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i^^^yjc^ \ Hy ■ ^ ;? -Ma 

3 2044 097 061 840 

Received JV-O./. / / 2. / S*^ 7 v • 

Essex Institute. 

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JANUARY n, 1024 

Entered aocording to Act of Congress, in the year 1836, 

Br Crockbb and Brewstxb, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 



The Grammar here presented to the public origmated in i 
design, formed several years since, of preparing a new edition 
of Adam's Latin Grammar, with such additions and corrections 
as the existing stat^ of classical learning plainly demanded. 
We- had not proceeded far in the execution of thb purpose, 
before we were impressed with the conviction, which our subs^ 
quent researches continually confirmed, that the defects in that 
manual were so numerous, and of so fundamental a character, 
that they could not be removed without a radical change in the 
plan of the work. 

Since the first publication of that Grammar, rapid advances 
have been made in the science of philology, both in Great 
Britain and upon the continent of Europe. In the mean time, 
no corresponding change has been made in that work, and, 
after the lapse of half a century, it still continues, in its origi- 
nal form, to occupy its place in most of the public and private 
schools in this country. For this continuance of public favor 
it has been indebted, partly to a greater fulness of detail than 
was found in the small grammars which it has superseded, partly 
to the reluctance so commonly felt to lay aside a manual with 
which all are familiar ; but, principally, to the acknowledged 
fact, that the grammars which have been proposed as substitutes, 
not excepting even those translated from the German, though 
often replete with philosophical views of the highest interest^ 
have still been destitute of many of the essential requisites of a 
complete introduction to the Latin language. 

Instead, therefore, of prosecuting our original purpose, we at 
length determined to mould our materials into a form corre* 


Bponding with the advanced state of Latin and Greek philcdogy. 
With this view, we have devoted much time to a careful exami- 
nation of such works as promised to afford us the most material 
assistance. From every source, to which we could gain access, 
we have drawn whatever principles appeared to us most impor- 
tant. These we have sometimes expressed in the words of the 
author from whom they were derived ; but, in general, we have 
preferred to exhibit them in our own language. The whole, 
with the exception of three or four pages only, has been sent to 
the compositor in manuscript. 

The limits of a preface will allow us to notice but a few of 
the more prominent peculiarities of the following work. 

To insure a correct and uniform pronunciation of the Latin 
language, our experience hkd satisfied us, that rules more copi- 
ous and exact than any now in use were greatly needed. In 
presenting the rules of orthoepy contained in this Grammar, it 
is not our object to introduce innovation, but to produce uni- 
formity. This we have endeavored to effect by exhibiting, in as 
clear a light as possible, the principles of pronunciation adopted 
in the schools and universities of England, and in the principal 
colleges of this country. If these rules are regarded, the stu- 
dent can seldom be at a loss respecting the pronunciation pf any 
Latin word. 

As an incorrect pronunciation may generally be referred to 
the errors into which the student is permitted to fall while learn- 
ing the paradigms of the grammar, we have endeavored to pre- 
vent the possibility of mistake in these, by dividing the words 
according to their pronunciation, and marking the accented 
syllable. If the instructor will see that tHe words are at first 
pronounced as they are set down in the paradigms, he will not 
afterwards be compelled to submit to the mortifying labor of 
correcting bad habits, when they have become nearly inveterate. 
Wherever a Latin word is introduced, its quantity is carefully 
marked, except in those cases in which it may be determined 
by the general rules in the thirteenth section. As the para- 
digms are divided and accented^ it may not, in general, be exTie* 


dient for the student to learn the rules of pronunciation at his 
entrance upon the studj of the Grammar. It will be sufficient 
for him, at first, to understand the principles of accentuation in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth sections. The remaining rules he 
can gradually acquire as he proceeds in his study of the lan- 

The materials for the subsequent departments of the Gram- 
mar have been drawn from various sources, most of which need 
not be particularly ^cified. It is proper, howeyer, that, in this 
place, we should, once for all, acknowledge our obligations to 
the Grammars of Scheller, Zumpt, and Grant, and to the Dic- 
tionaries of Gesner and Facciolatus. 

The paradigms of Adam's Grammar, as being generally known, 
have been retained, excepting a few, which were liable to valid 
objections. Penna was rejected, because, in the sense assigned 
to it of s peny it is totally destitute of classical authority. In- 
stead of this, fiitcsa, which is found in 'the older grammars, has 
been restored. In the third declension, sevoral additional exam- 
pies have been introduced. 

Under adjectives, the different kinds of comparison, and the 
mode of forming each, have been explained. The terminations 
of the comparative and superlative are referred, like every other 
species of inflection, to the root of the word. 

In treating of the pronouns, we have aimed so to arrange the 
several classes, as to exhibit their peculiar characteristics in a 
dear and intelligible manner. 

The compounds of sum are given in connection with that 
verb. In the second conjugation, numeo has been substituted 
for doceo, as the latter is irregular in its third root. In tht 
third conjugation, also, rego has been taken instead of lego^ as 
the latter is irregular in its second root, and, from its peculiar 
signification, cannot properly be used in the first and second 
persons of the passive voice. 

In every conjugation except the first, the active and passive 
voices have been so arranged as to show the relation of their 
corresponding tenses. 


The deriTEtToB of the several parts of the' verb from the root 
Is exhibited in a peculiar manner, and such as we have found 
in practice to^ render the varieties of termination, both in regu- 
lar and irregular verbs, peculiarly easy to be retained in memory. 
Every part of the verb is shown to be naturally derived, either 
immediately or mediately, from its primary root. The mode of 
fimning the secondary roots, and the terminations to be added 
to them and to the primary root respectively, in order to form 
the various tenses, are fiilly eidiibited. 

In each conjugation, those verbs whose second and third roots 
are eitiier irregular or wanting, are arranged alphabetically, in 
order to render a reference to them as easy as possible. 

In constructing the tables of verbs, and occasionally in other 
parts of etymology, we have derived essential aid from Hickie's 
Grammar, and we trust that the information resulting from his 
researches, in relation to the parts of verbs in actual use, will 
be esteemed not only curious but important To a considerable 
extent, we have verified his statements by our own investiga- 
tions ; in consequence of which, however, some changes have 
been made in the parts of certain verbs as exhibited by him. 

The rules of syntax <M>ntained in this work result directly 
from the analysis of propositions, and of compound sentences ; 
and for this reason the student should make himself perfectly 
iamiliau' with the sections relating to subject and preJictUe, and 
should be able readily to analyze sentences, whether simple 
or compound, and to explain their structure and connection. 
For this purpose, it is generally expedient to begin with simple 
English sentences, and to proceed gradually to such as are more 
^complex. When in some degree familiar with these, he will be 
able to enter upon the analysis of Latin sentences. This 
exercise should always precede the more minute and subsidiary 
labor of parsing. If the latter be conducted, as it often is, 
independently of previous analysis, the principal advantage to bo 
derived from the study of language, as an intellectual exercise, 
will inevitably be lost. The practice which we would respectfully 
recommend is that which we have presented at the «I<eee n^ 

Syntax under llie head ** Analyns." When laagvage is studied 
in this way, it ceases to be a tiresome and mechaDieal emplof- 
inent, and not only affords one of the most perfect exercises of 
the int^lectual faculties, but, in a short time, becomes a most 
mgreeable recreation. 

In the syntax of this Grammar, it is hoped that nothmg essen- 
tial which^is contained in larger grammars, has been omitted. 
Our object has been in this, as in other parts of the work, to 
nnite the comprehensive yiews and philosophical arrangement of 
the German, philologists with the fulness and minuteness of the 
English grammarians. In no German grammar that we have 
seen, is the language well adapted to the capacity of the younger 
classes of students, or such as to be conyenioitly quoted in the 
recitation-room. Th^ie defects we have endeayored to remedy, 
by expressing the rules of syntax in as simple and precke 
language as possible. In the arrangement of the syntax, we 
have followed the order of the various cases and moods, so thai 
whatever relates to each subject wiH be found under its appro- 
priate head, and the connection of diflferent subjects is pointed 
out by references from one part to another. In the distribution 
of the subo'dinate parts, we have endeavored to exhibit in the 
clearest manner their mutual relaticm and dependence. 

The secti<His relating to the use of moods have received par- 
ticular attention, as it is in this part, perhaps, more than in any 
other, that the common grammars are deficient. Upon this 
subject, in addition to the sources before enumerated, we have 
derived important aid from Carson's treatise on the relative, and 
from Crombie's Gjrmnasium. 

The foundation of the prosody which is here presented, is to 
be found in the more extended treatises of Carey and Grant, and 
in that contained in Rees's Cyclopeedia. From various other 
sources, also, occasional assbtance has been derived ; but in 
this, as in every other part of the Grammar, we have given 
to the materials such a form as seemed best adapted to oar 

Extended discussions of grammalie«l principles we have 


every where omitted, as foreign to the design of our work, but 
have endeavored to present the results of such discussions in 
the manner most likely to serve the practical purposes of the 

A prominent object in the composition of this Granmiar, and 
one which we have endeavored to keep constantly before our 
minds, was the introduction of greater precision in rules and 
definitions, than is usually to be found in works of this kind. 
To this feature of our work we would respectfully invite the 
reader's attention. It will be found, if we mistake not, that, in 
the language of many of the grammars in common use, there 
is such inaccuracy, as weU as indefiniteness, that many parts, if 
taken independently of examples, and of the explanations of 
the teacher, would be wholly unintelligible. This is especially 
the case in the rules of syntax. Ti^ke, for example, the com- 
mon rule, " A verb agrees with its nominative in number and 
person." Whether the nominative intended is that which, in 
construction, precedes, or that which follows, the verb, or 
in other words, whether it is the subjectriiominative, or the 
predicate-nqminative, is lefl undetermined. 

So in the rule, ** One substantive governs another signifying 
a different thing in the genitive," there is no intimation that the 
two substantives have any relation whatever to each other ; it is 
not even required that they shall stand in the same proposition. 
The only condition is, that they shall signify different things. 
Any one substantive, therefore, governs any other substantive 
in the genitive, whenever and however used, and, in its turn, is 
governed in like manner by that other, provided they signify 
different things. 

In like manner the rule, " One verb governs another in the 
infinitive," contains no limitation or restriction of any kind. 
The least that the student can be expected to infer from it 
is, that any verb may, in certain circumstances, govern an 
infinitive ; and this inference we know has actually been made 
by some respectable^ teachers. One who has formed such a 
conclusion may well be surprised to find that the number of 


nBxhs fikllove^ by ^e infinkiye withcMit a ttibjeet-AcciuatiTey ia 
yery small, and that no inconsiderable potrtion of ithe verbs ^ 
the language cannot, under any circumstances whaleTer, gOTera 
an infinitive, either with or without each accusative. 

Rules of this kind appear to have been intended not to lead 
the student to a knowledge of the structure of the laeguagB, 
but to be repeated by him after the construction has been fuUj 
es^lained by his teacher. Of themselves, 4^erefore, they i^ajr 
be said to teach nothing. Similar remaiks might be made 
respecting a very large proportion of the .common rules of 
syntax, as will be obvious to any one who will take the trouble 
of subjecting them to a rigid scrutiny. As the object of syntax 
is to exhibit the relations of words and propositions, no rule* 
can be considered as otherwise than imperfect, which leaves the 
nature and evj&a the existence of those relatioi^s whpUy inde* 
terminate. An active verb, for example, may, in general, be 
followed by at least three different cases, in order :to express 
what are sometimes called its immediate and its remote objects, 
and also some attendant circumstance of time, place, instru- 
ment, &,c. To say, then, that ''A verb signifying actively 
governs the accusative," can give no precise information, unless 
we specify which of its relations is denoted by this case. 

The fault to which we have now alluded, seems, in maay 
cases, to have arisen from an excessive desire of brevity, and 
to have been perpetuated by the aversion so commonly felt to 
change a form of phraseology to which, however defective in 
its original, custom has at length attached a definite meaning. 
In cases of this kind, we have not scrupled to make such 
changes, both in rules and definitions, as the nature of the case 
seemed to us to demand ; but, in doing this, we have not for- 
gotten the importance of uniting brevity with precision. 

In regard to the manner in which this work was composed, 
we would merely remark, that the labor has been in every re- 
spect a mutual one. -The hand and mind of each have been 
repeatedly employed upon every part, until it has at length 
become impossible even for ourselves to recollect the share 


which each has had in bringing the work to its present state» 
Of each and every part, therefore, it may be safely said thai 
we are the joint authors ; and hence, whatever of praise or 
blame may attach to any part, must be riiared equally by each. 
In commending to the patronage of the public a work on 
which so large a portion of our thoughts has been for several 
years employed, we will not pretend indifference to its fate. It 
was begun under a conviction, derived from the experience of 
many years in teaching the ancient languages, that a Latin 
grammar, different in many respects from any with which we 
were acquainted, was greatly needed in our schools and colleges. 
Had we contemplated the amount of labor which its execution 
'would impose upon us, we might probably have shrunk from 
the attempt, encumbered as we were with other employments. 
At every step, however, our labor has been cheered by the 
greater familiarity which we have acquired with the best of the 
Roman writers, and by the hope that the result might be of 
service to others in forming an acquaintance with the same 
immortal authors. Should the verdict of an enlightened public 
decide, that, in this respect, we have been successful, we shall 
feel ourselves fully recompensed for our labor, in the satisfac- 
tion of having contributed, in however humble a degree, to 
promote the cause of classical literature, and consequently of 
sound learning, among our countrymen. 

Boston, Ajfrtt S, 183& 



Diyiflion of letters 2 

Diphthongs •• 2 

Functuation •• 2 


Spoiids of the letters .•••••••.•• 3 

— — — of the vowels •... 3 

— — — of the diphthongs.'. • • • • • 4 

— of the consonants 6 

Quantity of penultimate and final 

syllables 6 

Accentuation • 7 

Division of words into syllables. • 8 


Nouns •... 10 

Gender 11 

Number 14 

Cases 14 

Declensions ••••• 14 

First declension 16 

Greek nouns 17 

Second declension 18 

Greek nouns 21 

Tliird declension. ....'• 21 

Rules for the gender 24 

oblique cases. 27 

Greek nouns 36 

Fouxth declension 37 

Fifth declension 38 

Declension of compound nouns 39 

Irregular nouns 39 

^ Variable nouns 40 

Defective nouns 41 

Redundant nouns • 47 

Derivation of nouns 49 

Composition of nouns. ..•••• S3 

Adjectives •••.. 54 

Adjectives of the first and sec- 
ond declension 55 

Adjectives of the third declen- 
sion • 57 

Rules for the oblique cases. 60 

Irregular adjectives 61 

Defective adjectives • • 61 

Redundant adjectives 62 

Numeral adjectives 63 

Comparison of adjectives .... 67 

Irrej^ar comparison.. •••• 69 

Defective comparison 70 

Derivation of adjectives 72 

Composition of adjectives .... 74 

Pronouns 4<. 75 

Substantive pronouns » 76 

Adjective pronouns 77 

Demonstrative pronouns. .. 77 

Intensive pronouns 79 

Relative pronouns • 79 

Interro^tive pronouns .... 80 

Indefimte pronouns • .* 82 

Possessive pronouns 83 

Patrial pronouns 83 

Verbs 83 

Moods 85 

Tenses 85 

Numbers 87 

Persons 87 

Participles, gerunds, and su- 
pines 88 

Coniugation 89 

Table of terminations 91 

Sum 93 

First conjugation 96 

Second conjugation 102 

Third conjugation 1(^ 

Fourth conjugation Ill 

Deponent verbs 114 

Remarks on the conjugations 116 
Periphrastic conjugations... 117 
General rules of*^ conjugation 119 
"Formation of second ana third 

roots 126 

First conjugation 120 

Second conjugation 124 

Third conjugation 126 

Fourth conjugation 183 

Irregular verbs 135 

De&ctive verbs 139 

Impersonal verbs 141 

Redundant verbs 143 

Derivation of verbs 146 

Composition of verbs 147 

Adverbs 149 

Derivation of adverbs 151 

Composition of adverbs 153 

Comparison of adverbs 154 

Prepositions. .' • 154 

Prepositions in composition • 155 





Predicate ,... 

Sentences • • 




Demonstratives! &c. ..••... 



Sabject-nominative and verb 



' Ctenitive after nouns 

after partitives. . . . 

after adjectives • • . 

' after verbs. ••••.•• 
of place 

afl«r particles 


Dative after adjectives. • • • . . 

— — - after verbs 

after particles 

Accusative. ••••.•• 

Accusative after verbs 

after prepositions 

of time and space 

of place 

— — — after adverbs and 
interjections. • 

Subject-accusative • 

Tocative. • 

Ablative. » • 

Ablative after prepositions . « 

after certain nouns, 

adjectives, and verbs 

of eause, &c. .'. .... 

of price 

of time 

of place • . • 

after comparatives • 

absolute • 

Connection of tenses 

Indicative mood 

Subjunctive mood 

Protasis and apodosis 

Subjunctive aner particles. . 

— -^— after qui, 

in inmrect ques- 





tions 235 

in intermediate 

clauses •• 235 

Imperative mood ^7 

Infinitive mood 237 

Partici^es 243 

Gerunds and gerundives 245 

Supines • 247 

Adverbs 249 

Conjunctions 260 

Arrangement. • 251 

Arrangement of words ...... 251 

of clauses 254 

Analjns ••• 254 


Quantity ; 259 

General rules • 259 

Specialrules 262 

First and middle syllables. 262 

Derivative wor<Hi ...... 262 

Compound words 263 

Increment of nouns. . . • 265 

Increment of verbs 268 

Penultimate and antepe- 
nultimate syllables. . • 270 

Final syllables 275 

Versification .' 279 

Feet 679 

Metre 280 

Verses ^ 281 

figures of prosody. • • • 282 

Arsis and tliesis 284 

Cssura 285 

Different kinds of metre 286 

Dactylic metre 286 

Anapaestic metre • 288 

Iambic metre 289 

Trochaic metre 290 

Choriambic metre 291 

Ionic metre ,. . . • 292 

Compound metres ••.. 293 

Combination of verses . « 293 

Horatian metres 294 

Key to ti^ odes of Horace . • 296 


Ghrammatical figures. ^^ 

Tropes and figures of rhetoric . 301 
Roman mode of reckoning time 304 



Abbreviations 307 

Different ages of Roman litera^ 

ture 308 

Writers of the di^rent ages.. 308 

INDEX 311 


^1. Latin G&ahmab teaches the principles of the 
Latin Language. 

These rekte, 

1. To its written charactws; 

2. To its pronunciation ; 

3. To the classification and derivation of its words ; 

4. To the construction of its sentences ; 

5. To the quantity of its syllables, and its versification. 

The first part is called Orthography ;^the second, Orthoepy ; 
the third. Etymology; the fourth. Syntax; and the fifth, Prosody. 


^ 2. Orthography treats of the letters, and other char- 
acters of a language, and the proper mode of spelling 

The letters of the Latin language are twenty-four. They 
have the same names as the corresponding characters in Eng- 
lish. They are A, a ; B, b ; C, c ; D, d ; B, e ; F, f ; G, g ; 
H,h; I,i; J,j; L, 1; M,m; N,n; 0,o; P,p; a,q; R, r; 
S,s; T,t; U,u; V,v; X,x; Y,y; Z, z. 

/ and j were anciently but one character, aa were likewiBe « and «. 

W is not found in Latin words, and the same ia tme of Ae, except at the 
beginning of a few words whose second letter is a; and, even in these, 
most writers make use of e. 

Y and z are found only in words derived from the Greek. ^ 

H, though called a letter, only denotes a breathing, or aspiration. 

The consonants are 
divided into 


^ 3. Letters are divided into vowels and constmants. 

The voweb are a, e, t, o, tt, y, . . 6 

' Liquids, l,mtn,r, 4 

r Labials, . . . i», 6,/, », j 

Mutes, < Palatics, . . c, ^, j, j, > . . • . 10 
V Linguals, . .t,dy ) 

, Hissing letter, . . . . s, 1 

Double letters, ....«,«, 2 

^ Aspirate, A, 1 


AT is equivalent to es or gs; z to ts or ds ; and, except in 
compound words, the double letter is always written, instead 
of the letters which it represents. 


^ 4. Two vowels, in immediate succession, in the same 
syllable, are called a diphthong. 

The diphthongs are a6, at, au, et, e», oe, oi, ua, lie, fit, no, 
uti, and y(. ile and d^ are frequently written together, ce, cb. 


V ^« The only mark of punctuation used by the ancients was a point, 
which denoted pauses of different length, accordingr as it was placed at thd 
top, the middle, or the bottom of the line. The moderns use the same 
marks, in writing and printing Latin, as in their own languages, and as- 
sign to them the same power. 

The following marks, also, are sometimes found in Latin 
authors, especially in elementary works : — 

w . tf The first denotes that the vowel over which it stands 
is short ; the second, that it is long ; .the third, that it is 

^ This is called the circumflex accent. It denotes a con- 
traction, and the vowel over which it stands is always long. 

* This is the grave accent, and is sometimes written over 
piu'ticles, to distinguish them from other words containing the 
same letters ; as, qudd, because ; quod, which. 

•* The diaeresis denotes that the vowel over which it stands 
does not form a diphthong with the preceding vowel ; as, aer, 
the air. 





^ 64 Orthoepy treats of the right pronunciation of words. 


The ancient pronunciation of the Latin language being in a 
great measure lost, the learned, in modern times, have applied to 
It those principles which regulate the pronunciation of their own 
languages ; and hence has arisen, in different countries, a great 
diversity of practice. 

In the following rules for dividing and pronouncing the words 
of the Latin language, we have endeavored to conform to Eng- 
lish analogy, and to the settled principles of Latin accent < The 
basis of.this system is that which is exhibited by Walker in his 
*' Pronunciation of Greek and Latin Proper Names." To pro- 
nounce correctly, according to this method, a knowledge of the 
following particulars is requisite : — 

1. Of the sounds of the letters in all their combinations. 

2. Of the quantities of the penultimate and final syllables. 

3. Of the place of the txceent, both primary and secondary. 

4. Of the mode of dividing words into syUabhs, 


L Of the Vowels. 

^7. 1 . An accented vowel, at the end of a syllable, 
has always its long English sound ; as, 

j^af'ter, def'dit, vi'-vus^ to^-^us, tu^^a, Ty^-rus; in. which the 
accented vowels are pronounced as in fataH^ metre^ vital, 
total, tutor, tyrant. 

E, 0, and u, at the end of an unaccented syllable, have 
nearly the same sound as when accented, but shorter and 
more obscure ; as, re'-te, vo'-lo, ad-u-o, 

A, at the end of an unaccented syllable, has the sound 
of a in father, or in ah ; as, mu'-sa, e-pis'-to-la ; pronounced 
rrmf-sahy <Slc. 

J, at the end of a word, has always iU^Iong sound. 

So also in the first syllable of a word, the second of which^is 
accented, when either the i stands alone before a consonant, or 
ends the syllable before a vowel ; as, i-do'^ne^us, Ji^&^fam, 


In other cases, at the end of an unaccented syllable not final, 
it has an obscure sound, like short e ; as, Faf-^^is, phi-ios^'^ 
phus ; pronounced Faf'be^s, d&c. 

Remark 1. The final i of tW-i and sib^-i also Bounds like short e 
fL Ym always pronounced like i in the same situation. 

^8. 2. When a syllable ends with a consonant, its 
Towel has the short English sound ; as, 

mag'-nuSy reg'-num, fi^'-go, hoc, fus'-tis, cyg'-nus, in which 
the vowels are pronounced as in magnet, seldom, Jinish, copy, 
lustre, symbol. 

Exception !• A^ when it fi>llows gti in an accented syllable, 
before £^r and rt, has the same sound as in quadrant and quart; 
as, quaf'dro, quad''rehgin''ta, quar'-tus, 

Exc. 2. Es, at the end of a word, is pronounced like the 
English word ease ; as, ig'-nes, auf'des, 

Exc. 3. Os, at the end of plural cases, is pronounced like ose 
in dose ; as, nos, H-los, dom'^v-nos. 

Exc. 4. Post is pronounced like the same word in English ; 
so also are its compounds; na, posf^quam, posf^e-^ ; but not its 
deriyatiyes; bs, pos^e'-mus. 

U. Of the Diphthonos. 

^ 0. Ae and oe are pronounced as e would be in the same 
situation; as, a'-tas, css'-tas, c€Bf'^'ra, pcef-na, css'-trum. 

At, at, ot, and yi, usually have the vowels pronounced sepa- 
rately. When they are accented, and followed by another vowel, 
the i is pronounced like initial y, and the vowel before it has 
its long sound ; as, Maia, Pompeius, Troius, Harpyia ; pro- 
nounced Ma'-ya, Pom-pe'-yus, Tro'-yus, Har-py'-ya. 

Eiy when a diphthong, and not followed by another vowel, is pronounced 
like long t ; as in hd. 

Au, when a diphthong, is pronounced like aw ; as, la^s, au'- 
rum, pronounced laws, &c. 

In the termination of Greek proper names, the letters au are 
pronounced separat^y ; as, Men-e^ld^'us, 

Eu, when a diplffi^ng, is pronounced like long ti; as, heu, 

Ua, ue, ui, uo, uu, When diphthongs, are pronounced like wa, 
we, &c. ; as, Unf-gua, quef-^or, sud^de-o, quo'-tus, e'-quus. They 


are always diphthongs afler q, and usually after g and 5. In 
suf'US, ar'-gU'-Of and some other words, they are not diphthongs. 
Ui in cut and hmc is pronounced like long t. 

III. Of the Consonants. 

^ 10. The consonants have, in general^ the same power 
in Latin as in English words. 

The following cases, however, require particular attention. 


C has the sound of 5 before e, t, and y, and die diphthongs 
€B and (B ; as, ce'-do^ Cts'-sar, Cy'^rus. In other situations, it 
has the sound of A:; as, Caf-to^ Ictc, 

Ch has always the sound of k ; as, charta, nuuhlna, pro- 
nounced kar'^ta, mak'^i'-na, 

Exc. C, Allowing or ending an accented syllable, before t 
followed by a vowel^ and also before eu, has the sound of sh ; 
as, sociay caduceus, pronounced s&'She<i, corduf-she-us, 


G has its soft sound, like j, before e, t, and y, and the diph- 
thongs <B and CR ; as, gef^nus, re-gt'-na. In other situations, it 
has its hard sound, as in hag^ go, 

£xc. When gy in an accented syllable, comes before g soft, it coalesces 
with it in sound; as, <i^ger^ exaggiro, pronounced af'Cr, &c. 


^ 11» S has its hissing sound, as in so, thus, 

Exc. 1. 8, following or ending an accented syllable, before 

1 followed by a vowel, and before u ending a syllable, has the 

sound of 5A; as, JPcrsia, ccnsm, pronounced Pcr'-sAe-a, ccn'-sAii-x. 

But, in such case, s, if preceded by a vowel, has the sound of zh ; 

^,Aspas%a,M(Bsia,posui, pronounced ils-ipo'-zAc-a, Mcef-zhe-a, 


Note. In compound words, whose second part be^^ns with 5«, s retains 
its hissing sound ; as, inf-s^per, 

Exc. 2. i$, at the end of a word, after e, <b, au, b, m, n, and r, 

has the sound of z; as, res, as, laus, trabs, hi'-ems, lens. Mars, 

English analogy has also occasioned the a in CtEf-satj aB-aHL'-ra^rnV'Ser, 
mu'-sa, re-sid'-U'WUf eau'-sa, ro'-sa, and their derivatives, and in some 
other words, to take the sound of z. CoM'Orri^-a, and the oblique cases of 
Casar, retain the hissing sound. 



^12. T, following or ending an accented syllable, before t 
followed by a vowel, has the sound of sh ; as, ratio^ SulpitiuSf 
pronounced raf'She-^, Sulrpish/'e^us. But in such case, t^ if 
preceded by 5 or 2;, has the sound of tA in cAt^; as^ mixtio, 
SallustiuSf pronounced mix*''che-'0^ Sal'-ius'^che-us. 

Exc. Proper names m tioUf and old infinitives in er, preserve the hard 
sound oft/ as, Am-phic''ty'Onffied'ti-er for JUcH, 


JT, at the beginning of a syllable, has the sound of z ; at the 
end, that of ks ; as Xendphon^ axis, pronounced Zen'^o^hon, 

Exc. 1. In words beginning with ex, followed by a vowel in 
an accented syllable, x has the sound of ^z ; as, examtno, exenh 
phim, pronounced eg-zam'-d-no, eg^zem'-plum. 

Exc. 2. X, ending an accented syllable, before t followed by 

a vowel, and before u ending a syllable, has the power of ksh ; 

as, noxius, pexui, pronounced nok'-she-us, pek'^shu'L 

Remark. Ck and phy before th^ in the bejnnning of a word, are silent , 
as Chthonia, Phthiay pronounced 7%o'-ni-a, Thi'-a. Also in the following 
combinations of consonants, in the beginning of words of Greek origin, 
the first letter is not sounded : — mne'num''i-ca, gna^-vus, tmtf'Sis, CU'-^ 
as, Ptol-e-ma^'tts, psal'-lo. 



^ 13« The quantity of a syllable is the relative time occu- 
pied in pronouncing it. 

A short syllable requires, in pronunciation, half the time of a 
long one. 

The pewuUimate syllable, or penuU, is the last syllable but one. 
The antepenuU is the last syllable but two. 

The quantities of syllables are, in general, to be learned from 
the " Rules of Prosody ; " but the following very general rules 
may be here inserted : — 

A vowel before another vowel is short. 
Diphthongs, not beginning with u, are long. 
A vowel before x, z,j, or any two consonants, except a mute 
and liquid, is long, by position, as it is called. 


A vowel before a mttte and a liquid is oommon^ t . e. either 
long or short. 

In this Gramisar, when th^ quantity of a penult is detennined by one 
of the preceding rules, it is not marked ; in other cases, except in dis- 
syllables, the proper mark is written over its yowel. 

To pronounce Latin words correctly, it is necessary to ascertain the 
quantities of their last two syllables onjy ; and the rules for the quantities 
of final syllables would be unnecessary, but for the occasional addition of 
enclitics. As these are generally monosyllables, and, for the purpose of 
accentuation, are considered as parts of the words to which they are an- 
nexed, they cause the final syllable of the original word to become the 
penult of the compound. But as the enclitics begin with a consonant, 
the final vowels of all words ending with a consonant, if previously short, 
are, by the addition of an enclitic, mitde long by position. It is necessary, 
therefore, to learn the quantities of those final syllables only which«ena 
with a votoeL 


^14. Accent is a particular stress of voice upon certain 
syllables of words. 

When a word has more than one accent, that which is near- 
est to the termination is called the j^rtmary or principal accent. 

The secondary accent is that which next precedes the 

A third and a fourth accent, in some long words, precede 
{he secondary, and are subject, in all respects, to the same 

In words of two syllables^ the penult is always accented ; 
as, paf-ter, maf-ter^ penf-na. 

In words of more than two syllables, if the penult is longy 
it is accented ; but if- it is short, the accent is on the ante- 
penult ; as, a-mV-cuSy dom'H-nus, 

Exc. The penult of vocatives, from proper names in ius, is 
accented, even when it is short ; as, Vir*g%l'4, 

^15; If the penult is common^ the accent, in prose, is upon 
the antepenuU ; as, voV<heris, phtn^'e-tra, ib'-i'-que .* but geni- 
tives in iusy in which t is common, accent their penuU in prose ; 
as, tf-m'-tf5, is^i'-us. 

The rules for the accentuation of compound and simple words 
are the same ; as, sef-cum, sub^^e-o. 

In accentuation, the enclitics qtUy ne, ve, and alsO those 
which are annexed to pronouns,* are accounted constituent 

* These are U, met, pU, c*, One, and dem; as, tuU, eglhnet, tiuapie, hicct, 
hieeUu, idem. 


8 DIVISION or WORB'S. simple W0BB9. 


parts of the words to which they are subjoined; as^ tVa, if^d* 
que; vi^'Tiim, virrumf'que. 

If only two syllables precede the primary accent, the secon- 
dary accent is on the first ; as, mo^"'e^d''tus, tol^'-e^cA'-i'Us, 

^16* If three or four syllables stand before the primary 
accent, the secondary accent is placed, sometimes on the first, 
and sometimes on the second syllable ; as, de^mon"'Strarban*-tur, 

Some words which have only four syllables before the pri- 
mary accent, and all which have more than four, have three 
accents ; as, mod'"-€-Ta"'ti^''nis, toU^'e-ra-bil'-'i'd'^emf cz-cr"'- 
H-taf'^ti^'-nis, In some combinations there are four accents ; 
as, eX'^"''ci'ta'"'ti-on"-i-^s''que. 




^ 17« The only purpose of the following rules for the diyiBionof 
wordsi is, to lead to a correct pronunciation. 

When liquids are mentioned, I and r only are intended. 

Words of one syllable are called monosyllables ; of two, diasyUahUs ; and 
of more than two, polysyllables, 

1. Simple Words. 

1. In every word there are as many syllables as there are 
separate vowels and diphthongs. A word, therefore, will be 
divided correctly, when its consonants are united with the 
proper vowels and diphthongs. 

^18. 2. A single consonant, or a mute and a liquid, coming 
between the vowels of the penultimate and final syllables, must 
be joined to the latter ; as, pa'-ter, af-cris, vol'-tt^crisy Hi-er^' 

Tih'4 and sih'4 are excepted. 

3. Any two consonants, except a mute and a liquid, coming 
between the penultimate and final syllables, are separated ; as, 
cor'-pusy iV-ky ad-ihUs^'Cens, 

<^ 19. 4. A single consonant, either before or after the 
vowel of any accented syllable, except after the vow«l of a pe- 
nult, is joined to the accented syllable ; as, i-tin'-i-ra, dom'-t-nus. 

5. A mute and a liquid, coming before the vowel of an ac- 
cented syllable, are joined to such vowel ; as, a-gres'-tis, la-trd'" 
tor, Eu'-phrd'-nor, Her-a-^le^-a, 

Exc. to rules 2 and 5. Gl and Uy either ailer the vowel of the penul^ 



or before the vowel of an accented i^lkble, are separated ; as, JEg'4ej 

^ 20* 6. Any two consonants^ except a mute and a liquid, 
coming before the vowel of an accented syllable, and any two 
consonants whatever, coming ctfter such vowel, unless it is the 
vowel of the penult (2), are separated ; as, ger^md^'^us, for' 
mi'-do, cchter'^a, eo-lum'-ba, ref'lu-o, 

ExG. to rules 4 and 6. (a.) A single consonant, or a mute and 
a liquid, following a, e, or o, in an accented syllable, and fol- 
lowed by two vowels, of which the first is e or t, must be joined 
to the latter; as, ra'^-uSyfa'^cirO, mef-di-us, d&^e-o, ta^'ili-um, 
ha'-re-o, Moe'^si-a, Suef-vi-^L, paf^tri'-us, E-re'^ri-^^ CE'4Ujf'4ri'^. 

£xc. (6.) A single consonant, or a mute and a liquid, after 

ti, in an accented syllable, must be joined to the vowel which 

follows; as, M-H-dus, au'^e-us, Eu'-ry-tuSy sarhi'-^rt-tas, Eu'- 


Exc. (c.) If the second of two consonants coming after the vowel of an 
accented syllable ia t or d, they are often united, as m English, when 
followed by u, ending a syllable not final; as, martuuSf arduuSf pro- 
nounced mort'-yH'USf ard^-yu-us. 

§> 21. 7. If three consonants come between the vowels of 
any two syllables, the last two, if a mute and a liquid, are joined 
to the latter syllable ; otherwise, the last <mly ; as, pis-tri'-na, 
fe-nes'-tra, enqhto'^s, Lamj^'SOrCus. 

8. A single consonant, or a mute and a liquid, coming be- 
tween the vowels of two unaccented syllables, must be joined to 
the latter; as, tol'-e^rarbU'-i-us, nd'-o-les^enf-iu^ per*"'e-grU 

9. When x, with no other consonant, comes between two vowels, in 
Vfriting syllables, it is united to the former ; but in pronmnuimg them, it is 
divided ; as, saxf-um^ ax4l'-la, pronounced sac^'Sumt fitc-sU'-la, 

^ 22« 10. When k alone comes between two vowels, it is joined to 
the latter ; but if it follows e, p^ or t, it is never separated from them, and 
is not considered as a letter ; as, mi'-hi, traf-hi-re, tnaek''i-maf Pa'-phos, 

11. Four consonants rarely meet in words uncomponnded, as in trans^' 
irum. In such casCi two of'^them are a mute and a liquid, and these are 
joined to the latter syllable. 

2. Compound Words. 

^ 23. 12. A compound word is resolved ipto its constituent 
parts, if the former part ends with a consonant ; but if that ends 
with a vowel, the compound is divided like a simple word ; as, 
aft-es'-sc, tii'-er5, cir^cum'^ii^Of suf-pir-est^ sub'^i-it, pr<B4eT^^'a ; 
""dep'^^Oy dil'4rgo^ be'nev''d'lus, prtss'^to. 

10 STTVOLOOT. — vtoxnxs* 


^24. Etymology treats of the diiTerent classes of 
words, their derivation, and various inflections. 

The different classes, into which words are divided, are 
called Parts of Speech, 

The parts of speech in Latin are eight — Substantive or 
NouUy Adjective^ Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, 
Conjunction, and Interjection. 

The first four are inflected ; the last four are not inflected, 
except that some adverbs change their termination to express 

Substantives and adjectives are often included by grammarians under 
the general term nouns ; but, in this Glrammar, the word noun is used as 
synonymous with substantive only. 

<^ 25. To verbs belong Participles, Gerunds, and Supines, 
which partake of the meaning of the verb, and the inflection 
of the noun. 

Inflection, in Latin grammar, signifies a change in the ter- 
mination of a word. It is of three kinds-^-^declension, conjugoi' 
tion, and comparison. 

Nouns, a<Qectives, pronouns, participles, gerunds, and su- 
pines, are declined ; verbs are corrugated, and adjectives and 
adverbs are compared, 


^ 26. A substantive or noun is the name of an object. 

Nouns are either proper, common, or abstract. 

A -proper noun is the name of an individual object ; as^ 
Caisar; /2oma, Rome; Tfiem, the Tiber. 

A common noun denotes a class of objects, to any one 
of which it is equally applicable ; as, homo, a man ; avis, a 
bird ; quercus, ati oak ; lapis, a stone. 

A common noun, when, in the singular number, it sig- 
nifies many, is called a collective noun ; as, populus, a peo- 
ple ;'ea?em^ an army. 


An abstract iioim is the name of a qualUy, or of a mode 
of being or action ; as, bomtasj goodness ; gaudiwn, joy ; 
festinatioj haste. . 

Abstract noons, by yaiying their meaning, may beeome common. 
Thus, studmnif zeal, a state of the mind, is an abstract ; when it signifies 
a pursuit, it is a common noun. Proper nouns also mav be used to desig- 
nate a class, and then they become common ; as, duodieim Ciudres^ this 
twelve CfBsars. The infinitive mood is often substituted for an abstract 

To nouns belong gender, number , and case. 


^ 27. Nouns have three genders — mascvliney feminine^ 
and n&uier. 

The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or grammatical. 

Those words are naturally masculine or feminine, which are 
used to designate the sexes. 

Those are grammatically masculine or feminine, which, 
though they denote objects that are neither male nor female, 
take adjectives of the form appropriated to nouns denoting the 
sexes : thus, damtnus, a lord, is naturally masculine, because it 
denotes a male; but sermo, speech, is grammatically mascu- 
line, because it takes an adjective of that form which is an- 
nexed to nouns denoting males. 

The grammatical gender of Latin nouns depends either on 
their signification, or on their declension and termination. 
The following are the general rules of gender, in reference to 
signification. Many exceptions to them, on account of termi* 
nation, occur : these will be specified under the several de- 

<§»28. Masculines. L Names and appellations of all 
male beings are masculine ; as, Homerus^ Homer ; pater, a 
father ; consid, a consul ; eqims, a horse. 

As proper names usually follow the gender of the general 
name under which they are comprehended ; hence, 

2. Names of rivers, winds, and months, are masculine, 
because fluvius, ventns, and mensis, are masculine ; as, TY6- 
eris, the Tiber ; Aqullo, the north wind ; AprUis, April. 

3. Names of mountains are sometimes masculine, because 
mons IS masculine ; as, Othrys, a mountain of Thessaly ; but 


they usually follow the gender of their termination ^ as, Mt^ 
Atlas, JuBC Ida, hoe Saraete. 

^ 29. Feminines. 1. Names and appellations of all 
female beings are feminine ; as^ Helena, Helen ; mater, a 
mother ; jxwenca, a heifer. 

2. Names of countries, towns, trees, plants, ships, islands^ 
poems, and gems, are feminine ; because terra, urbs, arbor, 
planta, navis, fabula, and gemma, are feminine ; as, 

JEgyptus, Egypt ; Corinthus, Corinth ; pirus, a pear-tree ; 
nardus, spikenard ; Centaurus^ the ship Centaur ; Samos, the 
name of an island; Eunuchus, the Eunuch, a comedy of 
Terence ; amethystus^ an amethyst. 

^ 30. Common and Doubtpul Gender. Some words are 
either masculine or feminine. These, if they denote things 
animate, are said to be of the common gender ; if things inani* 
mate, of the doubtful gender. 

Of the former are parens, a parent ; bos, an ox or cow : of 
the latter, ^ms, an end. 

The following nouns are of the common gender : — 

Adolescens, a youth. Dux, a leader. Parens, a parent. 

Aff inis, a relation hy Ezul, an exile. Praes, a surety. 

marriage. Hospes, a guest^ a host. PrsBses, a president. 

Antistes, a chirf priest. , Hostis, an enemy. Priesul, a chief jmest. 

Auctor, an avtkor. Infans, an infant. Princeps, a prince or 

AxigaXy an augur. Interpres, an interpreter. princess. 

Bos, an ox or cow. Judez^ a judge. Sacerdos, a priest or 

Canis, a do^. JuvSms, a youth. priestess. 

Civis, a citizen. Miles, a soldier. Satelles, a Ufe-guard, 

Comes, a companion. Muntceps, a burgess, Sus, a swine, 

Conjux, a spouse. Nemo, nobody. Testis, a witness. 

Censors, a consort. Par, a peer. Yates, a prophet. 

QonYlsK, a guest. Patruelis, a eotmn-^er* Vema, a^tovs. 

Custos, a keeper. man. Vindez, an avenger. 

The following hexameters contain nearly all the ahove nouns : — 

Conjux, atque parens, princeps, patruBlis, et infans, 
JMj^nis, vindex, judex, dux, miles, et hostis, 
Jmgur, et antistes, juvinis, conrnva, sacerdos, 
Munl-qne-ceps, votes, adotescensy civis, et auctor, 
Custos, nemo, comes, testis, sus, bos-qne, eanis-q\ie, 
Pro consorte tori par, ^€^ul, vema, satdles, 
PrtBs jungas, consors, tnterpres, et exul, et hospet. 

* To distoiguish the eender of Latin nouns, gprammarians write hie before the 
masoiline, hcec before ue feminine; and hoc before the neuter. 

^ 31 • When nouns of the common gender denote males, 
they take a masculine adjective ; when they denote females, a 

The following are either masculine or feminine in sense, hot 
masculine only in grammatical construction : — 

Artiffez, an artist. Fur, a tkitf. Obfles, a hostage, 

Auspex, a sooUisayer. Heiea, anheir, OpXfex, a toonmum. 

Cocies, a parson Kavmg Htmo,anumorfDoman, Pedes, a footman. 

hut one eye. Index, an informer, FagU* a loxer. 

Eques, a horseman. Latro^ arMer, Senex, an eld person, 

£xlex, an outlaw. Lib€n, children. 

To these may be added personal appellatives of the first de- 
clension; as, oJoena, a stranger ; €Eur^a, a charioteer; inedla, 
an inhabitant : also some gentile nouns ; as, Persa^ a Persian ; 
Areas, an Arcadian. 

^ 32. The following, though masculine or feminine in 
sense, are feminine only in construction : — 

Copis, troops. OpSrs, lahorers, Yigilie, watehmen. 

Custodis, guards. Proles, > ^jr—^*— 

Excubi©, sentineU, SobSles, 5 ^M'pnng, 

Some nouns, signifying persons, ar^ neuter, both in their 
termination and construction; as, 

Acroftma, a jester, . M&ncipiuxn, > -j^.^ 

AvLxilitk^ auxiliary troops, J Semtium, j "***''*• 

^ 33, Epicenes. Names of animals which include both 
sexes, but which admit of an adjective of one gender only, are 
called epicene. Such nouns commonly follow the gender of 
their, terminations. TYms, passer, a sparrow, mus, a mouse, are 
masculine; aqmla, an eagle, vulpes, a fox, are feminine; 
though each of them is used to denote both sexes. 

This class includes the names of animals, in which the distinction of 
sex is seldom attended to. When it is necessary to mark the sex, maS 
or femina is usually added. 

^ 34. Neuters. Nouns which are neither masculine 
nor feminine, are said to be of the neuter gender ; such 

1. All indeclinable nouns; bs, fas, nefas, nihil, gummi, 

2. Names of letters ; as. A, B, C, &c. 

3. Words used merely as such, without reference to their 
meaning ; as, pater est dissyll&hum ; pater is a dissyllable. 

4. All infinitives, imperatives, clauses of sentences, adverbs, 



and other particles, used substantively ; as, scire tuum, your 
knowledge ; ultlmum vaU, the last farewell. 

Remark. Wordi derived from the Greek letiin the Mune gender 
which they hmve in Uiat language. 


^ 35. Latin nouns have two numbers,— the singular and 
the plural, — ^which are distinguished by their terminations. 

The singular number denotes one object; the plural, 
more than one. 


^ 36. Many of the relations of objects, which, in English, 
are denoted by prepositions, are, in Latin, expressed by a 
change of termination. 

Cases are those terminations of nouns, by means of 
which their relations to other words are denoted. Latin 
nouns have six cases ; viz. Nominative, Genitive, Dative, 
Accusative, Vocative, and Ablative, 

But though there is this number of cases, no noun has so 
many 'different terminations in each number. 

^ 37. The nominative indicates the relation of a subject 
to a finite verb. 

The genitive is used to indicate origin, possession, and many 
other relations, which, in English, are denoted by the preposi- 
tion of. 

The dative denotes that to or for which any thing is, or is 

The accusative is either the object of an active verb, or of 
certain prepositions, or the subject of an infinitive. 

The vocative is the form appropriated to the name of any 
object which is addressed. 

The ablative denotes privation, and many other relations, 
especially those which are usually expressed in English by the 
prepositions vnth,from, in, or 5y. 

All the cases, except the nominative, are usually called oIh 
lique cases. 


^ 38. The change of termination, by which the different 
cases and numbers of nouns are expressed, is called declension. 



There are, in Latin, five diflferent modes of declining 
nouns, called ihejirst, second^ thirdy fourihy and fifth dor 
clensions. These may be distinguished by the termination 
of the genitive singular, which, in the first declension, ends 
in <;e, in the second in i, in the third in is, in the fourth in 
tt5, and in the fifth in eu 

^ 39. The following table exhibits a comparative view of 
the five declensions. 








Jf. N. 

M. N. 





us,er, um. 

-^ ... 





















em, — 






e, er, um. 

— _ 







S, or I, 






h •it, 

es, it,ii, 







um, or ium. 








or ubus, 




OS, a, 

es, &, i&. 






i, &, 

es, &, i&. 









or iibus. 



^ 40* 1. The terminations of the nominative, in the third deolen- 
non, are very numerous, and are therefore omitted in the table. 

2. The accusative singular ends always in m, except in some 

3. The vocative singular is like the nominative in all Latin 
nouns, except those in us of the second declension. 

4. The nominative and vocative plural end always alike. 

5. The genitive plural ends always in um. 

6. The dative and ablative plural end always alike ; — ^in the 
1st and 2d declensions, in is ; in the 3d, 4th, and 5th, in bus. 



7. The acctisaliTe plural ends always in s, except in 

8. Nouns of the neuter gender have the accusatire and 
yocative like the nominative^ in hoth numbers; and these 
cases, in the plural, end always in a. 

9. The 1st and 5th declensions contain no nonna of the neuter gender, 
and the 4th and 5th contain no proper names. 

10. Every inflected word consists of two parts — a root, and 
a termination. The root is the part which is not changed by 
inflection. The termination is the part annexed to the root. 
The preceding table exhibits terminations only. In the fifth 
declension, the e of the final syllable, though unchanged, is 
considered as belonging to the termination* 


^ 41« Nouns of the first declension end in a, e, as^ or 
es. Those in a and e are feminine; those in as and 
es are masculine. 

Latin nouns of this declension end only in a, and are thus 
declined :— > 


Norn. Ma! 
Oen, mu'-s8B, 
Dot, mu'-scB, 
Ace, mu'-sam, 
Voe, mu'-sa. 

of amuse; 
to a muse ; 

a muse; 

O muse; 

Ahl. mu'-si, with a muse. 
In like manner decline 

Norn. mu'Hse, 
Oen. &uH3a'*>rum, 
Dot. mu'Hsis, 
Ace. mu'Hsas, 
Voc. mu'-see, 
Abh mu'-sis, 

muses ; 

of muses; 

to muses ; 


O muses ; 

unth muses. 

An'-la, a haU. 
Cn'-ra, ear6, 
Chi'-le-a, a hdmei. 
In'-sA-la, an island. 
Lit'-S-ra, a Utter. 

Lus>cin'-i-a, amghim- 

Mach'-I-na, a machine. 
Pen^na, a qidU, a wing. 

Exceptions in Gender. 

Sa-ffit'-ta, an arrow. 
SteP-]a, a star, 
To'-ga, a gown. 
Vi'-a, a way. 

^ 42. 1. Appellatives of men, and names of rivers in a, are 
masculine, according to ^ 28, 1 and 2. But the poets have used 
the following names of rivers as feminine : AUmla, Allia, Drtt^ 
entia, Garumnay Mairdna, MoseUa. Names of rivers in e are 
also feminine ; as^ Lethe. 


Ossa and CEtOj names of mountains, are masculine ot'fenh 


2. Hadria, the Adriatic sea, is masculine. Dama, a fallow 
deer, and talj^a, a mole, are once used as masculine by Virgil. 

Exceptions in Declension. 

^ 4A. Genitive singular. 1. The poets sometimes formed 
the genitive singular in at ; as, auUtf a hall ; gen. OMildu 

2. FamUiay after pater, mater;- jilius, or ^Tia,, usually forms 
its genitive in 05 ; as, mater-fatniliaSy the mistress of a family ; 
gen. matris-familias ; nom. YAxxx.matres-famiUas oxfamiHdrum, 
Some other words anciently formed their genitive in the same 

Genitive plural. The genitive plural is sometimes contracted 
by omitting or; as, Ccdicdlumf for CcBlicoldrum, 

Dative and Ablative plural. The following nouns have 
generally ahus in the dative and ablative plural, to distinguish 
them from the same cases of masculines in us of the second 
declension : — 

Dea, a goddess, Equa, a mart, 

Filia, a daughter. Mala, 2k she mule. 

The use of a similar fermination in anHma, oAna, domlna^ Uberta^ nata, 
servCf conserca, and soda, leiti on inferior authority. 

Greek Nouns. 

^ 44. Nouns of the first declension in e, as, and es, and 
some also in a, are Greek. Greek nouns in a are declined like 
musa, excepts that they sometimes have an in the accusative 
singular; as, Ossa; ace. Ossam, or Ossan, 

Greek nouns in e, as, and es, are thus declined in the singu- 
lar number : — 

A". Pe-nel'-d-pe, JV. iE-ne'-a«, A". An-chl'-ses, 

G. Pe-nel'-S-pes, 6. iE^ne'>e, O, An-chl'-s©, 

D. Pe-nel'-d-pflB, />. M-n^'-tB, D. An-chr-saD, 

^c. Pe-neF-d-pen, ^e, £-ne'-am, or an, Ac. An-chi'-sep, 

V, Pe-neP-d-pe, V. ^-n6'-a, V, An-chi'-ae, 

M. Pe-nel'-d-pe. M, ^nS'-ft. M, An-chi'-ae. 

^ 45. In like manner decline 

Al'-o-e, aloes, Ti-a'-ras, a turlan, 

E-pit'-d-me, an ahridgmsnL Co-me'-tes, a comet, 

This'-be. Dj^-naa'-tes, a dynasty, 

Bo^-re-as, the north wind, Pri-ani'-I-des. a son of Priam,. 

Mi'-das. Vj-rif'tea, a land of stone. 

Patronymics in des have sometimes em for en in the accnaative ; as, 




Greek noans which ftdmit of a>pliiral,ttn declmed in that number like 
the plural of musa. • 

The Latins fzeqaently change the terminatiODa of Greek nouns in et 
and e into a ; as, Atndes, Atrida, a son of Atreus ; PerseSf Persa, a 
Persian; geometres, geometra, a geometrician; Circe, Circa; epitdnu, 
^ntdma; gramnuUice, grammatUa, grammar; rheUnftce^ rkeUnrica, ora- 


^ 46. NouDS of the second dec]ension end in er, ir^ 
usy umy osy ofi. Tkoso ending in um and an are neuter ; the 
rest ere masculine. 

Nouns ^l «r, us, and um, are thus declined : — 


A lord. 

A soririnrlaw. 


A kingdom. 

N. Dom'-Y-nus, 




O. dom'-i-ni, 




D. dom'-i-no, 




Ac. dom'-i-num^ 




F. dom'-i-ne, 




Ab. dom'-¥-no. 






N. dom'-f-ni, 




G. dom-i-no'-rum^ 




D. dom'-i-nis, 




Ac. dom'-]f-no8, 




F. dom'-i-ni, 




Ab. dom'-i-nis. 




Like dominus decline 

A.n'-Y-muBy the mind. 

Fo'-cus, a hearth. 

Nu'-m6-ras, a mimbeir. 

Clyp'-e-us, a shield. 
Cor-Tus, a raven. 

Gla'-di-us, a sword. O-ce'-ft 

-nus, the ocean. 

Lu'-cus, a^09«. 

Tro'-chus, a top. 

^ 47* Some nouns in er, like gener, add the terminations 
to the nominative singular, as a root. They are the compounds 
of gero and fero ; as, amager, 'iri, an armor-bearer ; Lucifer, 
'Cri, the morning star ; and the following :— - 

A-dul^-ter, Sn,anadul- I'-ber, 6ri, a Spaniard. So'-cer, Sri, afather-inr 

terer. Libber, £ri, Bacchus. law. 

Cel'-tl-ber, eri, a CdH- Pu'-er, Sri, a boy. Ves'-per, Sri, tha own* 

henan. tug. 

JIMdbir, Tulcan, aometimes has this ftnn. 


^ 48. All other nouns in er reject the e, in adding the 
terminations, and are declined like agar ; thas^ 

A'-per, a toUd hogr, Li'-ber, a hook, Al-ez-an'-der. 

Aus'-ter, the south wind, Ma-gis'-ter, a nutsUr. Teu'-cer. 
Fa'-ber, a loorkman. On'-ft-ger, a toUd as9, 

Vtr, a man, and its compounds, (the only nouns in tr,) are 
declined like gener. 

Like regnum decline 

An -trum, a etme. Ne-go'-ti-iim,* a (iw^ Prs-adM-nm, a drfmu, 

A'-tri-um, a halL nus. Saz'-um, a rock, 

BeP-Ium, war, Ni'-trum, rdtre, Scep'-trum, a sceptre 

Ex-em'-plum/m examflt. 

Exceptions in Gender. 
^ 40. 1. The following nouns in us are feminine : — 

Abyssus, a bottomless Carb&BUs, a sail. Miltos, vermilion. 

jfiL Dialectiu, a dialect, Phanu, a watch'tower, 

AIyiu, the heUy. Domus, a house, Plinthos, the foot of a 

Antiddtos, an antidote, Erftmiu, a desert. fiUar, 

Arctus, the Jforthem Hvanxis, the ground, YtamuB, a sieve. 

Bear, Lee j^tbiiB, a cruise. 

2. Greek nouns in phthan^us, odus, and metros, are likewise 
feminine ; as, dipkthmgus, a diphthong ; syrvSdus^ an assembly ; 
diamitroSf a diameter. 

^ 50. 3. Names ef countries, towns, trees, plants, &c. are 
feminine, according to ^ 29, 2. 

Yet the following names of plants are masculine : — 

Acanthus, beards-foot. Dumns, a ihieket. Raph&nos^ a radish. 

ABp?a}Sig{i8f asparagus, HeUebdrvs, hellebore. 'RhnnakUBjblaek'^horn. 

Cahmus, a reed. Intj^bus, endive. Rubns, a bramble. 

CarduuB, a thistle. J uncus, a bulrush. TribOlus, a thistle. 

And sometimes 

AmarSlcus, marjoram. CjtIsuSi haddet. 

CupressuSy cypress. Lotos, a lote^tree. 

Names of trees in aster are also masculine ; as, oleaster^ a 
wild olive. 
The following names of gems are also masculine : — 

BerylluB, a beryl. Chrysoprftsus, chryso- Pyropus, pyrope. 
CarbuncOlus, a carbui^ prase. Smaragaus, an emertdd. 

de. Op&lus, opal. 
Chr^solitfaus, chrysoh- 

* PiWMNineed fie-^-tA«-iMk See t VL 


Names of trees and plants in um are generally neuter. 

l*hese names of countries and towns are masculine : Canojms, 
PontuSy and all plurals int. Abjdus and Lesbos are either 
masculine or feminine. Hion is either neuter or feminine. 

Names of towns ending in um, or, if plural, in a, are neutpr. 

"^61. 4. The following are doubtful, but more frequently 
masculine : — 

Balflnus, a date, Grossus, a green fig. PhaseluS, a UiUe ship. 

Barbltus, a harp. PampInuB, a fdne-leqf, 

^tdmus, an atom, and eoluSf a distaff, are doubtful, but more frequently 

5« Peldgus, the sea, and virus, poison, are neuter. 
Vulgus, the common people, is generally neuter, but some- 
times masculine. 

Exceptions in Declension. 

^ 62* Genitive singular. When the genitive singular ends 
in ft, the poets sometimes contract it into % ; as, ing^ni, for 

Vocative singular. The vocative of nouns in us is some- 
times like the nominative, especially in poetry ; as, fiuvius, 
Latlnus, in Virgil. So, audi tu, populus ; Liv. 

Proper names in ius omit e in the vocative ; as, Horatius, 

Hordti; VirgiUus, Virgili, 

FiUus, a son J and genius, a ^ardian angel, make also jZZt and gem. 
Other nouns in ius, including patnals and possessives derived from proper 
names, form their vocative regularly in e; as, Deiius, Delie; Tirynthws, 
7%rynthie; Laertius, Laertie. ^ 

^53. Genitive plural. The genitive plural of some words, 

especially of those which denote money, measure, and weight, 

is commonly formed in um, instead of drum. 

Such are particularly nummiim, sesterivSLm, denariitm, medimnAm, 
jugirUm, moaHlLm, toLerUiim. The same form occurs in other words, es- 
pecially in poetry ; as, deHni, libir&m, Dana'Am, &c, 

Deiis, a god, is thus declined : — 

Singular. Plural. 

N. De'-us, N. Di'.i, Di, or De'-i, 

G. De'-i, G. De-6'-rum, 

D. De'-o, D. Di'-is, Dis, or De'-is, 

Ac, De'-um, Ac. De'-os, 

V. De'-us, V. Di'-i, Di, or De'-i, 

Ab, De'-o. Ab. Di'-is, Dis, or De'-is. 

Jesug, the name of the Savior, has um in the acenaative, and « in all 
the other oblique cases. 

Smgidar, Plural, 

A*. biur<-bl-ton, bar'-bl-ta, 

G. bar'-bl-ti, bar'-bl-tdn, 

D. bar'-bl-to, bar'-M-ti^, 

Jie, bar'-bl-ton, bar'-b!-ta, 

V. bar'-bi-ton, bar'-bl-ta, 

M. bar'-bX-to. bar'-bl-tis. 


Grgek Noun's. 

^54. Os and an, in the second declension, are Greek 
terminations, and are oflen changed, in Latin, into us and um ; 
as, Alphios, Alpheus; Hion, Ilium. Those in ros are gen- 
erally changed into er ; as, Alexandros, Alexander ; Teucros^ 

Greek nouns are thus declined : — 

Barbltoni a lyre. 


Jf. De'-Iofl, An-dro'-ge-o8, 

G. De'-li, An-dro'-ge-o, or i, 

D, De'-lo, An-dro'-ge-o, 

Jic De'-lon, An-dro'-ge-o, or on, 

V. De'-le, An-dKy-ge-cw, 

M. De'-lo. An-dro'-ge-o. . 

Anciently, some nouns in oshad the genitive in ii ; as, Menandru* Ter. 

Greek proper names in eus are generally declined like dominus, except 
in the vocative, which ends in eu : in this case, and sometimes in the 
genitive, dative, and accusative, they retain the Oreek form, and are of 
uie third declension. 

Panthu occurs in Virgil as the vocative ofPatUkus. 


^ 55. The number of final letters, in this declension/ is 
eleven. Four are vowels— a, e, », o ; and seven are conso- 
nants — Cy Z, n, r, 8f t, CO. The number of its final syllables 
exceeds fifty. 

Mode of declining Nouns of the Third Declension, 

In this declension the oblique cases cannot always be determined firom 
the nominative, nor, on the other hand, the nominative from the oblique 
cases. To decline a word properly, in this declension, it is necessary to 
know its gender, its nominative singular, and one of its oblique cases ; 
since the root of the cases is not always found entire and unchanged in 
the nominative. The case usually selected for this purpose is the &«ni- 
tive sin^lar. » The formation of the accusative singular, and of the 
nominative, accusative^ and vocative plural, depends upon the gender : 
if it is masculine or fenuninei these cases have one form ; ii neuter, another. 

^ Oo* The student should first fix well in his memory the terminations 
of one of these forms. He should next learn the nominative and jcrenitive 
singular of the word which is to be declined. If is is removed irom the 

genitive, the remainder will always be the root of the oblique cases, and 
y annexing their terminations to this root, the word is declined ; thus, 
rupeSf genitive (found in the dictionary) rupin, root n^f dative ncpi, &c. : 
so arSf gen. artU, root art, dat. arti, &o. ; optis, gen. operia, root oper, 
dat. operi, &c. 

Where two forms are used in the same case, teoourse must be had to 
the rules for the diilbrent cases, § 79 — 85. 



The following are the two forms of terraination in this 
declension : — 



Mase, and Fem» Ifeut, 

Maae. and Fern, J^eut 

. N. 


N. cs, a, or ia, 

O. is, 


G. urn, or ium, um, or ium. 

D. i, 



D. Ibus, ibos. 

Ac. em, or im, 


Ac. es, a, or ia, 

V. • 


F. es, a, or ia. 

Ah. c, or i. e, 

or i. 

Ab. Ibus. Ibus. 

The asterisk stands for th< 

3 nominative, and for those cases 

whibh are like it 

^ 57* The following are examples of the most common 
forms of nouns of this declension, declined through all their 

Honor, honor; masc* 

Singular. Plural. 

N. ho'-nor, ho-no'-res, 

O. ho-no'-ris, ho-no'-rum, 

X>. ho-no'-ri, ho-nor'-i-bus, 
Ac. ho-no'-rem, ho-no'-res, 

V. ho'-nor, ho-no'-res, 

Ab. ho-no'-re. ho-nor'-i-bus. 

Rupes, a rock; fern. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. ru-pes, 
O. ru'-pis, 
2>. ru'-pi, 
Ac. ru -pem, 
V. ru'-pes, 
Ab. ru'-pe. 







Ars, art ; fern. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. ars, 
G. ar'-tis, 
2>. ar'-ti, 
Ac. ar'-tem, 
V. ars, 
Ab. ar'-te. 







Sermo, speech ; masc. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. ser'-mo ser-mo'-nes, 

G. ser-mo -nis, ser-mo'-num, 

D. ser-mo -ni, ser-mon'-l-bus, 
Ac. ser-mo'-nem, ser-mo'-nes, 

V. ser'-mo, ser-mo'-nes, 

Ab. ser-mo'-ne. ser-mon'-l-bus. 

Turris, a tower; fem. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. tur'-ris, 
G. tur'-ris, 
D. tur'-ri, 
Ac. tur'-rem, 
V. tur'-ris, 






Ab. tur'-re, or ri. tur'-ri-bus. 
Nox, night; fem. 

N. nox, 
G. noc'-tis, 
D. noc'-ti, 
Ac. noc'-tem, 
V. nox, 
Ab. noc'-te. 


* Pronounced arf'she-um, noc^-ahe-wn. See 6 12. 



Miles, a soldier; com. gen. 

Singular, Plurai, 

N. mi'-lesy . mil'-i-tes, 

G. miP-iotiSy mil'-T-tum, 

D, mir-i-ti, mi-lit'-i-bus, 
Ac, miP-i-teiD^ mil -i-tes, 

F. miMes, mil'-i-tes, 
Ab. mil'-i-te. - mirlit'-i-bus. 

Pater, a father; masc. 

Singular, Plural, 

N, pa'-ter, pa'-tres, 

G, pa'-tris, pa'-trum, 
D, pa'*tri, pat'-ri-bus, 
Ac, pa'-trem, pa-tres, 
V. pa'-ter, pa'-tres, 
Ab, pa'-tre. pat'-ri-bus, 

Sedile, a seat; neut. 

N, se-diMe, 
G, se-di'-lis, 
D, se-diMi, 
Ac, se-diMe, 
V, se-dF-le, 
Ab. se-diML 


Carmen, a verse ; neut. 

Singular, Plural, 

N, car'-raen, car'-ml-na, 
G, car'-mi-nis, car^-mi-nam, 
D, car'-mi-ni, car-minM-bus, 
Ac, car'-raen, car'-mi-na, 
V, car'-men, car'-mi-na, 
Ab, car'-mi-ne. car-min'-i-bus. 

Iter, a journey ; neut. 

Singular, PlurcU, 

N, i'-ter, i-tin'-e-ra, 

G, i-tin'-e-ris, i-tin'-e-rum, 

D, i-tin'-e-ri, it-i-ner'-T-bus, 

Ac. i'-ter, i-tin'-e-ra, 

V. i'-ter, i-tin'-e-ra, 

Ab, i-tin'-e-re. it-i-ner'-i-bus. 

Lapis, a stone ; masc. 

Singular* Plural. 

N. la'-pis, lap'-T-dea, 

G, lap'-i-dis, lap'-i-dum, 

D, lap'-i-di, la-pidM-bus, 

Ac. lap'-i-dem, lap'-i-des, 

V. la'-pis, lap'-i-des, 

Ab. lap'-i-de. la-pid'-i-bua. 

Virgo, a mrgin ; fem. 

Singular. Plural. 

N, vir'-go, vir'-gi-nes, 

G, Tir'-gl-nis, vir'-gi-num, 

D, Tir'-^-ni, vir-gin'-i-bus, 

Ac, vir'-gi-nem, vir'-gi-nes, 

V. vir'-go, vir'-gi-nes, 

Ab, vir'-gi-ne. vir-gin'-i-bus. 

Animal, an animal; neut. 

Singular, Plural, 

N. an^-mal, an-i-ma'-li-a, 

G, an-i-ma'-lis, an-i-ma'-li-um, 

D. an-i-ma'-li, an-i-mal'-i-bus, 

Ac. an'-i-mal, an-i-ma'-li-a, 

V, an'-f-mal, an-i-ma'-li-a, 

Ab, an-i-ma'-li. an-i-mal'-i-bus. 

Opus, a worJc; neut. 

Singular. Plural. 

N, o'-pus, op'-e-ra, 

G, op'-e-ris, op'-e-rum, 

D. op'-e-ri, o-per'-i-bus, 

Ac, o'-pus, op'*e-ra, 

V, o'-pus, op'-e-ra, 

Ab, op'-e-re. o-per'-i-bus. 

Caput, a head ; neut. 

Singular. Plural, 

N, ca'-put, cap'-i-ta, 

G, cap'-i-tis, cap'-T-tum, 

D, cap'-i-ti, ca-pit'-i-bus, 

Ac, ca-put, cap'-i-ta, 

V, ca'-put, cap'-i-ta, 

Ab, cap'-f-te. ca-pit'-i-bus. 

14 THUUD ]>KCLEir8ipN.-<-G«Nl>£R* 

Poemai a poem; neut. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. po-e'-ma, p<>-em'-&-ta, 

O, po-em'-&-ti8, p(>-em'4Utum, 

D. poem'-ft-ti, po-e-mat'-I-bus, or po-em^4UtLiy 

Ac, po-e'-ma, p<>«ni'-&-ta, 

F. po-e'-ma, po-em'-&-ta, 

il6. po-em'-&rte. . po-e-mat'-I-bns, or po-em'-Srtis. 

Rules fob the Gender of Nouns of the Third 


^ 68* Nouns whose gender is determined by their signi- 
fication, according to the general rules, ^28—^, are not 
included in the following rules and exceptions. 


Nouns ending in o, er, or, es increasing in the genitive, 
and 05, are masculine ; as, 

sermOy speech ; dolor, pain ; fios, a flower ; career, a prison ; 
p^, a foot. 

Exceptions in O. 

^69* 1. Nouns in to are feminine, when they signify 
things incorporeal ; as, ratio, reasoi^ 

2. Nouns in do and go, of more than two syllables, are femi- 
nine ; as, arundo, a reed ; imago, an image. So also grando. 
hail. But comedo, a glutton ; unedo, a kind of fruit ; and 
harpdgo, a hook, are masculine. 

Margo, the brink of a river, ib either masculine or feminine. Cup^do, 
desire, is often masculine in poetry, but in prose is always feminine. 

3. Caro, flesh, and Gieek nouns in o, are , feminine ; as, echo, an 

Exceptions in £R. 

^ 60* 1. Tuber, the tuber-tree^ is feminine ; but when it denotei 
the fruit, it is masculine. LxnUr^ a boat, is masculine or feminine ; siser, 
a carrot, is masculine or neuter. 

2. The following, in er, are neuter :— 

Acer, a maple-tree, Papftyer, a poppy^ Tuber, a swdUng. 

Cadaver, a dead body. Piuer, pepper, Uber, a teat. 

Cicer, a veteh. Siler, an osier. Ver, the spring. 

Iter, a journey. Spinther, a cUup. Verber, a scourge, 

Laaer , benzoin. Suber, a cork-tree. Zingiber, ginger. 
Layer, water'Cressei. 


Eaceq^tions in OIL 

^ 61* Arher^ a tree, » feminine : adoTf fine wheat ; mfuotf the sea ; 
marmarj marble ; and ear, the heart, are neater. 

deceptions in £S increasing in the genitivtm 

1. The fono¥mig are feminine : — 

Oompesi aftUer. Qniefl, and Requie8,rej(. Tegres, a mat. 

Merces, a reward, Inquies, tbant of rest. Tudes, a hammer. 

Merges, a sheqf of com. Seges, grotoing com, 

2. jSleSf a bird, is masculine or feminine. JEs, brass, is neater. 

Exceptions in OS. 

JStrhoSj a tree ; cos, a whetstone ; dos, a dowry ; and eos, the morning, 
are femmine : os, the mouth, and os, a bone, are neuter ; as are also the 
Greek words eftoo^, chaos ; epos, epic poetry ; and melos, melody. 


^ 62. Nouns ending in as^ es not .increasing in the 
eenitiTe, is^ ysy s preceded by a consonant, and x, are 
feminine; as, 

atcLS, age ; nubeSy a cloud ; oms, a bird ; chlamt/s, a cloak ; 
trabs, a beam ; pax, peace. 

JExceptums in AS. 

1. Jis, a piece of money^ or any thing diyiaible into twelve parts, is 
mascnline. Oreek nouns m as, antif , are also masculine ; as, addmas, 

2. VaSf a vessel, and Greek nouns in as, dtis, are neuter ; as, artoereas, 
a pie ; budras, a species of herb. 

Exceptions in es not increasing in the genitive. 

^ JiemHeeSj a cimeter, and coles, a stalk, are masculine. Palumhes, a wood 
l^eon, and vepres, a bramble, are masculine or feminine. CaeoeiksSf 
MRpomAiies, nepenthes J mdpandees, Greek wordsj are neuter 

^^ • 

Exceptions in IS. 
^ 63* 1. Latin nouns in nis are masculine or doubtful. 

Crinis, hair. Ignis, jErs. Pams, hread. 

Masculine or IhrnmnSm 

Amnis, a river, Clunis, the haunch. Funis, a rope. 

Cinis, ashes. Finis, an end, 

Fmea (jUvx,), boondaries, is always 


2. The following also are masculine or feminine : — 

AikgWf a snake. CorhiBy a basket, TignByatiger. 

Canfllis, a conduit pipe, PuItIb, dust, Torquisi a cAota. 

Cenchris, a serpent, Scrobis, a ditch, 

3. The following are masculine : — 

Axis, an aadetree, Ensis, « sword, Postb, a post, 

Aquallsi a water-pot, Fascis, a bundle. StLXi^ia, blood, 

CalliSy a patk, Follis, a pair of beUotos. Semisais, a half of U. 

Cftsdisy a net. Fastis, a club, Senti^, a brier, 

Caulls, or > ^ .. Glis, a dormouse. Sod&Iis, a companum. 

Colls, ^ 3 * Lapis^ a stone, Toms, a firebrand. 

CenUxBaiaf a compound Mensis, a mim^A. Unguis, a noiZ.. 

of as. Mu^ilis, a muUet, Vectis, a lever. 

Colfis, a hill. Orbis, a circle. Vermis, a worm. 

Cossis, a loorm. Piscis, a^^. YomiBf a ploughshoTB* 

Cucfiinis, a cucurnber. Folha, fine flour. 
Decussis, a compound 


Exceptions in S preceded by a consonant, 

^ o4. 1. Dens^ a tooth ifons, a fountain ; mons^ a mountain ; and 
ponSf a bridge, are masculine. So also are chalybSf steel ; eUopSf a kind 
offish ; epops, a lapwing; gryps, a griffin ; hydrops^ihe dropsy ; merops, 
a woodpecker ; ana 5«p«, a Kind of serpent. 

2. Some nouns in ns, originally participle's, and the compounds of dens, 
which are properly adjectives, are mascuhne ; as, confluenSj a confluence ; 
occidenSj the west ; orienSf the east ; profluenSf a stream ; torrens, a tor- 
rent ; bidensy a two-pronged hoe ; but bidens, a sheep, is feminine. To 
these add sextans, quadrans, triens, dodrans, dextans, parts of as. 

3. The following are either masculine or feminine : — 

Adepa,fatness. Rudens, a cable. Serpens, a serpent. 

Forceps, pincers, Scrobs, a ditch. Stirps, the trunk of a tree. 

AnXmans, an animal, is feminine or neuter, and sometimes masculine. 

Exceptions in X. 

^ 00« 1. AX. CoraXy a raven ; cordax, a kind of dance ; dropax, an 
ointment ; styrax, a kiritl of tree ; and t/iorax, a breastplate, are masculine ; 
Umax, a snail, b maaculine or feminine. 

2. EX. Nouns in ex are masculine, except lex, a law, nez, death, aild 
supeUex, furniture, which are. feminine, and atHplex, golden-herb, which 
is neuter. 

^ Cortex, bark ; imbrex, a gutter-tile ; obex, a bolt ; rumex, sorrel ; and 
silex, a flint, are either masculine or feminine : grex, a herd, and pumex, 
pumice-stone, are very rarely found feminine. 

3. IX. Calix, a cup ; fornix, an arch ; phcenix, a kind of bird ; and spadix^ 
a palm-branch, are masculine. 

Perdix, a partridge, and varix, a swollen vein, are masculine or feminine. 

4. OX. Box and esox, names of marine animals, and volvox, a vine- 
finetter, are masculine. 

5. UX. TVaduXf a vine-branch, is masculine. 


6. TX. BoTnbyXf a Bilk-wonn ; ealyXf the bud of a flower ; coecyz, a 
cuckoo; and oryx, a wild goat, are masculine. Onyx and sarddnyx, 
names of stones ; also, calx, the heel ; lynx, a lynx, and sandyx, a kind 
of color, are masculine or Kminine. 

NoTs. Calx, lime, and bombys^ when it signifies silk, are feminine. 

7. Q^incttnx, s^tunx, decunx, deunx, parts of as, are masculine. 


^ 66. Nouns ending in a, e, i, c, I, n, t, ar^ ur, and us, 
are neuter ; as^ 

diadima, a crown ; rete, a net ; hydromiiU, mead ; lac, milk ; 
fiumen, a river ; caput, the bead ; calcar, a spur ; guttur, the 
throaty 9jid pectus, the breast 

Exceptions in L. 

MugU, a mullet, and «oZ, the sun, are masculine. Sal, salt, is masculine 
or neuter, in the singular; but, in the plural, it signifies witticisms, 
and is always masculine. 

Exceptions in N. 

Nouns in n, except those in men, are masculine ; as, canon, 
a rule. 

But four in on are feminine — aedon, a nightingale ; halcyon, a king- 
fisher ; icon, an image ; gifuUnif fine linen : and four in en are neuter-— 
ghiUn, glue ; ingiun, the groin ; pollen, fine flour ; and tcii^iieii, ointment. 

Exceptions in AR and UR. 

^ 6T* Furfur, bran ; solar, a trout ; iurtur, a turtle dove ; and vulture 
a vulture, are masculine. Baecar and ro6«r,namesof plants, are neuter. § 29. 

Exceptions in US. 

Lqms, a hare ; mua, a mouse ; and Greek nouns in pus (noygV are mas- 
culine ; as, tripus, a tripod ; but lagopus, a white partridge, is teminine. 

Nouns in us, having Otis, or iidis, in the genitive, are femi- 
nine ; 9a,juventus, youth ; incus, an anvil. 

Pecus, -^luUs, a brute animal ; tdlus, the earth; fraius, fraud ; and laus^ 
praise, are feminine. 

Grus, a crane, is masculine or feminine. 

Rules for the Obliq^ue Cases or Nouns op the 

Third Declension. 

GENITIVE singular. 


^ 68. Nouns in a form their genitive in dtis ; as, di^€hde'' 
ma, di-^i-dem^'-^tis, a crown ; dog^-ma, dog'-mMis, an q>inion. 



Nouns in e. change e into is ; as, rd-te, ref^tis, a net ; se-^'^h^ 
se^^'lis, a seat 

Nouns in t are of Greek origin, and are generally indeclina- 
ble ; but hy-drom/'^'U, mead, has hyd-nhmel-i-iis in the geni- 


^ 69* Nouns in o form their genitive in onis ; as, ser^'-mo^ 

ser-md''nis, speech ; paf-vo, porvo'-nisy a peacock. 

Remark. Patrials in o have &nis; as, MacidOf'dnis; except EburlfneSf 
Lac6neSf lOrus, MisamOtuSf SuessOnes. 

Exc. 1. Nouns in do and go, of more than two syllables, 
form their genitive in inis ; as, orrun'^do, Orrun'-dfrnis^ a reed ; 
Pma'-go, i-mag*'4^nis, an image. 

Bat comido, a glutton ; unido, a kind of fruit ; and harp&go^ a hook, 
have Unit. 

Cardo, a hinge ; orda, order ; g^ndo, hail ; virgOy a virgin; and mar^, 
the brink of a rnrer, also have Inw in the genitive. 

Exc. 2. The following^, also, have itiis: — ^poUo; homo, a man; nemo, 
nobody ; and turbo, a whirlwind. 

Caro, flesh, has, bj svncope. eamis. Anio, the name of a river, has 
AnUnis; J^erio, the wire of Man, Jferiinis; firom the old nominatives, 
Anien, Jferun. 

Exc. 3. Some Greek nouns in o form their senitive in ^, and their 
other cases singular, in o; as, Dido, £%n. DidHts, dat. Dido, &c.; 
Argo, -^ ; but uiej arei sometimes declined regularly ', as, Dido, Didsnitf 


^ 70. The only nouns in c are ha'-Iec, horU'^cis, a pickle, 
and lac, lacf'tts, milk. 

L. N. R. 

Nouns in /, ft, and r, form their genitive by adding is ; as, 

eonf'Sul, con''Su4is, a consul ; caf^non, can'^nis^ a rule ; ho'-nor, 

ho-n&'Tis, honor. 

8o, AnM-mal, an-i-mft'-lis, an animal, Cal'-car, cal-cft'-ris, a spur. 

Vi'-gil, v^-I-lis, a vfotchman, Car'-cer, car'-ce-ris, aprisom, 

Ti'-tan, iT-ta'-nis, TiUm, Gut'-tur, gut'-ta-ris, the throat, 

/Si'-ren, si-re'-nis, a siren. Mar'-tyr, mar'-tj^-ris, a martyr. 
Pel'-phin, Del-phi'-nis, a dolphin. 

Excepiiom in L. 
i*sli gall, and md, honey, double I before is; sm,fdUB^ 


EBceptions in N. 

^71. 1. Neaters in en form their genitive in tnisf as, 
JUtf'fnenyfluf-nnHnis, a river; glu'^teny glu^'ip-nisj glue. 

The following, also, fbnn their genitive in iids >~-&scaif a bird which 
foreboded by singing ; peetrnij a comb ; Hbuen, a piper ; and tuJUtemt, a 

2. Some Greek nouns in on form their genithre in antis; as, Laomidamy 

JExcepiions in R. 

1. Nouns in ter drop e in the genitive ; as, paf^ter, paf^tris, a 
father. So also imber, a shower^ and names of months in ber ; 
ViS, October^ Octobris, 

But crater, a cup ; ^ter, a savior ; and latery a tile, retain e in the genitive. 

2. FoTf com, has faarris; Aapar,-the liver, hepdHs; iter^ a joumeyi 
itiniria ; JvpUer, Jams; and cor, the heart, cordis. 

3. These four in vr have dris in the ^nitive : — dmr, ivory ; femmry the 
thigh ; jecur, the liver; robwr, strength. 

Jeeur has also jeandm, and joctndru. 


^ 72* Nouns in 05 form their genitive in dtis ; na, tef-tca^ 
€B^d''tis, age ; pi'^^-tas^ pi-^-td'-tis, piety. 

£zc. 1. As has a«m; fiuu, a ihale, maris; vas, a surety, vadis; and 
vof , a vessel, vasts, Anasy a duck, has anHHs, 

£xc. 2. Greek nouns in as form their genitive according to their 
gender ; the masculines in antis^ the feminines in adis or ddos, and the 
neuters in dtis; as, addimasy -antis, adamant; lampaa. 'ddis, a lamp ; bud' 
ras^ -dtis, a species of herb. Areas, an Arcadian, ana Jfonias, a Numidian, 
which are of the common gender, form their genitive in ddis. Melas, the 
name of a river, has Mddnis. 


^ 73« Nouns in es form their genitive by changing es into 
iSyitiSyOT eiis; as, rt^^pes, ru'^pis, a rock; mi'4es^ mU'-^tiSy a 
soldier ; se'^geSy seg*^-4isy growing corn. 

^ A few Greek proper names in es (gen. is) sometimes form their geni- 
tive in t, after the second declension ; as, AchiJleSy'iSy or -t. 

Those which make Vis are. 

Ales, a hird, Gurges^ a whirlpool, Poples, t&s ham, 

Ames, a fowler's staff, Hospes, a ^nest, Satelles, a lifeguard, 

Antistes, a priest Limes, a hmil. Stipes, the stock of a tree, 

Cespes, a turf. Merges, a sheaf qf com, Termes, an oHve bough. 

Comes, a companion. Miles, a soldier, Trames, a path. 

Eques, a horseman. . Palmes, a vin^-^rranch, Tudes, a hammer, [dier. 

Femes, fud. Pedes, a footman. V eles, a light armed sol- 

The following have itis : — abiss, a fir-tree ; aries, a ram ; indlges, a man 
deified; interprtSy an interpreter; pariesy a wall; segts^ growing com; 
and teget, a mat. 



THIB0 I>i;CUBK8ION.^*-aXiri!rfVX. 

The following have eHs i — CreSt a Cfetan ; Ubes, a caldron ; jnagneSf a 
loadstone; quies and requies, rest; and tapeSf tapestxy. But resides is 
iometimes of the fifth declension. 

Some Greek proper names have either etis or if in the genitive ; as, 
Ckremes, -etis, or -is. - Dares, -itis, or -is, 

' Ezc. 1. Obs^f a hostage, and prteseSf a president, have Idis. 

Ezc. 2. Heresj an heir, and merceSf a reward, have €dis; pes, a fbot^ 
and its oampecmda, have idif. 

£zc. 3. Ceres has Ceriris; hes, bessis; and prcBf, a surety, pradiM. 
JESf brass, has eeris, 


^ 74. Nouns in ts have their genitive the same as the 

nominative ; as^ auf-ris, auf^ris, the ear ; af'vis, af-vis, a 


£zc . 1 . The following have the genitive in iris : — ctnt>, ashes ; cucttints, 
a cucumber ; pulvis^ dust ; vomUt a ploughshare. 

£zG. 2. The following have {i2w>— <a/»9, a cup; cassisy a helmet; 
euspiSf the point of a spear ; lapis j a stone ; and pramidsis, m^theglin. 

£zc. 3. Two have Xnis t^-poUis, fine flour, and sanguis, blood. 

£xc. 4. Four have f£» .' — Dis, Pluto ; 2ts, strife ; Qiaris, a Roman ; and 
Samnis, a Samnite. 

£zc. 5. Glis, a dormouse, has gUris, 

Greek nouns in is form their genitive, / 

1. in is, ios, or tos; as, 

Basis, the foot ofapiUar, 
HsBrSsis, heresy, 
Metroj>dlis, a chief city, 
PhrasiB, a phrase. 
Phthisis, a consumption. 
PoQala, poetry. 

3. in inis; as, 

4. in eatis; as, 


2. in idisy or idos; as, 
iCgis, a shield. 
^neis, t/ie JEneid, 
Aspis, an asp. 
£|>hem€ris, a day-hook. 
Ins, the rainbow. 
Nereis, a Jietrdd. 
PvrSmis, a pyramid, 
Tigris, a tiger, 
Tyranhis, tyranny, 

Tigris has sometimes the genitive like the nominative. 
ChariSf one of the graces, has i^. 


^ 75. Nouns in cs form their genitive in oris or otis ; aii^ 

fioSyfi&'Tis, a flower; n^'pos, ne-pd''tis, a grandchild. 

The following have Cris : — 

Lahos, lahar. 
Lepos, wit, 
iAoSf a custom. 

Flos, a flower, 

Glos, a husband's sister. 

Honos, honor. 

Arbos, a tree, has Ms. 

The following have 9tis :~~ 

Cos, a tohetsUme. MonoeAros, a umeom, 
Dos, a dowry. Rhinoceros, a rhinoeeros. 

Ros, deu). 

Sacerdos, a priest. 

rmmo DJBCUBVSioK^ — «ixiiiTiyx* 81 

JBzc. 1. Cutiosj a keepeii bia muUdis; ftM,«iiox, bmris; ^d ««, a 

bone, ossis* 

Exc. 2. Some Gi«ek BahfltantiTefl in as hiTe dit in the genitiTe ; as, 
Ikarasy a hero ; Mines ; Tros, a Trojan. 


^ 76* Nouns in us ibnn their genithre in Ms or (fm ,* as, 

gef-nus, gen^'^-ris, a kind ; temf-pus, tem^'pd'ris, time. 
Those which make Ms are, 

Corpus, a body, Lepus, a hare. Pectus, the breast. 

Decus, knutr. liittus, a shore. Pignus, « pledge* 

DedScus, disgrace. Nemus, ^ grove. Stercus, dung. 

Facinus, on exploit, Pecus, eoMe. Tempos, time. 

Foenus, interest. Penus, pnmisions, Tergus, a hide. 
Frigus, cold. 

Exc. 1, Tiiese thre^ have luUs :^'4neus, an anyil ; palus, a monM ; 
and subscus, a dove-tail. 

Pecus, a brute animal, has pedldis. 

Exc . 2. These five have Utis .'—jtofenttiSy youth ; saUtSf safety ; senedus, 
old age ; servltus, slavery ; pirtuSf virtue. 

Exc. 3> Monosyllables in its have flr»; as, erusy the leg; jicf, right; 
fnuSf a mouse ; /m£, matter ; rus, the country ; thus., flrankincense ; except 
£ruSf a crane, and sits, a swine, which have gruis, and suis. 

Tdlus, the earth, has teUnris; and Ldgus or ttr, a Ligorian, has IdgHaris, 

Exc< 4. JV^pitir, fraud, and lausj praise, have^audt^, laudis. 

Exc. 5. Greek nouns in pus (novg) have 6dis; as, tnpi», trvpddis, a 
tripod ; (EMpus,-6dis, which is sometimes of the second declension. 

Exc. 6. Some Greek names of cities in us have wntis; as, Trofezus^ 
Drapezuntis ; Opus, -untis ; Pesa^mis, -untis. 

Exc. 7. Nouns ending in eus are all proper names, and have their gen» 
itive in eos; as, Orpheus, -eos. But these nouns are found also in the 
second declension ; as, Orpheus, -ei or -{. 


^ 77. Nouns in ys are Greek, and, in the genitive, some 
have yt5 or yo5, some ydis or ydos, and some ^nis or ynos ; as, 
chef-lys, ehe'-ly-is or -<w, a harp; Ca'-jtys, Ca'-pjy-is or -05, thlaf-mys^ 
ehlam/'p-dis or -do5, a cloak ; Traf-chys, Trorchyf-nis or -nos. 

S preceded by a consonant. 

Nouns in s, with a consonant before it, form their genitive 
by changing s into is or tis ; as, trabs^ tral'his, a beam ; hi'-ems, 
hi'-i-mis, winter ; pars, jpar^-tis, a part ; frons, fron''tis^ the 

Those in hs, ms^ and ps, change s into is ; except gryps, a 
griffin, which has gryphis. 

Remark^ Those in eps also change e into i; ns, princes, prinApis^ a 
prince. But seps has s^pis, and avcq?^, aue&pis. 

Those in ^, n5, and rs, change s into tis. 



Exc. 1. The following in ns change 9 iniio dig :-^fron^f a leaf; gUmSf 
an acorn ; juglanSf a walnut ; Uns^ a nit; and libripens, a weigher. 

Exc. 2. TirynSf a Greek proper name, haa Jirynikis in the genitlye. 


^ 78* Nouns in t form their genitive in His, They are, 
caput, the head, gen. cap^'^tis; and its compounds, oc<Aput 
and smceptcf . 


Nouns in x form their genitive by changing z into cis or ^5 ; 

as, vox, vo'-cis, the voice ; con^-jux, con'-ju-gis, a spouse. 

So, foT^-naXy for-naJ-cis, a furnace ; eaf-Ux, cal'-i-dsy a cup ; eerf-viZf 
"eer-'tn'-dSf the neck. 

Those which make gis are, eonjux, a spouse ; ^ex, a flock ; lex, a law ; 
remeXf -igisj a rower ; rex, a king. 

Also the following : — 

Alldhrox J ^gia, an ^Uo- Dnmndriz, -Igis. Phalanx, -gis, OjpAo^nx. 

hrogian. Epored5rix, -igis. Phryx, -gis, a Fnry^um. 

Ambiorix, -i^s. Exlex, -egis, an awUato, Spmnx, -gis, a sphinx. 

Aquilex, -Sgis, a spring Frux, -gis, JruU. Strix, -gis, a screech-owl, 

hunter. lo-Py^j 'f^}^y *** north' Styx, -gis, the river Styx, 
Bitilrix, -Igis, a Bituri- west wind. Syrinx, -gis, Syrinx, 

gian. OrgetSrix, -igis. VercingetOrix, -Igis. 

Coccyx, -ygis, a cuckoo. Oryx, -ygis, a wild goat. 

- Exc. 1. Nouns in ex, of more than one syllable, form their 
genitive in ids ; as, palkx, -tcis, the thumb. 

Except fcmXseXf a mower ; narUtex, a shrub ; resex, a vine-branch ; 
vervexj a wether ; and aquilex, exlex, and remex. 

Exc . 2. SupeUeXy furniture, has supeUectilis ; and senex, an old man, haji 
aerds. Nix, snow, has nivis ; .and nox, night, noctis. 

Exc. 3. Some Greek proper names in ax form their genitive in actis; 
as, Hylax, a4:tis. So Asty&nax, Bibrax, Demdnax. 

Exc. 4. Onyx and sarddnyx have pchi^ in the genitive ; as, onyx, 


^ 79. The dative singular ends in t; as, sermo, dat. sermoni. 
Anciently it also ended in e; as, morte datus, Varr. apud 


The accusative singular, with the exception of neuters, lends 

in em. Yet some Latin words in is, which do not increase in 

the genitive, have im, and some Greek words have im, in, or a. 

1". Many proper names in is, denoting places, rivers, or gods, have the 
accusative singula^ in im; bs, Hispdlis, TibBris, Anibis; so z\bo AlHs^ 
Mthisis, BaHs, Ardris, BiMlis, Apis, Osnris. Syrtis, &c. These some- 
times, also, make the accusative in in; as, AVbin, 


2. The ftUowin^ also have the acciuative in im .•^- 

Amusflis, a mason* a ndt, GummiB, gwn» Situ, tkirtt, 

Buris, a pUmghrtaU. MephitUy/otcZ air. TuBsis, a coug^ 

Cann&bisy &«mp. Ravisj hoamtness. Vis, strtngik. 

Cucamifl, a euewnnber, Binapis, vnuiard. 

3. These have tm, and sometimes e w 

Aqualis, a toater-pot, Pap]>is, the stem, Seearis, mi «xi. 
Febris, a fever. Restis, a rope. TaniS| a tower. 

But these have sm, and rarely 1 01 — 

AviSj a Hrdy Navis, a ship. Ratis, a mft. 

Clavis, a key, Ovis, a sheep. Sementis, a sowing. 

Lens, a lentil. Pelvis , a basin. Seniis, a brier. 

Messis, a harvest. Pnesepis, a stalL Strigilis, a etirry-e&mk. 

Crates, a hurdle, has also sometimes erofim, as if firom enUis. 
The ancients formed the accusative of some other nouns in im. 

Accusative of Greek Nouns. 

^ 80. The accusative singular of Greek nouns sometimes 
retains the Greek terminations in and a, but often ends, as in 
Latin, in em or im, 

I. Greek nouns, whose genitive increases in ts or as, impure, that ii, 
with a consonant going TOfore, have their accusative in em or a; as, 
iampai(lampddis or dos), IfKo^iUUmf or Uunpiida; ehUmiigs^ ekiamgdem^ 

In . ike manner these three, wluch have upure in the flenltive — TroB, 
Trots, Troem, and TVoa, a Trojan ; keroSf a heio ; and J&tos^ a king of 

Jier, the lur ; other, the skv ; dolphin, a dolphin ; and paan, a hymn, 
have usually a; as, aira, ataXra^ ddphiam, ptDSna, Pan, a god, has 
only a. 

Exc. 1. Masculines in is, whose genitive increases in It or as impure, 
have their accusative in im or in; sometimes in idem; as, Paris, Paridis 
or PaHdos ; Parim, Parin or PaHdem, 

"Exc, 2. Feminines in is, increadng impurely hi the genitive, though 
they usually follow the rule, have sometimes tm or tn; as, EUs, EUdis or 
EtidoSf EHdem or EUda, seldom EUm or EUn. 

So Tigris, signiQrin^ a river or a beast, has tigt'ldem or tigrim ; signify- 
ing a beast, it has tignn also. 

II. Greek nouns in is and y5, having is or ospure in the genitive* form 
their accusative by changing the s of the nominative into morn, as, 
metamorphosis, -eos or -io« ; metamarphosim, or •Ann, a change ; Tuhys, 
*yis or -yos, Tethymat -yn. 

III. Nouns ending in the diphthong eus have the accusative in ea; as, 
Tlieseus, Thesea; Tydeus, Tydea. 

Demosthenes and Ganymides have sometimes in the accusative besides 

em, the termination ea. 


IV. Some Greek proper names in es, whose genitive is in is, have in 
Latin, along with the accusative in em, the termination en, ai if of the 


fint declension; as, JickUUs, AeMUen; Xerxes f Xerxen; SophdeUt. S(h 
vhdcUn. Some also, which have either etis or is in the genitive, oave, 
oesides etem, eta^ or em, the termination en; as, Chremes, Jnales. 



^ 81* The vocative ia like the nominative. 


Manj Greek noons, however, particularly proper names, drop s d the 
nominative to form me vocative; as, Daphnis, Daphni ; Teik^y Tetkif; 
MelampuSf Melampu; Orpheus, Orpheu. Proper names in es (gen. u) 
sometimes have tlieir vocative in e/ as, SocrOtes, Soerdte* 


^ 82* The ablative singular ends in e, 

Exc. 1. Neuters in e, a/, and ar, have the ablative in i; iis, 

sedile, sedXH; ammaly animoM; calcar, ccdcdti. 

But names of towns in «, and the following neuters in ar, have s in the 
ablative ; viz. bacchar, an herb ; Jhr, corn ; Espar, the liver ; jvJbar, a sun- 
beam; neeUiT, nectar; par, a pair; sal, salt. Mart, the sea, has either 

Exc; 2. Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, and 
names of months in er or is, have f in the ablative ; as, t;ts, vim, 
vi; December, Decembri; AprUis, AprtK. 

But BcBtis, eanttShis, and ttgris, have s or t. 

Exc. 3. Nouns which have em or im in the accusative, have 

their ablative in e or t ; as, turris, turre or turri. 

But restis, and Greek nouns which have idis in the genitive, have e 
onlj , as, Paris, 'idis, -li2s. 

Exc. 4. Adjectives in is, used as nouns, have commonly t 

in the ablative, but sometimes e ; as, Jamilidris, a friend ; 

natdlis, a birth-day. 

When such adjectives become proper names, they alwavs have e; as, 
JuvendliSf JuvenSle. Also, affims, a relation, has generaUy e ; as have 
always juv^n£5, ayouUi; titdis, a rod; and voluaris, a bird. 

Exc. 5. The following, though they have only em in the accusative, 
havo 6 or t in the ablative, but otiener e .*— 

Amnis, Finis, Occiput, Pixgil| Tridens, 

Anguis, Fustis, Orbis, Rus, Unguis, 

CiviSj -I^iBy Pars. Sors, Vectis, 

Classis, Imber^ Postis, Supellez, Vesper. 

CoUis, Mugihs, 

So also names of towns, denoting the place where any thine is said to 
be, or to be done, have sometimes the ablative in t; as, Caitka^rd, elL 
Carthage ; and, in the most ancient writers, many other nouns occur math 
this termination in the ablatjve. CanaUs has i only. 

Exc. 6. Nouns in ys, which have ym or yn in the aoeusative, have 
their ablative in ye or y; as, diys, Atye, or Aty, 



^ 83. The nominative plural of masculines and feminines 

ends in es ; as, sermones, rupes ; — but neuters have a, and those 

whose ablative singular ends in t have ia ; as, caput, capita ; 

sedile, sediUa, 

Some Greek neuters have e in the nominative plnral ; as, malof; nom 
plural y melt. 


The genitive plural commonly ends in um; sometimes in 

L Nouns which, in the ablative singular, have t only, or e 
and t, make the genitive plural in ium ; as, sedUe^ se^U, sedilivm ; 
iurris, turre or turri, turrium, 

2. Nouns in es and is, which d6 not increase in the genitive 
singular, have ium; as, nubes, nubium; hosHs, hostium; vis, 

Ezc. Struesy wUes, eamSf juvinis, mugUiSf pams, stngiUs,h!BLYe 
Also sedes and mensis sometimes, and apis and vmucris generally, have um. 

3. Monosyllables ending in two consonants have ium in the 
genitive plural ; as, urbs^ urbium ; gens, gentium ; arx, arcium, 

Ezc, Lynx and ops (obsolete) have um. 

The f<^owing, also, have ium .•--iiuw, glis, lis, os (ossis),fmix, tdz, noz, 
strix, dos, geuenlly fraus and mus, and sometimes lar. 

4. Nouns of two or more syllables, in ns or rs, and names of 
nations in as, have commonly ium; as, cliens, cUentium ; Arpir 
nas^ Arpinaiium. 

Other nouns in as have sometimes ium; as, atas, eetdtium 
Penates and optimdtes have usually ium. 

5. The following have ium : — earo, linter, vter, venter, Samnis, Q^iris, 
and usually InsHAer. Fornax, lar, palus, and ra^, have sometimes ium. 

6. Greek nouns have generally icm ; as, Thrax, Thracum; — ^butafew, 
used as titles of books, have sometimes dn ; as, Epigramma, ipigrammA' 
tdn ; MetamorpkdsiSf -edn. 

Remark 1. Bos has boum in the genitive plural. 

Remakk 2. Nouns which want the singular, form the genitive plural 
as if they were complete ; as, manes, majtium ; cadltes, calitum ; as it from 
manis and codes. So also names of feasts in alia ; as, SatunuiUa, Satur- 
nullum; but these have sometimes drum after the second declensioD. 
CodUes has sometimes calibacm. 


^ 84. The dative and ablative plural end in thus. 

Ezc. 1. Bos has hiMa and bubus, by contraction for bavtbus; sus has 
tubun for suibus. 



£zo. 2. Greek nonxiB in ma ha^a the d^^re and ablative plural mote 
frequently- in is than in Ibus; as, poema, poemdtisy or poemaOlnu, 

• The poeta aometimes form the dative plural of Greek nouna, that in* 
crease in the eenitive, in «t, and, before a Yowely in jm; as, kerCtSp 
herdUtis, henUn, or AenHfstn. 


^ 85* The accusative plural ends, like the nominatire, in 
€s, a, or ia, 

^ Eze. 1. Masculine and feminine nouns which have turn in the geni- 
tive plural, have sometimes in the accusative plural e», or is, instead 
of es s as, partes , gen. partiumj aco. partes , partds or partis. 

Exc. 2. When the accusative singular of nouns not neuter ends in Oy 
the accusative plural ends in as; nSfiampas, lampddaf lampddas. 

Jitter, and vis, strength, are thus declined:— 

N. Ju'-pl-ter, 
6r. Jo'-vis, 
£>. Jo'-vi, 
Ac. Jo'-vem, 
V. Ju'-pi-ter, 
Ab, Jo'*ve. 

N. vis, 
G. vis, 
D. — 
Ac. vim, 
V. vis, 


^ 86* The following table exhibits the principal forms of 
Greek nouns of the third declension : — 









(-adis, ) 
(-&dos, 5 


5 -&dem, ) 
Uda, 5 








(-&des, > 
(-&das, > 







<-oem, ) 
(-oa, ) 







J-oes, ) 
( -oas, 5 





l^: \ 


-ye or y. 


(.«, -lOS, ) 
< -COS, > 


& \ 





S-18, ) 

( -eos, > 


5 -em, ) 
l-ea, 5 
























^ 87* Nouns of the fourth declension end in us and u. 
Those in us are masculine f those in ti are neuter, and 
indeclinable in the singular number. 

Nouns of this declension are thus declined :— - 

Fructus, fruit. 
Singular, Plural. 

N, fruc'-tus, 
G, firuc'-tus, 
2>. fruc-tu-i,* 
Ac. fruc'-tunii 
V. fruc'-tus, 
Ab. fruc -tu. 







Comu, a horn. 
Singular. Plurcd. 

N. cor'-nu, 
O. cor'-nu, 
D. cor'-nu, 
Ac. cor'-nu, 
F. cor'-nu, 
Ab. cor'-nu. 







In like manner decline 

Fluc'-tii8, a 10090. Se-na'-tu8, the Miuto. 

Luc'-tus, grief. Gre'-lu, tee. 

»«■_/ a' .«-• "XT -I '^ 

Can'-tus, a song. 

Cur'-nifl, a chariot. 

£z-er'-ci-tu8, an army. Mo^-tus, motion. 

Ve'-ru, a spit. 

Exceptions in Genoer. 
^ 88. 1. The following are feminine : — 

Acus, a needle. Ficus, a fig. Portfciia, a gallery. 

Domus, a house. Manus, a hand. . Tribus, a tnbe. 

The plurals quinqudtms, a feast of Minerva, and iduSy the ides, an 
also feminine. 

Penus, a store of provisions, when of the fourth declension, is masculine 
or feminine. 

.Speeus, a den, is very rarely feminine or neuter. 

2. Some personal appellatives, and names of trees, are femi* 
nine by signification. See ^ 29, 1 and 2. 

Exceptions in Declension. 

^ 89. 1. Domus, a house, is partly of the fourth declension, 
and partly of the second. It is thus declined : — , 

Singular. ■ 
JV. Do'-mus, 
G. do'-mfisj or do'-mi, 
D. dom'-u-i, or do'-mo, 
Jic. do'*mum, 
V. do'-mus, 
Jib. db'-mo. 


dom'-u-um, or do-mS'-mm, 
do'-mus, or do'-mos, 

• Pr<Miounced/rMrt'-y«-l, oryhic'-^Att-t, &c. $20. Exc.(r.) 




- Dom&Sf in the genitiye, ngnifies, of a houio ; domi commonly liffiiifief, 
at home. The ablative domu is found in Plautut , in some copies of Liyjr, 
and in ancient inscriptions. 

Comus, a cornel-tk-ee ; /icu^, a fig-tree; launts, a ^urel ', and myrtus a 
nmtle, are sometimes of the second declension. Pemu is sometimes 
01 the third. 

Some nouns in u have also forms in us and um ; as, comu, comus, or 

Rkkark. Nouns of this declension anciently bel(»ged to the tfaizd, 
and were formed bj contraction, thus :— * 


JV*. Fructus, 
G. iTuctui8,.*fts, 
D, fructui, -Uy 
^e, fructuem, -um, 
y fructus, 
M. fructue, -u. 

fiructues, -us, 
fructuum, -ftm, 
fhictulbus, -Obus, or -Ibus, 
fructues, -us, 
fructues, -us, 
fructulbus, -abus, or 'Ibus. 

2. The genitive singular in m is sometimes found in ancient authors. 
A genitive in t, afler the second declension, also occurs; as, senAtus, 

3. The contracted form of the dative in tc is not often used ; yet it 
sometimes occurs, especially in Cssar, and in the poets. 

4. The contracted form of the genitive plural in Hijn rarely occurs. 

5. The following nouns have uhus in the dative and ablative 
plural : — 

Acus, a needle. Lacus, a lake, Specus, a den, 

Arcus, a bow. Partus, a birUi, Iribus, a tribe, 

Artus, a joint, . Pecu, afiock. 

Oemi, a knee ; portus, a harbor ; toitiirus, thunder ; and veruj a spit, 
have ibus or iibus. 


^ 90. Nouns of the fifth declensioa end in es^ and are 
of the feminine gender. 

They are thus declined • — 

Res, a thing. 
Singular, Plural, 



















Dies, a day. 
Singular, Plural. 

N, di'-es, 


G. di-e'-i. 


D. di-e'-i, 


Ac, di'-em. 


V, di'-es. 


Ab, d^;-e. 


compound nouns. ^ibregxtlajel nouns. 39 

Exceptions in Gender. 

Dies, a day, is masculine or feminine in the singular, and 
always masculine in the plural ; meridies, mid-day, is mascu- 
line only. 

Exceptions in Declension. 

The genitive and datLve smffular Bometimes end in e/ na,die£oit dii€. 
The genitive is sometimes also found in U and e«; as, penUcies, gen. vtr' 
mdi tor perrUcUt ; rabies^ gen. rabieSf Lucr . Plebes has plebef or plebi. 

Remark 1. There axe not many nonns of this declension, and 
of these only two, res and diesj are complete in the plural. Most of them 
want the genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and many the plural 

2. All nouns of this declension end in ies, except foui—fideg. fidth ; 
reSf a thing ; spes, hope ; and plebes j the common people ; — and all nouns 
in tes are of this declension, except abies, arieSy paries y and qtUes, which 
are of the third declension, and reqtdes, which is of the third and fifth. 

Declension of Cojbpound Nouns. 

^ 91* When a compound noun consists of two nominft- 
tives, both parts are declined ; but when one part is a nomina- 
tive, and the other an oblique case, the nominative only is 
declined. Of the former kind are respubUca, a commonwealth^ 
and jusjurandum, an oath; of the latter, materfomiUas, a 
mistress of a family. 

Singular, Plural. 

JV. res-puty-ll-ca, res-puV-U-co, 

G. re-i-pubMl-c8B, re-rum-pub-fi-ca'-nmiy 

D. re-i-pub'-li-ciB, re-bus-pub'-ll-cis, 

^e. rem-pub'-U-cam, res-pub'-U-eas, 

V. res-pub'-lt-ca, res-puV-II-ce, 

M, re-pub'-U-cd. re-bus-pub'-H-cis. 


Singular. • 
JV. ma-ter-Si-mil'-i-as, 
G. maptris-fa-mil'-i-as, 
D. ma-tri-fa-mil'-i-as, 
j9c. ma-trem-fa-mil'-i-as, 
V, ma-ter-fa-miP-i-as, 
M. ma-tre-fa-mil'-i-as, dx. 

Singular. Plural. 

JV. jus-ju-ran'-dum, ju-ra-ju-ran'-da, 

G, ju-ris-ju-ran'tdi, ■ - 

D. m-ri-ju-ran'-do, * 
Jie. ^us-ju-ran'-dum, ^ ju-ra-ju-ran'-da, 

V. jus-ju-ran'-dum, ju-ra-ju-ran'-da. 

Jib. ju-re-ju-ran'-do. 

NoTx. The preceding compoundii are divided and pronounced like the 
dmple words of which they are compounded. 


^ 92* Irregular nouns are divided into three classes— 
Variabie, Defective, on^RedundaiU, 



Nouns are variable either in gender or declension, or in both. 
Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneom ; those 
which vary in declension are called heteroclites. 

Heterogeneous Nouns. 
1. Mdsculine in the singular, and neuter in the plural \ such 


Ayemiui, Ism&rus, Mcenilas, TsenSrus, 

DwAfmuia, Mafelcus, PangteuSi Taxt&nis, 

Plural, .Svema, &c. 

% Masculine in the singular, and masculine or neuter in the 
plural; as, jocus, a jest; plur. joci, or joca;^-^cus, a place ; 
plur. loci, passages in books, topics ; loca, places ; — sestertius, 
a sesterce ; plur. sestertii, or sestertia, 

3. Feminine in the singular, and neuter in the plural; as, 
carbdsus, a sail ; plur. carodsa ; — Hierosolyma^ -^, Jerusalem ; 
plur. Hierosoljma, -drum ; — margarita, -<s, a pearl ; plur. mor- 
garita, -drum ; — ostrea, -«, an oyster ; plur. ostrea, "Orum ;— 
Pergdmus; plur. Per^oma. 

4. Neuter in the singular, and masculine in the plural ; as, 
caiUiM^ heaven ; plur. cgbU ; — Elysium ; plur. Elysii ;^-*Argos ; 
plur. Argi, 

5. Neuter in the singular, and masculine or neuter in the 
plural ; as, frcenum, a bridle; plur.yr<»m orfrcena; — rostrum, 
a rake; plur. rastri, or rostra; — pugillar, a writing tablet; 
plur. pugiUdres, or pugiUma. 

6. Neuter in the singular, and feminine in the plural ; as, 
epulumy a feast ; plur. epulce ; — balneum, a bath ; plur. balnets, 
rarely balnea ; — nunMnum, a market-day ; plur. nundintB, a fair. 

7. Neuter in the singular, and feminine or neuter in the 

plural ; as, labium, a lip ; plur. labice, and Icibio, 



^ 93. 1. Second or third declension in the singular, and 
third in the plural ; as, jugirum, an acre ; gen. jugeri, or 
jugeris; ahhjugere; plur., nom., and Rccjugera; gen.jw^e- 
rum ; abl. jugeris and jugertbus, from the obsole^te jugus or 

2. Third declension in the singular, yd second in the plural 


as, vas, a vessel ; plur. vasa^ drum. Ancile, a shield, has some-/ 
times anciliorum, in the genitive plural. 

Note. Variable nouns seem anciently to have been redundant, and to 
have retained a part of each of their origrinal forms. Thus, vasa, -dncm, 
properly comes from vasum, -t, but the latter, together with the plural w 
9as, vasiSf became obsolete. 


^ 04« Nouns are defective either in case or number. 

1. Nouns defective in case may want either one or more 
cases. Some are altogether indeclinable, and are called aptotes. 

Such are nouns in it in the sin^rular ; as, eomUf a horn : most nouns in i : 
foreign words : semis, a half: gU, a seed: cepe, an onion : the singular of 
miUe, a thousand : words put for nouns ; as, vMt suum, for sua voluntas^ 
hitf own inclination : and names of the letters of the alphabet. 

A noun which is found in one case only, is called a Mbnop' 
tote ; if found in two cases, a Diptote ; if in three, a Triptote; 
if in four, a Tetraptote ; and if in five, a Pentaptote. 


The following list contains most nouns defective in case : — 

Abactus, aee. pL; a drwing atoay, CcelTte, abl.; pi, entire, inhabitants 
AccitUy abl. ; a caUingfor. of heaven. 

Admissu, abl. ; admission. Commutatum, aee. ; an alteration. 

Admonitu, abl. ; admonition, CompSdis, gen. ; compSde, ahl. ; a 
Mb, not u^^ m. gen. pi. fetter; — /72.comp6des,-ium,-n)U8. 

Afi^tu, ahl. ; an addressing ; — pi. Concessu, abl. ; permission. 

afl&tus, -ibus. Condiscipulatu, ahl. ; companion- 
Algus, nom. ; algum, aee. ; algu, or ship at school. 

-o, abl. ; cold. , . Cratim^ or -em, ace, ;' -e, abl. ; a Atcr- 

Ambage, ahl.; a toinding story; — die; — pi, crates, -ium, -Ibus. 

pi. ambages, -ibus. Daps, nom., scarcely used ; dapis, 
Amissum, ace.; a loss, gen. &c. ; a feast. 

Aplustre, nom, and aee. ; the flag of Datu, itbl, ; a giving, 

a^Aip;— ^2.aplustria,oraplu8tra. Derisui, dot.; -um, occ./ -u, ahl.; 
Arbitratus, nom. ; -urn, aee, ; -u, ridictde, 

ahl,; judsrnient. Despicatui, dot,; contempt, 

Arcessitu, abl. ; a sending for. Dica, nom, ; dicam, aee, ; a legal 
Astu, nom., ace, ; a city, process ;'—dicaa, aee, pi. 

A.stus, nom.; astu, ahl.; craft; — Dieis, gen.; as, dicis gratia, -/or 

astus, aee, pi. formes sake. 

Cacoethes, nom,. ace. ; an evil eus- Diti5nis, gen. ; -i, dot. ; -em, aee, ; 

torn /— cacodtne, nom, pi,; -e, -e, ahl,; power, 

and -es, aee. pi. Diu^ abl. ; in the day time. 

Cetos, €iee. ; a tehale ; — cete, nom. Divisui, dat. ; a dividing. 

and au. pi. Ebur, ivory ; — not used in the gen.^ 
Chaoe, nam,, aee. ^ chao, ahl, ; chaos ; dat-, and abl. pi. 

— ^but, rignifying a deity, Chaon, Eiflagitatu, abl. ; importunity, 

^ aee. [looking around. Ejectus, nom, ; a throtoing out, 

Circumiqtectnfl, nom. ; -um; -vl; a Epos,' ace; an ^ie poem. 

Coacto, abL ; constraint. ' Ergo, abl, ; for the sake. ^ 



EyectuB, nam. ; a eanveyaftee. Lux, lighif wants the gen. vl, 

FiBx, dregs f wants gen. pi. Mandatu, abl. ; a commana. 

Far, eorUf not used in the gen., Mane, nom., occ. ; mane, or-i,a&Z., 

det.j and ahl. pi. morning. 

Fas, nom.f aec. ; right. Mel, honey, not used in gen., dot., 
Fauce, abl. ; the throat ;— ^Z. fauces, and abl, pi. 

-ibus. Melos, ace.; melody; — ^mele, nom., 
Fax, a torch, wants gen. pi. '- ace. pi. 

FemlmSfgen. ; -i, dot. ; -e, abl. ; the Metus,/ear, not used in gen., dot., 

thigh ;—pl. femlna, -Ibus. and abl. pi. 

Flictu, ahl. ; a striking. Missu, abl. ; despatch ;— ^Z. missusi 
Foris, nom. and gen.; -em, aee.; -Ibus. 

-■efabl.; a door ;— pZ. fores, -thus. Monltu, abl. ; admoidtUm ;— ^Z. mon- 
Fora, nom.; -tis, gen.; -tern, ace.; Itus. 

-te, aJbl. ; chance. Natu, ahl.; by birth. 

Frustratui, ail. ; a deceiving. Nauci, gen. ; as, res nauci, a thing 
Frux, fruit, nom., scarcely used; — of no value. 

frugis, gen., dbc. Nefas, nom., aee. ; trickedness. 

Gausftpe, nom., ace., abl.; a rough Nemo, nobody, wants the voe. and 

garment; — ^gaus&pa, ace. pi. the pi. 

Glos, nom., voc. ; a husband* s sister. Nepentnes, n/nn. ; an herb. 

Grates, ace. pi.; — gratlbus, abl.; Nex, death, wants the iJoc. ; — ^neces, 

thanks. nom., aec. pi. 

Hiems, vdnter, not used in gen., Nihil, or nihllum, nom. and ace; 

dot., and abl. pi, -i, gen. ; -o, abl. ; nothing. 

Hippom&nes, nom. Noctu, abl. ; by night. 

Hir, nom. and occ. ; the palm of the Nuptui, dot.; -um, ace.; 'U,abl.; 

hand. marriage. 

Hortatu, abl.; an exhorting ;— pi, Obex^ nom.; -Icem, ace; -ice, or 

hortatibua. 'j^ce, abl.; a bolt;— pi. oblces, 

Impetis, gen. ; -e, abl.; a shock;— pi. -jicibus. 

impetibus. . Objectum, ace. ; -u, abl. ; an inter' 

Inconsultu, abl. ; without advice. position ; — pi. objectus. 

Incitas, or -a, aec. pi. ; as, ad incitas Obtentui, dot. ; -u, abl. ; a pretext. 

redactus, reduced to a strait. Opis, gen. ; opem, ace. ; ope, abl. ; 
Indultu, abl. ; indulgence. help ; — pi. entire. 

lnfenm,; 'as,ace.;saer\/ices Oppositu, abl.; an opposing ;'-jim 

to the dead. opposltus. 

fnficias,; a denial; as, ire Opus, Ttom., ace. ; need. 

inficia^, to deny. Os, the mojtth, wants the gen. ph^ 

[ngratiia, abl. pi. ; against one*s Panaces, nom. ; an herb. 

wUl. Pax, peacCf wants gen. pi. 

Injusau, abl. ; without leave. Peccatu, abl. ; sinning. 

Inquies, nom. ; disquiet. Pecddis, gen. ; -i, dot. ; -em, aec. ; 
Instar, nom., ace. ; a likeness, -e, abl. ;—pL entire. 

Interdiu, abl. ; in the day time., nam., aee. pi. of pel&g^ui ; 
Jnvitatu, abl.; an invitation, the sea. 

Jovis, nom., rarely used ; — pi. Joves. Permissu, abl. ; permission, 

Irrisui, dat.; -um, ace.; -u, abl.; Piscatus, nom. ; •\,gen.; -um,ae6.f 

derision. -u, abl. ; a fishing. 

JugjSris, gen. ; -e, abl. ; an acre ;— ^Z. Pis, vitch, wants gen. pi, 

juggra, -um, -Ibus. Ponao, abl, ; in weight. 

Jussu. abl. ; command. Preci, dat. ; -em, act. ; -e, M. 
Labes, a spot, wants gen. pL prayer ; — pi. entire. 

Lucu, abl. ; iLrht, ProcSremu aee. ; a peer ;'-pL entile. 

Ludificatui, dot. ; a mockery. Proles, efspring, wants gen. pL 

DfiFECTlVE K0UN8. 48 

ReUlta, ahh ; a rdation. Thus, not used in the gtn,, dmi.^ and 

Bepetundimm, gen, pL; -is, aU.; abl.pL 

extortion, Veprem, aee. ; -e, ahl, ; a brier ;— pL 
Rogatu, abl. ; a request, entire. 

Ros, the country, wants gen,, dot,, Verbfiris, ^en. ; "e^abl.; a stripe ;^^^ 

and abl. pi. pi, yerD^ra, -um, -ibns. 

Satias,nom.;-atem,ace.;-ate,a62.; Vesper, nam.; •e or -i, ahl,; the 

satiety. evening. 

SecvLBf nojn., ace. ; sex, Vespdra, lumt.; -am, aec.; -^ift, 
Sitnsy Tiom. ; -nm, ac£. ; -u, ahl. ; abl. ; the evening. 

situation ; — situs, nom, and ace. VespSnis, nom. ; -o, dot. ; -nniy aee. ; 

pi. ; -tbus, ahl. -o, abl, ; the evening. 

Situs, nom.; -fts, gen.; -iun, ace.; Vicis, gen.; A, dot.; -em,' ace.; -e, 

-u, aiZ. ; n«« ; — situs, ace. pL ahl. ; change ;—pl. entire, except 

Sobdles, offspring, wants ^n, pi. gen. 

Sol, the sun, wants gen. pi. Virus, nam. ; -i, gen. ; -jib, ace. ; -o, 
Sordis, gen. ; -em, ace. ;^ -e, abl. ; abl. ; poison. 

filth ; — pi. sordes, -ium, &c. Vis, nom. ; vis, £•«?!. ; vim, ace. ; vi, 
Spontis, gen. ; -e, ahl. ; of one's o^n ahl. ; strtTigUi ;—pl. vires, -ium, 

accord, &c. 

SuppetiiB, nom. pi. ; -as, ace, ; sup- Viscus, rurm. ; -Sris, gen, ; -Sre, ahU ; 

plies. an internal organ. pL viscera, &c. 

Tabum, nom.; -i, gen.; -o, ahl.; Vocatu, ahl,; a co^n^ /^-^ocatos, 

gore, ace. pi. 

Tempe, nom., ace., voc. pi. ; a vale VolCipe, or volnp*, nom., ace. ; pUa9' 

in Jhessaly, ure. 

To these may be added nouns of the fiflh declension, which either 
want the plural, as most of them are abstract nouns, or have in Uiat num- 
ber only the nominative, accusative, and vocative. Res and dies, how- 
ever, have the plural entire. 

For the use of the vocative, also, of many words, no classical authority 
can be found. 

^ 95. 2. Nouns defective in number, want either the plural 
or the singular. 

(a.) Many nouns want the plural from the nature of the things 
which they express. Such are names of persons, most names 
of places (except those which have only the plural), the names 
of virtues, vices, arts, herbs, metals, minerals, liquors, and corn, 
most abstract nomis, and many others. 

The following list contains most other nouns which want the 
plural, and also some, marked jp, which are included in the 
above classes, but are sometimes used in the plural. 

Aeoniixim,tDoJfsbane,p. Argilla, white clay. Carduus, a thistle. 

Adorea, com. Av€na, oats, p. Caxo,fie$h, p. 

Acr, the air, p. Bals&mum, balsam, p. Cera, wax, p. 

Ma, brass, money, p. Balaustium, the flower Cestus, the girdle e^' 
iEther, the sky, of a pomegranate, Venus. 

iEvum, an age, p. Barathrum, a gulf, CicQta, hemlock, p. 

Album, an tubumk Galium, hardness of Ccenum, ruad. , 

AUium^ garlic, p. #iSnn.p Contagium, « conAi* 

Anucitia,yWefi42»At/y, p. Calor, fteol, p. ^"^^^^ 



.Grocmny midfron. 
Crocus, saffron^ p. 
Cruor, bloody p. 
Cutis, th^ sktHf p. 
Diluctilum, the dawn* 
Ebur, ivory f p. 
Electrum, ambaTf p*^ 
* Far, corny p. 
Fel, gaU. 
Fervor, heaiy p. 
Fimus, dung. 


Fumus, 3mokey p. 
Furor, madness, p. 
Galla, an oak apple, 
GelvL, frost. 
Glarea, gravel. 
Gloria, glory, p. 
Gluten, or 
Glutinum, glue. 
Gypsum, tohite plaster. 
Hepar, the liver. 
' Hesperus, the evening 

Hilum, the black speck 

of a bean. 
Hordeum, barley, p. 
Humos, the ground, 
IndSles, the disposition, 
Ira, anger, p. 
Jubar, a sunbeam. 
Jus, Justice, law, p. 
Justitium, a law vaeor 

LsBtitia, jov, p. 
h8LTiB;^oi,faintn€$Sy p. 
Lardum, bacon, p. 
Latex, liquor, p. 

Letom, ^eaC&. 

Lignum, wood, p. 

Limua, mud. 

Liquor, liquor, p. 

Lues, a plague, 

Lutum, day. 

Lux, light, p. 

Macellum, the shambles. 

Mane, the morning. 

Marmor, marble, p. 

Mel, honey, p. . 

Meridies, nud-day. 

Mors, death, p. ^ 

Munditia, neatness, p. 

Mundus, female oma- 

Muscus, moss. 

Nectar, nectar. 

Nemo, no man. 

Nequitia, wickedness, p. 

Nihil, nil, nihilum, no- 

Nitrum, nitre. 

Ohiivio, forgetfulness, p. 

Omasum, /of tripe. 

Opium, opium. 

Pfuea, chaff, p. 

Paz, peace, p? 

Fenum, ana 

Penus, provisions. 

Piper, pepper. 

Piz, pttcn, p. 

Pontus, the sea. 

Prolubium, desire, 

Pubes, the youth, 

Pulvis, dust, p. 

Purpura, purple, p. 

Quies, rest, p. 

Ros, dew, p. 

Rubor, redness, p. 

Sabalo, gravd. 
Sabalum, sand. 
Sal (neut.), ealt;'^ 

(masc), p. 
Salum, the sea, 
Salus, safety. 
Sol, the sun, a day, p 
Sanguis, blood. 
Scrupdlum, a scruple.p. 
Senium, old age, 
Siler, an osier, 
Sinftpi, mustard, 
Siser, a carrot, p. 
Sitis, thirst. 
Sopor, sleep, p. 
Specimen, an example, 
Spumsiffoam, p. 
Sulphur, sulphur, p. 
Supellex, furniture. 
Tabes, a consumption, 
Tabum, gore. 
Tellus,the earth. 
Terror, terror, p. 
Thymum, thyme, p. 
Tribalus, a thistle, p. 
Tristitia, sadness, p. 
Ver, spring. 
Verbena, vervain, p. 
YespSra, the evening. 
Vetemum, and 
Vetemus, lethargy. 
Vigor, strength, p. 
Vinum, toine, p. 
Virus, poison. 
Viscum, and 
Viscus, Hrdlime, 
Vitrum, woad, 
Vulgus, the common 

Zingiber, gvnger. 

^ 96. (6.) The names of festivals and games, and several 
names of places and books, want the singular ; as, Bacchor 
naKa, a festival of Bacchus ; Olympia, the Olympic -games i 
BucoUca, a book of pastorals ; and the following names of 
places : — 







Gabii, ^ 

GemonisB Bcalse, Susa, 

Loeri, Syracastt, 

Parisli, Tliennopj^lo 

PhUipoi, Veii, 

Puitedli, Venetis 

Those in t more properly rigniiy the people. 



The fiillowing list contains most other nottns which want the 
singular, and also some, marked s, which are rarely used in 
< that number : — 

Acta, acts. 
Adversaria, a metno- 

JRatlYtif 8C. castra, ntm- 

mer auarters. 
Alpes, the MpSy s* 
Annales, annals, 8. 
AntsB, doorposts, b. 
Antes, fore ranks, 
Antis, a for dock, 
ApTns, trifles. 
ArgutiflB, toittieisms, s. 
Anna, arms, 
Artus, the joints, a. 
Bellaria, sweetmeats. 
Bigffi, a two-horse char- 

lot, 8. 
BraccfB. breeches. 
BranchisB, the giUs of a 

Brevia, shallow places. 
Calends, Galenas, 
Cancelli, balustrades, 
Cani, gray hairs, 
Ca8ses,'a hunter* s netf 8. 
Cauls, sheep-folds, 
Celfires, light horse, 
Coelites, the gods, s. 
Cibaria, victuals. 
Clitells, panniers, 
Codicilh, writings, 
Crepundia, bawbles. 
Conabtila, and 
Cuns, a cradle, 
Pycl&des, the Cydadian 

islands, s. 
Deelme, tithes, a. 
Dire, the Furies, a. 
Diyitie, riches. 
Druides, the Druids, 
DrySdes, the Dryads, 8. 
EpCLls, a banquet, 8. 
£iimentde8, the Fu- 
ries, a, 
£2zeubiffi, watches, 
"ExeqmtB, funeral rites, 
Exta, entrails, 
Ezuvia, spoils, 
Facetiffi, pleasant say^ 


Fens, haUdai^s, 
Fides, a stringed in^ 

strumeni, a, 
Flabra, blasts, 
Fraga, strawberries, a. 
Fracas, the lees of ml, 
Gemini, tteins, a. 
Gens, cheeks, a, 
Gerrs, trifles. 
Grates, thanks. 
Habens, reins, a, 
Hy&des, the Hyades, a. 
Hybema, so. castra, 

winter quarters, 
ldvLa,theides ofamonth. 
Ilia, the flank, 
Incunabiila, a cradle, 
Indiitis, a truce, 
Induvis, clothes, 
Ineptis, silly wit, a, 
Inferi, the gods below, 
Inferis, sacrifices to the 

IHsecta, insects, 
Insidis^ snares. 
JuaiJBL, funeral rites, 
Liactes, smaU entrails. 
Lamenta, lamentations, 
Lapicidins, a ston^- 

lAtehrm,mrking places, 

Laurtces, young rabbits, 
Lautia, presents to for- 

sign ambassadors. 
Lemttres, hobgohUns, 
Lendes, nits, 
LibSri, children, a, 
LucSreii, a tribe of the 

Ma^alia, cottages, 
JVIajores, ancestors, a. 
Manes, the shades, a. 
Manubie, spoils of war. 
Mapalia, httts, a. 
Minacis, and 
Mins, threats, 
Minores, successors, 
McBnia, the walls of a 


Moltitia, garmmtsfisi/^' 

ly wrougJtt, 
Munia, qffices, 
Nai&des, fountain 

nymphs, a, 
Nares, the nostrils, a, 
Nat&les, parentage. 
Nates, the haunaies, a, 
Noms, corroding sores, 

Nons, the nones of a 

Nugs, trifles, 
Nundlns, a fair, a 

Nuptis, a marriage, 
Ofiucis, cheaisy a, 
Optimates, nobles, a. 
Pandects, pandects* 
Palearia, the dewlav, a. 
Parietlns, old walls. 
Partes, a party, 
Pascua, pastures, •• 
Penates, household 

Sods, a, 
Srs, trapfkigs, M» 
Philtra, love potums, 
Plei&des, ths j«m» 

stars, a, 
Post£ri, posterttu, 
Prebia, an ammet, 
Prscordia. the parts 

about the heart, 
Primitis, first fruits. 
Procures, nobles, a, 
Pugillaria, or -ftret, « 

note-book, a, 
Quadrlgrs, a four horse 

chanot, a, 
Qairites, eitixens of 

Rome, a, 
Qoisqailis, refuse, 
Reliquis, are^nainder, 

Salebrs, rugged places, 

Salins, a salt pit. 
Seals, a ladder^ a, 
Scatebrs, a spring, t. 



Scope, a Iroom, 
Scruta, old dothes. 
SenteSy thoma, ■. 
Sponsalia, espousals, 
Statlva. 8C. castra, a 

pitched eamv. 
SnpSri, tke gods above, 
Talaiia, toinged shoes. 

Tenebra, darkness, 
Tesqua, rough places. 
Therms, hot baths. 
Tormina, colic pains. 
Transtra, seats for row- 

erSy B« 

TriciB, trifleSf toys. 

Utensilia, utensils. 
VbX\bs^ folding doors, 
Vepres, branwleSf b. 
Ver^ilis , the seven stars, 
VinaicisB, a claim of 

Y'lTguhxif bushes. 

^97. The following differ in meaning in the different 
numbers : — 

JEdes, -IB, a temple, 
MdeSf >ium, a house, 
Auxilium, aid. 
AuzilLa, auxiliary 

Bonum, a good thing. 
Bona, property. 
Career, a prison, 
CarcSrefl, a goal, 
Castnim, a castle, 
Castra, a camp. 
Comitium, a part of the 

Roman f Oram, 
Comitia, an assembly 

for deetion, 
Cnpedia, -s, delicaey, 
Cupedis, -arum, ana 
Cupedia, -drum, dam- 

Copia, plenty. 
Copi89, forces. 
Facaltas, abiUty. 
FacultateB, weaWL 

Fala, a trick. 
Fals, scaffolding, 
FaatoB, -ds, pride. 
FastuB, -uum, and 
Fasti, -drum, a calendar. 
FiniB, an end. 
FineB, boundaries, 
Fortana, Fortune, 
FortOns , wealth. 
Furfur, bran, 
Furftires, dandruff. 
Gratia, /aoor. 
Gratis, thanks, 
Impedimentum, a Ain- 

Impedimenta, baggage. 
LitSra, a letter of the 

LitSrsB, an epistle. 
Lustrum, a space office 

years, * 

Lustra, dens ef wild 


Mob, custom. 
Mores, manners. 
Opis, gen. help. 
Opes, -um, power^ 

wealth. ^ 

OpSra, labor. 
Op^rsB, %Dorkmen. 
Plaga, a climate. 
Flags, netSf toils. 
Principium, a begin' 

Prineipia, the generaVs 

Bostrum, a beak. 
Rostra, a pulpit or tri» 

Rub, the country, 
KuTtiy fields, 
Sal, salt. 
Sales, witticisms. 
Torus, a Sed, a cord. 
Tori, inraiony muscles. 

^ 98* The following plurals are sometimes used for the 
singular : — 

Alta, the sea, 
Animi, courage, 
Aurs, the air, 
Carins, a keel. 
Cervices, the neck, 
CoUa, the neck, 
Coms, the hair, 
Connubia, marriage* 
Corda, the heart. 
Corpdra, a body. 
CrepuBcala, tmlight, 
CurruB, a chariot, 
Ezilia, banishment, 
Frigdra, cold. 
Gnunlna, gras9. 

GuttCLra, the throat. 
Hjmensi, marriage, 
JejunitL, fasting, 
Ignes, love. 
Ingulna, the groin, 
JuDS, a mane. 
Limlna, a threshold, 
Litdra, a shore. 
Menss, a service or 

course of dishes, 
Nsnis, afiineral dirge, 
Numlna, the dhrinity. 
Odia, hatred. 
Ora, the mouth, the 

One, eoi^nes. 

OrtUB, a rising, the east. 
Otia, easCj leisure, 
Pectdra, the breast. 
Rictus, the jaws. 
Robdra, oaky strength, 
Silentia, sUence. 
Sinus, the breast of a 

Roman garment, 
Tsds, a torch. 
Tempdra, time, 
Thal&mi, marriage, or 

Thura, frankincense. 
Tori, a bed, a couch. 
Vis, a journey, 
y ultUB, the countenane 4 . 



^99« Nouns are redundant either in termination, in 
declension, in gender, or in two or more of these respects. 

1. In termination: (a.) of the nominative; as, arbor, and 
arboSf a tree : (6.) of the oblique cases; 9iB,tigris; gen. tigris, 
or '4dis ; a tiger. 

% In declension ; as, laurus; gen. t*, or -^5 ; a laurel. 

3. In gender; as, vulgus^ masc. or neut; the common 

4. In termination and declension ; as, seneda, •a, and senec* 
ius, -utis ; old age. 

5. In termination and gender ; as, piJeus^ masc., and pihum, 
neut ; a hat. 

6. In dedensioQ and gender; as, penus, '4^3, masc, and 
penus, -dris, neut. ; a store of provisions. 

7. In termination, declension, and gender ; as, menda, -^, 
fern., and mendum, -t, neut. ; a fault. 

The following list contains most JReduTidant Nouns of the 
above classes : — 

Abumo, and -ns, -iU, an ahuse» Barbaria, and -ies, harbarisfn. 

Acinus, and -nnif a grape-sUme, BarbUus, and -on, a harp. 

Adagium, and -io, a proverb, ^ BatUlus, and -um, o>fir6 shovel* 

Admonitio, and -us, -tl«, an advising, Blanditia, and -ies, fiaUery. 

^thra, and iEther, Ute clear sky, Bucclna, and -um, a trumpet. 

AfTectio, and -us, -1I5, affection, Bura, and -is, a pUmgh-tau, 

Affamemno, and -on, Jigamemnon, Buxus^ and -um, thehoz-tree. 

Alabaster, -trif and -trum, an aiabas- Calamister, -trt, and -trum, a crisp- 

ter box, ing-pin. 

Alimonia, and -um, aliment. Callus, and -um, hardness of the skin, 

AUuvio, and -es, a flood. Cancer, -iri, or -«rw, a crab, 

Alvearium, and -are, a bee-hive. Canitia, and -ies, hoariness. 

AmatSLcns, and -nm, sweet marjoram, CvLpuSf and Capo, a capon, 

Anfractum, and -us, -i(#, a vnnding, Casslda, and Cfassis, a helmet. 

Angiportum, and -us^-iU, a narrow Catlnus, and -um, a platter. 

way. ^P&> Anc{ -e, an onion, 

Antiddtus, and -um, an ajUidote, Chirogr&phus, and -um, a hand writ' 
Aranea, and -us, a spider, ing. 

Arar, and -Siris, fJie river Arar, CingQla, -us, and -um, a girdle. 

Arbor, and -os, a tree, Clypeus, ai^ -um, a shieSl. 

Architectus, and -on, an architect. Cocnlearium, -ar, and -are, a spoon 

Attag^na, and -gen, a woodcock, Colluvio, and 'ieSf filth. 

Avaritia, and -ies, avarice, Commentarius, and -um, a jourwA 

Augmentum, and -men, increase. Compages, and -o, a joining. 

Baccar, and -aris, a kind of herb, Conatum, and -us, -tt«, an attempt 

Bacdlus, and -um, a staff. Concinnltas, and -tado, neatness, 

Balteus, and -om, « beU. Consorticm, and -io, partrurskip. 



Contagium, -io, and -es, contact. 
Comus, -t, or -iU, a cornd'tree. 
Costusy and -um, a kind of shrub. 
CrocuS) and -rnn, saffron, 
Crystallus, and -um, crystal. 
Cubitus, and -um, a cutit. 
Cupiditas, and -pido, desire. 
CuiH'eBBUs, 'if or -Us y a eyjtr ess-tree 
CuIeuB, and -um, a leathern tag. 
Delicia, and -um. a deUglU. 
Delphinus, and Delphin, a dolphin. 
Desidia, and -es, sloth, 
DictamnuB, and -um, dittany. 
Diluvium, and -ies, a dduge. 
Domus, -t, or -iiSj a house. 
Dorsus, and -um, the hack. 
Duritia, and -\e%, hardness. 
Ebgnus, and -um, ebony, 
Effigia, and -ies, an image. 
lUegeia, and -us, an elegy, 
Elepliantus, and -phas, an Repliant. 
£ss6da, and -um, a chariot. 
Evander, -dri, and -drus, Evander, 
Eventum, and -us,, -us, an event. 
Exemplar, and -are, a copy. 
FicuB, 'if or -ii*, a fig-tree, 
Fimus, and -um, dung. 
Fretum, and -us, -Uls, a strait, 
Fulgetra, and -um, lightning, 
Galerus, and -um, a hat. 
Ganea, and -um, a subterraneous 

Gibba, -us, and -er, -iri, a hunch. 
Glomus, -I, or -iiris, ahaU ofUiread, 
Gluttnum, arid 'ten, glue. 
Gobius, and -io, a gudgeon, 
Gruis, and Grus, a crane. 
Hebdom&da, and -mas, a xceek. 
Hellebdrus, and -um, hellt^ore. 
Honor, and -os, hofior. 
Hjssopus, and -um, hyssop, 
Ilios, and -on, Troy. 
Incestum, and -us, -iU, incest, 
IntQbus, and -um, endive. 
Jugiilus, and -um, the throat. 
Juventa, -us, and -as, youth. 
Labor, and -os, labor. 
Lacerta, and -us, a lizard. 
Laurus, -i, or -us, a laurel. 
Lepor, and -os, toit. 
Libraria, and -um, a hook-case. 
Ligur, and -us, -uriSf a Ugurian. 
Lupinus, and -um, a lupine. 
Luxuria, and -ies, luxury. 
Meander, 'dri, and -drus, Meander, 

Materia, and -ies, materials. 
Medimnus, and -am, a measure. 
Menda^ and -um, a fault, 
Millianum, and -are, a mUe. 
Modius, atU -um, a measure, 
MolUtia, and -ies, softness. 
Momentum, and -men, motion, 
Muffil, and -Ills, a mullet, 
Mulciber, -2n, or -tris^ Vulcan, 
Mulctra, and -um, a milk-pail. 
Munditia, and -ies, neatness. 
Muria, and -ies, brine or pickle. 
Myrtus, -t, or -^5, a myrtle. 
Nardus, and -um, spikenard. 
Nasus, and -um, the nose. 
NecessXtas, and •Odo, necessity, 
Nec^uitia, and -ies, wickedness. 
Notitia, and -ies, knowledge. 
Oblivium, and 'io fforgetjulness. 
Obsidium, and -io, a siege, 
(Edipus, 'if or -ddiSf (Edipus. 
. Orpheus, -ci, or -eoSf Orpheus. 
Patatus, and -um, the palate. 
Palumba, -es, and -us, -il^, a pigeon 
Papyrus, and -um, pdpyrus. 
Paupertas, and -ies, poverty. 
Pavus, and -o, a peacock. 
Penus, 'driSf or -<i», anc^ Penum, 

Peplus, and -um, a veil. 
Perseus, -«i, or 'COSf Perseus, 
Pileas, and -um, a hat. 
Pinus, -if or -m5, a pinC'tree. 
Pistrlna, an(2 -um, a bake-house. 
Planitia, and -ies, a plain. 
Plato, and -on, Plato. 
Pleba, and Plebes, -ei, tlie common 

Fostulatum, and -io, a request. 
PrtesSpes, -is, and -e, a stable. 
Proetextum, and -us, -it«, a pretext, 
Prosapia, and -ies, lineage. 
Rapa, and -um, a turnip. 
Requies, -etiSf or -€l, rest. 
Aete, and -is, a net. 
ReticOlus, and -um, a ^maZZ net 
Rictum, and -us, -tl5, tlie mouth, 
Ruscus, and -um, butcher's broom, 
Saevitia, and -ies, cruelty, 
Sagus, and -um, a soldier^s doak 
Sanguis, and -ffuen, blood, 
SatrSpes, and Satraps, a satrap, 
Scabritia, and -ies, roughness, 
Scobis, and Scobs, sawdust, 
Scorpius, and -io, a scorpion 

DBBTTATION 0¥ 110098. 


Scrolufl, aud Serobs, a diieh. 
Segmentum, and -men, a piece* 
Segnitia, and -ies, ^th, 
Senecta, and -na, old age, 
Sensum, and -ns, -His^ eenae. 
Sequester, -trt, or -tru^ an umpire, 
Sesftma, and -um, sesame, 
SibiluSy and -um, a hissing. 
Sinapi, and -is, mustard. 
Sinus, and -um, a miUt-paU. 
Spams, and -um, a spear. 
3purcitia^ and 'iesyjutkiness. 
Squalitaao, and Squalor, jiZtAiiteff. 
Stramentum, and -men, straw. 
Suffimentum, and -men, a perfume. 
Suggestos, and -nm, a pulpit, 
Suppdrus, and -um, a veil. 
Supplicium, and -icatio, a suppli- 

To these, may be added some other verbals in us and io, and Greek 
nouns m o and on ; as, Dio and JHon ; also some Greek nouns in es and 
e, which have Latin forms in a / as, Atndes and Atnda. See § 45. 

Some proper names of places also are redundant in number; as, Argoe 
and Arg%; Cuma and Cumet; Fidena and Fidence ; Thebe axid Thebce. 

The different forms of most words in the above list are not equally 
common, and some are rarely used, or only in particular cases. 

Tabus, anid -nm, gore* 
Tapetum, -fite, and -es, tapestrjf. 
Teneritas, ana -ttldo, softness. 
Tiara, and -as, a turban. 
rngnus, and -um, a plank, 
Tigris, -iff, or -idis^ a tiger, 
Titanus, and Titan, Titan. 
Tonitruum, and -trus, thunder. 
Torftle, and -al, a bed covering, 
Trabes, and Trabs, a beam. 
Tribdla, and -um, a threshing 

Vesp^ra, -p^rus, and -per, the even^ 

\'inaceus, and -um, a ^ape-stone. 
Viscus, and -um, birdkme. 
Vulgus, masc. and neut., the common 



^ 100. Nouns are derived from other nouns, from adjec- 
tives, and from verbs. 

I. From nouns are derived the following classes : — 

1. A patronymic is the name of a person, derived from that 

of his father or other ancestor, or of the founder of his nation. 

Patronymios are properly Greek nouns, and have been borrowed firom 
that language by the Latin poets. 

Most masculine patronymics end in ides ; as, Priamides, a 
son of Priam ; RomalicUB, the Romans, from their first king, 
Romulus, Those from nouns in eus usually contract eides into 
ides ; as, Atrides, from Atreus, Those from nouns in as and 
es, of the first declension, end in ddes ; as, jEneddes, from 
JEneas ; but some, from nouns of this and of other declensions, 
end in iades ; as, Anchisiddes, from Anchises , Abantiddes, from 

To masculine patronymics in ides, eldes, odes, and iddes, 
correspond feminines in is, eis, as, and ias ; as, Tynddris, the 
daughter of Tynddrus; Nerds, the daughter o^Nereus ; Thes^ 
tias, the daughter of TTiestius ; JBetias, the daughter of j^itei 



A feminine in ine is also found ; as, Nerine, from Nenus* 

Fatronymicfi in des and rue are of the first declension ; those in is and a#, 
of the third. 

2. A patriai or gentile noun is derived from the name of a 
country, and denotes an inhabitant of that country ; as, Tros^ a 
Trojan man; Troas, a Trojan woman; M(uedo, a Macedo- 
nian; Samnis,a, Samnite; from Trqja, Macedonia, and Sam- 

Most patrials are properly adjectives, relating to a nonn understood ; 
as, homOf cimSf 6ui. 

3. A diminutive signifies a small thing of the kind denoted 
by the primitive. 

Diminutives generally end in Jus^ lay or lum, according as the 
primitive is masculine, feminine, or neuter. These terminations 
are usually added either to the nominative or to the root of the 
primitive : commonly u or cu is inserted before them ; as, ado' 
lescentultis, a very young man, from adolescens, a youth ; arula, 
a little altar> from ara; scutulum, a little shield, from scutum ; 
fratercMuSy muliercula, opusculumy incomfratery mulier, and opus. 

In some, 6 is inserted instead of u; VL8,fili8lus, from filius, 

A few diminutives end in leus ; as, equtdeus, from equus, a 

Sometimes the root of the primitive is variously modified ; 
as, homunculusy asellus^ lihellus, from homOy asinus, and liber. 

Some diminutives differ in gender from their primitives ; as, 
ranunculus, scamiHus, from rana and scamnum. 

4. Amplificatives are personal appellations, denoting an ex- 
cess of what is expressed by their primitives ; as, cctptto, one 
who has a large head, from caput, the head; naso, one who has 
a large nose, from nasus, the nose. 

5. The termination ium or itium, added to the root of a noun, 
indicates an assemblage of the individuals denoted by the prim- 
itive, or their office or employment; as, collegium, an assembly 
of colleagues ; servitium, a collection of servants ; sacerdotium, 
the priesthood ; ministerium, a ministry ; from collega, servus, 
scu^erdos, and minister, 

6. The termination imonium is added to the root of a few 
nouns, denoting that which gives to the primitives their char- 
acter ; as, testimonium, testimony ; vadimonium, obligation ; 
from testis and vas {vadis), 

7. The termination etum, added to the root of names of 
plants, denotes a place where they grow in abundance; as, 
quercitum, kmreium, from quercus, an oak, and laurus, a laurel 

DXBIVATIOir o^ Noomu 51 

Bat some are irregular ; as, arbustum, sdUeimn; from arhoif a 
tree, and s€dix, a willow. 

8. The termination arium, added to the root of a noun, de- 
notes the place where the things signified by the primitive are 
kept; as, aviarium, plantarium ; firom avis, a bird, andplantOf 
a plant. 

9. The termination tie, also, added to the root of words de- 
noting animals, marks the place where they are kept ; as, &o- 
vzle, caprUe, ovile ; firom hos, an ox, caper, a goat, and ovis, a 

This and the preceding class are properly neuter adjectives. 

^101* II. From adjectives are derived the following forms 
of abstract liouns. See \ 26. 

1. The terminations ttas, ia^ itudo, and edo, are added to 
the root of the primitive ; as, cupidUas, desire ; audacia, bold- 
ness ; magnitudo, greatness ; cdbedo, whiteness ; firom cupfidus, 
audax, magnus, and aGms. 

So atroiSttas^ crudditas, from atrox and crudelis ; eoneordia,perfidia, from 
eoncors and perfidm; simUit'ado, Umgiiiido, firom simiUs KDAkmgtu; duU 
UdOf pmguedo, from dtdds ojnd pinguia. 

When the root ends in t, the abstract is formed in Has ; as, 
pietas, piety ; anxiitas, anxiety; firom pins and anxius. 

Lihertas, liberty, is contracted ^om lihdiias ; and dificuUas, 
difficulty, from difficiUtas. 

A few abstracts are formed in %tus or ius, instead of itas ; as, 
servttus, slavery ; juventus, youth ; firom serous and juvinis. 

Instead of ia, some adjectives in us add itia, or ities, to the 
root ; as, avaritia, avarice ; justitia, justice ; fiK>m avdrus and 
Justus ;—duriiies, hardness ; savities, cruelty ; firom durus and 


Consuetudo, custom, and mansuetudo, mildness, omit it in the 
termination, as their root ends in t, 

2. A few adjeiptives form abstracts in imonia ; as, acrimonia, 
tartness ; sanctimonia, sanctity ; from acer and sanctus. 

Abstracts are sometimes formed from the same adjective with 
different terminations ; as, claritas and daritudo, from clarus. 

Adjectives, as distinguished fi'ora the abstracts which are 
formed from them, are called concretes. 

^ 102. III. Nouns derived firom verbs are called verbal 

The following are the principal classes : — • 

I. The termination or, added to the first root of a verb^ espe- 


eiaily of a neuter verb, denotes the action or state of the verb 
abstractly; as, amor, love; favor, favor; masror, grief; splen* 
dor, brightness ; from amOfJaveo, moereo, and sphndeo, 

% From many verbs abstracts are formed by adding turn to 
the first root ; as, colloquium, a conference ; gaudium, joy ; ea^ 
ordium, a beginning ; from coUdquor, gaudeo, and exordior. 

Some words of this class are formed by changing final u, in 
the third root of the verb, into turn ; as, exitium, destruction ; 
iolattum, consolation ; from exeo {exUu) and solor {soldtu). 

3. Some verbals are formed by adding ela, imonia, or ifnonium, 
to the first root of the verb ; as, loquela, speech ; querela, a com« 
fdaint ; suadela, persuasion ; . from loquor, queror, and suadeo ; 
— alinionia and idimonium, nutriment, from cdo; — querinwhia, 
a complaint, from queror. 

4. The termination mentum, added to the first root of the 
verb, generally with a connecting vowel, denotes a means for 
the performance of the action of the verb ; as, documentum, a 
means of teaching ; from doceo. So blandimentum, experimenr 
turn, omamentum, from hlandior, experior, and omo. 

The termination men has sometimes a similar signification ; 
as, tegmen, a covering; from tego. 

Some words of this class have no primitive verb in use; as/ 
airamentum, capiUamentum, ^c. 

5. The terminations ulum, bulum, and culum, added to the 
first root of a verb, the two last with a connecting vowel, denote 
a means or instrument ; as, cingulum, a girdle ; jaculum, a jave- 
lin ; veMculum, a vehicle ; venabulum, a hunting-spear ; from 
cingo, jacio, veko, and venor. 

Some words of this kind are formed from nouns ; as, acetdb' 
ulum, a vinegar cruet ; thuribulum, a censer ; from ac^tum and 

6. Nouns formed by changing final u, in the third root of the 
verb, into or and rix, denote respectively the male and female 
agent of the action expressed by the verb; as, adjutor, adjutrix, 
an assistant; fautor, fautrix, a favorer ; victor, victrix, a con- 
queror ; from adjuvo. ladjutu),faveo (fautu), vinco (victu). 

The feminine form is less common than the masculine. 

Some nouns in tor are formed immediately from other nouns ; 
as, viator, a traveller ; janitor, a door-keeper ; fi'om via and 

7. Many abstract nouns are formed by changing final u, in 
the third root of a verb, into to and us ; as, ctcHo^ an action 

coxposiTioir or nouns. 53 

cauHoy caution ; UeUo^ reading ; from ago (oeltt), caoeo (eotf- 
tu)y lego {lectu) ; — cantus, singing; visas, sight; usus, use; 
from cano {ecattu), video {visu), utor {usu). 

Nouns of both forms, and of the same signification, are fre- 
quently deriyed from the same verb ; as, concursio and concur^ 
9us, a running together ; moiio and motus, &c. 

The termination ra, added to the third root of a verb, some- 
times has the same signification as to and us, and sometimes 
denotes the result of an action ; as, positHra, position ; mnc^ti- 
ra, a binding together; &om pono {positu), and vincio (vinctu) ; 
— conjectitra, a conjecture ; pictura, a picture ; from cor^ido 
{conjectu) hnd pingo (pictu). 

One of the forms in to, us, and Ura, is generallj used to the exclusion 
of the others, and when two or mora are round, iaej are usually employ- 
ed in somewnat different senses. 

8. The termination orivm, added to the third root of a verb, 
afler u is removed, denotes the place where the action of the 
verb is performed ; as, auditorium, a lecture-room ; conditorium^ 
a repository ; firom audio and condo. 


^ 103* Compound nouns are formed variously : — 

1. Of two nouns ; as, rupicdpra, a wild goat, of rupes and 
eaprcu In some words, compounded of two nouns, the former 
is a genitive ; as, senaiusconsultum, a decree of the senate ; ju- 
risconsultus, a lawyer. In other?, both parts are declined^; as, 
respubUca, jusjurandum. See § 91. 

2. Of a noun and a verb ; as, arHfex, an artist, of ars and 
facio ; Jidtcen, a harper, of ^c?i5 and cano; agricola, a bus- 
bandman, of ager and colo ; patrictda, a patricide, of pater and 

3. Of an adjective and a noun ; as, cBquinoctium, the equinox, 
of €Bquus and nox ; miUepeda, a millepede, of mille and pes, 

^In duumvir, triumvir , decemvir, centumvir, the numeral adjec- 
tive is in the genitive plural. 

Remark. When the former part of the compound is a noun 
or an adjective, it usually ends in i. If the second word begins 
with a vowel, an elision takes place ; as, quinquennium, of quin^ 
que and annus, 

4. Of an adverb and a noun ; as, nefas, wickedness ; nemo, 
nobody ; ofne,fas, and Jwmo, 

5. Of a preposition and a noun ; asy incuria, want of carOi of 


in and cura. So intertfaUum, the space between the ramparts ; 
pracordia, the vitals ; proverbium, a proverb ; subselUum, a seat ; 
superficies, a surface. 

When the former part is a preposition, its final consonant is 
sometimes changed, to adapt it to that which follows it : as, 
immortcUitds, imprudentia. 


<§> 104. An adjective is a word which qualifies or limits 
the meaning of a substantive. 

Adjectives may be divided, according to their significaiion^ 
into various classes ; as denoting, 

1« Quality ; as, bonus, good ; albus, white. 

2. Quantity ; as, magnus, great ; totus, the whole. 

3. Matter ; as, abiegnus, made of fir ; aureus^ golden. 

4. Time ; as, cmnuus, yearly ; hestemus, of yesterday. 

5. Place ; ^s, altus, high ; vicinus, near. 

6. Relation ; as, amicus, friendly ; aptus, fit 

7. Number; as, unus, one; secundus, second. These are 
called numerals, 

8. Possession ; as, hertlis, a master's ; paiemu$t ot a tamer. 
These are CBlled possessives. 

9. Country ; as, Romdnus, Roman ; Arptnas, of Arpmum. 
These are called patrials, 

10. Part ; as, ullus, any one ; alter, another. These are call- 
ed partitives. 

11. Interrogation; as, quantus, how great 1 ^uoZtV, of what 
kind ? These are called interrogatives ; when not used inter- 
rogatively, they are called indefinites. 

12. Diminution ; as, parvulus, from parvus, small ; miseUus, 
from miser, miserable. These are called diminutives, 

13. Amplification ; as, vinosus and vinoUntus, much given 
to wine ; auritus, having long ears These are called amplifi^ 


^ 105. Adjectives are declinei^ ike substantives, and are 
either of th^ first and second declensv u, or of the third only* 





The masculine of adjectives that belong to the first and second 
declension, ends either in us or er. Those in us change us into 
a for the feminine^ and into urn for the neater. Those in er 
add a for the feminine, and um for the neuter. The masculine 
in 115 is declined like dominus; that in er like gener, or agers 
the feminine always like musa ; and the neuter like regnum, 

RsMASK. One adlective, saiur, '■HarOf -4kncm, iiill, ends in VTf and tbt 
18 declined like gmur. 





















































In like manner decline 

AV-tos, high. Fi''duB,faUhfid. Lon'-gua, long. 

A-va'-ma, covetous. Iin'-pr6-bus, vncked. Ple'-nua, JWZ. 
fie-nig'-nuB, kind. In-I'-quus, unjust. Tac'-I-tus, siUiU. 

Like bonus are also declined all participles in us 


N. te'-ner, 

G. ten'-e-ri, 

D. ten'-e-ro, 

Ae. ten'-e-rum, 

^ V. te'-ner, 

'Ab. ten'-S-ro. 

2. Tener, tender. 










N. ten'-S-ri, 

O. ten-e-ro'^rum, 

D. ten'-e-ris, 

Ae. ten'-e-rosy 

F. ten'-^ri, 

Ab. ten'-^-ris. 









In like manner are declined 


As'-per, rou^h. Gib'-ber, crook-hacked. Mi'-ser, to 
'&x''\eity foreign. La'-cer, torn. Pros'-per, jarosperous^ 

Li'-ber, free. Sa'-tur, fuU. 

Bo also aem^eTf and the compounds of gero and fero; as, laniger, 
bearing wool ; optfer^ bringing help. 

NoTX. Exter is scaicely used in the nominatiye singular mascu 

^ 106. The other adjectives in er (except alter) drop th© 
e in declension* 















Piger, shihfid. 











pi'-gras, . 














In like manner decline 

JE'-ger, sick. Ma'-cer, Uan. 

A'-ter, hlaek. Ni'-ger, llack. 

Cre'-heiffrequent. Pul'-cher,/«£r. 

Gla'-ber, smooth. Ru'-ber, red. 

In'-td-ger, entire. Sa/-cer, soared. 

Dexter f nghtf has -<ni, -<rtcm, or '4iraf -iirum 

Sea'-ber, rongh 
Si-nis'-ter, Ze/i. 



^ 107* Six adjectiyes in tf^, and three in tr^ have their 

genitive singular in t«5, and the dative in t, in all the genders : — 

Alius, wMAker. Totns, tohole. Alter, -t£ra, -tSrum, the other. 
NulluB, no one. Ulhis, any. Uter, -tra, -tram, tohidi €f tke two. 

Solus, alone. Unus, one. I^euter, -tra, -trum, neither. 

To these may be added the other compounds of tcter, — ^munely, utorfuo^ 
each ; utercufngue, tUerhbetf and uteruU, which of the two you fklease ; |pea. 
utriusque, &o 'i — also, aUerHterf one of two ; gen. aJUervtrius, and ■ometimes 
oUerius utrUio ; dat. alteriUri. So aUeruterque. 



Masc, Fern. 



u'-nus, u'-na, 



u-ni'-us,* u-ni'-us, 

, u-id'-uSy 


u'-ni, u'-ni, 



u'-num, u'-nam. 



u'-ne, u'-na. 



u'-no. u'-n&. 


The plural is regular, like that of honus. 

Remark 1. ^lius has aUud in the nominative BingwhT neuteri and 
in the genitive alitts, contracted for aUius. 

2. Scnne of these adjectives, in ancient anthoxs, form their genitive and 
dative regularly, like bonus, tenor , otpigef. 


^ 108* Some adjectives of the third declension have three 
terminations in the nominative singular ; some two ; and others 
only one. 

I. Those of three terminations end in er, masc. ; is, fern. ; 
and e, neut. ; and are thus declined :— 


i sharp. 


















a'-cri, ^ 













See $15. 




























In like manner are declined the ibllowinff only : — 

Al'-ft-cer. cheerful, Paplus'-ter, marshy. §il-ves'-ter, tooodif. 

Cnm-Tpev-teTfOf aplain. Pe-des'-ter, on /ao<. Ter-res'-ter, terrejfi 
Cel'-6-ber, /amouff. Sa-la'-ber, wholesanu. Vol'-ti-eer, mnged. 

£-qae8'-ter, equestrian. 

veUTf swift) has eeUriSf eelire; gen. ceUris, &c. 

RxMARX 1. The nominative singular mascuCne sometimes ends in 
•9, like the femixdne ; as, saiQher, or salnbris. 
2. Volttcer has urn in Uie genitiye plural. See § 114. 

^ 109. II. Adjectives of two terminations end in is for the 
masculine and feminine, and e for the neater, except compar- 
atives, which end in or and us. 

Those in is, e, are thus declined :-^ 

Mitis, mild. 

Singular. PJuraH. 

M.fyF. JV. M.^F. JV. 

N. mi'-tis, mi'-te, N. mi'-tes, mit'-i-a,* 

O. mi'-tis, mi'-tis, O. mit'-i-um,* mit'-i-um, 

D. mi'-ti, mi'-ti, D. m^t'-i-bus, mit'-i-bus, 

Ae. mi'-tera, mi'-te, Ac. mi'-tes, mit'-i-a, 

V. mi'-tis, mi'-te, V. mi'-tes, mit'-i-a. 

Ah. mi'-ti. mi'-ti. Ah. mit'-i-bus. mit'-i-bua. 

In like manner decline 
Ag'-l-Iis, active. ^ Dul'-cis, sweet. In-col'-tl-miS) stfe, 

Bn'-vis, short. ' For'-tis, hrmoe. Ml-rab'4-lis, loondeifiil. 

Gm-de'-lis, crtM{. ^ Gra'-vis, heavy. Om'-nis, all. 

TreSf three, is declined like the plural of mitis. 

^ 1 10« All comparatives except phis, more, are thus de- 

clined: — 

Mitior,^ milder. 

M. f F. JV. 

N. mit'-i-or, mit'-i-us, 

O. mit-i-o'-ris, mit-i-6'-ris, 

D. mit-i-o'-ri, mit-i-o'-ri, 

Ae. mit-i-o'-rem, nut'-i-us, 

V. mit'-i-oT, mit'-i-us. 

Ah. mit-i-o'-re, or ri. mit-i-o'-re, or rL 

* Pronounced wdMh^-t-um, 4^ See $ It. 


JU ♦■•• ^•w^ 





















In like mannet decline 

iU'-4a-«r, higher, Fe-lic'-i-or, happier, Fm-den'-ti-or, nwrepn^ 

Bre'-yi-or, shorter, Foi'-ti-or, braver. dent. 

Cru-€le'-li-or, more erueL Gm'-yi-or, heavier. U-be'-ri-or, mare ferHU 

Dvlf-^'Otf sweeter. . 

Plus, morcy is thus declined : — 

Singtdar. Plural. 

JV, M.fyF. JV. 

JV. plus, JV. plu'-resy plu'-ra,rareZypiuria 

G, plu'-ris, . G. plu'-ri-um, plu'-ri-um, 

D, », D, pltt'-ri-bttSy plu'-ri-bus, 

Me. plus, Jlc. plu'-res, plu'-ra, 

Ah. . M. plu'-ri-bus. plu'-ri-bus. 

So, in the plural number only, eomplureSy a great many. 

^111. III. Other adjectives of the third declension have 
but one termination in the nominative singular for all genders, 
«nd they all increase in the genitive.* 

They are thus declined : — 

Felix, happy^ 




















fe-li'-ce, or ci. 


fe-li'-ce, or ci. 



















aUcia or senicis. 

* Sien^x. I 

tefus. old. had ancientlv * 

f Frooouticedyi-^A^-e-um, dtc. See $$ 10, Ezc, and 7. 


Prsesens, present* 

M.ifF. jv: 

N, prs^Hsens^ prse'-senfl, 

O, priB-sen'-tiSy pra^-sen'-tiSy 

2>. prae-sen'-ti, ^ ' prjensen'-ti, 
Ac. prse-sen'-temy prs'-sens, 

V. prse^-sens, prse'-sens^ 

Ab. prasHsen^-te^or ti. ' pne^sen'-te, or ti 


N. priB-sen'-tes, prc-sen'-ti-a,* 

Ci^. prs-sen'-ti-um, prae-sen'-ti-um, 

D. prae-sen'-ti-bus, prs-sen'-ti-buSy 

Ac. pree-^en'-tes, prs-sen-ti-ay 

V. prae-sen'-tes, praeHsen'-ti-a, 

Ah. prae-sen'-ti-bus. prae-sen^-ti-bus. 

In like manner decline 

An'-daz, -adB, hold. Par'-tT-ceps, -Ijns, par- Sos'-peSy -YtiB, «^ 

Com'-pcNi,-dtis,miMferaf. Heipant, ^ Sup'-plex, -Icis, 

Fe'-rox, -Ocis, ji«rce. Pne'-pes, •€tis, ffir(/i. . pUant, 

In'-gens, -tis, ai^0. SoMera, -tis, shrewd. 

All present participles are declined like pr€B,sens, 

Rules vor the Oblk^ue Cases of Adjectites or thx 

Third Declension. 


^112* Most adjectives of the third declension form their 
genitive singular like nouns of the same termination. 

The following may here be specified : — 

Of those in es, 

Some have itis ; as, hebeSf dull ; perpeSf peipetnal ; pn^eSf swift ; and 

teres^ slender ; — {Loc&ples, nch, has €ti8;) — 
Some Itis; as, dives, rich ; sospeSf safe ; and supersteSf snrvivinff ;•— 
Some idis ; as, desesy slothful ; and resesy sluggish. girls' 

BipeSf two-footed, and tripes, three-footed, have pidis.PylbeSj has tm- 

CompaSf master of, and impos, unable, have 6H». 

Pemox, lasting all night, has noeds, 

Calebs, unmarried, has ibis; intercus, intercutaneons, lUts. 

Those in eeps^ compoimds of eapta, have dpUis; as, anceps, doabtfiil 
prtBceps, headlong. * 

Those in cars, compounds of cor, have cordis; as, eoneors, agreeing. 

-- . 

* ProDouuced prc-Mn'-A^-a, &e. 



^ 113» 1. Adjectives of the third declension, of two or 
thcee terminations, except' comparatives in or, have sdways i in 
the ablative. 

2. Comparatives, and participles in ns used as participles, 
have rather e than i ; and such participles in the ablative abso- 
lute have always e. 

3. Adjectives of one termination have e or t in the ablative. 


The neuter of the nominative plural ends in ia, and the gen- 
itive plural in turn ; but comparatives in or, with vetusy old, and 
uber, futile, have a and urn. 

Exceptions in the Ablative Singular and Genitive Plural. 

^114. 1. The following adjectives have c in the ablative 
singular, and um in the genitive plural :-^ 

Bicorpor, two-bodied. IxnptibeB, beardless, Sospes, safe. 

Bipefl, two-footed, JuvSnis, young, Superstes, surviving. 

Ceelebfl, unmarried. Pauper, poor. Tncorpor, three-bodied, 

CSompos, master of, Princeps, chief, Tricuspis, three-forked. 

Discolor, particolored, Puber, or -e»,fidl-grotDn. Tripes, three footed. 

Iinpo^, nnabU. Senez, old. 

2. The following, which have e or t in the ablative singular, 
have um in the genitive plural : — 

Ales, toinged. Dives, rich, QuadrGplex, /(mrfoZd. 

Artifez, Wilful, DegSner, degenerate. Supplex, suppliant. 

Cicur, tame. Impar, une^^al. Triceps, three-head^. 

Compar, eqtud. Inops, poor, ^^S^t VfatckfuL 

Dispar, unequal, Praepes, sw\ft. 

To these may be added lodStpleSf rich ; sons, gnilty ; and insonSy inno- 
cent ; which have um or iitm in the genitive plursu. Voliicer, winged, 
though its ablative is in t, has um in the genitive plural. 

3. Memor^ mindful ; immimor, unmindful ; par, equal ; and uler, fertile, 
have t only m the ablative ', but all, except par, have um in the genitive 

Note. The accusative plural of adjectives of the third declension, 
as of nouns, sometimes ends ineis oxis, instead of e^ . See § 85. 

^ 115. Some adjectives are defective, others redundant. 


1 Many adjectives, denoting personal qualities or attributes^ 
want the neuter gender, unless when occasionally joined to a 
neuter substantive used figuratively. Such are the following :— 


<2 B£Dum>Airr ADjmattns. 

Bicorpor, Degfiner, Inops, Memor, Redux, SuppIeZ| 

Bipesy Diyes, insons. Pauper, Senex, Tricorpor, 

Cielebfl, Impoty Invitus, Fartlceps, Sons, Vigil. 

Consors, ImpCLlMBfl, Juyfinis, Princeps, Sospes, 

Compos, Inaustrius, LocQples, Puber, or -es, Superstes, 

Victrix and uUrix axe feminine in the singular, seldom neuter ; in the 
plural, they are feminine and neuter. Such verbals partaJke of the nature 
of substantives and adjectives. They correspond to masculines in tor. 
See § 102, 6. 

2. The folhvnng want the 'genitive plural, and are rarely 
used in the neuter gender : — 

ConcdUnTf deses, kebes, perpes, reseSf teres^ versiedlor, 

3. Some adjectives are wholly indeclinable. 

Buch are frugi, temperate ; nequam, worthless ; sat or satUf sufficient ; 
semis f half; the plurals aUquot, tot, quot, totidemf mtotquot ; axtd the cardi- 
nal numbers ftom quatiior. to eetUum inclusive, and also mille. 

4. The following adjectives are used only in certain cases : — 

Billcem, ace. ; doubly^tissued. — pi. plures, -a, nom., aee. ; -ium, 

CetSra, cetSrum, the rest, wants the ^en. ; ibus, dot., abl. § 110. 

nom. sing. masc. Potis, nom. sing, and pi., all gei^ 
Decemplicem, oee. ; tet^fold. ders ; able. 

Exspes, nom. ; hopeless. Vote,nom.sing.fforTpoteBi'fpossilde. 

Inquies, nom. ; -etem, ace. ; -6te, aJbl. ; Septempllcis, gen. ; -ce, aJbl. ; senenr 

restless. fold. 

Mactus, and macte, nom.; macte, Siremps, nom.; sirempse, abl.; o- 

acc.; increased; — macti, and Uke. 

majctBB, nom. pi. Tantundem, nom., ace.; tantldem, 
Necesse, ani2 necessum, nom., ace; sen.; so. much," 

necessary. Trilicem, aee.; trebb/'tissued ; tri- ^ 
Plus, nom.f ace, ; pluris, gen, ; more ; llces, ace. pi. 


§ 116. The following adjectives arc redundant in termi- 
nation and declension. Those marked r are more rarely used. 

Accllvis, artd -us, r, ascending, Opulens, and -lentus, rfcA. 

Auxiliaris, and -ius, auxiUary. Precox, -cdquis, and -c5quus, early 
BijClffis, and -us, two-yoked. ripe. 

Declivis, and -us, r, descending. Prociivis, and -us, r, inclined dovm 
Exanimis, and -us, r, lifeless, toards. 

HiUUis, and -us, cheerful, QuadrijCL^, and -us, fou/r-yoked, 

Xmbecillis, r, and -us, weak, {less. Semianlmis, and -us, half-alive. 

Imptibes, and -is, -ds or -iris, beard- Semiermis^ and -us, half-armed. 

Inermis,a7u2 -us, unarmed. Semisomms, ani2 -us, half-asleep. 

Infrenis, and -us, unbridled. Singularis, ajtd -ius, single. 

Inquies, and -etus, restless. Sulnlmis, and -us, r, high. 

Jocularis, and -ius, r, lau^uAte, Unanlmis, r, and -us, unanimcTts. 

Multiidges, r, and -i (plur.), many* Yiolens, r, and -lentus, vioUnl, 

To the above may be added some adjectives in sr and is ; as, saliioer and 
bris, cdibtr and -fris 




$117. Numeral adjectives are divided into three 
principal classes-^ CarcZtna/, Ordinal, and DUtrUmtive. 

I. Cardinal numbers are those which answer the question 
* How maoyl' They are, 












ini. or IV. 















vim. or IX. 















Xim. or XIV- 




Sedgcim^or sezd8ciiii| 











XVlllL or XIX. 




Viginti unos, or 1 
unus et viginti, 5 



Viffinti daO| or ) 
duo et yigiiiti, &c. 5 







XXXX. or XL. 















LXXXX. or XC. 



Centum tinus^ or > 
centum et unus, &c. 5 


Ducenti^ -as, -a, 

two hundred. 


three hundred. 



four hundred. 



Jive hundred. 

10, or D. 
IOC, or DC. 


six hundred. 


seven hundred. 

lOCC, or DCC. 


eight hundred. 





a thousand. 

CIO, or M 



^J^' "" } *"» «»<««"«»• CIOCIO, or MM. 

^^SlTuii^eT} >• ««-»«* 100. 

^^S^f} • *««^«' '*««««<'• CCCIOOO. 


^118* 1. The first three cardinal numbers are declined j 
those from foor to a hundred inclusive are indeclinable ; those 
denoting hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus. 

For the declension of tmtis and tres, see ^^ 107 and 10^ 

Dtio is. thus declined: — 


M. F. JV. 

JV. du'-o, du'-e, du'-o, 

G, da-d'-rum, du-a'-ram, da-<y-nim, 

i>. da-o'-biu, du-a'-bus, du-C'-bus, 

^c. dn'-os,orda'-0| du'-as^ du'-o, 

V. du'-Oy dvJmm. da'-o, 

Ab. dii-<y-bi]8. dn-a'-bud. da-d'-buB. 

Dutfrum. dufLrum, are often contracted into du&m, especiallj whe» 
Johied wita mdUum. 

. JhnbOf both, is deplined like duo. 

2. The cardinal numbers, except wins and miUe, are used in 
the plural only. 

The plural of unus ia used with nouns which have no singular, or 
whose singular has a different sense from the plural ; as, una castra, one 
camp ; ume (Bdesy one house. So also with nouns denoting several things 
considered as one whole ; as, una veetimmUa, one suit of clothes. 

3. Thirteen, sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen, are often expressed bj 

two numbers united by et; thus, decern et tres, decern et sex, decern et sep- 
tern, decern et octo; in which the larger number usuaU^ precedes. 

From twenty to a hundred, the smaller number with et is put first, or 
the larger generally without et; nA,unu8 et mgintiy oi tfiginti unus. Above 
one hundred, the larger precedes, with or without et; as, centum et unus^ 
or centum units ; trecenti sexaginta sex^ or trecenti et sexaginta sex, Et is 
never twice used. 

4. For eighteen, twenty-eight, &c., and for nineteen, twenty-nine, &c. 
(excepting sixty-eight and sixty-nine), a subtractive expression is more 
nequent than the additive form ; as, duodemgintiy two from twentv ; ten* 
deviginti, one from twenty ; duodetrigintaf undetrigintaf &c. Neither im 
{unus) nor duo can be declined in tiiese expressions. 

5. The poets sometimes make use of numeral adverbs in expressing 
■mall caxdinal numbers ', aSfbu sex^ for duodidm ; bis centum for dvcsnte 

jfumvLAJL ADJEcrmcs. 65 

Nnmbers above a hnndied thooBand are always ezpreflfled in this waj ; 
as, decies centum miUia; but the cardinal numbers after the adverbs are 
sometimes omitted ; as, deeies centena, i. e. nuUia ; dedes, i. e. caUit/n 

6. MilU is used either as a substantive or an adjective. 

When taken substantively, it is indeclinable in the singular number, 
and, in the plural, has miUia, mSUumf nUUibuSf &c. ; as, miSa AomXnum, a 
thousand men; duo milUa hominumy two thousand men, &c. When 
nuUe is declined in the plural, the things numbered are put in the geni- 
tive, as in the preceding examples, unless a declined numeral comes 
between ; as, kaiuU tria mUUa trecentos miUtes. 

As an adjective, fiii22e is plural onl^, and indeclinable ; as,iiiiZ2«Aom¥fiSf, 
a thousand men ; bis milU hominibuSf with two thousand men. 

7. Capitals were used by the Romans to mark numbers. The let- 
ters employed for this purpose were C. I. L. V. X., which are, there- 
fore, called J^umertd Letters. I. denotes one; V.five; X. ten; la. fifty; and 
C. a hundred. By the various combinations of these five letters, all the 
difierent numbers are expressed. 

The repetition of a numeral letter repeats its value. Thus, II. si^i* 
Ges ttoo ; 111. three; XX. twenty ; XXX. thirty; CC.tioo hundred, olc. 
But V. and L. are never repeated. 

-When a letter of a less value is placed before a letter of a greater, the 
less takes awav what it stands for from the ffreater ', but being placed 
after, it adds wnat it stands for to the greater ; thus, 

IV. Four. V. Five. VI. Six. 

IX. Nine. X. Ten. XI. Eleven. 

XL. Forty. L. Fifty. LX. Sixty. 

XC. Ninety. C. A hundred. CX. A hundred and ten. 

A thousand was marked thus, CID, which, in later times, was contracted 
into M. Five hundred is marked thus, ID, or, by contraction, D. 
' The annexing of to 13 makes its value ten times greater ; thus, lOO 
marks ^ve thousand; and 1000, j^y thousand. 

The prefixing of C, together with the annexing of O, to the number 
CIO, makes its value ten times greater ; thus, CClOD denotes ten thou- 
sand; and CCCIOOO, a hundred thousand. The Romans, according 
to PUny^ proceeded no further in this method ofno^tion. If they had 
occasion to express a larger number, they did it by repetition ', thus, 
CCCIDDO, CCCIOOD, signified tu>o hundred thousand, <&c. 

We sometimes find ^umsands expressed - by a straight line drawn over 

the top of the numeral letters. Thus, III. denotes three thousand ; S., 
ten thousand, 

^ .119. II. Ordinal numhera are such as denote order or 
rank. They all end in us, and are declined like bonus ; aS| 
primus, first ; secundus, second. 

III. Distributive numbers are those which indicate an equal 
division among several persons or things ; as, singuli, one by 
one, or each ; bint, two by two, or two to each, &c. They are 
declined like the plural of bonus, except that they usually have 
urn for orum m the genitive plural. 

The following table contains the ordinal and distributive 
numbers, and the corresponding numeral adverbs :- 













20. J 


30. [ 










Primus, first 

Secundus, seamd^^ dx. 











Tertius decimuB. 

Quartus decimus. 

Quintus decimus. 

Seztus decimus. 

Septimus decimus. 

Octavus decimus. 

Nodus decimus. 

Vicesimus, or > 

vigeslmus. ) 
Vicesimus primus. 
Vicesimus secundus. 
Triceslmus, or ) 

triffeslmus. ) 

Qnadringenteslmus. i 






1000. Milleslmus. 
2000. Bis milleslmus. 




Temi, or trini 










Temi deni. 

Quatemi deni. 

Quini deni. 

Seni deni. 

Septeni deni. 

Octoni deni. 

Noyeni deni. 


VicSni sin^Qli. 
Viceui bim. 










Treceni, or trecenteni. 

Quadringeni, or ) 

quadringenteni. y 

Sezceni, or sezcenteni. 
Milieni, or ) 

sin^la millia. 3 
Bis milleni, or ") 

bina millia. 5 

JVWmera2 Adiwrbt. 

Semel, once. 
Bis, twice. 
Ter, thrice, 
Quater ,^(mr<ime« 
Quinquies, &A, 
, Septies. 
Decies et septies. 


Semel et yicies. 
Bis et yicies, &e 

















Bis millies. 


^ 1 x,\3m 1. Instead of primus, prior is usfed, if two only are spoken 
of. AUer is oflen used iox secundus, 

2. From thirteen to nineteen, the smaller number is usually put first 
without et ; as, tertius dedimus — sometimes the larger, with or without et ; 
as, decimus et tertius, or decimus tertius. 

Twenty-first, thirty-first, &c., are often expressed by uhms 0t tieeAmms 


tmitf et tneaflmus. &c.; and twenty-second, &e., by duo, or oZter et vieeA' 
muSf &Ai.f in which duo is not changed. In the other compound numbers, 
the larger precedes without et, or the smaller with et ; as, vieeAmns quoT' 
tus, or quurtiis et viceHmus. 

For eighteenth, &c., to fifty-eighth|pnd for nineteenth, &c., to fifty- 
ninth, duodevicesimuSf &c., and undevieesimuSf &c., are often used. 

3. In the distributi'ves, eighteen, thirty-eisht^ forty-eight, and nineteen 
and twenty-nine, are often expressed by duoaeoicemf &c., and imdeviuni^ 

4. Distributiyes are sometimes used. by the poets for cardinal numbers; 
as, hina spio&laf^ two darts. So likewise m prose, with nouns that want the 
ainffular ; as. Hnarmtptuty two weddings. 

^ The sinffular of some distributives is used in the sense of a multiplica* 
tive ; as, ovnus, twofold. So termis, ^ftdnus, s^pterius. 

6. For twenty-eight times and thirty-nine 6mes, duodetrides and ttiu2»- 
quadragies are found. 

^121. Tp the preceding classes may be added the fol- 
lowing : — 

1. MidHpUeaHves, which denote how many fold. They all 
end mplex, and are declined likefelix ; as, 

Simplex, single. Quadrttplex, fourfold. 

Duplex, twcfold, or doMe. Quincilplex,JSv6fo2<i. 

Triplex, threefoUL Centiiplex, a hundredfold, 

2. Proportionals^ which denote how many times one thing is 
greater than another ; as, duplus, twice as great ; triphis, quad' 
rupbts, octuphis, decuplus. They are declined like bonus, 

3. Temporals, which denote time ; as, himus, two years old ; 
trimus, three years old ; quadrtmuSy ^c. Also, hiennisy of two 
years' continuance; quadriennis, quinquennis, &,c. So bimestris, 
of two months' continuance; trimestris, &c. 

4. Those which denote how many parts a thing contains; as, 
binarius, of two parts ; temarius, &c. 

5. Interrogatives ; as, g^nof , how many ? gtfoft£5, of what num- 
ber ? quoteni, how many each ? quoties, how many times? Their 
correlatives are, tot, iotidem, so many ; aHquot, some ; which, 
with qtu)t, are indeclinable ; toties, so often ; ajiquoties, several 


^ 122. Adjectives may be divided into two classes — ^those 

which denote a variable, and those which denote an invariable 

quality pr limitation. 

Thus, homis, good, altus, high, and opdeus, dark, denote variable attrU 
butes ; but aneus, brazen, tnplez, threefold, and diumut, daily, do noi* ^ 
admit of different degrees in weir signification. 


The relatiens of inferiority, equality, or superiority, which 
different objects bear to each other, in regard to variable quali- 
ties, are expressed in Latin in different ways. 

Inferiority may be denotedSby prefixing to an adjective the 
adverbs minus, less, and minimi ,^ least ; as, jucundus, pleasant ; 
minus jucundusy less pleasant; mintmk jucundus, least pleasant. 

A small degree of a quality is indicated by sub prefixed to 
an adjective; as, difficilis, difficult; svbdifficiUs, somewhat 

Equality may be denoted hj tarn followed hy qudm; aque 
followed by ac, &c. ; as, hebes ague ac pecus, as stupid as a 

^ 1 23. The relation of superiority, to which alone the 
name of Comparison is commonly applied, is denoted either by 
prefixing to an adjective certain adverbs qx prepositions, or by 
peculiar terminations. Various degrees of superiority are de- 
noted with different degrees of precision, by the prepositions 
per and pr<B prefixed to adjectives, and by different advierbs, and 
other qualifying clauses. The terminational comparison, and 
its equivalent form, expressed by the adverbs magis, more, and 
maxime, most, prefixed to the adjective, denote not a precise, 
but only a relative, degree of superiority. 

That form of an adjective which 'simply denotes a quality, 
without reference to other degrees of the same quality, is 
called the positive degree ; as, altusy high ; mitts, mild. 

The degrees of relative superiority are two— the cowr- 
parative and the superlative. 

The comparative denotes that the quality belongs to one 
of two objects, or sets of objects, in a greater degree than to 
the other ; as, altior, higher ; mitior, milder. 

The superlative denotes that the quality belongs to one 
object, or set of objects, in a greater degree than to any of 
the rest ; as, altissim'os, highest ; mitismnusy mildest. 


1. The comparative is also used to denote that, at different times, or in 
different circumstances^ a quality belongs to the same object in diflerent 
de^es ; as, est sapieniwr' qud,m, olim fuit, he is wiser than he was for- 

2. The comparative sometimes expresses the proportion between two 
qualities of the same object ; as, est docdor qudm sapiattior, he is more 
feamed than wise ; that is, his learning is greater than his wisdom 


Masc. FenoL Neat 
^ 124i The terminational ) . . . ^ 

comparative ends in J *^' *^' **** ' 

the terminational superlative in isstmus, isstma, issimum. 

These terminations are added to the root of the positive ; as, 

aUua, (dtioT, altiasimus; high, higher, highest. 
mitia, mitlor, miVissimus; mUd, mSder, mSdest. 

fiHx, g<en.felic\Sifelic\OT,felicissim\is ; happy, happier^ happiest. 

In like manner compare 

Arc'-tus, strait, Ca'-nis, dear. Cle'-menSy^en. -tis, mercihd, 

Ca'-paz, capacUms, Cru-de'-lis, crud, In'-ers, gen. -tis, sluggiJk, § 23. 


^ 126* 1. Adjectives in er form their superlative by adding ' 

Hmus to that termination ; as, ixcer^ active ; gen* ttcria ; compar* 

ative, ocrior ; superlative, a^errimus. 

In like manner oouper, fouperrimua, Vitus has a similar saperladvOi 
veUrtimuSy as if from veter, 

2. Seven adjectives in Us form their superlative by adding 
Umus to the root : — 

Facllis, facilior, facilltmna, 

Difficitis, difficilior, diffioilUmus, 

Gracilis, eracilior, gracilllmus, 

HumTliS) numilior, humillimos, 

Imbecillls, imbecillior, imbecilUmos, 

Simllis, similior^ similllmus, 

Dissimilis, dissimihor, dissimilUmns, 

3. Five adjectives in ftcus derive their comparatives and 
superlatives from obsolete adjectives in ens : — 

Beneflcns, beneficentior, beneiicentisslmus, hen/^ieent, 

HonorifTcus, honorificentior, honorificentissimus, koTwrable. 

Magniflcus, magnifidentior, magnificentissimus, splendid, 

Monificus, munificentior, munificentisslmus, Itberal. 

Maleflcos, maleficentissimus, hurtful. 

Adjectives in dieens and voZeiu form their comparatives and superlatives 
regularly ; but instead of those positives, forms in dicus and volus are 
more common ; as, 

Benevdiens, or benevOlus, benevolentior, benevolentisslmus, hene/wUnU, 

4. These five have regular comparatives, but irregular super* 
latives :— ^ 

Dexter, dexterior, dezttmus, right. 

fixtSra, (/em.> exterior, extlmus, or extremus, muXward, 


PostSra, (/am.) posterior, postremos^ or postiimus, kind. 
Inf^rus, inferior, inf Imus, or inras, Una, 

Supdrus, superior, supremus, or summus, high. 

The nominotiye linear of postXra does not occur in the masculine, 
and that of extira wants good authority. 

5. The following are very irregular in comparison : — 

Bonus, melior, optitmus, ^ ffoodf better^ heat, 

Malus, pojor, pesslmus, oad^ toorae, toorsL 

Magnus, major, maximus, great, ereater, greatuU 

Parvus, minor, minimus, Utde, Zbm, UaH.' 

Multus, plurimus, ^ 

Multa, plurima, > much, mare, mo8t 

Multum, plus,* plurimum, ) 

Nequam, nequior, nequissimus, wortJdest, 

Frugi, fn4;aIior, frugalisslmus, frugal. 

All these form their con^iaratiTes and superlatives firom obsolete adjeo- 
tives, except magnus, whose regular forms are contracted. 


^ 126* 1. Seven adjectiTes want the positive :— > 

Citerior, citlmus, neorsr. Prior, primus, ./brmer. 

Deterior, deterrimus, toorse* Propior, prozlmus, nearer* 

Interior, intlmus, inner. Ulterior, ultlmus, j^irtAer. 
Ocior, ocisslmus, sioifter, 

2. Eight want the termihational comparative": — 

Consnltus, consultisslmus, skiffid. Par, parissXmus, equal. 

Falsus, falsisslmusj^o^ffe. Persu&sus, persuasisslmum (nea> 

Inclj^tus, inoljtisslmus, renoumed. ter), permaded. 

Invictus, inyictlBsImus. iwoindble. Sacer,.sacerrXmus, sacred, 

Merltus, meritisdmus (rarely used), 

3. Eight have very rarely the terminational comparative : — 

ApTleus, apricisstmus, sunny, Ildus, fidis8¥mus,/at£)l/«{. 

Bellus, bellisslmus,^n«. Invitus, invittsslmus, unwUling. 

Comis, comissimus, courteous, Novus, novisslmus, new, 

Diversus, diyersisslmus, different, Vetus, veterrlmus, old, 

4. The following want the terminational superlative : — 

Adolescens, adolescentior, ) m/^Mma- ^^^^^y ingentior, great. 

JuvSnis, junior, y young, j^^qj^^ licentior, extravagant, 

Al&cer, alacrior, acHve. Longinquus, longinquior, distant. 

Ccecus, coecior, blind. Opimus, opimior, rich, 

Diutumus, diuturnior, lasting Frocllvis, proclivior, ) inclined 

Jejanus,jejunior, /luttn^. Fronus, pronior, ydownwards 

Infinitus, infinitior, unlimited. sequior, tcorse. 

"^ ^Seeim 


Propinqoiviy propinquior, neighbor- Senez, senior, oZcf. 

tng. « Silyester, or silyestrifl, silvestrior 

Salutaris, salutarior, salntary* woody. 

Satis, sufficient; satius, jrr^erahle. Sinister, sini^terior, left, 

Satnr, B9.i\moi ^fuU, Supinns, supinior, lyirtg on the hack. 

The superlative of moinis and adoleseens is supplied by minimus natu, 
youngest ; and that of senex by maaAnwe natHf oldest. The comparatiTet 
minor natu and major natti sometimes also occur. 

Most adjectiyes also in lUs^ dliSf and bUis, and many in dnue, ivis, and 
inquMSf have no terminationai superlatiye. 

5. Many adjectives have no tenniiiatioiial comparative or su- 
perlative. Such are, 

(a.) Adjectives in bundus, inais, inus, orus^ most in ivus^ and those in 
vs after a vowel (except quits). Tet assi^tuuSf egregius, exigvuSf viuSf 
ttrenuuSf and vacuus^ axe someUmes compared by chai^ of termination. 

^ (b.) The following — oZmuj, ealvus^ canus, cieur, dauduSy deginer, delirus 
dupoTf egenus, impar, invlduSf lacety memorf nUrus, pradUuSf preecoXf ru- 
diSf salvuSf sospeSf mdgaris^ and some others. 

^ 127. The comparative and superlative may also be 
formed bypre&xing to the positive the adverbs magis, more, and 
maxtmk, most ; as, idoneus, fit ; magis idoneus, maximi tdoneus, 

VcUde, imprimis, apprtmCy admddum, 6lc., and the prepositions 
pr<jB and per, and sometimes perquam, prefixed to an adjective, 
denote a high degree of the quality. 

The force of the comparative is increased by prefixing etiam, 
even, or yet ; and that of both comparative and superlative, by 
prefixing longh, or niultd, much, far ; as, longk nohUisstmus, 
huge melior ; iter muUd faciUus, multd maxima pars. 

Qudm before the superlative renders it more emphatic ; as, 
qudmdocHssimuSf.exirQTEi^y learned ; qudm celerrime, as speedily 
as possible. 

All adjectives whose signification admits of different degrees, 
if they have no terminationai comparison, may be compared by 
means of adverbs. 

Instead of the comparative and superlative degrees, the posi- 
tive, with the prepositions pra, ante^ propter, or supra, is some- 
times used; 9iB,pr<B nobis beatus (Cic.), happier than we; ante 
alias pulehritudine insignis (Liv.), most beautiful. Sometimes 
the preposition is used in connection with the superlative ; as, 
ante alios pulcherrtmus omnes (Virg.) 

Among adjectives which denote an invariable quality or 
limitation, and which, therefore, cannot be compared, are those 
denoting matter, time, number, possession, country, part, inter- 
rogation ; also compounds ofjtigum^ somnus, gero, and/ero, and 
many others. 



^ 128. Derivative adjectives are formed chiefly from 
nouns, from otl\er adjectives, and from verbs. 

I. Those derived from nouns and adjectives are calledf 
denominatives. The following are the principal cfasses : — 

1. The termination ens, added to the root, denotes the ma- 
terial of which a thing is made ; as, aureus, golden ; argenteus, 
of silver ; ligneus, wooden ; vitreus, of glass ; from aurum,. 
argentum, &c. 

The termination inus has sometimes the same meaning ; as, 
adamantinus, of adamant; cedrtnus, of cedar; from addmas 
and cedrus. 

The termination eus is found only in possessives of Greek 
origin ; as, AchiUeus, of Achilles ; Sophocleus, &c. 

2. The terminations alts, dris, His, attlis, ictus, tcus, ius, and 
inus, denote belonging or relating to; as, capitdlis, relating to 
the life ; from caput. 

So comitiaUs J regcUis ; ApoUmariSy constddTnSjpoptddris; cimlisy hostiUs, 
juotnilis; aquaHlisjJlumatilis; tribunidtiSfpatriciiis; beUXcus, civicuSf Ger- 
manicus ; accusatorittSf imperalorius, regius ; canlnus, tqulnus, fenntts ; 
from etmUtia, rex, ApoUOf consul, popiUus, civis, &c. 

The termination His sometimes expresses character; as, 
hostilis, hostile ; pueriUs, boyish ; from hostis and puer, 

3. The termination arius generally denotes profession or oc* 
cupation; as, argentarius, a sUversmith; from argentum;— 
coriarius, statuarius; from corium and statua. When added to 
numeral adjectives, it denotes how many parts a thing con- 
tains. See § 121, 4. 

Some of this class are properly BabstanUves. 

4. The terminations osus and lentus denote abundance, ful- 
ness; as, am'mosMs, frill of courage ;^raM(fM/6nfM5, given to fraud; 
from animus and fraus. So lapiddsus, vinosus, turbuhntuSf 
violentus. Before lentus, a connecting vowel is inserted, which 
is commonly u. 

Adjectives of this class are called ampliJicaHves. See § 104, 13. 

5. From adjectives *are formed diminutives in the same man- 
ner as from nouns ; as, dulciculus, sweetish ; duriusculus, some- 
what hard ; from dulcis and durus. So lentulus, miseUus, par* 
vulus, 6lc, See § 100, 3, and § 104, 12. 

6. From the names of places, and especially 6f towns, are 
derived adjectives in ensis, inus, as, and anus, denoting of or 
belonging to such places. 


TkOM ftom JitkewB is formed AthemmsUf'AiheidBn ; from GnuMB, CaH' 
mauis. In like manner, from eastra and circus oome eastrensiSf circensis, 

Thoee in imu aie formed from names of places ending in ia and ium; 
BBfArieta,Arici7nur; Caudium^ Caudinus; CapitoUumf Capitollnus; LaUungf 
Lutumta, Some names of towns, of Greek origin, with other terminations, 
also form adjectives in inus ; as, Tarentum^ "Rrentinus, - 

Most of those in as axe formed from nowis in um ; some from noons in 
a ; as, Ary^mim^ Jirpinas ; Capena, CapEhfls. 

Those m Smis are formed from names of towns of liie first declension, 
or from certain common nouns; as, AUbay Alhdmus ; Roma^ RojndfiMS ; 
CumtBf Cumanus; TheiMB^ Ihebanus ;^onSf fontdwus ; mons, montAnus ; 
urbSf urbdntis. 

Adjectives with the termination anus are also formed from 
names of men ; as, SuUa, Sulldnus; Tullius, Tullidnus, 

Names of towns in poKs form adjectives in politdnus ; as, 
Neapdlis, Neapolitdnus. 

Greek names of towns generally form adjectives in. ius; as, 
Rhodus, RhoditiS ; LacedcemoHy LacedtBmonius ; — but those in 
a form them in (Bus ; as, Larissa, Larissaus ; Smyrna^ Smyr^ 

7. A large class of derivative adjectives, though formed from 
nouns, have the terminations of perfect participles. They 
generally signify wearing or furnished with ; as, 

dlStUSy winged ; barbdtusj bearded ; gale&tusy helmeted ; aurUuSy long- 
eared ; tiurrthis, turreted ; cam'Otus, norned ; from aZa, barbay gaUa, 
auris, &c. 

^ 129. ' II. Adjectives derived from verbs are called, verbal 
adjectives. Such are the following classes : — 

1. The termination bundus, added to the first root of the 
verb, with a connecting vowel, which is commonly that of the 
verb, has the general meaning of the present participle ; as, 

errabunduSy moribunditSy from errOy morior, and equivalent to erransy 
moriejis. In many the meaning is somewhat strengthened ; as, gratula- 
bunduSy full of congratulations ; laxrimabundiLSy weeping profusely. 

Most verbals in oundus are from verbs of tlie first conjugation, a/ew 
from those of the third, and but one from the second and fourth re- 
_specti vely. 

Some verbal adjectives in cundus have a similar sense ; as, rubicundusj 
vereeundttSy from ndteo and vereor. 

2. The termination tdus, added to the root, especially of 
neuter verbs, denotes the ^quality or state expressed by the 
verb ; as, 

algiduSy cold ; eaiidtiSj warm y madidusy moist ; rapidus, rapid ; from 
oLgeOy caleOy madeOy rapio. 

3. The termination biHsy added to the root of a verb, with 
its connecting vowel, denotes passively, capability, or desert ; as, 

amabiuSy worthy to be loved ; credxhilisy deserving credit ; placabilisy easy 
to be appeased } from amOy credo y placo. 



In adjectives of this form, derived from verbs of the third eoiijug;atidls 
the connecting vowel is i ; sometinies also in those from verbs of the second 
conjugation, i is used instead of e ; as, horribiliSf terribiUSf from harreo 

This termination is sometimes added to the third root, with a change of 
u into i; aafflexibilis, coctiiUliSf sensiSUiSf from fiecto ^exu), &c. 

4. The termination tlis, added either to the first root of a 
verb, or to the third root, after u is removed, has usually a pas- 
sive, but sometimes an active sense ; as, 

agilisj active ; fiextlis, easy to be bent ; ducHUSf ductile ; suSiUs, sewed ; 
eocVilis, baked ; fertilisj fertile ; from o^o, &c. 

5. The termination ictus or itius, added to the third root of 
the verb, ailer u is removed, has a passive sense, as Jictitius, 
feigned ; conductitius, to be hired ; suppasititius, substituted, 
from Jingo (Jlctu), &.c. 

6. The termination ax, added to the root of a verb, denotes an 
inclination, often one that is faulty ; as, audax, audacious ; fo- 
quax, talkative ; rapax, rapacious ; from audeo, loquor, rapio, 

^ 130. III. Adjectives derived from participles, and re- 
taining their forjn, are called participials ; as, amans, fond 
of; d-octus, learned. 

IV. Some adjectives are derived from adverbs, and are called 
advetbials ; as, crasttnuSy of to-morrow ; hodiemus, of this day ; 
from eras and hodie. 

V. Some adjectives are derived from prepositions-, and may 
be called prepositionals ; as, contrarius, contrary, from contra ; 
posterus, subsequent, firom post, 


^131. Compound adjectives are formed variously : — 
1. Of two nouns; as, caprtpes, goat-footed— of caper and 

pes ; ignicomus, having fiery hair— of ignis and coma, 

% Of a noun and an adjective ; as, noctivctgus, wandering in 

the night — of nox and vagus. 

3. Of a noun and a verb ; as, comlger, bearing horns— of 
comu and gero ; lettfsr, bringing death— of letum and fero. 
So camivdrus, causidtcuSy ignivomus, lucifugus, pariiceps, 

4. Of an adjective and a noun ; as, {squtsvuSy of the same 
age— -of €Bquus and (svum ; cehrtpes, swift-footed— of cekr and 
pes. So centim&nus, decennis, magnammus, miserU^ors, unan^ 

5. Of two adjectives ; as, centumgeminus, having a hun 
dred arms ; muUicdvus, having many cavities. 


8. Of an adjective and a verb ; as, hreoilSquens, speaking 
briefly-— of brevis and loquar; magniftcus, magnificent — of mag^ 
tvtts and facto. 

7 Of an adjective and a termination; as, qualiscunqve, 
quotcttnque, uterque. 

Remark. When the former part of the compound is a noun 
or adjective, it usually ends in t. If the second word begins 
with a vowel, an elision takes place ; as, magnantm^ s — of me^- 
n*is and animus, 

8. Of an adverb and a noun ; as, bicorpar, two-bodied— of bis 
and corpus, 

9. Of an adverb and an adjective ; as, malefidus, unfaith- 
fill ; malesdnus, insane. 

10. Of an adverb and a verb ; as, beneftcus, beneficent— of 
bene and facto; malevdluSy malevolent-— of male and volo. 

11. Of a preposition and a noun ; as, omens, mad— of a and 
mens. So consors, decolor, deformis, implumis, inermis, 

12. Of a preposition and an adjective ; as, concavus, con- 
cave ; infidus, unfaithfiil. So improrHdus, percdrtis, pradives, 

13. Of a preposition and a verb ; as, continuus^ continual— of 
con and teneo; inscius, ignorant— of in and sdo. So pracipuuSf 
promiscuus, superstes. 

Remark. When the former pari is a preposition, its final coasonant is 
y>metimes changed, to adapt it to that which follovrs it > as, ympr ii d au 
of in and prudens. 


^ 132. A pronoun is a word which supplies the place 
cf a noun. 

There are eighteen simple pronouns : — 

Ego, I. Hie, this or he, Saus, his, hart, its, &e. 

Tu, thou. Is, that or he, Cujus ? whose i 

Sui, of himself, &c. Quia ? who ? Noster, out, 

file, that or he. Qui, who. Vester, your. 

Ipse, himself. Mens, my. Nostras, of out eoumtry 

Iste, that or he, '^uus, thy, Cnjas ? of what cowttry t 

Three of these — ego, tu, and sui — are substantives ; the re- 
maining fifteen, and all the compound pronouns, are adjectives. 

Effo and tu aro a species of appellatives of general application. Ego is 
Qsedby a speaker, to designate himself; ltt,to designate the person whom 
be ad^sses. Ego is of we first person, tu of the second. 


Sat ifl alBo a gehorel appellatiTe, of the tl^rd penon, and has alwartf a 
feflezWe sigmfication. The oblique cases of ego and tu are also used le- 
flexively, when the subject of the proposition b of the first or second 

The remainuig pronouns are adjectives, as they serve to limit the mean- 
ing of substantives ; and they are pronouns, because, like substantive 
pronoims, they may designate any object in certain situations or circum- 

MeuSf tuMSf suuSf noateTf vester, and nostras, have th^ same extent of sig^ 
niiication as the substantive pronouns from which they are derived, and are 
equivalent to the genitive cases of those pronouns. 

Pronouns, like substantives and adjectives, are declined ; but 
they all want the vocative, except tu, mens, noster, and nostras, 
Sui also, from the nature of its signi^cation, wants the nomina- 
tive in both numbers. 

The substantive pronouns take the gender of the objects which 
they denote. The adjective pronouns, like adjectives, have 
tkree genders. 


^ 133« The substantive pronoans are thus declined >— 

N. e'-go, J. tu, thou. 

G. mC-i, of nu. tu'-i,./ tl^. { ""il^.J^f*^^' "^ 

D. mi'-hi, to me, tib'-i,* to thee, eiy-i* to himself ,&,&. 

Ac. me, me, te, tliee, se, himself, d&c. 

V, ___ tu, O thou, 

Ah. me, with me, te, with thee. se, ujith himself &c 


N. nos, we. vos, ye or you. ■ 

gcnos'-trum | , ves'-tr&mw-)^^ su'-i. o/ «Aem«e/m 

< or nos'-tri, J "^ ves'-ln, S 

D. no'-bis, to us. vo'-bis, to you, sib'-i, to themselves, 

Ac. nos, us. vos, you, se, themselves. 

V, — — — vos, O ye or you, ■ 

Ab, n<y-bis, with us, vo'-bis, unth you, se, with themselves. 


1. Mihi is very rarely contracted into mi. So min* for mihine, Pers. 

2. The syllable met is sometimes annexed to the substantive pronouns, 
in an intensive sense, either with or without ipse ; as, eg&met, I myself ; 

• See $ 18, S. 



ndhinui ipsi, for mjaelf. It is not annexed, howeyer, to the genitiyes plural^ 
nor to te in the nominal' ^e or vocative. In these cases of tUj tute ox 
tutimet is used. In the aco^sative and ablative, tete in the singular, and 
sese in both numbers, are employed intensively. MepUf medf and ted, for 
me and te, and tis for twif occur m the comic writers. 

3. MfStHini and vestrUm are contracted from nostr&ntmf nosirdrumf and 
vestrOrum, vegtrdrum, 

4. The preposition cum is affize\2 to the ablatives of these pronouns in 
both numbers ; as, meeum, nebiscuiUf &c. 


^ 134. Adjective pronouns may be divided into the 
following classes : — demonstrative, intensivef relative^ inter^ 
rogatvoe, indefinite, possessive, and jpatriaL '^ 

Note. Some pronouns belong to two of these classes. ^^ 


Demonstrative pronouns are such jaia specify what object 
is meant. 

They are ilk, isle, hie, and is, and their compounds, cjid are 
thus declined : — 


M. F. M 

N. il'-le, il'-la, ilMud, 

O. il-ll'-us,* il-li'-us, il-lV-us, 

D. il'-li, il'-li, il'-li, 

Ac, ilMum, iF-lam, il'-lud, 


Ab. UMo. il'-IA. il'-lo. 


M. F. AT. 

il'-li, il'-lae, il'-la, 

il-lo'-rum, il-la'-rum, il-lo'-rum, 

il'-lis, il'-Jis, iVAis, 

ilMos, il'-las, il'-la, 

O'-lis. U'-lis. 


Iste is declined like ille. 


M F. JV. 

N, hie, hsc, hoc, 

O, hu'-jus, hu'-jus, hu'-jus, 

D, huic,t huic, huic, 

Ac, hunc, hanc, hoc, 


Ab, hoc. 

hac. . hoc. 
















has, ' 




his. • 

• See « 16. 


t ProDouneed hike. See $ 9. 



M, F. jsr. 

N. w, e'-a, id, 

O, e'-jus, e'-jus, e'-jas, 

D. e'-i, e'-i, e'-i, 

Ac. e'-um, e'-am, id, 


Ah e'-o. e'-& e'-o. 



i'-is or e'-is, i'-is or e^-is, i^^-is or e'-is 
e'-os, e'-as, e'-a, 


i'-is or e'-is. i'-is or e'-is. i'-ia ore'-is. 


1. Instead of UUj oUus waa anciently nsed; whence olU in Virffil. lUtB, 
fern., for ^tttf and UU, u found in Lncretiufl and Cato, as also £w for km 
in Plautus and Terence. Eii for at, im for euin, and i6itf and tl^ fer ti» 
occur in Plautus ; and ea, fern., for m, and ed^u^ for Us, in Cato. 

2. H^n ecc«, lo ! and the accusative of iUe, iste, and is, are formed ecdZ- 
Iicm, ecdtUim, eedUud, eceum, eccam, Slc., in both numbers. Eecillum is 
sometimes contracted into eZZum. £cca, nom. fem., also occurs. 

3. Istic and UUc are compounded of iste hic^ and tU« hie. The former 
sometimes retains the aspirate, as istkie, Thej are more emphatic than ilU 
and isit. 

Istic is thus declined :• 


Jf. ist'-ic, 
Jie. ist'-unc, 
M, ist'-oc. 


F. Jf. 

ist'-iec, ist'-oc, or ist'-uc, 

ist'-anc, ist^-oc, or ist'-uc. 

bt'-ac. ist^-oc. 




F. JV. 


lUic is declined in the same manner. 

4. Ce, intensiye, is sometimes added to the several cases of hie, and 
rarely to some cases of the other demonstrative pronouns ', as, hujuscef 
hosce, hasce, hisee ; illdce, istOce, ejusce, isUseee, iisct. When ne, interroga- 
tive, is also annexed, ee becomes a ; as, Aiscclns, hosdiiu, hisiAne; istucAne^ 
istaccine, islosclne ; Uliet^tne, iUancdlne. 

5. To the genitives singular of tJie demonstrative and relative pronouns, 
fttodi^ the genitive of modus, is oflen annexed, either with or without^ an 
intervening particle ; as, hujusmddi, or kujw^Bemddi, of this sort ; a^jus- 
mddi, &c. 

6. Dem is annexed to t5, forming idem, the same, which ii 
thus declined : — 


e-jufl -dem, 





Ah. Q^'dem. 










M, F. Jf. 

Jf, i-I'-dem, e-ie'-dem, e^-t-dem, 

G. e-o-nm'-dem, .e-a-run'-dem, e-o-run'-denii 

jy C e-is'-dem, or > C e-is'-dem, or ) C e-is'-dem, or 

I i-iB^-dem, ) \ i-is'-dem, ) (, i-is'-dem, 

jSe. e-ofl'-dem, e-as'-dem, e'-ft-dem, 

OL ( e-is'-dem, or'i C e-U'-dem, or ) C e-is'-dem, or 
*• I i-is'-dem. ) i. i-i^-dem. > \ i-is'-dem. 

NoTx. In compound pronouns, m before d ib ohan^d into n; aff, moh 


^ 135» Intensive pronoons are such as serve to render 

an object emphatic. 

To this class belong ipse, and the intensive compoonds 
already mentioned. ^^ 133, 2, and 134, 4. 
Ipse is thus declined : — 

Singular. Plural, 

M. R M M. F. JSr. 

N. ip-se,' ip'-sa, ip'-sum, 
O. ip-sl'-us, ip-sl'-us, ij)-si'-us, 
JD. ip'-si, ip'-si, ip'-si, 
Ac, ip'-sum, ip -sara, ip'-sum, 

V. =— 

Ab, ip'-so. ip'-sa. ip'-so. 

ip'-si, ip'-8», ip'-sa, 
ip-so'-rum, ip-sa'-rum,ip-s6'-runiy 
ip'-sis, ip'-sis, ip'-sis, 
ip'-sos, ip'-sas, ip'-sa, 

ip'-sis. ^'-sis. ip'-sis. 


1. Ipse is commonly subjoined to nouns or pronouns ; as, Jupiter ip9o^ 
ftt ipse, Jupiter himself, &c. 

- 2. A nominative tp^u^/and a superlative ipsisslmus, his very self, are 
found in comic writers. 

3. The compounds eapse, eampsCf and reapse^ are contracted for ed ^sd 
oom ipsanij and re ipsd. 


^ 136« Relative pronouns are such as relate to a pre^ 
ceding noun. 

They are gm, who, and* the compounds quicunque and ^tctV- 
quis, whoever. 

In a general sense, the demonstrative pronouns are oflen relatives ; but 
the name is oommonlj appropriated to Uiose above specified. They serve 


to introduce a proposition, limitinff or explaining a preceding noiuii to whieh 
they relate, and wliich ia called Oie anieeedent. 

Qui is thus declined : — . 

Singular, Plural 

M F. JV. M F. M 

qui, qu8B, qus, 

quo'-rum, qua'-ruiBy qao'-niniy 

qui'-bus^ qui'-bus^ qui'-bos, 

quos, quas, quoe. 

N. qui, quie, quod, 

O, cu-jus, cu'-jus, cu'-jus, 

2>. cui,* cui, cui, 

Ac. quem, quam, quod, 


Ab, quo. qui. quo. 

qui'-bus. qui'-bus. qui'-bus. 


1. Qui is Bometimes used for the ablative singular, in all genders, and 
rarely for the ablative plural. To the ablatives quo, gudy tLacTquif cum in 
sometimes annexed ; but it is usually placed before the ablative plural. 

2. Qiieis and guts are sometimes used in the dative and ablative plval 
for quibu3, Cujus and cui were anciently written qticjus and quai. 

Quicunquef or quicumque, is declined like qui. 

Qttt is sometimes separated from eunque, by the interposition />f one or 
more words. 

Quisquis is thus declined : — 

Singvlar. PluraL 

M. F. A*. JIf. 

A*, quis'-quis, quis'-quis, quid'-quid, 
Ac. quem'-quem, -^— — quid'-quid, 
Ab. quo'-quo. qua'-qu&. quo'-quo. 

JV. qui'-qui, 

D. qui-bus'-qoY-bus. 

Note. Q^uicqtdd is sometimes used for quidquid. Q<idqui for quisquia 
occurs in Plautus. 


^ 137* Interrogative pronouns are such as serve to 
inquire which of a number of objects is intended. 

They are 

Quisnam ? I ^*^ ^ '"^^ ^ Ecquis ? J Cnjus ? whose f 

Q I p ' < Ecquisnam ? > m any out 7 Cujas ? of toAol 

Quinam ? \ ^**^ ^ "'*^ ^ Numquis ? J , couiUry ? 

1. Quis is commonly used substantively ; ^t^ adjectively. 

Qui is declined like qtii the relative. 

I— — — - ■ ■■ — —^ 

* Pronounced 4i. See $9. 

nmsHAooAnrx PBosroirKs. 


Quis is thus declined :--*- 

N, quis, qnsB, quid, 

O. cu'-jus, cu'-jus, cu'-jus, 

2)« cui, cui, cui, 

Ac, quem, quam, quid, 


Ab, quo. qua. 


Jtf. F. Jf. 

qui} quae, qa©, 

quo'-rum, qua^rum, qao'-^Hiiiy 

qui^bus, qui'-bus, qui'-btts, 

quos, quas, qu©, 

qui'-bus. qui'-bus. qui'-bus. 

ReTnarJcs on ^uxs and qui. 

(a.) Qniff ifl sometimes used by eomic writers in the feminine, and even 
in the neuter. So also quisnam,quisque and quisqtiam occur aa feminine. 

(b.) Qid is used for the ablative of ^[uis and qui, in ail gemdersy as it is for 
that of the relative qui, 

(c.) Q^is and qui have sometimes the si^ification of indefinite pronouns 
(some one, any one), especially ai%er ee, sij ne^ nisi, ntem, quo, quanta, and 
quum. They are also occasionally used in the sense of qualis ? what sort ? 

2. The compounds quisnam ^Oid quinam have the signification 
and declension of qtns and qui respectively. 

3. Ecquis and manquis^ et mHnquis^ an declined and used 
like quis. 

But eequa is sometimes found in the nominatlva isiiigtular feminine ; and 
the neuter plural of nunquis is nunqua. 

Ecmd and mmqtd also oaawt^ feelisidd l&e fte intetamgative ^, And, 
like tliat, used adjectively. • 

4. Ecquisnam is declined like ecquis ; but it is found only in 
the singular ; — in the nominative in all genders, and in the abla* 
tive masculine. 

5. Ci^us is also defective:—* 

Jf, cu'-jus, 
Ac, ou^-jum, 





JV*. CU-jflB, 

Ac, cu'-jas. 

6. Cujas is declined like an adjective of* (Hiid termination ; 
euja^, ctgatis. It is found in the genititt^ and accusative sin* 
gular, and the nominative plural. 

Note. The interrogative pronouns ate dom&tinies uttett, in dependent 
clauses, when there is no question. They are then called inde/hutes ; as, 
nado quis sit, I know not who he is. Qui, in this sense, is found for 
fttis; as, qui sit apirit, he discloses who he is 




^ 138. Indefinite pronouns are such as denote an ob 
ject, in a general manner, without indicating a particular 
individual. They are 

Alltqiiis, soTiie one, Quisqaanii any one, 

Siquis, }f any. Quispiam, some one, 

Ne^uis, lest any. Unusquisque, each. 
Qmsque, every one, 

1. Allquis is thus declined : — 

Quidam, a certain one 
Quilibet, > any one you 
Quivis, 5 please. 





M, ^al'-I-quo. 















al'-I-quod, or quid, 
al'-i-quod, or quid, 




a-liq'-til-bufl. a-liq'-ul-bus. a-liq'-ul-biu. 

2. /^q[uis and nequis are declined in the same manner. 

But they sometimes have jtue in the nominative sinfirular feminine. 

AU^j simdf and nequi, toe found for aliquis, &o,^ and^the ablatives aUfid 
and stqui also o<icur. 

Alimtid, siquidf and nemdd, like quidf are used substantively ; dUquod^ 
&c., uke quodf are used adjectively. 

3. Quisque^ quisquam, and quispiam, are declined like quis. 

But in the neuter singular, quisque has quodque, mddque, or quicque; 
quisquam has qiddqtiam or qidcquam ; and quispiam has quodpiam, quidr 
piam, or quipptam, 

Quispiam wants the plural, and quispiam is scarcely used in that num- 
ber, except in the nominative feminine, quapiam, 

4. Unifs^isque is compounded of unus and quisque, and hoth 

words are declined. 

Thus unusquisquCf tmiuseuj%uquej unicuique, unumquemque, &c. The 
neuter is unumquod^fue, or unum^uidque. It has no plural. 

5. Quidam, quiUhetf and quivis, are declined like qui, except 

that they have quod, or quid, in the neuter. 

Quidam has usually n before d in the accusative singular and genitive 
plural ; as, quendam, quorundam, &c. 

* Pronounced a-dHf-we-bus, See $$ 9, and 19« 4. 

V£BfiS. 88 


^ 1 39. The possessive are derived from the substantive 
pronouns, and from quis, and designate something belong- 
mg to their primitives. 

They are mens, tuus, suus, noster, vester^ and cujus. Mens, 
iuus, and suus, are declined like bonus, (^ 105.) Mens has in 
the vocative singular 'masculine mi, and very rarely meus. 

Cujus b also declined like bonus ; hut it is defective. See 
§ 137, 5. 

Noster and vester are declined Vikepiger. See ^^06. 


1. The termination j^te intensive is sometimes annexed to the ablative 
singular of the possessive pronouns ; as, suopte pend£re, by its own weight ; 
auapU manu, by his own hand. 

2. SuuSf like its primitive sui, has always a reflexive signification. These 
pronouns are hence called refiexiite, MeuSj tuu8, noster , and vester, are also 
used reflexively, when the subject of the proposition is of the first or 
second person. See § 132. 


These are nostras and cufas. See ^ 137, 6. They are de- 
clined like adjectives of one termination ; as, nostras, nostrdtis. 



^ 140. A verb is a word by which something is af* 
firmed of a person or thing. 

That of which any thing is affirmed is called the subject 
of the verb. 

A verb either expresses an action or state ; as, puer legit, the 
boy reads ; virtus lauddtur, virtue is praised ; equus currit, the 
horse runs ; aqua calet, the water is warm ;— or it connects an 
attribute with a subject ; as, terra est rotunda, the earth is round. 

All verbs belong to the former of these classes, except 5um, 1 am, the 
most common use of which is, to connect an attribute with a subject. 
When so used, it is called a copida, 

^ 141. Verbs are either active or neuter. 

I. An active verb expresses such an action as requires 
the addition of an object to complete the sense ; as, amo te, 
I love thee ; sequliur consulem, he follows the consul. 

Most active verbs may express action in two ways, and, for 

84 TXBBS. 

this purpose, have two forms^ which are called the active and 
passive voices, 

1. A verb in the active voice represents the agent as acting 
upon some person or thing, called the ol^eci ; as, puar Ugi^ 
liifrum, the boy is reading a book. 

2. A verb in the passive voice represents the object as being 
acted upon by the agent ; as, liber kgttur a puiro, a book u 
read by the boy. 

Rkmark. By comparing the two preceding examples, it will be seen 
that they have the same meaning. The passive voice may thus be sub. 
stituted at pleasure for the active, bv making the object of the active the 
subject of the passive, and ]placin^ the subject of the active in the ablative 
case, with or without the preposition a or ab, according as it is a voluntary 
or involuntarv agent. The active form is used to direct the attention 
especially to the agent as acting ', the passive, chiefly to exhibit the object 
as acted upon. In the one case the object, in the other the agent, is fre- 
quently omitted, and left indefinite ; as, puer legit, the boy is reading, u e. 
Uhrvm, litirasy &g., a book, a letter, &c. ; virtus Uatdatur^ virtue is praised, 
i. e. ab kominihuSf by men. 

The two voices are distinguished from each other by peculiar 

<§> 142. II. A neuter verb expresses such an action or 
state, as does not require the addition of an object to com- 
plete the sense ; as, eqims cumV,* the horse runs ; ego sedeo, 
I sit. 

Many verbs, in Latin, are considered as neuter, which are usually 
translated by an active verb in English. Thus indulgeo, I indulge, noeeo, 
I hurt, pareOf I obey, are reckoned among neuter verbs. In strictness, 
such ven>s denote rather a state than an action, and their sense would be more 
exactly expressed by the verb to be with an adjective ; as, '< I am indul- 
gent, 1 am hurtful," &c. Some verbs in Latin, which do not usually take 
an object after them, are yet active, since the object is omitted by an ellip- 
sis. Thus credo properly signifies to intrustj and, in this sense, admits an 
object; as, credo tiln smiUem meamy I intrust my safety to you; but it 
usually means to hdieve ; as, crede miAi, -believe me. 

Remark 1. Neuter verbs have, in general, only the form of 
the active voice. They are, however, sometimes used imper- 
sonally in the passive voice. 

2. The neuter verbs aiuieo, I dare, /i<29, 1 trust, gaudeo, I rejoice, and 
soleOf I am wont, have the passive form in the perfect and its cognate 
tenses ; as, ausus sum^ I dared. These verbs are called neuter passives. 

3. The neuter verbs vap^, I am beaten, and veneo, I am sold, have an 
active form, but a passive meaning, and are called neutral passives. 

4. Some verbs, both active and neuter, have only the form 
of the passive voice. These are called deponent verbs, from de^ 
ponOy to lay aside, as having laid aside their active form, and 
their passive signification ; as, sequor, I follow ; morior, I die. 

NoTB. Verbs are sometimes said to be transiHv9 and tntransitiDe, itllie^.' 


than aetire and neuter. The fonner teims are more aignifioant, but the 
latter are more commonly used, and hare the same meaning. 

To verbs, besides voices, belong moods j tenses^ numbers^ 
Biid persons 


^ 143m Moods are forms of the verb, denoting tJie 
manner of the action or state expressed by the verb. There 
are in Latin four moods — ^the indicative, the sybjunctivey the 
imperative, and-the infinitive, 

1. The indicative mood is that form of the verb which 
is used in independent and absolute assertions ; as, amo, I 
love ; amaboy I shall love. 

2. The siJytmctive mood is that form of the verb which 
is used to express an action or state simply as conceived 
by the mind; as, n me obsecret, redibo; if he entreat me, 
I will return. 

3. The imperative mood is that form of the verb which 
is used in commanding, exhorting, or entreating; as, ama^ 
love thou. 

4. The infinitive mood is that form of the verb which 
is used to denote an action or state indefinitely, without 
Unriting it to any person or thing as its subject ; as, amdre, 
to love. 


^ 144, Tenses are forms of the verb, denoting the 
times of the action or state expressed by the verb. 

1. Time admits of a threefold division, into present, past, and 
future ; and, in each of these times, an action may be repre- 
sented either as going on, or as completed. From these two 
divisions arise the six tenses of a Latin verb, each of which is 
distinguished by its peculiar terminations. 

2. They are called the present , imperfect , JuturCf perfect, 
pluperfect, w[id future perfect tenses. 

Present C action 1 amo, I love, or am loving; Present tense. 
Past < not com- > anuLoamj I was loving ; Impcfect tense. 
Future ^ pleted; } amdboy I shall love, or be loving ; Future tense. 

Present C action ^ amdvi^ 1 have loved ; Perfect tense. 
Past < com- > amaviram, I had loved ; Pluperfect tense. 
Future ( pleted ; ) amoHro, I shall have loved \ fiuiure perfed tmu§ 


86 VfiBBS. — TENSES. 

3. There is the same number of tenses in the passive voice 
in which actions not completed are represented by simple forms 
of the verb, and those which are completed by compound forms. 

Present C action ^ amor, I am loved ; Present tense. 
Past < not com- > arndboTf I was loved ; Imperfect tense. 
Future ^ pleted; )ama6or, I shall be loved; Future tense. 

Present C action ^ amdtus sum, or fid, I have been loved ; Perfect tense* 
Past < com- > amdtus eram, qtfuira-m, I had been loved ; Pluperfect. 
Future ^ pleted ; ) amatus ero, or fuiro, I shall have been loved ; Future 


^ 145. I. The present tense represents an action as 
now going on, and not completed ; as, amoy I love, or am 

I. Any existing custom, or general truth, may be expressed 
by this tense ; as, apudParthos, signum datur tympdno ; among 
the Parthians, the signal is given by a drum. 

2. The present tense fnay also denote an action which has existed for 
some time, and which still exists ; as, tot duTios bella gero ; for so many 
years I have waged, and am still waging war. 

3. The present tense is sometimes used td describe past actions, in order 
to give animation to discourse ; as, desiliunt ez equis, provdlant in primum ; 
they dismount, they fly forward to the front. 

II. The imperfect tense represents an action as going on 
at some past time, but not then completed ; as, amdbam^ I 
was loving. 

1. The imperfect sometimes denotes repeated or customary 
past action ; as, legeham, I was wont to read. 

2. It may also denote an action which had existed for some time, and 
which was still existing at a certain past time ; as, audiibat jamdudum 
verba ; he had long heard, and was still hearing the words. 

3. This tense is sometimes used for the present, in letters, yuiih refer- 
ence to the time of their being read ; as, expectdbam, I was expecting, 
(when I wrote). 

4. The imperfect also sometimes denotes intention or preparation to act 
at some past time ; as, oUm dim dabam, formerly when i was ready to 

III. The Juture tense denotes that an action will be going 
on hereafter, without reference to its completion ; as, amabo, 
I shall love or be loving. 

IV. The perfect tense represents an action either as just 
completed, or as completed in some indefinite past time ; 
as, amaviy I have loved, or I loved. 

In the former sense, it is called the perfect definite ; in the lat- 
ter, which is more common, it is called the perfect indefinite. 

] ^ YERBS. ^numbers; PERSONS. 87 

f» *Fhe pluperfect ten^e represents a past action as com- 
pleted, at or before the time of some other past action or 
event; as, litteras scripseram, antequam nundus venit ; 1 
had written the letter, before the messenger arrived. 

VI. The future perfect tense denotes that an action will 
be completed, at or before the time of some other future 
action or event ; as, cum ccenavero, profkiscar ; when I shall 
have supped, I will go. 

This tense is oflen^but improperly, called ihe future sutjuncHve. If hai 
the significatioii of the indicative mood, and corresponds to the second fiif 
tureia English. 

Note. The present, imperfect, and future tenses passive, in English, 
do not express the exact sense of those tenses in Latin, as denoting an ac- 
tion which is, was, or will be, going on at a certain time. Thus laudor 
signifies, not ^' I am praised,*' but" I am in the act of being praised,'' or, 
if such an expression is admissible, '^ I am being praised." 

Remark 1. The six tenses above enumerated are found only 
in the indicative mood. 

2. The subjunctive mood has the present and past, but no 

future tenses. 

The tenses of the subjiuictive mood have less definiteness of meaning, 
in regard to time, than tnose of the indicative. Thus the- present and per- 
fect, besides their common signs, may or eaUf may have or can have, must, 
in certain connections, be translated by might, could, vjould, or should ; 
might have, could have, &c. The tenses of uiis mood must onen, also, be 
translated by the corresponding tenses of the indicative. For a more full 
account of the signification of the tenses of the 'subjunctive mood, 
see § 260. 

3. The imperative mood has but one tense, which is called 
the present, but which, from its nature, has a reference to the 

4. The infinitive mood has three tenses — ^the present, perfect, 
and future ; the first of which denotes an incomplete,the second 
a completed action, and the last an action to be performed. 


^ 146. Numbers are forms of the verb, denoting the 
unity or plurality of its subject. Verbs, like nouns, have 
two numbers — the singular and the plural. 


► ^ 147. Persons are forms of the verb, appropriated to 
the different persons of the subject, and accordingly called 
the first, second, and third persons. 


1. As the imperative mood expresses the action which a second 
or third person is required to perform, it has terminations cor- 
responding to those persons only. 

2. The signification of the infinitive mood not being limited to 
any subject, it admits no change to express either number or 

3. The following are the terminations of the dilTerefit personii 
of each number, in the indicative and subjunctive moods in both 
voices :— 



Person. 1. 2. 3. 

1. 2. 


Singular. — s, t; 

r, ris, 

tur ; 

Plural, mus, tis, nt 

mur, mini, 


These may be called personal terminations. 

Remark 1. The first person singular, in the active voice, ends either in 
lii or in a vowel. 

2. The perfect indicative active is irregular in the second person singa- 
kur, and in one of the forms of the third person plural. 

3. The passive form above given applies to the simple tenses only. 

4. The pronouns of the first and second persons are seldom expressed 
in Latin as subjects of a finite verb, the several persons being su£&iently 
distinguished by the terminations of the verb. 


^ 148. 1. A participle is a word derived from a verb, 
and partaking of its meaning, but having the form of an 

Like a verb, it has different voices and tenses ; like an adjec- 
tive, it has declension* and gender ; and like both, it has two 

Active verbs have usually yb««r participles^two in the active 
voice, a present and a future; as, amans^ loving; amatiiruSi about 
to love ; — and two in the passive voice, a perfect and a future ; 
as, amdius, loved, or having been loved ; amandus, to be loved. 

Neuter verbs have usually only the participles of the active 

Deponent verbs, both active and neuter, may have the partici- 
ples of both voices. 

2. Gerunds are verbal nouns, used only in the oblique oases, 
and expressing the action or state of the verb. Like other ab 

m _^ , __^ , 

* See $$ 105 and 111. 


stract nonns, they are found only in the singular number ; as, 
amandi, of loving, &c. 

3. Supines also are verbal nouns of the fourth declension in 
the accusative and ablative singular ; as, amdtum, to love ; amdtu^ 
to be loved. The supine in um is csilled ihe former supine ; that 
in Uy the latter. The former is commonly used in an active, the 
latter in a passive sense. 


^ 149. The conjugation of a verb is the regular forma- 
tion and arrangement of its several parts, according to their 
voices, moods, tenses, numbers, and persons. 

There are four conjugations, which are characterized by 
the vowel before re in tiie present of the infinitive active. 

In the first conjugation, it is d long ; 

In the second, e long ; 

In the third, ^ short; 

In the fourth, i long. 

NoTS. Doy daref to give, and such of its compoonds as are of the first 
eonjugation, have d short before re» 

^ 150. A verb consists of two parts — the root, and the 
verbal termination, 

1. The root of a verb consists of those letters which are not 
changed by inflection; as, am in amo, zmdbam, hmaverim, 
9mdtus<, This may be called the genercd root. 

2. There are also three special roots, from which, by the ad- 
dition of certain terminations, all the parts of the verb are 
readily formed. The first of these roots is found in the present 
of the indicative, and is the same as the general root ; the sec- 
ond is found in the perfect ; and the third in the supine, or per" 
feet participle, 

3. In regular verbs of the first, second, and fourth conjuga- 
tions, the second root is formed by adding, respectively, dv, ev, 
and iVy to the general root ; and the third rpot by a similar ad- 
dition of diUy etu, and itu. 

Many verbs, however, in these three conjugations, form their 
second and third roots irregularly, as do almost all in the sec- 
ond, a great part adding u and ttu, instead of ev and itu, 

4. In the third conjugation, the second root either is the 
same as the first, or is formed from it by adding s ; the third 
root is formed by adding tu. See ^ 171. 



Note. In the second and fourth conjugattons, e and i before o are 
considered as belonging not to the root, but to the termination. In verbs 
whose seconci or third roots are formed irregularly, the general root oilen 
ondergoes some change in the parts derived from them. 

• 6. The vowel which unites the general root with the remain- 
ing letters of the ^verb, is called the connecting voweL Each 
conjugation, except the third, is, in a great degree, distinguished 
by a peculiar connecting vowel, which is the same as ^aracter- 
izes the infinitives. See § 149. 

In the third conjugation, the connecting vowel is generally e or t. In 
the second and fourth conjugations, and in verbs in io of the third, a sec- 
ond connecting vowel is sometimes added to that which characterizes tlie 
conjugation ; as, a in doceant, u in capiunt^ &c. 

In verbs whose second and third roots are formed irregularly, the con- 
necting vowel oflen disappear^, or is changed in the parts derived from 
those roots ; but it is almost always found in the parts derived from the 
first root. 

<^ 151« 1. From the^rs^ root are derived, in each voice, 
the present, imperfect, and future indicative ; the present and 
imperfect subjunctive, the imperative, and the present infinitive. 
From this root are derived also the present participle, the gerund, 
and the future participle passive. 

2. From the second root are derived, in the active voice, the 
perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative ; the perfect 
and pluperfect subjunctive, and the perfect infinitive. 

3. From the third root are derived, in the active voice, the 
supine in urn, and the future participle, the latter of which, with 
the verb esse, constitutes the future infinitive. 

From this root are derived, in the passive voice, the supine in 
tt, and the perfect participle, from the latter of which, with the 
verb sum, are -formed all the tenses which in the active are de- 
rived from the second root. The future infinitive passive is 
formed from the supine in um, and in, tbe present infinitive 
passive of the verb co, to go. 

4. The present and perfect indicative, the supine in wm,* and 
the present infinitive, are called the principal parts of the verb, 
because from the first three the several roots are ascertained, 
and from the last, the characteristic vowel of the conjugation. 
In the passive voice, the principal parts are the present indica- 
tive and infinitive, and the perfect participle. 

^153* The following table exhibits a connected view of the 
verbal terminations, in all the conjugations. By annexing these 
to the several roots, all the parts of a verb may be formed. 

*^ As the supine in um is wanting in most -verbS; the third root must often be deter 
mjn0d from the perfect participle; or the future participle active. 



• • • ^ 
H M H 3 

>* >« »^ d 

s sl I 

s4 ed SB _Q 

d g 

M$ cd rt 2 

C C a ^ 
jo^ a g 

S S 3 I 

fl S e 3 

m'S **"« 

si's ^^ 


** ♦* ^d ^A 

£2 8 

^ I 




ts 1^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

•4J -fS 4>» id 

M «< crt 2 
IS « u.a 

I I T » 

HO crt «tf 


i I T • 


I T • I 

.» is ^ 

s s 


• h 9 (1 5 

I T i I 


CO q fl B 3 

^3 "^ •* ak ah 

-^ a a fi a 

A,,fi ^ .a "S 



z * * ^^ 

^ ** ** fl 

d is n «■> 

I 1 • i 


I ^ •km 

•k ak (km 

s s s 3 


Ntf Mt Ntf _A 



^1 I T t t 

^3 *^ *^ (k ah 

O g . T T I 

• • • • 

* ^^r^ 

cd sis J 


•k M 

cri 04 'V .^ 
I I I I 


•a -a - 

^ ^ m S 

« I T • • 

r "k •» 

S «J -y rt .s 

S S •♦i 
S * -a d 

f "P ^ •? 

n CD .k 

S 'S -2 -43 

•k M 

a a d g 

•A ^ 4J "^ 

^ •% •% lA ^ ^ 




• • _• • 









• • • • 











■** tj ^ 
a ala 


•-i »-* ••H •* 

»2 >a 's *3 

S S Si 

? i» V-T 

•\ •» •» _ 

3 S3 3 

a a s I 

r I T I 







* • 9 

♦i ♦• -^ *j 

c a fl d 

^ 9^ 9^ 


11 1 9*^ 

a s s s 

•\ •» •> _ 

m OB ID (^ 

^ ^ ^ ^^ 

• • • • 

u u 

5; "^ H O 

C O Q ^ 

"*i ♦* "5 fl 

6 ^ s 3 

*< rt) « 'T 


ii bl it 1m 

H •01 IM |pi« 

• • « I 

. s s & s 

Q M •« W |3 



V V'7 S 


I— I 

W 5 3 i I 
a« g a a 3 

• t • » 


■? "f T "=* 

••» ••» ..« .^ 

Ml 10 fi S 

• • • • 

■k M M . -• P 



In analyzing a verb, the voice, person, and number, are ascertained bj tha 
personal termmationa. See § 147, 3. The conjugation, mood, and tenaCi 
are, in general, detenAined by the letter or letters which intervene betifreen 
the root of the verb and those terminations. Thus in amabdmwtj mus de- 
notes tliat the verb is of the active voice, plural number, and first person j 
ba denotes that it is of the indicative mood, imperfect tense; and tne con- 
necting vowel a determines it to be of the first conjugation. So in ama^ 
remirUf mini denotes the passive voice, plural numl)er, and second person ; 
re, the subjunctive mood, imperfect tense ; and a, as before, the first conju- 

Sometimes, the part between the root of the verb and the personal ter- 
mination, does not precisely determine the conjugation, mooa, and tense, 
but only within certain hmits. In such cases, the conjugation may be 
learned, by finding the present tense in the dictionary, and if two forms 
are alike in the same conjugation, they can only be distinguished by the 
tense. Thus arrUmns and docimus have the same termination ; but, as 
amo is of the first, and doceo of the second conjugation, the former b de- 
termined to be the subjunctive, &e latter Uie mdicative, present. Reear 
may be either fiiture indicative, or present subjunctive-^cg1fiiat5 ei£er 
present or perfect indicative. 

^ 153. Sum, I am, is called an auxiliary verb, because it 
is used, in conjunction with participles, to supply the want of 
simple forms in other verbs. From its denoting existence, it 
is sometimes called the substantive verb. It is very irregular 
in those parts which, in other verbs, are formed from the first 
root. Its imperfect and future tenses seem to have been 
formed from the second root of some now obsolete verb, and 
to have been, not, as now, an imperfect and future, but a plu- 
perfect and future perfect It is thus conjugated :»- 


Prta. Indie. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indie. FVit Part 
Sum, es'-^e, fu'-i, fu4Q^-nis. 


Present Tense. 

Singular. Plnral* 

1. sum, / am, su'-mus, fre art^ 

2. 68, thou artj^ es'-tis, ye\ art^ 

3. est, h^is; sunt, they are. 


1. e'-ram, Iwas^ e-ra'-mus, toe v>ere^ 

S. e'-ras, ihxya wast, e-ra'-tis, yt u^ere, 

a e'-rat, fc« xioas ; e'-rant, they were. 

* In the second person singular in English, the plural form you ii cotnmonly ued 
CBMpt in solemn discourse ; as, (u e«, you are. 

tTh* plural pronoun of th« second person is either ye or you. 


Future. 9haU, or unU. 

L e'-rp, / 8halL be, eiZ-i-mus, tre shall he^ 

% e'-ris, thou tmlt bty er'-i-tis, ye vnll fre, 

3. e^-rit, he vnU be ; e'-runt, they idU be. 

Perfect, have been, (x wai. 

1. fu'-i, I have been, fii'-i-miis, we have been, 

2. fu-is -ti, tibu hast been^ fu-is'-tis, ye have been, 

2k fii'-it, he has been ; lii-6'-ruiit or -re, Utey have (eem 


1. fu'-g-ram, I had been, fu-e-ra'-mus, toe had been^ 

2. fii'-£-ra8, thou hadst fteen, fu-e-ra'-tis, ve had been, 
% fd'-^nXf he had been ; fiy-€-rant, they had been. 

Future Perfect, shall or wUl have. 

1. iu'-^-ro, I shall have been, fu-eiZ-l-mus, we shall have been.. 

2L fb'-e-ris, thou unU have been, fu-ei'-Ltis, ve unU htxve been^ 
3 fu^-£-rit, he wiU have been ; fu'-fi-rmt, they tnU have been. 


Present, may, or can. 

1. Sim, I may be, si'-mits, we mav be, 

2. sis, thou mavst be, si'-tis, ye may oe, 
SL sit, Ac may be ; Eont, ih&y may be. 

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 

1. es'-sem, I would be, es-se'-mus, we would be, 

2l es'Hses, thou wouMst be, es-se'-tis, ve would be, 

3. eafseifhewouldbe; es^-aent, they would be. 


1. fu'-€-rim, I may have been, fu-er'-i-mus, we may. have been^ 

2. fu'-€-ris, thoumayst have been, fu-er'-i-tis, ye may nave been, 

3. iu'-^-rit, h£ may have been ; fiy-^-rint, they may have been. 

Pluperfect, might, could, wovld, or should have. 

1. fii-is'-sem, I wovld have been, fu-is-se'-mus, we wovld have been^ 
3. fu-is'-ses, thou wovldsl have been, fu-is-se'-tis, ve uxndd have 6een^ 
3. fu-is'-set, he wovld have been ; fu-is'-sent, tney wovld have &een» 



% es, cr eE/'to, he thou^ eaf-ie, ar es-to'-te, he ye, 

& es'-to, Ut him be ; snn'-to, let than 6e. 


Present, es'-se, to be. 

Perfect fii-is'-se, to have been. 

Future, fu-to'-rus es'-se, to be about to he, 

Future, fu-to'-rus, about to be. 


V l-^4« 1. A present participle ens seems to have been anciently 
«sed, and is now found in the compounds abaenSf prasens, and patens. 

2. The perfect/ia, and its derivative tenses, are formed from an obsolete 
fiiOf whence come also the participle fiUuruSf and an old subjuQCtiye 
pieBent Juamffitas^fitat; , ,fiiant. 

3. From fuo are also derived the following : — 

SuH. imperf. fo'-rem, fo'-res, fo'-ret; , , fo'-rent. 

Jrff.pres. - fo'-re. 

These forms seem to have been contracted from fuerem^ 
&c., ahdytiere. JForem is equivalent in meaning to essem, but 
fore has, in most cases, acquired a future signification, equiva- 
lent to futurus esse. 

4. Siem, sieSf siety for sim, sis, sit, are found in ancient writers, as are 
also escit for erit, escunt for erunt, andfuvirijit for fitirird. 

5. Like sum are conjugated its compounds, except possum ; 
hxii prosum has d after 'prOy when the simple verb begins with 

t; as, 

Ind.^es. pro'-sum, prod'-es, prod'-est, &c. 
— imperf. prod'-S-ram, prod'-g-ras, &c. 

6. Possum is compounded of potts, able, and sum. They 
are sometimes written separately, and then potis is the same in 
all genders and numbers. In composition, is is omitted in 
potis, and t, as in other cases, coming before 5, is changed into 
5. In the infinitive, and imperfect subjunctive, es of the simple 
verb i$ dropped, and f at the beginning of the second root. 
In evfjy other respect, possum is conjugated like sum, wher- 
ever J I is found ; but the imperative, and parts derived fbom the 
third root, are wanting. 



Prta, Ind, Pres, h^, Paf, Ind, 

Pofl'-flttm, pos'-se, pot'-u-i| / ean^ or lam atiU, 


ly, J 5. po« -Bum, pot'-es, pqt'-est^ Prta, pos'-sim, ^. 

• I P. pos'-Ba-mus, potrei'-tUy pov'-mmt. Impeif, pos'-Bem, &c. 

ImperJ. pot'-d-ram, &c. Pvrf. pot-a'-£-rim, &c. 

Fut. pot'-fi-ro, &c. PZiip. pot-u-b'-sem, &e. 

P«/. pol'-u-i, &c. INFINITIVE. 

The foUoiwing foima are also fonnd ; — ycitesaim and possum, &c,f for 
VAMUR, &o. ; potesse for poMe; potestur for potest ^ and possUur for possii 




Pres. Ind, Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Supiiu. 
A'-mo, a-ma'-re^ a-ma'-vi^ a-m&'-tum 


Sing, a'-mo, 


Phir. a-ma'-mu8^ 



I hve, 
thou hvest, 
he loves ; 
we love, 
ye hve, 
they hve. 

Sing, a-ma'-bam, 


Phtr am-a-ba'-mus, 



I was loving, 

thou wast hving, 

he was loving ; 

we were hving, 

ye were loving, ^ 

they were loving. ^ 

Future. shaU^ oi 

Sing, a-ma'-bo, 


Phir. a-mab'-i-iDuSy 



' tviU. 

I shall love, 
thouwiU love, 
he will love ; 
we shall hve, 
ye will love, 
they will him. 

▼xxBs. — ^riiurr cmmjmATtoffy active. fft 

Perfect, lotfedy or have loved. 

Sing, a-ma'-vf , / have hved^ 

am-nrvis'oti, tkau hast loved, 

a-ma'-vity he has loved; 

Ph0. armaT^-i-miui, we have loved, 

am-a-vis'-tis, ye have loved, 

am-a*-ve'-ra|it or -re^ tkey have loved. 


Sing, a-mav'-e-raniy I had loved, 

armav'-e-raSy - thou hadst loved, 
a-may'-e-raty he had loved; 

Plut am-a-veHra'-miuiy we had loved, 

am-a-ve-ra'-tiSy ye had loved, 

a-mav'-e-ranty they had loved. 

Future Perfect, shall or toill have. 

Sing. a-maT'-S-ro, / shaU have loved, 

a-mav'-S-riSi thou wilt have loved, 

a-mav'-l^-rit, he will have loved; 

PJur, am-a-ver^-i-miiSy we shall have loved, 

am-arver'-i-tiSy ye will have loved, 

armav'-e-rint, they will have loved. 


Present, may, or can. 

JXng. a'-mem, / may love, 

a'-mes, thou mayst love, 

^ a'-met, he may love ; 

Pbtr, a-me'-muSy we may love, 

a-me'-tis^ ye may love, 

aVment, they may love. 

Imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 

Sing, arma'-rem, I would love, 

a-ma'-resi thou wouldst love, 

a-ma'-ret, lie would love ; 

Pbtr, am-a-re'-mus, we would love, 

am-a-re'-tis, ye would love, 

a-ma'-rent, they would love. 



Sing, a-mav'-e-rim^ / map have hved, 

a-mav'-e-rb, thou mayst have lovedf 

a-mav'-e-rity he may house lovedf 

Pbar, ara-a-Ter^-i-muSi we may have lo9ed, 

am-a-ver -!-tiSy ye may have loved, 

a-maT'-^-rinty they may have loved* 

Pluperfect, mighty couldy waiddy or shovld have. 

/Sing, am-a-vis'-sera^ I would have loved, 

am-a-vis'-ses^ thou wouMst have hved^ 

am-a-vis'-set, he would have loved; 

Pbtr. ain-a-vi»-8e'-mus, we would have lovea^ 

am-a-vis-se'-tis, ye would have loved, 

am-a-vis'Hseiit^ they would have loved 


Bing* a'-ma, or a-ma'-to, love thoti^ 

a-ma'-to, lei him love; 

Pbir, a-ma'-te, or am-a-to'-te, love ye, 

a-man'-to^ let them love. 


Present, a-ma'-re, tohve. 

Perfect. am-a-vis'Hse, to have loved. 

Future, am-a-tu'-rus es'-se, to he about to love 


Present, a'-mans, loving. ^ 

Fkiture. am-a-tu'-rus, about to love. 


O. a-man'-dii of loving, 

D. a-man'-doy to or for hving^ 

Ac. a-man'-dum, loving. 

Ah. apman'-doy hy loving. 

Former, a-m&'-tum^ to love 





Pres. Indie. Pres. Infin. Ptrf. Pari. 
A'-mor, a-ma'-riy a-iii&'*4iis. 



8ing. a'-mor, 

a-ma'-ris or -re^ 
, a-ma'-tur, 

Phar. a-ma'-mar, 


Sing, a-ma'-bar, 

am-a-ha'-ris or -re, 

Phtr. am-^-ba'-mur, 

I amloroed^ 
thou, art hmed^ 
he is hved; 
we are loved^ 
ye are loved, 
they are loved. 

I was hved, 
thou wast loved, 
he was loved; 
we were hved, 
ye were loved, 
they were loved. 

Future, shall or tnU be. 
Sing. a-ma'-boTy 

a-mab'-e-ris or -re, 
Pbtr. a-mab'-i-mur, 

/ shall be hved, 
thou wilt be hved, 
he will be hved; 
we shall be loved,^ 
ye will be hved, 
they win be hved. 

Perfect. Jiave been, or was. 

Sing, a-ma'-tus sum or £a'-i, 
a-ma'-tus es or fu-is'-ti, 
a-ma'-tus est or fu'-it, 

Phir. a-ma'-ti su'-mus or fu'-i-mu8, 
a-ma'-ti es'-tis or fu-is'-tis^ 
a-ma'-ti sunt^fu-e'-runt or -re, 

I have been loved, 
thou hast been loved, 
he has been loved; 
we have been loved, 
ye have been loved, 
they have been laved^ 

160 TEBSt. — ^rutST c<nrji;6A7ioN, passst** 


A a-ma'-tus e'-ram or fu^-e-ram^ I had been loved^ 

Brina'-tus e'-ras or fa'-e-xaa, thou hadst been hvidp 

aFma'-tus e'-rat or fu'-e-rat, he heed been loved ^ 

P. fr-rna -ti e*rd^-nms Ar fii-e-ra'-iiiil0» toe had been loved, 

a-ma'-ti e-ra'-tis or fu-e-ra'-tis, yc had been loved, 

a-ma'->ti e -rant or fu'-e-rant, they had been loved^ 

Future Perfect. ^aU have been. 

S, a-ma'-tus e-ro or fu'-e-ro, I shaU have been loved, 

apma'-tas e -ris or fu'-e-ria, thou wilt have been loved^ 

a-ma'-tus e'-rit or fa'-&-rit, he win have been loved ; 

P, a-ma'-ti er'-i-mus or fu-er'-i-iniiB^ we shall have been loved, 

a-ma'-ti er'-i-tis or fu-er^-I-tis, ye will have been loved, 

a-ma'-ti e^ruDtor fu'-^Hrint, they mil have been loved. 


Present, may or can be. 

Sng. a'-mer, I may be loved, 

a-me'-ris or -re, thou mayst be loved, 

a^me'-tuTy he may be loved ; 

Plur. a-me'-mur, we may be hved, 

a-mem'-i-ni, ye may be loved, 

a-men'-tur, they may be loved. 

Imperfect, might, coutd, would, or should &«• 

a-ma'-rer, I would be loved, 

am-a-re'-ris or -re, thou wouldst be love^ 

am-a-re'-tur, hm would be loved; 

Plur. am-a-re'-mur^ we would be loved, 

am-a-rem'-t-ni, ye would be loved, 

am-a-ren'-tur, they would be loved. 


8. a*ma'-tus sim or fu'-e-rim, I may have been hved, 

a-m&'-tus sis or fu'-e-ris, thou mayst have been hved^ 

a-ma'-tus sit or fu'-e-rit, he may have been hved; 

P a-ma'-ti si'-mus or fu-er'-i-mus, we may have been hved, 

arma'-ti si'-tis or fu-er'-i-tis, ye may have been loved, 

a-ma'-ti sint or fii'-e-rint^ they may have been hved 



Pluperfect, might, cotddy w(ndd, or should have been. 

S. a-ma'-tas esK-sem or fu-is'-sem, 
a-ma'*-tus es'-ses or fu-is'nses, 
a-ma'-tus es'-set or fu-is'-set, 

P. a-ma'-ti es-se'-m'us or fu-is-se'-mas, 
Brma'-ti es-6e'-tis or fii-isHse'-tis, 
arma^i es'-sent or fu-is'-sent^ 

/ would have 
thou wouMst have 
he would have 
we would have 
ye would have 
they would have , 




iSitf^. a-ma'-re, or a-ma'-tor^ 

Phar, a-mam'-i-ni^ 


he thou lovedf 
let him be loved; 
be ye loved^ 
let them be loved. 


Present, a-ma'-ri, to be loved. 

Perfect* a-ma'-tus es'-se or fii-is'-ee, to have been loved. 
F\iture. a-ma^-tum i'-ri, to be about to be loved 


Perfect, a-ma'-tus, 
JFSiture. a-man'-daSy 

hved, or having been loved 
to be loved. 

Latter, a-ma'-tu, to be loved. 

Forha]:jon of the Tenses. 

From tlie fint root, am, are 





■■ '■ wn/ptTj. 

— tmperf, vaidrem, Biadrer^ 

Imperat, ama. 


VcarU pres. vdoiu, 

•>.— /uL anumrfttf. 



9mdre, amdrt, 



From the seeond root, 
mnoOi are derived 

Ind^ per/, am&vi, 
— - Tplup. vmxviram, 
'■•'^ fut. per/, BxnsLVirOf 
Buij. per/, 9mavirim, 
— pUm. aanavitsem, 
Inf. perf. amavif^e. 

From the third root. 
Inf. fut, amatart» esse, 
Fori, Jut. amatAncfy 

Form. Bup. amfttom. 

From the third 

rooty aiiMifK. are 


am&tu« sum, 4be. 
am&tiM eram. dte. 
ain&ta« ero; ac. 
am&tu« siniy &e. 
amatiu essem, &c 
am&tut esse, ttc. 



Lot, Bup. amitqi 







Pres. Ind. Mo'-ne^, 

Pres. Inf. mo-ne'-re, 

Perf, Ind. mon'-u-i. 

Supine, mon'-i-tum. 

Pres. Ind, mo'-ne-or, 
Pres, Inf, mo-ne'-riy 
Perf, Part, mon'-I-tus, 


I advise. 

Sng. mo'-ne-o, 

PJur. mo-ne -mus, 

I was advising. 

S. mo-ne'-bam, 
mo-ne'-bat ; 

P. moD-e-ba'-mus, 


lam advised^ 

Sing, mo'-ne-or, 

mo-ne'-ris or - 
mo-ne'-tur ; 

Plur, mo-ne'-mur, 



I was advised. 

S, mo-ne'-bar, 
mon-e-ba'-ris or h 
mon-e^ba'-iur ; 

P, ttion-e-ba'-mur, 


I shall or vfUl admse. 

S. mo-ne'-boy 


P. mo-neb'-i-musy 



I shall ox unU he advised^ 

S. mo-ne'-bor, 

mo-neV-e-ris w -re 

mo-neV-I-tur ; 
P. mo-neb'-i-inury 








I advised f or have advised, 

S, mon'«u-iy 


mon'-u-it ; 
P. mo-nuM-mus, 


mon-a-e'-runt or -re. 

1 was or have been adin$ed. 

S, mon'-i-tus sum or fa'-i, 
mon'-T-tua es or fii-is'-tt, 
mon^I-tus est or fu'-it ; 

P. mon'-i-ti su'-mus or fu'-]f-mii8, 
mon'-i-ti es'-^is or fu-is'-'dsy 
mon-i-ti sunt, fu-e'Hront or -re. 

/ had advised* 

S, mo-nu'*e-rainy 
mo-nu'-e-rat ; 

P. oaon-u-e-ra'-inus^ 


J had been advised. 

S, mon'-i-tus e'-ram or fu'-S-ram, 
moa -i-tus e'-ras or fu'-€-ras, 
mon'ol-tus e'-rat or fu'-e-rat ; 

P. mon'-jf-ti e-ra'-mus or fu-e-r^-uwu, 
mon'-i-ti e-rft'-tis or fu-e-ra'-tib, 
mon'-i-ti e'-rant or fu'-e-rant. 

Future Perfect. 

JshaU have advised. 

Sm mo-nu'-e-ro, 
mo-nu'-e-rit ; 

P. raon-u-er'-S-mus, 

J shall have been advised. 

8, mon'-f-tus e'-ro or fu'-e-ro, 
men -i-tus e'-ris or fu'-e-ris, 
mon'-i-tiis e'-rit or fu'-e-rit ; 

P. mon'-i-ti er'-i-mus or fu-er^-i-muSy 
mon'-i-li er'-i-tis or fu-er'-i-tis, 
mon -I-ti e'-nint or fu'-e-rint. 



IvMiy or can advise. 

S, mo'-ne-aniy 
mo'-ne-at ; 

P, mo-ne-i'-imw, 

I may or can be ad9ued 

S. mo'-^e-ar, 

mo-ne-a'-ris or -re, 

rao-ne-a'-tur ; 
P. mo-ne-a'-mur, 






/ fli^^ catUdy waiddy 
should advise* 

S. mo-ne-rem, 
mo-ne'-ret ; 

P. mon-e^re'-muSy 



/ fnay have advised. 

8, mo-nu'-e-riniy 
mo-nu'-e-rit ; 

P, mon-u-er'-i-mus, 

Imighty covldy would, or 
should have advised. 



mon-u-is'-set ; 
P. mon-u-is-se-mus, 

/ might f could f wouldf or < 
should be advised. 

S. mo-ne'-rer, 

mon-e-re'-ris or -re, 
inon-e-re'-tur ; 

P. mon-e-re'-mur, 


I may have been advised* 

S. mon'-i-tus sim or fu'-e-rim, 
mon'-i-tus sis or fu -e-ris, 
mon'-i-tus sit or fu'-S-rit ; 

P, mon'-i-ti si'-mus or fu-er^-l^mufl, 
mon'-i-ti si'-tis or fo-er'-l-tis, 
mon'-I-ti sint or fu'-S-rint. 


I mighty could, would, or should 
have been advised. 

S. mon'-i-tus es'-sem or fu-is'-sem, 
mon'-i-tu« es'-ses or fii-is'-ses, 
mon'-i-tus es'-set or fu-is'-set ; 

P. mon'-i-ti es-se'-mus or fu-ishse -mas, 
mon -i-ti es-se'-tis or fu-is-se'-dSy 
mon'-i-ti es'-sent or fu-is'Hseat. 


advise thou. 

S. mo-ne, or mo-ne'-to, 

mo-ne'-to ; 
P. mo-ne -te, or mon-e-to'-te, 


be thou advised. 

S mo-ne'-re, or mo-ne'-tor, 

mo-ne -tor ; 
P. mo-nem'-i-ni, 



Pres. mo-ne'-re, to advise. 
Perf. mon-u-is'-se, to have ad' 

JF^. mon-i-tu'-rus es'-se, to be 

about to advise. 

Pres. mo-ne^-riy to be advised. 
Perf. mon'4-tuses'-se or fu-is'- 

se, to have been advised. 
Put. mon'-i-tum i'-ri, to be 

about to be advised 






Pres, mo'-nens, advising, 
FiU, mon-L-tu'-rus^ cibout to 

Perf. mon'-i-tus, adoiftd, 
JFhiL mo-nen'-dus, to be ad' 

G. mo-nen'-di, of advising, 
D. mo-nen'-do, &c. 
Ac. mo-aen -dum, 
Ab, mo-nen'do. 

Former, mon'-i-tum, to advise. \ Latter, mon'-i-tu^ to be advised. 

From the first root, mon, are 

Ind, pres. moneo, 

in^f>erf, monebam, monibdr, 
^^—^fut. vaofoibOj monitor, 

Formation op the Tenses. 

From the second From the third root, 
root, monUf are 

Ind.p€rf. , monux, 



res. mon^om. moneor. 

Iff, pres. 
Part. pres. 


tmperf.menerem, moiairer, 







monltUy are 

monltuf som, &e% 

-plvp. monu^ram, monYtu^ eram. &e. 

""■^fut. perf. moouUfro, monftiu «ro, M. 
Bubj. perf, monu^rm, monItu« sim, dee. 

■ ' pfap» monuwcfn,monIttM«88eiii. d^ 
Inf. per/. monuifM, monttitf esse, oce. 

From the third root, 
M.fvt. monitartw esse, monltiMi iri^ 
rafi.fut, monitAna, 
— perf. oMHiltiu, 

Form. Sup, monltiifn. LcU. Sup. moanBL 



Pres. Ind. Re'-go, 

Pres. Inf. reg'-S-re, 

Perf, Ind. rex'-i, 

Supine. rec'-tum. 

Pres. Ind, re'-gor, 
Pres. Inf re'-gi, 
Perf. Part, rec'-tus. 

I rule. 

Sing, re'-go, 
re'-git ; 

Pkir, reg'-i-mu8, 



lam ruled. 

Sing, re'-gor, 

reg'-e-ris or -w, 
reg'-i-tur ; 

Plur. reg'-i-mur, 




/ was ruling. 

S. re-ge'-bam, 
re-ge'-bat ; 

P. reg-e-ba'-mus, 

I shall or tuiU rule* 

S. re'-gam, 


re'-get ; 
P. re-ge'-mus, 



I ruled or have ruled. 

S. rex'-i, 


rex -it ; 
P. rcx'-i-mus, 


rex-e'-runt or -re. 

1 had ruled. 

8. rex'-e-ram, 
rex'-e-rat ; 

p. rex-en-a'-mus, 

/ shall have ruled, 

S, rex'-e-ro, 


rex'-e-rit ; 
P. rex-er'-i-inus, 





/ was ruled. 

S, re-ge'-bar, 

reg-e-ba'-ris or -re, 
reg-e-ba'-tur ; 

P. reg-e-ba'-mur, 


I shall or will be ruled 

S, re'-gar, 

re-ge'-ris or -re, ' 

re-ge'-tur ; 
P. re-ge'-mur, 




I was or have been ruled* 

S, rec'-tus sum or fu'-i, 
rec -tus es or fu-is'-ti, 
rec'-tus est or fu'-it ; 

P, rec'-ti su'-mus or fu'-i-mas, 
rec'-ti es'-tis or fu-is -tis, 
rec'-ti sunt, fu-e'-runt or -te. 


/ had been ruled. 

S. rec'-tus e'-ram or fu'-e-ram, 
rec'-tus e'-ras or fu'-e-ras, 
rec'-tus e'-rat or fu'-e-rat ; 

P. rec'-ti e-ra'-mus or fu-e-ra-mus, 
rec'-ti e-ra'-tis or fu-e-ra'-tis, 
rec'-ti e'-rant or fu'-e-rant. 

Future Perfect. 

I shall have been ruled. 

S, rec'-tus e'-ro or fu'-e-ro, 
rec'-tus e'-ris or fu -e-ris, 
rec -tus e'-rit or fu'-e-rit ; 

P. rec'-ti er'-i-mus or fu-er'-i-mua, 
rec'-ti er'-i-tis or fu-er'-i-tis, 
rec/-ti e'-runtor fii'-e-rint. 






I may or canruk. 
S. re'-gam. 


re'-gat ; 
P. re-ga'-mu8, 
re-ga'-tis, . 

I may or can be ndedm 

S, re'-gar, 

re-ga -ris or -re, 

re*-ga'-tur ; 
P. re-ga'-mur, 




i mighty coutdy wovldy 
zhovHd fide. 

8. reg'-e-rem, 
reg'-e-ret ; 

P. reg-e-re -mus, 
reg'-e-rent. • 

/ may have ruled. 

S. rex'-e-rim, 
rex'-e-rit ; 

P. rex-er'-i-mus, 

or I mighty couldy woiUdj or 
shovM be ruled. 

S. reg'-e-rer, 

reg-e-re'-ris or -re, 

reg-e-re'-tur ; 
P. reg-e-re -mur, 




I may have been ruled. 

8, rec'-tus sim or fu'-e-rim, 
rec'-tas sis or fa'-S-ris, 
rec'-tus sit or fu'-e-rit; 

P. rec'-ti si'-mus or fu-er'-i-mus, 
rec'-ti si-tis or fii-er'-i-tis, 
rec'-ti sint or fu'-e-rint. 

Imighty could, would, or 
myidd have ruled. 

8, rex-is'-sem, 


rex-is'-set ; 
P. rex-is-se'*musy 




I mighty couldy wouldy or should 
have been ruled. 

8 rec -tus es'-sem or fu-is'-sem, 
rec'-tus es'-ses or fu-is'-ses, 
rec'-tus es'-set or fu-is'-set ; 

P. rec'-ti es-se -mus or fu-is-se'-miis 
rec'-ti es-se'-tis or fu-is-se'-tis, 
rec'-ti ea'-sent or fu-is'-sent. 


rmBBB^r-^^KOXD cMiueMnm 


ride thou. 
£L re'-ge, or reg'-i-to, 

rcg'-I-to ; 
P. reg'-I-te, orreg-^i-td'-te, 

be thou ruled. 

S. reg'-e-re, or reg'-Y-tor, 

reg'-i-tor ; 
P. re-gim'-I-ni, 



Pres. reg'-8-re, to rule, 
Perf. rex-is'Hse, to have ruled. , 
jFW. rec-tu'-rus es'-se, to be 
about to rule. 

Pres. re-gi, to be ruled. 
Perf. rec'-tus es'nse or fu-is'-se, 

to have been ruled. 
Put. rec'-tum i'-ri, to be about 

to be ruled. 


Pres. re'-gens^ ruling. Perf. rec'-tus, ruled. 

Put. reo-tu'-ras/a&otf^ to rule. 1 Put. re-gen'^us^ to be ruled. 


O. xe^enf-di, of ruUng, 
D. re-gen'-do, d&c. 
Ac. re-gen'-dum, 
Ab. re-gen'-do. 

Former, rec'-lum, to rule. \ Latter, rec'-tu^ to he ruled. 

Formation of the Tenses. 

From the first root) reg, are 

Active, Passive, 

Jnd, pres, legv. legor, 

imperf, reg&am, regibar, 

— fut. regam, regat, 

Subf. pres, regain, regar, 

« I tinpetf, TegireiKf tegireff 

Imperat. rege, n^ire, 

hJ: pres, regire, rcgi. 
Fart, pres, regens, 

^»-< Jut tegendus. 
OeruHd regendi. 

From the second root, 
reXf are derived, 


JM,per/,, rexif 

•— pltq>, rexiram, 

m^^hu,perf. rexiro, 

8utj. perf, rexirimf 

^— p^. Texissem, 

btf, perf, rexisse. 

From the third 

root, recta, aie^ 


rectus sum, Ate. 
rectus eram, &e. 
rectut ero, Slc 
rectof sim, &c. 
recto* eue, se. 

From the third root, 

Irif, fut, rect&riM esse, lectusi iri, 
Part./kit. teeturus, 


Form, 8vp, lectom. 




Pres. Ind, Ca-pi-o, to take, 
Pres, Inf, cap'-e-re, 
Perf, Ind, ceVpi, 
Supine, cap^-tum. 

Pres, Ind, ca'-pi-or, to h€ 

Pres, Inf, ca'-pi, 
Perf. Part, cap'-tus. 



S, ca'-pi-o, 
ca'-pit ; 

P. cap'-i-mus, 

S, ca'-pi-or, 

cap'-e-ris or -re, 

cap -i-tur ; 
P. capVT-mur, 




& ca-pi-e'-bara, 
ca-pi-e'-bat ; 

P. ca-pi-e-ba'-mus, 

S, ca-pi-e -bar, 

ca-pi-e-ba'-ris or -re, 
ca-pi-e-ba'-tur ; 

P. ca-pi-e-ba'-mur, 


8, ca'-pi-am, 
ca'-pi-et ; 

P. ca-pi-e-mus, 

S, ca-pi-ar, 

ca-pi-e'-ris or -re, 

ca-pi-e'-tur ; 
P ca-pi-e'-mur, 



The parts formed from the second and third roots being en- 
tirely regular, only a synopsis of them is given. 

Ptrf, ce'-pi. 
Plup, cep'-e-rara. 
PiU.perf cep'-e-ro. 


Perf cap'-tus sum or fu'-i. 
Plup, cap'-tus e'-ram or fu'-e-rara 
Put perf cap'-tus e'-ro or fu'-e-ro 







8. ca'-pi-am 
ca'-pi-at ; 

P. ca-pi-a'-mus, 

S» cap'-e-rem, 
cap'-e-ret ; 

P, cap-e-re'-mus, 

8. ca'-pi-ar, 

ca-pi-a -ris or -re, 

ca-pi-a'-tur ; 
P. ca-pi-a'-mur, 


carpi-an'-tur. ' 


8. cap'-e-rer, 

cap-e-re'-ris or -re 
cap-e-re'-tur ; 

JP. cap-e-re'-mur, 

Ptrf, cep'-e-rini. 
P/tip. ce-pis'-sem. 

Perf, cap'-tas sim or fii'-e-rim. 
Plup, cap'-tus es-sem or fu-is'-sem. 


8. ca'-pe, or cap'-i-to, 

cap -i-to ; 
P. cap'-i-te, or cap-i-to'-te, 


8, cap'-e-re, or cap'-i-tor, 

cap'-T-tor ; 
P. ca-pim'-i-ni, 



Pres. cap'-e-re. 
Perf, ce-pis'-se. 
Fut cap-tu'-rus es'-se. 

Pres, ca'-pi. 

Perf. cap'-tus es'nse or fii-is'- 

JFuL cap'-tum i'-ri. 


Pres. ca'-pi-ens. 
Put, cap-tii'-rus. 

Perf. cap'-tus. 
Put, ca-pi-^n'-dus. 

0» ca-pi-en'-di, &c. | 

Fbrmer, cap'-tum. | Latter, cap'-ta 







Pres. Ind, Au'-di-o, 
Pres* Inf. au-di'-re, 
Perf. Ind^ au-di'-vi, 
Supine, au-dF-tum. 

Pres. Ind. au'-di-or» 
Pres Inf. aa-di'-ri, 
Perf Part au-dl'-tm. 


I hear. 

S, au'-di-o, 
au^-dit ; 

P. au-di'-mus, 


/ am heard* 

S. au'-di-or, 

au-di'-ris or -re, 

au-di -tur ; 
P. au-di'-mur, 




I was hearing. 

S. au-di-e'-bain, 
au-di-e'-bat ; 

P. au-di-e-ba'-mus, 

Iwoi heard. 

S. au-di-e'-bar, 

au-di-e-ba -ris or -re, 
au-di-e-ba'-tur ; 

P. au-di-e-ba'^mur, 


lihaU or vnU hear. 

8. au'-di-am, 


au'-di-et ; 
P. au-di-e'-mus, 



I shall or vdll be heard 

S. au'-di-ar, 

au-di-e'-ris or -re, 

au-dt-e'-tur ; 
P. au-di-e'-mur, 




▼EBVff.-'-l'OimtH COKJimATIOfr. 


I heard or have heard. 

B. au-dF-vi, 


au-df'-rit ; 
P. au-div'-i-iiiufly 


au-^i-ve'-runt or -re. 



I have been or was heard 

S. au-dr-tus sum or fu'-i, 
au-di'-tus es or fu-is'-ti. 
au-dr-tus est or fa'*it ; 

P. au-dF-ti su'-nras or fu'-l-miui, 
au-di'-ti es'-tis or ili-is'-dfly 
au-dr-ti sunt, fu-e'-mni or -le. 

1 had heard. 

S. au-div'-e-ram, 

' au-div'-e-rat ; 

P. au-di-ve-ra'-mus, 

/ shad have heard. 

8. au-div'-e-ro, 
au-div'-e-rit ; 

P. au-di-ver'-I-mus, 


I had been heard. 

S. &u-d?-tus e'-ram or fu'-e-ram, 
au-dp-tus e'-ras or fu'-e-ras, 
au^r-tus e'-rat or fu'-e-rat ; 

P. au-dr-ti e-ra'-mus or fu-e-ra'-mu8^ 
au-di -ti e-ra'-tis or fu-e-ra-tis, 
au<KlP-ti e'-rant or fu'-e-rant. 

Future Perfect. 

I shall have been heard. 

S. au-di'-tus e'-ro or fu'-S-ro, 
au-di'-tus e'-ris or fu'-e-ris, 
au-dr-tus e'-rit or fu -e-rit ; 

P. au-di'-ti er'-t-mus or fii-er'-!-mus^ 
au-dr-ti er'-i-tis or fu-er'-l-tis, 
aa-di'-ti e'-runt or fu'-6-riiit. 


I may or can hear. 

S. au'-di-am, 
au'-di-at ; 

P. au-di-a'-mu8, 


/may or can be heard. 

S. au'-di-ar, 

au-di-a'-rifl or -re, 

au-di-&'-tur ; 
P. au-di-a'-mur, 







1 tttightf could, wouldy or 
should hear, 

S. au-di'-rem, 


au-di -ret ; 
P. au-di-re -mu^y 




mighty^ could, wouldy or 
should be heard, 

S. au-di'-rer, 

au-di-re'-ris or nre, 

au-di-re'-tur ; 
P, au-di-re'-mur, 



I may have heard. 

& au-div'-e-rim, 
au-div'-e-rit ; 

P. au-di^ver'-i-mus, 


J may have been heard. 

S, au-di-tu8 sim or fu-e-rim, 
au-di'-tus sis or fu'-e-ris, 
au-dr-'tus sit or fu'-e-rit ; 

P. au-di'-ti si'-mus or fu-erM-mnSy 
au-df'-ti si'-tiis or fu-er'-Ws, 
au-dF-ti sint or fu'-e-rint. 

J mighty couMy would^ 
or should have heard. 

S. au-di-vis'-sem, 
au-di-vis'-set ; 

P. au-di-vis-se'-mus, 


I mighty couldy fpouldy or should 
have been heard. 

S. au-di'-tus es^Hsem or fu-is'-seniy 
au-di'-tus es'-ses or fu-is^-ses, 
au-di'-tu^ es'-set or fu-is'-set ; 

P. au>di'-ti es-se'-mus or fu-is-se'-mus, 
au-di -ti es-se'-tis or fu-ia-se'-tis, 
au-dr-ti es'-sent or fu-is'nsent 


hear thou. 

& au'-di, or aa-dF-to, 

au-dF-to ; 
P. au-dr-te, or au-di-to'-te^ 

10 • 


be thou heard. 

S. au-di'-re, or au-di'-tor, 

au-di-tor ; 
P. au-dim'-i-ni, 



iKtata-. — ^roDBTK conatmAXtcaf. 


Pres. au-di'-re, to hear* 
Per/, au-di-vis'-se, to have 

JFhit, au-di-tu'-rus es'nse^ to be 

about to hear. 


Pres, au-dr-ri, to be heard. 
Perf, au-di'-tus ee -se or fu is'- 

se, to have been heard* 
Put, au-dF-tum i'<-riy to be 

about to be heard. 


Pres. aa'-di-ens, hearing, 
JFW. aurdi-tu'-rus, about to hear. 

Perf, au-di'-tus, heard. 

Put. au-di-en'-dus, to be heard. 


0. au-<li'^n'-di, of hearing, 
D, au-di-en'-do, &c. 
Ac. au-di-en'-dum^ 
Ab. au-di-en'-do. 

Former, aa-dr-tam^ to hear. \ Latter. au-dF-tu^ to be heard. 


TmsBL the first root, and^ are 

hnd, pres. 
— — imperf, 

Subf. Tpres. 
— — imperf. 
Jjnf. pret. 
Fart, pres, 













f audie^ar, 



From the second root, {^rom the thiid 
audhf axe derived, root, auditu, art 


Active. Passive, 

Ind, perf. aiidivi, auditu« sum, &e. 

— — plup, audiv^mm, auditu^ eram. &e. 

— fid. perf, audiv^ro, auditus cro, &.C. 
8utj. perf audivfrim, auditu« sim, ^e. 
^-*- j}/up. audiviff^em, audiui« essem, Sic 
Inf. perf audivi««e. audituc esse, &e. 

From the third root, 

Jnffid. audituriM esse, auditum iii, 
PctrLfvL auditortw, 

— parf, andiftf, 
Form, 0up, aadltum. Lot, Sup. audita. 


^ 161 • Deponent verbs are conjugated like tbe passive 
▼oice, and have also all the participles and participial forma- 
tions of the active v^ice. Neuter deponent verbs, however, 


want the future passive participle, except that the neater in 
dum is sometimes used tmpers(Hiaily. 

The following is an example of an active deponent verb of 
the first conjugation :— 

Mi'-ror, mwa'-ri, nu-ra'-tua, to admire^ 


Pres. mt'-ror, mi-ra'-ris, &c. I eubnirt, &c. 

imperf, mi-ra'-bar, &c. / was admiring i, 

Put, mi-ra'-bor, / shcdl admire, 

Perf, mi-ra'-tus sum or fu'-i, I have admired. 

Php* mi-ra^-tus e'-ram or fu'-e-ram, I had admired. 
Put. perf. mi-ra^-tus e'-ro or fu'-e-ro, I shall have admired* 


Pres. mi'-rer, mi-re'-ris, &c. I may admire^ &c. 

Imper/*. mi^r&'-rer, I would admire. 

Perf. mi-ra'-tus sim or fu'-e-rim, I may have admired. 

Pbtp. mi-ra'-tus es^Hsem or fu-is'-sem, I would have admired 

nuHTa'-re^ or mi-ra'^tor, admire thou, d&c. 


Pres* mi-ra'-ri, to admire. 

Perf. mi*ra-tus esse or fu-is'-se^ to have admired. 

Put, act. mir-a-tu'-rus es -se, to be about to admire* 

Put. pass, mi-ra^-tum i'-ri^ tobeaboitt to be admired* 


Pres. mi'-rans, admiring. 

Perf. mi»ra'-tus, having admired* 

Put. act, mir-a-tu'-ruSy about to admire. 

Put. pass. mi<-ran'-4lus, to be admired* 

Q. mi-ran'-di, of admiring, &c. 


Pormer. mi-ra'-tum^ to admire. -^Latter, mi-ra'-tu, to be admired 


Remarks on the Conjugations. 
Ofiht Temes formed from ike First Roai^ 

^ 162* ]. A few words in tiie present snbjnnctlye of the first ana 
third conjugations, in the earlier writers, end in im ; as, tdim for edttm^ 
duim for dem (from an old form duo), eredtdm nnd^erduim for eredam and 
perdam. This was retained as the regular form m sim and TteUm, firom 
sum and volOf and in their compounds. 

2. The imperfect indicative in the fourth conjugation, sometimes, espe 
cially in the more ancient writers, en<is in ibam and tftar, for i€bam and 
iiboTf and the future in ibo and iter, for iam and iar ; as, vtstihamf largibaTf 
fur vesiUbanif largiebar ; setbo, oppenbor, for sciamy opperiar, 

3. The termination re, in the second person singular of the passive 
▼oice, is rare in the present, but common in the other simple tenses. 

4. The imperatives of dieOfducOffacio,9XidferOf are usually written die, 
du€, faCf and fer ; in like manner their compounds, except those com- 
pounds offacio which change a into t. Seio has not «ci, but seito, 

5. In the second person of the imperative passive, an ancient form in 
mlno in the singular, and minor in tiie plural, is very rarely found ; as, 
f amino for far e^ progrediminor for progredimini, 

6. The syllable er was often adde<. to the present infinitive passive by 
the early poets , as, amarier for amdri^ dicier for did. 

Of the Tenses formed from the Second Root. 

7. When the second root ends in o, a contraction often occars in the 
tenses formed from it, by omitting v, with the first vowel of the termina- 
tion, when followed, in the fourth conjugation, by s, and in the other 
conjugations, by s or r; as, audissem for audivissemf amdsH for amavi^', 
implSrunt for impleY6runtf ndram and ndsse for nov6ram and novisse. 

When the second root ends in tv, v alone is often omitted ; as, audiiro 
for audiviro ; audiisse for audivisse. 

When this root ends in s or z, the syllables is, isa, and st5, are 
sometimes omitted in the termination of tenses derived from it ; as, ewuti 
for etMuis^', extinxti for extiwdsti, divisse for divisisse; extinxem for extinx>' 
issem, surrexe for surrexisae ; accestis for aecessiatis, jusH for jusaiati. So 
faxem for (JiacsiaBemf) fecissem. 

8. In the third person plural of the perfect indicative active, the form in 
€rt is less common than that in irunt, especially in prose. 

9. Ancient forms of a future perfect in so, and a perfect subiunctive in 
sim, sometimes occur. They may, in general, be formed by adding these 
terminations to the second root of the verb ; as, recepso, emissim. But 
when the root ends in z, and frequently when it ends in a, only o and im 
are added; elb, jusso, dixis. F, at the end of the root, is changed into s, 
as, lewusOf locasavm. U, at the end of the root^ is changed into esso; as, 
habesso. Sometimes the vowel of the present is retained in these forms, 
though changed in the other parts derived from the second root; as, 
eapso, faxo (facso),faxim (Jacsim). 

NoTS. Faxo and /mm sometimes have the meaning of the futuxe 


10. A fhtnie infinitive in ^r* is also Bometiiaes fimnd^ which is ftfsaed 
bj adding that termination to the second root^ chang^g, as before, v into s; 
•Bf impetrmsain for imptiraitarus esse. 

Of the Tmses formed from the Third Root. 

11* The supine in icm, though called one of the principal parts of the 
▼erb, belongs in fact to very few verbs, the whole number which have su- 
pines not amounting to ^ree hundred. The part oalled in dictionaries the 
supine in um must therefore, in most cases, be conaidered as the neater 
gender of the perfect participle. 

12. In the compound tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods, 
the participle is always in the nominative case, but it is used in both num- 
bers, and in all genders, to correspond with the number and gender of the 
subject of the verb ; as, wmSXus, -a, -tim, est ; amdH, -<e, -a, ntnt, dtc. 

Fui, fitiramt fuirinif and fuusem^ are seldom used in the compound 
tenses of deponent verbs, and not so often as sumj &c., in l^ose of other 
verbs, but they express more emphatically than the latter the completion 
of the action. 

13. The participles in the perfect and future infinitive, are used only in the 
nonunative and accusative, but in aU genders and in both numbers ; as, 
amdiuSj -a, <tm, esse or fidsse; amdtom, -ant, -wn, esse or fidsse ; amdtif hb^ 
-a, esse or fidsse; am(Uos, *asj -a, esse or fidsse; and so of the others. 

But these participles in this combination with esse, are sometimes used 
as indeoUnabie ; as, coAortos adms missimi fmas* Cie. 

Periphrastic Conjugations* 

14. The participle in nis, joined to the tenses of the verb sum, 
denotes intention, or being upon the pmnt of d^ng somethiiig* 
Ilence arises what is called the periplastic cm^ugution. 


amaturus sum, / am about to love, 

amatCirus eram, I was cAout to love. 

amaturus ero, I shall be cd>out to love. 

amaturus fui, / was or have been about to love* 

amaturus fueram^ I had been about to love* 


amaturus sim, I may be about to love. 

amaturus essem, I would be c^bout to love. 

amaturus fuerim, J may heme been about to hve. 

amaturus fuissem, I would have been about to love. 


amaturus esse, to be about to love. 

amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love 


FuMro 18 not found joined with the participle in rua. 

15. The participle in dtis^ with the verb sum, expresses neccf- 
sity or propriety ; as, amandus sum, I must be loved, or deserre 
to be loved. With the various moods and tenses of 5tan, it £oTiaM 
a second periphrastic conjugation ; — ^thus : 

amandus sum, 
amandus eram, 
amandus ero, 
amandus fui, 
amandus fueram, 
amandus fuero. 

amandus sim, 
amandus essem, 
amandus fuerim, 
amandus fuissem, 
amandus esse, 
amandus fuisse. 


16. Neuter verbs, as thev want the passive voice, have usually onl^ the 
participles of the active. Dome of them, however, have perfect participles, 
of which a part are to be translated passively, others by past participles of 
English neuter verbs. Such are aduUtiSf eessatus, damdtttSf eoaUtuSy caw 
crttiisf defeduSf deflagrdtuSf emersits, errdiuSf interftus, oldtuSf occasus^ plar 
dltu3, redtmddtu8f regndtus, reqiditus, sudaUu, suetus, triumphkbis, tduldtus 

The following perfect participles, from verbs which are sometimes active, 
are also translated by active participles : — canStus, having supped ; poius 
having drunk ; premsua^ having dmed 3 and sometimes juratiu, luiving 

Some neuter verbs, also, have future passive participles ; as, dormienduSf 
erra$uiuSf regnanduSf vigilandus, &4i. 

Note. Most passive participles of neuter verbs are indicated in the lists 
which follow. 
For the active meaning of ostis and its compounds, see § 183, 1. 

17. The perfect participles of some deponent verbs have both an active 
and a passive sense ; as, adeptus Uhertatemy having obtained liberty, oc 
adeptd liheTtatty libertjr having been obtained. 

So ahominatuSf comitcUtis, commeTUdtuSy complexus, confessuSy contestdtus, 
detestdtuSy digndtitSj dimensuSy emensuSy ementltuSy emerttuSy expertuSy exse- 
crdtusy interpretdtusy largitus, mackindtuSy meditdiuSy meredttiSy metdtus, 
oblitusy orsuSf pactus, partUus, perfunctvs, polUtAtuSy testdtusy venerdtuSf 

13. The participles of Qeiiter passive verbs have the signification of the 
active voice ;^ as, gaviSTiSy having rejoiced. (See in lists!) 

But au3us is used both in an active and passive sense ; as, atisi omnes 
immdne nefasy ausdqtie pottti. Virg. 

19. The genitive plural of participles in rus is not used, except that of 

20. In the third and fourth conjugations, the future passive participle 
sometimes ends in undusy especially when i precedes. Potior has usually 
potiuTidus. In these conjugations the gerund also has sometimes undiy &c. 

21. Many present and perfect participles are compounded with iriy mg' 



lilfying mot, whose veibs do not aibnit of sach compontion ; they thus be- 
come adjectives ; as, insciens, ignorant; impardtuSf unprepared. 

22. Participles, when they do not express distinctions of time, become 
adjectives, and as such are compared ; as, amans, loving ; amantior. aman 
tisAmus. In some instances, they become substantives ; as, pntfeOuSf a 

Note. Many words derived from substantives, with the terminations 
of participles,^!tu5, Uus, and titttf, are yet adjectives ; as, alatuSf winged " 
turrUuSf turreted, &c. See § 128, 7. 

Gbneral Rules or Conjugation. 

^ 163. 1. Verbs which have a in the first root have it 
also in the third, though it be changed in the second ; as, fa* 
ciOf factum ; habeo, hcdntum. 

2. The connecting vowel is often omitted in the second root, 
and in such cases, if v follows, it is changed into u. This 
hi^pens in most verbs of the second conjugation. 

Remark. Some verbs prefix to the second root their initial 
consonant, with the vowel which follows it, or with e ; as, currOf 
eticurri ; faHo^fefelli ; cdno, cecini ; parco, peperct. This prefix 
is called a reduplication. The verbs in which it is found will 
be specified hereafter. See §§ 165, 168 and 171, Exc. If (6.) 

3. Verbs which want the second root want also the third. 

4. Compound verbs form their second and third roots like the 
simple verbs from which they are derived ; as, audio, audivi, 
auditum; exaudio, exaudwi, exaudttum. 

Some compound verbs, however, are defective, whose simples are com- 
plete, and some are complete, whose simples are defective. 

Exc. 1. Compound verbs omit the reduplication; but the 
compounds of do, sto, disco, posco, and some of those of curro, 
retain it 

Exc. 2. Verbs which, in composition, change a into e in the 
first root, (see'§ 189, 2,) retain e in the second and third roots 
of the compound ; as, scando, scandi, scansum ; descendo, de^ 
icendi, descensum. 

Exc. 3. When a, a, or e, in the first root of the simple verb, 
is changed in the compound into i, the same is retained in the 
second and third roots, in case the third root of the simple is a 
trisyllable ; as, habeo, habui, hahHtum ; prokibeo, prohibui, pro» 

But if the third root is a dissyllable, the second root of the 
compound has usually the same vowel as that of the simple 


VBfiBS.^^-«B0IIN]> AHm TSIBD ftOOXS. [1 CONJ. 

but Bometimes changes e into i, and the thml root has t; m, 
facia, feci, factvm ; cdnficio, confeci, confedttm ; teneo, tenm, 
tentum; retineo, retinm, retention. 

NoT«. Tke cmapoands of €ado^ aea, frango, pango, and tango, reUdn 
m, and those of salio retain u, in the mird root. 

Eic.-4. Compounds of pario,nnd some of do tatd eubo,-oae of difbtent 
eonjuffrntrons from their simfile Terbs. 
A few other exceptions will be noticed in the following ToxiUl 

FoBXATioN oi* Second Atm Third Bigots. 


^164. In regular verbs of this conjugation, the second 
root ends in do, and the third in diu; as, amo, amavt, amatuiTt. 
The following list contains such regular verbs of thb conjuga- 
tion as are of most frequent occurrence. 

Note. In this and the subsequent lists, those verbs which are marked 
* are said to have no perfect participle ; thcMO mailed t to have no pres- 
ent participle. A dasn ( — ) alter the present, denotes that there is no sec- 
ond root. The participles in rus and dusj and the supines in vm and u 
which are in use, are indicated respectively by the letters r., d.^ m., and u, 
Almndo^ for example, has no perfect participle, no supine, no participle in 
dtLs; but it has a present participle, and a participle in rus. 

In the lists of irregular verbs, those compounds only are given, whose 
conjugati6n differs from that of their simples. 

When p. is subjoined to a deponent verb, it denotes that some of the 
parts which have commonly an active meaning^ are used either actively and 
passively, or passively alone. Such verbs are by some grammarians call- 
ed common. 

*Abundo, r. to overflow, 
Accaso, m. r. d. to ac- 
tAdumbro, to delineate. 
Edifice, r. d. to build, 
^quo, T. level. 
^stlmo, r. d. to value. 
*AmbOlo, m. d. to walk. 
A mo, r. d. to love, 
tAmpIio, d. to enlarge, 
Appello, d. to eaU, 
Apto, d. to ft. 
Aro, r. d. to plough, 
*t Ausculto, to listen. 
*t AutQmo, to suppose, 
f Basic, — , d. to kiss, 
*BeIio, m. r. d. to loage 

f Beo, to bless, 
*Boo, to bellow. 

tBrevio, to shorten, 

tCssco, to blind, 

tCselo, to carve. 

f Calceo, d. to shoe, 

*tCaIcitro, to kick. 

Canto, m. to sing. 

Capto, m. r. d. tosieze. 

tCastlgo, m. ckas^ 

Celebro, d. to celebrate. 

Celo, d. to conceal. 

Gesso, d. to cease. 

Certo, r. d. to strive. 

Clamo, to shout. 

Cogito, d. to think, 

Compftro, d. to compare. 

Concilio, r. d. to recon- 

ConsidSro, r. d. to con- 

Cremo, d. to him. 

concrgmo, r. 
f Creo, r. d. to create. 
Crucio, d. to tormmL 
Culpo, r. d. to blame. 
tCuneo, d. to wedge. 
Curo, r. d. to care. 
Damno, m. r. d. to conr 

Decdro, d. to adorn, 
*tDeIineo, to delineate. 
Desid£ro, r. d. to de* 

Destine, d. to design. 
Dico, m. r. d. to dedi 

Dicto, to dictate, 
tDolo, to hew. 
Done, r. d. to bestow. 
Duplico, r. d. todmM§ 

1 CONJ.] tlBBBa,-^StCOfai MSKD ^THnUD BO0TS. 


Doro, r. to harden. 
tEffigio, to portray. 
Equf to, to ride. 
tEnucIeo, to exjMn. 
ErrOy to wander. 
Existimo,u.r.d. to think, 
Expliiro, m. d. to search, 
EzQio, m. r. to he boM- 

ished. . 
Fabrico, d. to frame. 
tFattgo, r. d. to weary, 
FestinOy r. to hasten. strengthen. 
Flag!to,m.d. tc demand, 
•Flagro. T.toOe on fire, 

connagro, r. < 

Flo, d. to blow, 
Formo, r. d. to form, 
Foro, d. to bore. 
tFrieno, to bridle. 
tFraudo, d. to defraud, 
f Frio, — , to crunMe. 
Fugo, r. d. to put to 

tFuiido, r. to found. 
tFurio, — , to madden. 
tGaled, — , to put on a 

Gesto, d. to bear. 
Glacio, — , to congeal. 
GraYo, d. to weigh 

Gusto, d. to taste. 
Habito, m. d. to dweU, 
*Halo, — , to breathe, 
HiSmo. m. to winter, 
*Hio, d. to gape. 
tHumo, T. d. to bury. 
Jacio, r. d. to t/irow. 
Ignoro, r. d. to be igno- 
Imp^ro, r. d. to com- 

tlmpetro, r. d. to obtain, 
Inchoo, r. to begin. 
tindago, r. d. to trace 

Indico, m. r. d. to show. 
tlaebrio, — , to inebri" 

Initio, to initiate, 
Inquino, to pollute. 
Instauro, d. to renew, 
Intro, r. d. to enter. 
Invito, d. to invite, 
lirtto, r. d. to irritate, 


ItSro, u. d. to do etgain 
Judico, r. d. to fitdge, 
Jugo, d. to cou^e. 
Jugdlo, m. d. to butcher, 
Juro, d. to iwear, 
Labdro, r. d. to labor, 
LacSro, d. to tear, 
*Lacto, to suckle. 
tLanio, d. to butcher, 
Latro, to bark. 
Laudo, r. d. to praise, 
Laxo, d. to loose, 
tLego, to depute. 
Levo, r. d. to lighten, 
LibSro, r. d. to free, 
Libo, d. to pour out, 
Li^, to bind. 
tLiquo, d. to melt, 
Lito, to appease. 
Loco, r. d. to place. 
Lustro, d. to survey. 
Lujcurio, to abound. 
Macto, d. to slay. 
MacQlo, to stain. 
Mando, commoTid. 
Mandaco, to chew, 
*Mano, to flow. 
Mataro, d. to ripen, 
Mf^mdro, u. d. to tell, 
*Meo, to go. 
*Mi£ro,a. r. d. to depart. 
•Mill to, m. r. to serve in 

tMinio, d. to paint red, 
Ministro, d. to serve. 
Mitigo, d. to pacify. 
Monstro, r. to show, 

tdemonstro, d. 
Muto, r. d. to change, 
Narro, r. d. to tell. 
Nato, m. r. to sujirn. 
tNavlgo, r. d^ to sail, 
Navo, r. d. to perform, 
*Nauseo, to loathe. 
Nego, m. r. d. to deny, 
*No, to swim. 
Nomlno, r. d. to name, 
Noto, d. to mark. 
Novo, r. d. to renew. 
Nudo, d. to make. bare, 
Nuncapo, r. d. to name. 
Nuntio, m. r. to tell, 

reniintio, d. 
*Nuto, r. to nod. 
Obsecro, r. d. to beseech. 
Obtrunco, r. <o kill, 
Ondro, r. d. to load 

'Opto, d. to vfish, 
tOrbo, T. to deprive, 
Omo, r. d. to adorn 
Oro, m. r. d. to beg* 
Paco, d. to subdue. 
Paro, r. d. to prepare, 
Patro, r. d. to perform. 
*Pecco, r. A. to sin, 
. tPio, d. to propitiate. 
Placo, r.'d. to appease, 
Ploro, m. d. to bewail, 
Porto, u. r. d. to carru 
Postalo, m. r. d. to 00- 

Privo, d. to deprive. 
Probo, m. u. r. d. toop- 

comprdbo, m. 
Profitgo, d. to rout, 
PropSro, d. to hasten. 
*f'Propino, to drink to, 
Propitio, d. to appease. 
Pugno, r. d. to fight, 
Pulso, d. to beat. 
Purgo, u.r. d. to cleanse. 
Puto, d. to think. 
Quasso, d. to shake. 
Radio, to emit rays, 
Ilapto,vil. to drag. 
Recup^ro, m. r. d. to 

RecQso, r. d. to refuse 
Redundo, to overfiow. 
Regno, r. d. to rule. 
tRepudio, r, d. to reject, 
ResSro, d. to unlock. 
*tRetalio, — , to retaU- 

Rigo, to loator. 
Rogo, m. r. d. to ask, 
Roto, to whirl. 
Sacrifico, sacrifice 
Sacro, d. to consecrate, 
fSagino, d. to fatten, 
Salto, r. to dance. 
Salato,m. r. d. to salute 
Sano, r. d. to heal, 
Satio, to satiate. 
tSatdro, to fiU, 
Saucio, d. to wound, 
*Secundo, to prosper. 
Sedo, m. d. to allay. 
Servo, r. d, to ketp, 
*tSibiIo, to hiss 
Sicco^ d. to dry. 
Signo, r. d. to mark omt» 

uwigno, m. 



Simtiloy T, d. tofTttend, 

Socio, d. to agsodate, 

'Somnio, to dream. 

SpectOy m. r. d. to he- 

Spero, r. d. to hope. 

*Spiro, to hreathe. 
ezspiro, r. 
suspiro, d. 

Spolio, m. d. to rob. 

Spumo, to foam, 

Stillo, to drop. 

StimOlo, to goad. 

Stipo, to stuff. 

Sudo, to sweat. 

SuifOco, to strangle. 

Sugillo, d. to taunt. 

SupSro, r. d. to over- 

Suppedito, to afford. 

*Sapp1Ica, m. to sup- 

*Su£iurro, to whisper, 
Tardo, to delay. 
Taxo, d. to rate. 
TemSro, d. to defle. 
Tempdro, t. d. to fena- 

obtemp^ro, r. to obey. 
Tento, m. r. d. to try, 
Terebro, to bore. 
Terminoy r. d. to Umit. 
TitCibo, to stagger. 
Toldroy u. r. d. to bear. 
Tracto, u. d. to handle. 
*tTripudio, to dance. 
Triumpho, r. to tri' 

Xruciao, r. d. to kill. 
Turbo, d. to disturb. 
*Vaeo, to be at leisure. 

*Vapalo, m. d. to te 

Vario, to dveersify, 
Vasto, d. to lay ioa#to. 
Vellico, to pluck. 
Verbero, r. d. to beat, 
*Vestiffo, to search far 
Vexo, d. to tea^e. 
Vibro, d. tobraruUsk. 
VigTio, d. to toaich. 
Violo, m. r. d. to vie 

Vitio, d. to vitiate, 
Vito, u. d. to fAam. 
Ulcilo, to Aou7^. 
Umbro, r. to shade. 
Voco, r. d. to caU, 
*Volo, to jiy. 
Voro, r. to devour. 
\ulgOy r. d. to publish, 
VulnSro, d. to VHnmd. 

*tpercr6po, — , 
*trecr€po, — . 

^ 165. The following ^verbs of the first conjugation are 
irregular or defective in their second and third roots : — 

*Crepo, crepui, to make a noise. dimtco, -avi or -ai, t. (-atarus). 

*ai8crSpo, -ui or -avi. •emico, -ui, r. (-atQni«). 

incr^po, -td or -avi, -Uiim.or atum, *interiuIco, — . 

•promico, — , d. 
Neco, necavi or necui, necatmn, r. d, 
tokiU. . 
enSco, -avi or -ui, -alum, or 

-turn, d. 
finternSco, — , -a turn. 
*tNexo, — , to tie. 
Plico, — , plica turn, to fold. 
duplTco, -avi, -atum, r. d. 
multiplTco and repUco have -avi| 

*8UppIIco, -avi, m. r. 
apphco, -avi or -ui, -atum or 

-itum, -itfiruB. So implico. 
complice, -ui, -Itum or -atum. 

*Cubo, cubui, cubUum (8up.)f to r*- 
incCLbo, -ui or -avi, d. 
J%ose compounds of cubo which take 
nx before b, are of the third con- 
Do, &di, datum, m. r. d. to give. 
So circumdo, pessumdo, satisdo, 
and venumdo ; the other com- 
pounds of do are of the third 
Domo, domui, domitum, r.d. to tame, 
Frico, fricui, frictum or fncatum, 
d. to nib. 
confrico, — , -atum. 
infrico, — , -atum. 
Juvo, juvi, jutum, r. d., also juvata- 
nis, to help. 
So adjdvo, -javi, -jatom, m. r. d. 
•Labo, — , to totter, 
Lavo, lavi, lavatum, lautnm or lo- 
tum ; {sup.) lautum or lava- 
tum, lavatQrus, d. to toash. 
Lavo is also sometimes of the 
third conjugation, 
•MicOy micui, to glitter, s 

ezplico, -avi or -ui, -atum or 

-Itum, r. r. 
Poto, potavi, potatum or potum, r. r. 

m. m. d. to drink, 
tepoto, -avi, -um. 
*perp6to, -avi. 
Seco, secui, sectum, Becatarut, d. 

to cut. 
^circumsSco, — . 
*interseco, — ^d. 
^persSco, -ui 
prffisSco, -tii. -turn or -atom. 8§ 

teaSco, a. 



*Sono, sonui, -atQnu, d. to sound. 
*con8dno, -ui. So ex-, in-, per-, 

•resfino, -avi. 
*as8dno, — . So circumsdno and 

*Sto, st^ti, statams, to stand, 

'fuitesto, -Btdti. So circimuitOy 

infento, supersto. 
*consto, -Btlti, -statarus. So 

exto, insto, obsto, persto. 

'prteito, -stiti, -Btatflfus^ d. 

^adsto, -siiti, -stitarus. 

*pro8to, -Btiti. So resto. 

*diBto, — . SoBubsto. 
*To]io, tonui, to thunder. So cir- 

attdno, -ui, -Itiim. 

intdno, -ui, -&tnm. 

*retfino^ — . 
Veto, vetQi/>r tivifVeVitamfto forbid* 

^ 166* All deponent verbs, of the first conjugation, are 
regular, and are conjugated like miror ; as, 

Abomlnor, d. to abhor, 

Adalor, d. toJlaUeT. 

i£m\ilor, d. to rival, 

*Apricor, to bask in the 

Arbitror, r. d. to think* 

Aspernor, d. p. to de- 

AucQpor, r. p. to hunt 

Aoxilior, p. to help. 

Aversnr, d. to dislike. 

Calumnior, to eo/umm- 

GauBor, to allege. 

^ComisBor, m. to revel. 

Comitor, p. to accomf 

Conci6nor,to harangue. 

*Confabalor, m. to dis- 

Conor, d. to endeavor. 

tConsplcor, to see. 

Contemplor, d. p. to 

Criminor, m. p. to 

Cunctor, d. p. to delay. 

Deprgcor, m. r. d. p. to 

*tDigIadior, to fence. 

Dignur, d. p. to think 

Dominor, to rule. 

Epalor, r. d. to feast. 

'FamQlor, m. to wait on. 

FatuT, (defect.) n. d. to 
speak. See 9 183, 6. 

tFenor, r. to keep holi- 

*Frumentor, m. to for- 
Furor, m. to steal, 
Glorior, r. d. to boast, 
GratQior, m. d. to con- 

Hortor, d. to encourage, 
Imltor, u. r. d. to irni- 

Indi^nor, d. to disdain, 
Infitior, d. to deny, 
Insector, to pursue, 
Insidior, r. d. to lie in 

JacQlor, p. to dart. 
Jocor, to jest, 
LsBtor, r. d. p. to r^oiee, 
Lamentor, d. p. to be^ 

*tLi^or, m. to gather 

Luctor, d. to wresde. 

Medicor, r. d. p. to heal, 

Meditor, p. to medilate, 

Mercor, m. r. d. .p. to 

Minor, to threaten' 

Miror, u. r. d. to admire. 

MisSror, d. to pity. 

Moderor, u. d. to rule. 

Modalor, d. p. to mod- 

Moror, r. d. to delay. 

fMutuor, p. to borrow. 

Negotior, r. to traffic, 

*i^ugoT, to trifle. 

Obtestor, p. to beseech. 

Op^ror, to work. 

Opinor, u. r. d. to think. 

OpitCdor, m. to help. 

Ops^nor, m. to eater, 
tOtior, to beat leisure. 
Pab&lor, m. d. to graxCm 
Palor, to wander. 
Percontor,m. to inquire^ 
Periclitor, d. p. to try. 
tPiscor, m. to fish. 
Poptdor, r. d. p. to lay 

Prsedor, m. to plunder, 
Proelior, to fight. 
Precor, m. u. r. d. to 

Recor<u>r, d. to remem' 

Rimor, d. to search. 
Rixor, to scold. 
*Ru8t1cor, to Hve in the 

Sciscitor, m. p. to m- 

*SGitor, m. to ask. 
Scrutor. p. to search. 
Solor, a. to comfort. 
Spatior, to walk about. 
Specfllor, m. r. d. to 

tStipaloi; p. to stipu- 

tSuavior, d. to kiss. 
SuspTcor, to suspect. 
TeB^or, d. p. to witness. 

So detestor. 
Tutor, d. to defend. 
Vagor, to wander. 
Venfiror, d. p. to u>or» 

Venor, m. to hunt. 
Versor, to be employed. 
VocifSror, to baud 




% 167. Verbs of the second conjugation end in to. The 
second and third roots, instead of iv and etti, commonly end in 
u and ttu; as, moneo, monut, mom turn. 

The following liat contains most verbs so conjugated, and 
also some which want the second and third roots : — ' 

*Aceo, to be sour. 
*Albeo, — y to be white. 
Arceo, d. to drive away. 

eoeioeo, d. (a r«- 

exerceo, d. to txet' 
*Areo, to be dry. 
*AveOy — y to covet. 
'"Caleo, T. to be loarm. 
*Calleo, — , to be hard. 

*percalleo, to be 
*Ca]veo, — , to be bald. 
*CandeOy to be white. 
*Caneo, to be hoary, 
*Careo, r. d. to want. 
*Ceveo, — , to fawn. 
*Clareo, to be bright. 
*Clueo, — , to befiumouM. 
*Den8eo, ^-^ to thicken. 
*Diribee) **, to distri- 
^ bute. 

*Doieo, r. d, to grieoe. 
*Egeo, r. to want, 
*Kiniiieo, to rise above. 
•Flacceo, to wither. 
*riaveo, — /o be yellow. 
*Floreo, to flourish. 
•FoBteo, — , to be fetid. 
•Frigeo, — , to be col4. 
•Frondeo, — , to bear 

Habeo, r. d. to have. 

So ad-, ex-, pro-hi- 

cohibeo, d. to re- 

inhibeo, d. to hinder. 

*tperhibeo, d. to re- 

tposthabeo, to post- 

prsbeo, t. d, to af- 

debeo, r. d. to owe. 
*Hebeo, — ^tobe duU. 
*Horreo, d. to be rou^h. 
*Humeo, — , to be mout. 
*Jaceo, r. to lie. 
•Lacteo^-— , to suek. 
*Langaeo, to languish. 
*Lateo, to lie hid. 
•Lenteo, — , to be slow. 
*Liceo, to be valued. 
•Liveo, — , to be livid, 
*lilaceo, — , to be lean. 
*Madeo, to be wet. 
Mereo, r to d^erve, 

tcommereoi to de- 

tdemereo, d. to earn, 

temereo, to merit. 

*tpermereo, to serve 
in war. 

promereo, to deserve. 
•Mcereo, — , to grieve. 
Moneo, r. d. to advise. 

admoneo, m. r. d. to 

eommoneo, to warn, 

prsemoneo, to foro- 
•Mttceo, — , to be 

*NigTeo, to be black. 

*Niteo, to shine. 

Noceo, m. r. to hurt. 

*01eo, to smell. 

*PaIleo, to be pale. 

*Pareo, m. r. d. to 0602^ 

*Pateo, to be open. 

Placeo, to please. 

*Polleo, — , to be able. 

*Puteo, to 60 nauseous. 

*Putreo, to be putrid. 

*Reiudeo, — , to glitter. 

*Rieeo, to be sUf. 

*RuDeo, to be red. 

*Scateo, — , to overflow 

*Sileo, d. to be silent. 

*Sordeo, to be flUhy. 

*Splendeo, — , to shine 

*SquaIeo, to be foul. 

*Strideo, — , to creak. 

*Studeo, d. to study. 

*Stupeo, to be amazed- 

Taceo, r. d. to be sUeiu 

*Tepeo, to he \oarm. 

Terreo. d. to terrify. 
So aeterreo, to deter 
tabsterreo, to detef 
tconterreo, ^ to 
texterreo, >frighd 
fperterreo, ) en. 

•Timeo, d. to fear. 

•Torpeo, to be torpid. 

*Tumeo, to swell. 

•Valeo, r. to be able. 

*Vegeo, — , to he strong 

•Vieo, — , to bind. 

•Vigeo, to be strong. 

• Vireo, to be green. 

•Uveo, — ,tobe moist. 

^ 168. The following list contains those verbs of the sec- 
ond conjugation which do not form their second and third roots 
in u and ttu, including those which form them regularly in ev 
and etu. 

Note. Some verbs of this conjugation are irregular in the second and 
third roots, in consequence of imitating the common forms of the third 



Aboleo, -eyi, 4tuiA, r. d. to efface* 
*AIgeo, aUi, to be add. 
ArdeO) arsi, arsum, r. to bum, 
Audeo, ausus Bom, t. d to dare. 
Augeo, auxi, auctum*, r. d. to tn- 

Caveo, cavi) cautoniy m. d. to fte- 

Censeo^ censuiy censum, d. to think, 

recenaeo, -m, -um or -itum. 

*percen8eO| -ui. 

*8accen8eo, -ui, d. 
Cieo, civi, citum, to excite. The. per' 

feet civi seems to come from oio, 

of the fouiiJi conjugation. 
Compleoy -eviy <-€tum, to fill. So 

the other compmcnds of. pleo. 
*ConniTeo, -niyi, to wink at. 
Deleo, -evi, -etum, d. to blot ovl. 
Doceoy dociii, doctum, d. to teach. 
*Faveo, favi, fautorus, to favor. 
*Feryeo, ferbui, to boil. It is som&- 

times of the third conjugation. 
Fleo, flevi, fietum, r. d. to weep. 
Foveo, fbviy fotonij d. to cherish. 
Frend^o, — , fressum or fresunii to 

•Fmgeo, fulsi, to shine. 

Fulp;o, of the third conjugation^ 
IS also in use. 
Gaudeo, ^avisus sum, r. to rejoice. 
*I]ffireo, nsBsi, hsBsarus, to stick. 
Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum, r. d. to 

Jubeo, jussi, jussum, r. to order. 
*Luceo, luxi, to shine, 

polluceo, -luzi, -luctum. 
*Lugeo, luxi, d. tu mourn. 
*Maiieo, mansi, mansum, in. r. d. to 


Misceo, miscui, mistum or miztom^ 

mistaruB, d. to mix. 
Mordeo, momordl, morsum, d. to 

Moveo, movi, motum, r. d. to move. 
Mulceo, mulBi, muJsum, d. to soothe. 
*Mulgeo, mulsi or mulzi, to milk. 
Neo, neyi, netuin, to spin. 
•Paveo, pavi| d. to fear. 
*Pendeo, pependi, to hang. 

propendeo, — , propensum. 
Pleo, (obsolete.) See compleo. 
Prandeo, prandi, pransum, r. to dine. 
Rideo, risi, risum, m. r. d. to laugh. 
*Sedeo, sedi, sessum, m. r. to sit. 

The compounds change e into i. 

*dis8ideo, -sedi. So prsesideo. 
^eneo, senui, to be old. 
Soleo, solitus sum or Bolui, tobeao* 

*Sorbeo, Borbui, to suck in. 

*ab80Tbeo, -sorbui or -sorpsi. 
Spondeo, spopondi, sponsum, to 

Suadeo, suasi, suasum, r.d. to advise, 
Teneo, tenui, tentum, r. d. to hold. 

The compounds change e into i. 

*attineo, -tinui. So pertineo. 
Tergeo, tersi, teraum, to wipe. 

Tergo, of the third conjugation^ 
is also in v^e. 
Tondeo, — , tonsum, to shear. The 

compounds have the perfect tondL 
Torquee, torsi, tortum, d. to twist. 
Tort^o, torrui, tostum, to roast. 
•Turgeo, tursi, to-swell. 
*Urgeo or ur^ueo, ursi, d. to urge. 
Video, vidi, visum, m. u. r. d. to see 
Voveo, vovi, votuia, d. to vow. 

^ 169c Impersonal Verbs of the Second Conjugation. 

Decet, decuit, it becomes, 

Iiibet, libuit or libitum edt, it 

Licet, iicuit or licUum est, it is law- 

Liquet, liquit, it is deaf. 

Piget, piguit or pigftum est, d. & 

Pcenitet, pcBuitait, pmnitanu, d. if 

Pudet, puduit or puditum est, d. it 



So pertaedet. 

Mis^ret, miseruit or miseritum est, Taedet, teduit or ttesum est, it 

it pities. 
Oportet, oportuit, it behoves. 

NoTT. Lubetj &c., are sometimes written for Ubet, &c., especially in 
the comio writers. 

11 • 

t96 yX|IB8«<^-^K€0ND ANB THIBD JUMKTS. [3 CONJ« 

^ 1 70. Dej^onent Verbs of the Second Conjugation. 

Fateor, fa^sus, r. d. to confess. *Medeor, d. to cure. 

The compounds change a into i. Mereor, merltus, to deserve. 

coniiteor, confe8su3) d. p. to ac^ Misdreor, miserttus or migertus, to 

knotoledge. P^V- 

*tdiffiteor, to deny. Poluceor, polUcItus, p. to promise. 

profiteor, professus, d. p. to ^ Reor, rattiS; to eAtnik. 

dare. Tueor^ tuYtus, d. p. to protect, 

Liceor, licitus, to bid a pricfi. Vereor, veritivi, d. to fear 


^171. In the third conjugation, when the first root ends 
with a consonant, the second root is formed by adding 5 ; when 
it ends with a vowel, the first and second roots are the same * 
the third root is formed by adding tu ; as, carpo, carpst, carp- 
tufl} ; arguo, argut, argutujn. 

In annexing s and fv,. certain changes occur in the final consonant of 
the root : — 

X. C^g, A> and ^, at the end of the root, form with s the double letter 
X in the 2d root; m the 3d root, c remains, and the others are changed 
into c before tu; as, rego {regsi)^ rexif rectum; veho, vexi, vectum, 
coquOf eoTdf eoctum. 

NoTK. InJhtOjflusdy and struo^ sfnizt, k seems to have been lost in the 
root of the verb. 

2. B is changed into p before s and tu; as, seribo, scripsi, scripium. 

3. D and t, before s, are either dropped, or changed into s ; as, claudo, 
dausi ; cedo^ cessi. After m, p is sometimes inser&d before s ; as, sumOf 

Some other consonants are dropped, or changed into s, in certain verbs. 

Exc. 1. Many verbs whose first root ends in a consonant, do not add s 
to form the second root. 

(a.) Of these, some have the second root the same as the first ; as, 

Bibo, Excado, Ico, Mando, Scabo, Solvo, Verro, 

Edo, Fodio, Lambo, Prehendo, Scando, Stride, Verto, 

Emo, Fngio, Lego, Psallo, Sido, ToUo, Volvo' 

to which add the compounds of the obsolete eandojfendOf and nito. 

(b.) Some make a change ii;i the first root. Of these, some change a 
▼owel, some drop a consonant, some prefix a reduplication, others admit 
two or more of tnese ehsjiges ; as, 

Ago^ Facio, Franco, Jacio, Rumpo, Scindo, 

Capio, Findo, Funoo, Linquo, Sisto, Vinco. 

Those which have a reduplication are 

Cado, Curro, Parco, Pendo, Tango, 

Casdo, Disco, Pario, Posco, Tendo, 

Cano, Fallo, Pello, Pungo, Tundo. 


EzG. 2. Some add u to tiie root of tjip verb; as, 

AlOy ConsOlo, Gemo, Rapio, TremO| 

Colo, Depso, Oeno,(o^) 8trepO| Volo, 

Compeaco, Fiemo, Molo, Texoi Vomo. 

Meto and pano add su, with a change in the root. 

Fixc. 3. The following add W: — 

Arcesso, Cupio, LaceaflOi Rudo, 

Capesao, Inceflso, Peto, (lamio, tnik a ekmngt of t iiU» M. 

£xc. 4. The following add Vt with a change in the root; those in seo 
dropping se : — 

.Oesco, Paaco, Sciaooi Lino, 3ino, Sterno, 

Nosco, Quieico, Cemo, Sero, 6pemo, Tero. 

Exc. 5. The 3d roots of verbs whose root ends in d or f, add sUf in 
stead of tu, , to the root, either dropping those letters, or changing them 
into s; as, claudOf datisum; defendo^ £fensuni; cedo, cessum. But the 
compounds of do add iiu. 

The following, also, add #u, with a change of the root : — 

Excello, Fallo, Pello, Spargo, Verro. 

Percello, Merge, Premo, Velio, 

Exc. 6. The following add iu, with a change of the root: — 

Cemo, Fingo, Gero, Sero, Sperno, Stringo, Uro, 

Colo, Frango, Rnmpo, pisto, Sterno, Tero, Vineo; 

to which add those in seo, with the 2d root in v ; these drop sfi before to, 
except pascoy which drops e only. 

Exc . 7. The following have Uu .*— > 

Bibo, Molo, Pono, with a changs irf n into «. 

Geno, (phs.) . Vomo, 

The following have {to .* — 

Arcesso, Cupio, Peto, 

Facesso, Lacesso, Qusro, toith a change oft into s. 

Some other irregularities occur in this conjugation. 

^ 172. The following list contains both the regular and 
irregular formations of the second and third roots in the third 
conjugation : — 

Acuo, acui, actltum, d. to sharpen, *Batuo, batui, d. to beat. 

Ago, egi, actum, r. d. to drive, Bibo, bibi, bibltum, d. to drink, 

8o circumigo, cogo, and perSgo. *Cado, cec!di, casOrus, to fall. The 

*ambIgo, — ftodmJft. Sosatftgo. compounds tkaikge a vnio i. 

The other compounds change ana drop the re£ipUcation, 

a inJto i. See § 189. 2. occTdo, -cloi, -casum, r. to set, 

*prodigo, -egi, to squander. Cede, cecidi, csesum, r. d. to euL 

Alo, alui, alltum or altum, d. to The compounds chatfjre e into 

lumruA. I, and drop the redupliea- 

*Ango, anxi, to strangle, turn, 

Arguo, argui, argotum, d. to convict. From candeo, of the second can' 

Arcesso, -cesslTiy -cessitum, r. d. to jugationf is formed 

call for, accendo, Hsendi, -ceasonii d. to 



kindle. So the other com" 
''Cano, ceciniy d. to sing. The com" 
pounds diange a into i. 
*concino, -cinui. So occIqO| 

*acci no, — . So incinO| intercXnOy 
«uccino, recino. 
*Cftpe8so, -Ivi, r. d. to undertake, 
CapiOy cepi, captum. r. d! to take, 
T%e compounds change a into i. 
Carpo, carpsi, carptom, d. to pluck. 

The compounds change a into e. 
Odo, cessi, cessum, r. to yield. 
Cello, (obsolete.) 

excello, -celluiy -celsiim, to exctH, 
*antecello, — . So prscello, re- 
perceDo, -cfili, -ciilBiim,to strike, 
Cerno, crevi, cretum, d. to decree. 
Cerno, to see^ has no second or 
third root. 
Cingo, cinxi, cinctum, d. to gird. 
*Clango, — , to dang. 
Claudo, clausi, clausum,r. d. to shut. 
The compounds change au into u. 
*tClepo,' clepsi, or clepi, to steal, 
Colo, colui, cultum, d. to till. 

tocctilo, 'cului, -cultVLmjd. to hide, 
Como, compsi, comptum, to deck. 
^Compesco, -pescui, to restrain, 
ConsQio, >sului, -sultum, m, r.d. to 

Coquo, coxi, coctum, m. d. to cook. 
Credo, credldi, creditum, r. d. to he- 

*Cresco, crevi, to grow. 

concresco, -crevi, -cretam. 
Cubo is of, the first conjugation. 
*accuinbo, -cubui, to lie down. 
So the other compounds which 
*Cndo, — , to forge. -. [insert m. 
excQdo,-cQdi,-casam, d. to stamp. 
Cupio, cupivi, cupltum, d. to desire. 
*Curro, cucurri, cursQrus, to run. 
Concurro, circumcurro, succur- 
ro, and transcurro, drop the 
reduplication; the other com- 
pounds sometimes drop, and 
sometimes retain it. 
tlecurro, decurri, decursuin. 
*'CK:*go, degi, d. to live, [take away. 
Deiiio, dempsi, deiiiptum, r. d. to 
rDepso, depsui, depstum, to knead. 
Dico, dixi, dictum, u. r. d. to say. 
•Disco, didi^i, discitarus, d. to learn. 

•Dispesco, — , to separate. 

Divide, divisi, di visum, r.d. to divide. 

Do is of the first conjugation. 

abdo, -didi, -ditum, d. to hide. So 

condo, indo. 
addo, -dloi, -ditum, r. d. to add. 
So dedo, edo, prodo, reddo, 
tradoy vendo. . 
tdido,-dIdi,-dttum,to<2»vi^. So 

abdo, subdo. 
perdo, -oidi, -dttum, m. r. 
Dneo, duxi, ductam, m. r. d. lo lead, 
£dO|edi, esum, m. u. r. d. to eat, 
Exuo, exui, exQtuin, d. to strip off. 
£mo, emi, emptum, r. d. to buy. 
Facesso, -cessi, -cessltum, to execute 
Faci«, feci, factum, m. u. r. d. to do. 
Compounded with a preposition^ 
it changes a into i, and has a 
regular passive. Compounds 
id with other words, it retains 
a when of tliis conjugation^ 
and has the passive, fio, fac- 
tus. See §180. 
Fallo, fefelli, falsum, d. to deceive, 

*refeIlo, -felli, d. to refute. 
Fendo, (obsolete.) 

defendo, -fendi, -fensum, m. u. r. 

d. to defend. 
ofiendo, -fendi, -fensmn, d, to 
Fero, tuli, latum, r. d. to bear. See 
§179. A perfect tetiiU. is rare. 
•su£rero, — . 
Fido, — , fisus, to trust. See § 162. 18. 
confido,eonfi8U8 sum orconfldi, 

to rely on. 
diffido, aiff isus sum, to distrust, 
Figo, fixi, fixum, r. to fix. 
Findo, fidi, fissum, d. to cleave. 
Fingo, finxi, fictum, d. to feign. 
Flecto, flexi, flexum, r. d. to bend. 
*Fligo, flixi, to dash. So confllgD. 
SsligOf -flixi, -flictum, to afflict 

So infligo. 
proflTgo is of the first comugation, 
Fluo, fluxi, jSluxum, r. to Juno. 
Fodio, fodi, fossum, d. to dig. 
Frango, fregi, fractum, r. d. to break. 

The compounds cliange a tjuo i. 
•Fremo, fremui, d. to roar. 
Frt'ndo, — , fresum or fressum, t0 

' gnash. 
Frigo, frixi, frictum or frizum, U 




*Fuffio, fiiffi, fiigitarus, d. to flee. 
FundOy fudi, fusuiu, r. d. to pour 
•Furo, — , to rage. * 

*Gremo, gemui, d. to groan. 
Qigno, {pbsolete geno,) genui, geni- 

tum, r. d. to beget. 
*GUsco, — , to grotp. 
•Glubo, — , to peel. 

deglabo, — y -gluptum. 
Gruo, {obsolete.) [ingruo. 

*congnio, -giui, to agree. So 
Gero, gessi, gestum, r. d. to bear. 
Jacio, jeci, jactum, d. to east, Th» 

compounds change a into i. 
Ico, ici, ictum, r. to strike. 
imbuo, imbui, imbatum, d. to imbue. 
^'IncessOy -cessivii to attack. 
tinduo, indui, indatum, to put on, 
Jttngojunxi, janctum, r. d. to join. 
Lac68so, -cessivi, -cessitum^. d. to 

LaciOf (obsolete.) The compounds 
change a into i. 

allicio, -lezi, -lectum, d. to aUure, 
So illicio, pellicio. 

elicio, -licuiy -licltum, to draw out. 
Liedo, laesi, lesum, m. r. to hurt. Uie 

compounds change m into L 
*Lambo, Iambi, to lick. 
XiCgo, leffi, lectum, r. d. to read. So 
allSgo, perlSgo, pnalSgo, reld« 
ffo, siiblego, and tranaldgo; 
the other compounds change e 
into i. 

dillffo, -lexi, -lectum, to love. 

intelligo, -lexi, -lectum, u. r. d. to 

negUgo, -lexi, -lectam, r. d. 
Liingo, — , linctum, d. to lick. 

*deIingo, — . 
Lino, llvi or leyi, litom, d. to daub, 
^Linauo, liqui, d. to leave. 

relinquo, -llqui, -lictum, X. d« 

delinquo, -llqui, -Uctaxja. So 
Ludo, lusi, liisum, m. r. to play, 
*Luo, lui, luitorus, d. to atone. 

abluo, -lui, -latum, r. d. 

diiuo, -lui, -latum, d. So elup. 
Mando, mandi, mansuiu, d. to chew. 
Mergo, mersi, mersum, r. d. to dip, 
Meto, messui, mesBum, d. to reap. 
Metuo, metui, metatum, d. to fear. 
*Mingo, minxi, mlctom, (jfup.) to 

Bfiiiuo, misuii myitltiim, d. to lessen. 

Mitto, misi, missum, r. d. to send. 
Molo, mplui, molitum, to grind, 
Mungo, (obsolete.) 

emungo, -manxL, -muuctumite 
Necto, nexi, nexum, d. to knit. 

innecto, -nexui, -nexum. So 
annecto, connecto. 
I^osco, novi, notum, d to learn. 

agnosco, -novi, -nitum, d. to 

cognosce, -novi, -nItum, u. t, d. 
to know. 

*dignosco, — . So prcenoaco. 

ignosco, -novi, -notum, d. to 
pardon. [m. r. to marry, 

Nubo, nupsi, or nupta sumy nuptum^ 
Nuo, (obsolete.) 

*abnuo, -nui, -nuitOrus, d. to r«- 

*annuo, -nui. 59 innuo, renao. 
Fando, — , paaaum or pansum, to 
open. So expando. 

dispando, — , -pansum. 
Page, (obs.) pepigi, pactum, to bar* 

Fango, panxi, pactuzUi panctarus, d. 
to drive in. 

compingo, -p^gjij -pactum. So 

*oppango, -p6gi. 
* *depango, — . 9q repango, sup- 

. pingo. 
*Farco, peperci or paxsl, pananUi 

to spare. 
Fario, pep^iij partum^paiitaTus, d. 

to bring Jorth. The compounds 

are of the fourth coryugatum. 
Fasco, pavi, pastum, n^. r. d. to feed, 
Pecto, — , pexum, d. to comb. 
Fello, pepOli, pulsimi, d. to drive. 

The compounds 4^op cAe redupli» 

Fendo, pependi, pensum, r. to weigh. 

The compounds drop ^ redupli- 

Feto,petivi,j;>etItum, m.a.r. d. to ask, 
Fingp, pinxi, pictum, to paint. 
FiAto, pinsi, pinaitumi pinsum or 

pistum, to grind. 
*Plango, planxi, planctarus, to 2a- 

Plaudo, plausi, plausum, d. to ap' 

plana. So anplaudo. ^ The other 

compounds change au into o, 
Plectb, — ,^ plexum^ d. to tufine, 
*Fluo, plui or pluvi, to rain. 



FonOy posui, posftum, r. d. to place. 
Pono, and its compounds ^ ancient' 
ly had poslvi in the perfect, 
*Posco, poposci, d. to demand. 
Prehendo, > ,. j ^ • 

Prendo, S ' ■*'""*' '■ ***"• 

Freino,pres8i,pre88iim, r. d. to press. 

The compounds change e into i. 
Promo, prompsi, promptum, r. d. to 

bring out. 
*Psallo, psalliy to play on an instru- 

Pungo, pupttgi, punctmn, to prick. 
compungo, -punxi, -punctum. 

So dispungo, expungo. 
interpungOy — , -punctum. 
*repungo, — . 
QuEero, aussivi, quffisitum, m. r. d. 
to seek. The compounds change 
GB into i. 
Quatio, — , qvLQSBmnjtoshake. Tht 
compounds change qua into 
cu; as, 
concutio, -cussi, -cussum, d. 
discutio, -cussi, -cussum, r. d. 
Quiesco, ^uievi, quietum.r. d. to rest, 
Radoy nusi, rasum, d. to shave. 
Rapio, rapui, raptum,r. d. to snatch. 
The compounds fhange a tn- 
to i. 
diripio, -ripui, -reptum, m. r. So 
eripio and preeripio. 
RegO| reziy rectum, r. d. to nde. 
77ie compounds change e tn- 
to i. 
•pergo (for perrJgo), perrexi, r. 

to go forward. 
■urgo (for surrigo),surrexi, Bur- 
rectum, r. d. to rise. 
*Repo, repsi, to creep. 
Redo, rosi, rosum, r. to gnaw. 

ab-, ar-, e-, ob-, pre-rodo, toant 
the perfect. 
*Rudo, rudivi, to bray. 
Rumpo, nipi, ruptum^r. d. to break. 
Ruo, rui, rutum, ruitQrus, to fall. 
diruo, -rui, -rQtum, d. So obruo. 
*corruo, -rui. So irruo. 
*Sapio, sapiYijto be wise. The eom- 
pounds change a into i. 
resipio, -sipivi or -sipui. 
*tScabo, Bcabi, to scratch. 
Scalpo, scalpsi, scalptum, to eti- 

*Scando, — , d. to cHmh. J%e com' 
pounds change a into e ; as, 
ucendo, aoceiuS, aacensum, r. d. 

Scindo, Bcidi, seissum, d. to tut. 
Scisco, sciri, seitum, d. to ordain., 
Scribo, Bcripsi, scriptum, r. d. tm 

Sculpo, sculpsi,flculptnm, d. to coaroom. 
Sero, sevi, satum, r. d. to sow. 

coDB^ro, -seyi, -Bitum. So ina^ 

Sero, — , sertum, to knU. Its cotmr 
pounds have semi ; as, 

ass^ro; -semi, -sertum, r. d* 
*Serpo, serpsi, to creep. 
*Sido, sidi, to settle. Its compounds 

have generally sedi, sessum, Jrom 

*Sxiio, sivi, sitarufl, to permit. 

desTuo, deslvi, desitum, r. 
Sisto, stiti, statum, to stop. 

*absi8to, -stiti. So the other com* 
pounds; but circumsisto wanto 
the perfect. 
SoIto, solyi, soMtum, r. d. to loose, 
Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, r. d. to 

spread. J%e compounds change 

a into e. 
Specio, (obsolete.) The eompounde 
change e into i', as, 

aspicio, aspezi, aspectum, d. to 
look at. 

iuspi^io, inspezi, inspectum, r. d* 
Spemo, sprevi, 8pretum,d. to despise 
*tSpuo, spui, to spit. 

*respuo, respui, d. 
Statuo, statui, statQtum, d. to place. 

The compounds change a into i. 
Stemo, stravi, stratum, d. to strew. 
*Stemuo, sternui, to sneeze. 
•Sterto, — , to snore. 

•tdesterto, destertui. 
*Stinguo, — , to extinguish. 

distinguo, distinzi, dislinctaxii. 
So extin^o, r. d. 
*Strepo, strepm, to make a noise. 
*Striao, stricU, to creak. 
Stringo. strinxi, strictum^ r. d. te tie 

Struo, struxi, structum, d. to buUd. 
8ugo, Buxi, suctum, to suck. 
8umo,snmp8i,Bumptum, r. d. to take, 
Sqo, — , sutum, d. to sew. So consuOy 

insuo, -sui, sOtum 

*assuo, — 
TengOf tetigi, tactum, r. d. to iou^ 
The compounds change a int» 
i, and drop the reduplication, 

oontingO| contlgi, contBCtiUDu r _ 

8 con;.] txbbs.— second and thibd koots. 


Tego, tezi, tectcun, r. d. to co0«r. 
*Temno, — , d. to despise. 

contemno. -tempsi^ -teinptum, d. 
Tendo, tetendi, tensum or tcntum, to 
«^e£c4. T%s compounds drop 
the reduplication; as, 
extendo, -tendi, -tensum or -ten- 
turn. So in-, OS- and le-ten- 
detendo has tensum. The other 
compouTids have tentum. 
*tTergo, tersi, tersum^ to wipe. Ter- 
, geo, of the second conjugation^ has 
the^ same second and third roots. * 
Tero, trivi, tritum, d. to rub. 
Tezo, t^xui, textum, d. to weave. 
Tingo or tinguo, tinxi, tinctum, r. d. 

to tinge. 
•ToUo, toUi, d. to raise. 

suatoUo, sustilli, sublatum, r. to 
take atoay. 
^ *attollo, — . Sh extollo. 
Traho, traxi, tractum, r. d. io draw. 
*Tremo, tremui, d. to tremble. 
Tribuo, tribui, tribatum, r. d: to 

Trudo, trusi, trusum^ to thrust. 

Tundo, tutddi, tunsum or tusum, td 
heat. The compounds drop th§ 
reduplication, and have tusum. 
Yet detunsum, obtunsum, and 
retunsum, are also found. 
Ungo, unjd, unctura, d. to anoint, 
Uro, ussi; ustum, d. to bum. 
*Vado, — J to go. &7Supervado. Tk4 
other compounds have vasi; a#| 
•evado, evasi, r. So peryado; 
also invadoy r. d. 
Veho, vexi, vectum, r. to carry. 
Velio, velli or vulsi, viilsum,d .to ;mZZ. 
So avello, d., divello, evello, d.^ 

. The other compounds have velU 
only, except intervello, whick 
has vulsi. 
*Vepgo, versi, to indine. 
Verro, — versum, d. to brush. 
Verto, verti, versum, r. d. to turn, 
VinooJ^ vici, victum, t. d. to conquer, 
*Viso, — , visit. 
*Vivo, vixi, victurus, d. to live. 
Volvo, volvi, volQtum, d. to roll. 
Vomo, Tomui, voniitum, t- d. t^ 

Inceptive Verbs. 

<^173. Inceptive verbs in general want the third root, 

and their second root, when used, is the same as that of their 

primitives. Of those derived from nouns and adjectives, some 

want the perfect, and some form it by adding ui to the root of 

the primitive. See § 187, II. 2. 

In the following list, those verbs ^ which s is added, have a simple verb 
in use from which they are formed :— 

*01aresco, clarui, s. to become bright. 

*Condormisco, -dormivi, s. to go to 

•Conticesco, -ticui, to become silent, 

*Crebresco, -crebui and crebrui, £9 

'Crudesco, crudui, to become raw, 

•Ditesco, — , to grow rich. 

•Dulcesco, — , to grow sweet. 

*Duresco, durui, to grow hard. 

•Evilesco, evilui, to become worth- 

•Extimesco, -tiraui, to be afraid, 

*Fatisco, — , to gape. 

*FlaccescO| fiaccui, s. to grm» 

*Acesco, acui, s. to grow sour. 

*Mgresco, to grow sick. 

•Albesco, — , s. to grow white, 

•Alesco, — , 8. to grow. 

coalesce, -alui, -alitum, to grow 

*Ardesco, arsi, a. to take fire. 

*Aresco, — , s. to grow dry. 

*exaresco, -arui. So inareseoy 
peraresco. — 

*Augesco, auxi, b. to increase. 

*Calesco, cidui, s. to grow warm. 

*^Galvesco, — , s. to become bald. 

*Cande8co, candui, s. to grbw white. 

'Canesco, canai, s. to become hoa- 



•Fervesco, ferboi, 8. to grow warm. 
•Floresco, floruii s. to begin to flours 

^Fracesco, fraeni, to grow nunddy. 
•JVigeeco, — , 8. to ^ow cold, 

*perfrig^8Co, -frixi. So refii- 
•Frondesco, — , s. to put forth Uates, 
•Fniticesco, — , to pit firth fruit. 
*Qelasco, — , 8. to freeze. 

*congela8COy -ari, 8. to eongeai. 
•Gremisco, — , a. to groan. 
*Gemmasco, — , to ovd. 
^GenerascOy — , b. to be produced. 
*Qrandesco, — , to grow large. 
•Gravesco, ^, to grow heainf. 
'HsBresco, hassi, s. to ad/iere. 
•Hebesco, — , s. to grow dull. 
•Horresco, hdrrui, s. to grow rough. 
*Humesco, — , 8. ttt grow moist. 
•Ignesco, — , to take fire. 
•Indolesco, -dolui, d. to be grieved. 
*InsoleBCo, — , to become haughty. 
'Integrasco, — ^ to be renewed. 
•Juvenesco, — , to ^ow young. 
'LanguescOy langm, s. to grow Ian" 

*Lapideseo, — , to become stone. 
•Latesco, — , to grow broad. 
*Latesco, latui, to be concealed, n. So 

delitesco, -litui ; oblitesco, -litiu, 
•Lentesco, — , to become soft. 
*LiquescOy — , b. to become liquid. 

*deliqueBco, -licui. 
*Lucesco, lazi, s. to grow light. 
**Lutesco, — I s. to become muddy, 

•remacresco, -macmi. 

*Madesco, madui, s. to grow mmst. 

*Marcesc6, marcui, s. to fine ausay. 

•Maturesco, maturui, to ripen. 

•Miseresco, miserui, s. to pity. 

•Mitesco, — , to grow mild. 

•MoUesco, — , to grow soft. 

•Mute&o, — y to become silent. 
*obmutesco, obm^tui. 

•Nigresco, ni^rui, s. to grow btaeJL 

•Nitesco, nitui, s. to grow bright. 

*Notesco, notui, to become knovm. 

*Obbrutesco, — , to become brutish. 

^ObcallescOy -callui, to become cal- 
lous. *" 

^Obdormisco, -dormlvi, 8. to fall 

"Obsurdesco, -Burdai) to grow deaf. 

*01moo, (scarcely used.) 


adokaco, -olfivi, -vHitm, «. tm 
grow up. 

exoieseo, -otevi^ -oletmn, to gram 
old. So obsoleBOo. 

*inole8eo, -oleyi, d. to inereasa, 
*Palle8co, pallui, b. to grow pale. 
*Patesco, patui, b. to be open. 
•Pavesco, pavi, b. to p-owfeaffid. 
*PertimeBCOy -timm, d. to fear 

•PingucBCo, — , to grow fat. 
"Pubeaco, — , to come to maturity. 
*Puerasco, — y to become a boy. 
*Pute8Co, patui, b. ) to become pu- 
•Putresco, putrui, 8. J trid. 
*Rare8COy — , to become thm. 
*IlieBscOy ngai, s. to grow cold. 
*Riu)e8eo, rubui, b. to grow red. 

*erube8CO, -rubui, d. 
'ResipiBCo, -Bipui) b. to reeoter wis- 
*Sane8Co, — , to become sound. 

*consanesco, -saniii. 
^Senesco, senm, B.i^t» grow old. Ss 

^Sentisco, Bensi, b. to perceive, 
•Siccesco, — , to become dry. 
*SiIesco, Biluiy b. to grow silent. 
*Solidesco, — , to become solid. 
*SordescOy Bordui, s. to becomefilthy, 
*SplendeBCO| Bplendui, b. to becoma 

•Spumesco, — , to foam. 
•Sterilesco,' — , to become barren. 
•Stupesco, Btupui, 8. to be asttmr 

SueBco, suevi, suetmn, 8. to heeoma 

^Tabesco, tabui, b. to waste away. 
*TenereBco and -asco, to becoma 

*Tepesco, tepni, b. to grow warm. 
•TorpeBco, torpoi, b. to groto torpid. 
•Tremisco, tremui, a. to begin to 

*Tuiueseo, tnmuiy 8. to be inflated. 
*Turgesco, tursiy b. to sweU. 
*Valesco, -valui, b. to become strong 
• VaneBCO, — , to vanish. 

^evaheBCO, evanui. 
*Veterasco, veteravi, to grow old, 
*Viresco, virui, s. to grow green. 
♦Vivesco, vixi, b to come to life, 

*revivisco, -vixi. 
*Uve8co, — y to become moisi 

4 CONJ.] V£]IB« — >8K0Oia> jJXJ} THIBD ROOTS. 


^ 174. Deponent Verbs qfthe .Third Conjugation, 

ApiseoT, aptng, to gtt. The com- 
pounds change a into i. 

adipiscor, adeptus. So indlpiscor. 
Expergiflcor, experrectus, lo aioa/se. 
Fnior, fruitufi or fructus, firuitariu, 

d. to enjoy. 
Fungor, functus, r. d. to pefform. 
GradLor, gressuB, to proceetU Tko 
compounds change a into e ; 

aggredior, aggressaSi to attack, 
^Iroscor, to m angry. 
Labor, lapsus, r. to fall. 
*Liquor, tofneltfflou). 
Loquor, locatus, r. d. to spoait. 
Miniscor, (o^soZeto.) 

comminiscor, commentus, p. to 

*Gemuii8C0T, to remember. 
Morior, (mori, rarely mcxriii,) mor- 

tuus, raoritarus, d. to die, 
Nanciscor, Biotaa or nanctos to oh- 


f^ascor, natu3, naacitarai, n. tota 

Nitu*, nunis or nisus, Buaras, to 

lean upon. 
Obliviscor, oUitus, d. to forget 
Paciscor, pactus, d. to bargaitk. 

Compound depeciscor. 
Patior, passuB, r. d. to suffer. 

perpetior, -pessus. 

From plecto, to ttDtne^ 

amplector, amplezus, d. p. .to 

complector, complezuS| p. to 
Proficiscor, profectus, r. to deparL 
Querof , questus, m. u. d. to com* 

*Riiigor, to grin. 
Sequor, secatus, r. d. to follow, 
Tuor, tutus, to protect. 
*Vescof , d. to eat. 
Ulciscor, ultus, m. d. p. to OAMngek 
Utor, usus, r. d. to use* 

Note, Devertor^ pravertor^ revertor^ compounds of verto, are used tm 
deponents in the present and imperfect tenses; reoertor also, sometimei^ 
in the perfect. 


^ 176* Verbs of the fourth conjugation regularly form 
their second root in iv, and the third in itu ; as, audio, audivty 

The following list contains most regular verbs of this conju- 
gation : — » 

Audio, -Ivi or -ii, m. n. r. d. to hear. 
•Cio, civi, to excite. 
Condio, -ivi or -ii, to season. 
Custodio, -ivi or -ii, d. to keep. 
•Dormio, -Ivi or -ii, m. r. d. to sleep. 
Erudio, -ivi or -ii^ d. to instruct. 
Expe^o, -Ivi or -li, d. to disentangle. 
Finio, -ivi or -ii, r. d. tofimsh. 
•Gestio, -Ivi or -iij to desire. 
Impedio, -ivi or -it, r. d. to entangle, 
Insanio, -ivi or -ii, to be mad. 
Irretio, -Ivi or -ii, to ensnare. 
Lenio, -Ivi or -ii, d. to mitigate 
Moliio, -Ivi or -ii, d. to soften, 
^Mugio, -Ivi or -ii, to bellow, 


Munio, -Ivi or -ii, r. d. tofortyy, 
Mutio, -Ivi, to mutter. 
Nutrio, -Ivi or -ii, d. to nourish, 
Partio, -Ivi or -ii, r. to divide. 
Polio, -Ivi, d. to polish. 
Punio, -ivi or -ii, d. to pumiak, 
Redimio, -Ivi, to rrown. 
Sarrio, -ivi, d. to weed. 
8cio, -iviy> u. r. to know. 
Servio, -ivi or -ii, m. r. d. to serve 
Soplo, -Ivi or -ii, to lull asleep. 
Stabiho, -ivi or -ii, to establish, 
Tinnio, -ivi or -ii, r. to tinJdn 
Vestio, -Ivi or -ii, to clothe 



^ 176* The following list contains those verbs of the 
fourth conjugation which form their second and third roots 
irregularly, and those which want either or both of them :— 

Amicio, — , amictmn, d. to doth*. 

*Balbutio, — f to stamn^, 

BuUio, — , to boil, 

*Cecutio, — , to be dim-sighud, 

*Cambio, — , to exdiaitge. 

*Dementio, -~y to be mad, 

EfiutiOy — , to speak fooUshly. 

Eo, ivi or ii, Ttum, r. go. The eom- 
pounds have only u in the perfeetf 
except obeo, prteeo, and eubeo, 
which have lyi or ii. AU the 
eomvounds toant the supiru and 
perfect jfarticipleSf except adeo, 
auioio, ineo, ooeo, pnetereo^Bub- 

eo, and transeo. 

Farcio, fiirsi, farctum, to cram. 
Fastidio, -ii, -itum, d. to disdain, 
•Ferio, — , d. to strike, 
•Ferocio, — , to be fierce. 
Fulcio, fulsi, fiiltum, d. to prop, 
*6anniOy — , to vein. 
•Glocio, — , to Cluck. 
•Glutio, g^lutii, to swalloto. 
•Gmnnio, grunnii, to grunt, 
Hauno, hausi, haustum, haustanis, 

haustlniBy d. to draw, 
*Hinnio, — , to neigh, 
•Ineptio, — , to trifie. 
*Lascivio, lascivii, to be wanton, 
•Ligujio, ligurii, to feed dsUeately, 
•Lippio, — , r. to be blear-eyed. 
•Obedio, obedii, r. to obey. 

Fario is of the third conjugation^ 
but its compounds are of the 

Note. Desiderative verbs want both the second and third roots, ex- 
cept these three ; — esurio^ -wi, r. to desire to eat; ^nupturio^ -iri, to desiie 
to many ; *parturio, -iw, to be in travaU. See § 187, II. 3. 

aperio, apenii, apertom, r. d. !• 
open. So operio, d. 

eomperio, eomp^^ri, compertimiy 
to find out. So reperio, r. d. 
Pario, -— , to beat. 
•Prurio, — , to itch, 
*Queo, quivi or qiiii^ to he akU. Sm 

*IIq^o, — , to roar, 
SsviQ, sflBvii, r. to rage, 
*Saffio, — , to foresee. 
*Sauo, salui or salli, to leap, Thm 
compounds change a into i. 

*absilio, — . So oirenni«lio: 

^assilio, -ni. So dissilio, insilio. 

'desilio, -ui or -ii. So ezsilio, re- 
siliO) subsilio. 

'tranmlio, -ui or -Ivi, d. So pro- 
Sancio, sanxi, sancitum or sanctum, 

d, to ratify, 
Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, d. to patch, 
•Scaturio, — , to gush out, 
Sentio, sensi. sensum, r. to fed. 
Sepelio, sepeuvi or -ii, sepultum, r. 

d. to bury. 
Sepio, sepsi, septum, d. to hedge in 
*Singultio, — , to sob, 
*Sitio, sitii, to thirst, 
Suffioj -ii, -itum, d. to futnigaU* 
*Tuasio, — , to cough. 
*Vagio, vagii, to cry, 
*t Veneo, venii, r. to be sold, 
Yenio, veni, ventum, r. to coins. ^ 
Vincio, vinzi, vinctum, r. d. to hind. 

^ 177. Deponent Verbs of the Fourth Cof^ugatian. 

Assentior, aasensos, r . d. p. to assent, 
Blandior, blanditus, to flatter, 
Experior, expertus, r. d. to try. 
Largior, larg^tus, p. to lavish. 
Mentior, menUtns, r. to Ue. 
Metior, mensus, d. to measure. 
MoUor, molltus, d. to move a mass. 

Opperior. oppertiis or oppeiIliui| d. 

to watt for, 
Ordior, orsus, d. p. to begin, 
Orior, ortus, oritams, d. to ^prtii^ Mp 

Except in the present m/Emttve. 

this verb seems to be qfthis third 



Partus, partltaji, d. to dhide. sukjmnetim are somtOmes qf At 

Potior, potitos, r. d. to obtain. The third conjugation in the poet$, 

present indicative and irmperjed Sortior, sorfitus, r. to east lots. 


^ 178. Irregular verbs are sach as deviate from the 
common forms in some of the parts derived from the first 

They are sttm, volOffero, edo^Jio^ eo, and their compounds. 

Sum and its eompounds haYe already^been conjugated. See § 153. In 
the conjugation of the rest, the piurts which are insgular are full/ 
exhibited^ and a synopsis of the other parts is, in general| given. Some 
parts of volo and its compounds are wantiiig. 

1. VoLO is irregular only in the present indicative and infini- 
tive, and in the present and imperfect subjunctive. 

It is made irregular partly by s^rncope, and partly by a chan^ in the 
vowel of the root. In the oresent infinitive and imperfect subjunctivei 
after e was dropped, r was ciianged into L 

Pres. Indk, Prts. htfin, Paf, Indie, 

y(/-lo9 velMe, vol'-u-i, to he wSUngf to wiA, 


Ftm. S. vo'-lo, via, vult; Peif. voF-u-L 

P. vol'-a-mus, vuF-tis, vc/-lunt Plup, vo-lu'-^rant 

Impeif. vo-l6'-bam. FuL perflvo^\if-(b-n, 

FUL vo'-lam. 


Pre8, & ve'-lim, ve'-lis, ve'-lit; P«/ vo-Iu'-6-rim. 

P. ve-li'-mus, ve-Ii'-tis, ve'-lint Plup. vol-u-is^-sexn. 

Lnpeif S. vel'-lem, velMes, velMet; 

P. vel-le'-mufl, vel-l6'-tis, velMent. 


PreS' velMe. Pres. V(/-lens. 

Paf. vol-u-is'-se. 

Note Volt and voltisj for vuU and mdtiSf are found in Plautus and 
other ancient authors. 

2. Nolo is compounded of non and volo, Non drops its 
final tif and voh its v, and the vowels {o o) are contracted into o 


Pres. J&tcKe. Frts. ht/Sn. Per/, Indie, 
N(y-lo, noF4e, noF-u-i, (o &e unMrfilSr^. 


Pref • iR n(/-lo, non'-via, non'-vult ; Per^ noK-ii-L 

P. nol'-d-mus, non-vid'-tis, xuZ-hmt PZtip. no-la'^^-raak 

hnfptrj, Do-l^-bam. IVit j>ei/I no-lu'-£-iQ 
JV2l luy-lam. 

Prcs. 5L nc/'lini, ncZ-lis, n(/-lit ; P«!/^ no-lu^-C-rm 

P. Do-ii'-mus, nolt'-tia, iK/-Mot« Fhi^, nol-u-kK-seii^ 

hmptrf. S, nol'-lem, XM>1'-Ies, noF-let ; 

P. not-l^-inaB, nol-lft'-tisy nolMent 

& 2. i]</-l], or no-ir-to } P. 3. no-U^-te^ or nol-i-ty-te 


Pre«. noF-le. Pna. iMZ-lens. 

Per/*. nol-u-ifl'-Be. 

IloTX. Ami and jMoott, for nm iwU and noimA, oeeur in nantns. 

3. Malo is ccHnpoonded of magis and volo. In composition 
magis drops its final syllable^ and volo its «. The vowels {& d) 
are then contracted into a. 

Pre9. Indk. Pna. h^fin, Perf. hidU, 
MaMoy malMe, mal'-u*!, 1o he piore mUtng. 

Pres, & ma'-lo, nW-vis, ma'-vult ; Perf. mal'-u-L 

P. mal'-a-mus, ma-yul'-tis, ma'-lunt Pltqp. ma-lu'-^-nuB^ 
Imperf, ma-le'-bam. Fut.perf,mB^-la*-^'TO 

FuL ma'-lam. 


Prea, & ma'-lim,ma'-lis,ma'-lit; Perf, ma-lu'-6-rim. 

P. ma-li'-miis, ma-li'-tis, ma'-lint. Phip, maX-vM-BeirL 

Jmperf, S. mal'-lem, mal'-les, mal'-let ; 

P. mal-l^'-mus, mal-ls'-tisy malMent 


Pres* malMe. Perf, mal-u-is^-se. 

NoTi. Mavdloj mavdlam, vuniUmf and maveUem, for vuUo, malam 
dec.) occur in Plautus. 



^ 179. F£Ro is irregular in two respects: — 1. its second 
and ' third roots are not derived from the first : — 2. in the 

present infinitive active, and in the imperfect subjunctive, and 
certain parts of the present indicative and imperative, of both 
voices, the connecting vowel is omitted. In the present infini- 
tive passive, r is doubled. 


Pres. Indie, Fe'-ro, (to bear,) 
Pres, Ii\fin. fer'-re, 
Perf. Indie. tu'-Ii, 
Supine, la'-tom. 


Pres, Indie, fe'-ror, (to be bonu,) 
Pres*. Ir{fin. fer'-ri, 
Per/. Part, la'-tus. 


Pres, S, fe'-ro, 


P. fer'-i-mus, 


Imperf, fe-rfi'-bam. 
Fut. fe'-ram. 
Petf. tu'-U. 
Plup, tu'-Iig-raiii. 
Fut.perf, tu'-l5-ro. 

Prss, S, fe'-ror, 

fer'-ris or -re, 

fer'-tur ; 
P. fer'-t-mur, 


Imperf, fe-rt'-bar. 
Fut. fe'-rar. 
Perf, la'-tus sum or fii'-i. 
Plup. la'-tus e'-ram or fu'-g-ram. 
FuX, perf, la'-tUB e'-ro or fu'-d-ro. 


Pres. fe'-ram. 
Imperf, fer'-rem. 
Perf. ta'-lS-rim. 
Plup, tu-lis'-Bem. 

Pres. fe'-rar. 

Imperf. fer'-rer. 

Perf, la'-tus sim or fu'-€-rim. 

Plup, la'-tU8 es -sem or fu-is'sem 


8. fer, or fer'-to, 

fer'-to ; 
P. fer'-te, or fer-to'-te, 



8, fer'-re, or fer'-tor, 

P. fe-rim'-I-ni, 



Pres, fer'-re. 

Perf tu-lis'-se. 

Fut la-ta'-ru8 ei'-se. 


Pres. fer'-ri. 

Perf, la'-tus es'-se or fu-is'-se 

Fut, la'-tum i'-ri. 



Pres, fe'-reiM. 
Fut, la-ta'-nis. 

Perf. la'-tuB. 
Fut. fe-ren'-du». 


fe-ren'-dl, &c. 



FoTfMT, la'-tnm. 

1 JdiHer, la'-tu. 

^ 180. Fio has the meaning of the passive voice, though 
the parts formed from ihB first root, except the present infinitive 



and the participle in 'dus, have the terminations of the active 
In its other parts, it has passive terminations. It is used as 
the passive voice of facto, which has no regnlar passive. 

Pres, I/uHe, Pres, Ir^tn. Perf. PcarU 

Fi'-o, fi'-^-ii, fac'-tus, la ht made or to become. 


Pres, S, fi'-o, fis, fit; Per/. fac'-tos sum or fu'-L 

P. fi'-mus, fi'-tis, fi^-unt. Plup» fac'-tus e'-ram or ili'-^-raiii. 

Imperf, fi-e'-bam. lW.|i€r/'. iac'-tus e^-ro or fu'-6-i!0. 
Im, fi'-am. 


Pres. fi'-am. Plup, fec'-tus es'-sem or fu-ii^- 

Imp. fi'-€-rem. sem. 

Per/, fac'-tus sim or fu'-£-rim. 


5?. fi or fi'-to, fi'-to ; Pres. fi'-C-ri. 

P. fi'-te or fi-to'-te, fi-mi'-to. Per/, fac'-tus es'-se pr fU-is'-mu 

FuL fac'-tum i'-rL 


Per/, fac'-tufl. Latter* fao'-tu. 

FuL fii-ei-eii'-duB. 

NoTX. The compounds of facio which retam a, have also fio in the 
passive ; as, caUfaciOf to warm ; nassive^caZc^ ; hut those which change 
a into t form the passive leifularly. Yet conjU, defit. and infit, occur. 
See § 183, 12, 13, lIT^ ' v , -^i 

^181. Edo, to eat, is a regular verb of the third con- 
jugation ; but in the present of the indicative, imperative, and 
infinitive moods, and in the imperfect of the subjunctive, 
it resembles, in some of its persons, the same tenses of sum *-^ 

hut. pres. , ^ est ; , $ — % 

Subj. imperf. ^ es'-ses, es'-set; es-s^'-mus, ^ t 

^P^' {e^-toj 5 ««'-*«' • 

Inf. pres. es'-se. 

Ind. pres. pass. ^ -. — ^, es^-tur. 

NoTi. In the present subjunctive, eittm, edzs^ &c.y are found, for sdem^ 
edaSy &c. 
In the compounds of tda, also, forms resembling those of sum occur. 

^ 182* Eo is irregular in the parts which, in other verbs, 
are formed from the first root, except the imperfect subjunctive, 


and the present infliiitive. In these, and in the parts formed 

from the second and third roots, it is a regular^ verb of the 

fourth conjugation. 

Note. £o has no first root, and the parts QsaaUy deriTed fiom that 
root, consist, in this verb, of terminations only. 

Prta.Indie. Pre9.h\fin. Paf. Indie Perf. Part. 

iX-o^ if-re, i'-vi, if-tami iogtk 


Pna. & e'-o,i8,it; FuU. iSL i'-bo, i'-bis, i^-bit ; 

P. i'-mus, i'-tis, e^-unt P. i V-I-mus, ]l/4-ti% F-bnnt 

Imptrf.S. i'-bam^i'-bas, i'-bat; Peif. i'-vL 

P. i-ba'-mus, i-ba'-tis, Plup, iv^-6-ram. 

if*bant Fui^petfA^^to. 


Prt8* S. e'-am, e'-as, e'-at ; Perf. iv'-fi-rim. 

P. e-a'-mus, e-a'-tis, e'-ant Plvp. i-via'-flem. 

hnpetf. S, i'-rem, i'-rea, i'-ret ; 

P. i-rd^-muBy i-r^-tiS| i'-rent 


S, i or i'-to, i'-to ; Pres. i'-re. 

P. i'-te or i-td'-te, e-un'-to. Perf. i-vie'-se. 

ISO. i-to'-nis es^HM. 


Pres. i'-ens, {gen. e-un'-tis.) e-ui^-di, &c« 

FuL i-ta'-rua. 


1. laTfif ieSf iet, are sometimes found in the future. Tstisy isstmi, and isse^ 
are formed by contraction for ivistis, ioissem^ and ivisse. See § 1G2, 7. 

2. In the passive voice are found the infinitive m, and the third persons 
singular ttur, ibdtuTf ibUuTf Uum est, dtc. ', edtur, iretury &c., which are used 

3. The compounds of eo, including veneOf are conjugated like the sim- 
ple verb) but most of them have u m the perfect rather than m. (See 
% 176.) ^deOy ineOf pnAereo^ suheo] and iranseoy being used actively, are 
found in the passive voice. IwUtur ooeurs as a future passive <x ineo, 
Ambio is regular, like audio, 

Queo and nequeo are conju^ted like eo, but they want the imperative 
mood and the gerund, and their participles rarely occur 


.^ 183* Defective verbs are those which are not used 
in certain tenses, numbers, or persons. 


There are many yerbs which are n<»t found in all the tenses, numVer% 
and persons, exhibited in the paradigms. Some, not originally defectiye 
are considered so, because they do not occur in the classics now extant* 
Others are in their nature defectiye. Thus, the first and second persomi 
of many yerbs in the passiye yoioe must be wanting, &om the nature of 
their signification. 

The following list contains such verbs as are remarkable for 

wanting many of their parts : — 

1 Odi, I hate. 7. Quieso. I pray. 12. Confit, it is daiu, 

3. Coipif I have begun, 8. Aye, .\jL~a 1^* De^i^itisuMnting. 

3. Meminif I remember. 9. Salye, 5^^* 14. In&ij he begins. 

4. Aio, \Tgau ^^' Apage, Aagwie. 15. Ovai, he rejoiees. 

5. Inquam, ) *• u. Cedo, teal •»* g^^ 

6. Fan, to speak. me. 

1. Odi, ccepiy and memtni, are used chiefly in the perfect and 

in the other parts formed from the second root, and are thence 

called preteritive verbs : — Thus, 

Ind. perf. o'-di or o'-sus sum ; vlup. od'-£-ram ; Jvt.petf. od'*C-io. 
SvBJ. perf, od'-g-rim ; plup. o-ais'-sem. Imf. peij. o-dis'-se. 
Part. fut. o-sa'-ms j perf. o'-sus. 

NoTX. ExOsus and perOsus^ like osus, are used actively. Odlvit, fan 
oditf occurs in Cicero. 

2. Ind. perf. CGs'-pi ; plup. ccep'-8-ram ; fiit. perf. ccsp^-^ro. 

SuBJ. perf. ccsp'-S-rim; ptup. cce-pis'-sem. hiF.perf, co-pis'-se. 
Part. fut. coep-ta'-rus y perf. coep'-tus. 

Note. In Plautus are found a present, ceepiOf present subjunetivei 
.CiBpiam, and infinitiye ccepire. Before an infinitive passive, eoBptum estf 
&c., rather than capi, &c., are commonly used. 

3. Ind. perf. mem'-t-ni ; plup. me-min'-^-ram ; fiit. perf. me-min'-^re. 
SvB J. perf. me-min^-g-rim ; plup. mem-i-iiis'-sem. 

Inf. perf. mem-i-nis'-se. 

Impekat. 2 pers. me-men'-to, mem-en-to'-te. 

Note. Odi and memini haye, in the perfect, the sense of the present, 
and, in the pluperfect and future perfect, the sense of the imperiect and 
future. In this respect, novif I know, the perfect o£nosco, to learn, agrees 
with odi and memini. 

4. Ind. pres. ai'-o,* a'-is,t a'-it ; , , ai'-unt.* 

imp. ai-6'-bam, ai-e'-bas, ai-€'-bat ; , ai-e-ba'-tis, ai-^'-bant. 

&vnj.pres. — , ai'-aa, ai'-at; , — , ai'-ant. 

Impxrat. a'-i. Part. pres. ai'-ens. 

5., Ind. pres. in'-quam or in'-qui-o,in'-quis,in'-quit;in'-quI-mii8, in'-qnt* 

tis, in'-qui-unt. 

imp. , , in-qui-e'-bat ; , — , ' . 

— — fut. , in'-qui-es, in'-qui-et ; — • — , — ^, — . 

— — perf, , in-quis'-ti, in'-quit; , — , — . 

BuBj. pres. , -— > in'-qui-at ; — , .«— ., — . 

Imperat. in'-que, in'-quX-to. 

* Pronoonced a -yo, x^-yumtf iic. See $ 9. i ais with fic is contracted to abnf 

IlEP£RSOirAL rERBji. 141 

6. IwD. prt8. *, — -, fa'-tur j fiU. fa'-bor, -, faV-l-tur. 

. Imperat. fa'-re. Part. pres. fans ; 'perf. fli'-tus ; fiU. fan'-diui. 
iKFin. pres. fa'-ri. Gerund, gen. fan'-di ) old. fan'-do. SvpxiiX| IkMv. 

In like manner the compounds affdri, effariy and profari, 

7. IwD. pres. quse'-so, , quae'-sit; quffis'-d-mus, , — . 

Inf. preg. qu8Bs'-6-re. 

8. Impkrat. a'-ve, a-v6'-to ; a-ve'-te. Inf. a-vS'-re. 

9. Ind. pres. saV-ve-o. fut. sal-yg'-bis. Inf. pres. sal-vd'-re. 
Impkrat. sal'-ve, sal-ve'-to ; sal'^d'-te. 

10. Imperat. ap'-ft-ge. 

11. Imperat. sing, undplur. ce'-do; pi. ceV^te for ced'-I-te. 

12. Ind. ptes. con'-fit; fiu. con-fi'-et. 

SuBj. pres. con-fi'-at ; imperf. con-fi'-6-ret Inf. pres. eoa-fi'-S-ii. 

13. Ind. pres. de'-fit ; pi. de-f i'-unt. Sobj. pres. de^H'-at. 
Inf. pres. de-fi'-6-ri. 

14. Ind. pres. in'-fit j pi. in-fi'-unt. 

15. JsD.pres. o'-vat. Qvbj. pres. o'-vet; imperf. o-vl'-reti 
Fart. pres. o'-vana ; perf. o-va'-tus. Gerund, o-van'-di. 

Remark 1. Amonff defective verbs are sometimes, also, included the 
following ■ — For em J foresy ^c, fore, (see §154, 3.) JiusiiUf ausit; ausini, 
Faxo and faximjfaxts, faxit, faj^Ttms, faxitis, faxifU. Faxem. The form 
in 9 is an old future perfect ; that in tm a perfect, and that in em a plu- 
perfect, subjunctive. See § 162, 9. 

2. In the present tense, the first person £dngular, fiiro^ to be mad, and 
dor and rfcr, from do, to give, are not used. 

3. A few words, sometimes classed with defectives, are formed by eon- 
traction from a verb and the conjunction si ; as, sis for si vis, sidtis for si 
vuUiSj sodes for si audes. 


Ǥ> 1 84. Iihpersonal verbs are those which are used only 
in the third person singular, and do not admit of a jier- 
sonal subject. 

1. Their English is generally preceded by the pronoun tV, 
especially in the active voice ; as, delectat, it delights ; decet, it 
becomes ; contingit, it happens ; evenit, it happens ; seribitur, 
1% is written, &c. 

They are thus conjugated : — 

1st Conj. 2d Canj. Sd Conj. 4th Conj. 

Ind. Fres, delectat, decet, contingit, ev6nit. 

Imp. delcctabat, decebat, contingebat, eveniebat, 

Fut. delectabit, decebit, contin^et, eveniet, 

Perf delectavit, decuit, contigit, evenit, 

Plup. delectavSrat, decuSrat, cbntiggrat, even6rat| 

JF^^ peif delectavSrit. decuSrit. contigdrit. eyenSriL 



1st Conj. 2d Conj, 

Sub. Pres. delectet, deceat, 

Imp. deiecUret, deceret, 

Perf. delectavdiit, decufirit, 

Plup. delectaviraet. decuisset. 

Ihf. Pres. deleetare, decere, 

Perf. delectsviflte. decuisse. 

3<2 C&nj. 






4f& Omj. 






3. As 'the passive voice of an active verb may be substituted 
for the active, (see § 141, Rem.) so that of a neuter verb may 
be used in the third person singular, instead of the active form, 
the personal subject of the latter being put in the ablative with 
the preposition a or ab; as, faveo tihiy I favor thee, or favetur 
tibi a me, thou art favored by me. 

Pres. pugnatnr, 
Imp. pugnabatur, 
jPuZ.' pugnabitur, 
Perf. pugnfttum est 

or fuit, 
Piup. pagnatum erat 

or fiiSrat, 
Fut.p. pugnatum erit 

or fuSrft. 

Pres. pugnstur. 
Imp. pugnaretur, 
Per/, pu^natum sit or 

Pli^. pugnatum esset 

or fuisset. 

Pres. piignari, 
Perf. pugnatum esse 

or f uisse, 
Fut. pugnatum iri. 


fautuin est or 

fauium erat or 

fautura erit or 





cursum est or 

cursum erat 

or fu£rat, 
cursum erit or 


SuBJUKcTiYs Mood. 

fautum sit or 

fautum esset 

or fuisset. 

cursum sit or 

cursum esset 

or fuisset. 

Intinitiye Mood. 

fautum esse 

or fuisse, 
fautum iri. 

cursum esse 

or fuisse, 
cursum iri. 

yentum est or 

fuit, , 
ventum erat or 

ventum erit or 


ventum sit 6r 

ventum esset 

or Msset. 

venln, - 
ventum esfle or 

ventum iri. 

In like manner the neuter gender of the participle in dus, 
formed from neuter verbs, is used impersonally with est, &c., 
in the periphrastic conjugation ; as, tnoriendum est omnibus, all 
must die. See <^ 162, 15. 


1. Grammarians usually reckon only ten real impersonal verbs, all ol 
which are of the second conju£ration. (See § 169.) There seems, how 
ever, to be no ffood reason for distinguishing those from other impersonal 
verbs. The following aie such other verbs as aie most commonly used 
impersonally : — 


(a.) In the firtt conjugation ; — 

Constat, it is eviditU, Speetat, it eoneems. Certatur, it is eonttnd' 

Juvaty it delights, Stat, it is resolved. ed. 

Preestat, it is better, Vacat, there is leisure, Peccatur, a fault is 
Aestat, it remains, committed, 

(b.) In the second conjugation ; — 

Apparet, it appears. Solet, it is usual, 

Attinet, it hdongs to, Nocet, it is hurtful, FletuFi there is weep* 

Debet, it ought. P.atet, it is plain. ing. 

Disphcet, it displeases. Pertinet, it pertains, Perauadetur. {See 

Dolet, it grieves. Placet, it pleases. above, 2.) 

(e.) In the third conjugation ; — 

Aocldit, it happens. Creditur, it is believed. Mittitur, it is sent, 

Inclpit, it begins.' Desinitur, there is an Scribitur, it is torittm. 

Sufilcit, U suffices. end. 

{d ) In the fourth conjugation ; — 

ConvSnit, it is agreed on. AperTtur, it is opened. 

Expgdit, it is expedient. Sentitur, it is meant. 

(e.) Among irregular verbs ] — 

Abeundum est, it is ne- Fit, it happens. Prodest, it avails. 

cessary to depart. Interest, it concerns, Refert, it concerns. 

Aditur. {See abovCf 2.) Obest, it is hurtful. Supgrest, it remains, 

(/.) To these may be added verbs signifying the state of the weather, or 
the opera ions of nature ; as, 

FulgQrat, it Ushtens. Lapldat, it rains stones, RegSlat, it thaws. 

TnlmineXf it Sunders. haceBcit, it grows light. Tonaij it tJiu7iders. 

Gelat, U freezes. Ningit, it snows. Vesperascit, it ap- 

Crrandinat, it hails. - Piuit, it rains, proaches evening. 

2. Impersonal verbs, not being used in the imperative, take the sub- 
junctive in its stead ; &«, delectety let it delight. In the passive voice, their 
perfect participles are used only in the neuter. 

3. Most of the Impersonal verbs want participles, gerunds and supines 
but paenitet has a present participle, futures in rus ana dtts, luid the gerund. 
Pudet and piget have also the gerund and future passive participle. 

4. Most of the above verbs are also used personally, but frequently in a 
somewhat different sense ; as, ut TiJbiris inter eos et pons interessety so 
that the Tiber and bridge were between them. 


^ 185. Redundant verbs are those which have difier- 
ent forms to express the same sense. 

Verbs may be redundant in termination; hSy fahrico and 
fahrUor^ to frame ; — in conjugation ; as, lavo^ -are, and Uto^^ 
-ire^Ao wash; — or in certain tenses ; as, odi and osus sum^ 



1. The following 
have an active in o, 
ever, is, in general, 

A dolor, to flatter, 
Altercor, to dispute, 
Aiiiplexor, to embrace, 
Assentior, to assent. 
AucQpori to hunt t^er, 
Au^rdror, toforeteu. 
Cachinnor, to lamgh 

Comitor, to accompany. 

deponent verbs, besides their passive form, 
of the same meaning. The latter, how* 
rarely used. 

Cunctor, to dday. 
Depascor, tofem upon. 
Elucubror, to elaborate. 
Fabricor, to frame. 
Frustror, to disappoint, 
Frutlcor, to sprout, 
Impertior, to impoH. 
Lachr^mor, to weep, 
Ludif Icor, to ridicute. 

Medlcor, to heal, 
Mereor, to deserve. 
Metor, to measure, 
Palpor, to caress, 
PopQlor, to lay loaste^ 
Rum! nor, to ruminatm 
Velificor, to set sail, 
Vocii^ror, to bawl, 
Urinor, to dive. 

2. The following verbs are redundant in conjugation :— 

Cieo, -ere, 7 , ^ •, Fulgeo, -ere, > to Strideo, -ere, > t» 

Cio, -ire, r. J ^ ^^^' Fulgo, -6re, r. J shine. 

Deneo, -are, \ to Lavo, -ftre, \ - 

Denaeo,-ete>r. 5 thicken, Lavo, -fire, r. 5 "^ ^^'^' 

Ferveo, -6re, > to Lino, -fire, ) to 

Fervo, -fire, r. \ boil. Linio^ -ire, r. ) anoint, 

Fodio, -fire, 5 . j. Scateo, -fire, > to 

Fodio, -Ire, r. 5 ** •* Scato, -fire, r. y abound. 

Strido, -fire, 5 wcfl** 

Hiose marked r. ar 
rarely used. 

Moriorj orior, and potior j also, are redundant in conjugation in certain 
parts. See in lists § f 174 and 177. 

^ 186* 1. Some verbs, also, are spelled alike, or nearly 
alike, but differ in conjugation, quantity, pronunciation, or 
signification, or in two or more of these respects. 

Such are the following : — 

Abdico, -ftre, to abdi- 

Abdico, -fire, to refuse, 

Accido, -fire, to hap- 

Accido, -fire, to cut 

Addo, -fire, to add. 

Adeo, -ire, to go to. 

Aggfiro, -are, to heap 

Aggfiro, -fire, to heap 

AUego, -are, to depute, 

AUfigo, -fire, to choose, 

Appello, -ftre, to caU. 

Appello, -fire, to drive 

Cado, -fire, to fall. 

Cedo, -fire, to cut. 

Cfido, -fire, to yield. 

Caleo, -ere, to be hot, 

Calleo, -fire, to be hard, 

Cftno, -fire, to sing. 

Caneo, -fire, to be white, 
Careo, -ere, to vumt, 
Caro, -fire, to card toool, 
Celo, -Bre^ to conceal, 
Cselo, -are, to carve. 
Censeo, -6re, to think. 
Sentio, -Ire, to fed, 
Claudo, -fire, to shut. 
Claudo, -fire, to be lame. 
CoMlgo, -are, to tie 

Colllgo, -fire, to collect. 
Colo, -ftre, to strain. 
Cdlo, -fire, to cultivate. 
Compello, -ftre, to ac- 
Compello, -fire, to force, 
Concido, -fire, to diop 

Concido, -fire, to fall, 
Conscendo, -fire, to 

Conscindo, -fire to cut 
in pieces. 

Constemo, -ftre, to ter^ 

Constemo, -fire, f9 

strew over. 
Deifdo, -fire, to fa* 

Decide, -fire, to cut off 
Decipio,-fire, to deceive 
Desipip, -fire, to dote. 
Deligo, -ftre, to tie up 
Deligo, -fire, to choose, 
Dillgo, -fire, to love, 
Dico, -fire, to say. 
Dico, -are, to dedicate. 
£do, -fire, to eat. 
fido, -fire, to pubUsh. 
Ed&co, -ftre, to educate. 
Edoco, -fire, to dram 

Efffiro, -Are, to nutka 

Efi^ro, -re, to carry out 
Excido, -fire, to fall out 
Excldo, -fire, to cut off 



Feiio, -Ire, to strike, 

F^ro, -re, to bear. 

Ferior, -&ri, to keep hol- 

FrigeOy -ere, to he cold. 

Frigo, -fire, to fry, 

Fugo, -are, to put to 

Fugio, -ire, to fly. 

Fundo, -are, to/otauL 

Fundo, -Sre, to pour out. 

Incldo, '^re, to fall into. 

Incido, -€re, to cut, 

IndicOy -are, to show. 

Indico, -€re, to pro^ 

Inficioy -ere, to infect. 

Infitior, -ari, to deny. 

Intercido, -£re, to hap- 

Intercldo, -Sre, to cut 

Jaceo, -€re, to lie down. 

Jacio, -€re, to throw. 

Labo, -are, to totter. • 

Labor, -U ^ gUde. 

Lacto, -are, to suckle. 

Lacto, -are, to deceive. 

Lego, -are, to send. 

LSgo, -£re, to read. 

Liceo, -ere, to be lawful. 

Liceor, -€ri, to bid for. 

Liquo, -are, to melt. 

Liqueo, -ere, to be man- 

Liquor, -i, to indt. 

Mano, -are, to flow. 

M&neo, -ere, to stay. 
Mando, -are, to eomnumd. 
Mando, -ere, to eat. 
Meto, -ere, to reap. 
Metor, -ari, to measure. 
Metior, -Iri, to meastare. 
Metuo, -ere, to fear. 
Miseror, -ari, to pity. 
Misereor, -eri, to pity, 
Moror, -ari, to delay. 
Morior, -i, to die. 
Niteo, -ere, to glitter. 
Niter, -1, to strive. 
Obsero, -are, to lock up. 
Obsero, -ere, to sow. 
Occido, -ere, to fall. 
Occido, -ere, to kill. 
Operio, -ere, to cover. 
Operor, -ari, to work. 
Opperior, -Iri, to wait 

Pando, -are, to bend. 
Pando, -ere, to open, 
Paro, -are, to prepare. 
Pareo, -ere, to appear. 
Pario, -ere, to Mi^ 

Pario, -are, to ^aZance. 
Pendeo, -ere, to Aan^. 
Pendo, -ere, to iDe^A. 
Percolo, -are, toflUer. 
Percdlo, -ere, to adorn. 
Permaneo, -ere, to re- 
Permano, -are, to flow 

PreedXco, -are, to publish. 

PredTco, -Sre, to fore- 

PrOdo, -Sre, to betray, 
Prodeoy -ire, to owm 

Recedo, -Sre, to retire,, 
Recldo, -ere, to /a22 

Recldo, -ere, to act <>^. 
Reddo, -ere, to restore. 
Redeo, -ire, to return. 
Ref^ro, -re, to bring 

Ref^rio, -Ire, to strike 

Relego, -are, to remove, 
Relegd, -ere, to reAJ 

Sedo, -are, to a2/ay. 
Sedeo, -ere, to «/t. 
Sido, -ere, to «in^. 
Sero, -ere, to «oio. 
Sero, -ere, to knit. 
SuccTdo, -ere, to .^lU 

Succido, -ere, to ettf 

Vado, -ere, to ^. 
Vador, -ari, to give ba£L 
Veneo, -Ire, to be sold, 
Venio, -Ire, to come. 
Venor, -ari, to hunt. 
Vincio, -Ire, to bind, 
Yinco, -ere, to am^ver. 
Vdlo, -are, to fly. 
Vdlo, velle, to 6e loiZt. 

2. Different verbs have sometimes the same perfect ; as, 

Aceo, aciii, to be sour. 
Acuo, acui, to sharpen. 
Cresco, crevi, to grow. 
Cerno, crevi, to decree, 
Fulgeo, fulsi, to 5/it7ie. 
Fulcio, fulsi, to /^op. 

Luceo, luxi, to sAine. 
Lugeo, lujti, to mourn. 
Mulceo, mulsi, to 

Mulgeo, mulsi, to mtZifc. 
Paveo, pavi, to fear. 

Pasco, pavi, to feed. 
Pendeo, pependl, to 

Pendo, pependi, to 


To these add some of the compounds of <sto and sisto. 

3. Different verbs have sometimes, also, the same supine or 
perfect participle ; as, 

Frico, frictnm, to rtib, 
Frigo, frictum, to roast, 
Maned, mansum, to remain. 
Mando, mansum, to eAeie. 
Pango, pactum, to drive in. 
Paciscor, pactus, to bargain. 


Pando, passum, to open. 
Patior, passus, to suffer. 
Teneo, tentum, to hold. 
Tendo, tentum, to stretch, 
Verro, versum, to brush, 
Verto, versum, to iurn. 



§ 187. Verbs are derived either from nouns, adjectives, or 
other verbs 

I. Verbs derived from nouns or adjectives are called 

1. Those which are active are generally of the first conjuga- 
tion ; those which are neuter of the second. They are usually 
formed by adding o or eo to the root ; as, 

Actives from JVouns, J^euterafrrm Nouns, 

Armo, to arm, (arma^ Floreo, to bloomy (flofl.) 

Fraudo, to defravd, (fraus.) Frondeo, to produce leaves^ (firoiw.) 

Nominoy to rtamey (nomen.) Luceo, to shine, (lux.) 

Numero, to number f (numSrus.) Vireo, to flourish, (vis.) 

JFVofft MjecHves, 

Albo, to whiten, (albus.) Albeo, to be white, (albus.) 

Celebro, to celebrate, (celfiber.) Calveo, to be bald, (calvus.) 

Lib«ro, to free, (liber.) Flaveo, to be yeOow, (flavtis.) 

Sometimes a preposition is prefixed in forming the deriva- 
tive ; as, 

Coacervo, to heap together ^ (acer- Extirpo, to extirpate, Tstirps.) 

yus.) lUaqueo, to vnanare, (laqueoB.) 

£xc&vO) to excavate, (cavus.) 

2. Many deponents of the first conjugation, derived from nouns, express 
the exercise or the character, office, &c. denoted by the primitive j as, 
architettor, to build ; comitor, to accompany ; Juror, to steal; from archi' 
tectus, comes, and fur. 

3. Such as denote 'resemblance or imitation are colled imitatives ; as, 
arrnicor, to imitate a crow, from comix. ; Gracor, to imitate the Greeks. 
Some of these end in isso ; as, patrisso, to imitate a father. 

II. Verbs derived from other verbs are either frequentativeSf 
inceptives, desideratives, diminutives, or intensives, 

1. Frequentatives express the frequent repetition of the 
action denoted by the primitive. 

They are all of the first conjugation, and are formed from the 
third root. In verbs of the first conjugation, dtu is changed 
into ito, rarely into o ; as, clamo, to cry, (clamdtu,) clarMo^ 
to cry frequently ; no, to swim, {natu,) nato» In verbs of the 
other three conjugations, u is changed into o, rarely into ito ; 
as, curro, to run, (cwrsw,) cur so y or curslto, to run frequently. 

Some are derived from the present, or perhaps from an obsolete third 
root ; as, ago, (agitu,) agito ; cogo, cogito. 


Some fiequentatiTes are deponent ; as, minltor, from minor (nundtu) y 
versoTj from verto (versu). So sector y loquitorj from sequor and loquor. 

Verbs of this class do not always express frequency of action, but have 
sometimes nearly the same meaning as their primitives. 

2. InceptiveSy or inctioatives, mark the beginning, or increased 
degree of the action or state expressed by the primitive. 

They all end in sco, and are formed by adding that termina- 
tion to the root of the primitive, with its connecting vowel 
which, in the third conjugation, is i; as/ caho^ to be hot; 
caksco, to grow hot. 

So lahOf labasco ; ingXmo, ingemisco; ohdorwxo^ obdomuseo. HtMCo is 
contracted for hiasco, from Aio. 

Most inceptives are formed from veibs of the second conjugation. 

Some inceptives are formed from nouns and adjectives, by adding ojm 
or esco to the root ; as, puerasco, from puer ; juvenescOy from juvinig. 

Some inceptives have the same meaning as their primitives; as, adhtd- 

Note. Inceptives are all neuter, and of the third conjugation. See § 173. 

Some verbs in sco which are not inceptives axe active ; as, diseOfposeo, 

3. Desideratives express a desire of doing the act denoted by 
the primitive. 

They are formed from the third root, by shortening the final 

u, and adding rio ; as, cceno, to sup, {comdtUy) ccenaturio^ to 

desire to sup. 

Desideratives are all of the fourth conjugation. See § 176, Notb. 
Verbs in urto, having « long, are not desideratives ; as, prUriOf deeUritK 

4. Diminutives denote a feeble or trifling action. They are 
formed by adding illo to the root of the primitive ; as, eantiUof 
to sing a little — from canto. 

They are few in number, and are all of the first conjugation. 

5. Intensives denote eager action. They are usaally formed 
by adding esso or isso to the root of the primitive; as, faeesso^ 
to act earnestly — Ccomfacio. 

So eapestOy arcesso^ from capio and areeo, Concupiseo^ to deiixe greatly, 
is also an intensive. 



^ 188* Verbs are compounded variously : — 

1. Of a noun and a verb; as, adiftco, heUigero, hicrifacio. 

2. Of an adjective and a verb; as, ampKftco, muUipUcOf 

3. Of two verbs; as, calefacio, madefaeio, ptxtefacio. 

4. Of an adverb and a verb ; as, henefacio, maUcHco, satSgo, 

148 coHFOsmoN of vebbs. 

6. Of a preposition and a verb ; as, adduco, excdlo, prodo, 
suhrepOf discemo, sgungo. 

6. Of a preposition and a noun ; as, pemocto, irretio, 

^ 189« In composition, certain changes oflen occur in the 
radical letters of the simple verb. 

1. The following simple verbs in composition change a into e •* 

Arceo, Carpo, Farcio, Jacto, Pario, Patro, Spargo^ 
Candeo, Damno, Fatiscor, Lacto, Partio, Sacro, Tracto. 
Capto, Fallo, Gradior, Mando, Patior, Scando, 

£zc. A is retained in amando.prtemandOf desaero, and retracto; j?r0- 
damjio and pertrado sometimes also occur. A is also changed into e in 
deptdseor from paeueoff oecento from eantOy and anheUf from halo ; eon^ 
pareo also is found. 

2. The following change a, a, and e, into t .* 

Ago, Capio, Habeo, Pango, Re^o, Statuo, 

Apiscor, £geo, Jacio, Placeo, Salio, {to leap,) Taceo, 

Cado, £mo, Lacio, Premo, Sapio, Tango, 

Cedo, Fateor, Liedo, Quaero, Sedeo, . Teneo. 

Cano, Frango, Lateo, Rapio, Specio, 

Ezc. Ji is retained in HrcumAgo, per Ago, satdgo; antehaheo, posthabeo, 
depangOf repango; eomplaeeo vma perplaceo. Occdno and recdno also some- 
times occur. E is retained in eoimo, cirnvmsedeo, and supersedeo. Ama^ 
eapio and antuApo are both used ; so also are superjaeio and superjido. 

Cogo and dego are formed, bj contraction, from con, de, and ago ; demo^ 
wromo, and sumo, from de, pro, sub, and emo ; prtebeo, and perhaps <2e&eo, 
from prte, de, and habeo ; pergo and surgo, from per, svb, ana rego. 

Note 1. Facio, compounded with a preposition, changes a into t ; as, 
qgido. Some compounds of facio with nouns and adjectives, change a 
into t, and also drop t before o, and are of the first conjugation ; as, signi' 
flco, UU\flco,nuigniflco, Specio forms some compounds m the same man- 
ner ; as, eonspicor and susplcor. 

NoTB 2. Lego, compounded with eon, de, di,^, inUr, nee, and se, changes 
c into t ; as, coulgo, negllgo, &c. ; but with ad, pra, per, re, svb, and trans, 
it retains e ; as, aUigo. 

Note 3. Calco and salio, in composition, change a into u; as, inculeo, 
insuUo. Plaudo changes au into 6 ; as, expUfdo ; except applaudo. Audio 
changes au into € in i£edio. Catiso, claudo, and quatio, drop a ; as, accUso, 
reclvMo, percutio. Juro changes u into e in dejiro and pejiro. 

Note 4. The simple verbs with which the folloyving are 
compounded are not used : — 

Defendo, Impedio, Cunfato, InstTgo, Conniveo, 

OfTendo, Imbuo, Reflito, Impleo, Percello, 

Experior, Compello, (-ftre,) Ingruo, Com'pleo, Induo, and some 

Expedio, Appello, (-ftre,) Congruo, Renideo, Exuo, others. 

For the changes produced in prepositions hj composition with verbe. 
•ee § 196, 1. 




^ 190* The parts of speech which are not inflected, are 
called by the general name of particles. They are adverbs, 
prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. A word may 
sometimes belong to two or more of these classes, according to 
its connection. 


An adverb is a particle used to modify or limit the mean- 
ing of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb ; as, bene et 
sapienter diocit, he spoke well and wisely ; egregie fidelity 
remarkably faithful ; valde frene, very weU. 

Remark. The modifications of adjectives and verbs which are eflected 
by adverbs, may also generally be made by means of the oblique cases of 
nouns and adjectives ) and many modifications may be denoted by these, 
for expressing which no adverbs are in use. In general, those modifica- 
tions which are most common are expressed by adverbs. Thus, for acm- 
sapientidj sapierUer is used; hie, for in hoc loco; hen^, for in bono modo; 
nunCf for hoc temporCf &c. 

Adverbs are divided into various classes, according to the 
nature of the modification denoted by them; as adverbs of 
pkue, time, manner, &c. 

^ 1 9 1 • The following lists contain a great part of the more 
common adverbs, except those which are formed, with certain 
regular terminations, from nouns, adjectives, and participles. 
These will be noticed subsequently. 

I. Adverbs of Place and Order. 

Alik, by another way. 
Alibi, elsewhere. 
AlicCLbi, somewhere, 
Alicunde, from some 

Alio, to another place, 
AITqu6, to some place. 
Aliunde, from else* 

Dehinc, henceforth. 
Deinceps, successively. 
Deinde, i^Ur that. 
DenXque, finally, 
Denuo, again, 
Deorsum, downward. 
Deztrorsum, towards 

the right. 
£k, that way. 


E6, to that place. 
Eodem, to the same- 
Exmde, after thai. ~ 
Foras, out of doors. 
Foris, without. 
HkCf this way. 
Hlc, here. 
Hinc, hence. 
Hue, hither. 
Horsum, hxtherward. 
Ibi, there. {place. 

Ibidem, in the same 
I112ic, that way. 
IlAo, there* 
lllino, thence, 
lUorsum, thitherward. 
1116, thither. 

niuc, thither. 
Inde, then, thence. 
Indldem, from the same 

Intr6, Xwiihiat 

Introrsum, ^ '*'•*'*•"• 

Intus, within. 

Ist&c, that way. 

Istio, there. 

Istino, thenee, 

Necabi, lest any where, 
Neutr6, neither way, 
Nusquam, no where* 
Porro, moreover, 
'pTOTswoDLf forward, 
Quk ? by wluch way ? 



Qn6? whither? 
Quoraum? whithertoardf 
Retro, ^ 

Retrorsmn, > hackward 
RiiTBum, J 
SicQbi, {f any where. 
Sicunde, (^ from any 

Sinistrorsum, towards 

the left. 
Sursum, upward. 
Ubi? where? 
Ubiqne, every where, 
Ubi vis, any where. 
Unde ? whence ? 
Vndlqae,Jrom all sides. 

Uirinque, on both sides. 
Utr6 ? which wan ? 
UtrObi f in which fiUteet 
Utrobique, in both 

UtrOque, eadi way. 

Remark 1. Most adverbs of place which answer the ques- 
tions where ? whence ? whither ? by which way 1 and whith- 
erward ? have a mutual relation and resemblance : — Thus, 


















lUuc, • 














Quonum ? 


Rem. 2. H\c^ kinc, hue, refer to the place of the speaker ; 
isttc, istinc, istuc, to the place of the person addressed; aind 
ilBCf illinc, illuc, to that of the person or thing spoken of. 

II. Adverbs of Time, 

Aliquando, sometimes. 
Aliquoties, several 

Bis, (see $ 119,) twiu. 
Cras, to-morrow. 
Ctim, when. 
Demum, at length. 
Diu, long. 
Dudum, heretofore. 
Heri, yesterday. 
Hodie, Uhday. 
Identidem, now and 

Illlco, immediately. 
Interdum, sometimes. 
Interim, in the mean 

It^rum, again. 
Jam, now. 
Jamdiu, 7 1 

Jamjam, presently. 

Jamprldem, Umg since. 

Moz, immediately. 

Nondum, not yet. 

Nonnunquajn, some- 

Nudios tertina, three 
days ago. 

Nunc, now. 

Nunquam, never. 

r^uper, lately. 

Olim, formerly. 

Parumper, a little while. 

Perendie, two days 

Postridie.tAe day qfter, 

Pridem, heretofore. 

Pridie, the day before. 

Protinus, instantly. 

Quamdiu ? how Umg ? 

Quater,/0«r ^^e^. 
Quondam, formerly. 
Quotidie, aaily. 
Quoties ? how often ? 
Rar6, seldom. 
Ruraus, again. 
Sope. often. 
Semel, once. 
Semper, always. 
Statim, immediatdy. 
Subinde, now and then^ 

Tamdiu, so long. ~ 
Tandem, at ler^rth. 
Ter, thrice. 
Toties, so often. 

Vicissim, by turns. 
Unquam) ^. 

Quando? when? 


Rem. 3. Some adverbs are used to denote either place, time, or order, 
according to the connection : — Thus, 

Ubi may signify either where or when ; inde, from that place or time ; 
haetinus, hitherto, in regard to place or time. 

Rem. 4. The interrogative adverbs, like the interrogative pronounsy 
■re oflen used indefinitely ; as, nescio ubi sit, I know not where he is. 
CSee § 137, N#ti(.) They are made general by adding vis, lUei, otfue; 



BA, vbtviSy ubmue, every wbere ; unddHbet, from every where. The ter- 
mination ciin^ue is equivalent to the English soever; oAfUbicunqitBj where- 
soever. The repetition of an adverb has sometimes the same effect , 9B, 
quotjubf whithersoever ', vbiitbi^ wheresoever. 

III. Adverbs of Manner ^ Quality ^ &c. 

Ade6, so^ to such a pass, 
Admddum, very rmuch, 
Allter, otheneise. 
An? whether? 
CevL, aSf like as. 
Cur? why? 
Duntazat, onlyf at least. 
£tiam, truly, yes. 
Ferme, almost, nearly, 
Fortasse, perhaps, 
Frustra, in vaiit. 
Gratis, fredy. 
Haud, not. 
Immo, yes, truly, 
Ita, so. 

Itldeih, in likemutnner. 
Juzta, alike. 
Magisy more. 
Modd, only. 
Sea, verUy. 
Ne, not. 

Nedum^ much less. 
Nemp^, to toit, truly. 
Nequaquam, 1 hyno 
r^eutiquam, ^rtieans. 
r^imlrum, certainly. 
Nimis, too much. 

Nimium, too much. 
Non, not. 
Num ?, whether f 
Omnino, altogether, only. 
Palam, openly. 
Pariter, eqnaUy. 
Par6m, Utde. 
Paula tim, by degrees. 

Pffene. almost. 

Penitus, within, wholly. 

Perquam, very much. 

PlerCimquey for the 
most part. 

Poti6s, rather. 

Praesertim, especially. 

Profectd. truly. 

Prop^, almost, near. 

Propemddum, almost, 

Prorsus, whoUy. 

Qukm, as. 

Quamobrem, where^ 

Qu^r^? why? where- 

Quasi, as if, almost. 

Quemadmddum, as. 

QuomSdo? how? in 

what manner ? 
Sanlb, truly. 
Satis, enough, 
Satii)i8, raiUier, 
Scilicet, truly. 
Secus, otherwise. 
Seorsum, separatdy. 
Sic, so. 

J ?as. 

Sicfijti, 3 
SigilUtim, one hy one, 
Simul, together, 
Soli!im, only. 
Tain, so. 
Tanquam, as {f. 
Tantum, ) ^, 

Tantummodo, 5 ^^^T- 
Unk, together, 
Ut, as. 
Uti, as. 

UtIque/Aere/bre, verily, 
Utpdte, as, inasmuch as* 
Valde, very much. 
Velut, > ^ f ., 

Videlicet, certainly. 
Vix, scarcely. 

Rem. 5. Adverbs denoting qualitv, manner, &c., are ^metimes di- 
vided into those of, 1. Quality ; as, ben^, maU. 2. Certainty ; as, cert^, 
nlan^. 3. Contingence; VLa,forti. 4. Negation; aa, hand, non. 5. Prohi- 
bition ; as, ne. 6. Swearing ; as, herde. 7. Explaining ; as, videlicet^ 
utpdte. 8. Separation ; as, seorsum. 9. Joining togeUier ; as, simul^ 
und. 10. Interro^tion ; as, cur ? quarh ? 11. Quantitv or degree ; as, 
satis, aded. 12. Excess; as, valde, maxivni. 13. Defect; as, paritm, 
pcaie. 14. Preference; as, potius, satiiis. 15. Likeness; as, ila,, sic. 
16, Unlikeness ; as, aUter, 17. Exclusion ; as, tantiim, solum. 


^ 192. Adirerbs are derived from nouns, adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and participles. 

I. From nouns. 

1. Of these a few end in im, and denote manner ; as, 

gregOtim, in herds ; membrOiim, limb by limb ; ^artim, by parts ; vtee^- 
sim, by turns ; from grex, memJbrum, pars, and viets. 


2. Some end in %tus^ and denote manner or origin ; as, 

taltltus^ from heaven ; fundUua, from the bottom \ raditXtuSf by the 
roots; from ccdumjfundusy and roiitz. 

3. Some are ablative cases of nomis used adverbially ; as, 
moddf only ; vulgd, commonly. 

II. From adjectives. 

1. Those which are derived from adjectives of the first and 
second declension, are generally formed by adding^ to the root; 

a^^, scarcely ; dUhy hiffh ; lihir^j fireely ; longh, far ; misihrif miserably ; 
fiUne , fally ; from ager, miusj Ubery Umgus^ miser, and pUnus. Benif well, 
18 from bonus f or an older form henus. 

A few end in tier, ttus, and im ; as, 

natHtery actively; aliter, otherwise; antiquituSf anciently; dimnltus, 
divinely ; privdtimy privately ; singulddm, severally ; from navus, alius, 
antiquMSf aivlnus, privatus, and singiili. 

Some adverbs are formed with two or more of the above terminations 
with the same meaning; as, dur^ and durltery harshly : so cauU and catc- 
tim ; humantf humaniter, and humanltus ; ptillcd and puhlicUus. 

2. Adjectives of the third declension form adverbs by adding 
iter to the root, except when it ends in t, in which case er only 
is added ; as, 

acrlter, sharply ; fdiditer, happily ; tmrplter, basely 'y-d^anJter, ele- 
gantly ; prudenter, prudently ; from acer, fdix, turpis, degans, and pru' 

From omnis is formed omnlTW, 

3. From the cardinal numerals are formed numeral adverba 
in ies ; as, 

quinquUsy dedes, from quinqtie and decern. So toHes and quoUeSf fiKMB 
tot and qtiot. See § 119. 

4. Some adverbs are merely certain cases of adjectives. 

Such are, 

(a.) Ablatives in o or a ; as, citd, quickly ; continudf immediately ; falsdj 
falsely ; rectdy straight on ; unA, together. In like manner, repeiUt, sud- 
denly, from repens. 

(h.) Nominatives or accusatives neuter, in the singular, and sometimes 
in the plural ; as, solum, only ; perflditm, perfidious^ ; subllrtU, on high ; 
facile, easily; muUa, much ; tnstia, sadly. 

(c.) From some adjectives of the first and second declension, chiefly 
orainal adjectives, forms both in um and o are used; as, primiim and 
primd, first ; postrimum and postremd, finaUy. 

Note 1. These adverbs are properly adjectives agreeing with some 
noun understood, either definite, as, recid, sc. vid, or indefinite. Those 
in o are the most numerous. The plural forms occur chiefly in poetry. 

Note 2. Some adjectives, from the nature of their signification, have 
no corresponding adverbs Of some others, also, none occur in the 


III. From the adjective pronouns are derived adverbs of 
place, d&c. (See § 191, Rem. 1.) 

The ablative in o is used to denote a place whither, instead of the accu* 
sative with a preposition ; as, ed for ad eum locum ; and the ablative in a^ 
to denote by or tnrough a place , as, hoc ; vid or parte being understood. 

IV. From participles are derived adverbs denoting manner. 
Those from present participles are formed by adding er to the 
root ; those from perfects by adding e, and sometimes im ; as, 

aananteTy lovingly ; properanteTf hastily ', from amana and propirans ;-'^ 
<2oe£^, learnedly; omdU, elegantly; rapHm, by rapine; strictim, cloBely ; 
from doctuSf omatuSf raptuSf and stridus. 

The ablative in o of some perfect participles, like that of adjectives, 
is used adverbially ; as, auspiccUd, auspiciously ; consuUdj designedly. 

Note. A few adverbs are derived from prepositions; afl, danofUum^ 
privately ; from dant; — suitus^ beiieath; from suJb. 


^ 193. Adverbs are compounded variously : — 

1. Of an adjective and a noun ; as, postridie^ magnopiref swmmopirey 
muliimddiSf qitotanms-— of poatlro dU, magno opire^ summo opSref muUis 
madia f quot annis, 

2. Of a pronoun and a noun ; as, hodiey ftmr^y quomOdd^^of hoe die, 
qud re, &c. 

3. Of an adverb and a noun ; as, nudinSf sapenumiro-'Of nunc dies, 

4. Of a preposition and a noun j. as, eomXnus, eminus, UUcOf obvianiy 
postmddo, propedieTtir-of cofif e, and manus; in and loco; ob and vianif ^ui. 

5.' Of an adjective and a pronoun ; a9f aHOquiiCeti^Cqwr— of aUuSfCeteruSf 
and ^. 

6. Of a pronoun and an adverb ; as, aHquancUu, aliciiH-~of aUquiSf dm, 
and vJn ; nequdquam — of ne and quisquam, 

7. Of two verbs ; as, ilicet, scUicet, videUcet — of ire, scire, videre, and 

8. Of a verb and an adverb ; as, quoUbet, tMviB, wndeKbet. So deinr 
eep9 — from dein and capio, 

9. Of a participle with various parts of speech; as, deorsuvif dextrorsum, 
horsum, retrorsum, sursum—^f de, dexter, Aic, retro, super, and vorsus ot 

10. Of two adverbs ; BS,ja7ndudum, quousque, sicut* 

11. Of a preposition and an adjective; as, dermo, imprimis — of de novo^ 
in primis. 

12. Of a preposition and a pronoun ; as, qwnpropier^ postea, interea, pro- 
terea — of propter qtuB, post ea, &>c. 

13. Of a preposition and an adverb ; as, abhme, adhuc, derepente, psr- 

154 coMPAB[s<»r or adtibbs. — ^PBEPOsrrioirs. 

14. Of two or three prepositions ; as, tMi^er, proHmtSy inde, danf 

deindcj perinde, 

15. Of a conjuiiction and an adverb as, nec4^i, stcVM-'^of ne, n, and 

16. Of an adverb and a termination scarcelj nsed except in compoaitioift; 
as, ibidem, parumper, quandocunqWy nHque, vteunqtte, 

17. Of three different parts of speech ; as, forsitan^-of forSf sii, an ; 
fuemadmddumi quamobrenif &c. 


^ 194. Adverbs derived from adjectives with the termina- 
tions e and ter, and most of those in o, are compared like their 
primitives. The comparative, like the neuter comparative of 
the adjective, ends in ius; the superlative is formed from the 
superlative of the adjective by changing us into e ; as, 

duriy duriiis, durissim^ ; fa<AU,faciUiiSyfaciUim^; acrttery acriitSy auT' 
fimd ; rardy rariits, rarissHm^. 

Some adverbs have superlatives in o or urn; as, meritisHmdy plurimiimf 
primd ot primiimy poHsslmiim. 

If the comparison of the adjective is irregular or defective, 
that of the adverb is so likewise ; as, 

hen^y TodiiiSy opUmt; mdUy pejitSy pestflm^; parimiy miniiSy muiSlmi ; 
f/ttdtd or mmUhm, pluSy pharimhim ; — y pHus, primd or primitm ; — , ocihsy 
oeissinU ; meritdy — , meritisHmd ; satis, saiiks. — . Magisy maaXmt, 
(from magnuSy) has no positive; nupery jiuperflmey has no comparative. 

DiiMind stsne, though not derived from adjectives, are yet compared ; — 
diuy diuHuSy ditaissUfne ; saps, sapiuSy sapis^me. A comparative tempe- 
riusy from tempiri or tempdriy also sometimes occurs. 

Adverbs, like adjectives, are sometimes compared by prefix- 
ing taagis and maximi ; as, magis apertly mazimi^ accommodate. 


^ 195. A preposition is a particle which expresses the 
relation between a noon or pronoun and some preceding 

Twenty-six prepositions have an accusative after them :-^ 

Ad, to, atyfoTy before. Circa, '> around, 'Br go., towards, opposite, 

Adversiks, ) agaivst, Circ6m, 3 about. Extra, toiihovty beyondy 

Adversdm, 5 towards, Qurclter, ahvut, near, besides. 

Ante, before, Cis, ) on this side. Infra, under y beneath, 

Apua, aty toithy amongy Citra, ) without. Inter, betweeuy among^ 

before, ContxviyagainstyOpposiU, at, in time of. 


thtm, within. Post, aftery since, b&- Secunditai, aeeording 

Juxta, near, hind. to, aUnig, next t0| 

Ob, for, on aeanmi qf, Prteter, beyond, except, for, 

before, contrary to, b^ore. Supra, ehove. 

Penes, in tke power of, Prope, nigh, by, beside. Trans, over, beyond* 

'Ber, through Jnf, during. Bropter, for, on account Vltn, beyond. 
Pon^, behuuL of, near. 

Eleven prepositions have an ablative after them : — 

A, y Ciim, with. Tub, before, for, on ae- 

Ab, ^fiom, by, eifier. De, of, concerning, count of, in eompoT' 

Aba,!) from, after, for. ison qf. 

Absque, without, but £, ^from, of, out of, Two, for, before, eonsid- 

for. Ex, y by, fir, since. f'nng, according to. 

Coram, before^ in preS' Palam, before, %oith the Sine, without, 

ence ^, knowledge of, Tenos, as far as, up to. 

Five prepositions take after them sometimes an accusative, 

and sometimes an ablative : — 

In, in, into. Sub, under, near. Super, above. Subter, under, beneath. 
Clam, without the knowledge qf. 

Remark 1. Prepositions are so called, because thej are generally 
piaced brfore tke noun or pronoun whose relation thej express. They 
•ometimes, however, stand uter it. 

Rem. 2. Jl in used only before consonants ; ab before vowels, and 
sometimes before consonants ; abs before q and t. 
E is prefixed only to consonants, ex both to vowels and consonants. 

Rem. 3. Versiks, towards, and usque, as far as, which by some are 
considered prepositions, seem to be more properly classed with adverbs. 
Palam also is commonly an adverb. Hecus, in the sense of by, tdong, 
wants good authority. 


^196. Prepositions are coinpounded with various parts of 
speech. In composition, they may be considered either in 
reference to their form, or their force. 

I. Prepositions in composition sometimes retain their final 
consonants, and sometimes change them, to adapt them to the 
sounds of the initial consonants of the words with which they 
are compounded. In some words, both forms are in use ; in 
others, the final consonant or consonants are omitted. 

1. A,m composition, is used only before m and v; as, amowo, avello. 
Ab is used before vowels, and before d,f, h,j, I, n, r, and s; as, abjuro, 
aJbr6go, &c. Abs occurs only before c, q, and t ; as, abscondo, absque, 
abstineo. In asporto, b is dropped ; in aufiro and atfugio, it is changed 
into «. 

2. Ad often changes d into c, f, g, I, n,p, r, s, t, before those letters 
respectively ; as, accido,, agvredior, aUego, annUor, appOno, arrigOf 
assequor, attoUo. D is usually oimtted before s followed by a consonantj 


and befiNW gn; as, awpeargo, aspaOf agnogco, agnMuM. Before q, d im 
ehanged into e; aa, acqulro, 

3. Cirdtm usually omita m befbre a vowel ; aa, etreueOj drcuUus. It 
aometimes changes m into n befbre d ; aa, drcundo. 

4. Cum ^ composition, com) retaina m befbre &, m, p; aa, eom/Mo^ 
eommitto, eompdna: befbre 2, n, r, ita m ia changed into those letters 
lespectivelj ; aa, edUJlgo, caimUor^ corripio : before other conaonants, it 
becomes n ; aa, eondoeo, eonjungOj &c. Before a vowel, ^ or A, m ia 
commonly omitted; aa, eoeoj eoopto, eogo {com ago), eognosco, eohahito; 
but it is aometimes retained ; as, eomidOf comes, eomitor. In eomburq, k 
ia inserted. 

5. Ez is prefixed to vowels, and to c, A,p, q, a, t; aa, exeo, caAgo, ez- 
eurro, ez/Ubeo, expuRo, dSui. Before /, x is changed into /; aa, eJPiro : 
before 5, it is oflen omitted ; as, exiquor, E is prefixed to the other con- 
sonajits ; as, ebibo, edico, &c. These, with the exception of n and r, are 
also very rarely preceded by ex ; as, exmoveo. P is sometimes preceded 
by e ; aa, epcto, 

6. /n, before h, m, p, changes n into m ; as, imhuOf immitto, impdno : 
before I and r, it changes n into those letters respectively ; as, tUigo, 
irretio : befbre gn, n ia omitted ; as, igndms. In some compounds, in 
retains d before a vowel, from an ancient form indu ; as, vnddgo, indigeo^ 
indolesco. - • 

7. Oh changes h into e, /, g, v, before those letters respectively ; aa, 
oceurro, officio, oggaido, opplto. In omitto, b is dropped. 

8. Per changes r into I in peUido and pelluceo. 

9. Pro sometimes takes d before a vowel ; Bs,prodeo, prodesse, 

10. Sub sometimes changes b into e, /, g, m, p, r, before those letters 
respectively ; as, sitccedo, svffiro, suggkro, summoveo, supptlco, surripio, 
Befora c, p, and t, b is sometimes changed into s ; as, suscipio, suspendo, 
sustoUo : it is omitted before s, followed by a consonant ; as, sttspicto, 

11. Wans omits s before s ; as, transeendo : before other consonants, it 
often omits ns; as, trajido, trwndUo, trano, &c. 

The foUowing words are called inseparable prepositions, 

because they are found only in composition : — 

Amb, around, about' Red or re, again, back, Ve, not. 

Dis or di, asunder, Se, apart, aside. 

12. .Smb before a vowel is unchanged ; as, amharvdhs, amino, awhustus : 
before consonants, b is omitted, and m, except before p, is changed into n; 
as, anfractus, anqulro, ampfito. 

1 3. Dis is prefixed to words beg^nnin^ with c, p, a, s, t ; aa, diseutio, 
dispOno, disquiro, dissHro, distendo : before /, s is cnanffed into /; aa, 
diffiro : in airimo, s becomea r. Di is prefixed to the other consonants, 
and to s when followed by a consonant; as, didueo, dimitto, distinguo^ 
dispicio. But both dis and di are used before J and r; as, disjvngo, diju~ 
dico, disrumpo or dirumpo, 

14. Red is used before a vowel or A; re before a consonant ; Wi,redAmjo, 
redeo, redhibeo, redlgo, redoleo, redujtdo ; — rejieio, repOno, revertor. But 
red is used before do ; as, reddo, 

15. Se and ve are prefixed without change ; aa, sectdo, secilrus ; vegranF 
dis, vecors. 

coNJtTiroTiaNs. 157 

^ 197. II. Prepositions in composition usually add their 
own signification to that of the word with which they are 
united ; but sometimes they give to the compound a meaning 
different from that of its simples> as in the following exam- 
ples :— ^ 

1. A^ with a noun^ Bometimes denotes prioaiion; as, omeiw, mad. 

2. Ad is sometiinea intensiTe ', as, addmo^ to love greatly ; adbibOf to 
drink much. 

3. De often signifies downward; as, deacendOf to descend; dedLdo^ to 
ftll down. It is sometimes intensive ; as, deArM^ to love greatly ; da- 
miroTf &o. Sometimes it denotes privation; as, deapiro^ to despair; 
demenSf mad ; decdlor, discolored. 

4. Dis is sometimes intensive; as, diseupio, to desire greatly; and 
sometimes negative ; as, dissimUis, unlilEe. 

5.^ E and ex a^e sometimes intensive ; as, escOtOf to beg earnestly ; ex- 
audiOf to hear perfectly. Sometimes they denote privation ; as, exsanguis, 
bloodless ; exspes, hopeless. 

6. In, with adjectives, generally denotes ne^tion ; as, infldusy unfaithful ; 
t7u2i^ni&9, unworthy. In some compounds, it has contrary significations, 
according as they are participles or adjectives ; as, invoedtuSf called upon 
or not ctuled upon ; immutatus, changed or unchanged, &c. 

7. Oh sometimes denotes around; as, o6e», to go around ; sometimes 
against ; as, oppdno, to oppose ; ohsto, to withstand. 

8. Per, with adjectives, is commonly intensive ; as, j»ercdrti«, very dear; 
pevfadUia, very easy. With quikm, it is strongly intensive ; as, peryuam 
oredlter, with exceeding brevity. In perflduSj perfidious, ;»erb negative. 

9. PrtBj with adjectives, is intensive ; as, praddruSf very clear ; pra- 
vatldus, very strong. ^ 

10. Pro sometimes denotes forth ; as, prodHco^ to brin^f forth ; prold- 
quor, to speak out. 

11. Red is sometimes intensive ; as, redundo, to overflow : sometimes it 
is negative ; as, retlgO) to uncover ; recludo, to unlock. 

12. Se, with adjectives, denotes privation ; as, secHruSy without care. 

13. Sub oflen diminishes the meaning ; as, subrideo, to smile ; subdulcis, 
sweetish ; aubtristia, somewhat sad. It sometimes denotes motion up« 
wards ; as, auJbrigo, to raise up. 

14. Fe, with adjectives, denotes privation; as, veadnua, unsound; 
vecora, foolish. 

Remark. Prepositions in composition seem often to add nothing to the 
signification of the words with which they are compounded. 


§ 198. A coRJunction is a particle which connects 
words or propositions. 




The most usual conjunctions are, 

Ac, andf as, than. 

An, whether, 

Anne, whether* 

Annon, whether or not. 

At, ast, hut. 
• Atque, andf as, than. 
, Atqoi, but. 

Att&men, y^. 

Aut, either, or. 

Autem, biiL 

CetSri!tni, but, hotoever. 

Cbm, qiium, since. 

'Ci!tm...tum, both..M.nd. 

Dum, provided, whUe, 

Dummddo, so that. 


Bqulaem, indeed. 

Ergo, tfierefore. 

£t, and. 

£, both..Mnd. 

Etiam, also. 

Etiamsi, although. 

Etsi, though. 

Idcirco, therefore. 

Ideo, iher^ore, 
Igitur, tkerefore, 
It&que, thorejore. 
Licet, thmi^. 
Mod6, prodded. 
Nam, namqae|/or. 
Ne, lest. 
•Ne, whether. 
Nee, neither f nor. 
Nee. . .neque , neither. ..nor. 
Necne, or not. 
Neque, neither, nor. 
Neu, n£ither, nor, and not. 
Neu...neye, neither...nor. 
Ni ) 

Num, whether. 
Quamvis, although. 
Quando, quandoqul- 
dem, whereas, since. 
Quanquam, although. 
-Qae...-que, both..Mnd. 
Quia, because. 
Quin, but that. 

Quippe, because, 
Qud, m order that, « 
Qa6d, beeauge. 
Quoniam, sineBm 
Quoque, also. 
Seu or sive, or. 
Seu...8iye, wkeihar,.Mr. 
Si, if. 

Sin, but if. 
SiquTdem, if indood^ 

Tamen, however. 
Tametsi, althout^ 
Turn.. .turn, both..Mnd» 
Ut. that. 

Uti, that, to the end that. 
XJtrikm, whether, 
-Ve, either, or. 
Vel, either, or. 
Verb, truly. 
Verum, but. 
Verunt&men, notwitk' 


Conjunctions, according to their different significations, may 
be divided into the following classes : — 

1. CopuLATiTxs, or such as connect things that are to he considered 
jointly 4» as, ae, atque, et, etiam, que, quoque, and the negative nee or 

2. Disjunctives, or such as connect things that are to be considered 
separately ; as, aut, seu, sive, ve, vel, and the negative neve or neu. 

3. CoNCESsivES, or such as express a concession; as, etsi, etiamsi, 
tametsi, licet, quanquam, quamvis. 

4. Adversativxs, or such as express opposition ; as, at, atqui, autem, 
cetirum, sed, tamen, att&men, veruntamen, verd, veritm. 

5. CAusAts, or such as express a cause or reason; as, entm, etSnim, 
nam, namque, quando, quandoquldem, quia, quippe, qudd, quoniam, quum, 
or cum, siquXd^. 

6. Illatiyes, or such as express an inference ; as, ergo, idcirco, ideo, 
igitur, Uaque, proinde, quapropter, quar^, quamobrem, quocirca, 

7. Finals, or such as denote a purpose, object, or result ; as, ne, quin, 
qud, quominus, ut, uti. 

8 Conditionals, or such as express a condition ; as, si, sin, nisi or ni, 
dummddo, or separately either dum or modd. 

9, SuspENsivEs, or such as express doubt; as, an, anne, annon, -ne, 
necne, num, utrum. 

Remark 1. Ac rarely stands before vowels or h; atque chiefly befoie 
vowels, but also before consonants. 


Rem. 2. The eonjonctions -»«) -^110.-00, are not used alone, but are 
always annexed to some other word. They are called enclitics. 

Rem. 3. Some words here classed with conjunctions are also used as 
ifdverbs, and many classed as adverbs are likewise conjunctions ; that b, 
they at the same time qualify verbs, &xs., and connect propositions ; as, 
OsUris in rebuSy cUm venit ealamUaSf turn detrimentumaccipUur; In other 
concerns, when misfortune comes, then damage is received. 

Rem. 4. Conjunctions, like adverbs, are variously compounded with 
other parts of speech, and with each other; as, atquef idcircOf ideo^ 

In some, compounded of an adverb and a conjunction, each of the sim- 
ples retains its meaning, and properly belongs to its own class ; as, ettam 
{etjam)f and now ; itd^, and so; ne^ or nee, and not. 


^ 199. An interjection is a particle used in exclama- 

tion, and expressing some emotion of the mind. 

The most usual interjections are, 

Ah! ah! alas! Euge ! weil done! lo\ huxxa! 

Atat ! ha! indeed! Evax ! ) , ^^^ , 0\ oh! 

Aulhtish! whist! Evoeij'**"^' Oh I oh! alas! 

Ecce! lo! behold! Ha! ha! he! ha! ha! Ohe! ho! hold! 

Ehem! O strange! Hei! wo! alas! Oil hoy! alas! 

Eheu! alas! Hem!Ao/ hold! hmo! Papee! strange! 

Eho! eh5dum! soho! lo! hravo! Proh ! oh! alas! 

Eja! on/ Heu ! wo! alas! St! hush! 

En! lo! behold! Heual hoUiere! nutrk! Vie! 100/ 

£u ! bravo ! Hui ! away ! ho! Yah ! Aa .' alas! bravo! 

Remark 1. An interjection sometimes denotes several different emo- 
tions. Thus, vah is usea to express wonder, grief, joy, and anger. 

Rbm . 2. Other parts of speech may sometimes he if garded as inter- 
jections ; as, pax ! oe stiU ! So tndxgvMmy infandum, misirumf mtserdkiley 
nrfas, when used as expressions of grief or horror. 

100 STKTAZ. 


^ 200. Syntax treats of the construction of proposi- 
tionsy their connection and dependence. 

A proposition consists of a subject and a predicafe. 

The subject of a proposition is that of which something 
is afGrmed. 

The predicate expresses that which is affirmed of the 

Thus, Equus currit^ The horse runs. Here equus is the 
subject, and currit is the predicate. 

NoTs. The word affirm^ as used bj gnunmaiians, must be nnderatood 
to include all the vanons lignificatioiui of the verb, as expressed in the 

different moods. 


^ 20 !• I. The subject is either grammatieaJ or hgicdl. 

The grammatical subject is either a noun, or some word 
standing for a noun. The logical subject consists of the gram- 
matical subject, with its various modifications. 

Thus, Conscientia bend acts vitie est jueumdissfi'ma^ The emueioumess of 
a tpeU'spaU l^e is very pleasant. Here eanseientia is the grammatical, 
and cona^Uatia beni aetm vita the logical^ subject. 

Note. If the grammatical subject is not modified, it is the same as the 
logical subject. 

II. The subject is also either simple or compound. 

A simple subject is a single noun or word standing for a noun, 

either alone or variously modified ; as. 

Vita breois tsty lafe \a short. Longisslma homlnis yita IremB est^ The 
longest Itfeofman b short. Fugftoes labuniur anni. 

A compound subject consists of two or more simple subjects, 
to which one predicate belongs ; as, 

Luna et Btelltd fulgebantf The moan and stars were shining. GrammatTce 
ac muBloe juncUBfiUnmtf Grammar and music were united. 

Remark. Words are said to modify or limit others, when 
they serve to explain, describe, enlarge, restrict, or otherwise 
qusdify their meaning. 



Modified Subject. 

III. A grammatical subject may be modified oj: limited in 
different ways : — 

1. By a noun in the same case, annexed to it for the sake of 

explanation or description ; as, 

Jios consdles desimMSy We consuls are remisB. Mtidus augur nudta 
narrdvitf Mucius the oMgur related many thingrg. 

2. By the oblique case of a noun or pronoun to which the 

subject has some relation ; as, 

^mcr multitudinis commovetuTy The love of the multitude is excited, 
De victorid. CaesSris fama perfertUTf A report of tAe victory of Casar 
is brought. 

3. By an adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle ; as, 

Fugit invtda (Btasy Envious time flies. Dudt agmina PenthesiUa furens, 
Penthesilea rtiging leads on her troops. 

4. By the relative qui and the words connected with it ; as, 

Leve fit quod bene fertur onus, The burden which is well boms becomes 
light. LdtiriBf quas scripsisti, accqtUe sunt. 

Remark 1. A noun or pronoun, in any cctse, may be roodf- 
fied in either of the ways above mentioned. 

Rem. 2. An adjective modifying a noun may itself be 
modified : — 

(1.) By an adverb ; as, «. 

Eral expeetatio yald^ magnaf There was very great expectation. 

(2.) By a noun in an oblique case ; as. 

Major pietate, Superior ttt piety, Contentidnis euptdmSt Fond of conten- 

(3.) By a relative or other dependent clause ; as, 

Viditur, qui impSret, dignus; He seems worthy to command, 

(4.) By an infinitive mood, a gerund, or a supine ; as, 

InstUtus vera audire, Unused to hear the truth. Promptus ad agendum, 
Ready to act, Mirabile dictu, Wonderful to be spoken. 

Rem. 3. A participle may be modified like a verb. See 
§ 202, III. 

Rem. 4. An adverb may be modified : — 

(1.) By another adverb; as, 

Magis apertif More openly. Valdd zehementeTf Very vehemently. 
(2.) By a noun, pronoun, or adjective, in an oblique cai^ ; as, 
Congmenter nators, Agreeably to naiure, OptinU omnium, Best of aU. 
Rem. 5. A preposition may be modified by an adverb, or by 
a noun in an oblique case ; as, 

Long^ yltra. Far beyond. Mult6 ante noctem, Long before night. 

Bexenmo post Veios captos, 



Rem. 6. A modified grammatical subject, considered as one 

complex idea, may itself be modified ; aa, 

Omnia tua eonsiliaj All thy counsels. Here omnia modifies^ not eantUia^ 
but the complex idea tua consUia. So Omnia tua prava corutUa. 

IV. 1. An infinitive, either alone or with the words connected 

with it, and also im entire clause, may be the logical subject of 

a proposition ; as, 

' Mentiri est turpe, To lie is base. Virttis est yitium fiigSre, To shun tdet 
is a virtue. E ccuo descendity " Nosoe te ipsum." JEquum est ut hoc facias. 

In such cases, the verb, or, if that be esse, the verb with its 
predicate noun or adjective, may be considered as the gram- 
matical subject; as, 

Oratdrem irasci non decet, Jfon satis est, pulchra esse poemdta. 

2. In consequence of the various modifications of the gram- 
matical subject of a proposition, the logical subject may be 
greatly extended. 

3. The noun or pronoun which is the subject of a proposition, 

is put in the nominative case, except that, when the verb of the 

predicate is an infinitive mood, it is put in the accusative. 

Note. In the following pages, when the term subject alone is used, 
the grammatical subject is intended. 


^ 202. I. The predicate, like the subject, is either gram" 
matical or logical. 

The grammatical predicate is either a verb alone, or the cop« 
ula sum with a noun or adjective. The logical predicate con- 
sists of the grammatical predicate with its various modifications. 

Thus, Seipio fudit Annibftlis copias, Scipio routed the forces of HantU" 
bal. Hete fudit is the grammatical, ajid fudit £nnihdlis copias the logical, 
predicate. RomXdus Romanse conditor urbis erat. 

Note. If the grammatical predicate is not modified, it is the same as 
the logical predicate. 

II. The predicate also, like the subject, is either simple or 

A simple predicate is one which contains a single finite* 

verb; as, 

Brevis est voluptaSy Pleasure is brief Mors venit, Death eames. 
Mors ffi<|uo pulsat pede paupdrum tabemas, regumque turres. 

A co^ipound predicate consists of two or more simple predi- 
cates belonging to the same subject ; as, 
Protatas laudatur et alget. Honesty is praised and negUcted* 

* A verb m any mood except the infinitive, is called a JbdU veib, 

8TNTA11*— — SBNTENCES* 163 

Modified Predicaie. 

III. A grammatical predicate may be modified or limited in 
different ways :— 

1. By a noun or adjective in the same case as the subject 
This occurs after certain neuter verbs, and verbs passive of 
naming, calling, &c. (see ^ 210, Rem. 3) ; as, 

Incido reglna, I walk queen, Arisades Justus est appelUUus, 

2. By a noun in an oblique case ; as, 

Deus regit mundum, God rules the world* .^^^ tibi gratias. Ex volun- 
i&ie fecit. Spe mtlmus. Vemt ad urbem. 

3. By adverbs ; as^ 

Seepe vemty He often came. Litirm facil^ diseuntur* 

4. By an infinitive mood ; as, 

Cupit discSre, He desires to learn, Probftri volunt. 

Rem. 1. An infinitive may be modified like the verb of a 

Rem. 2. All other words used to modify verbs, may them- 
selves also be modified in the ways mentioned under the article 
Modified Subject, § 201, III. 


^ 203* 1. A sentence may consist either of one proposi* 
tion, or ojE/ two or more propositions connected together. 

A sentence consisting of one proposition is called a simple 

A sentence consisting of two or more propositions, is called a 
compound sentence, and the propositions of which it is com- 
posed are called members, or clauses. 

2. The members of a compound sentence are either inde- 
pendent or dependent. 

An independent clause is one which makes complete sense 

by itself. A dependent clause is one which makes complete 

sense only in connection with another clause. 

Thus, Phocionfuit perpetvjb patxpeT^ ehm dUisHmus esse posset; Phocion 
was always poor, though he might have been very rich. Here the former 
clause is independent, the latter dependent. 

3. That member of a compound sentence on which the other 
members depend, is called the leading clause ; its subject, the 
leading subject ; and its verb, the leading verb. 


The leading verb is usually either in the indicative or imper- 
ative mood, bat sometimes in the subjunctive. 

4. The members of a compound sentence may be connected 
by relative words, conjunctions, or adverbs. 

An infinitive with its subject may be united with another 
clause without a connective. 

5. Instead of a dependent clause connected by a conjunction^ 
a noun^and participle, or two nouns^ sometimes stand as an 
abridged proposition ; as^ 

Bello confecto, discessit, i. e. qttum beUum eorfectum tsaet, discessit; 
The war beinff finished, or when the war was finished, he departed. Atl 
iic8p0ran<2ttm,7reacro dace. Hor. 

6. Agreement is the correspondence of one word with another 
in gender, number, case, or person. 

7. A word is said to govern another, when it requires it to be 
put in a certain case or mood. 

8. A word is said to depend on another, when its case, gen- 
der, number, mood, tense, or person, is determined by that word. 

9. A word is said to follow another, when it depends upon it 
in construction, whatever may be its position in the proposition. 


^ 204« A noun, annexed to another noun or to a pro* 
noun, and denoting the same person or thing, is put in the 
same case ; as, 

Roma urbs, The city Rome. J^os consfdes, We consuls. So ^pud 
HerodStum^ patrem kistoritB, sunt innumeraMles fabfUai ; In Herodotus, the 
fiLther of history, &c. Cic. Lapides siUces, flint stones. Liy. Fons cut 
nomen Arethasa est. Cic. 

Remark 1. A noun, thus annexed to another, b said to he in apposi- 
tion with it. It is generally added for the sake of explanation or descrip- 
tion ; sometimes it denotes character or purpose ; as. Ejus Jwb comitem 
me adjunxi, I added myself, as a companion of his flight. Both nouns 
must belong to the same part of the sentence, either suoject or predicate. 
In cases of apposition, there seems to be an ellipsis of the ancient participle 
enSf being ; qui est, who is ; qui voeOtwr, who is called ; or the like. 

Rem. 2. If the annexed noun has a form of the same sender as the 
other noun, it takes that form ', as, Usus magister egregius. r lin. PkUoso* 
phia magistra vitcR. Cic. 

Rem. 3. The annexed noun sometimes diflers from the other in gender, 
afl, Dvjo fUlmTna helU^ Scipiddas ; The Scipios, two thunderbolts in war 
(Yirg.) — sometimes in number ; as, Tudliblu, deliciee nostra (Cic.) ;^— and 
sometimes in both ; as, JVate, mece vires. Virg. 

Rem. 4. The substantive pronoun is sometimeB omitted before the 


word in appositioa with it; as. Consul dixiy se. ego; (I) the eonsul said. 
Hoc tibi juventas Romdna indiclmus htUun^y sc. nog; (We) the. Roman 
youth, &c. Liv. 

Rem. 5. A noun in apposition to two or more nouns, is usually put in 
the plural; as, M. JintomuSf C, Cassius^ tribani pldtis; M. Antony, C. 
Cassius, tribunes of the people. Cees. 

So when the nouns are connected by ewnif the annexed noun taking the 
case of the former ; as, DioBarehum verb cum Jiristoxino, doctos sanl Ttom- 
tnesy omUtdmus. Cic. 

If the nouns are proper names of different genders, a masculine is an* 
nexed rather than a feminine, when both forms exist ; as, Jld Ptolenueum 
Cleopatramque reges legdti miasi* Liy. 

Rem. 6. The annexed noun is sometimes in the ^nitive ; as, Urha 
Patavii ; The city of Patavium. Virg. Jimnis Erid&m. Id. ^rbor fici. 
Cic. Mmien Mercurii est mihu Plaut. 

Rem. 7. The name of a town in the genitive occurs with an ablative 
in apposition with it ; as, Corinthi JickauB urbe ; At Corinth, a city of 
Achua. Tac. See § § 221 and 254, Rem. 3. 

* Rem. 8. A proper name, after nomen or cogrn^Mien, with a verb followed 
by a dative, is sometimes put in apporation with the dative, rather than 
with nomen or eogn&men; as, JWwMn Arctaro est mildy I have the name 
Arcturus. Plant. Cui nunc cognOmen lalo addUur, Virg. Cui Egerio 
indltum nomen, Liv. 

Rem. 9. A clause may supply the place of one of the nouns ; as, Cogiiet 
oratdrem institui — rem arduam ; Let him reflect that an orator is training-* 
a difficult thing. Quinct. 

Rem. 10. Sometimes the former noun denotes a whole, and its parts 
are expressed by the nouns in apposition with it ; as, OneraruB, pars max- 
ima ad JEgimUrumy — aliee adversus urbem ipsam deldta sunt ; The ships of 
burden were carried, the greatest part, to ^gimurus,— others opposite 
to the city itself. Liv. Picidres et poeUs suum quisque opus a mdgo con- 
siderdri vtdt. Cic. In the following example, fuispie is in the nomina- 
tive, though the word with which it is in apposition is in the ablative : — 
Multis sUn quisque imperium petentibus. Sail. 

To this rule may be subjoined that which relates to the agreement of 
interrogative and responsive words. 

Rem. 11. The principal nonn or pronoun in the answer to 
a question, must be in the same case with the corresponding in- 
terrogative word ; as, 

Quis herus est tibi f Amphitruo, sc. est. Who is your master ? Amphit- 
ruo *s.) Plaut. Quid quaris? Libmm, sc. quaro. What are you 
looking for } A book. Quot^ hord vcnistif Sextl. At what hour did you 
come ? At the sixth. 

Note 1. Instead of the genitive of a substantive pronoun, the corre- 

SK>nding possessive pronoun is often used, agreeing with its noun ; as, 
ujus est Uber ? Mens, (not Mei.) (See § 211, Rem. 3.) So cujum for gen. 
cujus ; Cujum pecus ? an Melibcsi 7 Mm ; verhm JEgOnis. Virg. 

Note 2. Sometimes the rules of syntax require the responsive to be 
in a different case from that of the interrogative; as, Quanti emisti? 
Viginti minis. Damnatusne es furti? Imd alio crimlne. See §§252 
and 217. 



^ 205. Adjectives, adjective pronouns, and participles, 
agree with their nouns, in gender, number, and case ; as, 

Bimus virj A good man. Bonos viroSf Good men. 
BenigiM mater, A kind mother. VaruB leges. Useless laws, 

THste beUum, A sad war. Minacia verba, Threatening words, 

i^e amissd, Hope being lost. Hoc res, This thing. 

NoTS 1. An adjectiye, participle, or pronoun, majv^ither modify a noun, 
or, with the vejb sum, constitute a predicate. The rule for their agree- 
ment, in botli cases, is, in general, the same. 

Note 2. In the following remarks, the word adjective is to be consid- 
ered as including participles and adjective pronouns, unless the contrary 
is intimated. 

Remark 1. An adjective also agrees with a substantive pronoun, 
taking its gender irom that of the noun for which the pronoun stands ; 
as, Ipse capeUas eeger ago, sc. ego, MeUbaus ; (I) myself, sick, am driving 
my goats. Virg. JJt se totum ei tradiret. Nep. O me misirum (spoken 
by a man), misiram me (by a woman). So salvi sumus, salva sumus, sc. 
nos, masculine or feminine. 

In general propositions which include both sexes, the pronouns are 
consi^red masculine ; as, Kosfruges consumire nati. Hor. 

Rem. 2. An adjective, belonging to two or more nouns, is 

put in the plural ; as. 

Lavas el agmts sid compubd, A wolf and a lamb, constrained by tMrst. 

When the nouns are of different genders, 

(1.) If they denote living things, the adjective is masculine 
rather than feminine ; as. 
Pater mihi et mater mortui sunt, My father and mother are dead. Ter. 

(2.) If they denote things without life, the adjective is gene- 
rally neuter ; as. 

His genus, tetas, eloquenJtia prope squalia fOEre; Their family, age, and 
eloquence, were nearly equal. Sail. Regna, imperia, nohUitdtes, lumorcs, 
divituB in casu sita sunt, Cic. Huic bella, rapma, diseordia dvilis, grata 
fuere. Sail, ^nimu atque anHmus, quamms integra reeens in corpus eunt. 
Lucr. * 

NOTB. When nouns denoting things without life are of the same gen- 
der, the adjective is sometimes neuter: as, Ctcbso et vita et patrimonii partes, 
et urbs Barce concessa sunt. Just. Vidocitas et regio hostfbus igndra tutata 
sunt. Sail. So the relative, 4 206, R. 19, (15.) 

(3.) If one of the nouns denotes an animate, and another an 
inanimate thing, the adjective is sometimes neuter, iand some- 
times it takes the gender of that which hs^^ life ; as, 

Naves et capRvos quae ad Chium capta eranty The ships and captives 
which were taken at Chios. liv. NunOdo^ atque signa mtiUuia obscurati 
swdL Sail. 


^^^ _ ^ 

Ezc. to Rem. 2. The adjective often agrees with the nearest 

noun, and is understood with the rest ; as, 

Soeiis et rege recepto, Our companions and king bein^ reeovered. Virg.' 
CognUum est, salfUem^ libiro8,favunn,fortQnas esse cariasimas. Cic. 

NoTX. A i^onn in the aingolar, followed by an ablative with eum, htm 
sometimes a plural adjective ; as, FUiam eumJUio accltos. Li v. lUaeum 
Lduso de JfumiUfre sati. Ovid. 

Rem. 3. An adjective qnalifying a collective noun, is often 
put in the plural, taking the gender of the individuals which the 
noun denotes; as, 

Pars eertdre parftti, A part prepared to contend. ^ Virg. Pars per 
agros dilapsi, .... suam auisque spem e;Kseqaentes. Liv. Supplex turba 
erarU sine mndlce tuti. Ovid. This construction always occurs when the 
collective noun is the subject of a plural verb. 

Sometimes, though rarely, an adjectiye in the singular takes the render 
of the individuals; as, Par« arduus aids pulverulentus equisfurit. virg. 

Some other nouns have an adjective of a different gender from their 
own, referring to the words which they include ; as, Latium Cajntdque 
agro mulct&ti ; Latium and Capua were deprived of their lana. Liv. 
Capita conjuratkfnis virgis ceesi. Id. 

Rem 4. Two adjectives in the singular are sometimes joined to a plu- 
ral noun; as, Maria TyrrhSnum atque Adriattcum, The Tuscan and 
Adriatic seas. Liv. In comic writers, an adjective or participle in the 
singular is sometimes used with a plural pronoun ; as, ^obis prtssente. 
Plant. Ahsente nobis. Ter. 

Rem. 5. A participle which should regularly asree with the subject of 
a proposition, when placed after the noun oi the predicate, sometimes 
takes the gender and number of the latter ; as, Jfan omnis error stuUitia 
est dicenda ; Not every error is to be called folly. Cic. Gens universa 
VeniU appellati. Liv. 

Rem. 6. When the subject of an infinitive is omitted afler a dative of 
the same signification, an adjective in the predicate, belonging to that sub- 
ject, is sometimes put in the dative ; as, Mihi negligenti esse non licuil^ 
1. e. me negUgentem esse mihi non licitit. Cic. Da mihi justo sanctd^zc6 
videri. Hot. A noun is sometimes expressed with the adjective; as, 
Vobis necesse est fortibus esse viris. Liv. The adjective oflen agrees with 
the omitted subject ; as, Expgdit bonas esse vobis, sc. vos. Ter. Si dm 
Romdno licet esse Gaditanum. Cic. 

Rem. 7. (1.) An adjective is often used alone, especially in 

the plural, the noun, with which it agrees, being understood ; as, 

Boni sunt rari, sc. homines ; Good (men) are rare. Casar suos misit, 
sc. mUltes ; Ciesar sent his (soldiers). Dextra, sc. manvs ; The right 
(hand). Pingidsque ferinss, sc. camis. Immortdles, sc. Dii. AmaTUium^ 
sc. hoTnUnum. Ilium indignant! ^'miZem, simUem^ue minanti aspiciresy so. 
komXni. Virg. Tibi primas defiro, sc. partes. Cic. RespUce prasteritum, 
sc. temjnis^ which is oflen omitted. CognOvi ex meorum omnium litSris^ 
sc. amicdrum. Cic. So patrial adjectives ; as, Missi ad Parthum Arme- 
niumque legdHj sc. regem. 

Note 1 . The noun to be supplied with masculine adjectives is commonly 
homines, but when they are possessives, it is oftener ontici, mitltes, cives. 

Note 2. The noun to be supplied is oflen contained in a preceding 


(3.) Neuter adjectives are very often used alone, referring 

not to nouns omitted, but to objects conceived or exhibited as 

indefinite; as^ 

Triste lupus atahaiis ; The wolf, a gneYoau (thing) to the folds. Virg. 
Lahar omnia vineU; Labor overcomes all (obstacles). Id. Turpe dueet 
eedere pari. Quinct. Vacdre adpd est suaye. Que eUm Ua smt, Cic. 
Pedibus per Touiaa. nexis. Virg, 

NoTK. In most instances of this kind, the word thirty, in English, may 
be supplied. Many grammarians suppose that negoHum is understood ; 
but that word seems not to admit such a sense. 

(3.) Adjectives used without nouns often have adjectives agreeing with 
them ; as, Alia omnia, All other (things). Plin. Familidris mens. Cic. 
Jniquus noster. Id. Justa funebria, lAr, Jovis omnia plena. Virg. 
See § 201, III. Rjbm. 6. 

Rem. 8. Imperatives, infinitives, adverbs, clauses, aiid words consid- 
ered merely as such, may be used substantively, and take a neuter adjec- 
tive; as, Supr^mum vale dixit, He pronounced a last farewell. Oyid. 
Velle suum cuique est. Fers. Cras istud quando verut 7 Mart. Ezcepto 
quod lion simul esses, cetira Uetus. Hor. 

Rem. 9. Adjectives and adjective pronouns, instead of agreeing with 
their nouns, are sometimes put in the neuter gender, with a partitive 
signification, and their nouns in the ^nitive ; as, Multum tempdriSy for 
muUum temvus ; much time. Id ret, for ea res; that thing. So plus 
do^uenHa, tne other form not being admissible with plus, ^ee § 110.) 
Neuter adjectives are used in like manner in the plural ; as, Y ana rerum^ 
for vantB res, Hor. Plerftque humanarum rerum. Sail. But in some such 
examples, the adjective seems to be used as noticed in Rem. 7, (2.) ; aa, 
Acota beUi. Hor. TeUnris operta. Virg. 

The adjectives thus used in the singular, for the most part, signify 
quantity. See § 212, Rem. 3, Note 1. 

Rem. 10. A neuter adjective is sometimes used adverbially in the 
nominative or accusative, Both singular and plural ; as. Magnum stridens. 
Virg. Arma horrendum sonutre. Id. Multa deos venerdH sunt. Cic. 
See § 192, II. 4, (b.) 

Rem. 11. A noun is sometimes used as an adjectiye; as, lacdla turba 
vocatU. Ovid. Nemo miles Romdnvs. Liy. 

An adverb is also sometimes used as an adjectiye ; as, Heri semper 
lenltas, for sempitema. Ter. 

Rem. 12. An adjective or adjective pronoun, used partitively, stands 
alone, and commonly takes the gender of the genitive plural, which 
depends upon it; but when it is preceded by a noun of a difierent 

gender, to which it refers, it usually takes that gender, but sometimes 
lat of the genitive ; as, Elephanto beUudrum nuUa e^ prudentior, No 
beast is wiser than the elephant. Cic. Indus, qui est omnium fiwiAwum, 
maximus. Cic. Velocisslmum ommum aninuMum est ddphinus. Plin. 
See § 212, Rem. 2. 

When a eoUective noun follows in the genitive singular, the adjectiye 
takes the gender of the individuals which compose it ; as, Vir fortissimus 
nostra eivitdiis,The\}Ta.veai man. of QUI stBitd. Cic. MajLimua stirpis, Liv. 

Rem. 13. V^hen a possessive pronoun is used instead of the genitive of 
its primitive ^e § 211, Rem. 3.), an adjective agreeing with that genitive is 
sometimes joined with such possessive ; as, Solius meum peccdtum corftgi 


nofli potestj The fault of me alone cannot be corrected. Cic. Noster 
duorum ecentus. Lay. Mea scripta timentis. Hor. Tuum ipsius studir 
um. Cic. Id maxlmt quemque decetj ^od est cujusque auummaxlm^. Id. 
Sometimes a noun in the genitive is expressed, in apposition with the 
fiubstantire pronoun for which the possessive stands; as, Pectus tuuntf 
homlnis simplicis. Cic. 

Rem. 14. An adjective, properly belonging to the genitive, is some- 
times made to agree with the noun on which the genitive depends, 
ajid vice versd ; as, JEdificatidnis tus consilium for <uum, Your design of 
building. Cic. Accusemtes violati hospitii JiEdus^ for violdtum\ Liv. Jid 
majora inttla rerum ducenttbus fatisj for majdrum. Id. lis nominihus 
civitdtumj quibus ex civitatibuSf &c. for edrum avitdtum. Cses. 

Rem. 15. An adjective agreeing with a noun is sometimes used, in- 
stead of an adverb quallfyingr a verb, especially in poetry ; as, Ecce venii 
Teldmon propSrus; Lo, Telamon comes in haste. Ovid. Laeti pacem 
agitabdmvSf lOr hetd. Sail. JEneas se matutinus ag€batj for mane. Virg. 

So nvRus is used for omnlno non ; as, Memim tametsi nullus maneeu, 
Though you do not suggest it, Ter. Prior, primus, wropior, prox^mus, 
solus, unus, ultimus, ana some others, are used insteaa of their neuters, 
adverbially ; as, Priori Remo augurium venissefertur. Liv. This is some- 
times done, for want of an adverb of appropriate meaning ; as, Pronus 
cecldit. Ovid. Frequentes convenirant. Sail. 

In such expressions, to, in the nominative, sometimes takes an adjec- 
tive in the vocative, and vice versd; as, Sic venias hodieme. Tibull. 
Salve, primus omnium parens patruB appellate. Plin. 

Rem. 16. When several adjectives, each independently of the other, 
qualify a noun, if they precede it, they are almost always connected bv one 
or more conjunctions ; as, Multd et varid et copiosd oratione. Cic. If they 
follow it, the conjunction is sometimes expressed, and sometimes omitted ; 
as, Vir altus et excellens. Cic. Actio, varia, vekimens, plena veritdtis. Id. 

But when one of the adjectives qualifies the noun, and another the 
complex idea formed by the first with the noun the conjunction is always 
omitted ; as, PericulosissTmum civile beUum, A most dangerous civil 
war. Cic. Malam domesClcam diseipllnam. Id. So with three or more 
adjectives; Externos multos claros viros nomin&rem. Cic. See § 201, 
III., Rem. 6. 

Rem. 17. The adjectives ^jnmws, medius, ultimus, extrimus, 

intimus, inftmus, imus, summus, supremus, reUquus, and cetera, 

oflen signify the Jirst part, the middle part, &c. of a thing ; as, 

Media nox, The middle of the night. Summa arbor, The highest part of 
a tree. Supremos monies, The tops of the mountains. But these adjec- 
tives frequently occur without this signification ; as, Ab extrimo complexu^ 
From the last embrace. Cic. Infimo loco. Of the lowest rank. Id. 

Rem. 18. The participle of the compound tenses of neuter verbs, used 
in the passive voice, is neuter ; as, Ventum est. Cic. Itum est in viscira 
terra. Ovid. 


^ 206. Rem. 19. Relatives agree with their antece- 
dents in gender and number, but their case depends on the 
construction of the clause to which they belong ; as, 

. Puer qui legit, The boy who reads. Animal quod currit, The animal 



which runs. Litira quaB dedi. The letter which I gave. JVbn sum qnaSa 
eram, I am not such as I was. So Deus cujus immire viiArmiSf cui rndlua 
est nmiliSf quem cohmus, a quo facta surU omnia j est tBtemus. AddiUua 
HermippOy et ah hoc ductus est. ^aqulloj qu&niua frangit ttlces. Hor. 

Note. This rule includes all adjectives, participles, and adjective pro- 
nouns which relate to a noun in a preceding clause. Its more common 
application, however, is to the construction of the relative ^t. 

The relative may be considered as placed between two cases 
of the same noun, either expressed or understood, with the for- 
mer of which it agrees in gender and number, and with the lat- 
ter in gender, number, and case. 

(I.) Sometimes both nouns are expressed; as, 

Erant omnXno duo itinera, quibus itineilbns domo exlre possent ; Theie 
were only two routes, by which routes they could leave home. Cos. 
Cruddisslmo bello, quale bellum rutUa unquam barbaria gessit, Ctc. 

(2.) Usually the antecedent only is expressed ; as^ 

Animum rege^ qui, nisi paretj impirat ; Govern your passions, which 
rule unless they obey. Hor. TarUa multitudlnis, quantam eapit urbs nostra^ 
eoncurstts est ad me foetus. Cic. Quot capitum viimnt, totldem studiOrwrn 
millia. Hor. 

(3.) Sometimes the latter noun only is expressed, generally 

when the relative clause precedes that of the antecedent ; as, 

Quibus de rebus ad me scripsisti, coram videblmus ; In regard to the 
things of which you wrote to me, we will consider when we meet. Cic. 
In quem primum egressi sunt locum, Droja vacatur. Liv. Quanta vi expf' 
tunt, tantd defendunt. Quales^e Tfisu^ eram vidisse viros, ex' ordine tales 
'aspicio. Ovid. 

To this head may be referred such examples as the fQllowing : — Qui meus 
amor in te est, i. e. pro meo amdre qui in te est; Such is my love for you. 
Cic. Q^a tua est virtus^ expugndbts, i. e. pro tua virtutey &c. 

(a.) The place of the antecedent is sometimes supplied by a demonstra- 
tive pronoun, especially when the cases are different ; as, Jid quas res 
aptissimi erimus, in iis potissimum dabordbimus. Cic. 

(b.) Sometimes the latter noun only is expressed, even when the relative 
clause does not precede ; as, Q^is nan maldrum quas amor curas habH^ 
hmt inter obliviseHtur ? Hor. 

(4.) Sometimes neither noun is expressed ; this happens 
^specially when the antecedent is designedly left indefinite, or 
when it is a substantive pronoun ; as, 

Qui bene latuit, bene vixit, sc. homo ; (He) who has well escaped notice, 
has lived well. Ovid. SurU quos curricUlo pulvirem Olymplcum col- 
legisse juvat, sc. homines; There are whom it delights, &c. Hor. JVbn 
habeo quod te accnsemy sc. id propter quod. Cic. J^on solum sapiens 
videris qui hinc absis, sed etiam tedtusj sc. tu. Cic. 

^5.) The relative is sometimes either entirely omitted ; as, Urbs antiqua 
fuU ; Tyrii tenvere coldniy sc. quam or earn; There was an ancient city 
(which) Tyrian colonists possessed (Virg.J; or, if once expressed, is after- 
wards omitted, even when, if supplied, its case would be different j as, 
Bacchus cum peditibus, quos fliu^ ejus adduxiraty neque inpridre pugnd 
adfuiraiUy Romdnos invaduntf for et qui non in priorcy &c. Sail. 


(6.) (a.) The relative Bormetimes takes the case of the antecedent, in- 
stead ol its bwn proper case ; as, Citm scribas et aliquid agas eOrum^ qao- 
rum consuSstiy for qiuB. Cic. Raptim quibus quisque poUrat ddtiSf ezibantf 
for iisj qius quisque efferre potirat, eldtis. Liy. 

(b.) The antecedent likemse sometimes takes the case of the relative ; 
aSi Urbem, ^uam statuo vestra est, for urhs, Vir^. Naucriltem, quern eonr 
venire voliUf in navi non erat. Flaut. Sed istum, quern piaritf ego 
sum. Id. 

Tiiese constructions are said to occur by attraction. 

(7.) An adjective, which properly belongs to the antecedent, is some- 
times placed in the relative clause, and agrees with the relative ; as, Inter 
jocos, quos Inconditos jaciuni, fox jocos incondttoSy quos, &c. ; Amidst the 
rude jests which they utter. Liv. Verbis, quae magna volant. Virg. Ca- 
l&re, quern multum fiabet. Cic. 

This is the common position of the adjective, when it is a numeral, a 
comparative, or a superlative ; as, .N'octe quam in terris ultimam egit, The 
last night which he spent upon earth. JEsculapijis, qui primus vulnus ob- 
ligayisse dicltvr, Cic. Consiliis pare, quas nunc pulcherrlma Navtes dot 
senior. Virg. Some instances occur in which an adjective belonging to 
the relative clause, is placed in that of the antecedent; as, Cum vemssent 
ad vada Volaterrana, qu89 n4)minaniur. Cic. 

(8.) When to the relative is joined a noun, explanatory of the 
antecedent, but of a different gender or number, the relative 
agrees with that noun ; as, 

Santdnes non longt a Tolosafiumjinibus ahsunt, quse civTtas est in provin' 
ct^, The Santones are not far distant from the borders of the Tolosates. 
which state is in the province. Csbs. Ante comida, quod tempus kaud longi 
ahirat. Sail. 

(9.) If the relative refers to one of two nouns, denoting the 

same object, but of different genders, it agrees with either ; as, 

Flumen est Avar quod in Rkoddnum, influit. Cees. Adjlumen Oxumper* 
ventum est, qui turbldus semper est. Curt. 

(10.) When, in a relative clause containing the verb sum or a 
verb of naming, esteeming, &c., a noun occurs of a different 
gender from the antecedent, the relative agrees with either ; as, 

JVattirie vultus auem dixere Chaos, The appearance of nature which they 
called chaos. Ovia. Genus kominum quod Helotes vocdtur. Nep. Anlmaiy 
quem vocamus homlnem ; The animal whom we call man. Cic. Locus in 
earcire, quod Tullianum appeUdtur. Sail. PecunicLrum conquisitio ; eos 
esse beUi civllis nervos dicUtans Mucidnus. Tac. 

(II.) The relative sometimes agrees with a noun, either equi- 
valent in sense to the antecedent, or only implied in the preced- 
ing clause ; as, 

Abundantia edrum rerum qusB mortdles prima putant, An abundance of 
those things which mortals esteem most important. Sail. Quartum 
gentis est sanb varium et mistum .... qmjampridem premuntur. Cic. Con- 
jurdvire pauci contra rempubllcam, de qud. (sc. conjuratidne), qudm veris" 
Amt potiro dicam^. Sail. Daret ut catSnis fatdle manstrum, quae, &c., sc. 
Cleopaira, Hor. JVbn diffidentid futuri qus imperavisset. Sail. Si tem^ 
pus est uUum quas multa sunt. Cic. 


(12.) The antecedent is sometimes implied in a possessive pronoun ; as, 
Omnes lauddre fortunas meas, qui natum tali ingenio pradUum haberem ; 
sc. mei; All were extolling my fortune, who Had a son endowed with 
such a disposition. Tcr. Nostrum consilium laudandum est, qui w^os 
civcs servls arinatls objlci noluirim. Cic. 4 

(13.) Sometimes the antecedent is a proposition^ and then the relative 
is commonly neuter ; as, Postremdf quod difficUUmum intermortdles, glorid 
invidiam vicisti ; Finally, you have overcome envy with glory, which^ 
among men, is very difEcult. Sail. EquXdem exspectisham jam. tuas litSras, 
idque cum multis. Cic. 

In such instances, id is sometimes placed hefore the relative pronomiy 
referring to the idea in the antecedent clause ; as, Sive, id quod constat^ 
Platonis studiosus audiendi fuit. Cic. Diem consUmi voUhant, id quod 
fecCrunt. Id. 

Sometimes a relative referring to a clause, a^ees with a noun following; 
as, Idem velle a^que nolle, ea demum Jirma amicitia est. Ball. 

(14.) Quody relating to a preceding statement, and serving the purpose 
of transition, is often placed at the bemnning of a sentence afler a period. 
It is thus used especially before si ana nisi, and sometimes before utinam^ 
ut, ne, uhi, etlm, contra, and nunc ; as, ^uod si mundum, ejfficire potest eon/' 
eursus atomOrum, cur portleum, cur templum, cur domum,, cur urbem non 
potest ? In regard to which, if the concourse of atoms can produce a world, 
why, iSdc. Cic. Quod te per senium obaecro, vita me reddeprinri. Hor. 
Quod uitnam iUum, cujus impw fadndre in has miserias projectus sum^ 
e&dem hac simtdantem videam. Sail. 

Quod, in such examples, seems to be an accusative, with propter or ad 

(15.) If the relative refers to two or more nouns of different genders, 
its gender will be determined by Rem. 2 ; as, Mnus et Semirdmts, qui 
Babylona condidirant ; Ninus and Semiramis, who had foimded Babylon. 
Veil. Crebro fundli et tibicine, que sibi sumpsHrat. Cic. Ex summd 
Uetitid et lascivid, qu89 diutuma quies peperirat. Sail. 

(IG.) The relative adjectives quot, quantus, qualis, are construed like the 
relative qui. They have generally, m the antecedent clause, the corre 
spending words, tot, tantus, talis; but these are often omitted. 

(17.) Qui, at the beginning of a sentence, is often translated like a de- 
monstrative ; as, Que ciim ita sint, Since these (things) are so. Cic. 


^ 207 • RxM. 20. The adiective pronoims often agree with a 
noun expressed, instead of anotner noun understood ; as, JVec solos 
tangit AtTidas iste dolor. Nor does that grief (i. e. grief on Uuit account) 
affect the sons of Atreus alone. Virg. 

Rem. 21. The demonstrative pronouns are sometimes used where a 
corresponding word in English is unnecessary ; as. Quern neque fides, neque 
jusjurandum, neque ilium misericordia, repressit ; Whom neither fidehty^ 
nor an oath, nor pity, has restrained. Ter. 

Rem. 22. The neuters of the demonstrative pronouns are sometimes 
used in apposition with a dependent clause ; as. Hoc t^i persuadeas veUfn, 
me nihil omisisse; I wish you to be persuaded of this — ^that 1 have omittea 

Rem. 23. Hie refers to what is near, iUe to what is remote. Henoe^ 
of two things mentioned before, hie commonly refers to the latter, Ule to 


the former ; as, Jgnavia corpus hebitat^ labor fimuU; ilia matnram smect^ 
tem, tdc lonfram adolesuntiam reddit: Sloth enervates the body, labor 
strengthens it ; the former produces premature old age, the latter protracU 
ed youth. Cels. 

Yet this rule is not always observed ; as, Sic deus et virgo est ; hie sne 
cdeTy ilia timdre. Ovid, ^metimes hie...hic are used instead of hic...iue» 
So iUe..,ilU sometimes denote " the one...the other." 

When more than two persons or things are spoken of, iUe refers to the 
most remote, iste to a nearer, and hie to the nearest object. Hence, in let- 
ters, kic and its derivatives are used of the writer ; iste and its derivatives 
of the person addressed ; iUe, Slc., of some other person or thing. See 
§ 191, Rem. 2. 

Rem. 24. lUe is used to denote that which is of general notoriety ; as, 
Maffno illi Alaunndro amOJXmus, Very like Alexander tA« Great. VelL 
Medea ilia. Cic. IUe is sometimes translated this ; as, Unum illnd dico^ 
This only I say. Cic. 

Rem. 25. Iste oflen denotes contempt; as, Impediebantur ed lege^ guam 
idem iste <icZ£ra/....the same wretch. Cic. Sometmies, on the contrary, it 
means so great ; as, Chm istA sis auctorit&te, Since you are of so great 
authority. Cic. • 

Rem. 26. . Is does not, like Aie, iUe^ and iste, denote the place or order of 
the object to which it relates, but refers to something already mentioned 
or to be defined by the relative qtii. Hie, is, or ille, may be used in this war 
before the relative, but only hie or is afler it ; as, ^ui docet, is discit, or hic 
discit, but not Ule discit, unless some individual is referred to. 

Is has sometimes the sense of taUs, such ; as, Neque enim tu is es, qui 
quid sis nescias; Nor are you such a person as to be ignorant what you 
are. Cic. 

Is with et or que is emphatic, equivalent to the English ** and that too;" 
as, Priedtas causas, et eas tenues agimus ; We manage private causes, and 
those unimportant. Cic. Erant in Torqudto plurinuB UUrtt nee ee mdgd' 
res. Id. 

Rem. 27. Idem, as denoting a subject which stands in equal relations to 
two different predicates, oflen supplies the place of item or etiam, also, or of 
tamen, yet, if the things are apparently inconsistent ; as, Musici, qui erant 
quondam iidem paeue; Musicians, who formerly were poets also. Cic. 
Euphrates et Tigris magno aqudrum divortio iter percurrunt ; ildem (and 
yet) pavldtim in arctius co6unt. 

Idem is sometimes repeated in the sense of '' at once,** denoting the 
tmion of qualities which might be thought incompatible ; as, Fuere quidam 
qui iidem omdti ildem versiitt dicirent. There have been some who could 
speak at once elegantly and artfully. Cic. 

" The same as is variously expressed in Latin, by idem with qui, ac or 
atque, quasi or ut; as, Verres idem est qui fiat semper, Verres is the same 
as he has always been. Cic. Vita est e&dem ac fiut. Liv. Disputatidnem 
exponSlmus uadeiafere verbis ut actum est, Cic. 

Rem. 28. Ipse, when used with the substantive pronouns, sometimes 
agrees with them ; but, when they are reflexive, and m an oblique case, it 
commonly agrees with the subject of the proposition ; as, Agamper me ipse, 
1 will do it myself. Cic. Medici ipsi se curare non possunt. Sulpic. Se 
ipsos omnes naturd dUigunt. 

Ipse is sometimes used as reflexive without svi ; as, Omnes bani, quan- 
turn in vpaafidt, Casdrem ocdderunt. Cic. 

IpsSf with nouns denoting time or number, expresses exactness ; as, 

16 • 


Cum ipsis nonis Sextilis. Exactly on the fifth of August. Cic. TriguUm, 
dies erarU ipsi, Tliirty whole days had elapsed. Id. 

Rem. 29. The relative quicunque is sometimes used as equivalent to 
cmnis or quivis ; as, Quce sandri potirunt quAcunque ratiOne sandbo. What 
can be cured 1 will cure by every possible means. Cic. Tet possttm ia 
rather to be supplied ', — *^ in whatever way I can." So qtusquu is occar 
sionally used, not as a relative, but as an indefinite pronoun. 

Rem. 30. Mlquis and quispiam are particular, corresponding to the 
English some one ; as, Hereditas est pecunia, qtuB morte alicaius ad. qnem- 
yiisLm fervlnit jure ; An inheritance is property which, at the oeath of some 
one, rails to some (other) one by law. Cic. MuUi sine doctnnd aliquid 
omnium genirum et artium consequunlur. Id. 

Rem. 31. Quisquam, any one, and vUus^ any, are universal: they are 
used in propositions which mvolve a universal negative, or which express 
an interrogation with a negative force, or a condition (usually with si or 
quasi) ; also, afler comparatives, afler the adverb viz, and the preposition 
sine; as, Keque ex castris Catillrue quisquam omnium diseessiratf Nor had 
any one departed from the camp of Catiline. Sail. JVec ullo casu potest 
eontin^SrCf ut ulla intermissio fiat qff^ii. Cic. An quisquam potest sine 
perturbatiOne mentis irasci 7 Id. Tetrior hie tyrannus Syraeusanis fidif 
quitm quisquam superidrum. Id. Viz quidquam spei est, Sen. 

UUus is properly an adjective, but it may be used, like any other adjec- 
tive, with a noun understood. Quisquam is commonly used without a noun, 
except it is a word denoting a person ; as, Cuiquam dvij To any citizen. 
Cujusquam oratoris eloquentiam,, Jferno is often used for nidlits; as, nemo 
pictoVf nemo adolessens, and even homo nemo, Cic. 

Rem. 32. Alius ^ like tditUf though properly an adjective, is sometimes 
used like a pronoun. It is often repeated, or joined with an adverb deriv- 
ed from it, in the same proposition, which may be translated by two separ 
rate propositions, commencing respectively with '* one....another ;** as, 
Allud aliis videtur optimum, One thing seems best to one, another to ano- 
ther. Cic. Aliis aliunde pericHlum est, Dauge/ threatens one from one 
source, another from another ; or, Danger threatens different persons from 
different sources. Ter. Dionysium allter cum aliis de nobis loaltum audii' 
bam. Cic. 

Alter is commonly used when tioo persons are spoken of; as, Uterque 
numlrus alter alt£r& de causd habitur. Cic. 

Alius, repeated in different propositions, is also translated *^ 
other ;" as, Aliud agitur, aliua simulatur, One thing is done, another pre- 
tended. Cic. 

Rem. 33. ^idam differs from dtlquis by implying that a person or 
thing, though indefinitely described, is definitely known ; as, Quidam ds 
eotUgis nostris, A certain one of our colleagues. Cic. Seis me quodam 
tempdre Metapontum venisse tecum. Id. 

Quidam is sometimes used for some, as opposed to the whole, or to 
others ; as, Excesserunt urbe quidam, alii mortem sibi eonseivirunt ; Some 
departed frona the city, others destroyed themselves. Liv. Hence it is 
used as a limitation ; as, MiLvo est quoddam bellum naturdle cum eorvo, .... 
a kind of warfare. Cic. 

Rem. 34. Quivis and iptiUbet, any one you please, are universal ; as. 
Omnia sunt ejusmddi quivis ut perspicire possit, All are of such a nature 
that any one can perceive. Cic. Hie ajmd majdres nostros adhibebAtur 
peritus, nunc quiin>et. Id. A negative joined with them denies only the 
universality which they imply ; as, JWm cuivis homini contingit adir$ OO" 


Ttnthumi i. e. not to every man without disUnction. Hor. Cuiquam would 
luLve made the negation universal. 

Rem. 35. Q;uisquB sig^nifies «acA, every one^ and generally stands with- 
out a noun ; as, Qfu»d ouique o&a^^tiiquisque teneat; Let each one keep 
what has fallen to each. Uic. 

It is oflen used with two superlatives ; as, 0]^mum quidque rarisn^mum 
estj The best things are the rarest. Cic. Ut quisque o^UnA dicU, ita 
maxim^ dicendi dij^cuUatem timet. Id. 

With primus, it denotes the first passihU; as, Primo quoque tempOre, 
As soon as possible. Cic« 

Rrm. 36. The possessives meus, tttus, noster-f wster, and suns, are joined 
to nouns, to indicate an action or possession of the persons denoted by 
their primitives ; as, Tutus amor mens est OH, My love is secure to you. 
Ovid. Tuam vieem doUre soUo. Cic. 

But these pronouns are sometimes used when the persons to which 
they refer are the objects of an action, feeling, &c. ; as, Mim neque ink 
negligentidf neque odio idfedt tuo, For he did it neither through neglect 
nor hatred of you. Ter. See § 211, Rem. 3. 

These pronouns, as reflexives, are often omitted ; as, Quo revertar ? in 
patriam? sc. meam; Whither shall 1 return? to (my) country.' Ovid. 
Dextrd munira porrexit, sc. sud. Id. * 


^ 208. Rem. 37. ^t and suns properly refer to the sub- 
ject of the proposition in which they stand ; as, 

OpmdSim f acinus inee ac BMOBfxdum consciscunt. The citizens decide 
on a foul crime against themselves and their friends. Liv. 

They continue to be used in successive clauses, if the subject remains 
the same ; as. Ipse se qvisque diPlgit, non ut aUquam a se ipse mercidem 
exigat caritdtis su», sea quid per se sibi quisque cams est. Cic. 

(1.) In dependent clauses, in which the subject does not remain the 
same, the reflexives commonlv refer to the leading subject, when the 
thoughts, language, purposes, &c., of that subject are stated; as, ^riovis- 
tus nrtBdicdvit. lum sese Gallis, sed GaUos sibi bellum intulisse ; Ariovistus 
declared that tie had not made war upon the Grauls, but the Gauls upon 
him. CfBS. Homerum Colopkonii civem esse dicunt suum. The Coiopho- 
nians say that Homer is tneir citizen. Cic. 7)frannus petivit tUae ad 
amicitiam tertium ascribSrefU. Id. 

([2.^ If, however, the leading subject, whose thoughts, &c., are expressed, 
is inaefinite, the reflexives relate to the subject of a dependent clause ; as, 
Medeam prad^cajit (sc. homines) infugd fratris sui membra in its locis, 
qud se parens persequeritur, dtssipavisse, Cic. Ipsum regem tfadunt 
operdtum his sacris se ahdidisse. Liv. 

(3.) When the leading verb is in the passive voice, the reflexive often 
refers not to its subject, but to that which would~be its subject in the 
active voice ; as, A CiBskre ineitor ut sim sibi legdtus, i. e. C<Bsar me inr 
vitat ; I am invited by Caesar to become his lieutenant. Cic. 

So when the subject is a thing without life, the reflexive may relate to 
some other word m the sentence, which denotes a thing with life ; as, 
Canum tarn fida custodia quid significat aliudf nisi se ad homiaum con^- 
moditdtes esse generdtos f Cic. 

(4.) Instead of svi and suta, whether referring to a leading or a subor- 



dinate subject, ipse is sometimes used, to avoid ambiguity^ from the simi- 
larity of both numbers of sui, and to mark more emphatically than suus^ 
the person to which it relates ; as, Jugurtka legdtos mutt qui ipsi Uberisque 
vitam vetirent, Jugurtha sent ambassadors to ask life for himself and 
his children. Sail. Ea moUstiss^mb ferr^ lumAnes debent, qua ipsonun 
culpA corUracta sunt. 

(5.) In the plural number, with inters se only is used, if the person or 
thing referred to is in the nominative or accusative ; se or ipse, if in any 
other case ; as, Fratres inter se eumfarmdf turn mtnibus similes; Brothers 
resembling each other both in person and character. Cic. Feras inter 
sese eontSiat natara, Cic. IndUUaU aUqua a doctis eUam inter ipsos 
mutud reprehensa. Quinct. 

(6.) When reference is made not to the subject of the proposition, but to 
some other person or thing, hie, is, or iUe, is generally used, except in the 
cases above specified ; as, Themistdeles servum ad Xerxem misit,utei nun- 
tidret, suis verbis, adversarios ejus in Jvgd esse ; Themistocles sent his 
servant to Xerxes, to inform him (Xerze^, in his (Themistocles*) name, 
that his (Xerxes'j enemies were upon tne point of flight. Nep. But 
when no ambiguity would arise, and especially when iSe verb is of the 
first or second person, sid and suus sometimes take the place of the de- 
monstrative pronouns ; as, Suam r^ sibi salvamsistam, I will restore his 
propertv entire to him. Plaut. 

On tne contrary, the demonstratives are sometimes used for the reflex- 
ives ; as, Helvetii persuddent Raurdcis, tU und cum iis profidscantur ; The 
Helvetii persuade the Rauraci to go with them. Cess. In some instances, 
a reflexive and a demonstrative are used in reference to the same person ; 
as, /to se ^essit'(8c. U,garius) ut ei pacem esse expediret. Cic. Sometimes 
the reflexives refer to different subjects in the same sentence ; as, Ariovis^ 
tus respondU, neminem secum sine suA pemicie cantendisse (Ces.) ; where 
se refers to Ariovistus, and sud to neminem. 

(7.) Suus often refers to a word in the predicate of a sentence, and ia 
then usually placed after it ; as, Hunc dves sui ex urbe ^ecirunt, Him his 
citizens banisned firom the city. Cic. JUurius quum procvl Ambiorlgem, 
suos coh4yrtantem, conspexisset. Caes. 

Suus, and not hujus, &c., is used when a noun is omitted ; as, Octaviumf 
quern sui {sc. amici) Ctssdrem salutdbant ; Octavius, whom his followers 
saluted as Caesar. 

Suus is also commonly used when two nouns are coupled by cum, bat 
not when they are connected by a conjunction ; as, Ptolemaus amicos 
Demetrii cum suis rebus dimlsit; Ptolemy dismissed tne friends of Deme- 
trius with their efiects. Just 

(8.) Suus sometimes denoie9 fit, favorable ; as. Sunt et nvoidana parentis 
There are likewise for my father suitable presents. Virff. Alphinusuteba- 
iurpoplUo san^ suo. Cic. Sometimes it signifies peculiar; as, MoUes sua 
ihura Sabm, sc. mittuntf i. e. the frankincense for which their country waa 
fiimous. Virg. 


^ 209. A verb agrees with its subject-nominative, in 
number and person ; as, 


Ego lego, I read. J^os hgimusj We read. 

Tu scnbis, Thou writest. Vos scribitiSf You write. 

Equus currit, The horse runs. Egui currurUf Horses run. 

Remark 1. The nominatives ego, tu, iios, vos, are seldom 

expressed, the termination of the verb sufficiently marking the 

person ; as, cupioy I desire ; vivis, thou livest ; habemus, we 

have. See § 147, 3. 

But when emphasis or distinction is intended, they are expressed ; as, 
Ego regestjed, vos tyrannos introdtuUis; I banished kings, you introduce 
tT^rants. Auct. ad Her. Nos, nos, dice aperU, consides aesHmus. Cic. 
Tu espatmmts, ttipiUeT, Ter. 

Rem. 2. The nominative of the third person is often omit- 
ted : — 

(1.) When it has been expressed in a preceding proposi- 
tion : — 

(a.) As nominative ; as, Mosa proflidt ex monte VosUgo, et in oeednwn 
if^uU (Css.) ; or (b.) in an oblique case ; as, Cursorem miserurU, iU id 
nuntiaret, sc. cvarsor. Nep. 

(2.) When it is a person or thing conceived or exhibited as 

Thus homines is oflen omitted before aiunt, diatnt, farunt, &e. ; as, Dk 
aiunt. As they say. Cic MaaAm^ admirantur eunt, ^t peeuTud mm movS' 
tur. Id. 

This omission of the nominative is common in the clause precedinff a 
relative ; as, Qjai Bavium non oditj amet tua carmlna, Mavi, sc. noma ; May 
(he) who hatesnot Bavius, like your verses, MsBvius. Virg. Vastdtur agri 
quod inter urbem ac Fidenas est, sc. id svatiwn. Li v. Sunt qtios 
homines ; There are (those) whom it aelights. Hor. Est qui nee veUris 
pocHUa Massld spemit, sc. homo. Hor. Here sunt quos and est qui are 
equivalent to quidam, allquis, or allqui. So, Est quod gaudeas, Tnere is 
treason) why vou should rejoice. Cic. J^fequeeratcurfaUirevelUnt, Ovid. 
Est u6t id vaieat. Cic. Est, ciim rum est satius, &c. Auct. ad Her. In 
the latter cases, the adverbs are equivalent to in quo, sc. loco, temp6re. 

Rem. 3. The nominative is oflen wanting : — 

(1.) Before verbs denoting the state of the weather, or the 
operations of nature ; as, Fulgurat, It lightens. Plin. Ningit, 
It snows. Virg. 

(2.) Before the third person singular of the passive of neuter 
verbs ; as, 

Favetur tiH a me, Thou art favored by me. Ejus ortUiifni vehententer 
ab omnibus reclamdtum est. Cic. See § 184, 2. 

A nominative, however, is expressed before the passive of some neuter 
verbs, which, in the active voice, are followed oy an accusative; as, 
Pugnapugndta est. Cic. See § 232, (1.) 

^3.) Before the neater of the future passive participle with 

est; as, 

Dolendum est primum ipsi tiJbi, Tou yourself must first grieve. Hor. 
Orandum est, ut sit mens sana in corpdre sano, Juv. 


(4.) Before the impersonal verbs misiret, pcen^tei, pudci^ 

tiBdet, and piget ; as, 

Eos inepti&rum pcmXtet, They repent of their follies. Cic. MisHret te 
alidrum, tui te nee misirel necpvdet. Plant. Me civitdtis morum piget Uedet- 

fe. SaU. In such examples, the sense will sometimes permit us to supply 
"tuna, eondUiOy memoria, &c. So in the expression yenit in meTUem., 
came into mind; as, In mentem venU de spectUOf ac. cogitation &c. 

An infinitive or clause fometimes forms the subject of these verbs ; as, 
Te id nidlo modo pttduit fac£re, To do that by no means shamed you. Ter. 
JVbn panitet me, quantum profecSrim. Cic. 

(5.) When the subject of the verb is an infinitive or partici- 
ple (either alone or with other words), one or more propositions, 
or an adverb. (See § 201, IV. 1.) The verb is then in the 
third person singular ; as, 

Vacaire culpft magnum est solatium, To be free from fault is a great con- 
solation. J{eque est te failure quidqaam. To deceive you in any thing is 
not (possible.) Virg. Mentiri non est meum. Plant. Te non istud audi- 
yisse mirum est, That you have not heard that is wonderful. Cic. '' Sum- 
mum jus, summa injuria/' /oftom est jam tritum sermOne proverbium. Id. 
JVt degeneratum in aliis huic quoque decdri offecisset. Liv. Sin est ut velis 
manere illam apud te. Ter. JVec profuit Hydra crescfire per damnum, 
geminasque resiim^re vires. Ovid. JHc mHii, eras istud, PostUme, quando 
venit 7 Tell me, Postumus, when does that to-morrow come ? Mart. 
Parumne campis aique JV^tHno super fiisum est Latlni sanguinis ? Hor. 

This construction is especially common with impersonal verbs; as, 
Oratdrem irasci non decet; That an orator should be angry, is not be- 
coming. Cic. Hoc fiSri et oportet et opus est. Id. Me pedibus delectat 
claudSre verba. Hor. Interest omnium rect6 facSre. Cic. Casu ojccldtt, 
ut, id quod Romie audiSrat, primus nuntiaret. Id. Sometimes a neuter 
pronoun is interposed between a proposition and its verb ; as, Fadre qtut 
lihety id est esse regem. Sail. 

(6.) Before potest, ccepit or cmptumest, inctpit, desinit, debet , 
solet, and viditur, when followed by the infinitive of an imper- 
sonal verb ; as, 

Pigere eum facH coepit, It began to repent him (i.e. he began to repent) 
of his conduct. Just. Sapientia est una, qud prtBceptrice, in tranquillitdte 
vivi potest. Cic. T(sd£re solet avdros impendit. Quinct. 

Rem. 4. The verb is sometimes omitted ; as, 

Di meUdra pus, sc. dent; May the gods grant better thin^ to the pious. 
Yirg. Veriim hoc fiactinus, sc. diximus. Cic. This omission is most 
common with the verb sum ; as, J{am Polydorus ego, sc. sum ; For I am 
Polydorus. Virg. Omnia preedcLra rata, sc. sunt, Cic. So in compound 
tenses ; as, Agro mulctati, sc. sunt. Liv. 

Rem. 5. The nominative is sometimes found with the infin- 
itive; as, 

Interim quotidie Casar JSSduos frumentum flagitare, Meanwhile Caesar 
was daily demanding corn of the ^dui. Cees. JVb« patUdi trepidare metu. 
Virg. id horrendum ferri. Id. In such cases, eospit or OBpirunt is gene- 
rtUy supposed to be understood * sometimes other verbs may be supplied. 


but often the infinitive seems to be used instead of the imperfect indie* . 
Btive. ' 

Rem. 6. The relative qui may refer to an antecedent either 
of the first, second, or third person ; and its verb takes the per- 
son of the antecedent ; as, 

Effo end lego, I who read. Tu qtd scribis, Thoa who writest. Efuus qui 
cumt, The horse which runs. 

Rem. 7. Verbs in the first person plural, and the second 

person singular, are sometimes used to express general truths ; 


Qudm multa facHmus causd amiedrumi How many things we do (i. e. 
men do) for the sake of friends ! Cic. Si vis me flere, doUndum est ipsi 
tibij Whoever wishes me, &c. Hor. 

Rem. 8. The accusative is sometimes used for the nominative by at- 
traction. See § 206, (6.) (b.) 

Rem. 9. The verb sometimes agrees with the predicaie'nonunaHr>e, 
especially if it precedes the verb ; as, ^mantium im amCris integratio est, 
The quarrels of lovers are a renewal of love. Ter. Vestes, qtuis gerUia 
sordida lana fuit. Ovid. 

Rem. 10. The verb sometimes agrees, not with the principal nomina-. 
tive, but with one in apposition with it; as, Tungri, civltas GaUuSffontem 
habet vnsignem; The Tungri, a state of Gaul, has a remarkable fountain. 

Rem. 11. A collective noun has sometimes a plural verb ; 

Pars epdJis onSrant mensas, Part load the tables with food. Virg. 
Turbaruunt. Ovid. Pars lUrdque avldi ennt, Li v. £tria turba tenenfj 
veniunt leve vtdgus eunt^6. Ovid. . 

(1 .) A plural verb, joined to a collective noun, usually expresses the ac- 
tion, &c.f of the inaividuals which that noun denotes. In Cicero and 
Lavy, this construction scarcely occurs in simple sentences ; but it is often 
used, when the subject of the verb is not expressed in its own, but in a 

{>receding clause ; as, Hoc idem genSri huvnano evinit, qudd in terrd col- 
ocati sint. Cic. 

(2.) When two or more clauses have the same collective noun as their 
subject, the verb is frequently singular in one, and plural in another ; as. 
Jam ne node quidem turba ex eo loco dilabebatur, refracturosque carcirem 
minabantur. Liv. Gens eddenif qute te crudiU Daunia bdlo insequltur, 
nos si pellant, nihil abfire credunt. Virg. 

(3.) Tantuntj followed by a genitive plural, has sometimes a plural verb, 
like a collective noun; as, Quid hue tantum hominum incedunt? Why 
are so many men coming hither ? Plant. 

(4.) A plural verb is often used after lUerque and quisque,, 
ana alius... .aliumj or alter.. ,.aUlrum, on account of the idea of plurality 
which they involve ; as, Uterque edrum ex aistris exercitum educunt^ Each 
of them leads his army from the camp. Cees. Ineimus quisque libertdrum 
vincti abreptl^e (sunt.) Tac. Mius alium, ut predium incipiant, circum- 
•pectant. Li v. 

This construction may be explained by the following passage, where 


the plural is placed fint, and then the singular, denoting its parts ; CUiri^ 
wuo quisytu tempdrcj adgrunt. Liv. See § 204, Rem. 10. 

Rem. 12. Two or more nominatives singular, not in appo- 
sition, generally have a plural verb ; as, 

Furor irft^us mentem prsBcipItant, Fury and rage hurry on (my) mind. 
Yirg. Dum mtasy metus, magisttTf prohloebant Ter. 

(1.) If the predicate belongs to the several nominatiyes jointly, the verb 
is always plural; as, Grammatice ^piondam ae muslce junctse fuerunt. 

(2.^ A singular verb is often used after several nominatives 

singular, especially if they denote things without life ; as, 

Mens eninif et raUo et consilium in senXlms est. Cic. Beneficentia^ lib- 
eratUaSf bonltas,ju8tUiafund%tus toUitur. Id. This construction sometimes 
occurs with names of persons ; as, GorgmSy ThrasymdchuSf ProtagSras, 
ProiUeuSf Hippias in honnre fuit. Cic. Cur Lysias et Hyperides amatur ' 

(3.) When one of the nouus is plural, the verb is generally so ; but 
sometimes it is singular, when the plural noun does not immediately pre- 
cede it; as, Dii te pendtes pairiiquef et patris imftgo,'e£ domus regia, et in 
domo regcUe solium, et nomen Tarquinium creat yocat^« regem. lAv. 

(4.) When each of the nominatiyes is preceded bj et or tumj the verb 
agrees with the last ; as, Hoe et ratio doctis, et necessTtas barbdrisj et mos 
gentlbuSf etferis natara ^sa preescripsit; This, reason has dictated to the 
learned, and necessity to barDarians, and custom to nations, and nature 
itself to wild beasts. Cic. Et ego, et CicSro meus flagitabit. Id. Jkiin. 
fBtas vires^e, turn avita gloria anlmum stimulabat. Liv. So when the 
subject consists of two infinitives ; as, Et iacSre, et pati fortiaf Romanunt 
est, Cic. 

Untis et alter usually takes a singular verb ; as, Dicit unus et alter 
brevUeif Two in succession speak briefly. Cic. Unus et edter assuitur 
pannus. Hor. 

(5.) When the nominatives are connected by aut, sometimes 
the plural, but commonly the singular, is used ; as. 

Si Socrdtes out AntisthUnes dicSret, If Socrates or Antiathenes should 
say. Cic. Ut quosquestudium privdiim aut gratia occupaverunt. Liv. 

The plural is necessary with disjunctiyea, if the subject includes the 
first or second person ; as, Q,udd in DecemtHris neque ego neque Ccesar 
hablti essemus. Cic. 

(G.) A nominative singular, joined to an ablative by the preposition cuntf 
sometimes has a plural verb ; as, Bocchus, cum peditlDus, postremam. 
RomanOrum iudeminy&dunt'f Bocchus, with his foot soldiers, attacks the 
rear of the Roman army. Sail. Ipse dux, cum aUquot principibus, ca- 
piuntur. Liv. 

(7.) If the nominatives are of different persons, the verb 
agrees with the first person rather than the second, and with 
the second rather than the third ; as. 

Si tu et Tullia valetis, ego et Cicero valemus ; If you and TuUia are 
well, Cicero and I are well. Cic. H(Be neque ego neque tu feclmus. Ter. 
Ego populusque Romdnus bellum judico fa.cioque. Liv. 

Yet sometimes tiie verb agrees in number and person with the nearest 


nominative, and is understood with the other; as, Vbs ipsi et senOUu 
frequens restltit. This is always the case when the action of the verb is 
qualified with reference to eacn nominative separately ; as, Ego misiri^ 
iu feliciter vivis. 

Rem. 13. The interjections en, ecce, and O, are sometimes 
followed by the nominative ; as, 

En PriAmus! Lo Priam! Yirg. Eece homo CatUnus/ Cic. vir 
fortisatque amicus! Ter. « 


<^210. A noun in the predicate, after a verb neuter 
or passive, is put in the sanie case as the subject, when it 
denotes the same person or thing ; as, 

Ira furor brevis est, Anger is a short madness. Hor. Effo vocor Lycon- 
¥des, I am called Lyconides. Plaut. Ego incido regina, 1 walk a queen. 

So when the subject is in the accusative ; Jndtcem me esse^ non docto- 
rem, volo. Cic. Te parentem Asub vis dud et hahiri. Id. 

Sometimes a dative^ denoting the same object, both precedes and fol- 
lows a verb neuter or passive. See § 227, Note 1. 

Rbmark 1. Adjectives, adjective pronouns, and participles, 
standing in the predicate, after verbs neuter or passive, and 
relating to the subject, agree with it in case. 

The gender and number of such adjectives, &c. are determined by § 205. 

Rem. 2. The noun in the predicate is sometimes in a different number 
from the subject ; as. Sanguis eranL lachr^nuBf Her tears were blood. Ovid. 
Ossa lapis ^U7i£. Id. 

Rem. 3. The verbs which most frequentiy have a noun, &c., in the 
predicate agreeing in case with their subject, are, 

(1.) The subs^ntive verb sum; as, Ego Jovis sum filius. Plaut. Disce 
esse pater. Ter. 

(2.) Certain neuter verbs, denoting position or motion ; as, eadOf ep, 
evadoj existo, fugio, inc€do, jaceo, maneo, sedeo, stOf venio, &g. Thus, 
Hex circuibat pedes, The king went round on foot. Plin. Quos judicdbat 
non posse oratores evadire. Cic. Ego kuic causa patronus exstlti, Cic. 
Manet altd mente repostum judicium rarldis. Virg. 

(3.) The passive of verbs denoting 

(«.) To name or call ; as, appellor, dicor, Tiomtnor, nuncHpor, perhibeor, 
salutor, vocor. Thus, Cognomlne Justus est appellcUus, He was called by 
the surname Just. Nep. ArisUBUs ollva dicltur inventor. Cic. Ego 
^oQULsalator. Hor. 

(b.) To choose, render, or constitute; as, constituor, creor, ded&ror, 
designor, ellgor,fio, reddor, renuncior. Thus, Dux a RoTndnis dectus est 
Q. Fabius. Postquam ephebus /ac£u5 est. Nep. 

(c.) To esteem or reckon ; as, censeor, credor, dcprehendtyr, existtmoTf 
feror, habeoTjjudlcor, numiror, putor, reperior, videor. Thus, Credebar 
sanguinis auctor ego. Ovid. Malim vidtri timid us quhm pariim prudens, 



Note 1. With leveral passiTes of the last «laM, when followed hy m, 
predicate-nominative, an infinitive of mm ia expressed or understood ; aa, 
Amens mihi Aiisse videor. Cic. AtUiua prudens esse putabdtur. Id^ So 
with dicar (to be said), and perhibeor ; as, Vents patritB diciris esse pater. 

Note 2. Jiudio is sometimes used by the poets like appdlor; as, Tu 
rexque pater^us audtsti coram. Hor. 

Rem. 4. A predicate-nominatiTe is used after manj other yerbs, to 
denote a purpose, time, or circumstance of the action ; as, Ckimes oAft ft cs 
JEolldea, iEoIides was added as a companion. Yirg. iMpus obamJbadal 
nocturnus. Id. Avpdret Utptldo subllnus in tetkire NitUM, Id. So with 
flu active verb ; Audivi hoe puer. Cic. Sapiens nil faeit invitus. Id. 
RempuhLleam defendi adolesce ns. Id. 

Rem. 5. The noun opiiSj signifying need, is oflen used as a predi- 
cate afler sum. It is, in such cases, translated by the adjectives needftd, 
necessary f &c. ; as, Ditx nobis et auctor opus est. Cic. Mtdti opus siaU 
bovcs. Varr. {Dixit) auruvi et ancillas opus esse. Ter. 

Rem. 6. When the pronoun, which is the subject of an infinitive, is 
omitted, the case of the predicate is sometimes, in the poets, attracted into 
that of the subject of the verb on which the infinitive depends ; as, Uxor 
invicti Jovis esse nescis, i. e. te esse uxOrem. Hor. RetlUit Ajax esse Jotis 
prondpos. Ovid. 


^211. A noun which limits the meaning of another 
noun, denoting a different person or thing, is put in the 
genitive ; as, 

Amor gloruB, Love of glory. Vttium ira. The vice of anger. 

Srma AckiUiSf The arms ot Achilles. J^TemArum custoSf The guardian of 
Pater palria, The father of the the groves. 

country. Jlmor Mbendif Love of possessing. 

In the first example, am^fr denotes love in general ; glorue limits the 
aifection to the particular object, glory. Such universal^ is the efiect of 
the genitive, depending upon a noun. See § 201, III. 

Remark 1. The genitive denotes various relations, the most common 
of which are those of Source ; as, Radii solis, The rays of the sun ; — 
Cause ; as. Dolor podagrtBy The pain of the gout ; — Effect ; as, Artlfex 
muitu£t,The Creator of the world ; — Possession; as, Domus CassAris, The 
house of CiBsar ; — Object ; as, Cogitatio alicujus reif A thought of some- 
thing ; — Purpose ; as, Jlppardtus triumphi, Preparation for a triumph ; — 
A whole; as. Pars komlnum^ A part of men; — Character; nSyJidoles- 
cens summee audaciiB, A youth of the greatest boldness; — Material or 
COMPONENT parts ; as. Mantes auri, Mountains of gold ; Acervus sctUOrum,f 
A heap of shields. 

Rgm. 2. The genitive is called subjective, when it denotes 
the suhject of the action, feeling, &c., implied in the noun 


which it limits. It is called objective^ when it denotes the 
object of such action, &c. ; as, 

Svkjtctive. Objective. 

Facta virOrum^ Deeds of men. Odium vitUf Hatred of vice. 

Dolor animi, Grief of mind. Jhnor virHttiSf Love of yirtne. 

JunHnis ira, The anger of Juno. Dtsiderium, otii^ Desire of leisure. 

Whether a genitive is subjective or objective, is to be determined by 
the meaning of the words, and by their connection. Thus, providentia 
Dei siffnifies the providence of God, or that exercised by him ; Hmor Ddy 
fear of God, or tnat exercised towards him. The same or similar words, 
in different connections, may express both significations. Thus, mentis 
kostmm, fear of the enemy, may mean that felt «ither by themselves or by 
their opponents. So tnima* Vlyssis (Virg.) denotes the wound which 
Ulysses had ^ven ; vultms JETiia, (Id.) that which i&neas had received. 

When ambiguity would arise, instead of the objective genitive, a prep- 
osition, with an accusative or ablative, ia commonly used ; as. Amor %n 
TempvbUeam, for rupublioB ; Love to the state. Cic. - Odium erga Rmmanos, 
for Romandrum. Nep. Cvra de salute patriae for salnHs, Cic. Prteddtor 
ex sociiSf for socidrum. Sail. 

Rem. 3. A substantive pronoun, which limits the meaning 

of a noun, is put in the genitive ; as, 

Cura met, Care for me. Ovid. - Pars tui. Part of thee. Id. Nostri nun- 
cuts, Our messenger. Virg. Magna mei imdgo. Id. 

Instead of the subjective or possessive genitive of a substan- 
tive pronoun, the corresponding adjective pronoun is commonly 
used ; as, 

^ Cura mea, My care, i. e. the care exercised by me. Tet the genitive 
sometimes occurs ; as, 7\£tumitfjtu<2io, By the zeal of yourself alone. Cie. 
Sometimes, also, an adjective pronoun occurs instead of the objectiv 
genitive ; as, Mea injuriaf Injury to me. Sail. 

Rem . 4. Instead of the ^nitive of a noun, also, a possessive adjective is 
often used ; as. Causa regia, for causa re^. Cic. llerilis ji/tuj, for keri 
JUius. Id. Evandrius ensiSf for Evandn, Virg. Herculeus laboTf for 
Herefdis. Hor. Civilis ^ror, for dtium. Hot, 

Rem. 5. The dative is sometimes used like the objective 
genitive; as, 

Exitvum pecdri, A destruction to the flock. Virg. Prtesidium reis, A 
defence to the accused. Hor. Deeus amlcis. Id. Erit ille mihi semper 
Deus. Virg. Dicor iihijratsr. Mart. Avjctor fui senatui. Cic. Huic 
causfB patrffrms exsRti. Li. Quem exltam tantis malis sperdiis ? Sail. 
Romflnis impercUor. Id. Murtena legdtus Lucullo^it. Cic. 

In these cases, the noun which is limited by the dative, denotes a char- 
acter, feeling, &c., and the dative the object towards which that character, 
&c., is exhioited or exercised. This construction sometimes occurs with 
verbal nouns, whose primitives are followed by the dative ; as, Obtempe- 
ratio le^bus, Obedience to laws. Cic. Traditio altSri. Id. In some 
instances, also, an accusative fellows a verbal noun ; as, Quid tibi ftanc 
euratio est rem ? Plant. 

1. Instead of the possessive ^and subjective genitive, also, a dative is some- 
times, used, as the remote object of a verb ; as, Scse omnes fentes CesUri 
ad pedes prajecerunt ; They all, weepin?, cast themselves at the feet of 
Ceesar. <5»8. Cui corpus porrigUur, l or whom the body, is extended^ 
i» B. whose body is exteadea. Virg. Tran^figttmr scutum Pulfiooi. CflB«. 


Rbm. 6. When the limiting 'noun denotes a property, 
character, or quality , it has an adjective agreeing with it^ and 
is put either in the genitive or ablative ; as, 

Vir exempli reed, A man of correct exainple. Liv. Malescens swmmm 
audaeia. A youth of the greatest boldness. Sail. Foaea pedum viginti\ A 
ditch of twenty feet. Cibs. PvlchritudlTu ezimid femina, A woman of 
exquisite beauty. Cic. Maximo ruUu filiusy The eldest son. Nep. So 
Q^nquaginta ajmOrum imperium. Id. Iter uniue dieu Cic. QaUta 
trilme et septuaginta annis. Tac. Fossam sex cvMUe <Utam. Liv. 

Sometimes both constructions occur in the same proposition ; as, Lenf 
tiUum nostrum, eximi4 spe, summis virtatis adolescenlem, Cic. Scrobis 
lotus pedum duorum, aUus dupondio et dodrante. Plin. 

(1.) A genitive sometimes supplies the place of the adjective ; and the 
noun denoting the property, &c., is then always put in the ablative ; as. 
Est bos cervi figOii, ....of the form of a stag. Cass. Uri specie et colore 
tauri. Id. 

(2.) The genitive, in this sense, sometimes occurs without an adjective ; 
as, Hominem turn naucl. Plant. Homo nihili. Varr. So, Frutex palmi 
idtitudlne. Plin. Transtra digiti pollicis crassitudXne. Cies. In which 
examples uidus mnj be understood with the genitives. 

Whether the genitive or ablative is preferable in particular cases, can 
only be determined by reference to classical authority. 

Note. Nouns denoting extent of time or space, after other nounsi 
are oflen put in the accusative. See § 236. 

Rem. 7. The noun limited is sometimes omitted ; as, fidsirm sortis ! 
BC. homines; O (men) of wretched fortune ! Lucan. Ad DiSna, so. 
eedem, Ter. HeetOris Andromdche, sc. uxor. Virg. Suspiddnis vitandee, 
sc. eavsd, Tac. 

The omitted noun may sometimes be supplied from the preceding 
words; as, Cujumpecus? an Melibcd? JS'on; vertim JEgOms, sc. j^ecus. 
Virg. An adjective is oflen expressed referring to the noun omitted; 
as, J^uUam mrtus aUam mercedem desidirat, prceter hanc (sc. mercedem) 
laudis. Cie. 

Rem. 8. The noun limited is oflen wanting in the predicate 
of a sentence after sum. This usually happens, 

(1.) When it has been previously expressed ; as, 

HcBc domus est Css&ris, This house is Ciesar*s. J^omen aura tarn seepe 
ffocdtum esse putans Nymphte. Ovid. Naves onerarias, quarum minor nulla 
erat duUm mUUum amphdrUm, i. e. quarum minor nuua erat quam narls 
duAm, &c. Cic. 

(2.) When it is a general word denoting a person, an animal, 
d&c. ; as, 

Thucydldes, qui ejusdem ast&tisfuit, sc. homo ; Thucydides, who was of 
the same age. Nep. Multum ei detretxit, quod aliewB erat civitdtU, sc. 
homo or civis. Id. Summi ut sint laJboris efficiunt, sc. animalia. Cees. 
(Claudius) somni brevisslmi erat. Suet. Mird sum aUbcritdfe. Cic.^ Valgus 
tnffenio mobili erat. Sail. Non est juris sui. Lucan. Potestdtis sua esse, 
Liv. Suarumque rerum erant. Id. 

(3.) When it is a general word denoting thing, for which the 
words part, property, duty, office, characteristic, &c., are com- 
monly supplied ; as, 

Teme/iMas est fiorentis atdtis, prudentia senectiUis, Rashness is (the ohai- 


acteTi8tic)of youth, prudence of old age. Cic. Est hoe GaUtetB cojisuetu^ 
dlnis. Caes. Orxnia Iwstium erant, A paucis emi, quod muUdrum esset. 
Sail. This happens especially when the subject of the verb is an infinitive 
mood, or an entire clause ; as, Adoleseentis est majdres natu revereHj It is 
(iiie duty) of a youth to reverence the aged. Ovid. Cujusvis homlnls est 
errdref rvullius nisi thsipientis, in err ore perseverdre, Cic. Pauperis est 
numerdre penis Ovid. - ICegdmt moris esse GnpxOrum, ut in conmvio vird' 
rum accuwitirent fnulUres, Cic. JWiil tarn a^ioLnda Ubertdtis esse. Liv. 
So when the veib is omitted ; Tamen officii duxit^ exordre piUrem, sc. 
esse. Suet. 

(4.) The same construction sometimes occurs afler^eto, and some other 
verbs ; as, Asia, Romanorum puta. est, Asia became (a possession) of the 
Bomans. Just. Primum stivendivm ineruit anndrum decern septemque. 
Nep. Agrum suce ditionis jedsse, Liv. 

(5.) The limited noun is sometimes wanting, when it is a general word, 
though not in the predicate after sum, ; as, Magrti formica UUOris, sc. ani- 
mal ; The ant (an animal) of great li^or. Hor. So Ei venit in mentem 
potestdtis ttuB, sc. memoria, or me like. Cic. 

(6.) The limited noun is wanting also, when, instead of the genitive, a 
possessive adjective or pronoun is used ; as, Humanum est errdre. To err 
is human. Ter. H<b partes fuerunt turn. Cic. J^on est mentiri meum. Ter. 
bee § 211, R£M. 3, and 4. 

Note. Grammarians difier in regard to the manner of supplying the 
word which is wanting, when it denotes a thing. Some suppose that 
negotium is understood ; others supply officium, munus, opus, res, causae &c. 
It seems, however, rather to be an instance of a construction common in 
Latin, to omit a noun when a general or indefinite idea is intended. See 
4 205, Rem. 7, (2.) The words to be supplied in English are various, 
according to the connection. 

Rem. 9. The limiting noun is sometimes omitted ; as, Tria mUliaf 
sc. passuum. In most, cases of this kind, an adjective^ adjective pronoun, 
or participle, is expressed in the genitive. 

Rem. 10. Two genitives sometimes limit the same noun, one of tirhich 
is commonly possessive or subjective, and the other objective ; as, Aga- 
memndnis belli gloria, Agamemnon's glory in war. Nep. lUius adminis- 
tratio provincias. Cic. Eorum. dierum consuetudine itinSris nostri exercX- 
tus perspectd. Cibs. 

Rem. 11. OptLS and usus, signifying need, are rarely limited by a gen- 
itive ; as, Argenti opus fuit, There was need of money. Liv. Ad consi- 
lium pensandum tempdris optis esse. Id. Procemii non semper usus est. 
Quinct. Si quo opSree eorum usus est. Liv. In a few instances, they are 
limited by an accusative ; as, Puiro opus est cibum (Plaut.) ; Usus est 
hominem ostiLtum (Id.) ', but in general they are limited by an ablative. 
See § 243. 

Rem. 12. The relation denoted by the genitive in Latin, is, in English, 
generally expressed by of, or by the possessive case. The objective gen* 
itive may often be rendered by some other preposition ; as, Remeaium 
dolOris, A remedy for pain. Injuria patris, Injury to a father. Descensus 
Averni, The descent to Avernus. Ira belli, Anger on account of the 
war. Potestas rei, Power in or over a thing. 

Note. Certain limitations of nounsr are made by the accusative with a 
preposition, and by the ablative, either with or without a preposition. 


186 sTNTAau-^^^Bmrnrs attea PAjurmvcs 


^212. Nouns, adjectives, adjective pronouns, and ad* 
verbs, denoting a part, are followed by a genitive denoting 
the whole ; as, 

Pars eivitdtis, A part of the state. J^uUa sorifrum, No one of the sis- 
ters, ^fiouis vhUosoph6rumj Some one of the philosophers. Quis morta^ 
Uum ? Who or mortals ? Major juvinumf The el$ier of the youths. Doe- 
HsHnuu RanumOrum^ The most learned of the Romans. MuUum pecunuB, 
Much (of) money. SaHa doquentMBj Enough of eloquence. UHnam 
gentium sumtu 7 Where on earth axe we f 

NoTS. The genitive thus governed denotes either a ntcmder, of which 
the partitive designates one or more individuals ; or a whoU^ of which 
the partitive designates a portion. In the latter sense, it commonly fol- 
lows neuter adjectives and adjective pronouns, and adverbs. 

Remark 1. The nouns which denote a part are pars, nemo^ 

nihil, &,c. ; as, 

Jiemo iwstritmy No one of us. Omnium rerum nihil est agrieultUrd me- 
lius. Cic. 

Rem. 2. Adjectives and adjective pronouns, denoting a 
part of a number, including partitives and words used parti- 
tively, comparatives, superlatives, and numerals, are followed 
by the genitive plural, or by the genitive singular of a collec- 
tive noun. For the gender of the adjectives, See § 205, R. 12. 

(1.) Partitives; nSjtUlus, nuUuSf solus, aliuSy tUer, uierquef utereunque, 
uterviSy tUerUbet, neuter , alter, alteriOer, aUqitis, quidam, paspiam, quisqidi, 
gidsque, qtdsquam, quicunque, unusquisqw, quis 7 qui ? quot7 quatus 7 quo- 
tusquisque 7 tot, atlquot, nonnuUi, plerique, rnulti, paud, meaius. Tnus, 
Quisqms dsOrum, Whoever of the gods. Ovid. Consilium alter, One of 
the consuls. Liv. MuUi hominum, Many men. Plin. 

(2.) Words used partitively ; as, Expediti mUitum, The light-armed 
soldiers. Liv. Supiri deOrum, The gods above. Hor. Sanete dedrum. 
Vug. Degenires canum. Plin. Pisdum femlruB. Id. 

(3.) Comparatives and superlatives ; as, Doctior juvinum. OraiHrwn 

(4.) Numerals, both cardinal and ordinal ; also the distributive singiili, 
as, Equltum centum quinquaginta interfecd, A hundred and fifty of the 
horsemen were killed. Curt. SapienJtum octatus. Hor. Singitlos vestrum. 

Note 1. The comparative with the genitive denotes one of 
dividuals or classes ; the superlative denotes a part of a number greater 
than two ; as, Major fratrum, The elder of two brothers ; MaaAmus fra- 
trum, The eldest of tnree or more. 

In like manner ,'irfer, alter, and neuter, generally refer to two ; quis, alius, 
and nulXus, to more than two ; as, Uter nostHim 7 Which of us (two ?) 
Quitf vestrUm 7 Which of you (three or more ?) 

Note 2. JS^ostrdm and vestHim are used afler partitives, dbe., in 
preference to nostri and vestri ; yet the latter sometimes occur. 

NpTE 3. The partitive word is sometimes omitted ; as, Fies nobUium 
tu quoquefontium, sc. unus. Hor. 


Note 4. "Hie noun denoting the whole, after a partitive word, Is often 
put in the ablative, with the prepositions Je, e, ex, or in, or in the accusa- 
tive, with apud or inter ; as, Nemo de iis. Alter ex censoribus. Liv. Unus 
ex multis. Cic. Ac^rtimus ex sensibus. Id. Primvs inter omnes. Virg. 
CrtBsus inter reges opidentisslmus. Sen. Apud Ilelvetios nohUiss^mos. 

Note 5. The Whole and its parts are frequently placed in apposition, 
'dlstrlbutively ; as, Jnterfectores, pars in foruniy pars Syrodyiisas pergunt. 
Liv. See ^ 204, Rem. 10. 

Note 6. Cuncti and omnes, like partitives, are sometimes followed bv a 
genitive plural ; as, AttSlus Macedonum fere omnibus perstidsUf AttaluB 
persuaded almost all the Macedonians. Liv. Cunctog hominum. Ovid. 
Cunctas provinciaruni. Plin. 

In the following passage, the genitive singular seems to be used like that 
of a collective noun : Totius dutem injustitiee nulla eapitaUar est, &c. Cic. 
Off. 1, 13. The phrase Re^n ntUlo modo probaMlem omnium (Cic. Nat. 
Deor. 1, 27,) seems to be used for Rem nullo omnium modorum probabilem. 

Rem. 3. The genitive denoting a whole, may depend on a 
neuter adjective or adjective pronoun. With these the genitive 
singular is commonly used ; as, 

Plu^ elomientue, More (of) eloquence. Tantum fidei. So much fidelity. 
Jd tempdriSj That time. Ad hoc €BtoUis, Sometimes the plural ; as, id 
vuseridrum, Ter. 

Note 1. Most neuter adjectives, thus used, denote quantity ; as, tantum, 
quantum, aliquantum, plus, minus, dimidium, mtdtum, nimium, plurimum, 
reliquum ; to which aod mediuv/i, summum, tdtimum, aliud, Ac. The pro- 
nouns thus used are hoc, id, illud, istud, quod, and quid, with its com- 

Most of these may either agree with their nouns, or take a genitive ; 
but the latter is more common. Tantum, quantum, aliquantum, and plus, 
when they denote quantity, are used with a genitive oiuy, as are also quid 
and its compounds, when they denote a part, sort, &c,, and qudtd in the 
sense of quantum. Thus, Quantum crevit NUus, tantum sjtei in annum 
est. Sen. Quid muli^ris vx&rem hates 7 What kind of a woman.... Ter. 
Allquid formsQ. Cic. Quid hoc rei est 7 What does this mean ? Ter. 
Quod auri, quod argenti, quod ornament6rum/ia£, id Verres abstulit. 

Note 2. Neuter adjectives and pronouns are scarcely used with a gen- 
itive, except in the nominative and accusative. 

Note 3. Sometimes the genitive after these adjectives and pronouns 
^is a neuter adjective, of the nrat and second declension, without a noun ; 
^d}»f^ntum hani, So much good. Si quid hahes novi, If you have any 
thing new. Cic. Qjaid retlqui est 7 Ter. Mhil is also used with such a 
^nitive ; as, Mhil sinceri. No sincerity. Cic. This construction some- 
times, though rarely, occurs with an adjective of the third declension ; as, 
Si quidquam lum dico civilis sed humdia esset, Liv. 

Note 4. Neuter adjectives in the plural number are sometimes 
followed by a genitive, either singular or plural, with a partitive significa- 
tion ; as, Extrema imperii,, The nrontiers of the empire. Tac. Pontes et 
via rum angi4Sta, The bridges and the narrow parts of the roads. Id. 
Ojtdca locdrum. Virg. Antlqua fcBdirum. Liv. Cuncta camporum. Tac. 
Ezercent coUes, aique horum asperriTna pascunt. Virg. See § 205, Rem. 9* 

Rem. 4. The adverbs sat, satis, parum, nimis, abunde, largV' 


ter^ afctHrn, w^dpartim, used partitiTdj, are often followed by a 
genitive; as, 

Sat ratiSniSf Enough of reason. Virg. Satis loquentuByparum sapientus ; 
Enough of fluency, yet but little wisdom. Sail. A'imis vastdidrum. Cic. 
TerrOrisetfraudis twunde est. y'lTg. Auri et arffentilar^ter. VltiaL Co- 
pidrum affdtim. Liy. Ciitn partim iUOrum miki famiUansHmi tssent. Cic. 

Note 1. The above words, though generally adverbs, seeiOi in tliis use, 
rather to be noons or adjectives. 

Note 2. The genitives gerUiumf terrdrum, todf and locdruwif are used 
aflcr adverbs of place ; as, ustfuam Pentium^ Any where. Plant. Uhi ter- 
rdrum sumus? Where in the world are we? Cic. Abirequd terrdrum 
possent. lav. Ubi sit loci, Plin. Eo U>ei, In that place. Tac. Eodem 
loci res est. Cic. Nescire quo loci esset. Id^ But the last three examples 
might perhaps more properly be referred to Rem. 3. 

The adverbs of place thus used are vH^ uHnanif vJbieuTique^ ubiUbi, 
vhlviSj usquam, nusquarrif qudf quovis, quoqud, atlqudy edf eddem. Loci 
also occurs afier iH and tbident; gentium aiter Um^ ; as, Ibi lociy In that 
place. Plin. Abes lone^ gentium. Cic. VieinuB is used in the genitive 
afler h\c and htic by me comic writers ; as, Hie protlmtB vicinuB, Plaut. 
Hue vicinicR. Ter. 

Note 3. Hue, ed, qud^ take also a genitive in the sense of degree ; as, 
Ed insolentie furoris^ue processit. He advanced to such a degree of inso- 
lence and madness. Plin. Hue enim malorum veatum est. Curt. Huc^ne 
rerum veiAmus? Pers. E6 miaeiianun. Sail. Qud amentis progressi 

sitis. Liv. 

Note 4. Loci, loeOrvm, and tempOris, are used afler the adverbs adkue, 
indej interea, postea, tum^f and tunc, in expressions denoting time ; aa, 
Adkuc locdrum, Till now. Plaut. Inde loci. After that. Lucr. Interea 
loci, In the mean time. Ter. Postea loci, Aflerwards. Sail. Turn tem- 
pdris. Just. Tune temp&ris. Id. LoeOrum also occurs after id, denoting^ 
time ; 9M,Adid locdrum, Up to that time. Sail. 

Note 5. The ^nitive ejus sometimes occurs after quoad, in such con- 
nections as the following : Quoad ejusJlSri possit, As far as may be (Cic.) ; 
where some think quod, in the sense of quantum, shouA be read, instead 
of quoad. 

Note 6. Pridie and postridie, though reckoned adverbs, are followed 
hj a genitive, depending on the noun dies contained in tliem; as, Pridie 
ejus aiei, The day before that day. Cic. Pridie insididrum. Tac. Pos- 
tridie ejus dUi. Css. When they are followed by an accusative, antt or 
post is understood. 

Note 7. Adverbs, in the superlative degree, like adjectives, are 
followed by a genitive ; as, OpUiM omnium, Best of all. Uic. Minimi 

gentium. By no means. Ter. 


^213. A noun, limiting the meaning of an adjective, 
is put in the genitive, to denote the relation expressed in 
English by o/, or in respect of; as, 

Aifidus laudis, Desirous of praise. Plena thnOris, Full of fear. 
AppStens gloria, Desirous of glory. Egenus aqute, Destitute of water. 
Memar virtiUis, Mindful of virtue. Doctusfandi, Skilful in speaking. 


So Jftseia mens fati, A mind ignorant of fate. Virg. hnip9ttns ira, 
Unable to control anger. Lir. Homines expertes veritdtisy Men destitute 
of truth. Cic. LacHs abundansy Abounding in milk. Virg. Terra ferax 
arborumf Land productive of trees. Plin. Tenax pntposUi vir, A man 
tenacious of his purpose. Hor. JEffer antmif Sick in mind. Liv. InJUger 
tUor scelerisque purus, Upright in life, and free from wickedness. Hor. 

From the aboVe examples, it will be seen that the genitive after an 
adjective is sometimes translated by other words besides off or in respect 
off though the relation which it denotes remains the same. 

Remark 1. The adjectiTes whose signification is most 

frequently limited by a genitive, are, 

(1.) Verbals in ax; as, capax, edax^firaXjfugaXfperiflcaXy tenaXf &c. 

(2.) Participials in hs, and a few in tits ; as, amanSfOppitenSf eupUns, 
fatieiiSf impatUnSf sitiens ; — consultus, doctus, expertMSf inexpertusj instutus, 

(3.) Adjectives denoting 

Desire and Disgust ; as, avdruSyatidtiSf cupldiLS, studiOsus ; f€LstidiSsus. 

Knowledge and Ignorauce ; as, caUldus, consciMSj gnaruSf perituSj 
prudens; rudis, igndrus, insduSf unpmdens, impentus, Sui» 

Memory and Forqetfulmess > as, memor; tmmimor, &c. 

Certaintv and Doubt ; as, eertus; imeertuSy ambigtmSf dubiuSf sus- 
pensuSf &c. 

Care and Neoligsncs; as, aaxhts, soU^UuSf protHdus; improtidus, 
secants f &c. 

Fear and Confidence ; as, patHduSf timidus; trepidtis, impazHduSj 
Jidens, interrUus, &c. 

Guilt and Innocence ; as, naxms, reuSfSuspeetu^fCompertus; innoxius, 
inridcenSf insons. &g. 

Plenty and Want; as, pUnus^ dives, satUTf largus; inops, egenus^ 
pauper f parens, vacuus, &c. 

Manv other adjectives are in Uke manner limited by a genitive, espe- 
cially Dy anlmi, is^enii, mentis, irm, miUUx, beUi, laMris, rentm, avi, 
morum, ondjidei. ^ 

Rem. 2. The limiting genitive, by a Greek constructioii, sometimes 
denotes a cause or source, especially in the poets; as, Lassus laboris, 
Weary of labor. Hor. Fessus vitB. Stat. Fessus maris. Hor. 

Rem. 3. Participles in ns^ when used as such, take after them the same 
case as the verbs from which they are derived ; as, 58 amans. Loving 
himself. Cic. Mare terram appitens. Id. ^ 

Rem. 4. Instead of the genitive, denoting of, or in respect 

of, a different construction is used after many adjectives ; as, 

(1.) An infinitive or clause ; as, Certus ire. Determined to so. Ovid. 
Cantare perUi. Virg. Felicior unguSre tela. Id. Awdus quid tacto opus 
sit. Sail. 

(2.) An accusative with a preposition; as, Ad rem avidior. Ter. 
ArUdvs in direptiones. Liv. AnXmus capax ad prscepta. Ovid. Ad 
casum fortunamoiM /e2ix. Cic. Ad frauaem eallidtis. Id. Dili^ens ad 
custodiendum. Id. J^^liffentior in patrem. Just. Vir ad disciplinam 
peritus. Cic. Ad beUa rudis. Liv. Potens in res belllcas. Id. 

(3.) An accusative without a preposition, chiefly in the poets; as, 
Jfudus membra, Bare as to his limbs. Virg. Os, humeros^e deo simUhs. 
Id. QeXAnLfidvus. Hor. See § 234, II. 


(4.) An ablative with a prepoution ; na, Aifldus In pecnniis, Eager in 
rej^ard to money. Gic. Avadua de fam&. Quinct. Rudia in iure civfli. 
Cic. ^ Perttiu de agricultarft. Varr. Prudens in jure citiU. Cic. Reus 
de vi. Id. Purus ab cultu AtfmdTW. Liv. CerUor foetus de re. Cic. 
SolicUus de re. Id. Super sceUre susptctus. Sail, /nop^ ab amicis. Cic. 
Pauper in ere. Hor. ModHeus in cultu. Flin. Ab aquis steriLis, Apul. 
Cojnasys a fnunento. Cic. Ab equitataT^mttw. Id. 

(5.) An ablatiye without a preposition ; 88, Arte rudis, Rude in art. 

Ovid. Rmi crimlne insons. Liy. Compos mente. Vir^. Prudens 

consilio. Just. JEger pedlbus. Sail. Prtutans ingenio. Cic. ModHcus 

severitate. Tac. Juhil insidiis vacuum. Cic. Amor et melle et felle est 

fecundissimus. Plant. 

In many instances, the signification of the accusative and ablative after 
adjectives differs, in a greater or less degree, from that of the genitive. 

Rrm. 5. As many of the adjectives, which are followed by a genitive, 
admit of other constructions, the most common use of each, with particu- 
lar nouns, can, in ^neral, be determined only by recourse to the diction- 
ary, or to the classics. Some have, 

(1.) The gemtive only ; u, benignusy exsorSf impos, imp6tenSf irrttuSf 
Uberdlis, munifleusy pradarguSf and many others. 

(2.) The genitive more frequently ; as, compos, cansors, eginuSf exktereSj 
experSjfertfRs, indlgus, parens, pauper, prodlgtts, sterilis, prober, insatiA- 
tus, insatiabilis. 

(3.) The genitive or ablative indifferently; as, copidsus, dives, fecundus^ 
feraz, immllTus, indnis, inops, largus, modleus, immadXcus, nimius, opuUn- 
tus, plenus, potens, purus, refertus, satur, vacuus, vher, 

(4.) The ablative more frequently) as, abundans, alUnus, cassus, 
extorris,firmus,faius,Jrequens, gravis, gravldus, jejUnus, infirmus, liber, 
loe&pUs, lotus, modus, nudus, omutus, orbus, pollens, satidtus, tenuis, 
iruneus, viduus, 

(5.) The ablative only ; as, bedius, muttlus, tumXdus, turgidus. 

For the construction of the ablative after the preceding adjectives 
■ee §250. 

Rjcif . 6. Some adjectives which are usually limited by a dative, some- 
times take a genitive instead of the dative ; as, simiUis, dissimUis, &e. 
See § 222, Rsm. 2. 


^214. Sum, and verbs of valuing, are followed by a 
genitive, denoting degree of estimation ; as, 

A me ar^entum, quanti est, sumlto/ Take of me so much money as (he) 
is worth. Ter. Magni astimdbat peeurUam, He valued money greatly. 
Cic. Ager nunc pluris est, quikm tunefidt. Id. 

Remark 1. This genitive may be,' 

(1.) A neuter adjective of quantity; as, tanti, quanti, pluris, min&ris, 
magni, vermagni, plurimi, maxlmi, imnXmi, parvi, tantidem, quarUicunqtie, 
quantivis, quantiUbet, but not mtUti and majoris. 

(2.) The nouns assis,fiocci, nauci, tUhlli, piU, tenineii, and also pensi 
and hujus. 


Rkh. 2. The yerbs of yalmng Te.asHmOf extsHmo^ dttco, facio^ httheOy 
pendOf vntOy depHtOj taxOf to which may be added refert and inUrest* 
Thus, ut quanti quismu ae ipsefadaty tanii fiat ab amlcis ; That as much 
as each one values himself, so much he should be valued by liis friends. 
Cic. Sed auia parvi id dudret. Id. Honor es si mas^ni non ptuemus. Id. 
Jfon tMsiBjacis f Gatull. J^Teqtie quod dixi, flocci extstimat. Plaut. Illud 
mea magni iiUirestf That gieatfy ooncems me. Cic. Parvi refert jus 
did. Id. 

Note 1. JEqui and honi are put in the genitive after /acio and cotiMo; 
as, JVo< squi lK>ni(pc6 foATHus, Liv. Boni tonndtdtf Ue took it in good 
part. Flin. 

Note 2. After <BsSimo, the ablatives magno^ permagnOy parvo, nihllOf 
are sometimes used ; as, DtUa magno tEstlmaSf accepta parvo. Sen. So 
other ablatives, when definite price is denoted. Pro nihilo, also, occurs 
after ducOf habeo, and puto. So nihil with (S^tlmo and moror. 

Note 3. With refert and intirestj instead of the genitive, an adverb or 
neater accusative is often used ; as, Multum refert Mart. Plurimum 
inieririt, Juv. Tua nihil referebat, Ter. Quid auUm illius intirest 7 Cic. 

Note 4. The neuter adjectives above.enumerated, and hujusy may be 
referred to a noun understood, as pretH, teris, pondiris^ momenii; and 
may be considered as limiting a preceding noun, also understood, and 
denoting some person or thing indefinite ) as, JEstlmo U magnif i. e. horn- 
litem magni pretii. Scio ejus ordtnes atictoritdtem semper apud te magni 
fiiissey i. e. rem magni momenii. The words assis^ &c., may also be con- 
sidered as depending on an omitted noun, as pretio^ rem^ &c.^ 

For tantif quantij pluris, mindriSf denoting price, see § 252. 

^215. (1.) Miscreor, miseresco, and the im personals 
miserety ptBnitet, pudet, tadet, and pigety are followed by a 
genitive of the object in respect to which the feeling is 
exercised ; as, 

Miseremlfu sodSrum, Pity the allies. Cic. Miseresclte regisy Pity the 
king. Virg. Tui me misiret, mei piget, I pity j[ou, and am sorry for my- 
seir Ace. Eos ineptiarum pcmltet. Cic. Fratris me pudet pigetque. Ter. 
Me civitdtis morum piget Uedetque. Sail. So the passive ; Jiunqtuim sus- 
eepti negotii etcm pertasum est. Nep. Lenitudinis eorum pertasa. Tac. 
Miseritum est me tu&rum fortunarum. Ter. Cave te fratrum miseredtur, 

Miser escit is sometimes used in the same manner ; as, J^une te miser escat 
mei. Ter. Misereo, in the active voice, also occurs with a genitive ; as. 
Ipse sui misiret. Lucr. Pertasus ignaviam suam occurs in Suetonius. 

Remark. The eenitive after the above impersonals seems to depend 
on an indefinite smiject which is omitted. See § 209, Rem. 3, (4.) In- 
stead of the ffenitive, an infinitive or clause is sometimes used as a subject; 
as, J^on me hoc jam die£re pudebit. Cic. Jion pcmltet me quantum pro- 
fecSrim. Id. These verbs have also sometimes a nominative, especially 
a neuter pronoun ; as. Me quidem hoc conditio non pcmltet. Plaut. JWm 
te hec pudtnt 7 Ter. 

Misiret occurs with an accusative, instead of a genitive } as, Menedejni 
vicem misiret me. Ter. 

These verbs also take an accusative of the person exercising the feeling 
which they express. See § 229. Rem. G. 


(2.) Satdgo is followed by « geni^Te denotiog f » wkaJt re^ 

sped; as, 

Is satdfrit rerain sudrumf He is busily occupied with his own affahs. 
Ter. This compound is often written separately. •Agito, with aat, in like 
manner, is followed by a genitive ', as, JVicnc agitas sal tutetudrum renim. 

^216. Itecordor, memmi, reminiscar, and obliviscory 
are followed by a genitive or accusative of the object 
remembered or forgotten ; as, ^ 

Hujtis meriti recor<2or, I remember his merit. Cic. Omnesgmdus tetdtis 
recordor turn, I call to mmd all the periods of your life. Id. MemUfu yivo- 
nim, 1 am mindful of the living. Id. NumSros mtmlruy I remember the 
measure. Virg. Cinnam memlni, I remember Cinna. Cic. Remiidsd 
vetiris fame. Nep. Reminisci amicos. Ovid. Injuiiarum oMivisHtur. 
Nep. OltUmseire Graios. Virg. 

Remark 1. These verbs seem sometimes to be considered as actiTe, 
uid sometimes as neuter. As active, they take an accusative resularly ; 
as neuter, they take a genitive, denoting that in respect to which mem- 
ory, &c. are exercised -, as, Oblivisci controversiarum, To be forgetful of 
(in respect of) controversies. 

Rem. 2. Recordor and memlni, to rememher, are sometimes followed 
by an ablative with de ; as, PeClmus ut de suis libdris .... recordentur. Cic. 

Rem. 3. Memlnif signifying to make mention of, has a genitive, or an 
ablative with de ; as, J^eqne hvjus rei meminit pofta, Quinct. Meministi 
de ezsulibus. Cic. For the genitive with venit in m^entem, see § 211, 
Rem. 8, (5.) 

^217. Verbs of acci^sing, convicting, condemning, 
and acquitting, are followed by a genitive denoting the 
crime; as, 

jSrgttit me furti, He accuses me of theft. AUirum accftsat probri, He 
accuses another of viliany Meipsum inertis eondemno, Cic. 

Remark 1. To tliis rule belong the verbs of 
* Accusing; accUso, agOj arcesso, arguoy citOj defiro, ineripOj incBso^ 
insimido, postiUoy and more rarely aUlgo, anqulro, astringo, captOf increp^ 
Ito, urgeoy interrdgo. 

Convicting ; convince, coarguo, prehendo. 

Condemning; damno, condemno, infdmOf and more melyjudlcOf n&to, 

Acquitting ; absolvo, libiro, purgo, and rarely solvo. 

Rem. 2. Instead of the genitive, an ablative with de is often used ; as, 
AccusSre de negliffenti^. Cic. De vi condemndti sunt. Id. De repetun- 
dis est postuldtus. Id, Sometimes with in; as, In quo te accuse (Cic.) ; 
and after libiro, with a or ab ; as, A scel^re liberdti sumus. Cic. 

With some of the above verbs, an ablative without a preposition is often 
used ; as, Liberdre culp4. Cic. Crimen quo argui posset, Nep. Proeon^ 
siUem posttdavirat repetundis. Tac. This happens especially with general 
words denoting crime; as, scelusy mal^ieiumf peccdtum, &c. ; as, Jtfe 
peccato solvo. Liv. The ablatives crimlne and nomine, without a prepo- 
sition, are often inserted before the ^nitive ; as, Arcessire ahqtiem crimlne 
amhuiis. Liv. Nomine sceUtris amjuratiomsque damndti. Cic. 

SYNTAX. — osnmris abter tebbs. 193 

Rtv. 3. The punishmeDt is expressed either by the genitive, the 
ablauve, or the accusative with ad or in; as, Damndtus Smffi laboris 
(Hor.) ; Quadnipli eondemndri (Cic.) ; Damndre peeunid (Just.), ad 
ocatam (Traj. in rlin.), in metaUum (Plin.) ; — sometimes, though rarely, 
by the dative ; as, Damndtus morti. Lucr. In like manner, caput is used 
in the genitive or ablative ; as. Duces capitis damndtos. Nep. JVee caplte 
damndrer, Cic. So with some other verbs besides those oi accusing, &c. 
Q^em ego capitis verdam, Plaut. Me capitis periditdtum memini, Apul. 
With plecto and ptectar, caput is used in the ablative only. 

Rem. 4. ^ccUso, incUso, insimUilOf instead of the genitive, sometimes 
take the accusative, especially of a neuter pronoun ; as. Si id me non 
acpUsas. Plant. Qus m« incusaviras* Ter. Sic me insimuldre falsum 
faclnus. Plaut. See § 231, Rem. 5. 

Rem. 5. The following verbs of accusing, &c., are not followed by a 
genitive of the crime, but, as active verbs, by an accusative : — ealumniory 
carpOy eorriplo, criminoVf culpo, excUsOf multOf pumo^ reprehendo, sugiUo^ 
taxOf tradHcOy vitupiro ; as, Ctdpdre irrfeeunditdtem agrOrum* Colum. 
Excusdre errorem et adolescentiam. Liv. 

This construction also occurs with some of the verbs before enumerated ; 
as, Ejus avariUam perfidiam^te accusdrat. Nep. Culpam argtuf. Liv. 
With mvUo, the punishment is put in the ablative only, without a prepo- 
sition ; as, ExdituSf morte muLtantvr. Cic. 

^218. Verbs of admonishing are followed by a gen- 
itive denoting that in respect to which the admonition is 
given; as^ 

MHUes tempdris mohet, He admonishes the soldiers of the occasion. 
Tac. ^dmoiUbat aUum egestatis, alium cupiditatis stue. Sail. 

Remark 1. The verbs of admonishing are tnoneo, admoneOf eommoneo, 
commonefado. Instead of the genitive, they sometimes have an ablative 
with ~de; as, De lede TeUAris me admdnes (Cic); — sometimes a neuter 
accusative of an adjective pronoun or adjective ; as, Eos hoc^moneo (Cic.) ; 
Xilud me admoneo (Id.) ; Multa admon£mur (Id.) ', — and rarely a noun ; 
as. Earn rem nos locus admonuit. Sail. 

Rem. 2. These verbs, instead of the genitive, are often followed by an 

infinitive or clause ; as, Soror monet succurr£re Lauso Tumumy His sister 

^admonishes Turn us to succor Lausus. Virg. JUicmet, ut suspiciOnes vitet. 

CsBs. Monet rationem frumenti esse habendam. Hirt. Immortalia ne 

speres Tnonet annus. Hor. 

^219. Refert and interest are followed by a genitive of 

the person or thing whose concern or interest they denote ; as, 

Humanitdtis referty It concerns human nature. Plin. Interest onmium 
recttfacgrCy It concerns all to do right. Cic. 

Remark 1. Instead of the genitive of the substantive pro- 
nouns, the adjective pronouns mea, tua, sua, nostra, and vestra, 
are used ; as, 

Mea nihil referty It does not concern me. Ter. Tua et mea moj^m^ 
tntlrest, te vaUre. Uic. Magis reipublics intirest qudm mea. Id. 

Refert rarely occurs with the genitive, but often with the adjective 

Rem. 2. In regard to the case of these adjective pronouns, gramma- 

194 tTNTAX.-^GCNITir£ Or PL4C2. 

nans diflfbr. Some sappoee tiliat they are in the accnsatiTe plural kienlery 
agreeing with an indehnite noun understood ; as, Intirest mea, i. e. est 
inter mea; It is among my concerns. Rffert tua, i. e. refert se ad tna; It 
refers itself to your concerns. Others think that they are in the ablative 
singular feminine, agreeing with re, caitsA, &c., understood. 

Rem. 3. Instead of a genitive, an accusative with ad is sometimes 
used ; as. Ad hondrem meum interest qvAm primiim urbem me venire 
(Oic.) ; Qttui u2 ad me aut ad meam rem refert (Plant.) ; — sometimes, though 
rarely, an accusative without a preposition ; as. Quid te igUur reiiUU f 
(Pla^t.) ;•— or a dative ; as, Die quid r^rat intra natureB fines viventi. Hor. 

Rem. 4. These verbs oflen have a nominative, especially a neuter pro- 
noun ; as. Id mea minimi refert. Ter. Hoc vekementer inUrest reipuhUae. 
Cic. JVbn qud mea interesset lod natora. Id. * 

For the genitives taniif quanti, &c., afler refert and intirest^ see § 214. 

^ 220. Many verbs which are usually otherwise construed, 
are Bometimes followed by a genitive. This rule includes 

1. Certain verbs denoting an affection of the mind; ango^ discrudnr^ 
exerudOf folio f pendeOf which are followed by animi; decipiorf desipio, 
fallor, fnsttdiOf invideo, miror, vereor; as. Absurd^ faeis oui angas te 
anImi. Plaut. Me animi faUit, Lucr. Decipltur laborum. Uor. Desip' 
iebam mentis. Plaut. Justitise ne prius mirer belllne laborum. Virg. 

2. The following, in imitation of the Greek idiom; abstineo (Hor.), 
deslno (Id.), desisto (Virg.), laudo (Sil.), leva (Plant), parfu:if»o (Id.),/^f#- 
hibco (Sil.), purgo (Hor.) Regndvlt popvlHrum occurs m Horace, for 
which some manuscripts read regndtor. 

3. Some verbs denoting to fill j to abound^ to want, which are commonly 
followed by an ablative. Such are abundOj careOf cornpleOj expleo, impleo^ 
egro, indigeo, saiiirOj scateo; aSy ^dolescentem sutB temeritatis implel, He 
fills the youth with his own rashness. Li v. Animum explesse nammoe. 
Virg. Egeo consilii. Cic. JVon tarn artis indigent quAm laboris. Id. 
See § § 249 and 250, (2.) 

4. Potior, which also is usually followed by an ablative; as. Urbis 
potlri, To gain possession of the city. Sail. Potlri regni (Cic), kostiunt 
(Sail.), 7'erum (Cic^ Potto (active) occurs in Plautus; as, Evm nunc 
potivit servitutis, He has made him partaker of slavery. In the same 
writer, potltus est fiostium signifies, ''he fell into the hanJs of the enemy.*' ^ 


^221. I. The name of a town in which any thing is 
said to be, or to be done, if of the first or second declen- 
sion and singular number, is put in the genitive ; as. 

Habitat MiUtl, He lives at Miletus. Ter. Quid Romasfadam? What 
can I do at Rome ? Juv. 

Remark I. Names of islands and countries are sometimes put in the 
genitive, like names of towns ; as, ItkdctB vivire, To live in Itliaca. Cic. 
CorcyrtB fitlmus. Id. Pompeium Cypri visum^ esse, Cses. Cretm jtissit 
eonstdJire Apollo, Virg. JVbn Libya. Id. Roma JVumidiisque, Sail. 

Rem. 2. Instead of the genitive, the ablative of names of towns of the 
first and second declension and singular number, is sometimes, though 


rarely, used ; as, Rez Tyro deeSdit, The king dies at Tyre. Just. Et 
Corintho et Ath6ms et Lacedtemdne nuncidta est victoria. Id. Pons quern 
iUe Abydo fecirat. Id. Hujus exemplar Rom^ mtUurn habemits. Vitruv. 
Mm ante Tyro. Virg. , 

Rem. 3. The genitives dami, militicB^ belli, and humi, are 

construed like names of towns ; as, 

Tenuit se domi, He staid at home. Cic. Vir domi dams. Liv. Uni^ 
semper militias et dormfulmus, We were always together both at home 
and abroad. Ter. Belli spectdta doml^ue virtus. Hor. MilituB and beUi 
are thus used only when opposed to domi. 

(1.) Domi is thus used with the possessives mea, turn, sua, nostrct^ 
vestrte, and aliena; as, Domi nostras vixit. He lived at my house. Cic. 
jSpud earn sic fid tanmiam mes domi. Idr Sacryfieium, quod alienee domi 
fiMret tnvisire* Id. But with other adjectives, an ablative, with or without 
a preposition, is used ; as, In vidud domo. Ovid. Patemd domo. Id. 
Sometimes also with Uie possessives; as, Med in domo. Hor. In domo 
and. Nep. So, instead of Aumi, humo is sometimes used, with or without 
a preposition ; as, In humo arenOsd. Ovid. Sedere humo nudd. Id. 

(3.) When a genitive denoting the possessor follows, either domi or in 
domo is used; as, Deprdiensus domi Casdris. Cic. In domo Cas&ris, 
Id. In domo ejus. Nep. 

(3.) The ablative domo for domi also occurs ; as, Ego id nunc exverior 
domo. Plant. BeUo for hdli is found in Livy, Lib. 9. §&— Domi belloque, 

(4.) Terns is sometimes used like humi ; as, Sacra terras edatHmus. Liv. 
Vicinia occurs in Plautus — Pros^ma viciniae habitat. 

(5.) The genitive of names of towns, domi, mildtuB, &c., are supposed 
by some to depend on a noun understood ; as, urbe^ cjppidOf adLbus, solOf 
loco, tempdrCf &c. 


II. Certain adverbs are followed by the genitive. See § 212, Rxh. 4. 

III. The genitive plural is sometimes used after the preposition tenus ; 
as, CuTodrum tenus. As far as Cumas (Ccel.) ; Crurum tenus (Virg.^ ; Laid- 
rum tenus (Id.) ; — ^sometimes, also, mough rarely, the genitive smgular; 
as, Corcyra tenus. Liv. 


^ 222. A noun limiting the meaning of an adjective/ 
is put in the dative, to denote the object or end to which 
the quality is directed ; as, 

Utilis agris, Useful to the fields. Juv. Jucundtu amiei?. Agreeable to 
his friends. Mart. Inimicus quieti, Unfriendly to rest. Id. Charta inutUis 
scribendOf Paper not useful for writing. Plin. 

The dative is commonly translated by the prepositions to oi for ; but 
sometimes by other prepositions, or without a preposition. 

196 wnrrxs.^ — ^datzvk atter arjectivks. 

Remark 1. Adjectives signifying advantageous, pleasant, 
friendly, fit, like, inclined, ready, easy, clear, equal, and their 
opposites, dso those signifying near, many compounded with 
can^ and verbals in biUs, are followed by the dative ; as, 

Fdix tuiSf Propitious to your friends.- Virg. Oratio ingrcUa GaUiSy A 
speech displeasing to the Gauls. Cses. Amicus tvrannldij Friendly to 
tyranny. Nep. LabOri inhahUliSj Unsuited to labor. Colum. Patri sivtlliSy 
Like his father. Cic. Aptum temp&ri. Id. Malo pronus. Sen. Prom.jh- 
tus sedidGni. T&c. Cmms fadle est. Ter. Mihi certum est. Cic. Par 
fratri tito. Id. Falsa veris Jinitima sunt. Id Ocidi eoncolOres corpUri, 
Colum. Multis bonis flebilis. Hor. • 

Many adjectives of other significationB are also followed by a dative of 
the end or object. 

After verbals in biliSf the dative is usually rendered by the preposition 
hf; as, Tibi credibilis sermo, A speech crediole to you, i. e. worthy to be 
believed by you. Ovid. 

The expression dicto audUnSj signifying obedient, is followed by the 
datiye; as, Syracusdm nobis dicto audientes sunt. Cic. Audiens dicto fuit 
jussis magistrntmtm, Nep. In this phrase, dicto is a dative limiting audiens^ 
and the words dieto atuaens seem to form a compound equivalent to obo- 
dienSf and, like Uiat, followed by a dative ; thus, JVec plebs nobis dicto 
audiens atque obediens sU. Liv. 

R£M. 2. The adjectives etqualis, nffflnis, alienus, comtnUniSfJidus, par^ 
propriuSf simlliSf dissimlUsy super stes, and some otliers, instead of a dative 
of the object, are sometimes followed by a genitive ; as, SimUis tuij Like 
you. Plaut. Par hujuSf Equal to him. l«ucan. Affinis CcBsdris. V. Max. 
Cuiusque proprivm. Cic. Superstes omnium. Suet. Tui fMs^ma. Virg. 

But most of these, when thus used, seem rather to be taken substan- 
tively; as, JEqudlis ^us, His equal. Cic' So in English, "his like/' 
** his survivor, &c. 

Rem. 3. Some adjectives with the dative are followed by another case 
denoting a different relation ; as, Mens sibi consda recti, A mind conscious 
to itselfof rectitude. Virg. See §2J3. 

Rem. 4. Many adjectives, instead of the dative of the end 

or object, are oflen followed by an accusative with a preposition. 

(1.) Adjectives signifying ndyantageous, fit, and the opposite, take an 
accusative of the purpose or end with ad, but only a dative of the person ; 
as, Ad nuUam rem utllis. Cic. Locus aptus ad insidias. Id. 

(2.) Adjectives denoting motioi^ or tendency, take an accusative with 
ad more frequently than a dative ; as, Piffer ad pcenas, ad prsmia velox 

iOvid.) ; Ad atlquem morbum proclivior (Cic.) ; Ad omne fadnua pardtus 
Id.); Promts sin. fidem (Liv.); — sometimes with in; as, Celer m pug- 
nam. Sil. 

(3.) Many adjectives, signifying an auction of the mind, sometimes 
have an accusative of the object with in, erga, or advershs; as, Fidelis in 
filios. Just. Mater acerba in suos partus. Ovid. Grains erga me. Cic. 
Gratum adversCts te. Id. So DissimlUs in domlnum. Tac. 

(4.) Adjectives signifying like, equal, common, &c., when plural, are 
oilen followed by the accusative with inter ; as. Inter se similes. Cic. 
Inter eos communis. Id. Inter se diver si. Id. 

Rkm. 5. Propior and proxlmus, instead of the dative, have sometimes 
an accusative without a preposition ; as, Q^uod vitium propius virtatem 


erat. Sail. Jfe prapius se easira mov€rety peHerunt, Caes. J^g^r, ^i 
proximuS'Gxiem. MegalopoUtdrum est. Liv. 

Rem. 6. Some adjectives, instead of the dative, have at times an abla- 
tive with a preposition. Thus, jvar, communis, consentaneus, discors, with 
cum; as, Quern paremcuia iib^ris /«c»<x. Sail. Consentaneum cum lis 
litdris. Cic. Civitas secum discors, Liv. So alUnus and diversus with 
a or ab; as, AlUnus a me (Ter.) ; A ratidne diversus (Cic.) ; or without a 
preposition ; as, Alienum nostrA amicitli. Id. 

Rem. 7. Idem is sometimes followed by the dative, chiefly in the poets; 
as, Jupiter omnibus idem. Virg. Invitum qui servat idem jadt occidenti. 
Hor. in th6 first example, omnibus is a dative of the object ; in the second, 
the dative follows idemy in imitation of the Greek construction with 
a^rog, and is equivalent to quod facit is, qui occidit. Idem is generally 
followed not by a case, but oy qui, ac, atque, ut, or quhm; sometimes by 
the preposition cwm; as, Eddem mecutti poire. Tac. Similis and par are 
sometimes, like idem, followed by ae and atque. 

Note. Nouns are sometimes followed by a dative of the object ; as, 
VirtuObus kostis. Cic. Caput Italia omni. Liv. See § 211, Ri^M. 5. 


<^ 223. A noun limiting the meaning of a verb, is put 
in the dative, to denote the object or end, to or for which 
any thing is, or is done ; as, 

Mea domus tibi patet, Mj house is open to you. Cic. Parsopt&re locum 
tecto, A part choose a site for a building. Virg. Tibi seris, tibi viutis ; You 
sow for yourself, you reap for yourself; Plant. Licet nemini contra patriam 
ducSre exercUum, It is lawful to no one to lead an army against his country. 
Cic. Hoc tibi promitto, I promise this to you. Id. Haret lat£ri iMlis 
arundo. Virg. Surdo /oMam narras. Hor. Mihi responsum dedit. Virg. 
Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra boves. Id Omnibus bonis expidit salvam 
esse rempubVlcam. Cic, .^ptat habendo ensem. Virg. 

The dative is thus used afler active and neuter verbs, both personal and 
impersonal, and in both voices. 

Remark 1. The dative afler many verbs is rendered not by to or for 
but bv other prepositions, or without a preposition. Many neuter verbs are 
translated into English by an active verb, and the dative after them is 
usually rendered like the object of an active verb. 

Most verbs afler which the signs to tad for are not used with the dative, 
are enumerated in this and the following sections. 

Rem. 2. Many verbs signifying to favor, please, trust, and 
their contraries, also to assist, command, obey, serve, resist, 
threaten, and be angry, govern the dative ; as, 

Ilia tihi favet. She favors you. Ovid. Mihi placebat Pomponius, minimi 
displicebat. Cic. Qui sibi fidit. Hor. JiTon licet sui comm6di causd no^ 
cere alteri. Cic. JVon invidetur illi eetati sed etiamfavitur. Id. Despirat 
salQti swB. Id. Neque mihi vestra decreta awaliantur. Sail. Impirat aut 
seroit collecta pecunia cuique. Hor. Obcdlre et par€re volantati. Cic. 
Quaniam factioni immicorum resisyhre nequivirit. Sail. Mihi minabdtur. 
Cic. Irasci inimlcis. Cees. 


So ^tUdoTj hlandior, commAdo, farnw, graJtiflcor, grator, graMor and 
its verbal gratnlabundust ignosco. vnidul^eoy palpoTy parco^ pTaudOj studeOj 
subparastUfr ; amUarf ineommdaOj invideoj noceo. — Pluceo, libet or Zu6«£ ; 
diapliceo. — Credoy fidoj confido ; detpiro, d\Jfido. — ^dndniciUorf auxUior, 
medeoTy medUar, opitilor, ptUrodlfuor. — ImplrOy msmdo, modiror (to le- 
strain) y/mnspioy tempiro, — AusmdUtf moriffirar, obediOfWsecundOfObsiquor, 
obUmpirOy parw.'-^AncUioryfamXdoTy wdniMtrOy aenioj ituervio. — Rtfrdgar^ 
rductoTy renUoTf rtpugno, resuio, aad, ohiefly in the poets, 6eZ2o, certOy ludoTf 
vugno.---MmoTy eomfiOnor, inUrmlnar, — Iraaeor, gtieeenseo, to which may 
be added convicioTy degeniroj excelloy nttbd (to marry), prastdloTy prtevaricar^ 
recipio (to promise), renuneiOy respondeo, suadeOf parsuadeo^ dissuadeOf sup- 
pllcoy and sometimes lateo and decet. 

(1.) Many of the above verbs, instead of the dative, are sometimes fol- 
lowed by an accusative ; as, adulory ausculio, blandior, degeniroy desperoy 
indidgeo, UUeOy medeoTy medUoTy modirory prmatdlor, prwideOy &c. ; as, 
Aduldri allquem. Cic. Tac. Hanc cave degtnires. Ovid. Indvlgeo me. 
Ter. Hujus adventum pnestdUms, Csss. Providtre rem frumentof 
riam. Id. 

Others, as active verbs, have, with the dative, an accusative, expressed 
or understood ; as, impiroy rnandoy ministroy minor y eomminory intermlnor^ 
prtEcipio, redpioy rentmcioy &g.', as, Equlteg impirat dvitatlbus. Ces. 
Mirustrdre victum aUcid, Varr. DenagratiOnem utbi et Itaim tod vuna- 
bdtur. Cic. 

(2.) Manv «eft>s which, from their significations, might be included in 
the above classes, are, as active verbs, only followed by an accusative ; as, 
delectOjjuvOy leedoy offendoy &c. JiJfeo is followed by the accusative with 
an infinitive, and sometimes, though rarely, by the accusative alone, or the 
dative with an infinitive ; as, Jti£w te biU sperSre. Cic. Lez jubet ea 
qua facUttda sunt. Id. Ubi Britannico jussit exsurgire, Tac. Fido and 
confido are often followed by the ablative, with or without a preposition ; 
as, Fidire cuno. Ovid. 

^ 224. Many verbs compounded with these eleven prepo- 
sitions, ady antBy con, tn, inter, oh, post, prm, pro, sub, and super, 
are followed by the dative ; as, 

Snnut cceptis, Favor our undertakings. Virg. Romdnis equitibus lifgm affe- 
runtUTy Letters are brought to the Roman knights. Cic" AnteceUire omnibus, 
To excel aU. Id. AnUtidit ires reUgidnem, JVep. Audetgue viris concurrerti 
Tvrgo, Virg. Exercltum exercitui, duces ducibus compardre. Liv. ^ /?»- 
minet his agr* Ovid. Pecdri signwm impressU, Virg. JVbz prsBlio inters 
venit. Liv. InterdixU histrionu>us scenam. Suet. Meis commddis officis 
et obstas. Cic. CUm se hosHum teiis objedssent. Id. Posthabtd mea seria 
ludo. Virg. Certamini prasedit. Suet. Hibemis Labienum prmposuit^ 
Cses. Vobis profvit ingenium. Ovid. Mis^ris succurrlre disco. Virg^. 
lis subsidia stwmittebat. Cses. Timidis supervinU JEgle. Virg. So 

1. Accido, accreseoy accumboj acquiescOy adequlto, adkctreOy adjaceoyodno, 
adndtOy adstOy adstiplilory adsuvHy adversary affulgeOy aUahvty anntuf, ap^ 
pareoy applaudoy appropinquoy arrideOy aspiroy assentioTy asstdeOy ussisto, 
assuescOy assurgo r—addoy afflro, affigOy adjicioy adjungo, adfiibeoy admO' 
veo, advertOy aulgOy appdno, appllco, iMvolvo, aspergo. 

2. Antecedoy anteceUo, anteeo, arUesto, antevemo, anteverto, — anteftroy 
antehabeoy antepOno. 

3. ColuBreoy eoUudOy condlno, congruo, consenUo, consdno, conttvo, and, 
chiefly in the poets, co€o, conaanbo, eoncurro, contendo ; — compdro, «ni»- 
pdnOj co7\f&rOf conjungo. 

•nrrAX.-HDATiTB AjrrsR tsbbs. 199 

4. JnMoj ineumbOf indormiOf inhiOy ingemiseo, Muereo^ nauueoff tnnl- 
toTf insideOf instdioTf insto^ vnsislo, insUdo, insuJUo, iwi>ado, invigilq^ iUn^ 
er^mo, iUudoy immineOf immorioTf iinmHrorf impendeo, insum; — immisceOj 
impOwif imprimo, if^ro^ ingiro^ injido, indadOf insiroy inspergo, inHkro, 

5. IrUercedOf tnterdtiio, interjaeeOf intermlUOf intersum, intervenio ;— «V 
Urdlco, interpOno, 

6. ObambtdOf oberrOy obeptUOf obluctor^ obmurmXaro^obripo, obstOy chtisio^ 
okatripOf obsum, obtredo, obveni9, obversoTy ^eeumbOf oeeurrOf oeeurtOf ojp^ 
do ;'---obdlUOf objicWj cfffyro, offundo, oppdno. 

7. Postfiro, postkabeOf postpOnOf postp&Ufy jHutscribo. 

8. PrtKidOf prmeurrOf praeoy prtesideo, pnduceo, priouteo, prasumf prt^ 
VttUOf prmertor ;-^-pnefirOf pra^doy prapHno, 

9. Procumbo, profidoj propugno^ prosum, prospido, provideo, 

10. SueeidOy succwmbo, sueeurroy suffleioy suffrdgor, subereseoy stiboleo^ 
gubjaceo, subrepo, subsum, tuhvenio ; — subdOy suhjugOy submitto, tuppOnOf 

11. SupercurrOy super sto, super surtiy superveniOy supereHvo. 

Remark 1. Some verbs, compounded with aby dcy ex, cireumy and eon^ 
tra, axe occasionally followed by the dative ; as, absumy desumy deldboTf 
ezcidOy circumdOy eircumfundo, circumjaceoy drcumjicioy eaiUradieOy con- 
traeo; as, Serta capiti ddapsa. The garlands having fallen from his head. 
Virg. /funmd numnU exciderunt tibi ^ Plaut.r Tigris urbi drcumJundUur, 

Rem. 2. Some verbs of repelling and taking* awav (most of which are 
compounds of a6, dey or er), are sometimes followed by the dative, though 
more commonly by the ablative ; as, oiAgo, abrd^o, aSsdndOy ai^fiiroy aaH* 
. moy areeoy defendoy demOy derdgo. detrdko, eri»iOy eruoy excutioy eaamoy ex- 
iorqueOy extrdhOy ezuo, surripio. Thus, J^ec mihi te eripienly Nor shall they 
take you from me. Ovid. SolstUium pecori defemdUe, Virg. Htmc arU^ 
bis pecuri. Id. 

Rem. 3. Some verbs of differing (compounds of di or di^ likewise 
occur with the dative, instead of the ablative with a preposition; as, 
difffroy discripOy diswrdoy dissentioy dissideOy disto ; as, fiuantum nmplex 
kuarisque nepOti discripety et quantum diseordet parens avAro. Hor. So 
likewise vusceo ; as, JUista modesti» gravltas, Cic. 

Rem. 4. Many verbs compounded with prepositions, instead of the 
dative, either constantly or occasionally take the case of the preposition, 
which is sometimes repeated. Sometimes, also, one of similar significa- 
tion is used; as. Ad primam vocem timidas advertttis aures. Ovid. 
A'emo eum anteee-ssit. Nep. Infirunt omnia in ignem. C»s. Silcx in- 
cumbebat ad amnem. Virg. Conferte banc paeem cum illo bello. Cic. 

Rem. 5. Some neuter verbs compounded with prepositions, either take 
the dative, or, acquiring an active signification, are followed by the accu- 
sative ; as, HdvetU rdlquos Gallos mrtiUe pracedunty The Helvetii surpass 
the other Gauls in valor. Cabs. Uterque Isocr^item atcUe pracurrit, Cic. 
Bo praeoy prastOy pravertOy preecdlo. 

^ 225. I. Verbs compounded with satis ^ beni, and mcU^^ 
are followed by the dative ; as, 

El natars et legTbus sattsfUdty He satisfied both nature and the laws. 
Cic. Pulckrum est benefacire reipublic». It is honorable to benefit the 
state. Sail. MaUdidt utnque. Hor. So sadsdo, beo^Lieo, maltfaao. 


These compounds are oAen written aepantely ; and the datzye atways 
depends not on satiSf ben^, and vmU^ but on the simple verb. 

II. Verbs in the passive voice are sometimes followed by a dative of the 
agent, cliiefly in the poets ; as, Nequ^ cernStur ulli. Nor is he seen by any 
one. Virg. JVW/a tudrum audita mihi fuque visa sor&rum. Id. But .the 
agent aifer passives is usually in the ablative with a preposition. 
See § 248. 

III. The participle in dus is followed by a dativ« of the 

agent; as^ 

Unda omnibus enaoigtmda^ The wave which must be passed over 
by all. Hor. Adhibmda est nobis diligentia, We must use diligence. 
Cic. Vestigia summorum homiwum sibi tuenda esse didt. Id. Dolendum 
est tibi ipsi. Id. Faciendum mihi puiaviy ut respondfrem.. Id. 

Remark 1. The dative is sometimes wanting when the agent is in- 
definite ; as, Orandum estj ui sit mens sana in corpdre sano. Juv. f i4 
vincendum aut moriendum, mUUeSy est. Liv. In such examples, tiHf TO" 
bis, nobis, lumiiiCibus, &,c., may be supplied. 

Rem. 2. The participle in dus sometimes, though rarely^ has, instead 
of the dative, an ablative with a or o^ ; as, Deus est tenerandus a nobis. 

IV. Verbs signifying motion or tendency are followed by an 
accusative with ad or in ; as, 

Ad templum Paflddis ibant. Virg. Ad prcetdrem homtnem traxU. Cic. 
Vergit ad septemtriones. Csbs. In conspectum venire. Nep. 

So curro, duco, fero,fe3tino,fugio, indino, l^o, pergo, porto, prndpUo, 
propiro, tendo, tollo, vado, verto. 

So likewise verbs of calling, erciting, &c. ; as, Eurum ad se voctU, 
Virg. Provoedsse ad pugnam. Cic. So animo, hartor, in&Uo, invito, la- 
eesso, stimUdo, suscito ; to which may be added attineo, cimformo, pertineo^ 
and specto. 

But the dative is sometimes used afler these verbs ; as, Clamor it eoslo. 
Virg. Dum tibi Utira mcee i>eniant. Cie. Afler venio both constructions 
are used at the same time ; as, Venit mihi in mentem. Cic. Vetut milii 
in suspicionem. Nep. Eton venisse Grerm&nis in amicitiam cognovirat» 
Cebs. Propinquo (to approach) takes the da^ve only. 

<§> 22Q. Est is followed by a dative denoting a posses^ 
sor; — the thing possessed being the subject of the verb. 

Est thus used may generally be translated by the verb to have with the 
dative as its subject; as, Est mihi domi vater, I have a father at home. 
Virg. Sunt nobis mitia poma, We have mellow apples. Id. Graiid nobia 
opus est tud. We have need of your favor. Cic. InnocentisB plus periculi 
quhm hondris est. Sail. ,^n nescis longas reglbus esse manus? Ovid. The 
nrst and second persons of sum are not tlius construed. 

Remark. The dative is used with a similar signification afler /ore, sttp^ 
pjito, desum, and defU ; as. Pauper enim non est, cui rerum suppitit tisusm 
Hot. Si mihi caudaforet, eercopithecus eram. Mart. Deficit ars vobis. 
Ovid. JWm def&re Arsacldis virtfitem. Tac. Lac mihi non defit. Virg. 

•^ 227. *Sum, and several other verbs, are followed by 
two datives, one of which denotes the object to which, 
the other the end for which y any thing is, or is done ; as. 


Mibi TtuaHnuB est corffi, It is a very great care to me. Cic. Sptro nobis 
haiic conjrmctionem voluptati /bre, I hope that this union will bring pleasure 
to us. Id. Matri puellam cfono dedit. Ter. Fabio laudi datu.m est. Cic. 
Vitio id tibi vertunt. Piauf. Id tibi honori habetur. Cic. Maturdvit col- 
legs venire auxilio. Liv. 

Remark 1. The verbs after which two datives occur, are swnjfore^ 
fioy do, ducoj habeo, relinguo, trUmo, verto; also eurro, eo, mUtOfprt^ictxorf 
venio, appdtio, assigno, cedOj compdro, ptito^ suppedlj^f and perhaps some 
others. ^ 

Rem. 3. The dative of the end is oflen used after these verbs, without 
the dative of the object ; as, £xemplo est formica, The ant is (serves) for 
an example. Hor. Absmtium bona divisui fiure, Liv. Rellquit pignori 
putamina. Plaut. 

Rem. 3. The verb sum, with a dative of the end, may be variously 
rendered; as by the words brings, affords, serves, &c. The si^n /or 
is often omitted with this dative, especially after sum ; instead of it, as, 
or some other particle, may at times be used ; as, Ignavia erit tibi mag* 
no dedecdri. Cowardice will bring great disgrace to you. Cic. Hcec res 
est argumento ; This thing is an argument, or serves as an argument. Id. 
Universos curse habuit. Suet. Una tes srat magiw usui, .... was of great 
use. Lucil. Quod' tibi magnopSre cordi est, mihi vehementer dispncet ; 
What is a great pleasure, an object of peculiar interest to you, &c. Id. 

Sometimes the words fit, able, ready, &>c., must be supplied, especially 
before a gerund or a gerundive } as, Ciim solvendo eivitdtes non essent, .... 
not able to pay. Cic. Dilutes, qui onJtri ferendo essent. Liv. Q^ re- 
fltinguendo igm/orenl. Liv. i&otdiz e/itf est vesoendd* Plin. 

Rem. 4. Instead of the dative of the end, a nominative is sometimes 
used J as. Amor est exitium pecdri (Virg.) ; or an accusative, with or with- 
out a preposition ; as, Se Acnilli comitem esse datum dicU ad helium. Cic. 
Se Remis in clientelam diedbant. Css. 

Rem. 5. The d&Uve of jthe object after sum, often seems rather to 
depend upon the dative of the end, than upon the verb ; as in the exam- 
ple Ego omnlbiis meis exitio fuiro (Cic.)} i^ which omnibus meis has the 
same relation to exitio that pecOri has to exithiTk in the above example 
from Virgil. For the use of the dative after a noun, see § 211, Rem. 5. 

Note 1. The dative is sometimes used after the infinitive, instead of 
the accusative, when a dative precedes, and the subject of the infinitive 
is omitted; as, Vobis necesse est fortibus esse viris. Liv. See §§205, 
Rem. 6, and 239, Rem. 1. 

Note 2. In such expressions as Est mihi rurnien Alexandro, Cui cog- 
nSmen lulo addXtur, the proper name la' put in the dative in apposition 
with that which precedes, instead of taking the case of nomen or eognO* 
men. See § 204, Rem. 8. 


^ 228* Some particles are followed by the dative of the 
end or object ; as, 

1. Some adverbs derived from adjectives; as, Proj?lm^ eastris. Very 
near to the camp. Ca;s. Congruenter naturas, Agreeably to nature. Cic, 
Propius stabt^lis armenta tenirent. Virg. VitaB^u* hominum amic6 vivire. 
Id. Bene mihi, bene vobis. Plaut. So obviam; as, Mihi obviam vemsti. 


2. Certain piepo^tioiis, especially in comic writers ; as, MUU clam tai^ 
It is unknown to me. Plant. Contra nobis. Id. But in such instances 
they are rather used like adjectives. 

3. Certain interjections ; as, ifet miki ! Ah^e ! Virff. Fie vUIU ! Wo 
is me ! Ter. Vtt metis ! Liv. Va te ! also occurs in Plautus. 

Note. The dative of the substantive pronouns seems sometimes re- 
dundant, or to affeq^the meaning but little j as, Fur mihi e«, .... in my 
opinion. Plant. Ar^tXe mihi liher^ cvi mtdier impirat? Cic. TongUium 
mihi eduxit. Id. Ubi nunc nobis deus tile magister? Virg. Ecce tibi 
SebOsus/ Cic. Hiemtibi talentum argenti PhUip^cum est. Plaut. S^ is 
sometimes subjoined to suus ; as, Suo sibi^Ziu2io huncjfug^o. Plant. Sibi 
suo tempdre. Cic. 



^ 229. The object of an active verb is • put in the 
accusative; as, 

Legdtos fttittuntf They send ambassadors. Ces. Animus movet corpus^ 
The mind moves the body. Cic. Da veniam hane, Grant this favor. Ter. 
JSum imitdti sunt, They imitated him. Cic. 

Remark 1. An active verby with the accusative, often takes 
a genitive, dative, or ablative, to express some additional rela- 
tion; as, 

Te eonvinco amentim, I convict you of madness. Cic. Da locum meli- 
orlbus, Give place to your betters. Ter. Solvit se Teucria luctu, Troy 
frees herself from grief. Virg. See those cases respectively. 

Rem. 2. Such is the difference of idiom between the Latin and English 
languages, that many verbs which are considered active in one, are used 
as neuter m the other. Hence, in translating active Latin ve/bs, a prepo- 
sition mast oflen be supplied in English; as, Ut me eaveretj That he 
jdiould beware of me. Cic. On ^e other hand, many verbs, which in 
Latin are neuter, and do not take an accusative, are rendered intoEnglidb 
by active verbs. 

Rem. 3. The verb is sometimes omitted : — 

1. To avoid its repetition ; as, Eventum sen&tusy quern (sc. dare) vide' 
HtuTf dabit. Liv. 

2. DieOf and verbs of similar meaning, are often omitted ; as, Q^id 
mtdta ? quid ? Jfe muUa^ sc. dicam. Qmd (sc. de eo dicam) quod solus 
socidrum in disenmen voedtur 7 Cic. 

Rem. 4. The accusative is oflen omitted : — 

1. When it is a reflexive pronoun; as, J^oxpracipHtatf sc. se. Virgr. 
Turn prora avcrtit. Id. Eo lavatum, sc. me. Hor. The reflexives are 
usually wanting after certain verbs; tLBjoboleOy abstineo, augeo, celiro^ 
conlinuo, decllnOf decdquQ,JlectOf defiecto, inclinoj lavOy laxo, moveo, muto, 
nriBcipUOj remittOf ruo, turbo, verto, deverto, reverto ; and more rarely aftier 
moveOf converto, and many others. 

2. When it is something indefinite, or easily supplied; as, Ego^ ad 


fao9 seribamj nesdo, 8C. Utiras, Cic. De quo et tecum tgi dSigenteTf tt 
acripsiadte, id. Ben^ ftcU SiUus. Id. 

Rem> 5. An infinitiire, or one or more clauses may supply 

the place of the accusative ; as, 

Da mihi fallSre. Hor. Reddes dulee loqui, reddes ridere decSrum. Id. 
Cupio me esse clemeBtem. Cic. Atkemenses statuerurU ut naves consccn- 
d£rent. Id. Verew ae a doctis reprehendar. Id. Sometimes both con- 
structions are united ; as, Di iram miserantur indnem avUf&rumf et tantos 
mortalibus esse labores. Virg. 

. In such constructions, the subject of the clause is sometimes put in the 
accusative as the object of the verb ; as, JSdsii Marcellum^ qiid,m tardus sit, 
for Jfdsti quAm tardus sk Marcellus. Cic. lUum, ut mvat, optant, Ter. 
Rem Jrumentariam, ut satis commddi supportdri poss^, timere dicebant, 

CflBS. ^ 

Rem. 6. The impersonal verbs miseret, poemtei, pudet^ 

tadetf and piget, likewise miser escit, miseritur^ and pertasum 

est, are followed by an accusative of the person exercising the 

feeling ; as, 

Edrum nos misiret. We pity them. Cic. See § 215, (L) VeHtum est 
also occurs with such an accusative ; Quos nan est verUum. Cic. 

Rem. 7. Juvat, delectai, fallit, fugit, and praterit, dso, 
are followed by an accusative of the person ; as, 

Te kU&ri anlmo esse vald^ me juvast. That yo« are in good spirits delights 
me. Cic. Fugit me adte scribire, Cic. Juud aUirum qudfm sit dijutie, 
turn te fugit, nee verb Cssa^TemftfelUt, Id. 

For mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, after rtfert and interest, see § 219, 
Rem. 1. 

For the accusative by attraction, instead of the nominative, see S 206. 

<§> 230. Verbs signifying to name or call, to choose, render 
or constitute, to esteem or reckon, are followed by two accusa- 
tives denoting the same person or thing ; as, 

Urbem ex Anti^chi patris nomUne Antiochiam vocdmt, He called the city 
Antioch, 4&c. Just. Me conaiXlem fecistis. Cic. Sulpicium accusatorem 
suum numerdbat, non competitdrem. Id. Ciim vos testes habeam, Nep. 

For the verbs included in this rule, see § 210, Rsh. 3, (3.) 

Remark 1. After verbs signifying to esteem or reckon, one of the ac- 
cusatives is often the subject, and the other the predicate, of esse express- 
ed or understood ; as, JVe me esdstimdris ad manendum esse propensiorem. 
Cic. 'Eum tivSiTum possHmus existimdre. Id. Mercurium omnzum inven* 
torem artium ferunt ; hunc vidrum atque itinirum ducem arbitrantur, 

Rem. 2. Many otiier verbs, besides their proper accusative, take a 
second, denoting a purpose, time, character, &c.; as, TaZem « e imperatdrem 
prcebuit, He showed hmiself such a commander. Ncp. Qtiare ejus fugtB 
comftem m« odjungBrem. Cic. Hominum opinio socium me ascribit tuis 
laudlb^as. Id. Frasta te eum ^ nUki es coffnltus. Cic. FUiam tuam 
mihi uxdrem poseo. Plaut. FetU hanc Satumia munus. Ovid. Such con- 
structions may often be referred to apposition, or to an ellipsis of esse. 



^281. Verbs of asking, deroandiiig, and teaching, 
and celo (to conceal), are followed by two accosatiyes, one 
of a person, the other of a thing; as, 

liifgo te nummo0, I ask yon for money. Mart. Posee deoa vemam, 
Ask fairor of the goids. Virff. QMim legenit quU nmslcam docuirit £pa- 
minondaiii, When they shaQ read who taught Epaminondas musie. Nep. 
Jintig&nus iter omnes teUu^ Antigonns conceals his route from all. Id. 

Remark 1. ^This rule inclttdes the Terbs of asking and demanding, 
fagitOy efflagitOf obsecro, oro, ezOrOf pereoiUorf posco, rtpoHO, pottiStUf 
prtcor, deprieoTj rogo^ and interrdgo; of teaching, doeeo, edoceo, dedoceo, 
and erudWf which last has two accusatiYes only in the -poets. Cingo 
occurs once with two accusatives ; Arma TribunUiutn cingire digna latus. 

Rkm. 2. Instead of the accusative of a person, rerbs of asking* twd 
demanding often take the ablative with ab or ex; as, Jfon deb^bmn abs te 
hag litiras poseire. Cic. Veniam ar6mus ab ipso. Virg. Jstud voUbam 
ex te percontdrL Flaut. 

Rem. 3. Instead of the accusative of a thing, the ablative with de is 
also used after maxiy of the above verbs ; as, Sic ego te eisdem de rebus 
interr6gem. Cio. Ue itinSre hosHum semStum eddcet. Sail. Bassus tufgter 
me de hoc libro eelami, Cic. Sometimes also a dependent clause. 

RxM. 4. Some verbs of asking, demanding, and teaching, are not fol- 
lowed by two accusatives ; as, ezigo, peto, ^tuero, scitor, seiscitor, which 
take an ablative of the person with a preposition ; imbuo, instituo, instruo^ 
&c., which are sometimes used with the ablative of the thing,, generally 
without a preposition, and are sometimes otherwise construed. 

Rem. 5. Many other active verbs with the accusative of a 

person, sometimes take an accusative of nihil, of the neuter 

pronouns hoc^ id, quid, &c., or of adjectives of quantity ; as, 

Fabitts ea me monuit, Cabins reminded me of those thin^. Cic. JVon 
quo me allquid juvdre posses. Id. Ftiuca pro tempdre miUtes hartdtus. 
Ball. Id aajuta m«. Ter. JCee te id consmo. Cic. Cons^lo and tnoneo 
are also found with a wnm denoting the thing m the accusative ; as, Cim" 
siUam hane rem amicos. Plant. Earn, rem tws locus admonuit. Sail. 

A preposition may often be understood before the above neuter accu- 
satives. See § 235, Rbm. 6. 

By a similar construction, germs is sometimes used in the accusative, 
instead of the genitive ; as, Scis me orationes, out aliquid id genus scri- 
blre. Cic. Jfuuas hoc genus vigUias vigildrunt. Gell. So Omnes mvU^ 
bre secus. Suet. 

^ 232. (1.) Some neuter verbs are followed by an accu- 
sative of kindred signification to their own ; as, 

VUam vivgre, To live a life. Plant. Furirefurdrem. Virg. Istam pug 
nam pugndbo. Plaut. Pugndre vredia. Hor. Latsum insoUntem ludire.. 
Id. Si non servitHtem serviat. Piaut. Queror haudfMAles questus. Stat. 
Jurdtfi verisslmum jusjurandum. Cic. IgnOtas jubet ire vias. Val. Flacc. 
Ut swim gaudium gauderemus. Coel. ad Cic. Proficisci magnum iter. 

(2.) Verbs commonly neuter are sometimes used in an active 
sense, and are therefore followed by an accusative. Neuter verbs 


are also sometimes followed by an accusative, depending on a 
preposition understood. The following are examples of both 
constructions : — 

With olee and sapio^ and their compounds, redolee, resipio; — Olet un- 
ffuenta, He smells of perfumes. Ter. Oraiidnes redolenUs antlquitfttem. 
Uic. Mella herbam earn sapmni^ The honey tastes of that herb. Plin. 
Uoa picem renptens. Id. so Sitio honores. Cic. JV«c vox homlnem 
sonat. Virg. Sudare mella. Id. Morientem nomine cUmuU. Id. Qutjr 
pauperiem erepat ? Hor. Omnes una manet nox. Id. . JngrdH animi 
crimen korreo, Cic. Ego meas queror fortanas. Plant PasUirem. saJUd" 
ret uH Cycidpa, ro^dbat» Hor. So the passive ; J\Cunc agrestem Cyclopa 
movitur. Id. J\ium id lacrpmat virgo ? Does the maid weep on that ac- 
count ? Ter. Quicquid delirant regeSj pUctuntur Achlvi. Hor. JVec tu id 
indigndri posses. Lay, Quod dtiHtas iie fedris. Plin. Nihil lahuro, Cic. 
Corpdon ardibat Alexin. Virg. Stygias JKratAmns undas. Ovid. J^ati" 
gat lequor. Virg. Cttrrimns tsquor. Id. Pascuntur sylvas. Id. MuUa 
alia peccat. Cic. Ezseauias ite frequenter. Ovid. Devenire locos. Virg. 

Accusatives are found in like manner after ambiUo, taUeOj doleOf equltOj 
gattdeOf gemo, lateo, latroj nato, palleo, pereOfdepereOf proUdo, siJbUja^ iremOf 
trevUdo^ vado^ venio, &e. 

In the above and similar examples, the prepositions ob, propter , per, ady 
&c., may often be supplied. This construction of neuter verbs is most 
common with the neuter accusatives idj quidy allquidjquicquidf nihUfidem^ 
illudf tantum, guantuntf tnultaf pauca, alia, cetira, and omnia. 

^ 233. Many verbs are followed by an accusative depend- 
ing upon a preposition with which they are compounded. - 

(1.) Active verbs compounded with trans have two accusatives, one de- 
pending upon the verb, me other upon the preposition ; as, Ornnem Mui- 
tdtum pontem transd€>citf He leads all the cavalry over the bridge. Css. 
Hellespontum capias trajecit, Nep. 

So Pontus scopalos superidcit undam. Virg. So, also, adverto and 
indnco with anlmum; as, Id anlmum advertit. Css. Id quod antmum 
induxirat paulisper non tenuit. Cic. So, also, injicio in Plautus — Ego te 
manum injieiam. 

(2.) Some other active verbs take an accusative in the passive voice 
depending upon their prepositions ; as, Magicas accingier artes. To be 
prepared for magic arts. Virg. Classis drcumvekttur arcem. Liv. Vec- 
tem circumjectus fuisset. Cic. Locum prcetervectus sum. Cic. 

But after most active verbs compounded with prepositions which take 
an accusative, the preposition is repeated ; as, Otsar se ad neminem ad* 
junxit (Cic.) ; or a dative is used ; as, Uie dies me vaJdt Crasso adjunxit. 
Id. See § 224. 

(3.^ ManjT neuter verbs take an accusative when compounded witili pre- 
positions which govern an accusative, but these sometimes become active; 
as, Gentes qua mare Ulud adj&eent, The nations which border upon that 
sea. Nep. Obequitdre Kgmen. Curt. Inceduntmcpstos locoa. Tac. TVan- 
silid flammas. 6vid. Stecedire tecta. Cic. Luddrum diebus, qui cogniti- 
Cnem intervenirant. Tac. ^dlre provinciam. Suet. Caveat ne proelium 
ineat. Cic. Naves pardtas invknit. Cibs. Ingridi iter pedibus. Cic. 
EpicUri horti quos modd prateribdmus. Id. LeOnes subiere jugum. Virg. 
Fama aUabHtur aures. Id. AUdquor te. Id. 



Rbvark 1. Some neuter verbe compounded with pKepontiom 
t&ke nn ablative after them, are at times followed by an aocuaatiTe ; aa^ 
Neminem conveTUf I met with no one. Cic. Qui aocietfttem coiiris. Id. 
^wrs&ri hondres. Ovid. Evaditaue ceUr ripam. Virg. Excedire nuznS- 
rum. Tac. Enre limen. Ter. Tibur pm^fiyumt o^imb. Hor. 

Rbm. 2. The prepoaition is often repeated after the verb, or a di^rent 
one is used ; as. In Galliam inodsitJhUonius. Cie. Ad me adire mutsdatm 
memini. Id. JVe in senstum meeedirem. Cic. Regtma ad templum ti»- 
tegsit, Virg. Juzta genitSrem asiat Lavinia. Id. 

Note. Some rerbal nouns and verbal adjectives in hundus are follow- 
ed by an accusative like the verbs from, which tliey are derived ; as. Quid 
tibi hue receptio adte€st meum virum? Wherefore do yon receive my hus- 
band hither to you ? Plant. Quid HH banc aditio est? Id. VitafutuUu 
eastra. Liv. 

^ 234. I. When the actiye voice takes an accusative both 

of a pi^rson and thing, the passive retains the latter ; as, 

Rogd^tus est sententiam. He was asked his opinion. Liv. IiUerroffdtus 
causam. Tac. SegStes aiimenta^ue deidta dives poscebdiur humus. OvicL 
Motus dociri gaudet Jonicos matUra virgo, Hor. Omnes belli artes edoctus, 
Liv. J^Tosne hoc celdtos tarn diu t Ter. Multa in extis mtmimur, Cic. 

Note. As the object of the active voice becomes the subject of the 
passive, the passive is not followed by an accusative of the object. 

In other respects, the government of the active and passive voices is, ia 
general, the same. 

Remark 1. Induo and extio, though they do not take two accusatives In 
the active voice, are sometimes followed by an accusative of the thing in 
Uie passive ; as, Induitur atras vestes, She puts on sable garments. Ovid. 
Thor&ca ijidi^tus. Virg. Exttta est Roma senectam. Mart. So eiftgo, 
which occurs once in the active voice with two accusactives ; as, IntUUe 
ferrum angitur. Virg. See § 231, Rem. 1. 

Rem. 2. The future passive participle in the neuter gender with est, la 
sometimes, though rarely, followed by an accusative ; as, Multa noms 
rebus quum sit agendum, Lucr. 

II. An adjective, verb, and participle, are sometimes followed 
by an accusative denoting the part to which their signification 
relates ; as, 

Jfudus membra. Bare as to his limbs. Virg. Os humerosmte deo similis. 
Id. Micat aurlbus et tremit artus. Id. Cetera paree puer oello. Id. S^ 
ila colla ttnnerUem. Id. ExpUri mentem nequit. Id. PicU scuta Labid, 
Id. Fraetus membra. Hor. MaxlToam partem lacte vivunt. Css. 

This construction, which is probably of Greek origin, is usually called 
Synecdoche. It is chiefly used by the poets : the accusative seems to de- 
pend on a preposition understood. 

III. Some neuter verbs which ate followed by an accusa- 
tive, are used in the passive voice, the accusative becoming the 
subject, acccMrding to the general rule of active verbs ; as, 

Terlia vtvifur tBtas. Ovid. Bdlum militabitur, Hor. Darmitur hiems. 
Mart. Multa peceantur. Cic. Aditur Gnossius Minos. Sen. Jfe ab ornnl' 
bus dreumsisteritur. Caes. Hostes invddi posse. Sail. Campus obUw 
aqud. Ovid. Plures insuntur gratim. Cic. 



^ 235. (1 .) Twenty-six prepositions are followed by 
the accusative. 

These are ad, cuiversus or adversum, ante^ apud, circa or 
circum, circlter^ cis or extra, contra, erga, extra, %nfra,^nter^ 
intra, juxta, ob, penes, per, pone, post, prater, prope^ propter, 
secundum, supra, trans, ultra; as, 

^d templuiUj To the temple. Virg. Adv&rsus hostes, Against the enemy. 
Liv. Cis RJienum, This side the Rhine. Caes. Intra muros. Cic. Penes 
reges. Just. Propter aqiuB rivum. Virg. Inter agendum. Id. Jlnte dth 
mmndum. Id. 

Remark 1. Cis is ^nerally used with names of places ; ciira also 
with other words; as, Cis Taurum, Cic. CisPadum* Liv. Citra Veliam. 
Cic. Tela hostium citra, Tac. 

Rem. 2. Inter, signifying between, applies to two accusatives jointly, 
and sometimes to a plural accusative alone ; as, Inter me et SeipiOnem. 
Cic. Inter natos et parentes. Id. Inter nos. Id. 

(2.) In and sub, denoting tendency, are followed by the accu- 
sative ; denoting situation, they are followed by the ablative ; as, 

Via dudt in urbem, Tlie way conducts into the city. Virg. Jfoster in 
te amor. Cic. Exerclius sub jugrum missus est, The army was sent under 
the voke. Csbs. Magna mei swS terras t6i£ im&go, Virg. MediA m arbe. 
In tne midst of the city. Ovid. In his fiat Ariovistus. Ces. BeUa sub 
Ili&cis mcenlbus gerire, To wage war under the Trojan walls. Ovid. 
Sub nocte sUenti. Virg. 

The most common significations of in, with the accusative, are, into, 
towards, untU, for, against, — with the ablative, in, upon, among. ' In some 
instances, in and sub, denoting tendency, are foUowed by the ablative, and, 
denoting situation, by the accusative ', as. In coxispectu mso audet venire. 
Vhasd.j7ati6nes qiM m amicitiam popUli Rqmdni, ditionem^us essent. Id. 
tSu6 jugo dictator hostes misit. Liv. Hostes sub montem consedisse. Cees. 

In and sub, in different significations, denoting neither tendency nor 
situation, are followed sometimes by the accusative, and sometimes by 
the ablative ; as, Amor crescit in horas. Ovid. Hostilem in modum. Cic. 
^uod in bono servo did posset. Id. Sub ed conditiOne. Ter. Sub pcenA 
mortis. Suet. • 

In expressions relating to time, sub, denoting at or in, usually takes the 
ablative ; denotitfg near, about, either the accusative or ablative ; as, Sub 
tempdre, At the time. Lucan. Sub lucem (Virg.), Sub luce (Liv.), 
About daybreak. 

(3.) Super is commonly followed by the accusative ; but when 

it signifies either on or concerning, it takes the ablative ; as. 

Super labentem culmlna tedi, Gliding over the top of the house. Virg. 
Super teniro prostemit gramtne corpus, He stretches his body on the ten- 
der grass. Id. MuUa super Pri&mo rogitans super Hect5re muita, .... con- 
cemmg Priam, 6ia. Id. The compound desimer is found with the 
accusative, and insfiper with the accusative and aolative. 

(4.) Subter generally takes the accusative, but sometimes 

the ablative ; as, 

Subter terran, Under the earth. Liv. Subter densd testudlne. Virg. 


(5.) Clam is followed either by the accusative or ablatire ; 


Clam roSf Withont jrour knowledge. Cio. Clam patre. Ter. Clam 
also occurs with a eenitiye — Clam patris (Ter.) ; and even with a datiye 
— Mihi clam est. Plaut. 

Rem. 3. The adyerbs versus and us^^iie are sometimes used with an 
accuaative, which depends on a preposition understood; as, Brundusiom 
versus. Cic. Termlnos usque LabytB. Just. Us^ue Rnn«.m profecti, Cie. 
Versus is always placed after the accusative. 

Rem. 4. Prepositions are often used without a noun depending upon 
them, but such noun may usually be supplied by the mind ; as, Multis 
post anniSf i. e. post id tempus, Cic. Uircum CancordiiB, sc. tedem. 

Rem. 5. The accusative , in many constructions, is supposed to depend 
on a preposiUon understood. The preposition cannot, nowever, always 
be properly expressed, in such instances } nor is it easy, in every case, to 
say what preposition should be supplied. For the accusative without a 
preposition after netiter verbs, see 9 232. For the case of synecdoche, see 
' 234, II. The following examples may here be added : — Homo id atdtis. 
/ic. Quid tibi atdtis videor? Plaut. Profeetus est id tempdris. Cic. 
Illud hirtt. Suet. Devenirt locos. Virg. PropuM" montem. Soil. Proxr 
%m^ Pompeium sedebam. Cic. Ate bis terve summum liUras accipi. Id. 
lAne estis auctdres mihi 7 Ter. Viz equldem ausim qfflrmdre quod quidam 
auctOres sunt. Liv. In most of these, ad may be understood. 


^ 236. Nouns denoting duration of time, or extent of 
space, are put, after other nouns and verbs, in the accusa- 
tiye, and sometimes after verbs in the ablative ; as, 

Fm annos trigintaf 1 have lived thirty years. Deereverunt interea- 
larium tminque et guadragiiUa dies longum. They decreed an intercalary 
month forty-five days long. Cic. Annos natus viginti septem. Twenty- 
seven years old. Id. Dies totos de virtUte dtssgrunt. Id. Duces qui uiuL 
cum Sertorio omnes annos fuirant. Cses. Biduum Laodida Jvi. C^o. 
Te jam annum audientem Cratippum. Id. Duos fossas quindMcxm pedes 
hUas perduxitj He extended two ditches fifteen feet broad. C»s. Cinn 
ahessem ab AmAno iter unius diei. Cic. Tres pateat cedi spatium non 
amplivs ulnas. Virg. A porta stadia centum et viginti processlmuS. Cic. 
Vixit annis viffinii novem, imperdvit triennio. Suet. JEsculapii templum 
quinque millibus passuum aistans. Liv. Ventidius Mdui spatio abest 
ab eo. Cic. 

RemakSc 1. Nouns- denoting time or space, used to limit other nouna, 
are oi\en put in the genitive or ablative. See § 211, Rem. 6. 

Rem. 2. A term of time not yet completed, may be expressed by an 
ordinal number ; as, JVW viceslmum jam diem patimur hebescire adem 
korum auctoritdtis, Cic. Punieo beUo duodecimum annum UaUa ureb^ 
tur. Liv. 

Rem. 3. The accusative or ablative of space is sometimes omitted, 
while a genitive depending on it remains ; as, Castra qua abirant bidui, 
sc. spatium or spatio, Cic. 


RxM. 4. To denote a place by ita distance from another, the ablative is 
oommonly used ; as, MiUlhxia passuum sez a CasHris castris eonaidit, Ces. 

For aJbhinCy with the accusative, see § 253, Rem. 2. For the ablative 
denoting difference of time, or space, see \ 256, Rem. 16. 

Rem. 5. A preposition is sometimes expressed before an accusative of 
time or space, but it ^nerally modifies the meaning ; as. Quern per duem 
annos a/iilma»,....durmg ten years. Cic. Qua inter decern annos facta 
sunt. Id. Sukum in qutUutfr pedes longum cumfeciris. Colum. 


^ 237. After verbs expressing or implying motion, the 
name of the town in which the motion ends is put in the 
accusative without a preposition ; as, 

RegHlus CarthagYnem rediit, Regulus returned to Carthage . Cic. 
Capuam fleetit iter, He turns his course to Capua. Liv. Catpumiua 
Romam prqfieiadUur* Sail. Romam erat mmcidtum. Cic. Measftnam 
Utlras deaU. Id. 

Remark 1. The accusative, in like manner, is used after iter with 
sum, habeo. &c. ', as, Iter est rnihi Lanuvium. Cic. dBsdrem iter habere 
Capuam. td. 

Rem. 2. The preposition to be supplied is irif denoting tTito, which is 
sometimes expressed ; as. In £ph6sum ML Plant. Ad, when expressed 
before the name of a town, denotes not into, but to or near ; as, Otsar ad 
Genevamj^erv^nif. Coes. Citm e^o ad Heracleam accecUfrem. Cic. 

Rem. 3. Instead of the accusative, a dative is sometimes, though rare- 
ly, used ; as, Carthaglni imndos mittam. Hor. 

RemI 4. Domus in both numbers, and rus in the singular, 
are put in the accusative, like names of towns ; as, 

lie domum, Go home. Virg. Galli domos aJbUrant. Liv. Rus iho. Ter. 

When domus is limited by a genitive, or a possessive adjective pronoun, 
it sometimes takes a preposition : with other adjectives, the preposition is 
generally expressed ; as, Jfon introCo in nostram domum. Plant. Veidsoe 
in domum Leccte. Cic. Ad earn domum profecH sunt. Id. In domos 
■upSras scandire eura fuit. Ovid. 

Domus is sometimes used in the accusative after a verbal noun ; as, 
Domum reditidnis spe sublatd. Csbs. So, Redltus Komam. Cic. 

Rem. 5. Before all other names of places in which the motion ends, 
except those of towns, and domus and rus, the preposition is commonly 
used; as. Ex AsiA transis in Europam. Curt. Te in Epirum venisse 
gaudeo. Cic. But it is sometimes omitted ; as, Inde Sardiniam cum 
dasse venit. Cic. Italiam La/oindque venit litdra. Virg. J^avigare 
iEgyptum pergit. Liv. Rapldum venismus Oaxen. Virg. The names of 
nations are used in the same manner ; as, Jfocte ad Nerviosperoen^mn^. 
Cos. JCos iHmus AboB. Virg. So ixisSdBBruhi maris navigant.'PUn. 


^ 238* 1. The adverbs pridie tLndpostridie are often followed 
by the accusative ; as, Pridie sum diem, The day before that day. Cic 
Pridie Idas. Id. Postridie ludos. U. Postridis Calendas. Liv. 

18 • 


The aeeasative, in tncli examples, de|)ends on tmU or post nodentood. 
For the genidye after pridde and postridUf see § 212, Rxm. 4, Nots 6. 

The adverb betU is sometimes followed by the accusative in fbrms of 
drinking health ; as, PrapinOf beni vos, betA nos, ben^ te, bent me, beni 
nostram Stepbanium. Plant. BaU Meastlam* "nbiill. 

2. The interjections en, ecce, O, heu, and pro, are sometimes 
followed by the accusative ; as. 

En quatuor aras! ecce dwu^tiin Dapkni/ Behold four altars ! lo, two 
for thee, Daphnis ! Virg. Eceum ! eecos J eecUlum ! for eeee eum I ecce eos! 
ecce iUum ! r laut. O prttddrum eu9tOdem f Cie. Heu me ii^felteem ! Ter. 
Pro Dedtm konUnumque fidem ! Cic. 

So also ah J eheu, and hem; tLe,Jlhmeme! Catnll. Eheu me misirum! 
Ter. Hem asttUias / Id. 

The accusative is also used in ezclamationa without an interjection } 
as, Misiram me ! Ter. Hominem gravem et civem egregmml Cic. 


^ 239. The subject of the infinitive mood is put in 
the accusative ; as, 

MolesU Pompeium id ferre eonstObat, That Pompey took that ill, was 
evident. Cic. £!o8 hoc nomine appeU&ri fas est. Id. Miror te ad me nihil 
seribirey I wonder that you do not write to me. Cn. Mag. in Cic. Cam- 
pos Jtib^ esse patentes, Virg. 

Remark 1. The subject of the infinitive is omitted when it pre- 
eedes in the genitive or dative case ; as. Est adolescentis majores natu 
vererif sc. eum. Cic. Doctdris inteUigentis est natHrA «ud dute utentem 
sie instituire. Id. Expidii bonas esse vobis, sc. vos, Ter. Armari VoL' 
scOrum edice majuplis. Virg* 

Rem. 2. A substantive pronoun is also sometimes omitted before the 
infinitive, when it is the subject of the precedixig verb ; as, PolUcltus sunt 
suscepturum (esse), sc. me, I promiaea (that 1} would undertake. Ter. 
Sed reddire posse negahat, sc. se. Virg. 

Rem. 3. The subject of the infinitive is often omitted, when it is a 
general indefinite word for person or thing ; as. Est aUvd iracundum esse, 
aliud irdtumj sc. homlnem. Cic. 

The subiect-accusative, like the nominative, is often wanting. See S 209, 
Rem. 3. The subject of the infinitive may be an infinitive or a clause. 
See § 201, IV. 

For the verbs after which the subject-accusative with the infinitive is 
used, see § 272. For the accusative m the predicate aft«r infinitives nea- 
ter and passive, see § 210. 


^ 240. The vocative is used, either with or without 
an interjection, in addressing a person or thing. 

The interjections O, iheu, and pro, also ah, au, ehem, eheu, 
eho, ehodum, ga, hem, heus, hui, to, ohe, and vah, are oilen 
followed by the vocative ; as, 

O formose puer ! O beautiful boy ! Virg. Heu vvrgo / Id. Pro sasuU 


JvjfUer! Cic. JIh virgo inftUxf Yirg, Heu8 Syre! Ter. Ohe UbeUet 

The vocative is ■ometimes omitted, while a genitiye depending upon it 
remains; as, misinB sorUs ! tio, homlius, Lucan. 

Note. The vocative forms no part of a propositioi^ but serves to 
designate the person to whom a proposition is addressed. 


^241* Eleven prepositions are followed by the abla- 

These are a, ab, or ahs ; absque^ coram, cum, de, e or ex, 
palam, pra, pro, sine,tmus ; as. 

Ah iUo temp&ref From that time. Liv. Jt scribendo, From writing. Cie. 
Cum eicercUu, With the army. Sail. Certis de causis. For certain 
reasons. Cic. Ex fugdf From flight. Id. Falam popido. Liv. Sins 
lab&re, Cic. CsplUo tenus, Virg. 

For tn, sub, super , suUer, and danif with the ablative, see § 235, (2,) &c. 

Remark 1. Tenus is alwaj^s placed alter its case. It sometimes takes 
the genitive, chiefly- the genitive plural. See § 221, III. 

Rem. 2. The adverbs procul and simid are sometimes used with an ab- 
lative, which depends on a preposition understood ; as, Procul mari,ac. a; 
Far from the sea. Liv. Simul nobis haHttU, sc. cum, Ovid. 

Rem. 3. Some of the above prepositions, like those which are follow- 
ed by the accusative, are occasionally used without a noun expressed ; as, 
Cum coram sumus, Cic. Cum fratre an sine. Id. 

Rem. 4. The ablative is often used without a preposition, where, in 
English, a preposition must be supplied. This occurs especially in poetry. 
In some such cases, a preposition may properly be introduced in Latin ; 
in others, the idiom of that language does not permit it. 

^ 242* Many verbs compounded with a, ab, ahs, de, e, ex, 
and super, are followed by an ablative depending upon the prep- 
osition ; as, 

Abesse urbe, To be absent from the city. Cic. Ahire sedXbus, To depart 
from their habitations. Tac. Ut se maledicHs non absHneant. Cic. De- 
tmdurU naves seopiSdo, They push the ships from the rock. Virg. Mivi 
egressus est. Nep. jExeedire finibus. Lav. C(Bsar proeiio svpersedlrt 
siatuit. Cass. 

Remark 1. The preposition is often repeated, or a difierent one is 
used ; as, Detrahire de tud famd nunquam copt&vi. Cic. Ex ocvlis aJbir 
€Tunt» Liv. Exlre n. patrid, Cic. Ezire 6.e vUd, Id. 

Rem. 2. These compound verbs are often used without a noun ; but, 
in many cases, it may oe supplied by the mind ; as, EquUes degressi ad 
pedes, sc. equis. Liv. Abire ad Deos, sc. vitd, Cic. 

Rem. 3. Some verbs compounded with ah, de, and ix. instead of the 
ablative, are sometimes foUowed by the dative. See § 224f Rem. 1 and 
2. Some compounds, also, of neuter verbs, occur with the accusative. 
See § 233, Rem. 1. 




^ 243. Opus and usiis, signifying needy are usually 
limited by the ablative ; as, 

AuctoriUte tud nobis onus est, We need your authority. Cic. JVWnc 
anlmifl opus mine pectdrej^rmo. Virff. J^aves, quibus proconMi usus wm 
esset ; Ships, for which the proconsul had no occasion. Cic. Jfunc virlbus 
usuSf nunc manlbus rapudis. Virg. 

Remakk 1. Opus and usus are sometimes followed by the ablative of a 
perfect participle ; as, Ita facto et maturate opus esse. That there was 
need of so doing and of hastening. Liv. Usus &cto est mihi. .Ter. After 
^pus, a noun is sometimes expressed with the participle ; as, Opus fuii 
Hirtio convento (Cic.) ; Opus sibi esse domino qus invento (Li7.) ; — or a 
supine is used ; as, Ita dictu opus est. Ter. 

For the genitive and accusative after opus and usus, see § 211, Rex. 11. 

Rem. 2. Opus and usus, signifying need, are only used with the verb 
sum. Opus is sometimes the subject, and sometimes the predicate, of that 
verb ; usus the subject only. Opus is rarely followed bv an ablative, ex- 
cept when it is the subject of the verb. The thing needed may, in gene- 
ral, be put either in the nominative or the ablative ; as. Dux nobis opus 
est (Cic), or Duce nobis opus est. The former construction is most 
common with neuter adjectives and pronouns, and is always used with 
those which denote quantity, as tantum, quanium, plus, &c. ; as, Qiiod 
non opus est, asse carum est. Cato apud Sen. 

For the ablative of character, quality, &a., limiting a noun, see § 211, 
Rem. 6. 

^ 244. Dignus, indignus^ contentusy pr€BdUus, and /re- 
ttiSy are followed by the ablative ; as, 

Dignus laude. Worthy of praise. Hor. Vox popidi majestate indigna, 
A speech unworthy of the dignity of the people. Caes. Bestia eo eon' 
tentcB non qu/erunt amplius. Cic. Homo scel^re pr<Bdltus. Id. Plerfgus 
ingemofreti. Id. 

Remark 1. The adverb digni, like dignus, takes the ablative after it ; 
as, Peccat uter nostrum cruce digniiis. Hor. 

Rem. 2. Dignus and indi^us are sometimes followed by the genitive ; 
as, Susdlpe cogitati6nem digmssfimam tux virtatis. Cic. Jndigvus avorum. 

Instead of an ablative, they often take an infinitive, or a subjunctiive 
clause, with qui or ut ; as, Erat dignus amari. Virg. Dignus qui impSret. 
Cic. JWm sum dignus^ ut figam palum in parifitem. Plant. 

^ 245. I. Utor, Jhwr, fungor, potior^ vescor, and dig-- 
nor, are followed by the ablative ; as, 

His vocibus usa est, She used these words. Virg. Fnd voluptate, To 
enjoj^ pleasure. Cic. Fungitur officio. He performs his duty. Id. Oppido 
potiti sunt. Liv. Vesdttur auri. Virg. Me dignor honore. Id. HomlneM 
nonore dignantur. Cic. 

So the compounds abntor, and rarely deUtor, perfiruor, deJungOTf and 

Remark 1. Tha above verbs, except dignor , inste&d of an ablatire. 


tometimes take an accusative ; as, Q;uam rem mettlci uhtntur. Varr. In- 
genium /rui. Ter. Datdmes militdre mvLnvLBfungens. Nep. GejUem o/Y- 
qitam urbem nostram potitHram ptUem, Cic. Saeras lauros ves(»r. Tibull. 
Potior iBj also, found with the genitive. (See § 2^, 4.) Dignor is used 
both as active and passive. 

II. LcBtor, gaudeo, glorior, jacto, nitor, sto,^do, confido^ 

mutOj mis ceo, epulor, vivo, assuesco, and consto (to consist of), 

are oflen followed by the ablative without a preposition ; as, 

Lator tud digitate, I rejoice in your di^ty. Cic. Gauds tuo bono. Id. 
Sud victorid gunidri. Csbs. Jactat supphcio levandQ, Cic. /fiti eequitate. 
Id. Censdris opinione standum non put^vit. Id. Fidire cursu. Ovid. 
Corporis firmitate eonfidire. Cic. ifvam nttUat strigili. Hor. Genus 
pttgna quo assuevirafU, Liv. Quidguid auro et argento eonstdret. Suet. 

Remark 1. Gaudeo is sometimes followed by the accusative ; as, Go- 
tisos homines suum dolorem. Cic. See § 232, (2.) Fide, confldo, and 
astfuesco, often take the dative. See § 223, Rem. 2, 

Rem. 2. When a preposition is expressed after the above verbs, hetor 
and gaudeo usually take de ; glorior and jacto, de or in ; nitor, sto, fido 
and confldo, in; assuesco, in or ad;misceo, cum; and consto, ez. 

III. The ablative without a preposition is used afler sum, to 
denote the situation 6r circumstances of the subject of the 
verb; as, 

Tamen magno timdre sum, Tet I am in great fear. Cic. QimrUdfit4rim 
dolore meministi. Id. Maximo hondre Servius JkdUus erat, Liv. Vt 
mdiore simus loco, ne optandum qutdem est. Cic. 

But the preposition in is oflen used before such ablatives, especially if 
an adjective or pronoun is not joined with them ; as, Sum in ezpectatidne 
omnium rerum. Cic. Etsi erdmus in jnagnd spe. Id. 

§ 246. Perfect participles denoting origin are often 
followed by the ablative of the source, wi£out a prepo- 

Such are natuSyprogndtus, sahis, credtus, cretus, edUus, genUus, generd- 
tuSf ortus ; to which may be added oriundus. 

Thus, ^ate dedf O son of a goddess! Virg. TantdUo prognSfus^ De- 
scended ^m Tantalus. Cic. S^tttf JVereltfe, Sprung from a Nereid. Ovid. 
Credtus rege. Id. AUxmHre creti. Virg. Edlte regibus, Hor. Diis gen" 
Ite. Virg. ArgoUco generdtus Alemdne. Ovid. Ortus ntdlis majofUus, 
Hor. Cadesti semine oriundi, Lucr. 

Remark 1. The preposition is also rarely omitted after naseor; as, Ut 
patre certo nascerere. Cic. So, Fortes creantur fortibus. Hor. 

Rem. 2. The prepositions a or ab, de, e or ez, are often expressed after 
these participles, especially in prose. 


^ 247. Nouns denoting the cause, manner, means, 
and instrument, after adjectives and verbs, are put in the 
ablative without a preposition ; as^ 


j9iilfiiic# mgw avaritiAy A mind diseased through avarice. Sail. PalUre 
metu, To be pale through fear. Ovid. Quod afleviti^ tempdria non capi 

SUirat. SaU« Omnllms modis miser sum, I am every way miserable. Ter, 
ilentio oMdUut est, He was heard in silence. Cic. Lento gradu proddit, 
Val. Maz.^ — —^micos observantly, rem parsimoniA. retinuit ; He retained 
his friends by attention, his property by frugaUUr. Cic. Auro ostro^ue 
decOri. Virg. Vi morhi consumptus es. Cic. JEgrescit medendo. Virg. 

TVmbs $amda secQri, A tree cut with the axe. Ovid. Ctesus est virgis, 

He was beaten with rods. Cic. Lanidbant dentibus artus, Virg. 

RxHARK 1. When the cause is a voluntary agent, it^s put in the ac- 
cusative wiUi the preposition ob, propter ^ or per ; as, J^Con est aquum me 
propter vos dedipi, Ter. These prepositions, and a or ab, de, e or ex, and 
priB, are also sometimes used when tne cause is not a voluntary agent ; as, 
Ob adulterium ctesi. Virg. J^ec loqui pre moerdre petuit. Cic. 

Rem. 2. After active verbs, the cause is seldom expressed by the simple 
ablative, but either by a preposition, or by the ablatives eausd, gratid, dSus., 
with a genitive; as. Si hoc honoris met caus& suscepiris* Cic. With 
eausd, &c., the adjective pronoun is commonly used, for the corresponding 
substantive pronoun ; as, Te ahesse me& causa, molestk, fero, Cic. Some- 
times the ablative with ductus, motuSf captus, &c.,is used ; as, MihtheneY- 
olenUA ductus trilnubat omvia. Cic. 

Rem. 3. The manntr is often expressed with cum, especially when an 
adjective is joined with it; as, Quum vidiret oratdres cum severitate 
audiri. Cic. Magno cum metu dicire incipio. Id. Sometimes also with 
s or ez / as, £k industrid, On purpose. Liv. Ex integro. Anew. Quinct. 

Rem. 4. The ineans is often expressed b^ ^er with an accusative ; as. 
Quod per scelus adeptus est. Cic. .When it is a voluntary agent, it can 
only be so expressed, or by the ablative oplrd with a genitive or possessive 
pronoun 3 as, Per precOnem veruUre aliquid. Cic. Op^ri eorum effectum 
est. Just JWm med opSriL ev€mt. Ter. Tet persons are sometimes con- 
sidered as involuntary agents, and as such expressed by the ablative with- 
out a preposition ; as, Servos; quibus siloas pubUcas depopuldtus erat. Cic. 

Rem. 5. The instrument is rarely used with a preposition. The poets, 
however, sometimes prefix to it a or ab, and even sub, and sometimes 
other prepositions; as, TVajectus ab ense. Ovid. Exercere solum, sub 
vomfire. virg. Cum, with tne instrument, is seldom used except by Infe- 
rior writers ; as, Cum voce maa^md conclamare. Gell. 

«5» 248. I- The voluntary agent of a verb in 
the passive voice is put in the ablative with a or ab ; as, 

(In the active voice,) Clodius me dUigit, Clodius loves me (Cic.) ; (in 
the passive,) A Clodio diligor^ I am loved by Clodius. iMuddtur ab his, 
culpatuT ab illis. Hor. 

Remark 1. The general word for persons, after verbs in the passive 
voice, is often understood ; as, Probitas lauddtur, sc. ab hominlbus. Juv. 
So after the passive of neuter verbs ; as, Discurritur, Virg. Toto eertd- 
tum est corpOre regrd. Id. 

The agent is likewise often understood, when it is the same as the sab- 
ject of the verb, and tlie expression is equivalent to the active voice with 
a reflexive pronoun, or to tne middle voice in Greek ; as, CUm omnes in 
omni genire sceUrum volutentur, sc. a se. Cic. 

Rem. 2. Neuter verbs, also, are oflen followed by an abla- 
tiFe of the voluntary agent with a or ab ; as, 


M. Maredlua periU ab Annibftle, M. MaieeUiu was kiUed by Hannibal. 
Plin. JVe vir ab hoste cadat. Ovid. 

RxM. 3. The prepoaition is sometimes omitted ; as, Aee conjQge eaptus. 
O^id. (^tttur Unigird taihk. Id. 

For the dative of the agent after the passive voice, and participles in 
dus, see § 225, II. and III. 

II. The involuntary agent of an active verb in the passive voice, is put 
in the ablative without a preposition, as the cause, means, or instrument ] 
as ^ the active voice). Terror coaficU omnia (Lucan.) ; — (in the passive), 
Maximo doldre cor^ficior. Cic. Frangi cupiditate. Id. 

But the involuntary aeent is sometimes considered as voluntary, and 
takes a or oft ; as, A voluptatlbus desiri. Cic. A natflii datum homlid 
Vivendi eurricfUum, Id. 

§ 249. I. A noun denoting that with which the 
action of a verb is performed, though not the instrument, 
is put in the ablative without a preposition. 

Remark 1. This construction is used with verbs signifying 

to fill, to furnish, to load, to array, to adorn, to enrich, and 

many others of various significations ; as, 

Terrfire impUtur Africa^ Africa is fiUed with terror. SU. Jnstruxere 
epulis menMU, They furnished the tables with food. Ovid. XJt ejus ani* 
mum his opinionibuB imhuas, That you should imbue his mind with these 
sentiments. Cic. leaves onirant auro. They load the ships with gold. 
Virg. Cum&lat altaria donis, He heaps the altars with gifts. Id. Terra 
se gramlne vestit. The earth clothes itself with grass. Id. MoUUms omd" 
bat comua sertis. Id. Jtfe tanto honore honestas. Plaut. Equis Africam 
locupletdvit. Colum. Studium tuum nulld me novd voluptate affecit. Cic. 
Terram nox obruit umbris. Lucr. 

Rem. 2. Several verbs, denoting to fill, instead of the ablative, some- 
times take a genitive. See § 220, 3. 

II. A noun denoting that in accordance with which any 
thing is, or is. done, is oflen put in the ablative without a 
preposition; as, 

Jfostro morCf According to our custom. Cic. Institato suo Casar 
eopias suae eduxit; Cesar, according to his practice, led out his forces. 
CiBs. Id factum consilio meo. Ter. Pacem jecit His conditionTbus. Nep, 

llie prepositions <2s, ez, and pro, are often expressed with such nouns. 

III. The ablative denoting €tccompaniment, is usually joined 

with cutn; as, 

Vagdmur egentes cum conjuglbus et lib^ris ; Needy, we wander with 
our wives and children. Cic. Skepe admirdri soleo cum hoc C. Laelio. 
Cic. JuJxum cum his ad te Uteris misi. Id. Ingresaus tat cum gladio. 
Id. But cum is sometimes omitted, especially before words denoting 
military forces ; as. Ad castra CtBS&ris omiAbus copiis cofUenderunt, Css. 
Inde toto ezercUu profectus, Liv. 

«5» 250. A noun, adjective, or verb, may be followed 
by the ablative^ denoting in what respect their signification 
is taken ; as, 


PuH/BU fithUf ttmsSiit p^eng; In affisetion a ton, in coonael a parent 
Cic. Regts non^ne mam ^ii^m imperio^ Kings in name rather than in 

authority. Ifep. Oppidum nomUu Bibrax. CtBB^ Jure perUus, Skilled 

in law. Cic. Annua anlmOf AnziouB in mind. Tac. Pedlbus (Bg^er, Lame 
in his feet. Sail. CWn« ruber, nifer are. Mart. Fronte l^tus. Tac. 

Major natu. Cic. Maximus natu. Lit. ArAmo angi, To be troubled in 

mind. Cic. Contremueo totd menu et omidbus artwus, I am agitated in 
my whole mind and in eyery limb. Id. Goptv^ fkeiUe, Affected in mind, 
i. e. deprived of reason. Id. AWtro odUo eapUur. Liy. Ingenii laudt 
fanal. Cie. FoUere mobiUidU. Tac. JhumOfue et eorpOre to^ei. Har. 

Remark 1. To this principle may be referred the following 
rules: — 

(1.^ Adjectiyes of plenty or want are sometimes limited by 

the aolatiye ; as, 

DomMS plena eervis, A house full of seryants. Juy. Dtees agris^ Rich 

in land. Hor. Ferax sactUum bonis artibus. Plin. Jnops verbis^ 

Deficient in words. Cic. Orba fratribuSf Destitute of brothers. Ovid. 
Viduum arboribtia solum, Colum. 

(2.) Verbs signifying to abound, and to be destitute, are fol- 
lowed by the ablative ; as, 

Scatentem beUms pontum. The sea abounding in monsters. Hor. Urbs 
redundal mUiabus, The city is full of soldiers. Auct. ad Her. Villa 

abundat porco, hiedo, agnOj gaUlndy laete, caseo, melle. CiCv Virum qui 

vecunid egeat, A man who is in want of money. Id. Carire eulpd^ To 
De free from fault. Id. Mea adolescentia indiget iUorum bond existuna- 
tidne. Id. Abundal audaciA, consilio et rati5ne deJuAtur. Id. 

To this rule belong abundo, exvhiro, redundo. scateo, affiuOy eirewntfluo, 
diffluOf superfiuo; — careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco, dytcior^ destituoTf &c. 

Rem. 2. The g^enitive is eflen used to denote in what ^espect^ after 
adjectiyes and yen>8 ; (see § § 213 and 2iiO ',) sometimes, also, the occur 
sative. See § 234, II. 

Rem. 3. The ablative denoting in respect tOf or eoneemingj is used 
tStet facto and sum, without a preposition ; as, Quid hoe hoTBAne faddlis ? 
What can you do with this man? Cic. J^Tescit quid fadat auro, Plaut. 
Metum eeperunt quidnam aefutHrum esset. Li v. In this construction, the 
preposition de seems to be understood, and is sometimes expressed ; as, 
q?iid de TullidU medjiet, Cic. 

^251. A noun denoting that of which any thing is 
deprived, or from which it is separated, is often put in the 
ablative without a preposition. 

This construction occurs after verbs signifying to deprive, to 

free, to debar, to drive away, to remove, and others of similar 

meaning. Thus, 

JYudantur arbdres foliis. The trees are stripped of leayes. Plin. Hoc me 
libira metu, Free me from this fear. Ter. ' Tune earn phUosophiam 
semUire, qu4B spoUat no5 judicio, £rtva< approbatidne, or^ot senslbus.' Cic. 
Solvit se Teucria luctu. Virg. Te ilHs sedibus arcebit. Cic. Q. Varium 
pelUre possessionibus eondtus est. Id. ^od M. CatOnem tribun&ta tno 
removisses. Id . Me leves chori secerwunt popdlo. Hor. • ' 


To this rule helongfiaudo^ nuda, 6rtOf pntOf spolio ;'^-^reeOj exptdio^ 
inUrclndOy laxo, levo, Ubiro^ moveo, removw, petlo, ptokUfeo, &c. 

Remark 1. Most of the above verbs ar6 more or less frequently fol- 
lowed by a, aif de, e, or ex ; as, Arcem ab incendio liAerdvit. Cic. Solvere 
belluam ex catenis. Auct. ad Iler. Reindve te a suspicione. Cic. 

For arceoy &c., with the dative, see § 234, Rem. 2. 

Rem. 2. The active" verbs induo, exuo^ dono,imperHOf adspergOj inspet' 
go, irUerdftdOf eireumdo, prohiheOj instead of an ablative of the thing with 
an aceasative of the person, aometimes take an accusative of the thing, 
and » dative of the person ; as, Unam (vestem) juvlni induit, He puts one 
upon the youth. Virg. DonAre mmUra civibus, To present gifts to the 
citizens. Cic. 

InterdUQ is sometimes used with a dative of the person and an ablative 
of the thing ; as, Quibus eUm aqu& et igni interdixissent. Cses. 

Abdlco takes sometimes an ablative, and sometimes an accusative of the 
thing renounced; as, .^^^^icdra- <tfe.magistrfttu. Cic. Mdicdre magistr|l- 
tum. Sail. 


«5» 262. The price of a thing is put in the ablative, 
except when expressed by the adjectives tantiy ffuanti, 
flurisy minoris ; as, . 

Ciim U treccntis talentis regi Cotto vendidi$sesj When you had sold 
yourself to kin^ Cottus for mree hundred talents. Cic. VendldU kic 
auro patriamy This one sold his country for gold. Virg. Cibus uno ajsse 
vendUs. Phn. Constttit quadringentis millibus. Varr. Denis in diem 
assibus anlmam et corpus {militum) mstimdri. Tac. Vendo meum nan 
plUris qudm cetirijfortasse etiam minoris. Cic. 

Remark 1. Tantldem, qtutnticunque, quarUiquantif and quantlvisy com- 
pounds of tanti and qmnUiy are also put in the genitive ) as, Tantldem 

jrumerUum emerunt quantidem Cic. Majoris also is thus used in 

rheedrus ; Midtd majoris ed&pm mecum veneunt. 

Rem. 2. When joined with a noun, tanti, qwtnti, &c., are put in the 
ablative ; as, Quam tanto pretio mercdttis est. Cic. Ciim pretio minure 
redimendi captivos copitkji^ret. Li v. Tanto f quantOj and plurej are some- 
times, though rarely, found without a noun ; as, Plure venit. Cic* 

Rem. 3. The ablative of price is often an adjective without a noun ; 
as, magno, permagnOy parvoy patdHlOytantfUoy minXmOyphwrimOy viliy nimio. 
These adjectives refer to some noun understood, as pretioy (ere, and the 
like, which are sometimes expressed ; as, Parvo pretio ea vendidisse. Cic. 

Rem. 4. With valeo an accusative is sometimes used; as. Denarii 
dicti^ qudd denos <Bri8 valebant. Varr. 


<^ 253, A noun denoting the time at or within which 
any thing is said to be, or to be done, is put in the abla- 
tive without a preposition ; as, 

Die qtdiUo decessity He died on the fifth day. Nep. Hoc tempore. At 
this tim«. Cic. Tertid vigili^ erupttOnem feurunt. They made a sallv at 


the third watch. Cos. Ut hiSme ntnUgeSj That yoa fhonld aail m thA 
winter. Cic. His ipsis disbos hosUm persifui. Cic. ProvAfno triennio 
omnes gerttes suh€gtl, Nep. VeL pace vtl bello c/iirum fiiri licet. Sail. 
Ludifl moM senmm guidam tgiraij On the day of the games.... IAy. So 
Latinisj ^UdiatorilmSf comttUs, denote the time of the Latin festiyalfly the 
gladiatorial shows, &c. 

Remark 1. When a precise time is marked by its distance before ch: 
after an ther fixed time, it may be expressed by ante or post with either 
the accudative or the ablative ; as, AUquot ante armos. Suet. Bauds ants 
dUbus, Liv. Pattcos post dies. Cic. Mtdtis anitis post Decemvlros. Id. 

Sometimes quAm and a verb are added to post fuid arUe with either the 
accusative or the ablative ; as, Ante paucos qv^nn periret menses. Snet. 
Faucis post dielnts qukm Lucd diseessirat. Cic. Post is sometimes omitted 
before quAm; as, Die mgesHmd qukm credtus erat, Liv. 

Instead of postquam, ex quo or quum^ or a relative agreeing with the pre- 
ceding ablative, may be used ', as, Octo diebus, quibus has liUras dabanij 
£ight days from the date of these letters. Cic. Mors RoscUy qtuOriduo 
quo is occisus esty Chrysogdno nuntidtur. Id. 

Rem. 2. Precise past time is often denoted by abhinc with the accusa- 
tive or ablative ; as, Qwestor fuisti abhinc annos qtuUuordicim. Cic. Co- 
mitiis jam abhinc triginta di6bus habitis. Id. 

Rem. 3. The time at which any thin^ is done, is sometimes expressed 
by the neuter accusative idy with a genitive ; as, Venit id tenons. Cic. 
So with a preposition ; M id diei, dell. See § 212, Rem. 3. 

Rem*. 4. The time at ot within which any thing is done, is sometimes 
expressed by in or <2e, with the ablative ; as, In his diebus. Flaut. In tali 
tempore. Liv. De tertiA vigili^ ad hostes eontendit. Cms. Surgunt de 
nocte latrOnes, Hor. So with snb ; Sub ipsd die. Plin. 

The time within which any thing occurs, is also sometimes expresfied 
by intra with the jiccusative ; as, Dtmidiam partem nationum snMgit intra 
mginti dies. Plaut. Intra de<Amum diem, qudm Pheras venirat ; Within 
ten days after.... Liy. 

For the ablative denoting duration of time, or extent of space, see § 236. 


<^254. The liame of a town iriP^hich any thing is 
said to be, or to be done, if of the third declension or 
plural number, is put in the ablative without a preposi- 
tion; as, 

Mexander Babylone est jnortuuSj Alexander died at Babylon. Cic. 
Thebis nutritus an Argis, Whether brought up at Thebes or at Argos. 

Remark 1 . The ablative rurCf or more commonly ruHj is used to de- 
note in the country; as. Pater filium ruri habitdre jussit. Cic. 

Rem. 2. The preposition in is sometimes expressed with names oi 
towns ; as. In Philippis quidam nunddvit. Suet. 

Names of towns of the first and second declension, and singular num- 
ber, and also domus and humus, lire in like manner sometimes put in the 
ablaUve. See § 221. 

Rem. 3. Before the names of countries and of all other places in wliich 
\ny thing is said to be done, except those of towns, and domus and ruM 


tbe prepotttion in with the ablatire k cominonly used; as, M(^ hoe JUri 
in Grssci^. Plaut. Lucus in Virg. 

But the preposition is sometimes omitted; as, MUites statuds castris 
habebat. Sail. Magnis in laudlbus fiat totd GriaBciA. Nep. Insidia terrd, 
mariyue fnet(B sunt. Cic. JCatiUa pappe sedens. Oyid. /6am finrte vid 
sacrd. Hot. Urbe totd. Cic. 

For names of countries in the genitive, see § 221, Rem. 1. 

<$»255. After verbs expressing or implf^ng motion, 
the name of a town whence the motion proceeds, is put in 
the ablative, without a preposition ; as, 

Brundisio profecti sumus, We departed from Brundbium. Cic. Corintho 
arcessivit cownos^ He sent for colonists from Corinth. Nep. 

Remark 1. The ablatives domOy humo, and nure or ruri, are 

used, like names of towns, to denote 'the place whence motion 

proceeds; as, 

Domoorof«e£u«, Having set out &om home. Nep. 5^r^ humo/to^nii^ 
The youth rises fi*om th« ground. Ovid. Rure hue advimt, Ter. 5lt run 
veniet. Id. Virgil uses aomus with unde; as, Qut gemtsl unde domol 
With an adjective, rure^ and not ruri^ must he used. 

Rem. 2. With names of towns, and domuSf and kumuSy ah or ex is 
eometimes used } as, M Jllexandrid prqfeetue. Cic. Ex domo. Id. Jib 
humo, Virg. 

Reh. 3. With other names of places whence motion proceeds, ah or 
ex is commonly expressed ; as, £x Asid. transis in EurOpam. Curt. £x 
caatria profidseuntuT. Csds. 

But the preposition is sometimes omitted ; acr, IdUra Macedonia aUdtte^ 
Liv. Claesis Cvpro advinit. Curt. Cessissent loco. Liv. lie sacris, 
properdte sacris, lattrumque ctLpHWeponXte. Ovid. Finlhus omnes protUuire 
suis. Virg. AdvobmrU ingewtes montibus omos. Id. This omission of 
the preposition is most common in the poets. 


^ XOO* When two objects are compared by means of the compar- 
ative degree, a conjunction, as qudm, at^ue, <S^., is sometimes expressed, 
and sometimes omitted. 

The comparative degree is followed by the ablative, 
when qmm is omitted ; as, 

Mhil est virttlte formosiuSf Nothing is more beautiful than virtue. Cie. 
QttM C. Lelio eomufr ? Who is more courteous than C. LsbUus ? Id. 

Remark 1. An object which is compared with the subject 

of a proposition by means of the comparative degree, is usually 

put in the ablative without qudm ; as, 

Sidfire mdchrior ille estj tu levior cortice. Hor. Quid nuigis est durum 
saxo, quid moUius undA ? Ovid. Hoc nemo fiiit minus ineptus. Ter. Jll- 
hdnum, MaUnaSf sive Falemum te magis appositis delectat. Hor. 

Rem. 2. An object compared with a person or thing addressed, is alsa 
put in the ablative without qudm ; as, Ofims Bandusue spUndidior vitro 


Rm. 3. Qjudm m sometimefl med when oae of the objeets eempaxed 

ifl the subject of a propoBition, and then both are in the aame case, either 
nominative or aocuMUve ; 88, Oratio qukm habitus fuit miserabiUor. Cic. 
Agirmo nuUam esse laudem ampliortim qnkta earn. Id. 

Rem. 4. If neither of the objects compared is the subject of a sentence 
or a person addressed, qitd.m is commonly used, and the object which fol- 
lows it is put in the nominative with sum, and sometimes in an oblique 
case to agre^ with the other object ; as, JWm opinor rugatarum 
esse te^ homlrd rum gratiosiliri^Q^km Cn. Calidius est, argentwn reddidisse, 
Cic. Ego hominem eaUidtOrem mdi nemlnem qukm Phormionem. Ter. 

The following example illustrates both the preceding construcUons : — 
XJt tibi multd majdrif qukm Afric&nus fuit, tamen (me) non naUtd minOrem 
qukm LiBlium adjunctum esse patidre, Cic. 

RsM. 5. But when the former object of comparison is in the accusa- 
tive, though not the subject of the verb, the latter, if a relative pronoun, 
is put in w ablative without fuAm ; as, AttSUj quo gravi&rem tnimleum. 
non habui, sorOrem dedit ; He gave his sbter to Attaius, than vohofnty &ua. 

This construction is often found with other pronouns, and sometimes 
with a noun ; as^ Hoc whU groHus facire potes. Cic. Causam enim sus' 
ceniHi antiqui&rem memoriA tud. Id. Exigi monumentum sre perennitts. 
Hor. Maj&ra virlbns audes, Virg. JfuUam sacrd vite priiu seviris arbO- 
Tsm. Hor* 

Reh. 6. JP/t<5, minus, and amplius, are often used withoat 

qudm, and yet are comnKuily followed by the same case as if it 

were expressed ; as, 

Hostmm plus fidnqus millia atsi so die, More than five thousand of the 
enemy were alain that day. Liv. Ferre plus dimididti mensis cibaria. 
Cic. JVon amplius qumgenios cives desideravU. Cabs. Sedictm mm am- 
plius legionlbue d^ensum imperivm est. Liv. Madefaeium iri minus tri- 
ginta diebus Grtecuim sanguine. Cic. The ablatives in the last two exam- 
ples do not depend upon Uie comparatives, but may be referred to § 236. 

Before the dative and vocative, qu&m must be expressed after these 

The ablative is sometimes used with these as with other comparatives ; 
as, Dies triginta out phu eo in nam fid. Ter. Triennio amplius. Cic. 

Rem. 7. Quitm is in like manner sometimes omitted, withont a change 
of case, after majors minor , and some other comparatives ; as, Ohifides ne 
minOres oeKfnULm denUm annorum neu maj(fres qutnCLm quadragenOm,.... of 
not less than eighteen, nor more than forty-nve years of age. Liv. Ex 
urbdno exer&Uu, qui minSres ouiryjue et triginta annis eranly in naves impos- 
Ui sunt. The genitive and aolative, in these and similar exampIeB,are to be 
referred to § 211, Rxm. 6. Longiits ah wrbe mille passuum. Liv. Annos 
natus magis quadragirUa. Cic. 

Reh. 8. When the second member of a comparison is an infinitive or 
clause, quUm is always expressed } as, MhU est in dicendo nuijus qukm ut 
faveat oratori auditor. Cic* 

Rem. 9. Certain nouns, participles, and adjectives, — as opinione, spe 
expectaJtimUjfide^ — dicto, sotltOf — a;quo, credibUijandjustOf — are used in the 
ablative after comparatives; as,'Opinione celerius tenlQrUs esse dieCtur.... 
sooner than is expected. Cass. Dicto citiits tumida aqudra plaeal, Virg 
Jnjurias graviits eequo habere. Sail. 

These ablatives supply the plac& of a clause : thus, graviUs tuput w 


equiyalent to graviits qttitm miod tmuum €st. They ore often omitted ; as, 
Uherius mveSat, sc. <Equo. itep. in such cases, the comparative may be 
translated by the positive degree, with too or rather, as in the above ex 
ample — " He lived too freely," or " rather freely." So tristior, sc. solito, 
rather sad. r 

Rem. 10. With inferioTy the dative is sometimes used, instead of the 
ablative ; as, Vir nuUd arte cuiquam inferior. Sail. The ablative is also 
found, but usually inferior is foUowed by qudm, ^ 

Rem. 11. Qu^m pro is used after comparatives, to express dispropor- 
tion ; as, Prcdium atrocius qu^m pro numiro pugTuinHum, The battle was 
more severe than was to be expected, considering the number of the com- 
batiiflts. Liv. 

Rkm. 12. When two different qualities of the same object are compar- 
ed, both the adjectives which express them are put in the positive degree 
with ma^ ^ute, or in the comparative connected hyquAm; as, PerfeC' 
tarn artem juris civilis haJteHtiSy magis ma^nam atque uberem, qtihrn difii- 
cilem (Uque obscQram. Cic. Triumpkus clarior qwim gratior, A triumph 
more famous than acceptable. Liv. 

Rem. 13. Maoris is sometimes expressed with a comparative ; as, Q,uis 
ma^is queat esse beatior f Virg. 

So also the prepositions pne, ante, prater, and supra, are sometimes used 
with a comparative ; as, ifmts prsQ ceteris fortior exsurgit. Apul. Scdire 
ante alios immanior omnes. Virg. They also occur with a superlative ; 
as, Ante alios cari^^r/iti^. Nep. let these prepositions denote comparison 
with a positive, and therefore seem redundant in such examples. See 
§ 127. 

Rem. 14. Alius may be construed like comparatives, and is sometimes, 
though rarely, followed by the ablative ; as, JVev^ pules aUum sapiente 
bono^tte he&tum, Hor. 

Rem. 15. j^ and atque are sometimes used after the comparative de- 
gree, like guhm ; as, jirctius atque hedSrd proeera adstringitur ilex, Hor. 

Rem. 16. The degree of diflference between objects com- 
pared is expressed by the ablative. 

(1.) Absolute diference is usually denoted by nouns; as, Minor uno 
mense, Youn^r by one month. Hor. Sesquip^de qiiiim tu longior. Plaut. 
Hibemia dimidio minor qudm Britannia. Css. Dimidio minor is constdbit. 
Cic. QiUtm molestum est wio diglto plu^ habere .^ exoeed by a finger, 
to have six fingers. Cic. Supirat caplte et cervicibus altis. Virg. 

(2.) Relative difference is denoted by neuter adjectives of quantity, and 
pronouns, in the singular number. Such are tanto, quanto, quo, eo, hoc, 
muUo, parvo, paulo, ninUo, aliquanto, alUro tanto (twice as much) ; as, 
Quanto sumus superior es, tanto nos submissiiis gerdmus ; The more emi- 
aent we are, the more humbly let us conduct ourselves. Cic. £o gravior 
".St dolor, quo culpa est major. Cic. Quo dtMcUius, hoc pnedanus. Id. 
^ter multo facilius. Caes. Parvo hrevius. rlin. £o wMgis. Cic. Eo 
minus. Id. Via bH&to tanto lojigipr. Nep. Multo id maximum fuit. Liv. 
Relative difference is also expressed by the phrase mtdtis paHibus; as, 
NunUro muUis partlhus esset inferior, Caes. 

Note. The accusatives tantum, quantum, tLiid aliquantum, are some- 
times used instead of the corresponding ablatives ; as, Aliquantura est ad 
rem andiar Ter. So the advert) longe; as, Long^ nobilisAmus. C»s. 

19 • 

229 snrTAX. — ^ablatits absolotx. 


§ 257. A noun and a participle are put in the abla- 
tive, called absolute^ to denote the time, cause^ or concom- 
itant of an action, or the condition on which it depends ; 


Pytkagdras, Tarquinio Superbo regnante, in Itatiam vemt ; Tarquioiua 
Superbus* reigning, Pythagoras came into Italy. Cic. Lupus, stimulante 
fame, captiU ovile ; Hunger inciting, the wolf seeks the fold. Ovid. H<ic 
oratidne habM, coneUium dimisit, Ces. GaUij re co^nitA, obsidUfnem 
relinquunt. Id. Virtate ezceptA, m&tfofinaCtd ji9wstoM/ti<«|mtf<w. Cic. 

Remark 1. This construction is an abridged form of ezpressioni 
equivalent to a dependent clause introduced by eiim, or some other con- 
iunction. Thus, for Tarquinio rtgnarUe, the expression dwn Tarqvinius 
re^aJbat miffht be used ; tor hue oratione habUdf citm hanc oratidnem hor 
buissety or cum htBC oratio haMta esset, — eoncUium dimtsit. The ablative 
absolute may always be resolved into a proposition, by making' the noun 
or pronoun the subject, and the participle the predicate. 

Hem. 2. This construction is common only with present and perfect 
participles. Instances of its use with participles in rus and diLS are com- 
paratively rare ; as, Cses&re ventOro, PhospItOrCf redde diem. Mart. Ir- 
rupturis tarn, infestis nationibus. Liv. Quis est enim^ qui, nuUis officii 
prseceptis iisidendiSf pkilosdpkum se audeat dicgre. Cic. 

Rem. 3. A noun is put in the ablative absolute, only when 
it denotes a different person or thing from any in the leading 

Tet a iew examples occur of a deviation from this principle ; a substan- 
tive pronoun being sometimes put in the ablative absolute, tlH>ugh refer- 
ring to the subject, or some other word in the leading clause ; as, Se 
audiente, scribit Thucydides. Cic. Legio ex castris VarrOniSf adsftante et 
inspectante ipso, signa sustiUit, Cces. Me duce, ad hunt votijinemf me 
milite, veni. Ovid. Lotos fecU, se consale,/a«to5 Lucan. 

Rem. 4. The ablative absolute serves to mark the time of an action, by 
reference to that of another action, if the present participle is used, the 
time of the action expressed by the principal #erb, is the same as that of 
the participle. If the perfect is used, it denotes an action prior to that 
expressed by the principal verb. 

Thus in the preceding examples — Pythagoras, Tarquinio Superbo reg- 
nantej in ItaUam venit ; Fythagoras came into Italy during the reign of 
Tarquinius Superbus. Uallif re cognltd, obsidiOnem rmnquuntj The 
Gauls, having learned the fact, abandon the siege. 

Rem. 5. The construction of the ablative absolute with the perfect 
passive participle, arises frequently from the want of a participle of that 
tense in the active voice. Thus, for " CoBSar, having sent forward the 
cavalry, was following witli all his forces," we find, <* Casar, equit&tu 
pra^misso, suhsequebdtur omnibus copHs^ 

As the perfect participle in Latin may be used for both the perfect active 
and perfect passive participles in English, its meaning can, in many in 
stances, be determined only by the connection, the agent with a or ao nox 
being sxpressed after this participle, as it usually is aiter tlie passive voice 

tfniM:!.— GOimxcnoM of Tcirm. 

TbxUf CtBiar, fau dietis. toneiUum dmuU^ might be rendeied, « Csmf. 
having said this^ or tA» having been said (by some other person), dismissea 
the assembly." 

As the perfect paiticiples of deponent verbs correspond to perfect 
active participtes in Bnflishy no suca necessity exists for the nse of the 
ablative absolute with wem ; as, Ctesar, hec locQtus, concilium dimisit. 

In. the following example, both constructions are united : Udque agro3 

ReTnOrum depopulati, omnibus viciSy adijiciisque incensis. Css. 

Rem. 6. The perfect participles of neuter deponent verbs, and some 
also of active deponents, which admit of both an active and passive sense, 
are used in the ablative absolute ; as, Ortd luce. Css. Vel exiincto vet 
elapso animo, nullum residere sensum. Cic. Tam multis gloriam ejus 
adeptis. Plin. Litiras ad ezercitus, tanquam adepto principatu, nUsit, Tac. 

Rem. 7. As the verb sum has no present participle, two 
nouns, or a noun and an adjective, which might be the subject 
and predicate of a dependent clause, are put in the ablative ab- 
solute without a participle ; as. 

Quid, adolescentalo duce, ^jUire possent ; What they could do, a youth 
(being) their leader. Cees. Me suasore atoue impulsdre, hoe factum. 
Plant. Annibdle vivo. Nep. Inmtd Minervd. Hor. With names of office, 
the ablative absolute oflen denotes the time of an event ; as, Romam venit 
Mario consale. He came to Rome in the consulship of Morius. Cic. 

Rem. 8. A clause sometimes supplies the place of the noun ; as, Mm- 
dum comperto quam in regidnem irenisset rex. Liv. Audito venisse nun- 
cium. Tac. Yale dicto. Ovid. HoMdr cuiqtiam duMo quin hoMium essent. 
Liv. Juxta perieuldsa vera an ficta promfiret. Tac. 

Rem. 9. The noun is, in some instances, wanting ; as, In amnis tranS' 
gressuy muUbfrn certato, Bardesdnes vidt. Tac. Dijieilis mUU ratio, em, 
errato, nulla venia^ reeU facto, exigua laus proponitur. Cic. Serfino per 
totum diem. Liv. 

This use of certdto and errdto corresponds to the impersonal construc- 
tion of the passive voice of neuter verbs, while facto and serino may be 
referred to some general word understood. _ 

Rem. 10. The ablative is sometimes connected to the preceding clause 
by a conjunction ; as, C€esar, quanquam obsidione MassUite retardante, 
brem tam^n omnia subegit. Suet. Decemviri fion ante, quam perlatis legl- 
bus, deposituros imperium esse ai€bant. Liv. 


§ 268. Tenses may be divided, in regard to their con- 
nection, into two classes. Those which belong to the same 
class are called similar ; those which belong to di&rent classes 
are called dissimilar. 

Of the first class are the presenty the perfect definite^ and the futures 
with the periphrastic forms m sim and fiurim. Of the second class are 
the imperfect, the penfeet ind^mU^ and the phipafeet, with the periphrastic 
forms in essem tJiafitissem. 

I. Similar teniM only can, in general, be made to depend on 

224 jonstTAX. — comiECTum of xei^s. 

each other, by means of those connecthres which are followed 

by the subjunctive mood. 

1. In clauses thus connected, the present, perfect, and the 

periphrastic forms with sim B.ndfuerim, may depend on, 

(1.) The Present ; as, JVon sum ita heheSj vt ittwc dicam. Cic. Quan- 
tum iol&rem accepdrim, tu existifndre witen. Id. JVee dubXto guin redUus 
^U8 reipubllea salutdris futarus sit. Id. 

(2.) The Perfect Definite ; as, Satis proylsiim est, ut ne quid agire 
possint. Id. Qius rmuHcis^ quis hvie studio literdrum se dedidit, quin am- 
nem illdrum artium inm comprehendSrit. Id. DtfectiOnes soUs pnedicts 
sunt, qiuBf quanta f quando fiitarss sint. Id. 

(3.) The Futures ; as, SU facUUirU, quanta oratorum sit, semperque 
fu^rit patuAtaSf judic&bit. Id. Ad quos dies reditQriis sim, scribam adte 
Id. Si scieris aspidem laUre uspmmy et velle atlquem super earn assidirt, 
cujus mors tibi emolumentum factara sit, imprdbi fec^ris, nisi monuSris, ne 
assideat. Id. 

2. So the imperfect, pluperfect, and periphrastic forms with 

essem ^ndfuissem, may depend on, 

(1.) The Imperfect; as, Unum tUio^ eztimescSbam, ne quid turpUer 
fac^rem, vel jam efiecissem. Cic. Jfon enim dubitabam, quin eas Ubenter 
lectarus esses. Id. 

(2.) The Perfect Indefinite ; as, Veni in igus vtUam ut Ubros inde 
promSrem. Id. Hcbc eitm essent nuntiata, Valeriis dassem extemplo ad 
ostium fluminis duxit. Liy. J^e Clodius quidem de insidiis cogitavit, 
siquidem exitflrus ad asdem e vUld non fiiisset. Cic. 

(3.) The Pluperfect; as, Pavor cepSrat mUiteSf ne mortiflrum asset 
vulnus. Liy. Ego ex ipso audiSram, qudm a te liberaliter esset tractatus. 
Cic. J^on satis miki constitSrat, cum aliqudne atami mei molestid, an 
potius libenter te Ath&nis yisurus essem. Id. 

Remark 1. When the present is used in narration for the perfect in- 
definite, it may, like the latter, be followed by tlie imperfect; as, Legdtos 
mittunt, ut pacem impetrarent. Cass. 

Rem. 2. The perfect definite is oflen followed by the imperfect, eyen 
when a present action or state is spoken of, if it is not confined to the 
present ; as, Sunt pkiU)s6phi et fuSrunt, qui omnino nulUan habere cense- 
rent humandrum rerum procuratidnem Deos. Cic. 

Rem. 3. The perfect indefinite is not regularly followed by the perfect 
subjunctiye, as the latter is not, in general, used in reference to past action 
indefinite. See § 260, 1. Rem. ]. 

These tenses are, howeyer, sometimes used in connection, in the narra- 
tive of a j)ast eyent, especially in Liyy and Cornelius Nepos ; as, In 
JEquis varik bellatum est, ad^ ut in incerto fuSrit, vicissentj victlne essent, 
Liv. Factum est, ut plus quhm colUga Miltiddes yalu^rit. Nep. 

The imperfect and perfect are eyen found together after the perfect in- 
definite, when one action is represented as permanent or repeated, and 
the other simply as a fact ; as, ^deo nihil miseriti sunt, ut incursidnes fa- 
cgrent et Veios in arUmo habu£rint oppugndre. Liy. 

Rem. 4. As present infinitiyes and present participles depend for their 
time upon the yerbs with which they are connected, they are followed by 
such tenses as those yerbs may require ; as, Apdles pictures quoque com 
peccare dicebat, qui non sentirent, quid esset satis, Cic. Jid te scrips!, ta 
hviter accOsans tn to, qudd de meleUd credidisses. Id. 

fnf«AX.-*-HafBlGtXITK MOOD. tBSS 

RsM. 6. The perfect infitiitiye. fbUowB. the geaenl rule, and takes 
after it a tense of present or past time, according as it is used in a definite 
or indefinite sense ; as, JSrbitrdmuT nos ea pisBstitisse, qum ratio et doctrina 
pnescripsSrit. Cic. Est quod gaudeas te in ista loca venissey ubi dliquid 
sapiro viderere. Id. ■ - 

But it may sometimes take a different tense, according to Rem. 3; as, 
Jta mihi viaeor et esse Deos, et quaUs essent satis ostendisse. Cic. 

11. Dissimilar tenses may be made dependent on each other, 
in order to express actions whose time is different. 

Hence, the present may he followed hy the imperfect or pluperfect^ to 
express a contingency dependent upon some condition not actually exist- 
ing ; as, J^emo dubitare debet, quin muJUos, si fiiri posset, Ctesar ah inflris 
ezcitaret. Cic. So the perfect indefinite may be followed by the present, 
to express the present result of a past event ; as, Tanti sonitus fu^runt, vi 
^o brevior sim, qudd eos usque,istinc exauditos putem. Cic. 


^ 259* The indicative mood is used in independent and 
absolute assertions. It is oflen employed, also, in conditional 
and dependent clauses,^ to denote that which is supposed or ad- 
mitted ; as, Si vales, bene est Cic. It may likewise be used 
in interrogations ; as. Quid agis, ecquid commdde vales ? Plin. 

Remark 1. The several tenses have already been defined, and their 
usual significations have been given in the paradigms. They are, how- 
ever, sometimes otherwise rendered, one tense being used with the mean- 
ing of another, either in the same or in a different mood. Thus, 

(1.) The present is sometimes used for the future ; as, Q^itm mom nav- 
Igo EplUsum 7 How soon do I sail for Ephesus ? Plant. 

(2.) The perfect for the pluperfect ; as, Sed postouam aspexi, ilUco cog" 
nOvL But afler I (had) looked at it, I recognizea it immediately. Ter. 

This is the usual construction after posiqtutm, ubi, ut, nt primumf 
ut semdj qmim primum, simtd oe, and sinud atqu£f in the sense of loAen, 
as soon as, in direct narration. 

(3.) The pluperfect for the perfect ; as, DixSrat, et spissis noctis se eon- 
dldit umhris, Sne (had) said, and hid herself in the thick shades of night. 

(4.) The future for the imperative mood ; as, VaUbis, Farewell. Cic. 

(5.) The future perfect for the future ; as, Alio loco de oratOrum anXmo 
et injuriis vidgro, I shall see (have seen).... Cic. This use seems to result 
fVom viewing a fiiture action as if already completed. 

RsH. 2. When a future action is spoken of either m the future, or in 
the imperative, or the subjunctive used imperatively, and another future 
action is connected with it, the latter is expressed by the future tense, if 
the actions relate to the same time, but by the future perfect, if the one 
must be completed before the other is performed. This verb in English 
is usually put in the present tense ; as, Faeiam si potSro ; I will do it, if I 
can, t. e. if I shall be able. So, Ut sementem fec^ris, ita metes, Cic. 

Rem. 3. In expressions denoting the propriety, practicabiHty or ad 


vantage of an action not performed, the indicatiTa it medy while in 
English the potential , in mch cases, is more common ; as, Possum jMrplf- 
qui mulU^ obUetamenta rerum rugtiedrumf sed &c., 1 fni^kt speak of tiie 
numerous pleasares of husbandry, bat &c, Cic. JEqmus hide Tumum 
fuSrat 36 Qppanire morti. Vug* This construction occurs with debeo^ 
possum, deeetf licet, oportet, neeesse est; aquwm, eonsentanewm, longum, 
melius, opttmum, par, satis, sativs — est, erat, &c. ; ftnd in the periphrastia 
conjugation with participles in dus. 

Rem. 4. The past tenses of the indicative are oflen used for the im- 
perfect or pluperfect subjunctive, in the conclusion of a conditional clause ; 
as, Si ntm alium longt jaetdret odOrem, laurus erat, would have been a 
laurel. Virg. Jfee veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent. Id. Pons 
subUdus iter peene kosCllms dedit, ni unus virfidsset HoraHujf Codes. Lit. 
Si mens nan Itsvajmsset, impulSrat. Virg. Sometimes also in the con« 
dition ; as, Atfuiral mdius, si tepueriste tenfibaL Ovid. See § 261. 



^ 260. The subjunctive mood is used to express an action 
or state simply as conceived by the mind. 

It takes its name from its being commonly used in subjoined or depend- 
ent clauses. In some cases, however, it is found in independent clauses, 
or at least in such as have no obvious dependence. 

I. The subjunctive often implies the existence of an action 
or state, without directly asserting it. When this is the case, 
its tenses are commonly to be translated in the same manner as 
the corresponding tenses of the indicative ; as, 

Chm esaet Casar in CtalUd, When CsBsar toas in Graul, not miffht be. 
Ces.«» Bogas me quid tristis ego Bim....why I am sad. Tac. 

Remark 1. In this sense, its tenses have, in general, the same limita- 
tion in respect to time as those of the indicative, but the imperfect is com 
monly used rather than the perfect, to denote indefinite past action ; as, 
Q^o factum est, ut breoi tanpAre iliustraretur ; By which it happened that, 
in a short time, he became famous. Nep. 

Rem. 2. The subjunctive, in such cases, depends upon the particles 
and other words to which it is subjoined, and its meaning must be care- 
fully distinguished from that which is stated in the followmg rule. 

II.' The subjunctive is used to express what is contingent or 
hypothetical, including possibility, power, liberty, will, duty, 
and desire. In this use, it does not imply the existence of the 
action or state which the verb expresses. 

Remark 1. The tenses of the subjunctive, thus used, have the signifi- 
cations which have been given in the paradi^rins, and are, in general, not 
limited, in regard to time, like the corresponding tenses of the indicative. 

(1.) The present, in this sense, may refer either to present or future 
time ; as, Mediocrihus et quts ignoscas vitiis tensor; 1 am subject to mode- 
rate faults, and such as you mav excuse. Hor. Orat a Casdre ut det sibi 
veniam, He begs of Caesar that ne would give him leave. Csbs. 

(2.) The imperfect may relate either to past, present, or future time, aa 

8firrAX.--Hn7BJ17KCTIT£ MOOD. SS7 

^fitafidtatnt ttf eadSrem, If it had been my fate that I should fall. Virg. 
5!t possmn, sttnior essem ; If I could, I would be wiser. Ovid. CtUro9 
rap£rem et prostemdrem, The rest I would seise and prostate, Ter. 

(3.) The perfect relates eithai' to past or future time ; as, Errflrim for* 
tasse. Perhaps I may have erred. Plin. VidMr sperdre possBy si te viddnmi 
ta facile (me) transttHrum.,.. if I can see you.... Cic. 

(4.^ The pluperfect relates to past time, ezpressiug a contiuj^ney, 
whicn b usually future with respect to some past time mentioned in con- 
nection with it ; as, Id reapondlruiU se faUaros esse, eUm UU vento Aqui^ 
lone venisset Lemnum.,.» when he should have come.... Nep. 

Rem. 2. The imperfect subjunctive, in Latin, is sometimes employed, 
where, in English, the pluperfect would be used ; as, Q^od si qvis atus di- 
cSret, nunquann putarem m^ in aeademid tanquam philosdpbum dispuUUil^ 
rum, If any god had said..;.! never should have supposed.... Cic. 

On the otror hand, the pluperfect in Latin is sometimes used, where the 
imperfect is commonly employed in English ; as, Promisit se scripturum, 
quum primhrn nuTUium accepisset.... as soon as he (should have) received 
the news. 

Rem. 3. The present and perfect subjunctive may be used to denote 
a supposition ; as, Vendat odes vir bonus, Suppose an honest man is sell- 
ing a house. Cic. DLK^rit EpicHrus, Epicurus might have said. Id. 

Rem. 4. The present and perfect subjunctive are used to soften an 
assertion} as, Jfemo istud tibi concedat, or concessSrit; No one would 
grant you that. Volo and its compounds are often so used in the present; 
as, Velim ohvias mihi litlras crebrd mittas, I could wish that you would 
frequently send letters to meet me. Cic. The perfect, used in this sense, 
has often the force of the present *, as, Qms enim hoc tibi concessSrit ? Cic. 

Rem. 5. The present and perfect tenses are also used in questions 
which imply a doubt respecting the probability or propriety of an ac- 
tion ; as, Quis dubltet man in virtute divitia sint ? Who can doubt that 
riches consist in virtue t Cic. Quisquatn numen JunOnis nAoret prcderea 7 
Who will henceforth adore the divmity of Juno ? Virg. Quidni, inquU 
meminSrim? Cic. 

Rem. 6. The present subjunctive is oflen used to express a 
wish, an exhortation^ a request, a command, or a permission ; 

JVe sim salmis, May I perish. Cic. In media arma ruamus, Let us rush... 
Virg. J^e me attingas, sceleste ; Do not touch me.... Ter. Faciat quod 
lubet, Let him do what he pleases. Id. The perfect is often so used, and 
sometimes the pluperfect ; as, Ivse vidSrit, Let him see to it himself. Cic. 
Fuissetf Be it so, or It m^ht nave been so. Virg. VidSrint sapientes. 

JVV is commonly employed as a negative, rather than noUf in this use 
of the subjunctive. 

Rem. 7. In the regular paradigms of the verb, no future subjunctive 
was exhibited either in the active or passive voice. 

(1.) When the expression of futurity is contained in another part of the 
sentence, the future of the subjunctive is supplied by some other tense of 
that mood ; as, Tantiim moneo hoc tempos si amisSns, te esse nullum un 
quam magis idoneum repertUrum ; I only warn you, that, if you should 
lose this opportunitv, you will never find one more convenient. Cic 

(2.) If no other fotare is eoalsiiied in the ■entefioe) the place ef the 

fiiture subjunctive active is supplied by the participle in rus, with sim ax 
fuirimj essem or Juissem; as, Jfon dubUai gmn brevi Tr^ sit peritara|He 
does not doubt that Troy would soon be destioyed. Cic. See Periphrastic 
ConjvgatianSf ^ 162, 14. 

(3.) The future subjunctive passive is supplied, not by the participle in 
duSf but by fiUHrum sit or esset. with vt ; as, J^on dvmto quia futarum 
sit, ut laudetur; 1 do not doubt mat he will be praised. 

Rem. 8. The imperfect, when relating to past or present 
ime', and also the pluperfect, both when thev stand alone, and 
in conditional clauses with 5t, d&c, as also after uttnam and 
O ! si, imply the nonexistence of the action or state denoted by 
the verb ; the present and perfect do not decide in regard to 
its existence ; as, 

NoUem datum esse, 1 could wish it had not been paid. Ter. Nolim 
datum essey I hope it has not been paid. U&nam jam adesset, I wish 
he were now present. Cic. Utlnam ea res ei voluptdti sit, I hope that 
thing is a pleasure to him. Id. 


^ 261* In a sentence containing a condition and a con^ 
elusion, the former is called the protasis, the latter the apodosis. 

1. In conditional clauses with si, ni, nisi, quasi, etsi,tametsi, 

and etiamsi, the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are used 

in the protasis, when the action or state supposed does not or 

did not exist. The same tenses are used in the apodosis, to 

denote that, if the action or state expressed in the protasis did 

exist, or had existed (the contrary of which is implied), another 

action or state would exist or would have existed ; as, 

/iTisi te satis ineit&ium esse confioSrem, scribSrem plura; Did 1 not 
believe that you had been sufficiently incited, I would write more (Cic.) ; 
which implies that he does believe, and therefore toUl not torite. Ea si de 
me uno cogitasset, nunquam illius lacrpmis ae predlbus restitissem. Id. 

2. The present and perfect subjunctive are used in the 
protasis, when the action or state supposed may, or may not 
exist, or have existed ; as. 

Omnia breeia tolerahUia esse debent, etiamsi maxima sint, although 

they may be veiv great. Cic. Etsi id fugfirit Isocrdtes, at non TkucySl- 
des ; Although Isocrates may have avoided that Id. 

Remark 1. The tenses of the indicative may also be used in the 
protasis of a conditional sentence with sij &c. ; as. Si vales, bene est. Cio 
Si qvis antea mirabatur quid esset, ex hoc tempOre miretur potius.... Id. 

Rem. 2. The subjunctive after si, &c., implies a greater degree of coii> 
tingency than the indicative. When the imperfect or phiperfect Is 
required to denote a past action, the indicative must be used, ir its exist 


esee is uncertaiii, as those tenseli in the subjunctive would imply its non* 

Rem. 3. The present and perfect subjunctive are sometimes used, both 
in the protasis and apodosis of a conditional sentence, in the sense of the 
imperfect and pluperfect; as, TVt, si hie sis, aHter sentias; If yon were 
here, you would think otherwise. Ter. Q!uoSf tii mea cura resistat, jam 
fitmrruB tulirinL Virg. 

Rem. 4. The protasis of a conditional sentence is frequently not 
expressed, but implied ; as, Magno mereeniwr Atr%d4t, i. e. si possuU 



^ 262. A clause denoting the purpose, object, or 
result of a preceding proposition, takes the subjunctive 
after ut, ne, qvdy quin^ and quomnus ; as, 

Ea non, ut te instituSrem, seripsi; I did not write that in order to 
instruct you. Oic. Irrtiant ad pugnandum, qu6 fiant acrUhres ; They 
stimulate them to fight, that they may become &rcer. Varr. 

Remark 1. Ut^ denoting a result, often relates to sic^ itd, 
adeo, tarn, talis, tantus,ts,^usmodi J &c., in the preceding clause^ 


Id mihi sic erit gratum^ ut graUtts esse nikUpossit ; That will be so 
agreeable to me, that nothing can be more so. Uic. JVVm sum ita hebes^ 
ut istuc dicam. Id. Neque tarn erdmus amentes, ut explorcUa nobis esset 
victoria. Id. Tantum tndulsit dolOrif ut eum piitas vindret, Nep. Ita 
and tarn are sometimes omitted ', as, Epaminonddis fuit disertus, ut neTOO 
ei par esset. Id. 

Rem. 2. Ut, signifying altkotigk, takes the subjunctive ; 


Vt desint vires ^ tamen est lavdanda voluntas; Though strength be 
wanting, yet the will is to be praised. Ovid. 

Rem. 3. Ut, with the subjunctive, is used with impersonal 

▼erbs signifying it happens, it remains, it follows, d&c. ; as. 

Qui fit, ut nemo contentus yivat ? How does it happen that nc one lives 
contented ? Hor. Huie conttgit, ut patriam ex servtttUe in libertdtem vm- 
dicaret. Nep. SequTtur igitur, ut etiam vitia sint parca, Cic. Reliquum 
est, ut e^dmet mihi consalam. Nep. Restat igitur, ut motus a^rdrum sit 
voluntamis, Cic. Extremum ilhtd est, ut te orem et obsecrem. Id. 

To this principle may be referred the following verbs and phrases :— 
fit, fiiri non potest, accldit, incHdit, occurrit, contingit, evtnit, usu venit, 
rarum est, sequitur,futiirum est, reUquum est, relinqultur, restat, supirest, 
eajmt est, extrtmum est, opus est, est. 

Tor other uses of uf, with the subjimctive, see § 273. 

Rem. 4. Ut is often omitted before the subjunctive, after 
verbs denoting urillingness, unwillingness, or permission; also 
after verbs of asking, advising, reminding, d&c, and the im- 
peratives die andyac ; as, 



880 STHTAX. — wnaxmcfort attek pabticlei. 

Quuivif/acum? What do you wish (that) I should do? Ter. boBmi 
ftriaaU sine litOra fluetus. Virff. TetUes diisimuldre rogat. Orid. Id 
tinas oro% Id. 8b auadsre. £xit, Phdumabdxo id ntgotii djoatt, Nep. 
AcUdal oportet actio varia. Oic. Foe cogites. Id. 

Verbs of williniriiess, &c.y are volo, noloy mdlo, pemUUOy potior, saw, 
Ueety vetOf &c. ; those of asking, Ac., are rogo, orOf moneo, jubeo, moa- 
do, petOf precoff censeo, guadeo, oportet, necesse est, &c. 

Rem. 5. Ne (lest) expresses a purpose negatively ; as, 

Cura ne quid ei desU, Take care that nothing be wanting to him. Cic. 
Ut ne aie frequently used for ne ; as, Opita detur, ntjudicia ne fiant. Id. 

Rem. 6. Ne is often omitted afler cave ; as, 
Cave putes, Take care that you do not suppose. Cic. 

Rem. 7. After metuo, timeo, vereor, and other expressions 
denoting fear, ne must be rendered by that or lest, and ut by 
thcU not ; as, 

MHo metiubat, ne a servis indicar^tur, Milo feared that he should be be- 
trayed by his servants. Cio. Pavor erat, ne castra hostU aggrederetur. 
Liy. IlUi duo vereor, ut HH possim eoncedire, I fear that I cannot granL... 


Rsii. 8. The proposition on which the subjunctive with ut and ne de- 

nnds, is sometimes omitted ; es,Vtita dUam. Cic. JVe singiilos nominem. 

Rem. 9. Quo (that, in order that), especially with a compar- 
ative ; non qud, or non qudd (not that, not as if), followed by 
sed; and quomtnus (that iiiot), afler clauses denoting hindrance, 
take the subjunctive ; as, 

Adjuta me, (m6 id fiat faciliCis ; Aid me, that that may be done more 
easily. Tar. Non qu6 repttbhcA sit miAi quic^uam carius, sed desperdiis 
etiam Hippoerdtes vetat adhibere medianam. Cic. Non qu6d sola oment, 
sed qu6d ezcellant. Id. Jieque recusdvit, qu6 minimis legis pcmam subiret. 

Rem. 10. Quin, afler negative propositions and questions 

implying a negative, takes the subjunctive. Quin is used, 

l.'For a relative with non, afler nemo, nullus, nihil....est, repei^iiwr, 
invenUur,&c. ; vix est, agrh reverituTj &,c. ; ta,Messdnam nemo venit, quin 
vidSrit, i. e. qui non vidirit; No one came to Messana who did not see. 
Cic. JVe^o vJUam, pictUram Jmsse..,.qmn conquisiSrit, i. e. quam non, &c. 
Id. J^ihtl est, quin maU narrando possit depravdri. Ter. 

2, For ut non, afler non duMtOy non est dvJnum, fadre non possum, Jiiri 
non potest; nUial, hand mtdtum, haud procul, or minimum,. Mbest ; nihU 
prcBtermitto, non recUso, temperdre mihi non possum, vix:,, tegrb, &fi. ; as, 

Facire non possum quin ad te mittam, i. e. ut non^ &e Cic. Ego nzhil 
prcUermisi, quin Pompeium a Casdris conjunctidne avocarem. Id. Pror- 
sus nihil ahest quin sim miserrimus. Id. Quis igitur dttbltet quin in vir^ 
tute divitia positsB sint ? Id. Ego vix teneor quin accurram. Id. 

^ 263. 1. The subjunctive is used afler particles of wish- 
ing, as utinam, uti, and O ! si ; as, 

Ucinam miniLS vita cwpidi fuissemus ! O that we had been less attaclied 


to life ! Cic. O si sotttttmncquam virtnHs adesset ! Virg. The tense in 
determined by § 260, II. Rem. 8. 

2. Quamvis, however ; lic^t, although ; tanquam, quasi, ac si, 
ut si, velut si, veliiti, and ceu, as if; modd, dum, and dummodo, 
provided, — take the subjunctive ^ as, « 

Quamvis ilU fdvz sit, However happy he may be. Cic. Veritas lic^t 
nullum defensorem obtineat, Though trutk shoula obtain no defender. Id. 
Me omnibus rebus ^jtizta ac si metis frater esset, sustentdvit; He supported 
me in every thing, just as though he were my brother. Id. Omnia honesta 
negligunt dummddo potentiam consequantur ; They disregard every hon- 
orable principle, provided they can obtain power. Id. Dum mihi ani- 
mum reddas. Hor, 

Qitamvis (although) has commonly the subjunctive } as, Quamvis non 
fuSris suasor, apprtwator cerU Juisti. Cic. Sometimes also the indicative ; 
as, Felicem J^fidben, quamvis totfunira vidit. Ovid. 

Q^anquam (although), in Tacitus, and in other later writers, is sometimes 
used with the subjunctive. 

3. After antequam and priusquam^ the imperfect and pluper- 
fect tenses are usually in the subjunctive ; the present and per- 
fect may be either in the indicative or subjunctive ; but when 
one thing is declared to be necessary or proper to precede an- 
other, the subjunctive is used ; a^, 

Ea causa ante m4frtua est, quam tu natus esses, That cause was dead be- 
fore you were born. Cic. Avertit equos^ priusquam pa/b<ila gustassent 7Vo7<e, 
Xanihumque bibissent. Virg. Priusquam incipias, consmio opus est ; Be- 
fore you begin, there is need of counsel. SaU. 

4. Dum, donee, and quoad, signifying until, are followed by 

the subjunctive, if they refer to the attainment of an object ; as, 

Dum hie veniret, locum rdinqulre noluit ; He was unwilling to leave 
the place until he (Milo) should come. Cic. JfihU puto tibi esse taiUus, 
qud.m openri quoad scire possis, quid tihi agendum sit. Id. 

5. Quum or dm, when it signifies a relation of time, 
takes the indicative; when it denotes a connection oj 
thought, the subjunctive ; as, 

CCkm est all&tum ad nos, grazHter eommOtus sum ; When it was reported 
to us, I was greatly moved. Cic. Cilun tot sustineas et tanta negotia, pec^ 
cem, si morer'tua temp&ra. Casar ; Since you are burdened with so many 
and so important aSairs, 1 should do wrong, if I should occupy your time, 
Caesar. Hor. 

Remark 1. Chm, relating to time, is commonly translated when; 
referring to a train of thought, it signifies since or although. It is some- 
times used as equivalent to quod (because), and then takes the indicative • 
as, Ciim te semper dilezi, necesse est ut sim totus vester, Cic. 

Rem. 2. In narration, ciim is usually joined with the imper« 

feet and pluperfect subjunctive, even when it relates to time ^ 


Chraechus, cbxa. rem iUam in reiigionem popiilo venisse sentiret, ad send' 
tum retidit, Cic. Alexander, ohm interemisset CUtum vix manus aseaJ^ 
stinuit* Id. 


In most iiifltanees of this constniction, the event denoted by the sub- 
junctive seems to relate to that expressed in the clause on which the 
subjunctive depends, not onlv in regard to tmie, but also as, in some 
sense, a caiise. In general, when the attention is directed chiefly to the 
time at which an action occurred, the indicative in any tense may be used; 
when to the action itself, the subjunctive; as. Hoe cum Bcribebam^afntuiR 
ezigtimdbam ad te oratidnem esse perlcUam, Cic. Cilm sciret ClodiuM iter 
ntcessarium MHOni esse Laiucvittm, Romd subito ipse profectus est. Id. 

For the subjonctive after si and its compounds, see § 261. 


^2G4« 1. When the relative qui follows tarn, adeo^ 
tantus, talis, — or is, ilky or hie, m the sense of talis, — and is 
equivalent to ut with a personal or demonstrative pro- 
noun^ it takes the subjunctive ; as, 

Quis est tarn Lynciiu qui tn tantis tenebris nihil ofl^ndat ? i,e.vt in tan- 
Us..,.; Who is so quick-sighted, that he would not stumble in such dark- 
ness. Cic. Talem te esse oportet, qui ab impiorum civium sodetate sejun- 
ffas. Id. M eafuU Ugatio Octaviif in <mk peridUi suspicio rum svhessety 
1. e. vt in ed. Id. JVee tamen ego sum ille ferreus, qui fratris earissimi 
marHre non movear| i. e. ut ego non movear. Id. 

Sometimes the demonstrative word is only implied ; as. 

Res parva dictu, sed qusB studiis in magnum certdmen excess^rit, i. e. 
taUs ut....of such a kind^that it Issued in a violent contest. Cic. So ^vis 
9um, for num talis sum ; as, ^^ sum, eujus aures Usdi nefas sit ? Sen. 

2. When the relative is equivalent to quanquam is, etsi 
is, or dummodo is, it takes the subjunctive ; as, 

LaeOf eonsilu ^uamvis egregii, quod non ipse afierret, inimieus ; Laco, an 
opponent of any measure, however excellent, provided he did not himself 
propose it. Tac. TSi aquam a pumice vostldaSf qui ipsus sitiat. Plant. 
^ihil moUstum quod non desidSres, i. e. aummddo id. Cic. 

3. Quod, in restrictive clauses, takes the subjunctive ; as, . 

Quod sine mtdestid tud fiat. So far as it can be done without troubling 
you. Cic. Sestius non venirat quod far as I know. Id. 

4. The relative, after the comparative followed by gttdtn, 
takes the subjunctive ; as. 

Major sum quitm cui possit fortHna noc€re^ i. e. mthm ut mihif &c. ; I 
am too great for fortune to be able to injure me. Ovid. Audltd voce prtB-' 
ednis mams gaudium, fitit quhm quod universum homines capSrent ; Upon 
the herald's voice being heard, the joy was too great for the people to 
contain. Li v. 

5. A relative clause expressing a purpose or motive, and 
equivalent to ut with a demonstrative, takes the s|}bjunc- 
tive; as, 

hajudamona legOtos Athinas mis€runZ, qui eum absentem accusaient 


The LacedemonianB sent ambassadors to Athens to accuse him in his ab- 
sence. Nep. CkKsar epatatum omnem preemiUUf qui yideant, quas in par- 
tes iterfadant. C»s. 

So with relative adverbs; as, Lampsdcum^ et (JTuTuisUklt) rex dondraif 
unde vinum sumSret, i. e. ex qud or ut indt^ dx. Nep. 

6. A relative clause after an indefinite general expres* 
sion, takes the subjanctive ; as, 

Fuerunt eA tempettOtey qui dicSrent ; There were some at that time who 
said. Sail. Erant, quibus appetentiorfam<B videretur ; There were those to 
whom he appeared too desirous of &me. Tao. Erunt, qui extsHmdri velint. 
Cic. Si ^uts erit, qui perpetuam orattdrum desidSret, alUrA aetidne audiet» 
Id. Venient legionM, qom neque me ntuZtem, nepie te impunltum patian- 
tur. Tac. So aner est, m the sense of " there is reason why ', " as, Est 

Juod gaudeas, Tou have cause to rejoice. Plant. Est quod visam domum. 
d. Si est quod desit, ne beatus qtUdem est, Cic. 

The expressions included in the rule are est, surUf adest, prasto sunt, 
existuTUf exoriuntury invemuntur, reperiuntur, si qms est, tempus fidt, tern- 
pus venietf &c. 

The same construction occurs with relative particles used indefinitely ; 
as, Est unde hoe fiant, There are resources whence this may be done. 
Ter. Est uhi id isto modo YBlent. do. 

The above and similar expressions are followed by the subjunctive oi^y 
when they are indefinite. Hence, afler sunt quidanij sunt nonmdli, sunt 
multiy Ac,, when referring to definite persons, the relative takes the in- 
dicative ; as. Sunt oratt4fnes gwBdam, quas Menocrito dabo. Cic. 

The indicative is sometimes, though rarely, used after sunt qui, even 
when taken indefinitely, especially in the poets ; as, Sunt, quos juvat. Hor. 

7. A relative clause after a general negative, or an in- 
terrogative expression implying a negative, takes the sub- 
junctive; as, 

JVtfTito est, qui havd intelltgat ; There is no one who does not understand. 
Cic. Nulla res est, quss perferre possit amtinuum laborem ; There is nothing 
which can endure perpetual labor. Quinct. JfuUa pars est corpdris, oue 
non sit minor. Id. Nihil est, quod non alu^bi esse cogatur. Id. In Jbro 
viz dedlmus quisque est, qui ivsu^ sese noscat. Plant. Quis est, qui utUia 
fu^at ? Who is there that shuns what is useful ? Cic. jin est quisquam, 
qm hoe igndret ? Is there any one who is ignorant of this ? Id. Numquid 
est mali, quod non dizSriff? Ter. 

General negatives are nemo, nullus, nihU, unus non, alius non, non 
quisquam, viz ullus, nee uUus, &c., with est ; viz with an ordinal and 
quisque ; nego esse quenquam, &c. Interrogative expressions implying a 
negative, are quis, quantus, vter, eequis, numquis, an ouisauam, an allquis, 
quotus quisque, quotus, &c., with est ; quot, quhm muai, dec., with sunt. 
1. The same construction is used after non est, nihil est, quid est, numquid 
est, &c., followed by quod, cur, or quare, and denoting ** there is no reason 
why," " what cause ? " is there any reason ? " as, Quod timeos, non est ; 
There is no reason why jou should fear. Ovid. NthU est, quod adverOum 
nostrum pertimescas. Cic. Qtdd est, quod de ejus Hvitate dubltes ? Id. 
Quid est, cur virtus ipsa per se non efilciat bedtos ? Id. 

So after non habeo, or nihil habeo; as, JVbn habeo, quod te acctlaem. Cic. 
NVal habeo, qu«d scribam. Id. 

NoTx. The relative clause takes the subjunctive after the expresnons 


included in this and the last rale, only when it expresses what is intended 
to be affirmed of the subject of ue antecedent clause ; as, J^emo est, qui 
nesciat ; There is no one who is ignorant, L e. no one is ignorant. Cic. 
So Sunt, qui hoe earparU; There are some who bhune this, i. e. some blame 
this. Veil. 

If the relative clause is to be construed as a part of the logical subject, it 
does not rec^uire the subjunctive ; as, JfihU stabile est, qwSi infidum est; 
Nothing which is faithless is firm. Cic. 

8. A relative clause expressing the reason of what goes 
before,. takes the subjunctive; as, 

Peceavisse ndhi mdeor, qui a te discess^rim ; I think I have erred in 
having left you. Cic. Inertiam aecHsas adoleseeiftium^ qui istam artem 
turn ediscant ; Ton blame the idleness of the young men, because they do 
not learn that art thoroughly. Id. OfortunSte adoUseens, qui tiue virtiUis 
Homirum pracGiiem invenSris ! Id. 

Sometimes, instead of qui alone, ut, quippe, or utpdte — qui, 

is used, generally with the subjunctive ; as, 

Convivia eumpatre non inibat, quippe qui ne in cppHdvm quidem nisi 
rard venisset. Cic. Jfeque Jintonius pro&d abirat, utpOte qui magnc 
ezercUu sequeretur. Sail. 

9. After dignus, indignus, aptus, and idoneus^ a relative 
clause takes the subjunctive ; as, 

Videtur, qui aliquando imp^ret, dignus esse; He seems to be worthy at 
some time to command. Cic. Pampeius idoneus lum est, qui impetret. Id. 
Et rem idoneam, de qui quaerfttur, et homlTies dignos, quihusotm oisseratur, 
putant. Id. 

Note. If the relative clause does not express that of which the person 
or thing denoted by the antecedent is worthy, its construction is not 
influenced by this rule. Thus, Quis servus libertate dienus Juii, cui 
nostra solus cava non esset ^ The subjunctive is here used according to 
No. 7 of this section. 

10. A relative clause, after tint^^ and solus, restricting 
the affirmation to a particular subject, takes the subjunc- 
tive ; as, 

HiBc est una contentio, qus9 adkue permansSrit ; This is the only dispute 
which has remained till this time. Cic. Voluptas est sola, quae nos vocet 
ad se, et alliceat sudpte naturd / Pleasure is the only thiqg that, by its own 
nature, invites and allures us to itself. Id. 

-11. When the relative refers to b, dependent clause, it often 
takes the subjunctive. See ^ 266. 

12. The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are used in 

narration after relative pronouns and adverbs, when a repeated 

action is spoken of; as, 

Semper habiti sunt fortissUmi, qui summam imperii potirentur ; Those 
have always been considered the bravest, who obtained the supreme do- 
minion. Nep. Viqttisque maa^nU laboraret locus, aut ipse occurrebat, otcf 
aUquos mitubat. So after si fuis or qui as, Si qui rem nuUitiosiits geacis 
■et, dedieus existimftbant Gia 



^ 265. Dependent clauses, containing an indirect 
question, take the subjunctive. 

A question is indirect when its substance is stated without the inter- 
rogative form ; as, 

Qualis sit animus, ipse animus neseit; The mind itself knows not what 
the mind is. Cic. Creaiblle non est^ quantum scribam ; It is incredible how 
much I write. Id. Quis ego sim, me rogitas ? Do you ask me who I am ? 
Plaut JVVe quid scribam, habeo; Nor have I any thing to write. Id. 
J^ee me, ubi sint du; Inform me where the gods are. Id. Quimi pridem 
sibi hereitUas venisset, doeet. Id. Jfune aaUpe, quare desipiant omnes. Hor. 
Jd utrjim illi sentiant, an verd simiilent, tu inteltiges. Cic. Q^aro, nuiii tu 
senatui eausam tuam permittas. Id. Vides, ut aU& stet nive candHdum 
Soraete, Hor. Jfescit, vUdne firu&tur, an sit apud manes. Ovid. 

All interrogatives may be thus used in indirect questions ; as^ 

Quantus, quaUs, quot, quotus, quotuplex, uter ;quis, qvi, eujas; ubi^qt^f 
unde, quA, quorsum, quamdiu, quarkdudum, quampndem, quoHes, eur, quare, 
quamobrem, quemadmddum, quomOdo, ut, qudm, quarUoplre, an, ne, num, 
utritm, anne, annon. 

Remark 1. The indicative is sometimes used in such constructions ; 
as, Vide avariiia quid facit. Ter. 

Rbm . 2. In double questions, the first may be introduced hjutriim, num, 
or the enclitic ne; and, in such case, the second is usually mtroduced by 
an ; as, MuUum intirest, utrilim laus imminuatur, an solus deseratur. Cic. 
The first question is sometimes without any interrogative particle, and the 
second is then introduced by an or ne ; as, JVunc nabeam^/iZucmy necne, 
incertum est. Ter. 

Rem. 3. JhiiHto an, haud scio an, neseio an, though implying soma 
doubt, have generally a sense almost affirmative ; as, Dubito, an hunc prif 
mum ornrdum ponam; I am inclined to place him first of all. Nep. 

Rem. 4. J^escio quis, used nearly in the sense ofaHqtUs, does not influ- 
ence the mood of the following verb ; as, Lucus, neseio quo easu, noetumo 
tempd-^e incensus est. Nep. 


^266. 1. When a proposition containing either an 
accusative with the infinitive, or a verb iiv the subjunc- 
tive, has a clause connected with it, as an essential part, 
either by a relative, a relative adverb, or a conjunction, the 
verb of the latter clause is put in the subjunctive ; as, 

^idd enim potest esse tam ptrspieuum, quhm esse aliquod numm, quo 
hoc regantur f For what can be so clear as that there is some divinity by ^ 

whom these things are governed ? Cic. Rlud sic fere definiri solet, deco- 
rum id esse, quoacoTisentaneum sit hominis exeellentuB. Id. Audiam quid 
Mit, qudd EpieHrum non probes ; I shall hear why it is that you do no^ 
approve of Epicunu. Id. JussU ut, qua yenissent, naves Subaam psUrsxt 


A clause. thoB connected to a preceding dependent propontion^is Bome- 
times callea an iTUermedUUe clause. 

To this rule belongs the construction of the aratio oUiqua, or indirect 
discourse, that is, the relating the words or sentiments of another, not in 
the exact form in which they were expressed or conceived, but in that of 
narration. Thus, Ciesar said, << I came, I saw, I conquered," is direct, — 
CsBsar said, that he came, saw, and conquered, is indirect discourse. 

2. In the oratio obUqua, the main proposition is ex- 
pressed by the accusative with the infinitive ; and depend- 
ent clauses connected with it by relatives and particles, 
take the subjunctive. 

Thus, Cicero and Quinctilian, in quoting the language of Marcus Aii- 
tonius, make use, the former of the oratio direetaf the latter of the oratio 
ohliqua ; — Antonius inqvit, *< Ars edrum rerum est, quie sciuntur ; '* Antoni- 
us says, " Art belongs to those things which are known." Cic. AiUonius 
inouitf artem edrum rerum esse, qus sciantur; Antonius says, that art 
belongs to those things which are known. Quinct. 

So, Socrdtes diUre soUbaty omnes, in eo qttod scirent, satis esse doquentes, 
Socrates was accustomed to say, that all are sufficiently eloquent in that 
which they understand. Cic. Cato mirari se aiebatf qudd rum rideret 
aruspex, arnspicem dim vidisset. Id. JVegat Jus esse, qui miles non sit, 
pugnare cum aoste. Id. Indignabantur in esse imperium, ubi non esset 
libertas. Liy. Itdque Athenienses, quod honestum non esset, id ne utile qui 
dem (esse) putavirunt. Cic. 

Remark 1. When the subjunctive would be necessary in the oratio 
directa, to denote liberty, power, &:c., the same remains in the oratio obli- 
qua, and is not changed, into the infinitive with an accusative ; as, M kme 
Mriotfistus respondit, quum vellet, congreder€tur ; To this Ariovistus replied, 
that he might meet mm when he plecused. Cebs. In the oraHo directa, this 
would be eongredidris, Se, Is ita cum C<Bsdare agit, ne aut swb magnoplre 
mrtati tribuSret, met ipsos despic£ret. Id. See § 273, 3. 

Rem. 2. A writer may state his own past words or thoughts in oratio 
obliqua, either preserving the first person, or adopting the third. 

Rem. 3. When the words or sentiments of a third person are stated in 
oratio obliqua, sua and suils are commonly used in references made to him. 
See § 208, (1.) 

Rem. 4. The tenses to be used in chan^fin^ the oratio directa into the 
obliqua, depend on the tense of the verb which introduces the quotation, 
according to the rule, § 258. But when the future perfect would be used 
in the direct, the pluperfect is necessary in the oblique form. 

Rem. 5. When the connected clause contains merely a descriptive 
circumstance, or expresses what is independent of the sentiment of the 
preceding clause, it takes the indicative ; as, Imperdvit Jilexander Lysippoy 
ut edrum emiJUum, qui apud Granlcumcecid8Tani,faciret statuas; Alexan- 
der ordered Lysippus to make statues of those horsemen who had fallen 
at the Granicus. Sometimes, in other cases, when it is evident from the 
sense, that the connected clause is an essential part of the proposition, the 
indicative is used, to avoid giving the appearance of contmgency to the 

3. A clause connected to another by a relative or caCisal 
conjunction, takes the subjunctive, (whatever be the mood 


of the preceding verb,) when it contain^ not the senti- 
ment or allegation of the writer, but that of some other 
person alluded to ; as, 

Socr&tes aeeusOtus est, qa6d corrampSret juoenttUem ; Socrates waa ac- 
cused, because (ai was alleged) |k^ corrupted the youUi. Deum imooeA' 
hanJtj cujus ad soUnnt yehissent ; TThey invoked the god, to whose solem- 
nities they had come. Liy. Here the charge of corrupting the youth v$ 
not made oy the writer^ but by ihe accusers of Socrates. So, in the second 
example, the worshippers allege that they haye come to attend upon the 
Bolemnities of the ffod. The mdicatiye, in such cases, would render tlie 
writer responsible for the truth of the allegation. 

In the preceding cases', it is not directly said that the sentiments are 
those of another man the writer. In Cicero, however, the words dico^ 
putOf arbitror, and the like, are oilen construed in a similar manner ; as, 
Qimm enim, Hanrdbdlis permissUf exissei de castris, redm parUo post, quda 
se oblitum nescio quod dicgret,.....because (as) he said, he liad forgotteii 
something. Cic. 


"^ 267* The imperative mood is used, in the second person, 
to express a command, an exhortation, or an entreaty ; as, 

Nosce te, Know thyself. Cic. JEguam memento servdrfi menlem. Re- 
member to preserve an unruffled mind. Hor. Hue ades, Come hither. 
Virg. Pasce eapeUas, et patum pastas nge, it inter agendum oceursdre 
€apro caveto. Id. 

The plural form in tote is rare } as, FaatdU, Ovid. PetUdU, Id. 

The third person expresses only a command, and is chiefly 
used in enacting laws ; as, 

Virgines vestdles in urbe custollunto ignem fod puhttei senipiternum. 

Remark 1. With the imperative, not is expressed by ne, 

and nor by neve ; as, 

Ne tanta anlnus assuesclte heUa. Virg. Ne crede icoUfri. Id. HotnXiiem 
mortuum in urbe ne sepelito, neve urito. Cic. 

Rem. 2. The present and perfect subjunctive are often used instead of 
" the imperative, to express a command in a milder form, an exhortation, or 
an entreaty. See § 260, II., Rem. 6. Sometimes also the future indica- 
tive. See § 259, Rem. 1, (4.) 

Rem. 3, Sometimes, for the simple imperative, fae with the subjunc- 
tive is used ; as, Fac erudias, Instruct, or Take care to instruct. Cic. So 
noli with the infinitive, and cave with the subjunctive, with or without 
fie * as, Jfoli puidrey Do not suppose. Cic. Cave exisftmes^ Do not think. 


^ 268. The tenses of the infinitive denote respectively an 
action as present, past, or future, in reference to the time of 
the Verbs with which they are connected ; as 


Hoc facftre possaniy I am able to dxy this. Cic. Vidi nottros mimics 
cup^re bellum,L saw that our enemies were desiring war. Id. Jfee gem- 
dre aerid cess&bit turtur ab tdmoj Nor shall the turtle dove cease to coo 

from the lofty elm. Virg. VictOrem vIcUe succubuisse queror, I com 

plain that the victor has yielded to the vanquished. Ovid. Se a senlhus 
audlsse dlcSbant, They said that they had heard (it) from the old men. Cic. 
Audiet civts 9C\uaae jfermm inventus ^ Tl^ youth will hear that the citizens 

have whetted the sword, lior. ^Negat aese verbum esse factQrum, He 

declares that he is not about to speak. Cic. Postmtam audiSrat non datum 
iiifiUo vx&rem suo, After he had heard that a wiie would not be given to 
his son. Ter. Semper ezistimabltis nihil harum vos visQros fore. You wiU 
always suppose that you are to see none of these things. Cic. 

Rkm ARK 1. The present infinitive is sometimes used to denote a com 
pleted action. This is the usual construction with memlni; but the 
expression denotes rather a recollection of the progress than of the com- 
pletion of the action ; as, Hoe me memlni dicfire, I remember my saying 
this. Cic. • Teucrum memlni Sidona venire, I remember Teucer's coming 
to Sidon. Virg. 

So, also, with reeordor; — Recordor longt omnibus unwn anteferre De- 
mosthiiMm, Cic. 

When the action is spoken of simply as a fact, the perfect infinitiYe Li 
lued with memlni ; as, Memitdsti ma tta distribuisse causam, Cic. 

Rkv. 2. On the other hand, the perfect sometimes occurs where, in 
English, the present would be used ; as, Fratres tendentes Pelion imposa- 
isse OZ2f?Rpo,....endeavoring to place.... Hor. Magnum si pect&re possit 
ezcussisse deum, Virg. 

Rem. 3. The present is also sometimes used for the future, especially 
when the verb has no future \ as. Deslnefata dedm fiecti sperdre. Cease 
to hope that the fates of the goos will he changed. Virg. Progeniem 
Trtn&no a sanguine duci audiiral. Id. Cras miki argenium dare d&t/i, e. 
96 aatlkrum esse, Ter. 

RxM . 4. Instead of the future infinitive, in both YoiceBffiUHrum esse or 
forSf followed by ut and the subjunctive, is often used; the present and 
imperfect subjunctive, in such cases, denoting an imfinished, the perfect 
and pluperfect a finished, future action ; as', JXunquam putdvi fere, ut sun- 
plex ad te venfrem ; I never supposed (tiiat it would happen) that I should 
come a suppliant to you. Cic. SuspHcor fore, ut infringatur homlnum 
in^obltas. Id. 

This construction is necessarily used, when the verb has either no future 
active participle, or no supine; as, in such case, the regular future infini- 
tive cannot be formed. 

The perfect participle with /ore is also used to denote a future action in 
the passive voice ; as, Qudd videret nomine pads beUum involatum fore. 

Rev. 5. The periphrastic infinitive formed by the future active parti- 
ciple with fuisse, denotes <4L future action contingent upon a condition 
wnich was not fulfilled ; and, in the apodosis of a conditional sentence, 
corresponds to the pluperfect subjunctive ; as, An censes me ianios tables 
susceptarum fuisse, si iisdem finlbus gloriam meam quibus vitam essem 
terminatHrus 7 Do you think that I should have undertaken so great labors 
if, &c. Cic. Ut perspicuum sit ttmnXbus, nisi tanta acerbUas injurice fidsset^ 
nunquam illos in eum locum progressaros fuisse,.... that they never would 
have come into that place. la. 

Futurum fuisse, also, with ttt and the subjunctivei is used in this 


ms, At5i nvncH e$sent aUdHj existimdbant plenque futaram fuisse, ut oppt- 
dum caper6tur,.....that the town would have been taken. Gees. This form 
is necessary in the passive voice. 

Rem. 6. The perfect infinitive, like the past tenses of the indicative, 
sometimes corresponds to the pluperfect subjunctive in the apodosis of a 
conditional clause ', as, (Dixit) sibi tntamJUioi suA caridrem fuisse, si libirm 
ac midica vivire li&itum fuisset ;- (He said) that the life of his daughter 
faaa been dearer to him than his own, if it nad been permitted.... Liv. 

Tliis use of the perfect infinitive is necessary when the verb has no 
foture participle; as, Si tenuisset Stesickdrus modumf videtur proximus 
temtddrt HomCrum potuisse; He seems to have been able, i. e. it seems 
that he would have been able, to rival Homer, if, &c. Quinct. 

^ 26 9« The infinitive mood, in Iiatin, is often used, not indefinite 
ly, but with a subject of its own in the accusative case. See § 239. 

The infinitive /ia^5tve of a neuter verb, like the third person singular of 
that voice, is sometimes used without a subject ; as, VttUs toto properaci 

litdre. You see that haste is made Virg. See § § 209, Rem. 3, (2), and 

239, Rem. 3. 

The present infinitive has sometimes, in narration, a subject in the 
nominative. See § 209, Rem. 5. 

The infinitive, either with or without a subject-accusa- 
tive, may be the subject of a verb; as, 

Jid rempttbhcam pertiH^ me conservflri. It concerns the state that I 
should be preserved. Cic. Mmqtuim est utile peccare, To do wrong is 
never useful. Id. ^quum est, piccdtis vemam posoentem reddSre rursus. 
Hot. See §201, IV. 

Remark 1. In such constructions, when no subject is ex- 
pressed before the infinitive, an indefinite word for person or 
thing, or a reflexive pronoun, is commonly implied. 

Thus, in the last two examples, as the propositions are true in their 
widest application to moral beings, ^eit^roam maybe understood before 
peccare and reddire. 

Rem. 2. The infinitive is oflen the subject of a proposition when tlie 
substantive verb with an adjective forms the predicate, and also when 
tlie verb in the sentence is impersonal, or is used impersonally, either in 
the active or passive voice; as, Cui verba dare diMcUe est. Ter. Mendd- 
cem memdrem esse oportet. Quinct. J^eqiie est te fallSre ctdquam^ sc. pote. 
Virg. Jfon enim me hoc jam dic6re ptuUbit. Cic. See § 209, Rkm. 3, (5.) 

Rem. 3. The infinitive may itself be the subject of an infinitive ; as, 
Audio nan licere cuiquam in nave capUlos depon^re. Ter. 

^ 270. The infinitive, either with or without a subject- 
accusative, may depend upon a verb ; as. 

Hoc vitare euplmuSf We desire to avoid this. Cic. Poetas omnino nan 
Conor attingSre, I do not attempt to read the poets at all. Id. Sententiam 
valere cupieruTitf They desired that the opinion should prevail. Id. Sper^ 
te valere, I hope that you are well. Id. 

Remark 1. The infinitive alone may also depend upon an 
adjective, and sometimes upon a noun : as 


Difmus ftmtri, Worthy to be loTed. Virg. Jhtdax anmim perpStiy Res- 
olute to endure eyery tiung. Hot. SdUera om&re, Skilful to adurn. Ovid. 
Segnes solvere nodum. Hor. IndodiUg pauperiem pati. Id. Ltnis recla- 
ddre. Id. See § 213, Rkv. 4, (1.) TempuB est hujus Hbri fkc£re finem. 
It !■ time to finjjui thii book. Nep. JniU conaiUa rtgea toUfire, He devised 
a plan to destroy the kings. Id. 

Rem. 2. The infinitive with the accusative sometimes stands uncon- 
nected, ei]>ecially in vehement interrogations or exclamations ; as, Me$u 
ineepUf desistdre victam, rue uosse ItaUaT€Vjardrum avtrUrtrrtsrem 7 That I, 

vanquished, should desist trom my undertaking, nor be able ? Virg. 

Me miHrum! te in tantas tarumnas propter me incidisse ! Cic. 

So, in the oraHo ohllqva. the words signifying said^ saying, &a,^ are 
often omitted ; as. Id faiSiU effui posse, sc. dixU. Nep. Quest signmm 
iaX^mmfugien&kusl Curt. 

Rem. 3. The infinitive is sometimes omitted ; as, Bi mvineiaim A«> 
midiam poptUus jussit, sc. dart. Sail. In the oompouna forms of the 
infinitive, esse and fitisse are commonly omitted ; as, Sed deed re Ugaioa 
fnissUros diactrurUf sc. esst. Nep. 

^ 271* The infinitiye without a subject is only used after 
certain verbs, especially such as denote desire, ability, inten- 
tion, or endeavor ; as, 

Cupioy onto, volo, and its compounds; possum, fueo, neqtteo, vaUo; 
togiXo (to design), dtumo (to determine), jfuro, conjUard, prop&no, aiatuo, 
and constituo (to determine), studeo (to intend) ', eonor, pngna for cetunr, 
tendo, eontendo, tento, &c. ; to whicn may be added audeo, eonsuesco, 
insueseo, eapi^ dtbeo, aeAno, desisto, disco, doeeo, dvMto, habeo for posswm 
or debeo, ineinio, intermitto, nesdo, paro, pareo, pratermitto, reeUso, soleo, 
vereor, and tne passives atuUor, cogor, credor, dicor, exisSimor,feror^ negor, 
nuntior, perhibeor, putor, trador, and videor. 

The poets, also, use the infinitive after jnge and paree fat noli, and 
sometimes after caveo, fugio, gaudeo, korreo, metuo, memini, obUmscor, 
gwtro, reformldo, refugio, tempiro, timeo, and some others. It is also 
used, in a few instances, after verbs of motion, to denote a purpose ; as, 
Jntroiit videre, He came in to see. Ter. JWm te franggre persiquor. Hor. 

Remark 1. Many of tiie verbs* above enumerated, instead of the infin- 
itive, may be followed by the subjunctive with a conjunction ; and with 
some of them, this is the regular construction ; as, Scnttntiam ne dicSret, 
reaisdvit. Cic. 

Rem. 2. The passives in the above list may either be used personally, 
with the infinitive alone, or impersonally, followed by the accusative with 
the infinitive. The former construction is more common, especially with 
videor. Thus we may say, Mater PattsanuB eo tempdre vixisse mcitur, 
or Dicltur eo temp&re matrem Pausanus vixisse ; The mother of Pausanias 

is said to have been living or, It is said Uiat the mother of Pausanias 

was living Nep. 

Rem. 3. The infinitive without a subject is used after a verb, 
only when it denotes an action or state of the subject of thU 

Sometimes, even when the subject remains the same, the infinitive 
takes a pronoun as its subject, especially after eupio, volo, mdto, eonor, and 
studeo ; as, Cupio me esse dementem. Cic. Chnnis homines, qui sese stu- 
deni prssUre ceUris animaUbus. Sail. 



^ 272* The infinitive with the accusative depends on 

verbs and phrases which denote either the exercise of the 

senses or intellectual powers^ or the communication of thought 

to others ; as, 

VidQhaiy id sifurege^FereSrwmnon posse fieri; He saw that that could 
not be done without the toA of the king of the Persians. Nep. Credunt 
se neghgi, They belieye themselves to fe neglected. Ter. Ea te ex Uteris 
eognoseire arfoitror, I suppose that you know those things bj means of 
letters. Cic. Me in ejus potestate dizi fore. Id. Affirmant nulXtum jaeCre 
4iMinws, hiT. Sespe venit ad aures meas^ te istud nimis crehrd dicSre, satis 
te tibi vixisse, Cic. Earn pugnam ad Penisiam pttgnALam (esse)^ quidam 
auctdres sunt. Liv.. 

Remark 1. When ambiguity would arise from the subject and the 
object of the verb being bom in the accusative, the passive infinitive is 
substituted for the active, by which means the subject is put in the abla- 
tive, or thfe accusative with per; as, JiTe fandoquidem auditum est, cro- 
codllum violdtum esse ah ^gyptio ; instead of ^gyptium crocodUum via 
Idsse. Cic. 

Rem. 2. After verbs of the above significations, the conjunction that, in 
English, is hot represented in Latin by a corresponding conjunction, as tU 
or fudd followed by the indicative or subjunctive; but, mstead of that con- 
struction, the subject following that is put in the accusative, and its verb 
in the infinitive. 

Rem. 3. The infinitive with the accusative is sometimes 

translated by a similar form in English^ but usually either by 

the indicative or potential, according to its connection ; as, 

Te tu4 tfiriiUe frui cupimus; We wish you to enjoy, or that you may 
enjoy.... Cic. Miror te ad me nihil scrib€re...tbat you do not write... Id. 
AudUrat mm datum iri^^io uxOrem «uo....that she would not be given.... 

Rem. 4. As the present infinitive denotes unfinished action, and relates 
to the time of the verb on which it depends, it expresses unfinished past 
action, and corresponds to the imperfect indicative, when with an accusa- 
tive it follows a past tense ; as, Diiit Ctesdrem facSre, He said that Caesar 
was doing. Coes. In like manner the perfect infinitive with an accusative 
after a past tense corresponds to the pluperfect indicative ; as. Dixit 
C(Bsdrem fecisse. He said ^at Caesar had done. 

Rem. 5. The present infinitive afler verbs of s^nse^ is oflen 
equivalent to the present participle ; as, 

Surggre indet lunam, He sees the moon (to rise) rising. Virg. Arma 
rutilare vident. Id. VideHs colluc6re faces. Id. . J^ec Zephpros audis 
spirare ? Do you not hear the zephyrs blowing ? Id. Stepe hoe majoreg 
natu dicSre audlvi. Cic. 

In the following example, the infinitive and present participle are used 
in the same construction : — Medium video discedSre caHum palantes^tce 
polo Stellas. Virg. 

<^ 273. When the particle thatf in English, introduces a 
clausp denoting a purpose, object, or result, it is a sign of the 
subjunctive in Latin, and is to be expressed by ut, &,o. (see 
,^ 262) ; but otherwise it is usually the sign of the accusative 
with the infinitive. 


it43 inrTAX.— -nrriNiTirx mood. 

1. The subjunctiye- is commonly used after verbs of endecar" 
oring, aiming, and accomplishing. 

Such are faciOf efieia, perficWf studee ; id, hoe or iUud ago ; opgram d» 
medUor, euro, in animum indaco, eormlium eapio^ nitor, co^endo, mdto (to 
take care), mkU antimdus habeo quAntf &c. ; a», EloqueiUid petfidtj ut 
auxiUo soeiOrum Laeeaamonii privarentur. Nep. 

Fado with ut and the Bubjonctiye is also used as a periphrasis fi>r the 
indicatiTe ; as. /nvi£u9 guidem feci, ut L. Flamimum t serUitu ejieirem, ibr 
intfltus ^iH. Cic. 

FaciOf when used of a writer, in the sense of introduces or rgnrernntB^ 
is Bomettmes joined with a participle ', as, Ltdium et SdpiOnem facimus 
admirantes. Cic. Effido, in the sense of proving^ takes an infinitiye , a*, 
DictBorchus vuU efficdre oMmos esse mortdUs, 1<L 

2. Verbs signifying to request, to demand, to admonish, to 
advise, to commission, to encourage, to command, and- the like, 
when the purpose of the request, &c., is to be expressed, usu- 
ally take afler them the subjunctive with ut or ne ; as, 

Te non hortor s0litm sed edam oro, ut totd mettle in remptMlcofin incum- 
bas. Cic. Monet, ut suspicidnes vitet. Cobs. Voluserw mandat, ut ad sb 
revertatur. Id. 

Jiuntioy McribOf and even dico, are followed by the subiunctiye, when 
they imply an injunction or intention that something should be done ; as, 
H(Be nunc non ut facias, sed ut te faeire et fedsse gaudeas, scribo. Cic. 
MisU qui dieiret, ne diseed£ret. Nep. 

Jubeo commonly takes the accusative with the infinitive, but sometimes 
the subjunctive, especially when used absolutely, or without the person 
being expressed to whom the command is given ; as, Jvhite istos exire 
foras, Ter. Sivejitbebat ut facSrem quid. Hor. 

3. In the oratio ohUgua, the construction of the accusative 
with the infinitive, is exchanged for that of the subjunctive, to 
denote possibility, liberty, or duty ; as, 

Virgimus unum Ap. Claudium legum expertem esse aiehat : respicSrenf 
tribfLwU homines casteUum omnium scelirum. Liv. 

On the contrarv, when the subjunctive has been used, after a verb of 
asking, commanmng, &c., the construction oflen passes into that of the 
accusative with the infinitive; as, OtoJkU ne se tU parricldam libirunt 
aversarentui : sibi vitam j£Zue sud carisrem fuisse si .... Liv. See § 266, 2, 
Rem. 1« 

4. Verbs which denote willingness, unwillingness, permission, 
and necessity, commonty take the accusative and infinitive, but 
sometimes the subjunctive. 

Such are volOf nolo, malo, opto, pemUtto, potior, sino. licet, oportet, and 
necesse est; as, Optavit ut in currumpatris tolleretur. Cic. QuisJintonio 
permlsit, tU partes facSret? Id. 

An infinitive passive without a subject, is sometimes used with oportei ; 
as, Mm oportttit relictas, sc. esse ancUlas. Ter. Ut ut trot, mansum totiteit 
oportuit, sc. esse. Id. JVbn putdbajit de tali viro suspicuMtbus oportira 
judicari. Nep. 

Some other verbs which regularly take the accusative with th* infimtiT* 
afler them, are occasionally followed by the subjunctive. 


6. After verbs denoting joy or griefs surprise or wonder ^ either 
the accusative with the infinitive, or qudd with the indicative or 
subjunctive, may follow. 

Such are gaudeoy ddector, gratum est mihif dohoy angor, indignor^ miror; 
as, Angor animo rum armis egere rempublicam. Cic. Gaudeo Wd jueumr 
das meas esse litSras. Id. Gaudeo quod te interpeliflvi. Id. 

After doleo', gaudeo, and other neuter verbs, the clause containing the 
accusative with the infinitive is not the object of the verb, but of some 
preposition understood, bb propter, &c. See § 232, (2.) 

6. The particle that, in English, is represented in Latin by qudd, when a 
demonstrative pronoun, as hoc, Ulud, istud, &c., precedes, or is to be sup- 
plied. In such case, mtdd is followed by the indicative ; as, Illud quoque 
nobis aceedit incommddum, quod M. Junius hoe tempdre abest. Cic. 

(luod, in the beginning of a sentence, in the sense of as to, especially in 
the epistolary style, is followed by an indicative. See § 206, (14.) Qudd 
(that) is generally explanatory, or denotes a cause ; ut (that), a purpose 
or result. 

Note. The construction of the infinitive resembles that of 
a noun in the singular number and neuter gender. 

Thus, like a noun, it may have an adjectiye or pronoun agreeing with 
it ; as, Totum hoc philosophari dispVlcet, Cic. See § 205, Rem. 8. 

It may be followed by a limiting genitiye \ as, Cujus non dimicftie fuU 
vineire. Val. Max. 

It may be either the subject or object of a verb. See § § 209, Rxh. 3, 
(5,) and 229, Rem. 5. It may also be used after neuter verbs, like an ac- 
cusative, depending on a preposition understood; as, T» accepisse meas 
Utiras gaudeo. Ter. See § § 232, (2,) ahd 273, 5. 

It is also used like a predicate-nominative ; as, Videre est perspicSxe 
aliquid, Cic. See § 210. 

It may, like a genitive, limit the signification of an adjective or noun. 
See § 270, Rem. 1. 

It may, like an accusative, depend on a preposition ; as. Prater plordre, 
Hor. See § 235. 

It is used also like an ablative : as, Audita regtm tn SiaJliam tendfiie. 
Sail. * , 

It sometimes, also, denotes a purpose, like a participle in du#; as, Lorf- 
cara donat habere viro, Virg. 


^ 274. 1. Participles are followed by the same cases 
as their verbs ; as, 

Q^idam, poSta nomifidtus; A certain one, called a poet. Cic. CatulO- 
rum oblita leana. The lioness forgetful of her whelps. Virg. ^ Faventes 
rebus Carthaginiensium, Favoring Uie interests of the Carthaginians. Liy. 
Tendens ad sidira palmas. Virg. Accusdtus rei eapitalis. Cic. Omina 
doctus. Stat. Casus abies visHra marlnos. Id. CaritUri curbdre montes, 
Ovid. Parcendum est tenSris. Juv. Utendum est state. Ovid. 

2. The present, perfect, and future active participles, denote 
respectively an action which is present, past, or future, in refer* 


ence to the time of the verb with which they are connGcted ; 

Simul hoe dicens attoUU se. Virg, Turn ad Thraseam in kortis agentem 
missus est. Tac. Tumum fuffientem haee terra wUbit. Id. Otu missus ok 
Jirgis lUUd cansedirat urbe. id. Lamia munSrB tuiiUtatis permnctus, petit 
prastaram, Cic. Jussas eumfide panas luam. Hor. Juvinis medios moii- 
tarus in hostes irrmt. Virg. Pentfiros inj£cU sese in agmen. Id. JUa ttii 
Tentara bMa eocpediet. Id. 

Rkmarx 1. The present participle sometimes denotes that which is 
about to be done ; as, Interelnsit kiansj et terruit Auster enntes, .... as they 
were on the point of going. Virg. 

Rem. 2. The present participle, also, sometimes denotes a purpose; as, 
Cunetis nam lecti narHbtis ibanty orantes veniam^ et templum damifre peti 
hantf .... to sue for favor.... Id. 

Rem. 3. The perfect participle passive often denotes the result of a 
past action, and thus supplies the place of a present participle passive ; as, 
Kotus eodlat piced tectus caligine .... covered with pitchy darkness. Ovid. 

Rem. 4. Habeo, with perfect participles denoting knowledge and deter- 
mination, forms a periphrasis, instead of the verb of the participle ; as, 
Clodii atUmmn perspectum Ao^eo, cognltum, judicatum ; for perspexi. Do, 
reddOf eusro, and fado^ are sometimes so construed with participles ; as, 
Missam iramfaetet, fbr mittet. Ter. 

Rem. 5. The perfect passive participle is sometimes used to supply the 
place of a verbal noun in io or us; as, Ante Bomam condltam, Before the 
building of Rome. Oie. Post genus homiTtum natum. Id. Post sacra 
eonstitnta. Id. 

Reu. 6., The future active participle oflen denotes inten- 
tion or purpose ; as, 

M Jovem HdmmOnem ver^ consultartis de origlne suA; He goes to 
Jupiter Ammon, to consult him about hi^ origin. Just. 

Rem. 7. The participle in dus^ also, denotes a purpose, when 

joined with verbs signifying to give^ to deliver , to agree for, to 

have, to receive, to trndertake, &c. 

Such are do. trado, tribuoy attribuoy mando, mittOj eondUcOy loco, habeo, 
uecipiOf suseimoy reHnquo, curOy deposco, rogo ; as, Testam^nium tihi tradil 
legendum^ He delivers his will to you to read. flor. AUriJbuit nos truci- 
dandoB Cethego. Cic. Q^d utencfum accepSriSy rtddlUo. Id. 

Rem. 8. The participle in dus, when agreeing with the sub- 
ject of a sentence, has the signification of necessity or propri- 
ety ; sometimes, though rarely, except in later writers, that of 
possibility ; as. 

Is venerandus a nobis et colendns esty He should be worshipped and 
honored by us. Cic. Delenda est CarthdgOy Carthage must be aestroyed. 
Cato. Ucu speranda fuirunt. Virg. So with est used impersonally ; as, 
Utriim pace nobis an bello esset utendum. Cic. 

Sometimes, also, when not agreeing with the subject of a sentence, it 
has this signification ; as. Facta narrcUfos dissimuianda tibiy Tou wero 
relating facts which you should have concealed. Ovid. A. L. Bruto 
^pe hujys maaXnU conservandi geniris et Ttominis. Cio. 


RcM. 9. The participle in dus,m its oblique cases, supplies tiie plac« 
of a present participle of the passive voice, to denote a continued or in 
complete action. See § 275, 11. 

For the dative of the agent after participles in dtUf see § 225, III. 

3. Participles are often employed instead of conditional, ex- 
planatory, adversative, and other dependent clauses ; as. 

Curio f ad focum sedenti (as he was sitting) magnum auri pondvs Sam' 
nUes aUuUrurU. Cic. Tridui mam progressi, ruraus revertiruntj for, ciim 
proffressi esaent. Cffis. Plura locutQros abire nosjussitf .... when we were 
going to say more. 

If the participle refers to a noun not contained in the leading proposi- 
tion, it is put with that noun in the ablative absolute. See § 257. 

Note. In many cases, for want of a perfect participle active, and a 
present participle passive, this construction cannot be used. Thus, quum 
amaoisset cannot be exchanged for a participle corresponding with the 
£nglish having loved. As the perfect participles of deponent verbs, how- 
ever, have an active signification, they admit of the participial construc- 
tion. The want of a perfect active participle may also be supplied by the 
perfect passive participle in the ablative absolute. See § 257, Rem. 6. 


^ 275. I. Gerunds are followed by the same cases as 
their verbs ; as, 

Metus parendi sibi, Fear of obeying him. Sail. Pareendo victis. By 
sparing the vanquished. Liv. Effiror studio patres vestros videndi^ 1 am 
transported with a desire of seeing your &,thers. Cic. Petendi consuJ&timi 
gratid. Sail. Venit dd recipiemSim pecuniaa. Varr. 

Remark 1. The gerund is the same in form as the oblique cases of the 
neuter singular of participles in dus, but it has the meaning of vhe active 
voice. It IS sometimes translated by the present participle with a ;>repo- 
sition, and sometimes by an infinitive active ; as. Consilium Laceditmdnem 
occupandi} A design of'^occupying, or to occupy, Lacedaemon. Liv. 

Rem. 2. The gerund is sometimes, though rarely, used in a passive 
sense ; as, Spes restituendi nulla eraty .... of bemg restored. Nep. Athinas 
erudiendi gratid missuSj,,., for the purpose of being instructed. Just 
jiiUe domandum, Virg. 

Rem. 3. As the infinitive is used as the subject or object of a verb, so 
the gerund siippHes the genitive, dative, ablative, and, after a preposi- 
tion, the accusative, of a verbal noun of similar meaning. 

II. Instead of the gerund of an active verb with its ob- 
ject in the accusative, the participle in dus is often used, 
the object taking the case in which the gerund would have 
been, and the participle agreeing with it ; as, 

Cansilia urbis delends (Cic), for urbem ddendiy Plans for destroying 
the city. Reparandflrum classium eausd (Suet), for reparandi classes. 
Perpedendo labSri idonsus, Colum. M defendendam Romam ab oppug 
nandi Capu& duces JRom&nos abstrahirs. Liv. 

21 • 


Remark 1. The same construction is used with the fntiire passiye 
participles of vtor^fimoryfungor, and potior, as these verbs were originally 
followed by the accusative ; as, JEtas ad htBC utenda idonea. Ter. Jut- 
HtUt fruendse eausd. Cic. In omni munire fungendo. Id. 

Rem. 2. When a participle is thus used for a gerand, it is called a 

ferundivcj and is usually translated like a gerund. The ^rundive cannot 
e substituted for the gerund, where ambiguity would arise from the gen- 
der not being distinguishable. It should not oe used when the object of 
the serund is a neuter pronoun or adjective ; as, AlXquid fadendi ratio 
(Cici^, not aUcHjus. JShrtem et vera et falsa dijudicandi (Id.), not verOmm 

III. Examples of the constraetion of gemndt, in each of their cases, 
have been already given, amongother nouns^ under the heads Gemitivef Da- 
ttve, Accusative, and Ablative, The following remarks specify in what con* 
nections they are used : — 

Remark 1. The genitive of gerunds and gerundives may 

follow either n'ouns or adjectives ; as, 

Amor kabendi. Cic. Patriam spes videndi, Virg. Jiam hahet natUra, 
ut alidrum omrdum rerumy 5tc vivendi modum. Cic. Barbara consuetudo 

hominum immolandOrum. Id.- Venandi studddsi. Cic. Cartus eundi. 

Virg. Insuitus navigandi. Csbs. Peritus civitatis regendtB, Nep. 

(1.) The nouns afler which these genitives most frequently occur are, 
amor, ara, causa, consilium, consuetHwOf cupidXtas, facuUas, gratia^ locus, 
Ucentia, moduSf occasio, otium, potestaSj spes, studMim, tempuSy venia, vis, 

(2.) The adjectives which most frequently take after them these geni- 
tives, are such as denote desire, knowlmge, rememhranee, and their contra- 
ries ; as, cupHdus, studiOsus, perituSf impentus, insuetuSf eertus, rudisj &c. 
See § 213, Rem. 1, (3.) * 

(3.^ The genitive plural sometimes depends upon a gerund in di, instead 
of Demg joined with the gerundive ; as, FacuUas agrOrum condonandi. Cic. 
J^ominandi istdrum erit copia. Plant. In castra venerunt epi pvrgandi 
eausd. Coes. This construction is most common with pronouns. 

(4.) The gerund in di, for the gerundive, is sometimes found also with 
pronouns of the singular number and feminine gender ; as, Quoniam tui 
videndi est copia. Plant. Ego ejus videndi cupi&is rectit consiquor. Ter. 
In these examples, tui and t^us are feminine. 

(5.) The gerund and gerundive, after the verb sum, are sometimes 
found in the genitive ''.enoting a tendency, without any noun or adjective 
on which they cap. depend; as, Regiuin imperium, initio conservandes 
libertatis fiUrat. 'JtiHH. Causa or pratia may sometimes be supplied. In 
some other casrs, the word on which the gerund in di depends is not ex- 
pressed ; as, Maneat provinciatibus poteniiam suam tali modo ostentandi, 
MC. facuitas, Tac. Cum haberem in anlmo navigandi, sc. proposUum. Cic. 

Rem. 2. The dative of gerunds and gerundives is used 

especially afler adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness, and 

also after verbs, to denote a purpose ; as, 

Ckarta emporetica est inuMlis scribendo. Plin. Capessendas reipubUem 
hal^Uis. Tac. Ut nee triumviri accipiundo, nee sctUmb referundo sujfieirent. 
Liv. Locum oppPldo condendo capSre. Id. 

(1.) llie verbs and phrases upon which this dative most frequentiy de^ 



pends ai^, studeo ; tnteTOus sum ; vmpendo^ tonaUmo or insUmo, tempus ; 
opiram do, desum, sum (signifying to serve far f to be adequate to),faciOf and 

The dative afler sum is usually supposed to depend on an adjectiye un- 
derstood. See § S37, Rem. 3. 

(2.) The dative of the gerundive, denoting a purpose, is also used after 
names of office ; as, Deeemtftri leglbus scrirondis. liv. So, ComUia ere- 
andis decemviris. Id. 

(3.) A purpose is more commonly expressed by ad and the accusative, 
than by the dative ; as, Pecus ad vescendum hominibus apta, Cic. 

, (4.) Instead of the gerund or gerundive after adjectives, the poets some- 
times use the infinitive, in imitation of the Greek construction ; as, JSudaz 
omnia perpSti, i. e. ad omnia perpetienda. Hor. See § 270, Rex. 1. 

Rem. 3. The accusative of gerunds and gerundives follows 
the prepositions ad or inter, Bhd sometimes ante, circa, or ob ; 

^d pcenitendum propirat, qui did judlcat. Pub. Syr. hUer hibevidum, 
While drinking. Just. Ad castra facienda. Cic. Ob aJbsolvendum, Id. 

Rem. 4. The ablative of gerunds and gerundives follows 
the prepositions a, ah, de, e, ex, or in ; or it is used without a 
preposition, as the ablative of cause, manner, means, or instru^ 
ment; as, 

' AristotUem non deterruit a scribendo. Cic. Ex assentando. Ter. JVbn 
videor a defendendis hominibus discedire. Cic. Creseit eundo. Virg. Rem 
quarmU mercataris faciendis. Cic. OraHOnem Latlnam legendis nostris 
efficies pleni&rem. Id. 

This ablative also occurs, though rarely, after pro and cum ; as. Pro 
vapulando. Plant. Cum loquendo, Quinct. 


^ 276. 1. Supines in urn are followed by the same 
cases as their verbs ; as, 

Jiton Gratis sereHtum matribus ibo, 1 shall not go to serve Grecian 
matrons. Virg. Eurypplum citatum oracdla Phahi jni^mus, We send 
Eurypylus to consult the oracle of Apollo. Id. 

11. Supines in urn follow verbs of motion, and serve 
to denote the purpose of the motion ; as, 

Te id admonitum veitio. Plant. Cubitum discesAmtts. Cic. Ire dejec- 
tum m^mum^nta regis. Hor. So after participles ; as, Patriam defensum 
revoedtus* Nep. Spectatum admissi. Hor. 

Remark 1. Supines in «m sometimes follow verbs which do not ex. 
press motion ; as. Do j^'^m nttptum. Ter. Vos ultwn injurias hortor. Sail. 

Rem. 2. The supine in um with eo often forms a periphrasis e^uiva- 
lent to the same mood and tense of the verb from which the supme is 
formed ; as. JV<s bojios omnes perdltum eant (Sail.), for perdant, Er^ptum 
mint (Id.), for eripiunt. UUum ivit (Tao ). for ultus est 

848 STlfTAX* BtTPINEa. 

Rem. 3. The supino in wn most frequently occurs with the infinitiTe 
tri, with which it formi the future infinitive passive ; as, BrtUum visum 
iri a me puto. Cic. In this construction the accusative properly depends 
upon the supine, and iri is used impersonally j thus, '* I suppose (that it 
is going by me), i. e. Uiat I am going to see Brutus.* 

Rem. 4. Instead of the supine in um afler a verb 6f motion, a gerund 
or gerundive in the accusative with ad^ or in the genitive with causA or 
gratidf also the subjunctive with ut or qiUj and a present or future partici- 

Sle active, may be used to express a purpose. For the gerund and geron- 
ive, see § ^D ; for the subjunctive with ut, § 262, — ^wiu quiy § 264 ; and 
for participles, § 274. 

The infinitive, also, is sometimes used by the poets, instead of the 
supine, to express a purpose. See § 271. 

III. The supine in u is used to limit the meaning of 
adjectives signifying wonderful^ agreeable^ easy or difficulty 
worthy or unworthy, honorable or base^ and a few others ; 

Mirdbfle tUctu ! Wonderful to tell, or to be told ! Ylrg. JtuMndum co^- 
nitu atque atiditUj Pleasant to be known and heard. Cic. ResfactufaclltSy 
A thing easy to be done. Ter. Imcus adltu diffidlUs* Sail. 2W/na 
dictu. Cic, Optimum fetctu. Id. 

Remark 1. The principal adjectives ailer which the supine in « occurs, 
are affahilis, arduus, asper^ bonus, dignus, indiffnuSffac?Uis, d^fftcUiSffaduSy 
gravis, honestusy horrendus, meredibws,jucunaus, injucunduSj memorabiUSf 
ptdcher, rarus, turpis, and uffUs. 

Rem. 2. The supine in u is used also after the nouns yos, 
nefaSf and opus ; as, 
Hoc fas est dictu, Cic. Jfefas dictu. Ovid. Dietu opus est. Ter. 

Rem. 3. As the supine in « is commonly translated bv a passive fi)nn, 
it is placed under the passive voice. In many cases, however, it may 
with equal or greater propriety be translated actively. It seems not to 
differ in its nature from other verbal nouns in us, of the fourth declension. 
In the expressions, ObsoncUu redeo (Plaut.), Cubltu surgat (Cato), ob- 
sondtu ana cuHtu, though following verbs, are by some considered as 
supines, by others as nouns depending on a preposition understood. 

The si:4>ine in u, even when it fouows adjectives, might, as a verbal 
noun, be referred to § 250. ^ 

Rem. 4. Instead of the supine in u, an infinitive, a gerund or gerun- 
dive with ad, or a verbal noun in the ablative, and sometimes in the 
dative or accusative, may be used ; as, Ardua imitatu, cetiritm cognosci 
utUia. Val. Max. lUud autem fa&Ue ad credendum «^. Cic. Opus pro- 
scriptione dig^um. Plin. Aqua potui jucunda. Id. FaciUor ad mteUec- 
tum atque imitatidnem. Quinct. 

The construction with ad and the gerund, or with sum and the infini- 
tive, is used by the best writers tlteTfaeilis, diffidllis, and jucundus. The 
most common construction of dignus is with qui and me subjunctive. 
See § 264, 9. 

snrrix. — ^adtebbs. 5249 


^ 277. Adverbs modify or limit the meaning of verbs 
adjectives, and sometimes of other adverbs ; as, 

Ben& moneSf You advise well. Ter. FortissiTni urgenteSf Most viffoe 
ously pressing on. Plin. MaU narrando, Ter. Long^ dusimlUs, Cic. 
Vam berU, Id. 

Remark 1. Adverbs sometimes, also, modify nouns; as, 

Homerus plant ordtor. Cic. Jidm6dvm ptuUa, Liv. MhU admddvm. 

Rem. 2. Adverbs may also modify adjective pronouns, and 
prepositions; as, 

Plant noster. Cic. Pauld tdtra eum locum. Cees. 

Rem. 3. A negative adverb, modifying another negative 
word, destroys the negation ; as, 

Mmpartre noluit. He was not unwilling to obey. Nep. Hand i^ndra 
malif Not ignorant of evil. Virg. Nee verd non omni suppUdo digm, Cic. 
Eaud nihil estf It is somethilig. Ter. So, nonmdUf some ; mmwanpiam^ 

Rem. 4. When the subject and predicate of a proposition 
are both modified by negative words, and alsa when the predi- 
cate contains two negatives, the proposition is affirmative ; as, 

JVmo non videt, Every one sees. Cic. So, if both the antecedent and 
the predicate of a relative clause are negative, the proposition is affirma- 
tive ; as, JSTemo estf qui nesciat; Every body knows. Cic. 

Rem. 5. Two negatives, however, though connected as above sped* 
fied, sometimes strengthen the negation ; as, Neque Hie baud objiciet mi&u 
Flaut. Jura te non nocitUriim htmim nemlni. id. Especially are ne^us^ 
neCf and sometimes runif thus used afler a negative, instead or out otveli 
as, Non me earminibus vincet^ nee Orpheus^ nee Linus* Virg. Nemlnem, 
non re, non verbo, non vultu denfque offendi, Cic. Nullius rei neque pras^ 
neque manceps fa^^tus est, Nep. 

Rem. 6. Non \s sometimes omitted after non modd or non 
solum, when followed, in a subsequent clause, by ne guidem ; as, 

Mihi non modd irasd, sed ne doUre ^dem trnpHne Ueetf .... not only not 
to be angry, but.... Cic. Ciim senatui non soliim juedre rempublicam, sed 
ne lugere guidem liUret. Id. 

J>ron is also rarely^ omitted afler non modd when followed by sed or vei%m 
with eiiam ; as, Qtd non modd eajut^ra timetf veritm etiamfirtf sustinetque 
prasentia; Who not only does not fear.... Cic. 

Rem. 7. FatAlt, in the sense of undoubtedly, clearly, is joined to super* 
latives, and words of similar import ; as, Vir umis totius Gracia facile 
doctissimus. Cic. Homo regionis illhts virtate facil^ princeps. Id. 

Rem. 8. Adverbs are sometimes equivalent to phrases con- 
taining an antecedent and a relative, both of which would be 
in an oblique case. 


When thQf resolved, the antecedent wiU be found to modi^ some word 
in its own clause ^ and the relative to serve both as a connective for a sub- 
sequent clause, and a modifier of some word contained in it. Hence, 
such adverb serves the threefold purpoae of a connective and a double 
modifier; as, 

Ed postquam Casar pervinitf obAdes ponoMcit ; After Ciesar came thither, 
he demanded hostages TCees.) ; i. e. ObsHaes poposdt post id tempus, in quo 
ed peroenU; He demanaed hostages after the time at tofueh he came thitlier; 
where post id tempus modifies poposdt^ and in quo serves as a connective, 
and also modifies pervenit. 

Frequently, for greater precision, an additional adverb is introduced, 
which, in the resolution of the phrase, stands in, and sometimes supplies, 
the antecedent clause ', as, Ed postquam pervenitf tum obsides poposeU, .... 
then he demanded hostages ; i. e. Obsides poposdt tempore, po^ id tempus 
in quo ed pervinit; He demanded hostagres at a time subsequent to the time 
at which ne came thither. So, Ciun. venit calamltaSf tttm detrimentum aedp- 
Uur (Cie.), i. e. Detrimentum eo tempdre aedpitur, in quo venit calanMas. 


^ 278* Copulative and disjungtive conjunctions, and 
some others, connect words which are in the same con- 

Words are in the same construction, when they stand in the satne rdor 
tion to some other word or words in the senteh^e. Hence conjunctions 
connect the same cases of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, the same moods 
of verbs, and adverbs and prepositions relating to the same word ; as, 

Pulvis et umbra sumus^ We are dust and shade. Hor. Si tu et TuUia 
wdetiSf etto et CicSro vaUmus, Cic. A^gSre ja^io turrTbus^tM canstitntis. 
CflM. Ciarus et honor&tus vzr. An illustrious and honorable man. Id. 
Ceesar Remos cohortAtus, UberaJiterque oratiOne prosecUtus. Css. Pater 
tuuSy quern colui et dilexi. Cic. Citm triumpkum eg^ris, censorque ixidris, 
et obiSris legdtus. Id. Ciim ad oppidum accessisset, eastrdque ibi ponSret 
Cobs. Ades ofiinuy, et omitte tim6rem. Cic. Ea vidfire ac perspicSie 
potestis. Id. Gravlter et copiose dudsse die?Uur. Id. Cum fraire an sine. 

Remark 1. This rule includes the copulative conjunctions oc, atque^ 
etf etiam, que, nee, neque^ the disjunctives auty seUy sive, V6, veZ, neve, neu, 
and also quhm, praterquam, nisi, an, nempe, guamvis, nedum, sedy autem, 
veriim. and, in general, sncn as, when used to connect clauses, do not im- 
ply a aependence of the following upon the preceding clause. To these 
may be. added the adverbs of likeness, e«u, tanquamy quasi, uty &c. ; as, 
A*ee census, nee darum nomen avOrum, sed probitas magnos in^eniumque 
fadt. Ovid. Philosdphi negant quenquam virum bonum esse, nisi sapien- 
tern. Cic. Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequUtar. Id. 

Rem. 2. Words thus connected are some1;imes in different cases, 
though in the same construction ; as, Mea et reipublTcoB intirest, Cic. 
(See § 219.) Sive es RomsB, sive in EpTro. Id. (See § § 221 and 254.) In 
iiettii deseendat jiu^ds aures, et patris et nostras. Hor. See § 211, Rev. 3. 

Rem. 3. The above conjunctions connect not only single 
words, but clauses whose construction b the same ; that is. 


whose subjects are in the same case, and their verbs in the 

same mood ; as, 

CondidurU verUijfiigiuntque nubes; The winds subside, and the clouds 
disperse. Hor. Locum, quern et non eoquit solf et tangit ros. Varr. Ludi 
decern per dies faed suMt, neque res uUa pratermissa est, Cic. Vtdes, ut 
akd stet nive candidunn Sonicte, nee Jam sustineant onus silyas laboroMteSj 
gelUkque flumina constitdrint oefUo. Uor. biJMigUis et animum et priSMls 
luisse, nee cpnsilium defuisse. Cic. 

Rem. 4. As the subjunctive is often used for the imj^ratire, they may 
be connected by the above conjunctions ; as, Disce nee invideas. Pen. 

Rem. 6. The indicative and subjunctive may also be thus connected, if 
the clause of the latter is not dependent; as, hec satis scio, nee, si sdam, 
dicire ausim. Lir. 

Rem. 6. The conjunction is oilen omitted ; as, Cvi Banue domMs,uxar, 
tibiri, procurdtor esset, Cic. Qius viiia sunt nan seneetutis, sed inertiSf 
igTuLwB, somniculoste senectiOis, Id. Jlbut, exeessU, ewdsU, erUpiL Id. 

Rem. 7 Copulative and disjunctive conjunctions are often used, before 
each of two or more connected words or clauses, in order to mark the 
connection more forcibly ; as, £t pecuniapersuddet,et gratia, et auctoritas 
dicentis, et dignitas, et postrimd aspeetus, Quinct. Hoc et turpe, nee 
tamen tutvm, Cic. Neque naJta est, et atema est. Id. £t tibi et nUki 
wduptdHfore. Id. Res ipsa aut invUabit aut dekortabUur. Id. 

In like manner wtAe....nunc, simul.„Mmul, partim....partim, quit.,.,qudj 

turn turn, ciim...Mm, are used before words or clauses. Tum.„.tum not 

only signify both and, but also at one time at another time. Ciim 

turn j?enenuly give a greater emphasis to the latter word or clause, which 
is onen increased by the addition of verd, certd, praciptid, imprimis, 
maailml, &c.; as, Luxuria, cbm. omni cetdti turpis, ttun mazXmd senectnti 
fadissima est, Cic. 

Rem. 8. To connect different names of the same person or thing, sive 
or sen, rather than aut or vel, is employed ; as. Mars sive Mavors. 

Rem. 9. Ac axkd atque signify as and than after adjectives and adverbs 

denoting similarity or dissimilarity ; as, Simillter/oci^ac si me roges, as 

if you should ask me. Cic. Me colit eequ^ atque patrdnum 5tm7n, much 
as.... Id. Si allter scriho ac sentio, If I write otherwise than 1 think. Id. 
nU sunt alio ingemo atque tu. Plaut. 


^ 2#9« 1. In English, Bfierconneetives, are placed, first, the subject, 
and the words which modify or limit it ; next, the verb and its modifiers ; 
then the oinect of the verb ; and last, preposiHons, and the words depend- 
ing upon tnem. This is called the logical or natural order. 

2. In a Latin sentence, after co2inectives, are placed, 
first, the subject and its modifiers ; then the oblique cases 
and other words which depend upon or modify the verb * 
and last of all, the verb 


This amngementyhoweyer, though common, k bj no means inyariable, 
■ince it is a general rule, that the most emphatic toord in a sentence is to be 
placed first. 

3. Connectives generally stand at the beginning of a clause. 

The following connectires may stand either in the first or second place, 
and sometimes m the third :— ejtcliton, ergo, etifmm, etiam. idea, igitur, Udr 
que, lieetf nom^iie, yuta, quamquamf quippep ^iMittam, saltern, sed, tomes, 
tttf utpdtCf and some others. 

Jiutemf emt», and verd (but), commonly occupy the second place, some- 
times the third ; as^ JUe enim revocdtus resistive eeepit, Caas. E^ ver6 
veltem, affuisses. Cic. The enclitics que, ne, ve, axe usually subjoined to 
the first word in a clause. 

Quidtm and quoque are subjoined to the emphatic word in a clause ; as, 
Verbo Hie reus eraty re quidem verb OppianXcus, Cic. Me sciHeet moa^m^, 
sedproaUm^ tUvtn quoque /e^e22i«««in. id. 

In negative sentences, n« precedes, and qmdefm follows, the emphatic 
word ; as, Ne o^ CatOnem quiaem prooocQho, Cic. 

4. When a word is repeated in the same clause, so that cme is exposed 
to, or distinguished from, the other, they must stand together ; as, Hom- 
ines hominXbus maaAm^ uSlUs esse possunt. Cic. Equates alii aU6 dilapsi 
sunt. Lay, 

5. Words used antitheticaJly are also placed near each other ; as, Diim 
tacent, clamant. Cic. Fragile corpus animus sempitemus m^vei. Id. 

6. Inqttam and usually aio, introducing a quotation, follow one or more of 
the words quoted ', as, " ^on ndsti quid pater,** inquit, ** Chrysippus dicat^ 
Hor. ** Qtad^* aio, *^ tua crimina prodis ? " Ovid. 

7. Adjectives are commonly placed afler their nouns, especially when any 
tiling is dependent on them. When a noun is limited by another noun, 
as well as by an adjective, the adiective usually precedes both ; as, UUa 
officii pracepta. Cic. Tuum er^ dignitatem meam s^mdium. Id. 

Demonstratives, and the adjectives primus, mcdius, &c. (see § 205, 
Rem. 17), usually precede their nouns ; as, Ea res. Cees. Bis ipsis ver- 
bis. Cic. Media nox, Cties. Retlqua JEgyptus. Cic. 

8. Monosyllables are usually prefixed to longer words with which they 
are connected ; as, Vir darisslmus. Cic. Vis tempestdtis. Cses. 

9. When nouns are put in apposition, the one which explains or defines 
the other is generally put last ; as, Marcus Tidlius consul. Sail. Opes 
irritamenta mmiirum. Ovid. 

In the arrangement of names of persons, the prtaUfmen stands first, 
next the nomen, third the cogndmen, and last the agaOvMn ; as, PubfxuM 
Comeiius Scipio ^riednus. The prsBnomen b usually denoted by a 

10. Oblique cases precede ^ the words upon which they de- 
pend, but they follow prepositions ; as, 

PopQli Romdni laus est. Cic. Laudis arUdi, pecunias UberOles. Sail. 
Cunctis esto benignus, nulli blandus, paucb famiUdrisy omnibus tequMS. 
Sen. Monumentum are perennius, Hor. Hanc tibi dono do. Ter. — -^^dd 
meridiem spectans. Cic. Extra pericidum. Id. 

Genitives depending upon neuter adjectives are commonly placed last; 
as, incertafortHwB. Liv. Jfec tibi plus cordis, sed minus oris tnesl. OvicL 

When a noun which is governed by a preoosition, is modified by other 
words which precede it, the preposition usually stands before the words b^ 



which the noan is modified ; as, Aprimd luce ad sextam horam, Liv. M 
privatum doldremfuit luctuOsum, Cic. J3d animi md Uetitiam. Id. 

Sometimes, however, the preposition comes between its noun and an 
ndjective, or a genitive by which the noan is modified } as, JVuUd tn re. 
GiC. Jtutis de eausis. Id. Sues inter aqudUs. Id. 

Per, in adjurations, is often separated by other words ; as, Per ego U decs 
oro. Ter. 

Tenus and versba follow their cases, and sometimes other prepositions, 
especially when joined with relative prononns. 

11. Infinitives precede the verbs on which they depend ; as, 

JugurUui, vjbi eos Africd decessisse ratus est, nequepropter loci natHram 
Cirtam armis ezpugrnare possit, nuenia circumdat. Sail. Servire magii 
quhm imperare parati estis. Id. 

12. A word which has the same relation to several words, either pie- 
cedes or follows them -all ; as, Vir gravis et sapiens. Cic. Clams et noMh 
rdtus vir. Id. 

13. Relatives are commonly placed after their antecedents, 
and as near to them as possible ; as, 

Qui sim, ex eo, quem adte misif cognosces. Sail. Lit^ras ad te tnisifper 
tpuuigratms tibi egi. Cic. 

14. Quisle is generally placed after m, suus, qui, ordinals and superla- 
tives ; as, Sw)S quisque debet tuirL Cic. Satis superqne est sihi sv&rum 
cuiqcs rerwn cura. Id. Severitas animadversUfnis iiy^mo cuique gratis' 
siima. Id. Quisque very rarely begins a proposition. 

15. An adverb is usually placed immediately before the word which it 
qualifies; but if the same word is modified by the oblique case of a noun, 
the latter commonly follows the adverb ; as, Mal^ porta mal^ diUtbuntur. 
Cic. ^fihil tarn aspirum neque tarn dfjfficiU essCf quod non cupidisstm^ 

factUri essent. Sail. Imperium facll^ its artlbus retinetur, quibus initio 

partum est. Id. Sed maxima adolescentium familiaritStes appetebat. Id. 
JVoK tarn tn beUis et in pratiiSf qukm in vromissisMjide firmi6rem. Cic. 

In some phrases, custom has establisned a certain order, which must bo 
observed and imitated ; as, JVe quid respuhUca detrimenti capiat. Cic. 

16. Exceptions to the foregoing principles are very numerous. These 
may arise from a regard to the namiony of the sentence, from poetic 
license, or from the following rule, which sometimes modifies nearly all 
the preceding : — 

The emphatic word is placed before the word or words con^ 
nected with it which are not emphatic. 

17. A sentence should not close like a hexameter verse, with a dactyl 
and spondee; as. Esse videtur; nor, in general, with a monosyllable. 

18. Hihtus should be avoided ; that is, a word beginning with a vowel 
should not follow a word ending with a vowel. ' 

19. A concurrence of lonff words or longr measures,— of short words or 
short measures,— of words, oeginning alike or ending alike, — should be 




^ 280* A compound Bentence, in which -the leadings clause if 
divided by the insertion of one or more subordinate clauses, is called a 

1. In a regular period, the leading verb is placed at the end, 

and the subordinate clauses betweeA the parts of the leading 

clause ; as, 

PausaniaSy citm semianimis de templo datus esset, confestira animam 
efBavit ; Pausanias, when he had been carried out of the temple bat just 
alive, immediately expired. Nep. Ego, si ab impr6his et perdltis diAbuB 
rempvbllcant teneri videremf sicut et meis iemporilnis sdmus, et nonntdUa 
aliis accidisse accepimus, non mod6 presmiis, muB aptid me fntntmum foaleid 
sed ne pericQlis quidem compulsus ullis, qudus tamen moventur ettamfor 
tisslmi virij ad eorum causam me adjung£rem. Cic. 

2. If the verbs of the leading and dependent clauses hove the same sub 
ject, or the same word depending on them, they are commonly formed 
into' a period; a,, AnUgsSu,, ^,m advcrks dleucum l^mlchumgu* 
dimicdretf in prcelio oocisus est. Nep. 

So, also, when the word which depends on the verb of the leading 
clause is the subject of the dependent clause ; as, Manlio, quwm dictator 
Juisaetf Marcus romponius tribanus plebis diem dixit. Cic. 

3. When obscurity would arise from separating the leading subject and 
verb by dependent words or clauses, they are oflen placed together at the 
oeginning or end of the sentence ; as, LatcB (sunt) deinde leges, non solum 
qtuB regni suspicione consiUem absolvirent, sed qua adeo in contraarium 
vertirentf vt popularem etiamf current. Liv. 

The position of the leading verb is also often otherwise varied, firom 
regard to emphasis, to avoid monotqny, or to prevent its meeting with the 
-verb of the last dependent clause. 

4. When one clause is interrupted by the introduction of another, the 
latter should be finished before the first is resmned. 

5. Clauses expressing a cavsey a condition, a time, or a comparison^ usu- 
ally precede the clauses to which they relate. 

6. A short clause usually stands before, rather than after a long one. 


^281. The analysis of a proposition, or of a compound 
sentence, consists in dividing it into the several parts of whicfa 
it is composed, and pointing out their mutual relations. 

In analyzing a proposition, it is first to be divided into its logical subject 
and predicate. See § § 200, 201, 202. 

If the logical subject consists of more than one word, its grammatical 
subject should be pointed out, and distinguished as simple or compound 
See 5 201,1.11. 

When the graramaiical subject is determined, the words which modify 
or limit it should next be specified, and then the words which modi^ 
them and so on, until the logical subject is exhausted. See § 201| lU 


In analynng the logieal predicate, the grammatical piedieate should 
first be mentioned, then the words which modify or limit it, and their 
modifiers, until the logical predicate is exhausted. See § 202. 

In analyzing a propositianj the rules for the agreement and dependence 
of words shomd be given, and likewise their various inflections. 

The analysis of a compound seTVtence requires, first, its resolution into Ha 
several component propositions ; and, secondly, their analysis in the man - 
ner before mentioned. See § 203. 

In resolving a sentence into. its component clauses, the participial con« 
structions equivalent to clauses should be mentioned, and eUipses supplied. 
See S 203, 5. 

When the compound sentence is resolved, the connection of the clauses 
should be pointed out, and whether they are dependent or independent. 
See § 203, 2. In either case, the connective words, if any, should be 
mentioned, and the connection, if any exists, with the preceding sentence. 
See § 203, 4. When clauses are dependent, the relation in which they 
standf should be explained, the character of the connectives stated, and the 
rules for the moods of the verbs given. See § § 262 — ^266 and 272, 273. 

The following are examples of the analysis of simple and compound 
sentences :— • 

1. S(Bmus ventis agitdtur ingens pinus. The great pine iB 
more violently shaken by the winds. Hor. 

Ingens pinus is the logical subject ; saviiis vends agitSlur is the lopotl 

The grammatical subject is ^inus : this is modified by ingena* 

The grammatical predicate is agitdtur : this b modified oy steviits* and 

Pinus is a common noun,'' of the second and fourth declension/ femi- 
nine gender/ and nominative case.' 

Ingens is an adjective, of the third declension, and of one termination,* 
in the nominative case, feminine gender, a^eeing with pinus,* 

Agitdtur b an active * fi«quentative ' vero, of the first conj. from e^ffe, 
derived from ago [Name its principal parts], formed from the 1st root, 
£Give the formations of that root.] It is in the passive voice, indicative 
mood, present tense, singular number, third person, agreeing with pmus.^ 

ScBvihs is an adverb, in the comparative degree, from S(ev6 or stttUer,* 
derived from the adjective savus^ modiiying 3ie verb agUdturJ^ 

Ventis is a common noun, of the secona declension,' masculine gen- 
der,** in the plural number, ablative case.' 

2. Hiithriddtes, dudrum et viginti gentium rex, tottdem iin* 
guis jura dixit; Mithridates, king of twenty-two nations, pro- 
nounced judicial decisions in as many languages. Plin. 

The logical subject is Mithriddtes dudrum et viginti gentium rex. 

The logical predicate is totldem Unguis jura dixit. 

The grammatical subject is Mithrmdtes : this is modified by rex,* Rex 
b limited by gentium, which is itself linlited by dudrum and viginti,* 
Et connects dudrum and viginti.*' 

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,99. »$ 141,1. P}277 V •J201,I1LS 


The gprammftticaJ pTedicata is dixU, which is limited bj jura^ and Im- 
guis* and the latter oy toCldtm, 

MiUiridcUeg is a proper noiin,^ of the third declension,' m^sffiilim^ gen« 
der,' and nominative case. 

Rex is a common noun, 3d dec./ maso. gen.,** in apposition with MUkrv' 

Gentium is a com. noun., 3d dec.,' fern, gen.,* in the genitive plnral,* 
limiting rez.^ 

Dudrum is a numeral adj., or the cardinal' kind, in the genitive case, 
fem. ^n., agreeing with gentium.^ 

£< IS a copulative conjunction.* 

Viginti is a cardinal numeral adjective indeclinable,' limiting gentium.^ 

Dixit is an active ^rb,® of the third conjugation,'* from dico [Give the 
principal parts],' formed from the second root [Gi^ ^he formations of that 
root], in the act. voice., ind. mood, perf. indefinite tense,** sing, num., 3d 
pers., agreeing with Mithridates.' 

Jura, a com. noun, 3d dec.,' neut. gen.,** plur. num., ace. ease, the ob- 
ject of dixit.* 

Linguis, a com. noun, Ist dec., fem. gen.,** plural num., ablative case.' 

Totldem, an adj., indeclinable ,y in the plural number, limiting Unguis. 

3. Romana pubes, seddto tandem pavore^ postquam ex tarn 
turhido die serena et tranquilla lux rediit, ubi vacuam sedem 
regiam vidit, etsi satis credehat patribus^ qui proxtmi steterant, 
sublimem raptum proeeUd ; tamen, velut orbitatis metu icta, 
moestum aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit. Liv. 

The preceding compound sentence constitutes a period,' and it may be 
resolved into the following clauses : — 

^ 1. Romflna pubes tamen^ velut orbitatis metu icta, m<Bstum aUquamdiu 
iHentium obtinuit^ —which is the leading clause.''^ 

2. seddto tandem pavdre, 

3. postquam ex tarn turHdo die serena et tranquilla lux rediit, 

4. ubi vidit, 

6. vaeuam (esse) sedem regiam, 

6. etsi satis credebat pati^SuSf 

7. qui proTAmi stetirant, 

8. sublimem raptum procdld. 

In the preceding clauses, the predicates are printed in Italics. 

The grammatical subject of the leading clause is pubes, which is limited 
by Romdna and icta. Icta is modified bv vdut and metu, which last is limit- 
ed by orbitdiis. The jnammatical predicate of that clause is ohtirvuit • this 
is limited by aliquamMu and silewtiumy which is itself limited by mcBstum 

Pu&es, a collective noun,^^ 3ddec.,^' fem. gen.,'<' sing, num., nom. case. 

Romdna, & patrial" adj., of the 1st and 2d dec./^ fem. gen., sing. num. 
nom. case, agreeing with pubes." 

Tamen, an adversative conjunction,** relating to etsi in the 6th clause 

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'4J04. •JiOS. •J»9. 


aad denoting that the predicate of this clause is true, notinthstanding th« 
concession made in that clause. 

Velut, an adverb, modi&ing icta,* 

Ida. a perf. part, pass., from the active verb ieo, 3d conj.^ [Principal parts 
in both voices], fern, gen., sing, num., nom. case, agreeing with pubes.' 

MetUf an abstract noun,<< 4th dec.,' maso. gen., sing, num., abl. case/ 

OrbiidtiSf an abstract << noun, derived from orbuSf 3d dec.,' fem. gen.,^ 
sing, num., gen. case, limiting miptu.* 

Ubtinuitf an active verb of the 2d conj.,* from obtineOf compounded of- 
prep, ob and teneo^ TGive the principal parts, and the formations of the 
second root],** in the active voice, ind. mood., perf. indef. tense, sing, 
num., 3d person, agreeing ynHipubes* 

MiquamdiUf an adverb, compounded of diXquis and diuj^ and limiting 

SUenthati, a com. noun, 2d dec, neut. gen.^' sing, num., ace. case, the 
object cfobtintdtf 

Meutunif an adj., 1st and 2d dec, neut. gen., sing num., ace. case, 
agreeing with silentium.' 

The 2d is a participial clause, equivalent to quum pavar tandem seddtus 

PavOrCf an abstract << verbal" noun, from pavso, 3d dec.,* masc. gen.,* 
sing, num., abl. case, absolute with seddto. 

SeddlOf a perf. part, pass., from the act. verb sedOf of the 1st conj.,' 
[Principal parts in both voices], masc. gen., sing, num., abl. case,' agree* 
mff with pavOre,^* 

Fandem, an adverb of time, modifying sedato.^^ 

Postquamj an adverb of time, compounded of post and quanty modi^ing 
ebtinuU and rediitf and serving to connect the first and third clauses.'^ 

I^he grammatical subject of the 3d clause is Zux, which is limited bv 
gerena and tranquUla. The grammatical predicate is rediit, which is modi- 
fied by postquam and die. Die is modified by turbldo, which is itself modi- 
fied by tarn. 

LaiXf a com. noun, 3d dec.,<'<' fem. gen.," sing, num., nom. case. 

Serena, an adj., 1st and 2d dec, fem. gen., sing, num., nom. case, agree- 
ing with Ivx,* 

£/, a copulative conjunction, connecting serena and tranquilla/f 

Tranquillay like serena, 

Rediit, a neuter verb, firom redeo, compounded of insep. prep, red " and 
eo *^ [Prin. parts], ind. mood., perf*. indef. tense, sing, num., 3d person, 
agreeing witn IvxM 

Die, a com. noun, 5th dec,** masc. gen., sing, num., abl. case after 
prep, esc." 

TurlUdo, an adj. agreeing with die, Tam^ an adverb, modifying tut- 

Ubi, an adverb of time, and, like postquam, a connective, and a double 
modifier. It connects the fourth clause to the first, and limits the 
predicates vidit and obtinMit,'' 

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205. '{139,2. « $257, Rem. 1. » $277. »$90. 

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87. "$209. -,»$70. ddk^s, 

W7. •$193,6. •$68. ••$6-2. 

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*469. fS46. y(ll9. f#&196. 14. 


The tabjeet of the 4th clauie U the same as that of the first, with whid 
it is connected ; it is therefore omitted.* 

The grammatical predicate of the 4th clause is vidit : this is limited by 
its object, which is the 5th clause.^ 

Viait, an act. verb, 8d conj. [Principal parts and fbnnation], act. yoice, 
ind. mood, perf. indef. tense, smg. num., 3d pers., agreeing with pubea 

The 5th clause has no connective. Ite grammatical subject is sedem, 
Which is limited by regiam. Its grammati^ predicate is {esse) vacuam^ 
the former being understood.' 

Sedenif acorn, noun, 3d. dec, fern, sen., sing, num., ace. case.* 

Regiam, a poBsessiye adj., derived Rom rex, agreeing with sedem, 

Vncuam, an adj., agreeing with sedem. 

The 6th clause is connected to the leading clause by the concessive/ 
conjunction etoi, to which the adversative ' tamen corresponds in the first 

Its subject is the same as that of the leading clause. 

Its grammatical predicate is credebiUf which is limited by sails and 

Credibat, a neut. verb,* 3d conj. [Principal parts, and formations of Ist 
root], act. voice, ind. mood, impert. tense, sing, num., 3d pers., agreeing 
with pubes understood. 

Satis, an adverb of degree' modifying credebat.* 

PtUribtiSf a com. noun, 3d dbc.,* masc. cen.,"^ ^lur. num., dat. case, 
depending upon credibat* and modified by me relative clause following.* 

The 7th clause, which is connected by qtd^ to the preceding one, is in- 
troduced to show the situation of those senators at the time of the removal 
of Romulus. 

Qui is its grammatical subject, and is a relative pronoun,' masc. g^., 
plur. num., agreeing with patribus understood.*" 

Stetirant, a neut. verb,* 1st conj., irregular in its 2d root* [Principal 
parts, and formations of 2d root], act. voice, ind. mood,plup. tense, 3d pers. 
plur., agreeing with qui.' 

Praximif an adj. of the superlative degree < [Compare it], 1st and 2d dec, 
masc. gen., plur. num., nom. case, agreeing with tfui, and also modifying 

The 8th clause has no connective. It depends on the verb credebat. 
Its subject is eum, i. e. RomXdum understood. Its grammatical predicate 
is raptum (esse) which is modified by sublimem tmd proeelld. 

JRaptum ^esse), an act. verb, 3d conj.* [Principal parts in both voices, 
and tormations of 3d root in the passive] , pass, voice, infin. mood, perf. 
tense with the meaning of plup., depending on credibat.* 

Sublimemf .9n adj. of 3d dec. and two terminations,' masc gen., sing. 
num., ace case, sgreeing with RomfUum understood,^ and also modifying 
raptum esse^ 

ProceUd, a com. noun, 1st dec.,*^ fern, gen., sing, num., abl. case.' 


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*{270,Rem.3. *J277. F§203,4. «$ 205, Rem. 15. «J41. 

239. 1471. «$iS. * •Jisg. ••Ijm-t. 




^S82« Prosody treats of the quantity of syUables, 
and the laws of versification. 


1. The quantity of a syllable is the relative time occu- 
pied in pronouncing it. 

' 2. A syllable is either longy short, or common. 

A long syllable requires double the time occupied in pro- 
nouncing a short one ; as, amdri, 

A common syllable is one which, in poetry, may be made 
either long or short ; as the middle syllable of tenebrat. 

3. The quantity of a syllable is either natural or accidental ; 
— ^natural, when it depends on the ncUure of its vowel ; acci- 
dental, when it depends on its position. 

Thus the e in rlsisto is short by nature ; while in risCUi it if long bj 
accident, being Ibllowcd by two consonants. 

4. The quantity of syllables is determined by certain es- 
tablished rules, or, in cases not included in the rules, by the 
authority of the poets. 

6. The rules of quantity are either general or special. The 
former apply alike to all the syllables of a word, the latter to 
particular syllables. 


^ 283. L A vowel before another vowel, or a diph- 
thong, is short ; as, mews, patrus. Thus, 

Conscla mens recti fames mendaeia ridet. (hid. 
Ipse eUam eximla laudis succensua amdre. Virg, 

So also when h comes between the vowels, since h is ac 
counted only a breathing ; as, nihii. See <^ 2. Thus, 
De nViUo lUkUf in nlhllum nU posse reyerti. Pers, 
Exc. 1. Fio has the i long, when not followed by er; as^ 
fiunt^flebam. Thus, 

Omnia jam /iejU,/r«nqu8B posse negabam. Ovid, 
It is sometimes found long even before «r; as, filrei (Ter.), ^H 


Ez€. 2. E IB long before t in'.the terminatioii of the geni- 
tive and dative of the fifth declension ; sa, faciei. Thus, 
Non radii solis, neque lucida tela dUi. Luer. 
Bat it is abort in spiij and both long and abort in ret taidfidei. 

Exc. 3. A is long in the penult of old genitives in at of 

the first declension ; as, auldi, pictdi. 

So alao are a and e in proper names in atus or €tu$; aa, Cdtus, Pom" 
petus. Thus, 

Athereiun sensum, atqne avr&i simpHcts ignem. Virg. 
Acclpe, Pompilj deductum carmen ab illo. Ovid, 

Exc. 4. / is common in genitives in ius ; as, urAus^ iJRus. 

JUius et nitldo stillent nnguenta capillo. libuU, 
lUius puro destillent tempdra nardo. Id, 

But in akerins it is always short ; in alius always long. 

Exc. 5. The first vowel of iheu is long ; that of Diana, lo^ 
and ohe, is common. 

Exc. 6. In many Greek words, a vowel is long, though im- 
mediately followed by another ; as, 

der, Adt&ia^ ^chdonsy dia, Cos, L&erUSy and other words compounded 
with laos, 

(1.) Words which, in Greek, are written with et before a vowel, and in 
Latin with e or t, have the e or t long ; as, JEniaSf ^lezandnOfCassiopea^ 
Clio, DariuSj deglay GalaUa^ Medea, Mausol€umy Pendopea, TluUia, 

Hence, most adjectives in eus, formed from Greek proper names, ha^e 
the 6 long ; as, Cytk&reus, Pelop€u8, 

Exc. Academia, chorea, Maiea, platea, and some patronymics and 
patrials in els, have the penult common y as, JfereU. 

(2.) Greek genitives in eos, and accusatives in ea, from nominatives in 
eus, generally shorten the e; as, OrphSos, Orph^a; — ^but the e is some- 
times lengthened by the Ionic dialect; as, Cepneos, Ilionea. 

(3.) Greek words in ais, ois, aius, eiais, oius, aon, and ton, generally 
lengthen the first vowel; as, JVau, Mvnois, Gratusy Ner€lus, MtnOfuSj 
Machdon, Ixion. But The^dis, SimdiSf Ph&on, Devcalion, Pygmalion, and 
many others, shorten the former vowel. 

Note 1. Greek words in aon and ion, with o short in the ^nitive, 
have the penult long ; but with o lon^ in the genitive, they bave it short ; 
as, Amythaon, 'OOms ; Deucalion, '6ms. 

Note 2. Greek proper names in eus (gen. cos), as Orpheus, always 
have the eu a diphthong in the original, and, with very few exceptions, in 
the Latin poets. 

n. A diphthong is long; as^ auruniy fmnusy Eiibmi 

ThesSuros ignotum argenti pondus et mtri, Vtrg 
Infemlque lacus, JEaaque ins&la Circe Id 


Eza 1. PrtB^ in composition^ is short before a vowel \ as, 
praustus, prceacutus. Thus, 

Nee totd tamen ille prior pr&eunte caring. Virg, 
In Statiu8| and Sidonius ApolUnaris, it is fbond long« 

Exc. 2. A diphthong, at the end of a word, when the next word bej^nt 
with a vowel, is sometimes made short ; as, 

Insula lonio in magno, quas dira Celeno. Virg, 

RxMARK. Uf followed hj another vowel, is, in prosody, not eonsideied 
as a diphthong ; as, quMio, qiUror^ <BquAr, Ungudy sanguis. 

UI. A syllable formed by contraction is long; as, 

dUus for aUius ; cOgo for codgo; nil for nihil; juniar for jUminioT, Thus, 
Tltyre cOge pecus, tu post carecta laiebas. Virg, 

IV. A vowel naturally short, before two consonants, a 
double consonant, or the letter/, is long hy position; as^ 
armay heUumy axis, gdza^ major. Thus, 

Pdsdre ap&rtet oves dednctum dicSre carmen. Virg. 
J^€e myrtas vineet corj^Ios ; nee laiirea Phcebi. Id. 
At nobis, Pdz alma, veni, spicamque tenSto. TUniU, 
Rara juvant : primis sic major gratia pomis. Mart, 

Exc. 1. The compounds o^jugum have % short before j ; as, 
b^iLguSf quadrijugus. Thus, 

Interea Hjiigis infert se LucSgus albis. Virg. 

Remark. The vowel is long' by position when either one or 

both of the *" consonants is in the same word with it ;* but when 

both stand at the beginning of the following word, the vowel is 

either long or short ; as, ^ 

Tolle moras ; seltaper nocutt differre parfttis. Luean. 
Ferte citi ferrum; date teld; scandite muros. Virg. 
Ne tamen ign5ret, qus sit sententid scripto. Ovid. 

A short vowel at the end of a word, before a double consonant or j, m 
not lengthened. 

Exc. 2. A vowel naturally short, before a mute followed hj 

a liquid, is common ; as, agrts, pharetra, volueris, pqpRtes, 

cochlear. Thus, 

£t prim6 similis volUcri, mox vera volueris. Ovid, 
Natum ante ora^dtru, voir em qui obtruncat ad aras. Id. 
Nox tenlbras profert, Pncebos fugat inde Unlhras, Id. 

Rbh. 1. If the vowel is. naturally long, it continues so; as, salQibris 

Rem. 2. A mute and liquid render the preceding short vowel common 
only when they are such as may begin a Latin word, or a word derived 
from the Greek. In compound words, of which the former part ends with 
a mute, and the latter begms with a liquid, a short vowel before the mute 
is made long by position *, as, dbluoy obrttOf sitblivOf quamObrem, 

Rbm. 3. A mute and liquid at the beginning of a wor< seldoai lengthen 
the short vowel of the preceding, word. 


Rem. 4. In Latin words, a short yowel is rendered common only be- 
fore a mnte with I or r; but, in words of Greek origin, also before a mols 
with m or »; as in MUUf Tecmessa, Procnt, 



<^ 284. Derivative words retain the quantity, of their 
primitives; as, 

d.fAmaly iviimatua^ from dmli'ma; gimitrnndus^ from gimire; fimXUoj 
ftom flmilus; tndtemuSf frcmi mdter; priipinquua, firomprdpe. 

Rem. I. Derivatives from increasing nouns of the third 
declension agree in quantity with the increment of their primi- 
tives; as^ 

JutUhriSf &om fiuUris; vtr^n«tc«, from Virginia; aalvher^ from salQtis, 

Rem. 2. In verbs, the derived tenses agree in quantity 

with the special root from which they are formed ; as, 

mdvthamf mdvehOf mOveam, m&verem, mOvef m&cere, mdvensj mdvendta^ 
from mdv, the root of the present, with 6 short ; — Tr.6Tlram^ fnihoirimj 
mOviaatm, ntiMSTo^ mtfoisre, fix>m mJv, the root of the perfect, with e long; 
mdtftntf and fn6tu8^ from motu, the root of the supine, with 9 also long. 

SdlHitum and vdlutwm have the first syllable shorty as if from s6huf, v6luo. 
So ginuif ginltum, as if from gino; and p6tui, from v6tis sum (possum). 

ArSJtnaii, simulderumf have tneir penult long, as derived from the supines 
ardtum and simulcUum ; monlmenium and iftuium have their antepenult 
short, as derived from the supines monUum and tnUum. 

ExG. 1. Perfects and supines of two syllables have the 
first syllable long^ even when that of the present is short; 

veni, vidiffid, from v^rno, x^deoyjdcio ; edjum, motum, msumf from eddo^ 
mSveOf t^deo. But, 

(1.) These seven perfects have the first syllable short : — Mbi, 
dSai,fidi {from Jindo), sctdi, steti, stiti, tuli. 

The first syllable is also short before a vowel (§,283) ; as, rlU. 

(2.) These ten supines have the first syllaUe short : — cttum 
(from cieo)y datum, itum, Utum, quitum, ratum, rutum, satum^ 
^tum, and statum. 

So also the obsolete /^Uum, from^^o, whence cornea flLtHms. 

Exc. 2. Reduplicated perfects have the first two syllables 
short ; as, 

ddlniy tMtigi^ tUdHH, from canoy tangOf disco. Bnt the second salable 
is so m etim e s made long by position ; as, nOmOrdif tiUndi, 

PBOsoi^T.— Q,nAsrriTT ; comfoitnd wobds* 263 

CMdi (firarm emdo) and pipedi also have the lecond ijllable kng. 

£zG. 3. The o in pdstd and pd^ltom, is short, thoagh long in pdno, 

Exc. 4. The a in lia, imperatiTe of <io, is long, though short in the 
other parts of the verb. 

Exc. 5. Desiderative yerbs murio have the u short, thoagh, in the 
third special root from which they are formed, it is long ; as, canaifkrio 
6rom canOtU, the third root of eano. So partfJariOy esMo, nuptMo. 

Exc. 6. Frequentative verbs, formed from the third special root of the 
first conjugation, have the % short; as, damitOf voUto. See § 187, 11. 1. 

Exc. 7. Many other derivatives deviate ttom the quantity 
of their primitives. 

1. Some have a long vowel from a short one in the primitive. 

Such are, 

D6ni,^omdScem. Lex (Iegi8),yram iSgo. Semen, ^om sSro. 

Fomes and > jfrom Mobllis, Jrom mdveo.> Stipendiom, yrom stips 

Fomentum, ) roveo. Regtlla, 1 from (stlpis). 

HamanuSj^rom hdmo. Rex (re&^s), y rSgo. Tegtna,^oifi t£go. 

Latema, /rom l&teo. S€cius, Jrom sScus. yox(v0ci8),^oinv5co. 

MtiC&TOj from m&ceo. Sedes, from 8$deo. 

2. Some have a short vowel from a long one in the primitive. 

Such are, 

Dtcax,^om dico. Mdlestus, /rom mfiles. Sftgax,yroiii sftgio. 

I>Isertus,^07?i dlssgro. NS to, /rom naiu. Sdpor, j^om sdpio. 

Dux(ddcis),]^omdQco. Ndto, /ron* notu. Vftdum, Jrom v&do. 

Ffdes,/rom f Ido. ' QuSsillus, Jrom qualus. 

Frigor, > fr^'^ 
Frftgllis, ) frango. 

Some other words might, perhaps, with propriety be added to these lists ; 
but, in regard to the derivation of most of them, grammarians are not en- 
tirely agreed. 

Remark. Some of these irregularities have, perhaps, arisen from the 
influence of syncope and crasis. Thus mObiUs may have been miMblUs; 
miftumf mdvitumf &c. 

Sometimes the vowel in the derived word becomes short by dropping 
one of the consonants which, in the primitive, made it long by position ; 
as, disertusj from dissiro. So, when the vowel of the primitive is short 
before another vowel, it is sometimes made long by the insertion of a con- 
sonant > as, hihernuSf from hltms. 

The first syllable in liquldtLS is supposed to be common, as coming from 
lipior or Uqueo ; as, 

Crass&que conveniunt PlquldiSf et liqulda crassis. Lucr. 


<^ 285* Compound words retain the quantity of the 
words which compose them ; as, 

tufiirOf of de and fSro ; Adoro, of &d and ifro. So HMrior, Hm6viOy or 
•fttnlff, eHmldOf inltar, prOdOcQ^ sUtbdnw, 

The change of a Fowel or diphthong in fonning the com- 
pound does not alter its quantity ; as, 

eon^dOf froxacddo; eonddo^ frbm cSdo; eftgo-, from rigo; redtLdOf floin 
daudo; iniquMS, from ^qvus, 

£zc. 1. ^ A long syllable in the simple word becomes short in the foQow- 
in|r compounds : — agnltus and cogrAtuSf &om ndtuis; dejiro and pejirOf from 
jaro; hhdU, from hOcdi$; nibuum and nihllf from hilum; semisi^rttusj 
from «0pt0 ; eauaidHcus, and other compounds ending in dlcus, from. iMi, 

Eic. 2. ImbedlluSy from ^driZZum, has the second syllable long. Ilie 
participle am&i^u^ has the penult lolig frcMn Uvm, but the nouns amifUus 
and ambuio follow the rule. 

£ic. 3. InnOba^ pnm^iba, and subniliba, from nubo, have u short; but in 
eonnultiufti, it Is common. 

Ejcc. 4. O final y in the compounds of do and stOj is common, though 
long in the simple verbs. 

Note. It may be observed, that prepositions of one syllaMej which end 
in a vowel, are long (§ § 294, ^5, and 297) ; those which end in a single 
consonant are short (§| 299 and 301). 

£xc. 5. PrOy in the following compounds, is short : — prdceJla^ prdfamu^ 
prdfdrif prdfeetOf prOfestus, prbficiscoTy prdJUeor, prSfugiOy prdfitguSf prd- 
fundusj prdnipoSf pr&neptis^ pr6pirOy ana prdterrms. In the following, it ii 
common i^-procUrOf profunaOy propdgo^ propeUOf proplnOj and proptdso, 

RsM. 1. The Greek preposition pro (before) is short; as, j»rdpA£Cs, 

Rem. 2. The inseparable prepositions di and se are long ; as, 
d%d1U0f sepdro. But di is short in dirlmo and dtsertits. 

Rem. 3. The inseparable preposition re or red is short ; as, 

rimsttOf rtfirOfT^ddmo, But in the impersonal veih rifert,reis long, 
•8 coming from res. 

Rem. 4. Except in prepositions, a, ending the first part of a 

compound word, is long ; e, t, o, u, and y, are short ; as, 

mdlo, qudpropter, trddo (trans do) ; nifaSf validicOf hujvseimddi ; lUeeps, 
amnlpdtenSf signlfico ; hAdie^ quand^mAdem^ pMldsdphtts ; ducentif locupteSf 
Trajiigina; Folpddrus, EurpppbtSy Thrasphulus. 

£zc. 1. A. In qudsif eddem when not an ablative, and in some Greek 
compounds, a is short ; as, catdpulta^ kexdmHer. 

Exc. 2. £. The e is long in nemo, nSquam, nequando, nequcLqitam, 
nequidquarrif niqidsy n£quitia ; m€mH, mecurfif Ucumy sEcum, vicors, visa- 
ntiSy veneflcuSf and vidilltetf (see § 295 ;) — also in wt)rds compounded with 
se Cot sex or semi; as, sididnij semestris, semodius; but in seUbra it is 
found short in Martial. 

Note. The e in videlicet, as in vide, is sometimes made short. See 
§295, Exc. 3. 

E is common in some verbs compounded with yhcio; as, Uquefacioj pal^ 
fado, rarefado, tabefado, tepefado. 

Exc. 3. I. (1.) The t is long in those compounds in which the first 
part is declined, (§ 296 ;) as, quidam, gulvis, quilibet, quantlvis, quanitr 
cttnque, tantideim, unleui^e, tudem, reipubtlca, qualieunque, tUriqu^. 

(3.) / is also long in those compounds which may be separated inriiliiovl 

PB08€H>T.«<-^nAnFnTT:; XNCBEKSNT Of NOFNS. 96& 

alierkig the Bense, (§ 296;) as, 2«ifoiiiafi«£ier, jiiciV'^Bteio, .«ffifif, d^rf- 

(3.) /, ending the fonner p<irt of a compound word^ is sometimes made 
long by contraction ; as, tmeen for tUUcenf from tibia and eano. See 
§ 283, III. 

(4.) / is long in blgtBf quadnffOB, iHeeif sttiUet^ Hmus, tnmuBf quadnmus, 

(5.) In idemf when masculine, i is lon^; but when neuter, it is short. 
The i of ubique and tUrobiquCf the second m ibidem^ and the first in ninil- 
rum, are long. In ubieumque and ubivis, as in u6i, t is common. 

(G.) Compounds of dXes have the final i of the former part long ; as, 
hlduum, trlduuntj meridieSj quotldie, quotldianus, prldicy postridie. 

Note. In Greek words, i, endinor the former part of a compound, is 
short, unless it comes from the diphthong ei^ or is made long or conmion 
by position ', as, Cal£fmdchus. 

Ezc. 4. O. (1.) In compounds, the final o of eontro^ intrOf retrOf and 
quando (except quanddquidem,) is lon^ ; as, eontrdversia, intrddueoy retrO" 
eidOf quandoque. is long also in alioquin, e'eterOquin, vtrOque^ vtrdbique. 

(2.) O is long also in the compounds of quo ; as, qu&mdda, quOamque^ 
qudmimu, quScirca, qu&viSf qudque ; but in the conjunction qudque^ it is 

> (3.) Greek words which are written with an amiga have the o long ; 
•8, geOmetra, MindtauruSj lagdpus. 

£xc. 5. U. The u is long in JapUer, judex^ and judicium. The final 
u in the former part of ttsiicapio and tis^venio is regularly long. See { 296. 


^ 286. 1. A noun is said to increase^ when^ in any of its 
cases, it has more syllables than in the nominative singular ; as, 
yax^ pads ; sermo, sermonis. . 

The number of increments in any case of a noun is equal to 
that of its additional syllables. 

2. Nouns in^eneral have but one increment in the singular. 

But iter, rupeUex, compounds of caput ending in ps^ and sometimes 
tectfr, have two ; as, 

itety i-tiTirH-ris ; ancepSj an-cip-i-tis ; 

supdleXf au-^d-uC'GrUs ; jccur, j^^iU'd-ris, 
The flouble increase of ifer, &c., in the singular number arises fVom their 
coming from obsolete nominatives, containing a syllable more than those 
now in use ; as, t^tner, dte. 

3. The dative and ablative plural of the third declension 

have one increment more than the genitive singular ; as, 

rex, Gren. rt-gisj D. and Ab. reg-l^bus, 

sermOy ser-mQ-ms^ < ger'fnaa'i'hus, 

tier, i-Hn-i-ris, ______ it-p-ner-i-bus, 

4. The last syllable of a word is never considered as the in 



erement. If a word has hot one increment, it is the pemilt; 
if two, the antepenult is called the first, and the penult the 
second ; and if three, the syllable beford the antepenult is called 
the first, the antepenult the second, and the penult the third 

5. In the third declension, the quantity of the first increment 
in all the other cases is the same as in the genitive singular; as, 

semUfniff serm6m, sermOnem^ sermOnty sermdneSf sermdnum, sermOnXbus. 
Bdhis, or bibuSffcom bos, b&ois^ is lengthened by pontraction from bUftfiha. 

Note. As adjectives and participles are declined like nouns, the aame 
rules of increment apply to all of them; and so also to pronouns. 



^ 28 7 • 1. When nouns of the first, fourth, and fiflh declensiou 
increase in the singular number, the increment consists of a yowel before 
the final vowel, and its quantity is determined by the first general rule 
with its exceptions. See § 283. 


2. The increments of the second declension are short ; 

gen&r, getUri ; satur, sat^ri; tenety teniri; rtr, viri. Thus, 

O pttiri ! ne t&nta animis assuescTte bella. Virg. 
Monstracinunt : genHras exterais afibre ab oris. Id. 

Exo. The increment of Ber and CeUiber is long. For that of genitives 

in tttf, see § 283, £xc. 4. 


3. The increments of the third declension in a and o 
are long ; those in e, i, u, and y, are short ; as, 

animal f ardmdXis ; audaXf auddds; sermo, sermOnis; ferex^ ^erdcia, 
vpusy opiris; cder, cdiris ; mites , mUitis; supplex, supplids/ mumtwr 
wnarm&ris; cicury cicbris. Thus, • 

PronSque cilm spectent animdlia cetera terram. Ovid, 
H»c turn multiplici poptLlos sermdnB replebat. Virg. 
Incumbent geniris lapsi sarcire ruinas. Id, 
Qualem virgineo demessu^ poUice florem. Id. 
Aspice, vent6si ceciderunt mwrm^tis auns. Id. 

Exceptions in Increments in A. 

1. Masculines in al and or (except Car and N<ur) i 
short ; as, Annlhaly Annihdlis. 


Tar and its compounds, and the following — emaSy maSf vas (t&dis)^ 
baeear, keparfjvhar, lory nectar, and sal — also increase short. 

2. ^, in the increment of nouns in s with a consonant be- 
fore it, is short ; as, Arabs, Arabis. 

3. Greek nouns in a and as {adis or atis) increase short ; 

as, poima, poemdtis ; lampas, lampadis, 

^ 4. The fallowing in ax increase short : — a&ox, atOhraXy Ataz, JJtraz. 
dimaXy eolax, eoraXy dropax, faXy harpax, panaXy phylaxy smilaXf ana 

Exceptions in Increments in O. 

1. O, in the increment of neuter nouns, is short ; as, 

marmory marmdris ; corpus y corporis ; ebury eb&ris. Bat os (the month)^ 
and the neuter of comparatives, like their masculine and feminine, in- 
crease long. The increment of ador is common. 

2. O is short in the increment of Greek nouns in o or on, 

which, in the oblique cases, have omicron ; as, 

Aidouy Jieddnis ; Agamemnouy AgavMrnnMu* SHUm^ Orion, and 
^ JEgaouy have the increment common. 

3. In the increment of gentile nouns in o or on, o is gene- 
rally short ; as, 

Jiiaddoy MacedHnis, So, SenSneSy Teutdnes, &c. 

But the following have o long : — y^ntrdneSy LacOncSy IdneSy KastMOnM, 
SuessOneSy Vett&ncsy Burgundidnes. Britones has the o common. 

4. Greek nouns in tor increase short ; as. Hector, Hectdris ; 
rhetor, rhetdris. 





6. Compounds of pus (novg^y as tripuSy PdppuSy and also arbor, 
boSy eomposy imposy and ItpuSy mcrease short. 

6. O, in the increment of liouns in s with a consonant before 
it, is short ; as, 

serobsy scrObis; inopsy iridpis. But it is long in the increment of 
CercopSy CydopSy and Hydrops. 

^1 7. The increment of AUobrox, Cappdidox, and pracox, is also short. 

L Exceptions in Increments in E. 

1. Nouns in en, enis (except Hi/men), lengthen their incre- 
ment ; as. Siren, Sirenis, So, Aniinisy Merienis, firom AniOy &/C 

2. HtareSy locHpleSy mansuesy mercesy and auies — also IbcTy ver, lex, rex, 
and vervex — plAsy sepsy and haUc — ^increase long. 

3. Greek nouns in es and er (except aJer and eether) increase 
long ; as, magnes, magnetis : crater, cratiris. 

ExceptioihS in Increments in I. 

1. Verbals in trix, and adjectives in ix, increase long ; ai^ 
vietrix, victrtcis ; felix,frUcis. 


% The following notms in ix also inciease long : — cervix, dedtriz, 
eomixj cotumix^ loaiXf matrix^ perdix, phcBniXf and radix. So also mbeit 

3. Greek nouns, whose genitive is in inis, increase long ; as, 
detpkiUf ddphims ; Salamis, ScUamims. 

4. The following nouns in is increase lon^r i-^isj gUs, lis, Jilhsit, 
Qictrt5, and Samnig* The increment o£ Psophis is common. 

Exceptions in Increments in U. 

1. Genitives in udis, uris, and utis, from nominatives in its, 

have the penult long ; as, 

paluSf paludis; ttUuSf teUnris; virtus^ virtitHs* But intarcuSf JUgut, 
and pecugf increase short. 

2. Furffrux (obs.), lux, and PolkiXf increase long. 

Exceptions in Increments in Y. 

1. Greek nouns whose genitive is in ynis, increase Ions ; ast 
Plu^cyn, Phorcynis; TrlcKys. TraclTynis: 

2. The increment of bombyx, C&yx, and gryps, is long ; that of Beoryt 
and sandyx is conmion. 


^ 288* A noun in the plural number is said to increase, 
when, in any case, it has more syllables than in the ablative sin- 

When a noun increases in the plural number, its penult is 
called the plural increment ; as, 5a in musdrum, no in domino^ 
rum, pi in rupium and ruptbus. 

In plural increments, a, e, and o, are long, t and v 
are short ; as, 

hondrumf animdhtis, rerum, ribtts, generOrum, amhobtts ; sermmMum 
iaMus. Thus, 

Appia, Zon^arum/ terltur, reglna vidrum, Stat. 
8unt lacr^mee rCrumf et mentem mortalia tangunt. Virg. 
Atque ahi, qudrurn comoedia prisca virOrum est. Hor. 
Pert^bima egredior, venti8que/«ren^6«<« usus. Ovui 


^ 289. 1. A verb is said to increase, when, in any of ita 
parts, it has more syllables than in the second person singular 
of the present indicative active; as, das, dortis; doces. 


2. The number of increments in anj part of a verb is equal 
to that'of its additional syllables. In verbs, as in nouns, the 
last syllable is never considered the increment. If a verb has 
but one increment, it is the penult ; and this first increment, 
through all the variations of the verb, except in reduplicated 
tenses, continues equally distant from the first syllable. The re- 
maining increments are numbered successively from the first; as, 

a-mas, mo-nes, au-dis, 

» * J . 

a-mfl-moB, mo-nfi-tnr, an-di-tui, 

am-a-ba-miis, mon-e-re-tar, au-di-e-has, 

198 lis 1984, 

am-a-ve-rft-mns. mon-e-bim-l-ni. au-di-e^bom-I-m. 

A verb in the active voice may have three incrementB ; in the paasivey 
it may have four. 

3. In determining the increments of deponent verbs, mn 
active voice may be supposed, formed regularly from the same 

1 19 

Thus the increments of 2<0-tfl-fur, lat-arbSTtur^ &c., axe reckoned from 
the supposed verb Ueto, UEtas. 

^ 290* In the increments of verbs, a, e, and Oy are long ; 
i and u are short ; as, 

amdre, monereffaUtOtef volUmitSf regehdmXni. Thus, 
£t catUare pares, et respandire pardti, Virg, 
Sic equidem dueibam animo, ribarque futaram. Id. 
Ciimque loqoi pot£rit, maiiemfacUOte salatet. Ovid, 
Sdndltur interea studia in contraria yulgus. Virff, 
Nos numSros sUmuSf et fiiiges consumeie nati. id. 

Exertions in Increments in A. 

The first increment of do is short ; as, ddmus, d&hdmus, 
eircumd&re, circumddbdmus, 

Exceptions in Increments in E. 

1. E before r is short in the Jirst increment of all the pres- 
ent and imperfect tenses of the third conjugation, and in the 
second increment in beris and here ; as, 

regire (infin. and imperat.), re^iris or regire (pros. ind. pass.), regirem 
and regirer (imp. subj.) ; ajnabinSf amahire; monebiris, monebire. 

Note. Vdim, veUs, &a.i from vd2o,baye the e short, according to § 284. 

2. E is short before ram^ rim, ro, and the persons formed 
from them ; as, 

amaviram, amofMrat, amanirvm, mamtirimus, rBxiro, audiviritis, 

NoTS. In veibs which have been shortened by sjmcope or otherwise 
a before r retains its original quantity ; as, /from for fliviram. 

For the short e before runt, in the perfect indicative, as, fUUrunl 
■ee Sytude, § 307 



JExaptwns in Increments in I. 

1. I before v, in tenses formed from the second root, is long; 
as^ pcttvif audtvi, quasivit, audivifnuSf audiv^ram. 

2. I is long in the penult of polysyllabic supines from verbs 
whose perfects end in tvi ; as, petitum, quasttum. See § 284, 
Rem. 2. 

3. The first increment t)f the fourth conjugation, except in 
imus of the perfect indicative, is long ; as, 

audlre, audlrem, venlmuSf but in the perfect venimut. Bo in the 
ancient forms in ibam, ibo, of the fouzth conjugation; as, mUribatf 
leuilnirU; and also in ibam and ibOf from eo. 

When a vowel follows, the % is short, by § 283 ; as, auditaU, auSUbam, 

4. I is long in simus, Mis^ veZf mti5, veUUSy and their eompoonds ; ui, 
possimiis, adsimuSf malimuSf nollmuSj and noUto, nolUef nolitfte. 

9. I in rimus and ritisy in the future perfect and perfect 
subjunctive, is common ; as, 

videTitis rOvid), tUxerUis (Id.) ffecenmus (Catoll.), eontigemis (Ovid) ; 
egerimus (Virg.)* 

Exceptions in Increments in U. 

U is long in the increment of supines, and of participles 
formed from the third root of the verb ; as, 
S€catuSf soliUus, sedUUrtUf MoUunrut, 



<^ 29 !• 1. Words ending in acus, icus, and icum^ shorten 

the penult ; as, 

amardcus, JEgyptidcuSf aeademicuSf rustlcus, tntleuinf viaiieum. 

Except inerdcuSf opdcus ; amicus^ apricuSf antlcuSf Jicus, lumbrfeuSf 
mmuUeuSf posticus^ pudieuSf umbilicus, vioif, jkcus, 

2. Words ending in abrum, ubrum, acrum, uertcm, and airum, 
lengthen the penult ; as, 

eandddbnentf delubrumy lavderum, involnerum^ verdtrum, lucrum. 

3. Nouns in ca lengthen the penult ; as, 

dodea, apotheca^ loncay phoca^ lactuca. 

Except attca, brasAca, dtca, fuUea, raantlca, pedtea, perttca, seutUOm 
phalarlea, srtbUcaf ftmlca, vomica ; and also some nouns in tea, deriTea 
urom adjectiyes in Icus ; as, fabfUa^ grammtUicaf &c. So marAciB. 

4. Patronymics in odes and ides shorten the penult; us, 

Atlantiddes, Priamides. 

Except those in ides which are formed from nomw ia mu or Ms; tm^ 
JtndeSf from Mreus ; Jfeodides, firtan JfweUs ; ezoept, aisC| . ' 
BdldsSf JaptHonlidM, L^eurgidsa, 

PR080BT. ^UfNTIXr; PENULT^. Ull 

5. Patronymics and sinalar words in aiSf eis, and ois^ lengthen 

the penqh ; as, 

AchaiSf Chryseis^ Mhois. Except PhociUs and Tkebdis, The penult 
of Nerds is common. 

6. Words in do lengthen the penult ; as, ^ 

v6dOy etdojformldo^ rOdo^ UstHtd/iy alUtfidp. Except solXdOf eomXdo, 
unidoy eddo, dtoidOf ido (to eat), spddOftrepido. Rudo is common. 

7. Words in idus shorten the penult ; those in udus lengthen 
it; as, - . 

calUdiis, perffdus ; Indus , n^dus. "Exce^i fiduSj inftduSf nidus, Adus. 

8. Npuns in ga and go lengthen the penult ; as, 

collega, saga, rUga, imdgo, callgo, tsriigo. Except caUga, tdga, har- 
pdgo, llgo, pldga, (a region,) ^fe^a. 

9. Words in le, hs, and lis, lengthen the penult ; as, 

cr indie, manUle, ancile; dUs, miles, proles; anncUis, crudelis, civilis, 

Except verbals in His ; as, agilis, a/niahilis ; — adjectives in atilis ; as, 
aquatilis, umbraMis.; — and tlie following; dapsllis, dactylis, gracilis, 
humilis, parilis, simllis, sterilis, indoles, sobdles, mugllis, strigllis, 

10. Words in elus, ela, elum, lengthen the penult ; as, phor 
selus, querela, prelum. Except gelus, gelum, scelus. 

11. Diminutives in olus, ola, alum, ulus, ula, ulum, also words 

in ilus, and those in ulus and ula of more than two syllables, 

shorten the penult ; as, 

urcedluSjfilidla, iuguridlum, lectHlus, ratiundUa, corMum; ruCllus, goT' 
HUu8,fabiUa, Exc. asilus, . 

12. Words in ma lengthen the penult ; as, 

f&ma, poema, rima, auQma^ plnma. Exc an\ma^ma,lacr'gma,vicVlmao 

13. A vowel before final men or mentum is long ; as, 

levdmen, grdmen, crimen, flumen, jumentum, atr&menium. 

Except tdmen, colUmen, hpmen, elimentum, and certain verbals of 

the second and third conjugations; as, doc&mentum, regimen, tegLmtn^ 


14. Words ending in imus or ymus shorten the penult ; as, 

animus, Jinitimus, fortisslmus, maxlmus, thpmus. 

Except bimus, limus, mimus, opimus, quadrimus, amus, tnmus, and 
two superlatives, imus and pnmus. 

Note. When an adjective ends in umus for imus, the quantity remains 
the same ; as, dedimus, opiUmus, max&mus, for decimus, &c, 

15. A, e, o, and u, before final mus and mum, are long ; as, 
r&mus, rimus, extremus, prOmus, dumus, pomum, voUmum. 

Except atdmus, balsdmum, cinndmum, ddmus,gldmus, hiLmus, postHmuM 
ikaldmus, tdmus, caldmus, nimus. 

16. Words in na, ne, ni, and nis, lengthen the penult ; as, 
l&ruL, arena, carina, matrfina, Ulna, mdne, anemdne, septem^ octOm^ mfl 

fdgffiniSj immOnis, 


Except gSna, iftnBfdtniSjdmSfjvoinb; and the following m' 
tUnaf domlna, JUtinay Jemina, faadima, UunHwiy machlnay paginal poRna 
Mvcina, truHRA. So indiginaf bine. 

17. Adjectives in inus, derived from names of trees, plants, 

and stones, and fro^ adverbs of time, shorten the penult ; as, 

eedrinusy faginuSy eroAnuSy kyacintlafnuy adaman£iftuay crystaUHnut ; 
erasUnuSy diulXnus; also aniMlimc#, homhy^nusy and eUpkaaiRfius. 

Other adjectives and words in inus lengthen the penult ; as, 
canlnu8y HnuSyfestimtSy peregrtmuy mannusy clandestlnusy suplJtus. 
£xcept atinuMy oHnuSy eaphltmSy daminusy eaHnus, fatMnuSy fraaAnus 
pampinuSy Hnus, temtXnuSy geminus, circlnus. 

18. Ay e, Oy and u, before final tins and num^ are long ; as, 
urbdnusy serenuSj prdnus, mUnuSy veninunt. 

Except gaUfdnuSy mdnuSy ocednus, pUudnuSy tympdnum ; ebinttSy g^nvSy 
tinusy Vinus; bbnttSy dntiSy sihiuSy tdhtiSy thr6nus, dnusy lagdnvm. 

19. Words ending in pa shorten the penult ; as, 

aldpay nipUy eripay metdpay lUpa, Except rlpay c€pay scdpAy cUjm, pUpa 

20. Words in arts and are lengthen the penult ; as, 
aldriSy dlidre. Except hUdriSy canthdris, cappdriSy and mdrt. 

21. Before final ro or rovy e is short ; i, o, and u, are long ; as, 
tempiro, cdiro, qulror ; spiro, SrOyfigHrOy mlror. 

Except spiro J fdrOy mOrory vdro, fiirOy sat&ro ; and derivatives from 
genitives increasing short ; as, decdrOy mwrmfiroy &c ; also p€rOy s&ror. 

22. Before final rus, ra, rum, e is short ; the other vowels 
are long ; as, 

,mirusy kediray ceUrum; cdrusy miruSy mSruSy mUrns; hdray spiray Ora, 
naturay lorum. 

Except, 1. ausUruSy gaUruSy plerusy serus, severuSy vems, pira, dray 
panthcray staUray procerus, 

2. barbdruSy cammdruSy camurus, cantkdruSy chdruSy hellebdruSy n^rus^ 
phospkdruSy spdruSy i6rtts ; also ampJiSra, anchdray cithdrUy mdray purpUra^ 
philproy and /drum, suppdrumy gdrumy pdrum. So cindraypiniSyScdaia, 

23. Adjectives in osus lengthen the penult ; h^fumosus, per- 

24. Nouns in etas and itas shorten the penult ; as, pietas 

25. Adverbs in tim lengthen the penult, those in iter shorten 
It; as, 

oppiddtiniy Tfintiniy trtbatim; acHter, Excejpt stdHrriy affStimyperpStinu 

26. Words in ates, itisy otisy and eta, lengthen the penult ; aa^ 

vSteSy pendtesy vitiSy mltis, caryotisy Icaridtis, metdy poita. Except 
i^iisy pdtisy drapita, 

27. Nouns in atuniy etum, itum, utum, lengthen the penult ; as 
lupdtuTiiy arboretwny aconltuniy verutum. 

Except fritum, deJriUum, puLpitum. 


28. Words ending in tus lengthen the penult ; as, 

barbdiuSf grdtus, hoUtuSy facipiSf crtnltus^ pentuSy tBgrdtus, Wntj 
mrgutuSf kirsiUus. ^ 

Except cdtuSf UUus ('iris), impetus ^ mitus, Vitus, anhdituSf stn^tM 
spirltus, antiddltiSf tdtus (so great), qndtuSy arbHttus ; adverbB in itus, aaa 
aerivatives from supines with a, short penult; as, kaJbitus* So incl§tus. 

29. A penultimate vowel before v is long ; as, 

ddva, oliva, dives^ navis^ efvw, papdvery pdvo, pnvo, IHmmy prdmUf 

Except Sma, hrHviSf grdviSf UvU, Ms; edvo^ grdvOf j^i/oo^ IdvOf iXvo^ 
dvo; dvuSfCdvuSffdvuSftiSvuSffdvorfpavorfniivem. 

30. Words ending in dex, dix, mex, nix, lex, rex, lengthen 

the penult ; as, 

codex, Judex ; Iddix, rddix; t^mez, pnnux; jUtdx; ilex; edrez, 
mUrex. Except dUex, sllex, rimex. 


^ 292. 1. Adjectives in oceus and aneus lengthen the 
antepenult ; as, 

eretdeey3, testdceus, Tnomentdneus, sttbitdneus. 

2. Numerals in ginti, ginta, gies, and esimus, lengthen the 
, antepenult; as, . 

Vlginti, quadrdginta, qtdnqudgieSf trigeHmut^ 

3. O and u before final Untus are short ; as, 

4. A vowel before final nea, nea, nia, nio, nius, itttfat, is long ; 


ardnea, linear cdneo, mfLrua, pUnio, FacOniuSf palrimifniunu 

Except castdnea, anea, jndneo, mineo, mdneOj tinta, ignovUnUk, vfmm, 
tinto, Idnio, vlnio ; — and words in iHmum ; as, Unodinium, So lusiAma, 

5. Words ending in areo, arius, arium, erium, orius, lengthen 
the antepenult; as, 

dreOf eibdriusj plafUdrium, dicterium, csnsOrms, Except cdreo and 
vdriuSj HaoimpBrium. 

6. Adjectives in aticus, oHlis, lengthen the antepenult ; as, 

aqudOcus, plumdttiis. Except aome Greek words in rndttcus; •■, 

7. / before final tudo is short ; as, oMtudo, langitudo, 


^293* 1« Proper names of more than two syllables, 
found in the poets with the following terminations, shorten 
- the penult • — 































dusji* anis, 

gU8,i5 eriis,!* 

Tus," yrus, 

mu8,^^ asusy 

chus,^ phusjW 0SU8, 





eus/^ (monosyL) 

1. Marlca. NasTca, Ustlca. 


<. ^r.,M.«.». A,wa«», wi»ww». Stratonlcos, Trivlcus, Numl- 

2. Eriphj^la, Mes8&la, Philomela. 13. Ophiacua. [cus. 

3. Alcmena, Amphisibena, Athe- 14. Abydus, Androdns. 
nra, CssSna, Camena, Cattie- 15. CeUiegus. 
na, PiceniB, Sophene, Marina. 16. Mtoinsj Cleobalus, Eumelns, 

4. Berenice, Elyce. 

5. Eriphyle, Neobale, Perimele. 

6. Europe, Si nope. 

7. Alemon, Cytheron, ChalcSdon, 

Damasiton, lason, Philemon, 
Sarpedon, Thermodon, Poly- 
giton, P(Uyphemon,Anthedon. 

8. Carthago, (5up&vo, Theano. 

9. Melea^r. 

10. Be88ali8, £umeli8, Juyenalia, 

Martialis, Phaselis, Stympha- 

11. Cercyros, Cotytos. Phaisalos, 

Seriphos, Peparethos. 

12. Benacus, Caycus, Granlcus, 

Mossyneci, OlympionicuSy 

Gstulns, Hanalos, lalos, 
Mnasylus, Neobalos, Pacto- 
lus, rompilus, Sardanapalus, 
Stymphafus, Timolus, Thrasy- 
bulus, Mausolus, Pfaarsalus. 

17. Some in demus and phemus ; as, 

Academus, Charidemus, £tt- 
phemus, Menedemus, Philo- 
demus, Polyphemus. 

18. Seryphus. 

19. Homerus, Iberus. 

20. Aratus, Ceeratus, Torqu&tus. 

21. Heraclltus, HermaphrodXtus . 

22. Buthrotus. 

23. Enipeus, Meiieceas, Ollens. 

2. Proper names of more than two syllables, found in the 
poets with the following terminations; lengthen the penult : — 






















' ytiis,*8 







1. Sequ&na. 

2. Aslna, Muttna, Proserpina, 

RasTna, Rusplna, Sarslna. 

3. Axdna, Matrdna. 

4. Dalmata, MassagSta, Prochj^ta, 

Sarmata, SostrSta. 

5. Galatee, Jaxam€t8B, Laplthes, 

MacetcB, Sauromat89. 

6. Clymene, Helene, Melpomene, 

I^yctimene ^ 

7. Arimtnum, Drep&num, Peuce- 


8. Numitor. 

9. Miltiades, Pyl&des, Sotftdes, 

Thucydides; patronymics in 
desy (I 291, 4,) and plurals va 

10. Antiph&tes, Amodj^tes, Geil- 

tes, Charlies, Eteretes, En- 
rybates, Harpocrates, Ichno- 
bates, Massagetes, Menecr&tes, 
Socrates, Anaxaretes. 

11. Dercetis. 

12. Apdnu8,Acinddnus, Acyndmus, 

Ambenus, Apidanus, Bati nus, 
Ccellnus, Chrysogdnus, Cim- 
inus, Comag^us, Concanus, 
Dardanus, Diadumenus, Du- 
r&nus, Eridanus, Helenas, 
Fusinus, Fuscinus, lUibanus, 
Libanus, Lycinu8,MessalInus, 
Mor!ni, WebrophSnus, Pericly- 
menus, Poppeanus, Rhodanus 
SolXnus, pteph&nus, Teleg5- 


nuB, Tenii!nas, TheiYnas, CarpophSrus, Mastigophfirnii 

Vertflnus. Mycdnus. Phosphdrus, Stesichdrus. 

13. <£dlpus. 16. Ephdsus, VogSBus, VolSsos. 

14. LamfnxB. 17. lap^tus, Tayg^tuB, VenStuB. 

15. PacdroB, and thoae in chorus 18. i&pJ^tuB, Anj^tuB, EurjMoB, 

and pkorus; as, Boi^bSruB, nippoiftxm. 

3. The penultimate vowel of the following proper names, 
and adjectives derived from proper names, though followed 
by a vowel, is long. See § 283, Exc. 6. 

Alexandria, Alpheus, AchelOus, AcMUeus, Achillea, Amphiaraus, Am- 
phion, iGneas, Aifon, AicyoneuB, Aloeus, AnchisfiUB, AtlantfiuB, i£thion, 
Amineus, Amphigenia, Amythaon, Antiochia, BionSuB, Cymodocea, 
CalUppea, Cassiopaa, Cydoneus, Csesarea, Calaarfius, Chremetaon, Cle- 
anthgas, Cytherea,' Deiuamia, Didymaon, Dolicaon, DariuB, £Iei, £n^o, 
Edus, Echion, Eleus, EndymionSus, Erebeus, Erectheus, Hyperion, Gala- 
tea, Giffanteuer^ Heraclea, Hippodamla, Hypetfton, lolaus, Iphigenla, 
Ixlon, Uithyla, Imaon, l«aodamIa, Lycaon, LatSuB, LesbQuB, Macnaon, 
Mausoleum, Medea, Menelaus, Mathion, Methton, MyrtouB, Orion, 
Orithyia, Orpheus, Oph^on, Pallanteum, Peneus, Penthesilea, Phoebeus, 
Pandfcm, Piotesilaus, JPyreneus, Sardous, Papfaagea, Poppea, Thalia. 

Note. EtiSj in the termination of Greek proper names, is commonly 
a diphthong ; as, Bri&reuSf CeneuSf Enipeus, tdomineus^ Maedreus, Mens- 
eeuSf MetgreuSf Orpheus, PeniheslleuSf Perseus, Theseus. See § 283, 
Exc. 6, Note 2. But in those which in Greek are written tioq (eios)<, eut 
forms two syliafoles ; as, Alphius. Soidso in adjectives in eu5, wnether of 
Greek or Latin origin ; as, Erebetts, EirecUatis^ Orpk€us, 


A. final. 

^294* 1. A final, in words declined, is short; as, 

musd, templa, capita, Tifdea. Thus, 

Musd mihi causas raemdra; quo numlne Iqso Virg. 

Exc A final is long in the ablative of the first declension, 

and in the vocative of Greek nouns in as ; as, 

Musdffundd ; ^nid, O Palld. The vocative AnchlsA (iEn. 3, 475), 
also, has the final a long. 

2. A final, in words not declined, is long; as, ama^ 
frustra, antea, erga, intra. Thus, 

Extrd fortQnam est quidquid donator amlcis. MarL 

Exc. Ji final IB short in ^d, itd, quid, and in putd, when used adverbi- 
ally. It is sometimes short in the preposition coiUra, and in numerals 
ending in girUa ; as, trigirUa, &c. In postea, it is common. 

A final is also short in the names of Greek letters; as, tdpkd 

S76 PsoflOBT. — ^UAJBrriTT or riNAL srhLABtxn. 

E final. . 

^ 295* E final is short ; as, nate, patrcj ipse, aari^ 
regercj nempe, ante. Thus, 

Jndipif pansi puer, risa eognateihri matrem. Virg, 
Ezc. 1. JS final is long in nouns of the first and fifUi d^ 

clensions; as, 

CaUiOpi, Tydlde, fide. So also ri and dUy with their compoundf 
auarit kodU, pridii, postrtdUj qtuftidie. In like manner Greek voeatives 
in «, firom nouns in esy of the third declension ; as, AckUU^ Himwmine, 
The e is also long in the ablative/amf, originally of the fiflh declension. 

£ic. 2. E final is k>ng in Greek neuters plural 3 as, ceti, meU, pei4ge, 

Exc. 3. In the second conjugation, e final is long in the 
second person singular of the imperative active; as, dod, 
mone ; — but it b sonretimes «hort in cave^ vale, and vide, 

Ex6. 4. In monosyllables, e final. is long; as, 

f , mi, Uf s€, ne Hest or not) ; but the enclitics que, ne, as, ee, dMS., as 
they are not used alone, have e short, according to the rule ; as, «e^, 
hujuscif suapU, 

Exc. 5. jEJ final is long in adverbs fc»rmed from adjectives 
of the first and second declensions ; as, 

vlaade, pulekri, valde for vatid£, maaAml ; but it is short in &en2,ina&f, 
^tfemi, and superni. 

Exc. 6. Fere,ferme, and oke, have the final e long. 

I finaL 

^ 296* / final is long ; as, domnly fiU, classi, docef% 
H. Thus, 

Quid dom\r^ facient, audent cdim tafia fiires. Vvrg. 
Exc. 1. I final is common in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, and «&t. 

In nisif quasif and cut, when a dissyllable, it is also common, butnsuallj 
short. In tUlnam and utique, it is short, and rarely in tUi, 

Exc. 2. J final is short in the dative singular of Greek nouns of the 
third declension, which increase in the genitiye ^ as, PaUidl, Men&tdl. 

Exc. 3. I final is short in Gfeek vocatives singular of the third de- 
clension; as, Mexl; Daphnl, Pari. But it is k>ng in vocatives firom 
Greek nouns in u, -en2o#; as, 6'»no{. 

Exc. 4. / final is short in Greek datives and ablatives plural in ji, 
©r, before a vowel, -nn; as, Drydsi, herolslf TVodsin 

O final 

^ 297* O final is common ; as^ virgo, amo, quando 

Ergd metu capTti Scylla est inin^ca patemo. Virg, 
Ergd soUicIte tu causa, peconia, vito es ! Prop. 


Excl. Monosyllables in o are long ; as, o, do, pro. 

£xc. 2. O final is long in the dative and ablative singular; 

as, domhuOy regno, bono, suo, iUo^ to. 

It is also long in ablativefl used as adverba ; as, certo, falad, merits, 90 f 
pa ; to wluch may be added t/rgO (for the sake of). 

Rem. 1. The gerund in do, in the later poets, has sometimes • 
short ; as, vigilandd. Juv. 

Rkh. 2. The final o in cUo is short : in fiufdo, it is common, but short 
in its compounds ; as, dumnUkUi, postmddd, &c. It is also ommon in 
adeOf ideoy postriTno, sero, and vero. In UHco, profecte, and sulAto, it is 
found short. 

Exc. 3. O final is short in immiS, and common in iddreo, porro, and 

Exc. 4. O final, in Greek nouns written with an omXga, is long ; as, 
CUa, JHdS; Jitk$ and SndrogeO (gen). 

NoTS. The final o of verba is almost always long in poets of or near 
the Augustan age ; they,- however, shorten it in ado, ii««c«>,>and spomd&o. 
Later poets make the o short in many other verbs. 

U final. 

-^298. 1. £7 final is long; as, mUu^ cqrn&^ Panthu^ 
dictu. Thus, 

ytdta quo coelum tempestatesque serSnat. Vlrg 

Exc. Indu and nenu, ancient forms of in and non, have u short. U is 
also short in terminations in us short, when s is removed by elision ; as, 
wrUmUil', for conteiU&s. See § 305, 2, 

Y final* 
2. T final is short ; as, Moly^ Tiphy. Thus, 

Molp vocant supSri : nigid. radlce tenetur. Ovid. 
F, in the dative Tethy, being formed by contraction, is long. § 283, III. 

B, D, L, IT, R, T, final 

^ 29&« 1. Final syllables ending in 6, d, I, n, r, and t, 
are short ; as, ab, illud, consul, carmen, pater , caput. Thu8> 

Ipse doeet quid a^m. Fas est U ^ hoste docSri. (hid. 
Obstupuit sim^ ipse, simul perculsus Achates. Virg. 
NonUn Arionium SicHlos implevirdt urbes. Ovid. 
Dum loqudr, horrdr habet ; parsque est meminisse doloris. Id. 

Exc. 1. L Sal, sol, and ivU, are long. 

Exc. 2. N. En, non, quin, and sin, are long. 

Exc. 3. In Greek nouns, nominatives in n (except those 
in on, written with an omicronS, masculine accusatives in an, 
masculine or feminine accusatives in en, and genitives plaral 
in in, lengthen the final syllable ; as, 



TUdUf spUn, Saldmln, OfUfn, Phoregn; JEtUdn, JkuMsSn^ CaOidpin, 

Exc. 4. R. Aer^ ather, and nouns in er which fonn their 
genitive in iris, lengthen the final syllable ; as, 

cratir, vfr. So also Jber; but the compound CdOhtr has ito last 8jll»> 
ble common. 

£10. 5. FaVf loTf Jfatf par^ eur, tLndJur, ftre lon|r. 

RsM. A final syllable endln||^ m (, may be rendered long hy a diph- 
thonff , by contractioni or by position ; as, out, abU for abiUf amSnt. See 
1 38Sf Ily III^ IV* 

M final. 

2. Final m, with the preceding vowel, is almost always cut off, when flat 
next word begins with a vowel. See EdkUpsiSy § 305, 2. 

Final syllables ending in m, when it is not cut off, are short ; as, 
Quam laudas, plumi ? cocto nUkm adest honor idem^ Hor. 

Hence, the final syllables of cum and drcum^ in composition, ake shorty 
■s, e&aUdOf cirdStmdgo. 

C final. 

3. Final syllables ending in c are long; as, oc, Ulue* 

Macte nov& virtate, puer; He itur ad astra. Virg. 
Exo. AVc, daneCf foe, are short, and sometimes the pronouns ku and 
koe in the nominative and accusative. 

AS^ HSy and OS^ final. 
^ 300. Tlnal syllables in asy es, and os, are long ; n», 

piitc^, amSSj qnieSf numiSf honOs^ virOs, Thns, 

Hds autem terrds, Itallque banc littdris oram. Virg, 
Si mod6 des illis cultus, simiUgque paratus. (hnd. 
Nee nOs ambitio, nee amor nds tangit habendi. Id, 

Exo. 1. AS. As is short in andSf in Greek nouns whose genitive 
ends in ddis or ddttSy and in Greek accusatives plural of the third declezk- 
sion ; as, ArcdSf PaUds, herdds, lampddds. 

To these may be added Latin nouns in as^ ddos, formed Bke Greek 
patronymics ; as, Appi&s, 

Exc. 2. ES. Final es is short in nouns and adjectives of 
the third declension which increase short in the genitive \ as, 
hospeSy limes, hehes. 

But it is long in aMeSf aries, Ceres, paries, and pes. 

Es, in the present tense of 5um, and in the preposition /?ene5, is short. 

Es is short in Greek neuters, and in .Greek nominatives and vocatives 
plural from nouns oS the third declension, which increase in the gemtiTe 
otherwise than in eos ; as, cacoetkfs, Arcdd(s, Trots, Amazdnis, 

Exc. 3. OS. Os is short in compos, irrmos, and os (ossis). 

In Greek nonns, os is short in words of the second declension (except 
those whose genitive is in o}, in neuters, and in genitives singuUur > mm 
m»s Tyrds (but Athds) ; chads, ^s, PaUddds, Ttthyds. 


IS, us, and YS, final 
^301* Final syllables in is, us, and ys, are short; as, 

torrid, nuUfls, amdHs ; pectHis, honHSf amdmVLs ; Capjs, Tethjs, 

Non apis inde tulit coUectos sedCLla floreB. Ovid. 
SenUks aut citii^s sedem propardm^ ad unam. Id. 
At CappSf et quorum melior sententia menti. Virg. 

£xc. 1. IS. Is is long in plural cases ; as, 

muASf noHs; omnls, urHs, for amneSj^urbes; qulSf for queis or qmbui. 

Is IB long in nouns whose genitives end in uis, itus^ or entis; tm, 
SamnlSf SaldmlSf Simois. 

Is is long in the second person singular of the present indica- 
tive active of the fourth conjugation ; as, 

audlSf neseis. So also in the second persons, Jis, is, sis, vis, velis, and 
their compounds ; as, possis, quamvis, nudis, noils, &c. 

Rb, in the future perfect tense, is common ; as, vidiris. 
In the nouns glis and vis, and the adverb gratis, is is long. 

£xc. 2. US. Monosyllables in us are long ; as, grus, rus, 

Us is long in nouns of the third declension which increase 
long, and in the genitive singular, and the nominative, accusa- 
tive, and vocative plural of the fourth declension (§§ 89, Rem., 
and 283, III.) ; as, 

tdl/Os, virt€Ls, incQs ;-—fruct1ls. But paHu, with the us short, occurs in 
Horace, Art. Poet. 65. 

-Us is long in Greek nouns written in the original with the diphthong 
ovg (<'U9), Aether in the nominative or genitive; as, nom. Amdthns, 
Opits, CEeUpHs, tripos, Panthus ; gen. DidHs, SapphHs. But compounds 
oi pus (noiig), when of the second declension, have us short ; as, polppUis, 

Note. The last syllable of every verse (except the ana- 
paestic, and the Ionic a minore) may b6 either long or short, at 
the option of the poet. 

By this is meant, that, idthough the measure require a long syllable, a 
short one may be used in its stead ; and a long syllable may be used 
where a short one is required ; as in the following verses, where the short 
syllable ma stands instead of a long one, and the long syllable cu instead 
of a short one :— 

Sanguine&que manu crepitantia conct&tit amtA. Ovid. 

Non eget Mauri jacCLlis, nee arcil. Hor. 



^ 302. A foot is a combination of two or more syllar 
bias of a certain quantity. 


Feet are either simple or compound. Simple feet consist of 
two QT three syllables ; compound feet of four. 


1. Of two SifUables. 

AMmiZea, two long ; as, •••••• .faitd/Hni, 

Ptfrrhic^ two short ; aa, DiHts. 

Trochtt^ or cAorM|. • • .a long and a short ; as,. &rmii» 

lawiuMy a short and a long; as, irdaU* 

2. Of ihree SyUabks. 

DaehfL^ ••• a lon^ and two short ; as, eCrpOrd. 

Jinapastf two 'short and a long ; as,. d&mini* 

Triorackf, three short ; as, • .fSkdri. 

Molossusj ......•,.. .three long ; as,. •c&nUndQiaL 

JimphibrcLchy a short, a long, and a short; as, • . . ,danarl, 

Amphim&UTfOtCrttiOj a long, a short, and a long; as, . . . ,cas&,tds, 

Bacchlus, a short and two long ; as, CcLUfnSs. 

JintibaechtuSf ....... .two long and a short ; as,. ..... . ,R6mdn^, 


JHsponde6f a doable spondee ; as, cdnflixerihU, 

ProedtuamatU^ ...... a double Pyrrhic ; as, hJimlnibiSia, 

DitrockeCf • a double trochee *y as, .cdmprdbdiftL 

JHiambuSf, . . • a double iambus ; as, .dmdvirdnt. 

Greater lomc, a spondee and a Pyrrhic; as, dfrrixMrnlis, 

Smaller lonie,* ...... .a Pyrrliic and a spondee ; as, ^prdpirdbdnt, 

ChoriambuSf, a choree and an iambus ; as, UrHflcAnt, 

JlfUispastf .an iambus and a choree ; as,. .... .ddh^estssi. 

First epUrit^ .an iambus and a spoiidee ; as,. . . • ,&7aaveniLnL 

Second epiirii, a trochee and a spondee ; as, cond!U6r€s. 

Third epiiritf a spondee and an iambus ; as, discdrtUds. 

Fourth epitritf a spondee and a trochee ; as, AddltxisOs. 

First paoHf .a trochee and a Pyrrhic ; as, tempdrlblks. 

Second paon, an iambus and a ryrrhic ; as, pdtinOd, 

Third pteonj a Pyrrhic and a trochee ; as, ArAindtiis* 

FovTth p<Bon^ a Pyrrhic and an iambus; as,. . . . ^c^Ulfttas^ 

Those feet axe called isochronous^ which consist of equal times ; as the 
spondee, the dactyl, the anapaest, and the proceleusmatic, one long time 
Ming considered equal to two short. 


^ 303* Metre is an arrangement of syllables and feet 
according to certain rules. 

In this general sense, it comprehends either an entire vene, a 
of a verse, or any number of verses. 

PKOsoDT. — ^versification; verses. 881 

Metre is diyided into dactylic, anapasfic, iambic, trochaic^ 
choriamhic, and Ionic, These names are derived from the 
original or fundamental foot employed in each. 

A metre, or measure, in a specific sense, is either a single foot, 
or a combination of two feet. In dactylic, choriamhic, and 
Ionic metre, a measure consists of one foot; in the remainder, 
of two feet. 


, ^ 304. A verse is a certain number of feet, arranged 
in a regular order, and constituting a line of poetry. 

1. Two verses are called a distich ; a half verse, a hemistich. 

2. Verses are of different kinds, denominated sometimes, like 
the different species of metre, from the foot which chiefly pre- 
dominates in them ; as, dactylic, iambic, &c. ; — sometimes from 
the number of feet or metres which they contain ; as, senarius, 
consisting of six feet ; octonarius, of eight feet ; manometer, 
consisting of one measure ; dimmer, of two ; trimeter, tetram- 
eter, pentameter, hexameter; — sometimes from a celebrated 
author who used a particular species ; as, Sapphic, Anacreontic, 
Alcaic, Asclepiadic, &c. ; — and sometimes from other circum- 

3. A verse, with respect to the metres which it contains, may 
be complete, deficient, or redundant. 

A verse which is complete is called acatalectic, 

A verse which is deficient, if it wants one syllable at the end, 
is called cataiectic ; if it wants a whdle foot or half a metre, it 
is called brctchycatalectic, 

A verse which wants a syllable at the beginning, is called 

A verse which has a redundant syllable or foot, is called 
hypercatdlectic or hypermeter, 

4. Hence, the complete name of every verse consists of three 
terms — ^the first referring to the species, the second to the num- 
ber of metres, and the third to the ending; as, the dactylic 
trimeter catalectic. 

5. A verse or portion of a verse (measured from the begin- 
ning of a line) which contains three half feet, or a fo0t and a 
hali^ is called the triemimiris ; if it contains five half feet, or 
two feet and a half, it is called the penthemimiris ; if seven half 
feet^ or three feet and a half, the hepthemimeris ; if nine half 
feet, or four feet and a half, the ennehemimMs. 

24 • 


S82 PROSODY. ^versification; riGtTRES. 

6. Scanning is the dividing of a verse into the feet of which 

i^ is composed. 

In order to scan correctly, it is necessary to know the quantity of each 
■yllable, and also to understand the following poetic lunges, which an 
■omietimeB called 


^ 305. 1. A final vowel or diphthong is cut off in scan- 
aing, when the following word begins with a vowel. This is 
ealled synaloBfpha, 

Thus, terra antiqua is read terr* antlqua ; Dardanldm i^fensiy DardmdS 
it^ejui; vento Auc, vent* uc. So, 

Quidve moror ? si omnes uno ordlne habstis Achlvos,.... Virg. 
which is scanned thus — 

Quidve moror ? s' omnes un' ordin' habetis Achivos. 

The interjections O, heu, ah, preh, vcb, vah, are not elided ; 

et de Lati&, O et de gente SabTn&. Ovid. 
But 0, when not elided, is sometimes made short ; as, 

Te Cory^don d Alexi ; trahit sua quemque yoluptas. Vtrg, 

Other long vowels and diphthongs sometimes remain unelided, in which 
ease they are commonly made short ; as, 

Victor apud rapldum SimoSnta sub Hid alto. Virg, 
Anni tempdre eo qui Etesi& esse feruntur. Luer, 
Ter sunt conatl impongre Pelid Ossam. Virg, 
SflaticO et Panopedbf et Inoo Melicertas. Id, 

Rarely a short vowel, also, remains without elision ; as, 

Et veralncessu patuit ded. lUe ubi matrem.... Vtrg^ 
For synaloepha at the end of a line^ see Synapheia, § 307, 3. 


2. Pinal m, with the preceding vowel, is cut off when the fol- 
lowing word begins with a vowel. This is called ecthlipsis. 

O curas homtnum, O quantum est in rebus inane ! Pers, 

which is thus scanned,. 

O curas homTn' O quant* est in rebus inane. 
Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptom. Virg. 
This elision was sometimes omitted by the early poets ; as, 

CorpSriim officium est quoniam premSre omnia deorsum. later 

See § 299, 2. 
Final 8, also, with the preceding vowel, is sometimes elided by the 
early poets before a vowel, and sometimes s alone before a consonant ; mm 
tOfUerU^ atque (Enn.), for contentus atque; amjtHini* rebus. (Lucr,) So 
Tum laJteraU* dolor, certissHmu' nunciu* mortia. LueU. 
For ecthlipsis at the end of a line, see Synapheia, § 307 3 



^ 306. 1. Two vowels which are usually separated, are 
Bometimes contracted into one syllable. This is called synmr* 

Thus, in such case, 

Phaetkon is pronounced Phathon; atveo^ tdvo; Orpkea, Orphm. So, 
AureA percussum virgA, versumqne venenis. Virg. 
Eosdem habuit secum, quibus est elata, capillos. Prop, 

(1.^ SyniBTesis is frequent in n, tf<2em, iisdem, diif diU, <20m, <2«tiiMp#, 
' ddmUf aeestf dUratf eUiro, deirit^ deesse; as, 

i Precipitatur aquis, et aquis nox surgit ab isdem. Ovid. 

Sint Mscenates ; non deiruntf Flacce, MarOnes. Mart, 
I Ctii and huie are usually monosyllables. 

(2.) When two vowels in compound words are read as one syllable, the 
f former may rather be considered as elided than as united with the latter ; 

' as, e in arUeambfUOf anteXref anUhaCf dehinc^ meherMef &c., and a in eon- 


(3.) The syllable formed by the union of two vowels oflen retains the 
it quantity of the latter vowel, whether, long or short ; as, aMiUy ariite^ 

alrUgfUB, vindenudtoTf omnia; genua, tenuis, piiuUa, fluviorum, &c. In 
such examples, the i and u are pronounced like initial y and w ; as, ahyite^ 
omn-ya, tenvfis,p%tvyita, &c.; and, like consonants, they have, with another 
consonant, the power of lengthening a preceding short vowel, as in the 
[' above examples. 

i( In Statins, the word tenuUfre occurs, in which three vowels are united 

in pronunciation ; thus, ten'toid-re. 

(4.) Sometimes, afler a synaloepha, two vowels suffer synsresis^.u, 
Mtalio et, pronounced stdUyet. 

(5.) If only one of the vowels- is written^ the contraction is called 
erasis; as, di, consiH, for dii, eonsUii, 


2. A syllable is oflen divided into two syllables. This is 
called di(sresis. Thus, 

avldt, Trffla, siUia, sfiadent ; for aadm^ Troia or Troja, silva^ suadenL 
ti So, 

^ iEthereum sensum, atque aurdt simplicis ifipoem. Virg. 

Et ciaro sUlikis cemes Aquildne moveri. Id. 

Grammatlci certant ; et adhuc sub iudice lis est. Hor. 

So in Greek words originally written with a diphthong ; as, elegita, for 

f; #YSTOLE. 

^ 307. 1. !!i syllable which is long by nature or by posi 

S tion, is sometimes sh(»rtened. This is called systole ; as, 

vidtn, for videsne, in which e is naturally long ; jaA*n, for satisne, in 
which t is long by position > — hddUf for hoe die ; muUXmddis, for muUu 
modis. So, 

DucSre mtdamddis voces, et flectSre oantus. Lucr. 

(1.) By the omission of j after oft, ad^ oh, svbf and rs, in oompomid 


words, those prepontions retain their short qvantity, which would other- 
wise be made long by position ; as, dbicij ddlcitf dbldSf &c. Thus, 

Si quid nostra tois adUU vexatio rebus. Mart, 

In like manner, by rejecting the consonant of the prepontion, dpeno, 
lipmo, d«i«to, &«; aJe formedV systole. ^ ^ ^ 

(2.) The third person plural of certain perfects is said by some to be 
shortened by systole ; as, gUUrundy tuUrwUf &/c, ', but others believe that 
these irregmanties haye ansen from the errors of transcribers, or the 
carelessness of writers. 


2. A syllable naturally short, is sometimes lengthened. This 

is called diastole. 

It occurs most fiequenUy in proper names and in compounds of re; as, 
PrlamideSj religio, «c. Thus, 

Hanc tibi Pnamidea mitto, Lediea, salQtem. Ovid, 
Riligidne patrum multos servata per annos. Virg, 

Some editors double the consonant ailer re. 
Diastole is sometimes called eetSksis, 


3. Verses are sometimes connected together so that the first 

syllable of a verse has an influence on the final syllable of that 

which precedes, either by position, synaloepha, or ecthlipsis. 

See §^ 283 and 305. This is called synapheia. 

This figure was most frequent in anapiestic yerse, and in tiie Jonie c 

The following lines will illustrate its effect :— 

Frieceps silyas montesqueyii^f 
Citus ActiBon. Sen. 

The i in the final syllable of fu^t Which is naturally sh<»t, ie made 
long by position before the following consonants. 

Omnia Mercuric simllis vocemque colorem^us 

Et flavos Virg. 

Dissidens plebi numSro beatdrum 
£zf mit virtus. Hor. 

In the former of these examples, synapheia and synalcepha are com- 
bined ; in the latter, synapheia and ecthlipsis. 

By synapheia, the parts of a compound word were sometimes divided 
between two verses ; as^ 

SI non oflfendSret unum- 

Quemque poetarum lime labor et mora.... Hor, 

Rem. The poets, also, oflen make use of some other figures, which, 
however, are not peculiar to them. Such m prosthistSf apharHiSf syneOpep 
qtentkisiSf apocdpe, faragdgt^ tmesis, anJtilkUis, and metaihisit. oee 


^ 308. In pronouncing the syllables of verse, the voice 
rises and falls alternately at regular intervals. This regular 


alternate eleyation and depression of the voice is called rhytJim. 
The elevation of the voice is called arsis, its depression thesis. 
These terms sometimes, also^ designate the parts of a foot on 
which the eleva(;ion or depression falls. 

1. The natural arsis is on the long syllable of a foot : con- 
sequently, in a foot composed wholly of long, or of short sylla- 
bles, considered in itself, the place of the arsis is undetermined. 
But when another foot is substituted for the fundamental foot 
of a metre, the arsis of the former is determined by that of the 

Hence, a spondee, in trochaic or dactylic metre, haa the arsis on the firit 
syllable; but in iambic or anapsBstic metre, it has it on the last. 

2.^ The arsis is either equal in duration to the thesis, or twice 
as long. 

Thos, in the dactyl, — v^ v^, and anapsest, ^ v^ — , they are equal ; in 
the trochee, — w, and iambus, v^ — , they are unequal. This difference in 
the duration of the arsis and thesis constitutes the difference of rhythm. 

3. The stress of voice which falls upon the arsis of a foot» is 
called the ictus. When a long syllable in the arsis of a foot is 
resolved into two short ones, the ictus falls upon the former. 

Note 1. Some suppose that thd terms arsis and thesis, as used by the 
ancients, denoted respectively the rising and falling of the hand in oeat^ 
ing time, and that the place of the thesis wail the syllable which received 
the ictus. 

Note 3. As the ancient pronunciation of. Latin is not now understood, 
writers differ in regard to the mode of reading verse. According to some, 
the accent of each word should always be preserved ; while otl^n direet 
that the stress of voice should be laid on the arsis of the foot, and that no 
regard should be paid to the accent. 

It is generally supposed that the final letters elided by synaloBpha and 
ecthlipsis, though omitted in scanning, were pronounced in reading verM. 


<^ 309. Casura is the separation, by the ending of a 
word, of syllables rhythmically or metrically ccmnected. 

Caesura is of three kinds : — 1, of the foot; 2, of therA^^Am; 
and 3, of the verse. 

1. Caesura of the foot occurs when a word ends before a foot 
b completed ; as, 

Silves- 1 trem tenu- 1 i Mu- 1 sam medi- 1 taris a- 1 vend.. Virg. 

2. Caesura of the rhythm is the separation of the arsis from 
the thesis by the ending of a word, as in the second, third, and 
fourth feet of the preceding line. 


Csflora of the. rhjrthm allows a final syllable naturally short, to 
stand instead of a long one, it being lengthened by the ictus ; 

Pectorl- 1 1€lb inhi- 1 ana spi- 1 rantia ) conaQlit | exta. Virg, 
This occurs chiefly in hexameter verse. 

Ceanra of the foot and of the verse do not of themselves lengthen a 
■hort syllable, but they often coincide with that of the rhythm. 

3. Caesura of the verse is such a division of a line into two 
parts, as affords to the voice a convenient pause or rest, without 
injury to the sense or harmony. 

The cssura of the verse b often called the casural pcmse. 

In several kinds of verse, its place is fixed ; in others, it may fall 

in more than one place, and the choice is lefl to the poet. Of 

the former kind is the pentameter, of the latter the hexameter. 

The proper place of the cesural pause will be treated of, so far as shall 
be necessary, under each species of verse. 

Remark. The effect of the caesura is to connect the different words 
harmoniously together, and thus to give smoothness, grace, and sweetness, 
to ths verse* 


^ 810« I. A hexameter, or heroic verse, consists of six 
feet* Of these the fifth is a dactyl, the sixth a spondee, 
ind each of the other four either a dactyl or a spondee ; 


It tah& \ terrlbl- 1 tern sdnl- 1 torn prOcOl | St8 c&- 1 nOrO. Virg. 
IntSn* I A cri- 1 nes Idn- 1 A c€r- 1 vied fltk- 1 ebant. Tibtdl. 
Ltkderi { que vCl- 1 lem c&U- 1 mO per- 1 misXt &- 1 grSsti. Virg, 

1. The fiflh foot is sometimes a spondee, and the verse in 
iuch case is called spondaic ; as, 

Car& d£- 1 am sdbS- ] les mag- 1 nam Jdvis | Tncre- 1 mentam. Virg. 

In such verses, the fourth foot is commonly a dactyl, and the fifth should 
not close with the end of a word. Spondaic lines are thought to be espe- 
cially adapted to the expression of grave and solemn subjects. 

2. A light and rapid movement is produced by the frequent 
recurrence of dactyls ; a slow and heavy one by that of spon- 
dees ; as, 

Quadrupe- 1 dante pu- 1 trem sonl- ) tu cjuatit | ungiila | campum. Virg 
Illi in- 1 ter se- 1 se mag- 1 n& vi | brachia | tollunt. Id. 

Variety in the use of dactyls and spondees in successive lines, has an 
vreeable effect. Hexameter v«rse commonly ends in a word of two or 
three syllables. 


3. The beauty and hanuosy of hexameter vene depend much on due 
attention to the casura.. (See § 309.) A line in which it is neglected is 
destitute of poetic beauty, and can hardly be distinguished from prose ; as, 

RomtB I mcenia | terruit | impiger [ Hannibal | armis. Enn. 

4. The pause most approved in heroic poetry is 
that which occurs after the arsis in the third foot. This is par- 
ticularly distinguished as the heroic casura. Thus, 

At domus I inten- 1 or || re-{ gali | splendlda | luzu. Virg, 

5. Ini^tead of the preceding, a csssura in the thesis of the 
third foot, or after the arsis of the fourth, was also approved as 
heroic ; as, 

Infan- 1 dum re- 1 gina || ju- 1 bes reno- 1 yftre do- 1 lorem. Virg. 

Inde to- 1 ro pater 1 i£ne- 1 as || sic | orsus ab | alto. Id. 
When the csBsural pause occurs, as in the latter example, after the arsis 
of the fourth foot, another but slighter one is often found in the second 
foot; as, 
Prima te- 1 net, || plau- ( saque vo- 1 lat || fremi- 1 tQque se- 1 cundo. Virg. 

6. The caesura after the third ft>ot was least approved ; as, 
Cui non ) dictus Hy- 1 las puer || et La- 1 tenia | Delos. Virg. 

The ciBsural pause between the fourth and fifth feet is termed the 
bucolic ciBsura. 

Note 1. The cesura after the arsis is sometimes -called the TnaseuUne 
cesura ; that in the thesis, the feminine or troduuc^ as a trochee immedi- 
ately precedes. 

NoTx 2. In the principal ctesura of the yerse, poets frequently intro- 
duce a pause in the sense, which must be attendeu to, in order to deter- 
mine the place of the cesural pause. For in the common place for the 
CfBsura in the third foot, there is often a csBsura of the foot; while, in the 
fourth foot, a stiU more marked division occurs. In this case, the latter is 
to be considered as the principal caesura, and distinguished accordingly ; 

Belli I ferra- 1 tos pos- 1 tes, || por- 1 tasque re- 1 firfigit Uor. 
II. The Priapean is usually accounted a species of hexam- 
eter. It is so constructed as to be divisible into two portions of 
three feet each, having generally a trochee in the first and 
fourth foot, and an amphimacer in the third ; as, 

cd- 1 10nI& I quffi eapls || pontS | lad^rfi | longo. CatuU. 

It is, however, more properly considered as choriambic metre, consisting 
of alternate Glyconics and Pherecratics. See § 316, IV. V. 

rioTX. A regular hexameter verse is termed Priapian^ when it is so 
constructed as to be divisible into two portions of three feet each ; as, 

Tertia | pars pa- 1 tri data | pars data | tertia | patri. CatulL 
See above, 6. 

^ 31 1. III. A pentameter verse consists of five feet. 

It is generally, however, divided, in scanning, into tifo hemis* 
ticbs, the first consisting^ of two feet, either dactyls or spondees 


followed by a long syDable ; the last of iwo dactyls^ also follow- 
ed by a long syllable ; as, 

N&ta- 1 rS 8£qul- 1 tor I| semlni { qOisquS stl- 1 S. Prop. 
Carmlnl- 1 bOs yl- \ yes || tdrnptts In | omn3 m8- ] Is. Ovid, 

1. According to the more ancient and correct mode of 
■canning pentameter verse, it consists of five foet, of which 
the first and second may each be a dactyl or a spondee ; the 
third is always a spondee ; and the fourth and fiflh are ana- 
paests; as, 

Nata- 1 n§ s^qnl- 1 tor \\ sem- 1 In& quis- 1 quS si^ai. 
C&rmlnl- 1 bas -71* \ ves || tern* | ptts In dm- 1 n6 mSIs. 

2. The csssura, in pentameter verse, always occurs after the 
penthemimeris, i. e.' at the close of the first hemistich. . It very 
rarely lengthens a short syllable. 

3. The pentameter rarely ends with a word of three syllables. In 
Ovid, it usually ends with a dissyllable. 

This species of verse is seldom used, except in connection with hexam- 
eter, a line of each recurring alternately. This combination is called 
dtgiae verse. Thus, 

Flebilis indignos, ElegeTa, solve capillos. 

Ah nimis ex vero nunc tibi nomen erit ! Qoid. 

^31S. IV. The tetrameter a prior e, or Akmanian dac- 
tyUc tetrameter, consists of the first four feet of a hexameter, 
of which the fourth is always^a dactyl ; as, 

Garrttlft I per ra- 1 mSs avis | GbstrSpIt. Sen. 

. V. The tetrameter a posterioreyOr spondaic tetrameter, con- 
sists of the last four feet of a hexameter ; as, 

Iblmtis, I s5cT- 1 1, cdml- 1 tSsque. Hor, 

YI. The dactylic trimeter consists of the last three feet of a 
hexameter; as, 

Grato I Pyrrha sQb j antro. Hor. 

But this kind of verse is more properly included in choriambic metre. 
Sec § 316, V. 

VII. The trimeter catalectic, or Archilochian penthemimeris, 
consists of the first five half feet of a hexameter, but the first 
two feet are commonly dactyls ; as, 

Palvis St I ambra bUl- I mus. Hor, 

VIII. The dactylic dimeter, or Adonic, consists of two feet, 
a dactyl and a spondee ; as, 

Risit 1- 1 polio. Hor. 


^313. I. The anapastic monometer consists of two ana- 
pests; as, 

t^lfllas- 1 sS cftnes. Sen. 


II. The afi<2p€836c i^tme^er «ondst8 of two measaresi or four 
anapsBstis; as/ 

The first foot in each measuie of anapa9stic metre was yeiy often 
changed to a dactyl or a spondee, and the second foot often to a spondee, 
and, in a few instances, to a dactyl. 

Anapffistic verses are generally so constructed that each measure ends 
with a word, so that they may to written and read in lines of one, two, 
or more measures. 


^314. I. The iambic trimeter, or stnarius, consists of 
three iambic measures, or six iambic feet ; ^s, 

Ph&se- 1 Ms il- 1 16, II qu6m | vide- 1 tis, hos- 1 pitSs CatuU, 

The cssura commonly occurs alter the fifth semi-foot 

The pure iambic measure was seldom used. To give to this 

metre greater slowness and dignity, spondees were introduced 

into the first, third, and fifth places; and in every foot except 

th6 last, which was always an iambic, a long syllable was often 

changed into two short ones, so that an anapaest or a dactyl 

was used for a spondee, and a tribrach for an iambus ; as, 

Qud, qu6 i scales- 1 ti riii- 1 tfs ? aat f car dez- 1 tSrIS;... Hor* 
Alitl'-J bds at- 1 qud cSni-| b&s hj5mi-| cida H€c-| t5r6m Id, 

^ Sometimes, also, a proceleusmatic was used in the first place for a 
spondee. The writers of comedy, satire, and fable, admitted the spondee 
and its equivalents (the dactyl and anapaest) into the second and fourUi 
places, as well as the first, third, and fifta. 

II. The scazoiiy or choUambus (lame iambic), is the iambic 

trimeter, with a spondee in die sixth foot, and generally an 

iambus in the fifth ; as, 

car in I thga- 1 trttm, C5t5, f s6v6- 1 r« v6- 1 nlstT? 
In Ids- 1 6 tan- ( tam y€n. | gras | Qt ex- 1 Ires ? Mart. 

This species of verse is also called HippanaeHc trimeter, 

III. The iambic tetrameter, or octonarius, called also 
quadratus, a measure used by the comic poets, consists of four 
iambic measures, subject to the same variations as the iambic 
trimeter (I.) ; as, 

Nanc hic | dies | ftllam | vltam af- 1 f^rt, al^ | os m^- 1 res p5s- 1 talat. Ter. 

IV. The iambic tetrameter catakctic, or Hipponactic, is the 
iambic tetrameter, wanting the last syllable, and having always 
an iambus in the seventh place, but admitting in the o^. r places 
the same variations as the trimeter and tetrameter ; as, 

D€pi«n^t8ana.| yIsTn|marf | yesa-|nl£n-| tS vfin-|to. Catutt. 


V. The iambic trimeier eatdUcHcy or ArcMhchiimf is the 

iambic trimeter (I.), wanting the final syllable. Like the tx>m« 

mon iambic trimeter, it admits a spondee into the &st and 

third places, but not into the fifth ; as, 

Vfica- 1 tas at> I que non | yek:a- 1 tds att- 1 dit. Hot. 
Tr&hant- 1 qtte sic- 1 cas mftch- 1 InS \ c&iT- 1 nas. Id 

VI. The iambic dimeter consists of twq iambic measures; 

with the same variations as the iambic trimeter (I.) ; as, 

FdrtI J seqii£- \ mtlr pec- 1 tore. Hot, 
Cftnldl- 1 & trac- 1 tavit | d&pes. Id. 
Vide- 1 rS prdp3- 1 rantSs | ddmiim. Id, 

The iambic dimeter is also called the jirckHockUm dimeUr. 

VII. The iambic dimeter kypermetcr, called also Archihh 
chian, is the iambic dimeter, with an additional syllable at the 

end; as, 

R«d6- 1 git ad I vfiTdB i tTmd- 1 rM. Hor, 
Horace always makes the third foot a spondee. 

Vtll. The iambic dimeter acephalous is the iambic dimeter, 

wanting the first syllable ; as, 

Non t €bar | n^que an-| rSom Hor. 

This kind of verse is sometimes scanned as a eatalectic trochaic dimeter. 
See § 315, IV. 

iX. The iambic dimeter catalectic, or Anacreontic, is the 

iambic dimeter, wanting the final syllable, and having always 

an iambus in the third foot ; as, 

Hi tl- ! gris or- 1 b& gna- 1 tis. Sen. 

X. The GaUiambus consists of two iambic dimeters catalec- 

tic, the last of which wants the final syllable. 

The first foot is generally a spondee or an anapiest ; the catalectic syl- 
lable at the end of the first dimeter is long, and the second foot of the 
second dimeter is commonly a tribrach ; as, 

Sdpgr al- 1 1& vec- 1 tas a- | tys || c^ien I r&te ma- 1 rta. CatuU. 

The oiesura nni&rmly occurs at ^e end of the first dimeter. 


V ^l-^* Trochfuc verses bear a near affinity to iambics. The addi- 
tion or retrenchment of a syllable at the beginning of a pore iambie verse, 
renders it pure trochaic, and the addition or retrenchment of a syllable at 
the beginmng of a pure trochaic line, renders it pure iambic, with the 
deficiency or redundancy of a syllable in each case at the ena of the 

I.' The trochaic tetrameter catalectic is the most common 
trochaic metre. It consists of seven feet, followed by a cata- 
lectic syllable. In the odd pkices, it admits a tribrach^ but in 
the seventh a trochee only. In the even places, besides the 


tribrach, it admits also a spondee, a daetyl, an anapsst, and 
sometimes a proceleusmatic ; as, 

Jassitfl [ est In- 1 ermis ] Ir6 : il pOrds 1 1x4 | janstSm | fist. CoKuZ;. 

Rom&- 1 Isas I ips& i f^clt II cam S&- 1 binis | napti- j as. Id. 

DanSi-l des, cd- 1 Its ; I vestr&s II hie di- 1 6a que- 1 rit mi- 1 nils. Sen, 

The pure trochtuc veiee was rarely used. The cssural pause uniformlj 
occurs afler the fourth foot. The comic writers introduced the spondee 
mnd its equivalent feet into the odd places. 

The complete trochaic tetrameter properly consists of eight feet, all 
trochees, subject, however, to the same variations as the catalectic 
tetrameter; as, 

Ipse I sammls | saxis j f izils | aspd- 1 rls, e- 1 vIbc6- | ratj&s. Enn. 

II. The Sapphic verse, invented by the poetess Sappho, con- 
sists of five feet — ^the first a trochee,' the second a spondee, the 
third a dactyl, and the fourth and fi'fth trochees ; as, 

IntS- 1 ger vl- 1 tagf \\ scglg- | rlsquS | partts. Hor. 

Sappho, and, aAer her example, Catullus, sometimes made the second 
foot a trochee. 

Those Sapphics are most harmonious which have the caesura after the 
fiflh semi-foot. 

NoTK. In the composition of the Sapphic stanza, a word. is sometimes 
divided between the end of the third Sapphic, and the beginning of the 
Adonic which follows ; as, 

Labi- 1 tor rl- ] pa JdvS | nSn pr5- j bante ux- 
prliiM I amnis. Hor. 

This occurs only in Catullus and Horace ; and it has been thought hj 
some that such lines should be considered as one verse of seven feet, the 
fifth foot being either a spondee or a trochee. 

III. The PhakBcian verse consists of five feet — ^the first i 
spondee, the second a dactyl, and the three others trochees; as, 

Non est I vlvSre, j sed va- 1 lere I vita. Mart, 

Instead of a spondee as the firstfoot, Catullus sometimes uses a trochee 
or an iambus. This writer also sometimes uses a spondee in the second 

The PhttUBcian verse is sometimes called hendecatruUahie, as consisting 
of eleven syllables; but that name does not exclusively belong to it 

IVi The trochaic dimeter catalectic consists of three feet, 
properly all trochees, but admitting in the second place a spon- 
dee or a dactyl ; as, 

Ndn d* I bar nS- 1 que Surd- 1 um. Hor. 

NoTs. This measure is the same as the acephalous iiimbic dimeter 
(see § 314, VIII.), and it is not important whether it be regarded u 
iambic or trochaic. 


^316« I. The choriambic pentameter consists of a spoil* 
dee, three choriambi, and an iambus ; as, 

Ta n8 I quesISrls, | sclrS n^s I quern mlUf, qofim j tlbl.... Hor 

FBOSODT*-- vx&siricAnoir ; i<mic mxtbx* 

II. The chanambic ieirameier consists of three choriambi, or 
feet of equal length, and a Bacchias ; as, 

Omntf nfimflf | etim fldvlls, | fimnS ciUiftt | pr5ltindiun. CIa«4. 
In this verse Horace substituted a spondee for the iambus 
contained in the first choriambus ; as, 

T« dM0 6-1 ro, Sj^lArtn | car pr5peres4 ttmandd.... Hor, 

III. The Asclepiadic tetrameter (invented by the poet Ascie- 
pi&des) consists of a spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus ; j 


Mec«- 1 nas, fttavlB |) edits rcg- 1 Ybm. Har. 

This form is invariably observed hy H(»race ', but other poets •ometimes, 
though rarely, make the first foot a mictjl. 

The csBsural pause occurs at the end of the first choriambus. 
This measure is sometimes scanned as a dactylic pentameter 
eatalectic. See §311, III. Thus, 

MBBC6- 1 nas, ata- 1 vis || edits | regTbUs. 

IV. The ehoriambic trimeter^ or Glyeonie (invented by the 
poet Glyco), consists of a spondee, a choriambus, and an iam- 
bus; as, 

8te tfi I dl^ p5tens | Cyprf.... Hor, 

The fint foot is sometimes an iambus or a trochee. 

When the first ^t is a spondee, the other feet are sometimes 
■canned as dactyls. Thus, 

Sic ts I diva p5- 1 tens Cypri. 
y. The ehoriambic trimeter eatalectic^ or Pherecratic (so 
called from the poet Pherecr&tes), is the Gly conic deprived of 
its final syllable, and consists of a spondee, a choriambus, and 
a eatalectic syllable ; as, 

GratS I Pyrrha siib an- 1 tro. Hor. 

The first foot was sometimes a trochee or an iambus. 

When the first foot is a spondee, this measure is sometimes ■canned'as 
a dactylic trimeter. See $ Sl2, VI. 

The Pherecratic subjoined to the Glvconic produces the Priapean verse. 
See § 310, II. 

VI. The ehoriambic dimeter consists of a choriambus and a 
Bacchius; as, 

LydlK die I pfo <^nes. Har, 


^317. I. The Ionic a majdre, or Sotadic (from the poet 

Sot&des), consists of three greater Ionics and a spondee. 

The Ionic feet, however, are often changed into ditrochees, and a long 
syllable into two short ones ; as, 

Has, cam g6ml-l na cflmpede, | dedfcat ci-l tSnas, 
Satame^ tl- 1 bl Zc^lOs, 1 annaitJs prl-| 6res. Mtart 


lI.'The lonte a mindre consists generally of three or fbtur 
feet, which are all Ionics a mindre ; as, 

PaSr ates, I tibi telas, | 6pSrdMB-| qaS MtnflrvS.... Bar. 


^318. Compound metre is the union of two i^cies of 
metre in the same verse. 

I. The dactyUcihicanhic metre consists of a dactylic trimeter 
catalectic (§ 312, VII.) and an iambic dimeter (^ 314, VI.); 

ScribSrS | vSrstctl- 1 Ids || &mO- 1 rS per- 1 calsam | gr&vT.... Hor, 

II. The iamhico-dactylic metre consists of the same mem- 
bers as the preceding, but in a reversed order ; as, 

Nives- 1 quS de- 1 dacaht | Jdvem : || nanc m&r^, \ nanc sila- [ ee. JJor, 

Note. The members composing this and the preceding species of 
verse are oilen written in separate yerses. 

III. The greater Alcaic consists, of two iambic feet, and a 
long catalectic syllable followed by a choriambus, and an iam- 
bus; as, 

VTdes I m al- 1 U II stet nIvS can- j didum. Hor. 
The first foot is oflen a spondee. 

The caesura uniformly occurs after the catalectic syllable. 
This verse is sometimes so scanned as to make the last two feet dactyls. 

IV. The dactylicO'trochaic, or Archilochian heptameter^ con- 
sists of the dactylic tetrameter a prior e (^312), followed by 
three trochees ; as, 

Sol VI tar I acrls h!- j ems gra- \ ta vicS || ygrls j et Fa- 1 yonl. flbr. 
The cesura occurs between the two members. 

V. The dactylicO'trochaic tetrameter, or lesser Alcaic, con- 
sists of two dactyls, followed by two trochees ; as, 

Levia j persdntk- 1 erS j sax&. Hor, 


^319. A poem may consist of one or more kinds of verM. 

A poem in which only one kind of verse is employed, is 
called carmen monocdlon ; that which has two kinds, dicolon ; 
that which has three kinds, trtcdlon. 

When the poem returns, afler the second line, to the same 
verse with which it began, it is called distrdphon ; when after 
the third line, tristrdphon ; and when after the fourth, tetrastri^ 

The several verses which occur before the poem returns to 

394 PB080DT. — TmBsmcAXwv ; ho&atian kbt&ks. 

the kind of yene with which it began, constitute a stanza or 

A poem consistiiiff of two kinds of rene, when the EUnza contains two 
▼erses, is called dieiwm distrdphonyCaee $ 320, Syn. 3 ;) when it contains 
three, diedUm tristrdpkon, (Auson. Profess. 21 ;) when four, diction tetrss- 
MfphoHf (Syn. 2 ;) and when five, dicdlon pentastrOphion. 

A poem consisting of three kinds of TerBe, when the stanza contains 
three verses, is called trieOUm tristrdphmif (Syn. 15 ',) when four^ tricdUm 
tetrastrdphon^ (Bjn. 1.) 


^ 320. The different species of metre used by Horace in 
his lyric compositions are twenty. The various forms in which 
he has employed them, either separate or in conjunction, are 
nineteen, arranged, according to the order of preference given 
to them by the poet, in the following 


1. Two greater Alcaics (§318, III.), one Archilochian iam- 
bic dimeter hypermeter (§ §14, VII.), and one lesser Alcaic 
(§ 318, V.) ; as, 

Vldes, fit &lta stet ntvS candldum 
SdractS, nee jam sastinSant finds 
Silvffi laborantes, gelaqufi 

Flamlna cdnstitgrint &cato. (li^. 1, 9.) 

This is called the Horatian stanza, because it seems to. have been a 
fhvorite with Horace, being used in thurty-seven of his odes. 

2. Three Sapphics (<S315, II.) and one Adonic (§312, 
VIII.) ; as. 

Jam 8&tTs tSrrTs ^YvTs atqu^ dlrflo 
Grandinis misit p&t6r, fit, rdbentfi 
D^xtSra sacras jacalatils azces, 

Terrttit tirbem. (Lib, 1, 2.) 

3. One Glyconic (^ 316, IV.) and one Asclepiadic (^ 316« 
III.); as. 

Sic te DlvH pfitSns Cypri, 

Sic fratres Helens, lacld& SXdSra.... (Ub, 1, 3.) 

4. One iambic trimeter (^ 314, 1.) and one iambic dimeter 
(§ 314, VI.) ; as. 

Ibis LlbOrnls IntSr altft navium, 

A mice, propagnactkla. (Epad, 1.) 

5. Three Asclepiadics (§316, III.) and one Glyconic (^SIG, 
IV.); as, 

Scrib€ri8 Vaifd fiJrtts, St hostliim 

Victdr, Meednil carraTnTs alTti, 

Quam rem camque f^z navtbCLs Hit Sonis 

Miles, te dace, gesserit. ' (Ub» 1, 6^ 


6. Two AselepUdk^s (§ 316, III.), one Pberecratic (^316^ 

v.), and one Glyconic (§ 316, IV.) ; as, 

■ - Dl&n&m, t0n£nS| dieftS vIrfYnes : 

IntdnsQm, pQ6rl, dicItS CynthYiinn 
X*atonamquS sapremo 
DilecUm pSnitas Jdyi. (Ii(. 1,31.) 

7. The Asclepiadic {§ 316, III.) alone ; as, 

Mfic«nll8 &tttyi« «ditd rSj^us. {Lib. 1, 1.) 

8. One dactylic hexameter (§310^ I.) and one dactylis 

tetrameter a posteriory (^ 312, V.) ; as, 

Laudabant &IiI clarftm RhOdfin, aut MYtj^lfinen, 

iiut £phesain, blmAnsyS Cdrinthi.... {lab* 1, 7.) 

9. The choriambic pentameter (§ 316, 1.) alone ; as, 

Ta nfi qnesierls, scirfi nS^ls, qnem mlhl, quem tibi.... {Ub, 1, 11.) 

10. One dactylic hexameter (§ 310, I.) and one iambic 

dimeter (^ 314, VI.) ; as, 

Nux erttt,.et csl6 fiiilgrfibat lanjl ■Sxeno 
Intgr mlnur& slddra. {Epod, 15.) 

11. The iambic trimeter (§ 314, 1.) alone; as, 

Jftm, jam eflflcaci dS mftnas scientXie. {Epad, 17.) 

12. One choriambic dimeter (§316, VI.) and one choriambic 

tetrameter (§316, II.) with a variation ; as, 

Lydlil, die, p8r dmnes 
T6 u^OB dro, SybiriD car prSpSAs &inftndo.... {ZAh. 1, 8.) 

13. One dactylic hexameter (§ 310, 1.) and one iambic trim- 
eter (§314, 1.); as, 

Alter& jam tfitltar bellls emlYbas wtas ; 
Sdls €t rps& Roma virlbas rait. {Epod. 16.) 

14. One dactylic hexameter (§310, I.) and one dactylic 

trimeter catalectic (§ 312, VII.) ; as, 

DiffilgeTd nTres : rSdeant jam gramYnS cftrnpTs, 

ArTOrYbasquS cdms. {Idh. 4. 7.) 

15. One iambic trimeter (§314, I.), one dactylic trimeter 
catalectic (§312, VII.), and one iambic dimeter (§314, VI.) ; 

Petti, nYhil me, sicfit tntea, jtivat 
ScTiberfi versYcaloBj 
AmSrfi percHlsam grtiyi. {Epod. 11.) 

NoTs. Tbd tecond and third lines are often written as one verse. 
See §318, 1. 

16. One dactylic hexameter (§ 310, 1.), one iambic dimete* 
(§ 314, VI.), and one dactylic trimeter catalectic (§ 312L VII \ 

Honfd& tempestas cslam oontraxYt; £t Ymbres 
NYvesquS dedactint Jdvem : 
Naac m&WI, nanc sYlae.... , {Epod. 13 


NoTB. The aeoond and third linea of this stanza^ also, are often written 
aa one verse. See § 318, II. 

17. Ooe Archilochian heptaraeter (^318, lY.)- aad one 

iambic trimeter •atalectic (^ 314, V.) ; as, 

SdlvItQr ftcris hlSms grftta ylc£ verts St F&vont, 
Tr&hQntqu6 slcess machlnS c&rinas. (Ub, 1, 4.) 

18. One iambic dimeter acephalous (^ 314^ VIII.) and one 

iambic trimeter catalectic (§ 314, V.) ; as, 

Non ebar n^que aareum 
Md& rfoldet In ddmo Ifteanar. (LH, % 18.) 

19. The Ionic a tninore (^317, II.) alone; as, 
BflsSramm fist nSque &mdrl dftrfi ladom, nSqufi dalcl.... (Lib, 3, 12.) 


Containing, in a^kabetic order, the Jirst words of each, with a 
reference to the numbers in the preceding Synopsis, tphere the 
metre is explained. 

iEIi, vetusto No. 1 

JEquam memento 1 

Albi, ne doleas .«... 5 

Altera jam terltur 13 

An^ustam^ amici 1 

At, O dedrum 4 

Audivfire, Lyce r. . . . 6 

Bacchum in remotis 1 

Be&tus ille 4 

Ccelo supinas •• 1 

Ccelo tonantem 1 

C^m tu, Lydia 3 

Cur me querelis • 1 

Delicta majormn • 1 

Descende ccelo 1 

Dianam, tenors 6 

DiiFugere nives ; 14 

Dive, quem proles 2 

Divis orte bonis 5 

Donarem pateras 7 

Donee gratus eram 3 

Eheu ! fugaces 1 

Est mihi nonum 2 

£t thore et fidibus 3 

Exegi monumentom 7 

Extremum Tanaim,... 6 

Faune, nympharum S 

Festo quid potius die 3 

Hercfllis ritu 2 

Horrida tempestas . .- 16 

Ibis Libumis 4 

loci, beatis No. 1 

Ille et nefasto 1 

Impios parre 2 

InclQsam Danaien 5 

Intactis opulehtior 3 

Integer vitae 2 

Intermissa, Venus, diu 3 

Jam jam efficaci 11 

Jam pauca aratro 1 

Jam satis terris 2 

Jam veris comites 5 

Justum et tenacem 1 

Laudabunt alii 8 

Lupis et agnis 4 

Lydia, die, per omnes 12 

JVieecenas atavis 7 

MaI4 solQta 4 

Martiis caelebs 2 

Mater sesva Cupidinuin 3 

Mercad, facunde 2 

Merctlri, nam te 2 

Miserarum est .19 

Mollis inertia 10 

Montium custos 2 

Motum ex Metello 1 

Mnsis amicus , 1 

Natis fti usum 1 

Ne forte credas 1 

Ne sit ancille ...•«.. 2 

Nolis longa fbrce 6 

Nondum subacta 1 

PROSODT.— vsRSiFiCATiOK ; hobatian iietkes. 997 

Non ebur netpe aurexiin . . . No. 18 

Non semper imbies • 1 

Non usitata •. 1 

Non vides, qoanto »...• 2 

Noxerat #.10 

Nullam, Vare, sacift • £t 

Nullus argento 2 

Nonp est Dibendum ....• 1 

O cruddlis adhnc 9 

O diva, ffratum » . . . 1 

O fons SandusifB. • ••• 6 

O matre pulchri • 1 

O nata mecum 1 

O navis, referent 6 

O saspe mecum 1 

O Venus, regina • 2 

Odi pro&num 1 

Otium Divos 2 

Parci{is junctas 2 

Parous DeCrum * 1 

Parentis olim 4 

Pastor quum trahfiret 5 

Percfcofl odi, puer 8 

Petti, nibil me .15 

Fhcsbe, silTarumque. ••••• 2 

Phcsbus volentem 1 

Pindftrum quisquis. ••• 2 

Posclmur: siquid 2 

Qu8B curapatrum.. •••••••••••• 1 

Qualem ministrum. . • •••• 1* 

Quando rettostam ......... .No. 4 

Quantum distet ab In&cbo 3 

Quern tu, MelpomSne ...•••...• 3 

Quern virum aul^ieroa 2 

Quid bellicdsus 1 

Quid dedicfttum 1 

Quid fles, Asterie 6 

Quid imaierentes ••... 4 

Quid obseratis 11 

Quid tibi vis 8 

Quis desiderio • 5 

Quis multa.gractlis 6 

Quo me, BsLccho. . • • 3 

Quo, quo, scelesti niitis ,. 4 

Rectiills vives 2 

Rogare longo.... .,. 4 

Senberis Vario 5 

BeptimL grades. 2 

Sic te Diva potens. 3 

Solviftur acris biems 17 

Te maris et terrss. 8 

Tu ne quiBsi€ris 9 

Tyrrhena regum •• 1 

Ulla si juris ••• 2 

Uxor pauperis Ibj^ci. ••• 3 

Velox amcBnum. ••••• 1 

Vides,uta)t& 1 

Vile Dotabi 2 

Vitas ninnuleo..«.». 6 

Vixipuellis • • 1 




^ 322* Certain deviations from the regular form and 
construction of words, are called grdmtnaticcl figures. These 
may relate either to Orthography and Etymology, or to Syntax. 


These are distinguished by the general name of meiaplasm, 

1. Prosthisis is the prefixing of a letter or syllable to a word ; as, gn&- 
tuSf for fuUus; tet^, for tuli. Yet these were anciently the customaiy 
forms, from which tnose now in use were formed by aphsrSsis. 

2. Apluarisis is the taking of a letter or syllable from the beginning of 
a word ; as, ><, for est; rbfoSonemf for arrhabdnem. 

S. EpenikUis is the insertion of a letter or syllable in the middle of a 
word ; as, alituumf for aHtum, 

4. Smicdpe is the omission of a letter or syllable in the middle of a word , 
as, deum, for de&rum; meAm faetHm, for meOrum faetOrum; sacla^ for 
stBCtda ; flesUf fhrJUmsU ; repostus^ for reposUus; aspris, for aspiris. 

5. Crasia is the contraction of two vowels into one ; as, eogo, for eodgo; 
niZ, for nihil, 

6. Par4ig(ige is the addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word ; 
as, mtd, for me / daudUr, for daudi, 

7. Ajpoedpe is the omission of the final letter or syllable of a word ; as« 
men\ for Tiiene ; ^tdtd, for ArUonii, 

8. Jintithisis is the substitution of one letter for another ; as, oOiy for 
tUi ; opttkmuSf for opHmus ; afficioy for officio. O is often thus used for «, 
especially after v ; as, voUus, for vultus ; servom, for seroum* So after 
jw ; as, asquomf for aquum. 

9. Metathisis is the changing of the order of letters in a iiA>rd ; as, 
pitiriSf for pristis. 


^323* The figures of Syntax are ellipsis, pleonasm, 
enaUage, and hyperh&ton. 

1. Ellipsis is the omission of some word or words in a sen- 
tence ; as, 

Ahmtj so. homines. Darius Hystaspis, acfiUus. Cano, sc. ego. Quid 
multa ? sc. dieam. 

Ellipsis includes asyndeton, zeugma, syllepsis, prolepsis, 
and synecMche. 


(1.) JistfHdiUm is the omisBioii of a coB|iiactioa; as, abUif excessit, 
tvdsU, ernpitf sc. et, Cic. 

(fi.) Zeugma is the mutiny of two noons, or two infinitives, to a verb, 

which is applicable only to one of them ; as, Pacem an bdlum gerens 

^Sall.), where gerens is applicable to bdlum only. Sempeme in sanguine f 

jerrOf fugd versabimur 7 (Id.) where the verb does not properly apply to 


J^Tego is often thus used with two propositions, one of which is affirma- 
tive; as, Regard Cas&rem mansurumf postuUUdque tnterposUta esse^ for 
dicuntque postuldta.... Cic. 

When an adiective or verb, referring to two or more nouns, agrees with 
one, and is understood with the rest, the construction is also sometimes 
called zeugma ; as, Et genits, et virtuSf nisi cum re, vilior algd est. Hor. 
Caper tibi salvus et lumi. Virg. Q^amvis ille niger^ quamvis tu canMda 
esses. Id. 

(3.) Syllepsis is when an adjective or verb, belonging to two or more 
nouns of different genders, persons, or numlMsrs, agrees with one rather 
than another ; as, Attoiilti novitdte pavent Baucis, timidusque Philemon. 
Ovid Procumbit uterque pronus hunUf i. e. Deucalion et Pyrrha, Id. — 
SustuHmns mantis et ego et Balbus. Cic. So, Ipse cum fratre adesse jussi 
simius. Id. — Projectisque amidSdo et iitiris. Curt. See § § 205, Rem. 2, 
and 209, Rem. 12, (3,) and (7.) 

Zeugma, in the latter sense above mentioned, is by some included under 

(4.) ProUpsis is when the parts, differing in number or person from the 
whole, are placed afler it, the verb or adjective not bein^ repeated ; as^, 
Principes utrinquepugnam ciebantfOb Sablnis Mettius Curtius, db RomcLnis 
Hostus Hostilius. Liv. Bom quoniam cdnvenlmus antbOf tu calAmos infidrCj 
ego dicire versus. Virg. 

(5.) Synecddche is the use of an accusative of the part affected, instead 
of an ablative ', as, ExpUri mentem nequit. Virg- See § 234, II. 

2. Pleonasm is using a greater number of words than is ne- 
cessary to express the meaning ; as. 

Sic ore locUta est. Virg. Qui magis veri pinciire qudm diu imperdre 
malit. Liv. Jfemo unus. Cic. 

Under pleonasm are included ^arc/con, polysyndeton^ hendi' 

ddys, Sind periphrasis. 

(1.) Parelcon is the addition of an unnecessary syllable or particle to 
pronouns, verbs, or adverbs ; as, egdmetj agidum, fortassean. Such addi- 
tions, however, usually modify the me&ning'in some degree. 

(2.) Polysyndeton is a redundancy of conjunctions ; as, Unh £unf^ae 
JVbttcj^que ruunt cre^erque procellis A/ricus. virg. 

(3.^ Hendiddys is the expression of an idea by two nouns connected by 
a conjunction, instead of a noun and a limiting adjective or genitive ; as. 
Patens libdmus et auro, for aureis patiris. Virg. Libro et sUvestri subSre 
dausamf for libro subiris. Id. 

(4.) Periphrasis is a circuitous mode of expression ; as, TenXri foetus 
avium f i. e. agni. Virg. 

3. Enalldge is a change of words, or a substitution t)f one 
gender, number, case, person, tense, mood, or voice of the same 
word for another. 

800 AFPENBiXi^*-4Pioinu» er stut^. 

Enallige includes antimeria, keUrosis, antipiosis, s^fnisis, 

and anacoUkthoH. 

(1.) ^nHmeria is the use of one part of speech fbr anoiher; as, Ifoalntm 
istud vivSre triste, for nostra vita. Pen. AUvd eras. Id. Ccmjuginm 
vidlbit? for eonjUigem, Virg. Plaatam pad nutrltor oliTjamf for nutrtto. Id. 

(2.) Heterosis is the use of one form of a noun, pronoun, verb, &c., ibr 
another ; as, E£o ^uoque und pereo, quod nUhi est carius, for mn mihi sum 
cariar. Ter. Komftnus praUo yictor, for Romdm victOres. lAv. Many 
words are used by the poets in the plural instead of the singular ; as, coUa, 
€orda, oraf &c. See § 98. Me truneus iUapMua cerebro sustttUratf finr mt- 
tulisset, Hor. 

(3^ JUntiptHsis is the use of one case for another; as, Cui nunc eogns- 
men lalo, for liUus* Virg. Uxor invieti Jovis esse nesciSf for te esse uxih 
rem* Hor. 

(4.) SunisiSf or spUhisiSf is adapting the construction to the sense of a 
word, rather than to its gender or number ', as, Subeunt Teg€ea juyi^ntiis 
auxiUo tardi. Stat Concursus popQli mirantium quid rei est. Lav. Pars 
in cnuem acti. Sail. Uin illic est scelus, qui me perdUdU ? Ter. Id mea 
minime rrfert, qui sum natu maximus. Id. 

(5.) Jinaeolmhon is when the latter part of a seiAence does not agree 
in construction with the former ; as, JVam nos omnes, qtdbus est alitmndB 
aUquis objectus labes^ omne quod est interea tempus, priusquam id Testatum 
est, lucre est. Ter. In this example, the writer be^ran as if he intended to 
say luero habemuSf and ended as if be had said nobis omMus. 

4. Hyperh&ton is a transgression of the usual order of words 
or clauses. 

Hyperbaton includes anastrdphe, hysteron proteron, hypdlr 

lage, synchysis, tmesis, and parenthesis. 

(1.) JinastrOpke is an inversion of the order of two words ; as, 7Van«- 
tra per et remos, for per transtra. Vii^* CoUo dare brachia eircum, fbr c^- 
cumddre. Id. ^ox erit una super ^ for superirit. Ovid. Et fadt are, fbr 
areftUU. Lucr. 

(2.) Hystiron protHron is reversing the natural order of the sense ; as, 
Moridmurf et in media arma rudmus. Virg. VeUet atque vivit. Ter. 

(3.) HypaUdge is an interchange of constructions ; as. In novafert aril' 
mus mutdtas dieire formas corpdra, for corpdra mutdta in novas formas. 
Ovid. Dare dasHbus ^ustros, for dare classes Aistris, Virg. 

J 4.) Syndi^sis, is a confused position of words; as, Saxa vocantJtdUf 
!ii5 muB in fiucAbuSf aras, for qwe sas^a in mediis JitictibuSf ItdU vacant 
aras. Virg. 

(5.) Jhnesis is the separation of the parts of a compound word ; as, 
Septem subjecta tridni gens, for septentridni. Virg. Qiue me cunque vacant 
terra. Id. Per miH,per,inquamjgraLumfeUns, Cic. 

^6.) Parenthisis is the insertion of a word or words in a sentence 
which interrupt the natural connection ; as, Tit^e dum redeo, (brevia est 
via,) pasee capeUas. Virg. 

Remark. To the above may be added archaism and fief- 
knism, which belong both to the figures of etymology and to 
hose of syntax. 
(1.) Archaism is the use of ancient forms or constructions; as, asddl 


tat oiuUb ; smUUi, for smUUAs; fiiat, for sit ; prakHessOy for prohibtaro ; tm* 
^etfassire^ for impetratHrum esse ; farter j for fan ; nenUj for mm ; endoj foir 

tn ; Opiram ahOltitrf for op2rd. Ter. ^tid tibi hanc curatio est rem t 


(2.) HeUenism is the use of Greek fbniui or constructions ; as, HeUne, 
for HeUna; JinClphon^ for AnPipko ; aur^ (gen.), for aura; PaUddoSf 
Palldda, for PalUuUs^ Pallddem ; Tro&sm, TroMas^ for Troadibus, TroH- 
des ; -Mstineto irdrum. Hor. Tempus deslstire pugnte. \iig. 

V 3X4* To the grammatical figures ma^ not improperly be sub- 
joined certain others, which are oflen referred to .m philological works, and 
which are called 


A rhetorical jE^re is a mode of expression difierent from the direct and 
simple way of expressing the same sense. The turning of a word from 
its original and customary meaning, is called a.4rope* 

1. A metaphor is the transferring of a Word from the object to which it 
properly belongs, and applying it to another, to which that object has some 
analogy ; as, Kidet ager. The field smiles. Yirg. JEtas aurea. The golden 
age. Oirid. 

Catachrisis b a bold or harsh metaphor; as, Yis gregis ipse caper. Yirg. 
Eums per SidUas equitavit undas. Hor. 

2. Metonymy is substituting the name of an object for that of another 
to which it has a certain relation ; as the cause for the effect, the containei 
for what is contained, the property for the substance, the sign for the thing 
signified, and their contranes ; the parts of the body for certain afiections, 
Sui. y as, Amor duri Martis, i. e. b&lL Virg. Pallida mors, Hor. Hausit 
pat£ram, i. e. xinum. Virg. Vina corOnant, i. e. ttatHram. Id. JVec/e 
iemos colores, i. e. tria JUa diversi eoldris. Id. Ceaant arma tog», i. e. 
bellum paci, Cic. Ssectlla mitescenty i. e. homfnes in sa&Sdis. Virg. ' Vivat 
Pacuvitts vel Nestdra totum. Juv. 

3. Smeeddche is putting a genus for a species, a whole for a part, a sin- 
gular for a plural, and their contraries ; also the material for the thing 
made of it ; as, Mortdlesy for homines. Virg. Fontem ferebumt. Id. Tec- 
turn, for domus. Id. £rmdto millte complenty for arm^tis mUi^bus. Id. 
Ferrum,f for gUuUus. 

4. Irony is the intentional use of words which express a sense contrary 
to that which the writer or speaker means to convey ; as. Salve, bone mr, 
eurdsti prob^. Ter. Egregiam verd landem, et spolia ampla refertis, tuque^ 
puerque tuus. Virg. 

5h Hyperbdle is the magnifying or diminishing of a thing beyond the 
tru^ ; as. Ipse ardvMs, altdque pmsat sidira. Virg. Odor &ro. Id^ 

6. Metalepsis is the including of several tropes in one word ; as, Post 
dttquot aristas. Virg. Here anstas is put for messes, this for astdteSf and 
this for annos. 

7. Allegory is a consistent series of metaphors^ dengned to illustrate one 
subject by another; as, Claudttejam tivos.puirt: satprata bibertaU. Virg. 
O navis; refiirent in mare te novifuttus. Hor. 

An obscure allegory or riddle is.called an ignigma, 

8. Antonomasia is using a proper noun for a common one, and the con 
trary ; as, Irus et est subitd, qiti modd Croesus erat, for pauper and dives 
Ovid. So, by periphrasis, potor Rhoddni, for GaUus. Hor. 



9. LUates is a mode of ezpresedng somethinff by denying the contrary ; 
u, JiTon laudOf I blame. Ter. JVbn innoxia verba, Virg. 

10. Antiphrdsis is using a word in a sense opposite to its proper meaning; 
\a, Jiuri aacmfanus. Virg. 

^ 11. Evphemism is the use of softened language to express what is offen- 
vive or distressing ', as,Si guid acddisset CasAri, i. e. $i mortuus esset. Yell. 

12. JhUanaddtis is the use of the same word in different senses ; as, 
QiM5 neget JEngiB naium de stirpe Jfer&nem 7 Sust&lit hie matremj anstiilit 
iZ/e patren^, Bpigr. Amftri jucundwn est, si cur€iur ne quid insit amtri. Cic. 

^ 13. Anaphdra, or epanapMra, is the repetition of a word at the begin- 
ning of successive clauses ; as, Nihilne te noctumum prtssidium pauUH, 
nihil urbis vigilim, nikU Hmor papiUif &c. Cic. Te, duleis conjvx^ te, sob 
in litdre secum, te, vemenite die, te, decedente, canibat. Virg. 

14. Epistrdphe is the repetition of a word at the end of successiTe 
clauses ; as, PemospopVdus Romdnus justiHd vicit, armis vicit, UberaUXata 
vicit. Cic. 

15. Sympldce is the repetition of a word at the beginning, and of an- 
other at tne end, of successiye clauses; as, Quis leffem tulit? RuUus: 
QUs majorem P^piiZt partem suffragOs privdvit 7 Riulus : Quis cfnnitiis 
prteffiitf /d«mllullus. Cic. 

16. Epanalepsis is a repetition of the same word or sentence after a 
parenthesis. Virg. Geor. II. 4 — ^7. 

17. AnadiplOsis is the use of the same word at the end of one clause, 
and the beginning of another ; as, Hie tamen vivit : Vivit ? ima verd, 
etiam in sendtum venit, Cic. Tliis is sometimes called epanastrdphe, 

18. EpanadipUfsis is the use of the same word both at the beginning 
and end of a sentence ; as, Crescit ajnor nummi, quantum ipsa pecuaia 
erescit. Juy. 

19. Evanddos is the rep(»tition of the same words in an inverted order ; 
as, Cruaelis mater magis, an puer imprdbus Ule 7 Imptdbus ille puer, cru- 
delis tu quoque, mater, Virg. 

20. Epizeuxis is a repetition of the same word for the sake of emphasis ; 
as, Excitate, excitate eum ah infiris. Cic. Ah Corydon, Corj^don, qum it 
dementia cepit 7 Virg. IHmus, iMmus. Hor. 

21. Climax is when each successive clause of a sentence begins with 
the conclusion of the preceding, the sense being thus gradually amplified ^ 
as, QtuB reliqua spes manet lihertdtis, si illis et quod libet, licet ; et quod Uca 
possunt; et quod possunt,9,VidiQni', et quod audentftobis molestum non e^. 

22. Incrementum is an amplification without a strict climax ; as, FaiAmis 
est J vinciri civem Romdnum ; scelus^verberdri ; prope parriddium, necdri, 
quid dicam in crueem toUif Cic. When the sense is gradually heighten- 
ed, it is called anabdsis, and when it fklls or decreases, catabasis. 

23. Polyptdton is a repetition of the same word in different cases, gen- 
ders, numbers, &c. ; as, Jam cbypeus dypeis, uwJbdne repelUtur umbo; ense 
minaz ensis, pede pes, et euspUde cuspis. Stat. 

24. Paregminon is the use of several words of the same origin, in one 
sentence ; as, Abesse non potest, quin ejusdem homXnis sit, qui impr6boe 
probet, probos improbare. Cic. 

25. Paronomasia is the use of words which resemble each other in 
sound ; as, Am^nr et melle et felle est foBcundissimus. Flaut. Civem bond- 
rum artium, bondrum partium. Cic. Amantes sutU amentes. Ter. This 
figure is sometimes called agnominalio. 


26. HomcBoprophirorif or alUteratian, ia when several words bej^nhigr 
with the same letter occur in a sentence ; as, O Tite, tute Tati, tioi tanta, 
tyranncy tulisti. Enn. JVew patrue valldas in viscira vertite vires. Virg. 

27. JlntithSsis is the placing of different or opposite words or sentiments 
in contrast; as, Hujtis orati&ns diffidlius est exitum mt^m principium 
invenlre. Cic. Cssar beneficiis ac munificentii magniLS Kahebatur ; integ- 
ritate vitee Gato. Sail. 

28. Oxymoron unites words of contrary significationS| thus producing 
a seeming contradiction ', as, Concordia discors. Hot. Ciim tacerUf cla- 
mant. Cic. 

29. Synonymia is the use of different words or expressions having the 
same import; as, JVbn f&ram^ non patiarf rum sinam. Cic. PromiUOf re- 
eipiOy spondeo. Id. 

30. Parabdla, or simile, is the comparison of one thing with another ; 
as. Repent^ te, tanquam serpens e lat^iUisy oc6lis efminenWms, it^dto collOf 
tumidis cervicibuSf intidisH,. Cic. 

31. Erotesis is an earnest question, and oflen implies a strong affirma- 
tion of the contrary; as, CredlUs avectos kostes? Virg. Heu/ qtue me 
<Bqu6ra pessunt aedpgre ? Id. 

32. Epanorthdsis is the recalling of & word, in order to place a stronger 
or more significant one in its stead; as, Filium iinicum adolescent&lum 
habeo : ah / quid dixi 7 me hab€re f Imd habui. Ter. 

33. AposiopEsis is leaving a sentence unfinished in consequence of some 
emotion of the mind; as, Quo^ ego — sed prtestat motos componire flttctus. 

34. Prosopopceiaf or personification, represents inanimate things as act- 
ing or speaking, and persons dead or absent as alive and present ; as, Qimb 
(patria) tecum Catilirta sic agit. Cic. Virtus sumit avt ponit sec&res. Hor. 

35. Apostr6pKe is a turning off from the regular course of the subject, to 
ad<lress some person or thing ; as, Vi potltur : quid non mortaUa pectdra 
cogis, auri sacra fames ! Virg. 

^ 32o*. To the figures of rhetoric may be subjoined the following 
terms, used to designate defects or blemishes in style : — 

1. Barbarism is either the use of a foreign word, or a violation of the 
rules of orthography, etymology, or prosody ; as, rigordsus, for rigidus or 
severus; domminus, for domUnus; davi, for dedi; Mtenus, fi>r aU&%us, 

H. Solecism is a violation of the rules of syntax f. as, Venus pidcher ; vo» 

3. JCeoterism is the use of words or phrases introduced by authors living 
subsequently to the best ages of Latinity; as, murdrum, a murder; con- 
stabulariuSf a constable. 

4. Tautology ia a repetition of the same meaning in different words; as. 
Jam vos aciem, et prcelia, et hostem poscltis. Sil. 

5. Jhnphibolia is the use of equivocal words or constructions ; as, GaUus^ 
a Graul, or a cock. Aio te, JEadlda, Romanos vincire posse, Quinct. 

6. Jdiotism is a construction peculiar to one or more langua^s : thus, 
the ablative after comparatives is a Latinism. When a peculiarity of one 
language is imitated in another, this is also called idiotism. Thus, MiiU 
vniAt verbumf instead of Fac me certiOrem, is an Anglicism. 




^ 326. 1. The calendar of the Romans agreed with our 
own in the number of months, and of the days in each ; but, 
instead of reckoning in an uninterrupted series from the first 
to the last day of a month, they had three points from which 
their days were counted — the calends, the nones, and the ides. 
The calends were always the first day of the ^ month. The 
nones were the fifth, and the ides the thirteenth; except in 
March, May, July, and October, in which the nones occurred 
on the seventh day, and the ides on the fifteenth. 

2. They always counted forwards, from the day whose date 

was to be determined to the next calends, nones, or ides, and 

designated the day by its distance from such point* After the 

first day of the month, therefore, they began to reckon so many 

days before the nones ; after the nones, so many days before the 

ides; after the ides, sp many before the calends, of the next 


Thus, the second of January was denoted ]ij mtarto nonas Jwnxuai/u, 
or Januariu sc. die ante; the tiurd, tertio nanas; we fonrih, pridie nonas; 
and the fifth, nonis. The ^izth was denoted by octdvo idus; the seventli, 
septlmo idus; and so on to the thirteenth, on which the ides fell. The 
fourteenth was denoted by imdemiges^mo caUndas Februarias, or Feiru- 
arii ; and so on to the end of the month. 

3. The day preceding the calends, nones, and ides, was term- 
ed pridie calendas, &c., sc. ante : in designating the other days, 
both the day of the calends, d&c, and that whose date was to 
be determined, were reckoned ; hence the second day before the 
calends, &c., was called tertio, the third quarto, 6z,c. 

4. To reduce the Roman calendar to our own, therefore, it 

is necessary to take one from the number denoting the day, and 

to subtract the remainder from the number of the day on which 

the nones or ides fell. 

Thus, to determine ihe day equivalent to JV. nonas Januarias, we take 
1 firom 4, and subtract the remainder, 3, from 5, the day on which the nones 
fell : this gives 2, or the secgnd of January, for the day in question. So 
l^L idus Aprllis : the ides of April falling upon the 13th, we take 5 from 
13, which leaves 8 : the expression, therefore, denotes the 8th of April. 

In reckoning the days before the calends, as they are not the 
last day of the current month, but the first of the following, H 
is necessary to add one to the number of days in the mcmth. 

Thus, XV, eal. quintiles is (30+1) 31— 14«17, or the 17th of Juno 


To reduce our calendar to the Roman, the same method is 
to be pursued. 

Thus, the 22d of December is (31+1) 32-421r=ll, i. e. X/. eal. Jan. 

5. In leap-year, both the 24th and 25th of February were 
denoted by sexto cakndas Mdrtias or Martii. The latter of 
these was called dies hisseitus, and the year itself cmhus bis- 

The day after the calends, &c., was sometimes called postridie cdUndaSf 

The names of the months are properly adjectives, thongh oflen used 
as nouns, mensis beinff understood. Before the times of the emperors. 
July was imlled Qutntuti, and August, SexttUa. The names Julius ana 
Augustus were given in honor of the CsBsars. 

6. The correspondence of our calendar with that of the 
Romans is, exhibited in the following 


Days of 



JAir. Aug. 

Apr. Juif. 


OUT months. 




SzpT. Nov. 







VI. ] 


IV. xionas. 

IV. non9s. 

IV. nonas. 




in. » 

III. « 

III. « 




Pridie " 

Pridie « 

Pridie « 










Vni. idus. 

VIII. idus. 

VIII. idus. 

* 7 


VII. " 

vn. « 

VII. « 




VI. « 

VI. " 

VI. « 




V. " 

V. " 

V. « 




IV. «. 

IV. « 

IV. « 




III. « 

III. « 

III. » 




Pridie « 

Pridie « 

Pridie " 










XIX. cal. 

XVIII. cal. 

XVI. cal. 




XVII. « 

XV. « 





XVI. « 

XIV. « 




XVI. « 

XV. " 

XIII. " 




XV. " 

XIV. « 

XII. " 




XIV. " 

XIII. " 

XI. « 




XIII. « 

XII. " 

X. « 




XII. « 

XI. « 

IX. w 




XI. « 

X. « 

VIII. " 




X. « 

IX. « 

VII. « 




IX. <« 

VIII. « 

VI. « 




VIII. « 

VII. « 

V. « 




VII. «« 

VI. " 

IV. «* 




VI. « 

V. « 

III. « 




V. « 

IV. " 

Pridie "Mar 




IV. « 

III. « 




III. « 

Pridi« « 




Pridie » 






7. The Latins not only said tertio, pridie, &,e,, edUndas^ 
&.C., but also ante diem tertium, &lc.j calendeiSy &,c. ; and the 
latter form in Cicero and Livy is far more common than the 
former, and is usually written thus^ a, d. Ill, cdl., d&c. 

The expression ante diem was used as an indeclinable noun, 
and is joined with in and ex ; as. 

Consul LaHnasf arias in ante diem tertium idus SextiUs edixit, The con 
sol appointed the Latin festival for the third day before the ides of August. 
Li7. SuppUcatiointUeta est ex ante diem quitilum idus OcUfbres. Id. So, 
Ad pridie nenas Maias* Cic. 


^ 327« 1. The Romans reckoned their copper money by 
asseSy their silver money by sestertii, and their gold money by 
Attic talents. 

2. The as was originally a pound of copper, but its weight 
was gradually diminished in succeeding ages, until, in the later 
days of the republic, it amounted to only ^V ^^ ^ pound. It is 
divided into twelve parts, called uncia. 

The names of the several parts are, unciaf ^ ; sextans, -fg ; quad- 
rans,-^; trims, ^', quincunx, -fy; semis,oTsettUssis,-^i septunx,^; 
bes, or bessis, -^ ', dodrans, -^ ; dextans, -fj ; deunz, -fj-. 

3. The denarius was a silver coin, originally equal in yalae 
to ten asses, whence its name ; but, afler the weight of the as 
was reduced, the denarius was equal to sixteen asses. Its value 
is usually estimated at about 14^ cents of our money. 

The sestertius, or sesterce, was one fourth of the denarius, 
or two asses and a half (semistertius), and was hence denoted 
by IIS, or HS. When the denarius was worth 16 asses, the 
sestertius was worth 4. . The sestertius was called emphatically 
nummus, as in it all large sums were reckoned after the coining 
of silver money. 

Half a denarius was a quinarius; one tenth of a denarius, a UheUa, 

The aureus (a gold coin), in the time of the emperors^ was 
equal to 25 denarii, or 100 sesterces. 

The talent is variously estimated, from $860 to $1020. 

4. In reckoning money, the Romans called any sum under 
2000 sesterces so many sestertii ; as, decern sestertii, ten ses- 
terces ; centum sestertii, a hundred sesterces. 

5. Sums from 2000 sesterces (inclusive) to 1,000,000, they 
denoted either by mille, millia, with sestertium (gen. plur.^, or by 
the plural of the neuter noun sestertium, which itself signified 
a thousand sesteroes. Thus they said quadraginta miUia 



sesterttum, or qaadrctginta sestertia, to .denote 40,000 sesterces. 
With the genitive sestertium, millia wal sometimes omitted ; as, 
sestertium centum, sc. millia, 100,000 sesterces, 

6 To denote a million, or more, they used a combination ; 
thus, ckcies centena millia sestertium, 1,000,000 sesterces. The 
words centena millia, however, were generally omitted ; thus, 
decies sestertium, and sometimes merely decies. See ^ 118, 5. 
So, centies, 10 millions ; millies, 100 millions. 

Some suppose that sestertium, when thus joined with the numeral ad- 
verbs, is always the neuter noon in the nominative or accusative singular. 
The ffenitive and ablative of that noun are thus used ; as, Decies sestertii 
i2o£«, With a dowry of l^OOO^OOO sesterces. Tao. ^(^nqua^ies sestertio^ 
5,000,000 sesterces. Id. But this usage dpes not occur in Cicero. 

'the different combinations were thus distingu ished : — ^HS. X. denoted 

iMem sestertii; HS. X, decern sestertia; HS. X, decies sestertiiim. But 
this distiikction was not always observed. 


^ 328. The following are the most common abbreviations 
of Latin words : — 

A., Jiidus. 

C, Catus, 
Cn., Cneus. 
D., DecimtM. 
L., Lucius, 
M., Jtf«*-ctt«. 

A. d., ante diem, 

A. U. C, anna, urhis 

Cal., or kal., calenda, 
Cos., Consul. 
Coss., Consoles. 
D., Divus. 

D. D,, dono dedit, 

D. D. D., doty dieat, d^ 
dieat, or dono dieat, 

Des., desi^TuUus. 

D. M., dits marOlms. 

£q. Rom., eques Rom&- 

M. T. C, Marcus TuJ^ 

lius Ciciro, 
Mam., Mamereus, 
N., .Nkimerius. 
P., Publius. 

Q., or Qu., Q^int^u. 

Ser., Servius. 

S., or Sez.^ Sesptus. 

Sp., Smirius, 

T., Titus. 

Ti., or Tib., Tiberius 

Pont. Max., ponSLfex 

Pr., prator, 

Proc., proconsul. 

Resp., respybVica, 

S., salntem, sacrum, or 

S. D. P., saliJLtem dial 

S. P. Q. R., Sendtus 
populusque RomH^ 

S. C, senOtus eonsul- 

Tr., tribunus. 

To tiiese may be added terms of reference ; as, c, caput, chapter; if, 
confer, compare ; L c, loco citdto; 1. 1, loco laudato, in the place qootoA 
«., versus, verse. 

F., Filius; as, M. P., 

Ictus, juriseonsuUus. 
Id., idus. 
Imp., imperdtor. 
J. O. M., Jovi, Optimo 


Non., nomB. 

P. C, patres eon- 

PI., plebis. 
Pop., popHlus. 
P. R., pop^us JZoflitf- 




^ 329. 1. Of the Roman literature for the first five cen- 
turies afler the foundation of the city, hardly a vestige remains. 
The writers of the succeeding centuries have been arranged 
in four ages, in reference to the purity of the language in the 
period in which they flourished. These are called the golden^ 
Mtlver, brazen, and iron ages. 

2. The golden age is generally reckoned from about tlie 
year 514 of the city to the death of Augustus, A. D. 14, a 
period of a little more than 250 years. The writers of the early 
part of this age are valued rather on account of their antiquity, 
than as models of style. It was not till the age of Cicero, that 
Roman literature reached its highest elevation. The era 
comprehending the generation immediately preceding, and that 
immediately succeeding, that of Cicero, as well as his own, is 
the period in which the most distinguished writers of Rome 
flourished ; and their works are the standard of purity in the 
Latin language. 

3. The silver age extended from the death of Augustus to the 
death of Trajan, A. D. 118, a period of 104 years. The wri- 
ters of this age were inferior to those who had preceded them ; 
yet several of them are worthy of commendation. 

4. The brazen age comprised the interval from the death of 
Trajan to the time when Rome was taken by the Goths, A. D. 
410. From the latter epoch commenced the iron age, during 
which the Latin language was much adulterated with foreign 
words, and its style and spirit essentially injured. 

(From the Lexicon of Faccicdatns.) 


Livius Andronlcus. C. Decios Laberius. Atta. 

Lsevius. M. Verrins Flaccus. Cassias Hemlna. 

C Nffivius. Varro Attaclnus. Fenestella. 

Statius CiBcillus. Titinius. ^ Claud. Qoadrigari 

Q. Ennius. L. Pomponios. *" ns. 

M. Pacuvias. A. Serenus. CcBfius, or Csliiu. 

L. Accins. C. Sempronios Asellio. Fabius Pictor. 

C. Lucilius. C. Sempronios Grac- Cn. G^llius. 

Sex. Tuxpilios. chus. L. Piso, 

L. Afranius. Santra. Valerias Antias. 

L. Cornelius Sisenna. Cn. Matius. Tiro Tullius, and 

P. Nigidius Figttlos. Q. Novius. others. 

Of the works of the preceding writers, only a few firagments remain. 



M. Porcius Cato. 
M. Accius Plautus. 
M. Terentius Afer. 
T. Lucretius Cams. 
C. Valerius Catullus. 
P. Syrus. 
C. JuliiAr GtBsar. 

Cornelius Nepos. 
M. Tullins Cicero. 

Sex. Aurelius Proper- 

C. Sallustius Crispus. 
M. Terentius Varro. 

Albius TibuUus. 
P. Vir^lius Maro. 
T. Livius. 
M. Manilius. 
M. Vitruvius. 

P. Ovidius Naso. 
Q. Horatius Flaccus. 
C. Pedo Albinovanus. 

Gratius Faliscus 

C. Comiiksius. 
A. Hirtius, w Oppius. 
P. Comelitts Sevenu. 

To these may be added the following names of lawyers, whose 
opinions are found in the digests : — 

Q. Mutius Scffiydla. M. Antistius Labeo. Masurius Sablnus. 
Alfenus Varus. 

Of the writers of the golden age, the most distinguished are 
Terence, Catullus, Csesar, Nepos, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, T« 
Livy, and Sallust 


A. Cornelius Celsus. 
P. Velleius Patercfilus. 
L. Junius Moderatus 
Pomponius Mela. 
A. Persius Flaccus. 
Q. Asconius Pediflnus. 
M. Anneeus SenSca. 
L. Annseus Seneca. 

M. Anneus Luc&nus. 
T. Petronius Arbiter. 
C. Plinius Seeuodus. 
C. Silius Italtcus. 

C. Valerius Flaccus. 
^C. Julius Solinus. 

D. Junius Juvenalis. 
P. Papinius Statins. 
M. Valerius Martialii. 

M. Fabius Quintilia- 

Sex. Julius Frontlnus. 
C. Cornelius Tacitus. 
C. Plinius Ci&oilitts Se- 

L. AnniBus Florae 
C. Suetonins TnuiquU- 


The age to which the following writers should he assigned is some- 
what uncertain: — \ 

Q. Curtius Rufus. Scribomiis Lajrgus. L. Fenestella. 

Valer. Probus. Sulpitia. Atteius Caplio. 

Of the writers of the silver age, the most distinguished are Celsusi 
Velleius, Columella, the Senecas, the Plinies, Juvenal, QuintiliaOy 
Tacitus, Suetonius, and Curtius. 


A. G«llius. 

L. Apuleius. 

Q. Septimius Tertulllann8< 

Q. Serfinus Sasimonicus. 

Censonnus. ■■ 

Thascius Cscilius Cyprianus. 
T. Julius Caloumius. 
M. Aurelius Nemesianus. 

^lius Spartianus. 

Julius Capitblinus. 

JClius Lampridius. 

Vulcatius Gallicanus. 

TrebelUus PolHo. 

Flayius Vopiscus. 

CcbUus Aurelianus. 

Flavins Eutropius. 

Rhemnius Fannius. 

Amobius Afiir. 

L. CobUus Laetantiiis. 
.£Uus Donatus. 

C. Vettus Juvencus. 
Julius Finnicu8» 

Fab. Jtfarius Victorlnus. 
Sex. Rufiis, or Rufus I'estus 
' Ammianus MaTccUlnufl.' 
Vejrotius Renatus. 
Anrel. Tneoddnia Maorobius 
Q. Aurelius Symxn&chus. 

D. Magnus Ausonius. 
Paiilinus Nolanus. 

Sex. Aurelius Victor. 
Aurel. Prudentius Clemens. 
CI. Qaudianus. 

Marcellus Empiifciis 

Falconia Proba. 



Ofim^^e not enHrdy eaiain. 

Minutius Felix. 
Soaip&ter Chaxisias. 

Fl. Avienus, or Avit 

Valerias M&zlmus. 
Terentianus MauruB. 

The oiHnions of the following lawyers aie found in the digests : — 

Salyius JulianiiB. 
•ffimilius PapiniAnuB. 
Julius Paulus. 

Sex. PomponiuB. 
Venuleius Satumlnus. 
JElius Marcianus. 
i£lius GalluSy and 

Licinius Procfllus. 
Neratius Prisons. 
P. Ju^entius Celsus. 
Friacus Jaboldnns. 
Domitius Ulpiftnus. 
Herennius Modestinus. 

Of the writers of the brazen a^e, Justin, Terentianus, Victor, Lac- 
tantius, and Claudian, are most distinguished. 

The age to which the following writers belong is uncertain. The 
style of some of them would entitle them to be ranked with the writ- 
ers of the preceding ages, while that of others would place them even 
below those of the iron age. 
PaUadius RutiUusTau- Catalecta Virgilii et 

rus iEmilianus. 
JEmilins Macer. 
MessaU Corrinus. 
Vibius Sequester. 
Julius Obs^quens. 
L. Ampelitts. 
Apicius Ccslius. 
Sex. Pompeius Festns. 
Probus (auctor Nota- 

Fulgentius Planci&des. 

C. Cesar Germanlcus. 
P. Victor. 
P. Vegetius. 
Auctores PriapeiArum. 


Auctor oratiAais Sal- 
lustii in Cic. et Ci- 
cerdnis in Sail. ; 
item illius JinU" 
auam iret in exsir 

Auctor EpistSlcB ad Oc- 

Auctor Panegyrlci ad 

Declamatidnes qua 
tribuuntur Quintili- 
ano, Porcio LatrO- 
ni, Galpumio Flac- 

Inteipres DarStis Phry- 
gu, et Dictyos Cre- 

Scholiasts Vet£res. 

Grammatici AntlquL 

Rhetdres Anti(]|ui. 

Medici Antiqui. 

Catalecta Petroniana. 

Pervigilium Veneris. 

Poematia et Epigram- 
mftta vetSra a Pi- 
thiBO collccta. 

Monumentum Ancy- 

Fasti Consulares. 

Inscriptionefl Vet&resi 


CI. RutUius Numatia- 

Servius Honoratus. 
D. Hieronj^muB. 
D. Augustinus. 
Sulpicius SeveruB. 
Pamus Orosius. 
Coelius Sedulius. 
Codex TheodosianuB. 
Martianus Capella. 
Claudianus AlamertUB. 
Sidonius ApoUinaris. 

LatinuB PacatuB. 

Claudius Mamertinus, 
et aUi, quorum sunt 
Panegyrici vetSres. 

AIcTmus Avitus. 

Manl. SevennuB Bo6- 
^ thius. 


Nonius Marcellus. 

JuBtiniani InstitutiSnes 
et Codex. 


M. Aurelius CasadG 

Fl. CresconiuB Corip- 

Venantius Fortunatus. 
IsiddruB Hispalensis. 
Anonj^mus Kayemuui 
AldhelmuB or Althel 

Paulus DiacdnuB 


The figiuM In the foUewing Index designate the teetums, and their divlrioni : m. ftaadi 

for rtmarkf ir. for note, and s. for ttuptiam. 

Af soond of/ 7 and 8-— noins in, of 3d 
dec, g«Bd^ of. 66 j genitive of, 68^— 
increment in, 3d dec., 287, 3 ; phiral, 
S88; of verbs, 290— final, quanUty of, 
294. ^ 

A, ab, abs. how used, 195^ R. 2. 

Abbreviations, 328. 

Abd^Oj construction of, 251, r. 2. 

Ablative, 37— >«ing-., 3d dec., 82 : of ad- 
jectives, 3d dec, 113 and ll^t— plur., 
1st dec, 43; 3d dec, 84; 4th dec, 
89, 5— used adverbially, 192, 1., II.— 
of character, quaUty, &,c, 211, r. 6— 
after prepositions, 241— of situation, 
&.O., after »«»», 245, III.— after partici- 

Slps denoting origin, 246— of cause, 
tc, 247 — e? agent, 248— of a noun, 
mWi which, &.c, 249 ; in accordance 
with whichj 249, It. — of accompani- 
ment, 249, III.— denoting in tohca re- 
spect, 2S(X--after adjectives of plenty 
or want, 250 — after verbs of abound- 
ing, &c,250— with/urio and sum, 250, 
R. 3— after verbs of depriving, &c, 
251— of price, 252— of time, 2S3— of 
place, wliere, 254 : whence, 255— after 
^comparatives, 256— after alius, 256, 
R. 14— of degree of difference, 256, 
R. 16— absolute, 267 ; do., without a 
participle, 257, R. t; do., with a 
clause instead of a noun, 257, R. 8. 

Aboanding and wanting, verbs of, with 
abl., 250— with gen., 220, (3.) 

Abstract nouns, 26 — formation of, 101 
and 102. 

Abus, dat. and abl. plur. in, 43^ 

Ac si with subj., 26o, 2. 

Acatalecttc verse, 304. 

Accents, 5. 

Accentuation, 14. 

Accompaniment, abl. of, 249, III. 

Accofdance, abl. of, 249, II. 

Accusative, 37— sing.. 3d dec, 79 : of 
Greek nouns, 80— plur.. 3d dec, o&^ 
neuter, used adverbially, 192. II., 4. 
and 205, r. 10— after verbs, 229-234 
^K>mitted, 229, R.4r— infinitive instead 
of^ 229, R. 5— -Qf a person, after mt>^-> 
ret, &;c., 229, R. 6 ; after jtmat, &c., 
229, R. 7— after neuter verbs, 232^ 
after compound verbs, 233-^after ver- 
bal nouns, 233, N.^-of part afifected, 
234, II. — after prepositions, 235— of 
time and space, 236 — of place, 237— 
after adverbs and inteijections, 238— 
as subject, 239. 

Accusatives, two, after what verbs, 230 
—latter of, after passive voice, 234. 

Accusing and acquitting, verbs of, with 
gen., 217. 

Acephalous verse, 304. 

Active voice, 141. 

' verb, 141— K>bject of, 229— two 

cases after, 229, r. 1— omitted, 229, 
R. 3. 

Adjectives, lO-Jr-lSl— classes of, 104— 
declension of, 105— gen. sing, of, 112, 
114— ecbl. sing, of, 113, 114— nom. and 

fen. plur. of, 113, 114r— •irregular, 115, 
16— derivation of, 128— verbal, 129 
' —participial, 130— adverbial, 130— 

f»repdsitlonal, 130— composition of^ 
31— how modified, 201, III., R. 2-^ 
agreement of, 205— either modifiers 
or predicates, 205, n. 1— -with two or 
more nouns, 205, r. 2— with a collec- 
tive noun, 205, r. 3— sing, with a plur. 
noun, 205, r. 4r— dat. of, for ace, 205, 
R. 6— without a noun, 205, r. 7— with 
infinitives, clauses, &c, 205, r. 8— 
with gen. instead of thehr own case, 
205, R. 9, and 212, r. 3— used parti- 
tively, gender of, 205, R. 12— 4nsiead 
af adverbs, 205, r. \^-"fruutts, meds^ 



wu, &€., fi|pifieation of, 906, ft. 17*« 
urreeine with rdative instead of ante- 
eedevt, S06, (7,)— een. aAer, 215— 
cvn or abl. after, 213, n. 6— <lat. after. 
222— gen. or dat after, 213, R. 6, and 
222, R. 2— of plenty or want, with abl., 
250— followed by infin., 270, ft. 1— 
place of, 279, 7. 

Aojective pronouns, 134*-139— classes 
of, 134— agreement of, 206. 

Admonishing, verbs of, with een., 218. 

Adornuig and arraying, verbs of, with 
abl., »9. 

AdcHiic veiWBj 312. 

Adverbial adjectives, 130. 

Adverbs, 190-194— numeral, 119— of 
place, mutual relation of, 191, r. 1— 
derivBtjon of, 192— composition of, 
193-~comparison of, 194r— bow modi- 
fied, 201, III. r. 4— used as adjectives, 
205, R. 11— with gen., 212, r. 4— with 
dat., 228, ( 1 ,)— with ace, 23B— use of, 
277 — two qegatives, force of, 277, r. 
3-<&— eqniviiUent to (riurases, 277, R. 
8— of likeness, as connectives, 278, r. 
1— place of, 279, 16. 

2Bnigina, 324, 7. 

Affection of the mind, verbs denoting, 
with gen., 220. 

Agent, dative of, 225, 11., HE.— ^wfaen 
wanting, 226, III., r. 1— abl. of, 248. 

Ages of Roman literature, 329. 

Agnominatio, 3S4, 25. 

Agreement^ defined, 203, 6— of adjec- 
tives, ad|ective pronouns, and partici- 
ples, 206--of relatives, 206. 

ii^ genitive in, 43— quantity of the a in, 

Aio. 183, 4— 4ts place in a sentence, 

Alf nouns in, abl. of, 82— increment of, 

287, E. (A.) 1. 
Alcaic— {^ater, 318, III.— lesser, 318, 

■ » • 
Alcmanian dactylic tetram^.ter, 312. 
Alu, arit, aOlU, adj. in, 128, 2. 
AHquis, declmed, 138— how used, 207, 

R. 30. 
Alius, how declined, 107— 4iow used, 207, 

R. 32— with abl., 256, r. 14. 
Allegorjr, 324, 7. 
. Alliteration, 324, 26. 
Alter y how declined, 107— 4iow used, 207, 

R. 32, and 212, r. 2. h. 1. 
Ambo, how declined, 118. 
Amphibolia, 325, 5. 

Amplificatives, nouns, 100, 4— adjec- 
tives, 104, and 128, 4. 
Anah&sis. 324, 22. 
Aaacoluthon, 323, 3, (6.) 
Anacreontic iambic dimeter, 314, DC. 

Anadiplflsis, 924, 17. 
Analysis of sentences, 281. 
Anapaestic, metre.313,d03— monomCter, 

313— dim«tcr, 313. 
Anaphdra, 324, la 
AnastrOphe, 323. 4, (l^ 
Ante diem col., dec, 32i5, 7. 
Antanad&sis, 324, 12. 
Antecedent, 136— understood, 206, (S,) 

(4,)— its diaee supplied by a demon' 

strative, 906, (3,W--in the case of the 

relative. 206, (6.) 
Antepenult, 13— ^aatity of, 292. 
Atttiauam, by .what mood IbDowed, 

Antimeria^ 323, 3, (1.) 

Anliphr&sis, 324, 10. 

AnUptdsis,323,3, (3.) 

Antith^is, 3222ana ^4^, 27. 

Antonomasia, 324, 8. 

Apagtf 183, 10. 

Apbei^sis, 322. 

Apoc6pe, 322. 

Apoddsis, 261. 

Aposiop^is, 324, 33. 

Apostrophe, 324, 35. 

Appendix, 322-329. 

Apposition, 204^— to two or more noons, 
904, R.6— to nouns connected by cum, 
204, R. 6— to proper names of differ- 
ent genders. 204. r. 6— gen. instead 
of, S^, R. &— abl. with gen., 204, r. 
7— of parts with a whole,, 2(>4, r. 10, 
and 2i2, r. 2, h. 6— nouns in, place 
of, 279, 9. 

Aptotes, 94. 

ilr, nouns in, gender of, 66, 67— gen. of, 
70, 71 — abl. of, 82— mcrement of, 287, 
B. (A.) 1. 

Archaism, 323, r. (1.) 

Archilochian, penthemim^ris, 31£-Ham- 
bic trimeter, 314, V.*-k1o. dim£ler, 
314, VII<-.heptam€ter, 318, IV. 

Ariumf nouns uiulOO, 8. 

ArhtSf adj. in, 128, 3. 

Arrangement, of words, 279*— of clausesy 

Arsis and thesis, 308. 

As, genitives in, 4^— 'Uouns in, of 3d dee., 
gender of, 62 ; gen. of, 72— and onus, 
adj. in, 138, 6-^na]24uantity of, 30O. 

A», Koman, value of, 9fi7— how divided, 

Asclepiadic tetrameter, 316> IIL , 

Asking, demanding, and teaching, veibs 
of, two ace. after, 231. 

ABsuesco, with abl., 246, IL— ^with dat 
246, n., R. 1. 

Asyndeton, 323, 1, (1.) 

Attraction, 206, (6.) 

Audeo, how conjugated, 142, ft. 2. 




Audiau, eonstiiietioB of, VBt, B. 1« 

Auretu, value of, 327, S, 

Ausim, 183, R. 1. 

Authority, quantity detenniafid by, 

Ao and ofti, in tlie 2d a&d Sd roots of 

verbs, 164. 
Ave, 183, 8. 
AXf a^j. u. 129, 6"Hreib8U in, with fS&L, 



B finalf quantity of, 299. 

Barbarism, 32^ 1. 

Belli f construction o^ 221, B. 3. 

BiHa. adjectives in, 129, >— with dative, 

BoSf dat and abl. plur. og84, and 286, 5. 
Bracbycatalectie verse, 304. 
Brasen age, 329, 4. 
Bucolic caesura, 310, 6. 
Bundutf adjectives in, 129, l— with ace., 
233, ]r« 


C, sound of, 10-Hiouns in, gender of, 
66 J gen. of, 70— final, quantity oL 299. 

Cesura, 309— different kinds of, 309— 
in hexameter verse, 310, 3-6 — in pen- 
tameter verse, 311, £<-4n iambic verse, 
314, 1, and X.— in trochaic verse, 31A, 
I.— in choriambic verse, 316, III. 

CsBSural pause, 309, 3. 

Calends. 326. 

Cardinal numbers, 117 and 118. 

Cases of nouns, 3o and 37. ' 

Catab&sis, 324k 22. 

Catachrdsis, 324. 1. 

Catalectic verse', 304. 

Cause, abl. of, ^7— ace. of with prepo- 
sitions, 247, R. 1. 

Ce and cine, enclitic, 134, B. 4, 

Cedo, 183, 11. 

Cehf with two aecusativef, 231. 

Ceu, with subjunctive, 263, 2. 

CA, sound of, 10. 

Character or quality, sea. oil 211, B. 6. 

Choliambus, 314,0. 

Choriambic, metre, 316 and 303— -pen- 
tameter, 316, 1.— tetrameter, 316. U.^— 
trimeter, 31o, I V^^trimeter cataiectie, 
316, V^-<Umeter, 316. VI. 

GicMi, government of, 235, (5.) 

Clause, as a logical subject, 20l, IV. 

Clauses, 203-%ow coaneeted, 2^, 4^ 
and 278. r. 3— arraogement of, 280* 

dimaz, 324, 21. 


CcEoi, 183, 2i. 

Collective noons. 26-Hiumber of their 

verbs, 209, R. 11. 
Common, nouns, 26— gender, 30^-syUa* 

ble, 282, 2. 
Comparative degree, 123— formation o^ 

Comparatives, deelmed, 110— with gen., 

%lk, R. 2— deootinc one of two, 212, 

R. 2, R. 1— with abl. 266. 
Comparison, of adjectives, 122-127— 

terminational, 124-H}f adverbs, 194— 

irregular, 125.— defective, 126— by 

magis and maxUne, 127. 
Composition, of noun8^103— of adi^ 131 

— K>f verbs, 188— of adverbs, 193. 
Compound, subject, 201— predicate, 202, 

II.— sentence, 203— metres, 318. * 
Compound words, how divided, 23—* 

quantity of, 285. 
Con, adjectives compounded with, with 

gen., m— verbs do., with dat, 224. 
Concretes, 101, 2. 
Condemning and eonvictingf, verbs of^ 

with sen., 217. 
C0nfUh;ynih atrf., 245, II.— with dat, 

Cmfi, 183* 12, and 180, ir. 

Conjugation, 149-~first, 155 and 156— ^ 
second, lOT— third, 158 and 169— 
fourth, 160— of deponent verbs. 161— • 
periphrastic, 162— general rules of. 
163— thini, list of verbs in^ 17S— of 
irreeular verbs, 178-182^— of defective 
verbs, 183— of impersonal verbs, 184. 

Conjugations, bow cnaracterized, 1 40 " 
remarks on, 162. 

Conjunctions, 198— classes of, 198— eii- 
clitiCf 198, R. £«-«opulative and dis- 
junetive, tneir use, S78 3 may conneet 
different moods, 278, R. 4 and 63 r»- 
peat^d, 278, r. 7. 

Connection, of tenses, 258— of words by 
conjtmctions, 278— of clauses by do., 
278, R. 3. 

Connecting vowel, 150, 5— omitted ia 
2d root, 163, 2. 

Connectives, place of, 279, 3. 

Consmiants, sounds of, 10—12. 

Cantto, with abl., 245. II. 

Contentus, with abl., x44^ 

Contracted syllables, quantity of, 283L 

Contractions in 2d root of veibs, 162, 7. 

Copula, 14a 

Crasis, 306, (5.) and 322. 

Crime, gen. of, after verbs, 217. 

Ct/^atf now dedtned, 139. 

Cifftff, how declined, 137, B. 5, 

Cum annexed toabL, 138, b. 4, and 136i 
B. 1. 



Cim^ by what mood Iblkywed, S65, 5. 
OKmnWy adjectives in, 129. 1. 
Ctmque, its force, 191, b. 4. 


P final, qoaotky of, f99. 

Dactylic, metre, 310 and 905— IrimSter, 
3li~dim«ter^ 312. 

Dactylico-iambic metre, 318, 1. «. 

Dactylico-trochaic, faeptamSter, 318, IV. 
•»4etraro€ter, 318, Y. 

Dative, 37<— sing., 3d dee., 79— floral, 
1st dec., 43; 3d dec.. 84; 4th dec., 
89, 5— ased for gen., 21 1, R. &— «fler 
adjectives, 222— diflerent constractions 
instead of, 222, r. 4 and 6— «Aer 
idem, 222, r. 7— after verbs, 223-227 
—after verbs compoanded, with ad, 
ante, dtc., 224 ; witn ab, de, and ex. 
224, R. 1 and 2 ; with toHs, ben^, ana 
maU, 22&— of the agent, 225, II. III. 
—of the iMssessor after €sl, 226— af- 
ter particles, 228. 

Datives^ two, after turn, &e., 227. 

Declension, of nouns, 38-40— -rules of, 
40— first, 41-^ : ezc. in. 43— second, 
4&.54 ; exc. in, 52— third, 65-86 ; exc. 
in, 68-85— fourth, 87-89; exc. in, 89; 
formed by contraction, 89— ^fth, 90: 
exc. in, 90— of adjectives, first tad 
second, 105^107; third, 108-111. 

Declensions, tabular view of, 39. 

Degrees of comparison, 123. 

Detective, noons, 94-96— adjectives, 115 
r— verbs, 183. 

Dejit, 183, 13, and 180. N. 

Dem, enclitic, 134, R. o. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 134— construc- 
tion of, 5H)7— in apiMsition with a 
clause, 207, r. 22, and 206, ( 13,)— used 
for reflexives, 208, (6,)— place of, 279, 

Denarius, its value, 327— divisions of, 

Denominatives, adj., 128— verbs, 187, 1. 
Dependence defined. 203, 8, 
Dependent clauses. 203. 
Deponent verbs, 142, r. 4— conjugated, 

161— participles of, 162. 17— lists of, 

1st conj., 166 ; 2d cmn., 170 ; 3d conj.. 

174; 4th conj., 177— ucrement of, 

Depriving, verbs of, with abl., 25i. 
Derivation, of noons, 100— of adjectives, 

128— of verbs, 187— of adverbs, 192. 
Derivative words, quantity of, 284. 
Desiderative verbs, 187, U. 3, and 176, 

H.^-^Iuantity of the v in, 284w s. 5. 
Dmt declined, 53. 

DiserSsis, 306> 2 vu AoLA 

Diastftle, 307^ 2. 

Die, imperative, 162, 4. 

Dicdiott, 319. 

DiOo audientf with dat.. 222, R. 1. 

Difierenee, di^;iee o( now 

256. R. 16. 
D^, with aU., 241 
jD^nor, with abL, 245. 
DigwUf indignus, &c., with abi.^ 24^— 

with gen.,£l4, r. 2-«wilh relative and 

subjunctive, 2o4, 9. 
Diminutive, nouns, 100, 3 — odiectivefl^ 

104. and 128, 5— verbs, 187, U. 4. 
Di{^tnongs, 4— sounds of, 9 rpisat^) 

of, 283, iL 
Diptotes, 94. 
DUtich, 304. 

Distributive numbers, 119 and 120. 
DistrOphon, 319. 

Do, increment o^ 290, ■., and 284^ x. 4 
DamiUf de^ilinea, 89^— constmctioii oi, 

gen., 221, &. 3; ace., 237, k. 4 j abi., 

Donee, vfbh subjunctive, 263, 4, 

Double letters, 3. 

Doubtful gender, 30. 

Due, imperative, 162, 4. 

Dum, with sul^unctive, 263, 4— and 
dummddo with do., 263, 2. 

Duo declined, 118. 

Due J participle in, with dat, 22& III.— 
with ace, 234, r. 2— its signification, 
274, 2, R. 8— used for a gcruad, 275, 



E, sound o^ 7 and 8— noons m, of 3d 
dec^genaer of, 66; gen. of, 68; i^ 
of, 82— adverbs in, 192, 11^— <uid eXy 
how used, 195, r. 2— increment in^ 
3d dec., 287, 3 ; pinr.. 288 ; of verbs^ 
290— final, ouanUty or, 295. 

Eapte, d&c., 135, ti. 3. 

Eccum, eccUlum, dec, 134, R. 2 and 
238, 2. 

Ecquie, how declined, 137, R. 3k 

Ecthlipsis, 305, 2. 

Edo and etas, abstracts in, 101. 

Edo (to eat) comuffated, 181. 

Ej^o, declined, 133. 

JEm, verbals in, 102, 3. 

Elegiac verse, 311, 3. 

Ellipsis, 323. See Omifssoii. 

Emphatic word, place of, in a MRt«Dea^ 
279, 2, and 16. 

Enallftge, 323, 3. 

Enclitics, in acce&toalioa, 16— «QijiiM> 
tSOUM, 19% B. 2. 



Ennehemim&is, 9M, fi. 

EnsiSf adjectives iii; 128, 6. 

Eo, conjugated. 182— compounds of, 
182, R. ^-witk supine in um, 276, IL, 
R. 2. 

Epaiiadtpl6sls. S2i, 18. 

Epanados, 324, 19. 

Epanalepsis, 324, 16. 

Epaiiaphdra, 324. 13. 

Epanasti^phe, 324, 17. 

Epanorthdsis, 324, 32. 

EpenthSsis, 322. 

Epistr5phe, 324, 14. 

Epizeuxis, 324. 20. 

Ep&lor, with abl., 245. 11. 

Equality, how denotea, 122. 

£r, nouns in, of 3d dec, fender of^ 58 
and 60 3 gea. of^ 70 aira 71— adjec- 
tives in, superlative of, 125— annexed 
to pres. innn. pass.^ 162, 6. 

Erot^sis, 324, 31. 

Esy nouns in, of 3d dec, increasing in 
gen., gender of, 58 and 61 j gen. oL 
73 ; not increasing in gen., sender of, 
62 ; gen. of, 73— ^nal, soimd of, 8, £• 
2 3 (]^uantity of, 300. 

Estf with dat. of apossessor, 216. 

Etumy nouns in, 100, 7. 

Etymology, 24-199. 

Ev and du. in 2d and 3d roots of verbs, 

Euphemisni^324, 11. 

Eu8^ adjectives in, 128, 1— Greek prop- 
er names in, 283, n. 2. 


jFW, 162, 4p— with subj. for imperat, 

267. R. 3. 
FocUi, with superlatives. &c., 277, R.7. 
FcunOy (and compounds,) passive of, 180 

—with abl., 250, R. 3---with td and 

the sobj., 273, 1— with participle, 273, 

Fori, 183,6. 

Faxo and/trtm, 162, 8, and 183, R. 1. 
Feet, 302— isochronous, 302. 
Feminine nouns, of 3d dec, 62$ eze. m, 

JFVr, imperative, 162, 4. 
Feroy conjugated, 179. 
Fido, how conjugated, 142, R. 2-— with 

abl., 245, II.— with dat., 245, II. R. 1. 
Figures, of prosody, 305-307— of or- 

Uiography and etymology, 322— of 

syntax, 323— of rhetoric, 584. 
Filling, verbs of, with abl., 249— with 

gen., 220, (3.) 
Fio, copju|p»tea, 180— quantity of its i, 

283, s. f. 

Follow f in what sense nsed, 203, 9. 

FoTem,fort, 154, 3. 

Frequentative verbs, 187, IL— qoantity 

of the tin, 284, E. 6. 
Frehu, with abl., 244. 
Fruor^ with abl.. 245. 
Fungor, with abl., 245. 
Fdture tense, 145, UL 
Future perfect teose^ 145, VI. 

O, sound of, 10. 
GalUambus, 314, X. 
Gaudeo, how conjugated, 142, r. !^— 
with abl., 245, If.— with ace, 245, IL, 

R. 1. 

Gender, general rules of, 27-34 — natural 
and grammatical, 27-^nasc. from sig- 
nification, 28 — (em. from do., 29— 
common and doubtful, 30— epicene, 
33— neuter, 34— of 1st dec, 41 ; exc* 
in. 42— of 2d dec, 46 : exc. m, 49— 
of 3d dec, 58. 62, and 66 ; exc in, 59 
-^— of 4th dec, 87: exc. m, 88— of 
5th dec^^ ; exc. in, 90. 

Genitive, 37— sing., 1st dec, exc in, 43 j 
of adjective^, ^ dec, 1 1^^— plur., 1st 
dec, contracted. 43 ; 2d dec, do., 53 ; 
3d dec, 83 ; or adjectives, 3d dec, 
113 and 114— after nouns, 211— ^what 
relations it denotes, 211, R. 1— sub- 
jective and objective, 211, R. 2— of 
substantive pronouns, 211, r. 3 — pos- 
sessive adjective used for, 211, R. 4 
— Klative used for, 211, r. 5-— of 
character or quality, 211, R. 6— noua 
limited by, omitted, 211, r. 7 ; want- 
ing, in the predicate after ncm,211, r. 
8 ; in other cases, 211, r. 8, (6,)— 
omitted,211, R.9— how translated,211, 
R. 12— after partitives, 212^after a 
neuter adjective or adj. pronoun, 212, 
R. 3 — after adverbs, 212, r. 4--after 
adjectives, 213 ; different constructions 
instead of, 213, r. 4!—9SiBT dignus and 
indignuSf 244, r. 2 — after verbs, 214^ 
220— after sum, and verbs of valuing, 
214^-of crime, 217 — after verbs of ad- 
monishing, 218 — after verbs denoting 
an affection of the mind, 220— of place, 
221--after particles, 221, IL, III.— 
plur. depending on a genuid, 275, r. 
1. (3,) — place of, after neuter adjec- 
tives, 279, 10. 

Genitives, two, limiting the same noun, 
211, R. 10. 

Gerundives, how used, 275, II. 

Gerunds, 148, 2— by what cases follow- 
ed, 274— «ind gerundives, gen. o^ 



S75, R. I $ dat. of, 275, R. S; ace. of, 

275, R. 3 j abl. of, 275, r. 4; infin. for, 

after adj., 275, R. 2, (4.) 
OUmor^ with abl., 245, lU. 
Glyconic verse, S16, IV. 
Golden age, 329, 2. 
Government defined, 203, 7. 
Grammatical, subject, 201: caSes of, 

901, IV., 3— predicate, 202— figures, 

Greek noons, eender of, 34, r.— Ist 
dec., 44— 2d ctee., 54— ace. of, in 3d 
dee., 80— declension of, in do., 86. 


Hj its nature,]^— in prosody, 283. 

Habeo, &c., with perfect participles, 274, 
2. r. 4b 

Hellenism, 323, r. (2.) 

Hemistich, 304. 


HepthemimSris, 304, 5. 

Heroic caesAra, 310^ and 5. 

Heterocliie nouns, d3. 

Heterogeneous nouns, 92. 

Heterosis, 323, 3, (2.) 

Hexameter verse, SlO^Priapean, 310, 

Hiatus, 279, 18. 

IBc. declitied, 134— and iUe distlkigoish- 
ea, 207, R. 23. 

Hipponactie, trimSter, 314,11.— tetrame- 
ter, 314. IV. 

Ii<mu> ana Aombies omitted, 209, R. 2. 

Homoeoprophfiroa, 324, 26. 

Horace, key to the odes of, 321. 

Horatian metres^ 320. 

Hum, construction of, 221, R. 3. 

Hypaflftge, 323, 4, (3.) 

Hyperbaton, 323, 4. 

Hyperbdle. 324, 5. 

H^^rcatalectie, or hypermSter verse, 

Hysteron protSron, 323, 4, (2.) 


/, sound of, 7 and 8-~nouns in, gander 
of, 66 ; ffen. of, 68 — ^increment m, 3d 
dec.,2iB7,3; plur.,288: of verbs, 290 
—final, quantity of, 296. 

Iambic, metre, 314 and 303— 4rimSter, 
314, 1. : catalectic, 314, V. — ^tetraraS- 
ter, 814, III. ; catalectic, 314, IV.— 
dimeter, 314, VI. j hypermgtor, 314, 
VII. I acephalous, 314, VIII. 3 cata- 
lectic, 314, rx. 

lambico-dactylic metre, 318, II. 

Xbam, ibar, tfto, tbor, 162, 2. 

IciuSf icus, ilUf and tut, adjectival in, 

lews or Uius, verbal adjectives in, 129, 6 
Ictus, 308, 3. 
Idem, declined, 134, R. 6— bow used 

207, R. 27— with dative, 222, r. 7 

how otherwise construed, 222, r. 7. 
Ides, 326. 
Idiotism^ 325, 6. 
Idus, adjectives in, 129, 2. 
leSf adverbs in, 1^, II., 3. 
li, in gen., contracted, G&. 
He, nouns in, 100, 9. 
IliSf adjectives in, 129, 4. 
JUe, declined, 134-^ow used,207, R. 24 

—with hie, 207, R. 23. 
Hlic, how declined, 134, r. 3. 
Im, in pres. sabj., 162, 1— adverbs in, 

192, iTand II. ;^ 
Inumium, nouns in, 100, 6— and imonia, 

verbals m, 102, 3. 
Imperative, 143, 3— Its time, 145, r. 9—* 

how used, 267. 
Imperfect tense, 145, II. 
Impersonal verbs, 184— list of in 8d conj., 

169 — ^their construction, 209, R. 3. 
In, government of, 235, (2.) 
Inceptive verbs, 187, II., 2--Iist of, 173. 
Increment, of nouns, 286 ; sing, num., 

287 $ plnr. num, 288— of verbs, 289. 
Incrementum, 324, 22. 
Indeclinable, nouns, 94— adjectives, 1 15, 


Indefinite, adjectives, 104— pronouns, 
138— adveros, 191, r. 4. 

Independent clauses, 203. 

Indicative mood, 143^ 1— 4ts tenses. 145 
i— how used, 259— its tenses used one 
for another, 259. 

Indirect questions, subj. in, 265. 

Induo ana exuo, construction of^ in pass., 
234; in act., 251, r. 2. 

Inferiority, how denoted, 122. 

Infinitive, 143, 4— 4t8 tenses, 145, r. 4 
—as a logical subject^ 201. IV.p--4iow 
modified,202. III.— »with subject-nom., 
209, K. 5— for gen., 213, r.4— its sub- 
ject, 239— construction and meaning 
of its tenses, 268— subject of a verb, 
269'-depenaing on a verb, 270; on 
an adjective or noun, 270, R. 1— omit- 
ted, ino, R. 3 — ^without a subject, after 
what verbs used, 271— with a suoject, 
after what verbs used, 272 and 273^ 
how translated, 272, r. 3 — used like a 
noun, 273, n. — ^its place, 279, 11. 

InJU, 183, 14, and 180, K. 

Inflection, 25. 

Inmtam, 183, 5— its place in a sentenev 



iDstrainent, abl. of, S47. 

Inteasive. pronouns, 13&— verbs, 187, 

II. 5. 
InterdicOf construction of, 251, R. 2. 
Interest, See Rtfert, 
Interjections, 19d-— with nom., S09, R. 

13— with dat.,228. (3,>— with ace, 238, 

2— with voc., 24(>--0, /i«u, &c., not 

elided, 305. 
Intermediate clauses^ subj. in, 266. 
Interrogative, adjectives, 104 and 121— 

pronouns, 137 ^ when indefinite, 137, y. 
hmsj adjectives in, 128, 1, 2, and 6. 
loy verbsds in, 102, 7. 
Ionic, metre, 317 and 303--a fMjore, 317, 

I.— ^ minortf 317, II. 
fyse, declmed, 13&--4iow used, 207, r. 

28— used reflexively, 208, (4,)— with 

inUr, 208, (5. J 
Iriy with'isupine in vm, 276, II., R. 3. 
Iron age. 329, 4. 
Irony, 324, 4. 
Irregular, nouns, 92— adjectives, 11^^ 

verbs, 178-182. ' 
ISf nouns in, G[ender of, 62 and 63 3 gen. 

of, 74-^nd, quantity of, 301. 
/«, declined, 134— how used, 207, R. 26. 
IsUj how declined, 134-*-how used, 207, 

R. 25. 
Istic and iRic declined, 134, R. 3. 
Jta»f iaf itia, itietf inumia, itudo, ihu, 

and tuSf abstracts in^ 101. 
/iE«r, declined, 67— fWith ace. of place, 

237, R. 1— increments of, 286,' 2. 
Itef and er. adverbs in, 192, II. and IV. 
ItiUf adverbs in, 192, 1. and II. 
lujUf verbals in, 102, 2. 
-^^ or Uiian, nouns in, 100, 5. 
lus, genitives in^ how pronounced, 1&— 

in what adjectives found, 107— quan- 
tity of i in, 283, 1., E. 4. 
Iv and itu, in 2d and 3d roots of 

verbs, 175. 


JactOf with abl., 245, 11. 

Jubeo, construction 0^, 223, R. 2, (2,) and 

Jugum, quantity ef its compounds, 233, 

JupUer declined, 86. 
Jusfttrandum declined, 91. 
Jtmat, &c., ace. aAer, 229, B. 7. 


Kf when used, S. 

Key to the odes of Horaee, S21. 

27 • 


L, nouns in, gender of, 66 3 gen. of, 70 

—-final, quantity of, 299. 
LcBtor, gaudeo, &c., with abl.. 245, H. 
Latin grammar, its divisions, 1. 
Leading clause, subject and verb, 203, S. 
Lettttis, adjectives in, 128, 4. 
Letters, 2— division of, 3— rounds of, 

7— numeral, 118, 7. 
Ideit, with subjunctive, 263, S. 
Liquids, 3. 
Lit6tes, 324, 9. 

Loadino^, verbs of, with abl.^ 249. 
Logical, subject, 201 — ^predicate, 202. 
Long syllable, 282, 2. 


M final, quantity of, 299, 2— elided, 905, 

Malo conjugated, 178, 3. 
Manner, adverbs of, 191, III.— abl. of, 

247 : with prep. 247, r. 3. 
Masculine, nouns of 3d dec, 58 3 exe. 

in, 59-61— caesura, 310, n. 1. 
MaterfamiUas declined, 91. 
Means, abl. of, 247 — ace. of, with prepay 

247, R. 4. 
Measure or metre, a, 303. 
MenAni, 183, 3— with gen. or aec. 216. 
Men or mentum. verbals in, 102, 4. 
Met, enclitic, 133, R. 2. 
Metalepsis, 324, 6. 
Metaphor, 324, 1. 
Metathesis, 322. 
Metonymy, 324, 2. 
Metre, 303— how divided, 303— different 

kinds of, 310-317. 
Metres, compound, 318— Horatlan, 320. 
Meus, how declined, 139. 
MilUuXf construction of, 221, R. 2. 
MUUy its use, 118, 6. 
Mino and minor, in obsolete imperativef , 

162, 5. 
MisceOf with abl., 245, II. 
MisereoTf miserescOf &;c., with gen., 215. 
Misifret, with gen., 21&-iwith ace, 229, 

R. 6. 
Modif anneted to pronouns, 134, R. 5. 
Modified, subject, 201, III. 3 iUelf modi- 
fied, 201, III., R. 6— predicate, 202, 

Modify or lintU, in what sense used, 201 

II., R. 

Modbf with subjunctive, 263, 2. 

Money, '.node of reckoning, 327. 

Monoc^ion, 319. 

Monor lotes. 94. 

Mono .vllables, fai t, qoanttty ef, 29iS^ ■• 



0, do. 297, X. 1— Uieir place, 

UToods, 143. 

Motioa or tendency, veibs of, their con- 
struction, 2S6, 4, and 237, R. 3. 

Mutes, 3— «nd liquids in prosody, 283, 
IV. X. 2* 

jlfttfo)'with abl., 2«$, II. 


of, 70 

N, nouns in, gender of, 66 ; 
and 71— &]al, quantity of, 

Names of persons, order of, 279, 9. 

Naseor, with abl., 246, R. 1. 

NatuMf &c., with abl., 246. 

Ntf with subj., 262 — omitted aAer cave, 
262, r; 6 — after metuOf &c., 262, r.7»-« 
with subj., denoting a command, &c., 
260, R. &--with imperat., 267, R. 1— 
followed by quidtm, 279, 3. 

Negatives, two, their force. 277, R. 3-^. 

Nemo, for nullus.SOn, R. 31. 

Neoterum, 325, 3. 

Nequeo, how coniugated/182, r. 3. 

Nequia, how declined,' loS, 2. 

Neuter, nouns, 343 of 3d dec, 66 ^ exe. 
m, 66 and 67— -adjectives and adj. pro- 
nouns, with gen., 212, r. 3 j ace. of, 
with another ace. after active verbs, 
231, r. 6»verbs, with ace, 232 ; with 
abl. of a£ent, 248, r. 2— jpassive verbs, 
142, R. 2 3 oarticiples ^ 162, 18. 

Neuter, how declined, 107— use of, with 
gen., 212, r. 2, n. 1. 

NeutraJ pasisive verbs, 142, r. 3. 

Nitor, with abl., 246, II. 

N(do conjugated, 178, 2. 

NominaUve, 37— construction of, 209 and 
210— after interjections, 209, R. 13— 

Slural. 3d dec., 83 ; of adjectives, 3d 
ec., 113. See Subject-nominaixoe and 

JVbn, omitted after7u>nmM20,&c.,277,R.6. 

Nones, 326. 

Nostras^ how declined, 139. 

Nostrum after partitives, 212, r. 2, n. 2. 

Nouns, 26-103 — proper, common, ab- 
stract, and collective, 26 — gender qL 
27-34— number of, 36— cases of, 36 
and 37— declension of^ 3 8 4 of 3d 
dec, mode of declining, 65— com- 
pound, 91— irregular, 92— variable, 92 
—defective, in case^ 94 ; in number, 96 
and 96— diftering m meaning in dif- 
ferent numbers, 97 — ^redundant, 99— 
verbal, 102-^erivation of, 100-102— 
composition of, 103 — ^how modified, 
201 .III., R, 1.— used as adjectives, 205, 
R. xl. 

Nt, pariieipials. and partieip.^a in, com 
struction of, 213, r. 1 andf 3. 

Number, of nouns, 36— of verbs, 146. 

Numbers, cardinal, 117 and 118— ordi- 
nal,. 119 and 120— distributive, 119 
and 120. 

Numerals — adjectives, 104;. classes of 
117 \ with gen.. 212, r. S— letters, 118 
7 — adverbs, 119 — multiplicative, 121 
—proportional, 121— temporal, 121— 
interrogative, 121. 

Nunquis, how declined, 137, R. 3. 


O, sound of, 7 and 8— noons in, sender 
of, 68 and 69; gen. of, 69^— adverbs 
in, 192— increment iot 3a dec, 287,3; 
plur., 288 ; of verbs, 290— fin«u, quan- 
tity of, 297. 

O ! si, with subjunctive, 263. 

Oblique cases, what, 37— their place, 
279j 10 and 2. 

Oblivucor, with ^n. or aM^, 216. 

Object of an active verb, 229. 

Objective genitive, 211, r. l^->dative 
used instead of^ 211, r. 5. 

Octonarius, iambic, 314, III. • 

Odi, 183, 1. 

OUi, for iUi, 134, R. 1. 

Omission, of ar m gen. plur., 1st dec, 
43— of i in gen. sin?., 2d dec, S&^-ni 
e in voc sin?., 2d dec, 62— of or in 
gen. plur., 2d dec, 63— of e, in gen. 
of nouns in ter and ber, 71— of con- 
necting vowel, 160, 6— «f V, See,, u, 
iss. and sis, in second root, 162, 7— of 
reouplication in compound verbs, 163, 
4, E. 1— of pronoun in case of appo- 
sition, 204u R. 4r-<of a noun to which 
an adj. belongs, 206, R. 7. and 252, r. 
3— of the antecedent. 206, (3) and (4) 
—of metis, &c, usea reflexively, 207, 
R. 38— of nominative, 209, r. 2 and 3 
—of verb, 209, r. 4, and 229, r. S-' 
of a noun limited by gen., 211, r. &— 
of gen., 211, r. 9— of a partitive, 212. 
R. I, N. S-—of subject ace, 239 ana 
269, R. l—ofBice. after an active verb, 
229, R. 4— of prep. 232, (2,) 236, r. 8, 
241, R. 4, and 248, r. 3— of voc, 240 
—of quhm, 266— of participle in abl. 
absolute. 267. r. 7— of tU with subj.. 
262, i^. 4— of ne after cave, 262, r. o 
•'-of rum after non modd^ ice., TTJ, R. 
6— of conjimctions, 278, r. G—of / in 
composition, 307. 

Opus and usus, wiUi gen. and aec, 211, 
R. ll^^th abl.^ 90— how nsed. tl3 
R. 2. 



Or, nouns in, jgender o^ 58 and 61 5 

genitive of, 70 and 71-- veibals in, 

Oratio obliqua, 266, 1 and 2, and 273, 3 

^-4en8es of^ 266, 2, r. 4. 
Order, adverbs of, 191, 1. 
Ordinal numbers^ 119 and 120. 
Oritfin, verbals la, 102, 8. 
Orthoepy, 6'-23. 
Orthography, 2-^. 
Oa, nouns m, of 3d dee., gender of, 58 

and 61 ; gen. of, 7d»<-onal, sound of^ 

8, s. 3^ quantity o^300. 
OnUf adjecUves in, 128, 4. 
Ooatf 183, 15. 
OzymOroQ, 324, 28 


Parab5Ia, 321, 30. 

Paradigms, of noons, 1st dee.. 41 ; 2d 
dec., 46 ; 3d dec.. 57 j 4fh dec, 87 : 
5th dec., 90— of aqjecbves, 1st and 2d 
dec, 105^107 5 3d dec, 108-111— of 
verbs, nan, 153; 1st eonj., 155 and 
156 'y 2d coDJ.^ 157; 3d couj., 158 and 
159 ; 4th conj., 160; deponent, 161 ; 
periphrastic conj., 162 ; deifective, 183; 
impersonal, 184. 

ParagOge, 322. 

ParegmSnon, 324, 24. 

Parelcon, 323, 2, (1.) 

Parenthesis^ 323, 4, (6.) 

Paronomasia. 3^, 2o. 

Participial aajectives, 130. 

Participles, 148, l*^n ttf, how declined, 
lO^J^n nSf do., Ill— «f neater verbs, 
162, 16— of defjonent verbs, 162. 17-— 
of neater passive verbs, 162, 18— in 
ruBf g[en. piur. of, 162, 19— compound- 
ed with tn, 162, 21 — when they be- 
come adjectives, 162, 22— how modi- 
fied, 201, III., R.3— agreement of^ 205 ; 
with predicate-nom., instead of sub- 
ject, 205, R. 5— 4>eriectf doioting ori- 
gn, with abl., 246— their government, 
274— their time, how determined>274. 
2— their various siepifications^ 274, 2 
and 3— perfect, wiUi habeo, &c., 274, 
2, R. 4— for a verbal noun, 274, 2, R. 
5— (or clauses, 274, 3.~ 

Particles, 190. 

Partitive adjectives, 104. 

Partitives, with plural verbs, 209, r. 11 
—gen. after, 212— omitted, 212, r. 2, 
ir. 3— ace. or abl. after, 212, r. 2, k. 

Parts of speech, 24. 

Passive voice, 141— with latter of two 
ace., 234— construction of, 234. 

Patrial, nonns^OO, 2— odjeethfes, 10^- 

pronoons, l39. 
Patronymics, 100— quantity of their pe 

Pentameter verse, 311. 
Pentaptotes, 94. 
PentbemimSris, 304, 5. 
Penult, 13— quantity of, 291 } of proper 

names, 293. 
Perfect tense, 146, IV. 
Perfects of two syllables^ qoantity of, 

284l s. 1. 
Period defined, 280. 
Periphrftsis, 323^ 2, (4.) 
Periphrastic conju^tions, 162, 14 and 15. 
Personal terminations of verbs, 147, 3. 
Personification, 324, 34. 
Persons of verbs, 147— with nomniativea 

of different persons, 209, r. 12, (7.) 
Phalsecian verse, 315, III. 
Pherecratic verse, 316, V. 
J^iget, with gen., 215— with ace, 229, R. 

Place, adverbs of, 191, I. — ^gen. of, 221 
— 4ec of, 237; dat. for, ^7, R. 3— 
where, abl. of, 254— whence, abl. of, 

Plenty or want, adj. of, with abl., 250. 

Pleonasm, 323, 2. 

Pluperfect tense, 145, V. 

Plural noons used for singulars, 98. 

Plus declined, 110. 

PcerOtet, with gen., 215— with ace, 229, 
R. 6. 

Polypt6ton, 324, 23. 

Polysyndeton, 323, 2. (2.) 

Position in prosody, 283, IV. 

Positive degree, 123. 

Possessive, adjectives, 104— pronouns, 
139; how usedj 207, r. 36; when 
reflexive, omission of, 207, r. 36; 
used for subjective and possessive 
gen., 211. R. 3 ; m«a, tua, Slc», after 
re/ert ana itUerestf 219, R. 1. 

Posntm conjugated, 154, 6. 

Postf how pronounced, 8, s. 4. 

Potior, with abl., 245— with gen., 220, 

PrcB in composition, its quantity, 283, 

11., R. 1. 

PrcedUus, with abl., 244. 

Predicate of a proposition, 200 and 202. 

Predicate-nonunative, 210— differing in 

number from the subject-nominative. 

210, R. 2— afler what v^rbs, 210, R. 3 

and 4. 
Predicate-accusative, 210— dative, 210. 
Prepositional ad^ectives^ 130. 
Prepositions, 195^197 — ^in composition, 

ld6 ; force of, 197; change of, 103, 5 
sparable, 197— -with an ace., 195 



and SSS-^wilh aa abl., 195 and Ml— 
with an ace. and abl., 195, and 235, 
(2)^5)— bow modified, 201, III., R. 
d—verbs compounded with, with da- 
tive, 224: wiin ace, 233; with abl.. 
242— omitted, 232, (2,) 236, r. 5, and 
241, R. 4— their place, 279, 10— quan- 
tity of <ft, M, and red, 285, R. 2 and 3. 

Present tense, 145, 1. 

Preteritive verbs. 183. 1. 

Priapean verse, 310, II. 

Price, ablative of, 252-— expressed by 
tanti, queaUif pbtru, ndn&riSj 252. 

Primtu, mediuSy &c., signification of, 
205, R. 17— their place, 279, 7. 

Prhuquam, by what mood followed, 263, 

Pro, in composition, quantity of, 285, 

R. 5. 
Proeul, with aU., 241, r. 2. 
Prolepsis, 323, ljJ4.) 
Pronouns, 132*-139k— simple, 132— neuter 

with gen., 212^ r. 3, r. 1. 
Proper nouns, 2b. 
Propior and prtu^bmit, with ace., 222, 

R. 5. 
Proposition, 200— analysis of, 281. 
Prosody, 1, and 282-^1— figures of. 

Prosopopoeia, 324, 34. 
Prosthesis, 322. 

Prasum, 154, 5. 

Protests and apodfitts. 261. 

PU, enclitic, 133, R. i. and 139. 

PwUtj with gen., 215— with ace., 229> 
R. 6. 

Punctuation, 5. 

punishment, words denoting, construc- 
tion of, 217, R. 3. 

Purpose denoted, bytrf with subj., 262 
—by participles, 274, 2, r. 2, 6 and 7 
* mfin.^ 271— byVerund, 275, R. 
supme in turn, S^6, IL 


— by u 

QucBso, 183, 7. 

Quality, adveibs of, 191, III. 

Quhm, with the superlative, 127— omit- 
ted aAer pku, minus, ang)iuUf &c., 
256, R. 6 and 7. 

QjuatmHs, with the subj,, 263, 2. 

Quantity, adjectives of, with gen., 212, 
R. 3^ N. 1 ; after Mum and verbs of 
valumg, 214— -adverbs of, with gen., 
212, R. 4. 

Quantity, marks of, 5-^ orthoepy, 12^— 
inprosody, 282, 1 — general rules of, 
283 — special rules of, 284 — of penults, 
291— «f antepenults, 292— of penults 

of proper names, 293— of final sylb* 

[}fes, sSr4. 
Quon, with subj., 263. 2. 
Queo, how conjugatea, 182, R. 3. 
Q^if declined, 136— interrogative^ 137 

—person of, 209, R. 6»-Ayitn subjunc- 

tive, 264. 
Qidcunque, how declined, 136, r. %^ 

how used, 207, r. 29. 
Q^idam, how declined, 133, 5— liow 

used, 207, R. 33. 
QuUem, place of, 279, 3. 
QuUibet^haw declined, 133, 5— bow 

used, 207, r. 34. 
Qtim, with subj., 262 and ib., r. 10. 
Qtii«, declined, 137— and qui, for aliqtda, 

dtc., 137, R. (c.) 
Qtdsnam, quinam. how declined, 137, 2. 
Qttuptam, how aeelined, 138, 3— how 

used, 207, r. 30. 
Quisqiiam, how declined, 138, 3 — how 

used, 207, r. 31. 
Quiaquef how declined, 138, 3 — how 

used, 207, r. 35 — its place, 279, 14. 
Qiastpds declined, 136, r. 2. 
Quimt, how declined, 133, 6— how used, 

207, R. 34. 
Quo and iptonlbtut, with subjunctive, 262 

and ib., r. 9. 
Quoad, with subj., 263, 4. 
Quod referring to a preceding statement, 

Quoque, place of, 279, 3. 


R final, ouantity of, 299. 

Reapse, 135, R. 3. 

Recordor and rendmseor, with gen. or 
ace, 216. 

Reckoning, Roman mode of, 326 and 

Redundant, nouns, 99— adjectives, 116 
— ^verbs, 185. 

Reduplication, 163, R.--<piantity of^ 284y 
E. 2. 

R^Art and intirett, with gen., 214 and 
219— with the adj. pronouns mea. &c., 
219, R. 1. 

Reflexive pronouns, 139, R. 2— bow 
used, 208 — for demonstratives, 208, 
(6,)— omitted, 229, R. 3— in oratio ob- 
hqua, 266, r. 3. 

Relative pronouns, 136. 

Relatives, a^ement of, 206— omitted, 
206, (5,) — in the case of the antece- 
dent, 206, (6,)— referring, to nouns of 
different renders. 206, (9 j) to a pn^ 
osition^ SoS, (13.)— ememg with a 
noun implied, '206, (ll,)— adjectives. 



emistnietion of, 206, fl6,)-— 'With sub- 
junctive, 264— their place, 279, 13. 

Responsives, case of, ^204^ r. 11. 

Retjpubhea decliiied, 91. 

Rhetoric, figures of, 324. 

Rhythm, 308. 

Rirmu and riHs, quantity of, 290, x. 
(I.) 4. 

Root of words inflected, 40, 10. 

Roots of verbs, 150. 1 — special, 160, 2 
—second and tnird^ now formed, 
150, 3— first, its derivatives, 151, 1 j 
second, do., 151, 2: third, do., 151, 3 
—second and thira, formation of, 1st 
conj., 164-166; 2d conj.^ 167-170; 3d 
conj., J71-174 ; 4th coni., 175-177— 
second and third irreguTar, 1st conj., 
165 J 2d conj., 168^ 4Ui coni, 176. 

JRus, How,construed, m ace., 237, r. 4— 
in ab!., 254 and 255. 

Rusj paniople in, its signification, 162, 
14, and 274, 2, r. 6. 


B, sound of, 11— preceded b^ a conso- 
nant, nouns in, gander of, d2 and 64 > 
§mi. of, 77— 4nal, elided, 305, 2. 

Baltoty 183, 9. 

Sapphic verse, 315, II. 

Satkgo. with gen., 215, (2.) 

8aH», betUf and nM^f^erbs cmnpoand- 
ed with, with dat., 225. 

Scanning. 1904, 6. 

Scazon, 314, U. 


Senarius, iambic, 314. 

Sentences, 203— -analysis of, 281. 

Sentiments of another in dependent 
clauses, by what mood expressed, 

Separating, verbs of, with abl. 251. 

Bertf future infin. in, 162, 10. 

Sestertius, its value, 327— how denoted, 
327— 4node of reckoning, 327. 

Short syllable, 282, 2. 

Silver age, 329, 3. 

8imile,^4, 30. 

Simple, subject, 201, Il^-^redicate, 
202. 11.— sentences, 203. 

£KW, with abl.. 241, R. 2. 

^quiSf how declined, 138, 2. 

Bis, for n mv, 183, R. 3. 

So and nm, ancient forms of tenses in, 

Bodes, for si audes, 183, R. 3. 

Solecism, 325, 2. 

BoleOf how coojugated, 142, R. 2. 

BohUf how declined, 107— *with relative 
and subj., 264, 10. 

Sotadie verse, 317^ L 

Space, ace. of, 23d. 

Spondaic, ver3e, 310— tetrameter, 312. 

Stanza. 319. 

Sto, with abl., 249, 11. 

Strophe, 319. 

Bisbf in 'Composition, force of. 

emment of, 235, IZ.) 
Subject, of a verb, 14(]u-of a propostioo, 

200 and 201; modified. 201,IU.3 >ti 

place in a sentence^^Ty, 2. 
Subject-nominative, »)9— when omitted, 

209, R. 1 and 2— when wanUng, 209, 

R. 3 — ^with infinidve, 209,^we 

or more with plural verb. 209, R. 12j 

with sing, vero, 209, R. 12. 
Sc^^ct-accusative, 2^— when onutted^ 

Subjective genitive, 211, r. 2— possei- 
sive pronoun used for, 211, r. 3. 

Subjunctive, 143, 2 — its tenses, 146, R. 
2— how used, 259— 4ts tenses, varioos 
uses of, 269— for imperative^ 260, r. 
6 — in e<HiditionaI clauses, 261— after 
particles, 262 and 263— after ^, 264 
— Hn indirect questions, 265— in inter- 
mediate clauses, 266— 4n oratio obB- 
qua, K6, 1 and 2-^after what verbi 
used, 273. 

Substantive pronouns, 132, 133— «8 sub- 
ject-nom., omitted, 209, R. 1— Native 
of, redundant, 228, H. 

Butter f government of,m5j(4.) 

Bui, declined, 133— ase of, 208. 

Btdtis, for si wilUs, 183, r. 3. 

Bum, conjiM^ted, 153— compoands of, 
do., 154, o and 6— with a gen. in ex* 

jN^ions denoting part, property, du- 
ty, d&c, 211, R. i, (3,) and 275, R. 1, 
(d,)— <lenoting decree of estimation. 

214— with two datives, 227— ^th abL 
of situation, 245, ITI.— with abl. deno- 
ting in respect to, 250, r. 3. 

Buper^ government of, z35, (3.) 

Superiority, how denoted, 123. 

Superlative d^ree, 123— formation of, 
124— witii quisque, 207. R. 35-^tii 
gen., 212, r. 2, ana r. 4, n. 7. 

Sa[Hnes, 148, 3— few in number, 16^11 
-Hn um, by what cases followed, 276 , 
on what verbs they depend, 276, IIij 
with eOf 276, II., R. 2 and 3— in u, 
with what adjectives used^J276, III. \ 
Rderfas, nefas, and opus, 276, III., R. 
l^-^r two syllables, quantity of, £34^ 
X. 1. 

Buus, use of. 206— referring to a word 
in tiie predicate, 208, (7,)-^or hufut, 
when a noun is omitted, 206, (t^V-* 
donotin^ fit, &c., 206. 

Syllabication, 17-ra. 



SjDablef y qoantity of lint and middle^ 
284; of penult, 291: of antepenult, 
292; of&al,294. 

Syllepsis, 323, lj3.) 

Syropldce, 324^ Id. 

Syuaeresis, 306. 

Bynaloepha, 305. 

Synapheta, 307, 2. 

Synchjrsis, 323, 4, (4.) 

SyncOpe, 322. 

Synecdtehe, 234, IL, 823, 1, (5,) and 

Syn^sis, or synth^is, 323, 3, (4.) 

Synon^nnia^ 324, 29. " 

Synopsis of Horatian metret, 320. 

Syntax, 1, and 200^1. 

Systole, 307. 


T, sound of, 12— Aouns in, ^pender of 66*3 
gen. of, 78— final, quantity of, 299. 

Tcedet, with gen., 215— with ace, 229, 
R. 6. 

Talent, value of, 327. 

Tanquamf with subj.. 263, 2. 

Tanti, quiaUi, 6[>c,, aenotine price, 252. 

Tantum, with gen. plur. ana plural verb, 
209, R. IL 

Tautology, 325, 4. 

7*e, encHtic, 133, R. 2. 

Tenses, 14^— connection of, 258— simi- 
lar and dbsimilar, 268, 1, and II.— of 
indicative mood^ used one for another. 
259; fiAtuie for unperative, 259 5 usea 
for subj. in apodosis, 259, R. 4— of 
subi. mood, their use, 260, I., R. 1, 
ana 11., r. 1 — in protasis and appdo- 
sis, 261— of infin. mood, use of, %8. 

7Vma, with gen., 221, III.— with abl., 
241, r. 1-r-place of, 279, 10. 

Termmations, of words inflected, 40— 
of nouns, 1st dec., 41 ; 2d dec., 46 ; 3d 
dec., 55; 4th dec., 87: 5th dec, 9(V— 
personal, of verbs, 147, 3 — verbal, 150 
•—table of verbal, 152. 

Tetrameter, a priire, 312— a pwteri^tf, 

Tetraptotes, 94. 

TetrastrSphon, 319. 

T^at. siffn of what moods, 273. 

Thesis, 308. 

Time, adverbs of, 191, II.— -ace. of, 236 
— ftbl. of, 253— expressed by id, with 
a gen., 253, R. 3— <node of reckoning, 
3!S; table of, 326, 6. 

Tmesis, 323, 4, (5.) 

Tor and trix, veibals in, 102^ 6. 

Towns, names of, construction of; see 

TricOlon, 319. 

TriemimCris, 304^^ ff. 

Trimeter catalectic, 312, VIL 

Triptotes, 94. 

Tristr6phon, 319. 

Trochaic or feminine caesura, 310, ir. 1 

Trochaic,metre,315 and 303— 4etrani£Ca 

catalectic, 315— dimdter catalectic^ 

315, IV. 
Tropes, 324. 
J\t declined, 133. 
7ht8, adjectives in, 128, 7. 


U, sound of, 7 and 8 — in gen. and voe. 

of Greek nouns, 54— dative in, 8&— 

increment in, 3a dec, 287, 3; plur^ 

288; of verbs, 290— 6nal, quantity of 

U and itu/m 2d and 3d rootsof verba, 167. 
UbuSf in dat. and abl. plur., 89, 5. 
UUus. how declined, 107 — how used, 

207, R. 31. 
Ulum, verbals in, 102, 5. 
I7m, adverbs in, 192, II. 
jUhdus, participles in, 162. 20. 
UnuSf declined, 107— e< alter, with verbs 

singular, 209, R. 12 — ^with relative and 

sul^., 264, 10. 
VnusqttUque, how declined, 133, 4. 
Ur, nouns in, eender of, 66 and 67 5 geo. 

of, 70 and 71. 
Ura, verbals in, 102, 7. 
Ue, nouns in, of 3d dec, gender of, 66 

and 67 ^ gen. of, 76 — ^verbiBls in, 108, 7 

—final quantity of, 301. 
Usque, with ace, 235, &. 3. 
Ume ; see Opus. 
Ut, with subjunctive, 262— its correla* 

tives, 262, r. 1— omitted, 262, r. 4— 

after metuo, &c, its meaning, 262, 

R. 7. 
r^n, with subj., 263, 2. 
Uter, how declined, 107— use o( with 

gen., 212, r. 2, n. 1. 
U&nam and uti, with subj., 263. 
Utor,fruor, &c., with abl., 245— with 

ace, 245, 1., R. 1. 


Vcbangedtott, 163, 2. 

ValeOf with ace, 252, r. 4. 

Valuing, veibs of, with gen., 214. 

VajMo, 142, R. 3. 

Variable nouns, 92. 

Velut si, and veUUi, with subj., 263, 2. 

Veneo, 142, r. 3. 



TcfbalSy noans, lOS; with ace., S8S, K. 
-—Adjectives. 129. 

Verbs, 140-1 89-HMibject of, 140— eetire, 
141 — neuter, 142'— oeaterpassive, 142, 
R. 2— neutral passive, 1«, R. 5-— de- 
ponent, 142, R. 4— 4ransitive and in- 
transitive, 142, N.— -principal pans of, 
161, 4— Hoeuter^parUciples of, 162, 16 

— uiceptive, 173— <iesiderative, >wi, 
H., 3, and 176, v.— 4rregular, 178-182 
— klerective, 183— -redundant, 186 and 
186— derivation of, 187— composition 
of, 18&— changes of, in composition, 
189— compounds from simples not in 
ose^ 189, ir. 4r— efreement of, 209^ 
omitted,. 209, R. 4— ^tb qta, person 
of, 209, R. 6— agreeing with predicate- 
nom.,209, r.'9— with collective nouns, 
909, R. 11— plural, after two or more 
nominatives, 209, R. 12 ; after a nom- 
inative, with cum and abl., 209, R. 12 ; 
after nominatives connected by autf 
209, R. 12— their place in a sentence, 
279, 2$ in a period, 280. 

Verses, 304— combinations of, in poems, 

Versification, 302. 

Versiu, with ace., 235, R. 3— place o^ 

VescoTf with abl., 246. 

Vestri^f after partitives, 212, r. 2, r. 2. 

Vvr. how declined, 48. 

VU declined. 86. 

Vivo, with abl., 245, n. 

Vocative, 37— «f proper names in hut, 
how pronouncea, 14 ; how formed, 68 
— ^inr. 3d dee., 81— construction of, 

Voices, 141. 

Volo conjugated, 178. 

Vowel, Defore a mute and liquid, ita 
Quantity, 13, and 283, iV., s. 2--be- 
rore another vowel, cmantiiyof, 283, 
1. 3 in Greek words, W3, r. 6— before 
two consonanU, 283, 1 V.^— ending first 
part of a compound, quantity of, 285, 

R. 4b 

Vowels, sounds of, 7 and 8. 


WordSjdivision of, 17-23— anrangemenl 

of, 279. 
Writers in diffiBrent ages, 329. 


X, sound of, 12— nouns in, gender o(( 
62 and 66$ gen. of, 78. 


Y, sound of, 7, R. 2— noons in, gender 
of, 62; gen. of, 77— increment in. 3d 
dec., 287, 3— final, quantity of, 298. 

Ys final, quantity of, 901. 


Zeugma, 823, 1, {%,) 





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The following works have been prepared by Professor Andrews, for 
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Questions on the Grammar. Questions on 

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This little volume is intended to aid the student in examining himself 
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liatill liCSSOns* First Lessons in Latin, or an Intro- 
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This volume is designed for the younger classes of Latin students, to 
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liatin Exercinesj adapted to Andrews and Stoddard's 

Latin Grammar. 

The exercises contained in this volume are designed to illustrate the 
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New Series of Latin School Books. 

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This Key, containing all the lessons in the Exercises fully corrected, 
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Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar ; with Notes and a 

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Caesar's Coinmentaries on the Gallic War ; with a 

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The text of this edition of Caesar's Gallic War has been formed by 
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[Tbe above work is nearly compleced, and will Foon be pat to press.] 

Sal lust* Sallust^s History of the War against Jugurtha, 

and of the Conspiracy of Catiline ; with a Dictionary and 


The plan of this edition of Sallust is the same as that of the preceding 
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New Series of Latin School Books. 

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It gives me great pleaiure to be» toy testimony to the superior merits of the 
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JANUARY 25. 1]