Skip to main content

Full text of "A Grammar of the Spanish Language: With Practical Exercises ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

r- V ^ V ♦ '^'^ . Hr (o O 

f^arbartj College iilirarg 


the estate of 
Professor E. W. GURNEY 

(Class of 185a) 

Received 3 May, 1899 




3 2044 102 869 104 

VII V 1^01* 

♦ %1 






Gootainiiicr a List of the Abbreriations which are frequently fiDond fai wrttiiif 
and books} A Treatise on Pronunciation and Alterations in Orthography, 
founded upon the latest Rules established by the Academy of Madrid j Com- 
paratiye Rules of the Spanish and Enelish Language : A general Scheme of 
the Terminations of Regular Verbs ; An alphabetical List of the Irregular 
Verbs, coi)|ugated in thehr order } A Table, illustrating the use of Prepositionf 
in Spanish j Lisu of the Names of diilerent Countries, principal Cities and 
Christian Names. 

Site eSrtonti IPart 

Containing a Collection of Exercises interlined } a Vocabulary ; Familiar 
Phrases and Dialogues ; and a Treatise on Spanish Versification. 


Second American fiom the latett Parit ^ditien. 



hutrtteUr of French and Spanish at Harvard Univernty^ CamJhridgt. 


BosTOir : 



^«K-o-^"T "J. \ V ^ . V5>-T H^ O 

W. u-l:_-. 


Dittriet CUrVs Office^ 

BE it remembered, that oa the twenty-seventh day of Januanrf A. D. 1825, axid 
in the forty-ninth year of the Indeperdence of the United States of America, 
MUNROE AND FRANCIS, of the said District, have deposited in this office the 
title of a book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words following, 
to wit : 

The First Part containing a list of the Abbreviations which are frequently found in 
writing *, A Treatise on pronunciation and alterations in Orthography founded upon 
the latest rules established by the Academy of Madrid ; Comparative rules of the 
Spanish and EngHsh Languages ; A general scheme of the terminations of Regular 
Verbs } An Alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs, conjugated in their order -, A 
Table, illustrating the use of Prepositions In Spanish ; Lists of the names of differ- 
ent Countriesymneipal Cities, and Gkvistian Kamei. The Second Part eontaining 
a Collection otExercises interlined \ A Vocabulary *, Familiar Phrases and Dia- 
logues ; and a Treatise on Spanish Versification. By M. JOSSE. Second Ameri- 
can from the latest Paris edition. Revised, Improved, and adapted to the English 
Language, by F. SALES, ImtmeUsK of Frenckand Spanish at Harvard University, 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, " An 
act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and 
Irooks, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times tilierein men- 
tioned :" and also to an act, entitled, *^ An act supplementary to an act, entitled 
an act for the encouragement of learning, by secunne the copies of maps, charts, 
and books, to the authors and proprietors of such cofnes during the times therein 
mentioned} and extending the benefits thereof to the acta of deaigoiiier engmving 
and etching, historical and other prints.*^ 

JO^N W. IM>VIS, CMc •/ «Ae JHttria of MassaehutetU^ 

iir TB« 



greatly improved and enlarged^ 





Grateful for the approbation that our labours have met 
with in the rapid diffusion of a large edition of this Grammar, 
and encouraged by the favourable judgment passed on the 
theoretical and practical method observed in this elementary 
work, by the most distinguished philologists and eminent 
scholars in our country ; we now present to the American 
nation a second edition carefully revised, considerably alter- 
ed, and improved throughout ; particularly in the arrange- 
ment of the Conjugation of the irregularVerbs ; in giving the 
English signification of the Table of Prepositions published 
by the Royal Academy ; in prefixing an Article to every 
word in the Vocabulary to denote its gender ; and in assim- 
ilating as far as possible the English phraseology to th% 
Spanish, in the Familiar Phrases and Dialogues. 

We have enlarged this new edition by the addition of in- 
teresting Extracts from some of the best Spanish Writers ; 
with specimens of critical, familiar, and. commercial Letters ; 
Mercantile Documents ; a Treatise on Spanish Versification, 
translated from the latest Paris edition of Jesse's Grammar, 
and a copious Table of Contents ; the whole corrected in 
conformity to the most recent decisions on orthography of the 
Spanish Academy. 

Our earnest purpose having been to render this publication 
extensively useful and acceptable to all classes and ages 
of learners, the public may rest assured that no pains have 
been spared to attain so desirable an object. 

Bostouy May^ 1825. 




From the first appearance in this metropolis of Josse's 
Grammar, a desire has been entertained of adapting it to the 
English language; but the little encouragement hitherto 
promised, in the United States, to an undertaking of this kind, 
has delayed its execution. 

This system however has been used, and recommended to 
such learners of the Spanish Language as were well acquaint- 
ed with the French, and we have always had the satisfaction 
to find them well pleased with it, comraoply expressing their 
regret, that it had not yet been adapted to the English lan- 

The recognition of the North and South American Sov- 
ereignties by our Government, has determined us to make 
the attempt. This glorious act on the part of our nation 
opens such a boundless field for scientific, political and com- 
mercial advantages to the rising generation, that we could not 
deny ourselves the gratification of aiding the generous pur- 
pose by presenting a keyy which will, it is hoped, open an 
easy way to the attainment of knowledge, honours, and 

The English and Spanish Grammars, which we have 
hitherto used, are so irregular and incorrect, that it has re- 
quired the utmost patience and perseverance of both teach- 
er and pupil to wade through them. To this should be add- 
ed the enormous price at which they are imported and sold, 
tending to prevent many a studious youth from acquiring a 
language, not only noble and beautiful, but spoken in so 
many regions of the earth, that the benign rays of the star 
of day are perennially smiling upon and fertilizing some one 
of them. 

This work of adaptation and improvement has been com- 
menced and finished, at different intervals, in the course of 
the last season, as our regular occupations would permit. 
We have endeavoured to perform our task faithfully ; should 


our labour meet with approbation, we shall be rewarded ; 
should a contrary fate await it, we shall console ourselves 
with the reflection that our motive was good. In the mean 
time, it is requested that all defects which shall be discovered 
be made known, and any improvements suggested which may 
occur ; so that this grammar in future editions may be ren- 
dered as perfect as possible. 

We have thought proper, in order to render this' work 
complete, and save an additional expense, to insert the Vo- 
cabulary and Dialogues of Fernandez at the end of the sec^ 
ond part, altering the orthography according to the latest 
rules of the Spanish Academy. The object of collections of 
this kind is to teach the most usual words and phrases in 
familiar conversations ; a sure method, after passing carefully 
through the Grammar and Exercises, of learning to speak a 
foreign language with propriety. 



The Spanish Grammars, heretofore published for the 
French people, do not seem to have attained the end intended 
by their authors. Several of these productions have become 
in some manner obsolete, since the Royal Academy has given 
dear and precise rules for the CastiUian Language, which are 
at present generally adopted. The more modern grammars, 
on the contrary, seem to be nothing more than the transla- 
tion of the Grammar of the Spanish Academy. In compos- 
ing them it has been too much forgotten that they are inten- 
ded for the use of Frenchmen. 

A grammar published in London in 1799 by Josse, Mas» 
ter of Languages, reprinted in the same city in 1804 and 
1810, is distant alike from both these extremes, and has ap- 
peared to us to unite method with clearness in the exposition 
of the principles and rules compared with the. French lan- 
guage. The author has enriched his work with a selection of 
interlined Exercises accompanied with notes and references 
to the principal rules, which may. enable beginners, from the 
outset, to join practice to the study of precepts ; a method of 
rendering the student familiar with the construction and diffi- 
culties of a foreign language whose utility has been fully 
demonstrated. This advantage alona must ensure to the 
Grammar of Josse a preference over those which have pre- 
ceded it. 

Such is the Grammar now offered to the public. By ex- 
tending the knowledge of it in France, we deserve the grati- 
tude of the lovers of the Spanish Language, the copiousness, 
elegance and grandeur of which are too generally acknowl- 
edged, to make it necessary for us to demonstrate its superior- 
ity over the greater part of European Languages. 



We observe however that, while we have conformed to 
the plan o( the author, and have adopted his work, we have 
made numerous corrections, suppressed useless repetitions^ 
and made important additions on the subject of Participles, 
Prepositions, the Accent, &c. A few rules which had 
been omitted have been supplied, others have been mod- 
ified, and several parts have been elucidated. Finally, 
the style has been carefully revised, and often rendered 
more concise. ^ 




Ano Cristiano, 

in the year of Christ. 

A. a.' 

Arroba, or arrobas, 

twenty-five pounds. 




A. A. 



A. V. E. 

A' V.« Fs.«^, 

















» Apostolico, ca, 











b. (in quoting) Vuelta, 

turn over. 





Beso 6 besa las manos, 

I kiss or he kisses the 
hands. [feet 


Beso 6 besa los pies, 

I kiss or he kisses the 

B mo p.e 

Beatisimo Padre, 

most blessed father. 

C. A. R. 

Cat.® Ap.«o Rom.o 

Cath. Apost. Rom. 

C. M. B. 

Cuyas manos beso. 

whose hands I kiss. 



C. p. B. 

Cuyos pies beso, 

whose feet I kiss. 

































tohen. C.ta 

Cuanto^ ta, 

how much. 


aDon, Dona, 

mister, mistress. 




D.' or D.or 






• dha. 

Dicho, dicha, 

said J ditto. 



right or duty. 

Die* 10." 






Ecc» Ecc.» 




i Enmeiidauo, 

amended, valid. 



January. , 

E8.«»o Es."* 

Escelentfsimo, ma, 

most excellent. 

Escribano publico, 

NotJf Public. 


Fecho, fecha. 









Fray, Ftey, 

brother of certain relig- 



Francis, [ious orders. 




Goe. or gde 

. Guarde, 





Gen,» or gral 

. General, 











ii.™* n."** 


most illustriou^. 







, Jhs. 



Josef, Jose, 








M. P. S. 



M.» a.» 















N. C. M. 



Nro. nra. 

Nov.« 9.rc 


Oct.™ 8.W 

On. onz. 

Ord.n ord." 

P. D. 














Muy poderoso Seiior 



Mucbos anos, 















Nro. Cat.o Monarca, 

Nuestro Senor, 

Nuestra Senora, 

Nuestro, nuestra, 




Onza, onzas, 

Orden, ordenes, 






Pies, pesos, 








most powerful Lord, 
elder y mtifor. 
many years. 
favour , worship. 
our Cath. Mon. 
our Lord, 
our Lady^ 


ounce^ doubloons, 
order y orders. 

for, per, by. 
feety dollars, 
silver or plate, 


















Proximo pasado, ' 


Q. or q.« 






Q. S. M. B. 

Quien sos manos besa, 


R^. RM V.o» .Real, reales velion. 

recdj realiy sihtrcoin. 



most reverend. K.da 

Reverendo, reverenda, 



Padre maestro fray, 

reverend father and 



1 received. [roaster. 








San 6 Santo, 



Santo, Santa, 


S. M. 

Su magestad, 

his majesty. 

S/or S.«r S.«* Senor, Senora, 

Sir ^ Madam. 


Su Saatidad, 

his Holiness. 

SS. S.«« 


gefUlemeUf Messrs. 


Su SBgaro servidor, 

your faithful servant 




Sep«orr.*«* Setiembre, 


S^ia Secreta Secretaria, 

secretary's office. 

S o SecreLo 



Ser.n» or «» 

Serenisimo, ma. 

most serene. 












most holy. \ment. 

Santisimo (el sacramento) the hostj the holy sttcror 

SS."- P.« 

Santisimo padre, 

most holy Father, 



notary J scrivener. 

S.S p.p. 

Santos padres. 

holy fathers. 



entreaty y request. 
























V. M. 

Vuestra Magestad, 

your Majesty. 




V. v.« 




Vuestra Alteza, 

your highness* 


Vuestra Beatitud, 

your beatitude. 


Vuestra U."», 

your grace. 

V. E orV. Ex. Vuecelencia, 

your excellency. 


Verbi gracia, 

for example. 

Vm.Vmd.V. Vucstra merced, or us- 

youy your worship, 



your favour. 


Vuestra Patemidad, 

your paternity. 


Vuestra Reverencia, 

your reverence. 


V.» Senoria or usia, 

your lordship f honour. 

V. S. [. 

Vuesenoria Dustrisima^ 

, your most illustrious 


Vuestra Santidad, 

your holiness. 


Real vellon, 

reai ofbuUion, coin. 




V. S. G. 

Vuelva si gusta, 

please turn over. 

Vro. vra. 

Vuestro, vuestra, 




tenth and tithe. 








* An « is added to these abbreviatioos when more than one person 
i» addressed. 



Grammab is the art of speaking and writing correctly. 

Speaking correctly is to speak accordioff to establiflfaod 
rules, as regards botii the pronunciation of letters, syllables 
and words, and the arrangement and combination of tkese 
words among themselves. 

Writing correctly is to write in conformity to the rules 
and usage adopted by the best writers. 

We shall first consider words as sounds, show the letters 
that form them, and succinctly give the rules most proper to 
fix their pronunciation. 

Considering them afterwards as signs of our thoughts, we 
4hall examine their nature, and their accidental variations, 
the order they observe between themselves, and the rules 
of their union. 

Most grammarians treat separately upon the rules of 
syntax. It has appeared to us more methodical, precise 
and simple, to place these rules in the chapters relating to 
each kind of words. From this it follows, however, that 
the examples we give for the understandinff of the rules 
sometimes precede the knowledge, which they suppose of 
certain parts of speech. But those examples are always 
accompanied by the translation ; which greatly diminishes 
a slight inconvenience, which a second reading of the 
grammar will remove, and which is abundantly compensa- 
ted by the advantage of avoiding frequent repetitions and 
references, a multiplicity of which fatigues and discourages 




Words, considered as sounds, are formed of letters and 
syllables. The only syllables that require explanation are 
gucy gut ; que J qui ; we shall speak of them at the letter v, 
in which all the difficulty lies. 

The Spanish lan^age reckons twenty-eight letters. The 
following is the order and particular denomination of these 
letters : 

Alphabet a, b, c, ch, d, e, fi, 

Dtnominatum ah, bay, thay,* chay, 4ay, a, i-fay, 

Alphabet g,t h, i, j,t * k, 1, 

Ihfimninaiion hay,t it-chay, e, h6uh,t kah, i-lay^ 

Alphabet U^ ™7 ^> "4 ^i 

Denomination i-lee-ay, &-inay, i-oay, i-nee-ay, o, 

Alphabet p, q, r, s, t, u, 

Denomination pay, koo, air-ray, d-say, tay, oo. 

Alphabet v, x, y, z,* 

Denomination ^oy, i-kist, e-gre«-a-gah, thay-tah. 

The letters are all of the feminine gender. 

The Spanish language has six vowels, which are a, «, 
», o, «, y. They are called vowels, because they have a 
perfect sound of themselves, without being joined to other 

The other letters are consonants ^ they are thus called, 
because they cannot form a perfect sound without the a^ 
sistance of vowels. 

* Pronouac«d as tha in the Eaglish word tkane. 

t g and j are ^ttural, and their pronunciation can be learned 
only from a master ; the English combination under them conveys 
the nearest sound possible. 

X U and A are pronounced as the Hquid / and gn in French ; as, 
in treille, ▼ioe-arbour ; rigner, to reign ; ave/tona,filbert ; guadana, 
Sithe. The t-ivo last are Spanish examples. 



A. — This letter is pronounced as ah in English. £y. 
jimoTy to love ; albay dawn. 

£. — This letter is pronounced as a in the alphabet in 
English. Ex. EcUp^e^ eclipse. 

Eocceptions. Before r, in the same syllable, e is pro- 
nounced as in the English words, ccwe^ snare. - Ex. ver, to 
see ; verdaderoy true. On the contrary, in verisimily 
probable, it is close, because e, in this last word, forms a 
part of the first syllable, and r begins the second. 

I. — This vowel is pronounced as c in English, except 
when it is marked with the acute accent, when it is long, 
and pronounced like ee in English, as in the words, todor 
vioy yet ; origeny origin ; 8ilc3my syllable. 

O. — ^The o is generally pronounced as m English ; it is^ 
however, necessary to observe, that it is sometimes open, 
sometimes close, and sometimes long. It is open, 1st, in 
words of one syllable, when it is not immediately followed 
by another voweL Ex. Lo, the, it ; no, no, not ; vo9, 
you. 2d. At the end of words whea it is accented $ for 
example, iu the third person of the singular of the preterite 
definite of regular and several irregular verbs. Ex. JmS, 
he loved ; temid, he feared ; sttbid, he went up. And this 
o must necessarily be distinguished by the pronunciation 
and the accent in the first conjugation, so as not to con- 
found the first person of the present of the indicative with 
the third of the preterite definite. It is long, whenever it 
b immediately followed by another vowel, as in voy, I go ; 
Aoy, to-day ; doy, I give. In other cases it is close. 

U. — U is pronounced oo. We except from this rule the 
syllables que, qui, gue, ffui, in which the u is not sounded. 

Sometimes in the diphthong, gue, gui, the u preserves its 
sound of oOf as in arguir, to argue ; aguero, omen. Not 
to leave any doubt in this respect, the Spanish Academy 
writes the u with two dots whenever it must be pronoun- 
ced oo, so that it is very easy for any stranger to see, at the 
first glance, the difference of the pronunciation between 
guerraf war ; and ver^uenza, shame 5 seguir, to follow 5 
and arguir, to are:up. 



Y. — This letter is sometimes a vowel and sometimes « 
consonant. It is a vowel when it is preceded by another 
vowel, making with it a diphthong, as in the words ley^ 
law ; Rey, King. It is also a vowel, when it is a conjunc- 
tive particle. Ex. Pan y aguOy bread and water. In al- 
most every other case it is a consonant, as in Boya^ petti- 
coat ; yerrOf error, &c. The ^ is no longer joined to con- 

sonants to b^in a syllable 
and not yzguierdo. 

we must write izquierdo^ left, 


4 diphthong is the nnion of two vowels expressing a 
double sound, and pronounced by a single emission of the 
voice ; these are sixteen in number : 

Of, or ay 

ddhais^ you gave ; 

hayj there is, there are. 


pauMy pause $ 



et, or ey 

veis, you see ; 
linea^ hne ; 







tirgineOf virginal ; 




deudaj debt ; 




gracia^ grace ; 
cielOf heaven ; 




predOf price ; 




ciudad, city ; 




Mroef hero ; 



oij or f>y 

90U9 you are ; 


I go. 


fraguaf forge ; 




duenoj master ; 



uiy or uy 

nndOf noise ; 




arduoy arduous. 




When in these combinations the 

t and u are ac- 

cented, as 

in brioj efectda^ each vowel forms a distinct 


The TRIPRTHONOS are four 



preciaU^ you 



vadeisy you may empty. 


santiguaisj you 


ueij uey 

averigueUj you may search ; ftticy, oj^. 



B. — JB, in the beginning of a word, is always pronounced 
«us in English. (See Obs. page 20.) 

C. — C has the sound of tk in English, as in the word 
thancy before e and i ; and the sound of A:, before a, o, u. 
Formerly the c with the cedilla was used, as in ^apato^ 
shoe ; ^utanoj such a one ; but it is no longer used ; and 
the 2 has been substituted in its place : thus we now write, 
zapato, zutano. 

Ch. — These two letters are pronounced as in English in 
the word cheek ; as, chico^ small ; chocolate^ chocolate. 
In words derived from the ancient languages, it sounds like 
k ; as, Ch^ribdis, Melchisedech. (See Obs. page 20.) 

D. — D is pronounced, in the beginning of a word, as in 
English ; but when the d is between two vowels, it is as 
soft as the th in the words though y the ; Ex. Dado^ a dye ; 
dedoy finger. 

F- — F is pronounced as in English. 

G. — G is pronounced as in English before a, o, tr. It is 
guttural before e, t. Ex. tnuger, woman ; ehgir, to elect 
Before » it has the Latin pronunciation. Ex. di^no, 

H. — The H is but lightly aspirated before ue. Ex. hievo^ 
egg ; huesoj bone. The Academy suppresses it after the 
^, and uses/ instead of ph. Ex. Filosofia, teairOy philoso- 
phy, theatre ; Filadelfia, Philadelphia. 

The letter h has been retained in- many words, though 
not pronounced ; and in several it has taken the place of 
the letter/, formerly used. Ex. Jijo, son ; facer, to do ; 
fermosura, beauty, are now written, hijo, hacer, hermosura, 

J. — J is pronounced guttural bJpfore all the vowels. It is 
found before e and t only in the words Jesus, .Jerusalen, 
JeremiaSf and in the diminutives and derivatives of the 
nouns that terminate in ja or Jo ; as, paja, pajita ; vicjo, 
viejecito ; straw, little straw ; old man, little old man. 


K. — The X is admitted only in foreign words, and is pro- 
nounced as in English. 

L. — This letter is pronounced as in English. 

LLf-— Whei^ U occurs in a word, it is Uquid, and pro- 
nounced as in the words ieragUo and WiUiamf in English. 
Ex. UoffOj wound ; UenOf fdl ; caballoy horse ; Uegcwj to 

M. — M anil N are pronounced as in English. 

N.-^N havii^ this mark (^) which the Spaniards call n 
with HldtyhaB the same sound as n in omon, mtntoiiy &c. 
Ex. Senor, Sir ; nmez, childhood ; ensenary to teach. 

P and Q— are pronounced as in English. 

R. — R preserves in Spanish its natural pronunciation. 
Ex. razonj reason ; rtco, rich : and when it is double, both 
letters must be distinctly heard. Ex. carroj cart ; carrera, 
career ; xurra^ flogging. 

S. — S is always pronounced hard, like «t, even between 
two vowels. Ex. sabioy wise ; sebo^ tallow ; famo90y fa- 
mous ; espo90y husband ; aosiego^ tranquillity. 

T. — T never loses the sound it has in the alphabet, and 
IS always hard. 

y. — The Spaniards often confound the sound of this let- 
ter with that of b ; but the Academy disapproves of it, 
and recommends that it should be pronounced as the Eng- 
lish. Ex. raktttiaj valour ; w2t>, veil ; m/, vile. 

X. — X is pronounced like « when followed by a conso- 
nant, and it is not sounded when foUowed by c. Ex. Ea^ 
trangerOy excepto, &c. It is pronounced like ks when it is 
found between two vowels ; 99, examinar, eocisHr, sexo. In 
a few words ending in x, it is somewhat guttural. Ex. 
Reloxj* watch ; 6ox, box-tree ; carcaxy quiver. (See Obs. 
page 20.) 

The X is not now used as a guttural lett^ ; the j is 
uied in its place before the vowels a, 0, u, and the g before 
e and t. 

* J^ow written rtloj^ &c. 

vwmmciAttoif. 19 

Z. — ^The Z is only used now before a, o^ u, and is pro- 
nounced like the c before e and f . £x* zapato, shoe ; 
zorray fox ; snrmo, juice. 


1st The Spanish Academy, conforming to the pronun- 
ination, has suppressed double consonants, when one alone 
is pronounced. In the Spanish books, printed within a few 
years, the douUe letters ssyffj 66, &c. are no longer found, 
and cc, nn^ rr, only when both consonants are sounded ; 
as in the words ctccessoy ennoblecery harro. Double / is to 
be considered only as die sign 6£ the liquid letter ^ and not 
as a double consonant. 

2d. But as Spanish books less modem have not follow- 
ed fixed rules, as respects not only doubling the consonants, 
but also the orthogi^pky, when the pronunciation does not 
indicate it in an evMJent manner, we inform beginners^ 1st. 
that they ought to have recourse to the latest Dictionaries, 
because their authors have generally adopted the orthogra- 
phy of the Spanish Academy ; 2d. that, in consulting these 
Dictionaries, the scholar should remember, that, if he does 
not find &e word at tiie first search, it is because its or- 
thography has varied, and* because the Spanish writers have 
often confounded, and do sometimes stilT confound die let- 
ters h and v y s and e ;, c and cA, and sometimes q ; c and 
q m the sy^ibles qua^ que qui / c and z ; / and A, in the 
begiiHiing of a word ; j and ^, in the syMables je and Ji* 
Some writers use the^ entirely for the guttural sound, and 
never the g nor x ; but we follow the decisions of the 
Academy and not the ^tms of every schemer. X, having 
had tUl lately the guttural sound, was confounded with g^ 
before e, », and with thej, which is always guttural before 
all vowels. Instead of looking in the Dictionary for alve» 
drioy ftrittoy lexosj ^uanda^ zelo^ cMmiay &c. he should 
look for ulksdrio, kerida^ /e/os, euawdo^ ce/b> fuimta, Sic* 



madelftke Royal Acad- 
«my of Madrid^ and now 
generally adopted hy 
Spaniik tm " 

ba,* be, bi, 

ce, ci, 
chat,che,Ghi, < 
da, de, di, 
fa, fe, fi, 

ha, hej hi^ 

ka, kr, ki, 
la, le, li, 
Ila, lie. Hi, 

bo, bu. 

ma, me, mi. 



CO, CO, 

na, ne, ni. 



Aa, ne, ni. 




pa, pe, pi, 



do, du, 




fo, fil. 

que, qui 


&o, gu, 



ra,§re, ri. 



rra, rre, rn. 



sa,. «e, si. 



ho, hu. 

ta, te, ti. 



JO» J«> 

va, ve, VI, 



ko, ku. 

<a,||xe, xi. 



lo, lu. 

x&,"x6, rfl 



Ho, Uu, 

ya» ye, yi, 



za, se, zi, 



;«, gei gif JO, J", 
xa, xe, xi, xo, xu, 

za, ce, ci, zo, zu. 


* B is alfrajs hard at the beginning: of a trord, whatever letter 
may follow it. Ex. b€tralOt cheap ; hendUOf blessed ; bravo, brave ; 
bUmco^ white. In the middle of a word, between two vowels, b li 
softened into nearly a v ; Ex beber, to drink ; tubir, to go up. Bla, 
hie, &c. are always pronounced hard, as in English, whatever place 
they occupy in a word. Ex. Hablar, to speak ; ettMecer, to estab- 
lish. Bra, bre, &c. preceded by a contonant, are pronounced hard ; 
as, hombre, man ; aiambre, wire : but if preceded by a votoel, the 
6 is generally softened into almost a v. Ex. Obrar, to act ', abrir, 
to open ; pobre, poor. 

t Ch&, ehi, kc, with a circumflex, as is stated in page 17, has 
heretofore been used with the sound of kah, kai, in words derived 
from the ancient languages ; but now we use in the place of it, ca, 
qat, qui, eo, cu ; as, Q^imia, chemistry ; querubin, cherubim ; 
Caribais, Charibdis. 

t Q is changed into e, in all words where it is followed by ua, uo, 
ve, ui, and we write euandoy when ; euota, quota ; euettion, ques- 

§ R, in the beginning and middle of words, is pronounced as in 
English ; as, rio, river ; erario, treasury ; but rr, in Spanish, is pro- 
nounced a little stronger than the r in English at the beginning of 
a word ; as, perro, dog ; Pizarro. 

II Xa, kc. used to be guttural, and pronounced like the j, when the 
vowel, following the x, had not the circumflex accent over it The 
Spanish Academy, in the last edition of their Dictionary, printed in 



There is but one long syllable in each Spanish word. It 
is generally indicated by ihe acute accent placed upon the 
vowel. But this acceAt is suppressed, when the long sylla* 
ble may be otherwise known ; except in certain cases, where 
use requires it should be preserved. 

The following are the principal rules established by the 
Spanish Academy, for the use or suppression of the accent 
upon the vowel of the long syllable. 

1st The monosyllable must not be accented, because it 
is long from its nature. 

Exceptions. We accent, Ist. the conjunctions ^, and' 4y 
it, or ; and the preposition <f, to. 2d. The monosyllable 
il, he, him ; mi, me, pronouns personal ; «i, yes, one self^ 
affirmative particle or pronoun ; di and si 'from the verbs 
dar and ser, to give and to be) to distinguish these mono- 
^Uables from ei, the, article ; mi, my, pronoun pomessire ; 
St, if, conditional particle ; dcy of^ prepositioo ) and «^| 
himself, See, pronoun. 

2d. The accent is suppressed ia words of many sylla^ 
bles terminated by only one vowel, because their />«li«Afimii 
k loag from its nature. 

Eaxeptians. 1st In verbs, in the first and third pe/nom 
of the singular of the perfect and future of the indieative^ 
the last syllable is long, and receives the accent. Ex. ami^ 
I loved ; amdy he loved ; arharij I shall love ; conociy I 
knew ; conocerd, he shall know, &c. The accent remainsy 

1817» and in their last improved Book on Orthography of 1816, bava 
ased, instead^of the guttaral x, the letter jy before the yoweh a, o, ti ; 
and the letter g, before e and t ; but some writers ase ?' for 2 before 
all the Towels . Ex. jabon, soap ; gefCf chief ; Mlgieo^ Metico ; 
p^gOf jaice. The x is preserved only in those words^in which it is pro- 
nounced as A». Es. ExageraTi pronounced ektagerat, to exaggerate. 
The x has also been changed into an 9 in all the instances in which 
it is followed by another consonant Ex. EHrangero, stranger } 
uupto, except ; eteUar, to excite. The object of the Academy, iife 
all the foregoing alterations, has been to simplify the orthography, 
and make it conform to the pronunciation as nearly as possible ; 
therefore we have adopted these improvements in the orthography 
ind pronunciation throughout this Grammar and Book of Exercises. 


even when we add a pronoun to some one of those words. 
Ex. cogitCy I caught thee ; htUUky I found him ; come- 
rdnloy they will eat it. 2d. It is the same with the last 
syllable of the words aUd^ there ; caft^ coffee ; dej6y he 
left ; Perils BercehU, 

3d. In ^anish words of more than two syllables, the 
two last are often short. We call words of this kind, 
esdrOjuloSf dactyles. Some of them, as, cdmaraj chamber ; 
espiriiuj spirit ; santisimo, most holy ; take the accent 
upon tlie ahtepenultimay which is accented in the same 
manner in those verbs which are made esdrkjulos by tlie 
annexed pronoun ; as, mirame^ look at me ; dyeme^ hear 
me ; which, without the adjunc^on of the pronoun, would 
be written without an accent, mtra, look ; oye, hear. 
Others, compounded of a verb followed by two pronouns, 
and many adverbs, terminated in mentey have the accent 
upon the syllable preceding the antepenuitima, Ex. biiS' 
cameloy seek it for me ; diJ09eno%y people told as ; 
fdriimentey easily. Finally, certsun adverbs in mentty deri« 
ved from esdriijulos words, receive the accent upon the 
fifth syllable, reckoning from the last. Ex. hdrharamentej 
barbarously ; intrtpidamentey intrepidly ; words derived 
from bdrbarOf intripido, 

3d. The accent is suppressed upon the penuUimay in 
words of two syllables, terminated with two vowels ; as, 
.naoy ship ; «ea, let him be ; lea, let him read ; mto, mine ; 
and in the words terminated in ta, t>, to, ua, ue, no, which, 
considering the two vowels as diphthongs, are classed with 
dissyllables : for instance, Indioy Julioy July ; aguOy water ; 
mutuOy mutual ; &c. 

Exceptions. The first and third persons of the singular 
of the perfects of the verbs deviate from this rule, since 
they always have, as we have said, the last syllable long and 
accented. We must then write fef, I read ; Jiiy I trusted ; 
temiSy he feared ; pidiSy he asked, &c. 

4tfi. Words, terminating in y preceded by a vowel, 
which forms a diphthong, have no accent ; their last syl- 
lable is always long. Ex. JVfwfcy, convoyy Paraguay. 

5th. In words ending with two vowels, and of diree or 
more syllables, the position of the long syllable varies. 1st. 
The last vowel is long, and takes the accent in the word?? 


puntapti, a kick ; tirapiSf a strap ; and in the first and 
third persons of the singular of the perfect of the indicative 
of verbs ; as, acarre6j I carried ; contimtif I continued ; 
duiribtdy I distributed ; codicidy he coveted ; etceptud^ he 
excepted. 2d. The penultima vowel is long, and receives 
the accent in the nouns and verbs terminated in ae, ta, te, 
to, «a, ue, uo ; for example, provie^ he provides ; fiknofiuy 
philosophy ; desttfioy challenge ; graddoj I graduate. 

Exceptions. The accent is suppressed in all the per- 
sons ending in ta, of the imperfect of the indicative and 
1st conditional tense, because the t b always long. For 
the same reason, we do not accent the penultimate vowel 
of the terminations ae, oo, au, ea, eo, oa, oe, oo. However, 
sometimes these voweb form a diphthong ; then the sylla- 
ble that precedes them is long and receives the accent. 
Ex. hirofj hero ; linea^ line ; cutdneo^ cutaneous ; puT' 
pdreOy purple coloured. If. the final voweb ia, te, to, ua, 
«e, ifo, of words of three or more syllables, form diphthongs, 
it b abo the preceding syllable which b long ; but the ac- 
cent b siqipressed. Ex. Esperiencia^ experience ; disturb 
Hoy disturbance ; Nicaragua, 

6th. The last syllable of the words ending with a con- 
sonant b commonly long, and does not receive an accent. 
The acceent b, on the contrary, marked, if the long syllable 
b the penultima, as in the words drboiy tree ; virgen, vir- 
gin ; mdrtivy martyr ; alfirezj ensign ; or the antepenulti- 
ma, as in Mpiter^ rigimen, Aristdteles. 

Exceptiom: 1st. The last syllable of any person singu- 
lar of a verb, ending with a consonant, takes the accent, if 
it be long. Ex. Anuards, thou shalt love ; serds, thou shak 
be, &c. 2d. In patronymick names terminated in z ; as^ 
PereZf Sanchezy Fernandez^ the penultima is always long, 
and b not accented. 

7th. The plural of verbs and nouns follows the rule of 
their singular. The only exception is the plural caractiresy 
whose long accented syllable b not the same as in the sin- 
gular, which b cardcter on the penultima. 


See fpages 15, 17» 18,] what we have said of the accent 
circumflex and of the diaeresis upon the ti, signs formerly^ 


introduced by the Spani^ Academy to fix the pronancia^ 
tioa in a few uncertain cases. The circumfloK is now en- 
tirely suppressed, in consequence of depriving the x of its 
former guttural sound, and using tiie j and i* in its place ; 
and in consequence of using co^ ^ne, qid^ instead of chA^ 
chS, chij in words derived from the ancient languages* The 
diaeresis is only used in ^iie, gviy to denote that die u mnaX 
be soujKled separately from the u 

OF functuation; 

Punctuation is in Spani^ die same as in English. How* 
ever, as it often happens in the Spanish language, liiat 
punctuation alone indicates the interrogative sense of the 
phrase; and that, if the period be long, the reader is in- 
formed too late by the note of interrogation which follows 
it, the Spanish Acadeo^ then makes use of a particular 
mark, causing the phrase to be preceded by the note of 
interrogation reversed. Ex. ^No te espanta la cercania 
de un precipidOf que enctibierio eon las aparienoiat de vanas 
seguridades^ sera para ti tanto masfaUd cuanto menos ima^ 
ginado ? Art thou not frightened at the vicinity of a 
precipice, which, concealed undeir the appearance of false 
security, will be the more fatal to thee, as it is less sui^cted ? 

Ifj in Spanish, we are not warned by the interrogative 
note, this phrase is only afiirmative, ihi^ art not frighten' 
edy &c. Its turn and die transposition of a pronoun do not 
announce at the outset, as in English, that the sense is 
interrogative. The same is true as respects the note of 
admiration ; as, / Vdlgame Dios, cuantas provincias y cuantas 
Ttaciones conquistS ! Bless me, how many provinces and 
nations he conquered ! 


OF woans considbrbo as siqns of oua thoughts. 

WoBDS are divided into different classes, which Gramma- 
rians call Parts of Speech ; which are, the Article, Noun, 
Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunc- 

WORDS. 25 

tioD, and Interjection. Of these parts of speech, the last 
four are invariable. The article y noun^ pronoun^ and par- 
tidpUy are declined ; they have gendersy numbers^ and 
crises. The verb is conjugated ; it has modes, tenses^ num' 
bersy andpersonsy as will be seen hereafter. 

We ^hsill speak of the genders and numbers in the chap- 
ter of nouns to which they belong. 

Though, in the Spanish language, nouns do not change 
their terminations in changing their relations, as they do in 
the Greek and Latin tongues, we shall, however, conform 
to the Grammar of the Spanish Academy, which admits 
six cases, to wit : the nominative^ genitive^ dative^ accusa- 
tive, vocative, and ablative. 

The nominative is the case that denotes the noun or 
pronoun, which is the subject of a proposition. 

The genitive denotes the person to whom belongs the 
object of which we speak. 

The dative denotes the person or thing towards which 
the action of the verb is directed, or for which there results 
from it an advantage or disadvantage. 

The accusative represents the person or thing which is 
the direct regimen of the verb or end of its signification 
without preposition, or preceded by one of those which gov- 
ern this case : such as, arUe, contra, entre, hdcia, &c., 
before, against, among, between, towards, &c. 

The vocative serves to call. We place in this case the 
persons to whom we addj:ess our speech. 

The ablative serves to express the matter of or manner in 
which a thing is made ; the cause from which it proceeds ; 
or the instrument with which it is done. This case is al^ 
ways accompanied by one of the prepositions that govern it ; 
such as, con^ de, en,por, &c. with, from, in, by, &c. 



The Article b a small word placed before nouns, or fte-> 
fore any other word taking their place, to determine the 
person, the thing, or the action spoken of : therefore it is 
called definite or determinate. 


The ariicle has three genders in Spanbh : the masculiDe, 
feminiDe, and neuter. For the masculine it is c/, the ; for 
the feminine la, the ; and for the neuter to, the. The two 
first have the two numbers, and the last has only the singular. 


Masculine Article* 




el, - 

the. Nom. los. 



del,* - 

of the. Gen. de los, - 

of the. 


al,* - 

- to the. Dai. d los, - 

- to the. 


el, al, • 

the. Ace. los, d los. 

- the. 


del,* - 

from the. Abl. de los, - 
Feminine Ariicle. 

from the. 




la, - 

the. Nom. las, - 

. the. 


de la, 

- of the. Gen. de las. 

- of the. 


ila, - 

to the. Dat. 4 las, - 

to the. 


la, i. la, 

the. Ace. las, i las. 

- the. 


de la, - 

from the. Aid. delas, - 
Neuter Article. 

from the. 


lo, - 



de lo. 

. of the. 



to the. 

-This article has 

no plural. 


lo, - 

- the. 


de lo, 

from the. 


We have said in the definition of the article, that it must 
only be placed before nouns substantive, or before any other 
part of speech that does their office ; from which must be con- 
cluded, that there are parts of speech that, without being sub- 
stantives arc sometimes employed as such. Really in these 
phrases el leer me gusta^ reading pleases me ; preferir lo iitil 
a lo agradablej to prefer the useful to the agreeable; ignorarel 

* Del and al are abbreviations of dt el and a el, which custom 
has introduced, and which the Academy has approved, in order to 
distinguish, by this contraction, the genitive, ablative, and dative of 
tl, article, from the same cases of el. pronoun. Thus del, o/, signify 
of or from the, to the ; and de il, ail, signify of or from him, to him. 


jforquCf to be ignorant of the why ; ker is a verb, (tiil and 
agradable are adjectives, and porque is an adverb; but 
those* words do the office of substantives, and it is for this 
reason that they take the article. 


Rule I. — The article never admits of any elision in Span- 
ish ; but there are a few feminine nouns that, beginning 
with an a, take the masculine article e/, instead of the femi- 
nine la, in order to avoid the disagreeable meeting of two a'«. 
Therefore we say el agua^ water ; el ala, the wing ; el alma, 
the soul ; elama, the mistress ; el ave, the bird ; el dguilaythe 
eagle ; el amo, the master ; la agua, la ala, &c., would be too 
harsh. But it is necessary to observe, 1st. that thb change 
of article is admitted only in the singular, because the clash- 
ing of the two vowels does not take place in the plural ; 
2d. if these nouns are accompanied by an adjective, this 
adjective must be put in the feminine : we then say, el 
agua esfria ; el aia derecha ; the water is cold ; the right 
wing ; and not el agua frio >• el ala derecho ; 3d. the 
nouns above meutioned aie nearly all which usage lias per- 
mitted to deviate from the general rule. 

Rule II. — The article is placed in Spanish before nouns 
taken in a universal sense, even before proper names of 
regions, countries, rivers, winds and mountains. £x. 
la FranciOj de la Francia, a la Franda, France, of France, 
to France ; la Costilla^ de la Costilla, d la CastiUa, 
Castillo, of Castillo, to Castillo ; 6/ Ebro, el Tqfo, &c. ; 
because the common nouns region, provincia, rio, &c. are 

Exertions, — 1st. Those countries are excepted which 
take their names from their capital cities. Ex. ^dpoles 
y Corfu son unos paises muy favorecidos de la naturoleza^ 
Naples and Corfu are countries very much favored by na- 
ture ; the names of countries which are under the regimen 
of the preposition en ; as, estd en Espafia, he is in Spain ; 
mve en Francia, he lives in France ; 3d. those that are 
united by the preposition de to b. noun that precedes ; as, 
el reyno de IngUUerra, the kingdom of England ; las ciu^ 
dades de Francia y de Alemaniay the cities of France and 
Germany ; and, lastly, the article is omitted before the 
names of countries^ from which we speak of returning. Ex. 


vueho de Pnma^ I return from Prussia ; llega de Polo» 
«ia, he arrives from Poland. 

Remark 1st Though the name of a country be under 
the regimen of the preposition en or dej it must be preceded 
by the article when it is personified, or when it is taken in a 
definite sense. £x. La urbanidad de la Franda^ el inieres, 
de la Inglaterra^ the politeness of France, the interest of 
England, &c. 2d. The article is always placed before the 
names of certain distant countries ; as, Utgo del Japon^ de 
h China^ del Periiy I arrive from Japan, from China, from 
Peru. We say : Iv a Indias^ or d las Indias ; venir tie lit' 
dias, or de las IndiM^ to go to the Indies, to come from the 

Rule m. — When the names of kingdoms and provinces 
are preceded in English by a verb expressing the idea of 
comings returning^ going, coming back^ sending and sending 
hackf the preposition d is used in Spanish, corresponding to 
die English to, Ex. Ir d Francia^ to go to France ; 
vjlceri d InglaterrOy I shall return to England, &c. ; on the 
contrary, aty in^ in they &c. are translated in Spanish, by en^ 
&c. when the preceding verb does not express any motion. 
Ex. Estd en Paris, he is at Paris ; naciS en RomOy he was 
born in Home ; estari en casriy I shall be in the house, or 
^t home. We however say, — to be at the door, estar d la 
puerta ; to wait for at the door, esperar d la pueria'^ &c. 

Rule IV. — The nouns Senor^ Sefiora, Senores^ Senoras^ 
Sefiorilo^ Senoritos, Seiioriia, Sefioritas^ Mister or Sir, 
Mistress or Madam, Gentlemen or Sirs, Masters, young 
Gentlemen, Ladies, Miss, Misses, always take the article, 
except, 1st. whqnthey are preceded by one of the pronouns 
possessive mz, tUy my, thy, &c. and when they are in the 
vocative. We must then say : El eeiiJOT del Campo, la 
senora Sancho, la senorita Villegas, mi sefiora Sancho^ el 
senorito Quiroga ; mi senorita ViUegas ; como estd vm, 
senor don Francisco, or senora dofia Francisca ? Mister del 
Campo, Mistress Sancho, Master Quiroga, Miss ViUegas, 
my lady Sancho, my young lady ViUegas ; how do you do. 
Sir Francis, or Lady Frances ? 

N. B. 1st. When we speak of, or to a person in high sta- 
tion, or to whom we owe respect, we use in Spanish these 
words : senor don, senora or seflorila dofia, which must al- 
ways be placed before christian names. Ex. El senor don 


Ptdro B., My Lord Peter B. ; la senoradonaMariaA*^ My La- 
dy Mary A.— It is necessary to remember that tbe word Don 
is never employed before a surname or family name. We 
shall dien say : El sefior de Matdlana$ ; la seficra de 
ViUa Torre ; and not, el aefior don de MataUanas ; la ufiora 
dofia de ViUa Torre, 

N. B, 2d. Mi sefhra, mi se^ionto, are expressions which 
indicate more deference than la senora, la senorUa. 

Rule V. — When one of the words, sir or mister, mistress 
or madam, my lord, my lady, sefior, eenoraj are accompa- 
nied with . a title, the article is placed before that word, and 
not before the title. The marshal, el aefior martscal ; the 
duchess, la sefiora duquesa ; the bishop, el sefior chUpo. 
But if we use mi sefior^ mi senora, the article is placed as in 
English. My lord the bishop, mi sefior el obispOf mi 
sefiora la duquesa. 

Rule VI. — The neuter article is placed only before 
adjectives used as substantives, and taken in an absolute 
indeterminate case : as, se debe preferir to iitU a lo agrada^ 
Me, we ought to prefer the useful to the agreeable. 



Nouns are either suhstantive or adjective. The noun 
substantive expresses the name of a person dr thing ; the 
noun at^e^ive expresses its quality. Ex. Un hombre doctOf 
a learned man ; una hermosa misery a handsome woman ; 
hombre and muger, man and woman, are substantives ; dbc- 
to and hermosa, learned and handsome, are adjectives. 


The substantive is either common, proper, or collective* 
The substantive common is that which may be applied to 
several persons or several things ; as, general, general ; 
ciudad, city ; reino, kingdom. One may say, un general 
Ingles, un general Frances, an English general, a French 
general ; la ciudad de Londres, la ciudad d*i Paris, the city of 

so NOUNS. 

London, the city of Paris ; el reino de FtwiciOf el reino de In^ 
gLUerra;the kingdom of France, the kingdom of £ngland,&c. 

The substantive proper expresses a separate idea, a single 
person or thing ; as, Nero, Farts, Londres ; Nero, Paris, 

The substantive collective is that which, though in the 
singular, presents to the mind several persons or things, ei- 
ther as making one whole, or as making part of a whole. 
The first is called coUtctive general ; as, egtrcUo^ rebano^ 
floresta, army, flock, forest. The second is called coUedive 
partitive ; as, ti-opa^ infinidadj troop, infinity, &c 

Rule VII, — The noun substantive coUtctive pariiUvemay 
govern the verb that follows it in the plural ; but the noun 
substantive collective general never governs it in that num* 
ber. We may then say, enlraron en Londres una trOpa^ . 
una infinidad de ladrones ; but we cannot say : tl egirciio^ 
perecieron, el rebano perecieron. 


The gender originally denoted only the distinction of the 
sexes as male or female. The masculine designates man or 
the male. The feminine denotes woman or the female. 
Afterwards, by extension, we have attributed the masculine 
or feminine gender to other nouns, though they had no 
relation to either sex : the neuter has since been added to 
them in several languages. 

There are three genders in the Spanish language : the 
masculine, feminine^ and neuter This last has only a rela- 
tion to vague and indeterminate things : it is applicable only 
to adjectives, and has no plural. Ex. Lo bueno, lo ma/o, lo 
justo, esio, aquello, &c. ; die good, the bad, the just, this, 
that, &c. 


Numbers serve to designate one or many ejects. There 
are two numbers, the singular and plural. The singular 
designates only one person or thing, as hombre, man ; 
mug^r^ woman ; librOj book, pluma, pen. The plural de- 
signates many persons or things ; as, los hombresy men ^ 
mugeresy women ; Jibros, books ; plumas, pens. 

NOUNS. 31 


The plural of nouns substantive and adjective is formed 
in Spanish in two difiereat manners, according to the termi- 
nation of the singular. 

The nouns are terminated either with a short vowely that 
Is, not accented ; or with a long vowel, that is, accented ; or 
lastly, with a consonant. 

Rule VIII. When the noun is terminated with a short 
vowel, the plural is formed by adding an « to the singular, 
Ex. Carta, letter ; cartas, letters ; Have, key ; Saves, 
keys ; bueno, buena, good ; buenos, buenas, good ; &c. 

When the noun terminates with a long vowel or with a 
consonant,, the plural is formed by adding es to the singular. 
Ex. Aleli, gilly-flower ; aleUes, gilly-flowers ; verdad^ 
truth ; verdades, truths ; razon, reason ; razones, reasons ; 
hdbil, able ; hdbiles, able f feliz, happy ; feUces, happy. 
Maravedi forms its plural in three ways. We say marave- 
dis^ maravedies, aod maravedises. 

^ N. B. The nouns, both substantive and adjective, which 
terminate with a z in the singular, change z into c to form 
their plural, with the addition of the letters es : Ex. LuZf 
light, iuces ; feliz, happy, felices, &c. 


Substantives masculine of a person, beginning with a 


N. el padre, the father, 

G. del padre, of the father. 

D. al padre, -----i, to the father. 

A. al padre,* ------ the father. 

V. padre, ------ © father. 

Ab. del padre, ------ from the father 4 

* Though the observation we are about to make belongs to the 
rules relative to the regimen of verbs, we have thought fit to give it 
here, in order to make koovvn the reason of the difference that ex- 
iftts between the accusatire of the noons of persons and that of the 
nouns of things. Whenever a rational being or personified thing is 
the object of this action of the active verb, the verb governs the noun 
in the accusative with the preposition d ; and, as we have already said 
in speaVingof the article, oi is a contraction of the preposition & and 
of the article el. When on the contrary the object of the action d 




N. los padres, the fatherg. 

G. de los padres, of the fathers. 

D. 4 los padres, to the fathers. 

A. 4 los padres, the fathers. 

V. padres, b fathers. 

Ab. de los padres, from the fathers. 

Substantive feminine of a person, beginning with a con- 
sonant : 


N. la muger, the woman. 

O. de la muger, of the woman. 

D. 41a muger, \ to the woman. 

A. 41a muger, the woman. 

V. muger, o woman. 

Ah. de la muger, from the woman. 


N. las mugeres, the women. 

G. de las mugeres, of the women. 

D. 4 las mugeres, to the women. 

A. 4 las mugeres, the women. 

V. mugeries, o women. 

Ah. de las mugeres, - - - - from the women. 

Substantives feminine of a person, beginning with an a : 

K el ama, the mistress. 

G. del ama, of the mistress. 

D. al ama, ...... /o fAe mistress. 

A. al ama, ...... ^Ae mistress. 

^ ama? o mistress. 

Ah. del ama, - from the mistress. 


N. las amas, the mistresses. 

G. de las amas, of the mistresses. 

D. 4 las amas, to the mistresses. 

A. 4 las amas, - ... - the mistresses. 

V. amas, - .... o mistresses. 

Ah. de las amas, from the mistresses. 

the actiye verb is a noun that expresses an inanimate thing, the yerb 
goyerns it in the accusatiye without any preposition. See rule 66 
which refers to this obserration. 

Substantive masculine of a thing : 


A. el libro, ------- the hook, 

G. del libro, ------- of the book. 

D. al libro, ------- to the hook* 

A. cl libro,* ------- tht hook. 

V. libro, •.------ o hook» 

Ah. del libro, ------- from the book. 


N. los libros, ------ the hooks. 

G. de los libros, ------ of the books. 

D. 4 los libros, ------ to the book9* 

A. los libros, -•---. the hooks. 

V. libros, ------ o hooks. 

Ah. de los libros, ------ from the hooks% 

Substantive feminine of a thing : 


N. la casa, the house. 

G. de la casa, ------- of the "house* 

D. 4 la casa, .--->..- to the house. 

^ A. la casa, ------ the house. 

V. casa, ------- o home. 

Ah. de la casa. ------- from the house. 


N. las casas, ------ the houses. 

G. de las casas^ .---.. of the houses. 

D. 4 las casas, ------ to the houses. 

A. las casas, ------ the houses. 

r. casas, ------ o houses. 

Ah. de las casas, ------ from the houses. 

N. B. Neuter nouns never relate to persons, but only to 
indeterminate things ; as, lo bueno, lo nudo^ lo iiiil. They 
have neither vocative case, nor plural number, and are de> 
clined with the neuter article. 


N. lo (itil, - - - ^ - - . the useful. 

G. de lo (itil, - - - - - - of the useful. 

* See (be preceding note, pa|^e 31.^ # 

34. NOUSS. 

D. 4 lo (ita, to the useful 

A. lo (itil, ih^ mefuL 

Ah. de lo (itil, from the weful. 

Remark. The neuter article is not placed indifferently 
before all adjectives employed as substantives, but only (as 
we have said in rule vi) before those that are taken in a 
sense absolutely indeterminate. In this phrase : el hombre 
sabio prejiere siempre lo iitil a lo agradabky the wise man 
prefers always the useful to the agreeable ; the neuter article 
is necessary before iitil and agradahle^ because those nouns 
do not express any determinate object. But in the follow- 
ing phrases : el malo sera castigado, the wicked shall be 
punished ; el azid de este paflo es muy subido, the blue of 
this cloth is very lively, — one cannot make use of the neuter 
article, because the nouns substantive that are implied are 
sufficiently determinate ; in truth, it is evident that hombre 
is understood before maloy and color before azul, and in 
these cases the article takes the gender of the substantive 
to which it relates. 


The proper names of men and women, of cities, towns^ 
villages, months, &c. do not take any article, and are de- 
clined by aid of .the prepositions de and d. De serves for 
the genitive and ablative, and d for the dative and accusa- 
tive before proper names of men and women, and for the 
dative only before nouns of things, 


N. Pedro, Peter. N. Ana, Amu 

G. de Pedro, of Peter. G. de Ana, of Ann.^ 

D. 4 Pedro, to Peter* D. i Ana, to Ann. 

A. i Pedro,* Peter. A. 4 Ana,* Ann. 

Ab. de Pedro, from Peter. Ah. de Ana, from Ann, 

N. Antonio, Antony. N. Londres, London. 

G. de Antonio, of Antony. G. de Londres, of London. 

D. i Antonio, to Antony. D. ^ Londres, to London. 

A. 4 Antonio,* Antony. A. Londres, London. 

Ab. de Antonio^/rom^ntony. Ab.6.e luondresyfromLondon. 

• * See note pa^e 31. 

NOUNS. 35 


Nouns taken in a partitive sense, often expressed in En- 
glish by some J any, are always without an article in Spanish. 

Rule IX. Whenever the noun, taken in a partitive sense 
expresses an object vaguely and in an indeterminate sense' 
it does not take in Spanish a preposition nor an article. £x! 
Dame pan^ give me bread ; como camCf I eat meat ; cami 
prarS manzanasy I shall purchase apples; Bebovino, I 
drink wine. 

Rule X. When on the contrary the noun is taken in a 
determinate sense ^ it must be preceded by the genitive of 
the masculine, or feminine article, singular or plural ac- 
cording to the gender and number to which it belong, or 
simply, by the preposition de, if it does not admit the article. 
Ex. Dame del pan que has compradoy give me of the bread 
that thou hast purchased ; dame de tu pan, give me of thy 
bread. In the second example, we use only the preposition 
de, because the possessive pronoun tu, does not take the ar- 

Rule XI. If the noun taken in a determinate sense is in 
the plural, and it should be wished to express only the idea 
of some, afewy this should then be expressed by unos, unas 
or a^unosy algynas ; according to the gender of the noun 
substantive. Ex. Corner^ taas 6 algunas ciruelaSy I shall 
eat plums, that is, some plums ; he comprado algunos lihroSy 
I have bought a few books, &c. But if the quantity, instead 
of bemg limited by the sense of some, is absolutely undeter- 
mined, then some is not expressed. Ex. Tiene muy buenos 
Uhrosy he has very good books. Tenemos^amigosy we have 


Singtdur masculine, 
N.SfA. un amigo, - - - . a friend. 

G. if M. de un amigo, . - - . iy or from a friend. 
D. 4 un amigo, .... to a friend. 


N.Srd. amigos, .... friends. 

G.9fM. de amigos, - - - - of or from friends. 

D. d amigos, - - - - - to friends. 


Singvlar feminine. 

N. Sf Ji. una monja, a ii«if. 

G. I* .^6. de una moDJa, ...... ofanun^ 

D. 4 una monja^ .-v... to a nun^ 


N.SfA, monjas, nuns, 

G. Sf Ah. de monjas, ...---. of nuns. 
D. ^ monjas, to nuns. 

General ohservations upon the genders. 

The proper and appellative names of men, and male ani- 
mals, as also the nouns that express arts, sciences, dignities, 
professions, trades, &c. fit for men, are of the masculine 
gender ; as, kombre^ man ; cahoUoj horse ; patriarcaj 
patriarch ; poeta^ poet, &c. 

Names of females, and of professions, trades, &c. fit for 
females, are of the feminine gender. Ex. muger^ woman ; 
cabroy goat ; costurera, seamstress ; abadesa^ abbess, &c. 

The names of kingdoms, cities, towns, and villages, gen- 
erally take, says the Madrid Academy, the gender of the 
appellative nouns, expressed or understood, to which they 
refer. For instance, Toledo and Madrid are of the femi- 
nine gender, because the femini.*e appellative nouns, ciudad 
and ttVfa, city and town, are understood, the first before 
Toledoy and the second before Madrid. Fuencarrml is mas- 
culine, because the masculine word lugar, village, is under- 
stood. The names Cuba and Morea are of the feminine 
gender, because the appellative, ishij island. Is understood 
before the first, and the word peninsula^ peninsula, before 
the last. However, the Academy adds, some of th^ names 
above mentioned, when they are not joined to the commoa 
noun belonging to them, follow the rule of their termina- 
tion. Thus Espana, Sueda^ and almost all the names of 
countries ending in a, are feminine ; Perrol and Fiso are 
masculine, though the appellattive noun of the two first be 
reinoy kingdom ; that of Ferroly ciudad, city ; and that of 
Viso, villa, town. The same b true in regacd to others,^ 
which practice will niake known^. 

NOUNS. 37 


All nouns ending in a, are feminine, except atbacea^ execu- 
tor; cmagrama^ anagram ; antipodes antipodes ; axioma^ axiom; 
clima^ climate ; crismUf chrism ; dia, day ; dMemOf dilemma ; di- 
plomoj diploma ; dogma, dogma ; drama, drama ; epigrama^ 
epigram ; Etna, Etna ; fa, fa, (note of music ;) vdioma, 
idiom ; Uma, lemma ; wAndj manna ; mapa, map ; poema^ 
poem ; problema, problem ; sira^ema, symptom ; sUtemay 
' system ; sofismay sophism ; tapabocoy slap given on the mouth ; 
tenuif theme ; teorema^ theorem ; and some others. 

All those ^at terminate in o, are masculine, except mano, 
hand ; and nao^ vessel. 

Those that terminate in don or tion, are of the feminine 
gender, as, ctieslion, question ; medUaciony meditation ; acdon^ 
action ; ohjecuniy objection, &c. These words are the same 
in both languages, except that in Spanish the i of the termi- 
nation tiony of the English word, is changed into a c, when 
it has the sound of sA. 

The nouns that in Spanish terminate in ^ or dady termi* 
nations that correspond to that of the Latin in tes, and to 
that of the English in iy^ are of the feminine gender ; as, 
humanidadyYmTOBmty y punc^oc^, purity ; adversidady adversity.. 
As to the nouns that have other terminations, they are sub- 
ject to so many exceptions, that it is impossible to establish 
in regard to them satisfactory rules. 


decision of the Academy, 

Albali, ..... cockety passport. 

Anatema, - - - - - - anathema. 

Arte, - - art. 

Azucar, ...---. sugar. 

Canal, canal. 

Cisma, - - - - - - - schism. 

Cutis, ....--- skin. 

Dote, dotes, .... dowry y endowments. 

Emblema, ------- emblem. 

Hermafrodita, .... - hermaphrodite. 

Mar, - sea. 


38 NOUNS* 

Mirgen, margin, bank. 

Nema^ ..----- «ea/. 

Neuma, ..... significani gesture, 

orden, order. 

Puente, - - - - - - - bridge, 

Reuma, rheum. 

Tribu, .------ tribe. 

N. B. Tribu, trihe^ though of both genders, generally 
takes the masculine. 


Formation of the feminine of nouns adjective. 

In the Spanish language, as in abnost all others, the adjec- 
tive agrees in gender and number with the substantive to 
which it relates. It is then necessary to know the manner 
in which the feminine is formed from the masculine. Of the 
formation of the plural, we have given the rules, when 
speaking of the numbers. 

Nouns adjective, the termination of which b in o, form 
their feminine by changing o into a ; as buettOj buena, good ; 
aUoy aUay high, &c. 

Those that terminate in the masculine, with any other let- 
ter, have generally but one termination for both genders. 
We say then, un homhre alegrej a merry man ; and una mu- 
ger alegrcy a merry woman ; un homhre ftlizj a happy man ; 
una muger feliz, a happy woman, &c. 

The following nouns, terminating in the singular, with a 
consonant, are excepted from the above rule, the feminine 
being formed by adding an a to the masculine. Haragan-a^ 
lazy ; mamantotp-ay a sucking child ; haron^y sluggish ; 
Aampon-a, vain ; as also national adjectives, as; Frances^, 
French ; Ingles-ay English ; AragoneS'tty Aragonese ; An' 
daluz-<iy Andalusian, &c. (See at the end of the Grammar 
the table of names of countries.) Among the adjectives of 
thislast class, some are found that terminate in a, and do not 
undergo any change in the feminine ; as, PersUy Persian ; 
Moscovitay Muscovite, &c. 


1st. The adjective is generally placed in Spanish after 
the substantive. 


2d. T)ie adjective must always agree in gender and nnm- 
ber with the substantive that it qualifies. 

3d. When an adjective relates to two singular substantives, 
it DQust be put in the plural. 

4th. When an adjective serves to qualify in the same 
phrase several substantives of different genders, it is put in 
the plural and in the masculine. 


The Spanish language abounds, like the Italian language, 
in diminutives and augmentatives. 

Rule XII. There are two kinds of diminutive nouns : 
1st. those that express tenderness, or the gentleness of any 
object whatever, that is small ; and their termination is in 
ito or ICO for the masculine, ita or tea for the feminine, 
which are added to the nouns, whether adjective, or substan- 
tive, without altering any thing in them, when they terminate 
with a consonant, but suppressing the last letter, if it be a 
vowel. Ex. Fdjaro^ bird ; pqfaritOf small or pretty little 
bird ; owa, house ; cetsita, small, or pretty little house ; 
8eiior,sir: sefioritOj young gentleman, or master. From 
this rule skould be except^ bueno, bueruif the dimunitivc of 
which IS honitOj honita, and which most often has only the 
meaning of pretty. 

2d. Those which denote contempt or pity, or which lessen 
the object without adding to it the idea of pretty, are gene- 
rally terminated in zueloy iUo or dUoj for the masculine, 
zuAij iUa or dUa for the feminine, according to the forego- 
ing rule respecting diminutives. Ex. Perro^ dog ; perillo^ 
ugly little dog ; mt^er, woman; tnugercilla^ mttgerzuela, 
v^y little woman ; hombre, homhrecilhy hombrezuehf ugly 
little man. 

There are some other dimunitives terminating in ete^ in, 
efOf but they are very little used. 

Rule XIII. The augmentative nouns add to the positive 
the signification of the words big or largCj and are formed 
by adding arif azoy onazoy or ote for the masculine, and ona^ 
azOf or onaztty for the feminine, following the same rule as 
the dimunitives in regard to the termination. Ex. Hombre, 
man ; hombroHj hwnbrazoj hombronazo^ big or large man ; 
nutgeTf woman ; mugerona, mugerazay mugeronazay big or 
large woman ; perro, dog ; perron^ perrazo, perronazOy big 

40 NOUNS. 

or large dog ; grande, large ; grandon, grandotey grandazo, 
grandcnazoy very big or large and without proportion. 


The adjectives may qualify the objects either absolutely, 
that is, without any relation to other objects, or relatively, 
that b, with relation to other objects Hence arise three de- 
grees of qualification, to wit : ihepasitivey the comparative, 
and the superlative. 

The positive is the adjective expressed without there be- 
ing a comparison } as, bueno good ; tnalo, bad. 

The comparative serves to establish between the objects 
that ace compared a relation of superiority ^ inferiority , or 
equality. Hence three kinds of comparatives. 

The adjective is in the superlative when it expresses the 
quality either in a very high or in the highest degree ; which 
forms two kinds of aupermivesj the one absolute, and the 
other relative. 


As a comparison may be made, not only by means of ad- 
jectives, but also by the aid of substantives, verbs, and ad- 
verbs, we shall consider the comparatives in these four 
different cases. The Spanish language participates in this 
part of the Grammar, with die latin tongue, and d^culties 
would doubtless be found in it, should we content ourselves 
with merely treating of comparatives in relation to adjectives. 


Rule XIV. 1st. The comparative of superiority is al- 
ways expressed by mas, more ; and the que foUowing, by 
than. Ex. He is more learned than you, 61 es mas sabio 
que vm. 

2d, The comparative of inferiority is formed by menos, 
less, followed by que, than, or by no4anf not so, and the as 
following is rendered by como. Ex. He is less learned than 
his brother, or he is not so learned as his brother ; 61 es 
menos docto que su hermano, or 61 no es tan docto como su 

3d. The comparative of equality is formed by toit-como, 
as-as ; or no-menos que, not less-than. Ex. You are as pru- 
dent as your sisters, vm. es tan prudente como sus hermanas, 
or, you are not less prudent than, &c. vm. no es menos pru'* 
dente que, ^c. 



N. B. The following nouns are comparatives from their 
nature : may or ^ larger, greater ; menoTj lesser, smaller ; 
mejor, better; pcor, worse; wipcnor, superior ; inferior ^ 
inferior. We also say el mayor, el menor, el mefor, &c. the 
largest, the greatest ; the least, the smallest ; the best; but 
then these adjectives are superlatives. 


Of the compar€^V€ in relation to substantives^ verbs and 
Role XV. This comparative before the substantive, the 
adverb, and after the verb, is rendered by masque more- 
than, smd admits no preposition after it. Ex. He has more 
prudence than you, Hene masprudenda que vm, ; She has 
more science than money, tiene mas ciencia que dinero ; 
we have more eneijues than, &c. tenemos mas enemigos que, 
^c. I esteem thee more than Mary, te estimo mas que a 
Maria; we act more prudently than they, ohramos mus pru' 
dentetnenie que elhs, 

N. B. The foregoing rule perfectly agrees with the En- 
glish construction. More thany less thaUf followed by a 
noun of number, one, two, three, &c. are translated by mas 
de, and menos de. Ex. She has more than ten guineas, 
tiene mas de diez guineas. She has more than seven broth- 
ers, tiene mas de siete hermanos. We have less than a 
thousand dollars, Tenemos menos de mil pesos. Less than 
20 years, menos de 20 anos. 

Comparative of Inferiority. 

Rule XVI. 1st. This comparative, considered in. relation 
to substantives, may be expressed by less or fewer4han, 
or by so much or so many-as, preceded by the negative not. 

Less4han is rendered by menos que. Ex. Less prudence 
than, menos prudenda que ; fewer friends than, menos ami- 
gos que, 8fc. Not so much or so many-as, is expressed by 
no^antOy'ttyOSf-^iSy-como, according to the gender and num- 
ber of the noun to which, so muck, so many relate. Ex. 
I have not so much mon^y as you, no tengo tanto dinero 
como vm. ; Peter has not so much ambition as John, Pedro 
no tiene tanta ambicion como Juan ; Francis has not so 

42 Mom^s. 

maoy books as his brother, Franci9C0 no tiene tantoe Ubro^ 
como 9U hermano, 

2d. In relation to verbs ; le894han is expressed by menos- 
que ; not-^o-much is expressed by no-tanto ; and as, by cu- 
anto or como. Ex. I do not love him so much as I esteem 
him, no le quiero tanto cuanio or como le etHmo ; you study 
less than we, vm, estudia menos que nosotros. 

Sd. In relation to adverbs; les94han is rendered by 
menos-que, and not-^o or not'So-as by no-'tan<omo, Ex. 
They act less prudently than you, obran menoe prudente^ 
mente que om., or no obran tan prudentemenie como vm. 

N. B. Before participles passive so much'4i9 ; a» much^as, 
are rendered by tan^omo. Ex. He is not so much esteemed 
as he, no es tan estitnado como il. — I am as much loved as 
9he is, eoy tarn amado como eUa. 

Comparative of equality. 

Rule XYU. 1st. The comparative of equality, consid- 
ered in relation to nouns substantive, is expressed by as 
much-asy as mofiy-asy or by not less-than. As much, as 
many^ is translated by tant0f4a'-to»4asy according to the gen- 
der and number of the substantive, and the following as by 
como. Ex. She has as much meekness as her sister, iiene 
tanta dulzura como su hermana ; he acts with as much rig- 
our as justice, obra con tanto rigor como justiciar Not less^ 
than is rendered by no^menoS'-qtte. Ex. I am not less hun- 
gry than you, no tengo menos hambre que vm. ; we have not 
fewer protectors than friends, no tenemos menos protectores 
que amigos. 

2d. In regard to verbs ; as much as is expressed by tanto 
cuanto or como. Ex. I punish him as much as he deserves, 
le castigo tanto cuanto or como merece. 

Not4ess than is always translated by no-menos que. Ex. 
You do not eat less than his brother, come menos que 
su hermano. 

Sd. In relation to adverbs : as-€ts is rendered by tan-como. 
Ex. He sings as well as you, canta tan bien como vm. 

Not'less-than is translated by no-menos^e. Ex. I do not 
write less correctly than he, no escribo menos correctamente 

NOVNS. 49 

Of superlatives* 

There are two kinds of superlatives, the one absolute and 
the other relative. 

Rule XYIII. The first expresses a quality in the su- 
preme degree^ but without comparison, and then the adjec- 
tive is preceded by niiiy, verif ; and if the adjective can 
form its superlative of itself, then, without having recourse 
to muy, we add to the positive isimo or isima^ isimos or 
isimaSf according to the gender and number of the substan- 
tive to which it refers, cutting off the final letter of the ad- 
jective, if it ends with a vowel. Ex. Paris is a very beauti- 
ful city. Paris es una ciudad muy hermosa or hefTnosisima, 

The superlative absolute of the adverbs is likewise forob- 
edby muy ^or by changing emente or amende into isimamente. ' 
Ex. Prucknt-emente, prudently, prudenUfsimamente ; cdn^ 
didor^nente, candidly, candid-isimamenie. 

N. B. 1st. It is proper to observe that there are adjec- 
tives and adverbs which do not admit the last form of the 
superlative ; consequently when a doubt occurs whether it 
may be used with any adjective or adverb, the surest way 
will be to make use of muy with the positive. 

N. B. 2d. From the general rule of absolute superlatives 
must be excepted a few adjectives that cannot be subjected 
to it, as ; hueno, good ; honisimoy very good ; fuertey strong; 
fortisimo, very strongs AU those that terminate in hie 
change thiat syllable into bilisimOy for the superlative. Ex. 
AmcMe^ amiable, ama bilisimo ; afahh^ afa-bilisimo. The 
following nouns are superlatives in their nature ; Sptimo, 
pinmOf maxmoj fitintmo, infimo, supremo^ very good, very 
bad, very great, very small, very low, supreme. 

Rule XIX. The superlative relative expresses a quality 
in the highest degree, by comparison with other objects, 
and it is formed in English by one of these articles or pro- 
nouns, ehe^ of or from the f to the ; my, thy, his, her, its, our, 
your, their, followed by most, least, best, worst; and in 
Spanish by one of these ; el, la, los, las, dd, de la, de los or 
de las, al, a la, d los or d las \ mi, tu, su, nuestro, vuestro, fol- 
lowed by mas, menos, mejor, menor, peor ; and these articles 
and pronouns must agree in gender and number with the 
noun to which they relate. Ex. The most pure and con- 
stant pleasures, hs mas puros y constamtes placer es. 

44 NOUNS* 

The adverb foims its superlative relative by lo masy the 
most ; lo menaSf the least ; both which must always precede 
it. Lo is here a neuter article. 

Observations upon the Compcaratives and Superlatives. 

RuLK XX. The comparatives govern the verb that fol- 
lows the que, than, Ex. lie is more learned than he appears, 
61 es mas doeto qtf^pareccy or delo que parece. 

Rule XXI. Wnen the substantive, to which the adjec- 
tive in the superlative relative, refers, is preceded by the 
definite article and is immediately followed by the adjective^ 
then the article is not repeated before mas nor the adjective. 
Ex. He was prepared to deal the most terrible marks of his 
resentment, quedS en disposicion de usar de las demonstra' 
cionss mas terribles de su resentimiento (Feijdo,) But if the 
substantive is not immediately followed by mas, most, then 
the article must be repeated. Ex. BU hombre que veo es el 
mas doctOf ^c. 

Rule XXII. The superlative relative governs the verb 
that follows the que in the indicative. Ex. The most pow- 
erful prince that has been, el principe mas poderoso que ha 

If however, the verb, in English, is in the potential, we 
put it indifferently in the second or third conditionals. Ex. 
The best that I could find, el mejor que haUase or hallara. 

And if it is in the fiiture, we put 'it in the future conjunc- 
tive, or in the present of the subjunctive. Ex. The least that 
I can or shall be able, h menos quepueda or pudiere. 

Rule XXIII. Most and least joined to a verb are ren- 
dered by mas and menos, Ex. He is the man that I most 
love, 61 es el hombre que mas quiero. 

This is the woman that I least esteem, esta es la muger 
que menos estimo. 

Rule XXIV. 1st. The more-the morCy (that is, ^Ae more 
repeated in different members of a sentence, the second be- 
ing as a consequence of the first,) are expressed by cuanto 
maS'tanto mas. The more virtuous man is, the more happy 
he is, cuanto mas virtuoso es el hombre, tanto masfeUz es, 

2d. The lt8s-4he less; the more-the less ; the lesS'the more 
are expressed by cuanto menos-tanto menos ; cuanto mas» 
tanto menos ; cuanto menos-tanto -mas. 

NOUNS. 45 

3d. So much the more than, so mitch the Uis than, are traos- 
lated by tanto mas que^ tanto menos que. 


Adjectives of number are words that serve for enumera- 
tion. We call them adjectives because their office is to mod- 
ify, Und because every noun that modifies is an adjective. 
They are distinguished into two kinds, the cardinah and or- 

The cardinals serve to designate absolutely and simply 
the various numbers ; the ordinals mark the order of persons 
or things in relation to the numbers. 

The cardinal numbers are ; 

ono, una, ------ one, 

dos, ------ two, 

tres, - - - - - - three, 

cuatro, - four, 

dn<io, - - - - . - - five, 

seis, - - - . - - - six, 

siet*, seven, 

ocho, eight, 

naeve, ..---- nine, 

dies, - - - - - - ten, 

once, ..----. eleven, 

doce, -.--.- twelve, 

trece, -.--.- thirteen, 

catorce, - - - - - - fourteen, 

quince, -.-.-- fifteen, 

diez y seis, ----- sixteen, 

diez y siete, . - - - - seventeen^ 

die2 y ocho, . - - - - eighteen, 

diez y nueve, ----- nineteen, 

veinte, - twenty, 

veinte y uno, ----- twenty-one, 

veinte y dos, . - - - - twenty-two, 

veinte y tres, ----- twenty-three, 

veinte y cuatro, - - - ' - - twenty-four, 

veinte y cinco, ----- twenty-five, 

veinte y seis, ----- twenty-six, 

veinte y siete, ----- twenty-seven, 

veinte y ocho, twenty-eight. 



veinte y nueve, 









doscientos-asy* - 

trescientos-asy - 



seiscientos-as, - 

setecientos-as, - 

ochocientoa-as, - 

novecientos-as, - 


dos mil, 

mil y ciento, 

mil y doiscientos-as, 

cien mil, - 

doscientosF-as mil, 










a or one hundred, 

two hundred, 

three hundred, 

four hundred, 

five hundred, 

six hundred, 

seven hundred, 

eight hundred, 

nine hundred 

a or one thousand, 

two thousand, 

eleven hundred, 

twelve hundred, 

a or one h\indred thousand 

two hundred thousand, 

million, y, 

N. B. This last number is not an adjective, it belongs to 
the class of substantives. 

























* The masculine termination ot is chan^^ed into ( 
t Primero, m. prinerai f. &c. 

r for the feminine; 



decimo tercio, decima tarda, 
decimo cuarto^ decima cuarta, 
decimo quinto^ decima quinta, 
decimo sesto, decima sesta, 
decimo septimo, decima septima, 
decimo octavo, decima octava^ 
decimo nono^ decima nona^ 
vig6s]mo-a, - . - 

vigesimo primo^-a, 
vigesimo segundo-a-a^ - 
vige»mo tercio-a-a, - - 
trigesimo-a, - - - 

<uadragesimo-a, - « 

sexagesimo-a, ... 
septuagesimo-a, . - - 
6ctogesimo-a, . . - 
nonagesimo-a, - . - 
nonagesimo primo, &c.-a-a^ - 
centesimo-a^ ... 

ducentesimo-a, ... 
milesimo-a, - - - 

penultimo-a^ - - ♦ - 
^timo-a, postrero-a, 




















a or one hundredtii^ 

two hundredth,, 

three hundredth; 

four hundredth; 

five hundredth; 

six hundredth; 

seven hundredth, 

eight hundredth; 

nine hundredth, 

a or one thousandth, 




Besides these two kinds of numhers, there are yet three 
others that belong to the class of substantives ; these are the 
collective^ distrihtUive and proportional. 

The collective numbers serve to denote determinate quan- 
tities, as ; a dozen^ una docena ; half a dozen^ una media 
docenta; a hundred of, una centena ; a thouaandlhy un mil- 
iar ; a miUioriy un mUlon or cuento. 

The distributive serve to denote the difierent parts of a 
whole ; as, the Ao//, la mitad ; the third j el tercio ; ^ fourth^ 
una cuarta, &,c. 

48 NO0N8. 

The profpturiiamd are those that serve to denote the pro* 

nive mcrease of the Dumber of things ; as, the douhUy el 
^ ) ; the quadruple f el cuadruplo ; the hmdredfUd^ el cen* 
tu^o, &c. 

N. B. All the cardinal numbers are indeclinable, except 
unoy one, and the compounds of ciento ; for, we say unoy 
tma^ dosderUosy doscienUUj &c. The ordinals form their fem- 
inine by changing o into a. 


Rule XX V. Ist uno, one ; primeray first ; terceroy third ; 
posireroy last ; algunoy some ; ningunoy none ; btienOf good, 
and nudof bad, wicked, when they are followed by a sub- 
stantive, lose the last vowel, but only in the masculine. Ex. 
Un hombre^ one man ; el primer hambre, the first man, &c. 
However, tercero does not always lose it; for, we say; el 
tercer dia or el tercero dia ; and both manners of speaking 
are admitted by the Academy. 

2d. CientOf hundred, loses the last syllable before a sub- 
stantive. Ex. Cien hombres, a hundred men ; den mugereSf 
a hundred women. 

3d. Grande^ great, large, loses the last syllable before a 
substantive which begins with a consonant, whenever it sig- 
nifies great in merits in quditie» ; but if it only has the sig- 
nification of large in exientj in dimensions^ or if the substan- 
tive that follows it begins with a vowel or h, it loses none of 
its letters. We therefore say, una gran muger, a great wo- 
man ; un gran cabaUo^ a noble horse, if to these words 
greats noble, we attach the idea of great in merit, in qualities ; 
but we must say, una grande easa, a large house ; un gran- 
de amigo, a great friend ; U7i grande almirmae, a great ad- 
miral ; un grande odio, a great hatred. 

4th. SantOf saint, loses also the last syllable before a 
proper name. Ex. San Pedro, San Francisco, &c. We ex- 
cept however from this rule Santo Domingo, Santo Tomas, 
Santo Toribio, and Santo Tome. 

N* B. 1st. It is not necessary, in order that this suppres- 
sion of letters should take place, that the adjective be imme- 
diately followed by the substantive ; for, if we must say. 
un hombre^ un libro^ we must also say, un hdbil hombre^ un 

NOUNS. 49 

huen libroy although in these examples im be separated from 
its substantiye by an adjective. 

If the substantive is not expressed^ the adjective that re- 
lates to it^ does not then lose any letter. £x. uno 6 do$ 
kombresy one or two men ; uno de esos sefioresj one of those 
gentlemen. In the first example, the substantive hombre is 
understood after uno^ and in the second the word aefior ; 
thus we cannot say un 6 dos hombrea^ un de esos senores. 

N. B. 2d. Whenever the word dento takes after it anoth- 
er number, it preserves all its letters : we must then say, 
cienio y dos, ciento y cinco, dento y nueve hombres^ and not 
den y cfos, den y ctfico, den y nueve hombres. 

N. B. 3d. In speaking of sovereigns we generally make 
use of ordinal numbers as in English, but the article the is 
not expressed in Spanish. Ex. Henry the Fourth, Enrique 
Cuarto ; Ferdinand the Seventh, Fernando Siptimo^ &c. 

N. B. 4th. When in English the cardinal numbers are 
followed by o'dock, hora, and one wishes to tell or ask the 
hour of the day, then the cardinal number must be preceded 
by the article la before t*na, hora is understood, and Icls be- 
fore the other numbers, horas being implied, and the expres- 
sion 6'dock, is suppressed ; and if the verb to strike^ expres- 
sed in English, is translated into Spanish, it is rendered by 
dar, Ex. What o'clock is it ? que hora e$ ? one o'clock, 
la una; three o'clock, las tres; four o'clock, las cuatro ; 
it has struck five o'clock, las dnco dadas ; it has just struck 
six o'clock, las sds acaban de dar ; seven o'clock is about 
striking, las siete estdn para dar. 

Twelve o^dock at noon^ is translated by ha doce^ or las doce 
del dia, and midnight by las doce de la noche^ or media noche. 
In the following examples and others like them, afternoon 
is translated by dela tarde and in the evening by de la noche. 
Ex. At five o'clock in the afternoon, a las dnco de la tarde; 
at eight o'clock, at ten o'clock in the evening, a las ocho^ d 
his diez de la noche ; at six o'clock in the morning, a la sds 
de la mafiana ; at four o^clock in the morning, d las cuatro 
de la mafUma* 

N. B. 5th. The verb it is, taken unpersonally in English 
in some of the precedmg examples and the like, is not im-^ 
personal in Spanish ; it agrees on the contrary in number 


with the noun hour understood, and the pronoun Uy is never 
expressed. Ex. It is one o'clock, es la una ; it is two 
o'clock, 9on la$ dos ; it is half after three, son las ires y mediaf 
It wants a quarter of four, son las cuatro tnenos un cuarto, 

N. B. 6th. In speaking of the days of the month, if we 
express the word dioy day, it must be preceded by the arti- 
cle, and followed by the ordinal or cardinal number, but 
most commonly by the cardinal. Ex. The twelfth of Janu- 
ary, el diu doce de Enero, If we suppress the word dio, then 
we make use of the cardinal number, preceded by the prep- 
osition d. Ex. The twelfth of January, d doce de Enero, 
We also say el primero^ el segundo^ Sfc, de Enero^ and then 
the word dia is understood. 

This is the way in which letters are dated. 

Madrid^ y Febrero 20 de 1822, Cambridge^ 20 de Julio de 
1822, Boston^ d l."" de 7Jbre 1824. 



Pronouns hold the place of nouns, recall the idea of them, 
and prevent their repetition, which would render the speech 
languid. They are divided into personal, possessive, demon- 
strativey reUitivej interrogative ^ and indefinite. 


Pronouns personal denote persons, or hold the place of 
persons or personified things. Such, for the first person of 
the singular, are yo, me, ml, I, me ; and, for that of the plu- 
ral, nos, nosotros, nosotras, we, us. For the second person — 
Sing, iii, te, ti, thou, thee ; — Plur. vos, vosotros, vosotras, os, 
ye or you. 

For the third person. — Sing. masc. ily he, him or it. — 
Masc. plur. eUos, they, them. — Fem. sing, ella^ she or it ; 
fem. plur. eUas^ they or them. — Sing. masc. and fem, /e, to 
him, to her, him. (Le is of both genders when it is in the 
dative, and of the masculine only, when in the accusative.) 
Sing. fem. {a, her ; plur. masc. and fem. les^ to them ; plur. 
masc. losy them ; plur. fem. lasy them. 


There is anojther pronoun of the third person, which is si^ 
oneself, se, himself, herself, itself; it is of the three genders. 
In English oneself cannot relate but to the singular ; si in 
Spanish may be employed with both numbers without vary- 
ing its termination. It is called reflective, because it denotes 
the relation of a person or thing to him, to her, or itself. - 
Among personal pronouns some are used only of persons, 
and others are used alike of persons and things. Those of 
the first person are only applied to persons or personified 
things ; diose of the third are indifierently used of persons 
and things. 

Pronouns may be nominatives^ and of the direct or indirect 

They are nominatives when they are the subjects of the 
proposition. In this phrase ; yo habloy 1 speak ; yo^ I, is a 
pronoun nominative, because it is the subject of the propo- 

A pronoun is a direct regymen when it is the object of the 
action expressed by the verb ; and it is an izidirect regimen 
when it is the end of the action expressed by the verb. In 
these phrases ; Dios le castigardy God will punish him ; mi 
padre te dard su opinion, my father will give thee his opin- 
ion ; le is the direct regimen, because it b the object of the 
punishment expressed by the verb castigard ; and te put for 
diih the indirect regimen, because^ instead of being the 
object of the action expressed by the verb dard, it is the end 
of it ; the object is the thing given, that is, Ms opinion, and 
the end is the person to whom the opinion is to be given^ 
that is, to thee. 

Declension of personal pronounsm 


Singuhr of both genders. Pron. as regimen.* 

N. yo, - - I. 

G. de mi, - - of me. 

D, k mi, - - to me. me, - - tome 
A. d mi, - - m€. me, - - me. 

Ah. de mi, - -from me. 

• We give to these pronouns the denomination ofpronouru used as 
a regimeUf (objective pronouns,) because it appears to be more intel- 
ligible aD4 conformable to true principles. 

52 FB0N0UN8. 

Plural mascuUne, Pran, as Regimen. 
N. DOS,* nosotrosy - ice. 
G, de nosotros, - ofue, 

D« 4 no80tro89 - to us. nos, - - toiu^ 
A, 4 nosotros, - vx. nos, - . tcs. 

Ah. de nosotros, from us. 

Plural femimne. 
N. nosotras, - we. 

G. de nosotraSy - of us. 

D* 4 nosotras, - lo us. nos, - - to us, 
A. 4 DosotraSy - us. nos, - - us. 

M. de nosotras, - fiom us. 


Singular of both genders. 

N. ta,t - - thou. 

G. detl, - - of thee. 

D. 4tl9 - - to thee. te, - - to thee. 

A. ibtij - - <Acc. te, - - tAee. 

^6. deti, - 'fromtliee. 

Plural mascuUne. 

N. vos^vosotros, ye or you. 

G. de vosotrosy - of you, 

D. 4 vosotros^ - to you. os, - - to you. 

^. 4 vosotrosy - you. os, - - 2^« 

^6. de vosotros, from you. 

* Jitotj 18 only used by the King, Dipttttinlef, itid Soperior Officers 
____A!idJIribairafriirclidrilrMid state. 

t We seldom use the prooouns td in Spanish. However, masters 
use it in speaking to their domestics, man and wife, parents in speaking* 
to their children, brothers to brothers, lovers to loT^rs, and friends to 
their friends ', but except in these cases, they are not used in good 
company, and we make use for both genders of usted for the singu- 
lar, and of xutede8 for the plural, putting the following verb in the 
third person. Usled is an abbreviation of tmeifra merctd, which sig-. 
nifies your favour, and ustedeSf an abbreviation of vutHrat mercedet, 
your favours. If these pronouns are followed by an adjfctive that 
relates to them, this adjective must always take the gender of the 
person to whom we speak. Ex. Sir, are you well f setior, ul& vm. 
bueno 9 Madam, I have been told that you are well, unora, nu han 
dicho que vm. est& huena. In conversation, we pronounce usttd and 
ustedtSf but we write vm. and vms. 

X Vos is used with persons of high rank ; and superiors use it also 
instead of t<k with their inferiors. 




de vosotraSy 
4 vosotras, 
4 vosotras, 
de Yosotrasy 

FluroX feminine. 

you, ' 

of you. 

to you. 


'from you. 

Pron. 08 regimen. 



N. 61* 

G. de el,t 

D. 4 el, 

A. 4 el, 

Ah. de el, from him^frwn iL 


Singular masculine. 

hey it. 
of him, of it. 
to him, to it. le, se, 
Am, it. le, lo. 

N. ellos, 
G. de ellos, 
/)• 4 ellos, 
A. 4 ellos, 
^6. de ellos. 

Plural masculine. 

of them. 

to them. les, se, 
them. los, 
• from them. 

to Atm.| 

(0 (A<?m4 

* iBStead of the pronouas of the third person singnlar and plural, 
masculme and feminine, if we address one or many persons to whom 
we owe much respect, we make use of su mercedf and tus mereedes. 
£z. Su mereed ettd bueno ; ms mereedes tst6n bvenot. 

t Formerly we used to suppress the e of the preposition dc, before 
U pronoun ; now this contraction is rejected by the Academy ; it is 
suppressed before el, article. (See the note page 26.) 

X As it is easy to confound, in the use of these pronouns, those of 
the dalive with those of the accusative, and as the Spaniards them- 
selves confound them frequerttly, we have thought the following obser- 
vations necessary. 

A verb may have two regimens, one direct and the other, indirect. 
(See the difference of these two regimens, p. 66.) If the pronoun is 
the direct regimen, as in these phrases, I see hinif I respect her, J love 
them, all these pronouns are in the accusative, and we must say ; 
lo veo, la respeeto, los or las quiero. But, if it is the indirect regimen, 
as in the following phrases, he wrote to him a letter, I gave them 
good advice, the pronouns are in the dative, and we must say in Span- 
ish ; le esenbi6 una carta, lesdl buenos const jos, Le^ les, serve in the 
dative for both genders. 



Singuiar feminine, 

Proiu as regimen, 
•V. ella, - sheyU. 

G, deella, • of hereof it. 
D. 4 ella, - to her, to it, 
A. 4 ella, - hermit. 

Ab, deeWsi, from herefrom it. 

le, se, 

N. ellas, 

O, de ellas, - 

D, 4 ellas, - 

A, i ellas, - 

Ab. de eUas, •* 

Plurd feminine. 


to them, les, Sje, 
them, las, 
from them. 



D. 4 si, 
A. 4 si, 
M. de sf , 

N. B 

se, tohimsdffc. 
se, himselff^c. 



This pronoun has no nominative. 

G. de sf, of oneself himself, herself 
to oneself himself herself, 
to oneself Sfc. 
from oneself Sfc. 

When the word mismo, self is united to this 
pronoun, it agrees in gender and number with the noun or 
nouns to which the pronoun relates. Ex. Ellos hablan de si 
mismos, l^ey speak of themselves ; ellas se condenan d si mis^ 
mas, they condemn themselves. 

N. B. 2d. The pronouns mf, tf, si, me, thee, oneself^ 
preceded by the preposition con, with, are changed in Span- 
ish into mig'o, tigo, sigo, which are united to the preposition. 
Ex. conmigOy with me ; contigo, with thee ^ consigo, with 
him, with her. 


1st. pers. sing. masc. and fem. 
Istpers. plur. masc. and fem. 
2d. pers. sing. masc. and fem. 
2d. pers. plur. masc. and fem. 

to me, me, 

DatiTe. AccaiatiTe. 

me, me. 

to iLs, us, 
to thee, thee, 
to you, you. 

nos, nos. 
te, te. 

OS, OS. 

X See the note on the preceding page. 


D«tiv«. AficoMdhr*. 

3d. pers. sing. masc. & neut. to ^im, to Uj him^ it, le, se, le, lo. 
3d. pers. plur. masc. to tkem^ (Aem, les^se, los. 

3d. pers. sing. fem. to her, her^ le, se, la. 

3d. pers. plur. fem. to themy them^ les,se, las. 

'^^W'ma.'f^dtf: \tohimsdfM»cmc.>e, se. 


Rule XXVI. The pronouns as regimen, me, no9 ; te, 
OS ; le, lo, les, los ; la, las, se, must be placed after the verb, 
whenever it is in the mfiniiwe, imperative, or a gerund; and 
in these cases they are united close to the verb, so as to 
form with it, at least in appearance, a single word. Ex. No 
quiero darlol I will not give it; daZo, give it ; ddndoU), in giv- 
ing it. 

In all other cases, the general rule requires that they be 
placed before the verb. Ex. Te digo, I tell thee ; le escri- 
Inrdy he will write to him. We however find examples of 
pronouns used as regimen placed after verbs in other modes 
and tenses than those mentioned in the preceding rule; as, 
digoh^ I say it ; har6lo, I shall do it ; sucideme muclm veces, 
it oftei happens to me. But as it is practice that must de- 
termine the propriety of this construction, it is best for the 
scholar to follow the general rule, until well versed in the 

Rule XXVU. The pronouns of indirect regimen, to 
HIM, TO hBr, to it, and to them, when they are accom- 
panied by one of the pronouns of direct regimen, 
lo, la, los, las, must be translated by se. Ex. Se lo dart, I 
will give it to him, to her, to it, to them. 

Rule XXVm. We use also very elegantly the same 
pronoun se, when, besides the pronouns of direct regimen 
lo, la, &c. the verb has a noun for an indirect regimen, and 
then se is merely an expletive. Ex. Seh promtto d vm,, 
I. promise it to you ; se and d vm. stand for to your favour 
separately, therefore it is a repetition to give clearness and 
force to the idea. 

Rule XXIX. This pronoun se is also frequently used 
in Spanish to express the passive of vei:bs, as in these 
phrases; se movid la tierra, the earth was shaken ; la tempes" 
tad se apacigud, the tempest was appeased ; se dobla 6 repite 

56 rmoKotJirs. 

H ckanart the cries are increased or repeated. In these 
phrases se denotes that the verbs have a passive signification, 
though they retain the active termination. This is like the 
latin ; terra movU ; tempestas aedavU ; damor ingemimU. 

Rule XXX. — When the pronoun noSy us, is a direet 
regimen, and is found immediately after the verb that gov- 
erns it in the accusative, this verb, if it is in the first person 
of the plural, loses its final «. Ex. Divertinumosj we amuse 
ourselves ; amdmonoiy we love one another ; and in the im- 
perative mode, if the second person of the plural is followed 
by <w, you, it loses the d. Ex. CuMogy cover yourselves. 

N. B. To give more force and energy to the phrase, we 
frequently place the pronoun, in Spanish, when it is the ob- 
ject of the action, both before and after the verb ; and in 
this case one of the pronouns is always without the preposi- 
tion, and the other is always preceded by the preposition d ; 
as in the following phrases ; le esiiman d ily they esteem 
him ; me han escrito d miy they have written to me ; 3/0 4 
H no te qaierOy I do not love thee. Also, when the verb has 
no other regimen but yoti, if this pronoun is rendered by 
vuestra mercedy or vuestras mercedesy we often elegantly 
place before the verb one of these pronouns le, loj los,, las^ or 
lesy according to the gender and number of the person or 
persons which the pronoun represents, and according to the 
case the verb governs. Ex. JVb le basta a vm. el preten- 
der .... it is not sufficient for you to pretend. , . , Ya 
lo han dichOf aefiora ; jamas la visitardn d vm. ; they said^ 
madam, they never will see you. 


The pronouns possessive serve to denote the possession 
of an object. They follow the rules of adjectives. 

In order to render the use of these pronouns more clear 
and striking, we distinguish them into two kinds ; those that 
are always joined to a noun and do not take an article ; as 
mi, tuy suy &c. my, thy, his, &c. Ex. Mi padre, my father ; 
tu madre, thy mother ; su hijo, his son ; and those that are 
not joined to the noun, and take the article ; as, el mio, el 
tuyoy elsuyoy ^c. mine, thine, his, &c. 




These pronouns denote possession, either as respects one 
|)erson or many. 

Those which, in Spanish, relate only to one person are, 
in the singular, mt, my ; <ti, thy ; and in the plural, mt>, 
my ; *m«, thy. 

Those which denote that the possession relates to many, 
are, nuestroy masculine, nuestra, feminine ; nuestroSy mascu- 
line, nuestrasy feminine, our ; vuestrOy masculine, vuestrOy 
feminine, your. For the third person in the singular, «u, his, 
her, or their ; and in the plural susy his, her or their ; and 
these pronouns of the third person may, in Spanish, relate to 
one possessor, or to many. 


N. B. The declension of these pronouns presenting no 
difficulty, it will be sufficient to decline the first and give the 
nominative of the others. They take no article. 


Matculine and feminine* 

N. mi, sing, mis, plur. - - - - my. 

G. demi, demis, ... - of my, 

D. 4 mi, 4 mis, - - - - to my. 

A. mi, 4 mi, mis, 4 mis, - - - - my. 

Ah. de mi, de mis, . . - . from my. 

When this pronoun my is used in calling, in addres- 
sing a person or in exclamations, instead of mi, mis, we 
make use of mioy mia, miosy miasy without an article ; they 
are placed after the noun to which they refer, and teike its 
gender and number. Ex. Amigo mio, my friend ; hija mia^ 
my daughter ; amigos miosy my friends, &c. 



Masculine and feminine. 

Ta, tus,» - %. 

4ia, susjt .--.-- hisy her^ its. 

nuestroy nuestra, os, as^ ... our.f 

vuestro, vuestra, oSy aSy - - yoi/r.J 

8u, sus, ------ their. 


These pronouns admit the masculine, feminine, and neu- 
ter termination, and relate, as well as the preceding, to one 
or more persons. Those, that relate to a single person, are : 
el mio, masc. la miOy fem. sing, los rnios, masc. las nuaa^ 
fem. plural, mine ; eltuyo masc. la iuya^ fem. sing, hs tuyos^ 
ku tuyaSy fem. plural^ thine. 

* We have said when speaking of personal pronouns, that tti and 
wt are not used in good society. It is the same with the possessire 
pronoans tu and vueifro, in the place of which we make vae oide rm. 
in speaking to one person, and of de vmt. in speaking to several ; and 
we place l^fore the noun substantive one of these articles elf loSf la, 
hu, according to the gender arid number of the noon. Ex. Your son, 
that is, the son of your favour, or of your favonrs, el hijo de vm, or 
de vms. (vtn. if we speak only to the father or to the mother ; vnu. if 
we speak to both.) 

t When we speak of a person for whom we wish to show much 
respect, instead of su, we may make use of su Mereedy su Senoria, jw 
EscelenciOf according to the rank of the person } and such a phrase 
as the following; I have seen the Corregidor, and hope to obtain bis 
protection (that is the protection of hisfatour^ is rendered in Spanish, 
ke visto tU wnorCorregidor, yetpero mereeer la proteeeiim de #u merted. 

t Though the pronouns nuettro and vuettro, seem as though thej 
ought to express the idea of more than one person, it happens some- 
times that they relate only to one ; for the king says Jfue^lro eonstjoj 
our council ; and in speaking to a person distingtiijthed for his rank 
and authority, we make use of vvMtrOy vueslra. We say for example, 
Vueslra Magesiad, vuestra Beaiitudy vueslra Ilu^risima, vuutraMUza, 
he. Your Majesty, your Holiness, your Grace, your Highness &c. 
We use the same pronouns vwstro and vuestra, in speaking to God, to 
the Holy Virgin and the saints. When your is turned by of your 
fa/pour or of your favours, de vti^or de vms., we frequently use the pro* 
nouns «u and «tM, instead of th# article before the substantive. Ex. 
He recivido su carta (or sus cartas) de vm. or de vms., I have received 
your letter or your letters. 



Those that relate to several persons, are ; el nuestro^ 
masc. la nuestrOy fern. sing, los nuestro8y masc. ku nuestras^ 
fern, plural, ours ; el vuestrOy masc. la vuestra^ fern. sing. lo9 
vuestrosj masc. las vuestrasj fern, plural, yours ; el gulf Oy masc 
la sutftty fern, his, hers, theirs ; loe suyosy masc, lot 9uya9^ 
fem. his, hers, theirs. 

N. B. These pronouns are always preceded by the 
noun to which they relate, and with which they agree in gen- 
der and number ; this noun is that which represents the ob- 
ject possessed, and not the possessor.* 

The following declension will serve as a rule for those 
pronouns that are dechned with the article. 



Singular masculiTie and feminine. 

el mio, 
del mio, 
al mio, 
el or al mio, 
del mio. 

la mia, 

de la mia, 

d la mia, 

la mia or 4 la mia, 

de la mia. 

Plural Tnasctdine and feminine, 

las mias, 

de las mias, 

4 las mias, 

las mias, or 4 las mias, 

de las mias, 


of mine. 

to mine. 


from mine. 

N. los mios, 

G. de los mios, 

D. 4 los mios, 

«d. los mios, or 4 los mios, 

Ab. de los mios. 

The following pronouns are to be declined in the same 

Singidar masculine and feminine. 
la tuya, 

of mine, 
to mine^ 

from mine. 

El tuyo, 
el suyo, 
el nuestro, 
el vuestro, 
el suyo, 

la suya, 
la nuestra, - 
la vuestra - 
la suya. 


hisy hers. 




* This rule requires a particular attention because the En^^lish most 
always cause these pronouns to agree with the possessor and not with 
the object possessed. Ex. /* that your tisUr's book f J^Oj ii is mine ; 
here it hert ; hert, pronoun, refers to tister and not to book ; in Span- 
ish, on the contrary, we roust say : es este el libro de ni hermana 
de vm.f — JVb, et el mio ; he aqui el tuyo ; tuyo is in the masculine be- 
cause it refers to libro and not to hermema. 


Phiral nuttcultne and feminine. 

Los tayos, - - las tuyas, - - thine* 

lossuyos^ - - lassuyas, - - kiSyhers. 

lo8 Duestros, - - las nuestras, - •" aurt. 

lo8 vuestros, - - las vuestras^ - - yotcrf. 

los suyos, - - las suyas, - - thein. 

Rule XXXI. These last pronouns, mio^ tuyoj Sfc. some- 
times accompany a substantive, principally in exclamations, 
or when they are used in addressing a person, but then the 
substantive precedes the pronoun, and does not take an arti- 
cle. Ex. Father ! padre mio ! mother ! vMdre nUa ! come, 
friend, &c. oen, amigo mto, Sfc, 

Rule XXXII. When the verb to be is taken in the 
sense of to belong^ we use in Spanish as in English the pos- 
sessive pronoun, mto, mine, tuyo^ thine, &c. without the ar- 
ticle, but this pronoun in Spanish agrees in gender and num- 
ber with the tning possessed of which we speak. Ex. This 
book is mine^ este lihro es mio ; this house is thine, his, 
. theirs^ ours, &c. esta casa es tuya^ guyaj nuestra, ^c. 

N. B. 1st When the verb to 6e, taken in the sense 
of to belong, is followed or preceded by another pro- 
noun or by a noun, this noun or pronoun must be put in the 
genitive. Ex. This book is Mr.B's, esU libro es del senor B ; 
this horse is my brother's, este caballOf es de mi hermano ; 
whose house is this, de quien es esta casa ? (see the pronoun 
cuyo, Rule XXXIV.) 

N.B. 2d. This same observation must be regarded for the 
possessive pronoun ^ours, after the verb to he^when instead of 
vuesiro^ we should wish to employ vm. and vms. (vuestra 
MERCED and vuESTRAS MERCEDES,) youT favwT and your 
favours. Thus, in this phrase ; this book is yoiu^ ; if I ex- 
press yours by de trni., I must say, este libro es de vin., sing. 
de ustedeSf plural. 

Rule XXXIII. To translate of mine, of thine, of his, ike. 
the Spaniards use commonly the possessive pronouns mio, 
tuyo, suyo, ^c. placed as in English, but without the preposi- 
tion of. Ex. A brother of his, un hermano myo ; a friend 
of mine, un amigo mio. 



Pronouns demonstrative indicate, and place, as it were, 
under the eye, the person or the thing of which they 
hold the place. They are divided into three kinds. 

The following pronoun designates the object that is near 
the person that speaks. 

Singular masculine and feminine, 
Este, esta, - - - - ^^m« 

Plural masculine and feminine. 
Estos, estas, ... - these. 

Esto, - - - this, this thing, any thing. 

If the object is more distant from the person that speaks, 
than from the one to whom the speech is addressed, we 
make use of the following pronoun ; 

Singidar masculine and feminine. 
Ese, esa, - . - - thai. 

Plural masculine and feminine. 
Esos, esas, - - - - those. 

Eso, - - that^ thai thing, any thing. 

The pronouns that follow, express a distant object, both 
from the person who speaks, and from him to whom the 
speech is addressed. 

Singular masculine and feminine. 
Aquel, el, aquella, la, - A« that, she thaJL 

Plural masculine and feminine. 
Aquello8,lo8, aquellas, las, - they, those. 

Aquello, ello, lo, - - thai, U 

There are also three other pronouns which are com- 
pounded of the preceding and of the adjective otro, 6tra, 
other. Viz. 


MaKtdine and Feminine^ Singular and fluraL 

Estotro, estotra, estotros, estotras, this other, these others. 

Esotro, esotra, esotros, esotras, that other y those others. 

Aquelotro,aquel- aqueUcj. otr^a. J ^^ those athxs. 

la otra^ quellas otras^ ^ ' 

Estotro, esotro, aquello otro, • this and that other. 

He who, she loho, they who, or that, are translated 
by tl que or quien, la que, los or las que, or by aquel que, 
aquella que, aqueUos or aquellas que. 

fVhal or tkat which are translated by bt que, aquello que. 


Pronouns relative are those that relate to a noun or pro- 
noun which precedes. Some taker the article, others do not. 
The following do not take the article. 

Singular mascyiine and feminine. 
N. que, quien,* - - - - who, that, which. 

G, de quien, - - - - of whom, whose, Sfc. 
D. i quien, ----.. /o whom, 

A. d quien or que, ----- whom. 

Ah. de quien, ------ from whom. 

Plural masculine and feminine. 
N. que, quienes,t - - - who, that, which. 

G. de quienes, - - - - of whom, whose, ^c. 
D. 4 quienes, ...--- fo whom. 
A. 4 quienes, ------ whom. 

Ah. de quienes, from whom. 

Lo que, . - - . - that which, what. 

de que, ------- of what. 

4 que, .-.-.--to whaL 

* Quten and quienu are applied oolj to persons and personified 
things ; que ^tb to persons and things. 

t We also use qaien in the plural number, says the Grammar of 
the Academy i And it eiTes the following examples. Loiffrimero$ eo» 
quiEn topamos errni To* gimnot^stMf the first whom we met were the 
gymnosophists. ; Jqueltot nttt tabios h %cisir tmUo vtfMir^ la Gr^fiaf 
those seven sages so much venerated by the Greeks. 


N. B. Whose is translated by the pronoun cuyoy cuyay 
cuyos^ cuyas, following the gender and number of the thing 
possessed, by which this pronoun cuyo must be immediately 
followed, if it is relative^ but from which it is commonly 
separated by the verb, when it is interrogative. It always 
agrees with the object possessed, and never with the pos- 


Rule XXXIV. The pronoun cuyo is relative and inter- 
rogative, and is used for whose, of which; but care should be 
taken to observe, as has been already said, that it agrees 
with the thing possessed, and not with the possessor, and is 
applicable in Spanish to persons as well as to things. Ex. 
Whose book is this ? cuyo es este libro ? Whose pens are 
those, cuyas son esas pJumas ? She is a lady whose qualities 
are known, es una senora cuyas "prendas son conosidas. Lon- 
don the streets of which are so wide, Londres cuyas caUes 
son tan anchas. 

Rule XXXV. When the pronoun that, preceded by ^ 
noun or pronoun to which it relates, may be rendered by 
of whom, in whoni, by whom, for whom, &c. it must be ex- 
pressed by de quien, d quieviy en quien, por quien &c. Ex. 
It is of oneself that one ought to be afraid, de si mismo es de 
quien se ha de tener miedo, that is, of whom &c. It is to 
God that we must have recourse, es d Dios d quien espreciso 
de acudir, that is, to whom, &c. 


This pronoun is declined with the article. 

Singular masculine and feminine. 

N. el cual, - la cual, - - lohich? 

G. del cual, - de la cual, - - of which* 

D, al cual, - 4 la cual, - -to which. 

A. el cual, al cual, la cual, k la cual, - which. 

Ah, del cual, - de la cual, - "from which. 

Plural masculine and feminine, 
N. los cuales, - las cuales, - - which. 

G. de los cuales, - de las cuales, - - of which, 
D. k los cuales, - 4 las cuales, - ^ to which. 
A. los cuales, i los cuales, las cuales, 4 las cuales which. 
Ah, de los cuales, - de las cuales, - from whic^ 



Pronouns interrogative are those wiiich serve to interro- 
gate ; they are declined without the article. 

Singular masculine and feminine, 

N. quien, who. 

G. de quien^ ------ of whom. 

jD. 4 quien, - to whom.* 

A. quien, i quien, . . . - . whom. 

Ab. de quien, ------ from whom^ 

Plural Tna&cuiine and feminine. 
quienes, &c. &c. ------ who. 

N. que, ------ what. 

G. de que, ------ of what. 

D. k que, - to wheU^ 

A. que. - - - - - - what. 

Ab. de que, ------ from what. 

Which is translated by cual, cuales^ of both genders. Ex. 
You have read these books ; which of the two do you pre- 
fer ? Vm. ha leido estos libros ; cual de los dos prefer e ? 

What is rendered by que of both genders and numbers. 
Ex. What book do you read, que libro lies ? What o'clock 
is it ? que hora es ? What fruits will you buy ? que frutas 
comprardvm. ? 


These pronouns are thus called, because they express an 
object vague and indeterminate. All those that are placed 
in this class are not always pronouns, strictly so called, but 
become adjectives when they are joined with nouns, and 
present some particulars which it is essential to make 

* See Rule XXXIV for the proooun euyOy-af-oa,-as. 




None, - - - - - 

No, not any, (followed by a noun,) 
Not one, 



£ach, every, 
Each one, 
Every body 

One another, 

ningunoy ninguna. 
ningunoy ninguna, 
- ni unoj ni uncu 
ni uno ni otroy ni una ni otra ;. plural, 
ni uno 8 ni otros^ ni unas ni otras. 
ambos^s ; uno y otro,una y otra ; plu- 
ral, uno9 y otroSi unas y otras. 


coda uno J cada una. 

. . . - - todo9. 

otroy una otra^ plural, unos 


Of others, 


otrosy unas otraa. 
deotroydeotros. Toothers, a otro^ 
d otros ; and \i of others is govern- 
ed by a substantive, it is then 
translated by agenoy agena, agenoSf 
agenas, according to the gender 
and number of the noun to which 
it relates ; as, the property of oth- 
ers, el bien ageno, Sfc. 

alguieny alguno. 
a^uno^j os-as, 

unoSf unas, aJgunos, alguna9- 

muchos, muchasj varios, varias. 

Some .one, somebody. 
Some, (relating to a noun,) 
Some, (always join- > 
ed to a noun,) 5 
Many, several. 

Whosoever, wh^atsoever, cudtquiera, plural, cualesquiera. 
Whoever, whosoever, - - quien quiera. 

Whenever, - - - - siempre que. 

Whatever, - - cualquiera^ue ; pormitsque. 
However, howsoever, cualquiera cosa que ; por mas 


Even, yet, 

Such a one. 
People say. 
People assure. 


zuiano, a. 
se dice, 
se asegura. 


Rule XXXVI. Any one and any body in interrogative 

phrases, or in phrases implying doubt, must be expressed 

in Spanish by uno, alguno. Of all those who know the 

motives of my conduct is there any one who ha^ bls^oaed it? 


66 VBfRBS. 

(le todos lo8 que conocen los moiivos de mis accionesy hay acaso 
unoy 6y alguno que las haya condenado 1 I doubt that any one 
has blamed it, dudo que alguno las haya condenado. I 
doubt that any one be as wise ashe,dudo que alguno sea tan 
sabio como6l, 8fc. This office suits him better than any one 
else ; este empleo le conviene mejor que a cualquier otro. 

Rule XXXVII. Nobody ^ no person whatever is transla- 
ted by ningmoy nadie; and m^thing whatever is translated 
by nada. Ex. Nobody wluttever has spoken ill of you to 
me, NADIE me ha hablado mal de vm. Whatever genius 
oae may have, one cannot, without application, excel in 
any thing whatever, por nias ingenio que uno tenga en nada 
puede sohresalir sin aplicacion. 

Rule XXXVIII. In Spjg^nish the following pronouns 
nobody f none, not one, neith&ry nothing ; nadie, ninguno, ni 
uno, ni uno ni otro, nada, require that the verb be preceded 
by the negative wo, when they are placed after it; but -this 
negative is suppressed when they precede it. Ex. He can- 
not excel in any thing, en nada puede sobresalir, or no puede 
sobresalir en nada', the first construction is the most elegant. 

N. B. The adverb jamas, never, follows the same rule. 



The verb is that part of speech which is essentially the 
bond ot our thoughts, the soul of all our reasonings, and the 
only one that has the property of pointing out the relation 
that they have with the present, past and future. . Its office 
is to express actions, passions and situations. 

There are six kinds of verbs, to wit ; the active^ passive j 
neuter, reflective, reciprocal and impersonal. 

The active verb is that of which the regimen is direct, or 
after which one may put alguno, alguna cosa, some one, 
some thing. Amar, to love, is an active verb, because we 
may say, amar d alguno, to love some one, amar la virtud^ 
to love virtue, and because in these two phrases the regimen 
is direct. Buscar^ to seek, is also an active verb, because we 

VERBS. 67 

may say, buscar a alguno, huscar alguna cosa, to seek some*' 
body, to look for something. 

The passive verb is that which is formed from the active, 
takes the direct regimen to form its subject, and always is 
followed by one of these prepositions, por or de ; as, el horn-' 
bre virtuoso es amado de iodoSf the virtuous man is loved 
by every body. 

The neuter verb is that after which we cannot put some 
onej nor some thing, alguno, alguna cosa. Existir, dormir, 
to exist, to sleep, are neuter verbs, because we cannot say : 
dormir d alguno, dormir alguna casa, to sleep some one, to 
sleep something. 

The reflective verb is that of which the subject and the 
regimen are the same person, or, that which is conjugated 
with two pronouns of the same person, expressed or under- 
stood ; Arrepentirse, to repent, is a reflective verb, because 
in order to conjugate it, we must mak^ use of two pronouns, 
and say ; yo me arrepiento, td te arrepientes, ^l se arrepi- 
enie, &c. or, me arrepiento, te arrepientes, se arrepiente, Sfc. 
(aed then yo, td, tl are understood,) I repent, thou repentest, 
he repents, &c. 

The reciprocal verb * is that which expresses the action 
of several subjects that act one upon the other. Ex. Los 
verdaderos amigos deben amarse y servirse unos a otros, true 
friends must love and serve one another. 

The impersonal verb is that which is us6d, in all its tenses 
only in the third person of the singular. Tronar, to thun- 
der, is an impersonal verb, because it has in each tense only 
the third person. We say ; Truena, tronaba, tronS, tronard, 
&c. it thunders, it did thunder, it thundered, it will thunder ; 
but we cannot say ; I thunder, thou thunderest, we thunder, 
unless it be in a figurative sen^e. 

Verbs may be regular, irregular, or defective. 

The regular verbs, in the Spanish language, are those of 
which the radical letters are always the same, and of which 

* In order that the verb should clearly express r- ciprocity, it is 
often necessary to add to it the following words, uno d otroy muiua' 
tnentey a porfia, one another, mutually, in emulation of one another. 
In tliis phrase, Cicero y Antonio no dejaban de alabar$e uno a olro, 
Cicero and Anthony did not cease to praise one another ; if v»e should 
not |>ut UHi: d otro there would be an equivocation which would leave 
a doubt of the reciprocity of the action. 

68 V£RBS. 

the terminations are, in all the tenses, conformable to those 
of the verb that serves as a model for them. 

We call those irregalar, which vary in the radical letters, 
or which do not agree, in aU the tenses, with the termina- 
tions of the verb, that serves as a model. 

N.B. We understand by radical letters those which 
precede the termination of the infinitive. We reckon only 
three conjugations in Spanish, the first has the infinitive ter- 
minated in ar^ as amary to love ; the second has it in er, as 
tenter, to fear ; the third has it in ir, as subir, to go up. In 
these verbs all the letters that precede ar, er, and ir, that is, 
am, tern, and sub, are radical, and those that follow them in 
all the tenses, as well as in all the persons, form the termina- 

Lastly, we call those verbs defective, that want certain 
tenses or certsun persons, which use does not admit. 

There are besides auxiliary verbs, so called, because they 
serve to conjugate the others. The Spanish language reck- 
ons three, to wit ; haber and tener, to have ; and «er, to be. 


To conjugate a verb, is to collect or recite all its termina- 
tions, as ; amo, amas, ama, &c I love, thou lovest, he loves, 
&C. ; amaba, amabas, amaba, &c. I did love, thou didst love, 
he did love, &c. 

These different terminations form modes^ tenses, numher$ 
and persons, 


Modes are different manners of using the verb. There 
are five, infinitive, indicative, conditional, imperative and 

The infinitive expresses indefinitely, and in a general 
manner the action or state that the verb designates. The 
infinitive is consequently neither susceptible of number or 
person ; as, amar, temer, subir, to love, to fear, to go up. 

The indicative points out and indicates in a dh-ect and 
absolute manner what we affirm of a person or thing ; as, 
amo y temo al Dios que me criS, y cuyajusticia recompensard 
a los buenos, y castigard d los malos ; 1 love and fear the 
God who created me, and whose justice will reward the 
good, and punish the wicked. 

The conditional is the manner of expressing the affirma- 
tion depending upon a condition, as ; yo leeria, si tuviera 

VERBS. ft> 

libros, I should read if I had books ; yo hubiera escrilo una 
carta antes de comer, si no huhiese tenido la visita del junor 
Conde de Floridablanca, I should have written a letter before 
dinner, if I had not had a visit from Count de Fioridablanca. 

The imperative expresses the action of cptnmanding, pray- 
ing or exhorting. This mode has but one tense that desig- 
nates the present in relation to the action of commanding, 
and the future in relation to the thing commanded ; as, 
dame este libro, give me this book. Venid manana^ come to- 
morrow. Hdgame vm. el favor de, , , do me the favour of. . . 
This tense has no first person in the singular, because we do 
not conmiand ourselves ; but it has in the plural, because 
then it is rather others than ourselves that we address. 

The subjunctive is a mode which, in order to make sense, 
requires to be preceded by another verb, expressed or un- 
derstood, on which it depends. It depends upon it, because 
it makes sense with and would not make any without it. 
These words ; quisiera que viniese, I should wish that he 
came, make sense ; but these, que viniescy that he came, 
alone and separate, would not make any. 


We shall follow, in the division of tenses, tlie method re- 
ceived by the most esteemed and approved grammarians ; 
and in order to obviate the very serious difficulties, which 
the three futures and the three conditionals of the Spanish 
verbs present, we have thought it best to deviate from the 
plan followed by the Academy of Madrid. This plan may 
be excellent for the Spaniards who join, to the study of 
grammar, a constant practice ; but it is too obscure for for- 
eigners, as it deviates too much from the usage of other lan- 
guages, and contains rules which are not sufficiently particu- 
lar. Therefore, instead of comprising the two futures con- 
junctive, the second and third conditional in the subjunctive, 
we shall place the two futures in the indicative, we shall 
make a mode of the conditional that will have three termi- 
nations, and the subjunctive will have the tenses that it com- 
monly has in other languages. This order has appeared to 
us the most proper to render obvious the relations that exist 
between the Spanish and English languages. 

70 VKRBS. 


The tenses of the infinitive are the preserUj the preterilCf 
the gerund and the partidpie. 

l^e present of the infinitive always designates the present 
time relative to the preceding verb ; as, le veo correr, I see 
him run ; le ol caniar^ I heard him sing ; le vert bailor, I 
shall see him dance. 

The preterite on the contraiy denotes the past time rela- 
tive to the preceding verb ; as, creia haberU visto, I thought 
I had seen him. 

The gerund designates 1st. the state of the subject, the 
reason or foundation of the action, as in these phrases : 
oanta durmiendo, he sings in his sleep ; el empet^ador de Ale- 
manidy temiendo que la paz no durase mucho tiempo, licencid 
muy pocas tropasy the emperor of Germany, fearing that the 
peace would not last long, disbanded only a few troops. In 
the first example, durmifindOf expresses the Mate of the sub- 
ject ; and in the second, temiendo^ expresses the reason or 
pounds of the action of the emperor. 

2d. It denotes a manner or a mean of attsuning an end, 
and then it is almost always preceded by the preposition en, 
in. Ex. No espere el hombre ser jamas feliz en dejandose ar^ 
rasirar de ms pasumesy no lo puede ser ^ino en domindndolas. 
Let man never expect to be happy in giving himself up txy 
his passions, he can only be so by subduing them. 

3d. It serves to express a condition. Ex. Siendo esto asi^ 
volvert a Francia, this being so, I shall return to France. 

4th. It is frequently used with the verb estar, to be, to 
show in a more positive manner that an action is, was, has 
been or will be done at the very time of which we speak. 
Ex. Estd escribiendoy he is writing ; estaba escribiendo, he 
was writing ; estard escribiendo, he will be writing. 

The participle is thus called, because it participates in the 
nature of the verb and that of the adjective. It is of the na- 
ture of the verb, because it has its signification and regimen. 
It is of the nature of an adjective, because it expresses a 

The participles are divided into present and past ; into the 
present ; as, awaw^c, obediente^ oyente, into past ; as, amac2o, 
obedecido, oido. The participhs of the present have the ter. 



mlnation in ante^ as amante, for the fifst conjugation. Those 
of the second and third have it in entCy as obedienta, oyenle. 

The participles present are in use only in part of the 
verbs ; the greater part being rather verbal adjectives than 
participles, because lliey have not a regimen as their verbs. 
Ex. Oyente, hearing ; leyente^ reading 5 are verbal adjectives, 
because we cannot say, oyenle el sermon^ leyente lihrony usage 
not permitting us to give a regimen to these participles. 

The participles past of regular verbs have their termina* 
tions in (ulo, for the first conjugation ; and in idx>y for the 
second and thurd. Those that do not follow this rule are 
irregular, and are found in their place in the alphabetical list 
which is subjoined. 

There are some verbs that have two participles past, the 
one regular and the other irregular. The first is always 
emf^oyed with the auxiliary verb haher, to have ; the second 
is never joined to it, but follows the rule of adjectives, ex- 
cept ingerio, grafted ; preao^ caught ; prescrilo, prescribed | 
jirovistoy provided ; and roto^ broken ; which are used with 
the auxiliary haber just as well as the regular participle. 





















Part, regular. 

Part, irregular 




to bless, 



to compel. 



to conclude, 



to confound, 



to convince f 



to convert, 



to awake. 



to choose, to elect, elegido, 


to wipe. 



to exclude, 



to expel. 





to ecOinguish, 






to satiate. 



to include, 



to- incur. 



to insert, 





















to transpose^ 

to ingrafty 

to join, 

to curse, 

to manifest, 

to wither, 

to omit, 

to oppress, 

to perfect, 

to seize, to arrest, 

to prescribe, 

to provide, 

to confine, 

to break, 

to loosen or release, 

to suppress. 

































There are other participles, the termination of which is 
passive, and the signification active ; such as the foUowing. 




Bien cenado, 

Bien comido, 

Bien hablado, 













Negado, / 







who has supped well. 

who has dined weU. 

who speaks weQ, 




in despair. 

dissembling, hypocritical. 


brave, intrepid. 

deceitful, artful. 

who has read much, toell informed. 

cautious, circumspect. 

prudent, regardful, 


destitute of intelligence. 


daring, undaunted. 

slow, heavy. 

Parecido; - remnhUng. 

Partido, - UberaJy who shares what he has. 

Pausado, - deliberate, 

Porfiado, - obstinate^ stubborn. 

Preciado, - vain^ presuny^tuous. 

Precavido, - cautious. 

Presumidoy - presumptuous. 

Recatado, - considerate^ discreet. 

Sabido, - learned. 

Sacudido, roughy uniractable. 

Sentido, - sensitive, susceptible. 

Sufrido, - enduring, patient. 

Trascendido, - penetrating, keen minded, 

Valido^ - con^dent, favourite. 

All the participles have also a passive • signification, and 
it is the sense of the phrase that determines Vhich of the 
two significations we must adopt. We see^ for example, that 
in these expressions, ^m6r6 leido, a well read man ; muger 
leida ; libro kido, a book that has been read ; carta leida : 
the participles leido, leida, have an active signification, when 
they refer to kombre and to muger ; and passive, when they 
refer to libro and to carta. Thus, if I say ; Pedro es un 
hombre cansado and Pedro efdd cansado de. trabqfar, we see 
by the different use of the two verbs, es, estd (See upon 
these two verbs the Rule XLIX,) that the first of these 
phrases signifies, Peter is a tiresome man, and the second, 
Peter is tired of working. 


The Spaniards reckon eight tenses in the indicative, 
which are the present, the imperfect, the preterite definite, 
the preterite indefinite, the preterite anterior, the pluperfect, 
the future absolute, and the future anterior. We shall place 
in continuation of these two futures the future conjunctive 
simple, and the future conjunctive compound (though it seems 
they should belong to the subjunctive or conjunctive mode,) 
so as the better to compare them together ; and exhibit the 
difference between them. This method will give ten tenses 
to the indicative. 

74 VERBS. 

The present denotes that a thing is, or is done at the mo^ 
ment we speak ; as, soyy I am ; amo, I love ; suboy I go up. 

The impelled denotes the past with relation to the pres- 
ent, and makes known that a thing was present in a past 
time ; as, yo e^crihia^ or estaba escribiendo cuando mi herma" 
no ilegSy I did write, or I was writing when my brother 

The imperfect serves also to denote habitual actions, or 
actions often repeated in a past time ; 9s yoiba a la comedia 
tl ano pasado dos veces coda semancif I went (used to go) last 
year to the play twice a week. 

It serves also to express the qualities, either good, or bad, 
of men who are no more ; as, ^eron era un hVcino, Nero 
was a tyrant ; Enrique cuarto era un rey benifico^ Henry the 
fourth was a beneficent king. 

The preterite may designate, either in a precise or only 
in a vague and indeterminate manner, that a thing has been 

Thence arise two preterites ; the preterite definite and the 
preterite indefinite. The 'preterite definite denotes a thing 
done at a time of which nothing more remains ; as, escribi 
ttysr, I wrote yesterday ; comi el lunes Ultimo en casa dtl 
senor Pitty I dined on Monday last at the house of Mr. Pitt. 

The preterite indefinite denotes a thing done at a time 
designated in an indeterminate manner, or at a time past but 
of which something yet remains ; as, la muerte de tu herma" 
no me ha afligido mucho, the death of thy brother has afflicted 
me much ; he recibido esta semana muchisim^is visitasy I have 
received this week a great many visits. 

These two preterites cannot be indifferently used one for 
the other, it is essential to perceive clearly the difference 
that exists between them. In order that we may use the 
preterite definite, it is at least necessary that the time elapsed 
of which we speak should be a whole day ; as, fui ayer a la 
comedioy I went yesterday to the play ; vi al rey la semana 
pasaday I saw the king last week. We cannot therefore say, 
estudiS esta wMfUma ; escribi hoyy esta semanOy este mesy este 
anoy <^c. ; I studied this morning, I wrote to day, this ijireek, 
this month, this year, &c. because the morning, the day, the 
week, the month, the year, are not entirely elapsed. On the 
contrary, in order that we may use the preterite indefinitCy 
there must yet remain some part of the time past of which 

VSBBS. 75 

we speak ; as, he visto esta mafiana td primer pinUyr del rey 
de Espanoy I have seen this morning the first painter of the 
king of Spain ; hemos visto grandes eventos en este siglo^ 
we have seen great events in this century. 

There is still another preterite which is called preterite 
anterior^ because it expresses a thing past before another in 
a time past ; as, despues que hube visto al rey, salt de Madrid, 
after I had seen the king, I went out of Madrid. — This pre^ 
terile is only used after the adverbs of time, despues que, 
luego que, asi que, cuando, after, as soon as, so soon as, when. 

The pluperfect is compounded of two past tenses. It de- 
notes a thing not only as past in itself, but also as past in re- 
gard to another thing which is also past; as, yo hablaya ce- 
Tuido cuando enir6y I already had supped when he came in. 

N. B. The futures, as well as the conditionals, present- 
ing to strangers considerable difficulty, we request them to 
pay to the following rules a particular attention. 


There are in the Spanish language four futures ; the fu- 
ture simple or absolute ; the future compound or anterior ; 
the future conjunctive simple, and the future conjunctiva 

The future absolute denotes that a thing will be, or wilt 
be done at a time which is yet to come ; as, ai> arnar6 sieni' 
pre (d Dio9 que me cri6, yes, I shall always love the God 
who create^ me. 

N. B. This future has often the signification of the impe- 
rative, in the second person ; as, amards a Dios de todo tu 
corazon, thou shalt love God with all thy heart ; no rohards, 
thou shalt not steal. 

The future anterior denotes the future with relation to 
the past, making known that, at the time a thing will happen, 
another shall be past; as, habrS acabado mi carta cuando tal 
6tidcosa mceduj I shall have finished my letter when such or 
such a thing happens. 

These two futures difier in this, that in the future absolute 
the time may or may not be determined ; as, iri, 6 iri mana- 
na a Bristol, I shall go, or I shall go to-morrow to Bristol* 
On the coptrary, in the future anterior, tb^ period is nece&> 

76 VERBS. 

sarily determined ; as, habr6 comido cuando vrnjlegue^ I 
shall have dined when you arrive. 

The future conjunctive^ which is so called, because it is 
always joined either to a conjunction or an adverb, or to a 
pronoun that governs it, serves to denote a future action al- 
ways expressed in English by the present of the indicative 
when the verb is preceded by the conjunction st, if; some- 
times by the present of the subjunctive when the verb is pre« 
ceded by a conjunction that governs it in this mode, and of- 
ten by the future absolute or anteiior. 

Rules for using the future conjunctive. 

Rule XXXIX. We use the future conjunctive when the 
verb is governed by the conjunction si, if ; and when the 
phrase expresses a future action ; as, no te digo que vivas, 
ni que mueras ; vive^ si pudieres, y muere^ si no pudieres 
tnas, I do not tell thee to live or to die ; live, if thou canst ; 
die, if thou canst not do better. 

Rule XL. We make use of the future conjunctive 
whenever the verb is preceded by one of the pronouns 
ilque,los queylaque, las que^ lo que ; ik'que, la-que^ los-que^ 
Sfc. or by the adjective cuanto, a, osy as, used in the sense of 
todolo quCf toda la que^ todos los que, todas las que; de quien 
(a pronoun relative) when it is used in the sense of one of 
the above pronouns il que, los que, Sfc, and finally, when the 
verb is governed by the adverb cuando, if these pronouns, 
and this adjective and adverb are themselves preceded by 
another verb expressing an action, which the remainder of 
the phrase causes to depend on choice or chance ; as, elige^ 
pues^ de eslos dos partidos 61 que mas te agradare, choose 
then of these two measures that which will please thee 
most. — Teneinos ya dttemiinado hacer en obsequio suyo todo 
LO QUE ALCANZAREN nuestros fuerzas, we have resolved to 
do in his behalf all that shall be in our power. — Solo po^ 
drdn ser delincuenles, los que de vosotros nos juzgaren 
ddincuentes, those only can be guilty, who, among you, shall 
judge us guilty. Manda, lo que GusTARE3...reni£et7a, a nues-- 
tro buen amigo mifino afecto, y a cuantos se acordaren 
de mi, dirds de mi parte todo lo que quisieres, command 
what you please — renew to our good friend my sincere at- 
tachment, and say from me all that you please to all those 

VERBS. 77 

who shall remember me. (Padre de isla.) VmAeerd 
esU libroy cwmdo quisierej you will read this book when you 

The compound tense of the future conjunctive follows 
the same rules. 

N. B. 1st. The present of the subjunctive may be used 
in almost every one of the above mentioned cases, instead 
of the future conjunctive. 

2d. After the conjunction st, if, the verb expressing a fu- 
ture action is most frequently put in the future conjunctive. 


This mode has in the Spanish language three simple and 
three compound tenses, the terminations of which are in rfa, 
ra and se. We shall call the three first conditionals presentj 
and the three others conditionals past. 

The conditional preseiU denotes that a thing would be, or 
would be done in the present time under certain conditions ; 
as, yo leeriay si tuviera or tuviese lihrosy I would read if I had 

The conditional past denotes that a thing would have been 
in a time past under certain conditions ; as, hubiera ido 
ayer a la comedian si huhiese eslado bueno. I should have 
^one yesterday to the play, if I had been well. 

Rules for the use of the conditional tenses. 

Rule XLI. The first conditional, the termination of 
which is riuj may be used whenever the verb is not governed 
by any conjunction; which is the case with one of the mem- 
bers in all conditional propositions ; as, leeria iodo el dia^ si 
mi existencia no dependiera or dependiese de mi trabajo, I 
should read the whole day, if my support did not depend 
upon my labour. Elniimero de lospobres no seria tan gramle^ 
si fuera or fuese menor il de los avaros, the number of poor 
would not be so great, if that of misers were less considera- 

RrjLB XLII. The second conditional, the termination of 
which is ra, and the third which is terminated in se, are used 

78 ^ VERBS. 

whenever the verb is governed by a conditional conjunction ; 
as, Sly if; smo, unless; aunqucy though ; bien quij although ; 
dado que, granting that, &c. or by an interjection expressing 
a desire : Ex. Auntjue hubiera or hubiese pojz, though peace 
should take place. ; 0/al4 fuera or fuese cierto L Would 
to God it were certain ! If there be in the second member 
of these sentences, another conditional, we should make use 
of the first; as, Si hubiera, or hubiese 6ue7ia /<^, seria 
inayor la solidez de los contratos. If there should be good 
faitn, the solidity of contracts would be greater. 

Rule XLIII. The second conditional is used with ele* 
gance after the interrogative pronouns, when we use it with 
an exclamation, or to express surprise. Ex. Quien lo crete- 
RA? quien lo imaoinara? who would believe it? who would 
imagine it ? iSin el auxilio de laescritura, drgano de todas 
las cienciaSf que hubiera en el mundo aino ignorancia ? with- 
out the aid of writing, the organ of all the sciences, what 
would there be in the world, but ignorance ? 

Rule XLIV. We use the second or third conditional 
after cuando, though, and after the pronouns il que^ los qtu^ 
la que^ Sfc. and after cuanto, a, osy as^ (mentioned in Rule XL. 
when speaking of the future conjunctive,) when they them- 
selves are preceded by a verb expressing an action, which 
the remainder of the phrase causes to depend on choice or 
chance ; as, le dige que iomase, en mi huerta todo lo que, 
or cuANTo QuisiERA, I told him to take in my garden all 
that or whatever he should wish. Prometid darme el dine- 
ro QUE yo NECESiTARA or necesitase, he promised to give 
iqe the money that I might want. 

Rule XLV. When a conditional phrase does not begin 
with a conjunction ; such as, si, aunquey luego que, &c., we 
may make use of the first and second conditional, and say ; 
fortuna seria or fuera que Uoviese ; bueno seria or puera 
que lo mandasen. (Grammar of the Academy.) But in such 
a case if there should be another conditional in the second 
member of the phrase, this last must take the third termina- 
tion, as in the preceding examples. It is even necessary to 
observe that in general, when a phrase begins with the sec- 
ond conditional and the first cannot be applied to the second 

V8BB9. ' 79 

member,* we must have recourse to the third, and not re- 
peat the second ; if, on tlie contrary, it begins with the 
third, we must, instead of repeating it in the second member, 
make use of the second ; as, obligado me viera yo sin duda 
d enmudecer^ 6 me content aba con ser el d6hU eco de sus 
devadas cMusulas^ si losnuevosprogresosdelaAcademiano 
ABRiESBN nuevo campo de asuntoB al ingemo^ no ofreciesen 
d la elocuencia niuvas mieses, Sfc. I should, without doubt, 
find myself obliged to keep silence, or content myself with 
being the feeble echo of his eloquent speeches, if the new 
progress of the Academy did not open to genius new sub- 
jects, and offer to eloquence new harvests, &c. 

N. B. 1st. Whenever the conditional is expressed by 
means of the conjunction si, the verb that it governs is in 
English in the imperfect of the subjunctive, and this imper- 
fect is always tianslated in Spanish by one of the two con- 
ditionals, according to the rules stated above, when the con- 
junction expresses a future condition ; if on the contrary it 
expresses on^ already past, the verb is put in Spanish in the 
same tense as in English. Ex. Si yo fuera Hco^ socorreria 
d log pobresy if I were rich I would assist the poor %sitl era 

* Thoug'h Rule XLV. be extracted and faithfully translated from 
the Grammar of the Spanish Academy, we think it might lead to er- 
ror, if we should not give it a little more clearness. We therefore 
observe, Ist. that a conditional phrase must contain two propositions'; 
the one principal, and the other subordinate. We call a principal 
proposition that after which we place the conjunction, and a subor- 
dinate proposition that which is placed after the conjunction. 
Each of those propositions may contain several members. In this 
phrase ; seriarecompensadOfSi fuera diligentej he would be rewarded, 
if he were diligent ; he would be rewarded is the principal proposi- 
tion. In the following, seria reeompensado y todoi le estimarian, si 
ettudiara con mas atencion y fuera mas amante de la verdady he would 
be rewarded and every body would esteem liim, if he should study 
with more attention and were more fond of truth ; each of these prop- 
ositions contains two members. 2d. that the Academy, in speaking 
of the second member, understands the whole subordinate proposition; 
for, if it contains several members, the same conditional roust be 
used in each one of them ; it is the same with the principal proposi- 
tion, as is seen in the example stated in Rule XLV. obligado me viera^ 
4^., the first proposition of which terminates with these words, a sus 
elevadas cldusulaSf and the second b«^gins at si los nuevos progresos. 
Id the two members of the principal proposition, the verbs are in the 
second conditional, and in the subordinate proposition they are in the 

80 VKRB8. 

nobre d (dio puado^ no era culpa mioy if he was poor last year^ 
It was not my fault. 

N. B. 2d. It most be seen by the preceding rules and ex- 
amplesjthatthe second conditional is frequently used to hold 
the place of the first and third ; for we may say indifferently, 
Htiempo fudibra or podrIa ser mefor; Met que vini^ra or 
viNiESE* But it is vot thb same with the first and 
THIRD ; they are so opposed that one cannot be used for 
^e other. Therefore, to translate this phrase ; I should 
wish to go to Seville, we may say ; yo querrIa or quisiera 
ir d Semllay but not yo quisiese ir d SeviBa. 

The conditionals past follow the same rules as the condi- 
tionals present, and though the verb governed by the con- 
junction n should in English be in the pluperfect of the in- 
dicative, it must in Spanish be put in the second or third 
conditionals past. Ex. Si lo hubiera or hubiese 'sabidoj if 
I had known it, or had I known it. 

use of the imperative. 

Rule XL VI. The use of this mode in Spanish ifi not 
entirely the same as in English. In the latter language, it 
serves not only to command, pray, and exhort, but also to 
forbid ; the Spaniards, on the contrary, express the prohibi- 
tion by means of the present of the subjunctive, and some- 
times by the future. Ex. No hables, do not speak ; no me 
respondas, do not answer me ; no mates ; no matards ; do 
not kill, thou shalt not kill. 

N. B. The^rs^ person plural of the imperative is always 
like the first of the plural of the subjunctive present. 

USE OF the subjunctive. 

This mode has four tenses, the present, the imperfect, the 
preterite and the pluperfect ; it expresses, as the indicative, 
the present, past, and future. 

Rules for using the tenses of the suhjunctive. 

As it is impossible to establish well defined rules to make 
known in a sure manner the use of the tenses of the subjunc- 
tive, we cannot pretend to determine every case in which 
we must make use of them ; but we will endeavour to es- 

VERBS. 81 

tablish rules^ which will obviate the greatest part of the diffi- 

RuLB XLVn. The verb that follows the conjunctioii qiUy 
that ; must be put in the indicative, when the verb preceding 
it expresses affirmation in a direct, positive and independent 
manner ; but it must be put in the subjunctive when the 
preceding verb expresses doubt, surprise, fear, admiration, 
uncertainty, desire, hope, will, permission, prohibition and 
command. Thus we say ; $i que b8t4 maJb, I know that he 
is sick ; los aUistas dicen que no hat Diosj the atheists say 
that there is no God; because the verb s^ and dicen express 
a direct and positive affirmation. But we must say ; no creo 
or tkido que bste malo, I do not believe or I doubt that he 
is sick. Los ateistas quieren que no haya Dios^ the atheists 
wish that there may not be a God. Deaeo que venga, I de- 
sire that he may come. Jde admiro que no hat A Uegadoy I 
am surprised that he is not arrived ; because in these phrar 
ses the verbs preceding the conjunction express a doubt^ 
desire or surprise. 

N. B. After Ojaldy God grant, an adverb always expres- 
sing a desire, the verb is put in liie subjunctive. 

Rule XLVIII. The relatives que^ quien^ cuyo^ a,-09,-aff» 
govern the subjunctive, when the phrase is interrogative or 
negative, or when it expresses a doubt, desire or condition. 
Ex. No conozco una sola muger, cuya alma sea mas semnble 
que lade la senora iV., I do not know a woman whose soul is 
more sensible than that of Madam N. 

Remark. See, Ist. the N. B. in continuation of the rules 
relative to the use of the tenses of the future conjunctive and 
the rules that relate to it, (page 77th ;) the rules relative to 
the use of the tenses of the conditional ; and 3d. under the 
head of conjunctions, those that govern the subjunctive. 

OP the persons and numbers of verbs. 

Verbs have three persons. The pronouns personal are 
their characteristics. The first person is that which speaks ; 
as, yo amOf nosotros or nosotras amamos^ I love, we love. 
The second [>erson is that to whom we speak ; as, tit amasy 
vosotros or vosotras amaisy thou lovest, you love. The third 
person is that of whom we speak ; as, il or ella ama, eJhs or 
eUas anumj he or she loves, they love. 

In ancient authors, the termination of the second person 

82 TBBBS. 

of the plural is in des^ instead of is. Thus, they said and 
wrote amades, amaredes, S(c, instead of amais, amariis^ Sfc. 

The verbs have both numbers ; the singular is used when 
the verb has only a single person or thing for its nominadve; 
as, yoj lit, il, eUa ; and the plural, when it has many ; as, 
nosolros or nosotras, vosotros or vosotras, eUos or ellas. 

N. B. It is not the same with the Spanish language as 
with the English and French, in which the verb must always 
be preceded by the pronoun that governs it. In Spanish, as 
in Latin, the terminations generally distinguish the persons, 
consequently the pronouns are generally suppressed. We 
use them with advantage to add energy to the expression, as 
in these examples; ti lo has hecht^-"! It is thou who hast 
done it — f yo lo mando, it is I who order it ; td ties i yo 
Uoro, thou laughest and I weep ; td no quieres hacerio ; 
pues lo har6 yOy thou wilt not do it ; well, I shall do it. 


The Spanish language, as we have already said, has but 
three conjugations, which are known by the termination of 
the infinitive. The first has the infinitive terminated in or; 
as, am-avy to love ; the second in er; as, temper , to fear ; 
the third in ir ; as, suh^ir^ to go up. It has besides three 
auxiliary verbs, which are so called because they serve to 
conjugate the o^er verbs in their compound tenses. These 
auxiliary verbs are haber and terter, to have ; and ser^ to be. 
In conjugating the latter, we add to it estor, an irregular 
verb, translated by the same English verb, to be, being of 
such great use, that it is proper to study it, as soon as the 
auxiliary verbs are learnt. 

Conjugation of the auxiliary verb Habers to haroe,* 


Present. r Haber, - - to have. 

Preterite. - Haber habido, - to have had. 

Gerund. - Habiendo, - - having, 

participle. - Habido, - - had, 

* This verb was used formerly as active, to express possession ; 
and in this last acceptation it had the following imperative ; habe tu, 
(now oat of use) haya il, hdyamos nosotros, habtd voaotrotjk&yan ellos. 
Now the verb haber is seldom used but as an auxiliary or as an ini- 
personal- 3ee its conjugation for this last acceptation. 




To he, ---_./ have, 

Tu has, thou host. 

El ha, ..... /^ ^Qg^ 

Nosotroshemos, or habemos, - - tte hace. 

Vosotros habeis,* - . . . yeukave. 

EUos han, they hone. 


Yohabia,+ Ihcud. 

Tiihabias, - - - . .1 thouhadet. 

Elhabfa, he had. 

Nosotros habiamos, - - - toe had, 

Vosotros habiais, .... you had. 

Ellos habian, - ... they had. 

Preterite definite. 

To hube, I had. 

T6 hubiste, thou hadst. 

Elhubo, - - - ■ - - he had. 

Nosotros hubimos, - - - ire had. 

Vofiotros hublsteis, . . - you had. 

Ellos hubieroD, .... they had. 

Preterite indefinite. 

Yo be habido, - ... J have had. 

Tu has habido, ... - thou hast had. 

El ha habido, . . . . j^e has had. 

Nosotros hemos habido, - - - ure have had. 

Vosotros habeis habido, - . . you have had. 

Ellos ban habido, .... they have had. 

Preterite anterior. 

Yo hube habido, ... I had had. 

Tu hubiste habido, ... thou hadst had. 

* See page 81> what we have said on the terminatioo of the second 
person plural in ancient authors. 

t The observation in regard to ta, (page 2dy) will do for natives 
who are babttually speaking their language ; but to save to the teach- 
er and learner a gread deal of trouble, we shall use the acute accent^ 
upon the t throughout the conjugations, when id do not form a diph- 
f hong. 

94 VERBS. 

El hubo habido, - - - - he had had. 

Nosotroshubimoshabido, - - we had had. 

Vosotros hubisteb habido, - - you had had^ 

Ellos hubieron babido, ... ^Aey had had. 


Yo habia habido, - - - 1 had had. 

Til hablas habido, ... thou hadst had. 

El habia habido, .... he had had. 

Nosotros habiamos habido, - - we had had. 

Vosotros habiais habido, - - you had had. 

Ellos habian habido, ^ . . they had had. 

Future absokUe. 

Yohabre, - - - - - lahaUhaoe. 

Til habr^, ----- thou wiU have. 

Elhabri, he will have. 

Nosotros habremos, - - - we shall have. 

Vosotros habr6is, - - - you will have. 

Ellos habr&n, - . - - they wiU have. 

Future anterior. 

Yohabr6 habido, - - - - 1 ahaU have had. 

Tu habris habido, - - - thou wiU have had. 

El habri habido, ... hewiUhavehad. 

Nosotros habremos habido, - - trc shall have had. 

Vosotros habreis habido, - - you wiU have had. 

Ellos habrdn habido, - - - they wiU have had. 

Future conjuncttve simple. 

Si or cuando, - - - - If or when, 

Yo hubiere, ... - IhaveorshaHhave. 

Til hubieres, - - - - thou wiU have. 

El hubiere, ----- Ac unll have. 

Nosotros hubieremos, - - - t^e sheUl htxve. 

Vosotros hubi6reis, - . - you mU have* 

Ellos hubieren, - - - . they wiU have. 

Future conjunctive compound. 

Si or cuando, - - - - . If or when, 

Yo hubiere habido, - - - J Jiane had. 

Til hubieres habido, ... thou wiU have had. 

El hubiere habido, - - - he will have had. 



Nosotros hubieremos habido, 
Vosotros hubiereis habido, 
EUos hubieren habido, - 

we shall have had. 
you win have had, 
they win have had. 

Yo habrla, - 
Tu habrias, - 
£1 habrla, - 
Nosotros habriamoS} 
Vosotros habrfais, 
EUos habrfan. 


First conditional 'present. 

I should have, 
thou wouldsi have, 
he would have, 
we would have, 
you would have, 
they would have. 

Second and third conditionals present. 
Si, or cuando, - - - If or though^ 

Yo hubiera or hublese, - - J had or should have. 
Til hubieras or hubieses, - thou wouldst have. 
£1 hubiera or hubiese, - - Ae would have. 
Nosotros hubieramos,or hubiesemos, we had or should have. 
Vosotros hubierais or hubieseis, you had or would have. 
Ellos hubieran or hubiesen, - they would have. ^ 

First conditional past. 

Yo habria habido, 

Tu babrlas habido, 

£1 habria habido, 

Nosotros habrlamos habido, - 

Vosotros habrlais habido, 

£llos.babrlan habido, 

I should have had. 
thou wouldst have had. 
he would have had, 
we should have had, 
you would have had. 
they would have had. 

Second and third conditionals past. 

Si, or cuando, - 

If or though^ 

Yo hubiera, or hubiese, ) \ 

I had or should have ') 

Tu hubieras, or hubieses, 

thou wouldst have 

El hubiera, or hubiese. 


he would have 

Nosotros hubieramos, or 




hubiesemos, - 

'-§ ' 

we had or should have 


Vosotros hubierais, or 



you would have 

Ellos hubieran, or hubi- 



they would have 


86 VXBB9. 



Yo haya, - . - J niaif have. 

Td hayas, ... tkou mayst have. 

£1 haya, - - - Ae may have, 

Nosotros h^yamos^ - - wc may have. 

Vosotros b^yais, - - you may have. 

Ellos hayan, ... they may hatfe. 


Yo hubiese, - - - I might have. 

Tu hubieses, ... fhou mightest have. 

£1 hubiese, - - - Ae might have. 

Nosotros hubiesemos, - toe might have. 

Vosotros hubies^is, - - you might have. 

£llos hubiesen, . ^ . tkey might have.^ 


Yo haya habido, - - I may have had. 

Tu hayas habido, - - thou maygt have had. 

El haya habido, - - Ae may have had. 

Nosotros hiyamos habido, - we may have had. 

Vosotros hdyais habido, - you may have had. 

Ellos hayan habido, - they may have had. 


Yo hubiese habido, - I might have had. 

Tu hubieses habido, - thou mightest have had. 

El hubiese habido, - - he might have had. 

Nosotros hubiesemos habido, - we might have had. 

Vosotros hubieseis habido^ - you might have had. 

Ellos hubiesen habido, they might have had. 

Conjugation of the auxiliary verb Tener, to have, 
to holdf to possess.* 


Present. - Tener, - 'to havcy to possess. 

Preterite. - Haber tenido, - to have had. 

Gerund. - Teniendo, - - having. 

Participle. - Tenido, - - had. 

* This verb is auxiliary and active. As auxiliary it is seldom 
used. As active it denotes possession, and must always be used to 

VBRBS. 87 



Yotengo, - - - - I havCy or possess, 

Tu tienes, - - . . thou hast. 

£1 tiene, - - - 'he has. 

Nosotros tenemos, - - «7e have. 

Yosotros tenuis, ... ^ou have. 

EUos tienen^ ... theif have. 


Yo tenia, - ... J hadf or did possess. 

Td tenlas, .... thou hadst^ 

El tenia, - - - - Ae had. 

Nosotros teniamos, - - - ve had. 

Yosotros teniab, ... yon had. 

EUos tenian, - - ... thejf had. 

Preterite definite. 

Yo tuve, J hady or possessed. 

Tu tuviste, .... thou hadst. 

£1 tuvo, ..... Ae had. 

Nosotros tuvimos, - . - - tpe had. 

Yosotros tuvisteis, - - - * j/ou had. 

EUos tuvieron, - - - . tj^^had. 

Preterite indefinite. 

Yo he tenido, . - - . Have hadyor possessed 

Td has tenido, - ... thou hast had. 

El ha tenido, - - - - he has had. 

Nosotros hemes tenido, - - toe have had. 

Yosotros habels tenido, - • pou have had. 

EUos han tenido, ... they have had. 

Preterite anterior. 
Yo hube tenido, ... I had kadyor possessed. 
Td hubiste tenido, ... thou hadst had. 
£1 hubo tenido, . . . ^^ had had. 

trantlate the verb to have when this verb is not «uxiliary. We say, 
he leido el Hbro ; I have rend the book : bat we must say, tengo un 
libro, I have a book ; becauve in the first example the verb to have 
is auxiliary to the verb to read, and in .the second it U active and 
denotes possessioo. 



T^osotroshubimostenido, - 
VosotroshubisteistenidOy - - ' 
£llo6 hubieron tenido, 

Yo habia tenido, ... 
Td habias tenido^ . . *. 
£1 habia tenido^ ... 
Nosotros habiamos tenido, - 
Vosotros hablais tenido, 
Ellos habian tenido, . . - 

Yo tendre, 
Tu tenbr^ - 
£1 tendriy 
Nosotros tendFemos, 
Vosotros tendinis; 
£llos tendrin^ 

Yo habre tenido^ 

FiUure abaoluU. 

Future anterior. 

we had had, 
you had had. 
they had had, 

1 had had, or possegaed, 
thou hadst had, 
he had had. 
we had had. 
you had had, 
they had had, 

thou wiU have, 
he will have, 
we shall have, 
you win have, 
they wiU have. 

Til habris tenido, - 
Nosotros habremos tenido, 
Vosotros habreis tenido, - 
£llos habrin tenido, 

1 shqB have had, or 

thou wilt have had, 
he win have had, 
we ehaU have had. 
you wiUhave had, 
they win have had. 

Future conjunctive simple. 
Si, or cuando, ... Ifyor when, 

Yo tuviere, .... Ihav€,or possess. 
T6 tuvieres, - - - . thou shaU have, 
£1 tuviere, . . . . Ae shaU have, 
Nosotros tuvieremos, - • we shall have, 
Vosotros tuviereb, - - you mil have. 

Ellos tuvieren, ... they wiU have. 

Future conjunctive compound. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yo hubiere tenido, 
Tu hubieres tenido, 
£1 hubiere tenido, - 
Nosotros hubiereiDOS tenido, 
Vosotros bubi^reis tenido, 
Ellos hubieren tenido, 

If, or when^ 
I have had. 
thou wilt have hat. 
he will have had, 
we shall have had, 
you will have had. 
they win have had. 




First conditional present. 

Yd tendrla, 
Tu tendrfas. 
El tendria, 
Nosotros tendriamos, 
Vosotros tendriais, 
EUos tendrian, 

I should havcy or possess, 
thou wouldst have, 
he would have, 
we should have, 
you would have, 
they would have. 

Second and third conditionals present. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yd tuviera, or tuviese, 
Tu tuvierasy or tuvieses. 
El tuviera, or tuviese, 
Nosotros tuvieramosy or tuvi- 

Yosotros tuvierais^ tuvieseis, 
Ellos tuvieran, or tuviesen^ 

If, or though, 
I should have, 
thou shouldst have, 
he should have. 

we should have, 
you should have, 
they should have. 

First conditional past. 

Yo habrla tenido, 
Tu habrias tenido, 
£1 habria tenido^ 
Nosotros habrlamos tenido, 
Vosotros habriais tenido, 
Ellos habrlan tenido, 

I should have had. 
thou wouldst have had. 
he would have had. 
we should have had. 
you would have had. 
they would have had. 

Second and third conditioTials past. 

Si, or cuando, - 
Yo hubiera, or hubiese, "^ 
Til hubieras^or hubieses, 
El hubiera, or hubiese, 
Nosotros hubieramos, or 

Vosotros hubierais, or 

Ellos hubieran, or hubi- 

esen, - - ^ 



If J or though, 
\ ' I had, or should have 
thou wouldst have 
he would have 

we should have 

you would have 

they would have 

00 VBBBS. 


Present or future. 
Tentu,* ... have thou, or pofsew, 

TeDga el, ... let him have, 

TeDgamos Bosotros, - -. let ue have. 
Tened vosotros,* - - have youy ot ye. 

Tengan ellos^ . . Ie< t^em have* 



Yo tenga, ... 1 may have, or poisen* 

Td tengas, ... thou mayst have. 

£1 tenga, . . . ;^ may have. 

Nosotros tengamosy . . tre may have. 

Vosotros teogais, - - you may have. 

Ellos tengan, ... they may have. 


Yo tuviese, ... I might have, or posseet: 

Tu tuvieses, ... thou mightest have. 

£1 tuviese, . . « 1^ mighi have. 

Nosotros tuviesemos, - we might have. 

Vosotros tuvi6seis, - - you might have. 

Ellos tuviesen, - - <Aey might have. 


Yo haya tenido, - - I may have had. 

Tu hayas tenido, - - thou mayst have had, 

£1 haya tenido, - - Ae may have had. 

Nosotros h^yamos tenido, - vje may have had. 

Vosotros h^yais tenido, - you may have had. 

Ellos hayan tenido, - Oiey may have had. 

Yo hubiese tenido, . - J might have had. 
Tu hubieses tenido, - thou mightest have had. 

El hubiese tenido, - . he might have had 

* In all the verbs, the 2d person, singular and plural, of the imper- 
atlve, takes the termination of the 2d person, sing, and plur. of the 
present subjunctive, when used wtth a negation. Ex. Have thou not, 
no tengas. Hflfve ^e iwi, no tengais. 



Nosotros hubi6semos tenido, 
Vosotros hubieseis tenido, < 
Ellos hubiesen tenido, 

we might have had, 
y9u might have had, 
they might have had* ^^. 

Conjugation of tlie auxiliary verb Ser» and EsTAHf 
meaning also to be. 


FreaenU Sei, 

S estar. 

to he. 

FreUrite. Habersido, habe'r estado. 

to have been* 

Gerund. Siendo, estando^ 


Participle. Sido, estado, 





Yo soy, or 





thou art. 

£1 es; 


he is. 

Nosotros somos, 


we are. 

Vosotros soiSy 


you are. 

Ellos son, 



they are. 

Yoera, or 


J was. 

T6 eras, 


thou wast. 

El era. 


he was. 

Nosotros 6ranios. 

f estdbamos, - . 

we were. 

Vosotros erais, 


you were. 

Ellos eran, 

Preterite definite. 

they werei 

Yo fui, or 


I was. 

Tu fuiste, 


thou wast. 

El fu6. 


he was. 

Nosotros fuimos. 


we were. 

Vosotros fuisteis, 

, estuvfsteis. 

you were. 

Ellos fueron, 


Preterite indefinite. 

they were* 

Yo he sido, 

or estado. 

I have been. 

Tu has sido, 


thou hast been>, 

SI ha sido, 


he has been. 



Nosotrot hemos tidO) estado, 
Vosotrot hmbeis sido, estado, 
EUof iian sido, estado, 

Preieriie anterior. 
To liube sido, or estado, 
Til hubiste sido, estado, 

£1 bubo sidoy estado, 

Ii^osotros hubimos sido, estado, 
Vosotros hubisteis sido, estado, 
Ellos hubieron ando. 



Yo habia sido, 

Tu habias sido, 

£1 habla sido, estado, 

Nosotros habiamos sido^stado, 

Vosotros hablais sido, estado^ 

£llos babian sido, estado, 

Yo ser6, or 
Til seris, 
£1 serd, 

Nosotros ser6mos^ 
Vosotros ser6i8, 
EUos serdn, 

Future absduie. 

estarenios^ - 
Future caUerwr. 

Yo habr6 sido, or estado, 
Til habris sido, estado, 

£1 habr^sido, estado, 

Nosotros habremos sido^estado, 
Vosotros habreis sido, estado^ 
£llos habrdn sido^ estado^ 

wekaoe been, 
you haoe been, 
they have been. 

I had been, 
thou hadet been, 
he had been, 
we had been, 
you had been, 
they had been. 

I had been, 
thou hadst been, 
he had been, 
we had been, 
you had been, 
they had been. 

I shall be. 
thou wit be. 
he will be. 
we shall be. 
you win be. 
they wiU be. 

I ehaU ahve been, 
thou wilt have been 
he win have been, 
we shall have been. - 
you will have been, 
they will have been. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yo fuere, or 
Til fueres, 
£1 fuere, 

Nostros fuereinos,estuvieremo8, 
Vosotros fiiereis^ estuviereis, 
EUos fuereo, eetuvieren, 

Future conjunctive simple. 

If, or when, 
I be, or shall be. 
thou wilt be. 
he will be. 
we shall be. 
you win be. 
they wis be. 




VEBBS. 9^ 

Future conjunctive compound. 
Si, or cuandoy Jf, or when^ 

Yo hubiere sido, or estado, - J have been. 

Tu hubieres sido, estado, - ikou wiU have been. 

£1 hubiere sido, estado, - he will have been, 

Nosotroshubieremossido^estado, - we shaU have been. 

Yosotros hubf ereb sido, estado, - you wiU have been. 

Ellos hubieren sido, estado, - they will have been. 


First conditional present. 
Yo seria, or estarla, - J should be, 

Tu serias, estarf as, - thou wouldst be. 

£1 seria, estarla, - he would be. 

Nosotros serlamos, estariamos, - we should be. 

Yosotros serials, estariais, you would be. 

Ellos serian, estarian, they would be. 

Second and third conditionals present. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yo fuera or fuese, estuviera or estuviese, 

T6 fueras or fueses, estuvieras or estuvieses, 

£1 fuera or fuese, estuviera or estuviese, 

Nosotros fiieramos or fu^ estuvi^ramos or estuvi6se- 

esemos, mos, 

Yosotros fuerais or fu6seis, estuvi6rais or estuvieseis, 
Ellos fueran or fuesen, estuvieran or estuviesen, 

First conditional past. 
Yo habria sido, or estado, - I should have been. 
Tu habrlas sido, estado, - thou wouldst have been. 

El babrla sido, estado, - he would have been. 

Nosotros habriamos sido, estado, - we should have been. 
Yosotros habriais sido, estado, - you would have been. 
Ellos habrian sido, estado, - they would have been. 

Second and third conditionals past. 
Si, or cuando, 

Yo hubiera, or hubiese sido, or estado, 

Td hobieras, or hubieses sido, estado, 

£1 hubiera, or hubiese sido, estado, 

Nosotros hubi^ramos, or hubiesemos sido, estado, 

Yosotros hubierais, or hubieseis sido, estado, 

Ellos bubieran, or hubiesen sido, estado, 



Se tu, or 
Sea el,* 

Seamos nosotros^ 
Sed vosotros, 
Sean ellos,* 

Yo sea, or 
Til seas, 
El sea, 

Nosotros seamos, 
Vcsotros seais, 
EUos sean, 

Yo fuese, 
Tu fueses, 
£1 fiiese, 


Vosotroa fue»«», 
EUoa fuesen, 

Yo baya sido. or 
Tu hayas sido, 
£1 haya sido, 
Nosotros h^yamos sido, 
Yosotros h^yais sido, 
Ellos bayan sidg^ 

Yo hubiese sido, or 

Tu hubieses. sido, 

El bubiese sido, c^oi^auu, 

Nosotros bubiesemos sido, estado, 

Yosotros bubi^seis sido, estado, 

Ellos bubiesensido, estado, 


Present or future. 
esti tu, - he thou. 

este el,* - ht him he. 

estemos nosotros, let us he. 
estad yosotros, he you. 
eaten ellos,* let them he. 



este, - - J may he. 

estes, - - thou mayst he. 

este, . - 'he may be. 

estemos, - -we may he. 

esteb, - - you may he. 

est^n, - - they may he. 


estuviese, - 1 mig^ he* 

estuvieses, - thou mightest be. 

estuviese, - he miglU be. 

estuviesemQS, - we might be. 

estuvieaeia, - you might be* 

estuyiese.n, - they might he. 


estado, I may have been, 

estado, thou mayst have been. 

estado, he may have been. 

estado, u>e may have been. 

estado, you may have been. 

estado, they may have been. 

estado, I might have been. 

thou mightest have been* 
he might have been. 
t»e might have been, 
you might have been, 
they might have been. 


" Sea vm.f be you, sing.— 5ean vmt , he you, plural.^- and so on 
486 the tijkird person in polite style in all this tenses of all the rerbs. 

VSKB8. 95 

Rnles on the verbs S£r and Estak. 

Rule XLIX. The verb to be cannot be translated in 
Spanish indifierenliy by aer or by estar. Ser^ joined to an 
adjective, gives it sometimes an entirely different meaning^ 
from that which estar would give it. It is consequently 
necessary to understand wdl the use of these two verbs. 
We observe then, that we must use the verb ser whenever 
we speak of qualities essential to the subject ; of qualities 
relating to the mind or to ^e heart ; whenever we speak of 
an art, a dignity, an employment, a trade, &c. or of the di- 
mensioils of an object ; and finally for the conjugation of 
the passive verbs. £x. Soy hombrej I am a man ; sonum 
mortaksj we are mortal ; son buenas gentes, they are good 
people ; son instruidosy they are learned ; sots prudentes, 
you are prudent ; eran caritativoSy they were charitable ; 
ser aUoy vhico^ gordoy Jlaco, to be tall, short, fat, lean ; ser 
rey, primer ministro, general^ juez^ sastre^ zapateroy &c, to 
be a king, prime minister, a general, a judge, a tailor, a 
shoe-maker, &c. ; ser amado, aborrecidoy &c. to be loved, 
hated, &c. 

We make use, on the contrary, of estar whenever we 
speak of the state of health, of being in any place, of an 
emotion or of a sudden and transient sensation. Ex. Estar 
bueno 6 mahy to be well or ill ; estar en casOy en eljardiny en 
el campoy to be at home, in the garden, in the country ; estar 
enfadad^y to be offended. 

Nevertheless, in the following examples and other simUar 
ones, we can make use of ser or of estar indifferently 5 ser 
or estar del mismo parecer, to be of the same opinion ; ser 
corregidor or estar de corregidor en Madrid, to be corregi- 
dor at Madrid. We must however observe in the second 
example, if we make use of estar, this verb must be follow- 
ed by tho particle de, for, estar corregidor y alcalde, would 
not be Spanish. 

N. B. Ser bueno^ ser maloy signifies to be good, to be 
bad ; estar buenoy estar mnloy signifies to be well or ill ; 
estar mejor, to be better, to bd better in health ; estar peor^ 
to be more sick, to be worse. 

Rule L. — The verb estar is often used as in English 
to be, before another verb to signify in a more positive man- 
ner that an action is doing, has been done, or will be done, 
at the very moment in which we speak or of which we 

96 VBKBS. 

speak ) and then the verb which follows is put in the ger- 
und. Ex. Estd escribiendoy he writes, that is, he is writing ; 
eitaba escrilnendo, he wrote, that is, he was writing; 
entSncea estardn escribiendo^ they will write then, that is, 
they will then be writing. 


The figures 1, 2, 3, signify the Jirtt^ second^ and tJdrd 

All the regular verbs of each conjugation, are easily con- 
jugated by changing the terminations atj er, tr, of the infin- 
itive into those expressed as follows. 



Chnmd. PmtieipU. Iftktre 

it tm tuHve Peart. 

1. ar, 

ando, ado, ante, 

2. er,> 

3. ir. 5 

iendo, ido, iente or yente 








el.' nosotros, 




a. amos. 





S emos, 
®- ^imos, 




1. aba, 


aba. ibamos. 





ia. iamos. 



Preterite definite. 

1. e, 


6. amos. 





io. imos. 



Future absolute. 

1. are, 


ari. aremos, 



2. ere. 


eri. eremos, 



3. ire, 


iri. iremos, 



• See 6th and 6th observations preceding^ the Conjugation of the 
Irregular Verbs. 


















Future ctmjimctive simple^ 
ares, are» dremos^ dreis^ 

ieres, iere. iereinos, iereis^ 


First conditional preserU. 

arias, aria. ariamos, ariais, 

erias, eria. eriamos, eriais, 

iras, iria. iriamos, iriais, 

Second and third contitionak present. 
aras, ara. dramos, 




















lingular. PhraL 

tu, el. Bosotros^ vosotros, ellos. 












First conjugation in ar. 

' '^ ' -^ INFINITIVE. 

Present. Am-ar, ... to love. 

Preterite. Haber amado, • . ^ have loved* 



Gerund. Amando, 
FarticipU. Amado, 




Yo amoy 
Til amasy 
£1 amay 

Nosotros amamosy 
Vosotros amais, 
EUos amaii; - 


Yo amaba, - 
Tu amabas, 
£1 amaba, - 
Nosotros am^bamoS; 
Vosotros amibais, 
EUos amaban^ 

Preterite definite. 

Yoam^y . - - 
Til amaste, • - * 
£1 amo, - - - 
Nosotros amamos, 
Vosotros aradsteis, 
£llos amaroD, 

Preterite indefinite. 
Yo he amadoy .... 
Tu has amado, .... 
El ha amadoy .... 
Nosotros hemos amado, 
Vosotros habeis amado, 
EUos han amado^ ... 

Preterite ant^ior. 
Yo hube aiBadoy - 
Til hublste amado^ 
£1 hubo amado, - 
Nosotros bubimos amado, 
Vosotros hubisteis amado, 
EUos bubieron amddo, - 

I love, or do love, 
thou hveeU 
he loves, 
we love, 
you love, 
they love. 

Ididhve. ^ 
thou didst love, 
he did love, 
we did hve. 
you did love, 
they did love. 

I loved, 
thou lovedst. 
he loved. 
* we loved, 
you loved, 
they loved. 

Ihave loved, 
thou hast loved, 
he has hved. 
we have loved, 
you have loved, 
they have loved, 

I had loved, 
thou hadst loved, 
he had loved, 
we had loved, 
you had loved, 
they had loved. 




Yo habla amado, 
Tu hablas amado^ 
£1 habia amado, - 
Nosotros habiaraos amado^ 
Vosotros hablais ainado, 
Ellos habian amado, 

I had loved, 
thou hadsi loved, 
he had loved, 
we had loved, 
you had loved, 
they had loved. 

FiOMre absolute. 

Yo amare, - 
Tu amaris, - 
£1 amari, 
Nosotros amaremos, 
Vosotros amareis, - 
EUos amar^O; 

I ehaU love, 
thou wiU love, 
he vnU love. 
you will love, 
they wiU love. 

FvJture anterior. 

Yo habr6 amado, - 
Til habris amado, 
El habr4 amado, - • 
Nosotros habremos amado^ 
Vosotros babreis amado, 
EUos habr^ amado, " 

I shall have loved, 
thou wilt have loved. 
he wiU have loved. 
we shall have loved, 
you unit have loved, 
they win have loved. 

Future conjunctive simple. 

Si, or cuando; 
Yo amare, - 
Tij amares, - 
£1 amare, 

Nosotros am^remos, 
Vosotros amireis, - 
Ellos amaren^ 

Ify or whsHy 
I love, or shall love, 
thou wilt love, 
lie unit love, 
we shall love, 
you will love, 
they mil Uyve. 

FiUure conjunctive compound. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yo hubiere amado, 
Tu hubiere^ amado. 
El hubiere aniado, 
Nosotros hubieremos amado, 
Vosotros hubiereis amado, 
Ellos liubieren amado, , 

If, or when, 
I have loved, 
thou wiit have loved, 
he wiU have loved, 
we shall have loved, 
you will have loved, 
they will heme loved.- 




First conditional present, 

Yoamaria, .... I should love. 

Tu amarias, .... tkou wouldat love. 

Elamaria^ .... he would love. 

Nosotros amarlamosy ^ » we should love. 

Vosotros amariaisy - - tfou would love. 

Ellos amariao, ... they would love. 
Second and third conditionals present. 

Si, or caando, - If, or though^ 
Yo amara or amase, 
Tu amaras amases, - 
£1 amara amase, - 
Nosotros amdramos aniisemos, 
Vosotros am&rais amisela^ - 
Elios amaran amasen. - 

I should love, 
tkou wouldst love, 
he would hve. 
we should love, 
you would love, 
they would love. 

Yo habria amado, 
Tu habrias aiuado, 
El habria amado, 
Nosotros habriamos amado, 
Vosotros habrlais amado, 
Ellos habrian amado, - 

First conditional past. 

I should have loved, 
thou v>ouldst have loved, 
he would have loved, 
we should have loved, 
you would have loved, 
they would have loved. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yo hubiera, or 

Tu hubieras, 
£1 hubiera, 
Nosotros hubi^ramos, 
Vosotros hubierais, 
Ellos hubieran, 

Second and third conditionals past. 








Ama tu,* 
Ame el. 


Present or future. 

hve thou, 
' ' let him love. 

* Verbs in the imperative require the pronouns governed after 
them, when used affirmatively and before them, as usual, when used 
negatively ; Ex. Love me, amacr^ ; do not love me, no me ames ; 
Heceive us, recibid qos ; do not receive us, no nos recibais. 



Amemos nosotros,- - 


let U8 love. 

Amad vosotros. 


love ye. 

Amen ellos, 


lei tkem love. 



Yo ame, 


I may love. 

Til amesy 


thou mayat hoe. 

El ame, 


he may love. 

Nosotros amemos, 


toe may love. 

Vosotros ameis, 


you may love. 

Ellos amen, 


they may love. 


Yo amase, 


I might love. 

Til amases, 


thou mighteat love. 

El amase, . - 


he mi^ht love. 

Nosotros amisemos, 


we might love. 

Vosotros amiseis, 

m » 

you might love. 

Ellos amasen, 


they might love. 


Yo haya amado, 


I may have loved. 

Td hayas amado, 


thou mayat have loved. 

El haya amado, 


he may have loved. 

toe may^ have loved. 

Vosotros h^yais amado, 

you may have loved. 

Ellos hayan amado, 


they may have loved. 

Yo hubiese amado, 
Til hubieses amado. 
El hubiese amado, 
Nosotros hubiesemos amado, - 
Vosotros hubieseis amado, 
EUos hubiesen amado, - . - 

I might have loved, 
ihou mighiest have loveS^ 
he might have loved, 
we might have loved, 
you might have loved, 
they might have loved. 

Secotid conjugation in jeb. 



Haber temido, 
Temido, - 

to fear, 
to have feared, 





Yotemo, J fear. 

Tu temes, thou feare9t. 

Elteme, he fears. 

JNosotros tememos, - - . we fear. 

Vosotros temeis, - - - . you fear. 

Ellostemen, they fear. 


Yo temia, I did fear. 

Tutemias, thou didst fear. 

^1 temia, he did fear. 

Nosotros temlamos, - - - k^c did fear. 

Vosotrostemiais, - . . . you did fear. 

WJostemfan, - - - - they did fear. 

Preterite definite. 

^^tenai. I feared. 

lutemjste, thoufearedst. 

' ^Itemio, he feared. 

iVosotros temimos, , - - - we feared. 

Vosotros temfsteis, - - - you feared. 

Ellos temieron, - - - . they feared. 

Preterite indefinite. 

Yohetemido, .... Ihave feared. 

luhastemido, ... - thou hast feared. 

^Ibatemido, .... he has feared. 

Nosotros hemos temido, - . - we have feared. 

Vosotros habeis temido, . - . you have feared. 

Ellos haD temido, - . - - they have feared. 

Preterite anterior. 

Yo hube temido, . - - . J had feared. 

T(i hubiste temido, ... thou hadst feared. 

El bubo temido, - - - . Ac had feared. 

Nosotros hubimos temido, . . we haa feared. 

Vosotros hubisteis temido, - - you had feared. 

Ellos hubieron temido, ... they had feared. 




To habia temido, ... 
Tu hablas temido, 
£1 habia temido, - - - 
Nosotrbs habiamos temido, 
Vosotros hablais temido^ 
Ellos hablan temido. 

1 had feared, 
thou hadst feared, 
he had feared, 
toe had feared, 
you had feared, 
they had feared. 

Yo temere, - 
Til temeris, - 
£1 temer&y - 
Nosotros temeremos, 
Vosotros temereisy - 
£llos temerdn^ 

Future iAsoUUe, 

I Shan fear, 
thou unit fear, 
he mil fear, 
we shall fear, 
you will fear, 
they unit fear. 

Future anterior. 

Yo habre temido, - 
Tu habris temido, 
El habri temidoy - <- 
Nosotros habremos temido, 
Vosotros habreis temido, 
Ellos habr^D temido. 

1 shall have feared, 
thou wilt have feared^ 
he will have feared, 
we shall have feared, 
you wiU have feared 
they wiU have feared. 

Sly or quando, - 
Yo temiere^ - 
Til temieres, 
£1 temiere, - 
Nosotros temieremosy 
Vosotros temiereis, 
Ellos temieren. 

Future conjunctive simple. 

- - Jf or when, 

I shall fear, 
thou wilt fear, 
he will fear. 

we shall fear, 
you wiUfear. 
they mil fear. 

Future canjunctioe compound. 

Si, or cuando, - 
Yo hubiere temido, 
Tu hubieres temido, 
£1 hubiere temido, 
Nosotros huMeremos temido, • 
Vosotros hubiereis temido, 
Ellos hubieren temido, - 

If or when^ 
I have feared, 
thou wilt have feared, 
he will have feared, 
we shall have feared, 
you wiU have feared, 
they wiU have feared. 




Fint condUunud present. 

To temerf a, 
T(i temerlM, 
El temeria, 
/^(Motros temeriamos, 
YosotroB temeriais, 
EUos lemerlaD, 

ikou toouldst fear, 
he would fear, 
we ehoulafear^ 
you would fear, 
they would fear* 

Second and third conditionalB present. 
Siy or ciiando, - Ifj or though^ 

To temiera or temieae, - I /eared* 

Til temieras or temieses^ - thou ahouldst fear. 
£1 temiera or temiese, - he should fear. 

Noaotros temieramoa or temi^mos^ should fear. 
Voaotroatemi^rais or temi^seis, you should fear. 
£Uo8 temieran or temiesen, they should fear. 

First conditional pasL 

To habria temido, 
Tfi habrias temido^ 
£1 habria temidoy 
Nosotros habriamos temido, 
Yosotros habrlais temido^ 
Ellos habrian temido^ 

I should habe feared, 
thou wouldst have feared, 
he would have feared, 
we should have feared, 
you would have feared, 
they would have feared. 

Second and third conditionals past 

To hubiera^ or hubiese 

Tu hubieras, or hubieses 

£1 hubiera, or hubiese 

Nosotros hubi6ramoSy or hubi^semoo 

Yosotros hubierais, or hubieseis 

£Uo« hubieran, or hubiesen 



Teme tfi, 
Tema el, 
Temamos nosotros, 
Temed vosotros, 
Teman ellos, 

PreserU or future. 

fear thou, 
let himfeaij^ 
- let us/ear. 
fear ye. 
let themfe^. 





Yo tema^ 
Tu temaSy - 
£1 tema, 

Nosotros temamos, 
Vosotros temais^ 
Ellos temao, 

Yo temiese, 
Tu temieses, 
£1 temiese, 
Nosotros temiesemos, 
Vosotros temi^seis^ 
EUos temiesen, - 

J may fear, 
thou may st fear, 
he may fear, 
we may fear, 
you may fear, 
they may fear. 


I might fear, 
thou mighteet fear, 
he might fear, 
we might fear, 
you might fear, 
they might fear. 


Yo haya temido, - - 
Tu hajras temido, 
£1 haya temido, - 
Nosotros hdyamps temido, 
Vosotros hiyais temido, 
Ellos hayan temido, 

I may have feared, 
thou mayst havefeufred» 
he may navefeared* 
we may have feared, 
you may have feared, 
they may have feared. 

Yo hubiese temido, 
Tu hubieses temido^ - 
El hubiese temido, 
Nosotros hubiesemos temido^ 
Vosotros hubieseis temido, - 
EUos hubiesen temido^ 


I might have feared, 
thou ntighlest home feared, 
he might have f tared, 
we mi^ have feared, 
you might have feared. 
Ihey might have feared. 

Third conjugation in ib. 





Haber sufrido^ 

to suffer. 

to have suffered. 







Yo sufroy 
Til sufresy - 
£1 sufre, - 
Nosotros sufrimosy 
Vosetros sufris, - 
EUoB sufreo, 

Yo sufrf a, 
Tu sufrlas, 
£1 sufria, 

Nosotros sufrlamos, 
Vosotros sufriais, 
£Do8 sufrkui, ^ 


I suffer, 
thou aufferest, 
he Kufferz. 
we suffer, 
you suffer, 
they suffer. 

I did suffer, 
thou didst suffer, 
he did suffer, 
we did suffer, 
you did suffer. 
they did suffer. 

Preterite definite. 

Yorofrf. . 
Til sufrute^ 
£1 sufrio, - 
Nosotros suftimosy 
Vosotros sufrfsteis, 
EUos sufrieron, - 

Preterite indefinite. 
Yo he sufrido, 
Tu has sufrido^ - 
Nosotros hemos safrido, 
Vosotros habeis sufrido, 
Ellos han sufrido, - 

thou sufferedsi. 
he suffered, 
we suffered, 
you suffered, 
they suffered. 

I have suffered, 
thou hast suffered 
he has suffered. 
we have suffered, 
you have suffered, 
they have suffered. 

Preterite anterior. 

Yo hube sufrido, 
Tu hubiste sufrido, 
£1 hubo sufridoy 
Nosotros faubimos sufrido, 
Vosotros hubisteis sufrido, 
EUos hubieroa sufirido^ 

I had suffered, 
thou hadst suffered, 
he had suffered, 
we had suffered, 
you had suffered, 
they had suffered. 




Yo habfa sufrido, 
Til habias sufrido, 
£1 habla sufrido, 
Nosotros habiamos sufirido, 
Vosotros hablais sufrido, 
EUos hablan sufrido, - 

I had guffered. 
thou hadst tufered* 
he had suffered, 
we had suffered, 
you had suffered, 
they hadsuffered. 

Future ahsoluU. 

To 8ofrir6, 
Til sufrir^y 
£1 sufrir^, - 
Nosotros sufriremosy 
Vosotros sufrireisy 
EUos sufririn. 

I shaU suffer, 
thou win suffer, 
he wiU suffer, 
we shaU suffer, 
you win suffer, 
they win suffer. 

Future anterior. 

Yo habre sufrido, 
Tu habris sufrido, » 
£1 habri sufrido, 
Nosotros habremos sufr^o, 
Vosotros faabreb sufrido, 
Ellos habr^D sufrido^ - 

I shall have suffered, 
thou wih have suffered, 
he win have suffered, 
we shall have suffered, 
you wiU have suffered* 
they will have suffered. 

Future conjvmctive simple. 

Si, or cuandoy If^ or when^ 

Yosufriere, ... I suffer. 

Tu sufrieresy ... f Aou wilt si^er. 

El sufriere, - - - ^ wiU suffer. 

Nosotros sufrieremosy - •> we shaU suffer. 

Vosotros sufriereisy - - you wiU suffer. 

Ellos sufrieren, ... they wiU suffer. 

Future coi^unctive compound. 

Sly or cuando, 
Yo bobiere sufrido, 
Til hubieres sufrido. 
El bubiere sufrido, 
Nosotros faubieremos sufridoy - 
Vosotros habi^reis sufrido, - 
EUos hubierensufrido, - 

if, or when, 
I smU have suffered, 
thou wih have suffered, 
he wiU have suffered, 
we shaU have suffered, 
you witt have suffered, 
they witt have suffered. 




Firtt conditional present* 

Yo sufrirla^ 

T6 sufririas, 

£1 sufrirla, 

Nosotros safriiiamoSy - 

Yosotros sufririaiSy 

Ellos sufirirlan^ - 

I should staffer, 
thou wouldst suffer, 
he would suffer, 
we should suffer, 
you would suffer, 
they would suffer. 

Second and third condUion4d8 present. 
Si, or cuando, - - - If 9 or though, 

Yo sufriera or sufriese, - - I suffered, 
Tu sufrieras or sufrieses, - thou shouldst suffer. 
El sufriera or sufriese, - he should suffer, 

Nosotros sufrieramos or sufnesemos, we should suffer, 
YosQtros sufrierais or sufrieseis, you should suffer, 
Ellos sufrieran or sufriesen, they should suffer. 

First conditional past. 

Yo habria sufrido, 
Tu habrias sufrido, 
El habria sufrido, 
Nosotros habriamos sufrido, 
Yosotros habriais sufrido, 
Ellos habrian sufrido, - 

I should have suffered, 
thou wouldst have suffered, 
he would have sitffered, 
we should have suffered, 
you would have suffered, 
they would have suffered. 

Second and third conditionals past. 

Si, or cuando, 
Yo hubiera, or hubiese 
Til hubieras, or hubieses 
El hubiera, or hubiese 
Nosotros hubi^ramos, or hubiesemos 
Yosotros hubi6rais, or hubieseis 
Ellos hubierao, or hubiesen 






Sufre tu, 
Sufra el, 

Suframos nosotros, 
Sufrid yosotros, - 
Sufran ellos, 

Present or future, 

suffer thou, 
let him suffer, 
let us suffer, 
suffer you, 
let them sujffer. 

VERBS. 109 



Yosufra, - - . - Imay wffisr. 

Tu sufras, - - - - thou mayst suffer, 

Elsufra, - - . - hemayguffer. 

Nosotros suframos, - - tre may suffer. 

Vosotros sufrais, - - - you may suffer. 

EUossufran, - - - they may suffer. 


Yo sufriese, - - - I might suffer. 

Tu sufrieses, - - - thou mightest suffer, 

£1 sufriese, - - - Ae might suffer, 

Nosotros sufriesemosy - - we might suffer. 

Vosotros sufrieseiSy - - you might suffer. 

£llos sufriesen^ ... they might suffer. 


Yo haya sufrido, - - i may have suffered. 

Til hayas sufrido, - - thou mayst have suffered. 

El haya sufrido, - - Ae may have suffered. 

Nosotros hiyamos sufrido, - we may have suffered. 

Vosotros h^ais sufrido, - you may have suffered. 

Ellos hayan sufrido^ - - they may have suffered. 


Yo habiese sufrido, - - T might have suffered, 

Tu hubieses sufijdo, - - thoumightest have suffered 

£1 hubiese sufrido, - - Ae might have suffered. 

Nosotros hubiesemos sufrido, - we might have suffered. 

Vosotros hubieseis sufrido; - you might have suffered. 

Elloshubiesensufridoy - - they might have suffered. 




Observ€aion. The passive verbs are conjugated always 
and in all their tenses, with the auxiliary sery to be ; and with 
the participle past of the active verb, which takes the gender 
and number of the subject. 

110 YERB8. 


Ser amad-o or a, os or as^ - - to be hved. 

Haber sido amad-o or H, os or as, - to have been hved. 

Pariicijde presenL 
Siendo amad-o or a, os or as, - - beifig loved. 

Participle past 
Habiendo sido amad-o or a, os.or as. having been hved. 


Yo soy, tu eres, €1 or ella es I am^ thou art, he or she is 

amado or araada, loved, 

Nosotr-os or as somos, voso- We are, you are, they are 

tros or as sois, ellos or .el- hoed, 

las son amad-os or as. 

Yo era, tu eras, 61 or ella era I utae, thou waet, he or-ehe 

amado or amada, was kwed. 

Nosotr-os or as eramos, voso- We were, you were^ they 

tr-os or as erais, ellos or el- were hved. 

las eraii amados or amadas. 

Preterite. definite. 
Yo fal,tu fiuste,61 or ella fue J.tBm^iAsuwMtyhe .w,jd^ 

amado or amada. iwas^kmsd. 

NosotT'OS fiiimos, voso- We «»i«, iymuaeKCf they 

tr-os or as fuisteis, ellos or el- were laved. 

las fueron amados or amadas. 

Preterite indefinite. 

Yo he, til has, el or ella ha I have,, thou hasty he or she 

.Mo amado or amada, has been hved, 

Nesotr-os or as hemos, iroso- We have, you -hiave, they 

'4IKMS oras-faabeis, dlos ord- hasoeieenlovwd. 
las ban sido amados or amia- 

VBftBSi 111 

PreieriU anUrior. 

Yo hube, t6 hubiste^ el or ella I hadj thou hadst, he or she 

bubo sido amado or amada, had been> loved, 

Nosotr-os or as bubimos, voso- We had, you hadf they 

tr-os or as hublsteis, ellos or had been hoed, 

ellas bubieron sido amados 

or amadas. 


Yo babia^tlibabias, el or ella Ihadj thou hadst, he or 

habia sido amad-o or a, she had been loved. 

Nosotr-osorasbabiamos^voso- We had, you hadj they 

tr-os or as babiais, ellos or had been loved. 

ellas habfan sido amados or 


Future absolute. 

¥o sere, tii seris, 61 or ella IshaU he, thou unU be, he 
seri amad-o or a, or she wiU be loved. 

Nosotros seremosy vosotros se- We shaR be, you witt be, 
)teia, ellos or ellas serin they wiU be loved. 

amad-os or as. 

Future anterior. 

To habre, tfi babrds, el or ella I shall have, thou wilt have, 

habrd sido amad-o or &, he or she will have been 


Nosotr-os or as babremos, vo- We shall have, you wiU 

sotr-os or as babreis, ellos or have, they wiU have been 

ellas habrin sido amad-os hved. 

or as. 

Future conjunotroe simplis. 

Si, or cuando, 7 **1 ^ § 

Yo fuere, tii fberes, el or ella ' «" "** 

fuere amad-o or a, 
Nosotr-os or as ilieremos,vo8o- 

tr-os or as fuereis, ellos or 

ellos fueren amad-os or as. 



FiUure conjunciive compound. 

^iy or cuando, 7 

Yo hubiere, tu hubieres, el or 

ella hubiere sido amad-o or a, 
Nosotr-os or as hubieremos, 

vosotr-os or as hubiereis, el- 

Uos or ellas hubieren sido 

amados or as. 


First condUioTud present. 

Yo seria, tu serias, el or ella 
seria amad-o or a, 

Nosotr*os or as seriamos, voso- 
tr-os or as serials, ellos or 
ellas lerlan amad-os or as. 

I should bCy thou wouMsibe, 
he or she would be loved. 

We should be^ you wtmld 
be, they would be loved. 

Second and third conditionals present. 

Si, or cuando, 

Yo fucra or fuo«p^ tn fiifiraJi or 

fueses, el or- ella fuera or 
fuese amad-o or a, 
Nosotr-os or as fueramos or 
fuesemos, vosotr-os or as fu- 
erais or fueseis, ellos or ellas 
fueran or fuesen amad-os 

First conditional past. 

Yo habria, tu habrias, el or 
ella habria sido amad-o 
or a, 

Nosotr-os or as habriamos, 
vosotr-os or as habrlais^ el- 
los or ellas babrlan sido 
amad-os or as. 

I should have, thou wouldst 

have, he or she would 

have been loved. 
We should have, you would 

have, they would have 

been loved. 


Second and third condUionali poBt. 
Si, or cuandoy 
Yo hubiera or hubiese. tii hu- 

bieras or hubiesl^, el or ella 

hubiera or hubiese sido 

amad-o or a, 
Nosotr-os or as hubieramos or 

hubiesemos, vosotr-os or as 

hubierais or hubieseis, ellos 

or ellas hubierau or hubie- 

aen sido amad-os or as. 


Se amad-o o^ a, Be thou hwed^ 

Sea araad-o or a, Let kim belovetL 

Seamos amad-os or as, Letus be kved. 

Sed amad-os or as, Be ye loved. 

Sean amad-os or as. Let them be loved, 


Yo sea, tu seas, 61 or ella sea I may 6e, f Aoti may«/ 6^, 
amad-o or a, Ae or the may be loved. 

' Nosotr-os or as seamos, voso- We may 6tf, you may 6e, 
tr-os or as seais, ellos or el- they may be loved. 

las sean amad-os or as. 

Yo fuese, tii fueses, 61 or ella J»i^^&0,/Aotfifit^A^f«<6e, 

fuese amad-o or a, A^ or she might be loved. 

Nosotr-os or as fuesemos, vo- We might be, you might 

sotr-os or as fu^seis, ellos or be, they might be loved. 

dlas fueseo amad-os or as. 

Yo ba3ra, tii hayas, 61 or ella I may have, thou mayst 
haya sido amad-o or a, have, he or she may have 

been hvei 
Nofotnw or as hiyamos, voso* We may have^ you may 
tr-08 or as hiyais, ellos Orel- have, they may have 

las hayan sido amad-os or as. 6«eti * 


ii4 VEBBS. 


Yo liubjese, tu liubicses, el or I might kave^ thou mighttBt 

elia hubiese 3ido amad-o have^ he or she might 

or a, have been loved. 

Nosotr-os or as hubiesemos, We might have^ you might 

vosotr-os or as hubieseis, have, they might have 

ellos or ellas hubiesen sido been loved, 
amad-os or as. 


Observation, These verbs take in Spanish as an auxiliary 
in their compound tenses, the verb habevy to have, and the 
participle is indeclinable. In their simple tenses they are 
conjugated like the verbs of the conjugation to which they 


Present. Llegar,* To arrive. 

Preterite. Haber Uegado, To have arrived. 

-Gerund. Llegando, Arriving. 

Participle. Llegado. Arrived. 


tLleg-o, as, a, amos, ais, an. I arrive ^ Sfc. 


Lleg-aba, abas, aba, dbamos, I did arrive^ 8[C» 
4bais, abaib 

Preterite definite. 

Lleg-ue, aste, 6, amos, isteis, I arrived, ^c. 

* This verb without being irregular, takes an u after the g in all 
the persons in which it is immediately followed by an e. This rule 
applies to all the verbs that end in gar : it serves to preserve in all 
the tenses and in all the persons the pronunciation of the g such as it 
is in the infinitive present. 

t We suppress the pronouns, of the use of which the preceding 
doDJugatioog give examples enough. 

VERBS. 115 

Preterite indefinite. 

He Uegado, - - - J have arrived. 

Has Uegado, - - - thou hast arrived. 

Ha llegado; - - - he has arrived. 

Hemos llegado^ - - we have arrived. 

Habeis Uegado, - - you have arrived. 

Han llegado. - . - they have arrived. 

Preterite anterior. 
Hube, hubiste, hubo, hubi- I had, thou hadst, he or she 
mosy hubisteis; hubieron had, we had, you had, 

llegado. ' they had arrived. 

Habia, hablas, habia, habia- I had, thou hadst, he or she 
mos, habiais, habian lie- had, we had, you had, 

gado. they had arrived. 

Future absolute. 
Lleg-are^ or ards, or ard, are IsJuiU arrive, Sfc. 
ID08, areis, arin. 

Future anterior. 
Habre, babr^s^ habri, babre- I shcdlhave, thouwiUhave, 
mosj babreis, habrdn lie- he or she will have, we 

gado. shall have, you will have, 

they will have arrived. 

Future conjunctive simple. 
Si- or cuando^ ^ If, or when, I arrive or 

Ll^-are^ ares, are, iremos, > shall arrive, 8^c. 
ixeis, aren. 3 

Future conjunctive compound. 
Si, or cuando, If, or when, I have or shall 

Hubiere, hubieres, hubiere, have arrived, 8fc» if or 

hubieremos, bubiereis, bu- when we have or shaU 

bierea llegado. Aaz;« arrived, Sfc. 


First conditional present. 
Lleg-arla, arias, aria, ariamos, I should arrive, ^c. 
ariais, ariaD. 



Scctmd and third condilioTuds preteJiL 

Sly or cuandoy If^ or thomghy 1 tarioed or 

Lleg-ara or ase, aras or ases, should arrive^ 8fc. 

ara, or ase, 

Lleg-iramos or 4semo6, irais 
or 4seis, aran or asoD. 

Iff or thoughj we arrived or 
should arrive, ^c 

First condUiondl past, 

Habria, habrfas, habria, ha- i shotdd have^ thou wovldst 
briamos, babriaiS| habrian 

have, he or she would 
have^ we shmdd have^ you 
would have^ they wmUd 
have arrioed. 

Second mnd third eonditionah past. 

Si, or cuando, 
Hubiera or hubiese, hubieras 

or hubieses, hubiera or hu- 

Hubieramos or hubi^semos, 

hubierais or hubieseis, ho- 

bieran or habieseQ U^ado. * 

Ify or thoughf I hadj or 
should have arrived. 

If, or though, we had or 
shndd have arrived. 

Llega t6y 
Llegu e el, 
Llegad vosotros, 
Lleguen ellos. 


Present or future, 

arrive thou, 
let him arrive, 
let uB arrive, 
arrive ye. 
kl tiem arrive. 


Lleg-ue, ues, ne," uemos, I may arrive^ fc. 

ueis, uen. 


Lleg-ase, ases, ase, &semos, I might arripe^ S[c. 

^eis, asen. 

VERBS. 117 

Haya, hayas, haya, hdyamos, I may have arrived, 8fc, we 

h^yais, hayan, Uegado. nwy have arrived, <^c. 

Hubiese^ hubieses, hiibiese, I might have arrived, 6fc, we 
hubiesemos, hubieseis^hu- might have arrived, S^e, 

biesen llegado. 


Observation, Reflective and reciprocal verbs have no 
conjugation peculiar to them. In the simple tenses they are 
conjugated like the verbs of the conjugation to* which they 
belong ; and in the compound tenses, like the verb llegar^ 
to arrive ; that is to say, they take haher and not ser as an 
auxiliary and the participle is indeclinable. Nevertheless, as 
the double pronoun, which is found in all the tenses and in 
each person, might present some difficulties, we shall con- 
jugate some tenses of the verb congratularse, to congratu* 
late oneself, which will suffice both for reflective and recip- 
rocal verbs ; observing however, that the reciprocal 
verbs can be such only in the three persons plural, be- 
cause reciprocity cannot exist but between two persons at 
least. In these plurals, yo me congratuloy tit te cons^ratuhs^ 
il se congrcUuIa, I congratulate myself, thou congratulatest 
thyself, he congratulates himself, the verb is reflective ; and 
in nosotros nos congratulamos, voaotros 08 congratulais, elhs 
se congratutariy the verb can be either reflective or recipro- 
cal : it is reciprocal if these words unos d otros, each other, 
miituamente, mutually, can be joined to the verb : it is reflec- 
tive if these words are neither expressed nor understood. * 


Congratularse,* to congratulate on^elf. 

Haberse congratulado, to have congratulated oneself. 

' * All verbs require the objective pronoung to be placed after them 
in the prettnt, and after the auxiliary in the pretenU of the InfiniUfie 
mode whether used afBrmatiYely or negatively. 





congrattikuing ontm^. 

Compound Gerund. 
Habi6ndose coDgratuladO; having congratulaled oneself , 

CoDgratulado. congraiulated, 


Yo me congratuloy 

Tu te congratulas, 

£1 se congratda, 

Nosotros nos congratulamos, 

VosotFOS OS congratulaisy 

Ellos se congratukm. . 


I congratulate myself, 
thowtongratulatest thyself, 
he congratulates himself, 
we congratulate onurstlves. 
you congratulate yoursehes^ 
they congratulaie themsdves. 

The other simple tenses follow the same order. 
Preterite indefinite. 

J have congratulated myst^. 
thou hast congratulatei iky' 

he has congratulated himsdf., 
we hoBe congratulated oicr- 

you have congratulated your* 

they have congratulated theny' 

All the compound tenses follow the same order. 


congratulate thyself. 

let him congratulate himself. 

let us congratulate ourselves. 

congratulate yourselves, 

let them congratulate thsm^ 


Yo me he congratulado, 
Tu te has congratuladO| 

£1 se ha congratulado, 
Nosotros' DOS hemes congra- 

Vosotros OS habeis coi^ra- 

£llos se han congratulado. 






* The s of the first person plural and the d of the secopd are al- 
w«j8 suppressed in the imperative in reflected and reciprocal verbs. 




Present Granizar, to haiL 

Preterite. Haber granizado^ to have hailed. 

Gerund. GranizaDdo, hailing. 

Participle. Granizado. hailed. 


Present. Graniza, 

Impelled. Granizaba, 

PreL def. Granizo, 

Pret. ifidef. Ha granizado. 

Pluperfect. Habia granizado, 

Future Granizari, or Granizsurey 

Future onL Habrd granizado, 


vGranizarf a or granizara, it would haiL 
Habrla granizado, it tooidd have hailed. 

it haib. 

it did hail. 

it hailed. 

it has hailed. 

it had hailed. 


U will hone hmled. 






Haya granizado, 
Hubiese granizado, 

ihat it may haU. 
that it might haU. 
that it may have hailed, 
that it might have hailed. 

Conjugation of the impersonal verb ser menesteb^ 
tobe re^isite or necessary. 


FretenL Ser nuHiester, 
Gerwid. Siendo menester, 
Firiioijik, Si4p menester, 


Present. £s menester, 

Imperfect. Era menester, 

PreU dif» Fue nieoestjBr, 

FfOure. Ser4.or fiiere menester, 

<o hemecessary. 
being necessary. 
been necei^sary. 

it is necessary, 
it toas necessary, 
it Ufos necessary, 
it wUi be necessary. 

120 VERBS. 


Seria or fuera menester, it would he Tiecessary. 


PresetiL Sea menester, it may he necessary. 

Imperfect. Fuese menester, * it might he necessary. 

Conjugation of the impersonal verb habbb. 


Present. Hay,* there is, there are. 

Imperfect. Habia, there was^ there were. 

Pret. def. Hubo, there was^ there trerc. 

Future. Habri or hubiere, there shaU or wiU be. 


Habria or hubiera, there should he. 


Present Haya, there may he. 

Imperfect. Hubiese, there might be. 

N. B. This impersonal is used thus, that it to say in the 
third person singular, even with a substantive in the plural ; 
as, hay un hombre, there is a man ; huho tnttg-eres, there were 
women. The compound tenses are formed by adding the 
participle habido, to the simple tenses. £x. Ua habido, 
there has or there have been, &c. ^ 


Infinitive. Sdpers. of the pres. of the ind. 

Amanecer, to begin to he day- Amanece, it begins to be day- 

ligUj light. 

Anochecer, to begin to grow Anochece, it begins to grow 

dark, dark. 

Escarchar, to freeze, to gtaze, Escarcha, itfreezesy U ^azes, 

speaking of dew or rain 

that glazes what it falls 

upon by freezing. 

* Hay logeg the letter y when tbii word is placed at the end of a 
phrase. Ex. For hay tin aHo, we say, »n aHo ha, tt is one year ago. 

VKKBS* 121 

GfaxkitaTy to haUy Qxwijas;a^yUhaili, 

Helar, iofreeze^ Hiela, it freezes. 

Llover, to; rain, Llueve^ itraitu. 

Lloviznar, to drizxkj Llovizna, it drizzles. 

Nevar^ to snoWy Nieva, it snows. 
Belampaguear, to lighten^ Relampaguea^ it lightens. 

Tronar, to thunder^ Truena, it thunders. 

ObservaJtion. Amanecer and anochecer have sometimes 
the three persons ; then they signify to arrive, to be, to find 
oneself at the dawn of day or at the fall of night in such a 
condition. Ex. Mi padre amaneciS en Paris : amanecid el 
campo lleno de rodo : are as if I said, mi padre Ueg6 d 
Paris cuando amanecid : el campo estaha Ueno de rodo cuan- 
do amaneddy my father arrived at Paris when the day dawn* 
ed : the fields were covered with dew at the dawn of day. 
Mi amigo amanedd pobre, 6 yo anoched ricoy that is to 
say, iftt amigo se haU6 pobre cuando amanedSy my friend 
was poor when the sun rose, and I was rich when the sun set 

lAst and conjugations of the irregular verbs, arranged 
in alphabetical order. 


Nv B. lirt. The verbs marked thusf are little used.^ 

2d. The third conditional not differing at all in its ter- 
minations from the imperfect of the subjunctive, we have 
mought it useless to conjugate it in the conditioned, and we 
have contented ourselves with giving it in the subjunctive. 

3d. We place in the subjunctive mode the future con- 
junctive simple for the sake of distinctness. 

4tfa. There are some verbs which undergo slight altera* 
tions, either in theu* radical iettters, or in their terminations ; 
but they are not on that account irregular ; they only under- 
go these changes to preserve in the other tenses the pronun- 
ciation analagous to that which they have in the present of 
the infinitive. Of this number are, Ist the verbs ending in 
car, which change the c into gu when it must be followed 
by aa e : as buecary to seek, busqu^y I sought ; busqucy bus-- 
queu, busqucy ^c, that I may seek, that thou mayst seek, 
that he may seek, &c. 2d. Those ending in gar which tako 

12t VXKBS. 

an tf after the g before e, as Hegar^ to arrive ; Ueguiy I arriv- 
ed : pagOTf to pay, JM^^, I paid. Sec, 3d. Several ending in 
cer ai^ cir which change the c into 2 before o and o, as 
trenoer, to conquer, venzo^ resarctr, to repair, resarzoy I re- 
pair. 4th. For the same reason delinquiry to do wrone, 
changes qu into c before a and o. Ex. DeUnco^ deUtuxiy ife- 
lincamoi ; and ucoger^ to choose, changes the ^ into j be- 
fore a and o. Ex. EBcqjoy e9cqfa, 5th. The verbs which 
terminate in cer, as crccr, to befieve; feer, to read ; poseer^ 
to possess ; proveerj to provide, in those terminations which 
contain an t, change it into y whenever it is to be joined 
with another vowel, as crei^ crey6 ; ki^ ley iron ; poseiyposC' 
yere ; proveiy proveyiremosy &c. 6th. We must make 
the same change in the verbs ending in titr, when the u and 
the I make a part of two different syUables. Thus, Auir, to 
f!y, makes in the third person of the preterite definite, huy6; 
arguir makes arguy6 ; coMtituir makes constituySy dsc 

N. B. The ien$e$ wad persons which are imgular ar« 
laid down in italicsy and only the first person of the tenses 
which are regular or run on vmfdrndy irregular throughout 
the tense, is expressed. 

Inf. Free. Aborreder, to hale to abhor. 

Gerund. Aborreciendo, ^ti^. 

Participle. Aborrecido, hated. ^ 

Ind. Free. Ahorrezcoy ^borreces, aborrece, > I hatCyOr 
aborrecemos, aborreceis,aborrec9n, ^ abhor. 
Imperfect. Aborrecla,. &c. I did abhor. 

Fret, def. Aborreci, &c. I hated. 

Future, ' Aborrecere, &c. I ahaU or wiU hate. 

Conditional, Aborreceria or aborreciera, &c. \l8hovJdoT 

^ would hate. 

Imperative. Ahortec^^aborezcay hate thouy 

ahorrezcamosy aborreced, a&orrfzcan. &c. 

C Que aborrezca^borezcae^aborrezca^ ihatlhate~ 

Suh.pres, < aborrezcamoSy aborrescaisy aborrezrl or may 

C cany] hate. 

Imperfect. Que aborreciese, Ssc. that I hated or might hate. 
Future. Si aborreciere, &c. If I hate or shall hate. 

vc&BS. 123 

N. B. The urregularity of this verb, of all like it in kcek, 
and of those ending in oceb and acer, consists in taking a 
z before c in the first person singular of the present indicai- 
tive^ in all those of the present sufojancttve, in the first of the 
l^ral, and in the third of the singular and pbiral of the im- 
perative. The verb hacer is the only exception to this 
rule ; but it has other irregularitiesy sad is found conjugated 
in its alphabetical order. 

Abrir, to opeuy is irregular only in the participle abierto. 

Infinitive. Absolver, to absolve. 

Gerund. Al^solviendo^ absolving. 
Participle. AbsueUoy abaolvea. 

Ind.pre$. Abmelvoy absuehesy absuelve, "llabsolvCf or 
absolvemosy absolvei^} absueweuy S do absolve. 
Imperfedl. AbsolvSa, ^ 1 did absolve. 

Pret.def. Abselv^, &c. I absolved. 

Future. Absolvere^ &c. I shail or will absolve. 

Condition* Absolveria or ^bsolviera, &c. I should or would 

Imperati^. Absuehe^ absuelvaj ") absolve tkouy 

absolvamoSfabsolvedyOi&ftte^Dait; ^ &;c. 
Sti^'. pres. (^ absueha/dmtehasy absuelva^ ^ that I ub* 
absolvamos, absolvais, dbsuelvany > solve ormay 

3 absolve. 
Imperfect. Que absolviese, &c. that I absolved or might 

Future. Cuando absolviere^ &c. when I absolve or shall 


Abstraer, to abstract, to make an abstraction. See traer* 
Acaecer, to happen^ (impersaaoL) See aborrecer. 

Infinitive. Acertar^ to succeed, to hit the mark. 
Gerund. Acertando, succeeding. 
Participle. Acertado, succeeded. 

Indic.pres. AciertOj adertas, atsierta, \ I succeed, or 
Acertamos, acertaiS; aciertan, \ hit. the mark. 
Imperfect Acertaba, &c. J did succeed. 

Pret, def. Acerte, Sec. I succeeded. 

Future. Acertare^ &c, J skaM or wiU succeed. 








Acertaria or acertara, &c« / ehould or would 

succeed thou, 

thai I succeed, 
or may succeed, 
thai I succeeded^ or might 
Si acertare, &c. if I succeed^ or shaU succeeds 

Acierta, aderte, 
acerfemos, acertady acierteny 
One acierte, aeiertesy acierte, 
acertemos, acerteis, aderteuj 
Que acertase^ &c. 

I»f, pres. 






to agrecj to resolve. 



Indie.pres. Acuerdo, acuerdas, acuerdaj \i ogree^^ot 
Acordamos, acordais, acuerdany \ do resolve. 

Impeffect. Acordaba, &c. I did agree. 

Pret. def. Acorde, &c. t agreed. 

Future. Acordar^^ &c. i shaU or wiU agree. 

Condit. Acordaria; acordara^ I should or woukl agree. 

Imperat. Acuerda,acuerdey > agree thouy 

acordemos; acordady octierifefi, C &c. 

Sub. pres. Que acuerdcy acuerdes/icuerdey / thai I agree, 
acordemos, acordeis, acuerden, ^ or may agrte^ 

Imperfect. Que acordase^c. that I agreed or might agree. 

Future^ Cuaudo acordare, &c. when I agree, or shaU 


Acordarse, to remember. See acordar. 

Acordar i, udo^ to make one remember. See acordar« 

Acostarse, to go to bed. See acordar. 

Acrecentar, to increase. See acertar. 

Inf. pres. Adherir, to adhere. 

Gerund. Adhiriendo, adhering. 

Participle. Adherido. adhered. 

Indie, pres. Adhiero, adhieresj adhiere, ') I adherCy or do 
adherimos^adherls^acMtereff^ 3 adhere. 

Imperfect. Adheria, Ssc I did adhere. 

Pret. def. Adheri, adheriste, adhiriS, 7 I adher^ 

adherimosy adherlsteis, adhirieron, S ed. 

Future. Adherure, Ssc. I shaU or will adhere^ 

vnMS. 125 

Condiiion. Adheriria, or aA»rter«, Stc. I thoidd or 

would adhere* 
Imperative. Adkiere^ adJderay 1 adhere thou, 

adhiramoafadberldyodhieramj \ &c. 
Subf. pres. Que adhiera^adhierofj adhiera, "i that I adhere, 
adhiramoey adhirais^ adhieran^ ^ ormaif adl^ere. 
In^etfeci. Que adhirien^ &c that I adhered^ or might 

Future. Si adhiriere, Spc if I adhere j or ihaU adhere. 

Adolecer, to fall or to be sick. See abinrrecer. 
Adoraiecer, to luU asleep. Idem. 
Advertir, to take heed. See adbertr. 
tAgorar, to augury to coi^ecture. See acordar. 
Agradecer^ to take a thing Mndfy, to acknowledge a benefit. 
See aborrecer. 

( Alentar, to encourage. See aoertar. 

l Aleotarse, to take courage. Idem. 
Almorzar^ to breakfast. See acordar. 
Amanecer, (verb imp.) to begin to be dayUght. See aborrecer. 
f Ameutar, to shoot an arrow. See acertar. 
Amolar, to sharpen. See acordar. 
tAmortecene, to faints to lose.courage. See aborrecer. 

Infin.pres, Andar, to waUcj to go. 

Oerund, AodandO| walking. 

Participle, AndadO| woiked. 

Indie, pres. Ando, &c. J taott, or do waik. 

Imperf, Andsd)ay Sec I did walk. 

Fret. def. Anduve^ anduvistCy anduvOy > I tuo/^- 

osuhitfimoiyauduvisteisyttmAnfierosiy ^ ed. 
Future. Andare, &c. I shdU or mB walk. 

CondHion. Audarla or anduvieray Sec I should or would 

Imperative, Anda^deyandemot, Sec walk thouy &c. 

Sub. pres. Que ande, &c. that I walk or may walk. 

Imperf. Que andumese^c that I walked or might walk. 
Future, Cuando anduviere. Sec when J walk, or shall 


Anocbecevy to b^giu to grew dark. See dborrecer. 

126 VERBS. 

Anteponer, to prefer. See poner. 

Antever, to foresee. See ver. 

Apacentar^ to lead sheep to grass. See acertar* 

Aparecer, to appear. See aborrecer. 

Apercibir^ to prepcarey to get ready. See pedir. 

Apetecer, to wishy to long for. See abontlter. 

Apostar^ to lay a wager. See acordar. 

Aporcar, to cover with earth, (celery, 8fc.) See acordar. 

Aportar, to make a harbor. Idem. 

Aprobar* to approve. Idem. 

tArbolecer, to become a tree. See aborrecer. 

Arrendar, to let to a tenant ;^-4o tie (a horse) by the reins* 

See acertar. 
Arrepentirse, to repent. See adherir. 
Asentar^ to sit down, to place, to resolve, to register. See 

Asentir, to consent. See adherir. 
Aserrar, to saw. See acertar. 
Asestar, to aim or point at. Idem. 
\sir, to seize, to take root, (speaking of plants, orjigura^^ 

tively spetJdng of persons,) has no irres^tdarity &t m 

the following tenses, which are very little used. Indicate 

pres. Asgo, ases, ase, asimos, asis, asen, Imperdt. Ase, 

asga, asgamos, asid, asgan. Su^. pres. Asga, asgas, as^ 

ga, asgamos, asgeus, asgan. 
Asolar^ to puU down, to destroy. See acordar. 
Asoldar, to furnish one with money. Idem. 
Asonar^ to assemble by the sound of beUs, to tune. Idem. 
Atender, to apply oneself ^ to consider ; to regard. See 

t Atener, to keep pace with another — to keep one^s word. 

See tener. 
Atentar^ to attempt...Mfform an enterprise against the hsws 

in a capital concern. See acertar. 
f Aterecerse, to get benumbed, to sUfien with cold. See 

Aterrar, to throw down on the ground. See acertar. 
Atestar, tofU up. Idem. 
Atormecerse^ to get benumbed,^ See aborrecer. 
Atraer, to attract, to draw over to oneself. See traer^ 
Atravesar, to pierce, or bore. See acertar. 
•^Atronar, to thunder, (impersonal) See acordar^ 


' Avenir, to happen, to come unexpeeteXyy to reamdk a 

difference. See venir. 
' Avenirse, to agree, to be suitabk, agreeable. 
\ Aventar, to fan, to winnow. See acertar. 
» Aventarse^ to he frightened, (epeaking of a flock.') Ide»r 
') Avergonzar, to make one ashamed. See acordar. 
\ AvergoDzarse^ to be ashamed. Idem. 

Inf. pres. Bendecir, to bless. 
Gerund. Bendiciendo, blessing. 
Participle. Bendito, blessed. 

isdicpres. Bendigo, bendices, bendice, ben^ ^ I bkss, or 
decimos, bendecis, bendicen. "l do bless. 
Imperfect Bendecia, &c. I did bless. 

Pret. def. Bendige. bendigiste, bendifo, bendi- S r 1.1 ^ 
gimosi bendigisteis, bendigeron,l^ ^^^^^' 
Future. Bendecire, &c. I shall or wiU bless. 

Condition. Bendeciria, or bendigera, ^c. 5 ^ ehotdd or 

\ would bkss. 
Imperative. Bendice, bendiga, '^ bless thou, 

bendigamos, bendecid, bendigan, ^ ^c. 
SW6. pres. Que bendiga, &c. that I bless or tnay bless. 
Imperfect. Que bendigese, &c. that I blessed, or might bless. 
Future. Si bendigere, &c. if J bless, or shall bless. 

Inf. pres. Caber, to contain, to be contained. 
Gerund. Cabiendo, being contained. 
Participle. Cabido, been contained, 
huL pres. Quepo, cabes, &c. J am contained. 

Imperfect. Cabf a, &c. I was contained. 

Pret. def. Cupe, cupiste, cupo, ^c. I was contained. 

Future. Cmnri, &c. I shall or will be contained. 

Conditional Cabria or cupiera, &c. / should or would be 

Imperative. Cabe, quepa, ^&e ihou con^ 

auepamos, eabed, quepan, ^ tained, ^c. 

Sub, pres. Que quepa, 8fc. that I be or may be contained. 
Imperfect. Que cu^ese, ifc. that I was, or might be 



Atfio^ Coando agwere, &c wAen i 6e, gr skaH he 


Inf. frtM. Caer, tQ /off. 

GerwML Cojfmuh, famng. 

ParHc^. Caido, /oAn. 

jBuLpref. Co^, caes^.^c. I fuB or do fall. 

Imperfed. CaiEi,&c. J {Kd faB. 

Prei.peif CafyCalste^cayOyGaimos^caisteiSycayeron, I/e//. 
Fuiwre. Caer6y &c. I«Aa// or vnllfdlL 

Condition. Caerf a or cayera^ J should or wouU foM. 

ImperaHve. Cae^ co^a, }f^B tkouj 

caigamo$y ewsdfCaiganf ^ &c. 

Sub^pres. Que coi^a, &c. /^/ //o^ or mayfaU. 

Imperfect. Que cayese, &c. <Aa/ I fett^ or might falL 
Future. Si cayere^ &c. IflfaXL or ^udlfgM. 

Galentar, to warmj to heat. See acertar. 

Canecer, to grow gray haired. See aborrecer. 

Carecer, to want^ to be in want. Idem. 

Cegar, to hUnd^ to become blind. See acertar. 

f Cenir, to girdle, to eurround See .... pedir. 

< Cefiirse, to girdle oneself^ to Kmit oneself s to restrict 

/ on&telf Idem. 

Uerner, to sifty to pass flour through a sieve — to blossom^ 

(speaking of vines, of grain, Src.) See cntender. 
Cerrar, to shut, to lock up. See acertar. 
Cimentar^ to cement, to lay the foundation. Idem. 

Inf pres. Cocer, to cook, to hake. 

Gerund. Cociendo^ cooking. 
Participle. , Cocido, eooked. 

Ind^pres. Cuezo, cueces, Cuece, ^^^ l j lake or do bake 

mosy coceisy cuecen^ S 

hi^ferfeet. Coda, Ssc I did cook. 

Fret, perf Cocl, <&c, / baked. 

Future. Cocere, &c. I shall or will cook. 

Conxion. Coceria or cociera, &€. I should or would bote^ 
Imperative. Cuece, cuezo, 5il-l- *i t 

"^ conunoa, coced, cueTan, 5 ^^' '*^«^ *^- 

jSubf.pres. Qne cueza, cuezas, cueza, co- V that, T bake, or 
aamos, cozais^ cuezan, ( may bake. 

VERBS. 129 

Imperfeet. Que cociese, &c, that I baked or might bake. 
Future. Cuando cociere, &c. when Ihake^ or ^aU hake. 

N. B. This verb has the same irregularities as Abeoher ; 
but we have conjugated it on account of the z which it takes 
instead of the c l^fore a and o, and that we may refer to it 
for the conjugation of similar verbs. 

Colar, to strain^ toJlHer a liquor. See acordtur. 
Colegir, to coUecty to concludey to deduce. See pedir. 

N. B. It changes g into J before a and o. 

Colgar, to hangy to euapend. See acordar. 

fComedir, to reflect,; to think ^ to premeditate. Se^pedir. 

Comedirse, to become |io/t<e ; to be ruled by reason. Idem. 

Comenzar, to begin. See acertar. 

Compadecerse, to have pity. See aborrecer. 

Componer, to compose. See poner. 

Comparecer, to appear. Idem. 

Competir, to enter into or to be in competition. See pedir. 

Complacer, to please one. See aborrecer. 

Comprobar, to prove^ to confirm. See acordar. 

Concebir, to conceive. See pedir. 

Concertar, to concert. See acertar. 

Concordary to adjust J to conciliate^ to be conformable^ Uke. 

See acordar. 
Condescender, to condescend. See entender^ 
Condoler^ to sympathize. See absolver. 

Inf. pres. Conducir, to condutty to lead. 

Gerund. Conduciendo, conducting. 
Participle. Conducido, conducted^ 

hud. pres. Conduzcoj conduces, &c. I conduct. 

Imperfect. Conducf a, &c. J did conduct. 

Pret. def. CondugCy condugiste, condujo, condu- > I conduc- 

gimosy condugisteisy condugerony ^ ted. 
Future. Conducire, &c, I shaM or will conduct. 

Condition. Conduchria or condugerOy &c. ^ I should or would 

^ conduct. 
Imperative* Conduce, cofM^uzca, \ conduct 

conduxeamos^ conducid, conduxcany ^ thouy^c 


Imperfect. Que tandugesey &c. 
Future, Si candugere, &c. 

^ tftat I conduct J or 
majf conduct. 

I tAoi / conducted, or 
mt^At conduct. 

' If J conduct or sAaff 

Conferir, <o confer. See adherir. 

Confesar, to confen ; to own. Bee acertar. 

Conmover^ to excite, to dUturb. See entender. 

Conocer, to know. See aborrecer. 

Conseguir, to obtain. See pedir. 

CoDflentir, to consent. See adherir. 

CoQselar, to console. See acordar. 

Consonar, to agree ; to be in tune. Idem. 

Constrenir^ to constrain. See pedir. 

Contar, to count. See acordar. 

Contener, to contain. See tener. 

Contender, to contest; to dispute. See entender. 

Contradeck, to contradict. See diecir.— N. B. T%ey • 

only in the second person singular of t&e imperative uH 

is CoNTRADicEi ond not Contradi. 
Contrahacer, to cottnterfeit. See hacer. 
Contraer, to contract. See traer. 
Coatraveoiry to act contrary. See veair* 
Controvertir, to dispute on a doubtful subject. See adherir. 
Convalecer, to be conoaleseent. &« aborrecer* 
Convenir, to agree. See venir. 
Convertir, to convert. See adherir. 
Corregir, to correct. See pedir. 
Costar, to cost. iSSee atordar. 
Crecer, to ^ow. iSee aborrecer. 

Cubrir, to cover,- 

irregukir only in the participle past^ 


Ji|f. pres. Dar, 
Gerund. Dando, 
Fartidple. Dado, 

Ind. pres. Doy, das, &c. 
Imperfect. Dg^ &c. 

to give, 

I give. 
I did give. 

VBI8». 131 

Frei. def, Diy dtsie^ H^, dmofy dUUit^ diertm. I gave. 

Future. D8r6, &c. I BhaB or wiO give. 

ConditiotL Daria or dtera^ 1 thould or woM give. 

Imperative. Da, de, demos, dad, den, give thouj ifc* 

StA. pres. Que de, &;c. that I give or may give. 

Imperfect. Que dfie^e, &c. that I gave, or wight give* 

Future. Cuando ^re, &c. when I give, or £aU give. 

Decaer, to decay. See caer. 
UecMxiBtjtoeutytotaketuoayapartqfawhoie* 6toacertar. 

Inf. pres. Dedr, to teU^ to eay. 

Gerund. Diciendo, eaying. 

Fariidple. Dichoy said. 

Ind.pre8. Digo, dicee dicey h sau or do saw. 

decimos, decis, dtcen, 5 ^ ^^* 

Imperfect. Decla, &c. I A'df fe//. 

Frei. def. tHge, (Mgiste^ dijoy digimosy digfs- > j ^^.^ 

teisy dijerony 5 

Future. Dirty dirdsy &c. I cftoS or wiU fvO. 

Coiufiltofi. Dtrfa or digeroy &c. I should or wouM say. 
hnperaUve. Di, digOy digamosy decid, digatiy tetl thmiy fe. 
Sub. pres. Que digOy ^c. that I say or may say. 

Iny^ect. Que digesCy ^c. that I toldy or might teH 

Future. Si ^erSy \c. if I telly or shaU say. 

Dedacir, to deduct. See conducir. 

Defender, to defend. See entender. 

Deferir, to defer y to delay. See adherir. 

DegoUar, to decapitate. Seeacordar. 

Demoler, to demoUsh. See absolver. 

Demonstrar, to demonstrate. See acordar. 

Den^ar, to deny ; to refuse. See acertar. 

Denostar, to use any one iU byword or deed. Bee acordar. 

Deponer, to deposSy to resign. ' See poner. 

Derreogar, to break the ba^. See acertar. 

Derretir, to melt. See pedir. 

Desabastecer, (una plaza,) to strip a place of provisions. 

See aborrecer. 
Desacertar, to erry to mistake. See acertar. 
Desacordar, to disagree, ^ See acordar. 
Desadormecer, to awake. See aborrecer. 
Desalentar, to discourage. See acertar. 

.132 ^****' 

n«.«nftrecen to digompeor. Sec abwrec^r. 
^^' to lo:^r^ unbind, ftjacerur. 
KSrolJ, rodiwwroee. Seeacordar. 

fDesatravesar, to <C«eii<aiifffe. Mem. . 

D^cer, toAe«y,toft»e««^.^«.«r**. See aborrecer. 
SLcende;, to de«>«rf. &e entender. 

KdMrrto <«*«*««' to^lackm. See acordar. 
S^X to wrpoee in height, to be taller. Uem. 
S^om^, ^g»>u>«npoUte, to take too much bbert„i 

D^o^^, to disorder, todi»compoH. See poner. 
S^Stir, to rejvse one's consent. See adhenr. 
g^^SSr toJnfound to derange. See acertar. 
nLconocer, to diwwn. See aborrecer. 
dTc^S 'o affiict, to grieve. See acordar. 

Sr S to t:::i-U Regular om, in the j^articiple 

r>S^:^"^T:L He. See decir, e^evt^ for the jecoj^ 
^i^si^ular of the imperative which is desdwe and nc* 

desdi. „ _ 

Desempedrar, to mtpave. See acertar. 
Desencerrar, to set at liberty. Idem. 
Desenarosar to diminish, lessen. &ee acordari 
l^Zlder, toprHendig^once. See entender. 
n«>«ontPrra.r. to unhury. See acertar. 
l^^er'toawlken, to quicken. See aborrecer. 
i^vo^v/tourucrap^todevelope. See absolver. 
Dese^Jr^^^^ clear the table, to oblige, to hurt. See pedir. 
Desfailecer, to faint away. See aborrecer. 
Pesflaquecer, to weaken, to Ungutah. Idem. 
Desflocar, to ravel, (cloth.) See acordar. 
Desfogarse, to veni one's passion. Idem. 
Desguarnecer, to tmfurnish. See aborrecer. 
Desbacer, to vndo. See hacer.- 

ttSBBS. 133 

Deshelar, to thaw. See acertar. 

Desherrar, to unfetter, to unshoe (a horse.) Idem. 

Desleify to dilute^ to temper. See pedir. 

Deslucir, to tarnish^ to destroy the butre. Gerund, Deslu- 
ciendo. Part. Deslucido. Indicat. pres. Desluzeoy deslu* 
cesy &c. Imperat. Desluce, desluzca, deskixcamos^ deslu- 
cidy desluzcan, Subj.pres. deduzca^^c. 

N. 6. All the other tenses are regular and are conjuga- 
ted like mfrir. 

Desmembrar^ to dismember. See acertar. 

Desmentir, to contradict. See adherir. 

Desobedecer^ to disobey. See aborrecer. 

DesoUar, to skin. See acordar. 

Desovar, to spavm {speaking of fishes.) Idem* 

Despedir, to send away. See pedur. 

Despedirse, to take leave of Idem. 

Despedrar, to take away the stones. See acertar, 

Despemar, to cut off the legs. Idem* 

Despertar, to awake. Idem. 

Desplacer, to displease. See aborrecer. 

Desplegar, to display ; to unplait. See acertar. 

Despoblar, to unpeople. See acordar. 

Destenir, to discolour. See pedir. 

Desterrar^ to exHe, to banish. See acertar. 

Destorcer^ to untwist, to straighten. See cocer. 

Destrocar, to exchange back again. See acordar. 

Desvanecerse, to faint away. See aiborrecer. 

Desvergonzarse^ to lose all shame ; tc want respect St^ 

Detener, to stop. See tener. 
tDetraer, to remove, to detract. See traer. 
Devolver, to return ; to send back. See absolver. 
Dezmar, to decimate or tithe. See acertar. 
Diferir, to differ. See adherir. 
Digerir, to digest. Idem. 
Disolver, to dissolve. See absolver. 
Pisponer, to dispose. See poner. 
Distraer, to distract. See traer 
Divertir, to divert. See adherir. 

134 VERBS. 

C Doler, to fed pain. See absolf er. 

< Dolerse, to be sorry ; to repent ; — to feel for othei^* pain ; 

(^ — to compassionate. See absolver. 

Inf pres, Dormir, to sleep. 

GertmtL « Durmiendo^ sleeping. 
Participle. Dorroido, slepL 

Ind. pres. Duermo^ duermes^ duertne^ 1 I sUep^ or do 

dormimos, dormis, duermen. y sleep. 

Imperfect Dorrola, Sfc. I did sleep. 

Pret. def. Dormi, dormiste, durmiS^ ") j *^ 

dormimos, dormfsteis, durmieron. ^ ^^ 
Future. Dormir6, &c. I shall or wiU sleep. 

Condition. Dormiria or durrnieraj&c Inhoiddor wndd sleep. 
Imperative. Duerme^ duerma^ Xdeen thou. Sec 

durmamoSf dormid, duerman, ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ' 
Sub. pres. Que duerma, duermaSy daermOj > ikaJt I deep or 

durmamoSj durmais^ duermaUj ) may sleep. 
Imperfect. Que durmiese^ &c. that I slept^ or might sleep. 
Future. Caando durmiere^ &c. when I sleep or shall sUqk 


Elegir, to choose^ to elect. See pedir. N. B. ^is verb 
changes G into J before A and O to preserve the guttural 
pronunciation of the infinitive. 

Embravecerse, to become furious. See aborrecer. 

Embrutecerse, to become brtUish. See aborrecer. 

Empedrar, to pave. See acertar. 

Empezar, to begin. Idem. 

Einplumecer, to begin to have feathets. See aborrecer. 

Eropobrecer, to grow poor. Idem. 

Emporcar, to dirt. See acordar. 

Encabellecer, to begin to have hair. See aborrecer. 

Eocallecer, to form a caUus. Idem. 

Eocalvecer, to become bald. Idem. 

Eocanecer, to be greyhaired by old age. Idem. 

Eocarecer, to raise the price, to exaggerate. Idem. 

Eocender, to light afire. See aeeriar. 

Enceasar, to perfume with incense. See acertar. 



Eocerrar, to shut in. Idem. 

Eocomendar, to rtoommentL Idem. 

Eocrudecerse, to become crueL See aborrecer. 

£ocrae]ec«r, to v^ritate, to render crueL See aborrecer. 

Encontcar, io,meet^ to find. See acordar. 

Encordar, to put strings and cords (to an instrument.) Idem. 

Eocubertar, to cover with a blankeL Seeacertar. 

Endentecer, to irreed teeth. See aborrecer. 

Eodureoer, to grow hard. Idem. 

EnBaquecer, to grow lean. Idem. 

Enfurecerse, to become furious. Idem. 

Eograndeoer, to growy to enlarge. Idem. 

Eogreirse, to adorn one^s self. See pedir. 

Eogrosafy to grow big. See acordar. 

EDloquecer, to becwne mad. See aborrecer. 

Eolacir, to whiten^ to do over with pkuter. See deslucir. 

Enmendar, to correct. See acertar. 

Enmocecer, to grow young again. See aborrecer. 

EaiDohecerse, to grow moukty. Idem. 

Enmudecer, to grow dumbt to be silent. Idem. 

Eaaegrecer, to. grow black, to blacken. Idem^ 

EoQobleeer, to ennoble. Idem. 

'fEoaudecer, to set or to kntt, (speaking of grain, Sfc.) Idom. 

Eararecer, to rarefy^ to become thin. Idem* 

Eariquecer, to enrich. See aborrecer^ 

Earodar, to break upon the wheel. See acordar. 

EoMngreotar, to make bloody. See acertar. 

Eosoberbeoerse, to grow proud. jS^e aborrecer.. 

Eotaliecer, to shoot or bud. Idem. 

Infpres. Enteoder, to understand. 

Gerund. Entendiendo, understanding. 

Participle. Entendidp, understood. 

Ind* pres. Entiendo^ entiendes^ entiende^ ^ lunderstand, or 
enteodemo9,enteDduisyen<iefiden,c do understand. 
Imperfect, Entendia, &c. I did understand. 

Pret. def. Extendi, Sec, I understood. 

Future. Enteodere, Sfc. J shall or icUl understand. 

Condition, Eoteaderia or enteadiese, Ssc. 5 / should or toould 

/ understand. 



Imperative. Entiende^ entienda^ ^understand 

entendamos, en tended, enliendaji^ I Uum^ Sfc. 

Sub, pres. Que tniieTida^ entiendaSj erUienda^ C that I under^ 

entendamos, entendais, enliendanjK stand or may 

^ understand. 
Imperfect Que eotendiese, &c. ^ that I understood or 

l might understand. 
Future. Si eoteodiere, &c. 5 ^ ^ understand or 

dudl understand. 

£nternecef , to soften^ to touchy to movcy to pity. See aborreoer 

Enterrar^ to bury. See acertar. 

Entomecer or eniumecer, tosweU; tastupify, See aborreoej • 

Entontecerse, to become dull, foolish, idem. 

EntOFpecerse, to become heavy , lazy. Idem. 

Entrelucir, to ^inimer. See deslucir. 

Entreoir, to hear imperfectly. See oir. 

Eotretener, to entertain. See tener. 

Entristeoer, to rex, to make sad. See abonecer. 

Eotullecer, to lose the use ofone^s Umbs, Idem. 

Entumecerse, to swell ; to grow angry (^speaking of the sec) 

Envegecer, to grow old. Idem. 
Enverdecer, to paint in green. Idem. 
Envestir, to invest. See pedir. 
Envolver, to torap up. See absoWer. 
Equivaler, to be of equal value. See ?aler. 

Tnf Pres. 





to erect, to rai^e, 



lad, pres. 

Pret. def. 


or do 


1 did erect. 

Yergo, yergues, yergue, 

erguimos, ergui?, yerguen, 

Erguia, Sue, 

Ergul,. erguiste, irguio, 

erguimos, erguisteis, irguierofii 

Erguire, &c. I shall or will erect 

Erguirla or irguiera^ &c. I shotdd or wo^ld erect 

') I erectf 

> I erected, 

VE&BSr 137 


tmperative. Yerg^e, yerga, 7^athm, *c. 

trgamoSf erguid, ytrgan^ ^ 
Sub, prea. Que yerga, y^^g^* y^rga^ 7 thai I ereotf or may 

irgamos, irgais, ytrgan^K erecU 

Imperfect. Que irguipse, &c. dud l erected or miskt erect. 
FfUure. . Cuaodo tr^iVe, &c, when 1 erect or JuiU erect. 

Inf. pres. Errer, to err. 

Ind.preB. Yerro, yerraSj yerra, ^ J «^ or do err. 

erramoS) errais, yerren^ 5 

Imperative. Yerra, yerre, 7 ^ -^ 

erreroos, errad, yerren^ y ' ^ 

Sub. pres. Que yerre^ yerres^ yerre^ ^ that I err or 

erremosy ecreis, yerren^ 3 may err. 

N. B. All the other teoses are regular. 

*f EscaWntar, to warm. See acertan / 

Escarmentar, to correct oneself. Idem. 

Escarnecer, to mock one. See aborrecer. 

f Eaclarecer, to dear up ; to light. Idem. 

Ekcooer, to smart, to itch painfully. See cocer. 

£&cribir, to write. (It has no irrtgularity but in the participle 

past^ esciito.) 
E^forzar, to animate, to encourage. See aeOrdar. 
Establecer, to establish. See aborrecer. 
ESstregat, to scour, rub. See acertar. . 
Edtremecerse, to tremble, to be frightened. See aborrecer. 
Estrenir, to tie, to bind, to press close, to squeeze. See pedir. 
Espedir, to dispatch. Idem. 
Esponer, to expose. See pooer. 
Esiender, to spread. See en tender. 
Estraer, to export, to extract. See traer. 


Fallecer, to die. iS^ee aborrecer. 

Fa?orecer, fjo favour* Idem. 

Feoecer, to finish^ to die, to setUe (an account.) Idem 

138 VEBKS. ^ ' 

Fortalecer, to fortify. See aborrecer. 
Forzar, to force. See acordar. 
Fregar, to imuA, to dean, to furbish (jdaie,) 
Freir, to fry. Part. Frito. The rest like pedir. 


Gemir, to groan. See pedir. 
Qobernar, to govern. See acertar. 
Guaroecer, tofiimi$h. See aborrecer. 


Haber, (impersonoL) Indie, pres. Hay and Ha, there is, 
there are. The rest like the auxiliary verb baber, wiih this, 
differenee, that the former has only the third person singular 
f See the impersonal verbs,) 

N. B. Tbe adverb there is never expressed in this imper^ 
sonal verb io Spaoish. 

Inf. pres. Hacer, to do, to make. 

. Gerund. Haciendo, making. 
Partudple, Hecho, done. 

Ind. pres. Hago, haces, &c* I do or make. 

Imperfect. Hacla, &c. I did do or make. 

PreU dtf. Hice^ hicistey hizo^ \ I did o mad^ 

hicimos, hicisteis, hicietony s 

Future. Hari, hards, hard, ^ /I sltaJU or vnli 

harimosy hariis, harduy 5 ^ or make. 

Condition. Hai^a or hiciera, &c. I should or would do. 

Imperaiive. "'"^^ ^ Ida thou, *c. 

kagawjosy baced, hagany 5 ^ ^ 

Sub. pres. Que hugay hagas, haga, 7 that I do or 

hagambs, hagaisi^ hagany ^ may do. 

Imperfect. Que hiciese^ that I made or might make. 

Future. Si Atctere, &c. If I do or shaU do. 

Heder, to stink. See entender. 

Helar, to freeze (impersonal.) See acertar. 

Hinder, to cleave, or split. See eateoder. 

Herir, to woufid. See adherir. 

Herrar, to shoe. or to bind about with iron work See acecUr. 



Herrir to boil See adherir. 
Holgar, to repose^ to do nothing. See acordar. 
Hollar, to trample under feet ^ to tread. Idem. 
Humedecer, to nunsten. See aborrecer. 

Impedir, to prevent. &e pedir. 

Imponer, to impose. See poner. 

Indisponer, to indispose, to ^csc^--^ render incapable^ ^c. 

See poner. 
Liducir, to induce^ ^«* conducir. 
Inferir, to *»/^« See adherir. 
Intorv^^nir, to intervene. See venir. 
Introducir, to introduce. See conducir. 
Invernar, to winter. See acertar. 
Invertir, to transpose^ to overturn^ to subvert the order ^S[c. 

See adherir. 
Investir, to invest. See pedir. 
logerir or engerir, to graft a tree. Part, ingerto or engerto. 

See adherir. 

Inf. pres. 



to go. 



Pret. def. 






VotfyVaSj vay vamoSf vais^ van, I go or do go. 
Iba, 8fc. I did go. 

Fuiy fuisteyfutjkimosyfuisteisyfueronj I went. 
Ire, &c. I shall or will go. 

Iria or fuera, &€. I should or would go. 


Viy vaya, 
vamos, id, vayan. 
Que vaya, vayas, vaya, 
vdyamos, vdyais, vayan, 
Qaefuese, fueses, fuese, 
fuisemos, fuiseis, fuesen. 

go thou, Sfc. 

that I go or 

may go. 

> that I went or 

might go. 

Cuando Juere, ^c. when Igo or shall go. 

N. B. AU the compound tenses of this verb are corrugated 
with the verb habbr and not ser. fFe translate then 
I have or am gone, I had or was gone, &c. by he ido, habia 
ido, and not oy Soy ido, era ido. 

140* VBIBS. 


Inf.prei. Jtigar, ioflny^ 

hid.pre8. JuegOjjuega$Jueg4^ Ij pkuw. 

- jugamos, jugais, jtt^an, S 

I^'V^^^^. Juegajueguey I play thou, ^c. 

N. B. All the other tenses are regular. 


Lucir, to thine. See deslucir. 


Llover, to rain (impersonal.) Part. Llovido, rainedi Ste 


tMagrecer, to grow lean. 

Maldecir, to curse. See bendecifk 

Manifestar^ to manifest. See acetnar. 

M antener, to maintain See tener* 

Medir, to measure. See pedir. 

Mentar, to mentiony to name. See aoertar.* 

Mentir, to lie. See adherir. \ 

Mereccr, to merit. See aborreeer. 

Merendar, to eat acojUaiion between dinner and' supper. See 

Mohecerae, to make mouldy. See aborrecer. 
Moler, to grind. Part, molido. See abSolvei-. 
Morder, to bite. See absolver. 
Morir, to die. Part. Muerto. See dormir. 
Mostrar, to show. See acordar. 
Mover, to move^ to touch, to eject. See absolver. 
Nacer, to be bom. See aborrecen 
Negar, to denyj to refuse. See acertar. 
Negrecer, to blacken^ to become black. iSbe aborrecer, 
Nevar, to ^qw^ (imp^rs.) See £^cert?ir. 



Obedecer, te obey. See aborrecer. 
Oscurecer, to obscure^ darken. Idem. 
Obtener, to obtain. See tener. 
Ofrecer; to offer. See aborrecer. 

Inf.pres. Oir, to hear. 

Gerund, Oyendo, hearing. 

Participle. Oido, heard. 

Ind. pres. Oigo, oyes, oy e, > j ^^^ ^^ ^ j^^^ 

Oimos, ois, oyen, 5 

Imperfect. Oia, &c. / rfw^ *««r. 

Pret.def. Oi, oiste, oyo, I I heard. 

oimos, oisteis, oyeron^ ^ 

Future. Oire, &c. / shaU or wtC Aeor. 

Condition. Oiria or <^era, &c. I should or would hear. 
Imperative. Oye, Oiga, hear thou, ^e. 

oigamoSf oid, oigan^ I 

Sfi6. pre*. Que ofga, &c. «Aa* I hear or may Aeor. 

Imperfect. Que oyese, &c. tAa< J heard or mt^A^ Acar. 
Future. Si oyere,&c. t/ 1 Aear or shall hear. 

Inf.pres. Oler, , to smeU ox scent. 
Gerund. Oliendo, smelling. 

Participle, Olido, smelt. 

Ind.pre,. Hueh, h^k,,huek, I j ,^u or do «ndl. 

olemos, oleis, huelen, 5 
Imperative. HueU, hnela, I mell thouy S^. 

olamos, oled, huelanj . S . 

Stih. pres. Que huela^ huelas, huela, 1 that I smeU or 

olainos, olais, huelan^ 5 ^^V smell*^ 

N. B. AU the other tenses are regular. 

Oponer^ to oppose. See pouer. 


Pacer, tofeed^ to graze. See aborrecer. 
Padecer, to suffer, to endure. Idem. 
J Parecer, to appear. Idem. 
I Parecerte; tq re^mkU. Idem. 

142 VEMBn. 

Inf, pres, Pedir, to tuhj to beg. 

Gerund. Ftdiendo, askinff. 

Participle. Pedido, asked. 

hid.pres. Pido, pides pide j j j^ ^^ 

r- pedimos, pedis, /wdiwi, ^^^^^ «* »«/€««.. 

Imperfect. Pedia, &c. I did ask. 

Pret. def. Pedi, pediste, pidio, 1 j r, 

pedimos; pedisteis, pidieron, 3 *** 

Future. Pedire, &c, / »Aa/? or wtZ? ask. 

Condition. Pediria or pidieroy Sfc. I ihould or u>ould ask. 
Imperative. Fide. pida. 1 1 ^v • 

pidamos, pedid,^ufa«, ^""^ "^^ *"• 

Sub. pres. Que /nc^, ^c. that I ask or faay ask. 

Imperfect. Que ptcetese, &c. that I adced or m^Jk/ a^. 
Future. Cuando pidiere, &e. when I nsk' or aSatt ask. 

Pensar, to think. See acertar. 
Perder, to lose. See enteDder. 
Perecer, to periih. See afoorrecer. 
Perniquebrar, to break the legs. See acertar/ 
Perseguir, to pcreecute^ to pursue. See pedir. 
Pertenecer, to belong. See aborrecer. 
Pervertir, to pervert. Set adherir. 

Iff. pres. Placer, taphaset 

Ind. pres. Me place, it pleases me. 

Impmfeet. Plada, it did please. 

Fret. def. Plugo, it pleased. 

Sub. pres. Que plegUe^ that it may please. 

Imperfect. Que pluguiese or pbtguiera^ that it might please. 

Future. Si pluguiere, if it shall please. 

N. B. Placer is only used in the above tenses and per- 
sons. Flegue 4 Dios I May it please God ? 

Plegar, to plait or fold. SeS acertan 
Poblar, to people. iSSee acordaj% 

vsfiss. 143 

Inf. pres. Poder, io he ahie^ mn^ may. 

Gerund. PtedHmdOj being Me. 
Participk. Podido, been aJtie. 

Ind.pres. Puedo^ pftedee^ puede^ ^ I am able or 
podemps, podeis, jpueden, ^ I can. 

Imperfect. Podia, &c. J was able or eouid. 

Pretjdief. Pude^ pudiatey pudOf ^1 was able or 

pudimosy pwJH^i^Sy pudieron, \ couid* 

Future. Podri^ &c. I shau or udU be able. 

Cfmdition^ Podria^ or pudier a, &C. lekouUtorufonddbeabk. 

Imperative, (wanting.) 

Sub. pres. Que puedoj puedasy pueda^ 5 ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ 
podamos, i^ds^y puedan, f may be qbk. 

Imperfect. Que pudiese^ &c. that I could or might be-able. 

Future. <^viBSkdopwKerefSsc. when Icon or shaUbeabk- 

Inf. pres. Podrir, to rat. 

Gerund. Pudriendo^ rotting. 

Participle. Podrido, rotten. 

Ltd. pres. Pudro, pudres, pudre, ?t^^. _ ^ ^, 
podrimos,podris,piid^cn, 5^ '^^^ ®^ ^"^^^ 

Imperfect. Podria, &c. 1 did rot. 

Pret.def. Podri, podriste, pudrid^ ^ » , 

podrimos, podristeis, pudrieron^ 5 ^^ ^ ' 

Future. Podrire, &c. I shall or will rot. 

Condition. PodririsLor^pudrierajSzc. I should or would rot. 

Imperative. Pudre, pudrOy \ ot tha ^ 

pudrmnosy podrid, pudrauy \ ^ '♦xT^- 

Sub. pres. Que pudra, Ssc. that I rot or may rot. 

Imperfect. Que pudriese^ &c. that I rotted or might rot. 

Future. Si pudrierey &c. if I rot or shall rot. 

N. B. Most tenses and persons of the above verb can only 
be used figuratively. 

Inf. pres. Poner, to put y to place. 

Gerund. Poniendo, putting. 

Participle. PuestOy put or placed. 

Ind.pres. PongOy pones^ &c. I put or. do put. 

Imperfect. Ponia, fee. I didpuU. 

144 VBBBS. 

Future. Fondrty Sec . I shall or wiU put. 

Condiiimi. Fondria^ or pusiera^ 8[c, IshouJdor would put. 
Imperative. Fan, panga, ^ ^^ 

pongamog^ponedjpongan, 5 
Sub. pres. Que pongOj Sue. that I put or may put. 

Imperfect. Qae punesty&ic. that I put or might put. 

Future. Cuando puHere^ &c. when I put or shallput. 

Predecir, to predict. See decir. 

Preferir, to prefer. See adherir. 

Proponer, to propose. See poner. 

Prescribir, toprescrihcy has no irregularity hut in the par' 

ticiple pasty FKEScuno. 
Presentir, to foresee j to have a forecast. See adherir. 
Presuponer, to presuppose. See poner. 
Prevalecer^ to prevail See aborrecer. 
Prevenir, to anticipate, to prepare. See venir. 
Prever, to foresee. See ver. 
Producir, to produce. See conducir. 
Proferir, to utter. See adherir. 

Promover^ topromote, to elevate (to a dignity.) See absolver. 
Proponer, to propose. See poner. 
Proscribir, to banish, is irregular only in the participle 


Proseguir, to pursue, to continue. See pedir. 

Probar, to prove; to experience ; to taste, to try. See 

Provenir, to proceed, to issue. See venir. 
Proveer, to provide. See N. B. 5th. page 121. 


Quebrar, to break, to dash in pieces; to fail, to be a hank- 
rupt. See acertar. 

Inf. pres. Querer, to mil, to wish, to love. 
Gerund. Queriendo, willing, 
Fftrticiple. Querido^ nulled. 

Ind. pres Quiero, quieres, quiere, > J will or wish or 
qoeremos, quereis, quieren^ ^ do love. 

VXBBS. 145 

Imperfect, Querla^ &c. / did wish. 

Fret, def, Qmsej quisistej quUo^ ? IwiOed or wiehr 

quieimosj quisUteUy quiaieronj ^ edj or loved. 
Future, Qaerre, &c. I shaU or win wish. 

Condition, Querria or qtiieiera^&c, I should or would wisk. 
Imperative. Quiere, quiera, ? ^ ^ . 

queramos, quered quieran, s 

. pre«. Que quiera, quierasj quiera, / ^Ao^ 1 love or 
queramos, querab quieran^ 5 ^''^^ ^^- 

Imperfect. Que quisiese^ &c. f Aa/ J wished or m^A^ tMf A. 
Fuitire. Si quisiere, &c. if J tmA or «AaJ7 tmA. 

Rebolcar or revolcar to tumble, to welter. See acordar. 

Recaer, to fall again. See caer. 

Recocer, to bake again. See cocer. 

Recomendar, to recommend. See acertar. 

Reconocer, to acknowledge. See aborrecer. 

Reconvalecer, to recover from an illness. Idem. 

Recordar, to remember, to call to mind. See acordar. 

Recordarse, to remember. Idem. 

Recostarse, to lie or lean on one side. Idem. 

Recrecer, to grow again. See aborrecer. 

Reducir, to reduce. See conducir. 

Referir, to refer. See adherir. 

Reflorecer, to blossom again. See aborrecer. 

Reforzar, to strengthen, to reinforce. See acordar. 

Regar, to water. See acertar. 

Regir, to govern. See pedir. 

Regoldar^ to belch. See acordar* 

Rehacer^ to do again. See hacer. 

Inf. pres. Reir, to laugh. 

Gerund. RiendOy laus[hing. 

Farticiple. Reldo, laughed. 

Ind.pres. Rio, ries, rie, ? r » . , , 

reiiios, reis, Wen, J^ ^^^ <>' ^ ^^*- 

Imperfect. Reia,&c. I did laugh, 

146 TSftBS. 

FrH.dtf. Rei, reiste, nV^, ^ 

reunos, reifiteis, rtcroii, J «*«^#«». 

Future. Reire, &c. J ^Actff or im// Zot^A. 

ComUHon, Reiria or rieruy &c. J $houid or u^otf 2tf ilmi^A. 

iS^tt^. |»re«. Que ria, &c. f Ao^ I may laugh. 

Imperfect. Qire ricte, &c. thM I fmgid kmgk. 

Future. Cuando rierey Sse^ w&en Ikmgk or ehaU laugh. 

Relucir, to shine. See deslucir. 

Remanecer, to appear ^ to come ineuddenlyy to remain. See 

Remendar, to mendy to patchy to botch. See acertar. 
Remorder, to bite agawy to cause remorse. See absolver. 
Remover, to removey to change place. Idem* 
Renacer, to be bom agaiuy to revive. See aborrecer. 
\ Rendir, to returny to subfeciy to enslave. See pedir. 
I Rendirse, to surrender oneself. Idem. 
Kenegar^ to denyy or disown. See acertar. 
Renovar, to renew. See acordar. 
Reiiir, to scold^ to quarrel See pedir. 
Repetir, to repeat. Idem. 
Reponer, to put again. See poner. 
Reprobar, to reprove. See acordar. 
Requebrar, to cajole or wheedle. See acertar. 
Requerir, to require. See adherir. 
Resentirse, to resenty to be sensible of. See adherir. 
Rescontar, to balance one part of an account with another. 

See acordar. 
ResoUar, to breathe. Idem. 
Resolver, to resolve. See absolver. 
Resonar, to resound. See acordar. 
Restablecer, to repairy or restore* See aborrecer. 
Retemblar, to have continual tr&Mings. ^See acertar. 
Retener, to detain. See tener. 
Retentar, to be threatened with a relapscy (speaking of 

sickness^ See acertar. 
Retenir, to dye again. See pedir. 
Retoitoer, to twist agaiuy to retorty (^n^irgument.) See 


VSRB8. 147 

( Retraerse, to take refuge. See traer. 

^ Retraer, to withdraWy to draw towarik one$i^. Idmn. 
Retrotraer, to antedate^ to trace back a thing to a time fr^ 

vious to its existence. See traer. 
Reventar, to burst. See a^ertar. 
Rever, to see again. See ver* 
Reverdecer, to grow green again. See aborrecer. 
Reverter, to return^ to over^w* See ^ktender. 
Revestir, to invest. See pedir. 
Revolar, to fl^ again. i%e acordar. 
Revolcarse, to wallow. Idem. 
Revolver, to stir, to disturb^ to overtkroWy to turn over. 

See absolver. 
Rodar, to roU. See acordar. 
Rogar, to pray. Idem. 


Inf.pres. Saber, to know things. 

Gerund. Sabiendo, knowing. 

Participle. Sabido, known, 

Ltd. pres. Si^ sabes, &c. J know or do know. 

Imperfect. Sabla^ &c. I did know. 

Fret. def. SupCy supistCy supOy > I ibi«ir 

supinutSy supisteisy supierony ^ 

Future. Sabriy &c. I shall or will know. 

Condition. Sabria or supierOy Sec. I should or wouldknow. 
Imperative. Sabe, sepOy > , ., ^ 

sepamosy sabed, sepan, C '^^^ ^'^' ^^' 

Sub. pres. Que sepay &c. that I know or map know. 

Imperfect. Que supiese, &c. that I knew or might know. 
Future. Si supiere, &c. if I know or shaU know. 

Saber bien, to relishy (speaking of meaty fruit ^^c.) See saber. 

Inf. pres. Salir, to go out, to walk out. 

Gerund. Saliendo, going out. 

Participle. Salido, gone out. 

Ind. pres. SalgOy sales, &c. I go or do go out. 

Imperfect. Salia, &c. I did go out. 

Fret, def Sail, &c, 1 went out. 

148 VB&B0. 

Fviwre. SaUriy See. I shad or wiUgo wi. 

CondUion. 8(Udria or saherHy&c. I should or would go out. 
Imperative. 8^, saiga, I go thou out, &c. 

salgamosj salid, satgan, ^ 
Suh.pres, Que saiga, safgas, saXga, > that I go out or 

saigamosy salgais, satgan, ^ may go out. 

Imperfect. Que saliese, &c. that I went out or might go out. 
Future. Guandosaliere^&c. when I go out or shall go out. 

Segar, to reap, to mow. See acertar. 
Seguir, to follow. See pedir. 

N. B. This verb and its compounds lose the U before A 
and O : we say cbnsequentfy sigo and siga and not siguo and 

Sembrar, to sow, to strew. See acertar. 

Sentarse, to sit down. Idem. 

Sentir, to feel; to perceive ; to judge ; to regret. iSSeeadherir. 

Serrar, to saw. See acertar. 

Servir, to serve. See pedir. 

Sobreponer, to place above. See poner. 

SohresalW, to surpass in height; in size; toexcel,Sfc. j8(eesalir. 

Sobrevenir, to come in vnlookedfor. See venir. 

Soldar^ to solder. See acordar. 

Inf. pres. Soler, to be wont or accustomed to. 
Gerund. Soliendo, being wont to. 
Participle. Solido, accustomed to, 
Indpres. Suelo, sueles, suele, > I am wont to. 

solemos^ soleis, suelen, S 
Imperative. Suelpsuela, ^ ^^ accustomed to. 

solamos, soled , suelan, ^ 
Sub. pres. Que suela, suelas, suela, > that I be or may 
solamos, solais, suelan, ^ be wont to. 

N. B. This verb is seldom used except in the Ind. pres. 
and Imperfect which is regular. 

Soltar, to loosen^ to untie, to deliver. See acordar. 
tSolver, to resolve, to decide. See absolver. 

VEABfl. 149 

C Sonar, to resautkd, to echoy to ring. See acordar. 

l Sonarse, (las narices,) to blow <me^9 nose. Idem. 

Sonar, to dream. Idem. 

Sonreir, to smile. Seereir. 

C Sosegar, to repose. See acertar* 

< Sosegarse, to aUay ow^e passion^ to tranquHUze oneself. 

( Idem. 

Sostener, to support. See tener. 

Soterrar, tointer^ to bury. Seeacertar^ 

Sustraer, to substract. See traer. 

Suponer, to suppose. See poner. 


Temblar, to tremble. See aceitar. 

Tender, to spread, to extend. See entender. 

Tener, to have, to hold. {See the auxiliary verbs for the 

eomjugaiion of this verb.) 
Teiiir, to dye. See pedir. 
TeniaLTy to tempt y to feel. Seeacertar. 
Torcer, to twist. See cocer. 
Tostar, to roast. See acordar. 
Traducir, to translate. See conducir. 

Inf. pres. Traer, to bring. 

Uerund. Trayendo, bringing. 

Participle. Traido, brought. 

Ind. pres. Traigo, traes, &c. I bring or do bring. 

Imperfect. Traia, &c. I did bring. 

Pret.def Trage, tragiste,tr€^o, > j j .^ 

Tragtmosy tragtstetSy tragerouy ^ ^ ''"«' 
Future. Traere, &c. I shaU at will bring. 

Condition. TmeriayOr tragerOy^c. I should or would bring. 
Imperative. Tne, traiga, ?j„-^,a«^^. 

traigamosy traed, traxgan, > 
Sub. pres. Que traigOy Sfc. that I bring or may bring. 
Imperfect. Que tragesSySfc. that I brought or might bring. 
Future. Si tragercy Sfc. if I bring or shaU bring. 

N. B. Formerly traer had trugCy and trugese instead of 
those laid down in pret. def. and imp. subj. 

Transcender, to gOy to pass or ascend beyond, ^^eneneert. 



Trascender, to discover, to penetrate, to cumprehend, Idem^ 

Trascolar, to strain, to filter, to penetrate. 8ee acordar. 

Trascordarse de, to forget. Idem. 

Trasegar, to put topsy turvy, to turn up, 8fc, See acertar. 

Trasoliar, to dream, to be out ofone^s mind. See acordar. 

Trasponer, to transpose. See poner. 

Trocar, to exchange. See acordar. N. B. This verb changes 

c into qu before e. 
Tronar, to thunder* See acordar. 
Tropezar, to stumble, to make a false step. See acertar. 

Ind. pres. 
Fret def 



Sub* pres. 

Inf. pres^ Valer, 
Gerund. Vaiiendo, 

Participle. Valido, 

Valgo, Tntesy &c. 
Valia, &c. 
Valf, &c. 
Valdri, &c. 

Valdria or valiera^ &c. 

Yale, valga, 

to be worth, 
being worth, 
been worth. 

lam worth., 

. I was worths 

I was worth. 

I shaU be worth. 

^ I should or would 

^ be worth. 

i be thou worth, Sfc, 

valgamos, y?\ed, valgan, ^ 
Que valga, Sfc. that I be or may be worth. 
Que valiese, &c. that I was or might be worth. 
Cuando vallere, when I be or shcdl be worth. 

Inf. pres. Vemr, to come. 

Gerund. Viniendo, coming. 

Participle. Venido, come. 

Ind.pres. Vengo, vienes, mem, l j ^^^ or do come. 

Venimos, venis, vienen, ^ 

Venia, &c. J did come. 

Vine, vinisie, vino, } j ^^^^^^ 

vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron, ^ 

Future. Vendri, &c. I shaU or will come. 

_ ,. . ,r J / . . c ^ I should or would 

Condition. Vendria, or vtntera, &c. < ^^^^^ 

Imperative. Ven,venga, ? come thou, ^-e. 

vengamos, venid, vengan, S ' 

Sub. pres. Que venga, S^c. that I come or may come* 

Pret. def. 



Imperfect, Que viniescy ^c. that I came or might come. 
Future. Si vimere^ Sfc, if I come or shall come. 

Yenirse, to come away. See venir. 

Inf. pres. Ver, to see. 

Gerund. Viendo, seeing. 

Pcwticipk. Visto seen. 

Ind. pres. 


Fret. def. 




Sub. pres. 

Veoy ves, &c. 

Veiay &c. 

Vi, &c. 

Vere, &c. 

Veria or viera, &c. 

ve, veOf 
veamosy ved, vean^ 
Que veOf veas^ &c. 
Que viese^ &c. 
Cuando viere, &c. 

I see or do see. 

I did see. 

I saw. 

I shall ot will see. 

I should or would see. 

> see thouy SfCm 

that I see or may see. 

that J saw or might see. 

when I see or shall see. 

N. B. In the above verb the v is the only radical letter. 
See Temer second regular conjugation. 

Verter, to pour, to shed. See entender. 
5 Yestir, to dress, to clothe. See pedir. 
( Yestirse, to dress oneself. Idem. 
Volar, to fiy {with wings.) See acordar. 
Volcar, to turn, to overthrow. Idem. 
C Yolver, to come back, to return; to turn, to send back, 
^ See absolves 
^ Volverse, to become, to change oneself; to turn about. 


We call that the subject of which we affirm some thing, 
and that the attribute which is affirmed of it. When we say ; 
elrey es benSfico, the king is beneficent ; the word rey is the 
subject of which we affirm the quality oibentfico, which is 
the attribute. 

Rule LI. The subject b always either a noun or pronoun. 
When it is a pronoun, it is almost always suppressed in Span- 
bh, both when the phrase is affirmative and negative, as we 
•lave already stated in the N. B. upon the person* and num- 
bfirs of verbs, page 82. If I have to translate in Spanish the 

152 VEIBS^ 

words t love, thou latest, ikey love, I suppress the pronouns, 
and say, amo, amas, aman / the terininatioii of each of these 
persoDs sufficiently indicates the pronoun that belongs to it, 
and which is implied. 

Exception. We often express the pronoun to give more 
energy to the phrase. We roust also express k whenever its 
suppression would leave an ambiguity in speech. £x. Yo 
lo digo, ta lo has hecho, I say it, thou hast done it • . . Pedro 
me quiere t yo le aborrezco, &c. Peter loves me, and [ hate 
him, &c. 

Rule LII. The subject, whether a noun or pronoun, is 
commonly placed before the verb. Ex. Tu padre Uora y 
til ries, thy father weepest and thou laughest. 

1st Exception. In interrogative and imperative phrases, 
the subject is always placed after the verb. Ex. ^ Que pre- 
tendenpues los nuevos reformadores con su sonada igwd' 
dad ? What then do the new reformers pretend with their 
chimerical equality ? Hablen las nadones donde se vieroa 
tales trcutomos ; hahle la misma Francta....Let the nations 
where were seen such overtumings, let France herself speak. 

ed Exception. The subject is also placed after the verb, 
in the incidental phrase denoting that we quote the words of 
some one. Ex. 8i tenets, decia Luis XI am hifo, si tenets 
la desdicha de Uegar d ser rey, acordaos de que as deheis 
todo entero d lafelicidad de vuestros conciudadanos ; if you 
have, said Louis XI to his son, if you have the misfortune to 
be a king, remember that you owe yourself entirely to the 
happiness of your fellow-citizens. 

3d Exception. This inversion is also made with great 
advantage whenever it gives elegance, energy, sweetness or 
harmony to speech. Ex. / Dickosos los padres que tienen 
buenos hijosi Happy the fathers who have good children ! 
/ FeUz el reino donde viven los homhres en paz ! Happy the 
kingdom where men live in peace ! These phrases are much 
more energetic than if we said ; los padres que tienen buenos 
hyos son dickosos ; el reino donde los hombres viven en paz 
es feliz, 

RuLS Lin. Every verb must be of the same number 
and person as its subject. Ex. Yo no st lo que digo, lo que 
hago, Sfc. I do not know what I say, what I do, &c. Tu 
hermano no estudia ; tus hermanos no estudian; thy broth- 
er does not study ; thy brothers do not study. In the first 

VERBS. - 15S 

example, »6, digo and luigo are in the singular number and 
in the first person, because the pronoun yo expressed before 
the first verby and understood before the others is in the sin- 
gular and first person. In the second, estucUa is in the third 
person of the singular, because its subject hermano b of that 
person and number, &c. 

Of the regimen of verbs. 

The regimen of a verb is a word that immediately depends 
•n it, and which restrains or determines its signification. 

A verb may have for its regimen three kinds of words, an- 
ether verb, a substantive or a pronoun. 

Of the verb as a regimen. 

A verb governs another in the infinitive either with or with- 
out a preposition ; as, quiero estudiarj I wish to study ; 
las lenguas deben aprenderse por principtos, languages must 
be learned by principles ; vengo de comer ^ I come from din- 
ner ; voy a paseary I am going to walk ; eatudia para intru- 
tree, he studies to instruct himself, &c. 

Rule LIV. In Spanish, the verb temer, to fear, when 
we do not wish the thing expressed by the second verb ; the 
verbs dudae, to doubt ; neoar, to deny, forming a negative 
member of a phrase; and the verb impedir, to prevent; pro- 
hibie, to forbid ; require the verb, which they govern, to be 
in the subjunctive mood, with the conjunction que, Temo 
que vengOy I fear he will come. No niegomte tenga razouy 
I do not deny that he is right Impidid que^alieseny he pre- 
vented their going out. -f 

Rule LV. In Spanish a iferb governs another in the 
infinitive by the aid of the follo4ring prepositions ; a, de^ con, 
«i, hastttf poryparUf ejitre, trci, sobre, »m, to, of or from, 
with, in or into, till or even, by, for, between, after, on or 
upon, without. Ex. Iremos d pcuear despues de comer, 
we shall go to walk after dinner; vengo de aimorzarj I come 
from breakfast ; gasto ia mayor parte del tiempo enjugar y 
divertirmcy I spend the greatest part of my time in playing 
andjanusing myself. 

It often happens that we elegantly use in Spanish the in- 
fioitilb with the article e/, when governed by another verb« 
£z« Me gu»ta el leer noveku^ I like to read novek. 

154 VBBBS. 

nrhe Spanish verb acabar, to finish, fottowed by the prepo- 
sition dcy and governing the following verb in the infinitive, 
means tiiat a thing has just been done or happened. Ex. 
Ac€Ao de air buenat noUciagj I have just heard good news. 
Pedro acabiiba de sedir^ Peter had just gone out. 

Andar and tr, to go, govern the verb that follows them, in 
the following phrases and others like them, in the gerund, 
without a preposition. £x. Van or andan cantandopor la» 
catteSf they go singing in the streets. Loirdn diciendo d todae, 
they will go telling it to every one. 

Of the fumn substantive as regimen of the verb. 

Rule LVI. All active verbs govern in Spanish the noun 
substantive, which is the immediate object of the action that 
is expressed, in the accusative with the preposition a, if this 
noun expresses a rational being or personified object ; and 
without a preposition in all other cases. Ex. amor d Dtos, 
to love God ; el rey quiere d su primer ministroy the king 
loves his prime minister. Amar la virtud, to love virtue ; 
aborrecer el victo, to hate vice. 

There are some active verbs which govern two nouns at 
the same time, but under difierent relations. Oue of these 
nouns is the immediate object of the action exjK^ssed by the 
verb, and the other is the end to which it tends. That which 
is the end of it, is always governed by the preposition d. Ex. 
Dar6 nn libro d Pedro^ I shall give a book to Peter. The 
word libro is the object of the action expressed by the verb 
dariy and Pedro is the end to which it tends. 

Neuter verbs in general have no regimen, because their 
signification does not extend beyond themselves ; as, nacer, 
to be born ; viver, to live ; crecer^ to grow. 

Reflective and reciprocal verbs govern the personal pro- 
nouns which they have for their regimen in the accusative, 
and these pronouns are placed before or after the verb, ac- 
cording to the rules of objective pronouns. See pages 55 and 
56. Ex. .^rrepen^tWe, to repent; ae arrepiente or arrepitH" 
teee, he repents, &c. 

Of objective pronounSf or those which are the regimen 
of verbs. 

As we already have given all the rules respecting pro- 
nouns, we refer the reader to pages 55, 56. 

VSRBS. 155 

Observations up&n verbs. 

1st. The adverbs but or oit/y, used with a verb are ren- 
dered in Spanish by solo or soUutierUey or by no placed before 
the verb and sino after the same verb. Ex. I have but one 
thousand dollars, solo ttngo mil pesos or no tengo sino mil 

2d. The Spaniards in order to express the repetition of 
an action, generally make use of the verb volver (which is 
equivalent to the English word agoing always followed by 
the preposition d^ which governs the following verb in the in- 
finitive ; and volver is put in the tense and person in which 
the English verb is, which expresses the repetition of the ac- 
tion. Ex. I shall read again this book, volver t a leer este 

3d. The pronoun t/, placed in Engli^ before the verb 
to bey is often suppressed in Spanish, and sometimes it is 
translated by the pronouns ily eUa, eUo, 

It is often suppressed, 1st. in these modes of speaking ; it 
is SHoughf it is Uttley it is too muchy it is dear ; is it enough ? 
is it little ? ^c. es biutaniey es pocoy es demasiadoy es caro ; 
es bastante ? es poco ? 8fc, 2d. In answers. Ex. Who has 
said that ? it is you, is it Peter, it is he, &c Quien ha di^ 
cho eso f^^s WR., es Pedro, es ily Sfe, Or, by suppressing the 
verb and the pronoun ity we may say : vm. Pedroy 61^ 8fc. 
3d. When the verb to be is followed by a noun substantive 
having after it the pronoun relative %oho or th^ ; and then 
these fironouns are translated by il que, la quey los quey las 
quey according to the gender and number of the noun to 
which they refer. Ex. It was the Spaniards who conquered 
Mexjco,/tferoit los Espanoles que conquistaron d Migico. 

In the following phrase and others of the same nature, in 
which the verb becomes the nominative of the verb to be, we 
elegantly use the article el before the verb, and suppress the 
pronoun it, Ex. It is not an easy thing to know men, no es 
cosafddl el conocer d los hombres. He knows not the value 
of science who despises it, is translated in Spanish thus, quien 
desprecia las citncias no conoce su vedor. 

In these modes of speaking : it is Iwhoy it is thou whoy it 
is he ufhoy 8fc» have, hast, or has done it or said ity we sup- 
press the pronoun ity and place the pronoun personal before 
the verb, which is put in the same person as the pronoun that 
precedes it, and who is Uanslated by the relative pronoun 

156 VBlBS. 

gtften. To toy, tit ertSj il esy quien h ha hecho, quisn to 
ha dicho. 

4th. To have likej to come very near^ are translated by 
estar d pique dcj entar en punto de, estarpara, or foliar poco 
para que. Ex. I had like to have been killed, estuve a 
ffique, or d punto de matarme. Thy brother came very 
near falling, jpoco faltS para que tu hermano cayese. I 
came very near writing to thee this morning, estuve para 
escribirte esta mafiana. 

N. B. The ^« after /aftar governs the following verb 
in the subjunctive, as may be seen in the above example. 

Of the agreement of the participle past with the sub- 
ject and with its regimen^ 

The participle past may be constructed with hdberj tener 
or ser. 

Rule LVII. — ^Whenever the participle past is constructed 
with the verb habery it neither takes gender nor number. 
Therefore we say ; eUos or eUats han cotnprado libros, they 
have bought books. Los libros que hemos leidoy the 
books we have read. 

N. B. Haber de is in English to be obliged to ; Ex. He 
de trabajory I must work ; and so on through all die tenses. 

Rule LVIII. — When the participle past is constructed 
with the verb tester, and is used only as auxiliarv, it takes 
neither gender nor number. Ex Tengo habhado a su madrcy 
I have spoken to his mother. Tengo escrito d mi hermanoy 
I have written to my brother. 

Rule. LIX. — If the verb tener ^ when it serves to construct 
the participle past, is used as an attive verb, the participle 
past agrees in gender and number with its direct regimen. 
Ex. Tengo escrita una carta a mi hijoy I have written a let- 
ter to my son. Lacasa que mi tio tiene comprada the house 
that my uncle has bought 

N. B. Tener qucy is in English to have to ; Ex. J have to 
doy tengo que hacer ; and so on through all the tenses. 

Rule LX, — When the participle past is constructed with 
the verb ser or estar y it always takes die gender and number 
of its subject Ex. Las riquezas son apetecidaSy riches are 
sought after. J^os malos serdn castigadoSy the wicked shall 
be punished. EUa estd sentadoy she is seated. 

ADVfiEBS. 157 

Rule LXI. — The neuter ^ reflective and reciprocal verbs 
form their compound tenses with the auxiliary verb habery to 
have ; and the participle past is always invariable when used 
with said ^-auxiliary ; therefore we say, han salidoy they 
are gone out ; nos hemos alabadoy we have praised ourselves ; 
Pedro y Juan 8€ han amado aiempre, Peter and John have 
always loved one another. 

N,'B. Morir, to die, is conjugated in the compound ten- 
ses, either with Ao&crr, preceded by two pronouns of the same 
person, one the subject and the other the direct regimen, or 
with estar or ser ; in the first case the participle is invariable ; 
in the second, it takes the gender and number of the subjects 
•£x. EUa 86 ha muertOy she has died. Ellos son^ or estdn 
muerto8y they are dead ; mi madre es muertay or estdmueria, 
or 9eka muertOy my mother is dead. 

s , CHAPTER Vn. 


The adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, which sei" 
to modify the signification of another word, or express a cir- 
cumstance of it 

N. B. Simple adverbs are generally placed after the verbs, 
and in compound tenses between the auxiliary and the parti- 

A^yerbs are simple or compound. They are simple, 
when they are expressed in one single word, and compound, 
when they are expressed in several. They are distinguished 
as adverbs of place, timey order y quantity y comparisony man* 
neTy doubty affirmaiiony and negation. 

Adverbs of place serve to denote distances and the situa^^ 
lions of persons or things ; as aquiy or oca, here where I am ; 
aUiiy there where you are ; alii or alldy there where he is, 
where she is, where they are ; aculldy there, on the other 
side, on the side opposite to where^ you are ; cercay near ; 
lejosy far ; dondCy where, (without motion ;) adondcy where, 
(with motion ;) dentrOy in, within ; fueruy out, without ; 
arribay up, up stairs ; abajoy down, down stairs ; delantey 
before; detrasy behind; encimOy over, above; debajo; 
under, below. 


Adverbs of time are those which express some relation to 
time, as Aoy, to-day; ayer, yesterday; mafiana, to-morrow; 
ahorOf now ; luegOy soon ; tarde^ late ; temprcmoj early ; 
preitOf quick ; pronto, quickly ; siempre, always ; jamasj 
or nuncaj never ; ya, already ; mientrasy in the mean time. 

Adverbs of order express the manner in which things are 
arranged, in regard to one another, as primeramentey firstly ; 
anteSy before ; despueSy afterwards, &c. 

Adverbs of quantity serve to denote the quantity of ob- 
jects, or their value ; as, muchoy much ; pocOy little ; muy, 
very ; harioy bastantCy enough, sufficiently ; tauy so-as ; 
tan is used for tanto before a participle passive. Ex. Quien 
es TAN amado como il? Who is as much beloved as he f 
tantoy so much ; cuantOy how much. 

Adverbs of comparison serve to compare objects together ; 
as, ma«, more; menos,\ess; m^/or, better; peor, worse; 
muyy very. N. B. This last adverb placed before a partici- 
ple past stands for mucky very mucky in English. Ex. Estoy 
MUY contentOyOT satisfeckoy I am muck or very muck pleased. 
He was muck esteemed, era huy estimado. 

Adverbs of manner express how and in what manner 
things are done ; they comnsonly hold the place of a prepo- 
sition and a noun ; as, prudentementey prudently ; elegafUe- 
mentCy elegantly ; which are put for con prudencioy con cfc- 
ganciOy with prudence, with elegance, &c. They are also 
called adverbs of ^ua/t^y, because they are almost all formed 
from adjectives, the property of which is to qualify ; the ad- 
verbs formed from adjectives are terminated in mente which 
is added to the feminine of those that terminate in o, and to 
the masculine of those that have another termination, without 
altering any thing in it ; as, constante, constant ; constante- 
uten^e, constantly ; sutil, subtle ; sutiUmentey artfully ; ricoy 
rich ; rica-menfey richly ; altOy high $ aUa-mentCy highly, &c. 
There are others, which, not being derived from adjec^ 
tives, cannot follow this rule, such as, 6ie», well ; maly ill ; 
asiy thus, &c. 

There are in Spanish only two adverbs oi doubt y these are, 
acaso and quizd, perhaps. 

Adverbs of affirmation are ; «f , yes ; ciertamentCy ciertOy 
certainly ; verdaderamenteytxuiy ; iiM/w6iVa6/ewien/c, undoubt- 
edly, &c. 


Adverbs of negation are ; no^ no, not ; nada, nothing, &€., 
and are always placed in Spanish before the verb, and in 
compound tenses before the auxiliary. 

Observations upon jamas, nunca, no, mas, menos and muy. 

1st. Jamas is used in the same sense as nunca ; thus, we 
say ; jamas le hablariy I never shall speak to him ; jamas vi 
tal cosaj I never saw any thing like. ^ It is often joined to 
nunca^ por siemprey or para siempre, to give more strength 
and energy to the phrase ; as, nunca jamas h harty I never 
shall do it ; por siempre or para siempre jamas me acordari 
de ti, I shall ever remember thee. We see by these exam- 
ples diat, when it is joined to nunca, it signifies never; and 
that x)n the contrary, it has the signification of etemaUy^ 
when it is joined to por siempre, ov para siempre. Jamas is 
EVER, in English, in, interrogations. Ex. Do you ever read ? 
Ijee vm, jamas ? 

2d. No does not always serve to deny ; this word serves 
sometimes on the contrary to give more force to the affir- 
mation and to make the opposition that exists between the 
two objects compared more striking ; as, mejor es la virtud 
que NO las riquezas, virtue is preferable to riches. 

Remark. Two negative adverbs do not always destroy 
each other in Spanish ; on the contrary, they often serve to 
add to the strength of the negation. Consequently we say ; 
NO he visto d nadie, I have seen nobody, no hai/ ninguno, 
there is nobody ; and not, no lie visto alguno ; no hay algu^ 
no ; but care must be taken to observe that, in order to 
make use in the same phrase of this double negation, no must 
precede the verb, and the other negative must follow it, as in 
the above examples. If any other negative than no precede 
the verb, no is not expressed. We say, and very properly ; 
JAMAS oi voz mas harmoniosa^ I never heard a more harmo- 
nious voice ; nada quieroy I wish for nothing ; but we cannot 
say, jamas no oi voz mas harmoniosa; no nada quiero. Fi- 
n^y, it is necessary to suppress the negative no, and place the 
negative adverb before the verb, or separate the two negatives 
in such a manner that no should precede the verb, and the 
other negative word should follow it ; as, jamas te hablariy 
or NO tc hablari jamas, I never shall speak to thee ; nadie 
te quierey or no te quiere nadie, nobody lovos thee ; the first 

1 60 ADVERBS. 

construction is the most elegant. Ninouno, no body, not any 

3d. When several adverbs terminating in meniey are 
found in the same phrase, all of them except the last, lose 
the termination mente. The object of this rule is to avoid 
repetitions disagreeable to the ear. Instead therefore of say- 
ing ; hablan sMamente y ehcuefUemente ; escribe cktrameniey 
concisamente y legantementej we say ; hablan sabia y elocur 
entemente ; escribe cJara^ concisaj y legantemente ; they 
speak wisely and eloquently ; they write clearly^ concisely 
and elegantly. 

4th. MaSf more ; menoSy less ; are also used to qualify 
substantives. Ex. El es mas hombrcy or, menos hombre que 
su hermanoy he is more a man or less a man than his brcytfaer. 

5th. Muy serves also to qualify substantives. Ex. Muy 
andgo miOy very much my friend ; muy senor mioy dearest 
sir ; muy cabaUerOy very much a gentleman. 



Prepositions serve to express or denote the different rela- 
tions which persons or things have with each other ; they 
are fixed and invariable ; and have neither gender nor num- 
ber. Alone, they make no sense ; and in order that they 
may signify something, it is necessary that they be followed 
by a regimen expressed or understood. 

The prepositions most used in the Spanish language are the 
following ; dy antCy cotiy contruy dcy desdCy ew, entrcy hdcia, 
hastOy para, por, segun, sin, sobrey tras ; to or at, before, 
with, against, of or from, since, in, between or among, towards, 
till or until, for, by or for, according to, without, upon, behind 
or after. They have in Spanish the same use as in English, 
except the prepositions parOy pory sobre and traSy which 
require some observations. 

Observations upon para and per, /or, by. 

The English preposition by presents no difficulty, it is al- 
ways rendered in Spanish by por. Ex. The world has been 
created by God ; el mundoju6 criado por Dios* 


But it is not the same with the English preposition for^ it 
is sometimes rendered by the preposition para^ and some- 
times by the preposition por; and we cannot use indifferently 
one for the other. The Allowing rules will direct the learner 
respecting the use to be made of the words para and porj ac- 
cording to the different cases. 

Rule LXII. — The preposition for is translated by j^ara 
when it denotes, 1st. that an action is directed towards a 
person or thing. Ex. This letter is for John, esta carta es 
para Juan, 2d. Motion towards a place. Ex. I set out /or 
Italy, salgo para Italia, 3d. A particular time, or fixed 
term, to which an action is referred. Ex. We shall leave it 
for to-morrow, lo dejartmos para manana. 4th. The relation 
that a person or thing has with another. Ex. He has not 
done it ill for a beginner ; para un principiante no lo ha 
hecho mal, 

N. B. 1st. When the preposition for serves to express r 
the end that we propose, it may be translated, either by para 
or por, we say ; I work to gain, trahajo por or para ^anar. 
2d. To he about — is translated by estar para, and the fol- 
lowing verb is put in the present of the infinitive. Ex. 1 
am about setting out, estoy para partir. In respect to — in 
comparison with — are translated by para con, — Ex. What is 
the creature in comparison withy or in respect to his creator ? 
Qiiien es la criatura para con su criador ? Among is ele- 
gantly rendered in the following phrase, and others like it, by 
para entre. Ex. Among friends compliments are always 
useless, para entre amigos los cumplimientos son siempre eS' 
cusados. Para is also used before some adverbs, for we say ; 
para ahora lo quieroy I wish for it now ; para cuando venga^ 
when he shall come ; para dentro de un mes. within a 
month ; para entonces lo verimos, we shall then see him. 

Rule LXIIL — The preposition /or is translated by por 
when it serves to express, 1st. the time that a thing has last- 
ed or will last. Ex. I leave Madrid/or one month, salgo de 
Madrid por un mes, 2d. When it is equivalent to in favor 
of — Ex. I shall speak for thy brother, hahhri por tu her^ 
mono. 3d. When it signifies in the place of, as substitute 
of — Ex. I attend /or my friend, asisto por mi amigo. 4th. 
When it serves to express an exchange. I would give my 
coat/br thine, daria mi vestido por el tuyo. 


We also use tbe prepositioii por in the following modes of 
speaking ; in the moming^ por la tnafiana ; in the afteniocMi, 
por la tarde ; such a thing is not yet done^ tal cosa estdpor 
hacer ; to go for, tV por; he goesyor wine^ va por vino ; to 
pass for, estar tenido por ; — ^he passes /or a wicked man, ntd 
tenido por malo. 

Observations upon sobre and tras. 

These prepositions sobre and tras are frequendj used be- 
fore verbs, which they govern in the infinitive. Ex. Sobre 
ser reo convictOy quiere que le premien^ he has been found 
guilty, and yet he wishes to be rewarded. Tras ser cuipado, 
es il que mas levanta el gritOj he is guilty and yet raises his 
voice the lt>udest. Ir tras, to go after, 

PreposiUms rvhichf in Spanish, govern the following 
% noun in the genitive. 

Before, antes ^Before the time, antes del tiempo. 

After, despues ^After you, despties de vm. 

Within, dentro Within two years, dentro de dos anosS 

Except, fuera Except my father, faera de mi padre. 

Besides, ademds Besides the money, ademds del dinero. 

Near, cerea Near the door, cerca de la puerta. 

Across, por el medio— —Across the fields, por el medio de 

hs campos. 
At, in the, en casa At my brother's, en casa de mi her' 

mono ; at home, en mi casa ; in thy house, en tu casa ; 

at our home, en nuestra casa. 
Notwithstanding, in spite of, d pesar In spite of you, 

dpesarde vm. 
Opposite, frente dj en f rente de Opposite his house, 

en f rente de su casa. 
By the side of, al lado By the side of the king, al lado 

del rey. 
Behind, detras Behind the chest of drawers, detras del 

Upon, encima— Upon the bed, encima de la coma. 
Under, clebafo ^Under the bridge, debajo delpuente. 

The following prepositions govern the dative. 

As respects, en orden d ■ Ai respects what you say, en or- 
den a to quevm, dice. 



Adjoining, junio^^-^-^AAyming the garden^ junio idjatHm, 
Concerning, toconfe— —— Ooncerning this aJEbky tociuUe 4 

Almost all the other prepositions goveril the noun in Span- 
ish in the same case as in English. 

In addition to the preceding directions for the use of 
prepositions, we ought not to omit the following table taken 
from the Grammar of the Spanish Academy, which teaches 
at once how the prepositions govern and are governed. We 
advise students to commit this table to memory. 



Abalaozane d los peligros 
abaiidooarse d la suerte 
abocarte con alguno 
abocboraane de algo 
9bogwrpor alguno 
abordar (una nave) df con otra 
aborrecible & Us gentes 
aborrecido de todos 
abrasarse en deseos 
abrirse d, eon los arnigos 
absteoerse de la fruta 
abundar de, en riquezas 
aburrido de las desgracias 
abusar de la amistad 
acabar de venir 
acaecer d alguoo 
acaecer en tal tiempo 
acalorarse en, con la disputa 
acceder d la opinion de otro 
accessible d todos 
acertar a, eon la casa 
acogerse d sagrado 
acomodarse a, eon otro dictikmea 

aconipanarse eon otroi 
aconsejarse con, de sabios 
acontecer d los incautos^ 
acordarse de lo pesado 
acordarse eon los contrariot 
acostanibf,arse & trabajos 
acre de genio 
acreditarse de necio 
•credttarse eon, para alguaa 

ta rush on dangers 
to abandon oneself to chance 
to confer with any one 
to be chagrined with any thing 
to plead for any one 
to bring one ship to another 
hateful to the people 
detested by all 
to be inflamed with debifes 
to open oneself to one*8 friends 
to abstain from fruit 
to abound with, or in riches 
weary with one's ill fortune 
to abuse friendship 
to be just come 

something to happen to any one 
to happen at such a time 
to grow warm in a dispute 
to accede to another*s opinion 
accessible to all 
to find out the house 
to have recourse to a church 
to conform oneself to another opin- 
to keep company with others 
to be advised by wise men 
to happen to the unwary 
to remember the past 
to agree with opponents 
to accustom oneself to works 
austere in temper 
to prove one's own folly 
to get credit with one 



acrtedor d la confiansa worthy of confideace 

acreedor de alg^uno any one's creditor 

actaarte de, en lot negocios to acquaint oneself with business 
acusar (jk alguno) de algun delito to accuse any one of any crime 

acnsarse de las colpas to accuse oneself of faults 

adelaatarse d otros to advance others 

adberirse d otro dicttoen to adhere to another opinion 

adolecer de alguna enfcrmedad to be ill of some disorder 

aferrarse en, con su opinion 
aferrarse (una nave) con otra 
aficionarse d, de alguna cosa 
afirmarse en lo dicho 
ageno de Terdad 
agradable al paladar 
agradecido d los beneficios 
agraviarse de alguno 
agraviarse de la sentencia 
agregarse d otros 
agrio al gusto 
agudo de ingenio 
ahitarse de manjares 
ahogarse en el mar 
ahercajarse en las espaldas 
ahorrar de razones 
ahorrarse (no) con ninguno 
airarse con alguno 
ajustarse d la razon 
ajnstarse con alguno 
alabarse de valiente 
alaifarse d la ciodad 
alegrarse de al^o 
alejarse do su tierra 
alimentarse de, con yerbas 
alimentarse de esperanzas 
alindar con otra heredad 
allanarse d lo justo 
alto de cuerpo 
amable & todos 
amancebarse eon los libros 
amante de alguno 
amanarse & escribir 
amoroso con los suyos 

to be positive in one's own opinion 

one ship to grapple another 

to be fond of any thing 

to affirm what has been said 

foreign to truth 

agreeable to the palate 

grateful for benefits 

to be affronted with any one 

to appeal from the sentence 

to unite oneself to others 

sour to the taste 

witty or sharp 

to surfeit oneself with food 

to be drowned in the sea 

to get upon one's back 

to spate words 

not to spare any man 

to be angry with any body 

to be right inclined 

to make it up with any one 

to boast of bravery 

to hasten to the city 

to be rejoiced at any thing 

to leave one's country 

to subsist upon herbs 

to feed oneself with hopes 

to be contiguous to another's estate 

to submit to what is just 

tall in stature 

amiable to all 

to be fond of books 

a lover of some one 

to be clever in writing 

kind with one's relations 

ampararse de algo, de alguna cosa to take possession of anything 

ancho de boca 

andar con el tiempo 

andar de capa 

andar en pleitos 

andar & gatas 

andar por tierra 

angosto de manga 

anhelar &, por mayor fortuna 

anticiparse d otro 

wide mouthed 

to accommodate oneself to time 

to walk with a cloak oa 

to be litigious 

to go all fours 

to be humbled to the ground 

tight sleeved 

to covet better fortune 

to anticipate another 



aovar en la ribera 
aparar en la mano 
aparecerse d alguoo 

aparecerse en el camino 

aparejarse para el trabajo 
apai tane de la ocasion 

apartarse d un lado 
apasionarse a, tie, per algano 
apearse de su opinion ^ 

apechugar eon alguna'coaa 
apechugar por los peligros 
^pedrear eon las palabras 
apegarse & algunacosa 
apelar de la seotencia 
apelar d otro medio 
apercibine de armas 
apercibirse &, para la bataUa 
apetecible al gusto 
apetecido de, jmt todos 
apiadarse de los pobres 
aplicarse d los estadios 
apoderarse de la hacienda 
apostar d coiner 
apresurarse d yenir 
apresurarse por algiina cosa 
apretar por la cintora 
aprobarse en algana Ikcoltad 
aprobado de cirujano 
apropiado para el oicio 
apropiarse d sf 
apropincaarse d alguno 
aproyechar en la virtad 
aprovecharse de la ocasioa 
apto para el enpleo 
apnrado de medios 
aqoietarse en la dispnla 
arder en deseos 
arderse en quimeras 
aimarsc de paciencia 
arrebozarse eon algo 
arrecirse de frio 
arreglarse d las leyes 
arregostarse d alguna cpsa 
arremeter d, eon, eontray el maro 
arrepeotirse de las culpas 
arrestarse d todo 
arribar d tierra 
arrimarse d la pared 
arrincoDarfe en ca8% 

to lay eggs od the sea-shore 

to receive jnritb the hand 

to present oneself suddenly before 
any one 

to present oneself suddenly on tbc 

to prepare for work 

to separate oneself from the occa- 

to retire on one side 

to be enamoured with any one 

to change one's opinion 

to undertake anything with spirit 

to braye dangers 

to abuse any one with words 

to adhere to auythiog- 

to appeal from the sentence 

to have recourse to another measure 

to proTide oneself with armt 

to get ready for battle 

desirable to the palate 

desired by all 

to have compassion on the poor 

to apply oneself to study 

to take possession of the proper^ 

to lay a wager on a race 

to make haste to come 

to make haste for something 

to take fast hold by the waist 

to be approved in any fkcaltj 

approved as a surgeon 

adapted to the office 

to appropriate to oneself 

to approach any one 

to improve in virtue 

to seize the opportunity 

fit for the employment 

exhausted of means 

to grow quiet in the dispute 

to burn with desires 

to be full of quarrels 

to arm onself wiOi patience 

to muffle oneself up in anything 

to be benumbed with cold 

to conform to the laws 

to be inclined to anything 

to assault the wall 

to repent of sins, faults 

to be enterprising in everything 

to arrive at land 

to lean against the Wall 

to keep oneself immured 



arrojl^se (algo) d si mismo 
arrojane d pelear 
arroparse eon la capa 
arrostrar d, eon los peligros 
asarse de calor 
ascender d otro empleo 
asegurarse de sa contrario 
aseotir d otro dict&men 
asesorarse eon letrados 
asistir d los enfermos 
asistir en talcasa 
asociarse d, eon otro 
asomarse d, por la ventana 
asparse d gritos 
asparse por alguna cosa 
^pero al gusto 
iigpero en las palabras 
aspirar d mayor fortuna 
atarse d aoa sola cosa 
atemorixarse de^por algo 
atender d la converyacion 
atenerse d lo seguro 
atento eon sus majores 
atestiguar eon otro 
atinar d, con la casa 
atollarse en los caminos 
atraer d si 

atreverse d cosas grandes 
atreverse con todos 
atribuir d otro 

atribularse en, eon los trabajos 
atropellarse en lasacciones 
atufarsa en la cooTersacion 
atufarsa por poco 
aonarse eon otro 
auseotarse de Madiid 
avecindarse en algud pueblo 
avenirse eon todos 
aTcntajarse d otros 
avergonsarse d pedir 
avergonzarse de algo 
fiveriguarse con alguno 
aviarse de ropa 
avocar (alguoa cosa) d si 

Balancear d tal parte 
balancear en laduda 
balar por dioero 
bambolear en la maroma 
bafiarse en agua 

to appropriate anything to oneself 
to rush on to fight 
to cover oneself with a cloak 
. to face danger 
to be scorched with heat 
to ascend to another office 
to shelter oneself from one's enemy 
to assent to another's opinion 
to seek council from learned men 
to assist the sick 
to attend such a house 
to associate onself with another 
to look out at the window 
to be exhausted with roaring 
to torment oneself for anything 
rough to the taste 
rude in conversation 
to aspire to better fortune 
to tie oneself to one thing alone 
to be afraid of something 
to attend to the conversation 
to keep to the side of safety 
respectful to one's superiors 
to testify with another 
to hit upon the house 
to, stick fast in the road 
to attract to oneself 
to animate oneself to great things 
to dare eyery body 
to attribute co another 
to be afflicted with labour, troubles 
to overhasten actions 
to take pet in conversation 
to be affronted at a trifle 
to unite oneself with another 
to absent oneself from Madrid 
to take up one's abode in any town 
to agree with all 

to gain the advantage over others 
to be ashamed at asking 
to be ashamed of anything 
to agree with any one 
to furnish oneself with clothes 
a superior to call a cause from an 
inferior court to his own. 


to hesitate on such a side 
to fluctuate in doubt 
to wish for money 
to dance on the rope 
to bathe oneself in water 



barar en tierra 
barbear con la pared 
bastardear de sa naturaleza 
bastardear en bus acciones 
batattar eon los enemigos 
bajar d la cue?a 
bajar de la torre 
bajar de la autoridad 
bajar hdeia el valle 
bajo de cuerpo 
benefico dfpara lasalud 
bianco de cutis 
blaodo de corteza 
blasfemar de la yirtnd 
blasooar de valiente 
bordar (algo) de, con plata 

bordar (algo) al tambor 
bordar de pasados 
bostezar de hambre 
boto de punta 
bojance en lafortuoa 
bramar de cora^ e 
brear d chasco 
breg^r con alguoo 
brindar con regales 
brindar d la salad de al^no 
baeoo dCf para comer 
bafar d4 ira 

boUir en, par todas partes 
burlarse de algo 

to run aground 

to reach a wall with one's chin 

to degenerate from his natore 

to be degenerated in one's actions 

to fight with the enemy 

to go down to the cellar 

to descend from the tower 

to recede from authority 

to descend towards the valley 

low in stature 

beneficial- to the health 

of a white complexion 

of a soft skin, bark 

to blaspheme against virtue 

to boast of brarery 

to embroider any thing in or with 

to embroider on a tambour frame 
to interweave 
to gape through hunger 
blunt at the point 
to be fortunate 
to roar with anger 
to vex with tricks 
to struggle with any one 
to ofier presents 
to toast to any one's health 
good to eat 
to swell with anger 
to move in all parts 
to make a jest of any thing 

Caber de pies 
caber en la mano 

d, hdeia tal parte 
caer de lo alto 
caer en tierra, en cuenta, en 

error, en tal tieropo, en lo que 

se dice 

caer por pascua 
caer tobre los enemigos 
calarse de agua 
ealentarse d la lumbre 
calificar de docto 

callar (la verdad) d otro 
callar de,por miedo 
calumniar (a alguno) de injusto 

to be able to stand on one's feet 
to be able to be contained in the 

to fall on such a side 

to fall from on high 

to fall opon the earth, to compre- 
hend, to fall into a mistake, to 
fall out at such a time, to under- 
stand what is said 

to fall at Easter 

to fall upon the enemy 

to wet oneself through with water 

to warm oneself at the fire 

to qualify any one as a learned 

to conceal the truth from another 

to be silent from fear 

to calumniate any one as unjust 



calnne d al^n« to lead another by the noM 

cambior (algiinacoia)eofi,jMrotni to exchange one thing for another 

to trarel to Seville 

to travel on foot 

to walk alonff the mountain 

to fatigue oneself with the labour 

to be tired of pretendin|f 

to be tired on the road 

capable of holding a hundred ar- 

capable for the employment 
to capitulate with the enemy 
to reproach anyone as a bad judge 
to insist upon one's opinion 
casar (una persona 6 €OSa) Mfi otra to couple one person or thing with 

catequiaar (& alguno) para alguna to persuade any one to any thing 

causar (peijuicio) d alguno to cause prejudice to any one 

cautivar (a alguno) con, por ben- to overcome any one with favours 

cavar (la imaginacion) en alguno to think seriously on any one 
cavar (con la imaginacion) en to think deeply en any thing 
alguna cosa 

to go lounging about 

caminar dtpara SeviUa 
caminar d pie 
caminar por el monte 
cansarse dc, can ri trabajo 
cansarse de pretender 
cansarse en el camino 
capai de cien arrobas 

capaa dt, para el empleo 
capitular con el enemigo 
capitular (k alguno) di mal jues 
cargarse ac raaon 

cazcalear de una parte & otra 
ceder d otro, d la autoridad 
ceder en beneficio de alguno 
censurar (alguna cosa) die mala 
cefiirse d lo posible 
chancearse eon alguno 
chapuzar (algo) en el agua 
chico de cuerpo 
chocar d alguno 
chocar eon otre 
circunscribirse d una cosa 
clamar d Dies 
clamar por dinero 
clamorear por los mnertos 
coartar (la facultad) d alguno 
cobrar (dinero) de los deudores 
colegir de^por los antecedentes 
coligarse eon alguno 
columpiarse en el aire 
combatir con^ contra el enemigo 
combiner (una cosa) eon otca 
comedirse en las pidabras 
eomenzar d decir 
comerse de envidia 
compatible con lajusticia 
compensar (una cosa) con otra 

to yield to another, to authority 
to resign in another's favour 
to blame anything as bad 
to keep within bounds 
to joke with apy one 
to sink anything in the water 
small in person 
to provoke any one 
to strike one against another 
to confine oneself to one thing* 
to pray God 
to cry out for money 
to ring a peal for the dead 
to restrict any one 
to recover money from debtors 
to infer from the antecedents 
to make an alliance with any one 
to swing in the air 
to fight against the enemy 
to combine one thing with another 
to be civil in words 
to begin to say 
to pine with envy 
compatible with justice 
to compensate one thing with an- 

' Anrohatt four make a quintal. 



competir con alguno to rival any one 

complacerse (£e, en al^na cosa to be pleased irith anything 
componerse eon los deudores to compound with debtors 
componerse de bueno y malo to be made of good and bad 
comprar (alguno) cd,dtl vendedor to bay any thing from the seller 
comprehensible a/ entendimieuto comprehensible to the understand- 
comprobar(algo) con instrumentos to prove anything with instruments 
comprometerse eon alguno to render oneself answerable to any 

comprometerse en jueces drbitros to compromise by arbitration 
comunicar (Inz) a alguna parte to communicate light to any part 
comiinicar (uno) con otro to commune one with another 

concebir (alguna cosa) cnel aoimo to comprehend something 
conceblr (una cosa) por buena to conceive anything as good 
conceder (algo) d otro to yield anything to another 

conceptuar (k alguno) de,pora9bio tu look upon any one as a wise man 
concertar (una cosa) ron otra to concert with one another 
Goncotdar (la copia) con el original to make the copy agree with the 


Goncurrir d algun fin 
concurrir d alguna parte 
concurrir con otros 
concur! ir (muchos) en un dicth- 

condenar (4 uno) d galeras 
condenar (& uno) en las costas 
condescender d los ruegos 
condf.sceoder eon la instancia 
condolerse de lostrabajos 
conducir (algo) d tal parte 

to contribute to some end 
to meet at some place 
to concur with others 
many to agree in one opinion 

to condemn to the galleys 
to condemn in the costs 
to condescend to entreaties 
to condescend to the instances 
to be grieved with troubles 
to conduct any thing to such a 
conduc]r(unacosa)a/bieD de otro something to conduce to another's 

confabularse eon los contrarios to converse with one's enemies 
confederarse con alguno to ally oneself to any one 

conferir (una cosa) con otra to compare one thing with another 

conferir (nn negocio) eon, enire to confer on any business with 

los amigos 
confesar (el delito) a/ juez 
confesarse d Dies 
confesarse eon alguno 
confesarse de sus culpas 
confiar (una cosa) d una persona 
confiar en,'de alguno 
confinar (i alguno) d tal parte 
confihar (Espafia) eon Prancia 
confirmarse en su dict&men 
conformarse pon el tieinpo 
conforme d, eon su opini9B 
confrontar can alguno 



to confess one's crime to the judge 
to confess to Qod 
to acknowledge to any one 
to confess one's sins 
to entrust anything to any one 
to rely upon any one 
to confine any one to such a place 
Spain to lie adjacent to France . 
to be confirmed in one's opinion 
to conform to the times 
conformable to his opinion 
to confront with any one 



confVontar (ana com) eon otra 
confundirse de lo que se it 
confundirte en suit juicioA 
congeniar eon alguno 
coDgraciane eon otro 

coBgratalarae con los soyos 

congratularse de alguna cota 
cong«curar (alg^o) de, por senalet 
conmutar (algo) eon otra cosa 
conmutar (mi voto) en otra cosa 
consagrarse d Dios 
consentir en algo 
consolarse con sus parientes 
coospirar d alguna cosa 
couspirar contra alguno 
coDspirar en un intento 
constar (el todo) de partes 
constat por escrito 
consultar d algano para ua empleo 

consultar eon letrados 
consumado en una facultad 
containinarse con los yiciosos 
contaminarse de beregias 

contemporizar eon alguno 
contender con alguno 
contender «o6re alguna cosa 
coDtenerse en su obligacion 
contestar d la pregunta 
contract (algo) d un asunto 
contrapesar (una cosa) con otra 

contrapooer (una cosa) d otra 
contrapuntarse eon alguno 
contrapuntarse dt palabras 
contravenir d la ley 
(;ontribuir a tal cosa 
contribuir con dinero 
convalecer de la enfermedad 
convencerse de la razon 
convenir con otro 
convenir en alguna cosa 
conversar con alguno 
cony^rsar en materias de estado 
convertir (la hacienda) en dinero 
convertirse d Dios 
conTidar.(& alguno) d comer 
convidar (^ c^lguno) con dinero 
convidarse d los trabajos 
couTocar <i junta 

to confront one thing with another 

to be confounded with what one sees 

to be thrown into confusion 

to be congenial to any one 

to ingratiate oneself into another's 

to congratulate oneself with one*s 

own friends 
to rejoice in any thing 
to conjecture anything by signs 
to barter one thing for another 
to exchange into another thing 
to consecrate oneself to God 
to agree to any thing 
to be comforted with one*s friends 
to aspire to any thing 
to conspire against any one 
to enter into a conspiracy 
the whole to be compoaed of parts 
to appear in writing 
'to propose any one for an em- 
to consult with learned men 
to be consummate in a faculty 
to penrert oneself with the yioious 
to contaminate oneself with hcr> 

to temporize with any one 
to contend with any one 
to dispute upon any thin^ 
to hold to one's contract 
to answer one's question 
to apply something to a subject 
to counterpoise one thing with 

to put one thing against another 
to compare oneself with any one 
to scold at one another 
to transgress against the law 
to contribute to soch a. thing 
to contribute money 
to recover from illness 
to be convinced by reason 
to agree with another 
to agree upon, any thing 
to converse with any one 
to converse on affairs of state 
to convert goods into money 
to be converted to God 
(o invite any one to dine 
%o offer money to anybody 
to be ready to work 
to convene a meeting 



tooperar (con otro) d a]guna cosa 
correrse ae vergiienza 
eorresponder d los beoeficias 
corresponderse con los amigos 
contejar (la copia) eon el original 

crecer en virtudes 
crecido de cuerpo 
creer en Dios 
creerse de alguna cosa 
cucharetear en todo 
cuidar de algo, de algooo 
culpar (4 uno) de omiso 
cumplir eon algdao 

cumplir eon su obligacion 
cararse de alguna enfermedad 
cnrarse en salud 
cturtirse al aire 
eartido del sol 

to cooperate in any thing 

to be ashamed 

to be grateful 

to correspond with friends 

to compare the copy with the 

to increase in yirtuet 
tall in stature 
to believe in Grod 
to be convinced of anything 
to intermeddle in every thing 
to take care ofsomething of some one 
to blame any one for ne|^ligf nee 
to discharge one's obligation to 

to perform one's duty 
to be cured of any disorder 
to take care of oneself 
to tan by the air 
tanned by the son 

dar (algo) d alguno 

dar (4 alguno) de palos 

dar de bianco 

dar en manias 

dar par visto 

darse d estudiar 

darse el diaatre- 

darse par vencido 

deber (dinero) d alguno 

decaer de su autoridad 

decir (algo) d otro 

decir (bien) con una cosa 

decir (bien) de alguno 

declararse d alguno 

declararse par un partido 

deelinar d, hdHa tai parte 

declinar en bageza 

dedicar (tiempo) al estudio > 

dedicarse d la virtud 

defeDder(4 uno) de sus contrarios 

deferir (al parecer) de otro 
defraudar (algo) de la autoridad 

de otro 
degeoerar de su nacimiento 
dtlaniede alguno 
delatarse a/ juez 
deleitarse con la viata 
deleitarse en oir 
4eUberar tdbn tal cosa 

to give something to anybody 
to beat any one with a stick 
to hit the mark 
to be foolish 
to suppose anything seen 
to give oneself to study 
to despair 
to surrender 

to be indebted to anybody 
to fall from one's authority 
to say anything to another 
to agree one thing with another 
to speak well of any one 
to declare oneself to anybody 
to declare oneself for such a party 
to approach towards such a side 
to degenerate 

to employ one's time in study 
to devote oneself to virtue 
to defend any body from his ene- 
to adopt another's opinion 
to usurp another's authority 

to degenerate from one's ancestors 
before anybody 
to accuse oneself to a judge 
to please oneself with seeing 
to please oneself with hearing 
to deliberate upon anything 



dentro de can 

depender de alguiiA 

deponer (A alguno) de sd empleo 

depositar (algo) en alguna parte 
derivar de otra autoridad 
derreiiegar de alguna cosa 
desabrirse con alguno 
desabrocharse con alguoo 

desagradecido d algun boneficio 
desahogarse (con alguoo) de su 

degapropiarse de algo 
desavenirse con alguno 
desavenirse (unog) de otros 
degayunarge de alguna noticia 
degcabezarsp en, con alguna cosa 
degcalabazarge en alguna coga 

degcangar de la fatiga 
degcantillar (algo) de alguna coga 

degcargarse de alguna cosa 
degcartarge de algun encargo 
degcender d log valleg 
degcender de buen linage 
degcolgane de, por la muralla 
degcollar tobre otrog 
degcomponerge con alguno 
degconfiar de alguno 
degconocido d log beneficing 
degcontar (algo) de alguna coga 
degcubrirge con alguno 
degcuidarge dcy en gu obligacion 
degdecir de su car4cter 
desdecir de lo dicho 
clegdejiarge de alguna cosa 
desembtirazarse de estorbog 
desembarcar de la nave 
desembarcar en el puerto 
desenfrenarse en vicios 
desertar de las banderas 
desespcrar de la pretension 
desfalcar falgo) de alguna coga 
desgajarse de los monies 
deshacerse d trabRJar 
deshacerse de alguna cosa 
deshacerse en llanto 
desmentir d alguno 
desmentir (una cosa) de otra 
desnudarse de pasiones 

within the houge 
to depend upon an}^ body 
to depoge any body from his em- 
to depogit any thing in any place 
to derive authority from another 
to detegt any thing 
to have a difference with any body 
to divulge one'g own gecret to an* 

ungrateful for any benefit 
to communicate one'g trouble to 

to alienate any thing 
to digagree with any one 
gome to disagree with others 
to take notice of any thing 
to labour hard in vain 
to puzzle one'g witg to find out any 

to relieve onegelf from fatigue 
to break off the corner of any 

to clear onegelf from any thing 
to ezcuge onegelf from any charge 
to degcend to the vallieg 
to come of a good family 
to creep down the wall 
to gurpagg others 
to digagree with any one 
to mistrust any one 
ungrateful for benefits 
to discount one sum from another 
to disclose oneself to any one 
to neglect one's obligation 
to deviate from one's character 
to retract what one has said 
to disdain any thing 
to get rid of obstacles 
to unship, unload 
to land in the harbour 
to abandon oneself to vices 
to desert the standard 
to despair of one's pretension 
to take away from another thing 
to fall from the mountains 
to work with anxiety 
to get rid of any thing 
to burst into tears 
to give any one the lie 
one thing to contradict another 
to conquer one's passions 



degpedirse de alguna coia 
despeftarsc de un moote 
despertar d alguoo 
despertar del sueno' 
despicarse de la ofensa 
despoblarse de gente 
desposarse con algano 
desprenderse de algo ' 

despues de llegar, de alguno, de 

al^na cosa 
desquisciar (a alguno) de su poder 
desqnitarse de la perdida 
desterrar (& udo) de su patria 
destrizarse d llorar 
destrizarse de enfado 
desTergoDzarse con alguoo 
desviarse del camino 
desvirirse por algo 
deten^rse en dificuUades 
determinarse d partir 
detras de la iglesia 
devolver (la causa) al jaez 
dejar (una manda) d alguno 
dejar de escribir 
dejar (algo) en mano de otro 

diferir (al?o) d, para otro tiempo 
digoarse ae conceder algo 
dimaoar (una cosa) de otra 
discernir (una cosa) de otra 
disgustarse de, eon algona cosa 
disponer de los bienes 
disponerse d camioar 
disputar de, tobre alguna cosa 
diseotir de otro dict4men 
distar (un pueblo) de otro 
distinguir (una cosa) de otra 

distraerse de, en la conversacion 
disuadir (& alguno) de algunacosa 
dWidir (una cosa) de otra 
dividir en partes 
dividir enJtre niuchos 
dmdir por mitad 
dolcrse de los pecados 
dotado de ciencia 
dndar de alguna cosa 
durar hoMia el inviemo 
dorar DOT mucho tiempo 
doro at corteza 


to take leaTe of anj thing 

to fall headlong from a mountain 

to awake any one 

to awake from sleep 

to be revenged of an affront 

to become unpeopled 

to marry any on« 

to get rid of something 

after arriving, after any one, after 

any tning 
to ueprive any one of his authority 
to make up for one*s loss 
to banish any one from his country 
to consume oneself with weeping 
to consume oneself with anger 
to take liberties with any body 
to lose one's way 
to be anxious for something 
to be stopped by difficulties 
to take a resolution to set out 
behind the church 
to let the cause devolve to the judge 
to bequeath to any one 
to leave off writing 
to deposit something in the hands 

of another 
to defer any thing to another time 
to condescend to grant any thing 
to emanate one thing from another 
\o discern one thing from another 
to be disgusted with any thing 
to dispose of goods 
CO prepare oneself to travel 
to dispute on any thing 
to dissent from another's opinion 
to be distantjone town from another 
to distinguish one thing from an- 
to wander in conversation 
to dissuade any one from any thing 
to divide one thing from another 
to divide in parts 
to divide between several 
to divide into halves 
to repent of sins 
endowed with learning 
to doubt 4ny thing 
to last till v^ inter 
to last a \or\g time 
of a rough skin, bark 



echar (algo) de, ffi, por tierra 
echar (olor) de si 
eirvarse d^ hasta el cielo 
elevarse dt la tierra 
embarcarse en nefrocios 

to throw any thing on the earth 
to exhale an odour 
to be exalted to the gkiei 
to be elevated from the earth 
to be involved in business 

embobarse con, dt, en alguna cosa to be stupefied with any thing 
emboscarse en el roonte to lie in ambush on a hill 

enibutir (alguna cosa) de algodon to inlay any things with cotton 

cmbutir (una cosa) en otra 
enroendarse con la correccion 
enmendarse de, en al^una cosa 
erapaparse en aj^ua 
empnrejar con al^iino 
empareutar eon alguno 
empenarse en una cosa 
em pf'jiarse por alg^uno 
emplearse de al^una cosa 
enagenarse de nig una cosa 
enamorarse de alguno 
euamoricarse de alguno 
cncallar (la nave) en arena 

to inlay one thing with another 

to be amended by correction 

to correct oneself in any thing 

to be soaked with water 

to put one on a level with any one 

to be related to any one 

to pledge oneself to do a thing 

to take part for another 

to employ oneself about a thing 

to alienate any thing 

to be enamoured with any one 

to fall in love with any one 

to run a ship on shore, or on the 

to direct one's course to any part 

encaminarse d alguna parte 

cncaramarse en, por^o&re la pared to climb up the wall 
encararsR d, con alguno to face another 

eucargarse de algon negocio to charge oneself with any business 

cncasquf tarse (algo) en la cabeza to be obstinate in maintaining an 


encastillarse en alguna parte 
encajarse en, por alguna parte 
encenagarsc en vicios 
encenderse en ira 
encerrarse en su casa 
encharcarse en agua 
encomendarse d Dios 
encnnarse con alguno 
enferraar del pecho 
enfrascarse en la dlsputa 
engolfarse en cosas graves 
engreirse eon la fortnna 
enlazar (alguna cosa) con otrn 

to fortify oneself in any place 

to busy oneself in any thing 

to be vicious 

to kindle with anger 

to shut oneself up in one's house 

to drink too much water 

to commend oneself to God 

to be irritated against any one 

to have a pain in the breast 

to entangle oneself in a dispute 

to be absorbed in important things 

to become vain with fortune 

to tie one thing close to another 

enredarse (una cosa) con, en otra to interweave one thing with an- 

ensayarse d, para alguna cosa 
ensaynrse en alguna cosa 
entender de alguna cosa 
entender en sus negocios 
enterarse de alguna cosa 
enterarse en algun negocio 

to try to do any thing 
to become expert in any thing 
to understand any thing 
to understand one's business 
to be well informed of any thing 
to be well acquainted with any 



entrar en alguna parte 
entregar (algo) d algnoo 
entreineterse en co^as de otro 
enviar (algo) d alguDo 
eqtiivocarsc (una cotia) eon otra 
equivocarge en algo 
escaparse de la prision 
escaparse por la yentana 
escarraentar de^ eon alguna cosa 
escarmentar en cabeza agena 

esconderse en alguno parte 

esconderse de alguno 

escaso de roedios 

escribir (cartas) d alguno 

esculpir en bronce 

esmerarse en alguna cosa 

espantarse de algo 

estampar en papel 

estar d la 6rden de otro 

ettar de viage 

estar en alguna parte 

estar en animo de 

estar en lo que se hace 

estar para salir 

estar por alguno 

estar (alguna cosa) por suceder 

estrecbarse eon alguno 

estrecbarse en los gastos 

estrellarse eon alguno 

to enter into any part 
to deliver something to some one 
to meddle with another's affairs 
to send something to some one 
to mistake one thing for another 
to be mistaken in any thing 
to escape from prison 
to escape through the window 
to take warning at any thing 
to take warning at another's ex- 
to hide oneself in any place 
to hide from any one 
limited in means 
to write letters to any one 
to engrave on brass 
to exert oneself in any thing 
to be terrified at any thing 
to print on paper 
to be under another's direction 
to be on a journey 
to be in some place 
to have a mind to 
to know what is doing 
to be ready to go out 

to be in favour of any one 
something to be near happening 
to become intimate with any one 
to restrain oneself in one's expenses 
to fall out with any one 
estrellarse en, contra alguna cosa to dash oneself against any thing 
estribar en alguna cosa to be supported in any thing 

esceder (una cosa) d otra one thing to excel another 

es€eder(unacantidad)en mil reales a sum to exceed one thousand rials 
e8ceptuar(ii algunoVfe alguna cosa to except any one from any thing 
esclnir (a alguno) de alguna parte to exclude any one from any place 

6 cosa or thing 

escusarse eon alguno to apologize to any one 

escusarse de hacer alguna cosa to excuse oneself from doing any 

exhortar (k alguno) d tal cosa to exhort any one to such a thing 
eximir (4 alguno) de alguna cosa to exempt any one from any thing 
exonerar (4 alguno) de su empleo to dismiss any one from his place 
espeler (a alguno) de alguna parte to expel any one from any place 
esoerto en las artes skilled in the arts 

estraer (una cosa) de otra to extract one thing from another 

estraviarse de la carrera to deviate from one's purpose 


facil de digerir 
faltar d la palabra 
faltar de alguna parte 

easy to digest 

to fail- in one's promise 

to be missing 

172 PMP08ITI0N8« 

falto de juicio • wanting sense 

fastidiane de manjares to be disgusted with Tictaals 

fatigarM de^ fn, por alguna cosa to long for something 

favorable <i, para alguno favourable to some one 

favorecerse de alguno to avail oneself of any one 

fiarse det en alguno to confide in anj one 

fiar (algo) d alguno to trust anj thing to any one 

fiel if eon sus amigos faithful to one's friends 

fijar f algo) en la pared to fix any thing in the wall 

flexible d la rason pliant to reason 

fluctuar en, entre dudas to fluctuate in doubt 

fortificarse en alguna parte to strengthen oneself in any place 

franquearse d, eon alguno to open oneself to any one 
frisar(una persona 6 cosa) con otra to be of the same genius with an- 

fuera de casa ^ out of the house 

fuerte de condicion of a high temper 

fundarse en rason to be founded in reason 


girar (una letra) d cargo de otro to value upon another 

girar de una parte k otra to reel from one side to another 

girar por tal parte to reel on such a side 

girar io6re una casa de comercio to draw upon a commercial house 

gloriarse de alguna cosa to boast of any thing 

gordo de talle fat or lusty 

goaar de alguna cosa to relish any thing 

graduar (una cosa) de, por buena to pronounce any thing as good 

grangear (la voluntad) djde alguno to gain the afiections of any one 

guardarse de alguno, <^e alguna to guard oneself from any one^from 

cosa any thing 

guarecerse de alguna persona 6 to take shelter from any person or 

cosa thing 

guarecerse en alguna parte to take shelter in any place 

guarnecer (una cosa) con, de otra to garnish one thing with another 
gniado de alguno guided by any one 

guiarse por alguno to guide oneself by any one 

guindarse por la pared to descend by the wall 

gustar de alguna cosa to like any thing 


hdbil en papeles skilful in documents 

h&bil para el empleo qualified for the employment 

babilitar (d uno) en, para alguna to enable any body to do any thing 


habitar eon alguno to dwell with any one 

habitar en tal parte to dwell in such a place 

habituarse d, en alguna cosa to accustom oneself to something 

hablar con, por alguno to speak with, or for any one 

hablar de, en, iobre alguna cosa to speak of any thing 

hablar en griego to talk gibberish or Greek 

hacer d todo to be ready at any thing 



hacer de Taliente 
hacer para si 
hacer por alguno 
hacerse con bueoos libros 
hallar (alguna cosa) tn tal parte 
hallarse d, en la £e8ta 
hartarse de comida 
hencbii (el caotaro) de agua 

to pretend to courage 

to provide for oneself 

to do for any one 

to furnish oneself with good book» 

to find any thing in sach a place 

to be present at the feast 

to gorge oneself with food 

to fill the pitcher with water 

herir {& alguno) en la estiiuacion to hurt any one in his reputation 

herido de la injuria 
hermanar (una cosa^ con otra 

hervir (un lugar) de, en gente 
hincarse de rodillas 
bocicar en alguna cosa 
holgarse eon, de alguna cosa 
huir de alguna per^rbna 6 cosa 
bumanarse d alguna cosa 
humanarse con los inferiores 

wounded by injury 

to make one thing agree with atti- 

to be very populous 
to kneel down 

to stumble at any inconvenience 
to rejoice at any thing 
to fly from any person or thing 
to familiarise oneself to any thing 
to be condescending to inferiors 

humillarse d alguna persona 6 cosa to humble oneself to any person or 


bandir (alguna cosa) en el agua to plunge any thing into the watec 

huadirse en un pantauo to sink in a bog 


id6neo para alguna cosa 

igual d, con otro 

igual en foerzas 

igualar (una cosa) d, con otra 

imbuir (& alguno) de, en alguna 

fit for anything 
equal to another 
equal in forces 

to.make one thing equal with an- 
to instruct any one in anything 

impeler (ii alguno) d alguna cosa to compel any one to any thing 
impelido de la necesidad impelled by necessity 

impenetrable d los mas perspi- i|n penetrable to the most penetra- 


impenetrable en el secreto 
impetrar (algo) de alguno 
implicarse eon, en alguna cosa 
ifloponer (pena) d alguna 
tmponerse en alguna cosa 
importar d alguno 
importunado de, por otro 
importunar (4 alguno) con pre- 



impenetrable in secresy 
to obtain anything of any one 
to intermeddle in anything 
to impose penalties on any one 
to instruct oneself in anything 
to be of importance to any one 
importuned by another . 
to importune any one with preten- 


impresionar (4 alguno) contra otro to impress any one against another 

imprimir (alguna cosa) en el dnimo to imprint any thing on the mind 

impropio de, en, para su edad unbecoming his age 

impagnar (alguna cosa) d alguno to impugn any one in anything 

impugoado de,por muchos impugned by many 

rmpntar (la culpa) d otro to impute the fault to any *• 



isaccestible d log pretendientet 
inapeable de so opinion 
incangable en el trabajo 
incapaa de remedio 
iDcegante en sug tareag 
incidir tn culpa 

incitar (k alguDo) d gu defenga 
incitar (d alguno) eoTiira ocro 
inclinar {d alffuno) d la virtud 
iDcluir en el unniero 
incompatible eon el mando 
incomprehengible d log bombreg 
incongecuente en alcana coga 
incongtante en go proccder 
incorporar (una coga) d,een, en 

increible df para muchog 
incumbir (una coga) d algono 

incurrir en delitog 
indecigo en regoWer 
indipnarge eon, contra nlguno 
indigponer (k uoo) eon otro 
iodocir (a aiguoo) d pecar 
ioductivo de error 
indultar (4 alg^uoo) de la penA 
infatigable en el trabajo 
infecto de beregiag 
inrerior d otro 
inferior en alguna coga 
inferir (una coga) de, por otra 
inficionado de pegte 
Infiel d gu amigo 
inflexible d la raaon 
infleiible en gu dicttfmen 
influir en nlfuna coga 
informar (d alguno) de, tobre al- 

ffuna coga 
infiindir ((inimo) d, en alguno 
ingrato d log beneficiog 
ingrato eon log amig^og 
inha'bil para el enipleo 
inbabilitar (<r alguno) /9ara alguoa 

Inhibir (al juez) de, en el conoci* 

ingengible d lag injoriag 
ingeparable de la viriiid 
ingertar (una coga) en otra 
insinuar (una cosa) d alguno 
tnginuane eon log poderosog 

ioacceggible to pretenders 

obgtinate in one'g opinion 

unwearied witb work 


indefatigable in one'g laboura 

to fall again into a fault 

to incite any one to one'g defence 

to incite arny one against another 

to incline any one to virtue 

to include in the number 

incompatible with the command 

incomprehengible to men 

to be incongequent 

incongtant in one*g proceedingi 

to incorporate one thing with an- 

incredible to many 

any thing to be incumbent on any 

to incur crimet 

undecided in regolving 

to be angry with any one 

to indigpoge one with another 

to induce one to sin 

leading to error 

to pardon any one the punigbment 

indefatigable in labour 

infected with heregiet 

inferior to another 

inferior in anything 

to infer one thing from another 

infected with the plague 

unfaithful to one'g friend 

inflexible to reason 

indexible in one*g opinion 

to have an influence over anything 

to inform any one of anything 

to encourage any one 

ungrateful for favourg 

ungrateful to friendg 

unfit for the employment 

to digable any one for anything 

to inhibit any judge from taking 

further cognizance 
insengibleto injurieg 
inseparable from virtue 
to ingraft one thing on another 
to insinuate anything to any one 
to insinuate oneself into the favour 

of the great 



iosipido al gusto 
insistir en, sobre alguna coga 
inspirar (algana cosa) d atguno 
instruir (a alguno) dtf en, tobre al- 
guna coga 
ioterceder con alguno por otro 

interceder j9or otio, con alguno 

interesarse eon alguno, por otro 

interesarse en alguna coga 
internarge eon alguno 
internarsc en alguna coga 6 lugar 
interpolar (unas cogas^ con otrag 
interponer (su autoridad). eon al- 
iotervenir en lag cogag 
iotervenir por alguno 
introducirse con log que mandan 

introducirge en, por alguna parte 

invadido de, por log contrariog 

inremar en tal parte 

invertir (el caudal) en otro uso 

ingerir (un itrbol) en otro 

ir de (Madrid) d, hdcia Cadiz 

ir contra alguno 

ir por el camino 

irpor pan 

ir tras alguno 

ingipid to the taste 

to ingist on anything 

to inspire anything to another 

to ingtruct any one in anything 

to inlereede with any one for an* 

to intercede for another with any 

to interegt oneself with any one 
for another 

to interest onegelf in anything 

to creep into another'g favourg 

to look into anything 

to mingle one thing with another 

to iaterpoge one'g authority with 
any one 

to intervene in thingg 

to intervene for any one 

to introduce onegelf to the com- 

to intrude onegelf into any place 

invaded by the enemies 

to pagg the winter in guch a place 

to invegt money into another uge 

to ingraft one tree on another 

to go from Madrid to Cadiz 

to go againgt any body 

to go in the way 

to go for bread 

to go after any one 

jactarse de alguna cosa 
jug^r d tal juego 
jogar (unog) con otros 
jugar (alguna coga^ eon otra. 
juntar (una coga) a, con otra 
jugtificarge de algun cargo 
jnzgar de alguna coga 


to boagt of anything 
to play at guch a game 
to play one with another 
to move one thing with another 
to join one thing to another 
to clear oneself from any charge 
to judge of anything 


ladear (nna cosa) d tal parte 
ladearge (alguno) d otro partido 
lamentarge de la deggracia 
lanzar (algo) dt contra alguno 
largo de cuerpo 
largo de manos 
lagtimarse eon, en una pifdra 
lagtimarse de ajguno 

to turn anything on luch a side 

to become a turncoat 

to lament the misfortune 

to throw something at any one 

tall in stature 

fruitful, liberal 

to hurt oneself against a stone 

to take pity on any one 



leer (lot pensaoiientos) d algtmo 
lejofl de la tierra 
levantcr (las maoos) al cielo 
levaotar (aJ^na cosa) del suelo 

le^aDtar (alg^na cosa) en alto 

libertar (a alguno) ile peligro 

librar (& alguno) de riesgog 

lidiar eon alguno 

ligar (uoa cosa) eon otra 

ligero de pies 

liinitar (las facultades) d alguno 

limitado-de talentos 

Undar (una posesion) con otra 

llevai (algo) d alguna parte 
llevarse de algana pasion 
lochar con alguno 
ludir (una cosa) eon otra 

to read the thoughts of any one 

far from land 

to raise the bands to heaven 

to raise any thing up from the 

to raise any thing on high 

to deliver any one from danger 

to free any one from risk 

to dispute with any one 

to tie one thing with another 


to limit any one*s powers 

of slender talents 

a possession to be adjoining to an- 

to carry something to any place 

to be carried away by some passioa 

to wrestle with any one 

to rob one thing against another 


malqoistarse con alguno 
manar (a^ua) de una fuente 
manco de una mano 
mancomunarse con otros 

snandar (alguna cosa) d alguno 

roanifestar (alguna coka)4 aljcuno 

manteuer (conversacion) d alguno 

mantenerse de yerbas 

mantenerse en paa 

maquinar contra alguno 

maquinar en, sobre alguna cosa 
^ maravillarse de alguna cosa 

mas de cien ducados 

matarse d trabajar 

matarse por copseguir al|;pi;ia cosa 

matizar con, de colores 

mediaqo^cfe cuerpo 

mediar con, por alguno- 
. mediar entre los contrarios 

medirse eon sus fuerzas 

medirse en las palabras 

medrar en la hacienda 

mejorar de empleo 

mejorar(aidguno)en tercioy quinto 

menor de edad 
menos de cien ducados 
merecer d, d'e^ eon- alguno 
mesurarse en lasfaecion^s 
4 meter (dioero) en el cofre 

to make oneself hated by any one 
water springing from a fountain 
maimed of one hand 
to unite oneself with others in the 

execution of anything 
to send anything to any one 
to discover anything to any one 
to maintain conversation with one 
to live upon herbs 
to live in peace 
to plot against any one 
to think hard about any thing 
to wonder at any thing 
more than a hundred ducats 
to kill oneself wifn jabopr 
to tire oneself to deafh,for any^ipg 
to shade with coloufs 
of a middling slatuce 
to intercede for any oqe 
to mediate between enemies 
to act according to one*s abilities 
to weigh one's words 
to increase in riches 
to better one*s employment 
to meliorate any one's foirtune in a 

third and fifth part * "' 

under age 

less than a thousand ducats 
to merit from any one 
to be cautious- in one's actions 
to put Diooeir into the chest 



(& alguno) en emp«iio to put one under the neceieity of 

doiog a thing 
meter (una cosa) entre otras ooeas to put one thing among others 
meterae d gobemar 
meterse d caballero 

meterse con los qoe mandan 
meterse en los peligros 
mezclar (ana cosa) am otra 
mezclarse en negocios 
nirar (la ciodad) d orienle 
mirar par algaoo 
mirarse en atguna cosa 
mcMlerarae en las ^lalabras 
mofarse de alguno 
iiiojar(algQna cosa) en agua 
molerse d trabajar 
moliHo de andar 
molestar (a ano) con visttas 
molesto d todos 
montar d caba!lo 
montar en mala 
montar en c6lera 
morar en poblado 
morir de poca edad 
mortr de enf ^rmedad 
morirse de frio 

morirse por lograr alguna cosa 
motejar (d alguno) de ignorante 
motivar (la proridencia) eon ra- 

moverse de una parte 4 otra 
mochoB de los presentet 

to assame- fEOvert> men t 

to affect the character and dignity 
of a knight, a gf ntlemau 

to mix with the commanders 

to expose oneself to dangers 

to mtz one thing with another 

to meddle in bosiness 

the city to face the east 

to look, for any one 

to be carefnl in anything 

to be moderate in words 

to make game of any one 

to wet with water 

to fatigue oneself with working 

fatiga«Hl with walking 

to trouble any one with f isits 

troublesome to all 

to get on horseback 

to mount a mule 

to get into a passion 

to dwell in a settled place 

to die young 

to die of a sickness 

to be chilled with cold 

to long for obtaining any end 

to censure any one as ignorant 

to persuade (a measure) by rea- 

to move from one side to another 

many of those present 

mudar (alguna cosa) d otra parte to remove any thing to another 

mudar de intento to change one's intention 

mudarse de casa to remove from a house 

marmurar de algnoo to murmur against any one 


nacer eon fortuna 

Dacer (alguna cosa) de alguna 

nacer en las malvas 
D8M;er para trabajos 
Dadar en el rio 
Davegar d Indias 
Degarse d la communicacion 
aimio en su proceder 
ainguno de los presentes 
aivelarse d lo josto 


to be born to a fortune 

any thing to spring from any paA 

to be born of low parents 
to be born to labour 
to swim in the river 
to sail to the Indies 
to deny oneself to company 
over-nice in one's couduct 
none of the present 
to direct oneself by justice 



Dorobimr (i alguno) para el em- 

Doter (4 al^no)i(eh*bl8dor 
Dolilicar (alguna cosa) d alguno 

to appoint any one to the cm- 

to note anj one as a talker 
to notify any thing to any one 


obligar (a algnno) d alguna cota 
obstar (una cosa) d otra 
obstinarse en alguna cosa 
obtener (alruna gracia) de algnno 
occuUar (aJguna cosa) d^ de al- 
ocuparse en trabajar 
ofenderse eoUf de algnna cosa 
ofrec^r (alruna CMa) d alguno 
ofrecerse a los peligros 
oler (una cosa) d otra 

olvidarse de lo pasado 
opinar en, Jo6re alguna cosa 
' oprimir (4 alguno) eon el poder 
optar d los empleos 
ordenarse de sacerdote 
orillar d algnna parte 

pactar (alguna cosa) eon otra 
pagar am palabras 
pagar en dinero 
pagarse de buenas raxones 
paladearse eon alguna cosa 
paliar (alguna cosa) con otra 
p4Jido de semblante 
palmear d alguno 
parar d la puerta 
parar en casa 
pararse d descansar . 
pararse con alguno 
pararse en alguna cosa 
parco en la comida 
parecer en alguna parte 
parecerse d otro 
participar (algo) d alguno 
participar de alguna cosa 
particularizarse con alguno 
particolarizarse en alguna cosa 
parti r d Italia 
partir (algo) eon otro 
partir en pedazos 
partir entre amigos 

to oblige any one to anything 
one thing to hinder another 
to be obstinate in anything 
to obtain a favoui from any one 
to conceal any thing from any one 

to be occupied with work 
to be offended at anything 
to offer any thing to any one 
to offer oneself to dangers 
one thing to have a smell of an- 
to forget the past 
to hold an opinion on anything 
to oppress another by power 
to be a candidate 
to be ordained as a priest 
to draw to any side 


to make a bargain 

to pay with words 

to pay in cash 

to be satisBed with good reasons 

to please the palate with anything 

to palliate one thing with another 


to cheer any one with the bands 

to stop at the door 

to stay at home 

to stop to rest oneself 

to stop with any one 

to stop at anything 

sparing in eating 

to appear anywhere 

to resemble another 

to participate anything to any ooe 

to partake of any thing 

to be singular with any one 

to signalize oneself in any thing 

to tet off to July 

to share out any thing with another 

to break into pieces 

to share between friends 



partir j9or mitad 
partir por entero 
partirse de Espana 
pasar d Madrid 
pasar de Se villa 
pasar tntre montes 
pasar por el ramino 
pasar por entre 4rboles 
pasar por cobarde 

to divide in halves 

to divide by tens 

to set off from Spain 

to go to Madrid 

to go beyond Seville 

to pass between mountains 

to past by the road 

to pass between trees 

to pass for a coward 

pasarse(algunacosa)(leiamemoria to forget any thing 

pasarse (la fruta) de madura 
pasarse (alguno) de letras 
pasearse eon otro 
pasearse por el campo 
pecar eonira la ley 
pecar de ignorante 
pecar en alguna cosa 
pecar por demasia 
pedir (alguna cosa) d algono 
pedir eon jttsticia 
pedir contra alguno 
pedir de justicia 
pedir en justicia 
pedir por Dios 
pedir i^or alguno 
pegar (una cosa) d otra 
pegar (una cosa) eon otra 
pegar eonira, en la pared 
pelarse j)or alguna cosa 
peligrar en alguna cosa 
pelotearse eon alguno 
penar en la otra vida 

fruit to begin to decay 

to be very learned 

to take a walk with another 

to walk in the country 

to transgress the law 

to sin through ignorance 

to be faulty in any thing 

to sin through excess 

to ask any thing of any one 

to ask with justice . 

to bring an action against any one 

to claim in law 

to sue by law 

to beg for God 

to ask for any one 

to apply one thing to another 

to join one thing with another 

to fasten against the wall 

to be anxious for any thing 

to endanger in any thing 

to 8cu£9e with any one 

to be punished in the other life 

penar por alguna persona 6 cosa to suffer for any person or thing 

pender de alguna cota 
penetrar hiuta las entraiias 
penetrado de dolor 
pensar en, jodre alguna cosa 
perder (algo) de vista 
perderse (alguno) de vista 
perderse en el camino 
perecer de hambre 
perecerse de risa 
perecerse por alguna cosa 
peregrioar por el muudo 
perfumar eon incienso 
permanecer en alguna parte 
permitir (alguna cosa) d alguno 

to depend upon any thing 

to penetrate to the entrails 

penetrated with grief 

to think upon anything 

to lose sight of any thing 

to excel in an eminent degree 

to lose one's way 

to perish with hunger 

to die with laughing 

to die for anything 

to wander through the world 

to perfume with incense 

to remain in any place 

to permit any thing to any one 
permutar (una cosa) eon, por otra to exchange one thing for another 
perseguido de enemigos pursued by enemies 

perseverar en algun intento to persevere in any design 

persuadir (alguna cosa) d alguno to persuade any one of anything 
persuadirse d alguna cosa to be persuaded of aujrthing 



pergaadirie de, jwr his raeones de 

pertenecer (una CMa) d alguno 
pertrecbarte dt lo necesario 
pesarle {h alf uno) de lo que ha 

petado en la coDTertacion 
pescar eon red 
piarpor alguna cosa 
picar de, en todo 
picarse de alguna cota 
pintiparado d alg^no 
plagarse de graoos 
plantar (aalguDo) en alguna parte 
piantarse en Cadiz 
poblar de ^rbolet 
poblar en buen parage 
poblarse de gente 
ponderar (una cosa) de grande 
poner (& uno) d oficio 
poaer (alguna cosa) en alguna 

poner (a alguno) por corregidor 
ponerse d escribir 
porfiar con alguno 
portarse eon decencia 
posar en alguna parte 
pose! do de temor 
postrado de la enfermedad 
postrarse d los pies de alguno 

postrarse en cama 

postrarse en tierra 

precedido de otro 

preciarsp de valiente 

precipitarse de,por alguna parte 

preferido d otro 

preferido de alguno 

preguntar (alguna cosa) d alguno 

prendarse de alguno 

prender (las platttas) en la tierra 

preocuparse de alguna cosa 

prepararse d, para alguna cosa 

preponderar (una cosa) d otra 

prescindir de alguna cosa 
piesentar(aigunacosa) (i alguno 
presenter (a uno) para una pre- 
bend a 
preservar (4 alguno) de dafto 
presidir d otros 
presidir en un tribunal 

to be persuaded by another's rea* 

any thing to belong to any one 
to be furnished with necessaries 
any one to repent of what he has 

dull in conversation 
to fish with a net 
to long for anything 
to excel in every thing 
tu pique oneself upon anything: 
like to any one exactly 
to be plagued with pimples 
to set any one in any place 
to be settled in Cadiz 
to fill with trees 
to settle in a good situation 
to be peopled 

to exaggerate anything as great 
to put any one in business 
to put anything some where 

to appoint any one corregidor 

to set oneself to writing 

to be positive v^ith any one 

to conduct oneself firith decency 

to lodge in any place 

possessed by fear 

prostrated by sickness 

to prostrate oneself at another's 

to be confined to one's bed 
to kneel down on the ground 
preceded by another 
to pique ones self upon courage 
to be precipitated from any place 
preferred to another 
preferred by any one 
to ask any one any thing 
to be taken with any one 
plants to take root in the earth 
to be prepossessed with anything 
to prepaie oneself for anything 
to preponderate one thing over 

to cut off from any thing 
to present anything to any one 
to present any one for a prebend 

to preserve any one from injury 
to preside over others 
to preside in a tribunal 



pretidido de otro 
prestar (dinero) d alguno 
prestar (U dteta) para la salad 
prestar sobre prenda 
presumir de docto 
prevalecer (la yerdad) tobre la 

preveair (alcana cosa) d alguno 
prevenirse de \o necessario 
prevenirse para un viuge 
primero de, erUre todos 
pringarse en alguoa cosa 
privar (& alg^oo) de lo sujo 

prirar am tdguno 
probar dsaltar 
probar de todo 
proceder d la eleccioo 
proceder eon, sin acuerdo 

proceder contra alguno 
proceder (una cosa) de otra 
procesar (d uno) por delitos 
procurar por algoao 
proejar contra las olas 
profesaren religion 
prometer (alguna cosa) d alguno 
promover (d algono) d algan cargo 
propasarse d, en alguoa cosa 
proponer (algaaa cosa) d alguno 
proponer (k alguno) en primer 

proporcionar (4 alguno) para al- 
guna cosa 
proporcionarse d las fuerzas 

proporcionarse para alguna cosa 
prolongar (el plazo) d ^guoo 
prorumpir en 14grimas 
proveer (la plaza) de riveres 

proveer (el empleo) en alguno 

proTenir de otra cosa 
provocar d ira 

provocar (& alguno,)eon malas pal- 

proximo d morir 
pujar por alguoa cosa 
purgarse de tospecha 

presided bj another 

to lend money to any one 

the diet to contribute to the health 

to lend on security 

to set op for a man of learning 

truth to prevail over falsehood 

to adWse another of any thing 
to provide oneself with necessaries 
to prepare oneself for a journey 
first among all 
to intermeddle in any thing 
to deprive any one of what be- 
longs to him 
to be intimate with any one 
to try to jump 
to taste of every thing 
to proceed to the election 
to proceed with or without circum- 
to proceed against any one 
one thing to proceed from another 
to proceed against a man for crimes 
to procure for any one 
to row against the waves 
to profess in religion 
to promise any thing to any one 
to promote any one to any office 
to overshoot one*smark in anything 
to propose any thing to any one 
to propose any one in the first 

to fit any one for any thing 

to proportion oneself to one's 

to fit oneself for any thing 

to prolong the credit to any one 

to burst into tears 

to furnish the fortress with provi* 

to provide any one with employ- 

to proceed from something else 

to provoke to anger 

to provoke any one by scurrilous 

at the point of death 
to strive for any thing 
to clear oneself from suspicion 




to fit for the employment 

to fit anytbiog to any oae 

which of the two ? 

to break any one's bones 

to break any one's heart 

to remain or reside in a place 

to remain gtanding - 

to tarry at home 

to have to proceed farther 

to be bail for any one 

toberepnteda coward 

anything falling to my share 

to stop short in a ditconrse 

to complain to any one 

to complain of any one 

to lay one's complaint before the 

to complain of one's neighbour 
to inflame one with ioTective 
to be offended with any word 
to heat oneself for anything 
beloved by one's friends 
which of them ? 
to take anything from any one 

quitar (alguna. ooea) de .alguna to take anything from any plmoe 

quitarse de quimeras. to free oneself from whims 


caadrar con el eocargo 

coadrar (alguna cosa) d alguno 

cual de los dos ? 

quebraotar (los buesot)d alguno 

quebrar (el corazon) d alguno 

quedar dt asiento 

quedar de pies 

quedar en casa 

quedar (caraino) por andar 

quedar por alguno 

quedar por cobarde 

quedar (una cosa) por mia 

quedarse en el sermon 

quejarse d alguno 

quejarse de alguno 

querelarse d, ante el juez 

querellarse de su vecino 
quenar eon malas rasones 
quemarse de alguna palabra 
quemarse por alguna cosa 
qoerido de sus amigoa 
quien de ellos ? 
quitar (alguna cosa) d alguno 

rabiar de hambre 

rabiar por comer 

radicarse en la virtud 

raer de alguna cosa 

rallar (las tripas) d cualquiera 

rayar con la virtud 

razonar eon alguno 

rebalsarse (el agon) en alguna 

rebatir (una cantidad) de otra 

rebajar (una cantidad) de otra 

recaer en la enferroedad 

recalcarse en lo dieho 

recatarse de alguno 

recavar (alguna cosa) de^ con al- 

recetar (medicinas) (i, para alguno 

recetar contra alguno 

recibir (alguna cosa) rfe alguno 

recibtr d cuenta 

recibir (k alguno) en 

to be very hungry 

to long to eat 

to establish oneself in virtue - 

to scrape from anything 

to importune any one 

to excel in virtue 

to converge vrith any one 

water to stagnate in any place 

to deduct a sum 

to abate one> sum from another 

to relapse into sickness 

to be firm in what has been said 

to be cautious of any one - 

to obtain anything from any one 

to prescribe medicines for any one 
to make a charge against any one 
to receive any thing from any one 
to receive on account 
to receive any oue at home 



recibirse de abogado 

recio de cuerpo 

reclinarse en, sobre alguna cosa 

4*ecluir (& algnoo) en alguna parte 

recobrarse de la eofermedad 

recogerse d casa 

recomendar (alguna cosa) d alguno 

recompensar (agravlos) eon bene- 

reconcentrarse (el odio) en el co- 

reconciliar (a uno) con otro 
reconvenir (a alguno) conf de, 

iohre alguua cosa 
recostarse en, tobre la silla 
recudir (a alguoo) con el sueldo 
redondearse de deudas 
reducir (alguna cosa) d la mitad 
redandar en beneficio 
referirse d alguna cosa 
refocilarse con alguna cosa 
refugiarse df en sagrado 
reglarse d lo justo 
regodearse en, con alguna cosa 
reirse d carcajadas 
reirse de alguno 

reniirarse en alguna cosa 
reemplazar {k alguno) en su em- 

rendirse d la razon 

renegar de alguna cosa 

repartir (alguna cosa) d, entre al- 

representarse (alguna cosa) d la 

resbalarse de las manos 

resentirse de alguna cosa 

residir de asiento en alguna parte 

residir en la corte 

resol verse d alguna cosa 

responder d la pregunta 

restar (una cantidad) de otra 

restituirse 4 su casa 

resoltar (una casa) de otra 

retirarse d la soledad 

retirarse del mundo ^ 

retraerse d alguna parte 

retraerse de alguna cosa 

retroceder d, hdeia tal parte 

reventar de risa 

reyentar por hablar 

reTMtirse de autoridad 

revolcarse en los vicios 

to be admitted as a counsellor 

of a strong constitution , 

to lean upon any thing 

to shut any one up in any place 

to recover oneself fi'om sickness 

to retire home 

to recommend anything to any one 

to recompense wrongs with benefits 

to concentrate hatred in the heart 

to reconcile one with another 

to retort on any one with anything 

to recline on a seat 

to pay any one his wages 

to pay off one's debts 

to reduce anything to the half 

to conduce to the benefit 

to refer oneself to any thing 

to be refreshed with any thing 

to take refuge in some sacred place 

to conform to what is right 

to delight oneself in anything 

to laugh heartily 

to make a jest of any one 

id examine oneself in any thing 

to take the place of any one in his 

to yield to reason 
to apostatize from anything . 
to share any thing among several 

to represent an> thing to one's 

to slip away from the hands 
to resent any thing 
to be settled in any place 
to reside at court 
to resolve upon any thing 
to answer the question 
to remain one sum from another 
to return to one's house 
one thing to result from another 
to retire into solitude 
to retire from the world 
to take refuge any where 
to escape from anything 
to recede towards such a place 
to burst with laughter 
to burst with a desire of speaking 
to be invested with authority 
to wallow in vice 



reToWer eon/ra, kdda, 9obre el 

robar (dioero) d alguno 
rodar (el carro) por tierra 
rodear (4 alguno) por todas partes 
rodear (una plaza) eon^ murallat 
rogar (alguoa cosa) d alguno 
romper eon alguno 
romper por alguna parte 
rozarse (una cota) eon otra 
rozarse en las palabras 

to return to the enem/ 

to rob any one of money 

to overset a cart 

to encompass any one on all sidfs 

to surround a place with walls 

to beg any thing of any one 

to break off with any one 

to break in any place 

to rub one thing with another 

to stammer in one's speech 

saber d vino 

saber de trabajos 

sacar (una cosa) d la plasa 

sacar de alguna parte 

sacar en limpto 

sacri6car (alguna cosa) d Dios 

sacrificarse por alguno 

salir d alguna cosa 

salir eon la pretension 

salir con/ra alguno 

salir de alguna parte 

salir por fiador 

to taste like wine • 

to be acquainted with trouble 

to take any thing to the market 

to take any thing from any place 

to clear up all doubts, to copy fair 

to sacrifice any thing to God 

to sacrifice oneself for any one 

to co-operate in anything 

to obtain one's aim 

to go out against any one 

to go out from any place 

to appear as security 

saltar (una cosa) d la inaginacicyi any thing to strike the imagination 

saltar de el suelo 

saltar de gozo 

saltar en tierra 

salvar (k alguno) del peligro 

sanar de la enferroedad 

satisfacer por las culpas 

satisfacerse de \fi duda 

to leap from the ground 

to leap with joy 

to leap on the ground, on shore 

to save any one from danger 

to recover from sickness 

to atone for one's faults 

to be satisfied for the doubt 

8egregar(a alguno) de alguna parte to separate any one from any place 

segregar (una cosa) de otra 
seguirse (una cosa) de otra 
semejar, 6 semejarse (una cosa) 

d otra 
sentarse en la mesa 
sentarse d la silla 
sentenciar (4 uno) d destierro 
sentirse de algo 
separar funa cosa) de otra 
ser (una cosa) d (^usto de todos 
ser (una cosa) cfe, pttra algunos 
servir de majordomo 
servir en palaclo 
servirse de alguno 
sincerarse de alguna cosa 
sisar de la compra 
sitlado de enemigos 

to separate one thing from another 
one thing to follow from another 
to liken one thing to another, to 

re semble 
to sit down to table 
to sit down in the chair 
to condemn one to exile 
to be sensible of anything 
to separate one thing from another 
any thing to be to ihe taste of all 
any thing to be to or for some one 
to serve ailn steward 
to be a servant in a palace 
to make use of any one 
to clear one's self from something 
to lessen the purchase 
besieged by enemies 


sitiar por hambre to lay siege te any one by means 

of hunger 
sitaarse tn alguna parte to station oneself in any place 

sobrellevar (los trabajos) ron pa- to undergo labours, troubles with 

ciencia patience 

sobrellevar (£ alguno) en sus tra- to assist any one in his labours or 

bajos troubles 

sobrepujar (a alguno) en aotoridad to exceed any one in authority 
sobresalir'en galas to surpass in dress 

sobresalir tntrt todos to excel among all 

sobresaltarse de alguna cosa to be started at any thing 

sojuzgado dt enemigos subdued by enemies 

someterse d alguno to submit to any one 

sonar (alguna cosa) d bueca any thing to sound hollovr 

sonar (alguna cosa) ^(ictatal parte any thing to sound towards such 

a side 
sordo d las voces deaf to the cries 

sordo dt un oido deaf with one ear 

sorprender (a alguno) con alguna to surprise any oue with anything 

sorprenderle en alguna cosa to surprise him in any thing 

sorprendido dt la bulla surprised by the noise 

sospechar (alguna cosa) dt alguao to suspect any one of anything 
sospechoso d alguno suspected by any one 

sobdividir en partes to subdivide into parts 

subir d alguna parte to go up to any place 

subir dt alguna parte to go up from any place 

subir tobrt la mesa to get upon the table 

subrogar (una cosa) en lugar de to substitute one thing instead of 

otra another 

sobsistir dtl auxilio ageno to subsist by others' aid 

subsistir en el dict&men to be firm in an opinion 

sustituir df pot alguno to substitute for any one 

sustituir (un poder) en alguno to substitute a power to any one 
sustraerse dt la obediencia to withdraw one's self from subor- 

suceder (4 alguno) en el empleo to succeed any one in an employ- 
sufrir (los trabajos) eon paciencia to suffer troubles with patience 
sugerir (alguna cosa) d alguno to suggest any thing to any one 
sugetarse d alguno 6 alguna cosa to subject oneself to any one, or 

any thing 
saniergir (alguna cosa) tn el agua to plimge any thing in the water 
sumirse en idguna parte to sink in any place 

sumiso d la voluntad submissive to the will 

sopcditado dt los contrarios suppressed by the enemies 

superior d sus enemigos superior to one's enemies 

superior en luces of greater talents 

suplicar de la sentencia to petition against the sentence 

suplicar por alguno to entreat for any one 

suplir por alguno to supply for any one 

surgir (la nave) en el puerto to ride at anchor in the port 



sartir de ▼! rerM 
•uspenso de oiicio 

suspirtr por el mando 
siu tentarse eon yerbas 
sustentarse de esperaniai 

to supply with TictaaU 
debarred the exercise of ooe^s em- 
to aspire aAer command 
to feed upon herbs 
to sustain oneself with hapts 


Uchar (4 al^ao) dt ligero 

temblar de f rio 

temido de muchos 

temeroso de la muerte 

temible d lot contrarios 

templarse en comer 

tener (4 uno^ por otro 

tenerse en pie 

tenir dt asul 

tirar d, hdeia tal parte 

tirar por tal parte 

tiritar de frio 

titubear en alguna cosa 

tocar (la herencia) d algnno 

tocar en alg^una parte 

tocado de enfermedad 

tomar eon, en Us manos 

tomar (una cosa) de tal modo 

torcido de cueipo 

tomar d alcana parte 

tomar de alg^una parte 

trabajar en alguna cosa 

trabajar por alguna cosa 

trabajar por otro 

trabar de algono 

trabar (una cosa) eon otra 

trabar en alguna cosa 

trabarse de palabras 

trabucarse en las palabras 

traer (alguna cosa) d alguna parte 

traer (alguna com) </e algima parte 

traficar en drogas 

transferir (alguna cosa) d otro ti- 

transferirse d tal parte 
transfigurarse en otra cosa 

transformar (una cosa) en otra 
transitar por alguna parte 
transpirar por todas partes 
transportar (alguna cosa) d algu- 
na parte 
transportar (alguna cosa) de alga- 
9a parte 

to accuse any one of levity 

to tremble with cold 

feared by many 

fearful of death 

dreadful to his enemies 

to^ be temperate in eating 

to take one for another 

to keep oneself on foot 

to dye in blue 

to draw on such a side 

to draw towards such a side 

to shiver with cold 

to waver in any thing 

the inheritance to fall to any one 

to touch one anywhere 

touched with disease 

to take with, or in the hands 

to take anything in such a manner 

deformed in body 

to turn to such a side 

to turn from such a side 

to work in any thing 

to contend for anything 

to work for another 

to seize any one 

to join one thing with another 

to fall on any thing 

to quarrel with any one 

to mistake one*s words 

to draw anything to any place 

to draw anything from any place 

to deal in drugs 

to transfer anything to another 

to transport oneself to such a place 
to transform oneself into another 

to transform one thing into another 
to pass by any place 
to transpire on all sides 
to transport anything to any place 

to transport anything from any 



traspasar (alguna cosa) d sdguno to transfer something to another • 
traspasado de dolor transfixed with grief 

trasplantar (de una parte) <i otia to transplant from one place to 


tratar eon alguno 
tratar de alguna cosa 
tratar en lanas 
travesar eon alguno 

trionfar de los enemigos 
trocar (una cosa) par otra 
tropezar en alguna cosa 

ultimo de todos 

vDcir (los buejres) al carro 

iiniformar (una cosa) eon otra 

iwir (una cosa) d, eon otra 

unirse en comunidad 

unirse entre si 

uno de, tnire muchos 

ifitil d la patria 

util para tal cosa 

utiiisarse tn^-eon alguna cosa 

to treat with any one 

to treat of anything 

to deal in wool 

to behaye improperly towards any 

to triumph OTtr the enemy 
to change one thing for another 
to stumble on any thing 


the last of aU 

to yoke oxen to the cart 

to make one thing uniform with 

to unite one thing with another 
to unite in a community 
to be united together 
one among many 
useful to the country 
useful for such a thing 
to make advantage of anything 

▼acar al estudio to attend to study 

Taciarse de alguna cosa to be emptied from anything 

Taciarse por la boca to tell what ought to be kept secret 

TatUar en la elecaion to hesitate in one's choice 

Tacilaren/relaesperanzayeltemorto vacillate between hd{>eand fear 
Tacio de entendimiento addle-headed 

vagar/^or el mundo to wander through the world 

Talerse de alguno, de alguna cosa to avail oneself of any one, or any 


valaar (una cosa) en tal precio 
▼anagloriarse de alguna cosa 

Tccino ai trono 
Tecino de Antonio 
Telar d los muertos 
▼elar sobre alguna cosa 
Tencerse d alguna cosa 
Tencido de los contrarios 
▼endorse d alguno 
▼engarse de otro 
▼enir d, de por algana parte 
▼enir eon alguno 
▼erse con alguno 
▼erse ^altura 

to value anything at such a price 
to be puffed up with pride for any 

near the throne 
near Anthony 
to watch the dead 
to watch over anything 
to conquer oneself in anything 
conquered by the enemy 
to sell oneself to any one 
to revenge oneself on another 
to come to,from, or by any place 
to come with another 
to meet any one 
to be in such a latitude, or high 



Testir d U moda to dress in fashion 

Testirse de pano to be dressed ia cloth 

Ttgilar Jo6re sus snbditos to watch over onea sabjectB 

riolentarte d, en alguoa cosa to be violent in anything 

▼isiblp d, para todos visible to all 

vivir d so gusto to live to one's taste 

TJvir con alguno to live with any one 

▼irir de limotna to live by alms 

vtvir par milagro to live by a miracle 

▼ivir sobrt la has de la tierra to live without care 

volar al cielo • to fly to Heaven 

volar por el aire to fly in the air 

velver d, de, hdciaj por tal parte to return to, from, towards, by 

such a place 

volver por la verdad to defend the truth 

▼otar en el pleito to vote in the trial 

votar por alguno to vote for any one 


zabuUirse 6 sambulllrse en el agoa to plunge into the water 
safRfse de alguna persbna 6 cosa to avoid any one or any thing 
sambucarse en alguna parte to hide oneself in any place 

zampusarse en agua to dive into water 

zapatearse con alguno to malie a noise with any one 

zosobrar en la tormenta to' be sinking in the storm 



Conjunctions serve to join phrases, or parts of phrases 
together. They are indeclinable like the prepositions and 
adverbs. They are distinguished into copulative j dii^itnctive^ 
restrictive^ adoersative^ conditionalj causitive and compare 

The copulative conjunctions serve to bring together seve- 
ral words or several menpibers of a phrase under the same 
affirmation or negation. 

Those denoting affirmation are, 

1st. K, ^, and. Ex. El valor y el honor son las dog 
principales dotes que caracterizan al hiroCy valour and hon- 
our are the two principal qualities that characterise a hero. 
El senor J5... es un kombre cruel i in^ustOj Mr. B. is a cni^ 
and unjust man. 

2d. Tambien, also ; Ex. Ya que vm, lo quiere^ la quiera 
tambieny since you wish it, I also wish it. 

CONJUKdTlOl^S. 193 

Sd. Que^tfaat; Ex. Yas6queim.t8 amigomioy I know 
that you are my friend. 

Rule LiXLV.-^jind is translated in Spanish by i, and 
not by y, when the following word begins with an i or y ; as, 
we ahaJl ^o oMt at Ave o'clock, and go to the play, saIdr6mo8 
d las dnco, 6 irimos^ d la eomedia. 

The conjunctions that denote a negation are ; m, nor ; 
iampoco, neither. £x. Ni reivy ni Uorar puedo, I can neith- 
er laugh, nor weep. Ya que no salesy tampoco yo sdldriy 
since thon dost not go out, I shall not neither. 

The disjunciim conjunctions denote an alternative, or 
distinction ; as, <^, 6 ; Ex. Juan 6 FroncUcOy John or Fran- 
cis ; entrar 6 saKvy to go in or out ; uno ii otroy one or the 

Rule LXV* — Or is translated in Spanish by ^, if the fol- 
lowing word begins with an o. Ex; Siete it oc^o hombreSj 
seven or eight men. 

The restrictive conjunctions restrict, in any manner 
whatever, an idea or a proposition ; as, stno, only, except. 
Ex. No tengo nada que decirlcy sino que h quieroy T have 
nothing to tell hiro, except that I wish it. 

The adversative conjunctions connect two propositions, 
denoting an opposition in the second as respects the first ; as, 
masy peroy but ; no obstantCy nevertheless, yet, however ; 
euandhy when ; aunquey bien qucy though. . Ex. QMisiera 
saiiTy mas nopiuedoy I should wish to go out, but I cannot 
Ei dinero haee d los hombres ricosy pero no dichosoSy money 
makes men rich, but not happy. Habla la verdady no ob- 
stante nadie le crecy he speaks the truth, yet nobody believes 
him. Noharfa una injuslicia cuando le importara un tronoy 
he would not commit an injustice, though it might be worth 
to him a throne. No es imprudentey bien quCy or aunque 
parezca serlOy he is not imprudent, though he appears to be so. 

The conditional conjunctions connect two members of 
speech by a supposition, or by denoting a condition ; as, 
«t, if; comoy con tal quey provided. Ex. Si aspiras d ser 
doctOy estudia con perseveranciay if thou desirest to be 
learned, study with perseverance. Sabrds estafdbula d las 
doce, como or con tal que la estudiesy thou wilt know this 
fable at noon, provided thou study it. 

The causative conjunctions serve to denote the cause of a 


thing, or the reason for which it has been done, as porque, 
because ; pues, pues que, since. Ex. Dehe el kombre evitar 
la ociondad, porque es la madre de todos los viciosy man 
must shun idleness, because it is the mother of all vices. 
Leeri este libro, pues vm. me dice que es buenoy I shall read 
this book, since you tell me that it is good. 

The comparative conjunctions serve to denote a relation 
or parity between two objects, or two propositions, such as, 
coflto, as; an como, just as ; Ex. La helleza ea comolafiar 
que se marchita el mismo dia que la vid nacer, beauty is as 
the flower that withers the same day that saw it bloom. 


The conjunctions which govern in the subjunctive the verb 
that follows them, are, para que, in order that ; afin de que^ 
to the end that ; a no aer que, a menos que, unless ; antes 
que, before that ; caso que, en caso que, in case that ; auTique^ 
though ; at/It cuando, although ; bien que, though ; hasta 
que, till, until ; dado que, grant, or suppose that ; con tal 
que, como quiera que, provided that ; por mas que, however, 
whatever ; siempre que, whenever ; Ex. Bien que, or 
aunque la ambicion sea un vicio, es no obstante la &at6 de 
murhisimas virtudes, though ambition be a vice, it is never- 
theless the basis ofa great many viitues. For nuts sabios 
que sean, no conocen la causa de este efecto, however en- 
lightened they be, they do not know the cause of this effect* 
El maestro se afana^para que or afin de que adeUinten sus 
discipidos, the master exerts himself to the end that his schol- 
ars may improve. 

N. B. As we frequently make use of the second future and 
of the second and third conditionals, see the rules 39, 40, 
42, 43, 44, and Ab,page 7^ andfoUowing, 



Interjections serve to express an emotion, or an affection 
of the mind, or to awake attention. y4h I ay! he / 0/ OUi ! 
ta chito / ea f sus ! taie I The aflections of the mind may 
be of grief, sadness, contempt, indignation, joy, or astonish- 
meijt ; to express them we may indifferently make use of the 



following interjections, ay ! ah ! ! for, if we say, — /ay, 
que pena ! oh, what pain ! /aA, que desgracia ! oh, what 
misfortune ! /o, desdichach de mi ! alas, unhappy me ! we 
may also say, — ^ay que gozo / ha, what delight ! /ah, que 
alegria / ha, what joy ! /OyfeHces de nosotros f ha, how 
happy we are ! O cielo f oh heavens ! Ha f he ! Ola / 
and to ! serve to awaken attention. He / is also used to 
show that we have not understood what has been said. Ola 
is sometimes an interjection of admuration, and to is hardly 
ever used except to call a dog : it is an abbreviation of toma, 
take. — Qhito^ bush, serves to impose silence. Ea, varnos, 
and suSy come, come on, are used to animate and excite 
courage. — Tate, guarda ! take care ! serves to prevent one's 
doing or saying something. Vwa ! huzza ! Ola ! holla ! 
ho ho ! Otravez! encore ! vaya! come ! Quedo f softly ! 
Voto a ! zounds ! ttvme equi / here I am ! He aqui / here 
isy here are ! 

Anseatic, Ansedtico. 

NouBs. A4JectiTe8. 

Africa, Africa. African, Africano, 

Algiers, Argeh Algerine, ArgeUno. 

America, America. American, Americano. 

Anseatic {c\X\e^\Amedtica8^ 

Antilles(The),.4ii<t7to« (Las). 

Arabia, Arabia, Arabian, Arahe. 

Andalusia, JindaJucia. Andalusian, Andahtz. 

Asia, Asia. Asiatic, Asidtico. 

Austria, Austria. Austrian, dustriaco. 

Asturias, Asturias. Asturian, Asturiano. 

The Azores, Las Azoras. 
The Atlantic, El Atldntico. 
The Baltic, El BdUico. 

Barbary, Berberia (costa de). Berberisk, Berherisco^ 
Botany Bay, BaMa Botdnica. 

Bavaria, Bamera. Bavarian, Bdvaro. 

Biscay, Vizcaya. Biscayan, Vizcaino. 

Bohemia, Bohemia. Bohemian, Bohemo. 

Brazil, Brasil Brazilian, Brasihfio. 



Brittany, Breiafkt. Brhon, Breton. 

Burgandy, Borgofia. Burgundian, Borgofke^ 

British Channel (The), Man^ 

cha (La). 
Canary Islands, CtmarioM (Uku.) 
Cape of GocnI Hope, Cabo de Buena Etperanza. 
Cape Horn, CtUto de Homoe. 






China. - 



Castae(OldandNew), Cae^ Castillian. 


tilia (la 1 

vte^a y nuevaj. 

























f Doe Fuentee. 















Fernandez massaftiero, Femanadez mas dfuera. 





Finisterre (Cape), Finieiierra (Cabo.) 









Franche Comte, Franco Condado. 

















, GroenUmdes. 







Hollander or 

Dutch^ Holandes. 













Indies (East 

and West), Indftos (Orientalee 

y Oceidentales.) 

Ionian (Islands^, ISnicas (Mas.) 













Liombardy, Lombardia. 

Levant, Levante. 

Madeira, Madera. 

Mauritius, Mauricio. 

Malta, Malta. 


Mexico, Mtgico. 

Morocco, Marruecos. 


Navarre, Navarra. 

Newfoundland, Tierra Nueva. 

Normandy, Normandia. 

Norway, Norvega. Norwegian, 

Naples, Ndpoks. Neapolitan, 

Netherlands, Poises ba^os. Dutch, 

Pacific (Ocean,) Pacf/Sco (Oceano.) 

Palatinate^ Falaiinado. Palatine, 




Maltese, Makes. 



























P^OTinces (linked,) Provincias (Unidas.) 
Provinces (of River la Fl9$ey)Promncias(del rio de hPlata.) 

Argentine, Argentino. 
Prusia. Prussian, Prusiano. 

Puerto Rico. Porto Rican, Puerto Riquefio. 
Rodas. . Rhodian* Rodiano. 


Porto Rico, 
Red (Sea,) 

Rq^OfBermefo (mar.) 
Rusia. • Russian, 

Sl Vincent (Cape,) San Vicente (Cabo.) 
St Domingo, Santo Domingo. 






























Suiza. Swiss, 


Sound (The,) 

8unda (La.) 


Espana. Spanish, 
Tartaria. Tartar, 


Table Bay, 

Bahiade Tahla. 


Turquia. Turk, 


United States. 

, EstadosUnidos. 





Venezuela. Venezuelian, 



Celanda. Zealander, 



Aix-la-Chapelle, Aquisgrana. Coblentz, 
Alicant, Alicante. Constantino- 

Alps (The,) Mpes (Los.) 
Antwerp, Amberes. 
Antloch, Antioquia. 

Andes (The,) Andes (Lob.) 




Copenhagen, Copenhague. 
Corunna, Coruna. 

Chimborazo, Chimborazo. 
Dover, Duvre. 

Dresden, Dresde. 

Apeninos (Lo9.)Dowas (The,) Dunas {Las^ 
Danube(The,) Danubioy (EL) 

Basilia. Edinburgh, 

Bayona. Florence, 

Bema. Genoa, 

Burdtos. Geneva, 

Bilbao. Gibraltar 
Bolona. (Straits^ of,) 


Bruselas. Havana, 

Buenos Ayres, Buenos Aires, Leipzig, 

Cairo,* Cairo (El) Liege, 

Calais, Coles. Leghorn, 

CapeFrangoiSjGwartco (el.) Lille, 
Cape Horn, Ca6oc2e Hom(M.London, 

Cherbourg, Cherburgo. Lyons, 

Cologne, CoUmia. Lisbon, 





Gibraltar (Es- 
trecho de.) 
Hague (The,) Haya (La.) 
Hamburgh, Hamburgo. 






Leon {de Prancia.) 



Meuse, . 
Nile (The,) 
New York, 
New Orleans 



MarseUa. Roncesvaux, 
Sierra f More- Rome, 



na.) \ Rhone (The,) Rhddano (EL) 

Maguncia, Saragossa, Zaragoza. 
Mosa, . Stockholm, Stocolmo. 

Nth (El) SeviUe, SemUa. 

Nueva York. St. Andero, Santander, 
NuevaOrleang. Seine (The,) Sena (La.) 
Petersburgo Scheld (The,) Escaldo (EL) 
(San.) Trent, Trenia. 

r— -, Filadeljia. Thames(The, ) Tamwa (^La.; 

Pyrenees( The^Firinios (jLo».)Venice, Venecia. 

Providence, Providencia. Vienna, Viena. 

Prague, Praga. Warsaw, Varsoma. 














































, Bartolomi. 













































Jaimcy Diego, 










Mary and Ma- 











































St. Telmo, 



































8%e iTCrst ^vt 

Gootainin? a List of the AbbreviaUoos which are frequeiitly fonad in wiitiiig ; 
A Treatise on Pronanciation and Alterations in Orthography, founded upon 
the latest Rules established by the Academy of Madrid ; OomparatiTe Rales 
of the Spanish and English Languages ; A general Scheme ot the Termina- 
tions of Regular Verbs ; An alphabetical List of the Irregular Verbs, conju- 
gated in thdr order ; A Table, illustrating the use of Prepositions in Spanish ; 
Liste of the Names of difl*erent Countries, principal Oities and Christian 

STIie <Sec0ntr IPart 

9oDtaining a Collection of Exercises interlined ; a Vocabulary with Familiar 
Phrases and Dialogues •, and a Treatise on Spanish Versification. 


Second American from the latest Paris Edition, 



Iiutrueter o/FrttKh tmd SpcmUh at Hanard Univartihf, Cambridge. 





District ChrVa OJSce, 



BE it remsmbered, that on the tweDfy-ieventh day of January, A. D. 
in the fi>rty-nlntfa year of the Independence of the United States of America, 
MUNHOE AND FRANOIS, of the said District, have deposited in this office the 
title of a book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietirs, in the words following, 
to vie : 

The First Part containing a list of the Abbreviations which are frequently fonnd ia 
writing ; A Treatise on pronunciation and alterations in Orthography founded upon 
the latest rales established by the Academy of Madrid ', tlomparatlve rules of the 

ent Countries, principal Cities, and Christian Names. The Second Part containing 
a Collection or Exercises interlined ; A Vocabulary, with fiuniliar Phrases and Dia- 
logues } and a Treatise on Spanish Versification. By M. JOSSE. Second Ameri- 
can from the latest Paris edition. Revised, improved, and adapted to the English 
Language, bv F. SALES, Instracter of French and Spanish at Harvard UuWersi^, 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, ** An 
act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and 
boolu, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein men- 
tioned :" and also to an act, entitled, *< An act supplementary to an act, entitled 
an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, 
and books, to the auUnMrs and proprietors of such co^es during the times therein 
mentioned ; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving 
and etdiiog, historical and other prints." 

JOHN W. DAVIS, Ckrk of tlU Dittrkt of Mat 





References to the Bulef which are to serve for their trhnslalion ; 
notes explanatory of the idiomatic differences between the two 
languages, and of all the important difficulties. 

KXPLANATION oftkt SIGNS vdiieh are found in, the Spanish Exerei$et. 

C Feminine, 
n. Neoter. 
p. Plural. 
Irr. Irregular. 

* Tbe star denotes that the word, 
■nder which it is found, must not be 

Spanish under them between paren- 

Two or more Englisb words put 
within a parenthesis, thus, ( ) are ex- 
pressed t^ the Spanish placed under 
I The gender of nouns is not laid 

Idown when tbe article definite Is no^ 
required ; but is, however, put down, 
whenever there is an a4jective or a 
pronoun agreeing with the noun, inde- 
pendently of any article. 

N. B. Raving made known, in aU the Exercises, the ndes to which they r»- 
late, we advise the scholar never to translate before he has read over carefully 
tbe rules and examples referred to. If he consults them with attention, we feel 
confident that he will easily overcome any difficulties the translating may present. 


8u Rules L and IT. and the gender of nouns 9 
p. 27, 28 of the Grammar. 

The man, the woman, the child, the husband, 

Aom6re, m. muger^f. mno, m, marido^m. 

the wife and the maid. The book, the paper, 

esposa y criadayf. lihro^m, papel^m. 

the pen, the ink and the penknife. The table, 

plumajf. tintajt cortaphtmas, m. mesayf. 

the chair, the chamber, the door and the window, 

silkif f. cuartOj m. puertQj f. ventanaif. 


The city, the house, ^ the palace and the shop* 

ciudadyf, easa^U palacio,m. tienda^f. 

The country, the husbandman and the shepherd. 

campOf m. hbrador, m. y pastor ^ m. 

The grass, the hay, the straw and the com. 

hierba,f, keno,m. paja^f, trigo^. 

The sheep, the fleece, the cow, the milk and the butter. 

oveja^f. . tuson^m. vaca^L leche^f. manteca^f. 

The heifer, the calf and the bull. The oak, the * elm, 

becerra,{. temero,m, foro, m. eiictna,f. o&io,m. 

the poplar and the willow. The chesnut, the apple and 

diamo, m. sduccy m. castanoy m. manzanoy m. 

the pear-trees. The chesnut, the apple and the pear. 

peralf m. cctstanUf f. manzana^ f. pera, f. 

The cock, the hen, and the chicken. The horse, 

gaUojTd. g(dltna,f, poUo^m. cahaUo^m. 

the mare and the jack. The loaf, the meat, the fish, 

yegna^f. a«no, m. pan^m, camef.pescado^. 

the wine, the cider and die beer. The chocolate, 

viito,m. cidrOyf. cerveza^i, chocolate jm, 

the tea and coffee. The sugar, the salt, and the pepper. 

ttym, cafiym. aziicar ym, saLf. pimienta^f. 

France I Germany, Russia, Navarre, Biscay and 

Francioyf. Alemaniayi, Ru8ia,L Navarra,f. VizcayayL 

Andalusia. The master, (l) the mistress, the soul, 

AndalttciOyf, amo,m. ama,f. ahnOyf. 

the bird, the wing, the Eagle and the water, 

avcy f. aUty f. dffuiMj f. agtia^ f. 

Africa, Asia, (see page 195.) 


See Bule IL page 27 ; RuUs IIL and IV. page 28 ; 
the two JV. B. foUowingf and Rules V. and VL 
page 29. 

The kingdom of France, the king of England, the 
retno,m. u .r<»y,m< InglaterrayJ^ 

1) The foliowiojr are nearly aH the nouns that take the article 
Tor la». See Ist role. 


el ft 


^ if Pmtogai. The fnrdvinte of NavsTfe. Hk 

m'ita,f«/idforte^4i/. ^ pnmncia^i. Ndvatm, ^c^ 
bay of Biicaj. I (lAiall go) to Italy. Thou (wflt conns) VS 

Eng^d. He (will return) to Spain. I (sball send) to 

Ei 9oherd , ¥o emktrB 

Catalonia. I am in the garden. He (will be) at hotne. (1) 
ik^aiuna. Yo eitoy tOifanlin^Bi. El esiard <^v t .,, ^ x^ 
We (sball be) at tiie cellar. ^^Mr. del C^xoipa^ Madam 
Nosoiro^ estarimos bodega, ff^enor O^ S&Fiora 

Soils and Miss Rosas. Tlie sen^ant of ttie Count de 
Senorita eriado^m, '^U-^ Candtyin. 

Koroiia, and the chanibeniiaid of the ibarchlotiess de 
Norona ^ ^anutreroyf, marquesUff. 

Montehermoso. Sir, the €ountess is in the garden. Miss 

Frances Pedreras. The biihop of Saint Andero. Mr. 
Francisco. isbi$po,m. . 

Francis Peredo, secretary of the consulate of tiie city of 
FranCMBCo %erret9ri^ : ^oiHiulada^ m. 

Saint Andero. Mr. Velasco, knight of the royal Order of 
■ . cabaOero teaf Srdtinyf. 

C^Hos Third, member of the supreme (2) council of 
Caritfa Tertem, miemhro tupremo cmu^o^m. 

Castille and of the royal academy of history. The good, 
CagtUta academia^f. htsMriajt/'. bueno^n, 

the useful mid the agreeable. The sweet, the sour and 

ittU^ik. agradabkjtL Sukiyn. agri&^n. 

the bitter. 

r- *— — 

au Mule VIIL page 81, wnd the gender of nouns tm- 
siiered in regard to their terminations. 

The men, the women, the children, the husbands, the 
wives and the servants. The books, the pens and the pen- 

(1) Id tbif phrase and others similar, the word easa neTer takel 
wm artiele, Coasequentlyy we sajr : estar en cata ; ir d cata } and not 
e4ar en Im cam j irala eata, 

(2) Adjectives geiieraU|r follow substaatives. See p. 38* 

206 gPAlflSH BZBBCISB8. 

kniTes. Thexhambers, tlie tables, the chairs, the doors and ' 
the windows. The towns, the houses, the palaces and the 
shops. The fields, the husbandmen and the shepherds. 
The sheep and the cows. The heifers, the calves and the 

The oaks, the elms, the poplars and the willows. 
The chesnut trees, the apple trees and the pear trees. 
The cocks, the hens and the chickens. The horses, 
the mares and the asses. The roses and the gilliflowers. 

rosa^ f. ^ aJelij m. 
The maravedis, the sous and the louis. The kingdoms 

maraoed{,m. 8Ufldo,m. /tciv, m. 

of France and Spain, the provinces of Normandy and 
Picardy.(l) Messrs. Peter and John Pineda. My ladies de 

' Pedro Juan ^^ ^^<* -^ 

Isla. The voung ladies Mary and Frances de Villatorre. 

Uv /-*, « r^^\ Maria 
The sisters of the young ladies Floridablanca. The 

hermanay f. ' • 

brothers of the Count de Melendez Valdes. The poem 
hermano,m, """ 

of the Araucana, by Alphonso de Ercilla. The climates. 
Jilonso c/tiRa,m. 

The dogmas of religion. The epigrams *of Messrs. 

dogma fia. religionyi. ^ epigrama, 
John de Iriarte and Jose^ Iglesias. Truth b 

Jost verdadyf. e«^ 

a celestial* manna.' An action worthy of praise. The 
un(2) celeste mandy m. aecionj f. digno aiahanxiu 
ambition of men^ The observations. The humanity 
amhicionyi, chservacionyf. humanidaidff. 

and generosity of ^sensible souls'. The purity of the 

generosidadyf. sensible alnuiyf. purezOyi. 

heart Constancy in adversity. The amiability, 

corazon,m. con8tanc%a,f, en adversidadyf. amabtUdadf. 

the simplicity and the goodness of Mrs. Wilson. 
simplicidady f. hondady f. 


(1) See page 195, Rnd following^. 

IJinjo always drops the o, when it is followed by a raasciiliDe 
substantive. Vna^ feminine of tmo never drops any letter. (See Rule 
XXV, page 48. 




Bet the formation of the feminine of nouns adjective, 
their collocation, and their agreement with the sub- 
stantrve, page 38 and 39. 

The climate of Spain is (1) warm. The houses 

c es caliente, *a^ casa^.i. 

of Paris are high. The English women are handsome. 

Faris 9fm aU(iA InglesuJ mugeVyf, hermosaU, 

Emulation is a passion worthy of a noble soul. Virtue is 
emulacion,f. pasiouyf. dignoL jeor^^noble almaf. virtudyf. 
amiable. Idleness is despicable. Bread is dear. Man 
amable. perezOyf. despreciabk. panyia. caro. 
is mortal. Prudence is a precious virtue. Madam Vial is 

mortal pmdenciayf. > ' precioso 
a charming woman. Miss Peredo is sensible, charitable, 

agradabk sensible caritativo 

pretty and weU educated. Holland is a rich country«^^ 
Undo bien criado, HolandOyf. es -< -rico jpaf«,m. 

The sister of the corregidor is happy and his brother is 

• corregidor^, es feliz su 

unhappy. The cousin of Peter is slothful, and the niece 
infeUz. prima, f, haragan sobrinaf. 

of Andrew is idle. My Lord (2) the prince of Peace is 

Andrts holgazan.hy:' y prindpe^. Paz.f, 

a Biscayan, and my lady the duchess of Almaviva is an 
• ViscainOy ^ duquesOy f. • 

Andalusian. The wife of Mr. Charles Ponteverde is an 
AndaJuzA esposa^i. Don * 

Aragonese. The servant of the Spanish consul is an 
Aragones, criadayf, EspaHol consulyijii, 

Eng^h woman. The father, the mother and the 
Ingles padre^m. madre^f. 

children are sick. The brother and sister are idle. 
ntno, m. estdn ser 

The ink, the pens and the paper are dear. The window 
and the door are shut The house is high, large and well 
cerrado. es aUoygrande bien 

(1) See Rule XLIX pa^^e 95, when we ought to translate the Terb 
io he bv geff and when by estar. 

(2) Bee Rule V, page 29. 

20$ ^rAMISB fucsibtts^* 

adorned. The garden and the parterre of the duke de 

adamatb. kuertOy m. jaxUni m. 

Alcodia are well cultivated. The country (t) house of 

9on I * . cukivado. 
the Hettfaer of Miss Louisa Alameda, is pretty but small. 
Luisa es UudoLfero fegueiUx, 


Su Bides IX. X and JCL p^e S6« 

The English drink beer, good wine, excellent tea, and 

heh^n cervezayWenovino^,exceiente %" ^ 

eat potatoes. I have (2) sugar, coffee, and cream.. Bread, 

comenpakita. Yo tenge azdcar^ cafi^ naiOj " t*^*-* 

meat and water are things necessary to man. We have 

' C09m necesario ^^ iememot 

pens, paper and inki Take bread and butter of Nicolas. 

plumay papely tinta^ Toma manteca Ntcolot. 

X will give' you' some cherries that I have bought. 

dar6 te guinduy f. que he coa^ado^ 

Tomorrow I (shall make) visits : I (shall go) to see some 

manafka hark risita ir6 a vera 

friends. Mr. Augustin Vial has* lent' me 'some books. 

euHigo^m. Don j4gu8tin ha prestado me Ubra^. 

The father of Miss Puente has good friends and 

*^ SenoHta amigOj m, 

eiKcellent protectors. The iriend of Madam Torres 
e9ce(finifi protector amigOy f. 

gives wise and prudent advice to your sister. I have 
da sabio prudente cont^o tu tengo 

white stockings,, blue shoes, and a grey hat 
bUmeo mediaft ofcul zapato,m. pardo ^ombreroy m. 

()> Th« word c9U»fry it pai$, ftnd U rjMi4erc4 bj flwyaAa omiy 
wh«Q we speak o/ the great extent of level, open country ; and when 
it relates to troopg and armies ) in the other casew it is rendered bjr 
eampo. We say tlien a country house, una eata de eampo. The 
fields are rich, tanrieoa ht compos, 

(2) The verb <o hav4 is rendered by tener whenever it denotes the 
possession of an object, and by haber vchen it is an auxiliary, ge^ 
the noU9 to the conjugation of these two ver^ pages ^ and 8fi. 



See Ruks XU, XIU, XIV, XV, XVI and XVII, 

pages 39, 40, U, 42. 

The brother of Charles Martinez de Irujo, Secretary 
<^ A,. . :,, r cUJ^mCwtIos SecretaHo 

of the embassy to London has a pretty little country 
o*s i embctjada,f, en ^.^.'i)cj tiene ^^'^^<- ^'«^ '« cL - 'o 
bouse, and the son of his Excellency (1) my lord the 
Marquis del Campo has a little parrot and a pretty little 

papagayo, m. 

cage. This young gentleman is weU educated. I have 

jaula,f. * criado, tengo 

some litde birds and a pretty litde squirrel. Mr. D. i$ 

an ugly little man and his wife is an ugly little woman. 

8u eaposa 
Peter is more wise and more prudent than John ; but less 

Bohio prudente Juan 

ingenious than he. Mr. de Casa Nueva is richer than his 

hdhil 61 . ^ 

cousin, but his cousin is not so proud as (2) he. The 

primo, m. orguUaso 

city of LondoQ is more populous than that of Paris. 

LondreB poblado la 

The streets of London are wider than those, of Madrid. 

eatte, f. ancho las 

He is more lasy than his brother. I am more tranquil 
perezoso Estoy tranquilo 

here than in the garden. She is not so happy as her 
aqui . *^ 

sister. Madam CostiUas is not so old as Madam Delpuente. 

^■^(j viefo 
What a lai^ woman ! what a large, ugly man f The 

(1) Hit exeelleney my lord cannot be jhranslated literally in Spanish: 
translate as if it was the tMst ezeeUent lord and say el eseelentisimo 
tenor — and add Don when the christian name of the person is ez« 

(2) See in the graramat, after Rule XIV, page 40, the note relative 
to the manner of traatlatinc m in the different degrees of comparison. 



Spanbh soldier is not less brave than the Tu^k. Tlie 
Biscayans and die Cat^nians are brave and (1) intrepid. 
rizeainos Caiahm^ m. hUripido 

You are as lively as he. He is as learned as his eldest^ 
2\i eres vivo H v. ... docto^^ ■■> - mayor 



UpofK the preening Rules. 

Mary is 10 an^ble as her sister. We are as poor as 
^^ -' 8omo8 pcbre 

they. They are as rich as thy fath^. I have as. many 
Mis EUoa ma iengo 

IKeods as thoiK £2) She has as many admirers as 
f6* , BUa adoradoTjin, 

formerly. Thy brol!her has as many books as L Thjir 

brother has more children than thou. We have more 
pleasuMS than labour. They have more than ten 
diversion tralbqfd tienen "^"^j ^^ A*«5 

giuneas. (3) I have written more dian ten letters (to-day.) 
guiniai he eserito ^' - fyurta. hoy 

My brother is more than twenty years old* I am not 

tener veinte aiio • 

more Haaa twelve years okf. Thou hast less pride than 

doee • orguBa 

they. Thou art not sio(4)tal^as¥. Peter is not so old as 
e^o0' abo '"' -t viejo '* 

hiB &ieiic|. He does not eat less meat than bread. He 

• come 

drinks less water than wine. Red wine is less agreeable 
hthe tinto , agradibJe 

le the taste than white. This \Mb chamlier is prettier 

gusto, m. bianco, m. Este cuarto 

than mine. This small apple is better than the others. 
mantuma, f. oiro. 

.^,Sce Ra^ IXIV, page 1^. 

(2) As many, before a siibstpuiUve U rendec«4 bf thfi «li»€.tit« 
ttmie-a^os^as. See Rple XVIf^pag^e 42. 
<3) See the N. B. of Rule XV, page 41. 
(4) See the coUocatioB of the negation, page 159. 


We have . not so much fruit in our garden this year ag 

tenemo9 Ul^Cu. fruia,f/i^ ette ano 

last year. Mr. B. has not so aiuch wit as the Countess de 
ititima ingenioj m. 

la Puebla. I have less money than the Marquis of D. ; 

dinero fc v 
iMit I Itave as much honour and not less rel^on than he. 
honor ^xn. religion tL 

The garden and parterre of the Marquis de Mondejar, 
knight of the royal order of Charles Third, are larger 
eaballero r^al Srden^t Tercero son 

than ours, (l) The wine of Mr. V. is bad, but that of 

nmeHro. mdlo il 

Mrs. P. is worse. Peter studies as much as his brother, 

and makes greater progress than he. Miss Sophia Mar- 

hoM progresa 9<. e Sofia 

tines talks much more than her sister Frances, but her 

kMamucha ^ ^ ' fuc Frandtea 

sister talks better than she. 


(^Hnuatt9nofthe degrees of Comparison. — Ree Rules 
Xir, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII and XIX, and the 
J^.B. of Rule XVIH, pages 40, 41, 42, 43. 

The- hay sleep more and do not work as^ much as the 
/. \ 4uermen -^ y *' trabajan ; 
diligent I translate better English into French than 
diUgente^ traduzco^^ ">- ei V" 

French into English. (2) The French dance better than 
el * baikn 

the Spaniards. The Biscayans, the Andalusians, and the 

wAndahiz, m. 
Catalonians are excellent soldiers» and pass for the best, 
^ ■ soldado pasan por 

(1) Seetb« N.B. of Rule Xl¥, p«m41. 

^> !» th'M pbra«e the adj«€ti?es English and French nUhwagh they 
are mad. as subMantivM, take tbe nuM«aUae article which agreea 
witb the word fdiama which i« understood. (See the reviark feUow- 
iiiff the declention 9S tkm mma mmttvp, page 84.) 


the most courageous and the most faithful in the kingdom. 

vaieroao leal de (1) 

The Spanish mountaineers are very strong and ahnost all 
numtafiesy m. Juerte ceai todo 

very tall. Lille, capital of French Flanders, is a v^ 

aUo. Ula capital FlandeBj f.siag, 

handsome city. The new house of the Spanish consul is 

nuevo consul 

very large and very weU ornamented. The youngest 

adomado. menar 

sbter of Mr. Henry Milboume is very pretty and veiy 

Don Enrique 

amiable. Jdm's cousin speaks very correcdy and writes 

primo^. habla corredamente e»crti6e 

very elegantly. Lying b tlie most abject of all vices. 

elegantemente, Meniiraf. bajo otcto^m. 

The marquis de la Roja is my best friend and your most 

mi tntestro 

cruel enemy. The Luxembourg was not the least pleas- 
cruel enemigo, lAtxemburgo 

ant of the walks in Paris. The wise man will' always act' 

paaioym. * siempre ohrard 

very prudently. My brother studies the history of Eog- 

estudia hietortOy f. 
land as often as he can. The dog is a very &ithful (2) 

animal, and perhaps the most faithful of all animals. 
animaly m. quizd 

Your sister is very amiable, and a very good woman (S) 

The servant of my (brother-in4aw) is very strong. 
criadoy m. cunado 


See Rules XX, XXL XXII, XXIII, XXIV, and the 

preceding, pa^e 44. 

The good employment of time is one of the things that 
empleo, m. tiempo, m. 

(1) In after the superlative is translated by de, del, tU la, &c. 

(2) The superlative absolute of fiel is irrejnilar, it is AiiUdmo 

(3) See the N. B. 2d. of Ruk XVUI, pagels. ' ^««»««- 

arAKua sxcKcnssi 218 

eaMrilwte Most (1> to the hupiness •of man. Tte 

coniribuyen tUcha, f. 

amateurs dsjr that Mr. de la Motte is one of tiioge who 

afidonadojfD* aicen los que 

have labcm^ed most lor the academy of Music, Francis 

han trtthfado para academiayf. mimcayi. 

it the most learned man in the city, and PhiUp the most 

inetruido de 
(9) ignorant man in the kingdom. Temperance renders 

ignoranie de SobriedadyL kace 

the most sunple food very agreeable. The most innocent 
fimple (dimeniOym. agradable. tnoeente 

pleastires are always the most pore and the ipost constant. 
piacerym. son siempre puro * consiante. 

The daughter of the Count de Colomera is the hand- 

«omest woman in Macfaid. The most harhareui nations. 

de Madrid. barbaro pueblo^. 

The most just commandment. Charles is one of the most 

jueto mandamenio^. Carlos es 
Jearned men in Paris. He is my best friend. Socrates 
was one of the most enlightened philosophers of his 
era instruido Jil68ofo,m, su 

century. Peter, Paul and Antony are three good children, 
aiglo. Fablo Antonio.son trea muchacho,m. 

but Antony is the best of all. Mr. B. is the most prudent 
man that I have se^n. (3) The cousin of the Cardinal 
\'4tvt visto Cardenai 

de Lorensana is the most learned man that has appeared 
dodo parecido 

«t Rome. Miss.Villegaa is more amiable than I thought 
en Roma. dehque creia 

(4.) The flatterer is always more dangerous than he 
C aduU{orym* , peligrtMO dehque 

appears. Ingratitude will always be the vice the most 
parece, Ingtotitudj f * sera 

unworthy of a well-bred and sensible man. The Count 
indigno nacido sensibk* 

•••" I " • ' ' . « Ml. Ill 

(1) See Rnle XXIIF, page 44. 

(2) See Rule XXI, pag^ 44. 

(3) See Rule XXU, page 44. 

(4) See Rule XX. page 44. 


de Fenun-Nnfiez is the man whom I esteem the most, 

Nunez estimo * 

and Mis. A. is the woman whom I respect the least. 

The richer a man is, the more he desires to be so. The 

desea f terlo, 
lazier he (shall he J the more ignorant will he be. The 
perezoao 9erd ignoranie • terd. 

shorter time is, the more precious it is. The more 
breve precioso 

scarce a thing is, the dearer it is. The more just and 
raro justo 

beneficent a prince b, the more faithful are the subjects ; 
henifico • -. t7aa«tfo,m. 

and the more faithful the subject is, the more constant 

and secure b the happiness of the kingdom. 
seguTO 69 dicha, f. 


See the numeral adjectives^ and Rule XXF, as well as 
the J\r.B. which relate to itf from page 48 to 50. 

I have only one sister, four brothers, one uncle, five aunts 
J^^(> tioym. tia 

and eight nieces. France was, before the revolution 
sobrina era, antes de revolucion^, 

(that b), before the new division decreed by the 
^^to es nuevo division f, decredato par 

national assembly divided in regard to religion, 
nacional asambUaf, divididoL en cuanlo religion, f. 

into eighteen archbbhoprics, and subdivided into one hun- 
*» arzobispado subdividido * 

dred and twelve bishoprics. In regard to the civil 
obispado civil 

administration, it was divided into thirty-two governments 
administracion^* era <. . - gobiemo 

or provinces. In regard to justice it was divided into four 
provtncia justicia^f. 


great councils and thirteen parliaments. (Tbere were) then 

consejo parlamento habia entonceB 

in France thirty-nine academies and literary societies ; 

academia literario 

fifteen in the north, eight in the middle, and sixteen in the 

norte^ m. centroy m. 

south. The academies of Paris, which were the principal 

mediodia^m, principal 

ones, were seven (in number,) (1) the French academy, 

the academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, the academy 

incripcion, f. letrat, f. 

of Sciences, the academy of Painting and Sculpture, the 
ciendoy f. pintura^ f. escuitura, f. 

academy of Architecture, the academy of Surgery, and the 

arquitecturay f. cirugia 

academy of Writing, llie French revolution commenced in 

escriiuruy f. principid 

one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine* The king- 
dom of France was the most ancient of all the modem 
era antiguo tnodemo 

States. It commenced in the year four hundred and 

utado, m. * 

twenty, and* (there are reckoned in it) sixty-seven kings : 
se cuentan en il rey^ m. 

the first was Pharamond, and the ^ast Louis the iSftsteenth. 
The large house next mine, is not new. Saint rgnatius,(2) 
vecino mio ' Ignado, 

founder of the Jesuits was a Spaniard. 
fimdador Jesuita^. era * 


Continuation of the preceding rules and of the Al B, 
which relate to them. 

Louis the fourteenth was one of the greatest kings of. 
^< iUi.. fui ' 

France, and merited the epithet of Great. Peter the 
mereciS epitetOj m. 

(1) Initead of exprestiiig m numbtr^ translate thit phrase as if it 
wai seren only ; and saj, eron ntie. 

(2) I capital is always written J in 

31tS $fh»iMB UMBOISBS. 

fint cur or cttperof of . jRussift^ was a matbematicjaii^ 

^ czar <•' mperador Ruma ♦ nuaemaHco, 

a philowplwr, a gr^.gencfal, aa wcellente adrnwd, a 
* msofo • • ., fltotiroiUc, ♦ 

prormmd polili<iiaii, an kktomn, pllo^ architect ; 
tiwi^e politico^ • hUtoriador^ filoto^ arquitecto, 
ia a word, he was a rar| geniiis, a wonderful gemas. 
ai ana paiabra ingenio, m. porieniosQ 

Ciovis first, fifth kklg of France^ aad the first christka 
c^ ; cmtuxno 

Hue, hegan to ««» towards the ead of the yaar «c« 
principi6 6 reinar cerca del fn, ^t. -^«i ^n. 
hundred and eighty one: he reigned thirty y«»s. Of 
eJl the reigns of the kings of France, the longest ha^ 
reinado,m. i»ip X^-^- 

1)0611 that of Louis fourteenth, the sixty filUi king: it 

lasted seventy two years. Charles fifth was 
wtwro ■* • * I .■ ■ 

contemporary of Francis first, king of France,and the pope 
cnntemporaneo Francisco papa,m. 

Sixtus fifth was tha< of die great Henry fourth. George 
Srsto lo era *^ge 

third, king of England,was crowned in* Westminster ahhey' 
fu6 coronado abadia^t 

the twei<y-second of September one thousand seven hun- 
dred and sixty one. James second,,, banished to France, 

' "^ Santiago > <*desterrado 

died the sixth of August one thousand seven hundred and one. 
murid Agosto * 

I received on Monday last (1) a letter fi-oto my firiend Mr. 

^f ♦ lunes tf cartajiJ^-^ i ' ^^- ' 

Abel ; it was delayed fifteen days, sfee the date of it (2) : 

• oBtrasado de ved ^ 

Paris, twenty-second of June one thousand eight hundred and 

ii ^ •• , • ■ *' Junto rrU.vM« f'- \y 

three. What o^chtk is it ?(S) Sir, h is devefi, or three 

Que ! ■ ,'■ ■ . ^^>^ '•'--«: 

(1) The names of the ^eek Uke the article, then wt must say : el 
Umt» AiHm», or patado, 

(2) OfU must not be translated, or we lAust torn it by tie, which 
corresponds to its in English. 

(3) See the JV.B. 4th and 601 of Kile XXV . page 48. 


quarters past eleven. (Give me) my watch^ it is twelve 

cuarto ♦ Dame (1) '>^j'ii 

o^clock and you said it was but (£) eleven. Where wast 

iib decias EndondeestaboM. 

thou at ten o'clock ? I was at home. (3) Well^ return 

^ 0'i^<' L \;/'C'tu <':i f.'..^'A Bien vuelve 

at one o'clock. Sir, it is one o'clock. I know it : go to 

/^'' »»^»'t ^> ''<. uv.a Yo »l* ?o* i?l/e(4) 

Mr. Arco's and (tell him) Uiat I expect him here at nine 

dile /«»; espero^ h' (zqui d 
o'clock in the morning, or at four o'clock in the afternoon. 

de U mananQyLo de tarde. 

He (will tell) thee no doubt whether he can come in the 

dird* te* sin duda . si puede venir 

morning or in the evening. (5) ', ' . 


On the pronouns personal and possessive, and on the 
auxiliary verbs seb and bstar^ to be ; haber and 

TEN EB, to have. 

• " k . 
See in the Grammar the declension of these pronouns, 
page 51 and following, 57 and following ; the conjugation of 
the auxiliary verbs, page S2 and following ; the obervations 
on haber and tener at the beginning of their conjugation, and 
Rule XLIX relative to the different uses which must be 
mad^ of ser and estar^ to be ; page 95. 

(1) Dome is the compoundl of the verb and pronoon : it is the same 
with viie and dile. Custom has willed, that whenever the pronoun 
governed by the verb, is put after it, it should be joined to the verb. 
Instead then of writing, da m«, di le, we write dame, df/e, it happens 
even very frequently that two pronouns are joined to the same verb 
as in these phrases : send it to me, envitmelo ; I wish to tell it to 
you, quUro decbitlo. 

(2) Translate HuAitwatlna, as if it was, ^A ^ vm o/tdy, qae 
einsn m2o. 

(3) See Rule III, page 26. 

14) To JUr. Arco*s, is, d la casa del StiUtr Areo, . ^ 

(§) Par la maiUMa op&r la tarde. 


N. B. We place the objective pronouns after the exer- 
cises on the three regular conjugations, persuaded that the 
scholar will find less difficulty in them after having familiar- 
ised himself with the auxiliaries and regular verbs. 


To have a new coat. To be tall, short, fat, Jeaa. 

vetiido^m. aUoj pequeno, gorda^fimco. 

Having good friends, good patronage (l). Having bem out 

t protecionyU f. .. udfjkera 

of temper. To be sick or well (2). To have been 

humor, ' - «''•*• X- . .^g>/;^ 

indisposed. To be occupied. To have genius. To be 
indispuesto. ocupadoi " ingenio, 

vnse, prudent^ anu^Ue. Having had patience. Having been 

paciencia, >;< 

Consul of the French republic.' To have been a Senator. 

• Senador. 
To be Corregidor of the City of Cadiz. To be in the 

Cmregidor -^ c.^ c. 

country. To have been all day at home, 
coinpo, m. '' «^*. ..^ 

Indidetive present 

I have a book of geography and one of mathematics (3). 

g^ografia matemdticay siag. 

I am very happy, and my brother is very unhappy. We 

have excellent wine and they have no beer. You were 

diligent last year and now you are lazy. They have a large 

garden (4) and many flowers ; they are very weH cultivated. 
jardirij m. , fiory f. cuUivado. 

Thou haat more money than T, but j have more goods 
dinero pero , mercaderia 

than thou. Thou art more learned than thy brother, but thy 
brother is less proud than thou. 

(1) See Rule XI. page 36. , T) , *^:' /^. 

(2) See Rule XLIX. page 96. ' "^ ^'. 

(3) See Rule XXY: page 48, 

(4) See Rnle XXV. part 3, p4^ 48. 




I had and I have still the works of the hest Spanbh 
. ^^.,fi ";■ : . toalavia obra, f. • > 

authors. Thou hadst the grammar and ^dictionary of the 
autOTy m. gramdtica^ f. diccionarioy m. 

academy ; thou wast well pleased. We had abo the 
academiayf, contento. r. tambien 

(poetical works) of the Count de Noroiia and Mr. John Melen- 

poesiOy f. Norona Don 

dez Valdes, the two best modem ^:; Spanish' poets. *^ 

Preterite definite^ 

Thou wc^t very well satisfied with the poem of the Count 

^« ^^uv satiafecho de poema^ m. 

ie Norona on death, and with the odes of Anacreon by 

sobre muerte,f. de oda, f. Anacreon por 

Melendez Valdi§s : they are truly excellent^ poetry. We 

• . verdadercunente 
had fine weather yesterday. Thy cousin had a rich 
^v:-^t w/ beUo ' " . oyer, primoym.r^ 

present. My brothers and sisters were charitable ; they 

preMenteyTa.-^ /* caritativo ; 

had compassion on the unfortunate. My mother (was in 
compasion de tener 

trouble) last week, she was very sad ; we pitied her. 
peeadumbre tener Idstimade 

Preterite indefinite, 

I have had much^ vexation, and I have been very sick. 
Thou hast had three masters^ (1) and thou hast been weH 
instructed. They have had (a great deal of) money. They 
instruido mucho dinero. 

have been prodigal. My neighbour bajs been very sick. 
prSdigo vecino 

(1) MoMtetj used to signify a man who has people dependent 
upon him, a landlord or master of a house or an estate, miist be 
translated by amo or ducfio ', but when it expresses the idea of a 
man who teaches tome art or science, th«D it is rendered by fnaefTro 


Preterite anterior. 

When I had been fifteen days in the town of BUboiC 

f*« <'. Bilbao, 
When we had had our passport When the wine had been an 

pasaporfej m. 
hour in the bottle.^ (As soon as) you had been a month 
boteHoym' Luigoque meSypa* 

at Paris. (As soon as) he had had his money. 
en Lmego que .. c 



I had had a reward for diligence, and thy brother had 
premio^. de diUgencia 
had the first reward for memory. My master (1) had been 

de memoria, 
satisfied with me ; I had been diligent and attentive. Thy 
Qotisfecho de ixtento. 

brothers and thy sisters had been studiq^ts^ they had had 

priuses. We had been rash. Thou hadst had much bold- 
elogio. temerario, 

ness» They had been timid. We had had good motives. 
timido. moiivo. 

Future aJbsohUe. 
Our cousins will have to-morrow pens and good paper, 
they will be occupied. My sister and I will be diligent. We 
shall have friends. The English will always be good 

seamen. The French will perhaps never be as powerful as 
marinero quizd jamas poderoso 

they on the sea ; but they will^ always be^more' so' on land. 
por ♦ mar ; mas lo por tierra. 

Thou wilt be taller than thy friend Francis, but thy friend 

will be more fleshy than thou. 

(1) See the note in the preceding^ page. 

0f ANISH EXEKasas. 221 

Future anterior, 

I shall have had my books. Thou wih have b^en happjF. 

We shall have been more civil. The enemies will not 

have been victorious ; they will not have had any success ; 
victorioso ; mceso ^ 

they will have been conquered. General B. will have been 

victorious. You will have had generals/ commanders, in a 
victorioso. comandante^ 

word, courageous and intrepid chiefs, and you vill have 

intrtpido gefe^ 
been yourselves valorous and invincible. 



See Ride XXXIX. and XL. p. 76. Future conjunc- 
tive simple and future conjunctive compound. 

Ifl have mone^, they (will rob me of it.) (1)' I am sure 
I:, . ' ,. me lo rohardn , *-'■'- 

that if I have patience, I shall have succesS. Thou wilt be 

paciencia^ ■*/ . 
rewarded if thou art attentive, ijfthe war t> long, many 
recompensado guerra^f. largo, 

towns will be destroyed. If the enemy has the imprudence 
arruinado. imprudenciaJL. 

to put his threats in execution, he will be vanquished, if 
deponer amenaza egecucion, vencido, 

you are all, in the moment of attack, faithful to your 

moTnentOy m. ataqueyva. fiel 
prmce, to your country, to the laws of honour. I (shall obtain) 

patria tey^f- honor ^m. lograri 

the pardon of my fault, (as soon as) my uncle shall have* 

perdonyfCk. culpa j luegoque tio 

solicited* it." 
soHcitar lo. 

■ ■ ' ■ ■ ■ 1 ' 

(1) la thii phrase and others similar, we put in the second Aiture, 
mf the verb soTeraed by tiie ooDJuoetion. 

19* m' 


Firstf second, and third conditionals present. See 
JRiUes XU. XLIL XLUI. XLIV. and XLV. pa- 

ges 77 and 78. 

I should have better patronage than thy friend. You 


would have more schdars if you were more learned. 

discipulo instruido. 

Their father would be happier if he was less avaricious. 

Man would be less unhappy if be was less ambitious. Thou 

wouldst not be sick if thou wast more prudent. Who 

would have believed that the war would have lasted ten 

crddo durado 

years ? It would be just that he should be severely 

* justo severamenie 

punished. Your children would not be so ignorant if they 
castigado. ignorante 

were more studious. Although we should have peace, I 

estndioso. Aunque pazy 

(should not jgo) to England. I should be better (1) (/* I 

no iria 
was in the country. They would be more active if they 

loere younger. 


On the first, second, and third conditionals present and 
past. See BuUs XLI. XLIL XLIIL XLIV. and 
XLV. pages 77 and 78. 

The day would have been much finer, if the sun had not 

soly m. 
been so hot. The writings of Voltaire would have been 
ardiente. ohra, f. 

(1) To ht wtU or ill, is translated as if it was to be good or bait 
titar bueno, utar maio ; and to bt better j estar mejor. 


generally admired if they had contained a wiser and 
genercUmente admirado si contenido 

more religious philoscmhy. If the works of Rousseau were 

religioso fihaofiay f. ohra^ f. 

more moral^ they would be less dangerous, and would not 

A ' '^- peligrosOj 

have done (so much) harm. If your husband twwr less 

causado tanto mal, 
violent and less jealous, you would be happier, if men 
vioUnto celosoy 

were not so unjust, the number of the unfortunate would not 

injusto, n&mero 
be so great. The effects of the revolution would not have 

been so cruel, if the depravity of manners had not been 

depravacionf. costumbrtsf. 
so great in England, tf licentiousness had not been (so much) 

licencia^ f. tan 

countenanced, if irreligion had not been so general (1). If 
favorecidOf irreUgion, f. general. 

the Spanish language, if its beauties, its riches, were more 

languoy f. bellezay rigueza^ 

known, the literature of this country would have more 
conocidOf . literaturay f. pais, m. k ^ . 

amateurs. If your brother was better informed than you 
aficionado. fut 

last year (2), it was your fault (3). The miser would 

never be contented (f he had not in his coffers treasures to 

cofre tesoro para 
feed his insatiable cupidity. 
aHmentar insaciable eodida. 

(1) S€e Rule XLV. p. 78. 

(2) See the N. B. Ist, following Rule LXV. page 79. 

(3; It, cannot be tranglated in this phrase ; therefore say, era 
culpa vuetlra. 




Have, my friends (2), patience and perseverance. Let 

paciencia perseveranda. 

him have a good dictionary and a grammar better than yours. 

dicdonariOf m. gramdtica^ f. • ^ « ^-f '*' ' 

Let them be less lazy. Let the virtuous man be rewarded^ 

virtuose recompensado 

let the wicked man be punished. (3) Let us have prudenoe 

castigado. prudencia 

and wisdom. Let your brother be more discreet, and let 

gabiduria, diacreto 

them have more prudence. Have pity on the poor and 

. Idgtima de pchre,m.pL 
unfortunate. Be good, charitable and beneficent. 
caritativo herUfico, 

Sul^unctifse present. 

That I may have riches.(4) That I may be generous. That 
I may not be ambitious. Although we may not be avaricious. 

ambicioso. avnque 
(In order that)' he may have servants^ and that he may tot 

para que 
be unhappy. In order that our enemies may not have 
any partizans in this country, and that we may be victorious. 

* partidario este 
Although our troops may have excellent officers. In order 

tropaSff. oficiaL 

that we may all be friends of our king and of our country. 


(1) See the note to the GonjugRtion of the aaxiliary verb habtr. 
p. 82 of the grammar. 

(2) See Rule XXXI, p. 60. 

(3) In English, when the verb is in the third person of the impe> 
ratiire, and has a noun for its nominative, this noun always precedes 
it ; on the contrary in Spanish, it is alwajs placed afttr tb« verb ; 
Ex. write ; sea el hombre virtyofo, 4t* 

(4) See Conjunctionsy page 194. 


Be not so negligent. (1) Be not a slanderer. Have no 

* maldiciente. 
{Hride. Be not impious* 
orguUo. impio. 

That I might have friends. Although the Count de Na- 
ranja might not be prodigal. That their children might not 

ser prddigo, 
be libertine. Before your father and your uncle had a 

cUsohfo antes que 
garden. Before thou wast at Madrid. That the kingdom 
of England might not be in danger. Before the traitors 
estar peUgro. traidor^^ 

were arrested ; before they were in prison. (2) 

cdrcely f. 



Although I Tuxoe had the pleasure of • . • Before your father 


has had news from your mother. Before he has been ill treated. 

noticiOj maltratado. 

I do not believe that the marchioness de Angosse has ever been 

creo que 
pretty, nor that her daughter has ever been ugly. Your sister 

is very gay, although she has been sick (so long.) Miss de 

alegre ianto tiempo, 

Costillas has been very amiable, before she hashaid (so many) 

dntes que 
admirers. The number of wise and virtuous men is very 
adorador. n(imero,m. sabio virtuoso 

small, although they have edways been esteemed. 
reducidOf estimado. 

If I had had good wine, I should not have been so sick. 
Although the war had been very long, the peace lasted hut 
antique largo paz,f, durS 

(1) See Rule XLVI. p. 80. 

(2) In prison must be translated as if it was in the prison. 


one year. (1) Your children were not very good yesterday^ 

although they had been punbhed the day preceding. Yonr 

castigar dia^,precedente. 
nephew was very ignorant before he had been at the 
MobrinOjTo, antes que en 




Indicative present, imperfect, preterite definitCf preter- 
ite inai^nitet preterite anterior and pluperfect. 

I speak to men of my country. Thou answerest thy father. 
hitblar pai8,m. responderd 

He (comes up) to (2) speak to his master, (3) We wiH 

speak of the revolution of Constantinople. We wiU answ^ 
ine Marquis de jas Rojas. You taU my son and my daugh^ 

ter ; (4) but they refuse to come up. I fasted, last year, 

rehusoT de ayunar 

iBvery Friday. I drank nothing hut w9XeTj and thou fearedst 
fodos los viemes. beber temer 

that I should be sick. (5) He allowed his ^children g^mes 

permitir a , j^cgo 

of exercise and dexterity. The governor of the City of 

egercido destreza. gobemador^m. 

Cadiz supped yesterday with the Commissary of the Navy.(6) 

cenar Comisarioym. * 

We pretended that the Corregidor was sick ; but to-day I 
pretender hoy 

(1) Bvi, taken in th« sense of onlj/f b translated into Spaiush by 
nlo or «otomen/e, or by no placed before the yerb and n'no placed 
after this same Terb. See p. 165 of the grammar, what rdates to it. 

(2) Set on the preporitiotu the rules which relate to por and para, 
page IGO and following of the grammar. 

(8) See exercise XIII, page 219, note 1 . 
(4; See Rule LVI, page 164. 

(5) See Rule LIV, page 153. 

(6) The article the cannot be translated in this phrase : we say, 
el comisario de marinoj de guerraf and not dc la marina, de la guerra. 


am sufe that he is well, (1) that he jadged yesterday a 

seguro juzgar 

criminal and sentenced him to be whipped* I bought 
reo,m, condenar a azotar. comprar 

yesterday two dozen of pears, and we have- eaten theip 

docena pera^ comer 

already. John, why hast thou breakfasted so latQ? Sir, 

ya porque almorzar tarde? 

(it was) eight o'clock when I took my cup of chocolate* (2) 

eran tomar chocolate. 

Thou frigbtenedst me when thoii knockedat at my door. (3) 

espaniar cuando 
My father was very well satisfied with me when he had 

qK>ken to my masters, and he rewarded me. We had dined, 

recompensar corner^ 

sung and danced when Miss Peredo arrived. We had 
etmtar bailar Uegar, 

promised to write to my aunt. Messrs. Isla and Valdes had 
prometer de eseribir tia* 

procured an excellent place for a son of Madam de L^ari^a. 
procurar empleo Madama 

Rule XXXIX. and XL. pg,gtl%.. 

Fubtre ahtohtt^ future anterior, fiUure conjwnciive simple^ 

and fiiture coT^nctwe cwnpound. 

If the next winter, is as cold as the last, the popr will 

k , '^ inmemoym, frio iUtimOy. 

suffer very much. We will remedy the evil if it m possible. 

pade^sK . remediar mal^xn. * posible, 

Shalt thou not sell (4) thy wine this year ? He will shear 

vender esquilar 

(1) See exercise XV, page 222, note 1. 

(2) Cup^ tpeakiog of chocolate ig translated by gffioarw and not by 

(3) To knock at the door is translated by llamar d la puerta and 
not by pegar d la puerta, 

(4) In interrogative phrases, when the nominative of the verb is 
one of the personal pronouns, the pronoun is suppressed in Spanish ; 
and in conversation the isCenrogation is caused to be understood by 
the inAexion of the voice. 


bis riieep (in the) beginning of the sprii^. Thy father 

ovefa^ph al principioy primavera,f, 

has assured me that, t/thou (Mrt diligent and stttdieti mth 
ase^urar ^'^' < estudiar cen 

attention, thou shalt have the gold watch that he has prom- 
aUneion, - ' wo rehj^m. 

ked thee« The physician has advised me (not to) go out 

niidicOym. aconaejar deno saUr 

to-morrow, if the sun is as hot as it has been to-day. I shall 
mnnana^ 9ol^. ardiente lo hoy 

speak to your sister, when she shaU have received the vi^ 

* . I". ' • recibir vi^iiajL 
and the good advice of her aunt We shall not omit, intlidb ^ 

consefoyXa. ("^ omtHr 

critical circumstance, (anything) that prudence, duty and 
eritico circuHsianciayf, nada deloque obligacion^ 

honour shaU prescribe (to us) for the safety of our countiy. 
Aoiior,m. prescribir nos pcura seguridadyt 
They will write (to me) all that shaU happen (to them} 

escribir me todohque acontecer fes 
while I shaU be absent. Thou wilt do, my child, all that 
nUentras ausenie. hards 

thy masters shaU command thee ; thou (wih be silent) when 

^ ' mandar caUar 

they shaHweak (1) and thou wilt answer when they shtii 
Question thee. If thou breakfasteist to-morrow with the 

Marqub de las Estrellas, thou wilt not forget,^ I hope, to 

olmdoTy h esperar de 
iqieak of my law-suit. Tell Mr. Joseph Mor de Fuentes 

pieitOym. Di a Don 
tfAen thou shalt meet him, that I wish to write to his son, 

encof^ar desear^escribir , 

but I (don't know) where he lives. 
ignorar donde vimr. 

(1) See Rule XL. pasfe76. 


See Budts XLT, HJT, XLBI, XLIV and XLV, and 

the JV. B. IsUand 2d. pages 77, 78, 79^ 80. 

fVrs^, seqond and tMtd con^itionah prese^^ cmd pa^t. 

If man ^Qccufied himself (l) alitde.more ^th .his own 

Qcup^rse unpoco de propip 

affairs, and meddled a little lass mttt those (cfothere), l^ 

ftegodo^. meterse (2) ageno (3) 

would live happier. Jf fxien ("^ave tkemeelvea up) less to 

mvtr 0fUregar9e 

^faeir passions, if the^ would (suffer themsehes to be) 

paxkmy d^arse 

persuaded more by the counsels of reason ai^ of- viitije} if 
persuadir mas cowejojux* rozim^t 

they respected as they opght, >the sacsed xights of 
refipectar como J» deber sagrfudo derecko^. 

i>i innocence, in jk wordf^if they respected themselves, the 

inocen^a/. en unapaiffbra r^espetarse dsi mismos 
manners would not be so corrupted, the victims of crime 
costumbre^. corromper , vict^ma^. crimen^, 

would not be in so great a number, and the most ciktting 
en * ndmero agudo 

remorse t^ovlli not torment their souls. (4) The archbishop 
of Toledo permitted yesterday the Countess de Almaviva 

and her cyidren4o take in ibis gdrden whatever tbey|>feas-* 

hijo detomor 
ed. (5) If I'wrqte the revolii^pn^pf Algiers, if I jpcun^ec? its 

injustices, its cruelties and its horrors under the reign oi 
infusiidaf crueldad horror en reit^dq 

(1) JUle XLII, p. 77. 

(2) ' To meddle mih istca^fUUiM as if H was to put^onKfi^i^h ^con- 
sequently with thou must be rendered by en lot, 

(jd) (Mhen is rendere«l in Spanish by ageno,'af*otyitt, whicb, as an 
adjectiye, agrees with, tbe siibsUntiTe to whi^b ,it nlaitf. (€ke pro- 
noons indefinite, p. 66. of the rrammar.) 

(4) Role XUI. p. 77. 

i9) Role JUcV. Pago 78^ to plMsej gmter. 


the cannibal Roland, I should uu colours as black 

anirap6fago,m, Rolando twar(l) color negro 

as was bis soul. I should esteem Mr. B. if he loved more 

lo €stimar(2) 

hb wife, if he treated her with more attention and kindness, 
tratar la con atencion bondad 

and if he loved himself (3) a little less. Who would ever 

si amarse d si nnsmo Qtaeit 

have imagined^ before having seen it, that Cesar would 

pensar dntes de haherlo visto Cesar 

have perished by the hand of Brutus. (4) It wotdd he 

muerto de Bruto. * 

good and useful (5) that all governments should protect 

atil gobiemojm. proteger 

the arts and sciences. If I was rich, if I wajs powerful, 

arte, f. dencia, poderoso 

I would fly to the assistance of aH those who implored my 

volar socorroy m. los que implorar 

assistance. (6) He promised to lend me all the books 
asistencia. deprestarme (7) 

that he should buy. K the French were brave before the 

comprar, eran antes de 

revolution (8) they are not less so now. 



^ee RuU XLVII. XLVUL page 81. 

Imperaiive^ present^ impsffect^ preieriie and pluperfet^ 

of the subjunctive. 
My friends, the enemy threaten you ; show who you 
amenazar os; mostrar 

(1) Utar takes the preposition de ; say then, de eoloret, 

(2) See Rule LV[,pagc 164. ^ u -.. 

(3) In this same phrase himself being directly governed hj (be 
active verb to hvef it roust be preceded by the preposition d, say 
then se amara d si mismo. (See Rule LVI, page 154.) 

(4) See Rule XLHI, page 78. . . ^ , 
(6) Rule XLV, page 78, and observe that placing good and use/ut 

before the verb, the phrase is infinitely better in Spanish. 

(6) See Rule XLIV, page 78. 

(7) The verb to lend, being in the infinitive, the pronoun me must 
be placed after prestar and be joined to it ; prestarme is then a com- 
pound of the verb and the pronoun. (See Rule XXVI, page 65.) 

(8) See the N. B. 1st of the Rule XLV, page 79. 


are: (take up) arms, fly to meet him, attack him with 

tomor arma, volar U atacar 

courage, fight with intrepidity, and the victory is your«.(l) 

valor J comhatir intrepidez, victoria^ f. 

Let us prove to our neighbours, that, if they have valour, we 

probar i;ectno,m. 

have (at least) as much as they. Let them fear the 

patriotism of a nation ready to shed even the last 
patriotismo^m, . nacionf, pronto derramar hasia 
drop of its blood for its government and its liberty. God 
gotaf, sangrepara gobiemo Kbertad, Dies 

grant that the war may not last long. Speak more softly, 
quiera durarmucho. hqfOy 

Uiou hast already interrupted me twice. Let us promise to 
ya interrumpir do8vece9^ prometerde 

study, and let us study with more attention, and our master 
estudiar maestro 

will be pleased. Eat some cherries, they are very good. 

contento, comer guindayf. 

Open the door for my father, he has already knocked 
Abrir puerta^ f. llamar 

twice. I hope the physician wiU cure our poor patient. I 

desear mldico^m. . curar enfermo^, 

fear that my father and mother wiU noi pardon my sister the 

^ perdonar 

fault that she has committed. I hoped that yonwould have 
culpa f. que cometer. esperar 

permitted your son to come and dine with me. (2) They 

de venir d comer 
sang and danced, although I was speaking to you. He 
cantor bailar aunque 

would have been offended (3) if we had revealed his secret. 

(1) See Rule XXXI, page 60. 

(2) The verbs to eonuj to go, to rtturrif veDir, ir, yoWer, followed 
bj another verb, require in Spanish to be foUowed by the preposition 
df which is placed immediately before the verb which it poverns. See 
for the manner of translating with me, mth thee, Vfith oneself, the 
N. B. 2d, following the personal prbnouns, page 54 of the Grammar. 

(3) The verb to be offended being reflective is conjugated in Span- 
ish in the compound tenses with the verb haber and not ter, (See 
Rule LXI. page 167.) 

232 stfJMim tfJteUdlM^. 

Let OS Mver speak iK of (my body.) Let to? al^vays- tttptstt 
mai nadie siempre re^petar 

the repufatidoof (every hody.) My son ceiftiiMiedtto study, 
iodoSf coniintktr 

ahiloagb he tof dtomissed his HMBter. 1 shaH sup wi^ 
dupedir eenar 

aqppetite, idtfaoeghr I /btw^ dltted w^. He is alwtrftt t» geod 

apetito de 

fattmoury provided he tHnkt mid ediv welk 

humor ^ eonialque heber comer kien, 


In all the preee^BB? eatereises, we have ttiade it ear duty, in 
order to render the lahottr easier to the scholar, to foUow dil 
the rules in their order, to cile them eyen in lAnost all the 
phrases and to ref(^ to them as oAen as possiMe, persuaded 
that there emu he no better way of familiarising the scholar 
with the principles of a language, than by obliging lum to 
have recottrSe to litem^ to stiKly th«m and to reflect oa them 
at the very moment he makes the apf^catrem of them. 
Now that we have already been over ^ greatest part of 
these rules, we think it will not be useless to exercise oneself 
. anew on the same rales by the tranriatien of seme exercises 
which will embrace them aU. We shall not cite diem, in 
order to reader it necessary to eonsolt wi^ a more consider* 
ate and deeper attention the grammar and notes of the pre- 
ceding exctcises. We shall pass aHerwards te the other 


On the preceding Mules. 

A state is not flourishing but by die purity of its laws, 

estado^ no fiorecUnte tino purezaj[» ley, 

the security of its commerce, the holiness of its religion^ 

t^mereioy santidady f 

and the respect and love which the sovereign inspires in 
reipetOy m. amor soberano^. inspirar d 

bis subjects. The intimacy of two virtuous hearts is the 

vasedlo, intimidetd, f. coraxon 

gordian knot which nobo^ can untie. The unhappy 
gordiano nudOym.qtie nadie mfetiz 


]9erson is not wholly (to be pitied,) if virtue remairu to 

enteramente ae compadecersey quedar 

him in his misfortune. Romances are a poison for the 

infortunio. novela^ f. venenoyva.para 

heart, they corrupt it (by degrees,) and finish by 
corromper poco d poco acabar por 

destroying eiitireiy all its sensibility. Maternal tenderness 

destruir del todo sensibiUdadyf. nuUemcd 

is a debt that aU mothers ought to pay to nature. Let 

deuda^. madreyf. debet * pagar nattaraleza^. 

us regulate our gifts by prudence, and our desires b^ 

reglar don^, conforme d 
wisdom. Esteem is durable only when it is foup:^ed on 
:8alnduria/. durable euando fa ^ndar aobre 

virtue. A sensible heart receives soon or lat'^^ even in 

9ensible recihir tarde 6 ten* ^rano aun 

^Ihis world ils reward. To speak little, to r'^U^yye much, to 
mundo^.rec(mpen8a. • jpoco, • \^ervar mucho, * 

think maturely, and act prudentl" ^^ almost certain 
petuar maduramentey obrar prudent Jj^g cast cierto 
proofs of innocency of soul, rectitu^ ^ ^^ ^^.jj^l ^nd purity of 
prueboyf^inoeenciayf. ^^^^^y^- ^^ct' ^.^s.ingenioym. purezaf. 
manners. ' 

castumbres^ f. 

^^"^^iIRGISE XXIV; ^ ? i 

liM ji 1 u ^'^/ ^ preceding Rum. la Roche ^^^,^ .^.^ ^^^^ _^ ^ 

seguropa^eyf. H quedes<yJZae ^^^^^'^^ 

liberality. Enw i. ^P^esto ecmomiaf. 

The ««1 « «. eiianation ofmSg!^ The'^n 
2o» «»««««<«,f. divinidiaf, ■ '""'' 


thought and the faculty of speakings says the Couiit de 
peniomenio^, facuUcuiyf, 

BuffoD) do not depend on the forra^ nor tite organisation of 
dependerde formaJ[, organizacionjL 

the body, they are gifts which the Creator has granted 
cuerpo^, * doft^ni. conceder 

Bokdy to man, and not to other animals. The clearest 
iinic€Miente otro animal^. ciaro 

pvoof of this truth, is that ahhoogh the ourang-oatang ha» 
pruehoyt aunque orang^iango 

the body, the lindbs, the senses, the brain and the tongue 
miembroym. seniido^. knguaf. 

entiiely sinilar to those of man, ner^rthelese he 
enteramciUe temefamie lo8 sin tmhar^o 

speaks not,, he thinks not. l^e em(»re of man over ani- 

fUnsa imperio sabre 

mals is a lawiul empire that no revolution (1) cao 
kgUimo * queninguno pnede 

. destroy ; it is the eni|)lre of miod over matter, and it is not 
desitruir * cMpiriiuf, maieriaj[. • 

only . a .mht ^en by . natofe, and a power 
solamente ^ dereckoyn, dado por naturaU^yt poder^^ 

founded on its unalterable laws, but a gift of God, by 
fundar inalterable ley^ sinotambien Diot^ 

which man can at every moment perceive the excellence of 
elcufd puede coda' iristante reconocer escekncia^. 
his being. ( There' ar'e) m9tny.Je\^ in Asia and in Africa. 

9er Hay Judio^, 

The catholic religion reigned alone befbre the Friench revo- 

cai6iic0 ' domtnar solo dnies de 

lution, in Italy, in Fi-arice, in Spain, J\n' several States of 

« ' 'Italia, :\ • ' • • mucho etiado 

Germany and in the greatest part of Poland. Fmnoe is the 

' . - uf^dyor parte Potonia. 

most ancient of the kingdoms of Europe. ,^^f^nnaay maa 

■atUigno K ' ' tein&'fm, ' tjurooa, 
formerly called Gerraania from ^he$e^i^iatonicjirQrds,#flr 

and man^ which signify man of coQrage,.(t^ritk^ mi^») 
que Mis^ifitan'-i^ ^ ' v'alor^ ' gu^i^AOr<Q 


, (1) S«e Rate ^JCVIII, page 66. 


On the preceding Rules. 

Mr. Benedict Jerome Feijoo of the order of Saint Bea- 
Don BewUio Gerdnimo ordenyxn. 8€at 

edkt^ and member of the council of hb Majesty, was the 
miembro^ consefoyUk. mageatady 

first of aU the Spanish writers who dared (1) to attack 

eMcritor. m. atreverse aiacar 

openly the prejudices of nis nation. Mr. Thomas de 

Mertamenie preocupadonf* Don Totnas 

Iriarte is a Spanish poet justly celebrated; his translations. 

of Virgil and Horace are excellent, and his literary fables 
VirgiUo Horado Uterario fdhula 

are productions of the most subtle genius and of the most 
produecion sutil mgenio^. 

delicate taste. The Spanish language is very rich ; it is 

etquisito gu8to^> langua^f. * 

much more noble, much mare majesdc and mtich more 

mucho mqjestuoso 

expresuve than the Italian language. The Don Quixote of 

e9prent>o Itcdiano 

mchael Cervantes is the best romance diat has ever been 

Miguel noveloy f. 

written. All those who have read the poem of the Araucana 

escrito, ios que leido • poemayia. 

by Ercilla, make a pompous panegyrick of this work, 

par hacen pomposo ehgioyia. o6ra, f. 

particularly of ikie speech of Cohcoh so much 'extolled 

particularmente arengaf, celebrado 

by Voltaire ; it (is found) in the second C»ito. The more 
♦ hcdlarse' Canto^, 

foreigners cultivate the Spanish language^ the more beautiful 


they find it. Lope de Vega is a very great poet, and without 


doubt the best that Spun hag produced. Charles fourth, 

duda producir, Carlos 

(1) If ve translate to dare by atreverUf a reflectiye y^rb, we must 
place the pf obouq before the verb aud 9ay : '« afrevj^ <i. 


Catholic king of Spain, (was born) at Naples, the tveMh 

CaidUco nacer en NdpoleSy 

(1) of November of the year one thousand seven hundred 

Noviembre ♦ 

and forty-eight, and began to reign the fourteenth of 
♦ y principiar 

December of the year one thousand seven hundred and 
diciembre • * 

eighty-eight; he was proclaimed king at Madrid the seven- 

y proclamar en 

teenth of February of the following year. 
febrerQ siguiente 



On the preceding Rules and on Rules XXXI. XXXII. 
and XXXIIL page 60. 

At what hour did' my mother dine' yesterday ? At one 

o'clock. At what hour did she (take a cdlation ?) (2) At 

merendar .^ 

six o'clock and she supped at nine. When dost thou expect, 

cenar . ^^ . -. :, ? • espera^^ 

my friend, to receive news from thy son? I desire very 

• recibir noticia deeear 

much to know how he does; he is a good child One of 
mucho* saber como ^ estar^ t^ muckachojin. ^ 

my friends, who arrived (the day before yesterday) from 

Uegfir ante ayer 

Madrid, has assured, me that he was very well last week, 

\ K asegwrar me que t :«. f- 'i «emaiia/.A' 
Here are very handsome houses. Yes, my friend, they are 
He aqui .. si r ^-j -^<'' 

truly very handsome : the first belongs to the Marquis de 
ciertamente '^ Marques^m, 

The twelfth may be translated by en doce or by tl dia doee. 

We have said io the N. B. on the persons and numbers of the 
verbs, that the nominatlye personal pronouns are almost always sup- 
pressed in Spanish : this rule must be observed, whether the phrase 
is interroj^ative or not. (See note, p. 82 of the grrammar.) 



in >.• . ti u;,^ M,- 
Ithiiirff thirnnmnTl inmfnn^ the thiiad a nj broliioi's^ and the 
foialh the Isla's ; Uiis large garden m aiso his^ and 

the other is mine. Let us (go inl») mine, we will gather 

ettStForem coger 

smne flowers. Who would have thought that the weaker 
ai§wm fioTyt Q^iak i^^ creeruL titmpo 

wouMhave been so fin| to-day ? If thy brother had more 
p«ti«n£^^ he wsovld have nmre success in his uodfertalungs. 

it %a^lL'xX(x. foriuna ^<- empresa. 

If (any Qiie)> atka for me^ (take case) te answerthat i 
K<.iA^ preguntarpor >^^ andado de / , • \ 
ant Hot at home* IT the Iidah - - insteadi of atteckine the 

Irlandes-^ en lugar de atiiccmi 
citf of IkibliB by d^>.had attadsed. it by night, Ireland 
dt diOydi^kJ-ui^y^cUi^^C^p de noehe^ Irlanda.f, 
would have run great perils ; for, it appears that ihe 

eorrer pdigro;. pueA pare^ 
malcoBlents were well prondded with arm* and ammunition. 
madtonimtOyin. h^ikprooeew de armat municion 

I speak of the insurrection of the end of hify ef the year 

ineunteeeionyt Jm^m^ JuMo 
one tfaomnnd eight hundred and three. 



On the prece d in g Rules. 

Study, be diligenttand docile, and your masters will reward 
w. -* d6cU 

you ; but, if ^u are lazy, they will punish you. I do not 
understand what'^'ilie/ cbimtiesg ha» said^ alihougb she has 
camprender lo que dicho^ <v .« 

repeated it thrice. We should have invited , thy friend to 
repe^ir^ -n.^-' i^<u . ,.. couvidfir ^ 

dine with thee, if he had come(l) yesterday to the party. If 

^,i u. i^.u^.i, venir^^i^ »^ iertuliaff. 

you eonsokd the afflicted, if you assisted the unfortunate, 
qfligida^UL socorrer.. pobreyuu 

n) The verb to eomCf Ttnir being a neuter verb^ is sMt oonjugated 
in Spanish in the compound tensc« with the anniUarT^ ser but with 
haber. (Ske Role LXI, page 157.) 


if you tAorei/ with them your superflaity, you would thus 
rtparHr entre mperfiyOy nu axi 

acquire treasures of benedictions. M. Luis de la Plata 

tuoro betuUdon Don 

pretends (to be) very poor, although he is the richest man in 
8er pobre, de 

the city* I shall dine (to-morrow) with my friend the count 

de Isla, (there will be) (a great many) people and after din- 

hahrd mucha gente deapuade 

ner we shall play cards and we shall dance all night ; we 

jugardhanaipeg haUar noche,f. 

shall sing also ; and I wish very much (1) that the Marquis 

tambien deaear 

de Mondejar and the duchess de Almodovar woadd sing the 
duet of ZemireandAzor. Mr. Charles Tuerto bought a 
house last week, and he sold it at ten o'clock in the 

semanaj[. vender la de 

morning. Where didst thou dine yesterday ? At thy 
mafiana^ f. Dtmde en casa de 

brother's, and 1 shall dine to-morrow with the Duke de 

Alcudia, at his country house. Hast thou breakfasted ? yes, 
en almorazar si 

my friend ; I breakfasted at eight o'clock, or half past 
eight (2) 6 

On the preceding Rules. 

The Swiss are very strong, very courageous and very 
faithful men. A band of robbers attacked the Count de 

tropay f. lodron aiacar 

Fernan Nunez and the Marchioness de Ariza, and obKged 

Nunez obligor 

them to give all their money and their jewels. (3) I lost 

ks a dar joya, perder 

<1) Mueho is indeclinable when joined to a verb, and it declined 
thus mueho^a-ot-^u when joined to a gubstantive. 

(2) Say, at eigrht and a half struck, d la* oeho y media dadai, 

(3) See Rule VII. page 30. 


yesterdaymy little dog, hast thou found him? No: if [ had 

haUar lo 
found him, I should have sent him (to thee) immediately. 
enmar lo te inmediatamente. 
Hast thou seen the little country house that my mother has 

bought ? It is very pretty, we shall always have in the yard 
comprar • patio^. 

a large dog capable of terrifying the most daring robbers. 

perro^. capaz de amedrenfar osado 

A mother said one day to her children : practise virtue, 

decid hijo practicar 

detest vice, love study, be generous without prodigality, 
aborrecer inn prodigaUdad 

wise and religious without affectation, and you will be happy, 

reUgioBO sin afectaciony 
not only in this life, but also in the life (to come.) The 

solamenteen mastambien futuro* 

miser is a martyr of the devil or an anchorite who, 
avaro mdrtir demonio^m, 6 anacoreta^m* que 

by his abstinence and his continual inquietudes acquires 
abstinencia continuo angiistiajL adquirir 

rights to hell ; his heart is always divided between the 
dsrecho infiemoyin. partir 

desire of preserving and that of accumulating. He is 
deseOy m. conservar 61 amonionar tener 

hungry and eats not, he is thirsty and drinks not, he 
hambre comer tener aed beber 

(has need) of repose and takes none, he is never free (1) 
neeesitar * descanso no lo tomar libre 

from alarms. Before the revelation, the whole universe was 

sohresalto, antes de revelacionyf. universoyin. 

a temple of idols : each vice was a divinity. 
temploy TQf idolo cadavido deidadyf. 

(1) See the obier?ation8, p. 169 of the grammar. 





XXX. pages 55 and 56. 

I wffl send thee to-morrow morning the books Jj>rom- 
enniar mafUuui par la manana 
ised thee ; if they please thee, I advise thee to buy them ; 

gu9iar aconsgar de comprar 

thou wilt find them at Messrs. Munroe & Francis's. Mr. 
hallar en la libreria de Dan 

Luis de Villa Real has assured us that Miss Sophia Hermo- 

aaegurar Sofia 

sa is at Cadiz : write to her, and invite her to come and 

.escribir convidar devet^r .a 

pass some time with us. I have received two .letters for 
pasar cdguno recibir para 

my brother. I will send (1) them to him at his countiy 
house without opening them. I will write to Im layadf 

to-morrow, and I will enclose the^e .two Jotters in Qpiie. 


Lei U8 defend ourselves, (?) myfriendsy (3) let.li3 isi^ 

ourselves .with courage against the onemy who .attacks i^s 

con corage contra que acofneter 

and pretends to cgnquer us ; let us repulse. Um wiii vigqiv, 

pretender* veneer rechazar 

and let us for/ce him to confess that pur -valqqr ^svQid oi^r 

obligar (4) confeaar 
attachment to our country, and to $he religion of oiir fa^^xs, 
qficiony f. 

(1) See Rule XXVII, p. 6ft. 

(2) See Rule XXX. pAgeftft. 

(3) In these apostrophes : my friend, myfiiendi, my fidker, my 
mother t my brother, my titter, &c, — the possessiTe pronoun may be 
suppressed, excepting when they are accompanied with a sentiment 
of joy or sorrow : in these cases the pronoun is expressed with ad- 
vantage, and is placed after the nouns ; and instead of the pronoon 
mif we make use of mio without an article. 

(4) See the N. B. 4th which precedes the list of the irrMnilar rwb§, 
p. 121 of the Grammar. 


fender us iBViDciUe. Thy brothers are Tery imjnst and very 
hace invencibk. may injuato 

imgralefid. A thousand times I have succoured them m 
tNgTota. ♦ vez socorrer 

dieir OHsfertuiies, never has Madam \^1 assisted them^ 
infortumoj aaiHir 

nevertheless, they love her^ they see her, and it appears that 

no obstante vtniar *parecer 

they detest «c.(l) 


On the preceding Rules. 

Somebody advised Philip, the father of Alexander, 

Alguno Qconsejar dFdipe * •Alefandro 

to banish from his douinioos a man who had spoken ill of 

de echar estado que 

him ; I shall (take good care not) to do it, answered he, 

guardarse bien de hacer responder 
he would go every where and epeak iU of me. When a 

ir (par todas partes) d decir mat cuando 

Boman general tripmphed, a herald said to him from 
romano general^ triunfary herakb^. decir de 

time to time, remember that thoa art mortal* Iiet us 
cuando en euandoy acmtrdnHe mortal 

always submit with resignation to the decrees of 
siempre someterse resignacion deeretoy^m* 

providence. Lend me ihy book, I will return it to thee 
promdenciaj[. Prestar voker 

to-morrow i do not refuse it to me. (2) No, I cannot refuse 
manana rekusar jpuedo 

it to thee. Lend thy fan to thy sister, and present it to 

abanico presentar 

her politely. Thou knowest Mrs. D.T.S.; the count and 

cortismenie conocer 
I mere speaking (3) of her ; and we said that she is well 

(1) See the N. B. of Rale XXX. pag« 6^* 

(2) See Rule XLVI. pa^e 80. 

(3) See Rnle L. pi^e 9i. 


informed, that she qpeaks several languages and that she k 
inHruido, mueho 

very amiable. AU those who know her say (the same) 

Todos Job que otrotcaUo 

of her. Where is Mr. de A. ? Do not speak to me of him, 

I detest him. Here are pears and apples, eat some, they 
detegtar He amd pera manzanay dlgtmo, 

are excellent I shall buy some more toHnorrow and I will 

send you 9ome> 


Oil the preceding Rules. 

If they carry thy brother's servant to prison, he will not 

^t Uevar criadojin. cdrcelyf. 

(come out) of it to-morrow. He is already there. I assure 

ealdrd ya oBL asegurar 

you that I shall not go to see him there. The viscount de 

ir6 ver aUd. vizconde 

Isla has bought a country house. I shall dine with him 


to-morrow: he* will* speak* (tome)* of it* : it is new, 

large, and well ornamented ; it is a palace. My~son learned 

adomado * paktcio^. aprender 

last year all the fables of La Fontaine, but he has already 

forgotten the greatest part of them. Twelve robbers were 
olvidar mayor ladron 

stopped last month in the wood of Y.... they were tried 
arrestar bosquCy m. juzgar 

(the day before yesterday) by the criminal tribunal, which 
anUayer por criminal trihtmalym, que 

condemned six of them to be hanged. (How many) children 

ahorcar cuanto hijo 

has your sister ? she has two, one son and one daughter. 
Thy (pocket handkerchiefs) are very handsome, but I have 

panueloy m. matt 

some that are at least as handsome and as good. 
que dlominos 


(Sball we go) to the garden to-day ? go there now if you 

Irimos id ahora 

wish; (as for me,) I shall not go; for, I come from it. 
guerer yo * puts il 

John, open my chest, thou wilt find in it ten louis, take 
abrir armario^, hattar hiiSyXn, tomar 

them, I give them to thee. (There were) yesterday fifty 

€loy hahia 

persons at the party at Madam ViaPs. 

en en casa de V 


On the pronouns demonstrative, relative, interrogative 
and indefinitef and on the preceding RtUes, 

Whose garden is this? (1) Whose houses are these? 
Whose palace is this ? This garden is mine^2) these houses 
are the prime minister^8y(3) and the palace is the king's. 

primer ministro 
Who is there, (4) Some one knocks at the door ; John, 

Uamar d 
open it. Give me this book and take that, I shall send to 
abrir dar tomar enviar 

them this cage and this bird. This man is (looking for) thee. 

jaulCff. pc^aroyin. buscar 

He who was speaking to thee is one of my best friends, and 
she who is with him is the friend of thy sister. Has thy son 
paid too dear for his hat ? Yes, he paid twenty five 
pagar por sombreroym. si 

pounds for it. The (young man) whose talents (5) we ad- 

por jdven talentoSyin, 

mire is hardly twenty five years old : he will be without 

tener • sin 

doubt one of the first painters in Europe. Of all vices, that 
duda mto,m. 

which degrades man most is intemperance. Who^ are' 
degradar borrachera, f. 

(1) See Rule XXXIV. page 63. 

(2) See Rale XXX H. page 60. 
?3) See Rule XXXIf. page 60. 

(4) Then, is not translated in this phrase. 

(5) See Rale XXXIV. page 63. 


yoa^ qieakiog' of?' of those of whrnn we were speakUig 

two ouDUtes agOy of those two gentlemen whose credoiity 

kuy cabaUero ereduUdadf. 

you condemned (so much). — Yes, yes, I condemned th^ 

condenar tanto 
credulity, and I shall endeavour to undeckve them on the 

proeurar ^ de$enganar sohre 
conduct of theur sons* — Well; open their eyes on the 

scandalous conduct of these poor (young people) who, if 
eBcandahso jdven 

their parents do not correct them, will run insensibly to 

padres cMiigar eorrer 

their ruin. 

On the Preceding KiUes. 

Hast thou seen this parterre ? (Look at) "these ftowers : 
visio jardinym. Mirar flor^f. 

tlus and that are in my opinion, the two handsomest. 

d parecer, 

Here is a rose the colour (1) of which I admire. This is 
He aqui color ^m. 

not less handsome ; it is fresher than that the brilliancy 

• fresco aquella hriUo^m. 

of which you admire (so much.) If the Turkish fleet 

attacks that of the English, it will find men to whose courage 
atacar Ingles^ * haUar vcUor^. 

and superiority, she may be obliged to yield. I advise thee, 

* podrd obligor de ceder, aconsefar 
my friend, to study grammar, the rules of which are so 

de eatudiar gramdtica^. regla^f. 
necessary. I shall speak to-morrow to those gentlemen, and 

shall tell them to present a petition to the prime minister 
diri de preseniar sdpHca^ f. 

(2) See Rttie XXXIV. page 63. 


whose power equals almost that of the king. He who 

poder^mAgudlar 61 aquel 

was spe^ldng to me yesterday, when my father came into 

entrar en 
my room, is much more learned than thou thinkest. (1) 

cuarioyin. instmido piensaa 

What seekest thou ? Whom* are' these* ladies« looking* 

buscar mirar 

at?' What* are' thJy* talldng* about?* (Here are) two 

que acerca de , Heaqui 

pinks : which of the two (2) shall I give thee ? This pleases 

*clavelym, dar gustar 

me more than that. And what sayest thou of these tulips ? 

dices tulipan^. 

They are superb : I shall take some (of them.) Take, my 

magnifico tamar alguno * 

friend, as many as you wish (ofthemy) (3) I am very glad 

quieras • 
th(U they please thee. (4). 


On the preceding pronouns. 

At whca hour shall we dine (5) ? At ' half * after' two.* 

media y 
Shall we play after dinner ? Yes. — At what game ? 
jugardespuesde S( juego 

At chess. Somebody asking one day a (witty man) if he 

agldrez^m. preguntar ingenio 

was a nobleman, the latter answered : Noah had three sons, 
• nobk responder: No6 

(1) See Rule XX. pa^e 44. 

(2) See after the declension of the interrof^atiTe proQoun8,paj^e 64 
of the grammar, the manner of translating uihich in Spanish. 

(3) JSsmaingf as, instead of being translated by tanto-a-ot-as como is 
rendered mucbbetterin this phrase and others similar by euanto-a-os-as. 

(4) / am very glad that must be translated as if it was / rejoiee 
very much that ... me alegro macho de que . . . and the following 
yerbmustbe put in the ptesent of the subjunctive. 

(6) See after pronoune interrogative (page 64 of the grammar) how 
we must translate whatj &c. 


I do not know from whieh I have descended. Kaowest 

86 descender. Ckmocer 

thoQ any of these gentlemen, any of diese ladies ? Have yoo 

any of these ^9x>rks ? Replace all diese portraits^ eaek in 
obraf, volveadponer ' retratOjtik en 

its place. rWe must) give to each one what belongs to him. 

iugar. Esmenester fpquepertenecer 

Alexander wished that the* beasts' even 'and the walls of tbe 
Ahfandro quisa anitnalyjn. muraUa^f. 

cities should testify eaeh in their way, their grief for the 
dudadyi. d modo, par 

death of Hephestton. Each conntiy has its customs. 

Efestion, pais 

(Let us put) every thing in its place. I doubt if any one 
pongamot ditdar que a^guno 

noB ever known men better than La &iiy^e. Has any one 
conocer al^uien 

ever spoken more ingenuously than La Fontaine? His house 
(would suit) him better than any hody. Do not unto others, 
conoendria d mtdqniera. Hagais d 

what you would not that they should do (unto you.) 

quereis hagan o9 

(iSome people) do not open their mouths but at the expense 
(dgtmo abrir la bocajSiBg.sinod * espentag 

of others. He toko has no education resembles a body 

education semejareed cuerpo/a. 
without a soul, 
sth * alma. 

On tht precBding Huffs, 

The people always suffer from tlie wars which prkices 

puMoyxn. «ii/nr,sing. j^nc^^. 

make against each other, lliey have kdled each 

gehacenlosunos d hs otros. mataree 

other* Many are deceived {i) in wishing to deceiiFe others. 


(1) Instead of are dueived, say ; see themtelvet deceived^ se Ten 


Whatever you write (l) avoid useless repetitions. 
CuaJquiera cosa que evitar iniitil repeticion. 

To whomeoever we speak, we ought to be polite. We ought 

quienquiera deber * corUs, 

never to speak ill of (any body) in their absence. In 
* Ttadie autekcia. d 

whatever he aitpfojfs himself (2) he always works with 

tkt&carse trabqfar 

taste. Those who do not occupy themselves in any thing 
gusto. ocuparse nada de 

good and useful, appear to me very despicable. Customs 
{itUy parecer deepreciable.costuuAref* 

are not the some in all countries. We ought not to associate 
pai9y m. ^frecuentar 

wi^ the impious, we ought even to avoid them as public 
• ♦ evitar pnbHeo 

pes&. (No one) knows if he is worthy of love or hatrod. (3) 
peete/, nmdie saber digno amor odio, 

/Vbfie of these ladies (will go) to die pky. The treaties 

ird eomediajL 

are null. The good man has* (no where)' a moretranqvdl 
. nolo. (en wmgunaparte) 

retreat, where he can be more at liberty Uian in his soul* 
reHro^jknuk puede en 

No reverse (ought to) distuit) true friendship. One is not 

oantratitmpo aiterar wto 

always master of his pasnons. (There are) defects that 

duefko pasioH. Ha^ defecto 

we conceal careiuliy. When we have ^ul die mislortune 
ocuUar cuidadosamente. desdicha^L 

to offend any body, we ought to labour to make him 
deofenderd alguieUy trabqjar hacer 

forget the displeasure that we have caused hun. What do 
okndar disguBtOftn. isoMar ^ 

they a&y of the negotiadons ? They affirm that peace is made. 
eedice negocieuienyi, eaegurar hecho. 

(1) See the proDouns indefioite, p«(pes 64 and 65 of the grammar. 

(2) See the N. B. 4th relative to Terbs ending in ear and gar, 
wbi^ fprecedei tbe irregular verbs. Grammar paet • 121 aad 1&. 

(8) See iUae XXXVIIl, page 66. 



The second person singular, as well as that of the plural, 
being very little used in good society, and as they cannot be 
made use of but in speaking to a friend or to a person over 
whom we have authority (see the observation on the pronoun 
of the second person, after its dedension, page 52,) it will 
be proper to begin in the following exercise to substitute the 
words vm, and vms. for the pronouns of the second persons, 
which is not difficult. 

When the pronoun you is addressed to one person only, it 
is changed into tf our favour, vuestra mbrced, which is pro- 
nounced usTED and is written vh., and when it is addressed 
to more than one person, it is changed into your favoutis, 
viTBSTRAs MERGxnss, which IS pronouucod ustedes, and 
written vhs. In the first case the verb is put in the third 
person singular, and in the second, in the third of the plural. 

Vm. and vbis. are of both genders, that is to say, they are 
used equally in speaking to men and women. 

It is well to observe that the words vm. and vms, are not 
repeated in Spanish as often as you in English : we do not 
repeat them excepting when they are so distant that it would 
be difficult to know them as nominatives to the veib. Ex. 
You say that you know and that you love Miss Villigas, that 
is, your favour says that he knows and loves Miss Villegas ; 
VM. dice que conoce y ama a la JSenorita Villegas. And if 
the prononn you is followed by this possessive pronoun your, 
it must be rendered by the pronouns of the third person his 
and their, su or sus. Ex. You have sold all your gold and 
silver plate, that is, your favour has sold all his gold and sil- 
ver plate ; vm. ha vendiao toda su vagiUa de oro y de plata* 
Your when not preceded by you is changed into these words 
of your favour, which are preceded by the substantive to 
which your refers, and this substantive takes the masculine 
. or feminine, singular or plural article, according to its gender 
. and number. Ex. Your brother came to see me, su hsrmano 
de vm. vino d verme, that is, the brother of your favour, ^c. 
I have received your letters, he recibido la carta de vm. 
that is, I have received the letter of yoiir favour or worship. 

In addressing God and speaking to crowned heads, we 
make use of the second person plural in Spanish. Ex. O 

Dios, vos sois mi verdadero padre, Admitid, O Gran 

Carlos, con henigno rostroj con oidos propicios, y como 

SFijnSH BXB]&CI8£8« 24§ 

prenda de nuestro afectoj dc nueatra veneradon, haUad y 
rendimiento d la Magestady este escritOy que con tcmta mayor 
cowfianza dedicamos d vuestro non^e^ cuanto conocemo9 
que nada os €» mas grato y decoroso, nada parece maa real 
y mas digno deun Boibon que los pensamientos capaces de 
fomentar y ennohlecer las artes y la sabiduria. — Academ- 
ical discourse. 

In the first part of the exercises we have enabled the 
scholar to exercise himself on all the parts of speech, from 
the article, to the auxiliary verbs and the three regular conju- 
gations inclusively. We have introduced in it very few neu- 
ter, rejSective and reciprocal verbs, because our intention has 
always been to begin this second part with exercises on the 
rules that belong to them. We have also avoided, as much 
as pos»ble, introducing irregular verbs in the first part, in 
order to ^ve the scholar time to study them. Their 
great number is enough to frighten one at the first glance ; 
but we are soon encouraged, if we reflect, 1st. that the four 
hundred and eighty-three or eighty-four irregular verbs are 
reduced, in a manner, to thuty-five,by which all the others are 
conjugated: 2d. that they are almost all regular in their 
irregularities. Indeed, if we examine one or two of these 
verbs, we shall find that a little reflection renders the diflicul- 
ty very trifling. Acordar^ to remind, to resolve, is irregular ; 
the irregularity consists in changing the o into ue in the three 
persons singular and the third plural of the three present 
senses, that is, of the present of the indicative, of the present 
of the imperative, and of the present of the subjunctive. 
All the other persons and all the other tenses are regular* 
The irregularity of the verb aborrecer to abhor, consists in 
placing a z before the c whenever the latter is to be followed 
by an o or an a.* the o and a are found only in the three 
present tenses as above stated ; there is then no irregularity 
but in these three tenses, and all the others are regular. Let 
the scholar study these verbs attentively and judiciously, and 
they will not present any serious difficulty. — In the following 
exercises, we shall make known the irregular verbs by these 
letters, irr, whenever tjiey are in a person subject to irregu- 
larity, and they will be found in their places in the Alphabet- 
ical List, beginning at page 122, which cannot be too often 
consulted by students. 



On the neuter^ rejlectivef reciprocal^ and impersonal 
verbs^ See Rule LXL page 157. 

I have walked all day. My brother and sister have 
amused themselves very much in the garden of the English 
Consul. My uncle has assured me that you (were vexed) 

yesterday with the prime minister. The Germans have 

primer dleman, m. 

defended themselves well against the English. The French 

had fought like desperadoes. Your mother will be 

pelear como desesperado. haber 

(gone out) when we arrive. The dancing^ master' of Mr. 

9alir bails 

Luis Angelo had arrived when we entered. I should 
Luis llegar entrar. 

have repented very much having spoken to Messrs. 

arrepentirse de 

de CallenuevsDif they had been pronounced guilty. Rejoice, 

declarar culpable. alegrarsCy 
my cliildren^ your father is much better, (i2) he is out of* 

danger. My nephew does not cease to torment and afflict 

sobrinOy dejar de atormentarse 

himself. It rained, hailed, lightened and thundered 

• Uover,granizar,r€lampaguear tronar 

yesterday almost all day. (Thisre were) yesterday more than 

casi dia,m, 

sixty persons at the party at the Countess de Torillo's, and 

en en casa de 

to-morrow (there will be) at least two hundred at Madam 
d h menos • Madama 


(1) The pronoun se which is found joined to the verb hi the infioi- 
tive, always denotes that it is reflective, or reciprocal. 

(2) See the N. B. of Rule XLIX. pag^ 96. 



On the neuter, reflected, reciprocal^ impersonal and 
irregtUar^ verbs. 

Messrs. Cojo and Giboso disputed last Monday (1) for 
disputarse • 

about an hour. Your cousin told me yesterday that his 
cercade primo decirjirr, 

mother would not return from her country seat till 
volver dnteade 

next week, although she had already arrived. I abhor 
prdximo aborrecer^. 

and my sister abhors like me false phOosophy. I desire that 

comoyo Jilo8ofia,f. desear 

you would abhor it also. Can you, Sir, do me the 

sub. pres. Poder^n. hacer 

pleasure to lend me ten louis? I cannot : if I could I 
favor yin. de prestar luis 

would do it willingly. - - The servant of Mr. Canas 

hacer ^.demuy buenagana, 
has been judged and declared innocent. Wlmt do you 

juzgar declarar 

think of what I have told you ? At what hour do you 
pensarjirr. decir, ur. A" 

wish that your children should - - breakfast? I 
^6rcr,irr. almorzar, irr. subj. pres. 

breakfast at seven o'clock, and I wish that they should break- 
fast, and that you should all* breakfast' at eight. Go, my 

children, go and study till breakfast is ready. I 

d hastaque almuerzoym. esti pronto, 

know that it will not be so before half an hour. (2) None 
sa6er,irr. * estar lo * 

can - recollect without horror the bloody* scenes' 
poder^TV, cuiordarse sin horror de sangriento escena,L 
which the revolqtion of Morocco produced in the years one 

. produdr, irr. * 

(1) The days of the week take the article, say therefore ; el lines 
^ttmo, or piuado, 

(2) Before is here translated by antes de....8ay, antes de media hora ; 
an is suppressed. 


thoiuand five hundred and eighty-two and e^[fa^-tfaree. 


I «ay and I repeat it every day that our posterity will 
deciryin. repeiirjar. me/o,pl.m. 

scarcely believe such atrocities. I bring you, gentlemen, a 
apinaa creer airodiiad. traer^, 

boojc that you will read with pleasure ; I desire that you 

leer gusto ; desear 

would bring me also, or that you would send me that 

sub. pros, tambien, enmar tl 

which you have promised me. I (go out) every day about 
prometer salir^rr. hdcia 

one o'clock: do me the favour to send it to me before that 

Aocer^irr. de 



Con^nuation of the preceding Mules. 

The truly' christian^ man* Ueeeee the hand of 

verdaderamente crieiiano hendedrjar, 

God, even when it chastens lum : let vm/oUow his example^ 

aun cuando * castigar seguir^.egemph^ 

and let us bkee, (in the midst) of our mislbrtuiies the God of 

en medio infortunio 

goodness who has given us bemg and who preserves it to as. 

dor eerj ra. conservar 

I fear this child will foB^ (1^ tell him to 9top. (2) Yonr 

caer,iiT. decir^n deteneraejmr. 
father wishes that you should conduety (1) your sister to 

querery irr. comducir^n. 

school by the same road that you conducted (1) her 
escuela^ por nUsmo eandnoy m. 
yesterday. I say and I repeat every day that nothing is (3) 

repeHry inr. nada 

so rare, as a true friend* in summer, almost aU Spaniards 

vermiOy oast 
sleep (after dinner ;) it is the heat which requires that 

domtr jrr. d e spu e s de comer * exigir 

(1) Put our in the subj. pres. and eondudr l«t in the same tease.] 
(3) Translate tbe phrase as if it was, teUkmthtake tttp, prei. seb , 
(3) See Rule XXXVIU. pa^e 66. 

SPANIS0 mxxBxasES. 253 

they should do it. It lightens and tiunders often 

hacer^r, * ironar^./reeuentemente 

in Spain ; it rains there very rarely in the southern 
* raravez mefiiodia^ 

provinces, and in the northern provinces the rain is ahnost 
jprovincia/. norte^. Wimaf, 

continual from the month of October till the end of April. 
continuo deade mes^. octubre hasta fin^. tUnil, 
Where are* you* going,' Margaret ? I (am going) into the 
Adtmde »>, irr. Margarita? en 

garden, I shall gather some flowers, and I shall go and carry 
eager flor^f. d Uevar 

them to the Countess de Dupuy ; I should desire you 

would come with me, but I fear that your mother (1) does 

oetitr, irr. 
not wish you to (go out).«^I (am going) to ask her.— 
que vm. saUry irr.pjsubj. prtguntdrseh. 

Well, go and return quickly. My modier consents 
Bien^ votver^TT. pronto. consentir^. 

that (2) I should go with you, provided that (2) 1 bring her 
en que can tat que traery'm. 

some flowers, and that (2) we do not ^o out) before (2) I 

saUr^. dntesque 
know my lesson in geography. 
saber yvnc. kcion de geografia. 


See Rules LI. HI. LIU. and UV. pages 151, 152, 193. 

I have just heard that the countess de Villegas has lost a 
aeaho de oir 
son, it is the queen's surgeon who has killed him. The Mar- 

* rsina^t cirujanoyva. morir^rr. 

chioness de Costillas b also dead, and she (is to be buried) 

se ha de enterrar 

(1) Your motiMTf is politely translated in Spanish, SHfenoraiiMKire : 
ywr father, m seiiar padrtf «c. 

(2) See ceojuact. gov. the snbj. p. 194. 



the day after to-morrow at her country seat. I am very poor 

en casa de campo, 
and thou art very rich, (l) I am not more indebted (2) to 
Philip my father, said often Alexander, than to Aristotle, 
Felipe decia jllefandro, Aristdteksj 

my preceptor : if I owe my life to one, I owe virtue to the 

preceptor : deher al 

other. Do you helieve what (was told you) this monung ? 

creer le decian 

What? that Mr. Peredo is dead? I believe and I know* 
muerio eaherjunr. 

even' that he is very well. What is my son doing ? He is 
adn hacer? 

writing. (3) — Where is he ? He is in his room. — And this 
eicribir, donde 

morning what was he doing when you was with him ? He 
was studying geography. I thought that he was drawing. — 

geografiUfi, dthufar. 

No, sir, but he will do it while you are breakfasting. I fear 
mientra8 aimorzar* temer 

that you deceive me. Let us go and write the letters of 

eng'aflar, sub. pres. irjarcd escribir 
which I spoke (to thee.) Sir, I htve written them. (4) 

(There are) some men who repeat (5) everywhere all that 
Xa6er,impers. repetir ^rr, (por todas partes) h que 

they hear. We will go and dine, when you please, (6) Let 

oir,irr. d guatar. 

us go and walk first, we shall dine with more appetite. My 

d antesy apetito. 

son has just arrived fron^ the wharf, where he has been 

acaba de Uegar muette^* donde 

walking an hour and a half. Po pot forget, Francis, that I 

* ohidar^ Frandsco^ 

have ordered thee to return to-monow* (7) 
mandar devolver manana. 

(1) See the exception to Rule XI. pag^e 152. 

[2) Say : 1 do not owe more. . . . JVb debo nuu, 
fS) See Rale L. page 96. 

f4) See Rule LIX. page 156. 

(5) Say ; que andan repitiendOf or que van repiHendo, for, who repeat. 

(6) See Rule XL. page 76. 

(7) See Rule LVIU. page 156. 



On the preceding Rules and on Rules LVU. LVIIL 
LIX. LX. and LXL pages 156, 157. 

I have all the works of Mr. Thomas de Iriarte^ I have 
obroyf, Don Tomas 
read them, and they please me very much. I Kke ahio 

gustar Me gwtan 

very much (1) the wfitiogs of^ Calderon and Lope de 

ohra^ f. 
Vega: Thought them fifteen days ago, and I paid very 

comprar "^ ka^ pagar 

dear for them. Spanish books were so scarce in Boston, 

that the lovers of that language could hardly procure any. 

(tficionadod poder encontrar 

I should wish to read the poem of la Araucana by Alonzo 
querer^rr. Alonso 

de Ercilla; but I do not know if I shall (be able) 

saber y irr. poder jar. 

to find it in this city. I do not believe that you can find 
* encontrar creer 

it at the bookstores ; but one of my friends, who has in his 
library ten or twelve thousand volumes of the best French, 
biblioteca tomo 

English, Spanish, German and Italian works, has often 

spoken to me of this poem: I will ask (him for it,) telling 

pedir se lo decir^rr. 
him that you wish to read it ; and I am persuaded that, if 

desear * estar persuadido 

he has it, he will not refuse it to me. (How much) do you 

rehusar cuanto 

think I have paid for the two hundred bottles of Burgundy 

pagar por hoteUa^. 

wine that I have bought ? One hundred and twenty pounds 

* libra 

(1) The verb to like, gustar ; is used impersooally ; as, , U gusta 
la mutiea Ualiana, he likes Italiao music. J^oi gtuta el Espafiol, we 
like the Spanish. 


Sterling ? They did not cost me but one hundred pounds^ 

etterknaf cottar 

they are not dear. The wine bebg so old and so good, I 

would willingly have paid a hundred and fifty pounds. 

de buena gana 
The letter which 1 have written to your mother to announce 
carta, f. eserihir^rr. para anunciar 

to her that Miss Sydney is dead^ will be delivered to-morrow 

to Mr. Montague, who (is going) to see her at he? country 

t>,irr. en 

iiouse, and has offered to carry it to her. 
qfrecer de Hevar 


On the MverbSf the PrqsositianSf and the preceding 
Rides. See page 157 and the following observations 
on adverbs. 

N. B. In Spanish the adverbs are generally placed after 
the verb, and in compound tenses after the participle, except 
the negative and interrogative adverbs, which are placed 
before the verbs, and before the auxiliaries in compound 

The arts and sciences have never been more cultviated 

arte,(, ser cuUivar 

than they are now : but never also have they been more 

lo dkora : 
encouraged than they are. (There is) no country where 
proteger lo. hay 

the laws are more just and wise, and where justice is 
sean sea 

administered with less partiality than in France. The vir- 
administrar parcididad 

tuous man is more estimable reduced even to the most 

reducido aun 
extreme misery than the man without honour and without 
estremo misenaf. sin 

religion, living in the greatest opulence. It is not riches 
vivir nufyor opidencia^t * No son 


that command esteem, but honour and virtue. , Indigence 

grangear e%timacionf, mas si indigenciaf. 

was never and never can be criminal, hut by .being the 

criminal, con ser 

effect of crime. There is nothing so common as the name 
efectOym. crimenyta. comun 

of friend; nothing however so rare as true friendship* 
sin embargo amisiad^ f. 

(It is said) that the Hon. Mr. W. speaks learnedly, prudently 

se dice doctamente, 

and eloquently. (1) Professor H. writes and speaks correctly 

and elegantly. Modesty, candour and vurtoe are, in a 

eleguntemente, candor, m. 

woman, preferable to beauty. (2) When we hear men say 
mefor hermo8ura,L oir^rr. decir 

to us every day : gentlemen, we are wholly yours ; we are 

cada de vm, 

entirely devoted to your service : let us believe that it is 

creer * 

almost always as if they said : we might (be useful) to you, 

casi decir: poderjai* servir. 

but (we will do nothing about it.) 
no lo hartmos 


On tht Conjunctions and preceding Rules. See Rides 
LXn.LXIU.LXIV and LXV. pages 161, 162, 193. 

William second, king of England, was killed while 

matar estando 
bunting, with an arrow by Walter, his favourite, in the 
en caza, de saetazo Gualtero^ vcdido de 

year eleven hundred and one. The battle of Masura, in 

mil dento batalla,f. Masura, 

£g3rpt (was fought) in the year twelve hundred and fifty- 
darse,irr. mildos cientos 

(1) See page 160 of the grammar) 3d observ. 

(2) Transiate this phrase as if it was : modeHy, 4^. arc bctttr in a 
toinnan than beauty. 


258 {Spanish sxERCfsES. 

Smnt Louisy king of France, after having fought with a 

despues de pelear 

heroic courage^ was made prisoner by the army of th« 

Milor, m. haccTy irr. egircitOfjox, 

Saracens commanded by Malec Sala. Having been 
Saraceno mandar 

ransomed, he resumed the conquest of the Holy^ Land ;' 
rescaiary volverd ton^uista/. Santo lierra^f. 
but the plague having introduced itself into his army, the 

pe«fe, f. introducirse 

greatest part of his troops perished with it, hnd he perished 
mayor perrer de 

(widi it) himself. Punishments^ (ought to) be for the 

* ca8tigo,m. deber 

wicked, the rewards for the good. I shall (be absent) 
nudof m. recompenauy f. attsentarse 

next week for some days, and on my return my son can 

d vuelta podrd 

departybr Madrid, or if he prefers it, delay his journey tiU 
aalir preferir^in. dejar viage para 

Spring. (1) (Every body) says that, for a (young man) of 
la todoUfph decir jirr. jSvenyin. 

fourteen, your nephew is prodigiously learned. Your father 

afiosy aobrino instruido. 

is on the point (2) of (setting out) for the capital : he 

intends to speak to the minister for your brother and to 
tener dnimo de ministroy m. 

endeavour to obtain a place /or him. Mr. D. speaks Latin, 
prneurar * lograr empUo^m. 
French, Spanish and En^ish. (3) Charles and Ignatius, his 

brothers, are also very leamed. Do you know where Mr. 

tambien docto* sabeVfirr. 

Francis Ordonez is now ? No, Sir ; I know that he is no 

(1) See pag^es 160 and 161 of the giammar, the different modes of 
translating /or. 

' (2) See the N B. 2d of Rale LX4I. page 161. 
(3) See Rtole LX1¥. pi^e 198. 

SPANISH EXBRcises. 259 

longer a canon of the Cathedral of Saint Andero ; and I 

mcts *can6niffo catedral^f. 

believe that he is archbishop or bishop. (1) 

creer arzobispo obispo. 


On the Conjund^onSf the IntefjecHons, and the pre-- 
ceding Rules. 

I shall not (go out) to day urUees it ceases raining. ^^ 
salivy irr. • defar de Hover, 

though beauty b much (sought for) in women, yet it is very 

muy, deseado * 

often - - dangerous and productive of very great 
frtcueniemente peligroao productivo 

evils. This war will be very long, unless the powers of the 

north coalesce. The Spanish Academy has established /or 
noriCyXn. ligarse. (2) establecer 

pronunciation clear and precise rules, that there might 
pronunciation^, claro preciso regluyf, ctfin que • 
not remain the least doubt on so essential a point; Woe 

quedar dudaf. Ay 

to those who suffer themselves (to be dragged away) by the 
de d^arse arrastrar de 

torrent of passions ! Alas / I am ruined. (How unfortunate 
iorrente^. pasisnf, estarperder. desdichado 

I am !) courage f cotirage f after the combat, victory. 
de mi / espiritu f combate^. victoria/. 

Passing (last evening) in the street of Saint Charles, I heard 
Pasar ayer noche calkyi. CarloSy otr,irr. 

repeated on all sides these cries : Jire / Jire ! I hastened my 
repetir por parte gritoyin, adelantar el 

steps, and on entering the neighbouring street, I met a 
4 pasOy alentraren vecino encontrar 

poor woman who melted into tears and did not cease to 
deshacerse enldgrimas de 

repeat these words : My God, how unfortunate I am ! ^A / 

VOZy f. 

(1) See Rule LXV. page 193. 

(2) See GrftiDffiar, pa§e 121, M. B. 4. 


ray child^ my poor child ! where art thou? the house of this 
woman was then almost reduced to ashes^ and the child 

entonces ccuti reducir ceniza, 
whom she lamented had been a victim to the flames, it was 
Uorar ^victimade Uama^L *tener 

only three years old. (Poor little one f ) exclaimed I, what 

♦ Pobrecito f esclamar 

sorrow^ what a mbfortune for a mother ! I endeavoured to 
dohry ♦ deadicha procurar ♦ 

console her, I gave her some money ; bat all was useless : 
consolar dar^rr. dinero^, 

she was inconsolable ; ah ! said she to me^ thanking me^ 

inconsolable ; decir dar gracias 

(God grant) you may never experience a similar 
I)io8 quiera gue etperimentar * semganit 



On the preceding Rides. 

Madam Luisa de Legarra arrived yesterday from M a- 
drid; ai^ brought me letters from some of my friends. I 

/raer,irr. alguno 

shall go and walk, after dinner, and Mary will come with 

ir a rentV^irr. 

me. For whom is that ribbon ? for me or for thee? it is for 

cinta^ f. 
thee, I shall buy another for me, dost thou know Miss M.... ? 

do I know her ! certainly : and I assure thee that I love her 
8i ^ ciertamente: asegvrar quererjavm 

and esteem her very much. And dost thou love me also ? (l) 
Yes, I love thee (very much) and shall never forget thee. 

What did the Marquis de Rojas want ? He asked me how 

querer ? preguntar 
you did, and then he (went away ) I received last week 

estar, despues ir*c,irr. recihir 

a letter from Mr. John Roca ; it ended thus : and do me the 
Don *acabar hactrjktt. 

(1) See the N.B. of Rule XXX. page 60. 


favour to believe that I am forever (1) your sincere frieod, 
favor^m,de creer 

&c. You know him, (as. well as) his brother Augustus. 
como tambien Augusto, 

Well, tell me if yoa have ever known men more worthy of the 
biefiy decir^irr. jamas 

esteem and affection of those who associate with them. — 
egtimaeum^L afecto^m. freasentar * 

Never ; and I assure you that I love them both with all my 
Nuttca; asegurar damboe 

heart I say as much of them and I say it with pleasure. 

The man who has passed his youth in amusing himself ^ (2) 

pasar juventud 
repents of it (sooner)* or* (later.)* My children spend 
eUo temprano tarde, emplear 

two or three hours every day in studying history. Playing 

d jttgar 

and walking, you will not inform yourself. A man of 

genius (ought to) cultivate his talents to (render himself) 
ingenio Ssber talento^m,pata hacerse 

useful to society. I like reading and study^ (3) I do not 

80ciedadj[. megusta 
like the company of Miss B., I fear she will come. 

que veniryptes subj. 


On the preceding Rules. 

My husband solicits the place of officer in the queen's 
solicitar empleo^m. qficial 
regiment ; but I fear that the king will refuse it to him. The 
regimientOjm, rekusar, sub. pros. 

Governor promised us yesterday to come to-day to the 

prometer . de 

party, but we fear that his occupations will prevent - - - 
tertUUayf, ocupacion tmpe(&'r,imsub.pres. 

(1) See thete words, pagfe 169 of the grammar. 
- See Role LV. page 163. 

See Rule LV. and the remark that follows it, page 168. 


our having the pleasure to see hun. (Is there) say Tiews ? 
quetengamos gu8to^,dever Hay noticia^f. 

No, there is none. (1) (How many) persons are there below ? 

abqjo ? 
(How many) ladies and (how many) gentlemen ? There 

are ten ladies and nineteen gentlemen; and there were 
yesterday forty-two persons at the Marchioness de 

Torillo's ; the assembly was very brilliant. (It is) a great 

briUante. es 
misfortune for a man not^ to' have' friends. (2) Who 
deadichoyf, el 

has done that ? It iah (2) Who has written this letter ? 

^cer,irr. carta f^ 

It is youy I believe. Read, my child, and read again (3) 

creer. Leer^ 
the maxims of La Rochefoucault, they are fine and suitable 

imximaf. hermoso propia 

to give a very great knowledge of the human heart. I 
d dar conocimiento^ m. 

cannot (go out) to-day, I have too had a headache. (4) 
poderyXTT. salir 

Sir, your father (has but just) gone out (5) he will return 
acabar de volver 

in two hours. The archbishop of Toledo was like to 
dentrode esfar para 

die (6) (last evening) of an indigestion. (It is) only an hour 
mortr d noche indigestion, t hay 

since the Marchioness de Costillas told me of it. I have 
que decir^ irr. ♦ 

written two lines to him to express to him (how much) 
e«cn6tr,irr. renglon paraespresar 

(1) See Rule XXXVIII. page 66. 

(2) See page 166 of the grammar, 3d. observation, &c. 
r3) See page 156 of the grammar, 2d. obsenration. 

(4) To translate these words, we mast render them in this manner, 
iht head pains me too much ; me duele demanado la eabesa. These 
modes of speaking ; to h4we a pain in the eyes, in the teeth, ^. are 
rendered in the same manner, as, me doUa un ojo^ un diente, ^i. 

(6) To have or to be but just, is, acabar de, governing the next verb 
in the present of the infinitive Ex^^cabo de talir, I have just gone out 

(6) See page 156; 4th. observation. 


I am grieved by this accident. (1) I am very much grieved 

me pesa • 
(by it) myself; I shall go and see him after dinner. Do me 

* d despues de. Hacer^rr. 

then the favoar to tell him that this evening we will go, 
pae8 favor,m»de nochcyf. 

seven or eight friends (of us) and keep him company. 
* d hacer 

(1) Say : bow much grieves me this accident ; and so, in all the 
tenses used as impersonal verbs ; as, le pesaba, he was iprieved ; not 
pesard, we shall be grieved ; me ha petadoy I have been grieved ; not 
gvtt6f we liked ; let ha guttado, they have liked ', ie heSbria guttadOy 
tboa wouldst have liked, kc. 


Containing such words as most frequently occur in 
familiar conversation, and ought therefore to be 
known iy stt^nts. 

N. B. In nount of the tame gender and number as the praceding 
one, the space of the article to be applied is left blank. 

The parts of the i 

human body. 

La puntadela 

tip of 

— Las partes 

del cuerpo 


the nose. 


Las ventanas^ 
de la nariz, ) 


La cabezEi 


Los cafios de la nariz, gristle 

coronilla, croum of the 

of the nose. 




moYiffm^mouldofthe head. 





Las muelas, 


Las sienes 


El nervio 

the optic 

La oreja 












cuenca del ojo, ^ comer of 

La quijada, 


El lagrimaly 

5 the eye. 

cerviz, hinder part of. 


white of 

the neck. 

del ojo, 

the eye. 

nuca, napt 

; of the neck. 

celebroy or cerebro, brain. 



cogote, back 

• of the neck. 



hueco de 

hollow of 



la oreja, 

the ear. 



timpano del 

drum of 




the ear. 

la mano, 

the hand. 

Los piipados, 




Las pestanas, 


Las barbas, 

La nina del ojo, 




tela del ojo,/&fi of the eye. 





juntas de 

Joints of 



los dedos. 




Los dedos de los ] 

>ies, toes. 



El gaznate, 








£J pecho, 














La yema del dedo, brawn of 

una, naiL 

rodilla, knee. 

pierna, leg. 

pantorrilla^ cojf of ^Ae leg. 

espinilla, shin-bone. 

plaata del pie^ sole of the 

gsirganta del pie, inatep. 

piel, skin. 

£1 pulgar, thumb. 

dedolndice, fore-Jinger. 

dedo del corazon middle 

dedo anular, fourth 


dedo menique, > little 
or auricular, 3 finger. 

muslo, t&gh. 

jarrete, Jma. 

tovillo, ancle. 

pie, foot. 

talon, hed. 

Las espaldas, back 

Los hombros nhoulders. 

lados, sides. 


The interior parts of the hu- 
man bodt/f.~^Fartes interi- 
ores del cuerpo humano. 


£1 murecillo^ 
musculo, ^ 

nervio, nerve. 

tendon, tendon^ sinew. 

La grasa, or gordura, fat. 

membrana, membrane. 





• arteria, 

£1 hueso, 

La medula, 
£1 tuetano, 

casco, la cs 
Las espinillas. 
La espaldilla, 

> marrow. 

lavera, skuU. 



canilla del brazo, armrbone. 
£1 hueso sacro, or rump 





La boca del estomago, pit of 
the stomach. 
Los lomos, loins. 

Las tripas, guts. 

Los intestinos, intestines. 
La madre, la matriz, } > 

Eiijtero, ^ «^^' 

La rabadilla, 
£1 esqueleto, 

Los bofes, 


£1 higado, 

Los rinones. 

£1 estomago, 




£1 quSLo, 







La viflCa, 

£1 ofdo, 


Ia nines, idiHihocd* 

puericia, Ixkf^uikaess. 

adolesceiMsia, adoiuunce* 
juventady yipvth. 

Tirilidad, mmiood. 

qr'1 ^^' 

QfMlitieR of the (od^m^a& 


El garboy 






good presence. 






£1 kiMr, 

Lay oQsqtrillas, 
La catarata, 
«eguedady or 
£1 oiegOy 

IBA tartamudoy 


)|»lljdo, ~ 



eToefwdnkeMs i* 

\nzcOy\AB^i -egtiiiiiing' 
wmcsii Umte^efone hand. 
Biudoy ^Mmb. 


lico talle, fine stature. 

Vtrtues and vicesy good'ani 
had qualities^ of^ metk* — > 
Viituaes y vicios, buenas 
7 malas calidades de los 

£1 recatadoy catflf oi4^od!e9^ 
diestro; dexterous. 

docil, docile. 



£1 gdan, goUtatt. 

aiiaple, harmless. 

9gudo> sharp, 

▼i¥o^ sjfriighify. 

suxH, SHhtk. 

cfapcarreroj buffoon, 

nedo, foolish, 

astuto, craft ff, 

hcOf mad, 

malicjoso, maUcious. 

tejneroso, fearful, 

esjpantadizo, eas^ U be 

valiente, brave, 

tonto, stupid. 

&nt4stico, fatUasiiccd, 

embustero, dscsitfuL 

gtoaero, clowmsh, 

revoUoaOf msdinous. 

. bien criado, welUmed, 

cortes, comrteous, 

•gcave, gruvs. 

justo. Just, 

Snsdente, discreet, 
esvergonzado^ iag^udsni, 

fogosoj Jisr^f, 
impertinente, impertinent, 

importunoy tfouUesome, 

Hgero, light, 

descuidado, careless, 

tejnerarioy rash, 

afable^ qffabh, 

amigable, friendly, 

bizarro, brave, 

caritativa, charitable, 

casto, chaste, 

constaDte, comstant. 

devotOy devout, 

diligente, diligent, 

fiel, faUJ^l. 

seneroao, generous, 

bumilde^ humbk. 

£1 fiU0eFie«rdioa»^ mere^feX*. 

paciente, pmtknt. 

vdiigiese, reUgious, 

ambicioso, atnlntious, 

soberbio, proud. 

ilipocrita, hypocrite, 

eobard^^. coward, 

bolgazan, idle, 

aMTo^ hmigbtif, 

chismoso, tale^arer, 

adulador, jlatterer, 

goloso^ ghaton^ 

desleal^ treaoherous, 
desagradecido, ungrate^ 

iahDmanOy inhumane. 

iBselditte, insakfst, 

llijuriaso, lewd, 

pocfiado, positive, 

perefiMM% slothftd. 

prodigo, pi^odigal. 



magenegOf gwen to 
alravido, bolA 

colerico^ passionate. 
rabiQSo^ imtrageous, 

alegre^ merry, 

uiaDOy arrogant, 

iadeciso, irresolute, 

celoso, jealous, 

addUero, adulterer, 

rufiaa, ruffian, 

matador, murderer, 

Italteador, higkufuyman. 
jurador, swearer, 

calumaiador, slanderer. 
murfDuradoTy oensurer, 
becbicero, "" sorcerer, 

tKamposou cheat. 


El inc6Sta<W0y 












Of eating and drinking. — 
Del comer y beber. 

La coiAida, 


£1 almuerzoy 

La merienda, 


£1 banquette, einltertinnmenlt. 








7 goodap' 


La hambre, 

£1 borracboy 

buen bebedor. 

buen apetito 

Las buenas ganas, ^ petite. 

£1 g^oton, glutton. 

pan, bread. 

pan bianco, white bread. 

pan candial, the whitest 


pan bazo, brown bread. 

' mollete, hot loaf. 

pan fresco, new bread. 

pan de todo trigo, whtaten 


pan decenteno, ryebread. 

£1 pan de cebada, barley 
pan de a ven^ oaten bread.. 
pandemijo, millet bread. 
pan de maiz, indian com 
pan de levadura, leavened 
biscocho, biscuit. 

La migaja de pan, crumb of 
masa, dough. 

torta, cake or loaf 

rosea, bread made like 
a roU. 
£! bunuelo, fritter. 

La empanada, tart orpye. 
rcame, meat. 

£1 cocido, boiled meat. 

asado, roasted meat. 

estofado, stewed meat. 
La came frita, fried meat. 
carbonada, broiled meat. 
pepitoria, giblets, 

£1 picadillo, hash. 

La cecina, hung meat. 

£1 pemil, eljamon, ham. 
camero, mutton. 

La vaca, beef. 

El cordero, hmb. 

La temera, vetd. 

El puerco, pork. 

cabrito, kid. 

tocino, bacon. 

La piema de camero, leg of 
El brazuclode shoulder of 
carnero, mutton. 

lomo, loin. 

pecbo, breast. 

Las manos de carnero, sJteep^s 


La lueda de tenier% ^fiHet 

of veal. 

asadura, ihepbtck. 

salcbicha, Boutage. 

£1 salchichon, big muMge. 

La morciUa, blood pidding. 



any sort 

puches, ^ 9f P<^P» 

£1 pisto, jelly-broths. 

La carne fiambre, cold meat. 

leche, milk. 

nata, cream. 

£1 suero, tdhey. 

LoL mantecay butter. 

£1 queso, cheese. 

queso fresco, nao cheese. 

requeson, curds. 

cuajo, s^mnef. 

La cuajada, mi'Mr hardened 

EI pastel, 
£1 potage, 
Las papas, ^ 

El buevo, 
La yema de 

with rennet, 
the egg. 
the yolk of 

elara de buevo^ the white 

of an egg. 

£1 boevo blando, soft egg. 

huevo duro, hard egg. 

biMtvo fresco, new egg. 

biieyo en ciscara, ^g in 

the shed. 

buevo cocido, boiled egg. 

bu#vo asado, roasted egg. 

buevo estrellado, fried 


buevo buero, addle egg. 


£1 huevo empoUado, egg 
with a chicken in it. 
Lew huevos de pescado^ the 
spawn of fish. 
buevos megidos, yoUssof 
eggssitwed with 
wine and sugar. 
buevos y tonrezaos, coU 
lops and eggs. 
buevos revueltos, butter- 
ed eggs. 
La tortilla de buevos, omelet. 
Los buevos de yolkeofeggs 
faltriquera, in zheUs of 
buevos bilados, sweet 
eggs spun out. 
£1 sazonamieoto, seasoning. 
La salmuera, brine. 

Las especias, ^ices. 

La pimienta, pepper. 

El gengibre, ginger. 

Los clavillos, cloves. 

La canela, cinnamon. 

nuez moscada, . nutmeg. 
flor de especla, mace. 
moataza, mustard. 

£1 agraz, verjuice. 

vinagre, vinegar. 

aceite, oil. 

La sal, salt. 

£1 azucar, sugar. 

Los escabecbes, pickles. 
dulces, sweetmeats. 

almibares, conserves'. 
almibar, sugar boiled. 
confites, comfits. 

Las coQservas, conserves. 
mermelada, marmalade. 

perada, pears preserved. 



Las alcorcillas, ? aniseed 

pastillas, ) sugar. 

La naraojada^ candied 

oranges. ' 

El ttirroD, sweetmeat. 

Los barquillos 6 las suplica- 

ciones, su>eet wafers* 

KmnueloSy puffis* 

La bebida, drink. 

£1 vino, wine. 

vino puro, pure wine, 

vino vuelto, pricked wine. 

vino moscatel, muscateU 


vino tinto, red wine. 

vino bianco, white wine. 

vino aloque, |)a2e wine. 

vino clarete, claret wine. 

vino dulce y «te7ee< an<i 

picante, sharp wine. 

vmo anejo, 

o/(i wine. 

vino ligero, %Af twne, 

vinazo, strong wine. 

malvasia, malmsey. 

aguapie, mixture of must 

and water. 

La hez del vino, wine lees. 

£1 aguardiente, brandy. 

La cerveza, beer. 

sidra, cider. 

aloja, meae^, methegUn. 
El chocolate, chocolate. 

te, ^ea. 

Lalimonada, lemonade. 

misteia, aitt«e brandy. 
El cafe, coffee. 

Of Clothes. — De los vestidos. 

El pano, cloth. 

pano fino, Jine cloth. 

El pano tundido, shorn eiofk^ 

^"Kata, \ -'«'• 

raja, ra«A ehth. 

£1 sayal, sackcloth. 

La frisa, frieze. 

estamena, serge. 

estofa, siufl 

£1 tafetan, 'a#el^^. 

raso, raso liso, satin. 

tercio pelo, velvet. 

damasco, damask. 

brocado, brocade. 

gorgoran, grogram. 

La gasa, gauze. 

Las lanillas, drugget. 

El cendal, , crape. 

camelote, camhiet. 
La tela de oro, cUnth of gold. 

£1 tripe, shag. 

algodon, cotton. 

fustan, fustian^ 

La muselina, muslin. 

El lino, flax. 

lienzo, linen. 

. cambray, cand^rick. 

La holanda> hoUand. 

£1 ruan, French linen. 

cdnamo, hemp. 

terliz, ticken. 

calicut, calico. 

fieltro, fek. 

angeo, canvtiss. 

La lona, sailcloth. 

bayeta, baize. 

lana, wool. 

£1 estambre, worsted. 

La seda, silk. 

£1 bocaci, buckram. 

Unajoya, a Jewel. 

hebOla, a buckle. 
Los alamares, loops on coats. 




Un ojal, a button-hole » 

L.a bordadura, embroidery, 
Ud boton, a button. 

Una franja, 1 
Un flueque, 3 
Laspuntas, > ^ 

Lios encages^ 3 
Una cinta^ a ribbon, 

Un liston, a broad ribbon. 
pasamano^ gold or sil- 
ver lace. 
ribete, an edging. 

• sombrero, a hat. 

La copa del sombrero, the 
crown of the hat. 
ala 6 falda del sombrero, 
the brim of the hat. 
£1 torzal 6 la trenciUa, the 
£1 plumage, feathers. 

Un bonete, a cap. 

gorro de noche, a night- 
Una gorra, an oldfashr 

ioned cap. 
caperuza, a sort of cap. 
montera, a hunting cap. 
camisa, a shirt. 

almilla, chupa, a waist' 
Los calzoncillos, drawers. 
Un jubon, a doublet. 

Una manga, a sleeve. 

manga perdida, a hang- 
ing sleeve. 
Las faldillas de jubon, the 
skirts of a waistcoat. 
Los calzones, breeches. 

Una balona, a band. 

Un corbatin, a neckcloth. 
cuello, a collar. 

coleto, a buff coat. 

Una agujeta, 

Un bolsillo, 
Las medias, 

Los ^apatos, 

Las chinelas, 
Un borCegul, 
Las botas, 


Los punos, ' 
Las vueltas, | 
Los vueltos, ^ 
Un tahali, 
Unos tiros, 
Una espada, 
Un guante, 

Una pelaca, 
Un peluquin, 


a point. 

a pocket. 

a purse. 






a buskin,. 




- cujffs or ruffles. 

a shoulder-beU. 
a waist-belt, 
a sword, 
a dagger, 
a cloak, 
a coat, 
a gtove. 
a girdle. 
a round ung. 
a bag wig. 
a pocket hand- 
Una ropa, ^ 

Un ropon, > a gown. 

Una bata, ) 

ropa de levantar, a 

morning gown. 

Un pellico, ') a shepherd^s 

Una zamarra, ^ jerkin. 

For women, — Para mugeres. 

Un tocado, 
Una cofia, 

Un manto. 

a head dress, 
a cap, 

a v&J. 


Una saya, 7 
basquina, ^ 
Un guardapies, 
Unas cDaguaSy 
Un avantal, 7 
devantal, ^ 
goarda sol, 
qutta sol, 
Unas tablillasy 
Un espejo, a 
Una bugeta, 
Un manguitOy 
Una cotiUa, 


Un chapin, 
Uqqs zarcillosy 

or petticoat. 
") an upper 
5 petUcoat. 

on apron, 


an umh-eUa, 

a watch. 



a UUk box, 

a muff, 


a shift, 


a gaum. 

a clog. 


Unas peadientes. 
La gargantilla, 
Unas manillas, 
Unos braceletesy 
Unas sortijas, 7 
Unos anilfosy \ 
Las pedrerias. 





Un abanico, 

Las calcetaSy/Areodstocfeiffig^. 

£1 peinador, combing cloth. 


Una faja, 
Los jugoeteS) 
Una coBa^ 





a cradle. 

ama de leche, a wet 



[The beastSj fowlSy Jishes^ fruits^ herbsy roots^ ^c, thai are 
eatablcy will he found under their respective names* — 
Los ammales, aves, peces, frutas, yerbas, ralces,&c. eomes- 
tibles, se hallarin debajo de sus nombres respectiyos.] 

Un corderico, a lambkin, 

t)UITO, ^ 

borrieo, > an ass, 

asno, J 
Una burrayboiTxca, a sJ&e ass, 
Un puercoy ? 

marrano, 5 




Una bestia mansa. 

a tame 


a wild 


El ganadoy 


ganado mayor, 



Un toro, 

a bull. 

terneroo beceiro, aealf. 

Una ternera, 

a heifer. 

Un buey, 

an ox. 


a sheep. 

Una oveja, 

a ewe. 

Un cordero, 

a lamb. 

Una baca, 1 

haquilla, ^ 
Un bdfalo, 
Una yegua, 

yegiiecilla, ayoungmare 
Un caballo, ahorse 

oamello, a camel 


a wild boar, 

a pony, a 


a buffalo, 

a mare. 



Un gato, a cat. 

garanon, a stallion. 

cabailo castrado, a geld- 
cabaUo entero, a stone- 
cabaJlo corredor, a race' 
cabailo de mano^ a led 
cabailo de posta, a post 
cabailo de alquiler^ a hack* 
ney horse. 
cabaUo rebelde, a restive 
cabaUo desbocado, a hard* 
mouthed horse. 
cabaUo medroso, a start" 
ing horse. 
cabaUo tropezador, a stum- 
hling horse. 
cabaUo que sacude^ ajoU' 
ing horse. 
cabaUo asmdtico, a bra- 
ken winded horse. 
cabaUo indomito, a horse 
that cannot be tamed. 
cabaUo saltador, a leaping 
cabailo bayo, a bay horse. 
bayo castano, a chesnut 
bayooscuro, abrownbay. 
bayodorado, a bright bay. 
picazo, a pyed horse. 
nicio rodado^ a dapple 

de color de ga- cream- 

muza, colour. 

alasan, a sorrel. 

Un alazan tostado^ a dark 
overo, a\white and red 
spotted horse. 
rubican, a grey horse. 
Una cabra^ a she goat. 

Un cabrito, a kid. 

cabron, a he goat. 

perro, a dog. 

perro de caz% m hound. 
perro de muestra, a set- 
tif^ dog. 
sabueso, a blood hound. 
podenco, > a setting 
perdiguero, ^ dog. 

perro callado, a hound 
thai does not open well. 
perro bajo, a terrier. 
galgo, a greyhound. 

lebrely a sort o^ercedogs^ 
resembling greyhoundsy 
common in Ireland. 
perro ventor, a finder. 
perro de agua, a water- 
or lamediUo, dog. 

mastin, a mastiff. 

perro de a shepherd's 
pastor, dog. 

perro velador, a house dog. 
perriUo de falda, a lap- 
alano 6 dogo, a buUrdog. 
barbudiUo, a spaniel. 

perro raposero, or jateo, 
small setting dog 
for fox hunting. 
gozque, ') little dog kepi 
gosquejo, ^ in a house. 
conejo, a rabbit. 

Una hacanea, a pad. 

Un muleto, a young mul^. 



Ua nmlo, a h^rnnk . 

Um aula, a ske^nuh. 

Un poiro, u co2f. 

poUiaOi ail au^s coU. 

gamoy afaUoto deer, 
caclKNpro de cierv<v <> 

Las astaa de cler¥o, the horns 


£1 raslio 6 las pisadas de ci- 

ervo, ^Ae IracA; e^* a 9kig, 

Una comadreja, a weatseL 

Un tejon, « ftodjg'er. 

Una gamuza, a wild goat, 

cabra monies^ aroebitck. 

Ungate de algalia, a civtt<at. 

Una dama, u doe. 

ardiUa, a eqmrrel 

Un elefante, on e&phoait. 

Una fiuna6gardoDa,amiirft». 

Un mono, a mstikey, 

gkaie, €Im i^. 

arminio 6 arminoy on er* 

eraoy a Ae%€4p^. 

Una liebre, a i&ore. 

liebredlla, a fevered 
Un liron, a iformotMe. 

Una rata, a rat, 

zorra 6 raf«MAy a^bo;. 
Un raton, • mmue. 

topoy II mo/!?. 

Una bienn, a hyena. 

Un leopardo^ a leopard, 

leon, a Uon, 

Una leona, « /loiieM. 

Un lecmdllo, a KoM^ewhelp, 

lobo, a too^ 

lobo cerval, a Ipnx. 

•so. a 6ean 

Un oaillo, a kor'^ m^ 

Una pantara, m fomther. 

Un rinoceroiite^aHhiafloa^os. 

tigre, a tiger, 

javali^ pa«iCBi m wiU 

montesy boar. 

Las navajaso bM celniOasde 

jBsnliy the tugks of a wild 


£1 nasrajal de javalf , the soil 

of a wibl bear. 

La jabalina, a wild sow. 

Creatures ^hai creep on the 
earth, — ^Aaimales que se 

VnaaespieDle, amrpeni. 
seifiiente alada, a flying 

Un dragQik, 

Una Guiebra, 
Ua cocodnllay 

a dragon. 
a snake, 
em alligator, 
Una lai^arty% ^ 

Mdamanywsay >alizard, 
Un lagartOy j. 

Una^bora, a viper, 

Uii nAmte^aOf ayowsg mper. 

Amph^ous creaiuree,'^Aiur, 
males aa#fi»io6. 

Ub bivare or castxx, a beo' 
ver or castor, 
Una nutria, or ntttra^ an otter, 
Un biq^opotamoy a rioer^ 
Una tortu^fa, a tortoise. 



Uogil4p«g9» alandierioue. 

Uo9 «r8«a^ a wfider. 

arafiuela, a litile.^ider. 

Garooma, aweadworm. 

om^y a oa^erfUhr, 
Un arador, a toMft^orm. 

•floari^ajo, a beetle. 

caracol, a enaiL 

Una hooniga, aft oii^, a |n»- 


Uii grillo, a cricket, 

xevoltoOy 4111 iiMei)^ ^Aal 

Una liaodrey «m^ 

pulga, ajlea, 

chinche, a bug. 

langosta, uJocuaL 

Una tahmtula, a ^oroiitefa. 
potilia, Ufwth. 

nwica, «Ji^ 

Unato^'J ^^'"^ 

Una abeja, a 6ee. 

Uoawoscada, ^ ^S^'-^My- 
Ua singaoo, - a cirone. 
Una mosca de berro^ godfiy. 

cigarra, a groMhopper. 

.tibano, alMrnet. 

hicema or luciernaga, a 

Uaa mariposa^ uimttntrfiy. 

vaquilla de 4ko^ « My- 


Un zaaoadoy a gnat. 

eojamliiv, « mmbtin. 

Birds. — Aves. 

U4aa iguila. 


Ua aguilucho, 



« tnOiure. 


a merlin. 

gavilan, ai 



« kam-awl. 




a mide falcon. 




M tanner. 




a heron. 


o emoH neponm 

Un milanoy 

a kite. 

ouervo, a $i«ow craven. 

Uaa oarneja. 

a rook. 


a lark. 

Un aguzanieve 

, awqgiail. 


a canary-bird. 



Unjmirlo ^ 

Una merla, ]► 

a blackhird. 

mida, ) 




a nightingale. 




> a parrot. 

Una cotorra, 


Un grajo, 

a magpie, 
a daw. 


an owl. 



Un muTciclago, «*«*• 

Unmochuelo, W<w«. 

Uoa comaya, antght-raven. 
Ungrajo, a chough. 

Un4nade, aiwWdtfc^. 

Una cerceta, « Jf«- 

Un chorlito, a curheu. 

caervo marino, a carmo- 

ganso, y 
4nsar, > 
insaroy ) 
Una fulga, 
Un avion, 
Una gabiota, 
Un somorgujon, 
Una chocba, > 
gallinaciega, ^ 
Un tordoy 

Una eodomis> 
Un capon, 
Una gallinai 
Un polio, 
Una polla, 
Un pavo, 7 
Una pava, y 
Un francolin, 
Una perdiz, 
Una paloma, 
Un pichon, 

a duck. 

a goose. 

a kestrih 
a moor'hen. 
a martin, 
a gull. 
a wood- 
a thrush, 
a starUng. 
a quail, 
a capon, 
a cock, 
a hen. 
a chicken, 
a pullet. 

a turkey. 


a pheasant. 

a thrush. 

an ortolan. 

a sparrow. 

a partridge. 

a dace. 

a pigeon. 

Un alcioo, a Mng^hier. 

Una golondrina, a swallow. 

Un avestruz, a»o«trtc^ 

Una ciguena, a stork. 

Un cuclillo, a cuckoo. 

cisne, * swan. 

petirojo, a red-robin. 

Una gruUa, « crane. 

pczpita, a wagtail 

Un abuiUo, a lapwing. 
Una oropendola, a witwaU. 

Un vencejo, a martlett. 

abejaruco, a titnu)>use. 

Una abutarda, a bustard. 

Un tordo loco^ an owseL 

pelicano, a pelican. 

fenix, aphenix. 

chirlo, a woodpecker. 

pico verde, a green beak. 

frailiUo, « plover. 

reyezuelo, a wren. 

mergo, apujpn. 

palomino, ayoung pigeon. 
Una tortola, a turtle dove* 

Parts of a Btrrf.— Partes dc 
una Ave. 

El pico, the beak. 

Una plama, a feather. 

La plumaza, the down. 

ala, «»«^- 

Las penolas, 7 quiUs. 

plumas, S , ^ 

El pie, the foot. 

La cola, ^*« <«*' 

El buche, Ike craw. 
Lasgarras,7 claws^ or talr 

unas, S ^'^' 

La rabadiUa, the rump. 

pechuga, the breast. 

entxepechuga, the brawn. 





Un alburno^ 

a bleak. 


a shad. 

Una anchova. 

an anchovy. 


an eel. 


a whale. 

Un barbo, 

a barbel. 


a halibut. 


a pike. 

Una carpa, 

a carp. 

Un calamarejo, 

a calamary. 

talpaire^ a milier^s thumb. 

caballo marino, a sear 



a conger. 


a dolphin. 


a gilt-iack. 

£1 doradillo, 

the gold-fish. 

Un lenguado, 


Una langosta, 

a lobster. 

Un esturion, 

a sturgeon. 


^ gudgeon. 


a herring. 

Una ostra, ? 
Un ostion, \ 
Una lamprea. 

an oyster. 

a lamprey. 



Un lobo, 

a bass. 

Una sarda, 

a mackarel 


a porpoise. 


poor jack. 

La merluza, 

fresh cod. 

El bacaUao, 

dried cod. 

Una almeja. 

a muscle. 

ortiga pez. 

a stinging 



a perch. 

Un pulpoy 

a polypus. 

Una raya, 

a thomback. 


a skate. 

Una sardina, 

a pilchard. 

Un salmon. 



Una trucha, trout. 

gibia, cuttlefish. 

tenca, a tench. 

Un atuD, a tunny fish. 

Una tremielga, a cramp fish. 

Un rodaballo, a turbot. 

Parts of a fish. — Partes de 
un pez. 

El hocico, the snout. 

Las agallas, the giUs. 

alas, the fins. 

escamas, the scales. 

espinas, the bones. 

La concha, the shell. 

Los huevos de pez, the hard 


La leche, the soft row. 

Trees. — A'rboles. 
Un albaricoque, an apricot- 
almendro, an almond»tree. 
durazno, a nectarine-tree. 
guindo, a cherry4ree. 
■-. -i 1 cerezo, a heart cherry' 
castafio, a chesnut-tree. 
cidro, a citron-tree. 

membrillero, a quince- 
serval, a service-tree. 
Una palma, a palm-tree. 
higuera^ . a fig-tree. 
Un azufeifo, ajujub-tree. 
granado, apomegranate- 
liroon, a lemon-tree. 

moral, a mulberry-tree. 
nispero, a medlar-tree. 
avellano, a hazeUnut-tree. 



Un nogal, a wainHi-4r€e. 

Sno, I --«"-^-- 

acebuche^ a wild alive-' 


oarftDJo, an €range4ree. 

ciruelo, a plunhtree* 

peral, a pear-tree, 

manzano, an apple-4ree. 
klamo negro, black pop- 

ilamo bianco, white pop- 

cedro, a eedar'4ree. 

sabuco, an tdder-tree, 

vTsrl '"•-^^«- 

£1 cornizo, the comiUree, 
cipres, the cypress-tree, 
6bano, the ebomy-iree. 
arce, the mapk4ree. 

La haya, the beech-tree. 

£1 fresno, the ash4ree, 

acebo, the holmrtree. 

tejo, the yeuhtree, 

laurel, the laurel4ree, 
alcornoque, the corktree. 
olmo, the elnhtree, 

pino, thepineorjir^ree, 

Un plintano, a plane4ree, 
sauce, a wiUow4ree. 

Una teja, a Unden-tree. 

Shnd^. — Matas. 

El agno casto, agnus castus. 
aliso, the hte tree. 

bdlsamo, the balsam, 

boj, theboa>tree. 

La madre selva, the honey-* 

La zammora, tke blacks 
henry buek. 

hiniesta, broom. 

uva espina^ goomkttry^ 

adelfa, yedra, try. 

£1 bnisco, butcher's broom. 

La regaiiz, kquorice. 

£i alhocigo, the pistachio^ 


romero, rosemary. 

rosal, rose-4ree. 

La sabina, euoin. 

£1 tamariz, iamarishtree. 
La alfaeffa, privet, 

vina, vine, 

lalmisca, wild vine. 

Una parra, a wall vine, 

£1 mirto, arrayan, myrtle. 

Una parra de corinto, currant- 


Fruits. — ^Fni^s. 

Un albericoque, on e^prieoi. 

Una almendra, an abnond. 

Un madrono, a wild etraw- 


darazno, a nectarine, 

Una guinda, a cherry. 

cereza, a heart-cherry, 
castana, a chemui, 

cidra, a citron. 

Un membrillo, a quince. 

Unaserba, service-apple. 

Un ddtil, date, 

^^ Wgo, a^. 

Una breva, early fig. 

azufaifa, ajyjvib, 

granada, apomegraneae. 

Un limon, a lemon, 

Una mora, a muBerry. 

niezpola, a medlar, 

avellana. a hazel^mt. 



Uoa niiiez, a walnut, 

aceitiina, an oHve, 

naranja, an orange. 

cir^ela, a plum. 

ciruela pasa, a prune* 

pera, a pear. 

bei^amota, a bergamot. 

manzana^ an apple. 

camuesa, a pippin. 

maDzana de San Juan^ St. 

John^s apple. 

Vn melon, a melon. 

Una bellola^ on acorn. 

algarroba, a carob. 

alcaparra, a caper. 

zarzamora, a blackberry . 

Ud tamarindo, a tamarind. 

piaoD^ a kernel ofpine^ 


Una uva, a grape. 

c^cara de nuez, &c« a 

shell of a nut, Sfc. 

tela de granada, film of 

a pomegranate. 

Un pimpollo, a sucker^ or 

sprout of a vine. 

sarmiento^ a twig of a 


La yema de viaa, the bud of 

a vine. 

Los zarcillos de la vid, the 

tendrils of a vine. 

Unpdmpanoy a vine branch. 

renuevoy a young shoot 

of a vine. 

racimo de ovas, a bunch 

of grapes. 

Unapepitadelauva, agrape^ 


Podar, to prune a vine. 

Cavar, to lay open the roots. 

R odrigar, to prop a vine. 

EJ rodrigoD^ . Iwe prop. 

Terciar la vina, to dig a 

third titne about a vine. 

Rozar, to weed. 

Una raiz, a root. 

Las hebras de ralz^ the fibres 

of a root. 

arraigar, to take root. 

£1 tronco, the trunk of a tree. 

Unrenuevo, a sprig. 

La corteza del drbol; the bark. 

£1 zumoy the sap. 

mohoy the moss. 

ramoy the branch. 

Una hoja, a leaf. 

£1 hueso de fruta, the stone 

of fruit. 

Las mondaduras de fruta, tlie 

parings of fruit. 

El pezon, the stalk. 

ingerir, to ingraft. 

ingerir de canuto, totnoc- 


Un ingertOy a graft. 

La pepita, the seed of fruit. 

Com and its parts. — Trigos 
y sus partes. 

El trigo, wheat. 

£1 candial, the best wheat. 

trigo rubion, red wheat. 
La escandta, bearded wheat. 
El herren, meslin. 

La espelta, spelt. 

£1 centeno, rye. 

La cebada^ barley, 

avena, oats. 

£1 arroz, rice. 

niijo^ millet. 

maiz, Indian com. 

Las legumbresy pulse. 

Ub alveijon, a great vHch. 
Lps garbanzos, Spamshptae, 



Las judias 
Los guisantes, 

IJn altramuz, 
Un frijol, 
Las cicerchas, 
La c^scara, 
£1 hoUejo, 


a horse bean. 

a lentil 

a lupine. 

French bean. 

wild tares. 

the shell. 

the hush 

RootSyplantSf and herbs. — 

Rakes, plantas, e yerbas. 
KI agenjo, toormtvood. 

apioy celery. 

ajo, garlick. 

eneldo, dill. 

anfs, aniseed. 

La alegria, sesame. 

Los armuelles, orach or gold- 
en fiowet^s. 
Una flJcachofa, an artichoke. 
Un espiirago, asparagus. 
£1 abrotano; southernwood. 

La acelga, 
Un bledo, 
La borraja, 
Las zanahorias, 
La voleza, > 
El perifoljo, ^ 
Un hongo, ^ 
Una seta, \ 
chicoria, ^ 
endivia, > 
escarola, } 
col, berza, 
Un repollo, 

white beet, 
a blite. 


a mushroom. 

a parsnip. 


a cabbage. 

roundhead cab- 


Una berza crespa, a savoy. 
Un broton, a sprout. 

Una coliflor, q cauliflower. 
calabaza, a pumpkin. 
Un pepinoy a cucumber. 

Un culantro, coriander. 

culantrillo, capiUaire. 
peregll marino, samphire. 
mBsXwenxiygarden cresses. 
Una escalona, a scalUon. 
espinaca, spinage. 

Un hinojoy fennel, 

hoblon, hops. 

Una lechuga murciana 6 cer- 
raja, a cabbage4ettuce. 
lechuga crespa, a curled 
Un nabo, a turnip. 

nabal, a turnip JiehL 

Una cebolla, an onion. 

acetosa, } , 

acedera',5 '"^^ 

romaza, hng^ sorrel. 
El peregil, parsley. 

Un puerro, a leek. 

Una verdolaga, purslain. 
Unos ruiponceS| rampions. 
Una roqueta, rocket. 

ruda, rue. 

salvia, sc^e. 

criadilla de tierra, a 
mejorana, sweet marjo- 
Un agarico, agarick. 

Una agriDionia, agrimony. 
El SLcibsLrJuicefrom the aloes. 
La angelica, angelica. 

celidonia, celandine. 

betonica, betony. 

bistorta, snakewort. 

manzanilla, camomile. 
£1 culantrillo de pozo, maid- 
en hair. 
La centinodia, centinody. 
verbasca, "l wolf blade, at 
£1 gordolobo, ^ great lung 



La amiapola, P^PV* 

El dictaniOy dittany ^ 

La coniza pulguera, fieabane. 
£1 eleboro^ hsUebore. 

tkrtago, spurge. 

La genciana^ gentian. 

£1 camedrio de agua, ^er- 


La grama, ' dog's grass. 

yerba puntera, house4eeh. 
£1 beleao, hen bane. 

marubio, horehound. 

La matricaria, feoerfew. 
Las malvas, mallows. 

La corona de rey^ meUlot. 
£1 torongil, balm. 

mercurial, mercury. 

Las milhojas, ^ ' ../. .. 

Un ciento en rama, S "^ 

£1 corazoncillo, St. John's 

worty or grass. 

nardo, spikenard. 

tabaco, tobacco. 

oreganoy wild marjoram. 
La higuera, Jig'tree. 

• P'riftf^.^ peaUort,. 
vidnola, S 

cepa caballo, ^ ground 

una de asno, ^ thistle. 

dprmidera, P^PPV* 

rosa montes, peony. 

£1 plitano, . plantain. 

polipodio, polypody. 

agenuz, ; Ushopswort. 

La neguilla^ ^ ^ 

yerba cidrera, briony^ 

£1 poleo, pennyroyal. 

La sanguinaria, bloodwort. 

sanicula, s(tnicle. 

£1 satirion, ragwort. 

La saxifraga, saxifrage. 

Laescabiosa, scabwort. 

escamonea, scamnumy. 
cebolla albarrana, wild 



yerba cana, 


verbena, vervain. 

£lllanten, grass plantain. 

anco, 6 siete en rama, sept- 

acanto, ^ 

La blanca urcina, > bearsfoot. 

yerba giganta, } 
£1 aconito, wolfsbane. 

Las ovas del mar, sea-weed. 
La cola de caballo, horse-tail. 

£1 amor del hortelano, ^ bur- 
Los lampazos, ^ dock. 

Las rabacas, water^parsley. 
£1 tamarizsilvestre, tamarisk 

asarabdcara, asarabacca. 

calaminto, cat-mint. 

La cana, a reed. 

donadilla, mule's fern. 

£1 cafiamo, 

La cicuta, 
£1 comino, 



La yerba de ciervo, hart's 


£J helecbo, fern. 

La palomilla, fumitory. 

Los amores secos, ^ clover 

£1 trebol, ^ ^a««. 

El yesgo, danewortj dwarf . 


junco, rii«A. 




La cerraja, 90w^ki»He. 

mandJr&gora^ mandrake. 

yerba mora^ nightshade. 

correhuela, knoi-grast. 

ortiga, nettle. 

£1 rufbarbo, rhubarb. 

La velesa, pepperwort, dit- 


Elalazor, > .^jr^«« 

azafraii,^ ''''^'^' 

La jabonera, soap-wort. 

alfalfa, damely or cockle. 
La albabaca^ sweet basil. 

yerba buena, mint, 

£1 serpol, wild thyme, 

tomillo, thyme. 

Flowers, — Flores. 

El amaranto, vehet-flower. 
La anemone* .anemone, 

£1 Jacinto, hyacinth, 

jazmin, jessamine. 

La jonquilla, jonquil, 

azucena, the lily, 

maya, the daisy. 

El narciso, daffodil, 

clave], la clavellina, the 

aleli, gilHflower. 

La espadana, flag-flower. 

campanula^ blue^^ottle, 

vellorita, the cowslip, 
£1 raniinculo, ranunculus. 
La rosa, the rose. 

cien hojas, the hundred 
leaf rose, 

taravilla, marigold. 

El girasol, sunflower. 

tulipan, the tulip. 

La violeta, the violet. 

Vn capullo^ a rose-bud. 

Co£tmr«.— Ck^ores. 

Adjectiret agree widi Snbstandves. 

Morado, purple* 

Un color de aurora, auroTOr- 


Blanco, white. 

Color de ladrillo, briek-colour. 
Azul, blue. 

Azul celeste, Kg^ht blue. 

Azul turqui, dark blue. 

Columbino, dove colour. 

Cetiro^ lemon colour. 

Color gamuza, light yellow. 
Color de cereza, jSlemot. 
Color encendtdoy^omecofofir 
Color de fuego, Jire colour. 
Carmesf, crimson. 

Pardo, ^''«y- 

Ceniciento, ash colour. 

Amarillo, yellow. 

Encarnado, ^ 

Colorado, > red. 

Rojo, ) 

Escarlata, Grana, scarlet. 
Leonado, tawny. 

Negro, black.' 

Anaranjado, orange colour. 
Aceitunado, olive colour. 
Color de rosa, rose colour. 
Bermej on , reddish. 

Verde, green. 

£1 matiz de colores, the shade 
of colours. 
Color de mar, sea green. 

Parts of a kingdom. — ^Partes 

de un reyno. 
Una proviacia, a province. 

ciudad, a city. 

villa, a town. 

aldea, a village. 

Un lugar, a STioU place. 



PartM of a city. — Partes de 

una ciudad. 
Una casa^ a house. 

tienda, . a shop, 

iglesia, a church 

capilia^ a chapeL 

Un altar an cdtar, 

palacio, apahice. 

hospital, an hospital 

La casa de la villa, or del a- 
yuntamiento, the town house. 
Un tribunal, a court of Justice 
arsenal, an arsenal. 

Una academia, an acadetny. 
Un colegio, a college. 

Una calle, a street. 

Un callejon, an alley. 

Una calleja, callejuela, a lane. 
Un raercado^ a market. 

Una camiceria, a slaughter- 
encrucijada, a cross way. 
Jonja, bolsa, an exchange 
c4rcel, a prison. 

Los muros, las murallas, walls 
puertas, gates. 

fortificaciones, fortificar 
Una plaza, a square. 

plazuela, a little square. 

Of the inhabitants of cities. 

De los moradores de una 


Un nino, a child. 

muchacho, a boy. 

Una much^cha, a girl. 

Un mozo, oiocito, a youth. 

hombre, a man. 

Una muger, a woman. 

Un viejo, an old man. 

Una vieja, an old woman. 
Un cojo, lame of one leg. 

Un manco, hwte of one hand. 
ci^go, blind. 

sordo, deaf. 

zurdo, left-handed. 

magistrado, a magistrate. 
noble, } ,, 
hidalgo, \<*«oblenuin, 

CBhallerOy knight y or gen- 
tendero. a shopkeeper. 
mercader, a trader. 

comerciante, > a mef- 
negociante, ^ chant. 
£1 poUacho, 

La plebe, ) 

Un artesano, 


the mob. 

the rabble, 
a tradesman, 
a mec/ianic. 
jornalero, ajourneyman. 
labrador, a farmer. 

Una labradora, a farmer's 
wifey or daughter. 
Un aldeano, a countryman. 
Una d\AeBxaiyacountry woman 
Un pfcaro, a rogue. 

esclavo, a slave. 

platero, a goldsmith. 
librero, a bookseller. 

impresor, a printer. 

barbero, a barber. 

mercader de seda, a mer- 
mercader de lienzo, a lin- 
mercader de paiio, a wool- 
len draper. 
sastre, a tailor. 

Una costurera, a seamstress j 
a maniua^maker. 
Un sombrerero, a hatter. 
calcetero, a hosier. 

^apatero, a shoemaker. 



Un remendoD, a eoUer. 

berreroy a blackgmith. 

albeitar, afarrier. 

cemjeroj a smiik, 

Una lavaoderai akumdre»$. 

^S:1 •"••*'^" 

Un parteroy a man^midMnfe. 

medicoy a jthyncian, 

embu8terO| a cheat. 

charlatan, a quack, 

cinijanoy a surgeon. 

3a€a muelasy a deniist. 

siUerOy a saddler. 

carpintero, a carpenter. 

peon, a ,'abourer. 

albafiil, a bricklayer. 

pintor, a painter. 

panadero, a baker. 

caraicerO) a butcher. 

frutero, a fruiterer. 

Una verdulera^ an herb woman 
Un pastelero, a pastry cook. 

tabernero, a vintner. 

cerveceroy a brewer. 

mesoneroy an innkeeper. 

relogpro^ a watchmaker. 

pregonero, a crier. 

joyero, a jeweller. 

boticario^ an apothecary. 

bubonero, a pedlar. 

vidriero, a glazier. 

carbonero, a collier. 

jardinero, a gardener. 

letrado, a lawyer. 

procurador, a solicitor j 

an attorney. 

abogado, a counssUor at 


juez, a judge. 

carcelero, a jailer. 

ve^dugo, a hangman. 
cereroy a wax-chandler. 

Vd gaaapan, *) 

esportiliero, > aporter. 
mandadero, ) 
rene^don de vestidos, a 
latarabuelo, a grandfor 
therms grandfather, 
bisabuelo, great grand- 
a grandfather, 

Una madrei 
Un hijoy 
Una bija, 
Un nietOy 

a mother, 
a son. 
a daughter, 
a grandson. 

bisnieto, a great grandson 

bermanoy - a brother. 

ctinadoy a brother in /aw. 

padastro, a stepfather. 
Una madrastra, a step mother. 
Un suegro, afather in law. 
Una nuera, a daughter in law 
Un yemo, a son in law. 

pruno bermano, a cousin- 

tio, an uncle. 

sobrino, a nephew. 

primo segundo, a second 

Una muger, 
Un novio, 
Una novia, 

a husband. 

a wife. 

a bridegrooot. 

a bride. 

Un despoaado, one betrothed, 

abijado, a godson. 

padrino, a go^ather. 

Una madrina, o goSnather. 

Uncompadre, 1 afather and 

Unacomadre, ^ mother inGod 

Un companero, a partner. 

camarada, a companion, 

cofirade, a brother of the 

same pious society. 



XJn mellizoy a twin. 

Una cofradla^ a guilds or «o- 
tertulia^ a society^ a club. 
comunidad^ community, 
Un huerfano^ an orphan. 
solteroy a bachelor. 

heredero, an heir. 

ayo, a tutor. 

curador^ a guardian. 
Una viuda, a widow. 

Un faermano de lecbe, a fos- 
ter brother. 
hi jo de lapiedra^esposito, 
o echadizo, a foundling. 
nino supuesto, a supposi' 
titious child, 
bastardo, a bastard. 

liijo natural^ 6 de ganancia^ 
a natural son. 
Una doncella,. a maiden. 
muger casada, a mar- 
ried woman. 
panda, afytn^-tft woman 
ama de leche^a wet nurse. 
ama de Haves, a house^ 
manceba, a concubine. 

Of a house J and aU that be- 

longs to it. — ^De una casa, 

y todo lo perteneciftite & 


Una casa, a house. 

Un solar, aground of a 


cimiento, a foundation. 

Una pared, a wall. 

Un tabique, a light wall. 

patio, a courty or yard. 

La fachada, the front. 

Un alto,andar/i story orjhor. 

portal, a j^ch. 

Una ventana, a window. 
Un entresuelo, a lowfoor. 
zaquizami, or cielo, a cit- 
ing; also the place be- 
tween the ceiling and 
the roof of a house ; a 
desvan, a garret. 

arteson,ait arched ceiling. 
Una boveda, a vault. 

escalera, a stair case. 
Un escalon, a step. 

tejado, a roof. 

Las tejas, tiles. 

Los ladrillos bricks^ 

Las pizarras, slates. 

La puerta, the door. 

Un pasadizo, 6 passage. 
corral, a court-yard. 
trascorral, a back yard* 
Una cdmara, a chamber. 
Un aposento,") 
Una pieza, i 
Un cuarto, f 
Una estancia, ) 

antic4mara, an aniichamr 
trascuadra, a backroom: 

a roomy 
a chamber. 

a hall 

a gallery. 

a closet. 

a study. 

a cupboard 


Un corredor, 



armario, \ 

Una alhacena, I 

Un guarda ropa, a wardrobe. 

Una alcova, an alcove. 

Un balcon, mirador, a Wcony 

Una azot^a, the fat roof of a 

house, a terrace. 

Un camaranchon, a cockloft. 

Una torre, a tower. 

bodega, un sotano, a eel- 




Una reposterla, a buthr^s 
despeosa^ a pantry. 
cocina, a kitchen. 

eaballeriza, a ttable. 
perrei ia, a dog kennel. 
Ud palomar, a dove^iouse. 
gallinero, a ken roost. 
jardin, a garden. 

parque, a park, 

La privada, necesaria; the 
corooilla del edificio, the 
top of the building. 
£1 ripioy rubhiSi. 

Una ripia, a shingle. 

£1 ala de tejado, the eaves 
of the roof. 
La canal, the gutter. 

£1 lunbral, the threshold. 
Los bastidores de la puerta, 
the frame of the door. 
£1 postigo, the side door. 
Los quicios 6 goznes, hinges. 
Una cerradura, a lock. 

Un candado, a padlock. 

El pestillo, the bolt of a lock. 
Un cerrojo, a bolt. 

Una Have, a key. 

ventanilla^ a little win- 
aldaba, a latch. 

La tranca de una puerta, the 
bar of a door. 
Las guardas de la Have, the 
wards of a lock. 
£1 canuto de una Have, the 
pipe ofa^key. 
La vidriera, the glass of a 
Las rejas de una ventana, the 
bars of a toindow. 

Una escalera de caraeol^ a 
winding stair case, 
Los rellanos, 6 las roesetas de 
escalera, the landing- 

places of stairs. 
£1 descanso de una escaiera, 
the resting place of statm. 
Una grada,un escaloo, a step. 
escalera secreta, back- 
viga, a beam. 

Un vigon, a girder^ or 

main beam. 
Una tabla, a bocfrd. 

Un crucero, a rafter. 

ladrillo, a brick. 

La parod maestra, the main 


pared de en medio, the 

party walL 

Una pared de cal y canto, a 

wall of lime and stone. 

Un tabique, a partition walL 

La cal, limey or plaster. 

argamasa, mortar. 

encostradura de una pared, 

the plaster of a walL 

£1 yeso, fine white lime. 

jalbegue, white wash. 

Una mesa, a table. 

Un banco, a bench. 

Una ailla, a chair. 

silla de brazos, an arm 


Untaburete, a chair without 

hack or arms to it. 

sitial, a stooL 

banquillo, a bench, 

Una caja, a box, 

area, un arcon, a chest. 

Un cajon, a case of drawers, 

tirador, . a drawer^ 



Vn eseritanoy a eertOoire. 

Una cama, a bed. 

Un lechO) a c6uch, 

Una aitnadtira or un made- 

raje de cama^ a bed-stead. 

£1 cielo de cama, the bed's 


Las cottinasde caina, the bed- 


tl roda pies, the fringe of 


Uti tapete^ una afibmbra, a 


Las ftibanas, the sheets. 

£1 cobertor, oounterptme. 

Las idmehadas, piBows. 

La tapiceria, tapestry. 

Una pintura, a picture. 

Vn espejo, a Jookinff-glass. 

candelerb, a canSksftick. 

Las despabiladeraS; snuffers. 

Una arafia, a branch of^rys- 

tad to holdmaHy candles. 

La yesca, tinder. 

Una paju^; a match. 

Un pedernal, a flint. 

esltitbon, the steel to strike 

fire with. 

a chamberpot. 
a mattress. 
a quilt or cov- 
a cot. 

Una colcha, 

Un catre, 

Una cama de viento, afield 


, La testera de cama, the bed's 


Las columnas de cama, the 


Un jvergon, a straw-bed. 

Una estera, a mat, 

Un <!alentador de cama, a 


Una chimenea, a chimney. 
Un respiradero, 6 canon de 
chimenea, the flue of a 
Los morillos, the andirons. 
El fuelle, the bellows^ 

Las tenazas, the tongs. 

Unapala or un badil, a shovel. 
Un guardaAiego, a fender. 
biombo, a skreen. 

urgador, atizador, apoker, 
•Una olla, a porric^'pot. 
cobertera, a pot-lid. 
£1 asa, the ear teapot. 

Un puchero, a pipkin. 

cucharon, a ladle. 

Una caldera, a kettk. 

Un escalfador, ^ a chafing 
braserillo, \ dish. 

Las trebedes, a trevet. 

Un hornillo, a cooking-stove. 
homo, an oven. 

Una sarten, a frying pan. 
•Un cazo, a saucepan. 

Una cazuela, a little pan. 
espumadera, a skimmer. 
Las parrillas, a gridiron. 
Un coladero, a sieve. 

rallo, a grater. 

Una mechera, a larding pin, 
Un asador, a spit, 

Una aceitera, alcuza/ an oil^ 
vinagera, a cruet, 

Un almirez,mortero, a mortar, 
Una mano de mortero, apes- 
redoma, a vial. 

Un sumidero, a sink. 

cintaro, a pitcher. 

bacin, a close-stool pan. 
Una albomia, a great earth- 
en pan* 



Unabcrrada,? a bucket or 

Un cubo, 
Una Cuba, 
La legiBj colada, 
La levadttra, 
Una rodilla, a coarse cioth. 
Un estropaio, a dishclout 
Lapaladelhorno^ thepeelof 
the oven. 


a tub, 




£1 salvado^ 
Una artesa, 
Los manteies, 
Una servilleta, 



a tray. 

table clothe. 

a napkin. 

Un aguamanQy a water^ug, 
Unaaknofia^ an earthen jug. 
toailay a towel. 

Los platos, the platee. 

Un cuchHlo, a knife. 

tenedor, afork. 

saleroy a salt-cellar. 

plato grande^ a dish. 

Una escudilla, a porringer. 

cuchara, a spoon. 

Un tajador, a choppingbhck. 

jarro, a mug. 

Una taza, a cup. 

salvilla, a salver. 

Un fiasco,' a flask. 

Una botella, a bottle. 

Un vaso de vidrio, a tumbler, 
Una fuente, un gran plato, a 
Un monda dientes, > a tooth 

escarba dientes, ^ pick. 

mayordomo, a steward. 

trinchante, a carver. 

secretario, a secretary <, 

camarero, a chamberlain. 

dispensero, a purveyor. 

capellan,. a chaplain. 

Hmosnero, an almoner. 

Unpage, apc^e. 

lacayo, afootman. 

cochero, a coachman. 

mozo de caballos, a groom. 

caballerizo, a gentleman 
of the horse. 

copero, a aqf^arer. 

maestre sala, a sewer. 

bodeguero,> ^^^ 

repostero, 5 

halconero, afakoner. 

cocinerO; a cock. 

galopin, a scuUion, 

portero, a porter. 

El huesped, ? the host or 

amo de casa, ^ landlord. 

Of country affairs. — De las 

cosas del campo. • 
Una alqueria or quinta, a 
country house or farmhouse. 
Un quintero, 
boyero, ? 

vaquero, ^ 





a farmer. 

a cow^eeper. 

a ewinerhera. 

a shepherd. 

a scrip. 

a shepherds 


, a sling. 

Una Honda, 

Unhortelano,^ ^ gardener. 
jardinero, ^ ° 
cavador, a digger. 

vinadero, a vine dresser, 
arado, a plough. 

Unaazada,> a spade. 

Un azadon, 5 

labrador, a husbandman. 

Una esteva, ? a plough 

mancera, \ handle. 

reja de arado, a plough 


El rastrillo, the harroio. 



Un sembrador, a eouier. 

escardador, a toeeder, 

Tozador, a tpeeding hook. 

segador, a reaper, 

XJtia guadana^ a sithe. 

Untrilloy ajiaiL 

Una borca, a fork, 

Un bieldoy a winnowing fan, 

pescador, ajishehnan, 

Una red barredera,a drag-net 

Una vara^ cana para pescar, 

ajiiking rod, 

Unsedalde caiia, ajuhing" 


anzueloy afishrhook, 

caeador, a htaUtman, 

cebo, a bait, 

L<a li|;a^ bird lime, 

Una jaula, a cage, 

Un cSbrero, ^ a day-ui- 

jomalero, \ bourer. 

asneroy a keeper of asaes, 

paisanoy a couniryman, 

campo, afield, 

Una tienra entre dos sorcos, 

a ridge, 

Un surco, a furrow, 

£1 trigo en yerba^ green com. 

La tierra inculta, Imduniilled, 

Un monte, > a maanty a 

ti(na Montana, ^ nunmiain, 

VnS^,l "/'**"' 

cerroy a rising ground, 

valle, a valley, 

abismo, an abyss, 

Una zanja, a dUch, 

laguna, a lake, 

Un pantano, a marsh, 

Una llanura, a pi!am. 

pefia^ roca^ * a rock. 

Un peiiasco, a great rock, 


Un despeiiadcro, a precipice, 

Una seiva, a forest, 

Un bosque, 4i fM>oJ. 

Una esplanada, e^kmade, 

mata, 4i bush, 

xarza, aVam^/!?. 

e^na, ^ a thorn, 

Un pradoy * a meadow, 

vergel, a flower garden^ 

Una huerta^ an orchard, 

Un jardin, a garden, 

Uua era en un jardin^ a bed 

in a garden, 

glorieta^ a bower, 

abn4ciga> a ssedploi. 

bobeda de parras^ a vine 


Un laberinto, alabyrinth, 

Una grata, a grotto, 

cascada^ a cascade, 

fuente, a fountain. 

Un chorro de agua, a water" 


£1 pilon de una fuente, the 

vase of a fountain, 

Una encanada, ) an ague- 

Un acueductO; ) dud. 

La bortaiiza, aU sorts of 


Unaplanta, a plant. 

El camino real, the highway, 

Una senda, vereda, a path, 

pisada, un rastro, a track, 

cabalgadura^ a saddle 


Un carromato^ a waggon, 

carro, a cart, 

Una rueds, a wheel, 

£1 rayo de una rueda, the 

spoke of a wheeL 

Las Uantasy P the felloes of 

cambas, 5 a wheeL 



£1 cubo de una roeda, the 

nav^ of a wheel, 

ege, the axie-tree. 

Laesfaca, the pin of awheel. 

£1 confesionarioy the confess 

Una calesa, 

Las andas, 
Un coche, ') 
Una carroza, ^ 
Una cesta, 

rastra, narria, 


Un chirriony 

a chaise. 

a litter. 

the shafts. 

a coach. 

a basket. 

a sledge. 

a basket. 

a dirt-basket. 

a dung-^art. 

Una banasta, a great hamper. 

alforja, a wallet. 

bolsa, a purse. 

Un costal, saco, a sack. 

Una maleta, a portmanteau. 
Un talego, a bag. 

Una valija, a cloak bag. 

Un zurron, abudget or pouch. 

Of the Churchy and things 
belonging to it. — De la 
Iglesia, y cosas pertene- 
cientes 4 ella. 

La nave. 

£1 ciraborio, ') 
La cupula, 5 
£1 piniculo, 

La capilia, 
Un atril, 
La sacristla^ 
£1 campanario, 
Una campana, 
£1 badajo, ') 
La leogiieta, ^ 

£1 hisopo, 

the aisle of the 

the dome. 

the pinnacle. 

the choir. 

the chapel. 

a desk* 

the vestry. 

the belfry. 

a bell. 

the clapper 

of the bell. 

the font. 

the sprinkler. 

Una tribuna, 
£1 cimenterio, 


Un altar, 


£1 tabemiculo, 

Un palio, 

a tribune or 


the church' 


the chameL 

an altar. 


an ornament. 

> the taber- 

3 node. 

a canopy. 

£1 mantel del altar, the aUar- 
Un misal, a mass^Mok. 

Una sotana, a cassock. 

sobrepelliz, a surplice. 
Un roquete, a short surplice. 

bonete, a cap* 

Una mitra, a mitre. 

Un bdculo, a crosier. 

patriarca, a patriarch. 

arzobispo, ait archbishop. 

obispo, a bishop. 

obispado, a bishoprick. 
Una diocesis, 
Un coadjutor, 


£1 sacerdocib, 
Un di^cono, 

a diocese. 



a priest. 


a deacon. 

subdiicono, a subdeacon. 
acolito, one that serves 
the priest at the altar. 

prelado, • 

Una abadesa, 

Un canoniga, 

a reader. 

a clergyman. 

a prelate. 

an abbot. 

an abbess. 

an abbey. 

a canon. 

a dean. 



Vn prevoste, a provost. 

arcedijano, an archdeacon. 
chantre, a precentor. 
maestro de coroy a maS' 
ter of the choir. 
cantor, a singer. 

sacristan, a vestry keeper. 
prebendado; a preben- 
cura, a parson, 

Una parroquia, a parish. 
Un vicario, a vicar. 

oficia], an official. 

prom otor , a promoter. 
Una encomienda, a thing 
given in commendam, 
£1 bautismo, baptigm. 

La cpnfirmacion, confirma' 
£1 matrimonio, matrimony. 
Comulgar, to receive the 
Los ordenes sacros^ holy or-- 
Una ceremonia, a ceremony. 
La rubrica, the rubric. 

£1 ritual, the ritual, 

oficio divino, divine ser* 
salterio^ the psalter. 

Vn salmo^ a psabn. 

La antlfona, antiphon. 

Upalecion, - a lesson, 

Un versete, a verse. 

sermon, a sermon. 

La meditacion, meditation. 
oracion vocal, vocal 

oracion mental, mental 
predicar, to preach. 

catequizar, to catechise. 

ar, S 

to bury. 



La escomuoion, excommuni- 
suspension, suspension. 

Un entredicho, an interdict. 

La irregularidad ,2rr6^fi/ar}^y. 

Descomulgar, to excommu' 

Una catedral, a cathedral 

La conventual, the church of 
a convent. 

Una parroquial, a parish 

El adviento, advent. 

La cuaresma, lent. 

Ijas temporas, ember-weeks, 

Una vigilia, an eve. 

Un ayunoy a fast. 

Things relating to War. — 
Cosas pertenecientes k la 
guerra. • 

La artillerla, artillery. 

Una pieza de artillerla, } a can- 
Un canon, J non. 

£1 tren de artillerla, the train 
of artillery. 
La boca de canon, the mouth 
of a cannon. 
£1 fogon, the touch-hole. 

La culata del canon^ the breech 
of a gun. 
curefia, > the carriage of 
Elafuste, ^ a gun. 

Cargar, to load. 

Apunlar, to level. 

Disparar, to fire. 

Un tiro de canon, a cannon- 



Desmontu- un canoo^ to (£•• 

mount a gun, 

Endaw SD canoBy <o«ptX» 

a gun. 

Una calebrioay a euiverin. 

Un falconete, afakonet. 

Un pedrero, apaterero. 

canon entero, a avAofe 


OMdio canon^ Mf cannon. 

petaidoy a petard. 

Una bomba, 6 60016. 

borabarda, a bomMcetch. 

Un laortero, a mortW'piece. 

Una granada, a grenade. 

Un mosquetey o musket. 

Una carabina, a corafo'ne. 

escopeta, ajirelack. 

pistola, a pt«to/. 

bala, a buHet. 

La polvora, powder. 

Una mecha, a match. 

Un pedernd, a flint. 

Una flecha, an arrow. 

Un dardo, ' a c/ar/. 

Una javalina^ a hoar-gpear. 

honda^ a sling. 

Un arco, a how. 

Una hacha d« armaa^ a 6aM/e« 

a hebmei. 

a lance. 

alabarda, a halberd. 

partesana, a partisan. 

pica, a pike. 

Un alfange, a scimetar. 

Una esp^Ja^ a sword. 

£1 puiio de la espada, the han'» 

die of a sword. 

porno de la— the pommel of. 

La guarnicion de la-//i6 kilt of. 

hoja, the bimde. 

Un punal, a poniard. 

Una bayoneta^ a bayonet. 

Unyeknoy ') 
Una celada, 3 

daga, a < 

Un nsorrion, a morriwu. 

La viaem/he vizor of a helmet. 
El gorjal, la gola, the gorget. 
Un peto, a breaU-plate. 

Una coraza^ a cuirass. 

El espaldar, ^J^ bach-plate. 
Un coselete, o corcier. 

braaalete, armour for 
the arms. 
escaredon, amumrfrom 
the waist to the thighs. 
Unas hinojeras^ armour for 
the knees. 
Un bFoquel, a buckler. 

escudo, a shield. 

Una adarga, a target. 

cota de malla, a coat of 
Un general, a general. 

teniente general, a lieu- 
tenant general. 
sargento mayor de bataUa, 
a major general. 
maestro de campo, > a coU 
coronel, J one/, 

sargento mayor, a major. 
capitan, . a captain. 

teniente, a lieutenant. 
corneta, a comet. 

alferez, an ensign. 

sargento, a serjeant. 

cabo de escuadra, a cor* 
cuadrillero, a brigadier. 
soldado, a soldier. 

caudillo, a chief. 

tambor, a drum. 

pifano, oflfe. 

Una troinpeta, a trumpet. 
Un atabal, a kettle drum. 



Un sddado de i caballo, a 
soldado de dpie, 7 a foot 
infante, ^ soldier, 

granad^o, *a grenadier. 
dragon, a dragoon, 

piquero, apike^man, 

mosquetero^a mnsqueteer, 
fusilero, afusileer. 

La infanteria, the infantry, 
caballerla, the cavalry, 
Un artillero, a gunner, 

bombardero, a bombard- 
. ingeniero, an engineer, 
minero, a miner, 

gastador, a pioneer, 

Una centinela, a centineL 
La vanguardia, the vanguard, 
£1 cuerpo de batalla, the main 
body of the army. 
La retaguardia, the rear, 
£1 caerpo de reserva, the 
corps de reserve, 
cuerpo de guardia, the 
corps de guard, 
ala, the wing of an army. 
Un batallon, a battalion, 
regimiento, a regiment, 
Una compaiif a de caballos, a 
troop of horse. 
compania de infanteria, 
a company of foot, 
hilera, a rank. 

fila, a fie. 

Un escuadron, a squadron, 
mochilero, a soldier^s boy. 
bagage, a baggage, 

vivandero, a sutler. 

partido, a party. 

Lo8 corredores^ the forlorn 

Los batidores, 
Las murallas, 
Los muros, 
Una almena, 
El parapeto, 
Un Castillo, 
Una fortaleza, 



a battlement. 

the parapet. 

a castle. 

a fort, 

a fortress. 

. fortificacion, afortifica'- 


torre, a tower. 

ciudadela, a citadel, 

Un bastion, a bastion. 

Una Cortina, a curtain, 

media lana,aii halfmooti. 

tronera, loop hole. 

Un terraplen, a rampart. 

caballero, a cavalier. 

■ rebellin, a ravelin. 

La contra escarpa, counter 


Una barrera, a barrier, 

falsa braga, afausse 


Un foso, a ditch. 

repecho, a breast-work, 

Una garita, a ceniry^ox, 

casamata, casemate. 

UncSdorJ ^"^^'■y- 

La estrada cubierta, the co* 
vert way^ 

Un ceston, 
Una estaca, 
Un redurto, 
Una atalaya. 

a gabion, 
a paUsade, 
a redoubt, 
a place to dis- 
caver, or the per- 
son who discovers. 
manta, a mantlet or cover 
for men from the shot. 
fagina, a fascine. 


a mine. 



Una contra-mina^ a counter^ 

trinchera, ft trench. 
El real, the emmp. 

Las Titoallas, provisians, 

municiones^ ammumtion. 
Un bisono, a recruit. 


a marauder. 

Uoa contra nmrcfaa, a coim- 


eftcaramuza, a skirmish. 

bataHa, a battle. 

Un skioy tf siege. 

cuartei, quarter. 

Una encamisada, a camUado. 

Una brecba, 

Un aaalto, 
La Uamada, 

a sally 
to batter, 
a breach. 
an eeeedade. 
an assault, 
the chamade. 
the cajntu" 
guarnicion, the garrison. 
Tocar la caja, to beat the 
Levantar gente, toYaisemeh. 
Pagar el sueldo, > to pay the 
el pre, ^ eotdiers. 

Batir la estrada, to scour the 
Levantar el sitio, to raise the 
Marchar i banderas desple- 
gadas, to march u^th fly- 
ing colours. 
Reforzar el egercito, to rein- 
force the army. 
Tocar i recoger, to sound a 
Entregar una plaza^ to sur- 
rendJera place. 

Commefciai termsr^-^Voceif 

mercao tiles. 
Un abarcador, a monopoHser. 
nionopolista,afi engrosser . 
Abonar, ' to credit, 

£1 acarreo, porte, carriage. 
acarreto (hUo,) pack" 
aceptar una letra, to ao 
cept ahitL 
Una accion, a share^ stock. 
La acciontle empujar, 6 tirar, 
Un acreedor, rre&'tor; acree- 
tlor hipotecario, mertga- 
gee ; el que da la Inpoteca, 
mortge^er ; acreedor im- 
portune, a dun; valista, 
6 acreedor por Taie^ ered- 
itor for a note or bUL 
La aduana, customrhause. 
Un ajoste, . bargain ; tguste 
de cnentas, a settlement, 
k la buelta, carried over. 
hoasCj magazine. 
Una almofieday aole by auc' 
' Hon. 
Alquilar^ to hire. 

Una ancla de la esperanEa^ a 
sheet anchor. 
A' quien su poder hubiere, 
to his or their assigns. 
Una arbitracion, sentencia de 
Jueces irbitros, uu^rage. 
Las arras, e la dote, earnest 
Un arrendador, a farmer that 
£1 arrendaroiento, Inringy 
Arrendar, to farm. 

Un arribo, an arrival 



Va asegurador, an insurer. 
Asegurar, to insure, 

Un asiento, an entry. 

La averia, average. 

averia y capa, primage 
and hat money. 
Uq balance, saldo, a balance. 
banco, bank. 

banquero, banker. 

Barato, cheap. 

Los bienes propios, real or 
personal property. 
bienes habidos y por ha* 
ber^ goods kad and to be 
Un calabrote, a short cable. 
csxMo^exchangej change. 
NegDciar una letra de cam- 
bio, to negociate a bill of 
Un capital, caudal, ttocA:, cap- 
Cnrgar el temporal, toinr 
crease a heavy storm. 
Caro, dear. 

Una carta, cuenta, a bill. 
carta, letter ; el porte de 
cartas, po«/£ig'e ; portador, 
penny-postman ; paqaete 
de cartas, packet of letters. 
Cerrar una carta, to make up 
a letter ; sellar una carta, 
to seal a letter ; un sobre 
escrito de carta, direction. 
Una maleta para cartas, mail. 
Un caudal, a stock. 

caudal destinado, a fund. 
La caja, cash ; un cajero, 
cashier J cash-keeper ; dine- 
. ro en r.aja, cash on hand, 
£1 libro de caja, cashrbook. 
Un certifieado, certificate. 
Certificar, to certify. 

Un cvent^cent; dos 6 tres, 
&c. por ciento, two or three^ 
&c. per cent. 
El cobrador, receiver; co- 
brar, to receive ; cobrador 
de sisa, exciseman ;-de de- 
rechos de muelle, wharfin- 
La comision, commission. 
Un campanero, partner. 
Una compaiiia, partnership, 
compra, purchase ; un 
comprador, buyer ypurehas- 
er; comprador, 6 vende- 
dor de acciones, stock* 
Un compromiso, compromise. 
La comunicacion, intercourse. 
£1 conocimiento, biU of hd^ 
La consignacion,coyin^nmp}i^. 
£1 consumo, consumption. 
Contado (dinero de contado) 
ready money. 
£1 contenido, contents. 

Un contrabandista, smuggler. 
contrabando, contraband, 
Una cootrata de fletaraento, a 
charter party of freight. 
contribacion, an assess- 
ment or tribute. 
copia, a copy. 

Un corredor, or corredor de 
oreja, broker ;-de cambios^ 
exc hange4)roker. 
£1 correo, the post office. 
La correspondencia, corres* 
Un correspondiente, a corres- 
Corriente, current. 

La Gostumbre, custom. 

£1 credito, credit. 


La cuenta^ bill, account ; su- 
mar una cuenta, to cast up 
an account ; pedir cuenta, 
to call to an account ; pa- 
gar 4 cuenta, to pay a 
part of an account. 

Los danos, damages. 

La data 6 fecha, date, 

dar, 6 dejar k flete, to let 

out a vessel on freight. 

Debajo de, cubierta, under 

£1 derechoy dutyy custom ; 
derechos de entrada, duties 
of importation ; dros. de 
estraccion, of exportation; 
dros. de muelle, wharfage; 
cobrador de los dros. del 
muelle, wfiarfinger. 

Los derechos de embarque, 

La descarga, unlading. 

£1 descueDto, discount ; de- 
volucion de dros. de entra- 
da, drawback, 

Uo desembolso, disbursement. 

Desempaquetar, unstowing. 

Despachar^ to sell, send, 
dispatch ; despachar un 
correo, to send an express ; 
despachar mercaderlas, to 
sell goods; despacho de 
aduana, clearance j cocket ; 
despacho, expedition. 

De toido nos hacemos cargo, 
we have taken due notice 

La deuda, debt. 

El deudor, debtor. 

El diezmo, tenths tithe ; diez- 
mero, tithe gatherer. 

El dinero, money ; dinero con- 

* tado 6 de coDtado, ready 

money ; dinero cercenado^ 
6 cortado, clipped money / 
dinero en caja, cash; dine- 
ro prestado, money lent, 
Un 4omiciliOy a domtdL 

Una dote, dowry ^ a woman^B 
Unas arras, a pledge. 

Los dros. municipales, town's 
Un duplicado, dupUi ate. 

dueno, owner. 

Unos efectos, effects. 

Un envoltorio, 6 una faarpil- 
lera, wrapper. 

empeiio, pawn, pledge. 
Encima de la barra^ over 
the bar. 
Un endosador, an endorser. 
encargado de, agent for. 
endoso, endorsement. 
En testimonio de verdad, in 
testimonium veritatis, 
Laentrada, entry; en- 
trada,ii«/^ of importcUion. 
£1 equivalente, equivalent. 
escasos de despacho^ hea- 
vy articles. 
Escribir, to write ; la escritu- 
ra, hand-uniting, bond, en- 
gagement; escritura de ar- 
rendamiento, lease ; un es- 
critorio, counting-house. 
Estrenar, to hanseL 

La exigencia, exigency. 

estraccion, exportation. 
Un estracto, extract, abridge- 
cstractor, extractor. 

La estorsion, extortion. 

Un factor, factor. 

Una factura, factoria, tnrotce, 



La hliBLf fauUj tfitmi^ error, 
falta de pagamento^ non- 
Un htdoj a haie, 

fardo pequeno a truss, 
Una feria^ a fair, 

Un fiador, swrefpy bail. 

fiador hipotecario, morf* 
fiel medida 6 peso, stand" 
ard measure^ or undght, 
Unas fijaderas para papeles, 
files for papers, 
Fletar, to freight a skip, 

£1 flete, freight, 

fletador, freighter^ 

ibndo, 6 caudal, 6 accion. 
funeky share or stock, 
forcejo, struggle, 

ganador, gainer. 

La ganancia, goin, 

£1 gaoapan, porter, 

Los gastos, charges f expenses, 
geoerosy goods. 

Las guardas, custom^htmse of 
fieers ; gnardas vijiadores^ 
tides^meuy tide-waiters, 
Una gruesa 6 mucha mar, a 
heavy sea, 
Un guarda de navio, a tides- 
Una guia, a permit. 

hacienda ruin, trash of 

Hilo acarretOy packthread. 

Una hipoteca, a mortgage. 

junta de sanidad, hoard 

of health. 

El impofte ; importe liquido, 

proceeds; neat proceeds. 

Insolvente^ insolvencia, m- 
soiventy insolvency. 
£1 interes, interest. 

introductor de generos, 

importer of goods. 
inventario, inventory, 
juez, judge. 

juezirbitro, refereeyun^ 
pirty arbitrator, 
LoB juros, fceSy interest. 
£1 hrcre, seating-wax. 

Una lahcha, a lighter, 

lanchada, embarque en 
lancha, lighterage. 

Una letra de cambio, a bill of 
exchcmgCy a draft ; nego- 
ciar una letra de cambio, to 
negodats a bill of ex- 
ehmge ; sacar, librar, 6 
tirar ana letra, to draw a 
bill; aceptar una letra, to 
accept a bill; protestar una 
letra, to protest a bill, 
Un legajo de cartas, a bundle 
of letters. 
Un Ifbro de tienda, shop book; 
borradorcillo, smaU note- 
book for memorandums; 
borrador, a day-booky dia- 
rio 6 jornal, ajoumat ; li- 
bro mayor, a fe^fevr ; libro 
de caja, cashrbook ; copi- 
ador, 6 libro de copias de 
cartas, a letter-book ; libro 
de mue9tras,a pattern card. 
La licencia, UcensCy permit. 
losa vidriada, Dutch ware. 
roaleta para cartas, mail. 
Un marchante, a customer. 
marinero, seaman. 

Las mercaderias, ^ goods^ 
mercancias, \ ware^. 



Un mercader por mayor, a 

wholesale dealer. 

iDonopolista, monopolist, 

pueriOy a port or harbour, 

Un inuc'lle, wharf ; derechos 

de muelle, wharfage; su 

cobrador, its wharfinger. 

Vu negociante de generos es- 

traogeros, importer of for- 

eign goods. 

Un negociante de acciones, a 


Una oblea, a wafer, 

obligacion, a bond. 

obligaciones, contracts. 

Un ofrecedor, bidder ; mayor 

oferente^ higher bidder. 

La orilla, the shore. 

Pagar 4 cuenta, to pay on 

account ; un pagamento, 

payment; faUa de pago, 

non-payment \ un pagare^ 

a promissory note. 

Un paquete, parcel 

paquete de cartas, apack- 

et of letters. 

Para las costas de, for the 

cost of. 

Pedu- -cuenta, to call to an 


Las perdidas, losses. 

El peso bruto, gross weight, 

peso limpio de rey, neat 


poco mas 6 menos, there' 


Una petaca, bundle^ hamper^ 


pollza de seguros, policy 

s of insurance. 

poner las cosas en orden, 

to set things in order. 

El portt^dorj bearers porta- 

dor de cartas, penny^post* 
man ; porte de cartas, 

Los portes, porterage* 

Elprecio,prtce, rate; la su- 
bida de precio, enhance^ 
menty rise of price. 

El premio, premtum, interest. 

Un prestamo, dinero prestado, 
a loan^ money lent. 

El primage, parte de fletes de 
navio, primage. 

Una promesa^ a promise. 
protesta, a protest. 

Protestar una letra, to protest 
a bili or draft. 

Protestar una, dos y ires y 
las mas voces en derecho 
necesarias, to protest in the 
most effectual manner pos- 
sible against..... 

El provecho, profit. 

La puntualidad, punciuaHty. 

Un quebrado, a bankrupt. 

Una quiebra, a bankruptcy. 

Que se dir4, which wiU be 

La quinquilleria, hardware. 

Un quintal, a hundredweight. 

Una quitanza, a release. 

El recambio^ re-exchange. 
recibo, receipt. 

Regatear, to cheapen. 

La remesa, the remittance. 
renta, , income. 

riqueza, wealth. 

El riesgo, risk. 

Romper sobre la costa, to 
break on the shore. 

La ropa, clothes. 

itiin hacienda, trash of 




Sacar las mercaderf as, to tm- 


Sano de quilla y costados, 
tight, stanch, and strong. 
El seguro, insurance* 

Sellar una carta, to seal a 
Ser de cuenta, to be on (K' 
La sisa, excise. 

Su cobrador, the exciseman 
Un sobre escrito, a direction. 
sobrestante de tierra, land- 
La sobreestada, demurrage. 
subasta^almoneda, sale by 
Sumar una cuenta, to cast up 
an account. 
La subida de precio, en- 
. suscripcion/ subscription. 
£1 suscriptor, the subscriber. 
Surgir, to ride at anchor. 
Un talego de moneda, • mon" 
. ey-hag. 
La tara, the tare, tret. 

tasacion, the set rate. 
tasa, assize. 

Un tendero, a shop-keeper. 
libro de tienda, shop^ook. 
Una tienda, a shop. 

Un tenedor de libros, a book- 
La toneleria, cooperage, 
Un tratante, a trader. 

negociante, a merchant. 
Tratar, to deal or trade. 

Un trato, 6 negocio, business 
j or trqffick. 

Un tributo, tribute. 

tnieque, exchange. 

Trocar, to barter. 

Un vendedor, seller. 

La venta, sale. 

Un valor, value, worth. 

Los vigiadores de rentas, 

inspectors, tides-men. 

Una cumplida, las restantes 

de ningun valor, one being 

fulfilled, the others to stand 


Un uso, usance. 

La usura, usury. 

Un usurero, a usurer. 

La gerga : especie de estera 

para enfundar generos, a 


Navigation. — Navegacion. 
Un navlo, una nave, 6 nao, 
a ship. 
de linea, a ship of the line. 
Un navio de guerra, a man 
of war. 
Un navio marcbante 6 una 
fragata, a merchant ship. 
Un navlo ligero, a light vessel. 
Una galera, a galley. 

galeaza, a galeasse. 
Un galeon, a galleon. 

Una galeota, .a galleot. 

fragata de guerra, a frig- 
Un saique, a saick. 

Una carraca, o carrack. 

Un fuste, afuste. 

Una pinaza, a pinnace. 

barca de pasage, a fer- 
goleta, a schooner. 

canoa, a canoe. 

piragua, a pirogue. 

gondola, a light boat' 
Un esquife, a skiff. 

Una balandra, a sloop. 

Un bergantin, a brig. 



Unalancha^un bote, a knmch. 
barqueta, ) 

barquiUa, > a boat* 

Un batel, ) 

bagel, barco, buque, vessel 

Una balsa, a rqftj ajloai. 

La capitaDa, the admiral skip. 

almiranta, the vtce-admi- 


armada, the royal jleeU 

flota, ihefieet of merchant 


Una escuadra, a squadron* 

A^bordo, aboard. 

La popa, the poopy stem. 

proa, the prow or head. 

Una tartana, a tartan. 

Un brulote, afireship. 

palacfae, a tender, a pe- 

. tach. 

Una faluca, falua, afetucca. 

barca, a coasting ^h* 

ing vessel. 

La sentina, the toelL 

£1 lastre, haUast. 

m^til, drbol, the mast. 

drbol mayor, the main^ 


La gabia, the round top. 

El trinquete, the fore-mast. 

La mesana, the mizen^miut. 

La carllnga del 4rbol, the step 

of the mast. 

verga, entena, the yard. 

£1 estribor, starboard. 

babor, larboard. 

Gobemar el navio, to steer. 

£1 barlovento, windward. 

sotavento, leeward. 

Remolcar, to tow. 

Escobar, convoyar,^o convoy. 

Una vela, a saiL 

vela mayor, ^Ae main-sait. 

La vela de gabia, ^top^Mttl. 
Eljuanete, the top-gaHani 

La vela de mesana,. ike mizen- 


vela de trinquete, the fore' 


cevadera, the sprit sail 

vela latjna, lateen or shouU 

der of. muttom^^aiL 

Un remo, an oar. 

La palade remo, the blade i^ 

an oar. 

Un pr4ctico, a pilot. 

Las troneras, the port holes. 

empavesadas, the net- 


Un gaUardete, a pendant. 

Una banderola, a banner. 

bandera, the colours. 

La brujuk, the compass. 

punta de la proa, the siem. 

puente, cubierta, the deck. 

Las escotiUas, the hatches. 

£1 timon, the helm. 

La quiila, the keeL 

Una anda, 4ncora,aii anchor. 

amarra, mooring. 

maroma, a rope. 

Un cable, a eaUe. 

La sonda, the sounding- lead. 

Un piloto, a mate. 

guardian, ahoatswain. 

marinero, a sailor. 

corsario, a privateer. 

armador, a ship owner. 

Una c4mara, a cabin. 

Un camarote, a birth. 

Unatormenta, a tempest. 

borrasca, a stftmu 

bonanza, fair weather. 

calma, cahn. 



El viento en popa, the vnnd 

. fun astern. 

viento largo, fair wind. 

Coger el viento, to pfy to 


Ir d la bolina, to tack upon a 


Irse 4 fondo, i pique, to sink. 

The year and its parts, 8fc.^^ 

£1 aiio y sus partes, &c. 
Un ano, 
Un mes. 

Una semana, 
Un dia, 
Una noche, 
La maiiana, 
La tarde, 
Una hora, 
Un minuto, 
Un momento, 
La primavera, 
El verano, 
El otoiio, 
El invierno, 

a year. 

a month. 

a week. 

a day. 

a night. 

the morning. 

the evening. 

an hour. 

a minute. 

a moment. 

the spring. 

the summer. 

the autumn. 

the winter. 

La salida del sol, the sun-ris- 
El ponene del sol, the sun- 
La, aurora, the daum. 

£1 mediodia, noon. 

La media noche, midnight. 
Un cuarto de hora, a quarter 
of an hour. 
Una media hora, halfanhour. 
Tres cuartos de hora, three 
quarters qf on hour. 
Hoy, to-day. 

Aver, yesterday. 

El dia iintes de ayer, the day 
before yesterday. 

El dia despues 

de maiiana, 

the day after to-morrow. 

The months, — ^Los meses, — 

are mascuUne. 

























The days of the week, — Los 
dias de la semana, — are 















I%c holidays of the year. — 

Dias de fiesta del ano. 
El primer dia del Ano, New 
Yearns day. 
El dia de ReyeSjTwelfth-day. 
La Cuaresma, Lent. 

Las Cuatro temperas, the Em- 
El domingo de Ramos, Palm- 
Viemes Santo, GoodFri^ 



La paacua de resnmccioDy 
pascua del Espiritu Santo, 

£] dia de Difuntos, AllSouh- 


dia de todos los Sajitos, 


La pascua de navidad, CknH" 


vigilia, the Eve. 

0^ind9^'^Yientos^--^are mat- 

El norte, north wind, 

sud 6 sur, 9<HUh wind. 

east wind. 

poniente, oeste,weet wind. 
Rordeste, n^rtk-east wind. 
noroeste, northrwest wind. 
vendaval, south'^estwind. 
sudeste, south-east wind. 
sudoeste, southrwest wind- 

Table of the current Money in %Bji.^Tabla de fasM^ne- 
das de Espana. 

La pieza mas pequeBa de moneda de Espana se llama M«ra- 
vedi, del cual resulta la Tabla siguiente. 

Copper, or Billion.— Coftre, ^ 42| cuartos 5 reales 6 pese- , 
6 veUon. ta columoaria. 

2 maravedfies hacen on 85 cuartos 10 reales 6 me- 

2 ochavos 
2 cuartos 



un cuarto. 

una mota, 6 

dos cuartos. 

Silver.— P/flrfa. 

* 8| cuartos un real. 

t lOJ diez cuartos y medio y 
medio maravedi, octava 
parte de iiti Peso duro. 

I 17 cuartos 2 reales. 

§ 2 1 i cuartos 24 reales. 

\\ 84 cuartos 4 reales 6 una 

170 cuartos 

dio duro. 
20 reales 6 un 
peso duro. 

Gold— Oro. 

20 reales 
40 reales 

80 reales 
I6O reales 

320 reales 

esciidi]S» de oro. 

dobI« escudilio 

de oro. 

doblon de oro. 

media onzade 

orojU 8 duros. 

tina onza, 6 16 

pesos duros. 

* 6 Cents. f 6 Cents. X 10 Cents. § 12^ Cents. || 20 Cents, 
or a Pistareea. IF 25 Cents. 



Military words of Command. — Palabras militares de Man- 

Armas al hombro^ 

fail in, 
Flgen bayonetas, fx bayo- 
Presenten las armas, present 






Saquen baqueta^ 


make ready, 
ram down cart- 

Cesefi el fuego, cease firing. 
Marchen, march. 

Alto, halt. 

Linea 4 la izquierda, left intd 
Conversion 4 la derecha, 

• right wheel. 

Conversion k la izquierda, 

left wheel. 

Conversion atris k la derecha, 

right backwards wheel. 

Conversion atrds 4 la izquier- 

da, left hackwiards wheel. 

A la derecha frente, right 


A la izquierda frente, left 



Sentencias Cortas y FamiUares. — Short and Familiar 

L Acerca de pedir aJgo. 

Le suplico; le ruego, deme 
vm. ; higame el favor de 


Se lo agradezco 

Le doy las gracia« 

Vaya 4 buscarme tal- cosa " 

Luego, en este instante 

Querido Senor, h^game vm. 
este gusto 

CoDcedame, senora,este favor 

Se lo suplico 

Se lo pido encarecidamente 

)rayy give 
indness to 

1. About asking any thing 

I beseech you .; 
me ; do me the 
give me 

Bring me 

1 thank you for it 

I give you thanks 

Go and fetch me such a thing 

Preientlyy this moment 

Dear Sir^ do me this pleas- 

Dear Madamy grant me this 

I beseech you for it 

I earnestly beg it of you 



IL Eipruiaites Hernas. 

Mi vida 

Mi querido, 6 mi querida 

Mi alma 

Mi duenoy 

Mi queriditOy mi queridita 

Mi corasoncito 

Lumbre de mis ojos 

Cielo mioy nina de mi alma 

Hija de mi corazon 

A'jigel mio 
Estrella mia 
Bien mio 

IQ. Aeerca de agradecer y 
cumpUmentary y mostrar 

Viva listed muchos anos 

Le devuelvo las mas vivas 

Gustoso lo hare 
De todo mi corazon 
De muy buena gana 

Lo estimo 

Soy de vm. 

Soy 811 servidor 

Su muy bumilde servidor 

Vm. me favorece mucbo 

Se toma vm. demasiado tra- 

No hallo ninguno en servirle 

Es vm. muy atento y muy 

Que desea vm. ? que me man- 
da vm. ? 

Ordeoeme con toda libertad 

Sin cumplimiento 

II. Expressions of kindness^ 

My dear 

My 9oul 

My hvcy my lord or nuuier 

My Hide darling 

My Uitle heart 

Dear sweet hearty Kghi of my 

My mott helovedy my htan^ 

en J pupil of my soul 
My dearest child^ child of my 

My angel 
My star 
My blessing 

III. Of thanking and com- 
plimenting, wd showing 

I thank youj may ^you five 

many years 
I return you the most heart-- 

felt thanks 
I will do it cheerfully 
With all my heart 
Heartily y with a very good 

I am obliged for it 
I am yours 
1 am your servant 
Your very humble servant 
You are very obligingy you 

favour me much 
You take too much trouble 

I find none in serving you 
You are very civil and kind 

What do you wish ? what d^ 

you command me ? 
Command me with full Kkertf 
Without compHmeni 



Sin ceremonia 
Le amo de corazon 
E' yo correspondo 4 vm. co- 
mo debo 
Haga cuenta sobre ml 
Mdndeme vm. 
Honreme con sus preceptos 

Tiene vm. algo que man- 

No tiene vm. sino hablar 
Disponga de su servidor 
Solo aguardo sus preceptos 
Demasiado honor me hace 
Degemonosde cumplimientos 
Entre amigos honrados, se 

escusan cumplimientos 
Al Senor Don — ^le beso las 


Dele vm. muchas espresiones 

No faltare 
Pongame vm. d los pies de la 


Muchas memorias 4 la Se-. 

Pase vm. adelante, le voy i 

Despues de vm., Caballero 
Se bien lo que le debo 
Vamos, Senor, pase vm. 
Lo hare para obedecerle 
Para solo agradarle 
No soy amigo de tantas cere- 

No soy cumplimentero 
£s lo mejor 
Tiene vm. razon 

Without ceremony 

I love you sincerely 

And 1 return it as I ought 

Rely or depend upon me 

Command me 

Honour me with your com- 

Have you any thing to com- 

mandme ? 
You have hut to speak 
Dispose of your servant 
I only wait your commands 
You do me too much honour 
Let us forbear compliments 
Between honest friends^ com" 

pliments are excused 
Present or give my respects 

to Mr. D — . or 1 kiss the 

hands of Mr. D — . 
Remember my love to Mm^ve 
him many expressions of mine 
I will not fail 
Present my respects to my la^ 

dy, or put me at the feet of 

Remember me to MisSy or 
many remembrances to Miss 
Go before^ I am going to fol- 
low you 
After youy Sir 
I know well what I owe you 
Comey Siry pass on 
I will do it to obey you 
Only to please you 
lam not fond of so many 

I am not ceremonious 
It is the best 
You are in the right 



IV. Acerca deafirmar^ ne- 
gar J comenHr^ Sfc. 

£s verdad 

£s esto verdad ? 

Demasiado verdad 

Para tratar verdad 

En efectOy es asi 

Quien loduda? 

No hay duda 

Creo que es asi 

Creo que do 

Digo que si 

Digo que no 

Apuesto que si 

Ya que no 

Por mi vida 

A^ fe de caballero 

A'' fe de hombre de bien 

Por mi honor 

Creame vm. 

Se lo puedo decir 

Se lo puedo afirmar 

Apostara algo 

Se burla vm. ? 

flabla vm. de veras ? 
Lo digo mujr de veras 

Lo a<£v]D6 vm. 

Lo acerto vtn< 

Bien le creo 

Se le puede creer 

Eso no es imposible 

Pues, en bora buena 

Poco i poco 

No es verdad 

Aquello es fako 

Nsbda de eso hay 

£s incierto 

Es mentira 

Es una falsedad 

Me burlaba, chanceaba 

Lo decia de chanza 

Sea eft bora bueoa 

IV. Of affirming, denyin^^ 
consenting, &c. 

It is true 

Is this true ? 

Too true 

To tea the truth 

ReaUy^ it is so 

Who doubts it ? 

There is no doubt 

I believe it is so 

I believe not 

I say it is 

I say it is not 

I lay it is 

I lay it is noi 

Upon my life 

As I am a gentleman 

Asi am €M honest man 

Upon my honour 

Do believe me 

I can tell it to you 

I can affirm it to you 

I could bet something 

Do you jest ? 

Do you speak in earnest f 

I say it quite in earnest 

You guessed at it 

You hit it 

I truly beUeve you 

One may believe you 

That is not impossible 

WeU, let it be so 

Softly^ fair and softly 

It is not true 

That is false . 

There is no such thing 

It is untrue 

It is a lie 

It is a falsehood 

I did jest; I was joking 

I said it in jest 

Let it be sos veil andgood 



No me opoDgo & ello 
Estamos de acuerdo 
Dtcho y hecho 
No lo quiero 

y • Aeerca de consultary 6 

Que se ha de hacer ? 

Que haremos ? 

Que me dice vmd. que haga ? 

Que remedio bay para eso ? 

Que partido hemes de tomar ? 

Hagamos esto 6 eso 

Hagamos una cosa 

Mejor seri que yo..,. 

Aguarde vm. un poco 

No serla mejor, si ?•... 

Degeme hacer 

Si estuviera en su lugar 

Es lo mismo 

Viene i salir i lo mismo 

I do not oppose it 
We are agreed^ in accord 
Said and done 

I witl not have it, I do not 
want it, 1 do not wish for it 

V. Of consulting; or consid- 

What is to be done? 
What do you tell me to do ? 
What remedy is therefor that? 
What course are we to take ? 
Let us do this or that 
Let us do one thing 
It wiUbe better thai L^. 
Wait a Utile 

Would it not be better, iff.,^ 
Let me do 

Were I in your place 
It i9 the same 

It comes to turn out to the 

VI. Del comer y del bAer. VL Of eating and drinkiqg. 

Tengo buen apetito 

Tengo hambre 

Me muero de hambre 

Me parece que hatresdias 

que nada he comido 
Coma vm. algo 
Que gusta vm. comer? 
Comiera un poco de cualqui- 
• era cosa 

D6me vm. algo de comer 
He comido bs^tante 
Estoy satisfecho 
Qniere vm. comer aun mas ? 
No tengo mas apetito 
Tengo sed 
Me muero de sed 
Tengo mucha sed 
Pte^ TBd. de beber 

J haioe a good appetite 

I am hungry 

lam starving 

It seems to me that it is three 

days 1 have eaten nothing 
Eat something 
What do you like to eat f 
Icoutdeat a Utile of any- 

Give me something to eat 
I hone eaten enough 
I am satisfied 
Witt you eat sHU more f 
Ihaoe no more appetite 
lam dry 

lam dying with ikirtt 
1 am very thirsty 
Qive me to drink 



Viva vm. machos anos 

Gustoso beberia una copita 

de vino 
Beba vm. pues 
He b<*bido bastante 
No puedo beber mas 
Mi sed est4 apagada 

Vn. Del tV, venir, movene^ 

De donde viene vm.? 

A'' donde va vm. ? 

Vengo de — Voy 4^— 

Suba, bage 

Entre vm.^ saiga vm 

Pase vm. adeiante 

No se mueva, no se men6e 

Estese ahl 

Acerquese de ml 

Retlrese vm. 


Vaya un poco atris 

Venga vm. aci 

Aguarde vrad un rato 

Espereme, agu4rdeme 

No vaya tan de prisa 

Va vm. muy ^ prisa 

Quitese de delante de ml 

No me toque vm. 

Dege eso 

Porqae ? 

Asi lo quiero 

Estoy bien aqui 

La puerta est^ celrrttda 

Abora est^ abierta 

A bra vm. la puerta 

Abra vm. la veiftana. 

Cierre la ventana 

Venga vm. por aqtti 

Vaya vmd por ^4 

Pase vmd. por aqui 

Pase por all4 

I thank you^ may you Une 

many years 
I could drink with pleoiure a 

glass of mne 
Drink then 
I have drank enough 
I can drink no more 
My thirst is allayed 

VII. Of going, coming, stir- 
ring, Sec, 

Whence do you come f 

Where do you go f. 

I come from — lam going fo^ 

Come up J come doum 

Come iuy go out 

Come forward 

Do not move^ do not sUr 

Stay there 

Come near tome 

Retire f withdraw 

Go uway^ begone 

Go back a little 

Come hither 

Wait a little 

Wait for me 

Do not go eofasi 

You go veryfaH 

Getaway from btforeme 

Do not touch me 

Leave that 


I wish it so 

I am weU here 

'Ihe door is shut 

Now it is open 

Open the door 

Open the window 

Shut the. window 

Come this way 

Go that way 

Pass this way 

Paes tktU^way 



Que busca vm. ? 
Que perdio vm.? 

vm. Del hablar, decir, 
obroTy Sec. 

Hable vm. alto 
Habla vm. muy bajo 
Con quien faabiavm.? 
Me habla vm. ? 
Dlgale algo 
Habla vm. Espanol ? 
Sabe vm. el castellano ? 
Algo lo entiendo y hablo 
Que dice vm. ? 
Que ha dicho vm. ? 
No digo Dada 
No he dicho nada 
Calle vm. 

Ella no quiere callar 
No hace mas que hablar y 

He oido decir, que 

Me lo ban dicho 

LfO dicen por ahi 

Todos lo dicen 

£1 Senor 4. me lo dijo 

Madama no me lo ha dicho 

Se lo dijo 4 vm. ? 

Se lo dijo ella ? 

Cnando lo oyo vm. decir ? 

Hoy me lo^han dicho 

Quien se lo dijo ? 

No lo puedo creer 

Que dice el ? 

Que dice ella ? 

Que le ha dicho ? 

No me dijo nada 

Nome ha dicho noticia alguna 

£1 Senor B. me dijo nuevas 

No se lo diga vm. 

Se lo dir6 

No se lo dir4 

What do you look for? 
What did you loBef 

Vni. Of speakings sayings 
acting, &c. 

Speak hud 

You speak very low 

With whom do you speak ? 

Do you speak to me f 

Tell him something 

Do you speak Spanish ? 

Do you know the Castiliem ? 

I understand and speak it a 

What do you say f [little^ 

What have you said ? 

I say nothing 

I have said nothing 

Hold your tongue, be silent 

lam silent, 1 hold my tongue 

She will not hold her tongue 

She does nothing but prattle 

and tattle 
I have heard, thai — ;— 
They have told me so 
They say so abroad 
Every one says so 
Mr, A. told it me 
The lady has not told it me 
Did he trUittoyou? 
Did she tell it you? 
When did you hear it, say f 
To-day, they have told it to me 
Who told it to you f 
I cannot believe it 
What does he say? 
What does she say f 
What has he said to you? 
He said nothing to me 
He has not told me any newe 
Mr, B» told me news 
Do not tell it to them 
I will tell it to him 
I will not PeU it to her 


9AMtLlkZ PHBA8K8* 

No le diga vm. )>alabra 
Se lo caUare 
C^llelo vm. bien 
Ha dicho vm. eso ? 
No, no lo be dicho 
No lo dijo vm. ? 
No lo ban dicho? 
Qae esti vm. hacieodo ? 
Que ha hecho vm. ? 
No hago nada 
No he hecho nada 
Acabo vm. ? 

No acabo vm. ? 

Que esti bacieiido el ? 

Que bace ella ? 

Que quiere vm. ? que manda 

vm. ? 
Que es lo que le ha^e falta ? 
Que pide vm. ? 
Porque no me responde vm.? 

IX. Del oir^ eacuchar^ 4^c. 

Oiga vm., Don N. 

Oigo, senor 

Me oye vm. ? 

No le oigo 

No le puedo oir 

Hable mas alto 

Oiga, venga ac4 



Estese quieto 

No haga ruido 

Que ruido es este ? 

No nos podemos oir habkur 

Que zambra arma vm. all4 f 

Me quiebra la cabeto 

Me aturde vm. 

£s vm. muy molesto 

Say not a word to him 
I will keep it from him 
Keep it well to yourself 
Have you said that ? 
No, I have not said it 
Did you not say so f 
Have they not said so 9 
What are you doing f 
What have you done f 
I do nothing 
I have done nothing 
Have you done? dsdifoufm- 

Have you not donef 
What is he doing f 
What does ^he do f 
What do yon wish, what do 

you command? 
What is it that you wtaUf 
What do you mk ? 
Answer me 
Why donUyou answerme ? 

IX. Of hearing, listening, &c* 

Hearken^ Mr. N. 

I hear J Sir 

Do you hear me ? 

I do not hear you 

I cannot hear you 

Speak louder 

Hark ye, come hither 

I hear yoi/L 

I listen to you 

Be quiet^ be stiU 

Do not make a noi$e 

What noise is this? 

We cannot hear one another 

What a thundering noi^e you 

make there / 
You break my head 
You stun me 
You are very troiAkeome 



X. Dei€utender y compren- 

Le entiende vm. bien ? 

Ha entendido vm. lo que ha 

dicho ? 
£ntiende vm. lo que dice ? 

Me entiende vm. 

Le entiendo bien 

No le entiendo 

Cntiende vm. el Espanol ? 

No lo entiendo 

Lio entiendo no poco 

Lo entiende el Senor ? 

No lo entiende 

Me ha entendido vm. ? 

No le he entendido 

Ahora le entiendo 

Cuando no hahla vm. tan de 

El no pronuncia bien 
Farece tartamudo 
Ne se le entiende lo que dice 

XI. Acerca de preguntar. 

Como dice vm. ? 

Que es esto ? que hay ? 

Que ge dice ? 

Que quiere decir eso ? 

Que quieren ellos decir ? 

De que sirve aquello ? k que 

bueno ? 
Que le parece ? qtie tal ? 

A' que vicne aquello ? 
Digame vm., se puede saber ? 
Se le puede preguntar ? 
Que me pregunta vm. ? 
Como, Senor ? 
Que se ha de hacer ? 

X. Of unde^tanding and 


Do you under^ictthd Mm weU ? 
Have you understood what 

he has said? 
Do yon understand what he 

says ? 
Do you understand me ? 
I understand you weli 
I do not understand you 
Do you understand Spamdi? 
1 do not understand it 
I understand it a Utile 
Does the gentleman under- 
stand it f 
He does not understand it 
Have you understood me? 
1 have not understood you 
Now I understand you 
When you do not spemk so fast 

He does not pronounce well 
He seems a stammerer 
One does not understand 
what he says 

XI. About asking a queation. 

How do you say ? 
Whafs this? what is there f 
What do people say f 
What means that? 
What do they mean ? 
What is the use of that? 

wham that good /or f 
What do you think of it ? 

how do you Hke it ? 
To what purpose is that ? 
Tell me, may one know ? 
May one ask you ? 
What do you ask ofmef 
How, Sir ? 
What is to he done? 



Qnedesea vm.? 
Que gusta vm. ? 
Lo que quisiere 
Suplicole me responda 
Porque no me responde ? 

XII. Actrca dt saber. 

Sabe vm. eso? 

No lo se 

No se nada de ello 

EUa bien lo sabia 

Acaso no lo sabia 61 ? 

Supuesto que lo supiese 

No sabrd nada de ello 

Que ! no ha sabido nada de 

No supo jamas de esto 
Antes de vm. lo sabia yo 
£s asi 6 no ? 
No que lo sepa yo 

XIU. Del conocer^ olmdary 
y acordaree. 

Le conoce vm. ? 
La conoce vm. ? 
Les conoce vm. ? 
Las conozco 
No los conozco 
Nos conocemos 
No nos conocemos 
No le conoce vm. d 61 ? 
Creo que le he conocido 
La he conocido 
Nos hemos conocido 
Le conozco de vista 
La conozco de nombre 
£11 me canocia muy bien 
Me conoce vm. ? 
He olvidado su nombre 
Me ha olvidado vm. ? 

What do you choose ? 
What you please 
Pray, do answer me 
Why donH you answer me f 

XII. Of knowing or having 
a knowledge of things. 

Do you know thai f 

I do not know it 

I know nothing of it 

She knew it well 

Did he not perchance know 

Suppose he knew it [it ? 

He shall know nothing of it 

What f has he known nothing 
of it? 

He never knew of this 

1 knew it before you 

Is it so or not? 

Not that I know of 

Xni. Of knowing or being 
acquainted with persons, 
forgetting and remember- 

Do you know him f 

Do you know her ? 

Do you know them f 

I know them 

I do not know them 

We are acquainted 

We do not know one another 

Do you not know him ? 

1 believe I have known him 

I have known her 

We have known one another 

I know him by sight 

I know her by name 

He knew me very well 

Do yoa know me ? 

I have forgotten your name 

Have youforgotten me ? 



Le conoce 4 vm. ella ? 
Le conoce 4 vm. el Sefior ? 
Parece que no me conoce 
Bien me conoce el Senor ? 
Ya no me conoce 
Me olvido del todo 
Ya no me conoce ella 
Tengo el honor de ser cono- 

cido de el 
^ acuerda vm. de esb ? 
No se me acuerda, no me acu- 

erdo de ello 
Muy bien lo tengo presente 
Higaselo acordar 

XIV. De la edadydela vida^ 
de la muertej 8[c. 

Que edad tiene vm. ? 

Que edad tiene su hermano ? 

Tengo veinte y cinco anos 

Tiene veinte y dos anos 

Tiene vm. mas anos que yo 

Empieza 4 envejecer 

Que edad tendi*^ vm. ? 

Estoy buenoy que es 1q esen- 

£st4 vm. casado ? 

Cuantas veces ha estado vm. 

Cuantas mugeres ha tenido 

Tiene vm. aun padre y madre 
vivos ? 

Mi padre murio 

Mi madre ha muerto 

Dos anos ha que perdl k mi 

Mi madre se ha vueltoi casar 

Cuantos hijos tiene vm.? 

Cuatro tengo 

Hijos 6 hijasy varones 6 hem- 



Does the gentleman know you? 

It seems he does not know me 

The gentleman knows me well 

He knows me no more 

He quite forgot me 

She knows me no more 

I have the honour to be known 

to him 
Do you remember that ? 
Ida not remember it, I do 

not recollect it 
I do remember it very weU 
Remind him of it. 

XIV. Of age, life, death, 

How old are you ? 

How old is your brother f 

I am five and twenty 

He is twenty-two years old 

You are older than I 

He begins to grow old 

How old may you be ? 

I am well, that is the chief 

Are you married? 

How many times have you 
been married? 

How many wives have you 
had ? 

Have you afaiKer and moth- 
er still alive ? 

My father is dead 

My mother is dead 

I lost my father two years 

My mother has married again 

How many children have you? 

I have four 

Sons or daughters, mates or 



Tengo un hijo y tres hijas 

Cuantof hermanos tiene vm.? 
No tengo ninguno viro 
Todos murieron 
Todos bemos de morir 
Cada bora ea un paso hicia 
el tumulo 

XV. jDe una aya y su Se- 

Esti vm. aim en la cama ? 

Dverme vm. ? 

Despierte; quepesadaesvra. 

Es vm. muy dormilona 

No estd aun despierta ? 

Lev&ntese ligero 

Acaso es ya bora de levan- 

Sin dada lo es 
Abora darin las nueve 

Estk vm. levantada ? 
Est4 su bermana levantada ? 
Vamos, despacbe vm. 
Porque no se da mas prisa ? 


Se caer4 vm. 

For poco se cae 

Ac6rquese de la lumbre 

Abriguese bibn 

Se resfriari vm. 

Ya estoy acatarrada 

yistase luego 


Pongase las medias 

C^lcese los zapatos 

Tome esta camisa blaaca 

Liyese las m^nos, la booa, y 

Limpiese los dientes 
Sva peines estin sqcios 

I have one 9on and three 

How many brothers have yomf 
I hiwe none Uving 
They are aU dead 
We must aU die 
Every hour is a step towards 

the grave 

XV. Of a Governess and ber 
young lady. 

Are you in hedstiU? 

Do you sleep? 

Awake ; how heavy you tare 

You are very sleepy 

Are you not awake yet f 

Rise quickly 

Is it perchance already tiwte 

to rise f 
It is so undoubtedly 
Nitte o^chck wiU presently 

Are you up? 
. Ls your sister ap 
Come^ make haste 
Why do you not make more 

Take care 
You wiUfaU 
You came nearfaMng 
Come near thejire 
Clothe yourseff' warm 
You wiU catch cold 
I have a cold already 
Dress yourself direetly 
Comb your hair 
Put on your stockings 
Put on your shoes 
Take Ms dean ehstmiee 
Wash your hands^your mouthy 

Clean your teeth 
Your combs are dirty 



Acordoneme la cotilla 

Ayudeme vm. 

Pbrque no me asiste ? 

Acabo vm. ya ? 

Aun no 

Que pesada es vm. 

Diga sus oraciones 

Hable alto 


Vamos adelante- 

Acabe vmd. 

Adonde est4 su libro de oirar 

Clones ? 
Traiga su Biblia 
B^squela presto 
Lea vm. un capitulo 
Adonde acabo vm. ayer ? 

Aqui me par6 

JNo tiene vm. bien su libro 

Lea poco & poco 

Deletree esa voz 

Vm. lee muy de prisa 

No lee vm. bien 

Lee muy despacio 

No aprende vm. nada 

No observa nada 

No estudia vm. 

No aprovecha nada 

Es vm. muy perezosa 

Que murmura vm. all4 

y uelva 4 empezar 

No sabe vm. su lecion 

Esta es su lecion 

Deme otra lecion 

Porque me babla vm. Ingles.* 

Hable vm siempre Espanol 

Quiere vm. almorzar ? 

Que gusta vm. para su almo- 

Comeri vm. pany manteca ? ^ 

Lace my stayu 

Help me 

Why donH you help me ? 

Have you already done ? 

Not yet 

How tedious you are 

Say your prayers 

Speak hud 


Let us go on 

Make an end 

Where is your prayer-book ? 

Bring your Bible 

Look for it quick 

Read a chapter 

Where did you ha»e offyes' 

terday f 
I stopt here 
You do not hold your book 

Bjsad shufly 
Spell that word 
You read very fast 
You do not read well 
You read very slow 
You learn nothing 
You observe nothing 
You do not study 
You do not improve any 
You are very idk 
What do you mutter there ? 
Begin again 

You do not know your lesson 
This is your lesson 
Give me another lesson 
Why do you speed: English 

Speak always Spanish 
WiU you breakfast ? 
What win you have for your' 

breakfast ? 
WiUyoueatbreadandbutterf • 



Diga vm. lo que qniere mas 
Acabe de almorzar 
Ahnorso vm. ya? 

Tome 8u labor 
Muestreme su labor 
Eso no esti bueno 
Rehaga todo aquello 
Tiene una aguja buena ? 
Tiene vm. hilo ? 
Dege su labor 
Vajra i jugar un poco 
Vuelva i trabajar cuando ha- 

ya jugado 
Yaya ^ pasearse en el jarditi 
No se caliente 
Vuelva presto 
£s bora de comer 
Si^ntese ^ la mesa 
Vamos, tome vrad. una silla 
Pongase la servilieta 
Adonde estin su cuchillo^ su 

tenedor y su cuchara ? 
Rece antes de empezar 
Coma vm sopa 
Gusta vm. camero ? 
Quiere gordo 6 magro ? 
Le gusta la gordura ? 
Le gusta d vm. saba ? 
Dlgame su gusto 
Coma, no come vm. 
He aqui una ala de polio 
Coma vm. pan con su carne 
Ha bebido vm ? 
Pida de beber 
Es esta came sabrosa ? 
Quiere vm. comer ma$ ? 
Ha coraido vm. bastante ? 
Le gusta el queso ? 
De vm. las gracias 
Vaya 4 bailar 
Ha bailado vmd. ? 
Egercitese bien 

Say uikaf you like best 

Finish your breakfast 

Have you breakfasied al- 
ready ? 

Take your work 

Show me your work 

That is not right 

Do all that over again 

Have you a good needle? 

Have you any thread ? 

Leave your work 

Go and play a little 

Come again to work when 
you have played 

Go andwaik in the garden 

Do not overheat yourself 

Come again quickly 

It is dinner-time 

Sit down to the fable 

Comey take a chair 

Put on your naphn 

Where are your knifej your 
fork and your spoon? 

Say grace before yon begin 

Eat some soup 

Will you have some mutton f 

WiU you have fat or le(in ? 

Do you like fat ? 

Do you like sauce ? 

Tell me your taste 

Eat J you do not eat 

Here is the wing of a chicken 

Eat bread iciih,your meat 

Have you drai^ ? 

Ask for drink 

Is this meat agreeable f 

Will you tat more? 

Have you eat enough f 

Do you like cheese? 

Give thanks 

Go to dance 

Have you danced? 

Exercise yourself weU 



Vaya, dance vm. un minuete 
No danza Tin. bien 
Teogase derecha 
LevaDte la cabeza 
Haga la cortesla 
IVf ireme vmd. 
Que est4 vm* mirando ? 
Se fue 8u maestro ? 
Ha acabado vm. ya ? 
Yaya a)iora 4 cantar 
Lileve su libro consigo 
Yuelva d trabajar cuando ha- 

ya acabado 
Ha cantado vm ? 
Tieoe lecion nueva ? 
Cante vm. una arieta 
Cante vm. una cancion 
Canta vm. bonltamente 
Toque vm. el clave 6 piano 

Ahora la guitarra 

Su prima no vale nada 

Estd su guitarra templada ? 
Sabe vm. templarla ? 
Aun esti destemplada 
No tiene vm. bien su guitarra 

Vajra vm. 4 aprender el Es* 

Donde estd su gramitica ? 
Busque su libro 
Que lecion tiene vm ? 
Que di4k)eo ha leido ? 
Repita su lecion 
No la sabe vm. 
Nada ha aprendido 
Lea delante de ml 
No pronuncia vm. bien 
Aprendio vm. so lecion de 

No tiene vmd. memoria 

Carney donee a mimuel 

You do not dance weU 

Stand upright 

Hold up your head 

Make a curtesy 

Look at me 

What are you looking at? 

h your matter gone ? 

Have you done aJready ? 

Go now and sing 

Carry your book with you 

Come again to work when 

you luive done 
Have you sung? 
Have you a new lesson ? 
Sing an air 
Sing a song 
You sing prettily 
Play on the harpsichord or 

Now the guitar 
Your clumtrel is good for 

Is your guitar in tunef 
Do you know how to tune it? 
It is still out of tune 
You do not hold your guitar 

Go and learn Spanish 

Where is your grammar ? 

Look for your book 

What lesson have you f 

What dialogue have you read? 

Repeat your lesson 

You do not know it 

You have learned notking 

Read before me 

You do notpromnmee wett 

Have you kamt your kssam 

by heart ? 
Tou have no memory 



No toma vm. tn^ajo 

Que quiere para mereodar ? 

^para cenar ? 
Venga 4 ceoar 
No 86 engoloaine en la fnita 
£star4 vm. mala 
La fruta no le sienta bien 
£s tiempo de acostarse 
DesniideBe luego 
Lev^ntese manana tempiano 

XVI. Del pasio. 

Hace muy bello tiempo 
Este dia daro y sereno convi- 

da al pas^o 
No parece nube dguna 

VamoB i paaear 

Vamos 4 tomar el aire 

Quiere vm. dar una vuelta ? 

Gusta vm. venir conmigo ? 

Respondame, digame sS, 6 no 

Vamos pues, me gusta 

Le acompanare 

Adonde iremos ? 

Vamos al Parque 

Vamos 4 Ids prados 

Iremos en coche ? 

Como le gustare 

Vimonos 4 pie 

Tiene vm. razon ? 

Eso es saludable 

Se gana apetito andando 

A^nimo, vamos, andemos 

For donde iremos ? 

For donde quisiere 

For aqui 6 por alii 

Vamos por aqui* 

A^ mano derecha, 41a derecha 

A^ mano izquterda, 4 la izqui- 

You take no pains 

What will you have for lun^ 

cheoH f—fonr supper f 
Come to supper 
Do not eat too much fruit 
You will be sick 
Fruit does not suit you 
It is time to go to bed 
Undress yourself presently 
Say your prayers 
Rise early to-morrow, 

XVL Of walking. 

It is very fine weather 

This clear and serene day in^ 

vites to walk 
There does not appear any 

Let us go and walk 
' Let us go and take the air 
Will you take a turn ? 
Do you wish to come with me f 
Answer me, tell me yes, or no 
Let us go then, I wish it 
I will accompany you 
WJ^e shall we go? 
Let us go to the Park 
Let us go to the meadows 
ShaU we go in a cooxh ? 
As you please 
Let us go on foot 
You are in the right 

That is healthy 

Walking gets one an appetite 

Cheer up, come, let us walk 

Which way shall we go ? 

Which way you please 

This way or that 

Let us go this way 

On the right hatid, to the 

On the lefthandf to the left 



Quiere vm. ir por agua ? 
Adonde est^ el barco ? 
Adoade est^n los barqueros ? 
Entre vm. en el barco 
Solo atravesaremos el rio 
£1 agua esti muy maosa y 

£mpieza 4 rooverse 
Adonde quiere vm. desem- 

barcar^ abordar ? 
£stamos cerca de la orilla 
Para tu el barco 
Pasemos la vista sobre estos 

campos y prados 
Que verdura tan hermosa 
£stos prados estin esmalta- 
dos coo variedad de flores 
Que prospecto tan hermoso ! 
Este lugar es rouy ameno 
Los ixboles echan flores 
Los resales empiezan 4 echar 

Aun no estdn abiertas estas 

Crece el trigo 
Prometen mucho los panes 

Las espigas son muy largas 
Ya el trigo esti madtiro 
Esta es una bella Uanura 
Estas sombras son muy apar 

Que todo tan hermoso 
Me parece que estoy en un 

paraiso terrenal 
No oye vm. la dulce melodia 

de las aves ? 
CI canto suave del ruiseiior' 

Aun no estamos en Mayo 
Anda vm. demasiado presto 
No le puedo segutr 
No puedo if tan de prisa 

JFiU you go hy water ? 
Where is the boat? 
Where are the boatmen f 
Step into the boat 
We tviUjust cross the river 
The water is very smooth and 

It begins to move 
Where will you kmd^ board ? 

We are near the sitore 

Stop the boat 

Let us cast our sight upon 

these fields and meadows 
What a fine green 
These meadows are enamelled 

with a variety offiowers 
What a beautiful prospect ! 
This place is very pleasant 
The trees are bloomiog 
The rose-bushes begin to budy 

or throw out buds 
These roses are not blown yet 

The com grows 

The cornfields are very prom- 

The ears are very long 

The wheat is already ripe 

This is a fine plain 

These shades are very plecu- 

What a fine tout ensemble 

Methinf^ I am in an earthly 

Do you not hear the sweet 
melody of birds? 

The sweet warbling of the 
nightingale ? 

We are not yet in May 

You walk too quick 

I cannot follow you 

I cannot go so fast 



No me es posibk alcanzarle 

Es vm. UD pobre canunante 
Le suplico, ande un poco mas 

Deacaoaemos un rato 
No Tale la pena 
£8t4 vm. cansado ? 
Estoy molido 
AcoatemoDos en la yerba 
Me temo que est^ humeda 
Como puede ser ? no ha llo* 

Basta la homedad de la noche 

Ni aon quiero sentarme en el 

Pasemoa pues 4 esa aelva 

Entremoa en ese bosque 
Que sitio tan gustoao ! 
Que idoneo para estudiar ! 
He aqui tres pas6o8 
Que bien plantados est^n es- 

tos drboles I 
Se tnclinan unos h&cia otros 
Estos drboles hacen bella 

Que espesa estd esa arboleda! 
Los rayos del sol no la pueden 

He aqui heronosos huertos 
Hay mucha fruta 
Veo man^anas, perasi avcUar 

nas, guindas 
Antes quisiera nueces 6 cas- 

Estos albaricoques y p^rsigos 

me hacen venir el agua & 

la boca 
Bien me comiera algunas de 

estas ciruelas 

It 19 noi poMnbUe far me to 

You are awrrywaJOcer 
Pray J go a UUlt 9lower 

Let U9 rett a UUh 

liisnoi worth the wkik 

Are you tired f 

I am very much tired 

Let US He down upon the gran 

1 am afrmd it is damp 

How can ttbef it hat not 

The dampnese of the nighi it 

Nor will 1 even eit tqHm the 

Let ut walk then iniothat 

Let U9 go into that grove 
What a pleasant place ! 
How fit for study ! 
Here are three walks 
How well these trees are 

They bend towards each other 
These trees make a fine shade 

How thick that grove is f 
The suU'^ams cannot pieree 

through it 
Here are fine orchards 
There is a great deal of fruit 
I hee apples f pears^ fiWertSy 

I had rather have walnuts or 

chesnuts * 
These apricots and peaches 

make my mouth water 

I could really eat some of 
these ptkme 



Cuanta cuesta la libra de 

guindas ? 
Ocho cuartos 
Compremos algunas 
Me temo que nos mojenios 
Reparo que el tiempo empie- 

za 4 anublarse 
Empieza 4 ser tarde 
Se pone el sol 
No corra vm. 
Agudrdeme un poco 
Yamos, vamos, si estuviere 

cansado, descansari cenan- 

Y aua mejor en la cama 

XVII. Del tiempo. 

Que tiempo hace ? 

Hace buen tiempo ? 

Ilace mal tiempo ? 

Hace calor ? 

Hace frio ? 

Luce el sol ? 

Hace bello tiempo 

Hace mal tiempo 

£1 tiempo esti seco, hume- 
do, lluvioso, tempestuoso, 

£s tiempo inconstante y vari- 

Hace gran calor, mucbo frio 

El tiempo esti claro y sereno 

Luce el sol 

Hace un tiempo oscuio 

El cielo est4 cargado de nu- 

Las nubes son muy espesas 

Llueve ? 

No, creo que no 

£mpieza k Hover 

Aun no llueve 

Presto Uoverd & cdntaros 

What costs a pound of cher- 
ries ? 

Five cents 

Let ns buy some 

lam afraid we shall he loet 

I observe the weather begins 
to grow cloudy 

Let us go back again 

It begins to be late 

The sun is setting 

Do not run 

Stay for me a little 

ComCf come J if you be weary , 
you wiU rest yourself at 

And yet better in bed, 

XVII. Of the weather. 

How is the weather f 
Is it fine weather f 
Is it bad weather f 
Is it hot? 
Is it cold? 
Does the sun shine ? 
It is fine weather 
It is bad weather 
It is dry^ wety rainy ^ stormy ^ 
windy weather 

It is unsettled and changeable 

It is very hot^ very cold 
It is clear and serene weather 
The sun shines 
It is dark weather 
It is cloudy, the sky is over-^ 

The clouds are very thick 
Does it rain ? 
Nof I believe not . 
It begins to rain 
It does not rain yet 
It will soon rain in torrents 



Ya Uueve 

Solcf es un aguacero 

Pasar4 luego 

Me temo que tendr^mos agua 

No tema vm., no tenga miedo 

£$ una nube que pasa 

Todo el dia Uoveri 

Mucbo lo dudo 

Presto acabard de Hover 

Pongimonos al abrigo 

No hay nada que teiner 
Solo es agua 

Tiene vm. miedo del agua? 
Solo temo echar k perder mi 

Ya tenemos agua 
No debemos salir cod este 

Graniza 6 apedr6a 
Graniza muy recio 
Ahora nieva 
Que! nieva? 

Mire vm. esos grandes copos 
Hiela tambien 
No, que deshiela 
Creo que hiela muy fuerte 
£s hielo muy duro 
E! hielo se derrite 
La nieve se hace agua 
Cae aguanieve 
Corre unsi borrasca grande 
Solo alumbran los rel^mpa- 

Corre muchoviento 
Hace mucho viento 
£1 viento viene muy frio 
Se mudo el viento 
£1 viento cae 
Paso la tormenta 
£1 tiempo se aclara 

It raim already 

It t« hut a shower 

It will he over presently 

lam afraid we shaUhave raiu 

Do not fear J he not afraid 

It is a jlying cloud 

It will rain all day 

I question it much 

It wiU soon cease to rain 

Let us put ourselves under 

There is nothing to fear 
It is hut water 
Are you afraid of water f 
I fear only to spoil My 

It rains already 
We must not go out in such 

It hails 

It hails very hard 
Now it snows 
What! does it snow? 
hook at those great fiaJees 
It freezes also 
Noy it thaws 

I think it freezes very hard 
It is a hard frost 
The ice is melting 
The snow melts otway 
There is a sleet falling 
There is a great storm 
It thunders 
It lightens 
The flashes of lightning alone 

The wind blows hard 
The wind blows high 
The wind blows very cold 
The wind is changed 
The windfalls 
The storm is over 
The weather clears t^ 



£1 cielo empieza 4 aclararse 
Se abre el tiempo^ empieza 

i serenarse 
Dividense las nubes ; desapa- 

recen y desvanecense poco 

4 poco 
Ya vemos lucir el sol 
Veo el arco.iris, el arco celeste 
£s senal de buen tiempo 
Hace una neblina muy espesa 
No nos podemos Ver 
He alii una niebia que se levanta 
Pero el sol empieza 4 disiparla 

The sky begins to clear up 
The tDeather setHeSj it begins 

to be fair again 
The clouds divide^ or break 
asunder i they disappear 
by degrees ai^ vanish 
We now see the sun shine 
I see the rainbow 
It is a sign of fair weather 
There is a very thick mist 
We cannot see one another 
There is a fog rising 
But the sun begins to dis- 
perse it, 

XVni. De la hora. XVIII. Of the time of day. 

Que hora es ? 
Vea vm. que hora es ? 
Dlgame que hora es ? 
No sabe vm. que hora es ? 

£s temprano 

No es tarde 

Nos volvereraos 4 casa ? 

Hay bastante tiempo 

Solo es medio dia 

Ea cerca de la una 

Ahora dio la una 

Es la una y cuarto 

Es la una y media 

£s la una y tres cuartos 

Es cerca de las dos, 6 darin 

las dos 
No he oido el reloj 
Han dado las seis 
Son las siete al sol 
Acaban de dar las siete 
Las ocho ban dado 
Cerca de las diez 
Es cerca de las doce de la 

noche, 6 media noche 
Como lo sabe vm.? 

What o^clockisit? 
See what o^chck it is ? 
Tell me what o^ clock it is ? 
DonH you know what o^clock 

it is f 
It is early 
It is not late 
Shall we return home ? 
There is time enough 
It is but twelve o^clock^ (at 

It is almost one 
.It strttckonenow 
It is a quarter past one 
It is half an hour past one 
It is three quarters past one 
It is near twoj or it is upon 

the stroke of two 
I have not heard the clock 
It has struck six 
It is seven by the sun 
It struck seven just now 
It has struck eight 
About ten o^clock 
It is near twelve o^clock, or 

How do you know it f 



Da el reloj 

Lo oye vm. dar r 

No creo que sea tan tarde 

Mire su reloj 

Adelanta mucho 


No anda, esti parado 

De le vm. cuerda 

Vea vm. que hora es al reloj 

de sol 
Los cuadrantesno concuerdan 
La mano est^ quebrada 
Adonde esti su reloj de repe- 

ticion ? 
No la hallo, esti estraviado 

XIX. De Uu estaciones del 

Que estacion le gusta mas ? 
La primavera es la mas agra- 

dable de todas 
Todd la naturalezase anima 
El tiempo est4 muy templado 

Ni hace demasiado calor, ni 

demasiado frio 
A'rden entonces todos los ani- 

males en amor 
No hay primavera este afio 
Los tiempos estin revueltos 
Es un inviemo moderado 
Nada adelanta 

La estacion est^ muy atrasada 
Tenemos un estio muy calo- 

Ob, que calor ! 
Haceun calor escesivo 
Que tiempo tan pesado ! 
No puedo con tanto calor 
Estoy sudando, hecho agua 

Me muero de calor 
Jamas tuve tanto calor 

The clock sirikeB 


t do not think it is so late 

Look at your watch 

It goes too fast 

It goes too slow 

It does not gOj it is stopped 

Wind it up 

See what o^ clock it is by the 

The sun-dials do not agree 

The hand is broken 

Where is your repeater ? or 
repeating watch ? 

1 do not find it, it is mislaid. 

XIX. Of the seasons of the 

What season do you like best? ' 
Spring is tki most pleasant 

of an . .- . 
All nature w animated 
The weather is very mildj 

It is neither too hot^ nor too 

All creatures then make love^ 

or bum with love 
There is no spring this year 
The times are disordered 
It is a moderate winter 
Nothing comes forward 
The season is very bachoard 
We hate a very hot summer 

How hot it is f 

It is excessively hot 

What heavy weather / 

I cannot endure so much heat 

I am perspiring f all over in a 

I am dying with heat 
I never was so hot 



£s muy bello tiempo para los 

frutos de la tierra 
Tendremos mucho heno 

L.a cosecha ser^ muy abun- 

Hay abundancia de fruta 
Todos los ^rboles ban produ- 

cido mucbo 
Nos hace falta un poco de 

La cosecha estd cerca 
Empiezan d segar los trigos 
Se ban segado los prados 
Es menester recoger los panes 
Estamos en la canlcula 
Paso ya el verano 
El otono, la calda de las bo- 

jas, le ba sucedido 
La vendunia se acerca 
Hermosa yendimia tenemos 
Vendimiaremos en tres 6 

cuatro dias 
Los vinos serdn buenos este 

Las viiias ban dado bien 
El vino ser4 barato 
£s preciso recoger los frutos 

Las manzanas y peras de in- 

Los dias se ban acortado mu- 
Las mananas son frias 
£1 inviemo viene acercandose 

Muy presto es nocbe 
Las tardes son largas 
Empieza la lumbre d recrear 

No me gusta el inviemo 
Los dias son muy breves 

It %8 very fine weather fw the 
fruits of the earth 

We shall have a great deal 
of hay 

The harvest mU he very plen- 

There is abundance of fruit 

AU the trees have produced 

We want a little rain 

Harvest time draws near 
They begin to reap the wheat 
The meadows have been mowed 
We must get in the com 
We are in dog-days 
The summer is already gone 
Autumn J thefaUoftheleaveSy 

has taken its place 
Vintage draws near 
We have a very fine vintage 
We shall gather grapes in 

three or four days 
Wines wiUbe good this year 

The vines have borne well 
Wine will be cheap 
We must gather the late pro- 
Winter apples and pears 

The days have grown very 

The mornings are cold 
Winter comes on drawing 

It is very soon night 
The evenings are long 
Fire begins to be pleasant, 

or agreeable 
Winter does not please me 
The days are very short 



Ya no et de dia 4 las cinco 
No se ve 4 las dnco 
Empieia 4 aoochecer 4 Ia9 

Amaneoe i las nete 
No se sabe en que pasar el 

Este invierno ea muy frio^ 

muy 4spero 
Se acuefda vm. del grande 

invierno ? 
Jamai vi invierno tan frio 
Empieaan 4 eiecer los diaa 
Loa dias aon un poco mas 

Casi no hemos tenido invi- 
(ja primavera ya viene 4 ro- 

gocijar la naturaleaa 

XX. Delaida dla eacueia. 
De donde viene vm. ? 
De mi casa* De casa 
Adonde va vm. tan de prisa? 
Voy 4 la escuela 
Venga conmigo 
Aguarde un poco 
Vimonos, le suplico • 
Porque juega vm. andando ? 
No se entretenga 
Ll^remos bastante presto 
Que hora es ? 
Cerca de las siete 
Aun no ha dado el reloj 
Quien viene ahf ? 
Es uno de nuestros condisci- 

pulos -- 

Ir^mos los tres juntos 
y^monos 4 prisa 

XXJ. Enla€9cueia. 
Sientec&en su lugar 
Cuelgue su sombrero 

Iti$m Imager UglU at Jive 

One does not see at five 

It beigiuM to grow dark ai 

Tke iMf kreake at seven 
One knows not in what to 

spend on^s ii$ne 
TkM is a very coldj very 

sharp winter 
Do you remember the hard 

winter f 
I never saw so cold a winter 
Tke days begin to lengthen 
The days are a little longer 

We almost have had no aroa- 

The spring eomes alreudjf to 

revive or r^aiee nature 

XX. Of going to school. 
From where do you come f 
From home. From my house 
Where are you going so fast? 
I am going to school 
Come with me 
Stay a Uttle 
Let us gOy I pray you 
Why do you play as you go T 
Do not amuse yourself 
We shall arrive soon enough 
Almost seven 

The clock has not struck yet 
Let %is make haste 
Who comes there ? 
It is one of our schoolfellows 

We will go dU three together 
Let us go away fast 

XXJ. In the acbool. 
Sit down ts yaurplnce 
Hang up your hat 



Adonde est4 su libro ? 

Liea su lecion 

Estudie su lecion 

Aprendasu lecion de memwia 

Nada hace sino jugar 

Le anotare 

Se lo dire al maestro 

Acabo vm. ? 

Aun no he acabado 

Que est4 escribiendo ? 

Escribo mi egercicio 

Todo lo he escrito 

No me mueva 

Haga me un poco de lugar 

Ym. tiene bastante lugar 

Vaya atras un poco 

Ud poco mas arriba ^ 

Algo mas abajo 

Sinrase de darma un liforo 

Adonde empezamos ? 

Hasta donde decimos ? 

Hasta aqui 

Cual es su tarea ? 

De quien es este libro? 

Sabe ym. su lecion de memo- 

Aun no 
Apunteme vm. 
Ha de leerla tres veces 
Quien lo ha dicho ? 
£1 Senor A. lo mando 
Tiene vm. pluma y tinta ? 
Escriba vm. su egercicio 
Lo escribto vm. mal 
Lea vm. su lecion 
Diga su lecion 
Le azotardn 
Merece vm. azotes 
Porque llega vm. tan tarde ? 
Tuve que hacer 
Que negocio le detuvo ? 
A' que bora se levanto ? 

Where « four book ? 

Read your le99on 

Study your le»8on 

Get your lesson by heart 

You do nothing but piay 

I unU set you up 

I wiU tell it to the master 

Have you done ? 

I have not finished yet 

What are you writing ? 

I am uniting my exercise 

I have written it aU 

Do not jog me 

Make a little room for me 

You have room enough 

Go a little farther 

Ji Kttk higher 

A Utile lower 

Be phased to give me a book 

Where do we begin ? 

Brno far do we say ? 

Thus far J so far 

Which is your task? 

Whose book is this ? 

Do you know your lesson by 

Not yet 
Do prompt me 

You must read it three time9^ 
Who has said so ? 
Mr, A, ordered it 
Have you pen and ink ? 
Write your exercise 
Ydn wrote it iU 
Read your lesson 
Say your lesson 
You wiU be fogged 
You deserve the whip 
Why do you arrive solate? 
I had to do 

What business detained you ? 
At what hour did you rise ? 
At eight o^clock 



Porque se levanto tan tarde ? 
Es vm. un flojon 
Qu^dese en su sitio 
Qultese de mi lugar 
Porque me rempuja asi ? 
Qiiien le toca ? 
No 86 enoge vm. 
Me quejare al maestro 
Digaselo, si qoisiere 
Poco me importa 
Senor, no me quiere dejar 

Me agarro el libro de las ma- 

Hace burla de mi 
Me tiro de los cabellos 
Me da patadas 
Me empuja fuera de mi lugar 
No hay ud 
Que bulla esestaP 
Tomen eate muchacho y den- 

le una mano de azotes 
Senor, perdoneme vm. 
Suplicole, Seiior, perdoneme 

esta sola vez 
Portese pues mejor en ade- 


Why did you rise so kUe ? 

You are a sluggard 

Remain in your place 

Get away from my place 

Why do you push me so? 

Who touches you ? 

Do not he angry 

I ufiU complain to the master 

TeU it to him, if you wtU 

1 care little 

Sir J he wonH let me alone 

He snatched the book from 

my hands 
He mocks me 
He pulled me by the hair 
He kicks me 

He thrusts me out of my place 
There is no suck tHkng 
What noise ii this ? 
Take this boy and give him « 

good whipping 
Sir J pardon me 
Pray, Sir, forgive me this 

once alone 
Behave then better for the 


Diilogos Familiares, Espanoles e Ingle 
Familiar Dialogues, Spanish and English. 

Diilogo I. Acerca de saludar 
6 informarse de la salud 
de aJguno. 

Buenos dias, Senor 
Yo se los deseo 4 vm. 
Bnenas tardes, Caballero 
Buenas noches, Senor 
Servidor de usted 
Como est4 vm. ? 
Buenoy para servir 4 vm. 

Diabgve L Of saluting and 
inquiring after any one's 

Good morning, 8ir 
I wish you the same 
Good afternoon. Sir 
Good night, Sir 
Your servant 
How do you do ? 
Very well, at your service 



Como va ? como lo pasa ? 
Siempre al servicio de vm. 
Y ^ vm. Senor, como le va ? 

Muy bieny gracias d Dios 
ICstoy bueno para servir i vm. 
Yamos pasando 
l^e alegro mucho de verle 
JAe alegro de verle con salud 
Agradezcoselo infinito 
Yiva vm. machos aiios 
Como est4 el Seiior sa her- 

Estaba bueno la iiltimavez 

que le vi 
Estd bueno, gracias & Dios 
Creo que le va bien 
Ayer noche estaba bueno 
Me alegro de eso 
Donde esti ? 
En el campo 
En la ciudad 
En casa 

Ha salido poco haca 
Se alegrard de ver 4 vm. 
Gelebrari mucho saber que 

vm. goza de perfecta sahid 
Vm. le favorece mucho 
Tambien encontrari vm. con 

el mas sincero reconociml- 

Soy su servidor 
Como est4 la Senorita? 
Esti buena 

Creo que estd muy buena 
No est4 muy buena 
Estd algo inalita 
Ayer manana estaba indispu- 

Hela aqui que viene 
tehorittLf i los pies de tm. 


How are you f How goes iff 
Always at your service 
And yoUf 8ir^ how is it with 

Very wellf thank God 
I am very weU at your service 
Pretty well; so, so 
I am very glad to see you 
I rejoice to see you in health 
1 thank you very much for it 
I am ob&ged to you 
How does your orother do ? . 

He was weU the last time 1 

saw Mm 
He is weH, thank God 
I believe he is well 
He was well last night 
I am very glad of it 
Where is he? 
In the country 
In the city 
At home 

He is just gone out 
He will be glad to see yam 
He will be very happy to hear 

you enjoy perfect health 
You are very polite 
You will also meet with a 

most sincere return 

I am his servant 

How is the young lady f 

Site is well 

I believe she is very welt 

She is not very well 

She is a little unweB 

She was indisposed yesterday 

Here she is coming 

Miss J your most humble ser- 



Servidorade vm., Senor 
Como ha estado vm., desde 

que no la he visto ? 
Siempre bien, gracias i Dios 
Como sehaliavm? 
Muy bien 

Me da gusto de saberlo 
De corazon lo agradezco 
Pero como le va ahora ? 
Asi^asi; pasando 
No he pasado buena noche 

Losieoto muchlsimo 

Es un dolor 

Yo la compadezco mucho 

No puedo yo lisongearme 

mucho de salud 
Que ha tenido vm. ? 

Mi estomago ha estado des- 

Parece que est^ vm. buena 

Asi, asi, para servir i vm. 

Como estin en casa ? 

Estdn nuestros amigos de la 
corte, del campo, de la vil- 
la, buenos ? 

Todos estin buenos, menos 
mi madre 

Que le duele ? 

Que enfermedad tiene ? 

Tiene calentura, dolor colico, 


Le duele la cabexa 

Desde cuando ? 

Desde media noche empezo 

4 padecer 
Deseo que se mejore pronto 
Puedo yo servirla de algo ? 
Puede mandarme con toda 


Sir^ I am your servant 
How have you beeuy nnee I 

saw you last f 
Always welly thank God 
How do you find yourself f 
Quite well 

I €um pleased to know it 
I thank you heartily 
But how is it with you now f 
Pretty well; so^so 
I have not passed a good 

I am very sorry for it 
I regret it very much 
1 sympathise much with you 
IcanHhoast much in point 

of health 
What has been the matter 

with you ? 
My stomach has been a Utile 

out of order 
It seems you are now well 

Sof soy at your service 
How do they do at home f 
Our friends at courty in the 

country y in towny are they 

They are aU weUy except «Jf 

What ails her f 
What is her complaint ? 
She has a f every the choKcy a 

She has the head-ache 
How long since? 
Since midnight she began to 

I wish her to improve speedily 
Can I serve her in any thing 
She may command me wiA 

full confidence 



JLa Senora nuDca ha dudado 

del favor de vm. 
Suplico 4 vm. que no me ol- 

£so queda de mi cuenta 
Ha mucho tiempo que est4 

No ha mucho 
Deseo que se mejore^ 
La Seciora sabe muy bien el 

favor de vm. 
Se alegrar4 de ver 4 vmd. 
Soy muy servidor suyo 
Siento no tener tiempo de ver- 

la hoy 
Sientese vmd. un rato 
De veras no puedo 
£st4 vm. muy de prisa ? 
Volvere manana 
No puede vm. esperar on 

poco .'* 
Tengo negocios urgentes 
Solo vengo para saber como 

estaban vms. 
Rinda vm. mis repctos d su 

Encomiendeme d mi Senora 

su madre 
Sus ordenes serdn puntual- 

mente obedecidas 
Digale vm cuanto siento sa- 
ber su indisposicion 
Lo hare sin fsdta 
Vaya vm. con Dios 
Quede vm. con Dios 
Estimo mucho esta visita 
Buenas noches, Caballero 
Senora, Felices noches 

Diil. IL Acerca del hahlar Dialll 

Aprende vm. el Espaiiol? 
SSy Seiior, algun tiempo hace 

Madam never has doubted 

If our goodness 
I beg you will not forget me 

That lies to my account 

Is it long since she has been 

It is not long 

I wish she may grow better 
My lady is sensible of your- 

She will be glad to see you 
lam her most humble servant 
I am sorry I have not time to 

see her to-^y 
Sit down a little 
Indeed I cannot 
Are you in great haste f 
I will come again to-morrow 
Cannot you stay a little ? 

I have earnest business 

I only come to know how you 

Present my best regards to 

your brother 
Present my respects to my la" 

dy your mother 
Your orders shall be punctU" 

ally obeyed 
Tell her how sorry I am to 

know her indisposition 
I shall do it without fail 
Good bye 

I thank you for this visit 
Good night J Sir 
Good night f Madam 

Of speaking Span- 

Do you learn Spanish? 
YeSy Sir^ some time since 



Yo me empeno en aprendeiio 

Vm* hace muy bien 

Es una lengua muy 6til y 

£s tarobien muy graciota, 
Uena de sal y espresion 

Me han dicho tambien que es 
mas varonil y copiosa que 
la Fiancesa 

No obstante^ la Fraucesa es 
mas de moda 

Si los Espaaoles hubieran cul- 
tivado su lengua como los 
Inglesesy en estos dos iilti- 
mos siglosy sin duda que se- 
ria mucho mas de moda 

For la superioridad de su 
diccion^ y la suavidad de 

Forque su prominciacion no 
tiene mas de 27 sonidos 

Forque cada letra se debe 

Y siempre con el mismo so- 

Forque su pronunciacion se 
puede esplicar suficiente- 
mente en una p^na de 

Tambien se puede adquirir 
con facilidad en una bora 

No hay estudiante que en la 
primera lecion no la pueda 
con facilidad aprender 

Est^ en su poder, eon 8 le- 
cionesy el leerla corriente- 
mente, y con 20 entender 
perfectamente cualquier li- 
bro con la ayuda del dic- 

No tiene declinacion sino pa- 
ra los pronombres perso- 

I endeatow id learn U 

You do very weU 

It ia a very nufid and very 
fine language 

It is aho very wUty^futt of 
humour and expretnon 

I have been told it ie also 
more manly and copious 
than the French 

IMunthstandingy the French 
is more in fashion 

Hadthe Spaniards euUivaied 
their language as the Eng- 
lish havCf in these two last 
centuries^ no doubt it would 
be much more in fashion 

For its superiority of diction 
and suamty ofstyie 

Because itspr&nundaHam has 
only twenty-seven sounds 

Because every letter is to be 

And always with the same 

Because its pronunciation 
may besuffidently explain- 
ed in a duodecimo page 

It may cdso be easily acquire 
ed in an hour 

There is no learner that in 
the first lesson may not 
easily ham it 

It is in his power ^ with eight 
lessons J to read it fiuently^ 
and with twenty to vnder^ 
stand perfectly any book 
with the help of a diction- 
ary * 

It has no declension but for 
the personal pronouns 



No tiene mas de tres verbos 

Casi coQstantemente guaida 

la natural precedencia de 

las palabras 
La preposicion nunca se en- 

cuentra sino delante de su 

propio caso 
Todas sus irregularidades se 

pueden con facilidad cor- 

For esto la lengua Espanola 

es la mas propia para 
' aprenderse por arte 

Y la mas proporcionada para 
las Uoiversidades^ tratados 
y comercio 

Toda su brillantez se descu- 
brio en el siglo 16*^ — 

Y entonces se hablaba mas 
comunmente que ninguna 
otra lengua 

Los autores Espaiioles de 
aquel siglo hicieron enton- 
ces y aun hacen ahora, asi 
en verso como en prosa, 
una muy brillante figura 

Ahora tambien hay muchos 
libros nuevos 

Escritos en el reinado de 
Carlos III. 

Que yo no cito^ porque son 

La primera lecion me mostro 
lo muy facil que es esta 

Por ml, yo gusto mucho de 

Porque facilita nuestros medi- 
06 de fomentar el mas im- 
portante comercio que po- 

It has no more than three 
auxiliary verbft 

It preserves almost constant- 
ly the natural precedence 
of words 

The preposition never is met 
with but before its own case 

M its irregularities may be 
easily corrected 

For this reason the Spanish 

language is the most prcH 

per to be learned by art 
And the most proper for the 

Universitiesy treaties^ and 

All it^ brilliancy appeared in 

the iQth century 
And it was then more com* 

monly spoken than any oth' 

er language 
The Spanish writers of that 

century then made and yet 

make^ both in verse and 

prose f a very brilliant fg- 

There are also now many new 

Written in the reign of 

Charles III. 
Which I do not quote, because 

they are very numerous 
The first lesson convinced me 

of the great facility of 

this language 
For my party I Uke it very 

Because it facilitates our 

means of encouraging the 

most important trade we 




Digo fi\ de EspaBa y las 

Pero no empiece vm. sin un 
buen maestro ^ 

Porque un mal h&bito no es 
f4cil de dejar 

Se dice^ que vm. habla muy 
bien el Espanol 

Entiendolo medianamente 

Que libros lee vm. para apren- 
derel Espanol? 

La Gramitica de Josse, y 
los Egercicios por el mis- 
mo Autor 

£s natural de Espana y hom- 
bre muy docto 

Leo tambien las Cartas M ar- 
ruecas, Gil Bias de Santilla- 
na, y la bistoria de la con- 
qubta de Megico^ por Solis 

Porque no lee vm. Don Qni- 

Mi maestro me dijo que no 

era libro para principiantes 
Que razon tiene ? 
Porque hay en el muchos mo- 

dos de hablar anticuados 
De que diccionario se surve 

Delde Neuman en 2tomos 

8vo., y de el de Gattel, en 

2y 18mo. 
Que aprende vm. de memo- 

Aprendo algunas voces del 

Dlgame vm., como se llama 

Creo que se llama — — . 
Muy bien, y e«to ? 
Peronoestudia vm. alguna co- 

sa ademas del vocabulario ? 

I mean tM with Spam md 

North and South America 
But do not begin without an 

able master 
Because an evil habit is not 

easily removed 
It is saidf that yom speak 

very well the Spanish 
I understand it pretty wett 
What hooks do you read to 

learn Spani«A? 
The Grammar of Josse^ 

and the Exercises by the 

same Author 
He is a native of Spain and 

a very learned man 
I read also the Cartas Mar- 

ruecasy Gil Bids ofSantil' 

lana, and the history of the 

conquest of Mexico^ by 


Why do you not read Don 
Quiocote ? 

My master told me this was 
not a book for beginners 

What is the reason ? 

Because it contains a great 
many obsolete idioms 

What dictionary do you make 
use off 

Of the dictionary of New- 
man j2y. 8vo., and that of 
Gattely 2y. ismo. 

What do you get by heart ? 

1 learn some words in the vo- 
Tell me J how is that called ? 

I believe it is caUe d 
Very welly and this f 
But do you not study any 
thing else besides words? 



Sf, Senor, los egemplos de 

las reglas de la gramdtica 
£1 libro de egercicios^ frases 

familiares, y algunos dii- 

Va vm. aprendiendo bien 
Agradezco 4 vm. que me ali- 

Pronuncio bien ? 
Bellamente, elegantemente 
Solo le falta mas pr^ctica 
Nada se adquiere sin trabajo 

Por poco que se aplique vmd.^ 
sabr4 muy presto el Espa- 
' Estoy convencido de esto 

Me ban dicho que vm. enten- 
dia muy bien el Castellano. 

Qoisiera que fuese verdad 
Supongo que desea ym. saber 

esta hermosa lengua 
Lo ha de suponer asi, por- 

que, en efecto, lo deseo 
Bien, le voy i ensenar el 

modo de hablar en poco el 

Se lo agradecere mucho 
£1 metodo mas f4cil para 

apiender una lengua, es 

faablarla & menudo 
p0ro para hablarla, es me- 

nester saber algo de ella 
Ya sabe vm. bastante 
Solo se algunas palabras de 

las mas necesarias, y algu- 
nas sentencias breves 
Esto basta para empezar 4 

Si eso fuera asi, presto sa- 

bria la lengua 
No tenga vm. dodade ello 

Fe«9 Sir, the examples of the 

rules of the grammar 
The book of exercises, fo" 

miliar phrases, and some 

You are learning well 
I thank you for encourag- 
ing me 
Do I pronounce weUf 
Excellently, elegantly 
You only want more practice 
Nothing is acquired without 

However little you apply, 

you wiU very soon Imow 

1 am convinced of it 
I have been told you were 

well versed in the Spanish 

I should wish it were true 
I suppose you have a mind 

to know this fine language 
You ought to euppose it so; 

for, indeed, I wish it 
Well, I am going to teach 

you the way to speak Span- 
ish in a short time 
I shall be much obliged to you 
The easiest way to learn a 

language, is to speak it 

But to speak it, one must 

know something of it 
You know enough already 
I know but a few words most 

necessary, and some short 

This is enough to begin to 

If it were so, I should soon 

know the language 
Do not have any aoubt of it 



Noentiende vmd. lo que le 

Lo entiendo y comprendo moy 

Perotengo mucha dificuhad 

en hablar 
No tengo facilidad en bablar 
Esto viene con el tiempo 
Tengo cortedad de hablar, 

por no esponerme 4 decir 


No se enfade por esto 

Poca paciencia tengo 

Hace mucho tiempo que vm. 

aprende ? 
Dos meses ha que empece 
£s muy corto tiempo 
No le dice su maestro que de- 

biera siempre hablar ? 

Muy 4 menudo me lo dice 
Porque pues, no quiere vm. 

hablar ? 
Con quien he de hablar ? 
Con todos los que le hablen 
Quisiera hablar, pero no me 

Creame vm., sea atrevido, 

hable siempre, bien 6 maf 
Sobre todo, no omita vm. 

ocasion de hablar cuando 

la encuentre 
Hablando es, como aprende- 

mos d hablar 
Ha pensado vm. muy bien 
Seguire pues su consejo 
Hard vm. muy bien 

Di41. III. Para hablar Ingles. 

Sefior, es vm. Espanol ? 
S|, Senor, para servirle 

Do not you understand what 

I say to you f 
I understand and comprehend 

it very well 
But I find it very hard to 

I have no facility in speaking 
nis comes in time 
I am bashful to speak, for 
fear of exposing myself to 

utter nonsense, or impro' 

Do not be discouraged for 

I have little patience 
Is it long since you have been 

learning ? 
It is two months since Ibegan 
It is a very short time 
Does not your master teU you 

that you should always 

He tells me so very ofien 
Why will -you not speak 
'then ? 
With whom shall I speak f 
With all those that speak to you 
I should wish to speak, but I 

dare not 
Believe me, be confident, 

speak always^ well or ill 
Above all, omit no occasion 

X speaking when you 
d it 
It is by speaking, that we 

learn to speak 
You have judged very right 
I shall follow your advice then 
You wiU do very welL 

Dial 111. To speak English. 
Sir, are you a Spaniard ? 
Yes, Sir, at your service 



De que parage de Espana es 

vm. ? 
Be Madrid, de Toledo, de 

De que ciudad ? 
De Cadiz 
Cuanto tiempo haee que est4 

vm. en Inglaterra ? 
Hace mas de un ano 
Habia vm. Ingles ? 
Hablo lo un. poco 
Pero mas'entiendo de lo que 

La lengua Inglesa es muy 

dificultosa para los fispa- 

La Espanola no es dificil pa- 
ra los lugleses 
Estoy persuadido de lo coo- 

Con dificultad lo creo 
La esperiedcianoslo muestra 

todoslos dtas 
La pronunciacion- del Espa- 

nol es mucho mas f4cil que 

la del Ingles 

EUos pronuncian^odas las le^ 
tras como las escriben 

Conozco ^ varios Ingleses que 
pronuncian muy bien el 

Apenas se podr4 halkf un 
Espanol entre cien^que 
pronuncie bien el Ingles 

Los Ingleses se c(Hnen la mi- 
tad de sus voces 

Dan un solo sonido 4 tres 6 
cuatro letras 

Pero en Espanol cada letra 

• tiene su sonido 

What part of Spain are you 

fr&m ? 
From Madridj Toledo, Se- 

viUe^ Sfc. 
Of what city ? 
Of Cadiz 
How long have you been in 

It 19 mortx than a year 
Do you 4peak EngUsh ? 
I speak it a litUe 
But I understand it better 

than 1 speak 
The English Umgu^tge t« very 
- ^^ficuUf&r ^(miards 

The Spanish is not difficult 

for Englishmen 
1 am persuaded of the con- 
I hardly believe it 
Experience^shows it to us ev* 

ery day 
The pronunciation of the 

Spanish is a great deal 
more easy than that of the 

They pronounce aUthe Utters 

as they write them 
I know several Englishmen 

who pronounce the Spanish 

very well 
One can hardly find one 

Spaniardin a hundred who 

pronounces English weH 
The English dip orgeat up 

half their words 
They give a single tound to 

three or four letters 
But in Spanish each letter 

hot its sound 



De suerte que la dificultad 
no parece igual de ambos 

£1 Espanol tiene la ventaja 

Y aan la difficultad as menos 
para la gente moBa 

Porque los jovenes sod como 
cera blanda, en que so im- 
prime ficilmente todo 

Di&l. Vin. Del haeer una 
vuiiapor la manana. 

Quien esti ahl ? 

Gente de paz, abra vmd. la 

Adonde est4 tu amo ? 
Esti en la cama 
Duerme aun? 
No, Senor^esti dispierto 
Ann no ; quiere vm. entrar en 

su cuarto ? 
Aun en la cama ? 
Me recogi i, noche tan tarde, 

que no me hepolido levan- 

tar mas temprano 
Que hizo vm. despues de ce- 

nar ? 
Como paso vm. la noobe ? 

Jugamos k los naipes 
A' que juego ? 
Jugamos i los cientos 
£s un juego muy de moda 
Luego nos fuimos al baile 

Hasta que hora se estuvo 

vmd. alii ? 
Hasta media noche 
A' que hora se acosto vmd. ? 
A^ la una de la noche 

So thai the d^fficuUy does not 
appear equal on both tides 

The Spanish has the oilvaii* 

And the difficulty is yet less 

for young people 
Because young people are 

like soft waXj on which one 

easily impresses any thing. 

Dial. Vni. Of making a 
morning vbit. 

Who is there? 
Afriendy open the door 

Where is your master? 

He is in bed 

Does he sleep yet 9 

No^ 8iry he is auake 

Is he up? 

Not yet ; wiU you step into 

his chamber ? 

I retired so late last nighty 
that I could not get up 
What did you do after sup- 

How did you spend the even- 
We played at cards 
At what game? 
We played at piquet 
It is a game much in fashion 
AfterwfO'ds we went to the 

Till what 6^ clock ifiere you 

there ? 
Till midnight 

What time did you go tobed? 
At one in the morning 



Ne estraiio que vm. selevante 

tan tarde \ 
Que hora puede ser ? 
Que horale parece quees ? 

Han dado las diez 
Levdntese vm. presto 
Baremos una vuelta en el 

parque luego que este vmd. 


Di41. IX. Del almorzar, 

Quiere vm. almorzar ? 

£s tiempo de desayunarse ? 

Que gustavm. para su almu- 

Pan y manteca ? 

Molletes calientes ? 

Leche? tostadas? chocolate ? 

No ; todo eso es bueno para 

Triiganos otra cosa 

Gustan vms. de jamon ? 

Si, trdigalo, que cortar^mos 
una tajada 

Ponga una servilletaen la me- 
sa, y denos platos, cuchiUos 
y tenedqres 

Lave los.vasos 

De un asiento al Seiior 

Tome vm^ una silla y si6ntese 

Acerquese de la lumbre 

Estare bien aqui, no tengo 

Gustan vms. de huevos fres- 

Han de ser pasados por agua 
6 fritos ? 

Quite ese plato grande 

Coma vm. salchicha 

Probemos el vino 

Destape esa botella 

f^Q tengo tirabqzoii 

I do not wonder you rise so 

What o^clock may it he ? 
What o^chck do you think 

it is? 
It has struck ten 
Rise quickly 
We mU take a turn in the 

Park as soon as you are 


Dial, IX. Of breakfasting. 

Will you breakfast ? 
Is it breakfast time ? 
What do you wish for your 

breakfast f 
Bread and butter f 
Hot loates f 

Milk? toasts? chocolate? 
No; all that is ft for chiU 

Bring us something else 
Do you wish for ham ? 
Yesj bring it^ we will cut a 

dice of ii 
Lay a cloth upon the table, 

and give us plates, knives 

and forks ' 

Rinse the tumblers 
Qive the gentleman a seat 
Take a chair and sit down 
Come near the fire 
I shall be well here, I am not 

Will you have new laid 

eggs ? 
Must they be boiled or fried? 

Take that dish away ? 
Eat some sausage 
Let us taste the wine 
Uncork that bottle 
I have no corkserem 



Como lo halla vm. ? 
Que le parece 4 tid. ? 
Es bueno, no as mala 
D6 de beber al Senor 
Acabo de beber 
No come Ym. 

Tanto be comido, que no 
teadre ganas 4 medio dia 

Se burla vm. ? nada casi ba 

Giffe me to drink 
How do you Uke it ? 
What do yOH think of it ? 
It is goodyit is not had 
Give the gentleman drink 
I have just drank 
You donoieat 
I have eatm so nmchj that I 

shall have no appetke at 

Do you jest ? you have eaten 

scarcely any thing. 

Di&\ X. Antes de la comida. Dial. X. Before dinner. 

£5 ya tiempo de comer ? 

Son cerca de las tres 

Es bora de comer 

Se atraso hoy la comida basta 

las cuatro 
Quiere vm. bacer hoy peni- 

tencia con nosotros ? 
Si vm. quiere cenar bien, 

venga 4 comer 4 mi casa 
Ponga la mesa, el mantel s. 
Traiga la comida 
Ponga los saleros y los platos 

en la mesa 
Lave, limpie los vasos 
PoDgalos sobre el aparador 
Corte UDOs pcdacitos de pan 
Ponga las sillas al rededor de 

lamesaconsusahnohadillas * 
Quien asbte 4 la mesa ? 
Han venido todos los convi- 

dados 6 huespedes ? 
Ann no, algunos faltan 
Donde est4ri los cuchiUos^ 

tenedores y cucharas ? 
Est^n sobre el aparador 
Solo le he convidado para go- 

zar de su compania 
Har4 vm. penitencia 
Mande servir ta comida 

Is it already dinner time f 
It is near three o^dock 
It is time to dine 
Dinner was put of to^y 

Will you make penance with 

us to^ay f 
If you wish to sup heartily J 

come and dine at my bouse 
Lay the table, the cloth 
Bring the dinner 
Put t he salt-aellars and plates- 

upon the table 
Rinse or cleanse the tumblers 
Set them upon the side^hoard 
Cut a few slices of bread 
Set the chairs round the ta- 
ble with their cushions 
Whowaits at the tabkf 
Are all the invited persons 

or the guests come f 
Not yet, some are wanting 
Where are the knives^ forks^ 

and spoons ? 
I hey are upon the sidr-homui 
I have invited yon 4inly taen^ 

joy your company 
You will make penance 
Qallfor the dinner 



Aan no est4 pronta 

Ya estik la comida en la mesa 

Solo aguardan d vm., Senor 
Tocaron la campana 
Sientese vm. k la mesa 
Tome el primer asiento 
No permitir6 que este sentado 

Aqui se sentari vm. 
£n verdad qne no lo har6 
Vamos, degemonos de cmn- 

Para que tanta ceremonia ? 
Mas llaneza se ha de usar 

entre los amigos 
Vaya un poco mas atris^ que 

tengamos lugar 
Bien cabemos todos 
£s menster que quepamos 
Tenemos mas huespedes de 

lo que pens&bamos 
Faltan aqui dos cubiertos 
Muchacho, ve 4 buscar dos 


Di4L XL Camendo. 

Le gusta & vm. la sqm i la 

SI, como el caldo esle bien 

A mi, deme vm. de nuestra 

buena oUa 
Venga un poco de pan casero 
Tome vm. pan bianco 
Mas quiero este 
Este pan esta raofaoso 
Pero este es muy sabroso 
Muchacho, danos pan tiemo 
Raspa este pan 
Quiere vm. la corteza die en- 

cima 6 la debajo } 

It is not yet ready 

The dinner U already an the 

Sir^ they only wait for you 
They rung the bell 
Sit down to the table 
Take thefiret place 
I will not suffer you to sit 

You will eit here 
Indeed I ahaO not do it 
Coitkef let U8 forbear comgU- 

Why 80 much ceremony f 
More freedom ehoutd be used 

among friends 
Go a little farther backy thai 

we may have room 
There is room for all 
We must aU find place 
We have more company than 

we thought 
Two covers are wanted here 
BoVf go and fetch two nap* 


Dial. XI. At Dinner* 
Do you UkeFrench soup f 

YeSj provided the broth is 

As for me, give me some of 

our good oUa 
Bring a little household bread 
Take white bread 
IHkethis better 
This bread is mouldy 
But this is very sweet 
Boy, give us new bread 
Rasp this bread 
Do you wish the upper er 

under crusts 



Gusta ym. de este cocido ? 

Si vm. gusta 

Me servire 4 mi misBio 

Danos el plate grande 

Esta carne es may vustanciosa 

Sij lo creo 

No come vm., SencMr 

Perdoneme vm., que como 

tanto como dos 
Que boeiios priacipkw 1 
Por mi, yo idabo este coavite 

comiendo bien 
Pero aun bo ha bebido vm. 
Mucbacho, da de beber ai 

Echa de beber 
Llena la copa 
Senora,bnDdo por la satud 

de vm. 
Buen provecho hs^ 4 vmd. 
Senor, 4 la salud de sas ami- 

.A^ todos SU8 gustoa 
A^ sus inclinaciones 
Mucho favor me hace vm. 
Comoiialla vm. esth cerireza ? 
£s bastante bilena 
Quiero probarla 
La hallo muy amarga- 
Me quejare al cervecero 
Quite todo esto del medio 
Sirvan los segundos principios 
£s vm. buen bebedor y nfyl 

corned or 
No ve vm. que como y bebo 

Yamos^ Senor, coma vm. de 

lo que gustare mas 
No lengo apetito 
Que le parece de esta lengua 
de buey, del picadillo, del 
guisado } 

WiUyouhme mHite of iM$ 

boiied meat ? 
If yau phase 
I wili help mytelf 
Give us the dish 
Ttis meat is eery jmey 
YeSf I think so 
Sir^ you do not eat 
Excuse me J I eat as much as 

What afinefni coune I 
For my.part^ I commend this 

entertainment byeatinffweU 
But you hoot net drank -yet 
■Boy,give the gentkmtm some 

Pour some diink 
Fill the glass 
Madam f X drink your heaUh 

I thank you 

Siry to the heaUh of your 

2b aU your phasvres 
To your inclination^ 
You are very kind 
H(nd do you tike tkitr beer ? 
ft is pretty good 
I wish to taste it 
Ifinditvery bitter 
I wiU complain to the brewer 
Take away aU these thu^s 
Serve up the second course 
' You are a great drinker and 

a small eater 
Do you not see I eat and 

drink wbU 
CowCf Sir^ eat of whst you 

like most 
I have no appetite 
What do you say to this 

neat^s tongue^ to the «ui»- 

ced meat, to thefricaesee? 



Quiere vm. que le sirva de 
estas perdices, de ese ca- 
pon, de los polios, 6 galli- 

Lo que d vm. le gustare 

Que quiere vmd. mas^un cdon 
6 una pierna ? 

Para ml es todo uno 

Coma vm. algunos r4banos 
para aguzar el apetito 

La hambre es la mejof salsa 

Ya he comido demasiado 

Denos mostaza 

A^ donde esti el mostacerd ? 

Ta ve vm. que mesa tenemos 

NogBstanK» delicadeza 
,£8to no se llama comer 
Tengo mucha sed 
Deme una copa de vino 
Yamos, Senor, por la salad 

del Presidente 
Yivan el Cg^rcito y la AJr- 

Yiva el Gobernddor 
Le correspondere coa mucho 

Bebamos todos 
£1 vino es muy esquisito 
Que le parece esta empanada 

de picbones? 
£st4 muy buena y muy bien 

Sabe vm. trinchar ? 
Trincho medianamente 
Le servire 4 vm. 
Conozco lo que le gusta 
Acertare coo so gusto 
A todos sirve vm. y se olvida 

de si mismo 
. Quite ese plato, veaga el 


ShaM I hdp you to a piece of 

these partridgesj of that 

capon^ of the chickens or 
What you please 
Which do you Uke best^ a 

wing or a leg? 
It is ail one to me 
Eat some radishes to sharpen 

your appetite 
Hanger is the best sauce 
IhQve eaten too much already 
Give its some mustard 
Where isthemustardpoi? 
You see now what tabic we 

We use no dairies 
This is n&t called eating 
I am very thirsty 
Give me a glass of wine 
ComCi ^2>9 to the heakh cf 

the President 
Huzza for the Army and 

Hux&afor the Govemour 
1 will pledge you with a great 

dad of pleasure 
Let us all drink 
"the wine is very exquisite 
How do you like this pigeon 

It is very good and very weU 

Can you earve ? 
1 carve pretty weU . 
I will kelp you 
1 know what you like 
1 shall hit your taste 
You help every body and for" 

get yourself 
Take away thai dishy bring 

the other 



No8 da vin. una comida de 
Rey, en lugar de un convite 
de amigo 

Pniebe de estos alcauciles 

Dame ese cuchillo 

£sta carne esti fria 

Recali6ntala en el brasero 

H4game el favor de on pcco 

de morciUa 
Esta carne est^ cruda 
Corteme vmd. un poco de 

Quiere vm. carnero, vaca 6 

temera ? 
Lo que gustare, Senor 
Asado o cocido ? 
Coma vm. sanahorias, nabos, 

chirivias y berza 6 col 
Tome vm. mostaza 
Le dare brazuelo 6 piema de 

camera ? 
Mas quiero un poco de lomo 

de ternera 
Vaya este plato al rededor de 

la mesa 
Ya ve Ym.f Senor, como nos 

Este es el mejor plato de la 

Aun no se le ha llegado 
Voy d probar de el 
Buen provecho haga k vmd. 
Le gusta d vmd. la leche co- 

cida ? 
Gusto mucho de cuajada, na- 

tilla y queso fresco 
Coma vm. de este manjar 

Vaya un poco del estofado 
Las empanadas de carne nu- 

tren mas que las de man- 

zanas . 

You give t» a ldng*9 feMj 

intiead of a friendly eii- 

Try thue artichokes 
Give me that knife 
Tkiemeatie told 
Warm it again on ike ekor 

fing dieh 
Favour me urith a piece of 

Tkie meat is raw 
Cut me a smaU piece of beef 

WiUycu Kane mutton^ beef 

or veal f 
What you pleaee. Sir 
Roasted or boiled meat f 
Eat some carrots^ tumtps, 

parsnips andcakiage 
Take some mustard 
Shali I help you to some 

shotdder or leg of mutton f 
I prefer a piece of the loin 

of veal 
Let this dish go round the 

Sir J you now see how we fare 

This is the best dish ai table 

It has not yet been touched 
I am going to taste it 
Much good may it do you 
Do you Uke boiled msUef 

1 am very fond of curdsy 

cream and new cheese 
Eat of this bUmc^manger 

Take some of the stewed meat 
Meat pies flourish more thaat 



Que bellos postres ! 

La fruta correspoade 4 todo 

lo demas 
Ha recogido vm. las frutaa 

mas esquisitas de la es- 

£sta pasta 6 masa es muy li- 

gera y biea hecha 
La torta es muy buena 
Dame cerveza fuerte 
Da un plato limpio al Seiior 

Sieoto no tengamos algo me- 

He comido muy bien 
Creo que todos ban acabado 
Degemos la mesa 
Quita la mesa 
Demo» graeias i Dios^ 
Vamos 4 dar un pitseo en ^el 

Vamos en hora buena 
Tengo'mucho saeno 
Soy * muy amigo* de bacer la 


DiiL XD. Para comjprar 

Tiene vm. algunlibro nuevo ? 

Si, Senor; que especie de li- 
bros quiere vm. ? 

Le gustan 4 vm. libros de 
hutoria, de matem4ticasy 
de filosof ia, de teologia,' 
de medicina, dederecho? 

No; Senor, busco libros de 

Le puedo proteer de eUo» en 
todas lenguas 

Pues tengo todos los poetas 
Griegos, Latinos, Espa- 
noles, ItaUaii08| Franceses, 
€ Ingleses 


The fruit corrt9pond» with 

all the rest 
Youha»e coUected the most 

exquisite fruits of the sea- 
This pastry is very Ught and 

well made 
The tart is very good 
Give me some strong beer 
Give' a ehan plate to the , 

lam sorry we have nothing 

I have dined very well 
I think every body has done 
Let us leave the table 
Remove the table 
Let us say grace 
Let us go and take a turn in 

th^ garden 
Let us go toithaU my heart 
1 am very sleepy 
Imrveryf&nd of taking c^ 

nap c^er dinner. 

Dial Xn. To buy books. 

Have you any new book? 
YeSf Sir; what sort of books 

do you wish ? 
Will you have books of A^«- 

toryj mathematieSj philos^ 

ophy^ divimtyy physic^ or 

No^ Sir, lam looking for po^ 

etical works 
L cdn furnish you with them 

in all languages 
For I have M the Greeks 

Latin^ Spanish, Italian^ 

French, and English poets 



Muchos tengo yo de estos 

Que poetas necesita vm. pues 

Yirgilio eo Latin^las comedi- 
88 de Calderon, y el Teatro 
de Feijoo en Espanol 

Tiene vmd. el Paraiso Per- 
dido de Milton, 6 las obras 
dramaticas de Shakspeare, 
en Ingles ? 

Tengo menester de la Gra- 
ni4tica Italiana de Venero- 
nl, de ]o8 Egercicios de 
Bottarelliy y de las Come- 
dias de Goldoni 

Tiene vmd. la Gramdtica Es- 

{^afiola del Senor Josse, y 
a de la Academia ? 
Ti^'ne vmd, la Historia de 

Inglaterra, de Franciai de 

Espafiayde Italia.? 
Todos esos libros tengo 
De que tamno son ? 
Los tengo en Folio, Cuarto, 

Octavo y Duodecimo 
Hdgame vm. el favor de en- 

Los quiere vm. encuaderna- 

dos en badana, becerro, 6 

cordoban ? 
Los quiere vm. dorados e in- 

titulados ? 
No hay necesidad de eso 
No los compro para adomp, 

sino para leerlos 
Esta em uadernadura no es 

No est4 bien cosido este libro 
A hi tiene vm. otro en su lugar 
Cuanto pide vm. por este li- 
Le costard d vm. dos pesos 
Ss^o es demasiado 

I have many of them 

Whai poets do you want then 

to purchase? 
Virgil in Latiny the plays of 

Calderonf and the Theatre 

ofFeifdo in Spanish 
Have you MiUon^s Paradise 

Lost, or the plays of Shak" 

speare in English f 

I have need of Veneroni's 
Italian Grammar^ Botta^ 
relWs Exercises, and Golr 
doni^s Comedies 

Have you the Spanish Gram- 
mar of Mir, fosse f and that 

of the Academy? 
Have you the History of 

Englandy France, Spain 

and Italy ? 
I have all those books 
Of what size are they f 
I have them in Folio, Qumrto, 

Octavo and Duodecimo 
Do me the favour to sham 

them to me 
Win you have them bound in 

sheep, calf, or morocco 

Will you have them gilt on 

the back and lettered? 
There is no occasion for that 
1 do not buy th^m for onto- 

tnent, but to read them 
This binding is not good 

This book is not weH sewed 
There is another in its stead 
How much do you ask for 

this book? 
It will cost you two doUar^ 
This is too much 



fiselprecio ultimo 
Ledare ^vm.veintereales 
Me sale i mas de lo que vmd. 

me ofrece por el 
Es muy caro 
Le aseguro i vm. que me 

cuesta peso y medio sin la 

No querr^ vm. que pierda en 

mb libros 
Muy al contrario, quiero que 

gane algo 
£8 preciso pues que me de 

veinte y cuatro reales 
Ahl los tiene vm., no reparo 

en una cortedad 
No necesita vm. otros libros? 
Por aho'ra no 

Pero he menester de papel 
s, tinta, lacre, y o- 

JVo vendo nada de eso 

Pero lo hallard vm. todo en 

la tienda proxima que es 

de un papelero 
A' Dies, Senor 
Muy serviddir de vm., cabal- 

Hdgame vm. el favor de acor- 

darse de ml paraotra vez 
Siempre esperimentari muy 

buen trato 
Lo espero 

Di41 Xin. Del alquilar un 

Seiior, quiere vm. hacerme 
un favor ? 

De muy buena gana, que me 
manda vm. ? 

«iue venga vmd. conmigo, pa- 
ra alquilar un alojamiento 

It is the lowest price 

I will give you twenty rials 

It turns out to me more 

than you offer me for it 
It is very dear 
I assure you it costs me one 

dollar and a half without 
• the binding 
You will not wish me to lose 

by my books 
Quite to the contrary ^ I wish 

you to gain something 
You must then give mefour- 

and-twenty rials 
Tliere you have them, I do 

not mind a trifle 
Do you not want other books? 
Not at present 
But I have occasion for pa-- 

per, pens, ink, sealing-wax, 

and wafers 
I sell nothing of that 
But you wiUJindit aU at the 

next shop which is a Sta- 

Farewell, Sir 

Sir, your most humble ser- 
Do me the favour to remem- 
ber me again . 
You will always experience 

good treatment 
I hope so. 

Dial. XIII. Of hiring a 

Sir, win you do me a favour ? 

Very willingly, what do you 

command me ? 
That you would go with me 

to hire a lodging * 


runuut DiALOOOxs. 

Le acomptfw6 adonde qui- 

siere ^ 

Vamosi la caUedc Santiago 

Le voy^iguiando 
Aqui hay una c^dula 4 esta 
pacrta que dice cuartoade 

Llame vm. ^lapoerta 

Quien es ? 

Gentedcpaz K«KUr? 

Con quien quieie vm. hablar t 

Con el amo 6 amade casa 

Aqui erti mi Senora 
Senora,tienevni. coartos de 

Si, Senor, qiuere vm. verlos f 

Vine con esa intencion 
Cuantos aposentos necesita 

vm.? , . 

Quiero uu comedor o saia, 
una alcoba,un gabinete pa- 
ra mi, y un desvan para mi 
criado , 

Han de ser sua cuarfeoa alhajap 

dos 6 no ? 
Higame el favor de esperar 
un rato en esta sala baja, 
mientras voy por las llaves 
Muy bien, Senora, aguardo 
Quiere vm. tomarse el traba-^ 

jo de subir ? 
Seguiremos & vm , Senora 
Esta es la vivienda del primer 

Ahi tiene vm. una cama muy 

buena y limpia 
Bien ve vm. que hay todo lo 
preciso en un cuarto alha- 

Ishaa waU on yw wherever 

pou please 
Letusgo intaSt.Jameti' eireet 
1 follow you 
Here is a hiU at thtedaor 

which says rooms to Ut 

Knock cA the door 

Who is there? 

A friend, peacedbhpe<^ 

Whom do you wish to ^feak 

With the master er mistrm 

Here tsmy lady 
Madam^ have you any room 

to let ? 
Yes J Siry do you wish to see 

How many apartmeints do 

you want ? 
Iwantadirnng'TOom, abed- 
chamhery a closet for my- 
self y and a garret for «y 
Must your rooms be fwrmsh- 

They must be furnished 
Be so kind as to wait a mo- 
ment in this iower paiioury 
while I go for the keys 
Very welly MadamyVUwaU 
WiUyou take the trouble to 

go up? 
We wHlfoThw youy Madam 
This is the apartment on the 

first fioor 
There you have a very good 

and clean bed 
You see that there is every 
thing necessary in a fur- 



Como mesa, cspejo, sillas, al» 

fombras, alacenas^ escapa- 

Pero adoode estd el gabinete ? 
A.qui esti, y es bastante capaz 
Me cuadra muy bien este alo- 

Mealegro mucho 
Cuanto pide vm. por semana ? 
Nunca alquilo mis cuartCMi 

sino por mes 6 por ano 
Bien^ los tomare por mes; 

cuanto es el precio de 

alios ? 
Jamas tuve menos de diez 

ffuineas al mes por estos 

dos cuartos 
Son demasiado caros 
Ha de considerar vm. que 

este es e! mas bermoso bar- 
rio de la ciudad 

Y que est4 vm. 4 uii peso de 
la corte 

Para que vea vm. que no soy 
amigo de regatear, le dare 
ocho guineas porellos 

Es demasiado poco, no sabe 
vm. la renta que pago por 
esta casa 

Nada me importa saberlo 

Pero en una palabra, partire- 

mos la diferencia 
Yo le aseguro que pierdo 
Pero siento que vm. se vaya 

Y por el desvan de ml criado, 
cuanto he de pagar por 
mes ? 

Me dar& vm. dos guineas 
No dar6 mas de guinea y 

earpetSy doseta^presseay^c. 

But where u the closet ? 
Here it ta, (md is large enough 
These apartmeats suH me very 

I €tm nerp glad qfit 
How much eh you ask a week f 
I never let my apartments &]tf 

by the month or year 
WeBy I shaU take them by 
the mosaM; what is the 
price af them? 
1 never had less than ten 
guineas a month for these 
two rooms 
They are too dear 
You ought to consider that 
this is the finest ward of 
the city 
And thai you are within a 

step of the court 
That you may see that I do 
not like haggling^ I wiB 
give you eighi guineas for 
It is too Uttlcy you do not 
know the rent I pay for 
this house 
It is no concern of mine to 

know it 
But in a wordy we wiU dhids 

the difference 
I assure you thai I lose 
But I am sorry to have you 

go away 
And for my man^s garret, 
how much must I pay a 
month ? 
You will give me two guineas 
I shall give^only. one guinea 
. andahalf 



No es bastaote, pero lo hare 

por Tin.} sea asi 
No vale la pena de parane 

eo semejante cortedad 
Perodfgame vyn*, no puedo 

yo comer aqui con vm.? . 
Si^ Seaor, bien puede vm. 
Cuanto toma por semaoa de 

cada buesped ? 
A' razon de ochov guineas al 

Y cuanto toma vm. por cuar- 

to y comida juntos ? 
Cinco libras por semana 
Pues^ empesare manana 
Cuando gustare 
Buenas noches^ Senora 
Buenas se las de Dios, Seiior 

Diil XIV. Delinformarse 
de dlguno. 

Quien es ese caballero ? 
£s un Ingles 
Le tuve por un Frances 
Se ha enganado vm. pues 
Sabe vm. donde vive ? 
Vive en el barrio de la corte 

Tiene casa ? 

No, Senor, vive en cuartos 

£n casade quien aloja? 
Vive en casa de fulano, en la 

calle de 

Que edad tiene ? 

Creo que tiene veinte y cinco 

No me parece tan viejo 

No puede ser mas mozo 
£s casado ? 
No, Senor, es soltero 
£stdn sus padres vivos ? 

It is natenoughj hnU I wiUdo 

it for youj let it be 90 
It U not worth while to dweU 

on 96 mnaU a matter 
But tell me, may I not board 

here with you ? 
Fe«, Sir^ you may 
How much do you take from 

each boarder orweek f 
At the rate qfeightguineaea 

And how much do you take far 

boardandhdging together} 
Five pounds anweek 
Well J I shall begin Uhmarrow 
When youplease 
Good nighty Madam 
Good nighty Sir. 

Dial. XIV. Of inquiring 
after one. 

Who is that gentleman f 
He is an Englishman 
I took him for a Frenchman 
Then you have mistaken 
Do you know where he does f 
He lives in the ward of the 

Does he keep house ? 
No, Sir, he Uves in lodgings 

At whose house does he lodge f 
HelodgesatMr.stich a one, 

in the street of 


I believe he is five and twenty 

years of age 
He does not appear to me 

so old 
He cannot be younger 
Is he married f 
NOf Sir, h^is a bachelor 
Are his parents Uving ? 



Su madre aun vive, pero su 

padre murio dos anos ha 

Tiene hermanos y hermanas ? 

Dos hermanos y una hermana 

Esti su hermana casada ? 
Si, Senor 
Con quien ? 
Con el Conde de ^— 
Era pues partido rico 
Tuvo sesenta mil pesos de 

Es hermosa? 
No es fea 
Es bastante bonita 
£8t4 algo picada de viruelas 

Pero tiene mucho entendimi- 

Es muy ingeniosa 
Habla este caballero la lengua 

Espanola ? 
Aunqae es Ingles, habla tan 

bien Espaiiol, que los £s- 

panoles le creen Gspanol 

Habk Italiano como los Ita- 

lianos mismos 
Entre los Alemanes pasa por 

Como puede saber tantas len- 

guas diferentes ? 
Goza de una raemoria feliz y 

ha viajado mucho 

Ha estado dos anos en Paris, 
seis meses en Madrid, afio 
y medio en Italia, y un 
ano en Alemania 

Ha visto todas las cortes de 
la Europa 

His mother is still alive, but 
his father died two years ago 

Has he any brothers and siS' 
ters ? 

He has two brothers and a 

Is his sister married? 

Yes, Sir 

To whom f 

To the Earl of 

She was then a rich match 

She had sixty thousand dol- 
lars for her portion 

Is she handsome ? 

She is not ugly 

She is pretty enough 

She is a little pitted with the 

But she has a great deal of 

She is very ablcy very witty 

Does this gentleman speak 
the Spanish language ? 

Although he is an English- 
man, he speaks Spanish so 
weU, thai the Spaniards 
think him a Spaniard 

He speaike Italian Uke the 
Italians themselves 

He passes for a German 
among the Germans 

How can he know so many 
differetU languages ? 

He enjoys a happy memory 
and has traveUed a great 

He has been two years at 
Paris, six months at Mad- 
rid, a year and a half in 
Italy, and a year in Ger- 

He has seen all the courts of 



Cotnto tienipo ha que 

Al radedor do tres alios ha 
que teogo el honor de 

Donde hizo vm. conocimieiito 
COD ^1 ? 

En Roma le conocf 

£b de beUa estatnia 

Ni demariadD alto, ni demasi- 

ado chico 
Se poede decir que es honbre 

Siempreanda may aseado y 

bien coropoesto 
Se viste may bien 
£s bien parecido^ tiene bnen 

Tiene bella presencia, y el 

aspecto noble 
Nada disgusta en sns modes 

Es Cortes, afable, urbane con 

Tiene mucho entendimlento, 

y esmuy festivo en conver- 

Danza bellamente, esgrime y 

monta muy bien 
Toca la flauta, el clave, la 

guitarra^ el piano y otros 

muchos instrumentos 

En una palabra, es on cabal- 
lero cumplido y perfecto 

For el retrafo que vm. hace 
de ^1, me da gana de cono- 

Le procurare su conocimi- 

Amr kmg it it nnee you 
know him f 

Iti9abmtttkreefear9 Moue I 
have the honour of being 
acquainted with Aim 

Where did you make oe- 
qvaimtamce with kim? 

I got acquainted with kim at 

He is of a fine stature 

He is neither too tuiiy nor too 

One may say he is an elegant 

He is aheays very neat and^ 
very fine 

He dresses very weff 

He is very genteel^ ke has a 
good air 

He has a fine presence, and a 
noble look 

Nothing is disagreeable in 
his manners 

He is dvily courteous, com- 
plaisant to every body 

He is very sensible, and is 
very sprightly in conver- 

He dances beautifiiUy^ fences 
and rides very weU 

He plays upon the fiute^ the 
harpsichordy the grsitarj 
the piano and several other 

In a word, he is an accom- 
plished and perfect gentle- 

By the picture you make of 
him, you give me a desire 
to know him 

I win procure you his ac- 
quaintance . 



Se lo agradecere 4 vm. mvh 

Cuando quiere vm. que vi- 

yamos 4 visitarle juntos? 
Cuando d vm. le gustare 
A"" que hora se puede verle 

en su casa ? 
A" cualquiera hora puedo 

verle, pues es muy amigo 

. Vamos pues & verle manana 

por la manana 
Sea en hora buena 
De todo mi corazon 
Cuando le conviniere 
A^ Dios, Caballero 
Servidor de vm. 
Soy muy suyo 
Tenga vm. buenas noches 
Muy buenas se las d6 Dies 

Di4l. XV. Delpartir. 

Senor, vengo & despedirme 

de vm. 
Porque quiere vm. irse ? 
Se acerca la hora de comer 
No puede vm. comer con 

nosotros ? 
Se lo estimo mucho, no me es 

posible hoy 
Porque ? que negocios tiene 

vm. ? 
No tengo mucho que hacer, 

pero he de ir & comer d casa 
Ha convidado vm. 4 alguno i 

comer i su casa ? 
No, pero he prometido i un 

caballero Ingles, que no 

sabe el Espanol, de ir con 

^1 4 comprar algunas me- 

A" que hora le espera vm. ? 

I akaU he much obliged to you 

for it 
When wiUffouhttveusgo and 

wait upon him together ? 
When you please 
At what o'clock may one see 

him at home ? 
I can see him at any timcyfor 

he ie my intimate friend 

Let U8 go then and see him 

to-morrow morning 
I will; well and good 
With aU my heart 
When it suits you 
Farewell^ Sir 
Your servant 
I am truly yours 
I wish you a good night 
I wish you the same. 

Dial. XV. Of departing. 

Siry I come to take leave of 


hy win you go away f 
Dinner time Sraws near 
Can't you dine with us f 

I thank you for ity it is not 

in my power to^y 
Why f what business havt^ 

I have not much to doy but I 

must go and dine at home 
Have you invited any body 

to &ne at your house ? 
Noy but I have promised an 

English gentlemauy who 
' does not know Spanishy to 

go with him to buy some 

j4t what hour do -you expest 



fAMitiAt mkhooiSKi^ 

Le agaardo 4 las dos 

£8t4 vm. seguro de que venga? 

No lo se de cierto ; pero ha* 
biendoselo prometido, es 
precise que est6 en casa 

Tiene vm. noon 

Ne le quiero pues detener 

Yaya vni. coo Dios, seividor 

Quede vm. cod Dios 
Muchacho^ abre la pueita 

al Sefior 
Muy bien la abrir6 yo 
Pero no tieae vm. la Have 
Que I echa vm. la Have 4 la 

Asi lo acostumbramos 
Suplicole me penga 4 los 
pies de mi Senora su her- 
No faltare 4 ello, Senor 
Cuando nos volveremos 4 

Manana, si Dios 4}aiere 
Veodr6 4 visitarle 
H4game es&e favor 

Di4!.XVI. DeftoHcicu. 

Que se dice do bueno P 
Que noticias teoemoB ? 
No se ninguna 
Que se dice de noevo ? 
Sabe vm. alguna novedad ? 
Que noticias corren ? 
No hay ninguna 
No he sabido nada de nuevo 
Ha leido vmd. los pepeies ? 
He visto los Timesj iaCro- 
. nica, el Mormng Post 

Que se dice en la dudad ? 
No se habla de nada 

I expect him at two c^ clock 
Are you sure he will come f 
I do not know it for certain; 
but having promised it to 
himj it is necessary 1 sh&nid 
be at home 
You are in the right 
I win not detain you then 
Fareweli^ your servant 

Good bye 

Boy, open the door for the 

1 will open it myself 
But you have not the key 
How / do yon lodt your 

door f 
So is our custom 
I beg you would present my 

respects io your sisier 

Siry 1 will not fail to do it 
When shall we see one another 

again f 
To-morrow J if it phase God 
I wiU come to visit you 
Do me this favour* 

DiaLXVL Of news. 

What is said good ? 

What news have we f 

I know none 

What do pewpk say new ? 

Jhi you htotv any news? 

What news are spread f 

There is none 

1 ha^e hemd fmthing new 

Have youreadiht papers f 

I have seen the Times ^ the 

ChronielBy the Morning 

What do they say in €he^tyy 
They talk of nothing 



He oldo decir, he safoido que 

£sta es buena noticia 

No ha oldo vm. hablar de la 

No se oice nada de ella 
Se habla de ud sitio 
Se dice que '■ est4 sitiada 
Se ha lovantado el sitio 
Pero han vuelto 4 ponerle 
Ha habido algun combate 

naval ? 
Se decia, pero salio false 

Al contrariby hablan de una 

Esta novedad requiere confir- 

Quien se la comunico ? 
De buena parte me viene 

£1 Senor N . . . . me la dijo 
Cree vm. que tengamos pa- 
ces ? 
Hay mucha apariencia 
Para conmigo, creo que no 
En que se funda vm. ? 
£n que veo que los inimos 
de entrambas partes estdn 
muy poco indmados & la 
^n embargo todos necesitan 

de la paz 
Sobre todo los comerciantes 

y mercaderes 
La eoerra hace mucho dano 

i comercio 
Sin duda, la paz es mes ven- 
tajosa al comertio 

Que se dice en la corte ? 
Se babla de armar unaflota de 

veinte navf os de guerra 
Hablan de una espedkioB 

I keardy I have known that 
This is a good piece of news 
Have you not heard speak of 

the war f 
Nothing is said of it 
They talk of a siege 

They say that is besieged 

They have raised the siege 
But they have laid it again 
Has there been any sea* 

They said so, but it proved 

On the contrary y they talk 
of a battle 

This news requires confirmck' 

Wlio communicated it to you? 

It comes to me from good au- 

Mr, 2V . . . . told it me 

Do you think we shall havs a 

There is a great probability 

For my party I believe not 

What grounds have you ? 

Because I see the minds of 
both parties are very little 
inclined to peace 

Every body wants peaccy 

Especially merchants and 

War does a great detriment 

to trade 
Without guestiony peace is 

more advantageous to eonh 

What do they say at court f 
They talk of fitting out a 

fleet of twenty men of war 
They talk of an expedition 



Cuando se cree que la escila- 

No se dice, no se sabe 
Adonde ir4 la Princesa ? 
Unos dicen 4 Windsor, otros 

4 Kew 
Que dice la Gaceta? 
Habl4ndole sinceramente, los 

deugnios de la corte son 

tan secretos que nadie 

iraede saberlos 
Poco se me da de los nego- 

cios de estado 
fiTo me meto jamas en arre- 

glar el estado 
Hablemos de noticias parti- 

Como est4 el Senor D . . • . ? 
Cuando le ba visto vm. ? 
Ayer le vi 

£s verdad lo que dicen de el ? 
Que se dice de 61 ? 
Dicen que rino al juego 

Con quien ? 

Con UD caballero Frances 

Han peleado ? 

Sly Senor, pelearon 

£st4 herido? 

Dicen que salio herido mor- 

Lo siento, es hombre de bien 

Sobre que rineron ? 

Lo ignoro enteramente 

Se dice que le desmintio 

No lo puedo creer 

Ni yo tampoco 

Sea lo que fuere, presto se sa- 

En su casa lo preguntare 

fThen do they tkUUe tkejieet 

It u not 9aidf it i$ not knomm 
Where will the Frince^e go f 
Some eay to Windsor j Men 

to Kew 
What says the Qazeiie f 
1 have not read it 
To speak freely , the designs 

of the court are so secret^ 

that nobody can know them 

I care little about state qf- 

I never meddle with settling 

the nation 
Let us talk of private news 

How is Mr. D.. ..f 

When have you seen him ? 

I saw him yesterday 

Is what is said of him true? 

What do they say of him ? 

They say that he quarrelled 
at the game 

With whom? 

With a French gentleman 

Have they fought ? 

YeSy Sir^ they fought 

Is he wounded? 

They say he came out mortal- 
ly wounded 

I am sorry for ity he is an 
honest man 

About what did they quarrel ? 

lam quite ignorant of it 

They say he gave him the He 

I cannot believe it 

Nor I neither 

Be what it may^ it will soon 
be known 

I win inquire about it at his 



Diil. XVIL EiUre dos amu- 

Que ! es vm. ? 

De donde viene, que no me 

mira vnid. ? 
Cierto que no reparaba en 

No le veia 
Pasa vm. cerca de mi, me 

toca con el codo^ y no me 

Iba cavilando en algo 

Pensaba vm. quisis en su 

Otros negocios tengo en mi 

Que n^ocios ? 
Hallindome escaso de dine- 

ro, voj 4 ver 4 un sugeto 

que me debe 
£^ iba pensando, sobre si le 

mandarf a arrestar en caso 

de no pagarme 

Vive lejos de aqai ? 
A'' cuatro pasos de aqui 
£st4 vm. cierto de hallarle 

en casa ? 
Creo que le hallar^ & estas 

Se estard vm. mucho tiempo ? 
No un cuarto de bora 
I>e8pache vm. pues, que le 

voy i esperar en este cafe 

£8tare con vm. luego 
Ya de vuelta ? 
Como love vm. 
Le hallo vm. ? 
Siy Seiior 
Lepago ivm.? 

Dial. XVII. Between two 

What! isityim? 

How comes it^ that you do 

not look at me? 
Indeed I did not take notice 

of you 
I did not see you 
You pass close by mcy touch 

vie with your elbow, and do 

not see me f 
I was cogitating about some- 
Perhaps you were thinking 

of your love 
I have other business in my 

What business ? 
Being in want of money y I 

am going to see a person 

who owes me 
And I was thinking whether 

1 should cause him to be 

arrested in case he does not 

pay me 
Does he live far from here 9 
Four steps from here 
Are you sure to find him at 

I believe I shall find him at 
this time 

Shall you stay hng ? i 

Not a quarter of an hour 

Make haste then^ 1 go and 
wait for you in this coffee- 

J shall be with you presently 

Are you returned already ? 

As you see 

Did you find him f 

Yesy Sir 

Did he pay you f 



Gracias & Dios 

Lo celebro mucho 

Peru 81 no le bubiera pagado, 

yo le babiera prestado di- 

No le liubiera faltado dinero 

Mi bolsa estaba & sa servicio 

Se lo estJino macbo 

No8 quedamos aqui ? 

No, Tamos i beber una bo- 

teUa, para pasur media bora 

En bora buena, pero quiero 

pagarla yo 
Cuando se haya bebido ha- 

blaremos de eso 
Le voy siguiendo 

Di41. XVin. Del eBcrihir 
una carta. 

No es hoy dia de correo ? 


Porque be de escribir una 

A' quien escribe vm. ? 
A' mi hermano 
No est4 en la ciudad ? 
No, Senor, esti en el campo 
£n que campo ? 
£n las aguas de Tunbridge 
Cunnto tiempo bace ? 
Quince dias 
D6me vmd. una hoja de papel 

dorado, ^na pluma y tinta 
Entre vm. en mi gabinete, y 

ballard sobre la mesa reca- 

do de escribir 
No hay plumas 
Ahi estin en el tintero 

Nada valen 

Thank God 

I am very glad of it 

But if he had not paid you, 

I would have lent you 

You shotild not . haive wanted 

My purse was at your mrvice 
I am much obliged to ^otN 
Shall we stay here ? 
No, let us go and drink a 

bottle J to pass half an hour 

With all my heart, hut I wiU 

treat you 
We will talk of it when we 

have drank it 
Let us go away 
I am following you. 

Dial. XVm. Of writing a 

Is not this a post-day ? 


Because I have a letter to 

Whom do you write to ? 

To my brother 

Is he not in town f 

No, Sir, he is in the country 

In what part of the country f 

He is at Tunbridge-wells 

How long since ? 

j4 fortnight 

Give me a sheet of giU pa- 
per, a pen and ink 

Step in my closet, and you 
will find upon the table 
what is necessary to write 

There are no pens 

There they are in the ink- 

They aregoodfor nothing 



Alli hay otras 

No estin cortadas estas plu- 

Adonde esti su corta plumas ? 
Sabe vm. cortar plumas ? 
Las corto i mi modo 
£stano es mala 
£s bastantemente buena 
Mientras acabo esta carta, h^ 

game vmd. el favor de ha- 

cer un pliego de estos pa- 

Que sello quiere^vm. que le 

ponga ? 

Sellela vm. con mis armas 6 

con mi cifra 
Que lacre le he de poner ? 
Ponga vm. rojo 6 negro, no 

No bastardn obleas? 
£s lo mismo 
Ha puesto vm. la fecha ? 
Creo que si, pero no he fir- 

Que dia del mes tenemos ? 
£1 diez, el veinte, &c. 
Pliegue vm. esta carta 
Pongale el sobrescrito 
Cierrela vm. y sellela 
Adonde est4 la arenilla ? 
En la salvadera 
0eseque su escritura con 

Como en via vm. sus cartas ? 
Las remito por el harriero, 6 

por el correo 
Mi criado las llevard al cor- 
reo, si vm. gustare confi- 

Lleva las cartas del senor al 

correo, y no te se olvide el 

No tengo dinero 

There are tome others 
These pens are not made 

Where is your pen^knife f 

Can you make pens ? 

I make them after my fashion 

This is not had ^ 

Jt is good enough 

While T^nish this letter , he 
so kind as to make a pack- 
et of these papers 

What seal wiU you have me 

put to it ? 
Seal it with my coat of arms 

or with my cypher 
What wax shall I put to it f 
Put either red or blacky no 

Will not wafers suffice ? 
It is aU one 

Have you put the date ? 
I believe I have, but I have 

not signed it 
What day of the month is this ? 
The tenthy the twentieth^ ^c. 
Fold np this letter 
Put the superscription to it 
Close it and seal it 
Where is the sand? 
In the sand-box 
Dry your writing with blot- 
How do you send your letters ? 
I send them by the carrier ^ 

or by the post 
My man shall carry them to 

the post, if you will trust 

them to him 
Carry the gentleman^ s letters 

to the post-office, and do 

not forget to free them 
I have no money 



Ahf le tknei, ve presto y 

^niolve luego 
Eftare de Yudta en menos de 

nedio coarto de bora 
Ha Uegado el correo ? 
Ahora acaba de Uegar 
Hay cartas para mi? 
Creo que si 

Porque no las has traido? 
Aun no se entregabao 

DiilXIX. Del trocar. 
Quiere vm. trocar su reloj ? 

Con que? 

Con mi espada 6 espadin 
£nhora buena, pero cuanto 
medar& vm. de vuelta ? 

Cuanto me pide vm. ? 
Me dar& rm. doce pesos 

En cuanto aprecia vm. su 

reloj ? 
En treiota y seis pesos 
No vale tanto 
£s viejo 

Lo confieso, pero anda bien 
No le vcilvere yo nada 
Mi espada vale tanto como sn 

Ciertamente se burla vm. 
Noy Senor 
Que espada es esta ? 
Acabo de comprarla en la 

Es la guarnicion de cobre 

dorado ? 
Bella pregunta ! no ve vm. que 

es de plata sobredorada ? 
£s el puno de piata ? 
Sin duda que lo es 

I%ere is 9omey go jmci and 
come back imme&atefy 

I will he hack in les8 tkai 
half a quarter of gm kov 

Hob the mail come f 

It is just arrived 

Are there letters for me T 

I believe so 

Why did you not bring them f 

They were not delivered yet, 

DiaL XIX. Of excbaoging. 

Will you exchange your 

For what? 
For my sword 
With aU my heart, bui htm 

much will you give me in 

return f 
How much do you osL me? 
You will give me twelve dot" 

What do you value yomr 

watch at f 
At thirty^six doUars 
It is not worth so tnuch 
It is old 

I own it, but it goes weU 
I will return you nothing 
My sword is worth as wmek 

as t^ur watch 
You joke surely 
No, Sir 

What sword it this? 
I have just bought it at the 

sword cutler^s 
Is the hilt of gilt copper ? 

A fine question I do not you 

see it is silver gilt? 
le the hilt of silver ? 
Without doubt it is so 



Cuanto le costo 4 vm. este 

espadin ? 
A^ como le sale ? 
Me cuesta treinta pesos 
Ale ha de dar vm. pues seis 

pesos de vuelta 
No lo hare por cierto 
Blen, degese de ello 
Vea vm. si quiere trocar 

igualpor igual? 
No es tan ficil enganarme 

como le parece 
Pues, vayasinnada de vuelta 
Hecho, en hora buena 

DiiL XX. De hsjuegas en 
general; y primero de 61 
de los dados. 

Juega vm. algunas veces? 
Si^ Senor^ pero jamas ju^o 
sino para divertirme 

JMas, me parece, que el juego 
es una divernon muy . pell- 

Si, cuando se juega mucho 

Fero siempre juego poco di- 

Con que la perdida 6 ganan- 
cia es una cortedad 

Juega vm. & los juegosde 
suerte, 6 de babilidad ? 

Que entiende vm. por Juegos 
de suerte ? 

Juegos de naipes, dados, &c. 

Y por los de habilidad ? 

El agedrez, las damas, los 
boTos, el truco, &c* 

Juega vm. mucho 4 los da- 
dos ? 

Muy rara vez ^ 


How much did tkiB 9ward eo^ 

What does it come ta you at? 
It costs me thirty dollars 
You must give me six dollars 

to boot then 
I will nqt do it certainly 
Wellf leave it 
See whether you wilt change 

J^is is a good one ! 
It is not so easy to take me 

in as you think 
Wellf exchange even 
Doncy with aM my heart* 

Dial. XX. Of gaming, ia 
general ; and first of that 
of dice. 

Do you play sometimes ? 
Yes, 8ir, but I never play 

only to divert myself 
But J methinks, gaming is a 

very dangerous diversion 

YeSf when one plays deep, 
high, or for much money 

But I always play for a smaH 
matter or little money 

And so the loss or gain is in- 

Do you play at games of 
chance, or of skill ? 

What do you mean by games 
of chance? 

Games at cards, dice, ^c. 

And by those ofskiU? 

CJtess, draughts, bowls, bU- 
hards, ^c. 

Do you phy a great deal at 

Very seldom 




Potque hay amchos trampo- 

80S muy astutos 
Se ooire mocho riesgo con 

esos rateros, puea parecen 

hombres de forma 
Tienen dados faUos 
Vaya^ 4-que juegojugar^mos? 

A' el que rm, quiiiere 
Jugaremos & losnaipes? 
Como le gustare 
Jaguemos al hombre^ 4 los 

Vayan los cientos 
Es un juego muy de moda 
Denos dos barajas y unos 

Que jugar^mos 4 cada juego ? 

Jij^emos un peso para pasar 

el tiempo 
Jugamos partida doble ? 
Como quisiere 
Cuantos taotos me da vm. ? 
Me pide vm. tantos y juega 

tambien como yo 
£sl4 cab^d esta baraja ? 
^Of le falta un naipe 
Quite vrad. los naipes Imjos 
Veamos qiuen da 
Soy mano 
Vm. da el naipe 
Barage vm. las cartas 
Todas las figuras est4n juntas 

De vm. los naipes 

A^ mi me falta una carta 

Vuelva vm. .4 dar 

Levante vm. 

Tiene vra^ sua cartas ? 

Creo que est4n cabales 

Ha descartado vm. ? 

Cuantas toma vm, ? 

Secaun there, are numy de:i^ 

teroM sharpers 
One runs a great danger wUk 

those cheats J hectntse the^f 

appear like gemtlemen 
They have loaded dice 
WeUj what game . shaU we 

play at ? 
Which you please 
ShaU we play at sards f 
As you please 
Let us piay at . ombre^ at 

Let us play ai piquet 
It is a game much infasMon 
Give us twopafks and some 

What shall we play each 

Let us play a doBar to . pass 

away time 
Do weplaylup^iies ? 
^As you phase 
Whflt,oddtrdoyou give me ? 
You ask me odds and you 

play asweUas t 
Is this pack whole ? 
-Noy ae^udis ^fttnting to it 
Throw out the low cards 
Let us see who deals 
I hone the hand 
You deal the- cards 
Shafflethe cards 
^l^tie Qourt-cettdS'*are to- 
I want a -card 
Cutj rise 

Have you ymm^oardsf 
I believe they are exact 
Have you discarded ? 
How many do you f 



Tomolas todas 

No, dejo una 

Tengo mal juego 

Ha detener vm- bello juego, 

pues yo Dada tengo > 
Mi juego m^ apura 
Diga vm. su juego 
Cuanto de punto ? 
Cincuenta, fesenta, &c« 
Bueno, buen punto 
No sirven 

He descartado la partida 
Sesta mayor, quinta al Rey, 6 

cuartade caballo, tercera 

& la sota 6 de dies 
Otro tanto tengo, igual 
Tres ases, tres reyes, &c. son 

No, tengo un catorce 
Tengo catorce de caballos 
Yaya jugando 
Juego copa, espada, oro, 

£1 as, el rey, el caballo, la 

sota, el diez, el nueve, el 

ocho, el siete 
Hago un piqUe, repique, ca- 
Gano los naipes 
Teogo siete bazas 
He perdido 
Ha ganado.vm. 
Me debe vm. un peso 
Me lo debia vm, 
Estaraos pues en paz 
Vfiya otra partida 
En bora buena, con mucho 


Di&L XXI. Del jugar al 

En que emplearemos la tar- 

I take them all 

No J I leave one 

liwne had cards^ a had game 

You muet have good eardsy 

since I have nothing 
My eards put&de me 
Call your; game 
How much is yonr point f- 
Fifty y sixty J 9fc. 
Goody it is a good point ' 
They Are not good 
I have laid out the game- 
Asixiememqjory a quint to the 

king, or quart to the queen^ 

a tierce to the knave or ten 
Ihavejustasmuchy it is equal 
Are tiree acesy three kings j 

^c. good? 
Noy 1 have fourteen 
lam fourteen hy queens 
Flay on 
I play a hearty spade ydia* 

mondy chb 
The accy the kingy the quemy 

the knavey the teny the ninCy 

the eighty the seVen 
I make a piquey repiqucy-a 

I win the cards 
I have seven tricks 
I have lost 
You have won 
You owe me a dollar 
You owed it to me 
We are then even, quits 
Let us play another game 
With all my hearty with great 


Dial XXI. Of playing at 

How shaUwe spend the after* 



Joguemosa] agMres 

JuguemoSy en bora boena 

Pero juega vm. mejor que y6 

£f TiD. mas fuerte que yo 

Nolo crea vm. 

Me ba gaoado vm. siempre 

No jugar6 mas con vm.^ si no 
me diere alguna ventaja 

Cs preciso que me de un alfil 
y iamauo 

£n verdad que no puedo, ju- 
ega vm. tan bie n como yo 

Yea vm. si quiere jugar k la 

Muy bieU) lo bar6 una vez 

Cuanto jugaremos ? 

Siempre juego poco dinero 

Vaya medio peso cada juego 

. Juego primero 
Tomo este peon 
Me alegro, pues voy & tomar 
este alfil y darle jaque 

Roqae me llamo 

Nada gana vm. en eso, pues 

4 su roque 6 torre me llevo 

con mi caballo 
Pero como resguardard vm. 

& su reina ? 
Dandole jaque y mate con mi 

alfil y mi roque 
He perdido el juego, ya no 

puedo mover el rey 
Me debe vm. pues medio peso 
Asi es 

Pero vm. me lo debia antes 
Bien, estamos en paz 
D6nos vm. un tablero 
Juegue vm. primero 
Soplo este peon 
Haga dama este peon 

Lei vspiay at eAess 
Let us piay^ I am vnlHnff 
But you play better than T 
You are an over^maichfor me 
Do not think it 
You aboaye have beat me 
I wiU play no more with you, 
unlets you give me some odds 
You must give me a bishop 

and the move 
Indeed I catinoty you play as 

well as I do 
See if you have a mind to 

play even 
WeU, I will do it for once 
What shall we play for f 
I always play for a smaU 

Let us play far haitfa doUar 

a game 
I have the move 
I take this pawn 
I am glad of it, for I am go- 
ing to take this bishop and 
• cheek you 
I castle 
You get nothing by thai ; for 

I take your rook or castle 

with my knight 
But how will you save your 

queen ? 
By checkmating you with my 

bishop and rook 
I have lost the game, I can 

no longer move the king 
You owe me half a dollar then 
It is so 

But you owed it me before 
Then, we are quits or even 
Give us a draughts-board 
I give you the move, playfrst 
I huff this man 
King that man 



Cuantas damas tiene vm. ? 
Tengo dot 

Coma vm. este^ que luego co- 
mere tres 
Pierdo el juego 

Di^lXXII. Deljugardla 

Yea vm. que bello dia hace 
AprovechemoDos de este dia 
tan hermoso 

Que haremos hoy ? 

£1 buen tiempo nos convida 
djugar 6 4 pasear 

£n que juego hemes de en- 
tretenernos ? 

£1 de pelota es el mejor pa- 
ra el egercicio 

Pero es juego mas de invier- 
no que de verano 

Sndarlmos menos, si jugamos' 
con raquetas 

Vamos al juego de pelota 

Jugaremos con palas 

Hagamos la partida 

£st4vm. commigo 

No importa como estamos 

£ste estd con nosotros^ 

£s vm. mejor jugador que yo 

£st4se cada uno en su lugar 

Mantengase detras de ml, y 

coja la pelota 
Paso por encima de mi 
La cogi en el aire 
Rechace la pelota 
£8 vm* mal companero 
No ha ganado vm. aun 
Aun puede vm. perder 
Tenemos la superioridad 
Perdio vm., ganamos 
Cuanto jugamos ? 

How many kings have you f 

I have two 

Take thisy then I ihaU take 

I hse the game. 

Dial XXn. Of playing at 

See what a fine day it is 
Let us improve this so fair a 

What Shan we do to^ay f 
The fine weather invites us to 

play or to walk 
What play shaU we amfiie 

ourselves at? 
Thai of tennis is the^be^for 

But it is a play fitter for 

winter than summer 
We shall perspire hssy if we 

play with raekefts 
Let us go to the tennis^ourt 
WewiUplay with baltledoors 
Let us make the match 
You are with me 
It is no matter who and who 
He is on our side 
You are a better player than 1 
Let every one st€md at his 

Stand behind me, and catch 

the ban 
It flew over me 
I caught it in the air 
Strike the ball back 
You are a had second 
You have not beat yet 
You may lose yet 
We have the best of it 
You have losty we have won 
What didwe play for ? 




Ha puesto vm. eD el juego ? 
N09 pero ahi esti mi dinero 
£s lo mismo 

Manaoa jugaremos otra vez ' 
Coando vmd. quiaiere 

Dial. XXIII. De las diver- 
tiones del campoy particur 
larmenie de ia caza y de 
la pesca. 

Senor, me alegro de ver 4 

vm. ; adonde ha estado tan 

laigo tiempo ? 
Adoi^e ae mete vm.? 
Dos meses ha que estamos 

en una case de campo 
Havenido vm. & la ciudad 

para quedarse ? 
No, Seiiory vuelvo manana 

por la manana 
Como pasa vm. su tiempo en 

el campo ? 
Parte de el empleoenestudiar 
Pero cuales son sua diver- 

sionesy despues de mis ne- 

gocios series ? 
Voy tal vez 4 cazar 
A^ que caza ? 
A^ voces 4 la caza del venado, 

4 voces de la liebre 
Tiene vm. buenos perros ? 
Tenemos muchos perros de 

Dosgalgos, dosgalgas, cua- 

tro jateos, y tres perdi- 


No caza vm. aves ? 

Caza vm. i voces con la es- 

copeta ? 
Siy JSenor, muy 4 menudo 
Sobre que tira vm. ? 


Have you staked f 

Noy but there is my money 

JtisaU one 

To-morrow we wiOplay again 

When you pleaee. 

Dial. XXin. Of country 
sports^ especially of hunt- 
ing and fishing. 

Siry lam overjoyed io see 

you ; where have you been 

so long a while? 

Where do you keep yourself f 

We have been these two 

numths at a comOry-houee 

Are you come to ttnon to 

No J Siry I go back to-morrow 

How do, you pass your time 

in the country? 
I bestow apart of it on books 
But which are your diver* 
sionSf after your serious 
bueiness ? 
I go sometimes a hunting 
What do you hunt? 
We sometimes huni a stagy 

sometimes a hare 
Have you good dogs? 
We have a large pack of 

Two grey-hound dogs, two 
grey-hound bitches, four 
terrierSy and three setting* 
Do you not go a fowling ? 
Do you go a shooting some^ 

times ? 
YeSySiry very often 
What do you shoot at ? 



Sabre todo genero de caza, 
como perdices, faisanes, 
gallinetas, conejos, &c. 
Tira vm. al vuelo la pieza 6 

I>e ambas maneras 
Como <^oge vm. los conejos ? 
Af veces con redes, y 4 veces 

4 escopetazos 
Y las codomices ? 
Solemos tomarlas con una 
red y un perro perdiguero 
£s vm. amigo de pescar ? 

Pesca vm. 4 menudocon red ? 
Muy raras veces 
Mas quiero pescar con la 

caiia y anzuelo 
La pesca y la caza son diver- 

siones muy nobles 

£1 Rey mas rico y mas pobre 

de Europa no se divierte 

en otra cosa 

Un dia qtiizi pensarin sus 

ministros que sus vasallos 

est4n anualmente dando 4 

sus vecinos millones por 

pescado salado y hediondo 

Tienen no obstante muy bu- 

enos peces en sus costas 
Pero no toman el trabajo de 

I^ sttcede por falta de ani- 

mar la pesca 
Y de otros muchos motivos 
Coge vm. muchos peces en 

su estanque ? 
Que bace vm. cuando no caza 

Ju^amos 4 la bola, al truco, 

o 4 los boloB 
Segun esto, ao puede vm. es- 
tar caosado del campo? 

dU manner of game^ aspart' 
ridgesj pheasants, sand- 
piperSy rabbits, Sfc, 
Do you shoot fiying or run- 
ning ? 
Both ways 

How do you catch rabbits ? 
Sometimes with nets, and 

sometimes with a gun 
Jnd the quails? 
Wecatchthemmost commonly 
with a net and a setting-dog 
Do you likeJisMngf 

Do you fish often with a net ? 
Very seldom 
I prefer fishing with a line 

and hook 
Fishing and hunting are 

tery noble diversions 
The richest and poorest king 
of Europe has no other 
. diversion 

One day perhaps their minis' 
ters will think of their sub' 
jects giving away yearly to 
their neighbours millions 
for stinking saUfish 
They have notwithstanding 
very good fish on their coast 
But they do not take the trou- 

ble to cure it < 

This arises from not giving 

encouragement to fisheries 

And from many other causes 

Do you catch much fish in 

your pond? 
What ao you do when you 

neither hunt nor fish f 
We play at bowls, at biU 

liarels, or nine-pins 
According to this, you cannot 
be tired with the country f 



Ami le parece & vm. y es lo 

Ya empiezo 4 desear la ciu- 

dad, y espero presto pa- 

sarme 4 olla 

Dj41. XXIV. Del ir d la 

Se dice que hoy r^resentan 

una pieza nueva 
£a comedia, tragedia, opera, 

6 entremes? 
£s una tragedia 
Como la ILunaD ? 


QuieD es su autor ? 


£s esta la primera represen- 

No, Senor^yaselia represen- 

tado tres veces 
Este es el dia del autor 
Como se recibio en las pri- 

meras representaciones 
Con universal aplauso 
£1 autor era ya celebre 

Y esta (iltima tragedia faa au- 

mentado mucho 'su fama 
Ir^os 4 verla ? 
De muy buena gana 
Voy 4 mandar al cochero 

que apnante el eocbe 
Ir^tnos 4 un aposento? 
£n hora buena, pero mas 

quisiera ir al patio 
Porque podemos ver y oir 

mejor all4 que en los 

Que tal le parece la sinfonia? 
Muy buena me parece 
Los corredorese8t4n ya llenos 

So it seemB to you, amlit is 

I already begin to kmg for 

the city J and I hope ^ort" 

ly to proceed to it. 

Dial XXIV. 

going . to 



They say there m a new play 

acted to day 
h it a eomedyj a tragedy y an 

operay or a farce ? 
It is a tragedy 
How do they name it 


Who is its author? 


Is this the first repreeenia- 

No J 8iry it has been already 

acted three Hmes 
This is the author's nigj^ 
How was it receive on the 

first representations ? 
With ttntverml appUmee 
The author was already fa- 

And this hut tragedy has 

muck increased his fame 
8haU we go and see it f 
lam going to bid the coach- 

man to getthe coaeh ready 
Shall we go to a boxf 
As you please^ but I had 

rather go to the pit 
Whyf ^ 

BecasMewe can see and hear 

better there than in the 

How do you like the overture ? 
I think it is very fine 
The gaUeries are full alrtady 



Y como vffl. lo ve, estamos 
muy apretados en el patio 

No caben las damas ea los 

Nunca vl la casa tan Ikna 
£stas Senoras est^n muy 

bien vestidas 
Ve vm. aquella senora en el 

aposento del Rey 
Jamas he visto rostro tan her- 

moso en mi vida 
Quien es? 
La Duquesa de —— 

Y quien es la Senora joven 
que esl&con ella? 

Su hermana, la Senora de 

Pero ya se levanta la cortina, 

Tendremos antes el Prologo 

1^1 segundo acto esti acabado 
Las escenas estdn muy bellas 

Don es muy buen actor 

£ste es el ultimo acto 
Acabqse la pieza — como le 

gusta k vmd. ? 
Muchisimo, me pareceesce- 

lente tragedia y muy bien 

Tuvo grande aplauso 
Abora tendremos el EpOpgo 
Quien lo dice ? 
La Senora — — 
Lo dice con mucho dnimo 
Quiere vmd. quedar para ver 

la Pantomima ? 
No, ya la he visto, y como es 

tarde, haremos mejor de 

De todo mi corazon 
Iremoi & la CXpera manana 

And as you Btty tte are very 

much crowded in the pit 
The ladies cannot be contain^ 

ed in the booses 
I never saw the^ house sofuU 
These ladies art very weU 

Do you observe that lady in 

the King^s box 
1 never hmte in my life seen 

so beautiful a face 
Who is she? 

The Duchess of 

And who is that young lady 

who is with her f 
Her sister J Lady — 
But the curtain rises already ^ 

let us attend 
We shaU first have the Pro- 
The second act is over 
The scenes are very fine 

Mr. IS a very good actor 

This is the last act 

The piece is over — how do 

you like it ? 
Very much ; I think it an 

excellent tragedy and very 

well performed 
It recieved great applause 
Now for the Epilogue 
Who speaks it? 


She speaks it with great spirit 
WiU you stay to see the Pan" 

tomime ? 
Noy I have seen it already, 

and as it is late, we had 

better gQ away 
With an my heart 
We will go to the opera to 




Dial. XXV. Del vettirBe. Dial 

XXV. Of 



Seiior Maestro^ trae Yin. mi 

Si, Senor, aqui 6St4 
Le estaba aguardando ; pnie- 

Quiere vm. probar la casaca ? 
Veamos si esti bien hecfaa 
Creo que le gustari 4 vm. 
Me parece muy larga 
Ya no se Uevan tan cortas 

como antes 
Se usan largas ahora 
Abotoneme vm. 
Me ajusta demasiado 
£s preciso que ajuste bien 
Este vestido le coge muy bien- 

el talle 
No son las mangaa demasiado 

largas y anchas ? 
No, Senor, van muy bien 
Se llevan ahora muy largas y 

Los pantalones son demasia- 
do cortos 
Los calsones son muy estre- 

Deme la chupa 
Le va muy bien este vestido 

Pero las medias no vienen 
con este pane 

Que le parece de mi sombrero? 

Esun castor hermoso 

Que galcm le pondr& vm. ? 

Un galon de oro con una he- 
billa de diamantes 

Me compro vm. las ligas co- 
mo le dige ? 

Si^ Senor, ahi est^n 

Maafery do you bring myfidl 

suit of clothes? 
Yes, Sir y here it is 
Itpos waiting for you; try 

it on me 
WiU you try the eoai ? 
Let us see tf it is weU made 
I beKeve it wili please you 
It seems to me very long 
They dt> not wear IAm iion? 

so short as formerly 
They wear them long now 
Button me 
It is too close 
It ought to be very close 
This suit Jits your shape very 

Are not the tdeeves too long 

and too widef 
Noy Siry they Jit very wed 
They wear them now very 

longand wide 
The pantaloons are too short 

The breeches are very strait 

It is the fashion 
Give me the waistcoat 
This suit becomes you very 

But the stochings do not 

match this cloth 
What do you say to my hatf 
It is a beautiful beaver 
What laee will you put to it f 
A gold lace with a diamond 

Did you buy me the garters 

as I told you ? 
Yesy Sir, there they are 



Son estas medias de seda de 

Paris 6 de Londres ? 
Son de Francia 
Cuanto las venden ? 

Tres pesos el par 

£s bastante barato, siendo 

tan finas. 
Muchacho, ha venido el za- 

patero ? 
No, Senor, no ha venido 
Corre pues 4 su casa^ y dile 

que me traiga mis zapatos 
Senor, aqui est4, le encontre 

en el camino 
Son estos mis zapatos ? 
Si, Seiior 
PojDgamelos vm. 
Est^n muy ajustados 
Me aprietan un poco 
Pongalos en la horma para 

Bastantemente se ensancha- 

rdfco llev&ndolos 
Esta piel da de si como un 

Siento muy bien que me las- 

Mis caUos lo padecer^n 
Me duelen mucho los pies 
El e^ipeine de «ste zapato no 

vale nada 
El talon e» demasiado bajo 
Las suelasno son bastante fu- 

ertes.nigrue8as / 

Hdgame vm. otro par 
Es vm., Seiior, muy dif icil de 

Quiere vm. probarotro par 

que trage por acaso ? 
En bora buena 
Creo qiie le irin bien 
Mi pie est4 mas descansado 

Are these Hlk 'etoekmge from 

Paris or London f 
They are from France 
How much do they aeU them 

Three dollars a pair 
It is cheap enough^ being so 

Boy, is the shoemaker come ? 

No, Sir, he is not come 
Run then to his house, and 

bid him bring me my shoes 
Sir, here he is, I met him on 

the way 
Are these my shoes ? 
Yes, 8ir 
Put them on me 
They are too tight 
They pinch me a little 
Put them on the last to widen 

They wiU widen enovgh by 

wearing tl^em 
This lectther stretches like a 

If eel very sure that they wHl 

hurt me 
My corns will suffer for it 
My feet ache much 
The upper4eather of this shoe 

is good for nothing 
The heel is too low 
The soles are neither strong 

nor thick enough 
Make me another pair 
You are. Sir, very hard to 

Will you try another pair 

which I brought by chance? 
lam willing 

I believe they will fit you 
My foot is more at ease 


FAMlUAft »lAL0OUBab 

Cttanto valenestos sapatos? 

A' camo los vende vm. ? 

Dos pesos y medio 

£s demasiado caro 

Es precio hecho 

Es un zapato bien hecho y 

bien coaido 
il&gaiiie otro par como este 

Tome mi medida 
Ahl tiene su dinero 
Viva vm. muchos anos^ ca- 

Diii. XXVI. Del hahlar d 
un mozo de cabaUoa, 

Almohaza mi caballo 
Estriega y limpiale bien con 

un manojo de paja 
Mi caballo est4 sin herra- 

Le faltan dos herradurras 
Llevale k casa del herrador 
Mindalo herrar 
Llevalo despues al no 

Le has dado de beber ? 

Sf, Seiior 

Dale su pienso de cebada 

Paseale esta tarde 
Dale tambien salvado 
Ha comido su cebada ? 
E^chale paja abora 
Ensilla mi caballo y trdemelo 

Tomale por el freno 
No le hagas correr 
No le recalientes 
£st4 cansado ? 
Qultale el freno 
Ponle en la caballeriza 

What are tkeie •hoes worth f 

How much do you tell thorn atf 

Two doilarsanda half 

It u too dear 

It it a fixed price 

It is a shoe w^ made and 

well stitched 
Make me another pair Uke 

Take my measure 
There is your money 
May you Uve many years^ Sir 
1 thank youj Sir, 

Dial. XXVI. Of speaking 
to a groom, 

Curry my horse 

Rub and clean him weU with 

a wisp of straw 
My horse is unshod; is withr 

out shoes 
He wants two shoes 
Take him to the farrier 
Get him shod 
Lead him afterwards to the 

Have you watered him f 
Yes, Sir 
Give him his allowance of 

Walk him this afternoon 
Give him also some bran 
Has he eaten his barley f 
Give him now some straw 
Saddle my horse and bring 

him to me 
Take him by the bridle 
Do not make him run 
Do not overheat him 
Is he tired f 
Unbridle him 
Put him in the Hable. 



Didl. XXVII. Deirdun Dial. XXVll. Of going on 
viage. a journey. 

Vengo 4 despedirme de vm. 

y 4 recibir sus ordenes 
Adonde va vm., Senor ? 
Voy 4 Madrid 
Cuando parte vm.? 
£n este instante 
Va vm. 4 caballo 6 en coche ? 

A^ caballo 

Alachacho, trieme mi caballo 

A qui esti,, Sehor 

Esti bien almohazado ? 

IVInybien, Senor 

Cuantas leguas hay de aqui & 

M— ^ ? 

Diez leguas 

Son leguas largas ? 

No, Senor, son las mas cortas 

de Cspana 
Le parece & vm. que poda- 

mos caminar tanto hoy ? 
Sin duda, no es tan tarde 
Dar^n presto las doce 
Tlene vm. bastante tiempo 

para llegar antes de po- 

nerse el sol 
Hay buen camino ? 
Muy hermoso 

Ningun pantano se encuentra 
Pero tiene vm. bosques que 

atravesar y rios que pasar 
Hay peligro en el camino 

No se habla de que baya la- 
drones en los bosques ? 

No se dice nada de esto 
No hay que temer nada ni de 
dia ni de noche 

J come to hid you farewell 

and take your commands 
Where are you going y Sir ? 
I am going to Madrid 
When do you set put ? 
Presently ; this miwUe 
Do you go on horseback or 

in a coach ? 
On horseback 
Boy^ bring me my horse 
Here he m, Sir 
Is he well curried f 
Very weUy Sir 
How many leagues is it from 

here to M— r ? 

Ten leagues 

Are they long leagues ? 

No, iStV, they are the shortest 

in Spain 
Do you think we can travel 

so far today? 
Without doubt f it is not so late 
Twehe o^clockwill soon strike 
You have time enough to ar^ 

rive before the sun sets 

Is there a good road ? 


You meet with no quagmire 

But you have woods to go 

through and rivers to cross 
Is there any danger upon the 

highway f 
Do you hear whether there 

are any highwaymen in the 

There is no talk of it 
There is nothing to fear either 

by day or night 


PAirniAB DIAL06UK8. 

£s UD camino en que anda 

gente aiempre 
QiM camino he de tomar ? 
Cuando este tri. cerca de la 

primera aldea, tomari 4 

mano derecha 
He de subir el monte ? 
No, Senor, degelo vm. & la 

Es el camino dificultoso en 

Ids bosques ? 
NoySenor; vaya vm. sieropre 

derecho, no se puede estra- 

Adonde encontrar^mos el 

no ? 
A' la salida del bosque 
Se puede vadear, es vade- 

NoySenor^se pasa en un barco 
Yamos, caballeros, montemos 
Al Dios, Seiiores 
Dios les de buen viage 
Les doy muchas gracias 
No quiere vm. echar un 

trago ? 
Como vmd. gustare 
Vaya, 4 su buen viage 

Di41. XXVm. Envnapa^ 

Donde estd la mejor posada 

de la ciqdad ? 
Al signo del Caballo Blanco 

En que parage de la villa 

est4 ? 
Cerca de la iglesia mayor 
Podremos alojarnos aqui ? 
Si, Sefior, tenemos bellos cu- 

artos y buen as camas 
Apeemonosy Seiiores 

It M aroad where youaiways 

meet witk people 
Which way muat I take f 
When you we near tkejirwi 

milage^ you will icdse to the 

Mutt I go up the hm? 
Noy Siry leave it to the left 

Is the way difficult thro/ugh 

the teoodsf 
Noy Sir ; go straight along y 

you cannot lose yowr way 

Where shall we come to the 

river f 
As you come out of the wood 
Can one ford it, is iS fordo- 

Noy Siry people ferry it over 
Comcy gentlemen^ let us mount 
FareweUy gentlemen 
I wish you a good journey 
I give you many thanks 
Will you not take the parting 

glass f 
As you please 
Comey to your good journey. 

Dial XXVIII. In an Inn. 

Where is the best inn in the 
city * 

At the sign of the White 

In what part of the toum 
is it ? 

Near the principal church 

Can we lodge here ? 

Yesy Sir, we have fine cham- 
bers and good beds 

Let us alighty gentlemen 



Donde esti el mozo de cabal- 

Aqui estoy, Sefior 
Toiua nuestros caballos 
Llevalos i la caballeriza 
Cuidalos bien 
Veamos, ahora^ que nos dard. 

vm. de cenar ? 
Yean vms., Senores^ lo que 

mas gustaren 

Denos media docena de pi- 
chooes, dos perdices, seis 
codoruices, un buen capon 
y una ensalada 

Tendre cuidado de todo ; no 
se inquieten vms. 

No quieren vms. otra cosa ? 

No, basta con esto ; pero de- 
nos buen vino y fnita 

Lies aseguro que les dare 

Quieren vms. ir i ver sus 
aposentos ? 

SI, Uame 4 su camarero 

Alumbra i estos Senores que 

H^ganos cenar cuanto antes 

Antes que se hayan quitado 
las botas, estari la cena 

Adonde estin nuestros laca- 
yos ? 

Ahi suben con sus balijas 

Han traldo nuestras pistolas ? 

Si, Sefior, aqui estdn 

Quita mis botines y ve des- 

pues 4 cuidar de nuestros . 

Llama para cenar 

Where is the hostler, or 

groom ? 
Here 1 am. Sir 
Take our horses 
Lead them to the stable 
Take good care of them 
Now, let us see, what will you 

give us for supper? 
See yourselves, gentlemen, 

what you have moat a 

mind to 
Give us half a dozen pigeons, 

a brace of partridges, six 

quails, a good capon and 

a sallad 
I will take care of all; do 

not trouble yourselves 
Will you have nothing else ? 
No, that is enough ; but give 

us good wine and fruit 
1 shall please you, I warrant 

Will you go and see your 

chambers ? 
Yes, call your chamberlain 
Light the gentlemen that they 

may go up stairs 
Give us our supper as soon 

as possible 
Before your boots are pulled 

off, supper will be got 

Where are our servants f 

There they are going up with 
your portmanteaux 

Have they Itrought our pis- 

Yes, Sir, here they are 

Pull off my boots and 4hen 
go and take care of our 

Call for supper 



Senoresy la cena est^ pronta^ 

est^ eo la mesa 
VamoBy Seiioresy 4 cenar, 

|Mra poder acoatarnoa tem- 

SentemoDoa 4 la mesa 
Vm. no oome nada; que 

No tengo ganas, estoy cansado 
Estoy molido 
Estare mejor eo la cama que 

en la mesa 
Tome vmd. 4nimo 
Si se siente male v4yase 4 

Mande calentar su cama 
Que no les impida de cenar, 

voy 4 descansar 

Ha menester vm. algo ? 
Nada quiero sino descansar 
Tengan vms. buenas noches 
Trae los postres^ y di 4 la 

patrona que venga 4 ha- 

Aqui viene 
Senores, les gusta 4 vms. la 

cena ? 
Si, Senora, pero abora es 

menester satisfacer 4 vm. 
Cuanto hemes gastado ? 
Que hemes de pagar ? 
£1 escote no sube mucho 
Yea vm. cuanto le debemos 

pornosotrosy nuestros cria- 

dosy caballos 
For la cena; la cama y el al* 

Todo importa diez pesos 
Mo palace que es demasiado 
Al^pontrario, es muy barato 

Genikmen, supper is • ready , 

it is on the tabic 
Let us go to supper, ge^Me- 

men, that we may go to 

bed early 
Let us sit down at table 
You eat notkmg ; what aih 

I have no appetite, I am tired 
I am bruised all ooer 
I shall be better in bed than 

at table 
Take courage 
If you find yourself iU go to 

Get your bed warmed 
That I may not hinder you 

from supping, I am going 

to rest 
Do you want any thing f 
I want nothing hut rest 
I wish you a good night 
Bring the Assert, and bid 

the landlady come and 

speak with us 
Here she is coming 
Gentlemen, are you pleased 

with your supper ? 
Yes, mistress, but now we must 

satisfy you 
How much have we spent ? 
What have we to pay ? 
Tf*e reckoning is not high 
See hmo much we owe you for 

ourselves, our men and our 

For the supper, bed and 

All amounts to ten dollars 
I ihink it is too much 
On the contrary, it it very 




Haga vm. mismo la cuenta, 

y hallard que no les pido 

demasiado % 

Pagaremosle manana por la 

mafiana despues del almu- 

Como vms. quisieren 
Denos sibanas limpias 
Las sibanas que les envio son 

muy buenas 
Bueuas noches, Seiiora 
Buenas noches les de Dios 4 

vms., caballeros ^ servidora 

de vms. 
Necesitan vms. de algo ? 
Nada nos hace falta 
Solo que se haga buen fuego 
Las noches son muy frias 
£s menester cuidarse en 


DiiL XXIX. Para hablar 
con lo8 empkadoB en las 

Traen vms. algo contra las 
ordenes de su magestad, 
del soberano, 6 de la re- 
publica f 

No, yo no tengo contrabando 

Tengo solamente algunos 
efectos que pagan impues^ 
tos, y voy i declarirselos 

Cuanto debo pagar por esto ? 

£s menester darme sus llaves 
Helas aqui. Hagame vmd. 
la gracia de despacharme 
luego, porque tengo mucha 
Se lo estimare mucho . 
' 32* 

Reckon yourself ^ and you will 
Jind that I do not ask you 

too much 
We will pay you to-morrow 

morning after breakfast 

As you please 

Let us have clean sheets 

The sheets I send you are 

very good 
Good night, landlady 
Goodnight, gentlemen; lam 

your servant . 

Do you want any thing f 
We are in want of nothing 
Only that a good fire be made 
The nights are very cold 
One must take care ofone^S' 
self on a journey. 

Dial. XXIX. Tospealfwith 
the officers in the custom- 

Do you bring any thing con- 
trary to the decrees of his 
majesty, of the sovereign, 
or republic ? 

No, I have no contraband 
goods at all 

I have only some goods that 
pay duty, and T am going 
to manifest them to you 

How much have I to pay for 

You must give me your keys 

Here they are. Be so kind 
as to expedite me directly, 
for I am in great haste 

I shaU be much obliged to you 
for it 



Ahi tiene vmd. la llave del 
candado; he aqai la llave 
de la cerradura 

Higame vind. la gracta de 
buscar con precancioD, 
porque hay muchas coses 
que pueden quebrarse 

Haacabado vmd.? 

No emplomari vmd. ahora el 
baul y los cofres, para que 
no me los registren otra 

No podria vbl, en lugar de 
registrarme aqui en esta 

rrta, venir Sl hacwlo en 
fonda, 6 en la casa 
adonde voy ^ posar ? 
Gracias, p^Mefto vmd. bien. 
Dios guarde 4 vrnd.^ S^. 

There i$ the key to the pad- 
lock ; here %8 the key to 
the Jock 

Do me the favour to eeetreh 
with earey for there it wmck 
brittle ware therein 

Have you done? 

Will you not put a teadeteump 
now upon the tnmk and 
chegtB, that they may not 
be searched again ? 

Could not yoUf inatead of 
eearching me here at iMe 
gaiCy come and do it at the 
inn, or house where I am 
going to lod^ef 

I thank you, fareweU. Yaar 
aervixnty Sir, 

Di&l. XXX. Pcwaunaper' DiaLXXX. For a person 
eona eatraviada en una who has lost his way in 
dudad. a city. 

No me harf a vmd. el favor de 
decirme^ si estoy lejos dd 
barrio de Sau Francisco, 6 
de la calle de San Pablo ? 

Hay may lejos de aqui 4 -^- ? 

Busco la posada del Seiior 

— — 6 de la Senora — 

Por que lado debo ir ? 
Despuesy dare vuelta 4 la de- 

recha 6 4 la izquierda ? 

£s aqui que vive el Senor ? 

Qttisiera vm. darme su direc- 

Podria vmd. senalarme el 

camino que debo tomar, 

para ir 4 casa del Se^ 

nor ? 

Would you not oblige me ao 
far as to tell me, whether 

lama great way from the 

Ward of 8l. Prmncia, or 

Street of St. Paul f 
la it far from here to — — » 
/ am looking for the reai- 

denee of Mr, ^, or 

Madam ■■ ■ 
Which way muai I go f 
Shalllturny afterwardty to 

the right or left « 
Doea Mr* *— — live heref 
Would you favour me uM 

hia addreaaf 
Could you point -out to me the 

way I must take, in order 

to go to the htnm ef 

Mr. ? 



Quiere vmd. conducirme al- 

14, le pagare bien ; le 


Pase vm. adelante^ yo le se- 

No vava tan ^ prisa 
Cooduzcaine vm. par ei ca- 

mino mas corto 
Esta balle esti embarazada, 

tomemos otro cdmino 
Llame vm. un coche de al- 

Cochero, quereis llevarme ? 
Moro en la calle de — 

Dikh XXXI. Un miliiar 
vencedor estableciindose 
en una casa de los vend" 
dosy y hablando d los ^e- 
fioe de la casa. 

No tengais miedo, somos In- 
gleses, AlemaneS; Rusos, 
Franceses, &c. Nuestro 
car4cter nacional puede 
aseguraros de nuestra gen- 
erosidad, y la obediencia 
que debemos ^ nuestro so- 
berano es un segundo fia- 
dor. Los vencidos que se 
someten no son para noso- 
trossino amigos desdicha- 

Entregdos con seguridad i 
vuestras ocupaciones or- 
dinarias ; os prometemos 
seguridad, atenciones, so- 
si^o, proteccion y ayuda, 
si necesitareis de ella 

Si mi gente os diere algun 
motive de que) a, recorred 
i ml con confianza, yo no 

Will you had me there ^ IwiU 
pay you handsomely ; I 
tnU give you 

Go before, I will follow you 

Do not walk so fast 
Lead me the shortest way 

This street is obstructed, let 

us take another way 
Call for a hackney*coach 

Coachman, will you drive me 9 
I live in the street of — • 

Dial. XXXI. A military 
man victorious, quartering 
in a house of the conquer- 
ed, and speaking to the 
masters of the house. 

DonH fear, we are English- 
men, Germans, Russians, 
Frenchmen, ^c. Our no* 
Honal character may aS' 
sure you of our generosity, 
and the obedience we owe 
to our sovereign is a dow- 
ble pledge. A subdued 
enemy is considered by us 
only as an unfortunate 

Give yourselves up with seeu- 
rity to your customary 
business, we promise you 
safety, mildness, tranquil" 
Uty, protection and assist' 
anccyif you should want any 

If my people should give you 
any cause of complaint, 
eomeopenly tome,Iwittnot 



aufrire que se pase algo 
que pueda daros disgusto 

No tengais miedo, ud aoldado 
valeroso no es teaiible sino 
en el campo de batalla 

Camaradas, comportemonos 
como hombres de valor ; 
respetemos la desdicha y 
no ocasioneroos aqui ni al- 
boroto ni desorden 

suffer any thing to happen 
that may be disagreeabie 
to you 

Be not afraidy a brave gol' 
dier is dreadful only on 
the field of haUk 

Comrades^ kt us behave our- 
selves as brave men ; let us 
respect the ' unhappy and 
cause here neither trouble 
nor disorder. 


N. B. In lofoking for words in the Dictionary, the student 
should bear in mind the observations made in pages 17, 18, 
19 and 20, in regard to pronunciation and orthography. 

Remember that the Spanish Academy considers ch^ II and n 
as distinct characters from c, I and it, and in its Dictionary 
you must loolt through all the words beginning with these 
simple characters, before you find those commencing with the 
aforesaid compound. 

F4bula Primera, 
Lob AnimaUa en consejo juntos para elegir un Rey, 

Habiendo muerto el leon, todas las aves y bestias se con- 
^egaron 4 su cueva para condolerse con la reina viuda, que 
hacia resonar sus lamentos y gritos en los montes y bosques. 

Despues de los acostumbrados cumplimientos, procedieron 
todos 4 la eleccion de un rey, la corona del difunto monarca 
fue colocada en medio de la asamblea. 

Su aparente heredero eia demasiado joven y endeble para 
obtener la dignidad real, 4 la que tantos animales mas fuertes 
que el pusieron su demanda. 

Degenme crecer uh poco, dijo su alteza, y entonces esperi- 
mentareis que puedo Uenar el trono, y con el tiempo, hacer 
felices 4 mis subditos. Entretanto estudiare las acciones 
heroicas de mi padre, con la esperanza de que algun dia, po- 
dre serle igual en gloria. 

For mi parte, dijo el leopardo, insisto en mi derecho d la 
corona, por la mayor semejanza que tengo al ultimo rey 
entre todos los candidates. 

Yo, por otro lado, grito el oso,'sostendre que se me hizo 
injusticia, cuando su magestad anterior se me prefirio : soy 
tan fuerte, intrepido, y sangriento, como era ; y ademis, soy 
maestro de un arte que el jamas pudo adquirir, cual es, el 
trepar por los drboles. 

To apelo, dijo el elefante, al juicio de esta augusta asam- 
blea^ 81 alguno de los presentes puede coii atgun colorido jac- 

382 VABLE8. 

tane de ser tan alto, de tan noble presencia, tan robnsto, '6 
tan circunspecto comoyo. 

Yo soy la mas noble^ y la mas heniiosa criatara entre todas 
vosotros, dijo el caballo. 

£' yo soy la mas polUica, dijo la zorra. 

E^ yo soy el mas veloz eu correr, dijo el corzo. 

En donde encontrareis, dijo el mico, un rey mas agradable, 
mas ingenioso, y mas divertido que yo ? Yo diveitiria con- 
tiouamente ^ mis vasallos, y soy>adem4s el mas semejante al 
bombre, que es el Senor del Universo. 

£1 papagayo Interrumpiendole, hizo su arenga : supuesto 
que vm. se alaba de su semejanza al hombre, me parece que 
puedo yo alabarme con mucha mas justicia. Toda la seme- 
janza de vm consiste en su hocico feo y algunos gestos ridl- 
culos ; peroyo puedo hablar como un hombre, e imitar su len- 
guage, serial indicativa de su razon, y su mayor adorno. 

Guardad vuestra maldita garuUa, replico la mona : faablais, 
es ciertOy pero no como hombre ; repetfs siempre una misooa 
cosa sin entender una sola palabra de lo que decfs. 

^ Toda la asamblea se rio de estos dos rivales imitadores del 
genero humano, y confirieron la corona al elefante, porque 
era fuerte y sabio ; y no solo era exento del b^rbaro natural 
de las bcstias de rapina, sino tambien de la vanidad y amor 
propio de que muchos est4n tocados, siempre paredendoles 
6 fingiendo ser lo que, en la realidad, no son. 

F&bula Segunda. 
EI Dragon y las Dos Zorras. 

Un dragon guardaba con ansia un tesoro inmenso en una 
cueva profunda ; nunca doimia de dia ni de noche, para 

Dos zorras aduladoras, artificiosas, y picdras de profesion, 
se iotrodugeron en su gracia con sus lisonjas fastidiosas. 
Ambas era a sus Intimas aroigas. 

Los que son mas corteses y oficiosos no son siempre los 
mas sinceros. Le rindieron sus obsequios con la mayor su- 
mision ; admiraron sus fantasias ociosas ; convinieron con el 
en sus ideas, y se burlaron de su credula tonteria. 

Finalmente, quedose un dia dormido entre sus confidentes: 
le ahogarou; y tomaron poseslon de su tesoro. 

rABLES. 383 

Era preciso repartir el pillage ; un puoto muy delicado, y 
no era ficil de ajustarse, porque dos villanos no convienen 
sino en la egecucion de sus delitos. 

Una de ellas einpezo 4 exhortar en estos terminos : de que 
nos servird todo este dinero ? Un gazapo nos seria un botin, 
6 presa mas agradable : no podemos hacer una comida de 
estos doblones, son muy indigestos. Los hombres son muy 
locos, en dejarse arrebatar de riquezas tan imaginarias. No 
seamos nosotras criaturas tan insensatas, como ellos lo son. 

La otra pretendio que estas reflexiones la habian hecho 
una impresion fuerte^ y la aseguro que en lo venidero estaria 
contenta de continuar una vida filosofica^ y como Bias Uevar 
su tesoro todo consigo. 

Al parecer, ambas estaban dispuestas d abandonar su tesoro 
mal adquirido : pero ambas se quedaron 4 la mira, hasta que 
se despedazaron. 

Al espirar la una dijo d la otra, que estabatan mortalmente 
herida como ella: que querlas hacer con todo aquel oro ? 
Lo mismo que tu te proponias hacer con el, replico la otra. 

Siendo informado un viajador de su pendencia, las dijo, 
que eran tontas. Asi lo es el mayor niimero del genero nu- 
mano, replico una de las zorras. Tampoco §, vosotros puede 
servir de comida, y con todo, os asesinais unos i otros por el 

Nosotras, las zorras, hemos sido bastante sabias, d lo menos 
basta aqui, para mirar al dinero como una cosa inutil Lo 
que habeis introducido entre vosotros como una conveniencia, 
es vuestra desgracia. Dejais un bien sustancial, solamente 
por seguir un bien fant4stico. 

F4bula Tercera. 
Las Dob Zorras. 

Una noche entraron dos zorras furtivamente en un galli- 
Bero : mataron el gallo, las gallinas, y los polios: despues de 
esta matanza, empezaron i devorar su presa. 

Una que era joven y sin reflexion, propuso comerlos todos 
de una vez ; la otra vieja y codiciosa queria ahorrar para 
otro dia. 

Hija, dijo la vieja, la esperiencia me hizo sabia ; en mi 
tiempo he visto muchu mundo. No consumamos 4 la vez 

384 FABLVB. 

prodigamente lodo nuestro caudal : tovimos biien saceso, j 
debemos cuidar de no mal gastarlo. 

Replico la joven, estoy reaiielta 4 reoearme mientras Jo 
tengo por delante, y saciar mi «q[)etito por toda una aeoiana ; 
por lo que toca 4 venir aqui raanaua, es cuento : eso es eqpo- 
nernoa : manana vendri aqui el amo, y por vengar la mu^te 
de SU8 polios, no6 dori con una tranca en la cal^xa. 

Despuesde esta replica, cada unade ellas obra como le 
parece maaproiMo. 

La joven come basta que revienta, sin poder apenas anas- 
trano 4 su cueva antes de moiir. La vieja que le parecao 
mucbo mas prudente gobernar su apetito, y ser fjngjdXy fue el 
dia siguiente al gallinero, y la mato el labrador. 

Asi cada edad tiene su vicio favorite : los jovenes son fb- 
gosos 6 insaciables en sus placeres ; y los viejos incorr^[i' 
bles en su avaricia. 

F4bula Cuarta. 
El Loho y el Cordero, 

Habia un rebano de ovejas^ que paclan s^tas de todo 
mal en un cercado ; todos los perros dormlan, y sus amos 
tocaban la gaita rural con sus companeros bajo de un 41amo 

Un lobo bambriento vino al redil 4 registrarlos por las 

Un cordero inesperto, y que nunca habla estado fuera, 
entro en conversacion con el. 

Y le dijo, que es lo que tu quieres aqui, lobo ? 

Un poco de esta yerba fresca, le respondio el lobo. Bien 
sabes que no bay cosa mas agradable, que matar la hambre en 
un prado verde esmaltado con flores, y apagar la sed en una 
fuente transparente. Aqui encuentro copia de uno y otro, 
que puede uno desear mas ? por mi parte, yo amo la filosof Sa 
que nos ensena 4 contentarnos con poco. 

£s verdad pues, replico el cordero, que tu te abstienes de 
la carne de las bestias, y que un poco de yerba te sadsface ? 
Si es asi, vivamos como hermanos y pastemos juntos. 

£1 cordero, luego, salto del redil al prado en donde el 
grave filosofo le despedazo, y de una vez le devoro. 

Desconflate siempre de las lenguas lisongeras de los que 
se jactan de su propia virtud. Forma tu juicio segun sus 
acciones; y no segun sus palabras. 


fSaeado de ku CarUu Maamuctu de Don Joss' Caoalso, Carta TIL) 

^ La peoiosula, Uamada Espana, solo est4 contigua al con- 
tinente de Europa por el lado de Francia de la que la separan 
los montes Pirin^os. Es abundante en oro, plata, azogue, 
bierro, piedras, dguas minerales, ganados de escelentes cali- 
dades, y pesois tan abundantes como deliciosas. Esta feliK 
situacionla hizo objeto de la codicia de los fenicios y otros 
pueblos. Los cartagineses, parte por dolo, y parte por fuer- 
2sa, se estableci^ron en ella ; y los romanos quisieron com- 
pletar su poder y gloria con la conqubta de Espana; pero 
encontr^ron una resistencia, que parecio tan estrana como 
terrible 4 los soberbios dueiios de lo restante del mundo. 
Numancia, una sola ciudad, les costo catorce anos de sitio, la 
perdida de tres ejercitos, y el desdoro de los mas famosos 
Generates, hasta que reducidos los nuraantinps i, la precision 
^e capitular 6 morir, por la total ruina de la patria, corto nii- 
mero de vivos, y abundancia de cad^veres en las calles (sin 
contar los que hablan servido de pasto 4 sus conciudadanos 
despues de conduidos todos sus viveres) incendiiron sus ca- 
sas, arroj^ron sus mugeres, nines y ancianos en las llamas, y 
salieron 4 morir en el campo raso con las annas en la mano. 
£1 grande Escipion fue testigo de la ruina de Numancia, pues 
ao puede llamarse propiamente conquistador de laciudad: 
liendo de notar que Luculo, encargado de levantar un ej^r- 
cito para aquella espedicion, no baBo en la juventud romana 
reclutas que llevar, basta que el mismo Escipion se alisto para 
animarla. Si los romanos conocieron el valor de los egpanoles 
como enemigos, tambien esperiment^ron su virtud como 
aliados. Sagunto sufrio por ellos un sitio igual al de Numan- 
cia contra Iqs cartagineses ; y desde entonces formiron los 
romanos de los espanoles el alto concepto que se ve en sus 
aut<iresy oradores, historiadores, y poetas. Pero la fortuna 
de Roma, superior al valor humane, la hizo seiiora de Es- 
pana, como de lo restante del mundo, raenos algunos mon- 
ies de Caatabria, cuya total conquista no consta de la bis- 

386 epItomk. 

toria, de modo que no pueda dudarse. Largas revoluciones 
io<JtlIf>s de coDtarse en este parage trajeron del norte enjam- 
bres de naciones feroces, codiciosas y guerreras, que se es- 
tablecieron en Cspana : pero con las delicias de este clima 
tan diferente del que habian dejado, cayeron en tal grado de 
afeminacion y flojedad^ que 4 su tiempo fueron esdavos de 
otros conquistadores venidos del medio dia. Huyeron los 
godos espanoles hasta los montes de una provincia, hoy Ua- 
mada Atturias : y apenas tuvieron tiempo de desechar el sus- 
tOy Uorar la perdida de sus casas y ruina de su reino, cuaitdo 
salieron mandados por Pelayo, uno de los mayores hombres 
que la naturaleza ha producido. 

Desde aqui se abre un teatro de guerras que duriron cerca 
de ocho siglos. Varios reinos se levanUiron sobre la ruina 
de la Monarquia Goda Espanola, destruyendo el que querian 
edificar los moros en el mismo terreno, regado con mas san- 
gre espanola, romana, cartaginesa, goda y mora de cuanto se 
puede ponderer con horror de la pluma que lo escrihaf y de 
los ojos que lo vean escrito. Pero la poblacion de esta pe- 
ninsula ere tal, que despues de tan largas guerras y tan sangri- 
entas, aun se contaban veinte millones de habitantes en ella« 
Incorpordronse tantas provincias, y tan diferentes, en dbs 
coronas, la de Castilla y la de Aragon ; y arobas en el ma- 
trimonio de Don Fernando y Dona Isabel, Principes que serin 
inmortales entre cuantos sepan lo que es gobiemo. La re- 
forma de abusos, aumento de ciencias, humillacion de los 
soberbios, amparo de la agriculture y otras opereciones seme- 
jantes formiron esta Monarquia : ayudoles la naturaleza con 
un nCmero increible de vasallos insignes en letras y armas ; y 
se pudieron haber lisongeado de dejar 4 sus sucesores un 
imperio mayor y mas duradero, que 61 de Roma antigua 
(contando las Americas nuevamentedescubiertas,) si hubieren 
logrado dejar su corona 4 un heredero varon. Negoles el 
delo este gozo 4 trueque de tantos como les habla concedido ; 
y su cetro paso 4 la casa de Austria, la qual gasto los tesoros, 
talentos y sangre de los Espanoles en cosas agenas de Espaiia 
por las continuas guerras, que asi en Alemania, como en 
Italia tuvo que sostener C4rlos I. de Espana ; hasta que 
cansado de sus mismas prosperidades 6 tal vez conociendo con 
prudencia las vicisitudf*8 de las cosas humanas, no quiso espo- 
nerse 4 sus reveses, y dejo el trono 4 su hijo Don Felipe II. 

Este Principe, acusado por la emulacioo, por ambicioso y 
politico como su padre, pero menos afortunado, siguiehdo los 


proyectos de Carlos, no pudo hallar los mismos sucesos aun 
^ co3ta de ejercitos, de armadas y de caudales. Murio de- 
jando ^ su pueblo estenuado con las guerras, afeminado con 
el oro y plata de America, disminuido con la poblacion de an 
mundo nuevo, disgustado con tantas desgracias, y deseoso de 
descanso. Paso el cetro por las manos de tres Prlncipes 
menos actives para manejar tan grande M onarquia, y en la 
muerte de Cirlos 11. no era Espana sino el esqueleto de 
un gigante/' 


Un hombre discrete preguntando d su hijo de donde venia, 
pues era tan tarde, le respondio : Padre, yo vengo de ver 
4 uno de mis amigos. De tus amigos, le respondio el padre 
sorprehendido. Tii tienes pues tantos amigos ! Oh I como 
has hecho siendo tan joven para alcanzar muchos ; pues que 
yo en mas de sesenta anos no he podido encontrar uno. 

£1 Caballero Tomas More, famoso Canceller de Ingla- 
terra, puesto enprision por Enrique octavo, dejo crecer sus 
cabellos y barba, y viniendo un barbero para cortarlos y afei- 
tarlo ; amigo, le dijo : el Key e yo pleiteamos sobre mi 
cabeza ; 6 yo no quiero hacer el menor gasto en este pleito, 
sin saber intes quien de los dos ha de disponer de ella. 

Luis doce, Rey de Francia, cuando era sino Duque de Or- 
leans, habla padecido muchos pesares de dos personas que 
habfan side favorites en el reinado precedente. Uno de sus 
allegados procuraba inspirarle que les mostrase resentimiento. 
No, respondio su Magestad, que indigno es dun Rey de Fran- 
cia tomar parte en la venganza del Duque de Orleans. 

Conrado tercero,Emperador, despues de haber tornado Mu- 
nick, determine pasar los hombres 4 filode la espada, permiti- 
endo solo d las mugeres salir de alH, pudiendo Uevar sobre el- 
las sus muebles mas preciosos. Estas mugeres aprovechando 
la ocasion tomiron sobre sus hombros 4 sus maridos, asegu- 
rando eran sus mas preciosos muebles. Esto agrado tanto al 
Emperador, que no solo perdono d los habitantes, sino tam- 
bien d su Principe que habia destinado 4 la muerte. 


La Reina Isabela obtervando la bdla gracia de on noUe 
Espaiiol en un torneo, le pregunto uo dia que le digese ab- 
soratameDte el nombre de su Dama. £1 Cspanol lo resistio 
algun tiempo. En fin cediendo 4 sa cariosidad, promedo 4 
su Magestad cnviarle su retrato. El dia siguiente bizo pre- 
sentar 4 su Magestad un paquedllo, donde la Reina no ba^ 
Uando sino un espejito^ quedo sonrojada al punto. 

Los cortesanos del Rey FQipo le aconsejaban que se ven- 
gase de un hombre que habfa nablado mal de el. Abates es 
menester saber^ si yo no le he dado razon^ dijo Filipo: y 
babiendose averiguado que el tal hombre jamas habia recibido 
coaa alguna, le envio ricos presentes. Supo el Rey poco 
despues que el mismo lo llenaba de alabanzas. Mirad pues, 
dijo 4 los cortesanos, que yo se mejor que vosotros apaci- 
guar una lengua mala. 

Continuando las disputas entre Francbco primero, Rey de 
Francia, y Enrique octavo, Rey de Inglaterra; resolvio 
este de enviar al primero un Embajador pprtador de pala- 
bras fieras y amenazas, para lo cual mzo elecion del Obispo 
Bonner en que tenia gran eonfianza. Este Obispo le dijo 
que ponia su vida en gran peligro, si daba talos recados 4 un 
Rey tan altivo como j^rancisco primero. No temas, le dijo 
el Rey, que si el Rey de Francia hiciese tal, yo harla caer 
mucbas cabezas de Franceses que est4n aqui. Pase por eilo, 
senor ; pero cual de esas cabezas me vendrla tan bien sobre 
los hombros como esta, poniendo el dedo 4 su sien. 

Cuando el Mariscal de la Ferte hizo su entrada en Metz, 
los judlos que alii eran tolerados se presentaron al cumplimi- 
ento con todo habitante ; y anuuciandolos en la antic4mara ; 
no quiero verlos, dijo : porque ellos hicieron niorir 4 nuestro 
Senor. Que no entren de ningun modo. Dijeronles pues 
que no podian ver 4 su Escelencia. A que replicaron sent!- 
dos, pues tralan un presente de cuatro mil doblones. Lo que 
dicho inmediatamente 4 su Rscelencia; oh bien! diles que 
entren ; que estos pobres diablos seguramente no lo conocian 
Guando lo crucific4ron. 


Cartas de Comercio, y Mode- 
los de una Faeturay un Co^ 
noeimietitOy una Cuenta^ 
Letras de Cambioy Carta 
FromUotia y Carta de 

Propuesta para una CorreS' 

Mijicoj 1 de Enero de 1825. 

Muy Senor mioy como esta 
es la primera vez que teogo el 
faoQor de dirijinDe 4 vm., es- 
pero que me perdonard la li- 
bertad que me he tomado. 

£1 ventajoao car^cter que 
mi buen amigo el Senor Don 
N. me ha dado de su persona 
y casa de vm., me anima 4 
pensar en una corresponden- 
cia mercantil que pueda ser 
ventajosa 4 vm. como 4 mi. 

Pero ante todas cosas, ne- 
cesito me franquee vm. el fa- 
vor de darme una relacion de 
los pesos y medidas que co- 
munmente se usan en Ingla- 
terra^porquecreoque se mfe- 
rencian mucho de los de este 

Yo estimare esta relacion 
como un favor particular, y 
vm. puede confiar en mi sin- 
ceridad y prontitud que le 
servire en cuanto dependa de 
mis facultades. 

Commercial Letters, and 
Models of an Invoice, 
Bill of Lading, an Ac- 
count, Bills of Exchange, 
Promissory Note and Let- 
ter of Credit. 

A Proposal for a Corres- 

Mexico^ January, 1, 1825. 

As this is the first time 
I have the honour of ad- 
dressing youj you willy I 
hope, excuse the liberty I 
have now taken. 

2%e honourable character 
my worthy friend Mr, N. has 
given me of your person and 
house J encourages me to think 
of a commercial correspon- 
dence which may be to our 
mutual advantage. 

But before thisy I must beg 
the favour to give me an ac- 
count of the weights and 
measures which are com^ 
monly used in England^ as I 
believe they differ materia 
ally from those in this coun- 

I shall esteem this as a par- 
ticular obligation, and you 
^"Miy rely upon my sincerity 
and readiness to serve you 
in whatever lies in my power. 



Esperando que vm. me faon- 

re con su favorable respuesia, 

quedo rogando 4 Dios me 

guarde su vida muchos aKos. 

B. L. M. de vm. 

In the expectation of^ur 
honouring me with afavom^ 
abk anstoer^ I remain^ 

Your obedient and 
humble servant. 

S»'. Don . 

Boston, Febreroy 1825. 

Muy Senor mio; me es 
muy apreciable el favor que 
he recibido de vm. en la del 
1^ del ult^, en la que me 
manifiesta los de86o8 que tiene 
de entablar conmigo una cor- 
respondencia mercantile yo 
me tendre por dichoso si pue- 
do corresponder & las es^- 
ranzas de vm., y & la id^a li- 
songera que se ha servido 
tomar de mi casa y familia. 
Vm. no ignora, que noso* 
tros los comerciantes debemos 
vivir de nuestra profesion, y 
promover nuestros intereses 
en cuanto sea compatible con 
el honor y la equidad. 

Yo admito la proposicion 
de vm., y en prueba de mi 
reconoctmiento, reraitire 4 
vm., por el primer buque que 
saiga de este puerto para ese, 
varias partidas fabricadas en 
este pals, y al precio mas bajo 
que se pueden dar ; la nomi- 
na de ellas, juntamente con 
los precios, ir4n insertas en 
las facturas. 

Espero serdn del gusto de 
vm.,y que servirdnde motivo 
para nuestro mayor conoci- 
miento y trato ; y este vm. 

Mr. . 

Boston, February, 1825. 

I am most agreeably fa- 
voured by yours ofthe^rst 
uU**, wherein you show a de^ 
sire to commence a commer- 
cial correspondence with me; 
I shall think myself happy 
if I can answer your expec- 
tations, and the jUttiertng 
idea you hattebeen pleased to 
form of my house (mdfamify. 

You weU know, that we 
merchants must Uve by our 
profession, and promote our 
interest as far as is coiuta- 
tent with Jumour and equity. 

I accept your proposal, and 
as a proof of my ociaov^ 
edgment, I wiU s&itd you, by 
the first vessel that sails from 
this port to your place, sun' 
dry parcels manufactured 
here, and at the hwesi prise 
that can be afforded; the 
particulars thereof , together 
with the prices, will be insert- 
ed in the invoices. 

I hope tltey will prove to 
. your satisfactifm, and be the 
foundation of our farther 
acguaintance and dealing ; 



seguro de que cualquiera cosa 
que confie i mi cuidado, ser4 
ejecutada y manejada con el 
mayor candor y fidelidad: y 
si estas raercaderias como las 
qiiepuede vm. necesHar en 
adelante^ al tiempo de enfar- 
delarlas 6 de cuaiquier otro 
modoy siifriesen alguna ave- 
rla,sehari la correspondiente 
rebaja, dindome vm. e! aviso. 
Incluyo 4 vm. muestras de 
otras producciones que pue- 
den tener despacho en ese 
laereado : y en este caso^ po- 
dre proveerle de todo cuanto 

Si vm. puede hacerme re- 
tomos cemodos con sus vinos 
esquisitos, aguardiente, y fru- 
to» ; €OBM> tambien dos zur- 
rones de cochinilla, y 20 
quintales debarrilla, se le dari 
i vm. su comision ; el corre- 
taje, almacenasgo y todos los 
demas gastos de puerto se' 
pagardn 4 parte. 

En consecuencia de las 6r- 
denes de vm., le envlo un es- 
tado de las pesas y medidas 
de Inglaterra ; y ademis la 
diferencia de las monedas de 
Espaiia y las nuestras. To- 
cante 4 la subida, y baja de 
los cambtos y fondos, se infor- 
mar4 vm. por nuestros papeles 

Quedo rogando 4 Dios 
me guarde su vida mu- 
vm. Su atento amigo. 

and assure yourself that what- 
ever you trust to my charge j 
shall be performed and manr 
aged with the greatest can- 
dour and fidelity imaginor 
hie ; and if these goc^ or 
those you may want hereaf- 
ter, should suffer any aver- 
age in the packing or other* 
wise, proper allowance wiU 
he made, upon notice. 

I herewith send you a sam- 
ple of other staple cotnmodi' 
ties which may answer your 
market; in that case, you 
may be furnished with every 
article you want. 

If you can conveniently 
make returns in some of your 
exquisite winesy brandy, and 
fruits; as also two zeroons 
of cochineal, and of kelp* 
20 quintals, you smU have 
your commission ; broker^ 
age, storage and aU oth- 
er pori-charges will be paid 

Pursuant to your orders, I 
send you a statement of the 
weights and measures used 
in England; as also the dif 
fermce of the value of coins 
between Spain and ours. Of 
the rise and faU of exchange 
and stocks, you may be in- 
formed by our public pa- 

I remain your obedient 
humble servant, and 
respectful friend. 

* Kelp le Uama tamMen bariUaw Io|^lci. 


COaUIBftClAt. ftOGUllBMT^ 


Factum de las Mercaderfas embarcadas por el S*''. Don 
Agustin S. para los Senores CriHSval B. I k^o8 de Cadiz, 4 
b«rdo del Navio nombrado el Cimej su Cafutan Martin D^ 
destinado para dicbo Cadiz, por orden y cuenta de los 
dicbos Senores, siendo numersuias y marcadas como ague, 

j4 saber : 
No. 1 4 2. p 2 Zurrones de Cochinilla ... 
1 4 75. > 75 Quintales de Azafran - - - 
C. B.E. }dl5Cajasde Aziicar .... 

Suma, $ 
Derecbos y Gastos - . - 
Comision 4 5 por ciento - 

Suma total, $ 

Boston y Abril 9, de 1825. 

Salvo Yerro y Omision. 


Un Conocimiento. 

LondreSf FebrerOy 1825. 

Yo vecino de 

Maestro que soy del buen 
Navio (que Dies salve) nom- 
brado N. N., que al presente 
cst4 surto y anclado en el rio 
T4mesi8, puerto de Londres, 
para con la buena ventura 
seguir este presente viage al 

Suerto de Cadiz ; conozco 
aber recibido, y tengo car- 
gado dentro del dicho mi Na- 
vio debajo de cubierta, de vos 
N. N., seis fardos de baqueta 
de M oscovia, siete dicbos de 
pano Ingles, echo de estofas^ 

A Bill of Lading. 

London, February, 1825. 
Shipped bv the Grace of 
God in gooH order and todl 
conditioned^ by Mr, (or Mes" 
srs) N. N. in and upon the 
good ship coiled N. 2V., where- 
of is master under God, for 
this present voyage, -^— 
now riding at anchor in the 
river Thames at London, and 
by GocPs aid bound for Co- 
diz: to wit} six bales of 
Russia leather, seven ditto of 
English sloths, eight ditto of 
stujfs, nine ditto of bays, ten 
ditto of says and serges, five 




Invoice of Merchandixe shipped by Mr. Auoustin S. for 
Messrs. Cheistopber B. & Sons of Cadizj on board the 
Ship named Swan, her Master Martin D., bound to said 
Cadiz f per order and account of the said Gentkmeny being 
numbered and marked as follows j 


2 Zeroons of Cochineal - . - 
75 Quintals of Saffron - - - 
315 Boxes of Sugar - - - - 

Jmounif $ 
Duties and Charges - - 
Commission at 5 per Cent. 

No- 1 a 2. 

la 75. 

C. B. E. 

Totals $ 

Errors and Omissions excepted. 
Boston^ 9th April^ 1825. R. D. T. 

nueve de bayetas, diez de 
anascotes y sargas, quinientas 
piezas de lienzo superfino de 
la fibrica de Irlanda, setenta 
dichasde batistas, cincuenta 
tablas de manteles adamasca- 
dos y cincuenta docenas de 
servilletas, un cajon de hoja 
de lata, dos de laton 6 azofar, 
tres de acero, cuatroquintales 
de cobre, seis cajas de relojes 
de &ltFiquera y dijes, seis 
cajones de quinquilleria 6 bu- 
honerla, nete dehenrainieDtas 
de corte, todo enjuto y bien 
acondicionadO| numerados y 
marcados con la marca al 
m^rgen. Cod lo cual prome- 

hundred pieces of superfine 
Irish Hneny seventy ditto of 
cambric^ fifty diaper table 
clothsy and fifty dozen of 
napkins^ one chest of tin^ tu>o 
ditto of latten or brass, three 
ditto Of steel, four quintals of 
copper, six boxes of watches 
and trinkets, six chests of 
hardware, seven ditto of edge 
tools, all in good order and 
condition, marked and num- 
bered as in the margin ; and 
are to be delivered in the Hke 
good order and condition (the 
dangers of the seas only ex- 
cepted) in the aforesaid port 
unto Mr. N. N. or Messrs. 



to, y me obligo, Ilevindome 
Dies en bueo sidvamento con 
el dicbo mi Navio al espresa- 
do pueito, de acudir y entre- 
gar, por vos y en vuestro 
nombreydiclioa g6nercw igual- 
mente enjutos, y bien acon- 
dicionados (salvo los peligros 
del mar) & Don N. N. 6 4 los 

Seaoreft 6 i quien alii 

por el fuere parte : pag4n- 
dome de flete 4 razon de 
cuarenta sbelines esterlines 
porcada tondada, con diez 
por ciento de capa y averf a. 
Y en fe de que asi me oblige 
4 cumplir, os doy tres conoci- 
roientos de un tenor, firmados 
de mi nombre, por ml 6 mi 
escribano; el uno cumplido, 
los otros no valgan. Fecha 
en Londres 4 primero de 
Febrero de 1825. 

y or his or (their) atr 

signs; he or (they) paying 
freight at the rate of forty 
shillings per ton^ with the usu- 
al primage and average. In 
mtness whereof y the said 
Commander or his clerk has 
signed three bills of lading, 
all of this tenor and date ; 
one of which being fulfilled, 
the other two to stand void* 
Dated in London, the 1st day 
of February, 1S25. 

Cadiz, Marzo, 1825. 
Muy Senor mio. He reci- 
bido la estimada de vm. del 
primero de Febrero con el 
conocimiento de diversas mer- 
caderias embarcadas abordo 
del Navio llamado el , 

lodo lo cual ha sido debida^ 
mente recibido en buena or- 
den y condicion : los g^neros 
son todos de mi satis&ccion, 
y espero que tendr4n pronto 
despacho. Inclusa va una 
letra de cambio contra los 
Seiiores , de esa ciu* 

dad, que monta — ^ 4 uso* 

y medio, que vm. se servir4 

', ae esa ciu* , of yi 

4 uso* amount of • 

n. se servir4 and a half m 

Cadis, Marcby 1825. 


The favour of yours of the 

1st February came safe to 

hand with the biU of lading 

of sundries shipped on board 

the ship caUed the ?-, 

aU of which are duly re-* 
deved in good order and 
condition: Ihavefotmd the 
goods to my mind, and I 
hope will suit our market. 
You will receive herewith a 
Bill of Exchange on Messrs. 
of your city, to the 

amount of , at one 

and a half usance, which be 

The uto is two months in Sp«ln. 


cargar 4 mi cuenta ; el saldo pleased to place to my cred- 

que aun resta se remitir^ sin it ; the balance which rc- 

dilacion ^ su ttempo. mairts due shall he punctually 

Quedo rogando 4 Dios remitted in its time. 

guarde 4 vm. muchos anos. / have the honour to be 

B. L. M. de vm. Respectfully, 

Su mayor servidor. Your humble servant. 

A' D . To Mr. 

Del Comercio de Londres. Merchant in London. 

Cadiz, dlosS^.N. F. 

Paris d24de Marzo de 1825. 

Muy S^. mio8 : confirmo 4 vms. mi ult^ de 8 del pas^<>. ; 
despues recibo las muy favorecidas de vms. 29 del mbmo 2 
y 4 del cor^. en que me incluyen una letra de • . . . francos 
4 cargo del S"". N. del la q«. les he dado credito. Tengo 
aun en mi po^er la letra de cambio del S^'. B. de q*. procu- 
rare el page. No habiendole hallado en su casa, le he 
hecho avisar p^. q*. me haga el pago de ella i su termino. 
Por lo q«. mira 4 la otra remesa de vms. contra los S^^". A y 
comp., no la ban aceptado aun, suplic^ndome que aguarde 
hasta el Idnes que es el dia de correo de Espana : asi lo he 
hecho ; veremos el resultado, y en caso q^. no la paguen, se 
la devolvere 4 vms. con la protesta al correo prox*. 

Las cambiales 4 largos dias pierden aqui un 5. p. 100 al 
anoy y aun medio p. 100 al mes ; y asi lo ha entendido el S^^ 
A. en la negociacion de la letra que vms. ban librado con- 
tra el ; si estuviera en mi mano, podria obtener un lucre de 
ella en el pag^. de enero con medio p. 100 de beneficio, de- 
ducido la rebaja. Doy 4 vms. gracias por la orden que se ban 
«ervido dar 4 su casa de Paris, p^. q*. pague por mi ... 4 los 
S^^. P., les he abonado de conformidad en su cuenta. Remito 
4 vms. aqui adjuntas 3 letras de cambio 4 60 dias de vista. 
Una 4 cargo del S'^r. Don £. por, fr. 3,000 
Otras dos sobre los S***. H. y comp. 

de 1000 cada una, 2,000 

Perdida 4 1 p. 100, 

Slrvanse vms. hacerlas aceptar y abonarme de 4,950 por 
su importe, deducida la perdida. Interin quedo rogando 4 
Pios guarde 4 vuestras Mercedes muchos anos como desea, 

Su mayor servidor. X. 












Letra de Cambio. 
La Primera. 

Londresy 1825. 

For ^400 esterlinas. 

A^ dos usos (6 a uso y ma- 

dto, 6 d ocho dias vista) se 

servir4 vm. mandar pagar por 

esta mi primera de cambio * 4 

Don , 6 4 su orden, cua- 

tro cientas libras esterlinas, 
valor recibido de D. N. N., 
que sentar^ vm. como por 
aviso. M. N. 

A' Don. . 

Coiperciante en Cadiz. 


Aviso de una Letra de Cam- 

Londres 1 de Enero de 1825. 

May Senor mio. Hoy mis- 
mo he librado contra vm. una 
letra de cambio, i uso y medio, 

4 favor de Don , 6 4 su 

orden, por la cantidad de cua- 
trocientas libras esterlinas, 
que me hari vm. la fineza de 
honrar, y cargar k mi cuenta. 

Quedo rogando k Dios me 
guarde su vida mnchos anos. 
B. L. M . de vm. 

s. s. s. 

A' Don , 

Del comercio de Cadiz. 

La Segunda. 

Londres. 1825. 
Por ^400 esterlinas. 
A^ dos usos se servird vm. 
pagar por esta mi segunda 

A Bill of Exchange. 
The First. 

London, 1825. 

For c£400 sterling. 

At double usance (or at 

usance and a half, or at eight 

days sight) pay this my first 

bill of exchange to Mr, ^ 

or order y the sum offourhun" 
dred pounds sterling, value 
received of Mr, N. N. and 
place it to account as per 
advice. M. N. 

To Mr. . 

Merchant in Cadiz. 


Advice of a Bill of Ex- 

London January 1, 1825. 

I have this day drawn on 
you a bill of exchange, at 
one and a half usance, in 

favour of Mr. , or 

his order, for four hundrecf 
pounds sterling, which I beg 
you to honour, and place 
to my account. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, respectfully, 
your obedient servant. 

To Mr. , 

Merchant in Cadiz, 

The Second. 

Londpn, 1825. 
For ^400 sterling. 
At double usance pay this 
my second bill of Exchange 



de cambio (no habiendolo 
hecho por la priinera) & Don 
N. N. o ^ 8u orden cuatro ci- 
entas llbras esterlinas. Sue 
£1 CndoBo. 
P^ese 4 DoD N. N. 6 
K su ordeiiy valor en 
cuenta con^ (6 valor 
recibidode) dicbo. 

Carta Prxnmwria. 

lAmdreSy 1 de Eneroj 1 825. 

A^ uso y medio contado 
desde la presente dati^ pro- 

meto pagar 4 Don , 6 4 

su orden, la cantidad de 
— — , por valqr recibido 
en dinero contado, 6 en g6- 
neros 4 mi satisfaccion. 


(first not paid) to Mr, 
IV. N, or order y the sum cf 
four hundred pounds ster- 
Ung, ^c. 

The Endorsement. 
Patf to Mr. N.N.orhis 
orckr, value in ac- 
count withy (or value 
receivedjromj the said. 

Prommissory Note. 

London, January 1, 1825. 

j4t one and a half usance 
after datSj I promise to pay 

to Mr. , or his orderj 

the sum of , for val- 

ue received in ready money f 
or in goods to my saiisf ac- 



Carta de Cridito. 

LondreSy 1 de Enero de 1825. 
\ Muy Senor mio. Vmd. 
recibir4 esta de la mano del 

Senor Don , (que pasa 4 

viajar por diversas partes de 
£uropa) y me nar4 la fineza 
de proveerle de cartas de re- 
comendacion para las princi- 
pales ciudades de Gspana ; su 
objeto es salir de aqui inmedi- 
atamente para esa. Creo 
que tendr4 vmd. mucho gusto 
en tratarle por ser un caba- 
llero igualmente distinguido 
pof su merito personal y por 
au nacimiento ; por lo que, es- 
pero que vm. le franquee la 

Letter of Credit. 

London, January 1, 1825. 

You wiU receive this by the 

hands of Mr. ^ (who is 

upon his travels into divers 
parts of Europe) and I beg 
you will provide him with 
recommendatory letters to the 
principal cities in Spmn : his 
design is to set out from 
hence for your city immedi' 
ately. I think you mil be 
pleased with his acquaint- 
anccy (MS he is a gentleman 
equally distinguished for his 
personal merit and birth; be 
so kind, thereforcy to give 



mas generosa recepcion^ y du- 
rante su estada en esa ciudad 
le sirva con todo el acatami- 
ento que este en su poder. 
Al mismo tiempo me har4 
vm. el favor de franque- 
arle sobre doble recibo el 
dinero que necesite hasta 

la suma de que podr4 

vm- reembolsar cargandolo 4 
mi cuenta, enviindome uno 
de sus recibos. Espero 
que VM. me desempenarl 
como amigo en este asunto ; 
y mientras, 

Quedo rogando 4 Diosme 
guarde su vida muchos anos. 
B. L. M. de vm. 

s. s. s. 

Af Don , 

Banquero de Cadiz. 

him the heH reception, and 
nerve him as effectually as in 
your power during his abode 
in your city. You will also 
do me the favour to supply 
him on his double receipt with 
what money he may have OC" 
casionfor, to the amount of 

, for which you may 

reimburse yourself by charge 
ing it to my account, and 
transmitting one of his re- 
^^ifpis to me, I hope you will 
attend to this my request as a 
friend^ and in the mean time, 
I have the honour to be. 

Your obedient servant. 

To Mr. , 

Banker in Cadiz, 

Confirmacion de la anterior 
enviada por el Correo. 

Londresy 1 de Enero, 1825. 

Muy Senor mio. Con esta 
data he escrito 4 vm. otra 
que le entregar4 el Senor 
— — , caballero Ingles, con 
cuya casa tengo la mayor in- 
timidad ; y deseando servirle 
por su cuenta be tornado con 
gusto esta ocasion que se me 
ofrece: Por tanto con el ma- 
yor empeno suplico 4 vmd. le 
procure todas las diversiones 
e informes, de forma que se 
balle gustoso en esa ciudad. 
Tambien se servir4 vm. de 
franquearle todo el dinero que 
pidere, basta la ^antidad de 

Confirtnation of tbo preced- 
ing sent by the Post. 

London, January 1, 1825. 


I wrote to you this day a 

letter which will be delivered 

to you by Mr, , an En- 

glish gentleman, with w1u)se 

family I am very intimate: 
and desirous of serving him 
on his own account I have 
embraced with pleasure this 
opportunity which offers, I 
therefore most earnestly re- 
quest of you to procure him 

. such diversions and informor 
tion as may render his stay 
in your city agreeable, Yoa 
will also phase to supply him 
with all the money he may 



— tomiodole recibo doble 
por lo que le entregue ; uno 
de lo8 cuales me enviar4, y lo 
cargar4 4 mi cuenta. laclu- 
sa va 8u firma para que vm. 
la i^oooKca, y la honre como 
coresponde. Yo me Hsod j6o 
de que vm. tendr4 mucho 
gusto en lograr el coiiocimi- 
ento de un bello joven cabal- 
lero, que ha recibido la mejor 

Qncdo regando 4 Dios roe 

guarde sii vida muchos anos. 

B. L. M. de vm. 

s. s. s. 

So'.Don . Cadiz. 

ask to the amount of , 

taking of him a double re- 
ceipt for the same, one of 
which you will send, to me, 
and you will charge it to my 
account. 1 hare enclosed herC" 
in his signaturej that you 
may know ity and conduct 
yourself accordingly, I jUU- 
ter myself you wiU be much 
pleased in enjoying the ac- 
quaintance of a sensible 
young gentleman, who has 
had an excellent education, 
I have the honour to be. 
Most respectfully y 
Your obedient servant, 
Mr. . Cadiz. 

Cartas criticas de tm Moro vinjante en Espana. 
For Don Jose' Cadalso. 


De Gazel a Ben-Beley. 

ACN DO me hallo capaz de obedecer 4 las nuevas iustan- 
cias que me haces sobre que te remita las observaciones que 
voy haciendo en la capital de esta vasta monarqufa. Sabes 
tu cuantas cosas se necesitan para formar una verdadera idea 
del pais en que se viaja ? Bien es verdad, que habiendo 
hecho varios viages por Curopa, me hallo mas capaz, 6 por 
mejor dectr, con menos obst^culos que otros Africanos ; 
pero aun asi he hallado tanta diferencia entre los Europeos, 
que no basta el conocimiento de uno de los palses de esta 
parte del mundo, para juzgar de otros estados de la misraa. 
Los Europeos no parecen vecinos, aunque la esterioridad 
los haya uniformado en mesas, teatros, paseos, ejercito, y 
lujo : no obstante las leyes, vicios, virtudes, y gobierno son 
sumamente diversos, y por consiguiente las costumbres pro- 
pias de cada nacion. 

CA&TAS fiseooIDAS. 401 

Aun dentro de la £spanola hay variedad increible en el 
car^cter de sus provincias. Un Andaluz en nada se parece 
^ un Vizcaino ; un Catalan es totalmente distinto de un 
Gallego ; y lo mismo sucede entte un Valenciano y un Mon- 
tanes. Esta peninsula, dividida tantos siglos en diferentes 
reinos, ha tenido siempre variedad de trages, leyes, idiomas, 
y monedas. 

Acabo de leer la Historia de Espana, y me parece que de 
la relacion se puede inferir,lo primero ; que esta peninsula no 
ha gozado una paz que pueda Uamarse tal en cerca de dos 
mil anoSj y que por consiguiente es maravilla, que aun ten- 
gan yerbas los campos^ y aguas las fuentes. Lo segundo ; 
qne habiendo sido la religion motive de tantas guerras cob- 
tra los descendientes de Tariff no es mucho que sea objeto 
de todas sus acciones. Lo tercero ; que la continuacion de 
estar con las armas en la mano, les haya hecho mirar con 
desprecio el comercio e industria raecinica. Lo cuarto ; que 
de esto mismo nazca lo mucho que cada noble en Enpana se 
eDvanece de su nobleza. Lo quinto ; que los muchos cau- 
dales adquiridos rdpidamente en Indias, distraen 4 muchos 
de cultivar las artes mec^nicas en la peninsula y de aumen- 
tar su poblacion. 

Las demas consecuencias morales de estos eventos politi- 
cos las iris notando en las cartas que te escribire sobre estos 

Del mismo ai mismo* 

£1 atraso de las ciencias en Es]>ana en este siglo quiea 
puede dudar que procede de la falta de proteccion que ha- 
llao sus profesores ? Hay cocheros en Madrid, que ganan 
trescientos pesos duros ; pero no hay quien no sepa que se 
ha de morir de hambre,^ como se entregue 4 las ciencias, e»* 
ceptuadas las de pane hicrando^ que son las finicas que dan 
de comer. 

Los pocos que cultivan las otras, son como los aventare- 
ros Viiluntarios de los ej^rcitos que no llevan paga y se ea- 
ponen mas. Es un gusto oirlos hablar de matemiticas, fisica 
modema, historia natural, derecho de gentes, antigiiedades, 
y letras humanas, 4 veces con mas recato que si hicieran 


moneda falsa. Yiven eu la obscuridad y mueren como viv 
vieron^ tenidos por sabius superficlales en el concepto de I09 
que sabeo poner soteuta y siete silogismos seguidos sobre, si 
los ctelos son fliiidos 6 solidos. 

Hablando pocos dias ha con un sabio escolastico de los 
mas condecorados en sa carrera, le oi esta cspresion con 
motivo de haberse nonibrado d un sugeto escelente en mate- 
miticasy «i en su pais »e apUcan mucho d esaa cosillasy C4tmo 
matemdiicoMf lengnas orierUtdegf fisica^ derecho de genfes, y 
oirat »emefante». Pero yo te aseguro^ Ben-Beley, que si 
sefialasen premios para los profesores, premios de honor 6 
de interesy 6 de ambos, que progresos no harian ! Si hubiese 
siquiera quien los protegiese^ se esmerarian sin mas estlmulo 
positivo ; pero no hay protectores. 

Tan persuadido est4 mi amigo Nuno, de esta verdad^ que 
hablando de esto, me dijo : en otros tiempos. alii cuando me 
imaginaba, que era util y glorioso dejar faraa en el mundo^ 
tral^je una obra sobre varias partes de la literatura que ha- 
bla cuUivado, aunque eon mas amor que buen suceso. Quise 
que saliese bajo la sombra de algun poderoso, como es natu* 
ral i todo autor principiante. Oi 4 un magnate decir^ que 
tod OS los autores eran locos : 4 otro, que las dedicatorias 
eran estafas : i otro, que renegaba de el que invento et papel ; 
otro se burlaba de los hombres que se unaginaban saber at- 
go : otro me insinuo, que la obra que le seria mas acepta^ 
serf a la Ictra de una tonadilla : otro me dijo, que me viera 
con un criado suyo, para tratar de esta materia ; otro ni me 
quiso hablar : otro ui me quiso responder ; otro ni me quiso 
escuchar : y de resultas de todo esto tome la determinacion 
de dedicar el fruto de mis desvelos al mozo que trafa el agua 
4 casa. 


Del mismo al mismo, 

' Cuando hice el primer viage por Europa, te di noticia de 
un pals que llaman Francia, y est4 mas alii de los montes 
Pirineos. Desde luglaterra me fue muy facil y corto el 
trinsito. Registre sus provincias septentrtonales ; llegue 4 
su capital, pero no pude examinarla a mi gusto, por ser cor- 
to el tiempo que podia gastar entonces en elJo, y ser mucho 
el que so necesita para ejecutarlo con provecho. 



Ahora he visto la parte meridional de ella^ saliendo de 
Espaaa por Cataluiia, y entrando por Guipuzcoa, internin- 
dome hasta Leon por un lado, y Burdeos por otro. 

Los Franceses estin tan roal queridos en este siglo, como 
los Cspanoles lo eran en el anterior ; sin duda, porquo uno y 
otrQ siglo han sido precedidos de las eras gloriosas respecti- 
vas de cada nacion, que fue la de Cirlos V para Espaiia, y 
la de Luis XIV para Francia. Este iiltimo es mas recienle; 
con que tambien es mas fuerte su efecto ; pero bien examina- 
da la causa, creo hallar mucha preocupacion de parte de to- 
das los Europeos contra las Frauceses. Conozco, que el 
desenfreno de su juventud ; la mala conducta de algunos que 
viajan fuera de su pais, profesaodo un sumo desprecio de to- 
do lo que no es Francia ; el lujo que ha corrompido la Euro- 
pa ; y otros motives semej antes repugnan 4 todos sus veci- 
nos mas sobrios ; 4 saber, al Espanol religioso, al Italiano 
politico, al Ingles sober bio, al Holandes avaro, y al Aleman 
ispero ; pero la nacion entera no debe padecer la nota por 
culpa de algunos individuos. En ambas vueltas, que he da- 
do por Francia, he hallado en sus provincias (que siempre 
mantienen las costumbres mas puras que la capital) un trato 
hum^no, cortes y afable para los estrangeros, no producido 
de la vantdad de que se les visite y admire, (como puede 
9uceder en Paris), sino dimanado verdaderamente de un cora- 
zon franco y sencillo, que halla gusto en procurdrselo al des- 
conocido. Ni aun dentro de su capital, que algunos pintan 
como el centro d^ todo desorden, confusion y lujo, faltan 
hombres verdaderamente respetables. Todos l6s que Ilegan 
d cierta edad, son sin duda los mas sociables del tFniverso ; 
porque desvanecidas las tempestades de su juventud, les 
queda el fondo de una Indole sincera, prolija educacion (que 
en este pais es comun) y esterior agradable, sin la astucia del 
Italiano, la soberbia del Ingles, la aspereza del Aleman, la 
Bvaricia del Holandes,. y el despego del Espanol. 

En llegando d lbs cuarenta anos, se transforma el Frances 
en otro hombre distinto de lo que era d los veinte. El mili- 
tar concurre al trato civil con suma urbanidad ; el magistra- 
do con sencillez, y el particular con sosiego ; todos con ade- 
manes de agasajar al estrangero que se halla medianamente 
introducido por su Embajadof , calidad, talento u otro motivo. 
Se ent ende todo esto entre la gente de forma ; que con la 
inediana y coman el mismo becho de ser estrangero, es una 


recomendacion superior 4 cuantas puede llevar el que 

La nusma desenvoltura de los jovenes, insufnble 4 quieo 
no loi coDoce, tiene un do se que, que los hacc ainables. 
Por eJla se descubre todo el faombre interior, incapaz de rem* 
cores, astucias bajas, ni iuteDcion danada. Come procuro 
indagar precbamente el car4cter de las cosas verdadero, j 
DO graduarlas por las apariencias, casi siempre enganosas, no 
me parece tan odioso aquel bullicto y descomfiostura, por lo 
que Uevo dicho. Del mismo dict^men es mi amigo Nuno, 
no obstante lo quejoso que estd de que los Franceses no sean 
igualmente imparciales, cuando hablan de los Espanoles. 


De BenrBeley d Gazel 

Acabo de leer el Ultimo libro de los que me has enviado 
en los varies viages que has becho por Europa ; con el cual 
Uegan d algunos centenares las obras Europeas de dtstintas 
naciooes y tiempos que he leido. Gazel ! Gazel ! sin^duda 
tendras por grande lo que voy 4 decirte ; y si publicas este 
mi dict4men, no habr4 Europeo que no me llame b4rbaro 
Africano ; pero la amistad que te profeso, es muy grande, 
para dejar de corresponder con mis observaciones 4 las tuyas; 
mi sinceridad es tanta, que en nada puede mi lengua hacer 
traicion 4 mi pecho. En este supuesto digo, que de los li- 
bros que he referido, he hecho la siguiente separacion. He 
escogido cuatro de matem4ticas, en los que admiro la esten- 
sion y acierto que tiene el entendimiento humanp cuando va 
bien dirigido : otros tantos de filosofia escol46tica, en que me 
asombra la variedad de ocurrencias estraordinarias que tiene 
el hombre, cuando no precede sobre principios ciertos y evi- 
dentes : uno de medicina, al que falta un tratado complete de 
los simples, cuyo conocimiento es diez mil veces mayor en 
A^frica : otro de anatomla, cuya lectura fue sin duda la que 
dio motivo al cuento del loco, que se iiguraba tan quebradizo 
eomo el vidrio : dos de los que rcforman las costumbres, en 
las que advierto lo mucho que aun tienen que reformar; 
cuatro del conocimiento de la naturaleza, ciencia que Uaman 
filosofia ; en los que noto lo mucho que ignoraron nuestrot 
abuelos, y lo mucho mas que tendr4n que aprender nuestrot 


nietos. Algunos de poesia, delicioso delirio del alma^ que 
prueba la ferocidad en el hombre si la aborrece ; puerilidad^ 
si la profesa toda la vida ; y suavidad^ si la cultiva algun 

Todas las demas obras de las ciencias humanas las he arro- 
jado 6 distribuido, por parecerme inutiles estractos^ compen- 
dios defectuosos, y copias imperfectas de lo ya dicho, y rq- 
petido una y mil veces. 

Del Padre Jose'' Francisco de Isl a^ escritas d varios sugetos. 


El Padre de hla d su hermana. 

La Coruna 24 de Setiembre de 1755. 
Mi amada Maria Francisca : discuiro que tus oraciones y 
las de tu penitenciario me consiguieron un tiempo tan feliz 
hasta una legua intes de llegar d la Coruna, en que me llovio 
un poco, sin duda para que conociese lo mucho que debia i 
las devotas almas que me encomendaban i Dios ; y acaso 
ser^ efecto de lo mismo la descomposicion de vientre que 
me dura tres dias ha ; pues como no prosiga adelante, ser& 
mas beneficio que indisposicion, aunque sirva de molestia 
mientras persevere. Tu salud me tiene con mas cuidado de 
el que manifiesto, siendo razon que yo oculte mi dolor i, quien 
por no aumentdrmele me dissimula lo que padece, porque 
asi lo pide la buena correspondencia. Nunca he pretendido 
saber mas de lo que me quisieren decir, ni que me quieran 
mas de lo que me quisieren quer(*r ; con que siendo en este 
punto sumamente ficil la conformidad, solo aspirare d mani- 
festar en todas ocasiones que ninguno te ama ni puede 
amarte mas que 

Tu amante hermano y padrino^ 




Delmismo d tu tufiado. 

Villagareia 2 de Enero de 1756. 

Amado hermano y amigo : no es de estranar que en cor^ 
rho de pascuas (1) y en la misma vlspera de ellas hubiesen 
tvdado tanto en dar cartas. Si el mundo amaneciera on 
ano con juicio, en ningun tiempo se debiera tardar menos ; 
pero dejemorie cocrer su tren, pues no se puede remediar. 
No obstante yo he coiisegmdo este ano no haber recibido 
hasta abora mas que tres cartas de pascuas, y esas de gente 
novieia en mi correspandencia, 4 escepcion del Senor Tat 
ranco, 4 quien^ por mas que be becbo, no he podido espeler 
del cuerpo este espfritu maligno, siendo las puscuas mas se- 
guras en su carta que en el ctdendario. 

Diviertete en leer esa necia satisfaccion que me da N . . . 
4 la pieza que me jugo^ suponiendo que yo habia de ir 4 Vil- 
lar de Frades 4 esperar el coche para dar las ordenes 4 ios 
cocberos. A114 tiene una respuesta, cual la merece su bobe- 
ria, con el nuevo c^ode que su hijo pasase 4 vista de Vi- 
llagareia sin entrar en ella ; y suponiendo que el por si no 
era capaz de faacerla, si no medi4ran las instrucciones de su 
padre, le pregunto que motivo le be dado para que le instru- 
yesetan mal; el me ba dado malos rates, pero no Ios llevar4 
buenos con mis cartas, y estoy esperando las de padre e bijo 
para ver por doude parten. Este ultimo es natural que 
trueque el viage de Portugal por el de Paris, adonde dicen 
que ir4 el Conde de Aranda por embajador ordinario des- 
pues de haber evacuado ya su embajada estraordinaria, que 
parece se redujo precisamente 4 condolencia por la destruc- 
cion de Lisboa, y a socorrer 4 aqueUos Principes con cau- 
dales y con generos. 

Recibi una carta atrasadisima de D. Miguel de Medina, 
en que me resume lo que le escribe Mascarefias, desde el cam* 
po delante de la quefnt Ldsboa^ d Ios diez y ocho dias de su 
total destruccion. Dice que se salvo con toda su familia en- 
tre una espesa lluvia de piedras y de cascajo por especial 
proteccion de la santisima virgen, habiendo visto primero 
desplomarse toda su casa, y despues arder con todos Ios 

(1) Pd9eua en Esparkol f igrnifica todas las graades fiestas, cspe* 
cialmente las d« ^avidad. 


muebles, alhajas y papeles. Estos filtimos y los libros son 
los que mas le duelen, no habi^ndose eximido mas que unos 
pocos que tenia eli una quinta, y un cajon de ellos 
que le llego de Madrid, el dia despues de la fatali- 
dad. Solo pide d Medina mas y mas libros, especial- 
mente de arquitectura, porque el rey de Portugal trata de 
edificar una nueva corte de planta en parage distinto de la 
antigua, aunque este todavia no se ha determinado. A ml aun 
no me ha escrito, no obstante tener tres 6 cuatro cartas mias, 
pero ni lo estrano, ni me quejo. 

Lleg4ron los diez y ocho barriles de escabeches y de dulce, 
fouenos todos, k escepcion de uno de sardinas, quedeblade es* 
tar mal calafeteado, y se abrio en el camino. Repito gracias, 
y renuevo todo lo que te suplique eh la posta pasada. 

Dime, si has rectbido ese cajoncillo de cigarros de la Ha- 
-bana, porque cada dia me confirmo mas en la sospecha de 
alguna maniobra del mesonero de ViUar de Frades, en cuyo 
poder los puso el P. Manuel de Barachaguren, administrador 
de esta iglesia ; y el plcaro del mesonero no hay forma de 
decir como se Uamaba el maragato 4 quien dice se los en- 
trego, y que se obligo 4 Uevarlos. A^ntes de ayer vino de 
all4 Pinilla, que esti encargado de esta averiguaciouj y solo 
me trajo razon de que el maragato habla vuelto k pasar i 
Madrid, y que k su regreso a Santiago le harla cargo el me- 
sonero de dicho cajoncillo. fo hubiera ya ido en persona k 
Yillar de Frades k liquidar este embuste y k escarmentar al 
mesonero, si el tiempo lo hubiera permitido ; pero k reserva 
de dos dias que por fuerza eran ocupados en la iglesia, todos 
los demas han sido intratables. 

Hubo carta de Roma de 17 de noviembre ; pero nada 
dice de congregacion ni del P. Idiaquez. Tampoco me 
ocurre mas anadiri sino rogar k Dios te me guarde como ha 

Tu amante hermano y amigo. 



Del mismo al mismo. 

Bijrgos 21 de Enero de 1757. 
Amado herteano y amigo : sail de Villagarcla el dia 15 : 
en el se estanco dos veces la calesa sobre el hielo, y la segun- 


pa vei ettUTO encioia de el desde las cuatro de la tarde hasta 
las ODce del dia siguiente, y nosotros dentro de ella por espa- 
cio de tres horas. SocoirieroDnos caritativamente de un lo- 
gar veciooy envi^ndonos caballerias para que subiesemos a 
ei,y Uegamos como puedes considerar. Alii tomamos otras 
dos mulas para que ayudasea 4 romper el hielo y Dieve hasta 
Palencia : pero auQ asi do quise eolrar en la <^esa, y fui 4 
caballo hasta la misma ciudad. En ella me detuve dia y me- 
dio : tome otra calesa, meioro el tiempo, y voy caminando, 
gracias a Dios, con felicidad, despues de haber padecido 
muchas tentaciones de volverme k mi colegio* 

No ten^o tiempo de escribir a Maria Francisca^ ni 4 las 
deraas personas que me hacen merced, y sinra esta para to- 
das. Hoy llegue 4 Burgos entre mil trabaiosy peligros. 
Manana parto tomando de aqui otras dos mulas para pasar 
]os montes de Oca, que son lo mas peligroso del camino. La. 
salud bnena, 4 escepcion del pecho, que se me cerro el dia 
que estuve sobre el hielo. A' Dios. 

Tu hermano JOSE\ 

Delmismoal mismo. 

Zaragoza 18 de Marzo de 1756. 
Amado hermano y amigo ; segun lo que me dices en la 
tuya de dos del corriente, contemplo ya 4 madre en la otra 
vida, y 4 padre muy cerca de ella : cumplase en todo la vo- 
luntad del Senor. Yo voy continuando con felicidad mi car- 
rera, teniendo ya andado mas de la mitad de ella. Me haa 
pedido varies sermones para imprimirlos, pero no lo cons^ 
guir4n. La salud se ha resentido un poco, porque no soy de 
alabastre ; pero no me ha estorbado, gracias 4 Dios, cumplir 
con mi ministerio. 

Un abrazo 4 Maria Francisca, y vive como necesita 
Tu amante hermano y amigo^ 


0AltTA6 Sse^GIDAS. 40$ 

Del mismo al mUmo. 

Zarago^a 22 de Marzo de 1757. 
Amado hermano y amigo : cuando esperaba la noticia de 
la muerte de nuestros dos enfermos, me hallo gustosamente 
sorpi^ndido con la que me das de su fecobro en la tuya de 9 
del corriente. Bendito sea Dios pof este tiuevo beneficio. 
Solo si me da cuidado la salad de Maria Francisca, cuyos 
escesos de amor son incorregibles. Yo estoy roolido y me-> 
dio reventado despues de veinte y ocho sermones^ fahkn* 
dome todavia diez y seis. £1 fruto es grande, y este es mi 
^tnico consuelo. A' Dios, que te guarde como ha menester^ 

Tu amante hermano y amigOj 


Del ^ismo a 9u hermana. 

Yittagarcia 17 de Janitf de 1757* 
Hija mia : tns cartas de primero y ocbo del corriente que 
Heg&ron juntas, porqne asi lo quieren los se&ores estafeteros, 
ine dejan con la misma ahematrm de afectcMS que Ifi esperi- 
■lentas en ta salud. De bueiia gana parthia coiitigo mi n>- 
bustes, porque aunque ilo me sobra mncha, m6nds nie basta- 
Ha para mis tareas ordinarias y estraordinarlas. Los banos 
casi fneron las primeras me^einas que se conocieron 
en el mundo, y por machos sig^os las iinicas ; por eso tengo 
nucha fe con ellos. La dificcltad esta en atinar que especie 
de banos son los que se oponen a lal especie de enfermedades, 
y cuales achaques son los que no pueden resistir k tales ba- 
nos. £n todo caminan k tientas los medicos ; mas por le 
mismo puede ser que acierten, porque tal vez bare la casuali- 
dad lo que no puede hacer la eleccion y el discemitniento. 
Ya estamoB en el mejor tiempo de tomaflos, que es el mes de 
junio y cercanias de S. Juan, especialraente si por Mk comi- 
eDzan k esplicarse los calores, que por aca todavia est&n muy 
remisos. Mi parecer es que no pierdas dia, pues si surtiesen 
bu«D eiedOy tenddis lugar para recobrar las fuerzas que son 


menester para repetirlos por aetiembre. Yo no abandonarla 
el uso de loe polvos de Aix, habiendolos esperimentado tan 
propicios, sin estranar que hasta ahoia no hubiesen desarrai- 
gado la causa, porque cuando las ralces son profundas, es 
menester no dejar el azadon de la mano hasta arrancarlas, y 
eso no se hace en un dia. 

No puedo negar que cuanto mas largas son tus cartas, mas 
me gustan ; pero tampoco me puede gustar fineza tuya que 
sea en detrimento de tu salud ; y asi mientras Dios no te la 
mejore, me contentare con una fe de vida^para lo cual basta 
tu firma, y me dar4s que senUr siempre que tuvieres que pade- 
cer por consolanne. Las memorias acostumln^das ; y A^ 
Dios hija. Tu amanie hermanoj 


Dd mi$mo d la misma. 

Leon 4 de Mayo de 1759. 
Hija mia : hoy hace ocho dias que llegue k esta ciudad, 
habiendo gastado cuatro en el camino, porque me detuve dos 
en el monasterio de Vega con mi prima. La mitad del viage 
fue con gran calor, y la otra mitad con escesivo frio, el que 
ha continuado desde que llegue acompaiiado de agua, de vi- 
entos fuel tes, y tambien de algo de nieve. Pague la patente 
en la primera noche con un fuerte dolor colico que me obligo 
4 guardar cama todo el dia siguiente ; pero como rompio por 
ambas vias, qued6 presto desahogado. Lo mismo suc^o 
al General de S. Benito, que se halla en esta ciudad ; solo 
que k este le acometip k la despedida, y & mi a la entra- 
da ; por cuya razon y por el mal tiempo suspendio el viage, 
que ya tenia echado k Espinareda. Visitome al dia siguiente 
de mi arribo : comi con su Reverendisima otro dia. Me 
ha visitado toda la ciudad, y como con el Intendente los dias 
que me dejan libres otros convites. He celebrado mucbo 
ver la fubrica de tolas, aunque temo que se atrase por la de- 
sunion de los que principalmente la manejan. Luego que el 
tiempo lo permita, me restituire k mi celdita, cuya quietud so 
me hace mas apetecible, siempre que carezco de ella. 

JTive tanio como tu amantty 


CARTA Vllf. 

Del misfno al Sr. D. (5. R. 

Pontevedra 25 de Mayo de 1764. 

Muy Seiior mio y mi dueiio : tengo la fortuna de que 
V. S. me conozca muchos afios ha. Si no se le ha borrado 
de la memoria mi car4cter, tendr^ muy presente mi realidad 
y mi entereza. La carne y sangre no me hacen fuerza, ni 
las pasiones humanas me han cegado nunca la razon. Con- 
cederesela a mi mayor enemigo, siempre que la tenga ; ne- 
garesela, y se la negu6 alguna vez a mi mismo padre, cuan- 
do concebi que no la tenia. 

Hermano mio es Don Jose Joaquin de Isla y Losada. Si 
en el injusto, voluntario y empenado pleito criminal que le 
suscitkron sus contrarios, no hubiera sido testigo ocular de su 
inocencia, e yo hubiese de sentenciarle, el primer voto que 
tendria contra sf seria el mio, y no serfa el mas benigno. 
Sobradas esperiencias tiene el mismo de esta mi entereza en 
los varies sucesos de su vida. En los mas me tuvo contra si, 
pero en el presente no puedo desampararle, ni es razon que 
niegue 4 un hermano mio lo que en iguales circunstancias 
concederia k quien hubiese quitado violentamente la vidd k 
mi padre y a mi madre. 

Pasaron k mi vista todos los lances, porque me hallaba en 
Santiago en aquel turbado dia. No halle que condenar en 
este mozo, y lo que mas es, ni tampoco lo hall4ron sus misnios 
contrarios. Ellos form4ron los primeros autos, y por estos 
mismos autos le absolvieron los Senores jueces del recto 
tribunal de que V. S. es digno mierabro. Me aseguran que 
la segunda probanza nada anade k la primera, sine confirmar 
mas y mas el empeno de acabar de arruinar k ese mozo, para 
cubrir una inconsideracion con la perdida de un inocente. 

Alegan los contrarios su honor y ^1 de una comunidad ver- 
daderamente muy respetable. Esta le tendri siempre muy 
resguardado, y nunca podra depender de la precipitacion de 
algunos particulares menos detenidos. Pero supongamos que 
dependa : y no se interesark tambien el honor del tribunal de 
y. S. en que sin nuevos, grandes y evidentes docuraentos no 
reforme lo que pronuncio con tanto examen y con tanta ma- 
durez ? Mas nada de esto es del case. £1 dict^men de que 
conviene que perezca un inocente, para que no perezcan 
muchos culpados, ya sabemos todos la baja cuna que tuvo. 


NuDca k adopt&ron por suyo los tribunules cristianos. En 
ellot reioa y reioar^ la m&xiroa contraria : menos malo es 
absolver k muchos culpados, que condenar k un inocente. 

Estilo sin duda mi hermano en el feo delito que le impo- 
tan. Todos los eafuerzos de stts contrarios, siendo taotos, 
tan poderoMi y tan empeHados, no padieron conseguir que 
dejaae de conocerio y de definirio asi el rectlsimo tribuoal. 
Grande es la fuerza de la inocencia, cuando no bastan k 
oprimiria las mitquinas del poder. Mejor dire : siempre es 
nmy debil el poder con los tribanales donde preside la jii»- 
ticia. Eflfte es hojr todo mi consuelo y toda mi esperanza. 

Nada mas tengo que esponer k V. S. Pedirle que haga gra- 
cia a mi hermano, seria suponerle reo, puesen pleitos crimi- 
nales no cabe otra que moderar el rigor de las leyes. Supli- 
carle otra cosa, seria agraviar su integridad, que tengo ipuy 
conocida. Con que en suma esta carta solo se reduce k dar 
testimonio 6» que mi profundo silencio no ba dependido de 
que tenga por culpado a Jose Joaquin, como aiguno ha queri- 
do sonar ; sino precisamente de haber descan8<ido y decausar 
en la justicia de la causa, y en la equidad de los jueces. 
Tampoco he querido malograr esta oportuna y casi necesaria 
ocasion de renovar k V. S. todo mi antiguo respeto. Nues- 
tro SeFior goarde k V. S. muchos anos como puede y le 
suplico. B. L. M. de V. S. 

Su mas atento servidor y capeUan^ 

Josb'' Fbancjsco de ISLA. 


Del mismo d su hermana. 

Bolonia 8 de Juaio de 17B0. 
Amada hua^ hermana y Seaora mia : recibo tu estimadlsi- 
ma carta de 2 del pasado, acompanada con la gaceta de 
Madrid ; su fecba 23 del mismo, con que me rogala siempre 
Duestro amantlsimo sobrino. Segun estas dos fecbas tu carta 
se detuvo veinte v ua dias en Madrid 6 en Parma, porque si 
hubieran caminado juntas la gaceta y ella, no pudiera la una 
ganar k la otra las enormes ventajas que la gano en el camino. 
£1 que las recibe en' Parma, no es capaz de detenerias ni un 
solo memento, porque deseoslsimo de serviite k ti, y de corn- 
placerme k mi% ^ iiiformado ta;nblen de que ni k tl ni & ni 


tios ha qoedado otro consuelo igual 4 el de nuestra inocente 
cooveisacion, tampoco el tiene otro mayor que el de cooperar 
«t que lo logremos con toda la posible puntualidad y prudente 
frecuencia. Resta pues, que dicha carta se hubiese quedado 
traspapelada en tu escritorio 6 en el buro de el que nos hace 
el singular favor de dirigirlas. Pareciome que debla adver- 
tirte esto para tu gobierno. 

He celebrado mucho que hayas abandonado la casa hu- 
meda, fria y sin ventilacion que habitabas^ atribuyendo 4 ella 
con sobrada razon, k lo menos gran parte de lo' que has pa- 
decido en el pasado invierno. Alegrareme Infinito de que te 
trate mejor, como lo espero^ la calle de Atocha, junto 4 Lore- 
to, donde te has pasado. Si no tengo trastornada la memo- 
ria, (como lo temo) pareceme que la calle de Atocha hace 
parte del cuartel del oriente de Madrid, reputado por el mas 
sano ; lo que si fuere asi, no contribuiri poco 4 tu recobro. 
,No me dices el numero de la casa, ni el cuarto que en ella ha- 
bitas, lo que dicen es necesario para guia de los soblrescritos. 

Al Senor Conde de Aranda solamente le escribi desde 
Calvi sobre los manuscritos qne me habian embargado en 
Espana, suplicindole que si despues de examinados no se 
hallase en ellos cosa que ofendiese k la religion ni al estado, 
se sirviese su Escelencia disponer que aquellos inocentes 
hijos viniesen k hacer companla k su pobre y desterrado 
padre. Respondiome aquel Senor que eso ya no estaba en 
su mano ; pero que estuviese sin cuidado, porque aquellos 
hijos estaban k cargo de quien haria que fuesen tratados como 
los trataria su mismo padre, sin permitir que ningimo se me- 
tiese con ellos. Esto fue en suma la respuesta. 

Correspondo cordialisimamente a la memoria que hacen 
de mi los amigos Ramirez y Casaus. Deseo con las mayores 
ansias que el primero triunfe cuanto intes, y no ceso de rogar 
a Dios por el recobro del segundo. 

Dias ha que estii concluida la version de Gil Bias; pero 
ni mi cabeza ni mi pulso me han permitido emprender todavla 
el prologo y dedicatoria. Los calores son escesivos, y con 
ellos se hace mayor cada dia mi dejamiento y mi suma 

A^ Dios, hija mia : k Dios, y manda k este tu amante 

Padrino y servidor^ 




Dd miimo a tin andgo auyo. 

Quieo siendo poco mas rico que el Padre de Isla^ pero habi* 
endo oido que este estaba may necesitado, le escribio, ofre^ 
ci^ndole partir con el lo poco que le quedaba. 

Qoerido amigo : que sobrehuraana fuerza es esta ! que 
alma ha jamas sido capaz de tan heroicas acciones ! Temes, 
te persuades que estoy necesitado, y quieres paitur conmigo lo 
poco que te queda ! Mereces que te erijan est^tuas : y si fuera 
este el tiempo de la gentilidad, te adorarian como k Dios de 
la anustad. Yo no puedo esplicarte mi reconocimiento k la 
piedad que usas conmigo. £s cosa deplorable el verse en 
estado de necesitarla ; pero cuan dulce y oonsolante es en- 
contrar almas tan tiemas y tan grandes como la tuya, que Jo 
compadezcan ! Todos mis infortunios, todos mis males son 
nada en comparacion de la satbfaccion que me causa tu hu- 
manidad y afecto. Y quieres condenar mi gratitud al silen- 
cio ! ya se, amigo, si, ya se que tu corazon ejercita su bene- 
ficencia, no para recibir el lisongero tributo del reconocimi- 
ento, sino para satifacer su noble inclinacion. Pero, como 
quieres que deje de ser reconocido k tan singulares beneficios, 
como he recibido de tu generosa amistad ? £so no puede ser, 
amigo : con que, permitirds que, obedeciendo a la voz imperi- 
osa de mi corazon, te diga que mi gratitud serk indeleble, y 
que mi afecto para ti tendr4 un siempre por t6rmino de su 

Enviame solo la mitad de lo que roe of^es, y sobrari para 
haeer de muy pobre nniy rico k 

Tufino amigo, JOSE'. 


I Oh hombre, seas el que fueres noble 6 artesano ; rico 6 
pobre ; docto 6 ignorante ; eclesi4stico 6 secular ; religioso 
6 militar ; soberano 6 subdito ; desciende dentro de tf mis- 
mo, y eo un silencio profuudo, y no interrumpido, reflexiona 
sobre los horrores de la nada, que precedieron k tu concep- 
cion ! I Como de la nada has pasado k ser ? corao en un 
instante has Uegado k ser espiritu y cuerpo, esto es ; con- 
junto de dos sustancias, cuya union parece incompatible, y 
cuya accion es us prodigio continuado ? 

Ni tu padre, ni tu madre tuyi6ron conocimiento ni poder 
para coordinar tus miisculos, para diluir ni liquidar tu sangre, 
ni para endurecer tus huesos. Una inteiigencia suprema, 
superior k todas las potencias de la tierra, y superior k todas 
tus id6as, quiso, y comenzo tu existencia ; quiso, y creciste al 
estado en que te hallas. j Ay de mi ! ^ Y quien es esta\ in- 
teiigencia ? ; Ay f Quien puede ser, sino el motor universal^ 
el principio de todo lo que vegeta y respira, y el infinito ser, 
al que Uamamos Dioa? Su mano omnipotente te bosquejaba, 
cuando tu no podias conocerle, y te conserva y mantiene en 
«n siglo en el que se hace vanidad de ultrajarle. Pero si no 
eras ayer, y puede ser dejes de ser hoy ; ,; possible es que se 
te pase el dia, que tan rapidamente se huye, sin pensar en 
este criador y conservador, sin darle gracias, y sin adorarle ? 


La verdad es la que rige los Cielos, alumbra la tierra, sus- 
tentala justicia, gobierna las Repfiblicas, con6rma lo que es 
claro, y aclara lo que es dudoso ; con ella todas las virtudes 
tienen su perfeccion. Ella es un homenage que nunca cae, 
un escudo que no se pasa, un tiempo que no se turba, una 
flota que no perece, una flor que no se marchita, una mar 
que no se altera, y un puerto en donde nadie peligra. La 
Verdad tiene en si tan gran fuerza, que sin ella la fortaleza es 
flaca, la prudencia es malicia, la temperancia es miseria, la 
■ justicia es saoguiiidenta, la humildad es traidora, la pacien- 


cia fingida, la castidad vana, la riqueza perdida, y la pkdad^ 
superflua. La verdad es un centro adonde todas las cosas 
reposan, el norte por donde el mundo se rige, el aotidoto con 
que todos se curan : es la sombra adonde todos descansan, el 
terrero adonde todos* tiran^ pero el bianco adonde pocos 
aciertan. don pedro de medina. 

£1 temor de la justicia divina es el principio que hizo na- 
cer en la imaginacion de varios libertinos las horribles ideas 
filosoficas, ya de negar k Dios la existencia, ya de despojar 
de su inmortalidad al alma. Toda la desdicha de estos mi- 
serables viene de que, lejos de contemplar al Omnipotente 
Gomo i un padre carinoso, solo se figuran en el un juez severo ; 
y para sacudir de si el temor, que esta calidad les inspira, 
forcejan k persuadirse, 6 con la priroera de estas dos quime- 
ras, que no hay Dios que los castigue ; 6 con la segunda, 
que solo pueden temer de el un castigo leve, y de corta dura- 
tion , como lo es cualquiera pena temporal. ^ Pero que lo' 
gran con esto ? Puntualmente lo que el reo, que huyendo de 
la justicia, se arroja por un despenadcro, y por evitar un su- 
plicio contingente, abraza una muerte indubitable. Por el 
precipice mayor de todos, que es el de la impiedad, procu- 
ran huir de la justicia divina. Y aun los que ni^an k Dios 
la existencia, no tanto aspiran k huir de la justicia divina, 
como que la justicia divina huya de ellos, pretendiendo que 
el soberano juez se desaparezca de aquel augusto trono, en 
que los ha de sentenciar. feijoo. 

£1 avaro ya se sabe que es un m&rtir del demonic, 6 un 
anacoreta, que con su abstinencia y su retire hace roeritos 
para ir al infiemo. £1 corazon, partido entre los dos deseos 
de conservar y adquirir, padece una continua fiebre, mezcla- 
da con un mortal frio^ pues, se abrasa cdn la ansia de conse- 
guir lo ageno, y tiembla con el susto de perder lo propio. 
Tiene hambre, y no come ; tiene sed, y no bebe : tiene necesi- 
dad, y no reposa : jamas se ve libre de sobresaltos. Ningun 
raton se mueve en el silencio de la noche, que con el rufdo 
no le de especie de ser un ladron que le escala. Ningun 
viento sopla que en su imaginacion no amenace naufragio al 
navio que tiene puesto en comercio : Ninguna guerra se sus- 
cita, que no considere ya k los enemigos talando sus tierras <* 


cualquier rencilk de partkulares, deotro de so idea viene k 
parar en popular tumulto, que lleva k saco el caudal. No 
bay oubecilla que do imagine tempestuosa para sua vinas y 
mieses : no hay in(einperie, que no amague corrupcion k \o 
que tiene recogido en las trojes. fjeijoo. 

£1 Ambicioso es un esclavo de todo el mundo : del prlnc^ 
pe, porque conceda el empleo : del valido, porque interceda : 
de los demas, porque no estorben. Tiene el alma y el 
cuerpo en continuo movirniento, porque es menester no per- 
der instante. A todos teme, porque nioguno bay que con 
una acusacion no pueda desvanecer toda su solicitud. ; O 
cuanto forceja con su semblante porque muestre agrado k los 
mismos k quienes profesa mortal odio ! ; Cuanto trabajo le 
cuesta reprimir todas aquellas incbnaciones viciosas que pue- 
Aen dificultar sus medras ! De la pasion dominante son victi- 
mas todas las demas pasiones ; y el vicio de la ambicion, co- 
mo tirano dueno, sobre atormentarle por si mismo, le prohibe 
todos aqoellos gustos k que le lleva el deseo. Ve al que va k 
la comedia, al que logra el pas6o honesto, al que asiste a) 
banquete, al que goza el sar&o, todo' lo ve^ y lo envidia ; pero 
los apetitos est&n en 61, annque furiosos^ aprisionados como 
los vientos en la carcel de £olo, feuoOi 

Cuanto mas abulta el cuerpo de un hombre, tanto mas tiene 
donde le hiera el enemigb : y cuanto mas es la amplitud de 
la fortona, tanto mas hay donde hiera la adversidad. Son 
las ricas torres elevadas, y las pobres chozas humildes ; y el 
rayo mas veces descarga en la torre su fnria, que en la cho- 
za. Uno de los mayores males que hay en lo temporal, sino 
el mayor de todos, es la salud quebrada ; como el mayor 
bien la salud robusta. Y no tiene duda que, en igualdad de 
temperamento, mucho mas sano es el pobre que el rico ; por-« 
que este con los escesos se estraga la salud, y aquel se la con- 
serva con su sobriedad. 

Que bella digresion hace Lucano en el libro quinto de la 
guerra civil, sobre la felicidad del pobre Barquero Amintas, 
cuando pinta a. C6sar en el silencio de la noche pulsando la 
puerta de su cbosa, ps^ra que 1« copdiisca prontamente a b^ 


Calabria. Todo el mundo esta conmovido y temblaodo con 
lo8 movimientos de la guerra civil ; y deatro de la misnia 
Grecia, que es el teatro de la guerra^ Tecino k los mismos 
ejercito8| duerme, sin temor alguno, un pobre barquero sobre 
enjutas ovas. Despiertanle los golpes que da k su puerta el 
generoso Caudillo, sin introducir en su pecho el menor susto : 
pues, aunque no ignora que esti toda la campana cubierta de 
tropas, sabe tambien que no bay en su choza cosa que pueda 
brindar los militares insultos, ; O vida del pobre, esclama el 
poeta, que tienes la felicidad de estar exenta de las violeii- 
cias ! I O pobreza, beneficio grande de los Dloses, aunque 
no recouocida de los homhres ! Que muros 6 que templos 
gozar4n el privilegio que tienen Amintas y su choza de no 
temblar k los golpes de la (obusta mano de Cesar ! 


La modestia es la prenda mas amable de una doncella, 
aun en cotejo de la hermosura. Csta, no. hay duda, halaga y 
solicita mucho mas la pasion del hombre, pero aquella se 
grangea su mayor estimacion y aprecio, La pasion nace de 
los atractivos que la hacen amar aquello que la provoca : mas 
el aprecio y estimacion que infunde el decoro de la modestia, 
proceden del respeto que adora en la esterior compostura de 
un rostro la belleza interior del alma, k quien aquella retrata. 
Aquella misma es tambien seguro indicio de la dulzura de 
genio, y de la suavidad del caracter, k quien sirve de ahna, 
de la cual espera su mayor satisfaccion y dicha en el casa- 
miento el hombre que pretende poseerla. La hermosura es 
don accidental de la naturaleza, que entre pocos la reparte ; 
pero la hermosura interior del dma la d& la virtud sola, k 
cualquiera que desea conseguirla. 


En todas aquellas cosas, que esencialmente componen la 
felicidad temporal, conviene k saber ; Vida, Salud, Honra y 
Hacienda, es muy mejorado el virtuoso, respecto de el que 
no lo es. La Honra nadie ignora que es parto legltimo de la 
Virtud. Por eso los Romanos edificaron unidos los templos 
de estas dos dichas, que veneraban como deidades, de modo 
que solo por el templo de la Virtud se podia entrar al templo 


i)el Honor. Los mismcs que huyen de la pr&ctica de la Vii^ 
tud, la miran con estimacion y reverencia. La Salud y larga 
vida es mas natural y posible en el hombre virtuoso, pur la 
templanza con que vive, al paso que el vicioso con sus esce- 
sos se estraga la salud, y se acorta la vida. La Hacienda tiene 
una gran maestra de economia en la Virtud, siendo cier^o que 
se coBserva evitando toda superfluidad. 

La suavidad y dulzura que al alma ocasiona la buena con- 
ciencia, coloca en muy eminente grado la fortuna de los jus- 
tos sobre la de los pecadores. £s esta una felicidad de poco 
bnlto, pero de mucha monta ; una piedra preciosa, que en 
breves dimensiones encierra grandes quilates. £s la concien- 
cia espejo del alma, y sucede al justo y al pecador, cuando 
se miran en este espejo, lo que a la bermosa y ^ la fea al 
verse en el cristal : aquella se complace, porque ve perfec- 
ciones ; esta se entristece, porque no regtstra sino lunares. 


; O MUERTE, cuan amarga es tu memoria ! Cuan presta tu 
veuida ! Cuan secretos tus caminos ! Cuan cludosa tu bora ! 
Cuan universal tu seiiorio ! Los poderosos no te pueden huir ; 
los sabios no te saben evitar ; los fuertes contigo pierden las 
fuerzas ; para contigo ninguno hay rico ; pues, ninguno 
puede comprar la vida, ni aun por tesoros. Todo lo andas, 
todo lo cercas, y en todo lugar te hallas. T6 paces las yer- 
bas ; bebes los vientos ; corrompes los aires ; mudas los si- 
glos ; truecas el mundo, y no dejas de sorber la mar. Todas 
las cosas tienen sus crecientes y menguantes ; mas tia, siempre 
permaneces en un mismo ser. Eres un martillo que siempre 
hiere ; espada que nunca se embota ; lazo en que todos 
caen ; circel en que todos entran ; mar donde todos peli- 
gran 5 pena que todos padecen ; y tributo que todos pagan.— 
I O muerte cruel ! ^ Como no tienes listima de venir al me- 
jor tiempo e impedir los negocios encaminados k bien ? Ro- 
bas en una hora, en un minuto, lo pue se gano en muchos 
afios ; cortas la sucesion de los linages ; dejas los Reinos 
sin herederos ; binches el mundo de orfandades ; cortas el 
hilo de los estudios ; haces malogrados los buenos ingenios ; 
juntas el fin con el principio, sin dar lugar k los niedios.— 
i O muerte, muerte ! O implacable enemiga del g6nero hu- 
mano ! i Porque tuviste entrada en el mundo ?. . . 



Qnten nmcko abarea poeo aprieia. Que esplica, que 
^aien emprende o toma 4 su cargo muchas cosas 4 un tiempo, 
ordiBariameDte no comple cod ninguna. 

Ab^fomse Im eiiadoBy y dhanu ha estaihe* Que advierte 
la poca constaocia de la fortuoa. 

Qtften mal amhy mai acaba. Que se dice de 61 que ni tieoe 
^rdea di cuidado en sua negocios^ que ordinaiiamente se le 
sigue de^racia. 

Si el caraxon fuera de acero^ no le veneiera el dinero. 
Que da 4 entender la dificultad que hay en resisdr las tenta- 
ciones de la codicia. 

Qtitefi el aceite meiuray las mano8 se unto* Que da i en- 
tender que los que manejan dependencias 6 interesesagenos, 
suelen aprovecharse de ellos mas de lo justo. 

Qnten no adobOf 6 quita gateroy tiene que hacer casa 

La muger del ciegOy para quien se afeita ! Que vitupera 
el demasiado adorno de las mugeres, con el fin de agradar 4 
otros que 4 sus maridos. 

£/ huen pagadoVf anto es de lo ageno. Que denota que el 
que paga bien y exactamente lo que debe, tiene mucho 

Agua ftt enfermaj ni emheodoj ni adeuda. Que recomien- 
da los buenos efectos del agua, por contraposicion 4 los del 

Quien en un mes quiere ser ricoy aJ medio le ahorcan. Que 
amonesta 4 los que por medios ilicitos quieren hacecse ricos 
en poco tiempo. 

Por el alabado deji al conocidoy y vime arrtpentido. 

Dime con quien andaSy y te dirt quien eres. Que advierte 
lo mucho que influyen 4 Ia9 costumbres las bueaas 6 naJas 


Spanish versification is the sirt of making Spanish Verses 
accordii^ to certain rules. 

These rules regard, 1st. the structure of the verses ; 2d. 
the mixture of the verses with one another. 


Cfthe structure of vetHM. 


€f the different kinds of verses. 

The Spanish verses are measured by the number of sylla- 
bles. Variety in the number of syllables produces different 
kinds of verses.* 

Ist. The verses of eUven syllables or emdecQgilahoj hen- 

Saiga mi trabajada vok y rompa 
£1 son confuse y misero lamento 
Con eficacia y fuerza, que interrompa 
El celeste y terrestre movimiento : 
La fama con sonora y clara trompa, 
Dando mas furia 4 mi cansado aliento, 
Derrame en todo el orbe de la tierra 
Las armas, el furor y nueva guerra. 

Alonso de Ercilla. 

2d. The verse oiten syllables !or dfca«{/a6o, decasyllable. 

Los que andais empoUando obras de otros 
Sacad, pues, k volar vuestra cria. 
Ya diri cada autor : esta es mia ; 
Y veremos que os queda k vosotros. 

T, DE Yriabte. 
3d. The verse of nine syllables. 

Si querer eptender de todo 
Es ridlcula presuncion, 
Servir solo para una cosa 

Suele ser folta no menor. T. de Yriarte. 



4th. The verae oi eight syllables or de redandiUa mayor 
(large romidelay.) 

Al infierao el Tracio Orfeo 
Su muger bajo 4 buscar, 
Que no pudo 4 poor lugar 
Llevarle tan msil deseo. 

Canto, y al mayor tormento 
Puso suspension y espanto, 
Mas que lo dulce del canto. 
La novedad del intento* 

£1 Dios adusto ofendido, 
Con un estrano riffor, 
La pena que hallo mayor 
Fa6 yolverle & ser marido. 

Y aunque su muger le dio 
Por penade su pecado ; 
Por premio de lo cantado, * 

Perderla facilito. F. de Qubvsdq. 

5th. The verse of teven syllables* 

I Quien es aquel que baja 
Por aquella colina, 
La botella enlamano, 
En el rostro la risa ; 
De p4mpanos e yedra 
La cabeza cenida ; 
Cercado de zagales, 
Rodeado de ninfas ; 
Que al son de los panderos 
Dan voces de alegria, 
Celebran sus hazanas, 
Aplauden su yenida ? 
Sin duda ser4 Baco, 
£1 padre de las viaas ; 
Pues no, que es el poeta, 
Autor de esta letrilla, J. Cadalso. 

6th. The verse of six syllables or de redondiUa menor 
(small roundelay.) 

De amores me muero, 
Mi madre acudid, 


Si DO Uegais pronto 
Ver^isme morir. 
Catorce anos tengo^ 
Ayer los cuinpli, 
Que fue el primer dia 
Del florido abril ; 

Y chicos y chicas 
Me suelen decir : 

I Por que no te casan, 

Mariquilla? di. 

De amores me muero, etc. ^ J* Cadalso. 

7th. The verse of/?»c syllables. 

Poderoso caballero 

Es don DinerOy 

Nunca vi almas ingratas 

A su gusto y aficion^ 

Que 4 las caras de un doblon^ 

Hacen sus caras baratas ; 

Y pues las hace bravatas 
Desde una bolsa de cuero, 
Poderoso caballero 

EsdonDinero, F. db Quevedo. 

8th. The verse of four syllables. 

^ Quien los jueces con pasion, 
Sin ser ungiiento, hace humanos, 
Pues untindoles las manos 
Les ablanda el corazon ; 
Quien gasta su opilacion 
Con oro y no con acero ? 
El dinero, 

Quien procura que se aleje 
Del suelo la gloria vana ; 
Quien siendo toda cristiana 
Tiene la cara de herege ; 
Quien hace que al hombre aqueje 
£1 desprecio y la tristeza? 
Lapohreza, F. de Quevedo. 


9th. The verse of three syllables. 

Dioeros sod calidad, 


Mas ama^ quien mas suspira^ 

Mentira L. db Gokgo&a. 

10th. The veree of two syllables. 

Ingrata, hermosa Antaodra, 

En cuyas centellas 


£1 alma es salamandra, 

Que respira encendida) 

Dulce ardof; blando incendio, ardiente vida. 

1 1th. The verse of fourteen syllables, which is nothing 
more than the union of two verses of seven syllables. 

Yo lei, no se donde, que en la lengua herbolaria, 
Saludando k un tomillo la yerba parietaria, 
Con socarroneria le dijo de esta suerte : 
Dios te guarde, Tomillo : l^stima me da verte ; 
Que aunque mas oloroso que todas estas plantas, 
Apenas medio palmo del suelo te levantas. 

T. DE Yriabte. 

12th. The verse of thirteen and twelve syllables, a la 
francesa (after the French fashion.) 

En cierta catedral aoa- eampana babia 
Que solo se tocaba algon 'Solemne dia. 
Con el mas recio son, coa pausado compas 
Cuatro golpes 6 tres soli a dot no mas. 
Por esto, y ser mayor de la ordinaria marca, 
Celebrada fue siempre en toda la comarca. 

T. DB Yriarte. 

13th. The verse of /u»/tfe s^lables or dt arte mayor (ol' 
gr«?at art,) which is only the uoioo of two verses of six syl- 

I No hemes de reirnos siempre que chochea 
Con ancianas frases un novel autor ? 
Lo que es afectado juzga que es primor ; 


Habla puro a costa de la claiidad, 

Y no halla voz baja para nuestra edad. 

Si fue noble en tiempo del Cid campeador. 

T. DE Ybiarte. 

The verses of fourteeny ten and nine syllables, are not fre- 
quently used. Those d la francraa and de arte mayor y 
which were often used in the early times of Spanish poetry, 
are but seldom used at present. 

The verses of eif^htj eiXyfiveyfouTj three and tioo syllables 
are known under the general denomination of versos de re- 
dondilla (roundelay verses,) and the verses of eleven a.nd seven 
syllables under that of versos italianos (Italian verses.) 

The Spaniards call versoe enteros (entire versesj the verses 
of eleven f eight and six syllables, and versos de pie quebrado 
fverses of broken measure) or simply versos quebrados 
(broken verses) the verses of seven^fivey four ^ three and two 


Of the Accent. 

In every Spanish word there is a long syllable, that is, upon 
which more stress is laid than upon the others. This sylla- 
ble is said to bear the accent, and though this accent is not 
always marked, it is, however, not the less sensible for it. 
The word cuxewt is then synonymous with long. 

We call aguda (acute^ the syllable that bears the accent. 

All the syllables which precede or follow the long syllable 
are brief. 

The monosyllables are naturally long, but they are brief 
when they are placed next to another word, or when they 
precede a word with which they have an immediate relation. 

The accent generally falls upon the antepenultima, penul- 
tima or last syllable of words, but most commonly upon thd 

The words which have the accent upon the antepeuultima 
syllable are called esdrdjulos (gliding) and those which have 
it upon the last syllable agudos (acute.) 

The Spaniards call versos llanos (plain verses) the verses 
terminated with a word which has the accent upon the pe- 
nultima syllable; versos esdrdjuhs (glidbg verses) the vers^ 

42() SPANISH V£RSiriCAT10N. 

termioated with a word ۤdritJiiloy and versos offudoa (acute 
verses) the verses terminaled with a word agudo* 

In the verses UamM the number of syllables is equal to that 
determined by the kind to which they belong ; thus a verse 
Vano of eleven syllables has eleven syllables^ a verse Uano of 
eight syllables has eight syllables, &c. &c. 

128 4557 89 10 11 



12 8 4 6 5 7 

The verses tsdrdjulos have one syllable more tfcan the 
kind to which they belong indicates ; thus a verse esdrdjulo 
of eleven syllables has twelve, a verse esdrdjolo of eight 
syllables has nine, &c. &c. 

1 2 3 4 6 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 

123 466789 
A|to|dos|los|a|ca | de|nii|cos... 

The verses agndos hav« a syllable less than the kind to 
which they belong indicates ; thus a verse agudo of eleven 
syllables has only ten, and a Verse t^udo of eight syllables 
has only seven, &c. &c. 

1 2 3 4 6 6 7 


12 3 4 6 

The verses which are formed of the union of two smaller 
verses may have more or less syllables, according as these 
verses are either llanos or agndos ; thus a verse of arte ma- 
yovy which is formed of the union of two verses of six sylla- 
bles, will have twelve syllables if these two verses are Uanos ; 
it will have only eleven if one is agudo and the other UanOy 
and it will have only ten if both are agudos, 

12 3 4 6^ 7 8 9 10 11 12 
Di|cho|sos|vos|6|tros — ^|quien|lo&|cui|di|dos 

1 2 346 6 789 10 11 12 
Del|mun|do|no|t(ir|ban— el|dul|ce|re|p6|so... 


1234 5 6* 7 89 10 11 

El|ros|tro|cu|bier|to — con|trislte|pe|sar 

123456 7 89 10 11 
De|no|ta|la|pe|na— del|gra|ve|do|l6r... 

123456789 10 
No|quie|to|vilYir — vi|da|con|do|16r... 

The verses llanos are those of general use in Spanish po- 
etry. The veises agudoH are only used mixed with the 
verses Uanoa and solely in light poetry, for they are avoided 
ID elevated poetry. The verses tsdrujulos are seldom used 
alone, they are most often mingled with verses Ucmos, and 
this mixture is not common. 

The Spanish verses, of whatsoever kind they may be, be- 
ing most always llanos^ it may be said that they require an 
accent upon the penultimate syllable. 

Independently of this final accent, the hendecasyllable 
verses, or of eleven syllables, require also an accent upon 
theii fourth or sixth syllable. 

As to the number of accents which may also enter into the 
hendecasyllable verses, and the place which they should oc- 
cupy, it is impossible to determine it by fixed rules, nothing 
but the harmony of the verse can serve as a guide. Be it su& 
ficientto observe lst.that, the more accents are introduced 
in a verse, the more its harmony is slow and sustained ; 2d. 
that there may be introduced in a hendecasyllable verse, be- 
sides the final accent and that of the 4th. or 5th. syllable 
which are indispensable, one, two and even three accents ; 
3rd. that they are placed nearly at an equal distance from 
each other and not unfrequently upon the syllables which are 

Y el|vi|gor|y el es|fuer|zo|va|le|r6|so. 

In the verses which are not hendecasyllable, the final ac- 
cent is the only one indispensable ; one or many other ac- 
cents may be in truth introduced in them, as the measure 
permits or harmony requires, but the place which they should 
occupy is not fixed, and the ear alone should be consulted. 

The verses of arte fimyor require, besides the final accent, 
an aceent iipoa the second and upon the eighth syllable. 



Of the eUsion. 

When a word ends in a verse with a vowel and the follow- 
ing word begins with a vowel or an hy there b an elisloa of 
the final vowel, that is, it b not counted as any thing. 

0|bel|la fn|gr&|ta <f|qttien|el|il|Qia a|d6|ra! 

If there should be a monosyllable consisting of a single 
vowel between two words, one of which ends and the other 
begins with a vowel, the three syllables shall be blended so as 
to make only one syllable. 

£nlvi|dia d otque|t1osJprB|dos|la Aer|mo|su|ra... 
Fal|tan|(^o d f!)s|pa|na|su|ma|yor|te|so|ro... 

The initial y being a consonant cannot occasion an eliaon, 
it is not so with the final y and the conjunction p. 


De|laD|te|df- es|ta|pe|na|tos|ca|//|du|ra... 

The elision may be omitted, 1st. when the first word con- 
sists of a single vowel or is terminated with an accented vow- 
el, 2d. when the second word begins with an A, 3d. when 
there is a natural pause or the conjunction y stands between the 
two words. 


0|al|ma|deslven|tu|ra|da !... 

Un|per|r% vn|bor|ri|tolca|mi|na|ban, 
Sir|vien|do d «n|mis|mo|due|rio. 


Of the vaweh which form or do not form diphthongs. 

When several vowels are in succession in the same word, 
sometimes they form a single syllable and at others two. 

The vowels A A, AE, AI, when the accent bears upon the 
I, and AO, form two syllables ; Al when the accent does not 
bear upon the I, A U and AY form but one. Ex. Soruvadra^ 
a-ereo, distra-ido, estaiSf hay^ aurora. 


The vowels EA, ££, and EO form two syllables^ but when 
£A and EO are final and the accent bears upon the prece^ 
ding syllable, they form but one; £1, £U and EY form but 
one syllable. Ex. Oce-anOf post'^r, Irofe-o^ lineOy etirea^ 
momentdneOy deidad, deuda^ rey. 

The vowels lA, IE, lO, lU form but one syllable, but 
when the accent bears upon the I, they form two. Ex. Glo- 
rioj siempre^ contrarioy triunfoy alegri^a^ temi-a. 

The vowels OA,0£,OI,when the accent bears upon the I, 
and GO, form two syllables ; OI when the accent does not 
bear upon the I, OU and OY form but one. Ex. Bo-atOy 
pth^iOy o4doy ho-oteij estoy. In hh-oe OE forms but one 

The voweb UA, U£, UI, UO, UY, UIE, UEY, form but 
one syllable.; but when the accent bears upon the U^'they 
form two. Ex. Iguedy fitcgo^ guimcdda^ momtruoy mutfy 
quietly quietudy huey^ ganzii'a* 

The preceding ruLos are general, and liable to few excep- 
tions ; nevertheless the poets do not always strictly confine 
themselves to them, and sometimes unite vowels to form but 
one syllable which ought to^ form two, while at others they 
separate vowels in order to form two syllables which ought 
not to form but one. In this manner we find poeta forming 
two syllables instead of three, real formmg one syllable in^ 
stead of two, didlogo forming four syllables instead of three, 
triunfo formmg three syllabi^ instead of two, &c. &c» 

Of Rhyme. 

The Spaniards have two kinds of rhymes, the ihyme cotisfh 
nant and the rhyme aesonant. 

The rhyme consonant (consonancia) is the perfect agree- 
ment of two sounds which terminate two verses. 

The rhyme consonant always begins at the vowel upon 
which the accent bears ; thus in the verses esdrdjulos it will 
begin at the vowel of the antepenultima, in the verses llanos 
at the vowel of the penultima and in the verses agudos at the 
vowel of the last syllable. 

The rhyme consonant being only made for the ear, regard 
should be had to the pronunciation rather than the orthography 
of the final syllables ; thus hijo will rhyme well with ^xoj 
(now Jijoy) iniquo with chicoy &c. 


The rhyme a$$onani (asonancia) consists in the resem- 
blance of the vowek found in the final syllables of two words 
the consonants of which are different. 

The rhyme a&Monant always begins in the same manner as 
the rhyme conBonoHi at the vowel upon which the accent 
bears ; thus ligtra^ cuhiirta^ mha^ oMtmintOy pSna, Uira, 
irSguOj which have the accent upon the penultimate syllable, 
may rhyme by aaMonanUf and the same will happen wilh 
caracSiy dolStj corazSn, di6x, rdzyomd^ naci6y which have the 
accent upon the last syllable, which shows 1 st, that no regard 
is had for the rhyme assonant but to the resemblance of the 
vowels, and that in diphthongs, nothing is regarded but the 
last vowel ; 2d. that the ' consonants must be different, and 
that when there are two consonants in succesion, it is suffi- 
cient that one of the two should not be found in the other word. 

In the words esdrdjulosy one may be content for the rhyme 
assonant with the resemblance of the vowels of the antepe- 
Dultima and of the last syllable of the two words, thus, ord' 
€ulo and tdrtago will form a good rhyme axsonantj though 
the vowel of the penultima of the one be not similar to that 
of the penultima of the other. 

The use of the rhyme consonant is much more common 
than that of the rhyme assonant^ therefore whenever in 
speaking of rhyme the kind shall not be designated, the rhyme 
consonant will be the one meant 

Rhyme is not indispensable in the Spanish verses as it b in 
the French, and the Spaniards have verses not rhymed or 
blank verses which are called versos sueltos (free verses) in 
which it is necessary carefully to avoid the least final con- 


(>f the BNJAMBBMRNT, OT running of one verse into another 
to complete the sense. 

In Spanish the enjambement of verses is permitted even in 
elevated poetry, that is, that the sense may remain in sus- 
pense at the end of a verse, and end only at the beginning of 
the following verse ; which happens principally whenever 
the beginning of a verse is the regimen or necessary depeiii> 
dance of what is found at the end of the preceding verse. 


Volved las armas y inimo furioso 

A los pechos de aquellos que os ban piiesto 

£o dura sujecioo, con afrentoso 

Paitido i todo el mundo manifiesto. 

Alonso de Ercilla. 
Even sometimes the Spanish poets transport the syllable 
mente of an adverb to the following verse, or make an elision 
of the final vowel of the word that terminates the verse with 
the vowel of the word which begins the other verse, but these 
enfambemensj which can only take place between an entire 
verse and a broken one, are so uncommon^ that they should 
be considered as poetical licenses. 

Y mientras miserable — 

Mente se estin los otros abrasando 

Con sed insaciable 

Del peligroso mando, 

Tendido yo ^ la sombra este cantando. 

Fray Luis de Leon. 


Of poetical licerues^ and what 9hould he avoided in vereet. 

Though the language of Spanish poetry be not different 
from that of prose, and the same expressions be commonly 
used in it, nevertheless it is permitted to make in the construo- 
tioD of the phrase certain transpositions which prose would 
not admit of, and which contribute in a high degree to the 
barmony and nobleness of verses. It is always necessary to 
make these transpositions with intelligence and taste, so as 
they may not occasion any harshness or obscurity. 

Harmony also requires us generally to avoid in all kinds of 
verses, words too long and of a difficult pronunciation, or 
which may have too great a conformity of sound with words 
alreadv used ; those having the guttural letters should be em- 
ployed sparingly ; the too frequent meeting of voweb, and 
that of rough or hissing consonants, such as the « or r, &c. 
should not often recur. 

In short, no use should be made in poetry, particularly in 
high poetry, of low and prosaic words ; but taste and discern- 
ment, supported by deliberate reading, will teach, better than 
all the rules that can be given, the choice of words that should 
be made ; for, often, an able poet uses happily a word which 
flamed proscribed from poetry. 



Of the mixture of verges with one another. 

The mixture of verses, either as to measure or rhyme, 
being generally arbitrary in Spanish poetry, it evidently must 
be extremely various ; we shall therefore limit ourselves to 
make known the combinations used by the best poets, and 
give examples of diose which particularly deserve to be known. 


Cf successive rhymes, 

Parefas or pareados are called the verses of which the 
rhymes are successive, that is, the 1st of which rhymes with 
the 2dj the Sd with the 4th, and so on, taking care to vary the 
rhyme every two verses. 

The successive rh3rmes are used in the verses imitated from 
the French, which are called for this reason versos a lafraU" 
eesa ; and in order to supply the want of masculine and fem- 
inine rhymes, the verses llanos are caused alternately to be 
followed by two verses agudosj as may be seen in the exam- 
ple which we have before cited when speaking of this kind 
of verse, which is now seldom used. 

Entire pieces of verses de redondiUa, and even of Italian 
verses may be composed in successive rhyme, by intermixing 
arbitrarily with hendecasyllables small verses of seven sylla^ 
bles which rhyme with the following hendecasyllaUe ; but 
these compositions are rare, unless it be to set them to music, 
and the successive rhvmes are but seldom used except for 
proverbs, distichs and epitaphs. 


Of rhymes crossed and intermixed. 

The Spaniards give the generick name of copias to all 
kinds of assemblages or combinations of verses, but this de- 
nomination is particularly appropriate to what we culX stanzas. 

The Spanish stanzas are not strictly bound to any pause, 
and may run into one another; however, when they 
consist of more than four verses, one or more pauses are 
introduced, according as harmony requires it ; and generally 
the enjambemeni or running of one stanza into another b 
carefully avoided. 


OfstanxoB of three wrm» or IVreete. 

The tercets are stanzas commonly composed of three 
verses either hendecasyllables or of xedondiUa mayor, the 
arrangement of which may take place in several manners. 

1st. The first verse may be free, sueUoy and the 2d. 
riiyme with the Sd. 2d. The first verse may rhyme with 
the 3d. and the 2d. be free. These two kinds of mixtures 
are used in the mllaneieoe. 9d. Sometimes the 1st verse 
rhymes with the 2d. and the 3d. is free. 4th. Finally in the 
pieces of verses composed of tercetos^ the 1st. and 3d. verses 
rhyme together, the 1st. verse of the second terceto rhymes 
with the 2d. vense of the preceding tercet, and so on to 
the last terceto which consists of four verses lo complete the 

Should there be but one or two successive tercetoa of Ital* 
ian verses, there m^ht be admitted among the h^ndecasyllar 
bles a small verse, verso quehrado - oi "sev^ii s^labies, whidi 
would be the lst.^r 2d. 

The Satyres, epistles and elegies are eoniposed in hendec- 
asyllable tercetos ; they are also siMBetimes used in descr^ 
tive poems, eclogues and idyls. 

HendecasyUabk Tercetos. 

En aquel pradjo alM nos redinamos, 
Y del Cefiro fresco rec<^;iefido 
El agradable espirtu (1) respiramos. 

Las flores i loa ejos ofreciieBde 
Diversidad estrana de pintura, 
Diversamente asi estaban oliendo; 

Y en medio aquesta fuente clara y pura, 
Que como de cristal reqriatidecfa 
Mostrando abiertamente sv hondnra, 

£1 arena que de oro pareda 
De bUncas pedrezuelas variada, 
P«ir do manaba el agua se bulHa. 

■ ■ •- ■ , 

(1) E^^u^w espfyitUf (poet, lie) 


En derrededor ni sola una pisada 
De 6enLf 6 de pastor, 6 de ganado 
A^ la sason estaba seiialada. 

Despues que con el agua resfriado 
Hubimos el calor y juntameDte 
La s^ de todo punto mitigado: 

Ella, que con cuidado diligente 
A^ conocer mi mal tenia el intento, 

Y k escudrinar el 4nimo doliente ; 

Con nuevo ruego y firme juramento 
Me conjuro, y rogo que le contase 
La causa de mi grave pensamiento.... 

Gabcilaso de la Vjbga, Rgloga, 2» 

2. Of stanzas of four verses^ or quatrains. 

The quatrains are stanzas of four verses, the 1st of which 
rhymes with the .4th. and the 2d. with the 3d., or the 1st of 
which rhymes with the Sd. and the 2d with the 4th. 

The verses that enter in the composition of quatrains are 
commonly verses of redondiUa may or ^ verses of redondiOa 
menor or hendecasyUables. 

The quatrains in verses of redondiUa are called cuartiUas 
or cuartetas and those in hendecasyllable verses cuartetes. 

In the quatrains in verses oi redondiUa menor j the 1st and 
3d. verses may be free (sueltos*) ^ 

Though all kinds of stanzas may be composed in verses of 
redondiUa menor j pevertheless they are seldom used except 
in the quatrainSj and it is for this reason that sometimes the 
name of redondiUa menor is given to the quatrains composed 
with this kind of verse. 

CuartiUas de redondiUa mayor. 

Deseais, senor Sarmiento, 
Saber en estos mis afios 
Sujetos i tantos danos, 
Como me porto y sustento. ' 

Yo OS lo dire en brevedad, 
Porque la historia es bien breve, 

Y el daros gjisto se os debe 
Con toda puntualidad. 


Salido el sol por oriente 
De rayos acompanado, / 
Me dan un huevo pasado 
Por agua, blando y caHente, 

Con dos tragos del (1) que suelo 
Llamar yo nectar divino, 

Y i quien otros Uaman vino, 
Porque nos vino del cielo. 

Cuando el luminoso vaso 
Toca en la meridional, 
Distando por un igual 
Del oriente y del ocaso ; 

Me dan asada y cocida 
De una gruesa y gentil ave, ^ 

Con tres veces del suave ^ ^^'""'^ 

Licor que alegra la vida. 

Despues que cayendo viene 
A^ dar en el mar Hesperio, 
Desamparando el imperio 
Que en este h orizonte tiene ; 

Me suelen dar 4 comer 
Tostadas en vino mulso, 
Que el enflaquecido pulso 
Restituyen 4 su ser. 

Luego me cierran la puerta, 
Yo me entrego al dulce sueno : 
Dormido soy de otro dueno, 
No se de mi nueva cierta. 

Hasta que habiendo sol nuevo, 
Me cuentan como he dormido, 

Y asi de nuevo les pido, 
Que me den nectar y huevo. 

Ser vieja la casa es esto, 
Veo que se va cayendo, 
Voyle puntales poniendo, 
Porque no caiga tan presto. 

(1) DSl for de H, (poet, lie.) 

436 BMNIW VEMinCATiOlf. 

Mas todo es tuio artificiOy 
Presto me dicen mis lales. 
Que ban de faltar loa puntaks, 
Y allanarse el edlficio. 

Baltasar de Alcazab. 

3. Cftke titmxat offivt venet. 

The stanzas of five vorses, called coiilaa redandiUas or 
quiniiUas, are commonly composed in verses of redondiHa 
mayoTy they also might however be composed in hendeca- 
syllable verses. In these stanzas, the verses are intermixed 
in all manners, provided they should all be upon two rhymes, 
and that there may never be more than two successively 
upon the same rhyme. 

4. Of stanzas of six verses^ or sixains. 

The stanzas of six verses, called rrdondiUas de seis versos 
are commonly composed in verses ofredonditta mayor; they 
might also be composed in hendecasyllable verses. In these 
stanzas, the verses are intermixed in all manners^ provided 
they should all be upon two rhymes, and that there may 
never be more than two successively upon the same rhyme. 

5. Of the stanzas of seven verses. 

The stanzas of seven verses, redondillas de siete versos j are 
little used ; they are composed of verses of redonditta mayor, 
the Ist. of which rhymes with the 4th. and the 5th.; the 2d. 
with the m.j and the 6tb. with the 7th. Stanzas of seven 
hendecasyllable verses might also be composed. 

6. Of the stanzas of eight verses, or octaves. 

The stanzas of eight verses are commonly composed in 
hendecasyllable verses, or in verses ofredondUla mayor, the 
]|;hymes of which are intermixed in diflerent manners. 

1st. The 1st. verse may rhyme with the 4th. 5th. and 8th.; 
the 2d with the 3d., and the 6th. with the 7th. 

2d. The first verse may rhyme with the 3d., the 2d. with 
the 4th. 6th. and 8th., the 5th. with the 7th. 

3d. The rhymes may be crossed. 

4th. Finally the rhymes of the ax first verses may be 
crossed, and the two last rhyme together, which GommcHdy 
happens in the stanzas of eight headecasyUable verses. 


We call octavos the stanzas of eight hendecasyllahle verses, 
and redondillas de ocho versos the stanzas of eight verses of 

The octaves serve principally in epic and didactic poems, 
they are also used in descriptive poems, eclogues and idyls., 


I Porque con tanta sana procuramos 
Ir nuestra sangre y fuerzas apocando, 

Y envueltos en civiles armas damos 
Fuerza y derecho al enemigo bando ? 
iPorque con tal furor despedazamos 
Esta union invencible, condenando 
Nuestra causa aprobada y armas justas 
Justificando en todo las injustas? 

J Que rabia 6 que furor desatinado 
Ilabeib contra vosotros concebido, 
Que asi quereis que el Araucano estado 
Venga i ser por sus manos destruido, 

Y en su virtud y fuerzas ahogado 
Quede con nombre infame sometido 
A las estranas leyes y gobiemo 

Y en dura servidumbre e yugo etemo ? 

Volved sobre vosotros, que sin tiento 
Correis i toda prisa i despeiiaros, 
Refrenad esa furia y movimiento 
Que es la que puede en esto mas danaros : 
^ Sufris al enemigo en vuestro asiento 
Que quiere como i brutos conquistaros, 

Y no podeis sufrir aqui impacientes 
Los consejos y avisos convenientes ?•.. 

Alonso db Ercilla. 

The copla de arte mayor j thus called because it was com- 
posed in verses of twelve syllables or of arte may or ^ was a 
stanza of eight verses, the 1st. of which commonly rhymed 
with the 4th. 5th. and 8th., the 2d. with the 3d., and the 6tfai^ 
with the 7th. This stanza is no more used at present. 
ParefaSf tercetos^ cuartetesy &c. might be made in verses of 
arte mayor as also in hendecasyllahle. 


7. Of»tama9 tfmnt verges. 

The stanzas of nine verses bear the name in SpanUi of 
rtdondiUM misiaa^ because tbej are composed of tbe reuDion 
of a ttania ^f four verses and of a staoaa of five veises of 
rtdondiUa mayor. Stanzas of nine verses might also be 
composed of a stanza of four verses and of a stanza of five 
hendecasyllable verses. 

8. Of the stanzas of ten verseSf or dizains. 

The dicimas are stanzas of ten verses, ccHnmonly of 
redondiUa mayor j the 1st. of which rhymes widi the 4th. and 
5th.; the 2d. with the Sd., the 6th. with the 7th. and lOth^ 
and the 8th. with the 9th. 

The didma may dso be composed of the union of two 
fltansas of five verses quintillas, m each of which the mixture 
of tfie rhymes may be uniform, but it is better that it should 
be different This kind of dtcima is called eopla real 

Copla reoL 

Aqui la envidia y menUra 
Me tuvi^ron encerrado. 
jDichoso el humilde estado 
Del sabio que se retira 
De aqueste mundo malvado^ 

Y con pobre mesa y casa • 
En el campo deleitoso 

Con solo Dios se compasa, 

Y 4 solas su vida pasa, 
Ni enviado, ni envidioso ! 

FftAT Luis bs Lkon. 

Remark. The stanzas of more than ten verses are not 
composed of entire verses only, but of entire verses, oersos 
enteroSy mixed with broken verses, versos quebrados. 


Of the mixture of entire with broken verses* 

Commonly the hendecasyllable verses are mixed with the 
verses of seven syllables, those of eight syllables with those of 
four, and those of sijrsyllables with those of three. Some- 


times also entire verses of different measure are mixed with 
broken yerses of different measure. 

There is nothing determined however in such cases, as to 
the number of verses of each kind that may be mixed togeth- 
er. The verses thus mixed sometimes form stanzas, and at 
others do not form any. When they form stanzas of less 
than ten verses, the mixture of rhymes b the same as in 
the stanzas composed only of entire verses. But when they 
form stanzas of more than ten verses, and when they are not 
disposed in stanzas, the mixture of rhymes is absolutely arbi- 
trary ; even unrhymed verses may be admitted among the 
verses rhymed. It is however proper to remark, 1st that in 
mixed verses, whether they form stanzas or not, the corres- 
ponding rhymes must never be too distant from one another ; 
2d. that in the stanzas in mixed verses as in the stanzas in en- 
tire verses, the mixture adopted for the rhymes in the 1st. 
stanza must generally be foHowed in all the other stanzas of 
the same piece, and that it is the same with the mixture of the 
verses of different measure ; 3d. that the stanzas in mixed 
verses do not contain commonly more than twenty verses. 

The following examples will give an idea of the great va- 
riety of the mixture of the entire and kroken verses, which is 
commonly used in odes, light poetry and pieces destined to be 
set to music. 

Iba cogiendo flores 

Y guaniando en la falda 

Mi ninfo para hacer una gmmalda ; 

Mas primero las toca 

A los rosados labios de su boca, 

Y les da de su aliento los olores. 

Y estaba (por su bien) entre noa rosa 
Una abeja escondida, 

Su dulce humor hurtando ; 

Y como en la hermosa 

Flor de los labios se hallo, atrevida 

La pico, saco miel, fuese volando. L. Martin. 

Profecia del Tajo. 

Folgaba (1) el rey Rodrigo 

Con la hermosa Caba en la ribera 

(1) Folgaba for Holsaba, (obsolete.) 

440 9PAJI1SH VB&SinCATlO^' 

DeTajo sintestigo; 

El pecbo saco fuera 

£1 rio, y le hablo de esta maneia : 

En mal punto te goces 
Injusto forzador, que ya el sonido 
Oyo (1) ya, y las voces, 
Las annas y el bramido 
De Marte, de furor y ardor cenido. 

j Ay ! esa tu alegria 
j Que llantos acarrea ! y esa hermosa 
Que vio el sol el mal dia 
A^ Espana ! Ay ! cuan llorosa, 
Y al cetro de los Godos cuan costosa ! 

Llamas, dolores, guerras, 
Muertes, asolamientos, fieros males 
Entre tus brazos cierraif, 
Trabajos inmortales 
A^ ti y 4 tus vasallos naturales, 

A^ los que en Constantina 
; Rompen el fertil suelo, 4 los que baiia 

^ El Ebro, i la vecina 

Sansuena, k Lusitaiia, 

A' toda la^espaciosa y triste Espana. 

Ya dende (2) Cddiz llama 
£1 injuriado conde k la venganza 
Atento y no i la fama 
La b^rbara pujanza 
En quien para tu daiio hay tardanza. 

Oye, que al cielo toca 
Con temeroso son la trompa fiera, 
Que en A'frica convoca 
£1 Moro i la bandera, 
Que al aire desplegada va ligera. 

La ianza ya blandea 
El A'rabe cruel, 6 hiere el viento 
Llamando 4 la pel6a, 
Inumerable cuento 
De escuadras juntas veo en un memento; 

(1) Oyo for Oigo, (obsolete.) 
<2) Dende for Sctde, (idem.) 


Cubre la gente el suelo^ 
Debajo de las velas desparece (I) 
La mar, la voz al cielo 

Coofusa y varia crece, * , 

£1 polvo roba el dia^ y J« oscurece. 

j Ay ! que ya presurosas 
Siiben las largas naves, \ Ay ! que tiendeu 
Los brazos vigorosos 
A^ los remos, y encienden 
Las mares espumosas por do hienden. 

.£1 Eolo derecho 
Hinche la vela en popa, y larga entrada 
Por el Herculeo estrecho 
Con la punta acerada 
£1 gran padre Neptuno da 4 la armada. 

j Ay triste ! i Y aun te tiene 
£1 mal dulcc regazo j* <i Ni Uamado 
Al mal que sobreviene 
No acorres ? i ocupado 
No V€s ya el puerto 4 Hercules sagrado ? 

Acude, corre, vuela 
Traspasa el aha sierra, ocupa el llano, 
No perdones la espuela, 
No des paz 4 la mano^ 
Men6a fulminando el hierro insano. 

j Ay cuanto de fatiga. 
Ay cuanto de dolor esti presente 
A^ el que viste loriga, 
Al infante valiente, 
A' hombres y caballos juntamente ! 

Tt(i, Bitisdivino, 
De sangre agena y tuya amancillado, 
Dar4s d mar vecino, 
] Cuanto yelmo quebrado ! 
I Cuanto cuerpo de nobles destrozado ! 

■ " ' ■ ' ' ■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ 

(1) Dupareee for ittapartUy (poet, lie.) 


Elfuribondo Marte 
Cinco laces las haces desordena 
Igual 4 cada parte ; 
La sesu j Ay ! te condena, 
O cara patria, i bdrbara cadena. 

Fray Luis dk Leon, Oda. 

Fonseca, ya las boras 
Del invierno aterido, 
Auoque tarde, se fueron 

Y su vez agradable permitieron 
Al Ceiiro florido. 

Ya el verano 

Nos desGubre su frente, 

De rosas y de purpura cenido : 

Remite el aire el desabrido ce8o, 

Y el sol libra sus rayos 
De las nubes oscuras ; 

Y con laces mas vivas y mas paras, 
Regalando las nieves, 

Al blando pie de los parados fios 
Las prisiones de yelo alegre quita, 

Y su aotigao correr les solicita..* F. de Rioja* 

I Cuan presto se va el placer, 

Como despues de acordado, 

Da dolor ; 

Como i nuestro parecer 

Cualquiera tiempo pasado, 

Fue mejor ! Jokge MANRiaus. 


Of blank verseB. 

We have just seen that blank verses, sueUoSy that is, which 
are not subject to rhyme, are mixed with the44iymed verses; 
they are likewise mixed, with the assonant verses, as will be 
seen hereafter ; but they may also be used alone without 
mixture of any other kind of verse. 

Concision in thought, force of expression, and above all 
elegance and hu'monyin versification resulting from the sym- 
metrical disposition of long and brief syllables ; this is, what 
constitutes die beauty of blank verses and gives them a great 


analogy with the Greek and Latin verses : thus the Spaniards 
without rigorously observing, however, the rhythm of the an- 
cients, have imitated it in blank verses wiUi considerable 

The hendecasyllable is the verse most used in works in 
blank verse ; it is called heroic^ not because it is used in 
preference in the heroic poem and other works of a serious 
kind ; for, these are composed commonly in octaves or /er- 
cetos of rhymed verses, but becaifse it imitates best the har- 
mony of the gieat Greek and Latin verses^ and seems there- 
fore more proper to be used in the translations of the master 
works of antiquity. 

In mixing hendecasyllables with broken verses of different 
measures, almost all the lyrick combinations of the ancients 
may be imitated. In the following ode, the cuarteios of which 
are composed of three hendecasyllable verses and a broken 
verse of five syllables, the harmony of the sapphick strophe 
may be easily discovered, which is one of the most beautiful 
of these combinations. 

Al Cifiro. 

Dulce vecino de la verde selva, 
Huesped etemo del abril florido. 
Vital aliento de la madre Venus, 

C6firo blando, « 

Si de mis 4nsias el amor supiste. 
Til, que las quejas de mi voz Uevaste, 
Oye, no temas, y 4 mi ninfa dile, 
Dlle que muero. 

Fflis un tiempo mi dolor sabla. 
Fills un tiempo mi dolor lloraba, 
Qulsome un tiempo ; mas ahora temo, 
Temo sus iras. 

A si lor Dioses con amor patemo, 
Asi los cielos con amor benigno 
Nieguen al tiempo que feliz volares, 
Nieve i la tierra. 

Jamas el peso de la nube parda, 
Cuando amanece en la elevada cumbre, 
Toque tus hombros, ni su mal granizo 

Hiera tus alas. Estbban de Villeoas. 



Of uforki in verse. 

The principal works in verse are ; epic poems, didactic 
and descriptive ; theatrical pieces, odes, epistles, elegies, ec- 
logues, idyls aod fables. As these different kinds of works 
are common to the Spanish literature and that of other na- 
tions, we shall not consider them. It is true that the Span- 
iards deviating sometimes in their composition, and particu- 
larly in that of theatrical pieces, from the precepts dictated 
by good taste, would seem to require some details ; but these 
detaib are foreign to a treatise on versification and would 
exceed its limits. It will be sufficient to remark that the 
Spanish theatrical pieces are sometimes in prose, and at others 
in rhymed or unrhymed veises, and that all kinds of stanzas, 
sonnets, romances, &c. are introduced in the plays ; in shorL 
that all the other works in verse are generally composed of 
stanzas. As to the kind of stanzas which is proper ror every 
class of works, we have indicated it as far as possible when 
speaking of the different kinds of stanzas ; the choice of 
them however beiiig often left to the fancy of the poets, it is 
the works of those who have excelled in each class that 
ought to be taken as models. We shall only treat here of 
the small works in verse which are in some manner peculiar 
to the Spanish language, or which at least are subject in that 
language to some particular rules, and we skaA pass over 
those, such as the sonnets in echos, foiadesy labyrinths, cubic 
poems, &c. the whole merit of which consisted in a ridiculous 
difficulty, and which good taste has proscribed long ago. 

1. Soneioe, 

The sonnet, mmeio^ occupies yet in Spanish poetry the 
rank which it formerly occupied in French poetry. 

The Spaniards have several kinds of sonnets which are ; 
the simple sonnet, the double sonnet, the crossed sonnet, the 
sonnet with a tail, and the continued sonnet. 

The simple sonnet, eoneio simphy is composed of fourteen 
hendecasyllable verses, the first eight of which named pie^ 
are divided in two qmartnnBy and the last six form two ter^ 
cets which are called tmeUas. Tlie two quatrains are made 
upon the same rhymes, and in each of them the ftr^ verse 
rhymes with the fourth, and the two intermediary one's 


together. The verses of the two tercets rhyme together upon 
two or three rhymes^ which must not resemUe those used in 
the two quatrains. 

The double sonnet, soneto dobladoy is subject to the same 
rules as the simple sonnet ; the only difference there is between 
the two consists in this, thai, in the double sonnet, broken 
verses of seven syllables are interposed among hendecasyllar 
bles, namely ; one or several in each quatrain and one alone 
in each tercet. Every one of these broken verses having 
the same rhyme as the entire verse which precedes it, this 
rhyme is double, and is the reason why this sonnet is 
named a double sonnet. 

The crossed sonnet, «o»e/o terciado, is thus called, because 
the rhymes of the two quatrains are crossed ; in other re- 
spects it is like the simple sonnet. 

The sonnet with a tail, soneto con cola, diifers from the 
simple sonnet because there is interposed after the second and 
fourth verses of each quatrain, and after each tercet, a broken 
verse called cola. The broken verses thus interposed are of 
four or five syllables ; those of the quatrains rhyme with each 
other, and their rhyme must be different from the rhymes of 
\ke quatrains ; those of the tercets rhyme abo with each oth- 
er and their rhymes must be different from the rhymes of the 
quatrains and tercets. 

The continued sonnet, soneto continuoy is similar as to the 
quatrains to the simple sonnet or to the crossed sonnet^ but 
the rhymes of the tercets are crossed and the same as those 
of the quatrains. 

The simple sonnet is more used than the others, we shall 
give two of them, the French imitations of which are well 

Un soneto me manda hacer Violante, 

Que en mi vida me he visto en tal aprieto, 

Catorce versos dicen que es soneto, 

Burla burlando van los tres delante. 
Yo pense que no hallara consonante, 

Y estoy k la mitad de otro cuarteto, 
Mas si me veo en el primer terceto 

No hay cosa ^n los cuartetos que me espante. 
Por el primer terceto voy entrando, 

Y aun parece que entre con pie derecho, 
Pues fin con este verso le voy dando. 



Ya estoy en el segufido, y aon sospecho 
Que estoy los trece versos acabando : 
Contad si son catorce, y est^ hecho. 

Lope de Vboa. 

Soberbias torres, altos edificios, 
Que ya cubristes (1) siete escebos montes^ 

Y ahora en descubiertos borizontes 
Ap^nas de haber sido dais indicios : 

Griegos liceos, celebres hospicios 
De Plutarcos, Hatones, Xenofontes, 
Teatro que lidio Rinocerontes, 
Olimpias, lustres, banos^ sacrificios ; 

I Que fuerzas deshlcieron peregrinas 
La mayor pompa de la gloria humana^ 
Imperios, triunfos, armas y doctrinas ? 

j O gran consuelo & mi esperanza vana, 

Sue el tiempo que os volvio breves niinas, 
o es mucho que acabase mi sotana ! 

Lope db Veoa. 

2. Silvas, 

The Spaniards give the name of siha to a piece of hende- 
casyllable verses mixed at pleasure with broken verses of se- 
ven syllables, in which no order is observed for the distribu- 
tion of the rhymes, and in which some blank verses may 
even be introduced. There are also silvas'm verses of seven 
syllables. The silva is a composition after the manner of 
the ode, which b proper for all sorts of subjects. 

A la Riqdeza, 

jO mal seguro bien ! { O cuidadosa 
Hiqueza, y como i sombra de alegrla, 

Y de sosiego enganas I 

£1 que vela en tu alcance, y se desvia 

Del pobre estado, y la quietud dichosa, 

Ocio y seguridad pretende en vano. 

Pues tras el luengo (2) errar de agua y montanas, 

Cuando el metal precioso coja k mano, 

No ha de ver sin cuidado abrir el dia. 

(1) Cubristes for cubHsteis (poet, lie.) 

(2) Lnen^o for largo, (poet, lie.) 


No Sin causa los dioses te escondieroB 
En las entranas de la tierra dura : 

LMas que hallo dificil y encubierto 
a sedienta codicia ? 
Turbo la paz segura, 
Con que en la antigua selva flor^cieron 
£1 abeto y el pino, 

Y trdjolos al puerto 

Y por campos de mar les dio camino. 
Abriose el mar, y abriose 
Altamente la tierra, 

Y salistes del centro al aire claro, 
Hija de la avaricia, 

A' hacer d los hombres cruda guerra. 

Saliste tu, y perdiose 

La piedad que no habita en pecho avaro. 

j A cudntos armo el ore de crueza I 

j Y d cudntos ha dejado 

£n el ultimo trance ! j o dura suerte ! 

Pierde su flor la virginal pureza 

Por ti y v6se manchado 

Con adulterio el lecho no esperado. 

Al menos animoso 

Para que te posea, 

Das ri^ueza, ardimiento licencioso, 

Ninguno hay que se vea 

Por tl tan abastado y poderoso, 

Que carezca de miedo. 

^ Que cosa habri de males tan cercada, 

rues ora pretendida, ora alcanzada, 

Y aun estando en deseos, 

Pena ocultan tus ciegos devaneos ? 

Pero cdnsome en vano, decir puedo, 

Que si sombras de bien en tl se vieran^ 

Los inmortales Dioses te tuvieran. F. de Rioja^. 

3. Romances. 

They call romance a piece of verse destined to be set to 
music, composed of a series of quatrains, the 1st. and 3d. 
verses of which are blank, whilst the 2d. and 4th. rhyme by 
assonance. Assonance is the greatest difficulty of romances. 


because it must be the same in all the quatruns. Romances 
are commoDly in versea of redonditla mayor or menor, and 
sometimes in bendecasyllable verses^ for which reason they 
are then caOed romances herdicos, I'hey are also in verses 
of seven syllables, and one of the verses of each quatrain 
may be bendecasyllable, this is commonly the fourth ; one or 
two broken verses of any kind, particularly of five or four 
syllables may likewise be mixed with the verses of redondiUa ; 
in short, romances may be composed in quatrains of verses 
€9driijulo% and even of arte mayor j pure or mixed ; in a 
word, nothing is more varied than the versification of roman- 
ces, but it is necessary that the mixture adopted in the first 
quatrain be followed in all the others. The romances com- 
monly have no burden^ there are however some romances in 
which the last or the two last verses of the first quatrain are 
repeated after the second, and so oo after each quatrain, 
or every other quatrain. The burden sometimes begins only 
in the middle of the romance and does not always continue 
till the end, neither is it necessary that it should be composed 
of the last or of the two last verses ol the 1st. quatrain, it may 
be formed of one or two verses which are added. 

The romance is the favourite kind of poetry of the Span- 
iards, it is really their national lyrick poetry, it equally ac- 
commodates itself to the accents of joy and to those of sorrow. 
They sing in them alternately the exploits of warriors, love^ 
adventures, &c. They call ^dcara a romance sang upon a 
popular air bearing that name. 

De las Africanas playas 
Alejado de sus huertas, 
Mira el forzado hortelano 
De Cspana las altas tierras. 
Mira las golosas cabras 
£n las peladas laderas, 
Que apenas se determina 
Si son cabras 6 son penas : 
Tiende la envidiosa vista 
For las abundosas vegas 
Y comarcanas cabanas, 
Que casi 4 la par humean. 
Miraba por Gibraltar 
Las heladas rocas yertaa 
Atotadas de las ondas, 


Y arrancadas de la arena. 
M ira el estrecfao cubiertO| 

Y las hervieDtes arenas, 
Que le pareoe que braman, 

Y por mil partes resuenan. 
O sagrado mar, le dice, 
Haz con mis suspiros treguas ; 
f erdoaa si ellos 6 el viento 
Son causa de tu tormenta. 
P4same en esotra playa ; 
Que si en ella me presentas^ 
Te ofiecere un bianco toro 
£1 mejor de mis dehesas. 

No quiero que mis deseos 

Yayan a tierras agenas ; 

Da Tida 4 un nuevo Leandro, / 

Que en tus manos se encomienda. 

£sto diciendo el forzado, 

En las blandas ondas se echa 

Con los brazos 4 remar, 

Hiende, rompe,rasga y huella. . 

Mas all^ 4 la media noche, 

Cuando los miembros le aquejan, 

Temeroso de su dano 

Hablo asi 4 las ondas : 

Queridas y amadas ondas ; 

Pues determinais que muera^ 

Dejadme salir amigas^ 

Que yo os pagare esta deuda. " 

Fuele el viento favorable, 

Oyo fortuna sus quejas, 

Y al nacer el rubio sol, 
Hizo pie sobre la arena. 
Dio gracias al mar piadoso, 
Al viento, norte y estrellas, 

Y con ceremonia humilde 
Beso y adoro la tierra. 

The verses of seven syllables disposed in cuartetoa of 
blank and assonant verses as in the romanceM^ and which for 
diis reason are often called versos de romance are those gen- 
erally usedjn anacreontic odes. 



No con mi blanda lire 

Serin en ayes tristes 

Uoradas las fortunas 

De reyes infelices ; 

Ni el grito del soldadp 

Feroz en crudas lides, 

O el trueno con que arroja 

La bala el bronce horrible. 

Yo tiemblo, y me estremesco: 

Que el niimen no permite 

A el ri) labio temeroso 

Canciones tan sublimes. 

Muchacho*soy, y quiero 

Decir mas apacibles 

Querellas^y gozarme 

Con dan^as y convites. 

£n ellos cordnado 

De rosas y alelles ; 

Entre risas y versos 

Menudeo los brindis. 

£n coros hs mutbachas 

Se juntan pof oirme, 

Y d punto mis cantata 

Con nuevo ardoi* repiten ; 

Pues Baco y el de V^nus 

Me dieron^ que felice 

Celebre en dulcet hinilifys 

Sus glorias y ftsdnes. J. M«Ll:»n>Bz Valdes. 

Quiero cantiif de Cadittd, 
Quiero cantar de Atridas, 
! Mas ay ! que de amor solo 
Solo canta mi lira. 
Renuevo el instrumento^ 
Las cuerdas mudo 4 prisa^ 
^ero si yo de Alcides, 
Ella de amor suspira. 
Pues. heroes valientes, 
Quedios desde este dia ; 
Porque ya de amor solo, 
Solo canta mi lira. 

E. DE ViLLE GA^, tmitaci&n dt Anatreonie. 

il) A el for ai, (poet, lie.) 


Vuelve, mi dulce lira, n 

Vuelve u tu estilo humjllde 

Y deja a los Homeros, 
Cantar 4 los Aqiitles. 
Canta tu la cabafia 
Con toDos pastoriles, 

Y los epicos metros 

A Yirgttio no envidies. 
No esperefi en la corte 
Gozar dias felices, 

Y vdelvete i, la aldea, 
Que tu presencia pide. 
Ya te aguardan zagales 
Que con flores se visten 

Y adoraan sus cabezas 

Y cuellos juveniles. 
Ya te esperan pastores 
Que deseosos viven 

De escuchar tus canciones 
Que con gusto repiten. 

Y para que sus voces 
A los ecos admiren, 

Y repitan tus versos 
Los melodiosos cisnes ; 
Vuelve ; mi dulce lira, 
Vuelve, k tu tono humilde ; 

Y deja k los Homeros 

Cantar i, los Aquiles. J. Cadalso. 

4. Endeehas. 

The endeehas are elegies or funeral songs in praise of the 
dead, they are a kind of romance commonly in verses of sev- 
en syllables. The endeehaSj in which the last verse of each 
9«a/ratfi is a hendecasyllable, are called endeehas reaka; 
there are also rhymed endeehas. 

5. SeguidiUas, 

The segmdiUa is composed ti a series of quatrains in 
crossed verses of seven and five syllables. The seguidilla 
has a great resemblance with the romanee; the only differ- 
ence existing, is that the couplets of the seguidiUa being com^ 
monly detached, the assonance may change at every couplet. 


There is a kind of aeguidilla called chamberga^ frqpi the 
name of the air upon which it is sung, each quatrain of 
which is followed by six verses alternately of three and seven 
syllables^ rhyming by assonance two by two, that is, every 
verse of three syllables rhymes with the verse of seven 
which immediately follows it. 

6. Letrittaa. 

The letriUa is a kind of lyric poetry of a simple and 
graceful style. It is commonly composed of a series of 
quatrains in verses of six or eight syllables. The letriUa 
has a great resemblance with the romance ; but it is shorter. 
The 1st and the 3d. verse of each quaJtrain are blank 
or rhymed, the 2d. and the 4th are assonants; all 
the verses may nevertheless be also rhymed. It is requisite, 
as in romances^ that the assonance be the same in all the 
quatrains. There are some letrillas which have a burden^ 
others have none, sometimes the burden forms a part of the 
quatrain, sometimes it is added. 

No alma primavera 
Bella y apacible 
O el dulce Favonio 
Que 4mbares respire ; 
No rosada Aurora 
Tras la noche triste, 
Ni el pincel que en florear 
Bello se matlce ; 
No nube que Febo 
Su pabellon pinte, 
O &lamo que abrace 
, Dos emulas vides ; 
No fuente que perlas 
A cien caiios fie, 
Ni lirio entre rosas, 
Clavel en jazmines ; 
Al romper el dia 
Son tan apacibles 
. Como el pastorcillo 
Que en mi pecho vive. Yolesias? 


De este modo ponderaba 
Un inocente pastor 
A la ninfa a quien amaba 
La eficacia de su amor. 

^Ves cuantas tlores al prado 
La primayera presto? 
Pues mira, dueno adorado, 
Mag veces te quiero yo. 

I Yes cuanta arena dorada 
Tajo en sus aguas llevo ? 
Pues mira^ Fills amada, 
Mas veces te quiero yo. 

^ Yes al salir de la aurora 
Cu&nta avecilla canto ? 
Pues niira, hermosa pastora, 
Mas reces te quiero yo. 

I Yes ia nieve derretida 
Cuanto arroyuelo formo ? 
Pues mira^ bien de mi vida^ 
Mas veces te quiero yo. 

I Yes cu^Dta abeja industriosa 
De esa colmena salio ? 
Pues mira^ ingrata y hermosa^ 
Mas veces te quiero yo. 

I Yes cuantas gracias la mano 
De las deidades te dio I 
Pues mira^ dueno tirano^ 
Mas veces te quiero yo. J. Cadalso. 

7. Liras, 

The lira is a small piece of hendecasyllable verses mixed 
with broken verses, composed to be sung with the accompa- 
niment of a guitar or lyre. The liras are composed of five 
or six verses. In the liras of five verses, the four first are 
broken verses of seven syllables and the fifth is a hendeca- 
syllable; the 1st. verse rhymes with the 3d., the 2d. 4th. 
and 5th. rhyme together. In the liras of six verses, the odd 
verses are broken verses of seven syllables and the others 
are hendecasyllables ; the rhymes of the four first verses are 
crossed, aQd the two last verses rhyme together. There are 


abo Ura» of six verses the 1st 2d. 4tfa. aod 5tb. of which are 
broken verses of seven syllables, the 3d. a broken verse of 
two syllables and the Gth. a hendecasyUable, then the 1st. 
verse rhymes with the 4th.y the :zd, with the 3d. and the 
Mh. with the 6th. 

8. Condones, 

The cancion is a kind of lyric poetry, which is composed 
of several ettanzas or esianciaSj in hendecasyliable verses 
mixed with broken verses of seven syllables. The cancion 
has not commonly more than from ten to twelve stanzas, and 
is often terminate by a shorter stanza called remote or 
represa. The mixture of rhymes as well as that of entire 
and broken verses is arbitrary, it varies even sometimes from 
one stanza to the other, but in general ^e mixture adopted 
in the 1st stanza is followed in all the others. The mixture 
of the verses and rhymes is not the same in the remote as in 
the other stanzas, it is likewise arbitrary. 

O libertad preciosa, 
No comparada al oro, 
Ni al bien mayor de la espaciosa tierra, 
Mas rica y mas gozosa 
Que el precioso tesoro 
Que el mar del Sur entre su nicar ciern^ 
Con armas, sangre y guerra, 
Con las vidas y famas, 
Conquistado en el mundo, 
Paz dulce, amor profundo, 
Que el mal apartas y 4 tu bien nos llamas, 
En ti solo se anida 
Oro, tesoro, paz, bien, gloria y vida. 

Cuando de las humanas 
Tinieblas vi del cielo 
La luz, principio de mis dulces dias, 
Aquellas tres hermanas, 
Que nuestro humano velo 
Tejiendo He van por inciertas v?as, 
Las duras penas mias 
Troc^ron en la gloria, 
Que en libertad poseo 
Con siempre igual deseo ; 
Donde ver4 por mi dichosa his^oria^ 


Quien mas leyere en ella, 

Que es dulce libertad 1(^ menos della.(l) 

Yo pues, senor, exento 
De esta montana y prado, 
Gozo la gloria y libertad que tengo ; 
Soberbio pensamiento 
Jamas ha derribado 

La vida faumildey pobre que entretengo ; 
Cuando 4 las manos vengo 
Con el muchacho ciego, 
Haciendo rostro embisto, 
Venzo, triuDfo y resisto 
La flecha, el arco, la ponzona, el fuego, 

Y con libre aldedrlo 

Lloro el ageno mal, y espanto el mio« 

Cuando la aurora bana 
Con helado rocio, 

De aljofar celestial el monte y prado^ 
Salgo de mi cabana 
Riberas deste (2) rio 
A dar el nuevo pasto k mi ganado : 

Y cuando el sol dorado 
Muestra sus fuerzas graves, 
Al sueno el pecho inclino 
Debajo un sauce 6 pino, 
Oyendo el son de las parleras aves, 
O ya gozando el aura, 

Donde el perdido aliento se restaura* 

Cuando la noche oscura 
Con su estrellado manto 
£i claro dia en su tiniebla encierra, 

Y suena en la espesura 
£1 tenebroso canto 

De los nocturnes hijos de la tierra, 
Ai pie de aquesta sierra 
Con riisticas palabras 
Mi ganadillo cuento, 

Y el corazon contento 

Del gobierno de ovejas y de cabras, 

La temerosa cuenta 

Del cuidadoso rey me representa. 

(1) Delia for de ella, (poet, lie.) 

(2) DeHe for de ttle, (poet. He.) 


Acpii la verde pera 
Con la mansana hermoea 
De goalda y roja sangre matizada, 

Y de color de cera. 
La cermefia oloroga 

Tengo, y la endrina de color morada : 
Aqui de la enramada 
Parra que el olmo enlasa 
Melosas ubas cojo, 

Y en cantidad recojo, 

Al tiempo que las ramas desenlaza 

El caluroso estio, 

Membrillos que coronan este no. 

No me da descontento 
£1 hibito costoso 

Que de lascivo el pecho noble in&ma : 
£s mi dulce sustento 
Del campo generoso 
Estas silvestres frutas que derrama : 
Mi regalada cama 
De blandas pieles y hojas, 
Que algun rey la envidiira, 

Y de ti, fuente clara, 

Que buUendo el arena y agua arrc^as, 

Estos cristales puros^ 

Sustentos pobres, pero bien seguros. 

Estese el cortesano 
Procurando k su gusto 
La blanda cama y el mejor sustento, 
Bese la ingrata mano 
Del poderoso injusto, 
Formando torres de esperanza al viento ; 
Viva y muera sediento 
Per el honroso oficio, 

Y goce yo del suelo 

Al aire, al sol, al hielo 

Ocupado en mi rustico ejercicio, 

Que mas vale pobreza 

En paz, que en sierra mlsera riqueza. 

Ni temo al poderoso, 
Ni al rico lisongeo, 
Ni soy camal«on del que gobiema : 
Ni me tiene envidioso 


La ambicion y deseo 

De agena gloria^ ui de fama eterna : 

Carne sabrosa y tierna. 

Vino aromatjzado, 

Pan bianco de aquel dia^ 

En prado^ en fuente fria, 

ilalla un pastor con hambre fatigado. 

Que el grande y el pequeno 

Somos iguales lo que dura el sueno. Lope de Vega. 

9. Balata. 

The ballad, balata^ is a small piece of verse which is now 
but little in use, its name comes from this, that it was origin- 
ally sung while dancing. The ballad is composed in pure 
hendecasyllable verses, or mixed with broken verses of seven 
syllables, and it is divided in four parts, the 1st of which is 
called represa (repetition,) because it is wholly or partly re- 
peated at the end of the ballad ; the 2d. primera mudanza 
(1st. change,) the 3d. segunda mudanza (2d. change) be- 
cause the tone of the represa is changed in it, and the 4th. 
vueUa (return,) because they return to the 1st. tone. The 
represa and vuelta are commonly composed of three or four 
verses, and each mudanza almost always has one verse less. 

C Tras su manada Elisio lamentando 
Represa, < Mil voces este verso repetia 

Q ; Ay ! quien se viera cual se vio algun dia ! 

l,a Mu' 5 Vlme yo tan senor de mi fortuna, 
danza. ( Tan libre de dolor, tan prosperado, 

2.a Mu' ^ Que no teml jamas mudanza alguna 
danza, ^ De aquel primero y venturoso estado : 

C Ya toda mi ventura se ha trocado ; 
Vuelta, < No soy ni ya sere quien ser solia : 

^ j Ay ! quien s6 viera cual se vio algun dia ! 

10. ViUancicos. 

The vilUmcico (country lay) has a great relation to the 
ballad, and is likewise made for singing. It begins with a 
cabezoy which is repeated as the burden of the ballad. The 
cabezGy is a kind of introduction containing a sentence of two, 
three or four verses. It is followed by a stajiza of six verses 


caOedf^i^) which is its comment. The two first pi69 form 
the Ist wtfdSoriizo, the two following the 2d. mudanzaj and the 
two last the vueUaf after which the last or the two last of the 
cabeza are repeated. The villancieos are composed in ver- 
ses of pore redondiUa mayor or menor^ or mixed with broken 
yftnoB, The two following viHanoicot will senre as exam- 
ples for the mixture ci the verses and rhymes* 

C En k) prospero y adverso 
Cabeza, < Lo qoe solo satisface, 

(^ £s pensar que Dies lo hace. 

- ifci-fc^Mi 5 Q"® "*® ^^^^ ^ ^*j® *^ mundo, 
iM mwmmza. ^ q ^^^ ^^ p^^^^ fortuna 

%a Mudmnza. \ f^'^t^T t ^f ^^ 
( O me bunda hasta el profuado : 

Vtt^ ^ ^ raaon en que me Ainde 

^ Pj^j^ qjj^ ^^^ j^ abrace, 

Jtepeltcton. £s saber que Dies lo hace. 

/Cuando el corazon se ahrasa, 
>j^^ \ Echaluego 

^^ 'S Por las ventanas de casa 

^ Vivo fuego. 

LaMudanza, ^^'^y^t.!^'^ 
^ Jill amor 

^ Mjr J ^ Aunque mas quiera encubrir 
2m Mudanxa. J "^^ ^^^^^ 

VneUa. | <^« ^^ 't.^ " ' "'^' 

B,..^ . .„ S Pot ks Tentanas de casa 
Bepeltcitm. ^ Vivo fuego. 


rr is^ S Qi>e el alma hecha una brasa 

^'^'^ \ EnTia teego 

Ti^^s,:^ 5 P*' J"* ventanas de easa 



Common Spanish Ahbreviaiiona - - 9 

Introduction - - - - - 13 


Of words considered ns Sounds - - 14 

w the prowunciaiion of VoweU - - 15 

Of Dipththongs - - - - 16 

Of Triphthongs - ... . ib. 

Of the pronunciation of Consonants ^ - 17 

Observations upon Orthographjf - - 19 

SjUabical Table .... 20 

Of the Accent . - ... 21 

OfftmetuaUon .... 24 



Of words considered as signs of our thotights - 24 


Of the Article - - - - 25 

Declension of the Articles - - - 26 

Of the use rf the Articles ... 27 



Of Nouns ----- 29 

Of the Substantive .... ij,. 

Of Genders ----- 30 

Of Numbers ----- ib. 

Of the formation of the plural of Nouns - 31 

Declension of Nouns - - . - ib* 

Declension (f a neuter Noun - - - 3S 

Of proper Nouns - - - - 34 


Declension of the Jirtick un, una^ a or an - 35 
General observations upon the genders - ^ 36 
Of the gender of Nouns considered in their terminations 37 
Substantives of both genders - - - ib. 
Of Nouns Adjective . - - - 38 
Formation of the feminine of Nouns Adjective - ib. 
Colhcaiion and agreement of the Adjective with the Sub- 
stantive ..... ib. 
Of Nouns diminutive and augmentative - - 39 
Degrees of comparison in Adjectives . . 40 
Of comparatives in relation to Adjectives - ib. 
Comparative of superiority - - - 41 
Of comparatives in relcUion to Substantives, Verbs and 

Adverbs - . - . - ib. 

Comparative of inferiority - - - ib. 

Comparative of equality ... 42 

Of Superlatives .... 43 
Observations upon the Comparatives and Superlatives 44 

Of numereU A^ectives and Substantives of number 45 
Adjectives whichj joined to a Substantive, lose one or 

more letters - . - - - 48 



Declension of personal Pronouns - - 51 

Pronoun rejiective - - - - 54 

Table of Pronouns as regimen or objective - 54 

Construction of Pronouns as regimen or objective 55 

Of Pronouns possessive ... 56 

Declension of Pronouns possessive - - 57 

Declension of Pronouns possessive relative - 59 

Of Pronouns demonstrative - - - 61 

Of Pronouns relative .... 62 

Of Pronouns interrogative - - - 64 

Of Pronouns indefnite - - - ib. 

Observations upon the indefinite Pronouns - 65 



Of Conjugations - - - - 68 

Of Modes - - . • . ib. 

Of Tenses ,, - . . - 69 


W the Tenses of the Infinitive - - - 70 

verbs tohich have two Purticipks pctst - - TI 

<y the Tenses of the Indicative - - 7% 

Of the Future Tenses ... - 75 

Ruksfor using the Future Conjunctive - 76 

Of the Conditional ... - 77 

Rules for using the Conditional Tenses - - ib. 

Use of the Imperative - - - - 80 

Use of the Subjunctive - - - - ib. 

Ruksfor using the Tenses of the Sul^unctive mode ib. 

Of the Persons and Numbers of Verbs - - Bl 

Conjugations - - - - - 82 

Conjugation of the AuociHary Verb Haber - ib. 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb Tener - 86 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs Ser and Estar 91 

Rules for using Ser and Estar - - - 95 
«i9 general Scheme of the termination of Regular Verbs 96 

Paradigms of the three Conjugations 97 

First Conjugation in Ar - - - ib. 

Second Conjugation in Er - - - 101 

Third Corrugation in Ir - - - 105 

Paradigm of Passive Verbs - - - 110 

Paradigm of Neuter Verbs - - - 114 

Paradigm of Reflective and Reciprocal Verbs - 117 

Paradigm of Impersonal Verbs - - - 119 
Last and Cotyugation of the Irregular Verbs arranged 

in alphabetical order - - - 121 
Important observations '- - - - ib. 
Agreement of verbs with their Sul^ect - - 151 
<>l^ the Regimen of Verbs - - - 153 
Of the Verb as a Regimen - - - ib. 
Of the Noun Substantive as Regimen of the Verb 154 
Of Pronouns as Regimen of Verbs • - ib. 
Observations upon Verbs ... 155 
Of the agreement of the Participle past teith the Sub- 
ject and with its Regimen - - ' 156 



Of Adverbs - - - - - 157 
Observations upon jamas, Qunca, no, mas, m6no3, muy 159 



Of Prepagitions -* - - - i60 

ObiervaiioHs upon paraoni^por - - ib. 

FrepoBiiunu which govern the Genitive - j62 

PrepositioM which govern the Dative - - ib. 

Table of Prepontione published by the Royal Academy 163 



Of Conjunctions - - - - 188 

Of the Conjunctions that govern the Subjunctive 194 


Of Interjections ... - 194 

Names of Countries^ Islands j Capes and Seas - 195 

Names of CitieSy Mountains and Rivers - 198 

Christian Namesmost used in Spain - - 199 


Upon the rules of the Grammar and their application, 
with retnarks and observations. 

Exercise I. Upon the Articles - - 203 

„ II. Upon the Articles - - 204 

,, III. Vpon the gender and number of Nouns 20b 
jy IV. Upon the coUocation of Adjectives and 
their agreement with the Substantives - 207 

Exercise V. Upon the partitive Article - 208 

„ VI. Upon Diminutive and Augmentative 
Nouns and Degrees of Comparison - - 209 

Exercise VII. Upon the preceding Rules - 210 

„ VIII. Continuation of the degrees of Com- 
parison - - - - - 211 
Exercise IX. Upon observations on the Compara- 
tives and Superlatives - - - 212 
tlxEacisE X. Upon the Numeral Adjectives - 214 


Exercise XI. Continuation of the same subject 215 

„ Xn. Upon the Pronouns personal and pos- 
sessive^ and on the Auxiliary Verbs ser and estar, to 
. be; hahex andXeneTytohave; Infinitive and Indicor 

tive present - - - - - 217 

Exercise XTII. Upon the Imperfect and Preterites 219 
„ XIV. Upon the Pluperfect and Futures of 
the Indicative ... - 220 

Exercise XV. Upon the Futures Conjunctive and 

Conditionals simple - - - - 221 

Exercise XVI. Upon the Conditionals past - 222 

„ XVII. Upon the Imperative; Subjunctive 

Present and Imperfect - - - 224 

Exercise XVm. Upon the Preterite and Pluperfect 225 

„ XIX. Upon the Regular Verbs - 226 

„ XX. Upon the same subject - 227 

„ XXI. Upon the same subject - 229 

yj XXII. Upon the same subject - 230 

„ XXIII. Upon the preceding Rules - 232 

„ XXIV. Upon the preceding Rules - 233 

„ XXV. Upon the preceding Rules - 235 

„ XXVI. Upon the preceding Rules - 236 

„ XXV II. Upon the preceding Rules - 237 

„ XXVIII. Upon the preceding Rules 238 

^ XXIX. Upon Pronouns - - 240 

„ XXX. Upon the preceding Rules - 241 

„ XXXI. Upon the preceding Rules - 242 

„ XXXII. Upon the Pronouns Demonstrative ^ 

Relaiivey Interrogative and Indefinite - 243 

Exercise XXXIII. Upon the preceding Rules 244 

„ XXXIV. Upon the preceding Pronouns 245 

„ XXXV. Upon the preceding Rules 246 

Observations upon the use ofxm.j \ms,, usted, ustedes, 

yo«, ^c. - - - - - 248 

Exercise XXXVI. Upon the Neuter, Reflective, Re- 
ciprocal and Impersonal Verbs - - 250 
Exercise XXXVII. Upon the preceding, and the Ir- 

regular Verbs - - - - 251 

Exercise XXXVIII. Upon the preceding Rules 25' 

„ XXXIX. Upon the agreement of Verbs 
with their subject, See. - - - 2 

Exercise XL. Upon the agreement of the Participle 
past unth the subject, 8fc. - 



ExBSCifl XLI. Qmii the Adoerk9 ami PrepotUiomt 256 
^ XLIL Upon the Omjuneiunu - 257 

^ XLUL Upon thtt preceding and hUerfectiom 359 
„ XLIV. Upon the preceding Ridee - 260 

„ XLV. l^<Ae|irececiui^Atife« - 26l 


The parte of the kiman 

The interior parte of the 

The five eeneee 

Qualitiee of the body 
Defects in the kuman hodjf 

Virtves and mceSj good 
and bad quaUtiee of men 

Of eating and drinking 


Of idem for women 


Creatures that creep on the 

Amphibious creatures 

Farts of a bird 

Parts of a fish 

Com and its parts 
Roots, plants and herbs 

Parts of a kingdom 
Parts of a city 


Las partes del cuerpo hii- 

mano 264 
Partes iaterioresdel cuerpo 

humaDo 265 

Los ciaco sentidos 266 

Edddes ib. 

Calidades del cuerpo ib. 
Defectos del cuerpo hu- 

mauo ib. 
Virtudes y vicios, buenas y 
males calidades de los 

hombres ib. 

Del comer y beber 268 

De los vestidos 270 

De idem para mugeres 271 

Bestias 272 

Animales que se arrastran 274 

Animales anf ibios ib. 

Sabandijas 275 

Aves ib. 

Partes de una Ave 276 

Peces 277 

Partes de un pes ib* 

A^rboles ib. 

Matas 278 

Frutas ib. 

Trigos y sus partes 279 

Ralcesy plantas e yerbas 280 

Flores 282 

Colores ib. 

Partes de un reino ib. 

Partes de una ciudad 283 



Of the inhabitants of 

Of a house and all things 

belonging to it 
Of country affairs 
Of the church and things 

belonging to it 
Things relating to war 

Commercial terms and 

Vessels and navigation 

The year anditsparts, ^c. 
The months 
The days of the week 
The holidays of the year 

Table of the current money 
in Spain 

De los moradores de una 

ciudad 283 

De una casa y todo lo per- 

teneciente k ella 285 

De las cosas del campo 28S 
De la Iglesia y cosas per- 

tenecientes k ella 290 

Cosas pertenecientes k la 

guerra 291 

Voces mercantiles y frases 294 

Embarcaciones y navega- 

cion 299 

El aiio y sus partes, ^c. " 301 
Los meses ib. 

Los dias de la semana ib. 

Dias de fiesta del ano ib, 

Vientos 302 

Tabla de las monedas de 
Espana ib« 


I. Acerca de pedir algo 
IL Espresio7ies tiemas 
III. Acerca de agradecer^ 

cumplimentar y mostrar 

rV, Acerca de afirmarj ne- 

gar^ consentirj Sfc, 

V. Acerca de consultar 6 

VI. Del comer y del beber 

VII. Del irj vetiir, mo- 
versey Sfc, 

VIII. Del hablary decir^ 
obrarj Sfc. 

IX. Deloir^ escucharySfc. 

X. Del entender y com-- 

XI. Acerca de preguntar 

About asking any thing 303 

Expressions of kindness 304 

Of thanking, compliment- 
ing and showing kind- 
ness ib. 

Of affirming, denying, con- 
senting, &c. 306 

Of consulting or consid- 
ering 307 

Of eating and drinking ib. 

Of going, coming, mov- 
ing, &c. 308 

Of speaking, saying, act- 
ing, &c. 309 

Of hearing, listening, &c. 310 

Of understanding and com- 
prehending 311 

About asking a question ib. 



Xn. Acerea de $aber 

XIII. Deleonocerjobndar 
ff acardarte 

XIV. De fo edad, de hi 
vidoj de la nmerte, ^e, 

XV. De tina ay a y 9u Se- 

XVI. Delpasio 
XVn. Deltiempo 
XVm. Deiahora 

XIX. De loi eeiadanee 
del alio 

XX. Delmidadlaeecuela 
XXL En la eecuOa 

Of knowing or faaTing a 
knowledge of things 312 

Of knowing or being ac- 
quainted with persons, 
forgetting and remem- 
bering ib. 

Of age, life, death, &c. 313 

Of a governess and her 

yonng lady 314 

Of walking - 318 

Of the weather 321 

Of the time of day 323 

Of the seasons of the year 324 

Of going to school 326 

In the school ib. 



I. Acerea de eab§dar i tn- 

format9e de la sakui de 

n. Aeerea del hablar Es- 


III. Para hablar Ingles 

IV. Delhacer una visita 
por la manana 

V. Del almorzar 

VI. A'ntes de la comida 

VII. Comiendo 

VIII. Para comprar librae 

IX. Del aquilar un aiqja' 

X. Del informarse de ai- 

XI. Delpartir 

XII. De noticias 

XIII. Enire dos amigos 

XIV. Del escribir una 


Of saluting and inquiring 
after any one's health 328 

Of speaking Spanish 331 

To speak English SSS 

Of making a morning visit 338 

Of breakfasting 339 

Before dinner 340 

At dinner 341 

To buy books 345 

Of hiring a lodging 347 

Of inquiring after one 350 

Of departing 353 

Of news 354 

Between two friends 357 

Of writing a letter 35$ 




XV. Del trocar 

XVI. De loejuegosengC' 
nercU;y primero de il de 
los dados 

XVII. Deljugar of agi- 

XVin. Deljugttr dhtpe- 

XIX.* De las diversiones 

del eampOy particular' 

mente de la eaza y de 

la pesca * 

XX. Del ir d la comedia 

XXI. Delvestirse 
XXU. Del hablar d un 

mozo de caballos 

XX I I I. De ir d un viage 

XXIV. Eft una posada 

XXV. Para hablar con los 
empkados en unaAduana 

XXVI. Pctra una persona 
estraviada en una ciudad 

XXVII. Un militar veneer 
dor J Sfc. 

Of exchanging 360 

Of gaming in general ; and 
&st of that of dice 36l 

Of playing at chess 363 

Of playing at tennis 365 

Of country sports, especial- 
ly of hunting ai^d fishing 366 

Of going to the play 668 

Of dressing oneself 370^ 

Of speaking to a groom or 

hostler 372 

Of going a journey 373 

In an inn 37^ 

To speak with the officers 

in a Custom-house 377 

For a person who has lost 

his way in a city 378 

A victorious military man, 

&c. 379 

Fdbulas 381 

Epitome de la Mstoria de Espana - - 385 

Chistes 387 

Correspondencia Mercantil . - - 389 

Documentos Mercantiles . - - 392 

Cor^iu cri/tco^y por Cadalso - - - 400 

Cartas FamiKares^ por Isla - - - 405 

Rejlexiones Morales, por Feijoo, Montengon, &c« 415 

Refranes Espanoles - - - - 420 

Versifieac^'on Espanola . . - 421 






















anduviere, irr. 



pret. def. irgui6, 

* tr^t^, irr. 











pasioB, digoo. 














note 1. 









ia delMijo, 

la de debajo. 


























This book should be returned to 
the laibrary on or before the last date 
stamped below. 

A fine of five cents a day is incurred 
by retaining it beyond the specified 

Please return promptly.