantly joined with the subjunctive mode, ul 
being understood ; as. 

coRBTBVcrrroir ot ^thb iNFzimnvE. 241 

Ml ^ftdaque con$Slai morkL Cic. Or with the perfect participle, e$9e arftdue 
heiag undentood; as, uommunic&tum cporiuU; mansum cportuit; Addescenti 
morem gestum oportuit. The yoang man should have been humoured. Ter 

Obs. 4. EaUitf fu^ praihitt taUsl, when used impeTsonaliy, also govern the 
■eeosative with the infinitive ; as, In lege ntdl& ease ejusmSdi capvX^ rum te faUU ; 
Sh DUmyno jugit meadte antea tcrib^e. Cic. 

Note. AtHn^ perflnei, and apectatt are conslrued with ad; Ad reagHtbticam per- 
tinet, me congervari. Cic. And ao perBonally, /ZZe ad me aUinet, belongs. Ter. Rei 
ad arma tpectai, looks, points. Cic - > 


§ 179e XXX. One verb governs another in the 
infinitive; as, 

Cujn'o disc^, I desire to leam. 

Obs. 1. The infinitive is often governed by adjectives ; as, Horatius 
est dignus legi. Quhictil. And it sometimes depends on a substantive ; 
as, Tempus equiimfumantia solvire cdla, Virg. 

Obs. 2. The word governing the infinitive is sometimes understood ; as, Mene 
isuepla demsUre viclam, scil. «fedef, or par est. Virg. Videre est, one ma)r see. 
Bfeire run estx scil. copki'^ or yac«/to«. - Herat And sometimes the infmttive itself 
is to be 8ap{died ; as, SocrHtem fid&ms docuit, scil. canh'e, Cic. So, Disdire, scire, 

■* • 

Obs. 3. The infinitive was not improperly called by the ancients, Namen. verbi, 
the name or noun of the verb ; because it is both joined with an. adjective like a 
substantive ; as, Velle suum cuique est, Every one has a will of his own : and it 
likewise supplies the place of a noun, not only in the nominative, bat also in all 
the oblique cases ; as, 1. In^ the ^nominativej JUUrodnari, /reauUire, iurp^ est, Cic 
Didicissefde^Uer artes emoUit nutres. Ovid. 2. |n the genitive, Peritus oantare, lor 
caniandi or cantus. Vir^. 3. In the dative, Parattts servire, for servituti. Sail. 4. 
In the accusative, Da nuhifalUre, for artemfcdlendi. Herat Quodfaciam supHrest^ 
prcBter amSref nihil. Ovid. 5. In the vocative, O vivtre noslrumt ut non sentientibus 
^uis ! for Vila no^reu 6. In the ablative, Dignus amdri, for amore^ or qui amUur, 

Obs. 4. Instead of the infinitive a diflferent construction is often used after verbs 
of d&ubtirtg, wUlin^, ordering, fearing, hoping ; in short, after any verb which has 
a relation to futurity ; as, J/ubltat tftx jfaciSre, or mor^ frequently, an, num, or ntrtan: 
iiafttdurus sit ; Dubiiavit anfacirei necne ,* Non duiHto (pdnfechiL Vis mefaeire, 
or Id faciam. Metuit taa^t, or ne tangatur. Spero te venfUrum esse, ot fore ut 
venias. Nunquam putavifire utadte suppkx vemrem. Cic. Exislim^untftUMtum 
fuisse ut opp\dum amiUerUur. Ctes. 

-Obs. 5. To, which in English is the sign of the infinitive, in Latin may often be 
rendered otherwise than by the infinitive ; as, I am sent to complain, Mittor questum, 
or lit ouerar, &c. Ready to hear, Promj^us ad audiendum ; Time to read, Tem^us 
legenaij Fit to swim, Aptus natando; Easy to say, FadUe dictu; I am to wnte, 
^jt^piSurus sum; A house to let; er more properly, to be let, Domus locanda; He 
was left to guard the ci^, Rdictus est ut tueretur urbem. 

Obs. 6. Dvdnlo and dttbium est, are sometimes followed by the Infinitive, but 
oilener by the Subjunctive, with an, num, utrum, and (if non goes before) quin ; as, 
rwi dtJnvm est quin uxorem noLitflius, Terent It is to I^ observed thatsueh 
phrassr as Dubilo an. Hand scio an^ Nesdo any although from their very nature tbey^ 
imply some doubt are, notwithstanding, generally used in a sense almost affirma* 



thre; m, Duhiio cm hunc prtmum omninm pomam, Nep. *fi]r angfat I know he may 
be placed fii«t,' or, * I am inclioed to place mm &ctL* 

Obs. 7. Verba of fearing, such as, timeQ, metuo, vereor^ JP?^^* ^^ ^^^'^ affirma- 
tively with ne, bat negatively with uX, or ne nan ; then. Timet ne demras4te^ Ter. 
' she is afraid that you may forsake her/ Paves ne duoa» uxorern, Ter. denotes» 
< you are afraid to marry.' Paves ut ducat, Ter. you are afraid lest you shooid not 
many her.' 



§ 1 80e XXXI. Participles, Gerunds, and Su- 
pines govern the case of their own verbs ; as, 

Amaas ffirtuiem. Loving virtue. Carensfraude, Wanting guile. 

' Obs. 1. Passive Participles often govern the dative, particularly 
when they are used as adjectives ; as, 

Sumectua mihi. Suspected by mo; Su^itectioree reg&us. Sail, /mnnia flui^ 
hated oy me, or hateful to me; Ipsi invisusimue, Plin, OccuUa eC mar'Au* turn ni- 
«7M solum, aed etiam inaudita sacra, unseen. Cic 

Obs. 2. Do, reddo, volo, euro, /ado, kc^eo, compenok with the Accnsative n€ a 
perfect participle, are often used by way of circumlocution, instead of the verb of 
the participle ; as, Compertum habeo, for ccmph-i, * I have found ;* Effectum dabo, 
for efficiam. Me miUum face, Ter. for mUte. In certain instances there is an evi- 
dent difibrence between the simple tense of the verb, and Ihe periphrasis corre- 
sponding to the manner in which it is usually inteipreted in English. Thus if we 
say, Qmdius quern ahdiderat, or CHadius quern abaitvrn hoA^at, the translation of 
either is, * The sword which she had concealed.' The latter is the pbraseokM^ of 
Livy, dcMcrilHnjif the suicide of Lucretia, and implies the actoal possession oil the 
da^er at the time ; the former does not. 

Obs. 3. These verbs, euro, haheo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, mitto, &c, are 
elegantly construed with the participle in dus, instead of the infinitive ; as, JFVnus 
faaendum curdvi, for fiiri, or utfiird. ; Columnas adificandas loc&vit Ci& 

Obs. 4. EXOSUS, PEROSUS, and oflen also PERTJESVS, govern the ac- 
cusative ; as, T<Bdas exosa iugales. Ovid. PUhs consilium nomen haud secuS fvdm 
TPgum perosa erat Liv. Perttsnts igiuiviam suam; semet ipse, displeased with» 
Suet vUam, weary of. Justin. levUdtis* Cic. 

Obs. 6. Verbals in BUNDUS govern the case of their own verbs ; as, Oratuta- 
hundus patria. Just Vitahundus castra hostium. Liv. So sometimes also nouns; 
as, JusMia est obtemperaHo scripHs l^e^Aus. Cic. InsiduB consuU. SalL Domum 
rediiidnis spe subl&U^ Ces. Spectatioludos. Plant 

Obs. 6. Sometimes the Gerund is used with ad; 9», Tradere eigentes diripiendas, 
or ad diripiendum, Cic. R<^o, accipio, do aliquid utendum, or ad utendum ; Misii 
miki libnan legendum, or adt^gendum. 

Obs. 7. The passive participle in dus has in the nominative case, (and in the con- 
struction of the accusative with the infinitive also) the signification of necestt^y, less 
frequently, oSpossibUxfy ; thus, laudandus is one who mu^ be praised, or ought to 
be praisea. Tlie nenter of this participle is used hi the nominative, or the accusa- 
tive before the infinitive, with esse in the sense of *necenity,' or *propne^>' as»- 
iaudandum est ; dico laudandum esse, * we must praise.' The penon on whoon iStte 
dutv or necessity rests, must be expressed in tne dative, and not in the aUalive 
with ab. But some consider the neuter participle as the gerund See $ 182, Obi. 1» 

ooinmfrcnoif or oibyticds^ S4> 


§ 181* XXXII. Gerunds are construed like sub- 
stantive nouns ; as, 

Studendum est mUd, I most study. 
Tempus studendi. Time of sftidy. 
AptuB ttudendo. Fit for ■tudyidg. 

Sdo stvdendtan CMte wnki, I know 
that I must study. 

But more paxticularly : 

^ 182« L The gerund in Z>17M, of the Nominative case, with 
lihe verb est, governs the dative ; as, 

Legendum ett mihit I must read. | Moriendum ett onvnSffnu, All must die. 

So^ Scio Ugendum esse mtAt ; moriendum eue omvXbus, &c 

Ofas. 1. This gerund always imports obligation or necessity ; and may be resolved 
into oportett necesse estt or the like, and the infinitive or the subjunctive, with the 
oonjiuction ut ; as, Omaii&us est moriendum, or OmvUfbus necesse est mori^ or ut mo» 
fiantur ; or Necesse est ut omnes mdriantur. Consulendum est iibi a me, I must con- 
sult £)r yonr good ; for Oportet ut cotmtktm ObL Cic 

Obs. 2. The dative is often understood ; as, Orandum est, ut sit mens sana m ror? 
^re sano, sc. tibi. Juv. Hk vincendum, out moriendufn, miHtes, est, sc. vobis. liv. 
I^dSberoHdum est diu, quod sUOuendum est semel, sc fiftt or aitteuL P. Syr. 

§ X83# n. The gerund in DI is governed by substantives or ad- 
jectives; as, 

Thiypus legendi. Time of reading. \ Ciqftdus discendi, Desiions of learning. 

Obs. This eerund is sometimes construed vritfa flie genitive plural ; aa, facuttas 
agrorum condonandi, for ogros, Cic. Copia spedandi (xmtBdiSrum, for eomadias, 
Tei. But chiefly with pronouns; as, In castra vifnerunt sui purgandi causA. Ces. 
Vestti adhoTtanai causA. Liv. Ejus videndi cupfeUis, sc fcem'fnte, Ter. The ge- 
rund here is supposed to govern me genitive like a substantive noun. 

§ X84:« III. The gerund in DO of the Dative case is governed 
by adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness ; as, 

Charta utUis scribendo. Paper useful for writing. 

Obs. 1. Sometimes the adjective is understood ; as, Non est sdvenHo, scil. par eg 
hd^is, He is not able to pay. Cic. 

Obs. 2. This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs; as, Ademe scribendtk 
Cic Aptal habendo ensem, for wearing. Virg. Is fids oensindo foetus est, Liv. 

§ 185« IV. The gerund in DUM of the Accusative case is go- 
verned by the prepositions ad or inter; as, 

Promphts ad audiendum. Ready to hear 

AUentus itUer docendum. Attentive in time of teaching. 

Obs. This gerund is alao governed by some other prepositions ; as. Ante doman- 
dum. Vire. CM ahsclvendum. Cic. Circa movendum. Quinclil. Or it depends on 
some verb going before, and then with the verb esse governs the dative case; as, 
Sdo morienduM esse omnibus, I know that all most die. Esse is often understood. 


§ 1.86« V. The gerund in DO of the Ablative case is governed 
by the prepositions a, ah, de^ e, ex, or in ; as, 

PoBna a pecoando abslerret, PuniBhinent fri^tem fnxn Binning. 

§ 187« Or without a preposition, as the ablative of manner or 
cause ; according to Rule XLIX, as, 

Memoria excdendo aftgHur, The memory is improved by exercising it. 

Defe^iu sum ambulando, I am wearied with walking. 

Obs. The gerund in its nature very much resembles the infinitive. — Hence the 
one is frequently put for the other; as, Est tetnjma kgendit or kgite: only the 
gerund is never joined with an sidjectiyet and is sometimes taken in a pasuve 
sense; as, Cum Tindium vocaritur ad imperandum^ i. e. tU ipti imperetur^ to 
receive oiders. Sail. Ntmc odes ad imperandum, vel ad j^rendum potitu ; tic «ntnt 
anSqui loqudiantur. Cic. i. e. ut tibi imperetur, Urit vtdendOf i. e. dum tiditur. 

Gerunds turned into Par{iciples in dus. 

§ 188» XXXVI.* Gerunds governing the ac- 
cusative are elegantly turned into participles in 
rfws, which, like adjectives, agree with their sub- 
stantives in gender, number and case ; as, 

By the Gerund. By the Participle or Gerundive. 

Petendum est mihi pacem, " 
Ad petendum pacem^ 
A petendo pacem^ 

or more 
* frequently 

Pax est petenda mihi, 
Tempus petendcB pads. 
Ad peleimttm pacem. 
A pelend& pace. 

Obs. 1. In changing gerunds into participles in dus, the partici|de 
and the substantive are always to be put in the same case in which the 
gerund was ; as, 

Genitive. Inita sutU consiUa urhis ddenda, cimam truddanddrum, nonHms Ro- 
mOni extingvendi. Cic. 

Dat Perpeliendo labori idoneus. Column, Ce^sseruUs rapuhttoB haifUis, Tac. 

Areajirma iemplis ac portidihus stistinendis. Liv. Oniri^erendo est, sc. tqttus or 

habHis. Ovid. Natus miseriis ferendiSt Ter. IMh-is dandts vigildre. Cic Locum 
cpptdo condendo capHh-e. liv. 

Ace. and Abl. Ad defendendam Romam ab oppugnand& CapuA duces TtomSnos 
ffbstrakire, Liv. Oraiionem LaGnam Ugendis nostris effides pleniorem. Cic 

Obs. 2. The gerunds of verbs, which do not govern the accusative, are never 
changed into the participle, except those of medeor^ uior, ab^ortfruoTffungor, and 
potior ; as, l^tes patiunai urbst or poUunda urhis ; but we always say, CujUdus 
subveniendi Hbi, and never tui 

■■■■ ■ ^1^»^ - ■■■■III -■» ■-— - M I ■■■■■ ■■ ^.-a ■■■■■_■ — .1 „ ■ ■ I ■ ■ I ^ 

* The Gerunds in Dum, Di. and Do, constitute Rules xxxiii. xxxiv. and zxxv. 


1. The supine in urn. 

§ 180« XXXVII. The supine in um is put after 
a verb of motion ; as, 

AjKU deambulatufn. He hath gone to walk. 

So, DuclSre e€lkorte$ pr€Bdstum. lav* Ntmcvenis irnaum demfnum f Qaod in rem 
tuam oj^bnumfactu arMiror, te id admonitum venio. Plaut 

Ohs. 1. The suinne in um is elegantly joined with the verb eo, to express die 
oigBification of any verb more strongly ; as, j£ «e perdUunu the same wita id agit, 
or upiram dot, ut se perdatf He is bent on his own destruction. Ter. This sapine 
with trt, taken impersonally, supplies the place o£ the infinitive passive; as, An 
er^ebas iUam sine tu& ophra iri deductum domum ? Which may be thus resolved ; 
An credeias iri (a te or ab alKqlio) deductum (i. e. ad deducendum) Ulam domum, 
Ter. The two supines are properly the accusative and ablative of an old verbal 
substantive of the rourth declension, whidi govern the case of the verb. 

Obs. 2. The 8U]une in vm is put after other verbs besides verbs of motion ; as, 
Dedk JUiam nvptum ; Cantaium provocemua, Ter. Revocatu» defensian patrtam ; 
DimakoopiMhemStum. JNep. 

Ohs. 3. The meaning of this supine may be expressed by several other partp of 
the verb ; as, Venit orStum opem ; or, 1. Venit opem oranai cauiA, or opis orandos, 
8. Venit ad orandum cpem, or <td orandam opem. 3. Venit opt oranda. 4. VenU 
opem oratunte. 5. Venit f ui, or ut opem oreL 6. Venit opem orare* But the third 
and the last of these are seldom used. 

2. The Supine in u. 

§ 190» XXXVIII. The supine in w is put after 
adjectives implying Ease^ Difficulty^ Propensity^ 
Qmliiy^ Fiines$, Fornix &c. 

Facile dictu. Easy to tell, or to be told. 

So, NikU dictu faadumj idtuque^ hoc limlna langeOt intra qtue puer est. Juv. JHf- 
JicUis res est inveatu vena amicus. 

Obs. I. The supuie in u is also used after the nouns/a«, nefas, and opus ; as. Has 
Jus est dictu, Cic. Nefas dictUi Ovid. Dictu opus est, Ter. 

Obs. 2.. The supine in «, being used in a passive sense, hardly ever governs any 
case. It is sometimes, espedaUy in old writers, put after verbs of motion; as. Nunc 
obtonStu redeo, from gettmg provisions. Plaut Frimus cutHtu surgat (villicus,) from 
bed, postr emus cuJtfUum eat Cato. 

Obs. 3L This supine may be rendered by the infinitive or gerund with the pre- 
position ad ; as, Diffuse cogrOtu, cognosci, or ad cognoscendum ; Res jfaaUs ad ere- 
dendum. Cic. 

. Obs. 4. According to the opinion of many ^mmarians, the Supines are nothing 
else but verbal nouns of the Fourth declension, used only in &e Accusative and 
Ablative cases, and are governed in these cases by prepositions understood, the 
Supine in um by the preposition ad, and the Supine in u by the preposition in. But 
this opinion will hardly bear examination; lor why should the Supine in vm 
govern the case of its own verb, unless it be really a part of it ? 

.21* • 

246 Goiwnivcnoif of AovmBS. 

Ofat. 5. Althouffh m the gnunman and dictionariefl the Sapioes of moit verbi 
•re given by aniXwjr, yet they are wldom found in the danics; instead of them 
aie used the Gerundii, the FarticipleB in dua and nut, and ut, with the SubgunetivtB 


§ 191» XXXIX. Adverbs qualify verbs, partici- 
ples, adjectives, and other adverbs ; as. 

Beni tcribUt He writes well. ] FortUer pugnaru. Fighting bravely. 

slave remarkably Satis benit yTeHi 


Servus egregiiJidUi$t A slave remarkably 

Satis benl. Well enough. 

Obs. 1. Adverbs sometimes likewise qualify substantives ; as, 

Homertu planl orator: plane nooter, «er^ Modbta, Cic So, Hodw mane, eras 
mane, herimane; hodie ve^firi, Ssg» tarn mane, lam vespitre* 

Ofaa. 2. The adverb, for the most part in Latin, and always in £ngli8h^i8 placed 
near to the word which it qualifies or afl^ts. 

Obs. 3. Two negatives, both in Latin and English, are equivalent to 
an affirmative ; as, 

Nee non sensirunt, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. et tenserunt, and they did por« 
ceive ; Non poUram non examin&ri metu. Cic. So, non sum nesciust i. e. ' I know.' 
Cic. haudnvtU est, i. e. 'It is something.' Ter. nxmnvHi, i. e. 'some.' Examples, 
however, of the contrary of this occur in good authOTS. both Latin and English. 
Thus, in imitation of the Greeks, two negatives sometimes make a stronger nega- 
tion : Non parere noluit. Nep. ' he did not refuse to obey ;' nojue hoc non eveneruni, 
' and th£fii actually took place ;' vide iptur ne nulla sit divinatio, Cic. * consider 
whether there exist such a thing as divmation at ail.' Negne tu HAun dicas tibi non 
prttdictum, Ter. * and do not say that you were not forewarned.' 

Obs. 4. It must be observed however, that the use of non before a negative, does 
not merely restore the positive sense but generallv heightens it Homo nan indoo' 
tus, is equivalent to homo sane doctus, * a man truly learned.' Non imperitissitnue, 

* a man of great experience.' So, non ignore, non nefdus turn, * I know very w«IL* 

Obs. 5. A very difierent sense arises, according as the non is placed before or 
after : thus, non nemo, ' some one ;' nemo non, ' every one.' Non ntdli, * some ;' ntd- 
Us non, ' every.' Aon nikU, < something ;' ntkil non, ' every thing.' Nonnunquam, 

* sometimes ;' nunquam non, ' at aU times.' 

§ 193e But what chiefly deserves attention in Adverbs, is the degree of 
comparison and the mode with which thev are ioined. 1. Apprimi, admSdiim, 
vehanenler, maj^tmi, perquam, valdl, oppfdd, &c. and per in cwnposition, are usually 
joined to the positive ; as, Utrique nostriim gratum admodum /edhris. You will do 
what is very agreeable to both of us. Cic. perquam puerile, veiy childish ; opptd6 
pauci, very few ; perfadile est, &c. In like manner, Parum, miuhan, nimium, ton* 
turn, quantum, aUquantum ; as, In rebus apertisifimi^ nimivm langi sumusf parum 
frmus, mtdtum bonus. Cic. Adverbs in um are sometimes also joined to compara- 
lives ; as. Forma viri aliquantitm ampKor humSnSt. Liv. 

§ 193e Qdah is joined to the jxmtive or superlative in different senses; as, 
Quam difictle est ! How diflicult it is ! Qudm crudUis, or Ut crudHis est ! How 
cruel he is ! Hens qu/im /mniliartter, veiy forailiarly. Ter. So, quStm seob"^ very 

coasmocnoN' of aovbkbb* MT 

MTSielf. Cie. Qicajii to^ very widely. Cm Tem muUa quAm, Ac at many 
thingB aa, Ac Qu^m moiOmaspotettcmiasarmati as greatas poaaible. Sail. Q^mm 
mu^tmoB gratia» agU, qudmprimttmt quam toBpiaiHaU. Cic. Qudm qui§qne pet^taU 
fecUt torn nuuHnU tutus esL Sail. 

§ 194e Facile, fixr hmd dtibie, nndoabtedly» clearly, is joined to auperla- 
tives or words of a similar meaning ; as, FacUi do(Uis»fmu»f facHU jirincepSt or pfm- 
rynoM. LoNGE, .to oompaiatives or superlatives, rarely to tne pontive ,* as, Longh 
w)quitUi88fmuB PUUo» Cic Pe^Unts longi nuUor Lycus* Viig* 

2. Cum, when, is construed with the indicative or subjunctive, oflener with the 
latter; Ddm, whilst, or how long, with the indicative; as, Dum hoc agutUur; 
JE^Sto, dum antma est, spes esse didUur. Cic. Donee erUfdix, muUos numerabt» 
amicos, Ovid. Dum and donec, for usqu^um, until, sometuies with the indicative, 
and sometimes with the subjunctive ; as, OppericTt dum ista a^pwsca Cic Haud 
deiinam donec perfectro. Ter. So quoao, ror qu€andiu,muintumt quaUnuSt as long, 
as much, as &r as ; thus. Quoad CkuUhm /uU in urbe ; Quoad tibi tequum mddfUur ; 
quoad possem and liceret ; quoad proeridt potuirit amentia. Cic But auoAD, until, 
oflener with the subjunctive ; as, T^essatonioB esse statugram, quoad atiquid ad me 
scribires. Cic but not always ; Non faciam finem ro^andi, quoad nunciiUum erit tie 
fecisse. Cic. The pronoun ejus, with^oc^re, or Jiert, is elegandy added to quoad ; 
as, quoad ejus facire poUris ; Quoad episjiihri possit. Cic JEjus is thought to be 
here governed by ohiTttaif , or some such wora understood. Quoad corpust quoad 
mibnamt fi>r secundum, or quod aXSHniA ad corpus or an^mam, as to the body or soul» 
is esteemed by the best grammarians not to be good Latin. 

3. PosTdUAM or PoBTEAauAM, after, is usually joined with the indie antb^uam, 
PRiusQUAM, before: Simul, simulac, simul atque. simul ut, as sorm as; Ubi, 
when, sometimes with the indie and sometimes with the subj. ; as, AntiSquam dico 
or dioam. Cic Simulac persensiL Vii^. Simul ut vidihro Curionem, Cic Hcbc 
ubi dicta d^U, Uv. Ubi semd quis perjuraviritj ei credi posiea non oportet. Cic 
So N^, truly, as, Na ego homo sum injeHx. Ter. N<b <«, si id fedsses, meUus faxnm 
eonsuluisses, Cic But ne, not, with the imperative, or more elerantly with the 
subjunctive ; as, Ne jura. Plant Ne post confh-as cidpam in me. Ter. Ne tot an- 
norum /dicitStem'in unius horas dedins discrimen. liv. 

4. Qdasi, Ceu Tanquam, Perinde, when they denote resemblance, are joined 
widi die indicative ; Fuit olim, quasi ego sum, senex. Plant Adversi rtqUo ceu 
quondetm turttne venti confiigunt. Virg. Hoc omnia perinde sunt, ut aguntur. But 
when used ironically, they have the subjunctive ; as, Quasi de verbo, non de re 
labcritur. Cic 

5. Utinam, o 81, UT, for uthuan, I wish, take the sulgunctive ; as, Utinam ea res 
ei vdvptsU siL Cic O mihi praterUos rejtrat nJv^fiUr anno». Virg. Ut iUum dU 
deaque perdanL Ter. 

6. Ut, when, or after, takes the indicative ; as, Ut diaoessit venit, Ac T Abo, for 
quAm, or quomodo, how ! as, Ut vala ! Ut falsus anXnti e»t ! Ut steps summa ingenia 
tn occuUo latent! Plant TOr when it sim(d^ denotes resemblance; as, Ut tute es, 
tto omnes censes esse. Plant Tin this sense it sometimes has the sulgunctive; as, 
Ut sementem /echis, Ua metes. Cic 

7. Qum, for cur non, takes the indie as, Quin continUis vocem indlcem ttuliitim 
vestraf Cic TFor Imo, nay, or but, the indie or imperat as, Quin est parHhim 
argmtum; quin tu hoc audi. Ter. TFor Ut non, aui, aujs, dUOD non, or quo 
MINUS, the subjunctive; as, NuBa tarn fat^lis res, quin difMHsfiet^ quum invUu» 
facias. Ter. Nemo est, quin mSUt ; Facire non possum, quin ad te mitftmi, I cannot 
nelp sending; JViAi2 oies^ gutn «tm i7U«err¥inu<. Cic 

2AB .«ovflBimzfT OF xnv 


> § 195« XL. Some adverbs of time, place, and 
quantity, govern the genitive ; as, 

PridU e;uM diei. The day before that day. 

V^mte getditan, Kvety where. 

SaUa ett verbcrumf - There is enough of words. 

1. Adverhe of time governing the ^enit are, Interea, potlea, inde^ tune; mh /m- 
terea locit in the mean time ; polea locu afterwards ; inde loci, then ; tunc temporit^ 
at that time. 2. Of place, C75t, and quo, with their compounds, vhlque, ubicunque^ 
«kvM, vbiubi, &c. Also, JBo, hue, hucdine, wide, utquam, nu8quam,um0e, iiUdem; 
as, Uin, quo, quovis, &c. also tu^ptam, nusqmm, vnde terr&rum, or gentium ; lone^ 
gentium ; ibtaem tod, ed audacuB, vecordice, miseri&rum, &c. to that pitch of boQ- 
ness, madness, miseiy, &c 3. Of quantity, Abund^ qff&lim, largUer, nimis, taf^ 
poTum, nwOmi ; as, AJmndl gloritB, anHtim divitiarum, lanflter aun, aa^ doqu&Uia, 
aapiaiiuB parum est iUi or habet, He has enough of glory, riches, &c. Ji^nlmi 
gentium, liy no means. 

9 X96e Some add Ergo and Inatar; but these are properiy indeclinable 
nouns. Ergo (the Greek K^») means 'an acoount of,' 'for the sake eiC* and is 
similar to gratis ; as, ejus victona ergo, Nep. an account of that victory ; honorie 
erro, Cic. It ma '^ -^ ^ •— ^ - -i-i .. i_ «__,^ ^« »-^_ -_•_.•«.. 


tude,* 'likeness,' 

by ad undeistood 

instar, 'according to die likeness.' Instar mentis equum adificant, 'they make a 

horse as great as a mountain/ that is, ad instar, 'according to the size/ &c. See 

Etymology $ 54, page 57. 

9 19 £9 Many adverbs of place, as, uU, uhinam, ubivis, quo, quoas, ahquo^ 
usquam, nusquam, due. are followed by the genitives Ckntium, Terrarum, JLoa, 
Locorum, which are not in general superfluous, but express an emphasis, as 'm 
English we say, ' where in the world is ne T for ' where is he f dec., of which the 
former is more emphatical, and imi>lies more astonishment; as, ubi terrarum sumaa, 
* where in the world are we V NikU^ea virtute amabiUus, quam ^ adqptus fuerii, 
ubicunque erit gentium, a nobis dilygeter, Cic. Nat. Deor. 'Nothmg is more kively 
than virtue, and for him who practises it, in uAaiever part ^the world he may be, 
do we feel the strongest afifection.' Quo amentia, Liv. ' to wnat extent,' or ' degree 
of madness.' 

Obs. 1. These adverbs are thought to govern the genitive, because diey imply 
in themselves the foice of a substantive ; as, PotenOiB gUmaque abundi adeptus, the 
same widi abwndanJtiam glorice ; or, res, locus, or negotium, and a preposition, may 
be understood ; as, Inierea lod, 1. e. inter ea negotia lod ; Vbi terr&nan, fyt in quo 
loco ierrSrum» 

Obs. 2. We usually my,pridi^ postndii e;us diei^ seldom diem; but pridii, 
postridU Kalendas, Nonas, Mus, ludus ApoUinSres, natslem ejus, absdutidnem ejusp 
sc, rarely Kakndsrwn, &c. 

Obs. 3. En and ecce are constraed either with the nominative or 
accusative; as» ^ 

. En hostis, or hostem ; Eeoe ndOntm honHnem, Cic Sometimes a dative is added ; 
as. Ease Ubi Strata, Ter. Ecce duos (soil, aras,) Hbi, DavAni. Viig. En tibL liv 
In like manner is construed hem put fcN* ecce ,* as, Han tin Daman, Ter. But in all 
these examples some verb must be undeisfood. 

commncnon ov ntBPoemomk, S49 

§ 198* XLI, Some derivative adverbs govern 
the case of their primitives ; as, 

Omnimm apttmh loquUur, He speaks the best of alL 

ConveniaUer nalurm. Agreeably to natiue. 

Venii obmdm et\ He came to meet him. 

Proacfme castris, or caslra. Next the camp. 

Obs. 1. Thus also, by Rule XI. Omnium aptim^ Seepiuimk omm'ttin, divHMtimk 
omnium^ although the superlative of the two last, whence the adverbs come, are 
not used. By Kule XII. congruenter naturat convenienterque vivihre, Cic. Huic 
obvian aviku proceaseraU Cic. 



§ 199e XLII. The Prepositions ad, adversus, ad- 
versum, ante, apud, circa, circum, drcUer, cis, citra, 
contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, juxta, ob,pen^s, 
per, pone, post, prmter, prope, prober, secundum^ 
secus, supra, trans, ultra, usque, versus, govern the 


§ 200e XLIII. The prepositions a, ab, obs, abs: 
que, clam, coram, cum, de, e, ex, palam, prm, pro, sine^ 
tenus, govern the Ablative. 

Obe. 1. To prepoeitions governing the ablative is comiiKmly added 
pRocm.; as, 

Procul demo, &r from home ; but here a is understood, which is also oflan ex.- 
pressed ; as, Proad a patri&t Virg. Procul ab ostenUUione, Quinct Ctt2j» esl 
procul a me. Ter. 


§ 201e XLIV. The prepositions in, sub, super, 
and subter, govern the accusative, when motion to 
a place is signified ; but when motion or rest in a 
place is signified, in and sub govern the ablative, 
super and subter either the accusative or ablative. 

IN^ when it signifies tnto, governs the accusative ; when it signifies 
in or among, it governs the ablative. 

Obs. 1. Prepositions in English have always after them the aocuaative or 
objective case. And when prepositions in English or Latin do not govern a 
case I they are reckoned adverbs. 

250 cbssintiTGTtoif ov vuxfOBttiossm 

Such are Ante, circa, dam, eonan, contra, infra, jvxta, pakan, pone, poti, jpropUr, 
aecus, 8ubter, super, supra, uUa. But in moat of these the case seems to be implied 
in the sense ; as, Longo post tempore venit, sc. post id tempus, Adversus, juxHa^ 
propt^, secus, secundum, and dam, are l^ some thought to be always adverbs, 
having a prepositioA understood when they govern a case. So other apdverbs also 
are construed with the ace. or abl. ; as, irUus cellam, for intra. Liv. Intus tcmplo 
div&m, sc. iTL Virg. Simtd his, sc. cum. Hor. 

Ob& 2. A and e are only put before consonants ; ab and sx, usually 
before vowels, and sometimes also before consonants ; as, 

A poire, e redone ; ah initio, ab rege ; ex urbe, ex parte ; abs before q and t ; lus, 
abs te, abs quiws homtne. Ter. Some phrases are used only with « ; as, e Umginqtc», 
e regione, e vestigio, e re meA est, &c. Some only with ex i as. Ex compacto, ex 
tempore, magn& ex parte, &c. 

Obs. 3. Prepositions are of>en understood ; as, Devenhe locos, soil, ad ; It portiSt 
sc. ex. Virg. Nunc id prodeo, scil. ob or propier. Ter. Maria asphti juro, scil. 
per. Viiv. Vt se loco movere nonvossent, scil. eotde. Ces. Vina prcmens doUo, 
scil. ex. Hor. Quid iUo facias t Quid me jfiet, sc. de. Ter. And so in English, 
Show me the book ; Oet me some paper, that is, to me, for me. 

Obi. 4. We sometimes find the word to which the {apposition refers, suppressed ; 
as, Circum Contxrdics, sc oe^^m. Sail. Round St.. PauTs, namely, churdi, ; Campum 
SidWan dimsit extra sortem ad viginti miUlbus, avium, i. e. cimum mUlUnis ad 
viginti miUia. Suet Bat this is most frequently the case after prepositicms in 
oompoailfen ; thas, Enattire servum, scil. manv. Plaut Evomire virus, sciL ore. 
Cic. Educire copias, sciL caslris. Csea. 

§ 202« XLV. A preposition in composition 
often governs the same case, as when it stands by 
itself 5 as, 

Adeamus sdtdam. Let ns go to the schooL 

Exeamus schold. Let us go out of the schooL 

Obs. 1. The preposition with which the verb is compounded, is oflen re];>eated ; 
as, Adire ad sckotaim; Exire ex sdidt; AdgrMi ^tgmd, or ad atlquid; itigr^i 
oradonan, or in orationem; indudhre animum, and in anfmum ; evadire undis and 
ex undis: decedire de suojure, decedire vih or de via ; expellSre, ejidre, exterminare, 
extrudire, exturbare urbe, and «r urbe. Some do not repeat the preposition; as, 
AffSri, tdloqui, aOatrSre a^quem, not ad atfqium. So, AUuire urban; ttceoUre 
flumen ; drcumvenire atiqitem ; praterire injuriam ; dbdicare se magistratu, (also^ 
abdicare magistratum ;) transdudhre exerditum fluvium. Sic Others are only con- 
strued with the prepositicm ; as, Accurrire ad aHquem, adhortari ad attquid, inddtm 
in morbum, aoocdre a studiis, avertlfre ab incepto, &c 

Some admit other prepositions ; as, Abtre, demigrHre loco ; and a, de, ex loco , 
abstrahh^ dtlquem, a, de, or e conspeetu ; DesistSre sentendik, a or de sentenUks 
Exdiire nuxiCibus, de or e marCibus, &c. 

Obs. 2. Some verbs compounded with e or ex govern either the 
ablative or accusative ; as, 

Egr^di urbe, or urbem, sc. extra ; egrMi extra vallum. Nep. Evadire insidiis or 
insiaias. Patrios excedire muros. Lucan. Scelerai& exced^re terr&. Virg. JSUdbi 
ex mantbus; dabipugnam aut vincula. Tac. 

Obs. 3. This rule does not take place unless when the preposition may be dis- 
ioined from the verb, and put before the noun by itself; as, AUoquor patrem, or 
loquor ad patrem. 

coNSTRucmm 0r xinstjacTioii»— oxbcoxbtances. 2il 

§ 203# XLVI. The interjections O, heu, and 
proh^ are construed with the nominative, accusa- 
tive, or vocative ; as, 

O vir bonus or hone! O good mukl Ha$ me miUrum! Ah wretched me! 

. So, O mrfqrHs atque anucu»! Ter. Hbu wuMae humSna ! Plia. ^bu mUetonde 
tmri Viig. OprmctSfum autSdem avium (ut oiont) liymm ! Cic. 

§ 204e XLVn. jffei and v(b govern the dative ; 

as, "" 

Heimxhi! Ah me. VeBvobie! Woe to you! 

Obs. 1. Hnu and ohe are j<Hned only with the vocative ; m, Heus Syre. Ter. 
Ohe hbeile! Martial. Proh or pro^ oA, tuA, Aem, have generally either the accasa- 
tive or vocative ; as» Proh houOnumJidem ! Ter. Frok Sancte Jiqt'Uer! Cic Hem 
(Ututkuf Ter. 

Obs. 2. Interjections cannot, properly, have either concord or govermnent They 
are only mere sounds excited by passion, and have no just connexion with any 
other i»rt of a sentence. Whatever case, therefore, is joined with them, must 
depend on some other word miderstood, except the vocative, which is always 
placed absolutely; thus, Heu me misirum! stands for Heu! qtuhn me mishvm 
scntio ! Hei miht ! for Hei ! malum est mihi ! Proh dolor ! for Proh ! quantus est 
dolor ! and so in other examples. 


The circumstances, which In Latin are expressed in different cases, 
are, I. The Price of a iking, 2. The Catue^ Manner and Instrument, 
8. Place, 4« Measure and Distance, 5. Time, 

1. PRICE. . 

§ 205e XLVIII. The price of a thing is put in 
the ablative ; as, 

Emi librum duobus asi&us, I bought a book for two shillings. 

CofM^UU talentOf • It cost a talent 

SQ;AMe oarum est; vile vigirUi minis; auro venSle, &c. Nocel empta dolori 
ill " -^ -' ■" "' • 


MV, MMnPW w.-. i.«.v «/w.r, www v^...«w w— «v , WW. »» wwi..ww>, 'W^y. «.ww.^ vmmwfn.'y* ww»VfV 

vduvtas, Hor. Spem preUo non emam. Ter. Plurimi auro veneunl hon&res. 

§ 206e IF These genitives, tanti, quanti^ plurisy minSris, are ex- 
cepted; as, 

QuotUi consiUitt How much cost it! | Asse et pluris, a shilling and more. 

Obs. 1. When the substantive is added, they are pat in the ablative; m,parvo 
pretio, impenso pretio vendire, Cic 


Obi. 2. Magna, permagna, parvo, pavlulo, muOmo, phtHmo, are ofien wed with- 
out the fubBtBntive ; as, Permagno constttU, sdL pretio» Cic Jhu tpianio regnim 
nox stetU una tuit f Ovid. Fast u. 812, We also say, Emi oari, caritOf carittftaU ; 
bene, metiuM, opifmi; mali, pejia, viliuB, vHisOnUf mUi, cari, aaOnuu: Emit do- 
wuim prcpe dimidio caniu, qvdm teetimiibat. Cic. 

Ofaa. 3. The ablative of price is pioperiy governed by the preposition pro under- 
stood, which is likewise sometiines expressed ; as, Dum pro argenteU decern aureus 
unusvaUret liv. 


§ 207e XLIX« The cause, manner, means, and 
instrument are put in the ablative ; as, 

Patteo metu, I am pale for fear. 

FeeU Muo more. He did it afker his own way. 

Scribo caUtmo, I write with a pen* 

So, Ardet ddore ; paUeedre culp&; aatudre dubitaHone; gea&re vehgatdte or 
aeeumU» rdm$: Conficha morho; afectue ben^uxie, gravieifmQ euppUdof insigniM 
pieUUei deterior 2tcM&; PieUlU filu», connUis paier, amoreJrtUer; hence, Mex 
Dei gratUt : ParUurpax beUa, Nep. Procedure lerUo gradu ; Acceptue r^gio appa- 
raJtu: NuUo tone convertUur armut» Juv. Jam veniet tadUo eurva aenecta pede. 
Ovid. PeraUire aecttri, de/endire taxie, configure aagittis, &c. 

Obs. 1. The ablative is here governed by some preposition understood. Before 
the manner and cause, the preposition is sometimes expressed ; as, De more matrum 
locuta est» Virg. Magno cum metu ; HStc de causA ; Pne mcBrorty formidine, &c. 
But hardly ever before the instrument ; as, Vulner&re atiquem gladto, not cum gla- 
dio; unless among the poets, who sometimes add a or o^; as, Trajectue ab enae. 
Ovid. » r- 

Obs. 8. When any thing is said to be in oompaay with another, it is called the 
ablative of concomitanct, and has the preposition cum usually added ; as, OheedU 
curiam cum gtadiU ; Ingreeaus eel cum gladio. Cic. 

Obs. 3. Under this rule are oomivehended several other circumstances, as die 
matter of which any thing is made, and what is called by grammarians ihe Ad- 
junct, that is, a noon in the ablative ioined to a verb or adjective, to express the 
character or quality of the penon or thing spoken of; as, Cataiiolium aaxo quadrSte 
eonetrucbaiL Ijv. Ptoruit acumSn^ ingenii. Cic. PoUei cpunts, valel onmis, vigel 
memorih, famit ndfAit, &c. JEger jped&m». When we express die matter of 
which any thing is made, the preposition is usually added ; as, Tbnpltem de maf 
wiare, seldom marmiSris; Pocmum ex awro factum. Cic. 

3. PLACE. 

The circumstances of place may be reduced to four particulars. — 
1. The place where, or in which. 2. The place whither, or to which. 
8. The place whence or from which, 4. The place by, or Ihrough 

AT or IN a place is put in the genitive ; unless the noun be of the 
third declension, or of the plural number, and then it is expressed in 
the ablative. 

TO a place is put in the accusative ; FROM or BY a place in the 

eoHffTHiroTioM or cxucvwbtakcmb. M3 

1. T%e place Whsrk. 

§ 208* L. When the place where, or in which, is 
spoken of, the name of the place is put in the geni- 
tive ; as, 

VixU Ramm, He lived at Rome. 

Aforfttiw ut LonHmif He died at London. 

§ 209e Bat if the name of a town be of the third declension or 
plural number, it is expressed in the ablative ; as, 

HaifUat Cariha^^bu, He dwells at Carthage. 

StudwU Farisits, He studied at Faxia. 

Obe. 1. When a thiogf is said to be done, not in the place itself, but 
in its neigfhbourhood or near it, we always use the preposition ad or 
apud ; as. Ad or apud Trojam^ At or near Troy. 

Oba. 2. The name of a town, when pat in the ablative, ia here governed by tho 
preposition in onderstood ; bat if it be m the genitive, we must sapfdy tn urhe or in 
of^Ma. Hence, when the name of a town is joined with an adjective or oommon 
noon, the proposition is generally expressed : thus, we do not say, Natut ett Romm 
urbis cdebris: but either Roma in caebri urbe^ or in RonuB cdebn urbe ; or in RomA 
cddri urbet or sometimes, Roma cdebri urbe. In like manner we usually say, Ha- 
UlUU in urbe Carthag^f with the preposition. We likewise find Haifttai Cartha- 
gtnit which is sometimes the termination of the ablative, when the questioa is mad* 
by ubit 

2, TTie Place Whither. 

§ SlOe LI. When the place whither, or to which, 
is spoken of, the name of me place is put in the accu- 
sative; as, 

VenU Romam, He came to Rome. 

Profedu» est Aihenoi, He went to Athens. 

Obs. 1. We find the dative also used among the poets, but more seldom ; as, 
CartkagUu nundoa mitiam. Herat. 

Obs. 2. Names of towns are sometimes put in the aecnsative, after verbs of 
telling and giving, where motion to a place is implied ; as, Romam erat nundstum. 
The report was carried to Rome. liv. Hoc nundani domwn AUanL Id. Me»' 
aSmtm iiUras dedit. Cic. 

2, The Place Whence. 

§ 211e LII. When the place whence, or from 
which, or the place by or through which, is spoken 
of, the name of the place is put m the ablative ; as, 

Disceseii Corintho, He departed from Corinth. 

Zjtodicih iterfaciUiatt He went through Laodicea. 

. Obs. To this rule may be referred such phrases as, cedere acie, * to leavs 
the line,* or * to retreat.' Advolvunt ingentes montijbus ornos. Virg. 

854 ocmsTSvcTXoN of cntcuowttAvct». 

Domus and Rus. 

§ 212« Lni. Domus and rus are construed the 
same way as names of towns ; as, 

Manei domi, He stays at home. 

Domum reverCUur, He returns home. 

Domo arcuuhu nan» I am called fiom home. 

VivU rure, or more fiequently ruri. He lives in the coontry. 

RedUt run. He is returned fiom the couatrf • 

AbiU rus. He is gone to the oountiy. 


Obs. 1. Humij tnilititB^ and beUh are likewise construed^ in the 
genitive, as names of towns ; thus, 

Domi et mUiHtt, or beOi, At home and abroad/ Jacet hunU, He Hes on the 

Obs. 2. When Donuu is jcnned ynih an adjective, we commonly use a prepod- 
tion ; as. In. domo paiemA, not donU jjHUertuE: So, Ad domum palemam: Ex domo ^ 
patern^ Unless when it is joined with these possessives, Jtinu», tuus, sims, nosfsr, 
vetter, n^tit, and alienuo ; as, Domi mecB vixiL Cic AUus, alium domot nm» m- 
wiant. ^IL Aurum alque argcntumf et aUa, qua prima dueutUur, domum r^iam 
onnporlaTd, Sail. 

Obs. 3. Rum and mre, even with an adjective, are found without a preposition ; 
'as, e^fuum consoendit, et rua urbanum contendit. Justin. Rure is found with a pre- 
position ; as, ex rure in urbem reverttifatur, Cic. The plural ruro, is always pre? 
ceded by a preposition ; as, Jam ubi vos dHapsi domo», et in rum vetlra eritis, Li v. 


Obs. 4. When domus has another substantive in the genitive after it, the preposi- 
tion is sometimes used, and sometimes not ; as, Deprehensus est domi, domo, Or tyi 
domo CcBS&ris, 

§213e LIV. To names of countries, provinces, 
and all other places, except towns, the preposition 
is commonly added ; as, 

When the question is made by, 

Ubi ? Naius in ItaliA, in lalio^ in urbe, ^c 
Quo ? AhOt in Italiam, in LcUiumt in or ad urbem, ^c^ 
' Undo ? Rediit ex ItaiiA, e Latiot ex urbe, ^ 

Qua ? TSransit per ItaUam, per Latium, per urbemj ^ 

Obs. 1. A preposition is often added to names of towns ; as, In 
Romd, for RoiruB ; ad Romam^ ex Romd, &c. 

§ 214e Peto always governs the accasative as an active verb, 
without a preposition ; as, Petivit Egyptum, He went to Egypt 

Ohs. 2. Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes construed without the 
preposition, like names of towns ; as, Pompeius Cypri visus est. Css. Creta jussit 
considire Apollo. Vir^. Non Lybia^ for in Lybih, non anti TyrOy for 7)fri. Id. JBn. 
iv. 96. Venit Sardnaam. Cic. Rom^B, Numzdiaque facinihu ^us memStati Sail. 



§ 215* LV. Measure or distapce is put in the 
accusative, and sometimes in the ablative ; as, 

Murus est decern pedes alius. The wall is ten feet high. 

^"^I^X^T *^^ "^ ^"^^^ "** \ T»»« city » ^rty miles distant 
Iter, or itinire unitu diU, One day's joomey. 

Obs. 1. The accusative or ablative of measure is put after adjectives 
and verbs of dimension ; as, Longus, latus, crassus, profundus^ and 
altus: Patet, porrigitur, emtnet, &c. The names of measure are, 
pes, cubtttts, ulna, passus, digitus, an inch ; palmus, a span, an hand- 
breadth, &c. The accusative or ablative of distance is used only after 
verbs which express motion or distance ; as, Eo, curro, absum, disto, 
&c. The accusative is governed by ad or per understood, and the 
ablative by a or ab. 

Oba. 2. When we express the measure of more things than one, we commonly 
use die distributive number ; as, Muri sunt denos pedes aUi, and sometimes den&m 
pedum, for denorum, in the genitive, ad mensuntm being understood. But the 
Ipenitive is only used to express the measure of things in the jdural number. 

Obs. 3. When we express the distance of a place where any thing is d(Hie, we 
oovnmonly use the ablative ; or the accusative with the preposition af ; as, Sex 
mUtfms passuum ab urba consedit, or ad sex miUia passuum. Cks. Ad quifUum mU- 
Uarium, or mUUare, consediL Cic Ad quitUum lapldem. Kep. 

Obs. 4. The excess or difference of measure and distance is put in 
the ablative ; as. 

Hoc lignum excedii iUud di^Uo. Toto verttce supra est. Vug, BrUannicB longi' 
tudo ejus kaitudtnem ducentis quadraginia miUiaiibus supliraJL 

5. TIMB. 

§ 216e LVI. Time when is put in the abla- 
tive; as, 

Venii horh terUA, . He came at three o'clock. 

§ 21 7e ^ Time how long is put in the accusative or ablative, but 
oftener in the accusative ; as, 

Mansit paucos dies. He staid a few days, 

Sex mewfUnts abfuit. He was away six months. 

Obs. 1. When we speak of any precise time, it is put in the abla- 
tive ; but when continuance of time is expressed, it is put for the most 
part in the Accusative. 

Obs. 2. All the drcumstanoes of time are often expressed with a preposition ; as. 
In proBsentiA, or in vrcBserOi, sdL tempore; in or tut prtssens ; Per decern annos; 
Surjfunt de node; ad horam destin&am ; Intra annum ; Per idemi tenants, ad Ka- 
lenaas scluturus ait. Suet The preposition ad or circa is sometimes smy rc ss e d, as 
in these expressions, hoc, illud, td; tsthuc, atdtis, tanporis, horce, &e, fiir kAc, mtiOe, 
hoe tempore, &c. And arUe or some other W(»d ; as, Annas nalus unum ^ viginti, 
sc. ante, Siculi quoUmnia tribiUa confUruni, sc. tot annis, quot or quot^tot sunL Cio. 


Prope diemj sc. ad, aooa ; OppVduoi paueis di^us, qmbus ed verdum ealy eaqmgnStum, 
8C. pott eos dies. Caes. Ante diem tertium Kedendae Mmas accept htas litSrat, for die 
tertw ante, Cic. Qui dies /uturus esset in ante diem octdvum Kalendat No9€mbrts. 
Id. ExatUe diem qtdntum KaL Ocicb. liv. Lacedeunonii seplingemtm jam KOmoa 
tmpUus unit maribta et nunquam mutatis legthus vivwnU sc. qumn per. Cic. We 
find jPnmuffi stipendium mertiit annmtan de^m septemquxj sc Attkms ; for wptem- 
dicim annos natus, seventeen yean old. Nep. 

Obi. 3. The adverb ABHINC, which is commonly used with respect to past 
time, is joined with the accusative ox ablative without a preposition ; as, factum 
est eikinc biennio ot biennium, It was done two years ago. So hkewige KKfpoai and 
ante ; as, Paucospost annos ; but here eaorid may be understood. 


§ 3X8* A compound sentence is that which has more than one 
nominative, or (me finite verb. 

A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences 
or phrases, and is commonly called a Period, 

The parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called Mem^ 
hers or Clauses, 

In every compound sentence there are either several subjects and one attribute, 
or several attributes and one subject, or both several subjects and several attributes ; 
that is, diere are either several nominatives applied to the same verb, or seveml 
verbs applied to the some nominative, or both. 

Every verb marks a judgment, or attribute, and erery attribute must have a 
subject There must, therefore, be in every sentence or period, as many propoai- 
tions as there are verbs of a finite mode. 

Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunc- 
tions; as, 

Happy is the man who loveth religion, and practiseth virtue, 

§219e LVII. The relative Qui, Quob, Quod^ 
agrees with the antecedent in gender, number and 
person; and is constraed through alb the cases, as 
the antecedent would be in its place ; as, 

Singular, Plural, 

Vir qui. The man who. Viri qui. 

iRmVna qua, The woman who. Foem^lneB ques, 

Negotium quod, The thing which. Negotia qum. 

Ego qui scribo, I who write. Nos qui scriSfmus, 

111 qui scribis. Thou who writest Vos qui scrifHtis. 

Vir qui scribit. The man who writes. Viri qui scribunt, 

Muber qua scribitf The woman who vnites. MuUires qua scribunt 

AvUmai quod currit. The animal which runs. Animalia qua curruM. 

Vir quern mdi. The man whom I saw. Viri quos vidi, 

Muber quam mdi, The woman wliom I saw. Mtdiires quas Vidi, 

An^tmat quod vidi. The animal which I saw. Animalia qua vidi. 

Vtr cui paret. The man whom he obeys. Vtri qmbuspartt. 


'Vh em ml ntriUu, TIm man-to whom be is like. Viri qmhui ett wriQU. 

Viraq^ Themaa by wliom.. ViriaquihuB, 

.Mulier ad quam. The woman to whom. MuiUret ad quas» 

Vir CHJua c^ua est. The man whose work it is» Viri quorum oput taL 

Yir quern misereor^ ^ 

cujuB ndtereor, or numrtmot >The man whom I pity. 

cuju» me miUrei, ^ 

cujus or cuja itUireti, &c. whose interest it is, &c. 

Rem. 1. If no nominative come between the relative and the verb^ 
the relative will be the nominative to the verb. 

Rem. 2. But if a nominative come between the relative and the 
verb, the relative will be of that case, which the verb or noon follow- 
ing, or the preposition going before, usually governs. 

Thus the construction of the relative requires an acquaintance with 
most of the foregoing rules of syntax, and may serve as an exercise on 
all of them. 

Obs. 1. The relative must always have an antecedent expressed on 
understood, and therefore may be considered as an adjective placed be- 
tween two cases of the same substantive, of which the one is always 
expressed, generally the former ; as, 

Vir qui (vir) Upt; vir quern (viram) amo: Sometimes the latter; as, Quam quia- 
que n&rit artemy tn h&c (arte) «e eaeerceaL Cic EuniU^m, quern dediaU nobitymuu 
turbo» dediL Ter. so. Eunuchus, Sometimes both cases are expressed ; as, JB^rant 
omnmo duo itinera, quibus itineribus domo eaure poeeeni. Caes. Sometimes, though 
more rarely, both cases are omitted ; as, Sunt, quoe genua hoc wMnkjwKU, 6r miMt 
Aominet, quo» honHnes, &c Hor. 

Obs. 2. When the relative is placed between two substantives of 
different genders, it may agree in gender with either of them, though 
most commonly with the former ; as, 

VuUus quern dixere chaos, Ovid. Est locus in carche^ quod TuBiiSMum appdbt' 
tur. Sail. Antmal, quem vocSmua homlnem. Cic. C<^^ td quod res est Ter. If 
a part of a sentence m the antecedent, the relative is always put in the neuter 
gender ; as, Pompeius se affiixit, quod mihi est summo dolori, scil. Pompetum se affli- 

glre. Cic Sometimes the relative does not agree in gender with the antecedent, 
It with some synonymous word implied , as, Scdus qui^ for scelcstus. Ter. Abun- 
daniia eSrwn rerum, mue mortales prima puUtntj sciL n^otia. Sail. Vd virtus tua 
me vd vicintias, quoa ego in atiquA parte amicUicB puto, facit ut te moneam, scil. 
n^rodum. Ter. In omni Afrtc&t qui agebant ; lor tn omntbus Afris, Sallust Jag. 
89. Aon diffidenti&futuri, qua imperamsset for quod, lb. 100. 

Obs. 3. When the relative comes after two words of different per- 
sons, it agrees with the first or second person rather than the third ; 
as. Ego sum vir, qui facio, scarcely ybcit. In English it sometimes 
agrees with either ; as, / am the man, who make^ or maketh. But 
when once the person of the relative is fixed, it ought to be continued 
through the rest of the sentence ; thus it is proper to say, " I am the 
man who takes care of your interest," but if I add, **at the expense of 
my own,'* it would be improper. It ought either to be, ** his owii," or 
"who take." In like manner, we may say, "I thank you who gave, 
who did love," Slc, ^t it is improper to s^y, " I thank thee, who 
gave, who did love ;" it should be " who gavest, who didst love." la 



no part of En^ish syntax are inaccuxacieB committed more fireqnently 
than in thisw Beginners are particularly apt to Ml into them, in turn- 
ing Latin into English. The reason of it seems to be our applying* 
thou or you, thy or your, promiscuously, to express the second persoa 
singular, whereas the Latins almoBt alwaya expteased it by lu and 

Obe. 4 The antecedent is often implied in a possessive adjective; as, 

Omnu laudSre forturuu metUt qui haberem gtuUum tali ingenio pradUum. Tar. 
Sometimes the antecedent must be drawn from the sense of the foregoing words ; 
as, Came pluUj quon imbrem avet rttpmtaefemntwr ; i, e. jiluMt imbrtm came, queta 
iwtbrem» ^LC Liv. Si tempuB eA tdium jure homInU mecamdi, qvm mtUta siaU ; sci]. 
tempora. Cic. 

Obs. 5. The nhitive is sometimes «ntireljr omitted ; as, Vrhe anGqua fwA : 'X^i 
tenuere coiofii, scil. quam or earn. Virg. C^, if once expressed, is afterwsiras omitted» 
so that it must be supplied in a different case ; as, Bccchue cum pedit&uSt quoefiUu» 
^ue adduxirat, neque in prtore vugn& adfuHtad, Romdnoe invkdunt : for quique m 
fri&re pugnA non udfuSratU. Sail. In English the relative is often omitted, where 
m Latin it must be expressed; as, The letter I wrele, for the Utter loitcft I wrote; 
The man 1 lave, to wit, toAom. Bat this omission of the relative is genefidly impro- 
per, particularly in serious discourse. 

Obs. 6. The case of the relative sometimes seems to depend on that of the ante- 
cedent; as, CiMi oHqwd agae e&rum, quorum conmUttit for qua cimtuhti ogihre, or 
quonon aliquid ag9re ceneuhtL Cic. Reetitue in ouem me acoepiaii locum, for m 
locum, in quo, Ter. And. iv. 1. 6& Bat such examples rarely occur. 

Obs. 7. The adjective pnmoons, Hie, ^pee, itte, kie, t>, and idem, in their oons^no- 
tion, rssemble that of the relative qui ; as. Liber ^ub. His or her book; Yiia ednm. 
Their life, when applied to men ; Vila eanan. Their life, when applied to women. 
B^ the improper use of these pronouns in £nglish« the meaning of sentences is 
often reniiraea obscure. 

Obs. 8b The interrogative or indefinite adjectives, quoKs, quantu», quotus, ^. are 
«Iso sometimes cons^ued like relatives; «s, Fadee est, qualem decet eue sororum, 
Ovid. But these have commonly other adjectives either expressed or understood, 
■which answer to them ; as, Teuda est muUitudo, qudntam urbs caph-e potest : and 
«re often applied to difibrent substantives ; as, Quaes sunt dves, tahs est difUas, Cic. 

Obs. 9. The relative who in English is applied only to persons, and which to 
tbii¥n and irrational animals; but formerly t^ich was likewise applied to persons; 
as» Our jfaiher, toftic& art in heaven ; and whose, the senitive of iMo, is also used 
sometimes, though peibap improperly, for of which. 7%at is used indiflerently for 
persons and things. WhcU, wnen not joined with a substantive, is cmly aj^ed to 
things, and includes both the antecedent and die relative, being the same witi^ 
lAol whidt, or the thing which ,' as. That is what he wanted ; that is, the thing which 
he wanted 

Obs. 10. The Latin relaltve often cannot be timisliited literal^ into fetish, en 
aeoount of ftie difierent idioms of the two languages ; as. Quod cum ita esset. When 
that was so ; not, which when it was so, because then there would be two nomina- 
tives to the. verb vxts, which is improper. SometimeB the accusative of ftie relative 
in Latin must be rendered by the nominative in English ; as. Quern dicunt me esss^ 
Who do Ihey say tfiat lumt not whom. Quern diamt advadare. Who do ibey say 
i» coming ? 

Obs. 11. As the relative is always connected with a different vert) from this 
antecedent, it is nsnally ooiistraed with the sulgunctive mode, Ufllste when the 
neapiBf of the v«fb ii ezpraased ponlivelyf as, AucBre oig/io, qua Ugiris, I wan* 


to bear, what you have read ; that is, what perhaps or probably you may have 
read ; Audire cupio, quoB tegisti, I want to hear, what you {flcUiaUy or in fad) 
have read. 

Obs. 12. To the constnictioa of the RelatiTe may be sabjoined that 
oi the ANSWER TO A QinBflrriQic 

The answer is commonly put in the same case with the question ; as, 

Qui vocSref Gete, ec. vocor. Quid qwsrist Idbrum, ic. qtuero. QuotA hor^ 
venitti t SextA, Sometimes the oonstnictioii is varied ; as, Cuhu est liber t Melt», 
not meL Qttanii etnptus est! Decern atObue. Damnaiusne es furti t Imo atio er»> 
mine. Often the answer is made by other parts of speech than nouns ; as, Quati 
og(ftur t Statur, sc. a me, a nobis. ^ Qias fecit t Nescio : Aiunt Petrum/edsse, Qmo- 
madt> vales f Beni, mali, ScripsisCine f Scripsi, iia, etiam, immo, &c. An vidisd t 
Non vidiy non, mirflme, &c. Ckssrea tuam veslem detraxit iihi f Factum. Et eA est 
iml^tusf Factum. Ter. Most of the Rules of Syntax may thus be exemplified m 
the Ibrm of questims and answers. 


To ascertain when the Relative pronoun should be joined to the In- 
dicative and when to the Subjunctive mode, is one of the greatest diffi- 
culties which the Latin language presents to the student of the classics. 
The following Rules will be found, it is believed, to embrace ever^ 
thing important upon the subject. 

§ 230e Rule 1. When the Relative clause expresses no senti- 
ment of the writer, but refers that sentiment, directly or indirect, 
to the persons of whom be is speaking, the Relative must be joined 
with the Sobjunctive mode. T^hus : Quoniam gemini essent, nee leta- 
tis verecundia discrimen facere posset, ut Dii qttorum tutehe ea ioca 
€$8ent, auguriis legerent, qui nomen nove urbi daret, Liv. 1. 6. The 
relative clause expresses a sentiment of the founders of the city, and 
is much the same as if the historian had said, 'That the gods, under 
whose protection they conceived^ those places were,* &c. The follow- 
ing passage will stUl further illustrate Uiis distinction. ^ Thus bom 
and thus elected king, he has fiivoured the meanest sort of mankind, 
whence he himself is sprung ; and the burdens, which were formerly 
conmion, he has laid on the principal citizens.*' These, supposed to be 
the very words of Tarquin, addressed to the Senators, would be thus 
rendered, '* Ita noftis, ita treatus rex, fautwinjimi generis hominum, 
ex quo EST ipse, omnia onera, gua communia quondam FUE- 
JRUiVT, inprimores civitdtis inclinavit,'** But as the historian (Liv. 
1. 47.) has not intioduced Tarquia as addressing the senate in his own 
words, but has merely detailed the sentiments which he expressed, the 
passage reads thus, — the verbs being in the subjunctive mode — Ita no- 
turn, ita creatum regent, fautorem injimi generis hominum, ex quo 
ipse &IT, onera, qua communia quondam FUERINT, inclinasse in 
primores civitatis, He said, ** that being thus born,'* &c. 

§ 32 !• Rule 2. The Relative pronoon is joined to the Subjunc- 
tive mode, when the relative clause expresses &e reason^ or ^eofUB of 
the action, state, or event, and may generally be rendered in English 


by the pre|)oaition /n, and the imperfebt participle. Thus, * Hanmbal 
did wrong in wintering at Capua/ that is, * because he wintered,* Male 
fecit^ Hannibal, qui Capua hibmarit. If we should say, Male fecit^ 
qui hiemavit^ we impute error to the peirson who wintered, but do not 
express the error as consisting in his wintering. 

§ 222*-Itule 3. When the Relative prqnoon fellows an interro- 
gative clause, in which the interrogative is equivalent to an affirmation 
or negation, the relative is joined with the Subjunctive mode. Thua, 
Quis est enim, cui rum perspicua sint iUa ? Cic. * Who is there to 
whom these things are not clear? So also after a negation which ex- 
presses an affirmation ; as, nemo est, qui haud inteUigat, * there is no 
man who does not understand.' But when a sentence implies a ques- 
tion put for information, the Relative takes the Indicative mode ; bs, 
Q^is est qui JEsculapium sdlutat. Plant Quis est qui salutet would 
signify ' who is there that salutes,' implying * nobody salutes.' Again^ 
if we say. Nemo est qui ita bxistixat, it strictly means, * he who 
thinks so is nobody,' that is, ' a person of no consequence ;' here nemo 
est is the predicate, and the relative clause, qui ita existimat, the 
subject If we say, nemo est qui ita existimet, it means, ' there is no 
one who thinks so,' where nemo is the subject, and the other clause the 

^323* Rule 4. The Relative is joined to the Subjunctive mode, 
when, in order to impart greater emphasis, a periphrasis with the verb 
SUm is employed instead of simply the nominative with the principiBil 
verb. Thus, instead of saying, Nonnvlli dicunt, we say, Sunt qui 
dicant, Cic. ' there are persons who say.' This phraseology is em- 
ployed to excite the particular attention of the reader, as the word 
there is frequently employed in English. Fuerint qui censerent^ * these 
have been persons who thought' 

§ 324« Rule 5. When Is qui. Hie qui. Hie qui, are used for 
' such,' * that,' or in other words, when Q^i is used for Ut ego, Ut tu, 
Ut Ule, it is joined with the Subjunctive mode. Atque illjb cfmen- 
tiones erant hujus modi, Quirites, qujs . . . pertinerent. Cic. * The 
dissentions were such that,' or * of that kind that,' &c. 


§ 225« LVIII. The conjunctions, et^ ac^ atque^ 
nec^ negue^ autj vel, and some others, couple similar 
cases and modes ; as, 

Honora patrem et matremt Honour father and mother. 

Nee legtt nee tcribit. He neither reads nor writes. 

Obs. 1. To this rule belong particularly the copulative and disjunc- 
tive conjunctions ; as likewise, qudm, nisi, prtBterquam, an ; and also 
adverbs of likeness; as, cetc, tanquam, quasi, ut, &c. as, 

NvBMm premium a vobiapottSh^pneterquam hujus diei memoriam. Cic. CRoria 
•fnrtutemianquam umbra sejiOtur. la. 


bbs. 2. These conjunctions properly connect the dlfierent memhers 
of a sentence together, and are hardly ever applied to single words, 
unless when some other word is understood. Hence, if the construc- 
tion of the sentence be varied, different cases and modes may be 
coupled together ; as, 

Interest tnea et reipnbUca; CanstUit asse et pluris; Sive es 12o* 
rruBy sive in Epiro ; Decius cum se devoveret, et in mediam aciem 
imtebat Cic. Vir magni ingenii summdque industrid ; Neque per 
loim, neque insidiis. Sail. Tecum habtta, et ndriSf qudm sit Obi 
curta supellex. Cers. 

Obs. 3. When et, aut, vel, give, or nee, are joined to dlfierent mem- 
bers of the same sentence, without connecting it particularly to any 
lormer sentence, the first et is rendered in English by both or likewise ; 
out or ve/,.by either; the first sive, by whether; and the first nee, by 
neither; aa. 

Et legit, et scribii ; so, turn legit, turn tcrihit ; or cum legit, turn seiibit. He boA 
reads and writes ; Siw legit, Btve tcrilnt, WheUier he reads or writes ; Jacihre qu& 
«em, quA faUta ; IncrepSre qua conaules ipsos, qti& exercUum, To upbraid both tho 
oonsuis and Ihe army. liv. 

§ 226« LIX« Two or more substantives singu- 
lar coupled by a conjunction, (as, e/, ac, atque^ &c.) 
have an adjective, verb, or relative plural ; as, 

Petnta et Joaimet, qui mni docti, . Peter and John, who are learned. 

Obs. 1. If the substantives be of difierent persons, the verb plural 
must agree with the first person rather than, the second, and with the 
second rather than the third ;ea, Si tu et Ttdlia vaUtis, ego et Ciciro 
valemus. If you and Tullia are well, I and Cicero are wdl. Cic. In 
English, the person speaking usually puts himself last ; thus. You and 
I read ; Cicero and I are well ; but in Latin the person who speaks is 
generally put first; thus, Egoet tu legimus. 

Obs. 2. If the substantives are of difierent genders, the adjective or 
relative plural must agree with the masculine rather than the feminine 
or neuter ; as, Pater et mater, qui sunt mortui ; but this is only ap- 
plicable to beings which may have life. The person is sometimes im- 
plied ; as, Athenarum et Cratippi, ad quos, &c. Propter summam 
doct&ris auctoritdtem et urbis, quorum alter, &c. Cic. Where Aihinm 
and urhs are put for the learned men of Athens. So in subetaniivea^ 
as, Ad PtolenuBum Cleopatramque reges legdti missi, L e. the king 
and queen. Liv. 

Obs. 3. If the substantives signify things without life, the adjective 
or relative plaral must be put in the neuter gender ; as, Divitue, decus, 
gloria, in ocidis sita sunt. Sail. 

The same holds, if any of the substantives signify a thin^ without lift ; because 
when we apply a quality or join an adjective to several substantives of difierent 


genden, we mast reduce the sufaetantives to aome certain claas, under which they 
may idl be comprehended, that is, to what is called their Cfenus. Now, the Gfenus 
or class, which comprehends both persons and .things, is that of subntati» 
fives or bein^ in general, which are neither masculine nor feminine. To expcaas 
tills, the Latm grammarians use the word Negoda. 

Obs. 4 The adjective or verb frequently agrees with the nearest 
substantive or nominative, and is understood to the rest ; this is by the 
figure called Zeugma. 

Et ego €t Ciciro meut JlagUshiL Cic Soeiis et rege reaplo. Virfi. El «o m 
culp& sum, a tu. Both I am in the fault, and you ; or, Et ego et tu es in ctdp&tBOib. 
I and you are in the fiiult JNihil hie nisi carmtna, deeunt ; or, nihil hie dwet nisi 
eamitna. Omnia, mabus ttirbSri sotUa erat citfOas, domi discordia, /oris hdlum 
exortum ; Duo milna et quadringenti casi, Liv. This construction is most mual 
when the diflerent substantives resemble one another in sense ; as, Mens, rittuh << 
consiUum, in senfbus eat. Understanding, reason, and prudence, is in old men. 
Quilms ipse nuAqu£ ante larem proprium vescor, for vetdbnur. Herat 

Obs. 5. The plural is sometimes used after the preposition cum pat 
for €t ; as, ^ 

Remo eum frotre'nnus jura dabunt Vurg. The ooiyunction is frequently 
imderstcwd; as, dum eetaa, metus, magister prokibebanL Ter. Frons,'oaih, vuitus 
«^ meiUiuntur. Cic. 

The diflerent enmples comprehended under this rule are oommoiily refemd to 
the figure Sjfilepsis. 

§ 237« LX. The conjunctions ut, guoj licet^ ne, 
fittnam^ and dummodo, are for the most part joined 
to the subjunctive mode ; as, 

L^o Iff discam, I read that I may learn. 

Utfnam saph^s, I wish you were wise. -^ , 

. Obs. 1. All interrogatives, when placed indefinitely, have after them 
the subjunctive mode. 

Whether they be adjectives, as, Quantus, quaUs, quotas, quotupUx, vter; Pro- 
nouns, as, quis and cwas ; Adverbs, as, Vbi, quo, unde, qua, quorsum, quamdtu, 
qptamdMvm, quampnaem, quoties, cur, qware, qwxmob/rem, dum, utrum, quomUdo, 
aui, ut qudtm, quantophre ; or Conjunctions, as, ne, an, anne, amum : Thus, Quie estt 
Who is it ? Nescio quis sit, I do not know who it is. An venturus est ! Nescio, 
dufiftb, an ventHrue sit Vides ut alia stet nive oantttdum Soracte f Hor. But these 
words are sometimes joined with the indicative; as, Scio miid ego, Flaut Haad 
seio, an amaU Ter. VvS^ onaniM quidfacit. Id. Vides qum twpe est. Cic. 

§ 338« IT In like manner the relative QUI in a continued disooorse; as, 
JNUm est quod Deus efficere nan possiL Quia est, qui utilia fugiat f Cic. Or when 
joined with aniFPE or otfote; NequeAntoniusproad ablHrat, uh)ote qui sequeretur, 
&C. Sail. But these are sometimes, although more mrely, iomed with the indi- 
. catiye. So, est qui, sunt^qui, est quando or um, &c are joined with the indicative 
or subjunctive 

Note. Haud scio an recte dixhim is the same with dico, affirmo. Cic 

Obs. 2. When any thing doubtful or contingent i^ signified, conjunc- 
tions and indefinites are usually construed with tl\e subjunctive; but 


when a more absolute or determinate sense is expressed, with the indi« 
cative mode ; as, J[f he is to do it ; Although he was rich, &c. 

ObB. 3. ETSI, TAMETSI and TAMENETSI, QUANQUAM, in the beginning 
of a nentenoe, have the indicative ; but elsewhere they also take the subjunctive ; 
ETIAMSI and QUAMVIS commonly have the subjunctive, and VT, although, 
always has it ; as, Ut qweras, non roperies, Cic. QUONIAM, QUANDO, QUAN- 
DOQUIDEM, are usually construed with the indicative: SI, SIN, NE, NISI, SI* 
QUIDEM, ^UOD, and QUIA, sometimes with the indicative, and somellmeawith 
the subjunctive. Dum, fat dummSdOf jprovided, has always the sufcgunctive ; as, 
Od&sM dtan metuanL Cic And QUtPPE, for nam, always the indicative ; as» 
Qtappe vetor fati». 

Obe. 4. Some conjunctions have their correspondent conjunctions 
belonging to them ; so that, in the following member of the sentence, 
the latter answers to the former : thus, when etsi, tametsi, or qtuimvis, 
although, are used in the former member of a sentence, tamen, yet or 
nevertheless, generally answers to them in the latter. Li like manner, 
T«m,— -^mafn ; Adeo or ita, — ut : In English, As, — as, or so; as, Etsi 
sit liberilis tamen non est profusus, AlUiough he be liberal, yet he i^ 
not profuse. So priiLS or ante, — qudm. In some of these, however, 
we find the latter conjunction sometimes omitted» particularly io 

Obs. 5. The conjunction ut is elegantly omitted after these verbs^ 
Volo, nolo, malo, rogo, precor, censeo, suadeo, licet, oportet, necesse 
est, and the like; and likewise after these imperatives, Sine, fac,' or 
facito ; as, Ducas volo hodie uxdrem ; Nolo mentidre ; Fac cogltes. 
Ter. In like manner ne is commonly omitted after cave ; as, Cave 
facias, Cic. Post is also sometimes understood ; thus. Die octavo, 
quam credtus erat, Li v. 4, 47, scil. post. And so in English, See you 
doit; I beg you would come to me, scil. that, 

Obs. 6. Ut and mi6d are thus distinguished : ut denotes the final cause, and is 
commonly used wiui regard to something future ; qudd marks the efficient or im- 
pulsive cause, and is generally used concerning tiie event or thing done ; as. Lego 
ut diacamj 1 read that I may learn ; Gaudeo quod legij I am glad that w because I 
have read. Ut is Ukewise used after these intensive woras, as they are called, 
Adeo, ita, sic, tanif talis, tantus, tot, &c 

Obs. 7. After the verbs timeo, vereor, and the like, ut is taken in s 
negative sense for ne non, and ne in an affirmative sense ; as, 

TKmeo vefadat, I fear he will do it; Timeo ut facial^ I fear he will not do it 
JA paves ne aucas tu iUem, tu autem ut ducas. Ter. Ut M vitHUs, metuo. Hor. Ti^ 
meo ut /rater vivat, will not live ; — ne /rater moristur, will die. But in some few 
examples they seem to have a contrary meaning. 


^ 229e LXI. The comparative degree governs 
the ablative, (when Quam is omitted) ; as, 

Dulcior mdle, sweeter than honey. Prtstlantior aura, better Utan gold. 

Obs. 1. The positive with the adverb magis, likewise governs the 
ablative ; as, Magis dilecta Itice, Virg. 


The aUatiT» it here ||bvemed by the piepontioii prm iindenti)od, which ii imqo- 
tinieti expressed ; as, FortiorpnE cat^ris. We find the comparative also construed 
with other prepositions ; as, tmmanior ante omnet. Viig. 

Obs. 2. The comparative decpree may likewise be construed with the 
conjunction qudm^ and then, instead of the ablative, the noun is to be 
put in. whatever case the sense requires; as, 

Dukior gu^tm wui, seil. eat. Amo te magie qtiitm tKtim, I love ^ou more than him» 
that is, quiom amo iitum, than I love him. Amo te hu^'s quA» tUe, I love jou mare 
than he, i. et. qudm iUe amat, than he loves. Pltu datur a me qudm iUo, so. ab 

Obs. 3. The conjunction qudm is often elegantly suppressed alter 
anqUius and plu$ ; as^ 

VuLnerantur ampUu» iexcenU, scii. quAm» Ces. PZus quingentoa coUiphos infregit 
mihh He has laid on me more than five hundred blowa Ter. Caatra ab urbe haud 
plus quinque mUUapateuum locant, sc. qudm. Li v. 

§ 230« QiMbn is sometimes elegmntly jdaced between two com- 
paiatives; as 

TVtufRp&t» cUtrior qudm graJtior, liv. Or the prep, pro is added ; as, Pratium 
atrodiOj qudm pro numiropugiumiiumedUur» Liv. 

§ 231a The comparative is sometimes joined with these ablatives, 
opinionet spe, tequo, justo, dicto ; as, 

CredibUi opinidne major. Cic. CrediUlli fortior. Ovid. Fast iiL 618. Graviu 
wquo. Sail. Dicto ciiius. Virg. 

Remark. They are often understood ; as, Liberius viv^at, sc. jiuto, too 
freely. Nep. 

. § 232a NikU is sometimes elegantly used for nemo or nuUi , as, 

NihU vidi quidquam lathUt ibr nemlnem. Ter. Crano rnkil perfecUu» Cic. 
Aiperiue nikH est humllit cum eurgit in altum. So, quid nobie laborwnuSy §x quig, 
dec. Cic We say, inferior poire nvUd re, or qudm pater. The comparative is 
sometimes repeated, or joined with an adverb ; as, Mi^ns magieque, pais plusque, 
minus minusque, oarior cariorque ; Quotidie plus, imhes magis, semper candidior 
pandidiorqust &c. 

Obs. 4. The relation of equality or sameness is likewise expressed 
by conjunctions ; as, E$t tarn doctus qudm ego^ He is as learned as I. 
Animus 'Crga te idem est ac fuit Ac and atqtte are sometimes, 
tfaoogh more rarely, used after comparatives; as, NikU est magis 
verum atque hoc. Ter. 

Obs. 5. The excess or defect of measure is put in the ablative after 
comparatives ; and the sign in English is by, expressed or understood ; 
(or more shortly, the difference of measure is put in the ablative ;) as, 

Eh decern digUis aUior qudm fraUry He is ten inches taller than his brother, or 
by ten inches. MlHiro tanto major est fratre^ l e. duplo major. He is as big acain 
as his brother, or twice as big. Sesquipide minora a fix>t and a half less ; AWtra 
tanto, out sesqtdm&jor, as big again, or a lulf bigger. Cic. Ter iantopejor est ; Bta 
tanto astici sunt inter se, qudm prius. Plant. 

Obs. 6. To this may be added many other ablatives, which are joined 
with the coftiparative, to increase its force ; as, Tanto, quanto, qvo,^ so, 
hoc, multo, panto, nimio, &c. ; thus, Quo plus habent, eo plus eupiutU, 
The more they have, they more they desire. Quanto melior, tanto felidor. 


The better, the happier. Quoque minor tpea ent, hoc maeU UU cvpU. Ovid. FMt ii. 
'76& We frequently find mulioy ftmto, quanto^ also joined with niperiativei ; MviUo 
puldierftmam earn kioberemut. SalL MviUoqm id moaifmumfuiL lir. 


§233« LXIL A Substantive and a Participle 
arc put in the Ablative, when their case depends 
on no other word ; as, 

ScUarimae^fugiwatenebnB, j The «m rWng, or whUe the sun ri^^ 

/^x— »i^^^ I .^3«.... > Our work being finished, or when our work is 

Opireperacto, ludemus, J finished, we wiU pUy. 

So, Domnante Ubidinet temptnmtim nvUut ed Iocum; NihU omiciliA praMabHiuM 
est, except^ virliUe; Oppresm UbertiUe patricB^ nihU eM quod aperemua ampUua; 
NobUium mt& victuque mtUiUOf mores muUtri dmUttum puto. Cic. Parumper nletli- 
Hum et qvies fval^ nee Etnucis, tun cogererUur^ pugnam inituris, et dictatore arcem 
Ram&vam retpetitaade^ ac ah augurihuSf simul aves rith adrnteissent^ ear compoHto 
toUerUur Hgnum, liv. BeOXce, depo0ti» dypeo pauUsper et hatlSt, Mars odes. 
Ovid. Fast ui. 1. 

Ohs. 1. This ablative is called Absolute, because it does not depend 
upon any other word in the sentence. 

For if the substantive with which the participle is joined, be either the nomi- 
native to some following verb, or be governed by any word going before, then this 
rule does not take place; the ablative absolute is never used, unless when difiSerent 
persons or things aie spoken of; as, Mihles, hotC&ms mctis^ rediermU, The soldiers» 
navinff conquered the enemy, returned. Hosttbus victim, may be rendeired in 
Sn^liiui several different ways, according to the meaning of the sentence with 
which it is joined ; thus, 1. The enemy eonauered, or being conquered, 2. When or 
after the enemy is or was conquered, 3. By conquering the enemy. 4. Upon the 
arfeat of the enemy t ^ 

Y 234e Though an independent substantive, joined to a participle, be 
generally put in the ablative in Latin, it is sometimes with peculiar elegance and 
precision, put under the government of the verb in the succeeding clause. Thus, 
* Having taken Regulus prisoner, they send him to Carthage.' ^Hmhan captum 
Cartkaginem miserunt. Here Regulum is eovemed by miserunL There are nol 
wantii^ examples, however, to justify another phraseology, namely, Reguio agMo, 
eum Carthaginem miserunt. But the latter form of expression is much less precise, 
£>r it does not so clearly signify that the person taken was the person sent; as the 
pronoun eum might refer to some other person. 

Obs. 2. The perfect participles of deponent verbs are not used in 
the ablative absolute; as, Oiciro locuttu lusc coruedit, never, hit 
locutis. The participles of common verbs may^ either tLgree in case 
with the substantive before them, like the participles of deponent verbs, 
or may be put in the ablative absolute, like the participles of passive 
verbs; as, Romdni adepti UbertdtemftonUrunt; or Rdm&ni, lUtertdte 
adeptd,Jloruerunt. But as the participles of common verbs are seldom 
taken in a passive sense, we therefore rarely find them used in the 
ablative absolute. 



Obs. 3. The participle existente or exUtentihui is frequently under- 
stood; as, CUBsdre ducef scil. existente. His consvdibus^ scil. e^rw- 
tentibtts, Invitd Minervdj sc. existente, against the grain; Crassd 
Minervd, without learning. Hor. Magistrd ac duce naturd; vivis 
fratrihus ; te horUUore ; Ossdre impids&re^ &c. Sometimes the sub- 
stantive must be supplied; as, Nondwm compertOf quam regionem 
'hastes petlssent, L e. cum nimdum compertum esset. Liy. Than 
demmm palam facto, sc negotio. Id. Excepto gudd non siand esses, 
ctBtira Uetus. Hor. Parto quad avihas. Id. In such examples negotio 
must be understood, or the rest of the sentence considered as the 
substantive, which perhaps is more proper. Thus we find a verb 
supply the place of a substantive; as, Vale dicto, having said fiirewell. 

Obs. 4. We sometimes find a substantive plural joined with a parti- 
ciple singular; BB, Nobis presente, Plaut AbsefUe nobis. Ter. We 
also find the ablative absolute, when it refers to the same person with 
the nominative to the verb ; as, me duce, ad hunc voti finem, me 
milUe, veni. Ovid. Amor. iL 12. 12. Ltstos fecit se cansvls fastos. 
Lucan. v. 964. PopQio speetante fiiri credam^ quicquid me conscio 
faciam. Senec. de ViL Beat c. 20. But examples of this construction 
rarely occur. 

Obs. 5. The ablative called absohtte is governed by some prepodtkia 
understood ; as, a, ab, cum^ sub, or in. We find the preposition some- 
times expressed; as, Cum diis juvantibus. Liv. The nominative 
likewise seems sometimes to be used absolutely ; as, Pemiciosa libi^ 
dine pmdisper usus^ i^firmitas ruUitrm accusdtur, SalL Jug. 1« 

Obs. 6. The ablative absolute may be rendered several difierent 
ways ; thus, Superbo regnante, is the same with cum, dum, or quando 
Superbus regnabat. Opere peracto, is the same with Post opus per- 
actum, or Cum opus est peractum. The present participle, when used 
in the ablative abw)lute, commonly ends in e. 

Obs. 7. When a substantive is joined with a participle, in English» 
independent of the rest of the sentence, it is exprMed in the nomina* 
tive ; as, Elo descendente. He descending. But this manner of speech 
is seldom used except in poetry. 




A FiouRB is a manner of speaking different from 
the ordinary and plain way, used for the sake of 
beauty or force. 

The Figures of Syntax may be reduced to fi3ur 
kinds, Ellipsis^ Pleonasm^ JEncJlage^ and Hyper- 


§ 235« Ellipsis is the omission of some word or words necessary 
to complete the regular Syntax. When the word to be supplied is not 
to be found in any part of the sentence, the Ellipsis is termed strict. 
It affects all the parts of speech \ thus, 

2. 1. The Noun ; as, AiurU^ supply homines. 2. The Adjective ; 
as, Non est oneri ferendo, supply aptus. 3. The Pronoun ; as, StU" 
dendum est, supply miki. 4. The Verb ; as, Q^id muUay supply du 
cam. 5. The Peirticiple ; as, Satumo rege, supply erUe or existente. 

6. The Adverb ; as, Vidnerantur an^ius sexcentit Cies. sup^ qudm. 

7. The Interjection ; as. Me miserum, supply O or heu. 8. The Con- 
junction ; as will be seen under Asyndeton. 

3. The Ellipsis is termed lax or loose when the word omitted may 
be supplied from some part of the sentence ; as, Virtus (cogebat) et 
honestiis, (cogebat) et pudor cum consulibus esse cogebat. Cic. Un- 
der strict Ellipsis are contained the figures, Apposition, Synecdoche 
and Asyndeton. Under loose Ellipsis, tbe figures Zeugma, 8yUipsis 
and Prolipsis. 

4. Apposition is, when, in putting two substantives together in the 
same case, existens, or the obsolete ens, or some other part of the verb 
Sum with a relative, is understood : as, Urbs Roma, i. e. urbs existens 
or ens, or qu(B est Roma. 

5. Stmecdochk is, when, instead of an Ablative of the part, or of 
the adjunct, an Accusative is used, the Greek xwta, secutidum, or quod 
attinet ad, being understood : as, Expleri (quod attinet ad, or secuur 
dum) mentem nequit. Virg. 

6. As(TNDBT0N is the omission of a eonjunctbn : as, Abiitj excessiit 
evasit, erupit, Cic. soil. et. 


7. ZivoMA. is, when an Adjective or Verb referring to different Bub- 
stantiyes, is expressed to the last only, with which it agrees, beiog- 
understood to the rest : as, Et genus, et virtus, nisi cum re, viiior 
algd est. Hor. 

8. Stllbpsu is, when the adjective or verb, joined to diflerent sub- 
stantives, agrees with the more worthy. In gender the Masculine is 
the more worthy : as, Ut tempU tetig^e gradus, procumbit uterque 
pranus, kumi, Ovid. L e. Deucalion et Pyrrha, In person the First is 
the more worthy : as, Sustulimus manus et ego et Balbus, Cic. 

9. Pbolepbis is, when the parts, differing in number or in person 
from the whole, are placed after it, the verb or the adjective not being 
repeated; as, Boni quoniam convenimus ambo, tu calamos ir^flare 
leves, ego dicere versus, Virg. i. e. tu convenisti bonus calamos irfiarCf 
ego convent, &c. 


§ 230« Pleonasm adds tmnecessary words ; as. Video oculis^ ' I 
see with my eyes ;' Sic ore locuta est, Virg. * Thus she spoke with 
her mouth.' Under Pleonasm are comprehended, Parcelon, Potysyn-' 
deton, Hendiadys, and Periphrasis, 

2. Parcelon is the addition of an unnecessary syllable or particle, 
to Pronouns, Verbs, and Adverbs, chiefly, perhaps, for the sake of em- 
phasis : as, egomet, agedum, fortassean. 

3. Polysyndeton, is a redundancy of conjunctions: as, Und, Eurus- 
que Nohtsque ruunt, creberque proceUis, Virg. 

4. Hendiadys expresses one thing as if it were two: as, Pateris 
libamus et auro, Virg. for aureis pateris, 

5. Periphrasis is, when several words are used to express one thiqg : 
as, Vrbs Trqjte, for Trqja, Teneri fxtus ovium, for agni, 

6. Qjiod si often occurs at the beginning of a period for Si, In 
such cases, however, quod seems to refer to what precedes, to confirm 
the connexion and to promote perspicuity : it cannot, therefore, be 
strictly redundant It is an accusative with propter or ad or quod altir 
net ad understood, and may often be translated thence,' ' because.' 


§ S3 7« Enallaob, in a general sense, is the change of words, or 
of their accidents, one for another. There are various kinds <^ it : viz. 
Antimeria, EnaUage (strictly so called,) Heterosis, and Antip^sis. To 
EnaUage may likewise be referred Synisis, Anaaduthon, Helleni»- 
mus, and Arckaitmus, 

12. Antimeria puts one part of speech for another: as, the nonn for 
the pronoun ; Si quid in Flacco viri est^ Hor. for in «le, as Horace is 
speaiking of himself. 


8. EmjOLEMkQM (strictiy so named) is wben one wosd u sobsUtutad for 
another, the part of speech not being changed ; as Noun for Noun, 
Verb for Verb, &c. : thus, the Noun substantive for the Noun adjec- 
tive ; Exercittu victor, for victori4>su$. 

4. Hbtsrosis uses one Accident, especially of a noun, pronoun, or 
verb, for another : as, no«, nobis, noster, for ego, mihi, mens. 

5. Antiftosis uses one case for another : as the Nominative for the 
Accusative : Uxor invicti Joins esse nescis, Hor. for te esse uxdrem, 

6. Stnssis is when the construction refers to the sense, rather than 
to the precise nature of a word : as. Clamor populi, mirantium quid 
ret est, Liv. for ndrantis, 

7. AnAcoLtTTHON is whou the Consequents do not agree with the 

Antecedents : as, Nan nos omnes It^ro est, Ter. in which the 

author began as if he intended to say lucro habemits, and ended as if 
he had said nobis omnibus. As the sentence is, there is no verb to 
which nos omnes is a nominative. 

8. Hellenismub, or GKiBGisMins, is in imitation of Greek construe- 
tion ; thus, abstine irdrum, Hor. for ab ira. 

9. Archaism is when an obsolete construction is used. Many ex- 
amples of this figure will be found in the first book of Livy : e. g. the 
formulas of the heralds in declaring war. 


§ 338« Htferbaton is the transgression of that order or arrange- 
ment of words, which is commonly used in any language. It is chiefly 
to be met with among the poets. The various sorts into which it is 
divided, are AnastrOpke, Hysteron proteron, Hypatlage, Synchisis^ 
Tmesis, and Parenthesis. 

1. Anastbophe is an inversion of words, or the placing of that word 
last which should be first ; as, Italiam cofUra ; His accensa super ; 
Spemque metumque inter dubii ; for contra Italiam, super his, inter 
spent, &c. Virg. Terram sol facit are, for are-facit. Lucret 

2. Htsteron fboteron is the placing in the former part of the 
sentence that which, according to the sense, should be in the latter ; 
as, Valet atque vivit, for vivit atque valet. Ter. 

3. Hypallage is an exchanging of cases ; as. Dare classibus austros, 
for dare classes austris. Virg. 

4. Syncresis is a confused and intricate arrangement of words ; as, 
Baxa vocant Itali mediis qute in flwctlbus ar<is; for Qu^ saxa in 
mediis fluctlbus Itali vocant aras. Virg. This occurs particularly in 
violent passion ; as, P&r tibi ego hunc juro fortem castumque cruorem» 
Ovid. Fast ii. 841. 

5. Tmesis is the divisbn of a compound word, and the interposing 
of other words betwixt its parts ; as, Septem subjeeta triOni gens, foit 



SeptentriOni. Virg. Qtue meo cunque animo Ubitmn est facBre, for 
qU(Bcungue. Ter. Quern sora dierum cunque dabit. Horat 

6. Parenthesis is the inserting of a member into the body of % 
sentence, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the 
construction ; as, Tit^gre, dum redeo, (brevis est via,) ptuce capeUas, 



The difficulty of translating either from English into Latin, or froni 
Latin into English, arises in a great measure from the difierent arran£^e« 
ment of words, which takes place in the two languages. 

1. In Latin the various terminations of nouns, and the inflection of 
adjectives and verbs, point out the relation of one word to another, in 
whatever order they are placed. But in English the agreement and 
government of words, can only be determined frt)m the particular part 
of the sentence in which they stand. Thus in Latin, we can either 
say, Alexander vicit Darium, or Darium vicit Alexander, or AlexaUf 
der Darium vicit, or Darium Alexander vicit; and in each instance 
the sense is equally obvious : but in English we can only say Alexan^ 
der conquered Darius. This variety of arrangement in Latin gives it 
a great advantage over the English, not only in point of energy and 
vivacity of expression, but also in point of harmony. We sometimes, 
indeed, for the sake of variety and force, imitate in English the inver- 
sion of words which takes place in Latin ; as. Him the Eternal hurPd. 
Milton. Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. But 
this is chiefly to be used in poetry. 

With regard to the proper order of words to be observed in translat- 
ing from English into Latin, the only certain rule which can be given 
is to imitate the Classics. 

The order of words in sentences is said to be either simple or artifi- 
cial ; or, as it is otherwise expressed, either natural or oratoriak 

2. The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sentence 
are placed one afler another, according to the natural order of Syntax. 

Artificial or Oratorial order is, when words are so arranged, as to 
render them most striking or most agreeable to the ear. 

3. All Latin writers use an arrangement of words, which appears to 
us more or less artificial, because difierent from our own, although to 
them it was as natural as ours is to us. In order, therefore, to render 
any Latin author into English, we must first reduce the words in Latin 
to the order of English, which is called the Analysis, or Resolution 
of sentences. It is only practice that can teach one to do this with 
readiness. However, to a beginner, the observation of the following 
rule may be of advantage. 

Take first the words which serve to introduce the sentence, or ^ow 
its dependence on what went before ; next the nominative, together 


with the words which it agrees with or governs ; Ikert, the verb and 
adverbs joined with it ; and lastly, the cases which the verb governs» 
together with the circumstances subjoined, to the end of the sentence ; 
supplying through the whole the words which are understood. 

If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the several 
sentences of which it is made up ; as, 

Vale igUur^ mi CidrOf tibique persuade esse ie quidem mihi oarisilmum ; sed 
multo fore cariorem^ si tatibus monumeiUis pnsc^pUsque laUUfire, Cic Off lib. 

Farewell then, my Cicero, and aasare younelf that you are indeed very dear 
to me ; bat shall be much dearer, if yoa shall take delight in such writings and 

This compoimd sentence may be resolved into these five simple sentences; 
1. Igiiur, mi, (fili) Ciciro, (tu) vale: 2. et (ta) j^suiade tibi (ipse) te esse quidem 
(filium) carisHmum mihi: 3. sed (ta persuade tibi ipsi te) fore (filium) cariorem 
(mihi in) multo (negotio) : 4. si (tu) lamblre tatibus monumentts: 5. ef (si tu laetabere 
talibus) pnsceptis. 

1. Fare {you) well then my {son) Cicero : 2. and assure (3rou) yourself that you 
are indeed (a son) very dear to me : 3. but {assure you yourself thai you) shall be 
(a son) much dearer (to me): 4. if you shall take delight in such writings: 5. and 
iif you shall take delight in such) instructions. ^ 

It may not be improper here to exemplify Analogical Analysis, as it 
is called, or the analysis of words, from the foregoing sentence, Vaie 
igitnTj &c, thus, 

Vale^ scil. tu ; Fare {thou) well : second person singular of the imperative mode, 
active voice, from the neuter verb, valeo, vcUere, valui, vaPllurus, to be in health, 
of the second conjugation, not used in the passive. Vale agrees in the second 
person singular with the nominative tu, by the third rule of syntax. ^ 

Igttur, then, therefore; a conjunction, importing some inference drawn from 
what went before. 

Mi, voc. sing. masc. of the adjective pronoun, meus, -a, -um^ my; derived from 
the substantive pronoun Ego, aa^reeing with Cidro, by Rule 2. C/c^ro, voc. sing, 
irom the nominative Cich-o, -oms, a proper noun of the third declension. 

Et, and ; a copulative conjunction, which connects the verb persuade with the 
verb vale, by Rale d9. We turn que into et, because que never stands by itself. 

PersuSde, fuAi. tu, persuade thou; second penwn singular of the imperative ac- 
tive, from the verb persua-deo, •dire, -si, -sum, to pershade ; compounded of the 
preposition per, and suadeo, -si, -sus, to advise ; used impersonally m the passive ; 
thus, Persiiaditur mihi, I am persuaded ; seldom or never JE^o persuadeor. We 
say, however, in the third person. Hoc persuadetur mihi, I am persuaded of this. 

Tibi, dat. sing, of the personal pronoun tu, thou ; governed by persuade, accord- 
ing to Rule 17. Te, accusative sing, of tu, pat before esse, aocoraing to Rule 4. 

Esse, present of iniinitive, from the substantive verb sum, es8e,fui, to be. 

Quidem, indeed ; an adverb, joined with cariss^um or esse. 

CarisiUmum, accusative sin^. masc. from carissfmus, -a, -um, very dear, dearest, 
auperiative degree of the adjective carus, -a, -um, dear: Comparative degree, carior, 
carius, dearer, more dear; agreeing with te or JUium understood, by Rule 2. and 
put in the accusative by Rule 5. 


Mihi, to me ; dat sing, of the substantive pronoun £^o, I ; governed by osrtf^ 
mum, by Rule 12. 

Sed, but ; an adversative conjunction, joining esse and fere. 


Fan, die «me with eaae futurmn, to be, m- to be about to be, infinitive of tf» 
defective verb /erron, -ret, -ret, &c. governed in the aame manner with the tore- 
going eue, thus, ie fore. Rule 4. or thua, eate aed fore. See Rule 59. 

MukOf foil, negotio, ablat nng. neut of the adjective iiiiiZto«, ^ hmi, much* put 
in the ablative, according to Observation 5. Rule 61. But muUo here may be taken 
adverbially in the same manner with muck in English. 

Carioremj accus. sinp. masc. from carior, -u*. the oompamtive of oarut, as before : 
agreeing with te or JUtum understood. Rule 2. or Rule 5. 

Si, if; a conditional coi^unctioD, joined either with the indicative mode, or w^ 
the subjunctive, according to the sense, but oflener with the latter. See Rale w. 

LoBiabire, thou shalt rerjoice ; second person singular of the future of the in^ic«- 
tive, from the deponent verb lestOTt uetdlua, kUari, to rejoice. Future, latsbiirt 
'^ibiri» or Sbi^, •-dJbUur^ &c 

TatibM, ablat plur. neut of the adjective toZtf, tofe, such ; ageing with maim- 
mentis f Uie ablat plur. of the substantive noun monumentum, -<t, neut a monument 
or writing ; of tiie second declension ; derived from moneo, -ere^ -«t, -Wwrn, to ad- 
monish ; here put in the ablative according to Rule 49. £(, a copulative cozyuno- 
tion, as befoe. 

PrcBceptis, a substantive noun in the ablative plural, from the nominative pree^ 
ceptum, -H, neut a precept an instruction ; denved from prcxipio, 'Cipiref -cem^ 
'^Xfimmt to instruct to order, cmnpounded of the preposition one, before, and me 
verb dmo, capire, cepi, caption, to take. The & of the simple is <^iangi^ into % 
short ; tnus, pr<Bcipio, prcBdfpis, Sic» 

The learner may in like manner be taught to analyze the words in English, and, 
in doing so, to mark the different idioms of the two languages. 

To this may be subjoined a Praxis, or Exercise on all the difierent parts of gram- 
mar, particularly with regard to the inflection of nouns and verbs m the form of 
questions, such as these, of Cicero? Ciceronis. With Cicero? Cicerane, A dear 
son! CarusJUius. Of a dear son? CarijUU. O my dear son? 1ft or meuM care 
fli. Of dearer sons ? Cariorum fliorum, &c. 

Of thee? or of you? Tut, With tiiee or you? Te. Of you? Vestrum m v^strL 
With you? Vobis. 

They shall persuade ? PersuadebunL I can persuade ? Persuadeam, or mudi 
more frequently possum persuadere. They are persuaded? Persuadelur or per- 
guasum est iUis; according to the time expressed. He is to persuade ? Est per- 
suasurut. He will be persuaded ? Persuadebttur, or persuasum erit iUi. He can- 
not be persuaded ? Non potest persuaderi illi. I know that he cannot be per- 
suaded ? Sdo non posse persuaderi iUL That he will be persuaded. EipersuSr 
sum iri. 

When a learner first begins to translate from the Latin, he should 
keep as strictly to the literal meaning of the words as the difierent 
idioms of the two languages will permit. But after he has made fiir- 
ther progress, something more will be requisite. He i^uld then be 
accustomed, as much as possible, to transfuse the beauties of an author 
from the one language into the other. For this purpose it will be ne- 
cessary that he be acquainted, not only with the idioms of the two lan- 

. guages, but also with the difierent kinds of style adapted to different 
sorts of composition, and to different subjects ; together with the va- 

. rious turns of thought and expression which writers employ, or what 
are called the figures of words and of thought ; or the Figures of 



1. The kinds of Style (genera itteridt) are commonly reckoned 
three ; the low, {humUe, sidnnissum, tenue ;)' the middle, (medium^ 
temperdtum^ orndtum, Jloridum ;) and the sublime, (sublime, grande.^ 

% But Ijesides these, there are various other characters of style ; as, 
the diffuse and concise ; the feeble and nervous ; the simpU and 
effected, &^. 

3. There are different kinds of style adapted to diflferent subjects^ 
and to difierent kinds of composition ; the style of the Pulpit, of the 
Bar, and of Popular Assemblies; the style of History, and of its vari* 
ous branches. Annals, Memoirs or Commentaries, and Lives; the style 
of Philosophy, of Dialogue or Colloquial discourse, of Epistles, and 
Romance, &c. 

4. There is also a style peculiar to certain writers, called their Majy» 
ner ; as, the style of Cicero, of Livy, of Sallust, &^. 

5. But what deserves particular attention is, the difference between 
the style of poetry and of prose. ^ the poets in a manner paint what 
they describe, they employ various epithets, repetitions, and turns of 
expression, which are not admitted in prose. 

6. The first virtue of style (virtus orationis) is perspicuity ; or that 
it be easiljT understood. This requires, in the choice of the words, 
1. Purity, in opposition to barbarous, obsolete, or new-coined words, 
and to errors in Syntax : 2. Propriety, or the selection of the best ex- 
pressions, in opposition to vulgarisms or low expressions : 8. Precision^ 
in opposition to superfluity of words, or a loose style, 

7. The things chiefly to be attended to in the structure of a sen- 
tence, or in the disposition of its parts, are, 1. Clearness, in opposition 
to ambiguity and obscurity : 2. Unity and Strength, in opposition to 
an unconnected, intricate and feeble sentence : 3. Harmony, or a mu- 
sical arrangement, in opposition to harshness of sound. 

The most common defects of style (vitia orati&nis) are distinguished 
by various names : 

§ !24:1« 1. A BARBARiSH is the using of a fixreign or strange word : 
as, croftus, for agellus ; rigordsus, for rigidus or severus ; aUerdre^ 
for mutdre, &c. Or, a transgression of the rules of Orthography, Ety- 
mol(^, or Prosody ; as, charus, for cams ,\ stavi, far steti ; ttbicen, 
for tUncen, 

2. A SOLECISM is a transgression of the rules of Syntax ; as, Dicit 
libros lectos iri, for lectum iri : We was walking, for we were, A 
barbarism may consist in one word, but a solecism requires several 

8. An iDidTisM is the using of a manner of expression peculiar to 
one language in another; as an Anglicism in Latin, thus, I am to 
write. Ego sum scribere, fbr ego sum scripturus ; It is I, Est ego for 

874 FHtusKs OF RBMsseotac* 

Ego sum : Or a Latinitm in English, thus, Est sapientior me^ If e is 
wiser than me, for than I; Quern dicuni me esse ? Whom do they say 
that I ami for wJio, Slc, 

4. TAirroiiOQT is a oseless repetition of the same words, or of tbe 
same sense in different wcnrds 

5. Bombast is the using of high sounding words without meanmgft 
m upon a triiing occasion. 

6. AnPHiBoiidoT is when, by the ambiguity of the construction, the 
Boetning nay be taken in two di^rent senses : as in the answer of the 
oracle to Pyrrhus, Aio te, JSadde, Romdnos virKire posse. Bat the 
Englirii is not so liable to this as the Latin. 


Certain modes of speech are termed Figurative, because they con- 
Tey our meaning under a borrowed form, or in a particular dress. 

Figures {figvrfB or schemata) are of two kinds : figures of words 
(JtgunB verftdrufn,) and figures of thought {figurte sententidrumJ) 
Tbe former ase prq>edy called Tfoapes; and if the word be ebaj^ged, 
the figure is lost 


h ^43« A Trope (conversio) is an elegant turning d a word 
from its proper signification. 

Tropes take their rise partly fix>m the barrenness of language, but more fiom the 
influence <^ the imagination and passions. They arefbunded on the relation which 
one object bears to ano&w» chie^ that of resemblance w similitude. 

The principal tropes are the Metdpkor, Metonymy, Synecdoche^ and 

1. Metaphok (translation is when a word is transferred from thajt to 
which it properly belongs, to express something to which it is only 
applied firom similitude or resemblance ; as, a hard heart : a soft tem- 
per: he bridles his anger: a joyful crop: ridet ager, the field smUes^ 
&c. A metaphor is nothing else but a short comparison. 

We likewise call that a metaphor, when we-substitate one otgect in the place 
of another on account of the close resemblance between them ; as when, instead 
of ypuAy we say, Ike morning or qfring-iime of life ; or when, in speaking of a 
ftmily connected with a common parent, we use the expressions which ]Mx>perly 
belong to a tree, whfise trunk and branches are connected with &• common root 
When this allusion is carried on through several sentences, or through a whole 
discourse, and the principal subject kept out of view, so that it can on^ be disco- 
voed by its resemblance to the subject described»-*! is called an Allegory. An 
example t»f this we have in Horace, book I. ode 14. where the republic is described 
under the allusion of a ship. 

2. An ALLEGORY is only a continued metaphor. This figure is much the 
same with the PartMey which so often occurs in the sacred scnptures ; and with 
the FoftZe, sadi as those of iEsop. The JEfdgma or Riddle iff also coosidered as a 
•ueoies of the Allegoiy ; as likewise are many Proverbs {Proverhia or Adagiufy 
thus, In eylvttm Hgna ferre. Horat 


MMaphon are kaproper when tfiey are imkea fiom law otgeoto; when tfiey are 
forced or. far ietchea; when they are mixed or too fiur pursued; and whea their 
have not a natural and sensible resemblance ; «r are not adapted to the subject of 
disoouiae, or to the kind of eompositioa, wheUier poetry or proee. 

When a word is very much turned from Hi proper «gmfication, the figure ia 
called CatachresU (abuno ;) as, a leaf of paper, of gold, ^ ; (ft« empire floanshed ; 
parriclda, for any murderer. Vir ^egis ipse caper. Viiv. AUian sdifYcant oapuL 
juv. J7emc tN)&i« deridendum propino, tor trado. Ter. Burutper SkuloB equitavit 
undae, Hor. 

When a word is taken m two senses in the same phrase, the one proper and the 
other metaphorical, it is said to be done by SyUepshf (flomprehenaio ;) as, QakUem 
tkymo mihi duUaot HybUe», Viig. £go Saraais viaear din axoamx kerbis. Id. 

3. Metontiit (mutatio nonanis) is the putting of one name for 
another. In which sense it includes all other tropes : but it is com- 
monly restricted to the following particulars : — 

4. When the cause is put for the effect : or the author for his works : 
as. Bourn Utbores, for com ; Mars, for war ; Ceres, for grain or bread ; 
Bacchus, for trine. Virg. Cicero, Virgil and Horace, for their works, 

5. When the efl^t is put for the cause : as. Pallida mors, pale 
death, because it makes pale : atra cura, &c. 

6. The container for what is contained, and sometimes the contrary ; 
as, Hausit patiranu for vinum, Viig. He loves his bottle, for his 
drink. So, Heaven m the Supreme Being* 

7. The sign for the thing signified : as, The crown, for royal au- 
thoriiy ; palma or laurus, for victory ; Cedant arma togiB, that is» as 
Cicero himself explains it, beUum concedat pecu So, ferri togesque. 

8. An abstract for the concrete : as, Scelits, for scelestus. Ter. Au* 
dacia, for audax. Cic. Vires, for strong men. Hor. 

9. The parts of the body for obtain passions or sentiments, which 
were supposed to reside in them : thus, cor, for wisdom or address ; as» 
htidfct cor ; vir corddtus, a man of sense. Plaut But with us the 
heart is put for courage or affection, and the head for wisdoms thus, a 
stout heart, a warm heart. 

10. When we put what follows to ezpreas what goes before, or the 
contrary, this form of expression is called Metahpsis, (Jransmutatio ;) 
thus, desiderdri, to be desired or regretted, for to be dead, lost, or o^ 
sent: So, Fuimus Trees 4* ingens gloria Dardania^ i. e. are no 
more. Virg. Mxi. iL 325. 

§ 244« Synbcdochb (compreTiensio or conceptio) is a trope by 
which a word is made to signify more or less than m its proper sense : 

1. When a genus is put for a species, or a whole for a part, and the 
contrary : thus, Mortdles, for homines ; summa arbor, for summa pars 
arbOris ; tectum, the roof, for the whole house. Virg. 


2. When a singular is put for a plural, and the contrary : thus, Hb«« 
tis, nuie$9 pede$, eqve$, for hostess &c. 

3. When the materials are put for the things made of them : aa, .^s 
or argentum, for money; tsraf for vases of brass, trumpets, arms, &jc^ ; 
ferrum, for a sword. 

4. When a common name is put for a proper name, or the contrary, 
the figure is called Antonomasia (pronominatio ;) as, the Philosopher^ 
for Ariitotle ; the Oraior^ for Demosthenes or Cicero ; the Poet^ for 

Homer or VirgU ; the Wise manf for Solomon. 

. • 

5. An Antonomasia is often made by a Periphrasis; as, Peldpis pt§- 
rens, for TantSlus ; Anyti reus^ for Socrdies ; Trojdni heUi scriptor^ 
for HomSrus; ChirGnis alumnus^ for Achilles; Potor Rhoddni, for 
OaUus, Hor. sometimes with the noun added ; as, Fatdlis et inceatut 
judex, famdsus hospes, for Paris. Hor. 

6. laoNT is when one means the contranr of what is said : as, when 
we say of a bad poet, He is a Virgil; or of a profligate person, Tertius 
e codo cecidit Cato. 

7. When any thing is said by way of bitter raillery, or in an insult- 
ing manner, it is called a* Sarcasm; as, Satia te sangulnCf Cyre. 
Justin. Hesperiamm^f ire jaecfu. Virg. 

8. When an affirmation is expressed in a negative form, it is called 
LrroTKs: as, He m no foci, fat he is a man of sense; Nop, humUis 
mtUier, for nobUis or superba, 

9. When a word has a meaning contrary to its original sense, this 
contrariety is caUed Antiphrabis : as, tmri sacra fames, for ea?ecrii- 
bllis. Virg. Pontus Euxini falso nomine dictus, L e. hospitaiis. 

10. When any thing sad or offensive is expressed in more gentle 
terms, the figure is called Euphemismi» ; as, Vitd functus, for mortuus ; 
conclamdre suos, to give up for lost. Liv. VaUant, for lAeant; 
mactdre or fertre, for oecidire ; Fecerunt id seroi Milonis^ quod suos 

Siisque servos in tali re faeire voluisset, i. e. Clodium interfecerunt. 
ic. This figure is often the same with the Periphrdsis, 

The Pkriphrabis, or Circumlocution, is when several words are 
employed to express what might be expressed in fewer. This is done 
either ftom necessity, as in translating from one language into an^ 
other: or to explain what is obscure, as in definitions: or for the sake 
of ornament, particularly in poetry, as in the descriptions of evening 
and morning, &c. 

When, after explaining an obscure word or sentence by a peri- 
phrasis, one enlarges on the thought of the author, the figure is called 
a Paraphrase. 

When a word imitates the sound of the thing signified, this ipiita- 
tion is called Onomatopmxa, {nomXnis fictio ;) as, the whistling of 



winds, purling of streams, buzz and hum of insects, hiss of serpents, 
&c But this figure is not properly a trope.' 

It is sometimes difficult to ascertain to which of the ahove mentioned 
tropes certain expressions ought to be referred. But in such cases 
minute exactness is needless. It is sufficient to know, in general, that 
the expression is figurative. 

There are a great many tropes peculiar to every language, which 
eannot be literally expressed in any other. These, therefore, if pos- 
sible, must be rendered by other figurative expressions equivalent : and 
if this cannot be done, their meaning should be conveyed in simple 
language ; thus, Interiore notd Fahmi, with a glass of old FaUr- 
nian wine : Ad unibUicum ducere, to bring to a conclusion. Horat. 
These, and other such figurative expressions, cannot be properly ex- 
plained without understanding the pj&rticuhir customs to which they 


Various repetitions of words are employed for the sake of elegance 
or force, and are therefore also called Figures <^ words. Rhetoricians 
have distinguished them by different names, according to the part of 
the sentence in which they take place. 

1. When the same word is repeated in the beginning of any member of a sen- 
tence, it JB called Anaphora ; as, Nihilne te noctumum prcmdium j^alatiit nihil uriis 
ingiJicB^ &c. Cic. Te dulcis conjux, te solo in littare aecum^ Te vemenie diCy te decen- 
dente canebcU* Viig. 

2. When the repetition is made in the end of tkie member/ it is called Epistro- 
rax, or Ccnverno ; as, P<siu» Popidtui Rom&nua jtutiiia vicitt armie vicitf Ubera- 
lU&te vicit Cic. Sometimes both the fermer occur in the same sentence, and then 
it is called Symtlock, or Complexioi as, Q,id8 legem tuUtf RuUus, Quis, &c. 
RuUus, Cic. 

^ When the same word is repeat^ in the beginning of the first clause of a sen- 
tence, and in the end of the latter, it is called Epanalepsis ; as, Vi^mus victoriam 
tuam prtdiorum exttu terminiUum ; gladium vagmd vacuum in urbe non vidimus. 
Cic. pro Marcello. 

4. The reverse of the former is called Anadiplosxs, or RedupUoatio ; as, Hie 
tamen vieit: viviti imo in tenStum veniL Cic. 

5. When that which is placed first in the fi}r^;oing member, is repeated last in 
the following, and the contrary, it is called Epanodos, or Regreuio ; as, Crudetis 
tu qwoquemater; CrudeUt maier magie anpuer improbus Hkt ImprtSiu» Hie puer 
erudUit tu quoqtte mater. Virg. 

6. The passionate repetition of the same word in any part of a sentence is called 
Epizkuxis ; as, ExdtSie^ exitdte eum ab infiria. Cic. Fuit,fuii ista virtuBf &c. Id. 
Mb, me, adsum qui fecit in me converttte ferrum* Virg. BdUit horrtda faOo» Id. 
I^flmu8,iiifmus. Hor. 

7. When we proceed from one thing to another, so as to connect by the same' 
word the subseqaent part of a sentence with the preceding, it is called Climax, or 
Oradaiio; as, AfncSno virtutem industries virtus gloriam, gloria csmulos conqiarS- 
vit* Cic 


878 novum op BRBTosie. 

a Whm the «me word 4» repealed in Tanooi cane^ woods, gttden, nanilMiii 
dEC. it u called Poltptoton; as» Pleni nitd onmet Ubri, plen^ saaiaUkm «ocei, 
plena exen^^Urum, vetuatas, Cic. LUUhu UUorUms cotttraria, Jlwmnu undas imr 
pricor, arma armis. Viig. 

9. To ihii ip usoally refiNned what i« called SYNOifTniA, or liie omg of wimb 
of the nme import, to ezpreH a thing inore atroogly ; as, Ncn farmnt non fotim, 
Non aiaaai. Cie. PromUto, reewio, tpmdeo. Id. And alsp Ezposrrio, whi4^ repeat! 
the nme thought in difibrent ughta. 

10. When a wonl pt repeated the tame in sonnd, bat not in aeoBe, it is ealled 
AifTANACLASia ; ai, Am&n junmdvm eit, n atritur ne quid insU amari, Ck. Birt 
this is rsckoned a deftct in style, rather than a beanto. XHeaily allied to this figoi* 
is the Paronomasia, or Agnominatio, when the words only resemble one aqother 
in sound ; as, Civem hon&rtan artium, bonartimpartium; Constdmravo anitno and 
parvo: de oratore arStor /actu». Cic. AmanUs 8uni amenies, Ter. Hiis is alw 
caUed a Pdw. 

11. When two or more words are joined in any part of a aontenoe in the mm 
cases or tenses, it is called Hohoioftoton, i. e. timitUer eadens, as, PoOetaudo- 
rUate, ciram^uU oflbua^ ahmdat omios. Cic. If the words have only a sioiilar 
termination, it is called Hohoiotelbuton, i. e. similtter deiUnens ; aa, Iwn ejuadm 
ett/at^reforWer, and vwire turpUer. Cic. 


It is not easy to reduce figures of thought to distinct daaaesi be^ 
cause the same figure is employed for several difiereot purposes.— 
The priocipal are the HyperbdUt Prosopopceia, Apostrophe, iSftmile, 
Antithisis, &c. 

1. HypERPdiiE is the magnifying of a thing above the truth; as, 
when Virgil, speaking of Polyphemus, says, Ipse arduus, tdtaque puhat 
sidira. So, Contracta pisces <equ6ra sentiunt, Hor. When an object 
is diminished below the truth, it is called Tapeinosis. The use of 
extravagant Hyperboles forms what is called Bombast, 

% Pbosofofobia, or Personification, is a figure by which we ascribe 
life, sentiments, or actions, to inanimate beings, or to abstract qualities; 
as, Q^<B (patriot tecum. CatUina, sic agit, &c. Cic. Virtus suimX 
aut ponit secures, Hor. ArhGre nunc aquas culpante. Id. 

3. AposTRdPHE, or Address, is when the speaker breaks off ^^om 
the series of his discourse, and addresses himself to some person present 
or absent, living or dead, or to inanimate nature, as if endowed with 
sense and reason. This figure is nearly allied to the former, and there- 
fore often joined with it: as, IVojdqite nunc stares, Priamique arx 
aha matures, Virg. 

4. SiMius, or Comparison, is a figure by which one thing is ills*' 
trated or heightened by comparing it to another : as, AloxanSer wss as 
hold as a lion, 

5. AmiTHESis, or Opposition, is a figure by which things contrary 
or different are contrasted, to make them appear in the most striking 

Fioinaa of bhstobxc 37S 

ltglrt>; M, ^«fwiM ton ctmmsig't ftue FMus was emOhlU* CtB§ar 
bene/iciia ae muniJicerUid tnagnus habebMturt integritate vU4B CatOt 
&^ SalL Cat 54. Ex hoc parte pudor pugnat^iUinc pettdaniUk Cia 

6^ Intsbrooation, (Gnec. Erotesis,) is a figure whereby we do not 
wnply ask a question, but express some strong feeling or affectioii of 
^e mind in that form : as, Quousque tandem, &jc, Cic. CredUis 
avectos hostes? Virg. Heu! qtUB me aiquHra posgunt tccipire. Id» 
Sometimes an answer is returned, in which case it is called Sutffectio ; 
iM, Quid ergo f audaeisHmus ego ex omnibus f minime, Cic. Nearly 
allied to this is ExpostuhtUm, when a person pleads with affenders to 
return to their duty. 

7. Ex6LAMATioif {Ecphonesis) is a sudden expression of some pas- 
sion or emotion ; as, O nomen dulce libertdtis, 6lc. Cic O tempdra, 
O mores ! Id. O patria ! O Divdan domits Bium ! &c Virg. 

8. DncftipnoN, or Imagery, (HypotypOsis) is the painting of any 
thing in a lively manner, as if done berore our eyes. Hence it is also 
callS Vision ; as, Videor mihi hanc urbem videre, &c. Cic in Cat 
iv. 6. Videre magnos jam videor duces, Non indecoro pulvire soT" 
dXdos. Hor. Here a change of tense is often used, as the present for 
the past, and conjunctions omitted, &c. Virg. xi. &B7, &e. 

9. Emphasis is a particular stress of voice laid on some word in a 
sentence; as, Hanntbal peto pacem. Li?. Proh! Jupiter ibit hic! 
i. e. iSneaa. Virg. 

10. EpANORTHdsis, or Correction, is the recalling or correcting by 
the speaker of what he last said ; as, FUium habui^ ak ! quid dixi 
habere me ? imd habui, Ter. 

11. Pabalkpsis, or Omission, is the pretending to omit, or pass by, 
what one at the same time declares. 

- 12. ApARTHnutBis, of Enumeration, is the branching oat into seve- 
lal parts of what might be expressed in fewer words. 

. 13. Str ATBBosunn,^ or Coaoervatto^ is the crowding of many parti- 
culars together ; as, 

-^acet in ocMra tulissem, 

ImpUuemque foro$ jtamndt, natumquet patremque 
CuM genere extinxinh memet svper ipta dediaaem. Viig. 

14 Incrementum, or Climax in sense, is the rising of one member 
above another to the highest ; as, Fadnus est vindre civem Romd- 
num, scelus verberdre, parricidium needre. Cic. 

When all the circumstances of an object or action are artfully ex- 
aggerated, it is called Auxssis, or Amplification. But this is pro- 
perly not one figure, but the skilful employment of several, chiefly of 
the Simile and the Climax. 


15. TRANnn^ii (Metab&ns) is an abrupt introdtictioii of a speech ; 
or the posBingf of a writer suddenly from one subject to another ; as, 
Hor. Od. ii 13. 13. In strong passion, a change of person is some- 
times used ; as, Virg. iEn. iv. 365, &c. xL 406, &c. 

16. SusPBifsio, or SustentatiOf is the keepmg of the mind of the 
hearer long in suspense ; to which the Latin inversion of words is 
often made subservient» 

17. CoNCKBSio is the yielding of one thing to obtain another ; 
l^it Jur, $it sacriUgus, &c. at est bonus imperdtor. Cic in Yei^ 
rem, v. 1. 

18. FaohKPBUh Prevention or Anticipation^ is the starting and an- 
swering of an objection. 

19. Anacoinosis, or Communication^ is when the speaker deliberates 
with the judges of hearers; which is also called Dtaporisis og Addu^ 

20. LicEMTiA, or the pretending to assume mare freedom than is 
proper, is used for the sake of admonishing, rebuking, and also flatter- 
ing; as, Vide quam rum reformidem, &c. Cic. pro Ligario. 

21. Apobiopesis, or Concealment, leaves the sense incomplete ; as^ 
Q^08 ego — sed pr<Bstat motos componBre Jluctus. Virg. 

22. Sbntentia {Qnome) a sentiment, is a general maxim concern- 
ing life or manners, which is expressed in various forms ; as, Otiuim 
sine litiris mors est Seneca. Aded in teniris assuescSre muitutn 
est. Virg. ProbUas laudatur et alget ; Misira est magni ctutodia 
censtLs ; NobUltas sola est atque unica virtus. Juv. 

23. As most of these figures are used by orators, and some of theoL 
only in certifin parts of their speeches, it will be proper for the learner 
to know the parts into which a regular, formal oration is commonly di^ 
vided. These are, 1. The Introduction, the Exordium, or Procsfnitfifi, 
to gain the good will and attention of the hearers : 2. The Narration 
or Explication : 3. The argumentative part, which includes Confirmo" 
tion or proof, and Confutation, or refuting the objections and argu- 
ments of an adversary. The sources ficom which arguments are drawn 
are called liOct, * topics;' and are either intrinsic or extrinsic i commatk 
or peculiar. 4. The Peroration, Epilogue, or Conclusion. 



§ 1« pBOflODT is that part of grammar which teaches the proper ae^ 
cent and quantity of syllables, the xight pronunciatum oi words, and 
the measures of verse. 

§ 2« Accent is a particular stress of the voice upon certain syllables 
of words. 

§ 3« The quantity of a syllable is the space of time used in pro- 

§ 4« Syllables, with respect to their quantity, are either long, 
$horty or common. 


§ 5« A long syllable in pronouncing requires double the time of a 
short one ; as, tindirg. 

§ 6« A syllable that is sometimes long, and sometimes short, is 
common ; as the second syllable in volucris. 

§ 7« A vowel is said to be long or short by nature, which is alwajrs 
sb by custom, or by the use of the poets. 

§ 8« In polysyllables, or long words, the last syllable except one is 
ealled the Penultima, or, by contraction, the Penult; and the last 
syllable except two, the AntepenultimOy or Antepenult, 

§ 0« When the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some particular 
rale, it is said to be long or short by authority ; that is, according, to 
the usage of the poets. Thus le in lego is said to be short by authcurity, 
because it is always made short by the Latin poets. 

y ]:0« In most Latin woids of one or two ■yllabiea, acooidinr to our manner 
of pronouncing, we can hardly diBtinguish by the ear a long «jrilable fimn a diort 
Thus U in Ugo and legi aeem to he sounded equally long ; but when we pronounce 
them in onnposition» the di£ferenoe is obvious; UtixOy perVigOt perUgi ; reU^o, -h^; 


The rules of quantity are either General or Special, The former 
ttpply to all syllables, the latter only to some certain eyllables. 




§ 11« A vowel before another vowel is short; as, Mius^ alius: bo 
nihil ; h in verse being considered only as a breathing. In like man- 
ner in English, create, behave, 

Exc. 1. I is long in fto,/tebam, &c. unless when followed by e and 
r; aa, fUrifflerem; thus, 

Onmia jam flent, HSri que poew neg&baiiL Ovid. 

Exc. 2. E, having an i before and after it, in the fifth declension, is 
long : as, spedei. So is the first syllable in aery ditu, eheu, and the 
penultima m aiildii terrain &.c. in Pompei, Cat, and such like words ; 
Dut we sometimes find Pompei in two syllables. Hor. Od. IL 7. 5. 

Exc. 3. The first syllable in ohe and Diana is common ; so likewise 
is the penult of genitives in ius; as, iUius, unius, uUius, nuUitu, &c. 
to be read long in prose. Alius, in the genit is always long, a» being 
contracted for aliius ; alterlus, short 

§ 1 S* In Greek words, when a vowel comes before another, no c^«- 
tain rule concerning its quantity can be given. 

Rem.l. SomeHmes it is short; as, Danae, Idea, Sophlia, SjrmphonTa, Bimois, 
Hjrades, PhEon, Deucalfon, Pygmalion, Thebaia, &&, 

Rem. 2. Often it is long ; as, Lycaon, Machaon, Didymaon ; AmphioD, Anon, 
Ixion, Pandion ; Nais, Lais, Achai'a ; Briseis, Cadmeis ; I^tGus and Latuis, MyrtGus, 
Nere'ias, Priameios; AchelOius, MinOius; Archel&as, Menelaas, Amphiaraus; 
' ./Eneas, Peneus, Epeus, Acrisioneus, Adamanteus, Phoebeus, Giganteus; Parlus, 
Basilius, Eugenius, Bacchius ; Caasiopea, Caesarea, Chsronea, Cy therea, Galatea, 
Laodicea, Medea, Panlhea, Penelopea ; ClTo, Enyo, Elegia, Iphi^enia, Alexandria, 
Thalia, Antiochia, idolatria, litania, politia, &c. L&ertes, Deiphobus, Deianira, 
l>ue8, herOes. &c. 

Rem. 3. Sometimes it is common ; as, Chorca,PIatea, Malea, Nereides, canopeani« 
Orion, Gervon, Eos, euus, &c. So in Foreign words, Michael, Israel, Raphael, 
Abraham, &c. 

Rem. 4. The accusative of noims in eus is usually short; as, OrpkHOt Salmon}^ 
CapharUa, &4i. but sometimes long; as, Idomenea, Iliunea. Virg. Instead of J^gfa, 
Cytherea, we find Elegeia, Cythirila. Ovid, But the quantity of Greek words can- 
not properly be understood without the knowledge of Greek. 

In English, a vowel before another is also sometimes lengthened ; as, science^ 

V 1 3« A vowel before two consonants, or before the double conso- 
nants j, X, z, is lonff {by position, as it is called ;) as, arma, faUo, 
axis, gdza, major ,•* the compounds of jugum excepted ; as, l^jUgus, 
quadrijugus, &c. 

WTien the foregoing word ends in a short vowel, and the following begins with 
two consonants or a douUo one, that vowel is sometimes lengthened by position ; as, 

Ferte ciUfammas, date tela, scandite muros. Virg. 

• In reality, in such cases j is a vowel, and with the preceding vowel ooostitqtes 
a diphthoi^, as, moiorihus. In the same manner arises the quantity of such wocda, 
as hfus, pejus, which, according to Priscion, the ancients write ^ius,pMut. 

v'BBX avAnTm or stllabs». 1i89 

Obs. 1. A vowel natanlly short, when followed by so» sp, 8Q, st, (wifli or with- 
out the addition of a third consonant, as ScriftaO may either remam short, or be 
made long at the poet's option. 

§ 14« A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common ; as the mid- 
dle syllable in volucrU, tenebra ; thus, 

Et prim6 simTIis voliicri, mox vera voliicris. Ovid. 
Noz tenebras profert, PhoBbus fugat inde tenebras. Id. 

But in prose these words are pronounced short So peragro, phantrot podagra, 
4duragrat cdebrUt latebra, ^^ 

Obs. 1. To make this role hold, three thinn are requisite. 1. The vowel ttiust 
be naturally short ; 2. the mute must go berore the liquid ; and, 3. be in the same 
syllable with it Thus a in pairi$ is nude common in verse, because a in pater is 
naturally short, or always so by custom : but a in matriSf acris^ is a]wa]nB long, be- 
cause long by nature or custom in mater and acer. In like mannm* the penult in 
saludrist ammdacrumt ia always long ; because they are derived from talua» saUUis, 
and amhuUUum. So a in arte, aUuo, ^c is long by position, because the mute and 
the liquid are in di^rent syllable 

Obs. 2. L and r only are considered as liquids in Latin words; m and 
tt do not take place except in Greek worda 

§ 15« A contracted syllable is long; as, 

NUi for nihU ; ml, for mihi ; cogo^ for coago ; alitis, for aliiut ; tiH* 
ctm^ for tibiicen ; it, for tit ; sddes, for si audes ; nfflo^ for rum voio ; 
MgiB, for bijug(B ; scilicet^ for scire licetf &c, 

§ 18« A diphthong is always long; as, 

Aurunif Casar, Eubcea, &.C. 2. Only pr(B in composition before ft 
vowel is commonly short ; as, prieire, prcBustus ; thus. 

Nee tot& tamen ille prior praeeunte carin&. Virg, JE, 6, 18d. 
Stipitlfbus duns agYtur suoibusque pranistis. Ih. 7, dS4. 

3. But it is sometimes lengthened ; as, 

cum vacuus domYno pneiret Arion. Th^ 6, 519. 

§ 17« A diphthong is once short in a line of Virgil, out of com* 
position : thus. Insula lonio in magno, quas dire Celsna This seems 
to be in imitation of Greek Hexameter. 


Perfects and Supines of two Syllables, 

§ 18« Perfects of two syllables lengfthen the former syllable; 
as, Veni, vidi, vici, 

Exc. Except bibi, sddi from scittdo, ftdi from Jindo, tHiij diii^ and 
stHi, which are shortened. 

984 avAmfirr ov tax csiMsitr of m>vws. 

§ 19e Supines of two syllables lengthen the former syllable; 
VUumt cdsum, motum, 

Exc. Except sdtum, firom sero ; cUum, firom cieo ; lUum^ from iino ; 
^^«in, ftom Hno; gtdtum, from mto; ilum, from eo; datunif firom 
ilo ; riUumt from the compounds of ruo ; quitum, from queo ; ratus^ 
from reor. 

Preterite» which dovble the first SyUMe, 

§ 20« Preterites which double the first syllable, have both the first 
•yllableB short; as, 

Ciddi, tittgi, p^iddif piperi, didich tutOdi; except ceeidi^ fr&m 
efzdo ; pepedif from pedo : and when two consonants intervene ; as^ 
fifeUi^ tetendif pipendi^ nOmordii &c. 

Exc The foUowin^r are short in the first syllabic, although coming 
from long presents ; pdsui, p^situnif from p6no ; ginui^ gSnttunif from 
gigno; pdtui from possum; sdlutum ftom solvo^ and vShttttm frnn 


§ 21« A noun is said to increase, when it has more syllables in any 
of the oldique cases than in the nominative ; as, rex, regis ; sermo^ 
germsnis ; inierpres, tnterprStis. Here re, mo, pre, is each called the 
increase or cremerU, and so through all the other cajses. The last syl- 
lable is never esteemed a crement. 

1. Some nouns have a double increase, that is,, increase by more 
syllables than one ; as, iter, itir^Sris ; anceps, anctpitis. 

2. A noun in the plural is said to increase, when in any case it has 
more syllables than the genitive singular ; as, gener, geniri, geniro- 

3. Except nouns of the first, fourth, und fifth declensions, which do 
not increase in the singular number, unless when one vowel comes 
before another; us, fructus, fructai ; res, rH ; and falls under Rule I. 
In the plural, however, they increa-se, and follow the Rule under \ 88. 


§ 22« Increments of the Second Declension are short ; as, tener, 
ten&ri ; s<Uur, satttri ; vir, viri ; puer, pugri. Exceptions. Iber, Iheri, 
and its compound, Celtiber, CeUiberi, lengthen the penult. 


§ 23« Nouns of the third declension which increase, make a and 
o long ; e, i, and u short : as, 

Pietdtis, hoTiSris ; muliirts, lapidis, fnurmHris. 

The chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the formation 
of the genitive of the third declension. But here perhaps it may be 
proper to be more particular. 

aVANTITr OF THB CKBXSNT OF 1100118» 385' 

§'24« NooiM in A shorten HiU, in the genitiTe; as, deigma, -iUi»; pobnOf 


§ SSe 1. shortens Vilis, bat lengthens enif and onu; trntCardOf-hus; Virgo, 
•Vnrs; Anio, enia; Cicero, •oms. 

2. Gentile or patrial noons vaiy their quantity. Most of them shorten the ^ni« 
five ; as, MacMot 'onis ; Saxo, -anis. So, Ungonea, Seiiones, Teulanea, VangUmet, 
Veucanea. Some are long; as, Stteuidnes, ESuroneSy Vettonea. BriUcneB is com- 
man ; it is shortened by Juvenal, and lengthened by MartiaL 

I. C. D. L. 

V 38« 1* I shortens iti$ ; as, HydromXli, -ttis. 
% Ec lengthens ecu ; as, BaUc, 'lei», 

3. Nouns in D shorten the crement; as, Damd, 4dia; Bogud, 'udia. In sacred 
poetzy the penultimate of £knid is often lengthened. 

4. Masculines in AL shorten alia; as, Sal, aHlia; Hamitbal, •HUai Hatadrubal, 
-iHia ; but neuters lengthen it; as, ajitmal, -SUa. 

5. SoUa from aol is long; also Hebrew words in el; as, Mit^ael, 4Ua, OAm 
nouns in-L shorten the crement; as, VigU, -^tUa ; consul, 'ulia. 


y 3 7« 1. Nouns in ON vary the crement Some lengthen it; as, Hetleon, 
'oniM; Chiron, -mda. Some shorten it; as, Memnon, -imia ; Actaon, -onis. 

% EN shortens itiia ; as, flumen, Jtma; iiblcen, 'Xnia, 

3. Other nouns in N lengthen the penult *AN Snia; as, Tilan, Stiia: EN ftixf ;• 
as, Siren, 'Onia: IN inia j as, Ddphin, •Inia : YN ynia ; as, Phorcyn, -ynia. 


9 !28e !• Neuters in AR lengthen arts ; as, adoar, •Sria, Except the ibllofV' 
ing ; baa^ar, -Uria ; jvbar, 'dria j Kepar, -Utia ; nectar, "dria : Also die af^jective par 
p&ru, and its compounds, impar, "Sria, diapar, -Sria, ^c. 

S. The following nouns in R lengthen the genitiTe ; Nor, Ndria, the name of a 
river ; fur, furia ; ver, veria : Also Recimer, -eria ; Byzer, -iri», proper names ; and 
Ser, Seria ; Iher, -hia, as well as Rer, Iheri, of the second declension. 

3. Greek nouns in T£R lengthen ferts; as, crater, -eriaf character, 'iria. Ex- 
oept other, -hie. 

4. OR lengthens oria ; as, amor, -dria. Exce]^ neuter nouns ; as, mormor, -ifria ; 
eoquor, -Sria: Greek nouns in Cor ; as. Hector, -oria ; Actor, -oria ; rhetor, -oria, Also^ 
arbor, -oria, and memor, -oria» 

5. Other nouns in R shorten the genitive ; AR Uria, joaac ; as, Caesar, -itria ; Ha^ 
mUcar, -dria ,* lar, Idria. ER hia of any gender ; as, air, <Uria ; nutUer, -hia ; ca- 
daver, -iria, iter, anciently iXtner, iUnXriai verbhia, from the obsolete verber, UR 
uria ; as, mltur, -uria ; murmur, -uria, TR Pria ; as. Martyr, -fria. 


^ 20« 1. Nouns in AS, which have ada, lengthen flie crement; as, /nslos^ 
-dHa ; Mmcenaa, .'4ttia. Except anaa, '•iUia, 

2. Other nouns in AS shorten the crement; as Greek noons having the genitive 
in adia, HHa, and Unia ; thus PaUaa, -&dia ; artocreaa, -eOtia ; Mdaa, -iima, the name 
of a river. So vas, vddia ; maa, m&ria. But vaa, vAna is long. 


§ 30« 1. ES ■horteM tii0 crenMnt; as, mUe», -^Mig; Ceres, -Mi; pee^pidig^ 

2. Except locujiet, -itia ; qmes, -ids ; vmomuu^ •elia; heares, -edU; merees, "Hiss 
alao Greek noumi which have etit ; as, Mtee, -etii ; Tkales, "Hi». 


§ SI* 1. Nomn in IS shorten the crament; as, Ugns, 4eK8 ; mmgtM, -^» ; 
Fh^Ut, ^IdUi enitt, cmMe, 

2. Eioept QU$^ gRrit; and Latin noons which paVe 1H$; at, lis, lUis ; dis, dkis ; 
Qmris, -ms ; Samnis, -ttis. Bot Charisy a Greek noun, has CAarttts. 

3. The following also lengthen the crement; Ctenis, -idiSt Psopkis, 4dis, Nsne, 
•Ws, proper names. And Greek nouns in is, which have also i» ; as» SaUtmia or 


V 3S« !• Nouns in OS lengthen the crsments ; as, nqtoe, -^ds; Jios, Jlarie. 
8. Except Bos, hSois; compos, -Ms; and isi^tos, -Stis. 


y 33« 1« US shortens the crement; (te, ttn^pus, -iiriss veUui,'M8; trrpus, 

2. Except nouns which hare iitf it, uris, and Uiisf bb, inaa, 4idis ; jus, jib-it ; 
adus, -mis. But Ligus has Liguris ,* the ohsoiete pecus, peciidis ; and intercua, 

^ 3. The neuter of die comparative has oris ; as, wieUes, -dria» 


y 34« YS shortens pdis or $do^ as, chlamys, -pdis or pdos; and lengthens 
ftus; as, Tradiys, -ytns. 

Baps. MS. 

V 35« !• Nouns in S, with a consonant going before, shorten the penult of 
the genitive; as, oeslefts^ -Vftis ; inopa,'^pia; Jdemu, hhnii ; auc^s,mtciqris; Dolopa, 
-Hpisi also amapa, and^fUia; Heq», buSlgOtia ; and similar compounds of e^pat, in 
which both increments are shott 

2. Except Cyclops, -opis; aepa, a^ ; gryP*» 8^9P^t Cereopa, -opia ; pUbe,pU' 
Ha i hydrcpa, -opia 

§ 3Ge T shortens the crement; as, oapui, -Via: so, sindpui, -Ida 


§ 37« !• Nouns in X, which have the genitive in gis, dmrten the crement; 
as, coR^, 'Ugia ; remex, ^jrif ; AlUbrox, -^agia ; Pkryx, Pkrpgia, But lex, Ugia, and 
rex, regis, are long; and likewise JfUgis^ 

2. EX riiortens ids ; eertex, -Vets: Except ^ibex or vtUr, -una. 

8. Other nouns in X lengthen the crement; as, pax, pScis; radix, 4a«; vox, 
vocisi Ivx, lads; PoUux, -uds, &c. 

4. Except y^tcifl, nfots, t^cts, prids, cdtids, dUds, pids, fonHtds, nhfis, Cappaio- 
ds, dUda, nueia, crude, iruda, onfda, Erfda, mastyx, -fchu, the resin of the teaiis- 
cua, or mastich tree ; and many others, the 'qoanti^ of which can only be ascer- 
tained by authoriry. 

5. Some nouns vary the crement; as, Syphax, •ada, or iUna; Satidyx, Jkis, or 
.-ids ; Bebryx, -pds, or 'yds. 


Increase of the Plural Number. 

§ 38« Nouns of the plural number which increase, make A, £f, 
and O, bng; but shorten Zand U; as, 

mitforum, rerum, domindrum; regibuSf portiibus; except bdbus or 
&i(5]i«, (Contracted for bdvUms, 


^ 30« A verb is said to increase, when any part has more sylla» 
Ues tha^ the Beeond person singfolar of the present of the indicative 
active ; as, amas, atndmus, where the seccMid syllable ma is the it^ 
crease or crement : for the last syllable is never called by that name. 

A verb often increases by several syllables ; as, amas, amabdmini ; 
in which case it is said to have k firsts second, or third increase. 

§ 40« Iq the increase of verbs, a, e, and o, are long; % and « 
short; as, 

Am&re, dodre, am&tdte; legimus^ «thnifs, wHJamus. 


1. The poeto Knnetimet, by systole, shorten didirunt and stUirurd, and lengtfaett 
nmus and ntis, in the futiure saqjonctiYe; as» iransientiM aqtuu, Ovid. 

8. Do and its compounds of the first coniiigation bave a short in Aeir first in^ 
crement ; as, dUmus, diUnmt, vemmdUbo : buf not in the second ; as, dHASmtu, dtde- 
rStis, where the last a 'a long. 

3. E before r is short in the first increment of any present and imperfect of tfm 
tlnrd eoqiugatioo; as, hsghis, Itgihrem, kgirer. But ren$ and rere in all die coqjuga- 
lions are long ; as, Iqgeriris, amarere, &c. 

4. Bins, and Ure, are every where shoit; ss^amabMs, OMoMre; excepting 
where h bailonn also to the termination of the present, scriUris and •cri&irf,of die 
fatore passive being long by the genend rule. 

5. E before ram, run, to, and the pemons formed fiom them, is short 

6. These have i long; «frnta, v^mus, ncGmtUf virith the other persons coming 
fifom them, and their compounds ; as, ntu, v^tia, nctite rndmus, posniis, ^us, 

7. / before vi in preterites is always long ; as, peGvi, quanvi, audhfi. 
8l The first increment of the fixurth conjugation is long; as, avdhmu» au^io. 

§ 41« The first or middle syllables of words which do not come 
under any of the foregoing rules, are said to be long or short by 
authoiritff ; and their quantity can only be discovered mmi the usage 
of the poets, which is uie most certain of all rules. 

Remarks on the Q^antUy of the Penult and Antepenvh of Wards, 

§ 42« 1. Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shorten the penult; as» 
FrUmldss, JtthmtiSdet, &c. Unless they come fiom nouos in eus; as, reUdet, 7y 
dldes, 4ec. 


8. JPbtRm^ci. and similar words, in AIS, EIS, JTIS, OlS, OTIS, Jjy]& 
ONE, commonly lengthen the penult; as, AtMis, Ptelemai», ChrysHs^ ASnSim, 
Men^JdUs, Laiou, Icariotis, Nertne, AcriMione, Except ThOSis, and PkotiUs ; and 
Ner^ which is common. 

a A^jectivee in ACUS, ICUS, WUS, and ISf 175, for the most part shortea llie 
penult; as, JEgyptiUcus, academtcus, Iqffdutf legidmua: also, superiativea ; am, 
fotHMUmm, &C. £xcept meraeuB, cpacu*y anueus, apncut, pudicuSj mendicus, 
anGcus, potGcui, fidu$, infUu», (but perfUuB, of per and fUes, is short,) laaua, 
fuadrimuM, patrhma, viatnmu», opHmu» : and two superlatives, tmus, pnmus. 

4. Adjectives in AXJS, ANUS, ENUS, ARUS, JVU$, ORUS, OSUS, leogdien 
the penult; as, dotaUg, urbOmu, terrhma, wodruM, tuGmu, decanu, arenoma. Except 
terMnw, epqi^rus^ and of^pdruM. 

b. Verbal adjectives in lUS shorten die penult; as, agUiafadUi*, &c B«t 
derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it ; as, anUis, ehaUi, hentis, &c. To thaw 
add, enht, aub&it; and names of months, Apnlig, QjuxnofHu, SeseGlig: Czcefir 
humUii, parUis ; and also nniliis. But all adjectives in atiiii are short; as, vertd- 
mis, vdeOUis, umbrattUs, pUcaOtiStJltariaiiUs, taxoMis, &c 

6. Adjectives in INUS, derived fixnn inanimate things, as plants, stones,- &&, 
also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten the penult ; as, amaratiinus, erodbnts, 
eedrtmu, fagtmu, oteagHnu»; adamoKtbius, crytUuttiua, crakXnics, priaOnus, pereih 
dbnu, oof^imu, anno(lnus, Ac 

7. Other adjectives in INUS are long; as, agmuM, eatumti, fejwrii ms» ..Hhna, 
frimis, ^iMiitis, ausfriatis, dandesGntu, Jja&iau, «larfnta, st^ranus, vuptr€kim», Ac. 

a Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUS, ULA, VLUM, always 
shorten the penult; as, urcMu, JUiSa, muaiBolum; UcSAum, raHunc^SSa, cordUtam, 

9l Latin denominatives in aoeus, aneus, arius, atieua, oritu ; also verbals in oSIUj 
and words in atilis, lengthen the Antepenult ; as, tetUtoeus, amSSatii, pbneiatUiB. 

10. Adjectives in idu», derived from nouns, shorten the t of the antepenult; aa, 
treniiGcius ; except nomchu. But those which come from supines or participles^ 
fengthen the t. 

11. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult ; as, eppidSiim, wiHm, frtUUcsi. Ex- 
cept aff&tim, perpttim, and Mdm. 

12. Deaideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which in the second and 
third penon is the penult; as, etiirio, esitris, enariL But other verbs in «rio ieDgdien 
tiiat sylUble ; as, Ixgwrio, Uguris ; Bcaiurio, aoaturis, Ac 

13. Frequentative Verbs, formed «from the supine of the finrt conjugation, by 
changing atu into tto, have the i short 


§ 43« The fdUyuAng proper names len^en the penult: AbdSra, Abfdas, 
Adunis, .^Elsopus, iEtolus, Ah&la, Alaricus, Alcides, Amyclae, Andionicus, Anabis, 
Archimedes, Ariar&thes, Ariobarz&nes, Aristides, Aristobulus, Aristoglton, ArpT- 
num, Artab&nus, Brachm&nes, Bosiris, BothrGtus; CethSgus, Chalcedon, Qeo- 
biilDs, Cyrene, Cyth8ra. CurStes ; DarTci, Demonicus, Diomldes, Dioree, Dioseari ; 
Ebodea, Er^yle, Eubiilus, Euclides, Euphr&tes, Eumfides, Euiipna, Euxfnos; 
Gaig&nus, Gctiilus, Granicus; Heliogabalus, Henricus, Heraclides, Heradltaa, 
Hipponax, Hispanus; Irene; Lacydss, LatGna, Leuc&ta, Lugdonum, Lycuras; 
Mand&ne, Mausulus, Maximinus, Mele&ger, Mess&la, Mess&na, Militus; Nssica, 
Nicanor, NicStas; Pachynus, Pandora, PelGris A -us, Phars&Ius, Fhoenice, Ftolltfls^ 
Polycletus. PolynTces, Priapus; Sardanap&lus, Sarpidon, Ser&pis, Sinope, Stiap 
tonice, Soff<5tes; Tigxftnes, Thessalonica ; VerOna, Veronica. 

\ 44« The fdUomng ore thort: AmSthus, Amphipolis, AnabSsis, Anticjpia» 
AntigSpus and -ne, Antil5chus, AntiSchus, AntiSpa, AntYpas, AntifpSLter, AQtti 


pbrnaei, ABtuphlLtei. AntiphUa, Antlpboii» An^tus, Apulus, AreojmgUB, Arim3fiittm, 
Annenus, Athesis, Attalus, Attica; Bitiirix, Bructeri; Calaber, CaUicr&tes» CalUa- 
tr&tiu, Candace, Cantaber, Carneades, Chertlus, Chrysostomus, Cleoin))rotu8, Cleo- 
maest Corjf-o», Coiwtantinop5iis, Craterus, Cratjf'lut, Cremgra, Cnistumeri, Cybele, 
€yc]Sdes,C;^:dk$uB; Dalmate, DaluScles, Dardanos, Dejoces, Dejotarus, DemocHtutv 
X>emYpho, Didymos» Diogenes, Drepanum, Dumnorix ; Empedocles, Ephesus, Ever- 

gltes, Eumenes, Eurymedon, Eiiiipylus; Fuclfnus; Geryones, Gyarus; Hecj^nt, 
eliopStis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hesi6dus, Hesione, Hiraocrates, Hippotamoo, 
Hypata, Hypanis ; Icarus, Icetas, Illj^ris, Iphitus, Ismarus, Itnaca ; Laodice, Laome- 
ddo, Lampsacus, Lamyrus, LapKlhae, LucretUis, libanua, Lipare or -a, Lysimachus, 
liODgimaDus ; Mariltbon, Msnalus, Marmarlfca, Maa8agetK,Matr6na,Meeara, Me- 
1¥tu8 aiHl -ta, Metropolis, Mutfoa, M^conus ; NeScies, Nerttoe, NorKcum ; Omphale ; 
Patara, Pegasus. Poamaces, Pisistratus, Polydamus, Polyxena, Porsena or Porsenna, 
Praxit^es, Pnteoli, Pylades, Pythagoras ; Sermats, ^rsYna, Semele, Semiramis, 
Sequani adad -a, Sii^&us, SicSns, Socrates, Sodoma, Sotades, Spartacus, Sporades, 
Slroni^e, Stympbalus, Sybaris; Taygetus, TelegSnos, Telemiichus, Teneaos, Tar- 
riU», Theophanes, Theophilus, Torajriis; Urblfcus; Veneti, Volog&us, Volosus; 
XeiMXV&tes; ZoHus, Zopj^rus. 

§ 4 5« The penult of several words is doubtful ; thus, BaUtvL Lucao. Batdvi. 
3nv. and Mart Fhrtultus, Hor. Fortu^Uu, Martial. Some make fortuiiui of 
duree syllables, but it may be shortened like gratuitus, Stat Pofrtmiw, matrimut^ 
pr€B8to£or, fc. are by some lengthened, and l^ some shortened ; but for their quaor 
tity there is no certain aathoiity. 


A. • 

^ 48« A in the end of a word declined by cases is short ; as, Mtudf 
temf^ Tydedf lampdda. 

Exc 1. The ablative of the first declension is long ; as, Mutd JEnUL 

Exc. 2. The vocative of Greek noons in a» is long ; as, O JEhUd^ 
O Palld. 

^ 47« A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long; as, 
Am&, frustrd, pnetered^ ^gd, intra. 

Exc. ltd, quid, efd, postea, putd, (adv.) are short ; and sometimes, 
though more rarely, the prepositions corUrd, ultrdf and the compoands 
cd ginta; as, trigintd, &c. Contra uid fiZfra, when adverbs, are 
always long. 


§ 48« E in the end of a word is short; as, Naii^ tediU, ipUt 
eurriyposii, nempit anti, 

Exc. 1. Monosyllables are long; as, me, ti, si; except these enclitic 
conjunctions, ^S, vi, ni ; and these syilabical adjections, ptS, d, U ; 
as, suapUy hujusci^ tuti; but these may be comprehended under the 
general rule, as they never stand by themselves. 

Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declensions are long ; as, Gil- 
Hn^e^ AnchUl, JUi. So re and dii^ with their compounds, quarey kodUf 
prtdiif postridie, quotidie, 



Ezc 3. Greek dqoos which wwit the singular are limgi fey Oc^^ 
melif Tempi, 

Ezc. 4. The seooDd pereon euigiilar of the imperative of the second 
jeonju^tion is longr ; as, Doee^ mane ; bat cave^ vale, imd vide^ are 
sometimes short 

Exc. 5. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second de- 
clension are long; as, pladdi, pulchre, valde, contracted for vaHde: 
To these add ferme, fere, and ohe ; also all adverbs of the superlative 
degree ; as, doctissime, Jorti$9ime : But benS and tna2e, infeme^ au' 
pemi, are short Also the adverbs heri, and Hereuli, 


§ 49« / final is lopg ; as, Donani, patH, doeeri, 

£xc. 1. Greek vocatives are short; as, AJexi, Amarylll. 

£xc. 2. The dative of Greek noons of the third decleQak», which 
increase, is short; as, PaUadi, Miwoidi, 

Ezc. 3. Mthi, tibi, sibi, are common : So Ukewise are Ua, nisi^ ttbi^ 
quasi ; and cut, when a dissyllable, which is seldom the case, ^culi, 
ncvUi, and nectiM, are always short 

Ezi;. 4. Datives and Ablatives plural of Greek nouns in 9% are short; 
as, heroati, 7Voa«i. 


§ 50« O final is common; as, Virgo, amo, quando. 

-Ezc. 1. Monosyllables in O are long; as, 6, dd, std,prd. 

Ezc. 2. The dative and ablative singular of the second declensions 
are long ; as, libra, domino. 

Exc. a. Also Greek noons, as, Dido, Sappk6, and AA6 the genitive 
of Atkos; and adverbs derived firom nouns; as, certo, /also, pavl^. 
To these add quo, eo, and their compounds, quovis, quocunque^ adeo, 
iis6 ; likewise Ulo, i/icirco, citrd, reird, ultro, 

Exo. 4. The following words are short: Egd, $eid, ptUd, cedd, a de« 
fective verb, homd, cii6, iUicO, immO, dud, ambd, modd, with its com- 
pounds, qwimddd, dummddd, postmMd: but some of these are aleo 
found long. 

Exa 5. The gwnnd hi DO in Virgil is long; in other poets it is 
short Ergd, on account of, is long ; ergo, thenibre, is cbnblAiL 

^ rand Y. 
h &!• (^filial if loDff ; FfinM is short; as^ VuUu; Moly. 

B, D, L, M, R, T. 

§ $2« B, A L, R, and T, in the end of a word, are short; as, 4b. 
apod, semei, precGr, caput. 

QirAHTrrv ov riiHAt stliablbs. Ml 

4 53« The Mowing Wovdfl «d^ long ; »«l, «^ ntf, odr and its 
compounds, tmpdr, dupdr, &c. ; /ar, Idr, Navj cur ^ fur; also nouns in 
w whioh have «m m the goiitive; as, OroCeri v^r, i&er; likewise tter, 
Esther: to which add Hebrew names; as, Jobf Dtand; but 2>av»^ 
Bogudy &c are common. 

9^ 54« Jkf final anciently made the foregoing vowel «hort; as, 3fiZttt(f}i octo. 
EniiicH. But, by later poets, m in the end oi a word is always cat off when the 
next^word begins with a vowel; thus, wiitiV octo; except in compound words; as, 
circumSgOf circumeo. 

§ 55« C and Nf in the end of a word, are long: as, dc, HC| iUve; 
spleuj en, norij &c. 

So Greek nouns in n ; as, Titans Siring Salamin ; JEnean^ Ancki» 
«en, drcen ; LacedtBrndn^ &c. 

Exc. 1. The following words are short : nSe and donJSc ; ForsU&n^ 
In, forsdn, tamin, an, -Min ; likewise nouns in en which have tnis in 
the genitive : as, carnUn, crimen, 

Exc. 2. Also nouns hi or, of the lingular number, which in Qreek 
are 'written with a small o (o fux^"), and which are in Latin of the 
second declension ; as, Bidn, ErotUivi, PyUHt, 

Exc 3. A* is short In Greek accusatives, whatever the declennon 
may be, of nouns the final syllable of whose nominative is short ; as, 
Matdn, jSgindn, Alexin, Ibin, Ityn, 

Exc 4 Greek datives in Mn are short; as, ArcaHn, DroaHn. 

Exc. 5. The pronoun hie and the verb fac are common. 

AS, ES, OS. 

§ 56« AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long : as, Mdt^ 
quii$, bonds. 

Exc. 1. The following words are short: an4i, es, fi^m ««m, and 
penis ; 69, having ossis m the genitive, compds, and impdt* 

Exc. 2. Also a great many Greek nouns of all these three terraina- 
tions: as. Areas uid Arcadds, ker6&s, Phrygis, Areddds, TenlMs, 
Melds, &c 

Exc. 3. Latin nouns in es, having the penult of the genitive increas- 
ing short, are also short; as, AUs, hebis, obsis. But Ceres, pariiSf 
aries, abies, and pes with its compounds, are lon^. 

IS, US, YS. 

§ 57« IS, us, and YS, in the ^d of a word, are short: as, Tur- 
ris, legls, legimus, anniJLS, Cktp^. 

Exc. 1. Plaral cases in is and us are long ; as, Pennis, libris, nobis, 
omnis, for omnes^ fructiks, manils ; also the genitive singular of the 



fimrth deGlension ; as, portiu. But bui in the dat. and abL plnr. is 
short: w^Jloribii8,fructilf1i8t rebut. 

Ezc. 2. Nouns m m are long, which have the genitive in itis, inU, 
w entia; as, lis, Samnis, StUdmiSt SinOU: To uese add the adverbs 
gratis and /oris ; the noun glis^ and vis, whether it be a noun or a 
verb ; also is in the second person singular, when the plural has iHs ; 
as, audls^ ahU^ possls* RU in the future of the subjunctive is common. 

Exc. 3. Monosyllables in us are long : as, grus, sits : also nouns 
which in the genitive have uriSf udis, utiSt untis^ or Odis : as, teUus^ 
incus^ virtus, AmiUhlis, tripus. To these add the genitive of Greek 
nouns of the third declension ending in o ; as, ClUis, Sapphiks, Mantks; 
also noons which have u in the vocative : as, Pantku» r — so listis. 

Ezc 4. Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ys, which have like- 
wise yn in the nominative : as, Phoreys or Phorcyrij and Traeh^ or 

§ 58» The last syllable of every verse is com- 

Or, as some think, necessarily long, on account of the pause or sas- 
pension of the voice, which usually follows it in pronanciation. 














Dini, from DScem. 

FOmei, f Svea 

Hum&Dus» hSxna 

Rfigiila, rSgo. 


Derivatives follow tne quantity of their primitives ; as^ 

aQctor, -oris, 
aiupex, -Tcis. 
caupo, -o&is. 
coniix, -icisL 
custoa, -udis. 
deoor, -&U. 










fivm decna, •)(riB. 
ezid, -iilii- 
Quiris, -Itk. 
radix, -icia. 
aoepea, -Ytis. 


1. Long from thorU 

SuapTcio, from auspYoor. 
SSdea, aedea 

SSciua, aScoa. 

Penuria, pSnua. 

2. Short from long. 

Mubnia, from mSveo. 

Humor, faSmus. 

Jnmentun, juvo. 

Vox, vOda, v»oo,&c 

Afina and Sriata, from ftrea 

linSta and nSfo, notoa. 

Vldum, vftda 

FUaa, ildo. 

S^poir, aupio. 

Doz, fida, 



dis, ditia. 

n. coMPouNDa 

§ 00« Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words which 
compose them; as, 

IHdfycOy of de and dwco^ So prefh-Ot antifiro, contUor, denSkot d^ec^r, dtr 
)praV0y deaplro, despumo, deaquatno, enddo, erudiOf exsudo, ex&ro, expaveOf incero, 
tnhumOi irmeiGgo^ prm-SvOy masnMOt r^^i empHro, appdireoy concHmis^ mrti^ramt, 
4i«sd2tf, nijfdco and suffOco ; aiffidit from difiruCot and aiffidit from diffuto ; tndicot 
•ar^ vad tndicot -ire ; perm&net from permOneo, and perman^ from permano ; effo- 
dit in ike present, and efodit in the perfect ; so, exiaU and exedit ; devinit and do- 
vhtU; devhumua and devenSbnuB ; rq^trvnut and reperimus ; ^fugit and ^^fugU, Sso. 

§ 61« The ohtBge of a vowel or diphthong in the eompoond does 
not alter the quantity f as» 

Xudldo fivm tit and cJi<2o; incido from in and ccedo;. sujfoco firom «i6 and fsnuh 
fauci*. Unless the letter following make it fall under some general rule ; asi So- 
mitlOtperMo, dioscuior, prohibeo, 

Eso: Agiithon, cogiitbuin, difSrOf pefiro, ivmuba, vronuba^ maUdkua, veridteui 
mhUunh aemisopUiu ; from notus, juro^ ntUWi ScOt huumt and aopio ; amiHtut, a peat" 
liciple from ambio, is lone ; but the substantives amtfUus and a$nbUio are snort 
Connulnum has the second syllable oomraon. 

§ 02« - PrepoaiiioQi have generally the same quantity in oompositionatfaRit 
of it : thus dmiao and dedueo have the first syllable long because a and de are long. 
AbUeo woAphrimo have the first short, because ah and per are short 

' Obs. 1. The preposition PRO in Greek words, for ante, before, is 
short; as, ~ 

PrUpheta^ptoliigus: PRO in Latin -words is lon^; m^ jprodo, prormUo^ ^. but it 
is short in the following words : profundiayprofvgWt m-qftigus, pron9po§i pronqfriut» 
profe^us,praf&ri,pr^teort pTojSnu»^ pr^fecto, priicdla,prSt^vu8i and propagOf a 
mieage ; pro in prdp^o^ a vine-stock, or shoot, is lonff. Pro in the following words 
is doubtful ; propdgih to propagate ; propino, prrfimdo, propdlo, propuUo, procwr&t 
and Proaerptna. 

Obs. 2. The inseparable prepositions 8E and DI are long ; as, 

IStpHrOy SrbdLo ; ev6ept tffr^^, ^Uertut. Re is short ; as, rhmtto, rtfttro ; except 
itt tlie impenonal verb r^ertf oompoondad of tea and fero. 

§ 03« / in the end of the former compounding word is usually 
shortened ; as, Caprlcomus, omnipdtens, agricdla, signtftcOf blformis, 
aliger. Trivia, Tubtcen, vaHdnor, arekUectuSf bimeter, trimiter, &c. 

Exc. 1. But from each of these ther« are many exceptions. Thus t is long when 
it is varied b^ oases ; as, ^ nidam, ^m'f, kmSdemt tadem^ &c. 

Exc. 2. Also when the eetaipouodkig words may be taken sepentely ; as, htdima' 
gi$tert Ivcrifadoj nquit, &c. 

Exc. 3. When a contraction is nade by CratiM or SyniiXjpe ; as, trig€B, for irijugtB ; 
Uloet, for ire Uceif &c. it is long. 

Exc. 4. So in the compounds of diet, ai, Indutuh triduum, mendiee, pfidift poitri' 
die i but the second syllable is soittetimeB shortened in quotidie and quotidiaHus. 

Exc. 5. Mini in the ihasc. is long, (in the ijeuter short ;) also udiorie, iBdem. But 
in vbhn» and ubicuTtque, the 1 19 doubtful. JdenfHem has the penidttmate short. 

ii5 * 

§ 64« O in the end of the former eompoandiDgf word is luuallj 
•hortened ; as, ArgHnaiUa^ AreSpoffuSt duddenif duUdicim^ hodief mme0V* 
aanctus, Arctdphylax^ bildi&tkeca, phildtdphusj &.c. 

Exc. 1. O IB lengthened in the compounds of introt retro, contro, and queatde i «^ 

ItdrodSco, inlrdmiitOt retro^o, retrdgr&dtiSt controvgrsitSt controveraa, quando' 
que ; but qiiandlimMem has the scoond efrllable abort O m abo long in mioquin, 
eateroquin, uiromque: So likewise in Greek words, written with a large o, or 
« ficya ; as, geometra, Mmotaurue, lagcptts. 

§ OSe A in the former oompoonding part of a word is lone ; as, j^vfire, quo^ 
propter, gtiScunque ; So, trido, trdduoo, trOmo, for trantno, ike JEMem is short, ex- 
cept in the abL sing. eSdem. So hexUmeter, and caU^mlta. 

y OOe E is short; as, nifma, nifattue, nifandiig, fOh[ariMM, nique, nXmteo ; trl- ^ 
dicim, triU:enti, tgutdem, aUUnra, vaUaico, madi^acio, teptfacio, pat^k^io, «c kt^u»- 
dmSdi, ^tucHmodi — Except sedlknm, sanodius, niquis, niauam, nequUiOf tiequandot 
nbno, credo, memet, miatm, tictim, eieuM ; venefictts, vidmceL 

V o7« U also is short ; as, ducenU, dtmondium ;quadrupe8, centuptum, Trm^ 
IfXiMi, corniipila ; but rudUio is long. Y likewise in Greek woids is snort; as, Po-^ 
^d^nu, PSjidHmae, Poljjphemue, DorpphSru». 


§ 88e A Verse is a certain number of long and short syllables dis- 
posed according to rule. 

It is so called, because when the number of syllables requisite is 
completed, we aJways turn back to the beginning of a new line. 

The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just 
number of syllables, are called Feet. 

A verse is divided into different feet, both to ascertain its measure or 
number of syllables, and to regulate its pronunciation. 


Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a sin- 
gle syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Cessurii, which is commoiily 
a long syllable. 

1. Feet of ttoo SyllabUn. 

Spondeus^ consists of two long ; as, dmnes. 
PyrrhichiuBt two short ; as, dSus. 

Imndmtf a short and a long ; as, dmdm, 

^V0chiB^8 or ChoreuMf a long and a short ; as, s^vilt. 

2. Feet qf threeS^lMeB. 

Dactflii$, a long and two short; as, scribiri. 

AnaptBstuSi two i£ort and a long ; as, pUtds. 

Anwhimiicer, a long, a short, and a long; as, cAdrltds. 

TVtbrichySf three short ; as, di^iniis. 

mnmRMtpr kixds of vbbsb. 

Hie following are not so much used : 

Bfoimai^ dUksUMt, 

Amphibr&chys, Konort, 

Bacchiiu, deiorls. 

AtitibaeehiiM, pUurdur. 

a Feet off oar SyOaiieg. 

Froceleusmatifcus, komlnfbu*, 

Dispondeus, ordtores. 

Dijambtu dnum^Uat. 

Choriambus, pdnUftces. 

DichoreiHi, CSnmm&. 

AntispestuB, AlexUndihr.' 

lonYcus minor, prSpirSbilnL 

lonYcus major, cSlcSr)ibu*<. 

Paeon primus, temporibus. 

Paxm secunduB, pUeiUUL 

Paon terthu, &ritmaiut* 

Pteonquartus,. ciiir^USs. 

Epitritua primus, tUuptSiU. . 

EfHtriftuB secundus, pan^Unieg. 

Epitriftus tertius, diKdrdids. 

EpittYtus qoartus» fortunOtus* 


§ 00« The measuring of verse, or the i^olving of it into the seve- 
nl feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning, 

Obs. 1. When a verse has just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus 
Axolakctus or AtxUdteeticuSt an Acatalectic verse : if a pliable be wanting, it ia 
called CaiedecOcus: if there be a syllable too much, HyperaatatecOcuSt oiHyper- 

The ascertaininj^whether the verse be complete, defective, or redundant, is called 
DepotUio or Clausula. 


No. 1. H£XAMC;T£R. 

§ 70« The Hexameter or heroic verse consists of six feet Of 
these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth a spondee ; all the rest may 
be either dactyles or spondees : as, 

1 2 3 4 5 6 



USB vel- 
um Re- 

lem cal&- 

mo per- I misTt a- I grSsti. Virg. 
bes reno- 1 vare do- 1 lOrem. Id. 

Obs. 1. A regular Hexameter line cannot have nxne than seventeen: 
syllables, or fewer than thirteen. 

Obs. 2. Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the 
verse is called Spondaic ; as, 

Cilra De- 1 nm sobo- | lis m&- | gniim JSvYs ( mere- | mentiim. Virg. 

This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large, sad, or the 
like, is expressed. It commonly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and 
a word of four syllables in the end. 

Obs. 3. Sometimes there remains a superfluous sellable at the end. But this syl- 
lable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a vowel befim 
it ; 80 as to be joined with the following vene, which in the present case mast 
always begin with a vowel ; as, ' 

OmnlS f MSrcfitY- | 5 sYraY- | lis v5- | oemque c5- | IfirSmque. 
£t flavos crini 

Those Hexameter verses sound best, which have dactyles and spon- 
dees alternately : as, 

Liid6M, ^vai Vene&i, caUuno permuitt «graiti. Vtrg, 
Plogtiii eC iiigret» premeretar caaeoB iirlH. U* 

Or whieh have more dactyles than spondees : tM, 
Tkpe, to patulift reeubans sub tegmine fiigi Vii^. 

It is esteemed a gfreat beauty in a hexameter verse, when, by t&e use 
of dactyles and dpondees, the sound is adapted to the sense : as» 

Qnadrapedante putrem «mitn qoatit uogola wimpnin. Vitg, 
nii inter sese niagn& vi brachia toUoBt. Id» 
Moortnun horroodom, inlbniie, ingani, cui lamen ademptora. id 
Accipiont inimioain, imbrem, limiiqfM iatiaciint JU. 

But what deserves partioilar atteotioa, m seaamnif hexameter verslB, 
is the Ci£SURA. 

§ 71« CkMra is when, after a ^t is completed, there reviafui a 
syllable at the end of a word to begin a new loot; as, 

At rt^in& gr&-Ti jini-dudiiBi» &c. 

OfasL 1. The ctBSura is variously named, according to the diffident 
parts of the hexameter verse in which it is ibund. When it comes 
after the first foot, or fiiUs on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek 
name, Triemimiris : when on the fifth half-fbot, or the syllable after 
the second fiwt, it is called PentkemimiSrU : when it happens on the 
£rst syllable of the fourth foot» or the seventh haif-foot, it is called 
Hephihemifgiiri» : and when on the ninth half-foot^ or the first syllable 
of the fifth foot, it is called Enneemimeris, 

All these difierent species of the e^sdro sometimes occor in the 
same verse : as, 

lUe la-tttt nlvd-am moUi fiU-tna hj^&4»ntfa5 Virg. 

Obs. 2, But the most common and beautifiil ciesfira is the penthft- 
mim; on which some lay a particidar accent or stress of the voice, in 
reading a hexameter verse thus composed: whence they call it th» 
C4B8ural ptttise : as, 

Tityre» dam rede-0, brevia est yia, pasce capelk». Firgr< 

When the cdttura falls on a syllable naturally short, it renders it 
long: as, the last syllable offtUttts in the foregoing example. 

The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a gteeX measure depends 
on the proper disposition of the cedsunt. With^ this, a line consist- 
ing of the number of feet requisite will be little else than mere 
prose: as, 

Rom» ni(Sn¥i tSTnift impYgSr, HftnnTblQ brmis. J&nm'us. 

The ancient Bomans, ia pnxioanciog vene, paid a psrtipiikr atlamtwn to ili 
melody. They Observed riot only the qnantity and accent of the sevaifl ajrUablas^ 
but also the diflerent slops and pauses whidi the particolar turn of the veise re- 


quired. Jn modem timep we do not fully perceive the melody of Latin vem» 
oecame we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, tiie people of 
every country pronouncing it in a manner similar to their own. In reading Latin 
verM, therefore, we are directed by the same mlea which take place with respect 
to English verse, as has been before observed. 

The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words 
should be pronounced fully; and the cadence of the verse oueht onlv to be ob> 
served, so nir as it corresponds with the natural expression of tEe won». At tiM 
end of each line there should be no fall of ^e voice, unless the sens» requires it; 
but a small pause, half of that which we usually make at a comma. 


§ 72« The Pentameter verse, consists of five feet Of these the 
two first are either dactyles or spondees : the third, always a spondee : 
and the fourth and fifth, an anapestos : as, 






Nlt^ f re sequY- 1 tiir se- 1 mKha quTs* | que sus. Propert, 
C&rmmir- 1 biis vi- 1 ves tern- 1 pin in Gm- 1 ne me&. Cmd, 

Obs. 1. But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticktf 
or halves: the fiurmer of which consists of two feet, either dactyles or 
■poodees, and a cesura : the latter, always of two dactyles and another 
casttra: thus, 

Nfttu- 1 r» sequY- 1 tar | sSmYnS | quisque su- 1 as. 
CbrraXnY- 1 bus vi- 1 vSs ) tCmpus m ) 5mne me- 1 Ts. 

The Pentameter usually ends with a dissyUshle, but sometimes also 
with a polysyllable. 


§ 73« The Tetrameter a Posteriore consists of the last four feet 
of an Hexameter: as, 

CSrCus e- 1 nim prO | misft A- ( pGllS. Hor. 


§ 74« The Trimeter CaUdectic cansisls of two dactyles and a 
semi-foot or cataleetic syllable : as, 

Arb5r¥- [ bnsquS c5- 1 me. Hor. 


§ 75« The Adonic verse consists of two feet, the first a dactyle» 
the other a spondee : as, 

VisSrS I muDtes. Hor» 

Obs. The Adonic is usually joined to the Sapphic or TVochaic Pen- 
tmmeter [No. 11.] In odes, one Adonic is annexed to three Sapphics to 
form the stanza. 

MFmsST itiUM ep yiism» 



§ 76« Iambic Tcnnes take tbekr name from the bmboi» which, in 
wire lambicB, was the only foot admitted. They are divided into two 
kinds. The one consists dffour feet, and is called by a Greek name 
Dimeter (a word meaning ' two measures ;*) the other consists of six 
feet, and is called Trimeter C six measures.') The reasm of these 
names is, that among the Greeks two feet were considered only as one 
measure in Iambic verse ; whereas the Latins measured it Iqr single 
feet, and therefore called the ]!)imeter quatemariusy and the Trimeler, 

§ 77« The Trimeter Iambic oonsists. of three measures, or az 
feet, properly all Iambic ; the ctceura commonly falling on the fifth 
aemi-foot: as, 

Fhis6- 1 1» n- 1 lo qo&n I vlfde- 1 t)ii has- 1 pSrtii. OdMuM. 

Obs. But the pure Iambic was rarely used, and the Spondee was 
allowed to take the place of the Iambus in the first, third and fifUi ela- 
lioQib ^ the pofpoee of giving to the veiae a gvester degree of weight 
«nd dignity* A further liberty was taken in the &at, third «id fiM 
places, that of dividing one long syllable into two^ short 
scale of the mixed Trvneter Iambic is as follows i — 





§ 78« The Cataleaic Trimeter m the eommon Trimeter [Na 6} 
wanting the final syllable ; that is, it consists of five feet, properly all 
ianshi, foib«red by a Cataleetic syllable ; as, 

Wclr I tus &t- 1 que nOn | v5 c&- 1 tus ao- 1 dYt ffor. 

Like the common Trimeter it admits a Spondee in the first and third 
places, but not in the fifth, which would render the verse too heavy 
and prosaic^ 


§ 70« The Dimeter Iambic oonsists of two measures, or four feet, 
properly all Iambi ; as, 

PSruo- I xlt hlic | la- } aSnem. Hor. 
But it admits the same variations in the odd feet as the Trimeter. 


§ 80« The Dimeter Hypermeler^ called also ArcAiktdltan» if the 
Iambic Dimeter [Na 8] witfi an additiootl syllable at the «id ; as, 

Reds- 1 g¥t &d I verus | t%no- 1 res. Hor. 

Horace makes firequent use of this metre in conjunction with the Al- 
QUie [No. 19] having ahMiy$ the third foot a spondee. 


k S^l* The AeejAaltis Dimeter is the Dimeter Iambic [No. 9] 
wanting the fint Bjltahle ; a% 

NuQ I ebor | niqueaa- 1 rSum. ffor. 

Na 11. SAPPHIC. 

§ 8S« The Sapphic verse (so called ftom the poetess Sappho, who 
invented it) consists of five feet, namely a Trochee, a Spondee, a I>eu> 
tyle and two more Trochees; as, •'' 

Deflu- 1 it sax- 1 ui ag¥- J t&tus | humor. Hor, 

Of Itffee taeh vnseB with the addition of one Adonie [Na 5] tiappho 
composed her stanza, in which practice she was followed by CatoUus, 
HiMee and o^eis. 



§ 83« The Choriambic Pentameter consists of a Spondee, thret 
Choriambi, and an Iambus ; as, 

Tu ne I qufteelSriB | scire nefSs | quSm mlhT quSm | tifbl. Hor. 


§ 84:« This species of verse consists of three Choriambi, and a 
Bacchitts (i. e. an Iambus and a lon|^ syllable) ; as, 

JfiJM patSr, I J&ne tuens, ( dive Wcepe | bKfurmif. iSep. Ser. ' 

Oha Heraoe made an alteration, but certainly not an hnprovenent, 
in this tan of v^m, by substituting a Spondee, mstead of the lambm 
in the first measure ; as, 

TS de-df &• I iG» flfhSrin ) ofir prSpeifii | amindo, 

which most be cenaidered asi a lame Cherian^ia Tetimmeler. 


185« The Asdmadic Tetrameter (so called firom the poet Ascle- 
piades) consists of a Spondee, two Choriambi, and an Iambus ; as, 

Msce- 1 nas atavu | edYte re- 1 gibiu. Hor. 

MO DivmuiirF Ktms of tsris. 

Obs. Ai the c^iyra takes place at the end of the first ChmiaailUM, 
tills metre may be scamied as a Dactylic Pentameter, wanting the ktet 
syllable; thus, 

BOe 09- 1 nis &t&- 1 Tit I edYle } rtgi[b^ 


§ 80« The Glyconic vene (so called fiom the poet Qlpeo) cqtmists 
of a Spondee, a Choriambos, and an Iambus ; as, 

Sic t5 I dlT& pStSnt I Cfpn. Mor. 

Obs. 1. The first foot was sometimes an Iambus or a Trochee. Ho- 
race, however, who was very fi>nd of the Glyconic, and has oftett eni« 
ployed it, invariably adheres to the Spondee, except in one solitary 
mstance; viz. 

IjgnU I Iliacas | domoi. Od. 1, 13, 96. 

Obs. 2. This species of verse, when it has a Spondee in the first 
place, might be scanned as a Dactylic Trimeter ; thus, *' 

Mitt>itedttoe|jAHer!c Bar. 
Grato I Pyrrtia sub ) antru. Hor. 


§ 87« The Pherecratic verse (so called fix)m the poet Pherecrates,} 
is the Glyconic [Na 15] deprived of its final syllable. It consists dT a 
Spondee, a Choriambus, and a Catalectic syllable; as, 

Grfttu i Pynh& sub in- 1 tru. Her, 

Or it might be divided into a Spondee, a Dactyle and Spondee. 
Bee 88b 


§ 88« The Choriambic Dimeter consists of a Choriambus and a 
Bacchius; as, 

. Lydm die I per SmiifiB. Hot» 


. Ionic verses are of two kinds, the Iomcub M^fer and the hmau 
JIfffior, so denominated fix>m the feet of which they are respectively 


§ 80« The Jontc a Minore is entirely composed of that foot or 
measure called the Ionic a minore, which consists of two short [a 
F^rrhie] and two long [a Spondee,] as, D6e&is9ent It is not confined 
to any particular number of feet or measures, but may be extended to 1 
any length, provided only that, with due attention to Synapbeia [101] 
the final syllable of the Spondee in each measure, be either naturally ' 
long, or made long by the concourse of consonants, and that each len- 

Vpm^ or period tiormal^ with % eonptote meoaiiM» Immag theSpoa- 
^ fi>r ita close. Horace^s Ode 12, Bock 3, may bo divided ioto linei 
of four Ionics each ; as, 

Afliseranui £st | neqiw SmSri I £M ludum, | nSque dalci. 


^ 90« The Greater Alcaic consists of an Iambic measure (that is, 
two feet properly both Iambi) and a long Catalectic syllable, followed 
by a Chonambus and Iambus; as, 

Vtdes I ut ai- 1 ta. I stet nlfve can- 1 dMam. Hor. 

But the first foot of the Iambic portion is, of course, alterable to a 

Obs. The Alcaic is sometimes scanned so as to make two Dactylee 
of tiie latter co2bn ; thus, 

Vides i ut al* I ta I stet ntve | cand^fdum. 


§ 91« The Arckilochian Heptameter consists of two members; 
the first contains four feet from tne begiming of the Hexameter--- -the 
fourth being always a Dactyle — ^the latter portion consists of three Tro- 
chees; thus, 

SolvYtur 1 &ci¥8 hl^ | ems gra* | ta vice | ve^ | et Fa- 1 vuni. Hmr» 



§ 02« The Lesser Alcaic consists of two Dactyles followed by 
two Trochees; as, 

LSvia I p^nvSnu- 1 M | AxS. Hor. 


The several changes made upon words, to adapt them to the vesse» 
are called Figures in Scanning. The chief of these are the Syna- 
Usfha^ EicthlipsiSf Synterisis, Duerisis^ Systele^ and DtasKAe. 

h 93« Synaloepha is the cutting off of a vowel or diphthong, 
when the next word begins with a vowel; as, 

Cantacaere omnei» intentique ora taiebont Virg, 

to be scanned thus, 

CaitiTcu- I Sr* Sm- 1 nS" u»- 1 tinti- 1 qu' arS te- 1 nibiiit 

Obs. 1. The Synalapha is sometimes neglected : and seldom takes 
place in the interjections, d, heu^ ah, proh, v<e, vah, hei ; as, 

O pater, 6 tiomtniim> Divumqae «tema potestai. Virg. 


aM viauiMs i7x MCAmnxGm 

Ofai. S. Lon; ipowds woA diphthoon whea not «ot ofl^ aro some» 
times flhortened ; as, 

Inrals lonio in magno, quas dim Celsno. Vhrg, 
Credimiw ? ao, 911! amant, ipai nbi somiua fiagunt Ji2. 
Victor apud rapidam Simoenta sub Ilio alto. Id. 
Ter nint oooaU impooero Pelio Obhuii. Jd. 
Glauoo et PftnopeiB, et Inoo Melicerte. U. 

§ 94« EcTHUJPsis is the cutting off of m, with the vowel before 
it, in the end of a word, because the following word begins wit)i a 
vowel; as, 

O cares hominum ! O quantum est in r^bi» inane ! Pert. 


O cii- 1 rts h5m¥- 1 n% 5 quan- 1 1' est In | rebus Yn- 1 an6. * 

Obs. Sometimes the Synaloepha and Ecthlipsis are fbuad at the end 
of the verse; as, 

Stemitur inielix alieno Tuhiere, coBlumque 
Adspidt, et dulces moiiens reminiscitur Argoa*. Virg. 
Jamque iter emensi, tunes ac tecta Latinorum 
Arduaoemebantjuvenes, muiQsque Bubibant Jd* 

These verses are called Hypermetri, because a syllable remains to 
be carried to the beginning of the next line ; thus, qu^ Ad9pU^ : r' 

§ 05« Stnjbresis is the omtraction of two syllables into one, 
which is likewise called CrasU ; as. Photon for Phaeton, So el in 
T%e<et, OrpJieif deinde, Pompei : u% in huic, cut : oi in proinde : ed 
in aured: thus, 

Notns amor Fhsdia, nota est iniuria Thesei. Ovid* 
Proinde tona eloquio, solitum ttbi — Virg. 

Filius huic contra, torquet qui sidera mundi. Id, 

AurelL percussom Yirg&, versumque yenenis. Id. 

So in anUhaCf eadem^ahearia^ deest^ deint^ vehhnens^ anteit^ fiddtm^ 
aheo, graveolentis, omnia, semianimis, semihOmOj Jlwnorum, toti%9^ 
promontoriumj &c, as, 

Unit e&demque vi^ sancpis animusque seouuntur. Vtrg- 

Seu lento fuerint alveana vimine texta. Id. 

Vilis amioorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest Hor. 
^ Divitis uber agri, Trojssque opulentia deerit ViV' 

Vehemeos et uquidus puroque simillimus amni. Hor. 

Te semper anteit dim necessitas. Alcaic. Hor. Od. 1, 35, 17. 

Uno eoaemque igni, die nostro Daphnis amore. Virg. 

Cum refluit campis, et jam se condidit alveo. Virg. 

Inde ubi ventre ad fiiuces graveolentis Avemi. li. 

ffis patrii^ cecid^re manus : quin protinus omnia. H. 

Ciemt semianimis Rutulorum calcibus arva. Id. 
.Semihominis Caci facies quam dire tenebat Id. 

F\aviorum rex Eridanus. camposque per omnes. Id. 

Magnanimosque duces totiusque ex ordine genUs. Id. 

Inde legit Capreas, proroontohuraque Minerve. Owd. 

l^iot^BB OF DionaH. 9BB 

Obd. To this fignre mty be roftirred the changing^ of i aod « into j 
and V, or pronouncing them in the same syllable with the foUowiog 
Yowel ; as, in genva^ tenvis^ arjitat^ temna^ abjetet pitMa^ paryetUmSf 
Nasidjenus ; vx genua, tenuis, &c. as, 

Propterea quia corpus aqua naturaque tenvis. Jmct, 
Genva labant, gelido concrevit fcigore sanguis. Virg. 
Aijetat in portas et duros objice postes. la. 
Velleraque ut fiiliis depectant tenvia Seres. Id. 
.fidificant, sect&que intexunt abjete costas. Id. 
Pnecipad sanus, nisi cum pitvita molesta est Her. 
Farjetibusque premunt arctis, et quatuor addunt, Vvrg. 
Ut Nac^eni juvit te ooeoa beati ? J^. 

§ 90« Di.fiRE8i8 divides one syllable into two ; as, aulat, ft>r auhB : 
TrouB, for Troj<B : Perseus, for Perseus : miluuSf for milvus : soluU, 
for solvit : voluit, for volvii : aqme, suetus, suasit, Suevos, rehtnguU, 
rehqtUts, for aqu4B, suetus, &c.; aa, 

Aulai' in medio Ubabant pocula Bacchi. Vtr^. 
Stamina non ulli dissoliienda Deo. Pentam TibuUus. 
Debuerant fuses evoliiisse soos. Id. Ovid. 
Quae calidum fiiciunt aau» tactum atque vaporem. Lucr. 
Cum mihi non tantum luresque feraaque siietae. Hor. 
Atque alios alii inrident, Veneremque siiadent Lucr. 
Fundat ab eztremo flavos Aquifone Siievos. Lucan. 
IrapositDfratrimohbundarejiEUigiiitore. Ovid. 
Reliquas tamen esse vias in mente patenteis. Laicr. 

§ 07« BnrroLE makes a long syllable short; ai» the penult in tviU- 
runt; thus, 

Matri longa decern tulerant fistidia menses. Virg. £. 4. 61. 

§ 98« Diastole makes a short syllable long; aa, the last syllable 
of amor in the following verse : 

Cooudant, si tantus amOr, et moenia condant. Vii^. JE. 11, 323. 

To the above may be added the following, which, though chiefly used 
by the poets, often ocT;ur in prose ; and are called 


§ 09« 1' Stnapbeia is the connexion or linking of verses together, 
BO as to make them mn on in continuation, as if the matter were not 
divided into separate verses. This figure obtains chiefly in the /onte 
a minore measure. ^* 

2. Prosthesis prefixes a letter or syllable; as, gnatus for natus, te- 
tuli for ^t. This figure is of frequent occurrence in Greek. Fiom 
ft^od^aif, ' an addition,* compounded of re^, * before,* and ti^fu, ' to put* 
or * place.' 

3. Epentkesis is the insertion of a letter or syllable into the body 
of the word ; as, seditio, redeo, to avoid the unpleasant hiatus in se4Ho, 


•r, ' in,* ti^iifiu, * to place,* or * insert' 

4. Paragoge adds a letter or syllable to the end; as, amarier^ fort 
amdri; avdirier for audiri. FVom rtapofyuyf^j *an extension,* ftopiMyc^ 
• to extend? 

5. ApluBresis cuts off the first letter or syllable of a word ; as, nahts 
Hat gnaUu ; tendirant fox tetendirmU, From o^acfMcrK, ' a retrench- 
ment,' which is compounded df cwco, * from,' and olptM, * to take.' 

6. Syncope strikes out a letter or syllable from the middle of a word ; 
as, jamdsse for amavitse; opra for opira. From MywM^, (^mt and 
xotttui) *an abridgement' 

7. ApocOpe cuts off the final letter or syllable of a word ; as, meiL* 
fi>r mene; viden* for videsne» From aatweottfi, 'a rescission:' o«vo^ 
xofttuif * to cut off.' 

8. Metathesis changes the order of letters in a word ; as, pistris for 
prutU. From lutuS^^^ 'a transposition.* 

0. AfiHthesis substitutes one letter for another ; as, GUi for JUi ; 
voUis for wdtU. From wn, ' in stead of,' ' in place of,* and 'ttBu^iu^ * to 
put,' or ' place.' 


V 100« Any work compoMd in vene jb called a Poem (Poema or Carmen.} 

hieam are called by various naraee, from tkeir BDfa|eet, their fbrin, tfas «laAiier 

of treating the sulgect, and tfieir Btyle. 

Obs. 1. A poem on the ceiebretioa of a marriage is called an Epithai«4miuh; 
on a moumnil subject, an Elegy or Lamentation ; in praise of ibe Supreme 
Being, a Htmn ; in praise of any person or thing, a Panegyric or Encomium ; on 
Hm Tioes of any one^ a Satae or iNyECTiYx; a poem to be Joseribed on a t«nb^ 
an Epitaph, &c. 

Obs. 2. A short poem, adapted to the Ijrre or harp, is called an Odk, whence 
each compositions are called Lyric poems; a poem in the form of a letter is «died 
an EpistIjB; a shwt, witty poem, playing on the &ncies or conceits which arise 
from any subject, is called an Epigram ; as those of Catullus and AfertiaL A 
sharp, unexpected, lively turn of wit, in the end of an epi^m, is called its PomL 
A poem expressing the moral of any device or picture, is called an Emblem. A 
poem containing an obscure question to be eipkdned, is called an ^Enigma or 


Obs. 3. When a ehaiacter is deseribed so that the firat lettanr of each rene, and 
iometimes the middle and final letteia, express the name of the person or thing 
described, it is called an Acrostic ; as the fi»lk>wing on our Saviour : 

I nter cuncta mieans I gniti Mera eaU I, 
E xpeUU ien^fras E tats Pheebus ut orb £; 
S ic €t8cas removet JESV8 caliginis umbru S, 
V ivifUsansque simul Y era praxordia mot V, 
S olem justituB B eseprobatessebeaUB, 

Obs. 4. From tbs maBoer of treating a sulgect, a poem is either Exogenic, Dm- 
mtUc, or Miased. 

• COltBtKAfKyK OP VE1I8BS 19 ^OXKd* dM 

Th« ExegeUc, where the pdtt atwsy« ipeiUtt of hinttelf, is of duee kiodi, Hie- 
torical, Didactic, or Instructive, (as the Satire or Epistle,) and Descripdva 

Obs. &. Of the DramaHc, the chief kinds are COMEDY, r^resenting the actions 
of ordioaiy life, generally with a happy issue ; and TRAGEDY, representing the 
actions and distresses of illustrious personages, ^xnnmonly with an unhappy issue ; to 
which may be added P<utoral Poems^ or Bucolics, represenbng the actions and 
pQMfftrsati(HU of shepherds; as most of the Eclogues of VirgiL 

* 'Obs. 6. The ilfiawtf kind is where the poet sometimes speaks in his own person, 
and sometimes makes other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly the EPIC 
or HEROIC poem, which treats of some one great transaction of some great, illus- 
trious person, with its various circumstances ; as the wrath of Achilles in the Itiad 
of Homer; the settlement of iSIneas in Italy in the JEwid of Virgil; the fidl of 
man in the Paradise Lott of Milton, &c. 

Obs. 7. The style of poetry, as of prose, is of three kinds, the simple, ornate, and 


§ 101« In long poems there is commonly but one kind of verse 
used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius, Horace in his Satires and Epistles, Ovid 
in his Metaidorphoses, Lucan, Silius ItalYcus, Valerius Flaccus, Juve- 
nal, &c. always use the Hexameter verse: Plautus, Terence, and 
other writers of Comedy, generally use the Iambic, and sometimes the 
Trochaic. It is chiefly in shorter poems, particularly those which are 
'called Lyric poems,, as the Odes of Horace and the Psalms of Buchanan, 
that various kinds of verse are combined. 

§ 103e A poem, which has only one kind of verse, is called by a 
Greek name, Monocolon, sc. poema or carmen ; or Monocolos, sc. ode ; 
that which has 'two kinds, DicdLOiv; and that which has three kinds 
of verse, Tjucolon. 

§ 103e If the same sort of verse return after the second line, it is 
called DicoLON DiemtdPHON ;'*' as when a single Pentameter is al- 
ternately placed after an Hexameter ; which is named Elegiac ver$e, 
(carmen Eleg^&cum,) because it was first applied to moumftil sub- 
jects; thus, 

Flebilis indignos, Elegeia, solve ca]Hllos ; 
Ah I nimis ex veio, nunc tihi nomea eht Ovid. 

This kind of verse is used by Ovid in all his other works except 
the Metamorphoses ; and also for the most part by TibuUus, Proper- 
tius, 6lc, 

§ 104:e When a poem consists of two kinds of verse, and after 
three lines returns to the first, it is called Dioolon TBisrrRSpHoii ; 
when after four lines, Dioolon TETRASTRdPHON ; as, 

* A Strophe or Stanta indildes as many lines as are necessaiy to show all the 
di^rent kmds of measure in an ode. It is called Strophe, which m Greek literally 
means a turning, because at the end of it, you turn back to ^e same kind erf* verse 
with which you began. 



Annam ^niK^iiia oMdioeriftile» 

DUigit, totufl carat obioleti 
Soraibufl tecti ; caret inTidend& 

Sobrins^ttUt. iktruL 

§ 105« When a poem consists of three kinds of verse» aad after 

three lines always returns to the first, it is called TBtodioR Trnmrtuf^ 

PHON ; but if it returns after four lines, it is called TaicdLoir TnntA»- 

TRdPHoir ; as, when after two {greater dactylic Alcaic verses sjre «ib- 

joined an Archilochian iambic and a lesser dactylic Akaic^ whicb ia 

■amed Carmen Horaliimtm, or Horatian verse, because H is fteqnen^y 

used by Horace ; thus, 

Virtus reclttdens immeritii mori 
Coelam, negatft teotat iter vift ; 
CoBtuaqoe viilgares, et udam 
Spemit humum fugiente peimft. 



§ 108» The different species of metre used by Horace, in hie 
Lyric compositions, are twenty ; and the various forms in which he has 
employed these metres, either separate or in conjunetic», are fWMteen. 


§ 107* I. Two greater Alcaics, [No. 19,*] one Archilochian Iam- 
bic Dimeter Hypermeter, [No. 9,} and one Lesser Alcaic, [Na 21,] as, 

O m&tre pulcfaA fnY& pulchrilSr, 
Qaem cnmYnuBis cumque voles mSdum 
Punes y&mbis, mre nkmin&, 
SIyS mari llfbet adrlanO. lib. 1. 1& 

This appears to be his favourite form, as we find it in ihirt^-ievet^ 
of his odes. Thence it is often called the Horatian Stanza, 


§ 108« 11. The combination next in favour with Horace, was the 
following— three Sapphics, [No. 11,] and one Adonic, [Na 6,] ttt which 
form he composed twerUy^tix odes: e. g. 

J&m dltifl tSrrts nYvfs fttqiiJS dlise 
Grandlhis misTt pater, et, rubente 
D§xter& sacris jacul&ttifl iLrces, 
Terruft nrbem. lib. 1. S. 


§ 109« m One Glyconic, [No. 15,] and one Asclepjadie, [No. 
14,] which combination occurs in twelve odes^ thus, 

Stc « DTvK pSient Cfan, 
Sic fratres HSlenae, lacia& itdenu lib. 1. 3. 

* ThflM nviBbwB refer to the different kindi of yerw on paffes 395, 896, 897, 896. 
899. 900, and 301. *^* ^^ 



§ 110« IV. One Iambic Trimeter, [Na 6,] and one Iambic Dime- 
ter, [No. 8,] in which form we see thi of his Epodes. 

Ibii LYbdmM intSr ftlt& n&v¥uin, 
Anuce prOpugnftcula. £pod. 9. 


§ 111* V. Three Asclepiadics, [No. 14,] and one Glycomc, [Na 
.15»} in nine odeci : e. g. 

Scnbirls V&rfo iurtis, et hOstYum 
Victor, MoeonH carmfolto ftl{d 
Qa&m rem coin^ue ferOx ii&Tn>us aot Sqiik 
Miles, te duce, gesseriu Lib. 1. 6. 


§ 113« VI. Two Aaclepiadics, [No. 14,] one Pbeiecratic, [Na 16,] 
and one Glyconic, [No. 15,] seven odea. 

Kabn&m, tener&e dIcYte, virgTnes : 
Intunsum, piieri, dicYte CyntfaYom, 
L&tunftmqoe supremo - 
Dllect&m penYtus Jovi. Lib. 1. 2L 

§ 113« Vn. The Asclepiadic, [Na H^] three odes : tbns, 
M&ecenea idlTis Sdite rtgYbuB. libiLL 


§ 11 4:« VIII. One Dactylic Hexameter, [No. 1,] and one Dactylic 
Tetrameter a posterwre, [No. 8,] three odes : thoe, 

LaidSbant ftllYi claram Rhodon, sat MYtylflnem, 
Ait Epliesum, bim&risve Corinthi. Lib. 1. 7. 


§ 115« IX. The Choriambic Pentameter, [Na 12,] used alone in 
three odes : thus, 

Tu oS quftesYeris, scirS nSfSs, quem mlhX qaCm tfbi. lib. 1. 11. 


^ 116« X. One Hexameter, [No. 1,] and one Iambic Dimeter, 
[No. 8,] ftoo odes : as, 

NOx erat, et c&elu fulgebat luna sercno 
IntSr mYnOra sidera. Epod. 15. 


§ 1 1 7«' XL The Iambic Trimeter, [Na 6,] onmixed with any 
other species of verse, ttoo epodes : thus, 

QaYd iSlHeiUtit aaribtts fundls preces ? £pod. 18. 



§ 118« Xn. One Choriambkc Dimeter, [Na 17 J and one Chori- 
~ ic Tetnmeier, [No. 13,] one ode : 

JMVit die, per Gaaom 
TB De 6t Qro, S^b&rin cur properei amindo. libi 1. 8. 


§ no* XnL One Hexameter, [Na 1,] and one Iambic Trlmetet, 
[Na 6f] one epode. 

AltsrK jtm terftor bSlli* clviUbw etai 

Sum et ipia Ruin& vMbus ruit. £pod. 16. 


^ 120« XIV. One Hexameter, [Na 1,] and one Dactylic Trime- 
ter, Catalectic, [Na 4,] one ode. 

Difiuggre nlfves : redeant jam gramYidL c&mpiib 
Arborifboaqae comae. Lib. 4. 7. 


^131« XV. One Hexameter, [No. 1,] one Iambic Dimeter, [No. 
8»] and one Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, [Na 4,] one epode. 

Horrlid& tiinpSstis coslam cOntraxlt, «t imbrw 
NIvSfl que deducunt Jovem: 
Nanc m&re, nunc riCliuB. Epod. 13. 


4 122« XVL One Iambic Trimeter, [Na 6,] one Dactylic Trime- 
ter Catalectic, [Na 4,] and one Iambic Dimeter [No. 8,] only once uaed. 

Petti nXhll me, siciit antea, juvat 

Scribere versTciiloe, 
AmOre pgrculsum gravi. Epod. 11. 


^123« XVn. One Archilochian Heptameter, [No. 20,] and one 
Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, [Na 7,] a single example. 

SOlvYtiir &crliB hYems grilta vYoe TSrfe, §t FavGni, 
TriLhuntque bTccSb machYnae c&rinaB. lib. 1. 4. 


^ 124« XVm. One Iambic Dimeter Acephalus, [Na 10,1 aQ^ one 
Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, [No. 7,] one ode. 

N5n ebur, neque aareum 
Me& renidet in a5mO lacunar. Lib. 2. 18. 

ntvmx TO THS oinss of hobaoi^ 


^ 125« XIX. The Ionic a miiwre [No. 18,J in one instance only. 
Miberamm est neque amori dare ludum, nequS dulcl. lib. 3. 12. 


Enmnana thk fikst vtowos of each, with uorERXNCis to thk mMCMSxata 
vmamst acooroino to trs kzamplbs under whioh thky ark scAimxzK 

iEaivetusto 107 

ifSnnam memento ... 107 

Aln ne doleas Ill 

Altera jam teritur . . . 1 19 
Aogustamamici .... 107 

AtOdeonim 110 

Audivfire Lyce ..... 112 
Bacdimn in remotis . 107 

Beatosille 110 

Ccelo Buirinas 107 

Celo tonantem 107 

CumtuLydia 109 

Cor me querelis .... 107 
Pelicta majorum • . •• 107 

Descende ccelo 107 

Dianam toner» 112 

Diffugdre nives 120 

Dive qaem proles . . . 106 

DIvH orte bonia Ill 

DiMMurvm patofaa . . . • 113 
Donee gratoB eram . . 109 

£heafuj;aces 107 

£8t mihi nonum .... 106 
Et thore et fidibus .. 109 
Ezegi monnmentom . 113 
EUnranttTsiHnn.. Ill 
Fame nymphanm . . 106 
Feato cnud potiin die 109 

HercuuB ritu 106 

HoRidatempartM... 121 

Ibis Libumis 110 

Iccibeatis 107 

nieetnefasto 107 

ImpiaB parne 106 

Inciosam Danliea ... Ill 
Intactis opilentiar . . . 109 

Integer vite 106 

Intermissa Venus dia 109 

Jamjameflkad 117 

Jam pauea arafro . . . 107 
Jam satis terris 106 

Jam veris comites ... Ill 
Jttstum et tenacem . . 107 

Laudabunt alii 114 

Lapis et agnis 110 

Lyaia die per omnea. 118 

MaBcenas atavis 113 

MaUaoluta 110 

Martiisco^bs 108 

Mater ssvaCupidinum 109 
Mercuri facunde .... 106 
Mercuri namte .... 106 
Afiseraram eat ...... 125 

Molis inertia 116 

Montium custos 108 

Motum eK Metello . . 107 
Musis amicus. ...... 107 

Natis in mom 107 

Ne ibrte credas 107 

NesitanciUtt 106 

NoUakngafens «••• 111 
Nondumsubacta.... 107 
Non ebur ne^ue aur. 124 
Non semper mibres.. 107 

Non usitata 107 

Non yides quanto . . . 108 

Noxevat 116 

Nnllam Vare sacia. . 115 

NuUuB amnto 108 

Nunc est bibendum . 107 
O cmdelis adhuno .. 115 
O Diya gratum ..... 107 
OfbnsBlandusi» ... 112 
O matre pulchr& . . . 107 

Onatamecum 107 

O navis referent 112 

Osnpemecum 107 

O Venus regina 106 

Odi profimum 107 

OtiumDivos 106 

PRrcius Junctas 106 

FsrcusDeorum 107 

PRrentis olim 110 

Ptatorqaum tnh.., . Ill 

Pendcos odi puer .... 108 

Petti nihil me 129 

FhoBbeySilTanimque. 108 

Phffibus volentem . . . 107 

Pindanmiqnisqms .« 109 

Posdmursiquia..... 106 

Quie cura patrum . . . 107 

QaalemramisCrum .. Wl 

Quando repoatum . . . 110 

Quantum distetab In. 109 

Quern ta Meipomeae 109 

Quern virum aut bar. 108 

Quid beiUooBus .. .. . 101 

Quid dedieatora .... 107 

Quid fles Astoria.... 112 

Quid immerentes .... 110 

Quidobseratii 117 

Qvidtibivis 114 

Quis desideiio, Ill 

QuismultagnciUa.. U2 

QuomeBaccbe 109 

Quo, ^oo soelesti ni.. 110 

KectiusTiTeB 108 

Rogaro longo •<! 110 

ScribSrisVario Ill 

SepCimiOadea 108 

Sie te D^va potens . . 109 

SotTitaraerishiena. 128 

Te maris et tan» ... 114 

Tu ne qusBsieris .... 115 

Tynbenaregum .... 107 

Ullasi juris 108 

Uxor pauperis Ibyct • 109 

Velox amcsnum •• .. . 107 

Vldesut alta 107 

Vilepotabis 106 

Vitas binnuleo 118 

Vizipuellia ItfT 




Of Punctuation ; Capitals; Abbreviations; Division of the Roman 
Months ; TMes of Roman Coins^ Weights^ and Measures. 

The different divisions of discoarse are marked by certain oharacteis 
called PoinU, 

The points employed for this purpose are the Cbmma, Q SemtoO' 
lofi, (;) CSolon, (:) Period^ Punctum, ox full stop» (.) 

Their names are taken from the diSerent parts of the sentence whieh 
they are employed to distinguish. 

Thd Period ii a whole ientence comfilete by itselfl The Colon, or member, ia a 
chief 0(Hutnxctive part, or greater division of a senteoce. The Semicolon, or half 
member, ia a lees oontmctive part, of aabdivitioo, of a Mntence or member. The 
Comma, or segment, is the least constnictive part of a sentence, in this way of con- 
sidering it ; ^ the next sabdiviiion of a sentence woold be the resolution of it into 
Pkratee and loords. 

To these points may be added the Semiperiodt or less point, followed by a ■nail 
letter. Bat this is of^much the s^me use with the Cok», and oocnia only in Latin 

A simple sentence admits only of a fall point at the end; because its general 
meaning cannot be distinguished into parts. It is only in compound sentences that 
all the cuflerent paints are to be found. 

PoinlB likewise express the diflerent pauses which should be observed in a just 
monunciation of discouise. The precise duration of each pause, or note, cannot be 
defined. It varies acooiding to the difiefent subjects of discouise, and the diftittrt 
tuns of human passion and thouaht. The period requires a pause in dnndtfon 
double of the conn; the colon double of the semicolan; and Ihe semiodtfn doubto 
of the comma* 

There are other pointi, which, together with a certain paase, also denote a dil^ 
ferent modolaticHi of the voice in correspondence with the sense. These are the 
Inlerroeation point (7), the Exdamation or Admiration jioint (!), and the Poros* 
thene (). The first two generally mark an elevation or the voice, and a pause 
equal to that of a semicolon, a colon, or a period, as the sense requires. The Pa- 
tentheeis usually requires a moderate depression of the voice, wiUi the pause some- 
what greater tlum a comma. But these rules are liable to many exceptions. The 
modiiuition of the voice in reading, and the various pauses, must always be regulat- 
ed by the sense. 

Besides the points, there are several other marlu made use of in books, to denote 
references and diflerent distinctions, or to point out somethiiw remarkable or de- 
fective, &c. These are the Apostrophe C); AtteriOt (*); Hyphen (-); Obelidi (t) ; 
DouhU Obdiik (t); Parallel Line8 0\); Paragnqth {^ ) ; Section (^); Quotation 
(«"); Crotdlets[]; Brace (i); EUipeit (.,. or—); Ginrf ( a ) ; whidi last if «Jy 
used in wnting. 


Referenoei aie oflen marked by letten and figurat. 

CapLtala, or larger letters, are ased at the begiamng of aentencea, of Tenea, and 
of proper names. Some oae them at the be^nning of eyery substantive noun. 
Adjectives, verbs, and other part^of speech, pnless they be emphatical, commonly 
begin with a small letter. 

Capitals, with a point after them, are often pat for whole words ; thai, A. marka 
Aldus, C. Caiut, D. Dedus, or Dedtmus, L. Lucius, M. Marcus, P. PuibUus, ^ 
QutfUus, or Qtancfivs, T. TUus, So F. stands for FUius, and N. ibr Nepos ; as, At 
F. Mvrci FiUus, M* N. Marci Nepos. In like manner P. C. marks Patrcs Conscripd f 
8. C. Sena^us ConsuUum ; P. R. Populius RomBnus ; S. P. Q. R. SenOtus, PcpvUus- 
out RemSnus; U. C. Urbs CandUa; S. P. D. Salviem plurimam dicit ; D. D. D. 
Duty dioam dedteai; D. D. C. Q. Dot, dical, consscraique ; H. S. written eomiptly 
for L. L. S. Sesier^us, ecmal in value to two pounds of brass and a half; the two. 
pounds being marked by L. L. lAhu, Uhra, and the half l^ S. Semis. So in modem 
Dooka A. D. marks Anno Danitm, A. M. Artium Magister, Master of Arts ; M. D. 
MsU&iim-Doelor,* LL. D. Legum Doctor; N. B. Nola Beni, &c 

Sometimes a small letter or two is added to the capital ; as, Etc. Et caUra ; Ap. 
.^ppius ; Cn. Cneius ; Op. OpUer ; Sp^ Spurius ; Ti. Tiberius ; Sex. Sexlus ; Cos. 
Consid i Coss. Consoles ; Imp. InqferSlor ; Impp. Imperatores. 

In like manner, in Enslish, Esq. Esquire ; Dr. Dihtor or Doctor ; Acct AccoiuM ; 
M& Mcmuscript ; AffiS. Itonuscnpts ; Do. DiUo ; Rt Hon. Right HonouraUe, &c. 

•Small letten are likewise often put as abbreviations of a word ; tm, i. 9. id est ; 
h. e. hoc est, that is ; e. g. exempli graJtik, for example ; v. g. verhi gratis. 



Tlie Romans divided their months into three parts, by fKaUnds, Nones, and Ides. 
The fint day of every month waa called the Kalends: the fifth day waa called the 
Nones: and the thirteenth day was called the Ides: except in the months of March, 
May, July, and October, in which the nones fell upon the seventh day, and the idea 
on the fifteenth. 

In reckoning the days of their months, they counted backwards. Thus, the first 
dajr of January was marked Kdendis Januariis or Januarii, or, by oontraction, 
XaL Jan. The last day of December, Pridie Kalendas Januarias, or Januariif 
acil. ante. The day before that, or the 90th day of December, Tertio Kal. Jan. acil. 
die ante : or Arde diem iertium Kal. Jan. The twenty-ninth day o£ December, 
iiuario KaL Jan, And so on, till they came back to the thirteenth day of Decem- 
ber, or to the ides, which were marked Idibus Decembrtbus, or Deeembris: the day 
before the ides, Pridie Idus Dec. scil. ante: the day before that, Tertio Id. Dec. and 
so back to the nones, or the fifth day of the month, which was marked Nome 
Decembi^Ums, or Deeembris: the day before the nones, Pridie Non. Da:. &c. and 
tfius through all the months of the year. 

*Two capitala in this way denote the plural number; as, L. D. Legis Doctor : 
liL. D. Legum Doctor. 

t Kalends, or Calends, is derived from Ckdo, -are, to call. In the Infancr of 
Rome, a priest summoned the people together in the Ca|Nto], on the fint day of the 
month, or of the new moon, and call^ over the daya that intervened between 
that and the Nones. In later times the Fa^i, or Calendar, uaed to be put up in 
public j^ces. 

The Nones [Nona] are so called, because they are nine days finom the Ides. 
Ides [Idus] ftiora the obsolete verb Iduare, to divide, because they divide the month 
nearly equally. 



Jiniiii% Aimiufl, SBnsN9H% NaTa«|M 
Unum plus reliaui ; Fkseuus tenet octo vigmti ; 
At n fauwztui tdmH. luperadditar lUii». 
To phmam iiieiM im lucem die e«e kalendas. 
8ez Mah», doom Octtobbe, Juuus, et NUbb, 
Quator at leliqui ; dabitidua quilibet octa 
Omnea post idua l^cea die e«e kalandai^ 
N<Hnen aortiii debe&t a mense aequenti. 

Tkaa, die 14th day of Aprils Jvne, Seplember, and November, vnB mailed XVUl. 
KaL of the following month ; the 15(h, XVII. KaL &c. The 14fh day ci January, 
AvguM, tod December, XIX. Kal. &c So the 16th day of March, May, Jidv, and 
(ktelber, vn» raaffced XVII. Kal. Ac. And the 14tfa day of Febmaiy, XVI BCaU 
Martii or Martiaa. The Damea of all the moothB are osed ai SubatantiTea or Ad- 
jaetivai» ezoapt ApnUe, which ia need only aa a Siifaatantive. 

In Xa9> year, that ia, when Febroaiy has twenty-nuiie days, which happeaa ewery^ 
fborth year, both the 24th and the 25th daya or that month were manad, iScsflo 
Kalendae MartU, or MartUu : and hence this year is called BitaexGUe. 
































ante Idus. 

ie Idas. 














in _ 

Prid. Calend. of 
the ibi. month. 

' (kmm «bo 91 daift.) 


IV > ante 
ni y Nonas. 
Pridie Nonas 



Pndie Idas. 
















Prid. Calend. of 
the fibl. month. 




IV? ante 
\Xi\ Nonas. 
Pridie Nonas 




Pndie Idus. 













VI 5 

V S 

IV p- 


Prid. Calend. of 
the fol. month. 

*"^^J'^V ■ 

IV) ante 
III t Nonaa. 
Pridie No 

^ iaateUiiB. 


Pridie Mas. 










Prid. Calend. 

AOMAll tblVB. 813 

The Roman maBMr of «Nmtiog fion a civenpouilindadai that point Thin, 
the tfaiid befinre the Nonea, that ia helbfe the BSU^pf the month, is not the leoond, 
as we should say, but the thiid. Bat if the paudk from which the reckoning is to 
be made, is the fiist of the following month, that is, the Calends, it is not enough to 
bring into oomputatioo the number of daya of the cunent month, but the Cafends 
must aiao be iMaided in the sabtraetioB; that isL the number of days of the ourrent 
month muBt belncreaaisd by ftoD ftir die minuettd fiance flie Iblldwteg 

RnuB. Add one to the number of the Noaei and Ides, and two to the numbet 
of days in the month for the Calends, and ttien snbtract the number of the day. 
thus, to find the Rattum ^Bie of the Slat of Jttly, Whtoh his 31 days, add 2=»^ 
and fiom this take 31, and the remainder is 12: hence the Roman date of the 21st 
«f July is 12th Cd. Attg. 


1. The Romans reckoned thehr Gk>ld tnoney hy Cheek TalenU^ theit 
Bilver money by Denarii^ and their Copper mooey ^ A$$e$. 

2. The OB was originally a pound of cppper» but varied very much 
in its weight in ditferent ages. Hie Ihnaritu was the Greek DncluM, 
origiBally equal in vake to ten «mm, or about 15 cents of our money. 
The Mettertius was one fourth of this, or two hetes &&d ft half (lemt»- 
tertius), and Wad h^nce den6ted bjr II S, or H S. The iegtertiui was 
called emphatically nummuM^ as alllaife sums were reckoned in it» 
after the cdning 4« silver aioBey. 

8. The neuter, s e tte r tium ^ whidi denoted a ttmi and not a coin» was 
equal to a thousand sestertii 

4. In reckoning by a$8es, as the Romans carried their numbers only 
to cerUena miUia (100,000)» (tnd formed higher numbers by adverbs, 
the words cejttena nnXlia came to be left out, and only the numeral 
adverbs, decie», vicies,^LC used» with which centena mUlia is to 
be supplied. Itas deciea €Bri$ was deeies ceniena mUlia ostium 

& In reckoning hy seiterces th^ neuter noun seMtertium was jomed 
with the numend adverb, in the case required by the construction. 
Thus decies MeatertmmwBm decies tteniena miiUm muftmiiorufn (gen. 
plur^ of 8e8tertiu$X a million of seitertii. The adverb often stood alpne ; 
thus, decie$, vieiet. There were, therefore, three ibrm% c&refully to 
be dittinguished fiom each other: r—L. the settertiut joined with the 
carduuil numbers, denoting a single nummus a e Hert im .*— 2. the aevf«r- 
tium Joined in the ^und with oidfaials, denoting 00 many thousandi of 
the nttniM» fesferfn;— 3. the sestertium^ joiuM in the singular only 
with numeral adverbs, denoting so many luindred seMtertia^ or hundred 
thotiSimdMferfti. These tfame eomMnatkDS were distingo^ed hi wttt- 
in g,th ufl ; HS. X. was defsem nonvEm; HS. %, decern anrnsBTu; and 
HS.JL decies stsrAiitivK. But this distinction wae not always obeetved» 
if our present MSS. of the classics are correct 








1. MKUunthdomikBfoOL {Umi: Pei^llAi9iack.) 








































.. 1 

.. 9 

.. 91 
.. 919 













IDM 1 •••••••••••••••••.-•••••••. 

'r**" " •••••••*••••••••*••-•••••••• 




taM,,,,.. ...••...-••••..•••• 















































1| JLeuga.. 



100 da 

000 da 




The chief measare of extent was the Jugerom, which was equal to 
2 roods; 19 poles, add 187 feet, or about f of our acre. The other 
measures were the Sempulum, equal to 100 square feet; the Sextulus, 
equal to 4 Sempula; the Actus, equal to 1^ Sextulus; and the Uncia, 
equal to 6 SextulL The square Actus was equal to half a Jo^ferum. 

































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