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OF Tm 


BY C. GrZUMPT, Ph.D., 

FBorxssoH iir thb univbhsitt, and mbhbeh of the boyal academy 











' t 


. • 1 » 




















i .■.:■■■■■ ii 

V '...J 


'■\y--'- •* 


▼i author's preface 

py to hfear that ultimately the execution had been in 
trusted to Dr. L. Schmitz, who, I feel convinced, hai 
done all that can be desired, both in point of correct- 
ness and good taste. 

The Latin language is so rich and happy in its or« 
ganization, and has been so consistently developed by 
the energetic spirit of the Roman people, as well as by 
the exquisite tact of the Roman authors, that a contin- 
ued study of it is amply rewarded. It is now Upward 
of thirty years that I have been before the public as a 
writer on Latin Grammar ;* my varied studies have 
always led me back to this subject, and I may trulj^e- 
clare that, during each fresh revision of my grammar 
when J was engaged in mcorporating with my system 
the observations I had made in the mean time, and in 
considering the doubts and objections which had been 
raised in my mind, I have become more and more con- 
vinced of the inexhaustible mine of human wisdom 
which presents itself in the language of a happily-or- 
ganized nation like the Romans. I am not speaking 
here of the accidental matter contained in a grammar, ' 

nor of the accumulation of similar passages — it will 
afford far greater pleasure to the pupil to discovei for 
himself, in the authors whose works Ije is reading, pas- 
sages which confirm or illustrate the rules he has learn- 
ed — ^nor of niceties of expression, for these are curios- , 
ities rather than anything else ; but I mean real phil- 
ological discoveries and peculiarities, which arise from 
the organic structure of the language, derive their ex- 
planation from it, and, in return, throw light upon the 

* The first foundation of the present work was laid in a book which 1 
wrote for the use of my pupils under the title " Regein der Lateinischen 
Syntax, mit zwei Anhfingen uber die Grundregeln und die nach einem nenei ^ 

y«tem Keordncten unregelmfissigeR Verba," Berlht, 1814, 8vo 




whole fabric of the language itself; and the result of 
- all this is, that the general principles are better ascer- 
tained and established. It is owing to these continued 
studies that even the present translation of the ninth 
edition of my Latin Grammar has been enriched by 
tome* not unimportant improvements, which I have 
communicated in MS. to Dr. Schmit2; and it will 
henceforth be our united endeavour to remedy every 
deficiency that may yet be found. 

My Latin Grammar has met with great favour, or, 
as the phrase is, " has been a very successful book," 
as I must infer from the number of editions and cop* 
ies that have been sold ; but this success lias not weak- 

t ened my exertions in labouring Without interruption 

for its improvement. An aythor is himself rarely able 
to point out that whidi has gained for his production 
the favour of the public ; he is satisfied with being 
able to labour for the realisation of his own ideas ; a 
comparison with the works of others does not concera 

I him, nor wcmld it be becoming to him. But he can 

^ state the princijple which has guided him throughout 

his work ; and, in reference to the present grammar, 
this principle is |^o other than the desire to trace the 
facts and phenomena of the language to a philosophi- 
cal or rational source. The facts as such must first be 

i established ; and in this respect it has been my endeav- 

our to examine the- texts of the authors, and not to aU 
low myself to be misled, as has been so often the case, 
by erroneous traditions ; farther, to distmguish between 
the periods of the language, the diflferent species of lit- 
erary productions, the ancient and genuine from latei 
and affected authors, and by this means to ascertain 
that which is essential and peculiar to the purest Latic 


idiom ; but, in so doing, I have not left unnoticed those 
points which must be regarded as frequent, or other- 
wise justifiable deviations from the ordinary rulds. It 
is only those things which do not grow forth from the 
living body of the language that must be passed over 
in silence. In order to separate that which is genuine 
and ancient from what is arbitrary or recent, I have 
adopted the method of distinguishing between text and 
notes, the one being printed in large and the other in 
small type : a distinction which will, I think, be useful 
also to the teacher. Another great point which I have 
always endeavoured to keep in view has been a ration- 
al development of the rules from <Mie another. By 
this, however, I do not mean a demonstration of the 
principles of universal grammar ; that is, of those prin- 
ciples which are common to all languages. I value 
this branch of philology, as a sort of applied logic, in- 
deed, very highly ; but my opinion is, that it can be 
studied with advantage only by those who are ac- 
quainted with the languages of difierient nations, both 
civilized and uncivilized ; and I have confined my- 
self to explaining the peculiarities of the Latin lan- 
guage and its characteristic difierencjps from the mod- 
em European languages of Roman and Germanic ori- 
gin, referring only now and then to its connexiofa with 
the Ghreek. But it is my endeavour to reduce these 
peculiarities of the Latin language, to simple and pre- 
cise principles, to proceed from the simple to the com- 
plex, and to distinguish that which is in accordance 
with the rules from that which is of a mixed nature. 
What I here say refers more particularly to the syn- j 

ta?; for, in regard to etymology, it ought not to be for- ; 

gotten that the Latin language is something which hdit I 


oeen handed down to us in a given form, and which is 
to be learned in this given form. It would have been 
easy to go back to certain primitive forms which con- 
stitute the first elements in the formation of the Ian 
guagCy and thereby to explain many an irregularity in 
the mixture of forms ; but in teaching a language 
which is learned, not only for the purpose of training 
the intellect, but of using it in speaking and writing, 
the eye and memory of the pupil ought not to bo 
troubled with hypothetical or assumdd forms which 
he is expected to forget, but frequently does not forget, 
and which h^ is rather apt to take for real forms. In 
etymology, a complete analogy alone can be' of prac- 
tical use ; hence I have endeavoured to make the lis* 
of iixegular verbs and the section on the formation of 
words — ^important branches of grammar which had 
been much neglected by my predecessors — as com- 
plete as possible. In the syntax, on the other hand, it is 
right that there should be a philosophical development 
of the complex from the simple, taking that which is 
peculiarly Latin as the groundwork. This part of my 
grammar has ^isen from dictations which I made the 
basis of a course of lectures on Latin sjmtax ; and I 
still believe that this method is best suited to teach pu- 
oils — not indeed the first begiuiers, but those who 
we already made some progi^s in the understand- 
mg of Latin sentences — the whole of the Latin syn« 
tax in a manner which is at once a training of their 
intellect and their memory. Some example or other 
must be made the basis ; it must be explained and im^ 
Dressed upon the memory as a model for irritation. 
The examples given in the text of the present gram- 
mar may serve this purpose ; all have been selected 

author's preface 

with special care, and each contains a complete though 
expressed in a classical form. The teacher must cause 
his pupils to form a number of other similar sentences, 
and make the pupils translate them from the vernacu- 
lar tongue into Latin. It is desirable that such senten* 
ces snould be chosen with taste, or be carefully prepa- 
red for this purpose beforehand ; but as their object is 
only to impress the rule upon the mind of the learner, 
it is advisable to pay attention to variety of expressioc 
rather than to particular neatness or elegsmce. 

My grammar farther contains a section on the sig-. 
nification of the adverbs, prepositions, and conjunc- 
tions, which, properly speaking, does not belong to 
grammar, but to a dictionary. But it is, nevertheless, 
necessary, since the ordinary dictionaries are partly in 
correct and partly incomplete in their explanations of 
these particles, which qon tain the life and soul of a lan- 
guage, and since special books on the particles, such 
as were formerly used in schools, arc either no longer 
consulted, or do not answer the purposes for which 
they were written. The sjmtax has been enlarged by 
what is called S3mtaxis omata ; and it is strange, that 
for this part of my work I have been censured by sev- 
eral scholars, who thought it inconsistent with the 
strictly progressive a^rit of the grammar, and the phil- 
osophical development of the grammatical laws, be- 
cause the. observations which form the substance of 
the Syntaxis omata are not given as necessary princi- 
ples, but in the form of suggestions, which may be fol- 
lowed or not at discretion. But this is the very point 
which I myself have expressly stated in the introduc- 
Jioa to that part of my work where I direct attention 
fo the difl&rence between the Syntaxis regularis and 



the Syntaxis omdta. But ais those observations on 
style point out do much that is correct, ingenious, and 
peculiar to the Latin language, should they not be made 
at all because then- application is left to choice ? or 
shall we allow them to stand in a somewhat looser con- 
nexion, and arrange die different observations under 
rational and intelligible heads f Surely the latter 
course must be prefe^^d ; and I see that my critics 
have, in fact, adopted the very same method, except 
that what I have discussed in separate chapters on 
" Peculiarities in the Use of the Parts of Speech,'* on 
" Heonasm," " Ellipsis," " Arrangement of Words and 
Construction of Periods,** is treated of by them under 
the heads of first, second, and third Appendices. The 
real appendices in the present work on metres, meas 
ures and weights, calendar, dec, are of a diiBferent na- 
ture. They do not, indeed, belong to grammar ; but 
as they contain information on matters important and 
necessary for the understanding of the authors read in 
schools, and as this information is either not to be found 
elsewhere, or is not sufliciently correct, no one, I hope, 
will grudge it a {dace at the end of this grammar. 

I cannot part from the English reader without ex- 
pressing itay delight at the vigour and energy with 
which classical studies are pr6secuted in Germany and 
England* In the former country, a fresh impulse was 
given to these studies some thirty years ago, just at 
the time when the liation was on the point of losing its 
independence ; in England, the revival of classical stud* 
ies must be dated, I believe, from the time that the con- 
test between idealism and realism became settled; and 
these two branches of human knowledge have now 
arrived at a point where they recognise each other iw 



Xli author's preface to the ENGLISH TRANSLATION. 

peaceful harmony, the one exerting itself in exploring 
the treasures of nature, and the other those of mind. 
/7 Germany owes her safety to her free schools and uni- 
^Iversities, and builds her hopes upon them; England to 
the energy of her people, and to her public institutions ; 
and the two countries might with advantage exchange 
some of their excellences. In England, the.educa* 
tional establishments and teasers appear to be fet- 
tered by old traditional and conventional forms ; 
while in Germany the sublimest truths which are 
promulgated from the professorial chair die within 
the lecture-rooms of the universities, and produce 
no fruit But be the difference between the two 
countries ever so great, the characteristics of the 
educated men in both consist in their rising above 
the immediate necessities of time, place, and occupa- 
tion, and in their recognition of the connexion existing 
between the individual and the spirit of all mankind. 
Hence a knowlege of antiquity, and of what it has 
produced, is necessary to every educated person in 
proportion to the influence it has exercised upon sub- 
sequent ages ; and the study of antiquity will ever have 
the mostfsalutary effect upon man in elevating him 
above the trivial wants of ordinary life, and affording 
him the means of mental and intellectual culture. To 
those among my contemporaries who are anxious to 
obtain, these advantages, I otkr the present work as a 
means of penetrating more deeply and more easily 
into the spirit of the Roman classics and of Roman an- 
tiquity. C. G. ZUMPT. 

BerliHt February 23d, 1845. 








When the honourable task of preparing a transia* 
(ion of the ninth edition of Professor Zumpt's Latin 
Grammar had been intrusted to me by the publishers, 
the author himself most willingly consented to co-op- 
erate with me in endeavouring to present his work to 
the English public in as perfect a form as possible. His 
professional engagements in the University of Berlin 
have enabled him continually to improve the success- 
ive editions of his grammar, which has thus become 
infinitely superior to what it was when originally trans 
lated. Scarcely a year has elapsed since the publica- 
tion of the ninth edition of the original, yet the au- 
thor^s unceasing labours in this department of philolo- 
gy have enabled-him already to collect a large num- 
ber of corrections and additions for future use ; and 
all these improvements he has been kind enough to 
communicate to me in manuscript for incorporation in 
the English translation, which hence possesses consid - 
erable advantages over the German work. 

In the etymological part of the present grammar, 
some additions might haVe been made here and there 
from English sources, and some English scholars may, 
perhaps, be inclined to censure me for having neglect- 
ed to do so, since the etymology of the Latin language 
has been studied by a few scholars in this country 
more comprehensively than on the Continent. But 
ProfessSr Zumpt has abstained, on principle, from in- 
troducing into his wt)rk etymological disquisitions 
which would have led his readers beyond the imme- 
diate objects of his grammar ; and it was impossible 



for me to set aside that principle without making ma 
terial alterations in the first part of the present work, 
I may also add, that, on the whole, I coincide with the 
author's views on this point ; and even if I did not, 1 
should not think myself justified in introducing into hia 
work that which he himself has purposely excluded. 
The few points on which I have added any explanato- 
ry remarks are such as arc regarded by the author, in 
common with all other grammarians, as inexplicable 
difficulties or anomalies, although it appears to me that ' 
the language itself contains sufficient analogies for their 

When I undertook the present translation, I expect- 
ed, as was stated in the advertisement, that the Latin 
Grammar- of Professor Madvig, of Copenhagen, which 
had appeared about the same lime as the last edition 
of Professor Zumpt's work, would furnish some more 
or less important improvements, which might be ad- 
vantageously imbodied in the present translation ; but 
a comparison of the two books soon showed me that 
all the new and valuable points in Madvig's grammar 
were known to Professor Zumpt, and had received 
from him their due share of attention, Madvig having 
published his views on several grammatical questions 
in separate dissertations and elsewhere previously to 
the appearance of his grammar. 

In conclusion, I venture to express my hope that the 
present translation of a work which enjoys the highest 
reputation in Germany may contribute also in this 
country towards a more accurate knowledge of the 
language of a nation which, above all others, deserves 
to engage the attention of every well-educated Eng- 
lishman. L. S. 

London, April, 1845. 




II Of the Vowels and Consonants 
II. Of SyUables 

III. Of the Length and Shortness of S / Jables 

IV. Of the Accent of Words . 































Thb Accidence. 

Division of Words according to their Signification 

Nouns Substantive. — General Rules of Gender 


Number, Case, and Declension 

First Declension 

Greek Words in c, as, and it . . . . .37 
Gender of the Nouns of the First iJeclension . . 39 
Second Declension .:..... 39 
Greek Words of the Second Declension . . .43 
Gender of the Nouns of the Second Declension . 45 
Tkird Declension. — Genitive . .46 

The remaining Cases of the Third Declension . 53 

Greek Forms in Words of the Third Declension . 62 
Gender of Words of the Third Declension. — Mascu- 
lines • . . . . . . .66 

Feminines 67 

Neuters 70 

Fourth Declension 71 





Fiflh Declension ...... 

Irregular Declension. — Indeclinables. — Defectives 

Heteroclita. — Heterogenea 
Nouns Adjective. — ^Terminations. — ^Declension 
Comparison of Adjectives 

Comparison of Adverbs and increased Compar 

Irregular an<l defective Comparison 

Numerals —iT Cardinal Numerals 

II. Ordinal Numerals 

HI. Distributive Numerals ^ 

rv. Multiplicative Numerals . 

V. Proportional Numerals 



Chap. Pafli 

XXXIII. VI. Numeral Adverbs , . . . .103 

XXXIY. Pronouns and Pronominal Adjeetires . . 105 

XXXV. Declension of Pronouns 108 

XXXVI. Declension of the Possessive Pronouns and of Pro- 

nominals 114 

XXXVII. The Verb 116 

XXXVIII. Moods.— Tenses 119 

XXXIX. Numbers.— Persons . * 121 

XL. Formation of the Tenses 123 

XLI. The Verb esse 127 

XLII. The four Conjugations 129 

XLIII. Remarks on the Conjugations . . . .141 

TjIst of Verbs which are irregular in the Formatiox op TiiEih 

Perfect and Supine. 

XLIV. First Conjugation 149 

XLV. Second Conjugation 15) 

XLVI. Third Conjugation. — 1. Verbs which have a Vowel 

before o, including those in vo . . 157 

XLVII. 2. Verbs in do ^n^ to 160 

XLVIII. 3. Verbs in io and 770 . . . . . . 163 

XLIX. 4. Verbs with a Palatal Letter, g, c, ct, h^qu, and 
gu (in which u is not considered as a vowel) 

before 164 

L. 6. Verbs which have Itfi^n^r before o . 167 

LI. 6. Verbs in so and xo 170 

LII. Inchoatives . . 171 

LIIL Fourth Conjugation 173 

LIV. List of Deponent Verbs 175 

LV. Deponents of the Second Conjugation . . .177 

L VI. Deponents of the Third Conjugation . . .178 

LVII. Deponents of the Fourth Conjugation . . 179 

LVIII. Irregular Verbs ....... 180 

LIX. Defective Verbs 18i 

LX. Impersonal Verbs 190 

LXI. Etymology of Nouns and Verba . . . .192 
LXIl. Etymology of Particles . .• . . . .214 

LXIII. Primitive Adverbs 221 

LXIV. Comparison of Adverbs 230 

LXV. Prepositions 231 

LXVI Prepositions in Composition .... 244 \ 


LXvII. CoDjunctions . sSS 

LXYIII. Interjections sas 



I. Connexion or Subject and Pbedioati. 
LXIX. Subject and Predicate 207 

II. On the Use or Cases. 

LXX. Nominative Case 277 

LXXI. Accusative Case 278 

liXXII. Dative Case 290 

LXXm. Genitive Case . 30] 

LXXIV. Ablative Case 316 

LXXV. Vocative Case 337 

III. Use or the Tenses. 
LXXVT. Tbe Tenses 338 

IV. Or THE Moods. 

LXXVII. Indicative Mood . 354 

LXXVIII. Subjunctive Mood 358 

LXXIX. Imperative Mood 393 

LXXX. Infinitive Mood 396 

LXXXI. Use of tbe Participles 420 

LXXXn. Use of tbe Gerund . . . . . .430 

tXXXm. Use of the Supine 436 


LXXXIV. Peculiarities in the Use of the Parts of Speech . 439 

LXXXV. Pleonasm 479 

LXXXYI. Ellipsis 489 

LXXXYII. Arrangement of Words and Structure of Periids . 50^ 

Appendix I. Of Metre, especially with regard to the Latin 

Poets 529 

Appendix II. The Roman Calendar 551 

Appendix III. Roman Weights, Coins, and Measures . . 551 
Appendix IV. Notae sive Compendia Scripturae ; or. Abbrevi- 
ations of Words 557 

Appendix V. Ancient Forms of Declension . . .559 
Appendix YI. Remains of early Latin 563 

Index op Matters 56^' 





The Latin language was once spoken by the Romans, 
at first only in a part of Middle Italy, but subsequently in 
all Italy and in other countries subject to the Romans. 
At present it can be learned only from books and the 
monumental inscriptions of that people.* 

The earliest Latin writings that we possess were com 

* l^ Any inquiry into the origin of the Latin lansfuage must involve an 
inquiry into the languages spoken by the ancient inhabitants of Italy ; and 
'3ur information on this subject, notwithstanding the investigations of Mi 
cali, Grotefend, Miilier, Lepsius, and other distinguished scholars, is at 

{iresent very imperfect. So much, however, appears certain, that the Latin 
anguage was oififerent from the Etrurian and Oscan, of which the former 
was spoken b^ the inhabitants of the northern, and the latter by those of 
the central and southern parts of Italy. The Latins appear to have origi- 
nally formed part of that great race which overspread both Greece and 
Italy under the name of Pelasgians. Their language formed a branch of 
that extensive family of languages which are known to modem scholars 
by the name of Indo-Germanic ; and it is probable that the Pelasgians who 
settled in Italy originally spoke the same language as the Pelasgians who 
settled in Greece. There is consequently a great resemblance between the 
Latin and Greek languages ; though each possesses an element which the 
other does not. Not only does the Latin language possess many words 
which it has not in common with the Greek, but also in some parts of its 
grammatical inflection, as, for instance, in that of the passive voice, it dif- 
fers considerably from the Greek language. It therefore becomes a ques- 
tion what that element is which the Latin language has not in common 
with the Greek ; and here we must attain some farther knowledge of the 
languages of ancient Italy before yre can answer this question satisfactorily. 
The Etrurian, so far as our imperfect knowledge of it will enable us to 
form an opinion on the subject, appears to have exercised little influence 
upon the lormation of the Latin lan|[uage ; but the Oscan or Opican tongue, 
on the contrary, seems to have united with the Pelasgian in forming the 
Latin. Niebunr (Hist. ofRotMt vol. i., p. 82) had remarked that the words 
which relate to agriculture and domestic life agree in Greek and Latin, as, 
JtomuSf ager, aratnan, vimim, oleum^ lac^ bos^ «i», ovts, &c., while those re- 
lating to arms and war, as dudlumt ensist luutay sapttUf &c., are different 
from the Greek. But this remark is to be taken with considerable limita- 
tion, for there are many exceptions both ways ; indeed, so many as to render 
the position itself at least doubtful, and all inferences derived from it conse- 
quently inconclusive. The words relating to arms and war may have been 
Oscan ; and it has therefore been supposed by Dr. Arnold {Hist, of Rome, 
vol. i., p. 22), not only that the Latins were a mixed people, partly Pelas- 
gian and piartly Oscan, but also that they arose out of a conquest ot the Pe- 
lasgians by the Oscans, so that the latter were the ruling class of the united 
nation, and the former its subjects." — Penny Cyclop.^ voL xx., p. 112. 
Compare Xepsiu4, Veberdie TyrrhenischenPelasget in Etrurien, heipsig, 1842 , 
Donalds<m^sVarronianuSt\t. 10, &c.; Baehr, Geschichte der Romischm lAterm 
<««r vol. i., p. 3, &r. ; Grotffend, Alt-Italien, Drittes Heft, p. 30.]-^ Am. Ed 


posed about 200 years before the birth of Christ,* and in 
the sixth century after Christ, Latin, as a spoken lan- 
guage, died entirely away. It had then become quite 
corrupted through the influence of the foreign nations 
which had settled in the Roman dominions, and it be- 
came so mixed up with the languages of the invaders 
that a niunber of new languages (Itsdian, French, Span- 
ish, Portuguese) were gradually formed out of it. All 
persons who wrote Latin in later times had learned it as 
a dead language. 

During the long period in which the Latin language 
was spoken, if imderwent various changes, not only m 
the number of its words and their meanings, in theii' 
forms and combinations, but, to some extent, in its pro- 
nimciation also. We shall in this Grammar describe the 
language, though not exclusively, such as it was spoken 
and written during the most important period of Roman 
literature, that is, about the time of Julius Caesar and 
Cicero, till shortly after the birth of Christ. That period 
IS commonly called the golden age, and the subsequent 
one, till about A.p. 120, the silver age of the Latin lan- 

The Latin language, in its origin, is nearest akin to the 
Greek, and at the time when the Romans became acquaint- 
ed with the literature, arts, and institutions of Greece, 
they adopted a great many single words, as well as con- 
structions, from the Greek.t Both languages, moreover, 
belong to the same family from which the English, Ger- 
man, northern, and many other languages have sprung4 

♦ [Vid. Appendix "VT. Remains of early Latin.]— Am. Ed. 

t [That the Latin is an older language than the Greek all sound philolo* 
ffiits now readily admit. Consult lknald$<nCs New Craiylus, p. 89.]— ulm. 

t [On the general question of I^guistic affinity, consult JBopp, VergMeh. 
Oramm. / IhnaMson*s New Craiylus, ch. iv. ; Id., VarrommaUi p. 40. Tb« 
authorities haying reference to earlier and erroneous yiews respecting Uio 
origin of the Latin tongue may be found in Baeht, GesehkhUdtr R$m. L« « 
tal. L, p. 3, &C.1— -Am. Ed, 




[§ 1.] 1. The Vowels of the Latin language are, A^ 

a; Ef e ; I, i; O, o; U, u (Y, y) : and the diphthongfif, 

AE^ ae ; OE, oe ; A U, au, and E U, eu. Their ancient 

pronunciation di4 not differ jp any essential point from 

that of the modem Italian or German; but the moderL 

pronunci^on varies in the different countries of Europe, 

thougn the length and shortness of the vovtrels are and 

ought to be observed everywhere. The Latin language 

has no signs to distinguish a long from a short vowel, 

such as we find in the Greek language, at least in the 

case of two vowels. The names of the vowels are mere 

imitations of their sounds, and not specific words, like the 

Greek alpha, iota, &c. 

Note. — The vowel y (called y psJlon) occurs onW in words which were 
introduced into the Latm language from or through the Greek, at a time 
when it was already developed, such as, syllabot pyramis, Pyrrhm, Cyrua ;* 
whereas other words, the Ureek origin of which leads us back to more 
ancient times, or has been obscured by changes <^ sound, have lost their 
original v $ such as mus (from the Greek fjivCi)sUva (from ij2.rf), and lacrima 
(from 6aK(yvov.)\ The word stilus^ too, is better wntten with i, since prac 
iice did not acknowledge its identity with the Greek orvXof. The diph 
thong ev, if we except Greek words, occurs onW in heus, Aeu, and eAeti, in 
ten, ««u, and fieu, and in neuter and neviiquam. The diphthongs containing 

* [As the Romans already possessed in their V the representative of the 
Greel; letter, it may be asked how it was that they subsequently adopted 
the Y. It has been supposed, in answer to this, that the Greek character 
had changed its power from the original sound of oo, such as is still repre 
sented by the Italian^, to a sound probably like that of the French u, oi 
even to a weak >. {Key en the Alphabet, p. lii.)] — Am. Ed. 

t [It would be rapre correct, perhaps, to say, that in many words rather 
connected with the Greek than derived from it, the v is represented by i, as 
in cliene, m-cUtiu (jcAvo), cU-peue {KpvirTu), silva (iXfTi), &c., while in oth- 
f rs the V has become e, as in socer (iKvpdg), remulco i$vjjtov?Jcia), polenta 
tnahfvr^)t &c. (Donaldsoiit Varromanus, p. 222. Compare BUlrotkf Lai. 
Vr„ p. S, not.)} — Am. Ed. 



An t, viz., et, oi, and tu, have not been mentionea ii our text 88 Latin dip^ 
thongs, because they occur only in a few interjections, such as Aei, e1a^ 
pi>i, and kuiy and in cases where ctetn, proin, hvic, or cui are contracted intr 
oae 8ylla!)le, which is commonly done in poetr)'. 

The ancients, in pronouncing a diphthong, uttered the two vowels o( 
which it consists more distinctly than we do. The word neuter, in partic- 
ular, ^as pronounced in such a manner that the two vowels in eu, though 
united, were yet distinctly heard.* In this manner we may reconcile th» 
assertion of the grammarian Consentius, that it is a barbarism to pro 
nounce neutmm as a word of ivit s^ilablts, with thdse passages in Latin 
poetry whic^ necessarily demand the diphthong. Neuiiquam, in the comic 
poets, has its first syllable always short, as if it were nUtiquamy from whicn 
w« may infer that it was not so much the long diphthong as the two short 
vo^tels that were heard. In like manner the diphthongs ae and oe were 
pronounce, and hence we find that in the early times ai and ot were 
pronounced and written in their stead, and that the Latins expressed the 
Greek at and o< by oe and oe; for, if these diphthongs are pronounced in 
the manner above described, it will be perceived that the difference be- 
tween the sounds of e and i is but slight.! The Greek « must likewise 
have been pronounced in such a manner that the two vowels were dis- 
tinctly heard ; for the Latins, in whose language this diphthong does not 
occ*«r, use in its nlace sometimes e, an&^ sometimes t, or either of them 
indiscrmmiateiy.^ Before consonants we always find t, e. g., ectipsiSf Ni- 
lus, Clihu, Heraclidae ; and in LsfRn we must accordingly pronounce and 
write Polyditusy and not Polyclettu (see m^ remark on Cic, in Verr., iV., 3) : 
Hilotea or Hilotae {Ilotae, for the Greek is 'ElXurts or Et<w]|p(i)^and no* 
Helotes. Before vowels, on the other hand, the Greek tt is sAnetimei 
changed into e, and sometimes into t ; the e appears, for example, in Aenet s 
and Medea, and the t in IphigematxA elegia, whereas Alexandrea and Alex- 
andria, Thucydideua and Thucydidittt are used indiscriminately.^ In Cic- 
ero, the forms Ariopagtu and Aricmagitae are better established* than 
Areopagus and ArecmagUae, and the uke, which we commonly find in our 
^itions, whereas the form Dareus is much more authentic, according to 
the MSS. of Latin authors, than Darltu. This fact is now generally 

I - ■ 

♦" [On this pronunciation of the diphthongs by the ancients, both Greeks 
and Romans, compare the remarks of Liskovius ( Ueber die Aussprache des 
Crriechischen, &c., p. 14), who advocates the same in opposition to the 
Reuchlinian system of pronunciation. The passage of Choeroboscus, 
however, in Bekker's Anecd. Grasc., p. 1214, and his three modes of pro- 
nouncing diphthongs, would seem to militate against this view of the 
subject. Compare Theodos., Gramm., p. 34, ed. ChtettL, and Moschopul. Op 
Oram., ed. Titze, p. 24.] — Am. Ed. 

t [We must not suppose, however, that in the earlier Latinity ai was 
alone and exclusively used instead of ae. Examples of the latter likewise 
occur. Thus, on the Columna Rostrata, we have praeda and At ; in the 
S. C. de Bacchan., the form aedem occurs ; and in one of the inscriptions 
from the tomb of the Scipios, we find aetate. Still, however, ai was much 
more commonly employed, as in aidilis, quaiator, qwuratia, aitemu*, aire, &C 
{OnUer. Ind. (tramm., s. v. ai pro ae.) The same remark will apply to w 
for oe, tne former being the more common, but the latter occurring on the 
Col. Rostr., "claseis Poenicas," and elsewhere. |p later Latinity, tl»# 
form oi appears to have been retained only in the interjection oiei, or eoiei. 
of the comic writers. {Schneider, Elementarlekre, &c.^vol. i., p. 81 ; Bmt 
ley, ad Ter. Eun., 4 4, 47, &c.)}--Am. Ed. 

t CX^^ ' sound b';re meant is the continental one, namely, that ol the 
long JBn^lish e in It^te.] — Am. Ed. 

^ [This change of ei into i or t appears to have arisen from a variety iu 
dialectic pronunciation, some dialects soundiBg the c, and others the i« 
more Aronfifly. Compare Lisk&v., p. 18.1— -<4m. ^- 


acknowledged, and does -not require here ic be Bupportud by authori 

' [^ 2.] It was, however, only by degrees that the pronunciation and oi 
thography became fixed, and this was mainly the worK of the grammariani 
during the first centuries after Uhrist. Previously, there existed many 
peculiarities in the pronunciation, which were also adopted in the written 
language, and some of these are still retained in the texts of a few of the 
early writers, such as Plautus, Terence, and Sallust, for historical reasons, 
or, so to speak, from diplomatic fidelity. But such peculiarities should 
n 3C be imitated by •us, for they were gradually given up by the ancients 
themselves. With regard to pronunciation and orthography, we must 
necessarily adhere to the rules which were laid down by the ancient 
grammarians, who certainly did not derive them from the vulgar idiom of 
the people, but frdhi the uncorrupt and pure language o( the educated 
classes. In the earliest times, the broad pronunciation of the long t was 
ccKnmonly indicated by «', but without its being pronounced as a diphthong 
«t, which is foreign to the Latin lan^age : for example, heic for Ate, mteix 
for quis iquilnu:)t eidus for idus, and m the accusative plural of the tnird 
declension when it terminates in is (see ^ 68), such as omneisy arteis, for 
omnis and ariis, which termination of the accusative was subsequently 
changed into is. A middle sound between the two short vowels u and i 
was preserved, in some words, down to a still later time ; and many per 
tons pronounced and wrote lubett existianoy clupetis^ inclutus^ saturoy for libety 
fsistimoy clipeusy &c. ; the' adjective termination umus for imusy disJinitumHs 
Ux imitimusy and the superlatives optwmusy maxumusy and piUcherrumttSy for 
opttmusy meufimus, &c. Julius Csesar declared himself in favor of t, which 
was afterward adopted generally, although the £mperor Claudius wanted 
to introduce a new letter for tne indefinite vowel in those words.! We 
must farther observe that in early times o was used instead of u, after the 
letter t), e. g., voltyvohms, avoniy and even in the nominative aws mstead of 
amis : in some words o took the place of e ; for example, vorto and its de- 
rivatives fbr vertOy vaster for vester.t U instead of e occurs in the termi- 
nation of the participle tmdus for endusy and was retained in some cases in 
later times also. (See ^ 167.) Lastly, we have to mention that the vulgar 
pronunciation of au was 6 ; e. g., Claudius was pronounced as Clodius, 
plaustrum as plostruniy and plaudo as plodo ; but in some words this prcnun- ' 
ciation, which in general was considered faulty, became established by 
custom, as in phstellumy a little carriage, a diminutive form of vlatistrum. 
This was the case more especially when the common mode of^ pronoun- 
cing servSj to indicate h difference in meaning, as in »o<u«,*wasned, and 
lautusy splendid or elegant ; and codexy a tablet for writing (or a book), snd 
caudexy a block of wood. In the compounds af plaudo the form plodo thus 
hpcame prevalent. 

[§ 3.] 2. The conftonants are, .B, h; C, c ; D, d ; F, 

f; Gy g; jFJ, h; (K, k) ; L, I; M, m; N, n; P,2>; . 

Q, q; R, r; S, s; T, t; X, x; (Z, zj. With regard 

♦ [Still it may not be amiss to cite the following : Drakenb. ad Ziv , 
.Txxvi., I4,extr.; Interpp. ad Vel Pat.y 11, 69, 2: 11, 87, init. ; 
Sueton, Claud.y 42.]— .Am. Ed. 

f [The whole subject is fully discussed by Schneider, Element., p. 18, 
9eqq,\ — Am. Ed. 

X [The employment of o in early Latin, where at a later day u was usei 
u>pear8 to have been much more common than is 8tated>in the text. We 
tod; fbr example, such forms as consolf primosy captomy exfocionty &c., fo» 
amstUy primusy captuniy effugiunty &c. The employment; on the other hand, 
of ti for o is mucn more rare. Priscian cites huminemy ftrntes, knA/rvtn^€i, 
Cassiodorus (p. 2'^^d) has pr^stu.l—Am la 


to their clasaification, it is only necessary here to ooser\*« 

that /, m, n, r are called liquids (liquida), and the rest 

mutes (mut<B)^ with the exception of #, which, being a 

sibilant (littera sibUansJ^ is of a peculiar nature. The 

mutes may again be classified, wifli reference tt i the or 

gan by which they are pronounced, into labials (v^ h,p,fj^ 

palatals (g^ c, ky qu), and Unguals fd^ t). X and z (called 

zeta) are double consonants, x being a combination of c 

and s, and zofd and s. 

Note. — It will be observed that there are some letters in oar own alpha 
bet which do not occur in this list : j and v were expressed by the Latins 
by the same signs as the vowels t and u, vii., /and V; but in proaunci- 
ation they were distinguished ; wh^ice we hear of an t or v coTuonans , 
and, like ordinary consonants, they make position' when preceded bv 
another consonant, and do not form an hiatus when preceded by a vowef. 
It is only in consequence of poetical licenses which are rendered neces- 
sary by the metre (which, however, at the same time, show the kindred 
nature existing between the sounds of the vowel and consonant), that the 
V is at one ti;ne softened down into u; as, for example, when the words 
solvit and silva are made to form three syllables, (comp. ^' 184) ; and at 
others, the vowels i and u are hardened into the consonants 9' and v, which 
is very often the case with t ; by this means the preceding short syllable is 
lengthened, as in the words abiesy aries^ consiliumtftuviusf tenuis^ and some 
others. Virgil, for example, uses ^uv/orum rex "Eridanus; Ovid, at the 
close of an hexameter verbe, ctutos erat arjet'u aurei, for arietis ; LucreiiuM, 
copia tenvis and ne<iue tenvius extat^ for tenuis^ tenuius. In cases whete the 

E receding syllable is already long, the poet may at least get rid of a sylla- 
le which does not suit the verse, as in Juvenal, cotnitata est Hivpia Ludjnm 
and nuper consule Junjo ; and (iv., 37) ^unijam aemjanimum laceraret Pla- 
vhu orbem. We may therefore, in writing Latin, make use of the signs 
; and v. which are employed in modem languages, for the purpose of dis- 
tinguishing the pronunciation before a vowel at the beginning of a sylla- 
ble, and we need not retain the defective mode of writing of the Romans, 
since they viewed these letters just as we do, and would willingly have 
adopted so convenient a means of distinction if they had known it, or if 
their better kfiowledge had not been obliged to give way to h&bit. But 
this rule cannot be applied to Greek words^ since i and v with the Greeks 
baa only the nature of vowels. We therefore read locaau^ iambtu, lones^ 
Laitu, Agaue, euoef and the i at the beginning of these words is treated 
as a vowel in their connexion with prepositions, as in oft Zona, ae Ionia. 
Some Greek proper names, however, are justly written and pronounced 
in Latin with &j, as Grajusy Ajax, Maja, Troja, Adtaja.* 

[^ 4.] H is only an aspiration ; it is not considered as a vowel, and 
therefore, when joined witn a consonant, it does not lengthen the preceding 
syllable. The ancients themselves (see Quintil., i, 5, $ 21) were in doubt, 
with regard to several words, as to which was the more correct, to pro- 
nounce it or not ; ibr example, as t> Mrhether they should pronounce have 

*■ [This is not correct. All the^se forms should be written with an 1. 
If the author mean to give the j its German sound, which is that of our y 
before a vowel, this may do well enough to express the pronunciation of 
the words in question, but certainly not their orthography. Key thinkt 
tiiat the Englisn sound of the j was not unknown to the anciert irihab« 
itants of Italy. This, however, is very doubtful ; and if knowr at all, it 
must have been a mere provincialism, and uot aidcpted by the educfttini 
riaascs.l — Am Ed 


Mr avef ftedera or ederOf hturundo or arundOf halucinor or edvcinor^ henu or * «• 

» pf Ae7n«n« or veemens {vemens)^ ahenum or a^num, mihi or »ni, preheifdo and 

deprehendoy or prendo and deprendOf and several other woras, in* which, 
however, the orthography now adopted is the more correct of the two. 

The letter G arose out of C, for in the early times the soands of * (cl 
&r.d g were not distinguished in writing, on account of their similarity : and 

' although the Romans wj-o.te, for example, ledones^ yet they pronounced 

legiones. The. fact of the praenomina Gains and Gnaeus, when indicated 
only by the initials, being treciuently written C. and Cn., is a remnant of 
the old orthography ; and it is expressly attested by ancient grammarians 
(see, e. g., Quintil., i., 7, ^ 28), as well as by the Greek mode of writing 

I those names (Tuiog Vvatoc)i tjiat they were never pronounced otherwise 

than Gains and GnaeuSf which was at the same time the invariable mode 
of writing them when they were given at full length. Even when the 
initials only are given, we meet with G. and Chi. just as often as with C. 
and Cn.* 

^ [^ 5.1 K became a superfluous letter in Latin, as its place was supplied 

jy c In early times it was chiefly used in words beginning with ca^ such 
ts kaputf kalumnioy Karthago ; but this is now done, according to the ex 
ample of the ancients, in abbreviations only, such as K. for KaesOf K. or 
Kal. for KalendoiA 

Q is, in reality, likewise a superfluous letter, not differing in value from 
e ; but it has been more fortunate than k in maintaining its place, at least ' 
in those cases where the sound of c is followed by u, and the latter by 
another vowel, as in quamfjpiemj qui, qvOf antiquus.. The first of these 
words is to be pronounced cuam, as a monosyllable ; and it remains doubt 
ful as to whether the u is still a vowel, or assumes the nature of a con 
sonant cvam. There are some few words in which the pronunciation and 
orthography hesitate between qu and c; e. g., in coquus and eqmdeua: in 
some others c is known to be the correct, pronunciation, from the testi 
mony of the ancients themselves, although we still write qu^ partly foi 
the sake of distinction, and partly for etymolpgical reasons.! Thus we 

♦ [The person vyho first brought in the G was Sp. Carvilius, a freed-man 
and namesake of the celebrated Sp. Carvilius Ruga, who, in A.U.C. 523 
(B.C. 231), furnished the nrst example of a divorce. From the position in 
the alphabet assigned to this new character, namely, the seventh place, 
corresponding to that of the Greek z, there is reason to believe that the 
Roman C still retained the hard g sound, while the new character repie- 
sented the soft sibilant pronunciation of the English i' and the Greek z, 
which is also expressed by the modem Italian ^t. {Key^ Alphab., p. 63 ; 
Donaldson f VarroniantiSf p. 197.)1 — -A^- -Ed. 

t [Although the letter K is iiow superfluous, it was iK>t so when the 
characters of an alphabet were syllaoic in power. Thus the letter k 
appears to have* denoted at one time the syllable /ra, while anothei 
cnaracter represented /co, and so on. Hence, m the Greek and Hebrew 
alphabets, the former was called kappa, kaph ; the latter, koppa, koph. 
Tins accounts for the fact that in Latm the letter k was never Jised ex 
cept before the vowel a, precisely as ^ is found only before «, and the 
Greek koppa only before o. Even our own alphabet seems to implv such 
a limit in the use of this consonant, when it gives it the name of «a, jK>t 
ke ; though the latter name would better agree with 6e, ce, de, &c. {Key, 
Alphab., p. 72.)]— Am. Ed. 

t [The letter Q, like K, furnishes evidence that the alphabetical charac 
ters were originally of syllabic power. Thus, the Hebrew koph, and the 
Greek koppa, as already remarked in a previous note, appear to have beet 
used only in th^se words where the sound of o follows. Indeed, the name 
of the letter implies as much. Hence, Cos, Corinthus, Syracosii. The 
Greek alphabet prolwiblv stopped at one period, like the Hebrew, at t, sc 
r w to have no u. On the other hand, the Etrurian alphahiH had a «, bul 

A 2 • 


cnsi^higiiish the conjunction qwan from the preposition ctwi; aiMl vrritc 
^itc^idie and qxiotannis on account of their formation from quot^ and $eqituiwi 
ft»d lo<piiUi:s on account of their derivation from seouor and lotjuor^ althoagb 
It is quite certain that ail the Romans pronounceci, and most of them also 
wrote, cvnif cciidie {cottidie only to indicate the shortness of the vowel), 
gecutus, locutu^. The last two must absolutely be spelled secutus and 
locutus (see Schneider, ElementarUhre, p. 332) ; and with regard to the 
others, too, it ia but just that vve should follow the instructions of iLi* 
ancients. The reader will findjn this work the conjunction spelled ouum 
hut he ought to remember that it is done only for the purpose of aistin 
guishing it, to the eye, from the preposition, and that it ought to be pro 
nor.nced as cum.* „ 

Z occurs only in words borrowed from the Greek, e. g.j^oza, irapeza > 
and w can be used only when modern words are introduced into the Latin 
language without undergoing any change in their orthography. 

[§ 6.] 3. Respecting the pronunciation of the conso- 
nants, it must be observed that the rule' with the Latins 
was to pronounce them just as they were written. Every 
modem nation has its own peculiar way of pronouncing 
them; and among the many corruptions of the genuine 
pronunciation, there are two which have become firmly 
rooted in licarly all Europe, and which it is, perhaps, im- 
possible to banish from the language. We pronounce c, 
when followed by e, i, y, ae, or <?c, both in Latin and Greek 
words, like our *, and when followed by other vowels or 
by consonants, like a k. The Romans, on the other hand; 
as far as we can ascertain, always pronounced c like k ; 
and the Greeks, in their intercourse with the Romans, did 
not hear any other pronunciation. The earliest instance 
in which c was pronounced in this oi* a similar manner 
seems to have beien when it was followed by % with 
another vowel after it, for the tei*minations titis Bxiditia 
are so frequently used for cius and cia, that we must infer 
that they were similarly sounded. But even this similarity 
seems to have been foreign to the old and correct pro- 
nunciation. We pronounce ti before a vowel like shi^ 

but likewise without any reason.t But it is easy to dir^- 

- ' 

no 0. Hence, in Italy, the ^, which, by position in the alphabet, cor 
responds to the Greek kpppa, was limited to words where u followed. 
Although q is generally followed by a second vowel after its t*, the older 
practice otthe Romans did not'so limit its use. Thus, Pequnia^ peqt^s^ 
qum, equKy are met with, {Key^ Alphab.j p. 89.)] — Am. Ed. 

* Lipsius, in his ^ialogus de recta Pronuntiatione UngiuB Latina, ex.- 

resses himself upon the pronunciation of c in this remarkable manner: 

* Pudet non tarn erroris quam pertinaciae, quia corripi patiuntur at nor 

corrigi. et tenent omnes qiiod defendat nemo. Itali, Hispani, Germani 

Galli, Britanni in hoc peccato : a qua gente initiiim einemlj^ndi ? Audeai 

enira una aliqua et omnes audient." 

t [Scheller thinks that such corniptions as c with an a sound, and 
founded like sk or 5. arose from the Prankish dialqct of the Teutonic hia 


cover the transit! dh from the pure pronunciation to tho* 
which is now customary, for the ti in all these cases ia 
ihort, and in quick speaking it easily changes into shi. 
For this reason, it would be quite wrong to pronounce tlie 
long ti in the genitive totius in the same manner, since 
there caa be no excuse for it. But there are some cases 
in which even the short ti^ according to the common pro- 
nunciation, is not read like shi : 1. In Greek words, such 
as MiltiadeSy Basotia, JEgyptitis ; 2. When the t is pre- 
ceded by another t, by * or x, e. g., Bruttiiy ostiuniy tnixtioy 
and, 3^ When it is followed by the termination of the in- 
finitive passive cr, as in nitier, quatier, 

Ndte. — Li many words it is difficult to determine whether they ought to 
be spelled with ci or ii. The question must be decided partly by a correct 
etymology, partly by the orthography adopted by the Greeks, and partly 
by ancient and authentic inscripti(His ; for nearly all our MS6. were made 
*at a time when ci was pronounced in the wron^ way, and was accord- 
ingly confounded with ti. Thus, it appears that m the derivative adjec- 
tives formed from liouns and participles we must, write iciuSf and not iiius 
e. g., gentiliciuSf adiliciusy noviciuSf commendaticiust as, indeed, we always 
write patriciuSf and the proper names Fabricius and Mauricius. We now 
commonly write conditio^ though it is better to write condicio and dicio. In 
nuntiuSf and all its derivatives^ on the other hand, the ii is correct ; and 
also in otium^ infitior (from fateor), and fetialis (Greek ^7jTiu?i£ig). In In 
Fcriptions and ancient MSS. we find only contiOf and not concio. 

[§ 7.1 M at the end of a word (where it is always pre- 
ceded by a vowel) was pronounced by the ancients more 
indistinctly than at the beginning of a word ; perhaps in 
the &9xne manner as in the French le nom, where the m is 
heard /nuch more indistinctly than in le midi. When the 
word foUowing began with a vowel, the final m of the 
preceding word was not sou^tded at all, according to the 
testimony of the ancient grammarians, or»it formed only 
a gentle transition fix)m the one vowel to the other.* 

<S, like the Greek <t, was pronounced more sharply than 
with us ; ac^cumstance which accounts for some irregu- 
larities m the «arly orthography, such as the doubling of 
the s in caussa^ as Cicero wrote according to an express 
, ^ . 

guage, in which thw hissing sound of the consonants predominated.- (Gr. 
Lat., vol. i., p. 14, Walker's transL)] — Am. Ed. 

♦ [The omission of M at the end of words does not seem to have bees 
confined merely to Uiose cases where the next word began with a vowel 
Thus, it was the rule to omit, ifi the present tense of active verbs, the im. 
portant M, which characterizes the first person in many of the other 
tenses. In fact, the only verbs which retain it in the present tense are 
ru-m, and inqua-nif and it is mentioned as a custom of Cato the Censor, 
that he usea also to elide the M at the term nation of the future£ of verhf 
U» -o, ind ■••. * Dwuddsont K«rroniawi/», p. I9>.)J — ^^ ^'^ 


testimony, though it was disapproved of as useless by thfl 

^tncient grammarians. 

In the ancient pronunciation there must liave been 

a peculiar resemblance between the letters s and r 

since it ift mentioned by Varro (de Ling. LaL, vii., 6) and 

others, that formerly, that is, before the Latin language 

had assumed a fixed form through its literature, s was 

pronounced in many words, for which afterward r was 

substituted, as in Papisius, Valesius, lases, eso, arhosem, 

tndioB, Some forms of this kind, such ^ahonos, lepas, and 

arhos, were used down to a very late time, and occui 

even in the language of the classical writers. 

Note. — This affinity between the t^o sounds accounts for Tariouji 
phenomena in the accidence of the Latin language (see Schneider, MU- 
mentarlehre, p. 342., foil.); but We do not by any means believe that the r 
in the abovemientioned words, and still less in all cases where it occurs 
between two vowels, is of later origin, or that it arose out of the «, and 
that the latter was the original sound. The r after a vowel is just as an- 
cient fmd original in the Latin language as the r after a consonant ; and 
wherever the s is not a mere dialectic peculiarity, as in arbosem, pignoaoy 
robose, and majosibus^ it has taken the place of r for definite reasons ob- 
served in the formatidn of words. For example : we do not think that 
mosia, mosi, and mosem were the earlier and more genuine forms for moris^ 
mori, morem; or that the nominative 91105 contains the original form ; and 
that, in the other cases, the s was afterward supplanted by r (as has been 
most confidently stated by KrOger in his Grtunmatik der Lot, Spraehe, p 
190, folL) ; but we assert that mor is the true root, and that monv, nMm. 
and moamiy if they were used at all, arose merely from a difference in pro- 
nunciation. The nominative assumed the form m69 instead of m^, be- 
cause 8 was a kindred sound to r, and because ia other cases, too, « is the 
sign of the nominative.* 

[§ 8.] 4. The meeting of two vowels, one of whicli 
forms the ending and the other the beginning of a word, 
causes an hiatus or yawning. It is impossible to avoid it 
in the various "combinations of words, though it is never 
considered an elegance. In verse it is removed by the 
former of the vowels, whether it be short or long, being 
passed over in reading or speaking {disio.J, When, thero- 

* [It is rather surprising that the jurist Pomponius (Digg., i.,2, 2, ^ 36) 
should have attributed to Appius Clauddus Csecus, (c^stu I.« A.U.C. 44>, 
B.C. 307 ; consul II., A.U.C. 458, B.C. 296) the invention of the R, a let- 
ter which is the initial of the names Roma and Rcmulus, He can only 
. mean that Appius was the first to inti^uce the practice of substituting 
R for S in proper names, a change which he might have made in his cen 
sorship. It is probable that Appius Clau(^us used his censorial authority 
to sanction a practice which haa alread^r come into vogue, and which was 
Ultimately connected with the peculiarities of the Roman articulation. In 
fact, the Romans were to the last rejnarkable for the^same tendency to 
rhotacism which ij characteristic of the Umbrian, Dorian, and Old Norse 
dialects. {Donaldson^ Varronfflnuj, p. 205.— Compare Schneider, Elemtni* 
tol. i , p. 341 )1— ilm. Ed 


fore, we find, e. g., sapere aude^ ox.mota anus wnd^ we prc> 
nounce saper' aude and mot^ anus uma. (Comp. Hein- 
dorf on Horace, Serm.^ i., 9, 30.) How far anythmg simi 
lar wad done in ordinary language (in prose) cannot be 
said with certainty, although it is not improbable that ai 
least short vowels, when followed by another vowel, were 
likewise passed over in quick spes^ng, and that peoph* 
pronounced, for instance, narnqu* erit temjpus^ atqu* egi* 
quum viderem. The aspirate h does not remove t]ip 
hiatus, nor does it therefore prevent the elision of the first 
vowel in verse, so that we pronounce toller^ humo, when 
we find it written tollere %umo. As the m at the end of a 
word was not audibly uttered when the next word began 
with a vowel, the vowel preceding the m is likewise passed 
over in reading verse, although the word is written at fiill 
length. The hexameter line, multum tile et terris jactatus 
et cUtOf is therefore read rntdt'* UV et terris^ &c. In the com- 
pounds veneo for venum c<?, and animadverto foi animum 
advertOt this elision is made also in writing. The earlier 
poets threw out the s in the terminations us and %s when 
they were followed by consonants. Lucilius, e. g., says, 
Thim laterali* dolor certissimu* nuntiu* morUs ; and even 
Cicero, in bis youthfiil attempts at poetry, sometimes did 
the same, as in de terra lapsu\ repente, magnu* leo, and 
torm* draco ; but, in the refined poetical language of the 
Augustan age, this elision was no longer customary.* 

[^ 9.] Note 1. — When the vowel thrown out by the elision is preceded 
by another one, the latter does not produce a disagreeable hiatus, as in 
Capitolia ad alta^ which is read in verse CapkolC ad atta. Nor is there any 
hiatus, and consequently no elision, when a long vowel at the end of a 
wordis shortened, viz., in the case of monosyllabic words in the middle of 
the thesis of dactylic verses, and in the dissolved arsis of iambic and tro- 
chaic feet, and in the case of polysyllabic words at the end of the thesis 
oC dactylic verses. f (See, for example, Horace, iSerm., i., 9, 38: Si mi 
mmas, inmdtf paulum hie odes, pvid, Metam., iii., 501 : dictoque vale vo/l 
hwuit etjScho. Virgil, u£n., iii., 211 : insulae Ionia in magnOf and man| 
otner passages. 

(^ 10.] NoU 2.-^It was remarked above that the hiatus is not removed in 
writing; and that, of the two vowels which produc^it,the former is thrown 
out in reciting a verse. B:»t an exception to this rule occurs when a woni 
tCTininating in a vowel or an m is followed by the word est ; for in this 

* [The whole doctrine of Hiatus will be found very fully and ably dis 
cussed by Schneider, Element., vol. i., p. 113-169.]— -Am. Ed, 

t [It would be much* more correct to say that, in all such casev 
an eusion is only appareruly neglected, the long vowel actually parting by 
mbans of elision v^tn one of its component short vowels. And wheneve * 
the residuary short vowel is in the arns of the foot, it is lengthened again 
by the stress of the voice. Consult Anthonys Latin Prosody^ ed. 1842, p 
MO.l— ilm Ed 


case we find, at least in the critical editions of Plautus and Terence, thai 
the first word is preserved cntife, and that est loses its vowel The texts, 
therefore, are written and pronounced tAnulenta 'si mulier^ homit ^st^ molesturn 
*st. The same thing has been found here and there in very anciCLt MSS. 
containing fragnieats of Cicero's works, e. g., una notio ^st, difficile 'st, and 
in the oration for Milo : quae ilia barharia ^st. (See Nicbuhr's note on the 
fragment pro Fonieio, p. 60.)* In like manner, we find est joined with a 
preceding word terminating in u«, e. g., ojnut and dictust ; but in this cast 
It remains doubtful as to whether the s oiopus is thrown out, or whethei 
est has lost its first two letters. Something similar, though more rarely: 
occurs in the termination f«, e. g., (piaii *st. Whether the second person et 
was likewise joined with a precedmg word terminatii ^ in us is uncertaiii 

(§ee Schneider, Elementarlehrey p. 162, foil.) 
[^ 11.1 Note 3.--The hiatus which occurs 
removed, and for this reason we did not notice it above. It should, how- 

[^ 11.) Note 3. — The hiatus wnich occurs within a word is generally nol 

ever, be observed that two vowels of the same sound are frequently united 
(contracted) into one long vowel, and the poets always make dero and 
desse out of deero and deesse. This explains the forms nil for nihil, and 
deprendo for deprehendOf which arise from the elision of the aspirate. The 
contraction of two equal or unequal vowels in the perfect ot verbs, aftei 
the elision of the v, is still more frequent ; e. g., audisti for attdivisti, audiisti ; , 
deleram for deleveranif nonmt for noverunt, concerning which see ^ 160. It 
also not unfrequently happens in verse that two different vowels arc 
united, by a rapid pronunciation, into a diphthong ; in which, however, 
both vowels are audible. This is called by a grammatical term synaereais, 
and occurs when the two vowels of the words dein, deinde, proin, proinde, 
^ic and cui, are united into diphthongs which are otherwise foreign to the 
Latin language. In this way alone it is possible to make use of the word 
fortHUus m the dactylic hexameter ; and it is for the same purpose that in 
nouns terminating in eus, when this ending is preceded by a long syllable, 
we most contract into a diphthong not ofily the « in the genitive singular, 
and els in the ablative plural, but also ed and ed; for exantple, alyeit owm. 
Nereis atareis (also anteis, from the verb anteeo), Eurystheot certa, just as a 
synaeresis sometimes occurs in the Greek words ^eof , NcoTrroAc/iOf, and 
fa. Some harsher kinds of synaeresis, such as quid, via, vutis, and quoad, 
\xe found in the comic poets and in Lucretius. • 

[§ 12.] 5. There is no necessity for giving any special 
riles about the ortJiography in Latin, since there is abso- 
lutely nothing arbitrary in the spelling of words that re- 
quires to be learned ; but there aire a great many separ- 
ate words of which neither the pronunciation nor the 
spelling is established, and with regard to which the ap- 
cients themselves were uncertain even in therbeijt times 
of their literature, as we see from the monuments still ex- 
tant. We shall here notice a few things which have not 
been mentioned in our previous observations. We spelj 
and pronounce anvltLs, aticus, patdum, belita, litus better 
with one consonant than with two ; whereas immo, num- 

■ ■ t — a . 

♦ [This species of elision, as Niebuhr remarks, was previously supposed 
to be pecuUar to the comic writers oftly. The same, writer observes that 
he has found no mention made of it in the ancient grammariaift, even after 
diligent search, save perhaps in a mutilated passage of Yelius. Longus 
p. 2238. Niebuhr also cites a somewhat similar usage in the modem Tus 
can of Florence; as, for example, lo*mpfradore. In 'w«/m.1 — Am EiL 



inus*. soUeninisy solifirs, sollicitus, Juppiter, and qu^Uuof 
are more correctly spelled with two consonants than one. 
It is not certain whether we ought to write litera or lit 
tera, though in most MSS. the t is doubled. The author- 
ity of the ancient grammarians and the best MSS. teach 
us to spell the singular mille with a double, and the plu- 
ral mUia with a single /. The forihs wara* and navus are 
not custbmary now, though they appear to be better than 
gnarus and gnavtts,* Arttca (narrow) is certainly better 
^ established than arctus ; auctor and auctumntis, on the 

other hand, are justiy preferred to autor and autumnus.^ 
< The insertion of a jp between m and t, e. g., in empttis, 

\ stempsi, rather facilitates the pronunciation than other- 

^ wise ; and the verb temptare is decidedly preferable to 

the form tentare^ which is nowKJommonly used, the former 
> being found in the best MSS. The forms conjunx, quo- 

tiens^ and totien^ are demanded by most of the ancien 
^ grammarians, and are found in good MSS., instead of 

conjux, qtioties, and toties. The words caecus, maereo, are 
more correctly spelled with the diphthong ae than oe, and 
saeculum, saepire, and taeter are better with the diphthong 
than with the simple vowel e; whereas in heres, Jettcs, 
femina, sjidjecundus, and therefore probably in Jemis,Je 
* noris also (which are of the same root), the simple vowel 
is better than the diphthong. But it is very doubtful 
whether we ought to write ^ceno^r scaefuij and obscenus 
or obscaenus^ or obscoenus^ We do not notice any other 
points here, because the orthography now commonly 
adopted is the correct one. Compare Cellarius, Ortho' 
graphia Latina, ed, Harles, Altenburg, 1768, 8vo; and 
Schneider, Elementarlekre, Berlin, 1819, 8vo. 

[§13.] 6. The Romans had no other point than the full 
stop, and our whole artificial system of punctuation was 
unknown to them ; but, to facilitate the understanding of 
their work8,^we now use in Latin the same signs which 
have become established in our own language. The pe- 
culiarities, however, in the formation of Latin sentences. 

♦ [The foftmsgnarua andgnotnM are the original ones, and were softened 
down, in course of time, to narus and navus. So gncUus is older than naiuM, 
There is an evident connexion between gnatus and ylyvofiaif and a proha* 
rfe affinity between gnamu and levda, or yvdirra.'] — Am. Ed. 

t [Tnere is here an evident inconsistency. If artua be better than arcf iw, 
ysi what principle can autor be inferior to auctor? Compare Journal ^ 
Kdwation^ vol. i., p. 03.] — Am. Ed. 


the many complications of their part% ai id tho attractton 
i)f the I'elative pronouns, demand great c&ution in ap|^y 
ing the signs of punctuation, in order that we may not by 
the use of too many signs separate those parts of a sen- 
tence which belong to one another. 

7. With regard to the use of capital and tmaZl letters^ 
it must be observed Ihat the Romans, generally speak- 
ing, wrote only in capital letters (lUterae undales), until iu 
the latest period of antiquity the small letters came into 
use, which are now always employed in writing Latin.* 
Capital initi9.1s are at present used : "(a) at the beginning 
of a verse, or at least of a strophe ; (b) at the beginning of 
a new sentence, both in prose and in verse, afler a full 
stop, and after a colon when a person's own words are 
quoted ; (c) in proper names, and in adjectives and ad 
verbs which are derived from them, e. g., Latium, sermo 
Latintcs, Latine loqui; (d) in words which express a title 
or ofEce, such as Gcmsulf Trihunus^ and SenatuSy but not 

n their derivatives. 

8. The diaeresis (puncta diaereseos) is a sign to facili- 
tate reading ; it is put upon a vowel which is to be pro- 
nounced separately, and which is not to be combined 
with the preceding one into a diphthong, as in aer, aeris, 
aerius, poeta ; and also in aurdiy mtdi^ since ai is (Mily an 
ancient form for ae. In cases where the diphthong would 
be fi)reign to the LatMl language, the diaeresis is unne- 
cessary, as tn dieif Persei, bet^use there can be no fear 
of any one pronouncing the ei as a diphthong ; Jhrreus^ too, 
does not require it, since in a Latin word no one will re- 
gard ^ as a diphthong. But we must write Ga^ and 
siliicBf when the consonants j and v are to be pronoimced 
as vowels. The signs to indicate the length or shortness 
of a vowel or a syllable (" and ") were sometimes used by 
tlie ancients themselves. 

* [The cursive character arose from a principle of rtpidity, by which 
the letters are made to run on. in continaous succession. Such modes of 
writing were no doubt common in very early times ; and, as regards thfl 
Romans, we are not left to mere conjecture, as the British Museum con 
tains an inscription of the kind on papyrus, which is referred to the secon<i 
or third century. The statement !n tne text ^ herefore, requires correctiov 
Keijf Alphabet f p. 36.)]— ilm. Ed. 



[§ 14.] 1. A VOWEL or a diphthong may by ilself fom. 
a syllable, as in u-va, me-o ; all other syllables arise firon 
a combination of coiisonants and vowels. The Latin lan- 
guage allows only two consonants to stand at the end of 
a syllable, and' three only in those cases where the last is 
*. At the beginning of a syllable, also, there can be no 
more than two consonants, except where the first is a c, 
Vf or 8f followed by muta cum liquida; and at the beg^- 
ning of a word there never are three consonants, except 
in the case of *c, sp; and ^t being followed by an r or ? ; 
for example, do-ctrina, Ba-ctra, dorru-ptrix, sce-ptrum, ca- 
stray magi-stri, l-sihmus; sprettLs, strenuTiSy scrihay splendor 
2. It often appears doubtful as to how a word is to be 
divided into syllables, and. where the division is to be 
made at the 6nd of a line, when the space does not suf- 
fice. The following rules, however, which ar^ founded 
on the structure of the language, should bq observed. 
1. A consonant which stands between two vowels belongs 
to the latter, as in ma'ter» 2. Those consonants, which, 
in Latin or Greek, may together begin a word, go togeth- 
er in the division of syllables ; e. g., pa-trisy and not pat- 
riSf as tr occur at the beginning of tres,* *In like manner, 
li'bri (brevis), i-gnis (gnomon), o-mnisy da-mnum (fAvdofia^), 
a-cttis, pun-ctum (fCTTjfjia), ra-ptus, scri-ptus, pro-pter (Ptole- 
maeus)y Ca-dmus (djwSe^'), re-gnum (yvovg)y va-fre (fretus)y 
a-tMeta (dXi6(»>), i-pse, scri-psi (%pav(M>), l/eshos (adivwfu), 
e-sctty po-sco (scando)y'^ a-spery ho-spes (spes)y pa-story Jfau- 
stusy i-ste (stare). The cases in which three consonants 
begin a syllable have been mentioned above. When- 
ever there occurs any combination of consonants which 
cannot stand at the beginning of words, they are treated 
according to. the analogy of the rest. All combinations 
^otmuta cum liquida, for instance, go together, as most of 
tbem may commence a word ; and we must therefore di- 
vide ara-chne, a-gmeny fra-gw^entt'/my Da-pJinCy Pha-tnae, 
rhy-tkmuSy smura-gdusy ana Lu-gdunumy since gd is to be 

- - ; — 

* [This mode of dividing is well intended, but perhaps too methodical it 
occasions difficulty to learners, an'i has little use, but rather betrays soam 
4flrectation {Scheller, L. G., vol. i., 31, Walker's trarisl)]— Am. Ed 



treated like cU 3. In compound words, the division must 
be made so as to keep the parts distinct, as inter-eram (not 
inte-reram), because the word is compounded o^ inter and 
eram. So, also, ah-utor, ah-radOf ahs-condo^ abs-temius (from 
temetum), sus-cipio (from the form snhs), dis-quiro, et-iam, 
ob-latum; and red-eOy red-undo , prod-eOf and sed-itio^ for 
the dy here inserted to prevent hiatus, must go with the 
preceding vowel, because, if added to the second, it would 
obscure the elements of the compound word. But when 
the component parts of a word are doubtful, or when the 
first word has drt>pped its termination to prevent hiatus, 
the syllables are divided as if the w;ord were not a com- 
pdund ; e. g., j^^'^^ (from pote or potis es), ani-madverto, 
and not anim-advertOf ve-neo (from venum eo), ma-gnani- 
mus, am-hages, and lon-gaevics^ 



[§ 15.] Syllables are long or short, either by the na- 
ture of the vowel they contain, or they become long by 
their short vowel being followed by two or more conso- 
nants, that is, by their position. We shall first speak of 
the natural length and shortness of vowels. 

1. All Diphthongs are long, and also all those single 

VQwels which have arisen from the contraction of two into 

one, such as cogo (from codgo), mdlo (from mdvolo), tihl 

cen (from tibiicen and tibia y but tubicen from tuba), blgae 

(from btjugae), babus and bobu8(^voTCi bovibus)^ and so, also, 

dls for diis, gratis for gratiis, and nil for nihil. 

Note. — The preposition prae is commonly made short when compounded 
with a word which begins with a vowel, e. g., Ovid, Metanuy vii., 131 : 
^uM ubi viderunt praeactUae cuspidis hastas. Th6 reason for this peculiarity 
is explained in the rule following ; but there is no other instance in the 
Latin language of a diphthong standing before a vowel, f It occurs only 
in Greek proper names, in which, however, the diphthong remains long, as 

Aeolides Sisyphus, and Aeeta relictus,{oT the examples which are adduced as 
gtoots of the diphthong being shortened (Ovid, Heroid.i vi., 103, and Tristf 
ui., 12, 2) are not decisive. • 

♦ [The carrying out of this system would lead, it is apprehended, to 
■ome ludicrous results ; as, for example, in such cases asfragmerUum, 
A'gmetL, &c. (Compare Journal of Education^ vol. i., ]). 94.)] — Am. Ed. 

t [The syllable pra being originally prm or prae, the latter of the two 
lowels is tacitly elided. Consult Anthonys I xrin Prosody, ed. 1812» p. 2S^ 
%ot.'\ — Am. Ed 

t lI:ngth and shortness of syllables. H 

r 2i A Vowel is short when it is followed by another 

vowel (Vocalis ante vocalem brevis est J, as in dettSfJilius, 
^ius, ruOy corruo ; and, as li is not considered as a conso- 
nant, also in such woi'ds as traho, contruho, vekOf and ad- 

[^ 16.] Note. — Exceptions.— 1. The vowel e in eheu is always long, tho 

[ o in ohe is frequently long, and the i in Diana sometimes.'^ 2. The e in 

the termination of the genitive and dative of the fifth declension is long 

^ when it is preceded by a vowel, as in dieiy speciei.f 3. a is long in the ob 

solete ending of the genitive in the first declension, as in awdi and pictdi^ 
for aurae una pictae^ in Virgil.J 4. a and e are long in the vocative terinina 

' tions di and ei of the words ending in aius and eius; e. g., Gai, Vultei 

(See chap, xi., note 3.)^ 5. All the genitives in mm, except alterhUf have 

h the i commonly long ; the poets, ho\vever, use the t in illiusf istiuSf ipsiusy 

? uniusj totiusy tUliusy and utrivsy sometimes as a long and sometimes as a 

short vowel. The instances of the t in soUus being shortened cannot be 

, relied upon ; but aSua, being a contraction for alUusy can never be made 

short. Alterius. on the other hand, is sometimes made long (see ^ 49). || 
6. The verb^ nas the i long, except when an r occurs in it. Ovid, Trist.f 

'' L, 8, 7 : Omnia jam fienty fieri quae, posse neg(U)am.% 7. Greek words retain 

th^r own origmal quantity, and we therefore say aery eos (^(jf), Amphion, 
Agesildwy and Meneldus. The e and t in the terminations ea and eusy or ia 
and ius, therefore, are long when they represent the Greek eia and eio^ 


* [The interjection eheti is thought to*have been abbreviated from heu 
heu by the transcribers. The first abbreviation would be heheuy which is 
common in the MSS., and hence, in process of time, arose eheu. (Compare 

• Wagner ad Virg., Eclog., ii., 68.) — Ohe follpws its primitive O, which, 

I since it cannot be elided, because words of this nature require a strong 

emphasis, is made either long or short when it falls before a vowel. 
Diana was originally Deiva Jana, the lunar goddess, 'contracted subse* 
quently into Deiana, and at last becoming Diana. The e of the diphthong 

^ being dropped gave rise to the double quantity of Diana, since it could be 

brought under the general principle^f one vowel before another. {Ram- 

) say^s Latin Prosody y^^. 25. Voss, de Art. Gram,y ii., 13. VarrOjR. R.y i., 37. 

CrrcBv.y Thes.y vol, viii., p.*3ll. Nigid. ap. Macrob., Sat. i., 19. Creuzery Sym 
bolik, par Guigniauty vol. ii., pt. L, p. 433.J] — Am. Ed. 

t • t [This peculiarity arises from the old forms of declension, ^ccordmg 

f to some, the nominative of the fifth declension was originally dieisy specieisy 

making in the genitive diei-is, speciei-isy which case afterward dropped 
the », and became dieii, specieii, and eventually dieiy speciiiy the t of the diph- 
thong being dropped. {Ramsayy Lot. Pros.y p. 22.) Others, however, 
make the original form of the nominative to have been dieisy specie-isy 
and (he genitive to have dropped its characteristic ending in *, and to 
have terminated like the old locative in i^thus making rf/c-i, specie-i^ &c 
{Boppy Vergleich. Gramm.y p. 141, ftqq.)] — *»«• Ed. 

t [The old form of the genitive singular of the first declension was 
a -{- isyi. e.yformdis, aurdiSf pictdia. &c., which was afterward abbreviated 

^ by d "dipping the », as formaiy awdiy pietdJi. {Boppy I. c. Allen's Analysis ^ 

6iC.y p. xviii.)] — Am^ Ed. * 

^ [The original forms of these names were*Cai/tM, Pompeiiusy &c., and 
hence the vocatives Cdly PompHy &c., are in reality Caii, Pompei-iy &c., 
which last undergoes another contraction, in Horace, into Pompei. ( Herat. 
Od., ii. 7, 6. Priscian, vii., 5.)]— Am. Ed, 

i| [Bopp considers the Latin genitive ending ius analogous to the San 
icrit terminfition syay the a being changed to u before the final *, by a very 
• isual process, in early Latin.' ( Vcr^/eiJ^. Gram,, p. 220.)] — Am, Ed 

^ rCoinparc Anthon's I^t. Pros.y ed. 1842, p. 16, tut.] — Am Ed. 



(ihu Romans, not having the diphthong ei ni their langi age, represent th< 
Greek ei sometime? by e and sometimes by t, but these vowels, of course 
are always long) ; e. g., Galatea^ Medea, ^SneaSf Darius or Daiius, Iphi 
aema^ Aterandria, Antiochlaj Nicomedia^ Samaria^ Ssleitciaf Thalia^ Arivs^ 
Basiiius, nosoconuum, and the adjectives Epicureus, Pythagnretus^ spondeus, 
and the like : but \Vlien the Greek is ea or la, the e and,» are short, as iD 
idea, philosophJaj theologia. The same is the case with the patronymic 
words in ides, since the Greek may be i6rjg^ as in Priamides and ^acldes , 
or et&Tjg, as in Atrldes, Pelides, which are derived from Atrexis and Peleus. 
ITie only exceptions to this rule are, that platea (a street) has the e short, 
though, according to the Greek n^xiTeia, it ought to be long, and that 
cfwrea is sometimes used instead of chorea (xopela). Some of the l4te 
Roman poets use academ\a instead of academta, although in Greek writers 
it is always long, whether spelled with ei or with i.* 

Note 2.— It is a part of the above rule, that a long vowel or diphthong 
^t the end of a word^ when the word following begins with a vowel, i^ 
usually made short m the thesis of a verse.t (See above, chap, i., 4, 
note 1). 

[§ 17.] 3. Usage (auctoritas) aloiie makes the vow^l 
in the fii-st syllable of mater, Jrater, pravus, mano (I flow), 
dico, dtico, miror, nitoTy scriho, dono, pono, utor, muto, sumo, 
cura, &c. long ; and short in pater, avus, cado, maneo, 
gravis, rego, tego, hibo, minor, cclo, motor, proho, domns, 
sono, soror, and others, Ij must be presumed that the stu-* 
deut makes himself acquainted with the quantity of such 
words as these by practice, for rules can be given only 
with regard to derivatives. It must farther be observed 
that the i in the following words is long : formica, lectica, 
lortca, vesica, *urtlca, /leifilna, reslna, saglna, saliva, castl- 

a. Derivative words retain the quantity of their root, 
as in declension and conjugation : thus the a iii amor and 
&mo is short, and therefore also in amoris, amat, dmabam, 
amavi, &c. except when the consonants after the vowel 
of the root produce a difference. New words formed 
from roots likewise retain the quantity ; as fit)m amo — 
amor, amicus, amahUis ; from lux, lucis — luceo, lUcidus ; 
from mater — Tnatemus, mdtertera; and from Jinis-^^nio, 
/initio, finitinms, &c. « 

[^ 18.] With regard to Conjugation, however, the following rules also 
must be observed : 

1. The perfect and supine, when they consist of two syllables, and the 
tenses formed from tkem, have the first syllable long, even when in the 
present tense it is short, e. g.*, video, vidi ; fUgiOf/ugi ; lego^ legi, legisse, 
legeram, &c4 (except, however, when one vowel stands before another 


* [Compare AnthorCs Lat. Pros.^ ed. 1842, p. 22, not,] — Am. Ed. 

t [Because the long vowel or diphthong loses one of its coroponen* 
vowels by elision, and there is no stress of the voice to lengtlven again thf 
remaining short onn.] — Am, Ed. * 

t fAccO'-dinff to the theor- O"" Grimm (Deutsche Gtammatik. vol. ; 



hi which case the genera, role ramaks in force, as in rHo, rii^ dirii), 
lOdeo, wwn ; mSveo^ in5ium, fnStua^ motwrus* Seven dissyllable |>erf6cts, 
ttowever, and nine dissyllable supines^ together with their compounds, 
make their penultima short;! tIz., bibi, dediy fhli (from^do), ttiti, stuif 
tUlh and sadi (from tdndo), and dahany rifum, ^ituntf ttum, tUumj eUum, 
qtittumf sttunif and riUum. Skto makes its supine ttStum, whente «ei/iw, a, 
»m, and the compounds adstUumy destUunif restftum. 

2. Perfects wbioh are fonned by reduplication, as fidido, tUtUdi ; eano^ 
etUfnii jpeUoj jpHpUiy hare the first two syUables short; knit the second 
Mxndtimes becomes long by position, as in mordeo, ml6mordi; ttndot tiUndL 
Ptdo and emdo are the only two words which retain the lon^ Towel in the 
syllable which forms the root, j>ep9dif cnidi ; whereas eado, m accordance 
with the nile,'ha8 cMdLt 

3. The perfect DMilt and the supine poMitim have the « "hort, although 
'mpom it IS hmg.^ , 

With regard to pedensio ., we must notice the excefHion that the 
words lar, paf\ sal, and ^is shorten their vowel threu;:,hout their decien- 
0ion: BoiiMfpidiSf 4cc. 

[^ ]9.] In the formation of ne«ir words oy Derivation, there are several 
exceptions to the abovB rule. The following woitls make the short vowel 
long : mScer, maeero ; t^^re^ lex, ItgiMf legttn ; rigo, roe, rigiSf r^yla; tiigo, 
tigula; «eOM», secnu ; sideOy wedea; terOf semeHf sementis; tfnOy Rtera (if we 
do not prefer Uttera) ; stipSi «flpi«, st^pendnmif mtapieoty nujnde; t wtg wo, 
periona ; voeoy vox, vocia; and Almo, kOmenimB. The following words have 
a short vowel, although it is long in the root : t&bearty from laki ; n&$are, 

p. 1056), those verbs which change a short vowel in the root, or present 
^ense, into a long e in the perfect, had originally a reduplication ; tnus. 
veniOf veveni, veint, vent, 

video, vMdi, vtidi. vidif 

• fUgiOf f^f^g}f /fi»1g», fftgi. 

foveOf fc^ovif focviy f^'^t 

&c. &c. &c. &c. 

It must be borne in mind, however, that the remarRs here made do hot 
apply to such preterites as /i?et, rm^ naaif &c., from ludo, rideoy mitto, &c., 
the preterites in these verbs having been formed by the insertion of 9, as 
htdti, ridrif mittsiy and the consonant or consonants before the « naving 
l>een- subsequently dropped for the sake of euphony. {Priuiiard, Origin 
•/Celtic Nations f p. 161.)]— ulm. Ed. 

* [The long syllables m viswn,motumJletumr &c., are owing to a change 
from earlier forms ; thus, vi*wn comes noaividsum: mottmi, from mSvifum, 
througlkthe intermediate mSUum; fletvm, iiomflmtumyfiRtum, &c. But . 
rihan, &c., are formed by syncope, and therefore continue shcnrt.] — Am. 

t [The seven dissyllable perfects are, in reality, no exceptions at all, but 
ere all reduplicating tenses, some of which have dropped tne first syllable, 
instead of contractmg the first two into one. lAnthmCt Last. Pros., p. 32, 
not.)]— Am. Ed. 

% [The first syllable in reduplicating preterites is short, as a matter of 
course, since it consists of a short prefix. The second syllable folfows 
the quantity oi the verbal root. Hence arise the two exceptions men- 
tioned in tne text, namely, aedo and pidoy where the first syllable of the 
verbal joot is long. The early form of the perfect of eado must have been 
eee^dL (Consult Priscian, x., 4, p. 489, ed. Putsch. Pott^ EtymoL Forsch., 
v»»L L, p. 19, seqq. KUkner, Gr. Gr., vol. i, p. 84, sejq. Bopp, Vergleiek. 
G-am.y p. 697, seqq.)^ — Am. Ed. 

^•fSinive thinks that the old form of pono vr&a'posno, thus accounting 
for the a in the perfect and supine, this letter having been dr)ppei in the 
present. ( Uebttr die Lot* DeoUn., &c., p. 283.)]- Am. Ed. 




(rom nare ; paxiscoTt from pax, pdcit ; amblhu and omM/to, from anMre, mmhk 
turn ; dlcax, from £cere ; fides and perffdus, from/ido and/idu« (and we regu 
laiiy find infidus) ; molestuSf from nto/«« ; nota Bn&notare, from noftw ; odttun 
from odi ; sopor, from sopire ; dux, dUds, and rediue, red&cis, from dfioo , 
lUcfrna, from /uceo ; «fa/u«, stdtio, stabilis, stabtUum must bo derived from 
tiito, unlesfs we suppose that they are likewise shortened from statnm 
from stare). 

[^ 20.] The Terminations, 3r final syllables, by means of which an 
adjective is formed from a verb or a substantive, are of a different kind. 
Among these, alis, oris, arms, aeeus, anus, ivus, and osus have a long vowel ; 
but idus, icus, and icius a short one ; e. g^ leidlis, vulgaris, numtanus, cuH- 
vus, vinpsus, aiidus, bellfcus,vatf!cius. A long t, however, occurs in anucus, 
apricus, pudicus, aniicus, and posticus, and in the substantives mendicus and 
umbUMMs. The terminations iUs and bills have the i short whep they mako 
derivatives from verbs, but long when from substantives; e. g.,/actits, 
iocilis, and aTmabXlis, but dviilis, hostilis, puenlis, senilis^ &c. The i in the 
, termination inus may be lo^g or short: it is long in adjectives derived 

from names of animals and places, as anserinus, asintnus, ^uitiua, iupinus, 
CaiuRnus, Latinus, and a few others, such as dwlnus, gemunus, clandesttnus, 
intestinus, mannus, peregfinus, and vidnus ; it is short in most adjectives 
which express time, as ycras&nus, diulinus, pristtnus, seroCbms, homotinus, 
perendinus, and in those which indicate a material or substance, as ada 
numtfmts, bombydlmis, crystalllnus, elepfumtinus, cedr1nus,faeinus, oleaginus. 
Some adjectives expressive of time, however, have the i long, viz., matu , 
tlnus, vespertimts, and rq)eit6mu. 

[§ 21.] (b) Compounded words retain the quantity of 
the vowels of their elements: thus/fi'om dvtis and nepos 
we make abdvtcs and ahnepos; from prdvus, deprdvo; from 
probusy improbus.; froriLJus (juris J, perjurus; from lego (I 
read), perlego; and from lego (I despatch), ablego, ddego, 
collega. Even when the vowel is changed, its quantity 
remains the same : o. g., laedo, illido ; caedo, incido ; 
aequus, iniquus ; fauces^ suffbco / claudo, recludo ; Judo, 
effuyio; cddo, incido; rdtuSfirritUs; rcgo,erlgo; lego, elf go. 
We may, therefore, infer from compounded words, the 
quantity of those of which they consist; e. g., from add*- 
ro, admiroTf and abutor we conclude that oro, miror, and 
utor have the first syllable* long; and fi^m commdror and 
desuper xhdX the first syllable in moror and super is short, 
which is not always accurately distinguished in pronun- 
ciation, because these syllables have the accent. (See 
Chap. IV.) 

We shall mention here, by way ot example, a few more compounds 
from which the quantity of the vowels in their elements may be inferred. 
^-^ — Wo shall choose such as cannot be mentioned in any of the subsequen 
lists, and present them in the third person -singular of the present tenss 
We have a long vowel in exhalat, concldmat, (dldtrat, deUbat, consllpat, etntat, 
trritat, deplorat, enddat, compotat, refHtat, obdurat, and commUnit; and a short 
one in exdrat, comparat, enatat, irngat, alltgal, per/neat, erCdit, expolit, dewrat, 
tumnrobat, compHtat, recUbat, and suppucUt. 

Bat there are some exceptions, and the following compounded wordi 
change the long vowel into a short one : dejero and nejiro, from jitro; c<m> 
fidtciif , fatidicus, maledicus, veridicus, from dicere ; ag^itus and wgnitns, fron 


,- inniibCtis)t -a, and pronUb^us), -a, from nUbo.* The case is ererted 
in imbicilhs irolu biciUus. 

£^ 22.] In respect to Composition with Prepos. tions^ it is to be re« 
marked tba( prepositions of one syllable which end in a vowel are long 
and those which end in a consonant are short : diduco, aboUOf perimo. Tra 
(formed from trans) j as in trddot trdduco^ is lon^ ; but the o (for ob) in omitto 
and operior is short. Pro^ in Greek words, is short, as in prop/ieta ; but 
prologus^ propola, and propino form exceptions. In Latin woras pro is long ; 
e. g.f prodo, prottuUo ; but in many it is short ; profugiOf profuguSf pronepoSf 
vrofiteor, prbj'ari^ pro/anus jprofestusy p-yfectOyj^rafuiscortOrdfundnSt proteryu*, 
* fToceUa, and a few others, the derivution of which is aoubtful, as prdcere*, 
propUius, properare ; in some the quantity is undecided. Se and di (for ditS 
are long ; the only exceptions are dirimo and disertus. Re is short ; it 
long only in the impersonal verb referi:i in all other cases where it ap 
pears long, the consonant which follows it must be doubled (in verse), as 
m reppidif repperi^ rethdi, rettudif recddoy redduco, relUgioy relliquue; the four 
perfects, remmif repperi, rettvUy and rettudij appear to have been pronounced 
and speUed m this way, even in prose.| In the same manner, reddoj reddere^ 
arose from do. The termination a in prepositions of two syllables is long, 
as in coniradico ; all the others are short, as anteftroy praetirto. 

(^ 23.] When the first word of a composition is not a preposition, it is- 
necessary to determine the quantity of the final vowel (o^ e, t, 09 u, y) of 
tlie first word. 1. a is long, as m quire and 'fua^ropfer, except in quasi. 
2. e is mostly short, as in calefacio (notice especially nequCf nequeoj nefasy 
tufastuSf rufaritts, tiefandva)^ but long in nequaniy neqwdquam, nequaquanif and 
nirno (which is contracted from ne and hemOf the anrient form for homo) ; 
also in sededm and the pronouns memety mectniy /ec»<m, and seoum; id 
venificue, videUcety^ vecorSy and 'vesanus. 3. i is short, e. g., sigmficoy aaari' 
leguMf cormcetiy tubiceuy onmipotensy undique ; but long iu compounded pro* 
nouns, as qmlibety vXnquey in ibideniy ubiquey utrobique, ilictt, ancl scilicet ; also 
in the. compounds of dies, as biduumy tnduumy meridies ; and, lastly, in all 
those compounds of which the parts may be separated, such as lucri/acioy 
agnculturay aquis, because the t at the end of the first word is naturally 
long, and remains so. 4. o is short, hodicy duodeciniy sacrosatxr-tus, but long 
in compounds with controy introy retroy and quando {quandC^tiidem alone 
forms an exception) ; it is long in alioquiy ceterdquiy utroque, «tud in those 

* [The second syllable in connubium is naturally short, l)u» it is occa- 
sionally lengthened by the poets in the arsis of the foot. Con \» are Virg.y 
JRn,y i., 73, with iii., 319J— ilm. Ed. 

tJThe re in refert comes, according to some, from the dati» ♦ m, ac 
cording to others, from the ablative re, of the noun res, and the ^erhfero. 
Verrius Flaccus, the ancient grammarian, as cited by Festus, v\v8 in fa- 
vour of the dative. Reisig, on the contrary, maintams that refet\ comes 
from the ablative re and the verb/cr/, and makes refert wiea, for'e^xmple, 
equivalent to re fert medy " it brings (something) to bear in my viasei 
{Jieisigy VorUsungeriy p. 640, ed. Haase. Benary, Romische LatUlehre, vol. i., 
9. 37. Hartungy iiber die Casusy p. 84. Schmidy de Pronom.y p. 79.) Key, 
on the other band, is in favour of the accusative, and considers rife-t med 
as originally rem fert meam, and, as an omitted m leaves a long vow«^ he 
accounts in this way for the long vowels in re and med. {Keyy JJph* bet, 
p. 78.)]— Am. Ed. 

t [The. classification here given is faulty and confused. In r«cado, rrf. 
iucoy relligioy and reUiquitB the explanation is this, that the aiicient { rm 
»f re was red, and this final d, in three of the words given, changer to 
tnother consonant by the principle of assiraLation. On tho other hi • d 
'eppuU, repperi. rettuliy and rettudi are all deduced from perfects of redi "U 
cation. {AntkotCs Lat. Pros.y ed. l842, p. 129 ; Journal of Edwatunty v< V, 
p. 95.)]— Am. Ed. 

6 [Compare Journal of Educatiuriy vol. i. p 95 ] — Am. Ed, 


Greek words in which the represents the Greek <•», as in geom^ruL & • 
Bnd y are short, as in quadrUpeSy Polyphemus. 

4. Jn regard to the quantity of Final Syllables, the 
following special rules must be observed : 

A. Monosyllabic Words. 

[§ 24.] 1. All monosyllables ending in a vowel are 

long, except the particles which are attached to other 

words : qv^, ve, ce, ne, te (tutej^ pse freapsej, and pte^ 


Note. — Ne^ the interrogatiTe particle, is always short, and is attached te 
other words as an enclitic, as in videmey dost thou sea? or dost thou not 
see ? In the ordinary pronunciation it was still more shortened by throw- 
ing off the vowel, as m credon* tibi hoc nunc 7 and, in case of ai^ « preceding, 
this letter was likewise dropped, as cuvi tu ? for aun« tu ? satin* recte 1 satm^ 
salvae ? for satitne recte ? satisne salvae ? The conjunction ne (lest, or that 
not) is long. Itespecting n«, as an inseparable negative p&rticle in com 
positions, see above, ^ 23. 

2. Among the monosyllables ending in a consonant, the 
substantives are long, as sol, vvr^ fur, jus ; and all those 
are short which are^not substantives, as ut, ety ncc, hiy an, 
ad, qmdy sed, quts, quot, Xhe following substantives, how- 
ever, are short : cor, fel, mel, viVy and os (gen. ossisj, and 
probably, also, mas, a male being, and vas, a surety, since 
they have the a short in the genitive : m&ris, vddis. Some 
words, on the other hand, are long, although they are not 
substantives ; as en, non, qmn, sin, crdsy plus, cur, and par, 
with its compounds, and also the adverbs in ic or «c, as 
stc, hic, hue. The monosyllabic forms of declension and 
conjugation follow the general rules about the quantity of 
finsd syllables, and dasyfies, and *cw, accordingly, are long, 
while datyflit, and scit are short; his, quos, quds are long, 
like the terminations os and as in declension. So, also, the 
ablative singular hoc and hae. The nominative hic and 
t)ie neuter hoc, on the other hand, although the vowel is 
naturally short, are commonly used as long, because the 
pronunciation was hicc and 7u}cc (as a compensation foi 
the ancient form hice, ?ioceJ.* The abridged imperatives 
retain the quantity of the root, so that die and dm are 
long, while yac ajidfer are ^hort. 

Note. — ^We formerly thought, with other grammarians, that/ac was 
long, and that we ought to read /ace in those passages in which it is found 
short. (See Heinsins and Burmann on Ovia, Heroid., ii., 98.) But there 
is'no satisfactory evidence for /ac being long, and the instances quoted by 
Vossi'is {Aristarch., ii., 29) have now been altered for other reasons. 

* [Compare Anthonys Lai. Pros,j p. 82, not ]^Am. Ed- 


13. Final Syllables in Words cr two or mors Syllaiuch. 

[f 25.] 1. Such as terminate in a Vowel, 

A is short in nouns, except in the ablative singular of 
the first declension and in the vocative of Greek proper 
names in as v\rhich belong to tke first or third declension, 
e. g., JSnea, Palld. A is long in verbs and indeclinable 
words, such as ama, Jrtistra, ergd, anted, and posted (ex- 
cept vrhen separated into post eaj, except itd, quid, eid, 
and the imperatives^ in the sense of ** for example."* 
In the indeclinable numerals, as triginta and quadragin- 
ta, the a is sometimes long and sometimes short. 

lEl is sihort^ as in patre, cwrre, nempe; but long in the ab- 
lative of the fifth declension and in the imperative of the 
second conjugation; the poets, hovrever, and especially 
the comic ones, sometimes shorten the imperative -of the 
words cave, hahe, jube, mane, tace, vale, and vide.\ Ad- 
verbs in e, formed firom adjectives of the second declen- 
sion, are likewise long, as docte, recti : also, fere, fermCf 
and ohe (but bene and male are always short, and inferne 
and superne sometimes), and Greek words of the first de- 
clension terminating in e, as crambe, Circe, and Greek plu- 
rals, as Tempe and cete, 

[§ 26.] J is long. It is short only in the vocative of 
Greek words in is, e. g., Alexi, in the Greek dative in i, 
which, however, occurs seldom, as in Palladt, Teihyi, ai\d 
in nisi, quasi, and cm, when it is used as a dissyllable. 
The i is common or doubtful in mihl, sibl, ibl and ubi ; * 
in compounds we commonly find ibidem, and always ubi 
que, whereas in ubivis ajid ubtnam the i is always short. 
In uti, for ut, the i is long, but in the compounds utXnam 
and utique short. 

O is common in the present tense of all the conjugations, 
and in the nominative of the third declension, as in sernio, 
virgo } the Greek words in o (w, Gen. ovf), however, re- 
main long in Latin, as Jo, Dido, But o is long in the sec- 
ond declension, as in lecto, and in adverbs formed from 

* [Compare jlnlA<m*8 Xol. Frot., p. 67, not^—Am, Ed. 

t [The apparent anomaly in cave is easily explained by the supposition 
that anciently two forms of the verb were in use, one belonging to the . 
second, and the other to the third conjugation, just as we find both/er»r« 
and/ervo ; fidgeo and fulgo :»oleo and ofo, &'c. {Struve, aber die Lot. DecL, 
&e., p. 189.) With regard, however, to *aW5, jubi, mune, tace^ &c.j the 
evidence of their employ nent seems very donbtfu). ' The question will bt 
♦nund discussed by Ramn ly {Lat. Piw.t pf 44, seqq )] — Am, Ed. 


nouns and pronouns by means of this term nation (see 

§264); e. g., vulgo^falso, patdo, eo, quo, and also ergo, 

icfdrcd, qUandOf and retro. In the poets, however, gerunds* 

and the following adverbs are sometimes short : ergo, tn 

the sense of " therefore,^' porro, postremo, sera, quando 

(the compound qtmn^oquidem occurs. only with a short oJ,i 

The adverbs modo (with all its compounds, and also quo 

modo), cUo, illico, and tmmOf and also cedo {fn die or da J 

egOj^duo, and octo^ are always short, whereas f/nbo is gen 

erally long. x 

Note. — O, as a termination of verbs, has been here described as commoa ; 
it Qiust, however, be observed that it is naturally longj, and is used so b 
most poets of the best age, such as Virgil, Horace (in his Odes), and Ovid 
(in his Metamorphoses), in their serious productions. In their lightei 
poems, however, and in the works of later poets, it is also used shor , 
according to the example of the comic poets, though this was done ac 
first leas frequently, until at last it bec.ime the ])revalent custom to make 
the short. (See Lennep's elaborate note on Ovid, Heroid.f xv., 32, re- 
printed in the edition of Loers.) The same is the. case with o in substan- 
tives of the third declension, for the earlier poets always prefer using it as 
a long syllable. 

[J is always long, as in diit, vuliu, comu^X 
Y, in Greek words, is always short. 

2. SiccJt, as terminate in. a Consonant, 

L§.27.] All final syllables ending in a consonant aro 
short,^ and special rules are required only for those end- 
ing in the sibilant s. 

Note. — The dissyllabic compounds of par retain the quantity of the sin- 
gle word, and the cases ofistic and itlic follow thpse of Ate. (See ^ 131.) 
Greek words retain their original quantity in their final syllables, except 
those in or, as Hector, Nestor, which are short in Latin, although in Greek 
they end in top. The onl^ exceptions in genuine Latin words are lien 
(formed from lienis, which is still used) and alec. • 

[§ 28.] As is long in Latin words, with the exception 

* [The final o in gerunds is, perhaps, never found short,' except in wri- 
ters subsequent to the Augustan age. (Consult Heyne ad Tibull., iii.^ 
6, 3.)]— ilm. Ed. 

t [The final o is, perhaps, never found short in ergo, ideo, immo, porro, 
postremo, sero, vero, except in writers subsequent to the Augustan age. 
{Ramsay, Lot. Pros., p. 58.)] — Am. Ed. 

X [Irutil, the old form of in, and nenU for non, both Lucretian words, havf 
the tt short. The « continues short, also, in- those words which naturally 
end in short ^», and are only deprived of the s by the more ancient mode 
of pronunciation, in order to preserve the syllable from becoming long by 
its position before a consonant at the beginning of the following word ; as^ 
pienH^ for plenHs, boniV for bontis, &c.l — Am. Ed. 

^ [The language of the text is rather too brief here. The student will 
do well to consult some treatise specially devoted to matters of prosody.] 
'^Am. £i • ♦ 


of an68, anMis ; but the (xreek nominatives in as, which 
make their genitives in odp^, and in Latin in adis, such as 
Bias, Pallas^ and the Greek accusativesj)lural of the third 
declension, are always short, as in heroas, 

JSs is long, e. g., amis, leges, audits, patres. But Latin 

u iminatives in es, which increase in the genitive, and have 

f.lieir penultima short, are themselves short ; e. g., miles, 

mi litis ; seges, segetis (except dbies, aries, paries, Ceres, 

niid the compounds of pes J; also the nominatives plural 

if Greek •words, which increase in the genitive singular, 

i}B Amazones, Troades /* the preposition penes and the 

MOcond person of the compounds of sum, es, e. g., abes, 

fHtcs; but the es (for edisj from edo is long. (See § 212.) 

[§ 29.] Is is generally short, but long in ail the cases 

ol the plural, as armis,'vohis, omnls (accus. for omnes) ; in 

tlie second person singnlar of verbs whose plural is xtis, 

' tliut is, in the fourth conjugation, and in possis, velis, noUs, 

malts, and vis (thou wilt), with its compounds, such as 

mavis, quivis, quamvis. Ilespecting the quantity of is in 

tin*, perfect subjunctive and in the second future, see § 165. 

/v, lastly, is long in proper names of the third declension, 

which, increasing in the genitive, have their penultima 

long; e. g., Quiris, ttis; Samnis, ttis; Salamls, mis ; Si- 

mats, entis.\ 

Os is long, as in nepos, honos, viros ;• it is short only In 
compos and impds,\ and in Greek words .and cases in og, 
e. g., DeloSf Erinnyos, 

Us is sTiort in verbs and nouns except monosyllables^ 

^ . but lone in the genitive singular, in the nominative and 

accusative plural of the fourth declension, and in the nom- 

^ inatives of the third, which have ii in the genitive^ as vii^ 

*us, tUis '; palus, udis. It is also long when it representg 

*. die Greek ovg^ as in Tanthus, Melampus, SapphOs. (Comp. 

R 59.) 

Ysj in Greek words, is shorty €is Halys^ Tethys, chlamys^ 

* [The final es is likewise short in Greek neuters ; «s, cacoHthes, hippo 
mania, &C. But nominatiyes and vocatiyes plural in* es, from Greek 
nominatives forming the genitiye singular in fs, are long; as, hareset. 
» crueSfphraaea, &c.] — Am. Ed, 

t [The noun vis is also long, and likewise the adverbs fms, gratis 

ingratis. It must be observed that /oris is, in fact, tne ablative plural ol 

' faro, " a door ;" and that rratis and ingrdds are contracted datives plura' 

» for gratOs and tttfraftw. which are found in the open form in the ccpiN 

r writers.!— iim. Ed. 

t [And also in o«, " a b«ne/' and its compound. ex6sJ]^Am. Ed 

*44 LATIN QjaAMAtAK. « 

niJi long only in tlie few instaiu5e8 in wliich the yiis of liw 
genitive is contracted into ys. 

[§ 30.] 5. Syllables (as was remarked in the begin- 
ning of this chapler) ij,9.y become long by their voweJ 
oeing followed by two or more consonants, that is, by their 
position : x and z are accounted as two consonants. . (See 
aiK)ye, § 3.) A position ma^y be formed in tlnree ways : 
1* When a syllable ends in two or three consonants, as in 
ex, est, mens, stirps, 2. When the first syllable ends in a 
consonant and the second begins with one, as in Hie, artna, 
mentis, in nova. 3. When the first syllable ends in a vow- 
el, and the one following begins with two consonants. By 
the first and second kiods of position, a syllable which is 
naturally short becomes long. Exceptions to this rule oc- 
cur only in the comic poets, who frequeiitly neglect posi- 
tion, especially that of the secondjkind. 

Note. — ^In syllables long by position we usually pronounce the vowel 
itself short; but the ancients in their pronunciation even here distin- 
guished the long vowel from the short one, just as in Greek we must pro- 
nounce wpaaaQ with a long a, because it is naturally lung, as we see irom 
7rpo^£f and izpayfM. With regard to otUir vQv^ela, we are assisted by the 
Greek signs 9, a>, and e, ; but in Latin words, unless we can be guided by 
verse, we can derive infonnation only from et3Fmology and from the state* 
ments of the ancient grammarians. Thus they disunguisbed eat (he is^ 
from eat (for edit), and they pronounced the vowel in con and m, when fol 
lowed in compounds by /or «, as in infetix, inaanust cdnsaUt cmfecit. {&ee 
Cicero, Orat., 48.) Derut gen«, mens, fona^frfyna, and mona were uttered 
with a long vowel, and, in like manner, poor, lexy /tq^ ror, and vox,, because 
hey have their vowel long in the genitive also (pleDa,plel>iat belongs to the 
same class) ; whereas /a«, nex, nir, mux were pronounced with-theur vowel 
short, because they form the genitive /act>, neda, (Sic (Comp.' Schneider, 
EUmentarL, p. 108, £»U.) 

[§ 31.] In the third kind of position (mad^ by two con- 
sonants beginning the syllable after a vowel), we must dis- 
dngtdsh as to whether it occurs within a word or between 
two yrotiB, and whether the consonants are muta cum li- 
quida, or not. Within a word a syllable ending in a short 
vowel is regularly made long, when it is followed by two 
consonants, or x and z<, as in c^ptusf Ja-ctus^.a-ocis ; but 
when the first consoncmt is a nmte and the second a liquid 
(which is called ^m^ debiUsJ, they make the vowel only 
common, according to the pronunciation in prose. Thus» 
we may pronounce either cerebrum, lugubris, mediocris^ 
integriy or cerebrum, Itigubris, medidcris, int^gri, Ovid, 
for example, says : Etprimo simdlis volmri^ max vera vo- 
lucris, (Metam,, xiii., 607.) Between jtwo words the vow- 
eiis rarelv length enod^ except in the arsis of a verse. Th# 


last sylluble of a word thus remains short, e. g,, in Horace 
at the beginning of an hexameter: quern mala stultitia aut; 
or at the end : praemia scribac* An instance in which the 
vowel is lengthened by the accession of the arsis occurs in 
Virgil, Bucol.f ir., 51. : Terrasque tractusque maris coelum- 
que projundum. 

Qu IS not accounted as two consonants, for u is not a 
true consonant, though we usually pronoimce it as such. 
But^* alone is sufficient to make position, because this con- 
sonant was pronounced double (m early times it was also 
written double) ; e. g., major like maijor^\ and, in like man- 
ner, in ejus and Trcja, In the compoimds ofjugum alone 
it does not lengthen the preceding vowel, as bijugus^ quad- 
ryugusy\ nor does it, according to the rule mentioned above, 
lengthen the vowel when it begins a new word, and the 
preceding word ends in a short vowel, as in the hexame- 
ter of Virgil (Georg,f i., 125.) : Ante Jovem nulli suhige- 
bant arva colonL^ 

Note. — ^The determination of the quantity of a vowel before muta cwh 
Uquida within a word has great difficulties, and we must add the foUowing 
ODserrations : The practice of the different poets varies greatly. Virgil, 
e. g., is particularly fond of lengthening a vowel by its position before 
muta cum HqtUda ; and he and the poets in general usually contrive to 
make the vowel thus lengthened coincide with the arsis in the verse ; by 
the same contrivance, he also lengthens the short final syllable of a word, 
especially the enclitic fur, in the second foot of an hexameter, by the 
muta cum liouMa which follow it. We have farther to observe particular 
woitls whicn have their vowel short, viz., liber y ntger^ptger^ and rfi6er; but 
in their inflections, where the muta cum Uquida occurs, the vowel almost 
always becomes long; coififter, e. g., is short; but colubrae^ colUbris^ are 
long, and migro is made long by the best poets in the hexameter. Othei 
wonis, however, are either never lengthened, as arlntror. or very seldom, 
as locUples. There are, on the other hand, some cases of muta cum Uquida 
which form a strong position both in Latin and Greek, viz., where the 
Uqnid is either I, m, or n, and the mute either 6, gf or d. (See Buttmann's 
Ure4t Grammar, ^ 7. 10.) Thus the Latin words jnMicus^ agmen^ regtium, 
and ignarus always have their first syllable long. 

It IS almost superfluous to repeat here that we are spe9king only oi 
■QGh vowels as are naturally short; |br, when the vowel is naturally long, 
a lengtheoiog by posUio dehUs is out of the question, and we therefore 
always say ambmdcrum, lavdcrumf delUbrum, tntw/ficrum, and salubris. Wher 
the consonaMie muta cum Uouida belong to different syllables, as in ab-luo 
ob-ruo, quam-ob-rem, they ma|Le rQal position. 

* [As regards the initial SC, SM, SP, fitct, consult Schneider, L. C, vo* 
li., p. 694 ; and Rqmsay, Lai. Pros., jt. 260, stqq.^^Am. Ed. 

* [It 18 far more correct to consider the j m major, &c., which is, in 
ftujt, nothing more than an t, as forming « diphthong with the preceding 
vdwel, the word being paronotinced as if written mai-or.'] — Am. Ed. 

t [It could not by any possibility lehgthen the preceding vowel, since 
U^igmsvad quadrijugua are in fact kiugus, quadniugu8.}^Am. Ed. 

^ [Here, again, the initial letter of Jovem is a mere vowel, and the word 
li to be pronounced as if written Yov-en.}- -Am. Ed. 






[§ 32.] Ir is a general rule that every word has an ao 
cent on one particular syllable. This accent is twofold, 
either the circumjlex (*) or the acute ('), for what is call- 
ed the grave in Greek meang only the absence of either 
accent. Some words have no accent, viz., the enclitics 
»e, que, t?e, ce, which never appear by themselves, but are 
attached to other words. Prepositions lose their accent 
when they precede the cases which they govern. 

Note.—The addition of these encjitics produces a change in the accent 
of the words to which they are attached, and which thus become com 
pounds. The ancient gramioarians have established the rule that, when 
ever an enclitic has a meaning of its own, the accent is thrown back*^ 
upon the syllable immediately before the enclitic, and either as the acute 
(u the vowel of that syllable is short), or as the circumflex (if the vowel 
is long), as in Musdaue (nominat.) hominequet and Musdque (ablat.) arm*que. 
When, on the other hand, the enclitic has no meaning by itself, and forms 
only one word with that to which it is attached, the accent varies, as will 
be shown hereafter. This is the case with ^ue; for in some compounds 
it either does not possess the meaning of " and" at all, or only very in- 
distincUy. Hence, in itatme (and so) the accent belon|[s to the short 
penultima, and in itaque (therefore), m which the meanmg of *' and*' is 
quite obscured, the pronunciation places the accent upo0 the antepe 
nultima. In the same manner, we have to distinguish between utiqxu 
(and that) and Mque (certainly.) By way of exception, the same gram- 
marians place the accent on the penultima in tUrdque and pleraquey on ac- 
count of the accent of the masculine forms tuerque and vleHque ; although, 
according to the general rule, aw. not meaning " and,'' we ought to pro 
nounce ^trat^ and pleraque. They farther inform us that we should 
pronounce nequando and siquandOf in order that quando may not be taken 
for a separate word, and aliquandOf in order to distinguish it from aUqudnto, 

[§ 33.] 2. Monosyllables are pronounced with the cir 
cumflex, when theii: vowel is long by nature, and not mere- 
ly by position, as in dds^ mds^JlSsyju*^ lux^ spes^Jons^ and 
m&ns ; but when the vowel is naturally short, they are pro- 
(loimced with the acute, although the syllable ia%y be long 
by position ; e. g., dr*, p&ra^fax^ du^. 

Note. — Sic (so) the adverb should be pronounced with the circumflex 
— . ■ — — — » 

* [This phraseologjr is objectionable. A tkrotoing back of the accent, in 
the case of enclitics, is the common form of expression, but. is calculated 
to produce a wrong idea of the nature of such words. When the enclitic 
is joined in pronunciation with the preceding word, a chan^^e of accen 
necessarily takes place, these enclitics increasing the precedmg word b« 
cs many syllables as each enclitic possesses. {GottUngf Element* qf'A^ 
unhuUhiu OxU 1831, p. 100.)]— ilm. Ed, 


•od stCf which indicates a wish, with the acute ; e. g ^ Sic te, divapoteru 
€j/pri, 6cc.y in Horace. Comp. Priscian, De XII. Vers JEn. 

3. Words of two syllables have the accent on the first, 
either as circuxifiex, when the vowel of that syllable is 
naturally long, and that of the second one short ; or as 
acute, when the vowel of the first syllable is short and 
that of the second long; tr when the vowel of the first, aa 
well as that of the second, is long ; e. g., Rdma, mdts&y liice, 
juris; hut hdrriof becaus'e both syllables are short; deas^ 
because the first is short and the second long ; drtCf be- 
cause the first is Ic ng only by position ; and doii^ for al 
though the vowel of the first is naturally long, yet that of 
the second is likewise long. The ancient grammarians do 
not notice those cases where a syllable long by position is, 
at the same time, long by the nature of its vowel (see above, 
§ 30) ; but it is probable that cCnstd^ monte, dSnte, esse (for 
ederej^ dsthmaf and sciptrum were pronounced in the same 
manner as lUice, 

4. Words of three syllables may have the accent on tho 
antepenultima and penultima; the acute on the antepenul- 
tima, when the penultima is short, as in caSdereypergerCy 
homines; the accented syllable itself may be long or short. 
The circumflex is placed on the penultima on the condi- 
tions before mentioned, as in amdsse^ Romdnus ; and the 
acute, when those conditions do not exist, and yet the pe- 
nultima is long, as in Romdnis, Metellus. No word can 
have the accent farther back than the antepenultima, so 
that we must pronounce Constantinopolis, sollicitadini' 

Note. — Priscian (p. 803, ed. Putsch) remarks as* an exception, that the 
compounds of /ocere, which are not formed by means of a preposition, such 
as calefacU, tepe/acUf and (p 739) the contracted genitives in t, instead of 
it (see ^ 49), have the accent on the penultima, even when it is short, as 
in inghii, Valerij so that we mutt pronounce ctUefdcitf ingeni. He asserts 
the same with regard to the vocative of proper names in tus, e. g., VirgUi^ 
Valeri ; while other ^ranunariana (A. GeUius, xiii., 25) leave to this caso 
its regular accentuation, Virgiliy and not Virgin. 

[§ 34.] 5. Words of two or more syllables never have 
the accent on the last, and it appears that it was only the 
grammarians who invented a different mode of accentua- 
tion, for the purpose of distinguishing words which would 
otherwise sound alike. - They tell' us^that the words pone 
(behind) and ergd (on account of) should have the accent 
on the last syllable, to distinguish them fi-om p&ne (put) 
and ergo (therefore). They fartffer accentuate the last 


syllables of the adverbs circum^ doctc^ raro^ ptifnoj solum^ 
and modo^ to distinguish them from the cases which have 
the same terminations. The interrogatives quando^ qti<dis^ 
quantus^ ubi^ and others, are said to have tha accent on the 
tir^t .syllable, according to the rule ; but when used in the 
senAe of relatives, to have the accent on the last syllable, 
unless the acute be changed into the grave by reason of 
their connexion w^ith qther words which follow. The 
words ending in as, which originally ended in atis, such as 
' optimaSf nostra^^ Arpinas^ are said to h&ve the accent on 
the syllable on which they had it in their complete form, 
and which is now the last. . The same is asserted vnth 
regard to the contracted perfects, such as audit for audi- 
vit. It is impossible to determine- how much of all this 
was really observed by the ancients, since it is expressly 
attested by earlier writers, such as Quintilian, that in Lat- 
in the accent was never put on the last syllable. But it 
is certainly wrrong to put the grave on the last syllable of 
all adverbs, as some persons still do, or to use accents for 
the purpose of indicating the natural length of a vowel, 
which is better expressed by a horizontal line ("). 

[§ 35.] 6. These rules concerning accentuation ought 
CO lead us to accustom ourselves to distinguish accent from 
quantity ; to read, for example, homines^ and not Jiomines^ 
and to distinguish, in our pronunciation, edo (I eat) from 
edo (I 6dit), lego (I read) from Ugo (I despatch), and in 
like manner, yjim (thou ravest), Z<^m (thou revest), and 
regis (thou rulest) from the genitivesytirw, regis, and legis; 
farther, levis (light) from levis (smooth), m6ltLs (bad) from 
tnMus (an apple-tree), palus, iidis (a marsh), from pdlus, % 
(a post), Snus (an old woman) from Anus (7rp6)«T6f ), lUtum 
(mud) from lutum (a dyer's weed), and also lU'teus (dirty 
or muddy) from lH'teus (yellow), and pB^ptdus (the people) 
from po^pulus (a poplar). Ill our own language accent 
and quantity coincide, but it is very vn-ong to apply this 
oeculiarity to a language to which it is foreign.* 

* [The student will find some very sensible remarks on this subject in 
the dissertation of JIf. Burette on Plutarch's Dialogue.on Music. {Mem, 
U lAtt.f tirezdes regietrea de VAcad. Roy, dee Inecriptiom, &C., vol. x.,p. 189.) 
Noth^g can show more clearly the utter absurdity of pronouncing Greek 
oy accent alone than the applying of this same svstem of pronunciation 
ID the Latin language. * (Compare Luikomue^ uber die Avtsprache du 
Otieeh., p. 250.)}— Am. Ed, 





[§ 36.] The words of every language are either nouna, 
verbs, or particles. 

A noun serves to denote an object or a quality of an ob- 
ject, and may accordingly be either b. substantive, as donrns 
!a house), a pronoun^ as ego (I), or an adjective, as parvus 
small). Nouns are declined to indicate their different 

A verb expresses an action or condition which is ascri- 
bed to a person or a thing, as scribo, ire, dormire^ amari. 
A verb is conjugated in order to indicate the different 
modes in which an action or condition is ascribed to a 
person or a thing. 

Particles are those parts of speech which are neither 
declined nor conjugated, and which are neither nouns 
nor verbs. They are divided into the following classes : 
1. Adverbs express the circumstances of an action or con 
dition ; Qs,scribit bene, he writes well ; diu dormit, he sleeps 
long. 2. Prepositions express, either directly or indirect- 
ly (§ 295), the relations of persons or things to one an- 
other, or to actions and conditions; as, amor meus erga te^ 
my love towards thee ; eo ad te, I go to thee. 3. Con- 
junctions express the connexion between. things, actions, 
or propositions ; as, ego et tu ; clamavity sed pater non 
audivit. 4. Interjections are the expressions of emotion 
by a single word ; as, aA, ohe, vae. 

These are the eight parts of speech in Latin : all at 
tbem occur in the following 1 exameter : 

Vae tibi rtdenti^ quia nurx post gaudiaflebu^ 




[§ 37.] Nouns substantive are either proper (nomina 
^opria), i. e., the names of. one particular man or thing, 
or common (nomina appeUativa)^ i. e., such as denote per- 
sons or things in so far as they belong to a class. 

All nouns have one of three genders : masculine^ femi- 
nine, or neuter. 

The manner in which the gender of a noun can be as- 
certained from its termination will* be explained under 
each declension. Our object here is to show the gender 
.>f nouns, both proper and common, i»so far as it depends 
upon their nieaning.* 

1. The following are masculine: the names of men and 
of male beings ; as, homo^ vir^ scriba^ flamen^ consul^ rex, 
deus^ daemon^ Cupido (the God of Love), manes (the spir- 
its of the departed), lemures (spectres) ; and the names 
of rivers, winds, and months, the words fluvius^ ventiis^ 

• mensis being themselves masculine* 

[^ 38.] Exceptions. — ^There are some substantives which do not origi* 
nally denote men, but have come to be apjilied to them by custom ; as, 
operae^ labourers; vigiliae and excvbiae^ sentinels; c^'ae, ^troops ; auxiliOf 
auxiliary troops ; mancipium^ a slave ; scortum and prostUnUvm^ a prostitute. 
All such words have the gender which belongs to them according to theii 

The names of rivers in a, belonging to the first declension, vary in their 
gender. (See Schneider, Formenlehre^ p. 14.) Modem writers commonly 
make them feminine ; but the ancients, in most cases, make them mascu- 
lines, which is the gender belonging to them. (See ^ 47.) The mytho- 

* [**. Dr. Zumpt, in this part of his Grammar, appears to place too much 
reliance on the authority of the Latin grammarians. It should be recol 

• lected that most of these writers lived long after the authors upon whom 
their comments are made,. and at a time, too, when the very structure, 
and certainly the very idioms of the language, were materially altered. 
The living tdn^^ue of their times was an unsafe standard of comparison ; 
while the relation in which they stood to the waitings of Cssar and Cicero 
was the same in kind as that in which we ourselves stand. On the other 
hand, it is much to be regretted that not one .among them possessed any 
of that philosophical spirit which begins to distinguish modem philology. 
Those who have been in the habit of consulting the commentaries of Do- 
natus and Servius, or the more systematic work of Priscian, will admit 
that the testimony of this class of writers, though ot occasional value, 
should always be received with caution. The judgment of even Varro 

, and Quintilian is not always to be depended upon, and their errors of 
judgment are often aggravated by the particularly cormpt slate In which 
their writings have come down to us." {Joxatud of Educaiion^ vol. i., p 95^ 

»«W«)1 — -A^"*^' ^' 


ogical rivers Styx and Lethe are temihine, as in Greek. The nameii of 
vrinds and mouths are, without exception, masculine ; hence hi Etesia^ 
hie Liba, hie ApriUs. With regard to the names of the months, it must ba 
obserred that all of them are adjectives, and tl^at Uie best writers use 
them only as such, the substantive menais being understood. Hence, also, 

] Calendae Jantiariae, Notiae Sextiles, Idas Martiae^ Maiae^ ante CeUendae Au- 

fustfigy Idilnts DecenAribus. See DrakenbOTch on Livy (iv., 37), who, with 
most other commentators, is so strongly c(Mivinced of this, that he does 
not heatate to correct passages in which this rule is not obeerv^. 

I The names of mountains are generally said to be masculine ; but when 

I the word mone is not joined with them, the gender depends upon theii 

I termination, as in- oiia^tna. 

' [§ 39.] 2. The following are feminine : the names of 

I wc»nen and female beings; e. g., ttxor^ wife; soror^ sister; 

amiSf an old woman ; socrus^ mother-in-law ; Jwno^ Venus; 

and even when they end in uwr^ as Phanium^ Glycerium^ 

Leontium. Most of the names of trees, towns, countries, 

and islands, just as the words arbos^ urhs^ terra fregio)^ and 

msula themselyes are fethinkie; e. g., (dta cedrtis^ pinus, 

abiesy the high eedar, pine, fir; wmhrosa fixgus^ the shady 

beech; ficus htMica, opulenta Corintkusy aniiquU Tyrus^ 

dura Lacedaemon, Aegyptus auperstitiosay clara Salamis. 

Exceptions. — ^The names of trees and shrubs ending in er, and following 

the third declension, are neuter ; as, acer,cicer,papaver, to which we must 

add robur, the oak. Masculine are oleaster and pinaster^ which belong to 

(he second, and Vtynur, which belongs to the third declension: also many 

shrubs and smaller plants in u«, t; e. g., amaranttu, asparagus, calamus^ 

duinus, heUebioruSy intulms, rhamnus^ and spinus. The following vary, and 

<nay be used as masculine or feminine : cytisus, raphanus, rvbus, and grossus, 

an unripe fig. 

^ Among the names of towns the following are masculine : 1. All plurals 

' in i, as Argi, Delphi, Puteoli, Veii ; 2. Four names in o : Hippo (with the 

I surname regitui), Narbo Marcius, Frusino, and Sulmo ; the analogy of which 

' is followed, also, by Croto, although the regular form in Greek is jj Kporov ; 

3. Tunes, etis, and Canopus, as in Greek 6 KuvuSog. Some names in Us, 

untis, such as Pessinus, SeRnus, and in us, i, such as Pharsalus, Abydus, 

t . and also Marathon, are mascyline, according to the Greek custom, though 

• they are sometimes also used as feminines. The following are neuter : 

1. Those ending in vm, and the Greek names in on, as TusaUum, Iliom ; 

2. The plurals in a, onan, e. g., Susa, Arbela, Ecbataha, Leuctra ; 3. Those 
eliding m c and ur, which follow the third declension ; as, Caere, Reate, 

V Praeneite, Tergeste, Nepete, or Nepet, AlkxvT, and Tibwc ; Tuder is likewise 

neuter ; 4. The indeclinable names in t and y ; as, Illiturgi, Asty, and some 

others, particularly barbarous names, the declension of which is defective ; 

as, Suthul, Hispal, Gadir, whereas their Latin forms, Hispalis and Gades^ 

[ turn, are feminme. Argos, as a neuter, occurs only in the nominative, 

\ otherwise Argi, orum, is used. *The many exceptions we have here enu- 

I merated might render us inclined altogether to drop the rule respecting 

the feminine gender of names of towns ; but we must adhere to it on ac- 

coimt of the numerous Greek names in us, i, and of the Greek or non 

Italian names in on (o), onis; and there appears, moreover, to have been a 

^ tendency to make feminine even those which ^re of a. different gender, 

provide^a they are in the singular. This is the case, besides those we have 

i already mentioned', with Croton,*and may also be observed in the case of 

f Praeneste ; for Virgil says, Praeneste svb ipsa, and Jll"enal ^elida Praenesff 

but otherwise the neuter gender is well establishod (Liv., vi., 29. Sil 


Ital., iz., 404.) The poets change the names of scoie places eoJing ia urn 
into us^e. g., Sagimtus, and use them as feminines. (See Sclmeider, 
Formenl.f p. 479.) 

Among the names of countries, those m um and plurals in a are neuter, 
as Jjathanj Bactra ; the names BosponUf PonhUi and HellespontiUf which 
properly denote the seas adjacent to these countries, are masculine ; the 
same Is the case with Istkmutf when used as the name of a country, for 
originally it is a common noun, signifjring *' a neck of land." Of the names 
of islands, some ending in wn are neuter, as is also the Egyptian Delta, 

It must farther be obsenred that most names olpreciom «fmie»'are fern- 
inine, as in Greek ; but beryUu9, carbuncultUf opalut^ and MuaragdM are 
masculine. The names of dramatic compositions are used in me early 
and good language as feminine, the word/a6if£a being understood ; e. g., 
hoc TrucuUniut (Plauti), Eunuckui {TererUu)^ acta ut^ &c. (See QuintU., 
i, 5. 52, with Spalding's note.) Juvenal (i, 6), however, says, Ore«/M 

[§ 40.] 3. There are many names of persons which 
are common to both sexes, as they denote an occupation 
or quality which may belong either to a man or a woman, 
although the one is more frequently the case than the oth- 
er. Such words are called common (communia). Those 
found in Latin with two genders are contained in the fol 
•owing hexameter lines : 

Antistegy vates^ adolescens^ auctor et augur ^ 
DuXfjudeXy index, testis, cum dve sacerdos, 
Municipi adde parens, patrueli affinis et hsres, 
Artifid conjux atque incola, miles et hostis, 
Par^juvenis, martyr, comes, infans, obses et hospeSf 
Interpres, praesul, custos, vindexqae, satdles. 

Some other words are not noticed here, because they are used only m 
apposition to feminines ; those mentioned above, however, may be accom- 
panied by adjectives in either gender ; e. g., Cic, Cat.^ 2 1 In hoc aumm 
aapicHieSf quod naturam optimam ducem^ iamquam deuintf $eqmmur. Pro Balb.^ 
24 : Sacerdos iUa CererU civis Romana/acta est. Virg., ^n., x., 2^ : Alma 
parens Idaea dewn. Idv.. i., 7 : Mater meat veridica interpret dettm. To the&^ 
we may add cowtvbemaUMy properly an adjective, which cannot be accem 
modated to verse, and perhaps also esul vndijprincepst ^i^h regard to which 
the passages of the ancients are not decisive, since the non alta emd in 
Tacit, ilnn., ziv., 63, may be explained as apposition, and Romana prin 
cept in the J5/«^. ad lAviam, 356, v^y be taken as an aajective, as in othei 
cases. Obeet is well attested as a nomen commune by Plin., HiH. Nat. 
zzxiv., 13 : Obeidibusy quae Porsenae mittebantur. Auspex yet awaits a bet 
ter authority than praeclaram. auspkem in the Deelam. {Porcii Latronis) » 
Catil., c. 16. 

It is farther to be observed that antistea and hospea, in the sense of 
priestess and hostess, are not attested as wel. as the feminine form 
antistita, ae, and hoepUa, ae. 

[§41.] 4. Suhstantiva mohiUa are those substantiYes 
in which the root receives different terminations for the 
masculine and feminine genders. The termination for the 
feininine is always a or trix, and the latter occurs in those 
cases in which the masculi^ie ending in tor is derived fixim 




transitive verbs, as in victor^ victrix; idior^ ultrix; pr(u- 
ceptor^ pracceptrix ; inventor, inventrix. The feminine is 
indicated by a when the masculine ends in tu or er, or 
some other termination, e. g., coqmi^ coqua / p^er^ putra; 
or more frequently the diminutive form puella ; magUter^ 
tnagistrcC; Jeno^Uma; caupo,copa; tibicen^tibicma; avus, 
avia ; rex^regina; cuUista, anUstUa. The feminine tei- 
mination tria is Greek, and is formed from masculines in 
tC8 or ta ; as, psaltes, psaUria ; po'eta^ poetria. 

[§ 42.] 5. Some names oi animals have special forms 
to ^tinguish the two sexes: agnus^ agna; cervus^ cerva; 
columhuSf columba ; equus^ 9qua ; gallus^ gaUina ; juven- 
cus^ juvenca ; lupus ^ lupa ; leo, lea and 'leaena ; parcus, 
porca; vitulus^ vitula; ursus, ursa* In some cases the 
words are altogether dif!erent, as in taurus^ vacca^ a bull 
and cow ; aries^ ovis, ram and sheep ; hoedus^ capella ; 

Most other names of animals are common (eptcoena); 
that is, they have only one grammatical gender, which 
comprises both sexes, e. g., passer^ anser^ corvus^ cants, 
cancer are masculine ; aquila^felis, anas^ wipes are fqpii- 
nine, though they may denote animals of either sex. With 
regard to those names which may distinguish the genders 
by terminations, it should be observed that one form (gen- 
erally the masculine) predominates, such as eqwus, leo, lu' 
pus as masculine, anajelis, ovis as feminine. ' If the sex 
of the particular animal is to be stated, the word mas or 
'Jemina is added to the same; as, anas mas, anas Jemi- 
na,femma anguis, nmsca femina,femtna piscis^ and lujpus 
or porcus femina, although we have the forms lupa and 
porca. Instead of mas we may also use masculus or mas 
eula, e. g., vulpes mascula, a male fox ; pavo ma^scultts, h 

Some of these nouns epicene, however, in which the dif- 
ference of sex is more frequently noticed, axe used as real 
conunon nouns, so that they are masculine when the male 
animal, and feminine when the female animal is particu- 
larly specified. Of this kind are hos, canis, elephantus^ 
lepus, vespertiHo, mus, which are masculine when the dif* 
ference of sex is not noticed ; but feminine when the fe- 
male is designated. Thus we generally iind, e. g., ele* 
p&anti prudentissimi hahentur, lepores timidi sunt ; but, at 
the name time, canes rabidae, dephantus gravida, lepus fi 


cunda; and Hoi*ace, abandoning the usual gendei, takei 
the liberty of saying (Serm., ii., 8, 87), membra, gruu 
sparsi, and j(icur anseris albae, (See Bentley's note.^ 

The following nouns are sonoetimes masculine and 
sometimes feminine, without regard to difference of sex * 
anguia and serpens, a serpent ; damUf fallow-deer ; talpa^ 
a mole ; also sus, a pig ; and tigris, tiger ; but stis is com- 
monly feminine, while tigris is commonly masculina Oth- 
ers are of uncertain gender, in as far as they have both 
a masculine and a feminine form, which, however, are 
used indiscriminately and without vegard to seSc. Thus 
we have the feminine forms tolubra lacerta^ lusdnia, and 
simia along widi the masculines coluber, Utcertus^ luscinius, 
and simiusj without simia, for instance, having any refer- 
ence whatever to a female monkey. In like manner, ^a- 
lumhus and palumba (the same as palumbes) are used in- 

[§ 43. J 6. The following are neuter. All indeclinable 
substantives, as gummi, pascha, sinapi, and ^ondo, which 
is used as an indeclinable noun in the sense of " pound ;'•* 
Jie names of the letters of the alphabet, as e triste, o km" 
gum, Graecum digamma, &c., and all words and expres- 
sions which, without being substantives, are conceived and 
used as such, or quoted merely as words ; e. g., vltimum 
vale, scire tuum nihil est, vivere ipsum turpe est nobisy ter- 
geminum ao^g^ hoc ipsum diu miki molestum est (Cicero), 
lacrimas hoc mild paene movet (Ovid), where the words 
diu and paene are quoted from the sayings of another per-* 
son, and it- is said that the very word diu or 2'ame is pain- 
ful. . 

Note. — The names of the letters of the alphabet, however, are sometimes 
used as feq^nines, the word liitera being understood ; e. g., Quintil., i., 4, 
11: Sciat etiam Ciceroni placuisse aiio Maiiamque geminata i scribere. The 
names of the Greek letters in a,AS heta^ gamma, data, are used as femininea 
only by Ausonius, Tecfmop, de Lift, 



[§ t4.] The Latin language distinguishes, in nouns and 
verbs, the singular and plural fnumerus stnguktris and 
pluralis) by particular forms ; it has also different forma 
to distinguish six different cases (casus) in the relations 



mud connexions of ncuns. The ordinary names of these 
cases are nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, 
and ablative. The difierent forms of these cases are seen 
in the terminations which are annexed to the crude form 
of a word. Declension is the deriving of these different 
^rms, both in the singular and plural, from one another, 
the nominative forming the starting ^int. The nomina- 
tive and vocative are called casus recti, and the others ca« 
9US ohliqui. 

There are five declensions distinguished by the termi- 
nation of the genitive singular, which ends : 

12 3 4 5 

ae i is us ct 

All declensions have the following points in common : 

1. In the second, third, and fourth declensions there 
are neuters which have three cstses alike, viz., nominative, 
accusative, and vocative. 

2. .The vocative is like the nominative, except in the 
second declension, and some Greek words in the first and 

3. Where no exception arises fi*om neuters, the accu- 
sative singular ends in m. 

1 2 • 3 4 5 

am um em um em 

4. The genitive plural ends in um, 

1 2 3 4 5 

Srum drum um uum erum 

5. The dative plural is in all declensions like the ab1a« 
!iv« plural. 

12 3 4 5 

is U thus tbtu(iuhus) ebus 

The following table contains the terminations of all thi 
ihre^declensions : 





Nom. a (e, as, csj 


er, um 

a, Cf c. If 
n, r, s, t, X 




G-en. ae (es) 




Dat ete 




Ace. am (en) 


em (im) 




Voc a fe) 

e, er, um 

like nom. 




Abi a(e) ^ 












c*, a (ia) 

21^, . ua 


Gen. arum 


um (ium) 



Dat. w 





Ace a 



e», a (ia) 

us, ua 


Voc. ae 



es^ a (ia) 

us^ ua^ 


AW. u 








[§ 45.] The first declension comprises all nouns wluch 
form the genitive singular in ae. Tne nominative of gen- 
uine Latin words of this kmd ends in a. Greek words 
in a, as mtisa, historia, stoa, follow the example of tlie 
Latin ones, and shorten the final vowel when it H long 
in Greek. Some Greek words in S, as^ and es have pe 
culiar terminations in some of their cases. (See Ohap. 


Nom. vi'H, the way. 
Cren. vi-ae, of the way. 
Dat t?i-ae, to the way. 
Acci vi-am, the way. 
Voc. vi'H, O way ! 
Abl. vi'dyfrom the Way. 

. Plubal. 
Nom. vi-ae, the ways. 
Gen. vi-arum, of the ways. 
Dat. vi-tSj to the ways. 
Ace. vi-asj the ways. 
Voc. vi-ae, O ways ! 
Abl. vi-is, from flie ways 

* In like manner are declined, for example, the substan- 
tives barha, causajcura, epistola, fossa, hora, rnensa, no- 
verca, penna, porta, poena, sagitta, silva, stella, uva, victo- 
ria, and the adjectives and participles with thd feminine 
termination a ; as, longa, libera, ptdchra% lata, rotu^^da, 
lecta, scripta. 

Note l.T^An old form of the genitive siQgiliar in as has been retained 
•▼en in the common langnage, in the word^mi/ia, when compounded witb 
pater, mater, fiUut, and fiia ; so that we say jtaUrfamiUas, patresfamiUas 
JUtosfamiUas. But the regular form familiae is not uncommon ; sometimes, 
though not often, we ^na famiUarum in composition with the plural of 
those words.* _ 

Note 2. — An obsolete poetical form of the genit. sing, is at for the diph- 
thonff ae or ai, as in auUu, atirm, pictai, which three forms occur even ii 

* ^Consult Appendm v., on the ancient f :rms of declension. 1—jlm. Ed' 



N'Ote 3. — Poets form the genitive plural of pfttronymics in e$ and 4, o' 
MTeral compounds in cola and gena^ and of some few names of nations, hy 
the termination um instead of arum ; as, Atneadum, Dardanidumf cotlicolumf 
terrigenum, LapithunL Of a similar kind are the genitives tmvhorvm, 
drackntvm, which are used even in prose, instead of amphorarum, drachma^ 
rum. (Comp. ^ 51.) 

Note 4. — Some words form the dativs and ablative plural in alnu instead 
of i«— such as animaf dea,filiaj libertaf nata, mulot tqua^ oMma — for the pur 
pose of distinguishin|^ them from the dative and sblative plural of the 
masculine tbrms, which would otherwise be the same. The regular ter 
mination is, however, is generally preferred, notwithstanding the possi 
bility of ambiguity ; ajid it is only deabus and jUidbua that can be recom- 
mended, for the former is used in a solemn invocation by Cicero : dis dea?' 
busque omnibus ; and the latter by Livy (xziv., 26), c%im duabus fUatus iwr- 
gmwus. labertabus frequently occurs in inscriptions. The termination 
abus has remained in common use for the feminine of duo and ambo 
dmabus, ambabus.* 



[§ 46.} 1. In the dative singular and throughout tha 
plural, week words in e, as, and es do not differ from tlie 
regular declension. In the other cases of the singular 
they are declined in the following manner : 

Nom. e as es. 

Gen. es ae ae. 

Ace. en am (sometimes an) en. 

Voc. € . a e and a; 

Abl. e a a and e. 

Words of this kind in « are : aloe, crambe^ epitome, Ow-- 
ce, Danae'j Phoentce; in as: Aeneas^ Boreas, Gorgias^ 
Midag, Messias^ Satanas ; in e^ .* an^ignostes, cometes^ dy- 
nastes^ geomitres, pyrites^ satrSpes, sopkistes, Anchises, and 

* FThis termination in abus, however^ though now appearing in but few 
wofos, was originally the common ending of the dative and ablative plural 
of the first declension, and was merely retaihed afterward in a few, as a 
convenient mode of distinguishing between certain feminines and mascu 
lines. In the change from abus to is, Bopp thinks that there must havf> 
been an intermediate form tbus after a-bus nad weakened the stem-vowe) 
i into t, and that this i was subsequently lengthened as a compensatioi^ 
K>r tae removal of bu. Hence terris would arise from tern-bus, for terra-bus^ 
just as the verb malo arose from mavolo. (Bopp, Vergleich. Gram., p. 282. 
Besides the words given in the text, many more occur in inscriptions aria 
ancient writers. Thus, we have Mirabus (Gruter, 92, 1) ; nymfahus (Id.. 
99, 8) ; and also raptabus, paucabus, puellabus, pudicabuf, porlabus, ^U^^ms' 
Ac. There is, therefore, no foundation whatever fcr the ojiinf n ^Iial 
such forms as these were merely brought in by the ancient juristf fr.r tha 
nke of cdhvenient distinction in testaments, although his is ms t6d Iv 
PIfay {Apud Charis., p. 103, »eq.)'\—Am. Ed, 



Thersiies, patronymics (i. e., names of persons deriveo 

from tbeir parents or ancestoi's, see § 245) ; e. g., Aene 

atlesf AlcideSf Pelldes, PriamtdeSj Tt/dides. 

Note. — Common nouns, such as epistola and jmta^ which, on their 
adoption into the Latin language, exchanged their Greek termination rj or 
tji for the Latin a, are treated as genuine Latin words, and no longer fol- 
low the Greek declension. But a great many other common, as well as 
proDor nouns likewise follow the Latin declension ; and it must be espe- 
ciafly remarked that the early Latin writers, including Cicero, show a 
tendency to Latinize the declension of those words which they have fre- 
quent occasion to use. Thus we prefer, with Cicero, grammatica, rhetorica, 
ditdecticaf musicaf to grammatice, rhetorke^ diaUctice^ muaicef and we n^ay say 
Creta and Penelopa just as well as Hecuba and Helena, although some 
writers, especially the later poets, with an afifectation of erudition, pre- 
ferred Crete and Penelope, But there is no fixed law in this respect. In 
the words in es Cicero prefers this Greek lermination to the Latin a ; e. g., 
P^iloeteteSf Scythes, Perses, sophistes^ to Persa, sophista, &c. In the accu • 
sative he sometimes uses en ; as, Arsino^n, Circen, Sinopen. (See my note 
on Cic, in Verr iv., 18.) But although he would use the nominative 
Sinope for Sinopa, yet he makes the genitive Sinopae in the adverbial 
sense of " at Sinope," e. g., in RuLL, ii., 20. As to the practice of Horace, 
see Bentley on Epod.^ xvii, 17. 

2. Greek words in as commonly take the accusative an 
in poetry, and Virgil imiformly uses Aenean. In pilose 
the Latin am is much more frequent, although Livy, too, 
has Aenean f and in Quintus Curtius we not unlfrequently 
find the forms Amyntan^ ThUotan, Perdiccan, and others, 
along with Amyntam, Philotam^ Perdiccam. 

The vocative of words in e« is usually e, as in Virgil : 
ConjugiOf Anchise, Veneris dignate superho ; but the Latin 
vocative in a also occurs frequently, e.-g., at the end of an 
\iexameter in Horace, Serm, ii., 3, 187 : Atriddf vetas curl 
and in Cicero : Aeeta, Thyesta ! The vocative in a sel- 
dom occurs, as in die oracle mentioned by Cicero, De Di- 
vin,, ii., 56 : Aio te, Aeacida, Romanos vmoere jtpsse.* 
Words in es form their ablative regularly in 5,^ e. g., in 
Cicero : de PhUoctetay de Protagwa Abderita, The po- 
ets, however, sometimes uSe the termination c, as in "\^r 
gil : Uno graditur comttatus Achate, 

3. Generally speaking, however, the patronymics in ^5", 
genit. ov, are the only Greek words that follow the second 
declension ; and the majority of proper names ending in 
es follow the third declension ; as, Alcihiades, MUtiades, 
Xerxes. But many of them form the accusative singular 
in en (as Euphraten, Mithridaten, PhraatenJ, and the voc- 
ative in e, together with the forms of the third declension 
m em and es. (See Chap. XVI.) 

■ [The a is here lengthened by the arsit.l — Am. Ed. 


A'oie. — The word satrapes (aarpuTnjCi ov) is best declined after the first 
dec ension ; but no ei^ample of the genit. sing, being •atrapae is Known : 
Nepos {Lysand., 4) uses satrapis. This does not necessanly presuppose 
the existence of a nominative satraps^ which occurs only in later times, 
but may be the same as MiUiades^ genitive Miltiadis, Instances of the 
dative satrapae, accus. satrapieriy and abiat. satrapif occur in other writers, as 
well as in the correct texts of Q. Curtius. The form tatrapem must be 
rejected; but the Latin form satrapam may be used. Tne plural is 
throughout after the first declension, fUrapae^ sdtraparum^ &c. 



[§ 47.] Nouns in a and e are feminine, and those in as 

and es (being cbiefly names of men) are masculine. 

Note.— Nouna denotiiig male beings are of course masculine, though 
they end in a ; as, ovriga, coUegaf nauta^ parricidal poSta, scriba. Names of 
rivers in a, such as Gantmnaf 2Ve6ui, SequanOf Himera ho be distinguished 
from the town of the same name\ and Uadria (the Aoriatic), are mascu- 
line, according to the general rule. (See Chap. Yl.) The three rivers 
Allia, AUnda, and Matrona, however, are feminine. Cometa snd planeta, 
which are usually mentioned as masculines, do not occur in ancient 
writers, who alv^ys use the Greek forms cometf*^ planetes; but cometa 
«nd pUmUa would, according to analogy, be masculine. 



[§ 48.] All nouns which form the genitive singular in 
i belong to the second declension. The greater part of 
them end in the nominative in us, the neuters in um ; some 
in er, and only one in ir, viz., vir, with its compounds, to 
which we must add the proper name, TVevir. There is 
only one word ending in ur, viz., the adjective satur, sa- 
tura, satdftum,^ 

* [Originally this declension had but two terminations, us for the mas- 
culine and feminine, and vm for the neuter. All the forms, therefore, be- 
longing to this declension, wMch subsequently ended in er, tr, or wr, ter- 
minate in early Latin in ems, inu^ una. This is plain from the remain 
of the early language that have reached us, as well as from other sources. 
Thns, in Plautos (3fen. v., 6, 84) we have aocenu instead of eocer. The 
Mme writer, and others also, employ the vocative form puere, which sup- 
poses, of coarse, a nominative puems. In later Latin we have even Siler 
and Silenu both occurring, the former in Lucan^ ii., 426 ; the latter in 
Pomponiui JtfeZa, ii., 4, 9 ; and with these we may compare Vegver and 
Vetperu*. That the Latin vir arose from virus is also highly piobable, and 
is in some degree confirmed by the existence of tnVa, as a feminine, in ear 
ier Latinity. (Festus, s. v. Querquetulanse Serv. ad Virg. ^f2n , xii. 



Tho genitive of those in us and um is formed by chan 
ging these terminations into i. The vocative of words ia 
us ends in e; as, Ofdix anne, O happy year ! In all othei 
cases the vocative is like the nominative. 


Nom. gladi-us, the. sword. 
Gen. gladi-if of the sword. 

Dat. gladi'O, to the sword. 
Ace. gladi-urrit the sword. 
Voc. gladi-e, O sword ! 
Abl. gladi'O, from the 

Nom. gladi-tf the swords. 
Gen. gladt'Orum, of the 

Dat. gladt'ts, to the swords. 
'Ace. gladi'OSf the swords. 
Voc. gladi-x, O swords ! 
Abl. gladi'ts, from the 


The neuters in um ai*e declined in the same way ; but 
in the plural they have the termination a, and the nomina- 
tive, accusative, and vocative are alike in the singular as 
well as in the plural. 

Nom. scamn-df the benches. 


Nom. scamn-unif the bench. 
Gen. scamn-if of the bench. 

Gen. scamn-arum, of the 

Dat. scamn - Is^ to the 

Ace. scamn-df the benches. 
Voc. scamr^'d, O benches ! 
Abl. scamn-iSf from the 


Dat. scamn-o, to the bench. 

Ace. scamn-um, the bench. 
Voc. scamn-um^ O bench ! 
Abl scamn-Oy from the 

Vir and its compounds, as well as satur^ simply add the 
erminations of the different cases to the nominative. 

Some of the words in er are likewise declined by mere- 
ly adding the terminations to the nominative ; B&^puer^pu- 
er-ij puer-Oy puer-um^ jmer-orum, puer-is, puer-os ; others 
reject the short e in the oblique cases ; as, liber (a book), 
libr4, libr-o, liifr-um, &c. Those which retain tho e are 
not very numerous, viz., adulter^ gener^ puer, socer^ vesper 
Liber (the god Bacchus), and liberi (the children, only in 

68.) So Iber is only shortened from Ibenu, and »atur from satttms, &c. 
Many Greek words likewise appear in Latin shorn of their appropriate ter< 
mination; as, &yp6c (agrust agents), agar; "EiiavdpoCt (EuandruSf) Ewmder, 
&c. It may be adied that, in most words of this class, the e in the middlf 
is syncopated ; as, liber, libri ; ager, agri. That this is a true syncope ii 
clearly shown by dexter, gen. dexteri and dextri (Sfruve. iiber die Lm. 

^eclin., &c., p. 11 )]— ilm. Ed. 


the plural) ; the adjectives aaper^ lacer^ liber (free), miser, 
prosper^ and tener. To these we must add the- compoundjf 
oi Jerre and gerere; bs^ Lucifer^ armiger, and the worda 
presbyter^ Iber^ and Celtiber (plural CeltiberiJ^ The adjec 
dve dexter has hoth forms, dextera and dextra^ dexterum and 
dextrum^ although the elision of the e is more frequent. 

[^ 49.] Note 1. — The genitive of nouDs, both proper and common, in ius 
and hmit in the best age of the Latin language, was not ii, but i; as,^! 
ioxfiliit and, |n like manner, yl^ipt, ingem, imperii amsitif negoti. So, at least, 
«t was pronounced in the poets before and during the Augustan age, as in 
Virgil, Horace, and Tibulius. Propertius is the first who, in a few in- 
stances, has u, which occurs frequently in Ovid ; and in the later poets, 
who preferred regularity of formation to euphonv, it is quite common. 
(See Bentlev on Terence, Andr.^ ii., 1, 20.) With regard to poets, the 
metre must detenmne this pomt ; and it was in consequence of the metre 
that Lucretius (v., 1004), though one of the early poets, wrote namgii, be- 
cause oUierwise the word would not have suited the hexameter, but the 
orthography of prose writers who lived before the Augustan age is doub 
fui, on account of the great discrepancy which, on this point as on every 
thing connected with orthography, prevails in th*e MSS., even in the most 
ancient ones of Cicero, which nave recently been discovered. It is, how- 
ever, probable that, although u may have been, written, only one i was 
pronounced, as was always done in the words dii and diis. The genitive 
mancqn for mancipiit which occurs in many legal expressions, is a remnant 
of the ancient practice, and remained in use in later times. Concerning the 
accent of these contracted genitives, and of the vocatives of proper names 
m tut, of which we shall speak hereafter, see above, ^ 33, and BeVitley, /. c. 

Note 2. — ^The following nine adjectives or adjectiife pronouns, unut, 
folu$, totus, yJltu, utetf neuter, alter, nullue, and eUms, together with theii 
compounds taenrue^ utervis, vterlibet, utercunque, and alteruter, form the geni- 
tive m all their three genders in hu, and the dative in i ; in addition to which, 
ufcr and naUer eject the e preceding the r. The t of this genitiv&is long in 

{)ro8e« but in verse it is sometimes made short. (See ^ 1&) Alterius alone 
las the I short both in prose and in verse (with a few exceptions, as in 
Terence, Andr., iv., 1, 4; see ^ 830), according to the statement of Prls- 
,ian, p. 694, 958. It is true that alterius cannot be used in the dactylic 
lexameter without the i being short, but it is used in the same manner in 
a trochee by Plautos (Ct^., ii, 2, 56). There are only a few instances in 
which these words follow the regular declension. (See below, ^ 140.) 
[^50.] Note 3. — The vocative of proper names in lv« ends in i instead o^ 

names in hu from the Greek eios, as in Arius, Heraclttu ; nor to thosi^ 
names which are in veality adjectives, and are used as proper names onlf 
mhsxijUiuM, deut^ or hiroe is understood, such as La^iue, the son oi 
Laertes, i. e., Ulysses ; Cimthku, Delius, the Cynthian or Delian god, L c. 
Apollo; TvrwUlmu, the "nrynthian hero, i. e., Hercules. All such won|s 
retain i«in tbe^ocative ; and in like manner Phu, when used as a proper 
name, probably formed tha vocative Pie ; for all common nouns and 
adjectives, according to the testimony of the ancient grammarians, rogo* 
larly formed their vocative in te ; as, mmtie, adversarie, impie, although there 
are no passages in ancient writers to prove it. But^»iw and genhu m^ks 
their vocative ^i, getu, and meua (though n3t mea or meum) makof mi 
DeuM, in the vocative, is like the nominative ; as, O de%t$ I mi deua f* 

* [The form dee, as a vocative, first occurs at a later period, ii tht 
Chiistian writers ; as, for example. Prudentvis and Tertullian.] — An R4 



What has here l>een said of dtus alone is applied by poets to othe. 
words also: they not unfrequently imitate the Greeks by making the voc* 
ative like the nominative, e. g., Terent., Phorm.y il, 2, 10 : O virfortu 
utque amicus! Horat., de Art. Poi't, 292, fos, O Pompiliiia sangitut Carm., 
i., 2, 43, almaeJUius Maiat. Ovid, Fast.^ iy., 731, populus. In Livy, too. it 
occurs in some ancient formulas ; as, viii., 9, agedumponfifexpublictu pojndt 
Rom. ; and i., 24, tuvopidua Albanus ; but there is no reason for doubting 
the form pojndef whicn occurs in other passages. 

[^ 51.] Note 4. — The genitive plural of some vsrords, especially those 
which denote money, measure, and weight, is commonly um* instead of 
orum, particularly raunmumyxestertmmf denarium, cadum^ nudininum^^modittm^ 
ju^erumf talentum. Nummum is commonly used in this y/Rj in connexion 
with numerals; whereas otherwise, when it merely denotes money in 
general, nummorum is the usual form, e. g., tantum nummanan^ acervi num- 
morum. There are some other words in which this is the usual form in 
certain combinations, such as praefectusfcJirum., or socitun, from faber and 
nociits ; so, also, duumvirumt trtttjnvirumf decemvirttnu lAberi and deus have 
both forms, Hbfrorvm^ deorvm, and Uberuni, deum. Poets indulge in still 
greater licenses, especially v^ith names of nations ; they say, e. g., Argi- 
tmm, Danaumf Poenwn% &c., instead of Argivonmif Danaorum, Poenorum, 
and in Livy we find Celtiberum^ as well as Celtiberorum. We might point 
out several more isolated peculiarities of this kind ; as, q)horum in Corn. 
Nepos, Agesil.^ 4. Respecting the genitive of numerals (cardinal, and 
especially distributive numerals), see below, Chap. XXIX. and XXX. 

Note 5. — Detu has thj^e forms in the nom. and ablat jMur., viz., deif dii, 
and diy and dew, dUst and die. The forms in t are the most usual, and in 
reality only one of them, since dii and diis were pronounced as monosylla- 
bles (Priscian, p. 737), and are most frequently lound thus spelled in th« 
ancient MSS. 

The following words may serve as exercises of decleti • 
«ion: Anntis, year; corvus^ raven; hortus^ garden; lectus^ 
bed ; medictis^ physician ; morbus^ illness ; nuntius^ mes- 
senger^ populus^ people; rivus^ brook; taurus^ bull; ven-^ 
t'us, wind. Neuters in um : Astrum, star ; heUum, War ; 
collum, neck ; dolium^ cask ; dovi^m^ present ; memhrum^ 
limb ; negotium^ business ; ovum^ egg ; poculum, cup ; proe- * 
Hum, battle ; sepulcrum, sepulchre; signunij sign ; tcrgum, 
back ; vinculum^ fetter. Those in er, genit. m, have been 
mentioned above. - The following are the most common 
among those which reject the e before the r : Ager^ field ; 
aper, boar ; arbiter^ arbitrator ; ouster ^ south wind ; cancer^ 
cancer, or crab ; coluber^ snake ; cutter^ knife ; faher^ work- 
man liber, book; magister^ teacher; minister^ servant. 
To these must bo added the proper names in er, e. g., Al- 

ixandeff genit. Alexandri. The adjectives which reject 


* We do not write i2m, as is done in most editions, foi several reasons : 
1. Because it is doubtful whether this form arose from contraction; 2. Be- 
cause, according to the testimony of the ancient grammarians, no final 
syllable in m with a vowel before it is long (which would be implied in 
tne circumflex), whence no one would be able to distingrish by his eta 
such a genitive as i\itmmum from the accus. sing., as QuintiliaUi i., 6, l'^ 
tttests; and, 3. Because no accents are used in Latin. 

,) • 


t!i^ e aie aeger^ ater^ creher, glahtr^ macer^ niger, piger, 
impigcr, ptilc/ier, ruber^ sacer^ scaher^ sinister, taeier. 



[§ 52.] Greek words in 09 and neuters in ov, which 
msJ^e ov in the genitive, are commonly Latinized in the 
nominative by the terminations us and um^ such as the 
common BOuriS taurus, antrum f theatrum, and the proper 
. names Homerus, P^rhus, Corinthus. Other common 
DounSy which are more rarely used, admit of both termi- 
^ nations in the nominative; os^arctos and arctus, harhitos 

and barhitus, scorpios and scarpius ; and this is still more 
firequently the case in proper names, so that, e. g., Paros, 
DeioSf Isthmos, and Hian are used along with Parus, Dc' 
lus. Isthmus, and Ilium. Generally speaking, however, 
the Greek forms belong more particularly to poets and 
the later prose writers. Greek names in pog, with a con- 
sonant before it, sometimes become Latinized by the ter- 
mination er, and sometimes they change pog into rtis, and 
mako their vocative in c. The former takes place in by 
far the greater number of cases, e. g., Alexander, Maean- 
dcr, Teucer ; the only instances in which the terminc^tion 
n« is found are, Codrus^ Hebrus, Locrus, Petrus,* In the 
compounds of [drpov, and a few others, both forms are 
used, as hexameter and hexariietrus, though the latter oc- 
curs more frequently. Words cmding in os in the nomi- 
native may make the accusative in on instead of um ; as, 
Delon, Bosporon^ Tarson, The nominative plural some- 
times ends in oe (the Grreek diphthong ot), as in canepho" 
roe, Cicero, in Verr,^ iv., 3, 8; Locroe, Quintil., x., X, 70 T 

* [To these Schneider subjoins Myriandrua^ Antandrus, hydrus, amphi 
macrus, diametrus, and perimetnu. {L. O., vol. iii, p. 75.)] — Am. Ed. 

f [This ending belongs properly to the earlier state of the language. 
Thus, in Plautus (Caa.prolf 31) we have derumewt^ and also {Poen.y i., 
1, 9) UrtB. In many MSS., too, the Comedy of Terence which we enti- 
tle Adelpku is called Adelpkoe. Besides Cicero and Quintilian, however, 
we find it m Nepos {Miltiad., iv., 3), hanerodroma; in Pliny {H. N., 37, 10), 
Mcb; and most frequently in the names of nations and cities; as. Selim 
iMcan, iii., 180); Holmn {PUn., H. N., v., 27); Arimaspa {Pomp. Mda, ii, 
i, 2), &c (Consult Schmidtr, L. G?., vol.'iii., p. 82, $eq.)}—A7n. Ei* 


The genitive plural in on, instead of orum^ occurs in the 
titles of books, such as Bticolicon, Georgican,* 

2. Greek proper names in ovg, contracted &om oof, are 
in Latin either resolved into ous or end in us; as, Alcmdu9^ 
Aristonus^ Panthus, The vocative of the latter form isu; 
as, Pantku. 

3. Some Greek proper names in gh;^ vtrhich in Greek 
follow the second Attic declension (as, AthoSj Ceos^ Cos 
TeosJ^ in Latin either follow the Greek declensioii, e. g., 
Athosi gen. and dat. Atho, accus. Atho or Athon ; or they 
take the Latin form; as, Tyndareus for TyndarebSy and 
Cous (for Cos^ Kwf ), Coo, Coum, ablat. Co, e. g., in Co in" 
sula, Athos, however, is also declined as a noun of the 
third declension with the nominative AtJion or Atho — 
Athonem, Athone, 

4. Greek words in tvg of the third Greek declension, 
such as Orpheus, Idomeneiis, Pkalereus, Prometheus, were 
pronounced in Latin sometimes "ms, as one syllable, and 
sometimes eus. The best way is to make them follow 
entirely the second Ladn declension; as, Orphei, Otpheo, 
Orpheum, with the exception of the vocative, which (ac- 
cording to the Greek third declension) ends in eu. The 
Greek terminations, gen. eos, dat. ei (contracted Ti), accus. 
ca,t are chiefly found in poetry ; but the accusative is 
frequent also with prose vmters, though Cicero (ad Att,, 
viL, 3) does not approve of it ; as, Phalerea, Promethea, 
Tj/dea. The terminations ei, eo, ea are sometimes con- 
tracted by poets into a diphthong, because the metre re- 
quires it. (See above, § 11.) Horace makes the* genitive 
of AchiUcs and Ulixes — Ashillei, Ulixei, or contracted 
Achillei, TJlixei, as though the nominative still ended in 
evg. The name Perseus is usually formed by Cicero af- 
ter the first declension : nom. Perses, gen. and dat. Per- 
sae, ace. Persen, abl. Perse and Pers4. Livy preferred 
the second declension : Persetts, Persei, Perseo (rarely 
Persi, according to the third, like the Greek Hepael), but 
in the accusative he has more frequently Persea than Per* 


. ■■ ■ ■ 1 • ■ • 

* [And in some unusual geographical names ; as, Cohnia Ther<Bon {Sail,, 
Jug., xix., 3) ; Philenon ara {id. ifiw) ; TegestrcBon (Pwc, Perieg^ 375.)]-» 
A.1H. Ed, 

t In 83m« words also ea, if the verse requires it ; as, Idomenea, IlkmH 
fa and ea are Ionic forms, tad the Attic ea is not customary in Latin 




[§ 53.] 1. N.UNS in us, er^ sxid ir are masculine; tlioso 
m um, and the Greek nouns in on^ are neuter. 

2. Of those in t«, however, the following are feminine: 
the names of plants and precious stones, as well as those 
of towns and islands, with a few exceptions. (See aboTe, 
§ 39.) It must be observed that in many cases where the 
name of a tree ends in us fem., there is a form in um de- 
noting the finit of the tree, e. g., cerasus^ cerasum ; malus^ 
malum; TMyrus^ morum; pirusy pirum ; prunt£s,prunum; 
pomzts^ pomum ; hut Jlcus signifies both the tree and the 
fruit. There are only four other genuine Latin words in 
us which are feminine, viz., alvtis, humus, vannus, and co- 
lus^ which, however, is sometimes declined after the fourth 
declension, gen. us, Pampinus, a bi'anch of a vine, is 
rarely feminine, but commonly masculine. Virtis (juice 
or poison) BJid pelagus {rd TveXayog, the sea) are neuter. 
Vfdgtis (the people) is sometimes masculine, but more fre- 
quently neuter. 

[J 54.] Note. — With regard to the numerous Greek f^minines in us (or os) 
which have been adopted into the Latin language, such as the compounds 
of ff 66of : exoditSf methlodus' perwdiis, and sytwduSf the student must be re« 
ferred to his Greek grammar, for the Latin differs in this respect from the 
Greek. The words hihlusy and papyrus f the Egyptian papyrus), bytms^ 
and carbasu9 (a fine flax and the linen maae out of it), kre feminine, being 
names of plants ; but they retain this gender also when the^r denote things 
manufactured from them. PharuSf being the name of an island, is femi- 
nine ; but it is also feminine in the sense of a light-house, which meaning 
it obtained from the fact of the first light-house being built in that island 
near Alexandria; it is, however, now and then used as a inasculin9 
(Sueton., Claud., 20). Arctua {oa\ denoting a bear, is properly both masc. 
and fern. ; but as ^e name of a constellation, it is in Latin always femi- 
, nine. Barbitus faiyre), or barbuos, is ^emetimes used as fem. and some- 
times as masc., \mt we also find hoc barb^ton. 

We must notice here especially a number of words which in Greek are 
properly adjectives, and are used as feminine substantives, because a sub- 
stantive of this gender is understood. Such words are : abyssus, atomus, 
diaUctUM, difhtlwnguSf eremut, paragraphus^ diornietnu, and perimitrus, the 
last two of which, however, are used by Latin writers also with the Greek 
tenninatioi: o«. For the subctantives understood in these cases, see the 
Greek Granmiar. As different substantives may be understood, we have 
both aw^aUut and antidlotuni. The word epodua also belongs to this class, 
tat its gender varies according to its different meanings : when it denotet 
a lyric epilogue, it is feminine ; when it denotes a shorter iambic verse 
■Iter a longer one, or when it is the name of the peculiar species of Ilorft 
tian poetry, it is masculine. "^ 




[§ 55,] Nouns of the third declension form their goni 
rive in is. The nominative has a great variety of termi 
nations, for sometimes there is no particular ending, and 
the nominative itself is the crude form,* such as it usually 
appears after the separation of the termination of the geni- 
tive ; frequently, however, the nominative has a special 
ending CsJ, The former is, generally speaking, the case 
with those words the crude form of which ends in I or r, 
so that the nominative ends in the same consonants, and 
the genitive is formed by simply adding is; e. g., sol, con- 
sulf calcar, agger, auctor, dolor, murmur. Words like pa- 
ter and i?nber, the crude form of which appears in the 
genitive and ends in r, with a consonant before it, aspatr-is. 
imbr-is^ admit of a double explanation : either the nomi- 
native was increased for the purpose of facilitating the 
pronunciation, or the genitive rejected the short e ; the 
former, however, is the more probable supposition. Id 
some words the nominative has s instead of r ; ns,j/los, gen. 
fior-is; telltis^ tdlur-is ; in addition to which the vowel 
sometimes undergoes a change, as^in carjms, corpor-is ; 
onu^, oner-is. When the crude form ends in n, with a 
vowel before it, the formation of the nominative is like- 
wise accompai\ied by changes : on throws off the n, and 
f» becomes en^ or is changed into o. Thus, leo is made 
from leon (leon-is)^ carmen from carmin (carmin-is)^ and 
virgo from, virgin (virgin-is.) Only when the genitive 
ends ui'^nis, the nominative retains in, as in lien-is, lien, 
2. The particular termination which the i^minative re- 
ceives in other cases is e for neuters ; as, mar-is, mar-e^ 
and *, or x, which arises out of s, for masculines and femi 
nines. This * is sometimes added to the final consonan* 
of the crude form without any change, as in urh-is^ urb-s, 

* [See some excellent remarks on the crude forms ot nouns, in AUen't 
Etymological Analysis of Latin Verbs, p. 8, seqq. As every crude /bm 
must end either in a consonant or a vowel (a, e,i, o, w), we have the more 
philosophical arrangement of the consonant-declension on the one hand, 
and the a-declension, e-declension, t-declension, o^leclension, and u-declen* 
non on the other. The term crude form was first employed, as is thougVtt 
by Bopp, in the Annals ofXhiental lAterature, vol. \.')f—Ani. Ed, 


duc'is, dux (dues J ; legis^ lex (legs) , when the crude form 
ends in d or t, these consonants are dropped before the 
ff/ e. g,f Jrond-is, Jrons ; numt-is^ tn&ns ; aetat-U, aetds ; 
seget-iSf seges; in addition to this the vowel i, also, is some- 
times changed into ^, as in mUU-is, milis ; jtidtc-iSf judex. 
In all thes^ cases where the nominative is formed by the 
addition of an « to the final consonant of the crude form, 
the nominative has one syllable less than the genitive, or, 
in other words^ the s assumes an 6 or f before it, and then' 
the nominative has the same number of syllables as the 
genitive, or, in case the nominative assumes t, both cases 
are quite the same ; e. g., nub-es^ civ-is f pan-is. 

These are the most essential points in the formation of 
the nominative in the third declension. We shall now 
proceed to the particulars, taking the nominative, as is 
the usual practice, as the case given, and we shall point 
out in what way the genitive is iR)rmed from it. 

[§ 56.] 1. The nouns in a, which are neuters of Greek 
origin, make their genitive in ads ; as, po'ema^ j?oemdtis^ 

2. Those in e change e into is ; as, mare^ maris ; Prat* 
neste, Praenestis^ and probably also caepe^ caepis^iav which, 
however, there is also the form cepa^ ae, 

3. The nouns in i and y are Greek neuters. Some of 
them are indeclinable; as, gummi; and others have the 
regular genitive in is; ns^sinapifdnapis (there is, however, 
a second nominative in if , as in several other words end- 
ing in i, as haec sijiapis) ; misy^ misyis and misys or mis- 

' yos. The compounds of meli (honey) alone make their 
genitive according to the Greek in ttis; aa^melomeli^melcr' 

4. Those in o (common) add nis to form the genitive, 
sometimes only lengthening the Oj and sometimes chan- 
ging it into i. Of the former kind are carho, latro^ leo, ligo^ 
pavo^praedojsermo; and all those ending in io; oa^actio^ 
dictio^ pugw. Of the latter kind (genit. tnisj are all ab- 
stract nouns in do; as, consuetude^ mis ; most nouns in go ; 
as, tmago^ virgo^ origo ; and a few otners ; as, cardo^ hirundo, 
turbo^ homo^ nemo. Caro has camis. The names of na- 
tions in o have this vowel mostly short; as, Macedones^ Se- 
nmes, Saxones ; it is long only in lanes, Lacones, Nasa* 
mones^ Suessones^ and VettoTies. 

5. The only nouns ending in c are alec or allec, allex, 
fen. aUecis ; and lac, gen. lactis. 


C. Nouns ending in I form the genitive by nierely add 
ing isj such as sol, sal^ canstd, pugil, animal. Mel haa 
inellUf and in plur. ntdla; jfel hasjcllis, but is without a 

7. Those in en (which are all neuters, with the excep- 
tion ofpectenj make inis; mfCarmenyJlmnen, lumenrnomen. 
Those in en retain the long e and have enis; but there aiv 
only two genuine Latin woi'ds of this kind, ren and lien ; 
for lichen, splen, and attagen are ofGreek origin. 

Greek worda in an, en, in^ yn, and on follow the Greek 
rules in regard to the length or shortness of the vowel, 
and also in regard to the insertion of a ^ .• Paean^ Pae* 
dnis ; Siren and Troezen^ enis; Philopoemen^ Philopoe- 
menis; JEletcsin, Eleustnis ; Phorcyn, Phorcynis ; agon^ 
agonis ; canon, canonis ; Cimon, Cimbnis ; MaratJwn^ 
mis; Xenophon, Xenophontis, It is, however, to be ob- 
served that very few Greek words in wv, wvo^ (except 
names of towns) have in Latin the nominative on^ but 
generally o. Thus we always read Hiero, Laco, Plato, 
Zeno, and in Cicero^ also Dio and Solo ; in the poets, on 
the odier hand, and in Nepos and Curtius among the 
prose vmters, we find several nominatives in on; as, Conon, 
Dion, Phocion, Hephaestion, The name Apollo is com- 
pletely Latinized, and makes the genit. ApolUnis, Those 
in (ov, (OVTO^ vary, and we find Antipho without the n, 
though most end in on; OByXenophon. Those in uiv, ovog, 
and wv, ovTog, usually retain in Latin the same nomina- 
tive in on^ but we always find Macedo^ and never Maccdon. 

[§ ^7.] 8. Those ending in r must be distinguished ac- 
cording to the vowel which precedes it: they may end in 
ar, er, yr, or, or ur. 

fa) Those in ar have sometimes oris, as. in calcar, lutnir, 
pulvinar, t&rcular, and Nar; and sometimes Sris; as, hoc- 
car^juhar, nectar j Idr (plur. lares J^ par, and its compounds 
(e. g., impar, impdris), and the proper names Ccesar, Ha- 
milcar^ and Arar, But Lar, or Lars^ the Etniscan title, 
has Itartxs, Far makes its genitive farris^ and hepar^ 

(h) Many of the Latin words in er make eris ; as, agger ^ 
aggeris; mtdier, mulieris. &c., and the adjectives jpaw^cr 
and tther. Others drop the short e ; as, (or instance, all 
those ending in ter (e. g., venter, uter, pater J^ with the ex- 
r«ption of later ^ and the words tmher, September^ October^ 


NovemhcTf. December. Iter makes its genit (from a dif 
ferent nominat.) itineris. ' Juppiter (JbvV pater) makes tb# 
genitive Jam*, without the addition of 2fatris. Greek wordt 
in er follow the rules of the Greek language, whence we 
say crater, eris ; aer, aeris, Ver (the spring), geni veris^ 
originally belonged to the same class. 

fcj Nouns ending in yr are Greek, and follow the rule? 
of the Greek Grammar : martyr, martyru. 

(d) Those in or have oris; as, am^or, error, soror ; bui 
arhor^ the three neuters ador^ aeguor, Tnarmor, and the ad- 
jective memor, have oris. Cor has cordis^ and so also in 
the compounded adjectives concors^ discors, misericors. 
Greek proper names, such as Hector^ Nestor, and others, 
have oris, as in Greek. 

(e) Those in ur have uris, e. g^^fulgur, vultur, and the 
adject, cicur. Fur (a thief) alone has /wrw / and the four 
neuters ehur, femur ^je<Mr, and robur nave oris^ as eboris^ 
roboris, Jecur has, besides jecoris, also the forms jesci- 
noris, Jocifunis, and jocineris, 

[§ 58.] 9. Those ending in * are very numerous; they 
may terminate in as, c*, is, os, us, aus, or in s, with a con- 
sonant preceding it. 

faj Those in as form their genitive in Ais ; as, aet<is^ 
aetdtis. Anas alone has anatis ; wus has maris ; vas 
(ft surety), vadis ; vds (a vessel), vdsis, and as^ dssis. 
The Greek words vkry according to their gender ; the 
masculines make antis^ the femiuines adis, and the neuters 
Otis, (See the Greek Grammar.) Consequently, Pallas, 
the name of a male being, has the genit. Pallantis, like 
^gas, gigantis ; as the name of the goddess Minerva, . 
PaUadis ; and artocreas neut. has artocreatis, 

(b) Those ending in es must be divided into two classes. 
Those belonging to the first increase in the genitive, the 
letter d or t, which was dropped in the nominative, be- 
ing restored to its place, and their termination is either 
Itis, etis, etis,ovidis, edis, edis. The genitive in vtis occurs 
in most of them, as in antistes^ comes, eques, hospes, miles ^ 
pedes, satelles, 'caespes,fomes, gt^X !S, lim£s^ merges^ palmes, 
ttipes, and trames, together with the adjectives ales, hocles^ 
dives, sospes, and superstes, in all of which the es is short 
(See § 28.) The following make their genitive in etis : 
abies, aries, paries, interpres, seges, teges, and the adjec- 
tives hebes,indiges, praepes, and teres. The genit. in ttis oc 



curs in the Greek words lebes, tapes ^ Cebes, MOjgnes; u 
the words quies^ inquies, requiesf and the adjective locu 
pies. Those which make idis are, obses^ praeses^ and th* 
adject, deses and reses. The genitive in edis occurs in pes 
pedis^ ' and its compounds, e. g., the plural compedes 
Heres and mercesy lastly, make their genitive in edis. Tht 
following words must he remembered sepai*ately : bes 
bessis ; Ceres, Cereris ; pubes and impubes^ puberis anc 
impuberis ; but the forms imptibis, genit. impuhis, neut 
impube^ are also found. The proper name Caeres, (from 
the town of Caere) ^ has Caeritis and Caentis. The second 
class of words in es change the es of the nominative into 
1^, without increase, such as caedes, clades, James, nubes^ 
rupes ; it must also be observed that several words be 
loneing to this class vary in the termination of the nomi 
native oetween es and ^$ so that along vnth fetes, vtdpes 
vehes, aedes, we also have vulpis, vehis, aedis (see Liv 
iv., 25 ; Cic. in Verr,, iv-, 55) ; and, on the other hand 
we have tarqtees and valles, along vnth the more usual 
forms torquis and vaUis, 

(c) Most words in is form their genitive in w, vdthou: 
any increase ; as, avis, civis, panis, piscis, and a great man^ 
others, togetJiAr with the adjectives in is, e. Others in- 
crease by one syllable, and make their genitive in idiSi 
itis, or eris : idis occurs in cassis, cuspis, tapis, and in tht 
Greek words aegis arid pyramis ; Itis occurs only in lis. 
Quins, and Samnis, plur, Quirites, Samnites; and eri^ 
only in cinis^ cucumis, ani-pulviSf gen. dneris^ cucumeris^ 
BJaa pulveris. Glis has gliris; poUis (the existence of 
which, in the nominative, cannot be proved, so that soma 
suppose pollen to have been the nom.) and sanguis have 
poUinis, sanguinis (but the compound exsanguis remains in 
the genit. exsanguis) ; semis, being a compound of as, 
makes semissis. Greek words which have the genit. in 
log or ecjg fomv their .genit. in Latin in is, witibiout in- 
crease ; but, if their genit. is idog, they increase in Latin 
and have idis. Of the former kind we have only the ver- 
bal substantives in sis ; as, basis, maihesis, the names of 
towns compounded with TrdAtf , e. g., Neapolis, and a few 
other proper names of the feminine gender, such as La- 
Jiesis, JNemesis, Syrtis, Charybdis. All other proper 
and common nouns regularly make the genitive in icUs ; 
tigris alone has both forms, and ibis, ihidis, tikes in th© 


plural the shcoter foim ihes. Later authors use the geni 
live in is^ and th^ dative and ablative, in e, instead of %du^ 
idi^ ide, in other cases also, such as Serapis^ Tanaisy for 
Serapidisy Tanrndis^ and in the dat. and ablat., Serapi 
tind Tanaiy for Serajndiy Serapide^ and Tanaidi, Tanaide. 
(See below, § 6 2.) ScUafJiis stands alone by making its 
genitive Salamtnis (from a nominative SalaminJ, 

[§ 69i] fdj Those in os sometimes have otis; as, cos^ dos, 
nepos, sacerdos, and sometimes om, like da (the mouths* 
flosy glosy mosy roSy and, in like manner, hands and lepdg^ thtt 
. more common forms for honm* and lepor. Gustos makoi 
custodis; as (bone), ossis ; hos^ hovis. The adjectives 
compos and impos have potis. The Greek masculines . 
herds. Minds t and Tros have dis; and some neuters in &% 
<nich as Argos, eposy occur only in the nominative and ac- 

(e) Of the vsrords in «w, the feminines in us make their 
genitive in utis; as, virtiiSy juventusy senectus ; or udis^ as 
the three words ineus, palus, and subscus, Tellus alone has 
teUurisy and Venus, Veneris, The neuters in Os have some- 
times em, yrz,,foedus,funus, gemis, lattis, munus, olus, onus, 
opusy pondiiSy scflusy sidusy ulcitSy vtdntis ; and sometimes 
oris; ssycorpusy decus, dedecus yf acinus, femiSyfiiguSy litus 
nemusy pectusy pecusy which in another sense has pecudis, 
pignusy stercus, temptMy and the noun epicene leptiSy lepd* 
m, a hare. All monosyllables which have a long u form 
their genitive in uris ; as, crus,jtiSy pus, rtes, tus, and 7nus, 
Grus and sus have uis : gruisy sum ; the fidjective vetiis^ 
veteris, and intercus, intermtis. Greek proper names in Os 
have tmtis ; as, Amaihusy Sdinusy Trapezus; the com- 
pounds of TTo;^ make pddis; as, tripus and Oedipus, which 
name, hovrever, is sometimes made to follow the second 
declension, the usf being in that case shortened. Polypus 
always follows the second* 

(fj Greek words in ys make the genitive yisy contract- 
. ed ysy or altogether in the Greek form yos. Some few. 
as Mamysy have ydis. 

(g) The only Houns eAding in nes are nes, aeris, and 
praes, praedis. 

(h) There are only two words in ausy viz., laus and 
frauB, o£ which the genitives ftre laudis, Jraudis. 

* Cicero uses throughout on\yho7ios (for PhUip.^ix.y 6 must be corrected 
from rhe Vatican MS.), and there is no doubt but that honor in the frag: a 
Fto Tullio, ^ 21, (h1. Pevron, must likewise be changed into Acnoc. 


(i) Among the nouns ending in 8 preceded by a con- 
ionant, those in Is (except pulsj^ nSf and rs change the j 
mto tiSy e. g., y«w*, monSy pons^ ars, pars. Mars — Jontts, 
partis, &c. There are only a few, such as Jrons (a 
branch), glanSfjuglanif and some others, which make dis 
--frandis ; but ^<?»* (the forehead) makes^<wi<w. The 
other words in s with a consonant before it, that is, those 
in hs, ps^ and ms, form their genitive in bis, pis^ mis, e. g., 
urbs, urbis; plebs, plebis; stirps, stirpis ; hiems, hiemis,' 
which is the only word of this termination. Caelebs has 
cadibis ; the compounds of capio ending in c^s have tpis; . 
as, princeps, particeps — principis, participis ; auceps alone 
has attciipis. Xhe compounds of caput, which likewise 
end in ceps, such as anceps, process, biceps, triceps, make 
their genitive in cipitis, like caput, capitis, Greek words 
follow their own rules^ those in ops make^i^, 9S,Pelqps, 
epopSf merops; or ojns, as, Cyclops^ hydrcps. Chryps (a 
griffon) has gryphis^ and Tiryns, iSrynthis. 

10. The termination t occurs only in caput and its com 
pounds, gen. capitis, 

[§60.] 11. The genitive of words in x varies between 
cis and gis, according as' the x has ariseii from cs or gs^ 
which may be ascertained by the root of the word. The 
former is more common, and thus the foilowinff monosyl- 
lables, with a consonant before the a;, make their genit. in 
cis : arx, cdlx, falx, kmxj merx ; gis occurs only in the 
Greek words phalanx, sphinx, and syrinx. 

But when the x is preceded by u vowel, it must be as 
certained whether this vowel remains unchanged, and 
whether it is long or short. The Latin words in ax have 
acis; zs,pax,fom4ix, and the adjectives, e. g., atidax, effi 
cax. Fax alone has a short a^jacis. Greek words, too, 
have mostly ads; as, thorax, Ajax; and only a few have 
ads; as, cor ax, climax, while the names of men in nojx have 
nactiSf such as Astyanax, Demonax. Words in ex gener- 
ally make their genitive in ids; bs, judex, artifex, supplex; . i 
but egis occurs in rex and lex ; and egis in aquilex, grex^ \ 

Ldex ; eds in nex,foenisex, and in preds (from prex^ which ' 
is not used) ; eds in verrex, Myrmex. Remex has remtgis; 
senex, senis ; and supellex, supeUecMis, The words in ix 
sometimes make their genitive in tds and sometimes in 
ids. Of the former kind are cervix, cicatrix, comix^ ca 
turnix^ lodix, perdix, phoenix, radix, vibix, and all fh« 



words in trix denoting women, such as nutriXf victrix, und 
rhe adjectives Jelix and p^mix, and probably also appen- 
dix ; ids occurs in calix, choenix^ coxendiXf Jilix, fornix^ 
fidix, hystfiXy larix, natrix, pix, salix, varix^ and CUix, 
Nix has nXvis ; and strix^ Hfigis^ The words ending in 
ox have dds, e. g., voXf vecis ; ferox^ feroda ; but two 
words have ocis, viz., Cappadox and the adjective prctC' 
cox, Nox has Tioctis ; AMobrox, AUehrbgia, The follow- 
ing words in ux form the genitive in uds: crux^ dux^nnxj 
and the adjective trux; the u is long only in two words, 
viz., lux and PoUux, gonit. lucia, PwMcis, Conjux (con- 
junx hS established on better authorities) has conjugu^ 
and /rwa; (which, however, does not occur), ^-ii^. The 
words iB yxare Greek; and viry very much in the for- 
mation of their genitive : it may be yds (Eryx)y ycu 
(homhyx)^ ygis (lapyx, PhryXy Styx J, ygis (coccyx), and 
ychis (onyx), Th6re is only one word ending in aex^ viz., 
faex, gen./aecis, and in aux on]jJaux, gen.jfauds. 



[§ 61.] All the remaining cases follow the genitive iti 
regard to the changes we have mentioned, it should be 
remarked that any other of the oblique cases might have 
been chosen, instead of the genitive, for the purpose of 
showing the changes in which all participate; but we 
have followed the common practice. It now only re 
mains to give a tabular view of the terminations. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. — 

<3-en. w. 

Dat. t. 

Ace. em (neut. like nom.). 

Voc. like nom. 

Abl. e (some i). 

Nom. eSf neut. & ^some ta), 
G-en. um (some ium). 
Dat. ibus» 
Ace. like nom. 
Voc. like nom. 
Abl. thus. 

Examples for exercise are contained in the preceding 
chapter ; but we subjoin the following words, either with 
or without adjectives, as exercises in which the student 
may also apply the rules contained in the next chapters : 
Sol ^^plendens (lucidMs)y the shining sun ; agger eminem 

E 2 


f alius J, a high mole ; pater prudens fproMus)^ tlie prii» 
dent father ; dolor levia fparvuij^ a slight pain ; uxor can* 
COTS (fida)^ a faithfiil wife ; leo nobilis (superbus), a nobi«« 
lion ; virgo erubescens (pudica)^ the blushing maiden , 
urhs vetus (vetusta), the ancient town ; lex acris faspera)^ 
a severe law ; Jrons tristis fseveraj, a grave for^ead ; 
civitas immunis (libera )j a free city; casaUfulgens fsplen- 
didaj, a brilliant helmet; judex clemens (beni^usjy a 
mild judge ; miles fortis (stremwus)^ a brave soldier ; avis 
cantrix (canwa), a singing bird ; rupes praeceps (ardua)^ 
a steep rock; calcar a>cre (acutum), a sharp spur; ammal 
turpe (foed%m)y an ugly animal ; atrmen dulce fgfatum)^ 
a sweet poem ; corp^us temie fmacrwmj, a thin body ; in^ 
gens (vastum) mare^ the vast sea; 'sidus radi/ms faw-eumj, 
the radiant ^tar. 

Remarks on the separate Ca^es, 

1. Cicero commonly, and other authors of the best age 
frequently, make the genitive of Greek proper names 
ending in es^ i instead of^ is. Thus, in the most accurate 
and critical editions, we read Isocrati, Timarchidi^ The- 
ophaniy Aristotcli^ Praxiteli^ and even Herctdi ; i, instead 
of is, is found most frequently (even in ordinary edi- 
tions) in the names ending in des ; as, Agathodit Dioclt, 
Neocli, Prodi, Peridiy Thenmtodi, The genitive i is 
used, also, in barbarian names in es, which were inti'odu- 
ced through the Greek into the Latin language, such as 
Ariobarzani, Mithridati, Hystaspi, Xerxi, and others. 
The genitives Achilli and Ulixi, which likewise frequent- 
ly occur in Cicero, probably arose from the contraction 
of Achillei and Ulixeiy first into Achillei and Ulixei, and 
then of ei into t, which had the same sound. (See above, 
Chap. XII./ 4.) After the time of Cicero, however, the 
genitive in is alone was used.* 

[§ 62.] 2. Many words in is make the accusative ^in 
gular im instead of em, viz., 

♦ [Consult, on this whole subject, Schneider, L. G.., vol. iii., p. '. 63, »eqq 
Veehner, Hellenolea:., p. 32, aeqq., ed. Heusing. ■ Drdkenborch ad lAv.^ 42, 25. 
Bentley ad Tereni, Andr., ii., 2, 31. Ottdendorp ad AptU. Met., i., p. 46. 
We must bear in mind, however, that no genuine Latin word in es, gen 
r*. also forms the genitive in i, although Valerius Probns (p. 1473) a^Muces 
from Cicero the genitive Verri. Neither are we to assign this ending in 
I to the genitive of those Greek words which do 7jot terminate in es, get 
ut, and hence Goerenz is wrong in thinking that we oug^t to rt\id <!al& 
p'lonti as a genitive in Cic. Tusc, v,3\,87 {Goeren? lul tic cii 7m,j 
i;, l 35)]— Am. Ed. 


( a J All Grreek nouns, prc^>eT as well as common, and 
Bitch as have passed through the Grreek into Latin, and 
form the accusative in that language in iv; but those v^ldch 
have in Greek both terminations iv and i6a (i. e., the Dary- 
tones in ig, gen. tdof) may in Latin also have the accusa* 
tive in idem^ though it does not often occur.* The ordi- 
nary Latin accusative of such words, therefore, is, basim 
poesim^ paraphrasim^ Ckarybdim^ Neapolim^ Persepolim^ 
Tanaim^ and of those which make their genitive in idog, 
idis^ at least when they are proper names, the accusatives 
AgiMf Memphim^ Ostrim^ Parinif Fhalarim^ Serapim^ 
Ttgrirn^ Zeuocim^ &c., are more frequent than, e. g., Bu- 
.rirtdem^ Paridem. But in feminine derivatives from 
names of places and in substantives (properly a^ectives) 
in tis^ and especially itis, the accusative in idem is more 
frequent, e. g., lAmnatidem^ Phthiotidem^ arthritidem^ 
pleuritidem. The accusative in tm for idem^ therefore, 
does not prove that the genitive ends in is instead ofidis^ 
or the ablative in i instead of ide, although an ablative in 
f not seldom occurs in proper names in t^, which make 
their genitive in idisy e. g., Osiri, Phalari, Tigri, instead 
of the regular Osiride, &c. Latin writers, however, and 
especially the poets, for metrical reasons, often use the 
Grreek form of the accusative in instead of jm. (See 
Chap. XVI.) 

(bj Many proper names (not Greek^ of 'rivers and 
towns which do not increase in the genitive, make, ac- 
cording to the analogy of the Greek, the accusative in im 
instead of em, e. g., Albim, Athesim, Baetim, Tiberim^ 
Bilbilinif IBspalim. 

(c) The following Latin common nouns: amuseis, rdvis, 
titis, tussiSf and vis. In the following the termination em 
IS less common than im : Jebris, pelvis, puppis, resits^ tur» 
lis, and especially securis. The words clavis, messis, na 
viSf have commonly davem, messem^ nafftm, but may have 
also im. 

Note, — ^An accusative in tm now and then occnrs in some other words. 
18 in hipettnim^ from bipennu ; burintf from burU ; cucvnam, a rare form foi 
tucmnerem, from cucumir; neptim; and tementim, which is much less com 
uon than sementem. 

- • lit I. .1 I... 

♦ Those which in Greek end in Ig, gen. Idof (oxytona), have in Greek 
only iSot and in Latin only idem : e. g., aegis ^ pyramut tjifrannis, Thaia^ 
Bacehu,LaiSf CAakif, and especially the feminine patronymics and gentiU 
^mes, such as Aeneia, HeracUU^ ihebais^ Aeolisy Doris^ Phocis. 


J§ 63ul 3. The dative and ablative singular seem ony 
iy to nave had the same termination, which was cithei 
i or e, just as those two cases ai*e alike in the scc.ond de- 
clension, ^nd in the plural of all declensions. At a latej: 
time, it became jhe general rule to use i exclusively in the 
dative and e in the ablative; but aere (from aesj for aeri^ 
in Cicero fad Fam.f vii., 13) and Livy (xxxi., 13), and 
"wre for juri in inscriptions and in Livy (xlii., 28), seem 
to be remnants of early times. The termination t, how- 
ever, which properly belongs to the dative, is much more 
commonly used m the ablative instead of e.* It occurs, 

(a J In all words which form Iheir accusative in im in- 
stead of em, wi^ the , exception of those Greek words 
which make the genitive in idis. Thus, we have po'esi^ 
NeapoU^Tiberi, sometimes also Osiri^Phalari; and among 
Latin common nouns not only ttissi and vi^hxitjehri^pdvi^ 
puppi, tterrif securi, though the ablative in e is not entirely 
excluded in these latter words. But restim has more 
commonly re^^e, and navem^ on die contrary, more usually 
Tiavi than nuve. Clave and clavi, and semente and sementi^ 
are equally in use. 

fhj In neuters in e^^al, and ar, e. g., mari^ vectigali, 
calcari, &c. ; but far, f arris, and haxxar, juhar^ hepar, 
nectar, and sal, which have a short a in- the genitive, form 
the ablative in e. Rete has both rete and reti, and rus 
ruri as well as rure, but with some difference in meaning, 
(Se'e § 400.) The poets sometimes use the ablative mare, 
e. g., Ovid, Trist,, v., 2, 20. .Names of towns in e (see 
§ 39) always make their ablative in e; as, Caere, Reate (at 
Caere, at Reate), Livy, xxvii., 23 ; xxx., 2 ; and Frae- 
neste (at jPraenopte), in Cicero. 

(c) In adjectives and names of months ending in is, e, 
and in er, is, e; for example, JacUi, celehri, celeri, Aprili^ 
Septemhri, and in those substantives in is which are prop- 
erly fidjectives, ^ g., aeqtialis, qffinis, annalis, hipennis^ 
eanalis, famUiaris, gentilis, molaris, natalis, poptdaris, 
rivalis, sodalis, strigilis, vocalis, triremis, and qttadrircmisf 

* [Instances, on the other hand, arc sometimes* given of datives in e oc- 
cumng in later writers. These, however, turn, for the most part, on felse 
readings. In other passages the form appears to hav» arisen from an em« 

$loyment of the ablative beyond its legitmiate bounds. (Consult Auswl, 
*opma, de usu antiq. locut., 1, 9. Vossius, Arist., 4, 10. Ursin., T., L 
p. 124 Schwartz, Or. jLat., ^1011. Burmann, ad Propert , 3, 9. 40. Scfauidm 
L G., vol. iii., p. 200.)]— Am. Ed. 


and, according to their analogy, perhaps also contubemal- 
w. But these words, being used also as substantives^ have 
more or less frequently the termination e, and juvenis al- 
ways make* juvene, aedilia commonly aedile ; in affinis* 
famUiaris, sodalisy and triremis the ablative in e is attested 
by the authority of prose writers, although i is generally 
pref srred. When such adjectives as these become propei 
names, they always have e; as, Juvenale, Martiale, Later 
ense, Celere, 

Note,— The ablative in e^ from adjectives in i», and in er, is^ e, is very rare, 
thoagh it is found in Ovid {Heroid., xvi., 277, Metam.^ xt., 743, coeleste. 
Henmi, viii, 64, Fast.^ iii., 654, perenne. Faat.y vi., 158, porca bimtstre). 
The amative in i instead of e, on the other hand, is used by good writers 
in several substantives in t^, besides those mentioned above, e. g., in amnis, 
tmiSf dvis, cUusisyfustia^ igmSf orbisy ungtdSf and sometimes in mpelUxy *u- 
velUctiU. Of substantives in er, imber has more frequently itnbn than tm- 
\re; vesper has both vetpere and vesperi; but the latter, especially in the 
sense of " in the evening," as opposed to 'money in the morning. Cicero 
and LdTT often use the ablatives Cnrthaginiy Ansuri, Tibmriy to denote the 
place where (see the commentat. on Liv., zxviii., 26) ; and in the preface 
of Com. Nepos we find Lacedamoni. But the common practice of the an- 
cient writers does not allow us to extend this system, or to make it the 
rale for all names of towns which follow tlie third declension ; it must 
rather be supposed that, though the ancient language was so uncertain 
between e and t, that we find in Plautus cami, partiy semumiy along with 
came, 6cc^ the forms becune m(M» decidedly separated in the course of 
time, and only a few isolated remnants and particular phrases remained 
in use with the classic authors. (Comp. ^ 398, in fin.) Thus we have 
tempariy "in times." (See ^ 475.) 

[§ 64.] 4. The ablative singular in i or e indiscrimi- 
nately occurs, generally speaking, in adjectives of one 
termination and in the comparative; aa, prudefis, prudente 
and prudenti ; elegans, elegante and cleganti; vetus,vetere 
and veteri ; locuples, locuplete and locupleti ; dives y divite 
and diviti ; degener^ degenere and degeneri ; felixy fdice 
and fdici ; Arpinas, Arpinate and Arpinati ; major ^ ma- 
jore and majori. But it is also a general rule that words 
m ans and ens^ when used as substantives, e. g., infana 
and sapiens (except continensjy and when they are actual 
participles, especially in the construction of the ablative 
absolute, always prefer e; e. g,,Tarquinio regnante^ when 
Tarquinius was king j but when they are adjectives, they 
prefer itoe. 

Note 1.— It should, however, be observed that there is no rule so full 
of excepti(ms as this,'for, on the one hand, the adjectives themselves vary 
their terminati6ns according to euphony or the requirement of a verse, 
and, on the other, the writers (ana the editions of their works) widely 
diflfer from one another. In Horace, for example, we find the (articiplei 
in ant and ensy when used as adjectives, almost irvariably fotmuig the 
■blative in e (aoe Bentlev or. Carm.y i., 25, 17\ whereas the same wordf 


ire generally fouixd with t in Cicero. On the whole, however, it wiH 
always be safest to make the ablative of adjectives of one teimination in 
I ; for the e exclusively occurs only in pauper^ aenex, and princeps, and in 
the majohty of those in es, viz., hosptty sospes^ dMet, pubet^ mtpUbts, and 
superste*. The i, on the other hand, is certain in the following words 
mentioned by the ancient grammarians : memor, immemor, and par with its 
compounds (in par, also, when used as a substantive), and also in most 
adjectives in«; SL9ftnuPfatrox,amiaae,p(rtinax,an(^pervicax; especially in 
hose in plex : simplex ^ duplex, triplex, multiplex : farther in anceps and prae" 
ceps, inops, iners, and heoes, cohcors, diacora, ingena, recena^ ana repena. It 
must forther be observed that praeaena, when used of things, makes the * 
ablative in i, and when used of persons, in e, as is confirmed by the phrase 
in praeaenti (soil, tempore), which is of frequent occurrence. Comparatives 
are found in Cicero and Livy more frequently with e than with t, but the 
latter afterward became more general, especially in Curtius and Tacitus. 
Note 2. — The following substantives, which are properly adjectives, 
trtifex, (^maora, nutrix, vigil, victrix^ ana ttltrix, have as substantives the 
termination e, but as adjectives of the feminine or neuteY gander they pre- 
fer the ablative in ». rroper names, also, when they are in reality adjec^ 
tives, have only e ; as, Felix, Clemens — Felice, Clemenie, 

[§ 65.] 5. The nominative, accusative, and vocative 
plural of neuters end in a ; but neuters in e, al, and ar, 
which also form the ablative Angular in i, and all partici- 
ples and adjectives which make the ablative singular ei- 
ther in i alone, or vary between e and t, have ia instead of 
a, except the adjective vettis and all comparatives ; e. g., 
maria, vectigalia, calcaria, paria,facilia^ sapientia, ingen 
tia, victrifda; amantia, sedentia, audimtia; but majora^ 
doctiora, &c. 

Note. — ^The neuter /or, however, hss/aira ; jvbar, hepar, and nectar have 
no plural ; and aal has no neuter plural, but only seUes with masculine 

Those adjectives which make the ablat. sing, in e exclusively should, 
for this reason, make their plural only in a ; but, with the exception of 
hospita (if it be really derived from hospes, and not from Ao«]D»tu«), no neuter 
plural of them is found, although some grammarians mention paupera and 
ubera. It must be remarked, in general, that the neuter plural occurs in 
adjectives of one termination in as, ans, ens, rs, and x, and besides these 
only in par, hebes, teres, iocuples, ouadrupes, versicolor, anceps, and prasceps, 
and that in all these eases it ends in ia. Thus there remains oniv vetus, 
Vetera, although the ablative sing, is vetere or veteri. , No authority nas yet 
been addhcedfor bicorpora and tricorpora. 

Pluria is said to make an exception amon^ the domparatives, but it is 
only an obsolete form, and is not found in ancient writers, who invariably 
have plura. Complures. on the otlier hand, which has lost its signification 
of a comparative in the ordinary language (it signifies several ot^some)^ 
makes both complwria aiyl complura, 

[§ 66.] 6. The following words make their genitive 
plural in ium instead of um : 

(a) All neuters, which have ia in the nominative plu- 

* [Sales has the meaning of "witticisms." The form salia, " salts,** if 
only employed by modem medical writers. (Consult Seyfert, SproMshrs 
p. 88.)1— Am. Ed. 


k-al, ibat is, those in e, al, and ar, and all particjtilefl and 
adjectives which foUov/ the third declension. Crom])ara- 
tives, therefor^ (with the exception of plurium and com* 
plurium)^ and those adjectives which have only e in the 
ablative jshigular, retain the termination um in the genit. 
plur. ; as, pauperum, superstitu7n. To these we must add 
die adjectives cadehsy celer^ cicur, comport impoSy dices, 
memoT, immemoTf supplex, uher, veius, and vigil; all com- ' 
pounds ofjacio and capio, and of such substantives as 
. make the genitive plur. in um, e. g«, degenerum, bicarpo- 
rum, inopum, quadrupedum, versicotdrum, and perhaps also 
andpitum and tridpitum. The poets sometimes form the 

• genitive plural of adjectives, especially of participles in 
ns, by a -syncope, in um instead of ium; and later prose 
writers, such as Seneca and Tacitus, sometimes follow 
their example, and use, e. g., potentum, dolentum, salutan- 
tu?n, ^ 

(h) Words in es and is, which do uof increase in the 
genitive singular (e. g., nuhes, fmhium; dvis, civium; but 
militAm and lapidum^ from miles and lapis, gen^ militis, 
lapidisj; the following words in er: imher, linter, venter, 
uter, and the word caro, cdmium. Vates, strues, the plu- 
ral ambages, and generally, also, sedes, together with 
apis, canis, juvenis, and voliccris, form exceptions, and 
make their genitive plur. in um. Panis is uncertain. 
(Respecting m^nsis, see my note on Cic. in Verr,, ii., 74 ; 
Schneider on Cses.,^eZZ. Gall., i., 5.) 

(c) Many monosyllabic substantives, and without ex- 
ception those ending in s and x, preceded by a conso- 
nant, make ium ; as, montium, derUium, arcium, merdum, 
from mons, dens,arx, merx. * Lynx, however, has lyncum; 
sphinx, sphingum ; and opes, from ops, has opum. Gry- 
phum, also, is probably the genit. plur. oi gryps. But the 
greater number of monosyllabic words ending in * and x, 

. preceded by a vowel, msJie their genitive plural in um, 

and not in ium. The latter occurs only in as, assium ; 

glis, glirium ; lis, lUium ; rruis, murium ; os, ossium ; vis, 

virium; and generally also in Jraus, Jraudium, and mus^ 

murium. To these we must add Jatix (which, however, 

is not used in the nominative Biugiil&r), jaudum ; nix, ni- 

viUm ; strix, strigium ; and nox, noctium. 

Note. — The genitive plural in tun, therefore, is used in aes, jruSf doa^flo*. 
m$,juSf lotM, mos, pea with its compounds (except compedes, of which thff 
farm compediwn is well attested), praeSf *«*, Cres, 7Vo», ius,fax,frwr, aiirf 

60 LATIN GfiAMMAft. 


prex (which uccur only in the plur.). ;?rea?, /«:, nux^ rea «ar, Phryx, 
Thrax. Fur and ren have funmif renum ; lar^ too, has more frequently 
larum than larium. Of those words which have not beer, noticed liere a 
genitive cannot be proved to exist ; but it ie probable that the genit. plur. 
of vas (vadU) was vadium ; and, in like manner, cor^par, aifd sal probably had 
cordiuniy parium^ salium, in order to avoid the ambiguity which would ari»2 
frcmi vadunif coidum, parum^ solum. Cordium occurs in the Vulgate, Jer*-^ 
Iv., i. 

fd) Substantives of two or more syllables, ending in m 
and rs, have ium and umj though the latter occurs more 
rarely ; e. g., cliens, cohors, Picens, Veiens^ Gamers ; and, 
n lifee manner, those which, like adolescens, infans, parens,^ 
tapiensj serpens, are properly participles, and admit urn 
only because they are substantives (whence we frequent- 
ly find pUrentum, from parentesjy commonly make their 
genitive ir ium: adolescentium, sapientium, &c. The 
names of people in as, atis, such as Arpirias^ Fidenas, 
form their genitive almost exclusively in ium : Arpinati- 
um^ Fidenatium, Penates and optimates, which usually 
occur only in the plural, follow their analogy.. Other sub- 
stantives in as generally have wn f e. g., aetatum, civita- 
turn ; but ium also is correct ; and Livy, for exampTb, al- 
ways uses civitatium. ^ The genit. plur. ium in words with 
other terminations, if it should occur, must be regarded 
as an exception. Quiris and Samrtis^ however, contrary 
to the rule, generally make Quiritiumf Samnitium. 

(§ 67.] 7. Names of festivals in alia^ which ai-e used 
y in the plural ; as, Bacchanalia, Compitalia, Saturna- 
lia, Sponsalia, make their genitive plural in ium or arum ; 
as, Bacchanalium or Bacchanaliarum. And Horace ( Carm . , 
iii., 5, 10), on this principle, makes ancUiorum from ancllc, 
plur. ancilia; and Suetonius, in several passages, has ver- 
tigaliorum instead of vectigaUum* 

8. With regard to the dative and ablative plural, it is 
to be remarked that the Greek words in 7/ta prefer the 
termination is of the second declension to thus. Thus, 
Cicero and other authors use poematis, epigrammatis, em- 
hlematis, Jtypbmnematis, peripetasmatis, peristroTnatis, Uh 
reuniafis ; but ibus occurs now and then ; as, diplo?natibns, 
in Tacitus and Suetonius; po'ematihus in the Rhetor, ctd 
Hcrenn., iv., 2 ; and in Sueton., Tit, 3 ; strategematihus in 
Frontinus, Strategy, Praef., lib. iv. 

[§ 68.1 9. The accusative plural of words which make 
the genitive plur. in ium ended, in the best acre of the 
Latin language, in ?*, which was also written e?>, but not 


k pronounced so; e. g., artisj mantis, civu^ onrniM^ iimdis 

mediocris. But the terminatiQQ Is was also in use, and }^ 
the course of time became .so prevalent that is yvas pre* 
soTved only in a few exceptions, such as trts. 

Note. — Piiscian, towards the end of his seventh book, discusses tho 

accusatiTe plur. in is inste&d of e«, more minutely than any other ancient 

writer. Among modem works, see especially Norisius, in his Latinittu et 

Orthogrtqihia tUriusqut Pimnat. Tabulae, V^hich.M reprinted in Cellarius, 

L fJrthiira^fua Latma, vol. il., p. 233, foil ed. Hafles. There is no donbt, 

> Uiat, xmiH the time of Augustus, those wordg which form their genitivo 
olaral in turn {to which must be added celer, as in all other respects it fol- 

I ow8 the analogy of Ihe adjectives in er, is, e, although it makes th^^it. 

' plur. celenmi), had in the accusative plural more commonly the tffiiina- 

tion ia than ee; but it must be home in mind ^at es was, at the same 
time, in use with m« Thus we find even in the Columna Rostrata of Du- 
ilius, closes f that is, cZa««f«, together with claseis ; ai)d in the ancient Flor 
entine MS. of Virgil we find urbes, ignesj tres, fines, as well as urlns, ignis, 
&c., aUhomgh es, od the whole, is not so ireqiient as is, (Comp. GeUiuo^ 
ziiL, 20.) In the newly-discovered fragments of Cicero, it is true, we 

• . generally find is in words of this kind : but there are instances, also, 
of es being' used in the same words. The ancient grammarians in vain 
attempted to fix the varying practice by rules and exceptions. Pliny 

> (ap. Charisium, p. 104, ed. Putsch.) denied the accusative /imw, and Varro 
\wid.) the accusatives /aZcit, mercis, axisJlintris, venttis, stirpist corbis, vectis, 
neptis, and evoD wins, and in his work, J)e Jang, Lot. (viii^ 67, ed. MiiUer)^ 
he asserts thmi mentis alone was used, an<L on the other hand, that mentes 
and dnUes were the only correct forms. Valerius Probus (see Ortho^aph. 
Noris., p. 242) gives us to understand that the words in es, genit. is, did not 
form toe accusative in is, although they have mm in the genitive plural. 

I Thus much is clear, that the termination is gradually became antiquated, 

I and that the desire of scholars to have an outward distinction of the accu- 

sative from the nominative gave way to the general practice. Charisiu* 

^ (p. 122, e4- Putsch.) says : consuetudo traditxit ad nominativi >( accusativi 

formam. And this probably took place about the end of the Augustan age ; 
for in the ancient MS. containing the fragment of the ninety-first book of 

) livy we no longer find the accus. in iv ; and in the best M8S. of the com- 

plete books, it occure only in a few isolated passages, and Quintilian does 
not mention this disputed point at all. Afterward w was still sometimes 
used by Tacitus and Gellius ; but with Tacitus this arose from his desire 
to revive the ancient power and energy of the language, and v\dth GelUu» 
from his antiquarian studies. This is not the place to inquire in vyha' 
manner an editor of ancient authors has to act in the face of this obviout 
mconsisteiicy'of the writers themselves ; there are few who faithfiiUy fol 
low the authority of the MSS. ; others, such as Bentley, in his Terence an« 
Horace, everywhere restore the accus. in is (why Bentley, without incon 
sistency, edited arces and ^Btes in Horace, has not yet been examined) 

' azMl most of than pay as little attention to the difierence in doubtful cases 

as to the ancient orthography in general, but merely follow the vulgar tra 

dition. ^e have noticed here (W difference of opinions to caution the 

• student, that, in reading the ancients, he may not confound the short is ol 

the genit. sing, with the long Is of the accus. plur. 

[5 69.] 10. Juppiter (which was more common than 
Jupiter J is declined as follows : genit. Javis, dat. Jovi, 
accus. Jovemj voc. Juppiter^ abl. Jove, In the plura) 
Jov9$ only is f ound.* » 

♦ ITupiter, gen Jovis, is to all appei ranee very ii regular: but there If 



Bos, bavis, makes the nominat and accus. plur. bov€9^ 
gen. bmm, dat. and ablat bubus, and less frequently 
bobus, Sus makes the dat. and ablat. plur. subus, wkioli 
is a cc ntraction of the less frequent form swibus. 



[§f|0.] A GREAT number of Greek words, especially 
prof er names, belongs to the third declension ; and as 
thftir genitive terminates in og (ewf , ovf), they follow the 
third declension in their own language also. Among the 
terminations of the nominative mentioned above, some 
br*long exclusively to Greek Words, viz., ma, i, y, an, in, 
on, yn, er, yr, ys, eus, yx, inx, ynx, and the plurals in e / 
but there are also Clreek words with other terminadons, 
most of which, however, are quite treated as Latin words, 
for which reason the termination on is gmierally Latinized 
into o (see above, § 56), and the Greek forms are used by 
Latin wjiters, especially the poets, only in some cases. 

1. In the genitive singular,- the poets frequently use the 
Greek termination os instead of the Latin is, especially in 
words in is which usually make their genitive idis, whether 
simple or derivative (see § 245), e. g., Daphnidos, Phasi- 
dos, Atlantidos, Erymantkidas, Nere'idos ; so also in nouns 
in as mid ys; 2A,PaUados,Tethyos; andinete^/ BS,Pdeds^ 
Theseos (Ovid, Metam,, viii., 268), althougn the Latin ter- 
mination ei or. contracted ei (according to the second de- 
clension), as in Thesei, Terei, is more commonly used. 
(See above. Chap. XII., 4.) 

But in prose the Greek termination of the -genitive is 
seldom used. Substantives in is derived from verbs in 
particular, such as basis, ellipsis, mathesis, poesis, make 
their genitive like the nominative, and not baseos, mathe^ 

seos, &c., which forms are foun^ only in unclassic writers. 


here in reality a blending of two forms of declension. According tc 
Priscian ?6, p. 695, Pu/«cA.), the regular genitive is JupiteriSf or Jupitru. 
On the otner hand, the genitive Jovis, as well as the other oblique cases, 
are to be traced to a nominative Jcvia, which occasionally occurs, and of 
which Varro makes mention. (X. L., viL, 38.) The stem of this appears 
to be Jovt or rather Jou^ which, with the Latin deuty the ^Eolic Aevf, the 
common fbnn Ze^g, the Oriental Ja, Jao, Jehovah^ &c , points to one and 
the same origin. (Compare MiUlar^ Etrusker^ vol i\, p. 43. Butlnuutm 
MythologtUy vol. ii , p. 7i.)]—Am. Ed. 


!See Vitruv., x., 15. Spaitian. Ad: Vertis, 3 ; Sever., 3.) 
H the few words in y the genit. Jn yw is used for tlio 
%ake of euphony, e. g., misyos, Pan^ the shepherds' god, 
admits the Greek genit. Panos in prose, to distinguish the 
word from panis, bread.* 

The feminines in o, however, such iq echo^ Calypto^ 
' Dido^ lo^ SappJio^ have usually the Greek genitive in us ; 
as, echtLs^ Didus, Sapphus, the Latin termination onu 
being less common. Their dative, accusative, and ablar 
tive end in <?, and tlyg Latin terminations oni^ onem^^one. 
are but rarely used. 

[§ 71.] 2. The Greek accusative of the third decler- 
4}ion in a is very often used by the Latin poets instead of 
ew». Thus, Horace uses only heroa, Cydopa, Memnotia, 
Agcumemnona^ Hdicona, Chremeta, and not Cydopem^ 
Agamemn&nem^ &c. Among the prose vmters, Cicero 
•most studiously avoids the Greek termination, except in 
aefy aether^ and Pa«, of which he makes the accu*;ative 
aera, aethera,\ and Pana (for the reason mentioned 
above). In all other instances the Greek accusative in a 
must be looked upon, in Cicero, as an exception^ It oc- 
curs much more frequently in Nepos, Livy, Curtjus, and 
the authors of what is called the Silver Age, though prin- 
cipally in proper names and along with the common Latin 
termination em, e. g., Babylonaf Eleusina, Lacedaemona^ . 
Marathona, ParmenioTia, Sidona, Timoleonta, Troezena, 
also Peridea, Stratoelea, and similar names ending in the 
nominative in des. In like manner, words in is and ys 
admit, even in prose, the Greek forms in and yn, together 
with the Latin im and ym, but Cicero uses them only by 
way of exception ; Livy and Curtius have them more fre- 
quently, e. g., Nabin, Agin, Halyn, Tigrin. The accus. 
Eleusin, instead of Eleusinem (a), must be traced to the 
form £f/«m*, gen.- w, which, however, is not well attested. 
For the accusative of words in et^^, which later writers usu- 
ally make ea; aBfPersea,l?emetriumPhalerea,aee above, 
Chap. XIL, 4. 

* rfiat hj no means to the exclusion of Pants. (Consult Schneider, 
L. O.J vol. lii., p. 285.)]— Am. Ed. 

f [These two accusative fon?*- ain-a and <c/A«iyt» appear the more re*> 
markabie in Cicero, when We compare them with his own language on 
mother occasion : '* a€r ; Cfracum i *ud qtudem^ sed receptwnjam tamen uau 
fl nostrit : tritum eat entm pro Latino .... sth$r : mtUuemur hoc ouo^ 
\frbum, dicaturqw tarn aether Latine qiuun iicitur aer." {Cic.^ K D tL 
^9\, seqj.y]—Am. Ed 


Proper nameb n. atj which in Greek follow the first de- 
clension (gen. ov), and in Latin the third (gen. is J (see 
Chap. IX., 3), have in the accusative the tennination en 
along with that in em, e. g., AescJdnen, AJiiUen^ and 
Ulixen (inasmuch as these names are not formed from 
'kxf'^tv^ and ^Odvooevg^ but from the less conuncn 
'Ax^^^Tj^ and ^Odvaarjc:, ov), and especially barbarian 
names, such as Mithruiaten, Phraaten, Xerxen, Araxen, 
Euphraten» The termination en for em is, moreover, fouml 
in those compounds which in Greek follow the third declen- 
sion, but in the accusative admit of rjv and rj (contracted 
from Ea) ; but en is used much less frequently. Instances 
of this kind are, Sophoclcn, in Cic, De Off'., i., 40; Hijypo^^ 
craten and Epicyd'CUy in Livy. Some words are in Greek 
declined in two ways, either after the iii-st or aftef the 
third declension, such 0aA^^, Xpe/^i/^, gen, ov and «yTOf ; iw 
Latin they may have the shorter form and yet follow the 
third declension (e. g., the ablat. Thale), and in the ac- 
cusative they admit also of the termination en, e. g., Chre* 
metem and Chremen^ Thalem or Tkaletem and TJuilen, 

[§ 72.1 3. The vocative singular is in most Greek 
words lite the nominative ; but those ending in s form a 
distinct vocative by rejecting that consonant, both in 
Greek and Latin. Thus, the vocative of words in is, ys, 
eus : Daphni^ Phylli, Thai, Coty, Tiphy, Orpheu, Perseu, 
Words in is, idis, however, make the vocative just as 
often like the nominative ; as, Bacchis, My sis, Thais. 
Nouns in as, antis^ make their vocative in Greek av anc 
d, but the latter only is used in Latin, e. g., Atla^ Cdlclia. 

Proper names in es, gen. is, have the vocative of the 
first declension in e, together with the regular one. Thii 
is the case with those which in Greek follow the first de- 
clension (e. * g., Cameade^ Simonide, and AchiUe, see 
above); and with those which, although they follow the 
third in all other respects, yet admit of the accusative in 
rjv. Thus, we sometunes find Damode, Feride, Sophocle 

[§ 73.] 4. The plural of those Greek proper names 
which by the forms of their accusative ana vocative sing 
show their tendency to follow the first declension, la 
sometimes formed after that dec ension. Thus, we find 
in Cicero, De Orat,, ii., 23, the r-iom. Naviratae ; and 
OraL,.9, the accus. Thticydidas. * 




5. The Greek. termination of the nom. plur. e^, instead 
of the Latin e*, is not uncommon in poetry, e. g., Arcades ^ 
AilantideSy Erinnyes ; but the metre must decide. The 
termination^^, Latin xs^ occurs even in the nominative oi 
the names of towns TraUis and Sardis^ though princi- 
pall^r in the latter. Horace, Epist,, i., 11, 2, says: Croesi 
trgia Sardis, 

In the nominative plural the neuters in w have the 

(jrieek termination e; as, cete^ mde^ and the plural 

Tanpe^ tql TifATTij. 

Note. — No other casei are formed from these iieuters in ocr &n(] in th« 
singular, too, they occur only in the nom. and accus., and we must, there 
fore, use the Latin forms ceius and vnelum (according to the second declen- 
sion). So, also, cftflof, gen. chai^ abl. chao. See ^ 87. 

6. In the genitive plural only a few words retain the 

Greek termination 6n {f»nf), and that generally only m 

titles of books, e. g., metamorphasedn^ epigrammatdn. 

Note. — Ctirtin8,iv., 60 (13), makes the'genitive Malam, from MaAectf, or 
HaXieic (sing. 'iiiaXie^), entirely in the Greek Aishion, for the l^tin namn 
is JdaUenses. 

7. In the dative plural the Greek termination *i, or **», 
is used very rarely, and only by poets. Ovid, e. g., has 
Lemniasi and Trodsin^ firom Lemniades and Troades, In 
prose vmters there are very few examples that can be re- 
lied upon ; such as ethesi, from rd ^^.T 

[§ 74.] 8. The accusative plural in as is admissible in 
all words which have this termination in Greek. It is, 
however, seldom used in prose, though in common nouns 
it occurs more frequently than the accusative singular in 
d ; e. g., harpaganasj phalangasy pyramidasy and even in 
Cicero we find aspidas^ cant^aridas. He also uses the 
proper names Aethiopas, Arcadas, and CyclopaSf and Livy 
always has the accusal. Macedonas. It is surprising to 
find that the samiB termination is now and then given also 
to barbarian names of nations, e. g., Allohrogas in Caesar, 
and Jjingonas, Nemetas^ Ordovicas^ Brigantas^ Siluras* 
and Vangionas in Tacitus. • * 

* [In Greek we find, at one time, TpdXXeig and ^dpdeig ; at another, 
TpaA?.ig and ^dpdig. The former lure nominatives plural in the Attic dia- 
jlect, the latter m the Ionic. (Consult Maittaire, Dial. X. G^., p. 145, ed. 
Sturz.)}-^Am. Ed. 

t [According to Pliny, as quoted by Charisius (p. 38), Varro often made 
use of these datives in si or «»n, but probably only with Oreek characters. 
Pliny adduces as an instance the form echemnsirit for tchematiSf and in n 
fragment of Uie same Varro, in Nonius (iv., 377), we have " in tthesin T«* 
reiutue palmam poseit." QuintiUan, also, has allowed himself to sa « '* ««i 
OvicUus landvire m Metamorphoeesi eolet" (iv., i., 77. )] — Am. Ed. 

F 2 





[§ 75.] Masculine are those which end in o, ar^ 09^ and 
er, and diose in es which increase in the genithre^ espe- 
cially those in r«, Uis ; e. g., sermo, error ^ sudor, flos^ mos, 
venter^ stipes. 

Exceptions in o. — Words ending in do^ go, and io, arcj 
feminine ; e. g., consuetudo^jbrnudotgrando^ inutgo, oratio^ 
dictio, lectio^ auditio, cofmmmio^ ^c ; also coro, and. the 
Greek words echo and Arg0 (the ship of the Argonauts). 
The following, however, are masculine ; in do^ the words 
cardo and ordo, together with udo and cudo, or cndcm; in 
go : ligo, margo, and karpago ; and all words in io which 
are not abstract nouns derived from verbs ar*d adjectives, 
but common names of things, such as pttgio (a dagger), 
scipio (a staff), septentrio (north pole), titio (a fire-brand) ; 
several names of animals, as, curculio,* papilio, scorpio, 
stellio, vespertilioj and a few others of rare occurrence ; 
and, lastly, those formed from numerals, such as unio, hi- 
nio or duplio, temio^ qtcatemioy quinio^ senio^ &c. Umo^ 
in the sense of a. particular pearl (margarita), is like- 
wise masculine ; but when it signifies unity (unitas), and 
is used in an abstract sense, it is feminine ; but it is only 
in ecclesiastical writers that it has this meaning. 

Note. — CupidOf desire, therefore is feminine, but masculine when it la 
the name of the god of Love. Poets, however, sometimes use it as a mas- 
culine, even in the former signification, and Horace does so always ; as, 
praviu cupidof/alsus cupido. Margo may have either gender, but the mas- 
culine is more frequent, as was remarked above. 

[§ 76.] Exceptions in or, — The fijllowing words in of, 
oris, are neuter: ador, aequor^ marmory and cor, cordis. 
Arbor is feminine, according to the general rule. (Seo 
§39.) . 

Exceptions in os^ — Cos, doi, and the Greek eos are fem- 
inine. Os, ossis, and os, oris, and the Greek words chaos^ 
ethos, epos, melos, are neuter. 

Exceptums in er. — ^A great many words in et' are neu* 

^ Also spellH gurgulir it is masculine in its two significations of '* aif 
pipe" and * wo »d worn*. * 


ter, viz:, cadaver, iter, spintker, tuber (a hump), vher^ ver, 
and verber (rarely used in the singular, but very frequent- 
ly in the plural, verberaj, and all the names of plants in 
er : acer, deer, laser^ papaver^ piper ^ siler, siser, suber, and 
zingiber, Tiiher (a kind of peach-tree) is feminine, but 
when it denotes the fruit it is masculine. lAnter is com- 
monly used as a feminine, but is well attested also as i 

Exceptions in es increasing in the genitive. — The fiil» 
lowing are feminine: mfrges^ ttis; seges and teges, etis; 
merces^ edis ; qnies, etis^ with its compounds inquies and 
requies. Compes, which, however, does not occur in the 
nominative sing., but only in the plural campedes, is femi- 
nine. Aes, aerisj is neuter ; ales and quadrupes are prop- 
erly adjectives, but as substantives they are mostly used 
as femsiines. 




S§ 77.] Feminine are those which end in as, is, ys, aus^ 
[ X, those in es which do not increase in the genitive, 
and those in s preceded by a consonant, e. g., auctorita^^ 
navisj chlamys, laus BJidJraus,paXf radix, arx, nubes^pars, 

Exceptions in a*. — The following are masculine: as, 
gen. a^sis, and its compounds, though they have different 
terminations ; as, guadraais, a fourth of an as ; hes, two 
thirds of an as; decussis, ten ases ;* and the Greek words 
which make their genitive in antis ; as, adamas, elephas, 
and the namQS of mountains : Acragas^ Atlas, Mimas. 
Mas, maris, and vds, vUdis, are, of coufse, masculine. 
The following are neuters : Greek words in as, which 
make their genitive atis; as, artocreas, erysipelas (see 
§ 58), and the Latin words vas^ vasis, and Jos and nejus, 
which, however, occur only in the nom. and accus. 

Exceptions in w. — The following are masculine : 1 
Those in is gen, eris ; as, dnis, cucamis, puCvis, and vomis 
{commonly vomer J; 2. The following, which increase in 

* See the Appendix o i Roman weights, coins, and meaauros. 


the genitive : glis^ lapis^ poUisj and sanguis ; 3. The foi 
lowing, which do not increase: amnis^ axis^ ccdlis^canalu 
cassis (used especially in the plural casses^ a hunter's nei, 
and not to be confounded with cassis, Idis, a helmet) ; 
caulis or colisy collis^ crinis, en^is^ fasds (generally in the 
i^limX^ fasces J ^ Jinis^ follisy funis^ fastis^ ignis, mensis, or- 
bis, paniSf piscis, postis, scrobis, sentis, torquis, tbrris, un^ 
guis, vectis, vermis. Some of these words, however, are 
used by good authors also as feminines, though not often, 
especially callis, canalis, scrobis, torquis, and finis, dnis, 
in the singular ; whereas the plural J?»e», in the sense of 
boundary or territory, and cineres, in the sense of the ashes 
of a corpse, are always masculine. 

As mensis is masculine, Aprilis, QuintUis, and SextUis 
have the same gender. Some substantives in is are prop- 
erly adjectives, and a substantive masculine being always 
understood, they are themselves used as masculines; e.g., 
annalis, commonly in the plural annates (libri), annals ^ 
jugales (equijytvfo horses yoked together ; molaris (lapis ^ 
a millstone ; or, if dens is understood, a back tooth or 
grinder; natalis (dies), birthday; pugillares flibellij, a 
tablet for wyiting. • 

Note. — Anguis and tigrU may have either gender; cania is generally 
masculine, but when it denotes a dog used in hunting, it is very often 
feminine. (See ^ 42.) AquaUs, calUsf anrbis, and cluniSf plur. clunesy are 
used by good writers as words of either gender. Delphis is masculine ; 
but the more common forms are detpkinua^ or ddphm. CossU has not been 
mentioned above, because the only authority we have for it is a doubtful 
passage in Pliny, Hist. Nat.j zxx., 39, and cosstist i, is more probable. 

That the names of rivers in is are masculine follows from the general 
rule (^ 37) ; thus we read horridus AUns, flamu Tiberia, rapidus Tigria, 
Names of mountains with this termination are not numerous : Lucretilht, a 
hUl in Latium, is masculine ; for Horace says, amoenus Lucretilis. The 
Greek names Caramf/is^ a promontory on the Asiatic coast of the Black 
Sea, and Pehris in Sicily, are femimne, the word uKpa being understood. 

All the masculines in is, whatever may be their genitive, are contained 
«n the following hexameter lines : 

Mascula sunt panis^ pisdtt erhuSf einist ignitf 
Funis, glis, vectiSffolUst fascia f lapis f omnia ^ 
Sic/u«f», postiSf scrobisj axis, vermis et unguis, 
Et peniSf collis, callis, sic sanguis et ensis, 
Mugilis et mensis, pollis, cum caule canaliSf 
£t vomis, seniis, pulvis, finis, cucumtsque, 
Anguis, item torquis, torris, cum cassibus oroia. 

Exceptions in ys, — Names of rivers ami mountains witk 
this termination are masculine, according to the rules lai'J 
down in Chap. VI. ; e. g., Halys, Othrys, 

[§78] Exceptions \nx, — The following are masculine: 
I. The Greek wonls in ax: as, anthrax, cordax, thorax 


2. The majority of those in ex : apex, caudex, codex^ c% 
mex, cortex^ adex^ JhUex, grex^ irpex^ latex^ murex^ obex^ 
podeXf poUex, pulex^ pumexj ramex, tilex^ sorex^ ulex^ ver- 
tex or vortex, 3. Some in ix: \iz,y calix^Jpmix^ phoenix^ 
sorix; and generally^ also, vam;. 4. One word in ux: 
viz., tradux^ properly an adjective, palmes being under- 
stood. 5. The following 6reek words in yx: calyx^ 
*coccyx^ onyx,, oryx an^ bombyx (in the sense of silk- worm ; 
it is feminine when it signifies silk) ; and the names of 
mountains, such as Eryx. 6. The subdivisions of an a« 
which end in unx ; as, quxTicunx^ septunx^ deunx. (See 
Appendix III.) * 

Note. — ^Mauy words in er, commonly enumerated in these lists, are mas- 
culine from their signification ; such as reXf pontifex, camijfex^foeimex, ver- 
vex. Some words vary between the masculme and feminine genders ; as, 
cortex, cbejB, punux, and siUx, which have been mentioned alx>ve, but the 
masc. is better attested. To these we must add imbrex and rumex, both 
genders Of which are supported by equal authority. It may be remarked 
that the nuBiber of masculines in ev is greater than that of feminines ; for 
if we put aside the above-mentioned masculines, there vemain only the 
followmg feminines : for/ex, lex, nex, supelUx^ j>rex (not used in the nom.), 
and /oev. PelleXf 3eXf viter, and carex are femm|nes from their meaning, ac- 
cormng to the general rule. Atriplex is the only neuter in ex, and is rarely 
used as a febiinine. 

Onyx is masculine when it denotes a species of marble, or a vessel made 
of it ; but as the name of a precious stone (see ^ 39) it is feminine. Calx 
18 sometimes used as a masculine like the diminutive calctdus, but It does 
not occur in ancient ^vriters. Lyiue occurs as masculine only in a single* 
passage of Honceftimidoe lipMMt)^ and is otherwise feminine, as in Greek. 
The archaic cum primo he* is believed to be preserved in a passage of 
Cicero {De Off., ih., 31. Cobip. Varro, De L. L., vi., 9). 

Exceptions in es, gen. is, without increase. — The Greek 
ward adnaces alone {oKivdKrjg, ov) is decidedly masculine. 
Vepres, which rarely occurs in the singular, and palumbes, 
though* commonly masculines, are found also as feminines. 

Exceptions in s preceded by a consonant.— The follow 
ing axe masculine : dens, foTis, mans, and pons ; adeps 
commonly, and Jbrceps sometimes. Some words are prop- 
erly adjectives, but are used as masculine substandres, 
because a substantive of that gender is understood : con- 
JUtens or confluences (anmesj^ torrens (amnis), oriens and 
occidens (sol), rudens (funis J, bidens and tridens; and 
several Greek words, such as elops, epops (Lat. upupa)^ 
fnerops, gryps (gryphis), hydrops, ohcdybs, 

N9te. — ^The divisions of the at ending in ns, e. g., sextans^ quadrans, trtens, 
dodrane, are masculine, as was remarked ^ 77. Serpens, in ]^rose writers, 
is senerally feminine, but the poets use it also as a masculine. Stirps, in 
a fig^irative sense, is always feminine, but in its original sense of '* siem* 
i* iafiequeoAly found as a masculine. Cowtinent, the conunent, properN 


an adjeclive, u ol doubtful gender, though the feminine is i>erhap8 prettfia 
blp. Bidetu, a fork, is masculine ; but when it signifies ** a sjieep two 
years old" it is feminine, ovu being understood. The plural torremia, from 
iorrens^ occurs in CurtiuSf ix., 35, and must be explained by supplyinf 
Jlwnma, torrent being properly an adjective. A few participles used as sub 
stantives in philoso^nical language are neuters; as, ens. accident, conse 
mtena. AnimanSf bemg properly a participle, t)ccurs in all three genders . 
but, according to the practice of Cicero, it is generally feminine in the senet 
of " a living being,^' and masculine in the- sensp of "a rational creature.' 
(See Schneider, Formenlehre, p. 126, fol.) 



[§ 79.] Words ending in a, e, t, y, c, Z, «, t^ ar^ «er, im 
are neuter ; e. g., poema, marcj sinapi^ misy^ lac and alec^ 
animal^ mcl^ carmen^ Jiumen^ captU (the only word of this 
termination), ccUcar, ptdvinar^^gur^ guUur^ opus^ tempus, 

1. Exceptions in I, — The following are masculine : sol^ 
sal, and mtLgU, which form is more common than mugiUs* 
Sal, in the singular, is sometimes found as a neuter, but 
in the plural the ancients use only sales, both in the sense 
of " salt" and in the more common one of ** witticisms." 
Salia, in the sense of " different kinds of salt/'^is only a 
modem medical term. • 

2 Exceptions in n, — There are only three Latin words 
in en which are masculine, viz., pecten, pecfinis, ren and 
lien (or Itenis) ; the others in en are of Greek origin ; e. 
g., attagen, lichen, and splen. Deiphin (commonly ddphi- 
nusj, paean, agon, canon, gnomon, horizon, and the names 
of mountains in on; as, Cithaeron, Hdicon, are likewise 
masculines. The following in on are fbminine: a'idon, 
halcyon (Lat. alcedoj, icon, and sindon; and, according 
to ^e general rule, ail the Gh:-eek names of towns, with a 
few exceptions, such as Marathon, which is more fre* 
quently masculine. 

3. Exceptions in ar, — Par is common in the sense of 
•* mate,*' but neuter in the sense of •* a pair*" 

4. Exceptions in ur.^^Astwr, turtur, vvlttsr, and fafft^ 
are masculine. * 

5. Exceptions in us, — ^AU words of two or more sylla- 
bles whicb retain the u in the genitive, that is, which 
end in utis or udAs, are feminine ; e. g., juventus, salus^ 
senectus^ servitus, virtus; incus, pah** end subscus ; also. 



%eUtds^ teUuris, and pecus^ pecudis^ a sheep, wheieas pecus^ 
peearis (neut.), signifies '' cattle'' in general. Venus^ Ve* 
meriSf the name of a goddess, is naturally feminine ; but 
it retains the same gender in the sense of " gracefiilness** 
(generall]^ in the plural). Respecting the names of ani* 
mak in us, see above, §*42. JUepus and mus are mascu- 
line ; grus and sus are feminine when the particular sex 
is not to be specified. Of Greek words in us, tripus^ trir 
podis^ is masculine ; apus and lagopus are feminine, per- 
haps only because avis is understood. Rhus, as a tree, is 
feminine ; as a seed or spice, masculine. 





[§ 80.] The fourth declension is only a particulcu: spo 
cies of die third, which has arisen fi*om contraction and 
Elision. The nominative of masculine and feminine words 
ends in us, and of neuters in u. The following is the form 
ci their declension : 
• Singular. 

l^om.yiruct'us, fruit. 

Gen, fruct'Us. 

Dat. fruct-uu 

Ace. %.t^ra. 

Voc. Jruct'us. 

Abl. Jruct'U, 

Gen. Jruct-uum. 
Dat. frucp^bus. 
Ace. Jruct-us* 
Voc fructrus. ' 
Abl. fruct-xbus* * 

The* following words may be used as exercises : adus, 
coetus^ cursus, gradus, lusus, mugistratusf motus, sensus^ 
iumptuSf vuttus: the only neuters are, genu, gdu^ veru^ 
pecu (the same as pecus^ oris), Tonitrus and tonitruum^ 
plar. tamitrua, are more commonly used than tonitru. 

Formerly it was believed that the neuters in u wore 
ttdetlinable in the singular, but recent inveetiga'ions (et 

com-Hj horn. 


(com-ui) com-u, 











jiecially those of* Freund, in an ap^ndix to the ^ re^te« 
to his Tiutin Dictionary) compel us to give up this o]»inion, 
especially with regard to the genitive ; for it is only in 
late i;echnical writera that we find, e. g., comu cervimem 
and comu bubulum making the genitive writhout any ter- 
mination of the first word : comucervini, comubtibulu The 
dative ui is likewise mentioned by an ancient grammari- 
an (Martian. Capella, lib. iii.), but there is no instance ex- 
cept comu in Livy, xlii., 58, which must be looked on as 
a contraction of comui, 

[^ 81.] Note 1.— The genitive of the words in us was ori^nally um, which 
was afterward contracted into Us, Instances of the ancient form are still 
found in our authors ; as, anvis in Terence. Sometimes, on the other 
hand, the genitive of words in us was i, after the second declension, which 
.is still found now and then, as weH as us, not only in comic writers, but 
in good prose, e. g., senati and tumuUi in Sallust. The dative in u instead 
of vi is still more frequent, esi)ecially in Cesai^ who is said by Gellias 
(iv., 19) (p have simctioned this form exclusively; e. g., equitatu, magis- 
hatu, usu, for eqtdtatidj &c. ; it is, however; found also in a few passages 
of other writers. 

[^ 82.] Note 2.--Some words make the dative and ablative phiialin fifrtw 
instead of ibus. They are contained in the following two hexameters : , 

Arcus, acus, portus, quercus, ficus, hcusy artuSf 
£t tribus et partus , specus, adde veruqne pecuqae. 

But it must be observed, that instead ofjicubus a better form iBfids, iruio 
ficuSf i (see ^ 97), and that areubus and quercubuSf though mentioned by^ 
ancient grammarians, do not occur in other writers any more tj^an arcUms, 
or quercUms, Portu* has both forms, ubus and ilmSf and totdtrus has more 
commonly tonitribus than Un^ruims. 

[^ 83.1 Note 3. — Domus takes, in some of its cases, the forms of the 
second declension ; £>ut this is exclusively the case only in the genit.-domt 
m the sense of " at home ;"* in the abl. domo in the sense of " from home ;** 
and in Ihe ace. plur. domoa in the soise of " home," when several places 
are alluded to. In the other signification, the forms of the fourth declen 
sion prevail, though we find the ablat. domo, genit. plur. domorvm, ace 
plur. domosy along with domu (see Garatoqi on.Cic, Philip,, ii., 18), do 
muum, and domUs (see my note on Cic. m Verr., iv., 4); but domo foi 
domvi seldom occurs. 

Gender of Words of the Fourth Declension. 

[§ 84.] The words in us are masculine. The following 
only are feminines: acua, domus ^ manus'^ porticus^ tribus, 
and the plurals idus, iduum, and quinqtiatrv^^ guingtiatrU' 
um. To these must be added colus^ ^hich, however, also 
fi>llows the second declension. (See § 53 and 97J The 
words anusy nurusy s&erus, difid quercus are feminme, ac- 
cording to die general rule, on account of their significa- 

Noie. — Penus, us (provisicms), is feminine ; but there are two othet 

* [Domi^ " at home,** is in fact not a genitive, but' an old locative cast 
Compare AnthmCs Cheek Prosody ^ p. 227, seq.y^Am. JBd. ' . '• 

rtrru declension. 73 

of this word, one aftw the second declension, penum, t, and the 
•econd after the third, penus, SriSf both of which are neuter. Speeut is 
most frequently masculine; but in the early language, and in poetry, it is 
found both as a feminine and as a neuter. In Valer. Maximus, i., 2, we 
have m quoddam praealtum speau for m qumdam wpeevm ; but the reading is 
doubtful. Secua, when used for Mtxus^ is neuter, but occurs only in the 
nominat. and accus. in the connexion of viriU and mtdit^t tecua, (Com 
pare ^ 89.) 

The few words in % are neuter, without exception. 



'§ 85.J The fifth declension, like the fourth, may, with 
&w changes, be traced to the third. The nominatiye 
ends in es^ and the declension is as follows : 

Singular. Plural. ^* * 


Nom. di-es, a day. 
Gen. di-ei, 
Dat. di-ei. 
Ace. di-em. 
Voc. di-es, 
Abl. di-e. 

Nom. di-es. 
Gen. di-erum* 
Dat» di'dbus. 
Ace. di-es, 
Voc. di-es, 
Abl. di-ehtM, 

N»u l.—Only the three words ctie*, rea, and apeeiet have their plural 
complete ; and Cicero condemned even apecjerum and apeciebua as not being 
Latin. The words adea^fadea^ effigieay aerieay and apea are found in good 
prose writers only in the nominadve plur. (perhaps in the vocative also) 
and accus. plur. ; the others have, from their signification, no plural 

Note 2. — ^The e in the termination of the genitive and dative singular is 
long when preceded by a vowel, as in c2tei, macieif but short in apeit com« 
mon iD.]fidei and m. 

NoU 3. — An old termination of the genitive was ea Contracted from cm), 
but is not found in our authors, except in the word Dieaviter:=Diei pater. 
But thete are several instances of i and I being used for tne ei of the geni- 
tive and dative. The i for the genitive occurs very frecguently in poetry 
(Virg., Georg.f i., 208, die. Horat., Carm., iii., 7, 4 ; Ovid, itfctom., iiL, 341, 
and vii, 728,,^) ; and also in some passages •of Cicero, Caesar, and Sal 
lust ; e. g., pernide cauaa (some write pvnicu), in Cic, pro Roac. Am., 45. 
In ainiatra parte ade in Cses., BeU. OalL, ii., 23, and several times in Sallust. 
Instances of the dative ending in e occur in Horace, Serm., i., 3, 95, com- 
wuaaafida ; and in Livy, v., 13, inaanabUi pernide nee cauaa nee lima ixvenia- 
batur. The dative in t occurs in Nepos, Thraayb., 2 : pernidi/uU ; and the 
genitive in i appears in Livy, ii., 42, in the connexion of tribuni plebi for 
plebd (plebea^jdeba). 

Gender op Words of the FIefth Declension. 

[§ 86.] The words of the fifth declension are feminine, 
with the exception of dies, which is mascul. and femin. in 
rhe singular, and masculine only in the plural. The com 
pound meridies is masculine only, but does not occur in 
the plural, as was remarked above. 


Abte.— -Good prose writers make the singular of diu uMch, iii>rti tm 
^enUy masculine than feminine. The latter gender, gei erallv speaking 
is used only when dies denotes duration or length of time, and m tne sens* 
of A fixed or appointed day. Thus we find certa, eMutUvtOf pne$tiutK. 
dktOffouta dits, but also atato 4m. 



[§ 87.] The irre^aritiea in the deelension of substan- 
tives may be comprised under two general heads : A. jG»- 
dedinahles and defectives; B, Heterodita and heterogenea* 

A. Some substantives have a defective declension, in- 
asmuch as they have either no terminations at all to mark 
the different cases (indeclinahlesjy or want particular ca- 
ses, or even a whole number (defectives), 

I. Indedinables, or v^rords which retain the same form 
in all cases, are chiefly the names of the letters of the 
Greek and Latin alphabets, e. g., alpha^ beta, gamma, 
digamma, delta, iota, a, c, v, &c. It is only late and 
unclassiccd authors that decline the Greek names in a. 
Delta, as a name of a country, is likewise indeclinable ; 
but it is found only in the nomin. and accus. Farther, a 
number of foreign words, such as git, manna, ^pascha, and 
a few Greek substantives in t and y, such as gwmmi an<? 
misy, which, however, occurs also as a declinable word 
(see § b^") ; and besides the indeclinable gummi there ex 
ist other declinable forms also, e. g., haec gummds, hot 
gumma, and hoc gumen. Hebrew proper names, which 
differ in their terminations fixmi Greek and Latin words, 
are either npt declined at all, as Bethleem, Gdhriel, Ruth, 
or they take a Latin termination in the nominative also, 
e. g., Abrahoimus, JoAxhus, Josephus, Juditha, Damd and 
Daniel are the only names vrhich, vnthout taking any tei> 
mination in the nominative,* make the genitive Davidis 
and Damielis. Others, as Joannes, Moses, Judas, Maria, 
have already acquired, through the Greek, a declinable 
terminatipn, and are accordingly declined afler the first 
or third declension. Jesus makes the accusat. Jesum, but 
in the other cases it remains unchanged, Jesu. 

* [ModeYn writers of Latin verse, however, give Davidis as a form fo 
the nominative. Compare Hodgaom, (Provost of Eton), Sacred Hietor^.fi^ 
halm Verse^ p. 95.] — Am. Ed, 


. A.^^^^^ ^® genuine Latin words we must notice pondo, 
wl^h is used only as a plural, and remains unchanged in 
all its casesy e. g., auri quinque pondo^ five pounds of gold. 
This peculiaiity arose from the omission of the word li- 
brae, to which was added the superfluous pondo^ an ahla- 
tive in the sense of " in weight" (in which it still often 
occurs ; see § 428) ; afterward librae was omitted, and 
pcndo retained its place. Semis, half an as, has h^come 
an indeclinable acyective (one half) from a declinable 
.substantive, gen. semissis, and is used as such in connex- 
ion with other numerals. 

[§ 88.] II. Defectives in case* are those substantives 
which want one or more cases. There are many words 
3f which the nominative singular cannot be proved to have 
existed ^ as, for instance, of the genitives aapisy dicioms, 
feminis (for which the uomm^t, femur is u^edi), Jrugis, 
ijntemedonis, opis, pollinis, vicis, and of the plurals preces 
and verbera (for which we use as a nom. sing, plaga or 
ictus). The genitive neminis, from nemo, occurs very rai'e- 
ly, and its place is supplied by nuUins, (See § 676.) The 
vocative is wanting in a great many words, from their sig- 
nification. The genitive plural is "panting, that is, does not 
occur in our auQiorities, in several monosyllabic words ; 
as, OS, oris; vas, vadds; glos, pax, and others. (See § 66.) 
The genit. and dat. sing, of t;«« are very rare, but the plural 
vires, virium, &c., is complete. 

[§ 89.] With regard to words which want several ca- 
siBs, it most frequently happens that only those cases ex- 
ist which are alike (i. e., especially the nominat. and ac- 
cusal), all the others being wanting. This i» the case (a) 
with Greek neuters in es (properly adjectives) and in os 
in the singular^ and witlv those in e in the plural, e. g., 
cacoethes, chaos, epos, melos, cetoW which make the plural 
mele, cete, B:d in Greek), and Tempe. Some of these 
words, however, have a declinable Latin form in us, i, or 
mn, i, viz., cltaus, ceius, mdus (mascuL), and melum, from 
which the ablatived chiw, mdo are derived ; and besides 
(to) Argos, there is a declinable Latin form Argi, Ar go- 
rum, Argis. (b) With the Latin neuters^/2w, n^a^, nihil, 
parum (too little), axidtnstar, which was originally a suo- 

♦ [Consult, on this subject, the following passages of thfi andent grain 
manans : Charts., p. 22, seq. Id., p. 72, seq. IHom., p. 288. Pw., p. 672 
964*- Phw:., p. 1708, ttq. Asper, p. 1729. Donat., p. 1749. Setf., p. 184& 
Cltdon , p. 190 . Consent., p. 203i.l— iim. Ed, 


fttautive signifying '* an image," or " resemblance," 
was then used as an adjective in the sense of " like," but 
only in such connexions as admit of its being explained 
as a nominative or accusative. Sectcs, sex, is likewise 
used only in cases that are alike, especially as an accu- 
sative absolute, virile sectcs, mtdiebre secus^ e. g., canis, 
mtdiehre secus ; in other phrases, sexus, us^ is the ordina 
ry wtrd. fcj With the plural of 'many monosyllabic 
woids; BS^neceSf kinds of death; paces , treaties of peace 
especially neuters ; as, aera^ brazen images ; jura, rights ; 
rura^ fields; tura, inctnse; and others, the plural of 
which generally occurs only in poetical language; as, 
farra, com; mella^ honey; fella^ bile. To these we must 
add the poetical plurals flamina^ murmura^ sUentia, colla. 
The following plurals, grates, munia, munera, likewise 
occur only in the nom. and accus., and the ablatives grat- 
ibiis and munihus are rarely used. MetttSj which is cont- 
plete in the singular, and astus, of which the ablat. singu- 
lar is used, have, in the plural, those cases only which are 

The following must be remembered separately : Jbrs 
occurs only in the nom. and abl, singular (forte, by chance) ; 
lues^ in the nom., ace, and ablat. singular ; mane^ in the 
nom., ace, and abl. singular, and is alike in all of them, 
but it is used also as an adverb. Satiasj for satietas, does 
not occur, in good prose, in any other form. There are 
several words which are frequently used in the plural 
(see § 94), but which in the singular have only one or 
other case, more especially the ablative ; e. g., prece, 
from preces, occurs in prose also ; but the ablative singular 
of ambages^ compedes^ fauces, obices^ and verbera is used 
only in verse, and not m ordinary prose. 

[§ 90 ] Some words occur only in particular combina- 
tions, and in a particular case : dicis, vsdth causa and gra* 
tia ; naud^ in the phrase non nauci facere, or esse ; diu 
iwctuque^ or die et noctu^ old*ablatives, for which, howev* 
}pte et interdiu are more commonly used ; derisui, 
despicatui^ dimsui^ ostentui, in combination vnth dtici or 
esse; i7ifitias,vntYi,ire; suppetias, yrithf erre; pessum and 
venum^ with ire and dare ; whence* venire and vendue, foi 
which Tacitus, in the same sense, uses veno ponere^ exei* 
cere ; fans and foras (from farae zz: fores J • gratis (fbl 
grativtj, ingratiis ; sponte, with a pronoun ; as, mea^ f aeai 


sua, or agenidvo; impromptu and inprodnctu^covomovX} 
with esse and stare. We must particularly notice sumc 
verbal substantives, which frequently occur in good wri* 
ters, but rarely* in any other form than the ablat. sing, in 
combination with a genitive, or still more frequently with 
a pronoun, such a^ meo, tuo, &;c., e. g., concessu and per* 
missu; manitu and admonitu; mandatu^ rogatu^ oratu; 
arhitraiUf jussu et injttssu; acdtu, coactuatque eJ^fiUUu 
meo, ^^^ 

[§91.] III. Defectives in number* are words which 
have either no plural or singular. 

1. Many words, from their signification, can have no plu- 
ral, and are termed singtdaria tantum. This is the case, 
(a) with abstract noims which have a simple and univer- 
sal meaning, e. g,,justitia, pietas, pudor, temperantia^ ex- 
perientia^ it^antiaj pueritia, adeUscentiaf juventus, senectus, 
fames, sitis ; (h) with words which denote a substance 
or mass without division or subdivision ; as, aurum^ argen- 
tum^ argilla, sabtdum, coenum, limus, sanguis, and panis, 
inasmuch as we thereby do not understand a single loaf 
but the substance of bread in general. Some words of 
this kind, however, when used in the plural, denote sep- 
arate objects, consisting of the substance indicated by the 
name; as, aera^ works in bronze; cerae^ wax-tablets; 
ligna^ pieces of wood ; (c) collective words ; as, indoles, 
the whole natural abilities of a person; plebs and vulgus^ 
victus, supeUex^ virus. Proper names should strictly have 
no plural, but cases often occur where a plural is neces- 
sary, viz., when persons of the same name or character 
are spoken of, and it may be remarked in general ihat in 
cases like this the person who speaks or writes must de- 
cide for himself It is surprising that tliere exists no plu- 
ral of the words vesper (vesperaj^ meridies, ver, justitium 
letum, and spe^men. 

[^ 92.] iVor« 1. — ^It it, however, remarkable that the plural of abstract 
Bouns is much more common in Latin than in our own language, to de 
note a repetition of the same thing, or its existence in different objects 
Cicero {Pro Leg. Man,, h\ for example, says : advent&B imperatomm noatro- 
tmninvrbedtociarwn: inPis,,22'„eoncursH»fid>antundique; effutiones homi- 
num: De Q/f., ii., 6; interitftt exerdtuum: ioid., ii., 8; exitus erant bellarvm 
mU mites out necettaru : ibid., ii., 7 ; reliquorum timiUs exitus iyrannorum i in 

* [The passages of the ancient grammarians that have reference to thii 
subject are the following : Varro, L. L., vii., 25 ; /d, viii., 40. Aul. GelL, 
fix., 8. Charts., p. 19, 21, seg. ^iom., p. 314, seqq. Prisc.y p. 662, Mf 
Pkoc., p. 1707, sea, Donat., p. 1748. Cemma., p. 2029.1— ilm. Rd, 




V$n.t ▼., 11; extllit c&nvitiorum ttdesfMrvnt The phrases ineuntrn m otfii 
hmninum tnd animos addere mUitibm are of quite common occuneace. and 
animus is used in the pfural whenever the courage or anger of several per- 
sons is spoken of, just as we always read terga vertere^ io take to ffight, 
when the act is ascribed to many, and never tngum, Ammit however, 
like spiritHs^ is used in the plura' also, to denote iheferocia animi of one 
man. Quahties, when attriouted to several persons, are frequently (not 
always) used in the plural ; e. g., pnceritates arbonfm^ Cic, Cat.j 17 ; odi»* 
ti» kommvm nocwrmn indfatrw^ m Verr^ ia., 4 ; ingemit exeelkntibus fp/tedki 
homines J^ Fin.^ ▼,, 24. The plural in this case oflen denotes di0erent 
speciesj^Mie same quality; e. g., wapieru nostreu ambitiones leviiatesque con- 
temnitf^K., Tusc^ v., 36; »aepe excellentiae quaedam in atnieUia sunt, LeteL, 
19 ; somnuM et-quUtea ceterae, Dt Og,^ i., 29. in like manner we find invidict 
muititudinut insaniae, desperationeSf iracundiaeffortitudineSf turpitudmeSf mortes, 
exitia, omnes et metus et aegritudinea ad doiorem reftrwiaw^ &c. (See, in pai- 
tioular, Cic, Z^ Qf., iil, 32.) We must l»rther BOttce the frequent use 
of the plural in words denoting the phenomena of the weather ; as, ntves, 
pnanoe, grandinesy imbregj pluviae ; 1. e., falls of snow, showers of hail, dec; 
and soiu, sunbeams. OSee Quintil., zi, 3, 27.) All we have said hitherto 
relates to good prose ; the poets go still ^rther^ and use the plural with- 
out either of the two reasons mentioned above ; e. g., amorts, iracy metilt, 
and UmoreSfflammOj murmurat otia,'Vt7entus, partly for the purpoM of being 
•nore emphatic, and partly on account <^ the metre, where the ^ngttlar 
Joes not suit it. 

Note 2.--The names of fruits of ^rdcns aril! fields, on the other hand^ 
are fiequenUy used in the singular m e collective sens^ where we are in 
the habit of employing the plural; e. g., Pytbagorei/aba abtUnuerunt (Cic); 
fabanif Icntemt rapum serere ; ciceris catinus. In like manner, nttx or tiva does 
not denote a single nut or grape, but the particular kind of fruit ; as in 
Horace, Serm.j ii., 2, 121 : pmMtiiM wa ateunda* et ima amabat menetu. In a 
similar way Cicero uses the names of species of animals : vj/Za abwuka 
porcOf haedo, agnOygallinaj Cat.y 17 ; and Livy, v., 53, of building materials : 
tegidti pttbhce pruebita eat, 

[§ 93.J 2. Otber words fpluralia t<mtma) occur only in 
the plural, and in the singular either not at all, or only in 
writers who cannot be taken as models. This is the case 
(a) With the following collective names of personal 
beings : liberie gemini, majores, poHeri, primores and pro- 
ceresy fuperi and iwfcri^ coeiites^ cofoentes, penatis, lemuret^ 
excubtaCf operae. When in any of these cases an individ* 
ual is to be indicated, it can be done Only by making it a 
part of the collectiTe, e. g., one child, unus or una libero* 
rum or ex liberis ; manes or dii manes, however, is used 
in the plural also to denote the departed soul of an indi- 

fbj A great number o£ other pluralia tantum denote a 
complex of things, the constituent parts of which are not 
conceived separately, or, at least, are not designated by the 
i;^e word as the whole complex itself. SMph words are 
^h^ared iti English either by plurals or collective words. 
^^.^ .most important among them are : 
gratiisjM^'^* ^^^ia, intcstina and viscera^ f aria (ojumj^tm^ 


fliMtfy iUa^ arma^meiua,, impedimenta^ uteimltu, ikduvute 
txuviae<, manubide^ patietinae, teli&inaey sentes, vepres^ vir* 
gulta, heUaria, crepundia^ scruia, donaria^ lautia\ ir^etiae^ 
justa^ sertai compedes, verhera^ gr<Ues^ lamenta^ minae^ 
preces^ dirae^ ambageSy argutiae^ deliciae, divitiae^ facetiae^ 
nugae, gerrae^ quisquHiae^ insidiacy praestigiae, tncae. To 
these we may add some other but similar ideas, which are 
more frequently expressed by die plural than th^8iiie;u 
lar; as, angustiae, MondUiae^ iUecehrae, ineptiae^ tjJmtUtat, 
Vcttebraty sOlebrae. 

[§ 94.] p. The following words are used in Latin in 
the plural, because itiej denote things composed of sev- 
eral parts, whereas we frequently express the same things 
hi die singular: AUaria fakdre is less common), arma^ 
fnoeniaj h^ae^ trigae, quadrigae (in the so-called Silver 
Age tlie singular also was used, the chariot being the 
main thing thought of), cancdli and clathri, causes and 
plagae^ exequuie^jfide$ (a lyre, properly the strings, which 
were also called nerviXjbres and valvae, loculi^ p&aierae^ 
taliTtae^ scalae, scopae^ oidiciUi, pugtUarea^ tabnlae^ cerae^ 
dunes and nates. The paeaning of the plural is more ob- 
score in -the following words: cervices,* Jauces^ cliteUae^ 
eunae^ cunahtda and incwnahtda^ inimicUiae (is used by 
Cicero in the singular only, as expressing a philosc^hicaJ 
idea, otlierwise it is. a plmale taniwnjf induciae^ nuptiae^ 
obiceSf pantices, praecor€Ua (orumj^ sordes^ tenebrae.. 
. It is curious that the plural of some of the words of 
this class expresses also a plurality g( the Bsm^ things g£ 
which the plurale tantum indicates Init one, e. g,,. that 
fauces signifies not only,'' a throat,'' but ** several tl^oats," 
Qi; f' mouths.'' In this casd the distributive numerals are 
U8«d instead of cardinal oi^es. (See § 119.) 

S\ 95.] The names, of certain days in the Roman cal- 
ar ara plurals ; ast cdle^dae^ wmae^ iduSf nundinae, and 
feria£ ; so, also^ die namei^ of festivals and festive games 

ilike /t^i itself) ; e. g., JSadchanalia, Floralia^ Satuma- 
ia^ Pl^fmpia^ ana nat^icia^ spqnsaUa and r^otia / farther, 
many names of. towns, such as AthenaCf Thebacy Gades^ 
the neuters Axbela^ Bactra, Leuctra, and a considerable 
iwmbe^r of names of towns which are properly names of 

* hi aMient Latin prose, i. e., especiallr in Cicero, it is a-p/uni/e umiumi 



the people ; as, "Del/phi^ LeatUmi^ Parisii^ Treviri. Sucb 
plund names of nations are often used for that of the 
country they, inhabit. Horace, for example, says, tollar 
m arduos Sahinos^ L e., into the high country of the Sa- 
bines. (See § 680.) 

[§ 96.] Some words, which are apparently the same, 
vary in meaning according to their number, which is 
Gometimes accompanied by a di&rence of gender. Ijus* 
irum IB a peiiod of five years, and lustra^ dens of wild 
beasts ; yo^^Mf, fM, -^Ixa. fastus, pride, andyZute*, the cal* 
endar ; forum^ market, and^^irt, passages ; txmpiu^ time, 
and temfcra (sometimes tempui also), &e temples of this 

In other words the plural has a different meaning £com 
the singular, though one nearly allied to it, and without 
giving up the meaning of the sing^ar for the plural, e. g. : 


Aedes, a temple. 
Aqua^ water. 
Auodlium^ help.* 
Banum^ someuiing good. 
Career^ a prison. 

Castrum, a fort, [man forum. 

Comitiunif a part of the Ro- 

Copia^ abundance. 

Oupedia^ daintiness. 

JEpulum, a solemn feast 

Facultas, power to do some- 

Fartimaf fortune. 

Hartus, a garden. 


lAttera^ letter of the alpha- 

LuduSi pastime^ 

NariSi nostril. 

Natalis (dies), birthday. 

(Ops^ obsoi.) OpU^ help. 

Opera^ labour. 

Pars, a part. 

Rostrum^ a beak, pointed 
head of a ship. 

iS%, salt. 

^ Aedes^ a house. 
Aquae, medicinal springs. 
Auxilia, auxiliary troops. 
JB(wia, property. 
CarcereSf the barriers of a 

Castra, a camp. [tion. 

Camitia, assembly for elec- 
Copiae, troops. [ties. 

Cttpediae, or cupedia, dain- 
Eptdae, a feast, a meal. 
Facultates, property. 

Forttmae, goods of fortune. 
Horti and nortuli; pleasure 

Litterae, an epistle. 
Ludi, public games. 
NareSf turn, no8e=:nasvs. 
Natdles, birth, high or low. 
Opes, power, woSth. 
Operae, workmen. 
Partes, (commonly) a party 
Rostra,iiie raised place from 

which the orators spoka 
Sales, witticism^' 




[i ^"^O -^* ^^^ second kind of inegularity. in the de- 
clension of substantiyes consists in, too great an abnn* 
dance of forms. It haf^>^:is either that, jdthomgh there is 
but <Hie nomiittetiTe, the other cases hare two rorms after 
different declensions, or that both the nominative, and all 
the other cases, have two diffei-ent forms. If, owing to 
the different terminations, such a word has, at the same 
time, different genders, it is called a heterogenes; if it has 
merely different fonns, it is called a heterodUon. It must, 
howerer, be observed that there axe only very few words 
in which the practice of good prose does not give prefer- 
ence to one of the forms, and in the following list we shall 
always put the preferable form first. 

Forms of different declensions are found with the, word 
jugerum ; for, besides the ablative sing, and 'plur. jugerc 
andjugeriSf poets, for metrical reasons, use^^cre and^'i^ 
gerwus. Some names of trees in us^ viz., cupressiis^jicusy 
laurusy pintis, besides the forms of the second declension, 
also take those of the fourth in us and Uy i. e., in the genit. 
and ablat. singular, and in the nom. and accus. plural, 
e. g., laurus (after the second and fourth declension), gen. 
lauii and laurus^ dat. lauro^ ace. laurum, voc. laure^ abL 
lau/o and lauru, Nom. plur. lauri and laurus^ gen. lau- 
rorum^ dat. and abl. lauriSf accus. lauros and laurus^ voc. 
lauri. In other names of trees the second declension 
greatly predominates, except quercus^ which follows the 
fourth entirely.* The same is the case with colus^ a dis- 
taff; but the cases in t, orumy is, do not exist, perhaps 
only accidentally ; for, according to the ancient gramma- 
rians, the word may follow botii the second and fourth 
declensions. Respecting senatus, tumuUtis^ gen. us and t, 
see § 81. Vas, vasis, a vessel, sometimes makes the 
genit. vem, from vasum, which is not altogether out of use. 
The glural dlia has iliorum and iliis along with ilium and 

* [Consult, on this snlnect, Prisdattj p. 711 and 12M. Serv.t ad Virf 
Ed,, n.t 54. Bentley, ad Ilorat., Od., ii 15, 5. Schneider L O., Tol. ill 
p. 4Tl^—Am. Ed. 



[s Words which have different forms in the nomi- 

nati\u )k.s ^. ell as other cases may follow the same declen- 
sion iu either case ; as, haltetis and halteunif callus Ka^cal' 
lum, dipeus and dipeum {especiallj a consecrated shield), 
carrus and carrunif commenUtrius and cammentarium^ cu*^ 
hittts and cubttum,pileum and pilett^, baculum and bactdtis^ 
palatum wid paiahu, jugidum s.ndji^idfU, catinais, cdtil- 
lus, 9sad eatimtm, catUlum ; aild «ome names ofplaasts^ as, 
hipinus and lupmum^ papyna ^oxkA. papyrum, parrwn and 
parrus t or they follow differeht de^eflsions ; as, * 

AlimoTiia ae, — altiftoniuM, i. 

— amy^daluT/if i, 

— vesper^ t, the evening star, is regular. 
In the fiense of evening, we find 
the nom. vtfspier and accus. vespe- 
rum, but the ablative vespere and 
vesperi^ from 'oisper^ is; in the Sil- 
ver Age generally, we also flndi?f»- 
pera, at, 

— cingula, a^, 

— esseda, ae, 

— ineesm, fe. 
• — delpkin, inis, 

— el^has, antis. 

Amygdala^ ae, 
Vespera, ae. 

OingutuM^ i. 
Essedum, i, 
Incestuntf i, 
, DelpkinuSj i. 
Elephantus, i. 

Consartio, onis, — consortium, i. 

— — fneiida, ae, ' 

— pdntis, <b / and pthus, dris, 
"^ terguSf oris, only In poetry^ and in 

prose e^er Augustus. 

— pavus, i, 

— scorpius, i, 
' — paiht^tiSf i ; and pcdutkba, 

— colluvies^eu 
^■^ cratera,ue. 
-^ pldfcs, ei. 

Paupertas, atis, — pavperies, ee. 

JuveMus, utis. -^^ jwventa, ae ; zndjuoenlai, aits. 

Seiiectus, uHs, -^ senecta, ae: 

CraMsape,is (dlso — gausapum,i; and gausapa^ ae. • 

goMsapes is, 

"Praesepe^is (also:^ praesepium^ i. ^ 

praes^es, is^,, 


Mendum, i, 
Penum, t. 
Tergum, i. 

Pavo, bnis, 
Scorpio, onis, 
Palumhes, is, 
Collwvio, onis. 
Crater, Iris, 
Plebs, is. 


is, "** ta^Uwnf i ; and topet, etis. 

Angipertus us, -— angiportum^ u 
BMtus^ us, . — rictum^ u 

Arcus^us. • — arctiSyi {in CiG^De Nat, D€or,fmf2Q). 

IhnitruSy us — tonitruum. 

Fames, is, and requies, elis, take the forms of the fifth 
declension : fames makes the ablatyome, and rtquies has 
retpiim and rtquie, besides r^^fuietem and requiete. It is 
of comparatively frequent occurrence that substantives 
have different forms both of the first and fifth deelensions ;* 
as, harharia, harharies ; luxuria, es ; duritia, es ; materia, 
es ; Tnollitia, es; segmtia, es (the forms after the fifth de- 
cleiBion commonly occur^nly in the nom., ace., and abl.), 
and that verbal substantives of the fourth declension have 
a second' form in um, i, like the participle of the perfect; 
as, conatus and conatum, eventus and eventum, praetextus 
and prastextum, suggestus and suggestum, 

[§ 99.] To this class belong Siose substantives which, 
in die plural, assume a different gender and a different 
form, in some instances, along with the regular one : 

1. Masculines which in the plural become neuters: 
jocus, plur.^W and^oca (of pretty equal authority, though 
joca is better established by the practice of Cicero) ; lo- 
cus, plur. loci (generally passages m books or subjects for 
investigation and discussion = topics) and hca (in the com- 
mon sense of '* places," whence the difference is briefly 
expressed thus : hd lihrorum, loca terrarum). The poets 
use sihUa for sihUi ; and of intubus and tartarus they make 
the plural tnto^a and tartara, 

2. Feminines which in the plural become neuters : car- 
basus, a species of flax, plur. carbasi and carbasa, sails 
made of it; astrea, plur. astreae and astrea, orum; margari- 
tai plur. margaritae, and in Tacitus also, margarita, orum, 

3. The following neuters become (a) Masculines: coe- 
htm, codi ; siser, siseres; porrum (which is much more fre- 
quent in the singular than porrus), porri; (b) Feminines : 

* [Bopp thinks that the i in the Latin fifth declension, as in almost 
ever^ instance an i preceofes it, has heen changed from a by the influence 
of this t. This may serve, according to him, to explain why we have oc* 
casionally two forms for the nominative, one of the fifth and the other pf 
the first declension ; the latter of these will follow, therefore, the analogy 
of the Greek, and allow a to psmain unaltered before i, as in aoAUu Tnt 
Ionic form, on the other hand, follows the Zend ; as, fro^/9.]-r-4m. 1^4- 


delictum f ddicuU; epuluni, ep^dae; balneum^ baineae (m 
the sense of a public bath balnea is more. frequent) ; fcj 
Both masculines and neuters : rastrunif rastri and r<utraf 
firenum^Jreni* vsi^frena. * 



[§ 100.} 1. The noun adjective denotes a quality of jb 
person or a thing, expressed either by a substantive or a 
pronoun. The participle is an adjective fbrmed from a 
verb, and, as far as its form is concerned, is an adjective. 
An adjective has three genders, and can thus be joined 
with substantives of different genders. Bujt there are 
only two classes of adjectives in which the three genders 
are indicated by three different terminations, namely, the 
adjectives and participles in t», a, um; such as bonus^ 
boiuif bonum ; amataa^ amata^ amatum ; and those in er, 
a, um ; such as Uher, libera^ liberum; and the isolated 
iatuTy satura, saturum. 

To these adjectives of three terminations the following 
• thirteen in cr, w, e must be added : acer, acris, acre ; ala- 
cer, alacris, alacre; campester, campestris^ carnpestre; cdc 
ber, Celebris, cdebre ; cder, ceteris, celere ; eguester^ eques- 
trisj equestre ; paluster^ paltMris, paiustre ; pedester^ 
pedestris^ pedestre ; puter, putris, putre^ saluber, saluhrisy 
Malubre ; silvester, silvedtris, silvestre; terrester, terrestris^ 
terrestre; volticer, volucris, volucre. Originally they had 
only two terminations, is for the masculine and feminine, 
and e for the .neuter. The termination er for the mascu- 
line exclusively was afl;erward added to them ; but as the 
termination is is not very often used in good prose for xhe 
masculine, it will be best to treat them as a class of ad- 
jectives w'hich h^ve three terminations for the three gen 

Note 1. — Emesti, on Tacit, Annal.^ il, in fin., goes too far in asserting 
that the masculine in it is not suited for j^rose. He himself quotes twi 
r>a3«ages from Tacitus for Celebris^ and one in ^he Auct. ad Hererm,, ii., 4 
'oeus Celebris. . Several dthers may be added from Curtius. In Cicero 
De Divin., i., 57, we find annus sahibris; and, in like manner, Ukusj veyitas 

* The nominative /rent, for which Schneider {Formenlehre, p. 476) hai 
B9 authority, occurs m Curtius, iii., 34 ; vii., 40. Valei. Maxim., it. 9, a 
Seneca, de ira, 1, 7 ; Sil. Itol. i. £40. 


^9Chts ttihAris in Cdsos, i, 3 ; ii, 1 ; iii, 6 ; in Liry, xxrii., 1 : tunwlhu 
eouestris; zziz., 35: exercitus terrestru; and zzvii, 26: tumultw tilvestriti 
also coUis and hcus silvestrts in Caesar, BeU. Gall., ii., 18, vi., 34 ; vomihu 
mcf^ in Celsns, Tiii, 4. 

NoU 2. — ^The names of the months SejOembn, October, November, De- 
cember, also belong to this class of adjectives. As adiectives, however. 
they are defective, since the neuter never occurs, and tne masculine and 
feminine scarcely in any other connexion than with menns (masc.)» Coim- 
dae, Nonae, and Idas, Horace uses libertate Decembri. 

[§ 101.] 2. Other adjectives have m reality two formsy 
the one for the masculine and feminine in common fgefi" 
eris communisj, and the other for the neuter. This class 
consists of those in is, neut. e ; as, levis (masc. and fem.), 
levtj and the comparatives in en- (masc. and fem.), its (neut.) ; 
as, levioTf levius. 

Note. — Some adjectives have a double form ; one in u», a, um, the otlier 
in >«, 0. 

Hilarut, a, um. — kUaris, e. 

^ hnbecUhu, a, vm, — imbedUii, e (rare). 

Imberbus, a, vm (rare). — imberbis, e. 

Inermus, a, um (rare). — inermit, e. 

Semermus, a, um, — »emcmu, e. 

Semiaomnue, a, um. — but insomms, e, * 

Exanimus, a, um. — exatwnis, e, 

Semianimua, a, um. — aemianimis, e. 

Uruuumue, a, um. — unammi8,'e (rare). 

Bijugus, a, um. — bijugis, e (rare). 

^uadrijugus, a, um. — quairijups, e. 

HiuUijugus, a, um. — muUijt^is, e. 

The forms accUvus, decliviu, proclivus, and a few others not mentioned 
here, are but rarely used for accUvis, dedhns, and prodivis. 

[§ 102.] 3. All other adjectives have only one termina- 
tion for all three genders ; as, Jelix, prtidens, ancepa, sol- 
lers, pauper, dives, vetus, Arpinas. So, also, the present 
participles in 7is ; as, lattdans, monens, legens, audiens. 
But all the adjectives of this class have the termination ia 
in the nom., ace, and voc. plural of the neuter gender. 
(Very few, and, properly speaking, only vetus, veteris, 
have the termination a, respecting which, see above, § 65.) 
E. g.,Jeli&ia, pnidentia, ancipitia, sollertia, laudantia. Op- 
ulens and violens are only different forms of opulentus, vi- 

Note 1. — Dives is an adjective of one termination, and the neuter, there 
fore, is divta ; as, dive* ojnu, dive* munus. Tliere is another form of the 
word with two terminations, dis, neut dite, but it very rarely occurs in the 
nominative singular; dis being found only in Terence, Adelph.., v., 1, 8, 
and dite in Valer. Flacc, ii., 296 : but in the other cases and m the plural 
it is frequently med ; as, ditem Asiam^ diti gaza^ ditia stipendiafacere, dit^bui 
pn^nissis ; the nominative plural divitia does not seem to occur at all. l.i 
the comparative and superlative both fonns, dtvi/tor, <ittn7iMrmu9, and di:io\ 
iiiissimus, are equally in use ; the Icnger forms in the prose of CM*<»ro. frn: 


86 LA^IN omAUHAM^ 

Ihe shorter oiieii iu poetiy and later proae writers PubM^ gai^ jankra^ 
is an adjective of one termination ; but the com|>ound impQbet, eriSf appean 
also in tne form itnpubiSf e, genit. impHbia, e. g., impube corpus. 

Note 2.-^ubstantive8 in tor derived from transitive ver^a may Siiewise 
be classed amon^ adjectives ; aa^ prateept$rt victor; for as they may easilv 
form a feminine m trix (see ^ 41), they have almost the character of ao* 
iectives ; and even in prose we read, e. g., victor eaerdtug, victricet httenup 
m tarn corruptricc prapmda. Thus Livy surs of Ii. Brutas, «U« libermtor 
popuU Ronuuu aninuu ; that is, aliguando liberaturus pmhfm iSoifi* ; and 
Tacitus, educHu in domo regnatrice. (See Bentley on Horace, Carm., iv., 
9, 39.) The use of these svbstantrros as adjectives is limiteMi prose ; 
but thi poets extend it much &rther, and use even the Greek patfionvmics 
in a* and is in the same manner. Ovid, e. g., says, PeUas hasta, laurus 
Peamasis, Ausonis ora^ SithSnis unda; and Virgil, ursa LUn/stiSj &c. A 
singular feature of these words is^ that, together with the feminine ter* 
mination of the plural trices, they have also a neuter tennination^ trida ; 
e. g., victrida beUa^ tdtricia tela ; hence in the plural they become adjective 
of three terminations ; as, victorest victrices, victrida. The substantive hospei 
too, has in poetiy a neuter plural, hospita, in the sense of an adjective. 

[§ 103.] 4. With regard to the declension of adjectiYes 
it must be observed that the feminines in a follow the first 
declension ; the masculines in us and er, which make ihe 
feminine in a, and the neuters in nm^ follow the second. 
All other terminations belong to the tibird declension. As, 
therefore, adjectives follow the same declensions as sub- 
stantivesy the former also have been treated of above, and 
their irregularities )iave been pointed out. (See $ 51 and 
66, &c.) 

Note. — ^The following table shows the declension of adjectives of one 


Norn. — 

Gen. is. 

Dat. t. 

Aoc em, neuL like nom. 

Voc. like nom. 

Abl. t, sometimes i. 

Nom. es, neut as. 
Gen. iunif sometimes um, 
Dat. (bus. 
Ace. like nom. . 
Voc. like nom. 
Abl. ibus. 

5, Indeclinable adjectives are : nequam ; frugi (prop- 
erly a dative of the o\oBo\eXjQfrtiXf but is used quite as an 
adjective ; its derivative ^^T^g^a/w is not found m any an- 
cient writer) ; praesto (occurs only in connexion vnth the 
verb €$se) ; and semis, which is always added to odier 
numerals in the sense of '* and a half," the conjunction 
being omitted, e. g., recipe uncias quinque semis, take five 
ounces and a half. It must not be confounded with the 
substantive semis^ gen. semissis. PotiSf or pote, is obso- 
lete, and occurs only in poetry in ' connexion with ess* 
(whence arose the contracted form posse). Damnas^ 
guilty, is used only as a legal termj in connexion with 
e^to and stmto. 


t Acyectcves defeotiVa in mimber aiepauGt httdyleriqmef 
^licli, in ordinary language, have no singular. The di« 
minutive ofjMucmy however, occurs as a nevtterpaitsBillufn 
or paztxillulttm^ though rarely in other genders. The sin- 
gular ^Zeru^^t^ is obsolete^ and ia found only in Sallust, 
who* was fond of old iixwa of expression, e. g., plerofm 
juventus, nobilitas ; plerumque exerdtum ; but the neuter 
plervm^^ (the greatest part) likewise occurs, though 
only in an isolated passchge of Livy* It is usually an ad* 
yerb, signifying " mostly," or, " for the most part." (See 

Of adjectives defective in case there are several of 
which the nominative is not in use, or, at least, cannot be 
proved to have been used ; e. g., sons^ seminex (or 9emu 
necis)^ and a few similar compounds. We farther do not 
find ceterus and Judicrus (or eeter, luddcer ?J, but the other 
genders occur in the nominative. The genitive primoris 
has neither a nominative (primor or primorisj nor the 
neuter forms. ' Cicero uses the word only in the phrase 
ptimorihus lehris (equivalent to pHmis); others frequently 
use tiie plural in tiie sense diprincipeSf est the grandees dF 
fixation. !Parum;txHi little, is the neuter of die obsolete 
partes, connected with parvus, and is used as a substantive 
only in the nom. and accusative. Necesse exists only as a 
neuter in connexion with est, erat, &c., and with hahe&, 
kabeSf &c. ; niecsssum, which is likewise used only»with 
est, erat, kt,, very rarely occurs except in old Laitin, the 
adjective nccessarius, a, am, being used in its steads Vo- 
htpe is likewise obsolete, and is used only with est, erat, 
S^. Of nuictus, a, wn, which is believed to be a con- 
traction of magis auctus, we have only macte and mactt 
with the imperative of the verb esse. (Comp. § 453.) 
The genitive o£ plerique is wanting; hut plurimi, which 
has the same meaning, supplies the deficiency. 


COMPARISON 'jF adjectives. 

[§ 104.] I. Adjectives (also the present and past par 
ticiples when used as adjectives) may, by means of a 
change in their terminationtJ>e made to indicate that the 
quality they denote belongs to a subject in a higher, or in 


the highest degree. The degrees of comparison (gradtu 
comparationis), as this change is called, are, the compara 
tive, when a comparison is made between two (persons, 
things, or conditions), and the superlative^ when a com- 
parison takes place among three -or more. The funda- 
mental form of the adjective in this respect is called the 

Note. — An object may be compared either with another, or with itself 
at different timM* or one of its qq^ities maj be compared with another; 
e. g., GaiuM doctior est quam MaraUy or Gahu doctwr.ntutc est gtuun/uU, or 
Oaius docticT est quam justior. (Respecting this pneculiarity of the Latin 
language, see ^ 690.) The comparative, however, is also used, in an ellip- 
tic mode of speaking, instead of our " too** {nimi*) ; e. g., si tibi quaedam 
videbtmtur obscuriora ; that is, too obscure, or more obscure than it should 
be {qufon par erat)j or, as we may say, '* rather obscure," in which sense 
panUo is sometimes added, as mfMuIo Uberius loeutus est^ he spoke rather 
freely. In like manner, the superlative, when used without the objects of 
comparison being mentioned, indicates only that the quality exists in a 
high degree, which we express by the adverb v«ry, e. g., homo doctissimus 
does not always mean " the most learned." but very often " a very learned 
man ;" and intemperantissime visit , he lived very intemperate! y. 

2. The comparative has the termination lor for the 
masculine and feitiinine, and tus for the neuter; and 
these terminations are added to the stem of the word 
such as it appears in the oblique cases. The rule may 
be practically expressed thus: to form the comparative, 
add or or t^ to that case of the positive which ends in t, 
that is, in words of the second declension to the genitive, 
and in those of the third to the dative, e. g., doctus (docHJ^ 
doctior ; liher fliberij, liherior ; pulcher fptdchrij, ptU- 
chrior ; levis, levior ; a>cer (acri)^ acrior ; prudens^ prU' 
dentior ; indtdgens, indulgentior ; audax, audacior ; dives, 
divitior; velox, veiocior. Sinister alone makes the com- 
parative sinisterior (which has the same meaning as the 
positive), although its genitive is sinistri, and sinisteri* 

Note. — Some comparatives, also, have a diminutive form ; as, grandtuscu- 
lus, majuscuitUf longiusculus, meliu»culuSf minusculuSf tardiusculuSf pluseuhim. 
Their signification varies between a diminution of the comparative and of 
the positive ; e. g., minusculus may mexa rather small, or rather smaller. 

3, The superlative ends in issimus, a, um, and is form- 
ea as the 'comparative by adding this termination to the 

tem of the positive, such as it presents itself in the gen- 

ive, and the other oblique cases, after the removal of the 

rminatlons, e. g., doct-issimus, prudent4ssiinus, atidac 

imtis concord-issimus. It has already been remarked 

that this termination of -the superlative was original. 

y Vritten and pronounced umust and it is even now ra- 



tained in the editions of some ancient autKars, as the 
comic poets and Sallust. 

[§ 105.J 4. The following cases must be noticed as ex- 
ceptions : 

faj ^AU adjectives in er (those in e?^ a, um; as, libef 
and jpi^Zc&er, as well as those in er, ia^ e; as, ooer, celeber, 
and those of one termination ; as, pauper j gen. pauperis) 
make the superlative in errimus, by addmg rimus to the 
nominative of the masculine gender ; as, pulcher-rimus, 
acer-rimuSf celeber-rimtiSy pauper-rimus. Vetus and nupe^ 
rus, too, have veterrimttSy nuperrimus. Maturus has both 
forms, TruUurissimus and maturrimus, though the lattei 
chiefly in the adverb. 

fhj Some adjectives in iZi*, yiz.^facilisy difficUis^ simi- 
lis, dissimilis, gracilis, and humilis, make the superlative, 
in UlimuSy by adding limtis to the positive afler the re 
moval of the termination is; bs, Jacil-limus, humil-limus 
ImheciUus, or imhecUliSy has two forms, imhecUlissimus and 
imbeciUimus; agilis, on the other hand, has no superla- 

(c) Adjectives compounded with dtcus^ftcusy and volus 
(fixHn the verbs dicereyfacerey velle) make the comparative 
in entior and the superlative in entissinCus, from me unu- 
sual and obsolete forms dicens, volensyfaciens, e. g., male^ 
dicentior, benevolentior, muni/icentior, mtmijccentissimus, 

JVbfe.— 'Terence (PAorm., ▼., 6, 31) makes midfiassimuMf from mirijicus, 
but this and similar forms are considered by the ancient grammarians as 
anomalies, and miriiiceraissinau is the usnu form. Several adjectives ir 
^cuSf and most of those injicuit have no comparative and superlative, at 
least they are not found m our vrriters. Adjectives compounded with 
loqmu (fitHn loqm)f such as grandHoquusy vanUoqmu, are said to form their 
degrees of comparison from loguensj but no instance of the kind occurs; in 
Plautus, however, we find mmdaciloquius and conjidentiloqtdus. 



[§ 106.] 1. Instead of the peculiar forms bf the com- 
paxative and superlative, v^e sometimes find a circumlo- 
cution, magis and maxime, or adverbs of a similar mean- 
ing (as summcjy being added to the positive. This rarely 
occurs in the case of adjectives v^hich form their degrees 
of comparison in the regftla • way, and foi the m(ist part 

H 8 


only in poelry (Horace, e. g., uses magis heattts and magh 
apttisj; but where the regular or grammatical compari- 
son cannot be used, its place is supplied by circumlocu- 
tion. (See below, § 114.) 

f§ 107.] 2. A degree is also ex{>ressed by the advierbs 
admodum, bene^ ajyprvme, imprimis, sane, oppido, vedde^ 
and multum, and by the particle pef, which is united with 
the adjective (or adverb) into one word, as in perdifflcilis 
(though per is sometimes separated by some intervening 
word, e. g., per mihi difficitis locus), and, like sane, it is 
made still more emphc^c by the addition of quam^ e. g., 
locus perquam d/iffuaUis, an extremely difficult passage. 
Generally speaking, all simple adjectives, provided their 
meaning admits of an increase or decrease, may become 
strengthened by being compounded with per. Some few 
(especially in late writers) are increased in the same way 
by being compounded ynxh. prae, e. g., praedives, praepin- 
guis, pradongus. Adjectives to which per or prae is pre- 
fixed admit of no farther comparison ; jn-aedarus alone 
is treated like a simple adjective. 

Note. — OpgridOf for the etymology of which we must refer to the diction- 
ary, is of rare occorrMice, and Monf* to the more ancient languagis, 
though it is now and. then used b^ Cieero, e. g., cjxpido ridkuht*, and inr 
creased by auetm : ojypido quam paucu Mvitum, also, is but rarely used ill , 
this way. valdi is mdeed frequent in Cicero ; but it has a peculmr and 
ethical shade of meaning, and is rarely used in the pcose of later times. 

[§ 108.] 3. When the adverb etiam (still) is added to 
the comparative, a;^ longe or. muUo (fiar) to the superla- 
tive, the sense of the degrees is enhanced. Vel, even, and 
quam, as much as possibly, likewise serve to denote an 
increase of the meaning -expressed by the superlative. 
Both words have acquired this signification by ellipsis ; 
vel by the ellipsis of die positivot e. g.^ Cicero vd optimus 
oratorum RomaTiorum ; i. e., Cicero, a good, or, rather, the 
very best of Roman orators (so, also, vel, with a compara- 
tive in the only passage of Cicero where it is known to 
occur, De Orat, i., 17: ingenium vel majus) ; quam, by 
the ellipsis oi posse, which, however, is £naquently add^d 
to it ; e. g., 0iam maanmum potest militum numerum colli" 
git ; quam maximas possum tibi gratias ago. As these 
words increase the sense, so paulum or paulo, paululum 
or paululo, on the other hand, diminish it ; as, paulo doC' 
tior, only a little more learned. Aliquanto increases the 
sense, ami has an affirmative power; it may be expressed 
by '•* considerably"' or "much.'* '(See Chap LXXlV., \C.) 




[^ i09.] 1. SoBfB adjectives make their degrees of 
comparison from obsolete forms, or take them fix>m other 
iTords of a similar signification. 

'Bontis^ melior^ optimtu, 

Malusj jp^^» pesnmus, 

Magnus, major, maximus, 

Multus^ plus, {pl.pliO'ef, phtrimus (equivalent m 

pluraj, theplm:ulto/i^«rt^r«e/. 

Parvus^ mmor, minimus, 

Nequam \ See§ 103. ( nequier^ nequissimus, 

Frugi i 'tT^echn, {Jrugalior^ Jrugtdissimus. 

Egenus, egentior, egentissimus (egens), 

Browdus^ promdmtior^ providentissimus fpravi- 

NoU. — M%utw and pZun'mu* as numerals are used only in the plural. In 
the 8mg*^iar ntK2iii« is equivalent to ** manifold,^ or *' great f as, multus labgr, 
multa cure, and sometimes pltirimus has the same sense, e. g., plvrimam aa» 
Intern dico. Poets, however, use the singular muUut and plurimtu, also, in 
the sense of the pluraH e. g., multa nod plurkna am, i. e., natltaet pbtrimtu 
moea, a great many birds ; nuUta cants, many dogs. Of the comparative the 
neater only occurs in the nom. and accus. singular (plus), and is used as a 
substantive ; in the genitive pluHs and ablat. plwre, with the ellipsis oi 
preiii or pretio, it is used with verbs of value, in the sense of ** for more,** 
or " at a higher price." The plural is complete, gen. plurium (better than 
plurum) ; but the neuter is commonly /)2iira, and rarely pluria. (See (j 65, 
o6.) The superlative j^arique is denved from the obsolete plerusque (see 
% 134), and has no genitive. In ordinary language plerique onlv means 
*'most people,** or **tne majority;** but plurhni both " most people" and " a 
great many.** All writers, however, do not observe this difference. Ne- 
pos often xxBes pUrimis in the sense of "a great many,** and Tacitus quit6 
reverse the significations ; comp. Hist.^ i., 86, and iii., 81, where plerique 
is followed by p/itref , and iv.^ 84, where we read» Deum ipsum mulu Aescw 
lapium, quidam Osirim, pleripie Jovem, plvrimi Ditem patrem conjectant. The 
sense of plerique is sometimes enhanced by the addition of omnes ; as, 
pieriqus onmes, by far the greater number. 

[§ 110.] 2. The following adjectives have a double ir- 
regular superlative : 

Exter or exterus, a, um, exterior, extremus and ex€imue> 
(Infer or inferusj, a,.um, irtferior, inflmus and tmus, 
, Super or superusj, a, um^ superior, supremus and sum* 

(P?st€r or posterus J, a, um, posterior, postremus and postu* 


- — ■ I . , 

♦ [Consult the treatise of Key, " On the Adjectives <9fodd. Better, Bttl^ 
Bimus,3idiorpOptimus,'^ 6ccy-Am, Ed, « 


jVofe. — ^The enclosed in brackets are either not found at a^; m, 
poster^ posterns, or occur only in obsolete Latin, which, however, does not 
prevent the use of the oblique cases and of the other genders. Exter sig* 
nifies ** being without," and the plural exteri, foreigners ; infenu, " being 
below,'* superuSf "being above,'* e. g., mare nq>erum and inferwn. the two 
»eas whicn surround Italy. Postenu (that it once existed is clear from 
nraepostenis) signifies that which succeeds or follows, but the ^lui, pptteri, 
descendants. The superlative exthnus is much less common than extre 
musf and postumus occurs only in the sense of a last or posthumous child. 

[§ 111.] 3. There are soiQe forms of the comparative 
and superlative which have no adjective for their posi 
tive, but an adverb which is derived from an adjective, 
and has the signification of a preposition. 

feitra}, citerior^ cUimus, 

(uUra)^ fdterior^ tdtimus. 

(intra), interior, iniimus. 
(propejy whence pro- 

pin^utisjf jyfopiar^ proocimus. 

The following, on the other hand, have neither an ad 
]ective nor an adverb for their positive : 

, deterioTf deterripius, 

odor, ocissimus. 

potior, poiissimus. 

prior, primus. 

Note, — Deterior and deterrimtu may be compared, but not confounded, 
with tMr^or toid pessimus. Prfor generally means "worse than something 
which IS bad,** and is therefore used as comparative of tnaluSf whereas 
deterior means something which is inferior, or worse than something 
which is good, so that it is a descending, just as melior is an ascending 
comparative of bonus. Potior and potissimus are* derived from the obsolete 
positive potis (see ^ 103), and prior may be traced to the adverb prae. 

. [§ 112.] 4. The following adjectives have a superlative, comparative : 

FalsuSfJalsissimus; diversus, diversissimtis ; incUtus, in* 
clitissimus ; novtis, novissimus ; .sacer, sacerrimus ; vetus 
(the comparative is supplied by vetustiorj, veterrimus fve* 
tustissimusj ; and some participles which ai*e used as ad 
jectives ; as, meritus^ meritissimus, 

[§ 113.] 5. Most adjectives in Uis and hUis, derived from 
verbs, together with those in Uis, derived from substan- 
tives (see § 250), have no superlative. To these we must 
add the following : a^restis, alacer, ater, caecus, declivis, 
prochvis^ deses (comparative desidiorJ,jejunus^lo7iginquus, 
propinqutis, protervus, salutaris,, satur, surdus, teres, and 
vulgaris. In like manner, there is no superlative ofado' 
lescens, juvenis (comparati^^e junior, contracted from jure* 


mtorj, and senex (comparatis^e senior J, which words ai 3 re 
eraided as adjectives. 

NotL—The verbal adjectives amabilisy fertilise nobilis, ignobilit, mobiJia, 
and utiliSf however, have their degrees of comparison complete. 

6. The two adjectives, antertor and sequior^ exist only 
as comparatives. The neuter of the latter, sequius, and 
the adverh secius (otherwise), differ only in their orthog- 

[§ 114.] 7. Many adjectives have no it^grees of com 
parison at all, because their signification precludes com- 
parison; such are those which denote a substaiibe, origin, 
possession, or a definito time ; e. g., aureus^ adamantintts^ 
Graecus^ peregrinus, equinusj socialise patcmus^ aestivus, 
hibemus^ vivua. 

Note. — Dexter and nnister seem, likewise, to belong to this class ; the 
comparatives dexterior^ sinisterior, and the irregular superlative dextimutf 
do indeed occur {siniatimus is mentioned, but its use cannot be proved), 
Vat without differing in meaning from the positive. Dexter also signifies 
skilful, and in this sense dexierior is used as a real comparative. 

Others do not form the comparative and superlative in 
the usual grammatical manner by the terminations iot and 
issimusj but by the adverbs magis and maociTne, which are 
put before the adjective, and by the particles mentioned 
above. Such adjectives are : 

(aj Those in which the termination us is preceded by 
a vowel; as, idoneus^ dubitis^ necessarius^ noxius^' arduus, 
ingenuTis : comparative magis necessdrius^ superlative 
maasifne necessarius^ &c. In qu, however, the u is not re- 
garded fts a vowel (see above, § 5) ; hence antiqum^ e. g., 
has its regular comparative, aniiquiar, and superlative 

rfoU,-^AM this rule depends entirely upon euphony, respecting which 
opinions differ, we caunot be surprised to find exceptions. Adjectives in 
uu9y in particular, frequently make the superlative in the regular gram- 
matical way. Cicero and Suetonius use aeeiduisnmtu ; Sallust, stremUssi- 
nnu; and Ovid, exigtdMahmu and vacvt««mt]i«, while the comparative of these 
words occurs only in much inferior authorities. Adjectives in iiu are found 
much more seldom with the grammatical degrees of comparison than those 
in mu, and whenever they do occur, they reject one i ; as, noxior, in Seneca, 
De CUnUf 13; mduetriory in the Pseudo-Cicero, De DomOf 11 ; egregms, in 
Juvenal, zi, 12. The onW superlatives that occur are egregiiseimusj in 
OelliuB, and ;mmmu» very frequently in the Silver Age of the language, in 
Curtius, Seneca, and Tacitus, though Cicero had* censured the triumvii 
Antony for having used this wholly un*Latin form. (PAtVtp.^ xiii, 9.) 
The forms ipiens) jnentee and pientUsimus are found in inscriptions only. 
Among the adjectives in eue there are no exceptions, and it is only the 
later juiists that use the comparative idoneor for the inharmonious (dmuior. 

(h) Mfiny R Ijecfives compounded with substantives ap^ 


verbs, o. g., degener, inopsy magnanimus^ consonus^ Jhed^ 
frligus^ pestifer ; and those which have the derivative ter- 
minations xcibs^ tdtUf uluSf dlis, ilis, bundus^ e. g., modicus 
credtdus^ trepidus^ rabidteSf rubidtts^ garrtUus^ sedtdtM^ ex* 
itialis^ mortalis^ principaMs^ anilisy hoatUis^ scurrilis^jMri* 
bundus, ' ' * 

Note. — This remark cannot form a rule, for there are a great many com- 
pounded adjectives and derivatives liiie the above, which have their de- 
grees of comparison ; for example, those compounded with mens and cor 
omens, demens^ caneau, discorSf vecors, and the adiectives ending in dieus, 
fictUf and volus, whron were mentioned above ({ 105, c). Although it is 
useful to classify the whole mass of such words under certain divisions, 
still^the dicdonary can never be dispensed with. 

fcj A great number of adjectives which cannot be said 
to form a distinct class; their want of the degrees of com 
parison is surprising, and they must be carefully commit 
ted to memory : albus, almus, caducus^calvus, canus, cmuus, 
ferus, gimrus, lacer, mutilTis, lassus, mediocris, memory me- 
nis^ mirus, mutus, navTis, nefastusypary panlis, dispar, prth 
pcrusj rudisy trux (the degrees may be formed from trucu- 
lenttisjy vagU8, 



[§ 115J Numerals are partly adjectives and partly ad- 
verbs. The adjectives are : 1. Cardinaly denoting simply 
the number of things; as, tres, three ; 2. Ordinal, indica- 
tiYig the place or number in successicm ; as, tertms, the 
third ; 3. DistributivCy denoting how many eadh time ; 
as, temiy each time three, or three and three together ; 4. 
Multiplicative, denoting how manifold ; as, triplex^ three* 
fold; 5. Proportional, denoting how many times moVe; 
as, triplum, three times as much; and, 6. Adverbial nur 
inerals, denoting how many times ; as, ter, ihiice or three 

I. cardinal numerals: 

The cardinal numerals form the roots of the otLer nu- 
merals. The first three, umtSy duo, treis, are declined, and 
have forms for the different genders ; the rest, as far as 
one hundred, are indeclinable.* The hundreds; as, 200, 

* [" It is a remarkable fact that the first four numerals in Greek and 
Sanscrit, and the first three in Latin, are declined, while all the others 
remain without inflection. Thiere must be some reason for this. Now 
«r« know that the ddest Greek year was divided into threo seasons ol 


olio, 400, &c., ara deelinable^ and have different tormina- 
tions for the genders. MUle, a thousand, is indeclinable, 
but has a declinable plural for the series of numbers which 
follows. A higher unit, such as a million or billion, does 
not exist in Latin, and a million is therefore expressed 
by the form of multiplication : decies centena milia^ i. e., 
ten times a himdred thousand, or decies alone, with the 
omission oi centena milia, at least when testertium (HS) 
is added ; and in like manner, vicies, two millions ; octo- 
gies^ eight millions ; eenties. ten millions ; mUlieSf a hun- 
dred millions ; bis miilies, two hundred millions. 
SiNOULAS. Plural. 

Npm. urnis, tma^unum^ one. 
Gen. uniua, 

Dat. imi. 

Ace. nnwrn, unam, unum, 

Voc uncj una^ unum. 

Abl. uno^ itna, uno. 

Nom. uni^ unae^ una. 
Gen. unorum^ unarum, 

Dat. unis. 

Ace. unos, Unas, una. 
Voc. , 

Abl. unis. 

Nou. — ^The genitive singular utd and the dative vno, ttnae, are of rare 
occurrence, and unclasvic^. (Compare, however, % 49.) The plural vni, 
unae, ima, occurs as a numeral onlv in connexion with plureUia tarUum, 
i. e., such nouns as have no singular, e. g., unae niwtiae, one wedding , 
una eastroj one camp ; unae UUeraey one letter. (See Cha{). XXX.) Unu$ 
is used also as a pure adjective, by dropping its' signification of a numeral 
and taking that of " alone," or ** the same," e. g., Css., BeU, Gall, iv., 16: 
tint C/Sti legatoa miserant, the Xlbians alone had sent ambassadors ; Cic, 
Pro Ftacc., 26. Lacedctemanii $eptingentoa jam anno$ unis moritus vivunt, 
with the same manners. 

Duo and tres are naturally plurals. 

Nom. duo J duae^ duo. 

Gen. duorum^ duarum, duo- 
rum. ♦ 
Dat» duohus,duabuSfduobt£s. 
Acc^ duos vadduOfduas, duo, 
Abl. duobus^duahtiSjduobus. 

"Nom. tres (mas. and fern.), 

Gen. trium. 

Dat. tribus. [trta. 

Ace. tres (mas. and rem.), 
Abl. tribus. 

fuur months each ; and the subdivision of the fundamental number in 
the state^ivision into the factors 3 x 4, of which the 4 was the basis, 
Dfeds not to bo insisted on. The first four numerals, therefore, would be 
mr.e frequently .used as adjectives than any of the others, and for this 
reason would have inflections, which the others, whose use would be more 
adverbial, might want without so much inconvenience. The same remark 
lilies to the corresponding fact wita regard to the Roman numerals. 
Their fundamental number ^as three ; they had three tribes, just as the 
lonians had four. Besides, the old Etruscan year, wMch was the basis 
of their civil and religious arrangements, consisted of ten months, not of 
twelve, nd therefore the division into tetrads wculdnot hold with *b«^. 
{DmaU»on. New Cratylut, p. 193, teq.y^Am. Ed. 



Nott — Ambot aet o, both, is declined like dvo, and has li'&ewiie lw# 
fonns for the accusat, ambos and ambo, which have entirely the same 
meaning. In connexion with pondo (poiunds^ we find dtta pondo^ and tr9 
pondo, for duo and tria^ a barbarism noticed oy the ancients themselves. 
(QnintiL, i, 5, 15.) Duum, a second form of the genit. of duo, is the regu- 
lar one in compounds ; as, duumvir, but is frequently used, also, in con- 
nexion with nulium. Thus, Pliny says that he had compiled his work « 
Iwtume volummvm drcker duum miUum ; but Csesar end Livy likewise use 
this form. 

4. IV. qtULttuor,* 

5. v. quinque, 

6. VI. sex. 

7. VII. septem. 

8. YUI,OCtO, 

9. IX. novem. 

10. z. decern, 

11. xuundecim. 

12. xu. dtufdecim. 

13. xni, tredecinif or deceu et 


14. XIV. qteattuardecim 

15. XV. quindecim, 

16. XVI. sedeciniy or decern et 


17. xvn. decern et septem^ or 


18. xvin. decern et octo, or 


19. XIX. decern et novem, or 


20. XX. vigmti, 

21. XXI. unus et viginti, or 

viginti unus. 

22. XXII. duo et viginti^ or 

viginti duo. 

23. XXIII. tres et viginti, or 

viginti tres. 

28. xxviu. duodetriginta or 

octo e^ vigintL 

29. XXIX. undetrigintay or 

n<n7em e^ viginti. 

30. XXX. triginta. 
40. XL. quadraginta, 
50. L. quinqttaginta, 
* 60. LX. sexaginta. 
70. Lxx. septuaginta, 
80. Lxxx. octoginta. 
90. xc. nonaginta. ' 
100. c. centum. 
109. cix. centum et no 
vcm^ or centum no 
200. cc. dticenti^ ae, a. 
300. ccc. trecenti, qe, a. 
400. cccc. quadringentit 

ae^ a. 
500. D. or 10. ^t£292^e»^, 

a^, a. 
600. DC. sexcentiy ae, a, 
700. IKJC. septingenti, 

ae, a. 
800. Dccc. oetmgenti, 
ae, a. 

900. DCCCC. 92011^691^1 

ae, a. 
1000. Bf. or CIO. mi/Ze. 
2000. ciocio. or mm. <2t(o 

milia, or ^ mi^e. 
5000. iDD. quinque milia. 
10,000. ccioo. decern mi- 
100,000. ccciooo. centum mi' 
lia, • 

* ['* We cannot find any precise information upon the time of the com 
mencement of the principle of local value which prevails to a certain 
extent throughout the Roman S3r8tem, namely, that a smaller symbo. 
before a larger one, in numbers less than one hundred, denotes a subtrac- 
tion, after it an addition This principle doe* no> appear in the PKod* 

CARDINAL m7|i£RALil. 97 

iVbte l.-^The Roman «ign« lorimmbers have amen fiom simple geo- 
metrical ^gures. The perpendicular line (I) is one ; two lines crossing 
one another (X) make ten ; half this figure (V) is fivej the perpendlculat 
line with a horizontal one at the ^dwer end {h) ia nfty» and if another 
horizontal line is added at the apper end (T) we have one hundred* 
From this sign arose the round C, wnicE is accidentally, at the same time, 
the initial oi centum. This C reversed (O), which is called apostrophas, 
with a perpendicular line preceding it (10), or drawn together as D> aigni' 
lies 500. In every multiplication with ten a fresh apostrophus is added, 
thus, 100 = 5000, 1000 ?= 50,000. When a number is to be doubled, as 
many C are put before the horizontal line astherd are D behind it. Thus, 
CIO = 1000, CCIOO«= 10,000, &C. , A thousand is ezfiressed in MSS. by 
(/>, which is evidently a contraction of CIO. M, which is used for the 
same number, is the mitial of nuUe.* 

iVbte 2.~Wherever, in the above list, two numen^s are put together, 
the hrst is always preferable. Forms like octodedm. and novendecm, which 
Are not mentioned in the list, arc not supported by any authority ; even 
tieptendecim^ according to Priscian {De Sign. Nuin.f 4)j is not so good as 
decern tt septem^ although it is used by deem (In Verr., v., 47 ; De Leg. 
Agr., iL, 17; Philip., v., 7), and also by Tacitus (ilnna/., xiii., 6). Septem 
et decern, in Cicero {Cat., 6), and ncto et decern, in PHny (Epht., viii., 18), 
are isdated peculiarities. Instead of octoginta we sometimes find octua- 
gtnfa, and, corresponding with it, octttagiei; but these forms cannot be 

[§ 116.] The intermediate numbers are expressed in 
the following manner : from twenty to a hundred, either 
the smaller number^ followed by et, precedes, or the great- 
er one precedes without the et ; e. g., qnattuor et sexagm- 
ta, Kyr sexaginta quattwor. For 18,^6, 38, 48, &c., and for 
19, 29, 39, 49, etc., the expressions dtiodeviginti, duodetri-. 
gijUa, up to undecentum, are more frequent than decern et 
octo^ or octo et viginti. In such combinations neither dtio 
nor un (unus) can be declined. Above 100, the greater 
number always precedes, either with or without et; as, 
wille unus, mUle duo, mille trecejUi, or mUle et unus, mille 
et duo, mille et trecenti sexaginta sex^ The et is never 
used twice, and poets, when they want another syllable, 
take ac, dtque, or que, instead. There are, indeed, ex- 
ceptions to this rule ; but, being less common, they cannot 
be taken into consideration, and some of them are mere 
mcorrect readings. (See my note on Cic, in Verrem, iv. 

The thousands are generally expressed by the declina- 
ble substantive milia and the cardinal numbers ; as, duo 
milia, tria mdlia, quatttior milia, decern mUia^ unum et vi* 

nician or Palmyrene notations, which otherwise much resemble the Ro- 
man in their principle of notation, though they approximate to pure vice- 
naiy scales, both adopting distinct symbols for twenty." {Penny Cfchp.^ 
vol. xvi., p. 367.)]— ^wi. Ed. 

♦ [For anotier scheme of explanation, consult Penny Cydop., vol 
^ 367.1— itm..E(i 



gtnii tnilia, quadrtigmta quinque milia, Thf) 4i9tTibutiya 
numerals are used more rarely ; as, hina milia, quina 
milidf dena milia^ quadragena setia milia. The pbjects 
counted are expressed by (he genitive, which depends on 
the substantive milia; e. g., Xerxes Mardonium in Grae- 
cia rdiquit cum trecentis milibus armatorum, unless a low- 
er declined numeral is added, in which case things count- 
ed may be used in the same case with milia; e. g., kah- 
uit tria milia trecentos milites^ or militea tria milia trecen- 
tos hahuit ; but even then the genitive may be used, e- g,, 
Jiahuit militum tria milia treceatos,' or hahuit tria milia 
miHtum et trecentos, (See the commentators on Livy, 
^xix., 7.) It is only the poets that express the thousands 
by the indeclinable adjective mille, preceded by an ad- 
verbial numeral; as, his mille eqtd, for duo milia equorum i 
they are, in general, fond of expressing a. number by th^ 
form of multiplication ; Ovid (Trist.^ iv., 10, 4), for ex- 
ample, says, milia decies novem^ instead of nonaginta 

Note. — ^With regard to the construction of the word mille we add the fol- 
lowing remarks. Mille is originally a substantive, which is indeclinable 
in the singular, but occurs only in the nom. and accus. As a substantire 
it governs the genitive, like the Greek x^^^^t 6* S-t C'ic, Pro Milan., 20, 
quo in /undo propter msanaa illas evbetruetionee facile ifttlle hondnum versabatm 
valentium ; Phiup., vi, 5, quit L, Antonio mille nummum ferret expensum 
and, very frequently, miUe paeetatm, Livy joins mi2/e as a collective nour 
(see ^ 366) to the plural of the verb, xxiii., 44 ; mUle passuum inter urbem 
erarU caatraque : xzv., 24, jam miUe armatorum ceperant partem. But mille is 
also an indeclinable adjective, and as such is most frequently used in all 
its cases, e. g., equitee mille praemissi; aenatue mille hominum numero consta 
bat; da mihi basia mille ; rem mille madia temjptavitf &c. With this adjec 
live mille, as with numerals in gtneral, a gemtivus partitivus may be used, 
according to ^ 429, and thus we read in Livy, xzi^ 61, cum octo milHnu 
peditum, mille equUvm, where the genitive stanas for the ablative, owing to 
Its close connexion with the word pediiuth; and xxiii., 46, Komanonm 
miUa interfecti. 




[§ 117.] The ordinals denote the place in the seriei 
which any object holds, and answer to the question quo* 
tus ? All of them are adjectives of three torminatioiiai 
us, a, um. 

1. primus, 

2. secundus (alter). 

3. tertius. 

4. quartos, 

5. quintus. 

6. sextus. 



7. Septimus.' 


9. niMUs. 
to. decimus, 
LI. wndecinms, 

12. duodecimus. 

13. tertius decimus, 

14. gt^/fi^ deidmus 

16. sextus decimus, 

17. Septimus decimus, 

IB. octavus decimus, or c2«i0« 

19. 9»09»i^ decimus y or t^;2c2e- 


20. vicesimus, sometimes trf- 

21. t^%«» e^ vicesimus, vicest- 

mus primifiS, 

22. alter et vicesimus, vicesi- 

mus sccundus. 
30. ^rwrmmtw, sometimes ^n- 

40. quadragestmus. 
50. quinquagesimus. 
60. sexagesimus. 
70. septuagesimus 
80. actogesimus. 
90. nonagesimus. 
100. ^evt^en'mt^. 
200. ducentesimus. 
300. trecentesiTitus. 
400. quadringentesi' 

500. quingentesimMs 
600. sexcentesimusr. 
700. septingentesimus 
800. octingentesimus. 
900. nongentesimus 
1000. millesimus, 
2000. iw millesimus. 
3000. ter millesimus. 
10,000. decies millesimus 
100,000. centies millesimus. 
1,000,000. ^mc« centies mil- 

[§ 118.] In expressing the intermediate numbers, the 
most common practice is to place the smaller number be- 
fore the greater one with the conjunction e<, or to make 
the greater number precede the smaller one without et ; 
as, quartvs et vicesimus, or vicesimtbs quartzes. But there 
are mapy instances in which the smaller number pre* 
cedes without et; e. g., quintus tricesimus; and from 13 
to 19 this is the ordinary method, though we also find 
tertitcs et decimus, decimus tertius, and decimus et tertius. 
(See Cic, de Invent.^\., 53 and 54.) Instead oi primus et 
nccsimus^ &c., we find still more frequently unus et vice* 
nmus, fem. una et vieesima, or with the elision of the 
vowel, unetvicesimay with the genitive unetvicesimae^ as 
m Tacit., Annal., i., 45., and Hist, i., 67. The 22d, 32d, 
dec, is more frequently and better expressed by alter et 
otcesimusy or vicesimtis et alter^ than by secundus et vice- 
simus, &c. Now and then we meet with duoetvicesimus, 
dMoettricesimuSy in which case the word duo is indeclina- 
ble. The 28th, 38th, &c., are expressed also by duodetH- 
unmus, duodequadragesimus, and the 29th 39th, 99th, by 


too L17.N GRAMMAR. 

undetncesimuSf iindequadragesimus, undecentesimust the 
words duo and imus fun J being indeclinable; and yoth 
forms are of more frequent occurrence than octavus and 
nonus et vicesimus, or vicesimus octavus, vicenmus nonus, 
Thei*e is a class of adjectives in antis which are derived 
from ordinal numerals, e. g., primanus, secundanus, ter* 
tianus, vicesimanus : they express the class or division to 
which a person belongs ; in Roman writers they chiefly 
denote the legion of the soldiers, whence the fuBt word 
m their compounds is feminine, e. g^ tertiadedmani, 
quartadecimani, tertia ct vicesimani; that is, soldiers of 
the thirteenth, fourteenth, twenty-third legion. In T^i^ 
tus we 'meet with the forms unetviccsvmani and duoetvtce- 



[§ 119l] Distributive numerals denote an equal num 
ber distributed among several objects or at dififerent times . 
and answer to the questions, " How many apiece V* and 
" How many each time V* fquoteni ?J They are always 
used in the plural. The English language having no cor- 
responding numerals, has recourse to circumlocution. 

Examples. — Horat., Serm.i u, 4, 86 ; Saepe tribus Uctis videat coenare qua 
temoSf to dine four on each couch : Liv., xxz., 30 ; Scipio et Hannibal cum 
nngvlia interjn'etibus congressi sunt, each with an interpreter : Cic, m Verr.^ 
ii., 49 ; puen »enuin septenwnve denum armontm Menatorhtm nomen nundinatt 
9untf bo^s of sixteen or Beventeen years each purchased the title of sen- 
ator. Liy., v., 30; Senatus constUtwn factum estj ut agri Veienlani septena 
jugera plebi dwiderentur, each plebeian received seven jugera. The pas- 
sage in Cicero {ad Att.^ xvi, 8), Octavhu veterama quingenot denarios dot, 
has the same meaning «s {ad Fanuy x,, 32) Antonius denariot qmngenos 
ringidis mUitilms dot ; that is, five hundred denarii to each soldier. When 
.ae distributive singtdi is expressly added, the cardinal numeral is some- 
times used ; e. g., Cic, in Virrr., ii, 55 : amgvlU cetuoribnt denarii trecenti 
zd atatuam praetoris imperati 8wU, 

Hence the distributives are applied in multiplication (with adveibial 
numerals), the same number being taken several times ; e. g., rum didicU 
his bina quot essent ; lunae curriculum conjicitur integris qua^ septenis diebu* : 
Oellius, XX., 7 ; Homerus pueros puellasque Ntobae bis senos dicitfuisset JSu 
ripides bis septenoSj Sappho bis novenos, BacchyUdes ft Pindarus bis denos ; 
quidam alii seriptores tresfuisse solos dixerunt. Poets in this case sometimes 
apply the cardmal numerals ; e. g., Horace has, bis quinqw. viri^ i. e., decem- 
viri ; and in prose we find dedes {vicieSf tricies) centum milia, although the 
form decies cetUena milia^ mentioned above (6 115), it» much more conunon. 

Distributives are farther used, instead of cardinals, with words which 
H ve no singular ; e. g.. bini codicilli, bina post Romulum spolia rpima (see 



'^M) ; BOfi with those substantives the plnral of which, thcngh it has a 
different signification from the singular, yet retains the meacing oif a sin- 
guiar. e. g., aede$, castra^ litterae, ludi (^ 96). It must, however, be observed 
that in this case the Romans commonly used unt instead of «tn^u/i, and 
trini instead of term', since MtnguU and temi retain their own distributive sig 
nification. We therefore say, for example, 6ina cdttrauno die cepit ; trimu 
hodie mmtiae cdArantur; quoUdie qumas aut senas litteras aectph; for duo c<u 
tra would mean " two castles ;" duae aedes, ** two temples ;" and duae Ittte 
rae^ " two letters of the alphabet.** This« however, is not the case with 
liberi (children), for this word has not the meaning of a singular {liberi are 
children, and not a child), and we accordingly-say duo liberi, ju» Hum libe- 
runif &c. 

Bim is used for Jt4o, to denote things which exist in pairs ; as, bin» boveh^ 
hinae aures ; and in Virgil, Aen,, i., 317, bina manu crispane kastilia. No 
prose writer goes beyond this in the use of the distributives instead of the 
cardinals Xexcept in combination with milia, see ^116). Poets and Pliny 
the elder use tnese numerals in the singular in the sense of multipUca* 
tives, e. g., Lucan, viiL, 455 ; aepteno gvrgite, with a sevenfold whirl : Plin., 
xvii,, 3 ; eampus fertUi* eentenaquinquagenafruge, with one hundred and fifty 
fold com. In the ordinary language they occur only in the plural, and as 
adjectives of three terminations, i, ae^a. , 

1. singuli, 

2. Mni. 

3. tem% or trini, 

4. quatemi. 

5. quinu 

6. seni, 

7. septeni. 

8. octoni. 

9. noveni. 
10. deni, 
11 vndcni, 

12. duodeni. 

13. temi dcni. 

14. quaterni deni. 

15. quint deni, 

16. seni deni, 

17. septeni deni, 
18.. octoni deni, 

19. noveni deni,- 

20. vicenii 

21. viceni singvli, 

22. viceni hini, 

23. viceni temi, 
30. triceni. [&a 
40. quadrageni. 

60. scxageni, 
70* septtcdgenL, 
80. octogeni, 
90. nonageni. 
100. centeni, 
200. duceni, 
300. treceni, 
400. quadnngent 
500. quingeni, 
600. sexcent, 
700. septingeni. 
800. octingeni, 
900. nongeni. 

50. quinqzmgeni. 

A longer form of the hundreds, ducentem, trecentem^ 
quad'cingentenif &c., which is mentioned by Priscian, can- 
not be proved to exist. Here, too, there is some freedom 
in the combination of the numerals ; instead of viceni qua- 
temiy we may say quaterni et vtceni, or quatemi vtceni, and 
forl& and 19 we have, also, the forms duodevicend and un- 
demceni. The genitive of these numerals is commonly ill 
um instead of orum; as, hinum, temum^ quatemvmy qm- 
num, &c., but not singulum for singulorum, 

"A thousand each time" might, according to analogy, be expressed oy 
millenif and then continued bis millenif ter milleni, &c. ; but this torm is not 
in use, and instead of it we say singula milia, 6ina, tema, quatema, qiuna 
milia : e. g., Sueten^ Octav., extr. ; Legavit Augustus vraetorianis militibu i 
singula miUa nummunt (that is, one thousand to each), conortibus urbams qum- 
tmsSf legionariis trecenos nummos : Livy : in singrulis iegionibus Romanis quinm 
fsiiUa peditum, treceni eijuites erant, Milia alone is frequently used for tingrtl^ 
milia^ if its distributive meaning is indicated by some other word ; e g . 

T 2 



Lvrjt xxxvii., 45; dMtis milia talentum per duodecim annot, te., oai ihcm 
■and talunto eactv year : Gurtius, ▼., ^^ » singulis vestrum milia denarium dan 
jvssi, wiiere mille is an incorrect reading ; comp. Liv., zzii., 36. I'bis um 
of the plural, which occurs in other words also ; as, asses j libra* , jugtra, 
with the ellipsis of singulis ae, a, has been established by J. Fr. Gronovius 
•n Livy, iv., 15, and xziz., 15 ; and by Bentley on Horace^ Serm.y ii., 3, 156. 

From these distributives are derived adjectives in aritis, 
which indicate of how many imits or equal parts a thing 
consists, whence they, are termed partiaria, e. g., nume- 
rus binarms, a number consisting of two imits, i. e., two ; 
scrohes temarii^ holes of three feet \ versus senarius, a vers© 
of six feet ; numtmis denaritis^ a coin of ten units, that is, 
asses ; senex octogenarius, an old man of eighty ; rosa cen- 
tenaria, a rose virith one hundred leaves ; cohors quingena- 
ria, of 500 men. Th*> word numerus is most frequently 
combined with these adjectives, to supply the place of the 
substantives unto, binio, temio, whicn axe not based *on 
very good authority. (See § 75.) Singtdaris and miilia' 
rius are more commonly used instead of singularius^ miU 



[§ 120.] MuLTiPLicATiVES ans\Ver to the question, "Hon! 
many fold 1" (quotuplex 1) They are, simplex, duplex, tri* 
plex^ quadruplex, quincuplex, septemplex^ decemplex^ centu 
plex. These are the only ones that can be shown to have been 
in use. Sixfold does not occur in Latin ; it might be sexu- 
plex or seplex, but not sextuplex^ as some grammarians assert. 
Octuplex is attested by the derivative octuplicatus, and no- 
vemplex by the analogy of septempleic, (Modem writers 
use, also, undecimplexj dtwdecimplex, sedecimplex^ vicecu' 
plexy tricecuplex, quadragecuplex, quinquagecvpleXy sex^ 
agecuplex, septuagecuplex^ octogecuplex, nonagecuplex, du- 
centuplex, trecentuplex, quadrijigentuplex^ quingentuplex^ 
octtngerUuplex^ &c., and mUlecuplex,)* 

It will not be out of place here to add the Latin ex 
prossions for fractions, which are always denoted hy pars/ 

* [Such forms as undecimpleXf duodseimplex, &c., violate analogy, and 
though employed by modem writers, as the text states, are neverthelesy 
decidedly objectionable. Instead, moreoTer, of vicect^><eir, fnceeup/eor, &c^ 
the forms vtcuplexf tricuplexy &c., would have the advantage of bmg' 
analogous with those of the same class known to exirt {Jmxmal vf Edu 
€0tum. vol. 1., p. 96 ]— ilm. Ed 


) .'s dimidia pars^ \ tertia pars, } qtuirta pars, quinta, Jiea> 
ta, septifna pars^ &c. In cases where the' number of the 
paits into which a thing is divided exceeds the number 
of parts mentioned only by one, as in |, f , |^, the fractions 
are expressed in Latin simply by duae^ tresy quattuor 
jHzrteSj that is, two out of three, three out of four, and 
four out of five parts : | may be expressed'by octava pars^ 
or by dimidia quartd. In all other cases firactions are ex- 
pressed as in English : ^, duae ieptimae ; ^, tres septimae, 
&c., or the fraction is broken up into its parts, e. g., f by 
pars dimidia (J) et tertia (f ); and ^f by tertia et septima^ 



[§ 121.] Proportional numerals express how many 
times more one thing is than another, but they cannot be 
used throughout. They answer to the question quotuplus f 
They are, simplus, a, am ; duphts^ triphis, quadruplus, 
quinquiplus (probably sexuplusj^ septtq>lus, oc^plus (per- 
haps nonuplusjy decuplus^centuplus; and, according to the 
Bcune analogy, we might form dvce/Unpius^ and so on, as in 
the miiltiplicatives above. But they are almost univer- 
sally found only in the neuter. 



[§ 122.] 1. The numeral adverbs answer l;o the ques* 
tion, " How many times 1'* fquoHens ?J to which totiens is 
the demonstrative sndaliquotieTisthe indefinite. The form 
in »^ is the original,' and prevailed in tihe best periods of 
die lanraage; subsequently the termination es was pre* 
ferred in nuinerab, but ens still remained in the wbrds 
iust mendoned. 

1. semel. 

2. his, 
o. ter» 

4. quater, 

5, quinquies. 
*6. sexies. 

7. septies. 

8. octies. 

9. noviis^ 

10. decies. 

11. undedes. 

12. dttodedes 


]:jltin gbammae. 

13* ierdedeSf or trededes. 
I4» quaterdedeSf or qnuiUuor 

15^ qvinquiesdecies^ or quin* 

16, sexiesdecies, or sededes, 
17* septiesdedes. 

18. duodevicieSf or octiesdc' 


19. undemcieSf or noviesde- 
'SO. vicies. [des. 

21. «e7ne/ e^ mdes. 

22. &i« 6^ vides. 

23. ^^ ^ vides, &c. 
30. trides, 

40. quadragies. 

50. quinquagim. 
60. sexagies, 
70. septuagies. 
80. octogies, 
90. nonagies. 
.100. centies. 
200. ducenties. 
300. trecenties. 
400. quadrifigenUtM. 
500. quifigentie^, &c» 
800. octingentiei. Sec* 
1,000. millies, 
2,000. &i9 mUlies. 
3^000. ^ miUtes, ^c. 
106,000. centies miUies. 

With regard to the iiitmmediate numbers, 21, 22, 23, 
&c., the method above adopted is the usual erne, but we 
may also say t^tom ^«ine2 and t;icief tf^ «eme^ though, not 
»e9^ vides; for ^ t;»o»ef, for examjj^e, would mean twice 
twenty, i« e., forty. 

[§ 123.] 2. The numeral adverbs terminating either iu 
um or o, and derived from the ordinals, oi!; rather, the or 
dinals themselves in the ace. or ablat. six^lar neuter gen- 
der, are used in answer to the questicm **^ of what num- 
ber ]" or " what in number ]"* (the Latin quotum ? or 
quota ? cannot be proved to have been used in this way) ; 
e. g., primum or primo, for the first time, or first; secun- 
dum or secundo, tertium or tertio^ &c., dedmum, undedmum^ 
duodedmum^ tertium dedmwn^ duodevicesimum. The an- 
cients themselves were in doubt as to whether jJie termi- 
nation wn or o was preferable (see GeUius, x., 1) ; but, 
according to the majority of the paslsages in classical wri- 
ters, we must prefer um; the form secundum alone }s less 
common'; ahd mstead of it we find iterum^ a second time, 
and secundo^, secondly, for which, however, ddnde is more 
frequently used. The diiference between primum and 
nrimo is this, that the signification " for the first time'* is 
cuc.mon to both, but that of ''first" belongs exclusively 
to primumf while primo has the additional meaning of *' at 

[^ 124.] JVoftf.— U may not be superfluous to notice here 6om» substan 
fives compounded with numerals * thiis, from aimus are formed V^'uuuf^ 


triainiumf quadrienniumt sexetmiumf aeptuemuum (more correct thau aepten 
niwn)t decenmtan, a period of two,.three, four, six, &c., years. From eUea 
we have bidmtm, triduum^ quatriduum, a time 'of two, three, four days. 
From viri are formed duovirtf tresviri, quaitvarviri, qtanqnemri^ ae- or sex-viri, 
septemviri, decemviri, quindecemviri, all of which com{)oands, if they may be 
so called, denote a conunission consisting of a certain number of men, ap- 
pointed for certain purposes. A member of such a commission is called 
duumoiTf triumvir, from which is formed the plural triumviri^ which, properly 
speaking, is ungrammatical, and, in fact, still wants the sanction en a good 
authority. In inscriptions iriunwiri does not occur, and dmmviri only once 
(Gruter, p. 43, No. 5) : the ordinary mode of writing it was J J viri, 11 J 
wL Printed books, without the authority of MSS., are not decisive. 
To these words wq may add the three, ftamiw, trimua, and quadrhima ; i e., 
a child of two, three, four years. 



[§125.] 1. Pronouns are words which supply the place 
of a substantive ; such as, I, thou, we, and in Latin, ego, 
tUf noSf Sec, These words are in themselves substan- 
tives^ and require nothing to conmlete their* meaning; 
hence tliey are called pronouns substantive (pronomijia 
suhstantiva), but more commonly personal pronouns, ^o^ 
tiomma personalia. 

Note. — StU- is a pronoun of the third person, but not in the same way 
that ego and i« are pronouns of the first and second persons. For the 
thini person (he, she, it) is not expressed in Latin in the nominative, and 
is' implied in the third person of the verb ; but if il is to be exprened, a 
demonstrative pronoun, commonly ttte, is used. The other cases of the 
English pronoun of the third person are expressed by the oblique cases ot 
is, eoj id, the nominative of which belongs to the demonstrative pronouns 
Thus we say, pudeCme met, hti, tju»: lamdo me, te, turn. Sm, aibi, se, is the 
Monoun of the third persNon in a refleotive sense ; as, laudat »e, he praises 
himself, in which proposition the obj[ect is the same as the subject. The 
use (rf'this reflective pronoun in Latm is somewhat more extensive than 
Wk wn laoiguage; for aui, tiU, te, and the possessive «ttu«, nut, swum, are 
«ted not only when the subject to which they refer occurs in the same 
sentence, but also when in a dependent sentence the subject of the prin- 
cipal or governing sentence is referred to ; e. g., mitat hoe mbi nocerei he 
tmnks that this injures him (inetead of himself). The beginner must ob- 
serve that, wherever he may add ** self" to the pronoun of the third per« 
son, he has to use the reflective pronouns and the possessive auus, sua 
fvum ; e. g., Oaius eontemnsbat dimtiaa, auod se felieem reddere n9n passent, 
because they could not make him (i. e., nimself, and not any other person) 
happy ; but qttod eum felieem reddere non possent would mean, because they 
couKl not make him (some other person, e. g., his friend) happy. 

[§ 126.] 2. Besides these there is a number of words 
which are adjectives, inasmuch as they have three distinct 
(brms for the three genders, and their meaning is not com 
plote without a substantive ekher expressed or unrfet 


Stood. But tbeir inflection differs so widely fix>m what 
are commonly called adjectives, and they are so frequent- 
ly used instead of a substantive, that they are not unjustly 
termed pronoims. They are : 

1. The adjunctive : ipse, ipsa, ipsum, self. 

2. The demonstrative : hie, haec, hoc ; tste, ista, istud , 
tile, ilia, Ulud ; is, ea, id, and the compound idem, eadem, 

3. The relative : qui, quae, quod, and the compounds 
quicunque and quisquu. 

4. The two interrogatives : viz., the substantive intei- 
rogative, quis^ quid ? and the adjective interrogative, qui, 
qtiae, quod 1 

5. The indefinite pronouns : dliquis, aliqua, aliquid and 
aliquod; quidam, quaedam, quiddoM and quoddam; ali- 
quispiam, or, abridgod, quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam and 
quodpiam ; quisquam, neuter quidquam ; quivis, quilihety 
and quisque; and all the compounds of qui or quis. 

E^spectlng the use of these pronouns, see Chapter 
LXXXIV., C. The fc^lowing observations are intended 
to develop only the fimdamental principles. 

[6 127.] Note 1. — Signification of the Dbmonstratitb ProNouns.- 
^Itie^ this, is used of objects whicb tfre nearest to the speaker, wbereas 
more distant objects are referred to bv ilU. The person nearest of all to 
the speaker is the speaker himself, whence hk homo is often the same as 
ego (see some passages in Heii^dorf on Horace, Sat., L, 9, 47) ; and in this 
respect hie is called the pronoun of the first person. late pmnts to the. 
person to whom I am speaking, and to the things appertaining to him. 
Thus, iste liber, ista vestis, wtud negoimm, are equivalent to thy book, thy 
dress, thy business ; and iete is, for this reason, called the pronoun of the 
second person.* lUe, that, is the pronoun of the third person ; that U, it 
points to the person of whom I am speaking to .some one, henpe Ule liber 
means the book of which we are speaking (Compare, on these points, ^ 
201.) la is used : 1. To point to something, preceding, and is somewhat 
Less emphatic than " the person mentioned before ;** and, 2. As a aort ol 
logical conjunction, when followed by qui, ia qui answers to the English 
"he who." Idem, the same, expresses the unity or identity of a subject 
with two predicates ; e» g., Cicero xlid this thing, and he did that also, 
would be expressed in Latin, idem illud perfeoit, hence idem may sometimes 
answer to our -^^ also ;" e. g., Cicero was an orator, and also a philosopher ; 
Cicero orator erat idtmnta {et idem) phiUaoj^aia, 

[^ 128.1 Note 2.— The Compounded KBLATrvBS.— They are formed b> 
means of the suffix cunque, which, however, is sometimes separated from 
its pronoun by some intervening word. It arose from the relative adverb 
erMti (also spelled quum) and the suffix que, expressive of universality (as in 

* [So completely was this the meaning of the pronoun iste, that it has 
descended to the derivative coati in the modem Italian ; and a lawsuit as 
to the place where a bill was payable once turned upon the meaning of 
ihis adverb. Jmimal of Education, vol. i., p. 97.]— 4m. Ed. 

pronoudTs attd pronominal adjectives. 107 

fuispie, ^ 129 ; and in adverbs, ^ 288). Cunque^ therefore, originall jT tigni 
$ed " whenever." By being attached to a relative pronoun or adverb 
e^ g., quaUscua^, quqtcunquCf tibiamque, utctmque, quandoctmque, it renders 
the relative meaning of these words more general, and produces a relativwn 
generaU ; and as qui signifies " who," qukxmqiu becomes " whoever,** oi 
** every one who ;" e. g., quemcunque librum legeriSf ejus summam paudt 
verbis in eommentaria referto, or utcunque se res habuitj tisa tamen culpa est. It 
thus always occurs in connexion with a verb,' as the subject of a proposi- 
tion: The. same- signification is produced by doubling the relative ; e. g., 
ouotquot, quaUsquaUs ; and in the case of adverbs, vbaihiy utut, qtioquo, &c. 
Thus we should have qtuqui, quaequtUy quodquod = qtuamqtte, quaecunquef 
quodcmnque; but these forms are not used in the nominative, and instead 
of them quisquis, quidmidf were formed from the substantive interrogative 
quis ? quid 1 and ihe ocmbled relative qxdsquis retained its substantive sig> 
nification, ** every one who,** whereas qvdcumiju/s has the meaning of an ad 
jective. So, at least, it is with the neuter ouidquidf whatever. . The mas- 
culine quisquiSf hy way of exception, is llKowise used as a^ adjective ,- 
e. g., in Horace : quisquis erit vitae color ; and Pliny : qmsmds erit ventus 
(nay, even the neuter quidqtud in Virgil, Aen., x., 493, and Horace, CarTn., 
li., 13, 9, which is a complete anomaly). In the oblique cases the sub- 
stantive and adjective significations comcide. 

[^ 129.] iVoteS.— Thr Indefinite Pronouns. — All the above-men 
tioned words are originally at once substantives and adjectives, and for 
this reason they have two distinct forms for the neuter. According to the 
ordinary practice, however, quisquam is a substantive only, and is oilen ac- 
oompaiucMd by the adjiective uUusj a^ urn. Qwspiam, too, is principally used 
as a substantive; but aliquispiam^ m the few passages where it occurs (it 
is found only in Gic, Pro Sewt.^ 29» oli^^mm': and TWcu/., iii.. 9, ah 
quodpiam fntmbnan), is used as an adjective ; and aliquis, which has the 
same meaning, is found in both senses. Quisquam^ with the supplement- 
ary nifaw, has a negative meaning; e. g., I do not believe that any one 
{qmmnuan) has done this : quispiam and aUouis are affirmative, and quidam 
may be translated by *' a certain.** By adoing the verbs vis aiu^ libet to the 
relative we obtain quivis and quilAet, any one ; and by adding the particle 
fue We obtain qtdsquennd the compound smusquisque. All of these words 
axpress an. indefinite generality: respecting their difference,- compare 
Chap. I^XXIV., C. 

[§ 130,] 3. The possessive pronouns are derived from 
the substantive pronoutis; {(nd in f(^tn tliey are regular 
adjectives of three terminations : meuSf tutcs, suus^ noster 
vaster ; to which we must add the relative cuqub^ a, um 
and the jproTwmina gentilicia (which express origin), nos 
tras^ vestras^ and cujds, 

4. Lastly, we include among the proiiouns, also, what 
are called jpronomt^ta^ea, that is, adjectives of so general 
a meaning that, like real pronouns, they frequently sup- 
ply the place of a noun substantive. Such pronominalia 
are, (a) those which answer to the question, who? and 
are partly single words and partly compounds : alius^ ul* 
lus, ntdlusj nonnullus. If we ask, which of two ? it is pi^t 
pressed by uter ? and the answer to it is alt^^ one of tWQJ 
netUcr, neither; alteruter, either the one or thp other | 
utcrvis and uterlihet, either (tf the two. Tbe |elative pro- 



noun (w:ien referring to two) is likewise uUr^ and, in % 
more genera . sense, utercunque, (h) Those which denote 
quality, size, or number, in quite a general way. They 
stand in relation to one another (whence they are called cor 
relatives Jy and are formed according to a iixed rule. The 
interroga^ve beginning with qu coincides with the foim 
if the relative, and, according to the theory of the ancient 
grammarians, they differ only in their accent (see § 34) ; 
tne indefinite is formez by prefixing aU ; the oemonstra- 
tive begins with t, and its power is sometimes increased 
by the suffix dem (as m idem J ; the relative may acquire 
a more general meaning by being doubled, or by the suf- 
fix cunque (§ 128) ; the indefinite generality is expressed 
(according to § 129) by adding the words lihet or vis to 
the (original) interrogative form. In this manner we ob 
tain the following pionominal correlatives, with which we 
have to compare the adverbial correlatives mentioned in 

Interrog. Demonst. 
quaUtf talis, 

Relat. Relat geyierale. Indefin. Indef. goner 
qualia, quaiiamudis, , quaiuUbet. 


quanhu, tanlus,tan' quantuSf quaniuaquaiUut, aliquMntutf quaniudib§t, 

tun^^nif qtumtuteimquef quaniunia, 

quot, totf4otidemf quoi, quotquot, quU- aliquot, qmtHbat. 

quotua, totus, quotut, quotuacunquef {aliqiioiu$)f , 

To these we must add the duyinutives quantulw, quantuluscunque, Itmim 
bu, aliquan h i lu m. 



[§ 131.] 1. Declension of the personal pronouns ego, 

hiy sui : 

Singular. • 

Tu, thou. 
tuif of thee. 

Nom. EgOf I. 
Gen. mei, of me. 

Dat. mihi, to me. 
Ace. me, me. 
Voc like nom. 
Abl. fiiCjfronfme. 

fihi, to thee. 
te, thee, 
like nom. 
te, from thee. 

sui, of himself, her 

self, itself. 
sihi, to himself, &c. 
se, himself, &c 

se, from himself 





iV5#, we. 
nostril nos- 

nobis^ to us. 
Kos^ us. 
nos^ O we. 
naibUf from 


T^, you." 
vcstri^ vestrum, of 

,vdbiSf to you. 
1709, you. 
tw«, O you ! 
vobU, from yo:. 

m, of themselves 

sibif to themselves 
96, themselves. 

sCf from thom« 

Note. — ^The suffix nui may be added to aL the cases of these three pro 
nouns to express the English emphatic self; as, egometf mihimet, temet, 
semetf and even with the addition of ipse af>er it ; as, mihimet ijtai, temei 
mtum. The genit plur. and the nominat tu alone do not admit tms suffix. 
instead of it the emphasis is given to tu by the suffix te; as, tute, and to 
tlus, again, by the addition of met ; as, tutemet. The accus. and ablat. singu* 
lar of these pronouns admit a reduplication, mem«, tete, sae; of sui alone it 
is nsed in the plural also. 

The contracted form of the dative, mi for mihi (like nil for nihil), is fre- 
quently found in poetry, but rarely in prose. The genitives mei, tui, sui, 
noHri, vestri, are properly genitives of the possessive pronouns meum, tuumf 
suum, nostrum, vestrum, for originally the neuters meum, tuum, &c., were 
used in the sense of ** my being," or of " as regards me. thee,** &c. (th«i 
Greek rh kft6v), instead of the simple I, thou, &c. In Uke manner, th<* 
genitives nostrum, vestrum, are properly the genitives of the possessive^ 
nostri and vestri. (See ^ 51.) The beginner may pass over the origin o^ 
these forms, since they are used as the real gemtives of the personal pro- 
nouns; bat he must bia reminded of it in the construction of the gerund, 
^ 660. Respecting the difference between riostri, vestri, and nostrum, 
vestrum, see ^ 431. 

[§132.] 2. Declension of the demonstrative pronouns 
and ^e : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. andVoc. hi, hae^ haec^ . 

Gen. horum, harum, homm. 

of these. 
Dat. his^ to these. 
Ace. ho9^ has^ Tiaec, these 
Abl. hU, from these. 

Nom. and Voc. Hic^ haec^ 

hoc,, this. 
Gen. hnjus, of this. 

Dat. hulc (or huicj, to this. 
Ace hunc, hanc, hocy this. 
Abl. hoc, hoc, hoc, from this. 

Note.— The ancient form of this pronoun was hice, haece, hoce, in which 
we recognise the demonstrative ce, which, when a word by itself, appears 
in the form eece. • The cases ending in e arose from the omission of the e, 
which is still found in old Latin, e. g., hance legem, haee l^e. (This ex- 
^ains the obsolete form haec, for hoe or haece, iu Terence. See Bentley on 
Ter., Aiedr., i, I, 99.) In ordinary language the cases in s alone som& 
times take the com^Uete ce to render the demonstrative power more em- 
phatic, e. g„ fmjusce, hosce. By adding" the enclitic interrogative ne to c« 
ot c. we obtain the interrogative hicine, haeeine, hocine, &,c 

The pronouns iste, ista, istud, and ille, ilia, illnd, art 
diHslineo alike, anr in tlie following manner: 



Singular. Plural. 

Nora, and Voc. illc^ illa^ U 

ludf he or that. 
Ten.' iZZtiM. 
Dat. illi. 

Ace. ilium f illam, illud. 
Abl. illOi illa^ illo. 

•Nom. and Voc. UUf iltaei 
Ula, they or those. 
Gren. iUcPrum^ illarum^ Ulo' 
Dat. illis. ' [rum. 

Ace illos, illas, ilia, 
Abl. illis. 

Note. — Besides the fonns i«/e, ista, istud, and ille^ iUaf itlud^ there exist 
in early Latin the forms istic, istaec, istoc or Utuc, and illiCf tUaec^ Uloc or 
Wmc, wnich, with regard to inflection, follow hie, haec.hoc, but occur only in 
the cases ending in c, except the dative ; that is, In the accus. utunc, istane, 
illunc^ illanc ; ablat. istoc, istdc, iUoc, Hide ; neut. plur. istaec, illaee. (Istuc 
and istaec sometimes occur even in Cicero.) Prisci^n reeaixis these forms 
as contn^ctions from iste and itle with hiCf biit'it pfobably arose from the 
addition of the demonstrative ce, according to the analogy of hie, for ir 
early Latin we find alsb istace, istisce, illaee, illisce, illosce, illaece, though 
very rarely.* By means of the connecting vowel >. both c and the com- 
plete ce may be united with the interrogative enclitic ne, e. g., ktucine,' 
istodne, illicine, ilUmcine,' istoscine. 

lUi and isti are obsolete forms of the genitive for i//tu« and i$tiua, aiic 
the dative istae, illae, for isti, illi; and the nom. plur. fem. istaec, illaee, foi 
istae, illae. (See Bentley on Terence, Hec, iv., 2, 17.) - 

Virgil uses olli as -a dative sing, and nom. plur., and Cicero, in an an 
tique formula {De Leg., ii., 9), the plural olla and olios, from an ancient 
form oUus. 

Ipse (in the ancient language ipsusj, ipsa, ipsum, is de- 
clined like ille, except that the neuter is ipsum, and not 

Note.—This pronoun is called adjunctive becau6e it is usually joined to 
other nouns and pronouns. In connexion with some cases of is, viz., eo, 
ea, eum, earn, it loses the i in earlv Latin ; thus we find eavse (nom. and 
ablat.), eopse, eumpse, eatnpse^ in rlautus ; and in Cicero tne compound 
reapse = re ipsa, or re ea ipsa, in fact, is of common occurence. The sufKx 
pu in possessive proaouas is of a mmilar kind. 

Singular. Plural, 

Nom. is, ea, id, he, she, it, 

or that. 
Gen. c;W. 
Dat. ei. 

Ace. eum, eam^ id, 
Abl. eo, ea, eo. 

Nom. ii feiji eae, ea^ they 

pr those. 
Gen. eorum, caruvt, roruTiu 
Dat. iis (eisj. 
Ace. eos, eas, ea. 
Abl. iis feisj. 

By the > addition of the suffix dem we form from tf-*- 
idem, eadem, idem (as it Were isdem, eadem, iddemj, which 
is declined in the other cases exactly like the simple is, 

* [This latter is the true account, namely, that the demonstrative ce ii 
added. Throwing aside the aspirate from isthic, we may safely conclude 
that istic and illic were formed, not from hie, but by the addition of the 
same emphatic syllable which is found in Me. Independently, too, of this, 
istd'hic seems impossible, because it is a contradictory combinatioa 
(Journal qf Education, vol. i., p. 97.)] — Am. Ed. 


ssa, id. la the aceusative, eundem and eandem are prefer 
able to eumdem, eamdem^ and; in like manner, in the geni* 
tivo plar. eorundem^ earwndem. 

Note. — Eae as a dative singalar feminine for et, and Unu and eahwt for ii>, 
are obsolete forms. The plural ei is rare, and eidem is not to be found at 
all. In the dative and ablative plural, too, eis and eisdem are not as com- 
mon as <t«, iisdem. It must, however, be observed that iidem and usdem 
were always pronounced in poetry, and therefore, probably, in the early 
prose also, as if they had only one t ; but whether it was ever written 
with one i cannot be determined, on account of the fluctuation of the 
MSS. In most passages, however, only one i is written. In what man- 
ner u and lis were dealt with cannot be ascertained from the poets, be- 
cause thfey dislike the pronoun is in general, and more particularly these 
cases of it, for which they use the corresponding forms of Ate (see ^ 702) ; 
but Priscian (p. 737, and Super xii, vers., p. 1268} asserts that in this word, 
as in <2tt, diis^ the double i was formerly regarded in poetry as on'e^yllable, 
and that in his time it ^tiU continued to be thus pronounced. 

By composition with ecce or en (behold! the French 
voilaj, we obtain the following expressions, which were 
of frequent use in ordinary life : eccum^ eccam^ eccos^ eccas ; 
ecciUum or dlum, ellam, ellos^ dlas ; eccistam, 

[§ 133.] 3. Declension of the relative pronoun, qui^ 
quae, quod: 

• Singular. Plural. 

Nom. quij quacy quae^ who 

. or which. 
Gen. quorum^ quarum, quo 

Dat. qmfms. 

Ace. qyjot^ quns^ quae, 

Abl. quihus. 

Nom. Qui, quae, quod, who 

or which. 
Gen. cujus (quojus, obsol.), 

of whom. 
Dat. cm or cut (quoi,o\3iio\.), 

to whom. 
Ace. quern, quam, quod^ 

whom. [wnom. 

AbL quo^ qua, quo, from 

Note. — ^An ancient ablative singular for all genders was qui Cicero 
it w^ cum appended to it, quicwn for quocum (^ 324), when an indefinite 
person is meant, and when he does not refer to any definite person men* 
tioned before (compare the examples in 6 561 and 568). Quicum, for qua- 
oon, is found in Virgil, Aen., zi, 822. Otherwise the form qui, for quo, oo> 
curs in good prose only in thd sense of ** in what manner?" or ** how ?" as 
an interrogative or relative, e. g., qui fit? how does it happen ? ^ conve- 
nit T qui seiAas f qui hoc probari potest euiquam ? qui tibi id facers hcuit ? qw 
istm inteUecta sint, dsbeo discere, &c., and in the peculiar phrase with uti: 
habeo qui «tar, est qui utamvr (I have something to live upon), in Cicero 
Instead of quiims^ in the relative sense, there is an ancient form quis, or 
qtuis (pronounced like quis)^ which is of frequent occurrence in late prose 
Writers also. 

r§ 134.] There are two interrogative pronoims, quis^ 

quid ? and qui, quae, quod ? the latter of which is quite 

the same in form as the relative pronoun, and thri forme? 


(lifTers from it only by its forms quis and quid. TliA in* 
terrogatives quisnanif quidna?n? and quinarn, quaenam, 
quodnam ? express a more lively or emphatic question 
than the simple words, and the Jia7n answers to the Eng- 
lish " pray.'* 

NoU. — The diflference between the two interrogative pronouns, as ob 
served in good prose, is, that qui* and ^uid are used as substantives, auu 
^ttt, quae, quod as adjectives, and this is the invariable rule for quid and 
quod, e. g., quod facmut commisit ? what crime has he committed ? not 
qtad /acinus, out we may say quidfacinoris 1 Quis signifies *' what man "i** 
or " who?** and applies to botn sexes ; qui signifies " which man ?** But 
in dependant interrogative sentences these forms are often confounded, 
quis being used for the adjective qui, and vice versa, qui for quis. We do not. 
however, consider quis to be used for qui in cases where quis is placed in 
apposition with substantives denoting a human being, as in quis amicus, 
fUM hospes, quis miles, for in the same manner quisquam is changed into aii 
adjective, although there is no doubt of its subst^tive character, e. g^ 
Cic., tA Verr,, v., 54 ; quasi enim td.a possit esse causa, eur hoc, cwiuam dm 
Romano jure accidat (viz., ut virgis caedatur). But there are some other 
passages in which quis is used for qui, not only in poets, such as Virgil, 
Georg., ii., 178 ; qitis color, but in prose writers, e. g., Liv., v., 40 ; quisve 
locus : Tacit., Annal.. i, 48 ; quod caedis initium, quis finis. In Cicero, now- 
over, it is thus used, with very few exceptions (such as. Pro Deiot., IS, 
quis casus), only before a word beginning with a vowel, e. g., quis esset tan- 
tusfructus, quis iste tatUus casus. Qui, on the pther hand, is used for quis,. 
partly for the same reason of avoiding a disagreeable sound, when the 
word following begins with «,a8 in Cic, Divin., Q, nescimus qui sis: c. 
13, qui sis considera: Ad Att., iii., 10, non possum ti>livisci qui fuerim^nxm 
senttre qui sim : but partly without any sucn reason, as in Cic, in Verr., 
v., 64, qui esset ignorabas ? •Pro Rose. Am., 37 dubitare qui indicant : in 
Verr., v., 59, nUerrogehur Flavius, qtunam fusrit L. Herennius. Cicero, in 
Catil., ii., 3, video qui kabeat Blruriam, is an incorrect reading, and in Pro 
Rose. Am., 34, qui Pjy*"^' Ameriam nuntiat? the qui must probably be 
changed into qius. Thus much remains certain^ that the role respecting 
the use of quis and qui cannot be denied even in mdirect questions. 

[§ 135.] The indefinite pronoun aliguis^ also, has ori- 
ginally two different forms : aliquis, neut. aliquidj which 
is used as a substantive, and aliqm, aliqua, cUiquad. But 
aliqui is obsolete, although it occurs in some passages of 
Cicero., e. g., De Off., iii., 7, aliqui ccuus: Tuscul,, v., 21^ 
terror . aliqui : Acad.^ iv., 2%, anvJarius aliqm: De Rt 
Puhl.y L, 44, aliqui dux: ibid., iii., 16, aliqui scr-ujpttis in 
animis hoerct, and a few other passages which fure lesi 
certain. In ordinary language aliquis alone is used, both 
as a substantive and as an adjective ; but in the neutei 
the two forms aliquid and aliquod exist, and the differ 
.,nce between them must be observed. The femin. sin- 
gular and the neut. plural are both aliqpa, and the form 
aliquae is the femin. nom. pltiral. 

[§ 136.] But therbr is also a shorter ferm of the indeh 
nite pron Dun without the characterifltic >refix ali., and en 


acdy like tbo interrogative pronoun, quis^ quid, as a sub- 
stantive, and qui, quae, qzcod, as an adjective. This foVm 
IS used in good prose only after the conjunctions si, nisi, 
ne, num, ana after relatives, such as quo, quante, and 
quum. This rule is commonly expressed thus : the prefix 
ali in aliquis, and its derivatives aliquo, aliquando, and 
alicuhi, is rejected when si, nisi, ne, num, quo, quanta, or 
quum precede; e. g., Consul videat, ne quid rcspuhlica 
detrimenti capiat; qttaeritter, nu^n quod officium aliud alio 
inajus sit ; sometimes another word is inserf ed between ; 
e. gv Cic., De Oral,, ii., 41 ; fi aurum cui commanstratum 
veHcm : Pro TulL, § 17 ; « quis quern imprudcTis Occide- 
nt : Philip., i,, 7 ; si cui quid ille prormsisset. Some eon 
siderthe combination of this indefinite quis, or qui, with 

"the conjunctions si, ne, num, and with the interrogative 
syllable en (€c),^b& peculiar and distinct words; as, siquis 
or siqm, numquis or numqui, although, properly speaking, 

^ecquis or ecqui alone can be regarded as one word, for en 
by itself has no meaning. (See § 351.) For the partic- 
ulars respecting the use of this abridged form, see Chap. 
LXXXI V ., C. With regard to the declension of these com- 
pounds, it must be observed, 1, that in the nominatiye the 
foniis quts and qui are perfectly equivalent, which is ac- 
counted for by what has been said about aliquis ; hence 
we may say both si qui, ecqui, and si quis, ecquis ; ^, that 
in the femin. singular and the neut. plural die form qua 
m used along with quae, likewise according to the analo- 
gy of aliquis. We may, therefore, say, siqua, nequa, num^ 
qua, ee^ua, but also si quae,ne quae, num quae, ecquae. 

Nou. — ^Which of the two is preferable is ^ disputed point. Priscian 
(v^ p. 565 and 568) mentioos only mquoy ntqva, mmqum, as compoonds of 
mUqua, As the MSS. of prose writers varjr, we must rely on the authority 
of the poets, who are decidedly in favour of the forms in a, with a few 
exceptions ; such-as m oinm, the neut plur. in Propert.^ L, 16, 45, and the 
femin. sing., according to Bentley's just emendation, in Terent, Heaut.^ 
ProL, 44, and Horat., Serm.t ii., 6, 10. {Si quae tibi eura, in Grid, Trist^ 
i., 1, 115, must be changed into siqua est.)- Respecting ecqua and ecqua§, 
— my note on Cic, inVerr., iv., 11. 

J§ 137.] The compounds of qui and quis, viz., quidam, 
qutspiam, quilihet, quivis, quisque, and unusquisquc, are 
declined like th6 relative, but have a double foiin in the 
neuter singular, quiddam and quoddam, unumquidque 
and unumquodqtie, according as they aie used as substan 
rives or as adjectives. (See above, § 129.) Quisquam 
(with a few exceptions h Plautus) is used only as a sub- 
* K2 


Btaiitive, for uUus supplies its place as an adjective, anU 
the regular forai of the neuter, therefore, is quidquam 
(also written quicquamj. It has neither feminine nor plu- 
ral. Quicunqtte is declined like quif quaCy quod, and has 
only the form qtiodcunque for the neuter ; quisquis, on the 
other hand, has only quidquid (also written quicquidj, be- 
ing generally used in these two forms only as a substan- 
tive. The other forms of this double relative are not so 
frequent as those formed by the suffix cunque. 

Note. — In Cicero, Pro Rose. -Am., 34, and in Verr.^ v., 41, we find cta- 
tuimodi instead of eujuscujusmodt^ of what kind soever. See my note on 
the latter passage. 

[§ 138.] Each of the two words of which unuaquisque 
is composed is declined separately; as, gemfmiusct^usque^ 
dat. unicuiqtte, ace. unumqueTnque^ &c. 




[§ 139.] 1. The possessive pronouns meaSfmeaimesum^ 

uus, ttia, tuum; suus, sua^ suum; noster, nostra^ nostrum; 

tester f^estra^vestrum, are declined entirely like adjectives 

of three terminations. Metu makes thcf vocative of the 

masculine gender mi; as, O mi pater! It is only in late 

writers that mi is used also for the femiiune and neuter. 

Note. — The ablative singular of these pronouns, especially the forms 
<uo, suttf frequentW takes the suffix j9/«, which answers to our word 
" own ;*' e. g., in Cicero, staple numu, 9wmte jxmdere ; in Plautus, meopte 
and tuopte ingenio ; in Thence, nottrapu cuijmi, &c. All the cases of tuiu 
may, with the same sense, take the suffix metf which is usually followed 
by ipse ; e. g., Liv^ vi., 36, intra suamet ipston moenia compulere : v., 38, 
terga caesa wpmet ipsarum certaming impedientium/ufain : xxvii., 28, Hamni- 
bal suamet ipse frauds capttu abiit» The expressicm of Sallust, Jug., 85. 
wmanet facta diure^ stands alone. 

2. The possessive pronoun cujus, a, um, has, besides 
the nominative, only the accusative singular, C9^um^ cujam^ 
cujum; cuja, the ablative singular feminine, and cujae^ 
cujds, the nominative and accusative plucal feminine ; but 
all. these fonns occur only in early Latin and legal phra* 

3. Nostras, vestras, and cuja>s (i. e., belonging to our, 
your nation, family, or party), are regularly declined af* 
ter tlie tlird declension as adjectives of one termination? 


genitive nostratis^ dative nostrdti^ &c., plural nostrates, aiid 
neuter nostratia; e. g., verba nostratia^ in Cic, Ad Fam„ 
ii., 11. 

[§ 140.] 4. The peculiar declension of the pronominal 
adjectives titer ^ utra^ utmm; alter j'aUera, alterum; alius 
(neut. aliudjf ulluSf and nuUus^ has already been explain- 
ed in § 49. 

Nom. uter^ Gen. utrius, Dat. utri. 

neuter^ neutrius^ netUri. 

alter, alteritcs, aJteri. 

aln(8 (neut. aliud)^ aUus^ ' aRu 

ullue^ ulUus^ uHu 

nullus, nulttuSf nulli. 

Note. — In early Latin there occur several instances of the regular 
formation of the genit t, oe^'andof the dative o, at, and some are met with 
even in the brat writers. Cic., De Dm., ii, 13, aliag pecudis ; De Nat. 
Dear., ii, 26, aUerojfratri: Nepoe. £um., 1, alterae alae: Caea.^BeU. OaU., 
v., 27, aUeraa Ugwni: Cic, Pro Ko9e. Com.t 16, muUi eonnlu: Caes., Bell. 
Oall., vi, 13, nuUo ooneUio: Propert., i., 20, 25, muUaeairae: ibid, ill, 0, 
S7, toto orbi. According to Priscian, the regular form of tuuter was even 
more conmion than the other, and in a grammatical sense we find, for in- 
stance, generis neutri; but neutrms is nevertheless preierable. 

The compound alteruter is either declined in both 

words, genitive aUeriusutritu^ accusative alterumutrum^ or 
only in the latter ; as; altertetrij alterutrum. The former 
method seems to have been customary chiefly in the gen- 
itive, as we now generally read in Cicero, for the other 
cases easily admitted of an elision. The other compounds 
with uter^ viz., uterque, uterlibet, utervis^ and utercunque, 
are declined entirely like ^uteTf the suffixes being added 
to the cases without any cha^nge. The words unus, sdlus 
and totus are declined like ullus. 

[^ 141.] NoU 1. — Alter signifies the othert that is, one of two; alms, 
another, that is, one of many. But it must be observed that where we 
use mrkiftfter to escpress geneml relations, the Latins use alter; e. g., detro' 
here aUeri sui conurtodi couta contra naturam estf because, in reality, only two 
persons are here considered as in relation to each other. 

NoU 2. — Uterfpis signifies both, that is, each of two, or one as well at 
the i4her, and is therefore plural in its meaning. The real plural utriaue 
is used only when each of two parties consists of several individuals ; 
e. g., Maeedines — Tjfrn, uni-'-aUart, and both t^^ther, tttrique^ But even, 
good prose writers now and then use the plural ii(r»pM in speaking of only 
two persons or things: as, Nepos, TimoL, 2, utrique DUmysii: Curtius, 
viL, 19 utraeque odes: Liv.,xlii., 54, utraaue oppida: sndxxx., 8, utraqvt 
tomua : bat this is altogether opposed to the practice c f Cicero. (See mt 
AoCe on Cic., m Verr., iii., 60). 



. ' THE VERB. 

I§ 142.] 1. The verb is that part of speech by whic^b 
It IS declared that the subject of a sentence does or suffers 
something. This most general difference between doings 
which originates in the subject, and sufferings which pre- 
supposes the doing or acting of another person or thing, 
is the origin of the two main forms of verbs, viz., the ac- 
tive and passive factivum et passivumj, 

2, The active form comprises two kinds of verbs: trans- 
itive or active, properly, so called, and intransitive or neu- 
ter verbs. The difference between them is this : an in- 
transitive verb expresses a condition or action which is 
not communicated &om the agent to any other object ; 
o. g., I walk, I stand, I sleep ; whereas the transitive 
verb expresses an action which affects another person oi 
thing (which in grammar is called the object, and is com- 
monly expressed by the accusative) ; e. g., I love thee, 1 
read the letter. As far as form is concerned this differ- 
ence is important, for neuter verbs cannot have a passive 
voice; whereas every transitive or active verb (in il8 
proper sense) must have a passive voice, since the object 
of the action is the subject of the suffering ; e. g., I love 
thpe — ^thou art loved; I read the letter — ^the letter is read. 

[^ 143.] Note 1. — It is not meant that every transitive verb must have 
an object or accusative^ but only that an object may be joined with it. It 
is obvious that in certain cases, when no object is added, transitive verba 
take the sense of intransitive ones. Thus editf amat, when without an ac- 
cusative, may be considered to be used for coenat and e»t in anwref and 
with regard to their meaning they are intransitiie, tboogh in grammai 
they remain transitive, since aliqmd may be understood. In some casei 
the difference between the transitive and intransitive meanmg is ez 
pressed, even in the formation of the verbs themselves, as rnjaahrefiacere, 
penderet pendert ; aJbare^ albert ; fiigare, fugere ; placare. plaeere ; seaare^ m 
derej and some others of the same kind. Assxusco and amtuesco (I accus 
torn mvsein have assumed an intransitive meaning, the pronoun being 
omitted, and the new forms assuefado and contueftiao were aevised for the 
transitive sense. In the same manner, we have the intransitive caUre^ pa- 
ter«, stupere, and the transitive calefacere^ pcAefncere^ and ttupefaeere. 

[% 144.] Note 2. — ^When an accusative is fouiid with a neuter verb, the 
tieuter verb has either assumed a transitive meaning, and then has also a 
passive voice, or the accusative is used in the sense of an adverb, and it 
to be accounted for by some ellipsis, or by a license .of speech (Concern* 
Ing both, see ^ 383.) 

Sometimes, however, a passive voice is formed fiom roM neuter verbn 

THE VB&B. . 117 

tot on.y in the infinitive and in the third person sinffular, and the verb 
oecomes impersonal, L e., it is without any distinct subject : for instance, 
Btarijtd>et, he orders (one) to stand ; /ooe/ur iibif favour is shown to thee; 
via atcessum est, (people) went opt of the way ; verUum est, itum est, itta 
9atwr, ibitttr. Thus, when in comedy the question is asked, quid agitwr ' 
the humorous answer is statur, or inin/ur. When the subject is to be added 
it is dme by means of a6, as in Livy, Romam frequenter migratum est aparen 
libus raptarvm, which is equivalent to parentes migraverunt; and in Cicero, 
tjuM orationi vehementer ab omnibus reclamatum est, and occurritur autem nobis et 
ymdem a doctis et erudifis, equivalent to omnes reclamarunt and docti occummt 
[^ 145.] Note 3. — With transitive verbs the subject itself may become the 
object, e. g., moveo, I move, and moveo^me, I move myself. It often occurs 
m Latin that the pronoun is omitted,* and the transitive is thus changed 
into an intransitive. The verb absHneo admits of all three constructions ; 
transitive, as in manus a^aliqua re abstineo, 1 keep my hands from a thing; 
with the pronoun of the same person, abstineo me, and intransitive, abstineo 
aUqua re, 1 abstain from a thing, there are some other verbs of this class, 
consisting chiefly of such as demote change; e. g., vertere and converters, 
mutare, flectere and dejlectere, inclinare; hence we may say, for instance, 
inclino rem, sal se dedtnat; and in an intransitive sense, ^s, acies, inclinat ; 
muwtus tndmot ad pacemfadendam ; verto rem, verto m< ; dttrimentum in bo- 
<tttm vertit, ira in rabiem vertU ; forfuna rei pubUcae mutavit ; mores populi Ro- 
mani magnopere mutaverunt. In like manner the following verbs are used 
both as transitive and intransitive, though with greatei restrictions : augere, 
abolers, decoquere, durare, incipers, continuare, insinuare, loxare, remittere, lavmne, 
movers (chiefly with terra, to quake, in an intransitive sense, though now 
ind then in other connexions also), praecipitare, ruere, suppeditare, turbare, 
jihrare. The compounds of vertere — devertere, divsrtere and reverters- are 
jsed only in this reflective sense, but occur also in the passive with the 
«ame meaning. 

J^ 146.] We must here observe that the passive of many words has not 
y a properly passive meaning, but also a reflective one, as in crudor, 
I torment myself; delector, I delight xnyBeU ; fallor, I deceive myself ;/eror, 
t throw myself (upon something) ; moveor and commoveor, I move or excite 
myself; homines effimduntur, men rush f towards a place); vehicula fran- 
guntur, the vehicles break; lavor, I bathe (myself); incUnor, I incline: 
mutor, I alter (myself) ; vertor, but especially de- di- and re-vertor. Many 
of these passive verbs are classed among the deponents, the active from 
which they arei formed being obsolete, or because the intransitive meaning 
greatly diners. 

[§ 147.] 3. It is a peculiarity of the Latin language, 
that it has a class of verbs of a passive form, but of an ac- 
tive (either transitive or inti*ansitive) signification. They 
are called deponents flaying aside, as it were, their pass- 
ive signification), e. g., consoler^ I console ; imitor, I imi- 
tate ; fateor, I confess ; sequor, I follow ; mentior, I lie ; 
morior, I die. These verbs, even when they have a trans- 
itive significationf cannot have a passive voice, because 
there would be no distinct form for it. 

Nou. — Many deponents are, m fact, only passives, either of obsolete 
actives, or of such as are still in use. The latter can be regarded as de- 
ponents only in so far as they have acquired a* peculiar fdgnification : 
e. g., gravor signifies, originally, " I am burdened ;" \ence, "I do a thing 
mwiflingly," "I dislike," "I hesitate;" vehor, I am carried, or I ride, 
•quo, on horseback, 'curru, in a carriage. Several passives, as was re- 
marked abov<>. have a^uired the power of deponents frcm their re^ectirs 


pignification ; e. g., paacor^ I feed myself; aersof^ 1 turn myse/f, ai i tUenoe 
1 hnd myself, or 1 am. The followmg deponents are in this manner de- 
rived from obsolete actives : laetor, I rejoice ; proficiscorf I get myself for- 
ivard, I travel ; vescar, I feed myself I ^eat With regard to the greater 
number of deponents, however, we are obliged to believe that the Latin 
language, like the Greek, with its verba medtOf in forming these middle 
verbs, followed peculiar laws which are unknown to us. It roust be 
especially observed that many deponents of the first conjugation are de- 
rived from nouns, and that they express being that which the noun denotes ; 
e. g., unciUor, arehiteclor, argtUmr, aucvpoTy augwror, &c., as may be seen from 
he list in ^ 2U7. 

[§ 148.] 4. Before proceeding, we must notice the fol- 
lowing special irregularities. The three verbs j€o, I be- 
come, or am made, vajmloj I am beaten, and veneo, I am 
sold, or for sale, have a passive signification, and may be 
used as the passives of facto, verbero, and vcndo;- but, like 
all neuter verbs, they have the active form, except that^o 
makes the perfect ten&efa/^Ms swm, so that form and mean- 
ing agree. They are called neutralia passiva. The verba 
audeojjido^ gaudeo, and soleo hav& the passive form with 
an active signification in the participle of the preterite, 
and in the tenses formed from it; bs, atcstis^jfisils^ gavisus^ 
solitus sum, eram, &c. They may, therefore, be called 
semideponentia, which is a more appropriate name than 
neutrO'pas^iva, as they aie usually termed, since the fact 
of their being neuters cannot come here into considera- 
tion. To these we must add, but merely With reference 
to the participle of the preterite, the verbs ^wrare, coenare^ 
prandere, ond potarCj of which the partidlples^ra^zM, coe 
natus, pranstis, and pottis have, like those of deponents, 
the signification : one that has sworn, dined, breakfasted, 
and drunk. The same is the case with some other in- 
transitive verbs, which, as such, ought not to have a par- 
ticiple of the preterite at all ; but still we sometimes find 
consjnrattis and coalitus^ and firequently adultus and obso 
letus (grown up and obsolete), in an active, but inti*an^ 
tive sense, ana the poets use cretiis (fi-om cresco) like 

*- [** No allusion is made in this chapter to the more philosophical di 
vision of the conjugations adopted in all Greek grammal^s, the division, 
namely into contracted and uncontracted v&rbs. The more correct name foi 
the same division would be, verbs in which the crude form (that part in- 
dependent of inflection) terminates in a vowel, and those in which it ter 
minates in a consonant ; contraction is not the eriterion, as we see in ths 
forms /«t, vkiU. We believe snch a division. is preferable even for a be- 
ffinner. One great advantage of a natural division over that which is arti* 
ncial consists in the facility the former affords of explaining, on solid 
piinciDles. those numerous irregularities which appear m every language. 

MOODQ. —-TENSES. 1 1 9 



[§ 149.] There are four general modes (moooB, modi J 
in which an action or condition expressed by a verb mzj 

We would even cany the division first alluded to somewhat fieirther. Sup 
pose, then, in Latin we were to assign one conjugation to those verbs in 
which a consonant is the characteristic, viz., the conjugation usually placed 
third in order, and five others to the resjiective vowels : 1st, a, {amao) umo ,- 
2dl7, «, neo ; 3d]y, i, audio ; 4thly. o, as in the stem no or gno^ whence the 
peifects fuMn, and eo-gruhvi; and, 5thly, v, (stem argu)^ as in arguo. Le* 
us press this system a little fiirther anid judge of it by its results. If th« 
perfe<^ of these verbs are uniform, they will be amavit netrit audtvi, novt, 
arguvi. The first four are the common forms ; in the last, as the repeti 
tion of the same vowel was unnecessary, argui became the form in com 
mon use ; but the perfect was still distinguiuied by the older writers from 
the present Thus, we have a line of £nnius {Priscianj z., 2, Krehtf p. 
480), as follows : * AnnUit sete mecum decemere ferro.* It may well be 
doubted whether, even in the age of Cicero, the present arguit was 
altogether confounded in pronunciation with the perfect of the same writ- 
ten form. An these perfects, too, were susceotible of contraction in some 
of the persons, so that we.have no reason to be surprised at monui, habm. 
That habevi must once have existed is sufficiently proved by the form of 
habestU^ which is contracted from habtverit, exactly as eantassit from canta- 
veriL Contractions are always more likely to occur in long than short 
words. Hence neOffleo, with a few others, retained the original form, 
<vhile the longer words could aflford to spare one of theit letters. The 
examination of the so-called supines would again confirm the simplicity 
of the system. To this mode of viewing the verbs it has been objected 
that if amai be really formed from omotf, the last syllable should be long. 
The inference is legitimate, and, accordingly, we find in the earliei 
writers that such is the case. At the beginning of the De Senectute there 
occurs the line, ' Qwb nunc te coqtUt, tt versat m pectare fiaea* where, in 
the old editions, as Graviu* observes, some critic, alarmed for the metre, 
had substituted subpectore. The same editor gives another line, quoted bjp 
Priscian from Livius Andronicus : ' Cum sodos nostras mandissit impnu 
Cyclops,* where the long e in mandisset corresponds with the long vowel 
in -the other persons of the same tense. 4- second objection to the pit>- 
poscd division may be founded on the class of verbs fugiOf cupto, fodio, 
&c. This dbjection, it might be replied, is equally app&able to everj^ 
division. The true explanation is to be found in the fact that many of 
the Latin verbs had different forms at different periods of the language, or 
even at the same period in different places. Tnat cupio was looked upon 
by many as of the fourth conjugation, we have the express authority of 
Priscian ; ciiptot and cupUum are formed according to tne analogy of that 
conjugation, and in Plautus and Lucretius we find cupis and cupiri. St. 
Augustin was in doubt whether to write yi^gtr*. This is £eir below the age 
?f pure Latinity. On the other hand, in ms Marcian prophecv, given by 
Livy, it has been long perceived that the verses were oiiginally hexame 
tors. The word.^< at the end of the first line has been altered by some 
to feuge, to complete the metre. Perhaps it would be more correct to 
read,^^tio, the more so as. the imperative in -to, from its more solemn 
DOwer (arising, probably, from its greater fflitiquity), is better suited to the 
aignified language of prophecy. Lastly, many of the verbs of this term^ 


be represented : 1. Simply as a fact, though fhe action oj 
condition may differ in regard to its relation and to time : 
this is the Indicative; 2. As an action or condition which 
is merely conceived by the mind, though with the same 
differences as the indicative, Conjunctive j or Suljunctive ; 
3. As a command, Imperdtiie ; 4. Indefinitely, without 
defining any person by whom, or the time at which, the 
action is performed, although the relation of the action is 
defined, InJinitiveJ^ 

[§ 150.] To these moods we may add the Participle^ 
which is, in form, an adjective, but is more than an ad- 
jective by expressing, at the same time, the different rela- 
tions of ihe action or suffering, that is, whether it is still 
lasting or terminated. A third participle, that of the fix- 
ture, expresses an action which is going to be performeil, 
or a condition which is yet to come. The Gerund, which 
is in form like the neuter of the participle passive in dus, 
supplies by its cases the place of the infinitive present ac- 
jtive. . The two Supines are cases of verbal. substantives, 
and likewise serve in certain connexions (which are ex- 
plained in the syntax) to supply the cases for the infini- 

When an action or condition is to be expressed as a 
definite and individual fact, either in the indicative or sub' 
junctive, we must know whether it belongs to the past, 
the present, or the future, or, in one word, its time, and 
time is expressed in a verb by its Tenses. We must far- 
ther know its position in the series of actions with which 
it is connected, that is, tlie relation of the action, viz., 
whether it took place while another was going on, or 
whether it was terminated before another began. If we 

nation ; as, morior, oriorj/odioy &c., are generally allowed to partake of botli 
conjugations." {Journal of Education, vol. i., p. 99,' tea. Consult, also, 
Allen*9 Analysis of Latin Vsrbs, London, 1836.)1— ilwi. Ed, 

* I** The Latin language has tioo active innnitives : the one termina- 
ting in -re or -se (dic-e-re, dic-si'S'-se, esse) ; the other in -twn {iic'tum), 
which in the modem grammars is absurdly enough call^ the supine in 
um. In the passive voice -cr is subjoined to the former infinitive ; thus, 
from videre we have videri-er ; this full form, however, is generally con- 
tracted by the omission either of the active termination -re, as in dici-er, 
or of the last syllable -er, as in videri ; or of both at once, as in diet. The 
latter infinitive iswritten -tu {dic-tu). Modem grammars call it the su- 
()iiie in -u. The Sanscrit infinitive is perfectly analogous to the Latin in- 
finitive in -turn. Thus, the root pn< (Greek ic^v-), * to hear,' makes ^rd-tum, 
* to hear,* " &c. {Donaldson, New Cratyhis, J3..492.)] — Am. Ed. 

t [Consult previous note, as regards the true character if fhe Latin 
fo-ralled Supine.^ — Am. Ed. 


^connect these considerations, we shall obtain the fbllow' 
ing flix tenses of the verb : 

An action not terminated in the present time ; I write, icribo: P-esent 

An action not terminated in the past ume; I wrote, scribebam: Imperfect 
tense. ^ 

) An action not terminated in the future ; I shall write, tcribam : Future 
V tense. 

An action terminated in the present time ; I have written, acnpsi: Per* 

feet tense. ^ 

An action terminated in the past time ; I h&d written, scripseram: Plu 

perfect tense. 
An action terminated in the future ; I shall have written, teripuro : Fu> 

tore perfect tense. 

The same number of* tenses occurs in the passive voice, 
but those which express the terminated state of an action, 
can be formed only by circumlocution, with the partici- 
ple and the auxiliary verb esse: scribor, scribebar, scribar, 
acriptus 8um^ scriptus eram, scriptm ero. The subjunctive 
has no futm-e tenses: respecting the manner in which 
their place is supplied, see § 496. The infinitive by it- 
self d!oes not express time, but only the relation of an 
action, that is, whether it is completed or not completed. 
By circumlocution we obtain, also, an infinitive for an action, 
or a suffering which is yet to come. 





[^ 151.] The Latin verb has two numbers, singular and 
plural, and in each number three persons. These three 
persons, /, the one speakuig, thoUf the one spoken to, and 
he or she, the one spoken of, are not expressed in Latin 
by special words, but are implied in the forms of the verb 
itself. The same is the case in the plural with we, you, 
they, and these perscmal pronouns are added to the verb 
only when the person is to be indicated in an emphatic 

The following is^ a genei'al scheme of the changes iu 
termination, according to the persons, both in the mdica* 
Vive and subjunctive": 

In the Active, 
Person: 1. 2. 3. 

Sing. — 8, i. 

Plur. muSf tis, n$, 



Tho termination of the first person singular canaot be 
stated in a simple or general way, since it sometimes ends 
in o, sometimes in m, and sometimes in i (see the follow 
inff chapter). In the seconi person singular the perfect 
indicative forms an exception, for it ends in ti, Respect- 
ing the vowel whtch precedes these terminations, nothing 
general can be said, except that it is a in the imperfect 
and pluperfect indicative. 

In the Paanve. 

Perscwi: L 2. 3. 

Sing. r. m, tur. 

Plur. mur, mmi^ ntur. 

This, however, does not apply to those tenses of the 
passive which are formed by a combination of the parti- 
ciple with a tense of the verb esse. 

The imperative in the active and passive has two forms, 
viz., for that which is to be done at once, and for that 
which is to be done in future, or an imperative present 
and an imperative future. Neither of them has a first 
person, owing to the nature of the imperative. The im- 
perative present has only a second person, both in the 
singular and plural ; the maperative ftiture has the second 
and the third persons, but in the singular they have both the 
same form, to in the active, and tor in the passive voice. 
The imperative future passive, on the other hand, has no 
second person plural, which is supplied by the future ot 
the indicative, e. g., laudahimini. 



[§ 152.] 1. There are in Latin ioixx eonjugntionsy dis* 
linguished by the infinitive mood, which ends thus : 

1. are, 2. ere» 3. ere. 4. tr(.» 

The presents indicative of these conjugations end in, 

1. 0, as. 2. eo, es, 3. o, 1^. 4. lOj is. 

Note. — Attention must be pidSto the difference of quantity in the termi 
nation of the second person in the third and fourth conjugations, in order 
to distinguish the presents of the verbs in lo, which follow the third con 
jugation, e. g., fodio^ fugiOf capio (see Chap. XLYI.)i from those verbs' 
which follow the fourth, such as audioy erudio. This difference between 
the long nd short t remains also in the other persons with the exceptior 


ci the ifiird singular, which is short in all the four conjugations ; e. g., 
legimus, legitis ; avMmusy atuRtis ; for when i is followed by another vowel, 
it is short according to the general rule that one vowel liefore another i* 
short. The long a was mentioned above as the characteristic of the first 
conjugation, but the verb dare is an exception, for the a here is not a mer« 
part <ff the termination, as in laudire, but belongs to the stem of the wor^. 
The syllable da in this verb is short throughout, damus, ditis, dibam, &r.. 
with uie only exception of the monosyHabic forms das and da. 

[§ 153.] 2. In order tj obtain the forms of the othei 
reuses, we must farther know the perfect and the supine * 
for the three tenses of the completed action in the active 
are derived from the perfect ; and the participle perfect 
passive, which is necessaty for the formation of the same 
tenses in the passive, is derived from the supine. These 
four principal forms, viz., Present, Perfect, Supine, an^ 
Infinitive, end thus : 





1. 0, 




2. eo. 



3. 0, 




4. M7, 




NMe. — We have here followed the example of all Latin grammars and 
of the Roman grammarians themselves, in regarding the supine as one ol 
ti^ main forms, that must be known in order to derive others from 
it: But the beginner must beware of supposing that the two participles 
of the perfect passive and the future active are derived in the same man 
ner from the supine as, for example, the pluperfect is from the perfect 
and that the supme exists in all the verbs to which one is attributed in th€ 
dictionary or grammar. The whole derivation is merely formal ; and the 
supine, in fact, occurs very rarely. But its existence is presupoosed on 
account of the two participles which do occur, in order to rfiow the 
changes which the stem of the verb undergoes. If we were to^nention 
the participle of the perfect pasuve instead of the supine, we should d<i 
little better, since it is wanting in all intransitive verbs, though they may 
have the participle future actWe ; and again, if we were to mention ths 
fotare pio-ticiple, we should find the same difficulty, for it cannot be 
proved to exist in all verbs, and, in addition to this, we ought not to men 
tion among the main forms of the verb one which is obviously a derivative 
form. In dictionaries it would be necessary to mention, first, the partici 
pie perfect, or, where it does not occur, the participle future active ;'bui 
if, as is the case in a grammar, we have to show in one form that which 
is the basis of several changes, a thhrd form is necessary, and it is best t^ 
acquiesce in the supine. In making use of the list which will be givev 
hereafter, the beginner must always bear in mind that the supine if 
scarcely ever mentioned for its own sake, but merely to enable him t< 
form those two participles correctly. 

3. With regard to the^rst, second, and fouKh conjuga- 
tions, no particular ml As needed as to how the perfeci 
and supine are formed. According to the above schemt 
they are : 

1. laud-o^ * laud-avif lavd'Utum^ laud-are^ 

2. mon-eOf mon-ui, mon-ttuvij mon-ere. 
4. aud-is, aud-iviy aud-ttum, aud-tvp. 


[§ 154.] 4. But in the third conjugation the formation 
of the perfect and supine presents some difficulty. The 
following general rules, therefore, must be observed (fox 
the details, see the list of verbs of the third conjugation). 
When the termination of the infinitive ere, or the o of the 
present tense, is preceded "by a vov7el, the forms of the 
perfect and supine are simply thgse mentioned above, that 
18, i and tiim are added to the stem of the verb, or to that 
portion of the verb which remains after the removal of 
the termination, e, g., dcu-ere^ acu-o, acu-i, acu-tum. The 
vowel becomes long in the supine, even when it is other- 
wise short. So, also, in mintio, statuoj tribtw, and solvo^ 
solutum, for v before a consonant is a vowel. 

But when the o of the present is preceded by a conso- 
n'ant, the perfect ends in si. The s in this termination is 
changed mto x when it is preceded by c, g, A, or qu 
(which is equal to cj ; when it is preceded by b, this let- 
ter is changed into p; i£ d precedes, one of the two con- 
sonants must give way, and either the d is dropped, which 
is the ordinary practice, or the s; e. g., duco, duxi; rego^ 
read; tralio, traxi; coquo, coxi ; scribo, scrijm; claudo^ 
clausiy but defendo^ defendu Verbs in po present no difff- 
culty: carpOy carpd; sctdpOj sculpn. That lego makes 
legi^ bibo^ bibi, and emo^ emi, is irregular according to 
what was remarked above ; but ^go, fiod ; nubOf nupsi ; 
demo, demsi (or, according to § 12, dempsij, are perfectly 
in accordance with the rule. 

5. The supine adds turn to the stem of the verb, vdth 
some change of the preceding consonants : b is changed 
into^/ g, A, and qu into c; instead of dtum in the verbs 
in do J we find sum^ e, g., scribo^ scriptum ; rego, rectum ; 
traho, tractum ; coqico, coctum (verbs in co remain un- 
changed; as, dictum, ductumj; defendo, defensum; claudo^ 
alausum. The supine in xum is a deviation from the rule, 
as mfigo,fixum, and so, also, the throwing out of the n of 
the stem, as in pingo, pictum ; stringo, strictum ; although 
this is not done without reason ; for in several verbs of 
the third conjugation the n is only an increase to strength- 
en the form of the present, and ches not originally belong 
to the root ; it is, therefore, thrown out, both in the perfect 
and in the supine, as in vinco, fundo, relinqtu) — vici, vie- 
tu?n ; fudi, Jusum ; rcliqui, relictum ; • or in tho supine 
alone, as in the two verbs mentioned before, and in finf^^ 


u^.Jictum, Of the words in which o is preceded Vy l^ m^ 
A, r, or «, only a few in mo follow the ordinary rule ; e. g^ 
comoy demo ; per£ compsi^ dempsi; sup. comptum, demj» 
turn : all the others have mixed forms. 

6. Twt) irregularities are especially common in the for- 
mation of the perfect of the third conjugation. The first 
is the addition of a syllable at the beginning of thp verb^ 
called reduplication^ in which the first consonant of the 
verb is repeated either with the vowel which follows it, 
or with an e, e. g., tundo^ tutudi; tendo, tetendi ; cano^ ce- 
cini; curro, cucurri; JaUoyfefeUi ; parco, peperci. In the 
compounds of such words the reduplication is not used, 
except in those of do^ sto^ disco^ posco, and in some of 
curro. The second irregularity is that many verbs of the 
third conjugation form their perfect like those of the sec- 
ond, just as many verbs of the second make that tense 
like those of the third. This is the case especially with 
many verbs in lo and mo; os^-alo^ alui, aUtum faltumj; 
molo, m^luif moUtum ; gemo^ gemui, gemxtum. Concern- 
ing this and other special irregularities, see the list of 
verbs in Chap. L.* ' 

[§ 155.] 7. The derivation of the other tenses and form-a 
of a verb from these four (present, perfect, supine, and in- 
finitive), which are supposed to be known, is easy an^ 
without irregularity in the detail. 

From the infinitive active are formed : 

(a) The imperative passive, which has in all conjuga 
lions the same foi-m as the infinitive active. 

(hj The imperative active, by dropping the terminal 
thm re. It thus ends in conjugation»l,in a; 2, ey 3, e; 4, 
t ; as, ama^ mone^ lege, audi. 

(c) The imperfect subjunctive active, by the addition 
of m, so that it ends in the four conjugations in arem^ 
erem^ erem, irem, e. g., amarem, monerem^legerem^ audirem 

(d) The imperfect subjunctive passive, by the addition 
of r / as in amardt, monerer^ legerer, avMrer. 

(e) The infinitive present passive, by changing e into ?, 
e. g., amari, moneri, audiri ; but in the third conjugation 
the whole termination ere is changed into i, as in legere^ 

From the present indicative active are derived : 
(a J The present indicative passive, by the addition ol 
r ; as, amor, mcneor^ l^gor^ audior. 

L2 . 

i*.j6 LATIN GRAMWAld. 

(b) The present subjunctive active, by cLangiiig tlie ^ 
into cm in flie first conjugation, and in the three others 
into am ; as, ametn^ moneam^ legam^ emdiam, 

(c) The present subjunctive passive, by changing the 
ta of the present subjunctive active into r ; as, inner ^ mo- 
near, legar, audtar. 

(d) The imperfect indicative active, by changing o into 
dbam in the first conjugation, in the second into ham^ and 
in the third and fourth into ebam. A change of the m into 
r makes the imperfect indicative passive, e. g., amaham, 
amahar ; monebam^ monchar ; 'legeham^ legebar ; audie- 
dam, audiehar. 

(e) The first future active, by changing o into abo in 
the first conjugation, in.the second into bo, and in the third 
and fourth into am. From this is formed the first future 
passive by adding r in the first and second conjugations, 
and by changing m into r in the third and fourth ; e. g., 
laudabo^ laudator / monebd^ monebor ; legam, legar ; au* 
diam, audiar. 

(f) The partiqjple present active, by changing d in the 
first conjugations into ans, in the second into hb^ and in the 
third and fourth into ens ; e. g., laudo, laudans ; moneo, 
monens ; lego, legais; audio, audtem. From this partici- 
ple is derived the participle future passive, by changing 
ns into fidus ; e. g., amandus^ monendus^ legendtes^ audien," 
dtis ; and the gerund : amandum, rrwnendumy legendum, 

From the perfect indicative active are derived : 
(a J The pluperfect indicative, by changing* into eram : 
laudaveram^ montieram, legeram, audiveram, 

(b) The future perfect, by changing t into ero: laudo' 
vero, monuero, legero, audivcro, 

(c) The perfect subjunctive,* by changing t into ertm^ 
laudavcrim, momcerim, legerim, audiveriiti, 

(d) The pluperfect subjunctive, by changing t into m- 
$cm (originally esscmj : laudavissem^ rt&nuissem^ legissem, 

(e) The perfect infinitive active, by chan^ng i into 
isse (originally esse) : laudavisse, monuisse^ legisse, audi' 

* We use this i\^me because the tense is most commonly used m the 
tftftnse of a perfect subjunctive, aMiough its form sh^ws that it is in realitv 
the subjunclivu 3f the future perfect, the termination ero being change) 

THE VfiftB tdSB. 


From tbe fiuplne are derived : 

(a) The participle perfect passive, by changing um 
Mito uii a, um : laudatus, a, um ; monitui^ a, um ; lectus, 
a, um; auditus, a^ um. 

(h) The participle futui-e active, by changing um into 
urus^ a, um: laudaturtis, a, um; tnaniturus^ a, um ; Ice 
turns, Uy um ; auditurus, a, um. 

By means of the former participle, we form the tenses 
of the passive, which express a completed action ; and by 
means of the participle future we may form a n^w conju- 
gation expressing actions which are to come. See Chap. 


THE VERB "esse." 

[§ 156.] The verb esse (to be) is called an auxiliary 
verb, because .it is necessary for the formation of some 
tenses of the passive voice. It is also called a verb sub- 
stantive, because it is tbe most general expression of ex- 
istence. Its conjugation is very irregular, being made up 
of parts of two different verbs, the Greek eliit^ iaH, eaofiai 
[fyom which sim and sum^ est, ^o or ero, were easily form- 
ed), and the obsolete Juo, the Greek (fovii. The supine 
Mid gerund are wanting? but the inflection in the persons 
is regular. 



Sing. Sum, I am. 

U, thou art. 

estf he is. 
Pint, tumus, we are. 

estiSf ye are. 

suntf they are. 

Sing. Eram, I was. 

em, thou watt 

€rai, he was. 
Plor. eramug, we were. 

erStia, ye were. 

erant, they were. 

Bing. En, I shall be. 

erh, thou wilt be. 

trit, he will be. 
I^»r. aimu, we shall be 

mtU, ye will be. 

^hmt. they will be. 



Sing. Sim, I may be. 

ns, thou mayest be. 

»it,'he may be. 
Plur. nmus, we may be. 

ntis, ye may be. 

tint, they may be. 


Sing. Eeeem, t might be. 

esses, thoQL imghtst be. 

esset, he might be. 
Plur. essemut, we might be. 

esseth, ye might be. 

essent, they might be. 


I: «tead of a subjunctive, the particl< 
plefuturtis is used^Rrith sim. 

Futums Sim, sis, &c., I may bt 
about to be. 


Indicativb. SuBJUhcny^ 


Sing. Fuiy I have been. Sing. Ftiirim, I may have been. 

fuistit thou hast been. fueri*, thou mayest have been 

fuitf he has been. /um/, he may have been. 

Plur. /uimuSf we have been. Plur. fueihius, we may have beisn. 
fuistis, ye have been. fuaftis, ye may have been. 

/m^^' I ^^y ***^® *'®®'** fuermtf they may have been 


Sing. Ftteram, I had been. Sing. Fuissem, I should, or would 

have been. 

fuerae, thou hadst been. /vieseSf thou shouldst, &c. • 

ytt«ra/, he had been. fuissetf he should, &c. 

P.ur. fiterarmut we liad been. Plur. fuieeimuSf we should, &e. 

fueratiSf ye had been. fuusetisf ye should, &c. 

fuerant, they had been. fuiesent, they should, &c. 

JTti/ure Perfect. 
Sing. FuerOf I shall have been. No Subjunctive. 

fueris, thou wilt have been. * 

fueritf he will have been. 
Plur. fueAmua, we shall have been. 

fueiitis, ye will have been. 

fuerinif they will have been. ^ 

Present, Sing. Esy be thou. fPlur. este^ be ye. 

Future, Sing. Esto, thou shalt be. Plur. eetote^ ye shall be. 
esto, he shall be. sunto, they shall be. 

Present, state not terminated, esse, to be. 
Perfect, terminated, yuist^, to have been. 
Futigre, /u<ttnim (am, urn) mm, or /ore, to be about to be. 


Present, not terminated («r»), being. 

Future, /ttftZrttf, a, ton, one who is about to be. 

Note. — ^The participle 011.9 is only used as a substantive mphilosophicau 
•acguage (see above, ^ 78, in fin.), and also in the two compounds, at>sefu 

The ' compounds a&^ufti, adsum, desum, insvm, mterswm, dbsumj praenan^ 
tttbsumf aupersvm, have the same conjugation as sum. Prosum inserts a d 
when pro is followed by e ; e. g., prodes, prodest, &c.t Possum, I can (from 
pot, foTpotis, and sum), has an irregular conjugation. (See the irregulai 
verbs, ^ 211.) 

The t in simus and sitis is lonp^, and the e in eram, ero, &c., is short, as K 
indicated above in the conjugation itself, and also in the compounds ; pro- 
shnus, prodSram, proderant, proderit, &c. 

Siem^ sies, siet, stent, VLndfuam, fads, f not, fuant {from the obsolete/iio),^ 

* [The Perfect has often the force of an aorist, and is to be translated • 
Accordingly. In some grammars the perfect and aorist are given separ. 
ately in inflection. Compare ^ 500.] — Am. Ed. 

t [For an explanation of this mode of translating the imperative, consult 
the author's remarks, ^ 583.]— Am. Ed. 

t [This " insertion of d," as it is commonly called, is nothing more than 
the brining oack of the full form oivro, which was anciently prod, and 
with which we may compare the Greek izpor-L for tcpo^, it being now ad- 
mitted that TTpo and Trpoc are, in fact, one and the same word.] — Am. Ed, ^ 

% [There is in Sanscnt the verb bhavami, from the root bhu^ allied to thf ^ 


are antiquated foims for the corresponding persons of sim, and occur in 
the comic writers and in Lucretius. Instead of essem we have another 
form for the imperfect subjunctivej/orem (likewise from/«o), in the sin- 
gular and the third person plural. The infinitive /ore belongs to the same 
root. Cicero rarely uses the form forenif but Livy frequently, especiaHy 
in the sense of* the conditional mood, "I should be.^' Other writers, 
especially the poets and Tacitus, use it in all respects like essem. The 
perfect /fivt, and the tenses derived from it, fiiwramyfQvisseTn,fiiverOf are 
other forms of /ui, 6cc., and occur in the earnest poets ; and in like man- 
Tier we find, in the ancient language, eseU, escunt, for erit and erunt. 



[§ 157.] In the followifig table the terminations are 
separated fix)m the root of ^e vfti*b, which renders it easy 
to conjugate any other verb according to these models. 
The verb lego (see Chap. XL.) is irregular in the forma- 
tion of ita perfect, but it has been retained as an example 
of verbs of the third conjugation, because the very ab- 
sence of any peculiar termination in the perfect is a safe- 
gtfard iigainst misunderstandings which might arise ; for 
example, -from dtico, dtixi ; scriho^ soripsi ; or claudo^ 


First Conjugation, ♦ 

Indicatitb. Subjunctitb. 


Sing. Am-o, I love. Sing. Am-em, I may love. 

am-d$f thou lovest. am-est thou mayest lot e. 

am-att he loves. am-etf he may love. 

Plur. am-amus, we love. Plur. am-emus^ we mav love. 

am-atiSf ye love. am-etis^ ye may love. 

ofit-ant, they love. am-ent, they may love. 

In perfect. 

Sing, am-abam, I loved. Sing, am-arem, I might love. 

am-abas. am-ares. 

am-abat. am-areL 

Plur. am-abdmus. PUir. am-aremus. -— — 

am-abatis. ^ am-aretis. 

am-abarU. am-arerU. 

old Latin verb /w>, and in the sense of orirt, nasd. With this may be 
compart the (^reek ^u, and the verb to be in English, together wilh the 
Celtic bydh, the Russian hiduj and the Persian budemi. The Sanscri; 
lias preserved the whole of bhavamif whereas the cognate verbs are d*' 
'ective in most other tongues.] — Am. Ed. 




Sing, am-abot I shall love 


Plur. am-abtmu*. 



Sing, am-dvi, I have loved. Sing, am-averim, 1 may have lored. 

am-avistL ^"^' ^^^ ' 

tuti'tivit, * <MW awertf. 

Pin • «m-awmus. Plan am-aveihius. 

am-avistis. am-aventts. 

am-averunt (e). tmrovenni. 


Sing. am-ai»«ram, 1 had loved. Sing. am-avUtemy I nrffeht have lovad. 

am-avera«. -^ am-amstes, 

am-averai. * am-avisset. 

Plur. am-moeramut, * Plur. am-aw»«emi«. 

am-averatis. can-avisketis. 

am-averant. am-avissenl. 
Second Futurty or Future Perfect. 

Sing, am-avero, I shall have lo\ 5d. 


Plur. am-at)tfr*mt«, % 

am-averitis. • 



Present, Sing, am-d, love thou. Plur. am-dte, love ye. 

Feature, Sing, am-dto, thou shall love. Plur. am-atote, ye shaU. lovo. 
am-dtOj he shall love. am-anto^ they shiU love. 

^ Infinitive. 

Pres. and Imperf. (or of au action still going on), am-drey to love. 
Perf. and Pluperf. (or of an action completed), am'ovissr, to have ..ored. 
Future, am-aturum ease, to be about to love. 

Qen am-andi ; Dat. am-ando ; Ace. arn-andum. ; AbL am-ando, 

ecm-eUwn; am-atu. 

Pres. and Imperf. (of an action still going on), am-ans, loving. 
Future, am-aturu$, about to love. 

Second Xhnjugatian. 

Indicative. Subjunctivi. 


BJLig Mon-eo, I advisp Sing. Moneam, I may advise. 

fnon-es. mon-eds. 

mon-et. mon-eat. 

* rVid. note on page 128.]— Am. EK. 

* [Vid. note on page 128.]— .Hw. Ed. 


Indicative. Sudjonctivb. 

PJar. monrhnus, Plur. nwH-edmus, * 

mon-etis. mon-eatis. 

tnon-etu. mon-tant, 


Sing, mon-eham, I Advised. Sing. t?ton-erem, I might advifd. 

nton-^oas, mon-eret. 

mon-ebat, mon-eret, 

Plor. mon-d)amuM. Plur. mon-erhnnu. 

mon-ebdtit, mon-tntis. 

num-^Hmt, mon-erent, 

Sing. num-Bo. I flihatl &dyt^. 

fnon-dns, » 

Plur. inon*e6fmia. 
t frnn-ebftis 


Sing. mon-Hi, I have advised. Sing, num^uaim, I may have advised 

fnon-watL tnon^uerts, 

mon^uiL mori'UertL 

Plmr. nuntFuimus, Plur. 9?ioi»-iicHfmitf. 

fium-vistit, moiwierlrit. 

mon-Kenmf («). mon-umn<. 


Sing. moiMiSrom, I had advised. Sing, num-uissem, I should have ad 

mon<teras. mon-uisses, [vised 

num-uerat, mon^uiaset, 

Plur. fnof^ueromtw. Plur. mon^uisaemua. 

monruaratis. mon-waaetis. 

nunuuerant, mon-waaent. 

Second Future^ or Future Perfect, 

Sing, mon-vtro, I shall have advised. 


Plur. num-^uetimua. 



Present, Sing, mon-ey advise thon. Plur. man4te, advise ye. 

Future, Sing, mon-ito^ thou shalt ad- Plur. mon^§tliu, ye shall adviM. 
mon-efo,he shall advise. tnon-anto, they shall advise 


Pres. and Jmperf., mon^ere, to advise. 

Pert and Pluperf., num-viaae, to have advised. 

Future, num'iturum eaaa, to be about to advise. 


Gkm. moin»enA , Dat. mon-tnio ; Aec. mon-minm ; Abl. mow wiis 


inon-lAim; fnon-tht. 


F^es. and Import mon-ena, advising. 
Future, fmm^tftcnu, about to advise. 




tf ing. Xcy-0, 1 i«ad. 

riur. leg'imu$. 

Aing, leg-ebam, I md. 

Plur. leg-th&mua, 

Third ConjtLgaMon. 



Sing. X^-om, 1 may retd. 

Plur. leg-amuM, 


Sing, kg-hem, I miglit »e«c 


Plur. Ug-erhnuM, 




Sing. Ic^-om, I shall read. 


Plur. Ug'hma, 



Sing. /e^-t» I have read. 


leg-it, ■ 
Plur. Z^-imtw. 


l^-erunt (e). 

Sing, leg'h'om, I had roail. 


Plur. leg-eramua, 




Sing, leg-him, I may hare read 


Plur. kg-er&ntw. 


Sing, leg-iaeem, I should have 

Plur. leg-itaenau, 

Second Putwre^ or Future Perfect. 

Sing, leg'ifo, I shall have read. 


Plur. leg-eihnuB* 




Present, Sing. Ug^, read thou. * Plur. leg-tte, read ye. 

Pttture, Sing, hg-ito^ thou shalt read. Pluf . leg-itote, ye shall read. 
legJltOf Le shall read. leg-tmfo, they shall ratti 


Pres. and ImpeiC ^rgrSrr, to read. 
Perf. and Pluperf. leg-isse, to have read. 
Fiitnre, lec'tuntm eate, to oe i^ut to read. 



Ckn. Ug-endi; Dat. Ug-endo; Ace. Itg-tndum; Abl. ! 

iec'tvm; lec-tu, 


Pres. and Impert ^-cvw, reading. 
Future, ko'twrus, about to read. 


Jbiir^A Ckmjugatwn. 

Sing. Aud-io, I hear. 

Plur «M{-tmii«. 



Sing, aud-ieham, I heaid. 

Plur. oiMi'irMmu*. 

Sing, aud-ianif I shall hear. 


PInr. atK^>tmu«. 



Sing, otid-ivi, I have heard. 

Plur. aud-mnma, 
aud-iveruni (e). 

Sing, aud'iveram, I had heard. 


Plur. aiM2>»wramtf«. * 




Siog. Aud-iam, I may hear. 


Plur. oitJ-iamtw. 

Sing. aiM2-irem, I might heai. 


Plur. otu2-KremiMi. 





Sing. aud-ivHrmif I may have heaid. 
*Plur. aud-iverhnu9, 


Sing, aud'wistemf I might liave ] 


Plur. aud-hriasemns 


Second FkUure, or Future Perfect, 

Sing, aud-who^ I shall hare heard. 


Plar. oud-heAmug, 




134 LATIlir GRAMMAtt. 


Present, Sing, audty hear thou. Plur. aud-Ue, hear yt, 

Fature^ Sing. aud-ttOf thou shalt hear. Plur. aud-Hote, ye shall hear 

aud-Uo, he shall hear. aud'iunto, they shall heat 


• Pres. and Imperf., aud-l*t, to hear. 

Pert and Plaperf., oui-iMMe, to have heard. 
Future, Mid-itwum e«te, to be aboot to hear. 


Gen. aud-iendi ; Dat. aud-iendo ; Ace. aud-iendum ; AbL emd-iendm. 

aud-\tuM; aud-ttu» 

Pres. and Imperf., aud-iens, hearing. 
Fotare, emd-iutru8f about to hear. 


FirH Conjugation. 

Indicatitb. Subjunctitb. 


Sing. Am-orf I am loved. Sing. Am-erj I may be loved. 

am-aris {e), am-eria (e). 

arn'Otwr, am-etur. 

Plur. am-amur. • Plur. am-emtar, 

offt-iiTiiiftt. am-enUfu. 

am-antur. am-eniur. 


Sing, am-abar, I was loved. Sing, am-arer^ I might be loved. 

ean-abaria (e). am-ariris (e). 

amrobatur. am-aretur, 

Plur. am-abamur. Plur. omHiremur. 

ofn-oftammt. am-<uremini, 

am-abantur, ■ am-oren^ur. 

Sing. am-aboTy I shall be loved. 

am-<d>eri8 (c). • 

Plur. am-idfimur, 




Bing. am-atus (a, urn) sum, I have Sing. am*^Eftw(a,ttm}<Mi»IinayhavB 
been loved. bedt. lovea. 

om-atut et. om-dAw sis. 

am-atus est. am-itussU. 

Plur am-ati (oe, a) mmicf. Plur. am-ati (oe, a) «tncM. 
am-a^i estis. am-SH sUis. 

ant'Oti sunt. om-iti tint. 

hing. am-atus (Of urn) eramf I bad Sing. am-Stus (a, im) euem, I BHigltf 
been loved. have been Icvod. 

am-dtus eras. am-atHS esses, 

amdtus erat. am-atus smsH. 


Indicative. SuDJurfct.fJB. 

Plur. iin-dti {a€i.a) eramus. Plur. cun-ati {ae, a) essemtu. 

om-oft eratis. am-iti essetit. 

an^&i erani. am-dti essent. 


Second Future^ or Futttre Perfect. 

Sing, am-dtut {a, um).ero, I shall hard been lored. 

ant'OHu eria. 

am-dtus erit. 
Plur. am-dti (oe, a) erimus. 

am-dti eritis. 

am-dti erunt. 


Present, Sing, am-are^ be thou loyed. Flue am-amini, be yo loved. 

Future, Sing, am-ator, thou shalt be loved. Flur. am-antor^ they shall b« 
am-€UOrf he shall be loved. loved.* 

Infinitive. ^ 

Pres. and Imperf. (or of a passive state still going on), am-arif to be loved 
Perf. and Fluperf. (or of a state completed), am-dtttm {amf tan) esse^ to hav 

been loved. 
Future, am-dtum m, to be about to be loved. 


Perfect, am-dttUf a, urn, loved. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future o£ Necessity), omoTiiia, a,\ 
deserving or requiring tm be loved. 

Second Conjugc^on. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Mon-eor, I am advised. Sing. Mon-ear, 1 miy be advised, 

mon-ins (c). mon-edris (c). 

mon-etur. iHon-eatur. 

Plur. mon-emur. Flur. mon-eamur, 

mon-emini. mon-eamini. 

moia-tnttir. mon-eatUur. 

Imperfect. • 

Sing, mon-ibar^ I was advised. Sing, mon-erer, I might be advised. 

mon-ebdris (e). mon-ereris (e). 

mon-ebatur. mpn-e^etur. 

Plur. num-ebamur. . Flur. mon-eremur. 

man-dwnini. mon-eremim. 

mon-ebantur. mon-erentw. ^ 


Sing. mon-eboTf I shal s be advised. 

mon-eberis (c). 

Plur. »uwt-«6im«r. 



* TNo second person plural (amaminor) of the imperative future paristvi 
•ccurs. Its place is supplied by the future indicative. Vid. ^ 151 ^ 
^Am. Ed. 


Indicatiyi. Scbjunctivi. 


Sing, mon-itus (a, wn) »um^ I have Sing. mon-Uus, Ta, urn) sirny I may 
been advised. have been advised. 

monrltuM 68. , fnon-ktw ais, 

' mon-ttus est. mon-Uus nt. 

Plur. mon-Ui (oe, a) nemtu. Plur. mon^H (oe, a) «niiti». 
mon-iti estis. mon-Ui sitis, 

mon-lti aunt. mon-iti aint. 


Sing, fiwn'itua (a, vm) eram, I had Sing, mon-itua (a, urn) eaaem, I snuuin 
been advised. have been advised. 

mon-ttua eraa. mon-Uua eaaea. 

mon'Uua erat. * ' mon-itua easet. 

Plur. mon-Ui (oe, a) eramua. * Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) eaaemua, 

mon-Ui eratia. mon-iti easetia. 

mon-iti erarU mxm-Ui eaaent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfe'ct. 

Sing, mon-itua {a^um) ero, I shall have been advised. 

mon-itua eria. 

mon-itua erit. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) erimua» 

mon-iti eritia. 

num-iti erunt. 


Present, Sing. mon-erCf be thou advised. Plur. mon-emini, be ye adTie 4. 

Futiir% Sing, mon-itor, thou shalt be Plur. mon-entor, they shall b<> aU 

advised. vised. 

monetor, he shtf be, &c. 

Pres. and Imperf., rno»-«ri, to be advised. 
Perf. and Pluperf., mon-Uum^ {am, urn) eaae^ to have been adviaed 
Future, mon-itum iri, to be about to be advised. 

Perfect, mon-itua, advised. 

fn dua (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), mon-endua, &• 
servmg or requiring to be advised. 

Third Conjugation, 



• ' 


Sing. Leg-or, I am read. 

leg-eria (e). 

Plur. leg-imur. 



Sing. Leg-ar, I may be read. 

leg-aria (e). 

Plur. leg-amur. 





Sing, leg-ibar, I was read. * 
leg-ebSria (e) 

Sing leg-erer, I might tie read 
leg-ereria (•). 


Indicative, SuBJUwcTiTit 

Plur. leg-ebamur. Flur. leg-eremur. 
Ug-ebamini, teg-ereminL 

Ug-ebanJtur, leg-erentur. 

Sing, leg-ar, I sliall be read. 
Ug-irU (e). 

Plur. leg-emur, 


Sing, /ec-fia (a, ion) ram, I have been Sing. Uc-tuM (a, urn) nm, 1 MHf lM?t 
read. been read. 

lec'tus es. lec-tus sis, ' 

lec-hts est. lec-tus sit. 

Plar. lec-ti (a«, a) sumus. Plur. lec-ti {ae, a) siwtus. 

lec-ti estis, lec-ti sitis, 

lec'ti sunt. lecti-sint. 


Sing, kc-tiu (a, um) eiam. I had Sing, lec-tus (a, urn) essem,* "f yaSd 

been read. have been read. 

lec-tus eras. lec-tus esses. 

lec-tus erat. . lec-tus esset. 

Plur. Uc-ti (aSf a) eranuut Plur. lec-ti (oe, a) essemus. 

Uc-ti eratis. lec-ti essetis. 

lec-ti erant. lect-ti essent. 

Second FuturCf or Future Perfect, 

SiLg. Uc-tu» (/I, urn) ero, I shall have been read. 

la:-tus eris. ^ 

lec-tus erit. • 

Plur. lec-ti erimus.^ 

lec-ti eritis. 

lec-ti erunt. 


Present, Sing, leg-ere, be thoU read. Plur. leg-imini, be ye reM 

Future, Sing, leg-ttor^ thou shalt be read. Plur. leg-untor, they shai W 
leg-tior, he shall be read. read. 

Pres. and Imperf., leg-i, to be read. 
Perf. and Pluperf., lec-tum {am, um) esse, to have been read. 
Future, lec-tum tri, to be about to be read. 

Perfect, Uc-tus, read. 

In dus (commonbj[ called Future, or Future of Necessity), leg-endi^ 1^ 
sepring or requiring to be read. 

Fourth Conjugation, 

Indicative. Subjunptivb. 


Aud-ior, I am heard. Sing Aud-iar, I may be lieafcl 

aud-tris (e). aud-iaris («). 

aud-itur. aud-iatur. 

M 2 



iNDiCATns. Subjunctive, 

^lui aufl iimtr, Plur. aud-iamur. 

aud'imini. aud-iamini, 

aud-iuntur. > attd-iantur. 


Smg. aud-iebafy I was heard. Sing, aud-trer^ I might be Loard.^ 

aud-iebdris (e). atid-ireris («). 

aud-iebatur. aud-iretur. 

Piur. avd-iebamtar. Plur. aud-iremw. 

aud-iebaanim. aud'iremini. 

aud'iebanttar, atid-irentur, 

Sing, attd'iar, I shall be heard. 

ttvd-UrU (e). . 

Plur. aud-iimur. 




Sipg. aud-ittu (a, um^ «um, I ha^ e Sing, aud-itus (a, urn) «im» I may hav« 
been heard. oeen heard. 

otoi-i/iM e«. €tttd'Utu »u. 

aud-ittu eat. aud-ittu sit. 

Plar. atid-iti {ae, a) atwitu. Plcrr. aud-iti (ae, a) sirmu. 

aud-Ui eatia. aud-iti aitis. 

aud-itt aunt. aud-iti aint. 


Sing, atid-lfua (a, urn) erantf I had Sing, aud-ittu (a,um) eaaem, I mi^fiA 
been heard. have been heard. 

aud-ittu ercu. Okd-itiu eaaea. 

aud-ittu erat. atiH-ittu eaaet, 

Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) aramtu. Plur. aud-iti (oe, aj eaaemtu, 

aud-iti eratia. aud-iti eaaetia, 

aud-iti erant. 1^ aud-iti easertt. 

Second FiUure, or Futur^Perfect, 

Sing. aud4tua (a, Mm) ero, I shall have been heard* 

aud-itua eria. 

attd-itua erit. 
Plur. atid-iti (ae, a) erimua. 

audnti eritia 

aud-iti erunt. 


Present) Sir.g. aud-ire, be thou heard. Plur. aud-inuta, be ye heird. 
Pnture, Sir\g. aiid*tior, thdu shalt be Plur. atui-ttmior. they shall lie 

heard. heard. . 

aud-itorf he shall be heard. 


P^cs. and Imperf. atui-iri, to be heard. 

Perf. and Pluperf. aud-itum {am^ vm\ eaae^ to have been heard. 

Future, attdriium in, to be about to be heard. 

Perfect, aud-itua, heard. 

fn dua (commonljr called Future, or Future of Necessity), end i m it u, dt 
serving or requifBig to be heard. 



[§ 159.] With regard to conjugation, the deponent dif- 
fer«» fi'om the passive only by the fact that it has both the 
participles of the active and of the passive voice, that is, 
for all the threa states of an action : that in ns for an ac- 
tion not iorapleted ; that us^ a, um for an action comple- 
ted ; and that in urus^ a, um for one about to take place. 
The fourth participle in ndus^ with a passive signification, 
is an irregularity, and is used only in those d^ponenU 
which have a transitive signification; e. g., hortandus^ one 
who should be exhorted. Of deponents which have an 
intransitive meaning, e. g., loqui, this participle is used 
cmly sometimes, chiefly in the neuter gender (often, but 
erroneously, called the gerund), and in a somewhat differ- 
ent sense, e. g., loquendum est, there is a necessity for 
speaking. It will be sufficient, in the following table, to 
give the first persons of each tense, for thei e is no diffi 
culty, except that these verbs with a passive form have an 
active meaning. 

A. Indicative. 
2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 4th Conjug 

• Present, 
ver-eoTf I fear. sequ-or, I follow, bland-tor, I flatter. 

Ist Conjug. 

8. kort'or, I ex 

P. hort-amnr. 

S. hort'Obar. 
P. hort-abamur. 

8. hort'obor. 
P. hart-abimur. 







First FtUttret 







8. hort'Otus {a, ver-UuM {a, um) tecSi-tus (a, um) bland-ttua (a, um) 

Hia^sMau sum, sum. sum 

P. kort'oti (^« a) ver-tti (oe, a) «»• secU-ti (oe, fi) su- bland-ili (ae, a) su' 

aumtis. mus. mvs, mus. 


S. hort'Otus (a, v^-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um) blond-itits (a, um) 

um) eram. ' eram. eram. eram. 

P. hort-ati (oe, a) ver-Ui (oe, a) era- secu-ti (ae, a) era- bland-ili (a«, a) erof 

ertsmus, mus, ■ rmu. mtts. 

Future Perfect. 

S. hort'Otus (<x, ver-itus (a, um) secthtus {a, um) Uand-itus (a, mh) 

um) ero. era. , era, era. 

P. hort'ati{ae, a) ver-iti {/>:, a) en- secu-ti (oe, a) eri- bland-iti {as, a) eri' 

erimus, mus, mus, mus^ 



1st Conjag. 

S. hort-er. 
P. hort-emur 

S. hort-arar, 
P. hort-aremur. 

S. hort-(Uu$ (a, 
um) aim. 

P. hort-ati {ae, a) 

S. hort-atua (a, 
um) Mcem. 

P. Aoft-o/t (oe, a) 

63. 2. hort-are. 
P. 2. hort-amini, 

S.2. Aort-ofor. 

3. hort-ator, 
P. 2. (is wanting, 

3. hort-antor. 


tim) es«e. 

Aoft-oturum (anif 
um) esse. 

Gen. hort-andt. 
Dat. hort-ando. 
Ace. hort-andum. 
Abl. hort-ando. 

k^'x-abUt a, tim. 

A«r#-4iltiru«i a, iwi. 

hort'OU'lvSy a, um. 

2d Conjug. 3d Conjag 


1th Con]Uf 






ver-ear. * sequ-ar. 

ver-eamur. sequ-amur. 


ver-trtr. « segu-lrer. 

ver-eremur. sequ-eremur. 


ver-itua {a, um) secu-tua (a, um) bland-itus {a, tim) 
stn. stm, tun. 

ver-iti (oe, a) si- secu-ti (jae, a) si- hland-iti {ae, a) «^ 
mus. mus. mus. 


ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um) bland-itus (a, mm) 

esaem. essem. essem. 

ver-iti (oe, a) es- secu-ti (ae, a) e«- 62aiu{-><< (oe, a) «^ 

«eintt5. «emu«. aemiM. 

C. Impebatitb. 


ver-ere. sequ-ere. 

ver-emini. sequ-imini. 

ver-etar. sequritor. 

ver-etor. seqti-itor. 

but is supplied by the Future Indicative.) 
ver-entor. sequ-untor. bland-iuntor, 

D. Infinitive. * 
Present and Imperfect. 

ver-eri, 8equ4. bland-irL 

Perfect and Pluperfect,{am^um) securtum{amyum) bland-itum {am, k9 ) 
esse. esse. esse. 


ver-iturum (am, secu-turum (am, bland-iturum {an 
um) esse, tun) esse. um) esse 

E. Gebund. 

ver-endi. sequ-endi. 

ver-endo. sequ-endo. 

ver-endum. sequ-endum. 

ver-endo^ sequ-endo. 

F. Participles. 

Present and Imperfect, 
ver-ens, sequ-ens. 

Perfect and Pluperfect, 
ver-itus^ a, um. secU-tus, a, um. 

tfer-iturus, a, um. secu-turus,€i, um. bland-iiurua,mtW^ 

FuturCf with Passive Stgnificaiion. 
ver-enduSf a, um. sequ-endus, a, um. bland-iendus a. 


bland-itus, a. 


b. Supine. 

* korPahtm var-itum, secU-tum. bland-Uum. 

2, hmri-atu. ver-iiu. secU-tu, blanditu. 

Note. — Th4 irapine sectUum and the participle seiutus are analogous to 
tohttum and jtXuhu, from solvo^ in pronunciation and orthography ; for the 
wonsonant v, x^hich is audible in the present aequor, is softened into the 
vowel u, and lengthened according to the rule mentioned above, ^ 154. In 
ceytnKwm, as some persons write, the additional vowel « cannot be explained 
tn any wpy. The same is the case with locutum, from loquor. (Compare 
^ve, ^ 5, in fir..) * 



[§ 160.] 1. In the terminations avi^ m, and ivi of tbo 
tenses expressing a completed action, viz., of the perfect 
and pluperfect, indicative and subjunctive, and of the fu- 
ture penect, as well as of the infinitive perfect active, a 
syncopation takes place. 

faj In the first conjugation the v is dropped and the 
vowels a-i and a-e are contracted into a long a. This is 
the case wherever avi is followed by an *, or ave by an r; 
e. g.y amavisti, amdsti ; amavissem, amdssem; amavisse^ 
amdsse; amaverunt, am&runt; amavcrifji, amclrim; ama- 
veram^ amdram; amaveroy amdro^ &c. Both forms, the 
entire and the contracted one, are, on the whole, of the 
same value, but the latter seems to be chiefly used when 
the contracted vowel is followed by an s ; whereas the 
entire form was preferred in those cases where an r fol- 
lows, although even in this case Livy is rather partial to 
<he contracted form ; e. g., vindicarvnma, oppttgnarimtcs, 
uecarimus, niaturarim/us ; in Cicero, too, it is hot uncom- 
mon. A contracted form of the verb juvare (adjuvare) 
^•jccurs only in the more ancient language; e. g., adjuro 
/or adjuvero in a verse of Ennius (ap. Cic, Cat. Maj,, 1). 

fhj The termination evi in the second and third conju- 
^l^tions is treated in the same manner ; e. g., neo, 1 spin, 
Hevi, nistif nistis^ nerunt. Thus we often find complissem, 
delh-am^ and in the third coirjug|tion consuerunt for con- 
ncevenmt, quiessem^ decrcssem, deer esse for decrevisse; siris^ 
•irit^ for siveris and siverit. The termination ovi^ howev- 
er, is conti*acted only in noviy novisse^ with its compounds, 
tnd in the compounds ofmoveo^ movi; e. g., norunt^ nosse^ 
xign^am^ cogndro, commdssem. 

(c) In the fourth conjugation ivi is frequently conti'act- 
%di before s; lience, instead of audivisse, avdivisti^ avdivis 


sem, we find andlsse, audisti^ at^isse^n, and in tho time of 
Quintilian the latter farms must have been more comiiioji- 
ly used than the others. But there is another form of the 
tenses expressing a completed action, which arises from 
simply throwing out the v : aucLii, audiusem, audieram>, 
audiero. But it must bo observed that those foilns in 
which two i's meet are not used at all in good prose (as 
in Cicero), except in the compound! of the verb ire (so« 
§ 205), and are round only here and there in poetry, as 
in Virgil : audiit, mugiit^ muniit^ especially when the 
word would not otherwise^ suit the dactylic hexameter ; 
as, for example, oppetiif. imjpediit. In those forms, on tho 
other hand, where i and e meet, the v is frequently thrown 
out even in good prose ; e. g., audierunt, desierunt, definic 
ram, quaesieram. 

Note. — A contraction occurs in the perfect of the first, second, and 
fourth conjugations when atorm follows ; the forms of the perfect then 
oecbme externally like those of the present tense, and can be distin- 
guished only in some cases by the length of the vowel. Thi9 pontraction 
occurs only in poetry, but not very commonly. Some grammarians have 
denied it altogether, and have endeavoured to explain such passages by 
supposing that they contain «in enalla^Ct that is, an interchange of tenses ; 
but such a supposition involves still greater difficulties. Priscian, in 
several passrages, mentions the contracted forms fumat^ audita cuplty for 
fumavitf audxvit^ cupivit, as of common occurrence, which at least supports, 
m general, the view of the ancient grammarians, although it does not ren- 
der an examination of the particular passages superfluous. We shall pass 
over the less decisive passages ; but t7 for iit is undeniable in petit (in Virg., 
Aetht iz., 9^ ; desit (in Martial, iii., 75, 1 ; and x., 86, i) f obit, obiif and perit 
(in Juvenal, vi., 128, 559, 295, 563, and x., 118). We accordingly considej 
that quum edormitf in Horace (Serm.f ii., 3, 61), is likewise a perfect. In 
the first and second conjugaticMis there are some instances which oannot 
be denied. To view donat in Horace (Serm-t i-* 2, 56) as a present would 
be exceedingljr forced ; but if we consider it as a contracted perfect, it 
quite agrees with the construction. Compare Terent., Adelph., iii., 3, 10: 
emnan rem modo serU quo pacta habere enar ramus ordine ; Pr(^ert., ii, 7, 2 . 
/I emus uterque diu ne nos dividaret. Lastly, the first person in ii is found 
contracted into i: Persius, iii., 97, sepeli: Seneca, Here. Oct., 48, redi, 
Ciaudian, in Rufin., ii., 387, unde redi needs. 

2, Another syncopation, which frequently occurs in 
early Latin, and is made use of even in the later poetical 
language of Virgil and Horace, consists in the throwing 
out of the syllable is in^idie* perfect and pluperfect of the 
third conjugation after an s or an x; e. g., evasti, ibr cva- 
sisti; dixtij for dixisti; divisse, for divisisse , admisse^ for 
admisisse ; iss, too, is rejected in forms Kke surrexe^ for 
surrexisse; cojisumpse, for consumpsisse ; bo, nlao, abstraxe, 
for ahstraxisse ; abscessem, for abscessissem ; erepsemus, 
for efepsissemtcs, and others. 

[§ 161.] 3. The forms of tho future perfect and of tho 


perfect subjunctive in the first conjugation in <zsso and iis- 
nm, for avero and averim; in the second in esso and essim^ 
for uero and uerim; and in the third in so and «^m, for ^'0 
and arm, are obsolete. Numerous instances of these oc« 
cur in ancient forms of law (and in later imitations of sucli 
ibrms)*and in Plautus and Terence. 

Note. — ^In this manner are formed cammonstrassOf levatso, peccassOf creas 
mt, coopUusit, impertustt, and many others of the first conjugation. The 
foUowing belong to the second : lictsaU, coMbetsit^ prohibestig, and authiu 
Capso, CttpsiSt capsitf capsimus, accqosOf rapsU, surrepsit, occisitf inceimt, 
mdemp*it^ axim, adaanntt taxis, objeximy objexis, and others, occur in the thiro 
conjugation. The following forms deserve especial mention : faxo, famwit 
faxii,/aanmu9. (Plant, Trie., i, 1, 40), faxitiSffaxint. But there is no in 
stance of such a syncopation in the fourth •conjugation. We believe that 
this form is to be explamed by the ancient interchange of r and « (compare 
i 7) ^d a syncopation; hence the transition would be thb; levavero- 
Uvaveso—Uvasso ; accepero — accepeso—accepso ; ademero—ademesQ—adempso; 
Occident — occidesit — occisit, where the d before the $ is dropped, as in inceit 
, incennt. The few words of the second conjugation seem to have 
tibrmed in this manner, on the model of the very numerous words of 

le third. The irregularity in forming the perfect of words of the third 
conjugation (capso, accepso,faxo, and axim, instead offexo, exim) is in ac 
cordance witn the ancient iang|uage.; thus, taxis is derived from tago, tango, 
and ausim from the perfect ausi, which has fallen into disuse. The form 
in so is acknowledged to have the meaning of a future perfect ; one ex 
~ ~ ■ ----- ad 

future mac(e according to the 6reek fashion : levo, tevasso, like yeXdo), 

A few remnants only of this Ibrmatiou remained in use 
in the best period of die Latin language ; e. g., jtcsso for 
jusseroy in Virg., Aen., xi., 467 ; B,iid Jaooo^ in the sense of 
**I will/* or "am determined to do" (nee § 511), in po- 
etry, and in Livy, vi., ^6,faxo ne juvet vox ista Veto, 1 
will take care that this wcnrd V<^to*8hall be of no avail to 
yow. But especially the subjunctive faxit, faxint, ex- 
pressing a solemn wish, as Cicero (in Vtrr.j iii., 35)* says 
in a prayer, <i«i imnwrtales fhxint / and Livy (xxix., 27) 
in a prayer sa^s, dii-^fsMcitis^-^aMxitis; and in a subordi 
nate sentence in Horace, Serm., ii., 6, 15, op0 uijaods ; 
and in Persius, i., 112, veto quisguamfi^t. Lastly, audm 
and aunt^ as i||pttbjunetiT« expressive of doubt or hesita- 
tion, ** I might venture," occurs in Cicero, Brut,, 5, and 
frequently in Livy and Tadtus. From these and the nu- 
merous passages in Plautus and Terence, however, it is 
clear that this subjunctive in sim never has the significa- 
tion of a perfect subjunctive, but, in accordance with its 
formation, it retains the meaning of a future subjunctive. 

Note. — In the ancient Latin language we find a passive voice of this form 


Of the fulure ; viz., twbassitvry in a law in Cic, de Leg., m., 4, taiiXjnsftttt^ 
in Cato, de Re Rttst., 14, instead of turbatum fuerit and jiusus fuerit ; and 
the deponent mercassitur in an inscription (Gruter, p. 512, line 20), for 
merccOus fuerit. An infinitive also with the signification of a first future 
active, is formed from it : as in Plautus : expugnassere, impetraasere, reconcil- 
iatsere; and in Lucretius (Fragm. Non.y ii., 218): depecmassere eX deargen- 
fassere (consequently only in verbs of the first conjugation) ; for |«rhicn, in 
.ater times, the circumlocution expugnaturum esse^ &c., was used exclu 

[§ 162.] In the remains of the early Latin language, 
and sometimes also in the poetical productions of the best 
age, the infinitive passive is lengthened by annexing the 
syllable er;* e.g., amarier^ mercarier^labier, legier, mittier; 
the e in the termination of the imperfect of the fourth con- 
jugation is thrown out; e. g., nutriham^ leniham, sciham^ 
largibar, for nutriebam, leniebam, sdebam, largiebar, and 
the future of the same conjugation is formed in ibo instead 
of iam; e. g., scibo^ servibo^ for sdarriy serviam (the last 
two peculiarities are retained in ordinary language onl)^ 
in the verb ire) ; and, lastly, the termination m is used 
for em and am in the present subjunctive of the first and 
third conjugations, but only in a few verbs ; e. g., edim 
and comedim for edam and comedam, frequently occur in 
Plautus; also in Cicero, ad Fam,^ ix., 20, in fin., and 
Horace, Epod,, iii., 3, and Serm,, ii., 8f 90. Duim for 
dem, and perduim for perdanit from dtu) and perduo, an 
cient forms of these verbs, are found, also, in prose in 
forms of prayers and imprecations ; e. g., Oic, m CatU,, 
i., 9, pro Deiot^ 7. The same form has been preserved 
in the irregular verb volo, with its compounds, and in 
sum : velim, nolim^ maJim, and sim, 

[§ 163.] 5. For th^ third person plural of the pisrfect 
active in erunt there is in all the conjugations another 
form, ere^ whicb* indeed, does not occur at all in Nepos, 
and in the prose of Cicero very rarely (see Cic, Orat.^ 
47, and my note on Cic, in Verr,, L, 15), but is very fre- 
quently u»ed by Sallust and later writers, especially by 
llie historians d^us and Tacitus. In the contracted 
forms of the perfect this termination cani^ well be used, 
because the third person plural of the perfect would, in 
most cases, become the same as the infinitive ; e. g., if 
we were to form amaveruni^ amartmty amare, or deleve- 
rwU^ dderwnty delere. 

The vowel c, in the imcontracted termination erunt ^ ia 
tametunes shortened by poets, as in Horace, Epist,, i., 4, 

♦ fConsult note or Dag«120.]— -Am. Ed. 


7 ; Di tiii divitias dederunt artemqueftuendi : and Virg,| 
Aevtiy iL, 774y obstujmi stetenmtque comde^ vox Jaucibui 

[§ 164.] 6. The four verbs dicere, ducere, Jacere, and 
ferre usually reject the e in the imperative (to avoid am- 
biguity); hence we say dic^ ducyjac^jerf and so, also, in 
tbcir compounds ; asf edtic, ^er^ perfer^ calefac^ with the 
exception of those compounds otfacere which change a 
into 1/ e. g., (xmficetperjlce, Inger^ for ingere, is rare and 

Of scire the imperative sci is not in use, and its place 
is supplied by the imperative future scito, Scitote is pre- 
ferreu to scite^ \n order to avoid the possible confusion 
with 9cite^ the adverb, which signifies ** skilfully." 

Note. — ^The imperative future of tbe passive voice, but more especially 
of deponents, has some irregularities in the early language and later imi- 
tations of it : (a) The active form is used instead, of the passive one ; thus 
<ve find tarhitratOf ampleteaiOt utUo, nitit§t fcv w^raior^ tunpUxatort &c. ; and 
ceruento for ceruenior ; tUtmtOf tueuto, patiunto, in laws. (See Cic, de Leg., 
'oLf 3, fol.) (6) In the second and third persons singular we not uncom- 
mcmly find the forms kortamino^ veremmo, and others, for hortatory veretor^ 
occ. The forms onteUamno, arbUrwuno, prarfamino, prqfitemino, fruimino^ 
and mrogredimino occur in Cato, Plautus, and in laws ; and passages of 
this kind have given rise to the erroneous opinion that there is a second 
person plural in minora such as hortaminor. 

' [§ 165.] 7. Respecting the quantity of the i in the ter- 
minations rimus and ritis, in the future perfect and the 
perfect subjunctive, the statements of the ancient gram- 
marians.not only differ, but contradict one another. The 
poets use it long or short according as the verse requires 
It, though, to judge from the analogy of erimus, eritis, it 
seems to be naturally short In connexion with tbis 
(comp. § 29), it must be observed that the termination ris 
of the second person singular is used by poets both long 
and short, as in Horace, Carm.f III., 23, 3, and IV., 7, 20, 
and 21, and in the following distich of Ovid, Am,t I., 4, 31: 

' Quae tu reddideils, ego )[)nikiU8 pocuta sumam, 
£t qua tu biberis, hac ego parte bibam : 

where, however, tiia influence of Uie caesura may of it- 
self lengthen the syllable. 

[§ 166.] 8. Instead of the termination ris in the second 
person in the passive, re is also used, and with Cicero 
this is the commtm termination in the present and inrper- 
feet subjimctive, and in llie imperfect and future indica- 
tive, even in cases where the repetition of the syllable re 
produces a disagreeable sound, as in vererere, pro QHiiU,t 



16 ; in Verr,, iii., 18 : mererere, Vivin., 18 ; de V*in.^ ii,, 36. 
In the present indicative, on the other hand, re is used foi 
ris only in the following passages : Dlvin., 12, in fin., and 
in Verr,^ iii., 80, init., aroitrare; pro Bcdb,, 18, delectare; 
Philij),, iL, 43, inatigurare; ad Fam.y vi., 2 1 , recwdare ; and 
v., 13, videre. Such forms as amere, moneare, loqtiare, au 
diare, amarei'ey amahare^ amabere, mhnereret loquerere^ &c., 
are of common occurrence in all the conjugations. 

S§ 167.] 9. The participle future passive of the third 
fourth conjugations (including the deponents) is form- 
ed in undtis instead of endusj especially when i precedes. 
In the verb potior potiundus is the usual form. In other 
verbs it seems to have been indifferent which of thd two 
forms was used, though in some phrases, such as infini- 
bus dividundis or regundis^ injure dicundo, there seems U 
have been something conventional in the use of theso 
forms. We must leave it to the student's own observa- 
tion to collect other peculiarities of this kind. Respect- 
ing the verbal adjectives in bundtis, see § 248. 

[§ 168.] 10. This is the place to speak of what is calf- 
ed the conjugatio periphrastica, or the conjugation by cir- 
cimalocution. This name is applied in general to any con- 
jugation formed by means of a participle and the auxili- 
ary verb esse; but it is usually limited to the conjugation 
formed by means of the two participles future in the ac- 
tive and passive, and of the verb esse, for a conjugation 
made up of the participle present and esse does not occui 
in Latin (e. g., amans sum would be the same as amoj^ 
and the combinations of the participle perfect passive 
with surriy sim, eram^ essem, ero, esse, are considered as a 
part of the ordinary conjugation of a verb in. the passive 
voice ; as, for example, amatus eram, which is the pluperfect 
passive of amo. But it must be observed that in the con- 
jugation of the passive the perfects of esse are sometimes 
used instead of the above-mentioned forms for an incom- 
plete action, such as sum, eram, ero, &c. Amahim juisse, 
therefore, is equal to amatum esse as an infinitive perfect 
passive ; amatus Jkeram is equivalent to amatus erain, and 
amatus fuero to amatus ero, Amatus Juero, in particular, 
is used so fi?equently for dmatus ero that formerly it was 
looked upon as the ordinary future perfect passive, and 
was marked as such in the tables of the four conjuga- 
tions.* But when the participle is used in the sense of 

* We have abandoned the common practice, partly on accotmt of th« 


an adjective, and expresses a permanent state, a diifer' 
eiice is clearly discernible ; e. g., epistola scripta est^ when 
it is in a perfect tense, signifies the letter has been written; 
but if scripta is conceived as an adjective (in contradis- 
tinction to a letter not vnitten), the meaning is, the letter 
w written, and epistola scriptajuit^ in this case, would sig- 
nify the letter 7i«/5 been written (has been a written one), 
or has existed as a vmtten one, meaning that at present it 
no longer exists. And this is the usual sense in which^i 
is used with the participle perfect ; e. g., Liv., xxxviii., 56, 
Litemi monumentum monumentoque statua supcrimposita 
Juit (is there no longer), quam tempestate dfjectam nvper 
vidimus ipsi; Martial, i., 44, bis tibi tricenijuimus vocati^ 
that is, " we were invited, but got nothing to eat ;^^iantum 
spectavimris omnes. The passages, therefore, in which ama- 
tusfui is found as an oMmary perfect in the sense of ama* 
tus sum may be doubted in good authors. 

Note, — Justin (i., 19), however, writ6s : Itaque prave helium natum, in qw 
et diu et varia victoria proeliatum fmt (passive) : Gellius (v., 10) ; Sic magi* 
ter eloqueniiae confittatus est, et captionis veraute excogitatae frutlratva J'uu 
(paitoivo): and Plautus several times in deponents; e. g., obUtusfui Poenul 
Prolog., 40 ; 'miratu»fw\ ibid, v., 6, 10 ; and other passages. 

[§ 169.] But by the combination of the participle futur*. 
active with the tenses of esse a really new conjugation \s 
formed denoting an intention to do something. This in* 
tention may arise either from the person's own will, or 
from outward circumstances, so that, e. g., scripturiis sum 
may either mean "I have a mind to wiite, or I am to 
write," or " I have to write." The former sense is also 
expressed by " I am on the point of writing," or " I am 
about to write," and this signification is carried through 
all the tenses of esse. 

Scripturus sum, I am about 

to write. 
Scripturus eram, I was about 

to write. 
Scripturus ero, I shall be 

about to write. 

ScripturtMjui, I was or have 
been about to write. 

Scripturus Jueram, I had 
been about to write. 

Scripturus JuerOfl shall have 
been about to write. 

But the last of these forms was very seldom used, and 
occurs only in one passage of Seneca, JEpist,, ix., § 14, 
tapiens nan vivet sifuerit sine homine victurus, that is, if he 

•DAlogy, and partly because the number of instances in which the regulai 
luture perfect with ero occurs is so considerable that there can be no aoubl 
•bout it. We do not quote any passages, because this truth is now uni 
vertally recognised. 


ebould be obliged to live without human society. The 
subjunctive occurs in the same manner. 

Scripturus sim. 
Scripturus essem. 

Scripturus Jucrim, 

Scripturus sim and scripturus essem serve, at the same 
time, as subjunctives to the future scribam; hnt scrijJturus 
fuerim and scripturus fuissem are not used as subjunctives 
to the future perfect, scripsero. The infinitive scripturum 
fuisse denotes an action to' which a person was formerly 
disposed, and answers to the English ** I should have writ- 
ten,^' so that in hypothetical sentences it supplies the place 
of an infinitive of the pluperfect subjunctive ; e. g., in 
Sueton^ Caes.f 56 ; Pollio Asinius Caesarem eadstimat suas 
rescripturum et correcturum commentarios fuisse^ that js, 
that he would have re-written and corrected if he had 
lived longer. The infinitive with esse likewise first de 
notes an intention : scripturum esse, to intend writing, or 
to be on the point of writing ; but it then assumes, in or- 
dinaiy language, the nature of a simple infinitive future, 
for which reason it is incorporated in the table of conjuga- 
tions. For the particulars, see the Syntax, Chap« L XXVI . 

Note. — In the passive these gerundive tenses {temftora serandiva)^ as they 
may be called, are expressed by longer circumlocutions : in eo est, or futu- 
rum est tU epiatola «cn6aAir,.the letter is to be written, or about to be writ- 
ten ; in eo er(U, or futwrum erat tU epistola tqpberetur, the letter was to be 
written, or about to be written ; in eo erit, or frUurum erit ut epistola $criba 
' IMT, it will t^en be necessary for the letter to be written. 

[§ 170.] The participle future passive expresses (in the 
nominative) the necessity of suffering an action, and in 
combination with the tdnses of esse it likewise forms anew 
and complete conjugation (temper a necessitatis); e. g., 
amandus sum, I must be loved; amandu^s eram, it was 
necessary for me to be loved, and so on with all the tenses 
of esse. Its neuter, combined with esse and the dative of a 
person, expresses the necessity of performing the action 
on the part of that person, and may likewise be carried 
through all the tenses ; as, 

nUhi scribejtdum est^ I mUst 

mihi scribendum erat^ I was 

obliged to write. 
miki scribendum erit, I shall 

be obliged to write. 

mihi scribendum Juity I have 
been obliged to write. 

mihi scribendumjueratyl had 
been obliged to write* 

mihi scribendum fuerit^ I shall 
have been obliged to writa 

And so, also, in the subjunctive and infinitive: mihi sort 
\endum esse ; mihi scribendum fuisse. 







[§ 171.1 The irregulkiity of the verbs of this conjuga- 
tiou consists chiefly in this, that they take ui in the per* 
feet and Uum in die supine, like verbs of the second ; 
which i, however, is sometimes thrown out. It will be 
seen from the following list* that some verbs, in some form 
or other, again incline towards a ragular formation of their 
Crepo, crepuif crepttum, make a noise, tattle, creak. 

Compounds : concrepo, make an intense noise; d^tcrijpOt di£fer; mcrepa, 
chide, rattle. 

CubOy cubui, cubitum^ cuharey lie. 

There is some authority lor the perfect cubcndf incHbuvi. (See Ouden 
dorp on Gaes., B. Cw.f m., 63.) Compounds : <»ccHbo, recline at table ; 
exchbOf keep watch ; me«6o, lie upon ; recubo, lie upon the back ; mcu^o^ 
lie apart, and some others. When the compounds take an m before b, 
they are conjugated after tb^ third, but kieep their perfect and supine in 
«t, itum, (See Chap. XLVllI.) 

Domo, ui, itwn^ tame, subdue. 

Edamo and perdSmo strengtben the meaning. 

SoHO, ui^ itUTHj resound. (Participle santUums.J 

Consono, agree in sound ; dis^Sno, disagree in sound ; peraSnOf sounu 
through ; retonOf resound. {R§sanavitf Manil., t., 566.) 

Tono, ui (itum)^ thunder.* 

Ationo (active), strike with astonishment (participle att(mtu*)\ mton^ 
commonly- intransitive, make a sound (participle intonatua) ; circwntbnp. 

Veto, uiy ttum, forbid. ( Vetavit,, only in P^isius, V., 90.) 
Mico, ui (without supine), dart out, glitter. 

EmXcOf vif atum^ dart forth rays ; but dimico, fight, makes dimicavif atttm. 
Ffico, Jricui, Jricatum^ Budjrictum, rub. 

Defrico, infrico, perfrico, refrico, are formed in the same way. 

* It has not been the object to include in this list every irregular verb, 
especially compounds, but those only which are necessary in good pio*i& 
^len no meaning is assigned to a compound verb, it is because the 8env« 
is easily discoverable from that of the root and the pt'eposition vitk vinHi 
it is compounded. 



SecOy ui, sectum^ cut. (Part, sccaturtis,) 

DesecOf resecUf cut off; disseco^ cut in parts. 

Juvo;juvi, support, assist ; the supine jutum is rare {sea 
Tac, Ann., xiv., 4) ; but the -p^ticiple juvattirus is found 
in Sallust, Jug,y 47 ; and Plin., Epist,^ iv., 15. 

So, also, the compound adjiivo, adjUvi^ adjutvm^ in the participle adju 
turns (Li»'., xxxiv., 37), and adjuvatuniSt in Petron., 18. Frequentative, 
rtfijUto • 

Ldvo^ Idvi, lavatum^ lautum^ lotum^ lavarcy wash, or bathe, 

which is properly lavari. . . 

The infinitive lavere, whence the perfect lavi seems to come, is pre 
«Rrved in old Latin, and is found in poetry, e. g., Hon, Carwi., iii., 12, 
init., mala vino lavere. . * 

Neco, kill, is regular ; but from it are formed, with the 
same meaning, eneco^ atn^ atum, and enecuif enectum^ 
both of which forms are equally well established, but 
the participle is usually enecttis; intemeco has inter- 

From PlicOy fold, are formed applicoy avi^ atum^ and ut^ 
Uum ; so explico, avi, atum, unfold, explain ; implico^ 
implicate. Cicero regularly uses ajyplicavi and expli- 
cavi ; otherwise usage, on the whole, decides in favour 
of the perfect ui and the supine atum. But those de- 
rived from nouns in plex form the perf. and sup. regu- 
larly : supplico, duplico, mnltiplico. Of replico, whose 
perfect replicavi occurs in the Vulgate, replicatus only 
is in use (replictiis is an isolated form in Statins, Silv.^ 
iv., 9, 29). 

Poto, drink, is regular, except that the supine usually, in 
stead oi potatum, ia potum^ whence potus^ which is both 
active and passive, having been drunk, and having 
drunk. Compounds, appotus, active ; and epotus^ pass- 

Doy dedi^ datum^ ddre^ give. 

Cireumdoy surround ; pessundo, ruin ; aatiadoy give security ; venundo^ 
sell, are formed like do. The other compounds, addo, condot reddOf be> 
long to the third conjugation. (See Chap. XLYII.) From a second 
form dttOf we find in early Latin the subjunctive Jvtm, duis, dtdtf also in 
the compounds credo and perdo — creduam and credwritf perduim. ■ Cic, p. 
Reg, Deiot., 7 : di UperdvinU See ^162. 

« Co, steti, stdtum, stdre^ stand. 

The compounds have iii in the perfect ; e. g., consto, to conef^t of; ejf 
sto, exist, or am visible ; instOy insist ; obstOy hinder; persto, persevere; 
oroesto, surpass ; rtstOf remain over and above. Only those compound 
k1 with a preposition of two syllables retain eti in the perfect, viz., an 
*t»tn^ ^^cum*tOy intert^Of tuperato. The supine, which is mentioned espe 
riail* 'K w aint of the participle future, does not exist in all the com- 
potli > V » .Mover it is found it is Ctum. The supine praeatttum ui 


fraesto is certain in late authors only, whereas praestaturus is frequent 
Of dUtOf the perfect and supine are wanting. 

The active Yevhsjuro and coeno have a pardciplo with 
a passive form, but an active signification : juratus (with 
the compounds canjuratus ^.n^injurattis), one who has 
sworn: and coenatus^ one who has dined. . From tho anal- 
ogy of conjurattUf the same active signification was after- 
ward given to corispiratusj one who has formed a conspir- 
acy or joined a conspiracy. 



[§ 172.] The itregularity of verbs of the second conju 
gation consists partly in their being defective in their 
forms, and partly in their forming the perfect and su- 
pine, or one of diem, like verbs of the third conjugation, 
with regard to the first irregularity, there are a great 
many verbs in this conjugation which have no supine, 
that is, which not only have no participle perfect passive 
(which cannot be a matter of surprise, since their mean- 
ing does not admit of it), but also no participle future ac- 
tive. (See § 153.) The regular form of the perfect is ui, 
wid of the supine ttum ; but it must be observed, at the 
same time, that some verbs throw out the short i in the su- 
pine ; and all verbs which in the present have a v before 
eo undergo a sort of contraction, since, e. g., we find cdvi, 
cautum^ mstedid o£ cavui, cavitum; from caveo; but this 
can scarcely be considered as an irregularity,' since t^ and 
u was only one letter with the Romans. Respecting the 
lengthening of the vovrel in dissyllabic perfects, see § 18. 

We shall subjoin a list of the regular verbs of this con- 
jugation as exercises for the beginner, confining ourselves 
to the form of the present. • . 

CaUOf am warm. 

Inchoat. caietco. 
Careo, am without. 
Debeo, owe. ^ 

DoUot feel pain. 
£/a6eo, have. ^ 

Compounds : adhtbeo^ eohibeo, > 
&c., a being changed into t. . 
piceOf lie. 
Iacco^ am to be sold. 

> Not to be confounded with the 
impersonal /tee/, it is permitted. 
See Chop. LX. 

Mh-eOf merit. 
MSfuo, admonish. 
Noceo, injure. 
Pareot owBy (appear). 

Compound: oppareo, appear 
PlaceOf please. 
PraebeOf offer, afford. 
TSceot am silent. 

The partic. tacitua^ is commonlf 
an adjective. 
TerreOf terrify. 
VdleOf am well 


To these i:^gular verbs we may first add those o^ wliicb 
we spoke shortly before, viz. : 

[§ 173.] (a) Those which make the Perfect in vi instead 

of vui. • 

Caveo, cavi^ cautum, cavere, take care. 
PraecaveOf take precaution. 

Conniveoj niviy or nion (neither very common), no supine; 

close the eyes. 
FdveOffaviffautum^ am favourable. 
FoveOyfdvi,fot9im^ cherish. 
Moveo, mdvif mbtum, move. 

ConmSveo and permoveo strengthen the meaning ; amtte^ md avhmm 
veOf remoTe ; admomt^ bring to ; promoveoy bring forward ; rtmoive^ biiag 
back, or remove. 

Pdveo^ pdvi (no supine), dread. 

Hence the compound incboat. expavetco, eapam, is more coaunonly 
used, especially in the perfect. 

Voveo, vdvi, vatum, vow ; devoveOf devote with impreci^ 

Ferveoyfervi^ sndjerhui (no supine), glow, am hot. 

Fermtffirvatjfervire, after the third (comp. Virg., Oeorg.y i, 455, with 
QuintiL, i., 6, 7), is an archaism. The incnoatiTes of the third conji^ 
gation, effervneoy r^erveacoj have the perfect in vi and hm (vi is more ire 
quent in Cicero) ; m canferveacOf bm alone is known. 

[§ 174.] (h) Those which make the Perfect tn evi tii- 

stead qfvLi, 

DdeOf ddevij ddetum, extinguish, destroy. 
Fleo^ifievijjletumy weep. 
Neo^ nevi, netttm, spin. 

(From Pleojf comjneo, complevi, completum^ fill up; eaepleo^ 
impleo, J 

From oleOf grow, we have the compounds, ahcHeo, abol 
ish ; aholesco, cease ; adoleo^ addesco, grow up ; exoleo 
or eoBoiesco, and ohsoleo or obsoUsco^ grow obsolete ; all 
of which have evi in the perfect; but the supine of a^ 
oleo is abditum, of adolesco^ adultwn^ and the rest have 
etum : exolehim^ obsoLebwm, Besides ahoUtumy howev- 
er, there exist only the adjectives adtdtms, exdletus, 6b* 
soietus, ^ 

[§ 175.] fcj Those which tkrow out the short i in the 


Doceo, docutf doctum^ teach. 

Compounds: edouo nnd' perdoceo, strengthen the mnming : cbtfi •. 
teach otherwise. 


T%t€Ot Unui (tentum, rare), hold, keep. 

Absttneoy abstain ; auineo, keep occupied by or at a tiling ; amtinf 
keep together; detineo, lieep back; dittineOf keep asunder; retineo, re> 
tain ; nutmeOf keep upright. All these have in the WQipme Imimi, Per^ 
tineoy belong to, has no supine. 

Misceo^ miscui, mixtum or mistunif mix. 

Mixtum is better attested by MSS. than mUtum, Compounds are, m^ 
miaceOf commisceOf immi»ceo, permuceo, 

Torreo, torrui, tostum, roast. 

To these we may add, 

(Jenseo, censui, centum (participle abo ctntUusJ, estimate, 
believe. . * 

PercenMeo, enumerate, without supine. Of aeeenaeo, reckon with, wo 
find accenaut ; of succaueo, am angry, auccenntnu ; and recetueo, examine, * 
makes both recensum and neenntum, the latter of which is, perhaps, bet^ 
ter attested. 

[§ 176.] fdj Those which make the Perfect regyiarly 

in ui, hut have no Supine, 

Arceo^ arcui, arcere, keep off. 

But the compounds coerceo, coerce; exereeOf exercise, have a supiat 
in itum. 

Calleo, have a hard skin, am skilled in (callidusj. 

CandeOy shine, glow (Candidas), 

EgeOf want. Compound, indigeo. 

(From mineojt emmeo, stand forth. 

JFloreOy flouri^. 

Frojideo^ have foliage ; effrondui. 

HorreOf shudder, am horrified (horridus). 

Compounds : abhmreo, and a number of inchoatiyes ; as, horruc0fpm 

Langueo, am languid (languidtu). 

LateOf am concealed. 

Compounds : mterUOaOf ptrUuo, miblatto, 

Madeo^ am wet (madidtis). 

Ntteo, shine (rdtidus). 

Compounds : eniteoy thUmiteo, praemMt, 

OleOf smell. 
« Compounds : oftdteo and redSleo, have the smell of; tubctf mdl ft 

PaUeo, am pale. 

Pateo^ am open. 

RSgeOfBxn stiff (rigidua). 

Rubeo\ am red frubidusj, 

Sileo^ am silent. 

Sorheo, sorbui^ sip. 

Perf. sorpsif very rare. Compounds : abam mo and <r<orlsfc 


Sordeo, am dirty (sordidus)» 

SplcTideo, am splendid (splendidtts). 

Studeo, endeavour, study. 

Stupeo, am startled, astonished fstupidusj. 

Timeo, fear, (timidus), 

TorpcOj am torpid. 

TumeOf swell, am swollen (tumidus), 

VtgeOf am animated. 

VireOj am green, or flourish. 

Besides these, there is a number of similar verbs which 
are derived ifroln adjectives, atnd occur more rarely, and 
chiefly in the form of inchoatives, for the Latin language 
has 'gi'eat freedom in the formation of these intransitive 
verbs, and in that of inchoatives either with or without a 
primary form. Compare Chap. LII. 

The following are really irregular verbs, and follow tha 
analogy of the third conjugation : 

[§177.] 1. Verbs wldch make the 'Perfect in si and tlit 

Supine in sum. 

ArdeOf arsi, arsum, ardere, bum. 
HaereOf haesi, haesum^ cleave. 

Compounds : adhaereo^ cokaereOy mhaerto. 

fubeo, jussiy jussum, command. 

ManeOj mansij mansum, remain. (But mono, tis, flow.) 

Pertnaneo {permanes), wait ; remaneOf remain behind. 

MulceOy mulsi, mtds^fm, stroke, caress. 

The compounds aemulceo and permuleeo strengthen the meaning 
The participle permulsus is certain, but demulctui and permulitut like 
wise occur. * 

MulgeOy mulsiy mtdsum^ milk. 

Participle comp. emulsus. The derivative nouns mulctuM, Ha, the milk 
ing, mulctra, and miUctraUy show that formerly mulctttm also existed. 

Rideo, risij risum, laugh. 

Compounds: arrideo (arndes)^ smile upon or please : dendeo ancl <m- 
deOf laugh at, scorn ; avhrideo^ smile. 

Stuideo, suasi^ siiasum, advise. 

Dissttadeo, dissuade ; persuadeOf persuade ; but, like stiadeot with the 

TergeOy iersi^ tersum^ tergere, wipe ; is used also as a verb 

of the third conjugation : tergOy ter^iy tersum, ter^ere. 

Cicero uses Urgo more frequently as a verb of the third conxugation. 
whereas the compounds abstergeo^ detergeo^ extergeot incline more towards 
the second {abaiergeboy Cic, ad Q. Frat.t ii., 10), although in these com 
pounds, too, the forms of the third ai;^ not uncommon. 

Of denseo, the ancient and poetical form for denso, den 
tare condense (aoe Bentley on Horace, Carm., i., 28, 19), 


the perfect densi is mentioned by the grammarians, and 
the existence of a supine is attested by the adjective den- 

9US, ,. 

[§ 178.] 2. Verbs which make the Perfect in si, but have 

fU} Supine, 

Algeq^ alsif algere, shiver with oold. 

-The supine is wanting, but from it is demed the adjective tUntt, «, 
untf cold. 

Fulgeo^ftdsi,ftilgere, shine, am bright. (FvUgere is poet- 
Tnrgeo, turd (rare), swell. 
JJrgeo or urgueo^ ursi, press. 

3. yerbs toith the Perfect in si and the Supine in turn, 

Indtdgeo, indtddt indultum, indulge. 

Torqueo, torsi, torium^ twist. 

Compounds: corUorqueOf twist together; distorqueo, twist &way; extor* 
qtteo, wrest out or from. 

4. Verbs with the Perfect in xi and the Supine in turn. 

AugeOf 'auQcif auctum, increase. 
LUceo^ luasiy lucere^ shine ; has no supine. 
Lugeo, luxi^ lugere^ mourn ; has* no supine. 
Frigeo^frixi^frigere^ am cold ; has no supine. 

[§ 179.]- 5. Verbs with the Perfect in i and the Supine in 


Prandeo, prandi^ prdnsum^ dine. The participle pransus 

has an active signification : one who has dined. 
Sedeo^ sedi^ sessum, sit. 

' Asaiideo (asstdeg)^ sit by ; detideOf sit down ; eircumsedeo or eircumndea, 
surround; nuideo, sit upon; «i^9«r«edeo/do without ;']Mw«uleo, possess; 
disaideoj dissent ; praesideo, preside ; retidtt^, settle down. The la^t three 
have no supine. 

VideOf vidi, visum, see. 

Imrfdeo (mi^Etfet), euTy, aUctd; pmndeo, see through; prmividto, fore- 
see ; provideo, provide. 

StrideOf stridi, without supine. In -poetry stridere, * 

6. Verbs with a Reduplication in the Perfect* 

Mordeo, momordi, morsum, bite. . 

Pendeo, pependi, pcTisum, am suspended. 

Deptndeo, depend, and impeudeo, soar above, am impending, lose tbt 

Spondeo, spospondi, sponsum, vow. 

Dt$pondeOf despondi, nromise ; respondeo, retpondi, answer, tie like 
wiae without the reduplication. 


TondeOf tdtondi, tansum^ shear. 

The compounds lose the reduplication ; as, attimdeo, itrtmim. 
[§ 180.] 7. Verbs without Perfect and Supme, 

AveOf desire. Compare Chap. LIX., 9. 

Calveo^ am bald (ccuvus). 

CdneOf am gray (carwi)^ 

Clueo (also in the passive dueor^ and afler the third co» 
jugation, cluOf cluere)^ am called, is obsolete. 

Fia/teo, um- yellow fjlavusj, 

FoeteOf stink (ybetidtcsj, 

Hebeo^ am dull, stupid (hebes), 

Humeo^ am damp (numidusj, 

Liveo, am pale or envious (lividus). 

(Mmeo) immineo, to be imminent, threatening. Promt" 
ne(?, am prominent. 

MaereOf mourn fmaestusj, 

PoUeo, am strong. 

RemdeOf shine, smile. 

Scdteo, gush forth (Scatere in Lucretius). 

SquaUo^ am dirty (sqtudidus). 

Vegeo^ am gay (vegetusj* 

Oieo^ ciere^ is the same word as the rare and obsolete cto^ 

cire^ stir up ; both make the perfect citrt^ according to 

the fourth conjugatiim ; in the supine they differ in 

quantity, cieo making cttnenif and do, cUum. 

Note. — ^In the compoonds, too, e. g,, condao, eawtco, the foims of the sec 
ond and fourth conjugation cannot be separated; but we must observe 
that, in the signification of *'to call," tibe forma of the fourth are preferred, 
e. g., imperf. dbam, cirem ; infinit dri ; the participles concfftw and eaecUu* 
signify *' excited ;" wheieas egcUua means '* callea out.** Perdeo and iri' 
cieo retain the signification of " to excite,** hence nercitue and mcitue; but 
aedrft to. call, towards, summon or invite (of whicn the present indicative 
does not occur), has only acdtue. Derived from citum are : ato, quick ; the 
frequentative citare, and hence cxdtto, tnctto, and eusdlto. 

. [§ 181 ] 8. SemideponeiUs. (See above, § 148.) 

Audeo, ausus sum, venture. (Partic. future ausnrus.J 

The ancient iutnre subjunctive (see ^ 1^ mtmm, 4ntsi$, eamt, tnutnt, 
is a remnant of the obsolete perfect oust. The participle ausiu and it a 
coihpounid inautus are used m poetical llhguage with a passive sign'U 

Gaudeo, gavisus sum, rejoice. (Partic. fut. gavisurusj » , 
SoleOf soUtus sumf am accustomed (to do something). 
The impersonal compound aewlet signifies ** it usually kappeni.* 




In the list of verbs of this conjugation it seems to be 
still more necessary than in the preceding one to include 
those verbs which, according to Chs^ter AL., form their 
perfect and supine regularly. We oivide them into sev 
eral classes according to the characteristic letter which 
precedes tiie o in the present, agreeably to tiie metiiod 
which nas long since been adopted in Grreek grammars. 

f§ 182.] 1. Verbs which have a Vowel hefhre o, including 

those in vo. 

The following have tiie Perfect and Supine regular : 

Acuo, acui, acutumf sharpen. 

Exacuo and peracuo, strengtnen the meaning ; praeaeuo, sharpen at ttM 

Arguo, accuse, convict of (perf passive in the latter sense 
usually convictus, from convincerej. ArgHtus, as an ad- 
jective, signifies "clear.'* 

Coarguo, the same ; redargm, refute a charg& 

ImbuOf to ^p, imbue. 

InduOf put on ; exHo, strip off. 

Into (participle luiturusj, pay, atone for. 

Abbio nnd etuo. wash off; jhmuo, defile ; dHuo, refate, are derired Aom 
anoUier Zuo Qavo), and all make the sapine in latum, 

Minna^ lessen. 

Coiranimio, deawiuOf difnmuo, hnmmuOf strengthen the meaning. 

^Nuo, nod, does not occur ; from it are formed) 

Abnuo, refuse \ atmuot assent ; innuo, allude, or refer to ; renmo, de 
cline ; all of which haTe no supine ; abnuo alone has a participle iii* 
tare, abmtUurus. 

Brno (oE^iife ruiimn^ ndiwus, at least is derived from it : 
rutum occurs only in coinpounds, r^id is otherwise ob- 
* eolete), fall. 

DirHo, dtrUit dirUtum, destroy ; obruo, oyerwhelm ; proryo, rush fcv 
ward. Corruo, fall down ; and hrruo, rush on, have no supine. 

8puo^ spit. 

C^HMpua, «pit on ; despito^ reject with disgust 

Statuo, establish. 

Conatituo and instUuot institute; resttuo, re-establish tubtUtm, tf 
tablish instead of: deHUuo, abandon. 



StemuOf sneeze (without supine) ; the frequentative 

nuto is more commonly used. 
Suo^ sew. 

ConsttOf sew together ; disruo and renuf, unsew. 

TVibuo^ allot to. 

AUrUntOf the same ; dittribuot divide ; contribuo^ contribute 

Solvo, solvit solutum, loosen. 

Abaolvo, acquit ; ditsolvo, dissolve ; exMolvo, release ; pertolvo, pay 

Volvo, roll (firequentative volutoj. 

volvo, unroll ; involvo, roll up ; pervolvo, read through. 
The following are without a Supine : 

Congrtto, congrui, agree, and ingruo, penetrate. The sim- 
ple verb (gruo or ruofj does not exist 

metuOf metui, fear. fTimeOy likewise without supine.) S<i 
Priscian. But metutum occurs in Lucret., v., 1139. 

Pltio, pluvi, usually impersonal,' it rains. Priscian kno\ti 
only the perfect ^Zt^i, which often occurs in Livy. Cha 
risius mentions pluxi, Impluvi or implui are doubtful 
The comp. complito ondperplzio do not occur in the i»er 

The following are irregular : 

[§ 183.] Capio, cepi, captum, capers, take hold o£ 

The compounds change a into T, and in tne supine a into e, except an 
teeapio. AcdfjpiOf receive ; excipio^ receive as a guest, succ^d ; recipio, 
recovier; stucipiOf underlie; decipio, deceive; peneipiof ccMnprehend* 
praecipio, give a precept. 

Fdcio, feci, factum, do, make. 

AreJadOf dry up ; asauefado and con$uefaeio, accustom ; cahfouna and 
tepefado, warm; frtgefado, cool; labefftcio, make to totter; pattfaao, 
open ; aatiafado, satisfy. These have, in the passive, -Jto^ -foetus nan^ 
•jieru But those which change a into f form their own passive in 'Jieior, 
and make the supinejn -fectum : afffeio, affect ; con/Setb and perficio, com- 
. ress; 

person, and not by Cicero. Defit, it is wanting, is common in the comic 

Other compounds of f ado follow the first conjugation :*ampUficot moc- 
rifico, and the deponents gratificoTf lud\ficor» - . - 

JdciOfjecifjactum, throw. 

The compounds change a into t, and in the supine into e, excent «m. 
perjadOf of which, however, tuperjectvm also is found. Ahjido, tnrow 
away; adjido, add; dejido, throw down ; ejido^ throw out ; injido^ throw 
in; objido, throw against; rejido, throw back; transjido or trajido, 
throw or carry across. ' These compounds are sometimes found with i 
instead afji: abicere^ imcere^ rdcere (in the last d is a diphthong in Virg., 
Ed.t iii , Sio : a flumine rdce capellas) ; and this pronunciation was with 
the ancients much more frequent, or, perhaps, the common one, for in 
MSS. it is written so almost overvwhere: and Priscian mentions a form 


ic!o as synoDymous with jado. No certain conclusion, however, can be 
come to, as the most ancient MS^ such as the Codex Mediceut of Vir- 
gil, have a simple t where the length of the preceding syllable showi 
the existence of the conscmant j. 

[§ 184.] The following have x in the Perfect : 

(From the obsolete lacio, entice, of which lacto is iho 
frequentative), allicio^ exi, ec^t^m, allure ; illido, entico in; 
pelliciOfledA astray; but dido makes dicui, eUcitum^ dro^f 


(From spedo, xi, ctum, see, of which the frequentative is 
spectoj, aspido, exi, ectum, look on; conspido^ the same; 
despido, look down, despise ; dispido and perspido, un- 
derstand; inspido, look into; respido, look back; sus- 
pido, look up, reverence. 

Fluo,^uxi, flticium^ flow. 

Aj^wfj flow in ; eonfiuo, flow together ; effiuo^ flow out ; interflvo, flov 

SimOy siruxii strudum^ build, pile. 

Cmutruo and exMtruo, build up; destruot pull down; mstruo, set m 

Vwo, vixi^ vidum, live, 

[§ 185.] Other Irregularities. 

Fddio,yodifJbssum^ dig. 

Effodio, dig out ; confodio and perfodio, dig, pierce through ; Muffodf, 
undermine. • 

Fugio,yugiifiigitum, flee. 

Aufigio and effugiot flee away, escape ; confugio and perfugio, take 

Oupio, 'tvi, 'Hum, desire. 

DiscuDio; yereiyw, strengthen the meaning. Coneuph only in the 
participle ctmcupuns^ otherwise concupitco. 

RapiOf rdpuif raptum, rob, snatch. 

Arrtphf arripuit arrepttmif seize ; abripio and eripio^ snatch away ; 
•daipiOf plunder ; turripu>, steal clandestinely. 

PSrio^ peperi^partum, bring forth. (But the particip. fut. 

act. pariturusj Lucretius has pariri. 
Qudtio Cquassi is not found^, quassum, shake. 

CcndUiOfiunfUMMmi shake violently: discutio, shake asunder; excutio, 
shf^ce out, off (fig. examine) ; incutio, drive into ; percutio, strike ; r^per-- 
cutiot rebound. 

Sapio, tvi and ui (no supine), am wisd. 

Denpio (without perfect), am foolish ; retipio^ have a taste (rf, or be> 
come wise again. 

(From the obsolete present coepioj, coepi and coeptus sums 
r^eptum (coepeTe)y have begun. See § 221. 



[§ 186.] 2. VERBS IN "do" anl "to.** 

The following are regular: 
ClaudOf dausi, clautum, cUmdere^ close. 

C(mdiido, shut up, conclude ; excludo and tedudo, shut out , ti 
shut in, are all derived from a form dudo which is still in use. 

JHvtdo, divlsif divlsum, divide. 

Laedo, injure. 

AUido, strike against ; ilRdo, strike upon ; colUdo, strike togetbrn - 
elido, strike out. . ' 

Ludo, sport. 

CoUOdOf play with ; allildo, play upon ; eludo, dektdo, and illudo, ridl 

Plaudo^ si, sum, clap. 

Applaudo, applaud. The other compounds (with a different proiiun 
ciation) have.-odo, •d«t, -d«itm ; as, exjilodo, explode ; complodOf clap the 
hands ; mpplodo, stamp with the feet. 

Rado, shave, scrape ; so in ahrado, circumrado, derado^ 
. erado; corrado, scrape together. 
Rodo^ gnaw. 

Abrodo and derodOf gnaw off; orrocio, nibble; eircumrodOf nibble all 
round ; perrodo, gnaw through. 

Trudo, thrust, with its compounds; detrudo, thrust down; 

extrudOf thrust out ; protrado, thrust forward. 
Vado (no perfect or supine), go. 

But wadOf evasi, evasum, escape ; invado, attack ; pervadOf go throuj^ 

[§ 187.] The following are irregular : 
CaJ With a Reduplication in the Perfe^. ' 
Cddo, cecidi, casum^ fall. 

Of the compounds, these have a supine : incido, incidi, mcamm, fall in 
or upon ; ocadot set ; rectdo, &11 back. The rest have none : conddo, 
sink together ; deddo, fall down ; exiOdo, fall out of; accidit, it happen* 
(used most commonly of a misf<»tune). 

Caedo, cecidi^ caesum, cut. 

Ab$cido, ab$cidif tdudsunif cut off; coruSdOf cut to pieces ; inddo, cat 
into ; ocddo, kill ; reddOf cut away. So decido, ewUdo, pratcldo, wpd 

PedOf pepedi fpediiumj, TrepdeoBcu. 
Pendoy pependi^ pensum^ weigh. 

■ Appmdo, appendif appenntm, weign out to ; expendo, spend, also coii> 
aider, like perpendo; nuptndo, hang from; dependo, pay; impe»d9, «■§ 
ploy upon or in something. See ^ 179. 

Tendo, tetendi, tens^um <md tentum, stretch 



JSxlmdo, ottendOf pntendOf and retendo have both supiues ; btit ear- and 
protentum are more freqaent ; but ostensum. Retentua is foand only in 
Ovid, Metanu, iii, 166, retennu only in Phaedrus, iii., 14, 5. DeUndo haa 
Heteiutu^ in Caes., B. C, iii., 85 : this participle does not elsewhere oc« 
cor. The other compounds have only turn in the supine :. attendo (sc. 
animum), attend; contendo (sc. in«), strive; dUtendo, separate, or enlarge 
by stretching ; tntendOf strain ; obtendo aiui praetendot commoiUy used in 
the figurative sense of alleging ; aubiendo, stretch beneath. 

Tundo^ tutudi^ iunsum and tuntm, beat, pound. 

1*he compounds have only t&sum ; contundo, contHdif contuswn, poucd 
small ; exHmdo (figurative), elaborate ; obtundo and retundo, blunt. 

Credo^ credidi^ crecUtum^ believe. 

Accredo, aceredidi, give credit to. 

The compounds ofdo^ except those mentioned in § 171 

Condo, concSdif candUvmt build, conceal ; abdo, obdRdi. hide. So addo, 
add ; dedo, give up ; tdOf give out, publish ; perdo, ruin, lose ; reddo, give 
back, render, with an adjective of quality ; trado, deliver ; vendoj sell. (The 
passive vendi, except the participles venditut a»d vendendu$t is rare, and 
occurs only in late writers ; ventre is used instead. See ^ 215. But ab- 
ncondo appears in the perfect more frequently without the reduplication, 
abecendi, than with it, obecondidL) 

[§ 188.] (TtJ Making di in the Perfect^ and sum t» ike 


Aoeendo, incendo, succendo^ -cendi^ -censum, light, kindle. 

Cudo, forge. 

ExcOdo anAprocUdOf fashion, hammer out. 

DefendOf defend, ward off. 
Edo, eat. See § 212. 

dSxedb and comedOf -hU, -esum (but also cameetusy, consume. Und. 

Mando (perfect very rare), chew. 
Offendo, offend. 

Prehejtdo^ seize ; in early times frequently con&actoJ 
into prendo. 

Apprehendo, comprehendo^ lay hold of (figurative), understand ; depre 
hendo, detect, seize in the fact ; reprehendo, blame. 

ScandOf climb. 

Ascendo and eeeendo, climb up ; descendOf descend ; eonscendo and m 
edendo, mount, embark. 

Strtdo (also strtdeoj, strldi (no supine), grate, make a 

harsh noise. 

FwndOyfudi^fOsum, pour. 

D^fmdo^ pour out, spread abroad ; effundo, pour over ; profunda, waste 
afftmdOf antfund^f effimdo, injundo, 

[§ 189.] fcj Other Irregularities^ especially that of a doubU 

s in the Supine, 

Cedo^ cesstf cessum^ yield, go. 

Abecedo, go away ; accedOf go to ; anteeedo, surpass ; eme»4o, give way 
deetdo, go away; diecedo, itparate myself; excedo go ouk, iactio,muck 



mtarcedo, come b jtv eeh, interpose ; recedo retreat ; tuceedOf come inte 
one's place. 

V'indo^fidi^Jissum, split. 
DiffindQt diffidif split asunder. 

Scindo, sctdif scissum^ cut. 

ConscindOf consctdit consdssum, tear to pieces ; e. g., vcstem, epistolam , 
discindoy mtersdndo (e. g., pontem), perscindo, and prdscindo have similar 
meanings. Rescindoj annuL . Respecting. the forms ofabsdndo, cut o^ 
and exscindo, destroy, there is considerable, doubt. According to (vro- 
novius on Livy, xliy., 5, and Drakenborch on Silius ItaL', xt., 473, twci 
analogous formations are now generally distinguished: abtcindoyobtcidiy 
absciasumf and exscindOf exscidt, exsdstum ; and abtcissum and excissum are 
said to occur where the present is abscindoj exscindo ; but abscisum and 
excisum where absddo and exocio are derived from caedo. But this sup- 
position is contradicted by usage ; for we find, e. g., urbes exds<B, although 
exsdndere wbem is a frequent expression ; and sdl the MSS. of Horace, 
Serm.f ii., 3, 303, have caput absdsum, although we may say absdndere 
caput. In short, our opinion is, that the forms absdsnm and exadssum 
do not exist at all, because in pronunciation they are the same as ab- 
sdsum and Arctium, from absddere and exdderct whose signification is not 
very diflferent ; and, moreover, that the perfect exsndi^ also, is j^t founded 
on any authority, since the » by which it is distinguished is not heard 
In pronunciation, and is better not introduced m writing. Reacting 
the pronunciation and orthography, see ^ 6, and Chap. L.XVI.' Thua 
there remain only absdndOf abscidif absdnd!eret and exdndo^ exdndere. 

Frendo (the perfect does not occMr)^ Jressum and Jresum, 

gnash with the teeth ; QlaoJrendeo,Jrendere. 

MetOf messui, messum, cut, reap. 

DemetOy cut off. The perfects messtd and demeasui are not common 
in the sense of reaping, messemfed is more commonly used. 

Miito, misi, missum^ send. 

AdmittOf admit, commit; amitto, lose; committor intrust, commit a 

fault ; demitto and dimitto, dismiss ; emitto^ send forth ; immilto, send in, 

against ; intermittOf omit ; omitto and praetermitto^ leave out ; permitto, 

permit ; promitto, promise ; remitto, send back ; submiito, send up, send 


Pando, pandiy passum (pansum rare), spread abroad. 

Expando has expansum ana expassum ; dispimdo only dispansum. 

Veto, pefivi (in poetry, especially in compounds, petiij, 
petUum^ ask, seek. 

Appeto and expeto, strive for ; oppeto^ encounter ; repetOt repeat, feeek 
again ; competo, meet together, correspond.. 

Sido (the perfect and supine usually from sedeoj, sit down 

The compounds, too, usually take the perfect and supine from aedeo. 

considOf consedif conseasum ; so aaaido, seat myself beside ; aubaido^ sink ; 

inaidOf sit Upon ; deaido and reaidoy seat myseif down. But ihb form atdi 

cannot be entirely denied^ either in the simple verb or its compound*. 

SistOf sfiti (obsolete), stdium, stop (whence status J, but 

sistOy in a neutral sense, makes the perfect and supina 

from stare. 

The compounds are all intransitive, and have srtfi, atifum ; aubaisto 
subailtij aubstitum, stand stil ; absisto (no supine) and deaiato^ desist ; aa 
nato, place myself beside' *'onshu, halt, consist; existo, come fortk 


(pert exist) ; insisto, tread upoa ; obsisto and resittti, resist , persisto, pet 
8i8t. Those compo inded with dissyllabic prepositions may make the 
perfecl in sieti^ e. g., circumsteti in Suet., Caes.^ 82 ; Tacit., Ann., xiii., 52. 

Ste7'tOy stertui (no supine), snore ; the perf. sterti rests on 
the authority of the old reading in Ov., Her^ viii., 21, 
VertOj vertif versum^ turn. 

' Adverto and converto, turn towards ; animadverto (aniinum adverlo), turn 
attention to ; overto, turn from ; ever/o, destroy ; perverto and mbverto, 
^ DevertOy turn in to a house of entertainment ; praeverto, anticipate 

and reverto, turn back ; are used in the present, imperfect, and future 
as deponents more commonly than as actives. 

Ftdoj/Uus 9um,/idere, trust. 

So conf»do, confide ; diffido^ distrust ; which havd rarely confldi, dijfi' 
Mt in the perfect. 



[§ 190.] 3. VERBS IN " BO" AND " PO." 

Regular are : 

CUubo (glupd)^ gluptum (at least, dcgluptum is ibund)^ 

glubere, peel. 
Niho, cover, am married (applied only to the female). 

participle nupta, one who is married. 

ObnUboy cover over. 
Scribo^ write. 

Descnbo, copy ; adscribo, inacribo, praescribo, &.C. 

CarpOf pluck. 

Ccncarpo and discerpo, tear asunder ; decerpo, gather. 

Jflepo, creep. 

Arr^, creep up tp ; irrepo, obrepo, stdnrepo, prorepo. 

ScalpOf grave with a pointed tool, or scratch with the fin- 

Sculpo, work with the chisel. 
ExcidpOf cut out ; insculpOf engrave. 

SerpOy creep. The supine has not yet been found. 

InserpOi proserpo. 

[§191.] The following are irregular : 

The compounds of cvhare, to lie, which take an m with a 

change of meaning; those which do not change the 

simple cuhare denote " to lie ;" the compounds of the 3d 

Conjugation commonly signify "to lay one's self down." 
Aecumbfi, -cubvi, -cubitum, recline at table : incumbo^ lean upon, applj 
to something ; ptvcumbof lie down; succumbo fall under : occwnbo (suppv 
m$rtem\ die. 


BibOf bthi, hibttum, drink. 
EUbo, imb'lbo. 

LamhOf lamhi (lamhitum^ Priscian), lamhere, lick, 
Rumpo^ rupi, ruptum^ break, teai\ 

Abruff^i break off; enmpo, break out; corrwnpOf destroy; intemtmjt% 
interrupt ; imtmpoj break in ; permmpo, break through ; prortmqto, brenl 
. forth. 

ScdhOf scahif scahere, scratch with the finger. 
StrepOf strepui, str^jHtutn, make a noise. 


ED AS A vowel), BEFORE " O." 

Regular are : 
(Jingo, cinxi^ cinctum, dngere^ gird, surround. 

Accingo, in the passive, or me, has the same meaning ; discingo, ungiru 
and others. 

From Jligo^ which rarely occurs, are formed : 

Afi^g^f strike to the ground ; ctmfiigo^ fight ; injUgo, strike upon. Pn 
fiigo belongs to the first conjugation. 

Fiigo (supine regular, frictum^ rarely frixwm)^ roast, 


Jungo, join. 

Adjungo and con/un^o, join to, with; disjungo and aejungOj separate* 
stdtjungOf annex. 

Lifigo, lick. (Hence ligurio or ligurrio,) 
Mtmgo, blow the nose (rare) ; emungo, 
Plango, beat, lament. 
iJ%o, rule, guide. ' 

ArrigOj arraei, arrecttmif and erigo, raise on high ; corrigOt amend; ding{\ 
direct ;porrigOf stretch out. Pergo (for perrigoSf perrexif ptrrecttan, go on 
eurgo (lor 8urrigo)f surrexi, surrectumf rise ; and nence a$8urg0f eonsurge^ 
eanirgOf insurgo, 

Sugo, suck, exugo. 
Tego^ cover. 

Contego and obtegOf cover up ; detego and retego, uncover ; proUgo, pio 

Tingo or Hnguo, dip, dye. 
TTngo or unguo^ anoint. 

Perungo strengthens the meaning * inungo, anoint. 

SUngtw^ put out (has no perfect or supine, and is of ravs 


Con^oondfl : extmguo and restmguo^ -inxi, 'inctwn ; so dutingu» aod 
tnstinguo, though from a different root, the Greek arlicj. Only the par 
ticiple instinctus is used in the sense of " spurred on, inspirea," ana no 
other tense is found (otherwise inatigare is used). 

VrahOf draw. 

Perfro^ strengthens the meaning; attraho, contrahOf detraho, eaetraho^ 
protrahot retraho ; subtrahoj Withdraw secretly. 

Veko, carry (active) ; frequent., vecto, ^as, 

AdvehOf carry to ; inveko, carry or hring in. The passive of this verk 
vehor, vectus sum, vehi, is best rendered by a neuter verb of motion. So 
drcumvehoTt travel round ; praetervehor, sail past ; titveAor, inveigh against. 
These verbs, therefore, are classed among the deponents. 

Hyico^ say. 

AddicOf adjudge ; contradico, edico, indieo ; mterdioo, forbid ; praedico» 

Duco, guide, lead, draw. 

AbdUco, adducOf circumduco ; condttcOf hire ; deduoo, diducOf edueo, inducOf 
introduco, obduco, perduco, produa>, reduco ; seduco, lead aside ; subdtk:d 

Coquo^ coodf coctum, dress. 

Concoqtto, digest ; decoquo, boil down, squander. 

|§ 193.] Irregular in the Supine, throwing out n, or 

assuming x. 

Fingo,Jlnad, Return, feign. 

Vonfingo, the same ; affingo, falsely ascribe ; effrngo, imitate ; r^ngo 
fashion anew. 

Mingo (a more common £}rm ot the present is meiojt 

minxiy mictum, make water. 

Pingo^ 2^nad, pictum^ "p^int. 

J^ipingo, represent by painting ; appingOf expingo. 

Sfringp, strinxi, strictum^ squeeze together. 

AftringOt draw close ; constrmgOf draw together ; dfstringo, draw out * 
distringo, draw asunder ; obstringo, bind by obligation ; peratringo, ridi- 

Flgo^JixifJixum^ fasten. 

Affigo, affix ; transfigo, pierce through. ' • 

Verbs in cto, in which t only strengthens the form of the 


Flecto, flexi, flexum^ hend. Comp. infecto. 

Necto, next and nexui^ nexum, bind. ' 

PectOf pexi, pexum, comb. 

Plecto, without perfect and supine, from the Greek rcXiiaadi^ 
strike ; usually only in the passive, plector^ am punish- 
ed, smart for. Another plecto, from the Greek ttA^kw, 
twist, is obsolete as an active, but forms the foundation 
of the deponents: amplector, complect4)r ; participle am« . 
plexus i complexus. 


Of ango, anxiy torment ; and ningo, ninxi snow, nn supin* 

IS found. 
Of clarigo^ ring loudly, neither perfect nor supine ; ac« 

co^rding to analogy, the former would be clanxi. 

[§ 194.] The following are irregular in the formation of 

the Perfect : 

(a) Taking a Reduplication. 

Parco, peperci, parsum, spare ; parsi is rare, and an arch&> 
ism ; parcitum is uncertain. 

The distinction is commonly made, that, in the sense cf sparing life, 
health, peperci, parcitutHt in that of sparing money, parsif parstan, are 
used ; but the distinction cannot be carried out, for the sense is, in fact 
the same, viz., to consume as little as possible of anything. Parc9 oi 

. comparcOf -parti or -versif 'parsttntf to accumulate by saving, with the ac- 
cus., occurs, indeed, in comedy ; but this use of the word is very rare, 
and does not seem to have been common in ordinary life, where othei 
expressions were used, such as pecuniam facert^ or injfutttros usus aUR- 
gare, and parco retained its dative and its ordinary meaning. 

Pungo, pupugi, punctum^ pierce. 

The compounds have in the perfect punxi ; as, comptwgoy di^mngOf and 
interpungOf distinguish with points. 

Tango, tefigif tactum^ touch. 

Attingo and contingOf •/igt, 'tactunty touch ; contingitt conttgit ; obtingtc, 
' obtigit (as impersonals), it falls to the lot ; usually in a good sense. 

Pdngo^ in the sense of strike, drive in, panxi, (obsolete 
pegij^ paTictum ; in the sense of bargain, pepigi^ pac- 
tum. In this sense paciscor is employed in the present. 

The compounds havepe^'i pactum : as, compingo^ fasten together ; im 
pingo. So, also, oppangOf oppegi^ strike upon. Of depango_ and repango 
the perfect and supme are found in the classics. 

[§ 195.] (h) Without changing the Characteristic Letter 

Ago, egi, actum, agere, drive. 

Cogo {coago)i cdegif coactian^ drive together, force ; perago^ cany 
through ; oKjo, drive away * adigo^ ^go^ redigo^ tubigo^ transigo. Pro- 
digo, -egi (wimout supine), squander ; arningo^ am irresolute, doubt, and 
satago {satis ago)t am busy,«re both without perfect and supine. 

Dego, dcgi (rare), no supine, spend fvitam, aetatemj. 
Frango,fregifractulijr, break. 

Confringo and perfringo strengthen the meaning ; effringo and n/ringo 
break open 

LegOf legi, ledum, read. (But lego, €u, send off.) 

So perlegOf praetego, with those changing c into t ; as, colRgOy deligOf eti 
gOt and seligoy are conjugated. ' But diligo, intelligo (obsolete intdtigo) 
and rugUgo (obsolete negtigo); have -exi in the peifect. The perfects in 
tellegi and negUgi are uncertain or unclassical. 

. too or ido, id, ictum, strike, in connexion with jfbedus, 
Priscian (p. 877 and 886) mentions both fonns, but 

THiftD conju<;ation. 161 

Bothing can be decided, as icit only occurs in the pres 

ent, and iciunt in Tacitus (Ann., xi., 9) is only a wrong 

conjecture for fadunU Otherwise feiio is used in the 

present instead. 

Vinco^ vtci, victum, conquer. 

Convincoj persuade; devincOf overcome; evmcOf carry a*pcinty escab 
lish by argument. 

Linmeo, liqui, leave (no supine), chiefly used ir poetry. 

The compounds relinquOf derelinquot delinquOf have Uctum in the supine 

[§ 196.] fcj Perfect si, Supine sum. 
Mergo, mersi, mersum, dip. 

MmergOj demergOt and immergOf submergo. 

Spargo, sparsi, sparsum\ scatter. 

AspergOf conspergo, and reapergo, -ersi, -ersunif besprinkle ; experg9^ 
sprmkle abroad. ' 

Tergo, tersi^ tersum^ wipe* (See above, § 177.) 
VergOf vergere, incline towards, without perfect and su 


f§.197.] 5. VERBS WHICH HAVE "L, M, N, r" BEFORE "O •* 

■ i 

Regular verbs in mo, 

Como, compsif comptumf comere^ adorn. 

Demo, take away. 

Promo, bring out. 

DepromOi exprdmo, the same in signification. 

Sum>o, take. 

AbsQmo and consumOf consume ; asaumo, desumo, 

TemnOf temnere, despise (poetical). 

Contemno, corUempsi, contemptum, the same mearing. 


[§ 198.] faj Conjugated according to the Analogs/ of tht 

Second Conjugation. 

AlOf alui, alitum (or altum), alere^ nourish. 

AUu» occurs in Cicero and Sallust; afterward alUus becomes th« 
common form, as in Livy and Val. Maximus. See Garatoni on Cic, p, 
Plane., 33. 

Colo, colui, ctdtum, till. 

Excdlo and percolo strengthen the meaning ; vncUlo, inhabit a country. 

Consulo, consului, cofisultum, ask advice. 
Molo^ mciui, moliium, grind. 

168 i^aTIN geammab. 

Oxulo^ occuluif occtdtum^ conceaL 
FremOfJremuifJremiiumf murmur. 

AdfrenWf confremo. 

Gemo, gemui^ gemitum, groan. 

Congemo {congemisco)^ ingema (ingemisco), w, no supine lamoit. 

l^emo^ tremui (no supine), tremble. 

Contremo strengthens the meaning. 

Vonw^ vomuif vomitumy vomit. 

JSwmOf revomo. 

Crigno, beget, has (from the obsolete genoj, genui^ gtn> 


IngignOf implant ; progignOf bring forth. 

Pono^postd (posivi ohs.)^ positumj place. 

Antepono, prefer; aj^fxmo, place by; comporw, arrange; depono^ lay 
down; disponoy set out, or in order; exponoy explain; oppono, oppose; 
postpono, to place after ; praepono, prefer ; tepono^ set (m one side. Re* 
specting the short o in the perfect and supine, see ^ 18, 3. 

(From the obsolete cello J^^ 

ArUecellot exceUo^ praecello, m (without supine), surpass ; but percttlo 
percUli, perctdstan, strike down. 

[§ 199.] f^J Forming the Perfect taith Reduplication, 
Cano, cecini, cantum, canere^ sing. 

Succino, succtmUf succentunii sing to ; so ocano (or occano)^ sing, sound 
against ; condnoy im, harmonize, or, in an active sense, begin a song, 
without supine, but the substantire cvnoentua is derived from it. • Of 
accino, itUercinOj and recino {or recano) no perfect or supine is found ; but 
from accino we have the suDstantive accentus. 

Curro, cticurri, cursum^ run. 

The compounds cuxurro^ deaaro, excwrot incurro, percitrrOf praecurr^t 
and others, sometimes retain, but more frequently drop the reduplica- 
tion in the perfect. 

Fallojjefellifjalsumy cheat. 
ReJfellOf refelli (no supine), refute. 

Pello, pepulif jndsum, drive away. 

Appello^ apptUii apptdsumt come to land. In the same way are con 
jugated compellOf urge, compel ; depeUo^ propeUOf repeUo, dnve away 
expeUo, drive out ; impello and perpeuOf urge on. 

. [§ 200.] fcj Making vi in the Perfect. 

CemOf crevi, cretum, separate, see, perceive. In the sense 
of seeing; perceiving, the verb has neither perfect nor 
supine. The perfect crevi is used in juristical Ian* 
guage in the sense of decrevi^ and in the phrase heredi* 
tatein cemere^ for hereditatem adire. 

Compounds: Decemo^ decrevif decretuntf decree; so diseemo, eacenm, 
aecemot separate, distinguish. 

f, Uvi (or livi)^ litum, smear. 

Mfifno i7/i>H>, perlinot obUno (participle obRtut, not to be coofowMWI 

Tll»l> CUNiUGATION. 169 

with obRtus, from o6l<vMcor), perHno, besmear. There is alao a regulai 
yerb of the fourth conjugation of the same meaning, from which the 
compounds oZZmtb, circuaUiniOf iUiniOf and others used by later writers, 
are aerived. 

Sino^ sivi, fitum^ allow. In the perfect subjuijctive we 
find nrim, siris, sirit, along with siverit. (Sitiis, situ- 
ated, is perhaps derived from this yerb.) 

Detifno, de»wi and dem (at least, dent for deaiit in Martial, see ^ 160. 
note, for desierunt is no proof), desttum, cease. Desittu tMt is also used 
as a perfect with the innn. passive, like coeptus e$u (Ses ^ 221.) 

SpemOf sprevi^ spretum^ despise. 

Stemo^ stravif stratum^ stretch out on the ground. 

Cotutemo, irutemo, spread out (bnt constemn, as, frighten) ; prottemo, 
throw down ; tubstemo, spread under. 

SerOf in the sense of sowing, has sevi, satum ; in that of 

arranghig and connecting together it is said to have 

seruif sertum^ but these forms of the simple verb do not 

occur, though serta^ garlands, is derivea from sertum. 

The compounds are variously conjugated according to their meaning. 
OmsSro and insero make -id, -erhtm, in tne sense of joining ; -m, 4tum, in 
the sense of sowing. The following compounds are used only in the 
sense of joining : 2>e«ero, dissero, exserOf and accordingly make only 
send, sertum. That the verbs serOf sevi, and sero, send^ are roaliy the 
same, is proved by the interchange of mserere and oonserere in good 
authors, of which any dictionary may furnish examples. 

TirOf trivif tritum^ rub. 

Cwtero, rub to pieces ; attiro, rub away, injure (i^rfect also (Menu) . 
extero, remove by rubbing. 

[§ 201.] fdj Other Irregularities, 

VMo^ velh, and vtdsi (but more frequently velli)^ vulsum^ 

pluck out. 

The compounds convellOf revello, and divello have only velU in the per 
feet ; but aveUo and evello have also avtdsi and evulsL 

PsaUo^ psalli, psaUere, play on a stringed instrument. 

Emo^ emi, emptum, buy. . 
. Coemo, cojlect by purchase; redimo, purchase back. The signihc»* 
tion *'take" appears in the compounds adimo, take away; dinmo, di> 
vide ; esimo, take out ; interimo, take away, kill ; perma, destroy. 

FrimOf pressi, pressum, press. 

Cempiimo, press together; deprime, epprimo, supp r imo, press down; 
expnmOf press out 

Gero^ gtssif gestum^ carry, transact. 

CongerOf brmg together ; cUgero, arrange ; ingero, introduce. 

l/ro, tt8si*ustum^ bum. 

AduTOf kindle ; combHro, consun" e by fire ; mOro, bum in, brand ; 

VtrrOf verri, versum, sweep out. 
Qitaerif, quaesipi, quaesitum, seek. 



Auuther pronunciation of the same word is quaeso. (See ^221.) A» 
qmrOf acquire ; conquaro, collect ; anqtUrOf exquirot inquirOf perqiuro, ex- 
amine ; requirOf miss, require. 

fFuroJfJurere, rage (without perfect or supine); insanivt 
is used as a perfect instead. Even the first person 
present is not found, though ^m and^ri^ are com- 

FerOf tidi, latum, ferrc^ is irregular in several points. See 
below, § 213. 


[§ 202.] 6. VERBS IN " so " AND " XO.** 


DepsOf depsuij depsitumj and depstum, knead. 
PinsOfpinsui BJidjn7i8i,pinsitum Biiidpistum (alBojnnsum)^ 

pound, grind. 
VUOf visi, visere^ visit. The supine visum belongs to ri- 

derCf &om which visere itself is derived. 
Texa^ texttif textum^ weave. 

Compounds frequently with a figurative signification: atiexo^ add; 
eontexOf put together ; obteso^ cover ; pertexo^ carry out ; praetexOf add a 
hem ; retexOf to undo that which is woven, destroy. 

After the Analogy jof the Fourth Conjugation : 

ArcessOf or accerso^ -ivi, -itum, sununon. 
• Both modes of writing this word are found in good MSS. and bit 
tions ;. compare Schneider's ElementarUhre^ p. 257, foil., and the quc^a- 
tions in Kritz on Sallust, Catil.^ 40. The infinitive passive arcessiri or 
curs sometimes, as in Caes., Bell. Gall.y v., 11, Oudendorp. 

CapessOf undertake. 

FacessOi give trouble, especially with negotium and peri" 

culmn, also equivalent to proficiscoT, get off (facesserii^ 

in Cic, Div,j in Q. Caec,^ 14). 
fncesso, attack ; no supine. Perfect, incessivi : incean is 

doubtful (Tac., Hist,, iii., 77), unless we refer to this 

root, and not to incedo^ the frequently occurring phrase. 

curat desperatiOf &;c, incessit animos. 
Lacessoy provoke. 

[§ 203.] 7. Verbs in sco, either not Inchoatives,* or zf 
which the Simple is no longer found. , 

Cresco, crevi, cretum, grow. 

* [On an accurate examination of their meaning, however, such verbs 
as creMco^ noaeof &c., will be found to be actual incnoatives, and might «t 
well have been arranged prwier the succeeding chapter.] — Am, Ed, 


Sivalso, eortr, de-, excretco, and without a supine, atcretco, mcriac 
grow up, and sttccrescoy grow up gradually. 

NoscOf novi, notum, become acquainted with. The ori 

ginal form is gnoscO (Greek yiyvG)aK(»)), and the g reap 

pears in the compoimds, if possible. 

The perfect novi takes the signification of the present, ** I kf.\.vt 
i^ 221) ; the supine is mentioned only on account of the compounds 
for the participle notus has become an adjective, and the participle fu 
ture does not occur. The comp. agnoscoy recognise, cognosco (perf. cog 
novi, I know), and recognosco, recognise, have, in the supine, agmtum 
cogrAttan, recogrAtum ; ignoscOf pardon, has ignotum; dignosco and inter 
nosco have no supine. 

Pasco f pavi^ pastum^ feed. 

Depascoi feed down. The deponent pascor, feed or eat. 

Quiesco^ qUievi^ quietum, rest. 

AcquiescOf repose with satisfaction ; conquietco, requiesco, rest. 

Suesco, suevi^ suetum^ mostly intransitive, grow accustom- 
ed, or, more rarely, accustom another. But sttetus sig 

nifies *' accustomed." 

So, also, (usuetfio, consuesco, inmescOf generally accustom one's self 
desuesco, disaccustom one's self. Some passages where they occur ii 
a transitive sense (in which otherwise toe compounds with facio an 
used, see ^ 183) are referred to by Bentley on H(Mrace, Serm., i, 4, lO** 

CompescOf campescui (no supine), restrain. 

THspesco, dispescui (no supine), divide. 

DiscOf didici (no supine : disdturus in Appuleius), leaiTi 
AddiscOf addidki, learn in addition ; dedisco, unlearn ; edisco, learn b) 

PostjOf poposci (no supine), demand. 

Deposco, depoposci, and reposco, dCToand back ; aepoaco, expopoteif ehal 

GliscOy gliscere, increase. 

HiscOf hiscere, open the mouth, gape. 



[§ 204.] The inchoatives (see § 234) in sco are partly 
formed from verbs (chiefly of the second conjugation*), 
and pattly from nouns (substantives or adjectives), and 
are accordingly called inchoativa verhalia, or inchoativa 
nomtnalia, that is, verbal or nominal inchoatives. The 
first have no other perfect than that of the simple verb ; 

♦ Accordmg to a passage in Gellius, vi., 15, they were probably pro- 
Bounced with a naturally long t ; as, calacoy pallaco. 



the others either have none, or form it in a similar ^ay in 
ui. Few of the verbal inchoatives lia\ e the supine of the 
simple verb. 

Only those which are of most frequent occurrence are 
given in the following list. There are a great many 
more, but their formation is easy and analogous. Thi^ 
we may form inchoatives to die intransitive verbs in 
Chap. XL v., if there is any occasion for it, and we may 
oe assured that it occurs in some passage or other of the 

1. Verbal Inchoatives with the Perfect of the Simple Verb, 

Acesco (aceo)f acui, grow sour ; coacesca^ peracesco, 

Albesco and exalheaco {alheo)^ exalbuif grow white. 

Aresco (areo)^ artdf grow dry. 

Cdletco {caleo)f coita, become warm. 

Canesco {carta)), canuif become gray. 

Conticesco {taceo), conticiUf am reduced to silence. 

Contremisco {tremo), contremui, tremble. 

Defervesco (ferveo), de/erbui, gradually lose my heat. 

DeUtesco (lateo), deUtuif lurk. 

Efferveaco {ferveo)^ efferbuif grow hot. 

Excandesco (candeo), excandtti, grow ot a white heat; figuratively, mm 

Extimesco, pertimesco (timeo)^ extimuit am terrified. 
Floresco, de-, effloresco (Jloreo), efflorui, bloom. 
Haeraco, and ad-, inhaeresco {haereo), ad-, inhaesi, adhere to. 
Horresco, exhorresco, perhorresco {horreo), exhorrui, am struck with hotior. 
Ingemisco {gtmo\ ingemuif groan. 
ItUumesco {titmeo), intumuif swell up. 
Imxudsco {raucut)t irrausif become koarse. 

Languescot elanguetcOf relanguesco {langtieo)^ elangui, become feeble. 
lAquesco CLiqueo)^ licuif melt away. 
Madesco (madeo)^ nuuhiif become wet. 

Marcesco (marceo), comp. commarcescOf emarceaco, emarcid, fade. 
Occallesco (calleo)^ occaUtti, acquire a callous surface. 
PaUeaco, expaUesco (jkUUo)^ paHuif turn pale. 
PtUresco {mUreo)f putndf moulder. 
Resipiseo (aapio), resima and resipiviy recover wisdom. 
Rubesco, eruoesco (ruoeo), grow red« blush. 
Seneseo, consenesco {seneoif dmsemd, grow okL The participle <imrtin, 

grown old, is little used. 
Stupesco and obatupesco {stupeo), obstupuif am struck. 
Tabesco {tqbeol, <a6ia, pine, waste away. 
Tepesco {tepeo\ tepm, grow lukewarm. 
VirescOf comp. convirescOf evirescOf revireseo (yireo), tnrui, grow green. 

2. Verba, Inchoatives which have the Sttpine as well Oi 

Perfect of the Simple Verb. 

JAboleacOf abolevi, aboHtuntt cease am annihilated. 
ExolescOf exolevif exoletum, grow useless by age. So, tlso, oinUic^, 
AdoUsco, adoUvit aduUumf grow up. See ^ 174, Oleo. 
CodUaco {aUre)f coo/ta, cooitfum, grow together. 
Cmieupiaco ^ctmcre), coneupivif concujntum, desire. 
OomHM9€9 (vMtre), cmiwUm, convmRtum, recover health 


Esarietco (ardert)^ exarst, exarsum^ am infl&med. 

Indolesco (dolere)^ indobti^ tlum, feel pain. 

Inveterasco (inve/erore), inveteravit lUuniy grow old. 

Obdormisco {dormire\ ivi, ituntf fall asleep ; edormisco, sleep out. t 

Revivisco (vivere\ revixif revictwiif recover life. 

Scisco, (scire) f scivif satum, reserve, decree. Hence pUhisatumy pcphHtdUm 

[§ 205.] 3. Inchoatives derived from Nm?, 
• (a) Without a Perfect. 

Atgresco {aeger), grow sick. 

Ditesco (dives)^ grow rich. 

Dulceaco (dulcis)^ grow sweet. 

Grandesco (grantUs), grow large. 

Chraveaco and ingravesco (gravis\ grow heavy. 

Incurvesco (curvtu), become crooked. 

IrUegraaco {integer), become renovated. 

Jteoenesco {juvenia), grow young. 

Mitesco {tmtis), grow mil<L 

MolUsco {fnoliu\ grow soft. 

Pinguesco (pingtds), grow fat. 

Plutnesco ipluma), get feathers. 

Ptterasco, repuerascb (puer), become a child (agair\ 

SteriUtco {aterilis), become barren. 

Teneretco, tenerasco (tener), become tender. 

(bj With a Perfect. 

CrebrescOf increbrescOf and percrebresco (crdter), crehrtd, grow fireqtifS^c? r%M, 

DureacOf ohdwreaco {durus), durui, grow hard. 
Evanesco {yattua), evamUf disappear. 
IrmoUsco (notus), innotuif become known. 
Macresco {macer), macruif grow lean. 
Moffisuesco (manstietus), matuuevi, grow tame. 
Maturesco {rmUurus), matunUf grow ripe. 
Nigresco (niger), nigrui, grow black. 
CNmutesco {nttUtu), obmtUui, become dumb. 
Obsurdesco (surdus), obaurduiy become deaf. 
Recrudesce {crttdus), recrvdui, to open again (of a wound that iaa 

Vileaco and evilesco (vHis), eviluif become cheap or worthless. 



[§ 206.] The desiderative verb? (see § 232) in firw, 
e. g^ coenaturio, dormitwriOf empturio, have neither per 
feet nor supine, with the exception of esurio, desire to eat, 
perfect esuriviy participle esuriturus ; nupturio^ desire U 
marry, and parturioy am in labour, have only perfects, 
nupturivi and parturivi^ but no supine. 

The following verbs vary, either in the perfect or in 
the supine, or in both, from the regular form (tvi^Uum) 



Cio, civit eitum, regular ; but see § 180. 

En, tcif ttum, with its compounds. See Defective Veih^ 

§ 215: 
Fardo^farai^fartum (also yrntX/Qnfarctum)jfarciTc^hl\JS, 

The supineyar^ttm is more rare, and not as good. 

Confercio and referciOy first ^ fertuni, fill up ; efferciOf mfercio, are C^Uja 
gated like the simple verb. 

FulciOfJulsiyJidtum^^iilcire, prop. 

The perfect tuns presents no external difference from the perfect of 

HduriOy hausi, haustum, haurire, draw. 

The supine ?iautum. is rare, but the participle hausunu is as cominaa 
as hauMttanu, 

QueOf quivi or quii, qmtum, quire. See § 216. 

Raucio, rausif rausum, raucire, am hoarse (raucusj. 
The compound irrausentf in Cic, de Oral., L, 61. See ^ 20i. 

SaepiOf saepsi, saeptum, saepire (some write sepioj, hedge 

Sdlio, aalui, more rarely 9alii fsaltumj, salire, spring. 

In the comp. denliOf exiUot insUioy &c., the perf. -tUui is far better than 
the forms in sUU and salivif and must be restored in the authors of the 
^ best age from the MSS. See Drakenb. on Liv., ii., 10, and Scfawurz on 
Pliny, Paneg,^ 66. The supine does not exist either in the simple verb 
or in the compounds, thougn the derlTatives aaUus, 1U, dentkor, tnsnltare, 
lead us to a form saltum, and in compounds wultum, Tb^ 'r*»gr*h' ""^b 
9a/tre, salt» must not be confounded with saUre, spring. The former is 
synonymous with the obsolete salere or sallire, from which salsus is de 

Sancio, sanxi, sancitum and sanctum, gandre, decree, sane 
tion. Sanctus is found as a participle, though it is com- 
monly an adjective, but sancitus is more common. 

Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, sarcire, patch. 

Resarcio, repair. 

Sentio, sensi, sensum, scntire, feel, think. 

ConsentiOf agree ; duaetUio, disagree ; praesentio, perceive beforehand. 
The compound assetuio is not as common as the deponent assentior, but 
is founded on good authority, e. g., Cic.| ad Au., ix., 0, assentio : ad 
Fam.t v., 2, assensi ; and three other instances of the perfect, which 
are quoted by Hiinemann on Lactanl., 1, 15, 19. 

Sepdio, 'ivi, sepultum, sepdire, bury. 

Venioj vent, ventum, venire, come. 

Advenio, arrive ; 'eon»«mo, meet; o&oentb, enconcX^i M'varu), leach; 
tnvtfnto, find. 

Vtncio, vinxif vinctum, vincire, bind. 
DevinciOf bind closely, bind by duty. 

imicio, amictum, amicire, clothe. (The perfects amisn 
and amicui are attested by the grammarian Dioraedes. 
p. 364, but are not found in our authors. Aminvi (am 
icissej, on the othei hand, occurs in Fronln.) 


Aperio^ v/, rtum^ aperire^ open. 

So operio and cooperioy cover. Bat comperio makes comphif compertum^ 
tompenre (is used in the present and infinitive, also as a deponent, torn' 
perim , compairi)^ experience, and reperiOf rephi (or rtpperi), repertum, find. 

VeruH-ferirc^ strike. (In the active percusn is used aa 
a perfect, and in the passive ictus sum.) 

Ferodo-^erodrej am wild or insolent. 

Viaio — visire^ jSdco). 

Punioj punish, is regular, but is sometimes used by Cic- 
ero as a deponent, de Cff^ i., 25, punitur : Tuscul», i^ 
44, puniaiUur: Philip,^ viii., 3, puniretur: p. MtUm^ 
13, punitus es: de Invent^ iL, 27, punitus sis. 




Adminiculorf aid. Auxilior, aid. 

^dverMT/oppose mjrselC Baechor, rarel as a BacchanaL 

AdHlor, flatter. Cahmador^ cavil. 

Aemidor^ rival. CaviUor^ ridicule. 

^AittrcoTf quarrel. Cauponor, deal, retail. 

AludnoTf (also aUue. and halluc.), Cau»or, ahege. 

dote, talk idly. Ckrador, form a circle around xno. 

AmpUxarf embrace. Comistor, feast. 

AnaUer, am a handmaid. Comiiorj accompany (come*, actit* 
Apncor, sun myself. only m the poets). 

Aouor, fetch water ; /irumentcr, col- Commentor, reflect upon, dispute. 

lect com ; Kgnor, collect wood ; Omtienor, harangue. 

malenbr,fell timber; fMiMtforf forage. *Con/Itcf or, contend. 

ilWUlror, think. Conor, attempt 

ArchUector, build {amarchitectiu). Consilior, advise. 

ArgumentoTt prove. CorupicoTf behold. 

ArgiUor, chatter, am argutus. Cowtemplor, contemplate. 

Aspemor, despise. Cotwictorf revile. 

AssentoTf agree, flatter. Convivor, feast (convha). 

Audionorf sell at auction. Cormcor, chatter as a Crow. 

AucApor, catch birds, am auceps, Crimmor, accuse. 

AvarsoTy dislike, avoid with horror. Cunctor^ dday. 

Auguror {augvr), \ DepeefUor, plunder. 

^Atujneor (mupex), I practise sooth- Despieor, despise ; desptob.but dewp* 
Hariohr (kariohu), ( saying. * catua is passive, despised. 

Vatkinor (votes), ) Deversor, lodge. 

* The words to which an asterisk is prefixed are used also as actives, 
but better as deponents. Some deponents have been omitted in the list 
which are either of vtir rare occurrence or more commonly used as ac> 
lives. Respecting the latter, see the note at the end. 

t [The Latin deponents are in fact middle verbs, the active voices of 
which have pas|ed out of use. Many of these old actives may be found 
ki the fragments of the early writers ; as, for example, Ennius. What 
ire called common verbs are, m fact, nothing more than verbs which have 
the middle and paseii^o toice, each more or less in ise but have lost th< 
active.) — Am. Etl 



Digladio7f fight. 

DignoTj think worthy. Cicero, hoW- 

eyer, sometimes uses it in a pass* 

ive sense, **I am thought wor 

De^UgnoTf disdain. 
Dominor^ rule (dominusX 
Ehidibrorf produce by aint of labouf. 
EpuloTf feast. 
Execror, execrate. 
*Fabricor, fashion. 
FabidoK, conftUmhTf talk. 
Famulor, serve i^tmubu). 
FeneraTf lend at interest (the active, 

** to restore with interest," occurs 

in Terence ; ia later writers it is 

the same as the deponent). 
FerioTf keep holyday. 
Frustror, disappoint 
Furor J suffuror, steal. 
GlortoTf boast. 
GraecoTf live in the Greek style, that 

is, luxuriously. 
GrassoTf advance, attack. 
Chatificorf comply with. 
Orator and grantlor, give thanks, 

present congratulations. 
(Gravor, think heavy, is the passive 

of gravo.) 
HeUMOTf gluttonize {helluo), 
Hotior, exhort; adhortor, exhortory 

HospitoTf am a guest (Jiospes), lodge. 
Imaginorf imagine. 
Imitorf imitate. 

Jndignor, am indignant, spurn. 
InfitioTf deny. 
Iruidior, plot. 

Jnterpretorf explain, am an interpres. 
Jacmorj throw, dait. 
JocoTy jest. ' 
Laetor, rejoice (Jaetus). 
Lamentor^ lament. 
ZiOtrocinor, rob, am a latro. 
JLenocinor (aUctd)t flatter. 
LUndinor, am voluptuous. 
LicUort bid at an auction. 
£Atcror, gain. 
Luctor, strive, wrestle (obluctor and 

relttctoTf resist). 
*Ludificor, ridicule. 
Machinor. devise. 
Medicor, heal. 
Meditorf meditate. 
Mercor^ buy. 

*Meridior, repose at noon. 
MetoTf measure out. 
Minor and mirutor, threatez. 
Miror^ wonder; demiro^, tb3 same; 

ttdmirory admire. 

Miseror, commiseror, pity. 

Moderor, restrain, temper. 

Modular, modulate. 

Morigeror, comply, am morigertts, 

Moror, delay ; trans, and intrtMU 
comp. e^mmoror. 

*Munerorf remuneror, aliquem aliqm 
re, reward. 

Mutuor, bcHrrow. 

Negotior, canr on business. 

NidUhr, build a nest. 

Nugor, trifle. 

NrndmoTt deal in buying and selliug 

Nutncor, nouiish. 

Odoror, smell out. 

Ommor, prophesy ; dbonmm', aboml 

Operor, bestow labour (m. 

dfinor, thipk. 

(Mtuhr, lend help. 

*U8cUor, yvNTk, 

Oscular, kiss. 

Otior, nave leisure. 

*Palpor, stroke, flatter. 

Parasitor, act the parasite {paraniut^ 

Patrocinor, patroiuse. 

Percontor, inquire. 

P&egnnor, dwell as a stranger. 

PericRtor, try, in later writers, am in 

Philosophor, philosophize. 

*Pieneror, take a pledge, bind by n 

Pigror, am idle (piger), 

Piscor, fish. 

*Populor, lay waste. 

Praedor, plunder. 

Praestohr, wait for, with the dat. a 
accus. (the quantity of the o is un- 
certain, though probably short). 

Praevartcor, walk with crooked legs^ 
act dishonestly, as a praevarieeuar, 
that is, as a false accuser. 

Precor, pray ; camprecor, invoke ; de^ 
precor, deprecate ; imprecor, impre 
cate. / 

Proelior, fight a battle. 

Ratiocinor, reason. 

RMordor, remember. 

Refragor, oppose. 

Rimor, examine minutely. 

Rixor, wrangle. 

Rusticar, live in the countiy. 

Scitor and sdsdtor, inquire. 

Scrutor, perscrUtor, search. 

Sector, tne frequentative of tcfiKv, 
fo^ow; assector^-tonsector inMe* t 

Sermocinor, hold discourse 

Solar, consdlor, comfort 

Spatior, eatj^ior^ walk. 


Bptcuior, keep a look ou^ VadoTj summon to trial. 

SUipulor, make a targain ; adstiptdoTf Vagor and palor, wander. 

a^e. VeUftcorf ateer towards (figuratively, 
StamSckor^ am indignant. gain a purpose), whence it is con 

SuwBmr, kiss. strued witn the dative ; as, honori 

Suffragor (the contrary of r^agor), meo. 

assent to. Ve/t/or, skirmish with light troops. 

Suspicor, suspect Viwuror, venerate. 

TergtvermfTf shuffle* Vtnor, hunt. 

Testor and Ustificar^ bear witness. Vertcundor, feel shame at doing. 

TVicor, make unreasonable difficul- Fertor Tproperly the passive of «<r<o), 

ties (jtricas). dwell, am occupiea m ; ao«r«or,*de- 

Tntioff am sad. test ; o6ofr«or, ^oat before. 

7Vu/fnor, weigh. VodfercTf vociferate. 

7\imu2tuor, make uproar, Unnor^ dip under water (to void 
Tutor, defend. urine is urinamfacwf or reddere). 

Note. — ^We must here notice some verbs wUch are commonly used at 
actives, but by some writers, and of good authority, as deponents also 
Such are : eommunicor, eo mmurmu rw (Cic., in Pis., 25), JhtctuoTj JhOioor 
(Gic.), lacrimor, hunrnqr^ nictor, VelificoTf in the figurative sense of striving 
after, is used by Cicero as a deponent, but in the primary sense of ** sail* 
ing" it is much more usually active. Adulor, arbUror, criminor, and more 
especially dignor, are used by Cicero as passives, as well as deponents^ 
throughout, and not merely m the participle, as is the case with mani 
oCbers. 8ee the Chapter on the Participle, in the Syntax. 



Fateor^fdssus sum^faterij acknowledge. 

ConjUeor, confesaua aumy the same, but usually, confess a crime ; jir^ 
jUnr, profess; diffUwr (no participle), deny. 

lAceoTj lic^U9 sum, with the accus., bid at an auction. 

PoUiceor, promise. 
Medeor, tnthout a participle, for which medicatus, from 

meSicari, is commonly used. 
*Mereor, merittis sum, deserve. The active is used in the 

sense of serving or earning, as merere stipendia ; but 

the forms are not kept distinct. 

Commereor, demereoT,promereor, have the same meaning. 

Miserear, miserUus or misertus sum^ pity. 

Re^>ecting the impersonal verb mUaei or mMerttw me, seo ^ 7St&, 

Reor, ratus sum, reri, think. 

THieor, twtus sum, look upon, fig. defend. 

Cmtueor, mtueor, look upon. There was an old form twr, after tne 
third conjugation, of which examples are found in the comic wrTkers 
and in Lucretius; and in Nep., Chabr., 1, 3, inttamtur is lound fo lh# 
common huuentur. The adject, tutus is derived from the form tuor 

Vereor^ verUus sum, fear. 

RevertoTf reverencs ; subvereor^ slightly fear. 




From the obsolete wpucor^ aptus sum^ apisciy are derivecl i 

AdtpiscoTf adeptut turn, and indipiscor^ obtain. 

ExpergiscoTy experrectus sum, expergisci^ awake. 

The verb ecepergefacere signifies to awaken, whence expergefactuty awa^ 
kened. Expergo, with its participle expergUuSf is obsolete. 

FruoTy Jructus and Jrmtus sum, Jrui, enjoy. (Fartacip 

PerfruoTt perjrwtus sum, strengthens the meaning. 

FunsoTy functus sum^Jungi, perform, discharge. 

Defungor, pafungor, completely discharge, finish. 

Grctdior, gressus sum^ gradi, proceed. 

Aggredior, aggresstu many aggr^Sdi, assail ; congredtoTy meet ; digredu/ty 
depart ; egrtdwTy go out of; ingrediory enter on ; progredioTy advance ; re 
gredioTy return. 

Irascor, tr<MCt, properly an inchoative, grow angry; iratui 
sum means only, I am angry. I have been or was an- 
gry may be expressed by succensui. 

LaboTy lapsus sum, labi^ faU. 

CoUahoTy sink together; dilaboTy fall in pieces; prolaboTy fall down, 
delaboTy relabor. 

Loquor, locutus sum, loqui^ speak. 

AltoquoTj address ; coUoquor, speak with ; eloqttor, interloquor ; MoqutPf 
speak agamst, revile. 

(From the obsolete miniscorjy 

Commmiscory eommentu$ »um^ eammmiiciy devise, imagine (the participle 
commentus usually in a passive sense, feigned) ; rcfnmawvr, remmudy 
has no perfect ; recordatus stan is used instead ot iL 

MorioTy moHwus sum (participle &tiu*e, moriturusjy moriy 
die C^noriri is obsolete, but still occurs in Ovid, Metam,^ 
xiv., 215). 

Emotiory comnunioTy demorior. 

ydndscoTy nactus sum, nancisci, obtain. The participle 
is also found written nanctus, as in many piussages of 

Nascar, natus sum, nasci fnasciturus only in late writers), 
am bom ; passive in sense, but vrithout an active, it 
was originsdly gnascor, and the g reappears in agnatusy 

EtuucoTy tmuiKOTy mwtcoT, 

Nltor, nisus or nixus stim, nUi, lean upon, strive. 

AdfutoTy strive for; conmtor and emtWy exert myself; in the sense of 
"bring forth," or "give birth," enuea est is preferable; obnitor^ striva 


OhHinsco?'^ ohlitus sum, ohlivisdy forget. 
PaciscoTf pactus sum (orpepigij^ make a bargain. 

Comp. compaciscor^ depaciscor, or compeciscor and depeciscor, eompactu» 
depactua ium, whence the adverb compatlo or compecto tor exovde cmmpcu> 
to, according to contract. 

Pascor^ pasttis sum, feed ; intxansitivq. Properly the pass- 
ive ofpasco, pavi^ pastum, give food ; see above, Chap. 

Fatior^ passus sum, pati, suffer. 

P&tpaior, perpesnu suKiy perpeti, endure. 

yFioni plecto, twine), 

Amplecior and complector, complemu sum, embrace. 

Profidscar^ profectas sum^ prqficisci, travel. 

Querof'^ qtiestus sum, queri^ complain. 
Conqueror, lament. 

Ringor^ ringi, grin, show the teeth, whence rictus. 
Sequor^ secutus sum^ sequi^ follow. 

Assequor and contequor, overtake, attain; exequor, execute; insequm, 

follow ; obteottor^ comply with ; persequor, pursue ; prosequor, attend ; 

sttbtequor, follow close after. 

Vehor, see § 192. 

Vescor, vesci^ eat. JSdi is used as the perfect. 
Ulciscor^ ultus sum, ulcisd, revenge, punish. 
Utor^ usus sum, uti, use. 

Abator, abuse ; deutor only in Nepos, Eum., 11. 

Devertor^ praevertor, and revertor, see under verto. They 

take their perfects fix)m the active form : reverti^ revet' 

teram, revertissem ; only the participle reversus is used 

in an active sense, one who has returned. 

Reversus sum for reverti is yexy rare, but occurs in Nep., Them., 5 ; 
Yell., ii., 42 ; QuintiL, vii., 8, 2 ; xi., 2, 17, and other less classic authors, 
but never in Cicera 



Assentior, assensus sum, assentiri^ assent. (As an activei 
assentiOi assensi, assensum, assejUirCf it is not so com- 
mon ; see above, § 206.) 

Blandior, hlanditus sum^ olandiri^ flatter. 

Experior, expertus sum, experiri, experience, try. 

Comperior, am informed, is used only in the present tense, along witk 
tompeno; the perfect, therefore, is comperi. 

Largior, largUus sum, largiri^ give money ; dilargio^ dis- 
tribute money. 


Mentior, mentitus sum^ memtiri^ lie ; emeiUiar, the Bame» 

Metior, mensua sum, metiri, measure. 

Dimetior^ measure out ; emetioTf measure completely ; permetior 

Mdlior, molitus sum^ moliriy move a mass (moles) ; plan. 
Amolior, remove from the way ; demoUor, demolish, and others. 

Opperior, oppertus Sum^ in Terence, and opperitus sum iv 

Plautus, opperiri, wait for. 

Ordior, orsus sum, ardiri, begin. 

Exordior, the same ; redordior, begin over again. 

Onor, ortus sum, oriri (partic. oriturtisj, rise. (Tne 

panic, fut. pass, oriundus has a peculiar signification 

"descended" fi'om a place or person.) The present 

indicat. follows the third conjugation : oreris, oritur 

orimur. In the imper£ subjunct. both forms orerer ana 

orirer are found. See Liv., xxiii., 16 ; Tac, Ann,, ii., 

47 ; comp. xi., 23. 

So, also, the compounds coorior and exorior (exoreretur in Lucretius, ii., 
506) ; but of adoriort undertake, the forms adoriria and adontur are cei 
tain, whereas adorhis and adontur are only probable ; adoreretur is com 
monly edited in Sueton., Claud., 12. 

Partior, partitas sum, partiri, divide (rarely active). 

DUpertior, diapertitus turn (more frequently active), distribnte ; imper 
Hot (also impertio, itnpartio, impartior), communicate. 

Potior, potitus sum, potiri, posses? myself of. 

It is not uncommon^ especially in the poets, for the present indicative 
and the imperfect subjunctive to be formed after the tnird conjngatioi 
potUur, potbmar, poteretur, poUremur. 

Sortior, sortitus sum, sortiri, cast lots. 
Punior, for punio. See § 206, in fin. 



[§211.] The term Irregular Verbs is here applied to 
those which depart from the rule not only in the K>rmation 
of their perfect and supine, but have something anomalous 
in their conjugation itself. They are, besides sum (treated 
of before, § 156), possum, edo,fero, volo, nolo, maZo, eot 
qv€o, nequeo,fio, 

1. Possum, I am able. 

Possum is composed of potis and sum, often found 
separately in early Latin ; by dropping the termination 
CJ potis, we obtain pots^im, possum. It therefore fo11<^wv 

UUl^GULAR VSlmtf. 


the conjugadon of sum in its tenoinatioQS, but the const 
nants t, s, wadjl produce some changes when they coiv 


Indicatitb. Subjunctive. 

Possunif poteSf potest, possintf poUiSf potait, 

p&$wiimu$f potestiif pOMnmt. posaimtu, posmti9^ poasini. 

Imperfut, ^ 

possemt JWMM, pofstt, 
possemus, poasetiSf posaent 


potaronh pn^tras, ptOerat. 
poteramutf -eratiM, -eraiU. 

poUrOf poteriSfpoterit. 
poterimua, -aiWp 4nmt 

potui, potuisti, pottut. 
potunnus, -istiSf -enmi. 

potuSrmn, •eras, -erat. 
potueramus, -eratiSf -erant 


potuerim, -eris^ -trit, 
potusiimus, -ws, -mi. 


potuissem, -isses, 'isael. 
potuissemus, -issetiSf •istintt 

Future Perfect, 
potuero, potueris, potuerit, 
ootueAmuSf potuerUis, potuerini. 

(No Impbratiti.) 

Infinitive. Participli. 

Pros, and Imp. posse. Potens (has become an ad^tlve^ 

Perf. and Plup. potuisse. 

2. Edo^ I eat. 

[§ 212.] The verb edo, edi, esum, edere, is declined regu- 
larly according to the third copjusation, but here and 
there it has syncopated forms, besides its regular ones, 
similar to the corresponding tenses of sum, except that 
the quantity of the vowel in the second person singular 
of the indie, present and of the imperative makes a dmer- 
ence, the e m es, fro^l edo, being long by nature. The 
tenses in which this resemblance occurs are seen in the 
following table : 



Sing. EdOf edis, edit 
(or eSf est), 
Plnr. edhnuSf editis, edunt, 


Sing, ede, es. 
Plor. editCj este. 

9ing^ edite, eslo. 
Plnr. edits, este, edi'.oU, istTte. 



Sing, ederem, ederes, ederet 
(or issem, esses, esset). 

Plur. ederemus, ederetis, edereni 
(or essemus, essetis, irseiU), 

edere or esse. 


In the Passive only editur, estur • <# 
eretur, essetur 


In the same way the compounds ahedo, amhedo, comedo, 
9scedo, and peredo are conjugated. 

3. FerOj 1 bear. 

[§ 213.] Fero consists of very dififerent parts, perfect 
tuli (originally tetuli, which is still found in Plautus and 
Terence); wv^me^ latum ; infinitive, ycrre/ passive,^^m. 
But with the exception of the present indicat. and the im- 
perative, the detail is regular. 

Active. PoMstve, 

Indipatiyb. Indicatiyb. 

Pre& Sing. Ferotfers^fert. Pres. Sing. ferorfferris,fertur. 

Piur. fenmuSf fertis, ferunt. Plur. ftninwrf ferimini^ fentnim 

Impbeatiye. Impbratiyb. 

Pres. Sing. /«•. Plur. ferte, Pres. Sing, ferre. Pint fenauni. 

F'jt. Sing, ferto. Piur. fertote. Fut. Sing, fertor, Plur. ferunior, 
ferto. fenmto. fexUrr, 

Note.— The rest is regular; imperfect, /erefcam; future, /erom, -es ; fu 
ture passiYe, /crar,/ererM {ferere^feretvTy &C. ; present subjunctive,/«ram, 
feras; jtassivefferar, ferariSf/kratur ; imperfect subjunctiYe, /errem ; pass- 

The compounds of /ero—o^ero, antefero, circumfer^f coi^ero, defSro, and 
others, haYe little that is remarkable. Aufhro (originairy abfero) makes 
abstuU* ablatunif auferre. Suffero has no perfect or supine, for stutuU, ntb- 
latum, belong to toUo. Cicero, howcYer {N. D., iii., 33), has poenas statu- 
lit, but natimd is commonly used in this sense. Differo is used only in the 
present tense, and those derlYed from it in the sense of '* differ ;" distuli 
and dUatum haYe the sense of *' delay." 

4. Fofe, I vnll. 5. Nolo^ I will not. 6. Malo^ I will 


[§ 214. Nolo is compounded of ne (for non) and volo. 
The obsolete ne appears in three persons of the present 
in the usual form of non ; malo is compounded of mage 
(i. e., magis) and volo^ properly mavolo, maveUem^ eon- 
tracted malo^ maUem, 


Sing. rS2o. Nolo. Mah, 

vis, non vis, mavis, 

vult. non vult. mavuU, 

Plur. volUmus. nolUmus. malUmus. 

vtUtis, non vultis, mavultis, 

volunt, nolunt, nuUunt, 

* [This apparent anomaly may easily be explained by supposing the am 
ip aufero to nate been originally ab, and to haYe been sonencNd down in pro 
nunciation before /. This would be the more easy, since ab must naYt 
had a sound approximating to av in English.] — Am. Ed. 





Sing voZefrom, &c. 

noleOam, 6lc. 

malebam, &C. 

Plur. volebamuSf &c 

nolebaanu, &C. 

malebamuSf &c. 



Sing. volaiHf voles, et. 

nolam, noles, et. 

maiam, males, et. 

Plur. voUmu9, elis, ent. 

rwUnau, etis, ent. 

malsmus, etts, ent 

Sing, inlvi. 



voluistif &c. 

noluistif &c. 

maluisti, &c. 



volueram^ &c. 

nolueram, &c. 
Future Perfect. 

maiueram, &C. 

voluero, w, &c. 

noluerOf is, &c. 


maluero, is, Jcc 

Sing, v&im. 





rnnSs. \ 




Plur. veRmus. 










Sing. veUem, &c. 

noUem, &c. 

mallem^ &c. 

Plur. «e/ttmtit, &c. 

noUemus, &c. 

maUemus, i£c. 

Sing, volummt &-C. 

noluerim, &c. 

maluerim, &c. 

Plur. fxUue4mu0, j^ 

noluetvnus, &c. 

malusrtmMs, &r. 

Sing, voluitaem, &c. 

fuhdssem, &c. 

maluissem, 6lc. 

Plur. vo/uts«fmu«, &c. 

nohussemus, &c. 

maltUssemus, 6cc. 





Sing. 2d Pers. «o^ Plur. no^tf a Sing. 2d Pers. tiofito. Plur. ndUois. 


3d Pers. noUto, nolmltn. 


pres. wZier 



Pierf. totuuse. 








7. Eo, I go. 

[§ 215.] The verb eo, tt^t, ttum, ire, is for the most part 
fnrmed regularly, according to the fourth conjugation; 
»oly . the present, and the tenses derived firom it, are 


Indicative. Subjunctits. 

Slug. Eof isy it. Sing, tam^ eaSf eeU. 

Plur. %mu8y iHSf eunt. Plur. edmust eatis, eant. 

Sing. Ibaniy ibas, ibat. Sing, irem, iresy tret. 

Plur. ibamua, ibatisy ibarU. Plur. iremu$, ireiu, treni. 

Future. Impbrativb. 

Sing, iboy Unsj ibit. Pres. Sing. 2, i. Plur. ite, 

Plur. Unmus, ibUis, ibunt. Fut. 2, ito. itote. 

3, ito. ewnto, 


Pres. ire. 

Perf. ivisse or isse. 

Fut. iturum (-am, -um) esse. 

Gerund. Supine. 

Gen. eundi. Dat. eundoy &c. itum, itu. 

Pres. iensy euntis. Fut. iturus, 'O, -um. 

In the passive voice it exists only as an impersonal, itur 
itum est Some compounds, however, acquire a transitive 
meaning ; they accordingly have an accusative in the ac 
tive, and may also have a complete passive : e. gr., adeo^ 
1 approach ; ineo, I enter j praetereo, I pass by. Thus 
the present indie, pass, adeor, adiris, aditur^ adhnur, adi- 
miniy adeuntur ; subjunct. adea/r ; imperf. adihar ; subj. 
adirer ; fut. adihor, adiheris fej, adibitur, &c. ; imperat. 
pres. adire^ adimini ; fut. aditor^ adeuntor ; participles, 
adittcs^ adeundus. 

These and all other compounds, aheo^ coeo, exeo^ intereo 
and pereo (perish J, prodeo^ redeo^ have usually only ii in 
the perfect: peni, redii. Circumeo and circtieo, I go 
round something, differ only in their orthography, for m 
pronimciation the m vraa lost ; in the derivatives, circuitiM 
and circuUio, it is, therefore, vnth more consistency, not 
written. Veneo, I am sold, a neutral passive verb with- 
out a supine, is compounded of venum and eo, and is ac- 
cordingly declined like ire; whereas amhio, I go about, 
which changes the vowel even in the present, is declined 
regularly according to the fourth conjugation, and has the 
participle ambiens, ambientis, and the gerund amhiendu 
The part. perf. pass, is amhttus, but the substantive am- 
bitus has a short t. See the Commentators on Ovid, 
Metam., i., 37. 

Note. — A second form of the future, earn instead of ibo. ia mentioi/ed b> 
Priscian, but is not found in any other writer. It is only in compounds 
though chiefly in late and unclassical authors, that we find -earn, ies. iet 
•ent, along with, Un, ibisy &c. See BOnamann on Lactant., iv.. 13 20 



l^'t'wet in Tibull., i., 4, 27 is surprising.* Vensot I am st Id, soinetimef 
abandons the conjugation of eo, and makes the imperfect veni^am instead 
of venibamf for so, at least, we find in good MSS. of Cicero, Philip., ii., 37 
and in Verr., III., 4^. Ambio sometimes follows eo ; e. g., ambibat in Ovid| 
Metam.. v., 361 : L*iv., xxvii., 18 : Plin., Epist.y vi., 33 : Tac, Ann.^ ii.. 
■.9 ; ana a$f*biBunt, lor tmbitru, is said to occur in Pliny (if. N.j Tiii., 35 ?). 

|§ 2lf..l 8. QueOt I can. 9. Nequeo, I cannot. 

These twv verbs are both conjugated like eo : perfect, 
quivi^ ne^iv ; supine, quUUn$, nequitum. Most of theii 
forms occur ; biU, i^dth t^e exception of the present, they 
are not ve'ry .frequent in prose, and some auQiors, such as 
Nepos and Caesar, never use this verb at all.t Instead 
ofneqtieo, non qtte^ also was used, and in Cicero the lattei 
is even more fre^u^r. Quis and quit are found only 
with non. 

Sing. Qtted, qm$, ^t. 
Phir. juMitM, ^pdUs, queun 

Sing. Qto^om, quibatf &c. 

Sing. Quibo. Plur. qutbwu. 

SiDg. Quivt, quwit. 
Plur. — quiverunt. 



Nequio, non quiSf non quit, 
neqmmut, neqtdtUf nepiieunS. 


neqmbem, nequihatf -unt. 

Sing Plur. nequUmiU, 


xjqitivi, neqtdstif nequitnt (ik). 

-^— — nequiverunt or fit 

quierunt (e). 

Pluperfea . 

neqm t i/, nequierant. 


Sing. Queamt queaSy queat. nequea %, %squeaSf nequeaS, 

Plur. queamus, queatiSf queant. nequeamt.\ nequeatitf nequeant. 

Sing. Q^irem^qu^ret. nequhmi,nmquira. 

Plur. qwrent. nequiremuSf ne^'ent. 


Sing. -— — quiverit nequiverim, nep . it, nequierini. 


Shlg. ■ - — nequisset. 
Plur. quutsent. nequissent. 

* [We ought Tery probably to read trantiit with HeuMiu, on MS. %u 
thority, making, at the same time,^ a change in the punctuatku. (Gi« iult 
Zaehmannt ad Toe] — Am. Ed. 

t [Queo is much weaker than possum^ and appears to denoh **^ » » i 
lility under existing circumstances. 0)inpare Doderlein, L- Ay, . d. 

., p. 160.]— ilm. Ed. 


iikiref quittJie {quitse). nequiref nequiviste {nequisMt;. 

Quietis (gen. queuntis). nequieru (gen. nefueuntu). 

There is also a passive fonn of these verbs ; quUur, nequitur, quita ettf 
quUum est^ but it occurs very rarely, and is used, like coepha nan, onljr 
when an infinitive passive follows : e. g., in Terence ; forma in tencbru 
moaci rum quita est, the figure could not be recognised. 

[§ 217.] 10. Fio, I become, or am made.* 

JFto is properly an intransitive verb, the Greek (jivcj^ 
without a supine. But owing to the affinity existing be- 
tween the ideas of becomiTig and being made^ it was used 
also as a passive ofjucio^ from which it took the perfect 
/actus sum, and the latter then received the meanmg " I 
have become," along with that of ** I have beeti mjSe." 
In consequence of this transition into the passive, the in- 
finitive became Jieri instead of the original form Jiere, 
Hence, with the exception of the supplementary forms 
Gcom Jacere fJactus,JacienduSfJactus sum, eram, &c.^ and 
the passive termination of the infinitive, there, is no ir- 
regularity in this verb. In the present, imperfect, and 
fixture it follows the third conjugation ; for the t belongs 
to tbe root of the word, and is long, except in Jii and 
those forms in which an r occurs in the inflection. (See 

§ 16.) 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

* Present. Present. 

Sing. FiOffiSfft. fiam,fias,Juit. 

Plur. JimuSf jius, fiunt. Jiamus, fiims, fianL 

Imperfect, ImperfeU. 

Smg.fUhamy as, at. iS^rem, es, et. 

Plur. jiehamus, atis atU. Jieremus, etis, ent. 

Future. Imperative. 

Smg.Jiam,fiesjJiet. Pres. Sing.^. Plur.^Ife. 

Plur. fiemusy fietis, fiaa (rare, but well attested). 

fieri {factum esse, factum, iri). Part. Pres. is wanting. 

Note. — Among the compounds the following must be noticed as defeo 
tires : inUt, which is used only in this third person sing., he or she begins ; 
e. g., 't»MLi, or with the ellipsis of loqui; and defit, d^fiat, defiunt, defiai 
wmch does not occur in prose. Respecting eonjit, see above, ^ 183. 

* [As regards the old forms, and the quantity of fio^ crnsult Antlion*t 
fM. Pros., p. 16, not. {ed. 1843).]— -4m. Ed. 




The term Defective Verbs is here applied to tbose 
only in vrhich the defectiveness is striking, and which are 
found only in certain forms and combinations, for there 
wee, besides, a very large number of defective verbs, of 
which certain tenses are not found on account of tlieir 
meaning, or cannot be shown to have been used by the 
writers whose works have come down to us. Many of 
them have been noticed in the lists of verbs in the pre- 
ceding chapters ; with regard to others, it must be left to 
good taste, cultivated by reading the best authors, as to 
whether we may use, e. g., cupe, from cupio, like cape^ from 
capio^ and Mrhether w0 may say dor^ I am given, like pro- 
dof^ or puUttui sum, like hahitus rum, (Putatum est oc- 
cuis in Cicero,^. Muren,^ 17.) We shall here treat of 
the v^rbs aio and inquani^ I say ; fari, to speak; the per- 
fects coepi,m€mim^ novi and odi; the imperatives apage^ 
ave^ salve, vale ; cedo and quaeso ; and, lastly, ofjbrem. 

1. Aio, 



say yes. 

or affirm.* 






Ahf Sis, ait. 


Sing. - 


— — otim/. 

Plur. - 

Imperfect. (The imperative at is obsolete. The 

Sing, akbam, m^baa, aidxu. participle aiens is used only as an ad- 

Plur. aiebamtu, aiebaUs, aiebant. ject. instead of affirmatimu.) 

Perfect. All the rest is wanting, or uncloss- 

Sing. ^ ait (like the present), f ical. 

Note. — In prose, as well as in poetry, a»»' 7 do you think so? is frequent- 
ly used for aiane, just as we ^na viden*, abin\ for videsney abisne. See ^ ^. 
The comic writers, especially Terence, use the iaiperfect aibam, &c., as a 
word of two syllables. 

[§ 219.] 2. Liquam, I say.f 
This verb is used only between the words of a quota- 

* [Ato ia evidently connected with the Sanscrit aha {" dixiJ* **inaiiiam"\ 
and also with the Greek If-fil for ^ij-/il. (Compare Pott^ Etym. Forsch^ 
toL i.^. 28l.)y-Am. Ed. 

t [Tnis third person of the perfect is very doubtful. (Compare Struvt^ 
i&er die Lot. Decl. und Conj., p. 213.) Late church writers, however, ka^e 
msti, aierunt, &c.]— Am. Ed. 

t llnquam and sum are M\e only two Latin verbs which still show tiacet 

188 LATIN GftAMMAl. 

tion, while ait^ aiunt^ are found most frequently in the 

oratio ohliqua. 

Indicative. Subjunotivi. 

Pi tseni. Present. 

Sing. Inquamf tn^'v, inqtdt.* Sing. mquiaSf mquiat, 

Plur. inqmmus, inqtdtiSf inquiunt Plur. — '— inquiatis, inqmant 

Imperfect. Future, 

Sing, inqtuebam, &c. Sing. mquies, inqtdet, 

Plur. inquiebamut, &c Plur. — ^ — 

. Perfect. Impbratitb. 

Sing. — — inquUtif hiquU. Sing, mquet inquito. 

Plur. inquittiM, ^. Plur. inqidte. 

iVbte.— The first person of the perfect (more probably inqui than tn^aoi 
is not found ;t the present inquam is used instead, and inqtut may, there- 
fore, just as well be taken for the present. The present siibjunctire has 
becni here given according to Priscian, p. 876, but has not yet been con 
finned by any other authority. 

[§ 220.] 3. Fori, to speak, say4 

This very irregular verb, with its compounds affari, ef- 
fariy prqfdri^ is, generally speaking, more used in poetry 
than in ordinary prose. The third persons of the present, 
fcUMT^fantur, the imperativeybre, and the participleybA^, 
a, um (effatum is used also in a passive sense), occui 
most frequently. The ablative of the gerund, ya«<^, is 
used in a passive sense even in prose, in the phraseya^uf^^ 
audtre^ to know by hearsay. 

Compounds : affamur, Ovid ; e^amim, Curtius ; affabar, Virgil ^ effabor 
and effaberis, also occur in poetry. The first person for, the subjunctive 
ferf/ariSffetur, &c., and the participle fans in the nominative, do not oc- 
cur, though the other cases of fans are found in poetry. Fandus^ a, um, 
ODly in the combination /amium et nefandum ; fanda, nefanda, yfthich. are 
equivalent to fas et nefasj 

[§ 221,] 4. Coepi, 5. Memmi, 6. Novi, 7. Odi, 
1 have begun. I remember. I know. I hate. 

These four verbs are perfects of obsolete presents 
which have gone out of use, with the exception of nosco^ 

of the m termination in the present tense and the ori^^al forms of these 
verbs virere undoubtedly inqiutmr and sumi. This endmg in -mt connects 
them at once with the Greek verbs in -fii, and also with the Sanscrit]— 
Atn. Ed. 

* [Compare with in-quit the English quoth, the Anglo-Saxon ^uMon 
and the Welsh gwedyd,'\—ATn, Ed, 

t [Scaligcr, however, reads inquii in Catullus (x., 27), and is foilpwel 
by Ddring and othera The metre and context both require inquii, whicic 
taimot, therefore, be said to be a form ** not found."] — Am. Ed. 

t [Pott a3mpares Fa^ with the Sanscrit hha-sh, ** locui,"and the Greek 
4il'fi'1 — ^m. Ed. 



and coepto, coepere. They consequently have those tenses 
only which are derived from the perfect. In meaning, 
snemmif novi, and odi are presents ; novi, I know, shows 
the transition most clearly, for it properly means " I have 
learned to know." (See § 203.) Hence the pluperfoct has 
the meaning of an imperfect : memineram, I remember- 
ed ' noveram, ^ knew ; oderarrty I hated, not *' 1 had ha- 
ted," and the future perfect has the signification of a sim- 
ple iRiture, e. g., odero, I shall hate ; meminero, I shall re 
member. Otherwise the terminations are quite regular 






toeperam, &c. 

ct gper o, &C. 








novisti {nosti). 









novistis {nosti$). 



noverutU {norurU). 



&c. noyeram, &c. 

oderamy &r 

cacpertm, &c. 

n^pistem, &c. 


memiiterOf 6(C. noveeo. 

noveriSf &c 



meminerim^ &c. noverimy &c. 



meminissemt &c. novissenif &C. 

(nossem.) . 


only the sing, me- 

merUo and plur. 

memniue. .novitte. 


oderOf &c. 

odennif &c. 
odtBsemi &c* 


(^perosuSf exoetu, with 
an active meaning.) 


Fdtt pass, coeptus 
Fat ac%.coeptwiu, 

JV^4— Hdnce coepiase has a perfect passive coeptus (a, wm) sum ; e. g., 
£av., zxx., 30; 9111a a me bellum coeptwn est: xxviii., 14; mitan a neutris 
piugna eoepta esset • bnt it is used especially in connexion with an infinitive 
passive, as in pons institui coeptus est ; Tyrus septimo mense.quam pppugnari 
eoepta erat, capta est; de re pvMica consuU coepti sumus; the active forms 
coeptf, eoeperai, however, may likewise be used in this connexion. Com- 
pare desiius est^ ^ 200. Compounds are occoepiy which is not unfrequently 
«Md tSoug with the 'egular occipio (the same as intipio) and commemm. 


f§ 222.] 8. Apdge, 9. Ave, 10. Scdve^ 11. Vale, 
be gone. hail. hail. farewell. 

NoU. — Apige is the Greek imperative uiraye of &ird)w, and akin W 
iUngo ; apage istaa tonrea ! away with them ! especially apage /«, get thy 
self off, or, with the omission of the pronoun, apage, begone. Salveo in 
Plautu^, Tructd.t ii., 2, 4, may be regarded as the present of salve. Comp. 
Probus, Itutit. Gram.j p. 141 , ed. Lindemann. Vale and ave, on the other 
hand, are regular imperatives of voZeo, I am well, and aveo. I desire ; and 
thev are mentioned here only on occount of their change oi meaning. 

Th^ plural is, av^e, salvetCf valete ; the impemt. fut. oveto, aalveto, valeto. 
The future^ salvebis, mlebis, is likewise used m the sense of an imperative, 
and the inhnitives mostly with^'ttZ>eo: avere, solvere, vdlere. 

[§ 223.] 12. Cedo, give, tell. 

This word is used as an imperative in familiar lait- 
guage, for da and die, both with and without an accusa- 
tive. A plural cette occurs in old Latin. 

The e is short in this word, which thus differs from the complete verb 
rido, 1 yield, give way. 

[§ 224.] 13. y^uaeso, I beseech. 

Quaeso is originally the same as qtcaero, but in gooa 
prose it is generally inserted in another sentence. Be- 
sides this tfst person singular, we find only the first per 
son plural quaesumtis, 


14. Forem^ I should be. 

This imperfect subjunctive, which is conjugated regu- 
larly, has arisen G^omjuerem, of the obsolete yerh Juo, and 
belongs to sum, (See above, § 156.) 



[§ 225.] 1. The term Impersonal Verbs strictly applies 
-•nly to those of which no other but the third person sin 
gular is used, and which do not admit a personal subjeci- 
(I, thou, he), the subject being a proposition, an infinitive, 
or a neuter noun understood. (See § 441, Sec:) Verba 
of this kind are: 

Miseret (me), I pity, perfect misentum est, 
Piget (me), I regret, piguU or pigitum est, 
Poenitet (me), I repent, poenituit, fut. poenitebiU 


Pudet (me)y I am ashamed, puduit or puditum est* 

Taedei fmej, I am disgusted with, (taeduit^ veiy rare), 

pertaesum est. 

.Oportet, it behooves, oportmt^ fiiU apartehit. 

Note. — Misenutf the regular perfect of miseret, occurs so seldcmi, that we 
have not here noticed it. The form commonly used is miaeritum or misertum 
e$t^ which is derived from the impersonal me miser etur tut, which is not 
uncommon, although the deponent misereri is otherwise used only as a 
personal verb, misereor tui. Compare the passages, Cic, p. lAgar.j 5 ; cave 
tefratrumpro salute fratria chsecrantium misereatur: in Verr., i., 30; jam me 
tvi miserert non potest, where the verb is likewise impersonal. 

[§ 226.] 2. Besides these impersonals, there are some 
others, which likewise have no personal subject, but yet 
are used in the third person plural, and may have a nom- 
inative (at least a neuter pronoun) as their subject. Such 
verbs are : 

lAhet (mihij, I like, choose ; perf. liSui^y or lihitU7n est. 

Licet (mihi), I am permitted; perf. licuit^ or licitum est. 

JDecet (me)^ it becomes me, and d-edecet^ it does not be 
come me ; perf. decuit, dedecuit. 

lAquet, it is obvious ; perf. licuit. 

Note. — Libuit has been mentioned here as a perfect of libet, but it is usu 
ally found only as a present, in the sense of khet. 

[§ 227.] 3. There is also a considerable number of 
verbs which are used impersonally in the third person, 
while their other persons occur ,vnth more or less differ- 
ence in meaning. To these belong: interest and refert 
in the sense of " it is of importance to," v^th which no 
nominative can be used as a subject; farther, accidit,Jit^ 
evenit^ and contingit, it happens ; accedit, it is added to, or 
in addition to ; attinet ana pertinet (ad aliquid), it con 
cems ; cond/udt, it is conducive ; convenit^ it suits ; con- 
stat^ it is known or established ; eapedit^ it is expedient ; 
delectat and juvat, it delights, pleases ; fallit, fugit^ and 
praeterit me, it escapes me, I do not know; placet^ it 
pleases; perf placuit and pladtum est ; praestat^ it is bet 
ter; restate it remains; vcicat^ it is wanting; est^ in the 
sense of Uset^ it is permitted or possible, e. g., est videre^ 
non est dicere verum, but especially in poetry and late prose 

[§ 228.] 4. The verbs which denote the changes of the 
weather ; pluit, it rains ; ningit^ it snows ; grandinat^ it 
hails ; lapidat (perf. also lapidatum estj^ stones fall from 
heaven ; Julgurat eaidjtdminat, it lightens (with this dif- 
^rencoy matjulminat is used of a flash of lightning which 


«tiikes an object) ; tonat^ it thunders ; lucescit and iUuces^ 
dt (perf. illuantj, it dawns ; vesperascii and adveaperascil 
(peif. advesperavitj, the evening approaches : in all these 
cases the subject understood is supposed to be deus or 
coeluniy whicb are, in fact, often added as their subjects. 

[§ 229.] 5. The third person singular passive of a great 
many words, especially of those denoting movement or 
sayin?, is, or may be used impersonally, even when the 
verb IS neuter, and has no personal passive, e. g., curritur^ 
they or people run ; itur^ ventum est, damatur^fietur^ scri' 
hitur^ bwitur, &c. 

[§ 230.] 6. All these impersonal verbs, as such, have 
no imperative, the place of which is supplied by the pres 
ent subjunctive, e. g., pudeat te, be ashamed of! The 
participles, also (together with the forms derived fix>m 
them, the gerund 'and the infinitive future), are wanting, 
with a few exceptions, such as ItbcTu^ licens and lidtwus^ 
voenitens and poenitendtts^ pudendus. * 



[§ 231.] We have hitherto treated of the changes which 
one particular form of nouns and verbs, supposed to be 
known (the nominative in nouns, and the mfinitive in 
verbs), may undergo in forming cases and numbers, per- 
sons, tenses, moods, &c. But the origin of that form it- 
self, which is taken as the basis in inflection, is explained 
in that special branch of the study of language which is 
called Etymology. Its object is to trace sdl the words of 
the language to their roots, and it must, therefore, -soon 
lead us from the Latin to the Greek language, since both 
are nearly allied, and since t&e Greek was developed at 
an earlier period than the Latin. Other languages, too, 
must be consulted, in order to discover the paginal forms 
and significations. We cannot, however, here enter into 
these mvestigations, and must content ourselves v^^ith as- 
certaining, within the Latin language itself, the most 
prominent laws in the formation of new words from other 
more simple ones ; a knowledge of these laws is useful to 
the beginner, since it facilitates his slcquiring the language. 
But we shall here confine oiirselves to nouns (substantive 


and kdiective) and yerbsy for the dentation and coii^osi- 
ribn of pronouns and nuuMWals have been dbcussed in a 
former part of this wcnrk; with regard to the (unchangea^ 
ble) paitides, on thc^ other hand, etymology is necemary* 
as it suppHeB the place of inflection.^ 
. The fonnation of new Mrords from others previously 
existing takes place either by Derivation^ or. the addition 
of certain terminations ; or by Chmposition. In regard 
to derivation, we have to distinguish primitive and d^riY- 
ative words ; and, with regard * to composition, siitiple 
and compound words. We shall first treat of derivation. 

• ' • ' • 

5 i. Vbrbs. 

• ■ 

Verbs are derived either from other Verbs or froni 

A. With regard to the former, we distinguish foui 
classes .of verbs : 1. Freqtientative; 2, Desiderative; 3. 
DimintUive: dxid i^. Inchoative, 

1. Frequentatives, 9(]l of which follow, the first coiyuga- 
tion, denote the frequent repetitionr, or an increase of Sie 
action expressed by th^ primitive verb. * They are de- 
rived from liie supine by .^changing the regular ^tum in 
the. first conjugation into Sto^ itare; other verbs of the 
first conjugation, as w^ll as of die pt]iers, remain un- 
changed, the termix^tion of t^e supine, U7Hf alone being 
changed into a, are. Of the fopner kind are, e. g., ctamo^ 
clamito; impero, imperito; rogito^ volito;^ oi, the latter, 
doTno, domitum^ domito ;. adjuvo^ adjutum^ adjuto ; and 
from verbs of the third conjugation : cwrro^ cursumy curso ; 
i;a7io, cantumy carUo ; dico^ dir^um, dicio ; . nosco, notum^ 
noto ; . and so, also, accepto, pid^o, defenso^ gesto, quasso, 
fracto. Some of these latter frequentatives, derived from, 
verbs of the third coiyugation,, serve, again, as primitives, 
from which new frequentatives are formed; 9j&^ cursito, 
dictito, defensito. There are some double frequentatives 
of this, kind, without ijie intermediate form of the simple 
frequentative being used or, known; such as actito from 
ago facto J; and so, also, lectitb from legOy scriptito from 
scribo, liaesito froni Jiaereo^ vi^to from video, ventito from 
venio, advento. 

Some few frequentatives with the termination ito^ itare^ 
are not deiived from the supine, but from the present of 
he primitivo verb* This formation is necessary when 


the jMrimidTO verb has no supine, as k the taae witb )^a9^ 
paveo-'4<Uito, pavito. But the following are forn^d in 
this manner without there h&aag such a reanon: a-mto^ 
moscUOf quaeritQ^ cogito^ Some firequentadres have th« 
deponential form ;. as, amplexar^ &om amplector^ minitar 
fix>m jfn^ior, ^««lor from tuear, scitor and sciscitor from Actieo, 
[§ 232.] 2* Detideratwes end in uru», urtVe (after the 
fourth conjugation), and express a desire of that which is 
ipiplied in the primitive. They are formed from the si^- 
pin0 of the latter^ e* g., esurioy esurii^ I want to eat, from 
€do,eswm; §o,9hH^,ceenatwrw&omcoenatmifdictm'w&€ak 
dictum, empturio from emptum, parturio from partum^ and 
in this manner Cicero fad Att.^ ix., 10) jocosely formed 
SuUaturit et proacripturit^ he would like to play the pait 
of Sulla and to proscribe. 

Note. — Some verbs in vrio after the fourth conjagation, such «s Ugwtre, 
$caturire, prurire, are not desideratives, and it should be observed that the 
u in these words is long. 

[§ 233.] 3. DimvMUives have the termination illo, illarff 
which is added to the dtem of the primitive verb without 
any farther change, and they describe the action expressed 
as something trifling or insignificant ; e. g., canHllare^ frx>m 
eantare f to sing in an under voice, or sing with a shaking; 
con8cribiUare, scribble ; sorhillate^ fit>m sarbere, sip. The 
number of these verijs is not great. 

[§ 234.] 4. Lu:hoative9 have the termination ttco, and 
follow the third conjugation. They express the beginning 
of the act or condition denoted by the primitive ; e. g., 
caleo^ I am warm; calesco^ I am getting or becoming 
warm; ariso, I am dry; aresco^l begin to be diy ; langueo, 
I am languid ; languesco, I am becoming languid. It fre- 
quently happens that a preposition is*prefixed to an in- 
choative^ as in timea^ pertimesco ; taceo^ canticcsco. The 
vowel preceding the termination aco, scere, is either a 
(asco), e (esco)^ or % (isco)^ according as the inchoative is 
derived from a primitive of the first, second, or third and 
Iburth conjugation (in the last two cases it is iacc); e* g^ 

tabasco froia labare^ totter. 
pallesco from poller e, be pale. 
ingemisco fix)m geniere^ sigh. 
obdarmisco from domUre, sleep. 

Manj^^ inchoatives, however, are not derived from verbs, 
out fr-om >sub8tantivos and adjectives, o. g.. 




etvmology: or nouns and verbs. IM 

jmertucOf I bocome cbUdiah, frotn^mer. 
maturesco, I become ripe, fi:Dm maturusy 0, um. 

All inchoativus take their perfect and the teiises deri- 
Ted fiom it fi-om the primitiye verb, or form it as it would 
be in the primitiye. (See Chap. LII., the list of the most 
important inchoatives.) It must, however, he observed 
that not all verbs ending in sco are inchoatives. See § 

. [§ 235.] B. In regard to the derivation of verbs from 
nouns, we see that in general the language followed the 
orinciple of giving the termination of the second conju- 
gation to verbs of an intransitive signification, and that of 
the first to sach as have a transitive signification. Thutr 
we have, e. g., . 

(a) flotf fiorUf fiorerey bloom. and from adjectives : 
fr<MStfrondi9ffr<mdere, have fo- aUnUy aJUien, be white. 

Uage. cabnUy calvere, be bald. 

vis, vires, virere, be strong. Jlavus, fiavere. be yellow. 

Inx, lucis, lucere, shine. hebes, hebere, be blunt or dull 

bat, aWu», aibon, whitewaaii. 

(b) nunurut, numeraref count. . • aptug, aptare, fit. 

ngniim, signage, ms^rk. liber, a, tun, Uberare, liberate. ' 

frmtMifmdittfntudate, deceive. ceUber, 6rw, bre, ceUbrart, make fte ' 
nomen, nominis, nommarey name. ^ent, or celebrate. 

vulnus, vtUneris, vulnerare, wound, memorf memorare, mention. 
arma, armare, arm. communis, communicare, commnni* 

. Both kinds are found compounded with prepositions, without the sim- 
ple verbs themselves being known or much used ; e. g., 

Laqueus, iUaqueare, entwine ; acervus, coacervare, accumulate ; stirps, rx- 
tvfre, extirpate ; hit9rim,^emkdmar$, cheer. 

The observation of § 147 must be repeated here* that 
many deponents c^ the first conjugation (in ari) are deri- 
ved from substantives for the purpose of expressing '* to 
hetJiat which the substantive indicates ;" e. g.* among tho 
first Teii)s in the list there given, we find aemulari, ancU- 
larif ar^itedatiy aucupari, augurari; and, in like man- 
ner, cemes, comitis, comkdri; doihifiM9^^dominari ; fur 
furari. See § 237. The Latin language has mii^ fiiioe- 
dotn in formations of this kind, and we may even now 
iarok similar words, just as Persius invented (01^ was the 
first, as far as we know, that used) cormcari^ chatter lik# 
% crow, and Horace graecari, live luxunously, like a Gra^ 



[§ 236.] Substantives are derived: 

A. From Verbs. 

1. By the termination or, appended in place of the um 
of the supine in transitive verbs, to denbte a man perform 
ing the action implied in the verb ; e. g., 

amator^ monitor^ lector^ auditor, 

adulator^ fautor, conditor^ condltor^ 

adjutor^ censor, petitor, largttor, 

%nd a great 'many others. Those which end in tor form 
feminines in irix ; Baffautrix^ ad^utrix^ mctrix ; and if in 
uome cases no such &minine can be pointed out in the 
writings that have come down to us, it does not follow, 
•lonsidering the facility of' their formation, that there nev- 
er existed one. In regard to the masculines in sor, the 
formation of feminines is more difficult, but Umsor makes 
tonstrix ; defensor, defenstrix ; and exptdsor, throwing out 
the s, malces eocpultrix. 

Sjome few substantives of this kind ending in tor are 
formed, also, from nouns ; as, aleator, gambler, from alea : 
janitor, from janua; viator, from via. 

2. The same termination or, when added to the unal- 
tered stem of a word, especially of intransitive verbs, ex- 
oi^esses the action or condition denoted by the verb sub- 
etantively ; e. g., pavere, pavor, fear ; furere, fmror^ fury ; 
nitere, niter, shine or gloss. So, «l0o/ e^ g., 

clanHoT^^ alhor^ horror\ 'fii/^or^ ardor, 
amor:, rttbor^. timor^ ma^ror, splendor. 

[§ 23t.] 3. Two terminations, viz., «<?, gen. ^«mi^,iind us, 
gen. iw, when added to the supine after throwing off the 
um^ express the adion or condition denoted by die Terb 
ab8trax!tedly. Both terminations vre ^vqaently met with 
in substantives derired from the 'ssme verb, v^il^oivt any 
material diffidence ; as, concursio and ^xmcursuf, consensio 
and consensus; so, also, cohtemptie and contempi^eB^ digres- 
sio and digressue, motio and m&tus, potio and potus^ tracta 
tio and tractatM9, and otheni. . Sc^ne verbs in are which 
ha;ire difier^it forms of the supine (see § 171), make, also, 
substantives of two forms ; thus we have Jricatio and^ic- 
tioj lavatio and lotio, potatio and potio, and, according tc 
their analc»gy, also cubatio and euhitio, although the supin« 
of cubare is cubitum only. 


la this maimer are formed &om aetivefv and deponents, 
for example, 

(a) sectio, motto, lectio, auditio. 
^^ovnetatio. cautio, ultio, sortUio, 
^acdamatuK admonition actio, largitio*, 

(b) crepitiis, Jlcttcs, cantus, ambitus, 

sonittu. visTis. congressus, attus. 

Note. — Strictly speaking, the Latin language makes this difference, tha 
the veil)al substantives in io denote the action or condition ao actually go 
ing onv taoA. those In «« as being and existing ; but this difference is vm- 
quenpy neglected, and it is to be observed that the writers of the silvei 
age (especially Tacitus) prefer the forms in us without at all attending to 
the aiflerence. A third tennitaation, producing pretty noarly the same 
meaiun^, is tim; as in jnocum, painting; conjectwruy ccmjecture; cukura, 
cultivation. Sometimes it exists along with the other two, as in positio^ 
positus, positttra ; censioy censua^ cerisura. Usually, however, one oi them 
18 preferred, .in practice, >vith a definite meaning. Thus we nave mercatut, 
tbe(/narket, and mtrcaturaf commerce. In some substantiiies the termi- 
nation jela produces the same meaning ; as, querela, complaint ; loquela^ 
^eech ; corruptela, corruption. 

^ [§ 238.] 4. Tbe termination men exprejscs either the 
thin? to which the action belongs, both in an active ana 
passive sense; tub, J^dmen^ from ^Igerejlightnmg; Jltimen, 
from Jluere, river ; agmen, from agere, troop or army in 
its march ; examen, from eodgere^ a swarm oi bees driven 
out : or, the means of attaining what the verb expresses ; 
e. g., solameitf a means of consolation ; nomen a means 
of recognising, that is, a name. The same thing is ex- 
pressed also by the termination mefUum, which sometimes 
occurs along with men, ; as, tegm^n and tegumentum^ vela- 
m4m and velamentum, but much more frequently a/*»ne, as 
in adjnMentum, from adjuvare,, a means of relief; condi- 
mentumf from condire^ condiment, i. e., a means of sea- 
soning; documentum, a document, a means of showing or 
proving a thing. Similar words are t 

alhvamentmn. monwnmium. additamentwA expei-imentum,, 
omameistum. ^finnentim* alimentwn, Uandimentum 

Some substantives of tkis kind are denved frt)m nouns 
thus, 'frxHn ater^ black, we have atramicntum. The oon^ 
neoting vowel a before w.entum^ however, may show that a 
link was conceived to exist between the primitive ater and 
the derivative atramentum^ such, perhaps, as a verb atrare 
blacken. In like manner, we have calceamentum, » cov 
ering for the feet { capillamentumj a headdress, wig. 

[§ 239.] 5. The terminations bulnm and culum (or idum 
when c or g precedes) denote an instrument or a plaa 


Idd LATIlf GKASniAft 

8ei*ving a ceitain purpose ; e. g.» venahulum^ a bonter'i 
Bpear; vehLtdum^ a vehicle ; jactdum, a javelin; cimgulum^ 
a gird e. So, also, 

umbracufunu cuhicuhim, ferctdumi vinculum.^ 
poculum, latibtdum. $tahulum. operculum. 

The termination culum is sometimes contracted into clum^ 
as m vinclum ; and clum is changed into crum^ and hu- 
lum into brum^ when there is already an / in the stem of 
the word ; e. g^^Julcrum^ support ; lavacrumy bath ; tepul- 
crum^ sepulchre ; Jlagrum, scourge ; ventdahrym. A simi- 
lar mesming belongs to trum in aratrum^ plough; claus-^ 
trum, lock ; rostrum, beak. Some words of this class^are* 
derived from substantives ; as, turibulum, censer ftus, tu* 
risj; acetabulum, vinegar cruet: candelabrum, c^ndelabre. 

6. Other and less productive terminations are a and o, 
which, when appended to the stem of the word, denote 
rhe subject of die action : conviva, guest ; advena, stran* 
ger; scriba^ scvihe ; ^transfuga, deserter; erro, vagrant; 
bibo, drunkard ; comedo ^ glutton. By means of the termi- 
nation to words aie derived from substantives, denoting 
a trade to which a person belongs ; as, ludio^ the same as 
histrio, an actor ; peUio, furrier ; restio, rope-maker. 

-ium expresses the effect of the verb and the place of 
the action ; e. g., gaudium, joy ; odium, hatred ; collo* 
quium^ colloquy ; conjugium and comnubium^ man iage ; 
aedificium, building, edifice ; re- and amfugium, place of 
refuge ; comitium^ place of assembly. 

tgo expresses a state or condition ; origo, from oriri^ 
origin ; vertigo, giddiness ; rubigo, a blight ; .petigo and 
impetigo, scab ; prurigo, itch ; and hence, porrigo, scur£ 
A similar meaning belongs to ido in cupido,, libido^ formido* 

[§ 240.] 6. From other Substancires. 
1. The diminutives, or, as QuintiHan, i.,5, 46, calls them, 
vocahula demiuMta, are mostly formed by the terminotioiis 
aius^ ida, ulum, or cuius, a, um, according to the gender of 
the primitive word : ulus^ a, um, is appended to the stem 
afier the«removal of the termination of the oblique cases, 
e. g., virga^ virgula ; servus^ servmlus,* puer^ puerulus; rex 
(regis J ^ regulus; caput (capitis J ^ capittdum} So, also, 

* [The student ought lo have been informed here that in vmc-w/tim, at 
in jac-tUtant the c belongs to tne stem, while in oper-culvm it belongs to the 
termination.]— Am. Ed. 

t [A much simpler classiticatim than the one here givpn may lie fourid 
is Priscian. viz. : 


pcrttla, nummnlns, rajmlum* facula, 
iL^tsrula* horiulus, oppidulum, adoUseemtului* 

XwutofxA of ulus^ a, um^ we find olus^ a, um, when the ter 
mination of the primitiye substantive^ us, a^ um, is prece* 
ded by n vowel ; e. g., 

Jlliolus. glariola, ingeniolum. 

alveolus. linecia, horreolum. 

The terminatioQ ddus^ a^ mm^ is sometimes appended to 
the nominatiye ¥rithout any diange, viz., in the, words in 
I and r, and those in os and us of the third declension* 
which take an r in the genitive ; e. g., 

'corculunu Jraterculus. floscuius. muHMSculum. 
tuberculum. sororcula. asculum, carpusculum. 

And so, aiaOf pulvisculus, vasculum, from vas^ vasis; arhus-^ 
cula, from the form arbos ; and, in a somewhat different 
manner, rumusculus, from rumor ; lintriculus and ventricu^ 
lus^ from linter and venter. Sometimes the s of the nom* 
mative terminations.t> and c« is dropped, as in 

igniculus. aedicula, nubecula. dieculm. 

pisciculus. pellicula. tulpecula. plcbecida. 

In words of other terminations of the third declension, 
and in those of the fourth, i steps in 83 a connecting vow- 
el between the stem of the word and the diminutive ter^ 
mination cuius ; e. g., 

pomticulus. denticulus^^ versiculus, anicuia. 
partunda. ossiculum. articulus. corAiculum.^ 

coticula. reticulum. sensiculus. geniculum. 

The teimination dlus^ a, um^ occurs only in those words 
of the first and second declensions which have /, n, or r 
in their terminations^ Thus, oculus makes ocellus; tabula^ 
fahella; asinus^ asdius; liber ^ libeUus; libra, lihella * lu» 
crum, lucellum. So, also, popellus^JabeUa, lametta^ patel- 

(A) If the primitive be of the first or second declension. 'mtu», •«, -wm, is 
a4€fM. ; the gender depending on that of the primitiTe. 

(B) If it oe of the third, fourth, or fifth, -cuhu, -a, -wn, is preferred. 

The exceptions arise from contraction, or euphonic variety. If the 
item of the first or second declension terminate in /, n, r, a cobtractioD 
generally takes place, pro lacing the temunation -eUut^ -a, -um, or -Ulug, 
-a, "vm. Thus, besides puendua, we have jmellut ; and the seciondary form 
puellula. If it end in t or e, then -olus is written for -tUus. With respect 
to the other declensions, if the stem end in any of the harsher consonants 
•t gt ^ df the first termination without the guttural is naturally preferred 
If It end in on^ then -unculux is written instead of -ftncu/iM. {Journal mj 
KdicatioH, vol i., p. \Qt.)]—Am. Ed. 

lum. CuteUa is the same as cisttda^ and thence we hava 
again cisteUida, just as pudlula from puella. Catellm 
from canU^ and porcelltts from porous^ cannot be brought 
under any rule. The termination illtis^ a, uiUy occurs 
more rarely, as in bacillum, ngiUum, tigillm/ii piipittus, 
like pupulii^, from the obsolete pupus; villum from vinum, 
' So, also, coiicillt^f lapillus, anguilla. The termination 
imdfd'ttSy fl, urn:, is appended chfeSy tb words in'^, g6ii. onh 
**r inis ; as, . w . 

scrmunculus, ratiuncula. , liomunculus, 

pugiunculus. ' quaestiuncula, . virguncula, 

A few diminutives of this sort are formed also frono 

words of other terminations, viz., avunculus from avu^ 

domunculg, from domus^ Jurunculus fvom Jur, ranuncvhu 

from rana. The diminutive termination leus occurs sel 

dom; but it is found m cquus^ equuleus ; actcs^ eundcus 

Mnnus, Mnnuletis, 

JVbtc— Only a few diminutives differ in gedder from their primitive 
words ; as, aeuUuSf from €umSf fern. ; curriculumt from curruSf masc. ; and, 
also^ nmmculust from rana, and acmnilhu (a footstool), from tcommtm, along 
witn which, however, we also find the regular dminutives rantua and 
Bcanui^vm. Hence there are instances of donUo ^minuUves in ctsei 
where the primitives have donble forms (see 698) ; e. g., ca<i7/u«.and catil- 
•lum ; piteolus -and pUeolum, and a few others. The diminutives of comtaion 
nonns (^ 40) are said %6 have regularly tWafo ms, onein u« and the otb* 
cr in a, to designate the two sexes ; as, infantvlus and ir^tmtvla^ <»runci4««, 
a, fromin/an« and tiro. 

[§ 241.] 2. The termination ium appended to the radi- 
cal syllable of the primitive expresses either an assem 
blage of things or persons, or their relation to one anoth- 
er; e. g., codlega, collegium^ an assembly of men who are 
collegae (colleagues) of one another; so c<?w«wtt?w, repast, 
or assembjy of convivae ; servitium, the domestics, also 
servitude; sdcerddtium, the office of priest; minister ^min* 
isteriunif service ; extdy exilium^ exile ; consvrs^ consorUum^ 
community. When this termination is appended to ver* 
bal substantives in or^ it denotes the place of the .action 
as in repositorium, repository; conditorium, a place where 
a thing is kept, tomb ; auditorium^ a place where people 
assemble for the purpose of listening to a person. 

[§ 242.] 3. -arium denotes a receptacle ; e. g., grana^ 
rium^ a granary or place where grain is kept ; armarium 
farmaj, a cupboard ; armamentarium^ arsenal, or place 
where the armamcnta arc kept Sc also, plantarium 'mi 


$emi9uirium^ aerarmm, cqluinbarU^mi tahularmm^ valetudh 

[§ 243.] 4. 'Uumf appended to the names of plants, de- 
notes the place where fliey grow in great number ; e. g., 
qtiercus, quercetum, a plautatiou of oaks ; so, also, viitetumf 
Umretum^ escvletum^ dumetum^ myrUtumf olivetum ; and,' 
after the same analogy, saaxtum^ a field covered with 
etones ; and, with some change, salictum (from galixjt 
pasture, instead of ^aUceimm; virgtUtum instead of vir-^ 
guletum y arbustumy from arbos (for arbor J^ instead of ar* 

[J 244.] 5. -i/e, appended to names of ani^ials, indicates 
liho place in which diey are kept; e. g., bubUe (rarely bo^ 
ffilejf stall of oxen ; equile^ stable (of horses) ; so, also, 
eaprile^ hoedile, ovile. Some which are formed from verbs 
indicate the place of the action expressed by the verb; as, 
cubill^^ gedUe. All these words are properly neuters of 
adjectives, but their other genders are not used. . Conv. 
pare § 250. 

[§ 245.] 6. With regai'd to patronymics, or names of 
descent, which the Latin poetshave adopted from the po- 
etical language of the Greeks, the student must be refer 
red to the Greek Grammar, The most common termina- 
tion is tdes; as, Priamus^JPriamidee; CecropsyCecropides; 
names in eus and des make ides (£t($^c) l 6. g., Attides, Pe- 
Tides, Heraclidae* The names in as of the first de.clen 
aion make their patronymics in odes; ^yAeneas^ Arcades. 
The termination iades should properly occur only in names 
ending in ius, such as Thestius, Thestiades ; but it is 
used also in other names, according to the requirements 
itf the particular verse; as, Laertes, Xtaertiades ,' Atlas^ 
Atlantiades ; AbaSy AbarUiades; Tdanwn, Telamaniades, 

The feminine patronymics are derived from the mascu- 
lines, tdes being dianged into is^ Ides into eis^ and iades 
into ias; e. g., T&ntalides^ Tantalis; Ncr.^us /NeridesJ^ 
jNereis; Thestius ( Thestiades J^ T^estias. Aeneades (firom 
Aeneas) alone makes the feminine ^eneis, because the regf 
nlar feminine, AenecLs, would bo the same as the primitivo. 
In some instances we find the termination inc or ione / as, 
Neptunine^ AcrisioTie. 

[§ 246.] C. From Adjectives. 

1. The termination. 2^a^ is the most common in forming 
•ttbttantives denotnig the quality expressed by die^adjec 


tive fts an abstract notion, and is equivalent to the Biiglish 
ty or ity. Tho adjective itself, in appending tto*, under- 
goes the same changes as in its obhque cases, especially 
in the one which ends in t. Thus, &om atrox^ atroci, we 
obtain atrocitas; from ct^ndus^ cupidi, cupiditas. ^o, 
also, capax^ cajnicitas; celer^ cderitas ; saluber^ salubri' 
t€u ; cruddis, erudelUas ; Jacilisj faciMta$ ; clarus, dart- 
las; fecundtu^ focunditas; verus, Veritas. lAbertas is 
formed without a connecting vowel, ^n^facultas and difi' 
cultas with a change of the vowel, as in the adverb dijffi' 

The adjectives in iua make their substantives in ietas ; 
e. g., anxietas, ebrietas, pietas^ varieUu ; those in stu4 
make them in stas : hanestdsy venustas^ vetustas;. in a sim- 
ilar manner, potestas and voluntas are formed from posse 
and velle. 

2. Another very common termination is ta, but it oc- 
curs only in substantives derived from adjectives of one 
termination, which addta to the crude form of the oblique 
cases. From audax, dat. audaci^ we have audacia, and 
from concors^ concordif cokcordia. So, also, clemens, cle- 
merUia ; constans, consiantia ; impudentia, degantia ; ap- 
petentia and despicientia occur along with appetitio and 
appetitus, despectio and despectus. Some adjectives in us 
and cr, however, likewise form their substantives in ia / 
e. g., miser i miseria ; angustus^ angustia ; perfidies, per* 
fidia; and several verbal adjectives in cundtts; ^Mffaam- 
dusj Jacundia ; iracundus, iracundia ; verecundus, tAsre* 

[§ 247.] S. There are numerous substantives in which 
tudo is appended to the case of the adjective ending in it 
e. g., ctcritudo^ aegrittido^ altiiudo^ crastitudOf longituda, 
magnitudo, Yortitudo, siniiiitudo ; and in polysyllablefl in 
tus, tudo du-ectly grows out of this termination, as in 
consuetudOf tnansuetudo, inquietudo, soUicitudo, Valetudo 
stands alone. Some of these substantives exist along with 
other forms ; as, heatUudo^ daritudo, firmitudo^ lenitudat 
and sanctitudoy along with BecUitas, darita^y firmitas, hcc. 
In these cases the words in udo seem to denote the dura- 
tion and peculiarity of the quality more than those in xtas^ 
To these we must add the termination monia, which pro- 
duces the same signi ^cation, e. g., sancdmoniaf castinuh 
ma^ euyrimonia^ after tho analogy of whicl-* parsimonin 


■ml ^tterimomia (stronger than querda) are fo:*nied from 

4. Substanti\es in itia^ firom adjectives in tis^ are of 
more rare occurrence; B&^justiHa,1aoTayu$t'iUfju9tu -So, 
avaritia^ laetitia^ maesHtia^ pudiciUa; but also trisiiiim 
from tristis, 

5. The termination edo occurs only in a few subataa 
tiyes ; as, albedo^ duleedo, gravedo (heaviness or cold i«^ 
the head), p^iguedo (along vrilk pia^piitudoj. 

III. Adjectiteb.. 
Adjectives are derived : 

.A. From Verbs. 

[§ 248.] 1. With the termination bundus^ chiefly fixMO 
verbs of the first cotnugation, e. g., errabmndus, firom er- 
rare^ cogitahundus, trora cogitare^ grattelabundua, fitnn 
gratulari, pcpukUmndus, £rom popidari* Their signifi- 
cation is, in general, that of a participle present, with the 
meaning strengthened, a circumstance which we must 
express in English by the addition of other words ; e. g., 
haesitabunduSf full of hesitation ; deliberabundus^ full of 
deliberation ; mirtibundus^ full of admiration ; vener(ibu»- 
du9^ full of veneration; lacrimabundus, weeping profusely. 
Thus Gellius explains laetabundus as one qui tumnde lae* 
tus est. There are but few adjectives of this kind derived 
from verbs of the third conjugation : fremehundus, geme- 
bundusj furibundus, ludibuidus, fMOrtbundus^ nitibundut 
There is only one fix)m a verb of the second conjugation, 
Yiz.f pudibundus ; and, likewise, only one from a verb of 
the fourth, kudvibundus, 

JVbic. — ^These yerbal adjectives in 6tmA<«, however, cannot be regarded 
as mere participles, for in general they do not gpvem any case. But we 
find in Livy the expressions vitabundua emstra, mirabundi vanam speciem. A 
considerable list of such expressions is given in Ruddimannns, Jnatit, 
Chramnfot^ Lot., torn, i, p. 300, ed. Lips. 

Some verbal adjectives in cmulua are of a similar kind: 
Jiummdus, eloquent ; iractmduSf irascible ; ijerpcundus^ full 
of bashfulness ; rubicujulua^ the same as rubens^ reddiish. 
[§ 249.] 2. The ending u2im, chiefly in adjectives formed 
fixnn intransitive verbs, simply denotes the quality ex- 
pressed by the verb ; 

cdliduiy from edhre^ rubidts^ fW»n rubere. 

algidus^ from algere^ turgidus, &om turgere. 
vutdidus. from madere^ rafidut^ from rapert, . 

904 • LATm ORAHMAB. 

The teiminofeicNi toM iaf of mote rare ocoonerse ; «. ^, 
congruus, from congruo, agreeing; assiduus, nocuus aad 
mrwcuus. When derived fix>m transitive verbs, it gives to 
the adjective a passive meaningr as in irriguus^ well wa> 
Ipred ; conspicuus^winble ; i7idividuu9^ indivisible. 

3. The terminations ilis and bilis denote the possibility 
of a thing in a passive sense ; e. g., amdbUU^ easy to love, 
hence amiable ; placabUis, easy to* be conciliated ; dele* 
hilis, easy to be destroyed; vrndbiUs, easy to be coo- 
xjuered ; fadlisy easy to do ; dociUs, docile ; fragilis, fira- 
gile. Some of these adjectives, however, have an ac;|ive 
meaning: Awn^iZw, producing horror, horrible ; terribilis, 
terrible, that is,.proauciBg terror; foitilis^ fertile. 

4. '•aoi^ appended to the stem of the verb, expvesses a 
[HTopehsity, and generally, a &ulty one; * 

pugnctx, ' fwrm^ 

edax and vwax, uudax, 

loquax, rapax," 

The few adjectives in itlus have a similar meaning; hm 
eredulus, credulous ; bibulus^ fond of drittkitig ; quertdus^ 

[§ 250.] B. Prom Substantives, viz. 

(a J From Appellatives : 

.1. The ending ^t^ demotes the material,. and sometimes 
similarity; e. g., ; 

' Jerreus, lignemt. piumheu$» virgmeut. 
amreua* citreus. cmereM, igneiu, 

argcT^w* hux6m* oorporieui* vitrem. 

Some adjectives of this kind have a double £)rm in 
•%eus and -rat^/ as, ehumeus and ebwmusy Jiculneui and 
ficuVnuB^ iligneus and Uigntis, quemeiis and qtiemus, sa- 
lignetM and 8aligwus» 

2. "tcus expresses belonging or relating to a thing; 
e. g., clasgicutj &om classis^: civicus, relating to a citizen; 
dqminicu», belonging to a tnaster; rustieus, rural;- auHcus^ 
relating to a court ; bdHcus^ relating to war, &c. 

3. The termination Uis (con^are § 20) has the s^me 
meaning, but assumes also a moral signilic^tion ; eg., 
civilis and hostilis, the same as civicus B.nd hostityiM^, bilt 
also answering to iftac civil and hostile* So. servilu^ seni^ 
lis J (tnUigt ju9enilis, puerUis, virilis. , 

4. The endings aeeustaid inius sometimes express a raa 


Mtal and 8i>nietiined tiie mgin ; e. g., c^<zrteo<eir«, .'^•**fi%. r • 

hunidtia. So, also, those derived from parnciple^ : coilc 
tieiM9^ arisen &om oontHbutions ; coTm^mticiTis^ fictitious 
jtubditumSf suppositkkms, and otbeiis. 

[§ 251.] 6, The tennination alis (in English alj is ap* 
pended- iiot-<»ily ^ wcHrds in a, but also to subetantireA 
0f other tetiiMttaticHiSy in whieh^ ho^ev^*, the temunatiou 
m appended to the crude form of the oblique cases ; e< g., 
ancora, conviva, letumr-^ancoralisy convivalis^ letalis ; but 
from rea?, regis^ we have regalis ; virgo, virginalis ; sacer- 
doiy sacerdotalis ; caput y capttalis; corpus, corporalis. So, 
also, atiguralisy aditialis, comitialis, annalis, fluvialiSf viov' 
talis^ novalisj socialis, and others. Also fit>m proj^er 
names ; as, Augtistalu, Cktudtali$, Flcmalis^ Trajanalis^ 
to denote classes of priests instituted in honour of those 
emperors. The endmg aris is somewhat more seldom, 
and principcdl J ocscurs in such words -as contain an I ; 
^ch as articukiru^ eonmlaru^ j^PP^^^y pueUaris^ vuU 
garis, ApoUvkaris. 

The termination a4/ilis denotes fitness for the thing ex- 
pressed by the root ; "Sid, aqtsatUu, JlupiaHUs, volatilig, 

6. The termination ius occur? most frequently in de*- 
rivatives £:0m personal npuns in or ; c g., accwatoritis, 
amatorvus^ aleaiorws, censoriuf, imperatoriuSf praetorius, 
UQCortus* It Occujr» more rarely in substantives of other 
terminations, though we have regius, patritts^ aqndlanius. 
From substantives m or which do not denote persons, but 
abstract notions, adjectives are formed by simply append- 
ing wy as, decor, d^eorm; and so, also, canorusj odorus, 
lumoftys (less frequently used than honestuaj. 

[§ ^$2.] 7. -mm is found especially in derivations from 
names ot animals (especially to denote their flesh) ; ©. g., 

immnus* feriMUs^ lutedinus, anserinui, 

canmus, eqmnus* caballinus. anatinus, 

tamdinMA, tOMrinus. arietintts* vipermus. 
But it also occurs in :adjeetiv6s derived from names of 
other living beings; e. g^ divinus, libertinus, inquilinui 
(firGfin ineolajy masculinus^ femimnua (martmts^ living in 
the sea, btatids alone). Medioma^ sutrina, tonstrina, pis* 
trinum^ textrinum, are to be explained by the ellipsis of a 
•abstantive, and deti(^e the locality in which the art or 
tnie- 19 csanied on 



The tennifiation inuSf on the other hand, occurs ebiefljf 
in derivations from names of plants and minerals, to de- 
note the material of which a thine is made ; e. g., cedti 
nuSf Jagmus, adamanHnus, crysUiumus, and the ending 
^us in derivative adjectives denoting time; as, cras^nus, 
ditUmu8, homoHnus, annodnus. See § 20. 

8. The termination ariMs expresses a general reladon 
to the nonn from vrhich the adjective is formed, but Inore 
particiilarly the occupation or profession of a person; e. g^ 

coriarius. carhonarius, scapharius. ostiariut. 
statuarius, aerarius, navicularius. connliarius. 

sicarius, argentarius. codicarius, classiarius. 

9. The ending osus denotes fulness or abundance; as in 

nerunmMMs, aquatuM. hdlicoius* 

animosus* lapidostu. cqliginosu9, 

artificiosus, vinasus. tenebricosus. 

The ending uasu* occurs excluuvely in derivations from 
words of the fourth declension: actuosus^portutmu^saU^ 
osus^ vultuasus ; but also monstruosus, which is used along 
with mofutrdMua, 

10. The termination laUu9 denotes plenty, and is com- 
monly preceded by the vowel u, and sometmies by o .* 

JrauduUntMs. vincHentus, pulveruleiUus. 

turhvlentus, opulentui. vudentus. 

tsculentMM. potuktUus. sangumolejUus* 

11. Less productive and significant terminations are: 
'anuSf which denotes belonging to a thing ; urhanus^moH' 
tanus^ humanus (from homo) (respecting the adjectives 
formed £rom numerals by means of this termination, see 
§118. Thus, we findyeim tertiana, quartana, a fever re- 
turning every third or fourth day) ; ivus generally denotes 
the manner or nature of a thing : Jurtivus^ votivus^ aesti- 
vus^ tempesHvus ; also from participles : captivus^ naiivus^ 
sativus ; emUs denotes origin : Jratemus, matemMS^ pater^ • 
nui, il^emus^ extemus. The same termination and umu$ 
occur in adjectives denoting time : vemut^ hikemuif ku» 
temus^ aetemus (fix)m aevitemusj, dtumms, noctumus; 
litmus occurs in Jinitinius, legitimus^ maritimus. The 
termination ^steTf in the adjectives mentioned in § 100, de- 
notes the place of abode, or a quality. 

S§ 253.] A very extensive class of derivative adjeodvei 
[ in atui^ like participles perfect passive of the iiiil 


conjugation, butt they are deriyed at once fixmi substan- 
tives, without its being possible to show the existence of 
an intermediate ^erb. Thus we have, e. g., aurum and 
auratus, gilt ; but a verb aurare does not occur, and its 
existence is assumed only for the sake of derivation. 
Some adjectives of this kind are formed from substantives 
in u and end in Uus;* as, imtUuSf provided with ears; jpe/- 
Ittus,' covered with a skin ; turritmst having towers; and 
so, also, mdlitua, sweet as honey. Some few are formed 
oy the ending utU9 from substantives in U8, gen. us ; as, 
cotmUus^ OAtutMs ; and, according to this analogy, nasutusy^ 
fit>m nonet f t. Those in atut are very numerous ; e. g., 

barhatus» cdceatus, aerdtus. 

togatus. dipeatus, dentatus, 

galeatug, octdatui. Jalcatus. 


[§ 254.] fbj From Proper Names. 

We may here distinguish four classes: 1, names of 
men ; 2, of towns ; B, of nations ; 4, of countries. 

1. The termination ianus is the most common in form- 
ing adjectives from Roman names of men, not only from 
those ending in ius^ such as TuUianuSf Servilianus^ but 
also from those in us and other endings ; as, CrassianuSy 
Marcdlianus, Paidianus^ Caesarianus^ Catonianus^ Cicc- 
ranianus : amis occurs only in names in a, and is there- 
fore found less frequently; as, CinfianuSf Svlla/nus; still, 
on the other hand, we find septa Agrippiana, legio Gal- 
biana, Crracckus is the only name in us that commonly 
makes Gracckanus/ 'for Augustanusj Lepidanus^ and Lu- 
cullanus occur along With Augustianus^ Lepidiaitus^ and 
Ltucullianus. The termination inus is found chiefly in de- 
rivatives from names of families, e. g., Messdlinus, Pau- 
Unus, Rufinus, Agrippma^ Plancina ; in real adjectives it 
occurs much more rarely, but it is well established in 
Jugurtka^ Jugurthinus (for which, however, Jugurihanus 
also might have been used) ; Plautus, Plautinus; Verres, 
Verrinusy Us distinguish them from Plautiusy Plautianuss 
Verriusy Verriawus. In Suetonius, moreover, we find hd* 
lun^ Viriathinumy fossa Drusina, and in Cicero oratio 3fe- 
■' ■ — - — ——I ' — ' ' ■ 

* [AMrituM^ ptlUUu^ &c., are the very forms Co which analogy would lead. 
CfmkxAt Jwnud of Education, vol. i., p 105.)]— Am, Ed. 

t [JVknifiw is toot a Terr irregular form, when we consider the conveiti- 
kiUly of the vowels S and H, or 4 and H ; and the consequent confusion iu 
t # many words between the second and fourth declensions.]— ^m EfL 


teUina (an oratioii delivered against Mele)lu6)i aii Att ,. i . 
13 ; hdlum AtUwckirmm^ Philip*^ xi.« 7 ; and partes AjUik* 
cMnae^ ad Fam., ix., 8. The tenBin£^tioiv^«# in Coiisareus 
Ilerculeus, Romuleus, is used only by poets. 

There are two terminations for forming adjectives froa 
Grcek> names of men, eus or ius (in Greek £to^, see § 2) 
BXkdtcuB. Some names form adjectives in both, terminar 
tions with a slight difference in moaning, e. g., PhUippeus 
and PhiUppicuif Pythagoreus and Pythagoricua^ hocrate- 
UM and Iweraticus^ JS^merius dJud^M^m^ricuA, Of others^, 
ono form only is used; B^JDemaathfiHicMf Platanicm, So- 
craticus^ To those we must add those in -i^cua, formed, 
from names in ias, e. g., Archiag, On the other hand, we 
have AMtiochiu$^ Aristotelius, pr, with a different pronunci- 
ation, Achilleus^ Epicureuif Mcracleus^ Scphocletis^ Tkeo' 
doreus,' Sometimes adje/ctives in hu are formed, also, 
from Latin names, though, at the best period of the lan- 
guage, never without a ddfinite reason ; e. g., in Cictjro^ 
in Verr.f iii., 49, MarceUeit apd Verrea, Greek festivals iii 
honour of those persons ; but afterward we find, without 
this peculiar meaning, Augusteus, Luctdleus (in Pliny and' 
Suetonius)^ NeroTteus, Roman objects being thus designa 
ted by words with a Greek termination. 

Note.— It must, however, be observed that the Roman gentile names in 
iiu were ohginauT adjectives, and were always used as such. We thus 
read lex GonuUa, JnUoj TuUk^ vt* Flftnmidf Valeria, ^pp*^ oput J^<h <^^ 
cut FlaminiuSf tktatrum Pompeivm, horrea Stdpicia, instead of the adjeetives 
m anus. Nay, the Romans made this very pro]:^r. distinction, that the ad- 
jectives in ius denoted everytHntg which originated with the pejrson in 
question, ^nd was destined for pubuc use, white those inoniuiih^otedtha^ 
which was named after the person for some reisison or other ; e. g., 2ar Sut 
piciui but seditk) Svlpidana; aqua Appia^ but mola Appiana; ptnficus Pont' 
peia, but dassis Ponmeiana, 6cc. Tne fbarmer meaning is also expressed 
when the name itself is used adjectively ; as, aqua Trajana, partus Tra^^ 
nusf though an adjective in ianus was formed even from names ending ii; 
anus ; as, mahim Sejanutnum, SChan &lamanunu Acc(»ding to this anal« 
ogy, Augustus t a, wn, was Used for AugustianuSf Augustanus, or Augustalis ; 
e. g., dtmus AugusUif pax Augusta, scriptores kistoriae Augtutae. The poets 
went atHl farther, and Horace, for example {Carm., iv., 5, 1), sayB, K&mu* 
lae gerUis custos, for Rottudsae, 

[^255.] 2. From names of places, and diiefly from 
those of towns, adjectives are derived ending in ensis^ wui^ 
as^ and dniia. 

(a) -ensis, also from common or appellative nouns, e. g., 
castrensis^ from castra ; circejisis^ from circus ; and froxc 
names of towns: Cannae, Cannensis; Carina ^ CeUinensvtf 
Ariminum^ Ariminensis: Cofrtum, Comensis; McdtblanvfUk 


. Meokdianemis / Suhtw, Bulmim^nnB / fiorii (Greek) to wba 
in ttf (ea) : JbUiockenais^ Antigonensis, Aitalensis, Nicom- 
edensiSf buit in Heradiensis the i is preserved. 

(/3) 'im^, &Gm names in ia and ium / e. g., Afj^rta, 
AmerinUg ; Ariciat Aricmus ; Phreniiay Florentinus; 
Ceeudium^ Caudinus^ ; CUmum^ ClUHnn» ; Ccamsmmf CO)- 
nuamus, Atid so, also, froln JLatnwt^ Latinus^ and from 

{y) *^ (^r all genders) is used less extensively, «iid 
only forms adjectives from names of towns in 20971, thongh 
not fixun alL It occurs in Arpiwum^ Asrpineu; Aquiftum, 
Aquino; PriverHumy Privern4i8/ Fermtinumy Ferentma$ 
(agerj ; CanUniem, Codiiinas (along with CasHinensis). 
But Ravmi^a also makes Ha/t^ennat; Capena^ Gapertas ^ 
Ardea, Afd^a^f Inieramna, Interamnas {ilm ager}; Fm 
dno^ FnmnaSi Antvum makes .il«^ia^, but we find also 
Aiifiense templum and Antiatinue sortes. 

{6) -amiSy from names of towns in a and ae; e. g., Roma, 
Romanus.; Alba, AJhanus ;^ Sparta, Spurtanus ; Cumae^ 
Oumanua; Synccttiae, Syraemanm^ Thebae, Tkebanus/ 
also from some in t«m andi; Tiactduin, Titiculanius ; Fvm* 
di, Fuftdanus. 

[§ 256.] Greek adjectives, however, formed from nam«9 
of to[wnS) or such as weve introduced into: Latin through 
the literature of the Greeks, follow difTerent rules, which 
must be learned from a Gc^ek Grammar. We will h^e 
only remark that the most frequent ending is his, by means 
of which, adjective^ are formed, also, from Grreek names 
of countriea and islands ; e..g*, Aegyptua, Aegyptiui; Les* 
bos, Ltesbius I Rkodus^ Rhodnts ; CorirUhus, UorinChms ; 
]^AesU9i Mphesiw;, /JMuSr C^^ (instead of Chiius}; 
Jjdcedaemon,. Laeeda^magiius ; Maratkoni Marathfmius / 
Salamisj SalajniniuB ; Etetria^ Eretrius* Other names 
in. a take the termination amu ; as, Smyrna^ Smymaeus ; 
Tegea, Tegta^m; Larissa^Xjorissaeus; Perga^ Fergaeus, 
and so, also, Camae (KviiTJ) makes the Greek adjective 
Oumaeus, In the case of towns not in Greece, even when 
they are of Gb-eek origin, we most frequently find the ter- 
mination mtis: Tarentum, Tarentiniis; Agrigentum, Agri- 
gentinus ; Centuripae^ Centuripintes ; Metapontum, Mtta* 
pontinus; Rhegium, RJieginv^ whereas the Latin Regv 

*• Albanu* tf fc^med from Alba Jjungfi'; Albmsis from Alba, un Lake Fu 
cm IS. ' 



um Lepidi makes the adjective Regietmsk It not unite- 
quently happened that the Romans, as may be obsei*ved 
in some instances ah^ady mentioned, formed adjectives 
from Greek names of towns iti their own way, and with- 
out any regard to the Greek forms ; e. g., Atkeniensis in- 
step of Athenaeus, Thehantu instead of Thebtieui (^hile 
Thebaiciu is an adjective derived from the Egyptian 
Thebes), Eretriensis along with Eretnus^ SyrttcusoMus 
along with Syraeuaius, Eleusinua more frequently than 
the Greek foirm Eleusimui* The Gt^ek eliding ev^ was 
most commonly changed into emis; sometimes, however, 
it was retained along with the Latin form ; as, Halicar- 
nasseus and Hcdicamassenns. In like manner, the Greek 
irrig was sometimes retained, as in AbderUes; and some- 
times changed ii^o anus, as in PanormiUpauSf Jk/ndariUi' 
nus, especially in all the Greek names of towns compound- 
ed with polis ; as, NeapoUtanus, Megalopolitantes. The 
other Greek terminations aie usually retained in Latin. 

[§ 257.] 3. From names which ori^ally belong to na- 
tions, adjectives are formed in icus and ius, in most cases 
in icus; e. g., from Afer, Britaamui^ GaUus, Germanus, Ita* 
ItiSf Marsus^ Medits^ Cdta^ Peraa^ Scytha^ Arabs, Aetkdops, 
we have the adjectives Africus, Britannicus^ Celticus, 
Arabicus, &c« ; those in ims are formed from Some Greek 
names; as, Syrusj Syrius; Cilixy Cilicius; Thrax, 'Vkrd' 
eiui. Other names of nations ape at once substantives and 
adjectivea; as, Chraecus^ Etruscus^ Sardut, or adjectives 
and, at the same time, substanttves} as, Romanui^ Latinusi 
Sabinus» Other substantive names, again, serve, indeed, 
as adjectives^ but still form a distinct adjective in icus ; 
n&^ HispavMs^ Hispamcus ; Appulms^ Appulicus; Samms^ 
Samniticus. In like manner, C^eres^ VeieMs, Gamers^ Ti- 
bwrs are both substantive^ and adjectives, but still form 
distinct adjectives acc<»:ding to the analogy of names of 
towns: Caeretanus, Veient€utms^ Camertinus, Tiburtinus. 

Note. — U must be remarked that poets and the later proser writers, in 
general, use the substantive form also as an adjective ; e. g., Murstu aper, 
Colcha venetuif although Colchicus and Maraicua exist ; Hqrat, Carm,, iv«^^ 
7, Dardatuts turret quateret; veis. 12, m pulvere Teuero ;' vera. 18, Aehivi* 
itammia were^ instead of Achaieit. And this is not only the case with 
these forms of the second declension which externally resemble adjec* 
tives« but Ovid and Juvenal say Numidae leones^ Ntmudae urai^ instead of 
Numidici ; and Persius says, -Ugua era for Uguatica. The Greek femhiins 
fonns of names *of nations are likewise used as adjectives ; thus, Virgil 
rays, Creaaa jJutretra for Cretiea, Auaonia 9ra for Auaoma^fixnd the like, lib* 
same Uberty is taken by poets with the names of rivers in ua. Thus, Hj 


•e6i, CcriK.. iv.f it 38, has. MtUtmtai/Ummn; de Art FoeL, 18, ih m m 
Rhenum. Even prose writers sometimes follow their example in tois re- 
spect: Plin., Hist.f Nat., iii., 16, ostium Eridanvm; Caes., B. O., iii., 7, 
and Tacit., Arm., i., 9, Htst., iv., 12, mare Oceamim. 

(f 268 J 4. The names of countries, with some excep- 
tions, such as the Latin names of districts, Latium and 
Samndum, and those horrowed from the Greek language, 
Aegyptus^ EpirU^^ Persii, are themselves derived fix^m the 
names of ns^ons; e. g., Britannia^ Gallia^ Italia, Syria ^ 
'PhroAMi^ sometimes with slight changes, as in Sardi, Sar- 
dinia; and Sicidi, SicUia. A/Hca and Corsica are real 
adjectives, to which terra is understood. From some of 
these countries adjectives are formed with the termina- 
tions enM and amcs ; as, Chaeeiensis, Hispaniensis, Sicili- 
enxi* ; Afiicanus^ GaUicanus^ Cf^rmanicianuSf which must 
be caiefaUy distinguished from the" adjectives derived from 
the names of the respective nations. Thus, exerdtvA His- 
paniejuii signifies an army stationed in Spain, but not an 
army consisting of Spaniards; but spartum Hispanicum 
is a plant indigenous in Spain. The following are some 
peculiar adjectives of Greek formation : Aegyptiacus^ 
Syriacus. Graecanicus is strangely formed, and expresses 
^reek origin or Greek fashion. 

{§ 259.] C. From other Adjectives. 

Diminutives are formed from some adjectives by the 
terminations tduSf dw, cuiusj mdeUus, according to the 
rules which were given above, § S40, 'with regard to 
diminutive substantives* Thus we have parvulus, hor- 
ridtiiKti nasutuhts^ primuius ; aureoltes; pauperculu^^ le- 
tnculns, tri^ictdus ; miseUus^ n&oellus^ puldhetlus, tenellus. 
Double diminiitives are formed ftom paucus and pau- 
lus ; pamluhis cfr pauosillus, B.nd.pauasillulus^ a, um; and 
from bonus (bmus)^ beUus and bdluhes. Respecting the 
diminutives derived from comparatives, comp. § 104, 2. 

The termination anevs^ appended to the stem of an ad- 
fective (and participle) in us, expresses a resemblance to 
^e quality denoted by the primitive; e. g., supervacaneus, 
of a scrperfluous nature ; but there are only few w6rds of 
this kind: rejectaneus^ subitaneus, oollectaneus^ and, ac- 
cording to their analogy, consentaneus, praecidaneus^ sue* 

ff 2CfO ' Besides derivation, now words are also ffirme^ 


by.comfositum. In examining such woi^, we may coO' 
sider either the i5rst or the second part of which a com- 
pound consists. 

The first word is either a nouxji, a verb, qr a particle. 
The second remains unchanged; e. g.^ b^^^ado^ bene- 
fidum, maledico, satago / a contraction takes place only 
in nolo 9 front ne (for non) and voh^ .and in mMt^, from 
mage (fpr magisj and volo. Prepositions are usfid mora 
frequently than any otiher particles in forming compound 
words. Respecting their signification and t\ie . changcss 
produced in pron^nciation by the meeting of heterogene- 
ous consonants, seQ Chap. LXVI, , 

There are only a few words in whicl^ verbs form the 
fii-st part of a compound, and wherever this is the .ca«e 
the verb^acw? forms the latter part; as in ar^aow^ cale 
fado^ madefaoio^ patefacio^ cpndoa^adQ^ commonefaciQ^ 
assuefadOf and cinmiefado- The only, change in the first 
verbs (which belong to the second cpnjugation) is, that 
they throw pfF the o of the present. 

When the first word is a noun (substantive or adjective)t 
it regularly ends in a short f, 

patridda. armiger, particeps, a^quiparo. 

artifex. aquilifer, ignivomus, amplifico, 

tubicen. capripes, w/isencors. hrevUoquefu. 

cauddicm. cai-nivorus. nqficapra, ' oM^ig^m* 
. aedaficQ. ielliget:a^ stiUiddium. viUptrndo, 
tk), also, Ucepa^ trtg^minifr^res^ amt^oUa rosa, cemtifnamn 
Gyges^ fs:Qimcentv>m^ wberens otherwise the compofikicmB 
with numerals are different; as, qtrndrupe^^.^j^iii -without 
any change : qumquer^mis* A contraction takes place in 
tiMcenfy: tibiicm^ ^CHoa tihm aadje^mi?,. whereas. in Ywfitbm 
nxid^Jidicen the connecting vowel is short^aceordiBg to-dn 
rule, there being no i in die words ^ea^ dtadjidet* When 
the second word begins with a vowel « the connectii^ t k 
thrown out, as in magnanimus, unanimis^ with which we 
may compare tmiinan%a ^d vnifomm* 

Those words the par^^ of wluchcw^ declined wjparatelx, 
may likewise be regarded as compoimds, although they 
fi:>rm one word only in so far as they are commonly writ:* 
ten as such ; as, respublica^jti^randum, rmmarinus^ tres* 
virL So, also, those of which the first word is a geiiilave; 
as, senatusconstdtum^ plebisdtum^ duumvir^ triumvir^ that 
I9y one of the duoairi ov tresvirji. 


jS«t0.r-^The Greek laogrtsg.) regiiluijr msket \he fint pttrt* of « com 
found, when it is a noun, end* in q; e. g., ^Xcao<^oc, loyoyp6<t>oc 
^Qfiaro^'Ka^t '^vpotpolvi^. As many such Greek compounds passed ovei 
into the Latin language, such as fhHofopkua^ fhilol^w^ fraecottasi*, Goth- 
graedt we may fonn similar compounds in modern l^atin, but only in the 
case of proper names; as, Francogalli, Graeco-Latinus. There is no gcod 
feason for rejecting them, if they really denote one thing which is formed 
bv the combination of two elements. 

[§261.] The latter wor^ in the composition determines 
to what part of speech the whole belongs. In cempo- 
. sitions with particles, the second word either remains un- 
changed, dr undergoes only a slight variation in its Vbwel. 
This variation must be here considered, especially with 
i*egard to the radical vowel of the vefb ; for the vowels 
>, o, u^ a and e remain unchanged, as in ascnhOy commmor, 
appano, excolo, adduco, illibor, subrepo ; l)ut a and e, and 
the dij^thong ae, frequently undergo a change : 1. a re- 
mains otAy in the compounds^ -of cat;e^, maneOf and traho; 
but in most other oases it is changed into i, e. g., constituo 
nam ttatuoy accipio from capio, abjicio from jacio^ arripio 
from rapio^ incido from cada, adtgo iroTn ago ; so, also, 
nUingo from tango^ confringo fromjrango ; it is changed 
into e in ascendo, aspergo^ confercio, refello, impertio (along 
with impartio), 2. e sometimes remains unchanged ; as 
in appetOj cantego, contera^ congero, but sometimes it is 
changed into t: aisidco from sedeOf ahstineo from tcneo^ 
arrigo from rego^ aspicio from specie. Both forms occur 
in the compounds oilegere ; e. g., jferii^go^ read through ; 
vUdligo^ understand, but irUellego^ too, was used in early 
times* 3. The diphthong a6 remains unchanged only in 
the compounds of haereo ; as, adhaero ; it is changedHnto 
i in the compounds of caedo^ laedo, quaere ; e. g., incido, 
iUUdo, inqulro. Othei* particulars may be gathered from 
die lists of irregular verbs. . • 

In the composition of nouriS with verbs, the second 
word undorgods more violent changes, and the niles 
irfaready given respecting derivation must be taken into 
account here. But notms are also formed in composition 
widi verbs by the mere abbr%iation of the ending, and 
without any characteristic syllable of derivation. Thus 
W€) have from cano, tubicen; firom geroydavigevy afmiger; 
irorafero^ dstifer^ ngnifer ; from, facto, arttfex, pofdtfex; 
frt>m capiOf princeps, mwiiceps, particepi, OompoundeJ 
adjectives are derived from Verbs by the termination us^ 
which is appended ':o the verbal stem i tnorti/erus, igni- 

'^14 LATIN GRAMMi^lt. 

vomus, dulcuoKus^ like consonus^ camivorts, -Musidicut/ 

and from substantives with a Veiy slight or no change at 

all ; e. g., ccntinumus^ capripes, misericorSf unifarmis. 

Note. — When the parts of a compound word are sepirited by the inset 
tion of one or two unaccented woras, it is called, by a grammatical term, 
a tmesis. Such a tmesis, however, occurs in prose only m the case of rela- 
tive pronouns compounded with cunque, more rarely in those with lU>et and 
in adjectives or adverbs compounded with per, so that we may say, e. g., 
qtiod enim cunque judicium subierat vicit ;* qua re amque potero tlbi serviam, 
quale id eunque est ; per mihi gratumfeceris ; per nUM, inquoMf gratum,fecer* 



[§ 2G2.] 1. As the adjective qualifies a suhstantive^sothe 

adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective (consequently a p«> 

ticiple also), and even another adverb; e. g., pruaena 

homo prudenter agit ; filix h'Omo felieiter vMt ; atimi^ 

doctus ; domus celeriter extructa ; satis bene scripsit, 

iVol«.*-There are only certain cases in which an adverb can be joined 
with a substantive, viz. : when the substantive is used as an. adjective or 
participle, and accordingly denotes a quality; aSfVopulus late rex fpr latt 
regnanSf ruling far and wide ; admodum puer erat^ he was very young, or 
very much like a boy ; or when a participle is understood to the adverb, 
e. g., Tacit, Ann., il., 20, granibus superne ictibus conjUctabwUur ; that is, 
supeme accidentibuSf coming from above: ibid., 12, 61, nullis extrinsecu* 
mdjumentis vdaunt ; that is, extrinsecus ductis or assumptis^ by outward or ex 
temal reasons. In this -manner L}yy frequently uses the adrerb wca is 
the sense of neighbouring; e. g., i.^ 17, miUtarum drca dvitatum. irritatis 
animis. An adveit) may be joined with pronominal adjectives, when their 
adjective character predominates ; as in homo plane noster, entirely ours, 
that is, devoted to us. 

2. Adverbs belong to those parts of speech which are 
incapable of inflexion, for they have neither cases nor 
any other foiins to denote the difference of pereons, 
tenses, or moods. 3tit an adverb approaches nearest the 
declinable parts of speech, inasmuch as adverbs derived 
from adjectives or participles take the same degrees of 
comparison as the latter« We have tfierefore, in the 
first place, to consider onljpthe etymology of adverbs, and 
t.nen their degrees of comparison. 

With regard tg their etymology, adverbs are either 
simple or primitive (primitiva) or derived (derivataj^ 
We shall first treat of derivative adverbs ; their numbei 
is great, and certain laws are followed in their formatioa 

|§ 263.] 3. By far the greater number of derivative ai 

ADVEIfia. 21tl 

Verbs end in e and ier, and are derived fijm adjectiyet 
and participles (present active and perfect passive). 

Adjectives and participles in us^ a, um^ and adjectives 
m er, a, um (that is, those which follow the second <1<*- 
clension), make 

* Adverbs with the terminatum e. 

Thus, aUu8, longus^ molestus, doctus, emendatus^ omatwt^ 
make the adverbs alte^ longe, moleate^ docte^ emendate, oT" 
nate^ With regard to adjectives in er, a, um^ the forma- 
tion of adverbs varies acco^^ding as they throw ont the t 
in the oblique cases or retain it (see § 48 and 51), for the 
adverbs follow the oblique cases. Thus, liher and miser 
make lihere and misere ; but aeger (aegri) and pulcher 
(pulchri) make <ugre and ptdchre, Bantu makes the ad- 
verb hene^ from an ancient form henns. Bene and maU are 
the only adverbs of this class that end in a short e. 

Note 1. — InfemBj below, and tnffme, within, although derired from adjeo 
lives in fw, are used with a short t, the former bT Lucretius and thelattai 
bv Ausonius, the only writers in which these adverbs req)ectively occur 
To these we must add mperni, above, in Lucretius and Horace, Cartn.f ii., 
20, ll^^thoagh in the latter the quantity of the e is a disputed point h 
cannot be ascertained whether the poets made the e in these words short 
by a poetical license, or whether these adverbs have anything particular. 

Note 2. — Some adverbs in e differ in their meaning from their respective 
adjectives, but they must nevertheless be regarded as derived from them. 
Thus, Miie (feom Momu, sound, well), signifies ** certainly ;** vMe (from va- 
UdnSf strong, contracted from vaZtde, which furnishes the degrees of com- 
parison) si^ufies ** very ;" and plane signifies " plainly,'' like fianuet but also 
takes the meaning of ** entirely,** or ** thoroughly.*^ 

^ 264.] 4. All other adjectives and the participles in 
ns (consequently all adjectives which follow the thud de- 
clension) form their 

Adverbs in ter,* 

and retain the changes which occur in the genitive. The 

genitive is is changed into iter^ except the genitive in ntis 

(&om the nom. in nsj^ which meikes the adverb in nter ; 

e. g»t elegans, eleganter ; amans^ amanter; conveniens^ con^ 

venienter ; hut par ^ pariter ; utilis, utUiter ; tenuis^ tenui- 

ter ; celery eris, celeriter; saluber, salubriter^ and so, also, 

ferociteTf simpliciter^ dupJiciter, cancorditer^ audaciter (or 

more frequently contracted into audacterj. 

Note I. — The termination ter serves, also, to form the adverbs aUtetj oth- 
erwise, and propter^ beside ; the former from the original form alts, neuter 

* [Pott re|;ards the suffix ter as originally iderjtified with the other ad- 
vobial one m tut, and he compares both «nth the Sans<:rit ending fan 
(J^ymoZ. Fortch., vol i, p. 91.)]~ilm. Ed, 



olid, and Um latsr frum prope being abiidged for prater, (See ^. 7 
note 1.) FeAeinen/er is derived from veAemen«, but takes the significatioc 
of ''yery,' like valde ; e. g., Cic.,<|6 O^., ji.^21, vekementer it modcraham 
praebuit. The indeclinable nequam has the aaverb nequUer, 

Note 2.— The adjectives mentioned in ^ 101, which have double tenni 
nations, tUf a, wn, and is, e, ou^ht to have also a double form of their ad- 
verbs, but this is the case only m hilare and hilariter ; wHh regard to ioAe* 
cillus, it remains uncertaiiv as the positive of the adverb does not occur ; 
and in the case of the other adjectives of this kind, the adVerb is wanting 
altogether. There are, on the other hand, some adjectives in us, a, um, ^ 
which the adverbs have two forms {abundantia) ; as, dure^ duriter; fovicj 
firmiter; nave^ naviter ; humanty inhumane — kumanitery inhumaniter ; larger 
targiter; /utuZetUe, lue%dmtter ; ttahuUnte, turbuienteK; ind in the early lan- 
guage many more, which are mentioned by Prisciem, xv., 3. Of vto/en/iM, 
fraudidenht$t and temiUentusy adverbs in Ur only exist : wolenUryfraudvUn- 
ter, temulenter. 

[§ 265.] 5, Although in grammar an adverb is assign- 
ed to every adjective, yet the dictionary must frequently 
be consulted, for there are some ^djeqtives whose very 
signification does not admit the formation of an adverb; 
as, for example, those which denote a material or colour ; 
while, with respect to others, we can say no more than 
ihat no adverb of them is found in the writers whose 
works have come down to us, as of the adjectives amens^ 
dvruSy discorsy gnarus, rudis, trux, imbeUis^ immohilii^ in- 
Jlexibilis, and others compounded in the same manner. 
O^vctus the adverbs are vesmste ^nd antique, and offidus, 
fideliter, derived from other adjectives of the same mean- 
ing. It frequently happens that adverbs exist in the de- 
grees of comparison, without their form of the positive 
being fi>und ; e. g., trutiter and socorditer are not to be 
found, and instead of uberiier, uhertim is used ; but the 
comparatives* tristiics, socordius, uhcrius, and the superla? 
tives are in common use. The adverb magne does not 
occur, but its irregular comparative magis and the super- 
lative maxime are of very common occurrence. Mtdtumy 
plus^plurimum have no adverbs, but these neuters in some 
nases serve themselves as adverbs. 

[§ 266.] 6. Sometimes particular cases of adjectives 
supply the place of the regularly formed adverbs in e : 
(a) of some adjectives in us, a^ um, and er, «, «m, the ab- 
lative singular in o is used as an adverb; e. g., arcaiu) and 
secreto, secretly ; cito, quickly ; continuo, immediately ; 
erehro, frequently; fatso, Avrongly; gratuito^ gratis; liqui- 
<^, clearly; manifesto, laBXAie^uj ; mutno, as a loan, hence 
QQutually , neccssario, necessarily ; pcrpetuo^ perpetually ; 
preeario^ by entreaf ies ; ra^o^ rarely ; scdtdo, sedulously ; 


serto^ seriously ; subitOy suc'denly ; tiUo^ safely. To these 
must be added some adverbs foimed from participles : 
ausjncatOf composito^ constHto, dirccto^ festinato^ nee- or in- 
opmato^improvisOy iterator merito^ ojptato^ praeparato, sof- 
tito. Along with several of these ablative adverbs, the 
forms in e also are occasionally used ; but apart from the 
ori^n, the forms in o do not differ either in meaning or in 
their degrees of comparison from those in e» 

Note 1. — Vere and veigp have a somewhat different sense : the regular 
adverb' of verus, true, is vere; but vera is used in answers in the sense of 
** in truth/' or ** certainly," but it is more commonly applied as a conjunc- 
tion in the sense of " but," or " however." We will explain its use m an- 
swers by an example. When I am asked, adfuistine heri in convivio ? 1 an- 
swer, ego vero adfui; or, without a verb, ego verOf minime vero; egid vero thus 
being merely indicative of a reply^ will often be untranslatable into Eng- 
lish. The case of certe and certo is generally different from that of vere 
vod vero : the adverb which usuall^r takes the meaning of its adjective is 
c«rto, while certe takes the sig^iification'of " at least," to limit an assertion; 
e.g., victi eumuSf auf, sidigriiias vinci ndn potest, jra'cti certe. Certe, howev- 
er, is frequently used, also, in the sense of our ** certainly," especially in 
the phri^se certe* sdo, which, in Cicero, is even more frequent than certo 
Kio. See piv^ note on Cic, lib. i., in Verr., 1. 

Note2.-^Oinnino, from omnis, altogether, or in general, may also be 
reckoned in this class of adverbs. The etymology of oppido, very, is very 
doubtful.* Prq/<toto,: trulv, also belongs to this class, it it be derived from 
profectus a, umj. bul if it be the same &s pro facto, which is more probable, 
it belongs to those which wo shall mention under No. 10. 

[§ 267.] 7. fij In some adjectives of the third declen- 
sion the neuter singular supplies the- place of the adverb ; 
as, facile, difficile^ recens, sublime, impune, and abunde, 
virhich, however, is not derived from an adjective abundis^ 
but from abundus. To these we must add some belong- 
ing to adjectives of the second declension : ccterum, pie- 
rumque, plurimum, potissimum more frequent thejipotissime^ 
muUum, and paulum (for which, however, in combination 
with comparatives, the ablatives multo and paulo are more 
commonly used), nimium (the same as nimis), parum, and, 
lastly, the numeral adverbs primum, iterum, tertium, guar 
tum^ &c., which have also the termination o (see §-123), 
tthd postfemum fo)^ and ultifnum (o), which are formed 
according to the analogy of the numeral adverbs. Poets 
in particular, and Tacitus, who follows their example, are 
accustomed to use the neuter of adjectives, of the second 
as well as of the third declension, as adverbs ; e. g., muh 

* (Probably to be traced to the Sanscrit root pai, '* to go," and hence 
the primitive meaning would be, perhaps, *'in circuit," "from on 9II sides,"* 
L e., " very," &c. (Po«, Etymot. F'ortch., vol. i, p. 246.) Donaldson, 
However, connects it with the Greek Miredov, and raak^ it synonymous 
wifhp/oM (Varroniamis,p.G2.)] — Am. Ed. 



turn siimliSf acutum cemere, mite, dtdce, crassum, 2*erfidum 
riderCf indoctum canere^ cerium and incertum vigilare triste 
and torvum clamare, immite sibilare, aetemum discordare, 
and in the plural, mtdta gemere, tristia ululare, crehra 'fe 

Note 1. — ^We have every reason to coi^sider the adverb prope, which haa 
become a preposition, as the neuter of an obsolete adjective, propis ; for 

nropteff which, as an adverb, has the same meaning, is evidently the regu- 
lar adverb, being contracted from proptfer, and the comparative propiorai(\ 
the adverb prophu must likewise be traced to propis. Saepe is, perhaps, a 
word of the same kindj but the degrees of the adjective, saepior and toe- 
pissimuSf are no longer m use. 

Note 2. — ^Instead of difficile^ however, the regular adverbial forms diffidh- 
Jer and difficuUer are stilimore common. FacUiter is unclassical. 

[§ 268.] 8. A considerable number of adverbs have the 
termination im, and are for the most part derived frotn 
participles ; e. g., caesim, punctm,; conjwnctim, mixthn^ 
contemptim^ cursim^ citatim, gravatim (the same as ^a- 
vate)^ nominatim, passim (from pander ejlpraesertim (frotn 
prae and seroj, privatim, pedetentim, raptim, sensim^ carp- 
tim, separatim^ statim^ strictim, tractim. Adverbs of this 
kind, however, are formed also from other parts of speech, 
but they generally take the participial termination fttim, 
even when they are not derived from nouns of the fir»t de- 
clension : catervatiikf cuneatim, gregatim^ turmiatim, curia- 
tim, gradatim, ostiatim^ oppidatim^ provinciatim, vicatim^ 
paulatim, singulatim^ generatim, summatim, minutatim. 
Also, c(mfestim (connected yf\Xhfestinare),furtim, singula 
tim, tributim, uhertim, viriiim, vicissim, Affatim «8 of 
doubtful etymology ; interim is derived from inter ; ohm 
from the obsolete ollm, which is the same as ille. 

[§ 269.] 9. A smaller class of adverbs is formed fix)m 
nouns by the termination ttus, generally to denote origin 
from that which is expressed by the primitive ; as, coeH- 
tus, from heaven ; fundittis, from the foundation, radical- 
ly ; medtdlitus^penitus,primitus the same asprimum^ radi- 
citus, stirpitus. Some are derived from adjectives ; as, 
antiquitus, divinitus, and humamttu. 

Among the same class we reckon those adverbs which 
end in us or ittis, and are not derived frx)m nouns, but from 
otlier parts of speech. That they are derivatives is obvi- 
ous, but their signification is variously changed. Such 
are cominus, from a near point ; eminus, from afar ; intus, 
from within ; suhtus, from below ; extrinsecus and iaUrtn* 
tecus% from without and within : mordicus (from mo»derej 

AD\ ERB& '^lU 

e« g.y fiwrdicus tenere; versus, towards (fi^^m vertere), wliicli 
IS commonly used as a preposition. 

[§ 270.] 10. A large number of adverbs, lastly, arises 
from the adverbial use of different cases of substantives, 
an4 from the composition of different parts of speech. In 
this manner arose the adverbs of time: nociu, vesperi^ 
mane^ tempore or tempori, simul (from similisj, diu and 
quamdiuj tamdiu, aliquamdiu^ irUerdiu, hodie (though 
contracted from hoc diej^ qtwtidie^ quotannis, postridie^ 
perendiey pridie^ nudites tertius (from nunc dies tertius, the 
day before yesterday, or the third day frt>m the presenfi, 
nuditis quartus, ntidius quinttiSj nudius tertitisdecimus, pfo- 
pediem, initio, principio^ repente and derepente (ablative of 
repensj, imprimis and cmnprimis, protenus and protmus 
(from ^7*0 and the preposition tofms), alias, actutum, .com- 
modum (ji}st or direcdy, while the regular adverb com- 
mode retains the meaning ''conveniently'*), modo, post- 
modo, altemis, irUerdum, cummaxime, tmnmaxime, nunc 
ipsum and tum ipsum, denuo (i. e., de novo), ilicet (ire 
licet), illico (properly in loco), and extemplo ; interea and 
praeterea lengthen the a, so that it is not quite certain 
whether they may be ccwisidered as compounds of inter, 
praeter, and ea, the neuter plural.* So, iso, the adverbs 
of place : foris,foras, insuper, ohviam, obiter (from ob and 
iter), peregre, praesto, recta (scil. via), una. In hacterms, 
eatenus, quatenus, aliquatenus, the ablative is governed by 
the preposition tenus. The signification of these adverbs 
is originally that of locality, but they are frequently used, 
also, in a figurative sense. 

[§ 271.] The mode or manner of an action, in answer 
io the question qui (an ancient ablative of quid), how 1 is 
expressed by adverbs of the same class ; as, sponte, an old 
ablative ; forte, an ablative o^fors ; fortuito (u), forsit, 
farsitan (fors sit an), forsan and jots have the same 
nieaning Bsforta^se RXii Jbrtassis (in -prose Jbrtasse and 
foTsitan alone are used) ; nimirum, scilicet, videlicet, utpott 
(frtnn ut and ^o^e, properly " as possible," hence "namely,*' 
or **afl'*), dumtaxat, praeterquam, quomodo, quemadmo^ 
dian, admodum, quamobrem, quare, quapropter, quarUopere, 
tantopere, maximopere and summopere^or, separately, qteanto 

* Prof Key, The Alphabet, p. 77, foU., accounts for the length of the s 
by the trery probable supposition that the original forms were posteam, 
intfream, praeteream^ on the analogy of the existing words poit^fuam, antu* 
qmm, pr<uterquam, 6iC. — Tra^sl. 


opere, tanto opere, &c ; qwantumvis or quamvisy aUoqui ot 
aHoquiiif ceteroqui or cAeroquin^ frustra^ to be explained 
by the ellipsis of t»a, and to be derived iromfrausyfraMdo ; 
tnca^sumtnequicquantfSummum (not ad summumjftantum, 
9olum^ and tantwmmodo^ solummodoy gratis (jBrom grat^is^ 
vrhence ingratiisj^ vtdgo, bifarianiy trifariam, multifaria^n 
and amnifariam^ with which parCem must be understood. 
Lastly, partim^ which was originally the same as 
partem^ as in Liv., xxvi., 46, partim copiarum ad twrnu- 
lum exptignandum mittitj partim ipse ad arcem dMcit, but 
it is more commonly used, either with a gemtive or tho 
preposition ea?, in the sense oialii-'^alii; e. g., Cic, PhU.^ 
viii.,' \ly quum partim e nobis ita timidi sint, ut omnetn 
poptdi Romani beneficiarum memoriam ab^ecerintf partim. 
ita a repnhlica aversi, ut hi^ se Jiostijavere prae seferant ; 
and in the sense ofalia — atia, as in Cic, JDe Off"i ii^ 21, 
eorum autem benefidorum partim ejusm-odi sunt, ut ad uni 
versos dves pertineant^ partim singuLos ut attingant* 

1^ 272.] Note. — On the signification ofeome of the eAove-menUoned adverbs 
The adverbs continuo^protinusjetatim, confestimt subito, repente and derepente, 
acnauntf UKcOf ilicet^ extemplo^ signify in general "directly" or **iinme 
diately," but, strictly speaking, continuo means immediately after ; sttuim, 
without dela]r; confestintt directly; aubitOf suddenly, unexpectedly; pro 
tinuSf fieui;her, i. e., in the same direction in which the beginnmg was made ; 
hence, without interruption ; repente j &nd derepentej which strengthens tho 
meaning, signifies ** at once," and is opposed to «m«tm, graduiaily ; e. g., 
Cic, de 33, anUcitiaSf quae minus delectent et mintu probentur, maps 
decere censent sapientes- sensim diaauere^ quam repente praecidere; actutum is m 
stantaneously, eodem actu; ilicet occurs more rarely than illico, but has 
almost the same meaning, " forthwith," or ** the instant ;" e. g., Sallust, 
Jug. J 45y vbi formido ilia mentibus decessit^ ilicet lascivia atque superbia inces- 
Mere; Cic, p. Mureti., 10^ simtUatque increpuit suspicio tumultuSf artes Ulico 
nostras conticescunt. Extemploj which is similar in its derivation (for tern- 
pUtm is a locus religiosus)^ is similar also in meaning ; e. g., Liv., zh., 1, aUi 
gerendum belbtm extemploy antequam contrahere copies hostes possentj alii con- 
eulendum prius seneUum censebaia. 

[§ 273.f PraesertimfpraecimUj imprimis, cumprimist and apprimey are gener- 
ally translated by " pnncipaily ;" but they have not all the same meaning. 
Praesertipi is our " particularly," and sets forth a particular circumstance 
with emphasis ; praecnme retains the meaning of its adjective, praeciptau 
being the opposite of communis ; jus praecipuum,- therefore, is a privilege, 
and opposed to _/u« commune, so that praecirme answers to our "especially." 
The sense of imprimis and cumprimis is clear from their composition— be 
fore or in preference. to many others, principally; apprime, lastly, occurs 
more rarely, and qualifies and strengthens only a<^ectives ; as, apprinu 
doctus, apprims utUis. Admodum, also, strengthens tne meaning; it prop- 
erly signifies " according to measure," that is, in as great a measure as 
can be, e. g., admodum gratun^ mikifeceris ; Utterae tuae me adnwdum deUeta- 
runt. In c<»nbination with lumerals it denotes approximation, and oe* 
curs frequently in Livy and Cnrtius ; in Cicero we find only nihUadmoduntt 
that is, *' in reality nothing a: all." 

{^274.] It is difficult to ietennine the difference among the words 
which we generally transUte by " only," viz. : modo, dvmtmafot, MJftm, tmt 


^ iohmmodot tantummodo. The common eqaivaleni for ** orlj" is 
•olum (alone) is "merely," and points to something higbsr ot greater j 
tarUum is only or merely, but intimates that something ebia -wta expectec^ 
e. g^^ixiitantum, nonprobavit. These significations are itrr^gthened b) 
composition: tantummodo and solummodof the latter of which, however, 
occurs only in late writers. Dumtaxat* is not joined v/ith verbs, and 
seems to answer to our ** solely ;*" e. g., Caes., Betl Cm, iii., 40, pedUatu 
^buHiasatproculadqteciemutitwr, solely from afar : Cart., viil, 4, (1), quo (car- 
mine) sigtdficabatur male instituisse GraecoSf quod tropaeit regum dumtaxat 
nomina intaiberentur ; ibid., iz., 36^ (9), aettu* totos circa flumen campos tnun- 
daveratf ium&U$ dumiaxtU tminmtibus^ yehtt innUu panria. In another signi- 
iicatioo this word is the same as cefu^ at least (see ^ 266), and denotes a 
limitation to a parti(fQlar point ; as in Cicero, nos animo dumtaxeu vigemug^ 
re/amiHari commitatii noimv, in courage, at least, I am not wanting ; valdt 
me Athenae dtlectanmt, wrba dumtaxat et urfrur. omamunta H komimtm bonivo- 
lentia, SdUemy also, signifies *' at least," but denotes the reduction of a de- 
mand to a minimum ; e. g., when I say, rtdde mihi UbroSf si non omneSf 
saltern tres, or, as Cicero says, eripe mtfts hunc dalortmf anU mumm saltan ; 
finge saltern aliquid commode. 

[^ 275.] Frustra conveys the idea of a disappointed expectation, as in 
firtutra susdpere labores ; nequicquam that of the absence of success, as in 
HoraL, Carm., i, 3,21, n^mcquamr deus absadit Ocemno terras, si tamen 
impiae rates transiliunt vada. Incassum is leds commonly used ; it is com- 
posed of m and cassvmy hollow, empty, and therefore proi>erly signifies 
** into the air," or " to no purpose ;" as, tela ineassum jaetarr, 

AMas and alioqui both mean *Volsewhere," but alias signifies " at another 
time," or ** in another place," whereas ahoqui (like cetfroqui and ceterum) 
means *' in other respects ;" as in Livy, trintMihatum de Tihvrtibut, alio- 
quin mitis victoria Juit, or "or else" (In case ot a thing mentioned before 
not- taking place), like alitsr; as in Tacitus, dedit tibi Augustus pecuniam 
non ea l^e, tU semper daretur : languescet alioqui industria. No difference in 
the use of alioqui and aUoquin has yet been discovered. The addition ot 
omission of the n, at least, does not appear to depend upon the letter ^ 
the beginning of the word following. 



[§ 276.] 1. The Simple or Primitive Adverbs are few ni 
number wben compared with the derivatives, especially 
with those derived from adjectives, and ending, m e and 
ter. The signification pf the latter depends upon that oi 
their adjective, and has generally .a very definite extent j 
but th3 primitive adverbs express the most general cir 
cumstances that ai:e to be considered in connexion with 
a fact, and are indicated by the questions how 1 when 1 
where 1 whether 1 an4 the general answers to them ) but 

* [Donaldson derives this adverb from tax* -are, ** to estimate * and he 
makes the primitive meaning .of the adverb to be, "provided one esti- 
mate it,"'" estimating it accurately," i e., •• only," " at least," " so far as 
that goes." {Varroniamuy p. 181.) The. derivation given by Groteftmd is 
for inferior : " duntaxat aus dum taceo (cetera), sat f est hoc)." Donaldsoi 
pnnounces it absurd. ]~ilm. Ed.' 


222 LATIN GfiAMMAl* 

they aie for this reason deserving of particular atlentioo 
together with their compounds and derivatives.* 

2i To this class belong the negative particles: non 
haud, and tjc, together with immo ; the affirmatives : nae, 
quidem, and uttque, certainly (frOm which word- the negar 
live adverb neutiquam, by no means, is formed), nempe^ 
namely, surely ; vel^ in the sense of " even" (see § 108) ; 
and the interrogative ear, why^ (probably formed from 
quare or cui rev) : the words which express, in a general 
way, {tie. mode of an action, viz. : paenS^/ere^ nndjerme, 
nearly, almost ; temerg, at random ; rite^ duly, accor3ing 
to custom ; vix, scarcely ; nimis (and nimium^ see § 267), 
too much ; satis or sat^ enough, sufficiently ; saltern, at 
least ; sic and itd^ so, thus ; and item and iddem (which 
are derived from ita), just so, and the double form iden* 
tidem^ which, however, has assumed the meaning of' a 
particle of time, "constantly," "one time like the other;" 
ut or uti, as, and hence sicut or sicuti / quam, how much ; 
tarn, so much ; tamquam, like ; perinde and proinde (de- 
rived from indej, as though, like ; sectM, otherwise, differ- 
ently ; the adverbs of place : uspiam and usquam, some- 
where; nusquam, nowhere; proeuly far; prope, near (§ 267, 
note); t^i, where] t^t, there; tt»^e, whence 1 enc^, hence, 
together with their numerous compounds and correlatives, 
of which we shall speak presently ; the adverbs of time : 
qtuindo ^yfhen'i with its compounds aZ^aa^^o, once; quan^ 
doqtce, at some time ; quandocunque^ whenever ; qrumdam, 
formerly (contains the original relative quum, which has 
become a conjunction) ; nunc, now ; tunc and tum, then ; 
wwg'wam, ever; «ww2'Maw,n ever ;^am, already; etiam (frx^m 
et and ^'am^^ and quoque, also; etiamnunc and etiamium^ 
still, yet ; semel, once ; bis^ twice (the other adverbial nu- 
merals; see Chap. XXXIII.) ; saepe, often ; usque^ ever • 
7ieri or here, yesterday ; crasy to-morrow ; olim^ formerly 
moZy soon after ; dudum, previously ; pridem, long since; 
tandem, at last or length ; demum, not until ; from inde 

are derived deinde and exinde, or abridged dein ar d eocin, 

— — — t ' ' « " ' 

* WHh regard to the following list^of particles, which, from their great 
importance towards understanding the ancient' writers, has been diawn up 
with care, we must observe that by the term primitive adverbs we do not 
understand those of which no root is to be found, bijt those which cannot 
in any useful or practical way be included among the cla&ses of derivative 
adverbs mentioned before. A more deep etymological investigation woulc' 
lead us into too slippery groundj on which we could eipect but littk 
dianks either from tei^cbers or pupils. 


thereupon, aA:erwaxd ; Minde,* immediately after, or re- 
peatedly; deificeps, in succession; denique, lastly; further, 
the adverbs with the suffix per : semper^ always ; nuper 
lately ; parumper and patdisper, for a short time ; tantis 
per. for so long, commonly to indicate a short time, ** for 
so short a time." 

Most of the prepositions are originally adverbs, but as 
they usually take the case of a substantive after them, they 
are regarded as a distinct class of the parts of speech. 
But they must still be looked upon as adverbs when they 
are joined with a verb without a .case ; as in Virgil, Pone 
suhit conjunx, " behind there follows my wife." Hence 
it happens that c^m, secretly, and coram^ in. the presence 
of, are generally reckoned among the prepositions, where- 
as palam (propalam)^ publicly, is imiversally called an 
adverb, though it is formed precisely in the same manner. 
Ante and post^ when used as adverbs, generally have the 
lengthened forms antea and posted (also antehac and post- 
\acj, but occur as adverbs, also, without any change of 

Note 1. — ^We must not pass over unnoticed the transition of particles of 
place into particles of time, which occurs in other languages also. This 
accounts for the use of Ate, ibi, ubif where we should use an adverb ex- 
pressive of time. Nor can we wonder at several of these adverbs appear- 
ing frequently as conjunctions (in which character they will have to be 
tientioned again in Chap. LX VII.), for whenever they serve to connect sen- 
tences, they become, grammatically speaking, conjunctions ; but when 
within a sentence they denote a circumstance connected with a verb, thev 
Are real adverbs. Some of them are used in both characters. 

[^ 277.] Note 2.— The Signification of the above Primitive Adverbs. 

The ordinary negation is non ; hand adds to the negation a special sub 
jective colourmg, with very different *meaning8— ^ither '* not at all," oi 
** not exactly.** The comic writers use this negation frequently, and in all 
kinds of combinations ; but the authors of the best age limit its use more 
especially to its combination with adjectives and adverbs denoting a meas- 
are ; e. g., haud mtUturn, htatd magnum, hand parmUf haud medioeriSf hand 
pauh, haud proculj haud longe^ especially haud sane, in connexion with oth- 
er words ; as, haud sane facile, res haud sane diffictlis, haud sans intelli^o , 
alto, haud qtusquam, haud unquam, Jiaud quaquam, by which combination 
something more is expressed than by the simple negation. In connexion 
with verbs, haud appears much less frequently, and, on the whole, only in 
the favourite phrase ?iaud scio an, which is the same as nesdo an, until la 
ter writers, such as Livy and Tacitus, again make unlimited application 
of it. 

Ne does not belong to this place as a conjunction in the sense of " in 
order that not," but only in so far as it is usea for non in the connexion of 
ne-quidem, not even, and with imperatives ; e. g.. Tune cede malis, sed con' 
tra audentior ito, do not yield to misfortunes. Hence nee (neque), also, must 
be mentioned here, because it is used instead of ne-qmdem, seldom witk 

.1 _ . ■_ ■ - 

* The accent on the antepcnultima for the compounds of inds it nece* 
•ary,accoiiiag to Priscian p 1008, (618 Kr.) 


Cicero, but more frequently with Quiutilian; e. g., ii., 13^.7; lufio^' c 
Bcribirem; ▼., 10, 119, alioqm nee tradidUsem ; 1., Y., 18, extra cmrmen non <fe 
prehendaSf sed-pec in carmine vitia ducenda stmt. 

Immo signifies "no," but with this peculiarity that, at the same time, 
something stronger is put in the place of the preceding statement which 
is denied ; e. g., Cic, ad A(f., ix., 7, causa igiiur non bona est ? Immo opti 
ma, sed agitur foedxssime ; ds Off., iii.| 23, si patriam prodere conabitur, pater, 
sitebitne filius ? Immo vero obsecrabit patrem, ne id jaciat. This increase 
may be sometimes expressed m English by " nay,** or " nay even." But 
this does not justify^ tnp assertion that immo is an afSrmative adverb. 

. [^ 278.1 Quidem is commonly used to connect sentences, and must thev 
be looked upon as a conjunction ; but it is employed also as an adverb to 
set frarth a word or an idea with^articulat emphasis, and then answers to 
our " certainly" or *' indeed." Very frequeMly, however, especially with 
pronouns, it only increases their force by the emphasis; f. g., optare hoc 
quidem est, nan d4)cere, this 1 call wish, but hot teach ; praecipitare istnd qui- 
dem est, non dsscendere. Hence it also happens that, on the other hand, 
when auid^m is necessary to connect sentences, a pronoun is added, for 
the sake of quidem. Which might otherwise be dispensed with. Cicero, 
e. g., says : Uratorias exercitatumes non tu quidem, ut spero, reliqtusti, sed certs 
philosovhiam' Hits anteposuisti. From quidem arose equidem, which is coo* 
siderect to be a compound of ego and quidem, and is used exclusively in 
this sense by Cicero, Virgil, ana Horace ; but in others, and more particu- 
larly in later authors, it occurs precisely in the same sense as qmdem ; e. 
g., Sallust., Cat., 52, 16, ^[uare vanum equidem hoc consilium est; Curt., v., 
35, certiora deinde cognoscit ex Bagistane Babylonia, non equidem vinctwn r»> 
gem, sed m perieulo esse, out mortis out vtneu/orum. 

Nempe answers pretty nearly to our ** surely," and frequently assuniea 
a sarcastic meaning, when we refute a person by concessions which he is 
obliged to make, or by deductions. It is never used for the merely ex- 
planatory " namely." or " that is," which, in the case Of simple ideas, is 
either not expressed at all, or by the forms is {ea, id) est, qtU est, dico, or in- 
telligi voh, or by the adverbs scilicet and videlicet. Respecting the maimer 
in which it is expressed in the connexion of propositions, see ^ 345. 

[^ 279.] The adverbs ^^oene, /ere, and /erme, to which we may add prop<^ 
on account of its meaning (from ^ 267, note), all serve to limit a statement, 
but there are certain diJSerences m their application. Paene and prove ap- 
proach each other nearest : paene being almost and prope nearly ; ana thus 
we say in Latin paene dixerim and prope dixerim in quite the same sense, I 
might almost say. As prope contams the idea of approximation, so paens 
denotes a degree. Thus we say : hi vhi prope aeqtuues svnt, are nearly of 
the same age ; and Caesar, on the other hand, says, non solum in omnibus 
(Galliae) civitatibus, sed paene stiam in singulis domibus factiones sunt, " but 
almost m every family," which is more than the factions in the towns. 
Propemodum, in a certain degree, in formed from prope. Fere audferme dif- 
fer from the other primitive adveibs, in regard to their long e, for the oth 
ers end in a short t. They, therefore, seem to be derived from adjectives, 
but the derivation from ferus leads to no results. The two words differ 
only in form, and are used in inaccurate and indefinite statements, espe* 
cially with round numbers and such notions as may be reduced to a num- 
ber. We say centum fere homines aderant to express our ** somewhere about 
one hundred ;" tniene: or prope centum, nearly a hundred, implying therd^y 
that there should have been exactly one hundred. And so, also,/er« om 
nes,fere semper ; and with a verb, sic fere fieri solet, so it mostly or gener- 
ally happens, the same as/ere semper Jit. Hence it is frequently us^ as a 
mere form of politeness, when there can be na doubt about tne correct* 
ness of a statement ; as in quoniamfere consiat, as it is a fact, I presume. 

[$ 280.] Temere, at random, is opposed to a ihing which is done consult; 
or deliberately ; hence the expressions inconsuUe ac temere, temere et impr» 
denter, temsre et mtllo conxtUo. Combinai with non, temere acquires (but net 


la CiedEo) a peculiat sigmfication ; it becomes t] - ^** «# m»j>»^Uf and 
■oftens an assertion ; for instance, in Horace : wtto avmrua nom ttmne est 
animus, a poet is not easity avaricious ; or, non temere quis tarn invki» omni- 
6t(5 ad prtnctpo/um qccessit quam Titus. Rite wems to be an ancient abla- 
tive like ritu; itd meaning accords with the supposition, but the form (ris, 
ritis) is uncertain. 

[^ 281.] The words sie, ita, tarn, answer to the English ** so ;" and to 
them we may add tantopere^ from ^ 271, and qdeo^ ivom % 289. With regard 
to their difference, we remark that sic is more particularly thedemonstra 
live " so** or " thus," as in sic sum, sic vita kominum est, sic se rss haket ; ita 
defines more accurately, or limits, and is our "in such a manner," or '' in 
so far'; * e. g., Ua senectus hanesta est, si suumjus retinet ; ita defendito^ vi ne- 
minem laedas. Very freciuently, however, ita assumes the signification of 
sic, but not sie the limiting sense of ita, reacting which we shall have 
occasion to speak in anoAer place (^ 726). Tarn, so much, increases the 
degree, and has its natural place before the adjectives and adverb», bui 
rarely before verbs where taniopere is us^ instead. Adso, to that degree 
or point, increases the expression to a certain end or result ; e. g., adeone 
ho^»es es in hoc urbe, vt haec nesdas 7 Hence in the connexion of propo&i 
tions, it forms the transition to the conclusion x>f an argument, or to the 
essential part of a thing. Cicero, when he has related a thing, and then 
chooses to introduce the witnesses or documents themselves, frequentl) 
says, id adeo ex ipso senatusconsulto cognoscite ; id adeo sciri facilUme potest 
ex Utteris publicis dmtatum {in Verr.,iv., Q4 ; iii., 51), and puts the adeo al- 
ways after a pronoun. (Comp. Spalding on Quintil., ii., 16, 18.) 

[^ 282.] Ut, as, must be mentioned here as a relative adverb expressive 
of similaritjr. From it is formed utique by means of the suffix qua, which 
will be considered in ^ 288. It signifies '* however it.may be," and hence 
" certainly." Curt, iv., 44, nihil quidem habeo venale, sed fortunam meam 
utimte non vendo» 

The compounds sicut, velut, tamauam, to which we must add quasi, when 
used without a verb and as an adverb, signify " as" or " like." The dif- 
ference in their application seems to be, that tamquam and quasi express a 
merely conceived or imaginary similarity, whereas sicut denotes a real one. 
Hence Cicero says, tamquam serpens e latibulis intuUsti te ; gloria virtutem 
tamqitam umbra sequitur; philosophia omnium artium quasi parens est, where 
the similarity mentioneid is a mere conception or supposition ; but it ap- 
proaches nearer to reality in me sicut aUerum parentem dUigit ; defendo te 
sicut caput meum. Velut is used by late authors in the same sense as quasi ; 
bu^ in Cicero it has not yet acquired this signification, but has the pecu- 
liar meaning of our " for example ;" as, bestiae, qttac gigmmtur e terra, velut 
crocodili ; non dogia monumentorum hoc significant, velut hoc ad portam ? and 
other passages. All these adverbs occur, also, as conjunctions ; in Cicero, 
however, only tamquam (besides quasi), with and without the addition 
of sL 

Perinde and proinde have the same meaning, and are adverbs of similar- 
ity ; but perinde is much more frequently found in prose writers. The 
reading is often uncertain ; and as proinde is well established as a con* 
junction in the sense of " therefore" (see ^ 344), manv philologers have 
been of opinion that proinde, wherever the sense is ** like," is only a cor- 
ruption of perindsi But this supposition is contradicted by the authority 
of the poets, who use proinde as a word of two syllables. (Comp. Ruhn 
ken on Rutil, JiUpus, p. 31.) We most frequently find the comoinations 
Dcrinde ac, perinde ac si, as if, as though ; perinde ut, in proportion as^ tc 
connect sentences. (See ^ 340.) But without any such additions, Cice- 
ro, for example, de Fin., i., 21, says, vivendi artem tantam tamqui operosam 
§t perinde fntctuosam Tana as fruitful) rdinquat Eptcurus ? 

[i^ 283.] SScus has been classed among the primitives, because its deriva 
lion is uncertain. We believe that it is derived from sequor ; and we might 
therefore, have included it, like mordicus, among those adverbs mentiuuoil 


in ^ S69.' We aoki that its primary signification is ** in {mrsuane^^** ** aT 
ter," "beside,'' which still appears in the compounds intrinsecus and e» 
triruMu, (^ 289.) Hence it comes to signify " less," or ** otherwise," vix., 
" thau It should be." Thus we say, mihi aliter videtuTf reete seeusne^ nUuk 
ad tCf justly or less justly, where we might also say an minus ; si res secut 
eecideritf if the thing should turn out differently, that is, less well. A com- 
parative secius (also spelled seqtaus) occurs ver^ rarely, because secus itseli 
Uas the signification of a comparative ; it is joined with an ablative, nihita 
secats^ not otherwise, nevertheless ; qua secius the same as quo minus, in or- 
der that noC 

[^ 284.] To tmquam, ever, and usquamy somewhere, we must apply that 
wmch has already been said of quisquam, ^ 129 : they require a negation 
in the sentence; and although this negation may be connected with 
another word; unquam and tu^uam become the same as nunqtuan and nus" 
quam ; e. g., neque te usquam vidij the same as te.nusquam vitU. The place 
of a negative proposidon may, however, be taken by a negative question ; 
as, wum tu eum unquam vidisti ? \ifisi thou ever seen him f But ttspiam is 
not negative any more than the pronoun quispiam ; but it is the same as 
alicubit except that its meaning is strengthened, just as quispiam is the 
same as aliquis. In the writings of modem Latinists and grammarians we 
find the form ttiutptam, which is said to be the same as nusquam. But nus- 
viam does not exist at all, and its formation is contrary to analogy. 

[^ 285.} It is difficult to define the difference between turn and tunc, because 
the editions of our authors themselves are not everywhere correct. But 
in general the difference may be stated thus : tunc is ** then," ** at that time," 
in opposition to nunc ; turn is ** then," as the correlative of the relative 
quum ; e. g., quvm omnes adessent, turn iUe exorsus est dicere, when all were 
present, tlien ne began to speak. Without a relative sentence, tumia used 
m the sense of our " hereupon," " thereupon ;" but we may always sup- 
ply sbch a sentence as " when this or that had taken place." The samp 
difference exists between etiamnunc and etiamium, which we translate by 
"still" or "yet," and between nunc i^swn and turn ipsum^ quummazime and 
' tummaximct just or even then ; for etiamnunc, nunc tpsum, and quummaxime 
refer to the present ; but etiamtumf turn ipsum, and tummaxime to the past : 
e. g.) etiamnunc puer est, and etiamtum puer erat ; adest quummaxime /rater 
meus, and aderat tummaxime f rater, my brother was just then present 
Compare % 732. 

[^ 286.] Jam, combined with a negative word, answers to our " longer ;" 
e. g., nihUjam spero, I no longer hope for anything ; Brutus Mutinae vixjam 
sustinebat, could scarcely maintain himself any longer. It is also used for 
the purpose of cormecting sentences, and then answers to our "further' 
or " now." 

Usque, ever and anon, does not occur very frequently in this sense ; 
e. g„ in Horace, Epist., i., 10, 24, natwram expellas fwrca, tamen usque re- 
curret. It is commonly accompanied by a preposition, viz., ad ana in, or 
ab and ex, and denotes time ana place ; e. g., usque ad pcrtam, usque a prima 
aetate. See Chap. LXV., 4. 

[^ 287.] NUper, lately, is used in a very relative sense, and its meaning 
depends upon the period which is spoken of; for Cicero {de Nat, Deor., 
ii., 50) says of certain medical observations, that they were nuper, id est 
IMxucis ante saeculis reperto,- thinking at the time of the whole long perir^l 
lu which men had made observations. In like manner, the length of time 
expressed by modo (see ^ 270) and mox is indefinite. The latter word, as 
was observed above, onginally signified '*soon after," but is very often 
used simply in the sense of " afterward." Dudum is probably formed from 
diu (est) dum, and answers to the English " previously " or *' before," in 
relation to a time which has just passed away ; whence it may often be 
translated by " shortly before ;" e. g., Cic, ad Att., xi., 24, ouae dudum ad 
ne et quae etiam ante ad TuUiam scripsisti, ea sentio esse vera. But the length 
)f time is set foith more strongly ih jamdudum, long before, or long i«*nce 


.This wcid, with poets, contains the idea of impatience, and iignifiea 
** without delay/' "forthwith," as in the line of Virgil, Aen., ii, 103, jam- 
dudtun sumUe poenas. The same strengthening of the meaning appears in 
jampridem, long since, a long time ago. Tandem^ at length, likewise 
tferres to express the impatience with which a question is put, and even 
more strongly than nam 134) ; e. g., Cic, PhUip.j i., 9, haec utrum tandem 
kso est an legum omnkan dumlutio ? 

[§ 288.] 3. The Adverbs of Place, mentioned above, 
No. 2, ubi^ where 1 and uTide^ whence 1 together with the 
adverbs derived from the relative pronoun, viz., quo^ 
whither ] and qtia^ in what way ] are in relation to other 
adverbs, demonstratives, relatives, and indefinites, which 
are formed in the same manner. All together form a sys- 
tem of adverbial correlatives similar to that of the pro 
nominal adjectives. (See above, § 130.) We shall be- 
gin with the interrogative form, which is the simplest 
[ts form (as in English) is the same as that of the relative 
and differs from it only by its accent. The relative ac- 
quires a more general meaning, either by being doubled, 
or by the suffix cunque, which is expressed in English by 
•' ever," as in " wherever." Without* any relative mean- 
ing, the simple form acquires a more general signification 
by the suffix que, or by the addition of the particular words 
vis and libet. (We call it an adverhium loci generdU.) 
The fact of the suffix que not occurring with qtu) and qua 
is easily accounted for by the possibility of confounding 
them with the adverb quoqvs and the ablative quiujue ; 
but still, in some passages at least, quaque is found as an 
adverb, and so also the compound usqueqtmquey in any 
way whatever. The demonstrative is formed from the 
pronoun is, and its meaning is strengthened by the suffix 
dem. The indefinite is derived from the pronoun cdiquis^ 
or by compositions with it. We thus obtain the follow- 
ing correlative adverbs : 

* We say without in regard* to the general analogy. There are, how. 

ever, passages in which the suffix que forms a generalizing relative, and in 

which, e. g., qwmdoque is used for quand/H^tmaue, as in Horat.,' Are Poet.^ 

959, qt-mioque bonue dormitat Homerus, and tfequently in Tacitus. Se# 

he comn entators on Livy, L, 24, 3. 





tJbi, where ? 
UndCf whence ? 
Quo, whithe*? 

Qua, ic what 
direction? in 
what way ? 

ubi, where. 



undCf whence 



quot whither. 



qua, in the 

way in which. 



ibif there. 

inde, thence. 

eot thither. 

eUf m 




aHcttbiy some- 

alicunde, from 
some place. 














f erery- 
^ where. 


I ^ 
> every 






[§ 289.] To these we must add those which arfe formed 
oy composition with alitis, nulhis^ uter^ and answer to the 
question where 1 a^t^\ elsewhere; wt^Wiii, nowhere (which, 
however, is based only on one passage of Vitruvius, viL, 
1, its place being supplied by misquam) ; utruhi or utrobi^ 
in which of two places 1 with the answer utrohiqTie^ in each 
of the two places. Inihi is a strengthening f6!rm of ibiy 
and signifies **in the place itself." To the question 
whence 1 answer aliunde, from another place ; utrimque:^ 
from both sides, which formation we find again in tTUrin- 
seais, &om within, and eoatriTisecus, from without. To the 
question whither 1 answer alio, to another place ; to utro, 
10 which of jtwo sides 1 answer tUroque^ to both sides, and 
netUro, to neither. The following axe formed with the 
same termination, and have the same meaning : quopiam 
and qrwquam, to some place (the former in an affirmative, 
and the latter in a negative sentence, like quisquamj ; 
intra, into ; retro, back ; ultro, beyond ; citro, this side, 
chiefly used in the combination of mtro et citro, ultro citro* 
que (towards that and this side), but ultro also signifies "in 
addition to," and " voluntarily." Porro ifl formed firom^o, 
and signifies "onward" or "farther," e. g,y porro pergere. 
In the latter sense it is used also as a conjimction to con- 
nect sentences. Compounds of €& are : adeo, up to that 
degree or pouit^ so much ; eousqtie, so long, so far ; ana 
if quo: quomque and quoad, how long] We have farthei 
JO notice the adverbs vnth the feminine termination of the 
ablative 5 (which is probably to be explained by supply- 
ing vidj^ which have become prepositions; viz.: citra^ 
emtra, extra, intra, »ipra, derived from the original forms, 
*«#, con, ex, in, super; also, infra, below; and ultra, beyond 
^fi:om the adjectives infer and ulter, which, however, du 
not occur) ; drca, arounc' ; and juxt^^ by the side or it 


like maiinei'. The derivation of the last two is doubt^l, 
but they belong to the adverbs of place. In this way 
arose, also, nequaquam and haudquaquam^ in no way; 
usqtiequaque^ in all points, in all ways, composed of the 
above-mentioned qtcaque and usqtie. 

[§290.] We here add the correlatives to the question 
whither] quorstim or qtcorsus? (contracted -from quover- 
sum or quoversus). The answers to them likewise end 
in U8 aiid um (but sometimes the one and sometimes the 
other is more commonly used) : Tiorsum, hither ; aHqieo- 
versum, towards some place ; aliorsum, towards another 
place ; qtioquoveraua, towards every side ; ntroqiceversum, 
introrsum, prarsum^ forward (prorsus is better knovm in 
the derivative sense of" entirely") ; rurmm^ or more fre 
quently retrorsum, backward (rurmta remained in use in 
the sense of" again") ; ««r««w, heavenward (also, «i^r«t^» 
verstbs, a double compound) ; dearsumi downward ; dex- 
trof'sum, to the right; sinistrarsttmf to the lefl; adversus ol 
adversum, towards or opposite, usually a preposition; 
seorsus or seorsum^ separately. 

[§ 291.] 4. The above-mentioned demonstratives, ibi, 
there; inde^ hen<?e, and eo, thither, are used only with 
reference to relative sentences which precede ; e. g., uhi 
te heri vidi; ihi nolim te iterum amspicerCf where I. saw 
thee yesterday, there I do not wish to see thee again ; 
unde vmeratf eq rediit, he returned thither, whence he had 
come. More definite demonstratives, therefore, are requi- 
site, and they are formed in Latin from the thr^e demon- 
strative pronoims by means of special terminations. 

The place where ? hic^ utic, illic^ (there). 

whither ] httCf istuc, • i^«^, (thither). 

whence 1 hinc^ istinc, illinc, (thence). 
Instead of istuc and illtec, the forms isto and illo also are 
in use. .These adverbs are employed with the same dif- 
ference which' we pointed out above (§ 127) as existing 
between the pronouns hdc^ iste, and Ule, so that hie, hue, 
and hine point to the place where I, the speaker, am ; 
istic^ istuCy and isiitie, to the place of the second person, to 
whom I speak ; and illic^ Uluc, and UUnc to the place of 
the third person or persons, who are spoken oi. . The fol- 
lowing ai'e compounds oihtee and hine: ac^Amr, until now ; 
hucusquCj as far as this place ; ahhinc and dehincy from this 
iQ^ment (counting backward). To the question qva ? ir 


wbat wayl \^o answer by the demonstiativei^^«r;, istac^ 
iliac, which are properly ablatives, the word via being 

Nou 1. — Cicero thus writes to Atticus, who was staying h\ Rome, wfailo 
ne himself lived in exile at Thessalonica, in Macedonia (ill, 12) : Xicef 
tibi aignificarim, ut ad me vemreSf id omktam tamen ; intelligo te re istic pro 
desse, hie ne verbo qyidem levare me posse. IstiCf where you are, that is, at 
Rome, you can be really useful to me ; hie, here where I live, that is, at 
Theseaionica, you would not even be able to comfort me with a word^ In 
this manner the Romans, in their letters, briefly and distinctly express the 
localities of the writer and the person addressed, as well as of the persons 
written about. 

[^ 292.] Note 2. — Adhuc expresses the duration of time down to the pres 
eat moment, and therefore answers to. our ** still," when it signifies " un 
til now" (we also find usqfte adkuc) ; and^ strictly speaking, it should not 
be confounded either with etiamnunc, which does not contain the idea of 
duration of time, and answers to the question when ? or with usque e 
and etiamtum, which are the corresponding expressions of the past time 
But even good authors apply the peculiar meaning of the word to the pres 
ent, and use adkuc, also, of the relative duration of the time past ; e. g. 
Liv., xxi., 48, Scipio Cfuamquam gravis adkuc vtUnere erat, tamen— profectus est ; 
Curt., vii., 19, praecipitatus ex equo barbartis adhuc tamert rqpugiuUMt. " fid 
yet" is expressed by nondum, even in speaking of the present, more rare 
iv by »dhuc non. 



[§ 293.] 1. The Comparison of Adverbs irf thiough'out 
dependant upon the compaiison of adjectives, for those 
adverbs only have degrees of comparison which are de- 
rived from adjectives or participles by the termination e 
(o) or ter; and wherever the comparison of adjectivei^ is 
wanting altogether or partly, the same deficiency occurs 
in their adverbs. 

2. The comparative of adverbs is the same as the neu- 
ter of the comparative of adjectives (majus only has the 
adverb magis, § 265), and the superlative is derived from 
the superlative of the adjectives by changing the termina- 
tion us into e ; e. g., doctior, doctius ; elegantior, elegdnti' 
us ; emendatior, emendatius; superlative, doctissimus^ doC' 
tissime; elegantissime, emendatissime ; summus, summe* 
The positives ino (e. g., cito^ raro) also make the supe'la- 
tive m t; meritissimo and tutissimo, however, are more 
commonly, used than meritissime and tutissime. 

Note. — Thus the positive (see ^111) is wanting of deterius, deterrime; 
potius, potissime (we more frequently find potissimum) ; vrius, primum, Of 
prtmo (for prime is not used, but apprime, principallv) ; tne positive ociter 
to which ocius and ocissime belong, occurs very rarefy since the compare 


live ochts has, at the same time, the meaning of a positive. OtvaUU, very 
^contracted from vaUde, 6 263), the de^ees vaUdhu and validisthne do not, 
mdeed, occur in Cicero, but ar i used m the silver age of the language. 

[§ 294.] 3. The primitive adverbs, and those derived 
from other words by the terminations im and tus, together 
with the various adverbs enumerated in § 270, foil., that 
is, in general all adverbs which are not deiived from ad- 
jectives and participles by the endings e (or o instead of 
It) arid ter, do not admit the degrees of comparison. The 
only exceptions are diu and saepe : diutitcs, ditUissime ; 
saepiuSf saepissime. Nuper has a superlative nuperrime; 
but no comparative, and iotia and temperi have the com- 
^paratives satius (also used as a neuter adjective) and^^m- 
perius (in Cicero). Respecting secius, the comparative ot 
secuSf see 4 283. 

Note. — There are a few diminutive adverbs: elanculum from elam,primu 
lum from primum^ celervuaculey taemtuade^ from the comparatives celeriu 
and saephu, BelUy prettily, is a ain'-inutive of 6ene, and from belle are de 
rived belliu and beUissmus, without a comparative, and hence the adverb 



[§ 295.] 1. Prepositions are indeclinable words, or, 
to use the grammatical term, particles, which express the 
relations of nouns to one another, or to verbs ; e. g., a 
town in Italy ; a journey through Italy ; my lovej^ you; 
the first century (ifter Christ ; he came out of Bis house ; 
he lives near Berlin ; on the Rhine, &c. They govern in 

* [" Prepositions are pronouns in the strictest sense of the word. They 
express relations of place, and in their ordinary use are employed to de« 
note the relative positions of visible objects. Grammarians teU us that 
they govern cases, and it is the prevailing practice to arrange them accord- 
ing to the cases which they are said to govern. But this is palpably false ; 
for, in all languages which have any inflections, a case may express by it- 
self any relation which the addition of a preposition could give to it, and, 
m languages which, like the Sanscrit, have a complete assortment of ca- 
ses, many relations of plac6 are invariably expressed by the cases without 
any particle prefixed. Such would have been the fact in the Greek and 
Latin languages too, but the rules of euphony, convenience, the influence 
of writing, and a multitude of other causes, have contributed to mutilate 
the terminations of the nouns, as well as of the verb*, and thus preposi 
tions, the force of which was originally included ir the case endings, 
have come to be prefixed for the sake of greater distinctness, just as in 
Greek the particular noun is placed after the pronoun, called the article 
ki lepetitions, and just as the nominative case is prefixed to the voih/ 
lJhnatd8on*t Nrw Cratyhts, p. 212.)]— -Am. Ed, 


Latin either the accusative or ablatlTO, and seme (though 
mostly in a different sense) both cases. Their Latin name 
is derived from the fact of their beiijg placed, with a few 
exceptions, before their noun. Wo have already observ 
ed (Chap. LXII.) that a considerable number of these 
particles are properly adverbs, but are justly reckoned 
among the prepositions, as they more or less frequently 
govern a case. Apart from their etymplogy, and consid- 
ering only their practical application in the language, we 
have the following classes of prepositions : 

1. Prepositions with the Accusative. 
Ad^ to. 

Aptedf with, near. 

Ante, before (in regard to both time and plp,ce)» 
' Adversus and adversum, against. 
Ois, citra, on this side. 
Circa and circum, around, abOut. 
Circiter, about (indefinite time or number).. 
Contra^ against. ^ 

Erga, towards. 
Extra, without. 

Infra, beneath, below (the contrary of supra)* 
Inter, among, between. 
Intra, within (the contrary of extra): 
Juxta, near, beside. 
Ob, on account o£ 
Penes, in the power of. 
Per, through. 
P/mc, behind. 

Post, after (both of time and space). 
Praeter, beside. 
Prope, near. 

Propter, near, on account of. 
Secundum, after (in time or succession), in accordanev 

with ; as, secundum naturam vivere. 
Supra, above. 
2Va«^, on the other side. 
Versus (is put after its noun), towards a vlace ; e. g., w 

Galliam versus^ Massiliam versus, 
intra, beyond. • 

2. Prepositions toith the Ablative. 
A, ab, abs (a before consonants ; ab before vowels vat 

pnEPOsiTioNa, 239 

dome consonants ; and ahs only in the combination of 
ahs te, for which, however, a te, also, is used), from, by. 

Absque, without (obsolete). 

Coram, before, or in the presence Df. 

Cum, with; 

De, down from, concerning. 

E and ex (e before consonants only, ex before both voweli 
and consonantA], out of, from. 

PraCy before, owing to. 

Pro, before, for. 

Stne^ without. 

Tenus (is' put after its noun), as far as, up to. 

3. Prepositions with the Accusative and Ablative, 

In^ with the accus. — 1, in, on, to, to the question Whith- 
er 1 — ^2j.againj*t. With the ablat., in, on, to the ques- 
tion Where 1 

Sub, with the accus. — 1, under, to the question Whither t 
2, about or towards, in an indefinite statement of time; 
as, svh vesperam^ towards evening. With the ablat., 
imder, to tibe question Where 1 Desub is also used in 
this sense. 

Super, with the accus., above, over; with the ablat., upon, 
concerning, like de, 

*Switer, imder, beneath, is used with the accusative, wheth- 
er it expresses being in or motion to a place ; it rarely 
occurs with the ablative, and is in general little used. 

Remarks upon the Signification of the Prepositions, 

[^ 296.] 1. PrepotitioM wth the Accusative. 

Ad denotes in general an aim or object both in regard to time and place, 
and answers to the questions Whither ? and Till when ? e. g., venio, pro 
ficiscor ad te ; Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fedt. Hence it 
also denotes a fixed time ; as, ad hotam, at the hour ; ad dienif on the day 
fixed upon ; ad tempusfac&e aliquid, to do a thing at the right time/ In 
• other cases ad tempus signifies " for a time ;" e. g., pertvrbatio animi pie* 
rumqus brevis est et ad tempus. Sometimes, also, it denotes the approach 
of time ; as, ad lucerne ad vesperam, ad extremum, towards daybreak, evening, 
towards the end ; and the actual arrival of a certain time, as in Livy, a4 
frima signa veris profectus, at the first sign of spring. 

Ad, in a local sense, signifies " near a place," to the question Where ? 
as, ad urbem mm, to be near the town ; aaportas urbis ; cruentissima pugna 
ad lacum Trasimenum ; pugna navdlis ad Tenedum ; urhs sita est ad mare ; 
it is apparently the same as in. in such phrases as ad aedem Bellome; or 
with the omission of the word aedem: ad Opts; ad omnia deorvm templa^ 
gratulationemfedmus ; negotium habere ad portum ; ad forum ; but in all these* 
cases there is an allusion to buildings or spaces connected with the places 
named. With numerals ad is equivalent to our "to the amount of" oi 
** nearly ;" e g., ad ducentost to the amou tt of two hundred, or nearly t«vo 



Aundred, and withon any case it is an adveib like cim/er/aa in 
occuit ad hominum mil but qtuUuoTf reliqui-in ofpidum rpecH aunt ; Liv., viii^ 
ISfOd vigirUi matronit per viatorent accUh (abiat. absoL) ; iv., 59, quorum ad 
duo milia et quingenti capiuntur. The phrase omnes ad vnum, ad unum omnet 
f/erierurdf means, " even to the very last man," including the last himself. 

Ad, denoting an object or purpose, is of very common occurrence, and 
.hence arises its signification of *'in respect of;" e. g., vidi forum comiti" 
umque adomatum, ad speciem magnifico omalUf ad sentum eogitationemqm 
acerbo «t lugubri ; or fadmu ad manwria m posterUatit tnaignM ; homo ad laborea 
belli impiger, ad utum et disdplinam peritus ; ad coruiUa prudens, 6iC. But 
this preposition is used also in figurative relations to express a model, 
standara, and object of comparison, where we say **aceonung to^" or " in 
comparison with ;" as, €ul modumf ad effigiem, ad simUitmUtum, ad epodem 
tUicujua reif ad normamj ad exemplum, ad arbitnum et nutum^ ad volurUatem 
ttlicujua facere aUquid ; pertuadeni mathematicif terram ad wdnereum coeli eam^' 
plexum quasi puncti inetar obtinere. Particular phrases are, ad verbum^ woid 
for word ; nihil ad hanc rem, ad hunc hominem, nothing in comparison with 
this thing or this man. 

[6 297.] Apud, ** with," both in its proper and figurative sense ; e. g. 
witn me the opinion of the multitude has no weight, apud me nihil valet 
hominum opinio. In connexion with names of signifies '* near," 
like od ; e. g., Epaminondae Lacedaemonioa vicit apUd Mantmeam ; male pug 
natum e»t apud Caudium, apud Anienem (the name of a river). It must, 
however, be observed that the early writers sometimes (see my note on 
Cic, m Verr., iv., 22), and Tacitus and later authors frequently, use apud 
for tn, and not merely for ad ; as, A^uxttu apud urbem Nolam extinctus est ; 
statuarapud theatrum Pompeii loeatur ; apud Syriam morbo absun^tus est ; apvd 
senatum dixit, and in many other passages, in which the context leaves 
no doubt. In apud praetorem and apud judices the preposition must like- 
wise be taken to denote the place of the judicial transactions ; we use iu 
this case '* before," which, however, cannot be rendered in Latin by otue. 

Apud is used, also, with the names of authors, instead of m with the 
name of their works ; as, apud Xenophontem, apud Terentium, apud Cice- 
onem legitur, dec, but not in Xenophonte, because in Latin the name of an 
luthor is not used for that of his works, as in our language. 

Ante, " before," denotes also a preference ; as, ante omnia hoc mihi maxims 
placet, above all other things ; hie erat gloria militari ante omnes, he excell^ 

^6298.] Cis and citra are commonly used in reference to place ; e. g., 
^s Taurum montem, and are the contrary of trans ; dtra Rtdnconem, on this 
side of the Rubicon. But in later, though good prose writers (QuintiUan, 
Pliny), it frequently occurs for sine, "without," as in citra invidiam nomi- 
nare ; dtra musicen grammatics non potest esseperfecta nee did dtra sdentiam 
musices potest. . 

Circum is the more ancient, and drca the later form ; Cicero uses them 
both in the sense of "around" (a place); and ciratm, with the strength^ 
ened meaning, " all around ;" e. g., urbes quae circum Capuam sunt, and ' 
urbes circa Capuam ; homines circum and circa se habere ; terra circum axem se 
eonvertit; homo' ^aetorem dreum omnia fora sectatur. The phrases circum 
amicos, drcum vidnos^ circum villas, drcum insulas mittere, signify to send 
around to one's friends, &c. Circa is used, besides, of time also, in the 
sense of sub (but not by Cicero) ; Livy and Curtius, e. g., say, drca luds 
ortum, drca eandem horam, drca Idus. Circa in the sense of concerning, 
like de, erga, and adversus, the Greek Kara, occurs only in the silver ago 
of the linguage, in Quintilian, Pliny, and Tacitus ; e. g., varia circum haec 
opinio ; drca deos et reUgiones n^gligentior ; publica circa bonas artes socordia. 

Cirdter is used, it is true, with an accusative, as in drdter meridiem, 
about noon ; cirdter Catendas, cirdter Idus Martins, cirdter actavam horem\ 
but it is more frequently an adverb. 

l^ 299."! Adversus ana contra originally sifnify " opposite *^;" but thei 

PREP08IT1 >NS. 235 

•tpteM ftteo the direction of an action towards an obiect, with this dif 
ferenc^, tha: contia alwayt^ denotes hostility, like our* ^'against" (while 
erga denotes a friendly disposition, *' towards"), whereas adveraua is used 
in either sense. I'hus Cicero says, praesidia t<to, quae pro templis omnibus 
cemitis, contra mm collocata sunt; and frequently contra naturam^ contra 
kges ; but meus erga te amoTf patemus cmxmus^ benivoletUiOj and similar ex 
pressions. We say adversus aliqaem impetum facere tiS well as fitode«<um, 
putum esse^ and reveretuiani odMhere adversus aliquem. But erga also occurs 
now and then in a hostile sense, not, indeed, in Cicero, but in Nepos and 
Tacitus ; e. g., Nep., Datam., 10, odio comnwnif quod erga regem susceperant. 

[•5 300.] Extra, " without," " outside of," occurs also in the sense ot 
fneter, excepting, apart ; as, extra jocum. 

Infra, e. g., infra lunam nihil est nisi mortale et caducum. It also implies 
A iow estimaticm ; as in infra se omnia humana ducere, judicare, or infra se 
i9Sita; and '* below ** or ** under" in regard to measure or size : uristmt 
HOgnitudine patdo infra elephantos. 

Inter denotes also duration of time, like our ** during ;" as, inter tot 
tnnos, inter coenam, inter epulas. With regard to its ordinary signification 
* among," we must observe that inter se is our " one another ;" e. g., amant 
inter stpueri, obtrectant inter se,furtim inter se aspiciebant, where, in reality, 
another pronoun is omitted. 

Intra, "within," to both questions Where? and Whither? intra hostium 
praesidia esse and venire ; nuliam intra Oceanum praedonum navem esse audi 
tia ; majores nostri Antioehum intra montem Taurum re^are jusserunt. It also 
denotes time, both in its duration and a period which has not come to its 
close, e. g., omnia commemorabo quae intra decern dnnos nefarie facta sunt, du 
ring the last ten years ; intra nonrnn diem opera absduta sunt, intra decimum 
diem urbem cepit, that is, before nine or ten days had elapsed. 

Juxta, "beside," e. g.,juxta murum,Juxta urbem, sometimes also " next to" 
in rank and estimation, as in Livy : fides humana colitur apud eos juxta di- 
trinas reUgiones. But it is only unclassical authors that use juxta in the 
sense of secundum, or according to. 

Ob,* " cm account of," implies a reason or occasion, e. g., o6 egregiam 
mrtvtem donatus ; ob delictum ; ob eam rem, for this reason ; quam<Arem or 
quamiobcausam, for which reason ; ob hoe ipsum, for this very reason. In the 
sense of ante, its use is more limited, as in o6 oculos versari. 

Penes rarely occurs as a preposition of place in the sense of apud, and 
is more commonly used as denoting in the possession or power of; e. g., 
penes regem omnis potestas est ; penes me arbitrium est hujus rei. 

[^ 301.] Per, denoting i)lace, signifies " through," and occurs very fre- 
onentiy ; but it also signifies "in" in the sense of " throughout ;" e. g., 
Vaesar eonjurationis socios in vinculis habendos per municipia censuit, that is, 
m ail the municipia ; per domos hosjntalUer invttantur ; niditesfuga per prox- 
imas eivitates dissipati sunt. When it denotes time, it signifies during : per 
modem eemuntur sidera ; per hosce dies, during these days ; per idem tempus^ 
during the same time ; per triennium, per secessionem plebis, dui;^ig the se- 
cession of the plebs. 

Per, with the accusative of persons, is " through," "by the instrumental- 
ky of," e. g., perte salvits sum. Per, in many cases, expresses the manner 
m which a thing is done ; as, per Utteras, by letter ; per injuriam, per scelus 
et latrodnium, per potestatem auferre, eripere, with injustice, crimmally, by 
authority ; pet ludum ac jocum fortunis onmibus evertit, by play and joke he 
drove him out of his property ; per iram, from or in anger ; per simvlationem 


* [The Latin ob and the Greek kiti appear to have had one and the sarec 
origin, and are both connected with the Sanscrit abhi and api. In Ennius, 
#6 is a preposition signifying merely motion to a place ; thus, in Festus, 
" 06 Romam noctu legiones ducere coepit," and so, also, in the fragment of the 
Telamon, quoted by Cicero ( Tusc. Disp., iii., 18). Compare obeo, " to go 
to," " to visit." New Cratylus, p. 219.]— Am. Ed. 

286 LA^N 6BAMMAX. 

amickiafi me prodiderunt ; per speciem honoris ot cnueiiu /r ifikii, &C., jmt 
<am, under the pretext ; ji&r occa^ionem, cm the occasioD ; pfr ridtcuhtmi n 
a ridjciilous manner. In many cases a simple ablative might be used m- 
stead of per with the accus., but per expresses, in reality, only an accident 
al mode of doing .a thing, and not the real means or instrument 

Pert in the sense of "on account of," occurs only in a few phrases : ptr 
aetatem, on account of his age ; per vaietudinem, on account of illness ; per 
me licetf it is allowed, as far as 1 am concerned. In supplication or swear- 
ing it IS the English " by ;" as, furore per aUquidt aliqtum orare per «liqmi; 
and so, also, in exclamations : per deos immortalu^ per Joventy &c. 

[^ 302.] Pone, "behind," is not frequently used either as an adverb or a 
preposition, and is almost obsolete. Tacitus, e. g., says, mamm pone ter^ 
gum vinctaef for poet tergym, 

Praeter. From the meaning " beside," or ** along" (implying motion or 
passing by), as in Cicero : Servi praeter ocuZm LolU pocula ferebtmt, there 
arises the signification of " excepting ;" e. g., in Livy : In hoc legato veetn 
nee hominie quidquam est praeter Jigurtan et epeciemf ne^ue Homani cwispratiet' 
habitum eteonum Latinae linguae; and m Cicero, Amtcum tUn ex eonendaribua 
neminem esse video praeter lAiCuUvmf except, or besides LlfcuUus. It also 
signifies "besides^'when something is added to what has been already 
said, and it is then fgllowed by etiam ; e. g., praeter auctoriteUem ^iam tfiree 
ad coercendum habet, praeter ingentem populationem agrorum — pugnahan etiam 
egregie est, and may often be translated by " independent of," or " aot to 

Proe^also indicates a distinction, as m praeter ceteroe, praeter elioe, prae 
ter omnes exceUere or facere aUquid. 

The signification of "against," or "contrary to," is connected with that 
of beside ; e. g., praeter consu^tudinemj praeter optntonem,. esepectatiotum, voUm' 
totem alicujus ; praeter modum, immoderately ; praeter naturam, coBtrary to 

Propter f for prope^ near, is not uncommon, e. g., propter SicUiam ineulae 
Vidcaniae sunt ; duo JUii jpropter patrem cubantee, &c. It has already be^A 
remarked (^ 264) that it is a contraction of propiter. 

But it most frequently signifies " on account of," implying the moving 
cause, as in ego te propter humanitaiem et modestiam tuam diligo. It is more 
rarely used in the sense of per with persons, as mj»ropter te liber turn, prep- . 
ter ouos vimt^ through whose aid he lives. 

U 303.^ Secundum is derived from sequor^ secundvs, and therefore' prop- 
erly signifies " next," " in the s^uel," " in succession ;" e. g., eeamdum 
comitiaf immediately after the comitia; livy, Hannibal secundum tarn pro^- 
peram ad Cannae pugnam victorie magie qturni bellum gerentie euris intentus eraL 
Also " next in rank ;" as in Cicero, secundum deum homines homnukue maeh 
ime utiles esse possunt ; secundum frairem tibi plurimum tribuo ; secundum te 
nihil est mihi amicius solitudine ; Livy says that the Roman domini(m was 
fiuxximum secundum deorum opes imperium. The signification " along" is 
still more closely connected with its original meaning, as in secundum mart 
iterfacere, secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum videbantur. 

In a figurative sense secundum is the c^posite of contra : consequently, 
1, "in accordance with;" as, secundum naturam vivere, secundum arbitrium 
alicujus facere aUquid ; 2, "in favour of," as in secundum praesentem judica- 
vitf secundum te decrevit, secundum causam nostram disputavit. So, also, is 
the .legal expression vindicias secundum libertatem dare, postuiaref for a per- 
son's fiberty. 

Supra is the opposite of infra, and is used to both questioijs. Where ? 
and whither ? In English it is " above," implying both space and meas* . 
ure, e. g., supra vires , supra consuetudinem^ supra numerum ; and with nu 
merals, supra d-uos menses, seniores supra sexaginta annos. It is more rarely 
used in the sense of praeter, beside ; in Livy, supra belli Latira metum m 
ipfjoque accesserat ; and in tha of ante, before, aF in Caesar, jmumo susrtiham 
memoriam a little before the present time. 

puftfosiTioiiB. 237 

Vertus is jouLfti a .80 (though rarely) to the prepositioni ad or in: ad 
OcBOHum versus projlciaci, in Italiam versus namgare. 

Ultra not unfrequently occurs as denoting measure ; e. g., ultjafeminam 
molUe, ultra fnfem temerarius, more than a woman, and moie then a brave 
man usually is. 

2. Prepositions with the Ablative, 

[^ 304.] Ab (this is the original form, in Greek hiro)^ from, in regard tu 
both place and time {a eujus morte, ab iUo tempors tricesimus annus est), and 
also to denote a living being as the author or an action, as in anuari, diligi 
a6 aliquo, discere ab aliquoj and with 2euter verbs which have the meaning 
of a passive ; e. g., interire ab aHquo, Which is the same as ocddi oA aliquo. 
The following particulars, however, must be observed : 

(a) With regard to its denoting time, we say a prima aetate^ ab inetmte 
metate, a prima tempore or primis temporibus aetvtis^ ab initio aetatis and a6 tn- 
fantia, a pueritiay ab adolescentia, as well as in connexion vdth concrete 
nouns : a pueroj a pmeria, ab adoUsceahdo, ab infante^ all of which ezpres- 
sions sigmfy ** from zn early age.'* The expressions a parvisj a parmdo, 
a tenerOf a teneris tmguiadis.hre less common, and of Oreek origin. A puere 
is used in speaking of one person, and a pueris in speaking of several ; e. 
g., Diodorum Stoicwn apuero audivif or Socrates docuit fieri nutto modo posse, 
ul a pueris tot rerum insitas in aninas notUmes haberemuSf nisi animus j antequam 
corpus intrassetf m rerum cogmtione viguisset. 

Ab initio and a principio^ a prima properly denote the space of time from 
the beginning down to a certain point. Tacitus, e. g., says, urbem Romam 
•a prntdpio reges habuere^ that is, for a certain period after its foundation. 
Frequently, however, this idea disappears, and ab initiOf &c., become the 
tame as mitto, in the beginning ; e. g., ConsuU non animus ab initio, non fides 
odeaBtremum defrnt, he was neither wanting in (fourage at ii(st, nor in faith 
fulness at the last ; ab initio hujus defensionis dixt, at the beginning of my 
defence. . 

^b) When ab denotes place, it frequently expresses the side on which a 
thmg happens, or, rather, whence it proceeds'; as, afronu, a tergo, ab occasu 
et ortu (soUs) ; Alexander a fronts et a tergo hostem habebat ; Horatius Codes a 
tergo ponieni interseindi jubebat ; Caesar a dextro comu proeliutn commisit. 
Hmice a reo die^re, to speak on behalf of the defendant, and with the verb 
stare ; as, a senatu stare, to stsmd on the side of the senate, or to be of the 
party of the senate ; a bonorum causa stare, to be on the side of the patriots, 
or without the verb stare, in the same sense : hoe est a me, this is for me, 
in my favcrar, supports my assertion ; haecfacitis a nobis contra vosmet ipsos, 
to oar, advantage, or facers in an intransitive sense : hoc nihilo magis cb ad- 
versarOs, quam a nobis Jacit, this is no less advantageous to our opponents 
than to ourselves. So, also, the adherents or followers of a school are 
called a Plaione, ab Aristotele, a Critolao, although in these cases we may 
supply profeeti, that is, persons who went forth from such a school. Some- 
timqs, tnough chiefly in the comic writers, ab is used instead of a genitive 
andUa ab Andria, fores and ostium ah alitjw) con c repuU. • 

[^ 305.] In a figurative sense it signifies ** with regaid to ;*' e. g., Anto- 

nius ab equitatufirmus esse dicd>atmr ; imparati sumus quam a milUibus, htm a 

pecunia; meeUocriter a doctrind instructus ; inops ab amicis ; felix ab omm 

^ laude ; Horace, Nihil est ab omni parte beatum. In the sense of " on the 

' aide of," it also denotes r^ationship ; as in Augustus a matre Magnum Pon* 

peium artissimocontingebat gradu, on his mother's side. 

Ab denotes that which is to be removed, and thus answers to our 
'*from," or " against ;" e. g., forum defenders a Clodio, custodirs templum al 
Hannibale, munirevasa a frigore et tempestatibus, that is, contra frigus. So, 
also, tutus a periculo, secure from danger, and timere a suis, to be afraid of 
one's own friends. 

Stattm, cmfestimf recens ab aliqua re, " immediately alcr/' have oilffinall) 
raference t3 place, but pass from their meaning of pltf ;e mto thst of time 



e. ^.« Scipio confestim ap oelia-^^ navea rediitj immcdit. ely aAerth« battlt 
Scipio returned to the fleet ; hostea a prospera pttgna castra oppugnaveruni, 
lAv. ; ab itinerefacere aHquid^ to do a thing while on a journey. 

Ab, further, often describes a circumstance as the cause of a thing, and 
may be translated by "in consequence of," "from," or "out of;** as in 
LiYV, dicebantttr ab eodem animo ingenioqiDej a quo gesta suntj in consequence 
of the same sentiment ; ab eodem fiduda animif ab tra, a spe. Legati Car- 
thaginienses aliquanto minore cum miaerieordia ab reeenti memoria perfidiae 
auditi eunti in consequence of the yet fresh recollection ; Curtius, Alex- 
ander votes qtioqtte adhibere coepit a mperstitione ontmt, from superstitious 

Abf used to denote an official function, is quite a peculiarity of the Latin 
language ; e. g., alicujus or alicui ease (scil. servvm or Ubertum) a pedibus^ to 
be a person^s lackey, ab epistoUs (secretary), a rotionibua (keeper of ac- 
counts), a studii$t a voluptatibus. 

[^ 306.] Absque is found only in the comic writers, and modem Latinists 
should not introduce such antiquated words into their writings. See 
Burmann on Cic, de Invent.f i., 36 ; Ruhnken, Diet Terent., p. 228, ed. 
Schopen. There is only one -passage in Cicpro, ad Att., i., 19, tmllam a 
me epistolam ad te sino absque argumento perveniref in which the writer seems 
to have intentionally used absquej because he could not well have written 
the proper word stn^, on account of the proximity of sino. 

[^ 307.] Cum, "with," not only expresses "in the company of persons," 
as, cum aUquo ease, cum aliquo ire, venirey proJicisci,Jfacere aliquid (also secum, 
that is, with one's self), but also accompanying circumstances ; as, Verres 
Jjdmpsacum venit cum magna calamitate et prope pemicie dvitaiis ; hostes cum- 
detrimento sunt depulsif and numerous other instances ; also equivalent to 
our " in," in the sense of " dressed in ;" as in hoc officina Praetor (Verres) 
majorem partem diei cum timicapulla sedere solebat et pallio. When combined 
with verbs denoting hostility, cwn, like our " with," has the meaning of 
" against ;" cum aliquo bellum gerere, to be at war with somebody ; thus, cum 
aliquo queri, to complain of or against a person; 

[^ 308.] De is most commonly *'* concerning," " about," or " on," as ii 
multa de te audivi, Uber de contemnenda morte, scil. scriptus ; Regulus de cap- 
tivis commutamUs Romam miaaua eat. Also in the phrases de te cogito, \ think 
of thee ; actum eat de me, I am undone. Consequently, traditur de Homero 
is something very dififerent from traditur ab Homero ; in the former sen 
tence Homer is the object, and in the latter the subject. In the episto- 
lary style, when a new subject is touched upon, de is used in the sense 
of quad attinet ad aliquid ; as in Cicero, de fraire, confido ita eaae, ut aemper 
volui ; de me outem, suacipe patdiaper meaa partea, et eum te eaae finge, qui aum 
ego ; de rationibua referendia, non erat incommodumy &c. But very frequently 
it has the signification of " down from,** or " from a higher point ;'* as, 
deacendere de roatria, de coelo ; Verrea palam de aella ac tribunali pronuntiat ; 
further, it denotes the origin from a place ; as, homo de achola, dedarnator de 
ludoy neacio qui de circo maximo, Cic, pro Mdon., 24 ; or " of,*' in a partitive 
sense ; as, homo de plebe, unua de'populo, unua de multis, one of the many ; 
unus de septem, one of the seven wise men ; C. Gracchum de auperioribus 

faene solum lego; versus de Phoenissis, verses from the tragedy of the 
^hoenissae ; partem de istius impudentia reticebo^ and m the phrases de meo, 
tuoy s%u>, &C., de alienOf de publico. 

De also denotes time, which arises from its })artitive sigi?ification. 
Cicero 'says, Milo in comitium de fiocte ventf,'that is, even by night, or 
spending a part of the night in coming to the comitium ; vigilare de nocte^ 
Alexanc^ de die inU)at convtviOf even in the daytime ; hence multa de noctv^ 
media de nocte, that is, " in the depth of night,*' " in the middle of the 
night,** the signification of the point of beginning being lost in that of thtt 
time in general. Foe, si me amas, ut considerate diligenterque namgea di 
mense Decembri, i e., take care, as you are sailing in (a part of) th» :jioQtk 
of December. 

pR£ro5riioN9. 238 

In other cases, also, de is not nnfrequently used for ab or ex; thus, Cice 
10 says, audivi hoc de parente meo puetf and with a somewhat far-fetched dis 
dnction between what is accidental and what is intentional ; in Verr.t iiLj 
57, N6n hoc nunc primum audit prwahu de mimicOf reus ab acctualore ; effu 
gere de mdnibus ; Dumyeme nieneae argenteas de omnibue delubris jussit aufer 
ri ; especially in ccmnezion with emere, mercari, conduure de aiiquo. Glori 
mm, vktoriam parfrtf parare, de aUqwo or ex aUquo; triumphvm agere de GaUiSf • 
AUobrogibus, Aetolie, or ex OalHs, ^., are used indiscriminately. 

In some combinations de has the signification of ** in accordance with," 
or " after," like secundum : de consilio meo, de amicorum sententia, de consilit 
sententia, according to the resolution of the cpuncii ; de communi sententia , 
de mare. In Other cases de, with a noun following, denotes the manner or 
cause of an action: denuo, de integro, afresh; deimproviso, unexpectedly; 
de industria, purposely ; de facie novi aliquem, I know a person by his ap< 
pearance. In combination with res and causa : qua de re, qua de causa, qui 
Ints de causis, for which reasons. 

[^ 90d.] Ex* (for this is the original form ; it was changed'into e wher 
consonants followed, whence a certain custom was easily formed), " from,' 
" out of," is auite common to denote a place, as an answer to the questioi 
whence ? and in some peculiar phrases, such as ex equo pugnare; ex equi 
coUoqui, to converse while riding on horseback ; ex muro passis manibus pa 
cem peter e ; ex arbore pendere ; ex loco superiors dtcere; ex itinere scribere ; con 
spicari atiquid ex propinquo, e longinquo videre aliquid, ex transversa impetum 
facere; ex adverso, and e regions (not ex), opposite ; ex omni parte, in or from 
all parts. Ex aUquo audire, accipere, cognoscere, scire, and the like, to hear 
from a person's own mouth ; victoriam reportare ex aliquo populo, where ex is 
the same as de. Ex vino, ex aqua coquere; bibere, where we say, " with 
wine," 6ic., are common medical expressions. 

Ex, when a particle of time, denotes the point from which ; ex illo die, 
from that day ; ex hoc tempore, ex quo (not e), smce ; ex consulatu, ex praetura, 
ex dictatura, afler the consulship, &c. ; diem ex die expectare, to wait one 
day after another, or day after day. 

Ex, *' from," denoting cause ; as in ea; aUquo or a/ibua re dolere, laborare ex 
pedibus, e renUnts, ex oc^is, ex capite ; perire ex vulnerwus ; ex quodam rumor e 
rws te hie ad meruem Januarium expectabamus ; ex lassitudine artius dormire, 
after a fatigue, or on account of tatigue ; quum e via languerem, from or af- 
ter the journey ; ex quo vereor, whence I fear, and still more frequently ex 
quo, whence, or for which reason. Hence it has also the signification of 
** in consequence of," or " in accordance with," and that in a great many 
expressions ; such as ex lege, ex decreto, ex testamento, ex Senatusconsulto 
ex Senatus auctoritate,'ex sententia equivalent to de sententia, ex consuetudine 
e more. 

With this we must connect the cases in which ex denotes the mannet 
of an action ; as in ex animo laudare, to praise heartily; ex sententia and ex 
voluntate, according to one's wish ; e natura vivere, in accordance with na 
ture ; ex improviso, ex in^inato, excomposito, ex praeparato, ex aequo, &c. 

Ex denoting a change of a previous state : e servo te libertum meumfeci , 
nihil est tarn miserMe quam ex beato miser; repente Verres ex homine tamquam 
epoto pocuio Circaeo foetus est verres. 

In a partitive sense, ex denotes the whole from which something is ta- 
ken, and is of frequent occurrence : thus, vnus e plebe, unus e multis, is the 
same as ynus de plebe and de multis. Connected with this are the phrases 
aliquid esters mea, something is to my advantage; e republica (not ej;),for 
the good of the state. 

, ^ ■ — ■ ' ■■■I 

• [Various conjectures have been made with renpeci to the origin of 
this little word. Pott supposes that it is connected with the Sanscrit 
vahis (extra) ; that the -his is represented by the G:ieek -f, and that a di^ 
gamma has fallen out in the Greek word. {Etymdl Forsch., vol. il, p. 183.^ 
Hartung looks upon the Greek Ik as a subsidiary form of oIk. (ParHk 
ii., 81.^1r-^m. Ed. 


[^ 310. j Prae, *' before," si^ifies place only in combii^tion with aga4 
ferre^ or other verbs expressing motion, and with pronouns^ prae me fero^ 
yrae »e fertf ptae iK^it mistis^ which denote the open display of a thing on 
of a sentiment. 

Prae is commonly used in comparisons ; as in Cicero, prae se dmnea cv?k« 
temnit : vt ipse Cormd in hoe caitua prae me minus etiam qmm prinatus esse 
videatttTf in comparison with me ; Konutm prae sua Capua imdebunt ; omni- 
um minas cUque omnia pericula prae salute sua /ma duaeerunt. 

It is frequently used, also, m the sense ol *' on account of," implying an 
obstacle ; e. g., solem prae sagittarum multitudine non meMntis ; non medius 
fidius prae lacrimis possum reUqua nee cogitarenec scribere ; non possum prae 
fletu et dolore diutius in hoc loco eommorariy and so always with a negative 
particle, which, however, is sometimes implied in the negative significa- 
tion of the verb ; e. g., Liv., vi., 40, quum prae indighitatererum sti^tor silen- 
tiumque ceteros patrum defutisset ; xzxviii., 33, siUrUium prae metu uteronan 
fuit, . . 

[^ 31 1.] Prot in regard" to place " before,** or *• in front of a thing ;" e. g., 
pro vallo, pro castris aciem instruere^ that is, in the frcMlt of, close by, or un- 
der the wall ; copias pro oppido cottocare ; pro tempUs onmibus praesidia collo' 
cata sunt ; hasta posita est pro aede Jams Statoris ; Antonius sedens pro aede 
Castoris in foro. It also signifies, " at the extreme point of a thing," so 
that the person spoken of is in or upon the thing, e. g.,pro suggestu aUquid 
pronuniiaref pro tribunali edicere, pro rostris laudare. Hence, also, pro testi- 
numio dicere^ to declare as a witness, and other expressions denoting place, 
where pro is the same as in ; e. g., Tacit., Ann.^ i., 44, stabant pro contione^ 
the same as in contione ; ibid, ii., 81, pro muris vocanst on the edge of the 

The signification of something standing "before" a thing is the origin 
of that of •* for,** both in the sense of " instead," and that of protection 
Unus Cato est pro centum milibus ; Mdrcelli statua pro patibuh fuit ; homo jam 
pro damnato est ; se gerere or esse pro cive ; habere pro hostibns^ pro socHs ; ha- 
here pro certo ; aliquid pro merc^e, pro praemio est ; aiiquid pro nihUo estimare, 
habere^ putare ; also "Tor** in speaking of payment, pro vectura solvere, to 
pay for freight ; dixit se dimidiunif quod pactus esset, pro illo carmine daturumj 
praemia mihi data swit pro hoc industria maxima. ** For,*' the opposite ot 
" against,*' hoc pro me est^ or valere debet; Cicero pro Murena orationem htAuitf 
and in numerous other instances. 

[^ 312.] Pro, "in accordance with," or "m proportion to," occurs very 
frequently ; e. g., civitatibus pro numero militum pecuniarum summas deseri 
here, according to the number of soldiers furnished by them ; egbvos pre 
mea summa et vobis cognita in rempublicam diligentia moneo, pro auctoriteUe con 
sulari hortor, pro magnitudine perictdi obtestor, ut pad constUatis. Hence, in 
many particular phrases ; as, pro tempore or pro temwnibus, in accordance 
with the circumstances of the time, that is, pro conditions temporum, but by 
no means " for the time being," or " for a time ;" pro re or pro re nata, ac- 
cording to circumstances or emergencies -, pro meo jure, according to my 
right ; pro eo ut, pro eo ac, according as ; e. ^., Di gratiam mihi referent pro eo 
ac mereor, i. e., pro eo quod, quantum, accordmg to my merits ; especially to 
denote divisions or share ; pro parte, or pro mea, tua, sua, parti for my part, 
as far as lies in me ; pro viriU parte, according to the capacity of an indi- , 
vidual ; as in, pro vinli parte rempuhlicaim defendere ; pro portione, in propor- 
tion ; pro rata portione, or pro rata parte, in a correct proportiop. In the 
phrase pro se quisque, every one for his part, the three words have almost 
grown mto one ; e. g., pro se quisque aurum, argentum tt aes m piAUcum emir 
ferunt, every one, though vrith a somewhat strengthened meaning, " every 
one without exception." Quam pro after comparatives deserves especial 
notice ; e. g., major quam pro numero hominum pugfta editur; sedes excelsier 
jmm pro Imbitu corporis. 

[^ 313.] Tenus 18 used to denote limitation ; e. g., Antiochus Tauro temts 
regnare jussus est, rs far as Mount Taurus, espfecially in \he combinntida 


of verbo and nomme terms, as far as the word or the name goes. So, also, 
ore tfnus sapieruia exercitatus in Tacitus, that is, that he could speak wisely, 
but not act wisely. It is only in poetry that this preposition is connected 
with a i^enitive, and chiefly with a genitive plural ; e. g.^labrorum tenusj up 
to the hp ; crurum tenus, laterum tenus ; hut in Livy, xxvi, 24, too, we find 
Corcyrtu tenus. The accusative is still more rare. 

3. Prepositions with the Accusative and Ablative. 

[^ 314.] In with the accusative expresses the point in space towards 
w hich a movement is directed, like our *' to," or " into :" in aedem ire^ in 
ptMicum prodirey in Graeciam proficisci, in dvitatem recipere ; also the direc- 
tion in which a thing extends, e. g., decern pedes in lat\tudinem, in longi- 
tudirum, in altitudinem, in breadth, length, height ; further, independent of 
locality, it denotes the object towards which an action is directed, either 
with a friendly or hostile intention : amor in patriam, odium, in malos civeSf 
in duces vehemens, in milites liberaliSf dicere in ali<iuem, and so, also, oratio in 
aliquenif a speech against some one. 

it also denotes an object or purpose : haec commutari ex veris in falsa non 
possunt ; in majus celeLraref for something greater, so that it becomes some- 
thing greater.; t^ imperator inpoenam exercitus.fxpetitus esse videtur ; pecunia 
data est in refnndlitarem ; paucos in spedem captivos ducebant, for the sake of 
^ppe&rance;. in conttaneliamperfugae appellabantuTf for the purpose of dis- 
gracing them ; cum in earn sententiam rmUta dixisset, in support of this 
opinion ; in haw formtdamf in has leges, in haec verba, &,c., scribere, foedus 

[^ 315.] When joined with words denoting time, it expresses a prede 
ermination of that time like the English *' for ;" e. g., invitare aliquem in 
posterum diemt for the following day ; praedicere in rnxdtos annos, in paucos 
dies, in mtdtof menses subsidia vitae habere, in hodiemum diem, for this present 
day ; and so in many phrases ; as, in diem vivere, to live only for the day ; 
m/uturum, in posterum, in reliquum, for the future ; in aetemum, in perpetuum, 
for ever ; in praesens, for the present ; in all these cases the woxdtempus 
rnay be added. Without denoting time, m is used also with the accusa- 
tive of other, words to express the future ; e. g., Patres in incertum cpmi- 
tiorum eventum auctores Jiunt, give their sanction to the yet uncertain reso- 
lutions of the comitia. 

When joined with the numeral singuli, or when this word is to be un 
derstood, in expresses a distribution, like the English *^ on," '' for," or 
" over ;" e. g., in singulas civitates binos censores describere ; queritur Sicilia 
tota, Verrem ab aratoribus profrumento in modios singidos duodenos seslertios 
exegisse ; so, also, prelium in capita staluere ; i. e., in singula capita ; terms 
nummis in pedem tecum transegit, i. e., in singtUos pedes. We must here no- 
tice sdso the expression in singulos dies, or in c^ie« alone, *' from day to day," 
with c(Hnparatives and verbs containing the idea of a comparative, such as 
crescere, augere. 

It, laistly, denotes, in some phrases, the manner of an action ; servilem, 
hostilem, miserandum in modum ; mxrum, mirabilem, mirandum in modum ; in 
umverwum, in general ; in commune, in common ; in vicem, alternately, or , 
mstead of; in Bmti locum constdatum peters, in the place or instead of. 

[^ 316.] In with the ablative, when it denotes place, most commonly 
expresses '* being in a place or in a thing," while with the accusative it 
moicates a movement or direction towards it. It may sometimes be 
translated by "on," or "upon," but always answers to the question 
Where ? e. g., coronam in collo habere; aliquid in humeris ferre ; in ripa flu- 
minis ; in litore maris urbs condlta est ; pons influmine est. When a number 
or quantity is indicated it answers to " among ;" e. g., esse, haberi, pom, 
mtmerari in borus civibus ; in magnis viris, in mediocribus orqtoribus, in septem 
vagantibus, among the seven planets, so that in is equal'to inter. A par- 
ticular phrase is aliquid in manibus ^t, a thing is in hand, or iTas been 
commenced; as in Livy, haec contentio rrinime idoneo tempore, quum tataum 



belli in manJnis essety occuparat cogitationes hominum. In manibus haheref i 
be engaged upon a thing ; as in Cicero, Quam spent nunc habecu in manib ■ 
et quid moliatur, breviter jam exponam. Aliqvid in oculia eat^ a thing is tv 

New and then we find, in good authors, in with the accusative, whecv 
the grammatical rule requires the ablative. See the commentators on 
Livy, ii., 14 ; but this is limited to a very few political and legal expres- 
sions, such as in potestatem^ in amicitiam dicionemque este^ manere (Cic, 
Divin. in Q. Caecil.f 20 ; in Verr.f v., 38), in vadimonium, in moram esse, a:jd 
even these cases must be considered only as exceptions. In the comic 
writers, however, we not unfrequently find ndhi in mentem est. See Beat- 
ley on Terent, HeaiU.t v., 2, 33. 

[^ 317.] The general signification of in with the ablative is •* in,'* m 
** with," and without reference to locality it denotes a coincidence of cer> 
feSin circumstances and attributes ; e. g., m hoe homines in hoc re, hoc ad- 
miroTf hoc lavdoy hoc displicet, in this man ; a phrase of this kind is quantum 
in eo or in me, fe, &,c.f fuit, as much as was in my power. In the following 
sentences it is our " with,** or " notwithstanding :" in summa copia orato- 
rum, nemo tamen Ciceronis laudem aequavit; in summis tuts occupatiombuSf 
with all thy very important engagements ; eUter, uti dixit Isocrates in 
Ephoro et- Theopompo, frenis egit, alter calcaribtis, as Isocrates said when 
speaking of Ephorus and Theopompus. 

[^ 318.] When real expressions of time, such as saecuhtm, annus, mensis, 
dies, nox, vesper, are employed, the simple ablative denotes the time at 
which (see ^ 475) ; but in is used with substantives, which by themselves 
do not denote time, but acquire that meaning by being connected with 
in ; as, in considatu, in praetura, in meo reditu, in prima conspectu, in principio, 
in bello, although in these cases, too, the simple ablative is sometimes used ; 
out in appears more especially in connexion with a gerund ; as, in legends 
and in tegendis libris, in urbe oppugnanda, in itinere faciendo, all these ex- 
pressions in the first instance denoting time, but passing into kindred 
meanings. In praesenti or praesentia signifies " at the present moment,'* 
or " for the present.** The phrase, est in eo, ut aliquidfiat, signifies som<» 
thing is on the point of happening. • 

[^19.] Sub,* e. g., Romani subjugum missi sunt; se conjicere sub scalas, 
to throw one's self under the stairs ; alicui scamnum sub pedem dare, and 
figuratively, sub imperium tuum redeo, and so, lUso, (Uiquid caait sub aspectum, 
" a thing falls within the horizon,'' as well as cadit sub judicium et delectum 
tapientis, sub inteUigentiam, it belongs to the philosopher, is left to him. 
When it denotes time, it signifies, 1, "about,** that is, shortly before ; as, 
stib ortum solis, shortly before sunrise ; sub noetem, sub vesperam ; 2, more 
rarely, " immediately afte^ ;'* e. g., sub eas litteras statim redtatae sunt tuae, 
Cic, ad Fam., x., 16 ; statim sub mentionem, Coelius in Cic, ad Fam., viii., 
4 ; Africo hello, quofi fuit sub recentem Romarfam pacem, Liv., xxi., 11 ; and 
«ti6 haec dicta, sub hanc vocem, are used by the same writer. The phrase 
nd) idem tempus contains only an approximate definition of time, and signi 
fies " about the same time." 

Sub, with the ablative, is always ** under ;'* firat, with regard to things 
ihat strike our senses ; and, secondly, to denote inferiority in rank : suh 
divo, or sub did, under the sky, in the open air; suboculis, under, Le., before 
our eyes ; «u6 regibus esse, sub imperio, sub hoc scuramento miUtari, sub magis' 
tro esse : it rarely denotes a condition, and only in late writers ; e. g.,suk 
lege, std> poena. Sub specie, '< under the appearance," and sub obtentu, ** un- 
der the pretext," are little used. Sometimes sub is found with the abin 
tive to denote time, but only where contemporaneity is to be indicated 
e. g., Ovid., Fast., v., 491, Haec tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa ; Caes., 
BeU. Cit., i., 27, .ne sub ipsa profectione milites oppidum irrumperent ; and Hi 

* [iS 446 %nd i)-'!T6 are manifestly celated to each other, and to the Sao 
■crit « par So again, su-per, if-irep^ and w-pari.] — Am. JEd, 



Uke maimer we may say sub adventuy e. g., Roma lorum, wbii9 they were 
arriving. Compare Drakenborch on Lif., ii., 55 ; who, however, gives tn 
thib tub too great an extent. 

[^ 320.] Super has, in prose, the ablative only when used in the sense 
of de, *.* concerning," or " inr respect of ;" as in supOr aliqua re ad aliquem 
scrihere^ but chiefly in writers of the silver age of the language. 

With the accusative it signifies " over," " above," and answers to both 
questions Whither ? and Where ? super aliquem sedere, accumbere^ eittu est 
Aeneas super Numidwrn flumerif Aeneas was buried above the river ; that is, 
on its banks, but on an eminence of the bank. The phrase super coenam 
signifies *'. during dinner." With numerals it is "above," or ^*more tluin ;" 
e. g., Annulorum tantus acervuxfuUf ut metientibus dimidium super tree modios 
explesse sint quidcSfn, auctoreSf one half more than three modii, cr three roodii 
and a half; and in other expressions; as, res super votafimmi, more than 
was wished. In these two significations of " above" (in its sense of place 
as well as that of " more than"), super is the same as supra ; but it is used 
more frequently than the latter in the sense of *' besides," or ** in addition 
to:" super beUum annona premit ; super morbum etiam* fames affecit eaercitum^ 
super cetera ; 80, also, in the phrase alius super aliumf one after the other. 

Subter is rarely used with the ablative, and only in poetry ; Cicero uses 
the accusative in the expressicm Plato iram in pectore, cupiditatem svbter 
praecordia locavit. Otherwise it frequently occurs .as an adverb, in the 
«ense of our " below." 

§ 321.] 2. The adverbs clanij* palam, simul, and pro- 
are sometimes connected by poets and late prose 
writers with an ablative, and must then be regarded as 
prepositions : clam and its diminutive clanculum^ " with 
out a person's knowledge ;" e. g., clam uxore mea etjilioj 
are frequently found as prepositions in the comic writera, 
but are joined also with the accusative : palam is the op- 
posite of clam, and the same as coram ; e. g., palam pop- 
uloj in the presence of the people; simul is used by 
poets, without the preposition cum, in the seilse of "with;" 
e. g., Sil. Ital., v., 418, avulsa estprotimis Jwsti ore simul 
cervix^ the neck together with the face: Horace uses 
simul his J together with these, and Tacitus frequently ; 
e. g., Annal., iii., 64, Septemviris simul ; proady with the 
omission of ah^ is frequent in Livy and Tacitus, and sig- 
nifies, " far from ;" e. g., procui urhe, mari, voluptatihus, 
and in the phrase procui duhio or duhio procui^ instead of 
sine dubio. 

[§ 322.] Respecting usqtie as an adverb, see abovej § 
286. It is commonly accompanied by a preposition ab 

* [*' Clam and palam are locatives of the same natur^as partim, Tlie 
former, which was also written calim {Fest., p. 47), contains the root, of 
cehf KXeiTTQ, ica^i^Trrcj, &c. Palam is the same case of an adjective, con* 
nected with palatum^ irHTin, &c. That it is a noun, appears farther from 
the fact, that it is used also with the preposition in (in palam^ i. e., aperte 
Gloss. Isid.)t like in-cassum. {Compare pro-palam.) The same is the case 
with coram = co'oram (kut' bfifia)-, with which we may compare co'mivuM 
t^minus {kK X^f'P^)- — {DonaldsorCs Varronianus, p. 2i3).}^Am. Ed, 


and eXf or ad, in and sub, and expresseis the idea of con 
tinuity from one point to another ; e. g., vctus opinio est, 
usque ah heroicis ducta temporibus ; usque ex ultima Syria 
atque Aegypto navigare; similis plausus me usque ad Capl- 
tolium celebravit ; usque in Pampkyliam legatos mittere ; 
usque sub cxtremum brumae imbrem^ where u^que is our 
•* until." It is only in poetry and late prose writers, that 
usque alone is used for usque ad ; e g., Curtius, viii., 31, 
says of the Indians, corpora usqUe pedes carbaso velant. 
This is independent of the names of towns, where the 
prepositions ad and ah are generally omitted. 

[§ 323.] 3. But many of the above-memicmed prepo 
sitions ai'e used as adverbs, that is, without a noim de 
pending on them. This is chiefly the case with those 
which denote place : ante and post^ adverstmi and eooad 
versum (opposite), circa (around), circumcirca (all around), 
contra (opposite), coram (in the presence of), extra, infra^ 
iuxta^prope snd propter {rieB,T),pone (behind), supra, ultra, 
super and suhter, Circiter, also, and sometimes ad (§ 296), 
are used in the adverbial sense of " about," or " nearly," 
with numbers, which are indefinitely stated. Contra, when 
used without a case and for the purpose of connecting 
sentences, is a conjunction, like our "but," or "however. 

Note. — Instead of ante and post as adverbs, we have, also, the special 
forms anted, and posted (consequently the conjunctions antedquam!, posted- 
qiiam) : see ^ 276. Ante, however, is preferred as an adverb in eombmatioD 
with participles ; e. g., ante dictaf vita ante acta ; and. post is frequently used 
to connect sentences. 

Contra, as an adverb, occurs in the phrase of Plautus, auro contra, or 
contra auro; that is, gold being placed on the other side; so that ovro is no*^ 

dative, but an ablative ; for which other authors, however, use the prep 
ssition contra aurum, for gold, when a price is indicated. 

Juxta, as an adverb, commonljr signiiSes " equaHy," or "in like manner, 
and is the same as aequt ; e. g., in Livy, aliaque castella (dedita sunt) juxta 
ignobUia ; 8allust, eorum ego vitam mortemque juxta aestimo, I deem oi equal 
importance ; margaritae afeminis juxta virisque gestantur, by women as well 
as hy men. It is frequently followed by ac or atque, in the sense of <* as.'* 

Praeter is used as an adverb for praeterquam ; tnat is, not with the accu- 
sative, but with the case required by the verb preceding, as in Sallust : 
ceterae muUitudim diem statuit, ante quam situ Jraude (without punishment) 
liceret ab armis discedere, praeter rerum capitaluan condenmatis. We thift 
might say, hoc nemini, praeter tibi, videtur ; out it is better to say praeter te, 
or praeterquam {nisi) tibi. 

Prope and propter are very frequently used as adverbs ; propcy however, 
is sometimes accompanied by the preposition ao, as in tarn prope a Sicilia 
helium gestum est, sO near Sicily ; prope a meis aedibus aedebas, near my house. 

Ultra, as an adverb, and accompanied by a negative particle, signifies 
*' no longer," hand ultra pati possum ; bellum Latinum non ultra dUatum est 
When it denotes place or measure it signifies " farther," or " beyond." 

f§ 324.] 4 It was remarked above that the prepe 


■itions versus and temis are placed afier theii case. Some 
other prepositions, also, may take the same place, but not 
indiscriminately. Thus, the four prepositions ante^ contra, 
inter, and j^opter are sometimes placed after the relative 
pronoun (occasionally after the demonstrative hie also); 
e. g., diem statmmt^ qnam amte ab armis discederely qtiem 
contra venii, quos inter, quern propter : other prepositions 
of two or more syllables; BS^drca^circum, penes, tdtra, and 
adeersus, are more* rarely used in this way ; the monosyl- 
labic prepositions ^»^, ^er, ad, and de are thus used only 
in isolated cases or phrases, and de scsuxjely in any othei 
than legal formulae ; e. g., quo de agitur, res qua dejudi- 
catum est. Farther, those same four dissyllabic prepo- 
sitions, ante, contra, ifUer, and propter, together with the 
motiosyllabic oh, post, de, ex and in, when they govern a 
Bubstantiye accompanied by an adjective or pronoun, are . 
frequently placed between the adjective and substantive ; 
e. g., medios inter hastes, certis de causis, magna ex parte, 
aliquot post menses, and still more frequently between the 
relative pronoun and the substantive ; e. g., quod propter 
studium, qua in re, quam oh rem, quam oh causam. Per, 
ah, and ad are but rarely placed in this way. The prep- 
osition cum is always placed after, or, rather, appended 
to the ablative of the personal pronouns me, te, se, nohis 
and vobis. The same is commonly the case with the ab- 
latives of the relative pronoun, quo, qua, and quihus, but 
we may- also say cum qtto, cum qua, and cum quihus. 
This preposition also prefers the middle place between the 
adjective or pronoun and the substantive. (See § 472.) 
What has been said here applies to ordinary prose ; and 
the practice of those prose writers who place the above- 
mentioned prepositions and others even after substantives 
must be regarded as a peculiarity. In Tacitus, for ex- 
ample, we often find such arrangements as, Misenum 
apud, viam propter, Scythas inter, Kuphratem ultra, cu- 
hicidum Caesaris juxta, litora Calahriae contra, ripam ad 
Araxis, verhera inter ac coniumelias, and the like. The 
place of coram after its noun seems, comparatively speak- 
ing, to be established by better authority than that of any 
other. Poets go still farther, and separate a preposition 
entirely from the case belonging to it ; b. g., in Horace, 
Serm,, i , 3, 70, Amicus dulcis cum mea compenset vitiit 





[§ 325.] The majority of the prepositions txe used also 
to form compound words, especially verbs, modifying, 
naturally, by their own meaning that of the words to 
which they are joined. The prepositions themselves 
often undergo a change in their pronunciation and or- 
thography, on account of the initisd letter of the verb to 
which they are prefixed. But the opinions of ancient as 
well as modem grammarians differ on no point so much 
as upon the detail of these changes, some taking into ac- 
count the facility of pronunciation, and assimilating the 
concurrent letters of the prepositions and the simple verb 
accordingly, others preferring to leave the prepositions 
unchanged, at least in writing, because the former method 
admits of much that is arbitrary. Even in old MSS. and 
in the inscribed monuments of antiquity the greatest in- 
consistency prevails, and we find, e. g., existere along with 
exsistere^ collega along with conlega^ and imperium along 
with inperium, in the same book. In the following re- 
marks, therefore, as we must have something certain and 
lasting, we can decide only according to prevalent usage, 
but there are some points which we must determine foi 
ourselves as well as we can. 

Ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before the 
consonants d^j, v, m; before other consonants it under- 
goes an assimilation, that is, the d is changed into the let- 
ter which follows it, and before qu into the kindred c, as 
in acquirOy acquiesco. Before gn the d is dropped, as in 
agnatus^ agnosco. But grammarians are not agreed as to 
whether the d is to be retained before Z, n, r, *, and still 
less as to whether it may stand before yi Even the most 
ancient MSS. are not consistent, and we find in them, e. g., 
adloquor^ adfecto, adspiro, and, on the other hand, allicio, 
affligOy assuetus^ aspecttis^ ascendo. Our own opinion is in 
favour oi' the assimilation, and we make an exception only 
in t)ie case of adscrihoy on account of the agreement of 
the MSS. on this point. The signification of ad remains 
the same as usual, as in adjungOy assumo, afero, appono, 
alloquor. In approbo and affirmo it either' expresses a di 

PEBP0SITI0N8. 247 

rection towards, or merely strengthens tlie meaning of the 
simple verb. 

Ante remains unchanged ; in antidpare and antistare 
alone the e is changed into «\ though antesto also is ap- 
proved o£ Its meaning is '* before," as in antepbno, an- 

Circum remains unchanged, and retains, in writing, its 
m even before vowels, although in pronunciation (but 
without the elision of the vowel preceding) it was lost 
Only in circumeo and its derivatives the m is often drop- 
ped ; as, drcueo. Its meaning is '* aroimd," " about," as in 
circumago, drcumdo, circumfero. 

Inter remains unchanged, except in the word intelligo. 
Its meaning is '' between" or " among," as in interpono. 

Ob remains generally unchanged, and undergoes the 
assimilation only before c,J\ g, andp. In obsolesco, firom 
the simple verb oleo, and in ostendo^ &om tendo, we must 
recognise an ancient form ohs^ like abs for ab. f ts mean- 
ing of " against" oi " before!' appears in oppimoy offero^ 
occurrOf oggannio, 

[§ 326.] Per remains imchanged even before Z, though 
some think otherwise ; in pellicioy however, it is universal 
ly assimilated. The r is dropped only in the word pejero, 
I commit a perjurium. Its meaning is ** through," as in 
perlegOf perluceo^ P^ogq,. When added to ac^ectives it 
strengthens their meaning (§ 107), but in perfidus and 
perjurus it has the power of a negative particle. 

Post remains unchanged, except in pomoerium and po- 
meridianusy in which st is dropped ; its meaning is "after," 
as in postpono, 

Praeter remains unchanged, and signifies "passing by," 
as ill praetereo, praetermitto. 

Trans remains unchanged before Vowels, and for. the 
most part also before consonants. In the following words 
the ns is dropped : trado, traduco^ trajido^ trano, which 
forms are more frequent than transdo, transduce, transjido, 
transno, though the latter are not to be rejected. When . 
the verb berais with s, the * at the end of trans is better 
omitted, and wp should write traTtscribo, transUio, Its 
meaning, "through," "over^" or "across," appears in 
transeOy trajido^ and transmittOy I cross (a river) ; trado^ 

r§ 31 7,] A^ abf abs, viz. : a before m and v ; ah before 


vowels and most consonants, even before ^, though afitk 
exists along with abfui ; in anfero (to distinguish it fronj 
affero) and aujugio^ ah is changed into av or au ; abs oc- 
curs only before c and t^ but appears mutilated in asporto 
and aspemor. Its meaning is " fh>m," or " away," as id 
amittOy avehoTt abeOy dbjicio^ ahrado^ attfero, ahscando^ abs^ 

De^ " down," or " away from," as in dejicio, descendo^ de- 
trahoj deterOf rub off; despicio^ look down upon, despise. 
In some compounds, especially adjectives, it has a nega- 
tive power, as in decolor^ dmrrnis^ demensy desvpio^ dC' 
spero ; in demiror, deamo^ and dejero^ on the other hand, it 
seems to strengthen the meaning. 

E and ex, viz. : ex before vowels, and before consonants 
sometimes e and sometimes ex: ex before c, p^ q, s, t, ex 
cept in escendo and epoto ; before y* it assimilates to it ; « 
is used before all the other consonants, except in exlex. 
We, therefore, should vmte exspecto^ exsiliwny exstinguo, 
Dut the ancient grammarians, as Quintilian and Priscian, 
are for throwing out the s, and in MSS. we usually find 
extingiw, extrttxi^ exeqtior, and expecto^ extd, exUinm, not- 
withstanding the ambiguity which sometimes may arise. 
Its meaning "out of," or "from," appears in ejiciOf emineo, 
enStOy eripio, efftro (extuti)^ exceUo^ expono^ exqwiro^ ex- 
trahoy exatidioy exigOj exulcero, &c. The idea of coHiple- 
tion is implied in several of these compounds, as in effidoy 
enarrOy exoro. 

[§ 328.] In is changed into im before b and p and an- 
other rriy and it is assimilated to I and r. Its meaning is 
"in" or "into," as in incurro, impono, iUidoy irrumpo* 
When prefixed to adjectives and participles, which have 
the signification of adjectives, it has a negative power, 
and does not appear to be the preposition in^ but equiva 
lent to and identical wich our in or un; e. g., indoctus, in 
cantuSf inepttis (from aptusj, inMpiens^ improvidus^ imprih 
dens J imparattiSy the negative ofparaius^ because there is 
no verb imparo. Some other compounds of this kind havo 
a double meaning, since they may be either negative ad 
jectives, or participles of a compound verb; e. g., indictus, 
unsaid, or announced; tw/z-oc^iw, unbroken, or broken into; 
invocaiiiSj uninvited, or accosted, called in. The partici- 
ple perf. passive, when compounded with in, often ac 
quires the signification of impossibility ; e. g., invdctua, un 


conquered and unconquerable ; ind^esstis, indefatigable ,* 
tnfinitris, immeasurable. 

Prae remains unchanged, but is shortened when a vow- 
el follows. (See above, § 15.) Its meaning is "before/* 
as in jrraefero, praecijpio, j?raeripio. When prefixed to ad- 
jectives, it strengthens their meaning, (See § 107.) 

Pro remains unchanged, but in many words it is short- 
ened even before consonants. (See above, § 22.) Foi 
the purpose of avoiding hiatus, a e? is inserted in prodeo, 
prodigOy and in those forms of the verb prosum in which 
the initial e would cause hiatus ; as, prodes, prodest^ pro- 
deram. (See above, § 156.] Its meaning, ** forth," or 
** forward," appears in proferoy procurrOy prodeo, prqjicioy 

[§329;] Suh remains unchanged before vowels (but 
sumo seems to be formed from subimoy as demo BXid.proma 
are formed from the same root), but undergoes assimila 
tion before Cyfy gy m^ p; not always before /•, for we have 
iurripioy and yet svhridcOy where, however, the difference 
in meaning is to be taken into account. In suscipio, sus- 
citOy suspendo, sustineoy and the perfect s-ustuliy an ^ is in- 
serted instead of the by whence an ancient form subs is 
supposed to have existed analogous to abs and obs. The 
b IS dropped before sp^ but before sc and st it is retained. 
Its meaning is "under," as m summittOy suppono, susttneo; 
or "from under," as in subdtcco, summoveoy surripio ; an 
approach from belpw is expressed in subeo, sticcedo, sus- 
pido, look up to, esteem ; and to do a thing instead of 
another person, in subsortiov. It weakens the meaning in 
such verbs as mbndeoy subvereory and in adjectives, such 
as subabsurdtiSf subtristis, subrttsticusy stibobscurus. 

Supevy " above," as in superimponOy superstOy supersedeoy 
set myself above, or omit. 

Suiter y "from under," as in subterfugio. 

Corny for cum, appears in this fomi only before by py m ; 
before l, «, r, the nnal m is assimilated to these letters, 
and before all other consonants it is changed into n. Be- 
fore vowels the m is dropped, e. g., co'eo, cohaereoy and in 
addition to this a contraction takes place in cogo and ^ogi- 
to (from coagOy coagito.) The m is retained only in a few 
words ; as, comeSy cotnitiumy coniitoTy comedo. It signifies 
"with," or "together," as in conjungo, conserOy compono^ 
eollidoy colli go ^ corradoy co'eo^ coalesce cohaerco. fn some 


▼erbs and participles it merely strengthens the meanbig^ « 
as, corrum])o^ concei'po, confriTtgo^ conscelerattts^ 

[^ 390.] Note. — ^We must not leave unnoticed here what ar^ called tbtf 
insioparable prepositions (among which eon is reckoned, although it is only 
a difierent pronunciation for cum) ; that is, some little words, which are 
never used oy themselves, but occur only in compound verbs and adjec 
lives, where they modify the meaning in the same way as the above-men 
ioned separable prepositions. The following is a list of them : 

Amh (from the Greek Itfi^C), "around," ** about,'* as in ambw^ ambUro {am 
bu8tua\ ambirOf ambiguut. In ampleotoTf ampiUo, the b is dropped on account 
of the p ,* before palatals amb is changed into an ; e. g., anupt, anquuro, and 
tlso before/, in the word anfractus. 

Dim or di, denoting separation,, as in digerOf diritno, dijttdicOf disponOf dis 
terOf dutinguoy dmkto (to be distinguish^ from demiuo). It strengthens 
the meaning in disciipio. Before c, p, 9, f, <2»9 is retained entire ; befoie J, 
H'e sometimes have dis, as in dujido, ditjungo ; and sometimes di, as id 
dijudico. Before «, with a consonant after it, di is used, and dis when the « 
after it is followed by a vowel : di-sperrOf di-sto, diM-aodo, dit'suadeo ; diser 
tus, however, is formed from dissero. Before/, di» is changed into dif, ai* 
in differo. Di is used before all other consonants. 

Re signifies " back," remiuo, rejicio, revertor. Before a vowel or an A fa 
d is inserted, redeo, redigo, redhibeo ; this is neglected only in compounds 
formed by late and unclassical writers ; e. g., reaedifico, reagens. The d in 
reddo, I give back, is of a different kind. Re denotes separation in resolw*. 
reveUa, retego, recingo, recludo, refringo, reseco ; and in rdego, rebibo, and Oth- 
ers, it denotes repetition. 

£'0,." aside," "on one side," seduco, sevoeo, secttbo, sepono, sejtmgo. In ad 
jectives it signifies ** without," securus, sobrtus for sebrius {non «6mw), aoc^t » 
for secors. Seoreum is contracted from sevorsum, aside. A d is inserted in 
seditio, separation, sedition, from se and itio. 

The prefixes ne and ve are of somewhat different nature ; ne has nega- 
tive power, as in ne/as, nemo (ne hemo, obsolete for homo), neacio. Ve it 
likewise negative, but occurs in a much smaller number of words, viz., 
in vesantu and vecore (vecordia), senseless. In vegrandie and vepalUduM it 
iieems to denote ugliness. 



[§ 331.] 1. Conjunctions are those indeclinable parts 

of speech which express the relations in which sentences 

stand to one another. They therefore are, as it were, the 

links of propositions, whence their name conjunctions. 

Note 1. — Some conjunctions, and more particularly all those which fonn 
the first class in our aivision, connect not only sentences, but single words. 
This, however, is in reality the case only when two propositions are con- 
tracted into one, or when one is omitted, as in Mare sive Mavare beliieprae* 
eidet ; here ttve Mavore is to be explained by the omission of eive is Mavors 
mppellandus est, which phrase is, in fact, not unfrequently used. The prop- 
ositions vive diu ac felidter and ratio et oratio homines cotijungit, again, may 
be divided each into two propositions, joined by the conjunctions vive dui 

• rQoiipare dombif^a Gymnasium, vol. i., p. xlv. feq."] — Am. Ed. 


f( vhe feUtiter and ratio conjimgit homines tt oratio amjtmgit konunea. Th6 
practice of language, however, did not stop short in this contraction, but 
as we may say ratio et oratio coniungunt haminea^ and as we must say fatei 
etfiUus dormiuntf the language, By the plural of the predicate, clearly indi 
cates that the two nouns are united. Hence we may say that the (copu 
lative) conjunctions «t, que, ac, and attpi^ join single words also. With re- 
gard to the other, especially the disjunctive conjunctions (for there can be 
no doubt about the conjunction *' also"), we must have recourse to the 
above explanation, that two propositions are contracted in to one, for in t^o 
out tu vincamus necesse est, the nos, which comprehends the two persons is 
the subject of vincamuSf and not ego aut tu. 

Note 2. — Many of the conjunctions to be mentioned presently originally 
belonged to other parts of speech ; but they have lost their real significa- 
tion, and as they serve to join propositions, they may at once be looked 
upon as conjunctions ; e. g., ceterum, vervm, vero, licet, quamvis, and such 
compounds as quare, iddrco, quamobrem. But there ard also mansr adverbs 
denoting time and phcSf respecting which it is doubtful whether, in conse- 
quence of the mode of their application in language, they should not be 
classed among conjunctions. Those denoting time (e. g., deinde, deniqtte, 
postremwn) retain, indeed, their original signification, but when they are 
doubled ; as, turn — turn, nunc — nunc, modo — modo, they evidently serve only 
to connect propositions ; the adverbs of place, on the other hand, are just- 
ly classed amcHig the conjunctions when they drop their meaning of place 
and express a connexion of propositions in respect of time, or the relation 
of cause and effect, as is the case with vbi, tot, and inde, and with eo and 

2, In regai'd ^o their form (figura), they are either sim- 
ple or compound. Of the former kind are, e. g., et, ac, cU, 
sedf nam ; and of the latter atque^ itaque, attamen, siqm- 
dem, enimverOy verum-enimvero, . 

3. In reference to their signification, they may be divi- 
ded into the following classes. They denote : 

[§ 332.] 1. A unionCconjuTictiones copidativaej ; as, cr, 
ac, atque, and the enclitic que^ combined with the nega- 
tion belonging to the verb, neque or nee, or doubled so aa 
to become an affirmative, nee (neque) non, equivalent to et. 
Etiam and quoque also belong to this class, together with 
the adverbial item and itidem. As these particles unite 
things which are of a kind, so the disjunctive conjunc- 
tions, signifying " or," connect things which are distinct 
from each other. They are aut, vel, the suffix ve, and sivt 
or seu. 

Note, — Ac* is never used before vowels (which, however, do not include 
j) or before an h ; atque occurs most frequently before vowels, but before 
consonants also. Hence the two forms in the same sentence of Cicero, 
p. Balb., 3, non contra ac liceret, sed contra atque oporteret, and it is probable 
that in prose as well as in poetry the hiatus was avoided by elision. The 
rule here given is not invalidated by the fact of ac being found here and 
there before vowels in editions of Latin authors, as is the case, for ex- 
ample, in two passages of Ernesti's edition of Cicero, ad Qtiint. Frat.^ ii., 6, 
ana ad Ait., xiii., 48. For as this difference in the use of ac and atque w^s 

* [Compare Rei^i^s Vorlesungen, ed. Haase, p. 414.] — Am. Fd. 


not noticed till recently* (in the schools of the Dntch philologers, Bu§^ 
raann and Drakenborch), and as the MSS. have not yetbeen collated in 
nil cases of this kind, such isolated remnants of former carelessness can- 
not be taken into account. Drakenborch (on Liv., x., 36, in fin.) ol»ervet 
Ihat wherever, before his time, ae was found in Livy before vowels, the 
MSS. give either atque, autjat, or something else, and that even those pas- 
sages in which he retained it, such as iii., 1 6, ac emergentilms malis^ should 
be corrected. We cannot, however, enter into the question why ac was 
not used before a vowel, while nee and nequ^ are used indiscriminately both 
before vowels and consonants. One language avoids a sound as displeas- 
ing which in another produces no such effect ; suffice it to say, that the fact 
itself is beyond all doubt. Another remark, however, which is made by 
many grammarians, that ac is not used by good writera befoits c md 9, is 
nnfounded, at least ac before con is frequent m Cicoro, and other authom 
do not even scruple to use ac before ea, which is otherwise, and with jus- 
tice considered not euphonious. 

[^ 333.] The difference between et and que is correctly described by 
Hermann in Elmsley's ed. of the Medea, p. 331, ed. Lins., in these words 
*^ et {koI) is a copulative particle, and que (re) is an aajunctive one." In 
otner words, et connects things which are conceived as different, and ^ue 
adds what belongs to or naturally flows from things. In an enumeration 
of words, therefore, que frequently forms the conclusion of the series ; 
e. g., Cicero says ' 'At, out solis et lunae reliqnorumque eiderum ortua^ obitus 
motusque cognorunt ; and by means of que he extends the preceding Idea, 
without connecting with it anything which is generally different ; as in 
de ilia civitate totaque provincia optirkt meritus ; Dotabella quique ejus faanoris 
ministri fuerunt ; jus potestatemque habere ; Pompeius pr§ peUris majorumqtte 
suorum animo studioque m rempublicamsiutque pristina'virtiUefesit. In con> 
necting propositions with one another, it denotes a consequence or result, 
and is equivalent to " and therefore," which explains its peculiarly fre- 
qi^nt application in senatusconsidta (which are undoubtedly the most valid 
documents in determining the genuine usage of the Latin language) 
framed as they were to prevent different points being mixed up in one 
enactment ; e. g., in Cic, Philip.^ ix., 7, Quum JSer. Sidpicius salutem reip 
vitae suae praeposueritj contraque vim gravitatemque. morbi contenderitf ut — per 
reniretf isque vitam amiserit^ ejusque mors consentanea vitae fuerU ; qtatm talis 
vir mortem obieritf senatui placeref Ser. Svlptch statuam aeneam — siatui^ or- 
cumque earn locum Uberos posterosque ejus — habere^ eamque causam in basi in- 
scribif utique Coss. — locent, quantique locaverintf fantam pectMiam — attribuen- 
dam solvendamque curent. 

Atque is formed from ad and que, and therefore properly signifies " and 
in addition," ** and also," thus putting things on an equality, but at the 
same time laying stress upon the connexion. We express this by pro- 
nouncing "and" more emphatically than usual. For example, socii et 
exterae nationes simply indicates the combination of two things independent 
of each other ; but in soctt atque exterae nationes the latter part is more em- 
phatic, " and also the foreign," &c. In the beginning of a proposition 
which farther explains that which precedes, and where the simple con 
nexion is insufficient, the particles atque and ac introduce a thing with 
great weight, and may be rendered in English by " now ;" e. g., atqe haee 
qwdem mea sententia est ; atque — de ipsis Syracusanis cognoscite ; sdso in 

* Or, we should rather say, vfos not noticed xxgain^ for the observation was 
first made in a brief but unequivocal manner by Gabriel Faemus, in his 
note on Cic, pro Place , 3, in fin., «d. Rom., 1563 ; but it was disregarded 
ft is still more remarkable, that none of the ancient grammarians, though 
they carefully notice other phenomena of a similar kind, have thought it 
necessary to draw attention to this circumstance, which is by p« means 
unimportant. The passages in Emesti's editior of Cicero, abo*' "referret? 
10, have been corrected in Orelli '^vtion. 


^lOMW&Bf cognosHne koa veratu? Ac mtmonter. Num. hu duae Btizchidep 
habitant? Atque ambae tororesy i. e., yes, and that, &c. Ac is ihi same as 
€a^ief but being an abridged fonn, it loses somewhat of its power in con 
necting single words ; but it retains that power which puts the things 
connected by it on an equality, and its use alternates with that of et ; it ii> 
preferred in subdivisions, whereas the main propositions are connected b) 
et ; e. g., Cic, m Verr.f v., 15, Cur tibi fasces ac secures, et tantam vim imperii 
tantaque omamenta data censes 1 Divin.^ 12, Diffijdle est tantam cattsam et 
diiigentia amaequiy et memarm con^lecti, et oratione expromeref et voce ac virUms 

[^ 334.] Neque is formed from the ancient negative particle and que^ and 
H used for et ntm. Et non itself is used when the whole proposition is 
affirmative, and only one idea or one word in it is to be negatived ; e. g., 
Cic, Brut.f 91, Athenis apvd Demetrium Syrumi veterem et non ignobilem di- 
cendi magistrumt exerceri solebam; in Verr.^ l., X^patior et non molestefero; de 
Qro/:, iii., 36, videris mihi aliud qudddam et non id quod suscepisti disputasse^ 
and when our ** and not" is used for " and not rather," to correct an im- 
proper supposition.; e. g., Cic, in Verr., i., 31, si quam Rtdnrius injuriam suo 
nomine ac nonimpulsu tuofecisset. See ^ 781. Ht non is, besides, found in 
the second part of a proposition when et precedes, but neque may be and 
frequently is used for et non in this case ; d. g., Cic, ad Fam., ziii., 23, 
ManUus et semper me coluit, et a studiis nostris non abhorret ; ad Att., ii., 4, 
id et nobis erit perjucundwnf et tibi non sane detnum. Nee {neque) non is not 
used in classical prose in quite the same way as et to connect nouns, but 
only to join propositions together (see Ruhnken on Veil. Pat, ii., 95), and 
the two words are separated ; e. g., Nepos, Att., 13, Nemo Attico minus 
fyat aedificatory neque tamen non imprimis bene habitavit. Cicero several 
times uses nee vera nouy and the like ; but in Yarro and later writers, such 
as Quintilian, nee non are not separated, and are in all essential points 
equivalent to et. 

[<f 335.] Etiam and quoque are in so far different in their meaning, that 
etiam, in the first place, has a wider extent than quoque^ for it contains 
-also the idea of our " even ;" and, secondly, etiam adds a new circum- 
stance, whereas quoque demotes the addition of a thing of a similar kind. 
Hence etiam is properly used to connect propositions. This difference 
seems to be correctly expressed iti stating that etiam is " and farther,'* and 
quooue ** and so, also." As in this manner quoque to a single word, 
It always follows that word etiam^ in similar cases, is usually placed be- 
fore it, out when it connects prqsoeitions its place is arbitrary. Et, too, 
is sometimes used in the sense of " aIso,"*in classical prose ; e. g.. Curt., 
iii., 31, non errasti, mater, nam et hie Alexander est; Cic, de Jjegg., ii., 16, 
quod et nunc multis in fanis Jit, for nunc quoque; in Verr., iv., 61, simul ft 
verebar ; and v., 1, simul et de Ulo vulnere — mtdta dixit ; and often non modo— 
sed et; e. g., Cic, tn Verr., 1, 1, non modo JRomae, sed et apud exteras naiiones; 
Nepos, Thrasyb., 1, non solum princeps, sed et solus bellum indixit. (See 
Bremi'a remark on this passage, who states that sed et is not merely ** but 
also," b«t always " but even.") ^ut passages of this kind are not very 
numerous, and not always certain, for the MSS. usually have etiam, so 
thafthis use of et in prose (for poets cannot be taken into account) must 
at least be very much limited, and it should not be used to that extent in 
which modem Latinists apply it. 

r^ 336.] The disjunctive conjunctions differ 'fius far, that aU indicates 
a aiflFerence of the object, and vel a difference ot expression. Vel* is con- 
nected with the yerb velle {vel — vel, will you thus, or will you thus?), and the 
tingle ftel is used by Cicero only to correct a preceding expre.ssioi, com- 
mcnly combined with dicam, or potius, or etiam; e. g., j^trrcs I'.'l potiui 
rogares; stuporem hominis vel dicam pecudis videte {Philip , ii, l'^>' tui'^ionda 
est vel etiam amanda {p. Planc.y 9) ; it very rare.y occurs / jf^ .' a» f a» 

~ ' — -^ — -— — ^ 

• rCorapare Crombie's.Gifmna.tium vol. J , p, iUl.^- * Jtid. 



addition, but even then its meaning is corrective ; e. g., Tusc., iL, 20, 
mum bomtm a virtute profectum, vel (or rather) in ipsa virttUe positum ; de Nmt, 
Deor.f ii., 15, in ardore coelestiy qui aether vel coelum nomineUur, where it like* 
wise denotes not so much the equivalence of the terms, as the preference 
which is to be given to the Latin word. (Concerning the use of «e/ to da 
note an increase, see 6 108 and ^ 734, where, also, its signification of ** for 
example," ve/ti/, is explained. Both these significations are derivable from 
what has here been said.) From this in later, though still good prose, 
arose the use of vel in the sense of " or," that is, that in point of &ct one 
thing is e^ual to another, a meaning which ve, in connecting single words, 
has even in Cicero; e. g., Philip,t v. 19, ConsiUet aUer amhovefaciait^'%\xaX 
is, in point of fact, it is the same whether both consuls or only one of them 
do a thing ; Top.^ 5^ Esst ea dicot quae cerni tangivt possunl, that is, either 
of the two is sufficient. Sive either retains the meaning of the conjunc- 
tion ai (which is commonly the case), and is then the same as vel «t, or it 
*x>8es it by an ellipsis (pernaps of diasre mavis) ^ and is then the same as «e/, 
dsnoting a difference of name, as in Quintiiian, vocabuium sive appelUuio ; 
Cic, regie seu potiue tyrannice. The form #eu is used by Cicero very rarely, 
and almost exclusively in the combination seu potius ; but in poetry and 
later prose it occurs frequently. 

[^ 337.] The disjunctive conjunctions aut and ve serve to continue the 
negation in negative sentences, where we use '*nor;" e. g., Verres rum 
Honori aut Virtuti vota debebat, sed Veneri et Cupidim ; and we may say, 
also, non Honori neque Virtuti, and in other cases we might use ve, analo- 
gous to the affirmative que. See Ruhnken on VelL Pat., iL, 45, and the 
commentators on Tacit., Ann., i., 32^ in fin. Examples : Cic, p. Flaccj 
5, Itaque non optimus qtusque nee gravissimuSf sed impudentissimus loquacissi- 
tnusque deligitur ; Horat., Serm., i., 9, 31, Hunc nee hosticus auferet ensis, nee 
laterum dolor aut Ulrda podagra ; ibid., i., 4, 73, Nee recito cuiqucan nisi amicis^ 
non ubivis coramve quibuslibet; Cic, ad Fam.f v., 13, NtUlum membrum reip, 
reveries, quod nonfractum debilitatumve sit; and in negative questions, Cic, 
Philip., v., 5, Num leges nostras moresve novit? m Yerr., v., 13, Quid m« 
attirut dicere aut conjungere eum istius flagitio cujusquam praeterea dedecus ? or 
after comparatives, Cic, p. Mur., 29, Accessit istue doctrina non moderata ruu 
mitis, sedpatUo asperior et durior^ quam Veritas aut natura jpatiatur. It is only 
in those cases in which both words are to be united mto one idea that a 
copulative conjunction is used ; e. g., Cic, in Verr., iii, 86, nummos non 
erarat arator, non aratro ae numu quaerit, Comp. the longer passage in Cic. 
De Nat. Deor., ii., 62, in fin. 

[^ 338.] The Latin language is fond of doubling the conjunctions of this 
kind, whereby words and propo'sitious are more emphatically brought un 
der one general idea. The English " as well as" is expressed by 

et—et, which is of very common occurrence ; 

et—que occurs not uiifrequently in late writers, in Cicero by way «»< 
exception only ; 

que — et connects single words, buf not in Cicero ; 

que — que is found only in poetry. , 

The only prose writer who uses it is Sallust, Cat., 9, seque renique publicam 
eurabant ; Jug., 10, meque regnumque mtiim gloria honoravisti; but it is not 
uncommon in the case of the conjunction oeing appended to the relative 
pronoun ; e. g., quique exissent, quique U>i mansissent; captivi, quique CampO' 
norum, quique Hannibalis militum erant, in Livy ; or junctis exercittbus, qui<pu 
nd) Caesare fuerant^ quique ad eum venerant, in Velleius. The latest critics 
have removetl similar passages from the works of Cicero ; see the com* 
tnent. on de Orat., i., 26, and de Fin., v., 21 ; nocteaque diesque, in de Fin., i, 
16, is an allusion to a passage in a poem. Negative propositions are con 
kected in English by " neither — nor," and in Latin by 

neque — ntique, or nee — nee ; 

neqtte — nee, which is not unfrequent, and by 

We — neque^ which seldom occurs. 


impositions, one of which is negative and the other affirmative, *on the 
ofie hand, but not on the other," or " not on the one hand, but on th 
other," are connected by 

.et—neque {nee) Jboth.of very frequent occurrence. 

neque {nec)—et ) , 

nee {neque) — 9u«, occurs occasionally. 
[^ 339.] Our "either — or," is expressed by avt — oitf, denoting an oppo 
sition between two things, one of which excludes the other, orhyvel — vet 
denoting that the opposition between two things is immaterial in respect 
of the result, so that the one need not exclude the other. E. g., Catiline, 
in Sallust, says to his comrades^ vel imperatore vel mUUe me uttTnini^ that is. 
it is indifferent to me in which capacity you may make use of me, only 
do make use of me. A similar idea is described more in detail by Ter- 
ence, Eun.fii.y3t 28, Hanc tu mihi vel vt, vel clam^ wl jn'ecario Jfac tradas. 
mea nihil refert^ dum potior modo ; i. e., you may efiect it even in a fourth 
way, if you like. Sive — «re is the same as vel si — vel si, and therefore 
transfers the meaning of vel — vel to the cases in which it is applied ; e. g.. 
Cic, Hlo loco Hbentissime soleo uti, five qtud tnecum cogito^ sive illiquid scrtbt 
out lego. If there is no verb, and nouns only are mentioned in opposition. 
to each other, an uncertainty is expressed as to how a thing is to be 
called , e. g., Cic, Tusc, ii., 14, Cretum leges, quas sive Juppiter sive Mino* 
sanxit, labmibus erudiunt juventutenif i e., I do not know whether I am tc- 
say Juppiter or Minos; ad Quints' Frat., i, 2, His in rdms si apud te pliu 
auctoritas mea, quam tua sive natura paulo acrioTt sive quaedam dtdcedo ira 
cundiae, sive dicendi sal facetiaeque valuissentf nihil sane essety quod nos poe- 

[§ 340.] 2. The following express a comparison, " as,** 
"like," "than as ir* (conjunctiones comparativae) ; ut oi 
utif sicutf veltUy protU, praeut^ the poetical cew, quam^ tarn- 
quam (with and without si), quasif ut sty ac si, togethei 
with ac and atque, when they signify "as." 

Note. — Ac and atque are used in the sense of " as," or " than," after th^ 
adverbs and adjectives which denote similarity or dissimilarity: aeaue. 
juxtaf par and pariterf perinde ^d proinde, pro eo, similis, dissimilis and si 
militer, talis, totidem, alius and alitery contra, secus, contrarius ; e. g., non alita 
scribo ae sentio ; aliud mihi ac tU)i videtur ; saepe aliud Jit atque existimamus ; 
simile fecit atque alii ; cum totidem navibufi rediit atque erat profectus. Quam 
after these words (as in Tacit., Ann., vi., 30, perinde se quam Tiberium 
falU potuisse) is not often used, except in the case of a negative parti 
cle being joined with alius ; o. g., Cicero, virtus nihil aliud est, quam m « 
perfecta et ad summum perducta natura, where nisi might be used instead ot 
quam. Respecting proinde ac, instead of the more frequent perinde ac, see 
above, ^ 282. Et and que do not oc«J4r in this connexion like ac and atque ; 
and wherever this might appear to be the' case, from the position of the 
words, as in Sallust, iuxta bonos et malos interficere ; suae hostiumque vitat 
juxta pepercerant ; and in Cicero, nisi aeque amicos et nosmetipsos diligimus, 
the el and que retain their original signification " and ;" but where the 
words compared are separated, as in reip. juxta ac sibi constduerunt ; or 
where propositions are compared, as in Cic, de Fin., iv., 12, similem habeat 
vtdtum ac si ampuUam perdidisset, the ac or ut has justly been restored in 
the passages in which formerly et was read. 

Ac is used for quam, after comparatives in poetry, in Horace generally, 
and in a few passages, also, of late prose writers ; but never in Cicero ; e 
g., Herat., Epod., xv., 5, artius atque hedera; Serm. i., 2, 22, ut non st'pejiu 
eruciaverit atque hie ; i., 10, 34., In silvam non lignaferas ihsanius ac jri, &c. • 

[§ 341.] 3. The following express a concession witb 
tlie fijoneral sij^nification "although" 'conjunctiones ronces 



sivaej ; etsiy etiamsi^ tame, si (or tamenetsijy quamquam 
quamvisj quantumvvt, qtiamlibei^ licet, together with ut in 
the sense of "even if" or "although," and quum, when ic 
signifies "although," which is not unfrequently the case. 

Note. — Those particles which signify *'yet," especially tamen, form the 
correlatives of the concessive CMijanctions ; e. g., ut desint virea, tamen ent 
laudanda volunUu. Tametsi is a combination of tljie two correlatives ; and 
in its application we not unfrequently meet with a repetition of the same 
particle ; e. g., Cic., tametn wdt— debeo, tamen de meajtire decedam; tamelsi 
enrm veriasimum €899 mt9Uig^amf tamen eredUulefore non arbitrahar. The ad- 
verb qwdem also belongs to this class of conjunctions when it is used to 
connect propositions, and is followed by ted. See ^ 278. 

A difference in the use d* these conjunctions might be observed : some 
might be used td denote real concessions, and others to denote such as are 
merely conceived or imagined ; and this would, at the same time, detei 
mine their construction, either the indicative or the subjunctive. But such 
a difference is clearly perceptible only between quamquam and quamvis. 
(See ^ 574.) We shall here add only the remark, that quamquam has a 
peculiar place in absolute sentences, referring to something preceding, but 
limiting and partly nullifying it ; e. g., Cic, in Cat., i., 9, Quamquam. quid 
loquor ? Yet why do i speak '{ p. Murert, 38, in iin-, quamquam hujusce rei 

rttestaa omnia in vobia aita eat^ judicea ; that is, and yet, judges, why should 
say more ? for surely you have the decision entirely m your own hands. 

[§ 342.] 4. The following express a condition, the fun- 
damental signification being " if" (conjunctiones condicuh 
nalesj; si^ sin^ nisi or wz, simodoy dummodOf if only, if but 
(for which dum and modo are also used alone), dummodo 
ne, or simply modo ne or dumne. 

Note. — In order to indicate the connexion with a preceding proposition 
the relative pronoun quod (which, however, loses its signification as a pro 
noun) is frequently put before «(, and sometimes, also, before niai and e<.n, 
so that ^uodai majr be regarded as one word. Comp. ^ 806. 

Sin signifies " if however." and therefore stands for ai autem or « vero ; 
not unfrequently, however, autem is added, and sometimes vera {ain veto in 
Columella, viL, 3, and Justin). 

[6 343.] Ni and niai have the same iheaning, except that ni is especially 
applied in judicial sponsitmes ; e. g., centum dare apondeo^ ni dixiali, &c. 
Instead of niai^ we sometimes find the form niai ai. Both particles limit a 
statement by introducing an exception, and thus differ from ai non^ which 
introduces a negative case, for «t alone has the character of a conjunction, 
and noHf the negative particle, belongs to the verb or some other word of 
the proposition. It is ofLen immaterial whether niai or ainon is used; e. g., 
Nep. Con.f 2, fuit apertum, ai Conon nonfuiaaH^ Ageailaum Aaiam Tauro tenua 
regi fuxaae eteptumm ; and the same author, Agea., 6, says, tedem at unpera- 
torem praebuit^ ut omnibua apparuerit niai ille fuiaaet, Spartam futuram non 
fuiaae. And thus Cicero, Cat., Maj., 6, might have said, memoria minuitur, 
ai earn non exerceaaj instead of niai earn exereeaa ; and niai, on the other hand, 
might have been used instead of ai non, in Cic, in Verr., iii, 18, glebam 
commoaaet in a^o decumano Siciliae nemo, ai Metellua hanc epistolam non miaia 
eat. But the difference is nevertheless essential ; e. g., if I say vnpune erit, 
ai pecwiiam promiaaam nott dederitia^ I mean to express that, in this case, tfaa 
ordinary punishment will not be inflicted ; but if I say, impune erit, niai pe 
tuniam dederitia, the meaning is, '*it shall remain unpunished, except in the 
case of your naving paid money ;" ^vhich implies, ♦• but you shall he 
punished if you have paid the money.* Si now, therefore, can be ised 
mly when one of the sentences is nof t )mplete ; as in Horace Quo mih 


Jkrtunamf si rum. conceditur uti f What is the good of having pioperty, if ] 
•in not allowed to make use of it? If we e^cpress the former sentence 
by nullius pretii fortunae aunty we may continue in the form of an exception, 
ni$i concedaiw iia tUif or in the form of a negative case, «i mn concedcUttr uti. 
iii non is iarth'T nsed only when single words are opposed to one another, 
as is particular!* frequent in such expressions as doloreniy n non poterofran- 
gere, occultabo ; desidemtm amicorum, si non aequo animOf at forti feras ; cum 
MpCf si mm optima, at aUqua tamen vivere. In this case si minus may be used 
instead of si nen ; e. g , Tu si minus ad nos, nos accurremus ad te. If after 
Hti affirmative proposition its negative opposite is added without a verb, 
our *^ iMifc if not'* is commonly expressed (in prose) by si (or sin) minus, sin 
uliter ; e. g., Clc, m Cai», i., 5, educ tecum etiam omnes tuos ; si rmnMs, quam 
plutimos ; de OraL, ii.,'75, omnis cura mea solet in hoc versari semper, si pos 
sim, ut boni aliquid efficiam ; sin id*)ninus, ut certe ncqtdd mali ; but rarely bj 
«iiMm, which occurs in Cicero only once {ad Font., vii., 3, in tin.)* 

[§ 344.] 5. The following express a conclusion or in- 
ference with the general signification of " therefore ;" 
consequently fconjunctiones conclustvaej ; ergo, igitur, 
itaqtie^ eoj tdeo, icdrco, proinde, prapterca, and the rela- 
tive conjunctions, signifying '* wherefore j" quapropter^ 
quare^ quafnobrem, quocirca^ unde. 

Note.— Ergo and igitur denote a logical inference, like "therefore*' 
Itaque expresses the relation of cause in fatts ; it properly signifies " anJ 
thus," in which sense it not unfrequently occurs; e. g., itaque fecit. Re 
specting its accent, see ^ 32. Idea, icdrco, and propterea express the agrea 
nient between iiltention and actign, and may be rendered by *' on this ac 
count." Eo is more frequently an adverb of place, "thither;" but it is 
found in several passages of Cicero in the sense of " on this account," or 
** for this purpose ;" e. g., in Verr., i. 14, ut hoc pacta rationem referre liceret, 
eo Sulianus repents foetus est ; Liv., ii., 48, muris se tenebant, eo nulla pugna 
memorabilisfuit. Proinde, in the sense of " consequently," is not to be 
confounded with jjerjndc; both words, however, are used in the sense of 
•* like," so that we cannot venture to adopt the one to the exclusion of the 
other. (See ^ 282.) But as we are speaking here of conclusive conjunc- 
tions, we have to consider only proinde, which implies an exhortation ; 
e. g., Cicero, Proinde, si sapis, vide quid tibi faciendum sit ; and so, also, in 
other writers ; as, proinde fac magna ammo sis, " consequently, be of good 
courage !" Unde is properly an adverb, " whence," but is used also as a 
conjunction in a similar sense, alluding^ to a starting point. Hinc and inde 
cannot properly be considered as conjunctions, as they retain their real 
flignitication of " hence." But adeo may be classed among the conjunc 
tions, since the authors of the silver age use it- as denoting a general in> 
ference from what precedes, like our *' so that," or simply " so ;" e. g., 
QuintiL, i., 12, 7, Adeofacilius est muUafdtere quam diu. 

[§ 345.1 6. The following express a cause, or reason, 

with the demonstrative meaning of " for," and the relative 

of " because " fconjunctiones causalesj : nam^ namque, 

emm, etenim, quia, quod, quomam, quippe, quum, qtuindo, 

quandoquidem, siquidem. The adverbs mmirum, nempe, . 

idlicet, and videlicet are likewise used to c onnect propo* 


Note. — Between nam and enin there is thispractict^ difference, that 
nam is used at tho beginning of a proposition, and enim after the first oi 
second word of a proposition. The dilference in meaning seems to cqq 


258 LATlft GRAMMAK. 

sist in this, tnat nam introduces a conclnsiye reason^ and entm jAeielj a 
confirming circumstt^ce, the consideration of which depends upon the 
inclination of the speaker. iVam, therefore, denotes an objective reason, 
and enim merely a subjective one. Ncanque and eteninty in respect of their 
signification, do not essentially differ from nam and enim, for the copula- 
tive c(Mijunction, at least as far as we can judge, is as superfluous as in 
neque mtm, respcHCting whiih, see ^ 808. But, at the same time, they indi- 
cate a closer connexion with the sentence preceding; and the proper place 
for etenim, therefore, is in an explanatory parenthesis. Namqtit, in Cicero 
and Nepos, occurs only at the beginning of a proposition, aikl usually (in 
Nepos almost exclusively) before vowels ; but even as early as the time 
of LivYy we find it after the beginning of a proposition just as frequently 
as at the beginning itself. We may add the remark, that enim is some* 
times put at the beginning by comic writers in the sense of oX enim or sea 
enim. Drakenborch on Livy, xxxiv'., 32, % 13, denies, that Livy ever used 
it in this way. 

Nam, eninij and etenim are often used in Latin in the sense of our 
" namely,'* to introduce an explanation which was announced ; e. g., Cic, 
PartU., 11, Rerum bonanun etnudarum tria sunt genera: nam out in animis, 
aid in corporibus, atU extra esse oossunt. Nimirumf videlicet, and scilicet like- 
wise answer to our " namely," or " viz." Nimirum is originally an adverb 
signifying " undoubtedly," or " surely ;" o. g., Cic, p, Mur., 15, Si diligen- 
ter tpud Mithridates potiterit^onsideraris, omnUms regibus — hunc regem nimi- 
rum antepones. As a conjunction it introduces the reason of an assertion, 
suggesting that it was looked for vnth some impatience ; e. g., Cic. m 
Verr., ii., 63, is est nimirum soter, qui saltUem dedit^ Videlicet and scilicet in- 
troduce an explanation, and generally in such a manner that videlicet indi 
cates the true, and scilicet a wrong explanation, the latter being introduced 
only for the purpose of deriving a refu^tion from it ; e.' g., Cic, p. Mil^ 
21, Cur i^tur eos manumisit f Metuebat scilicet, ne indicarent, but he was not 
afraid of it, as is shown afterward. However, the words nam, enim, etenim 
nimirum, videlicet are sometimes used in an ironical sense, and scilicet 
(though rarely in classical prose) sometimes introduces a true reason 
without any irony. Nempe signifies "namely" only when another per- 
son's concession is taken forgranted'and emphatically dwelt upon; it may 
then be rendered by ** surely." Comp. above, ^ 278. 

[6 346.] Quia and quod dmer from qwnuam (properly quumjam) in this 
the former indicate a definite and conclusive reason, and the latter a mo- 
tive : the same difference is observed in the French parceque and puisaue. 
Ideo, iccirco, propterea quod, and quia are used without any essential diner 
ence, except that quia introduces a more strict and logical reason, whereas 
quoniam introduces circumstances which are of importance, and pn^erly 
signifies " now as." Quando, quandoquidem, and siquidem approach nearer 
to qufniam than to quia, inasmuch as they introduce onlj subjective rea- 
sons. Quandoquidem denotes a reason implied fai a circumstance pre- 
viously mentioned, and siquidem a reason implied in a concession whicn 
has been made. Siquidem is cbmposed of si and quidem, but must be re- 
garded as one word, as it has lost its original meaning, and as si has be- 
come short. Cic, j7. Mur., 11, Summa etiam utilitas est in iis, qui militari 
laude antecellunt, siquidem eorum consiUo et periculo quum re publica turn etiam 
nostris rebus perfrui possumus ; Tusc, i., 1, antiquissimum e doctis genus est 
voetorum, siqiddem (since it is admitted, for no doubt is to be expressed 
aere) Homerus fuit et Hesiodus ante Romam conditam. Sometimes, how 
ever, it is still used in the sense of " if indeed ;" e. g., Cic, de Fin., ii., 34, 
Nos vera, si qtUdem in voluptate sunt omnia (if, indeed, all happiness consists 
in enjoyment), longe multumque superamur a bestiis ; in Cat., ii., 4, ofortu 
^atam remp., si quidem hanc sentinam ejecerit. In th?8( cases si and quidem 
ihould be written as two separate words. 

Qm>pe, when combined with the relative pronoun or quum, is used to 
i^iroduce a subjix^tive reason W hrn it occurs in an elliptical way, with- 


«it I verb, it is equivalent to " forsooth," or "indeed;*' e. g., Cic, dt Fht,, 
t, 6, to/ Democrito magnus videtuTf qvdp^ homini erudito ; scnnetimes it is 
followed by a sentence with enim^ as m Cic, de Fin., iv., 3, a te qtudem 
mpte et rotunde (dicta sunt) ; qmppe ; habes emm a rhetoribus. And in this 
ivay qwjtpe gradually acquires the signification of nam. 

[§ 347.] 7. The following express a puzpose or object, 

with the signification of "in order that," or, "in order that 

DCt" fconjunctionesjinales); ut or uH^ qm^ ne or ut nc^ neve 

or netL, qmn,, quotmnus. 

Note. — Utf as a conjunction, indicates both a result and a purpose, " so 
that," and "in order that;'] when. a negative is added to it, m the fonner 
sense, it becomes utnon ; in the latter ne or ut ne. Ut non is very rarely 
used for ne; e. g., Cic, in Verr., iv., 20, ut non conferam vitam neque existi- 
maiionem tuam cum illius — hoc ipsum conferam^ quo tu te superioretn fingis ; p. 
JLeg.f Manil., 15, Itaque tU plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem, 
&c., instead of ne j)lura dicanij neve confirmem. For neve, which is formed 
from vel ne, is " or in order that not," and frequently, also, " and in order 
that not." See (f 535. 27/ ne is a pleonasm, not differing perceptibly from 
n£, except that it chiefly occurs in solemn discourse, and hence especially 
in laws. The two particles occur together as well as separately, e. g., op- 
eram dant, ut judicia ne jiant ; and still more separated in Cic, de Nat. 
Dtor.f L, 17, Sed ut hiCf qui intervenitf me intuens, ne ignoret quae res agatur ; 
de natura agebamus deorum; Div. in Q. Caec, 4, qui praesentes vo3 orant, ut 
in actore causae suae deligendo vestrum judicium ab sitojudicio ne discrepet. It 
must, however, be observed that ut ne is very frequently used by Cicero, 
but rarely by other and later writers ; in Livy it occurs only in two pas- 
sages, and in Valerius Maximus and Tacitus never. See Drakenborch on 
Li v., X., 27. The pleonasm quo ne, for ne, occurs in a single passage of 
Horace, Serm., ii., 1, 37. 

[§ 348.] 8. The following express an opposition, with 

the signification of " but" f conjunction es adversativae) ; 

sed^ autem^ verum, verOj at (poetical ast), at eniniy atquiy 

tamen^ attamen^ sedtamen, veruntamen, at vero (cnimvero)^ 

verumenim^ vero^ ceterum. 

Note. — Sed denotes a direct opposition ; autem marks a transition in a 
larrative or argument, and denotes at once a connexion and an opposition, 
whereas sed interrupts the narrative or argument. The adverb porro, 
farther, is likewise used to express such a progression and transiticm, hu! 
does not denote opposition, except in later authors, such as Quintiliaa 
See Spalding on Quintilian, ii., 3, 5. Verum and vero stand in a similar 
relation to each other. Verumj with its primary meaning " in truth," de- 
notes an opposition, which at the same time contains an explanation, and 
thus brings a thing nearer its decision, as our "but rather." Noh e^o^ sed 
tu^ ia a strong, but simple opposition ; but non ego, verum tu^ contains an 
assurance and explanation. Cic, in Verr., iv., 10, says that the inhabi- 
tan%8 of Messana had formerly acted as enemies to every kind of injustice, 
but that they favoured Verres ; and he then continues : Verum haec ciyitas 
zsti praedoni ae piratae Siciliae Phaselis (receptaculum furtorum) fuit^ i. e., 
3ut I will explam' the matter to you, for the fact is, that this town was the 
epository ot his plunder, and snar^ in it. Vero bears to verum the same 
.elation as au/em to sed : it connects things which are diiferent, but denotes 
the point in favour of which the decision should be; c. g , Cic^ p. Arch., 8, 
Homerum Colophonii civem esse dicunt suum, Chii suum vindicant, Salaminit 
repetimtf Smymaei vero suum esse c^nfirmani; in Verr., iii, 4, Odisti§ hominum 
funnnmn industriam, despicitis eorum frvgalitatem, pudorem eontemnitiSf ingeiu 


tun vero et virtutem, depressam extinctamaue cupttia. It thus formB the t'^ 
tion to something more important ana significant in the phrase, lUvd ver 
plane turn, est ferendumy i. e., that which I am now going to mention. Ra 
specting the use of vero in answers, in the sense of " yes," see ^ 716. 
Enimvero is only confirming, *' yes, truly^," " in truth," and aoes not denote 
opposition. See the whole passage m Cic, in Verr., i, 26, enimvero hoc 
ferendum non est; and Terent., Andr.f i, 3, init, Enimvero^ Dave^ nil laciest 
segnitiae nefue socordiaet L e., now trul)r, Z>ami«, there is no time for delay 
here. Comp. Gronovius on Livy, jxvii., 30. EnimverOf further, forms the 
transition to that which is most important, like tfero ; as in Tac, Ann., 
xii., 64, Enimvero certamen acerrimttmt amila poihu an mater apnd Neronem 
praevaleretf which is the same as acerrimum vero certamen. The compound 
verum erumvero denotes an emphatic opposition which, as it were, surpass 
es everything else in importance, as in Cic, in Verr.^ iii., 84, Si tUlo in loco 
ejus proviiuiue frumentum tanti fuit. qiumti iste aestimavit^ hoc crimen in istum 
ream valere oportere non arbitror. Verum enimvero cum esset HS. binis avi 
etiam temis quibusvis in locls provinciaef duodenos sestertios exeeisti. 

[^ 349.] At denotes an opposition as equivalent to that which precedes ; 
c. g., non egOf at tu vidistiil have not seen it, but you have, ^d that is just 
as good ; homo etsi non sapientissimusj at amicissimvs ; and so we freauentl> 
find it after si in the sense of "yet," or " at least," and denoting a limita- 
tion with which, for the time, we «ure satisfied ; e. g., Cic, p. Quint., 31, 
QuinUus Naevium obsecravit, vt aliquamf si w>n propinqiiitatis, at aetatis suae 
si non hominis, at humanitatis rationem haberet. Hence it is especially used 
to denote objections, even such as the speaker makes himself for thepur- 
pose of upsetting or weakening that which was said before; Cic, p. Ftac, 
14, At enim negas, &c. ; p. Mur.^ 17, At enim in oraeturae petitione prior re- 
nuntiatus est Servius. By atqui we admit that wnich precedes, but oppose 
something else to it, as by tne English " but still," "out yet," or " never 
theless ;" e. g., in Terent., Phorm., i., 4, 26, Non sum apud me. Atquf op» 
est nunc cum maxime ut sis ; Herat., Serm., i., 9, 52, Magnum narras, vix cred 
ibile. Atqui sic habet ; Cic, ad Att.^ viii, 3, O rem dijfficilem, inquis, et inexpli 
cabilem. Atqui explicanda est. And so, also, in the connexion of sentences, 
when that which is admitted is made use of to prove the contrary, as il 
Cic, Cat. Maj.y 22 f Videtis nihil esse morti tam simile qtutm somnum. Atqui 
dormientium animi maxime declarant divinitatem auam, and yet the souls of 
sleeping persons show their divine nature. Atqui is used, lastly, in syllo- 
gisms, when a thing is assumed which had before been left undecided, as 
in Cic, Parad.f iiL, 1, Quodsi virtutes sunt pares inter se, paria etiam vitia esse 
necesse est. Atqui pares esse virlutee facile potest perspici. Atqtti thus ire 
quently occurs as a syllogistic particlo in replies in disputations, but ii 
does not denote a direct opposition of facts. Ceterum properly signifies 
" as for .the rest," but is often used, especially by Curtius, in the same 
sense as sed. Contra ea, in the sense of ** on the other hand," may bo 
classed amcmg the conjunctions, as in Livy, Superbe a Sammtibus legatt 
prohibiti commerdo suntf contra ea benigne ab Sicidorum tyrannis adjutu So 
n\so,adeOy in as much as this adverb is used in a peculiar way to form a: tran- 
sition to something essential, on which particular attention is to be 1)6- - 
stowed ; e. g., when Cicero, in Vtrr., iv., 64. has told us that he prefeis 
introducing the witnesses and documents themselves, he terms the transi- 
tion. Id adeo ex ipso SenatusconsvJio cognoscite;- and so, frequently, ibid, iv.. 
63, id adeo ut mihi ex illis demonstratum est^ sic vos ex me cognoscite; p. Cac 
3, id adeo J si placet^ considerate. The pronoun always accompanies it. An* 
f em may be used in its place ; in English it maybe rendered by "and," 
but the pronoun must be pronounced with emphasis. 

• [§ 350.] 9. Time is expressed by the conjwictumes tern- 
porales : quuiriy quum primum, ut, ut primum, uhi^ post 
quam^ antequam and priugqvum^ quando^simulac or simul 
atque, or simul alone, dufn.^ usque dum, donee, quoat?- 

coNjuvcTiova. 201 


Sote. — Ul, as a paiticle of liinc, signiiies " ulim." Ub\ prr pcrly an ad 
verb of place, is used in the same sense. Slhtdit (UP aiis\v-«is id our *as 
ooon as," in \thich sense sinml alone is also i.sed Quuhiin insiehd ot 
quum is rarP, as in Cic, in Rull^ ii., 16, auctoritatfnn Snuttns r.rtnrt: hrredita- 
tis aditae sentio^ turn, qnando, rege Aegyptio tnortuu, le^rnlos 'Vyrvm misimus. 
The woxds dum^ donee {donicvm is obsolete), and quoad have the double 
meaning of " as long as," and " until ;" e. g., donee ens felix^ muUos nume- 
rabis ami:fjs, " as long as you aro in good circumstances ;" and forU expec 
tavity donee or dum. exiity " until be came out." Donee never occurs in Cao 
ear, and in Cicero only once, in Verr., i., 6, usque co timuiy ne quis de meajide 
dubitarct, donee ad rejieiendos judices venimusy but it is frequently used in 
poetry and in Livy. The conjunction dum often precedes the adverb fw- 
terea (or interim)^ and the two conjunctions dum and donee are often prece- 
ded by the adverbs usauty usque eo, tisque adeo, the conjunction either fol- 
lowing immediately after the adverb, or being separated from it by some 
words, as in Cicero, mihi usque eurae erity quid agasy dum quid egeris scieto. 

[§ 351.] 10. The folio wine interrogative particles* like 
wise .belong to the conjunctions ; num^ utrum, arty and the 
euffix nCy which is attached also to the three preceding 
particles, without altering their meaning, ntmme^ utrumne, 
anne^ and which forms with nan a* special interrogative 
paiticle nonne ; also ec and ew, as they appear in ecquisy 
ecquando and cnumquamy and numquid^ ecquid, when used 
a.3 pure interrogative particles. 

Note. — The interrogative particles here mentioned must not be con- 
loanded with the interrogative adjective^ and adverbs, suchas quis? uteri 
ubi ? The latter, by reason of their signification, may likewise connect 
ff^itences, in what are called indirect questions. (See % 552.) The in 
terrogative particles have no distinct meaning by themselves, but serve 
only to give to a proposition the form of a question. This interrogative 
meaning ma^, in direct speech, be given to a proposition by the mere mode 
of accentuating it, viz., when a question at the same time conveys the idea 
of surprise or astonishment ; but in indirect questions those interrogative 
particles are absolutely necessary (the only exception occurs in the case 
of a double question, see % 554). Numquid and ecquid can be reckoned 
among them only in so far as they are sometimes mere signs of a question, 
like num^ iptid in this case having no meaning at all ; e. g., Cic., de Leg.y ii., 
2, Numqmd tfoa duos habetis patriasy an est ilia unapatria eommunis ? have you, 
perhaps, two native countnes, or, &c. ; ecquid (whether) m Italiam venturi 
fitis hoc hieme,fae plcne sciam. This is very different from another passage 
in the same writer: t^uid in tuam statuam oontulit? has he contributed' 
anything T rogavit mey numquid vellemy he asked me whether I wanted any- 
thing : in these latter sentences the pronoun quid retains its signification. 
For en or (when followvH.1 by a q) cc is (like num, ne and an) a purely inter- 
rogatire particle, probab))' formed in imitation of the natural mterrogative 
sound, and must be distin^iiished from m, ** behold !" See ^ 132. It nev. 
er appears alone, but is always prefixed to some other interrogative word. 
Enumquam is the only word in which the m is used differently, e. g., enum- 
9uam audisti ? didst thon ever hear ? enumf^wim futurum est f will it evei 

But there are differences in the use of these particles themselves. Nvm 
f together with tmrnne, numnamy numquidy numquidnam) and ee {en) in its 
eompounds,. give a negative meaning to direct questions, that is, they are 
tied in the supposition t^at the andwer will be **no ;" e. g., num puias mt 

[Consult Philological Museumy'So. v., p "^7, seq.y-Am. Ed 


tarn dementem ftds»e 7 you surely do not believe that, &e. Ecquid a.on«<r 
aometimes used also in an affirmative sense, that is, in the expectation of 
an affirmative answer ; e. g., Cic, ad Att.^ ii., 2, »ed heua tu^ ecquid vides ca 
lendas venire ? in Catil.y i., 8, ecquid eUtendiSf ecquid animadvertia horum sUen- 
Hum ? do you not observe their silence ? It must, however, be borne in 
mind, that in general the negative sense of these particles appears only in 
direct, and not in indirect questions, for in the latter num. ana ec are simply 
interrogative particles without implying negation; e. g., quaesivi ex eo, num 
in senatum exset venturust whether he would come to the senate, or ecqttu 
esset venturus^ whether any body would come. 

[^ 352.] Net which is always appended to some other i^ord, properly 
denotes simply a question ; e. ^.j putasne me istud facere potuisse ? Do you 
Velieve that, &c. Dut the Latm writers use such questions indicated by 
te also in a more definite sense, so that they are sometimes affirmative 
and sometimes negative interrogations. (Respecting the former, see Heu- 
singer on Cic, de Of., iii., 17.) The negative sense is produced by the 
accent when ne is attached to another word, and not to the principal verb ; 
e. g., mene istud potuisse facere puteu ? Do you believe that I would have 
done that ? or, hocine credibile est? Is that credible? The answer e^bcted 
in these cases is ** no." So, also, in a question referring to the past ;e.g., 
Cic, m Verr.f i., 18, Apollinemne tu Delium spoUare t/Usus est where the an> 
swer is, "that is impossible." But when attached to the principal verb, 
ne very often gives the affirmative meaning to the question, so that we ex- 
pect Ine answer "yes," e. g., Cic, Acad.^ ii., 18, videsne, vt in proverbio sU 
ovorum inter se similitudo ? Do you not see that the resemblance among 
eggs has become proverbial ? Cat. Maj. 10, videtisnCf ut apud Homerwn 
aaepissime Nestor de virtutibns suis praedicet ? Do you not see, &c. In the 
same sense we might also say, nonne videtis ? for nonne is the sign of an 
affirmative interrogation ; e. g^ Nonne poetae post mortem nobilitari volunt ? 
Cants nonne lupo similis est ? Utrum, m accordance with 4ts derivation 
(from ii<er, which of two), is used only in double questions, and it is imma- 
terial whether there are two or three ; c. g., Cic, Cat. Maj., 10, Utrum 
has (Milonis) corporis, an Pythagoraetibi mails vires ingenii darif <id Att., ix., 
2, Utrum hoc tu parum commeministi, an ego non satis intellexi, an ntutitsti sen 
tentiam ? Senec, Ep., 56, Sisitis (if you are thirsty), nihil interest, utrum 
aqua sit, an vinum; nee re/ert, utrum sit aureum poculumf an vitreum, an manus 
concava. Utrum is sometimes accompanied by the intenogative particle 
ne, which, however, is usually separated from it by one or more other 
words ; e. g., Terent., Eun., iv., 4, 54, Utrum taceamne an praedicem ? Cic, 
de Nat. J Deor.y ii., 34, Videamus virum ea fortuitane sint, an eo statu, &,c. • 
Nep., Iph., 3, quum interrogaretur utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret» U 
later writers, however, we find utrumne united as one word. JVe is rarely 
appended to adjective interrogatives, though instances are found in poe* 
try, as in Herat, Sat., ii., 2, 107, uteme; ii., 3, 295, quone malo; and 317, 
quantane. It is still more surprising to find it attached to the relative pro* 
• noun, merely to form an interrogation. Ibid., L, 10, 2 ; Terent., Adelph., 
ii., 3, 9. 

[^ 353.] An, as a sign of an indirect interrogation, occurs <Hily in the 
writers of the silver age (beginning with Curtius). It then answers to 
" whether ;" e. g., consuUt deinde (Alexander), an totitts orbis imperiumfaiis 
sibi dsjtinaret pater. In its proper sense it is used only, and by Cicero ex> 
clusively,* in a second or opposite question, where we use "or," as in thb 

♦ The passages which foiroerly'occurred here and there in Cicero, with 
en in the sense of " whether" in simple indirect questions, are corrected 
in the latest editions. See p. Cluent., 19, ^ 52; in Catil, ii., 6, ^ 13; in 
Verr., iv., 12, ^ 27. There remains only quaesivi an misisset in the last 
passage, of which no certain correction is fountl in MSS., although the 
tault Itself is obvious, and Topic, 21, ^ 81, where quum an sit, out gutd git 
out quale sU quaeritur, must be corrected according to MSS. into out mint 
etut q%tid sit, &c. 



passage of Seneca quoted above. A sentence like gttaero an argtntum di 
dederU cannot, therefore, be unconditionally recommended as gucd Latin 
(though it is frequently done), and, accordmg to Cicero, who must be re 
garded as our model in all matters of grammar, we ought to say ntan pv 
euniam ei dederu, or dederisne ei pecuniam. In direct interrogations, when 
no interrogative sen jence precedes, an, annCf an vero can likewise be used 
only in the sense of our " or," that is, in such a manner that a preceding 
interrogation is supplied by the mind. * £. g., when we say, " I did not 
intentionally oflfend you, or do you believe that I take pleasure in hurting 
a person?" we supply before ** or" the sentence, " Do you believe this ?" 
and connect with it another question which contains that which ought to 
be Lhe case if the assertion were not true. The Latin is, invitus te ^endi, 
OK pvUu me deUctarilaedendU hominibus f Examples are numerous. Cic, 
Philip., i 6, Q^odsi scisset, quam aententiam dictunu esaem, remisisset aliquid 
p'«j^ea9 de aeveriUUjB corendi {in senatum). An me censetis decretitntm/uisse, 
Z^&c. tLat 13, ho would certainly not have obliged me to go to the senate, 
or Qo^ you heUeve that I should have voted for him? p. Mil, 23, Causa 
MiUnnf rtmper a senaht probata est ; videbant enim sapientissimi homines factt 
rationsm, praeseK ticm animi, defensionis constantiam. An vero obliti estis, &LC. ,* 
de FiH.f h, 6, jVm2 ad haec, nisi molestum est, habeo quae velim. An me, 
inqua>n, n'si te au.^ire \-ellem, censes haec dicturumfuisse ? In this sentence 
we have to f)uppl> U'fore an, dicesne ? An, after a preceding question, is 
rendered by <*uct\*' anl it then indicates that the answer cannot be 
doubtful; e. g., CL3., ^ Verr.,v.,2, Quiddicis? Anbellofugitivorum Siciliam 
virtute tualiberatmi f Doycunot say that Sicily, &c. (In Latin we must 
evidently supply utnim aliud ?) So, also. Cat. Maj., 6, A rebus gerendis 
sauctus abstrahit. Quw'6u t T An his, quae eerunturjuventute ac viribus ? Sup-* 
ply Aliisne? de 0^.,L, 15, Q}udnam beneficio provocati facere debemus? An 
imitari agrosfertiles, qui ikulo -^Itu efferunt quam acceperunt ? Must we not 
imitate? llence such que&'ions may also be introduced by nonne, but 
without allusion to an opposiisqMestion which is implied in an. 

{^ 354.] There is, however, ono great exception to the rule that an ir 
used only to indicate a secono oi opposite question, for an is employed 
after the expressions dubito, du^-iu.'i est, incertum est, and several similar 
ones ; such as deUbero, haesito, and iLoro especially after nescio or haxidseio, 
all of which denote uncertainty, but wi^h an inclination in favour of the 
affirmative. Examples are numerous, ^t^., Thrasyb., \, Si per se virius 
sine fortuna ponderanda sit, dubito an hwv: nnmum omnium ponam, if virtue is 
to be estimated without any regard as tt its success, I am not certain 
whether 1 should not prefer this man toalKth^^rs. Compare Heusinger's 
note on that passage. Curt., iv., 59, Dicilu." a.'mace stricto Dareus dubitasse, 
xn fugae dedecus fumesta morte vitaret, that is, he was considering as to 
whether he should not make away with\f. It is not Latin to say 
Dubito annon for dubito an, for the passage of Cict -o, de Off., iiL, 12, dubitat 
an harpe non sit, signifies, he is inclined to believe <hk:t it is not bad, putat 
non turpe esse, sed honestum. Respecting incertum es». see Cic, Cat. Maj., 
20, Moriendum enim eerie est, et id incertum, an eo ipso dis, hMd. this is uncer* 
tain, as to whether we are not to die on this very day. Acscto an, or baud 
sdo an, are therefore used quite in the sense of " perhaps,** so that they 
are followed by the negatives nullus, nemo, nunquam, insted of which we 
might be inclined to use idlus, quisquam, unquaAi, if we tran^'^a&e nescio an 
by " I do not know whether." See ^721. The inclination I'^wards the 
affirmative in these expressions is so universal, that such excep«.'oi.s as in 
Cnrtius, ix., 7, et interdum dubitabat, an Macedones — per tot natturae x'hsUmtes 
HfficuUates secuturi essent, even in later writers, although in other ccnn.?x 
i(Hi8 they use an in the sense of *' whether," must be looked upon as rar^ 
peculisnties. We must farther observe, that when the principal verb it 
omitted, an is often used in precisely the same sense as aut; tnis is vcr) 
frequently the case in Tacitus, but occurs also in Cicero, deFin.,}i., 32 
Tf^mtiocles, quum et Simonides, an quis alius, artem memmiae polUceretm 


6lC. ; atd Att.f l., 2, nos hie te ad mensem Januarium exj^ectamus, cs qvodeom 
rumore, an ex litteris tuii ad alios missis. ^ There can be no doi bt t^olt 
the expression ijuertum est ia understood in such cases ; in Tacims ft ia 
often added. Compare Cic, ad Fam.^ vii., 9 ; ad Att.f ii. 7, 3 ; Brut., 23, 
89. Cicero, however, could not go as far as Tacitus, who connects ccr 
with a verb in the indicative; ifnn., zi v., 7, Igitur longxan tUriusque st 
ttntitmif ne irriti dissuadarent, an eo descensum credebanty instead of incertum 
estfactumne sit earn ob causam^ ne irrm aissuacterent, an qtuacredebant. 

The •coniunction <t is sometimes used in indirect interrogations instead of 
fuim, liJie the Greek el ; e. g., Liv., xxziz.^ 50, nihil aliud (Philopoemenem) 
lociOum/enmtfquam quaesisse^si incotumis Lycortas evasisset. After the verb 
tsperior, I try, it is used also by Cicero, Philip.^ ix., 1, non recusavitf quo- 
mmus vel extremo spiritu^ si quam opem reip. fare posset ^ experiretur. Respect- 
ing expectare sij see Schneider on Caes., Bell. GalL^ iL, 9. 

[§ 355.] 11. Most conjunctions are placed at the begin- 
ning of the proposition which they introduce ; only these 
few, enim^ autem, vero^ are placed after the first word of 
a proposition, or after the second, when the first two be- 
long together, or when one of them is the auxiliary verb 
esse, as in Cicero fde Orat,, i., 44), incredibile est enim, 
quam sit omne jus civile, praeter hoc nostrum, inconditum 
ac patne ridiculum ; but rarely after several words, as in 
Cic, jp, Cluent., 60, Per quern porro datum vene7iU7n? 
unde sumptum ? quae deinde interceptio pocidi ? cur non de. 
integro autem datv/m, 7 Compare Ellendt on Cic, BruL, 
49. Quidem and quoque, when belonging to single words, 
may take any place in a proposition, but they are always 
placed after the word which has the emphasis! Itaque 
and igitur are used by Cicero with this distinction, that 
itaque, according to its compusition, stands first, while 
igitur is placed after the first, and sometimes even after 
several words of a proposition; e. g., in Verr,, i., 32, 
Huic homini parcetis igitur, judice^ ? de Nat, Deor., iii., 
17, Ne Orcus quidem deus igitur? But other authors, 
especially later ones, place both indiscriminately either 
at the beginning of a proposition, or aft;er it. In like 
manner, tamen is put either at the beginning of a propo- 
sition, or after the first word. 

[^ 356.] Note. — All the other conjunctions stand at the beginning; with 
flome this is the case exclusively; viz., with e<, etenimt ac, at, atque, at^i^ 
neque, neci out, Vfl, sive, «m, sed^ nam, vertan, and the relatives quare, (pu> 
area, quamobrem ; others are generally placed at the beginning, but when a 
particular word is to be pronounc^ with peculiar emphasi?, this word 
(and all that belcmgs to it) stands first, and the conjunction follows it„ as 
in Cicero, Tantum moneo, hoc tempus si amiseris^ te esse nullum unquam 
. magia idoneum repertvrum ; valere ut malts, quam dives esse ; nullum injustitia 
partum. praemium tantum est, semper ut timeas, semper ut adesse, ut im 
pendere aliquam poenam putes. The same is not unfrequently the case IE 
combinations ofconjunctions with pronouns, especially with the relativ* 
pronoun; e. g., Hoc quum dicit, illud vtU intelligi ; qui quoniam quid 

f ON JUNCTIONS. . 265 

tHielligt nolua, omiUamus^ Cic. It must be observed, as a peculiarity, iFiat 
wl, even without there being any particular emphasis, is commonly placed 
after the words vir, paene^ and prope^ and also after the negatives wdlust 
nemOf nihilt and the word tantwn; e. g., vw ut arma retinere possei ; nihil mi 
de eommodia nd$ cogUarent, The conjunctions ou«, ve^ and ne are appended 
to other words, and stand with them at the oe^nning of a proposition ; 
but when a monosyllabic preposition stands at the beginning they often 
attach themselves to the case governed by those prepositions ; e. g., Ro- 
mamCato (Tusculo) demigravitf in/oroque esse coepit ; legatum misenmS, ui is 
^^pudeum causam artUorum ageret^ ab eoque peteret ; and SO, also, adpopulum 
tut lAebemve fare ; in nostrane potestate est quid meminerinws ? We never 
fina adqw od^tte, atme; whereas proque summa benevolentia, and the like, 
are us^ exclusively ; and in other combinations either method may be 
adopted : ettmque his eopiis and cum jurmisque praesidiis ; esque his and e» 
iisque ; equs republica. deque univsrsa rep, and de provineiaque decessU, Amid 
quosque, m Cic, de Off.y i., 35, is an excusable peculiarity, because (^[maqus 
quos would be against all euphony. 

[^ 357.] What was said above concerning the different positions of 
uaque and igitvr in Cicero is well known, and generally correct ; but it is 
not so well knowrt that igitur is, nevertheless, placed by that author now 
and then atthe beginning of a proposition, and tmi not only in philosophic 
reasonings, as Bremi states on Cic, de Fim., i., 18; and as we find it in de 
Fin,, iv., 19, si illudi hoc : non autem hoc, isitur ne illud quidem ; but in the 
ordinary connexion of sentences; in RidL, it, 27, igthir pecuniam omnem 
Decemviri teneinmt ; de Prov. Cons., 4, igitur m Syria nihil aliud actum est , 
Lael., 11, igitur ni suspicari quidem poisumus ; Phitip., ii., 16, in fh^.^ igttur 
fratrem exheredans te faeiebat heredem; Philip, X., Q, igitur. iUi certissum 
Caesaris actorum patroni pro D. Bruti salute hdlum gerunt; de Leg., i., C, 
IgUur doctissimis tiris profidsci placuit a lege; ad AtL, vL, L, 22, Igitur tu 
juoque salutem utique adscribito, 8allust too frequently places igitur at the 
beginning. But ita^ m the second place does not occur in Cicero,, for 
in Philip., vii., 3, we must read, according to the best MS., igitur, iAstead 
of itaque, in the sentence, ego Uaque pads, ut ita dicam, alumnus, and in 
Partit, Orat., 7, quidem is more correct. In Curtius, (tdqus Vippesta in the 
second place only once (viL, 39). In like manner, the rule cannot be 
upset by the few passages in which Cicero places vera, in answers, at the 
beginning (just as enim is used by the comic writers). See de Republ, i., 
37, ^ 43 ; de Leg-, U 24 ; in RuU.,Ti., 25 ; p. Mur., 31, ^ 65. 

[^.358.] All tins applies only to the practice of prose writers. Poeta, 
according to the necessity of the verse, place even the prepositive con- 

{' unctions after one or more words of a proposition ; e. ^Horat, Epod., 
7, 45', et tu, potes nam, solve nu dementiae; Serm., i., 5, a6, quattuor hinc 
rapimur viginti et milia rhedis ; ibid., i., 10, 71, vivos et roderet'w^ues. They 
separate et from the word belongiiup^o it ; as, Horat., Carm., iii., 4, 6, amitn 
et videor pios errors per lucos ; Serm!^\\., 6. 3, Auctius atque dii melius feeere ; 
and they append que and ve neither to tne first word of a proposition, nor 
to their proper words in other connexions ; e. g., Tibull., i., 3, 55, 

Hicjacet immiti consumptus morte TibuUuf, 
messalUim terra dum sequiturque man, * 

histead of the prose form terra marique ; and in Horat., Serm., ii., 3, ISO, 

Non Pyladenferro violare aususve sororem. 

But it is to be observed that those conjunctions in such arbitrary positlona 
are joined only to verbs. Isolated exceptions, such as in Horat., C*rm., 
ii, 19, 28, pads eras mediusque belli.; and iii, 1, 12, Moribus hie meUorqus 
fcuna eontendat ; Ovid., Met., ii, 89, dum resqus dnit ; and Pedo Albtn., 
•I Jfon« Drun, 20, cannot be taken into acco ant. 





[§ 359.] 1 Interjections are soun<^s uttered undei 
the influence of strong emotions. They are indeclinable^ 
and stand in no close connexion with tbe rest of the sen- 
tence ; for the datiye and accusative, which are joined 
with some of them, are easily explained by an ellipsis. 
See § 402 and 403. ' 

2. The number of inteijeetimis in any language cannot 
be fixed. Those which occur most frequently in Latir- 
authors are the following : 

faj Of joy: id, iu^ha^ ke^ hahdhey euoe, euax* 

(h) Of grief: vae^ heu^ eheu^ ohe^ ecu, hei, pro. 

(c) Of astonishment i o,en ov ecce^ hui, hem^ eJiem^ dha^ 
utat^ papacy vah ; and of disgust : pntU, 'apage, (See § 

fdj Of calling : heus^ o, ehp, ehodum ; of attestation : 
prOf also written proh. 

Ye J Of praise or flattery : eia, euge, • 

[§ 360.] 3. Other parts of speech, especially nouns, 
substantiye and adjective^ adyerbs and verbs, and even 
complex expressions, such as oaths and invocations, must 
in particular connexions h% regarded as inteijecticms. 
Such nouns are: pax •(he still !), nullum^ indignum^ ne- 
fandum, rwenm, miserabile^o express astonishment 
and indignation ; macUf and virith a plural macH^ is ex- 
pressive of approbation. (See § 103.) Adverbs : noe, 
prqfecto^ dto^ bene, heUe / ^^Verbs* used as inteijections 
are : quaeto^ preeor^ oro, ohsecro, amaho (to all of which 
tt or VM may be added), used in imploring and request- 
ing. So, also, age^ CLgiu^ cedo^ sedes (^ si audeijy,mf 
MwlUs (for 81 viSf si vvltis)^ and agesis^ agedum, agitedum, 

Nuej—NoM in the best writers is joined only with pronouns : nae eg9, 
mae UU v^ementer errcnl, nae itta glonota sapientia turn magni aesHnumda ec4 
Pynhus, after the battle of Heraclea, said, Nae ego, ti tUnm eodem mode 
viceto, eine uUo nUUu m Mpirum reverter, Oros., iv^ 1. 

[§ 361.] 4. Among the invocations of the gods, the fol- 
lowing are particularly frequent: mehercule^ meherde^ 
hercule, hercle, or mehercules, herctdes, medius fidius^ mt- 
castor, ecastor, pol, edepol,per deum,per deum immortalem^ 
per deos,per Jovem^pro {or proh) juppiter^pro sancte fsu 

SYNTAX. 2#7 

preme) Juppiter^ pro dii ifnmortales pro deum fidem^ pro 
deum atque h^ deum or pro deum imtMr- 
uUium (^\[.Jidem)^ and several otheis of this kind. 

Note. — Me before the names of gods must be explained by an ellipsii . 
the complete expression was, Ua me (e. g., Herculet) juvet; or with the 
vodative, ita me Hercule juvet. The interjection mediusfidiua arose, in all 
probability, from me dius (Aloe) fidnu^ which is archaic ioijUhu, and it 
thas equivalent to meherculee, for Hercnlee is the son of that god* Meker 
euh is the form which Cicero {Orat.f 47) approves, and whicl^ along with 
herculet occurs most frequently in his writmgs. See my note on in Verr., 
iii., 62. The oath by roUux (pol) is a very light one, and heace it is 
given especially to women in the comic writers, in edtpol and edecaeUtr the 
e is either the same as me, or it is a mere sound of interjection ; de is deue,* 





[§ 362.] 1. The subject of a proposition is that concern- 
ing which anything is declared, and the predicate that 
which is declared concerning the subject. The subject 
appearis either in the form of a substantive, or in that oi 
an adjective or pronoun, supplying the place of a substan- 
tive. Whenever there is no such grammatical subject, 
the indeclinable pait of speech or preposition which takes 
its place is treated as a substantive of the neuter gender. 
(Compare § 43.) 

[^ 363.] Note 1. — The manner in which a pronoun supplies the placet of 
'a substantive requires no explanation. An adjectiye can be used as a 
substantive only when a real substantive is understood.^ The substan- 
tive most frequently and easily understood is homoy and many Latin words 
which are properly adjectives nave thus acquired the meaning of snbstan 
\j?$eB ; e. g., omiaiit, famUians, aequmlie, vtemust &c. (see ^ 410, foil.), ami 
others, such as eodue^ eermu, Wteriinus, retu, catididatusj although most fre 
quently used as substantives, nevertheless occur also as adjectives. Bu' 
jpon tmt pcMnt the Dictionary must be coiMulted, and we only remark thtf 

* [The more common^ and very probably the more correct opinion 
makes edepol and edeeaatot to be for Mr adem Ptihtak^ and fwr mdem Caa 
torit.i. e., *'by the temple of Pollux,^ &c. These forms are stih farther 
shortened into Epol, Ecastor. The dental D appears to have been dropped 
in the forms of tne old Latin language when preceded and followed by s 
vowel, just as we find it to be frequently the case in the French forms of 
l4itin words. {DonaldamCe Varroiwrntu^ p. 272, note.)"] — Am. Ed. 

t [For a more extended view of this subject, consult Weissenbom 
(lot Sehculgramm.^ p. 184, ae<jq.y[—Am. Ed. 

X [Writers on general grammar make the i^Kctive ns truly a noun, ot 
tiie name of a thmg, as a substantive. (Consulfi^ona/eii t >i*« Aew Crat^ua 
^375, seqq.)] — Am. Ld. 


ordinary aujectives are used as ifubstantives with the elfipsis of &om»y.a0 
bonusy nocens, innocena. But ati adjective in the singular is not commonly 
used in this way, and we scarcely ever find such a phrase %%pr^u9 nerm 
nan laedU^ instead of homo probus neminem laedit. Sapiens j a sage, or a phi 
losopher, and libera a free man, alone are used as substanlivea in the sin 

fular. In the plural, however, the omission ' f the substantive hon^new, 
enoting general classes of men, is much more frec^uent, and we find, 
e. g., paupereSf divites^ 6ont, improbi^ docti^ and indocti, just as we say the 
rich, the poor, &c. It must, nowever, be observed tKat very few adjec- 
tives, when used as substantives, can be accompanied by other adjectives, 
and we cannot 8ay,'a g., muUi docH for muUi hammeg (viri) docU.* .The 
neuters of adjectives of the second dedension, however, are used very 
frequently as substantives, both in the singular and pluraL Thus we read 
bonwn, a fi^ood thing ; contmriwn, the contrary ; verum, that which is true ; 
ffui/um, evil ; honestum in the sense of virtus, and boruif mala, contrariu, &c 
In the plural neuteb adjectives of the third declension are used in the 
same way ; as, turpiay lema, coeUatia, But the Latins,4n general, preferred 
adding the substantive res to an adjective, to using the neuter of it as a 
substantive ; as, res contrariae, res multaSf res leviores, just as we do in 
English. . . 

[5 364.] JVtf/c 2.— It is worth noticing that the word miles is frequently 
used in Latin in the singular where we should have ezpfected the plural ; 
e. g., in Curtius, iii., init.. Alexander ad eonducendmm ear Peloponneso milium 
CUandrum cum peeunia mittk; Tac, ^nn., ii., 31, cingebatur interim' milite - 
domus, strepebant etiam in vestibulo. Similar words, such as eques, pedes, are 
used in the same way, and the instances are very numerous.! jRomanus, 
Poerms, and others are likewise .used for Romam and Poem in the sense of 
Roman, Punian soldiers, 

[§ 365.] 2. The predicate appears either in the form of 
t Yorb) or of the auxiliary combined with a noun. 

The predicate accommodates itself as much as possiUe 
CO its subject. When the predicate is a verb, it must be 
Sn the sasne number as the subject ; e. g., arbor viret^ the 
tree is green; arhores virerU, the trees are green; deus est, 
•God is ; dii sunt, the gods are or exiiA. When the pred- 
icate is an adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, 
combined with the auxiliary esse, it takes the number and 
gender of the subject ; e. g., puer est modestus, libri sunt 
met, prata sunt secta. When the predicate is a substan- 
tive with the auxiliary esse, it is independent of the sub- 
ject both in regard to number and gender ; e. g., captivi 
militum praeda fu^ant ; amicitia vinculum quoddam est 
kominum inter se, ^ut when a substantive has two forms, 
one masculine and the other feminine; as, rex, regvna; 
magister^ magistra ; inventor^ inventrix; indagator^ in^ 
dagatrix; cormptor^ corruptrix; praeceptor, praeceptrix^ 

* [But we can say midta bona, plurimi improbi, &c. Consult Billroth, 
tat. Gr., p. 204, ed. Ellendt.y^Am. JBd. 

t [In all these cases we are to regard miles, eaues, &c., as OoUectf-fe 
nouns. A much rarenlsago is the following, rex /or reges (Ci'c, Deiot., f 
20) ; amicus for amicomm genus, (Cic , Lael.^ 16, 65.)]— Am, Ed. 

eiYNTAX. 269 

tfiai.predicata muftt appear in the same gender as the sub- 
ject % e. g., li.'cniia corruptriz est marum ; stUtu optimus 
est dicendi effector et magister. When the subject is a 
neuter the predicate takes the masculine form^ the latter 
being more nearly alHed to the neuter than the feminine; 
e. g^ tempus vitae magister est. When the subject is a 
'houn ^icene (see § 4^), the predicate follows its gram- 
matical gender j as, aquila volucrum regina^Jida minigtra 
Jbvis, though it would not be wrong to say aquila rex vo- 

It is only by way of exception that esse is sometimes 
coimected with adverbs of place ; such as dliquis or all 
quid prope^ propter^ longe^ procul est, or when esse signi- 
fiea **to be in a conditicMi;" e. g,, Cic, ad Fam, ix., 9, 
praeterea rectissime sunt apud te omnia i everything vnth 
you is in a very good state or condition; de Leg,, i., 17, 
quod est Umge aUter; Liv., viii., 19 (dicebant), se sub im- 
perio populi Rqmani fideliter atque obedienter futuros, 
Sallust and Tacitus coimect esse^ also, with the adverbs 
ahunde, impune, sndjrustra, and* use them as indeclinable 
adjectives ; e. g., omnia mala ahtmde eraht ; ea resfrustra 
fuit ; dicta impune eranL* 

[6 366.1 N(At I. -^Collective nouns, that is, such as denote a multitude 
of rndfyidual persons or things ; e. g., nadtUudot turba, vis, exercituw, juven- 
hu, nobilUas, gins, plebs, vulgus, frequently occur in poetry with a plural 
verb for their predicate ; e. g., Ovid., Metam., xii., 53, Atria turba tenent, 
ve^unt lege vul^us euntque ; Fast., ii., 507, Ttarafefant placeni^tte novum pia 
turba Quirinum, As for the practice of prose writers, there is no passage 
in Cicero to prove that jfe used this construction (see my note on Cic, in 
Verr.j i, 31, 80), and in Caesar and Sallust it occurs either in some soli 
tary* instance, as Caes., BelL OalL, ii., 6, quum tanta mtUtitudo lamides ae 
tela eanjicerent, or the passages are not critically certain. (See Oudendorp 
on Caes., Bell. Gall., iii., 17, and Corte on Sallust, Jugvrtk., 28.) But 
Livy takes greater liberty, and connects collective substantives with 
the plural, as ii., 5, Desectam segetem magna vis hominum immissa corbUnts 
fudere in Tiberim; xxiv., 3, Locros omnis mullUudo abeunt; Xxzii., 12, Cetera 
omnis mtUtitudo, veltU signum aliquod secuta, in unum quum con%)enisset,fre- . 

Cti agmme petuni T%essaliam. (Compare Drakenborch on zzzv., 26.) 
even expresses the plurality of a collective noun by using the noun « 
standing by its side in the plural ; as in zzvi., 35, Haecnon in oeculto, sed 
propalam in faro atque oculis ipsorum Ctmsuhan ingens turba ciroumjusifrem*' 
hant ; zzr., 34, Cttnetts is hostmnt, qui in confertos cirta ducem impetum/ecerat, 
ut exanvmem Utbentem ex equo Sctpitnum vidit, alacres gaudio cum clamore per 
totam acierh nunliantes discurrunt ; xzvii., 51,' turn emmvers omnis aetas eurnre 
obtfii; so, also, in i., 41, clamor inde concurvusque populi, miraiUiwn quid ret 
esset. But such instances are, after all, rare and surprising. The case is 
different when the notion of a plurality is derived from a collective noun 
of a preceding proposition, and made the subject of a proposition whici 
foUows. Instances of this kind occur now and then m Cicero; ds Nat 

* 'ConiuU Weitsenbon, Lot. Sclmlgr.. p. ISA, S 155, Anm. 3.] — A-m. Kd. 



Deor.t ii., 6,'t/f Kk idem generi humano evenerit, quod in terra eoUoeati sint, !)• 
caiis9ihey (viz., homines) live on earth ; p. Arck.^ 12, qui est ex eo numtrv, 
qtd semper apud omnessancti sunt habiti ; and with the same collecti've noun, 
p. Marc, i ; p. Quint., 23. They are still more frequent in Livy ; iv., 56 
Ita omnium populorum juventus Antium contractu : ibi castris positis hostem 
opperiebantur ; vi., 17, Jam ne nocte quidem turba ex'eo loco dilabebatur, refrac' 
turosque carcerem. mintU)antttr, See the passages in Drakenborch on xii., 

[^ 367.] A plural Terb is sometimes used by classical prose writera 
(though not by Cicero) sfler uterque, quisqtte (especially pro te quisque), pars 
— jtars (for alii-^aUi), cUius — alium, and alter — aUerum (one another or each 
otner), for these partitive expressions contain the idea of plurality ; e. g.» 
Caes., Bell., Civ., iii., 30, Eodem die uierque eorum ex castris stativis exerci- 
tum educunt ; Liv., ii., 15, missi honoratissimus quisque ex patribus ; ii, 59, 
cetera multitudo^ decimus quisque ad suppHcium lecti. Sometimes the plural 
of a participle is added ; as Curt., in., 6, jnv se quisque dextram ejus amptexi 
grates habebant velut praesenti deo ; Liv., ix.*, 14, Pro se quisqtte nofl haec Fur- 
ados, nee Caudium, wee saltus invios esse memorantes, caedunt pariter resisten- 
tes fusosque ; Tacit, .Ann., ii., 24, pars navium haustae sunt, plures Rectos 
(instead oi pars— pars, the place of one of them being frequently suppHed by 
patfct, wmnuUi, pleriqw or plures, as in our case) ; Liv., ii, lOi, dum eUius alium 
ut proeUum inc^imu, circumspectant. Expressions like these may derive their 
explanation from propositions, in whicn the comprehensive plnnd is used 
in the first part, and afterward the partitive singnhir ; e. g., Salbdt, Jug., 
58, At nostri repentino metu perculsi, sibi quisque pro moribus consulunt : ^it 
fugere, alii arma capere, magna pars vulnerati ant occisi; and in Livy, Cetert 
^uo quisque tempore aderunt, or Decemviri perlurbati alius in aliam partem cos 
trorum cUscumkU. 

[^ 368.] Note 2,--The natural rule, according to which the adjective 
parts of speech take the gender of the substantives to which they belong, 
seems to be sometimes neglected, inasmuch as we find neuter adjectives 
joined with substantives of other genders : Triste lupus stabulis ; varivm 
et mut(d>ile semper femina in Virgil, and Omnium, return mors est extremum, 
«ven in Cicero. But in these cases the adjective is used as a substantive, 
and triste, for example, is the same as ''something sad," or ** a sad thing," 
and we noight use res tristis instead ; as, Livy, ii., 3, says, leges rem surdam^ 
inexorabilem esse. A real exception occurs in what is called etmstructio ad 
synesim, that is, when substantives, which only ii^their figurative sense 
denote human beings, have a predicate in the tru^gender of the person 
spoken of, without regard to the grammatical' gender ; e. g., Liv., x., 1, egp- 
ita conjurationis ejus, quaestione ab Consulibus ex seriatiisconstdto habita, virgis 
caesi ac securi percussi sunt. So, also, auxiUa (auxiliary troops) irati, Liv., 
xxix., 12, where 6ronovius*8 note must be consulted. The relative pro- 
noun (see 6 371), when referring to such substantives, fre<iuently takes the 
gender of tne persons understood ^y them. Thus, manc^ium, animal, furia, 
scelus, monstrum, prodigium, may be followed by the relative qui or quae, ac- 
cording as either a man or a woman is meant ; e. g., Cic., in Verr., ii., 32, 
. Quod unquam hujusmodi monstrum aut jprodigiwn. avdivimus out vidimus, qui 
cum reo transigat, post cum accusatore dectdat ? ad Pom., i., 9, Primum ilia furia 
muliebrium rdigionum (Clodius), qm nonpluris fecerai Bonam Deam qudm tree 
scrores, impunitatemest assecutus. See Drakenborch on Liv., xxix., 12, Af- 
ter milia the predicate sometimes takes the gender of the persons, whose 
number is denoted by milia ; e. g., Curt.,iv., 19, dua miUa Tyriorum, crucibus 
affixi, per ingens litoris spatium pependerunt ; Liv., xl., 41, ad septem milia 
hominum in naves impositos praeter oram Etrusd maris Neapolim transmisit. 
Uaually, however, the neuter is used. • See the collection of examples Id 
Drakenborch on Liv., xxxvii., 39, in fin. As to other cases of constrttetit 
ad synesim, which do not belong to grammar, but are irregularities of ey 
pression, sec Corte ou Sallust, Cat., 18. 

r^ 369.] Note 3. — When the substantive forming the sub'ect has a dif 


%cibiit number from that which is its predicate, the verb e»M (and all other 
veijis of existence) follows the subject, as in the above quoted passage of 
Liry, xzi., 15^ Qudunquam capUm mdiium praeiU fuerant. So, aka^ Gic^ d$. 
Fm,f Y^ 10, quM (omnia) «tn«. dtUfw vitatMuni evenio ; Ovid, Mei.^ viii, 636, 
fota donuu duo sunt l Tac. ^fw., iy., 5, praedpuum'robur Rhmum juxta octo /e- 
xioiuM erant, for hgumet is the subject ; Pun., Hist Nai., iv., 5, angustias, 
mdc procedit Petop&nausus, Jstkma§ app^kminr. . But we slso find« and par- 
haps even more frequency, that the verb takes the number of the sub- 
atanthre which is properlr the predicate ; e. g., Cic., m Pit., 4, orndt fnme, 
o Jsana^ ds tuo c&tuulatu dkere, eujus fnut imtium bidi Cou^itatkii ; Sallust, 
Jiigi, d, ponedkn sa kem^ giis« prfixmna C^rtkagmem Nwmidim appeOaiur ; 
Terent, Andr,t iii, 2, 23, aananlUwn irae mmoris int^atw est ; liv.^ l, 34, cm 
Tarquinu matema tantum patria esset; ii., 54, Memiio VsientMs nnvhiciofetemt ; 
zIt., 39, pars non minima triumpM est mettmae pnteedentes, in propositions 
like that of Seneca, J^pwt, 4, Magnae divitias sunt le^ naturae eomposita 
paupertas; and Cicero, Paraa., in fin., Cantentum «er» mm rebus esse magmas 
su$a eenissimae^uM divitiae^^. plnial is less surpiiainff. But it is clear 
that, where the subject and predicato may be exchanged or transposed, the 
verb takes the number of the substantito nearest to it. When the predi 
cate is a participle combined with esse or- mderi, the participle takes the 
gender of the substantive which ia nearest to it, according to the rile ex 
l^ained in ^ 376. Thus we find in Cic^ro^ <2« IHvin,, ii, 43, non omnis error 
stuUitia mt dicemda ; d^Idg-t l^'J9'Wtde etiam umversus hie mundus una dvitas 
tommums deoeum atque homnum exietimanda (est) ; Terent., Phorm,, i, 2«44, 
paaipertas puH emus msum est tniserum et ^ave. If we transpose non est om 
nis stultkiu error ^dicendusy wad uisa mHu semper est jpaupertas fprave onus et 
.missruufi^i]» propositions are just as conect But m Justin, L, 2, Semira 
mis, seaum mentUa, puer esss credita est, the feminine would be necessary 
for the sake of clearness, even if there were no verb «••«. ' 

[§ 370,] 3. When nouns are combined with one anoth- 
^, without being connected by the verb esse, or by a rel- 
ative pronoun and eM«, in such a manner as to form only 
(me idea, as in ** a good man," the adjective, participle, 
G^ prcmouB follows the substantive in gender, number, and 
case ; e. g., huic modesto puera credOf heme modestam vir- 
gmem dUigo. 

When two substantives are united with each other in this 
way, they are said, in grammadcal language, to stand in 
appotidom to each odier, and the one substantive explains 
and defines the other ; e. g., oppidum Faestum^ arbor lau- 
rus, Taurus mons^ lupus piscis^ Socrates vir sapientissimus. 
The explanatory substantive fsubstaniivum apposiiumj 
takes the same case as'the one which is explained ; e. gt 
Socratemy sapientissimum virum^ Athenienses interfecerunt 
(an reception occurs in names of towns, see § 399). They 
may differ in number and gender; as, urhs Athenae^ pisces 
sigmum; Virg., Edog^ ii., 1, Formosum palter Cwrydon 
ardebtU Alexin, delidas domini; but when the substan- 
tive in apposition has two genders; it takes the one which 
answers to that o( the other substantive. (Comp. above, . 
§ 365.) The predicate likewise follows the suWantive 


which ui to be explained, 83 in Cicero, TuUiola^ ddtcwimm 
nostrae, tuum munusculum Jlagitat ; Quum duo JtUmvMi 
' nostri imperii subiio in Hispania^ Cm. et P: Scipiones, eap- 
tincti occidisscntf for the words dvojulmina^ though placed 
first, are only in apposition* When plural names Of pla- 
ces are explained oy the aj^MMsition urha, oppiduaiy dvUoM^ 
the predicate generally agrees with the apposition ; e. ^ • 
Pliny, VoUimif oppidum Tuworum oputentiinvMim^cox* 
crematum estjhlniine, . . 

O vitae pMUmopMa dux (magistra), t;ir^««^ indoffdtrix ^ 

ptdttix&ue vitiorum / Cic, !Z\wc., v., 2 : Pythagoras ve* 

lut genitricem virtutumjrvgalitatem omntBus ingerebai 

(conunendabat), Justin., xx., 4.- 

Note. — Occasionally, howorer, the predicate follows the subMantlTe in 
apposition ; e. g., SaUust, Hist., i., Orat. Pkil, Qjd videmim inUrUa miUii, 
qu(ui fulmenf optare te quisque ne attingat,' aUhongh*thd oonstractioD iB» 
optare ne mala se attingant. It arises from the position of the -WOtds, the 
verb accommodating itself to the subject whicn is nearest ' Hence it not 
unfrequently happens, 1, that the verb, contrary to the grainmatical mle^ 
agrees with the nearest nonn of a subordinate sentence ; as in SaHnst, 
Cat., 25, Sed ei earicra semper omnia, quam deem atquepudicitia/idt; €ic., 
PML, ir., 4, Qutff igiiur ilium eonstdem^ nin latrones, putawt T and, 2, that the 
adjecthre parts of speech take the gender and number of the noon in ap< 
position or of the subordinate sentence ; e. g., Cic, jx. Leg, Man,, 5, Co-, 
rinthumpatne veatri, totiua Graedae .lumin, extineium etie vohtemni; Iv'ep^ 
'IViem., 1, Ularum ui^em yt propugnaadum oppoeitym ene ftariarii. 

J[§ 371.] 4. When a relative or demonstrative prcmoun 
ers to a noun in another sentence, the pronoun agrees 
with it in gender and number; e. g., tarn modestus iHe 
puer est^ qucm vidisti, de quo audivtsti^ ctijus tutor es^ ut 
amnes eumdiligant. When the verb itself or a whlole prop 
osition is referred to, it is treated as a neuter substantive, 
and in this case id guod is generally used instead of quod; 
e. g., Nep., TimoL, 1, Timol€on,id quod difficUius putatur^ 
fMdto iapientius tulit secundam^ quam adversamjbriuauim, 

[f 372,] iVof ev-^JBzceptlon to this rule : when a word of a preceding prop- 
ontioa, ot this proposition itself* is explained by a svbstantlre witn th* 
verbs ease, dieere, voeare, appeUare, nominare, halm-e; pmtare^ Ace, or their 
passives, the relative pronoun usually takes the gender and number of 
the explanatory substantive which follows ; e. g.f Liv., zlii., 44, Tkehae 
ipeae, quod Boeottae caput estj in mcigno twmdiu erant. (A great many in 
stances of the same kmd are collected by Drakenborch on Liv., xxxii., 30.* 
Caes., Bell. Civl, iii., 80, Caesar Chmphoe pervemt^ qudd est oppidum 7%u* 
saliae; Cic, Brui.t 33, extat ejus peroratiOf qui epilogue diciiur; de Leg.^ i., 7, 

Indt haee civitas innocentiae ; Liv., i., 45, Romaefanwn Dianas popuU lja*ird 
cttm populo Romano fecerunt: ea etateonfissio^ caput rSrwnRomam esse; CUi^ 
de O/f., iii.« 10, i!^t omnia facienda sunt, quae amid velinttnon amicitiae r«i»a, 


m4 m m mm ti on fM tmtmd^ sunt; I e;, such things or connexions caniioi be 
lopkflcCu^n Miricndships, but are conspiracies. So, also, iata mddem vis, 
surely this is force ; haeefuga est, non profectio ; ea ipsa catua beUifmt^ fot 
tdipaum^ ^Lc. This explains the frequent forms of such explanatory sen- 
t€lice» as ^ iuus gft amor erxa me; ^uae tua est hutnanitas, for with the 
dfimoDstrative pronoun it would likewise be ea tua hwnanUas est, this oi 
such is thy kindness. 

Levis est animi hscem spiendoremqusfugieniis, justan^ glsruufff ^i tstfnt^tm 
■ utas virtuim hmustissiamSf ttpmiiiare, Oic», in Pi^., 2i., 
Omnium atr^mny quas ad redafs vivsHtU viam pertiiierU, ratio (Bt disapiina studis 

sapisHtiaSf tpuepkUosopikia dieitur, eentinetmr, Cic., Tmsc, i. 1. 
fietn uefle ef tdem tt«£fe, «a dsnmmjvma ami e itim <ff» Sallust,. VaL, ^. 

It must, however, be obs^red that when a nsim is to be szplained aoa, 
to be distinguished from another of the same kind, the relative pronoun 
fbtiows the general rule, agreeing in gender and nuoiber with the sabstan^ 
tive to be explained ; e. g.. Cast., BeU, Gdtl., ▼., ll«)liMwn, ^tod oppeUaha 
Tamesis, i. e., that particular river: Nep., Pans., 3, genus est quoddam 
haminum, quod Ilotaeyocatur ; especially ymen a demonstrative pronoun is 
added, as m Curt., iii, 20, Daretutad sum looumffusm Amamtaspylas voeant, 
ptrvenU. But when the noun followina' is a foreign word, the pronoun 
agrees with Che preceding one ; as in l^c, ds Off., ii, 5, eohibere motus 
eutimi turbatos, quos Crraeei iraBri nomhumt; Quinti]., viii, 3, 16, quum idem 
Jrequsmtissime plura verba stgnificera, quod awitw/da vacatur. Compare, 
Gronov. on Senec, Consol. ad Marc, 19, and l>rakenborch on Livy, il, 38, 
with the commentators there mentioned. 

[§ 373.] 5. When the subject consbts of several nouns 

in the singular, the predicate is generally in the plural, 

if either all or some of those nouns denote persons; but 

if they denote things, either the singular or plural may 

be used. If, however, one of the nouns is in the plural, 

the predicate must likewise be in the plural, unless it 

attach itself more especially to the nearest substantive in 

the singular. 

4^j[nid Regilhtm hello Latmorum in nostra acie Castor ci 

Pollux ex equispugnare visi sunt, Cic, De Nat, Deor., 

ii., 2« 

Cum^ tempus neeessiiasque postulate deceriandum tnanu est^ 

• et mors servituH turpi^tdimque antepojtenda, Cic, De 

Of., i., 23. 
Beneficimn et gratia homines inter se conjungunt, 

Viia, mors^ dimtiae,. paupertafomnes homing vehement 
tissime permovent^ Cic, 2>e Of., ii, 10. 

- iVbte 1.— When the subject consists of two nouns denoting things in the 
singular, the predicate varies between the singular and plural, according 
as the two nouns constitute, as it were, onlv one idea, or two different oi 
opposite ones. It mav be remarked here that the subject Senatus popu 
tusque Rsmanus (but also Syrmcusaams, Cic, in Verr., ii., 21; CerUur^nus, 
Ibia., hi., 45, Sagvntinus, Liv., xxviii., 39) is always followed by the pred- 
icate in the singular. A relative pronoun, referring to two singular nouns, 
is always in the plural, unless it be intended to refer only to the last. 

Even when the^bject consists of the ii.)ines of two or more persona, 
the predicate is not uiifreqiit>nt!y fuunJ in ilu- sin^u^ai and th* t vot (mb1| 


Id cases where it may seem that the writer at first thoight oniy of one 
person and afterward the oth it, an in Cic, Orat^ 12, nam quum eoneinu e$ 
IVifamfmachut minvtis nunteris videretar et Gorgias ; or 7Wc., i, l,$iqukUm 
Homenu/wt €t Hesiodus ante Romam cmiditam ; comp. Brut.^ 11, init. ; ba* 
also without this excuse, as Cic, Brut.^ 8, Sed ^U intelUctum est, ^tumtam 
vhn haber€t accurata et facta quodammodo oratio^ turn etiam meunstn dicendi 
mtdU mhito extitenmt. Nam Leontimu Crorgiat^ Thratymackua UfudcedoniuSf 
Protagwaa Ahderittt^ ProdicuB Cetu, Hipjaiaa Eletu in fumore magnofuit, 
tJiique m»dti temporihta iudem; de C^ol., li, 12, QuaUa apud Graecos Pher- 
fe^fdeSf Hdkmiauj Acu$ila9 fuit aiUqm pemadti, talis no$Ur Cato et Pictor et 
Piso ; de Divin., l., 38, hao ratisne et Chry^ppus et Diogenea et Antipater uti- 
tur; de Fat., 17, in qua aenterUia Demoeritu»f Heradituey Emvedoclee, Aristotf' 
lee fuit ; in Verr., i, 30, eottdemnmtur enim pnpmnda sentemOs Phihdamua di 
ejusJUiua ; ibid^ vr^ 43, dixit hoc apuidvoa Zoeipput et Ismenias, homines no 
bilienmi; de Orat.y L, 62, haec qwim Antoniiu dueiaeetf tone dvbitare visus ksi 
Sulpkdu* H Catta; Cam., BeU, Civ,, h, 2, interudit M.AntoniuSf Q. Cassiva, 
trUnuii plefne,* it is unnecessary to aod passages from the poets, who, es- 
pecially Horace, frequently use the predicate in the singular, when the sub- 
ject consists of several noons 49noting persons; e. g., Herat., Carm.. ii., 
13, in fin., Quin et Prometheua et Pelapia parent dtdci laborum decipitur sono. 
Comp. Bektlev on Carm,, i, 24, 8. The plural, however, must be consid- 
ered as the rule in prose. Only the words tmus et alter have invariably the 
predicate in the singular. When the subject consists of nouns denoting 
persons and things, the plural of the predicate is preferable to the singu 
iar; e. g., Cic, ad Att, iv., 15, coitio conaulum et Pompeitts obaunt*; Liv., 
xxviii., 18, nee dvbitare (pan Syphax regnumqtte ejtujam in ^omanorum etsent 
potestate, and so in XZXIX^ 51, Pnuiam nupectum Komanu et receptus Han 
fiibal et belban (xdversus jitanenem motum faciebant, is more prolMd^e thar* 
faciebat. * 

. [<$ 374.] NoU 2.— When the subject consists of nouns connected by the 
disjunctive conjunction out, the predicate is found in the plural as well as 
in the singular, though it would be more in accordance with our ^ling to 
use the singular;! e. g., Cic, Twe., v., 19, Si Soeratea out Antiatkenea die*- 
ret; de Off.^ i., 28, ai Aeacua aut Minoa diceret ; but de Of., i., 41. nee qtiem- 
quam hoc errore dud oportet, u/, ai quid Soeratea atU Ariatijppua contra more/n 
consuetudinemque civitem fecerint loattive aint, idem aibi arburetur lieere ; Liv., 
v., 8, tc< quoaque atudium privatim aut gratia occupaverunt. In Cicero, de OraL, 
ii., 4, the reading is uncertain : ne Svl^dua aut Cotta plua quam ego apud 
te valere videantur, Emesti, who approves of videatur exclusively, was not 
struck by the same pecniiarity in the preceding passage. With out— out 
the singular is unquestionably preferred, as in Cic, i^(p., xi., 11, 'nee enim 
nunc primum aut JBrutua aut Caasiua aalutem libertatemqw pitnae legem aanc 
tiasimam et marem optimmm judieavit ; with n«c— nee we likewise prefer the 
singular, with Bentley un Horace, Carm., i., 13, 6, but the plural occurs 
m Pliny, Panegyr., 75, erant enim (acclamationes) quibua nee aenatua gtoriart 
iiec princepa poaaent, where poaaet would certainly be just as good. Comp. 
Liv., XXVI., 5, in fin. The plural seems to be necessary only when the 
subject does not consist of twA nouns of the third person, but contains a 
first or second person, as in Terence, Adalph,, i, 2, 23, haec st t^que ego 
neque tu fedmua ; D. Brutus in Cic» oci Foiti^ xi, 20, quod in Decemviris 
naque ego neque Caaaar heddti eaaemua. With aeu — aeu and tamr'^quam the 
predicate is m the plural : FrOntin., de Aquaed., Prael and ^ 128 («< pro- 
prium jua tarn tea puUiea quam pnwUa habermt), 

* [In these and similar passages it will always, we think, appear, on close 
examination, that some ^eater degree of activity, or some particular im* 
portance, or superiority, is to be connected with the subject to which tbs 
verb immediately refers in number.!— -4m. Ed. 

t [In these constructions the predicate refers bo aU^e subjects equally 
at the saim* ri ne, and in the same manner, and there^re the plural ne» 
ployed (Kuhi:.r, G .7.. vol. ii.. p. 47, 8, «/ Jrlf.)^—Ayn. Rtl. 


£6 375.1 Note 3. — ^When the mibject is a singular noun joined to anothei 
(either plural or singular) by the preposition cvm, the grammaticail coii 
Kti^ction demandfi that the j)redioate shouid i>o in. the singular, at in Cic, 
ad Attym., 14, lit I/Me ewn Sexto scire veiim fuidcogUee ; md Quint Fral., 
lit, 2, Domitiue cum Messala certtis esse videbatur ; Ovid, Faet.^ i, 12, tu quoqut 
cum Druso praemia fralre feree. But the plural is more frequent, the sub- 
ject being conceived to consist of qio^ than one person ; Liv., zxi, 60, 
ipse dux cum aliquot frincipibus caoiwUur ; Sallust, Col., 43, LeiUulue cum 
ceteris — eonstituerani ; Jug.., 101, Bacchus cum peditibus — invadusU ; Nep., 
Phoc., 2, ejus consilio Demosthenes cum ceteris, qui bene derep. mereri existima- 
bantuTf populisdto in exiUitm erant expulsi; and to judge from Uiese and otb* 
er instances quoted by Corte on the passages of Sallust,it seems that tlm 
plural is preferred, when the main subject is separated from tfa« predicate 
by intermediate sentences, so that the plurality spoken of is more strong- 
ly impressed on the writer's mind than the grammatical subject Even 
in reference to gender (of which We shall speak herei^Tter), nouns connect- 
ed with each other b^ ctan kre treated as if they were connected by et. 
Ovid. Fast.f iv., 55, lUa cum Lauso de Numtore soli; Liv., xlv., 2S,Aliam 
cumjUio accitos ; Justin, xiv., 16,^'ttm Alexandri cum maire in areem Amphi- 
palitanam custodiendos mittit. 

[f 376.] 6. With regard to the gender, which the pred- 
icate (an adjective, participle, or pronoun) takes when it 
belongs to several nouns,. uie following rules must be ob- 

faj When the pouns- ar^ of one gender, the predicate 
(adjective, participle, or pronoun) taJces the same. 

/bj When they are of different genders, the masculine 
(in ca^e of their oenoting living beings) is preferred to the 
feminine, and the predicate accordingly tokea the mascu- 
line. When the nouns denote things, me predicate takes 
the neuter, and when they denotiB both livmg beings and 
&ings mixed together, it takes either' the gender of the 
living beings or the neuter. 

lam pridem jpater mihi et mater mortui wnt^ Ter. 

Labor voluptasque, dissimUia naturd, societate quadam in* 

ter se naturalijuneta sunt^ Liv*, v., 4* 
Jane^fac aetemos pacem pacisque ministros ! Ovid, FaH, 
Romawif it me scdtufratris^ te 9en^/:tus absumpserit, regem 

regnumque Macedonian tuajutwra sciunt^ LfV., xL, 10. 

Or the predicate (adjective, participle, or pronoun) 
igrees only with one, of the nouns, and is supq»lied by the 
mind for the others ; this is the case, especi^y^ when the 
subject consists of nouns denoting living beings and things. 

TAr€uybulua contemptut eat prima a iyramma atque ejus 4(qff 

itudo^ Nep*., Thra^,^ 2. 
L. Brutus exidem et regem ipsum, et liberoK ^u»j ef gf^j^f^j^ 

Tarquiniorum essejussit^ Cic., J)e I^e PuU.^ li. 
Baminis utUitati agri omnea et marip^ J^T^U Qif • 


Nunc emergit amor, nunc desiderium^erre non pouum, nun 

mihi nihil lihri^ nihil litterae, nihil doctrina^rodest : it^ 

dies et nodes tamquam avis illaf mart prospector evolan 

cupio, Cic, ad AU,^ ix., 10, 2 

[^ 377.1 Note. — We have not mentionec the case of a subject consisting 
uf living oeings of the feminine and neuter genders ; e. g., soror tua et ejm 
mancipium. No instance of such a combination occurs, but we shouldbe 
^Uiged to make the predicate ; e. g., invetUae or inventi mitf, according as 
wumdpium may denote a male or female slave. The grammatical prefer- 
ence of the masculine gender to the feminine is clear, also, from the fact 
1^ the mascuL words jli/u, fratret^ toceri, regeSf comprising persons of botlr 
•exes ; as in Livy, kgati missi sunt ad Ptolemaeum Cl^patramque reges 
Tac.j AtuUf zii., i^fratrum incostoiUtum amorem, in speaking of a brother aw. 
his sister. The following examples of the predicate bemg in the neuter 
gender, when the subject consists of nouns denoting things, jnay be add- 
ed to those already quoted* Sallust, divUiact decusj gloria in octUu sita sunt ; 
Livy, Fonniis portam murutnque de coda tacta esse; Memco tarbs et agertntSi* 
eilia jtissa dati ; and so, also, with the leUtive pronoun ; S^Uust, otmm htqus 
dhi^iae, ^tia« prima mortales putant. The neuter is farther not unfriequentl} 
used when tne two nouns of the subject (denoting things) are of the sam6 
gender; e. g., Liv., Xxxvii., 32, postquam wa et avariHa imperio poteniior^ 
erant ; Cic, de N(U, Dear., ilL, 24, /ortuttam nemo ab inconstarUM£ttemerUat4 
sejtmret, quae digna certe non sunt deo. Those passages, on the other hand, 
in which the subject consists of names of thmgs of different gender, and 
the predicate agrees in gender with a more distant masc. or femin., must 
be considered as exceptions ; but in such cases the noun with whicli th6 
predicate agrees is usually the more prominent, the otiier or others being 
considered as dependant or subordinate ; e. g., Phiacus in Cic, ad Fam,^ 
x.,24, Amor, tuut ae judicium 4e me utrum mifUplus dignitatis an vc^^tatis sU 
aUaturuSf non facile dixerim ; i. e., thy love, and thv favoiirable opinion ot 
me, which is the result of it ; Cic, de Leg., i, 1, Lueus illeet haec Ar^nna- 
fium querous ij^nosdturf taepe a me lectua in MariOi the oak ]feix^ only a pvt 
of the grove. See. the commentators (Wesenberg) on Cic, p. Sext., 53, 
and on Suet., Com., 75. 

[§ 378.1 7. When the personal pronouns ego, tu, nos, 
vos, combined with one or more other nouns, form the sub- 
ject of a proposition, the predicate follows the first per- 
son in preference to the second and third, and the second 
in preference to the third. 
Si tu et Tullia, lux nostra, valetis, ego et suavissimus Cioo- 

ro talemtts, Cic., ad Fam,, xiv., 5. 
Quid est quod tu aut Ula cum Fortuna hoc nomdne quen 

possitiSf Sulpic. in Cic, ad Fam*, iv., 6. 

Abfe.— So, also, Cic, m Yetr., i, 45, h)c jure et majares nostri et nos sem 
neruii sumus ; m KulL, i, 7, Srrastis, Rulle, vehem^nter et tuet nounulli co^ 
tegae tui. But in this case, also, the predicate frequently agrees with one 
of the subjects, and is supplied by the mind for the othiers ; e. g.. Cicero. 
Vos ipsi et senahufrequens restitit ; et ego et Cicero meus fittgUaJbii. With re* 
jfard to the relative pronodn, the above rule remairjs inforce, atd we wxm 
•eixndiiigly ^, tUet pater, qui in cmrnvio eratis ; eg^ettu, qui enrnrntt 






[I 379.] 1. The stdnect of a prc^Kxsition is in dm com* 
inatiye (see § 362), ana the noun of the predicate only 
when it is connected with the subject by the verb ease and 
similar verbs : apparere, appear ; existere^ fiprii evddere, 
come into existence, become; videri, seem, appear; mu" 
nere^ remain ; or the passives of the actives mentioned in 
§ 394, viz., dicif appellari^ existimari, haheri, &c. ; e. g., 
Justus videhatur, he appeared just ; rex ajppellahatur^ he 
was called king. The personsd pronouns cgo^ tu, iUe, nos, 
vaSf and ilU are implied in the terminations of the verb, 
and are expressed only when they denote emphasis or op- 

(In) rehtcs angustis animostes atqvefortis appare, Horau, 

Coarm^ ii., 10, 21, , 
Appws adeo novum sibi tngenium indueraty ul pleHcola re- 

pente omnisque awrae papillaris captatdr evaderet^ Liv., 

iiL, 33. 
Ego reges e^eci^ vos tyrannos introducitis; ego liherUUefu^ 

quae nan erat, peperi^ vos partam servare non vultis, says 

L. Brutus in the Auct., ad Herenn.^ iv., 53. 

NqU l.^The coostroction of the accusative with the infinitive is the 
only case in which the subject is not in the notainative, but in the accu- 
•ative. (See ^ 599.) In this case the predicate, with the above-mention- 
ed verbs, is likewise in the accusative. 

[^ 38(X] Note 2. — Videri is used throughout as a personal verb, as (ego) 
wiatBor^ (tu) videris, &C., vir bomt$ mm ; videnmrf mdemmi wri btnU «Me, or 
koeficwe. The impeijsonal construction is sometimes found, as in Cic, 
TusCf v., 5, Ncn mihividehiri ad beate viv€$idvm mii»po09M virhUmo»(cotnpsire 
Da f is's remark), but much more rarely than the personal one * When con- 
nected nitn the dative of a person, it is equivalent to the £nglish ** to 
think or fancy ;". e. g., omeiw mihi fm»9e vid§or ; forhmahu sUn Da$noclet 
viddiatur (esse) ; <i hoc tiln intellex'ase viderU^ or even in connexion with 
mdere: e. g., videor mihi videre immmenteg reipubUcae tempettatett 6lc, It 
. should, however, be observed that the dative of the first person is some- 
times omitted ; e. g., Cic, de Nat. Deor.^ ii, 61, «a/w docuiste videor • ibid., 
t, 21, saepe de L. Craseo videor audiese; de /^., ii., 5, aim Gratce^ %a videor^ 
iuctdenter xctom, i. e., as it seems to me, or as I think. 

[||681.] 2. The nominative is sometimes npt expressed 

*^— —— — ■ ■ ■! ■ II ■ ■.■■»■ - I ■! ■ I - ■ M ■ .1 1^ ■ ■ I ■ - ■ I ■ I ■ ■ I ■ ■■ ■ III , 

* [The so-called impersonal construction of itideor will be found, oo 
closer inspection, to be merely the verb joined to a subject-nominative ai 
rltuse taken as a nominative.] — Am. Ed, 


in Latin. Thus the word hcmines is understood with a 
verb in the third person plural active, in such phrasds as 
laudant hunc regem^ they, or people praise* this king ; 
dicuntf traduntf/erunt hunc regen\ essejustum, people say 
that this king is just 



[§ 382.] 1. The accusative denotes the object of an 
action, and is therefore joined to all transitive verbs, 
whether active or deponent, to express the person or 
thing affected by the action implied m such verbs ; e, g., 
pater amat (ttietrarjjiliunu when the verb is' active, the 
same proposition may be expressed without change of 
meaning m the passive voice, the object or ^.ccusative be- 
coming the subject or nominative ; thus, instead oi pater 
amatfilium^ we may s^j films amatur apatre. 

The transitive or intransitive nature of a verb depends 
entirely upon its meaning (see § 142), which must be 
learned from the Dictionary. It must, however, be 6b-. 
served that many Latin verbs may acquire a transitive 
meaning, besides the original intransitive one, and, ac- 
cordingly, govern the accusative. 

[^ 383.] Note 1. — Some Verbs are called transitive and others intransi- 
tive, according as they occur more frequently in the one sense or the 
other. All particulars must be learned from the Dictionary. Lndert, to 
play, for example, js naturally an intransitive, but has a transitive mean- 
mg in the sense of ** play the part of j" e. g., htdit homan chem; he plajrs 
the good citizen, affects to be a good citizen.** Horrare properly signifies 
"to feel a shudder," Hndfutidirt **to be disgiistki vvith," but both are 
frequently used as transitives ; horrere ddtoremtfastidireprecet of morei aft* 
cujuSf to aread pain, to reject a person-s petition, to be disgusted with his 
manners. There are several other such verbs ; as, dolere, gemere^ lamtmiari^ 
lugere^maereret lacrimare^ phmre : e. g., castan hme* Fettmare and p rope nn, 
moreover, signify not omy^^ to nasten,"" but ** to accelerate ;" e. z-imorteik 
$uam; monere, not only "to wait,'* but "to expect;'' e. g., hog^nim'ad- 
ventvan; rideref to laugh and to ridicule (like irridere). Such examples be- 
in^ sanctioned by usage, the Ijatin writers, in some cases, extended the 
pnnciple still farther, and Cicero (de Fin., ii., 34) has the bold, but beau- 
tiful and expressive phrase, Quum Xerxes, aelletponto juncto, AAone per- 
foeso, mare ambulavissetf terram navigasset, instead of the ordinary expres* 
sion in tnari ambulavissetf in terra namgaeset. In such phrases as dorvm 
totam hiemem, tertiam aetatem vivo, nodes vigilo, the accusative might seem 
to express only duration of time (^ 395) ; but as the passive forms also oc- 

* [That is, the state in which a person is represented by an intrrantiva 
rerb may be conceived of as directed towards an object, and thus have • 
partly transitive force.] — Am. Ed. 


«JI, M» mihi dormitur hkms, jam tartia vwitur aetas, noctes %igilantur amwrat 
it will be more judicioas to consider the verbs domire^ vivere, xigUart^ ir 
tliose cases «s transitives, equivalent to '* spend in sleeping, living, 

The words which denote ** to smell" or ** taste of anything/' viz., oUr^^ 
redoUref tapertf resiperty are in the same manner used as transitive verbs, 
and joined with an accusative (instead of the ablative, which they w^ould 
require as intransitive verbs). Their meaning in this case is <* to give back 
the smell or taste of anything ;** e. g., oUtvnguenta ; piscis tpsum mare »ajnt ; 
m^utnia gratiora turUf quae terramj quam quae crocum sapiatU ; uva picem rt- 
sipiens ; and in a figurative sense, olet perrgrinum^ redolet antiquitatem ; to- 
gether with such expressions as, anhelat crudditatemf pingue quiddam d 
p erey rin um sonat, sanguinem iMM^rum sitiebat. The poets go stiU farther, 
and use, e. g.^pallere^ pavere, tremere, trepidare, aliquid, instead of ftm«rr; 
ardere^ calere, tepere^ perire^ deperire muUerem, instead of amare mulierem. 
Such expressions should Aot ne imitated in prose, any more than the use 
-of a neuter adjective instead of an adverb ; as in torvum clamare, tremendum 
tonare, lucidum fulgent ocuti^ concerning which, see ^ 266. Tacitus, how- 
ever, says, ilnn., iv., 60, Tiberius falman renidetu vuUu ; and, vL, 37, Euphra' 
teh nulla imbrium vi spante et immeHeum aitolli. 

[% 384.] We must here mention a peculiar mode of joining an accusa- 
tive with intransitive verbs, which is of frequent occurrence in Greek,* 
aftd also in English. It consists of a substantive of the same root as the 
verb, or, at least, one of the same meaning, being added in the accusative ; 
but this substantive is usually qualified by an adjective; e. g., vUamju^ 
cundam vivere ; hngam viam tre, hoc b^um bellare^ gravem pugnam {furoelhun) 
pugnare^ aUeriue gaudium gaudere, bonaa precea precari, risun Sardonium 
ridertt ootuimilem htdum ludere, servUutem servire durissimam, somnium som- 
mare. . 

(Odi) q[m Curw9 mmvlant et BaeekantUia vhmnt, — Juven., iL, 3. 

[^ 385.] But even without any change or modification of meaning, i»> 
transitive verbs may have the accusative of pronouns and adjective pro- 
nouns in the neuter gender, in order to express, in a general way, the di- 
rection in which a feeling or condition is manifested ; if this tendency 
were expressed more definitely by a substantive, the accusative could not 
be used. We thus frequently find such phrases as, hoc laetor^ I rejoice at 
this ; hoc rum dttbito, I do not doubt this ; hoc laboro^ illud tibi non atsentkry 
aliquid tibi,,fU£censeOj non possum, idem gloriari, unum omnea student j where 
the accusative of a definite substantive, such as hone unam rem omnes stu' 
dent, could not have been used. So Terence says, id operam do, I stri^ 
after this ; Cicero, ad Fam., vi, 8, consilium petis, quid tibi sim auctor ; and 
Livy often uses the phrase quod quidam auctores sunt, which is attested by 
some authors. 

JMorea auiem fmnquam tantam vim habent, vt non plus habeat sapiens quod 

gmtdeat muMi qwd angatur, Cic, de Fin,, i., 14 
Utr mmqus laetar, et mm dslsre corporis te fuisse et animo valuisse, Cic. ad 

Fam,, vii., 1. 

' Note 2. — ^The rule that in the change of a proposition from the active 
into the passive form the accusative of the object becomes the nominative 
df the subject, remains in force even when after the verba denoting *' to 
lUjf** or *< command" the accusative does not depend upon these verbs, but 
belongs to the construction of thenccusative with an infinitive ; e. g., dies 
'ftgem esse justvmi, jubeo te redire (see ^ 607) ; in the passive, rex dtcittir Justus 
tsse, juberis redire, as though dwo regem or jul^o te belonged to oach other. 

♦ [In Greek, many verbs which are not, in good writers, followed by 
Ibedr cognate substantives, are in later writers f<>und with them. {Likstki 
Parol, 609.)''— Afw. Ed. 


[§ 386.] 2. Intransitiye verbs which imply notiac; a^,« 
i>e?, vadere^ volare, and some, also, which imply " being in • 
a place;" aSfjaccrCf stare and sedere, acquire a transitiro 
meaning by bemg compomided with a preposidoii, and ac- 
coidingly govern the accusative. This, however, is gen-^^ 
erally the case only in verbs compounded with the prep . 
ositious circum, j?er, praeter^ trans, and super, and in tbose^ 
compound verbs which have acquired a figurative mean- 
ing. Such verbs become perfect transitives, and the ae- 
cusative which they take in the active form of a proposi^ 
tion as their object, becomes the nominative of the sub- 
ject, when the proposition is changed into the passive- 
form; e. g,,Jlumen transifur, societas initur, mors pro rC' 
pnhlica ohitur. With other compounds the accusative is 
only tolerated, for generally the preposition is repeated, 
or the dative is used instead of the preposition with its, 
case (§ 415). 

Amicitia nonmtnquam praecurrii judicium f Cic, Lad,, 17.' 

Nihil est turpius guam cognitioni et praeceptioni tus&miom" 

em praecurrere^ Cic, Acad., i., 12. 

Note.^-The rule here given appiiea to a great number of verba, for there 
ue many which imply motion ; as, uv» omWorCi cedfre^ atrrtre, equUare, 
fiaeret gradX, labi^ narCf and 9uif ar«, repere, salire^ scandere, vadere^ vehi, iwlore, 
and perhaps, also, veniref and their campounos are very numerous. The 
foUowing IS a list of them : ocbVe, accedere^ adequitaref adnaret aggredi, attabi^ 
mMcendtre, asailire and assulUure, advenire and adverUare, advefd^ advoUtre, ad-' 
iwltit, anteiret atU^eedere, antecunare^ anUgredi, anteyenire, eircwmfiuere, drcum' 
ire, drcumvenire, circumwdare, coire^ convemre, egredi, elabij erunuoere, evadere^ 
e^eedtrff eaeire^ mire, iwedere, incurrere and incursaref ingredi, iUalLinnare and 
hauUare, infUire, ituultare, invehi,,interjluere, intervenire, invadereXiTumpere), 
threper^ obombtdarey obeqwtare, obire, peramhulare, percurrere, permeare, pena^ 
dtre, pervagari, perwdare, praecedere, praecurrere, praefluere, praegredif praeve^ 
nire, praeUrire, praeterfluere, praetergredi, praelervefUf praetervolaref rubire, sue* 
cedere, stdnrtperej aupergredi, supervadere, supervenire, iransirej transnare, tran,' 
siliret transvolare. To these we must add some compound verbs which do 
not imply motion, bat in general "being in a plaeer >>* mdjmeSret aemdir^ 
accwnbere and accttbare, adstare, antestaret c^vumndere, cireumettare, wad cit' 
cumsisterey incubaref msideref tnetare, interf&chre, obtiderej vraeeidtre, praejo' 
cerej praeetare^ superstore. ^11 these veit)s mayH>e joinsa wkh an aocosa* 
tive of the place to which the action imnlied m the verb refers; in poeti 
cal language many more verbs are joinea with an accusative, partly froQ. 
a resemblsjice with those mentioned idiove, and partiy because a transi- 
tive moaniqg and construction are, in general, weU suited to a livc^ly Aq- 
senption. Tacitus, HiH.^ iii., 29, for example, says, baluta obruit quos m- 
ciderai, where emit is not governed by the preposition in (for he uses thi 
accus. also with prepositions which otherwise require the ablative : prae* 
sid^at exercUum, pra^aeet castra, elapsus est vincula)t but is the real accusat. 
of the object.* We must not, however, forget that, with the exception 
of verbs compounded with the prepositions circum^ per^ praeter^ trans, and 
m^er, we are speaking only of what may be, and wnat frequei tly occurs 

♦ I Compare Botticher, Lex. Tacit,, p. 15 ^^Am. Ed. "^ 


If itaoaem L^tin prost^ ; for the ancient Romans seldom used tli^ scciiM 
tiw with such verb^; they preferred them in their intransitive sense ei* 
ther with a preposition or the dative. The verbs compounded with antt 
alone are construed indifferently either with the accusative or the dative, 
and antfegredi occurs only with the accusative. Cicero, in the case or 
v^rbs compounded with ex, repeats the preposition exor ab; Salliist and 
Lfvy use the ablative alone, which is governed by the preposition under* 
stdod. It is not tili the time of Tacitu^ that we Und these verbs coi*8tni6d 
witii thb aecoaativte ;*"e. g., evado omnem, n/vos; smtentUts judkutn. 

[i 3871] We nnjst especially notice thos» verbs which acquire a transi* 
tive meaning "by a moaificatidn of their original significatidn, i. e., bjr be 
ing\)s6d in aligUTatit^ sense. Snch ferbH either Toee their intransitive 
meaning altogether,' or rtttin it along with' the transitive one, and aceoid- 
inj^ly S[ovem the accusative either exclusivelr, or only in their particular 
transitive meaning. Of thia kind are adeo and eomerU&itk the sense of ** I 
etep np'td a person for the purpose of speaking to him;* aggrediw (and 
adanot), iwoado and ineedo, I attack, where especially the perfect mcestit 
atSquem, e. g., cupido', curaf meCus^ must be obseVved ; a/?iM>, wash, in speak- 
ing of the sea or a river ; antetOf ai^aio, anteviniOf praecedo, praegredmrt 
prtevernhftAl in the sense of ** I excel" fthe principle of which n fculowed 
also by pmemhuOf praest^f dntecetlOf exceao, and praeeelh) ; eo^o^ I conclnde, 
e. g., an alliance ; excedo and egredtoTf I transgress, e. g., the bounds; mcv 
and mgredioTy I begin a thmg ; o6eo, I v»it, undertake ; ocetnubo (meriem, 
wtech is much more frequent than morti or morre), t suffer death, or die ; 
obndeo and dreurimdeo, f besiege ; vufteo, I undertake. But even among 
these verbs ^ere are some, sueh as inctden and mvadere, which are prefer* 
red in the more ancient prose with a prej^osition or with the dative. Livy, 
for example, frequently says, ins^m incessU cura, and Sallust uses metus m- 
vatit popuiare» ; but CicOro, Antdnhta mvasit in OeUliamj or thn&r mwuk tm- 
j^tobis; Terence^ ^uae nova nligio lamt in te tncetni; Caesar, dokr imtuit 
mqjrbbis. Antare is the only one among the verbs sigmfym^ ** to excel" that 
is nsed by Cicero with the accusative, though not exclusively, and anseet- 
der^f pratstaref anfKMire^ and eacelUre are used by himonly with the dative ; 
the cmiers do not occur in his works in this sense. 

-There are, on the other hand, some verbs which, according to the above 
rule, might be joined with the accusative, but never are so, »nd take either 
the dative Or a yreposition, viz. r ampne, obnpere, inoumbere (^ 416). Lastly, . 
▼drbs compounded with the prepositions ab, de, and «a», which imply mo 
tion, are construed with the ablative, the idea of separation being- pre 
dMUinant ; the few verf)8 mentioned above only form an exoeption to the 
rule. • 

^d 388.] 3. The verbs deficio, Juvo, aj^uvo^ defugiOf 

efitgiOi pr^itgiOf refitgio, and suhierfiigio, and the depo* 

lients ifnitor^ seqt£or, and sector, govern the accusative. 

They are real transitives, and have a personal passive 

ForUsJbrtuna adjuvat^ Ter., Phorm.^ i., 4, 26. 
Ifemo mortem effugeire potest, Cic, Philip., viii., 10. 
Qloria virtutem tanquam umhra sequitur, Cic, JWc. 

. Note 1. — ^The compounds of sequor and sector : asseqyor^ assectorc, conte 
qvor, consector^ insequor, insedor^ perseatior^ prosequor^ likewise govern the 
aeDU8^.ive ; obsequor, I comply with, alone governs the dative. Comitor, 1 
•ccx>mpany, may be classed with sequor, for it usually goveins the accu' 
sitive ; bnt Cicero in some passages {de Re Publ, ii.^ 24, Titsc, v., 24 and 

""* [But evado is found thus construed more than once in Livy, naniSly, 
it, 65; vii.,36; xxi.,32; xxviii ,2; xlv.,4L Consult Drakenbt»rh,ad Liw^ 
ii., G5, 3« and Botticher, Lex. Tacit., p. 16.]— Am. Ed. 

A a2 


35), uses It with the dative, in accordance with its original meaning ** to 
be a companion to a person** (^ 235). The few passages in which d^ki^ 
occurs with the dative cannot affect the rule ; thus we read, vire*, t^ 
fiostros defecerwU ; tempiu me deficit ; and in the passive, quutk miles a viri' 
bus deficeretur; aqtta ciboque de/ectus. The freauentative adj&to is used 
with the dative only by unclassical writers ; otherwise it has the accusa- 
tive iilLo'^ttvo. The passive forms of defugio, re/u^, and effiigio aro iar«y- 
but always in accoraance with the rule ; e. g., Cic, Tuse., i., 36, hmee m- 
eommoda morte effwiuntur ; jt. Plane., 32, nuUas sibi dimietUiones pro me de* 
fupendas pvtavit ; Quintil., iv., 5, Interim refugienda eet ^UsUttcUo mmestionum^ 
Ofthe other con4)Ounds the passive cannot be proved to have been used. 
[^ 389.] Note 2. — ^The verb aeqwwe and its compounds have likewise 
their object in the accusative. Aefmn properlr ^igmfies ^* to make^eqoal," 
rem cmm re <Mr rem rei, one thing to another ; 6. g.. wbem solo ooquare^ tumm 
moenUms ; and without a dative, " to attain f e. g., gloriam aUai^ws^smrions 
reges, eursum equormm. The accusative of the person may be joined, witlf 
oat any difference in raesming, by the ablative of the thing in which L 
equal any one ; e. g., Gurt, ix., 26, Nondum feminam aequavimme glmrid, et 
jam noe hudis saetietas cepu ? The same is the case ¥nth the compound 
adaequare; and the dative with this verb, in the sense of "attain" or 
** equal," is doubtful or unclassical. (See Oaes., BelL Oall., viii^ 41.). 
E»asfuare commonly signifies "to make equal," or "equalize;" and 
aemuparare " to attain ;" and both govern the accusative. . 

I^oti 3. — Aemvlari, emulate, commonly takes the accusative of the thmg 
in which, and the cUtive of the person whom we emulate ; aemtdormr 
detUiam, virtutes majorum, and aemidor aUcm Aomm^ although some authors 
use it in both connexions with tne accusative, like imiiaru Adulari* 
properly used of dogs, signifies **to creep" or "saeakup to « persoOf" 
and figuratively, like the Greek npocKweiv, the servile veneration paid 
to Asiatic kings, and hence, in general, to " flatter.** In its proper sense it 
occurs only with the accusative ; a g*, Colum., vii, 12, Canes wuHsmmt 
furem quoque adulawtur ; in its figurative sense, also, it is found only with 
the accusative : Valer. Maxim., vi, 3., extr., Athenienses Timagoram intet 
officium salutationis Darium regem mere geniis UUus cduiatun^ capitali suppKdo 
^ecerunt. In its most common sense of " servile flattery,** it is used by 
Cicero, likewise, with the accusative, in Pis., 41, adulans omnes ; by Nepos 
with the dative ; Attic., 8, neque eo magis potenti adukOus est Antomo ; b^ 
, Livy with both cases, see xxxvi., 7, nm. xlv., 31 (for in x^^iii, 4, there is 
no reason for giving up the old reading plebem cfian), and Quintilian (ix.; 3) 
states that in his time the dative was commonly used. Tacitus and other 
late writers, however, returned to the ancient practice and used the acea- 
sativo. It should be remarked that the active form advlo was not uncom 
mon ; as in Valer. Maxim., iv., 3, in fin., Cvm olera lanmnti (Diogeni) Aris- 
tippus dixisset, si Dionysium adtdare veUes, ita non esses ; Immo, inquit, si In 
ita esse vdles, non aduhres Dionysium, Compare the commentators <m 
Cic, Tusc., ii., 10, ^ 24. 

[§ 390 J 4. Five impersonal verbs (§ 22^), which ex- 
press certain feelings, viz.: jngei, (I am) vexed; pudet, 
(I. am) ashamed ; poenitet^ (I) repent ; taedet^ (I am) dis- 
gusted, and miseret, (I) pity, take an accusative of the 
person affected. As to the case by which the thing ex- 
citing'such a feeling is expressed, see § 441. 

— M*^^— ^*— ■^■■^ III! ■■ mi^mm^^-^ ■■■■iii ii ■■■■ m . i m ■■■■ m. ■■■■■»■ i i ^ immim. ■■^i^— ^fa— ^^^^^ 

* [Ddderlein traces this verb to aulari, and connects it with the move- 
ments of the dog in tue courtyard on the approach of his master. Con^ 
pare Horace's '* Janitor aulte," and Ovid, Met, xiv., 45. {DodeHoMf Jm 
Sjfn", vol. ii., p. Vtt^'l — -4m. Ed. 


JVbCf.— On the principle ofpudUum ett, Cicero (dt Fm., ii, U) uses tmi 
turn Mt as an impersonal verb with the accusative of the penon, Cyrmaid^ 
fUO$ non est veritum in voluptate summum bomtm ponere. 

Decet, it is becoming, and its compounds condecet^ de 
decet^ and indecet, likewise govern the accusative of the 
person, but they differ fromtiie above-m^ntionod imper« 
sonal verbs, inasmuch as they may have a nomivative as 
their subject, though not a personal one. 

Candida pax homines^ trux deed irafsra^^ Ovid, A. A* 

ffou. — In the early langnage (especially in Plautus) deeet is feund, also, 
with the dative. We may here notice some other verhs which, when 
used as impersonals, govern the accusative, this case being suited to their 
original meaning ; yuMtf and <2«^fa< me, I am rejoiced \fatUt^fugU,praetenf 
me, \^ escapes me, that is, I have forgotten, or do not know. Xoief m« 
oecnni more &sqaently thisn ki»^ miki, but the impersonal character of 
this verb is not founded on good authority, for the passage of Cicero, in 
Cat.^ i, & is corrupt. Cicero uses thid verb without any case ; Uttw, I am 
concealed or keep out of sight. 

•[§ 391.] 5. The verbs dvcere (teach), With its compounds 
edocere and dedocere^ and telare (conceal), have two accu- 
sative of the object; one of the thing, and another of the 
person, as in Nepos, Eum,, 8, Antigonus iter, quod hahe- 
bat^ adversus Eumenem, amnts ceUU. 

Fortwia belli artem victos quofue docet^ Curt, vii., 30, (7). 
CatUuui juveniulem^ quam Ulmrat, tdultis modis malafa^ 
cinora edocebat, Sailust, Cat, 16. 

Note 1. — ^When such a proposition takes the passive form, the accuse* 
tive of the person becomes the nominative; as, omneM dlabantur ab Antigo- 
n§ ; but the thing may remain in the accusative, e. g., Liv., vi., 32, Latinae 
Uponu Un^a aoeutttU mUitiam Romanam odoctm e, and omnes belli artes edoc 
Cue. But it rarely occurs with dodm and edocdrx, and with celtai scarcely 
ever, ezcq>t when the thing is expressed by the neuter of a pronoun, e. g., 
Am or mI eelabar, I was kept in ignorance or it; for celare^ aud especially its 
passive, generaUy has the preposition <ie, as in Cic., non est pro/ecto de ill§ 
veneno edata mater ; debes existunare le maatinus de rebus afratre esse celat-um. 
The coD^itrttotion ali^ res mi/U celatur in Nep., Alcib., 5, is verjr singular. 
Docere an I edocere, with their passive forms, are Hkewise used with de, but 
only in the sense of ** to inform,** as in Cicero, jwikes de'injwriis alicujus 
docere; SiuUu de his rebus dooetur; Sallust, de itinere hostiwo senatmn edocet. 

It must, however, be observed, that although any word expressing an 
art tnay be joined to doceo and doceor {doeeo te €trtem, doceor te Latine loqui, 
doeeo^ artem^ ddeeor (commonly dioeo) ucUine h^m), the instrument on which 
the art is practised is expreued by the ablative ; e. g., Cic, ad Fam., ix., 
22, Socrdtemfidibus docuit nobilissimus ^^dicen ; Liv., xxix., 1, quern docendum 
cures equo armisque, and in a passive signification, Cic, Cat. Maj., 8, dteee- 
hanifidikua untijpd, , Litterae may be used either in the accus. or ablat., Cic, 
m lUs,, 30, X^uid nunc te, asine, Utteras doceam ; Brut,, 45, doctus Cfraeds lit- 
teris, doetua et Oraeds litteris et Latinis. 

[^ 302.] Note 2. — The verbs compounded with trans : transduce, trans- 
ficiOf transporto, take a double at^cusative, on account of the omission of 
the prejKMition, which, however, is often added, e. g., Agesilaus BdUe 
IMftfum oepiae trajeeit ; Hannibal nonaf^a mHia peditum, du od eci m mafie 
«gittlttiii Iberutn transdiixit ; Caesar exer -itum Rhenum traiuportamt^ ^ ' — '~ 


trmt§dM€iii, bql, alao, mMkit^dinem hominum trans Rhinum in ^oliom in yy 
ducere. Ib the passive construction the accusative dependant upon inuki 
is retained ; as in Caesar, ne major multUudo Gtrmanorum Rhenum trans' 
dueatur; Belgas Rheman antiquitus transductL Transjicere and transmittars 
are also used intransitively, the pronouns me, te, se, &c., bc&ig^ under- 
stood. The- participles traiujectua and transmitsus may be used both of 
that whi(^h crosses a river and of the river which is crossed, amnis tra- 
jectiUf transmissuMf and clatsi$ transmUsa^ Mariut in'Afrieam trdjectuSf and 
the name of the water may be added in the ablative, num,/reto, 

[§393.] 6. The reThBposeo,reposco,JlagitOfl demand; 
aro, rogo^ I entreat ; interrogo and percontar^ I s^sk or in- 
qmre, also admit a double aecuaativo, one of tbe pezson, 
arid anotjier of the thing, but the Verbs which denote de* 
manding or entreaity also take.tljie ablative of thq peloson 
with the preposition ab^ and- those denoting inquiring may 
tajke the ablative of the thing with de. Peto^ postulo, and ' 
qwaero are never used with a double aecusative^but the first , 
two have always the ablative of the person with ab^ anfl 
quaero with ab, de and ex. 

Nulla salus bdlo, pacem te poscimus amniss, Yitg., Acft.^ 

xi., 362. 
Legati Hennenses ad Verrem adeunt enmque sifMtlacrwm 

Cereris et Victoriae reposcunt, Cic, in Verr.f iv., 51. 
Pusionem guendam ^Socrates apud PlaUmem iMUrrog€U 

quaedam Geometrica^ Cic, Tusc., i.; 24. 

Note 1. — A double accusative is used most commonly when the thing' 
is expressed indefinite by tlw nevter of a pronoun or an adjective ; e. g., 
hoc te tfehementer rogo ; Mhd te et ora et hortor; mne te kee emimemt let me en 
treat this of vou; nihU aUud voe orat eOque obeecrat; k»c qmdte nOerroge 
respomde. The accusat. with the passive is rare, but in acecmlaDce with 
the rule ; thus we say, fogatua eetntetuiam, asked ios Itts opimon (fot roga 
may mean the same as irUerrogo\ interrogahte teatimonhan. 

Note 2.— Respecting what is called the Greek aeauativtf whieh only sup- 
plies the place of the Latin ablative, see ^ 456. 

[§ 394,] 7. The follovnng verbs (which in the passive 
voice hare two nominatives) have in the active two accu* 
satives, one of the object and the other of the predicate, 
ddcere, vocare^ appeUare, nominare^ nuncupare, abo 9cribert 
wad inseribere ; d^dere, habere^ jMieare^ exUtimare^nmne* 
rare, putare (arbitrari)^ also intelligere, agnoseere^ repe* 
rire^invenvre^faetre (pass. Jierij^ redderCf inHituere^ cansii" 
tuere, creare^ deligere^ designare, deelatare, remmtiare^ end 
others; se praebere, ae praestare* . Thus we say in tlie ac- 
tive, Chceronem univerms papulus advertus Catilinam.con- 
tuleni declaravit (Cic, in Pis.^ 1), and in the passive, CHo 
era ah universo popylo cofuul dedaratm est^ . 

tLi>mulu9 urbem, quam cnndidit^ R^mutm '^*^avit. 


Socrates toUus mundi se incolam et civem arhUrahatur^ 

Cic, Tusc, v., 37. 
Bene de me meritis gratum me praeheo^ Cic, p. Planc,^ 3& 
Scytharum gens antiquissima semper habita est. 

Note 1. — Hence we say, /ooo te certiorem^ I inform thee, with the gem 
tiTe ; e. g., consUii meij or with the preposition de: de oaruilidrrteo; and in 
the passive voice, certior /actus »um. With other adjectives reddere is pref 
erable to faeere; e. g., reddere aUquem vheidum et moUem, meliorem, mitum, 
&c. J hominee caecos reddit cupiditae ; loca tuta ah hostibua reddebat. In the 
passive we rarely find reddi for fieri. 

- Ui&r, in a similar sense, is ined with a doable ablative : utvr aUoato ma 
gietrot I have a person for my teacher ; utor aUquo aequo, benigno, i find a 
person jnst, kina towards myself. Terent., Heaut., ii., 1, 5, Mihi «t unquam 
fUhu eritf nae iUefaeiU me uteturpatfe, he shall have in me an indoigent 

Note 2. — With regard to the participle passive, the rule respecting the 
agreement of the predicate with the cases of the snbjec^ nmly applies to 
any other cases than the nominative and aconsative, at least in ord^ary 
language. There are, however, a few instances of the ablative in the 
construction of the ablative absolnCb; Nep., Hann., 3, Hasdrubale impera 
tore suffnto ; Liv., iv., 46, mapstro e^uUum creato JUh mto jtrofeohu est ad 
helium; ibid., xlv., 21, Conaulibua certtorUnu factis ; Flor., iii., 21, e» eena- 
tusconsulio advereariis hostibua judiceuis. There are no instances of other 
oblique cases. It is not, however, improbable that a Roman might have 
aaid, Dareus Scytharum genti,jiuamquam iustissimae habttae^ betlum tn^dit. 

Note 3.— 'The verbs jmtari, ducere^ anci habere may have the preposition 
fro instead of the accusative of the predicate, but not quite in the same 
sense, ;»ro impressing rather an approximation; e. g., habere pro hoste, to 
deem a person equal to an enemy ; aliquidpro non dkto habere, to consider 
a thing as though it had not been said ; altqidd pro eerto puiare, to regard a 
thmg as though it were certain ; pro nihilo, as though it were nothing. 
We may here notice, also, the phrases oliquem in numero ; e. g., impera- 
torum, sapientiumf and ^iquem m loco parentis ducere or habere, 

[§ 395.] 8. The accusatiye is used with verbs and ad- 
jectives to express the extent of time and space, in 
answer to the questions, how far? how long? how 
broad ] how deep ] how thick ] e. g,, nunquam pedem a 
me discessitt he never moved one step from me ; a recta 
,canscientia nan transversmn unguem (or digitumj oportet 
discedere, not one finger's breadth; /oMa duos pedes lata 
>r longa ; cogitationem sohrii hominis punctum , tempo? is 
nucipe^ take, for one moment, the thought of a rational 
man; so, also, Mithridates annum jam tertium et vicesi' 
mum regnat; tres annos mecum habitavitf or per tres annos^ 
which, however, implies that the period was a long one. 

Campvs Marathon ah Athenis circiter miliapassuum decern 

ahest^ Nep., MUt., 4. 
Quaedam^estiolae unum tantum diem vivunt^ Cic 
Decern quondam annos urhs oppugnata est oh unam muh- 

erem ab universa Graecia, Liv., v., 4. 


Lacnmani in carcere mater nodes diesque asiidehat, Cw^ 
in Verr.^ v., 43. 

[^ 396.] Note 1. — ^The ablatire is rarely used by Cicero to express tlko 
duration of time;* e. g., d€ Off., m., 2, Scfhtwn eat a Pondonio trigmtm 
mwia vixuae Pmnaethtm, jtotteaquam libroM deomt^ adidisset ; but it is more 
frequent in the authors of the silver age ; Tac^ Ann., t, 53, quattuordeeim 
mrnis eariUum toleiwak ; Suet.» Ctdig., 59, vueit aumit undetriginta. The aUa- 
\ive of distance must, in general, be regarded as an exception, although il 
occurs not only in late/ writers, but in Caesar and Livy, abestf dtstat qmH- 
mu milUnu ]MS9uum, or tpatio aliquot ptiiium ; Tac., Amh., zii., 17, jBaMrafus 
Romanua truhti itmere aJytut ab amnu Tanai; but Cicero and others, in ac- 
cordance with the rule, say iter quinque, deeem dierum, or bidman, triduum, 
or btekii, tridui (scil., spatiMm) abe»t ab aliqm loco. If^ however, not the dis- 
tance is to be eJiprMsedy but only a place to be desigaated by the circam- 
stance of its distance from another, the ablative ^ould be used^ though 
the accusative sometimes occurs ; e. g., Liv., xxvii, 41, mille/ere et qmn- 
gtntosfatmu uuira ab hoMtelooat; xxv., 13, triapatsvum mi/ia a6 ipta urbe 
loco edtto caatrapondt, and in other passages. Spatio and int^rveUo are the 
only words in which the ablative is used exclusively ; .e. g., Liv., xxv., 9, 
OMtndectm/amw milium spatio eastrm ab Tarento poauit, but tiie ablative i» 
round, also, in many other cases, agreeably to the rule; e. g., Caes., Bell 
Oall., i., 48, Eodem die oaatra promowt et miUbua vaseuum oex a Caesaria oma 
trie 9ub momte cmsediL When the place from wnich the distance is calcn* 
lated is not mentioned, but understood from what nrecedes, ab is placed 
at the beginning, as if the ablative of the distance depended on it ; e. g., 
Caes., Bell. GM., ii, 7, a miiibue passuum^duobua caetra poauerunt, i. e., at 
i distance of 2000 paces from the spot, or 2000 paces off, duo inda milia 
(for more instances from Caesar, see Schneider on Caes., L c.) ; Liv., xxhr., 
46, a fuii^entia fere paaaibua eaatra poavU ; Flor., ii., 6. 56, mm jam a tertio 
lapide (i. e., at a distance of three miles), aed ipaaa Carthaginia portaa obaidi- 
on» quatiebat. (Compare Matthiae, Greek Grammar^ ^573, p. 994, 5th ed.) 

[( 397.] Note 2. — Old, in reference to the years which a person haa lined, 
is expressed in Latin by nattu, with an accusative of the time ; e. g^ De- 
ceaait Alexander menaem unvm, annoa tree et tnginta natua (Justin, xii., 16). 
Alexander, therefore, died quarto et trixeaimo anno, or aetatia omtow A per- 
son's age, however, nlay l>e expressed without natua, by the genitive, if 
his name is closely joined to tiie words denotin|f the time (see ^ 426) ; 
e. g., Alexander annonan trium et triginta dtseaait, L e., as a man of thirty- 
three years. The expressions **ouler" or ** younger, thah thirty-three 
years," are accordingly rendered in Latin hyplua or minua(8ee ^ 485) trea 
et triginta annoa natua ; but, fdso, by major or minor, either without quitm, 
as, mt^or (minor) annoa trea et triginta natita, and major (mwoi*) annorum trhm 
et trigtnta ; or with quam : major {minor) quam annoa trea at tripMa natua, 
and major {ndtwr) quam annorum trium et triginta, Natu may be joined to 
annarum, as anru> is to aetatia in the case of ordinal numerals. Lastly, the 
ablative is made to depend upon the- comparative; mmot i'^nor) tnlma el 
triginta annia; and in the Roman laws we frequently nnd the expression 
minor viginti quinque annia. ' 

[§ 398.] 9. The names of towns, and not un&equently 
of small islands, are put in the accudative with vierbs im- 
plying motion, wit}iout the preposition in of ad^ which 
are required with the names of countries: e..g., Jnvenei 
Rotnani Atkenai studiorum catua prqficisci s^^ant. Wo 

♦ [The strict distinction appears to oe this : with the ablative we <i8k, 
in what time ; but vnth the accusalive, throughout what time. Compaif 
BOlroth, L. O., ^ 206.]— itm. Ed. 


may here mention at once all the rules relating to the 
construction of the names of towns. If they denote* the 
place whence^ they are in the ablative; if the place where f 
singular nouns of the first and second declensions are pu* 
in me genitive, all plurals and noims of the third declen- 
si >n in the ablative.* When we have to expren "through 
a town," the preposition per is required. 

Demaratus quidarh^ Tarqmnii regis pater ^ tyrannum Cyp- 
selum quod f err t rum poterat^ Tarquinios Coriniho fugit^ 
et ibi suasjorttmas canstittdt^ Cic, Tusc.^ v., 37. 

JHonysms^ tyranntu Syracusis expuhus Corintki puero$. 
docebat^ Cic, TWc, iii., 12. 

Momae Consudes^ Athenia Archantes, Cartkaginei Suffetes 

live judices^ quotannis ereckbantur^ Nep., Hann. 

Note 1. — The use of names of countries without a preposition, like the 
names of towns, and of names of towns with tfa« prepositions m, ab, ear, is 
an irregularity which should not be imitated. Of these prepositions ab 
is found most frequently, especially in Liyy, though sometimes, ftlso, in 
Cicero : ab Epidauro Piraeeum adveettUf ab JSphea^ m Syriam prqfechu. o 
Brundish nuila adhue fama veturai; and cases may occur in which the 
preposition is absolutely necdbsary ; as in Cic., m yerr.t iv., 33, Segesta eat 
vmXdtim m Sicitia, quod ab Aenea^fi^ente a TVma, camUtum esse demonsirani. 
Ad is joined with names of towns when only the direcUon towards a pkci 
is to be expressed, and not the pl^ce itself; e. g., in Cicero, iter dirigen ai 
Mutinam^ tres viae sunt ad MutinatHy farther, when the vicinity of a place 
is to* be denoted (^ 296); in this sense, the elder Cato says, in Cic^ 
Cat, — a;*,, 5, adolescentulus miles profectus sum ad Capuam, quinteque antu 

* T^ rule, -varying as it does with the number and declension of s 
name of a town, is obviously quite arbitrary, and not traceable to any 
principle. The first (at least in England) proper explanation of this 
apparent peculiarity of the Latin language is given by a writer in the 
Journal of E^jtcation (vol. i., p. 107), from which we extract the following 
passage : *' we are usually directed to translate at Roam by the genitive, 
at Amens bv the ablative, &c., giving different rules according as the 
number or the gender diners, while, m fact, they are all datives. With 
Romae, Athenis, there is no difficulty. As to Beneventi, domi, &c., an ear- 
lier form of the dative of the second declension was oi {oIkoi), whence 
arose the double ^orm nullo and nui/t. In the plural the two languages 
exhibit the same analogy; dov^^i, <5o^fXo<f, in.Greek, and in Latin Dum, 
puens. In the third declension a common occurrence hsm taken pLsce.** 
T^ explanation is copfirmed by the fact that in most cases we find Car- 
ihagini,Anxurij 7\'6itri, and also Lacedamoni^ when the place where? is to 
be expressed. See above, ^ ^, in fin.— Transl. 

t The writer abo^e quoted justly remarks : ** Our editions often present 
CmrtkagiHe,'ZMeed<Btnonef where the MSS. have the correct dative. It is 
true that authority exists for the other form; but the change of Carthagim 
into Carthagine is precisely similar to the change of heri into here^ jnctal 
into pktas, 9ud not mdike the absorption of the t in the datives of so many 
declensionSy Greek and Latin : gradm gradu,^fideijide. In the third de« 
clension, the preceding consonant saved it from total extinction. Ths 
eommoneet effect of time upon language is to soften away the final letters. 
Hence mirariSf mhrare ; agier^ agi ; ipsus, ipse ; quis, qui; fuerimtf fwno 
k$mo, homo; iyuv, kyu; ego, egi,** ^c— Transl. 



fo$l «a x'ariutum Ouaetlor^ that is, in castra, ad Cmpuanu od Tanaimm. Cr 
«<f is also used to denote tne approach of a fleet to a maritimo town; e. g., 
Caes., Bell. Ctv., iii, 100, LaeUus cum daaae ad Brundiaivm venit. 

What has been said abore in reference to islands applies not ooly to 
those which have towns of the same namCi such as jbelos, Rhadus, Sa- 
mos, Corcyrat but to others, also, as in Cicero: Ilhacae vivere ctiote; in 
. Nepos, Canon pUtrimum CyprivixiU IphicreUes in Thracia, Timotktus Leah; 
Pausaniam cum daase Cyprum atque JJeUupontmm misenaU; so, also, Chn- 
•onesum colonoM tnitUrA, Chersonesi habUare ; but Cicero, de Divin., i., 25, 
says, in Cyprum recUre. The larger islands; as, SardiniOf Britannia, Oreta^ 
EubaeOf t^iliOf are subject to the same rules as names of countries ; and 
<he few exceptions which occur cannot be taken into account ; e. g., Cic , 
p. Iteg, Man., 12, inde Sardiniam cum claue venit ; Liv., xzzii., 16, Buboeam 
iraieaarunt ; Flor^ iii., 10, Britanniam trantH ; and some others. 

Names of countries, siso, are not unfre^uently used in the accusative 
without the preposition m when motion is expressed. This is most fre- 
quentlv the case with Aeeyptus (once even in Cic, de Nat. Deer., Hi,. 22), 
and other Greek names of countries in us; .as, Esfnfs, Pfloponnesugp Chet' 
•pnetta, Botporuty perhaps owing to their resemblance to names of towns 
but also with others; e. g., Caes,, BdL Gall, iil, 7, jUyriciim profeehu, 
BeU. Civ., iii., 41, Macedoniam pervenit; Liv., x., 37, Etruriam transdacto 
gaeercitu; zxx., 2i,.Africam traruitunis. All these expressions, however, 
Ke only exceptions, rarely used by the earlier writers, and somewhat 
more frequently by the later ones. Even names of nations, when used 
br those of countries, are construed in this way by Tacitus, ^nn., xii, 
32, ductus inde Cangoe exerdtus ; xii., 15, Ipse praeceps Iberos ad patthan 
rsgmum pervadii. The genitive of n^mes of countries in answer to the 
Question takers ? is much more^ rare, and4s confined to Aegyptim Caesar, 
BslL Civ., vL, 106 ; Ch'ersonesi in Nep., Mitt., 1 ; Florus, i., 18, IrfSises Jju- 
canias in the same way ; in Sallust the combination Ro^ae Numidiaeque is 
easily accounted for.* 

• The grammatical explanation of this genitive, however, is connected 
with difficulties.. Formerly grammarians accounted for it b^the ellipsis 
in loco; modem comparative philology has called in the aid of the locative 
«M^^ar in t of the Sanscrit language, which is akin to' the Latin. (See 
Bopp, Vergleich. Grammatik, p. 229.) This would account for the ae in the 
first declension, the ancient form being ai (see ^ 45), and for the t in some 
nouns of the third declension ; e. g., TVnui, Carthagini, rwi. (See f 62, 
foil) The use of the accusative to denote *' motion to,** and of the ab- 
lative to denote the place where or whence, is perfectly in accordance 
with the syntactical system of the Latin language ; and this accounts for 
the fact or later writers, especiallv Justin, frequently putting names of 
towns of the second declension in the ablative to denote the place where; 
e. g., Abydo, Corintho, iiiv., v., 52, m monts AUtano Lavinioque, for <t La- 

[^ 399.] Nou 2.— With regard to adjectives and nouns of app^itioa 
joined with names ef towns, the following rules must be observed. When 
a name of a town is qiialified by an adjective, the answer to the question 
where? is not expressed by the genitive, but by the preposition in witfi the 
ablative; e. g., Cic.,ad 4tt., xi., 16, in ipsa Alexandria; PUn.. Hist. Nat., 
siv., 3, m Narbonensis provincias AV^ H^via ; and, consequently, not Albas 
Longae, but rather the simple ablative Alba Langi^; as in VirgU» Aen., vi, 
766. In Cicero, however, we find Teani ApuU {p. Clusnt., 9), in the Apu 
lian Teanum. When a name of a town answers to the question where f 

* Acceding to the remark msde above, Aegypti^ Chsrsonesi, fcucfww, 
Sec, are^ll datives, answering to the Sanscrit locative, and no;, ^fenitives. 

t According to what was said above, these are not exceptioiK ibyi§^ 
Corintko, being datives, and not ablatives. — ^Tsamal. 


til the abintiTe, the acklltioii of in adjccttve produces no ciasgo; e. g.» 
ClCy ad Au., ^vi., 6, Mtdo vel cum ttmort domi eue^ iptam niu Umare Athmut 
hda; lAv., i., 18, Numa Pompitius Curibut Sabims halntabdi ; ibid.,xxviii^ 
17, Ctarlhagiru nova reUqwt; and hence the reading in the epitome of the 
eame boo£ should be Cartkagmi hmns, and not novae. In answer to the 
questions whither? and whence? the accu's. and ablat are used botii with 
and without prepositions; e. g., Ovid, Heroid., ii., 83, AliquU doetaa jam 
Hieno Ml, inqnitj AthenM ; Cic., tn Viir.f i, 19, quae ipea Soma etMah sunt : 
but Property iii, 20, mapmm iter ad doctas prqfictta cogar Athenae ;'aiKi 
IfTartial, xiiL, 107, devitiferavenisse Vienna. 

When the words tarhs^ cpmdum, Utcua^ &c., follow the names of towns 
as iq>jositions» they generally take a preposition ; e g., ZTmuiraiiM Oeni^ 
thius $e cotUulit Targumioe, in urbem Etrurioe jlorentietimam ;. Cic^ in Verr., 
▼., 51, Cleomenee dieit^ seee in terram esse egressumf ut Pachyno^ e terrestri 
praesidio, militet cdUigeret, In answer to the question where ? however,' the 
simple ablative may be used, but never the genitive ; e. g., (^ic;, p. Arch,^ 
3, ArcJuas Antiochiae natue est, celelni auondamvrbe tt copiosa ;p. Rob. Poet., 
!0, DeUciarum cauea et voluptatit civee Romanoe Neapoli, m cetelkrrdno opptdo, 
cum mitfUa eaepe vidinois, . When these words, with their pi:epodtions, pr^« 
cede the names of towns, the latter are invariabW put in the same case ; 
e. g.,ad urbem Ancyramt ex urbe Roma^ ex oppido Tnermis^ in oppido Athenie ; 
Nep., Cim,, 3, in oppido Cilia ; Tac, Ann.y zl.,-2] , in opjMo Aarumeto, Et- 
cepUons are rare ; Vitruv., Praef», lib. z., nobili Oraeconun et ampla dvitate 
Epheii; and in Cic, etd Att.^ v., 18, Caasiue in oppido Antiochiae cum omm 
exercitu eetf where Antiochiae depends upon oppido^ jUst as We say ** in the 
town of Antioch.** 

[^ iOp.] Nou 3. — ^The words domue and rus are treated like the names 
of towns, consequently domum (also domoe in the plur.) and rut, home, 
into the country; demo and rure, from home, from the country ; ddmt, run 
(more frequent than rure)^ at home, in the country. But althous^ the 
rule requires, e. g., domo abeeee, to be absent from home, Livy uses eeee ah 
domo ; and besides domi ee tenerf, to keep at h<mie, we also find damo ee 
tenere.* (See the comment, on riep., Bvam^t 10.) Domi also takes the 
genitives meae, tuact noetrae, veetrae, and aiienae; but if any other adjective 
is joined with it, a preposition must be used ; e. g., in tUa domo, in. domo 
pwlicay in privata domo. When the name of the possessor is added in the 
genitive, tioth forms, domi and in domo, are used ; e. g.,- domi or m domo 
iaeearie or ipeiue. In the case of domum ilnd domo, the role .is, on the 
whole, the same ; we say, e. g., domum meam venii^ mhd domum suaminhi- 
lit, domoe euae inbitant, damo sua egredi; but in domum merelriciqm indud; 
in domum veterem remigtare » nova ^ LiVy, in domtUm' Maelii tela inferuhiur; 
picero^ e dom/o Caeearie multa ad te deUUa eunt ; , Cicero, however, very 
commonly says, domum alicujue venire, convenire, domoe omnium concureare. 

Humue, beUum, and nuUtia are, to some extent, construed in ia similar 
way, their genitives! being used to denote the place where? .kumi, on the 
ground (but not humum, f ithrow) upon the ground, and rareljr humo, from 
the ground, prepositions oeing required to express these relations ; hence 
humo is often used as an ablative of place lor Aumi); belli and militiae, 
always in combination, with, or in'oppoeitiori to, domi: belli domique, or 
domi belUque, domi militiaeque, at home and in the camp ; nee dueem beUi, nee 
pnnc^p«m domi deeideramus; nikit dtmii, nihU niUitiae geetum. But we also 
find m beUo, in war. Viciniae for tn vict'nt^, occurs in Terence in such con- ' 
neiiorVft as, kio, hue, vidmae, wheiVf however, the genitiva riii^ re- 
garded as dJependant upon the adverb (see ^ 434), but Plautus (Bocc^, ii. 
2, 27) uses it without the adverb; proximae viciniae hatniat. Forae (out 
throtogli the door) and forie (out at the dodr) have become advdibs, bat* 
the one is l^roperiy anr aecusat., «nd the other ah ablat ' 

» I . ■ T il, 

* FThese are all locative cases. Consult iMte on page 287 ) — Am. Ed. 
f fOr, more correctly, locatives.] — Am. Ed. 


[§ 401.] The poets maj express by tlie accusative atjjr 
locality answering to the question whither ? as in Virgily 
lUdiamfaiQ profkgua Lavinaque venit litora; Spehmcas^ 
Dido dux et Trojanus eandem devenitmt; Ovid, VeHns 
rtfers aures nan pervenientia nostras, 

[I 402.1 10. In exclamations the accusative of the per- 
son or thing wondered at is used, ei^er with the inter-, 
jactions o^ heu, theu^ or without them. The accusative 
may be explained W suj^lying some verb of emotioD or 
declar^ou; e. g., Heu me miserum f O wretched hian 
that I am ! heu dementiam existimeuUium I O the folly of 
those who believe, &c. ! or without heu : me miserum ! 
Beatos quondam duces Romanos / exclaims Corbolo in 
Tacit., Asm,, xi., 20 ; Cie., in Verr., v. 25, Huneine homi- 
nemi hancineimpudentiam^judices/ hanc audaciamf and 
in an ironical sense, p. CoeL, 26, In balneis deUtueruntz 
testes egregios ! de Orat., iii., 2, O/alkusem' hominum spem 
fragilemquefortunam et inanes nostras contentiones / 

[^ 403.] JVbf« I. — With these as with all other interjections the vocatirtf 
also is used, when the person or thing itself is invoked ; e. g., Cic^ PkiUp., 
ziii, 17, o minff 9irt<m re, fiim hoe ipto quod non sentUf quam miser sit I Vao 
and hti are Qsaally joined with the dative ; as, mm murero mihi! vaevktkl 
hn mikii qtuUia erai I 

Nou 2. — Eeee and en {Greek ^, ^vO &re preferred with the nominative ; 
as, Beee tuae liiUrae! Bcee notw turba atjue rixa I En ere f ' JBn memoria^ 
morhd eodatie ! en metue vi veru m esietimttumie I Bcee With the accusative 
occurs only in comedy, in the expression eceo me I and in the contracted 
forms eecum^ eeeoe, eeeiUum, eceiUmn, eceiatam. 

[$ 404.] 11. The Allowing prepositions govern the ac' 
cusative : ad, apud, ante, adversus and adversum, cis and 
citra, circa and circum, circiter, contra, erga, extra, infra, 
inter ^ intra, juxta^ ob^ penes, per, pone, post, praeter, prope. 
propter, secundum, supra, tram, versus^ ultra, and in and 
sub when joined with verbs of motion. Respecung supe» 
and subter, see $ ^20. 



[i 405.]| 1. The dative is the case o£ reference, or, if.#M# 
compare it with the accusative, the case denoting f ^c rC' 
moter object ; -for as the accusative serves to denote ijhe 
effect or that which is acted upon, in contrast to che ager 4 
or active subject, so ^e dative denotes diat vrlth refei • 
ence to which the subject acts, or in referen^r to whid' 


It poBseisses this or liiat qa&Hty^ e. g., serido vo6u k«nc 
lihrum, I write this book (the agent and effect, or cause 
and ^fect), for you (with reference to you, for your ad-- 
noitage) ; prosum tibi, I am useful to you (in reference to 
you).* Hence the dative is used. 

(a) With all transitive verbs, besides the accusative, 
eitlier expressed or understood, to denote the person in^ 
reference to whom or for whom a thing is d6ne ; e. g., 
date panem pauperibu*, cammendo tihi Itberoi meos, rmtto 
Sibi librum, rex mUii domum aedificavit; in the following 
sentences the accusative is understood, or its |)lace is sup- 
plied by the sentences which follow : suadeo tibi, jiersua- 
deo tibi^ nuntiavit imperatori, promisit militibus. This 
rule implies that the person for whose benefit or losa 
anything is done is expressed by the dative (dntiv^8 com^ 
modi et mcommodi) ; e. g., Pisistratus sibi, nen patriae, 
Megarensea vicit, Justin ; Nan schclac^ sed vitae discimus^ 
Senec, Epist,, 106. 

[§ 406.] fbj With intransitive verbs, which, though 
they usually do not govern any case, may yet express 
that the action is done with reference to something or 
somebody. We mention here, especially, vacare, nubere^ 
and supplicare, Vaco signifies " I am free," hence, vaca 
alicui rei^ I have leisure for a thing, or occupy myself 
with it; as, vaco philosophiae. Niibo originally signifies 
*' I cover;" and as, .according to an ancient custoni, the 
bride on her wedding-day covered her face, she was said 
nubere alicui viro, " to cover herself for a man," that is, 
**to marry." (In. the passive, however, we find nupta 
cum viro,) Supplico signifies "I am a suppliant" fsup' 
pUx) ; hence, mpplico alicui, I implore a person. Homo 
nai^ nbi se soli natum meminerit, sed patriae^ sed suisy Cic.| 
De Fin.^ ii., 14. 

Civiias Romana inter beUorum strepitum partem olim va- 
cabat liberalibus dtscijdima. Sueton., De Grammat, 

Plwres in Asia mfulieres singulis viris solent nubere, Cic. 

Neque Caesari sotum^ sed etiam amieis ejus omnibus pro ie, 
sieut adJmcfe^i libewtissime mipplicabQ* tCid^ Ad Fam,, 
▼i./ 14. 

,[^ 407.] N0te 1. — Suadeo tiln kanc rem, has noting Ui^t is ftraoge to us 
M we use the same construction in English. Persuadeo denotes the com- 

* [S(Mne grammarians have called the dative the Mquisitiw case, tu 
being used after any verb, denoting that anything is done to, or icr jj/ 
person* {Cromtue^t Qymnaaium, vol. i., p. O.)]— dm. Ed. 


pteftiofi. of MisrfM, and must be noticodhere beemnse its construetioii 4ifiiiif - 
rirom that of our verb ** to persuade." We use the passive form ** I am per* 
goaded," but in Latin we hiust say hoc (or any other neuter pronoun) mih 
pertuadetur, as t)\e construction is managed in such a way as to make^tfae 
clause which fo lows the subject ; j>€r9uadeher mihi^persuoMum mihi eH, nuiu 

e^emiMum habeo (this occurs only in Caes., Bell. Gail.^ iii., 2) ease aliqidd, 
ut also de aliqua re. Persuadeo te has been found in a fVagment of Cicero, 
p. TuU.t ^ 39, ed. Peyron, but is otherwise altogether unclassical ; it ex- 
plains, however, the personal participle pemuuut which occurs n(»vv and 
then.* . 

Mihi outdem nunquam persuaderi potuit^ anmtM, durn in corporibus entfU mor- 
talmuy viveref quum exisaent ex Am, emori^ Cic, Cat. Maj.^ 22. 

[^ 408.] Note 2.— The free application of the dati?e, or what is termed 
the datiitus commodi et incommodif enabled the Romans to speak with great 
nicety and conciseness. Compare, for example, the following passages, 
whose number might be greatly increased : Cic, in Verr., ii., 8 ( Verres) 
4tmc hominem Veneri absolvit, <i6i condemnatf to the loss of Venus ^whose 
temple was to have received a bequest) he acquits him, but for his own 
benefit he condemns him ; Terent., Adelph.^ i., 2, 35, quod peccat, Dtmea, 
mihi peccat. In Plautus (Copt., iv., 2, 80), a person answers to the jmper 
tinent remark esurire miid videris : mihi quidem estaiOf non tibi ; i. e.^ it aoes 
not concern you. The dative of personal pronouns is very often used 
where it is superfluous as far as the meaning is concerned, but it always 
conveys the expression of a lively feeling, and is therefore termed dativua 
ttkicus ; e. g., Liv., Praef., Ad ilia mihi mro se qvieqwB acriter interidat ani- 
mMm; Herat., Epist., i., 3, 15, Quid mthi Celsus agit? What is my old 
friend Celsus doing ? Jn some cases the pronoun gives to the expression 
an almost personal shade of meaning ; SalLust, Cat.^ 52, hie mihi quiequam 
misericordiam nominal ! Let no one talk to me of mercy ! CiC, Philip., 
*iiL, 4, hie mihi etiam Q. Fufius pacie commoda commemordt ! The following 
phrases, also, should be observed : quid tibi vis? what do yon want? qw'd 
sibi iste v%Ut ? what does he want ? quid vult sibi haec oratio ? what does this 
speech mean ? quid haec sibi dona volant ? what Is the meaning of these 
presents? or what is their object? 

[§ 409.] 2. The dative is joined with all adjectives 
(and adverbs) whose meaning is incomplete, unless a 
person or an object is mentioned for or against whom, for 
whose benefit or loss the quality exists. Of this kind mre 
those which express utUity or injury , pleasantness or un 
pleasantness^ incHnatian or disindination, ease or difficulty^ 
suitableness or unsuitableness, similarity or dissimilarity^ 
equality or inequality. 

Adjectives expressing a friendly or hostile dispositicHi 
lowards a person, may take the prepositions t», er^a^ ad- 
versuSf instead of ike dative ; and uUlisy tnutilis^ apius^ 
iiteptus generally take the preposition ^c^ to express tbo 
thing for whicfi anything is useful or fit ; e. g., homo ad 
nullam rem utilis ; locus aptus ad insidias ; but the per- 
son to or for whom a thing is useful or fit, is always ex- 
pressed by the dative. v . 

* [ Opinio mali, quo visot et persuasOj aegritudo imsequitur nscessario. (Cut»f 
T'oc., 3, 29.) — Cnm animus audiloris persuasus ^tidHur esse nb Ht, qm ants 
tontra dixetunt. . (Auct- ad Heren.^ 1, 6.)]— ^m. Ed. 


GakU nmtne nmUis Impo f atque^ ut Ennues, '' nmia qmrn 
mmilis^ turpissima hestia^ nobis /** Cic, De Nat, Deor.,. 

Fidelissimi ante omnia homini canis el eqmu, Plin. 

Invia virtuti nulla est via^ Ovid, Met,, xiv., 113. 

Cun)f^ esto henigf^us, nulH blandus^ paacis fitmiliaris^ 
ofhnibus aequus^ Senecd. 

{^410.] Nn^e 1.— ilmicitf, inmictu, familiaris, ate property adjectivei, 
and as such have tbeir degrees of comparison, and are joined with the da- 
live ; as in Nepos, MUtiades amicior omnium libertati, qttam suaefuit domif 
natimu ; and homo mihi amicisshnus^ mihi famiUariasimuSf are very common 
expressions. When used as substantives, they are joined with a genitive 
or an adjective ; as, amicutpatm met, eanicuameus ; and it is owing to their 
character of substantives that even in the superlative we find amici$simus, 
famiUaris$imu9f intmidssimus (and on the same principle iniquissimus) meuM 
Cicero, in Verr,, t, 26, uses the genitive, a$mci»simuM noitrorum homitutm 
Invidus, envious, and iiUhnxu, intimate, when used as adjectives, take the 
dative ; as m Cicero, intimu* erat Clodio ; but as substantives they take the 
genitive or a possessive pronoun ; e.g., ab invidis tuia, ex intimvt tmeis, m- 
viduM laudis, Hoaii*^ on the other hand, though a real substantive, some 
times takes a dative according to the analogy of immicus; e. g., dis hommi- 
lu*<tue hostut. 

[\ 411.] Ab^e2.^The dative is also joined with adjectives and adverbs 
denotinjp^ affinity and provinquiti/ ; as, conterminus, propinquust vicinuSffiniti' 
wtus, affinis. As prope, the preposition, governs the accusative, its degrees 
of comparison (^ 266) propkr ioApropnu, proximua and froxime, take both 
the dative and accusative ; e. g., Curt.,iz., 12, propius tntunal aecedere, and 
m Sallust, Libyea propius mare Africum agitabaiU, proxime Hitpaniam Mauri 
«vn/. (Compare Gronovius on Livy, xzii., 40.) Ajfmis, in the sense of 
** partaking," sometimes takes the genitive ; as in Cicero, affinU hujua 
tiutpicionis ; affinis ret capitalia, together with ajfmia kuic tceleri, ei turpitudinL 
Vicinus and vtcina are Doth adjectives and substantives, and in the latter 
tense they take the genitive. 

The following adjectives govern both the dative and the genitive: 
aequatisy cognominut^ contrariue, communis^ peculiaris^ proprius^ tuperstes. Hfee 
genitive is very frequent with propriua ; e. g., Cic., Imprimis hominis est 
proprim veri invtstigaiio ; Alias nationes servihaem paii possunt, populi Momani 
est propria libertas, especially when the neuter in'oipmim is used as a sub- 
stantive in the sense of •* property,'* or •* peculiarity ;** e. g., Propnum ett 
srauntis ornate diesrs. The same is the case with communis t as in Cic, 
de Fin:^ v., 23, Hate jfusUtias ita propria sunt, tit sint reliquarum virtutum com- 
munia. Hence a possessive pronoun is frequently joined to prtprius ; as, 
adsmit nobis omnia, quas nostra erant proprim ; both coDBtmctiona are com 
bined in Cic., o. SuUa, 3, Nulla est snim in re publioa causa msa propria 
tsmpus agendifuit magis mihimoprvum, quam ceteris, AequaHs governs the 
genitive only m the sense of ** contemporary,** in which it occurs also as a 
subsUmtive, whence mtus asmtaUs ; but the dative if not imuaual in this 
tense. SupersUs occurs in Plautut and Terence with the dative,, but in 
later writers the genitive is more prevalent. Even Cicero (ad Quint. Frat., 
i, 3) savs, Utinam te non solum vitas, sed etiam dignitatis supersOtem reUquis- 
•em, and Tacitus often uses the genitive; e. g., Agr., 3,|Mti<;», ut ita dixerim, 
mm modo aliorum sed etiam nostri superstites sumus. 

The adjectives similis, assimilis, consimilis, disshmlis, par and dispar, take 
the genitive, when an internal resemblance, or a resemblance ^n character 
and disposition, is to be expressed. Thus we always find mei, tut, mm, 
nostri^ vtstri stmiUs ; Liv., i., 20, qiuain ctntate betlicosa plures ^i'tmuli, qumm 
Numae similes reges putabatfore ; iii., 64, CMtklatis Cfns^ibi . qaod p»n» 



MMBmnc ad v Uimum dfwmik t dtce$nvurontni use ; Ci;., Co/. Jtti^t -^^ ^EJ^, 

iile Oraeeiae nusquam cptalf ut Ajacis si?niles habeal decern^ at ut Nettorim^ 
And Cicero may therefore say both mars somni and somno similis. Pw and 
ii*par are joined with the genitives of pronouns, like similis ; e. g.» Gic. 
in Pi«^ 4, Q. MeteUum^ cujus paucos pares haec civitas ttdit ; Cat. Maj.f 21« 
Simplex animi natura est^ neqtte /ud>et in se qmcquam admixtum dispar sui atqmt 

[$ 412.] 3. Hence the dative is joined widi those in* 
transitive verbs which express the same ideas as the ad- 
jectives mentioned in § 409, and also with those denoting 
to command, serve^ trusty mistrttst^ approdck, threaten^ ana 
to he angry. They are comprised m the following list : 
prosum, auxilior, ddminiculor^ opitulor, patrociJtar^ sub- 
venio, tuccurro, medeor; noceo, obsum, desum, officio^ ifk- 
commodo, inmlto, insidior ; faveo^ placeo, gratificor, mdul- 
geOf igTiosco, studcOf pareo, adulor, blandior, lenocinor^ paU 
por^ assetUioTf OMentor^ re^pondeo ; adversary refragw^ 
obstOf renitoTf repugno, resisto, invideo, aemulort obtrectOj 
ronvicior, maledico; placeo, arrideo-^^ispHceo ; impero. 
(may be used, also, as a transitive), ^arc<?, cedo^ auscidto, 
obediOf obseqtwr, obtempero, morigeror (morem gero), alicui 
dicta audieru sum, servio^ insermo, miniatro,fam%dor, ancU- 
lor^ praestolor ; credo (is used, also, in a transitive sense), 
Jido, cojifido^ diffldo; imminco^jfropinquo^ appropinquo, im- 
pendeo, oecurro; minor ^ commtnor (both are used, also, in a 
transitive sense), irascor, stomachor^ succenseo. To these 
must be added the impersonals convenit, it siuts ; condudt 
and expedite it is conducive, expedient; dolet^ it grieves. 
The beginner niust take especial care not to use the passive 
of these verbs personally, to which he might easily bo 
tempted by the English equivalents ; e. g., I am envied^ 
t am molested, I am scolded^ I am spared, and the like* 
In Latin the passive is impersonal: mihi invidetur^ obtrec* 
tatur, incommodatur, mihi maledicitur, pardtnr, Jubeo^ 
I command, forms an exception, requiring the accusative 
with the infinitive.* 

Probus invidet nemini, Cic, TiTnaeus^ 3. 

Ejffieit hoc philosophia: medetur animis, inanes sollict" 

tudines detrahit, cupiditatibus liberate pellit timores^ 

Cic, Tuse,^ ii., 4. 
Antiochus se nee impensac^ nee labori, nee periculo parsu' 

rum poUicebatur, donee liberam vere Graeciam atque in 

ea principes Aetolos fecisset, Liv., xxxv., 44. 

* [Consult, on the construction of jube^^ the remnrks of Cronibii 
Bymnas., vol i p. r23. se^.)*]— ''^'^ ^d. 

'}ema»thenes ^tu ipBiu$ artU^ cm Uudebat^ pr im mm hUtrmm 
nim poterat di:ere, Cic, i>e OraL^ i., 61. 

^413.] iVtfic L^Medicor^ like m<«2e<r, takeb the dathre, bat also the 
accusative. Jdtdico, in the sense of ** to mix sobstances in an artificial 
manner,*' governs the aocnaative. . Benadieoi like mmkdko (I sjieak well or 
ill of a person, and hence, i praise or blame), governs tne dative: but 
UasrfftcOfin this aense, ia very.rave : in t)ie aense of ^'blesMng,'? with the 
accusative, it occurs onl;r m the ecclesiastical writers. OUrwetari dlieiu, 
and atkui re^ to detract, is sometimes joined with the accusative; bat not 
in Cicero ; as, «^lracfer« fwaMM daonop, /•MJbtm. /ttvidM is commonly used 
intransitively with que dative,, either of the person or the thing; but some 
dMes the acctisative of th^ ^ng is addiea to the dative ortbe person ; 
e. g., Cic^ Tute., iii, 2, mvitUnt mom» ppHmam nuagutrmm (naturaiQ) ; Herat, . 
iSarm., i, 6, 50, honorem ntihi mpidet, . Quintilian (iz., 3), however, observes 
that ms contemporaries used the ablative instead of Uxe accusative of the 
earlier writers, but only' when imviderg is equivaleilt to ^rnMiv;' this 'Con- 
struction first occurs in Livy» ii., 4P, mm inmUUmnt ImuU §Ha fHulitribu$ 
Romanx (according to the best MSS.); very freq^uently in the younger 
Pliny, and sometimes in Tacitus ; e. g., Plin., Eput.^ ii., 10, Quoutque a 
tibi tt nobis hnidebi$tiiki mwnma lsude,nobu volupUteT {Siee Corte on 
.BpiMt., i, 10.) Tac, Ann,, i, 22, ne hostet quidem aemdtwd invideni^ sc^. 
occin* ; German.^ 33, ne apectacuh quidem proeUi mvtoere, scil. fuibis. The 
|(enitire instead of this ablatite or ancient accnsative, in Horacej jS«rm., 
ii, 6, 84, fM^ve iiU »epo»iti ckm luc kngM invidii mmuu, is ameTQ Giieclsm ;* 
and the personal passive in the same poet (ilr« Poet., 56^, cur ego invideor, 
is a grammatical innovation, which the poet tried intentionally; and as an 
example. Refpecting mdOlcr and tumulm' with the dative and accosative, 
see ^388. Pr«Mto^, I wait upon a person, and oKMtt/to, I listen or, obey,, 
are used by equally good authorities both with a dative and accusative, 
though Cicero prefers the datiYe. Dcmhi&r, I rule, is joined with a 
dative or genitive only in the latest Latip writers; in. the classical leu* 
gua^e it does not govern any case* but according to its proper meaning, 
** I am master," is joined with in olUjuemf or in alicua re; e. g., dominatiir ti| 
cetera mmmaUa, -or m dvitaU* t^ida and cottifido take the dative ; e. g., mm- 
fdio wahit covMc meae, virtuti cancUuUiaeouc^ m ili tum ; the thing which pro* 
duces the conodence is put in the ablative {ablativuc caiuaef see 4 452) ; 
e. g., eenjiio arte, natura hci, eeleritate tunmim, jnrophtqmtttte eaeirorum, and 
this ak^ative occura^ on the wholes more freqnenlly than the dativeu The 
adjective/reftw, which has the same meaiung, occurs with the dative only 
in Livy, iv., 37,fortunaefretus ; vi, 13, niUH rei; Vi, 31, discordiae hoctium, 
and nsnally has the ablAtive. Cedo, I yield, give np, when used transi- 
tivelv, takea a dative of the person and an accusative of the thing ; ceda 
tibi tocum^ repntm, mulierem; sometimes, however, the thing is expressed 
by the ablative; as, cede tibi hartmrum poacecnonc So, also, coiKcdo: ccn^ 
t»rf9 <t6i JogKsi, jiraoug» iiberttUem, eg ccnoedm tibi toes, dc mctcria, Csmimd 
aliquid nuM, something suits me ; cmncenii mUu tecum, is used impersonally 
in the sense of " we agree/' and equivalent to ccnvemmus dc utiqua re.1 
The veiiw denoting simihmty or dissimilarity should be constraed with 
the datvire, like the adjectives dmilis and dicmmUc, birt in prose they are 
eoqraaoniy joined with the prepositions eum and ob; e. g., ccngruo, cm- 
nHtioi„abMorreo,dis$idec* Gonip. ^ 468, foil 

[^ 414.] Able 2. — Several verbs have a di£ferent meaning aceordiqg as 
Ihsy ^e the accua or dat 
Uetuc and timeo tc, I fear thee ; tibi, I am alarmed on thy account, which 

is also expressed by tuS eausd. 

III. I I ■ .. 1 . ,1 ■ ■> 

* [The regular construction occurs; in the same poet, at Serm., i. 6, SQ 
Md Spit., 1, 14, 41.>-ilm. Ed, 
f (dompare Crombie, Qymna$,. vol. i, p. UO.]-*il}ii. Ed, 



CSMMfi^ M, I coBtiih tbM ; aa^ I provide luci.tfaymtenfft& 

Proapicio and prwideo te, I aee thee at a distance ; f*6i, 1 provide for tttf 

Ctneo, withotitany case, ** I am on my ^pauid^ « te, sgainst 4bee, aid ii 
a legal sense, ** 1 make tkee give security to me for sometliing,'' tU aWfMi 
r#. Cmieo fe, I avoid thee ; canto iUd, I provide or am eoncenied ier thiy; 
safety, and hence in a legal sense '^ 1 give thee security" 

Ttmpero and m fod erw aliquid, I rsvulate or. arrange a tmng; mifciV hhmh^ 
irai, Uerimia (sciU incm), 1 set boands to, or check. Tmaero mAi «* 
aliqua re, I abstain from a thing, and tempera (scil. mihi) tibi, I am sparing 
in regard to thee, or I spare thee, equivalent to psTM i>M. 

[§ 415.] 4. Verbs compounded with the prepositions 
adf ante, con^ in^ ifUer, oh^ post, prae^ suh, and super, re- 
taining, as compounds, the meaning of the prepositions^ 
may be. joined with a dative instead of repeating the 
preposition or an eqmvalettt one with the case it requires. 
They are either transitives, and as s&ch have an accusa- 
tive besides, or intransitives without an accusative of the 

The following are the most important transitive verbs 
of this kind : addOf afferOi off^go, adhibea^ adjicio^ adjungo, 
admoveo, alUgo, applied ; circumjicio; comparo^ campono, 
coHfero, conjwngo ; immisceo, impono, imprimo^ tnddo^ in' 
cludo, infero^ ingero, injicio, insiro, inttrd ; intefjicio, inier- 
ponoi qhjicio, offundo, oppono ; pasthabeo, postpono ; prae- 
feroy praeflcio, praep<yi^ ; subjicio, Buppono, subsUmo, 

The following are intransitive : acccdo^ acquiescd, ad- 
Aaereo, alludo, annuo^ arrepo, assideo, tupiro; unteceUo ; 
cohaereo, coUudo, congnto, consentio, conkono p. exceUo ; in- 
cido^ incuho and ijtcumbo^ indormio, inhaereo, tnhio, immo- 
rior, immoror, innascor, insisto ; inteiyaceo, intcrvenio / 
ohrepo, ohstr^o, ohtersor ; praemin^o^ praesidl^^ praeva- 
leo; succuwhoy supersto^ supervivo, Bni the compounds oi 
esse : adsum, insum^ interswm, praesum^ suhsum, supersutn. 

Note. — We mnst pay particular attention to the difierence between the 
dative jdned with these verbs, and the dative gonpemed by those mentioned 
in ^ 412. With the latter it is necessary, anodependant upon theeignifi- 
cation of the. yerbs; b«t witl\ those }Bst enumerated it is te be lepuded 
as a short mode of speaking, in which the dative supplies the place of a 
preposition with its case ; e. g., Ugee oaAeu ivfww tnetMe, and Ugea ta Ms 
meieae^ ot SenflSuaoonemltam. m acre vMman , The beginner most -farther 
observe that we are speaking of those cooipounded verba only in whidi 
the prepositions retain their meaning of place, for in some compounded 
wiCh ad and eum this is not the case ; e. g., confagert^ to Ipke refir^ie; ean* 
•ottake either the preposition <mm or a dative, the meaning of the prepo- 
sition con being lost minis compound. This is stiU more apparent m c»»« 
fru^ere, corrumpere, where con (jewn) only strengthens the sense of the 
simple verb. Affitmart and apprvUre may indeed be joined with a dative, 
but onl]r because they are transitive verbs, and not on account of the 
oreposition tber contain. We have not been able above to mentioa 

ftATIVE CASB. 909 

•n thoie ^ompjQBd Terbs in which the prepoutio.! rotaint its ilie«ti> 
iof^; mnd whic^ instead of repeating the prepo8ition» take the dative^ isn 
their number^ especially that of transitives, is unlimited ; we have given 
tiiONiK only with which, compaiatiYeiy spednihg, the dative occurs most 
frfiquently.. There are some whh which the dative is used exclusively. 
ana Uie repetition of the preposiiion would be oifcnaive, the reason being 
the ' signincation of the verbs themselves: prarfido aod. praepmo, e. g> 
mieflit have been mentioned among the rerbs tn .{ 412, being joined exclq- 
•ively with the dative. But there can be no fear ol loistakes in these Mr^rda. 

[$ 416.] It muat be remarked, in ^neral, that in the 
early and unpc^hed prose, the preposition, or one equjTa- 
ient to it, is usually repeated, more especially in verbs 
compounded witk ad, can, ana in : e. g., adhibeo^ confero, 
coniungo, communico, comparo^ imprtmo, inscribo, insum, 
ana also interest, in the sense of '^ there is a di£ference ;** 
e. g.^ Cicero, studium adhihere ad disciplinas ; confert^ 
(comparate^ contenditej hone pacem cum illo bello ; hos- 
pitio et amicitia mecum conjunxi, or, cum aliquo canjunctus 
sum / consiiia sua mecum qammunicatnt ; in omnium ani' 
mis dei notianem impressit ipsa natura ; in hac vita nihil 
inest nisi miseria. The dative, however, is not to be re- 
jected, being used sometimes by Cicero and more fro 
quently by later writers, lllacrimare^ to weep over; 
e. g., morti Socratis, is generally used with the dative 
only; the preposition, at least, is never rep«»ated. 

The following verbs require some farther expliination. 
Ikcumbo, I lean or press upon, and figuratively, " I apply 
to or study a thing;'' in the former sense alope it i» 
joined with the dative, though scxnetimes, also, with the 
preposition super ; in its figurative sense it is constnie<* 
m prose with ad, and still more frequently with in witb 
the accussfive. The verbs assuescere^ consuescere, and in- 
suescerCf to accustom a person or one's self {se, however 
is omitted) to a thing, are sometimes construed with the 
dative ^ai^d soipetimes with th^ ablative ; ac^uiescere, to 
acquiesce^ likewise takes either the dative or. ablative; 
e. g., Cic, pro Mil., 37, Qui maxime P. Clodii morte ac* 
quieruntt but more frequently in with the ablative^ in the 
flaose of <' to find peace or satisfaction ;'' e* g., tn tuis lit^ 
teris^ injuvenum carifate. Supersedere likewise takes the 
ablative, and, indeed, more frequently than the dative, 
probably because its sense is equivalent to ahstinere; e. 
g., supersedere lahore itineris. 

It is not difficult to determme which prepositions maj^ 
be used for others, in case of r<»petition being necessary. 


fbr it always depends upon the sense : in is used fin* nJ'; 
e. g., accedere in oppidum, aspirare in curiam; ah for ex; 
e. g., enpere ex miseriiSf and a miseria ; ad for in ; e. g^^ 
incumhere ad studia; in^ ad^ ante^ and contra for oh; o. g., 
liquid obrepit in animum, ohrepere ad honored^ obverMtrt 
ante oculos, vallum ohjieere contra impetum hostiwn / ttd 
and <inte for pro ; e. g., procumhere ante pedes , ad gemuc. 

[§ 417.} Tke compoimds of verbs of niotion are con- 
strued wi^'bot^ cases, either the dative <jt the accusative, 
mid some compounds ^ jacerei stare and sedere, follow 
their amJogy. (See § 386.) Hence the verbs of esBcdlin^y 
if their simple v^rbs denote motion, are construed chiefly 
with the accusative, and anteodlo,praeeello Budpraemineo, 
which at least admit the accusative, follow their example. 
(See § 386.) The following Miust be noticed separately 
on account of their twofold constrtustion : allatro^ I bai^ 
at, address in a coarse manner j attends, I attend to (die 
same as ammum attendo ad aliquid or ad aMquem) / 
obumBrOf I ovetshadoW^-^all th^e occur most frequently 
with the accusative, whence they have a personal passive; 
but iUtido^ I ridicule, is found with the dative as often ae 
with the accusative; e. g., illudo fnomoriae, existimationi 
alicuju8,signis et aquUis Romanis^ B,nd praeeeptu rhetorum, 
corpus Pari ^ Despero, I de^air of a* thing, is used a^ an 
intransitive verb widi de or with the dative; e. g.,desperat 
de ^e puhUcttf sibi^ Jbrtunis suis ; as a transitave Verb 
(I give up) it takes the accusative ; e. g., despero rem 
publicam, pacem, 

Praevertoi in the transitive sense of ^* I prefer^" tak^s 
an accusative of the object and a dative, insteaa of which, 
however, the preposition prae may be repeated; e. g., 
uxorem praeoerto prae repuMica or reipuhlicae; in the in- 
transitive sense of " I go before," " precede," -or *^ antici- 
pate," it may take either the ^accusative or dative, prae- 
verto te, fata, piefas pra^vertit ambri /in a reflective 
sense, praevertOy scil. me, or praevertor, it takes ei^er 
the preposition ad or tiie dative, praeverto dd interna, 
praeverto rei mandatae. The depon^it again takes the 
meaning of *^ I pref^," cdiquam rem alicui rei, Li v., viii. 
13, consules coacti omnibus ea/m rem pra^verti, 

[§ 418.] 5. The verbs aspergo and inspergo^ circumdo 
and circumfundo, dono and impertio, exuo and induo are 
used, like the above-mentioned transitives, with an accus; 


«f the thing and a dative of the penon, or witli an accas. 
of tho person and an ablat. of the thing ; e. g., drcumdo 
aiicui cmtodiat^ or circitmdo aliquem cuatodiU^ and, conse- 
quently, in the passive voice custodiae tibi drcumdoMtur or 
(tu) circumdani custodiis,* So^ also, macukudspergo vitae 
tMae, or maculis vitam tuam a^j^go ; dono tUn pecumam^ 
oi pecunia te dono; impertio tibi laudes^ or laudihus te 
imperUo, &c, . We find exuo Ubi dipewn^ mdmt Mi tor- 
jptepif^ or stiU xsore frequently csmo and ituhto veUem^ the 
dative ezpresi^ng my own person being omitted. E$duo 
te aUqua re occurs only in tne figurative sense of " I rob 
thee of a thin^." InduOf I betake myself into some place, 
is commonly joined with the preposition m or with a da- 
tive. Jnterdudo, I cut off, aticui illiquid; e« g^ hostibus 
Jiigamtt or as a verb implying distance, aliquem aliqua rt 
and aZ> aliqua re; e* g«, miHiee Uin^r^, or ab egaereitu. 
JbUerdicQ iSn mliquid, I IMiid thee aomethiilg ; the con 
struction interdico t^ uliqua re does not oc.cur, but a mix- 
ture of both interdico Obi i aliqua re (e. g«« in the Roman 
form of outlawry aqua et igmj^ I forbid tibee the use of a 
thing. The double construction of fi^flctare does not be- 
long to this place, as it arises from two different mean- 
ings of the wordi the original on,e '' to honour,^' requires the 
accusative and ablative ; e>.g., Cic, in Vatin,, Q^puerorum 
exUs deo8 manes mactare soles; the derivative meanmg 
^ to slaughter'' is the ordinary one, victimoM diis mactare. 
.[§. 419*} 6. With pasMve verbs the dative is sometimes 
tised alone, instead of ab with the ablative. 

Quidquid in hoc eauia mihi suseeptmn est, Ouirites^ id 
omne me rei publicae causa suscepisse oofifirmo^ Cic, 
pu L^* Man., 24. 

Barbarus hie ego sum, quia non intdligor fi^«, Ovid, Trist. 

Note,^li is a rale of the Latin language to join the dative inekeed of ah 
wit^ the ablative to the participle future p^stive ; e. g., manmdtm mihi est 
See ^ 649. If this were not the case, we should consider the diUve with 
passive verbs as a Grecism, for it rarely occivs in the earlier bi^ prose 
(especially in Cicero aDd%Caaaar)> and with the esception of « few in- 
stances, is confined to the participle perfect passive and the tenses formed 
from it. In poetry and the later prose writers instances like the above 

Jiuotatien from Uvid are extremely numeyoiii« as poete in general were 
ond of irtroducing Greek constractions. The following passagea are the 
<«ly oneb \a which Cicero adopted the practice^ d$ Inpent., if 46, Uia no6u 
s/m tempore exptteabwUur ; in Verr.t iii., 16, ffli em%$ulatu$ quaerebatur ; de Nat. 
Ikar., n,,4B,sic d t tmutf tSMS bettioHa commnmitee dbiu fuuritur ; daQf^m^ 
i, hoiieeta tenia viris, nan oecuUa qmeruntvr;f Cat. Aif;., 11, semper m his 

• rCompare Crombie, Gymnas,^ vol. il, p. 211.]— ilm. JK. 
f Compare Heusinger^ (^ loe.l—Am. Ed. 

309 L ATiN OilAMIf )MU 

\% in ed praesertim epustola^ qttam nolo alUt t^, probably for fUt cZo»^ , | 
doubt whether there are an^ other paieages in Cicero, for the phraiie mSi 
yrcbaUtr 18 of a 4i£Fei«iit kmd, ^ince pnbo tiki is of quite conooD eoowr- 
ftijce in the sense of ** I make a thing plansfble to thee." 

[§ 420.] 7. fU»e with t)ie dadve of a person expresaat 
Jie Englisli " tp have ;" e« g^miU miki muUi l^bri^X h»if# 
maoy books, the. AAio^ aa Aa^,m«^^of ^i^0«. . '^ «. 

Ilommi cum dcQ timUitudo est, Cic^ de Leg.f i., 8. 

Jm nesdSflengaa iegibui ^ts^moMtu? OM, HJmnd*^ 17.' 

Aolf^— We must here notiee a Gr«eiam wjuch-oeoort in SalhiatttA 
Tmcitos: alupud mihi volenti ecf, I like a thii)g. Sallust, /iy^ 84».{f«4M 
neque pUbi mtUHa volenti (esse) putabatur ; T^it., Agr»t Id, fuibut bellum vo- 
lentUma erat ; Ann,^ 1, 59, tU qu^nuque 6eU«m invitis out eupient^uM^'iratf aa 
in Greek tqpt6 4191 0QvXofUyfi> iariv^ Comp, Tac^ Hist^ iii^ 43; Ajm^ . 
XT., 36. Abest and deeet mihi^ as opposed to est miki, therefore mean 
** 1 hare not ;" as in Cic, Brut.^ 80, Hoc mum Oti; si hihU vtiHiatis kabebat^ . 
al^ml, si opus erat, defuit ; de Leg.^ i., 2, 4^1 nam kistoria litteris nostris^ 

[$ 421.] Hence f»t^ est nomem or cogmmten (also cogno' 
memium, and in Tacitus roeaMum) signifies '* I hare* a 
name/' that is, " my name k,'* or **I am called.** The 
name itself is put either in die nominative or l^edadve^ 
being attraetea by the dative of the pereon. 

Syracusis est Jans etquae dulcis, cui nomen Arethusa est^ 
Cic, t« Fc/T*., iv., 53. ' 

Constdes leges decemvirales, quibus tahtdis dttodecim est no^ 

men^ in aes incistts, in publito proposuertmt^ Liv., iii., 57. 

• Note.— 'The same is the case with the (passive) expressions datum, in>- 
dit%tm,faeMi^ est itomen ; e. g., Tarqwnius, eui cognomen Superbo ex moribus 
datum. The nto^ itself is commooly put in the dative* also, with the 
active verbs dare, addere^ indere, dioere, ponere, imponere, tribuere aiicui 
nomen ; e. g., dare 'aiicui cognomen tarda ac pingui ; des^piunt omnes aeque at 
tu, qui tibi nomen insano posuere, Horat ; bat it mar also be put in the safloe 
case as twmen, that is^ in the accusative ; as in Livy, stirps virilis^ cui As- 
coantM parentes dia/ere nomen, atul in the edict of the tiefisors in Suetonius, 
die Clar. Rhet. I, eos sibi nomen imposuisss Latinos rke$ofes. The soQUnalive 
in Ovid, Met, i-j^ 169, (via) lactea nomen habei^ fuad xv., 96, (aetas). ei^eei 
m'us aiarsa nimefi, is a purely poetical license, where the namies are talken, 
ungraiBiBaticaUy, as mere sounds. 

The nanse may be expressed, also, by the genitive, aecordm^ to.^w^en 
eral rule, that of two substantives joined to eiiich other, one is put in the 
gemtif«7ag;,Plaat.^'iliiit»IWtr. Prol., l^fMrnen MereurirMt-ifahi; in prose 
VelL. Pl^ i^ llrQ' MeteOus praetor, cui er vistuisMacedomei Hosim tndtti* 
erat; and ii., 11, Q. MeteUo meritum virtuts cognomen Ifumidid indihaw est 
Bu« this is iiot the ordinanr practice in the case of real proper names, an^ 
the daitive. must be regmed as the ptoper Latin case. See Ruthtften oi. 
VelL Pat, ii., 11. jC ' 

S$ 422,] 8* With the verbs esse^ dare^^nittere and ti^.Ar^; 
L others of the same meaning, besides the dativi* A. i^^ 
person, another is used to express the puipose, inr« A'uCki, 
and destinat'on. 

Bb^ %«ld6g» tomxb dttdd bDeh inits seme ol ^^to grre** 
mad Ita that- of '* to put to one's aecoonc" The blowing 
ymhs luKve a similai* meaning: ap^oei/ere, ducere, habere, 
iriifttere, and vertere. Esee\ in iMs r^ect, is equivalent 
t^Hie^Eiiglish *'to do," in **it does him honour," and the 
]MMC^ve8^^!rr,' dari^ duet; haberi, tribni^ verti, have a simi* 
lar meaning. IVo^^tm i» sometfanes construed like ve* 
mre, • ' .> * • t. ^ . 

Tirtutes h&minibiis decofi giarkieqwR sunt, Setii€fca. 
AUdlue, Aiiae rex^ regnUm suttni R&manu dono dedit. 
MUh Ptataecnses Atheniehnbus adversus Persas auxilto 

venerukL ^ ... 

Quid in Graeco sermone tarn tritum atque cdehratum est, 

quatn si quis despicattd ducitw, Ut Mfsorum ulHmus^ 

enedieatur^ Cic.,;p. Fkicc.<i 27 i 
iyble.-- Tfadra is jfi great variety of tlatites of ^is kind ; ^. %., dttno dliptut 

or da^ur miki vi^, crimini, odh, probro, ttpproArio, laud*, taluti, utUitaH, emolu- 
mento,&c. The phrase cm bono f tit t signifies *'to whom was it an ad- 
vantage \" We must especially notice sueh ^totires as um, %na, puMitui, 
dtriam, cordi, curat aUqnid ett, aad also eanen rttephti, to souacl a.retreat ; . 
doti du», I set aside as a dowry; appono pignori,l pawn. Instead of hoc 
argumaUo eat, we may also say hoc argwnentum, docununium, indiemm e$t , 
MM with dare and similar verbs we may also nse the acovsative in mo 
Bttion ; e. g., Lit., it, 22, Latitu eoronam awream Jovi doman m CafitoUttm 
mi t tw H t . Sometimeak also, the prepositions m or ad may be used ; e. g. 
Sti estreitwn ad jK f oe u di mi u ghriam mihi in mmett vtr^. 



[I 423. J 1. When two substantives are united vm> 
each other so as to form the expression of one idea, one 
of them is in the genitive; but if one of tha substantives 
serves to explain or define the other, they are said to be 
in apposition to eaeh other, and both are in the same 
ca$e. This gehitive, dependant upon a substantive, is in 
Latin of a double kind, according as it expresses either 
die subject or the object. The genitive is subjective when 
it 4euQtes that which does something or to which a thing 
belcmgs; e. g., hominum facta^ liber pueri: it is objective 
when it denotes that which is allbcted by the action or 
feeHng spoken of. 

This objective genitive is used very extensively in 
Latin. f'T it is not only joined with those substantives 



which an' derived from verbs ^ove^mg the accusn^v*^ 
e* g,, exjougnatio urbis^ the taking, of the town ; indagaim 
veri^ the investigation of truth ; tcieniia linguae^ the 
knowledge of a language ; amor patriae, the love of 
one's country; cttptdUas pecuniae, desire for money; pura 
remm aUenarum, care of other, menu's aHkirs ; odium 
hcmimim^ hatred agunst men-^but with those, also, the 
corresponding verb of which requires either a different 
case, or a preposition \ e» g^ taedium lahorii, disgust fox 
work; Jiducia virium ittarum, confidence in his own 
strength; conteniio honortim, a contest for honours; in- 
citamentum periculorum, cognitio arhu terrarum omnium^ 
quegaUium, &c. 
Nuper Crn. Domitium scitnus M* SUano^ consulaH hommt, 

diem dixisse propter t0iiu^ hominU, Aegritomari, patemt 
' amid atque ko^ntis, injuriag^ Cic., Divin., 20. 
Est aiitem amicitia nihil aliud, nisi omnium divinarum ku*- 

manarumque remm cum henivolentia et caritate swnma 

consensioy Cic, LaeL, 6. 
Initium et causa belli (civilis) inexplehilis hoTtorum Mari\ 

fames, Flor., iii,, 21. 

Nou l.-^SomethiDg analogous to tbe Latin subjective and objectivis 
genitive occurs in English in such expressions as ** God's love," that is. 
the love which God shows to men ; and the ** kyve of God," timt is, ikm 
love which men bear to God. The Latin language having no sueh meana 
of distinguishing, is frequently ambiguous ; e. g., fuga hominum may' be 
either " the escape from men," or, " the flight" or " escape of men, and 
in all such combinations as metus hostiumj injuria muHerum^ judicium Verrit, 
triutnpkus Boionan^ opinio deorum, the genitive may be either subjective (ac- 
tive) or objective (passive), but the context generally shows what is meant, 
as in sine metu hostium CMe, magnus inceuerat timor tagittarum^ ex injuria mu^ 
Uenun Saimuman bellum orlum est ; Empedocles in deorum ophuone turpissiwu 
labitur, Cici de Nat. Deor., 1. 12. But in case of any real ambiguity, a 
preposition may be used in Latin instep of the genitive';' e. g:, ex injuria 
in or adversus muUereSf in opinione de diis. This is the case espeeiiiUv' witir 
substantives denpting a disposition, either friendly or hostile t<^waraft any- 
thing ; e. g., amor {animus) jneus erga fe, odium (tra) adversus CarthaginUnsea^ 
bellum in KomanoSf eonspiratio contra digrdteuem tuam; triumphtis de GaBts^ 
judicium de ie m^wih, itMr de j/ihtUsophia, m Ubro quinto dfnatunt deonum' In 
general, hpwever, a preposition is much more rarely used in ioinihg two 
substaiA^ives, and it is a part of the conciseness of the Latin langu&ge to 
express the relation of the genitives, if possible, by the g^Cive itself 
This, however, is impossible, for instance, when a place whence? A 
orhithert is mentioned; e. g., fransmissus (the passage) ex Galliti m Bri' 
tanniamtTedUus in coelum^ iter ex ItaUm in Macedoniam. Sometimes the two 
kinds of construction are combineii : Cic, de Off.^ L, 28, Adhibmdm est %t - 
tur quaedam re^terentia adverstis homines et opiimi cujuaaue et reliquorum» (^e 
tfurnote on this passage.) Sometimes even a subjective and an objec* 
tive genitive are found by the side of each other,* as in Cic, de C^, i.< 

* [Compaie ^^^hser^born, Lot. Schulgr.t ^ 216, A*tm. 3, where other ex 
tmples aie also t^iven.l — Am. Ed 


Jk^ L. SvMaie et C, CatMoria peeuniamm tnmala^ a ju$tis dommU md mKmm 
mtn^tket liber alts vidtri ; ad r'am.^ X., 3, prbitaa reipublkae taUum wntvmi m 
Verr^ v., 50, nihil est ouod muUorum naufragia /cwtunae colli fas ; Caes., BeU. 
QaU.i L, 30, pro veterans Helvetiorum injuriis pomUi Romam ; L e., which the 
Helvetiims had done to the Rosiaii people. Comp. S^nt, omat.., ^ 791. 

[^ 424.] Note 2.~-A8 a personal pronoun suppliet the place of aaubvCan* 
ttve, its genitive generally with an objective meaning may be joined with 
•'substantive ; e. ^^ vestri emuam gero, 1 take care m you ; misericordiam 
matri ^sie,,haYe puy UfMxi us, especially with verbal substantives eiidiii| 
in or, tTy and io ;e. g., Cicero, muitfilium wm sohim sui deprecatoran^ sed #<»- 
«m aceusatorem nui; nimia a^stimatio sui; valet ad commendationem tui; ti^' 
tas ad dediiiai u m ami inekare ; raiismm et svi et aUsrum kabers. The place ol 
•.he subjective genitive of personal pronouns is supplied by the possessive 

Kronouns, whence we do not say liber mei^ but tioer mens. Sometimes, 
owever, the genitive of personal pronouns has a subjective meaning, as 
in Curtius, iv., 45, ad Cyrum, fu^ilissimum regem originerA sui re/erenSf and 
vi, 32, conspectus vestri venerabilis (see the comment on Caes., Bell, Qall.^ 
L, 4) ; and sometimes, on the other hand, a possessive pronoun not unfre- 
quently takes the place of an objective genitive, and tnat not only when 
joined with verbal substantives in or and ix, e. g., ipse suus ftdt accusator, 
terra aUriat nostra, but in other cases, also ; as, invtdia lua, envy of thee ; Jidu- 
da tuOf confidence in thee : famiUaritas tua, friendship for thee ; spes mea, 
the hope placed in me (Tac, Ann., ii, 71) ; amori nostra plusctdum largiare, 
from love towards us ; noltdt rationan habere suam, that notice was taken 
of hhn ; non sua solum ratio kabenda est, sed etiam aJiorvm, Gic, de Of^i., 
39. This is especially frequent in connexion with the substantive injuriae, 
e. g., iniurias tneas, tuas, persequor, vldscoTf that is, the wrong done to me, 
thee. The peculiar expressions mea, tud, sua, nostra, vestrd, causa, for ^y, 
thy, his, &c., sake, must be especially noticed, for the genitives md, tui, 
m*, nostri, vestri, are never used m this connexion with causa* Sometimes* 
the genitive of the person implied in such an adjective pronoun is added, 
aa, in tmtm homims dmpUds pectus vidimus : juravi rempublicam mea unius • 
opfra esse salvam ; tot homines mea solius solUciti sunt causa ; ad tuam ipsius 
mmidtiam aditum habuit ; vestra ipsorum causa hoc feci The genitive of a 
participle in this connexion occurs only in poetry,* as in Horat., Serm., L, 
4,(23, quum mea nemo scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis. See Heindorf *8 , 
note on this passage. 

[^ 425.] iVot«j3.-rThe immediate connexion between two substantives, 
which is expressed by the genitive of the substantive dependant upon the 
other, is entirely different from the juxtaposition of two substantives in 
apposition to each other. But there are cases where the construction of 
the genitive is preferred, although the substantives are, in reality* in ap- * 
position. This is the case especially with vox, nomen, verbum, and similar 
words, to which the name itselif is jomed in the genitive ; e. g., Cic, de 
Fin., ii, 2, Epicurus non intelligit, quid qonet haec vos vduptatis, that iS, this 
wcNrd pleajmre ; ii., 24> e» amore nomen. amicitiae duetwn est, L e,, the word 
smidtia; Sueton., Jlu^., 53, domini appetl'Uionem semper exhorruit. This is 
regularly done when the genus is defined by the species, as in arbor fid, 
a Sg-'tree ; fios vidae, a violet ; virtus amtinentiae, the virtue of abstinence ; 
dtium ignorantiae, the defect called ignorance ; familia Scipionum, the fam- 
ily of ttu) Scipios ; and also in geographical names ; as, oppidumArUiochiae, 
prmtiontorium Jdiseni, in which case, however, it is more usual to put the 
name in apposition in the same case as the generic term. There are 
some other cases in which one substantive intended as an explanation of 
il^her is put in ttt9 genjtive, instead of the case of the word to be ex- 
plained igenitivus epexegeticus) \ e. g., Curt., viii., 35, Noctumum frigus ve- 
kementius quam al^ horrore corpora affecit, opportunumqtie remedium ^nit 
. ■ ■ ' ■ 

* [It occurs thus only before the time of the elder Pliny ; after that p» 
itod It appears also in prose. {Orelli, ad Herat., I. c.)\^Am. Ed. 


4Uaium eit, i e., ti convenient remedy, viz., fire. Cice>^ lieqiiently it # 
gtnu$ tttid caun in the same wav ; e. g., in Cat, iL» 8, wium genuM est ^' * ; 
de Jje^. Agr.f ii., 14, Duae ntnt hujus obscuritatis cautaef una midorit, Ju*^ 
tceieritf the one is shime and the other malice ; Philip. ^ i., 11, nee efitjrus- 
Uor in senatum non veniendi causa morbid quam mortis ; in Verr., iv., 51 , orm-Ja 
propter earn causam sceteris istius evenire videnttir, for this ^'^ason, via., his 
crime. Comp. de.Off., ii., 5, eollectis eausis eluvionis, pestkmtiaet &c., the 
other causes, mundation, phi8:ae, &c. The j^nitive of gerunds is used in 
the same way as that of substantives ; e. g., Cic., Tusc^ i:,36,'TnsU «tf 
nomen ipnan earendif the very word to want is sad ; Senec;, ad Pofyb,, 29^ 
£st magna felidtas in ipsa feUdtate moriendi. In such cases the constoQC- 
lion of apposition is very unusual in Latin ; see, however, ^ 508. 

Q. Metellus Macedonicus, quum seat liberos relinqueret, undecim nepotes reliquit^ 
nurus vero generosque et omnes, qui se patris tqapellatione salutarent, vigints 
septem, PUn., Hist. AV., vii., 11. 

[$ 426.] 2. The genitive in the immediate connexion 
of two substantives also expresses tlie external condition 
or the internal nature of a ming ; and if any of the tenses 
of esse, Jieri^ haheri, appears in such a combination, the 
genitive is not dependant upon these verbs^but must leath- 
er be explained by the omission of a substantive ; as, homo 
and res. This, at the same time, constitutes the differ- 
ence between the genitive of quality (genitivus qualiUUUj 
and the ablative df quality with the verb esse. But as 
there is a special part of speech to express qualities, viz;^ 
the adjective, the quality can be expressed by a substan- 
tive only when this substantive itself is qualified by an ad- 
jective. We cannot say, for example, homo ingenii, a man 
of talent (which is expressed by lunno ingeniosusj, but wo 
may say homo magni, summit exceUentis ingenii. Again, 
we cannot si^ homa annorum^ but we may say homo vu 
ginti or quadraginta annorum^ We must notice, also, the 
genitive modi^ which, joined with a pronoun, supplies the 
place of a pronoun of quality; e. g., cujusmodi lihri^ the 
same as quales /a^rt, what kind of books; hujt^smodi lihri^ 
that is, tales /i^*,«uch books. The genitive generis, which 
is used in the same sense, is less frequent. 

Athenienset belli duos duces deligvnt, Peridem, spectatat 

virtuiis virum, et Soph-odcm, scriptorem tragoediarum^ 

Justin, iii., 6. 
Titus Jacilitatis taktaefuit et liber alitxitis^ uf ntmini quii- 

quam negaret, Eutrop., vii., 21. 
Hamilcar secum in Htspaniam duxitjiliwm Hannihalem 

annorum novem^ Nep., Ham., 3. 
Spes unica populi Romani, L. Quinctius, trans THberim 

quaUuor jugerum colebat agrum, Lir., iii.> 26. 

" ■ ■ ■ . " > " ., - ^ 

» fConanU Cmmhie. «7y?nna*., v:'. \,y 151, 162]— .4 m. Ed 

, £4.^.}..^(f.— The gepitivc thus serves iq express ali t^e attributes of 
t person or thing, relating to its extent, number, weight, darat] on, age, 
iiid the lik'e, provided such attributes are expressed by the ia-.mediatA 
connexion of substantives^ -Thus we say, eolo$nu cenhtmvigmti pedum , a 
coloffsus of 120 feet in height; fossa quindecim pedvm^ a ditch of 13 fee. 
(in length or breadth); corona pArvi ponderiSf a ciown of little weight 
ArutideM exilia decern atu toru m tMMatut est ; /hanenham dunm iriginta in vrs^ 
erat^ classis centum naviumf ot with esss, which, howeve;-, has no inf^u 
ebce" hpbn the construction, although we sometimes translate it bj 
'^ consist of;" e. g., cUtssis Persarum milte et ducentarwn nairium longarun 
fyif^ consisted of 1900 shq^s of war. With the geoidve of extent or meas 
ore we may conn^t the ablatives, which we express in EInglish bf 
''with regard to;** as, longitudine^ tatitudine, crassitudinSf altUu^ne, or m 
httgitudinetHf &c. ; e. g., duo actus jugerum eficiwU longitudine patuim 
CCXJLj latitudine pedum CXX; Inter Mosam Khenumqus trhtm ac vigmf 
mHhtm spdtio/ossam perduxit, Tac, Ann., xi, 20; but the genitive does not 
depend upoB.tbese words. 

The fact of this genitive of condition or quality being limited to the im 
fnodiate connexion of two substantives, must be strongly impressed upon 
tlHs-iABid of the begiBtteft^iD order that he mfcy distinguish from it the ac- 
cuptive denoting extent of space and time, which is joined to verbs had 
adjectives, and tne ablative of quality, which is governed by esse, or prae- 
dihu, instructus, omatus. For, without the mfloence of any other part of 
speech, we nj^fosm quirndttim ptdum * bat when the adjective Umgus or 
lotus is added, we must shy, fossa quindecim pedes lata: in, like manner, 
puer decem annorum, but puer decem annos natus (^ ^5, foil.). When the 
ablativa of quality is closely jomed with another substantive, praeditus or 
the participle of esse bemg undenrtood, as in emmia forma pueri, this ex- 
pression is quite the same as pueri earimiaeformae in meaning, but by no 
■Mans In remenee to tbe grammatical construction of the words. 

£4^861] Lastly, we must notice some- peculiar es^ressions. in whick 
the accusative is nsed adverbially instead of the genitive of quality : Secus 
(see above, ^ 84 and 89), Joined to virile or mulkbre, signifi^ ** of the male 
or ** female sex," and is equivalent to seaeAs xmlis; e. ^., Liv., xxvi., 47 
Uberorum eapitum mrils seeus ad X tmlia capta. Genus, joined with a pro 
noun, as hoc, id, illud, quod, or with omne, is used for /mjus, ejus, omn9 

feneria ; e. g., Cic., ad Att., ziii., 12, srqlfofte> omI tdiqtdd id gatus scribera 
lorat., Serm., ii., 6, 44, <oneredere nugas hoe gmus ; it is more cnrious in 
connexion with other cases; as, Varro, de jL. L,, x., in fin., in verbie id 
genua, quae mm dicUtumtur; de R. R., iii, 6,poftieus ambus omne genus ap- 
fiUkie; Sueton., TH., 7,««w iIm qumque mlia omne ^enusferarum dedit^ iot 
ferarum omnis generis, Pomdo (see ^ 87), joined quite as an indeclinabla 
woidto the accusatives Ubram toidlibras, instead of the genitive, occurs 
frequently in Lity^ e. g., iv., 90, Dietaior coronam aute&m lUtram pondo m 
CapMio Jam dammi posuit; and in the plural, xxvi., 47, Paterae aureus 
fuerwtt CCLXXVL, librae ferme omnes pondo. 

[§ 429.] 3. The genitive is used to express tbe whole 
of which anything is a part, or to which it belongs as a 
part This is the case, (a) with subst^ntiyes denoting a 
certain measure of things of the same kind ; e^ g., modius, 
medimmum triticifUhra Jarris, magna vis auri,jt(gerufn 
a^, ala ejuiium. This genitive may be termed geniti- 
vus generis, fhj With all words which denote a part at 
a whole (genitivus partitivus), where we <^n use the 
preposition ** or' or ^* among." All comparatives and 
superlatives belong to this class ; e. g., doctior htrum 

Cc 2 


^duarumj juv&ium ; doctissimus omnium ; doquentusiiMu 
RomanorufJi^ Jerociisimi ez?dum, and also all :w:ord9 im* 
plying a number, whether they are real numerakor pro- 
nouns and adjectives ; os, quis^ aliquis, quidam^ uter^aiter^ 
neuter, aU^^'uter^ uterque, uiervis, aliquot, solus, nuUus, 
nonnulli, mufti, pauei ; or substantives ; as, Tiefno^ J^^^rSt 
numerus. The genitive belonging, to the superlative of 
adjectives is retained, also, with superlatives as adverbs. 
Thus we say optimus omnium est, and also optime omnium 

Graecorum oratorum praestantissimi sunt ii, qui fuerunt 

Athenis, eorum autem princeps facile Demosthenes^ Oic, 

de Opt, Gen. Orat, 4. 
Populus Rofmanus legem dedit, ut consulum utiqus alter ex 

plebe crearetur, Liv,, vi., 35. 
Jhio sunt aditus in Ciliciafn ex Syria^ quorum uterque 

parvis praesidiis proptfir angustias interdudi ^>ate4€, 

Cic.y ad Fam.f xv*, 4. 

[^ 430.] Nou l.—Tbe jpo^ts use the g«i)itive»al80, with other adje^tivea 
in the positive), but this seldoi)i occurs in prose. Livy frequently has 
the expressions deUcti equitumt exiatditi militum; in Sallust {Cat., 53) we 
lind effoeta pfirmtum, and in Yell. Pat., iL, S, veteret Romanorum dicum, 
(See the remariis of Corte and Ruhnken on these passages) Th« geni- 
tive, however, always denotes the whole, from wnich a part Is taken. 
When, therefore, the above-mentioned adjectives are ^ised in the same 
number and case as the aubstantive denoting the whole, the case is differ 
ent, although the di^erence in meaning is sometimes very slight ; e. g., 
midtif aliquot, pauci militiun and nalitea ; Varro docUsuivms fuU RomoMorum 
and doctusimuM Ronumus ; alter consulwn and alter consul, UterquA^ how- 
ever, cannot, like the English " both," be joined to a pronoun in the same 
case, except when a substantive is added; thus, "both these" or "these 
two" cannot be translated into iiatin by hie (or UU, qui) ntergtUj but we 
must say honim, illorum, quorum vterque, whereas vterque /rater and quod ■ 
utrumque exemplum are quite common expression^.* 

The genitive, however, cannot be used when the numeral containa the 
same number of things as that of which the whole consists, that is, when 
there is no relation cm a part to a whole. We m;ake this remark only be- 
cause we use the preposition " of" (the equivalent to the genitive), when 
we are not speaking of a greater whole, but of an equal one. We say, for 
example, "the people who served under Frederic the Great, and of 
whom few are surviving," but in Latin we cannot say quorum admodum 
pauci ntpvtitnt, but qni paufd auoerawit, for ^hese few are all. Cic, Philip,, 
li., 6, Veniamue ad vivost qui duo de coneularium numero supersunt ; Liv., i., 55, 
Tarqmniut gaeella exaugurare etatuUj quae aliquot ibi a Tatio rege eonseerata 
fuerant ; QuintiL, ▼., 10, 63, (Quaeritur), quot eint speciea rerum puUiearum: 
quae tree occcptmitf, quae populi, quae paucorum, quae uniue potentate regerentur 

Instead of tne genitive we may also use the prepositions ear and inter ^ anU 
sometimes de, but never ab. (Compare the passages quoted in Chap. LX V.) 

* [The reason of all this simply ia, that uterque never has the force of 
>ur English " 6o/A," bu* nlways denotes each oftwo taken individually .]r 
Am. Edm 

OXlf 11398 CABS. MM 


14 43Li AbfiB 2.^Thn words uttr, «&<r, neuter, differ fron fiiw tiM»§^ mi^ 
lk«, by their referring to a whole consisting of only twa (See ^ 141.) 
The difference between no»tri^ ve$tri, and nostrvm, vetfrion, is this : tbs. 
forms ending bi kjn are need as partitive ganitiveB ; e. g., uterqw nogtrum, 
tmttnm cuju$qu» m(«; nemo veatmm ignorat; imperium tttmmum Romae hm* 
hebit ; qui vestnimprimut oaculum matri tuUrit; but nostri tnehorpeu-s animma est, 
miaero'e noetri^ immemor nostri, amor nostri, odium vestri, vestri similes. Vestrum, 
however, oecaTSt cl^o, withoat any partitive meaning ; e. g.ifrequentia ves 
trum, inere4ibiU9r Cic, m RulL, u., 21, and PhiUjK,iv., I ; compare p. Plane., 
6 ; quis erit tam ewpidus vestnim, Gic, m Verr., in., 96 ; vestrum quoque non 
sum setkrus, Liv;, zzxiz.. 16. The forms nostrum, vestrum, moreover, in 
always used when joined with onmium, evan when the genitive is a sub- 
jective one; e, g., Cic, de Oral., in., 55, Voluntati vestrum omnium parui; 
in Cat., L, 7, patria quae communis est omnium nostrum parens. 

[§ 432.] 4. The neuters of pronouns and of some ad- 
iecUTes usfed as pronouns, are joined witJi a genitive for 
two reasons : first, because in meaning they have become 
substantives; and, secondly, because they express a part 
of a whole. Such neuters are : koc, id, illudj istud, idem, 
quid and quod with their compounds faliqmd, quidquid, 
quippiam^ qmdquam, qteodcunquej, aUud; tantum, quan- 
tum^ aliqvuntum^ mtdtum, plus, plurifnum, minus ^ mini- 
fnum, paulum and nimium, with their diminutives and 
compounds ; thntuLum^ tantundem^ quanttdum^ quarUu- 
lumcunque^ &c. To these we must add nihil^ nothing, 
which 18 always used as a substantive ; and the adv6rbs 
saiis, enough; parum^ too little; ahunde^ affatim^ and 
sometimes largiter^ abundantly — when they are used as 

It is, however, to be observed that these neuters are 
used as substantives only in the nominative and accusa- 
tive, and tha,t they must not be dependant upon prepo- 
Quantum incrementi Nilus capita tantum spH in annum est, 

Senec, Nat. Quaest,, iv., 6. 
Potest quidquam esse absurdius, quam^ quo minus viae res^ 

tat, tanto plus viatici quaerere, Cic, Cat. Maj.^ 18. 
Procellae quanto plus habent virium, tanto minus temporis^ 

Senec, iVa^. Quaest^ viL, 9. 
Pythctgora^^ quum in geom£tria quiddam novi invenisset, 

Musis bovem immolasse dicitur, C'c, de Nat, Veor,, 

iiL, 36: 
htstitia nihil expetit praemii, nihil pretii, Cic, de Leg., 

L, 18. 
Satis eloquentiae, sapienttae parufn (in Catillna fuit), Sal- 

K 433.] Note I.— The genitive joined with these neuters is oftea not a 

908 LATIN GBAMlfAm. 


raal «ubctaiiti?e^ b«t Ute nemter of an-Bdje^ve, wMch Isns^ as' s 
Btontive, as above, fUMMom itovi. It miMt be observed here that oai^ 
idjecUTet of tbe aacond deelenakm (m um) can be treated as sobstantiTet, 
anid Dol those of thetbud in cyuor the comparative in as. We may diete 
fore say mli^uid novum raid aliquid novi, but only mfiquid wtemorabiU, mad grit' 
vM aliptid. Atijmd memombilU cannot be •^sed, except, perhaps, in con* 
notion with neuters of the second declension ; e: g., ampdd nmti ac me- 
morabUU tibi nanai» (as in Liv]r,'v., 3^ « fuMfHam-ta inibtt non-dk^ ehiSie 
ted kmnaiu ^saei) ; but even in tms ca«e it is preferable to say aiiquid mcvum 
ac mtmorabilt ; as in Seneca, vid4 ne lata lectut miUtorum auctormn habeai oB- 
quid vagum H instabik. It mast Airther be remarked that, when there im 
any case dependant upon the neuter adjective,- the latter can acarc^y he 
put in the genitive^ and we must say nihil txpectatione veitn digrntm dictf^ 
aa Cicero {,de Orat^ l, 31) does. 

[$ 434,] N0U 2.— The adverbs of place, vbi, viiyue, vbicunquf, usquam, 
nusquam {longe), tmde, hie, Aitc, eo, eoaem^ quo. quocuutjue, piomto, aUquo are 
joined with ue ge^tives gentium, terrantm, loci, locorum, and by the addi- 
tion of surh a genitive their meaning is strengthened ; e. g^ Mbinam.geHiium 
sumvs ? out Umge gentium ; cUiquo terrarum migm7%dum eet; %dn terranan e»? 
The expressions hoc loci, quo loci ium, ret eodem est loci, qtto tu reliqtdsti, in 
Cicero and other writers are eqoivalent to quo, eodem loco^ and the eUatives 
quo, eodem, are used as if loco were to follow. The adverbs huo, eo, ono, 
when used figuratively to express a degree, are joined also with other 
genitives ; e. g., hue arrogantiaevenerat, to this d^n^ee or pitch of arrogance; 
eo uuoUniiaefuroriaque ptocetsit ; scirt videmini qno omtntiae progntsi siti*. 
In the phrase tninime gentium^ by no means, the genitive merely strength' 
ens the meaning of minime. 

In the following expressions denoting time the geAftive appears to be 
luite superfluous : postea loci, afterward; ad id locorum, up to this point ( 
tn Sallust and Livy, interea loci^ in the mean time ; and adhue locoman^ until 
iow,*in the comic writers ; ttan temporis, at that time, occurs in late wri 
tersy and should not be imitated, in the phrase quantum or quoad ejuo /o- 
cere possum, or in the passive form, fieri potest, the ejus refers to the prece- 
ding sentence, '* as moch of it,** or " as far as this is possible." 

[§ 435.] 5. Poets and prose writers later than Cicero 
♦ise the neuters of adjectives in general, both in the sin- 
gular and plural, as substantives, and join them ydth a 
genitive ; 6. g., Curtius, reliquum noctis acquievit^ he slept 
the remainder of the night ; Livy, exiguum campi ante 
nostra erat, for which Cicero would have said exiguus cank^ 
pus ; in tdtima Celtiheriae penetrdre ; summa tectorum ob* 
tinere, instead of in ultimam Celtiheriam penetrare, and 
humma tecta ohtincre, 

JVbfe.— So, also, ultimum inopiae is e<|uivalent to ultima inepid ; medium 
or extremum anni, aetatis, for which medut. Oetas is the Ordlnaiy expression ,* 
oatrtmaAigmmiM, ii^tn* cfttw ; saeva venlorum, Mppo r tm nm loeorumt avia if rnvratn, 
tacita su^pieionum ; and with a prei>osition, in immensum al t i t udinit deiedt, 
tor in immensam aUitudinem '; dd tUtimum vitae perseverare, in ultima Oruntitr 
reUgare, cum pretiosisaimis rerum/ugere, where the ablat. must nDt be taken 
for a ^minine, although (he expression is used fox cum pn^ioaisaiwua rehtok 
Ad muUum diet or noctia is a peculiar phrase of the same kind, for a neutet 
like multum may, indeed, be joined with a genitive, but not with a prepo* 
sition ; hence the ordinary construction isinmuUamnoctamacribara. Very 
fie^uently there is a peculiar meaning in such a neuter plural : inccrfo, 
attbua belli ; i. e., the uncertaia, sudden occurrences in war, or aubitae occtk 
MH; quaaeata mwri, the shake i parts of the wall t infhquenlbaitut 


11% Uve.mcotiimuhabited part of. the town ; pitno'WbU TUbtm , 
99t, lary has many expresaioDs of this kind < Drakenborcfa on Liv., rixvii., 
JS8), mkl in Tacitua they are innumerable. Respeeting the analogy with 
the Groek hinguage, see Yechner, HdlmoUa, i., ^ 9» P- 202, foU^ and Hein 
^C on Hoiat, £•&> ii.» 2, 25. 

[§ 43^.1 6, Many adjectives denoting a relation to a 
tUiig (a^ectiva rdatwa)^ especially those i^Hiich express 
partaking J desiring^ Julness^ experience^ capacity, or re- 
tnembering, and their contraries, are joined with the geni- 
tive of a substantive or pronoun. Thus we say menwr 
promissi, remembering a promise ; compos mentis^ in pos- 
session of his mind ; ignarus sermonis Latini, ignorant of 
the Latin language. Such relations are expressed in Eng- 
lish by prepositions. 

The folk)wing, in particular, are construed in this way . 
particeps, qfflnis{e. g., alicujus culpae, stLspicionis: see, how- 
ever, § 411), expers, inops, cottsors, exsors; cupidus, studi- 
osuSf avidus, avarus ; plenus, inanis, capax, insatiahilis^fe- 
cundm^ fertilise ferax, sterilis ; pentm^ imperUus, conscius., 
inscius, netdus, praesciuSi gnarus, ignarus, rudis, insolens 
and insolitus, or insuetus,prud€ns^ providtiSf compos, impos^ 
potens. and impotens ; memor, imm^mar, tenax, curiosus, in^ 

Pythagoras sapientiae studiosos appeUavit philosopTios, Oi« 

cero, Tusc, v., 3. 
Themistocles peritissimos belli navalis fecit Athenienses 

Nep., Them,, 2. 
Venturae memoresjam nunc estate senectae, Ovid. 
Conscia mens recti fomiae mendacia ridet, ,Ovid, Fast, 
Nescia'^mens hominumjati sortisquefiUurae, Virgil. 

[^ 437.] Note 1. — The poets and those prose writers who^ deviating from 
the ordinary mode of speaking, use poetical constructions, to give anima- 
tion to their style (especially Tacitus), extend the rale of joining a geni- 
tive with adjectives ver^ far. They constrae, in particular^ all adjectives 
expressing mental emotion with the genitive of the thing to which it is di- 
rected ; e. g., ambigiau cbnsilii ; anxiusfuturi, teturitatis ; benigntu vim; cer- 
tus aederU ; dbulHuis woe ; imjHgtr mUitiae ; mitrriiiu UH ,* mcmmttu/tUuri ; in- 
ter fua eentenfiae ; laetua laboris; modiau voluptatum ; pervicax irae, recti ; piger 
peneuii ; tegnig occariottum ; eocortfuturi ; aecurutjuturi ; timidtu lucis ; for' 
midohauM hittium ; cblaiM occoBumie propera ; feroac Mekmm iSejamu ; a/roar 
•dH Agnpphiia,"'y9h.en in oidinarjr prose the prepositions lit, Inoroci, would 
be re«iuured, and where we use " in respect of or ** in regard to.'' In some 
casee the genitive is used, in imitation of the Greek, instead of the Latin 
ablative ; e. g., iftteger vitae, for integer vita ; dhermu m o r m m ; kueua marig, 
rnarum, mUitiae ; vetut cperig ae laboris ; emcerdot edentiae cerimoniantm^ 
9etu». In some cases, however, the adjective is only a bold expreasioB, and 
used in the same sense as one of these mentioned above ; e. g., vehiaifjterie, 
equivalent to peritue operis. In the case of siperlatives the genitive ia te 
be ezpiaiaed m a different way ; as. Tacit A\n , vi., 6, praestantifimiM mn 


jritntint, Un §ajd«ntum ; i, 46> pr iaee p * $eiHritmtia tt mnufiettume Mummtue^ ftfe 
omnium qui et tevsri et wmmfiei ami, Comp. ^ 470. We muM notice eq»e- 
cially the use of the genitiYe animi (inetead of the ablative), which occurs 
to frequently in late prose writers, and is joined with all a^eetives. (See 
Ruhnlien on VeU. Pat^ ii., 93.) We thus find aeger, atumu, air^, ^mmvms 
caeeus, captu$, confidetUy confuaua, %ncertu$* terrUus, valifbUf emguus^ ingetut, 
modicust immodicus, and nimhu animi ; ana, owin^ to this frequent u^ of 
the genitive with adjectives, it is foond also with verbs denoting anxie- 
ty i 9* g-j abswde/ads, qui te angaa animi ; ditorudor animi, and even in Cic- 
ero we find more than once e^ quidem vehementer animi pendeo ; it occura 
more rarely with verbs denotmg joy ; as, recrtahar animi. 

Note 2.-~Tho adjectives plenuB and tnom* (full, empty), as well msferiSh 
and dives, may be constru^ also with the ablative (^ 457, foil.), and with 
rrfertus (the participle of a verb denoting " to fill**) t'he ablative Ss com- 
nkonly used ; pUmu in the early proae is rarely joined with the feblatlve, 
but in later times frequently : Cicero, e. g., Philip., il, 27, says, domus 
( Antonii) er<U aleatoritnu referta, plena ebriorum. We may use either case in 
juriaperilua and jureperitut, juriMconsulitu and jureeonndtvs (abridged iCtns). 
Compos and dep^s are but rarely found with the ablative instead of the 
genit. ; as, Liv., ill., 71 , praeda ingenti compotem exercitvm reducunt ; SaLlust, 
Cat., 3i3, omnesfama at^ue fortunis expertes sumus. Immunis {not partaking) 
is commonlv joined with the gemtive, but when need in the sense of *' free 
from,'* it takes either ab or the simple ablat. (See ^ 468.) 

Conscius is construed with a genitive and a dative of the thing ; e. g., 
Sallust, Cat., 25, oa^is oonscia fuerat; Cic., p. CoeU, 21, kuic fadnori tanto 
mens tua conscia esse n<m debuit. The person who is comckins of a thing 
is always expressed by the dative ; as, sibi consdum esse aUcujus rd, 

[§ 438.] 7. The participles present active are joined 
with a genitive when they do not express a simple act or 
a momentary condition, but, like adjectives, a permanent 
quality or condition ; hence most of them have degrees 
of comparison like real adjectives. The following list 
contains those most in use : amans, appetens, colens^ fu 
giensj inteUigens, metuens, negligens, ohservans, retincTis 
tolerans^ pattens, impatiens^ tempcrans, intemperans / e. g. 
amans patriae, Gracchi amantissimi plebis Romanae, ap- 
vetens laudis, ^ancti et religionum colentes,fugiens lahoris^ 
imminentitem (fiituri) intelligens, officii negligens, tntles pa* 
ticTis or impatiens soUs, ptdveris, tempestatum, 

JBlpaminondas adeojuit veritatis dUigens, ut nejoco quidem 

mentiretur, Nep., JEpam,, 3, 
fiomani semper appetentes gloriole praeter ceteras gentes at 

que avidi laudis fuerunt, Cic, p. Leg, Maii^ 3. 

Note. — ^The passage from Nepos shows that the participles admitting 
this construction «re not Hmiteid to such as have the meaning of the ad- 
ectives mentioned above (^ 436), but they are used in ttus way thlough* 
>ut, provided they express a permanent qiudity ; miles patiensfrigus, iofteH' 
ampte, is a soldier who at a particular time bears the cold, but miles patitm 
frigoris is one who bears cold well atttll times. Hence m^fdms, ^Ukiens, ss 
fmns, sdens, siiiens, timms, and a considerable number of others^ are joined 
with a g^iitive. • ' Some participles perfect passive have been menti<nied 
in 4 ^^ ** ^^>^ number: is vety hmited ; «nd tomphtus, esperius, inexpef> 
nw, kmetus, and consuUus classed with the abov«H3aentioned tA 



jtothev. lAin poetical language, we find any ether perfect pErtkipIet 
joined with a genitive, we must regard them as adjectives. 

[§ 439*] 8. With Verbs \ii reminding, remembering, ana 
JorgeUing (admoneo, commoneo, crnnmonefacio aliquem; 
memzHif reminiscor^ recorder^ also in mentem mihi venit; 
obliviscoTfJ the person or the thing of which any one re- 
minds another or himself, or which he forgets, is express- 
ed by the genitive ; but there are many instances, also, in 
which the thing is expressed by the accusative. 

Medictis^ut jprimum mentis compotem esseregem tensity mo- 
do matris sororumque^ modo tantae victoriae appropin' 
quantis admon^re nan destitit. Curt., iii.j 16. 

Hannibal miUtes adhortaius est, ut remimsoereniur pristu 
nae virtutis suae, neve mulierum liberumque (for et libe- 
rorum) obliviscerentur. 

Tu^ C Caesar, oblivisd nihil soles ^ ni§i injurias^ Cic, p 
Leg., 12. 

Non omnes (senes) posswnt esse Scipiones aut Maximi^ ut 
urbium expugnationes, ut pedestres Ttdvalesque pugna^s^' 
ut beUa a se gesta triumphosque recordentur^ Cic, CkU. 
Mc0., 5. 

[^ 440.] Note. — With regard to the accusative of the thing, it must be 
observed that the neuters of pronouns, and the neuter adjectives used as 
substantives, are joined to the above-mentioned verbs only in the accusa- 
tive ; for their genitive would present no difference from the masc. gender. 
Hen^e Cicero XdM Off., ii., 8) is obliged to say, Externa libentiua in tali re 
qwtm dome^ica recordar ; and the verbs of remindinr are thus joined with 
two accusatives, one ojf the person and the other of the thing ; e. g., illud 
mepraeclare admone$i unum te admoneo. ^Comp. ^ 393.) An accusative of 
the thing, expressed by a real substantive, occurs only with verbs of re 
niembering ana forgetting ;e. g., memtnt or oblittu sum mandatOt beneficia, dicta 
faetaqniB tnd ; pueritiae memoriam recordari uilwumi. An accusMiVe of the 
person is very rarely used with these verbs i but memini, in the sense of 
** I remember a person who lived in my time,** is invariably joined with an 
accusative of the person ; e. g,, Cic, Philip*, v., 6, quod rutpu regeefecenmt, 
neque ii, qui r^Unu tkactia regnium (x^aqfore w^ueruni : Cirmam memini, vidi 
Smkan,.fnodp Cot$9Tem, &c. ; de Orat., iii., 60, AntijMter iUe Sidoniua, quem 
tu probe memtnifH. , ' Sometimes verbs of reminding and remerrAering take the 
prepOiiti(m'<le ; mtmini takes de more especially when ft sigmfies meniimem 
faictn, but thegenitiTe also may be used, with vemi mihi in mentem, tht 
person or thing may be piit in the ndminat., so as to become*the subject ; 
e. g., aUquid, haec, omnia mihi in mentem venerunt, 

[§ 441.] 9. The vm^persondlyeTha pudet,piget,j?oenit€t^ 
taedet^ and mtseret rec^oxre the person in whom the feel- 
ing exists to be in the accusative, and the thing which 
produces the feeling in the genitive. The thing produ- 
cing the feeling may also be expressed by the infinitive, 
or by a sentence with quod or with an interrogative par* 
tide, e. g., pudet me hocJecisse,poenitef me quod te qfendi^ 

H\2 LATIN <imAMBf AK. 

ton poenitct m ? (I am not dissatidfied) qnanium frofecenm, 

A.8 to tho forms of these verbs, see § 225. 

MalOf mejbrtunaepoeniteat^ quam victoriae pudeat, Coit^ 

IV., 47. 
Eorumnos magis miseret, qui nostram muerkardiam nam 

requirurU^ quam qui illam cffiagitant, Cic, ^. J(lt/., 34. 
Non poenitet me vixisse, quoniam ita vixi^ ut nonfnistra 

me natum existimem, Cic, Cat, Maj,, in fin. 
Quern pocnifet peccasse^ paene est innocens, Senec, Agatn , 


[^ 442.] Note 1. — ^The personal verbs misereor and miserescOf " I pity," are 
foined with a genitive, like the impersoaal verbs mueret (and miaeretyr) : 
wmteremmi soownmi, mntrhia.tttnU viri, generis miaereape tui; but we also find 
miaeretcU me tui, impersoDally, in Terence {Heaut., v., 4, 3), inopi* te nutu 
miterescat meL Miaerari and eommiserari (to pity), on the other ha^d, re 
quire the accusative. The above-meutionea impersonal verbs are very 
rarely used personally ; as in Terence, Addph.^ iv., 5, 36, non te haee pudaiu. 
In the passage of Cicer6 (7iwc., v., 18}, aequitur ut nihU (aaj^ientem) poena 
teatt the wora nihU must not be taken for a nominative : it is the accusa- 
tive, for both this particular word and the neuters of pronouns are that 
. usra in the accusative (see ^ 385) ; whereas real substantives would ne 
ceasarily be in a different case. So, also, in Cic, de Invent.^ ii, 13, quaeri 
vportet, utrtun id faeinua ait^ quod poenitere fuerit neeeaae, for cujua raL The 
participle pertaeaua (belonging to taedet) governs the accusative, contrary 
to the rule by which participles are joined with the same case as the verM 
from which they are formea ; e. g., Sueton., /u/., 7, auaai pertaeaua ignemam 
auam ; but it is also used with a genitive, as in Tacitus, Ann., xv., 51, paa 
tremo lentitudinia eontm pertaeaa, 

[^ 443.1 Note 2. — Pudet requires a genit , also, in the sense of ** behig 
restrained by shame or respect for a person ;" e. g., Terent., Adelph., iv., 5, 
49, et me tui pudet; Cic, m Clod., Nonne te Au^im tempU, non wrbia,nonwitme, 
non hieia pudet / It is found more frequently without an accusat., as in 
Livy, iii, 19, pudet deorum hominwnque ; Cic, Phiiip., xii., 3, pudet kujua ia- 
gionia, pudet quartae, pudet optimi axerdhta. 

[f 444.] 10. The verbs of estimattng or vahtrng ami 
their passives (acstimare^ ducere^facere^fieri^ habere^ pen- 
dere, putm-e, taxare, and esse) are joined with the genitive 
when the value is expressed generally by an defective, 
.>ut with the ablative when it is e^mressed by a substan- 
tive. (Comp. § 456.) Genitives of this kind are : mttg" 
ni, permagni^pluriSf plurimi, maximi^parvi, minoris fining 
imi^ tanti^ quanti, and tho compounds tanddem^ quatUivii, 
quanticunque ; but never (or very rarely) mulii «mkI ma- 
^oris. The substantive ti> be understood with these gez*. 
itives is pretiif which is sometimes expressed (with euej. 

Si prata et hortidos tanti ae^timamus^ quanti est aesiimmn^ 

da virtus ? Cic, Parad., 6. 
Unum Hephce%tiimem Alexander plurimi fecerat^ Ne|W| 



Bgv a meis me amari et magni pendt pastulo^ Teretnt^ 

Adelph.f v., 4, 25. 
Mea mihi conacientia plmris est, qttckm ormdum aermo^ Cic, 

ad Att.^ xiL, 28. 

Note."^ Tanti est^ ** it is wonh so much," signifies, also, absolutely, " it u 
worth while ;" e. g., Cic., in Cat, i, 9, Vidto quanta tempestas invidiae nobis 
impendeat. Sed est mihi tanti : dummodo ista privata sit calamitas. Il addi 
tion to the above genitives we must mention assis,flocci, nauci,pensi^ pili 
habere^ or commonly non kabtre, ducere. oestimarM ; farther, the comic phrase 
hujus non facia, " I do not care that for it," and nihili. But we fina, also. 
pro nihUo habere, putare, and ducere ; e. g., omnto, ifuae cadere inc hominem pos 
sint, despieere et pro nihUo putare. The phrase aequi boni, or aeqid bonique 
fado, consulo, and boni consuh, I consider a. thing to be right, am satisfied 
with it, must lij^ewise be classed with these genitives. A genitive ex 
pressing i:^'ce is |Dined, alsoj to such ¥K>rd8 as eoeno, habitoi doceo; e. g., 
quanti habUas ? what price' do you pay for your houae or lodging?, qtumti 
docet ? what are his terms in teaching ? 

. [§ 445.] The same rule applies to general statements 

of price with the verbs of buying^ adling^t lending^ and 

hirmg (em^e, vendere, the passive venire, canducere, 2o 

care, and as passives in sense, stare and conkUire^ proatart 

and licere, to be exposed for sale). But the ablatives 

rtiogno^permagno^plurimOfparvo, minimo, nihUo, are used 

very frequently instead of the genitive. 

Mercatares non tantidem vendunty quanti emcrunt, Cic. 

Nulla peUis hwnunno generi phiris stetit, quam ira, Senec. 

Non potest parpo res magna constare, Senec, Epist,, 19. 

NoU. — With verbs of buying, therefore, the genitive and ablative alter* 
t*^e according to the particular words that are used. Cic, ad Fam,, vii., 
2, vmtes, Parum aciUe ei tnandasti potissimum, cui expediret illud venire quam 
piarimo : $ed eo vidisti nadtum, tpwd praefinisti, quo ne pluria emerem — nmc, 
quoniam tuum mretium novi, Uliatatorem, potias pcnam, quam Ulud minoris ve- 
neat ; Plant., Epid., ii., 2, 112, Quanti emere possum mtnimo? What is the 
lowest' ^rice I can buy alt Aestimars is aonetimes joined with |he abla- 
tives magna, permagno, nowuhilo, instead of the regular genitives. The ad- 
verbs care, bene, male, sometimes take the place of the ablative with the 
verbs of buying, though not very frequently. Instead of nihila constat, it 
eosta me nothing, we indin Cicero gratia constat, 

[^ 446.] 11. The genitive is used to denote the crime 
or offence, with the verbs accuso, incuso, arguo, interrogo, 
insimnhf mcrepo, infamo ; convince, coarguo ; judico, dam* 
no, eondemno ; ahsolva, Uberjo, purgo ; arceiso, citq,^ defero, 
postido, reumjadoy alioui diem dico, cum aliquo ago. The 
genitive joined to these verbs depends upon the substan- 
nve crimine or nomine, which is understood, but some-^ 
limes also expressed. 

Genitives of this kind are, peccati, mateficH, sceteris, caedis, veneficU, paf 
rtridii, f%wti, repetundamm, vectuatus,falsit injuriarum, rd capitali8,prod^omi 
majestatis ; probri, sttdtitiai, avaritiae, audaciae, vonitalir, levitatis, tsmerkaiit 
tgnaviae , tirwris, impietatist tnd others. 



MUtiades proditionis est accusaius, quod, quutn Patum 

pugnare posset, epugna discessisset^ Nep.^ Milt, 
Thrasyhulus legem tulit^ ne quis ante actarum rerum aty 
' cusaretur neve multaretur, Nep., Thras,, 3. 

Note 1. — To these verbs we must a()d a few. adjectives, which are used 
mstead of their participles : rnUf compertuB, no»m$, innoaeiiut iruona, tiumi- 
fettus. Sometimes the pr^[>osition dt is used, with the veriss of accusing 
and condemning, instead of the genitive ; e. g., de «t condetnnatus est, nm- 
men tdicujut de parriddio deferre, 

[^ 447.] Note 2. — The punishment, with the verbs of condemning, i« 
commonly expressed by tne g^ntive ; e. g.. cajntU, mortit, mtdUu, pecmuae 
^uadruplif octupU, and less frequently bv the ablative, capUt, mmrte, mtdta^ 
pecunia. The ablative, however, is used invariably when a definite, sum is 
mentioned ; e. g., decern, qumdeam miUInu aeris. Sometimes we find the 
preposition ad or in: tul poenaaif ad bettiat, ad metaliaf in metallunif m ex- 
pensasj and Tacitus uses, also, ad nutrtem. The meaning of capitis aceu- 
sore, arceeaere, abeolvere, and of capitia or ea^e danmare, c^ndemnarep must be 
explained by the signification of what the Romans called a causa capitis.*- 
Voti or votorum damnari, to be condemned to fulfil one's vow, is thus 
equivalent to ** to obtain what one wishes." 

[§ 448.] 12. The genitive is used with the verbs esse 
and^m, in the sense of *' it is a person's business, office, 
lot, or property,'* the substantives res or negotium being 
understood; e. g., hoc est praeccptoris^ this is the business 
of the teacher ; rum est mearum virium^ it is beyond my 
strength; Asia Rotnanorum facta est, Asia became the 
property of the Romans. The same genitive is fouhd, 
also, with some 6f the verbs mentioned in § 394, esse be 
ing understood. 

But instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns met, 
tui^ sui, nostril vestri, the neuters of the possessives^ meum, 
tuum, suum, nostrum^ vestrum est, erat^ &c., are used. 

Cufusvis haminis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore 

perseverare, Cic, Phil.^ xii., 2. 
Sapientis judids est, semper non quid ipse velit, sed quid 

lex et rdigio coga^^ eogitare, Gic, p»^ Cluent., 58. 
Bello Gallico praeter CapUoUum omnia kastium ereuUf 

Liv., vi., 40. 
Tuum est, M. Cato, qui non mihi, non tibi, sed patriae 

natus es, videre quid agatur, Cic, p, Muren.^ 38. 

Note 1.— We have here followed Peiizonius (on Sanctius, Minth}a, io 
many passages) in explaining the genitive by the ellipsis of negotiumA 
This opinion is confirmed by a passage in Cicero, ad Fam., iii., 12, non ho 
rum temporum, non horum komimtm et morvm negotium est ; but we ought 
not to have recourse to such an ellipsis, except for the purpose of UIus 
trating the idiom of a language, and we should not apply it to every par 

ticular case ; for, in most instances, it would be better and more consist 


♦ rConsult Diet. Antiq., p. 212, Harpers' ed,]-~Am. Ed. 

t [Compare Palairet, EUips. Lat, s. v. Negotium ]^Ani. Ed, •" 



mi mth Ce,6 Latin idiom» to suppiv proprius, as an adjective ana psprtum 
as a substantive. (Comp. ^ 411.) In the following sentences from Cicero. 
vroprmm est animi bene constUuti laetari bonis rebusy and sapientis €st pro- 
prtwn, fiihil quod poemtere possit facerey we might omit proprnan and use the 
genitive alone. In the following sentences the words munus and oMcium 
might be omitted : Cic, p. Mil, S, principum munus est resistere Jevitati 
ntMtwdinisy and Terent., Andr., ii., 1, 30, neuiiqmafn officimn Uberi esse ho- 
vimts puto, qieum is nil mereat, postidkre id gratiae apponi sibi ; and hence we 
tiay also assume the ellipsis of munus and cfficium, for ths purpose of il 
lustrating the Latin idiom. 

Esse is joined with a genitive expressing quality, est stultitiaa, est lemta- 
^, est hoc GalUcae eonsttetudiniSf especially maris est, for >which, without 
difiference in meaning, we may say stuUitia est, levitas est, haec cwmietudo 
est CkUlorum, mos est ; e. g., Cic , in Verr., i., 26, negavit maris esse Chrae 
c9nan, vt in convivio virorum aceumberent muUeres, the same as moTem.-esse 

Note 2. — As it is the rule to use the neuter of the possessive pronouns, 
instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns, so in (rth^ cases, instead 
of a genitive of a substantive, an adjective derived from the substantive 
may be used ; e. g., kumaman est, imperatorium est, regium est ; etfacere et 
patifortia Romanvm est, lAv., ii., 12. 

[§ 449.] 13. A similar ellipsis takes place with the im 
personal verbs interest and rdfert, it is of interest €»* impor 
lance (to me), the person to whom anything is of im- 
^>ortance being expressed by the genitive ; but instead of 
the genitive of the personal pronouns, the possessives 
mea, tua, sua^ nostra, vestra, are used. These possessives 
are commonly considered to be accusatives neuter plu- 
ral, commoda being understood ; but from some verses in 
Terence, especially Pkarm., iv., 5, 11, and v., 8, 47, we 
are obliged to consider them with Priscian (p. 1077) a» 
ablatives feminine singular, and it is not impossible that . 
catisd may be understood.* The thing which is of inter- 
est or importance is not expressed by a substantive, but 
sometimes by the neuter of a protioun ; e. g., hoc mea t»- 
tere^i, and usually by an accusative with the infinitive, or 
by ut and the interrogative particles with the subjunctive ; 
e. g., multum mea interest ^ te esse diligentenij or ut dili^ 
gens sis, (utnlm). diUgens sis nee ne. 

Semper Milo, qziantum interesset P. Clodii, se pcrire, cogi' 

tabat, Cic.,^. MiZ., 21. 
Caesar dicere solehat, non tarn sua^ quam revpvhlicae inter' 

esse^ uti salvus esset, Suet., Caes,, 86. 
Inventae sunt epistolae^ ut certiares Jaceremus ahsentes, at 

I - 1 I I M 

♦ This explanation solves only half the difficalty, but both the use of 
Ihe genitive and the length of re in rtfert are suflSciently accounted for hy 
what has been said in a note at the foot of p. 19. We should add her« 
t:hat mea, ttia, sua, &c., are accusatives for meam, tuait, srutm, ^ c. Comp 
KeY y The AlpJ^H, y 7?.— Transl 



quid esset, quos cos scire aut nostra aut ipsorum tntet cs$eii 
Cic, ad Fam,, ii., 4. 
Quid refert, utrum voluerimjicri^ an factum gaudea?n ? Cic. 
Philip,^ ii., 12. 

Note 1. — ^When an infinitive alone is jQined to mUrette, the preceding 
subject is understood, e. g., omnium interest rectefacere, soil. se. The noni* 
inative of the subject in Cicero^ ad Au., iii., 19, non quo mea interesset loci 
natura, is very singular. It has been asserted that rtfert is not joined with 
the genitiTe of the person ; in Cicero, it is true, it does not occur, for ho 
genermlly uses it with the pronouns mea, ttta, ma, &c. ; but other authors 
use the genitive; e. g., Sallust, Jug., 119, faciendum aiiquid, quod iUorum 
magie, qmam ma rettulisse videretur^ and Liv., zxxiv., 27, ^orum referre, &c. 
Most froquently, however, r^ert is used without either a genitive or any 
of the pronouns mea, tua, &c. : r^ert, quid refert ? magni, parvi, magnopert 
efert. The dative of the person in Horace, Serm., i., 1,50, vel die quid tv- 
/erat intra naturae foue viventi, jugera centum an mille aret, is a singular pe« 

[^ 450.1 Note 2. — The degree of importance is expressed by adverbs or 
oe-uter adjectives, or by their genitives, magu, magnopere, vehementer, parum, 
mhume, tarn, tantopere; mtdtiim, plus, plurimum, permtdtian, injiinituafn, mirum 
quantum, minus, mhU, aiiquid, qtuddam, tantum, quantum ; tents, quemti, magnif 
permagni, parvi. The object lor which a thing is of importance is express* 
ed by the prepnosition <ui, as in Cicero, m/ogni interest ad honorem nostrum ; 
t dative used in the same sense occurs in Tacitus, Ann., xv., 65, non rs> 
»'?r-e dedecoru 



[§ 451.] 1. The Ablative serves to denote ceitain re- 
lations of substantives, which are expressed in most other 
'-anguages by prepositions. 

iVote.— This is an important difference between the ablative and the 
»ther oblique cases ; for the latter, expressing necessary relations between 
toun?. occur in all languages which possess eases ot inflection, and do 
loi, like the French or English, express those relations by prepositions. 
3ut Ibe ablative is a peculiarity of the Latin language, which might in- 
I'eed be dispensed with, but which contributes greatly to its expressive 

The ablative is used iirst with passive ^verbs to . denote 
the thing by which anything is eiFected (dblativus efftcien- 
tisj, and which in the active construction is expressed by 
the nominative ; e. g., sol mundum illttstrat^Kaa sole mun- 
dus Ulustratur ; Jecunditas arborum me delectat, Qjidjecun- 
ditate arbofum detector. If that by which anything is ef- 
fected is 2l person^ the preposition ab is required with the 
ablative (see § 382) with the sole exception of the par- 
ticiples of the verbs denoting " to be bom" (nattts, genitus^ 
ortits, and in poetry, also, creiusj editus, aatus), to which the 
naxne of the father or familv is generally joined m tne ab 



Iktno mthout a prepcNsition. Ah cannct be used with the 
ablsttive of a thiitg by which anything is effected, unlea.<; 
the thing be personified. 

Dei providentia mundus administratuTf Cic. 

Non est consentaneum^ qui metu nonfrangatur^ ewmfrangi 

cupiditate ; nee qtd invictum se a labare jrraeatiterit^ vin- 

ci a voluptate, Cic, De Off,^ i., 20. 

Note. — The words denoting "bom" usnallT have the preposition ev or d« 
joined to the name of the mother, but the ablative alone is also found, and 
there are a few passages in which ex ox-ab \s joined to the name of thfi 
father ; e. g^ Te/ent., Adelph., i., 1, 15, Atqiie ex me hie noHts non est, sedea 
fraJtre ; Caes., BeU, GalL, vi., 18, prognati ah Dite patre, Ortus ab aliquo is 
frequently used in speaking of a person's ancestors ; e. g., Cic, p. Muren.^ 
21, qui ab iUo ortus es ; Caes., Bell. GalLf iL, 4, plerosque Belgas esse ortos a 
Gennanis (the same as oriundos). 

[§ 452.] 2. An ablative expressing the catue (ablativus 
qausae) is joined with adjectives, which, if changed into a 
verb, would require a passive construction ; e. g., fossus, 
aegcTy saucitis (equivalent to quifatigatus, morbo affectus^ 
vulnerattis est); and with intransitive v^rbs, for which w? 
may generally substitute some passive V3rb of at least a 
similar meaning; as, interiit Jamef cojisumptus estjame; 
expectatio rumor e crevit^ expectatio aucta est rumor e; gau- 
deo Tumore tiw, detector honore tuo. Thus, verbs express- 
ing feeling or emotion are constru 3d with the ablative of 
the thing which is the ^ause of the feeling or emotion ; as, 
doleo, gaudeo, laetor ; exilio, exulto, triumphoy lacrinw^ 
paene desipio gaudio, ardeo cupiditate, desiderio. S^ome- 
times the prepositions propter and per are used instead of 
such an ablative ; and when a person is described as the 
cause of an emotion, they are just as necessary as ab is 
with passive verbs. 

We must notice in particular the. construction of the fol- 
lowing verbs : Glorior^ I boast, is joined with an ablative 
denoting the cause ; e. g., victoria med^ but is also con- 
strued, with de, and in the sense of "glory in a thing," 
with in ; e. g., Cic, de Nat, Deor,^ iii., 36, propter virtu- 
tcm recte laudamur, et in virttUc recte gloriamur, JLaboro, 
I suffer from ; e. -g., morbo, inopia, odio, is frequently join 
ed, also, with ex, especially when the part of the body 
which is the seat of the pain is mentioned ; e. g., ex pedi- 
bus, ex intestinis, Nitor and innitor aliqtta re, I lean upon, 
is used, in a figurative sense, also, with in ; e. g., Cicero, 
in vita Pompeii nitebatur salus civitatis (in the sense of 
"strive after," with ad or in with th(j a<;cus.; as, nitimu* 

D D? 


in vctttum). Sto (diqua re, I depend upon a thing; as^ 
judicio fneOf auctore aJiqtio , also in the sense of '* I per- 
•overe in or adhere to a thing ;*' os, ybedere^ jure^anda, 
condidonibus, promUsU ; it rarely ta]ke8 in^ as in Cicero, 
Mtare opartet in eo^ quod sit judicatum, (Respecting acqui 
esco with the ablate see § 416.) Fido and can/tdo, " 1 
tru3t in a thing," and the adjective Zre^tM are joined with 
the ablat. of die thing tiiisted in, but Inay also be used 
with the dative of the person or thing trusted in. (See § 
4i3.) The verbs cojistare, contineri, to consist of, are con- 
Btiiied with the ablat. to denote that of which a thing con- 
sists ; e. g., damns amoenitas non aedificio, sed silva ean- 
tttabaC; tota -hanestas quattuor virtutibus cantinetur ; but 
consiare is joined more frequently with ex or ««, and con- 
Cinerif in the sense of "to be contained in a thing," is gen- 
erally used with in, but even then not unfrequently with 
the ablative alone. (Consistere, in the sense of " exist," 
is construed, like positum esse, only with in,J 

Concordia res parvae vrescunt, discordid maximae dilabttn^ 

tur, Sallust, Jug., 10. 
Est adolescentis majores natu vereri exque his deligere op' 

timos ft probatissimos, qtiorum consilio atquc auctoritate 

nitatw^, Cic, de Off,, i., 34. 
Vtrtute dectt, non sanguine niti, Claud., Cons, Hon,, iv., 219. 
Diversis duobus vttiis, avaritia et luxuria, civitas Romana 

lahorabat, Liv., xxxiv., 4. 
Delicto dolere, correctionc gaudere nos oportet, Cic. 

[6 453.] Note 1. — We must here mention, also, the ablat. tnWute, 'joined 
witn the defective adjective macte and mac/i, which, either with the im- 
perative of etM (esto, este, estote)^ or without it, is used as an ezciamation 
of encouragement or approbation. 

The use of the accusative vicem (with a genitive or possessive pronoun), 
instead of the ablative vice (in accordance with the nbove rule) in con< 
nezion with intransitive verbs and adjectives denoting feelings, especially 
those of care^ grief, and sorrow, is a peculiaritv which does not occui 
when vicem is used in its ordinary sense of " change** or " turn** (as in 
Phaedr., v., 1, 6, tadte gementea trietem fortunae vicetf^, but only when it is 
equivalent to the English "for;" e. g., Liv., ii., 31, apparvit cau$a plebt^ 
suam vicem indi^nantem magietratu abisse ; i. e., that for their sake he had 
indignantly resigned his office ; x^iv., 32, Renuuhmu hoc HU, ne nostram 
mcem hraecaria, that you may not be angry on our account ; zl., 23, Smpli- 
citatem juvenia incauH asaentando indigrumdocite et ipae vicem ejita captabat^ by 
showing indignation on his account. In like manner, we must explain 
Cic, ad Fam.f xii., 23, Tuam vicem saepe doleo^ quod nvUam partem vet aeUk 
tern aanae et aalvae rei publicae gvatare potuieti, and in Verr., i., 44, si alienam 
vicem pro nostra injuria doleremus, if we grieved for other pedple, as though 
« wrong had been done to ourselves. Henco we shoiiM wfth Bent 
««]r. in Hot iiCe, Epod.f xvii., 42, infands Helenac Castor ofvnatis ticem ('as 



lor ofleEded on account of his iil-fomed^dster.* where B&atlef quotes the 
following instances of this use of vicem with aqjectives, Liv. : rM.^ 35, tuam 
mcem magis ananoty quam ^piit cui auxiUum ab m pet^atur ; zxviii, 43, ui 
MeoM quoqui, non $mtm ret pMicae et §aoercUuM \ncam vidaretw 9oUicUu$ ; 
Curt., vii., 6. mae$tu» non 9uaim. vicem, eed propter ipevm pericUtantium fra' 
trum, not sad on his own account, but (m account of his orothers who ran 
into danger fcT his sake. The ablative in this sense occurs only in lat» 
writers ; e. g., QuintiL, vi., 2, 36, and zi, 1, 42. But it is difficult to Oe 
cide whether the accusative vkem may be used also in the sense of '* like, ' 
nore mtddfue, instead of vtce, as it commonly read in Cic., ad Att., z., 8 
Sardanapati mcem in im UOulo mori, or whether we should correct vicem 
into tdff, as in Tacitus^ Ann,, vi, 21, quae diserat oracuU vice acdpien*. 
The difficult passage in Horace, Ej»di, t., 87, Venena magnum fas ne- 
fasque non valent eonvertere humanam vicem, must undoubtedly be explained 
m the same manner, whether we retain the accusative or read kumana 
vice ; the meaning is, " Poison cannot upset the eternal laws like things 

[^ 454.] Note 2. — ^With transitive verbs, also, the cause or the thing in 
consequence of which anything is done is expressed by the ablative, but 
this is the regular practice only with substantives ending in the ablat in u 
(^ 90), which have no other cases ; e. g., jussu, rogatu, admomtu tuo veni, 
fecir miei or miasue nan. With other substantives it is more rare ; e. g., 
Cic, s. Rose. Am,, 32, vt omnee tntelUgant me non etudio accueare, eed officio 
defendere ; de Fin., ii, 26, n frvctihue et emolumentii et uttUtatUme amicitiae 
colemue ; de Off., L, 9, Svmt etumt, qui out studio reifamHiaris tuendae out odio 
quodam hominum suum *e n^efium ogere dieani ; Sallust, Cat., 23, ino^ mi' 
nus largiri ptOerat ; Cic., Jhvin, in Caec., 3, judiciorumdesiderio tribumciapo' 
testes eMagiiata ^est, judidorum levitate ordo alius poshUatur, &c. ; de Ju^., 
iii., 7, Regale ciuitatis genus non tarn regni, qurnn r^is vitOs repudiatum est 
The preposition Drop<er, or a circumlocution with causa, however, is gener* 
ally used insteaa ot the ablative ; e. g., instead of joco dicere, joco Tnentiri, 
we find jod causa; hoe onus suscepi tua causa ; honoris tui causa, propter €tmr 
icitiam nostram. When tt^ cause is a state of feeling, the best Latin wri- 
ters prefer a circumlocution with the perfect participle of some verb de- 
noting ** to induce ;** e. g., to do a thing from some desire, etqridiiate due 
tus, inductus, incitatus, incensus, inflammatus, impulsus,*'motus, captms, &c. 
Livy is fond of using the preposition ab in this sense ; as, a6 ira, a spe, oA 
odio, from anger, hope, hatred. See ^ 305, and Hand, TurselUn., i., p. 33. 

[§ 455.] 3. An ablative is joined with verbs of every 
kind to express the means or instrument by v^hich a thing 
\a done {ahlativus instrumejUt). Thus we say manu diicere 
oliquem, to lead a person by the hand ; equo^ currUf nave 
vehi, the horse, carriage, and ships being the means of 

BenivolerUiam civium hlafulitiis colligere turpe est, Cic. 
Comihus tauri, apri dentibus, morsu leaner, aliaefaga se, 

aliae occtdtatione tutantur, Cic, De Nat, Deor,^ ii., 50. 
Naturam expelUis furca^ tamen ufque recurret, Herat.} 

Epist., i., 10, 24. 
Male quaeritur Jierbis ; moribtis et forma conciliandus amof , 

Ovid, Heroid., vi., 93. 

♦ ^Compare the remarks of Orelli, ad he. So in Greek, *Av^p d* /Jrof 
id?' yra Ovfiijdeiv 6oKy /car* oIkov y fteov fiolpav ij avdpioirov x^^"^ ^^^ 
,6' 9tud., Amorg 7 103, ed. Schnridew)]—.\m. Ed. 


N^lt.— When a is the mstrament by which ar.fvhing is eflectM^ 
the ablative is rarely used, but generally the* preposition j>er,* or the cir 
cumlocutioA with opera ^lUamUi which is so' frequent, em>ecially with po» 
tessive pronouns, tnat f?tea, fua, nuit &c., opera ure exactly the saBie aa pet 
mtf per te, per se, &c., and are used to denote both good and bad servicee ; 
e. g., Cic, Cat. Maj.j 4, mea opera Tarenitan recepieti; Nep., JLys.j 1, Xjf- 
eander aie eibi induUitf tU ejus opera in maximum, odium Chraedae Laeedme- 
monii pervenerint ; that is, ejus €ndpat through his faulL Benefieio is uaed 
in the more limited sense of good results ; as, benefido tuo ealvus, ineoluma 
mm, where it is the same as per te. Per is sometimes used to ef^press a 
fneanSf but onl^ when we are speaking of extenfal concurringr circura 
stances, rather than of that which is really done to attain a certsdn ebject. 
We id ways say, e. g., vi oppidum cepitt but per vim ei bona enpuit.. Sec 
% 301. The material instrument is always expressed by the ablative alone, 
and never with a preposition, such as cvm, ; hence conjicert cervum »agiuis, 
gladio aUquem vulnerare ; compare ^ 473* 

[§ 456.] 4. Hence with verbs of buying SLudselh-tg^ of 
estimation, value^ and the like (§ 444), die price or value 
of a thing is expressed by the ablative, provided ir is in- 
dicated by a definite sum or a substantive* (Respecting 
the genitive in general expressions^ see § 444, where it is 
observed that, contrary to the general rule, the ablatives 
niagno, permdgno, pliirimo, parvo^ minimo^ are commonly 
joined to verbs denoting ** to buy" and " sell.**) 

Sgo spem pretio non emo, Terent., Adelpk,^ ii., 2, 11. 

Si quia aurum vendens putet se orichalcum vendere^ indt- 

cahitne ei vir honua aurum illud esse, an emet denario^ 

quod sit mUle denarium ? Cic, De Offly m,, 23. 
Viginti talentis unam orationem Isocrates vendidit, Plin., 

Hist Nat, vii., 31. 
Denis in diem assihus anima et corpus (militum) aestimai^ 

tury Tacit., Ann,, i., 17. 

Quod non opus est, asse carum est, Senec, JSpist, 94. 

Note. — To the verbs of buying and selling we must add many others 
which express an act or an enjoyment, for which a certain price is paid ; 
e. g., lavor quadrante^ halnto triginta milibus HSj doceo tedentOf parvo aert 
mereo. Ease in the sense of *' to be worth'' is therefore joinea with the 
ablative of the definite price ; e. g., Modius frumenti in Sicilia binia setter- 
tiis, ad eummum temie erat ; sextante sal in Italia erat. We make this Ob- 
servation chiefly to direct attention to the difference between this ablative 
and the genitive of quality which occurs in the passage of Cicero quoted 
above. JEst mUle denarium there means, it is a thing of one thdusand de 
narii (in value), and may be bought for that sum. 

• Mutare and its compounfls, comrmUate and pemmtare, are commonly con- 
strued in the same way as the verbs of selhng ; e. g.^Jidem stum, et religi- 
onempecunid, studxum belli gerendi agricidturdfpeUittm tegmina vestibuSf monu* 
ae sUvas vrlnbust and in Virg., Q iorg.f i., 8, Chcumiam glandem pingvi vutto* 
vit caisUit alluding to the first husbandman, who exchanged com foi 
acorns. But prose writers as veil as poets reverse the expression, by 
putting that which we receive in the accusal., and that which we give fen 

^i^i»*.^— I ■^— — — — ^.^^n^— ^^ ■ i . ^ II ■■ ■■ ■ I .^iM^W^—^^^— mt III n il ■ I — ^M^^^— ^^^— ^M^^il^^l^i^.— i^l^MI^ 

♦ [v oinparo Hand^ Tursell.^ i., p. 31 ; Reisig, Vorles.^ p. 704.]— ^m. EJ 


it in. the ablat., either alone or with the preposition cum ; e. »., Horat^ 
Carm.f iii., 1, 47, cur voile permutem Sabina dtvitias operostores^ why should 
I exchange my Sabine vaUey for more wearisome nches ? Epod., ix., 27, 
Tena marique victu8 hoatia Pttnico Ittgubre mtUavU aagtan ; Curt., iii, 1*», 
gariUum patria aede mutaverat ; Ovid, Met.j vii., 60, Qiwnque ego cum rehu, 
quaa totua jtoaaidet orbiaj Aeaorndf^m mutaaae veUm ; Curt., iv., 4, HaUktua hie 
cum iato aqualore permtUandua tibi eat ; Sulpicins in Clc, ad Fam.^ iv., 5, 
hiaca temporibua nonpeaaime cumiia eaae acfwit, quihua aine'dolore Ucitum eat 
mertim cum vita commutare. Livy, too, uses both constructions, but the 
ablatiTO alone is better attested. See Drakenborch on v., 20. 

[§ 457.] 5. The ablative is joined with nouns (both 
suostantive and adjective) and verbs to express a partic- 
ular circumstance or limifation, where in English tne ex- 
pressions "with regard to/' "as to," or "in" are used; 
e. g.. Nemo Romanorum Ciceroni par Juit, or Ciceronetn 
aequavit eloquentiaf in eloquence, or with regard to elo- 
q^epce. Hence a great number of expressions by which 
a statement is modified or lingjted ; as, med sententid, mea 
opinione, meojudicio, frequently with the addition of qui 
dem; natione Syrtis, a Syrian by birth; gencre facile pri 
mus ; HamUcar cognomine Barcas, Sec, 

Agesilaus claudusfuit (claudicabat) altero pede, Nepos 
Sunt quidam homines^ nan re, sed nomine^ Cicero. 

[^ 458.] Note l.~The Latin poets, and those prose writers who are fond 
of poetical expressions, sometime^ use the accusative instead of this ab- 
lative, in imitation of the Greeks ; hence the accusative is termed accuaa- 
tivua Graecua. It occurs most fr^uently with passive verbs, especially 
with perfect participles, to determine the part of the body to which a 
statement applies or is limited ; e. g., vite caput tegitur, he is covered Tor 
covers himself) with a vine branch, but the covering is limited to toe 
head: **his head is covered with," &c.; ihemJ(fra aub arbuto atratua, lying 
with his limbs stretched out ; redimitua tempera lauro, his temples sur- 
rounded with a laurel wreath ; rntbe candentea humtros amietua ; kumeroa 
iUeo perfuaua : mUeafradua membra labore. Such expressions are pleasing, 
especially when an ablative is joined, to the participle ; as in livy, xxi, 7, 
adveraum femur tragula graviter ictua ; Sueton., Oc/av.,» 20, dexterum genu 
lapide ictua ; Ovid, Met., xii, 269, Chryneua endtur octUoa, appears rather 
harsher Gryneo eruuniw oculi. This use of the accusative may be com« 
pared with that explsdned in ^ 393, edoctua artea and irUerrogatua aenteatiam ; 
tor an active verb may be joined with a twofold accusative, either of the 
person or of a part of the person ; as, redimio te vietorem^ or redimio tempora, 
erinta ; sjod when such a sentence takes the passive form, the accusative 
of the person becomes the nominaUve, but that of the part remains. 
(Comp. Buttmann's Greek Grammar, ^131.) 

But the poets go still farther, and use this accusative of the part alsa 
with neuter ve^bs and adjectives ; e. g., Virg., Oeorg., iii., 84, tremit artua , 
Aen.f i., 589, oa humeroaque deo aifnilia: Tacit., Oerm.y 17 ffeminae Oerma 
norum nudae brachia et lacertoat and in t^xe same writer we find clari genua, 
for the usual clari genercy where ^enua ^ not an accusative of the part, but 
is completely a Greek construction. 

The accusative expressing the articles of dross, used m poetical language 
with the passive verbs induor^ amicior, cingor^ accingor^ exuar^ diacingor^ 
18 of a different kind; but it may be competed to the accusative of the 
part. The active admits two constmctions : tnduo me vintte and induo miht 


mttem (flM above, ^ 418), and in the passive the two construdiont are coi.^ 
bincd into one ; and int tead of saying induor vested the poets and il ose who 
imitate them say induor vesi'em. Instances of this occur in all the poeta, 
but they are extremely frequent in Ovid ; e. g., protmua indvitur faaem 
euUumque Dianae ; indmturque awes Unte gradientit aseUi ; Virg., Axh., ii., 
MO, imUilefeman cmgitur. To this accusative the Latin ablative is some* 
times added, to denc^ the part of the body which is dressed or ador;ted, 
e. g., Ovid, Afet., vii, 161, inductaque cortubus {ntmm Victima vota cadit, and 
z., 271, pandia inductae eomibtu aurum juvencae. The accusative in Horace^ 
Semuj i., 6, 7if pueri laevo nupenti loculot tabulamque lacertOy is curious, but 
aiupeim is here used accordmg to tlie analogy of accinctij like the Greek 
i^npTtj/iivoi T^v rrlvaKa. . 

[^ 459.] Nate 2. — Something of this Greek construction was adopted by 
the Romans even in their ordinary laa^uage, and there are some cases 
wheie the accusative is used in prose mstead of the ablative. Magnam 
and maximam partem are thus used adverbially fox fere or magna {maxima) 
ex parte ; e. g., Uic, Orat,, 56, moMnam partem ex iambie nostra constat oratio, 
consists to a great extent of iambics ; de Off.^ i, 7, maximam partem ad in- 
juriamfaciendamaggredkmiurfUtaiSlipttcantMrea,q (Comp. 

partim, ^ 271.) In the same manner, cetera and reiiqua are joined to adjec- 
tives in the sen^e of ceteris ; i. e., " for the rest," or " in other respects ;*• 
e. g., Liv., i, 32, Proximum regnum, cetera egregium, ab una parte hmtd satU 
, prosperwn Jwtf and in many oth/^ passages, cetera eimiUs, cetera laehu, 
^Vetera bonus. Farther, id temporia or id {hoe^ idem) aetatis, for eo tempore^ ea 
metate ; e. g., Liv., i., 50, purgavit sef^uod id temporis venisset ; x\., 9, Quid 
hoc noctia vents ? Cic, p, Cluent., 51 , non potuit honeate scribere in balneis se 
cum id aetatis fiUq fuisse ; Tacit., Ann,, xiii., 16, cum ceteris idem aetatis no- 
bilibus ; i e., cum ceteris ejusdem aetatii- nobUibus. On the same principla 
Tacitus, Ann.j xii., 18, says, Romanorwfi nemo id auctoritatis aderat, for ea 

^', [§ 460,] 6. The ablative \i used with verbs denoting 
flenty or want, aad with the correi^ondiQg transitives of 
fiiUng, endowing,' depriving, (Abtativu^ copiae aut ino- 
p^ae,J Verbs of this kind are : 1* ahundare, redundare, 
a^uere, circumflttere, scatere, florere^ pollere, valere^ vigere 
(in the figurative ^nse of ** being rieh or strong in any- 
thing'*) ; carere, egere, indigere, vacare ; 2. complere^ ea> 
f^lere, implere, opphre, cumtdare^ refercirej ohruere^ im- 
uere, satiare, exatid^e, saturare, stipare, constipare / (if- 
'ficere, donare, refdunerari^ lacupleiarey, amare^ (mgere; 
privarel, spoliare^ orhare, fraudare^ d^raudwre, mudare, 
exuere, and many others of a similar meaning, The ad- 
jective prcteditui .Xxlke% the place of a perfect participle 
(in the sense of " endowe^'*)^ and is likewise jomed with 
an ablative. ; 

Germania rivisjluminibus^tie abundat, Seneca. 

Quam Diantfsio erat miserum, carere ^consueiudine amico- 

rum, sodetate victus, sermone omnino familiari ! Cic, 

2We., v., 22. [ 

Arcesiku pkilosophus quwm acumine ingenii floruit, turn 

admirabUi quodam lepo'te dicendi Cic, Acad.^ iv., 6. 


CmMilio et auctoritate non modo non orhari, sed eham oi^ 

geri senectus solet, Cic, Cat. Maj,, 6. 
M^s est praedita motu sempitemo, Cic, !ZWc., i., 27, 

[^461.] Note 1. — Afficere properly signifies to "endow with," but it if 
uued in a great many expressions, and may sometimes be translated by 
"to do something to a person ;" afficere aliquem honored ben^icio, laetttiOf 
praemioj ignominia, iruuria^ poenOf morte^ sepuUura. Remunerari (the simple 
munerare ot muneran is not often used), properly ** to make a present in 
letam/' hence " to remunerate.'* Respecting the diflerent construction 
of the verbs donare^ exuere, and others with the accusative of the thing 
and the dative of the person, see ^418. 

[^ 462.} Note 2. — The adjectives denoting /iJ< and empty are sometimes 
lomed with the ablative, although as adjectiva releuiva they take a genitive 
(see ^ 436). RefertuSf filled, as a participle of the veii> refercio, has regu- 
larly the ablative, and it is only by way of exception that, accofding to the 
analogy of plenus, it takes the genitive; e. g., Cic, p. Font., 1, referta GaUia 
negoiiatorum est, plena civium Romanorum. Orbus, destitute ; creber and den- 
SU8 in the sense of " thickly covered with," are found only with the ablat. 
Vacuus, libcTy immunis, and purus are joined with the ablative or the prep- 
osition ab. See ^ 468. 

[^ 463.] Note 3. — A genitive is sometimes joined with egeoj and frequent- 
ly with indigeo ; e. g., Cic, hoc bellvm tndiget celeritatis ; and following the 
analogy ofplenus, the verbs complere and implere are joined with a genitive 
not only by the poets, but by good prose writers; e. g., Cic, in Verr,, ^.,57, 
qtaan complehu jam mercatorum career esset ; Cat. Maj., 14, convimim, •icino' 
ntm quottdie compUo ; dd Fam., ix., 18, oUam denariorum implere, and in Livy, 
tpei animorumque implere, temeritatia implere. 

It is obvious that with many of these verbs the ablative may justly be 
regarded as an ablatimu instrumenti. The verbs valere, in the sense of "be- 
ing health]r or well," takes the ablative of the part ; as, corpore, pedibtu, 
stomacho ; in the sense of " being strong," the ablat joined to itls gener 
ally an Mat, instrumenti ; e. g., vo/eo auctoritate, gratia, pecunia, armis ; but 
injnany cases it may be regarded also as an ablative of plenty, as in va- 
lere eloquentia, equitatu valere, 

[§ 464.] 7. Opus est, there is need, is used either as an 
imperscmal verb, in, which case it takes, like the Verbs de- 
QOting want, an ablative ; e. g., dtice (exemplis) nobis optis 
est^ or personally, in which case the thing needed is ex- 
pressed by the nominative (just as aliquid mihi necessari' 
um est J ; e. g., dux nobis optis est, exempla nobis opus sunt. 
The latter eonstraction is most frequent with the neuters 
cf pronoims and adjectives. 

Athenienses PhUippidem cursarem Lacedaemanem miserunt^ 
ut nuntiaret, quam celeri opus esse$ auxilioy Nep., MUL, 4. 

Themtstocles celeriter quae opus erant reperiebat^ Nep.« 
Tkem.y 1. 

Note 1. — The genitive oi the thing needed in Livy, xxii., 51, temporis 
flttia esse, and xxiii» 21, qwmti argenti opusfuit, is doubtful. But when the 
tning cannot be expressed by a substantive, we find either the accusative 
with the infinitive, or the infinitive alone, the preceding subject being un* 
derstood ; e. g., si quid erit, qued te scire opus sit, scribam, or ^tad opus est 
^am voids affi^mare, scil. te : or the ablat. of the perfect partici[ile is ua.^ii 


With or without i: tubstantive ;* e. g., Taeiio fimm opuf eti; damoMi Llq^ 
Mofurato opux ft, quidquid atatuere ^^acet ; Cic, ad Att., z., 4, ted opu»Jm$ 
Hirtio convento , Liv., vii., 5, opus «t6t ease domino ejus eonverUo. The ablat 
of the supine (in u) is less frequent. Priuaquam tnopuw, cnnatdto, et, lii 
oonauitieria, mature facto opua eat, Sallnst, Cat.^ 1. 

Note 2.— Uaua est^ in the sense of opua est, is likewise used impersonal- 
ly, as in Livy, ut reduceret navea, qvibua conauU uaua non eaaet, of which th€ 
consul was not in want. 

[§ 465.] 8. The ablative is joined with the deponent 
verbs utor^fnwr^fungory potior^ and vescor^ and their com- 
pounds abator, perfruorj defungor, and perfungor. 
Hannibal quum victoria posset uti^fmi rnahdty Floras. 
Qui adipisci veram gloriam volet, jtistitiaejungatur offictis^ 

Cic, de Off., ii., 13. 
Numidae plerumque lacte etferina came vescebantur, Sal- 
lust, Jug.., 89. 

[^ 46G.] Note. — In early Latin these verbs were frequently joined with 
the accusative, but in the best period of the language it seldom occurs, 
and only in less correct writers.f (In Nepos, Datam,, I, miUtare mmua 
fytngena is well established, but Eumeiu, 3, aummam imperii potiri is doubt- 
ful, and so are the passages quoted from Cicero with the accusat. See 
my note on de Of., u., 23.) This, howeyer, is the reason why eveb class- 
ical writers use the construction with the participle future passive, where 
otherwise the gerund only could have been used. (See { 657.) Potior 
occurs (in classical writers) also with the genitive ; e. g., regni, imperii^ 
but more especially in the phrase rerum potiri, to assume the supremac^r. 
Apiacor and adipiacor are used by Tacitus in the same sense with a geni- 
tive (rerjan, domnationia), and Horace goes so far as to join regnare (which 
is otherwise an intransitive verb) vnth a genitive, Carm., iii, 30, 12, agrea- 
tium populontm. Utor often signifies " I have," especially when the object 
(the ablat.) is accompanied bv another noun (substant. or adject.) in appo 
sition ; e. g., utor te amico, I have you as a friend ; Nep., Hating SoaiU 
Lacedaemonio Utterarum Oraecarum uaua eat doctore ; Cic, vide quam me ai» 
uaurua aequo, how fair I shall be towards thee. 

[§ 467.] 9. The adjectives dignus^indigntis, and conten- 
tus are joined with die ablative of the thing of which we 
are worthy, unworthy, and with which we are satisfied. 
Dignari, to be deemed worthy, or, as a deponent, to deem 
worthy, is construed like dignus. 

Si vere aestimare Macedonas, qui tuncjuerunt, volumus^ 
fatebvmur, et regem talihus ministris, et illos tanto regt 
Juisse digndssimos. Curt., iv., in fin. 

ajjuum midti luce indigni sunt, et tamen dies oritur/ Senec. 

Note. — Dignari is used by Cicero only as the passive of the obsolete ac 
tive dignare, and that not only in the participle, but in the various tenses. 
The writers of the silver age use it as a deponent ; e. g., Sueton., Fe«pa*., 
2, gratiaa egit ei, quod ae honore coenae dignatua eaaet, that bo liad thought bin 
worthy. When joined with an infinitive, dignor with those writers signi- 

• [Consult Reiaig, Vorlea., p. 704.]— Am. Ed. 

t [Consalt SaneL Minerv., iil, S.-^Ruddiman, iL, p. 196.— /Jmm %d H0»9^ 
Vorlea., p. 681.}~Afii. Ed. 


lies " I think proper to do a thing." IHgmta, m poetry aiui nnclasaica. 
proee writers, is sometimes joined with a genitite^ .iice the Greek a^to^. 
When it is followed by a verb, the La .in language generally requires a 
distinct sentence beginning with a relative pronoun, the verb being put in 
the subjunctive ; sometimes, however, the infinitive is used, as in English. 
(See % 566.) Contenhu is likewise joined with the infinitive of a verb (See 
\ SOa.) The ablat. with this adjective arises from the meaning of the verb 
tfpntmm, of which it is, properly speaking, the participle passive ; henc« 
in a reflective sense it signifies ** confining one's self to," or '* satisfying 
one's self with a thing." • 

[§ 468.1 10. The verbs of removing^ preventing, deliV' 
ering^ ana others which denote separation, are construed 
with the ablative of the thing, without any of the prepo- 
sitions ah^ de, or ex ; but when separation from aperson is 
expressed the preposition ab is always used. The prin- 
cipal verbs of this class are : arcere, pellere, depellere, ex- 
peUere^ deturhare^ dejicere, ejicere, absterrere, deterrere^ mo- 
verey amovere, demovere^ removere^ prohibere^ exdudere ; 
abire, exire, cedere^ decedere, discedere, desutcre, evadere, ab 
itinere; liberare, expedite, Icucare^ solvere, together with the 
adjectives liber, immunis, purusy vactms, and aZtent^, which 
maybe used either with the preposition ab or the ablative 
alone ; e. g., liber a ddictis and liber omni metu, hut, the 
verbs exolvere, eoumerare, and levare, although implying lib- 
eration, are always construed with the ablative alone. 

The verbs which denote " to distmguish " and ** to differ,** viz., disUn 
guere, discemare, teumere^ differrtj discrepare^ diasidere^ dUtare^ abhinrere, 
together with aUenare and abaUenare^ are generally joined only with the 
preposition ab, and the ablative alone is rare ana poetical ; e. g., Tacit., 
^Ann., i, 55, neque ipse abhorrebeU taUbus atudiis ; Ovid, Met.y iii., 145, sol ear 
aequo metd distabat utraque. The verbs denoting ** to differ" are construed 
also with the dative, and not only in poetry, but some^mes even in prose; 
e. g., Herat., Epist., i,, 18, 4, dUtat infido scurrae amicus; ibid., ii., 2, 193. 
sitniUat kUarisque nepoti discrejMt; Quintil., xii., 10, Cfnucis Tuscanicae 
sUOuae differunt. The same principle is followed by the adjective diversus ; 
as in Qumtil., /. c, Nihil tarn est jjysiae diversum quamlsocrates ; Horat.. 
Serm.f i., 4, 48, (Comoedia) nisi quodpede certo Differt sermonii sermo menu 

It. Brutus civitatem dominatu regio liberavit, Cic, p. 

Plane, 25. 
Te a quartana liberatum gaudeo, Cic, ad Att., x., 15. 
Esse pro cive, qui civis non sit, rectum est nan licere, wsn 

vero urbis prohibere peregrinos sane inhumanum est, 

Cic, de Off., iii., 11. • 

Apud veteres Germanos quemcunque mortalium arcere tecto 

nefas habebatur, Tacit, Germ,, 21. 
Tu, Juppiter, htmc a tuis aris, a tectis urbis, a mocnibus, a 

vitajhrtunisque civium arcebis, Ci(i , in Cat,, i., in fin. 

£^ 469.] Note 1.— The veib separare itself is commonly construed witV 
t^rbot the ablative a*one is also admissil/le ; e. g., Ovid, TVwf., i.» IIX 29 

E E 


999ton Ahydena aeparmi urbt/rttum. Eoadin it ioitied by Cic«0 iritli »• 
imd abf but Lhry and Sallait use it with the ablative alone ; it may ta4« 
the accusative, according to ^ 386 ; e. g., evadere amnemyfiammam^ huidimM, 
nlvoM, but this occurs only in the silver age. Prohibere^ to keep at a dis- 
tance, prevent, admits of a double construction ; the most common is ta 
put the hostile thing or person in the accusative ; as, hoMtet prohibere popt^- 
intionibus or ah opmdi* ; Cic, p. Leg. Man., 7, a i^ periado prohibete rem- 
publieam, and in tne same chapter, erit hunumitatis vesfr<u, ntagnum hormm 
etvttfm numerwn calamitatt prohibere. In like mmmer. defendere is joined will 
the accusative of the thing to be warded off, or ot the thing or person to 
be defended. In the former sense defendere is commonly used with the 
accusative alone ; as, defendere mtmos ardores aoUtt but ab ali^uo may also 
be added : in the latter sense ab is very frequently joined to it ; as, a peri- 
eulo, a VI, a6 injuria. After the analogy of prohibere^ the verb miermcert 
•Had is used almost more frequently with Uie ablative, aU^ re, than 
with the accusative aliquid; e. g., Caes., Bell. Gall., i, 46, Anwittus omni 
OaUia interdixit Romanis; Quintil., vi, 3, 79, quod ei domo eua interdixiseet, 
and hence the well-known formula, alicui aqua et igni interdicere. See the 
excellent disquisition of Perizonius on Sanctius, Minerv., p. 345, foil, ed. 
sexta; compare ^ 418. 

The dative, with verbs denoting " to differ,*' is attested by a sufficient 
number of passages ; but it is impossible to ascertain what was the po- 
lice with the verbs denoting ** to distinguish,** for there are no decisive 
passages. Horace says, vero distinguere falnun, turpi eeeemere hanetium, 
eecemere privatis vublica, but it is uncertain whether vero, turpi, and privatis^ 
are datives or ablatives. The poets now and then use the dative instead 
of a6 with the ablative, with verbs denoting separation ; e. g., Virg., Eclo^.^ 
vii, 47, Mt^Btitium peeori defendite; Oeorg., iii, 155, oeatrum ear€»^ gramda 
pecori ; Horat., Carm., i., 9, 17, dimec virenti canities obeM ; for otherwise 
abesse is always joined with ab. (Compare, however, ^ 420.) Dissentire, 
dissidere, and diecrepare are consUued, also, with cum, and d^tcordare cum 
aliquo is more frequent than ab aliquo. The genitive, which is sometimes 
ioinod by poets to verbs of separation, is entirely Greek; e. g.. Plant, 
Kud, i., 4, 27, me omnium jam laborum levae ; HoraU, Carm., ii., 9, 17, desine 
mMiumtandem querelarum ; ibid., iii, 27, 69, abetineto irarum eaUdaeque rixaa , 
ibid., iii, 17, in fin.^ cumfamiulia operum eolutis; Serm., ii, 3, 36, morbi put' 
^atuM ; and, according to this analogy, the genitive is used, also, with ad- 
jectives of the same meaning ; Horat., Serm., ii, 2, 119, operum vacuus ; d§ 
Art, Poet., 212, libtr laborum ; Carm,, i, 22, purus sceleris. So Tacitus, 
Annal., i., 49, uses dioersus with the genitive, mstead of ab aliqua re, 

[^ 470.] Note 2.— The adjective alienus (strange), in the sense of "unfit** 
or '*unsuited,'* is joined either with the ablative alone or with ab; e. g., 
Cic, de Off.f i., 13, fraus quasi vulpeculae, vis leonis videtur, uirumque homiru 
alienissimum est ; non alienum putant dignitate, majestate sua, institutis suisj 
but Cicero just as often uses the preposition ab. In the sense of ** dtsaf 
fected'* or "hostile** alienus always takes ab; e. g., homo alienus a Uueria, 
animum alienum a causa nobilitatis habere. In the former sense of " unsuited,** 
being the opposite of proprius (^ 411), it may also be joined with the geni- 
tive ; e. g., Cic., de Fin., l., 4, quis aUenum putet ejus esse digmtatis, and in 
the latter (after the analogy oiinimicus) with the dative ; as, Cic, p. Case, 
9, id dicit quod illi causae maxime est alienum. Alius, too, is sometimes found 
with the ablative, which iflay be regarded as an ablative of separation 
e. g., Horat., EpUt., i, 16, 20, none putes aiium sapiente bonoaue heatumj 
Epist., ii., 1, 239, alius Lysippo ; Phaedr., Prologs, lib. iii., 41^ cuius Sejano , 
Varro , de R. R., iii., 16, quod est aliudmelle; Cic, ad Fam., xi., 2, in speak 
ing of Brutus and Cassias, says, nee qtddquam aliud libertate eommumi quae' 
tisse. But this ablative may also be compared with the ablative joined tt 

[§471.] 11. The ablative is used with esse (eithei ex 


pressed or auderstood) to denote a quality of a person ox 
a thing (ahlativus qualitatis). But the ablative is used 
oaly when the substantive denoting .the quality does not 
stand alone ^as in the case of the genitive, see § 426), but 
is joined with an adjective or pronoun-adjective. Hence 
we cannot say, e. g., Caesar fuit ingenio^ or homo ingenio, 
a man of talent (which would be expressed by an adjec- 
tive), but we say Caesar magno, summo, or excellenti in- 
genio, or homo summo ingenio. 

.AgesUatis stattura fuit humUi et corpore exiguo^ Nepos. 
Omnes habentut et dicuntur tyratmi, qui potestate sunt per* 

petua in, ea civitate^ quae libertate usa est, Nej)., M*lt. 
L. Catilina, nobili genere natus^fuit magna vi et animi e( 

corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque, Sallust, Cat., 5. 
Prope (Hennam) est spelunca quaedam, infinita altitudine, 

qua Ditem patremferurU repente cum curru extitisse, Cic, 

in Verr., iv., 48. 

Note. — ^The explanation of the ablative of quality by the ellipsis ofprae- 
ditus is only intended to suggest some mode of accounting for the fact of 
a substantive being joined with an ablative. With the same object in 
view, we prefer eonnecting the ablative with €S9» or its participle etu (though 
it does not occur); in the absence of which a substantive enters into an 
immediate connexion with an ablative, without being grammatically de- 
pendaiit upon it : elaria natai^nts ett, he is of noble birth ; vtr clmis ruUati- 
bttSf homo antiquaviitute etjidt. With regard to the difference between the 
ablative and the genitive of quality, the genitive is more comprehensive, 
all ideas of measure being expressed by this case alone ; but in other re 
spects the. distinction is not very clear. , In general, however, it may be 
said that the genitive is used more particularly to express inherent quali- 
ties, and the ablative both inherent and accidental qualities. Thus, in 
speaking of transitory qualities or conditions, the ablative is always used ; 
as, bono aniTno sum, maximo dolore eram, and Cicero, ad Au., xii., 52, by using 
the genitive securi animi es, suggests tJiat he is speaking of something per 
manent, not merely transitory. See Krager'x Orammat:, p. 532. The gen- 
itive of plural substantives is rare. Sometimes the two constructions, 
with the ablative and the genitive, are found combined ; e. g., Cic, ad 
Fam., iv., 8, neque monere te audeOj praeatanti prudentia virumj nee conjurmare 
inaximi animi hominem ; ibid., i., 7, Lenlulum eximia ape, aummae virtutia ado- 
teacentem ; Nep., Datam., 3, Thyum, hominem maximi corporia terrUtiUque facte 

optima veste texit. 

. [§ 472,] 12. The ablative with the preposition cum is 
used to express the manner in which anything is done 
(usually indicated by adverbs), provided the manner is ex- 
pressed by a substantive; e. g., cam fide amicitiam colerc; 
Utterae cum cura diligentiaque scriptae; cum voluptate 
audire ; cum dignitate potitts cadcre, quam cum ignominia 
9emire, are equivalent to fidelitercolere, dUigenter scriptae^ 
lihenter audire, &c. If an adjective is joined with the 
lubstantive, the ablative alono (ahlativus modi) is ^onor 

328 LATIN tAAMM^k* 

ally used, and the preposition cum is joined t . It only wiHsu 
an additional circumstance . smd not an essential charac- 
teristic of the action, is to he expressed. The suhstaa 
laves implying manner; as^ m*pdus^ ratio, mos^ and others., 
never taJce the preposition cufa. 

Thus we always read, hoc modj scripsi ; non una modo rem tractavi ; onuo ' 
modo egi cum. regt ; tUiqua rtUione tollere te voktnt ; constittierunt qua ratunu 
ageretur, and the like ; in the same way, humano modo et usitato more pec' 
tare^ more bestiarum va^ariy latronum ritu vivere^ more institutoque omniimi de 
fendere, the genitive m these cases supplying the place ot an adjective. 
We farther say, aequo animofero ; maximdfide amicittas coluit ; summa aeqm- 
tate res constituitf and very frequently viam incredibili celeritate confecit ; K- 
brum magna cura diligentiaque acripsit, the action of the verb being in intimate 
connexion with the adverbial circumstanco. But when the action and the 
circumstance are considered separately, tho preposition cum is used ; e. g^ 
majore cum fide auditur ; conclamant cum mdecora exvltatione (in Quintil.) ; 
tanta multitudo cum tanto studio adest (Cic, p. Leg. jlfan., 24) ; Verres Lamp- 
sacum venit cum magna caUtmitate civitaiis (Cic, in Verr., i., 24), the calamUeu 
being only the consequence of his presence. Hence cum is also used when 
the connexion between the subject jmd the noun denoting the attribute is 
otily external ; e. %.,procedere cum fotste purpurea ; heus tu qui cum hirquinn 
ttstas barba (Plaut., Pseud., iv., 2, 12); wheteo^ procedere coma madenti, nudia 
vdibus incedere, aperto capite sedere, express Circumstances or attributes in- 
separable from the subject. 

Quid est aliud gigantum m4>do hdUi/re cum diis, nisi natu- 
rae repugnare ? Cic, CaU Maj», S^. 

Legiones nostrae in eum saej^e Iocutsi^ prqfectae sunt alacrt 
animo et ereA^to^ unde se nu^quam n:dituras arbitrarentur^ 
Cic, Cat, Maj., 20. 

Epaminondas a jvdicio capitis maxima discessit gloria^ 
Nep., Epam.j 8. 

Romani ovantes ac grattdantas Horatium cu^cipiunt, eo ma- 
j&re cum gaudi ?, quo prope metum resjuerat, Liv., i., 25. 

Miltiades (cum Parum expugnare non potuisset) Athe- 
na^ magna cum qffensione CAvium stiorum rediit, Nep^ 
Milt., 7. * 

Note 1. — The difiference observed betvveen tha ablativua modi and cttm, in 
t he case of substantives joined with ad^tives, js a nicety of the Latin 
language which it is difficult to explain by a rule, although it is based on 
sound principles. Cicero, de Orat., i., 13, in speaking of the peculiar dif 
ference between the oratorical and philosophical style, combmes the two , 
constructions : iUi (the philosophers) tenui quodam exanguique aermcne die- ' 
putant, hie (the orator) cum omni gravitate et juctmdUate eacpliaU : by eum 
Cicero here denotes the additional things which the orator employs. If 
he had alluded only to the mode of speaking, he would have said ma^ 
gravitate rem expUcat. But there are, nevertheless, some passages in which 
no difference is apparent ; as, Cic, de Invent., i., 30, Quod enim eartiua legig 
aeriptor testimonium voluntatif suae relinquere pottdt, quam quod ipse magna cum 
cura atque diligentia scripsit ? deNat. Deor., ii, 38, impTtia roeli cum admira 
bUi celeritate movetur. Thi begmner must observe t^"*^ V^^ eblativus mod; 
is more frequent thar. the i-e of cum, which, vte hrv» r» «-'^*»'*ine«' ia » 
intelligible manner 


The ablattvus modi uceurs also in the words cendkia or leg,\n the 

af " condition," or " term," and in pmcu/um, danger, ri&k ; e. g., taUla am' 

itdone (like nuUo pacta) fieri potest ; quavie condicione pacem /acere ; aequa 

cmmdieionefdueeptare; hac^ ea condicione or lege ut or ne (^ 319) ; meo^ tuo, 

v€stro^ alicujue pericula facere aUquid (but when the substantive stands 

alone, we say^ cum periadOf that is, periciUose) ; awtpiciof aiupieiiSf ductu tm 

^erioque aUcujua rem gerere or militare. Some cases in which the ablative 

18 used, and which are commonly considered as abiativi modi, are in re- 

ality ot a different kind ; hoc mente, hoc consilio feci, for. example, should 

rather be called abiativi causae ; navi vehi, pedibua ire, pervenire aliquo, 

eapite oneraferre, vi urbee expugnare, on the Other hind, are abiativi instru- 

menti, but they acquire the nature of an ablativus modi if the substantive 

is joined with an adjective ; as, ma^na vi tmure^ mag^a vi defehdere cdiquem, 

or they become ablatives absolute, unplying a description ; e. g., nudi* pedi- 

Inu ambidare, processit madenti <yma, composito capillo, gravUnu oculiMfJluenti' 

ms bucciSf pressa voce et temulenta, (rseud. Cic, post Red, in Sen.t 6.) 

See ^ 645. The ablative in Cic, LaeL, 15, miror (de Tarquinio) ida su- 

perbia et importunitate si quemmiam amicum habere p<auit, must likewise be 

regarded as an ablative absolute, being the same as quum tanta ejjus su- 

perhia et importunitasfuerit. As the preposition cum cannot be used in anv 

of these cases, we may consider it as a practical rule that* the manner in 

which a thing is done is expressed by the ablativus modi 

in some expressions the ablative of substantives alone is found without 
cum. Thus we say silentio praeterire^ ox facere oliqmd (but also cum sdentio 
audire), lege agere; jure and inmria facere; magistratus vitio creatus is a com- 
mon expression, indicating that an election had not taken place in due 
form. Cicero uses aliquid rede et ordme, modo et rationCf rations et ordinefit, 
via et rations disputare, and frequently, also, rations alone ; e. g., rations facer * 
ratione volupteUem sequi {ds Fin., L, 10), with reason, i. e., in a rational wav 
sometimes, also, voluntats facere in the sense of sponte, voluntarily. 

[^ 473.] Note 2. If we compare the above rules with those given undei 
Nos. 1 and 2, the ablative expressing company alone is excluded, for com- 
nany is expressed by cum, evep in such cases as servi cttm tdis comprehensi 
sunt, cum/erro in aliquem invaders, when we are speaking of instruments 
which a person has (if he uses them, it becomes an ablativus instrumenti) ; 
ferther, Komamvenicumfebri; cum nuntio exire, as soon as the news ar- 
rived ; cum occasu snlis capias educere, as soon as the sun set. It must be 
observed, as an exception, that the ancient writers, especially Caesar and 
LiTy, in speaking of military movements, frequently omit the preposition 
cum, and use the ablative alone ; e. g., Liv., viL, 9, Dictator ingenti exerdtu 
ab vrbsprofectus; xxx., 11, exerdtu haud minore, qtum quern prius habuerat, 
irs ad hostes pergit ; xli., 1, eodem decern navibus C. Furius duumvir navalis 
vsnit ; i., 14, egressus omnibus copiis, where Drakenborch gives a long list 
of similar expressions in Livy, with which we may compare the commen- 
tators referred to by him and Oudendorp on Caes., Bell. Gall., ii., 7. This 
omission of the preposition occurs, also, when accompanjring circumstances 
are mentioned, and not persons ; e. g., Liv., vii., 20, ouum poptdatione psra- 
grati fines essetU; v., 45, castra clamore invadunt. Tne Greeks, especially 
.Xenophon, use the dative in the same way; compare Matthiae, Cfreek 
Cfram., ^ 405, and also Livy, x., 25, majori mlhi curae est, ut omnes tocupletes 
reducam, quam ut mtdtis rem geram mUitibus, which is an ablativus instru- 
menti, unless it ^e explained by the analogy of the expressions mentioned 

[^ 474.] We may add here the remark tl \i the participles junctus and 
otmjunctus are joined by Cicero with the ablative alone, instead of tbe da- 
tive (according to ^ 412 and 415), or the preposition cum ; e. g., ad Ati., 
ix., 10, infinititm bellum junctum miserrimafuga; p. Cluent., 6, repents est ex- 
erts mulieris importunu nefaria libido, non solum dedecore, verum etiam scelers 
yonjuncta ; de Orat., i., 67, dicendi vis egregia, summa festivitate et venustats 
jmiuncta^ See Garatoni*8 note on Philip., v., 7, hyus mendititns awdii^s 



tonjun€U inf^irhmat nottrar imminebat. See, also, p. PUmc., 10 ; PAii^^ UL 
14 ; Brtu,t 44. This construction is also found with impUccUus in Cic, 
Phil.^ ii., 32, and with admixtus in de Nat. Deor.y il, 10. Compare the coii' 
^ruction of »muZ in ^ 321. 

[§ 475.] 13. (a) The ablative, without a preposition, 
is used to express* the point of time at which anything 
happens. (Duration of time is expressed by the accusa- 
tiye, see § 395.) 

Qua node natus Alexander est, eddem Dianas Ephestat 

templum deflagravit, Cic, De Nat, Deon^ ii., 27. 
Pyrrhi temporihua jam Apollo versus Jacire desierat, Cic, 

De Dlvin., iu, 56.* 
Pompeius extrema puerUia miles Jkit sunvmi imperatoria^ 

ineunte adolescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator, 

Qic.,p, Leg, Man., 10. 

Nott. — Our expressions " by day" and •* by night" are rendered in L&tin 
by the special words interdiu and noctu^ but the ordinary ablatives die and 
nocte also occur not unfrequently, as in the combination, die ac node, die 
noctuquef nocte et interdiu. Vespere or vesperi is ** in the evening," see ^^ 98 
and d3. Ludis is also used to denote time, in the sense of tempore ludorum^ 
and on the same principle we find SatumaUbus^ Latinis, gladiatoribus, for 
ludis gladiatoriU. See Drakenborch on Livy, ii., 36. Other substantives 
which, properly speaking, do not express time, are used in that sense either 
with the preposition in (compare 4 318), or without it ; e. g., initio and 
priTicipiOf adventit and discessu alicujusy comitiis, tumuftUf and bello ; but of 
oello tne ablative alone is more common, if it is joined with an adjective 
or genitive ; as, beUo Latinonan, Veienti beUo, hello Punico secundo^ and after 
this analogy, also, pugna Cannensi, for in pugna Cannensi. Thus, also, 
we say, inpueritia; but when an adjective denoting time is joined to^ 
tritia, the aolative alone is used. It is, in general, very rare and unclassical 
to use in with substantives expressing a certain space of time ; as, hora, 
diest annuSf &c., for the purpose of denoting the time when anything hap 
pens; for in tempore is used only when tempua signifies "mstress" Or 
"misery" (as it sometimes does in Cicero: in iUo tempore, hoc quidem in 
tempore, and in Livy. in taU tempore, where we should say ** under such 
circumstances"), ana "in time,'^"at the right time;" but in both cases 
the ablative alone also occurs, and fmpore in the sense of," early" has 
even become an adverb. An earlier form of this adverb is tempori or tern- 
veri, of which a comparative temperrus is formed. Livy (i., 18 and 57), 
nowever, has the expression m ilta aetate, at that period, for which Ctcero 
would have used the ablative alone. 

[§ 476,] fbj The ablative is also used to express the 
time before and the time qfier a thing happened, and otU^ 
and post are in this case placed after the ablative. The 
meaning, however, is the same as when ante and post are 
»oined with the accusative in the usual order, just as we 
may sometimes say, in the same sense, "three years after,*' 
and " after three years," post tres an7ws decessit, and tii* 
bus annis poft decessit. In this connexion the ordinal nu- 
merals may be employed, as vyell as the cardinal ones: 
post ttHium annum, and tertio anno post, are the same a^ 


trtifus dnnis post ; for by this, as by the former expres* 
sious, the Romans did not imply that a period of three full 
years had intervened, but they included in the calculation 
.the beginning and the end (the terminus a quo and the 
ierndima ad, quern). If we add the not unusual position 
of the preposition between the adjective and the substan- 
tive (noticed above, § 324), we obtain eight difierent 
modes of expression, all of which hs-ve the same value. 

(oMte) post tres annos^ tribus annis post, 

post tertium annum^ tertio a^no post. 

* tres post annos^ triims post amnis. 

teftmm post annutn^ tertio post anno. 

When ante or post stands last (as in tribus annis post or 
tertio anno post), it may be- joined with an accusative fol« 
lowing it to denote the time before and afl^r which any- 
thing took place. . 

TViemistocles fecit idem^ quod viginti annis ante apud nos 
fecerat Coriolanus (ut in .exilium proficisceretur, B.C. 
471), Cic., Lael,, 12. 

Tj, Sextius primus de plehe consul fadtus est annis post Ro- 
mam conditam trecentis dtiodenonaginta, 

[^ 477.] Note.— Post and ante sometimes precede the ablatives : ante an- 
nis octOfpost paucis diebus (Liv., xL, 57, and elsewhere), and also before 
such ablatives as are used adverbiajly ; post aliquanto^ post non mtdto^ post 
pattlo {ante aliqiumto, Cic, in Vfrr., ii., 18 ; ante paulo, de Re Pvbl., ii., 4) ; 
out the usual place of these prepositions is that mentioned above in the 
rule. Diupost must be avoiaed, for it is only the ablatives in o«that are 
used in this way. 

When ante and post are joined with avam and a verb, the expression ad- 
mits of great variety : we may say, triims annis postqiiam venerat, post tret 
tnnos ^[uam venerate tertio anno postquam venerat^ post annum tertium quanx 
veneratt or post may be omittea and the ablative used alone ; tertio anm 
quam venerat; and all these expressions have the same meaning, viz*., 
" three years after he had come." 

[5 478.] fc) The length of time before the present mo- 
ment is expressed by abJiinc, generally with the accusa- 
tive, but also with the ablative ; e. g., Demosthenes abhine 
• annosprope trecentos fuit, and abhine annis quattuor. The 
same is also expressed by ante with the pronoun hie, as 
in Phaedrus : ante has sex menses maledixisti mihi, 

Demosthenes^ qui abhine annosprope trecentos fuit, jam turn 

tpiXiTml^eiv Pythiam dicebat, id est quasi cum Fhilippo 

Jacere, Cic, De Divin,, ii., 57. 

Note, — Ahhinc, without reference to the present moment, in the sense of 
mae in general, occurs only in Cic, in Verr.y ii, 52; ante, on the other 
hand, is used more frec^uently instead of abhine; Cic, Leg, A^.,ii., 18 


90$ wuhi pi utori biennio ante pertonam hone impotulvHa « CCmpare Tuac,, i^ 
5« 9. Hand (.Tursellin., i., p. 03) observes that no ancient writer ever usee 
an ordinal numeral with abhincy and Pliny {Hist. Nat., xiv., 4) alone M-ys, 
teptimo hinc anno. Sometimes the length^/ time before is expressed by the 
ablative alone joined with fuc or illej a8,paucis fUa diebus, ot paucis iliia 
diebtUt a few days ago. Respecting the differerxe between these pi o- 
nouns, in reference to the present or past time, eee ^703 ; compare Cic, 
m Verr., iv., 18, ^ 39, and c. 63, init. 

[§ 479.1 fdj The length of time mthin which a thing 
happens is expressed by the ablative alone as well as by 
in with the ablative. Cicero uses the ablative alone, and 
introduces in ^nly in connexion with numerals (in an- 
swer to the question, " how often during a certain time V); 
e. g., bi* in die saturum Jieriy vix ter in anno ^untium au 
dirCy sol hincLs in singulis annis conversiones facit^ but noi 
exclusively so. Other good authors use in when they vnsh 
to express more decidedly the idea of within, which is gen- 
erally expressed by intra, (See § 300.) 

Agamemnon cum vniversa Graecia viz decern annis unam 

cepit urbem, Nep., Epam., 5. 
Senatus decrevit, ut legati Jugurthae, nisi regnum ipsum" 

que deditum venissent, in diebus proximis decern Italia 

decederent, Sallust., Jug*, 28. 

[^ 480.] Note. — The ablative ezptessing " within a time" often acquit es 
Ihe signification of ** after" a time, inasmuch as the period within which 
a thinp^ is to happen is passed away. Thus, Tarraconan paucia diebuaper- 
venitt in Caesar {Bell. Civ., ii., 21), sl^ifies " after a few days," and Sal- 
lust {Jug.y 39, 4) follows the same prmciple in saying, paucia diebua inAf- 
ricam proficiadtur and (ibid., 13) paucia diebua Komam legatoa nuttit^ for 
paucia Stiebua poat. ^See Kritz on Sallust, Jt^., 11.) Suetonius (iVier., 3 ,* 
Tib., 69) in tne sam^ nense says, in paucia diebua. This use of the ablat. 
occurs m Cicero (and Other good authors), inasmuch as the ablative of 
time, when followed by a preposition with a relative pronoun, signifies 
*' later than ;" e. g., Plancius in Cic, ad Fam., z., 18, ipae octo ^ebua, qm- 
hua haa litteraa dabam, cum Lepidi copiia me conjungam, >-hat is, eight days 
after the date of this letter ; p, Roac. Am., 36, Mora Sex, RoacU quatriduof 
quo ia occiaua eat, Chryaogono nuntiatur, four days after he had been killed; 
Oaes., Bell. Gall., i., 48, acddit repeniinum mcommodum biduo, quo haee geata 
' aunt, two days after this had happened ; v., 26, diebua circiter xv., miibua 
in hWema ventum est, dejfectio orta eat ; also with qvum instead of a relative 
pronoun, Plancius in Cicero, ad Fam., x., 23, quern triduo, qvum haa dabam 
Utteraa, expectabam, three days later than the date of this letter. Somet 
times in is joined with the ablative ; Terent., Andr., i., 1, 77, in difbw 
paucia, quibua haec acta aunt, moritur. 

[§ 481.] 14. The ablative without a preposition is used 
s to denote the place where 1 in some particular combina- 

tions ; as, terra marique, by la'ud and by sea. The names 
of towns follow their own rul^s (§ 398). The preposition 
is omitted with the word loc(^ <and locisj, when it ie join* 
ed with an adjective, and ha-' (he derivali^'e meaning of 


** oo'f^msioii ;" e. g , hoc loco^ mtdtis locis, aliqftot locia, certo 
locOf secundo locOf mdiore loco res nostrae sunt; but this la 
done more rarely when locus has its proper meaning of 
" spot" or "place. * In loco, or simply loco, is equal to suo 
loco^ in its right p. ace ; when joined with a genitive, loco 
signifies "instead/' and in this sen