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A Orammatical Sketch 

of the 

x4kra- or Ga- Language, 

with some Specimens of it from the month of 
the natives 


a Vocabulary of the same^ 

witli an appendix on the Adaiime-Dialeci, 

by Rev. J. Zimmermann. 
Two Volumes. 

Vol. I. Grammatical Sketch of the Akra- or Gft*Lapguage. 

Stttttjart^ 1858. 

Printed for the Basel Missionary Society 
by J. F. Steinkopf. 


A grammatical Sketch 

of the 

Akra- or G^-Language, 


some Specimens of it from the month 
of the Natives. 

By Rev. J. Zimmermann. 

^tttttgart^ 1858. 

Printed for the Basel Missionary Society 
by J. F. Steinkopf. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


C;T IC 1S03 


Cu^ f i . / c i^. 


To write a somewhat complete Grammar and Voca- 
bulary of a hitherto unwritten language would be the task 
of a man's life even if it were his native tongue he had 
to deal with; in tempting therefore to give a grammatical 
and lexical Sketch of the G3- language a language not 
mine own, I must plead for indulgence in the largest sense 
of the term. It is not to be more than the first step- 
ping-stone. The life and calling of a Missionary in Western- 
Africa does scarcely admit of more; as he has neither the 
necessary health and strength nor the necessary leisure for 
such a work, even were he to neglect his other dulies, 
which can not be thought of. 

The materials of this works have been gathered from 
the mouth of the people during a stay amongst them of 
seven years, but much of it was lost during the Bombarde- 
ment of Christiansborg in 1854 and an exact arrangement 
of those ^ left, at the hand of an educated native, would 
have cost several more years of labour, which would have 
been not only an unnecessary delay, but also quite dis- 
proportionate to other more pressing labours, especially 
that of translating the Word of God. I have therefore in 
the course of last year arranged the materials as well as 
I could; the whole was then revised by an educated 
native, of whose remarks I availed myself in the final ar- 
rangement. In many things I could only offer a suggestion. 

A consequence of the semplicity of the roots in this 
language is f. i. the apparent or entire similarity of words 


VI Preface. 

expressing different ideas (as is the case in the Chinese 
and also most African languages). Some are distinguished 
merely by a higher or lower tone and in some cases this 
has been pointed out in these pages, others have entirely 
the same form and pronunciation. In the Vocabulary 
this appears a great ^obstacle of mastering the words, but 
in the use of the language it is but little felt and where 
it is felt, the distinction is supplied by combination, 
which can be employed to an unlimitted extend; so that 
there is in fact an inherent fulness of the language, which 
may be developed as much as the richest language of the 
globe. Here and there I have given a few compounds, the 
rest is easily to be understood, and may easily be formed 
even by a foreigner. 

If I have in many instances taken the liberty to depart 
from the common framework of grammars, it was done be- 
cause the organism of the African languages required it. 
But though I may have failed to discover a new and more 
fitting framework I may perhaps have supplied in the fol- 
lowing Sketch a few materials towards reconstructing it. 
As to the language in general and some peculiar expres- 
sions of the Western Coast of Africa in particular I had 
in view especially Europeans and Natives of this Coast. 
People in Europe will easily understand it. 

As there does not yet exist any thing like a fixed or- 
thography and there is great difficulty in fixing it, I have 
often given one and the same word in two or three diffe- 
rent modes of spelling and leaving the establishment of a 
correct Law of orthography to the process of time, the 
more so, as it is sometimes extremely difficult to find the 
golden middleway betwixt grammatical orthography and 
the. different phases of pronunciation or the perceptions 
of the ear. It is true: the rule is: „ Write as thou 
hearest!" but it is as true, that every individual has 
peculiarities of pronunciation and also of hearing. Time 
will teach the right way. So much is sure, that — bad 
as the new orthography may be — , it is not so bad, as 


Preface. VIl 

the English, ^ea not even as the German Orthography. 
But still to learn G9, it must be heard and to read it 
flaently, we must read whole sentences together as is the 
case in aU other written languages. 

The GS- language being closely related to theOtyi, I 
would here remark that ,,The grammatical Outline and 
Vocabulary of the Otyi-language** etc. etc. by Rev. H. N. 
Riis*) (both in English and German), has been to me of 
the greatest advantage and ought to be studied by every 
one, desirous of getting a knowledge of a language spoken 
in this part of Africa. 

That the Lord may bless also this pioneer's work for 
the eventual victory of his Kingdom in Afirica is the fer- 
vent prayer of the compiler. 

Akropong, June, 1857. 

J. Zimmermann, 


*) Basel 1854. fiabnmaier. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 


The Akra — or, as it is called by the natives them- 
selves, the GS-language is spoken by the people inha- 
biting that part of the Gold-coast of Western- Africa, which 
is limitted in the South by the sea the river Volta in the 
East and the Akwapim-mountains in the North and North- 
west, thns forming an triangular plain. It is divided into 
the Ga proper and the AdSnme, which is a Dialect 
of it; the former being spoken by about 40 — 50,000, the 
latter by about 50—60,000 souls. Some small tribes, the 
Agotim-people speaking AdSnme, and part of the Popo- 
people speaking GS proper, have emigrated and settled 
beyond the river Volta in the midst of Ayigbe- speaking 
tribes. Whether there are other tribes speaking a dialect 
of the GS, is not yet ascertained. 

The Ga proper, spoken by the Sea-towns GS (Engl. 
Akra or James-town), Kink a (Dutch Akra), Osu (Chri- 
stiansborg). La (Labudai) and Tesi (Tessing) is limitted 
in the N. W. by the Otyi-language ; in the East and N. E. 
by th^ AdaAme-Dialect of the Ga. The AdaAme (s. Ap- 
pendix) is limitted in the N. W. by the Otyi and Kyere- 
pong, in the East and N. E. by the Ayigbe- (or E^e-) 
language which is also spoken by 7 towns on the Western 
bank of the river Volta. The principal towns or small 
tribes speaking AdaAme are: Naftwa (a small town near 
TcSi), Tema, KpoA (Pony), Kpukpra (Prampram), 


Introduction. DC 

Nnno (Ningo) and Add along the sea-coast; AsadSale 
(or Asldsale) and Epgni on the western bank of the 
riyer Yolta, Osndoku (in the plain on the mountain called 
so) ErobQ (two towns on the Krobo- mountain: Yilo 
and Manya), Sai (with two towns on the Sai-mountain) 
and Agotim (with three towns in the East of the river 
Volta). Every principal town has numerous plantation 
Tillages, Nuno and AdS, besides some fishing-villages, as 

The Adanme- Dialect is to be considered as the mo- 
ther-dialect of Ga proper being more primitive and less 
mixed with foreign elements, than the latter, which is 
some-what mixed with Otyi; but still the Gh has been 
chosen as the written dialect, .not only because it has been 
longer occupied by Missionaries, but because of the poli- 
tical and intellectual supremacy of the Gd- tribe as well 
over the Adanme — , as also over most of the surround- 
ing tribes. 

The GS-language belongs to the one and the same very 
extensive stock of languages of Western and Central- 
Afirica, with also the Otyi, Kyerepon, Ewe (Dahomey) 
Yoruba or Aku etc. As characteristic features of 
this stock either in common with the whole family of 
Hamitic languages south of the Sahara, or belonging to it 
in particular may be mentioned: 

1) Every primitive root is formed of one initial con- 
sonant and one terminational vowel (very probably a com- 
mon feature of Hamitic languages; comp. the Japhetic 
with roots of two and the Shemitic with roots of three 
consonants). 2) A consequence of this peculiarity is that 
vowels cannot initiate roots and with the exception of some 
formative vowels (in GS: a, e, o) also no other words; 
and that consonants cannot terminate any (with the exep- 
tion of some liquids, m, n, n), which have in afrioan 


X Introduction. 

Languages the character of semiconsonantSi 3) As an 
other consequence of the 1. feature, mute consonants ton 
not (and therefore in reducing these languages to writing 
also should not) be reduplicated. 4) Like as Verbs the 
roots of all notional words, so pronouns are the roots of 
all pure form words and forms; the former consisting more 
of the hard and mute consonants, the latter more of soft 
and liquid consonants, besides the vowels; and that if a 
notional word is used as form or formword, its sounds are 
generally weakened. 5) That formverbs or auxiliary verbs 
are employed far more extensively than in other languages, 
to express the relations of the language, therefore as also 
the double verbs, the verbal preposition^ and other verbal 
combinations. 6) That combination in general is used also 
more extensively than in other languages to express the 
relations. 7) That, as the simplicity of the roots does not 
allow many modifications for the purpose of distinction, 
this want is supplied by augments or pure forms (s. 4.), 
by reduplication and combination (5. and 6.) and hence 
the very great fulness of forms to be observed in these 
languages. 8) The use of nouns (in GS: da, de, he, liewo, 
hie, hlnmei, mli, musu, na, nane, nine, no, nd, se, §i, 
gisi, te, ten, yi, yin, yitso etc.) as grammatical subjects 
or objects to individualize a general notion expressed by 
a verb; and hence the multitude of expressions (as in 
Hebrew). 9) As connected with this we have to consider 
the mass of proverbial sayings in these languages. 10) The 
use of certain adverbs expressing the same notion as 
the verb, which they are intended to modify, though having 
a different root. 11) The use of the infinitive absolute. 

12) The expression of the negation by a negative voice. 

13) The want of a passive voice* Etc. etc. Comp. al«p 
Bishop Vidals Introductory remarks to S. Crowthers Yo- 
ruba-Grammar and Vocabulary; this Grammar and Vocab. 


Introduction. XI 

itself, H. N. Eiis Otyi-Gram. and Voc, B. Schlegels ©d^fuffd 
gum Aiigla-S)tatcct ber EWe-S^)raci^c (Stuttgart, Steinkopf 
1857), Krapfs Kisuaheli-Grammar etc. etc. 

Geographical names and remarks, manners and customs 
of the people, religious and social notions etc. are adverted 
to in the Vocabulary under the respective words or 
phrases. Words like „palaver, fetish, tornado, dash, cow- 
ries, grandee, caboceer" etc. etc., which belong as it wer^ 
to the european language spoken in western Afrika (s. 
Ablotsire-wiemo , blofowiemo, n.) will not be strangers to 
a person studying any of her languages. 

More materials for the study of the GS-language, 
though only translations, will be found in the four Gospels, 
1 — 3. John, Jude, and Revelation, and Genesis and Pro- 
phet Daniel translated into G3 (London, Brit, and For. 
Bible Society), the translation of Dr. Barth^s Bible Stories 
and a Catechism and select Scripture passages (German 
and For. School-Book Society, Calw, Wtirttemberg) ; though 
only the later of these translations are written in the same 
Alfabet and Orthography. Of great value, especially for 
grammatical researches is a translation of the Gospel of 
St. Matthew and John into te Akra- language by Rev. 
A. W. Hanson, a native of Akra (Lond. Brit, and For. 
Bible Society, 1843); but the work is becomming scarce. 
An english Index to the Vocabulary, an Englisk-G5-Dic- 
tionary and a German edition of this Sketch will, God 
willing, be added by and by. 

d by Google 


The grammatical sketch of the 6s-langnage. 

Part I. Formation of words, forms and sentences. 

Sect. 1. Of sounds, 

§. 1. The Alphabet 1 

§. 2. » Pronunciation 4 

§. 3. » Quantity 5 

§.4. > Intonation and accentuation 5 

§. 5. > Division of the sounds 6 

§. 6. » Combination of vowels . ' 7 

§. 7. > » » consonants 8 

§. 8. » Relation and other peculiarities of the sounds . 9 

§. 9. > Elision of sounds 11 

Sect 2. Of iJDords, forms and sentences. 

§. 10. The process of formation 12 

§. 11. Simple roots and stems 14 

-^ §. 12. Internal augmentation 15 

§. 13. Outward augmentation, initial 18 

§. 14. (Continued) > » 20 

§. 16. Terminational augmentation 22 

^ §. 16. Reduplication of the radical or the end-vowel ... 23 

§. 17. Terminational augment »Q, o and u« 24 

§.18. » > >a« .• . . . 25 

§.19. » » >i« 27 

§. 20. » liquid augment and other terminations re- 
lated to it . . .^ 28 

§. 21. Pure formwords affixed 31 

§. 22. Reduplication 33 

§. 23. Combination in general 37 

§.24. » with a formal component 39 

§. 25. Of nouns. Preposition 39 

§. 26. » > Postposition 44 

§. 27. Of verbs. Inseparable 45 

§. 28. > > Separable or separate 47 

§. 29. Of verbs rombined with a formal noun 49 

§. 30. Compounds of notional words and sentences. Nominal 

" compounds 52 


Contents. XIII 

§. 31. Verbal compounds. Verbs with verbs 56 

§. 32. Verbs with their subjects , 58 

§.33. -Verbs with their objects 60 

§. 34. Formation of formwords. Pronouns 65 

§. 35. Adverbs. Numerals. Conjunctions and Interjections . 69 

Retrospective tables Nr. I — VI. 72 

Part n. Application of words forms and sentences 
in particular. 

§. 36. General division 102 

§. 37. Of the verbs and its forms ......'.... 103 

§. 38. Forms directly expressed at the verb. Indicative mood 104 

§.39. (Continued.) Potential » 108 

§.40. > Imperative > 110 

§. 41. Infinitive form of the verb 112 

§.42. Persons . 114 

§. 43. Interrogative sentence 115 

§.44. Subjective and Objective combination of the verb in 

general 117 

§.45. Subjective combination 118 

§. 46. (Continued.) 121 

§.47. Objective combination 122 

§. 48. Definition of subject and object. Class and number . 125 

§.49. (Continued.) Person and attributes 133 

§. 50. Compound sentence. 

1. Centring in one verb 134 

2. Centring in different verbs 138 

Retrospective Tables Nr. VII and VIII 142 

Part in. Different specimen of the language from 
the mouth of the natives. 

I. Proverbs 158 

II. Gft-Histori^s. 1—3 177 

ni. Ga-Speeches. 1. 2 187 

IV. Gft-Tables. 1. 2 ... 193 

V. Ga-Songs. 1. 2 202 



Explanation of the Abbreviations. 

Ad. Adn., Ad^nme. 

adj., adjective. 

adv., adverb. 

ace. accord., according. 

aor., aorist tense. 

art., article. 

augm., augment. 

aux., auxiliary. 

.Akwp. Dial., Akwapim Dialect (of the Otyi-Language). 

Ay., Ayigbe (language). 

b., body; s. b., some body. 

C. Dial., Coast Dialect. 

coll. collect, collective noun. 

com., common noun. 

comp., compare. 

conj., conjunction. 

dan. Dan., danisb. 

dem. demonstr., demonstrative. 

Dial. D., Dialect; Kr. D., Krobo Dialect. 

dim., diminutive. 

engl. Engl., englisb. 

eur. Eur. europ., european. 

etc., et cetera. 

Fab., fables. 

f. i., for instance. 

f. fem., feminine gender. 

fig., figuratively. 

frequent, frequentative mood. 

fut, future tense. 

Germ., German. 

gen., generally. 

gr. Gr., greek. 

Hebr., Hebrew. 

imperf., imperfect tense. 


Explanation of the Abbreviations. XV 

i. e., id est, that is. 

impers., impersonal. 

imperat. impert., imperative mood. 

ind., indicative mood. 

ind. indefinit., indefinite. 

inf., infinitive mood or form. 

init., initial. 

int. interj., interjection 

interr., interrogative. 

irr. irreg., irregular. 

iterat, iterative mood. 

lat. Lat., latin. 

m. masc, masculine gender. 

m. k., moko (some body). ♦ 

n., noun. 

neg., negative (voice). 

neutr., neuter. 

n. pr., proper noun. 

n. V. ) 
V. n. J 

neuter v. 

n. k., noko (some thing). 

nom., nominative, nominal. 

num., numeral. 

Ot, Otyi (language). 

obj. object., objective. 

pi., plural number. 

pi. f., plural form. 

perf., perfect tense. 

pers. prs., person, personal. 

pos. posit, posive (voice). 

poss., possessive. 

pot., potential mood. 

pres., present tense. 

prs., personal, person. 

prob., probably. 

pr. n. and n. pr., proper noun. 

pron., pronoun. 

pr. prov., proverb. 

red., reduplication, reduplicates. 

rel., relative. 

refl., reflexive. 

s., see. 

s. b., some body (moko). 

s. th., some thing (noko). 


XVI Explanation of the Abbreviations. 

sc, scilicet, ndtntid^; namely. 

sec, second. 

sec. prs., second person. 

sing., singular number. 

subj., subject, subjective. 

Tab., Table. 

th. s., the same. 

v., verb. 

V. n. and n. v., neuter verb. 

V. a., a. v.', active verb. 

V. imprs., imp. v., impersonal verb. 

voc, vocat., vocative (case). 

verb., verbal. 

=, like, .the same as. 

(?), not sure. 


A grammatical Sketch 

of the 

Akra- or Ga-Langruage, 


some Specimens of it from the month 
of the Natives. 

By Rev. J. ZimmermaniL 

Volume L 

""^ t M»^» a yj N 4r < r « ^ » * ■ 

Stutt0«rt^ 1858. 

Printed for the Basel Missionary Society 

by J. F. Steinkopf. 



Part I. 

Pormatioii of words, forms 
and sentences. 

Section 1. 
Of sounds. 

§ 1. .The alphabet employed to express the sounds of 
the GS-Language is the ^Standard alphabet ... by Dr. R. Lep- 
sius of Berlin (London, Seeleys, Fleet Street . . . ISSS),** 
as far as i^anted, with the exception of the letter „f^, the 
sound of which is not represented in the said alphabet. 
It contains as yet the following letters: 

a bdeeffghiklmnA 

The Greek circumflex is employed to express the nasal 
sound of a vowel, e. g. a (= a in the german words: 
Gang, Hang, Fang etc.), (^) (.=.) indicate the shortness 
and length of a vowel, e. g. tSre, ahtS etc., the acute (j_) 
indicates the accent the gravis {jjj indicates elevation of 
the voice, e. g. Ik, blood, la, fire; the sign (T) under a 
consonant indicates a vocalisation of this consonant, so 
that it forms a separate syllable, e. g. nSo must be pro- ' 
nounced in two syllables. 

According to the organs of spieech the letters may be 
arranged in the following manner: 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

_ 4 — 

1) Yowcls: 




i a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

_ 6 - 

The consonant n is like the English and German ng. 

The consonant h is always heard as in house, Haas. 

The sign s represents the English sh and German sch; 

y corresponds With the English y and the German j; 

f represents a pecoliar labiolingual which has the same re- 
lation to f, as § to s; 

T corresponds with the English t, but occurs only in some 
Ayigbe (Dahomey) words; 

w is somewhat different from the English and from the 
German w, though nearer to the latter, it is an u sUghtly 
modified by the lips. 

§ 3. The quantity of the vowels is generally rery 
short, long ones are marked with the usual mark, e. g. da. 

But sometimes there occur vowels of such a shortness, 
that thejf scarcely form a syllable, but are rather to be 
compared to the Hebrew Shewa or the mute vowels of 
European languages as ^o** in the English „nation'', e in 
the German haben, gaben etc. These have the usual mark 
(^) as: t^re or tre, to carry. Comp. Lepsius Standard 
Alphabet p. 27. 28,* where the sign (t) is reconunended, 
which however in Ga will scarcely be necessary under 

Some consonants, especially the liquids m n A partake 
in so far of the nature of vowels, that they can also be 
prolonged, e. g. dii, haft (S. Riis Otyi Gr. § 6). 

§ 4. The intonation and accentuation of the 
6a-Language are not yet sufficiently ascertained to enable 
the writer to .give the systems of both which undoubtedly 
exist. A few* hints must therefore suffice. 

1) The intonation (elevation or depression of the 
voice) of single words is different from that of sentences. 
The latter must be left, at least for the present, to the 
ear. By the former words which are in other respects 


-. 6 -- 

alike, are distinguished from each other. This we indicate 
where it is necessary by the gravis (_l.) for the devation 
of the Toice, whilst we leave the other without sign, e. g. 
ni, and; nl, that, which, who; U,- blood; la, fire; siuno, 
to serve; sumg, to love, to like. Some words, especially 
adverbs, are rather sung, than spoken and this intonation 
is connected with a long quantity, which can be prolonged 
according to the will and energy of the speaker, e. g. da, 
always; ShQ, continually; sgfi, altogether; soft, far away etc. 
2) The accentuation of words is also to be distin- 
guished from that of sentences. The former we indicate, 
if necessary, by the acute (i_). It is generally on the 
root of the word and in compound words not on the 
^qualifying component" (SBefiimmuna^wort), but on the 
„ fundamental component" (®runbn)Ott). See Riis Otyi 6r. 
§ 60. If a possessive pronoun is connected with a noun, 
the former has th.e accent (see § 21). 

§ 5. Division of sounds. 

1) They are first divided into vowels and consonants. 
This division is alsQ to be observed in the organization of 
the language itself; every primary root (see § 11) consists 
of an initial consonant and a vowel, a vowel cannot begin 
a root, a consonant cannot end it (comp. ba, di, fo, gu, 
ho etc.). 

2) The consonants m n n partake as we have seen of 
the nature of vowels (s. §* 1) and may be called semi- 
vowels; only these of the consonants together with the 
vowels can stand at the end of a word or fiyUable in Ga 
(and the other languages of the same stock). 

3) Another division of sounds is that into strong and 
weak sounds: to the latter belong the vowels and the con- 
sonants: m n n 1 r y w, of which especially the forms 


— 7 — 

of the language consist; to the former belong the remai- 
BiDg consonants: kgh^tdsS, pbffv. 

4) The division according to the organs and the for- 
maMon of the sounds see § 1. 

5) The rules of euphony based on the closeness and 
openness of the Towels, as obs^red in the Otyi-Ayigbe- 
and Aku- Language are not found to be much in force 
in 6a. j^ 

Combination of sounds. 

§ 6. The combination of rowels is either of the 
same vowel (Double-vowels) or of two different vowels, and 
this ag^ain either so that both are pronounced in one syl- 
lable or in two. 

Redi^plication of the sajne vowels has been employed 
in two manners, first to denote a long vowel (perhaps for- 
merly consisting of two), comp. § 16, 1. or so, that both 
are still heard, comp. § 16, 2. In the latter case we use 
the sign (^), e. g. nyebaa, you shall come, come! you 
come, nyebaa, you did not come, bii (pi. of hi, child), 

The diphthongs or combinations of two different vo- 
wels into one syllable of the G9-Language are the following: 
ai, gi, oi, ui; ei, ei; and . 
ao, QO, on; eo, eo, iu. 
The first series are more closely combined, than the se- 
cond, which approaches to two syllables. Perhaps it would 
be more correct, to write a semi-consonant instead of the 
second vowel (ay, oy etc. and aw, ow etc.) but terminating 
forms hinder it, as the plural of fai, hat, could not be 
written fa-yi, because it is pronounced faii (one long syl- 
lable). The same would be the case, if we wrote (more 
colrectly) ae, ge, oe, ui etc. The plural faei would be 
incorrect, because the i of the plural is pure. In the 


~ 8 — 

second series, the lower a, q, e» e are combined with th6 
lower 0, the higher o and i, the former by necessity, with 
the higher u. 

Other combinations of vowels, but forming two syllAles 
are: ea, ea, ia, ga, oa, ua; ie, ie, ue etc. which, if the 
first vowel is not radical > easily change .into, ya, wa, ye, 
ye, we etc. 

§ 7. i) The combination of consonants is of 
far greater importance than that of vowels; because con- 
sonants are the conveyers of notions, the bones of the 
words and in the Hamitic stock of languages one of them 
is sufficient to form'' a root, whilst the Japhetic stock ge- 
nerally requires two, the Semitic three; so that especially 
by these initial consonants the roots differ and become 
their peculiar character. The combination of them there- 
fore augments the means of multiplying the roots. They 
are especially the following: \ 

a) tg, d§ (weakened from ky, gy, ti, gi, comp. the Otyi 

and other languages); tf, df, (from kwy, gwy?); ny 
kp, gb, nm, hw (strengthened p, b, m, w). 

These are close combination^, originating in simple sounds. 

Less close are the following: 

b) kw, wy (from ku, ko; wi, we); and kl, kr; gl, gr; 

tr, dr (tl, dl); tsr, d§r; tfr, dfr. pi, pr; bl, br; ml, 
mr; fl, fr; fr, fl; wr, wl. kpl, kpr; gbl, gbr; nml. 
Comp. § 12 and the hebrew Shewa. 
2) The semivowels m n A, which are the only conso- 
nants which can in forms and combinations come before 
others (comp. § 5, 2.) assimilate to the organic class 
of the following consonants, which never give way to them, 
e. g. ftk, tg, M, lah, nt, nd, nn, nl, nr, ns, n§; mp, mb, 
mm, mf; 6y, ftf, Aw, because y, f and w partake of the 


palatal character (see $ 1). The 6a -people are however 
not yei7 strict in these rales. 

3) Other combinations of consonants the language does 
not admit and even in foreign words it puts vowels betwixt 
the consonants, if otherwise combined or changes the pro- 
nunciation, e. g. aspatre and asipatre, shoe; sipisihamle 
(from the 'german spitzhammer) -pick-hammer; AtSem for 
Akyem; d§i for gi etc. and by this pronunciation the Gfl- 
nation is immediately known. 

4) It is according to the principal rule $ 5, 2. a matter 
of course that all the consonantal combinations, except those 
under the second part of thi9 §. are inseparable, be- 
cause only initial, and that no other double-consonants can 
occur, except the separable M, nn, mm of the same part. 

§ 8. Relation and change and other peculia- 
rities of the sounds. 

1) Besides the relation aiiA- change of the sounds,' by 
i?hich their combination is ruled and effected we have to 
speak of another, by which one and the same sbond changes 
into another and is related to it, as is observed in all lan- 
guages, and by which the progress of one and the same 
language and its relation to another of the same stock is 
to be seen. In general these are in all languages the smr^ 
as far as the organs of speech are the same, but they 
differ as far as these organs differ, the former points back 
to Gen. 11, 1., the latter to Gen. 11, 7. 9. 

2) About the vowels not much is to be said: ^A*" may 
on the one hand be shortened into e» e into e, e into i, 
i into the semiconsonant y, or on the other hand into o, 
^ into 0, into u and u into w. 

3) Just so also the consonants in general change accor- 
ding to their organic order (§ 1): the movement to be 
observed is from the harder to the softer consonants and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 10 — 

from the throat toward the lips, though it is to be seen 
that a retrograde movement is also going on, as is also 
the case in the Japhetic and Semitic languages. — The 
Gfl-language proper appears in this respect more adyanced 
or new than its eastern dialect, the AdSAme, and its nor- 
thern and eastern neighbours, the Otyi, Kyerepon and Ayi- 
gbe. If we follow the organic order of the 'consonants, 
they change in a horizontal and a vertical direction, be- 
ginning by k; this may be softened into g (Ot. oponko» 
6. okpgngQ, horse), g into.n, or into h; t is softened 
into d, d n 1 r change very frequently with each other 
not only in the different languages of the family, and in 
the different dialects but even in the same town (comp. 
atade, atale, dress; huru, htilu, hOnQ, sun etc.), t and d 
change with s (here rs^her retrograde, the Otyi nsa, hand, 
becomes de in GSl, sa, war, ta;'ns3, wine, dS, nsSi, before, 
dSi etc.), s becomes s (Ot. and Ad. si, Gd si) ; y seems to 
change in the retrograde movement into d? (Ot. yi, GS: 
dSie, to tabs arway); p, b, m, w, when initial, are often 
hardened into kp, gb, iim, hw, especially p, which seldom 
begins a word (comp. Crowther's Aku [Yoruba] Gram. Seeleys, 
Flect-Str., London 1852); p becomes f (Old Gft: pia, po, 
pe. Mew GS: fia, fo, fe etc. Ad. pe, Ga fe, to do etc.); 
b becomes m (hi, u. young one, diminutive form, and mi; 
e. g. iiulami — nwei-la-bi, high-light-child — star fctc.) or 
w, e. g. ba, to come, when an auxiliary verb becomes wa 
and at last a (comp. Ot. ba and wa = GS hi and mi, see 
above). But „m*' may harden into b as well, comp. Ad. 
mo, thou; GS bo; Ad. ma, Gd: ba, to come (Ayigbe: va 
and fa). In Ayigbe the Gfi b is sometimes v, e. g. vi, 
GS: bi, child etc., f. becomes f or S (comp. filafo, Ot. mi- 
firaifo, a blind man, Old GS: firafo and fu]:afo; Ot fi, GS: 
Sla, house, home etc. etc. 

But as we have ahready observed in $ 7, the palatal 


— 11 — 

sounds become also lingual , the Unguals move toward the 
labials and backward. K may become t, g = d, ti = n, 
andn = mh = yorw, and vice versa; less easily the 
hard Unguals change with the hard labials. — The voca- 
bulary shows more of these changes. 

4) Besides the pecuUarities of sound already mentioned 
there are some more of importance. The sound r can not 
only not terminate but also not initiate a G&-word (Conf. 
Riis Gr. § 12); in foreign words beginning with r it is 
either changed into 1 or becomes hr (comp. the Greek ^). 
6 also seldom initiates a word and only before a e (e) 
and u, before i it becomes ds. K also becomes ts 
^fore i; n becomes ny before e and i and this may be- 
come y (Comp. Ad. ftg, Ga ye etc.); p when initial, ge- 
nerally becomes either kp or f, though there are exceptions, 
s generally becomes s before i, but not always; the simple 
s before u is together with^t changed into f, the termi- 
nating Uquid (h n m) generally becomes ii or ne, whilst 
the Adanme and also the Akwapim dialect of the Otyi like 
m (seldom or never n) as well only a e o and n n,m 
are used as initial forms s. § 13 and 14. 

§ 9. 1) fhe elisio 
of the euphonic rgles of i 
any consonant omitted, 
tvort) becomes a form or 
when the auxiUary of th( 
wa, a and even this is 
preceding vowel a is alsc 

wo, we, us (comp. Ot. wo, thou, where ih1& same is the 
case, and the „(B6)lvi^d gur 3ipngla*®lfr4^c", ». Rev. 
B, Schlegel, Bremen 1857), and some other words; y is 
scarcely audible in compounds of the words yi, head; e. g. 


~ 12 — 

yitSo and itSo, bead; yitSgi and itsoi, hair etc. The elision 
of n n and m see under 2. 

2) But very frequently vowels and the semivowels ft n 
and m, when mere forms are cast off. The initial aug- 
ments e o and a (see § 13, 14) and sometimes ii n m 
give way after pronominal forms and in compounds (§ 21» 
31 ff.), but are then indicated by the accent or tone. 
Also the terminational vowels a, q, o, if not radical but 
only formal, are cut off in compounds, e. g. sina = sia- 
na, house -moath = door; hina, hlfttSo, hinmei, higble 
(compounds of h!e, face); seo, successor, abifao, fufQo, 
suckling etc. pi. form with bii (see § 17, 25, 3.) s^bii, 
abifabii, fufgbii etc. -^ 

Other elisions are mere omissions origlniating in care- . 
less speaking and ought not to be fixed by a written form;< 
also itso, itsoi, o = wq, ura = wura etc. are to be con- 
sidered as such. «.• 

Section 2. 

nd sentences. 

I material of which words 
am , as these are the mate- 

rial ces. The relations and 

div dicate the rules according 

to ation is going on. 

¥ords is that of roots. 
Thi elation al (formal) roots 

as all the words are either words of notion or words of 
relation (form). The former are all verbs, the latter 
the primitive pronouns. These are not only the roots 
. ■ 1 

I ....Goog. 

— 13 — 

of form words or relational words but also the elements 
of the forms (or the inflection) of the language. Many 
form-words however and even some forms were originally 
notional words (s. § 24 — 29). All 'the words of the lan- 
guage, some adverbs and interjections (§ 35, 2. 5.) excepted 
are derived from these roots, though we cannot show the 
origin of every word/ Foreign words are partly natura- 

2) The process of formation of notional words 
and their forms is in general the following: 

a) A notional root is formed by a consonant and a vowel, 

as: ba, be, be, bi, bo, b( fft, 

fe, fe, fa, fi, fo, fd, fo, g 

b) The derived stem is forr ba, 

leaf; bi, child etc. 

c) The derivation or form is le- 

ning of the radical be, 

fu, to, ke etc. 

d) by the strengthening o nt: 

dsa, d§e, gba, gbe, kpa, kpe, dfa, tfii^ tSe» tsi, nma;^ 
bla, ble, fra, fle, kra, dsra, nmle, kplS etc. 

e) by a vowel put betwixt the two radicals: sia, d^, 

-tfia etc. from s§, dse, tfa etc. 

f) by an initial or terminational augment, as: eba, 

aba, oba, mba, miba, mimba, baa, baa, j)ai, ban, balg, 
bamS, sale, yeli, here, kane, wiri etc. 

g) by a pure formword added, as: miba, oya, nyenu, 

amete, tule, kewo; ngmgne, bian§ etc. 

h) by reduplication of the root or word: susu, titi, 
kukwe (=kwekwe?); momo, Aminnoi etc. 

i) by adding a notional word which has become a form- 
word or mere form, as: baya, yaba, bako, bau; 
nanyo, asrafonyo, nyemi, agbami, balabii, gbo- 
mo, sfimo etc. 


— 14 — 

k) Two or more words arc joined together (com- 
pounds). Here the process of formation of words 
and their forms joins that of the formation of sen- 
1) Several of these formations ma; of course occur in one 
and the same word. 
3) The process of formation of relational words 
and forms (as far the latter does not come under part 2 of 
this §), is less distinct, as ma^ he expected from the weak 
and liquid elements they are formed of. The formal or 
relational roots are the most simple forms of the pronouns: 
>-, thou; e-, he, she, it; wo, we; nye, 
(see^the Adanme-Appendix and a and 
Vocabulary, also a and mo, mei in 
^oc. ^the GS). 

^hich originally were notional words are 
3 such respecting their formation; see 
$ 35 and the Vocabulary. 

§ 11. Simple notional roots and stems (§ 10, 
2. a. b.) are formed by a consonant and a vowel. 
The former are all verbs, the latter nouns, adjectives (and 
adverbs). It is impossible, the means of distinguishing for- 
mation being so limited, to find out the primitive meaning 
of all. — Tb^ simple root is to be seen in the imperative 
mood, sing, number, second person, positive form of the 
inflection of some of these radical verbs, in the aorist 
tence, ind. mood, positive form of all (if the pronominal 
augment is cut off) and in the infinitive of a few. These 
forms are also used in the vocabulary. — The simple stems 
may partly have lost a former augment, but we take them, 
as we find them in the language now. Most of them are 
concrete nouns. The infinitive form of a verb is as in 
German always an impersonal abstract, sometimes also 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 15 — 

a coim^^te, noun. Nearly every consonant of the alpha- 
iet connected with any one of the vowels — under above 
(Sect. 1) mentioned rules — forms a root, mostly also a 
simple stem, as: 

of the root, stem; — root — stem. 




to come, 

to beg, 

to lance, 

to be boiled, 

to sweep, 

to be absent, 

to ask, 

to cry, 

' tobufl, 

to cover. 





















to be great; 
(Ad. to say) 

(Ot3 to eat. 

to be hot, 

to plant, 

to leak, 

to suffice, 

to take of, 

to come ofT, 



heat (love), 

Guinea worm. 


vein etc. 

Compare for a farther illustration the tables N. I. and the 

§ 12. Under the name of internal augmentation 
we may take the formations under § 10, 2. c. d. e. together, 

1) By lengthening the radical vowel of prhnary 
roots are formed: 

a) secondary roots, i. e. other verbs related to them, but 

in every other respect independent of them, as: b6, 
to quarrel; kg, to grant; lo, to take up (sand etc.), 

b) the infinitive (and imperat. mood, sec, prs. sing., pos. 

form) of a number of verbs (see the tables N. I. and 
the vocab.), mostly active intransitive, e, g. ba, inf. 
ba, to come (ccmiing, see und. c); ya, inf. ya, to 
go etc. 
e) Besides the verbal impers. noun (the infinitive, s. § 11 
and 12, 1. b.) a number of other nouns, adjectives 
and adverbs not directly connected with a iporb; ba. 


— 16 — 

crocodile; bO (fr. bu, to cover), defence ^.«leiit; fS, 
river, brook; fe, dung; gS, adv. staringly; ka, temp- 
tation (fr. ka; V. to tempt); crab; ka, heap (fr. kQ, 
to break?) etc. 
2) By strengthening the radical consonant, by 

means of a consonant added either secondary roots 

and stems are formed or the language has begun a for- 
mation of forms (inflection) i/vhich ii still in process and 

not thoroughly developed, 
a) The former is especially the case with closer consonan- 
tal combinations (see § 7, 1. a.) as: 
Secondary roots, stems. 

tsa, to dig etc. tS& to call; \^q, father. 

tSe, to take off, pluck off; — — v 

tsi, to move; 

t§o, to shine; 

ts5, to turn; to {each. 

tsu, to send; to work; to be 
red etc. 

dSa, to be straight; 

dsO, to dance; 

dfa, to break, tfa, to strike; 

ny€, to be able; 

nye, to hate; 
kpOy to crumble off; 
kpft, to stretch; 
gbe, to kill; 

txnSiy to scratch; to write; 

t§i, native sword. 
t§o, tree, stick, 
visible body. 
tSu, room, liouse. 

dsa, nq^rket. 
dso, danx^e. 

nye, mother; 
ny§, hatred, 
kpo, lump. 
kp3, thread etc. 
gbe, killing; 


nmfl, food; a kind of wheat, 

b) the latter is the case with less close consonantal com- 
biaations, though some of them form also only secon- 


— 17 — 

dary roots and stems compare: kra, to soothsay; gli, 
to be in a rage; dSra (or dsSra, dSfira, diYra, comp. 
§ 3), price; trade; mra, law; — but this formation 
is especially used for inclinational purposes: 
ta, to sit, pi. ira (comp. § 12, 2. and table N. I.); 
ko, to take something; 

kro, klo, kdro, k^lo, to take things, to pick up, 
plural form depending on the object, obj. plur. 
of gome verbs, s. § 38, 2.; 
to, pi. tro, to be satisfied; 
da, pi. dra, to grow, to be large; 
dfa, pi. dfra, y. n. to break (of earthen- wares, ctia* 

bashes etc.); 
kpo, obj. pi. kpdro, kplo, to crumble off; etc. (Comp. 
some other pi. forms of the verb under 3. and the 
3) By a vowel put between the two radicals 
the same is effected, but less frequently; comp. 

a) M and §la, to burn; Sai and Siai, n. pr. of a moun- 

tain and the land, inhabitants and language of it ete. 

b) Defect inflectional formations are: aa, the transitive 

form (comp. the Hiphil of the Hebrew) of a few verbs, 
as: dsie to take out, from dse, to come out; tsie 
(h!e) to awaken one fr. (hie tSS, to awake, comp* 
§ 29). This formation is not much developed and 
neuter verbs are generally also transitive, or the 
difference is indicated by other means, s. § 27, 2. a. 
§ 28, 2. b. 
bb) the (subjective or) obj. pi. form of some veits, as: 

tfa moko nd, to strike some body with some thing; 

tfia m. k. nii, to strike s.b. with things, s.§37,2ff. 
tfa te, to cast a stone (at one); tfia tgi, to cast 

stones (at one), to stone. 



— 18 — 

§ 13. 1) A richer deyelopment appears in the out- 
ward (initial or terminational) augmentation. 
The radical pronouns are to be considered as the radical 
elements of these augments. We begin with the initial 
augments (§ 10, 2. f. and 3.). Those by which words 
(stems) and inflectional forms are formed, are the init. liquid 
— augment n n m and the init. Yowel — augments a e o. 

2) The initial liquid augment n n m (often deve- 
loped into mi, min, min, mim) as relational root represents 
the first prs. sing, of the personal pronouns. It forms 
s*ems, especially collective nouns, as in Otyi (many of them 
being Otyi words) and the present tense, ind. pos. of the 
verb (as in Otyi the augment or suffix „re" — ); e. g. 
a) verbforms: ba, to come; mba, mlba, mimba, be coming; 
Anaft mba, Anai^ is coming; together with the pronominal 
form: mTmba, miba, 1 am coming; oba, thou art, 6ba, he 
is c, womba, we are c, nyemba, you are amemba, they 
are c, aba, they are c, (man fommt), the liquid augm. 
being neglected in the sing, and 3. indefinite prs. pi.; nke, 
mike, minke, be saying; dke (man fagt), it is said; b) stems: 
nku, shee-or- tree-butter; nto, a kind of grass; toll, tax. 
mplaA, abeam etc. Sometimes these stems have again 
lost the augment as may be seen by comparing them with 
the Otyi and Adanme, e. g. fote, Ot. mfotie, white ants; 
de> Ot. nsa, hand; dd, Ot. nsS, wine etc. Here and there 
the augment is cut off by combinations, e. g. nso, sea 
(Ot. nsu, water); Ad. wu, Ayigbe: iVu may sometimes also 
be heard wuso; ntsoi, groans, sighs, otsoi, thy sighs. In 
words like mra, adv. qaickly; mla, law; nmg, to lay (fr. 
m5, to set?), nyle, to walk, nwei, heaven; above etc. it 
pan not be decided, whether the first liquid is radical and 
the second eons, formal, or whether the process is the same 
as in kp gb or whether the liquid is the augment. 

3) Mere distinct and of a more distinguishing character 


— 19 — 

is the in it. augment ,,8"; its radical pronominal signifi- 
cation is in Adng. they, their; in GS the same but in an 
indefinite way, like the German „nian", wherefore, the lan- 
guage having no passive voice, it serves to express this, 
as: afe, man i\)\it, they do, it is done; but it can also be 
used of intr. verbs, aba, man fommt, Lat. ventum est, they 
come. Another peculiar use of it as pronominal form is 
made, if a noun has a possessive case pi. number prece- 
ding it, as: we, house; mantsemei awe, the house of the 
kings (comp. in some German dialects of the people: bet 
Sonigc i^rc^aufet, in Otyi: menua nefi, meineS Sniber* 
fcin ^an^, my brother's [his] house). Besides this the 
init. augment „a" forms a number of mostly impersonal 
individual stems and some others, as: bo, to multiply; 
abo, fruitfield; to, to set; ato, ladle; kpe, to meet, akpe, 
thousand; sa, to prepare, asa, hall; male, to lie; amale, 
lie; Comp. also the words: ^ke (it has been said, "lOX*?), 
that; agbene (s. agbe no, this is finished) now (Ot. afeyi); 
asa, asan (from sa, iterative auxiliary verb, § 28, 2. b.) 
again. Though it is an impersonal augment, it forms some 
personal nouns (compare in Otyi the same) of a more in- 
distinct character, as: Anyemi, pi. anyemimei, brother; ata, 
father (Papa, only in addressing) awo, mother (Mama, as 
the former); awu, husband, aha wife; in which the pecu- 
liarity is to be observed that the augment can appear only 
in the address (vocative case); in all other cases these 
Bouns are combined with a possessive pronominal augment, 
after which the augment a must drop. Without possessive 
pronouns they cannot in Ga properly be used (comp. the 
English). For ata and awo tse and nye are used in other 
cases; e. g. ata! father! mitse, my father etc. 

But the augment „a" forms also the future tense ind. 
posit, and the potentiiil mood. In these two cases it is 
not derived from the pronoun „a", but from the auxiliary 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 20 — 

verb ba (to come), i/veakened into wa and a, and even this 
a is swallowed up by some pronominal augments, in which 
case we represent it by a reduplication of theis vowel e. g. 
aba, shall or will (or must) come; fut. tense, ind. posit: 

maba, 1 shall come, 

ooba (inst. of obaba, owaba, oaba), thou shalt come, 

eeba, he shall come, 

WQQba, nyeaba, ameaba, 

aaba = a(me b)a ba, man tt)irb fommcn, venturum est. 
In the (potential) mood the „a'' appears only when the 
subject is expressed by a noun. See table N. YII. 

S 14. (Initial augments continued.) 

1) Whilst the augments n n m, a and o have a mixed 
character and the stems formed by them, through not the 
forms, are mostly Otyi, the in it. augment e is of a pure 
Gfi-character. The radical „e" represents the pers. sub- 
jective and possess, pronoun, he, she, it, his, her, it. It 
is more individualizing than a, but less than o (thou, thy, 
thine, thee). Its peculiar character seems to be of a con- 
cluding, perfecting kind; the init. liquid augment is 
not individualizing at all, the o augm. most individua- 
lizing or distinguishing, the „e*' concludes, the indefinite 
„a^, as far as it is pronominal and not derived from ba 
(see § 13) serves to distinguish in an indefinite way all 
those relations which find no place under n n m, o and e. 
The „e^ is a, representing alone the perfect tense, if 
the verb has a nominal subject, after the pronominal sub- 
ject it drops and is only represented by the elevation of 
voice in the pronominal augment, e. g. N. Me, N. has made, 
mtfe, I have made; ofe, fefe (= e-fefe), wofe, nyfefe, am^fe, 
Me (= a-fefe); 

b) the adjective, being as it were a fixed perfect 
form; the fixing by which the adjective wordform is dis- 


Si -^ 

lioguished from the perfect inflectional form is then 
represented by a terminational augmentation of the adj. 
generally n (comp. the instances at the end of c.) Some 
of these adj. have become nouns, and all may, as in Ger- 
man, be used as nouns. 

c) But the augment „e*' distinguishes also the nega- 
tive inclinational form (or voice). The reason for this may 
appear strange, as it is in Otyi the case with the liquid 
augm. n n m (Riis Gr. in German § 23) ; but it does not 
distinguish the negation from the position, this is done 
by the peculiar negative tone or voice (as e. g. the que- 
stion also is distinguished by the voice), but rather the 
perfection of negation from imperfection, as this is 
the character of all the tenses, except the perfect. Here 
also it gives way to the pronominal augment; e. g. N. 
efee, efeko, ef6h, N. did not make, has not made, will not 
make; but mif^e, ofeko, efen etc. Comp. to 1. a—c. the 
following instances and the table N. I. and the Vocab., 
lell. e. 

fo, to do evil. 

ye, to be white. 

tsu, red. 

bo, to ball, 
sa, to rot. 

prf. pos. kto has 

done evil. 

prf. neg. efoko. 

imp. „ ef66. 

fut. „ efOn. 

feye, eyeko, eyee, 


fetsu, etSiiko, etsuu, 


ebo etc. 

^sa etc. 

etc. etc. 

efOn, evil, bad. 

(in compounds: 

mofdii, a bad man. 

ndf6n, a bad thing). 

eyen, 'yen, white. 

etsuru (instead of 

etsun, s.§20,4.) red. 

^bo, poison. 

^sa, sin. 

2) The most individualizing and therefore also the per- 
sonal init. augment is „o", as in Otyi, to which the 


— 22 — 

stems and wordforms formed by, it, partly belong. In G2i 
it is the radical pers. subj. and possess, pronoun sec. prs. 
sing. (Comp. the Ot. Adnme and Ayigbe). It forms no 
inflectional form, but a number of personal nouns and some 
formwords in which the original pronoun is still discernible, 
as the G3 language likes for the purpose of individualizing 
in the hfe of the language to speak to a person, if some- 
thing is {o be very individually and personally expressed 
(this is in a less degree in every language the case). Comp. 
the words: Onukpa, alderman, elder; osofo, priest; okp6ho, 
horse; onufu, serpent; ohi^, want, poverty; onyai, canoe- 
tree, silkcotton tree; oy^ (,;l)u flej)fi"?) adv. quickly; oh^, 
hundred; obo, adv. fully etc. See Voc. lett. o. 

§ 15. The terminational augmentation is still 
more employed in Ga than the initial. In Otyi and Ayi- 
gbe the latter has found a greater development and is also 
more fixed. This want in the Ga-lailguage is supplied by 
the tentyinational augments, which, though ahey frequently 
change with eachother, are seldom dropped. As the init. 
augments are to be traced back to the subjective or pos- 
sessive prs. pronouns, so the terminational is in general 
to the objective personal pronouns: mi, m, n, n; o, le; 
wo (or o) nyc, ame (Ad. me, comp. GS mei, me' = people, 
gcute). But neither can this be done so clearly, as with 
the former nor can the term, augments be so clearly di- 
stinguished as the init. ones, because the term, augments 
are not only subject to far more changes, but can also not 
be fully dislinguished from forms and formwords which 
were originally notional words, e. g. the termination ft can 
be = mi 1, = mli, the inside (s. § 29), = ni or d§i, to 
be (something) see § 33, 3., == ne, from the Otyi de, a 
thing (Ga: no, see this in § 25) and a simple termination 
of secondary roots and stems of which the origin is un- 


— 23 — 

blown. The same is the case with mo, le» 0> o etc. In 
general the limits between one form and the other arc 
(flowing) uncertain as is to be expected in a living Ian* 
guage not yet fixed in writing. 

1 shall take ihose terminat. augments which form not 
only wordforms but also inflectional forms in the foUewing 

a) Reduplication of the radical consonant; b) the ter- 
minal augm. 0, and n; c) the term. augm. a; d) the 
term. augm. i; e) tlie term, liquid augment and the 
augments mo, le, le, li etc. Other terminat. augments 
shall be mentioned among these as far as necessary. 

§ 16. The reduplication of the radical vowel 
or the ending vowel (see § 6) is of two different kinds, 
of which only the first is a grammatical form, though 
fiot phonetically defensible, the other is an accidental 
combination of sounds, but partly audible. 

1) We have employed the reduplication of the radical 
or endvowel of the verb in GSi to indicate the length of 
it m the negative voice of the imperfect or aorist 
tense ind. mood, which distinguishes this tense from the 
perf. and fut tense of the same voice. The reason was 
that originally, according to the Ad. dialect this form was 
really expressed by adding the vowel i or the ending we 
(pewe or pei = fee, did not, made no!), which by degrees 
>*as dropped and left only the long quantity to express 
which by the sign of length (—) would in this case be 
very inconveniant, because the space above the vowel must 
often be used for other purposes, whilst in writing the 
Begalive voice must be strongly distinguished from the po- 
sitive. But in this case only one long vowel is to be 

2) In other cases the reduplication of the vowel is not 


— 24 — 

80 much a matter of grammer as of accident. If the word 
ends with the same vowel which forms the term, augment 
or if the latter assimilates to the former, hoth are written, 
and if hoth heard, the augment receives the common sign 
(~), if not, this is ommitted. In other, hut inflectional 
forms no reduplication of vowels is employed except di- 
stinctly heard, e. g. naakpa, adv. goodly, much (fr. ne 
akpa). Comp. the following instances and the next follo- 
wing §§.: 
ad 1. fa, to be sufficient, efaa, is or was not sufficient; 
kg) to say; ekee, says or said not; mikee, I said not, 

did not say; okee, ekee; wokee, nyekee, amgkee, 

akee etc. 
ad 2. a) bg, to create; hoO, mibod, ohoO, ebo($, wohoO, 

nyebQo, amehgo, ahoO» imperf. ind. posit.; 
but fa; — faa (instead of fao), mifaa etc. hd, to give; 

hda, mihSa etc. („a" and „a" are the only vowels, 

to which the inflectional form o assimilates, and this 

Q the only vowel of which a regular assimilation can 

be shown.) 

b) fa, second, prs. pi. imperat. pos. and first and third 

prs. pi. potent, posit., if under the influence of the 
former (s. § 18): wofaS, nyefaa, amefaa, afaa, e. g. 
nyehfia wgfaa, let us be enough; but nyehUa, nye- 
fiia etc. 

c) If nouns end with i and the plural augment i is joined, 

we write both, though the latter i is not to be dis- 
tinguished, but lengthens the former only; e. g. hi, 
child; pi. bii etc. 

§ 17. The terminal, augment o is in Ga as far 
as my knowledge goes, only used as an inflectional form, 
but not for the formation of words, and I doubt whether 
it csm be traced back to the object, prs. pronominalform 


— 25 — 

0, thee, or wo, o» us (though the init. liquid augment 
$13, 1.) might he compared for the latter, or whether it 
has any relation to the term, augment o and u, hy which 
secondary roots and stems are formed and which are some- 
times dropped whilst the inflectional augment o which only 
forms the imperfect tense, ind. posit, is never dropped and 
seldom changes or assimilates (conf. § 16, 2. h.); comp. 
mifeo nakai, I do or did so (always), I use to do (as the 
Latin imperf. tense); eyioo, he used or uses to flog thee; 
but seo, n., pi. sebii, successor, younger member of the 
same brotherhood; abifao, abifabii, n. little child; fufoo, n., 
pi. fufgbii, suckling; kukuo, adj. pi. kukubii, short; pempeo, 
adj. pi. pempebii, round (and small) etc. In Adanme (see 
Apendix) the Ga-inflectional augment o either remains, e. g. 
mpeo = mifeo; or it seems to assimilate more frequently 
than in Ga; e. g. mpee = mifeo (Comp. the Otyi in the 
later writings). Besides this use in Adanme, the termin. 
aogm. (or q or 6) is also used there instead of the pro- 
noun (the article) le in GK and nd in Otyi, but with the 
peculiarity that the plur. form joins this augment*, 
comp. pelo == felo, GS; maker: pelgme (or pelohi) r= feloi 
in Ga; makers; peloomei = feloi le, the makers (comp. 
also the irregular Otyi pi. form namfonom or namfo nom, 
nuanom=^lhe friends, the brothers). Wether therefore 
the term, augment o was strengthened into mo and lo 
(impers. and pers. augments of verbal substantives, s. § 19) 
and lo changed into le (comp. the Ayigbe augm. la = lo 
and le in Ga and lo and o in Adngme) or whether they 
are a modification of the term, liquidaugment, § 1 9, cannot 
l>e decided. The cases in which o assimilates to a and d 
see § 16, 2. a. 

§ 18. The terminat. augment „a" is applied for 
inclinational as well a$ wordforms. The cases in which 


— 26 — 


the term, ^a** is only an assimilation to the radical ^^a** 
instead of the term. „q"^ (s. § 16, 2. a.). As an iuclina- 
tional form it is limited to the second prs. pi. imperat. 
posit, and neg. or the pi. of the potential as far as depen- 
dent on such an imperatiye (s. § 16, 2. h. and § 40), e. g. 
nyefea! do (it)! you shall do it! or ny6haia wdfea nakai! 
let us do so. 

Respecting the formation of words hy the termination 
a it is not always possible to decide whether in words 
such as sia, sand; fia, pia, adj. all; atu^, rebellion; afu^, 
mist, great mass, mia, to press, bua (na) to gather etc. 
^a'^ is the radical and the preceding vowel the formal 
vowel (conf. § 12, 3.) or whether „a" is the form; the 
latter is scarcely the case, if a has the accent, as in atu^, 
and in such cases the preceding vowel is sometimes changed 
into the corresponding semi-consonant y or w or even § 
or f; but if a is a mere form, it is sometimes dropped in 
combinations, as: sia, bouse; si-na, door (though also „sdna*^ 
may be heard). Very probably it is also sometimes weak- 
ened into 6 and e and this termination to be explained by 
it; e. g. sia and sie, to stretch out; sia, Ot. fie and fi, 
house, home; bie, adv. here and biane, adv. immediately; 
tl, to scratch; tia, to scratch together, to gather (money 
etc.) etc. 

The origin of this term, augment is scarcely the pro- 
noun a, as it is neither in Adanme nor in Gd used objecti- 
vely (at the end of the verb), comp. the Ad. appendix. 
In Ayigbe the term, a is = la and corresponds with the 
article le in Gd and o in Adafime. That it is shortened 
from the pronoun ame (Ad. subjective a, objective me) is 
not very probable. But there is as yet no other way known 
to explain it. If used for inflectional purposes or where 
it is decidedly the mere termination of words, as in sia 
(hie), mla etc., it is very short, and toneless, so that it 


— 27 — 

approaches a semi consonant. To the word of interroga- 
tion lo (lit. or) at the end of questions it seems to be ad- 
ded, sometimes with tke term. liq. aug. for the purpose 
of force of speech and the 1 changes into m, e. g. Aso of^o 
nakai mo^n? Dost thou really do so? 

§ 19. The term, augment „i", which is the new and 
most common plural augment in Gd and forms also a number 
of stems; partly of a collective or otherwise plural character, 
seems to be derived not directly from one of the pronouns, 
kl from the Adangme plural hi and perhaps originally 
from a word of notion, indicating a multitude or indefinite 
number (compare mo, pi. mei, me. Ad. mo, me, gewte, 
people, sing, somebody, ^cniaub; nu, man, male^ pi. hi). 
In verbs it is only defeclively used and also for the plural 
number; e. g. 

aj Pluralform of nouns and adjectives: To, pi. toi, 
sheep or goat; fa, pi. fai, river; ekpakpa, pi. ekpakpai, adj. 
good etc. If the sing termination is h, the plural form is 
according to § 7, 1. a., and 3., and § 8, 3. 4. to be pro- 
nouced dsi, n being treated as ng or g, e. g. goh, pi. gd- 
dsi, mountain; mSn, pi. mSdsi, town, nation; edin, adj. pi. 
edidsi, black etc. This is also the case with many other 
terminations or words with a nasal vowel termination re- 
lated to or derived from n (s. next §. and Voccab.) ; in the 
pluralform they show the original liquid termination; e. g. 
DJne, pi. nidsi, hand; nane (in the Akwapem dialect of the 
%i nan), pi. nadsi, foot; tsiiru, ad. pi. tSudsi, red etc. 
kt sometimes the i drops the n, as: gwanteii, gwantei etc. 

b) Forms of secondary roots and collective and other 
»ouns: kai to remember; lai, fuel (fr. la, fire); nai, coals; 
skwei (from kwe, (o grow), raw ground beans; abgboi 
(s* bo, to multiply), boiled ground-beans; wyei, black pep- 
Pcr; dfoi and dffi, grass; tsoi, hair; fQfgi, flower, afofroi, 


— 28 — 

blossoms, sunmui, lead; fufudSi (see flu and fu)^ crums; 
mudSi (comp. mu and mlu) dirt; nsol or sol, strainer; 
hdd§i (without a sing.) twins etc. Less characteristic is the 
i in toi, ear (perhaps vessels, see to), tsui (chambers?) 
heart; kgi, hoe; se!, country-seat, chair; fai, cap or tur- 
ban, fel, cold; fei, manners?, see Vocab.; foi, race (see 
Vocab. and comp. the Ot. mirika), be or bei (fr. be, to 
strive), strife; gbe and gbei (compos, gbe, to sound?) 
voice etc. 

c) Together with the reduplication (§ 22) the plural 
form forms a peculiar Kind of adjectives and adverbs, e. g. 
kpo, a knot; kpoikpoi, knotty; ku, heap; kuikui, heapy 
(^auflcj?) and heaply, full of heaps; fe, rag; feifei (some- 
times only fei), ragged etc. 

d) The verb gbo, to die, has irregularly the pi. form, 
gboi, gboio, gboia etc. and the frequentative form generally 
takes the augment i (comp. c.)» as: fufui, to swell all over; 
dSodsoi, to dance every where or in different groups or 
frequently; nunui, to drink in different, companies etc. 

§ 20. 1) The terminational liquid augment is in 
Ga generally n or it widens into a syllable, in Adnme and 
Ot. m is also very frequent, n very seldom or never used 
at the end of words. This termin. augment is most fre- 
quently used and is the mediator betwixt forms and words 
of notion, having sometimes a notional signification or must 
be traced back to a word of notion. It is the pronomi- 
nal augment of the first person subjective and objective 
(mike, nke? I said; kemi, kem*, kemomi, tell me), stands 
sometimes for the auxiliary verb dsi or ni, to be (some 
thing), e. g. midsi, mini, min, it is I; more frequently, as 
also in Ot., Ayigbe and Adanme, for the originally no- 
tional word mli (Ot. mu, Ayigbe me, Ad. mi) in- 
side, may sometimes be weakened from the word no, 


- 29 - 

pl. nii, thing (or Olyi: de, ade, pi ndc, nnc, ne) 
which is yery frequently comhined with other words; in 
other cases it seems to stand merely at the conclusion of 
a sentence either for the article le^ or as an interrogatory 
particle (s. § 18) etc. 

2) As an inflectional augment the termination h is 
Qsed in GSl to distinguish the future and present tense 
(which latter is formed in the positive by the initial 
liquid augment) of the negative voice from the aorist and 
imperfect tense (reduplication of the endvowel) and the 
perfect tense (suffix ko), e. g. ef6n, will not do, mif^A, 
1 will not do, — hut ef^e, does not or did not and ef^ko, 
has not done. 

3) Literally this form of the fut. neg. voice, ind. 
mood is not different from a number of adjectives formed 
by the init. augm. e and the term, liquid augment, but the 
peculiar negative voice oi tone distinguishes it phone- 
tically and for the ear, so that it cannot be mistaken (s. 
§ 14, 2.) Moreover the term, liquid augm. forms some 
secondary roots, mostly of Otyi extraction, as df6n, to 
think, to consider, sen, to hang; the aurist tense posit, 
ind. of such, when connected with the pronominal augm. 
is again literally not distinguished from the fut. negat. 
ind., but only by the neg. voice (which we do not indi- 
cate by any sign) e. g. midsen, I considered and midsSn, 
I will not consider, but phonetically it cannot be mistaken, 
fe all such cases the context of the sentence generally de- 
cides also in the written language (comp. also the Hebrew, 
csp. without vowel signs, as long as the language was li- 
ving and Dr. Lepsius' reply to the Rev. Ph. Winnes about 
the Chinese language in the ,,5Ba«Ier 2Kif(ton3magajtn, lte« 
Cluartal^cft 1856"). Before the termin. augm. q (§ 17) 
and a and i (§ 18 and 19) the n is dropped or changes 
^nW a mere nasal sound or dsi, e. g. dfSA, imperf. dfeg. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

- 30 - 

imperat. pi. dfi§a; kronkroii, adj. pure, clear, holy; pi. kron- 
krol; din, adj. black, pi. didsi etc. 

4) More frequently the terminal, liq. augm. changes 
into a related syllable (see above) or other form of the 
liquid character or the nasal sound, as far as wordforms 
are concerned, and is in nouns and adjectives only to be 
distinguished by the plural form dsi, or by comparison 
^ith other related languages or dialects: these terminations 
are of difiTerent forms, but in all the liquids are retained, 
as: ne, no, ni, me, mo, mo, 1(a), le, lo, li, l(u), r(a), re, 
ro, ro, ri, r(u), ru etc. Compare the following instances 
and the Vocabulary: 

Normal development: fd, to do evil; efoh, futi posit, efoh, 

adj. bad. 

Irregular development: ka, to lie (down), kane, to read, 

Ot. Akuap. dial. kaii. 

na, to tread; ndne, pi. n^dsi, foot. Ot. Ak. nan. 

ny6, to fall; nyomo, pi. nySdsi, debt, (but nyon 

= n}5lo, see the sequel, pi. nyodsi, slave). 

fo, pi. flo, to cut; flo or fdlo, pi. fodsi, hole, 

rent etc. 
tsu, to be red; etsun, fut. neg.; etsuru, adj. 

pi. etsudsi, red, 
(mo)? mo, momo, adj. pi. medsi, memedsi, 
old etc. etc. 

5) The term. liq. augm. (together with the term. aug. 
0, s. § 17) has received a peculiar development in GS in 
the terminations lo and mo, mo; by the former the per- 
sonal nouns, by the latter partly the imperative posit, 
and infinitive, and the impersonal nouns of verbs are 
formed (comp. the termination ,>er** in German and Engl, 
and „en" in Germ., ,,ing" in Engl.) as: fe, to make, felo, 
maker; femo, making, deed, ba^ Ttaiftn, S^^un, and ifyaql 


— 31 — 

make; femo, inf. (ma^en), to make. Besides this some 
secondary roofs and pi. forms are formed by the termina- 
lion mo, e. g. sumo, lo loye; ku, subj. pi. kQmd, to break; 
inf. suorao, kQomo. Transitive verbs especially have the 
latter termination, intransitive ones generally only lengthen 
their radical, ba, to come; imp. pos., inf. and impers. noon 
ba; neuter ones take the ending le, le, as dsa, v. trans, 
and intrans., lo divide, v. tr. to adore; v. n. to be straight; 
dsa, diyision; dsamo, adoration; di^ale^ straitness, righteous- 
ness (comp. Hebr. pin, Greek. dcxTj and rfixe^r etc., Lat. 
Justus, germ, xx^tew, tc^f, gere^t etc.). — In Adahme the 
term, mo, m5 is only m, as: Ad. pem, GS, femi), deed, 
lo is sometimes in G3 still = n, e. g. yfQh (from wo, wo, 
to watch, comp. wolomo), fetish, daif^um*, lit. watcher; pi. 
wodsi; in Ad. also lo, Ot. fo, Kyerepon, ho, Ayigbe to 
and la, a, the latter being also the article, which is in Ad. 
9, in GS le, in Otyi: nd. 

We see, the terminational liquid augment is in every 
' direction so much connected not only with other termina- 
tions but also with formal and notional words, that we 
cannot go farther in the matter and are by the last men- 
tioned connection already arrived at the compounds 
vhich shall be spoken of in the foil. §§. Compare also 
the Table N. 1. 

§ 21. 1) Pure forrawords or pronouns we wrote 
itt the first writings of the Ga language (of which the four 
Gospels were printed by the Brit, and Foreign Bible Soc. 
and „Dr. Barlh Bible Stories" by the German and For. 
School-Book Soc. at Calw, bem galirei* a3erla9^i)crein) se- 
parately according to the German and English use, but the 
Structure of the G5 and the other languages of the same 
femily as well as the partial precedence of our brother- 
Missionaries of the Otyi language in Akropong made it ad- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 32 — 

visable to connect the subjective and objective forms of 
the pronoun with their respective verbs and the possessive 
forms wilh their respective nouns and formwords derived 
from nouns, as is also the case in the Hebrew and some 
other languages. By this the many small particles of the 
language connected themselves more with their respective 
words and the writing becomes more intelligible in dif- 
ferent respects. Independent pers. pronouns and most of 
the others are separately written with the exception of 
mo, somebody and nd, something (but only sometimes), 
about which see § 25. 

2) The pure formwords thus combined with verbs and 
nouns (comp. § 10, 2. g.) are; 

a) The subjective personal substantive pronouns of the 

verb: mi- (m-, n-, n-)> h o-, thou; e-, he, she, it; 
W0-, we, nye-, you, yee; ame- (Ad. a-) they; a-. 
Germ, man, they; the form used for the expression 
of the passive voice of other languages (s. § 40 ff. 
and the Adn. App.). 

b) The objective personal substantive pronouns of the 

verb: -mi (-m [-n], -h), me; -o, thee; -le, him, 
her (it); -wq (-o), us; -nye, you; -ame (Ad. -me), 

c) The possessive personal substant. pronouns of nouns 

are: mi- (m-, n-, n-), my (lit. of me, comp. the 
Greek forms fwv, <fov^ dvrov and the Hebrew), o-, 
thy; e- his, hers, its; wo-, our, nye-, your; ame, 
their, a- (their), the latter only used if a possessive 
case of the plural number precedes the noun, e. g. 
mantSemei asei, the kings their throne. Germ. ,,ber 
Stini%t i^r S^ron", in some dialects, the throne of 
the kings; comp. § 13, 3. 
3) The literal form of the pronouns under a, is the 
same as that under c, those under b, differ only in the 



— 33 — 

third prs. sing, and plur. and by being suffixed instead 
of prefixed, Comp. again the Hebrew, e. g. the use of the 
pronom. augm. -t< and ^^, ^-, together with the fall form 
"0^9 ^^ and then the Ad. subjectiye form a- and objex- 
tiye form -roe together with the full Gft form ame. — 
Examples: mibf, I asked; mibi, my child. 

oM, thou askedst; 6bi, thy child. 

ebi, he asked; ^bi, his, her child. 

woM, we asked; w^bi, our child. 

nyebf, you asked; ny^bi, your child. 

fbi they asked ; ( hi, their child. 

But: Bimi, ask me; 

ebfo, he asked thee; 

ebiie, he asked him her. etc. etc. 
The pronominal augment is of course put before other 
init. augments and after other termin. augments. Most 
init. augments are dropped after the init. pronominal aug- 
ments: e. g. the fut. tense posit, ind. is: aba, will come; 
maba, ooba, eeba wooba and wgaba, nyeaba, ameaba, ama- 
ba; the init. augm. a, e and o in nouns and adj. give way 
after a possess, pronoun, e. g. okpongo, horse; mikpongo, 
okp. ekp., wokp. nyekp. amekpongo, akp. The init. liq. 
augm. sometimes is dropped, sometimes remains, as: onko- 
mg and okomo, thy sadness. The object, pron. augment 
follows other term, augments without altering them: e. g. 
kemomi, tell me! edsieole, he saves him; etaoo, besought 
thee; etaooo, he seeks thee or sought thee always etc. 

§ 22. 1) An intervening branch between the augmen- 
talion of the root by forms and formwords and the com- 
position in the process of formation of words and forms 
is the reduplication (s. § 10, h.). The end and aim 
of it as well as of every form of the language (and even 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 34 — 

of the IdDguage itself) is to distinguish (to divide), but not 
by adding a new form or word, but by repealing the same 
word, it is a twin-formation in the organism of the language; 
in the hamitie languages, as it seems, more developed and 
perfect, than in the Japhetic and even the Semitic. To this 
twin -form also the signification of it answers. Not a new 
phase of the original notion of the root is generally indi- 
cated by it, but the same repeatedly (Ihe life of the lan- 
guage allows also not only the duplication, but the multi- 
plication of the word, comp. forms, as: dabidabidabidabidabi ! 
no, no, never! ewiewiewiewie etc. bespoke repeatedly and 
continually etc.). 

2) The reduplication is not only used for inflectional 
as well as word-forms, but is, as a combination, also a 
syntactical form and not only different members of the 
sentence can be reduplicated, but whole sentences (e. g. 
eya eba, eya eba, eya eba, he came and went repeatedly 
and continually). The following forms and their applica- 
tions are the most flrequent and notable: 

a) A simple root is reduplicated for the purpose of for- 

ming secondary roots with a corresponding notion, 
as: bobo, to squeece the bush together, when cut, 
that it may burn; from bo, to ball, to squeece; susu 
(comp. su), to measure, to think: sisi and sisiu (Ot. 
sisi and sisiw), to deceive; titi, to scratch etc. 

b) Every verb is reduplicated for the purpose of expres- 

sing a frequency or a continued repetition (a 
single repetition of the same act, the iterative, 
see ®^Ieger« ®(^IuffeI jur Ewe-Sprac^e, ©tuttgatt 
1857), is in Ga expressed by the auxiliary verb sa 
(§ 28, 2. b.) of the same act or that several different 
groups of people do or suffer the same thing; this 
we call the frequentative mood of the verb, of which 
every tense of the positive and neg. voice may occur, 


— 35 — 

e. g. ame^e^e nii, amenunu dai, amedSodSoi (about 
the augm. i in the last case see § 19), they ate (in 
different groups and situations or frequently), they 
drank (different) wines, they danced; aakumokumo 
ametsui le, v^ voixi i^te ^itifet nacf^einanber ah^ 
brcd&en (people will break their houses one by one), 
root: ku, to break, subj. and obj. pluralform kumo, 
iterative kumokumo. 

c) Nouns and adjectiyes are formed by it from other simple 

stems or roots; as: tsatsa, a country matrass made 
of grass; ekpakpa (Ot. pa and papa) aclj. good; kra- 
kra, adj. hot; kloklo, luckwarm etc.; sometimes the 
simple and reduplicated forms of adj. aroused, but 
differently, see $ 33, 3. 

d) A peculiar kind of adjectiyes and adyerbs, the root of 

which is sometimes not in the 69, but in an other 
related language, but as far as they are adyerbially 
used they often only serye to strengthen the notion 
of the yerb, haying the same notion, but being pho- 
netically quite different (comp. The Aku- (Yoruba-) 
gramm. of Rey. S. Crowther, but especially the „in- 
tcoductionary remarks to it by the late Rev. 0. E. 
Vidal, M. A. Bishop of Sierra Leone); e. g. futafuta 
(Ot. the same), adj. and adv. white; eye futafuta, or 
eye futafutafuta, to be very very white, comp. ye, to 
be white. 

deAdeden, adv. (from Ot. den, hard), wa dendeden, 
to be very very hard, comp. wa, to be hard. 

reveve, adv. (from Ayigbe ve, to be hard) hardly, 

pep^pe and pepepepe (fr. pe, just), exactly. 

falefale, adj. clean; adv. cleanly. 

yeyeye, adj. and adv. unquiet, — ly (from ye, to eat, 
to trouble); 



— 36 — 

kpalekpale» a4j. and adv. bald, baldly (from kpa, to be 
bald, kpale, baldness); etc. etc. 
e) Vy a reduplication of the plural of a number of con- 
crete nouns adjectives and adverbs may be continually 
formed answering in part toftti^ adjectives with the 
ending y in English and „\^^^ in German, e. g. kQ, 
heap, kuikui, adj. and adv. heapy, heaply; kpo, lump, 
knot; kpgikpoi, knotty, s. prov. 53; kukudsikukudsi, 
adv. in short (kuku) jumps (sc. to run, to walk etc.) 
etc. etc. This form is to be considered inflectional 
or as a continual formation of new words. 
^i) A peculiar reduplication of a more syntactical kind oc- 
curs in the numbers, definite and indefinite; 
aa) the definite numbers are repeated to express the same 
relation as is expressed in Hebrew by the repetition 
of numbers or in Engl, by the same and the par- 
ticle by betwixt; e. g. ekome kome, one by one, 
enyo enyo, two by two (Germ, je ein^, {e jwei, jwci 
unl) jwei); 
bb) by repeating a noun with the adj. or indef. numeral 
fS, each, all, betwixt, the relation which in Engl, 
is expressed by the words each and every; (Germ. 
j[eber> jcbe, {cbc^) is indicaded, compare: mofemb, 
every -body, {eberman, pi. mei K; n6fen5, every 
thing; tSo fg tso every tree etc.; but with the neg. 
of the verb: mokomoko, nokonoko etc., s. $ 34, 2. 
g) A similar relation is expressed by the repetition of 
nouns or their number indicating the price of any 
thing, as: Aho enemei kp§ kpd, these things are 
sold one string (cowries) each; miheame dsakpo 
dsakpo, 1 bought them half a string each; but: Ahdo 
neke toi ne dale enyo enyo, these sheep are sold 
two dollars each, etc. It is to be observed respec- 
ting the reduplication and many other forms, that the 


- 3r -- 

language is not )ret fixed, but the formations are still 
Yery rapidly going on. 

$ 23. 1) In the preceding $$ we have seen the pro- 
cess of formation of inclinational and word-form as far as 
it is going on by the addition or augmentation of pure 
forms and formwords or a reduplication of the word. We 
haye now to consider this process as it is effected by th« 
combination of another word of notion with the 
word of which the relation is to be defined, be it 
now for a momentary purpose (Inflection or Syntax) or a 
fixed one (formation of words). Combinations are very fre- 
quently and very variously employed in the Gfi language. 
We must first divide also the combinations with notional 
words into two great classes: vie: first shose combinations 
in which one of the components has become a mere 
form though it is or was a word of notion, as gbekSnn, 
a male-child; ebabi, he will ask; hefatamo, attach- 
ment etc. (In this case the formal component has generally 
DO accent); and secondly combinations, in which both com- 
ponents are notional words and remain such, as: Slatse, 
housefather; nsonlo, seafish. To the latter class also those 
combinations of which the signification of the components 
can no more be assertained, must be added, especially ver- 
bal compositions as: fata, fite; futu etc. 

2) In cases in which compositions are neither a form 
of inclination nor of words and therefore the components 
separately written, they are of a syntactical nature, but are 
in other respects formally the same and have the same 
purpose (comp. the same ihing in the preceding §). 

^) The qualifying component of a compound is either 
the preposition or the apposition of the fundamental com- 
ponent, as: m ants 6, king; bafe, will do (s. $ 28, 2. a.); 
^kgnu, a male child etc. 


- 38 — 

4) There are in the GSi-language many verbs qualified 
by substantives, and form together with them notionally 
compounds though they formally are separated, as: ta, 
to sit; ta si, lit. to sit the ground, i. e. to sit do^rn; 
ta no, to sit upon (to sit the surface) etc. These be^- 
come also formal compounds as soon as the verb is turned 
into a noun or takes the nominal form, e. g. sitamg, down- 
sitting; no tamo, lit. up silting^ the sitting upon (Germ. 
ba^ 9lufji^ctt unb Slieberjt^en). 

b) Besides these there are a number of double-verbs, 
which are a peculiarity of this family of languages; vie. 
a notional verb is qualified by another notional verb and 
expresses together with it a new notion, though formally 
both remain separated and are never (except irregularly) 
joined into one word, e. g. he (Ot. gye), to except; ye 
(Ot. di or de) to eat, to exercise, to enjoy, he noko ye, 
to believe something, reg. noun: hemo kg yeli, belief^ 
faith (irreg, heyeli, faith; comp. heyeli, liberty) Ot. gye bi 
dl, noun: gyedi; more frequently the notion of one verb 
is given up and it serves as a mere formword to express 
a certain relation of the other (s. above 1. and next fol- 
lowing SS.) but retains still more or less its notional form 
and is separated from the other component; e. g. nd noko 
hd moko, lit. to take something give somebody, to give 
someth. to somebody; na-fe, lit. to get to do, i. e. to have 
accomplished, already done etc. The verb which in such 
cases serves only to express the relation of the other 
becomes by degrees also formally a relational or form -or 
auxilary verb, i. e. it loses the notional forms, and at last 
it becomes a mere form of which by and by even the 
origin can no longer be found. Comp. mind noko mihS 
moko, I gave something to somebody, mike noko b2i moko 
(only one pronominal augm. left); Ad. M to take and de, 
to say; but nd-ko» to be saying (pres. tense) 6d: iilfi, 


— 39 — 

mike; Ot. tese, periiaps originally = de-se, lit. to take to 
say etc. Comp. kafe, do not do! bafe, jfafe etc. 

(anmetf. Sbmit man im Deutf^en ken ttrfrntng btt 
hit 3eit»5tter teptntmenten Somfirier ge*, er* [fit4mUn, 
glantcn unb erlawBen], bt^, Bet*, nad|* k. auffud^en, fo 
Mxhtn fie ftc^ aw^ oW nrfrrflnflli^e 3^ittt)iJrter eweifen; 
i- S. na^ ». na^en, ge^, gen ^. geten, ge^en?? k. 3n 
biefen ©jjrac^en ijl'« mJgli^, »eil ber entttjirflunfl^gang in 
alien ®tnfen tjorliegt.) 

S 24. 1) Compounds in which one of the com- 
ponents has become a mere form to express the re- 
lation of the other component, though its form may still 
be that of a word of notion are very frequent and of nearly 
all the classes mentioned in the preceding- $. under 2. 3. 
4. 5. We divide them therefore into nouns and verbs. 

2} Nominal compounds of this kind must again be sub- 
divided into: 

a) Compounds formed by preposition of the qualifying 

component and in this case the fundamental compo- 
nent is of so general a character that it indicates 
only the relation of the qualifying one. This is espe- 
cially the case with the words n6 a thing and mo 
(mo, mo, m5) a person; (nyo) nQ, a man, male; 
yo, a woman, female; bi, a child, young one, tse, 
father, possessor etc. (hebr. ^y3), nye, mother etc. 

b) Compounds formed by apposition of the qualifying 

component, in this case the latter is a adjective or 
a nominal apposition and the former again a noun 
of a general notion, esp. again mo and nd (s. a.). 

$ 26. 1) We have seen in the $S 1 1—20 that the torro$ 
can develop and have partly developed themselves out of 
the simple radical elements of the pronouns; but we have 
also seen, that the language is not only progressing and 


— 40 — 

augmenting but also regresfiing, weakening again and it is 
impossible always to show the way, by which a form was 
formed, some are even on the one hand, related to words 
of notion as well as on the other to elements of form 
(comp. e. g. the present augment n n and m with the first 
pers. sing, of the pronoun and the word nd and M in 
Adft. S 24 and S 13, 1.). 

Be It now as it may, we saw that the terminations \q 
and mo distinguish the personal from the impersonal 
noun formed of the verb. By the two words mo (md and 
mg and mO) and no a similar division is made; mo = man, 
somebody (icmanb) and no == thing, something (ctiDQS); in 
Adanme both are nd, pi. nihi. The pi. form of mo is 
mei, people, persons; that of no nil, things. Both are 
frequently combined with other words and appear some- 
times as mere forms: e. g. Nyonmo, God; gbomo, man; 
kramo, Mahomedan soothsayer, semo, successor, tsutsumo, 
the first; lumo, prince, governor; this mo is scarcely to 
be distinguished from the abovementioned impersonal 
form mg; but in the pi. form the latter has moi, the for- 
mer always mei. This latter is again used for other pur- 
poses. In Adnm. the personal pi. form is me (comp. alfie 
in Ga) and so in Ga also „mei" is used very frequently 
as an (older) personal plural form even where in the sing, 
mo does not appear (comp. the sequel). The mode of 
affixing is different, either it is simply affixed to the sin- 
gular (if this is not expressed by a singular form or affix) 
as: tse> father, pi. tsemei,, father-people, fathers (Comp. in 
Otyi the termuaation nom, e. g: agyanom); nye, mother, 
pi. nyemei; nyemi, brother, sister (German: ®ef^»ifier), 
pi. nyemimei etc., or there is a peculiar form of the sin- 
gular (as mo, s. above) which gives way to the plur. form; 
e. g. blofdnyo, European, pi. blofdmei; Ganyo, pi. Ga-^ 
mei^ Giman, -men; nanyo (ong. nannyo, comp. the 


— 41 — 

Ot. damfo), pL nanemei; friend (in this latter case the 
e l>etween n and m is put in for euplionys sake) etc. The 
termination mo or nyo, pi. mei can be afiBxed to some 
noons or adv. of place, situation, time and personal 
nouns formed by it (comp. the Otyi „-fo")» c. g. bie (this 
place), adv. here, biemei^^or biebii, see the sequel), the 
people here; most frequently to proper nouns, as: Anaii- 
mei, Tetemei etc. Anah and his people etc. (comp. the 
Greek: ^pt neqi AXe^txvdqov^'y j^cct nsqi Ma^tKv xai Mu' 
jttw". Job. 11, 19.). About mo, mei prefixed see § 26. 

A similar use is made of nd, pi. nil, thing; it is the 
corresponding impersonal af&x to the personal mo, 
mei; as mo is the corresponding impersonal augment 
to the personal „lg''; e. g. blofond, something European; 
pi. blgfonii; guono (gug = trade), ware, pi. gugnii, wares; 
nyeno (nye, n. and adv. yesterday), the thing of yester- 
day, pi. nyenii; tsutsuno, pi. -nii, the first (thing), sekpe- 
>nd, nagbend, -nii, the last etci By this word names are 
given to things, never seen before by adding it to the 
noon signifying their action etc. nmSnd, something to 
write with; nmMi, writing implements; na, art (of any 
kind), nan6, pi. -nii; implement, instrument etc. etc. An 
'other form of nii is nibii. 

2) As mo and nd is used to distinguish personal and 
impersonal nouns, nyo, nu and yo are used to distin- 
guish the sex. Nyo is no longer separately used as a noun 
but nu = man, male; yo = woman, female; nyo is the 
same as nQ, but in a more general sense, as „man'* is also 
nsed in English. It is added to nouns of nationality, lan- 
guage, dwelling-place etc., as: Blgfonyo, European (brg in 
Otyi, blgfo in 69 indicating something or somebody Euro- 
pean; the Otyi termination fo is sometimes retained in 69 
besides the 69-terminations); 6anyo, 69man, EnliSinyo, 
Englishman; asrafonyo, soldier; pi. asrafoi wolenyo (fr. wu> 


— 42 — 

sea, or wo, fishing in the sea), irreg. pi wolei, fisber etc. 
If there is not taken any notice of the sex, as this is ge- 
nerally neglected in these languages, the common plural* 
forms md or i take the place of the sing, form nyo, which 
is then generis communis (iii AdL it has stUl the fonn ^nd^ 
which is personal and impersonal). But if the sex is to 
be distinguished, nyo pi. irreg. hi is the masc and y5, pL 
irreg. yei, the fern, form, Gdnyo, pi. GShf, GSunan, -men; 
Gayo, pi. Gayei, GSwoman, -women; oblanyo, pi. oblab^ 
youth, young man; oblayo, pi. oblayei, maid, young wo- 
man, etc. etc.; nyo is only used of men, not of animals, 
nu, pi. hi, is used to indicate the male sex of animals too, 
yo remains the same, as: okpongo horse; okpongonu, pL 
-h! and okpongoyO, pi. -yei. Not only the sex of ani- 
mals, but also that of trees is distinguished by these affixes; 
e. g. abolobanU, a male breadleaftree, abolobayd, a female 
dto. Comp. $ 48. The pL of nu, hi, is sometimes himei ; 
wu, when beginning a sentence or in the vocative awn,/ 
husband, has the pi. wumei, awumei; nS, and, pi. Mmei, 
anSmei; bi, pi. bii, child (son or daughter); binu, pi. MU, 
son; biyo, pi. biyei, daughter; gbekg, pi. gbek^bii (see the 
sequel) child (according to age); gbekenu, pi. -hi and 
-bihi, male -child; gbekeyo, pi. -yei and -biyei, female 
child etc. 

3) A still more extended and diversifed use is made 
of the word bi, pi. bii (weakened into mi, mii, comp. Ot. 
ba ma, wa, a) child, young one (comp. Ot. ba, mma; Ayi- 
gbe vi). It indicates descent, familiar and civil relation, it 
is the diminutive affix and a peculiar kind of plural form 
of some nouns with sing. term, augment o (s. $ 17) and 
many other without sing, augment, forming as „mei** (sec 
above) personal nouns of adv. and impers. nouns, etc. etc. 
Comp. the Hebr. p and tun; e. g. bi, pi. bii; chUd, young 
one, little one; young relation; slave; word of endearm^ 


— 43 — 

used 1»7 elder people towards younger ones etc. nabi, grand- 
child; nyemi (= njrebi), pi. nyemimei, lit. mother-child, 
foil brother or sister according to the Gl-usage; brother 
or sister (©cfd^wi^r); tSebi, fater-child, i. e. brother or 
sister from the fathers side, half-brother, -sister (if in 
contrast to this the former is used, the old form nyebi, 
-bii remains); tsinabi, pi. -bii, calf; okpongobi, foal; tobi, 
lamb or kid; wobi, chicken; wo, hoiiey, wobi, pi. -bii, bee; 
— webii, domestics; manbii, citizens; kuse or kose (ko = 
bush, se hinder part, back part), country, plantation; kose- 
nyo, pi. kosebii, ^intcrwalbler; country people; Osubii, 
Osu-people; Akropon-bii, Akropong-people; — tebi (fr. te, 
stone), little stone (©tein^^en, ©teinlein), in the lan- 
guage of children „a new tooth"; nulami, pi. -mii (from 
ftwei-la-bi = high-light-child) star (s. Ot. asoroma); tSa- 
^vt, pi. tsatsubii, a kind of ants; — gbek^, child, pi. gbe- 
kaii; abifao, or*(gbek6-) fufoo, pi. abifabii, fufobii, suck- 
ling (fufo == milk); seo, pi. sebii (different from semo, pi. 
Sfimei und. 1. successor) the next following younger brother 
or sister (see se irf the voc); blemabii (blema = old time, 
Ot. tete), forfathers, ancients; nmenebii, the people of 
to day, the present or young generation; yindbii, people 
of a generation (yind); tSutsubii, the first people (s. und. 1. 
tJulsumo, -mei); sebii, late people, late-comers; yibii, head- 
children, fruit etc. A reduplication of bi is the adj. bibio, 
pl. bibii, small, little (comp. fio, fifio). Comp. the term, 
•mi for diflf. kinds of fruits. 

4) A similar use is made of the words tse, pl« -mei> 
father and nye, pl. -mei, mother; Besides being used of 
eyery description of relationship of elder people towards 
younger ones^ they are together with the forms of address 
(vocative: ata, awo, s. § 13> 3.) the addresses given by 
every unmarried young person to married persons of middle 
age; people of higher age are called ni, grandfath^ or na. 


— 44 — 

grandmother. Bui as the Hebrew bV2 the words tSe and 
in a less decree also nye, if the sex is to be expressly 
indicated, are farther generalized and signify „ author, pos- 
sessor, inhabitant^ etc. comp. mantse, town- (or- people-) 
father, king; nySdsiatse, possessor of slaves; niiatSe, pos- 
sessor of things, rich man; sikatse, poss. of gold; tsinat^e* 
t§inaiatse, poss. or grover of cattle, toiat§e, poss. of sheep 
and goals, shepherd; kplotonye, a woman raising pigs 
(comp. Sienent^ater, (B6)mm^Tt\xtitx in some German dia- 
lects without any ofiFence used); Osutsemei, AkropontSe- 
mei etc. inhabitants of Osu, Akropong etc. these latter 
words with many others of the same kind are scarcely 
used in the sing, form, so that „lsemei" sometimes occurs 
instead of the simple „mei" as a pluralform. The formal 
character of „tse" „tsemei" is also seen by the circum- 
stance, that in Otyi the termination „fo" in Ayigbe „tQ" 
often take its place. Comp. also the wbrds Sientse (Ot. 
damfo), sianye and slenye, friend; tSunye, a lizzard living 
in rooms; nientse, dientse, pi. -mei, Adn. nitse (lit. who 
is father) = self, selves, midientse, myself. 

6) About the word nanyo, pi. nanemei, friend, neigh- 
bour, fellow, it is only to be remarked that as „fellow** in 
English it sometimes is only used to express the same 
class, kind, form etc. of a person or thing indicated by the 
word it defines, as the syllables „mit" in German and 
cum-, com- in Latin, e. g. nanyogbomo, fellowman, Ttitf 
ntenfc^ ; nanyono, the thing belonging to it, alike to it, fit- 
ting it etc. 

6) About words defined by one of the nouns no, si; 
A6, he, mh; Me, se; yi, yiten, masei etc. see compound 
verbs $ 29. 

$ 26. 1) But also of compounds of which the qualif- 
ying component is an apposition or rather postposition 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 45 — 

and therefore suffixed, $ 24, b., some belong to this kind. 
Every adjective may be used as a noun as in German and 
partly in English, but if this noun is to be defined whether 
it is personal or impersonal, the nouns mo and nd, 
s. S 25, 1., are. prefixed, e. g. ekpakpa, good, the good 
(ber obet bic obcr ba« „®viU% mokpakpa, a good person, 
pi. meikpakpai; ndkpakpa, pi. niikpakpai, a good thing. 
These (kinds of) compounds are less closely connected and 
the plural form is therefore always expressed in both of 
the components, which is not always the case with those 
formed by the preposition of the qualifying component. 

2) In the formation of sentences therefore appositions 
whether nouns, adjectives or relative sentences expressing 
these, follow the noun which they qualify, but preposi- 
tions, i. e. words or sentences having the relation expres- 
sed in European languages by the genitive or possessive 
case, precede the word which they qualify. 

3) Compounds of the kind mentioned in the first part 
of this $ have the accent indicating the unity of both com- 
ponents on the qualifying component or the apposition, 
as: mokpakpa, ndfdn, niif6d§ianii etc. The same is the' 
case with the syntactical form of them, as: kolo f6n, a 
wild beast; atade fefeo, a beautiful dress; tso kpelen- 
^)16, a large tree etc. Appositive adjectives have, if 
there are two forms, the reduplicated form. 

S 27. 1) Compound verbs of which one com- 
ponent has assumed, though a notional word, a 
more formal character ($ 24, 1.) are more frequent, 
than the nouns of this kind and must as all verbal com- 
pounds be divided into those which are inseparable and 
must or can bo written together, or which are separable 
and can or must be written so; the latter are again com- 
binations of two verbs or of a verb and a noun. 


- 46 - 

3) a) Verbal inseparable compounds are generally 
such that the original notion of neither component can be 
exactly given, though the roots are to be found in the lan- 
guage. Here we have only to mention a few forms in 
virhich one of the components has decidedly a formal cha- 
racter though a notional form, as: m8d§e, to send (a thing, 
not a person) (mS, to set); ladse, to be lost; to lose (Ad. 
la, in 69 „to hang, to fasten''); kSdse, to lie on one back 
(ka, to lie); dsadSe, to straighten (dsa, to be straight); 
SedSe m. k. ml, to make one's pit of the stomach to 
reach, to comfort; from: ml se, the pit of the stomach 
reaches, to be comforted; wadse, to harden, strengthen, 
from wa, to be hard, strong etc. In these words the verb 
dse, to come out, forth, away etc. seems to be added to 
the root, qualifying it, for the purpose of making an in- 
transitive verb transitive or a similar purpose (Comp. the 
Hiphil of the Hebr. and a few examples in §. 12, 3.b. aa.), 
but the form is only exceptional, the roots being generally 
intransitive and transitive without alteration; ba, to come; 
to make to come, let come; or other combinations are 
used, see 2. and 3. of this §. A similar, but less clear 
case is with a number of compound verbs of which a com- 
ponent is ke, kg (perhaps only the hard form of d§c from 
ge, comp. tsS, to come out, to awake etc.), as: tSake, to 
change (s. tsa, v.) ; fiike, to take the meat from the bones ; 
yeroke or y^rgke, to pull something to pieces; kpleke, to 
descend; Srftke, to miscarry; §rake, to let something rot 
(s. sa) etc. 

These verbal compounds must be written together as 
there is only exceptionally a form of the verb put betvnxt, 
as: miladseko or milakodSe, 1 have not been lost or have 
not lost; the latter form indicating that „dSe** may also 
(Miginally have been a noun and object of the verb (comp. 


— 47 — 

dso foi, sa foi, wo foi, hie foi in the sequel), as well as 
a verb. 

b) To this class may be reckoned the verbfonns with 
the prefix ^ka'' and the suffix „ko''. The root ka signifies 
„to try", to venture (comp. the related ^ka), but prefixed 
to a Terb it expresses the negative form of the impera- 
tiTe and potential mood as: Kafe, do not do (so)! plur. 
nyekafea, you shall not do (so)! roikafe, may I not do! 
akafe, may it not be done! Comp. K^kwe nl 6fe; see, do 
not do it! lit. Try to see and do it.) Rev. 22, 9.: „Opa 
M^"; — and ovx and fit] in Greek. (In Adn. it is „ko", 
as „kope"! in Otyi these neg. forms are formed as the neg. 
forms of the indicat.; in Ayigbe such combinations are very 

The root „ko'' has the notion of unity in Otyi and 6d 
and the words ko, indef. article or pronoun, a, an (Germ, 
cin, cine, ein), adv. once, only; then (cinmal, etnfi; bo^), 
eko, ekome, numb, one; ekoro, adj. and adv. single; singly; 
krgng, ad. and adv. simple (cinfa^), unmixed, clear; 
clearly: kroftkron, clear (holy), etc, are derivatives of it, 
but it is lost. Suffixed to the verb it distinguishes the 
perfect tense of the negat. form of the ind. mood from 
the aorist and fut. tense, as: nuf^ko, of^ko, ef^ko etc. 
I have not done, thou etc. (perhaps lit. I have not once 

Formerly ka was separately written, now both ka and 
ko are written together with the verb. 

§28.. 1) Verbal separable or separated compounds 
are those of which the notion of the compound is one, 
but the components are separable or even always separated 
(s. § 27, 1.). Most of them bdong to the class we are 
speaking about, of which one of the components has assu- 
med a more formal character. 


— 48 — 

2) Such compounds consist of two verbs, of 
which the one expresses a relation of the other: 

a) The verbs ba, to come and ya, to go are prefixed 

to verbs to express the relation of direction or 
movement to or from a place which sometimes 
in English is expressed by the preposition to, some- 
times not at all. Whenever a preceding verb implies 
a movement to or from a place, this movement must 
be expressed in the next following verb which expres- 
sed the end and aim of this movement, e. g. Ed§e 
Abrotsiri ebaye dsra ye bie, he came from Europe 
to trade here; Wo se ko eete emS left eyaM ewe- 
kumei, he will go once to his town to visit his re- 
lations; comp. table II. and VII. Formerly we wrote 
these verbs separately, now we write them together 
for convenience sake (Comp. in Otyi the prefixes be 
and ko). 

b) The same verbs together with dSe, dse, to come forth, 

away; to come from, out; ts6, to turn; tso, to show; 
ye (neg. be), to be (somewhere); ke, n6, to take; 
ha, to give, to let; na, to get; sa, to repeat (or go 
on to do, comp. Hebr. Pp^) fe,.to make; to do; to 
outdo etc. are connected with other veits to express 
a relation of them, though they are formally separated 
and retain more or less the form of notional verbs. 
In European languages these relations are either ex- 
pressed by forms or by (auxiliary) verbs or preposi- 
tions or adverbs or not at all; e. g. Enyieo ke-yaa 
6S, lit. He walks and goes 69, He walks .(over) to 
GS; eta okpono no ke-ba bie, he rode over to this 
place; edseo Abrotsiri ebaa, it comes from Europe; 
ed§iemi ke-dse bu le mli; he drew me out of the 
pit; eko ke-ba (he brought it hither, he took it 
hither); etre neke dsatgu ne ke-miya, h6 is carrying 


— 49 — 

this load away; gbomo ne d§e Keta ke-tSd AdS 
ke-ba bie, this person came from Keta through 
Ada to this place. In these instances the verb „ke" 
connected with formal verbs ya, ba, d§e and tSo can- 
not be expressed in English; it indicates that by 
walking, riding, carrying etc. the coming or going is 
accomplished. Differently ke and its correlate nd 
(Ot. de and fa) is employed in the following sentences: 
Eke neke §ika ne womi ny5m6, or: EA5 neke §ika 
ne ewomi nySmo, lit.: He took this gold paid me 
a debt, he paid me a debt with this gold; mike- 
hSle, I gave (it) to him. The language generally 
does not connect two objects with one verb, nor is 
there any form expressing different cases nor a pre- 
position, therefore verbs are employed to hinder the 
former and supply the latter. Oke wolo ne yahft 
onyont§o, lit. Take this book go give thy master, 
give this book to thy master; kanemo neke sane ne 
otsomi, read this story show me, read this story to 
me! Mina mite Osu ni mike minyemimei ayawie! 
Could 1 go to Osu and speak with my brethren! 
Enako eya, he is ndt yet going. Esa eba, he is 
come again. Eda femi, he is greater than I etc. 
These compound verbs can and generally must be 

§ 29. 1) But the most frequent of this class of com- 
pound verbs are combined with an original noun 
(§27, 1.) standing to the verb in the relation of a (gram- 
matical) subject or object, but now more or less only 
expressing a certain relation of the verb it is combined 
with. Some of these nouns have lost their notional signi- 
fication and are no longer used as nouns, most are still 
Qsed» but all of them retain the grammatical form and si- 



— 50 — 

tuation as nouns; we therefore write them separately. Tlie 
most common are: Mli, connected with an other doud, 
the termination n (s. § 20, l.)> inside, interior; he, out- 
side, bod;yself; hewo, outside; nO (side), masei, side, 
nearness; no, surface, cover; si (and sisi), the lower 
part, ground; na, mouth, brim, end; hie, face; se, back; 
te or ten (= te mli) middle; yi, head; yiten, crown of 
the head; tsui heart; musu, belly, de, hand etc. (Comp. 
Riis Otyi Gram. § 134 — 141 and the use of the Hebrew 
words: ^D, T, D^3D, etc., also the Ayigbe and Aku [Yoruba] 
language). The relation of the verb expressed by these 
words is either its transitiveness or intransitiveness (for 
which also some forms and form -verbs are used see the 
preceding §§) or its locality and from this the relation of 
time manner, cause etc. 

2) The formal noun is connected with the verb as its 
grammatical subject and precedes it: in this case the no- 
minal form of the compound, which ought to be written 
together retains the same order, the verb becoming the 
fundamental, the gram, subject the qualifying word, as: 
Mli hi, to be kind, mimli hi, I am kind, noun: mlihile, 
kindness; he wa, to be strong, hewale, strength; na no, 
to be dainty; nanomO, daintiness; hie kd, to be desirous, 
hlekS, desire, lust; yi wa, to be hard (-headed), yiwale, 
hardness; tsui sii, to be short of breath, tsuisu, fainting; 
musun ts6, to yearn (^n, anXayxi^i^eiv), musuntsS, year- 
ning etc. 

3) The formal noun is connected with the verb as its 
grammatical object and follows after it: in this case 
the nominal form of the compound assumes the inverted 
order, the object becoming the qualifying word, so that 
such compounds have frequently the same form as those 
mentioned ynder 2., and the difference if necessary must 
be expressed by a rdational sentence, e. g. miyiwale nl 

d by Google 

— 51 - 

awami yi (see wa yi in the sequel), the hardness which 
I suffered (by some body) and miyiwale, my (own) hard- 
ness. Comp. ba mli, to be fulfilled, noun: mliba, fulfill- 
ment; fata he, to join, hefatamo, joining; ta no, to sit 
upon, pi. tra no; notamo, notramo, sitting upon; ta §i, to 
sit down, pi. tra si; Sitamo, sitramo, downsitting; pi. Mta- 
rooi, downsittings of one, Sitramoi, — of many; gba na, 
to trouble, nagbamo, trouble; egba mina, he troubled me; 
kpata h!e, to destroy; mikpata ehle, I destroyed it; but 
compare: mihle kpata, I perished, noun of both: hiekpata- 
mo, perishing, destruction; t§i se, to push; setSimo, pu- 
shing; ye ten, to be in the midst (of ye no noun is for- 
med); na tSui, to take a heart, courage, tSuina, courage 
etc. etc. 

4) Sometimes the grammat. subject and object is wan- 
ted, sometimes two of these words are combined, to ex- 
press the relation, e. g. mihe wa mihe, I have pain (my 
body is hard to my body); but mihe wa, I am strong and 
mihe wami, I am recovered; mihie kS eno, my face relies 
on his surface, I trust in him; mind mihle mifd eno, I 
take my face cast (it) on him, I hope in him, to him; 
etc. or: miba mihe si, I bring myself down, humble my- 
self (here as often „he** expresses the reflexive relation of 
the verb). 

5) Remarkable are those compounds, in which the 
grammatical object has no direct relation to the logical or 
real object, but this latter is put in a direct relation to 
the [verb and the grammatical object v expresses the same 
relation as the ablative case of the Latin and accusative 
absolute or sometimes the dative case of the Greek lan- 
guage, e. g. da Si (from the Otyi: da ase, orig. to lie 
down) to thank, midale Si, I thank him; wa m. k. yl, to 
be hard to somebody with the head or with respect to 
the bead; to persecute him; ewale yi, he persecuted him, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

- 52 - 

not: ewa eyi (Comp. eyUe kplebii, he flogged him with 
a scourge; ekpale fai, he begged him; elfami no, he 
struck me with something; am^tfiale tei, they cast stones 
at him etc.). 

6) In the inverted form of speech the object, 
grammatical or logical, may for emphasis* sake precede 
the subject and verb (predicate), but can never stand be- 
twixt them and it is always to be considered that the 
object should be repeated as is sometimes done, the pre- 
ceding object standing absolutely; e. g, mihe eta, dsee 
mokroko he, me he touched and not another. 

7) To this kind of verbal compounds are also to be 
added a number of verbs connected with a word of no- 
tion, very probably a noun, but it may be also a verb, the 
original signification of which can no longer be ascertained, 
as it now only serves to modify the verb (comp. a similar 
form § 27, 2. a.): e. g. dso foi, to ran, hie foi, sa foi, 
the same; wo foi, to run and wo m. k. foi, to make some- 
body to run; foi seems to have the orig. notion of run- 
ning, as the verbs dso, hie, sa, wo are of a very general 
notion; nouns: foidse (irreg.) foihie (?), foisa, foiwo; tsi 
la (tsi = to move, ta = to touch?), to mention, tsi n. k. 
tS, to mention something; bu m. k. fo, to condemn; bu- 
bem, to justify; bu mei ateh, to judge etc.; here atu, to 
receive with joy (atu is exclamation of children embracing 
somebody) dse fu, to stink (fu = bad smell); dse kpo, 
to come out, kpodse, forthcoming etc. Comp. also the 
adverbs § 35, 2. 

§ 30. 1) We have now to consider the rest of the 
notional compounds, viz. those of which both compo- 
nents are notional words and remain such (see 
§ 23, 1.); i. e. though the qualifying component serves 
to define a certain relation or modification of the funda- 


— 53 — 

mental component, it does so only by its notion added 
to the notion of the other and forming one new no- 
tion with it, and by its place in the sentence; for as 
I have already remarked it is the same law of the language 
by which Init. and term, augments, prefixes and suffixes, 
formwords, formal nouns and verbs and notional words are 
joined to a word to define it and become one word or 
at least one notion with it or by which word is joined to 
word and sentences are formed, nay even the combination 
of sounds belongs as well to the formation of sentences 
as to that of words being often different at the beginning 
or at the end of sentences (Compare the tables). 

2) As stated in § 23 we have to consider compounds 
of nouns with nouns, and of verbs with verbs, of nouns 
with adjectives and of verbs with nouns (and adverbs, see 
these), these are either separately written or connected 
and serve either to form inclinational — or word -forms 
or forms (members, parts) of sentences. 

3) Nouns are combined with nouns by putting the 
qualifying component before the fundamental compo- 
nent the latter generally having the uniting accent: by 
this combination is expressed the relation of the genitive 
or possessive case of European languages, the „ status con- 
structus^ of the Hebrew. If this combination is very close 
and common, we write both components together (formal 
compounds), if less close and common, we separate them, 
so that only the notion becomes one; a wordform is for- 
med by the former, a form of part of a sentence by the 
latter; in this case one or both of the components may 
be sentences, their place and relation remains the same* 
Comp. Solemotsu, house of prayer, church, wont§u, temple 
of an idol, fetish-house; bay elg, leaf-eater, a kind of ante* 
lope; sosumotso, measure -stick; tunte, gun -ball etc. or; 
gbdi^bii anntsumQy children's work; mitse we, my father'^ 


— 54 - 

house, wonyontSomei awekamei, the families of our masters 
etc. or: Moni dSi wQ-NyoAmo le suomo> the loye of 
him who is our God; Njronmo nii ni efe, the things God 
has done, what God has done; heni midSe le mei n\ mfle, 
lit. Whom I knew of where 1 came from; etc. 

In these latter cases of compound sentences ihe words 
mo, nd, pi. mei, nii (s. § 25), and the similarly used words 
be (time) he (place) bo (manner) connected with a relatiye 
sentence take the place of one or both of the components. 
About the forms: moni, meini; noni nini or niini, heni,. 
beni, boni, dani, koni s. § 34 f., § 50 and the Vocabulary. 

4) But nouns are also combined with nouns and espe- 
cially with adjectives by placing the qualifying component 
behind the fundamental one. This we called apposition 
or postposition. In this case the qualifying component has 
the accent. These combinations are less close than those 
under 3. The relation expressed by this combination is 
the same which is expressed by the adjective, if used ap- 
positively and not predicatively and by other appositions 
(nouns and appositive sentences) in other languages. Their 
regular place in G9 is behind the word or sentence they 
qualify; comp. Gbomo kp^kpa, a good person; gbekS 
bibio, a little child; yo okuUfo^ a woman a widow; 
with a little modification of the signification: okuldfoyo, 
a widow woman; comp. § 25, 2. about the formal noun 
„yo"; gbomo ohi^fo, a man a poor one (ein SKattn^ ein 
^rmer), a poor man, the language having no abject, for 
Hpoor^; gbek§ abif^o, gbek^ fuf(io, a suckling, gbomo 
Adesa, a human person, being; abifao, fufoo having al- 
ready the notion of „suckUng'' and adesS of „ human being'' 
and „gbek6**, ^gbomo"" only in general „younger person", 
^person", wherefore gbekS can be used of old men com* 
pared with elder ones and gbomo of God, angels, men 
on the one and animals etc. on ihe other band as soon 


— 55 — 

as personality is attributed to them, comp. the init. aagm. 
„o'' in Otyi and GS and the termination „mo^ in GS. 

Proper names as most indiriduating take generally the 
place of the adjective and the Accent, as: Nyontso NyoA- 
mo, NyontsQ Jesii, mantSe Ddwid etc. Moni d§i wo- 
nyoDtso Nyonm6 le; but if the former should be more 
individuating and have the emphasis, it must be postponed 
in the form of an adjective sentence, cut short, as : Nyon- 
mo, wony6ntsQ le, or full, Nyonmo moni d§i wony6ntSQ 
le, Dav^id, mantS^ le, or Da^id nl dsi mant§4 le etc. 

Of this kind of compounds only a few are so closely 
united thai they may be written together, comp. § 25 and 
¥^ords as sSnekpSkpa, good palawer, gospel, frequently 
shortened into saneSkpa, so:^ gbomo^kpa, a good person, 
or: a common, real man, lele^kpa, a common vessel (not 
a steamer) etc. though they may also be separately written 
and have both the pi. form, as: sSdsi akpai etc. 

§ 31. 1) Verbal compounds in which both 
components retain their notional character we call all 
those combinations of which the verb is the centre, be 
tbey closely and formally united and written together and 
only into one common notion (comp. § 27 — 29). We gel 
three different kinds, viz: 

a) verbs combined with verbs to indicate different rela- 
tions or to form quite new words and notions; 

b) verbs combined with their subjects to express the 

subjective relation of a predicate or a sentence^ and 

c) verbs combined with their objects, to indicate the 

objective relation of a predicate or sentence. 
By this process before mentioned all the words and 
forms of inclination, words, and sentences are originally 
formed, except a part of the adverbs and interjections; but 
also conjunctions included (s. § 35, 1 — 5.)* 


— 56 ~ 

2) The combination of verbs with verbs without 
conjunctions and without forming two sentences is a fea- 
ture which seems now pecuUar to the family of languages 
the GS belongs to, but may originally have been the case 
in other languages too. 

About those combinations, in which one of the verbs 
only serves as an auxiliary or relational verb, and which 
are the most common, see § 27 — 29; here only too other 
kinds are to be mentioned, viz. a, those compounds of 
which the signification and therefore also the relation of 
the components separated can no longer be traced and we 
have therefore no other place for them, and b, those of 
which both components are not only separated and retain 
their notion, if standing alone, but it also can not be shown> 
that one and which of both serves to define the re- 
lation of the other, though they form in the combination 
one notion, 
a) Under the class of verbal compounds of which the 
original notion of both components and their mutual 
relation can no longer be traced, and which must 
therefore simply be considered as secondary roots, 
we count all those verbs of two or more syllables 
each of which could formally be a root by itself and 
none of [which can now be considered as a mere 
form, as: file, to perish; to spoil; kite, v. defective, 
only used in the imp. and pot. mood, e. g. kite, go! 
go on! (perhaps = ke-te, see ke in § 28, 2. b.); 
^ b5te, to enter; — in these cases the termination „te** 
which has no accent, may be only a hardened form 
instead of ne, le, which are forms, comp. the old 
pronunciation of fene, kane in writings of the last 
century and in the mouth of old people (also by 
Hanson in his „ Gospels of* St. Matth, and John'O 
fende, kande etc. farther: butUi to overturn; futUi 


— 67 — 

to mix, f^ta, to join; kp^ta, to reconcile, kp^te» to 
cleave, kpiti, to pick (s. titi), kpcJto, to rot, to mix 
as dough etc.; lutu, to be disturbed, muddy (of water); 
site, to pull (comp. §a, the same) ; etc. These forms 
are either to be considered as original redupUcations, 
in which one of the consonants changed and the 
vowel remained the same (as is very probably the 
case with the Hebrew perfect form as it appears in 
the Lexicon, so that htop would be formed by a par- 
tial reduplication of the root i:op,^Dp, h\Dp) or the 
process of their formation was originally the same as 
that described in. $ 12, 2. b., the inserted consonant 
(r, 1) hardening into t and the short vowel becoming 
the accented one, as: bu, blu, biilu, butu; kpa, kpra, 
kp^ra, kp^ta; both of these formations are related to 
each other and of both single instances can be traced. 
A similar formation took place with verbs like piW, 
to wound (from pla, Ot. pra), loko, to go round 
(comp. words as: logoligi, dokodiki, kosonkosd; afu- 
tufata etc.); in words as: Ula, to Hnger, dida, to 
waver, to shake, hoso and woso, to shake (as a bell) 
etc. the original reduplication is sUll visible. Still 
as we have seen in § 27, 2. a., the possibility of 
combining two verbs into one and as the form of 
these verbs indicates two verbs combinedj we place 
them among the compound verb, 
b) Of quite a different kind are those double verbs 
which though forming one notion not only are se^ 
parate, each having its own form and relation, but 
neither serving as a mere form as is the case with 
those mentioned § 28. Also here we have to distin- 
guish two different applications of this combination, 
viz. two verbs are continually combined to express 
a fixed notion, as: he noko ye, to believe someth.. 


— 58 — 

M noko M in. k. to give someth. to somebody, 
dSadse noko tsd m. k. to explain something to some- 
body etc. (the t^o latter combinations are sometimes 
weakened, so that one of the components becomes 
formal, therefore they are mentioned § 28, sometimes 
they appear both as full notional verbs); or two verbs 
with their subjects and objects are simply joined to- 
gether without a conjunction but only for a passing 
purpose, still expressing one notion and forming one 
compound sentence, as: £ba mind ekemi, he came 
to me told me^ mitao^makwe, I will seek (and) see; 
etc. The reason of such forms is that there are nei- 
ther participles to connect such verbs in one sentence, 
as e. g. he came to mft- saying, nor are the con- 
junctions so frequently used as in other languages 
and even those used bear strong marks of having 
been originally verbs and short sentences, now used 
as conjunctions (compare the conj. ke § 28; ni, hi, 
ake, edsake, etsoake» ef%ke» akeSi, koni etc. §35,4. 
§ 50, 51. 

§ 32. The combination of verbs with their sub- 
jects is in general the same as in other languages only 
more close, as we find this especially in old languages 
(comp. the Hebrew, Greek, Latin), it expresses the rela- 
tion of the verb to the subject. As we have already seen 
that the relation expressed by the casual forms of other 
languages is not so much expressed by a form, as by the 
place of the noun and the accent, so we find it also here. 
The subject (subjective or nominative case) is placed im- 
mediately before its verb and closely connected with it, 
wherefore we write it also together with it, if it is a pro- ^ 
noun. Every word or accessory sentence connected with 
the subject therefore must be placed before the verb and 


— 69 — 

combined iiirith the subject either as preposition (possessive 
or gdritiye case) or apposition in the form of an a^jectiye 
or an adjective noun or sentence and should the object 
or part of it be put in adrance for emphasis sake, it must 
be done in the form of an abridged sentence or absolute 
objective case; and if not all that belongs to the subject 
caa be inserted before the verb, a new sentence roust be 
began and the verb repeated; e. g. miba, eba, woba, aba; 
with emphasis mi le miba, I (not another) came; le le 
eba; amenon ameba, even they came; gbek6 le yaa, the 
child goes; gbek^ t§e le mli fu, the child's father is angry 
(lit. the child's fathers inside is swollen) ; moni dsi maAtse 
dien!§e bofo le te, he who is the king's own messenger 
went; dse koloi keke, si gbomei dientSe amehdo ye cl§a 
k UQ, Ut. (they are) not cattle only but men even they 
sell on (being in) the market place. Gbekebii le, nyekafea^ 
ame noko, §i hi keke woke-ana! (Respecting) the children 
do them nothing, for men only we have to do with! — 
The vocative case, or the form of the address, the 2 pers., 
stands in the same relation to the imperat. mood of the 
verb, as the nominative to the indicative; only sometimes 
the verb, mostly the subj. is left out, as: Ata! (sc. bo toil) 
Father! (sc. hear!) or: Feme! (sc. bo, feme), do (thou 
this)! If there are two or more subjects combined with 
one verb, they are generally connected by the word „ke", 
also originally a verb, but now having lost its notion (to 
take, see § 28) only used to connect words especially 
nouiis of the same relation (e. g. subjects, objects, pos- 
sessive words etc.), but never sentences which are always 
connected with ^ni" (Comp. ni = ke and na = ni in Otyi); 
e. g. Anan ke Mensa ba mind, A. and M. came to me. 
In such cases the word preceding ke, if a pronoun, has 
the subjective form (s. § 21, 2. a. b.), that following 
it the objective form, as: mikele te Add, 1 with him 


— 60 — 

went to AdS; wherefore both have to be connected with 
„ke" which here plainly shows its verbal character. If the 
independent form of the pfonoun is used (comp. § 34), the 
subjective verbform of it must be repeated, as: Mike bo, 
wote Ada, I and thou, we went to AdS; this is also the 
case if for emphasis' sake the subject i9put absolutely, as: 
Neke gbomei ne, amefeko nakai; (as for) these men, they 
have not done so; in this case the absolute subject is to 
be considered as an abridged sentence and part of the 
object or the whole may be placed betwixt it and the pro- 
noun representing it, e. g. Neke gbomei ne, dane ame- 
feo neke, These man, always they do so. 

§ 33. 1) A similar combination connects the 
verb with its object, only the latter is placed after 
the verb, and all that belongs to the object is again pre- 
poned. or postponed to it, so that by these definitions of 
the object, if preponed to it, it may be considerably se- 
parated from its verb. But the relation to the object is 
far more variegated than that to the subject 1 , by the 
different relations expressed by the object and 2, by the 
difference of the verbs which either want an object or not, 
being transitive or intransitive. The GS language in general 
has retained more words in a direct objective relation, than 
the European languages besides this most intrans. verbs 
are also transitive; the want of casual forms, adverbs and 
prepositions may be a reason for it or rather a consequence 
of it; e. g. ba, to come, is also used trans, to let come, 
to produce; esp. the infin. form often becomes the object 
of a verb intrans., e. g. hi yeli, good to eat, fd femo, stop 
to do (see the double verbs 31, 2. b. partly serving the 
same purpose); and every intransitive verb may have a 
direct object though not necessarily, e. g. he ye hela ko, 
to be sick (of) a sickness, mihe mlye hela fdn, lit. my 


— 61 — 

body is ailing (under) a bad sickness. Or it may be ex- 
pressed thus : every part of a sentence (conjunctions excep- 
ted) not standing in the relation of the subject to the verb 
must stand to it in the relation of the object, there being 
neither different forms for the dative nor the ablative nor 
the instrumental nor locative cases nor prepositions serving 
this purpose; and if therefore there is more than one ob- 
ject in a sentence, auxiliary or relative verbs are generally 
provided for them. We have therefore to distinguish the 
following objects, 1) the passive (personal or impersonal 
europ. lang. accus. or obj. case), 2) the receptive (dative 
case), 3) the instrumental (lat. ablat.), 4) resultive, 
5) the obj. of place, 6) the object of time, 7) the obj. 
of manner. We might add the nominative object for cases 
in which the object contains the predicate and the verb is 
only a copula, but the language treats the predicates for- 
mally just as a resultive or one of the other objects. About 
the ^^b dsi, neg. dsee, to be (something) see the seq. 3. 
Sdnetimes the definition of the verb will require some or 
most of these ol^ects. 

2) The objective combination of the verb is effected 
in the following manner: 

If a verb has only one object of any kind mentioned, 
it is followed by it, as: Gbomo tsuo nii, man works 
(things, comp. niitsumo, work); esumoo Nyonmo, he 
loves God. „Nme kome fiteo nmei fe, pr. 5, one nut 
spoils all the nuts/' Etomi, lit. it tires me, 1 am tired etc. 
— EhSle, he gave him, sc. something; eno sika ehSle, ekg 
Sika hfile* Ht he took gold he gave him, he gave him gold 
(pass, and receptive object connected). If the recept. obj. 
is only a objective pronominal form, the auxiliary „nd, k^*' 
may be omitted, as : Eh^e Sika, as in English without the 
prep, to, he gave him gold; if one of the two objects is 
ommitted, because known, the auxiliary may still be used, 


— 62 — 

as: Eke sika hfi, he gave gold (to the person mentioned), 
or: eke-hale, he gave (it) to him. Efo enyemi, he weeps 
(for) his brother, or: efo ehfi enyemi, he weeps for his 
brother; etsd le, he showed (it to) him, he taught him; 
edsadse Nyonmo wiemo et§6 gbekgbii, he taught the chil- 
dren the word of God (lit. he explained the word of God 
showing the children). — Etfa te, he cast a stone; etfa 
moko te, he cast someb. with a stone, or eke te tfa 
m. k.; ehe abolo dSakpo, he bought bread for one far- 
thing, or end dsakpo ehe abolo; with a recept/ obj* ehe 
abolo dSakpo ehSmi, he bought one farthirig^sworth bread 
for me. Tsofatse enuu tSofS ehas helam^* pr, 6, a phy- 
sician does not drink medicine for the sick. — £t§d obla- 
nyo, he became a youth. EdSfird feo edSurd" pr. 276, 
benefit produces benefit. „Ka fog loflo", a crab does not 
beget a bird. „Alomte efoA miau bo^^ pr. 1 , a cat will 
not cease miau crying (miaQ standing in the possessive 
relation to bO); ele kanemo, he knows to read (roddkig), 
ele wolo kanemo, he knows to read a book (book-readiil|); 
but compare: Eny6 ndf^no efe, lit. he is aJBe. every thing 
he does, i. e. to do every thing (comp. § 31, 2. b.). Ekpe 
ablogw^ ehSmi, he made a chair for me. End Sika dale 
edfe efe ga ehS enyonl§o biyo ayemforo le, he made a 
ring of four dollars worth gold for his master's doughter 
who is bride. — Eba Osu, he came (to) Osu ; ameke d§a- 
t§ui te Akropong ameke-yahfi osofoi le, they went to Afcro- 
pong with loads for ihe missionaries. Eba mli, lit. it came 
inside, i. e. it is fulfilled (comp. § 29), eba t§u le nili, he 
came in- (side of) the room, also: eba t§u l^n; eba mSn, 
he came into- town; eta mihe, he touches my outside, he 
touches me etc In all these cases the original nouns mli, 
n; he, no, nd, hewo, na as enumerated Jn § 29 are gram- 
matically to be considered as the original object of place 
(also serving as obj. of time, manner, and even the passive 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 63 — 

and all other objects) and the iivords connected with them 
as standing in the possessive (or appositive) relation to it; 
the same is the case with adverbs, being also originally 
nouns, as : ete nwei, he went up (lit. to or towards heaven), 
eba sisi, he came down; eye se, he is behind; but etSuo 
nii ye tsu le se, he works (things being) behind the house 
etc. — Eba nye, he came yesterday; ehSmi nmene, 
he gave (it to) me to day; eete wo, he will go to mor- 
row; ehe mlye afi kome, he is (or has been) sick one 
year; enyle nyonnyon te, he walked the whole night; 
efeo nakai dd, he does so always. While objects of 
place, if connected with other objects, generally require 
one of the auxiliary verbs: ba, ya or ye, objects of time 
are generally added Mithout any and frequently put before 
the sabject. — Obj. of manner are mostly expressed by 
nouns having become adverbs, as: Eba mra; he quickly 
came; efe nakai, he did so etc. to which may be added 
obj. of frequency etc. as: eba sii enyo, he came twice; 
kanemo kpli ekpa to i ete, count six strings (cowries) three 
times etc. 

As already mentioned one or more objects may for 
emphasis' sake be put in advance, as: Dane ekemi nakai, 
always he told me so etc. 

3) By the auxiliary verb ye, irreg.; neg. be, to be, 
to exist, jt(^ r>ni)(i\Un, to be somewhere, to have; adjec- 
tives, adverbs and nouns containing the predicate are joined 
to the subject and it might be called a copula, but its 
variegated use shows, that the language treats it as another 
verb, compare: Eye, he exists, eye mli, eyen, it is true 
(lit. it is inside); eye nakai, it is so; eye feo, it is beau- 
tiful, eye hiegble, or efe hfegble, it is a shame, shameful; 
e^e sika, he has gold; eben, it is not so; ebe feo, it is 
not nice; ebe noko, he has nothing etc. If the adjective 
has two forms, a simple and a reduplicated one, the simple 


— 64 — 

one is pre di call vely, the reduplicated one appositively 
used, as: Gbomo fefeo, a beautiful person; gbomo ye 
feo, the person is beautiful. Similar is the case with the 
auxiliary verb „dsi", neg. irreg. „dsee", to be (something) ; 
(in Otyi ye = to make, to be, in Adng. pe, neg. pi, to 
make, to be); as: midsi otsulo, 1 am thy servant, amedsi 
gbomei komei ni misumoo, they are some people which I 
love etc. But still here are two irregularities to be obser- 
ved, which show the formal character of the verb, first the 
predicate takes very frequently not the place of the object, 
but that of the subject and the subject takes the place and 
form of the object: gbomo dsimi, I am a man; minye- 
mi dsile, he is my brother (sometimes le dsi minyemi, 
edsi minyemi) ; secondly it is weakened into „ni" and ,,n", 
as: Namo dsi? or: Namo ni? or: Namon? who is (it)? 
Midsi; or mini; or min, it is I. The neg. form (the 
only one, it has) dsee, is differently used, either as for- 
mal verb as: edseemi, edseeo (and edsee bo), edseele, 
edSee gbomo; it is not I; — thou; — he; he is not a 
man, i. e. a monster, a brute (comp. Germ. „Unmenf(f>"), 
or as a mere form or form word = no, not, and then con- 
nected with the posit, form, dsee mi dsi, dsee bo d§i, dsee 
le dsi, dsee gbomo dsile, dsee gbomo ni, dsee gbomoA. 
By this formverb any part of a sentence can be negationed, 
except the verb, if not in its nominal form, as : Dsee gbo- 
mei blo5 neke, si koloi, not men cry so, but beasts; dsee 
nakai afeo, not so it is done; dsee siiomo ameke amesu- 
moole, Si amenyomowo keke faa kwra, lit. it is not the 
service they said they will not serve him, but only their 
wages are not enough at all. 

The infinit. pronominal form »a** cannot be used with 
dsi and scarcely with ye. 

Both verbs dsi and ye are defective dsi having only 
this one form and ye only yo (= yeo) besides, for other 


— 65 — 

rdatioiMy especialljf the fofure tense, fe, to do, to beeome; 
\i6, to turn, become etc. are used for the former, e. g. 
GbekS ne afe (or atSo) na, this child will be a man; and 
hi, to remain, ha, ^a etc. for (he latter, e. g. ebahl dSei> 
he will be (remain) there, eye d§ei, he was there, eyo 
dsei, he is there etc. 

By these relations and combuiations of the verb with 
its subject and object every sentence however complicated 
and variegated is connected into one whole having its centre 
in the verb. 

§ 34. 1) Hitherto we have spoken of the formation 
of words, forms and consequently sentences only as far as 
notional v¥ords and forms and formwords directly connected 
with theas are concerned. But we find the same process 
of formation also in pure formwords, ^as far as their 
limited number, the weak elements they are formed of and 
their short forms will allow. We have seen that the roots 
of all pure forms and formwords are a few of the p^so- 
nal pronouns used at the same time as augments of verbs 
and nouns: They are the liquid augment: ft n m (I); 
(thou); e (he, she it), a (they), perhaps o, wo (we); 
the forms nye, you, and especially ame, they are already 
secondary. A formation of the liquid augment is, mi, I; 
of 0, bo (Ad. mo) thou; of e, le, he, she, it; him, her, 
it; the (definite article. Ad. q), alio used in GS at the end 
of sentences as well as words to express their definite re- 
lation. Ad. ng (comp. the same use, though not so exten- 
sive of the Greek article to); — farther ne, ene, demonstr. 
pron« this; the reduplication lele or le le, dehionstr. pron. 
even the same. Less plain is the origin of no, (hat; na*, 
nS? m$? inter, pronouns, what? n), rel. pron. who, which; 
comp. interrog.' pron. meni, what? All the rest of the 
pronouns are either original nouns or adjectives or com- 
Zimmermann, Akra-Gramm. 5 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 66 — 

binations with such. Pare pronouns we therefore have 
only the following: 

Personal pronouns: 

Radical pers. pron. Independent forms, 

ft- n- m- (mi-) I-; mine. mi, I. 

o- thou; thine. bo, thou, 

e- he, sh^, it; his etc. le, he, she (it), 

wo, we; ours. wo, we. 

(nye) you; yours. nye, you. 

a (ame) they; theirs. (ame) they. 

Objective form: 

— mi (m*, n*, n') me. 

— o, thee. 

— le, him, her (it). 

— 0, -WQ, us. 

— nye, you. 

— (ame) them. 

The possessive pronominal augments are the same as the 
pronominal subj«5tive verbal augments and therefore initial 
(in the place of the possessive or preponed qualifying com- 
ponent of the compounds, not in that of the adjective). 

Demonstrat. subst. pron.: Ene, this; no, that (lele, the 

Demonstr. adj. pronouns: le, the def. article); ne, this, 

Interrogat. subst. prop, me', meni (= me dsi, what is 
it?), ne? what? 

Relative pronoun: n), who, which. 

2) But here also notional words are used to supply 
the want partly beconnng formwords and being used as 
pronouns either alone or in combination with pure pro- 
nouns. These are especially the already mentioned words:, 
mo, pi. mei, a man; person, somebody (comp. Germ, mem, 
jemanb; niemanb); nd, pi. nii, thing, something (etioaf); 


— 67 — 

We (old noun), here; dSei, dSemei (old. collective noun), 
there; he, place (\ritbout pi. form), be, time; bo manner; 
ko (s, § 27, 2. b.) one, a, an (indef. art.), fS, n. the whole 
(®efainmt^cit Hebr. h)D)y all, every; te, middle (?); nakai, 
neke, orig. noun, such, so; and some others. 

By these or combinations with them all the rest of the 
pronouns are supplied. The plur. of mo; mei, me, me, 
is used to form the pronoun ame» they (comp. the Adn.); 
mo and nd and their pi forms are combined with ene> 
m, and serve for the demonstrat. substantive and some- 
times also adjective pronoun, if persons and things are to 
be distinguished, as: mone (somet. mene), pi. menemei, 
this (person); none, pi. nii ne or niine, this (thing); na- 
kai — le, dem. pr. such; peke — ne, dem. pr. such, even 
this, of which nakai and neke precede and le and ne suc- 
ceed the noun they define or demonstrate, as: Nakai gbo- 
mo le, such a man; neke gbomo ne, this same man, even 
this man (but compare „ gbomo neke'S a certain man [etn 
®eTDiffer]); the demonstr. subst. pronoun n^'is strengthe^d 
into non (perhaps = no d§i, s. 33, 3.) and used adjective- 
ly even the same, the very same, as: nd noA, the very 
same thing, nakai gbomo le noil, even the very same man. 
Ble, here, d§ei, dsemei, there are used as adverbial pro^- 
nouns of place; biane, immediately; agbene, now; — of 
time (compare the adv. nmene, nmengme, nmenenmene, 
to day, and others); nakai, neke, so; — of manner. All 
these can again be strengthened by ne, le» non, as: hie 
ne> just here, d§ei noii> even there, nakai noil, ev^n so; 
neke ne (just), so; or combined with nouns, as: biegbe, 
dSeigbe, nakaigbe> this way, hither; thither; thus etc. 

By mo and the interog. pron. n6 is formed nuamo"? 
who; pi. namei? But as soon as a definite noun is com- 
bined with it, mo is superfluous, as: NS gbomo? or MS 
gbomo? "What man? N€gbe (sometimes nfgbe)? What 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

~ 68 — 

way, where, whither? But with respect to time and man- 
ner te and te-t6n, the former at the beginning, the latter 
at the end of the interrog. sentence is used, as: M6 be, 
mllgbt (ng be, n6 gbl) and te beni, te gbl nl — ? what 
time? what day? When? Te t6n? flow? Te afe ten? 
How shall it be made or done? often simply for how? 
Te obake ten? How wilt thou say? etc. 

To the relative pronoun „ni^ also mo, n5, he, be, 
bo is preponed to define it or use it substantively, as: 
moni, he who, the person who, noni, the thing which, 
what, gbomo le, moni, the man who, a little stronger than 
„gbomo nl^ and especially used if the article le follows 
a noun directly; but such relative sentences have „le" ge- 
nerally at the end, as: Gbomo ni ba nye le, the man 
who came yesterday; heni, where; beni, when; boni, how, 
Comp. also dl, dSni, before, hewo nl therefore, koni, 
that etc. among the conjunctions. 

Of indefinite pronouns of which none is a pure 
pfbnoun, the Allowing are to be mentioned: ko, indef. adj. 
pronoun or indef. article, a, an; moko, pi. meikomei, some- 
body; people; noko, pi. nokomei and niikomei, something; 
heko, somewhere; beko, somewhen, once; gbiko, th. s.; 
but mokomoko, nokonoko, hekoheko, gbikogbiko are only 
used with the neg. voice of the verb they belong to and 
must then be given by, not any body, — thing, nowhere, 
never. Comp. also ekoii, once more, again, with the neg. 
voice dOn, never again, not again. F6 or fia (old pia) 
all, every is used as shown in § 22 with the redupUcation 
of the word it belongs to, if in the sing., so also here: 
Mof^mo or mofiamo, pi. mei fd, — fia, every body, all 
(men); ndf^no, pi. nii fg, everything; het§he, everywhere; 
befgbe, always, at any time; bofSbo, anyhow. See the 
table N. IV. and Y. 


— 69 — 

§ 39. 1) Yfe have now left four classes o{ words, the 
formation and combination of which we have only occasio-* 
nally mentioned. 

They are the adverbs, numerals, conjunctions 
and interjections. Some of the adverbs and interjec-* 
tions excepted, these all, though formwords, belong accor- 
ding to the process of .their formation and form as well 
a% their combination to the classes of notional words al- 
ready mentioned, but their formal character is partly so 
much developed that we cannot join them to those, as we 
M with the verbs and nouns serving as pre- and post- 

2) The adverbs are either original and still used nouns, 
or adjectives or natural sounds imitated; they have no pe- 
culiar form of their own and take the place of the ob- 
ject: as: Eba mra, became quickly; ewie deAdedeA, 
bespeaks hard; efe yeyeye, he is unquiet; enyle ihfl 
(the § can be lengthened at pleasure), he walked very 
long;^ edso foi yered^d^d^ . . . (lengthenend at pleasure) 
he rans (^o)>^op^i))>^o)>^o!|p); eSa foi kukud§ikukud§i 
it rans in a gallop etc. 

3) The numerals are formed from one to «ix like 
adjectives, from seven to ten like nouns, but take as 
cardinal numerals the place of adjectives, e. g. Gbomei 
ekpa, — nyonma, six men, ten men; ohd, hundred and 
akp^, thousand, are nominal forms; they all can have the 
plural form i, and are joined together by „ke**, as: 
Akp6 ke ohai kpanyo ke liyonmai enumg kg ekpa === 1856. 
There is no form for the ordinal numbers which must 
therefore be expressed by circumscription, as: Klenklenmo, 
— nd, the first, moni or noni dsi enyo, ete, he who is 
or what is the second, third etc. Compare also the al- 
ready mentioned forms and combinations enyo enyo, by 
two, ete ete, by three etc. § 22 and Sii enyo, sii ete etc. 


— 70 — 

and toi enyo^ toi ete twice, trice, § 33. The indefinite 
numerals are either nouns or indef. pronouns, adjectires 
or adverbs and are treated as such. 

4) More difficultly to be defined is the process of the 
formation and combination and therefore also the place of 
the conjunctions. They connect two or more sentences 
into one compound sentence and express the relation of 
them, so that the one sentence becomes a part of t%e 
other or both have a common central verb or both hare 
the same relation. As such they have either the form and 
character of auxiliary verbs and are derived from them as, 
e. g. „ke" connecting two objects or subjects or de- 
finitions of such into one, or „ni^ (and) and ^si** 
(but) from dsi, to be, connecting two sentences; or 
they are themselves shortened sentences used for such a 
purpose, as: akesi, ake n), edSake (== edSi ake or edSe 
ake» comp. the Ot. efise)» etSdak^, elftaket lit. it turned 
that etc. =s because; or they are nouns, pronouns or ad- 
verbs, taking the place of such, but serving the same pur- 
pose of connecting sentence to sentence, e. g. bde (be = 
time) eeba, than he will come. Eye he wo le miya, he 
is here therefore I will go; wiemoi nl ewie le edsa, the 
words which he spoke are just; babao nl eke le babao 
nl efe dSi nd, as much as he said as much he did (lit* 
•much which he said much which he did is it.) 

5) The interjections as their name indicates are not 
parts of the sentence they are put betwixt, but must be 
considered as independent, but generally abridged sentences 
expressing an emotion. As such they may be verbs, nouns, 
pronouns, adjectives or adverbs and of the latter class 
especially natural sounds imitated; e. g. do! is very pro- 
bably the vocative word: mother! ata! father! mitSe! 
my father! though only expressing an emotion of astonish- 
ment, fear etc.; 1^1$A! anokwdle! true! omalee! tniei (lit. 


— 71 — 

thou liest hot!) o! oh! odSogbal wellt pflml well! bom! 
oat. sound etc. 

6) If we therefore according to the process of forma- 
tien of words, inclinational forms, formwords and sentences 
hare so to divide words, we have only foor classes, yii. 
verbs, nonns, adjectives and pronouns, the latter three again 
standing in the same relation to the former and depending 
on it, because either forming its subject or object or part 
of these used to define them. The whole process of for- 
mation, beginning at the radical verb, is, with the ex<^ep- 
tion of the internal augmentation which may be considered 
as belonging to the combination of sounds, either preposi- 
tion or postposition to define the verb or the definitions 
of the verb, the verb itself being the foundation of the 
organism of the language, the defining preposition and 
postposition, whether forms, formwords, nouns and 
adjectives, or sentences expressing such, containing the 
law of its development, by which the whole body of 
the language is formed. We have now only to classify 
words, forms and sentences according to their use etc. and 
can then proceed to give examples of the language and 
the contents of it, as far as we have them, in the voca- 
bulary, where further information is also to be given about 
each word as much as necessary. 


- w - 

47able t 

Reti'ospective tables of for- 
mations of S 10— 35. 

I. Process of formation of notional 
words and their forms § 11-22. 

1. Primaiy forms of words. 

Roots. ^ 

ba, primary root, to come, 
da, „ n to be grown, large, old. 

fe, „ ft lo make, 

ke, „ w to say; etc. § 10, 2. a. 

ba, came, aorist. tence ind. pos. § 11. 
ba, come! imperat. pos. 2. prs. sing. § 11. 
ba, n. leaf; simple stem § 11. 
da, n. mouth; „ ^ « « 

*0> n, lal; n n n n 


2. Internal au^entation. 

Lengthening of the radical voweL 

b$, secondary root; to quarrel. § 12, 1. a. 
Ke, „ ,, to grant, n n n n 

ya, infinit. lo go, going. „ „ „ b. 

ba, „ to cQme, coming, 
ba, n. crocodile. Slem § 12, 1. c. 
bfl,^. tent. „ „ „ „ „ 

fa, n. river, 
wa, a. strong. 
g9, adv. staringly. 

» » w « 

» w » » 

» M W » 

n n n n 


— 73 — 

Table L 

Strengthening of the radical consonant 

f^^^^ Close combination, 

tsa, second, root, to dig. § 12, 2. a. 

^e, „ ,,10 call. „ „ „ „ 

dfa, „ „ to break. « « « » 

^P*» 9} » to stretch, draw. „ „ „ „ 

nma, „ „ to write. „ „ „ « 

ise, n. fathfer. Stem » n n n 

tso, n. tree. „ „ « „ n 

nm3, n. food. „ „ „ „, „ 

Loose combination, 
ba, second, root, to soothsay. § 12, 2. b. 

%^ « ,1 to be in a rage. „ „ „ „ 
dSra, J 

dsira, ( • o. 

d§6ra, ( "• P"^®* ^^^"^ ff ff ff n 

dsara, ) 
Ira, pi. form of ta, to sit! w w w ». 

Uq,' Slo I '^'^ '®™ ®' "^^^ ^® ^^'^®' " « »» - 
trg, pi. form tg, to be satisfied, etc. 

Insertion of i betwixt the two radicals. 

sla = sd, second, root, to burn. § 12, 3. a. 

§ia, n. sand. Stem § 12, 3. a. 

dSie, second, root, to let come out. § 12, 3. b. aa. 

from dse, to come out. 
tSIe (hie) second, root, tr. v. to awake, § 12, 3. b. aa. 

from (hie) t§g, y. n. to awake, 
tfia, pi. of ita, to strike. § 12, 3. bb. 

3. Initial au^entation generally drop- 
ping after pronouns etc. 

iRnot. Init. liquid augment m, n, in. 
ml ba' i P^^®* tense, ind. posit, of ba. § 13, 2. t. 

(6 ba, the same with the prononunal augment.) 


— 74 — 

I Root. 
A ke, ) 

ml ke, [ the same of ke> to say, is sajring. 
mlA ke, I 
n te, 
ml te, 
mm te, 

Table L 

the s. of te, to conceal, is concealing. 

to, n. a kind of grass. Stem § 13, 2. b. 
ku, n. sbee-butter. „ w « » >i 

Initial augment a. 

b^, aor. t. ind. posit, indefinite 3 prs. pi. § 13, 3. 

w6 (their), house. § 13, 3. 

to, n. laddie. Stem § 13, 3. 

sa, n. hall. „ w » »» 

la, n. vocative virord, father. $ 13, 3. 

wo, n, „ „ mrther. „ „ „ 

wu, n. „ case, husband. „ „ n 

na,. n. „ „ wile, n n n 

^Iba, fut. tense, ind. pos. will come. 
^Iba, pot. mood pos. shall, must come. 
(Comp. Table N. YII.) 

S 13, 3. 

Initial augment e. 

felba, prf. t. ind. pos. has come. S 14, 1. a. 
6|ba, „ „ ^ „ with the pron. e, he has come, 
(^ba, „ „ „ „ withthepr.a,nianijiflefommcn.) 
h mO, adj. whole. Stem § 14, 1. b. 
febo, n. poison, gall. „ ,, „ w „ 
fe§a, n. evil, sin. » « » » w 

ef6n, a. bad. „ » « » ,» 

e fdn, Alt tense ind. neg. of fd. § 14, 1. c. 
e f65, aor. „ „ „ „ 
e f6ko perf. w » >» >» 

n M n n 

n n n n 



Initial augment o. 

M, thou camest. $ 14, 2.) 

yd, adv. quickly. Stem $ 14, 2. 

bd, adj. full. » n fj » 

hd, num. n. hundred. „ n n n 

h!a, n. want. „ ,, « ,» 

nufu, n. serpent. „ » n f^ 

kp(}ngo» n. horse. „ m » » 


~ 75 


niikpa, n. elder. 

s^to, n. priest. 

ny&i, n. silk-cotton tree. 

bl^nyo, n. young man. 

bUyo, n. woman. 

Table L 

Stem $ 14, 9. 

4 Terminational augmentation. § 15. 














Reduplication of the endvowel. 

baa, aor. t. ind. neg. came not. § 16, 1. 
fee, „ „ w . „ did not. „ „ „ 

feo, n n n n Ip.S. IdidnotWCCp. §16,1. 

k^e, n n ft n 2.p.s.thouclidst notsay. „ „ „ 
boo, >9 M » n 3. p. s. he did not create. „ ^ >i 
foS, n i» « ft wedidnolstop. „ „ „ 

bo& imprf. t. ind. pos. creates or created. § 16, 2. a. 

boO, n n n m 3. p. S. hC CfCatCS. „ „ ,i n 

baa, „ „ „ „ 1. p. pi. we come. « „ „ « 
hSa, M 99 » n indefinite 3. p. pi. it is giyen. 

$16, 2. a. 
baSt impert. pos. 2. p. pi. come (you)l $ 16, 2. b. 

(See term. aug. q and a.) 
baa, imp. neg. 2. p. pi. do (you) not come. $16,2.b. 
bii, pi. of bi, child (see term. augm. i). n n n n 
nii, pi. of nd (irreg.), thing. 

Term. augm. o» o, u. 

feo, imperf. t. ind. pos. does or did. $17. 
boo, n n n „ 1. p. s* I pass, usc to pass. 


„ 2. M „ thou takest. $ 17. 

„ 3. „ „ he watches. „ „ 

Stem. $ 17. 

i^OO, n n n 

bUO, 99 99 99 

seo, n. successor, 
feo, adj. beautiful, 
siu, V. to deceive, 
tao, Y. to seek, 
hao, Y. to trouble. 

Second, root. $ 17. 

Term, augment a (and e). 

oydjfea, impert. pos. 2. p. pi. of fe, to do. $ 18. 
nyela|fea, „ neg. 2* 9999 999999 99 9*99 


76 — 


Table X. 

$ 19, a. 

n n n 

n n n 
n n n 

ft n 

WO fea, pot. pos. 1. p. pi of fe, to do. § 18. 
ame tea, „ „ 3. „„ >»>»>»>» n n 

fea, „ „ indef. 3. p. pi. of fe to do. $ 18. 

fia, adj. all. Stem. $ 18. 

sla, D. house, home. Stem. „ „ 

mla, V. to press. Sec. root. „ „ 

biia, V. to gather. „ „ „ „ 

(hie, n. face. Stem. „ „) 

Term, augment i. 

fai, pi. of fa, river, 
toi, „ „ to, sheep. 
gddSi, „ „ gon, mountain, 
madsi, „ „ man or mfi, town, 
nidsi, „ „ nine, hand. 
t§udsi, „ „ tsuru, red. 
kroi, „ „ kroii, clear, 
kai, second, root, to remember, 
lai, n. fuel. Stem, 
hadsi, n. (dual form) twins, 
mudsi, n. dirt. >» « » 

ame gboi, aor. ind. pos. 3. p. pi. of-gbo to'ofeb^ S 19> b. 
kuikui, adj. heapy. Redupl. $ 19 b. 

Term, liquid augment. 

f^n, ) fut. t. ind. neg. of fe» to do, will not do. 

e f6n, f $ 20, 2. 

e fdn, fut. t. ind. neg. of fd, to cease. § 20, 2. 

e f(\n, adj. bad. Stem. „ „ „ 

dteii, V. to consider. Sec. root. „ n n 

san, adv. nicely. Stem. „ „ „ 

g6n, n. mountain. „ „ „ „ 

Terminational augments related to the term, liquid 

|nine> n. pi. nidSi, hand. Stem. S20,2. 

fine, n. pi. fidsi, wing. „ « « ,, 

Ikane, n. pi. kanei? light. „ » n n 

kane (Ot. kan), v. to read. Sec. root. „ « »» 

nyomd, n. pi. nyodsi, debt. Stem. « », »» 

sumo (fr. Ad. suo), v. to love. See. root. „ „ „ 

tSQlo, n. pi. tsQdsi, servant. Stem. n » » 

ifilfi (Ad. le), n. pi. ledsi, vessel, ship. Stem. „ „ n 


— 77 — 

Table L 

f^la or fla, n. pi. fadSi, boil Stem. $20,4. 

tsuru, a. pi. tSudSi) red. Stem. m m «« 

dstiro, a pi. dsQdsi, right. Stem. n n f* 

wiri, V. to row. Second, root. / „ „ ^ 

here, v. (fr. he) to receive. Sec. root. „ „ ^ 
gbale, V. (gba) to turn in or about. Second, root, 
S 20, 4. 

Terminational augments lo, mo, le, le, li in their 
peculiar application. 

felo, n. (fr. the verb fe, to make) maker; pi. loi. 

Stem or branch. § 20, 5. 
nalo, n. (from the noun na, art) artificer. Branch. 

S 20, 5. 

kSlo, n. a brave man. Branch. § 20, 5. 

dsamo, inf. of dsa, v. tr. to adore. „ „ „ 

dsamQ, n. adoration. „ „ „ 

dsale, inf. of dsa, v. n. to be straight. „ „ „ 

dsale, n. straightness, righteousness. w »» m 

dsale, adv. slraightly. ,» « w 

femo! impert. pos. 2. pr. s. „do it!" „ „ „ 

kumo, pi. x)f kfi, V. to break. „ w w 

yeli, inf. of ye to eat. w « ,» 

hole, irreg. pi. of the v. viro, to lift up. „ „ „ 

5. Pronominal init. (subjective and pos- 
sessive) and term, (objective) augment ^ 
or combination with pure formwords* 
§ 10, 2. g. S 21. CComp. § 30 and 31.) 

™ b*'^' } " ^^^^^ thee. Aor. t. ind. pos. 1 p. s. of 
hi, to ask, comb, mih the sec. pr. sing, of 
the obj. pronoun. $21. Comp. $ 3 1 , 1 . b. c. 

bim'' 1 ^^^" ^^^^^^^ "^^- '^ " 

e bile , he asked him. „ „ 

wo binye, we asked you. „ „ 

nye|bi>VQ, you asked us. ^ n 





— 78 — 

Table T. 

blame » they asked them, 
biame, man fragte f?e (they were asked). $ 21. 
bi, my child, Ut. the child of mine. $ 21. Comp. 

$ 30, 3. 
bi (their), child. $ 21. Comp. $ 13, 3. and 30, 3, 

6. Redaplication of words and sen- 
tences. § 22. 

hobo, V* to squeece (the bush), sec. root (comp. 

the root bo). $22, 2. a. 
susu, V. to measure, to think. »* »« m n 

Siu,'} ^- *^ ^^'^^^- - - •-• 

titi, V. to scratch. » » „ « 

yeye, frequentative mood of ye, to eat. „ „ „ b. 

dSodsoi, frequentative mood of dso, to 

kumQkumo, frequentative mood of ku, 
to break. 

tsatsa, n. a. country-matrass. » >» ^ <^* 

kpakpa, a. good. 

kpalekpale, a. bald (fr. kpa). 

futdfuta, a. and adv. \vhite; whitely. 

dended^n, a. and adv. hard, hardly. 

kuikui, a. and adv. heapy, heapily. ^ 
(From ka, a heap.) 

kporkpoi, a. and adv. knotty, knottily. 
See prov. 63. 
e komekome, num. one by one. „ „ „ f. aa. 

e nyoenyo or enyo enyo, two by two. „ ^ ,» « w 

mofSmo, num. inf. every body. „ „ » w bb. 

ndfind, « n « thing. 

l§o f6 tso, every tree (comp. § 34, 2.)- 

mokomoko, (no) body. „ „ 

nokonoko, (no) thing. „ „ 

gblkogblko, (n)ever. „ 

hekoheko, (no) where. „ „ 

nu ko nu ko, (no) water. „ „ 

kpS kpS, a string each. » » » g* 

M n n n 

n n n n 

n n WW 


WW w n. 


WW w ©• 





W M W »» 



w »» w »» 


— 79 — 

Table L 
ya eba, eya eba, he came and went repeatedlj and 

frequently. 8 22, 1. 2. 
Kq nakai da da, ef^o nakai da dft!"* he always does 

so and he always does so! $ 22, 1. 2. 
(Compare with these forms the general loye of 
repetition by the people in speech and song and the 
same thing in the Hebrew language, though not so 
much developed.) 

Table IL 

II. Combination. § 23-33. 

1. Combinations with notional words used 

as formwords and forms. 

§23,1. §24-29. 

a. Nouns. 

aa. The fundamental component is fomial, the qua- 
lifying notional and prefixed. § 25. 

Combinations with the formal nouns „mo** and „no", 
to distinguish persons and things. § 25, 1. 





Fuodam. Component. § 23. 

mo; n. pr. God. § 24, 1. 2. a. § 25, 1. 
mo, n. man. 

mo, n. soothsayer. „ „ $> n 

mo, n. successor. „ „ « » 

mo, n. governor. „ „ „ „ 


— 80 — 

Table H. 














Fundam. Comp. % 23. 

Plur. form: — mei. 

mei, pi. form of tse, father. $24, 1.2. a. $25, 1. 

mei, pi. form of nye, mother. w w « « 

mei, pi. form of nyemi, ®cf4n)tfter. „ „ „ « 

mei, pi. form of nanyo, friend. „ ^ » ^t 

mei, pi. form of GSnyo, Gaman. „ „ „ ,« 

mei, pi. form of byenyo, a man here. ^ w « »* 

mei, Anang and his people. n t^ n t9 

n5, n. pi. guonii, ^ares. » » «« »« 

no, the thing of yesterday. , „ „ „ ^ 

n6, the last (thing). ,*„»,»» 

no, my thing (nsed like mine). „ „ „ 99 

nd, writing implement. n n n r^ 

With nyo, na and yO, to distinguish the sex. § 25, 2. 











nyo, pi. Gaht, a GSman. § 25, 2. 

yo, „ GSyei, a GSwoman. „ „ 

nyo, „ oblahi, a young man. . „ „ 

yo, „ oblayei, a young woman. „ „ 

nu, „ nyemihi, brother. „ „ 

yo, „ nyemiyei, sister. „ „ 

nu, „ bihl, son. „ „ 

yo, „ biyei, daughter. „ „ 

nu, „ t§inahi, a bull. „ „ 

yo, „ tsinayei, a cow. „ „ 

With the termination bi, pi. bii; mi, pi. mii, for 
different purposes. § 25, 3. 

na bi, pi. -bii, grand-child. § 25, 3. 

tSe bi, father-child; @ticfgcf(6n)tflcr. „ „ 

nye bi, mother-child. „ „ 

nyemi, „ „ ©ef^mjicr. „ „ 

to bi, lamb; kid. „ ,9 

wo bi, honey*child, bee. . w w 

we bii, n. pi. domestics. „ „ 

man bii, „ citizens. „ „ 

kuse bii, „ country-people. „ ' „ 

te bi, n. stone-child, new tooth. „ „ 

set bii, pl- of seo, successor. „ „ 

gbekg.bii, pl. of gbekS, child. „ „ 

tSatSu|bii, ants. >, m 


— 81 — 

Table IL 



Fundam. Comp. 

bii, n. pi. people of old. § 25, 3. 

bii, „ the people of to day. „ „ 

bii, „ head-children, i. e. fruit. „ „ 

mil. „ figs. „ „ 

mi, pi. -mii, star. „ „ 

With the term. „tse" and „nye" for different purposes. 
§ 25, 4. 











tse, n. pi. -tsemei, king. § 25, 4. 

nye, n. pi. -nyemei, queen. „ „ 

tse, n. pi. -tsemei, rich man. „ „ 

t§emei, n. pi. the people of Osu. „ „ 

tsemei and AdSmei, people of Ada. „ ,, 

tse, n. house-father. „ „ 

tse, n. friend. „ „ 

nye, n. female friend. „ „ 

nye, n. a lizard living in rooms. „ «« 

tse, pron. self, himself. ,| ^ 

bb. The qualifying component is fonnal the ftmdamental 
notional and snfBzed. § 25, 5. 


gbomo, n. fellow-man, companion. § 25, 5. 
niitsulo, n. fellow-labourer. „ „ 

kuku, n. fellow-piece. „ „ 

Comp. Geim. SDiit*; lat. Com, con- etc. 

cc. The qualifying component, postponed or snfBzed, is 
notional, the fundamental comp. formal. § 26. 



Qoalif. Comp. 

kp^kpa, n. a good person. § 26, 1 — 3. 

kpdkpa, n. a good thing. „ „ 

f6n, n a bad. person. „ „ 

f6n, n. a bad thing. „ „ 

Zimmermann, Akra*Gramni. 


— 83 — 


b. Verbs. 
at. ItaML mitpmUt coBpoinds. § 27, i. 2. 

Verbal componnds with the formal components „d§e^ 
and ,,ke". § 27, 2. a. 





dse, y. to send. $ 27, 2. a. 

dSe, „ to be lost, to lose. „ „ 

dse, „ to lie backwards. „ „ 

d§e,M to straighten. „ „ 

dSe UL k. ml, to comfort. „ ^ 

dse, V. to harden. „ „ 

ke, T. to change. „ „ 
ke, „ to lose the tiieat fh)m 

the bones. ^ „ 

y6T6 ke, „ to pull to pieces. „ „ 

kpl^ ke, „ to decend, let decend. „ „ 

svk ke, „ to miscarry. „ „ 

§r^ ke, „ to let rot. „ „ 

SSsS::!"-'""""'^ ■ - 

DifFereBt forms of tbe prf. t. ind. neg. 
(1. p. smg.) 

With the formal component „ka^. § 27, 2. b. 

U fe, imp. neg. 2« p. s. $ 27, 2. b. 

nyek^ fea, „ „ 2. p. pi. „ „ 

mik^ fe, pot. neg. 1. p. s. „ „ 

ak^ fe, „ „ indef. 3. p. pi. „ „ 
amek^ fea, „ „ 3. p. pi. „ 

s. § 18 and Ad. Ap. 
N. ef^ ko, prf. t. ind. neg., N. has not done. §27jK2.b. 
mif6 ko, „ „ 1. p« s. „ „ 

of6 ko, „ „ 2. „ n n 

efc ko, „ 9) 3* „ , n n 

M ko, „ „ indeL 3. p. pL man 

fiat nt(|t get^an, it has not been 


— 83 -- 

Table n. 

M. Veri>^ s^aiaUa or septntei €M9«iids with 
Terbg. §28. 

With the formal verbal compooents ^^ba'* and ^^ya'S 

§ 28, 2. a. 

Mjfe, pot. po9. compoimd CoDJagation comp. 

Table N.Vli. §28,2.a. 
ya fe, pot. poa. comp. Codj., comp. Table N. VII. „ „ 

CDa le, « w n n n jy 

eya le, „ n f* n n n 

ba f6, aor. t. ind. poa. n „ w m « 

ya 16, „ n w . M M » 

nyeb^ fea, impert. aii4poi.pea. comp.Conj., c. „ ,, „ 

^y®y« lOa, n n n n n ry 

Combination of verbs with auxiliary verbs. 

ke- hS, to (tafcc a«d) give. § 28, 2. b. 

no- na, ,) » » n »» 

ke- fd, to forgive. „ „ 

n5- f6, to do (with someth.) „ „ 

ke- ba, to take (something) and come, i. e. to bring. „ „ 

ke- ya, th. s. „ 

ke- dse, to bring out, come out wiUi. „ „• 

ke- ts6, to turn with someth. „ „ 

nyfe ke-ba, walk to (hither). „ „ 

nyie ke-ya, walk to (thither). „ „ 

nyie ke-dSe, walk from. « « 

nyie ke-ts6, walk through. „ „ 

nyie ye, walk aomewhcre. „ „ 

wie t§d m. k., speak to someb. „ „ 








fe hd m. k., do to som^. 

wie, speak with s. b. 
be, quarrel with s. b. 
tf^ m. k. strike someb. with s. th. 
fe, to have accomplished doing, 
fe, to have not yet accomplished doing, 
miife noko, I have not yet done any thing, 
fe, to repeate to do, to do repeatedly, 
efe, he did it again, 
mife, could 1 do! 

fe m. k. to be greater than s. b. 



— 84 

Table H. 

cc. Terbs (Combined with a fonnal nonn as tbdr gram- 
matical subject or object § 29. 

Verbs combined with their grammatical subject. § 29, 2. 

Subj.noun. Verb. Compound doud. 

mil M, to be kind; mlihQe, kindness. § 29» 2. 
inimli hi, I am kind; mimlihlle, my k. » »> 
he ¥ra, to be hard, stony; hewaie, hard- 
ness, strength. „ „ 
65, to be dainty; na^dmo, daintiness. „ „ 
kpafa, to perish; hiekpatamo, perishment. „ „ 
kd, to be desirous, hlekd, desire. „ „ 
wa, to be ceuel; yiwale, cruelty. „ „ 
sQ, to be fainting, tSuisQ, fainting. „ „ 




musu mli 



.! ' I to yearn, musuntSd, yearning. 

etsd (prf.t.), to have diarhoea, musutSdmd, 

With their grammat. object without a logical object 
§ 29, 3. (See adverbs.) 

Verb. Object noun, 
ba mli, ) to come in, be fulfilled, mlibfi, 
ba n, th. s. ) fulfilment. $ 29, 3. 

ye mli, \ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^ 
yen, J " " 

(without nonn.) 

be n, \ neg. irreg. of the former, to be un- 

be mli, J true, not so. n n 

ya no, to go on, proceed, ngya. „ „ 

no-fie no, „ „ „ „ 
ke-ya no, „ with something, bring it 

forwards. „ „ 

ba Si, to come down, sink; Siba. „ m 

ba sisi, to come down; §isiba. „ „ 

ya nwei, to go up, 6weiya. „ „ 

With their grammatical object and a logical object 

na na, to see the end, understand; nana. § 29, 3. 

na §isi, to see the ground, undent.; SiSinfi. „ „ 

ftme na, to shut; naiime. » „ 

ba m. k. Si, to bumble someb. Si^ibfi. „ „ 

See d>ove „ 3. 


— 86 — 














Table IL 

Object noan. 
hewQ, (to be) for (somebody's) sake, 

n. k. mli, to sit in someth., mlitamo. $ 29, 3. 

n „ pi. form; mlitramo. 

he, to touch, hetamo. „ „ 

he, pi. form; hetramo. „ „ 

no, to sit upon; notamg. „ „ 

no, pi form; notramg. „ „ 

se* to sit behind, setamo. „ „ 

setalo, prs. n. ^intetfa§e. „ „ 

sfi,. pi. form; setramo, setrafoi and setra- 

loi, ^interfagen. „ „ 

he, to pain, ache; hewale s. a. „ „ 

yi, to use cruelly, yiwale, s. a. „ 5. 

m. k. yi, to treat one cruelly. ' „ „ 

le yi, I treat bim cruelly. „ „ 

m. k. hie, to destroy someb. hiekpatamo, 

s. a. „ 0. 

ehle (comp. wa yi), I destroy him. „ „ 

With their grammatical subject and object 

Subj. Verb. 

he YfA 

mihe Yf& 

hie ki 
mihie ki 

amehle kimo 
ftd hie f6 

ttumusuA tSdmi ye 

mihie k& 
hie hi 

Object. Compoand noun. 

he, to hare pain. § 29, 4. 

mihe, my body pains me (my- 
self) or, one of my limbs 
pains me. ,, „ 

no, to rely upon, to trust. „ „ 

eno, I rely upon him. „ „ 

n. hienokSimo and no hleka- 
mo s. Tocab. 

eno, pi. form; they rely upon 

him. H fi 

m. k. no, to trust in or hope 

upon somebody. „ „ 

mihie nofdmd, my hope upon 
some body; but: eno hie-' 
fdmd, his hope which is 
hoped upon him, his trust- 
worthiness. ^ „ 

m. k. hewo, my heart (lit. bow- 
els) is yearning for s. b. „ „ 

mihe no, I trust in myself. „ „ 

he no, to take care for one self. „ „ 


SuVj, Verb 






— 86 — 

Beflexiye combinations. 

■table H. 


Compound noin. 

he na, to trouble one self. $ 29, 4. 

he, to kill one self. » „ 

he, to love one self. ^ ^ 
mihie, I press my face, i. e. I hold 

out, persevere. ^ w 

mihe si, 1 humble myself. . n ry 

hesiba, u. humility. „ „ 

mihe no, I exalt myself. ^ „ 

heno\v6mo, exaltation. „ „ 













but: mikpa 
and mikpa 

Mixed combinations. 

foi, V. to run (a run?), foidse,' running. $27, 7. 
foi, „ „ foisa? ' „ „ „ 
foi, „ „ foihie? „ n ,f 
foi, „ „ foiwo? „ „ „ 
m. k. foi, make someb. to run. „ „ 
ta, V. to mention; tatsi, mention. „ „ 
ato, V. to receive with joi. „ „ 
fu, V. to stink; fu, fudse, bad smell. „ „ 
kpo, V. to come forth; kpodse, forth- 
coming, „ „ 
kpo, V. to bring forth, reverf, kpodsie- 

mo, revelation. „ „ 
fai, V. to take down the hat, to beg 

(pardon etc.), faikpamo, begging. „ ,♦ 

le fai, I begged him. „ 5. 

efai, I took his hat ofT. ;„ „ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 87 — 

Table IZL 

n. Combination (continued) § 30-33. 

2. Combinatiofis of noti<mal words into 

compounds and parts of sentences and of 

sentences into compound sentences. 

S 30-33. 

a) Nouns. § 30. 

PrepoBitiye or possessive combinatioii. 

QaaL comp. 











Moni dsi nye le 


Fund. cemp. 

kA, n. lit. house-heap, family, 
l^le, n. steam vessel, 
su, n. lit. fire dust, smoke, steam, 
tse* n. fetish-priest (or possessor.) 
tsu, n. fetish-house, 
tsti, n. house of prayer, chapel. 
yelQ, n. leafeater, an antelope. 

w6, n. Anang's house. 

16, n. bush-meat, beast, 
lo, n. beast, animal. 

nine, n. man's hand. 

an<it§umo, children's (their) bu- 
siness (s. § 13, 3.). 

abfi, the children of my fathers. 

suomo, the love of one who is 
the mother. 

nii ni efe, what God did. 

$ 30, 3. 

Postpositive or adjective combination. 






Qoalif. comp. 

kp^kpa, good man. 
toh, bad, wild beast« 
bibio, little chikL 
kp4tenkple» large tree* 
okuUfo, a womaD> a widow 



— 88 — 


pi. h{ 


pi. yei 









I Qualif. comp. 

Table III* 


a ! "• «^^ 



mo > ,j 

ohiafo, poor old man. 
abifao, young child, 
f^feo, beautiful child, 
abifao fefeo i t .*# i 

young child, 
^desa nl gboQ, a human mor- 
tal person, 
nl he mlye le, the sick man. 
Ny6ngmo, our father God. 
Dowuona, king Dowuona. 
mantse le, David, the king, 
nl dsi manlSe le „ „ „ 
moni d§i mantse le » „ „ 
akpa, gospel. 

akpa, or lele kpakpa, conunon 

S 30, 4. 

b. Verbs. § 31—33. 

Mixed verbal compounds. § 31, 2. a. 











V. to spoil, inf. and imp. n. fitemo. §319 2. a. 

V. to enter, inf. and imp. n. b6temo. » „ 

V. to mix, inf. and imp. n. futumo. „ „ 

V. to overturn, inf. and imp. n. bAtumQ. „ „ 

V. to join, inf. and imp. n. f^tamo. „ » 
V. to reconcile, inf. and imp. n. kpa- 

tamo. „ r 

V. to cleave, inf. and imp. kpetemo. „ „ 
V. to knead, inf. and imp., n. kpo- 

tomo. n n 

V. to go round, inf. and imp. n. lo- 

komo. „ „ 

V. to linger, inf. and imp. n. lilamQ. „ „ 

(Comp. la, lata.) 

V. to waver, inf. and imp. n. didamo. „ „ 
(da, to run a race, to vie.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

— 89 — 

stable in. 

ho. so 


I T. D. and tr. ta shake, inf. and imp. 

Id T. to wound, be wounded, piUmo. 

aa. Terbs with verbs. § 31. 

Notional double verbs. § 31, 2. 8. 

he- ye, double verb, to take-eat, to believe, 

he n. k. ye, to believe s. th. §31, 2.b. 

ba m. k. nd- ke moko, to come to somebody saying. „ „ 

ka& kwe, to try (and) see, to try to see. ,, „ 

imka makwe, I will try and see. „ „ 

ny§- fe, to be able to do n » 

miny§e mife, 1 cannot do it. „ „ 

minye ene mafe, 1 am able to do this, I can 

do this. „ „ 

minyeA make. I cannot say it. „ ^ 

Comp. le femo, le yeli where the infinit. 
form is used nominal and becomes the ob- 
ject of the verb. § 33. 

bb. Terbs with noons and a^ectives. § 32. 

«) Subjective oombinattozL S 32. 



mi le mi 

mihu mi 


gbekg le 

gbekS ko 

mit§e le 

Nyonmo b(Jfo 

Gbomo kpakpa mli 

Ghomei ke koloi 
pi nl anySfi aka- 


ba, I came. 

, I (not an other) came, 
ba, I also (i) came. 

te, (a) child went. 

te, the child went. 

te, a child went. 

ba, my father came. 

ba, a messenger of God came 

hi, a good man's inside is good, 
i. e. he is kind. 



— 90 — 



Table ITL 

neame^ ye, many men and beasts which 

cannot be counted are, i. e. § 32. 
There are many men and beasts which 
cannot be counted. 

^} Objective combinatiozL $ 33. 





mi! ask me! § 33. 

(Camp. § 32 at the end abont the vo- 
cative form of the subj.) 
gbomo ne! ask this man! § 33. 

onyontSo! ask thy master! „ 

nii! eat something! „ 

oniitsumo (or onii)! do thy work! ,, 
ntfa! come quickly! Comp. §35,2. „ 
bie! come bither! „ 

dsei! go there! „ 

Akrop<m! go to Akropong! „ 

bleo! walk (yee) slowly! n 

r) Subjective and objective combination. S 32. 33. 

Subj. Verb 

mi dsie 

NyoAmo sumo 

Jesu ehere 

Silafo etsdd 

^TsofStSe enuu 

„Ke okplom ye 
ohwam M yeo 



le, 1 saved him. § 32. 33. 

dseii, God loved the world. „ 

woyiwala, Jesus has saved the 

life of our head, i. e. saved us. „ 
filafo gbe.!'* Pr. 3. ,,a blind man 
does not show the way to a 
blind man!"" » 

helatSe, »,a physician does not 
drink medicine for the sick'* 
pr. 6. „ 

nii le," 

eko,*" pr. 14. „if the okplom (an 
animal) eat something, the 
ohwam also eats some.^ n 

le Sika, or: 
le, or: 
le; he gave him gold. „ 


— 91 — 

Table m. 

Subj. Verb. 


Israelbii le tfia 

mo — 

— m bvit 

Sabat le tei, the children of Is- 
rael stoned him who broke 

the Sabat (with stones). §32. 



abolo dsakpo, he bought bread 
(for) a farthing. „ 




t§u le se? he works behind the 

house § 33. 



nye, he came yesterday „ 





mino, yesterday he came to me. „ 



etade nakai, always he spoils his 

cloth so. M 



mli, or. „ 



n, it is so (or true). „ 



nakai, it is so. ^ 



feo, it is beantiful „ 



mi hiegble, it n^es me ashamed: „ 



falefale, it is clean. „ 



enii falefale^ she does her work 



i) Peculiar use of the auxiliary verb „d§i,* neg. 

S 33, 3. 


le, I am he (lit. him). 

or: Le dsi 

nu> « w 91 

' AmedSi 

gbomei komei nl 


le, they are some people whom 

I loved. ' 

Gbo dsi 

mi, I am a stranger. 

Lumo dsi 

le, he is governor. 

Gbomo akpa dsi 

neke lumo ne, this governor is 

a good man 

Lumo le 

gbomo akpdii 


gbomo akpani the governor, a good nan is (he). 


gbomo, he is not a man* 

or: Ds^e 



)e, he is not a man. 




d by Google 

Sabj. Verb, 
Si koloi (sc. „ 

— 92 — 

Table ZV. 


„ ) (they are) not men cry so 
but beasts (cry so). § 33, 3. 

Ill Process of formation of formwords. 
§ 34. (35). 

1. Formation of pure formwords (pro- 
nouns). % 34, 1. 

Primary formal roots. 
Radical fomu. 

n > mi, 1. 


0, thou. § 34, 1. 

e, he> she it. 

0, wo, we. 

a, they, ;,umn.'' 

Mependent forms. (Secondary formal roots.) 

mi, I, (Ad ami). 

bo (Ad mo) thou. 

le, he, she, it. § 34, 1. 

wo, we. 

nye, you. 

— (ame, Ad. a, they; see the sequel.) 


— 93 — 

Table IV. 

Sabjectdve combination with verbs and possessive combi- 
nation with nouns. 

Subj. and 
Pos8. form. 

m- I n - J I-; mine (Ad. 6-; ye-). 








thou; thine. § 34, 1. 

he. she, it; his, hers, its. 
we; ours, 
you; yours. 

they; theirs). (Ad. a-), 
they (man); (theirs). Indefinite form. 
See § 13, 3. 

Objective combination with verbs. 
Obj. form. 

n > mi, me. 


0, thee. 

le, him, her, it. 

(0), wo, us. 

nye, you. 

ame [Ad. — me] them.) 

Demonstr., interrog. and rel. Sabst pronouns. 

ell l5S:)demonstr.8ubst. pron. 

n§, J 

(nS), > who, what; interrog. subst. pron. § 34, 1. 

m€, » 

d), rel. subst. pr. who, whidi. 

Adjective pronouns. 

le, demonstr. adj. pr., def. article, 

the (Ad. -9.) § 34, 1. 

le, » « « (the), at the 

end of sentences to define them. 
Ad. ne). „ n 

tie, dem. adj. pr., this. 

n), relat. a4j. pron.^ who» which. „ „ 


u -- 

Table IV. 

2. Nouns, and adjectives and verbs used 
as pronominal formwords. § 34^ 3. 





. he, 









roei; somebody, people. 

mi; something, — things. 

— , body, self. Comp. % 29, 4. 

dientsemei, self, selves. § 25, 4. 

d§emei; (old noun) there. 

— ; ,, here. 

— ; time. 

— ; place. 
— r ; manner. 

adj. 1 

. „ > every; aU. 

komei; one; some. 

I orig. nouns, such, so. 

pi. nekemei, nekenii etc 

§ 34, 2. 

Verb „dsi.« 
— A = ni, = dsi, to be something etc. 

3. OombimitioHS of pronooiis of both 
classes. § 34, 2. 







7) 1 u^y» 

see above. 

non (= no d§i ?) adj. dem. pron. 

vDe saRie. 
Qoo, subst. dem. pron^ that same, 
ne, pl« m^nemei, subst. dem. pron. 

this (person), 
n^, nii Qe> nibii ii^>, substk dem. 

pron. (thing), 
mo, pi. namei, subst. int. pr., who? 
m(~m6dli?>^ „ n what? 

§ 34, 2. 


neke — 
nakai — 
neke — 
nakai — 














-- M — 

Table HT- 

ni, pi. meini, mei nl, sub. rel. ft. who. § 34, 2. 
ne, such, even such, this. „ „ 

le, such, even the. n « 

ne noh, even this same. „ „ 

le non, even the same. „ „ 

neke, adj. pr. certain, t L 
neke, a certain man. „ „ 

I adv. dem. pr. so. „ „ 

„ „ here, hither, „ „ 

dSemei, „ „ there, thither. „ „ 

„ „ immediatdy. ^ „ 


ne ' 

ne • 

non ) ^^^^ „^ 
^^^} even 80. 

non, just there, even there. 

I (lit. this so) dem. pr. so. 


J adv. int. pr. where, whither? 





gM (ni dgi)J , 

be (ni dSi) J ^^^^ • 

ten? how? 

ni, adv. rel. pr. of place, where 
ni, „ „ „ „ time, when, 
ni, „ „ „ „ manner, how. 
ko, pi. meikomei, some body: subst. 

indefinite pron. 
ko, pi. nokomej, niikomei; something, 
moko, used with the neg. voice of 
the verb, (no)body, (not) anybody, 
noko, (no)thing, (not) any thing. 
fSmo, every body, 
fgnd, every thing. 

ko, indef. adj. pr. indef. art. a, an. 

f€ -^ , every, used with* reduplication 
of the subst. as: 

fg t8o,. every tree, 
ko, somewhere, adv. ind. pr. 
heko, (no) where „ „ „ 
fae, every where. „ „ n 

V j somewhen. „ ,» » 


— 96 — 






mi le 

bo le 

le le 

wo le 

nye le 

ame le 

mi non 

bo „ 

mi hQ 



PIu r 


Table IV. 

gblko 1 ^°®)" '^^^^' (")®^^^ ^^J- *"*• P"^- $3*»2. 

Kbe . 

fggbi J ever, always. n « n „ » 

ko, somehow. « »♦ w » « 

mi-, I (even I), witii emphasis. „ ^ 

(or mine even mine). 
0-, thou; thine etc. „ „ „ „ 

e-, he, she, it „ „ „ „ 

W0-, we. 
nye- yon. 
ame- they, 
mi, even I. 


mi, I also. 

1 myself, 

etc. etc. 


Zinnermaon, Akra-Gramm, 7 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

98 — 

The pronouns according to their 




Independ. Subj. and poss. Obj. 

ene, pi. enemei. 

mi n-, n-. m, mi- 


mone, pi. menemei. 

bo 0- 


none, pi. niine. 

le e- 


no, pi. nomei. 

wo wo- 


neke — ne. 

nye nye- 


nakai — le. 

ame ame- 


no — le. 


ene non- 

Subst. compoun 

minoii mi- 

i pron. 


mone noh. 
(none non). 
no — non. 

bon6n o- 

len6n e- 


Adverbially used 

wonon WQ- 


nakai, such, so. 

nyenon nye- 


neke, „ „ 

amenon ame- 


bie, here. 

midientse mi- 


dsei, there. 

mi neke, I for instance 
bo neke, thou for instance 

bene, then. 

biane, immediately. 

agbene, now. 

About mih^, oh6 

§ 29, 4. 
About min6, 6n6, 

elc, see 
^n5 etc. 

nakai non. 
neke non. 
bie noit. 
dsei non. 

see § 25, 1. 
mi le mi- 
bo le 0- 
le le e- 


nakai non k5. 
, neke „ „ etc. 



nakai le. 
neke ne. 

mi mi- 


bie ne. 

bo 0- 


le e. 



-le (Ad..Q) 

Def. article. 

le (Ad. ne) 

The same after sentences. 






-^ M — 

different relations § 34. 

Table V. 





moni, pLmeini... 

moko, pi. meikomei. 

pi. namei? 

noni, pi. niini . . . 



mof^mo nl . . . 



n5f6nd nl . . . 

noko, pi. niikomei. 



substantive pronouns. 

te ten, le — te6? 

boni . . . 

tafitt how noHch? 

n6gbe? nigbe? 

heni . . . 

te be (ni dsi)? 

be&i • . . 

tegbl^ „ ? 

gWL nl . . . 

bonon n) . . 

henoii n) . . 

benoti n\ . . 


bQtebo n\ . . 

hefebe n\ . . 


(gbltegbl ni) 

(befdbe ni) . 




gblfdgbl, dd. 

*- enyie? 
how much-? 
how many-? 

— ni . . . 

— non ni , 

ko, indef. article, 
■fe — every. 


— 100 — 

Table VI. 

IV. Notional words used as adverbs, 

numerals^ conjunctions and interjections- 


1. Adverbs. % 34, 2. 

t. Of place. 

We, here. 

dSei, there. 

heko, somewhere » etc. see 

pronouns § 34. 
ftwei, above, up. 
SBi, beneath, down. 
se> behind, 
kpo, outside. 

mli, inside etc. see § 28. 
Sia, home, at home. 
teA, amidst. 
yiieiif on the top etc. 

b. Of tine. 

benet now. 

agbene, now; abr. sent. 

tSutSu, at first. 

UeilUefi, at first. 

di, first before. 

biane> immediately. 

mra, quickly. 

mqmo, (a.) ah*eady. 

Amene, to day. 

nye, yesterday. 

W0, to morrow. 

nye se, the day 
before ye^erday, 
some ^ys ago. 

W0 se, the day after to mor- 
row, by and by. 

da, always. 

gbiko, once. 

lebi, in the morning. 

matkS, early. 

mafikpa, early. 

ademaAk^, early. 

ffine, at midday. 

gbfke, in the evening. 

dSelSeremo (see dSe tSere,v.) 

at daytime. 
dSenamo, (see dSe na), at 

nyofi, at night, 
nyoifi ieii, at midnight. 

c Of manner. 

nakai, so, thus. 

Deke, n n 

dSogba, well. 

Ueo, slowly. 

oyd, quickly. 

Si kome, at once. 

niAlo, „ „ 

kwa, entirely, together. 

kwra, with the neg. voice 

(not) at all. 
tutu, too much, 

babao, much, 
fio, little, 
bibio, little, 
pi, much. 
ekoA, with neg. ioit; again. 


- m — 


If yes! 

dabi! no! 

lelfin! tnily! 


ekole, perhaps, ete. 

2. Nnmeralg. % 35, 3. 

a. Definite. 

oh^ ke eko, 101. 

6ko, ekome, 


oh^ ke enyo, 102. 



ohai enyo, 200. 


„ „ ke eko 201. 


akp6, 1000. 



dkpei enyo, 2000. 



akpei nyonmii, 10000. 






b. hdefinita. 



eko, some. 



pi. ekomei. 

„ ke ^kome, 


pT, many. 

H *nyo, 


fg, fi§, pis, every, all. 

n n ete, 

13. etc. 

fio, few. 

nyoftmai enyo, 




how much? 



how many? 



etc. 8. § 34 and 35, 2. 

3. Cottjattctions. % 35, 4 

ni (only conaetting 

; senten- 

Si, bat, for. 

ces, not single 


ake, that, as. 


akesi, because, for. 

ho, also. 

ke, if. • 

hewQ, nohewo nl, 


kedSi, if, (neg. ke dSee). 

hence, therefore. 

le, V. see § 28, 2. b. more 

do, lo, or: 


edSake, etSoake, efiakef be- 

dSni, before. 


koni, ni, that. etc. 


. Interjections* 

a! ah! 

hum! nat. sound. 

aol woe! 

m^tie! hear! 

0! oh! 


adSe! woe! 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— ilw — 

Part II. 

Application of words, forms 
and sentences. 

§ 36. After we have shown the process of formation 
of words and their forms as well as of sentences and their 
forms, from the formation of a simple root to the forma- 
tion of a compound sentence, it remains now to be shown 
how all these words, forms and sentences are separately 
applied in the organism of the language; and as we have 
seen the verb more than is the case in Japhetic and Se- 
mitic languages to be not only the centre of the whole 
organism, so that nouns, adjectives (adverbs) and pronouns 
depend upon it, but also to be applied to express most of 
the relations, expressed in other languages by the prepo- 
sitions, cases, conjunctions etc., we begin with the appli- 
cation of the verb and its forms together with the 
words and sentences and theit forms, which depend on 
the verb directly (as s-ubject or object to it), and go 
then on to the application of words, forms and sen- 
tences defining a subject or objecit, or the application of 
nouns, adjectives, pronomis etc. their forms and to the 
sentences expressing them. 


— iu — 

Section 1. 

L Application of the verb, its forms 
and combinations. 

§ 37. 1) The verb foims the sentence and is its centre. 
Erery other word or part of a sentence is only a defni- 
tion of the verb or its definitions. — Every sentence is a 
judgment or decision of the person speaking either of what 
he knows and therefore indicates (indicative mood) and 
what he will and therefore commands (imperative), wishes 
or permits (potential), or what he wants to know and there- 
fore asks (question). Each of the sentences so modified 
he may state as positive or negative (positive or nega- 
tive voice); he may state as present, past or future, 
as perfect or imperfect or without limits (the tenses: 
present, perfect and future, or imperfect and aorist); he 
may speack of himself or to an other or of an other (1., 2. 
and 3. pers.), of definite or indefinite persons (s. the 
sequel), of one or more persons (number) and of all these 
as subjects or objects of the verb (subj. and obj. 
combination). All these different relations are expressed 
by and in the verb and its ''dependences with the forms 
and formwords mentioned in Part I. 

2) The moods (indicfative, imperative and potential) are 
expressed by forms, formwords and combinations. 

The question is expressed by the peculiar interroga- 
tive tone or voice and some interrog. formwords. 

The positive or negative voice is expressed by forms, 
formwords, combinations and peculiar pos. or neg. tone 
or voice. 

The tenses by forms and formwords. 


— 104 - 

The persons, the definition of them, by which the 
passive yoice of other languages is expressed (s. § 38 — 40)» 
and the number and their subj. or obj. use, by the 
same and the place of the different words and sentences. 

§ 38. 1) Th§ moods, voices, tenses, persons 
and their definitions, numbers and subj. or obj. re- 
lations, as far as the persons are expressed by pronouns 
or pronominal augments of the verb are directly expressed 
in the verb by their different forms and formwords with 
those modifications which are necesary because of the eu- 
phonic rules and combination of the sounds. . Many of the 
forms are not thoroughly applied, as the language forms 
only those modifications and definitions which are neces* 
sary for the distinction of the different notions of it. This 
is especially the case with the plural and frequentative for- 
mations of the verb, which we therefore mention only oc- 
casionidly. Besides this there may be many forms not yet 
ound out by us. Those known and their application are 
the following. 

L loods. 

a) Indicative mood, 
aa) Aorist tense, 

a) pos, voice (without peculiar form): 
(Ke, impert. k^mo, inf. kfimo, v. tr. to say, tell.) 
NyoAmo k^ gbomg, God told (it to) man. 
mik^, I told thee, 

ok^mi, thou toldst me. 

ek^le, he (she, it) told him (her), 

wok^nye, we told you. 

nyek^WQ, you told us. 

amek^wo, they told us. 

Indef. subj. akeame, people told them (man fagte i^Ken), 
they were toldw 


— 105 — 

oblahi ke onukpai, the youog men told the old ineD. 
lifmene oblahi kemi sane ko» to day the young men told 
me a palawer; etc. 
Redqi^. form: mik^el^y I repeatedly told him; etc. 
Combined form: miyak^le, I went to tell him; etc. 
» „ mibak^le, I came to tell him; etc. 

With the iteratiye auxiliary verb sa: 
mis^ mik^le, i told him again* 
With the perfective aux. v. na: 

min^ mikele» i did tell him; etc. 
Without object: mike, I told; etc. 
With two or more subjects and objects joined by auxiliary 

t S 8 t 6 6 1 • » 10 10 11 

verbs: Bo kele ke nakai sane le kemi ye mitSu le mu 

13 13 13 IS 1 S t • 6 « 13 

nye se afi le, thou and he told me this history last 

It 911 10 10 

year in my room. 
With the pi. numb, of the obj. expressed at the verb. 
Kq, to take; mik(J ene, I took this. 

miki^lQ enemeiy I took these things. 
wokj^lQ „ we took these things. 
YfQki ene, we took this; etc. 
With the pi. number of the subj. expressed at the verb: 

ta, to sit; eta, he sit» ametra, amet&ra, they sat. 
With the pi. of both expressed at the verb: KQ, to break; 
Mikule, I broke it; amekdmoley they broke it; mikfimQ- 
ame, I broke them; redupl. form: amekiimokQmQ tSui 
le, they broke the houses etc. 

The use of the indicative mood is plain; that of the 
aorist tense is the same as in Engl, and German the im- 
perf., in Latin the perfect, in Greek the aorist tense, it is 
the narrative tense. 

fi) Neg. voice (init. augm. e and reduplication of the 
term, vowel of the verb): Ekeer said i^t mikee, okee ete« 
1 stfd w^U I ^d BOt say^ thoa etc« 


— 106 — 

Redp. mikekee: Comb, miyakee, mibakee. 
iterat. Misaa mikee: misaa mike. 
Perfective. Minaa mikee; mlnaa mike. 
With pi. form: Ametraa Si, they did aot sit down Blc. 
bb) Imperf. tense (formed by the term. o). 
a) Pos. keo, say, use to say. /9) Neg. = aor. s. above 
mikeo, I say, use to say. 
ok^o, etc. 
ek^o, etc. 

wok^Qo, we tell thee. 
Redupl. kekeo. Comb, mibakeo, yakeo. 
Herat, saa-keo. 
Perfective: naa-keo? 
With pi. forms: gboio; fr. gbo, to die. 
amegboio, they die. 
amekumokumoS , they break. 
amekoIoS nii, they take things. 
The imperfect tense (= the latin) is used especially 
descriptive, but without limits of time, as the aorist. 
cc) Present tense. 

a) Pos. (form, by the init. liq. aug.) /9) Neg. = the 
aor. or fut. neg. see these. 

N. mike, nke, N. is saying; is about to say. 
mike, minke, I am saying; etc. 
dke, thou art saying, 
eke, he is saying. 
WQmike, wonke, we are sajing. 
nyemlke, nyenke, you are saying, 
amemlke, amei^ke, they are saying, 
fike, man ^a^t, it is said. 
Red. nkeke. Comb, nyake, mbake. 
The rest of the forms is analogous to this and not 
otherwise efiFected by Uie init. liq. aug. 

The present tense is used, as indicafed, when m aetion 


~ 107 — 

is to be staded as {^t now going on or about to be ddne, 
wherefore it is sometimes used for the immediate flittirc 
and the neg. voice is in this case the same for both. But 
when an action is to be represented so, it has also the 
present tense even if past; e. g. beni amemfe nakai, ^hen 
they were doing so etc. 

dd) Perfect tense (init. augm. e). 
a) Pos. (with elevation of /9) Neg. (term ko). 

voice and a light accent 
on the init. augm.): 
N. fete, N. has said. N. ekeko, N. has not said, 

m\\^, 6ke, 6ke; mikekg, okgko, ek^ko etc. 

w^ke, nyfeke, am^ke ^ke. 

The other forms are analogous to these. The perfect 
tense is used as in English German and Greek with the 
difference that sometimes it is used also as the pluperfect 
and fut. perfect in Europ. languages. Many verbs are as 
in Otyi (and also in Greek) only used in the perfect tense 
or change their signification or notion. They shall be re- 
. ferred to in the Yocab. The auxiliary v. na and sa only 
have the neg. form, the notional verb belonging to them 
not (see this through all the tenses), as: en^o feba, he 
^ not yet come. Comp. form pos. ^bake, neg. ebak^ko; 
feyake; eyakeko. 

ee) Future tense. 

cc) Pos. (init. augm. S). p) Neg. (init. augm. e and 

term. liq. aug.) 

N. ake, N. will say. N. ekgn, N. will not say. 

make, I shall say. miken, I shall not say. 

ooke, thou wilt say. * okeA, etc. 

eekfi, he Mill sj^. ekei, „ 

Wijoke, we will say. wokeA, „ 

nyeake, you will say. my^^j « 


— 108 — 

I they will say. amekeii, I shall not say. 

aiiieake> i 


aake, man roiib fagen, 
it will be said. 
Red. pos. akeke, adsodSoi (s. § 19) etc. neg. edSodSoilk. 
Comb. ab^ke» ayake; ebakefi, eyakeifi etc. 

Iterat. masa make; misaA mike (or mikeA?) 

Perfective: mana make; minaA make (or mikeA). 
With an obj. makeo; mikeAo. 

With pi. forms: makijlo; mikolo^* 

„ „ rt makdmo; mikOmgn; etc. 
The future tense is generally employed as in other 
languages; its form is a remnant of the auxil. ?. ba, to 
come^ and as we have seen the present tense (ee) employed 
for the immediate future and both having only one neg. 
voice, it may be that this future tense is of a later origin. 
Besides the strict use of this form for a relation of time, 
it sometimes seems to express a relation of modality too 
(Comp. Riis Ot. Gr. § 178) as the nature of this tense 
as well as the form of it implies such a double use; e. g. 
mate (fut. t. of the defect, v. ya, to go), I will go, i(J 
loiO obex tt)etbe %ti)tn; miyan, neg. I will not go etc. but 
the form of the potential mood, pos., being nearly the 
same as that of the future tense in the pos. voice, and 
more-over the fut. tense pot. pos. being also formed by 
the init. aug. a, it is impossible to distinguish both forms, 
as there is also much identity betwixt the nature and use 
of both (see b.). 

b) The potential mood. 

§ 39. The pot. mood pos. is formed by the init. 
augm. a, if not combined with a subj. pronominal augment, 
after this the ^a*^' drops and is only indicated by a sharp 
accent on the pron. aupnent. The neg. voice of it, as 


— 109 — 

that of the impert. mood is formed by the prefix ^ka''. 
The pot. mood is used to express a command, will or 
wish of the person speaking, if not expressed directiy in 
the imperatiye mood and is therefore often applied like 
the Greek optative. It always follows the imperatiye mood, 
if a sentence is begun wi(h this, because the imperative 
mood (combined with an expressed or not expressed voca- 
tiye case as its subject), can only initiate sentences. If 
such an imperat. is the pi. numb. (sec. pers.) which has 
the term. aug. a (§ 18), the following pi. potential moods 
take this termination also. — 

According to the nature of this and the following mood 
they cannot be conjugated throughout all the tenses; nor 
is it possible at present to show the exact limits of them, 
as their forms are so very much limited and difficult to 
be found out. The auxiliary verb hS, to give, to let, is 
therefore also frequently employed to express both of them. 

aa) Aorist tense (without a form indicating it). 
a) Pos. /?) Neg. 

N. ^ke, N. shall say. N. ak^ke, N. shaH not say. 

mike, 1 will say. . mikdke, I shall „ „ 

6ke» thou shall say. ok^ke* thou shall „ „ 

ike, he shall say. ek^ke, he shall „ „ 

w($ke, wQkea, we shdl say. wok^ke, WQk^k^; we shall 

not say. 
nyike, nyikea, you shall say. nyek^ke, nyekAkea. 
amtte, am^kea, they shall say. amek^ke, amekAkea. 
Ake, Mea, it shall be said. aUike, akttea, 

The rest of the forms, if employed, are analogous to 
these. About the combination of the potent, mood wi 
the imperat., see the latter c. cc. 

bb) Future tense. 
a) Pos. (m the ind. pos.) /9 Neg. 

ftke* dUike* 


110 -^ 






eek^. • 













Aakayakumokumo tSui le, man foQ nxi)t %ti)t\\, btefe 
^ciufer dbjubred^en, these houses shall not be (going to 
be) broken down! 
There are perhaps many more forms of the pot. mood; 
several tilnes* a present tense occurred to me in sentences 
like: kahS ndQo, let it not grieve thee; but it is a matter 
of course that many of these forms and also of those men- 
tioned occur very seldom and it suffices therefore to show 
the general way of their formation. 

c) Imperative mood. 

§ 40. The imperative mood, which has in the 
pos. voice 2. pers. sing, either the simple root or the 
lengthened root or the term, mo without expressing the 
person (the vocative, which forms the subj. of it), and in 
the 2* pers. pi. the subj. pronominal augm. with the term, 
aug. a (§ 18), in the neg. voice the prefix ^ka**, has no 
tenses except the present or aorist as we may call it. It 
is used to express a direct command, wish, prayer efe. 
and therefore only initiates compound sentences, all the 
following verbs depending on it take the potent. mooA, 
only the plural term. augm. a terminates also the (plun) 
verbs following. It has only the second prs. sing, and plur. 
Commands, exhortations, prayers etc. addressed to the 1. 
and 3. prs. sing, and plur. are expressed by Ibe impera- 


~ HI — 

tive of the auxiliary t. hS, to let and the potent, connected 
with it. 

aa) Pes. voice: Ba! Come (thou)! Ny^baa! Come(yee)! 

Bi! ask! Bile! ask him! Ny^biale, ask (you) him. Kemo! 

•say! Ny^kea, say (you)! Susumo! measure! Ny&usua, 

measure (you)! Yake! Go to say! Ny6yak^aame! Go to 

tell them I etc. 

Combined with a vocative: Anyemi, ba! Brother, come! 
Anyemimei, nyibaa! Brethren, come! Ata, ba! Papa, come! 
Atamei, nyebaa! Fathers, come! (Comp. § 13, 3.) Mitse, 
iemomi neke sane h\ My father, tell me this story! 

bb) Neg. voice. K^ke! Don't (thou) say (it)! Nyekd- 
kea! Don't (yee) say (it)! K^fe! Nyek^fea! K6ba! Nye- 
i^al Awomei, nyek^fea neke! Mothers, do not do so! 
etc. etc. 

cc) Combinations with the aux. v. h^, to let. To. 
express a command etc. to the 1. or 3. prs. sing, and pi. 
the impert. mood of „ha" is used with the sec. pers, sing, 
and plur. and followed by the pot. mood, as: 
or) Pos. Hd n) mike or m^ke^ let me tell! 

Ny^hSa mikea or make(a), „ „ „ 
Hd n\ ike or eeke, let him tell! 

Nyehaa 6ke(a) or eeke(a), m » » 
Ha ni w(Jya or woote, let us go! 

Nyehfta (w(Jyaa) or wootea, „ », „ • 
fla v\ am^fe or ame^fe, let them do! 
Nyebli am^ea or ameafea, „ „ „ 
fi) Neg. Kaha ni mdke, let me not say! 
Nyek6haa m6ke(a), « „ „ „ 
Nyek^haa woofea, let us not do! 
or Nyehaa wgkifea, ^ « « „ 
Ha nl ekafe, let him not do! 

Ny^hai akabafea nakai, let it not be done sol 
etc. etc. 


~ IIJ — 

Sometimes also other tenses are connected with the 

impert, of hi, f. i. KahS ndoo tutu! (do. v. impers. 

to grieve) let it not grieve thee too much! 

Inst in the same way as the imperat. of hS, other 

imperat initiating a sentence are connected with following 

pot. moods, if the sentence is a compound one, as: 

k^mole nl ^ba, tell him that he shall come (i. e. to 

F^mo mra ni o6gbe na, be quick that thou get ready! 
Ny6yaS ni nyey^floa tsei ke- ba! Go to (or and) cat 
wood (trees irreq. pi. of tso, tree) (and) bring 
Nyek^yaa, koni nyeakdyaladsea. Don't go, that yon jpay 
not be lost! — A peculiar expression is: Kakwe ni 
ofe! See! do not do it! in which the original notion 
of ka (to venture, to try) seems still to be visible. 
About the auxiliary hS is to be remarked that as a 
causative auxiliary (as to let, to cause etc. in Engl.) it 
can be connected with all the moods and tenses; see To- 
cab. and specimen of the language. 

B. The inflnitive form. 

§ 41, 1. The forms mentioned in § 38 — 40 are the 
principal forms directly combined with the verb (compare 
about them table Yll at the end of Ais section); parti- 
cularities as e. g. plur. forms of veits and whidi, auxi- 
liary use of them, the form of their imperat. and inM- 
tive, irregularities and defects must be referred to in the 
Vocabulary, as the limits of this Outline will not allow us to 
insert all here. But we have to speak a few words, be- 
fore' we consider interrogatory sentences, about that fonn 
of the verb called infinitive, which is ndlher strictly 
a mood nor a tense of it, but rather the impersonal 

d by Google 

— 113 - 

Boon signifying the action as an abstract thing or being, 
and no longer as an action or moTement. Its correlate is 
the personal noun formed of the verb, indicating the sub- 
ject of it (femg, making, felo, maker). Its different 
forms we saw in Section 2. of the Part I. Its application 
is that of a noun and as such it ma^ become the subject 
or object of an other verb and its own subject or ob- 
ject or both combined with it in the possessive combina- 
tion, e. g. ' Trema kanemg M6 mfna, the counting 
of cauris is not agreable to me. Gbomei ayiwale taa 
Nyoi^mq^ mlihile n5 the hard (headed) ness of men 
does not surpass God's kindness. As a noun it may be 
connected with an adjective or any other apposition too. 
Some verbs require especially such objects, as: le, to know, 
to understand, mile femo, kanemo etc., wo, to undertake, 
ewoo bs, he did not undertake to come; verbs as: ya, ba, 
tsu (to send) etc. have infinitives combined with them as 
objects of purpose, a peculiar kind of resultive objects, 
and the latter verb has a persona^ppassive object besides: 
Eya kwemo (different fr. 6yakwe), 6ba femo, he is going 
to look, he is coming to do; etSule ebii akwetno, he sent 
him to look after his children but others are combined 
withs verbs expressing their objects into double verbs, as: 
nyg, to be able; enye efe, he is able to do; mlnyee maye, 
I cannot eat; milee yell, I do not know to eat (something 
unknown) etc. About the use of the infinitive abso- 
lute see § 43, 5. and § 47, 3. It is nearly the same as 
in Hebrew. Other forms of the infinitive did not occur to 
me in Gd; if it shall be negationed, it most be done ty 
an appositive sentence, as: Shomo nl nyeke nyesumgo 
le (Ga-speeches |Jr. 1) the service you said you will not 
serve etc. Heyeli ni mibee miyee, my (un)belief (which 
I do not believe) or by the neg. auxil. verb „d§ee,** §33, 
3. etc. Of tenses there is no peculiar infinitive (as f. i. 
Zimmermanil, Akra-Gramm. 8 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 114 — 

In Otyi) but of the perfect tense some adjectives and 
nouns are formed (comp. § 14). 

C. Persons of the verb. 

§ 42, 1. A few remarks are necessary about ,4he use 
of the personal augment subjective and objective of the 
verb. The personal pronouns, „e" excepted, refer to real 
persons, as there is a strong tendency in the african lan- 
guages to distinguish persons and things, concrete and ab- 
stract things etc. s. Table VIII.; but the GS-language has 
no peculiar form of the pronominal augments for things 
and still it shows the same tendency; it therefore seldom 
employs pronouns as: mi, o, le, wo, nye, ame, to repre- 
sent things, except personified ^ and frequently drops the 
pers. pronoun altogether or puts a demonst. pronoun or 
a noun Instead, if. referring to a thing; e. g. do-it! cannot 
be translated: femgle, but either femo! do (it, the thing 
known); or femo nd^femg en^ (see the pronouns § 34) 
femo no etc. Sometimes the sing. „e^' is used instead of 
„ame,^' if subj. and if referring to a plurality of things 
(comp. the sing, form of the verb for pi. neutral nouns and 
pronouns in Greek), sometimes the indefinite „a^ can be 
used instead, but if obj., generally the pronoun is left out 
altogether in such cases. The indefinite pronoun „a" is used 
not only to express the passive voice, taking then the place 
of the (gram.) subject or having the logical subject for its 
object, as: ayimi, man f^lug tnid^, i. e. 1 was beaten etc., 
but also combined . with intransitive verbs, to leave the 
person or persons acting undefined, as: ab^, ventum est, 
man fam; people came; adso, man tatt|te etc. 

2. If the nominal subject canndt inunediately precede 
its verb, the pronominal subject is put instead, the same 
is done, if the subject stands as an absolute nominative, 


— 115 — 

as: Gbotnei v\ ba mva6 le, nye amete ekoA, the people 
who came to me, yesterday they Trent away again. Neke 
gbomel ne, amehU, these men, they are not good. 

3. The same is the case with the object, if it prece^ 
des the subject and stands absolutely, though it is fre« 
quently left out, as, Minyemi It?, misumoole naakpa, my 
brother, I love him very much. Neke nibii ne mihee, 
these things I don't buy^elc. 

D. iHterrogative sentence or question. 

§ 43, 1. The place of the words and parts of sen* 
tences of questions do not differ from those of other sen* 
tences, nor has the verb a peculiar form (or it, they are 
only distinguished by the interrogative voice, as in 
other languages and, if necessary, by interrogative 
formwords (as in the L. G. and H. lang.). 

2. A simple interrogative sentence has always an 
interrog. formword. These are: a) The interrogative pro- 
nouns and numerals § 34, 35, 3. b) the interr. formwords: 
^ni (adsi? = is it?); nto (perhaps Olyi negative = is 
it not so?): ^so, then; etc. initiating the sentence, and: 
16 (= aid, lo, or); be, neg. of ye, to be, not; mo, then; 
moan; term, n (see § 20.) etc. c) Some conjunctions 
standing instead of these particles, as: Bele, then; keke 
le, no le etc. Comp. § 50. 51 and Vocab. 

a. Name ba? Who came? iWeni ofeo? What art 
thou doing? Ne gbomg dSile? What man is he? MS 
gbomo dsile? Th. s. Te efe ten? How did he manage? 
Enyle otaoQ? How miich (or many) dost thou want? 
N^gbe oyaS? Whither doest thou go? NSgbe eyo? 
Where is it? Te be nl d§i? When is it? Te gbl ni 
oba? What day didst thou come? Trema enyie okane? 
How many cowries didst thou count? etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 116 — 

b. Ani nycsumooini dofi? (Is it that) you no longer 
lore me? Ani d§ee nakai ok^? Is it not so thou saidst? 
Nto mik^o? Did I not tell thee? ASaam^feneke nil ne? 
And so they have done these things? — Am^nu 16? 
Have they heard it or (not)? Osumomi, b6? Thou lovest 
me, is it not? Ny^ba mo? You will come then? Nakai 
nibii le ofeg moan? Such thiogs thou couldst do? Olel^n? 
Dost thou know him? 

c. Bele ehan? Then he does not come? Keke le 
6fe? Then thou wilt do it? etc. — About the answers 
to questions under b and c it is to be remarked, that if 
they are put in the negative, the affirmative or posi- 
tive answer affirms the negation, the neg. answer ne- 
gatives it, as: Obaa 15? A (mibaa)! Yes, (sc. I don't 
come); or: Dabi (mlba)? No (sc. I am coming). 

3. The questions under b and c moreover imply the 
questioning of the contrary too and this second question 
is indicated by the interrog. particle, e. g. Am^nu lo 
(amenuko)? etc. wherefore in double interrogative 
sentences there is not always need of them or they take 
their place as what they are, sc. conjunctions etc, e. g. 
„Mitda lo mitaa?'' Shall I mention (the tale or fable, see 
these) or (shall I) not (mention it)? Een lo eben? Is 
it true or not? 

4. Indirect questions generally differ in GS more 
from direct questions than in other languages; f. i. Egbo 
16? Is he dead (or not)? Egbo lo egbdko dsl milee; 
I don't know whether he is dead or not (lit: He is dead 
or he is not dead is [what] I donH know. EdJa d§io, 
ebah dSio milee; or: Eeba ebaia milee. Whether 
he will come or not 1 don't know. Only the questions 
under a, become regular relative sentences as in other 
languages: Mile moni ba, I know who came. Minaa 
heni ete, I did not see where he went, etc. 


— 117 — 

.^t^otations of questions are either indirectly or 
directly introduced, mostly in the latter way: Yabile moni 
ba e&d, go, ask him who came to hkn^, or: Yabile ake: 
Namo ba eAd? — Yabile ake: EmT eS^ko lo? Go ask him 
whether he is not yet comforted? 

5. Though .the succession or order of the words of 
interrogatory sentences is the same as in others, still 
as also Ib these the word which has the accent is either 
put in advance or otherwise laid stress upon, this is done 
in interrogatory sentences with the word or part of them 
which is specially put in question, e.g. Namo ba? Who 
came? Eba 16? Has he come? but: Ba eba 16? Has he 
really come? (Comp. § 47, 3* and the Hebrew infinitive 
absolute). Ledi6njSe eba 16? He himself came? 
DSee dSa odSu? ani tSo ot§o? Didst thou not really 
steal? wilt thou indeed deny it? Aso dSee dfineofeona* 
kai nii? Didst thou not always do such things? etc. etc. 

E. Application of tbe anbjective and objective 
combination of tbe verb. 

$ 44. 1. Every verb has a subject, though in the 
imperat. mood it is not always expressed. But the suIh 
ject is sometimes only grammatical, the logical sub-* 
ject is then either left unexpressed, or is a definition (at-* 
tribute) of the graounatical subject, or it takes the place 
of the object. The verb ^dSi,"* to be has logically two 
subjects, wherefore in European languages ope is called 
predicate, the verb copula; but in Gft it has a gramnat. 
subject and object as any other verb, only the latter fre^ 
qnently changes place and form with the former or is left 
out (comp. §30,3.)- See § 31. 

2. Every verb can or may also have an object, but 
not every verb wants it. Those which can be without itf 


— 118 — 

are intransitiYe, those mrhich require it are transitive. 
To intransitive verbs the object is sometimes added by 
aujdliary verbs. The object may be the same with the 
subject and is then reflexive. Also the oliject may be 
only grammatical, the logical object being an attribute 
or definition of it or otherwise expressed. ^About the dif- 
ferent objects see § 32. — If understood without expres- 
sion the object may be left out also after trans, verbs. 

3. There may be two and more subjects or objects 
combined with a verb: this is done by auxiliary verbs or 
by the different place of the objects or by simply adding 
one object to another, in case there can not be a misunder- 
standing, comp. § 31 and 32. 

4. As far as the pronominal subjective or objective 
augments or combinations are concerned see § 38 — 40. 
§ 21. § 34 etc. 

a. Subjective combination of the verb. 

§ 45, 1. The subject is mostly unexpressed in the 
imperat. mood pos. and neg. in the 2. prs. sing., as : FemQ 
ene! Do (thou) this! Kafe nakai! Don't do so! A noun 
or pronoun in the vocative case which in the imperative 
mood takes the place of the subj. must either be implicitly 
added or may really precede the imperat. mood also in 
the sing, number; in the plu. number thi^ must be done. 
But such a vocative may also stand a^ a simple exclama- 
tion or interjection and then a verb in the imperat. mood 
is implicitly, added; as: „Mit§e!^ (sc. kwemo mi ete.) , my 
father! (sc. look at me! or someth. similar). Some nouns 
are only used for vocative purposes, as: ata! father! awo! 
mother! a few others, if without any other attribute, show 
the enit. augment a, as: awu, husband! anS; wife! anye- 
mi, brother! because only in the vocative situation <i. e. 
spoken to) they can simd without a defining attribute; in 


— 119 — 

all other cases (i. e. spoken ©0 they require a possesaire 
attribute, as in English. 

2. If the logical is also the grammatical subject, 
DothiDg needs be said, but that it immediately precedes 
tbe 9erb either in the form of a noun or if this is already 
mentioned, in that of a pronoun, or it is cond>ined with 
it in the form of a personal subj. augment. But if the 
logical and grammat. subject is different, the latter 
takes the place of the subject. The following cases are 
to be obsenred: 

a. The verb expresses an action which its logical 
subject suffers, i. e. is the object of, but the active 
subject is not mentioned. For these cases we have in 
other languages the passive voice, which is wanting in 
6a, this therefore is supplied by a grammat. subject, 
Damely the indefinite 3 prs. pi. ^a,"* they (man) and the 
logical subj. takes place and form of the grammat. ob- 
ject, as: 

ajimi,^ man f(|(ug mid^, I was beaten, 
ajio, « „ bid^/ thou wast „ 
ayile, „ „ i^n, he (she) was „ 
ayiwo, n » und, we were „ 
ayinye, „ „ tn^, you „ „ 

ayiame, » n Ite, they „ „ 

ayigbekS„ „ ein Stinb, a child was beaten etc. 

This form is of course especially appUed with tran- 
sitive verbs (which alone in other languages have a 
passive voice), but as the pronoun a is a real subject, 
it can ako be applied with intransitive verbs, if the 
fiction is to be expressed without a definite subject, e. 
g. 6ba, man fam, ventum est; and moreover as every verb 
may have an object, the same form is used, if only the 
verb and its object are laid stress on and defined, abii 
mra, man fam fd()nefl^ people quickly came, aya hmene or 


— 120 — 

ilimene Sya, ^eute ge^t man, to day people are going etc. 
Comp. the obj. mei and nii. § 47, 3. 

b. The notion of the verb is of a peculiar kind, 
H expresses an action ivithont active subject the active 
subject of which is not or seldom mentioned, because^ im- 
plicitly understood, the logical subject is passive and there- 
fore again the object e. g. fe, to want, ef^mi,' I am wanted, 
efe Sika, money is wanted; do, v. n. to be hot; v. th to 
love; impers. v. to grieve; to, v. n. to be full, satisfied; 
imprs. V. to tire; in these two latter cases the grieving 
or tiring subj. must not necessarily be mentioned, though 
it may be done, e. g. 

edomi, it grieves me. etomi, it, tires me, I am tired. 

etoo, etc. 


etrowo (pi. form). 



In these cases the subj. is left out as understood of 
itself or is added in a subjective sentence, edomi, ake 
oboomi toi, it grieves me that thou didst not obey me; 
but it may also be added, as: gbenyfemo tomi, the journey 
tired me. 

c. We see from these examples, that such impersonal 
verbs are somewhat different from those of Europ. 
languages; and just those impers. verbs are not 
exactly expressed impersonal, but generally have an inse- 
parable subject without which the verb can either not be 
used at all, or its notion is quite different, they are either 
intransitive or trans., and in the latter case their object 
may be considered as the logical subj. 

aa. Intrans. Nyonmo no, God rains, i. e. it rains. 
N. fa, 6. sprenkles, it drizzles. 
N. t6e, 6. began, (sc. to rain). 


-0 „ 



-Ifi ^ 



-wo » 



•nye „ 



-ame ,. 



— 121 — 

N. ba, G. comes (sc. to Um). 
N. si, G. knocka. it thunders. 

fel ye, lit cold eats, it is cold (fel, n. cold ye, t. to 
eat, enjoy; to manage, to commit; to trouble, 
to knaw, gnaw elc). 

bb. Transit, 
fei yemi, I feel cold, cold troubles me. 
hdniQ ye, to hunger; hdmo yemi, I am hungryi etc. 
kamai ye, to thirst, be thirsty, etc. etc, 
tSui ye, (the heart eats), to be troubled. mitSui yemi (see 
th. sequel), I em troubled. 

d. The latter example leads us to the numerous class 
of verbs combined with a gram, subject, by which 
its notion is modified and which therefore notionally 
cannot be separated from it. We have seen their forma? 
tion in § 39. 

Their logical subject is expressed by an attribute or 
definition of the gram, subject, as: he wa, to be strong; 
mihe wa, I am strong; yi wa, to be cruel; hie wa, to be 
kind; na nd, to be dainty etc. s. § 29» 2. 

§ 46. 1. The subject may be a noun or a pronoun 
or a sentence, it may be a singular or a plural, and therQ 
may be two or more subjects, of which again one may be 
active, the other more instrumental, but in every case it 
precedes its verb directly and if separated by other words, 
must be represented by the pronoun combined with the 

2. The subject generally alone expresses the number 
by its sing, or plural form (see § 48 and Table VUI.) but 
some verb also express it. But if a verb has a plurality 
of different subjects, they are connected by the auxi- 
liary verb ,,ke," so that only the first of them takes the 
form of a subj., the next that of an object of ke and 
therefore only the number of the first agrees with tha| 


— 122 — 

of the rerb-; by the same auxnary instrnmeDtal subjects 
are added to the actire subj. Comp. Mikele ta tSa mli, 
I with him sit in the room/ but ¥rQtra tsn mli, we sit 
ete. Mike tso yio okpongo, 1 witli a stidi beat the horse. 
This latter case can be also expressed with „tSo'' taking 
the place of the instrumental object: Miyi okpongo tso. 
The same form yerb which is used to connect two sub- 
ject is also used to express intr. yerbs transitiye, as: Ob- 
lay o le ke gbekg le eka U, the girl has laid the child 
down (Ut. the girl with the child is lain down). Okele 
ta si, set him down! (Ke has no imperat. mood, there- 
fore the pronoun „o" is used before it.) In these cases 
the second subject becomes the object not of ke only, 
but of the transitiye yerbal con^ination „ke-ta Si," „ke- 
kd §i, ke-ba, ke-ya, ke-hS etc. 

3. If the subject is an (accessary) sentence, this 
sentence is treated as one word being geneally one of 
the formal nouns § 34, 2. with an adjectiye or appositiye 
sentence and the article as a demonstratiye pronoun at 
the end of it, which as the Greek article „to" giyes a 
unity to it, as: Moni dsi wo-NyoAmo le bo nwei ke 
sikpon, Ut. He (the person) who is our God created 
heayen and earth. Noni miSe gbeye le ba nuno, what 
I feared came oyer me etc. etc. Comp. § SO. 

b. Objective combination of the verb. 

§ 47. 1. Intransiliye yerbs can either be used tran- 
sitiye by an auxiliary yerb, or they are also used transi- 
tiyely without one or they may haye an accessary object 
of time, place, manner, condition etc. just as transitiye 
verbs, and we haye therefore to consider both classes 
alike as soon as the former haye any object; to the ob- 
jects we count also the adjectiyes if predicatiyely used, ai 
stated § 33, because they are treated so by the language* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 123 — 

as well as nouns containing a predicate* The regular 
place of the obj. and its attributes is after the 

2. As the subject, so also the object may be logical 

and grammatical or only grammatical, the logical 

object then forming an attribute of the grammatical. 

This case with verbs combined with 

a gi p. § 29, 3. 4.), if they are tran- 

sitiy [the outside), ta-mli, to touch 

(the _ upside), to sit upon; ta se, to 

touch (the back), to sit behind; ta hie, to sit before, ta 

nd or masei» to sit at the side, etc. Eta mi he, he touched 

me, etra amemli, he stirred them up; eta okpohgo no» 

he sat on a horse; ametra mantse se» they sat behind 

the king; — maiitse hie, 66, masei, hewo, — before, 

besides, at the side of, around the king etc. Eyeo Awei 

ke sikpon ke nso ke nibii K nl yo amemli Iq ke ledientse 

ewebii le nl dsi esafo le titri le ang, he rules over 

heaven and earth and sea and all things that are therein, 

but especially over his people who are his- church, etc. 

The noun nhe"^ is also used pronominally = self and the 

reflexive object expressed by it, as: Mita mi he, 1 touch 

myself; amegba amehe na, they troubled themselves: gbc 

kg le ye ledientsQ ehe awui, the child hurt his own self; 

miba minon mihe si, just myself I humble etc. 

3. The object, the 3 prs. sing, of the personal pronO" 
minal augment excepted, has no peculiar place in thQ 
sentence. To the indefinite pron. subj. augment ,,a'' answer 
the formal noiins ^mo,^ pi. mei and „nd,'' pi. nii or ni^ 
M as objects, which are often substituted if the obj. is 
not definitely expressed and yet cannot be omitted; egbeo 
mo, (it kills one), it is mortal; a t^reg mei ke baa, 
people are carried hither; elee noko, he knows nothing; 
tSu nil, to .work (things) etc. 


— 124 — 

A peculiar kind of objects Meds especially to he 
mentioned, yiz. if the yerb used has its own inflnitiye 
for its object. As other olijectiyely used infinitives 
it is to be considered as a resultive object, but 
as the Hebrew infinitire absolute to which it is nearly 
similar in use, it is employed especially for the purpose 
of giring emphasis to the verb and therefore it generally 
takes the first place in the sentence, is negationed instead 
of the verb and especially employed in questions in which 
the verb itself or the action indicated by it is to be que- 
stioned comp. § 43, 5. Bn eba, he is realfy come. DSee 
ba eba, Si eye momo; he has not come, but he was 
already here. Ba eba 16? Is he really come? Aso 
dSee malemo omalcQ ne? Dost thou now not really 
tell a lie? Dabi, dSee malemQ mimaleo; no, I do cer- 
tainly not tell a lie. Lelen, shomo mike misum(^Qle don, 
it is true, (as for) service, I said, I serve him not any 
more etc. 

4. As to the place of the objects, there is a ceKtoin 
order according to which they follow each other, if there 
are more then one connected with a verb. If the verb 
requires a personal (receptive) object besides a impersonal 
one and one of the objects is not joined to the verb by 
an auxiliary verb, the personal follows the verb immedia** 
tely, the impersonal stands after the personal, the latter 
therefore, be it the only object or together with others, 
is, if expressed by an objective personal pronoun written 
together with the verb, as: Esumomi he loved me;, 
ehftle nii, he gave him things; ek6 enyemi Sika, he gave 
bis brother gold. The next place is taken by the imper-* 
sonal passive, the instrumental and resultive object; the 
last place the objects of place, time and manner take, so 
that if there are two of these latter, that which has the 
most importance precedes the others, if all three are used, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

-- 125 ~ 

tbe object of place is added at the end by an auxiliary. 
Secb are in general always used if the construction of the 
sentence would become heavy and unintelligible; besides this 
if there are several objects, one of them, requiring more 
emphasis, then the others, and especially the object of 
time is frequently put before the subject of the verb, the 
object of instrumentality if joined by the aux. v. „kfi** ta« 
kes the place betwixt subj. and verb as the object of „kfi*^ 
and is jasi^ treated as a second subject, comp. § 46, 2. 

Comp. Esumoomi, he loves me. Amegbe gbomo, they 
Mi€|d a man. Efo etade, he washed his cloths. Ebale 
Mk^; he gave him gold. Etfale te, he cast a stone at 
bim. Et§d numo agbene, he has become an old man now. 
£^,>^kropon nm^, he came to Akr. 'o day ; Nmene eba 
Akfi^n truka, to day he came to Akropong unexpectedly. 
Nye ewomi nydmd darei enyo ye n^itsu h mli beni mije 
fane niyenii.le se, yesterday he paid me a debt (of) two 
dollars (being) in (-side of) my room after the time 1 had 
taken dinner, etc. Comp. § 33, 2. About adjective objects 
see § 33, 3. 

5. Every object may be expressed in a sentence; these 
objective sentences must be treated as one word, as is 
the case with the subjective sentences, and as such they 
take their respective places. More about them see in the 
sequel § 50. 

II. Application of the definition of sub- 
jects and objects. 

§ 48. 1. Before we however precede to show the 
apidication of compound sentences in pai^icular we have 


— 126 — 

to speak of the application of forms, words and sen ten* 
ces defloing the subject or object as to their class, number 
person, quality, quantity etc. Only the first two of these 
are expressed by a form, viz. the sing, and plur. form, 
all others by form and notional words and sentences, used 
as attributes of subj. or obj.; about the former sefe § 13, 
3.; § 19, a. § 20. § 25; 26; 34; about the latter § 21 ; 
29; 32; 33; 34; 35. 

2. The relation of the number and cld9% of nouns 
is the only one expressed by inflectional forms of nouns 
and adjectives. As far as it is expressed in the rei* 
itself and in its pronominal subjective prefixes and objective 
sufixes we spoke about it in § 38 — 40. Here we have 
to speak about its application to the s^ect and object of 
the verb if standing separated from the verb and as it is 
the same in objects and subjects as well as definitions or 
attributes of these, if nouns, adjectives or pronouns, to 
nouns, adjectives and pronouns in general, being an inflec- 
tional definition of all. For convenience's sake we speak 
A, of the number of nouns, B, of adjectives and C, of 
pronouns: A, Nouns have as we have seen in Part I. 
Sect 2. (of formations) different forms to express the number, 
which partly indicate different classes of nouns. The Afri- 
can languages, at least those belonging to the family to 
which the Otyi, Ga etc. belong (but comp. also Krapfs 
Grammar of the Suaheli language), though they do not 
or seldom distinguish sexes and cases of nouns, they dis- 
tinguish betwixt personal and impersonal, individual and 
collective, concrete and abstract etc. nouns and to this 
classification must be partly ascribed the difference of their 
forms of number, as these latter were very probable all 
and are partly still notional words combined with the 
simple stem or other forms of the nouns, to indicate 
sometimes the sing, and plur., mostly only the plur. number. 


— 127 — 

These forms of number are either regular or irregular, the 
former again either formal nouns or a simple augment. 

A. Regular nnmber of notus: 

aa. Formal nouns used to indicate it: 

a) personal forms: sing, mo, pi. mei; sing, nu, nyo, 
pL mei; sing, nu, nyo, pi. hi; sing, yo, pi yei; sing, bi, 
pi. bii; sing, -o, pi. bii; sing, tse, pi. tSemei; sing, nye, 
pi. nyemei; pi. (i^ithont sing» form) mei; tsemei, bii; 
comp. § 25. § 26. 

The sing, mo (person) pi. mei is used to indicate 
persons without any other distinction, mei sometimes 
alone to indicate the pi.: 

mo, pi. mei, person. (mei, persons, people). 

Nyonrao, without pi. God. tse, pi. tSemei; father, 
gbomo, pi. mei, man. nye, pi. nyemei; mother, 

lumo, pi. mei, governor. nyemi, pi. nyemimei; ®e^ 

semo, pi. mei, successor, wu, pi. wumei; husband. 

kramo, pi. mei, soothsayer. n9, pi, nSmei; wife, 
tsuieumo, pi. mei, the first Mensamei, pi; Mensa and 

person. his people etc, 

klentlenmo, pi mei, the first person, 
nagbemo, pi mei, the last person, etc. etc. 

The masc. sing, -nyo, femin. yo, com. pi mei, is 
used as a gentile or a similar termination; and if the sex 
is especially to be expressed in the pi also, with the pi. 
-hi and -yei; as: 
GSnyo, a Gtoan pi c. Gamei, GSpeople; pi m. Gdhi; 

Gftyo, a Gftwoman pi c. Gamei, GSpeople; pi f. Gayei; 


— 128 — 

Ibanyo or nannyo, n. c. pi. nanemei; friend. 

blofdnyo, n. masc. blofdmei, pi. c; a European, Europeans. 

(but abla from the Ot. abroiYa, pi. ablai, European woman.) 

The terminations -nyo, pi. hi; -yo, pi. yei indicate 
number and sex, as: 
oblanyo, pi. oblahl, a young man. 
oblayo, pi. oblayei, a young woman. 

The nouns na, pi. hi, man, male, and yO, pi. yei, wo- 
man, female, are combined with a lot of pers. nouns, to 
indicate sex and number, whilst other pi. forms are used 
if the sex is not to be expressed; as: 
nyemi, brother or sister (Germ. ®cfc()mfler) pi. c. nye- 

nyeminu, pi. hi, brother. 
nyemiyO, pi. -yei, sister, 
hi, pi. bii, child; offspring, 
bind, pi. -hi; son, male child. 
biy6, pi. -yei; doughter, feniale child. 
gbek§, child, little one;^pl. gbek^bii. 
gbekgnQ, pi. -hi, -bihl, male children. 
gbekgyO, pi. -yei, -biyei, female children. 
The same nouns are also used of animals, if sex and re- 
lation is to be distinguished. * * 

The uoun bl, pi. bii weakened into mi, mil is used as 
a filial termination in the widest sense, as a termination 
indicating offspring, fruit etc. and lastly as a mere dimi- 
nutive termination, as: 
bi, pi. bii, child, offspring, 
nabi, pi. -bii, grandchild, 
tsfibi, pi. bii, fatherchild (6tiefgefcl&tt>ijler). 
tobi, pi. -bii, lamb kid. 
wobi, pi. bii, honey-child, bee. 

tebi, pi. bii, stone-child (Stein d^ en, Stein le in) new tooth, 
nolami, pi. mil, star. 


— 129 — 

agbami, mii fig. • 

inmotnU -mii a fruit used for soup) see unter /7. 

The diminutive termination -o, pi. bii is used, to in- 
dicate this relation of persons, as well as of things (see/?), 
as: seo, pL sebii successor (with respect to age, rank); 
abifao, pi -bii; fufgo, pi. -bii, young, suckling child etc. 

The plur. term, bii alone is used to form pers. plur. 
nouns, indicating the home, occupation and similar rela- 
tions of dependence of these persons: maAbii, pi. n. citi- 
zens; webii, domestics; kusebii, country people; asafobii, 
people belonging to a company (military expression), ta 
mii bii, people of the army; Akroponbii, people of Akro- 
pong; nmenebii, people of to day; blemabii, people of 
old. Comp. /?. 

The plur. tsemei, fathers (and perhaps here and there 
to indicate the sex: nyemei, mothers) is used in a similar 
way, (comp. for hi, the Hebr. p and ro for tse, bj;D), 
without its singular, to indicate citizenship «tc. as: Osu- 
tsemei, AkropoAtsemei etc. people of Osu, Akropong etc. 

All words combined with tse, nye etc. take of course 
also their plural form. 

/?) Impersonal forms: -hi and -o, pi. -bii; mi, mii; 
no, pi. nii. 

The diminutive terminations -bi and -o, pi. bii; mi, 
mii; are also used to indicate this relation of things as 
well as of persons; and therefore the pi. forms -bii and 
-mii are used also of things as collective termina- 
tions: as: 

wobi, pi. -bii; honey-child, bee. ' 

lebi pi. -bii, lit. stone-child (Stein (3^ en, StmUxn) new 

tooth (in the language of children), 
nulami, -mii, star. ^ 

agbami, -mii, fig. 
ZimmermaCnn, Akra-Gramm. 9 


— 130 — 

pempeoy pi. pempebii; (s. adj. pi. forms B), little » graio, 

little ball» globule. 
kukuQ, pi. -bii; piece (@tii(f^en). 
tSatSubii, a kind of ants, 
balabii, a kind of locusts, 
j'ibii (head-children), fruit (of trees). 
nd, thing, pi. nibii, things, little things. 

Nd, pi. nii; thing, is the impersonal correlate to the 
personal mo, pi. mei, and indicates thing: 
tSutSund, pi. tSutSunii, the first (thing), 
nagbend, pi. -nii, the last (thing). 
ftanO, pi. -nii, implement, etc. etc. 

bb* Ftur. termination -i. 

But by far the most common reg. pi. form is the ter- 
mination i with the modification it requires of the preced- 
ing terminational sound of the sing. form. It is applied 
to all classes of nouns, adjectives (and numerals), there 
being no peculiar sing, form corresponding to it. It might 
be called the now plur. form, being a mere form without 
signification of itself. A few collective nouns have it, but 
others not, having dther no peculiar form at all or the 
Otyi collective form (init. lig. augm.) or taking even plural 

Comp. Gbg, pi. gbgi, stranger, kaselg, pi. -i, disciple; 
niitSulg, -i, labourer; tSu, pi. tsui, house, room; gbe» -i, 
pot; wg, -i; fowl; to, -i, sheep or goat etc. 

TSQlg, pi. tSQdsi, servant; wgA, pi. wgdSi, fetish; 
nydA, nyddSi, slave; — wolo, pi. wodSi, skin, paper, book; 
fla, fadSi, boil; lele, ledSi, vessel etc. S. § 19 

TSui (rooms?), heart; toi, ear; kgi. hoe; sunmui or 
sumui, lead; abobgi, groundbeans; akwSi, the same if cooked; 
lai, fuel; mudSi, dirt; — a dual form: hadSi, twms 


— 131 — 

(comp. Hkn, sheebutter, toia, food; iita» net, any thing 
double; etc.), 

Dai, (different) lYines; nui (dif.) ivaters, Sikai (dif. 
pieces of) gold; IM (dif.) blood etc. 

The simple pi. form i distinguishes the impers. ab- 
stract termination mo, mo, md (inf. forms) form the pers. 
term, mo, as: wiemQ, pi. iviemoi, speaking; ^rord; femo> 
-i, act; and lumo, pi. -mei, governor. 

B. Irregular pi. forms of noons. 

T§o, tree. pi. tSei; nd, thing, pi. nii and nihil; nu, 
man, pi. h! (see the reg. Adn. pi. form-hi) and himei; yO, 
woman, pi. yei; nyOft, night, pi. nyOnyOA? (perh. rather 
nightly). The sing. term, nyo has sometimes only the 
pi. term, i, as: wolenyo, fisher, pi. wolei, asrafonyo, sol- * 
dier, pi. asrafoi etc. 

Many nouns have naturally no pi. form, because they 
are collective; of others having none the cause is not so 
plain, these are: hie, face; we, house, dwelling place 
(comp. sia and tSu) be, time; he, place; bg manner etc. 
we, he, bo, sfa and some others have also no formal 
noun, indicating locality connected with them, e. g. 
ameyaa amewe le, they go to their house(s) (Comp. 
Am§yaa tsu mli, they go into the room), miya sla, 1 go 
home, ebe heko, he is in no place, nowhere, because they 
themselves serve as such and this may also be the reason 
of their having no plural. — Comp. Table Vlll. 

C. Number of adjectives. 

a. The adjectives generally have the pi. form i without 
a peculiar sing, form, but with the same modification ef- 
fected by the i; as: Ekpakpa, pi. -i, good; ef§n, jd. efd- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 132 — 

dSi bad; ey^h, pi. eyedSi, ¥fhite; edin, pi. edidsi, black; 
momoi and irreg. mcmedSi, old; wulu, pi. wudSi, great> 
large etc.; kronkron, pi. kronkrol, clear; kron, pi. krol, 
simple, pure etc. 

b. Those which have the sing, diminutive term. „o," 
have the pi. -bii, as the nouns of this kind: bibio, pi. bi- 
bii (=:bibibii), small, little; pepeo, -bii, small and round; 
kukuo, -bii, short etc. but fefeo, beautiful has fefeoi, except 
applied to a diminutive noun. 

c. The form of the adjectives formed by a reduplica- 
tion of the plur. form of nouns (§ 22, 2. e.) excludes no- 
tionally and formally a farther pi. formation. 

d. Numerals take the pi. form just as adjectives, as: 
ekomei, some (fr. ekome, one], nyohmai, tens; ohai, hun- 
dreds; akpei, thousands; but by: enyo, two — nehO, nine 
reduplication is applied to indicate their only possible 
plurality, as: enyo enyo, two and two, by twos. 

D. Number of pronoims. 

a. Formal or radical pronouns express the dif- 
ference of number by entirely different forms of the words, 
as: mi, 1, wo, we etc. but 

b. Notional pronouns or nouns used as formwords 
take the same pi. form they have as nouns with some 
little irregularities, or none at all, comp. § 34 and Table 
V and VUI. 

3. a. The pi. form of compound nouns and pro- 
nouns is generally applied to both components and if the 
qualifying component is a preponed plural, the funda- 
mental component has the indefinite possessive pronomial 
augment „a'' besides; as: 

niiatse (pi. of ndtSe, possessor of a thing) possessor of 
thiogSi rich man; mantsemei abii, children of kings (kings' 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

— 133 — 

children) princes; maiitSemei, kings (pi. of mantSe); but 
if the difference of their town or country is to be ex- 
pressed: mddsi atSemei; gbekSnu, a male child, gbekebii 
hi or gbekgbihl, male children; tSeiayibii, fruit oftrees, 
etc. mokpakpa, a good man, pi. meikpakpai etc. 

b. The pi. of the verb, if it has a plur. form, some- 
times corresponds with the pi. of the subject, sometimes 
with that of the object, sometimes with both, comp. 
§ 38—40 and the Vocab., also Table VII. 

d. In a few cases the sing, pronom. augment „g^ of 
the verb corrsponds with a plur. imprs. noun (comp. 
$42, 1.) because the plur. pronom. augm. „ame'' has a 
personal character, in most cases this is not noticed, or 
the collision entirely avoided. 

§ 49. 1. If the subject or object of a verb is a per- 
sonal pronoun combined with the verb, not only the num- 
ber and class but also the person is defined by it, but 
if a noun or pronoun stand separately the person must be 
destinguished. This is generally only necessary with sub- 
jects and objects in the first and second person, most 
separately expressed subj. and obj. being the third person; 
but if the first and second person is not clearly defined 
with the personal pronoun connected with the verb, a 
noun connected with the independent form of the pronoun 
must be used, as: Mi, Anan, ba, I AnaA came. Bo, 
Kwate, yile, thou Kwate didst beat him. Edse mi, numo, 
be scolded me an old man. Edsie bo, wolenyo le» 16? 
Did he save thee the fisherman? etc. 

2. But with this kind of personal distinction we have 
already entered the province of attributive distinction or 
definition in general. This distinction is made by nouns, 
adjectives, adverbs, numerals and pronouns a^ well as 
sentences expressmg such, combined with the subject or 
object as shown in § 23 — 35 ; in one and the same sen- 


- 134 ^ 

ience several of these attributes may be used, and as the 
subject as ivell as the object may also be expressed by 
sentences, every part, of a simple as well as a compound 
sentence, as far as it centres in one verb has been trea- 
ted; only about the combination of these sentences and 
the use of the conjunctions, by which they are connected, 
and about the connection of independent sentences, having 
each an own central verb and the conjunction used for 
this purpose, we have to add some remarks. 

IIL Application of compound sentences 
and conjunctions in particular. 

1. Compoand sentences centring in one verb. 

§ 50. In compound sentences either the subject or 
the object of the central verb or an attribute of the sub- 
ject or object is expressed with a sentence instead of a 
word; wherefore these sentences are treated by the lan- 
guage respecting their place and the formwords defining 
them as one word. 

a. Subjective sentences are either those in whidi 
the subject is expressed with a sentence preceding the 
verb to which they confain the subject, or such as expre^ 
a grammai. subject and follow the object being joined to 
the principal sentence by the conjunction „ake,^ that; as: 
Moni dsi WQ Nyonmo le bg nwei ke sikpon. Pr. 28: 
„Moni taoomi nakai le, em! eSe ehe."* Pr. 135. 
Pr. 149: „Noni bako da le, eye nSo sg,** Meini 
sumoQ Nyonmo le sumog amenanemei hu. Niini ndd 
mina eba mine. All sentences of this kind may be also 
considered as adjective sentences , because the words 


~ lis — 

^mdniy meini, noni, mini, heni, beni, boni" can be resolyed 
into a formal noun (mo, nd, be, he, bo) and the relatiYe 
nl (Comp. § 34). The second subj. sentence in Pr. 28 
e4>irtaiiis only the logical sabj., mi being the gramm. one. 
— An other kind of snch sentences are those having a 
conditional sentence as subj. as: Ke moko sumomi le 
d>oonu toi, if any body love me he obeys me = Moni 
sunooomi le boomi toi. OsumoQmi dSikule obogmi toi, 
if thou would love me, thou wouldst obey me. Comp. 
Job. 8, 19. etc. 

The other kinds of subj. sentences express only a 
preceding gram. subj. of an impersonal verb, as: Edomi 
ake ofe ene, it grieves mi, that thou didst so = ofema 
ne domi, this thy doing grieves me. Efe Sika, ake a* 
kpdle» money is wanting to redeem him. 

b. Objective sentences are similarly construed, but, 
as the obj. itself, far more multifarious. They are joined 
to the principal sentence either by relative substant. or ad- 
vert)ial pronouns containing the corresponding noun or 
demonstr. pronoun also, or by various conjunctions or 
without any; as: Milee moni ba, 1 don't know who 
came. Mafe noni misumoQ, I shall do what I like. 

„Moko yaa heni aagbele/' nobody goes to (a place) 
where they will kill him. Milee beni mibagbo, I 
don't know when I shall die. TSdmdmi boni mafe. 
Show me how to act. Kemomi ddni minuyemokro* 
ko na, tell me before I hear it from.another. Womi 
gbe koni maya, dismiss me that I may go. Hdminoko 
n\ maye, give mi something to eat, or shorter: Himi 
noko maye. „Hdmi nQ mauQ,** give me water I will 
drink i. e. to drink. 

Minu ake otSemi, 1 heard that thou calledst me. 
Ele ake ebeh, he knows that it is not true. Ebile 
ake: »Te oyg ten?"" He asked him (saying): How 


— 136 — 

art thou? Ekpami fai, ake mihSle gbe. He begged 
me to give him leave. Kwemo ake eye dsei 16! 
Look whether he is there or (not)! Amebu wQfS 
tfem ake bului dSiwQ, they consider us altogether that 
we are fools = as fools. Efeg ehe tamo nyontso 
dientSe, he bears himself (is) like the master himself. 
^Oke wohe eSai le afawo tamo boni woke -faa meini 
feo efoA siowo le!" Lit. Take our sins forgive us 
like as we lake (and) forgive them who do evil (and) 
ofiTend us. = forgive us our tresspasses as we forgive 
etc. Eba mli take (= tamo ake) boni mike; it came 
to pass as 1 said. Blofdmei leo nii fe meidid§i, Euro- 
peans know (things) more than black people = Blo- 
fdmei aniile fe meididSi and, the knolledge of Europeans 
surpasses that of black people. Mfsumo ene fe ake 
noni ob^male, 1 like this better than if thou wouldst 
tell a lie. — Eba mind, edsake esumoomi, he came 
to me because he loves me. Eke akesi elee neke 
sane ne. . He said that he does not know this mat- 
ter, D§e na hewo le ese gbeye, it was night there- 
fore he was afraid. (Comp. Connection of independent 

Very frequently the objective sentence precedes its 
principal being in this represented by a pronoun or not; 
if the obj. sentence contains a conditional object of manner 
or of causality, it is generally put in advance. The pro- 
nouns and conjunctions connecting both sentences remain 
the same. Conditional conjunctions are: ke> kedsi (neg. 
kedSee, comp. § 35, 4.), dsi, dsikule, kule etc. 

„Ke d§e na le gbomei K dio," Pro. 11. If it is 
night all men are black. Comp. Pro. 12. 14. 16. 17. 23. 
24. 33. Prv. 36. 52. 57 etc. (Ke and kedSi are most-r 
ly construed with the aorist tence, never with the 
imperfect. Eba dSi milee, I don't know whether he 


— 137 — 

came. Ebaa dsikule misumo. Would he come I 
would like it. Job. 11, 21. 32.: „Owura, ona oye bie 
dsikule )ni qyemi le nan agbo!^ „Lord, if thou hadst 
been here> my brother had not died.^ 

Comp. Pr. 45. 90 etc. Moni sumoo b6i le> akele 
abe, he who loves quarrel, with him people will quar- 
rel Noni ii6 ona le, no non oke afite ohe, what is 
pleasure to thee, even by that thou wilt ruin thyself. 
Beni eba le, mite momo, when he came, 1 had alrea- 
dy gone. „Heni gwanten sumoo le dsei endg eyeA 
etaa," where the sheep loves it there it puis its white (spots) 
Prv. Bgni otsuQ onii le nakai awoQo nydmd, as thou 
workest, so thou shalt be paid etc. 

c. Attributive sentences are those by which a sub- 
ject or object is defined or distinguished, standing instead 
of a possessive preponed component or a adjective or ap- 
positive postponed component (§ 30). They follow the 
word or sentence they define as adjective sentences 
being joined to them by the adj. relative pronoun „nl** 
„who, which;" or they precede it as substantive 
sentences, initiating with the substant. and adverbial re** 
lat. pronouns: moni, noni; beni, heni, bgni; as: Pr. 13.: 
Nu nl ake bagbe la le, ataoole krohkron, water by 
which fire is to be quenched people do not want 
clear. Pr. 20. 21. 96. 97. 

Moni dsi mantSe le hi ba, the son of him who is 
the king came. „Moni hdmd ye le ni egbo le, abii 
edeka si,'^ after the box of him who died by hunger 
people do not ask. Pr. ^HiefimalQ be n) afeo ebii ahe,*' 
when (left out) the leopard Is absent; than they play 
with his young ones. — Only with the absent leopard's 
young ones people play. 


— 138 ~ 

2. Compound senteaces centring in different verbs 
(Co-ordinate sentences). 

The relation betwix) sach sentences is expressed as 
copulatiye, adversative and causative by the re- 
spective three iLinds of conjunctions, or if the 
relation is manifest by itself^ the sentences may be joined 
without copjunction at all. 

a. The most general copulative conjunction is ^ni,*' 
„and** (to be distinguished from ^nl,^ who, what rel. proo. 
and conj.); it joins the sentences simply to each other, 
miya ni dba, 1 am going and thou art coming etc. A 
peculiar use is made of it, though seldom, in sentences 
hke: „AwgQ ni alaa,^ lit.: people do not sleep and not 
dream = without sleep no dream; but this use is more 
proverbial; in common language people would say: KedSi 
awoOy alaa. 

The disjunctive conjunction „alo, lo,*' or;"" is used 
also just as in English: Obaa lo obaa? Dost thou come 
or not? Ewo9 alo etsuo nii, he sleeps or he is busy. 
The conjunctions ekole -alo = either -or. Ekole eeba 
alo mIya n) mi miyasrale, either he will come or I will 
go to visit him. About questions see § 43. 

The verbal conjunction „dSi, dSio, -o^ is used like 
the Engl, ^whether*' and „dSio-, -o; dsio, -o = whether 
-or. Wodio dsio woyeo dsio wofg tfem gbomei d8iwQ, 
whether we are black or white, we all are men. Ebaa 
d§i milee, 1 don't know whether he comes. 

The verbal conjunction „asa, asan** (see the auxil. v. sa) 
is used like the Engl. „also'' „if'' referring to whole sen- 
tences, single words or parts of a sentence have only ad- 
ded the adv. * ^ha*" which expresses the same: Gbogbo- 
tfolQ dSimiy ni asaA (or ni misa) mifgO minyontSg nii ahe^ 

d by Google 

— 139 — 

I am a mason, and 1 also wash my masters cloth. (But: 
mihu rnifb^ minyontso nii ahe =^ I also wash etc. I too 
wash etc.. 

b. The particular adversatiye coi^junction is „Si," 
„hut" (very probable originally the same as „ni" and by 
old people still used so, both deriving from the verb d§i). 
ProT. 31. Bo le oke ona nanyo kpakpa, si olee noni ekeo 
ye ose, thou say est thou gotst a good friend, hut doest 
not know what he says behind thy back. Prv. As an ad- 
versative conjunction generally requires a corresponding 
conceding conjunction or particle (comp. the greek fi€V 
-rff) sometimes „mon." (it is true), jn?at fuv, is put, but 
generally only an other emphasis is given to that part 
which is to be contradicted (see above: Bo le oke> si ..., 
thou sayest . . . , but etc.). If the first sentence is to 
be entirely revoked also this emphasis is not necessary: 
Comp. Misumole mon, si misumoo eniitsumo ne, him 1 
do love, but 1 don't love this his business; and Prv. 35. 
Moko fee hatso sisi, si nokotSo §i§i afeQ» nobody plays 
nnder a thornbush, but under the ngkQtree (a fruit tree) 
people play. 

c. The principal causative conjunctions are: hewQ, 
nohewo (always followed by „le" or „ni") hence, there* 
fore; edsake (= edSe or edSi ake), etfake (=etSd ake). 
ef9ake» because, for; sometimes „si^ alone is also 
used for the latter or. connected with edsake etc. as: Ehe 
miye hewo le eban, he is sick, therefore he does not 
come. Edsu noko, nohewo le awole tsun, he stole 
something, therefore he was put in prison. Enyen eba, 
ed§ake ehe miye, he cannot come, because (or for) he is 
sick. Etsu ebi keba; si ledientse enaa dekd, he sent his 
son (hither), for he himself has no time. Efee, edSa- 
kesi akekole dsogban, he did not do it, for it has not 
been welltold to him, etc. 


— 140 — 

Sometimes several of these conjunctions are used and 
sentences connected by them may be considered as hav- 
ing only one central verb, the conjunctions (see §35, 4.) 
being often still used as auxiliary verbs. 

How two or more sentences are connected into one 
by auxiliary verbs, especially „ke," and how two verbs 
are connected without conjunction at all we have seen 
§ 28. 31. 44 ff. 



- u? ^ 

The forms of the 
L Indi^iiTe 

Positive voice. 


Simple form. 

Plural form. 


Compound forra* 

(ke, to say). 

(ku, to break). 

(wie to speak). 

(fe, to make). 

N. ke, N. said. 

N. kumg nii. 

N. wiewie. 

N. bate. 

mik^, 1 said. 

mikuiiiQ nii. 




okumo nii. 




ekumo nii. 




wQkumo nii. 




nyekumo nii. 

(ku, to break). 



amekumQ nii. 

mikuku uoko. 



akumo nii. 




(ta, to sit). 


N. yate. 

N. ke gbotno. 

(mita §i 



mikeo, 1 told 

Ota §i 


oyate etc, 

thee etc. 

eta si), 

(ta, to touch). 

ameyatr^ si. 


WQtra si. 




nyetra §i. 

mitratra nii 



ametra si. 




atra &l 

ametratra nii 



(gbo, to die). 




amegboi etc. 

(ta si, to sit 


akeame noko. 



etata si. 


ametratra §i. 

(d§o, to dan- 







or said. 
ok^Q. etc. 

N. kCimo6 nii. 
mitraa ainehe 

ametraa Si. 

N. wiewieo. 

N. bateo. 
N. yateo. 


— t43 — 

Table VIL 

yerb $37—40- 

BOOd § 38. 

NegatiTC voice. 


Simple fonn. 



Compound form. 

(fe, to make). 

(tfia, obj. pi. 

(fu, to swell). 

N. bakee. 

N.efee, N.did 

of tfa, to 



not do. 


ofufuu. ' 

ameyafee e'c. 


N. tfiaale tei. 



efee etc. 

mitliaa ame 



(ba, to come). 

nii etc. 



N. ebaa' 

wotraa §i. 



N. baa. 

nyetraa Si. 



mibaa etc. 

ametraa §i. 

atratraa si. 


(tfa.yto strike). 

atraa §i. 


kumoo etc. 

N. tfaale nd. 

(and ataa gi,) 







ametraa o nd. 

nyegboii etc. 


loo / 

atfaale no etc. 

mikumoQ nii. 



(sumo, to lo- 

okQmoo nii. 





nii etc. 


N. swnoQ 

(ko, obj. pi. 

ameboboo re- 


kolo to 

dupl. see. 

(tao, to seek). 



imtaoole etc. 

mikoloo nii. 

amesusuu re- 
dupl. sec. 


The same as the aorist tense. 


- 144 - 

Positive voice. 

L bdicatirt 


Simple form. 

Plural form. 


Compound form. 



ametratr^a §i. 






akeole etc. 







f. Present 

N. mliike N. 


N. nwiewie. 

N. mbafe. 

is saying. 


N. ntratra 

N. nyafe. 

N. mike N. is 

(bu si, to lie 





amembibi si. 


N. nke N. is 


amenyeye nii. 






mmke, mike. 






amenke ake. 

N. feke,N.has 


N. fekdmo nii. 
mlkumo etc. 
mitra amehe 

Gbomei fegboi 


N. fetratra 


mo nii etc. 
Yei le 6dso- 

dsoi 6tc. 


N. 6bake. 
N. feyake. 
miyake, etc. 
mlbake, etc. 


— 145 — 

Tftble VIL 



Negative voiGe, 

Sinple form. 



Compound form. 

The same as the aorist tense. 


N. efeA, s. fut. 

or N. efee, s. 

aor. tense. 


same as m 

the aorist 


N. ek^ko, N. 

N. ekum6ko 

N. etratr&ko 

N. ebak^ko. 

has not said. 



N. eyak^ko. 


N. etrfto 







ametr^ko Si. 









Zimmerroann, Akra*Gramm. 



— 14« -^ 

P0Biti?e voiee. 



PiQfM fortn* 


Componnd fonm 

N. wfike or 

N. akOmo nii. 

N. atratra 

N. abake. 




N. ayake. 

N. will say. 









ame&tra Si. 

Yei le adso- 




dsoi etc. 

aayake. etc. 


■ . 


ameake, ama- 


aake. . 



2. Potential 


N. ake, N. 

N. dkumo. 

N. atratra a- 

N. ^bake. 


mfkumo etc. 


N. ^yake. 

or must say. 

am^tra Si. 

N. ^wiewie. • 



ametraa Si. 








am^gboia etc. 

Yei le ^dSo- 


miJke, wiJkea. 



ny^ke, w6- 

Yei le «4So. 




ameke, ^^- 


«ke, dkea. 



1 See % 39. 

1 at the end. 


M9V« 9 3S* 

— IIT — 

Negative toiee. 

Table Til 

Simple form. 

Plural form. 


Compound form. 

N. ek66. 

N. ckumiJii. 

N. elratran 

N. ebakift. 




N. eyafcA. 


ametri&n §i. 






oyakumoA n!i. 





mood. $ 39. 


N. akae. 
wok^e, wo- 



N. ak&kumQ 

mikdkuroo nii. 
mikikolg nii. 
amek^tra §i. 
amekdtraa §i. 


N. ak^tratra 


kumo nii. 

kumoa nii. 


N. akibake. 
N. akayake. 



T»bl« vn. 

— 148 - 

Positive Toioe. 

2. Pakottal 


Simple Ibrm. 

Plural forn. 


Compouod form. 

N. ake. 

N. akumo. 

N. awiewie. 

N. abake- 


ameatra Si. 


n fiyake. 


aiB^atraa Si. 



wooke, woo- 



3. ImperttiYe 

ba! cornel 


susamo ! 


n^^baa! come 





Kmo, do (it)! 

ny^traa Si! 



ny^fea , do 




(you it)! 


re forms. 





is wanting. 

ba,bd, coming. 



dSa,d§d, divid- 






„ sale, fitting. 

„ samo, pre- 


ye, yeli, eating 



Mod. § 39. 



kdba! don't 

come ! 
nyek^baa ! 

I4d ^ 

Negative voice. 

Simple form. 

Plural form. 


Compound form. 

N. akake. 
makake ? 

N. akakumQ 






nyek&traa Si ! 





Personal form. 

fe, felo, maker. ta, sing, form talo» sitter, 

yc, yelQ, yelilo, eater. plur. form tralo, sitter. 

kO, kulQ, breaker. wiewielQ, murmurer. 

Remark to Table YII. Some of these forms of the 
verb, especially plural, frequentative and compound forms 
and forms of the potential have not yet occurred to me 
and are only indicated according to the analogy of the 
others, as naturally of so many forms some very seldom 
are used. 


-- 160 

*»bie vm. 

Glutei iiil Bulbar of noui. 


Concrete personal nouns. 





mo; man» person 

mei, people 


semo, successor 



lumo, governor 



tSe, father 



n^e, mother 



ata, father! 



awo, mother! 




nyemimei ! 


(a)wu, husband! 

awumei ! 


(a)na, wife! 

anamei ! 


na, man 

hi, htaiei 


y5, woman 

yei (yeimei?) 


ni, grandfather 



na, grandmother 



Ganyo, Gaman 



Blofonyo, European 



nanyo, friend 



Si^ntSe, friend 



Sienye, friend 



niiatse, rich person 



helatse, sick ^ 



Mensa, n. pr. 





nyemiyo, sister 



ii, child (sonordaugh- 



Uqu, son 



biyo, daughter 



gbekg, child 



gbekSdfu, mate child 



gbekdyo, female child 



oblanyo, youth 



oblayo, maid 



wolenyo, fisherman 



asrafonyo, soldier 





eiisies mi ivrtir tf loilf. ft 4a 

CkmerHe per $mi al muns. 




okulafo, widowed per- 
okalafoBu, widower 
okulafo^o, widow 
ohiafo, poor person 
odasefo, witness 
adsindfo, counseller ' 
gbo, stranger 
tsulo, servant 
ny5n, slave 
odehe, free person 






















Ckmcrete personal cdUecUve nouns 

OsutSemd, Osu- 



kusetSemei, country* 



manbii, citizens 


AkropofilMi, citizens 

(d AkropoA 


asafo, company 



akatSo, tribe 



m96, nation 



ta, army 



weka, family 

wekuiy wekumei 


webii, domestics 


(tabilo, a warrior) 

tabii, tabiloii people of 

the army 



Tnal diminutive nouns. 

bi, child, yoimg one 



abifiio, litUe chUd 



fafoo, suckling 



gbekg, child, Uttle one 





flhUblo TIXL 

Oisf 08 $aA imbar %t imm. I 46. 

Personal dmmmtiDe nouns. 




seo, successor, young- 
er member of one 
nabi, grandchild 
Uebi, father-child 
nyebi, mother-child 



Personal abstract nouns formed of verbs, noums and adjectives 
by the personal termination „lo". 

felo, maker 



niil§ulo> labourer 



gbogbotfalo, mason 

pi. i 


folQ, parent 

„ i 


yo folo, midwife 

„ i 


siselo, beggar 

« i 


d§alQ, a righteous 


„ i (s.dSa,v.) 


„ a worshipper 



„ a divider 

. i 


ekaio» a brave man 

„ i (s. feka, n.) 


amalelo, a lier 

V i 


eSafelo, a sinner 

. i 


Mlo, an artificer 

n i 


niilelo, a wise person 

« i 


gbobalo, a child bom 

after one who died 

. i 
i concrete individual nom 



n5, thing, vessel etc. 



A&nd, implements 



Amdnd, vessel for food 



fufond, „ for milk 





Wtble via. 

— 1»8 — 

Classes %U Buiker #f Mins. §. 48. 

Impersonal concrete individual nouns. 


adeka, box 
abo, frait-jSeld 
asa» hall 
ama, pitch 
ato ladle 
awale, spoon 
tso, tree, stick 
^bulobatSonu, a male 

abolobatiloyo , a fe- 
male dto. 
tsu, room 
Sla, house 
kpata, roof 
etc. etc. 
















Diminutive impersonal nouns. 

n5, thing 
Aolami, star 
wobi, bee 
agbdmi, jBg 
tebi, new tooth 
enmoaii, a fruit used 

for sup 
pempeo, a little round 

See also next part. 

wobii . 


Collective impersonal nouns. 

(yibii eko, some or 
one fruit) 

(nO, thing) 

yibii, fruit of trees 
nibii, collectively used 
of things 






- 154 - 
Tkble VIIL 

daises mi iniber if mws. $ 48. 




lami, a kiod of berries 




-mii, many kinds of 



iklUy sheebutter 

nkui, difi. kinds of it 


imSi, food 

-i, n 


dd, ^ine 



Ik, blood 



la, fire 



nu, water 

-i, « 



akwei, ground beans 



aboboi, food of it 


— (la, fire) 

lai, fuel 



nai, coals 




wiemo, speaking 
femo, deed, doing 
kemo, saying 
bimo, interrogation 
d§a, division 
dSale, right, righteous- 
dSamg, adoration 
yeli, eating, treading 

Abstract impersonal nouns. 




166 <- 

^ble VXtt 

(aaues u4 nuilia of t^ectiTes. § 48. 

Pure AefjecHves amp. %. 20. 

Sing, apposilive 

Predicative or 
nominal form. 


form also used 



*f5n, bad 

ef6ii . . . 

- __ 

ef6d§i ^^ 

'yen, white 

eyen . . . 

— — 

eyedsi =C 

'din, black 

edifi . . . 

, — — 

edidsi T^ 

'tSnru, red 

etsuni . . 

— — 

eflsudsi tl 
ediludii S ^ 

'dsur6, right 

edSurd . . 

— — 

'wulu, great 

ewulu . . 

— — 

ewudsi .ti g 

'mu, whole 


— — 

emod^i? -^l 
emedsi -1 | 

'mo, momo 




ememed§i| " 
emomoi? J 

ftm5n, raw 

enm5n . . 

enmdAmdn ? 

eumddsi S 

Mixed forms of adjectives, % 20. 22. 

'kpakpa ) S. 


ekpakpa, (naa- 






tantan, hateful 




kroA, pure 

kroft ..." 

(kroMroA) . 


kronkroh „ 




'fe, ragged 




kplei, great 




kpeteiikple „ 




ku, short 




DimnuHve form. 

bibio, little 

bibio . . . 

bibio. . . bibii;bibiibibii 

m „ 

Mo . . . 

flfio . . . 




floflo . . . 

kuktio, short 

kukoo . . 

kukuo . . 




pempee . . 

pempeo . . 


ktttrukuo „ 

th. 8. 

tfa. s. 







Table Vra. 

Classes and number of a^fecti? es. § i&. 

BedupUeated form. $ 22. and $ 19, b. 

Sing, appositive 

Predicative or 
nomiaal form. 


form also used 



(futa, white) 
fuUfuta „ 
deaden, hard 
(kui) broken 
(kpQi?) knotty 


bald. th. 8. 
kuikui . . 



th. 8. 
kuikui . . 




Classes and forms of a^'ectiyes (numerals). § 48. 

Segular adjective numerals. 

Apposit. sing. form. 

and nominal form. 

Redupl. form. PInr. 

ko, kome, one, 


^ko, ekome 

ekome kome, -i 

6nyo, two 
^le, three 


enyo enyo — 
ete ete — 

6dfe, four 


edfe edfe — 

^numo, five 


enumo enumo — 

^kpa , six 
6nyie, how much? 


Formed like nouns. 

ekpa ekpa — 
6nyie 6nyie? — 

kpi&wo, seven 
kpanyOy eight 
nghO, nine 




kpawokpawo — 
kpanyo kpanyo — 
nghii njhu — 

nyoAm^, ten 
oh^, hundred 


ohi .... 

nyoHmahma -i 
oh^h^ -i 

akp^, thousand 

akp6 .... 

akp^kp^ -i, 
akpei akpei — 


157 — 

Table VUL 

Classes and forms of a^'ecti? es (numerals). § 48. 

Formed like nouns. 

ApposH. sing. form. 

fid ) 

pia> every, all 
fe ) • 

pi, much, many 

and nominal form. 

Redupl. form. Plnr. 

th. S. 


fia fla 
pi& pia 



Classes and mimbar of pronouns. § 48. 

Fwre pronotms. 







Personal. Iropers. 

mi, wo — 

0, nye — 

e, ame, a e, a 

le, ame — 


Independ. forms. 
Personal. Impers. 

mi, WO 

bo, nye — 

le, ame — 




Mixed with notional formwords. 

neke nekemej 

mone menemei 

none niine 

meni? me' nil? 

namo? namei? 

mofemo mei fg 

ndfeno nil fig etc. 

neke neke 

mone none 

menemii niine 

namo? m6ni? 

namei? m^'nii? 

mofemo nofSnd 

mei fg nil f6 

Compare for the 

rest the Tables 

N IV&V. 


158 -- 

Different specimen of the lan^a^e from 
the mouth of the natives. 

L Pro? erbs. 

1. Alomt^ efdn tniad bO. The cat does not cease miau 


2. Ka foQ loflo. A crab does net beget a bird. 

3. Silafo etSdd filafo gbe. A btind man does not show 

the way to a blind man. 

4. Kole Aya ftSoA. *) The Kole (river) goes into the sea. 

5. I^me kpme fiteo nmei fg. One nut spoils all. 

6r TSoflitJie enuu tsoK ehdft belatse. ') A physician 
does not drink medicin for the sick. 

7. TutSofa ke la yee. ') Gunpowder and fire do not agree. 

8. Sikpofi ko enyee gbonyo. No land hates a dead body. 

9. Blomo dSee nmft d) ayeo. QoMrel is not food which 

is eaten. 

10. WiemQ kpakpa d§eo mlifQ. A good wwd remoYes 


11. Ke dse na le> gbomei K dig.*) If it is night, all men 

are black. 

1) nSoA = nSo mlL The proverb is used like „ Winds 
have ears/ to warn persons not to speak oat a secret 

2) About tSofStSe and helatSe see § 25, 4. About enuu 
— ehSd § 28, 2.b. 

3) ke moko ye, to agree with somebody. 

4) DSe na, to become night 


— 149 ~ 

12. Ke okp^AgQ edSim le, moni U eno le hft e^iimlo.O 

If the horse is mad, he who sits opoft it is not 
also mad. 

13. Nu uV) ake-bagbe la le, ataoole kroftkro^^ Water to 

quench fire (with) is not wanted clear. 

14. Ke okplom ye nii le, ohwam hQ yeo ekb. If the 

okplom (an animal) eat something » the ohwam also 
eats some. ^) 

15. Ake hii^meii enyo kwee to mli. Not with both eyes 

people look into a bottle. 

16. Ke Ulei kome ke Uleii akp^ kpe le, eioQ biti.*) If 

one tongue meet with a thousand tong^ies, it faints. 

17. Ke onaa lo le» oyeQ k^mi. If thou find no fish^ thou 

eatest bread. 
18« Hmni egbee fio gbemo. A quiet man makes not the- 

noise of an elephant. 
10. Dare kome gnonii yee kpainkpawo WQ. ^) One dollar 

(worth) wares do not eat a fowl of mx pc^nce (i. e. 

does not allow to eat). 

20. Aduddn n) kpa gbonya bewo le, ekele ate* A fly 

which hova^ around a dead body, will go ^ith it. 

21. Tso n\ ake*tfa dfeian^j kolo le, ake tfaa Sla nd.^> A 

slick with which people strike a beast in the grass 

1) d§im, V. n. only used in the perfect tense edsim 
(Ot agyiHii), to be mad. 

2) About ke-ghe see § 28, 2.b. 

3) Suum cuique. — No body shall take all to himselt 

4) To biti, to faint (from the O^). 

5) kpainkpawo or kpenkpawo instead of kpai kpawo, 
Beyen strings of cowries; s. kpa, n., Vocftb. 

6) dfeian = dsei amli, inside of the grass, 

7) sia jad = house' thing, no, thing standing jarono- 
minally for kolo (beast, animal, cattle) atee^dy mentioned* 


— 160 — 

(of the ^rilderness), they do not strike one of the 
house with it. 

22. Nu Me ye feo, Si ehll mli wq. *) The face of water 

is beaatifiil, but it is not good to sleep in it. 

23. Ke oda le, no obk> mliwo.') If thou get, thou askest 

to put more to it. 

24. Ke of6 olilei oU okp^ le, onan kolo ko .6SS 6kpe. ') 

If thou cut off thy tongue, roast and gnaw (it), thoa 
wilt not get an animal to roast and gnaw. 

25. Noni ake-feo taki le and-fee bS. What a taki (a figure 

on carts) is made with, with that they make no 
M (also such a figure). 

26. Kokont^ taoo halu. Dried cassada wants sun (else 

it spoils). 

27. Akpokplento taoor el^ elee le, no dSi noni esuo ekoe 

ewoo enoilo mli le. The land-tortoise does not want 
to know its blood, that is why it contracts its neck 
(and) puts (it) into its shell 

28. Moni taoomi nakai le, em! e§e ehe. Whosoever wants 

me so (as I am), rejoices (or is content). 

29. Mei fia yakwoO tSo: akpokplonto tekwo*) le, amane 

d>a. Every body uses to go and climb a tree: the 
land-tortoise went and climbed: trouble has come. 
30; Mo enyee mo yaka. No body hates one without 

1) mliwo, infinitive of wo mli, to sleep in(side). 

2) no = then, in this case, comp. 27; mliwo, inf. of 
wo mli. 

3) About the combination of these verbs see § 31, 2.b. 
6Sa 6kpe are the (fat.) perfect tense, depending on the fat 
neg. onan, thou wilt not have found, rosted And gnawed etc. 

4) See § 50, 2. about compound sentences^ without con- 
junction* tekwo=yakwo; ya, defective v., fut., ace, and 
perf. te, see Yocab. 


— 161 — 

31. Bo le^ oke, ona .nanyo kpakpa, Si olee noni ekeo 

ye ose. As for thee, thou sayest, thou hast got 
a good friend ; but thou knowest not what he says 
behind thy back. 

32. Gbomo etaa lo yaka. A man is not meager without 


33. Ke enadsi nyle Ie» ntiblii ye mli. If the engadshi 

(birds of yellow colour, dwelling in great flocks in 
their hanging nests on trees and always accompa- 
nied by some beautiful red ones, called ntiblii) 
wander, the entiblii are amongst. 

34. Kedsi tso futu tei amli le, efd midSra. If wood mix 

with stones, its cutting is difficult. 

35. Moko fee hatso Sisi, §i uQkotSo SiSi afeo. No body 

plays under a thornbush (lit. torchtree, a tree full 
of thorns), but under the noko-tree (bearing sweet 
beries, noko) people play. 

36. Kedsi hdmo, mlye gbQ le eke-dSe eman. If hunger 

is eating a stranger, he brought it from his town. 

37. Ohfafo ebuu maii. A poor man does not watch (oyer) 

the town. 

38. NudsQ ekwoQ goft. A brook does not ascend a 


39. Gbomo tsio koyo. A man moves the wind. 

40. Mokome efee man. One makes no town (or people). 

41. Ohiafo ble egbee. The pipe of the poor does not 


42. Adeda kuku ekuu sii enyo. A short (or broken) bill- 

hook does not break twice. 

43. To gbonyo see kakla. A dead sheep (or goat) does 

not shun the knife. 

1) ta lo, lit. to be in want of flesh, to be meager, thin. 
Zimmermann, Akra-Gramni. 11 


— 162 - 

44. B&i enyo ehti bu kome mli. Two crocodiles do not 

live in one hole (or pool). 

45. Beni oda kd akpakai roli, bele tsunye mibo: A wo! 

When the oda (a large lizzard living on walls) lies 
in a basket (for carrying men, espec. Europeans and 
noble natives), then the housemother (a small lizzard 
living in rooms) is crying: „Exaltedl** (a kind of 
cheering). Rem. Only Europeans, Mulattoes, kings, 
noblemen and educated people are allowed to be 
carried in baskets on the heads of men; awd! is 
a cheer used by this occasion. 

46. Ke sasabonsam*) te ya no le, aye we etOQ. If the 

earth-devil go to costume , in the witch's house he 

47. Mantsebii edsoo foi kwee yitso. A prince does not 

run to look at the head (which is cut off; because 
8very head cut off in an execution must be brought 
and showed to the king). 

48. Alomte ke: „lMlikpamo n5,'' hewo ni ehee nyon. The 

cat says: „Slretching is sweet," wherefore it does 
not buy a slave (because slaves make trouble). 

49. Moko ke kploto h§i§ klan sitd. No body gives a pig 

V) a hyena to keep it. 

50. AH ke: Moni gbeml edgomi, ake moni fd mitsere. 

The partridge says : He who kills me does not grieve 
me as he who plucks my feathers. 

51. Moko ke enidsi enyo susuu fa. 1^6 body measures 

the river with both of his feet. 

52. Kedsi sisa mita ode le, onine osuq. If a spectre is 

shaking hands with thee, thy arm shrinks. 

53. Batafobi bi enye ake: „Awo, meni yo ohie kpoikpoi 

le?" Ekele ake: «Wo se le ona momo." The young 

1) See Vocab. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— 163 — 

wild hog asked its mother: „Mama, what are the 
knotty things in thy face?" She told it: By and by 
thou wilt have seen it already. 

54. Ke didei dse f^ mli ni eke ake: bft he mlye le, bele 

ehe mlye lelen. If the didei (a river fish) leaves 
the river and says that the crocodile is sick , then 
it is truly sick. 

55. Alanmali fee kpoi amli. The alangmali (a small lobster) 

does not play in knotty (or rocky) places (but in 
the seasand). 

56. Ofoi yitSon etaS Ik. The head of the horse-fly does 

not get into want of blood. 

57. Ked§i obe floto le, oyaa Wei. If thou hast no bag, 

thou doest not go to Wei (a place, where corn is 

58. lA ye lllei siSi, ni atS^Q ladSd. Blood is under the 

tongue, and people ^pit spittle (and not blood). 

59. Moko lee moni fo Okaikoi. No body knows who has 

bom Okaikoi, a certain man, whose parents were 

60. Moko end5 sadso emd9 abono. No body takes the 

shadsho (a very larg tree with soft wood which 
cannot he used) and builds a bam (with). 

61. Oda le, ake musunkd ko ye, nohcwo le ebu 5i eto.*) 

The oda (-lizzard) knows that there is belly-ache, 
therefore it lies on its belly against (the time of it). 

62. Ani ke ake: ^Tui!" le,^) to egbo? Is, 'if people say 

„Tui!" the sheep dead? 

1) hu si, to lie on the belly; to, aux. v. to put away, 
prepare, do some* thing against a certain| emergency. Mike 
mito, I said it before, already. 

2) „Tui!** An interjection to drive small cattle away 
(lit. flee!), ^le" is the def. article defining the accessory 
sentence. ■ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

- 164 — 

63. Bonso da kpetenkple mon ; Si nsonkotoko gbeole. The 

whale is Iruly (grown) very large, but the sea-por- 
cupine kills him. 

64. Ke lilei ke, eke ahO le, eke dsen yee he gho. If the 

tongue say it be very long, it cannot vie with 
the boa. 

65. Moko enmee t§o he, ni eyaye koyo abo. Nobody lets 

go a tree and swings in the air. 

66. Anylee fig se, ni adu tsone. Nobody follows an ele- 

phant and falls into a trap (because that animal will 
a void traps by its cunning). 

67. Kedsi noko be oden Iq, kamla nl gbekgbii mititi onine 

se. If nothing is in (the palm of) thy hand, do not 
close it, lest children pinch the back of it. 

68. Man kuku ake-sa tsile. With a piece of a herring 

they angle the tshilefish (a large fish caught yearly 
in August and September on the sand -bank oppo- 
site the Akra-country). 

69. Nine se ke kekg ten yee he gbQ. The back of the 

hand and the inside (or middle) of the fist do not 

70. Toil enyo, §i enuu sfidsi ehyo. Two ears, but they 

do not hear two stories. 

71. Moko etsdd gbekS Nyoiuno. Nobody shows 'iieaven 

Ad 64. ke, to be long; ke n. k. ye he gbo, to vie 
with 8. th^ 

Ad 65. ye noko abe , to swing in something about. 

Ad 67. de, the palm of the hand; nine, hand, arm; 
mititi, pres. tense pot. posit, depending on ni „that**, after 
a negative ^lest." Comp. the German proverb: Sin ©c^elm 
tfl, bcr tttc^r gibt, a(^ er l^at. He is a rogue who gives more 
than he has. 

1) About ^enuu**, sing. numb, applied to the pi. toil, s. § 42. 


— 16$ — 

(or God^ as whdse face, outside, heaven is consi- 
dered) to a child (because it will see or know him 
by itself). 

72. Gbo hlAmeii^) kpleikplei, §i enaa man mlinii. The 

eyes of a stranger (may be) very lafge, but he does 
not see the inner things of the town (or nation). 

73. Tu fee ye AbrotSiri, ni ebamdmd ye GS. A gun does 

not burst in Europe and wound (people) in Ga. 

74. AnmoQ klmtu kpo. A planket is not made into 

a knot. 

75. Afi efee nmotse. The partridge is not greater (or 

more) than the planter; at the same time a pun: 
The partridge (makes not) is not the planter. 

76. YitSo taa si, ni nakutSo bu fai. The head does not 

sit down and the knee put on a hat. 

77. Tonye akweo aheo tobi. The mother of the sheep 

(or goat) is looked at (if) the lamb (or kid) is bought. 

78. Dun foo yo. The dung (-antelope) does not beget 

the yo (-antelope). 

79. V Bio momo h! fe bio he. An old broom is better than 

a new one (because sharper, comp. the contrary in 
the German: Sleue SBefen fe^ten gut, new brooms 
sweep well). 

80. Sio yee tamii. An elephant does not eat small berries 

(tamii, a very sweet kind of berries, similar to ripe 

81. DSu baa dSu kome. Monday does not come one 

monday (only). 

82. Gbomo taa Si, n) and tso aye') odase. A person 

1) In prov. 70 the auxil „ye", in 72 „d§i** are om- 

Ad 82. ta Si, hi si, to sit, to dwell, to exist, s. § 33, 3. 

2) ye odase, to witness. 


-- 166 — 

does not sit, whilst they take a tree (or stick) to 
be witness. 

83. Fa t§io fe yi se. A river moves a river on. 

84. Ke oke tSo wo bu mli ni onaa noni yo mli le, ke 

oke onine wo mli le, ona noni dsi. If thou put 
a stick into a hole ai^ doest not see what is in: 
if thou put thy hand in^ thou knowest what it is. 

85. Ke atere ni onaa le, ke akpo na si le, ona. If some- 

thing is carried (on the head) and thou do not see 
it, if it is left down, thou seeest. 

86. Ho lei and flo ho. With the (long) taU of the ho 

(-monkey) the ho is bound. 

87. Nine lakaa mo. The hand does not deceive one. 

88. Abui nl he do la lo> esda kpS. A hot needle burns 

the thread. 

89. Gbomo fdn h! fe sia tlo. A bad person is better than 

an empty house. 

90. Moni ko: ^End"" lo» ayee asiile. Him who says: It 

is sweet, people when eating do not leave, i. e. 
People do not eat without a person who says: It 
is sweet (because it would be a great shame accor- 
ding to good native fashion, not to invite him, as 
every body present is invited when they are 

91. Ko olee, onanyo so le, okaa to ohddlo. If thou doest 

not know what is behind thy neighbour's back, thou 
doest not venture (to buy) a sheep for him (s. ka, 
V. Vocab.) 

92. Mantsesei dsee lai kakadan nl mei enyo ta no. A 

throne is not a long piece of wood that two per- 
sons may sit on it. 

93. Moko hdmdtsdmd dSee mo simo. To go before some 

body is not to leave him. 

94. Suie be nl ayeo lolowa. There is no cabbage, there- 


— 167 — 

fore (lit. then) people eat inferior herbs (lolowa, a 
kind of herbs eaten vfhen better ones are scarce). 

95. Ke o§i nme le, eko ya omama mli. If thou pound 

palmnuts, some goes at thy cloth. 

96. Tso n\ te la mil le, ena hSlL A stick which goes 

into fire, will begin to burn (lit. its end bums). 

97. Lo nl nd le, amane ye he. About a sweet fish is 


98. Moko enod sigbemohe efee wohe. No body makes 

a place where people fall (lit. a falling-place) a sleep- 
ing place. 

99. Nabu lee, ake else mlfe fei. The mouth does not 

know, that its master is afraid. (S. fei, n. Voc.) 

100. Moko ke mama he taa mama momo teA. ^No man 

putteth (a piece of) new cloth into an old garment.** 
Mt. 9, 16. 

101. Awoo ni alaa. No sleep, no dream. § 50, 2. a. 

102. Soro*) kwe, soro*) kwe bie. (It is) different to look 

and dififent to look hithen 

103. Nine abeku ahliSi, n) gbonyo Sig mo. The left hand 

does not remain (quiet), when a dead body knocks 
against one. 

104. Moni hdmd ye le ni egbo le, aMi edeka Si. Whom 

the hunger ate and he died, people do not ask 
after his box. 

105. Odomirifa ye noko nl eyeo dSikuIe etiaft ka. Would 

Odomirifa ( have something to eat, he would 
not dig crabs. 

1) ^Soro" is an impers. verb., sometimes irregularly 
without gram. subj. = to be different : Soromi or esoromi, 
it is different with me etc. 

Ad. 103. If a person is said to have died by poison, 
they carry him about, and the person he knocks at has 
killed him. 


— 168 — 

106. Moko enaa tSo ni eke ehMmeii isrS ^) na. Nobady 

sees a tree (or stick) and rubs his eyes at it. 

107. Mo hie-memo ke tsdmd^) h, edsee mo dSemQ. To 

warn some body is not to scold him. 

108. Se nuu iviemg. The back does not hear a word. 

109. Ke odSu mantSe he le, oke eko dsuo ohe. If thou 

wash a king, thon washest thyself with some (of 
his soap, water etc.). 

110. Moko ke asdmanukpa^) daa tetfSl. No body vies with 

the orangutang in stone-casting. 

111. Nye be tsofl Hatred has no medicine. 

112. Heni-gwanten sumoo le, dsei en6o eyen elaa. Where 

the sheep likes it, there it places its white (spot). 

113. Moko naa tamg Opale na. Nobody sees hke Opale. 

114. IlienmalQ*) be ni afeo ebii ahe. The leopard is absent, 

therefore they play with his young one's. 

115. Moko enmdd kpe ni esi egonti. Nobody makes a knot 

and leaves his thumb (i. e. without his thumb). 

116. I^S tamg oblaii. A wife is like a giant. 

117. Moni nmd kpo le, le ele fenemo. He who makes ari 

knot, knows to loose it. 

118. Soro moko yit§on, soro moko yitson. Different one's 

head, different the others (i. e. Every body has his 
own head). 

119. Ga se gbe dsi gbe. The way after (the people of) 

HSiy that ;s the way. 

1) tsr3 na, pi. form of tsS na, v. to rub at. 

2) hie-wiemo ke tsdmd, infinit. of the double verb: 
wie m. k. hie tsSle, to warn one, s. Voc. 

3) asaon^ukpa, n. lit. spectre-elder. 

4) H!enmalQ=face-scratcher, an epithet of the Leopard 
(compare: OIowo, kotse etc.). . 

Ad 119. The Gd-people consider themselves a leading 


— 169 — 

120. Miwo t§u^) mihao, si ote mikpfii. I thatch you a 

house; but you conceal my strings .(for to bind it). 

121. Gbeke edfaa akpokplonto, §i gbekS le wao d(^. A 

child does not break a landtortoise, but a child 
knows how lo break a snail. 

122. Beni omia onanyo ko le» onanyo hQ mimlao. When 

thou pressest a friend of thine, thy friend also is 
pressing thee. 

123. Ohwam! kedsi ote ni bai le eha te^ le hewg le» 

dsemo; si wose le, ke nme le t§u le, owaye') eko. 
Ohwam! if thou go (and see) that the leaves have 
covered the palmtree (round about), remove them; 
for by and by, if the palmnuts are ripe, thou wilt 
eat some. 

124. Noni bako dS le, eye nso se. What has not come 

before, is behind the sea. (It can be stated so, 
because people have not seen it). 

125. Moko enaa moko obM, ni ehuru eyi §i.') No body 

sees the giant (-slave) of another and springs up 
(for joy). 

126. Kele mli ye nii kule, onufu ye noko n\ eyeo. If in 

length would be. something, the serpent would have 
something to eat. 

127. Abe mama ni abio yO si! One has no cloth and asks 

after a woman! 

128. Suilafo fee mlu mli. A blind man does not play in 

the dust. 

129. Timtim dSee amada teomg; §i ehe saomo mli yo. To 

1) wo t§u, to thatch a house (with grass, which is 
bound up by strings). 

2) owaye, old form=ooye (from obaye. The ohwam 
(an animal) eats palmnuts. . 

2) hom-yi Si, lit. to jump and come down. 


— - 170 — 

boast is not to plant plantains, but in cleansing about 
them it consists. 

130. Ahio man ni oheo^) beu?^) Do people dwell in a 

town where there is no warm (bread)? 

131. Moko ehoo nii eyamdS AmanmaSa, ake eetao eweku- 

mei abaye. Nobody cooks food and puts it on the 
dusthill (outside of thowns) to seek his relations that 
they may eat. 
132* Ke otSo kolo tsokpemo le, ke ewo hQ emd eua. If 
thou show a beast (or brute) stick-chewing (a custom 
of the natives to keep their teeth clean), even if 
it sleep, it sticks in its mouth. 

133. Kokote wonu ekpa efie §i: §i masro^) sika dsosru? 

The kokote sup is poured out : and I should esteem 
the gold-dshosru (a quantity of Gold = 1 JB Sterling)? 

134. Okukuba ke elei ke le, sone efSi. (No sooner) the 

okukuba (a bush-animal) said : his tail is long (than) 
the weasel boasted. 

135. Tso nl aklonto be he le, ekwD dSra. A tree which 

has no fork, its ascent is difficult. 

136. D§e ana ni ase wehe. It will get night and a sleep- 

ing-place Will be found. 

137. Babi gboo &. A young crocodile does not die in 

Uie river (its element). 

138. Ke oke wo nkpla able le, ehie soQO. If with the fowl 

thou art unhusking com, it will not esteem thee 
(see hie so, v.). 

139. Atfaa mo te^ ni awo sukukuli atSo ehie. Nobody casts 

1) Oheo = Otyi: ohyew, something warm. 

2) ben = be mli. 

Ad 133. Eokote is a very precious fish. Kpa, to 
tilt; fie si, to pour down. 

3) See sro, »oro, v. Voc. 


— 171 — 

a stone at one, and takes up a clod and ^hows it 
to him. 

140. Moni etQ kg moni hdm5 ^eole h: namo ahd ahS? 

One is satisfied and one is hungry: to whom do 
people sell? 

141. Moni tSuQ nil hdo le, eyaa ke emusu flo. He who 

works for thee does not go with an empty belly. 

142. BlQfo-okpo kg: Moni yeg nii ehSao le, le ogbeu la 

ohda. The European dove says: He who eats some- 
thing and gives thee (some), for him thou quenchest 
the fire. 

143. Moko enod adeda etoo lema he. No body takes a 

billhook and cuts an ax (with it). 

144. Wonu nd kolo le na, si nine enaa eke-fS. Soup is 

sweet to (the mouth of) an animal; but a hand it 
has not got to take it out with. 

145. Ke dsulg ke , ele dsQ, 6yadsu okplem. If a thief say, 

he knows how to steal, let him steal a canon. 

146. Moko ke enumo etoo nyonma he. No body puts fife 

for ten, 
147; Kg odi adudon se Ig, owuleo ofla mil. If thou care 

for the fly (to kill), thou wilt hurt thy boil. 
i48. Ohi lo, si oye mlgbo. Thou abhorrest meat, but thou 

eatest Uver. 

149. Kg akpokplonto hewQ kulg atfaa tu. If it were for 

the land-tortoise sake, no gun would be fired. 

150. fiehdlo ko ehdko ba dd. A cabbage-dealer has never 

sold (mere) leaves (if you hear himself). 

151. Kasdlg yeo nii kaku mil. The potter eats out of a 


152. Kg oyg Iglg mli Ig, odsieo mil nu. If thou art in a 

vessel, thou takest out the water. 

153. Obgn n\ ayaa hewo le okg: Nso Ifi nmg. Thou art 


— 172 — 

i^ot in when people go therefore thou saidst: The 
sea is quiet. 

154. Ke fio Ke: etS lo h, dSee tSokpo kome u\ enan.^) 

If the elephant say: he is thin (of flesh), not only 
one tray full he has (hut still more). 

155. Gbo ed§aa kondlo. A stranger does not divide the 

meat of the ko (or; komeat, a festive food). 

156. 6a weku tamo mampam fg, ke okpa \q, bele ohe gbla. 

A Gfi family is like the fat of the land-crocodile: 
if thou anoint (thyself with), thy skin cracks. 

157. TSebi ke: D§e na; si nyebi kei D3e nako. A father- 

child says: It is night; but a mother-child says: It 
is not night. (Perhaps relating to the family quar- 
rels springing from polygamy). 

158. Momosa le Kwaw Mensa; mitao Fete ay a, Si mibasro 

nl atsule Gua. Once Kwaw Mensa (pr. n.) was 
wishing to go to Fete (about 10 miles); but it was 
different, when he was sent to Cape Coast (about 
60 miles). 

159. Ke otao nme le, ya Tutu. If thou wish for palmnuts, 

go to Tutu (an Akwapim-town, where plenty palm- 
trees are). 

160. Moko endd nine abeku etsdo emaAgbe* No body 

shows the way to is town with the left hand. 

161. TSina wqIq See tSma. A cowherd does not fear 

a cow. 

162. Gbe kd gbe edSee. A dog does not bite a dog till 

(blood) comes out. 

163. Wq ni edSQQ le> akokobesa eke-yaa. A fowl which 

is not tame, with supspices it goes (i. e. it is eaten). 

1) enan = ena le, comp. § 20, 1. at the end. 
Ad 156. Used to warn people, not to try to deriye 
too much advantage of a GSi-family. 


— 173 — 

164. Grbobilg lee kolo helatSe hewo n\ etfale id. A hunter 

does not know sick game therefore he shoots it (tfa 
tu, to shoot). 

165. Loflo n) edSen tSere le, nira ekaseo flikimol A bird 

which does not get feather(s), quickly it learns to 
fly! (Used of precocious people). 

166. Fiofio adudon ye gbe toi. Little by little a fly eats 

the ear of a dog. 

167. Ke lo ko ke, ewo fo ahfi le, eke kploto yee he gbo. 

If an animal say, it be very fat, it does not reach 
to the pig. 

168. Oia gbn fa fe to gbfi. The days of poverty are more 

than the days of superfluity. 

169. Osumo nyont§Qmei nyohma ke kpawo. Thou wilt serve 

seventeen masters. Mt. 6, 24. 

170. Gbi nl amd kploto le, batafo atSd hftm5. The day 

when the pig will be caught, the wild hog will lead 
the way. 

171. Sisi ke Awei yee gbo. Earth and heaven do not come 


172. Ke akpokplonto ke: wa hewo, dSikule awoo tako ye 

sikpoA ne no. If the land-tortoise would say (it is): 
for hardness sake, people would not take up pads 
upon this earth (i, e. If it would depend on the 
saying of the land-tortoise, that it is too hard etc. 
because of its hard shell). 

173. Asantemei wonu Ad, §i no fo mli tsd. The soup of 

the Ashanti's is tasteful, but there is too much salt 
in it (relating to their cruelties). 

174. Ehe wa He is as hard as a crocodile. 

175. Hdmd yele take klan. He is as hungry as a hyena. 

176. Moko yee yele na ye sQ mli. No body buys yams in 

the ground. 

177. GbekS mS koi ni onukpa hlQ SiSi. A child builds a 


— 174 — 

second story and an old man dwells down stairs 
(relating to the changes of live). 

178. Tantra dsimi, dsa no mifo ye. I am a tantra (-fish); 

in the market I bear. 

179. Ahdd alomte ye floto mli, §i adSieole faA. A cat is 

not sold in a bag, but openly produced. 

180. Aaye koko enmon dsikule aaye yekose. Would people 

eat koko (a kind of yams) raw, they would eat (it 
so) in the country (or plantation, lit. behind the 

181. Wa ke, ehewo dsikule tO egbee ye kon. The snail 

says, if for his sake, no gun would sound in the bush. 

182. Ke niyenii ye sia le, akee ake ayadsu bayele ke-ba 

§Ia. If food be in the house, people do not say, 
yams shall be stolen and brought. 

183. Ananu taa si, n\ abe gugo akase le. A spider does 

not sit, that people may teach it to speak through 
the nose (it knows it already or is represented so 
in their fables, see these). 

184. Klan kplaa tsin0. A hyena does not drive a cow. 

185. Ke gbe ke edseke ahu le, ehoo man he. If a way 

says, it is very long, it does not pass the town (it 
leads to). 
185. Dede mife kolo, si eke: Kokon. Dede is a fool, but 
she says it is Koko. (Dede and Koko, proper names 
of women). 

185. Kakraka feo gbele nii, §i egboo. The chafer does as 

if it would die (lit. makes things of death), but it 
does not die. (These creatures are very trouble- 
some in the houses.) 

186. Wo nane egbee ebi. The foot of a fowl does not 

kill its chicken. 

187. Onukpa boo mSdsi and toi. Anjelder does not listen 

to the chattering (lit. ihe thing) of towns. 


— 175 — 

i88. Ke okaUa fo5 le, oboA oke-woQ. If thy knife cot 
thee, tbou puttest it in thy sheath (and doest not 
cast it away). 

189. Ohenyelo ke: otaoo egbo. Thy enemy aays, thou 

wishest, that he may die. 

190. Lebi da^ dseo fu mon, siwiemo kpakpa dSeoA (=d§eo 

mil). In the morning the month emites a bad smell, 
but a good word comes out from it. 

191. NiiatSe foo dsoi f^, si efoko yafodSo di. A rich man 

composes every dance , but he has never composed 
. a dance of weeping. 

192. Ke owye yO adfaman le, onaa mlifQ. If thou marry 

a harlot, thou doest not get angry. 

194. Sane fon nl yo dSen hewo ni ke afo bi n) awieo 

alsdole. For bad palawers sake which are in the 
world it is that if a child is bom, it is instructed. 

195. Ke owo mama n\ esaao le, nl atseoo oblafo. If thou 

wear a cloth which does not fit thee (it happens) 
that thou art called an executioner. 

196. NyomdtSe naa mlifu. A debtor does not get angry. 

197. Nyoii edsee gbi kome ni efo kpen (=kpem05 see 

§ 20). Thee moon (s. „ny6n** in the Vocab.) does 
not appear one day (only) and cease to shine. 

198. Ke ohe waa oke: Tako ehil. If thou art weak, thou 

sayest: The pad is not good. (Men and women 
carry the loads on their heads and use pads). 

199. Dsee noko, si noko dsi no. It is nothing; but that 

is something. („Dsee noko!'' is a general evasive 
answer to enquiries). 

200. Ke batafo ke: dsee enan, ena non. If the wild hog 

say: it is not his foot-step, it is it still. 

201. Moko efee kolo sii enyo. Nobody is twice a fool. 

202. Eto tso egba eno. He cut a tree and fell it over 



— 176 — 

203. MoXo hfe gboo Sii enyo. No body is twice ashamed. 

204. Moni ena dfi le, eke eh!. He who has wine, says 

it is good. 

205. Mlikpamo dSi nii dSikale alomte ye eko. If stretchiog 

would be riches, the cat would have some. 

206. YitSo kome eyaa adSinft. One head does not go a 


207. Ohia n\ ehia Akwamunyo hewo ni eke Ayigbenyo 

nio. *) For poverty's sake which empovcr's the Akwa- 
muman he says he is an Ayigbeman (people who 
are despiced in the GS«country). 

208. Ke ofie kolo le ni o hfiSle gbe, etS5 one. If thoa 

drive away a beast and give it no way, it turns 
over thee. 

209. Noni gbek^bii fe ye klotia le, no onukpai le feo ye 

, mS le mli. What the children do at the ends (of 
the town), that the elder people do in the lovra. 

210. Moko ke sisai gbaa ta. Nobody arranges battle with 


211. Moko den dSee oden. Somebody's hand is not thj 


212. Noko nl ayee le, ahoo. What is not eaten, is not 


213. fie ebe kose dsikule kule wo kolo wulu dSile^ If no 

elephant would be behind the bush, the buffalo 
would be a great animal. 

214. Opasafo ke: Midasefo ye Atyem. The liar says: My 

Witness is in Akyem. 

215. Tsu moko nwei ni hwan esiSi atfere. To send some 

body up and draw away the ladder under him. 

216. Abolo flo ehn yeli. Bread alone is not good to eat. 

217. Noko ekd onufu! Something has bitten the serpent! 

1) nio^dSio, an old imperf. tense of dsi? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

— m — 

2t8. Adam ke : ewon di^ ebininei. The Adorn (*mmikej) 
says: Jfis eye be his felMi (or charm). 

219. Akeo ekome ddni akeo enyo. People say one before 

they say two. 

220. Toi ni gbaa nabu na. The ear (is it) which trou- 

bles the mouth. 

II. 6s-ffi8torieg. 

(It is to be remarked that I give the Histories as I 
got them merely as specimen of the language, and there- 
fore not take any respect as to their truth). 

1. Asamankao ta. 

No hewQ nl ASantemei ke 
Mankata wu le Si§i d§i ene: 
Ake, Asantenyo kb ba Gua 
niihemo; ni beni ete dsa le 
UQ le, ena yo ko nl hd Ion- 
Ira, ni ekele ake: Olo le> 
enyfe dsi ekome? Ni etsdle 
na. Keke le na le kele ake: 
DSe no ohSmi! Ni yd le kele 
ake: MidSee ng. No mli le 
ASantemei yeo Guamei ke G§- 
mei ano. Agbene nakai na 

Zimmermann, Akra*Gramm« 

1. The war of Asamang- 
kao. (About 1824.) 

Werefore the Ashantis with 
Mac Carthy (Governor of 
Sierra Leone) made war the 
reason is this: It is said, that 
an Ashanteman came to Cape 
Coast to buy things; and when 
he went to the market, he 
saw a woman selling stink- 
fish, and he said unto her: 
Thy fish, how much one. And 
she showed him the price. 
Then the man said unto her 
(saying): Take some oS for 
mi! And the woman said: 
I do not take off. — In that 
time the Ashantis ruled over 
the Cape -Coast- and Akra- 


~ tT8 

le noil keie ^e : Mivrooo 
nyomo kwra dot» U milole 
ekfi na! Ni yo le kele An: 
Bete ouyontSo le nlyoASante 
le, le ehe lo diSmi? Keke 
le nu ke yd le ake : Meba 
oke nakai? Beni fe se le nii 
le eboDe dsemg ake : Onyon- 
tsQ u\ yo Ablotsiri le, Osei 
ke.: Ebaye .... Ni yO le 
hCi kele ake: Bo hG onyon- 
ISQ ni yo Asante le, Kon^) 
ke: Eba ni . . . . Keke le 
nil le ke: Meba oke nakai? 
ni ebol kitakSmg, ake aamd 
yO le ke ya ASante. Ni yO 
le dSo foi ke te m6h, ni eya- 
dSadse sadSi le f6 ni nO le 
efele le. Ni nfl le yiA ete 
emaA ni eyakp; ni Osei ha 
amdle ni agbele, ake: Mehe- 
wo ni ehaa agbele ye dsei? 

peot^e. — Then that same 
man said unto her: I do not 
pay thee any more at all, but 
I take it by force! And the 
woman said unto him: Then 
thy master which is in AshantI, 
he buys the fish for me (i. e* 
he will pay it). Then the 
man said unto the woman: 
Why sayest thou so? After- 
wards the man began to scold 
her, saying: Thy master who 
is in Europe, Osei (King of 
Ashanti) says of him: He 
shall come and .... And 
the woman also told him: 
And also thy master who is 
in Ashanti, the King says: 

He shall come and 

Then the man said: Why say- 
est thou so ? - and he began 
to swear, that the woman 
shall be caught and brought 
to Ashanti. And the woman 
ran off to the fort and told 
all the thitags which the man 
had done unio her. And the 
man went off to his town and 
told it; and Osei let him be 
caught and killed, saying: 
Wherefore he let himself not 
be killed there? 

1) meba=meni ba, what came, or: vr)iy? 

2) Kon, Danish = King. 

d by Google 

— 179 — 

Ni Osei le Isu ebofoi ke- 
ba, ake ayan5 yo le ahSame, 
m Gaa-lumo le hu ekplge, 
ake enole eha. Beni neke 
sane ne ba le, lumo le nmS 
ke te Ablotsiri, ake mon, no 
sane n) eba ne. Ni Kon, le hQ 
nm3 wolo eM Dan-Kong, ni 
le hu engmS wolo ke-ba bie 
mon, ake aha tsofa ke tunte, 
nl ake-yawa. Ni Nlisi-Kon 
le hu wo lele gbe ke labilgi 
ke asafoiatSemei. Amesafoia- 
Uenukpa le, atsele Ma]llka- 
t a. Beni Mankata ne ba le, 
ehle asrafoi akpe ; menemei 
fe le tabiloi son. Ebayin 
ke-mlya neke ta ne; ni beni 
eya le, eke yomo ko kpe ye 
gbe te len, ni nakai yomo le 
ke-le ake: ^Owura, mikpao 
fai, ni oku ose dS; si tabiloi 
ni oke-nyie ne ^aa; mon, 
kd ose ni oyatao meikomei 
hu ofata amehewo; si Asan- 
temei fa tsd!" Adse Man- 
kala na le ake: „0! mitabi- 
loine sa mihie, boni mikeame 
awu!" Ni eyin ni ete ekea- 
me yawu. Beni amewu ahu 
k agbene Mankata tsofS le 
eli. Ni Fantemei le ni kele 

And Osei sent bis mes- 
sengers down, that the wo- 
man may be delirered unto 
them; and the Cape -Coast 
Governer also did not allow, 
that she was delivered. When 
this thing happened, the Go- 
vernor wrote to Europe saying: 
Well, this matter has happe- 
ned! And the King also wrote 
a letter to the Danish King; 
and this also wrote a letter 
to the fort here, that powder 
and lead may be given out. 
And^ the English King also 
despatched a vessel with war- 
riors and captains. Their 
chief-captain was called Mac 
Carthy. When Mac Carthy 
came, he had thousand sol- 
diers; these all were good 
warriors. He went oflf to 
this war, and when he went, 
he met with an old woman 
in the way, and this old woman 
told him: „ Master, I beg thee 
return first; for the warriors 
thou leadest, are not enough; 
rather return to seek some 
more to them; for the Ashan- 
tis are too many!" Mac Car- 
thy expressed himself saying: 
„0h! these my warriors fit 
me, that I will fight with 
them!" And he went off and 
fought with them, When they 

had fought a long time, then 


— 180 — 

te ta le, beni amena, ake 
ametSofS fe ni amehfe le etS 
le, amebol biomo ake: „Yeii 
atudru asa!"*) Ni ake Asan- 
temei ke Fantemei fe ye wie- 
mo kome le» ame ba nu ni- 
bii ni Fantemei keo ye amen- 
sra len le. Keke le Asante- 
inei na hcTvale ni amekpM 
amehle kpoto. Agbene ke 
Mankata kwe, boni Asan- 
temei kele yeo hSa le ni 
asan etsofS ni ehie le e\A le, 
eke >^ebii le t^ famg^) klante, 
ni eke ASantemei kpe h!e 
ahu. Beni fe se') ni hoo*) 
le agbene eAma wolo keha 
etsudsi le eko ke-te Gua-mon, 
ni abahdle tsofS; si beni bo- 
foi le ku amese ba le, ni 
ayagble adekai le ana le, 
eyimQ ') obdbS ke loi ke 
akpanoi. N6 hewo ni fe na- 
kai le: meini ake wolo le 
yah§, amemiye oyai ni amelee, 
beni ame hole nomei ameha 
meini ke wolo le ba hd 

Mac Carthy's powder was 
done. And the Fantis which 
had gone with him to war, 
when they saw, that their 
powder altogetherwhich they 
carried was done, they began 
to cry : „Unfer $wl»cr ip au« !" 
And as the Asbantis and the 
Fantis all have one tongue, 
they could hear what the Fan- 
tis said in their camp. Then 
the Ashantis got strength and 
destroyed them as clay. Now, 
if Mac Carthy looks how the 
Ashantis deal with him and 
that also his powder is done, 
he with all his people draws 
the sword and meets the 
Ashatis face to face for a long 
time/ After wards, when there 
was no move, then he wrote 
a letter and gave it to one 
of his servants to bring it to 
Cape Coast-Castle, that they 
may give him powder; but 
when the messengers retur- 
ned, and the boxes were ope- 
ned, they were full of pieces 
of meat and bisquits. The 
reason of this was: those to 
whom the letter was given. 

1) Otyi = „Wotsofa eta!" 

2) f§mo, pi. form of fa, to draw. 

3) Lit. When (it) became afterwards, without expres- 
sed subj. 

4) ni hoo- and not passed, without subj. 

5) hole , irreg. pi. form of wo, to lift up, to take up. 


- 181 - 

ane te. Fe se Ifi MaUata 

ktsu eko6, ni ake nakai 

non ba. Ke MaAkata kwe 

boni , Asantemei kele wuq 

hSa, ni asan enaa tsofa, ni 

ekeame awu le? eke esafoia- 

ts^nei le ke menu eke-te. 

ta h fe ake: WQtsof^ eta, 

ni Asantemei le hu ke^ivQ 

WUQ ne, nohewo le kg moni 

osumQ le ofe ohe helpo ! ') 

Keke le lele etsi ehe ke-te 

se, ni eyakpasa tSo ko, ni 

ekpa enine mli ke epitisa- 

wa') le ni egbe ehe. *) EMe 

pitisawa le ye eden ke-kpa- 

sa tSo le. Ni beni ekpasaa 

Si le, kedjJH Asantemei le mi- 

ba end le, amemlSe gbeye, 

edsake amesusuo, ake ehie 

ka; si beni yi yawula si le, ®) 

ameyoy ake dSee gbe egbo,^) 

were in a hurry, when they 
gave the things to those who 
had given them the letter. 
Afterwards Mac Carthy sent 
again and the same was 
brought. When Mac Carthy 
beheld how the Asantis were 
fighting with him, and that 
also he did not get powder, 
he said unto his captains and 
all whom he had gone to war 
with, saving : Our powder is 
done, and the Ashantis also 
are fighting with us in this 
way , therefore whosoever 
wish it, may help himself. 
Then he himself withdrew him- 
self backwards, leaned against 
a tree, drew with his hand 
a pistol and killed himself. 
So he had the pistol in his 
hand and leaned against tiie 
tree. And while he leaned 
there, if the Ashantis were 
coming near him, they we- 
re a fraid, because they 

1) Ke here and above used like „when** (s. German 
)9fnn mb tt)tnn.) 

2) helpo, Danish: help. 

3) pitisawa^ a European word, pistoL 

4) Such a death is esteemed brav and honorable by 
tiie Natives and as tiiey honur Mac Carthy very much, it 
may be a mere supposition* 

5) beni yi yawula Si, lit: when the head came down 
to the ground = at last. 

6) Infinitive absolute negationed. 


-- 182 ~ 

Si ehle kft. Ni amebawole, 
ni tunefo eyitSo ke-te amen- 
sra h mli, ni amedSie emli 
ansoi h, ni noho le ni fe 
le, amekpe mun^le ^ amewo 
he ni ameke Sika wo mli; 
ni le gbomofSo mu le ame- 
tsuko ') ke-te Asante. Fq 
le ameke -Si ti, ni etsui le 
amedSa ni ameye. Ye neke 
ta ne mli non amemd Man- 
kala tetremantre kpdio, ni 
ye gbeyeSemg na le ameke, 
ekpd; keke le ekpS, ni ke 
ekpS, asrafoi le ni be d§ei 
le beni Mankata tfa qhe tu 
le hie foi ke^ba ASantemei 
)e and, smesusuQ ake ame- 
safoitSe le ye dSei, ni agbeo- 
ame. Ni yit§o le ni ameke- 
te Asante le etsd amewon 
ni amedsaa imienenmene- 

Ni MaAkata ledientSe n! 
wgwieo ehe no edamo le 
ke-te be mli ni etSofS ke 
eniyenii tS, ni edsoo foi ahu 
ke-te egbele mli. 

1) mnnele, Dan. uniform 

2) tsuko, double v. = to 

thought that he is alire; but 
at last they perceiyed that 
he was really not dead, but 
alive. And they took him up, 
and cut is head and brought 
it into their camp, and took 
out the brains, .and the scull 
• which was left they sowed 
into his uniform and filled it 
with gold, and himself, the 
whole body , they roasted and 
brought him to Ashanti. The 
fat (of him) they boiled into 
a lump, and his heart they 
divided and ate. In this same 
war they caught Mac Carthy's 
trumpeter, and upon fear the 
commanded him to blow, then 
he blew, and when he blew, 
the soldiers who were not 
there when Mac Oarthy shot 
himself ran and came to the 
ASantis thinking that their cap- 
tain was there, and were killed. 
And the head which they 
brought to Ashanti has become 
their fetish which they wor- 
ship tillthis very day. 

And Mac CarChy himsdf of 
whom we speak here, he 
stood on the (dace where 
he had stood till the time 
when bis powder and provi* 
skm was done, and he did not 
flee at all until his death. 



~ 181 — 

2. 6S-mad§i blema sSdSi. 

Neke nii ne ni migba ebe 
sane ne, gbalo le, ^) egbami, 
ake ed§e n§Q mli ni ebo ade^) 
k^ ewekumei fid §i kome, ni 
amtyo nso ne na. No mli 
h mokonioko be bie ; si nme- 
nenmene Gamei ') ni yo ne» 
kosebiibii dsiame, ni kose 
hn ameyo. Neke na ne ke 
ewekumei ya wuo. *) Gbi 
ne^) ehe ye n§o na, ni lele 
ko damo §i, koni emli |^ 
mei le tseo le, ake eba, ni 
ekwo ahima ®) ke-te eyadSie- 
ame keba sikpon. Na le, 
egbei dsi La-Kote-Aduao§i. 
Kom^) gbomei ni yo iele ie 
mli ®) Okesi-Blofomei d§iame, 
ni amekele hi §i. No se 
Kink9 •)-ke Osu*®)-ke NliSi- 
Blofomei ha baba. Koni ame- 
U ameh9le >¥olo, ake Sik- 
pon. ne ettd, koni ke lele fid 
lele ni abadamo §i le, ^^) eke 
wolo atSdame, koni ameya- 
wole By6n^, edSake ItkpoA 
oe endft. Nakm meini ye 
88^') le hfile; ni ekeame, ake 
wodSi ne afite, si amefele^') 
jre Sika-tSo he, koni eke-ye 
odase, ake sikpoA »e end. 
Ni amefe oakai. 

Old stories oftheAkra- 

1) the historian, apposition. 

2) be ade, Otyi, to begin 

to exist. 

3) the G5-people of to day. 

4) ya wuo, to go a fishing. 
6) Gbi ne (or neke) on a 
certain day. 

6) fishing-canoe. 

7) koni, emphatieally=ni, 


8) Oke§ = Koll -tobacco; 


9) Dutch- 10) the Danes in 
' Osu or Ghrisdansbwg. 

11) and tluit if any veisd 
(which) should anker 

12) formerly. 

13) 8C. the letters or what 

waa wntten in it 


-" 184 - 

Ye ko le se le mafitSemei 
enyo, AkwamumaAtSe ^Q Ga- 
maiitSe ni atSele Okdkoi h 
yo ; koni ameyee *) kwra ; 
amewuQ dane, ni G3-maiitse 
le kpee amena, ^) ni edso 
foi ke-ba La-Kole le A6, ni 
ebole abo, ') koni cwu ta le 
ehftle. Ni La-Kole le Ad si- 
katso ke-j^a hS AtSim-mantse, 
ni ekearae aba abawu. Ni 
agbe ameK*) Ifem, ni ame- 
yi^) fio pe amena gbe, ni 
amedso foi ke-te filau^) se, 
ni ameh! dSemei ke - basi 
Amen^j^mene. Ni no se le 
Ga-mantSe le ke ewebii le 
fg babi nsQ ne na. 

1) they did not agree. 

2) kpe na, to prevail. 

3) bo m. k. abo, to take 

refuge with s. b. 

4) sc. the Akwamu-people. 

5) yi, head, number. 

6) filau, river Volta. 

3« Kutftmanso ta. 

Beni ayawu neke ta ne, 
GSimei ke Akwapimmei ke 
AdSmei &l dSu, ^ ni eng gbii 
nyonma ke ekome le amese 
heni ameyabo nsra') ye le. 
Kek« le Akwamemei ke 6S- 
mei ke mfidSi krokomei le 
nl fata Ga he le baye won,') 
koni moko akadso foi , ni 
beni ameyeo woA le lolo le 
Gbughramei *) yaye Late - 
gbe ^) heni ASantemei le bo! 
ofoyeli^) ye le. Keke le 
Gbugbramei le mdmd ASan- 

The Katamanso war 
(about 1826). 

1) broke up on Monday. 

2) bo nsra, to encamp. 

3) ye woft, to eat fetish, by 

which two parties bind 
themselves for a certain 

4) Prampram-people. 

5) ye-gbe, took possession 

of the way to Late. 

6) ye ofd, to forage* 

d by Google 

— 1«6 — 

Iraaei le enyo, m atnefo mo- 
kome yi aiere *) mokome, ni 
akele yatSd Owura Hanson 
Baaben ke Owusuyaomei. ^) 
Ni ameke: „Bele wgte heni 
agbe gbomo le ye le, edSake 
dsei amefa ye." Ni eno gbil 
nyonma ke enyo le ameSe 
Katamanso^^) ni amewQ dSei, 
m dsetserend le ameht d§ei 
^enauiQ. *) Ni gbH ni dsi 
gbH nyonma ke edfe le no 
gbeke nmledsi ekpa *) le, 
Asantemei le bu, ni meiko- 
mei ke, bene®) lo se ame- 
nyie ; meikoniei ha ke : Bene 
amebawn. Ni ASanlemei kQ 
amese ^on. Ni dSe batSere, 
ni Gamei le sa amehe. Keke 
le lebi nmedgl ekpa le Blo- 
fdmei ete le sa amehe aroete 
nsrai le fe mli ni amewo Ga- 
me! le ahewale^, ni ameka- 
se gbeye. Agbene amekfl 
amese ekon ke-ba amensra 
le mli. Keke ni amebadio 
amehe fio, ni aroenu A§an- 
temei le ahe, ni amesa ame- 
he. Keke le etSee h^) Asan- 
temei le ninaame; keke ni 
Asante-asafoatSe le ekome 
tSutsa batfa tfi; ni GSmei le 
ho ke-bawQ amedeA/) ni 
amebof wn. Keke le etsee 
le Gftmei le bafie Asanten^i 
le ha batSd amehie, ni ame 
ha ameGe Gamei le ke-ba se 

1) tare, v. n. to carry on the 

head ; v. a. to give 
one to carry. 

2) two Mulattoes and their 

people, who were pre- 

3) A place near the Akwa- 

pim-momitains between 
Osu and Late. 

4) (till) nightfal. 

5) in the evening at 6 o'clock. 

6) perhaps (lit. this time). 

7) wo hewale, to encourage. 

8) etSee, it is not long = 
shortly afterwards. 

10) took it (the fight) into 
their hand* 


~ 186 — 

. kpM. Keke le beni maA- 
tse Ankla asafoiatSe le na, 
ake ta le efite ^) le, eke, ayake 
Ankla le> ake etsi eya se fio. 
Ni eke: Ayabi esafoiatSe le» 
ake eya segbe lo ^ba hie? 
Ni maAtSe Okanta ke: Aya- 
kele ake, emli fliele, ') lo 
ekpoo, *) alo bie ebaye abla- 
de*) le ye? Si m6 d§i noni 
la le efite, nl el§i eya se,®) 
ni ebie, ake eba hie lo eya 
se; §i enaa nii adsi? ^) M 
etsi eba se fio. Keke le eke, 
ayake Kwatei Kodso, ake eh3 
ni asa tSofa.®) Ni Kwatei 
KodSo ke, ayakele ake : Dabi, 
si eAme eyi si') fio, si nS- 
dgia§ibii**»Jbako; sikeSe") 
tSofS §di be le, dsee moko 
aake enanyo. Keke le beni 
eka he ewieo **) lolo le, keke 
nt nftdiSiasibii le pue. Ni eke 
befo le ake: „Ya ni oyake 
Ankla!'' Ni eyin ete. Ni 
ASantemei le fe ekome, *^ 
ni Gdmei hQ fe ekome, ni 
blofomei le babol amekplemii 
Sikamo. **) Keke le se etSee 
le ameke*bawo ASantemei le 
adeft ekofi. Ni agbene ASan- 
temei le badSo foi. Ni GS- 
nnei le pila Osei,^') ni ete. 
Ni beni ete le, etSee keke ni 
egbo. Ni moni ai^d-ta nole **) 
ka kita, ake eke Gameiwun 

1) conriderably. 

2) that tke battle was lost^ 

3) mli fii, to be merry. 

4) kpoo, to get rich. 

5) ye ahlade, to act nobly. 

6) so that he should go back. 

7) adSi, interrog. particle. 

8) to bum the powder (and 
by that to kill themselyes). 

9) Ame yi Si, to have pa- 

10) people from ^east(nnder 

the feet, s. Yoc. 

11) ke Se, if (it) reaches. 

12) ka he fe n. k. continue 
to do s. th. 

13) became one (army). 

14) to load their cttiiM>ns. 

16) Name ai the kings of 
A&tnti, == Sj^er. 

16) who was set upon (se. 
the thr(ne). 


— 187 

DL Clft-8]^€hes deliyered by tke speakers of the fifi-tribe 
durmg tbe disturbances in Jannary 1854. 

1. (About 3000 armed people from Osu, Te§i, Ninwa 
and Tema vrere assembled the 12 Ih. of Jan. in Kpesina 
near Osu, at nighttime. The people having formed a large 
circle with their chiefs, headmen, captains, speakers etc. in 
advance, and having saluted each other in due form, choose 
their speakers and witnesses to accompany them to the 
different groups. The speaker (otSame). AnaA from Osu 
came forward and said); 

„Osu ni ameyOy *) ni ame- 

^Miu le, ake lumo eba; §i 

«ke, ayatfa tQ ahffle. Ni 

amebabaa oblah! bM le ana. 

Keke ni amebayin ameyatfa 

ti) le. Beni fe se le, ake 

a^afla* lumo le, ni amete 

ameyaflale. DSetSereno le, 

akg ayat§e onukpai ye m6A, 

ni amebayin amgte. Aso 

noni akeo noni akeeo , *) 

amenuu mli eko; si fe se 

mon KiSi ni amenu asem- 

sro, ^) ake onia abatSu. *) 

„There wa? Osu, hearing 
that the governor (Cruick- 
shank) has come ; but he has 
said, they may come and fire 
(a salute) for him. And they 
gathered theyoung men. Then 
they arose and fired (the sa- 
lute). Afterwards it was said, 
people shall go and salute the 
Governor, and they went and 
saluted him. Next morning 
it was said, that the elders 
(grandees) were called in the 
fort; and they went. And 
now? what was to be told 
them what not , they heard 

1) „ni" ameyo," relating formula see Tables. 

2) Compare § 50^ 2. a. 

3) Otyi = sane sroto , a strange word. 

4) tsu onia, to raise toll or tax. 


— 188 — 

DSee no nt onukpai le kele 
ake: M^Woyasusu he, koni 
wona eko wobakeo'?"" Ni 
onakpai le basusu he, ni 
amebalo ha ke-ya md na, 
ni ametsu ake ajake lumo, 
ake wiemo ko ni etsi ehSame- 
le, eba, koni amesusu ame- 
kele, bgni ameke amesane 
^ahala mli-hS. Si ni ame- 
hs atsele le, oke amehQ 
ameba m5n; ni onukpai le 
hQ ke, ameyaa. Ni enma 
samamo^) ^olo eha akeba- 
M onukpai le, ni nV) amena 
samamo wolo ie, ni amedSo 
foi ameyatetei ') amehe. Ni 
ye nili ahQ le lumo t§u bft 
ayake oMah! le, ake ameba 
mdn, n\ ekeame wiefio; ni 
oblaM le fS babua amehe na 
ye md na le ke Mulatofoi 
le fS, ni amehft ayakele, ake 
amebabua amehe na ye md 
na, §i dba. Si ekplSd ba. 
Ni Mulatofoi kpaame fai, akt 
amehS ni ate, si ke atSi 

nothing of it;- but is iw^a 
rather afterwards, before tli.e 
heard a strange palawer, tha 
a tax shall be raised, l^ii 
not then the grandies ssl2 
to him saying: „„We will gc 
and think about, that we ma^ 
get something to tell thee ?" *^ 
And they got up with one 
accord and went before the 
fort, and they sent to tell 
the Governor, saying (re- 
specting) the word which he 
had mentioned to them, he 
may come, that they ma^ 
(think and) tell him how they 
had chosen the matter (to give). 
But because they had him 
called, he said, they rather 
shall come into the fort; and 
the grandees (also) said, they 
will not go. And he wrote a 
sunmions (letter) and Sent it 
to the grandees, and when they 
saw the letter they ran away 
and concealed them- selves 
(here and there). After a 
considerable time the Gover- 
nor sent to tell the young 
men, they shall come into the 
fort, that he may speak a little 
with them. And all the young 

1) sama, v. engl; to summon. 

2) n\ = beni or nonl, when or because » as. 

3) Compounp redupl. form. 


— 189 — 

amena *) le le , bele ameke 
amefe agboi. Ni amef^ amelo 
ho kete md len, ni lumo le 
keame ake : Le ni ehS ayatse 
eman onukpai le ke-ba eno, 
ni etu gbe ^) ko ewo ame- 
den^) ni amekele, ake ame- 
yadten , *) koni amena eko 
amebakgle; si kpla ne ame- 
bakeko le noko, nohewo n\ 
eke, etseame, koni ameya- 
lao nomei ke-ba Ho lebi. Si 
^0 le wonu, ake onia hewo 
ni atseoanie; Si n5 hewo ni 
wotsu, ake ababua nyefe na, 
koni wofg wokpe mli, boni 

1) tsi-na, lo retain. 

2) gbe, voice, word, lan- 
guage (used by old people rr= 
wiemo, f. i. AdSnme = Adah- 
gbe etc.). 

3) tu wo m.k. den, to give 
over to s. b. 

4) dfen, Otgi verb =^ susn. 

men assembled themselves be- 
fore the fort with all the Mu- 
lattoes, and sent to tell him, 
that they had assembled them- 
_selves before the fort, but he 
may come. But he did not 
consent to come. And the 
Mulattoes begged them , that 
they may go, for if they should 
be retained , then they would 
die with them altogether. And 
they all went with one accord 
into the fort, and the Gover- 
nor told them saying, he (was 
it who) had his towngrandees 
called to come to him and 
given a matter over to them, 
and they had told him, that 
they will go to consider, that 
they may have something to 
tell him; but till now they 
had told him nothing, there- 
fore he had thought to call 
them, that they may go and 
seek those and bring them 
on Saturday morning. — But 
we have heard that for the 
poUtax' sake they were called, 
and now therefore we have 
sent, to assemble you all, that 
we all may decide, how we 
will act!" 

(The i^sultat of this speech was an agreement upon 
oath betwixt these towns, not to allow the grandees to go 


— 190 — 

to the fort nor to pay any tax, even if the Governmeiil 
should fight with them, and to make war with any party 
breaking the agreement.) 

2. Jan. 14. 1854. 

(About the same number is assembled on the said 
Saturday, immediatly under the loaded cannons and rockets 
of Fort Christiansborg. The Mulattoes, some Missionaries 
from Christiansborg and a deputation from King Taki from 
Dutch Akra are assembled in a group of their own, to try 
whether they can do something for peace. The Kpon- 
(Pony-) people have joined the rest, all are armed except 
the peacemakers. Mr. J. Briandt from Osu brings the mes- 
sage of the Mulattoes over to the people, after the necessary 
ceremonial, saying [in extract]): 

„01e, dsee nokon! Gua 
amralo ni ba eke Owura 
Bannerman bawie ye onia- 
tSumo ne hewQ, nohewo le 
etse anukpai le, koni eke- 
ame, ake ababoi tsumo ekoii. 
§i ameke, ametsuu. Agbe- 
ne le eke Owura Banner- 
man, ake lele 6ya ; si ekwe, 
koni ekeame adsadse , ni 
ehmale wolo. Dsee no eno- 
fie no. Ni beni ete le se, 
koni Ow. Bannerman batse 
man onukpai le, ni ekeame. 
Ameke > am^te ameya susu. 

„Thou knowesl! it is noth- 
ing! — The Governor from 
Cape Coast which came has 
spoken vrith Mr. Bannerman 
about this poUtax, therefore 
he has called the grandees, 
that he may tell them that 
it will be raised again. But 
they said, they will not pay 
it. Now be told Mr. Banner- 
man, that he himself he is 
going ; but he may see, that 
he may settle (the matter) 
and write him a letter. Then 
it was that he went. And 
when he was gone, then Mr. 
Bannerman called the gran- 
dees and told them. They 
said, they will go and con- 
sider. And they went and 
came to town. Then he wai- 


~ 191 — 

!6 ameyiA kt-ba roan. Ene 
le ekweame kweamegbe ahQ, 
ake ameba, lo — ; fg krdnS! 
A, nakai lo? .... Ene ye 
mli ahd le ebanu, ake Osu 
ke La ke Tesi ke Tema ke 
Kpon ebakpe ye Kpesina, ni 

amepam eyi uo k. n 

Dsee no le hQ eke, bele ke 
ameba pe 'ni ameka noko ne- 
femo le, matfa okplem roa- 
woame? Tfa amanye aba!" 
(Badu Asonkg, Osu Otsame 
le, heto): 

„Nyeboa beni kpawo kpawo 
toi kpawo le ke toi ! Ameke : 
Dsee nokon! si amenyontSo- 
mei dsi nekegbomei ne, ni s3- 
dSi ni amekeame yeo le eft65 
amena. Dsi ake me? *) Kedsi 
biane oM to one, ni oke : Mike- 
le ate m5n ni minyontSo agbla 
etoi)^) ahSmi le: beni okele 
te le, aSdle ye oden. Ked§i 
oke: Miyawu nso le, beni 
ote le^ tfe! amdo aheo nii*) 
k. n. Agbene hQ le ake : Nd 
le d§i aatsu onia! Ni 

ted a long while for them, 
whether they would come 
or (not) ; — (but) all (was) 
silent. Yes, so it was, or 
(not)? (Answer: „yes!" by 

the wilnesses) After 

this a long while then he 
heard, that Osu and La and 
Tesi and Tema and Kpon 
had met at Kpeshimouth, and 
he conspired against him etc. 
.... Was it not, that then 
also he said: Well, as soon 
as they come and venture to 
do something like this, I shall 
fire cannons at them? Let 
happiness come!"" 

(Answer of Badu Asgnko, 
the speaker of Osu): 

„Listen to what the seven 
(and) seven times seven said : 
they said: It is nothing! but 
their masters are these men, 
and the things which they 
do with them is not agre- 
eable to them. What then? 
If now for instance thy wife 
tresspass against thee aud 
thou say: 1 will take her 
into the fort, that mv master 
may chastise her for me: 
when thou goest , she is 
snatched from thee. If thou 
say: 1 will go and bathe in 
the sea: when thou goest, 
at once thou art caught and 
punished, etc. And now it 
is also said: Above this there 
shall poUtax be raised! 

1) Lit: Is as what? peculiar expr. 

2) gbla m. k. toi, to pull one's ear. 

3) h. m. k. nii, to punish one for money. 


192 — 

meikomei hd amebii ke nii 
ye onalsumo ne hewQ ; §i 
Amene ye mli dhQ le ake, 
aatsu onia ne ekon! .... 
§i onia le ametsuu, 6fe! ame- 
tsuu! .... Atamei, dseeboni 
nyeken,^) lo?" (Helo): „A! 
WQhaa foi tongo!" ^) 

And some have sold tlieir 
children and things because 
of this polltax (the first time) ; 
and to day — after a long 
time — it is said, it shall 
be raised again! .... But 
the tax they do not pay, heh ! 
they do not pay ! . . . . Fa- 
thers! Is this not what yoa 
said?" (Answer of all) : „A! 
we give not one penny!** 

KinkS-Otsame Alimo 
wiemo (HetO). 

. . . . Ke ameke ametsuu 
onia le, no le womlnu no; 
si su6mg ni ameke amesu- 
m6o Nlisiblofd don le, no 
le edsaa efe! edsaa! Simeini 
dsoro si ne fe le, gbl ni l^fli- 
simei le bahe mo ne, ani 
ameyee won? nlo amefe ame- 
ye m6 len? Kwe le! nraene 
dani amekeo, ake amenlse 
atQa! No le, ke ameke na- 
kai le, en66, efe! endo! — 
.... Si nyetaoa wiemg kpa- 
kpa nyehSmi! .... 

The speech of the speaker 
of Dutch-Akra (Answer). 

.... If they say they do 
not pay a tax, that we can 
understand; but the service 
they said they do not serve 
the English - European any 
longer, that is not right, heh! 
it is not right. For all who 
are lying here about; the day 
when the English bought this 
fort, have they not then ea- 
ten fetish? Were they not 
then all in the fort? Lo, to 
day it is before they say, that 
they revolt! That, if they 
say so! that is not tasteful, 
heh! that is not tasteful! — 
.... But seek a good word 
for me! .... 

1) Sen = ke dsi. 

2) foT tongO! interj. s. Vocab. orig. only used by chil- 
dren, but employed by this powerful speaker and theHce 
much used. 


193 — 

Badu Asonko heto. 

.... Stiomo ni woke ake 
wosum{>Q Nligimei don le, no 
le wokwa: w(}siimoame moA; 
si onia le wotsuu, ni mo len 
ha onukpai le baa; si ke efd 
onukpai le asedi ke onia le 
sedi, bele m5 len edso; si 
ke eke, ekpl^g le, bele wo 
hu wonyen noko woofe ! Tfa 
omanye aba! — 

Badu Asonkos answer. 

The service (of) which we 
said, that we do not serve 
the English any longer, that 
we take back : we will serve 
them, but the tax we don't 
pay, and into the fort the 
grandees do not go; but if 
he cease to demand the gran- 
dees and to demand the tax, 
then the nation has rest; 
but if he say, he will not 
agree, we also cannot help 
it! Let happiness come! — 

IT. Gs-adesaf. 

1. Anann keAnanateke 
sisai ete. 

„Miia^) lo mitaanye?" 
„„Womhere no!"" 
„Dsee')Ananuke ebiAna- 
nute ^) ni ameyo ; ni h6m6 ba 
naakpa , ni wo ke ebi koo; 
ni kedsi hSmo boi ame yeli, 
ameya lumu no\ ni ameya- 

IT. 6a -Fables. 

1. Spider and Spiderson 
and three ghosts. 

„Shall I tell ornottell you?" 
„„We take it up!"" 
„Were there not Spider 
and his son Spiderson. And 
hunger came very hard; and 
the cock ami his son had 
nothing to pick and when the 
hunger began to eat them, 
they went upon the rubbish 
and sought nuts to crack and 

1) ta adesa, to tell a fable. S. Vocab. 

2) A common narrative formula. 

3) -te, -te, -tete, name of the firstborn son, ananu, 
spider. S. Voc. „adesa.** 

Zimmermaon, Akra-Gramtn. 13 


— 194 

taoo Amei ni ametso ame- 
kpe; ni otSii enyo lo ete figdS 
nIamenanmekuliO kome. Ni 
gbl ko le Ananute te nme h 
eko taoiDQ, ni ena eko pe; si 
beni etsoo hQ le, nme le ny6 
obisi bu mli, ni fele awyere- 
ho ') naakpa. Si mldso ^) 
anySS aye le, Ananute bote 
bu \m; ni b6ni eya le, eyati 
sisai ete no , sisa yen ke sisa 
tsuru ke sisa din, ni, abQ 
dsen*) tam, amedsuko ame- 
he lo ameseko ameyi d9. Ke- 
ke ni amebile ake: »N^gbe 
oyaa? ni meni otaoo?" Ni 
eka ekosem^) etsoame, ake 
homo eba amem^, ni yfQ 
'Nanu ke ebi koo, ni le humi 
eyakpa si ahu, ni ena nme- 
kuli le, beni etsoo hii le, 
nme le lu ke bote obisi bii 
mli, nohewo enyte ese ne. 
— Keke ni ameyi ete ^) le 
tt ame here no ake: ^Aso 

eat, and two or three week 
(passed) before they foun^ 
one single nut: And one da^ 
Spiderson went to seek fbi 
a nut, and found just one 
but when he cracked it, ii 
fell into a rats' hole and grie- 
ved him very much. But i1 
being bitter not to be able 
to eat it, Spiderson went into 
the hole and when he was 
going, he stept upon three 
ghosts, a white (white are 
the fetishes) ghost and a red 
ghost, and a black ghost, who^ 
even since the world was 
created, had never washed 
themselves nor shaven their 
heads. Then they aske^ him: 
„Whither art thou going ? 
and what seekest thou ? And 
he related his sad palawer 
to them ; that hunger had 
come to their town and the 
cock 'Nanu and his son had 
nothing to pick; and he the 
poor fellow had gone (and) 
wandered about a long time, 
and he had found a single nut; 
also this when he cracked it, 
jumped off and fell into a rats' 
hole , therefore he was walk- 
ing here after it. Then they 
three together answered say- 

1) kuli, single grain. 

2) Otyi = grieve. 

3) Gram. Subj. left out. 

4) bo dsen, to create the world. 

5) ka kosem, Otyi, to relate the history of ones mis- 

6) yi ete, yii ete, three heads, used of persons. 


~ 195 — 

Bmelnli tSaii heyvQ latSa etSao 
pam ne!" Ni ameyafS yere 
ke-dse am^nmdSi ^) ke-ba, ni 
amekele ake: „Na yedSi! ') 
tsemo ni oho he totoi lemon, 
si oke ekpakpai le afie/' Ni 
efe take boni amekele le, ni 
beni ekwe le, efe yere akpa; 
ni eye afe') gbi! ete ye ame- 
nd, ni efi naakpa. No se le 
ekeame, ake amewole gbe, *) 
koni eke noko ayahS enye- 
mimei ni ygsla le. Ni ameyaffi 
yere amewo bedeo mB, ni ame- 
N^ole ghe. §i beni amekele ya 
ni ameyadsie le gbeO le, ame- 
ke ake : „Nmene ots6 ^nan- 
Dyo; si wobakeo sane ko ; si 
kake moko, ni kala neke lala 
ne gbikogbiko ; ni lala le 
noni amela amet^le 1^ ne^ 

»„Asaman fufu C6!*) 
Asaman koko 06! 
Asaman tuntum do! 

Mitri anya tQ a mebeye den 

ing: „And for a mere single 
nnts sake thou art perspiring 
80 much?" And they went 
and digged yams from their 
plantation-ground and brought 
it, and they told him : „See 
(here are) yams! peel it, and 
cook the peel of it only, but 
the good ones cast away !"* 
And he did as they told him, 
and "when he looked, it had 
become good yams; and he 
remained about three days 
with them and became very 
fat. After that he said unto 
them, that they may dispatch 
him, that he may bring 
something to his brethren at 
home. And they digged yams 
and put it into a basket and 
dispatched him. But when 
they accompanied him on the 
way, they said: „To day thou 
hast become our friend, and 
we will tell thee something, 
but tell it to no body and 
do not sing at any time this 
song ; and the song which 
they tought him was this: 

„„Weisser Geist, hoho! 
Rother Geist, hoho I 
Schwarzer Geist, hoho! 

Wurd' mein Kopf iibertreten, 

1) nmd§i, plantation-ground. 

2) pi. of yere. 

3) afe (s. fe v.) may be, about* 

4) wo m. k. gbe , to dispatch. 

5) dsie m. k. gbe , to accompany oiie on the way; 

6) 06! 66! is often added to words and sentences in 
calling or singing. 


— 196 — 

Ode tri fi* ase, 

Ode nan fi' ase: 

Ode tri fi' ase! 

Woara yawabosom panyiri!**" 

Keke ni enyle ni ese Sla. 
Beni amenale le, amenya ehe 
naakpa. §1 yedsi le nl Ana- 
nute ke-ba le, Ananu yatSe 
enanemei, ni amedsie eji^ 
hu naakpa. Ni ameye yere 
afe nydn kome soft, edsake 
el^re pi Iso; ni agbene le 
Ananu ke ewebii fia fi. Ni 
asan Ananute yanSo yedsi ke- 
ba dane. 

Ni ye dhu le Ananu ke Ana- 
nute ake: „Mibi, beni ofe le 
fa, mi hQ mafata ohe fio, ni 
bo hu odsQ ohe." Si Ana- 
nute ekpleS etse» edsake 
Ananu be d§en kpakpa. Si 
kele Ananu tsd na ko, beni 
Ananute [bay a le> koni ele 
hegbe ni ete. Gbi nyOA nl 
dse atsere np ni Ananute ate 
le , Ananu yagbu Ananute 
kotoku nl eke-yaa le sisi, ni 
en5 lamlu wo mli. Ni se 
ademaAkS le, beni Ananu fie 

Was wiirde mir gescfaehen ? 
Den Kopf , den wirft er weg ! 
Den Fuss, den wirft er wegl 
Den Kopf, den wirft er weg! 
Du, du beleidigtest dieHaupt- 

Then he walked off and came 
home. When the/y saw him, 
they rejoiced over hinn very 
mufh. But (because of) the 
yams which Spiderson had 
brought, Spider called bis 
friends and they praised him 
also very much. And thej' 
ate yams about a whole 
month, because he had car- 
ried very much, and now he. 
Spider, and all his people 
got fat. And Spiderson went 
again (and again) to bring 
yams always. 

After a long while Spider 
said ijplo Spiderson : „Myr hoy, 
what thou hast done, suffi- 
ces, I also will assist thee, that 
thou also may est have rest." 
But Spiderson did not con- 
sent to his father, for Spider 
had no good manners. But 
still Spider used a trick, when 
Spiderson was about to go, 
that he may know whither 
he went. In the night of the 
day of which in the morning 
Spiderson would go, Spider 
went and made a hole in the 
bottom of the bag Spiderson 
was to take with him, and | 
put ashes in. After that early 
when Spider set out, his father 
slept, and when he awoke, 

1) dsie m. k. yi, to praise ond. 


197 — 

no le, etSe ewo, ni beni ehfe 

ts6 le, eyifi ni eyana ake 

lamlu le efie si ye gbe no 

no m ni etSd ke-te Ig; ni 

ejanina Ananute le ye nma- 

Amasa n) ake yaa neke md 

len le. Beni Ananute na et§e 

le, ehie fele ys; ^ keke n\ 

ebile, ake; „„Ata! me feme 

oba ye bie? ke osumg, ake 

ote le, bo ni oya, si mi le 

inibaku mise ; si noni makeo 

dsi, ake ndfend nl ameakeo 

le, femo! si katse sane na,'j 

ni kafe ohe niilelo tutu!"" 

Keke n! Ananu kele ake: Nto 

mifoo? Si mile bgni mafe 

memo ; si ke oku ose dsin ^), 

ku ni oya!"" Ni Ananute ke 

etSe gbla*) mli. Ananute ba 

sla, ni etse le bu te sisai 

am§ len. Beni Ananu se §i^) 

ni enaame pe le, efd ake: 

„„N§ bului ne d^? meba 

nyesee nyeyi ni nyedSuu nye- 

be? Nyebaa bie, nl maSe 

he went and saw, I hat the 
ashes had fallen on the way 
on which he was gone away 
and he went and overlook 
Spiderson at the outskirts 
where they go to that town. 
When Spiderson saw his fa- 
ther, be was astonished; then 
he asked him saying: „„Pa- 
pa, what to do here hast 
thou come? if thou like to 
go; pass and go; but as for 
me 1 will return; but what 
1 will tell thee is, that what- 
soever they will tell thee, 
do! but do not speak much 
and make thyself not too 
wise!"" Then Spider told 
him saying: „„Have 1 not 
begotten thee ? But 1 already 
know how to act; but if thou 
say thou will return, well, 
return and be gone!"" And 
Spiderson and his father de- 
parted from eachother. Spi- 
derson came home, and his 
father also went to the ghosts' 
town. When Spider arrived 
and had just seen them, he 
broke out : „ Where do these 
fools come from? Why do 
you not shave your head nor 
wash yourselves ? Come hi- 
ther, that 1 may shave this 
hair of yours, which is like 
a bush (for you)!"" Then 

1) hie fe yS,. to be astonished* 

2) to speak much. 

3) ddin = dsiO; to be supplied: „ or not, t don*t care,** 
return etc. 

4) gba mli, to separate, pi. gbla mi. 
6) §e si, to arrive. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

198 — 

nyeyitSoi n\ tamo ^0 ne ma- 
Mnye!"" Keke h amebo! 
ADanudsemQ^ake leetSdoame 
niile lo? Ni amebile ake: 
„„Meni otaoo?"" Ni ekS eko- 
sem etSdame ; ni ameyafU yere 
ke-ba, ni amedsie nyonmai 
ete amehdle, ake eho nl e;ye, 
§i etsemd *) totoi h eivo ku- 
kwei le mli, ni eke yere 
kpakpa le afie. Si Ananu ke 
ake : „Te afe ten ni masere 
yedsi kpakpai le mafien? ^) 
Nyeno') bului ke koloi ko- 
mei*) be!"" Ni Ananu ba- 
Aq^) yedSi kpakpai le ewo 
botoku mli; si ehoo ahu, ni 
ebee. Ni amebadse Apanu 
ake le boti^) kolo dSile; si 
elo totoi le ewo botoku le 
mli. Ni efe nakai; keke le 
amro le ebe ni etsd yere kpa- 
kpa moiky ni Ananu ye. Ana- 
nu ye fthQ le ekeame> ake 

they began to scold bim 
whether he perhaps was the 
person to teach them wis- 
dom? And they asked him: 
„„What doestthou want?"" 
And he related his troubles 
to them; and they went and 
digged yams and hrought it, 
and they selected thirty for 
him, saying that he may boil 
and eat it; but he shall peel 
the peel off and put it uato 
the pot, and cast the good 
yams away. But Spider said: 
„„How is it that 1 shall cast 
the good yams away? Aboye 
you there are not any fools 
and brutes (to be found)!"" 
And Spider went and cut the 
good yams and put it into a 
large pot, but he boiled it 
a long time, but it did not 
get done. And they began , 
to scold Spider, that he ra- 
ther is a brute; for he shouid ^ 
take up the peel and put it 
into the large pot. And be 
did so, then immediately it 
was done and had become 
good yams; and Spider ate. 
Spider had been there a long 
time (when) he said unto 
them, that he will go. And 

1) pi. obj. of ts6, to peel. 

2) se-f5, pi. Sere-fie. Term. aug. A to conclude the 
question, § 20, 1. at the end. 

3) Above you. 

4) some. 

6) pi. obj. of the verb fo, to cut. 
6) old form = moi^ , rather. 

Digitized by 


199 — 

e^. Ni ameyawo bedeo obd 
le yere, ni amekg-bahdle, 
oi amekele yin, koni ameya- 
dsiele gbe> ni amekele ake: 
„„Na, nvolala ne, wobat§6o; 
si kala gbikogblkol'^^'ni ame- 
boi lamo kele tSomg ake: 

„„Asaman fufu 06! 
Asaman koko 06! 
Asaman tuntum 06! 

Metri anya etc. etc."" 

§i beni amela lolo le» Ananu 

hu ebot amrd le non ; si 

beni amebile h, ekeeame; §1 

eke, ake, emS lala ko elaa. 

§i beni amekjle etsere mli') 

le ni Ananu ete ehle fio pe 

le, eboi lala le lame; keke 

le efle ke-dse nwei elu si, 

krum! kekgle eyitso efo, ena- 

ne efo, ni egbo hQ; si kele 

ela lolo. Ni sisa yeA le ke ') 

enyemimei le ake: „„NyehSa 

woyalsiea ehie, si enii ye 

mobg!""*) Ni amebalsie ehle. 

they filled a basked with yams, 
and the^ gave it to him and 
went with him to accompany 
him on the way, and they 
said unto him: ^^See, this 
is our song; we will show 
it to thee; but never sing it!"" 
and the^ began to sing, and 
to show him saying: 

(Solo) : 
„„Weisser Geist, hoho! 
Rother Geist, hoho! 
Schwarzer Geist, hoho I 

(Chor) : 
ward' mein Kopf etc. etc."** 

But when they were still sing- 
ing, Spider had also imme- 
diately begun ; but when Ihey 
asked him, he did not tell 
them, but said, that he is 
singing a song of his town. 
But when they had departed 
from him and he had gone 
a little fowards, he begun to 
sing the song; then he burst 
from above and troke down, 
plump! then his head (was) 
cut off, his foot was cut off, 
and he also died, but still 
he went on singing. And the 
while ghost told is brethren 
saying: „„ Let us awake him, 
for he is to be pitied!"" And 
they awoke hi^n. But when 
he went again, he began to 

1) perf. tense, used like plusq. 

2) tsere mH pi. form of tse mli, to rent. See above: 
gba mli. 

3) k^ , to say, must sometimes be written with the sign 
of length to distinguish if from the auxiliary verb : kg, to take. 

4) About „mobQ,** „yfi mi^o,*' „na mebo** s. Voc. 


200 — 

§i beni eya ekoA le, ebd 
lamo ekon , ni efele nakai 
Don. Si amenale lUQbo ekoA 
ni amesa araetsfe ehie. Keke 
le ameboUe yi, ni amefiele 
ke eden eflo ke-ya sfa. Si 
beni mei le nale le, ameml 
se amehe naakpa ameblo: 
„„Ye! na Ananu! Ye! na 
Ananu!**" si beni amebi edsa- 
tsu si le, ekSi ekosem etsda- 
me. Ni ameSe Ananu no 
amef5, ni ameke: „„Ananute 
no') mon eba dsen!""') 
EdsakeSi ke ote mo mS 
len le, noni afeole, no 
ofeo, gi ofee ohe take 
niilelo ko, ni otsSo se 
ofeo bulu!""*) 

sing again, and the same be 
fel him. But they pitied liim 
again and awoke him the se- 
cond lime. Then they began 
to beat him and drove him 
off emptyhanded to his to^wn. 
But when the people saw 
him, they rejoiced very much, 
crying: „„ Halloo! See Spider! 
Halloo! See Spider!"" But 
when they asked after his 
load, he told them his trou- 
bles. And they cast Spider'^ 
away; and they said; „„Spi- 
derson's behaviour rather (is 
something which) is manner 
of the world!"" Because 
if you have gone to any 
body's town, what is 
done, that thou doest, 
and doest not make thy- 
self as a wise man to 
become afterwards a 

1) fe, V. impers. to happen to s. b. 

2) thing, what he did. 

3) ba dsen, to be fit in the world, fashionable, to behave. 

4) Imperfect tense used like an Imperative mood. 

2. GbOlO*) ke en§. 

2. The hunter and his 

„Mita lo mitaa?" 
„„Womhere no!"" 

„Shall I tell or not!" 

„„We answer!"" 

_ ^ , , . « J „Was not tere a man and 

„Dsee nu ko ke enS ni j^j^ ^-j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^ere. 

ameyo* Ni atSeo ehS gbei, And his wife's name was Ba- 

1) gbobi, to hunt; gbobilo, gbOlO, hunter. 


— 201 

ake: Badua. Ni ameyo ko 

se, ni na le gbobio; ni lo 

homd baba , ni anaa mle tete 

afa ni aho po; §i Badua le» 

ewu le ke ete gbobimo, enaa 

lo kg egbeo ke-ba. §i agbene 

Ie,,nQ le, enaa lo le eko egbe 

don. §i beni e^^a ko le mli 

le, ena» ake hinmalo efe ba- 

yelOy ni enu emli 1^ le momo, 

ni eke-tsotsoro si, koni ke 

ewo gdgomii le, bele ebaye 

g5g5nu le. Ni nQ le ke-ba 

sla, ni end le kele ake: 

,,„KpaO ^) miyee koloi ana 16, 

ni mihi lo fulQ hu, nohewo 

le mihoo, ni mitdH he/*** Ke- 

ke le nH le ekee noko, ni 

eyih ke-te ni eyatse nibii, ni 

eflo lo le ni eho wonu le, 

ni esi ete ni eyaflo amada! 

ke-ba, ni ebasi fuifui^) end- 

fata he, koni eye. Si beni 

ete le , end le ko ato, ni ebo! 

loi le yeli. Keke le loflo ko 

basd §i, ni eboi eyiwomg ^) 

ke neke lala ne ake: 

dua. And they were in the 
bush, and there came a 
meat- hunger, that not even 
mushrooms could be taken 
out and cooked; but as for 
Badua, her husband when a 
hunting he used to find ve- 
nison (flesh) to kill and bring. 
But now he, the man, got not 
longer any game to kill. But 
when he went to the bush, 
he saw, that the ^scratch- 
face** (leopard) had rent a 
„Ieafealer** (and kind of ante- 
lope) and had drunk the blood 
(in it) and hanged it up, that 
if it may produce worms, he 
may eat the worms* And 
the man brought it home; and 
his wife told him: „„Fye! 
Never I eat any meat from the 
mouth of wild beasts , and I 
abhor also stinking meat,there- 
fore I neither cook nor touch 
it!'*** Then the man said 
nothing, and went and plucked 
things (for soup) and cut the 
meat and cooked and he left 
it and went to cut plantains 
and brought them, and poun- 
ded fuifui (a native favorite 
food) to it , and then he ate. 
But when he had gone, his 
wife took the ladle and be- 
gan to eat (from the pieces 
of) the meat. Then a bird 
sat down and begun to mock 
at her with this song: 

1) KpaO, inteij. Fye! $fui! 

2) All this is womans-work. 

3) wo m. k, yi, to cry at one (mockingly). 



202 — 

„,,Baclua! :|: 
Omd sika koe nyara! 
Badu' se nkodi aboa furu 
Etfase nkodi 
Okyiri 6 odio . . ."" 

Keke ni eko te etfale, f^ le,0 
ela lolo; ni Badua bakQ lo 
le, ni eye; ni loflo le fliki, 
ni ela neke lala ne non etsd 
na le ye enmd le Si; si klen- 
klen le na le naa siSi; ni 
beni ena sisi le, eba sla ni 
ebabile, ni ehie gbo') naa- 
kpa. Ni ase yO 1q nd afo, 
ni ake na le n5 ba dsen; 
edsake ke na ke eM ye» ni 
yO le mlhi noko le ni na le 
hi! le, ehoQ ehSale keke, si 
eyee eko. 

„„Badua! :|: 
Sie lasstGold yerloren geh'n; 
Badu*sagt, sie ess' kein Stink- 

Sei nicht recht, dass man es 

Hinter ihm, da isst sie es!"" 

Then she took a stone and 
cast it at it; all (in Tain), 
it sang still; and Badua took 
the meat and ate; and the 
bird flew away, and sang this 
same song to the man in his 
plantation ; but at first he 
did not understand its mean- 
ing; but when he understood 
it, he came home and asked 
the woman, and she was very 
much ashamed. And the wo- 
man's was cast away and the 
man's was brought into fa- 
shion; for if a man and his 
wife live together, and the 
woman abhor something 
which the man does not 
abhor, she cooks it at least 
for him; though she may 
not eat of it. 

1) f6 le, all in wain. 

2) hie gbo, the face dies, to be ashamed. 

T. Songs (lalai). 

1. The arrival of the English. 

(Solo): „liflisblofd eba!" „The English have comcl** 

(Chor): „„Wom'8umo, „,*We like it, 

WQm'sumQ,w9m'sumQ, wgm'- We like it, we like it, we like it; 

sumo; The English have come! we 

I^glisblofdeba, wom'sumo!**" like it!"" :|: 


— 203 

2. A Christian song after a native tune and metre. 

nWonyontsQ Jesu! „Thoa, our Lord Jesus, 

Bo dsielo! :|: Thou sayiouri :|: 

Wonaba omasei, We come at thy side! 

Bodsi ivonyontSQ! :|: Thou art our master! :|: 

Bo ni oyo ^ala, Thou who life possessest, 

Jesu ni yo wala: Jesu thou who has it: 

Womba omasei, We come at thy side, 

Bodsi WQ nyont§Q!" :|: Thou who art our Lord!" :|: 

Though the^Ga people sing yery much, their songs 
which are in use, are mostly Adanme or Olyi. Short Gft- 
songs are composed at random during their plays, dances, 
work etc. These are often very witty and satyrical, but 
we are still too little acquainted with this part of the 
language, to have a sure footing as to metre, tune elipses 
etc. Proverbs and Fables or Tales which already exist by 
hundreds and even thousands are also continually produced 
^y young and old. But it is also difficult, especially with 
the latter, by which many a moonlight night is occupied, 
to get them correctly, and the principal style and spirit of 
them, partly expressed by theatrical change of voice, songs, 
MutA inunitating sounds of voices and noises, interjections 
etc. are generally lost in writing them down, it is the same 
with Speeches and Histories, which are principally given by 
old people who can not write and the younger people who 
can write are not so able in the language. — Respecting 
Proverbs it is to be remarked, that though they are as it 
Were , the expression of the law and manners of the coun- 
try, they are often very ambiguous, and allow not only a 
had, but often also an unclean use. See also the Preface. 

i<| y Jfr J y^fiCJ r* ^''^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

A Orammatical Sketch 

of the 

Akra- or 6a- Language , 

with some Specimens of it from the mouth of 
the natives. 


a Vocabulary of the same^ 

with an appendix on the Adaame-Dialect. 

By Rev. J. Zimmermann. 

Two Volumes. 

Vol. II. Qfi-Tocabolary, mth an AdSnme Appendix. 

Stuttgart^ 1858. 

Printed for the Basel Missionary Society 
by J. F. Steinkopf. 



of the 

Akra- or Ga-Language, 

with an Adanme Appendix. 

By Rev. J. Zimmermann. 

^tutt^art^ 1858. 

Printed for the Basel Missionary Society 
by J. F. Stelnkopf. 

Digitized By CjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



6fi*Tocabularj 1—384 

Atoiite- Appendix. 

a. Grammatical Sketch of the DSnme- 


§ 1. Introduction 385 

§ 2. Sounds 386 

§ 3. Roots 387 

§ 4. Forms and pure Formwords .... 389 

§ 5. Combination and Syntax 396 

§ 6. Verb and its forms in partic 398 

§ 7. Pronouns, nouns and adjectives, or subj. 

and object and their definitions . . . 406 

§ 8. Numerals 410 

§ 9. Adverbs and Conjunctions 412 

§ 10. Interjections etc. 413 

b. Specimen of the Ddnme-Dialect • . . 414 

c. AdSlnme-Vocabulary 426 



Explanation of the Abbreviations. 

Ad. Adh., AdSnme. 

adj., adjective. 

adv., adverb* 

ace. accord., according. 

aor., aorist tense. 

art., article. 

augm., augment. 

aux., auxiliary. 

Akwp. Dial., AJrwapim Dialect (of 

the Otyi-Language). 
Ay., Ayigbe (language), 
b., body; s. b., some body. 
C. Didl., Coast Dialect, 
coll. collect., collective noun, 
com., common noun, 
comp., compare, 
conj., conjunction, 
dan. Da^., danish. 
dem. demonstr., demonstrative. 
Dial. D., Dialect; Kr. D., Krobo 

dim., diminutive, 
engl. Engl., english. 
eur. Eur. europ., european. 
6tc., et cetera. 
Fab., fables, 
f. 1., for instance, 
f. fem., feminine gender, 
fig., figuratively, 
frequent, frequentative mood, 
fut, future tense. 
Grerm., German, 
gen., generally. 

gr. Gr., greek. 

Hebr., Hebrew. 

imperf., imperfect tense. 

i. e., id est, that is. 

impers., impersonal. 

imperat. impert. , ipiperative 

ind., indicative mood, 
ind. indefinit., indefinite, 
inf., infinitive mood or form, 
init., initial, 
int. interj., interjection 
interr., interrogative, 
irr. irreg., irregular, 
iterat., iterative mood, 
lat. Lat., latin, 
m. masc, masculine gender, 
m. k., moko (some body), 
n., noun. 

neg., negative (voice), 
neutr., neuter, 
n. pr., proper noun. 

! neuter v. 

n. k., noko (some thing), 
nom., nominative, nominal, 
num., numeral. 
Ot., Otyi (language), 
obj. object., objective, 
pi., plural number, 
pi. f., plural form, 
perf., perfect tense, 
pers. prs., person, personal. 


Explanation of the Abbreviations. 


pos. posit, positive (voice). 

poss., possessive. 

pot, potential mood. 

pres., present tense. 

pre., personal, person. 

prob., probably. 

pr. n. and n. pr., proper noun. 

pron., pronoun. 

pr. prov., proverb. 

red., reduplicatioB^ reduplicated. 

rel., relative. 

refl., reflexive. 

8., see. 

s. b., some body (moko). 

s. th., some thing (noko). 

sc, scilicet, nStnli^; namely. 

sec, second. 

sec. prs., second person. 

sing., singular number. 

subj., subject, subjective.' 

Tab., Table. 

th. s., the same. 

v., verb. 

V. n. and n. v., neuter verb. 

V. a., a. v., active verb. 

V. imprs., imp. v., impersonal verb. 

voc, vocat., vocative (case). 

verb., verbal. 

=3, like, the same as. 

(?), not sure. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


(Words beginning with A and not found under A must 
be sought, after separating the initial „a** or the pronoun 
^ame** under the next following consonant.) 

a-, first letter of the Alphabet, inilial augment of many 
nouns, especially of impersonal indiyidual character; in- 
definite pronominal augment = they; their (man; 
i^r); or init. augment of the pot. mood and fut. tense 
posit, contracted from ^ba^ to come. Comp. Gram. § 13. 
S (or h§, he) adv. yes. 
aa-, init. augm. of the indefinite 3. prs. pi. of the fut. tensf, 

= aba-, ameba-, they will or shall-. 
Abaflo, n. a fragrant kind of wood used by women to wash 

abalS, abla, n. sail. Adanme th. s. 
abantoli, n. an eatable yellow fruit, 
abas^ (Olyi), n. the length of both outstretched arms; a 

fathom; ta abase, v. to bet. 
abasata, n. betting. 

abenlia, n. grave-yard; redoubt (the Govemment-grave-yard 
and a small redoubt are in one and the same place in 
Osu, wherefore the ope name for both), 
abe (Ad. and Ot. th. s.) n. proverb; bu abe, to use a 

abebu, n. use of proverbs. 
abebulQ, n. speaker of proverbs, 
abei, n. butter-fly. 

abedei, amedei, n. a kind of shall^. 
ab^ku, n. the left (side or hand). Ad. 1h. s. Ot. benkum. 
abekulQ, n. a left handed person, 
abele, n. a pair of tongs, snuffers or pincers. From be, 

to pinch. 
abete, n. a kind of food. 
ab3)rfi)], n. a kind of necklace, 
da&o, pi. -fabii, n. a little child. Ad. th. s. comp. fufoo 

and foo and gbekS. 
abisa, n. a kind of lot; fdto cast lots. Ad. th. s. 
Zimmermann, Akra-Yocab. 1 


2 abisafd -^ ablotSiri-abla. 

abisafd, n. casting of lots. 

abla, n. falsehood. 

ablfi, n. (0\. abrowa) european woman; lady, also used 

ablabutu, n. a large kind of beautiful coloured straw-basket 
ablade, n. a nobleman, 
ablana (Ot. abrana, Ad. ablana), n. gallery, 
ablanano, n. place on the gallery, 
abl^ (Ad. blefo, Ot. abro), n. com, maize; ku able, I 

break corn, gble-i to grind it roughly; wyie-, to grin 

it (welly for bread), 
ableba, n. corn-leaf. 

ablebutu, n. ablabutu, a straw-basket of various colours, 
ablefo, n. half- ripe com; when roasted a favorite food c 

the natives; s. fo, v. and foo, adj. 
ablekpamo, n. maize-harvest; fir. kpa able, v. =^ able kuomQ 
ablekpa, n. the peeling of the corn-ears; s. kpa able, v. 
ablekplamo, n. the same. 
ablekuU, n. eel. Ot. aberekuri. 
abl^kuli, n. single grain of com; s. kuli, n. 
ablekuomo or ablekUmo, n. corn-breaking, com-hanrest. 
ablekulQ, n. corn-breaker, 
ablekuomobe, n. time of the cornharvest. 
ablenmdn, and 
ablenmdsi, n. corn-field, 
able-obutu, n. a load of com. 
abletM (Ot. aberikyi), n. goat, male or female; comp. t4) 

and to kpakpo, n.; and to gwantefi, n. 
abletSo, pi. -t§ei, n. corn-stick; corn-ear. 
ablo, n. hardness; fe m. k. — , v. to be hard against s.b.; 

= wa yi, V. and tfa m. k. §!§!, or fe m. k. Siiitfi, v. 
ablofelQ, n. hard person, 
ablofemo, n. hardness, cruelty. 
abl6gwa (Ot. abrogwa, Ad. ablogba), n. european chair (s. 

bro and bio = european). 
ablogwaf^lo, and 
ablogwakp^lQ, n. chair-maker. 
abl6gwatse, n. chair-man. 

abl6no. Ad. th. s. n. a kind of pudding of the natives, 
ablonwd, Ad. th. s. n. white oil; taUow. 
Ablotsiri, AbrotSiri and AblotSili, Ad. th. s.; Ot. Abrokiri, 

n. pr. Europe, in general: country of the white people, 

also sometimes used of Amerika, and even of Sierra Lemie. 
ablotSiri-abIa, n. a european woman, lady. 


abloUiri-wiemo — abfitse. 8 

aUomri-wiemo, n. any european language = MofdivienH), n. 

abo, D. refuge; ba abo, v. to take refuge. 

abo (and avo), n. (s. bo) field, garden. Ad. th. s. 

abo, n. suspension, s. ye abo, pry. 65, 

abo, n. number; s. bo. 

abo^, n. a kind of swelling in the body; abu^, th. s. 

abobs, n. refuge. 

abobalo, n. person lo whom refuge is taken. 

aboboi. n. (fr. bo, to multiply), ground-beans and other 

beans (comp. akwei), when boiled, a favorite break-fast. 

Ol. and At. th. s. 
abodiamo (Ot. and Ad. th. s.) bottle, esp. common round 

green bottle; comp. atunkpg. 
abokd, n. a kind of cloth brought from the East (bok&). 
Abokobi, pr. n. of a village, 
abold. Ad. th. s., n. bread baked of maize (Ot. abod6): 

comp. komi, 
aboloba, n. leaf in which bread is baked, 
abolobatsoy pi. -, n. the tree from which this leaf is taken, 
abolobatso-na, n. male-bread-leaf-tree, 
abolobatso-yo, n. female dto. 
sbolosalo, n. baker. 

abolosubo, n. loaf of bread, s. akwdbo. 

aborop6, n. precocious person; efe abomp^, he is preco- 
cious; especially used of children. 

abomp^fenio, n. precociousness. 

Mho, n. barn, to preserve the com till it is used. It 
stands generally in the middle of the „fimdn'' or plan- 
tation, and as this is every other year removed must 
often be rebuilt again. 

^ono§], n. place under and round about the bam. 

abons^m, pi -sami (Ad. abuSam, Ot. Qbonsam and abon- 
sam), the devil; a bad person. 

abonsam-dSe, or -dsen, n. hell. 

aboDs^m-la, n. hell-fire. 

ab6nua, n. lemon, lime; lime-colour; adj. lime-coloured. 

tdbonuanu, n. lemonade. 

abonuatso, pi. -t§ei; lemon-tree. 

aboti^, n. goat; she goat. Ad. th. s. 

%tiri, abotri, n. wrestle; fd-, to-. Ad. th. s. 

•botrifo, n. wrestling. 

abotrifolo, n. wrestler. 

abotSe, n. planter, plantation-possessor; comp. AmdtSe and 



i aboyeli — ade dfcpa. 

abo^eli, n. swinging in the air; suspension; fr« ye abQ» y. 

abro-, 8. ablo-. 

abui, n. needle (Ot. and At. diif. eomp. bue, Ad. v. to 
open; bu, n. hole; gbu, v. to make a hole etc.) 

abui-hinmei, n. eye of a needle. 

abuld, s. abol6. 

adaban, s. adeban. 

adade, 'd^de, 'ade-, Ot. and At. th. s. n. iron. 

Ad^de, n. pr. of a Fetish in Osu. 

adadekramd, n. (Ad. and Ay.) eomp. adope and asamdnu- 
kpa, chimpanse. 

adadehk^a, ddenkwa, n. summerset. 

Adadentam, n. pr. (OL = iron-middle) of a Gd-Yillage. 

adafi, n. (perhaps from the Otyi: ade, thing and fi, to come 
forth) news; only used in the phrase tfa adafi, v. to an- 
nounce some news. 

adafitfa, n. annunciation. 

adafitf^lo, n. annunciator. , 

adaka, n. Ad. and Ayigbe and Ot. = adeka, box. 

Addnme, Ddnme, n. pr. Sister or mother-language and tribe 
of Gd, from Tema till Add, at the mouth of the river 
Yolta and from this seacoast to the Akwapim-mountains, 
with the Agotim-branch beyond the river Volta, contain- 
ing the people of Tema, Kpoft (Pony), GbugbrS (Pram- 
pram), NiAgo (Nuno, more properly) and Add at the 
coast; and the Asadsale- or Asidsale-, Osudoku-, §ai- 
(or Siai)-, Krobo- and Agotim- people in the interior, 
together about 50 — 60,000 souls. About the language 
(lit. Add-gb6, voice or language of the Add-people) see 

addhme, n. Ad9-nut; tiger-nut. 

Ad^nse, n. pr. (Ot. witness) of a Gfi- Village. 

adawroma! (Otyi expression, s. daw, dao) your grace! 

adawtso, pi. -t§ei, n. = kada, jaw-bone. 

ade, n. (Otyi, = nd in G3, thing and dse, world, s. these). 
Used in many Gd-phrases, f. i. bo ade, v. to begin exi- 
stence, to come into the world, to live somewhere, Gft- 
HisU 2. 

ade, n. a kind of corall. 

adebQ, n. beginning (s. dsenbo), existence. 

ade, adei, n. or adv. only used in the phrase: wo ad$, 
wo adei, wo dei, to sleep sweetly, espec. used of children. 

adeiwo, n. sweet sleep. 

ade-dkpa, n. good, precious corall. 


adeMA — adobe. 6 

adebdn (= adadebaA), v. iron-bar. 
adeb^Ma, n. iron-clow, crow, 
ad^da, n. bill-hook, 
adedenkruma, n. castor-oil-shnib. 
ad^ka, n. (s. ad^ka), box. 

adekft! adekan! n. (lit. ^the thing in advance, sc. how is 
it?") Salutation of people who come later thou others. 
The answer is: „Ya, adso!" „It is quiet!" The salu- 
tation answering to this in G9 is: ^HSinQ fS?" which see. 
ademaAkg (s. mankS), adv. (Ot. ahimadaki) earl^ before 

adekS, n. time, muse, s. dekS. 
ad^nkO, n. a kind of oallabashes with a narrow pointed 

mouth; s. fao, n. 
adesS, n. a human .being, coll. mankind. It is more defi- 
nite than gbomo, mo, man, person and therefore often 
put in apposition to this: gbomo adesS, a human person, 
gbomei adesai, men. The origin seems to be Otyi, 
though the word is not used in it with this signification. 
Ad. th. s. 
adesS, n. (Ot. = evening), an evening or a touched (Ot. 
sS, 6. ta and sa, to touch) tale, fable (in Otyi: ananse- 
sem, spider-tale, because the spider plajs a principal roll 
in them). TS adesS, to make or give out such a tale 
(which is mostly done in the evening by moon -light, 
when the people are assembled around the central fires 
of their yards). See Gd-Specimen N. IV. Ad, nydsS. 
adesdtSmo, n. tale-telling. 
adesStalo, n. tale-teller, 
adfam^n, n. (Ot. agwamaA); whoring, fornication; pi. -maAi 

or -mai; whore, whoremonger; bo-, to whore, 
adfam^jiibi, n. bastard. 
adfam^AbQ, n. whore-dom; fornication, 
adfam^nbolo, n. whore-monger, whore, 
adfaman-yo or yO-adfaman, n. whore, 
adi, n. dolphin; s. also atl, n. 
adiatsiri, n. (Ot. Fanti dial. comp. di ekyiri, to be the next 

after s. b.), store-keeper, steward, s. semo, n. 
ad6a, n. (pleasure?), Ad. th. s. a kind of dance and music. 
(Ot.), the smallest kind of antelopes (3n?erft(jirf(^, dwarf- 
hart), only about one foot high and long. 
adobe» n. a kind of palm-trees with very large, leaves or 


t adod66 — adufud^. 

adod6fi, n. a yellow fruit of a tree, similar to a plum, but 

adod6n, pi. -dddsi, n. fly; fleshfly. 

adodongbSne, n. large fleshfly. 

adoku, n. 

adope, n. chimpanse, see: asamanukpa. 

adro, n. unripe coconut. 

adSanali, n. a kind of wasps; s. asagba, n. 

ad§anmalate, n. apple of the eye. 

adSato (or ad§oto from the Ot. gyato), n. yaws; a kind 
of pox which many natives get and with which some 
purposely infect their children, because they consider 
themselves afterwards safe against the infection. They 
are not or seldom mortal, but very lingering and of 
weakening effecl. They seem to be the resirit of ani- 
malculae in the skin, as the itch, and are considered so 

' as well as the latler by the natives themselves; ye — , 
inf. ad§atoyeli, to have yaws. 

adsalofo, n. (Ot.) a person infected by this sickness. 

adSatoyelo, n. th. s. 

adSato^eli, n, yaw-sickness. 

adsendSen or adsentsen (0. denkyem), n. a smaller and 
more slender kind of crocodiles then the ^iba'S with 
pointed heads and long tails and of a reddish colour, 
living together with the others in the same waters (Comp. 
also: d§eh). 

ad§ensu, n. (Ot. agyensu, n.) received water from flatt 

adSi (sometimes ayi?), perh. an old fut. tense of „dSi", v. 
to be; = it will or maybe; added to sentences stating 
something doubtful; = perhaps, may be etc. 

adsinS, n. (Ot. agyina, lit. standing), private counsel (comp. 
gwabo); ya-, to go to counsel. 

ad^inSfo, adsinSifonyo, pi. -foi, adSinlllQ, adsin9yalo, n. 

adsindya, n. going to counsel, consultation. 

Adu, n. pr. of men. 

adu, n. monkey; a kind of monkeys. 

aduatsQ, n. confirmation, in the phrase: md wiemo' no 
aduatsQ, to confirm a word; inf. aduatSoma. 

aduawa, n. Otyi = the Ga = tSoyibii; n. fruit of trees. 

aduddn, s. adodon, n. fly. 

adufud6, n. (Ot. adefude; comp. ade, n. and fu, v.) intern- 
perateness exce|s; ye-, to be intemperate. 


adufiid^nii — afa. 7 

adofad^nii, n. pi. intemperate doiDgs or things. 
adufudeyeU, n. intemperateness. 
adufudeyelo, or -yelilo, n. intemperate person, 
adukpei, n. (Danish); dagger. 
adyenkuma, n. a kind of seafish. 

afii, n. half; part; side; adj. half; adv. apart, a side; shor- 
tened: 'fa (comp. fa, V. to take out), 
afa, n. a small kind of bellows; s. sdhme, n. (Ot. =a 

afaban, n. fence; wall; enclosure. 

afdsew, af^so, af^su (Ot. th. s), n. an inferior kind of 
yams (s. y^re); sometimes white, but mostly of a blue 
reddish colour; therefore adjectively used: violetblue or 
-red; compare above „ab6ma^. 
afei, afi, n. a kind of itches in the skin, 
afi, 'fi, n. (Ot. afi, afe, afrihia), year; nye se-, last-; wo 
se-, next year; ye afi 10, to be 10 years old; ye afl, 
to keep aniversary. Ad. dseha. 
afi, n. a kind of partridges, 
afib^, D. an other kind of partridges, 
afiy^li, n. age (of a person); aniversary, festivity, 
afiyelo, -yelilo, n. guest of a feast. 
afia, n. sling; to-, to make a sling. 
aflangS, n. flag (from the Portuguese, Danish or English 

language); si-, v. to hoist up a-; 
aflang^si, n. hoisting up of a flag, 
aflangasilo, n. person doing it. 
^flanme, n. a kind of berries, like bilberries, 
aflahmetso, pi. -t§ei, n. the shrub of them, 
aflata, n. a kind of pap made of corn, 
aflato, n. slinging; see: to afla, v. 
aflimata, n. the sparrow; a kind of itch, 
aflukpongo or afukpoiigo (Ot. afflnfikpoftgo), n. back -or 
hump-horse or belly-horse; either the mule or the camel 
(both not much known here); but probable the former, 
afofro, n. blossom; gba-, to blossom, 
afofrogba, n. blossoming; -mo, n. th. s. 
afole or afore (Ot. afore), offering, sacrifice; §3-, to burn a-, 
afolesd, n. offering; sacrifice, 
afolesahe, n. place for sacrifices. 
afoleSSno, afolesMate, n. altar, 
afole^alo, n. sacnficen 

afoto (Ot. af^), n. bellows; s. afa and sdAme, n, 
afa» n. back, hump (Ot. efO). 


8 atua — agd. 

afua, n. inist, fog; large mass, f. i. trema-, a large mass 
of cowries; nu afua, a large mass of water, flood. 

afui, n. foam; kwS — , to foam. 

afulkwe, n. foaming. 

afukpongQ, s. aflukpgfigQ. 

afutse, n. humpback. 

afutufata, old GS: aputupata, n. bat, flittermouse. 

afutuoko, n. an animal like the rabbit or hare; see kpeft- 
kplen, n. 

afai, n. miracle; wicked art performed by felish-priests (s. 
okomfo); fe — , and ye — , to perform such a miracle. 
Comp. also nkonyS. 

^faiyeli, n. performance of miracles. 

afaiyelo, afaiyelilo, n. performer of such miracles. 

afene, conj. and adv. then; now; s. agbene. 

afife (Ot. afyefye or afife from fye or fe, to look), n. 
looking-glass; glass-pane; glasswindow. 

ag§i, n. a kind of grasshoppers or locusts (comp. balabii 
and gog6nigog6); a very small fly, animalcule; a small 
particle of any thing; nothing, not a bit; adv. with ne- 
gative voice, not at all ; ehadmi agS, he gave me nothing 
or not at all. 

agba, n. a small scaffolding to dey things on. 

agbadsa, n. a kind of dance. 

agbaku, n. honey-comp. ; s. wo, n. 

agbSmi (= agbSbi, s. § 25, 3.) or agbomi, n. fig (of which 
there are different kinds, but scarcely any eatable); 

agbamilso, pi. -tsei; n. fig-tree; wild fig-tree, generally 
used as shadow-trees in the slreet; therefore also called 
„dsanotso", market-tree; and mambrobitso (Otyi.) 

agbamu, n. eatable fruit of cactus. 

agbeena, or agbiena, n. the large rainy season from about 
May till July (s. gbo). 

agbene or agbene (comp. the verb gbe and the pron. ne» 
Ot. afeyi), adv. now; conj. then. . 

agblama, n. lime; chalk. 

agbo Cgbo), n. door, gate; agbo na, before the gate. 

agbo, adj. strong, powerful, mighty; n. a powerful person; 
to -agbo; ram. 

agbomi awSroke, n. anise-shrub. 

agbroke, n. a kind of vegetables. 

agggenu, n. a kind of pap or thick beverage made of water, 
bread bnd honey. 

ago! interj. ho! hoa! -giving notice of approach. 


agolo — ahubQ. D 

agolo?, n. wheel. 

agorgo, agolgo, dan. n. cucumber, (vulgar: pSuis). 

Agolim, pr. n. of a land and tribe beyond the river Volla, 
speaking Adanme. 

agwasen, n. politeness; polite society; an assembly of re- 
spectable people; society; ®efcllfc|iaft; ya — , to go into 

agwasen-gbomo, n. a polite person. 

agwasen - wiemo , n. a polite vrord or language; language 
of conyersation. 

ahabia, n. a plant bearing a beautiful red flower and red 
seeds. Sometimes arrowroot is called so from its simi- 
lar leaves. The seeds, it is said, are used to weigh 

abarabata (a foreign word), or ahalabata, n. the harmatan, 
harmatan- season, from about January till about March 
or April. A dry cold wind from the North or East is 
blowing at this season, so that things and even the skin 

aharabatiJ)e, n. harmatan-season. 

ahi, n. (comp. hi, to abhor and ahi in Otyi), only used 
in the phrase: je m. k. ahi, to mock s. b. to boast 
against, to instigate envy (comp. ye he feo; gbe he guo; 
li th. s.); inf. 

ahlyeli, n. mocking, boasting against. 

ahlyelQ, n. a person doing so. 

ahim^ (Ot. fr. ahyen-ba, small vessel), n. fishingcanoe. 

ahim^ka (europ. word), n. hammock. 

ahim^nkatso, pi. -tsei, n. hammock-stick. 

ahinkese (Otyi); n. canoe, s. anlese. 

Ahodome (Ot), n. pr. of a Ga-village. 

ahofi (or awofi, Ot. ahofl), debauch, debauchery, lavishness, 
prodigality; bg — , v. to live debauchedly. 

ahofibo, n. debauchery. 

ahofibglQ, n. debauchee. 

ahora, n. reproach, blame; bo — , to blame. 

ahorabo, n. blaming. 

ahu, n. treasure, concealed treasure; tu — , v. to find such; 
taf. ahutu. 

Shu, adv. (the „a" can be lengthened at pleasure) a long 
time, very long; continually; very much. Comp. da, 
dane; tutu, t§d, naakpa, pam, tam etc. 

ahuahu (Ot.), n. fear; wo ahfiahu = wo gbeyei, to frighten. 

ahubo, n. pr. 68; wonder, astonishment; Ot. bo ahu. 


10 abtim — akeSi. 

ahi!iin, n. storm. 

ahOntO or ah5ntd, n. (Ot.) urgency; trouble; fc — , to b€ 

urgent, trouble-some, 
aburuti^ (Ot. = spring-short), n. a short kind of springiiig 

snakes, very poisonous. 
ahOtu, n. discovery of a treasure; s. tu abO, r. 
ahotulo, n. person finding a treasure. 
ahwdnyS, n. blossom; leaf; sprout i shoot; gba — , v. to 

blossom; to sprout; to shoot. 
ahwdnySgbamo , n. blossoming; sprouting, shooting, 
aiko! (or eiko!) pi. anyeko! Salutation to working people 

or people comming in work. Answ. Yd 6e! Ya, ata! 

Owura! etc. Signif. unkwon. Comp. Daholo! and mo.' 
aka — , initiating form of the pot. mood, neg. voice. 
akad§inam (Ot. akagyinam), n. surety; ye — , to „8tand" 

(for a debt, „kaw" as) surety, 
akaka, n. crust of bread. 

akan, n. struggle; si — , to struggle = §i mple and pie he, y. 
akane, n. a fruit of a tree. 
akaAetSo, pi. -tSei, n. the tree of it. 
akanma, n. a bird of prey; the carcion kite; s. akpdna, th.s. 
akansT, n. struggling; vying, 
akansilo, n. struggler, vier. 
akasS, n. a kind of pap made of corn, s. aflata. 
akase, n. a kind of indigo; s. amati. 
akataiwyia (Ot. fr.) kata, v. to cower, and awyia, n. sun; 

sun-cover, n. umbrella, 
akatamanso (Ot. = ^people" or „ towns-cover"), n. a very 

large umbrella, such as the chiefs of this country use, 

when settling a great palaver in the free air or when 

appearing in state, 
ake, conj. (from the verb ke, to say, = people say; saying, 

IDX^) that; often only used like a colon or notes of 

quotation; for; because; as how; whether; than (see 

also take and tamo). Ot. se, se; Ad. kg, kS (Ck)mp. 

also edsake). 
ake aleeno, that perhaps, with neg., lest, 
ake beni, that when; sometimes: as, how. 
ake boni, as, how (commonly take boni). 
ake-lo; whether; whether -or. 
ake noni. that what; as, how. 
akesi, conj. that; for; because. 

ake hewQ, and 

akfiSi — — hewo; that -because . . . 


akekre — Akpa. 11 

aickre, n. a ring or wreath of cloth, flowen etc., crown 

(a%€^avog)y comp. kakra, tako, mafitSefai, n. 
aijtafo, akitawifo, n. cactusplant, s. akltti. 
ddabafsa, n. s. akrahat§a; fence. - 
ailati, akrati (Ot. akrati), n. cactus -plant; blofd - aklati, 

aklonta, n. fork of a tree; fork, 
aklontia and akontia, n. pin. 

aklonto, n. horn. Comp. koA; akionto seems to indicate 
more the curved form of horns (as those of rams); 
for which are to be compared words like: koklo, kulru- 
ku; kokrolonto etc. and roots of other languages, as: 
"^P (PR> horn); n3» hx^ nsifag; cornu, genu; circus; 
career; circle, ^erfer; corner; horn; itugel, ilegcl etc. etc. 
akluku, akuku, n. a kind of braid of hair, 
ako, n. parrot (the blue one), 
ako or ako, n. a swelling of the eyelid, 
akoble, europ. word, n, copper. 
Akoi, n. pr. of males, 
akoklo, n. a small kind of shells, 
akoko, n. Guinea-corn. Ad. th. s. 
akgkobesS, n. (Ot.) a kind of spiced bark; Pr. t63.« 
akokos, europ. word, n. cocoa-nut. 
akokos-tso, pi. -tsei, n. cocoanut-tree. 
akokosu, n. Ot. = wonu, n. fowl-soup; used in proverbs, 
akomfode (Ot. lit. soothsayers property), n. a company of 

a quarter of Osu (comp. asafo and akutso). 
akono, (Ot.) desire; adj. or adv. ye akgno, to be desirable; 

comp. ba tsine. 
akonta (Ot. th. s.) perhaps europ. word; n. account (but 
comp. nta and kg) ; bu — , v. to make an account, reckon. 
alontabO, n. account; reckoning, 
akontabulo, n. reckoner; cassier. 
akoti^, n. short person, dwarf; (Ot.) adj. short, 
Akoti^, pr. n. of a fetish in Osu. 
akotoa, n. keg, powder-keg. Ot. th. s. 
akQtQklo, n. a wooden fork to bear up the thatch, 
akotoku, n. fist? 
akotont§in, n. prepared crab. 

akp5, n. a trap for beasts ; a small scaffolding before houses 

to dry things on (comp. agba and Ot. ap^ th. s.) ; a bridge. 

%a, adj. (shortened from ekpakpa, kpal^)a, Ot. pap.a); 

good; f. i. gbomo 6kpa, a good person; common, f. u 


12 akpS — akpIdnO. 

abolo ikpa, coimnoii bread of the natives, not enropean 

(s. akpano); lele ^kpa, a common vessel, not a steamer 

etc.; real; genuine etc. adv. = naakpa or pam, very mach. 
akpd or apd, n. block, on which prisoners are fastened bj 

an iron cramp about the wrist; bo m. k. akpS, to fasten 

s. b. on the block. 
akpSbo or apdbo, n. fastening on the block, 
akpdbolo or apSbolo, n. stock-master; jailor, 
akpagal or akpaka!, n. (Ot. apakan) travelling basket ; a long 

basket in which travellers are carried, 
akpake (Ot. apakye), n. lameness (s. kpa), infirmity ; a lame 

person; s. next word. 
akpaketSe, pi* tsemei, n. a lame, mamed or crippled person, 
akpaki (Ot. apaki), n. a larger callabash for measuring things. 
akpakpa, n. the papaw-fruit. 
akpakpatSo, pi. -tSei, n. the papaw-tree. 
akpaku, n. honey-comb, 
akpale, n. rafter (of a thatch), 
akpand (Ot. pano) , probably a porfug. word, from the lat. 

panis, n. european bread; biscuit, 
akpdna = akSAma and opete, n. the carrion kite, ^adgeter. 
akpftnma, n. -= adufud6; excess; ye — , s. to eat to excess 

wjltiout paying for. 
akpanmayeli, n. excess; spunging. 
akpSnmayelo, n. spunger. 
akpatramo, n. a large kind of spinning beans; comp. yQ,ti. 

aboboi, n. 
akpat§a, n. an eatable root, 
akpatu^, n. foolish person, see bulu, kolo, kwaSi^. 
akp^, pi. akpei (numeral), n. thousand (Ot. apim); comp. 

kpe, to meet; mei akp6, 1000 men. 
akpei ^nyo, two thousands, etc. etc. 
akpetSe, pi. -tSemei, n. possessor or leader of thousand, 
akpetekplebi, n. a curious fruit of a tree or shrub growing 

in the plain or savanna only, used for fetish-business. 
akpetekplebitSo, pi. -tSei, n. the tree or shrub of it. 
akpiti (Ot. apiti), n. unleavened bread. 
akpiUkpiti, n. 
akplo (Ot. peaw), n. spear; lance; dO — , v. to spear; wo 

m. k. akplo, v. lit. to Uft up the spear to one, to threa- 
ten him; wo akpoi, v. th. s. 
akplodOmo, n. spearing. 
akplQWd, n. threatening, 
akpldnd, n. s. akpand. 


akplQto — Akwtounyo. 13 

ak|doto, n. a large kind of apes (comp. kploto, pig?) 
akpo, n. order command, degree; wo — , to give an order; 

Yio akpoi, V. to threaten, 
akpdno, n. s. akpand^ 
akpowo, n. order; ordering, commanding, 
akpowolo, n. commander; lawgiver, 
akpoiwo, n. threat. 

akpokplonto, n. the land- tortoise; see hala. 
akproke, n. a kind of vegetable. 

(What is not found under akr- s. under akl.) 
akrabatsa, n. a fence or grove holy to a fetish, 
akrati (Ot. akarate), n. cactus, 
akratu, n. a kind of beans, 
akromi^, n. sling, swing; fo — , v. to sling, 
akromi^fd, n. slinging, 
akromiafdlo, n. sUnger. 
akronti, n. a seafish. 

Akron (Ot. nine, the ninth) pr. n. of the ninth son. 
akrowa (Ot. th. s. from korow, town and ba, iittle, dim. 

tennmation) village, plantation- village, 
aku (Ot. eku) = adu, n. a kind of monkeys. 
Akuete, pr. n. of the second of male twins; of a hill near 
the Sai-mountain; see Akwete. .,. 

akuku = akluku, n. a kind of hair4)raiding of the women. 

akunt^, n. s. akontS. 

akotso (comp. ku, kuku, weku and tso), pi. -tsei, n. tribe 
(®tamm); quarter of a town; s. akwason, man, asafo, 
weku etc. 

akatsonbii, n. plur. the members of an ^akutso"". 

akotson-onukpa, n. and 

akutsonukpa, n. the elder of a tribe or quarter. 

akotsontse> pi. -tSemei, n. th. s. 

akutsonts^mei, n. pi. = akutsonbii. 

akotu, n. (Ot. th. s.) orange; adj. orangecoloured. 

akotut§o, pi. -tsei, n. orange-tree. 

akwabo, n. loaf (of bread). 

akwadu, n. Ot. th. s. banana. 

akwadutso, pi. -tsei, n. banana-tree. 

akwamfonyo, -fo, pi. -foi, n. canoeman, rower; sailor. 

akwamfoiatSe, n. canoe-leader; captain. 

AkwSmu, pr. n. of a tribe speaking the Otyi-language, their 
land, situated at the river Yolta about 50 miles from its 
mouth, and their dialect. 

Akwtounyo, pL -mumei, pr. n. AkwSmu-man; • people. 


14 akwaSoA — aid. 

akwaSoii, n. assemble of the whole town, tribe or natioD, 
8. mdn and ta, n. 

akwet, collect, n. ground -bean; a kind of beans growing 
under ground in a husk, like the groundnuts. Comp. 
kw6, to grow (Otyi: atwy§). Cooked they are called 
„ab(rf)oi", n. 

Akiii^ele, pr. n. of the first of female twins; s. Akwoko or 

Akwete, pr. n. of the first of male twins, and of one of 
two similar hills near the Sai-mountain. See Akuete. 

AkwQkg, pr. n. of the second of female twins, s. Akwele. 

al^gba, or 

alakpa, n. jest, joke; ke m. k. dSe alakpa, to jest with s. b. 

alakpadse, n. jesting, joking. 

alakpadSelo, n. jester. 

alali, n. interruption; wo alali, v. to interrupt, s. ,,dSedSe^. 

alaliwo, n. interruption, 

alali wolo, n. person interrupting. 

alaiim^li, n. small lobster. 

alant^, Mamt6, Momt6, MQnt6, (Ad. th. s.) cat; comp. ^ya, 
slagbolo, dsramoa, dSanta, dSata ; etc., epithets of the eat. 

alat^, n. hook; s. kpoii; the latter more used in Osu, the 
foimer in Gd. 

Al^ta, pr. n. of a quarter of Osu, where the people of the 
king live; s. KinkSwe, AsinteblohQ. 

aladsa, n. a long stick with a prick at the end, to move 
canoes; mft — , v. to move canoes with such a stick; inf. 

aladsamS, n. moving a canoe by a long stick. 

aleeno (s. le, to know) lit. „it is not known", adv. per- 
haps; especially used to make a whole sentence doubtful, 
f. i. aleend ni mei le fg baa, perhaps that not all the 
people will come. -(Comp. ekole, kule); ake aleenS with 
follow, neg. voice, lest, lest perhaps, haply. 

Alema, n. pr. of males born after a brother or sister who 
died, see gbobalo, Owu, Ogbo etc. 

alemle, n. name of the season between the second rainy 
season (s. gbo, n.) and the harmatan (s. aharabata). 

alefimle, n. a kind of thick honey. 

aleiimlebi, n. the bee-like insect producing it. 

alenenme, n. trying to stand (of children), fr. nme alene» v. 

alo (fr. lo, to take up) and l5 (Ot. ana, ana se), conj. or; 
„alo" is only used when initiating a sentence, else al- 
ways „lo". Ekolfi-alo, either- or; f. i. £kol& micBeniSfi 


alokpli -^ amdtiwolo. 15 

maba alo matsu nubofo, either 1 come or send my 
messenger. S. also dsio — , and d§io-d§io. 

alokpli, n. wq alokpU, inf. alokpliwo. 

alomt6^ s. alant^ etc. cat. 

alodsa \ "* hypocrite? see opasafo, osatofo. 

aluguntugun, and 

aluguntugu, n. an eatable fruit, called soursap by the Euro- 
peans at the Coast, as large as a chllds-head. 
aluguntugutso, pi. -tsei, n. the soursap-tree. 
alule, n. unripe com- ear (?). 
alului, n. a bird. 
Ama, and 

Ama, n. pr. of males and females. 
am^, n. pitch; lime; glue. 
amate, n. asphalt („pilch-8tone"). 
amadSi, n. plantains. 
amadStSo, pi. -tsei, n. plantain-tree, 
amade, n.? 

amagS, perh. of europ. origin, n. image, idol (Ot. th. s.). 
amagdtmnu, n. idol-heap before towns, to take away „mu- 

su", s. this, 
amale, n. lie (fr. male, to lie). 

amalemo, n. lying, irreg. infin. form of male; s. also malemg. 
amalelo, malelo, n. liar, 
amane, old. amande (Ol. amane), n. trouble, suffering; 

na — , V. to get into troubles, 
amanehulu, amanehuru, amanehunu (Ot. th. s. from hu 
amane = Ga: na amane), n. trouble; suffering; affliction, 
amanehunufo, n. (Ot. th. s.) sufferer, afflicted person, 
amanya, n. lint, pledget of lint. 

ainanye aba! or: ha 'manye aba! Let peace come! Salu- 
tation, especially used by Fetish-priests, speakers in public 
etc. Answ. manye ba! or: amanye ba! peace has come! 
See „omanye" and Ga-Speeches. 
amanfo and amamfo, n. (Ot. th. s.) ruins, ruined houses 

or town. Etsd amamfo, v. it has become a ruin, 
amantaka, n. interruption; wo — , v. to interrupt, inf. 
amantakawd, n. interruption; comp. mat an, n. 
amfiti, n. indigo, indigo-colour. See also akasi. Wo — , 

to colour with indigo, 
amatiwo, n. colouring with indigo. 
am&tiwolQ, n, dier (with indigo). 


16 am&lSo — ^mmnatso. 

, amStso, n. pitch-tree; tree of which bird-lime is extraded; 

a kind of shadow-or umbrella-tree. 
amSte, n. pitch-stone, i. e. asphalt, 
amb^, n. a kind of childrens play or dance similar to a 

cock-fight; ampe, amme, th. s.; tu — , v. to play it. 
ambetilpQ, n. the playing of it. 
ame, pron. def. 3. pers. pi. they; them; their; see § 34 

(Ad. subj. and possess, a. obj. me), 
amedei, n. s. abedei, n. a kind of shells, 
amflao or anflao, n. a beautiful bird of the size of a dove ; 

said to indicate the hours with its call, therefore here 

c^led clock-bird. 
ametSrobi, amitsrobi, pi. -bii, date; 2)attcl. 
ametsrobiitso, n. £)attelpalme; date-palm, 
amim (comp. the Ot. anim, face), n. unrighteousness, 

wrong; only used in the phrase: ye m. k. amim, v. to 

over-reach, to defraud, to cheat; ye hie, v. th. s. 
amimyeli, n. over-reaching; cheat, fraud. 
amimyelQ, amimyelilQ, n. cheater, defrauder. 
amlakunyo, amlekunyo, pi. -kui, n. probl. europ. word; 

amlebo, n. a water -frog, 
ampa, adv. (Ot.) well; s. odsogba, dsogba. ampa, adv. = 

lelen, truly, 
amralo, amrado, amlalcf (Ot. amrado), prob. a europ. word, n. 

Governor (but comp. also: mra, mla; law). 
Amrahia (Meeting-place, Ot.) n. pr. of a Ga- Village be- 
longing to LsL. 
amramo, n. cave, 
amrd, adv. soon, quickly; 

amrd n), conj. as soon as. 

amrd pe n), just as soon as. 

amrd non, adv. immediately (Ot. amonomara). 
amrdnurd, reduplication of the former, expressing the same, 

but with more emphasis, 
dmugtii, n. a kind of berries, growing on a tree, of red 

colour and shape like the rasberry, but in taste like a 

cherry and with stones or seed like them, therefore here 

called „cherry". 
amugititso, pi. -tsei, n. the amugui-lree, 
amuma (about the diminutive term, ma s. Ot. ba, young 

one; G§: bi, mi), n. a kind of blackberries, 
amumatso, n. amuma-tree. 

d by Google 

aA8*— aDim, 17 

anH, pi. allfimei, n. wife; only used with the init. augin. 
^a** in an address (vocat. case), if without possess, pro- 
DouD. Comp. nS; see also awu, anyemi; ata, awo. 
anai, n. west; comp. yiteAgbe; th. s., bokS or nddSiaSi, 

east; nsongbe, south; koyigbe, kogbe, north, 
anaigbe, n. west-way; west-ward, 
anaiwyei, n. lit. western pepper; a kind of black pepper 

used for medicine, s. wyei, n. 
Anan (Ot. four, the fourth), n. pr. of the fourth son. 
ananafisabi or collectively -bii, n. a kind of berries. 
anaDafigabitso, n. their tree or shrub. 
anani. Ad. n. 

Anankannroeona, n. pr. of a Village. 
anans^, anananse, n. a kind of flax prepared from a wild 

kind of the pine-apple-or ananas-plant. 
ananu (Ot. ananse), n. spider. This animal is the subject 
of many superstitions; f. i. that it has a bad influence 
upon children sleeping in the same room; it plays more- 
over a principal roll in their fables in which the acting 
personages are mostly animals, whence these fables are 
called in Olyi spiderstories (anansesem). It is repre- 
sented as speaking through the nose (as also the devil 
and other demons are) and its hoppling walk etc. is cor- 
rectly imitaded by voice and gestures of the relater. 
ananukpS, n. spider-thread; cobweb; s. also: la§inyanyeld,n. 
ananukomi, n. spider-bread; a blue berry growing at a low 
shrub and resembling in taste, shape and colour the black- 
berry (of brambles), 
ananukomitso, n. the shrub of it. 
anawyei, n. a kind of blackpepper, s. wyei and gbgwyei. 

It is used for medicine; s. anaiwyai, n. 
anawyeitSo, n. shrub of it. 
ani, interr. part, at the head of questions (not); lat. ne; 

s. § 43. 
aninanse, s. ananse, n. 
andele, n. a fine flat seafish. 
An6, n. epithet of God (from n6, Adh. v. to be), 
anflao, s. amflao. 
ani, interrog. particle initiating questions, s. § 43 and comp. 

aso, nto: 16, be etc. 
anihao (Ot. Ih. s. face-trouble?), n. laziness; fe — , to be 

anihaolo, n. lazy person; s. hedsd, hedsdlo. 
aniro, n. Otyi = face; s. anum-, amim and hie. 
Zimmermann, Akra-Yocab. 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

18 ' anlgnW — anycnyelitSo. 

anl^Al^, n. a kind of milk-thistle, Mary's thistle. 

Anla, stie AnwSU, pr. n. of the tribe, language and land 
of the Slave-Coast. 

anlese, n. common (larger) canoe, s. ahima; ahinese and 
ahlnkese, n. th. s. 

anmadi, n. a kind of berries. 

anmadatso, n.^ shrub of them. 

anmaAma, n. a kind of fruits of red colour and as large 
as a dove's egg, being eatable. 

afimanmatso, n. shrub of it. 

anmenme, n. a kind of sea shells. 

anokwa (Otyi), n. truth, f. i. angkwa wiemg, a true word; 
interj. truly! see: lei en! yen! amalee! 

anokwafo, -fonyo; pi. -foi (Ot.), n. a true, faithful person; 
gbomo — , a faithful man. 

angkwale (Ot. anokvirare), n. truth, faithfulness; ye — , v. 
to be faithful. 

anokwan! = anokwa ni! it is true! 

anokwaleyeli, anokwayeli, n. faithfulness. 

anokwayelo, n. a faithful person. 

anowatere or watere, n. the water-melon. 

ans^m, n. Guinea-fowl. Ot. th. s. 

ansgi, collect, n. brain, brains. 

antele, s. andele, n. a sea-fish. 

antrumn, n. a kind of birds. 

antse, n. a play or game with small sticks. 

Anum (Ot.; five, the fifthj, n. pr. of the fifth son. 

anumny^m (Ot. anuonyam), n. glory; grace (comp. ani anim, 
Ot. eye, face and nyam, Ot. and G§, glory, beauty) ; wo 
m. k. anumnyam, to glorify, to honour s. b.; to be gra- 
cious to s. b., wo m. k. hie nyam, th. s. also kp3 
anumnyam. Comp. "iQn and llDJ, x^Q'^^ gracia. 

anumny^mwo, n. glorification; favour, grace. 

anumny^m-gbomo, n. a glorious person, a person who is 
graceful or gracious. 

anununs^, n. a kind of large red ants feeding on sweet 
things, see also gbese. 

anyans^, s. anans^; and aninanse, n. a kind of flax. 

anyemi, pi. anyemimei, n. brother, sister (®ef(i&tt)ificr), only 
used with the init. augm. „a" in an address without 
possess, pronoun, s. „nyemi" and comp. „ana, awu" etc. 

anyeny61i, n. an eatable kind of fruit or berries. 

anyenyelitso, n. shrub of it. 


ao — asafonyo. 19 

ao! hao! interj. woe! also used to express amazement 

(comp. ao, awo, mother), 
ao, s. awo, n. mamma, mother fvocat. case). 
Aonla, n. pr. = Anla, country, language and people of 

the slave-coast, 
aonme, s. awonme, il a kind of nuts, 
ap^, 'pa, n. hire; Ot. th. s.; hg — , to hire; ye apa, to 

do hire-work, 
apabo, n. hiring^, 
apabolo, n. a person who hires, 
apabonii, n. pi. wages for hire, 
apafonyo, apafo, pi. -foi, n. iiireling; hired person, 
apapam, apaboho (Ot. from papa, popa hd, to wipe ope's 

self), n. towel. See also papam and hankie, 
apayeli, n. hire-work; s. ye apa; stipulation, condition, 
apayelo, n. hired person, s. apafonyo. 
apayelilo, n. th. s. 

apasa, n. (perhaps of Otyi-origin, from pasa, v. to commit 
, falsehood, be false, lie) falsehood, lie; comp. amale, n. 

a similar form with the same signification, 
apasafo and opasafo, n. a false person, liar, hypocrite; see 

aputupata (= afutufata), old pronunciation, still in use, esp. 

in Tesi and by old people; n. bat. 
as^ (sa, to prepare), Ot. th. s., n. hall; central room of 

a house, when shut; when open: kpatd. Eye asa le 

no, he is in the hall, 
asa, asan, asan hu, conj. and adv. again, afterwards, once 

more (comp. the iterative auxiliary sa, to repeat, the 

Adn. V. kpa; the Ot. verb san, and the adv. ekon). 

Tsulsu le eke ake: Eyen; asa eke ake: Eben; at first 

he said: It is so, then he said (again): It is not so. 
Asabi, n. pr. of a Nino-Village, 
asabla, n. distemper of children, 
asafo, n. Otyi, company; division of an army; mass of 

men; asafo yu, a large multitude of people, toi asafo, 

a flock of sheep or goats, 
asafobii, pi. n. men of a company, 
asafotse, asafoatse» asafoiatse, n. leader of a company or 

companies, headman; officer, captain, 
asafoiatsenukpa, n. headleader; general, chief-captain, 
asafokan, Ot., n. head of an army, van, vanguard, 
asafoku, n. part of a company, division; herd, flock, 
asafonyo, pi. asafobii, n. member of a company; comrad. 



20 asSgbS — asra. 

asftgbS, D. a kind of wasps; s. adSanali, n. 

asaman, n. Ot. saman, ghost; asaman, hades; s. sisa and 

asamanukpa (asaman, Ot. hades; ghost, spectt^r), n. chim- 
panse, living on the islands of the river Volta, where 
the ,,sisai'' or ghosts are said to have their towns (s. 
gbohladse, hades), whence the name: headghost. Comp. 
aSana, n. a kind of food prepared fron^^a kind of wheat, 

nma, and country-beer, 
as^ne, pi. -nei (old: asande), n. bojl, sore, ulcer, abscess, 
asanma, n. a large kind of blue wasps, 
asanmatsu, n. their nest, 
asanokwa! int. truly! 
asayere, n. a dance of the women, when the men are 

gone to war. 
aseglemtete, n. and 

asekplemtete» n. a plant with an eatable fruit, 
as^kreme, n. a kind of berries. 
asekremetSo, n. their shrub, 
asemsro, n. Ot. curious story, strange matter, — palawer; 

hint, information, 
asera, asra, n. snuff, 
asese, n. Ot. th. s., small hut made of branches, in war 

or other exigences, 
aselao, n. a kind of beads or coralls. 
asipatre, n. shoe; see aspatre. 
asisS, n. civet; s. kankan. 

aso, initial interrogative particle, s. § 43 (comp. ani, nto): 
A so mibe neke hegbe ne? Should I not have this 
liberty? Expected answer: Yesl 1 have it. 
aso, n. cart, playing card; f e ^ — , to play at — . 
asQfelo, n. player at cards. 
asofemOt n. playing at carts, 
asoi, n. razor, 
asoso, n. tinder; spunk. 

asoso, n. (5tinb«blafc), dfa — , bie SSIafe.fprenftcn. 
asoyi (?), s. asoi. 

aspatre, Ot. th. s., very probably a europ. word, n. shoe, 
V boot; s. tokotai. 
aspatrekpelo , n. shoemaker, 
aspatrekpe, n. shoemaking. 
aspatrewolo, pi. -wod§i, n. shoe-leather, 
asra, n. (Ot. th. s.) snuff; fu — , to snuff. 


asra — ata. 21 

asra, n. a kind of fever , said to be the consequence of 

poisoning, also called 
asratutrui, n. th. s. (Comp. alruidi, atridl.) 
asrafu, n. snuffing, 
asrafulo, n. snufftaker. « 

asratQ (Ot. asratoa), n. snuff-box. 
asrafonyo, pi. -foi, n. soldier (comp. sra, to ¥^atch; and 

nsra, camp). Ot. osrani, pi. asrafo. 
Asr^ma, n. pr. of a Village. 

asu, n. (Ot. comp. nsu, water) a kind of religious washing 
or baptism, connected with feasting, generally after a 
recovery from a sickness; bg asu, n. to perform this 
ceremony; Ot. th. s. 
asubo, n. the performance of this ceremony, 
asSman, s. „sisa'' and „gbohiadse'S n. 
Asante, s. Asinte. 
Asi, n. pr. of males and females, 
asifo, n. (an obscene word) whore; whore -monger; see 

asi, n. west s. anai and yite/igbe; Adh. wo^i, n. 
asigbe, n. westward, 
asinaw, asina5, n. a kind of beads. 
a§in, europ. word, n. vinegar; 6 [fig. 
A§inte, n. pr. Asanti. 
Asinteblohun, A§intebrQm, -bloh, n. pr. (Asanti-Street) of 

a quarter in Osu. 
Asint^nyo, pi. Asint6mei, n. Asantiman, Asanti-people. 
asito, n. stupidity; fe — , to be stupid. 
aSitufo, n. a stupid person. 
aSitufemo; n. stupid behaviour. 
A§iye or ASiyie (Ot. = asiye), n. pr. of a village (^Wel- 

built", „wel8ituated"; ^SBo^lflcIcgen"). 
AgoA (Ot. ason, seven), n. pr. of the seventh son or daughter. 
Agohman, n. pr. of a village (Ashongs town), also called 


(Words beginning with a§u — see under af — .) 
Ata, Ot. n. pr. of twins (a twin, s. nta; and comp. hadSi; 

Akuete, Akwele, Akwete and Akwoko). 
ata, pi. atamei, n. Papa, father; address to married men 

ih general, but only used in the vocative case, initiating 

a sentence and without possessive pronoun ; in all other 

cases „tsfi" is used; f. i. Ata, ba bie! Father, come 

hither! — Mit§e, ba bie, my father conje hither! See 

also „awo"; and ,;tsat§e" in Ad&iime, 


22 Alaboniaye — atlatso. 

Ataboniaye, n. pr. of a village. 

atade, atale (Ot. atade), n. european dress; wo — , to put 

on or wear dress (see mama, bu mama); d§ie — , to 

atadebii, pi. n. the little ornamental things belonging to 

dress and dressing espec. of women; f. i. comb, sweet 

odours, brushes etc. 
atadedsiemQ, n. undressing, 
atadewo, n. dressing, wearing of (europ.) dress, 
atdnme, n. (s. adanme), adSnut; a kind of sweet oily nuts, 

tiger-nut? of which the, here so called, „elephant's-milk" 

is prepared, 
atatu, n. firmament; single cioyd; atatu ewo, the firmament 

is covered, cloudy; see also oblgtu and omukun, omlu- 

gu, n. afua, n. 
atatuwO, n. cloudiness, 
ateke, adj. short = teketeke. 
alen, n. (Otyi?) in the phrase bu aten, to judge, to decide, 

pass sentence. But compare the G5-word: te, middle; 

ten; aten, their middle, bu ateii, to decide (between 

them?); ye aten, to judge; yi — , and yiyi — , th, s.; 

also Ot. 
aten, n. s. te, middle; aten, in their midst, 
atenbu, atenbu, n. judgement, decision. Comp. kodso. 
atenbuhe, n. place of judgement, 
atenbulo, n. judge. ' 
atenbusa, -buasa, n. judgement-hail, 
atgh^eli, n. judgement, decision. 
aiShyelihe, n. place of judgement, 
at^hyelo, -yelilo, n. judge. 
atenyilQ, n. judge, 
atenyimo, n. judgement. 

alfele (Ot. ntwere), n, stairs of wood, ladder comp. atrakpe. 
atfere, n. fist; bQ — , to make a fist; ,comp. kgkQ and bO 

koko; ma — , v. to strike with the fist (Ot. bo — , v. th. s.) 
ati, n. a large kind of seafish, mermaid (?), dolfin (?). 
atl, n. a kind of peas growing on a shrub; chickenbeans. 
atltso, n. the shrub of them, 
atia, n. a kind of apples with a nut at their end, which, 

if roasted, is eatable and tastes like walnut. The apples 

are in form and taste very similar to some kind of euro- 
pean apples; cashew -nut. There are two kinds: mei- 

didsi-atia and blgfo-atia. 
atiatso, n. the "tree of them; cashew-nut-tree. 


atibi — atule. 23 

atibi» o. a country hoe. 

atidi, atiridi, Ot. th. s., n. s. atridi. 

atifo, n. colour, paint; wo ^, to paint; to colour; to die. 

atifowo, n, colouring, painting. ♦ 

atifowolo, n. painter, dier. 

ato, n. ladle (here generally carved of soft wood). 

ato, n. a small bird. 

ato, n. a kind of mice. 

atdmo, n. sweet potatoes; batatas; also used of vagabond 
persons; s. sidselQ, n. perhaps on account of the weedy 
nature of the batatas. 

atrakpe, n. (Ot. ntraboa) step, steps, stairs (if made of 
stone; comp. wStaffel** and „stiege" in southern Ger- 
many); comp. alse atfele. 

atridi or atruidi (comp. aliridl, Ot. lit. the eating or aching 
of the head, head-ache), n. fever. 

ats^nali or adsanaU, n. a kind of wasps. See asSgbS. 

atsanalitsu, n. their nest. 

atse» n. a kind of fang -net, used in smaller brooks for 

atsentsen, s. ads., n. unripe palmnut a kind of crocodiles. 

atsikidodoi, n. (perhaps natural sound imitating the voice 
of the bird named) a water bird, white and black speck- 
•led, with large bills. 

atiioke, n. a lamt or halting person. Comp. tso, v. to 
halt; and oIsqIq, tsglQ, n. th. s. 

atsud, n. scar, cicatrice. 

atu, n. or adv. (Otyi?) used in the phrase: here m. k. 
atu, to embrace one, to receive one joyfully (no yltso 
fd m. k. kue no, v. th. s.); lo — , s. th. s. 

atuheremo, n. embracement. 

atolomoi n. th. s. 

atua, n. revolt; tse — , to revolt, to rebel. 

aluatsemg, n. rebellion, revolt, revolution. 

atuatselo, n. rebel, revolter. 

atui, = atl, n. a large kind of sea-fish, dolphin. (Pronun- 
ciation of the Tesi-people.) 

at6fo, and 

atufu, n. the pillow worn by women on the back, where 
they carry children on; si-atufu, to put on this pillow; 
comp. si otofo, V. 

atufull, n. wearing of this pillow or putting it on. 

alule, n. (Fanti dial of the Otyi) blossom of country-wheat 


a atuftkpS = ayefare. 

atuiikpS (Ot. atumpaft), n. square bottles, gin-bottles, used 
at this coast; s. abodiamg. 

au! int. s. ao, hao! 

avo = abo, n. field, garden. 

aw^le, n. spoon. 

awisS, ayisS, n. (Ot. perh. = awuis3, left by death), orphan. 

av^ie, n. a kind of sea-fish. 

awo, n. (Ot. from wo, to bear), pi. awomei; mother, mam- 
ma; only used vocatively and without possess, pronoun, 
but in address to any married woman of middle age. 
See nye; ata; ni; na etc. 

awQba, ahoba (Ot.) , n. bondman, bondwoman, people ser- 
ving some body for a sum of money, which their owners, 
parents or they themselves owe. 

awosi, awofi, s. aholi, 

awolibo, s. ahofibo. 

awui (Ot.), n. murder (s. wu in Otyi); ye awui, n. to 
murder, hurt, wound; comp. gbe; pila. 

awuisd, n. (s. awui, death, and sS, to be done in Otyi; 
comp. also awisS) orphan. 

awuiyeU, n. murder; wounding. 

awuiyelo (Ot. awudifo), n. murderer; kolo — , a beast of 
prey; lofld — , a bird of prey. 

awulewule or awilewile, n. a bird (so felled from its call). 

awuM (comp. wu and nS, n.??), n. jealousy; ye — , to 
be jealous, envious; ke m. k. ye — , to be jealous of s.b. 

awunSyeh, n. jealousy; envy. 

awuMyelilo, -yelo, n. a jealous or envious person. 

awyere, d. Ot. (= „mi" in Ga. S. this) chest. 

awyereho (Ot. from wyere ho), n. sadness, grief; feto 
grieve; s. do; wyere ho he, v. to be grieved; awyereho 
ehS m. k., th. s. 

aya, n. cat; s. alante etc. Aya is seldom used. 

ayawa, n. (Ot. ayowa) brass. 

6ye! int. (s. ye, y.) be it! let it! all right! Ia§ gut fepn! 

a^e (Ot. ayen and baifo), n. hag, witch; sorcerer. It is 
said that these people are able, to burn like a torch at 
night-time and to do many other curious things; ye m. k. 
aye, v. to bewitch s. b. 

ayekpemg, n. the shining of a witch. 

ayeyeli, n. bewitching. 

ayefare (Ot. fr. fa ye or yire, to take away a wife), n. 
^adultery of men; punishment or fine for adultery. 


ayeforo — ba. US 

ayeforo, ayemftiro, ayenforo (Ot. ye foro = yere — , new 
wife), n. bride. See siyire, th. s, before the wedding; 
ayeforo used at the wedding. 

ayemforoba, n/ bride-leaf, a plant used for wreaths. 

ayemforokpemg (s. kpe), n. wedding. 

ayemforowu (s. wu and awu), n. bridegroom. 

Ayigb^, pr. n. of the so-called Krepe-or Eipe -people, their 
land in the east and west of the river Volta and their 
language. They call themselves Ewe and their language 
Wegbe; s. gbe and AdSftme. 

Ayigbenyo, pi Ayigbemei, pr. n. Ayigbe-man; -people. 

ayilo (Ot. hyirow), n. while clay used for white-washing etc.; 
ye ayilo, to be justified; s. this verb. 

Ayere, n. pr. of women. 

ayirebii, coll. n. a kind of berries. 


Ba, v. imprl. s. b^, inf. bs, to come (Ot. th. s. Ad. ma, 
Ay. fa), used very extensively, also of things, f. i. able 
eba, corn has come, grown or ripened; niyenii ba, food 
came; faleeba, the river is swollen; neke nu ne baa, this 
water is spring-water; kakla le na ba, the knife is sharp» 
Soitetimes it is transitively used, f. i. sikpoA eba nii, 
the earth has produced food; ba m. k., to make s. b< 
come, ba n. k., to make something come; to bing; but 
generally the auxiliary v. ke or no is connected with it 
to make it transit.; ke n. k. ba, to bring s. th. Pecu^ 
liar sentences connected with it are: „Mlyamaba!" „1 
will go (and come again)!" or „May 1 go and come 
(soon)". Answer: Ya ba! Go and come! also used as 
a parting salutation „Miy^ ba!" „I am going!" „Good 
by!" Answer: „Ya ba dsogba!" „ Go (and) come well!" 
Ya-ba, v* to go to and fro; „eya eba eya eba," he is 
going to and fro; a peculiar use of it is: „eba momo 
eto, as he had ordered it to come. Still more extensive 
is its use as an auxiliary verb to express various rela- 
tions of direction, place, time and manner. It is as in 
Otyi and Ad. the auxihary of the future, tense pos., and 
in GS, besides that, of the pot. mood pos., but in both 
cases the „b" is changed into wa or mostly lost. About 
the other uses of it see § 28 and the tables. 

ba, V. imprt. b^; inf. ba, prs. n. halo; to beg, to petition 
(perhaps only a modification of the former v.); s. kpn 
fai and' sise. 


26 ba — bam. 

ba, n. leaf; vegelable; dsie bai, to produce leaves. 

ba, o. comming; advent. 

ba, n. the largest kind of crocodiles, of blackish colour and 

unwieldy form; comp. adsentSen and mampam, n. 
bd, n. a figure on playing-cards. 
b3, pi. form, inf. and iippert. sing, pos. bdmo, v. to cut, 

to lance; amebdrng klante, they stroke mlh the sword. 

Bdmo neke tso ne hewQ, cut some off round about this 

stick. Comp. fo; to; gbu. 
ba d§en, v. to behave. See dse, dSen and dsenba. 
ba he si, v. reflex, to humble one's self. S. ba si and 

ba mli, ban, v. to come to pass, to be fulfilled, to come 

in (Ot. bam), 
ba si, V. lit.' to come down; to incline; to be humble, to 

be lowly; s. also hie ba si, th. s.; v. tr. to humble, 

mibale si, 1 humbled him; but generally: ke m. k. ba 

si, V. to humble one; s. siba. 
ba tsine, v. to produce desire; see tsine, palate; lo ba nai- 

tsine, meat comes to my taste, I have a desire after 

meat. Comp. dse tsine and akong; hie ko etc. 
ba yi, v. tr. to spare, to save; to care for, to be attentive 

to some body or some thing. Eba eyi, he spared him. 
baba, n. water; only used in childrens language; s. nu. 
baba, n. a kind of leprosy or sickness of the skin; s. adsa- 

to, kpiti etc. 
baba, redupl. of ba, to come, 
babao, adj. and adv. much, plenty, many (but without plur. 

form). Babao ni mike le babao nl mife dsi no, as much 

as I said, as much I did also. S. pi, pii (Ot. bebr6). 
baduruntso, n. mortar for pounding „fufui'S s. this; fufui- 

tso, th. s. Ot. woduru. 
baduruntSomlibi, n. the pounder, s. fufuitsomlibi. 
bafolo, n. (fr. fo ba, to cut leaves), leafcutter, despisably 

used: poor fellow, hungry fellow, 
bakpalo, n. th. s. 
bage, n. (dan.) waiter, 
bai, inf. mo, to enlarge, extent, =: goi, v. 
bala, pi. balabii (scarcely used in the sing.) locusts, which 

sometimes destroy the plants along the coast. Comp. 

dg^» gdgdnigdgd. Ad. th. s. 
balo, n. comer; petitioner (beggar? s. sis§lQ); irreg. im- 
perative of ba, V. = nyebaa, come ye. 
bami adv. and 


bambambam -^ be. 27 

bambambam, adv. very probable ^ natural sound imitating 
strokes; f. i. eyile bambambam, he beat him bambam- 
bam; then: vehemently, hastily. 

bamiy n. cakes or bread of cassada. 

ban, n. kind; character; see „su kg ban" and suban. 

ban n. 1^. na, v. to hem s. th. in mih a ribbon; s. kante 
na, V. 

baikku, n. a kind of pap, made of v 

basabasa, adv. and n. (Ot. the s.) I: 
orderly; fe — , to be in a bustle; 

base, n. dan. jailor. 

batafo, n. wild hog. (Ot. th. s.). 

batara, n. cutter, boat with one mas 

baya, = lekete, adj. and adv. wide 

bayare, bayere, n. ht. leaf-yams, an i 

bayelo, n. leafeater, a kind of beauti 
as a roe, with regular white linej 
reddish colour. 

bayisa, n. a plant („ orphans' plant'') = gbek^-bii-amada, d. 

be, n. to be boiled, done, hot enough (of iron); to be ripe 
(ironically used of men). 

be, V. to quarrel, strife, dispute; inf. be; prs. n. belo; eke- 

> mi be, he quarrelled with me; ebe ehSame ahu, he dis- 
puted for them a long time. 

be, n. time. About the prononunal and adverbial use of 
this word see the following words and Gr. § 33, 34. 

be, bei, n. quarrel, strife, dispute; Ad. pei. 

be, v., inf. be, to pinch, to squeeze, to cramp, to bite (of 
ants etc.); to fasten between two sticks (building exp.); 
used of the face etc. of old men: ehie ebe, his face 
is contracted, mida ebe, my mouth is contracted by age; 
be gu-go — wie, to speak through the nose. Comp. 
abele, tongs. 

'be, s. abe, n. proverb. 

be, irreg. neg. voice of ye, v. to be somewhere, to have etc. 
defective v. to be absent, to have not (or nothing), to 
be untrue; to want; interrog. part, at the end of ques- 
tions = is it not, f. i. Osumgmi, be? Thou lovest me, 
is it not? also used in the beginning, f. i. Be, eke? 
Is he not long (grown)? About o at the end s. § 17* 
A. th. s. with be, v. 

be, inf. heme, prs. n. belo, v. to sweep. 

be, m, k. hinmeii, to beckon to s, b. with, the eyes. 


28 be — beo. 

be moko wo mli, double v. to have prejudice against s. b. 

be mli, neg. of ye mli, v. to be untrue, s. be and ye. 

bebe, n. (redupl, of be, time) long time; adverbially used: 
ke-dse blema bebe, from old times already; nye se 
bebe, already some days ago etc. 

bed^, bedeb^de, adj. weak; fe — , to be weak. & bodo- 

Bedekpo, n. pr. (Ad. „hyen-hill") of a village. 

bedeo, n. a basket made of palm-leaves. 

beglo, n. coopers work, -trade. 

beglofonyo, pi. -foi, n. cooper. 

b6l, n. strife, s. be; Ad. pei. 

bele or be le (be, lime and le def. art.), conj. then, con- 
sequently, therefore; adv. consequently. Comp. no le, 
keke le, le le, ene, agbene etc. 

beleke, be le ke, conj. then -still; then. 

bele, bele si, v. to run, to creep (of plants, as gourds etc.). 

belo, n. quarrelsome person; disputant; enemy. 

belo, 'n. sweeper (comp. also bio). 

bem (Ot. th. s,), n. right; satisfaction; adverbially used: 
bu m. k. bem, to justify s. b.; h5 bem, v. give satis- 
faction; ye bem, v. to be in the righl^ to be just (s. dsa); 
comp. bu alen, bu fo, ye fo etc. 

bembu, n. justification, acquittance before judgement. 

bembulo, n. justificator. 

bemhSmo, n. satisfaction, giving of satisfaction. 

bemyeli, n. justice, right; s. also ye ayilo, v. 

bemyelo, n. justified person. 

bemo, n. sweeping. . 

bene, be ne (s. bele), conj. then (lit. this time), there- 
fore; adv. consequently; this time, now, perhaps etc. 
Comp. agbene. Ad. th. s. 

beni, pron. and conj. (be n\) when. Ad. th. s. Generally 
this wofd is followed by the pron. le at the end of the 
sentence it initiates; s. § 34 and comp: moni, noni heni, 
beni, koni. Sometimes it is used = boni, how and noni 
what; f. i. beni yo dsi no, so it is (lit. how it is, it is)! 
beni mike ne, this is what or how I said. 

beni afe n\, conj. sentence, that, therefore that. 

ben, V. s. be mli and ye mli. 

benke (Ot. beA), v. to approach; to be or come near, 

benkemQ, n. coming near, nearness; neighbourhood. 

bentu^ (Ot. th. s.), n. callabash used as a clyster-pipe. 

beo, n. an animal with a very hard skin, resembling a hog. 


heste — bla. 29 

beste, besle, dan. n. brushy 

bi, n. child; ^oung one; little one; member of a commu- 
nity etc., diminutive, plur. and collective termination etc. 
S. Gr. § 23, 48. Sometimes, if a mere termination, it 
becomes mi, s. nyemi, nulami, gogomi etc. (S. Ol. ba, 
ma, wa, a and Ayigb6 vi, th. s.) 

bi, V. inf. bimo, imprt. sing, bi, prs. n. bilo, to ask, to 
question, to demand; to salute or have s. b. saluted; 
f. i. mlbiame , I salute them, said to persons sent to s. b. 
Comp. the Aku, Ayigbe and Otyi. 

bi m. k. na n. k., v. to ask something from some body 
(lit. to ask the mouth of s. b., as in Hebrew). 

bi si, Y. to ask after or for. 

bi^ne (s. bie), adv. immediately, in this moment, just now; 
dsee — not just now. 

bi^nebi^ne, adv. th. s. but strengthened. _ 

bialo, n. guest, wedding-guest; friend; d§e m. k. — , v. 
to befriend s. b. 

bibio (s. bi), adj. and adv., pi. bibii (Ad. boboio), small, 
little; by old people pronounced: fifio. The plur. is 
sometimes reduplicated: bibii-bibii, very little (things or 
persons). See also fio. 

bie, n. and adv. this place; here, hither; bie ke bie, here 
and there. 

biegbe, n. and adv. this way; here, hither. 

bienye, pi. -nyemei, n. fellow- wife (used by the different 
wives of one husband). 

biianye, pi. -nyemei, n. lit. childrens mother; mother, a 
woman who has children, female parent. Also used of 
animals. See nye. Also used by husbands = nS, n. 

biiatse, pi. -tsemei, n. childrens -father, a man who has 
children, male parent; also used = wu, n. husband. 

biglo, n. europ. word; trumpet (bugle?). 

bilo, n. questioner, enquirer. 

bimo, n. question, enquiry; salutation. 

binu, pi. -bihl, n. son. 

bisa, n. child*s-bed, bed of a child. 

bisatso, == gbekesatso, n. cradle. 

biti or piti, n. fainting, to — , to faint, pr. 16 (Otyi). 

bitribi, n. 

biyo, pi. biyei, n. daughter. 

bla, v., inf. blamo, to come again into the world, be bom 
once more (the natives have the doctrine of metempsy- 
chosis, or transmigration of the soul); to be or behave 


30 bla — bleobled. 

in the world (comp. ba dJfeh> th. s.); — m. k. to attach 
one's self to s. b. -tsu, to bind up the lattices on the 
thatches (comp. wo tsu); to roll one's self up like a snake. 

bla, n. behaviour; character of a person. S. su, dSenba 
and ban, n. 

blabla, adj. violent, fierce. 

blaiblai, n. consumptive person. 

blage, or 

Wake, perh. dan. n. tub. 

blakpayo, n. whore; wench. S. adfaman. (Perh. Gbla- 
gbayo, n. woman from Gblagba, an evil reported Ayigbe- 
Town, near Mlamfi, on the westside of the Volta). 

blamg, n. being born again into the world; binding up of 
lattices in house-thatching etc. s. bla, v. 

blamonii, n. lattices, lattice-work; s. bla, v. 

ble, V. to lie = k8L 

ble, V. to lay across; to ceil; -tSu, — a room. 

ble -no, V. to lay or stretch s. b. upon s. th., ble m. k. 
t§o no, V. to crucify; s. noblomg. 

ble §i, V. to lie down, to lie (of snakes etc.). 

ble, n. pipe; kpS ble, to whistle, pipe; nu — , to smoke 
a pipe; flute; any instrument of this kind. 

bleble, adj. loquacious = gobigobi, adj. 

blebo mlebo, n. (europ. Ot. berabo) Hver. 

blegi, n. dan. ink.; -to, n. ink-stand. 

blekpSlo, n. piper. 

blekpSmo, n. piping. 

blema, n. old time, ancient time; adv. long ago. 

blemabii, pi. n., the ancients. 

blemanyo, n. sing, of the former; an ancient person. 

blemand, n. pi. -nil, something of ancient time. 

blemasSne, n. history or matter of ancient times. 

blematlemei, pi. n. ancient fathers, forefathers; patriarchs; 

blemo, n. laying, stretching, crossing; ceiling; s. noblemg. 

blemotSo, n. a Idnd of cross; stick used for ceiling. 

bleo, n. palm-branches. 

bleO, adj. and adv. (Ot. breO) soft, slow, mild, peaceful, 
softly, slowly, mildly, peacefully. Answer to the salu- 
tation to people who come from some place: „Heni 
odse?" (lit. „ Where thou comest from?** sc. how is it 
there?) „BleO!" ,;peaceful!" 

bleobleo, bleble, adj. and adv. redupl. and strengthening 
of the former. 


Meofemo — Ma. 81 

bleofemo, n. slow action; mild behaviour; meekness. 

bliblf, 8. bribr!. 

blika, n. a kind of poisonous serpents about 5 — 6 feet 

long; which are said to poison men and animals not 

only by their bit, but especially by emitting their venon 

at them, 
blinyan, n. dan. lead-pencil, 
bio, V. (a kind of plural or intensive-form of bo, to cry; 

but also used independently) to cry; to make a noise; 

to quarrel. Inf. blomo. 
bio, n. (perh. = belo, s. be, to sweep) broom (Ot. prai). 
bio (Ot. bro), radical word for every thing „european". 

It is said that it is = abrow Ot. or „blefo", th. s. Adn., 

corn, maize, because when the first Europeans came to 

the coast, the women were just grinding corn and said: 

These men are as white as corn, whence the name, 
bio, Ad. n. way =: gbe; comp. blohii. 
bloblo, adj. thin, lean, lank; comp. legelege and tfatfa. 
bloblo, adj. sweet, agreeable; s. dokodoko and M, v. 
bloblo, conj. much less, 
blofo, n. any thing european; n. coll. the Europeans; the 

whole european state and life at the coast, 
blofo-aklati, n. an euphorbia-plant, 
blofomeiabii, pi. n. mulattoes with eurbpean fathers. 
Wofonme, n. europ. nut, pine-apple, 
blofonyo, pi. -fomei, n. European; white man in general 

(Ol. obroni). 
blofosa, n. europ. bed; mattress; a string of beads, 
blofosane, n. europ. matter, palaver, story; relation etc. 
blofo§oto, n. europ. pepper; a kind of red pepper of the 

colour and form of cherries, 
blofowiemo, n. european language, any — • — . 
blohu, n. street of towns and villages, generally shaded by 

shadow-trees; Ot. brohu, n. 
blohQhtso, pi. -t§ei^ n. street-tree; shadow-tree; generally 

a wild fig-tree, 
blolo, n. a quarrelsome person, s. bio and belo, n. 
blolO, adj. and adv. sick, sickly; eye — , he is or looks 

blosT, th. 8. 

blomo, n. cry, crying; noise; quarrel, 
blonya, bronya, n. new year; ye — , to celebrate it. 
blotso, n. broomstick, 
bla, D. engL blue, wash-blue, adj. blue. 


83 blablu *- bo ah5fi. 

blublu, adj. and adv. all; blublu kwa, altogether. 

bluku, n. (europ. word?) trowsers. 

bo (Ad. mo, Ot. wo), pron. independent form of the pers. 

pron. sec. pers. sing., thou (seldom thee); comp. o. 
bo, V. to cry; inf. bo; a kind o£ subj. plural-form is bio, 

V. th. s., but this latter is mostly independently used; 

bo dsaidsai, v. (s. Ol. gyai) to cry: silence, to command 

silence; bo m. k. , to call out for s. b.; bo wa, to cry 

loud or hard, 
bo, n. cry. 

bo toi, V. (toi — ear) to listen, to hearken, to obey; inf. 

bo, n. cover, over-clbth; cloak. 

bo, adj. J0ine (of flower), tender. 

bo, adj. and adv. (the pron. is singing), tender, soft, mild 
(s. bleO, dio, kpO); mildly, softly etc. 

bo, n.?'used in the phrase: he bo bo, v. to mix ones self 
up with a palawer; mihe mibo mibo, I mix myself in 
a thing. 

bo, V. inf. bo, to ball, make round, to compress, form, 
create, s. N*ia in Hebr., fctaffen in Germ.; to com- 
mit, to exercise; to multiply, to get large (of yams 
in the ground); ke m. k. bo> to agree with s. b. (comp. 
ke m. k. or n. k. ye egbo, th. s,), to make friendship 
with s. b.; he bo -bo, v. to interfere, to mix one's self 
into a palawer. S. ba. (Ot. to strike etc. see Riis Voc. 
under bo). This is one of the most extensively used 
verbs in GS and Otyi, having numerous significations or 
far more numerous combinations (comp. ye, ye, ba etc. 
with which it is a similar case). The most common 
ones are: sane bo m. k., v. to be guilty. 

lo, V. to wander, stroll about; to be lost; s. bo si and 
bo ko and ladse. 

bo, m. k. abo = ba abo, v. to flee to some body, to take 
refuge, s. abo. 

bo ade (Ot.), v. lit. to create someth., to create the world 
ade often used = dse, dseii, in Ga, comp. this and bo 
d§en), to originate, bring into existence; to invent; to 
begin someth. or somewhere; to exist (comp. vna^xaa 
and vTtccQxofica in Greek) etc.; s. adebo. 

bo adfamaft, v. to whore, to commit whoremongery or 
adultery; s. ku gblS and adfamanbo. 

bo ahofi (Ot.), v. to live debauchedly. S. ahdfi. 


bo — bo. 33 

Jbo, tn^ k. ahora, v. to blame openly; bo he ahora, v. to 
blame one's self. 

bo akp§, V. to fasten a prisoner on a block, s. akp9. 

bo apa, v.^ to hire; s. apa. Ot. th. s. 

bo asu, Ot. V. to undertake a religious washing or baptism; 
geneially after a recovery of a sickness etc., connected 
with fetish -cermonies and feasting; s. asu. 

bo dsen, v. to create the world; to originate? s. bo ade. 

bo fo, inf. fobo, v. to do something detestable = to kpa. 

bo gwa, V. Ot. th. 8, (lo put chairs around) to assemble 
for open council; s. adsinS. 

bo he, V. to double, reduplicate (s. bo, v. to multiply). 
Vut see bo he ahora. 

bo huhuhuwiemo, v. to murmur, s. wie hOhOhfl. 

bo kakara, v. to make a ring; s. kakara. 

bo klanma, v. fo surround. 

bo koko, V. lit. to make a fist (koko), to warn, forewarn; 
to threaten. 

bQ ko, V. to lose one's self in the bush*; to be a vagabond. 

bo kuku, V. to heap up. 

bo m3n, v. to belong to the chiefs of a town. 

bo mSntSe, v. to make one king. 

bo moden, v. to be diligent, zealous. 

bo musu, V. to commit a blasphemous act (s. musu), to 
do mischief, to contract mischief; to blaspheme. 

bo nannyo, v. to make a friend, friendship, communion. 

bo nko, V. to make holes in the ground for planting yams. 

bo nkub, = bo gwa, v. to assemble, to call people toge- 
ther; to reason or talk in puplic assembly. 

bo no, V. to surpass; to precede; to be preferred; fo add; 
to remain; to be over. 

bo nsra, v. (nsra = camp), to exercise (of soldiers), to be 
drilled; to form a camp; to encamp; s. fe nsra, v. th. s. 

bo nyomo, inf. nyomobo, v. to make debts; s. mo — , v. 
th. 8. 

bo ose, V. to raise a war-cry (of women, when men are 
at war or make warlike exercise); to sing a war-song. 

bo pa, s. bo apa, v. to hire. (Ot. bo apa and fa?). 

bo su, V. to ball swish, for the building of swish-hou8e«« 

'bo, ebo, n. gall, bile; poison; verdigrise. 

bo, n. dew; a kind of flying ants; a ball; = abo, a fruit- 
field, a garden (s. bo, v.); number; manner etc. 

bo, n. creation (s. bo, v.); friendship s. ke m. k. bo, v. 
to make friendship with one. 
ZimmermaDn, Akra-Vocab. 3 


84 bg — bofcfi. 

))0» n* (engl from barrow), wheelbarrow; filibct^ ^b. a., 

8. fiii, n. 
bofipia, D. a UdcI of monkeys. 
bobo» n. rum (satirically used). 
bobo» v.» redupl. of bo; to squeeze the bush w&leh is cut, 

together, that it may more completely bum; s, D^nS, 

V. th. s. 
bobobo, adj. and adv. ke m. k. fe bobobo, v. to be very 

intimate with s. b., adv. attentively, 
bobo, n. redupl. of bo, n. number; s. boni and boboni, 

conj., how, as. 
boboi, n. a small sea-fish. 
bob(}io, adj. Ad. = bibio, small, 
bobokple, adj. very much stinking, 
boboko, adj. lazy, pblegmatical; sickly (with a singing pro* 

nunciation); adv. lazily, sickly, 
bgbo, and 
bobolT (sung), adj. and adv. the same as bobokd; adv. of 

intensity to the verb fg, v. to be wet; efo bobolT, v. he 

is very wet (comp. ))(atf(^na§^ splashingly wet). S. also 

dodo, dgdoll etc. 
boboni, s. bgni. 
bodo, V. to press out of form (t i. tinwares), to be out 

of form, 
bodo, and 
bodobgdo, adj. and adv. soft, very soft; fine (of flower etc.); 

tender (of sprouts and branches); weak; efe — , he is 

weak, efeminated etc. softly, finely, tenderly weekly. 

See bedebede, th. s.; gble bodgbodo, v. to grind very 

bgf^bo , n. and pron. every number, every manner, s. $ 34 

and boni. 
bofo (Ot., and obgfo), n. messenger; apostle; angel; Ad. 

tSglOy n. 
'bghima, ob., n. green spots in the flesh, produced by a 

certain ^ckness; verdigrise? 
b(H, H. female-undercloth; s. tgklo; tSo — , inf. boitSe, to 

bind it on. 
bdU^, n. binding of the female undercloth. 
boi = boboi, n. a fish, 
boi, V. to begin. Inf. bolmo» s. also dSe SiSi; bo ade; 

Ad. bue, V. 
boimOy n, be^ginning, s. SiSidSe. 
bokS, n. east, eastward, s. nftdSiaSi. 


bokSgbe — bu. 35 

be» ni and adv. eastward, — s. 
K adj. and adv. soft; -easy; fe — , to be strong, at 

^-.-^se, not tired. 

bok#e, n. Ad. = gbeke, evening. 

bol&y V. int bglemg, to surround f to 'Compass; to walk 

bolemo, n. surrennding, com^asBing. 

bolibgll, adj. weak, sick, = gbedegbedg. 

bom, V. to unite; s. bo. t)t. th. s. 

bdn, n.-C-pl. bohi) ribband, ribbon (perh. from dan. or eogl. 
band, bond). 

boA = bo ni, bo dsi, it is thou. 

bon, older and harder pronunciation of moi^, adv. rather. 

(bdA, V. Ot. to stink, s. fu and dSe fu.) 

bdnbdn, adj. and adv. stinking; -ly. 

boni (s. ho, number; manner; and n), refl. pron.), prpn« 
and conj. how, as much as, as, s. § 34 and beni, noni etc. 
The relative sentence formed by it has generally „le" at 
the end. 

bgboni, th. s. but stronger, as much ever as, howsoever. 

hofSbQ ni, th. s., s. bof^bg. 

bonsu, bonso (Otyi lit. strikewater), n. whale. 

b6nto, n. (europ. word?) european boat. 

b6sao (bosaw), n. sponge of the natives made of bark and 
membranes of plantain trees. 

b6te, inf. b6temo, v. to enter. 

botemo, n. entering. 

botokli, n. a very large pot of native manufacture, some- 
times containing a barrel or more of fluid. 

bribrl, brfbribrl, adv. expressing a shaking movement and 
therefore used, to give intension to verbs expressing such, 
f. i. hoso bribrf,'to shake very much; kpokpo bribribrl- 
brl, to tremble exceedingly etc. blibll, th. s. 

What is not to be found under br, s. under bl or 
gbl, gbr. 

brubru, adj. and adv. hard, unripe; -ly, -ly; s. gbrugbru, 
th. s. 

bu, V. inf. ba, prs. n. bulo, to cover (Ot. to cover, to 
break). Like bg a very fruitful root in both languages. 
The principal significations are the following: to consider, 
to reckon, to esteem, to hold, to compare; to sit or lie 
down, to deepen? to watch, to observe, to judge etc.; 
to alarm; to make an alarm; to be thick (of the branches 
of a tree etc.), to be frequent, not scarce etc. 



36 bu abe — ' hm m. 

bu.abe (Ot. bu be), v. to make 'or use a proverb, 
press something proverbially or in a parable; s. tc 

bu akdnta, Ot. tb. s. v. to make an account, to reel 

bu atSh (Ot. (h. s.), v. to decicTe, to judge; s. kodso. 

bu ayilo, v. to feovcr one's self with white clay; 
ayilo, V. ■ . 

bu bem, Ot. th. s. v. to justify, to acqiA;, ebule bei 
acquitted him. ^. 

bu fo, Ot. th. s., to condemn; to pronounce guilty; N 
fo he pronounced him guilty. 

bu kusQ, V, to be very thick or bushy j(of trees); to be 
dark (of clouds etc.). 

bu mama, v. to wear cloth, as the natives do (comp. wo 
atade, v. and mama and tekle). 

bu moko, V. to esteem s. b. 

bu moko noko, v. to consider s. b. as some thing. 

bu na, V. to cover the mouth, be silent (the gesture of 
covering the mouth with the hand is actually used to 
express utter astonishment); bu ona! keep thy peace! 

bu no, V. to cover (the surface); bu n. k. no, to cover 
s. th. to conceal it, bu wgdsi an^), to cover eggs, i. e. 
to breed; bu m. k. no, to cover s. b., to lie with s. b. 

bu noko, V. to cover one's self with s. th., to wear; eba 
kente, he wears country-cloth. 

bu §i, pi. bumo si, v. to squat down, to lie down; ke h!e 
bu §i, to fall on the face (in prayer or humiliation) ; to 
lie on the belly, as beasts do before attacking; as cro- 
codiles when at rest, etc. 

bu t^nt§eo, v. to judge unrighteously. 

bo, n. tent; hut (s. asese); covering; estimation, judge- 
ment; watch, eye eba no da, he is always on his watch, 

bu, n. grave; hole; well; tsa — , to dig a grave, a hole, 
a well; dsie — , to dig a well; cave. 

bua, V. (Ot. th. s. to answer), to answer roughly, give a 
hard answer; amebuabua amehe, they gave each other 
hard answers. 

bua, inf. buamo, v. to assist (Ot. th. s.) in G3 always con- 
nected with the verb ye, which preceds it, as: eye 
ebuami, he assisted me, he helped me. 

bua na, inf. nabuamo, v. to gather (Ot. boa ano); ebua 
amena, he gathered them; amebua amehe na, tiiey as- 
sembled (together)* 

d by Google 

^biia — butraf^mo* 37 

)msjfisi, adv. disorderly; enyle buabua, he ^alks disorderly. 

buambuam, adv. th. s. 

bua no, v. in the phrase: musu bua no, to lie, rest over. 

baa M, y. to lie about motionless; to stagnate (of ^ater). 

buada (Ot. 'abuada), n/fast, fasting; ye — , to fast; comp. 
hi nmS, th. s. 

buadayeli. n. fasting. 

buadayelQ, -lilo, n. one ^ho fasts. 

bubu, V. redupl. of bu. 

bule, inf. bulemQ, defile (religiously), to transgress 
against, to profane; ebule vf^h, he has profaned a Msh; 
to hurt; ebule efla, he has hurt his sore; in a good 
sence: to make common, give up to common use, f. i. 
a house; to dedicate (f. i. a chapel); used also of the 
religious ceremony performed every year before venturing 
out upon the high sea in August to catch the large fish, 
called „tsile**, abule nso (sea), they have begun „t§ile** 
— catching or -fishing; to destroy utterly (comp. wule); 
to be consumed, f. i. eseSi ebule, his seed is utterly 

bulelQ, n. a person defiling himself etc. 

bulemo, n. ^ defilement; profanation; transgressing (against 
a fetish etc.); hurting; dedication, giving up to common 
use; utter destruction. 

bulo, n. watchman, watch; observer etc. etc. 

bulu, n. fool, s. kolo, kwasi^ etc. 

buluniitSumg , n. foolish business, foolish behaviour. 

buluwiemo, n. foolish talk. 

bum, adv. andinterj. plump! (imitat. sound); egbe Si bum! 
he fell down, plump I — bum Si kome, with one stroke! 
comp. gba, gbu, gbo etc. th. s. 

bumbumbum, adv. th. s. 

bumo, n. lying down, squatting; s. sibumo. 

butru, n. europ. word butter. 

butru, n. an old custom said to have been introduced by 
the first inhabitants of Gd, who came from the sea and 
whose footprints are still to he seen (comp. G3-Hist. 2.). 
It is only made by men, the ^yokpemg" (s. this) of wo- 
men answering to it. It is connected with many fetish- 
ceremonies, dances, feasting etc. adfl ensures to him who 
makes it an honourable funeral according to native - 

butrufemo, n. the performance of this custom, 


38 bultt — dabi. 

butu, inf. -mo, v. to overtbrow, to overset, upset; tf^- 
size; to lie upside down, of vessels etc. Otll^B^s. 
Comp. also futu, lutu etc. 

butulo, n. overthrower^ 

butumo, n. overthrow; upsetting; lying upside down. 


D is the third letter in the Alphabet; words not 
found here most be sought for und. ad-, ed-, od-. 

Da, pi. dSira, dra; inf. dale, v. to grow; to be large, great; 
to be old; comp. kw^, ba; agbo; k§etenkple, kple, wulu; 
gfeo, gbod§o etc. Neke no ne da fe enjremimei, this 
man is greater than his brethren; amedra akpa, thej 
are very large; cfemi dale, he surpasses me in great- 
ness; age etc. Ad. th. s. 

da. Ad. V. to stand. S. damo. 

da, V. inf. -mo; to vie; to bet; — to lend, s. fa, v. 

da he, v. to poice; to lift with a lever, pick-ax etc. 

da, dane, n. and adv. (Ol. da, day; da, always); etemify; 
always; daily; eternally; s. fihu. 

dada, redupi. of the former. 

da, n. mouth, the inside of the mouth (comp. na and na- 
bu); sometimes dan = da mli; fo daii, v. to give answer; 
gbe dan, v. to scold, bring to silence ; siu dan, v. th. s. 

tfa dan, v. to give anwer; neg. to be silent; ta dan, to 
chew. Many other combinations are referred to under 
the verbs combined with da, where also the formation 
of their pers. and imp. nouns may be seen. 

dd, n. pi. dai (Ot. nsS), wine; any spirit; teida, n. palm- 
wine; nmadS, n. lit. food- or wheat- wine, beer; blofo- 

^ da, n. europ. wine, rum, gin, brandy; blofonmddd, n. 
european beer, ale etc. PI. different wines etc. 

da, adv. (Ot. dft and ansa) before, ever; with neg. never; 
minako neke noko dS, I have not seen such a thing be- 
fore; and 

ddni, pron. or conj. before. Comp. also fddS, kpa fSdS; 
no dani etc. « 

da si (Ot. da ase, v. lit. to lie down), v. to thank; midale 
si, I thanked him. Ad. th. s. The word is also used 

dabi, adv. (Ot.) no;^dba 16? dabi; wilt thou come (or)? 
no; but: Obaa 16? Dabi (sc. mlba); wilt thou not come 
(or)? no (sc. I will come). See § 43. Comp. Oboho, 
th. 8. 


dabida — damo na. 81 

%hidl, and 

Amdabi, dabidabidabi etc. tb. s. strengtbened, no neyerl 

daki, n. (child of the mouth) cheek. 

dabodabo |fit. th. 8.)» n. dack. See also dokodoko and 

kwfikwd, n. 
'ikiSi^ redp. of da, ady. always, 
dadii, adv. chOdr. lang. nyie dadi dadi, y. to learn to 

dadankpo, ady. always? 
dade.^^ adade, n. iron; weapon , arms; ble dade mil, y. 

tolR»Eir arms. 
Dadeboase (Ironstoneland), n. pr. of a yillage. 
dadepen, b. steel-pen. 
dAesen (Ot.), n. iron-pot. 
dagb^y dagb£le». n. s. daAgbe, etc. 
dagle, dan. n. sealing wax. 

dlhe» n. lit. the place about the month, cheeks, etc. 
dibetsoiy coll. n. whiskers. 

dlhdlg, n. wine- or rum-trader, wine-. or rum-sdler. 
dahdmd, n. wine- or rum-selh'ng. 
dah61ol (Ayigbe) int. a kind of saluting acclamation: wdi! 
welldone! S. ei ko! and mot 

dal, y. to return, giye back; to exchange; f. i. Eda! enii 
ehale ekoA, he returned his things to him; s. kpd, th. s. 

dalmo, n. returning, giying badL. 

dale, n. growth, maturity, age, largeness, greatness. 

dale and dare, n. dan. dollar. 

dale, adj. slimy; efeo mo da& ddlS, it makes one's month 
slimy. Comp. drete and seblebe, th. s. 

daletsakemo, n. exchange of dollars. 

dalo, n. yier, belter. 

dama, n. a curious war dress of the natiyes. 

damo, n. wying, betting. 

damo (Ad. da), y. inf. damo and damomo> to stand, esp* 
used of persons and higher animals; compare mfi, sd, 
ye etc.; ke m. k. damo* y. to place, set, post. 

damo, n. standing. 

damo he, y. to stand about. 

damo hie, y. to stand before. 

damo masei, y. to stand at the side. 

damo mli, y. to stand in; hi if. k„ to stand in for 

some body, to stand in his place, to represent s. b., to 
stand good for him. 

damo na, y. th. s. to be or stand surety. 


40 damo — de. 

damo nyomo na, y. to stand surety for a dept. (Comp. 
gyina obi akawm and akagyinam; and see akadSinam). 

damo no, y. to stand upon; to be sure of. 

damo se, y. to stand back or behind. 

damo i§i» v* lit. to stand the ground; to stand, to stand 
uprightly, surely etc.; ke m. k. damo §i, y. to place, set, 
post s. b. Comp. Edamo si ye tsu len, he stood or 
stands (the ground being) in the room, and: Edamo t§u 
leA he stood or stands in the room, s. damo; v^a damo 
§i, to stand still ; damo si sin, damo si wa, to stand im- 
moyable; te §i damo si, lit. to get up to stand = to 
stand up. Inf. sidamo. 

damomo and damo, n. standing. 

damohe, n, standing-place, station, post. 

dan = da mli, s. da, mouth; -gbo, y. to haye a tasteless 

dane, = da, ady. always: dane efeo neke, or: efeo neke 
da (dada), always he does so, he does So always. 

dane, ady. gaily, nicely; ewula dine, he gaily dresses or 
adornes himself; egbla — , th. s. 

danfO, n. speaking, answering, fr. fo dan, y. 

dahgbg, n. scolding, fr. gbe daA, y. 

dafigbe, n. yoice of the mouth; bi.m. k. ^— , to ask one's 

dangbebimo, n. asking one's opinion. 

dangbeie, n. lit. death of the mouth, tastelessness, fr. dan 
gbo, y. 

dSni (s. da), conj. before. Ot. ansana or ansa na. 

danka, n. a kind of music. 

danulOy D* drinker; s. datolo^ n. 

danumOy n. drinking of wine or strong drink. S. dato. 

dao or daw (Ot. daw), y. to depend on one's grace or 
mercy; f. i. bo midao, on thee 1 depend (s. adawroma). 

dare, dara, s. dale, n. dollar. 

dara or dra, pi. of da, y. to grow. 

dan§iumo, n. bringing to silence; s. siu dan, y. 

dantfamo» dantfamo, n. answering; tfa daA, y. 

danta, n. chewing, s. ta dan, y. 

dato, n. drunkeness, fr. to da, y. to be drunk. 

datolo» n. drunken person; drunkard. 

dawtso, pi. -tSei, n« jawbone; kada, n. 

de, Ad; y. = ko in Ga, se in Otyi: to say, to tell. 

de. Ad. yerb = IQ, to be satisfied; de da (s. to da), y. 
to be drunk. 


de (d^, dS, Oi. nsa), n. without pi. f^Mcm the pahn of the 
hand, the inside of the hand, sometimes den = d^ mli 
(s. da, dan); comp. nine, and ^3, in Hebrew; hand, 
power, care, possession etc. as the Hebr. 1\ (See also 
the Otyi root: de, lo take, to have, GS: k^). Ye m. k. 
de (to be), in s. b. hand, power, possession; lobe rich; 
miye miden, I am rich; n6-wo m. k. de, to give over 
into 8. b. hand, power etc. dse m. k. de (to come), from 
8. b. etc. Other combinations see under the verbs, de 
and den is combined with, where also their pers. and 
imp. nouns majr be found. 

deda, s. adeda, n. billhook; hH deda.or adeda, to work in 
the field or bush with the billhook; to cut bush; s. gba 
ko, th. s. 

Dede, n. pr. of the firstborn daughter. « 

dShIemQt§o, pi. -tSei, n. walking-stick. 

d^ka, s. ad^ka, n. box. 

dekS, n. free time, leisure; mibe dekS, I have no time; 
dekft nl be bewo, because their was no time. CJomp,^ 
be; yino, n. - > " 

dekeke, adv. silently, on the tip of the toe, efe — , he 
aits silently. 

dfim = trotro, adj. %ven, plain, flatt. 

den = de mli, s, de, hand; f. i. deft kpo, v. to be liberal; 
den wa, v. to be illiberal. 

d^n, adj. Ot. hard. 

dend^n, dSnded^n, dend^nden (Ot.), adj. and adv. hflrd, 
strong; hardly, strongly; ewie d^ndedSft, he spoke hard 
words. S. geggge, adv. 

dens6, adj. excellent, peculiar, different, s. soro and sroto. 

deiiwale, n. hardness, coveteousness. 

derele (sung), adj. and adv. sickly; ye — » to be sicMj^; 
s. bloblo, boboli etc. 

detamo, n. shaking of the hand, salutation, from: ta de, V. 

dfa, pi. dfra, inf. dfd, dframo, y. n. and a. to break, to 
spoil, to ruin; esp. used of earthen-wares, but also of 
other things, f. i. of the eyes; ehienmeii edfra, his eye» 
are spoiled; comp. tfa, v. 

dfa, n. breaking, cracking, crash; ruin; spoiling; comp. tfd,n. 

dfa (perh. = dfei, n.)* dung; more decent than ^f^'S n* 

dfe, adv. hardly (of pain). 

dfedfedfe, n. woojl-worm; wood -beetle, spoiling timi)er; 


42 dffii — df«ro. 

d(ei (sometimes dfoi), coll. n. grass, weed; sweepings, 
shapings; useless person; -wo, y. to be dirty (of^oms 
elcO; wo — , y. to produce grass, etc. „Dfei po dlio, 
osa ake aloo afie tumo ng! Ttiou art an outcast and 
worthy even to be cast on the dunghill l"" a deprecation. 
Comp. t§o, tSgi, n. 

dfefOy n. green, fresh grass; pasture. 

dfeiaili, n. = dfei amli; grass-place; ya — , v. to go to 
privy; = ya tSo no etc. 

dfeiankolo, n. animal living in a grassy place, wild animal. 

dfeitSo, n. grass-stalk, reed. 

dfeiwO, n. dirtiness. 

dfaA, Ot. th. s., inf* df^nmo, v. (the terminational „f is 
sometimes citt cS in conjugating the verb; t i. ilSo or 
d§6£U), imper£ tense; ind. neg. fut. d(^n) to think, to 
consider, to observe, to mind, to care etc. = susu, v. 
DfSii he, v. to think about; -mli, v. to consider the con- 
tents; -ng, V. to think about, to care for; -se, v. to 
care after; etc. 

dfdhlo, n. thinker etc. 

'dg^nmQ, n. thinking, thought, consideration, care; mind; 

dfeiimosane, n. matter of consideration. * 

df^ne, dfine (Ot. a thing of thought, art, consideratioi) ; 
golden ornament. 

dfere, s. dfofo, v. 

dfetei or dsuetei, Ot. gwite, n. silver, silvermoney; see 
Sika, n. trema, n. 

dfetri (Ot. th. s. either = „silver-lump" or ^trading-capital'', 
s. ti, n., Ot. and 6., and the preceding word, or Ot. 
gua, Aia. dfa, G. guQ, dsra, n. trade), n. a stock of 
money gathered for a certain purpose, f. i. trade, capital, 
treasure; bg — , inf. dfetribo, v. to gather such a capital. 

dfetribg, n. gathering of money, capital, sparemoney; sa- 
vingness^ husbandry. 

dfetribolo, n. sparing, saving, thrifty person. 

dfetei-dale, n. silver-piece. 

dfeteikuku, pi. -kukudSi, n. th. s. 

dfeteind, pi. -nii, n. some thing made of silver. 

dfeteisdlg, -Aalo, n. silver-smith. 

dtine, n. s. df^ne, n. 

df5ro, inf. -mg, v. to lie, to be situated (used of persons, 
places, towns etc., comp. ka, v. ble,.v. mfi, v.); -he, r. 
to lie about; -Me, v. --before; -mli, y. --in; -na, v. 

Digitized by VjOOQI^^ 

dfSramo — ; do: 43 

--al; -no, v. --upon, on; -se, v. --behind; -Si, v. 

inf. Sidforomg, to lie on th6 ground, to lie about; 

-sisi, V. --down; --under s. th.; -ten, v. --betwixt; 

-yiteA, V. - - on, on the top, etc. 
df^romo, n. lying, situation. 
..dfra (or df&ra), inf. dfaran 

ruin many things; s. dl 

swelling caused by 6uiD< 
dframo, n. breaking, spoili 

creasing of a swelling c 

le edse, si efe dframo, 

out, but the swelling is 

crease ^f the swelling), 
dfre, V. dfro, v. s. dffire i 
di, Otyi verb, to eat, use 

„ye" in Ga. Di is used 

other worAs; hie di ra. 

1 am giddy, 
di, V. to be black, to bla 

blackened me; edio dhQ, 
di he, inf. hedi, y. to be 
di no = G& ye no (Ot. i 

hi) Id over s. th. « 
di se, V. to desire, lust, C( 

dida, V. to stagger, waver, 
didei, n. a fish, dace; pi. dideibii. 
dideiba, n. a fish. 
di^ntSe, ni^ntSe (Ad. nitse), fi. di^ntsemei, pron. lit. who 

is the father or author; self; own; midi^ntSe myself etc.; 

midientse miwe, m^ own house. ~ 
dim, adj. large, 
dim = di mi in the phrase: mihie dim, I am giddy. See 

hie di and di, v. 
Dina, n. pr. of Elmina. 
dinao, n. (dan.) (pif^obel) groove-plane, 
din, edin, pi. didsi, adj. black. • 
dift (sung), adj. and adv. silent, quiet; silently, quietly* 

Femo diji, be quiet! Nyetraa si dift! Sit quietly! 
dio, adj. Aid adv. th. s. 
dine, v. = dida, n. to stagger, wnver. 
dl — see dr — • 

do, adj. and adv. lonely, alone; siido, I alone, 
do, inf. dbmo, v. to be gracious; to grant. 


44 do DO — domo niSoi. 

' Y. to be hot; to 
en; imp. verb: to 
as me; hie do, y. 

to puff up, to be 

no. Ot. do. 

I; iiynali, n. rosi 

. ntsen.,,^ 

I domo — ^i; V. Ih. 8. 

edgdole, sickness 

Bful, carefully, 

river Volta. 

weeten the mouth, 
flattery. S. nS na 

tickle; dgkodfU- 

doko, doki^ddkg, Ot. th. s., ai^j. and adv. sweet, feeble, 
sweetly, feebly. Efeo mo dan dokodoko, it makes one's 

. mouth sweet; eye doko or dokodoko, it is sweet, agree- 
able; na dokodoko, a sweet mouth; mi hewodSian fd 
efemi dgko, lit. all the flesh(es) about me have made 
me weak, ,= I feel weak. 

dokodoko = dabodabo, n. duck. 

dokodokgnii, pi. n. sweet things, dainties. 

dokodokomo, and 

dokomo, n. sweetness. 

Dokutso. pr. n. of a villtge. 

dom, v. to go on a jumey; edom, he is on a jurney. 

dom, adj. and adv. lazy, lazily. 

domo, n.- a kind of sorcerer; s. kramo etc. *^ 

domo» n. (from do) grsfbe;* grant. 

domo > V. pi' form of do ; to be gracious. 

domo, V. to settle somewhere = he §i, v. 

d^niQ DtSoii inf. ntSoidgmQ, y. to sigh. 


dofi - 

doi^ always construed ^ith 
Ebaa don, lit. be will noi 
come (again). The wor(J 
swering to it is: ekon, 
„don'* seems to be used 
express their gratitude: ( 
the life of thy head agar 
for ever! 

Ddnko, pr. name of the mostly 
the plains at the upper Yolta, i 
Akyem, Akwamu and Ayigbe t 
tains and the Niger. Most of 
(s. Odonkonyo); the land is re 
cultivated; elephants, ostriches, cj 
wheat, corn etc. are to be fom 
Sahara and white people from 1 

' tides of trade from thence are 
are taken by the Asantis in wa 

the direction of the coast, where they are generally con- 
sidered as an inferior race, being mostly caught when 
grown up already and no more able to learn the Ian* 
guage fluently. In general they are a mild and indus- 
trious people. It seems that the common name „Donko^ 
comprices the Mandingo-, Fula-, Felata-, Hausa-, Bornu- 
and other countries, at least the principal towns of these 
are known to the „Donkos". They speak of course very 
different languages, and Donko can therefore not be used 
as a name of any particular language. 

doo, dow, n. a kind of fever, ague. 

d5re, inf. d5remo (s, do, v. dpmo, v.), to be gracious. 

ddrelg, n. gracious person. 

ddremg, n. gracious act; grace. 

doro, drg, n. gall, bile. 

dgro, dro, v. pi. form of do, v. to b^^ hot etc. 

dotenan, n. foot-ring of metal for ornament. 

dra, V. pi. form of da, to be great. 

dras, europ. word, n. drawers. 

dredre, and 

drelg, adj. and adv. slimy, slimily; ddlg and sebleb€, th. s. 

dre, inf. dremo, v. s. d5re, v. 

dro, n. europ. word, chest of drawers, drawers; Unter^ 

dro, inf. dromo, v. (fr. do, to bend); to fold up. 

dromg, n. folding up. 



ivide (comp. cfexfv); inf. dSS; 
p. xidfUii, xtS^Un, ted^t pn», 
itted, to join, as two boards, 
B necessary; inf. dsale; to 
, to boil, to bring forth; inf. 
a and the kindred G&- roots: 
tsa, dra, tra, sa etc., and the transitive form: d§ad§e. 
The principal combinations are: 

dsa gbe, T. to be right. 

dSa rail, y. to divide, inf. mlidsa; s. gba mli and gbla mB, 
th. 8. 

dSa no, y. to fit; inf. nodSa. See tSa and tSa ng. 

d§a and dfa, y. Ad. to trade; comp. d§a, n. market and 
d§ra, n. price. 

d§a, conj. (s. dSa, y. to be necessary, must and comp. 
ShT); exept, unless; d§a ake and edsa Ske (Ot. etya se), 
it is necessary that; exept that. Comp. dse> tse, conj. 
th. s. 

dSa, d§a no, pi. dsadsi, dsadsi ano, n. market; market- 

» place; any large place of a town; judgement - place for 
open palawer; place for firing gun, drill or exercise of 
war etc.; dSa no ewo, the market has begun; amenha 
lo yo dsa le no, they are fighting for fish (s. ha) in 
the market, etc. 

dsa, n. division; mlidSa; boiling. 

dSadsa, v. redupl. of dsa, v. which see. 

dSadSai, v. th. s. 

dSadSe, inf. dSadSemo, prs. n. -lo, v. (trans, form of d§a, 
to be straight, to straighten; to make straight, smooth, 
f. i. -gbe, — the way; to declare, explain, confess, 
preach (s. Ot. k&, also used in G&); dsadSe fah, — 
openly. Generally this verb is connected with the verb: 
t§d, v. to 8how;*'dSad§e n. k. t§d m. k. to explain s. th. 
to s. b. (Comp. in Ot. kS-kyero.) 

dSaidSai! int. (Ot. gyaigyai fr. gyai, to leave off, be quiet) 
silence! be silent! bo — , v. to command silence. 

dSaku, n. friendship, fathers family; home, native tribe; 
8. weku etc. 

dSale, n. straightness, right, righteousness, justiccr; adv. 
straightly, rightly; neke t§ei ne nylee d§ale, these trees 
do not grow (walk) straightly. 

dSale, inf. dSalemo (fr. Ot. gware), v. to rinse. 

dSalemo, n. rinsing. 


dSalenS — dSe agbo. 47 

og» act, just matter; 

s person; a divider; a 
'.rvice, religion, faith, 
adj. and adv. quick; 

dsangtSo, pi. -tSei, n, market-tree, shadow-tree; s. agbami- 
t§o etc. 

dsanta, n. c le etc. and comp. dsafa, n. 

dSSira, dSSira a. 

dsase, n. tl a king. 

dsasefonyo, set; a person who lives under 

an other; king; courtier. 

dS^ta (Ot. gyata), n. lion; eat, s. dSanta, n. 

dS^tQ, n. s. adSato (Ot. gyato) yaws, a sickness of the skin. 

dSatsu, n. load, burden; ame dsatsui feaS)ie> their loads 
surpass (are to heavy for) them. 

dsatSu, pi. diatsubii, n. a kind of ants; s. tSatSu. 

d§at§u flikilg, n. flying ants. 

dsawu, n. a kind of yams (s. yere). 

d§e. Ad. th. s., comp. gye in Otyi, and fi, v. to come 
out, forth, away; to come, appear; to happen; to arise 
from (comp. dse), to become (s. dsi and t§d), to grow; 
to give out, emit f. i. blood prv. Gbe kdd gbe ed§e, 
a doy does not bite a dog (till) it emits (blood); s. dse 
\k; to take out, away, to remove (comp. d§ie; t§S, t§e, 
tSle), f. i. wiemo kpakpa dSeg mlifu, a good word 
takes away anger; d§e mi no, go away! be off; ed§e, 
it has come out, it is loose, etc. The principal combi- 
nations to be remarked are: — dse suffixed to a root 
expressing an intransitive movement, makes it transitive, 
s.§ 27 and^omp. dsadse, wad§e, ladse, mSdse, sedse etc.; 
he d§e, v. to keep aloof; mli dSe, to come forth; miisu 
d§e, V. to miscarry, etc. The combinations of this verb 
must be carefully distinguished from those of the noun 
^dse", world, see after that. Comp. the phrases: ke 
he dSe nydmo, to keep aloof for debts sake; f. i. eke 
ebe dsemi nyomd, he keeps himself aloof from me for 
debts sake. 

d§e afSl, V. to go aside. 

dSe agbo, ?. to grow big, stout; to beeome greats mighty. 


43 dSe alikpa — dSe. 

d§e alikpa, v. to joke, to sport; s. also: ye he feo, v. 

d§e bai, v. to produce leaves. 

dSe bu, V. to open a hole or well of water. 

dse dsen, v, to leave the world. 

dSe dso, V. to compose a dance; to give out a dance; s. 

fo dsO, V. 
dse foi (= dso foi but unused, s. d§o foi, v.), v. to flee; 

inf.. foidSe, which is also used for dSofoi. 
d§e fu, inf. fudge, v. to slink; s. fu, bad smell; lit. to emit 

a bad smell, 
dse gbe ha m. k. v. to give, to concede, to grant, to give 

over and above etc. 
dse kpo, V. to come forth, to appear, s. kpo; dsie kpo, 

f^ kpo etc. 
dse 1^, V. to bleed; be bleeding. 
d§e lasu, v. to emit smoke, to smoke. 
d§e la wo m. k. he, v. to trouble one for s. th., f. 1. the 

fulfilment of a promise, 
dse masei, v. to go away from one's side, 
dse mli, v. to go or come out from (comp. dsie mli); to 

d§e na, v. to come from the mouth; wiemo ko dse ena, 

he dropt a word (s. G3-Hist. 1.). Comp. dsie na, v. 
dSe no, v. to go off, away, remove; d§e mino, go away 
from me, be off! 

d§e m. k. nd, v. to happen to come to some body, 
dse nwane old GS: nwande (Ot. gye akyinye), v. to doubt, 

to 'dispute; mikele dse nwahe, I doubted or disputed 

with him. Inf. nwaned§6. Adfi. dse nd, v. 
d§e oblan, v. to be a giant, s. dsi and kpa oblan, th. s. 
dse osrene, v. to speak friendly, heartily; jokingly (s. dse 

dse se, v. to overdo, to do more than enough. 
dSe §i (s. d§e kpo), v. to come out to appear, to make 

ones appearance (s. dsie si). Inf. sid§e. Comp. pue, v. 

Ad. th. 8. 
dSe sisi, v. to begin; dse sisi ekon, begin once more! Inf. 

Sisidse. Comp. si§i, n. 
d8e tsedSi, v. to get feathers (of birds), s. t§ere. 
d§e tsine, v. to disgust, to be loathome; to tire; edSe mi- 

t§ine, I am tired of it. S. „ba t§ine** and „tsine". 
d§e, dsen (= dse mli, but often used promiscue with 

dSe), n. Ad. th. s.; world, every thing visible; 
. wible heaven, atmosphere, weather; outward appearance. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

dSe dSo — dSe. 49 

bebaviour, manners, circumstances, life; common wealth, 
etc. One of the most frequently employed stems of the 
6d-language (comp. ade and wyiase in Otyi), the use 

• and combinations of which must be carefully distinguished 
from those of its above mentioned root, d§e, v.. The 
principal combinations are the following: ba dsen, y. to 
behave; dseAba, behaviour, character; be dsen, v. to be 
not in the world; to know no manners etc. s. ye d§en, 
bo dsen, v, to create the word; i)ut also like: bo ade, 
to begin, exist, live, behave; dSenbo; gbe d§eii na, v. 
to end the world, dSeiinagbe, n. end of the world; but 
also: to make an end to one's life = gbe he; egbe edSen 
na, he killed himself; to cease to exist, to die; hi d§eni, v. 
to be, live, remain in the world; dSenhfle. tSere dse, v. 
to take much; etc. etc., and 

iKIe dSo, v. to be quiet, to be peace; s. d§Q. (Ad. s. next 

dSeA flte, v. (the world is spoiled, the times are bad, trouble- 
some) to be difficult, troublesome etc. (used- of one's 
circumstances as well as those of a whole common wealth). 

dSe na (Ad. dSe dSg , s. d§Q), v. a curious use of the word 
„na**, which signifies in Adaiime just the contrary (s. 
dse t§ere), to get night, twilight, dusky, evening; dse 
ena, it is night; dSe nako, it is not (yet) night. Ot. 
ade sfi, V. 

dSe na, v. Adi^. to get daylight. 

dSenamo, n. evening (s. gbeke), twilight, nightfall, night; 
the whole day till night, f. i. Amene dSenamg, to day 
the whole day till night. 

dSeA t§e, d§e mli tSe, v. (the world is clear s. tse), to be 
clear weather; dSentSemo. 

dSe t§6re (comp. d§en t§e, v.), Ad. d§e na (s. above), v. lit. 
the world, rents, opens, apears, becomes bright (s. tse, 
tSere etc.) to become daylight, to down; dse bo! tSere- 
mg, it is beginning to down; beni d§e etsere le, when 
it was daylight etc. Comp. dsetSeremo and dsetsereno; 
and ade kye in Otyi. 

d§e, V. (Ot. fi, Ad. dse) to come out, to come forth; to 
go out, forth; aux. v. expressing the direction from some 
place; „edse Osu eba" or „eba*ke-d§e Osu**, he came * 
from Osu ; comp. ye, ba, ya, t§5, ke-ba, ke-ya etc. and § 28. 

dSe mil, V. to come from within. 

diSe, inf. dSemQ, v. to scold, reproach. 

dSe, V. to be long. Comp. tSe, dSeke, v. 

ZimmermanD, Akra-Vocab. 4 


60 dSeas^ — dSehe. 

dSed^, V. inf. dsedSemo, to distnrb, distract, to siktice 
(children) to iotertain, to nurse (a child); to go throngh- 

. out (comp. dse), to spread, be made known (s. hehe, v.), 
to echo, to trouble (with words), to .shine, to make 
clear etc. — toin, v. the ears hum; s. toi fe heft, Ih. s. 

dsedselg, n. disturber; nurse of children. 

dSee, irreg. neg. voice of the aux. y. dsi to be s. th. (comp. 
Ad, pe and pi, Ou ye and nye); to be not; = no, not 
(when applied to i^ouns and not to verbs, s. § 33, 3. ; 
and comp. be and the neg. voice of the verb). Some- 

.. times it retains its verbal character and some at other 
tinaes it looses it and becomes a mere particle of Qega- 
tion (adverb it can not be called, because it can not be 
used with the verb, except in its nominal or infinitive 
form), f. i. Edsee gbomo or dsee gbomo dsile^ he is 

> not a man ; dseemi or d§ee midSi, it is not 1 etc. Dsi» 
ene keke ofe, si no le hfi, not only this thou didst, but 
that also; ani kule d§ee gbena dsi. ake bo hu ona mo* 
bo? shouldest not thou also have had compassion? dsee 
noko, it is nothing; dsee nakai, it is not so, ani dsee 

: nakai? or: Dsee nakai, 16? Is it not so? A peculiar 
, . use is made of it, when an action shall be more empha- 

, tically denied than by the mere neg. voice: the infinitive 
absolute (comp. the Hebr.) with this negation is then 
used: f. i. dsee dsQ midsu, not steaUng 1 stole, i. e. 
1 did certainly not steal; dsee malemo mimaleg, not 
Jyi^g 1 lie; comp. midsuu, mimalee etc. Comp. also 

; kedsee^ if not; neg. of kedsi, if; both verbal conjunctions. 
An other peculiar use of it is made in the narrative styl, 

, aJ^. well as in speeches (s. Gi-Specimen 2—4): it is used 
to express the contrary, an affirmation, in the form of 
a question but withoot the interrogative voice, as in 

'\ other languages, f. i. Dsee nU ko k@ ena, ni ameyo, 
.was there pot a man and his wife, and they were; = 

^ . there was a man and his wife; dsee no nlmike ake etc. 

. Wiis it not then that I said = then I said (baitn erfl 
facitc i(^) etc. 

^geeAmene, adv. generally shortened into. ^ , 

d§eenma,,liL not to day; a long time ago; eba dseeomo, 
iie came a long.timB ago. 
dieenmo bebe (s. b§be), a long time ago already. 

dsegonyo, pi. -godsi, n. people from the' mountains? 
Akwapim-people, people from the interior; s. dSe-konyo. 

dsehe, n. place, from whence one oame^ native .place. ; 


dSeiy pi* dSemBi, dseme, adv. there, with y&rbs expressmf; 

a movement (f. i. ya, ba, dse) thence. 
dSeibii, pi. n. the people there. 
dSeinii, pi. noun, the things there, 
dseiniian (=:dsei nii amU), n. and adv. thereabout, in that 

region, in those places, 
dsekedsetedseke, adv. into small pieces; f. u fo — , to 

cut — ; grisled, spotted, 
dseke (s. d§e and ke, v. to be long), v. inf. dsekemo, 

to be long, far (of distances, ways seldom of lime, see 

tse, V. etc.). 
dSekemo, v. length (of ways), distance; gbe ke dsekemg, 

a long way; gbe le ds^ke, the way is long; edseke ts6, 

it is too for. 
dSekonyo, pi. dsekodsi, n. (s. dsegSnyo) mountainers, people 

from Akwapim etc. 
dselo, n. a remover etc. in this simple form scarcely used; 

but often in combinations, f. L foidselo fr. dse foi, a 

dselo, fr. dse, to scold, n. scolder, reproacher. 
dsemei, dseme, pi. of dsei, adv. there. 
dSemeiawon, contracted: dsemawgn, n. fetish of a certain 

d§emeibii, pi. n. = dseibii, the people there, 
dsemeinii, pi. n. the things there, 
dsemeiniian, n. and adv. the region thereabout, 
dsemo, n. scolding, reproaching, reproach; mo hiewiemo 

edsee mo dSemo, to reproove one is not to scold one, prv, 
d§en (= dse, n. and dse mli, s. these), n. world; every 

thing visible; outward appearance; atmosphere, outward 

heaven, weather; circumstances; behaviour; life; charac- 
ter ; common wealth etc. 
dSen-akono, n. desire, lust of the world, 
d§en, n. boa; boa constrictor. 

dsenam, n. Ad. morning. S. dse iSere and Ihe next word, 
dsenamo (s. dse na, v. to grow dusky), n. twilight, night; 

nightfall; the whole day untill nightfalL; f. i. hmene — , 

to day the whole day. But compare also the.Adaiime 

use of dse na (under dse na and dse tsere). 
dseiiba, n. (s. badsen) behaviour,, manners; character (comp, 

su, bla and ban, n.); comming into the world, 
dsenbii, pi. n. inhabitants of the world; children, of the 
. world; wordly people; s. dSennyo, n. 
dSenbo, n. creation of the wofld (but s, also adebo, a.). 


52 dSeAbo — dSere. 

dSefibo, n. (SBeltfugel) globe. 
dSefkbolo, n. Greater of the world. 
dSenbosane, n. history of the creation. 
dSei^df^nmo, n. worldly mind. 

d§end§ole, n. s. d§en d§o; peace of the world; peace. 
d§end§QlQ, n. pacificator, peacemaker. 
dSendsgm, Ad. n. = dSenanig in Gd; evening; nightfall etc. 
dsendsomg, n. pacification (of the world etc.); peacemaking. 
dSenfeonii, pi. n. nice things of the world. 
dseiifitemQ (s. dSen file), n. disturbance of peace; revolu- 
tion elc. 
dSengbe, n. voice, opinion of the word; public voice. 
dSengbe, n. way of the world. 
dSenhlle, n. live in the world; life, length of life. 
dSeMpawo, n. „sevenworld", in groge SBagcn cb. Sar, 

the great waggon or bear. 
dSenkpdmQ, n. redemption of the world. 
dsenmSidsi, pi. n. the nations of the world, 
dsenniile, n. philosophy, 
dsenndmg, n. pleasure of the world. 
d§ennoyeli, n. government of the world, 
dsennyo, pi. d§ehbii, n. inhabitant of the world; man of 

the world; worldling. 
dseiisamQ, n. public arrangement, 
dsensane, n. a matter of importance to the common-wealth; 

great palaver; history of the world; history of the life 

of a person etc. 
dsensaneyeli, n. arrangement of a public palaver; s. ye 
. sane, v. 

d§eftsedi, n. lust, desire of the world, 
dsensegbe, n. way after the word, after the multitude. 
dSensuomo, n. love of the world. 
d§ensu6mQ, n. service of the world, 
dsensusumg, n. thought of the world; worldly mind. 
dse6§ihlle, n. life in the world; life of the world; worldly 

life; length of the existence of the world. 
dSensisidSe, n. beginning, foundation of the world; s. dse 

§i§i, V. 
dsento, n, order, preservation of the world. 
dSeAtsemo, n. clearing up of the weather; clear weather, 
dsenwalaheremo, n. salvation of the worid. 
d§era, s. d§ra. 
dsere, dSere, v. Plural- or Intensive -form erf dse (comp. 

t8e, tSere, tSerc, iSere etc.). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

dSere Si ~ dii. 5^ 

dSere Si> s. dSoro Si and dfere Si, v. 

dSetSeremo (d§e tSere), n. daylight; getting daylight; day- 
break; day-time; ^fi-dsetSeremo, daily; dSetSfiremo ke 
dSenamg, day and night, a day of 24 hours (s.^gbl); 
dsetseremo ke dSenamo gbli nyomai edfe; fourty days 
and forty nights; comp. gbi; fane, nyOA, lebi, gbeke etc. 

dSetSereno, adv. in the morning; the next morning or day. 

dSi, V. defect, to be (some body or some thing, comp. ye); 
neg. voice: dSee. Other forms of the verb are not used; 
but forms of the verb fe, to do, somet. to be; tSd^ to 
turn, to become etc. supply the Mrant. About the cons- 
truction of it see § 33, 3. Sometimes it changes irflo. 
^ni" or the term, liquid-augm. „n"; (Ad. „i**) as: Mi- 
dSi, mini or mii^, it is I;.gbomo dSile, he is a man; 
gbomo ni, gbomoA, th. s. or it is a man. Dsee,' the 
neg. voice sometimes is used ^ith the positive, some- 
times Mrithout, as: Dsee midSi or dSeemi or midSee, I 
am not (the person), it is not I; edsee gbomo, or: dSee 
gbomo d§ile» he is not a man. Comp. in Ad. dsi, neg. 
dSl; pe, neg. pi; Ot. ye, ne, th. s. A most peculiar 
use of this verb is made in some conjunctions or as a 
conjunction. About tiSe former comp« the conjunctions 
kedsi (and ke dsee and ke), dSikule; the latter espe- 
cially appears in two cases, viz. the simple use of dSi 
= i^hether, f. i. eba dsi milee, lit. he came is 1 dp 
not know, 1 do not know whether he came; comp. 
§ 43; and the double use of it connected with the se- 
cond prs. sing, of the pron., dSio-dsio = whether- 
whether, or: whether-or, as: Mina noko, gbomo 
dSio, kolo dsio, milee; 1 saw something, whether it 
was a man or a beast, 1 do not know. Niiat§e dSio, ohiafo 
dSio; na dSio, yO dsio, onukpa dSio, gbekS dSio, kSle 
gbo oogbo, whether thou be rich or poor, man or wo- 
man, old or young, still thou must die. Osumo ene 
d§io, osumo ene d§io, ko noni fe ohle feo, whether thou 
like this or that, take what pleases thee! — Sometimes 
ii is added instead of o and sometimes dSi is also om- 
mitted and only „o^ added to the two disjunctive sen- 
tences, ebao ebano, ekekomi sane ko, he has not told 
me any thing whether he will come or not. See let o. 
If dsi stands for a mere copula >\ith an adjective, it 
may be changed with ye» f. i. gbekg bibio d§i, it is a 
little child, or gbek6 le yo bibio, the child is little, but 
with a material alteration of the senc^; comp. mine ye 


kronkroft, this water is clear, and nu kroAkroA Hi ne> 
this is dear water; about the fut. tense „ad§i", adver- 
bially used, s. „ad§i'*, adv. 

dSidSa, inf. dSidSamo, v. to swagger = dida, v. 

'dSid§c, 8. d§ed§e, v. to sound; to disturb with words; = 
d§ed§e, v. 

diSidsei, n. a kind of thread made of bark. 

liSidsi, n. a kind of food of the natives, in lumps or balls. 

dSie, inf. dsiemo, prs. n. dSielo, trans, v. (from dge, to 
eome out), to take out or off; to bring out; to pro- 
duce; to save etc. Ad. d§e, Ot. yi. Comp. here. The 
- /'most common combinations are: 

d§Te atade, v. to undress. 

dSi^, m. k. fa, = fo m. k. fa, v. to ferry one over a river. 

d§ie gbe, v. lit. to take out a way, sc. from the bush or 
grass; to make, clear or cleanse the way, d§ie m. k. 
gbe, to make way for s. b., to give way, to accompany 
on the way (s. Table I.) ; to give leave to go (s. ha gbe), 
tt) help on on the way, to send one off etc. 

dSie ra. k. hie, v. to make one a present for recovering 
s. th. lost. « 

d§ie hie ye n. k. no, v. to wink at s. th.; to overlook s. th. 

;d§ie hlena (hina), v. to shave off the hair from the fore- 

' head (to exhibit the forehead). 

dSie kpo (s. kpo and dse kpo), v. to bring forth, out; to 

• bring to light; to reveal, to disclose. Imp. n. kpodSie- 
mo; prs. n. kpodSielg. 

dSie ho, v. inf. hodSiemo, and 

dsie musu, v. inf. musudSiemo, to effect an abortus, see 
musu dse, v. 

d§ie mil, v. to take out from within ; to select, to choose. 

dSie musu ye m. k. no, v. to remove the curse from s. b., 

~s. kpa musu, v. 

dSie na, V. (s. dse na und. d§e, v.); to open the mouth 
of s. b. or the opening of s. th.; d§ie m. k. na, v. to 
speak for s. b., to interpret; to excuse; ed§ie ehe na, 
he excused himself. See nadSiemQ and nadSielo. 

iUe nyOmd, v. to take off a debt or make one's self paid 
without the will of the debtor. 

dSic §i, V. to bring forth from under s, th., to bring forth, 
to bring to light (s. dsie kpo), to reveal, disclose; to 
betray etc. See SidSiemo and sidSielQ. 

dSfe n. k. ts5 m. k., double v. to disclose s. th. to ,s. b.; 

- inf; -dSiemo kg tSdrng. 


dSieto — i&Q. 6^ 

Mel(s n. one who brings out etc.; deliverer, saver, pre- 
server; saviour (s. herelo and walaherelo). 
d§ieIoDiit§umo, n. saviours work. 

dsiemo, n. bringing or taking out; saving, delivering; de- 
liverance; salvation (s. also: hereniQ, walaheremo, yiwa- 
dSiemobe, n. time of salvation. 
d§lmnosane, n. history of salvation. 
dSStaie, conj. (comp. dsi and ko, kole, kule) if; but only 
nised in supposilive sentences (comp. ke and ked§i); f. i, 
Osumomi dsikule ofee neke noko, if thou would love 
me, thou would not do such a thing, or: Lovedst thou 
me, thou etc. But: Ke osumomi, ofee etc. If thou love 
me, thou doest etc. Comp. kule, which stands some- 
times for it. Ad. dsikune; Ot. anka, th. s. 
dMm, V. Ot. gyim, to be mad, also used of animals^ f. i. 

horses, when wild or unruly. S. ye seke, v. 
dsimfo, n. (Ot. gyimfo) madman; mad person, 
dsin, dsio, s. dsi. 
dstra — , s. dsra, v. 
dsire, s. dsSre, v. 
i&ixo, s. dsdrd, adj. 
dSitsa, V. to shrink, to start back. 

dso, inf. dso, v. to dance. Comp. the similar roots t§d, 
to turn; dsd, v. under he ds6, v. ^to be astounded, 
dso, n. dance; fo — and dSe — , to compose a dance; 
fe — , to give out a dance; siki — , v. to go slowly on 
in dancing; tse — , y. to begin to dance, to start a 
dance; s. tsS, v. 
dso, inf. dsomo, v. to be bitter; acrid; midan dso, mjr 
mouth is bitter etc. ; mihe nu dso, lit. my watter is bitter, 
I am dispised. 
dso foi, V. (= dse foi) to run; comp. hie foi, sa foi, wo 
fbi. Dso foi is more in use than d§e foi, but only .from 
the latter a inf. form and a prs. n. seems to be used 
for both, viz. foidse and foid§elo. 
dso, inf. intrans. dsgle and dsO, inf. tr. dSomo, Ot. dyo, v. 
to be cool (comp. do, v. to be hot); to get cool, to 
cool, V. a. and n.; to be quiet, ^t rest; to be mild, tame;' 
to quiet, to bring to rest, to tame; to bless; to be 
thankful to s. b. etc. This relation of ideas seems to 
be common in many west-african languages. The prin- 
cipal combinations are: dan dsg, inf. dand§Qle, v. to 


56 clSo bi — dSolg. 

loose the last or appetite; dSen d§o> v. s. above; he 
dso, V. inf. hedSole and hedSo (Ot. hd dyo), to be at 
rest, at peace, to have peace; to be well or healed 
again; hewidSian dso, v. to feel cold by astonishment; 
hie dsQ, V. to be quiet, have a quiet face (comp, h!e 
do, V. the contrary), inf. hied§ole; mli d§o, v. to be 
cool, quiet, mild inside; inf. mlidSole; na d§o* v. to be 
of a quiet mouth or speech; toin dso (Ot. asom dyo), 
V. lit. the inside of the ear is quiet, at rest; to have 
peace, rest; musun dso, v. to feel relief from belly-ache, 
mimusun dsomi, my belly gets cool or quiet for me; 
inf. toindsole, etc. etc. Comp. also expressions Is : man 
dso, the town is quiet, it is peace in the salutation: 
„Maii f6?" (How is) all the town? Answ. „Man d§o!" 

d§o bi or gbek6, v. to silence or quiet a child (s. laka 
and dsose, v.). \ 

dso he, V. to quiet, to cool, to pacify, to tame; v. refl. 
to rest, midsQ mihe fio, 1 rested a little. Inf. for 
both: hedsomo* 

dso n)li, V. to cool the inside, inf. mlidSomo. 

d§o na, V. to soften the mouth, the edge, to sharpen. Inf. 
nadsomo* Imprt. s. dSo na, f. i. dso kaUa na! sparpen 
the knife! 

dSo no, V. to bless (lit. on or upon, relating to the ge- 
sture of the handsj. 
* d§o t§ui he, v. to quiet one's heart, desire, anger, thirst etc. 

dso, n. rest, peace; s. dSoIe; dsomo, n. 

dso, n. ditch, nu-dso, water-ditch, bed of a brook or river; 
channel; dale, vally. 

dSd, V. only used in the phrace he d§d he, hedSdmo, v. 
to be astounded, stupified; amazed; amehe d§d amehe, 
they were astounded. It expresses the strongest amaze- 
ment; comp: fe ya, hie fe ya, na kpe he, etc. 

dSoa,* n. a sum of 10 Dollars (in Goldj. 

dSodsoi, frequentative form of dso, to dance. 

dSoflilo, n. person giving out a dance. 

dSofSmo, n. giving out of a dance. 

dSofO, n. composition of a dance fr. fo dSo, v. 

dsofolo, n. composer of a dance. 

d§oi, n. (= df^i) grass. Pronunciation of elder people. 

dsolQ, n. dancer. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

dSolfi — dSrayelitiii. 67 

4Sole» T> to l^y or rest the head on s. th.; dSole 8une> 
— on a pilioMr; to put a pillow under the head. Inf. 
dSoIemo; Ot. sum, y. 

dSole» n, coolness; peace; rest; s. dso, n. th. s. 

d§omo, n. bitterness. 

dsQmQ,n. blessing, benediction; cooling, quieting, taming etc. 
8. d§o; rest, peace. 

dSoMu, n. the thighbone; the loins; s. gboA, n. 

dSoro, y. to lie about; s. dforo, v. 

dsoro si, y. to lie about on the ground; used of people 
in masses; of animals, of yillages and towns etc. Comp. 
Ui, kd si, Y. Some people pronounce this word dsere 
si, some also dfere §i, dforo §i, s. b(Hh. It may be a 
corroboration of d§o, v. 

dsdroko, n. a morning beyerage made of corn and bananas. 

ds6rd, s. dsiird and edsiird, adj. 

d§osuru, n. a measure of gold-dust, about £ 1. 

dSotfa, s. und. odSolfa. 

dsosikimo, n. slow dancing. 

dsot§€mQ, n. beginning of dancing; starting in a dance. 

d§ra (also ds&ra, ds^ra, dslra), a strengthened form of 

dfa, dsa (Ad. to trade); iuf. dSra and dsramo, y. to be 
important, dif&cult, dear (pf price), painful, heayy etCi 
also transit, used (inf. dsramo), to make important, diffi- 
cult; to pain. Comp. also he dsra, na d§ra etc. to be 
dear, difficult, important. 

dsra, n. importance, difficulty, dearness, price; trade = guQ, 
ye dsra, y. to trade; inf. dsrayeli, trading; wo dSra, to 
offer for sale, inf. dsrawO; to prize, to put prizes on 
wares; dse — , y. to sell well, to haye a good market; 
etc. etc. Comp. also dsa, n. market. S. Ot. gua, n. 

d§rad§6, n. easy or good selling. 

dsramo, n. importance, difficulty, painfulness = hedsramo, n. 

dsramoa (from the Otyi: agyina moa), n. cat = alamte etc. 

d§rand§randsran, ady. quickly. 

d§ranii (from the unused sing, dsrand), pi. n. wares = 

dsraniiatsu, n. shop. 

dsraniiatohe, n. magazine; s. fiase, n. 

dsrawO, n. offering for sale; decision of prices. 

dsrawolo, n. person offering s. th. for sale. 

d§rayeli, n. trading; trade = guoyeli. 

dSrayelihe, n. place of trading. 

d^rayelinii = dSranii, 

d by Google 

56 dStayelo *— dSmiii. 

d8rayelo» dSrayelilo, n. trader; merchant, = guoyclg, goc 

dSrayeiilQ-niitSumo, n. merchants business. 

dsrayelilg-kaselo, n. shop-boy; merchants apprentice. 

d§rayelUQ-sane, n. merchant's palaver, matter, caase etc. 
What is not to be found under dsti or dsw set 
. under df. 

d§u, V. inf. d§a, to steal; to rob; to do something in i 
thievish or also only in a secret way, s. d§u §i; f. i 
„Adsuu ta awuu," prv. „>Var is not secretly made," but 
at day time and after due declaration. A secret atfaci; 
is deemed dishonest. Comp. also ha, fe fem, r. ete. 

d§u, inf. d§a, V. to wash one's-self, according to the daily 
fashion of the natives, all over the body, comp. yvu nsQ, 
wu b, to bath; fo, to -wash (cloth; the hands, face etc.); 
tsumg, V. to wipe etc. Dsu n§o, to wash with sea- 
water; '— samla, — with soap; — abonua, — with 
limes etc. A curious expression is: d§u hi m. k., to 
wash s. b. 

dsn he, v. inf. hed§a, to wash one's self (as the former). 

dsu mli, V. to come in by stealth; „le tSutSu eba ts6 miMe 
ed§u mli," he by stealth came in first before me. 

dsQ §i, V. to act by stealth; f. i. ed§u si ba, he came bj 
stealth; ed§u §i efe neke edstird, he did this good worJL 
by stealth. 

dsu, n. Monday. According to the etymology of the names 
of the 7 days of the week there are three pairs and a 
single one, Wednesday; compare: Hg, Saturday; HogbS, 
Sunday; Dsu, Monday; DsWo, Tuesday; -So, Wednes- 
day; -So, Thursday; Soh^, Friday; but neither can the 
signification of these words be stated, though they are 
all found in 63, nor the reason for such a division and 
disposition; it seems however that Monday is considered 
the first day of the week. 

dsu, pi. dsui, n. theft; stealth; stolen article; dSO ke % 
lit. theft and transgression, is an expression designating 
a very wicked act. 

dsfl = hedsu, n. washing. 

dsuetei (Ot. gwitei), n. silver; s. also dfetei,n. and dfetrijfl. 

dsulo, n. thief. 

d§ulo, n. washer (scarcely used, s. dSu, v.). 

d§ukQ, V. to dry meat by fire, to preserve it; inf. 

dsukgmo, n. drying meat by the fire. 

dSanii, pi n. stolen goods. 


dSakodfolia — diiA« 59 

dfakddiaku, dSukudSukadSuku, adv. lively, foil of men; 

used of places, towns, villages ; fe — , to be full of men, 

to be lively. 
dSdsane, n. palaver of theft. 
dSanyomowO, n. punishment for theft. 
d§ut§u, n. washing- or bathing room, 
'dsdrd, pi. dSudsi, adj. good etc. & edSttrd. 
du, V. inf. dumo, tb stick (Germ, fie^en unb fierfen), 

to pierce, to stab; = gbu; to plant (single seeds f. i. 

by making a hole with the finger), as: du able, to plant 

maize; and th. I. (but comp. teo, to transplant, to plant 

trees or other plants). 
d^, inf. du, V. to leak; to catch animals by traps. dQ amS, v. 

to catch with bird's lime, 
du gbe, V. to loose the way, to go astray; inf. gbedO* 
dQ he, V. to catch one's self (in speaking). 
dQ tsdne, inf. tsdnedQ, v. to set a trap; to catch by a 

trap; to catch; — to be caught in a trap, Comp. ts5 

tsdne, to make or set a trap. 
dQ, n. leaking; entrapping, catching, 
duaba, n. Ot. = t§eiayibii; fruit, 
duad^ (fr. the Ot., dua, tree and de, yams), n. sto< iyams^ 

cassada, manioc. Ad. agbeli, n. 
duakoro, n. lit. (Ot.) a onemastcr; cutter. 
duasodQa (Ot = tsonotSo in Gl), n. lit. treeontrec, para- 
sitical plant, 
dudo, n. large pot; = botoku. 
dududQdu, = yurududodu, adj. tastless, raw. 
due, n. comfort? ha m. k. due, v. to comfort, 
due, due! comforting interjection, spoken to people in 

distress. Ad. and Ot. th. s. 
duehdmo, n. comforting, condolence, 
duku, n. eur. word handkertchief. 
dukuduku, adv. to pieces; f. i. kQ — , to break to pieces; 

but also = sukusuku, adv. very (fat f. i.) fi duk. , Jo be 

very fat. 
dakui, pi. n. buttocks, 
dulo, n. planter, s. du. 
dulo, n. trapper; bird-catcher, 
dumo, n. sticking, stabbing; planting, 
dun, n. pi. dudsi; darkness; dud§iafi, in the darkness; wo 

duA, to get dark. Ad. dibli. 
duA, n. a dark grey kind of antelopes of the size of a 



60 duna — edSfirdfemonii. 

duna, n. the hinderparts; hindparts of animals and things^, 

podex; duna md li, y. to settle, 
dui&dundun, adv. natural sound immitating the strokes of 

beating, like: hambamham, ^ososo, tatata etc. yi — to 

beat severely, 
dunnii, pi. n. things of darkness, 
dunsane, n. dark, secret matter, palaver; mystery, s. temo- 

duAwO, n. getting dark; darkness, fr. wo dun, v. 


Words not found under vowel e must be sought for 
under the next foUov^g consonant. 

„E" when initiating words is either the subjective pro- 
noun of verbs, he, she, it, sometimes also applied to 
a plurality of things, but never of persons; or the pos- 
sessive pronoun of nouns, his, her, its; or a mere 
formative initial augment. Corap. § 14, 1. a.; comp. 
also le; f. i. esuomo, his love; le suomo, the love to him, 

ee — initiating verbs contains the pronoun e and the augm. 
a of the fut. tense posit, f. i. eeba, he will comeX= e 
ba ba, e-aba). 

^&\ int. he! ha! it is sometimes added to proper names 
of persons, when called for, f. i. Mensa e^! but to some 
O! is added and e6 cannot be added, though the exact 
rule cannot yet be stated. 

gj == a! and he! adv. yes! — Comp. also: yo! Ot. yiw! 

6bii, corrupted pi of hieo = h^bii, hlebii, pi. n. single- 

ebQ, n. gall, bile; poison. One of the strongest poisons 
the gall of the crocodile is said to be. 

edfake = edsake andelfake, conj. because; for. Ad. epeake. 

6dfe, Ad. ewye, num. four. 

edin, 'dih, pi. edidsi, adj. black; from the verb di, to be 
black; modin, black person, negroe. 

edSiird, adv. pi. edsudsi, right, f. i. nine dstird, right hand; 
good, dear, beloved; nanyo dsurd, ^ood friend; n. bene- 
fit; good work; kindness; alms; . fe — , to do good. 
^Edsiird feo edsiird"; „Good does good", prv. The 
word is also pronounced edsird, edsdrd and edsrd. 

edSiirdfelQ, n. benefactor. 

edS&rdfemo, n. good worK; benefit. 

edsfirdfemQnii, pi n. good works. 




Mo — ekole*alo. 61 

Mo, pL efodfii, adj. emty, bare, void; mere; f. i. wiemo 
flo, a mere word; adv. emtily, barely only, even; ekome 
flo, only one. Comp. keke; akpa; yaka, adv. and flg, n. 
and fo, y. 

efdn, pi. efddSi, adj. bad, evil; from fd, fo do evil; n. 
evil; fe — , to do evil. Comp. bone, adj. and fom, v. 
in Otyi. Ad. yayam. MofdA, bad person; ndfdn, bad 

efdAfelo, n. evildoer; malefactor; stronger than „eSafelQ*Sn. 

efdAfemo, n. evildoing. 

efdnfemonii, pi. n. = niifonfemgnii and niifodSianii, evil acts. 

efu, adj. stinking; kept over night. 

elSake = ed^ake, etfake, conj. because, for (Ot. efane se). 

efei, efefgi, adj. ragged, rent (fr. fe, v.), adv. raggedly; n. 
rag, rags. S. fe, n. 

egblii, pi. egbtdSi, adj. dry; fr. gbi, to dry. 

egbo, adj. Uke; ke m. k. ye — , to be like s. b. 

ehe, pi ehei, adj. new; Ad. th. s. and other. 

feka, n. valour, bravery, courage; daring spirit, rashness, 
arrogance; eki na, by bravery; by arrogance; fe — , to 
behave courageously. 

ekafemg, n. bravery; brave deed. 

ekSlo, n. brave, courageous person ; beroe; a daring fellow; 
comp. also ka, v. and kekSlo, n. 

ekah, n. a large sea-fish. 

ekSsane, n. matter of bravery. 

ekawo, n. encouragement, fr. wo ehS, v. 

eko, 'ko, adj. broken; f. 1. kSko, broken dish. 

eko, num. (Ot. th. s.) one = ekome; Ad. kake (Comp. ko); 
some, pi. ekomei; the word is often used when not ex- 
pressed in Engl, and German, similar to the genitive par- 
ticle „du" in the French, if a part of something is meant 
and not the whole; f. i. hSmi abolo ko, or: hSmi abolo 
le eko, give me (some) bread; enu eko, he drank (some) 
etc. If persons and things shall be distinguished, moko, 
6omd)ody, noko, something is used. The e is only om- 
mitted, if the word is used like the indefinite article; 
8. ko. Comp. Ot. hi. Eko — eko, the one — the other; 
s. ekroko. 

ekole (Ot. ebia), adv. and conj. perhaps; ekole eeba, per- 
haps he will come; 

ekole-alo, perhaps -or (not); either- or. Comp. aleend; 
dSikulfi, kule* kole etc. 


68 ^kome — emoA. 

ekonie, 'kome, num. Ad« th. s. one, as the former; pi. dto* 
mei, some; ekome, adj. unparalleled; einjig; large, 
enorm etc, 

ekorarfemg, n. (fe ekome) uniting; unity. 

ekoinckome, num. one ly one; adv. by degrees; efiteo enii 
le ekomekome, he spends his goods by degrees. Comp. 
baakd-baakd in Ot. 

ekon, adv. once more, again; but only used in positive 
sentences and for a single repetition ; for negat. sentences 
„don" and for iterative sentences the auxil. verb „sa" 
is used. Comp. dong; sa, asa, asan, sail. 

ekoro, adj. and adv. single, simple; apart; alone; peculiar etc. 
s. soro and sro, v. and krQA. 

^kpa, num. six. 

ekpaekpa, num. six by six; Ad6. th. s. 

ekpakpa (01. pa and papa), kpakpa, akpa, acJlj. good; n. 
good (bad ®ute); but impers. nokpakpa and prs. mo* 
kpakpa; fe ekpakpa, to do good (s. edsiiro); adv. (sel- 
dom used, but generally „akpa'* and naakpa) i^ell, tho- 
roughly, indeed, truly. etc. The simple form „kpa" only 
occurred to me till now in the word: onukpa (nU, man), 
a good man, i. e. an elder, a grandee, a headman, the 
first among a number (comp. opanyin and opanini in 
Otyi). Ad. th. s. 

ekpakpafelo, n. a person doing good, a benefactor. 

ekpakpafemo, n. doing good; a good act or work; benefit. 

ekpakpafemonii, pi. n. good works. 

ekp^, n. baboon. 

ekro (— ekoro, fr. ko), adj. single; adv. singly; wherefrom: 

ekroko, kroko, num. or adj. other (anber), pi, ekrokomei, 
krokoi; eko (or ekome) — ekroko, the one — , the other 
(sometimes only: eko -eko, ekome -ekome). Pers. mo- 
kroko, imp. nokroko. Ad. muno. Ts5 — , v. to alter, 
to ascime an other form, colour etc. = tsake. 

ekrokotsomo, n. alteration; = tSakemg. 

Elaloe or Laloe, pr. n. of the river betwixt Kpon and Gbu- 
gbra (Pony and Prampram), coming from the Akwapim- 

emligidi, adj. green, unripe, of fruits of trees; comp. en- 
mdn, adj. 

emo, emomo, mo, momo, adj. old, pi moi and momoi; 
but generally rmed§i and memedsi. 

emon, n. strong line to catch fish. 


emn — euyle. $8 

«iBMi, mu, adj. whole, nntcmehed; entire, full, perfect well 

(Germ, ganj) ; holy (compare holy and whole, (jeilifl unb 

pcil). S. also f6, fis, all. The word emu (attributively 

used „rau") is not construed with the auxil. v. ye, as 

: other adj., but with ye, f. i. eye emu, it (or he she) 

^ is whole. 

emayeli, n. wholeness; entireness; fulness; perfection; 

Remark.: Words with the initial liquid -augment 
m, n, ft, sound sometimes to the ear as if an e would 
precede them, because this augment can form a syl- 
lable; but Uie e or yowel-element is not initial to this 
liquid augment, but inherent to it, and these words 
most be sought for under the letters m, n, n; or the 
next loll, consonant; comp. § 13, 14.; f. i. nkO, ii^Qj 
mplan etc. 
ena, enan (na, nan, nga, ngan?), n. pi. enadSi, a kind of 
canary-birds or -sparrows, living in suspended nests in 
great flocks, generally sogether on one tree, sometimes 
also in the high grass. In their company always a few 
beautifully coloured birds, called „enlibli" or nlibli, are 
found, dwelling in the same nests, but somewhat deco- 
rated, wherefore the natives consider them as the lea- 
ders or kings. S. prv. 33. 
ene, pi. enemei, pron. this, s. § 34; so; conj. = agbene, 

then; but seldom used so. 
enefere, and 

enelfere, n. dan. ginger (Snflwer). 

enmomi (or nmomi), n. a frnit, called cashocle by the 

Europeans at the coast, growing at a small plant about 

2 or 3 feet high and used for soup (also called „ocro*^ 

by the English). 

efimomiba, n. the herb at which the enmomi is growing* 

its leaf used for cabbage, 
enmomiwonu, n. cashocle-soup. 

enmon, adj. pi. nmOdsi, raw, unboiled, unprepared, green ; 
used of yams and the like, of wood, but also of cold, 
, fresh air, as in English. Ot momono. . 
enoU (from the verb noli, to be green), adj. green, dark 

green coloured. Comp. abonua, n. 
enumg, num. five (Ot. anum and nnum; Ad. enuo). 
enumoenumo, num. five by five. 

enyle? inter, pron. how much? how many? (Comp. nyie, 
to walk, to go.) Ot. ahS? 


•4 enyle — eye*. 

enyie enyle? how much each? 

enyo, num. two (Ot. enn and abieft or mmieft. Ad. tb. s.). 

enyoenyo, num. two by two. 

e§a, adj. bad, evil, sinful; comp. nosa, niiSa, WQ§a, naSa, n. 

esa (fr. the verb sa, to rot, to spoil); n. evil, misfortune, 
ruin; sin; mistake, fault; fe esa, to sin, to do wrong. 
A peculiar use is made of this word in the answer to 
saluting questions, as: wHeni odSe?"* „„Bleo!"'* „Sia?** 
„„Ega ko be dsei!"" w(How is it) where thou comest 
from?" „„It is quiet!"" „Home?" „«There is not 
any evil!"" Comp. the similar words: n5sa, niiSa; 
efon; tdmo etc. and wosa, nasa etc. 

eSafelo, n. sinner. 

esafemo, n. sinful deed or act; sin; = ndsafemo, niiSa- 
femo, n. 

ete, num. three (Ot. esfi, mmiesa). 

ete ete, num. three by, three. Ad. th. s. 

etfake, or 

et§6ake = ed§ake, elSake (Ot. efise, edanse), lit. it turns 
that; conj. because; for; Ad. epeake. 

etfake§i, conj. because, for; efee, etfakeSi esumocr, he did 
it not, because he did not like it. 

etSuru, t§uru, adj. (fr. t§u, v. to be red, ripe of fruits), 
pi. etsudSi, red; reddish; yellow reddish; ripe, of fruits 
assuming this colour when ripe ; of men with copper or 
brown red colour, as some natives and Mulattoes. The 
adv« fa and some others with the same signification is 
used to strengthen this, etsuru fa, very red. 

ewulu, wulu, pi. ewudsi, adj. -great, large etc. comp. the 
correlates: kple, kpetenkple; sase; da etc. 

eyen, yen, pi. yed§i, adj. white, whitish; from the verb 
„ye", to be white; ripe, from cornfields. The adj. and 
adv. futa, Ot. th. s., is used to strengthen this, eyeii 
futafuta, white white, very white; s. fa, boboll etc. 


The letter e does not initiate words, but is only 
used as an inteijectional expression, here and there 
added to a sentence just as is very frequently done 
in Otyi; with the nasal sound „g" it is = a, hg, adv. 
yes. See also „yO!" 


Ft — ft fla. 6S 


F is pronounced by many old people hard like p^ 
f. i. pa, river etc. 

Fa, y. inf. & and fale, to be enough, to suffice; to let 
8. th'. be enough; to increase; to forgive (Ot firi fri, 
which is also used in Gd), nd noko fa m. k. to forgive 
someth. to somebody; ke-fa, th. s,; to lend (money only, 
s. m§); to borrow (money, s. md); mifale Sika, I lent 
him money; mifa §ika ye eden, 1 borrowed money from 
him. ^Oke wohe-eSai afawo, tamo boni woke-faa meini 
feo efon §iowo le!"" „Forgive us our sins, as we for- 
give etc. 

fil, n. forgiveness; lending (money) ; borrowing (money); 
river; brook; pool (if sometimes fed by a brook); fk 
ba, the river comes, swells; — srfi, — overflows; — fe, 
bursts (the sand walls and breaks through into the sea; 
— tiki, the same. The two latter words are used of 
lagunes, when they get full and flow into the sea, be- 
cause at other times there exists only an underground 

f&, n. Guinea-worm, thread- worm; a wall of clay, mudwaU; 
ye — , to have the Guinea- worm; to — , to build a mud- 
wall. Comp. mfa, Guinea-worm in Otyi; fa == fale, n. 
a dish. Ad. th. s. See also fakpS, n. 

fa, adj. and adv. red, blood -red. As adv. it is used to 
strengthen the verb t§u, to be red and the adj. etSuru, 
red; t§u fd (also tSu fa) to be very red; etsuru Cs, very 
red; s. et§uru; eyen; futfi; boboli etc. 

f3, V. pi. ftmo and inf. fS, fSmo (Ot. fa, th. s.), to come 
out, to be open; to take out (= d§ie), to dislodge; 
to dispossess; to unroot, root out; to part; to open; to 
call out for help in danger, f. i. eOi ewon, he called out 
for his fetish; to overcome; to command; to cry at some 
body etc. to menace, to stamp with the foot at s. b. etc. 
The principal combinations are: fa % the Quinea-worm 
breaks out; to get the Guinea- worm; also fH fa th. s.; 
hfe fS, inf. hlefSmo, v. to be developed (of children); 
tSui fSi, inf. tsutfii, lit. the heart comes out, up; v. to 
be frightened, cast down, to grow fainthearted, to des- 
pair (s. the contr. tSui nyo §i, nyo mli, to be comforted). 

fS fa, V. to get the Guinea-worm; s. ye &, v. th. s. and 
fa fil, V. 

f& fla, V. to get a boil, ulcer, wound* 

ZimmermaDD, Akra-Yooib. 5 


66 d gbe — fol. 

n gbe, V. to take a way, to enter upon a jurney, to tra 
vel; gbefalo» travellf.r: gbeS and gbefSmo, travel. 

ft he, V. to defend; fa m. k. he, to defend some bod^ 
heftlo, n. defender, advocate (s. dsie na and nadsielo) 
faef^mo, n. defence. 

f& kpo = dse kpo and dSie kpo, v. to come forth; V 
bring out, forth; inf. kpofS; kpofSmo. 

th mli, V. to choose, to select; mlifamo. 

ft na, V. to open, as bottles, casks etc., inf. naftmo; comp 
na fa, v. to be open. 

ft ntia, V. to kik; inf. ntiaftmo. 

ft seke, V. to h'ght the anker; to depart; inf. sekef^, 

ft woDU, V. to eat soup. 

ft yi, V. to cry at s. b., to rate (an^ertf^ew), to threaten^ 
to reproach. 

ft, n. = aft, half; part; moiety; root; vein, bloodvessel; 
nerve? adv. partly, half; ft ke ft, half and half; s. ftfliift. 

faba, n. rising of the river (which is with large rivers, f. i. 
the Volta, as regular as with the Nil in Egypt). 

faban, s. afaban, n. fence. 

fadsiatse (s. fla), n. a person full of sores and wounds. 

fadsiatsoft, n. medicin for sores, wounds etc. 

fadsiemo, fafo, n. ferrying over a river. 

fadso, n. river-bed; glufibett. 

fafa, n. breaking out of the Guinea-worm. 

fafale, n. an ulcer; a bad wound; generally of a former 
Guinea worm, s. fla, n. and f^ n. 

fafele, n. breaking through or bursting of rivers; s. fa fe, 
fa tiki, V. 

fai (Ot. kyew), n. hat, cap, any covering for the head; kpa 
fai, V. to take down the hat; kpa m. k. fai (Ot. pa obi 
kyew), to take down the hat for s. b., i. e. to beg him 
for s. th., to beg his pardon; to petition (the gesture 
used by the natives is that they take of their hats and 
offer them to the person they intreat or cast it at his 
feet, whether this fashion is original or introduced b^ 
Europeans, can not be stated with certainty; compare 
the other custom of saluting Europeans by uncovering 
the chest, s. kpa mama, v. to remove the cloth from Ibe 
chest. Mikpale fai, I begged his pardon (but mikpa efai 
would be: I took down his hat); mikpa noko he fai, I 
begged for s. th., or I begged pardon for s. th. Kpa 
fai! beg pardon! Mikpa ofai! I beg thy pardon! Mikpa 


faikpalQ — fao. 67 

ofai n\ on5-fami! 1 beg Ihee, to forgive me! — Ofai ne! 
(offering the hat.) Forgive! (lit. Thy hat this!) Fai 
ne ond! This hat is thine! i. e. ll belongs to thee, to 
forgive etc. But sometimes it is difficult to say, whether 
„fai" means hat or „ forgivenesses**, s. above; „Fai le 
f§ ondn!** All forgivenesses (or „the whole hat") be- 
long to thee! It may be that the origin of wearing hats 
would give light about this curious relationship between 
fa and fai and the curious custom. Comp. also: ba^ and 
sise, v.; and pa kyew, v. in Ot. th. s. 

faikpalo, n. a petitioner. 

faikpamo, n. begging pardon; petition; prayer (comp. sole- 
mo and sisemo); NyontSo le faikpamo, the Lord's prayer; 
@cbet, Sirte. 

fakpS, n. string of a Guinea-worm (about the thickness of 
twin and sometimes a yard long. It breaks out at any 
part of the body). 

fakpo, n. river-island. 

fakpoman, n. town on a river island. 

fakpobii, pi. n. inhabitants of it. 

fala, s. fla, n. bad wound, sore etc. 

fale, n. dish; large plate. 

fale, n. multitude, plenty; sufficience; superfluity; s. note- 
kemo, n. 

falefale = farefare, adj. clean, white; adv. cleanly. 

falo, n. a creditor = frilo, n. a lender of money; a debt- 
or, a borrower of money, = nydmolSe, n. 

f§mo, pi. form of the verb fl 

fSlmo, n. taking out; coming out; dislodgement; disposses- 
sion; unrooting, weeding; developement; opening; part- 
ing; calling out for help; command etc. 

fSmond, pi. -nii, n. s. th. to take out with; some th. taken 

fana, n. river-shore. 

fanabii, pi. n. people dwelling at a rivers-side. 

fSn, adj. open, straightforward, clear, plain; adv. openly, 
straightforward, clearly, plainly. 

fanes, n. dan. foundation; tfa — , to lay the foundation. 
S. §i§i, §isidse, n. 

fanestfd, n. laying of the foundation; s. Si&itfd, SiSidSe, n. 

fankwao, n. an herb used as cabbage. 

fao, pi. fabii, n. small callabash with a long neck used for 


68 iaohdkodi — fe. 

faobdkodi (Ot. Ut. be off and free!) n. leprosy. People 
having this horrible sickness, are frequently left to them- 
selves, wherefrom the name (comp. 9u9fa^« ^on au9^ 
fe^en); s. kpili, baba, n. 

fSra, s. fla, fra. 

farefare, adj. and adv. = folefale, clean; cleanly. 

fasane, n. river- or water-palaver or matter. 

fase, n. the other side of the river; adv. beyond the river. 

fata (Ot. th. s. but with a somewhat different application, 
as: sa, v. in Gd), v. to join; he fata he, to join some- 
body or some thing. Comp. also: kpata and kpasa in 
69, and bata and pata in Otyi. 

fata he, v. to join (v. a. and n.); mifata ehe, I join him; 
fata he! join something! Inf. hefatamo; prs. n. hefatalo. 

fatalo , n. joiner, assistant, companion, helpmate etc. Comp. 
nanyo; hefatalo; d§ielo, hefilo, n. etc. 

fatamo, n. joining, assistance, help; addition, s. hefatamo^ 

fato, n. making or building of mud-walls, fr. to fa, v. 

fatolo, n. builder of swish- walls. 

fayeli, n. sickness of the Guineaworm, fr. ye fa, v. 

fayelo, n. person having the Guinea-worm. 

fe, V. to do, to make (Ad. pe, Ot. ye), inf. femo, prs.n. 
felo. This is one of the most extensively applied words 
of the language, its principal significations and combina- 
tions are the following: to produce, to commit; to be- 
have, to show one's self, to appear, to seem; to be 
about, afe ohS, about 100; to be (s. Ad. pe and Ot. ye 
th. s. and Ga ye, to be; d§i, to be; t§d, to become), 
to become, to get; to be more than, to surpass (as such 
it is the auxil. verb to express comparison), s. Ot. kyeA 
and sen; as: mifeo, I am more, greater, stronger than 
thou, I surpass, excel thee; mifeo he wale, 1 surpass 
thee in power, or: mihewa feo, th. s.; to accomplish 
(without object, comp. nfe^j;); ofe! thou hast acted well, 
thou hast accomplished something! as imprs. verb it has 
the signification to seem: f. i. efegmi ake Nyoidmo bane, 
it seems to me as if it would rain; ke-fe, A5-fe, to do 
s. th. with s. th., f. i. §ika aAd-feo wulamonii, §i dade 
ake-feo nanii, of gold ornaments are made, but of iron 
implements of art. Combinations: he fe feo, v. to be 
beautiful; he fe oy6, v. to be quick; he fe vl, hewo- 
dSiaA fS fe VI, to feel weak; hie fe yd and fe yd, to 
be astonished etc. efe ake = kedSi, if. 

fe m. k. ablo, v. to be hard against s. b. = wa m. k. yi, v. 


fe eflo •— fe yam. 69 

fe eflo, y. to be or become empty, come to nought. 

fe efong, ekpakpa, edSttrd etc. s. these. 

fe fe (f6 = fear, fright), v. to be afraid, to fear, to be 

a coward; inf. fefemo; prs. d. fefelo, s. feto, n. 
fe feo, y. to please; s. feo and fefeo, adj. 
fe flonO, y. = fo, lo be wet; ye — , th. s. 
fe gidigidi, y. to be in disorder, in a hubbub, 
fe m. k. fern, y. to plunder one out. 
fe gwan, y. to shine. 

fe n. k. hd m. k., y. to do s. th. for s. b. 
fe he n. k., y. to do s. th. with someth., to make one's 
self something; efe ehe nyontSo* he made himself the 
master; to use; efee he n. k., he does not use it; see 
ye he niitsumo, v. th. s. 
fe hed§d, y. to be lazy. S. hedSd; inf. hedSof^mo. 
fe ho, y. to make a noice, to roar, to be tumultous etc. 

inf. hofeme. 
fe klalo, y. to be or make ready, 
fe kotikontiele, V. to play the blind mouse bufiT. 
fe mobo, y. to be pitiful, to be miserable, to appear so; 

to mourn, to complain; s. mobo, n. and ye mQbo» y. 
fe moko, y. to surpass, somebody ; to imitade s. b., see 

kase, y. soa, y. 
fe nddsian, y. to retribute, to repay; s. to nSdSian, v. 
fe nine, y. to surpass the (ability of the) hand; to reach 

the highest pitch, 
fe niiseniianii, y. to use one despitefuUy; to illtread one; 

8. se, se» y. 
fe nU, y. to be a man, manly; to behaye like a man (comp. 

the Germ, ben SWaun mac^cn). 
fe numo, y. to become or be an old man. 
fe sane, y. to become a (sc. bad) palayer. 
fe se, fe se le, adyerbial or conjunctiye sentence, =s after- 
wards; then; comp. ye Shu; no se le; efe ake = ke» 
kedSi etc. 
fe sroto, y. lo make a difference, 
fe s6, y. to be slow, slack, 
fe toi, y. to listen = bo toi. 

fe yd =r hie fe yd, n. to be astonished, amazed; to wonder; 
inf. yafemo. Comp. he dSd; na kpe he, y. etc. and yd,n. 
fe ya, and 

fe yara, fe yera, y. to mourn for a dead person according 
to natiye fashion by loud lamentations etc. etc. to make 
the funeral custom for a dead person by firing guns, 


to te yey«je — fe. 

drinking, dancing, singing and processions. These cus- 
toms ruin whole families, towns and tribes. Where it 
can be done without the knowledge of the european 
Government, slaves are still slaughtered on the graves 
of important personages that they may accompany them 
into the other world. Inf. yera- or yarafemo, some 
times shortened ydfemo; but see the preceding word; 
pers. n. yera- or yarafelo. 

fe yeygye, v. to be in trouble, in perplexity; = ye tsui 
and tsui ye, v. 

fe yukuyuku, v. to be broken into small pieces; to be full 
of little one's, IKtle things, life, activity. 

fe, n. fright, fear; s. fe fe, to be afraid; inf. feferao, n. 
The word is perh. Ayigbe, s. feto (== felo? kaketo = 
kaselo in GS). 

fe, n. dung. S. the decent expression dfa (or dfeian), n. 

fg, V. pi. flfi; inf. fe, flemo; to spit (only used of animals 
which do so, f. i. some serpents; s. blik9, n.); to root, 
to scrape, to cut, out or up, esp. grass for thatching 
roofe; efe dfei, he is gathering thatch-grass. A peculiar 
expression is: yi fe, to suppose: eyi fp, ake enye ni, 

. he supposes, that it is his mQther;^ it seems to stand 
for „yi fe dsi, ake; s. yi, yin, n. and fe, adj. 

fe gugd, V. to blow the nose; comp. tsine, v. 

f e = fia and pia, adj. all, every; put betwixt, the redupli- 
cated singular fonn of a noun, it conveys the significa- 
tion every, f. i. mofemo, every body; nofeno, every 
thing; tso fe tSo every tree, s. § 22; fe Ifem, fe kwa, 
altogether. The construction of this word does some- 
times exhibit it as a noun (comp. the hebr. ^)D), f. i. 
it excepts not only the article, but if it stands with a 
plural in the possessive case, the augment „a'' which 
ought to follow such a possess, case is generally left 
out, etc. Comp. „Gbomei fe niitSumoi'' instead of gb. 
fe aniiisumi}i, the works of the whole of men; a pe- 
culiar use of fe or M is made in summing up a series 
of assertions etc. f. i. mikpale fai, miwie Shu, miK eyi 
se: f^ tfem ekplee, 1 begged him, 1 spoke long to him, 
1 pressed on him, all together (sc. in vain) he did not 
aggree to it. Fia and pia, th. s. Ad. tfa, tsoa, tso; 
Ot. nnyina. 

fe, s. fel, n. cold. 

fe» pi. fele and fle, inf. femo; felemo, flemo, v. n. and 
act. to burst; to break; to burst eggs, i. e. to hatch; 


fe — f^nemo. 71 

to bend; to kick; break through the sandbar (of lagnnes 
aad rivers in the rainy season); s. fa, n. and tiki, y. 
£i, adj. = fa very red, highly red; adv. used to corro- 
borate the adj. tsuru, red and the verb tsu, to be red; 
etsuru fe, very red; etsuo fe, it is very red. S. filfl, 
futa; boboli etc. 
fell, felo, felu, fleku, th. s. as the former and as fs, to 

corroborate „tsu, to be red." 
feda (kpa), fedS, adv. = dS, before, efe ffidfi ni ete, he 
did it before he went; kpa fed^ obaa neV but now thou 
comesl; not before now thou comest (nun erfi fommjl 
fefelo, n. = felo, * coward, 
fefemo (s. fe fe), n. cowardness, 
fefeo (simple form feo, s. § 22 about reduplication of ad- 

je^ilives, Ot. th. s.), adj. beautiful, nice, 
fei, n. cold, coldness; cold fever; fei ye, v. it is cold; K 

>emi, 1 feel cold, 1 have the cold fever, 
fei gugo (comp. fe, v.), v. to blow the nose; s. fe gugd, v. 
fei, n. beauties? be fei, to have no manners, lee fei, th. s. 
but compare the Otyi fye (or fe), with neg. „nothing**. 
feibe, n. cold time, winter, cold season (s. aharabata). 
feihe, n. cold place, 
feiyelo, n. person feeling cold, 
felyeli, n. coldness; cold fever; s. fei ye, v. 
f^le, V. corroboration of f^, inf. f^lemQ; to feel itcbing, 

to itch; s. fle, v. 
felemo, n. bursting (of many things); hatching; kicking; 

8. fe, fele, fle, femo, fle, mg. 
fell, s. fe and felO, adj. and adv. red, very red. 
feld, th. s. 

felo, n. maker, doer; s. fe, v. 
fglu = fell and felo, adj. and ady. 
femo, n. deed; making; act; becoming, getting etc. etjc. 

s. fe, V. 
femo, n. bursting (of one thing), s. fe, v.; hatching; kicking, 
i^, and 
femo, n. rooting up of grass; spitting (of snakes and the 

like); s. fe, v. 
fehfeii, adj. dirty, sickly, 
fene, v. to open, unloose. Old pronunciation fende; Ad. 

f^nelo, n. unloosen 
t^nemo, n. opening, unbosing. 


t2 ko — fiase. 

feo, y. D. to flourish. 

feo, adj. ss fefeo, beautifol, nice; Ot th. s.; n. beautj 
ady. beaatifally; fe feo, y. to please; efeml feo, it please 
me; ye he feo, y. to mock at, to deride, to joke; comp 
gbe he gao, which is stronger; ye feo, y. to be beaati 
ful. Comp. also fei. 

feofemOy y. pleasing; pleasure; comp. ndmo; omanyefemo 

feonii, pL n. beautifal things; beauties. 

feoyeli, n. mockery; wit. S. hefeoyelL 

fes, n. dan? a small fruit of a tree used by natiye womeo 
to make yellow signs on their faces. 

festSo, n. the tree bearing it. 

fete, and 

fetefete» adj. thin, s. legelege; weak; light; tastjless. 

feto, n. coward, s. fefelo, gbeyelo and gbeye§elo ; fe feto, v. ; 
to be a coward; s. fe f6, y. th. s. (According to the 
form „feto is Ayigbe.) 

fetofelo, n. coward. 

fetofemo, n. cowardness; fefemo, th. s. 

fet^u, n. priyy; but not a decend word; s. ko na, t§o no etc. 

fl, y. pi. and inf. flmo (inf. fi); imprs. y. to perplex, to 
bring into straits; efimi, I am in perplexity; noko efQe, 
something has brought him into trouble; to be hard; ta 
efi, the fight is hard (inf. fimo); to draw on, to advance; 
to become thick (of milk), fat etc. to press together, to 
be close together (of people). Ad. th.s. 

n he, y. to bind the loins, to girt; hefi. 

fl se, y. to strengthen the back; to back s. b. 

fl §i, y. to be firm, stand firm; inf. sifimo. 

fi! interj. The signification of this word can not be giyen; 
it is used in the swearing formula, which is Uke that of 
the .Hebrews without an expressed principal sentence; fl 
takes the place of the latter: f. i. „Mikd kitd, ake: kedSi 
eflo, ke oye amane mli, ke oba mind ni miyee mibuaao 
le» kedsi ake neke klante ne foo miyitSo fl! 1 swear, 
that if thou art in perplexity, if thou art in trouble, i/ 
thou come to me and 1 do not assist thee, if not with 
this sword (in the hand of the person swearing), my 
head is cut off, then — ! . 

fi! mt. (for scolding) = fye, pfui! 

fla = f§, pi|i, adj. all, every; n. the whole of s. th. comp. 
K and § 22. Adn. tfa, tSo. 

fiase (Ot. fi, house, ase, under part), n. the lower story; 
the cellar, store; prison. S. tSD, tSQn. 


fiji — flafla. 73 

fi€, n. Ad. = fel, n. cold; fever. 

idiiN)ro, n. dan. a kind of borers (Seiflbo^rer). 

fidsiatse, n. lit. a possessor of wings, winged creatare of 

any kind ^ePugcI, P)iD); s. fine, 
fidsilefidsite, adj. and adv. unruly, unquiet; fe — or ye — , 

to be unquiet ; fitrifitri, th. s. 
fifii, pi. n. (either from the verb fl, to be close or fifio 
small) narrow places; fifiian, in narrow places, in the 
comers, in secret; comp. fodsiaA, under flo, n. 
fifio, old pronunc. of bibio, pK fifii, adj. small, little; adv. 

little; s. also fio. 
fila (Ot. fira), v. (seldom used) to be blind; s. fula and fila. 
fiti, V. s. fli. 
filQ, n. binder, 
fimo, m binding; pressing together; press; closeness; 

trouble, straits; congealing, curdling, 
fin, finfih, adj. perh. europ. word; fine, nice, beautiful. 
Ane, old pronunc. flnde, n. pi. fidsi, wing, 
fintl, adv. in the highest degree; exactljr; fine finti, high 

midday, about 12 o' clock; s. ketekete, th. s. 
fintd, adj. narrow; s. legelege. 
fio, fiofio, adj. and adv. little, small, = bibio, fifio; few; 

n. a little, 
ftta, fitafita, adj. and adv. while (Ot. the s.), s. futa; ye 
fita (comp. ye, to be while), to be very white; eyeA 
fita, very white, clean, clear, 
file, inf. fitemo, v. to spend, to use up; to spoil; s. kpata « 
hie, V. 

file hie, V. to darken the face; to mar . 

fttelQ, n. spender; spoiler, 
ftlemo, n. spending; spoiling. S. hiekpatamo. 
filsofitlo, adv. exactly; carefully; accurately, precisely; tho- 
fla, 8. also fra. 
fla, inf. flamo, v. to salute; eflanye, he salutes you; to 

fla, fala, pi. fadsi, n. boil, ulcer, bad open wound ; different 
from „asane", abscess. Comp. fafale; fad§iat§e, n. a per- 
son full of „ fadsi'' or boils, 
fia, n. the fruit of a tree; s. flatso. 
'flada, s. aflada, n. a kind of pap. 

flafla, adi. sanguinic, lively, active; unruly; ye — , to be -*; 
adv. actively, rashly etc.; s. flefle and klftmSklama, th.». 


74 flaka — floflo. 

flaka, n. europ. word (gtadF?), coat of men and women; 

'flana, s. aflana, n. flag. 
flatSo, pi. -tsei, n. a tree of beautiful, hard r^d wood, but 

generally crooked, 
fl^, V. to ilcb, to feel a tickling sensation; s. fli, v. (cor- 

rob. of fe, v.). 
flefle, adj. light; lightminded; frivolous; ohie ;\e flefle, Hi. 

thv face is light, i. e. thou art lightminded, frivolous. 
flekQ, = fa, fe, fell etc. very red; tsu fleku, to be very red. 
flemo, n. itching, fr. fie, v. 
flemtso, v. (europ.?) to ram. 
flehtso, n. window-frame. 

flen, =^ soft, adv. far away, far behind; damo se fleft! 
stand back! — aside, separately. 

fli, V. inf. flimo, to feel a tickling sensation; to itch = 
fie; to blow; to whistle (s. kpS ble and fli ble; kpfi or 
fli tetremantre); to peep at; mli fli, v. to be joyful, 
cheerful, glad; inf. mliflimo; mihewolo fe flimi, all my 
skin itches; mimli flimi; 1 am glad, joyous etc. 

fli z=r. fri, firi, s. fri. 

flifli, adv. early in the morning = maftke, adem^iike, mankpa. 

fliki, V. to fly; inf. flikimo; prs. n. flikilo. 

flikilo = fidsiatse, n. a winged or flying creature of any 
kind (©cflitgei); f. i. tsatsu flikilo, n. flying ant. 

flikimo, n. flying; fb'ght. 

'flikiti, ofl. n. flying ants. 

flimo, n. itching; itch; s. gbm; blowing, whistling. 

flo, ~ eflo, attributively used; adj. empty, vain, mere; 
wiemo flo, an empty word; a mere word; ekomeflo, 
ony one; mokomeflo, only one person; with neg. not 
any thing, not any person; mokomeflo be d§ei, not any 
body is there. 

flo, floflo, V. to be dry (of grass). 

flo, pi. form of the verb fo, to cut; to cut serveral things, 
to cut into pieces; inf. flomo. 

flgr na, n. pi. form of fo na to inform; to denote; to de- 
nounce; eflQ mina, he denounced me; inf. naflomo; prs. 
n. naflolo. 

flo, pi. fodsi, n. hole; cave; comer (comp. kon), small 
narrow place, narrow lane; fodsian, in holes; in small, 
narrow places, lanes etc. 



flofloflo — fo hte. . 75 

flofloflo (ploplOplo), corroboration of flo, empty, vain etc 
adj. distant, remote; thorough; adv. remotely ; thorough- 
ly; throughout = s6ft. 

flofloi = afofro, aflofloi, n. blossom. 

floke, inf. flokemo, v.. to come forth; bai — , leaves come 

flolQ, n. one who cuts into pieces. 

flgmo, n. cutting to pieces, s. fo. 

fl6n6, frdnS (lat. furnax, port.), n. oven of every kind. 

flonto, n. velvet. 

flontofai, n. velvet-cap. 

flot^, n. a kind of raw bags for corn, salt etc. Comp. 
kafu, ablabutu, kotoku etc. 

flou, V. (corroboration of fo, flo, to cut), to prepare meat 
into a favorite dish of the natives, called flou or flouflou, 
by cutting it into small pieces and stewing it with fat 
or palm-oil, water, red pepper and some soup -plants, 
esp. „sebe" and „enm6mi". 

flgu, n. and 

flouflou, n. meat-stew, native fricassee. 

flu, V. corroboration of fu, to crumble (of bread), s. flufla 
and fufudsl. 

flufla> n. lungs. 

fluflu (s. flu andfu), v. to crumble; comp. fuflu, fufudsi, n. 
crumbs; fragments. 

fo, obj. pi. flo, inf. fo, fomo; flgmo, v. to be cut (perh. 
with the inf. fo); to weep (inf. fOmo and yafo from 
the Adn. v. foya, th. s., no pi. form but with the fre- 
quent, fofoi); to cut (inf. fomo, pi. flo or folo, inf. pi. 
flomo); the principal combinations are: na fo, v. inf. nafo, 
to cease (the mouth or end is cut, s. fo na) = fo; se 
fo (the back or end is cut), v. to cease, as the former; 
inf. sefo; etc. 

fo ba, v., pi. flo bai, to cut leaves (a despised work); inf. 
baiflomo, pers. n. baiflolo. 

fo ba, s. fo m. k. \i ba. 

fo m. k. da (or dan), lit. to cut s. b. mouth ; to cross s. b, 
mouth, to give answer; mifoo edah po, 1 gave him not 
even an answer. 

fo fa, V. to cross a river; inf. fafo. 

fo he, V. to weep for s. th. 

fo hie, V. inf. hiefo, to endeavour, to try; mafo mihie 
mafe nyonlo, I will try and do it at once. 


76 fo ketia — fo in. k. yi ba. 

fo ketia, v. (Ot. tya tyetia) to circumcise (111. to cut short) ; 
inf. ketiafd ; circumcision is generally practised among the 
6d-, but not among the Otyi- people (s. folo). It is 
performed as with the Mahomedans from whom the cu- 
stom may derive (Comp. Gen. 17, 25.), by a certain 
person (not a priest) when the boys are about 12 — 14 
years of age; the act does not seem to bear a religious 
character. Of circumcision of females as is customary in 
Abessinia and has been said to be in use also in these 
parts, nothing seems to be known here, though GS-girls 
do not like to marry uncircumcised natives, s. folo, n. 

fo kpitio, V. inf. kpitiofo, and 

fo kuku, V. inf. kukufo, to cut short, to shorten, f. i. a 
way, a speech, a time; flo kukudSi, pi. form of the 
former, to cut into pieces. 

fo mli, V. n. to weep inwardly; to grudge; to pass over; 
to be too much; f. i. A§antemei awonu nd, si no efo 
mli tso, the soup of the ASantis is tastful, but there 
is too much salt in it; fo mli, pi. flo mli, to cut asun- 
der, in two; mlifo, mlifomo, mliflomo. 

fo moko, V. to weep for somebody. 

fo m. k. na, Aq m. k. na, inf. nafd, naflonio, v. to de- 
nounce; miflo ona ma hSi onyontso, I denounce thee to 
thy master. This act is considered by the natives most 
hateful, even if duty requires it. 

fo se» V. to make to cease, s. se fo. 

fo si, V. to go about, especially in procession, as it is cu- 
stom of the natives at their plays, dances, weddings, 
funerals and other customs; inf. sifo; pers. n. SifolQ. 

fo tako mli, lit. to cut the pad asunder, to cause a sepa- 
ration between relations, friends etc. inf. takomlifo. 

fo ten, flo teA, v. to cut in the midst, asunder, s. fo mli; 
to insert, put between; inf. teMo, atenfo, atenflomo. 

fo m. k. wiemgn, v. to address one during his speaking 
with another person, to interrupt. 

fo yafonu, yafonui, v. to weep tears. 

fo m. k. yi ba, lit. to cut the leaf of one's head or price, 
s. yi; V. to buy one entirely as a slave, not only take 
him as a bond or in pawn; in the former case the per- 
son becomes a member of his owner's family for life and 
death, calls him father and is called child (son or 
daughter), and the owner is answerable for his behavi- 
our, debts etc.; in the latter case the bond -person is 
only a surety and the person who has given him^ is 


to = fo86 — fo nil ahc. 77 

answerable for him (s. awoba); wherefore bond -people 
are often worse oft, than slaves. The word or phrase 
„fo yi ba" refers to a custom (of cutting a leaf asunder 
over the head of a person bought; inf. yibafO; prs, n. 

fo = fose and fote, v. to pour out. 

fo = yafo and fomo, n. weeping. 

fo, ofo, n. a kind of black monkies, the skins of which 
are merchandise. 

fo, V. inf. fo, fomo, prs. n. folo; to be wet (Ot. fow), 
to wetten; to wash f. i. cloth; face and hands or feet 
(s. dSu, and dSale, wu, t§umo, v.); to beget (Ot. wo); 
to bear, bring forth children, young ones (of animals), 
to produce etc. fo m. k., to beget, bear s. b., but also 
to midwife (folo, yo folo, n. a midwife; fomo, n. wid- 
wifery). Combinations; ke m. k. fo bi, to beget a child 
with s. b., a decent expression; f. i. „Okele afo bii 
nyonma ke enyol" „Mayes thou beget 12 children 
with her (or him)!" A common wedding salutation or 
wish. „Mikele fo bii nvonma,** „1 begot 10 children 
with her" (my wife). These expressions and many si- 
milar plain ones (comp. musunbi) are used not only be- 
cause it is a great honour, as under the Old Testament, 
to have many children; but especially, because young 
relations, slaves etc. are also called children and on ac- 
count of polygamy. 

fo ^tade he, v. to wash cloth; atadehefomo, prs. n. atade- 

fo hi, V. to bring* ibrth or beget a child; inf. bifomo, bii- 
afomo; prs. n. bifolo, biiafolo, parent; comp. folQ, bii- 
anye, biiatSe; awo; yofoyo, n. 

fo bobolT, V. to be very wet; s. bobolT. 

fo daA, V. to wash the (inside of the) mouth. 

fo dS, V. to wash the hands. 

fo n. k. femo , v. to be accustomed to dq s. th. 

fo he, V. inf. hefomo, to wash; fo nii ahe, to wash cloth; 
niiahefomo; washing; niiahefoio, n. washer. 

fo hie, V. to wash the face; witty expression, to drink too- 
much; inf. hiefomo. 

fo mli, V. to wash the inside, to cleanse (f. i. glasses, 
pots etc. with water); fo mil! wash it; inf. mlifomo* 

fo nmSfi, V. to bear sons and daughters alternately; inf. 

id nii ahe, v. to wash cloth; s. fo he. 


78 fo »a — to «. 

fo sa, V. to weltcn the bed. 

fO, n. welting. 

fo, n. fat; slime, phlegm; sperm; to fo, to be fat; wo — 
th. s. 

fo, n. (Ot. th. s.) condemnation; guilt; adj. condemnable 
condemned; guilty; bu fo, to condemn; fobu, condem 
nation; comp. bu atefi and bu bem; ye fo, v. to be ir 
the wrong, guilty'; foyeli. 

fQ, adj. green, fresh, soft, unripe, undried; dfefo = dfei 
fo, fresh gra5s; able fo, half-ripe maize, as it is roasted 
or boiled and eaten; comp. eilmon; enoH, adj. 

fd, V. inf. fo and fomo; to cease; to cast; to be wicked, 
bad, to act wickedly; s. efon; import, sing, fomo! but 
in compounds only fd, f. i. n6 fo si, cast it down. The 
principal combinations are: nd (or ke) hie f^ m. k. no, 
lit. to take the face and cast it on s. b., i. e. to trust 
in him, to hope upon him; comp. hie kS m. k. no; ka 
hie fd n. k. no, to wink at s. th., to overlook s. th.; 
nd yitso fd m. k. kue, to take the head and cast it on 
s. body's neck, to fall upon or around one's neck, to 
hug, to embrace; s. here atQ, th. s.; se-fd, obj. pi. §ere 
-fd and sere -fie (si), v. to cast down, away; mise-fd 
or mi§e mifd, 1 cast it away ; misere nibii ne mifie (si), 
I cast these things away. 

fd abis^, y. to cast the lot; inf. abisafd; fd-ye m. k. no, 
- - over one. 

fd ab(}tTri, v. to wrestle; s. abotKri, abotfrifd, abotirifdlo. 

fd hie, v. s. combinations under fo; ipf. hiefd, hiefdmi?; 
to cast one's face on s. th. or s. b. 

fd mil, v. to cast in; to give over and above; to add; inf 
mlifd; comp. wo mli, v. 

fd nine, v. to move the hand to and fro, to wink, to 

fd no, V. to cast upon; to give over and above = wo roli; 
inf. nofd; nd hie fd m. k. no> to trust in s. b. See 
combinations under fd; fd fd n. k. no, to boast with s.tb. 

fd m. k. nd, v. to- cease or give up some body's manners, 
Gd. Fables 1. 

id o§iki, n. to cast or to throw dice; to cast the lot; = 

fd abis^; — ye m. k. no, over s. b.; inf. osikiK; 

prs. n. osikifdlQ. 

fd se, V. to cast back. 

fd si, V. to cast down; to lay down; inf. Sifd. 


fd te — fomo. 79 

f5 te £= Ifa te, v. to c.asl a stone; fd m. k. te, - - - at 
s. b. ; inf. tefo. 

fd ya, V. to cast the net; inf. jafo. 

fd, n. corner; s flo, koft, n. 

f5, n. cast; dirt; wickedness; adj. dirty, unclean; ofe fd, 
thou art dirty, unclean. Dsu ke fo, robbery (or theft) 
and wickedness, is an expression to disign a very wicked 
secret act; dsu ke fo dsi no ne, this thing is very wicked; 
bo fo, V. -to do s. th. detestable = to kpa. 

fobite, n. pebble; marble. 

fobo, n. a detestable act, fr. bg f5. 

fobu, n. condemnation. 

fobulo, n. condemnator. 

fofida, n. a distinguished day. 

fofloo, adj. uttermost. 

fofoi, coll. noun, flowers, flower. 

fofoitso, pi. -t§ei, n. shrub or tree bearing flowers, 

fofple, adj. and adv. tender, -ly; soft, -ly; especially also 
used of an effeminate education; milee mibii fofole, I 
do'nt bring up my children softly. 

fofolele, n. effeminate education. 

fpi, n. run, race? used in the combinations: dso foi, v. 
hie foi, V. sa foi, v. to run, to flee; wo foi, v. to make 
to run, to drive away, to turn to flee; comp. in Otyi: 
tutu mirika; in Adh. du fo, he fo, sa fo, tu fo, v. th. s. 

foidse, n. running; fleeing. 

foidso, n. th. s. but unused. 

foihiemo, foisamo, n. th. s, but scarcely used. 

foitsemo, n. running. 

foiwO, n. turning to flight. 

foiwomo, n. running. 

foi, ofoi, n. horsefly. 

fokle, n. dan. apron. 

folo, n. one who cuts; weeper, weeping person, also yafolo. 

folo, n. uncircumcised man; an abusive name for men of 
surrounding tribes, who have not the custom of circum- 

folo, n. washer; parent, genitor; s. f^; yo folo = fomoyo, 
n. midwife fr. fo, to midwife; comp. also yofoyo, n. 

folo, n. a wicked person; a dirty fellow =: mudsiatse, n. 

fomo, n. weeping; s. fo and yafo, n. 

(omQ, n. washing (of cloth, face, hands etc.); begetting; 
generation; production; birth; midwifery; nature. 


80 temo — Wmo. 

f6mQ» n. ceasing, ending, end; casting, throwing, thrust; 

fgmobe, n. birth-time, 
fomogbena, n. birthright, 
fomogbl, n. birthday, 
fomohe, n. womb, matrix, 
fomgnu, n. itinb^njQJfer; mother-water, 
fomonii, pi n. after-birth. Prv. AIo gbomo le afie se ni 

ake fomonii le ba §ia, the man is cast away and the 

after-birth brought home, 
fomgse, se, n. th. s. 

foo, pi. fobii, adj. tender, young; comp. fufgo, fofgle etc. 
fose, V. and 

fote, T. to pour, to' pour out; s. fie Si; inf. fotemo, fgsemo. 
fgte, n. (Ot. mfole, mfotie) white ants, termites. S. gbg- 

tsui, n. 
fosemo, n. and 
fgtemo, n. outpouring, 
fgtetse, n. queen or mother of the white ants, s. ghgtSui; 

a kind of snakes falsely supposed to produce white ants, 
fotoli, n. a kind of frumenty; s. aflata. 
foto, n. and 

fgwo, n. getting fat; gathering fat; s. to fo and wo fo, v. 
foyeli, n. guiltiness; guilt; s. ye fg (Ot. fgdi). 
fra, s. fla and fa, obj. pi. of fa, to lend; to borrow, 
fra (ma), y. to grind (ground corn, s. mfi), the second time; 

comp. fra Olyi, to mix and wyie; gble; inf. framo. 
Frafra, pr. n. of a GS-village. 
frftke, inf. frakemo, v. to loose meat from the bones or fish 

from the fishbones; — • hlnmei se, t. to draw up the 

frdkemo, n. loosing the meat from the bones, 
framo, n. second grinding, 
fre, fere; s. fle, fele, pi. v. 
fri, iiri (Ot.) = fa, v. to lend, to forgive ; to givfe (money) 

in advance; to give free? to liberate? inf. frimo; prs. n. 

frl, adj. (perh. of europ. origin or from the preceding word); 

free; ha frl, v. to liberate, = kp6; ha m. k. ye ehe; 

ye frl, to be free, inf. friyeli = heyeli from ye he. 
fri-gbomo, n. freeman, 
frihamo, n. liberty, liberation, 
frilo, n. lender, creditor; = falo. 
frimo, n. lending; = fa. 


frimo — fafoakpIetetSo. 81 

firimo, = flimo, s. fli, v. 

frlyeli, n. liberty; = heyeli, n. 

frfyelo, n. free person. 

fro, V. 8. flo, V. 

frdfrd, adj. fresh, watery, soft (of land well watered); fe — , 

to be watery, well watered, 
frdfirdfemo, n. state of being well watered, 
frdnd, adj. cold; ye — , to be — . 
fni, adj. 

frufm, adj. = flu, fluflu, v. dusty, powdered, 
fu, V. Ot. th. s. to grow luxuriantly. 
fd, n. immoderateness, immoderation; adj. and adv. greedy; 

gluttonous; greedily; gluttonously; pale, yellow, sickly; 

whitish of colour = futa; luxurious; fe fa, inf. fafemo, n. 

to be greedy, gluttonous; pale, yellow; sickly; luxurious; 

do fu, inf. fudo, n. to be cloyed, pnfiTed up. Comp. fu, v. 

and fu, y. 
fa, adv. exactly, closely; used to define the verb na, to 

see; kwe to look; kwe fo, to look closely; s. fufafu, 

th. s., and altogether, Adji. th. s. 
fg, V. inf. fQ; to scent, to smell, to stink, to snuff, to 

bury, = to; to swell, to make to swell, to have or get 

the dropsy, to clysterize, 
fg, n. bad smell, stink; scent; - dse -, to stink; inf. fudse. 
fo asra, v. to snuff, inf. asrafu, prs. n. asrafCilo. 
fQ he, V. to smell at. 
fQ Me = tu hie, fite h!e, v. inf. hIefQmo; to darken the 

face, to frown, to look black (upon), to make a sour 

fu, n. burial, 
'fti, efu, adj. what is kept overnight (bread, meat etc.); 

fudo, n. puffing up, being cloyed; s. do fu, v. 
fQdSe, n. stinking, bad smelling; bad smell, 
fufemo, n. gluttonizing, gluttony, 
fuflu (s. fii, flu, fluflu), V. to crumble, 
fiifiu, generally pi. fufiidsl, n. crum, crumb, crums ; fragments, 
fufo, n. female breast, udder, nailk; hS — , v. to give suck, 

to suckle; M fufo, v. to milk; nu — , v. to suck, 
fufobii, pi. of fufoo. 

lufohSlo, n. woman that gives suck, nurse, milking animal, 
fufohimo, n. suckling, giving suck; milking. 
fufoakpleletSo, pi. -tsei, n. a tree bearing fruits of the sia^ 

and form of the breasts of old women (fufoakplels). 

Zimroermann, Akra-Vocab. 6 


82 fcitQwlD — foUAilt. 

fufonulo, n. suckling = jfiifoo. 

fnfonumo, n. sucking. 

fufonS, n. milking. 

fufgo, pi. fufgbii (s. abifao), n. suckling; baby; generally: 
gbek^ fufQO, gbekSbii fufobii; corop. also foo, adj. 

fufQ = fuia (Ol. th. s.), adj. and adv. while, whitely. 

fufu and fufui, n. a favorite food of the natives, a dough 
of mashed yams, cassada or plantains, eaten to soup; 
si — , to mortar or beat or pound or mash it in a 
virooden mortar; s. badurutso, n. 

fufafu, adv. thoroughly, be — , to sweep — . 

fufttitso, n. the virooden mortar, in which the ftifui is poun- 
ded or mashed; s. baduruntso, th. s. 

fufuitsonbi, and 

fufuitsomlibi, n. the pestle or beater or pounder, by which 
the „fufui'* is pounded; s. baduruntSomlibi, \ik. s. 

fufuba, n. a plant. 

lufudsi, pi. of fuflu, crums. 

fufafu = fo, adv. exactly, closely; na — , to see exactly, 

fufui, V. frequent form of fu, to swell, to swell every where 
and very much; to have the dropsy. 

fuhe, n. burial-place; Ad. pumhe, n. 

fukofuko = hikghiko, natural sound, n. hiccough; — fele, 
he has the hiccough. 

fula, V. (Ot. fira) == fila and fila. Ad. th. s., old pronun- 
ciation; to be blind; sometimes combined with hlfimei, 
hinmeii fula, to be blind; v. a. to blind; fula hinmeii, 
to blind the eyes; inf. fulamg (the lit. signification is: 
to be overspun). 

fulafo, pi. fulafoi (Ot. onifiraifo), n. a blind man ; s. Glafo, n. 

fulamo = Olamo, n. blindness. 

fulQ, n. glutton. 

fulu, n. a kind of fever, nervous fever; comp. fel, asra, 
atridi, n. 

fumama, n. burial-cloth. 

fumo, n. being luxurious, s. fu; swelling, dropsy, clyster. 

futa, inf. futamo, v. to stir = lota; mitsine no futami (or 
lotami), I have stomach-ache, inclination to vomit. 

futa (Ot. fits), and 

futafuta, futafutafuta, ad|j. and adv. white, very white; y« 
futa, ye futafuta, to be very white; eyeft futa, very white; 
comp. ye, to be white; fe, fe, fell «tc. futamo, n. stirr 


ftiteftiie — fSnd flotr. 83 

fatefute, a4j. mixed? hie — , adverbially used: early at 
twilight = hte mfttdmfttS, dsetSereno etc. 

fdiu, y. inf. futumo, to mix; comp. also butu. 

futa mil, V. to mix into; inf. mlifutumo- 

futuMtn, n. mixture, confusion ; adv. promiscue, confusedly, 

futnfutumei, pi. n. mixed people. 

fntnfutunii, pi. n. mixed things. 

futulo, n. mixer. 

fiitumo, n. mixing; mixture. 

fuwe, n. burial-house. 

fuyei, pi. n. burial -viromen; viromen attending a funeral; 

S has been chosen as the seventh letter of the Al- 
phabet for the peculiar sound given it by the natives, 
between f and §, s. § 2. Formerly we expressed it 
with su; sometimes it changes with f and sometimes 
with §. 

fa, V. to blame; to twin, twist (cord on the lap; comp. 
nygne, v.). 

f§, V. inf. ffimo; to scatter, to sprinkle, to water; Nyonmo 
fa, to drizzle; to comb; to conjure; the principal com- 
binations are: gbe-fS, v. to scatter (v. a. and n.), ame- 
gbe amefd, they scattered themselves; egbe ame efS, he 
scattered them, fd m. k., v. 

fa he, V. to repent of s. th., to be sorry; mifd mihe ye 
neke sane hewQ, I repent this matter; efa ehe ye ehe 
esai le ahewo, he repents his sins; inf. hefamo; prs. n. 

n no, V. to water, moisten, sprinkle, wet; nofSmQ. 

f^ no nu, Y> th. s. 

fa yi, V. to comb the hair; comp. gba yi; inf. yifSmo. 

fa-fd n. k. no, v. to boast with s. th., s. fd, v. 

fa moko yi nO) v. to boast against; to conjure against s. b., 
inf. yinofamo, yinofa. 

falo, n. scatterer. 

(amo,n. scattering, watering, wetting, moistening, sprink- 
ling; s. fa and famo, v. 

fafafa = fififi, adv. hurriedly. 

fane, n. midday, noon; old pronunciation: fande; Adh. 
plane; Ot. awyia, n. 

fane finti, n. high noon, exact noon, hottest part of the day. 



84 ttneniyenii — ft. 

(Sneniyenii, pi. n. dinner. 

fdneniiyeli, n. th. 8., dining. 

f|[newO» n. siesta; midday-sleep, a general custom among 
natives and Europeans, but scarcely a recommendable one. 

fao, inf. -mo, v. to maw, ma^cn; -no, v. th. s. 
"""^fe, inf. fe, V. to vomit (comp. fie, v.); to be homesick,- to 
long, desire etc. Comp. hfe tSe, — ts5, v. 

fg, n. vomitting; homesickness, desire, longing (s. hIetSere). 

fe, and 

fefe, and 

fefefe, adj. and adv. like; equal; entire, safe; alike; equally; 
entirely, safely. 

fe, inf. fe, imprs. v. to be wanting (Adn. pie, v. Ot. 
ka, v.); noko efemi, I want something, ed gebtt^lt mir 
ettoad; efe sika, gold or money is wanting; efe fio ni 
wobase, it wants a little (while) till we reach; efe kpS- 
nma, ten strings are wanting; in this signification it is 
generaUy used in the pert tense; to be left, over; to 
leave over; maye nii n\ fe le, 1 eat what is left; comp. 
fe, efei> n. and adj.; femi eko, leave me something! 

fe, n. want, rest; f. i. mamafe, rest of cloth; rag; s. se, 
V. impers. 

'fei, efei, feifei, adj. rent, ragged. 

fe, inf. femo, v. to play; to be of a friendly, communica- 
tive disposition, to be sociable; eke mofSmo feo, he is 
friendly with every body; eke moko fee, he is unsociable; 
to play for money; to game; to commit whoremongery, 
adultery; eke yO kroko fe, he committed adultery. 

febilo, n. play-mate. 

felo, n. person vomitting, being homesick. 

felo, n. player. 

fem, adj. empty; fe m. k. — , v. to plunder one out; s. ha, v. 

femfemo, n. plundering. T 

feme, n. play, game; sociableness; friendliness; elee femo, 
he knows no joke, he is sourminded; whoremongery, 
adultery ; comp. G. and Ot. bo adfaman, — ahofi, v. and 
Ot. goro, V. 

femond, pi. -nii, n. play-thmg, toy. 

fere, inf. fej-emg, v. to prosper; to yield much, to increase, 
to be lucky; comp. sade, n. 

ferelo, n. prosperous or prospering person. 

feremo, n. prosperity, increasing, good luck; s. §ade, n. 

fi, inf. ft, V. to grow fat, stout; to prosper. 

ft, n. fattening, fatness, stoutness. 


fie — tnh. 66 

fie (Ot. fie or fyie. Ad. th. s.), to pour out; to cast (iron, 
lead etc.) ; to cast away, to cast out, to drive out, away. 
Comp. also gu, v. in Ot. and pue in AdA. 

fie na §i, inf. naSifiemo, to flatter; =: doko na, v. 

fie no (Ot. gu so, AdA. pue no, v.), inf. nofiemo, v. to 
pour upon; to go on; gener. M fie no; eAd fie no, he 
went on; — m. k. no, v. to surprise, to attack; see 
gbe no, V. 

fie nu, inf. nufiemo, v. to piss; decent expression forSamo> v. 

fie se, int sefiemo, v. to cast back, behind. 

fie §i, inf. §ifiemo, v. to pour down, out; to lie about, 

s. dfere, v. to spill, to be spilled; hie , v. to be 

of a downcast face; fie la §i, v. to spill blood (by mur- 
der etc.). 

fiemo, n. pouring, casting, driving out. 

fie, n. cabbage; s. ba, n. 

fifia, inf. fifiamo, v. to rub with a liquid, f. i. — abonua, 
lime's juice; s. fo, v. and kpa, v. 

fifiamo, n* rubbing with a liquid. 

fila, V. to be blind, to blind; s. fula; Ot. fira; inf. 

filamo, n. blindness, blinding. 

filafo, n. blind man; s. fulafo, n. 

filao, s. firao, pr. n. 

fili, n. carriage, cart etc. 

filibo, n. wheelbarrow. 

filigbe, n. carriageroad. 

flligblalo, n. carriage-man; drawer of — . 

filigblamo, n. drawing of a carriage. 

filinane, n. carriage-wheel, = kokrolonto, n. 

fififi, = faMa, adv. hurriedly; in a hurry. 

Sirao, or 

Sirau, filau (Ot. th. s. Ad. th. s.), pr. noun of the river 
Volta; Ayigbe: Amu. 

fio> n. upper thigh. Ad. th. s.; pi. irreg. fodsi. 

fio, n. elephant; nu-fio, n. water-elephant, i. e. hippop<t- 
tamos. Ad. th. s. 

fioblo, n.lit. elephant-broom; elephants tale, used by princes 
like a fan. 

fiomunum, n. trunk of an elephant. 

fiowu, n. (elephants bone); ivory. 

fo =r §0, V. to suck (marrow from a bone); — na, to kiss. 

fue, V. = fie, v. 

fue, n. = fie, n. 

fula, V. = fila, V. etc. etc. 


8d 6a — GSbii. 


Ga, n. ring. 

Ga, pr. n. of Akra or Jamestown ; of the people, language 
and land between the rivers Volta in the east, Sakumo 
fio in the west, and the sea in the south and the 
Akwapim- mountains in the north, of the Gold -coast. 
Western Africa; in Ot. „Nkran'* (wandering ants), of 
which the Portuguese formed „Akra'*. The people are 
an industrious and powerful tribe, well grown, of a some- 
what reddish - dark colour and good mental and bodily 
abilities; they reckon the Anwala-, A^igbe-, Agolim-, 
AkwSmu-, Akwapim- and Akyem- tribes to their army, 
all having one common chief, hitherto the chief of Dutch 
Akra or Ktnka (s. this). The GS-language, spoken by 
about 100000 — 120000 souls, is divided into two 
principal dialects, sc. GS-akpa (Ga proper), spoken by 
the people betwixt the sea and Akyem and Akwapim 
along the coast from Akra or Jamestown to Tema, by 
about 40000 souls and the A dan me (Ada-gbe, language 
of Ada) by the rest of 60—80,000. The latter consists 
of several dialects and is purer and less mixed, but also 
less developed, than the Ga proper. Some tribes of 
both dialects have emigrated beyond the river Volta, the 
Agotim-people, speaking Adanme from about NuAo, and 
the Popo- people, partly still speaking Ga proper from 
Ga, Kinka, Osu etc. The country forms a plain and is 
watered by a few small continual brooks. It is divided 
into two different parts, sc. the coast with its seatowns 
and the dry grass-plain or savanna, 5—10 miles broad 
along the sea and the fertile bush along the Akwapim- 
mountains with its many villages and plantations. In the 
N. E. of the latter part are situated the mountains Sai 
(or Siai), Osudoku, Asadsale (or NoiyO Noya), Krobo 
^ and Yogaga, all foremountains of the Akwapim -chain, 
the first four each containing the principal towns or 
town of the tribes of the same name. Seven cities on 
the west -bank of the Volta, from Agrafe ih the south 
to BatQ in the north, speak the Ayigbe language. 

p. adv. staringly, immoveably; ekwe Awei g§, he looked 
up staringly. 

'ga, aga, n. a kind of grasshopper; a small animalcule; adv. 
with neg. voice: nothing. 

(jabii, pi. n. = Gamei; Akra-people, 


gi^ogtbo — gba kd. 8t 

gabogabo, adj. deep, furrowed (man's face f. i., or some 
kinds of cloth) = voyo, adj. 

gad§d, adj. large, broad, great; nabu gadSa, a large broad 

gaflo, n. dan. fork. 

gftgd, n. a large black ant. 

gdgS, adj. Adjfi. long, high, = kakadafi in GS. 

gal, n. bow, arrow; t§6 gal, to shoot an arrow; sting (t§§, 
to sting). 

gaikpd, n. bowstring. 

galmlibi, n. arrow. 

gait§^lo, n. archer. 

gaitSSmg, n. arrow-shooting. 

gaitSo, n. bow. 

gSlS, gla, n. a kind of reed or rush. 

galitSo, n. spear; s. akplo. 

galo, n. (europ. word) gold-border; gold-lace. 

Gftn^o, pi. GfthI, masc. n. Ga-man, Akra-man. 

Gfinyo, pi. Gdmei, com. n. GS-man, Akra-man, -person; 
pi. Gd- or Akra-people; s. also: Gfibii, n. 

GdtSemei, pi. n. = Gftmei, Gdbii, Akrapeople. 

Gftyo, pi. Gfiyei, n. G5-woman. 

gba, inf. gba, gbale, gbamo; pi* gbla, inf. gblamo, n. and 
act. V. to divide (= dSa, Ot. pai); to saw, to rend; 
to strike, to smite; to cast lots; to distinguish, to re- 
late, to declare (s. d$ad§e), to talk; to prophesy, to 
soothsay (but comp. kra), to indicate; to cease = fd; 
to get sour, to ferment (s. also kpa); prs. n. gbalo, 
gblalQ. Principal combinations: he gba, he gbla, t. to 
hurt one's self; to be divided, rent about the body or 
outside; mli gba, — gbla, v. to be divided inside, inf. 
mligbamo, mligblamo; na gba, v. to be divided at the 
end, etc. 

gba afofro, v. to shoot out blossoms, to blossom; inf. afofro- 

gba afaw^nya, v. th. s. said of maize; inf. ahw&nyagbamo. 

gba dan, v. to rend the mouth. 

gba enyo = gba mli enyo and gbla enyo, v. to rend in two. 

gba fa, and 

gba futa, V. to be white for harvest (used of maise) = y« 
fa, futs, fufa etc. 

gba m. k. hie m9, v. to strike s. b. in the face. 

gba ko = ha adeda, v. to cut the bush for making a plan- 
tation; inf. kogba, prs. n. ko^balQ^ 


^ gba mil — gbatSti. 

gba mS, obj. pi. gbla ma!, y. to give one a stroke with 

the palm of the hand; inf. magbamo and malgblamo. 
gba mli, pi. gbla mli, v. to divide, to confess; - - enyo, to 

divide, spUt in two; - - kpo to confess; inf. mligbamo, 

mligblamo; = mlid§a. 
gba na (lit. to rend one's mouth), v. to trouble, esp. with 

words; to grieve; gba he na, v. to trouble one's setf; 

inf. nagbamo, henagbamg. 
gba, = bum, int. and adv. with one stroke, s. gbo and gbu. 
gba ta, n. to put into battle-array, 
gba te, V. to break stones, to quarry, 
gba yi, v. to divide the hair; yigba. 
gba, n. division; s. gbamo and gblamg; prophesy, telling; 

s. gb^le, sanegba etc. 
gba, n. Ad. = abofto, barn and akpa, s. this, 
gbd! inlerj. indeed! adv. still, really, truly, however etc. = 

kg, adv. 
gbd and gbld or gbSld, v. inf. gbd, gbid, gbSlS; to marry 

(only used of the woman, comp. kpe and wye), to take 

a husband; egbdi nO or egbld na, she has taken a hus- 
band; to live with a man (unlawfully), comp. wye, v. 

and fe, V. 
gbd, n. marriage, matrimony; s. gbla and wye, n. 
gba, n. a kind of large seaftsh; gbanS&la, gbanSla, th. s. 

dried (lit. stinking ngba"*). 
gbadSa, xi. a leather girdle of the natives containing their 

cartridges; girdle, 
gbala, s. gbla. 
gbald, s. gbld. 
gbale, V. to turn in somewhere (from the way, journey), 

to arrive, s. where; to happen; ene akagbaleo ! may this 

not happen to theel'Adn. kpale, v. 
gbale mli, v. to part, divide, 
gbale, n. prophesy, soothsaying; s. gba, v.; relating of a 

story, s. sanegba, n. 
gbalg, n. prophet; soothsayer, s. kramo, okomfo; teller of 

a story; imprs. crack, chink = kafi, n. 
gbdmi, s. agbdmi, n. fig. 
gbainu, s. agbamu, n. fruit of cactus, 
gbamo, n. division, s. gblamo and gba, v. 
gbanteng = gwantSn (Ot. the same), n. sheep, s. to; to- 

gbant^ng, toaboti^. 
gbatsu, n. a fetish-house, in which the soothsayers have 

their business (soothsaying-room). 


gbe — gbe Si. 89 

gbe, V. inf. gb6 and gbemg, to fall, = nyo, v. a. and n.; 
to kill .(inf. gbe and gbele), to murder, to slaughter; 
to quench; to strike, beat, flog; Ad. th. s. to strike out; 
ke-gbe, v. a. to fall, to cast down; gbe nii, v. jocose 
expression: to eat, devour s. th., to drink hastily; comp. 
fe, fe ase in Otyi. 

gbe dan, v. to kill the mouth, i. e. to make it tasteless; 
to stop the mouth, to make ashamed to speak; inf. dan- 
gbe, daikgbele; comp. dan gbo, v. 

gbe he guQ, v. to kill the trade, i. e. to despise, inf. he- 
guQgbe, -guogbele; comp. he guo gbo, gbe hie; hie 
gbo etc. 

gbe he, v. to kill one's self, egbe ehe, he killed himself 
= egbe ed§en na; inf. hegbe, hegbele. 

gbe m. k. he guo (s. gbe guo), y. to kill one's trade, to 
despise one; inf. heguogbe, heguogbele; prs. n. he^uo- 

gbe hie, y. to meet face to face (comp. kpe); to come 
into close conflict; to banquet, to be in merry company 
together eating and drinking and making merry; to des- 
pise = gbe guo, gbe he guo (Ht. kill" the face, comp. 
hie gbo), to make ashamed; egbe mihie, he made me 
ashamed; inf. hiegble, hiegbele, hingble; hiegbe. 

gbe la, y. to quench the fire; comp. la gbo, y. 

gbe mil, y. to fall in, to fall into; egbe bu len, he fell 
into the pit; inf. mligbemo. 

gbe na, y. (to kill the mouth, to finish the end) , to finish, 
to accomplish; egbe eniit§umo le na, he finished his 
work; to make ready; agbe na, it is ready; |nf. nagbe, 
Ad. gbe nya, v. 

gbe moko nddsiaA, y. to fall before one's feet for suppli- 
cation, adoration or prayer; 

gbe m. k. nftdSiaSi, th.s. inf. nadSiangbemo, nSdsiaSigbemo. 

gbe mi, y. to eat much, to deyour; to smooth. 

gbe nma, y. to thrash country -wheat (s. nma); comp. 
gble, y.; to eat much, s. gbe nii, y. 

gbe no, y. to fall on or upon; inf. nogbemo. 

gbe m. k. uq, y. to fall upon s. b.; to attack, to surprise, 
to overtake; inf. nogbemo; but compare also tua and 

, nina, y.; h6, y.; ti m. k. si, y. 

gbe si, y. to fall down; to cast down, also ke m. k. 
or n. k. ^e si, to cast s. b. or s. th. d<mn; — to fall 
short, to loose (in trading) etc. inf, gigbemo. 


90 gbe ta — gbe. 

gbe ta, gbe la no, v. to finish the war, to conquer, to gain 
the victory; inf. tagbe, tanagbe; comp. ye no, ye k5- 
nim, V. 

gbe yi, v. to fill up, to make up a certain sum of money ; 
cgbe daleiohft le yi, he made up the hundred dollars; 
inf. yigbe. 

gbe, n. killing, slaughtering; murder; see gbele and awui- 
yeli; falling, fall; comp. gbemo and sigbemo. 

gbe, gbei, Ad. gbl and gbe, Ol. ne* n. voice; gbe wa, 
strong, loud voice; egbe esa, his voic^ is harsh; sound; 
^ord ; language, = ^iemo (in Adanme gbl is always used 
so), nu m. k. gbe, bo m. k. gbe toi, v. to obey s. b. 
(comp. bip in Hebr.); gbeian nme kpo, v. to be hemmed 
in the voice (lit. to have a knot in the voice). 

gbe, n. dog, == sifulo; a kind of harmless sickness of the 
skm (called red dogs by Europeans at the coast), comp. 
gbe, gbei, n. 

gbe, V. inf. gbemo; to sound, to crash, to crow; Adn. 
kpS, V. 

gbe, V. inf. gb^; to dissolve, to scatter (n. and act.), to 
spread, to be in disorder (of hair, thread etc.); gbe- 
fa, th. s. , amegbe amefS, they spread out, they scattered 
themselves; mlgbeame mafa, I will spread them out; I 
will scatter them; gbe yin, v. to dishevel the hair; inf. 

gb§, n. spreading, dissolution; disorder of hair, thread etc. 

gbe, V. pot, waterpot made by the natives; comp. kukwei, 
kulo, botoku etc. Ad. bue, n. 

gbe, n. way (Ad. bio, Ot. kwaA); used as in other lan- 
guages in the most extensive manner; the principal signi- 
fication and combinations are: Opportunity, custom, man- 
ner; access, allowance, liberty, power (comp. h^gbe) etc.; 
it is adverbially used = ward, wards, as: biegbe, hither- 
ward; dSeigbe, thiterward; hlegbe» forward, on; 8egbe» 
backward; n§ongbe, seaward, i. e. southward (comp. D^ 
in Hebr. = west), s. also ninedSdrdgbe; koyigbe, bush- 
ward, i. e. northward; yiteiigbe, (headway) westward, 
windward; anaigbe, th. s.; nad§ia§igbe (feetward), east- 
ward, leeward; bokagbe, th. s. Combinations with verbs 
are also very frequent, as: Du gbe, v. to loose the way, 
to err; fa gbe, ko gbe and yi gbe, to take a way, to 
enter a journey; nyle gbe, to journey, to travel; d§e 
gbe and d§ie gbe, to open, make, prepare a way; to 
accompany on the way; ha gbe and Ame gbe to give 


gb6 — gbei. 91 

way, atlowance, liberty; to allow; t§i gbe, to stop the 
way, to hinder; wo gbe» to dispatch one; na gbe or na 
hegbe, to have allowance; tSd gbe, to show the way; 
kw6 m. k. or noko gbe, to expect s. b. or s. th. Comp. 
Ihe iniinitiye or nominal impers. nouns and the prs. nouns 
of these combinations in the sequel. The regular pi. is: 
gbgi, but gbedSi in the phrase: to gbedSiano, to order. 

gbg, gbSi, n. a kind of itches, s. gbe, n. 

gb^, adv. much, very much = gbogbOgbo, 

gbebimg, n. asking the way, allowance. 

gbede, v. to be weak; inf. gbedemo. 

gbedg, gbedegbede, adj. and adv. weak, weakly; fe^ — , 
to be weak. 

gbedefelo, n. weak person. 

gbedgfemo, n. weakness. 

gbedelo = gbedefelQ. 

gbedemo = gbed^femQ. 

gbed§e, n. waymaking; = gbedsiemo, n, 

gbedselg, n. waymaker. 

gbedSegbe (Ot. and also used in Gd, tempon), n. head- 
way, highway, highroad; s. also okpgAogbe. 

gbedSiaoQtO, n. ordering, order. 

gbedSianotolQ, n. orderer. 

gb^dSielQ, n. way-maker, -cleanser etc. companion. 

gbedsiemo, n. making, preparing, cleansing of away; ac- 
companying on the way; == gbedSe, n. 

gbedQ, n. loosing of the way; wandering (s. tSomlo), erring. 

'gbeena, agbeena = gbiena, n. first rainy season. 

gbef^, n. entering upon a journey; departure, parting, set- 
ting off; s. gbeyimg. 

gbefd, gbeM (s. fa, afft), n. part; proper part; due, duly; 
right; accordance; comp. also gbena. 

gbehamg, n. allowance; liberty. 

gbehe, n. place, way, point etc. comp. he and gbe. 

gbehenmon, n. dog-louse, i. e. flea, because it is here only 
at the dogs; s. lopo, n. 

gbei, pi. nonn; ways; the testicles; name; in this latter 
signification, which is most extensively used, it is some- 
times treated as a plur., f. L ye egbei ang, in his name^ 
sometimes also ^s a singular; hi m. k. gbei, wo m. lu 
gbei, to give a name to s. b., to call x him; but: t§e 
m. k. gbei, to cdll s. body by the name; bi m. k. gbei, 
or bi m. k. gbei a§i, to ask some body's name, — after 
8, b. name; fe — , to make a nc^e, to make s. b, o( 


92 gbeihfimo — gbfikebe. 

renown (comp. m^ and Wiff tUtpf in Hebr.); .n5 m. 1 
gbei wo nu L, to call s. b. by 8. body's name; ji 
gbei» v. to have a (great) name, to be of renonn 
etc. etc. 

gbeih&mo, gbeiah&no, n. namegiying = gbeiwo. 

gbeiwo, n. th. 8. 

gbek^, pi. gbek^bii, m. gbek§nu, pi. gbek^bihl; f. gbekSyo, 
pi. gbekebiyei, n. child; young person (esp. from 3 — 15 
years, but also under and above that age, comp. gbeke- 
abifao, — fufoo; and oblanyo, oblayo); younger person 
of any age (s. onukpa), f. i. none dsi onukpa, si moko 
W dsi gbek^, this one is older and the other one is 
younger; mibi gbekS, my younger or youngest child; 
minyemi gbek^, my younger brother or sister (= miseo); 
sometimes the word is also appUed to higher classes of 

gbekS-abifao, n. a young child, babe. 

gbekS-fuf(}o, n. a suckling babe. 

gbekfibii, pi. n. the young folk, youth (bie Sugenb), yooog 

gbek^biiamadS, lit. children's plantains, Ot. mmofrabrode, 
n. th. s. a plant == bayisS, n. 

gbekebiianiitSumg, n. chUdrens' business; business carelessly 

gbekebiiand, pi. -anii, n. childish thing; thing pertaining to 
a child. 

gbek^biiasane, n. childrens' palawer, matter of little impor- 
tance (s. onukpa). 

gbek^biiasi, n. youth, childhood. 

gbekdbiiatSdmo, n, teaching of children. 

gbekSbiiatsu, n. children's room. 

gbekSlakamg, n. silencing or quieting of a child. 

gbek^le, n. nursing of a child. 

gbek^elo, n. chUd's-nurse. 

gbekSnd, n. some thing of a child. 

gbekSsa, n. child'sbed. 

gbekSsatSo, n. childs bedstead; cradle. 

gbekSsu, n. childs behaviour* 

gbekSwomo, n. carrying of a child. 

gbekSyd, pi. -yei, n. female child; little girl. 

gbeke (Ad. gbokwe), n. even, evening; adverbially used: 
in the evening. 

gbekfibe, n. evening time. 


gbekenaSi «- gbemohe. 93 

^tnB&i, n. late evening, adv. late in the erening. 

I^kend, pi. -nii, n. something of the evening. 

gbeiteniiyenii, pi. n. supper. 

gbekeniitsumo, n. evening-business. 

gbekesane, n. evening-palawer. 

gbekomo, n. entering upon a journey; deparlure; setting 

off; = gbefa and gbeyimo, n. 
gbekpamo, n. going to meet one, fr. kpa gbe. 
gbekpSmo, n. harmony, union, 
gbeiwelo, n. caqpectator. 

gbeiwemo, n. expectation, hope; s. me and hie kft no, v. 
ebeladsemg, n. loosing the way; = gbeda. 
fbele, adv. Ad. = pgn in Ot. and 6a, ever, at any time; 

gble, th. s. 

^>^e, gble, n. death (comp. gbo, to die and gbe, to kill), 

dying, killing, expiring, extirpation, ineffectiveness etc.; 

8. also gbonyo. With the signification = death the v^^ord 

is as extensively and variously used and also personally 

as in the Semitic and Japhetic languages (comp. owu in 

Olyi). Death is said to be the first person created by 

God. A few combinations are: na gbele, to see death; 

sa gbele, to be worthy of death, inf. gbelesale; sa na 

gbele, V. to taste death; §e gbele gbeye, to fear death; 

h!e-gbele, hlegble, higble, n. lit. death of the face, i. e. 

shame, s. hie gbo and gbe h!e, v. Ad. gbend and gbe- 

gb6, n. * 

gbgle, V. s, gble; to open. 

gbdebe, n. time of death ; mokomoko lee egbelebe, nobody 

knows the time of his death, 
gbelefo, n. death-fat, a plant, 
gbelegbeyesemo, n. fear of death, 
gbelehela, n. deadly sickness, mortal sickness, 
gbelekakra, n. collar-bone; ©^Ififfelbcin. 
gbelesa, n. dead-bed. 
gbelesde, n. deathworthine^. 
^elesane, n. criminal, deathly palawer. 
gbdese, n. time or state after death. 
gbeleSemo, n. == gbelegbeyeSemo. 
gbeleSiSi, n. reason, cause of death. 
gb$le, s. gble, V. to grind, 
gbelo, n. slaughterer, murderer, 
gbeiiii, n. (obscene, but less than so), vagina, 
gbemo, n. faU, falling, 
g^temohe, n. a dangerous (^falling'' -) place. 


94 gbemo — gbeyfi. 

gbemo, n. sounding; sound; noice, crass etc. 

gbemonS, n. a kind of preserved fish, rotten and mashed. 

gbemond, n. sounding instrument. 

gbemo-okadi, gberaokadi, n. letter; note. 

gbena, n. end, -side of the way (s. gbetoi); part, right, 
privilege; due, duty; wages, payment, punishment, = 
gbefan, n. 

gbenanii, pi. n. things due or right. 

gbenme, n. = gbehamo, way giving, allowance. 

gbenyielo, n. traveller. 

gbenylemo, n. travelling, journey. 

gbenyiemo-atade, n. travelling-dress. 

gbenylemond, pi. -nii, n. any thing used in travelling. T» 

gbenylemglso, n. travelling-stick. 

gbese, n. a kind of red ants, which are very fond of sweet 
things, espec. sugar; and live on trees, esp. on coflfee- 
trees; Ot ahoho. 

gbesi, n. the inward voice, whether bad or good, there- 
fore not fit to represent the word conscience properly 
(comp. kla, n. and heniile, n.). 

gbese, n. backside, outside; menstruous courses of women, 
because they must on such occasions leave the house 
and go to a separate place, s. tsuse, th. s ; ya gbese, 
to have the menstr. conrses; adv. aside, outside. 

gbeseya, n. the monthly courses, catamenia. 

gbesdlo, n. potter, s. so gbe. 

gbesd, n» potters work. 

gbeten, n. middle of the way, halfway; adv. in the way. 

gbetoi, n. lit. way-ears, wayside. 

gbetseli, n. corn-stick, stick of maize. 

gbetsi and gbetsimo, n. stopping of the way, hinderance, 

gbetsilQ, n. person hindering. 

gbetsdio, n, one who shows the way, way-leader, guide; 
s. tsd gbe. 

gbetsdmo, n. showing the way, way-leading, guiding. 

gbewO, n. despatching, despatch, waymoney; s. sise, n. 

gbewolg, n. dispatcher; person paying the travelling ex- 

gbeye, gbeyei, n. fear, awe, sublimity; Ad. th. s. ye gbey€, 
V. to be fearful, aweful, sublime, to impress with fear etc.; 
se — , V. to fear, to be afraid, to respect; se m.k. gbeye, 
to fear, respect one (Ad. ye gbeye, th. s.); wo gbeye 
and wo he gbey6| v* to frighten, to make afraid; tp im- 


gbeyesane — gbla na Si. % 96 

press iivith awe; comp. f6, n. felo, fefemo; kpokpo, v., 
Aminmi, n. etc. 

gbeyesane, n. horrible, fearful, aweful story, matter, accident. 

gbeyes^lo, n. coward; = feto. 

gbeyes^mo, n. fear, awe, respect. 

gbeyew5, n. frightening, overawing, threatening, hegbeye- 
wo, th. s. 

gbeyewolQ, n. a person who makes people afraid. 

gbeygyem, n. Ad. = gbeyesemo. 

gbeyimg, n. = gbefa, gbekomo, n. entering upon a jour- 
ney; departure, setting off. 

gbeyilo, n. person departing. 

gbi, V. inf. gblmg, to be dry; to dry; to be ripe, to ripen 
(of corn etc., comp. tsu, ye etc.); also used of persons 
in a satyrical way: egbi, he is dry, ripe, precocious; 

gbl, n. Ad. = gbe, voice. 

gbi, n. pi. gbii, day (Ad. ligbi, Ot da) of twenty four 
hours; but comp. the contrasts: Oine, day; nyon, night, 
also: dselseremg and dse namo, evening and morning; 
day and night. 6bl is very frequently and extensively 
used, f. i. gbli ele ne, lit. these three days, now, this 
time some time; nmene dsi gbi cte ne, to day is the 
third day, the day before yesterday, some lime ago; gbi 
ko and gbi ko le, adv. once, ever, one day; gblko- 
gbiko, adv. with, neg., never (comp. dabi, dabidabi in 
Otyi, and ligbioko in Ad.); te gbi ni d§i = te be n\ dsi? 
when was it? what day was it? 

*gbiena, agbiena, n. large rainy season, early rains, about 
April — June. 

gbigbSle, adv. firmly. 

gbimo, V. drying, ripening. 

gbin, egbin (fr. gbi, v.), pi. gbidsi, adj. dry, ripe. 

gbito, n. appointment of a day; fr. to gbi, v. 

gbla or gbkla, v. inf. gblamg; a kind of plural form of 
gba, V. (s. this), to divide; to rend to pieces; to draw, 
to withdraw; to drag; to dress gaily (perh. = to diver- 
sify). Combinations s. under gba; mli gbla, v. to be 
rent asunder; s. gbla mli; inf. of both: mligblamo; comp. 
also: kpla, v. 

gbla sao, v. to draw a saw. 

gbla mli, v. a. to rend asunder, into pieces ; - - enyo, - - in 
two, inf. mligblamo. ' 

gbla na si, inf. nasigblamQ, v. to try to catch in speaking. 


96 ♦ gbia n. k. fie se — gMc se. 

gbla n. k. fie se, v. to drag after. 

gbla m. k. toi, v. to pull one's ear, to rhastize. 

gbla nil, v. to cast the lot (according to Hanson). 

gblalo, n. divider etc. 

'gblama, agblama, n. lime. 

gblamo, n. division; rending, rent; gay dressing, flress etc. 

gbla, gbSia, n. raarriage, matrimony, married state of women; 
comp. gba; wye; kpe, v.; kfl gbla, v. to commit adultery. 

gblakQlo, n. adulterer, adulteress. 

gblakuomo, n. adultery; s. ayefare, n. 

gblanii, pi. n. things given to a girl and her family in the 
time of marriage; things pertaining to marriage. 

gbland, n. singular of the former; any thing pertaining to 

gbiasane, pi. -sadsi, n. marriage-palaver. 

gbiayO, yogbayo, n. married woman. 

gble or gbfile, v, (Ot. and Ad. hue; comp. also pue in Ot. 
and 6a and gbu in Ga), inf. gblemo, to open (f. i. a 
door, a box, any thing shut; comp. fene, fSna); gblemQ 
s!na le! open the door! to take into use (= bule); he 
gble, inf. hegblemo, to be open at the outside, s. gble 
he; hie gble, v. n. to get daylight to be civilized, inf. 
Megblemo, s. gble Me; nili gble, v. n. (the inside is 
open) to open inwardly, inf. mligblemg, s. gbiemli; na 
gble, V. n. to be openmouthed, to be open at the open- 
ing or door (s. na ka), inf. nagblemo, see: gble na; 
no gble, V. n. to have an open surface, inf. nogblemo, 
s. gble ng; se gble, v. n. to be open at the back, inf. 
segblemg, s. gble se; yingble (comp. yiAka), v. n. to 
be openheaded, i. e. mad, comp. ye seke, inf. yigblemo, 
8. gble yifi, v. 

gble he, inf. hegblemo, v. a. to open the outside, to begin 
common life again after mourning etc. 

gble hie, v. a. to open the face, be friendly, inf. hlegble- 
mo, 8. hie gble, v. 

gble man, v. to enter a town (in war). 

gble mli, v. a. to open the inside, inf. mligblemo. 

gble mdn, v. to force a fort, fortress. 

gble na, v. n. to open the mouth, opening, door etc., inf. 
nagblemo, s. na gble; gblemo na, open it! 

gble no, inf. nogblemo, v. a. to open the surface, up- 

' wardly; s. no gble. 

gble se, inf. segblemo, v. a. to open the backside, back- 
wardly; s/se gble. 


gble tSui — gbo. 97 

gble tsui, V. a. inf. iSuigblemo, fo open the heart. 

gble }'i, V. a. inf. yigblemo, to let ut; s. M yi, v. 

gble yin, v. to onadden, to make mad. 

gble = gb^le, n death. 

gble and gbele, gblemo, v. to grind roughly (f. u nma, 
wheat; able, corn etc.), to thrash; gble n. k. mlumlu, 
. V. a. to grind s. th. to dust. 

-gblelo, n. opener. 

gblemo, n. opening. 

gblelo, n. grinder, thrasher. 

gblemo, ji. grinding, thrashing. 

gblemonO, n. an instrument for opening. ** 

gblomono, n. a grinding, thrashing machine. 

gblfgbli, n. a kind of epilepsy; lunacy; ye — , v. to be* 
lunatic, inf. gblTgbllyeli, prs. n. gblfgbltyelo. . 

gblfgblitSofS, n. medicine against lunacy. 

gbllgbllyeli, n. lunacy. 

gbligbHyelo, n. lunatic person. 

gblo, n. a kind of thread used to ment nets. 

gblo, plur. V. fr. gbo, v. to smooth, to plane, to wash 
(f. 1. - dan, - - the mouth). 

gblomo, n. smoothing, planing. 

gbo, inf. gbo or irreg. gbele, s. this (seldom gbomo)» pi. 
ghoi, inf. gboimo, v. to die (comp. gbe, v. a. to kill); 
to become ineffective, powerless, tasteless; to go out, to 
end, exspire, die away, fade, to be effaced, spent etc. 
to be done, fully ground, clean, fully smashed; comp. 
c^ax, tUin, adv. tsofa gboko, the medicine is not yet 
fully ground. The principal combinations of this very 
frequently and multifariously used verb are: da or daii 
gbo, V. n. inf. dangbo, dangbSle, to be tastless (of per- 
sons), to have a tastless mouth, s. gbe dan, v.; he gbo, 
V. n. to be without feeling at the outside, inf. hegbele, 
hegbo; hie gbo, v. n. to have a dead face, i. e. to be 
ashamed, inf. hiegbd and hlegbele, higble; ke owekunyo 
gbo le, ogboo; si ke ehfe gbo le, ohTe egbo, if thy re- 
lation died, thou doest not die, but if he was ashamed 
(his face died), thou hast been ashamed (thy face has 
died); comp. gbe hie; hie fie si; mli gbo, v. n. to be 
inwardly dead etc., inf. mligbo, mligbele; na gbo, v. n. 
to have a dead mouth or be without sharpness or taste; 
f. i. kakla le na gbo, the (mouth of the) knife is not 
sharp (flumpf); ngo le na gbo, the salt has lost its sa- 
vour; toi gbo, V. n. to be dead-eared, disobedient = 
Zimmermann, Akra-Vocab. 7 


98 gbo toi — gbodSo. 

gbo toiy th. same, inf. toigbo, toigbele; comp. toi sa; 
bo toi, etc. etc. Sometimes such grammatical subjects 
are put behind the verb with a kind of absolute objec- 
tive signification ; f. i gbo toi (= toi gbo) , v. n. to be 
dead respecting the ear, gbo hie etc. 

gbo toi = toi gbo, inf. toigbele and toigbo, v. to be dis- 

Ogbo, pr. n. thou diedst, s. gbobalo. 

gbo, n. dying; gbO dSi n) ogbo! dying thou shall die! 
(Hebr. niDp niD) gbO ke ogbo! gbo ogbo! th. s. pi. 
gfeoimo nyeagboi, dying ye shall die! plur. fofm. 

gbo, n. the second or small rainy season, the latter rains 
from September or October to December. Comp. Aha- 
abata and agbiena, n. . 

gbo, adv. and int. = bum, gba, gbu, with one stroke; 
egbe §i gb6, he fell down, plump! adv. however, still, 
completely etc. 

'gbo, agbo, n. gate; — na, place before the gate, adv. 
outside; „«m raig xh)Qaig;'' at the door, gate. 

'gbo, agbo, adj. mighty, powerful, great. 

gbo, V. n. gbo and gbole, to be old; infirm, weak, decayed; 
to be frequent; comp. bo, bu, wu he; v. a. to smooth, 
to plane, pi. gblo, inf. gblomg. 

gbo, pi. gboi, n. stranger, foreigner (accord, to Hanson: 
„mokpon"), guest; fe m. k. gbo, v. to show hospitality 
to s. b.; comp. ke m. ye egbo = ke m. k. bo, to be- 
come or be one with s. b. ; s. fe ekome, bo nanyo etc. 
Ad. kpa, n. 

gbo yi) V'^ to plait the hair. 

^gbobalo, n. lit. deathcomer, i. e. a child born after an other 
who died, which is supposed to be born again (s. bla). 
Many curious cermonies are made with such, their faces 
are cut,' they are put into an oven, dragged in the street 
till some body takes them up etc. and peculiar names 
are given to them, as: Ogbo or (Ot.) Owu, thou diedst; 
Abiata, Alema, Abebio (come again) ^tc. 

gbobi, inf. gbobimo, v. to hunt; used of men and animals, 
f. i. leopards, dogs, cats (siagbolo, s. this); comp. ml, v. 
to hunt with dogs. 

gbobilo, gbOlo» n. hunter. 

gbobimo, n. hunting, s. mile. 

gbodso (s. gbo), V. to become weak,- to be weakened; ehe 
gbod§o» he is weak; to be sick of the palsy; to be laid 


gbodsolo — gbomodSulo. 99 

op with the gout; inf. gbodsgmo. See gbede, kumo, 
VI etc. 

gbod§olo, n. a person sick with the palsy; a weak person. 

gbodSomo, n. weakness = gbedemo; palsy = kuomo. 

gbodsomotsofa, n. medicine against palsy. 

gbod§ui, n. a kind of antelopes; s. odabo and odabote, th. s. 

gbgfelo, n. hospitable person. 

gbofemo, n. hospitality; fr. fe gbo, v. 

gbogbOgbo, adv. very much. 

gbogbo, n. wall; 9Banb, SWauer. 

gbogbotffi, n. wall-building, i. e. masonwork; ele —, he is 
a mason. 

gbogbotfalQ, n. mason. S. fatolo, n. 

Gbogbolulu, pr. p. of a village on the road from Osu to 

gbohl, pi. of gbonyo; the dead. 

gbohladse, -dSen, n. the world of the dead, supposed to 
be situated on the islands of and beyond the river Volta ; 
hades; Ot. asaman. 

gboh!afu, n. burial. 

gbohiafuhe, n. burial place. 

gbohiagbe, n. the way of the dead, the milky way. 

gbohian = gboh! amli, in or among the dead. 

gbohiano, pi. -nii, n. s. th. appertaining to dead persons. 

gboiatohe, n. lodge for strangers, inn, hotel. 

gboiatolo, n. a person lodging strangers; inn-keeper, host. 

gboimo, n. dying (l)a« ©terben »on 93ic(cn); infinitive n. 
of the pi. verb: gboi, s. gbo, v. 

gbole, n. old age, weakness; s. gbo, v. 

gbolo = gbobilo, n. hunter. 

gbolQ, n. an old, weak person. 

gbomo, he, v. to warm one's self, inf. hegbomo- 

gbomo, pi. gbomei; n. man (perhaps mortal person, s. 
gbo, to die and mo, pi. mei, person); person, there- 
fore also used of God, angels, but this should perhaps 
be discountenanced and only „mo" used. Sometimes it 
is applied to superior kinds of animals. Comp, also: 
adesa, mo, etc. Ot. onipa; Ad. nomlo, no, n. Ay. ame, n. 

gbomoban, n. human kind, mankind, human nature. 

gbomodsen, n. human existence, being, character etc., s. 
dse, dsen, n. 

gbomodsQ, n. men-stealing. 

ebomodsulo, n. men-stealer, s. odsotfalo, n. 



100 gbomogbC — gbot^ui. 

gbomogbjg, n. murder, manslaughter; s. gbe, v. and awui- 
yeli, n. 

gbomogbelo, n. murderer. 

gbomobi, n. child of man; SWenf(^cnfinb, SWenfd^enfo^n. 

gbomohen5, n. kind of men. 

gbomoholo, n. slave-dealer. 

gbomosii,n. shape, form, character of men, s. su; ban, dsen, n. 

gbomotso, pi. -t§ei, n. body (of man); comp. kanetso, sa- 
tso etc.; Ad. ndmlotso, Ot. onipadua, n. 

gbomot§dmo, n. incarnation, becoming man. 

gbopo, V. to decrease (f. i. water), comp. gbg, v. 

gbon, n. joint of the body, hip. 

gbonyo, pi. gbohl, n. dead person; corps; dead body of 
any kind; carcass; the word is used appositively like an 
adjective to indicate any thing dead, rotten, useless etc. 
f. i. kakla gbonyo, a knife which is not sharp ; fili gbo- 
nyo, a carriage which does not go etc. s. gbo, v. 

gbonyobi, n. posthumous (pers9n). 

gbonyobu, n. grave. 

gbonyofu, n. burial. 

gbonyofiihe, n. burial-place. 

gbonyowomo, n. carrying of a corps. 

gbonyowu, n. bone of a dead person. 

gbonyoyitso, n. head of a dead person. 

gbosi, n. leaving after death. 

gboSinii, pi. n. things left by a person deceased, inheri- 
tance; ye — , to inherit these things. 

gbosiniiasane, n. palaver about inheritance. 

gbosiniiyeli, n. inheriting, inheritance. 

gbosiniiyelo, n. heir, s. wofase. 

gbuto, n. reception, lodging of strangers. 

gbotohe, s. gboiatohe. 

gbot§ui, n. a kind of antelopes; anthill of the white ants 
or termites, about 5 — 8 feet high and exceedingly hard; 
their form is piramidical. They contain inside a mass 
of cells like a honey-comb, in the middle of which the 
dwelling of their queen (foteiatse"); is found, consisting 
of a hard piece of clay as large and twice as thick as 
a man's hand, perforated for ingress and egress of the 
labourers who feed her and carry her eggs away; she 
herself, being of the size of a small finger and in shape 
like a catterpillar, is immured in it (s. fote and fotetse). 
All these heaps are considered as holy and for this reason 
sometimes fenced in by an „aklabat§a^' or holy fence. 


gbowyei — gobigobi. 101 

gbowyei, or 

gbowyiei, n. a kind of pepper, strangers pepper; s. wyiei. 

gboyeli, n. perhaps originally hospitabilily, s. gbo; unity, 

friendship; harmony; fr. ye egbo, v. 
gboyO, pi. -yei, n. female slranger. 
gbu, pi. gbulo, inf. gba, gbulomo, v. to perforate, to slab, 

to dig through = du; comp. Ad. bue, pue, bli; gbu, v. 

and bu, n. boi, v. in GSl. 
gbu and gbulomo, n. perforating, stabbing, 
gbu, adv. and int. = bum, gba, gbo, mih one stroke, 

plump! — 
gbOno, gbulomond, n. instrument for perforating, boring, 

stitching etc. 
geds6 = gadsa, adj. large, broad, 
gegege = dended^n, adj. and adv. hard, hardly; fe — , v. 

to be — . 
gegegefemOy n. hardness, 
gegenu, agegSnu, n. a kind of pap or thick beverage made 

of bread, water and honey, 
gengengen, adv. 
ge-, -ge, s. dse-, -dse. 
gi-, -gi, s. dsi-, -dsi. 

gidi, gidigidi, adj. and adv. unruly, wild, disorderiy, distur- 
bed = basabasa and bisibasa, giddy; ye — , v. and 

fe — , V. to be unruly etc. 
gidigidifelo» n. .an unruly person, 
gidlgidifemo 9 n. unruly, unquiet slate; disorder, disturbance; 

gidigidiyelOt n. = gidigidifelo. 
gidigidiyeli, n. = gidigidifemQ. 

gigintso, pi. -Isei, n. a stick to stir up food in cooking. 
gigonigig6 = gugdnigug6, n. a kind of grasshoppers, 
gli = gala, n. a kind of reed. 
gU, V. to be hot; to be angry, in a rage, inf. glimo; s. 

gri, th. s. and mli fii, mli wo la, v. etc. 
gligli, adj. very hot. 
glili, grili, n. ©rille, cricket, 
glilo, n. enraged person, 
glimo ) n. anger, rage; s. mlifu, mlila, n. 
gS, V. to become stale by hard cooking, 
glofi, adj. great, high; s. grofi. 

glo, adj. rough, unkind (perh. eur. word); s. gro, th. s, 
'go, s. ago I int. 
gobigobi, adj. loquacious, = blgbl^. 


102 godSO — guo. 

godSo, adj. and adv. high long; slender, -ly. 

godsogodSo, adj. and adv. th. s. 

godsogl6go, adj. and adv. th. s. 

goe, V. to extent, enlarge; get larger. 

gdgo, 8. gOgd. 

gOgomi, pi. -mii, n. worm, caterpillar; wo —, v. to be 
or get wormy; to grow or produce worms. Comp. §iwo 
and adudon, n. 

ggi, V. to belch. 

goimo, n. belching. 

golegu, n. Ad. thumb = gonti. 

gdh, n. pi. gddSi, mount, mountain; hill; hill; Ad. y5, n.; 
8. also kpon, n. 

gdnti, n. thumb. 

gosigosi, adj. and adv. odd, strange, perplexed; oddly, 
strangely; fe m. k. gosigosi, to produce a strange fee- 
ling; efeomi gosigosi, 1 feel very strange; he fe — , to 
be in perplexity; yin fe — , v. th. s. 

gosigosifemo, n. strange, odd feeling. 

gro, n. dan. rough word; ehUmi gro wiemoi, he gave me 
rough words. 

groft, = gloft, adj. high, great; comp. also kwo, kwon, 
kwonkwon and kronkron or kononkonon, in Otyi. 

gu, V. inf. ga, to forbid, to speak against, to gainsay. 

gu, Ad. v., to turn. 

gua or goa, n. (Ot. th. s.) the guiava-fruit, 

guatso, pi. -tsei, n. the guiava-tree. 

Gua, pr. n. of Cape Coast. 

Guanyo, pi. Guamei, man from C. Coast; Cape-Coast-people. 

gufa or gulfa, n. (dan. gul farve) yellow colour; a root to 
be had in the market for yellow-colouring or dying. 

giigo, n. nose; fe — , v. to blow the — . 

gugofe, n. blowing of the nose. 

gugonigugd, n. a kind of large grass-hoppers ; s. agd, bala, n. 

gugwe, n. Ad. = tsitSi, chest, breast. 

gum, n. a large snake-eating bird of the size of a stork. 

gumo, V. inf. guomo, to peel. 

guna, n. = duna. 

guo, n. (Ot. gwa, th. s. and „seat, s. gwa and ablogwa) 
trade = dsra; ye =, v., == ye dsra, to trade; whole 
behaviour, conversation, character, combined with he in 
the phrases: gbe m. k. he guo, s. to despise one, to 
mock at one; he guQ gbo, v. to be despised. Comp. 
dfa; V. in Adn. 


guogbd — ha he. 103 

guQgbO, n. s. beguogbo, n. despised state; s. he guQ gbo, y, 

guogbe, n. th. s., s. heguogbe and gbe he guo, v. 

guogb^le, n. th. s. 

guonao, n. peeling, s. gumo; comp. kumo, sumo, sumi?, v. 

gnonii, pi, n. wares = dSranii. 

guoyeli = dsrayeli, n. trading, trade. 

guoyelo, guoyelilo, n. trader; marchant, = dsrayelo, n. 

gwa, n. (Ot, th. s.) seat, stool; sitting together for consul- 
tation, especially in open council on the marketplace; 
bo — , V. to place seats around, to sit together, to con- 
sult; inf. gwabo (Ot. th.s.). Comp. adsina (Ot. agyinS), n. 

gwabo, n. silting; open consultation, council; open assem- 
bly of the people; s. agwasen, akwason, n. 

gwabolo, n. member of a consultation or sitting of a council. 

gwifinyo, gwaiimei, n. = dsekSnyo, Akwapim-man, -people, 
people from the interior; according to some persons the 
signification would be; uncircumcised people (s. folo), ac- 
cording to the Akwapim-people it is the name for the 
Kyerepon- people. If written kwannyo, which the pro- 
nunciation allows, it would signify: way-man, way-people 
(Ot. kwan = way). 

gwanteii, pi. -tehi, n. (Ot. = to, sheep or goat; 
gwanten, sheep; ten = long); sheep; generally to- 
gwanten; s. to, n. and to — aboti^. 

gwantenbi, to — gwantehbi, n. lamb. 

gwantehhetsoi, n. \sool. 

gwantenyo, pi. -yei, n. ewe; comp. to — agbo, n. 

gya> gyc — etc. s. und. dsa-, dse-, or dfa-, dfe-, etc. 


Ha, V. inf. ha; to be covered, to cover (comp. kata 
and hata in Ot.); to draw s. th. over s. th., to cover 
s. th. for the purpose of snatching it away, to snatch, 
to raff; to huddle; ameha lo ye dsa le no, they snatched 
up the fish in the market; to rob, to plunder; ha m. k. 
to plunder s. b. Combinations: he ha, v. n. to be cov- 
ered outside; inf. heha, s. ha he; hie h5, v. n. to have 
the face covered; hieha, s. ha hie; nwei le hie eha, 
the heaven is covered; no ha, v. n. to have a covered 
surface; inf. noha, s. ha no, etc. 

ha dfai. Ad. = ho, v. to sell. 

ha he, inf. heha, v. a. to cover round about; to cover 
one's self; eha ehe mama, he covered himself with his 
cloth (8. mama). 


104 ha toe — hi 

ha hie, v. a. to cover the face, surface; inf. hiehs. 

ha momo, v. inf. momoha, to stutter, to falter; prs. \ 

ha no, V. inf. noha, to cover up, to cover the surface. 

ha, n. covering, plundering; s. ha, v. 

*ha, oh6, num. Ot. th. s., pi. ohai, hundred; ohai en;^< 
two hundred; ohai ete ke ekome, 301 ; ohai edfe, 400 etc 
ohaha, hundred by hundred. Comp. huha, indef. nuni 
and lafa, Ad. num. 

ha, n. torch. 

hal int. oh! 

hS, V. to give, inf. hSmo (Ot. mS, A^yigbe na), this is one 
of the words, in the form and use of which the relatioc 
of most of the languages of Africa south of the Sahara 
may be observed; s. ke, n5 etc.), to give one's self, to 
show one's self; to let, to allow, etc. etc. This word 
is most frequently, extensively and multifariously used 
and gives the greatest difficulty to Non-Africans. It not 
only serves as an auxiliary verb like „to let" (laffcn) 
but also as a „verbal preposition** (Comp. Riis Outline 
and the word „ma** in his Vocab., and § 28, § 31 and 
Tab. II. 1. b. bb. etc.) used to express the relation of 
the Dative-case of other languages or of prepositions like 
„to**, „for", „instead of", „of" etc. or as the laiigi^e 
does not like to combine an impers. and a pers. object 
with one transitive verb, it is used to supply one object 
with a formal verb (comp. in Engl, the preposition „to" 
supplying the same want of a dative (case); f. i. mihe 
sika mihSi m. k., I received money for s. b. nd n. k. 
ha m. k., to take s. th. for s. b. or to give s. th. to 
s. b. If it is always kept in view, that the language 
has no prepositions but instead of them auxiliary verbs 
(as: ke, n5, ts6, dse, ye, ba, ya etc.), the difficulty will 
be easily overcome. A peculiar use of „ha" is to be 
noticed, because not included in the three categories 
above alluded to. It is similar to the Engl, and Gerro.: 
to give or show one's self (Pd? geben, ficft jeigcn) but 
more frequently employed, f. i. boni eyo hSa, as he is; 
boni efe ehd dsi nd, how he did, as he did (is this), 
or: so he did (n)ie er tfl — uub fic^ flibt; n?ie er f^flt 
{|i tad — , ot)cr: fo tl^at er, fo mad;le efd). As in these 
cases the verb „ha" takes the place of the reflective „he" 
self, so it is used also in a few words for „he" outside, 
body, t h dSu and dsu he, to wash one's self, dsu m. t 


ha bem — halamo. 105 

he, to wash s. b. or dSu ha in. k., th. s., d§u being 
treated as an intrans. v. Comp. iro and 27V in Hebrew. 

ha bem, inf. bemhamo, v. to give satisfaction's, bem. 

ha due, inf. duehamo, v. to give consolation, to comfort; 
s. due. Ad. th. s. 

ha fo, inf. fohamg, v. to give condemnation, to condemn, 
8. fo and bu fo, v. 

ha gbe, V. inf. gbehamo, to give way; to allow, s. hi 
hegbe, V. 

ha hegbe, V. inf. hegbehamo, th. s.; to give power; to 
empower, to authorize, s. hegbe (Ot. h6 kwan). 

ha se, V. inf. sehamg, to put back, cast back; s. Isi ha 
se, double v. 

ha tsui, inf. tsuihamo, v. to give heart, = ha due, to com- 
fort, to hearten, to encourage. 

habahaba, adj. and adv. thin, light, meager; fe — , v. to 
be or become thin etc.; thinly. Comp. helehele, adj. 
th. s. 

'habia, ahabia, n. a plant, the black round seed of which 
is used for gold- weighing, s. mei, n.v 

hadsi, plur. or dual noun, twins; the sing, ban seems not 
to be used (comp. ata and nta in Otyi, and nta in Ga; 
s. also Akwete and Akuete; Akweliand Akwokg); pr. n. 
of two hills near the Saimountain : „The Twins." 

h^hala si, inf. sih^halamo, v. to delay, to tarry, to linger; 
s. lila §i, and comp. la, v. 

hai, s. hayi, n. 

hal! interj. to drive birds away; haihal! th. s. 

halhai (s. the former), adv. in: hie m. k. haihal, to treat 
s. body contemteously. 

hala, inf. halamo, v. to choose, to elect, to select; to di- 
vide, to judge {xQiveiVj comp. bu and kodso); to catch 
in words, Mt. 22, 15., according to Hanson, to entangle; 
comp. la, hahala (perh. only a kind of reduplication of 
ha-la), lila etc. The h in this and the following word 
approaches the german ch or strong guttural h. Ad. 
hara, v. 

hala mli, v. inf. mlihahamo, -to select etc. 

hala, n. turtle, seaturtle. Comp. akpokpl6nto, n. 

halanono, n. turtle-shell. 

halawolo, pi. -wodsi, n. turtle egg. 

halabata, harabata, ah., n. harmatan season. 

halalo, n. elector, selector. 

halamo, n. choosing, electing, selecting, ct]ioice etc, s. hala, r. 


106 halamobi — hai. 

halamobi, n. elected person, chosen person. 

halitonpei, n. dan. a kind of chisel. 

halo, n. coverer; plunderer, s. ha, v. 

hdfo, n. giver, s. hd. 

hamle, n. dan. hammer. 

hamletSo, n. handle of a hammer. 

hdmo, n. giving etc. s. h9, v. gift; s. k6, v. and n. 

hftmo, n. = hie, the place or time before s. th. or s. b, 
(Ot. kan), comp. esp. the salutation „hamo fe"? addres- 
sed to people who went or came before one, lit. (How 
is) „all before"? Answ. „h9imo ye dsogba" or „eye 
dsogba" or ^hSmo dso!" it is well, it is quiet (Comp. 
sei heni, sia etc.), adv. before; tso h§mo, to turn 
before, go, come before etc. s. se; nyie hSmo, to walk 
before, etc. Etso mihamo efe, he turned before me did 
it, i. e. he did it before me. 

h§mQbii, pi. n. people who went before, s. sebii, pi. n. 

hSmo, n. (obscene), penis, s. nutso. 

ban, adv. (Ot. th. s.) brightly, shiningly; s. kane, kan, 
kankankan and hen. 

handspa, n. dan. spade. 

hankie, n, dan. towel, s. papam, n. 

hand, n. pi. hanii, omev, covering. 

hao, inf. haomo (Ot. ha and haw), v. to trouble; to be in 
trouble; to disturb; to be disturbed; to care; to sorrow; 
to be frightened; some times the verb is connected with 
one or the other of the gram: subjects or objects be, 
hie, mli, no, tsui etc. Comp. gba na. 

hao he, v. inf. hehaomo, v. to be in trouble; to trouble 
one's self. 

hao mli, v. to stir up. 

haolQ, n. troublesome person, disturber = nagbalo, n. 

haomQ, n. troubling, disturbing; trouble disturbance, care, 

haomgsane, n. troublesome news. 

liase, n. ton, pipe (perh. europ. word). 

hatso, n. torchtree, a large tree full of thorns; its wood 
is used for torches (ha). • 

hai, hayi (OU th. s.), n. forest; high grown bush, which 
has not been cultivated for a long time; perh. from ha, 
t6 cover; s. lakpa. The arable land is here not an open 
field, but a forest, though sometimes thickly inhabited. 
The farmer ciits a piece of it down every year,- bums 
tiie wood and plants his com or yams without digging 


he — he - yc. lOT 

up the stumps or turning up the ground betMreen, the 
former; the power of production is so great, that the 
land, manured as it is by the ashes, gields about four 
or five good harvests, of corn it produces two in one 
year. As soon as the produce gets too small, which 
is the case in two — four years, there being no great 
change in the kinds they grow the land is left to be- 
come bush again and new bush is cut. It is natural 
that a farmer wants a large piece of land to get his 
liveUhood, in consequence of such an unreasonable far- 
ming. Every kind of such fallowbush has its peculiar 
name according to its age or bight; s. lakpa, n. lakpa- 
tSa, n.; ko, n. 

he, V. inf. hemo (Ot. gye), to take, to receive to buy; 
to accept; to contain, to sustain. Comp. also the verbs: 
here, hie, hd, kg, ko, wo etc. The verb is especially 
used of taking with the hand from the hands of s. b. 
(s. hie, to have or bear in the hand), f. i. he n. k. ye 
m. k. den, to take, receive, accept, buy s. th. from (the 
hand of) s. b.; but he m. k. noko, to take some thing 
from s. b. by power, to punish him, amehele sika, they 
took money from him (against his will, {te na^men ii)m 
®clb ab); therefore: to extort, to fltBct; combined with 
hd, to sell, it has the signification, to cost, as: Aho wo 
ahe kpanma, they sell a fowl they buy (for) 10 strings, 
i. e. A fowl is sold (or baught), or costs 10 strings. 
As aux. V. = to begin; f. i. §ia ne mlhe afite, this 
house begins or is about to spoil; sometimes with 
infin., f. i. ehe hfimo, it wants tilting; s. tao, v. 

he hekpa, v. to take usury, interest; which is not less 
than 50 — 100 per cent among the natives and even far 
more according to circumstances. 

he ebo, v. to receive poison, to be poisoned. 

he m. k. no, v. to receive one? 

he m. k. to, v. th. s. 

he §i, V. iof. sihemo, to settle in a place. 

he - ye, double verb, inf. hemo ke yeli, irreg. heyeli, lit. 
to take (and) eat (or use, own etc., s. ye), to believe; 
mlhe noko mlye, 1 heUeve s. th., mahele maye, 1 will 
believe him; ehe end eye, lit. he beheved his palaver, 
i. e. him, or in him; imperat. hemo oye or he oye! be- 
lieve; pi. nyehea nyeyeal believe (ye)! Comp. gye-di, 
in Otyi; gba - gbo in Aku or Yoruba. Pers. n. beyeli- 
lo, n. (irregular) beUever. Comp. he ye, v. to be tick 

d by Google 

108 he. 

(with he as gram, subj.) and ye he, v. inf. heyeli (with 
he as gram, obj.) to be free, 
he, n. without pi. (Ot. hii or hd) outside, exterior; 
body, member (s. bend), self; place; state, station; 
s. also hewo; adverbially used: outside, about, at, on, 
ofT etc. This very frequently and multifariously employed 
word is one of the nouns, employed as formwords or 
postpositions s. § 23—29, § 34. 35., like: da, daft, de, 
den, hie mli, na, no, se, si etc. See esp. § 29. It 
defines the relation of locality as the outside, the ex- 
terior, the body (contrary „mli") and as such the pre- 
positions: At, about, of, on etc. German: 9ln, um, »on, 
auf, wegcn, bet, be — , an — , ju— in verbs, as also the 
adverbs: about, at, on etc. can be compared but must 
not be confounded with it. Connected with this it ex- 
presses the reflexive relation s. § 34 (self). It takes 
either the place of the (grammatical) subject or object 
of the verb it is combined with, as the combinations will 
show, though the space will allow only a part of them 
to be mentioned, the others will then easily be under- 
stood or found under their respective verbs; the most 
common are: ba he, v. inf. heba, to come at (jufommen); 
ba he (or hewo,fs. this), v. inf. hebamo; to cut s. th. 
round about (be^auen); be he, to quarrel about, inf. he- 
bemo; hi he, v. a. to ask about bo he, v. to reduplicate 
()?ert)op!))eIn), inf. hebo; bo he abora, s. ahora, v. to cast 
blame on one's self; bu he, v. to watch about, to respect 
one's self; hebu; da he, v. to vie for, hedamo dg he, v. 
to be hot for or about a thing to love; dso he, v. to 
rest; hedSo, hedsole and hedsomo, s. dso; dsu he, v. 
to wash (abwafcben), hed§Q; fl he, v. to defend; hefa- 
mo; fata he, v. a. to join; fo he, v. to cut one's self; 
hefo; fo he, v. to weep about or for (bcweinen, ct* 
weinen), inf. hefomo; fo he, v. to wet, to wash (be^ 
ne^en), hefomo; fd he, v. to leave ofT (ablaffen), hefd- 
mo; fu he, v. to smell at, hefii; fa he, to repent; gbe 
he, V. to kill one'sself, hegbe, hegb^le; gbu he, v. to 
perforate, hegbo; ha he, v. to cover (be beef en), to cover 
one's self; heha; ha he, v. to give for, to give one's 
self; hehamo; hd he, v. to sell one's self, hehdmo; ho 
he, to pass over (j>orbei^, Doruberge^en); hu he, v. 
to till, dig about (be^acfen); ka he, v. to lie at, to move, 
to hve; to continue (an^aUen^ aniiegeu) hekamo; la he, v. 
\o hang at (anf^augen); le he, v. to know about; Iq he, 


he bo — he fo. 10ft 

to live by,' to subsist (fl^ ernfi()te!t); li he, to mock, to 
sneer at (befp6tte!n); ma he, to build about; nd he, to 
fight about; nu he, lo hear about, to feel; sa he, to 
prepare one's self; §a he, to whitewash; se he gbeye, v. 
to fear for one'sself, to fear; se he, to reach, to arrive; 
to shave; si he, to knock at; ta he, to touch, to sit 
about, te he, lo conceal one's self; till he, to scratch 

. at or about; to he, v. to compare; to answer, corap. 
here no, v.; t§i he, to move one's self; ts6 he, v. to 
turn one's self; tsu he, to cleanse, sanctify; wa he, to 
pain; wo he no, to lift one's self up, to be proud; wo 
he no, V. to begin again; wo he, to watch about (bc^ 
iracbcn); wu he, to make war about, to be frequent, 
common; ya he, v. to go near, at (binjuj^eben), ye he, 
to eat, enjoy one's self, i. e. to be free, inf. heyeli; ye 
he, to be about; ye n. k. he niilsumg, v. to want; yo 
he, V. to acknowledge one's self; etc. etc. By these 
examples the many other combinations of „he^* with verbs 
(as their gramm. obj.) will easily be found out and also 
the nominal combinations be formed; to mention them 
all would lead too far. As gram. subj. compare it in 
the following verbs: 

he bo, V. n. to be double, inf. hebo. 

he bo bo, V. to interfere; to meddle with (unnecessarily). 

he do, V. n. to be hot (outside or round about), to be 
heated; to be dear lo, f. i. ehe mldomi, he is dear to 
me; inf. hedo. 

he dso, V. n. to be cool, quiet, peaceable, tame, s. dso, 
inf. hedsO, hedsole; he dso m. k. also used = hewo- 
dsian dso, v.; mihe dsgm', I am at ease, happy. 

he ds6, V. n. , and . 

he ds6 he, v. n. to get cold, einc Oaiifebaut bcfommcn; 
to be amazed, astounded (stronger than hie fe ya, fe yS, 
na kpe etc.), inf. hedsomo. 

he dsra, v. n. to be difficult; painful; important; hedsramQ. 

he fe m. k. nii, and 

he fe m. k. uii, v. to be touched, lo feel compassion; to 
be in trouble; == he hfa m. k. v. 

he fe oy^, v. n. to be or act quickly; to be in a hurry, 
s. oy^, fe — , oy^femo. 

he fi, V. to be in straits. 

he fl^, V. to feel a tikling sensation. 

he fo, V. n. to be wet, inf. hefgrno; comp. (q he, v. 


110 he fil — he ye. 

he to, V. n. to be swollen or to swell, to slink; int h< 

tomo, hefO. 
he gbla, v. to be rent, 
he guQ gbo, V. n. to be despised, s. gbe he guo; mibi 

guo egbo kwra; 1 am entirely despised; inf. heguogbele 
he hia m. k., v. inf. hehtamo, to be troubled, tired, 
he ka, V. n. to be urfcovered, exposed; to be alive, to move; 

to be free or at liberty to move; to have leizure, s. n£ 

dekS; comp. kS, hie k9 etc., inf. hek^mo. 
he k6mQ m. k., v. n. lit. the body biles (s. Germ. 6ci§en), 

to itch; mihe kdmomi, my skin itches me., 
he kpo, pi. — kplo, V. to crack, to loose the skin, bark etc. 
he kpete he, v. to adhere to, inf. hekpetemo. 
he kpokpo, v. n. to shake to tremble (of fear etc.), inf. 

he lLumo (s. ku), v. n. to feel broken all over, inf. he- 

kuomo; comp. hewodsian kumo, v. 
he lo gbe!, v. to get the itch; s. lo, v. and gbef, n. 
he sa, V. n. to be bodily fit or ripe, inf. hesale; s. sa. 
he ta, V. n. lit. the body is done, to be well again, healed; 

to be clean from a sickness of the skin; s. t5. Comp. 

Ot. h6 sa. 
he tse, V. n. to be clean (bodily and spiritually), to be 

holy, inf. hetsemo; comp. tsu he, v. and hetsumo, n.; 

Ad. he tso, v. th. s. 
he tse m. k. v. a. to loathe, to hate, to detest s. b.; inf. 

het§emo; s. ts^, v. 
he wa, V. n. to be strong, sound, well; to be tough; ebe 

wa tamo ba, he is as tough as a crocodile; to be hard; 

ehe wa tamo te, he is as hard as a stone; inf. hewale; 

comp. wa, hie wa, na wa, tsui wa, yi wa etc. 
he wa he, v. n. to feel pain; mihe wa mihe, I feel pain 

in or over my body, s. wa he and comp. hewod§iaA va 

he; yitso wa he, v. etc. 
he wo fo, V. to be fat. 
he wo la, v. n. to be hot, feverish; to be greedy; 

frafra, he is very greedy, 
he wo mudsi, v. to be dirty, 
he ye, inf. heye, -yeli, v. n. (lit. the body eats, laboore), 

to be sick; mihe mlye, I am sick; ehe aye, he will gel 

sick; inf. heyeli, but scarcely used; s. hela; ye he and 

heye, v. 
he ye, v., s. ye, v. to be somewhere etc. 


he ye nii — hedSolo- 111 

he ye nii, neg. he be nii, v. to be fortunate; - - kolol^, 

in raising cattle; mihe ye k^nii, I am fortunate in 

getting presents etc. 
he yi, v. to be full (all about), 
'he, ehg, adj. new; Ad. th. s. 
he and hg s. after he — . Words being combined with 

the n«un he and not to be found under the following 

must be sought for without he. 
he-ahorabo, n. self-blaming; s. bo he ahora, v. 
he-atade, n. dress, just on the body, 
heba, n. coming at or about some thing; s. ba he, v. 
heb9, and 

hebfimg, n. cutting off around s. tb., s. bS he, v. 
hebe, II. quarrel about s. th.; tao — , v. to seek strife; 

fe — , V. to contend. 
hebelQ, n. quarrelsome person (about s. th.) s. be he, v. 
hebg, n. pinching, pressing round about; binding up of a 

stick-wall or fence; pi. heblemo- 
hebimo, n. asking, questioning about s. th. (Stad^ftage) ; s. 

hi he, Y. 
heblemo, n. stretching or binding about, s. ble, v. 
heblamo, n. th. s. 

heblomo, n. cry or quarrel about s. th. 
hebo, n. cover, sheath; case; f. i. sune-hebo, pillow case, 
hebo, n. reduplication, addition, joining of one thing to 

an other, multiplication; s. bo he, v. 
hebolftmo, n. surrounding; fr. bole he, v. 
hebu, n. watching about s. th. (S3en)a(|iung); estimation etc. 

s. bu he, v.; self-esteem, 
hebulo, n. watch, sentinel, 
hedamo, n. betting for; vying for, emulation. 
hedalQ, n. emulator, 
hedamomo, hedamg, n. standing about, 
hedo, n. outward heat; zeal for s. th.; love; s. sumo, 

V. and n. 
hedolo, n. lover, s. suolo, n. 
hedgmo, pi. -mei, n. beloved person, 
hedgadsemo, n. straightening about s. th.; — of one's self. 
hedsO, n. dancing about. 
hedSo, n. rest; = hedSole; peace. 
hedSole, th. s.; s. he dsb, v. 
hedsolo, n. resting person, peaceful person, peacemaker; 

s. he dsQ and dsQ he, v. 


Ill hedSomo — hefom^. 

hedSotno, n. resting, rest-giving, taming, appeacing, peac 

making; fr. dso he, v. 
hedsd, n. laziness; fe — , v. to be lazy, 
hedsafelo, n. lazy person = hedlolo. 
hedsoferao, n. laziness, 
hedsolo, n. = hedSofelo; lazy person, 
hedsomo, n. astounding, amazement; s. he ds6 he an 

romp, yafemo, nakpe, n. 
hedsra, n. price; wo — , v. to price s. th. 
hedsramo, n. difficulty, pain, imporlance; s. he dsra, v, 

Adn. hedfam. 
hedSraraowo, n. paining, troubling, 
hedsrawo, n. pricing, offering for sale, 
hedsrawolo, n. a person offering s. th. for sale. 
hedsQ, n. washing (all over the body), bathing at home 

s. dsu he, V. and comp. wu, v., fo, v. and dsale, v. 
hedsQbe, n. washing- or bathing-time, 
hedsulo, n. person washing another, 
hedumo, n. planting, sowing about; stabbing, piercing one's 

self, s. dn, v. 
heftlo, n. defender, adTOcate. 
hefSmo, n. defence, s. (Sl he, v. 
hef^mowiemo, n. defending speech. 
hefalalQ, n. joiner, partner, companion; helper, assistant, 
hefatamo, n. joining; partnership; companionship; help, 

assistance, s. fata he and comp. kpete he, ke m. k. bo; 

ye-bua m. k. v. - 

hefeo, n. outward beauty, 
hefeoyelo, n. mocker. 

hefeoyeli, n. mocking, s. ye he feo; comp. heguogb^. 
hefeoyelilo, n. = hefeoyelo. 
hef^he, hefiahe, hepiahe, adv. every-where, comp. fe, fifi; 

Ad. hetfabe, hetsohe, n. 
hefi, n. self-binding, girding, 
henmo, n. strengthening; fi he, v. 
hefitemo, n. self-spoiling, 
hefo, and 
hefomo, n. cutting of one's self; weeping for — ; s. foaad | 

fo he, V. j 

hefolo, niiahefolo, n. washer-man, -woman, 
hefomo, n. washing (of face, hands, cloth, s. dsu), s. fo 

he, V. 
hefomoQd, pi. -nil, any thing used for washing, 
'hefomo, ehefomo, n. new birth. 


hefdmo — hehlemo. 113 

hefomo, n. leaving off; s. fo he, v. 

hefusemo, n. spilling, pouring about. 

hefu, n. smelling at; s. fu he, v.; smell. 

hefumo, n. swelling all over fr. he fu, v. 

hefiimo, n. repentance, s. fa he, v. 

hegbd, hegbale ; hegblamo etc. comp. gba, v. and gbla, v. 

hegblamo, n. division about s. b.; breaking off; fr. gbla he, v. 

hegbe, n. suicide, s. gbe he, v. 

hegbe, n. place, s. also gbehe. 

hegbe, n. way to s. th., access; allowance; liberty; privir 

lege, right (SoKmacS^t, i^ovaia); duty. 
hegbehdlOy n. person giving allowance, 
hegbehamo, n. way -giving; allowance; S3et?oIIma4)tiguiig; 

fr. ha hegbe, v. 
hegbelo, n. person killing himself ; ©elbflmJrber; fir. gbe he, v. 
hegbeyewO, n. frightening, threatening; s. wo he gbeyS, v, 
hegbeyewolo, n. threatening person, 
hegbfmo, n. drying (o«lside). 
hegbomo, pi. -mei, n. person about one, neighi)our, s. na- 

nyo; nanyo-gbomo, n. 
hegbomo, n. warming of one's self, 
hegbole and hegbodsomo, n. bodily weakness, infirmity (of 

age etc.); palsy; s. gbo and gbod§o, v. 
hegbo, n* planing; s. gbo, v. 
hegba, n. perforation. 

heguogbe, n. mocking, s. gbe he gug, v.; self-despite. 
heguQgb^le, n. th. s., and despisedness; despite, fr. he guo 

gbo, V. 
heguQgbelo, n. mocker, 
heguggbo, n. despisedness, fr. he guQ gbo, v. 
heha, n. covering, s, ha he and he ha, y. 
hehamama, n. cloth for covering, 
hehand, pi. -nii, n. covering, cloth; shield = tS^ii, n. 
hehawolo, n. leather-cover, 
hehamo, n. giving of one's self; s. ha he, v. 
hehalamo, n. choosing, selecting; s. hala, v. 
hehe, v. to spread (of a rumour), inf. hehemo; comp. 

here, v. both from he, v., and dSedSe, v. 
hehemo, n. spreading of a rumour; buying of one*s self, 

s. he, V. 
hehfamo, n. uneasiness, trouble, fir. he hia, v. 
hehlemo, n. liberty, s. hie he and comp. ye he, he kl, y. 

etc.; independence. 

Zimmermann, Akra-Yocab* 8 


lU hehile — heli. 

hehlle, D. outward goodness, s. hi y. to ))e good; self- 
abhorrence, 8. hi, V. to abhor, 
heho, n. passing, s. ho he, v.; out-doing =:= naho, n. 
hehdlO) n. person selling himself, 
hehomo, n. selling of one's self, s. hd he, v. 
hehosomo, n. shaking, s. hoso, v. 
hehulo, n. tiller, v. 

hehumo, n. tilling about s. th.; s. hu he, v. 
heka, n. self-trial; self-examination, fr. ka he, v. 
hckamo, n. movement, liberty, life; s. he kS( and comp'. 

hiekSmo; continuing, continuance, s. k9 he, v. 
heke, n. giving away of one'sself, s. kg he, v. 
hekele, n. bodily length, stature, 
hekemg, n. sighing about s. th. 
hekemo, n. saying about s. th. 
heko (s. he, place and ko, one, a, an), adv. somewhere, 

some place, 
hekoheko, adv. somewhere with, negative voice, nowhere, 
hekd, s. hlek6, hlko, n. 
hekomo, n. itching of the skin. 

hekpg, n. circumition, going round; dragging off; s. kpa, v. 
hekpa, n. interest, use-money (3in^); s. kpa, n. 
hekpS, n. string about s. th. 
hekpamo, n. self-anointing, s. kpa he, v.; paying interest, 

fr. kpa he, v.; turning one's self, 
hekpetelo, n. adherer, 
hekpetemo, n. adherence, attachment; joining, s. kpete he 

and he kpete he, v. 
hekpokpomo, n. shaking (by fear, cold), trembling (Ot. 

hekpokemo, n, plucking off; hurt, damage; s. kpoke; he 

kpoke, V. 
hekpomo, n. self-redemption; s. kp6, v. 
hekpomo, n. breaking off of the bark of a tree the skin etc. 

spoiling; kpo (he), v. 
hekpromo or hekplomo, n. th. s. 
hekuomo, n. = hegbodsomo, bodily infirmity, brokenness; 

palsy; pride; s. he ktimo, v. 
hekukudsi, pi. n. pieces from s. th. 
hela, n. (bodily fire), sickness; Ad. hio, n.; hela ye, v. to 

be sick; hela nyemi, = mihe miye, I am sick, 
hela nye m. k., — d6A m. k., v. to be suffering by sickness, 
hel^, n. relative, Slut^toettranbtet; blood in the body; s. 

helo, n. 7 


helatSalo — hcnL 115 

helaifSalo, n. physician. 

helatSamg, n. hetling of a sickness, s. tSa, v. 

helatse» pi. -mei, n. sick person. 

heladseniQ, n. loss of one*s self; s. ladSe he, v. 

helakalo, n. self-deceiver. 

helakamo, n. self-slilling; self-deceit; s. laka, v. 

hela, n. helalame, and 

helamo, n. singing, dreaming, hanging about s. th. 

helatamo, n. seaming, s. lata, v. 

hel6, n. knowledge about, s. lehe, v. ; self-knowledge. 

hele, V. s. here, v. 

hele, n. subsistenze, living; s. le. 

helimo, n. self-mocking, s. li, v. 

helo, n. flesh (about the body) only used of men, sel- 
dom of animals (Ot. honam); body; s. gbomotSo; pri- 
vate parts as in Hebrew; ke helo fe yakayakanii, v. to 
commit self-polution. Comp. also hewolo, hewodsian; 
and lo and wolo, n. 

helo-sedi, n. lust of the flesh. 

helo-taomo, n. th. s. 

helo, n. buyer, taker. 

helogorao, n., or 

helokgmQ, n. wandering about; s. logo, loko, loko he, — 
si, V. 

helQkomQgbe, n. circuitous road; Umiveg. 

helomomo, helomo, n. self-cursing; s. lomo, v. 

helonemo, n. dislocation; s. lone, v. 

hem§, n. building about, plastering; s. mS, v. 

hemo, pi. -mei, n. sweet-heart; concubine. 

kemo, n. buying, taking, s. he, v. 

hemo ke yeli, n. faith, fr. he-ye, v. to believe; s. heyeli, n. 

hemonii, pi. n. prize, cost; s. dsra, n. na, n. yinii, n. 

heft, adj. and adv. = haft, bright, clear; -ly, -ly. 

hena, n. s. hiena, hina, forehead. 

henamo, n. getting of one's self (s. na, mf. namo, Ot. and 
Ad. nya, v.), richness; pride. 

bene, Ad. = heni, pron. and conj. where. 

heni, adverb, pron. and conj. where (= he n\) s. § 34 
and Table IV. and V.; heni midse le, nyelee, ni heni 
miyaa le hu nyelee, you know neither where 1 came 
from nor where I go to. Generally „le" concludes the 
sentences formed by heni, comp. § 49, 50 and the 
words: beni, when; boni, how; noni, what; moni, who 
etc. A peculiar use of heni is to be mentioned: if 



116 henii — here SiSi. 

some body comes from a journey, he is saluted: „Heni 
odse?" or: Heni od§en? Lit. (How k it) „ where thou 
comest from?" Answ. „Bled!" etc. etc. S. ble6. 

henii, pi. n. of heno, n. members; deserts, custom etc. 

henfitsumg, n. need, want, use; miye heniitsumo, I want it. 

hen6, pi. henii, n. kind, species; form, shape; deserts (93er* 
l)ienfl), habit, custom; case, lot, luck etc. limb, member, 
pi. furniture. 

hQpQ or he no, n. s. he, n. and no, n. upon or on one's 

henoho, n. = heho, jpassing; passover, s. ho he ng, v. 
to pass over. 

hendmo, n. fight, struggle about s. th. 

henowO and henow6mo, n. lifting up; exaltation, glory, 
honour; pride; from wo he no; comp. also wO* hewo, 
yidsiemo, anumnyam, n. Ad. henowom, n. 

henowd-atade, n. proud attire. 

henowolo, n. one who lifts up; one who lifts himself up, 
who is lifted up, exalted (accord, to Hanson for ^^neya^' 
Mt. 20, 25. 

henomo, n. sweetness, agreeableness ; s. n6, v. 

hentl and henumo, n. feeling, fr. nu he, v. 

henu, n. water about or at s. th. 

henunS, pi. -nii, n. nerve? s. % n. 

henyelo, n. hater, enemy; = hetSelo, n, hikolg n.; belo, n. 

henyi, and 

henyemo, n. hatred; s. nye, hetSemo, hike, bei, n. 

henyiemo, n. walking about; Uml^erge^en, — laufen. 

here, v. a., inf. heremg, to exept (Ot ^ye), corrobora- 
tion of he, comp. dse, d§ere, tse, tsere etc. to take up 
or out (= dsie), to save; to receive; to be kindled, to 
catch fire; to strike root, anroadtfen; to help, to take 
s. body's load or work for a while. 

here m. k. atu, v. a. to embrace s. b. (s. atQ), to receive 
s. b. with joy; inf. atoheremo; s. Ot. gye atu. 

here m. k. hieme, v. a. to receive s. b. joyful, s. hieme; 

here m. k. hie, v. to esteem s. body's face. 

here no, Ot. gye so, v. a. to take up the word, to an- 
swer, if called by name; to take the word; to begin to 
speak (Hebr. roy); comp. to he, v. inf. noheremo; Ad. 
he no, V. 

here SiSi, v. to strike root in the ground. 


here wala — hetgS. 117 

here wala (Ot. gye ftkwa) and here yi wala, v. a. to sav^ 

or spare one's life; to save, to preserve, to keep safe, 

s. na wala, yi na wala; inf. walaheremg, yiwalaheremo; 

prs. n. — herelg. 
herelo, n. receiver, saver, saviour, 
heremo, n. accepting, receiving; acceptation, reception; 

salvation, s. d§iemo and the preceding word, 
heremonile, n. saving wisdom. 
hereniQsane, n. history of salvation, 
hereft, adj. warm, hotffe — , v. to bB warm, hot. 
hesale, n. bodily fitness, maturity, s. he sa, v.; comp. 

hie sa, v. 
hesalo, n. preparer. 
hesamQ, n. preparation fr. sa he, v. 
hesuomo, n. self-love; s. sumo he, v. 
hesuolQ, n. self-lover, 
hesusumo, n. meditation; 9la^benfen. 
heSamQ, n. white-washing. 
heSatamo, n. dragging about, 
hese, n. arrival; shaving one's self, 
hegiba, n. humiliating; humiliation; s. ba he §i, v. 
hesibalQ, n. humble person, 
hesimo, n. knocking at (^n^ogen); (obscene: self-pollution, 

onany, s. fe helo yakayakanii) ; fr. §i he, v. 
he§i§imj), n. self-deception fr. SiSi he, v. 
beta, and 

hetale, n. recovering, s. he tS. 
beta, pi. hetramo, n. touching, 
hetemo, n. concealing; s. te he; concealing one's self, 
hetemo, n. stumbling; s. te he, v. 
hetitimo, n. scratching, s. tit! he, v. 
heto, n. answer; comparision, s. to he. 
hetramo, n. touching; sitting about fr. ta he, pi. tra he. 
hetselQ, n. pure, holy person. 
het§emo, n. movement, activity, purity; holiness; s. kroA- 

kroii and hetsumo; fr. he tse, v. 
hetSSmg, n. loathing; s. he ts^, v. a.; hatred. 
hetsSIO, n. enemy; hater. 
hetSakemQ, n. self-change; change; conversion; change of 

het§imo, n. movement; fr. tsi he, v. 
hetsi, n. closing up; s. t§i, v. 
heifio, n. iliumination; 9eUu(i^tung; fr. USo he^ v. 


118 helSoi — hewolo. 

hetSoiy pi. or collect, d. hairs about the body of men and 
aoimaU; s. tdoi, ^i^qU dahet§oi etc. 

heti^oial§e, n. hairy person; hairy creature. 
'helSoialade, n. hairy dress. 

het^dmo, n. turning of one's self; self- show; ostentation, 
pride; conversion; s. t§d he, t. doctrine about s. th. 

het^ulo, n. purifier; sanctifier. 

hetSumo, n. purificatiou; sanctification, fr. tsu he; coaip. 
het^emo; wiping, fr. tsumo he, v.; business about s. th.; 
fr. tsu he, v. 

hewa, and 

hew ale, n. strength, power; soundness, health; hardness; 
violence; fr. he wa, v. n.; pain, fr. wa he, v. a.; wo 
m. k. hewale, v. a. to strengthen s. b. =: wadSemo; inf. 
hewalewo; ye hewale, v. n. to have power, be strong. 

hewalenand ko, s. th. done by power. 

hewale-niitsumo, n. powerful deed. 

hewalesane, n. matter of power. 

hewalewo, n. strengthening; corroboration; encouraging; 
s. tSuihSmo, n. th. s. 

hewalewolo, n. corroborator. 

hewalo, n. strong, powerful person (©ewaltiger, @tarfer); 
violent person. 

hewad§emo, n. = hewalewO, n. self-strengthening. 

hewielo, n. slanderer; speaker about s. th. 

hewiemQ, n. speaking about s. th.; slandering, fr. wie he, v. 

hewo, n. self-exaltation, pride; honour etc. s. wo he; wo 
he no, V. henowomo, v. 

hewodsian, n. s. hewolo, n. 

hewomo, n. th. s., s. henowomo, n. 

hewolg, n. proud, highminded person. 

hewo, hewomo, n. watching; s. wq he, v. 

hewolg, n. watchman, s. wo he, v. and comp. won, wo- 
lonM>, n. 

hewo, old noun =: self, sake etc., but now only used as 
a postposition = he: about, around, for — sake, through, 
by etc. oba mihewo thou earnest for my sake; some- 
times connected with whole sentences taken as one no- 
tion or word, as: Edsake ebaa mind hewo le mite end, 
because he did not come to me, therefore 1 went, to him. 
Comp. also nohewo, mehewo, etc. Ot. uti; Ad. he, n. 

hewou = hewo ni, hewo d§i. 

hewolo, pi. hewodsi (sometimes =: hewulo, hewudsi), b. 
the flesh (s. helo) or skin (8« wpio) about tha bod;; 


hewii — heAfmQnd. 11& 

flesh, skin, body etc. often used promiseue ^ith he, 
helo and in the same combination (s. Ot. hdnam); he- 
wodsian = hewod^i amli, the body; hewod§ian d§o, v. 
to be discouraged, struck with horror, to get cold by a 
horrible appearance; — dSo m. k., v. to ease, to give 
ease, etc.; hewodsian fS, lit. the livhole of the inside of 
the skin, the \vhole body; mihewodSiah fg ekDmo, my 
body is quite broken, sick, tired; ehewodsian f^ wa ehe, . 
all his body pains him; hewodSiau fg fe doko, v. n. to 
be weak (s. doko); hewodSiaii fe wa he, v. = he wa 
he, V. to have pain all over the body. 
hewQ, n. warring, fighting about s. th. 
heyeli, n. liberty, fr. ye he, v. to be free; comp. hehiemo, 

th. s.; comp. also odehe, n. fa, adj. 
heyeli and heye, n. (seldom used) sickness = hela, fr. he 

ye, V. to be sick; Ad. hlo, n. • 
heyeli, n. (irregular formation = hemo ke yeli from the 
double verb he — ye, to believe), belief, faith; Ad. hem 
ke yem, n. 
heyelitsomo, n. doctrine of faith. 

hcyd, pi. -yci, n. a girl or womaa- chosen by s. b. for a 
wife, intended wife, person who fits s. b. for a wife; 
c^mp. hemo, n. Siyeri, n. M, n. 
heyomo, n. perceiving, perception, animadvertion ; fr. yo 

he, V. 
heyom. Ad. n. th. s. 

he, pi. hele, v. to catch? to catch fish with a net from 

the shore; comp. ya wuo, f6 ya, sa lo, v. etc. inf. h^, 

helemo; to knock against s. th., see he Si; ke n. k. he 

heko, to knock with s. th. against some place. Ad. th. s. 

he he, V. to knock one's self against s. th. 

he si, V. n. and a«, inf. §ih^, to fall down with vehemence; 

to throw down with vehemence (ntebcrflflrgen, v. n. and 

a.); comp. lu U, tfa si, gbe si, nyo U etc. OyiAe §il 

horrible curse. 

h€ — , s. hie — and hi — . Ad. th. s. f.i. hSna = hiena, 

forehead, etc. 
h§, V. to attack, 
he, D* loins; fi he, to gird the loins; inf. hefi, heflmo; 

s. mliten, n. 
he = y^» adv. hotty (of pepper etc.) eSftmi h^. 
hef!, hefimo, n. girding (of the loins); comp. mla he, fi 

ndit^ V. Ad. mlemftm, th. s. 
bfifingadi n. girdle; hefind, %K $^ 


120 hshe — hi. 

hfihe, inf. -mo, v. a. to adorn, = wula, f. i. a child; to 
outfit, f. i. a canoe, vessel. 

hehe, V. inf. hehemo, to bloom, prosper (used of men); 
gbeke ne heheo, this child is bloommg; fe hehghe, th. s. 

hehehe, adj. and adv. blooming, bloomingly, s. hehe, v. 

hele, V. to catch, s. he; to shrink, to start back, corrobo- 
ration of be; comp. he, v. here, v.; kpokpo; sere, v. 
inf. helemg. 

hele he, v. = he he, v. 

hele si, inf. sihelemo, v. to shrink; to start etc. (jufam^ 

hele m. k., v. a. to knock against s. b., to knock down, 
to gore; to be knocked etc. pi. of he, v. 

helehele and herehere, adj. and adv. thin, light, little tic. 
fe — , V. to be thin etc. thinly, lightly etc. = haba- 
haba, adj. 

hele, n. and 

helemg, n. catching (fish, s. he); knocking; goring; collision. 

helemo, n. shrinking, starting, fr. hele, v. . 

helo, n. fisherman; s. wolenyo; fr. he, v. 

hefi, adj. and adv. very clear, bright; used both of light 
and sound, and corroborating verbs expressing such, as: 
tso hen, to shine brightly; gbe hen, to sound clearly; 
toiian fe hei, the ears ring (Die O^ren lauten); Grerm. 
l^elle. Comp. he, the root of this word, also han, 
kan, kane (in Otyi and G§[). 

hena, s. hiena, n. forehead. 

here, here si etc.; s. hele. 

hete, s. hiete, n. clearness; covetousness; civiKzation; civi- 

h^tso, s. hietso; face, forehead; etc. 

herefi, adj. and adv. = heft. 

henwale, n. strength of loins; the loins are considered as 
the ^at ef strength. 

hi, V. inf. hile (Ad. to sit); to remain, to keep; to dwell 
(Comp. ta and te, v. in Ot. and ta, v. in G5); to be, to 
behave; to abstain from, f. i. hi nmSi, to abstain from 
food, \o fast (Ot. di buada, and GSl ye buada); to abhor, 
detest, esp. religiously (comp. kyi in Otyi); to consider 
8. th. religiously unclean; won ne hio wo, this fetish ab- 
hors fowl; to hate; connected with the first signification : 
to be good (Ot. ye, comp. kpakpa, adj.), to be fit, to 
suffice, to be right, to better (fluten, bejfecn), ehi ke mba, 
it is getting better (of a sicluiess); etc. EM hami ak^ 


M m.lL. deik — 'hiabd. 121 

miyaa, it is good for me to go; mli hi, to be inwardly 
good, to be kiod, mild etc. inf. mlihile. This verb is 
Tery frequently and multifariously used, especially also 
in combinations, f. i. hie hi he no, v. to be circumspect, 
to take care (lit. the face remains on the self); mihie 
bio mihe no, I take care for myself, comp. kwe ni abi, 
th. s., = sole he; hi m. k., inf. himo, to backbite s. b. 
= hie m. k.; hi with the inf. of an other verb is =: 
to continue (anl^alten), hi bimo he, to continue to ask 
(but hi bimo ; to be good to ask) ; etc. Comp. also 
hie, V. Ad. hi, v. and hg, v. 

hi m. k. den, v. to remain in one's power. 

hi he no (s. hie hi he no), v. a. to take care for; inf. 

hi m. k. hie, v. to remain before; to abhor onefs face). 

hi ke wula si, double v., to be good and come to the 
ground, i. e. to be perfect; inf. bile ke siwulamo. 

hi iaaSi, inf. nmdhlle, v. to fast; s. ye buada, th. s. 

hi no 9 inf. nohile, v. to remain, abide upon s. th. 

hi si, V. n. to remain, to dwell, to live (si being the gram. 
Obj., which can be let away, if «n other obj. of loca- 
lity takes its place, or both must have a verb, f. i. hi 
t^un, to remain in the room; hi si ye tsun, th. s. comp. 
ta §i yo tsun, to sit down [being] in the room, and ta 
tSun, to sit in the room); inf. sihile. 

hi sisi, V. to remain on the ground; to remain down. 

hi, irreg. pi. of nO, n. man, male. Comp. the Adn. pi. 
form hi, in Ga i. Besides hi also himei is used. 

'hi, ahi, n. boasting against, mocking detestation; only oc- 
curring in the phrase: ye moko ahi (= hi m. k., v. to 
detest one, to hold one in abhorrence?);- inf. ahiyeli. 
Comp. ye he feo, gbe he guo, etc. also: to mock at 
one, to boast against one. 

hia (Ot. hyia), v. n. inf. hiamo, to be poor, needy; to be 
in need of; v. imp. with the logical subj. as an Obj., 
to want; to distress; ehlami, ake — I want that — , it 
is necessary for me that; comp. fi; sika ehiami, I want 
money » 1 am in distress for money, comp. fe, ^.; he 
hia m. k., V. to be in perplexity; to want pasttime; 
Sangemcile l)ahtn; = hie tse, v. 

*hia, ohla (Ot. th. s.), n. poverty, need, distress, want; 
,»obia mid§ra,'* prv. „poverty is hard!*' ohia hia m. k., v. 
to be in poverty; ohia ehiami, I am in poverty. 

'Uabe, n. time of need. 


122 'MadSeA — hie m. k. nydmo. 

'bUdS«A, n. state of poverty; s. dSe, n. 

'hiafo, ofalafo (Ot. obXani, pi ahlafo), n. ber 9trme; poor 
man. „OhIafo be nanyo," prv. „the poor has no friend!** 

hiahia, adj. and adv. clean; cleanly: tight, neat; neatly. 

hi^ol interj. be it so! Amen! especially religiously used in 
responding to the prayers of fetish-priests; perh. from 
hi, V. to be good; to remain. 

httw, irreg. ph hlebii, h6bii, n. single cowry; s. trema; 
kpS, tSakpo etc. The word is very probable originally 
the diminutive h!eo, little face, pi. hlebii, h^bii corrupted 
„^bii**. It is sometimes mockingly put in apposition to 
proper names, as „Tete hiaw**, to indicate covetousness 
in small matters, trifles, as one cowry. 

'hlayeli, n. suffering by poverty; fr. ye oh!a, v. 

hie, V. a., inf. Memo, to carry, to hold in the hand, 
to handle, to use, comp. md; to hold fast, to have (Ot. 
kura); to continue = hi, kS he, hie mli; to bear, to 
endure etc. to give into one's hand for carrying; comp. 
also he, v. The word can not be used for carrying on 
the head, s. t^re, or on the shoulders, s. tfa kdA; or 
of heavy burdens, • wo, or of cloth, s. wo or bu; but 
especially of light things which one can hold in the 
hand. Comp. especially the following uses of the word: 
Amebic blgmQ, they cried continuaUy; hela hie m. k., 
sickness has taken hold of s. b.; hela hiemi ahCi, I was 
a long time sick; s. he ye; hie moko, v. to carry one 
(sc. in one's mouth), to slander him = wie he (comp. 
^audlragen''). Ad. h«, v. th. s. 

hie m. k. den, v. to give into one's hand. 

hie bebobo, — dododo, v. to treat carefully, kindly. 

hie foi, V. to run (s.foi, dSo foi, §a foi; wo foi), inf. fbi- 
hlemo. Ad. hg fo, v. 

hie he, v, to hold one's self, i. e. to be free; inf. hehle- 
mft( = ye he, v. 

hie ho, V. lit. to carry an embryo; to be with child; to 
be with young one's; comp. ho; Ad hQ, na musu; Inf. 

hie lalfr or lamo, v. to use to sing; to continue to sing. 

hie mli, v. inf. ndihlemo, to hold fast; s. md mli; to use 

hie m. k. soisoi, v. to iUtread s. b« 

hie musu, v. « hie ho, to be with child; inf. mmu- 

Ue m. k. nyOmo, v. to be indebted to s. b. 


hie — Me bu. 123 

hie, n. face; eyes, sight; surface; front (the contj^ary of 
se, s. Uiis); as he, mli, se, yi, one of the words most 
frequently and multifariously employed, especially as the 
grammatical subject and object of verbs. Used as adverb 
and postposition it expresses the relations of „hefore,^ 
forward; on; upon^*; etc. Respecting the relation of 
time, ntSutsu, UenkleA, da'S respecting that of place 
„hamQ, no, na he'* are to be compared (s. Ot. ani, Riis 
^ni; Ad. h€, n.). The principal combinations are the 
following: 1) verbs with hie as their object: ba h!e, v. 
to come forward ; ba moko hie, v. to come before one('8 
face); bu hie, v. to cover the face; fite hie, v. to dis- 
guise; fo hie, V. to wash the face (s. d§u, v.); inf. hle- 
fomo, ironically used; to drink too much; fu hie, v. = 
t& hie, to darken one's face, to frown; gbe hie, v. to 
make ashamed; inf. hlegbe, hiegb^e (s. hie gbo); to 
meet at a convivial party; to fight hand to hand, inf. 
hlegbemQ, comp. gbe; gble hie, to open the face, to be 
open, to be friendly; ha hie, = bu hie, to cover the 
face; k5 hie, v. to reproach = gbe hie, v.; kpMft hie, 
V. a. to destroy, inf. hlekpdtSmo (comp. hie kpdtS and 
fite); ke hie fo m. k. no, ke hie nme m. k. no, - - kft 
m. k. no etc. s. under fd, nme, k§ etc.; ke hie nme 
moko or noko (Ot. de ani kari obi), v. to weigh some 
body or some thing with the face, to estimate; kpe hle,^ 
to meet tlje face; ku hie fo n. k. no, v. to wink at 
s. th.; mla hie, v. inf. hlemlamo, to press one's face 
together, to sustain (f. i. pain etc.) ; nd hie fo m. k. no 
= ke hie fd m. k. no (s. k§ and Ao), v. to trust in s. b* 
(lit. to take the face and east it upon s. b.); hie ka 
m. k. no, V. th. s. ; no hie nme m. k. no, th. s.; sa 
hle» V. to rub one's face; to hie, v. to suppose; to di- 
rect one's face (upon s. th.); tSe-^ile, v. to smile; tsle 
m. k. hie, v. to awake one (comp. hie t§e); ts6 hie, v. 
to turn one's face; to tijm before == tSd hamo; tQ hie, 
= fu hie, V. to frown; wad§e hie, v. to harden one's 
face, to be or become cruel, hard (s. hie wa); wiem.t.. 
hie, V. to reprove s. b. ; wo hie no, to lift up tte iftce, 
the eyes; ya hie, v. to go on, forward; etc. etc. 

hie ba no, V. to remember (again); s. kai and hie k$ no; 
mihle eba no, I remember it. 

hie ba §i, v. to be Bieek, humbleminded (s. ba he si); iatL 
hlesiba; eUe ba si, he is mild. 

Me bu, V. a. to get nigl^t, dart =» dSe aa, v. 


124 Me bu 6i — Me M he no. 

hie bu Si, pi. hie bumo Si; or ke hie bu &i, ii6 hie btl 

si, V. to fall down on the face; inf* hfesibumo. 
hie di, y. inf. hiedimo, to be giddy; mihie midimi, I am 

giddy; but mihle di, I am black, 
hie do, Me do la; inf. hiedo, v. to have a hot face; to 

be zealous, anxious, prone upon s. th.; to be out of 

temper; to be passionate; to be wild (s. dSo, Me d§o> 

he dso). 
Me dSo, y. to be bitter-faced, coyetous; inf. MedSomo. 
hie f5, y. inf. Mefa, to get an expressiye face, to be deve- 
loped (of children). 
Me fe mobomobo, nyanemo, nyftgemo, nyfth-kemo, etc. 

s. these adjectives and nouns • and the combination of 

fe, v. 
Me fe ya, v. inf. Meyafemo, to wonder, be astonished = 

fe ya; na kpe he; he dso he, v. amoMe fe ya, or: ame- 
. Me feamo ya, they are or were astonished; Ad. h6 pe 

ya, v. th. 8. 
Me fe m. k. tototo, y. to be sad; eMe fele tototo, = 

ewyere eho ehe, he is sad. 
Me fo kli, v. to be giddy = Me di, v. 
hie fo, V* to have a wet face (be drunk?); s. fo Me, v. 
Me fd m. k. no, s. ke Me fd m. k. no under fd no, v. 

and Me, n. 
Me fie si, v. n. to be ashamed, to hang one's face down; 

inf. Mekifiemo. 
Me gble = d§e tSere, v. inf. -mo, to get daylight; comp. 

gble Me, v. 
Me gbo (Ut. the face died), v. to be ashamed, inf. Megbo 

(seldom used) Megble or hiegb^le; comp. gbe Me, v.; 

ohie agbo bianel thou wilt just now be ashamed; eMe 

gboo noko, be is of nothing ashamed, he is shameless; 

oMe agbo! be ashamed; comp. ani wu in Otyi, th. s.; 

Ad. hB gbo, v. 
hie M, V. to get better == h! ha m. k. 
hie hi n. k., y. to abhor s. th. 
hie hi n. k., v. to keep something in view, to care tor it, 

to like it. 
hie hi no, v. to keep in view, to keep in rememberance ; 

comp. hie yo no, — ka no, kai: Ad. he h6, v. to be 

Me hi he no, v. to keep one's self in view, to take care; 

nyehie ahia nyehe no, take care for yourselves! = comp. 

sole he, kwfi he^ kwe nl ahi, v. etc. 


Me ho he — Me §«. 125 

hie ho he, v. to miss, to overlook; uterfei^cn, utetge^en. 

Me kS, V. inf. MekSmo, to be alive; to be active, lively; 
minaa noko n\ Me kS, I see nothing that is alive; Me 
kS m. k., to be mad, eMe kalg, he is mad; s. yinkSf, v. 
Ad. hS ka, V. 

Me k9 he, v. to be alive or cognitions about s. th. 

Me ka no, v. to remember; s. Me M no, — ye no; to 
trust in, s. Me fd no; miMe ka Nyonmo no; 1 trust in 
God; I hope upon God; Ad. M ka no, hg ne no, v. 

hie ka si, V. n, to be moderate; to be wise, prudent, s. 
le nii, na etc., inf. Mesikamo; miMe ka si and miMe 
ka miSi, I am moderate; comp. Me sa, v. to keep well 

Me kd (Ot. ani here), v. to desire, to lust; inf. hiek5; 
comp. di so, ba tsine, v. 

Me kd si, v. = Me bu si, v. to fall down to the ground; 
pi. Me k5mo si, v. to He on the face; s. nabu ko §i, 
V. th. s. 

Me kpa no, lit. the face turns from (s. kpa); v. to forget; 
comp. Me ka no, the contrary; oMe akakpa edsurofemo 
no, do not forget a benefit! Mihle kpako no! I have 
not forgotten it! 

Me kpata, V. n. inf. Mekpatamo; to be spoiled, to perish; 
s. kpata Me, V. 

Me lo, V. to frown == Menmei lo, and lo Me wo mli, v. 

Me lu si, V. to fall with the face to the ground. 

Me me, v. n. to be content; to be glad, to feel at home; 
to be happy (comp. Me t§e); mihle mo bio, here I am 
content, at home; miMe mole, 1 am content with him; 
I am faithful to him, also: Me mo m. k. he, to be con^ 
tent with, or to be faithful to, s. b.; inf. Memo; comp. 
me, v. ^ 

Me ne. Ad. v. to be alive (lit. the face exists); h6 n6, th. s. 

Me sa, V. n. to be fit, ripe (of persons); to be steady; 
grave, solid; inf. Mesalo, s. sa; to be hard; to be pre- 
cocious (ironically used); Ad. he sa, v. 

Me 80 m. k., v. a. (Ot. ani so), to honour, esteem, respect 
s. b.; inf. Meso; eMe so5mi, he respects me. „Ke oke 
wo kpla able le eMe esooo," prv. If thou thrash com 
with a fowl, it does not respect thee. 

Me sa, V. inf. Mesa, to be selfish; covetous; to have a 
sunburnt £ace. Comp. also Mesa, n.; fe MeSa, v. fr. 
Me and eSa, adj. bad. 


*2« h!e t6 — Me«5. 

hie tS, V. n. (s. tew in Otyi) to be coyetdus; to be cun- 
ning, wise, civilized; to be clear, as water; inf. h!et^. 
hie l§e,» V. n. to be clear, lo have a clear pure surfaee (of 

water); inf. hlel§emo. 
hie tse, V. inf. hletSere, hietsele, to be homesick; --m. k. 

or n. k., - - - after s. b. or s. th.; to be dissatisfied with 

one's condition (s, hie me, the contr.). 
hie tsS, V. n. n. to awake (comp. tsie hie); inf. hIetsS. 
hie t§ele, v. and 
hie t§ere, v. n. to awake, to come to one's self (ju P^ 

fclbcr fommen); mihie tSere mi, I came to myself; int 

hie l§6, V. = hie tse, to-be homesick; inf. hlelsomo* 
hie wa, V. n., lit. to be hard-faced; to be hard; to be strict; 

to be covetous; inf. hiewfi, hiewale. 
hie ye la, v. to be enraged, fierce; = ye flafla; to be very 

much Intent upon s. th,, comp. hie do, v. 
hie ye no, v. to keep in view = hie hi no; neg. irreg. 

hie be no; Ad. hS nS no. 

The following combinations with nhfe" and many 
others are sometimes negligently pronounced, so that 
only „hl" or „he" is heard. For correctness' sake 
they are all fully written. In Adanme „he** takes 
nearly entirely the place of „hle". 
hiebii, hebii, pi. n. single cowries; s. hlaw, hleo, n. 
hlebal^, hiebumo, n. evening time = dsenamo ; s. hie bu, v. 
hiebumo, n. covering of the face; fr. bu hie, v. 
h!ed!le» -mo, n. giddiness, fr. hie di, v. 
h!edo> n. heat (of the face); passion; zeal; wildness; fir. 

Me do, V. 
hledolo, n. zealous; fierce; wild person; also used of 

hIedSolo, n. bitterfac^d person; envious, covetous person; 

fr. hie dSo, v. 
hIedSomo, n. covetousness; envy. 
hIed§olo> n. peace = hedsole, fr. hie dSo, v. tameness; 

hled§0> n. th. s. 
hieflmo, n. expressiveness of the face, fr. hie % v.; de- 

velopement of children, 
hiefitelo, n. disguised person, 
hiefitemo, n. disguise; fr. fite hie, v. 
hIeflSmo, n. itching of fiace. 

hiefomo, n. washing of the foce; drunkenness; fr. fo hie, v. 
hiefo, n. endeavour; trying;; fr. fo Me, v. 


klefiooK^ — hlekp€. 12T 

hleflomo, hiefo, n. cutting of fbe face (wHh divers marks). 

hIefolQ, n. a person Avith a cut face (not used, but ble* 
nmlaltSe, n. instead of it). 

hlefumo, n. frown, fr. fu hie, v. 

hiefQlo, n. frowning person. 

hlefO, n. stink-face (scolding word: „Kwe ehlefii!" look at 
his ugly face!) 

hlegbemo, n. hand to hand fight; conviviality, fr. hlegbe, v. 

hiegbe, n. spite, s. gbe h!e, v. and hlegb^le, n.; reproof, 

hiegbelo, «, (despicer) reprover, reproacher. 

hiegbfite (htgble, h^gble), n. death of the face, shame; dis- 
grace; bashfiriness; fr. hie gbo, v.; spite, fr. gbe hte, v.; 
na — , to see shame, to be disgraced; wo m. k. — , to 
make one ashamed, to put shame upon s. b. A peculiar 
plural-form is hlegbedsi in 

hiegbedsianii, pi. n. shameful acts or doings. ' 

hiegbedsianiiifemo, n. shameful act. 

hiegb^lewO, n. disgracing. 

hiegble, n. = hlegb^le, n. 

hiegblemo, n. friendliness; fr. gble hie, v. daylight, fr. hie 
gble, V. = dSetseremo. 

hiegbo =ss hiegbgle, n. 

hlehanS, pi. -nii, n. covering of face, veil. , 

hleheremo, n. exeptation of face, countenance, fr. here 
hie, V. therefore, countinancing, acknowledgement. 

blekSlo, n. a living, active person; Nyonmo hiekldo, the 
living God. Ad. tti. s. The word can be used in con- 
trast to „gbonyo** of any thing „living". 

hiekamo, n. living; life, fr. hie kS, comp. wala; remem- 
brance; s. nohlekamo, blenokamo, n. hope; confidence, 
fr. hie ka no, v. 

hlekasemo, n. immitation of one's face, fr. kase hie, v. 

hleko, n. lust, desire; envy. 

hlekdlo, n. lusting, desirous, envious person. 

hlekpamo, n. forgetfulness, fr. hie kpa no> v. s. nohle- 
kpamo, hlenokpamo; but: percolation, clarification; fr. 
kpa hie, v. to lake oft the surface. 

hlekpatalo, n. destroyer, spoiler; fr. kp^tahle; comp. fite- 
lo, n.; reproacher. 

hlekpStdmo, n. perdition; destruction, fr. hie kpStS, v. n. 
and kpata hie, v. a.; comp. filemo, n ; reproach. 

hiekpe, n. meeting face to face; glance at one's face, fr. 
kpe hie, v. 


128 htelomo -*- hleAmei bo tSe. 

h!eh)mo» n. frowning; staring. 

Melo, n. holder, carrier, fr. h!e, v. 

hleme, n. contentment; pleasure, joy, fr. hie me; comp. 

hlemeheremo, n. j'oyful reception, fr. here m. k, hteme, v. 
hiemlamo, n. forbearance; endurance; endeavour, trial =; 

hlefo, n.; fr. mTa hie, v. 
hiemtalo, n. person enduring hardships or sufferings. 
hiemo,»n. carrying, bearing, holding; slandering; fr. hie, v. 

Adn. hSm. 
hiena, hina, hSna, n. lit. brim or end of the face, i. e. 

forehead, comp. hietso; Ad. hSnya, n.; kwe m. k. hte- 

na, V. to respect person, 7tQO(t(07toXif]7tT€iv. 
hienakwemo, n. respect of person. 

h!enmlalt§e, pi. -tsemei, n. cutface; person from tribes who 
cut their faces. 

hlenmei» hinmei, pi. -ii, n. lit. face-nut; eye; well of 
water; eye of a needle; = py in Hebr. HiAmei (Ot. 
ani, ani wa) is also used as gramm. subj. or. obj. like 
hie, na, no etc. but not very frequently; f. i. be hinmeii, 
V. to hint with the eyes; ebemi hinmeii, he gave me "a 
hint with his eyes; dfa hienmei, obj. pi. dfra hienmeii, 
lit. to break the eyes (s. dfa), to spoil the eyes; fila 
hIeAmeii = fila, v. a. to blind; s. fila; kodd hienmei, V. a. 
to look asquint; to leer at s. th.; to be envious; mla 
hienmeii, to shut the eyes; Ifa hleAmeii, lit. to strike 
the eyes, i. e. to shut and open them once, inf. hle- 
Ameiitfa, s. this; to twinkle; wo hienmei no, obj. pi. 
(irreg.) hole hienmeii ano, to lift up the eyes etc. Ad. 
h6nme, n. 

hienmei dfa, pi. hienmeii dfra, v. n. to loose the eyes, s. 
dfa h., V. 

hienmei, kSdo, v. n. to have a crooked eye, to look asquint 
(ft^iclen) ; to leer upon s. th. ; to be envious, comp. Mt. 
20, 15.; inf. hleAmeikdddmo ; s. k5dd hienmei and comp. 
Me k6, V. 

hieilmei lo = hie lo, v. to frown. 

hienmei mla, v.n. to have the eyes shut, s. mia hienmei, v. 

hienmei no ha, v. n. to have a covered eye, i. e. to have 
weak eyes, to see not well. 

hienmei no siu, v. a. th. s. 

hienmei no t§e, v. a. to have clear, pure, sharp eyes. 


MeAmei — Mesale. 129 

htefunei no yele, v. lit. to get a stone on the eye , to have 

a cataract, 
hlenmein sa , = hie sa , v. n. to be fit. 
hienmein §a m. k. v. n. to be hard, covetous, unfriendly, 

suspicious; ehlemein shale fe noko, he is exeedingly 

unfriendly; inf. h!enmein§a =hies§; comp. also hiewa, v. 
hienmeinwa = hie wa, v. n. to be hard- eyed i. e. to be 

hard, cruel, covetous, 
hienmeibelo , n. hinter with the ff^e. 
hienmeibe, n, hint with the eyes; fr. be hlenmei, v. 
hieiimeidfa, hlenmeiidframo, n. spoiling the eyes; fr. dfa h., 

V. or h. dfa, v. 
hlenmeidfalo, n. person spoiling the eyes, 
hienmeiiano , n. surface of the eyes; hienmeiino, th. s. 
hienmeiiase , n. eye-brow; hienmeiise, -setsoi, th. s. 
hienmeiiase-kbtoku , n. eye-lid; -sewolo, -setolo, th. s. 
hlenmeikoddlo , n. squinter; leerer; envious person; fr. 

kddo h. , V. or h. kodS, v. 
hienmeikdddmo , n. looking asquient; leering; envy, 
hieiimeiko, n. spoilt eye; s. ko, adj. 
hienmeikotse , n. person m\h a spoilt eye; 6in5ugtgcr; 

hlenmeikometse , th. s. 
hienmeingte, n. cataract. 

hiehmeinoha, n. darkness of the eye; fir. htenmei no ha, v. 
hienmeinotsemo, n. clearness of the eye ; fr. hien. no tse, v. 
hienmeinsa, n. == hlesa, unfriendliness; hardness; suspicion, 
hienmeinsglo, n. unfriendly, suspicious person, 
hienmeisa, n. evil eye; s, esa, adj. 
hlenmeitfa,. n. stroke or twinkling of the eyes, moment 

(^uc^enbiid); afe nakai hlenmeitfa, it was done so in the 

twinkling of an eye. 
hienohile, n. remembrance; care for s. th. or s. b. fr. hie 

hi no, V. 
hlenoho, n. overlooking; missing; Ueberfeficn, Ueberge^cn; 

fr. hie ho (he) no, v. 
hlenokSmo, n. remembrance; trust; confidence; hope fr. 

hie ka no, v. 
hienokpalo, n. forgetful person. 

hienokpamo, n. forgetting; forgetfulness ; fr. hie kpa no, v. 
hienokwemo , = hienakwemo , n. reception of person ; 

7tQO(f(onokr]\pia; s. hietso, n. 
hienowomg, n. elevation of face, 
hiesale, n. fitness; maturity; steadiness (of persons); pre- 

cociousness; fr. hie sa, v. 

Ziramermann, Akra-Vocab, 9 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

180 hiesamo — hlcwiemo. 

hlesamo, n. preparation of face, surface, ft. sa Ue, v. 
hlesQ, n. respecting, honouring; respect, honour, estima- 
tion, fir. hie 80, y. 
hIesolo» n. respectful person, 
hlesuban, n. likeness of face, 
hiesd, n. covetousness; -h&\Q, n. covetous person, fr. hie 

sa, V. 

h!e§a, h!§a, h!e§adsen, n. selfishness, suspicion, hardness, 

fr. hie sa: fe hlesa, T. to be selfish etc. 
hleSafemo, n. selfishness; -f6lQ, n. etc. 
hlesalO) n. a selfish, suspicious, hard person. 
hie§ikimQ, n. moderation; frugality; thriftiness; fr. hie k& si, t. 
hiesifiemo, n. shame fr. hie fie si, v. 
hiesibumo, n. falling on one's face, 
hiesimd, hiesimamo, n. fixing of face, 
hiete, hite, hetS, n. covetousness; cunning, knowledge; 

civilisation etc. clearness = hietsemg; fr. hie tg, t. 
hIetitimO) n. scratching of one's face, 
hleto^, n. direction of the face to a certain object, fr. to 

hie, V. 
hielsele, n. = hIetSere, n. 
hietsemo, n. clearness, cleanness (of face or surface), fr. 

hie tse, v.; friendliness, cheerfulness, fr. tse hic, y. 
hietsemo, n. friendliness, smiling, smile, s. tse hie, v. 
hietsere, hltsre, hfilare, n, homesickness; fr. hie tse, v. 

want of pastime; dsie — , v. to pass the time, hietSere- 

dsiemo, n. time passing; ^ntotttttib. 
hIetsS, n. awaking, fr. hie tse, v. 
hietseremo, n. coming to one's self, fr. hie tsere, v. 
hietsemo, n. awakening, ft*, tsle hie, t. 
hletsimo, n. movement of face, 
hietsdmo, n. turning of the face; turning before = hftmo- 

tsomo, fr. tso hie, v. 
hietso, hitso, hetso, jil. -tsei, n. = hiena, forehead; 

kwe -no, v. to respect persons, s. hIena, n, 
hletsumo, n. wiping the face, fr. tSumo hie, v. 
hietumo, n. frowning, frown, fr. tu hie, v, 
hiewadsemo, n. hardening of one's face fr. wadSe h!e. 
hlewale, n. hardness (efface); boldness; cruelty; cove- 
tousness^ fr. hie wa, v. 
hiewalo, n. hard, covetous person, 
hiewielo, n. reprover; exhorler. 
hiewiemo, n. reproof; admonitibn , exhortation ; fr. wie 

m. k. hie, v. 


hiewome — ho he. 131 

hlewome, n. carrying of the fore part. 

hieya, n. going on; advance, progress, fr. ya Me, v.; 
= noya, n. 

Meyalo, n. person progressing. 

hieyafemo, n. = yafemo, astonishment; wondering fr. h!e 
fe yS; comp. nakpe; hedSomo; Ad. heyapem , heya- 
pepei, n. 

hieyomo, n. recognition of one's face, fr. yo m. k. h!e, v. 

hie, Ad. V. = kwe, v. to behold. 

hie. Ad. adv. = hie, here. 

hie, n. Adii. fence = afaban. 

hihl, redupl. of hi, v. to detest thoroughly; ehihile kokoko, 
he detested him exceedingly much. 

hiko, V. to hickough. 

hikohiko, n. hickough = fukofuko. 

htkS, n. s. hlekS, lust, envy. 

hlkSlo = hlekolo, n. envious person. 

hlle, n. goodness; remaining, dwelling; abhorrence, abo- 
mination, esp. in a religious sense; fr. hi, v. 

hllehe, s. sihilehe, n. dwelling. 

hllenS, pi. hllenii, good thing, good work (unclean thing ?) 
s. niihinii. 

hima, v. to drive (fr. the wind): koyo le hima lelele ahu, 
the wind drove the vessel a long time. 

*hima, ahima (Ot. ahyeraa, diminutive of hyen, vessel), n. 
the smallest kind of canoes, fisher-canoe, comp. anlese, 
ahlnese -^ ahyenkese); duakro, lele, n. 

'himanka, ahimanka, n. europ. word; hammock. 

hlna, s. hlena. 

bin., bin. s. under hie. 

'hinkese, ah. (Ot. ahyenkese), n. a large canoe. 

hlnmei, s. hleftmei. 

hirihiri, n. and adv. confusion; confusedly = gidigidi, sa- 
kasaka, th. s. 

blSa, s. hlesa. 

hitg, s. bletg. 

hitso, s. hletso. 

ho, V. to pass; to pass over; to proceed, to go on well; 
to flow, to overflow; to cook; compare to the latter: 
be, tfa (dsa); si, sd. Inf. homo and ho. Sometimes 
ho is used like an auxil. verb = ya , ba etc. f. i. hota 
§i, to (come and) sit down, ho-kS §i, to (go and) lie 
down etc Ad. ho, v. to go, to come. 

ho he, V. to pass ; to outdo = ho na. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

132 ho he no — Hogba. 

ho he no; v., inf. heho and heuohO; hehomo and heno- 
homo to pass oyer; to overtake. 

ho-kS si, V. to lie down, s. ho, v. 

ho la, V. inf. laho (perh. to overflow with fire) to be very 
active, lively; to be wild; to be playful; to be wanton; 
frolicksome; naughty etc. (esp. used of children). 

ho na = ho he, v. inf. naho, to pass over; to surpass, 
to out -do; -run etc. 

ho nii, inf. niihomo, v. to cook. 

ho-ta si, V. to sit down, s. ho, v. 

ho-ya, V. to pass and go, i. e. to pass away, to vanish. 

ho, n. uproar, noise; fe-, v. to make a noise, uproar. 

ho, V. pi. holo, to shove in, to put in, to insert (einftjic* 
ben); to be inserted, to lie betwixt two things, to lie 
in a cavity ; perh. formerly : to be with child, s. ho, holo, 
horo. Inf. hO, holomo. 

ho mli, V. inf. mliho, th. s. 

ho, n. fetus; embryo; an unborn child; „wonamei ke bii 
ke hoi," „our wives, children and unborn ones", a com- 
mon expression of men in speaking of their families, as 
their dearest good, as in Germ. „SBeib unb ilinb," 
„^aiiS unb ^ecrb ic,'\ a kind of very small monkeys 
with large heads; — No ho, v. inf. hon5, v. to con- 
ceive; hie ho, inf. hohiemo, v. to be with child, comp. 
na musu , hie musu etc. wo m. k. ho , v. to impregnate ; 
inf. howo. 

ho, n. insertion, etc. 

Ho, pr. n. Saturday; comp. Hogba; according to native 
counting Saturday is the 6. day of the week. 

hd, V. to sell; „ahd eno ahe kpanma," „this is sold (and 
bought) for ten strings" (of cowries), inf. hSmg; This 
verb seems formerly to have had also the signification: 
to hunger, .comp. hoo, homo, hdlo, n. 

h5 nklon, v. to snuffle, to snore. 

ho, adj. cold, cool, nu hd, cold water, s. h6n. 

hoble, n. dan. plane. 

hoble-adade, n. plane -iron, ^obeteifcn. 

Ahodome, pr. n. of a Gli- village. 

hofelo, n. noisy person. 

hofemo, n. noisemaking; noise; uproar; s. bu, v. 

Hogba, pr. n. Sunday; s. Ho, pr. n. Sunday is kept as a 
day of rest by many heathen and considered the 7. or 
last day. 


hogba-atade — homo. 133 

hogba-atade, n. sunday-dress; -dSamo, -solemo, u. Sunday- 

hohlemo, n. pregnancy; fr. hie ho, v. 

hdhot, V. frequentative of h6, to sell. 

hohe, V. (accord, to Hanson) to keep. 

hdlaim, n. Ad6. cowries == trema in Ga. 

hole, V. sometimes pronounced holo, obj. pi. of wo, v. to 
lift up; to lift or take many things up, to take (things) 
away etc. f. i. mlwo mihie no; 1 lift up my face; mi- 
hole mihlenmeii ano , I lift up my eyes. Comp. also ko 
and k$lo. Inf. holemQ. 

hole he no, v. inf. henoholemo» to overgrow (according 
to Hanson, Mat. 13,7.). Comp. wo, v. 

hole no, pi. v. of wo no, to lift up (many things); inf. 

holehole, adj. and adv. loose; loosely, lotterig; holi- 
holi, th. s. 

holo, V. s. hole, v. 

holo, n. cook (gener. nii holo or kuke, kuku, europ. word). 

holo (s. horo) , n. a person who is with child ; an animal 
that is with young one's. The word is not used alone, 
but like an adjective as an apposition, f. i. yd holo, a 
woman with child; fr. ho, v. and n. 

holo, pi. V. of ho, V. 

hdlo, pi. hdloi, n. seller; seldom used alone, but frequently 
in compounds, as: tawahdlo, seller of tobacco etc. 

— , pi. hdloi and hddsi, n. a hungry person; hdlo dsilo 
ako klan, he is as hungry as a hyena. Comp. hdmo, 
hoo, n. perh. fr. a verb h6, or h6o, v. to hunger; s. 
Adn. Voc. hdo, n. 

hdlo, hdno, hdn, n. shadow, susum^ (comp. woii, nydii etc.). 
Comp. h6, adj. 

holomo, n. insertion, fr. holo, pi. v. of ho, v. ' 

hdmo, pi. hdmoi, n. selling, sale; — pi. hddsi, hunger 
(Ot. okom Ad. hdo); scarcity of any tWng, f. i. nuhdmo, 
— of water; lo-hdmo, — of meat etc.; hdmo yemi, 
hunger eats me, i. e. I am hungry (comp. kumai, fe! 
etc.); hdmo gbele, hunger has killed him; sometimes 
the pi. is used: hddSi yeomi naakpa, 1 am very hungry; 
wo hdmo yi , to cry the hunger out, to cry after it (as 
it is custom to do after thieves found out, women and 
children running after and making a noise at them), a 
custom of the hdmowo-festival, s. hdmowo. * 

homo, V. to be accustomed; to prosper; s. ho, v. 


134 homo — ha. 

homo, n. cooking, fr. ho, v. 

homo, n. inserting, fr. ho., v. 

hdmowOy n. lit. the outcrying or mocking of hunger; a 
common feast or festival of the native^ of Western Africa 

« after the harvest of com and yams, a kind of harvest- 
home, generally called yams -custom, celebrated with 
gun-firing, singing, music, dancing, eating and drinking 
etc. and in the interior also with sacrifices of men. Along 
the coast it is celebrated at the end of August or be- 
ginning of Sept. It is at the same time the new year 
of the natives. Comp. wo, v. and wo yi, v. 

h6n = h6lo, hdno, n. shadow. 

honO, -nldmo, n. conception; fr. A6 ho, v. 

h6o, AdA. n. = hdmo, hunger; hdo, nemi ye = hdmo 
miyemi, I am hungry; comp. suo, v. and suomo^ n. 

honiitSumo, n. saturday-business. 

'hora, ahora, n. blame; s. ahora and ahorabo. 

horo, s. hole and holo, v. 

horo, 8. holo. 

hoso and woso (Ot. wosow, hosow) v. n. and a., inf. ho- 
somo, to shake, to quake, to move to and fro; Sikpon 
hosoo, the earth shakes; yahoso nmlelo or hosomo 
nmlelOy ring the bell! comp. kpokpo and dida, Sa, Ui 
he, V. etc. 

hosolo» n. ringer (of a bell). 

hosomo, n. shaking, quaking; ringing; sikpon hosomo, 

howO, n. impregnation; fr. wo hQ, v.; 9. ho» n. 

howolo, i^ impregnator. 

hre, V. 8. here, v. 

hre, V. s. hole, V. here> v. 

hren, adj. s. hereft. 

hrihri, a^j. s. hirihiri, adj. 

hu, V. to blow (the fire with a fan), to fan, to blow clean, 
but conq). fli; to storm (s. ahum); inf. hQmo. OL th. s. 

hQ, V. to hum; to roar as a lion; inf. humo. Comp. ahCiahQ, 
adv. and n. 

his, inf. hQmo, v. to till the ground; to hoe; to cultivate 
the land; hQ adeda, to work with the billhook, i. e. to 
cut the bush for burning and cultivating; hQ koi, to work 
with the hoe, to hoe; hQ n. k. he, to cleanse or weed 
about s. th., hQ able he, to weed maise or oom; hQ 
mil, V. to weed in s. pla(%» 


ha — hiiramo. 135 

hd, n. adj. and adv. blowing (of the wind); stornringly; 
exceedingly much. 

hd, Q. watch; clock. 

hu> conj. also, too, even, likewise,' comp. tete. It is pos- 
poned to the word to which it belongs; miba ni min^^e- 
mi le hu ba, I came and also my brother came; miba 
ni minyemi ba hu, I came and my brother also eame; 
dSee-keke; §i-hQ, not -only; but -also. 

'hu, Shti, n. or adv. s. ahQ, n. 

*huahii,. ahuahu, n. fear, horror. 

huhd, adj. innumerable; akpei huh§, many many thousand; 
comp. oh^, num. 

hahflhu, huhiihuhu, adv. murmuringly; wie — , v. to mur- 
mur, to grumble. 

hQhuhuwiemo, n. murmuring. 

hahai, Adn. adv. loudly, aloud. 

hulo, n. fanner; s. hu, t. 

hulo, n. 93auet; farmer, tiller of the ground; s. okwafonyo 
and kosenyo, th. s. 

bulonii. pi. n. farmers-implements. 

hulotsu, n. farm-house. 

hulu, V. s. hum, v. 

hulu, hunO, huru, n. suri; — ete si, --is risen; — ny6 
§i, - - went down; — damo, - - standeth in his height; 
— tso, - - shines, etc. wyere hOlu, v. to sit in the sun. 

huludamg, n. the highest stand of the sun in the meridian. 

hulusinyd, n. setting of the sun. 

halusitg, n. rising of the sun. 

hulutsO, n. sun-shine. 

.huluwyeremg, n. warming, sitting in the sun. 

humi, n. a quiet, unpretending person; an humble person; 
prov. 18. 

humidsen, n. humble behaviour. 

biimQ, n. humming; roaring. 

hdmo, n. tilling the ground, farming, cultivation. 

hDmono, pi. *nii, n. farming-impl^nent = hulgnli, n. 

hund, n. Adn. husband = wu in GS; kunn, Ot. 

htinQ, s. hulQ, n. sun. 

hiiru. hru, v. (Ot. th. s.) inf. hiSrumo, to jump, to spring; 
bayeio* hunio gbagbagba, or guaguagua, the leaf- 
eater (an antelope) jumps hophophop; to leap, to leap 
over, = teke, v. ; also hum — t^ke, double v. th. s. 

hurulQ, n. jumper. 

htirumQy hr&mQ, n. jumping, springing, lea[»ng. 


136 hurududu — Ka. 

hurududO, adv. with one crash; gbe §i huniduda, to fell 

down with one crash. 
busQ, n. limit, boundary, border; comp. nmaiimasa, klotia, 

kpokpa, nagbe etc. Mikel^ dse husul, I border with him ; 

dsie husul, v. to make out the limits or borders, 
husudse, n. bordering, 
husudsiemg, n. making out of boundaries. 
hwSin, y. to be out of joint disjoined (of members of the 

body); to disjoin, to dislodge; inf. hwanmo. 
hwUhmo, n. disjoiuing, dislocation of a joint of the body. 
'hw9n, ohwdn, n. a small animal of the bush. 

hwanya, v. to shake; -nine, the hand. 

*hw6ny3, ahw^nyS, n. the maize -blossom; gba — , lit. to 

divide or part into blossoms, to blossom (of maize and 

other corn). 
hwdnydgbamQ, n. blossoming of com etc. 
hw = w (Ayigbe-sound) see in some Adanme-words from 

Ayigbe, in the Ad. Voc; in GS generally changed into 

„w", f. i. hwo. A., G. wo, to morrow; though the few 

words under hw — might be also written so. The same 

sound appears also in Otyi. 


Properly written no GS-word initiate3 with „i** (a, 
e, being the only initiating vowels); but besides 
proper nouns beginning with I, the syUable „yi" (head) 
is sometim^es negligently pronounced, so that only i is 
heard. Whatever is not found under „i" , must be 
therefore sought for under y, „e** or „n, n and m". 
Scripture names beginning with J are left unaltered, 
such as Jehowa, Jesu, Johane, Jakob, Jakobo, Israel etc. 
In the Krobo-Dialect of Adanme, „i** is the possessive 
and subjective pronominal augment = mi, my and mi, 
I, from „imi** indep. pronoun, G. mi; and besides that 
used to express the verb „dsi" = ni, n in GS. 

Israelnyo, pi. Israelmei or Israelbii, pr. n. Israelite. 

i- = yi = head. / 

iten = yiten,^ n. crown of the head. 

ilso, = yitSo, n. head. 

it§Qi, = yitsQi, n. hair of the head. etc. etc, 


Ka, V. inf. ka, to stick to (Ot. to be wanting); to be 
fixed, fastened (with nails); to pain by sticking to, to 


ka — ka. 137 

braise; to stay, to slain (of spots not to be washed out); 
to do s. th. conjunctly, inf. kamq, amef^ ameka nitSumQ 
kome ametsu, they all conjunctly did one work; to stand 
in for another, mika n. k. mihSle, I stand in for him 
respecting s. th. ; ke m. k. ka, v. to take part with s. b. 
in s. th. (f. i. in buying, selling etc.), s. Prov. 92; to 
venture, to try, to tempt; maka makwe, I will try 
and see; to nail, to fasten n5 hie ka noko, to fix the 
face upon s. th., subj. pi. kMa, kla; inf. kamo klamQ; 
to lay things into the sun to dry; inf. kamo; to scoop; 
to be accustomed, to be inured, to be bound to; to be 
frequent, not scarce etc. etc. Comp. „ka" in Adn., and 

ka, conjunctive verb used together with kg, ke ka, as for, 
respecting; ke kami, as for me — . 
About ka as auxiliary verb s. § 27. Comp. ^ko** in Adn. 

ka he, v. to cleave to, to stain. 

ka hie, v. to fix the face on s. th. 

ka mli, v. to be fixed in something, to stain. 

ka na, n. to fasten at s. th. 

ka nii, v. to put things into the sun. 

ka no, V. to be fixed upon s. th., to cleave td, to be 
customary, d§numQ ka eno, he is given to drinMng, he 
is an accustomed drunkard. 

ka nd, v. to be fixed at; to fix at. 

ka n. k. ohyew (Ot. ohyew = hot), v. to warm s. th.; 
©drracn, aufwatmcn. 

ka sa, V. to sun a bed. 

ka se, V. to stick behind. 

ka segbe, v. th. s. 

ka si, pi. kla si, v. to stick to the ground. 

ks, n. sticking to; staining; ambush, waylaying; proof, trial, 
venture, temptation; custom, habit; frequency; s. ka, v.; 
wo ka, to waylay, to lie in ambush, inf. kawo. 

ka, n. crab; „ka fQO loflo'S prv. A crab does not beged 
a bird. 

ka, V. pi. and inf. kamo, to lie; to lay; |to lie open, to 
be open, naked, to open; to speak (Ot. th. s. in Ga sel- 
dom used, s. ka-ke), to speak openly, to admonish, re- 
prove, reproach (inf. ka and kamo) etc. he ka, v. inf. 
hekamo, to be unbound, at liberty to move, to be alive, 
to be free; to be exposed, naked; hie ka, inf. hlekamg, 
V. to be alive (Ot. „ani da"); hie ka no, inf. hienokl- 
mo, V. to remember; to trust in, to hope; hie k& si^ 


138 U he ~ kfi. 

inf. hIeSikSmo, v. to be quiet, moderate, thrifty; inli 
kSi, Y. to hare an open inside; na ki, v. inL nakSmg, 
to be open (- mouthed, lit.)» f. i. slna le na kd, the door 
is open; ena kfi, it is open; no kd, y. to have an open 
surface; se ka, y. to haYe an open back; to be open 
behind; yilson kS, fm kS, inf. yitSonktog, yiilikdmQ, y. 
to be openheaded, i. e. to be mad; eyitson kSlQ, he is 
mad; s. seke; etc. etc. A peculiar expression is: heni 
ekS le ehli, where he lies it is not good, i. e. he is 
nearly dead, he died, which is seldom said immediately 
after the death of a person, but this or a similar ex- 
pression, as: „en5-f6 §i", „eny§S hcla le" elc. 

ki he, Y. inf. hekSmo; to lie at s. th., to continue, to per- 
scYere; to last; to discoYer one's self, s. he kd, y.; au- 
xiliary Yerb to express this relation, as „8till, noc^", f. i. 
ekS he etSuQ nii, he works still, Ut. he continues wor- 
king, he continues he works, comp. ya no; lolo; kd etc.; 
ke n. k. kS, to lay s. th., comp. ta, damo, te si etc. 

k9 hie, Y. to lie before, inf. hlekdmo; to censure, re- 
proYC etc. 

ka-ke, Y. lit. to speak and say, i. e. to Speak to; mikS sane 
le mikele, I told him the matter; comp. dSadse — tsd 
and kft — kyere in Otyi. 

kSi kits, Y. inf. kitakamg, to swear; kd Nyonmo kits, to 
swear by God; kd kits fo m. k. no, y. to swear against 
s. b. Comp. ki^. 

kg mil, Y. inf. mlikSmg, to lie in s. th. 

kS na, Y. to Ue at the mouth, end, limit, shore of s. th. 

kS no, Y. inf. nokSmo, to lie upon; to continue ::= kS he; 
to relie upon, to rest with, to depend upon, to be upon 
one's responsibility, to be one's duty; n^ke sane ne kSi 
mino, this matter lies upon me, is my duty; a peculiar 
expression is: sane ne „kd te ko no*', this matter lies 
upon a stone, i* e. there is something else behind; about 
hie kS no, to trust, s. hie and kd, y. (aboYc). 

kd no to (?), Y. to be full (used of com-ears). 

kS se, Y. to lie behind; inf. sekdmo. 

kd si, pi. kdmo si, int sikdmo, y. to lie down, to lie on 
the ground, to rest, to be sick; to be in a certain con- 
dition; ke m. k. kd si, y. to lie with s. b. = ke m. k. 
wo; comp. dS5ro si, dfdre i&i, ble §i; md si. 'Boni sane 
le kd §i ne, as the palaver stands; ekd si hdwo, it is 
ready for us. 

Uy Y. Adii. to say; conj. = ake> that. 


U ~ kaimonft. 139 

kS, n. reproof; admonition; fr.kfl, y. to reprove; s.klmo,n. 

U, n. a kind of plates or dishes of the natives; s. kfi, v. 
to be open. 

'ka, eka, n. boldness, bravery. 

kfi, n. gumi arabicum; s. kaUo, n. 

ka, adv. through; gba k3, to rend through, s. ka, to be 

kabS, n. time of afBiction or trial. 

kabu, n. a kind of beetles, s. koke and tdni, th. s. 

kabu, n. crab-hole. 

kad^, n. jaw, jaw-bone ; the latter is someUmes taken from 
enemies slain, as a trophy and tied to the large war- 

kadi, V. inf. kadimg, to sign, to fill up wanting plants in 

'kadi, okadi, n. sign. 

kadilo, n. signer. 

kadimo, n. signing. 

kadra, n. AdA. bill-hook = adeda in Ga. 

kadSe, v. 4o lie on the back; inf. and impert. sing, kadie- 
mo. - About the end-syllable — d§e, s. § 27. 

kadSemo, n. lying on the back; comp. ka Si, bu Si, sd Si, 
kpasa Si, v. 

kafe, n. dan. coffee. 

kafedumo, n. coffee-growing, -planting. 

kafekpulu, n. coffee-pot or jug. 

kafenumo, n. coffee-drinking. 

kafenulo, n. coffee-drinker. 

kafetasa, n. dan. coffee-cup. 

kafetfiomo, n. trans-planting of coffee (-trees). 

kafeteolo, n. coffee-planter. 

kafewO, n. cofee-growth, -produce. 

kafQte, n. silk-cotton, used for pillows etc. 

kafu, n. a kind of baskets made of leaves, f.L palm-leaves; 
comp. flotQ, kpanya, ablabutu etc. 

kafute, n. a kind of sandstone. 

Kai, pr. n. of females. 

kai (or kae), v. inf. kaimo, Ot. th. s. to remember; to re- 
mind; comp. ka, v. and ka, v. 

kailQ, n. reminder. 

kaimo, n. remembrance; reminding; admonitioo. 

kaimofemo, n. lit. making remembrance, accord, to Hanson : 
feast, festival. 

kaimond, pi. -nii, n. token of remembrance. 


140 kaimokadi — kama. 

kaimQkadi, b. sign or token of remembrance. 

kaka, q. crust of bread; break of the bread (^Uu6)); hard 

baked bread; small round bread-loaves, 
kakadsfi, adj. long, high (Ot. tenteA, Ad6. g9ga). 
kakao, n. aching pain iaany part of the body, esp. tooth- 
kakasS, n. baking of small bread or cakes, 
kake, num. and adj. Adn. one; only, alone = kome; keke 

in G3. 
kakla, n. s. kakra, n. ring, 
kakla, n. knife; comp. kito, n. 
kaklanabd, n. sharpness of a knife, 
kakladsote, n. whetting-stone for knives; s. nadSot^, th. s. 

and dSOy dso na, v. to whet, to sharpen. 
kakladQmQ, n. stabbing; s. du, v. 
kaklana, n. lit. mouth of the knife (comp. ^^ in Hebrew), 

edge of the knife. 
kaklanadsQte = kakladsote. 
kaklahebo, n. sheath for a knife. 
kaklatSo, pi. -tSei, n. handle of a knife, 
kaklahetsulo, n. knife-cleanser; kaklahe§alo, th. s. 
kaklahetsumo, n. knife -cleansing; s. tsumg; kaklahesamo, 

th. s. 
kaklaka, or kakraka, n. a kind of beetles, called „cockroa- 

ches'' at the coast, 
kdko, n. pot-shard, s. ko, adj.; comp. gbeko, kpuluko etc. 

th. s. 
kakra, n. = kakla, n. 
kakra, n. ring pad, polster of a ringform, to stand round 

pots upon; according to Hanson crown ((frsyavog), comp. 

akekre and tako, n. 
kakrada, n. oyster, 
kakradanono, n. oyster-shell. 

k&la, kla, pi. v. of ka, v. to fix, to nail; inf. kalamQ, klamo. 
kalamo, n. fixing, nailing, 
kalo, u. chalk; lime, 
kalo, n. meat of crabs; s. ka, n. 
kalo, n. tryer, tempter; adventurer, s. ekSlo, 'kalo. Comp. 

ka, V. 
kSlo» n. a person lying down (only used in compounds); 

a reprover, admonisher, comp. ka, v. 
'kalo, ekaio, n. a bold, brave person, an adventurer, see 

eka^ n. 
kama, n. back-fin of Mkts. 


kamM — MSdlo. lit 

kamfrg, kamflS, n. a kind of sea-fish. 

kamfrdtoto, n/kamfrS- scales, small silver-coin. 

kamisa, kamsa, n. europ. Mvord: shirt. 

kamkam, adj. actiye, lively (fr. ka); ye — , v. to be lively, 

kSmg, n. lying; opening, s. k9. 
kamg, n. s. ka, v. and ka, n. 
kdmokSimo, redupl. pi. form of kS, v. 
kampe, n. europ. >vord: sofa, 
kan^, kan^n, n. accord, to Hans, corner = kdn. 
kane (old pronun. kande), v. Adn. th. s. Ot. {Akwap. Dial.) 

kan; inf. and imprt. sing, kanemo, to count; to read; 

ke m. k. — , to dispute with s. b. 
kane, n. Ad. th.s. Ot. kanea, light, candle; comp. la; lus, n. 
kanelo» n. counter, reader, 
kanemo, n. counting, reading, 
kanetso, n. candle-stick, s. lus-tso. 
Kanesi, pr. n. of a place. 
KdnkS, pr. n., s. Ktnkd, th. s. 

kankan, adj. and adv. bright, brightly (s. kane, haji etc.). 
kankan, n. civet-cat. 

taSSI^'' „"' ! *«^«t, used as spices for the body. 

kanke, n. a tin vessel; s. tsins, tsens, n. 

kante, n. europ. word, captain of a vessel. 

kante, v. inf. kantemg, to hem. 

kante na, v. to hem in (cloth) = ban na; inf. nakantemo. 

kao, n. dan. cake. 

kaosu, n. dan. stocking, sock. 

kaosuld, n. knitting, s. lo, v. 

kaosulolo, n. knitter. 

kase, V. inf. kasemo, to learn; — m, k. to imitate s. b. 

Ad. th. s. 
kase, n. politeness; fe — , to be polite, inf. kasefemo* 
kaselo» n. learner, scholar; discible; apprendice; Ad. th.s.; 

kasemo, n. learning; imitation, 
kasefemg, n. politeness, genUleness; s. agwasen, n. 
kasegbomo,n. polite person ; gentleman; s. agwasengbomo, n. 
kasemohe, n. place of learning. 
kasemotSu, n. room or house of learning, 
kasemowe, n. house of learning; school, 
kdsdlo, n. former of native dishes or plates (s. ki, n. and 

§51q, n. sd, V.) potter; s. gbesdlo, n. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

142 kIsQ — -kt 

kds5, n. potters work. 

kSisdlotSu, n. potters shop. 

kd§dsu, n. potters clay. 

kata, V. to lift up, to carry f. i. a, child; to embrace. 

katamo, n. lifting up; embracing. 

Katamanso, pr. n. of the battle-field of 1826, in which the 
Ashanti's were beaten by the tribes under the Danish 
and English protection, about 10 miles from Tema inland, 
near the village Sasabi, at the foot of the Akwapim- 

kate, verbal preposition, contracted from ke ate, s. ke and 
ya, v.; to, unto; till, untill; s. § 28. 

katekate, adj. sour, acid; nySny^nyS, th. s. 

katSo, pi. -tSei, n. a shrub bearing small yellow flowers 
of a strong smell, and cods; belonging to the mimosa- 
plants and producing gumi arabicum; s. k§, n. 

kausu, s. kaosu, n. 

kawe, n. europ. word, a large cloak with a cowl. 

kawe , n. a kind of salt or salt-petre brought from the in- 
terior and used as medicine for horses* 

kawd, n. ambush, ambuscade, waylaying, s. ka, n. ka, v. 
and wo ka, v. ; Ad. th. s. • 

kawolg, n. way-layer; person lying in ambush; Ad. th. s. 

kg, inf. kemo, v. to cry aloud; to make a rush, to rush; 
amekg ke-ba eno, they rushed upon him. S. also ke, y. 

kS m. k. yi, v. inf. yik^mg; to cry at s. b., to scream 
at s. b. 

ke , inf. kg, v. to present, to give as a present; to grant; 
to forgive, comp. fa, v. firi, v. ha, v. The verb ke, ha- 
ving an impersonal and a personal object, is generally 
construed with the auxil. v. ke or no ; nd n. k. kg m. k. 
Ke n. k. ke m. k., to present s. th. to s. b., eke sika 
kemi or e^d Sika ekemi, he presented gold unto me; 
eno-keame, he forgave (it to) them. 

kg, n. present, grant, forgiveness, s. kgno, ndkgnd. 

ke, n. a heap, a bundle, a load; nso-ke, nsroke, lit. sea- 
heap, wave, breaker; laike, a bundle of fuel, wood; 
dfeike, a bundle of grass etc. 

ke, V. inf. kemo, impert. sing, kemo, to say; to tell; to 
command; Ot. se, Adn. de; seldom: kg; comp. k§, wie, 
dsadse-tsd, gba etc. A peculiar form and use of this 
very frequently employed verb is the verbal-conjunction 
„6ki" (Adn. ki, kS, Ot. se), which answers exactly ta 
the flebr. noN^ end generally to „that" (iag, its), but 


ke — ki. 143 

stands frequently only in the place of a colon or notes 
of quotation, as: Ekemi ake: „Mlba'S he told me (saying): 
„I am coming"; ekemi ake eba, he told me that he is 
coming. If k§ has no object behind it and the words 
said immediately following, ake may be left out, as: 
Eke: „Mafe!** and eke ake: rMafe!" he said: „I will 
do it!" etc. 

ke, inf. kele, v. n. to be long, eke naakpa, it is very long; 
s. also dseke, v. 

kfe, auxiliary vert), s. § 28; without inflection, Ot. ne, de 
(and fa). Ad. ne and k|; originally to take, to hold = 
nd, with which it changes and which must be used, if 
an inflection of the auxiliary is necessary (as in Ot. fa). 
It expresses generally the relation of connection, instru- 
mentality etc. as the prepositions „with, by, through" 
or the conjunction „and" as far as the latter connects 
subjects or objects, but not verbs (for these see „ni", 
Ot. „na"), or the ablative case of the latin and the da- 
tive case of the greek language. In these cases it may 
be said to supply the grammatical want of a verb to 
one or more of the two or more subjects or objects, 
connected with one (notional) verb, f. i. Mike minyemi 
le tsuo niitsumo kome, I and (or with) my brother have 
one business; eke tso yile, he flogged him with a stick, 
etSreo gbomei ke dSatsui, he carries people and loads; 
mikele te, I and he went, 1 went with him; eke Sika 
hSmi, he took gold gave me, he gave gold unto me; 
eke-h5mi, he gave (it) to me; mike-ba, I came with 
(it), i. e. I brought (it), eke-te, he went with (it), i. e. 
he took it away; very often the relation expressed by 
„ke** is entirely neglected in other languages (even in 
the related Otyi) whilst it is indispensable in GfL; f. i. 
ewo edsatSu ke-te, Ot. osoa n'adesoa ko, he took his 
load away (lit. Ga: he lifted up his load went with, 
Ot. he lifted up his load went). This is especially the 
case with such forms as: ke-ya (aor. ke-te, s. ya and 
te), ke-ba, ke-yasi, ke-baSi, ke-t§6, ke-dSe etc. expres- 
sing the relations of: to, unto, till, untill, through, from; 
f. i. Enyieo ke-yaSi Osu, he walks and goes (therewith, 
thereby) to Osu, he goes to Osu on foot; edso foi ke- 
ba hie, he fled and came hither, he fled hither; minu 
ke-d§e Osu t6n, I heard it directly (and it came) from 
Osu etc. etc. Besides the abovementioned conjunctions 
and prepositions expressed by k$, those prepositions 


144 ke — ke-ka. 

'which are used in the greek, latin and german languages 
as fore-syllables of verbs are to be compared, esp. (fw-, 
con-, and mit*, bct^*, be*, ^t* etc. A peculiar use of ke 
is to be noticed in expressions, like: nu ke kpulu, jug 
with water, nu ke glase, glass of water etc. 

ke, ke dsi, kedsi (Adh. kg, kedsi and jtse), verbal con- 
junction generally followed at the end of the sentence 
hy „le", lit. say, say (it) Is . . . ., if (rocnn, gcfc^t, gc^ 
fagt, fattd etc.), negat. ke dsee kfdsee (s. dsi, v.); ke 
osumomi le, bomi toi, if thou love me, obey me; kedsi 
osumomi le etc. th. s. kedsee nakai le, bele keragt! If 
it is not so, then say (it)! ke, kedsi, is generally con- 
strued with the aorist tense, seldom with an other, never, 
as far as 1 know with the imperf. Comp. also dsikule, 
dsi, kule and Ot. „se" and „a" at the end of the con- 
ditional sentense. Of verbs combined with the auxiliary 
„ke" infinitive forms are formed also combined with ke, 
f. i., mine and his coming; ekemi wiemo, his 
speaking with me. 

ke-asi, = ke-yasi. 

ke-ba (s. kg, aux. v.), v. to come with, to bring; verbal 
prep, (to, unto, till, untill, if the direction is from a 
remote place or time to nearer ones, s. ke-ya.) 

ke-ba — ke-ya, v. to come and go; verbal adv. to and fro. 

ke-dfa, v. to break with. 

ke-dse, s. kg, aux. v. to come out with, to bring out; 
verb. prep, (from, of). 

ke-dsee, s. ke, verb. conj. 

ke-dsi, s. th. s. 

ke-fe, s. kg, aux. v. to do with —, to make with — , to 
make by — , to make from — etc. 

ke-fo and 

ke-f6 si, V. to cast down, away; s. also se-f6 and fo f5 
si, V. 

ke-fie no, v. to go on; to put upon. 

ke - ha, V. to cover with. 

ke - ha, V. to give (s. th. to s. b.). 

ke - he, v. to buy with. 

ke - hi si, V. to dwell, remain, live with. 

ke-ho, V. to pass with, to pass; to cook with. 

ke-ho, V. to insert (s. th. betwixt s. th.) 

ke-ho, V. to sell with-. 

ke -hu, V. to till the ground with-. 

ke-ka, V. to try, venture with-; s. ka, v. 

d by Google 

ke-ka — ke-gfi. 146 

ke - kK, V. and 

ke - kS si , V. to lie with - , to lay (down). 

ke - ke , v. to present (s. th. to s. b.). 

ke-ke, V. to say s. th. to-. 

ke - ko , V. to take up with. 

ke - kdj.v. to bite with. 

ke kpah, 8. ke-pan, v. 

ke - kpe, V. to meet with. 

ke - ku, V. to break with. 

ke n. k. kuma, v. to spare; tu use s. th. sparingly. 

ke-la, V. to hang, fasten with; to sing with. 

ke -le, V. to know by. ^ 

ke - le, V. to feed with, to noqrish by. 

ke-le he, v. to live by; milee noni eke-leo ehe, T don't 
know what he lives by. ' 

ke - li, V. to mock with. > 

ke-lo, V. to take up with; to take up together; to knit 
or weave by or with. 

ke - lu, V. to strike with. 

ke - lu si, V. to fall with, - - by. 

ke -ma, s. to set; to build with; to lend; (any thing, ex- 
cept money, s. fa). 

ke - m6 , V. to take hold by or with. 

ke -na, v. to see with or by; to get by. 

ke-no, V. to struggle, fight with. 

ke - nu, V. to hear with or by; to feel with; to drink with. 

ke - nya, v. to rejoice with. 

ke-pan, ke kpan, v. to conjure; to make a conjuration; 
to make a covenant with. 

ke pe, V. = ke - fe, v. • 

ke-pila, v. to wound with. 

ke - po , V. = ke - fo, V. to cut with. 

ke - sa , V. to prepare with. 

ke - s6 , V. to forge with or by. 

ke - so or sQ , v. to poison by or with. 

ke - sra, V. to watch or visit with. 

ke - su, v. to contract with.* 

ke - sumo, V. to love with. 

ke-sa, V. to rub, polish, whitewash with. 

ke-sa, V. to burn with. 

ke - se, V. to reach with, to make, s. th. reach; = ke-yasi, 
combined form: ke-yase (to, unto, till, until!). 

ke - se , sometimes = ke-dsi , verbal conjunction , = if. 
Zimmerniann, Akra-Yocab. 10 


146 ke-Si — ke-wie. 

ke-§i, V. knock with; combined form: ke - yaSi (Ot. de 

kosi) = ke-ya (to, unlo, till, untill); lit. until it arrive 

or knocks; comp. ke-§e, v.; masuniole ke-yasi raigbe 

lebg, 1 will love him until death, 
ke - la, pi. tra, v. to touch with; to sit with, to set. 
ke - ta he, v. to touch with. 

ke - ta mli, v. to stir with; to sit in with; to set in, in!o< 
ke - ta na, v. to touch with at s. th.; to set at; to dispute 

with; to cover the end, brim with.. 
ke-ta no, v. to sit on with; to set on; okele ata ablogwa 

no, set him on a chair, 
ke - ta se, v. to set behind; to touch behind with, 
ke-ta si, V. to sit down with; to set down; eke gbeke 

le ta si, she set the child down, 
ke-le, V. to conceal s. th. 

ke-te, V. aor. tense of ke-ya, s. this; to be gone with, 
ke-tfa, V. to strike with; to build with, 
ke - ti and 

ke - titi, V. to scratch with, 
ke - to, V. to put away, to order, s. to, v. 
k^-to, pi. iro, V. to be satisfied with, 
ke - tra, v. pi. of ke - ta, s. ta, v. 
ke - tsa, V. to dig with, 
ke -tsa no, v. to be connected with, to be joined to, to 

continue, s. t§a no, v.; neke fii ne ke fulaotsano, this 

river is connected with the Volta. 
ke-tse, V. to pluck with, 
ke - tse, V. to sting with; wobii ke gai t§^o rao, bees sting 

(one) with a sting. • 

ke-tse, V. to delay with; to call with, s. t§e, v.; ekemi 

tse fio, he delayed or stayed a little with me. 
ke-tsi, V. to move with; s. tsi, v. 
ke - tsi he, v. th. s. 
ke - tsi na, v. to stop up with, to hinder with; ake tSo 

tsi gbe le na, the way is stopped by a tree, 
kg - tsi se, V. to push (behind) with. 
k^ -tsi Xh, V. to mention with, 
ke - tu , V. to jump with, 
ke - wa yi, v. to be cruel with, 
ke - wadie, v. to strengthen with or by; mike-awadse mihe, 

I will strengthen myself by (it). 
ke - wamo, v. to creep with, 
ke - wic, V. to speak with. 


kfi-wiri -" U. 147 

ke-wiri, V. to lift with, tSone ake-woo tso kple ko, si 
dSee nidsi fod§e; with a machine a large tree is eleva- 
ted and not with mere hands. 

ke - wo , V. to sleep with ; to lie with. 

ke - wo, V. to war with, to fight with; ekele awu, he will 
make war with him. 

ke - wye , V. to marry with ; eke mamai ekpa wyele , he 
married her with 6 dresses (as a dowry). 

ke - wyi, v. to avoid by. 

ke - wyie (wie, wye) v. to grind with. 

ke - ya, v.. to go with, to accompany; aor. ke-te, fut. ke- 
ate, prf. ke-ete; s. ya, v. AuxiL verb ke-ya, prs. ke- 
miya, - - nya, imperf. ke-yaa; perf. ke-Me; aor, ke-te, 
fut. ke-ate, V. lit. to go with, used as' verbal prepos. =» 
to, unto, till, untill; into etc. if the motion goes from 
a nearer to a farther place or time (s. ke-ba) s. §. 28. 
Etereo dsatsui ke-yaa Akwapim, he carries loads to 
Akwapim; edso foi ke-te Krobo, he fled to Krobo etc. 
Of time ke-si, generally in the compound form ke-ya§i 
is more in use. 

ke-yasi, v. s. ke-si, v. 

ke-ye, v. to eat with; to deal with; to agree with; to be 
one with; s. ye, v. , 

ke-ye na, v. to negotiate, bargain with. 

ke-ye, neg. yee, yen, yeko, v. to draw (water etc.) with; 
eke blage yeo nu, she draws water with a bucket. 

ke-ye, neg. ke-be, v. to be some where with, to stop 
with; to join with; Ekemi ye, he is with me; ekemi be, 
he is not with me, s. ye, v. Ad. ke-ne and M- ne, v. 

ke-yi, V. to flog with; ake tso yile ahu, he was mucK. 
beaten with a stick. 

ke-yo, imperf. tense of ke-ye, to be somewhere with. 

ke - yo , V. to perceive with or by. 

ke, V. inf. kemo, to press (by keeping back the breath, 
as a woman in travail, or as in liftmg up s. th. heavy 
or in crying out) ; to rush upon s. th. with violence ; 
ame-ke ke-ba eno , they rushed upon him ; to lift s. th. 
heavy, s. k^, v. 

k^ he §i, V. to travail; s. komo, th. s. and k^mo, v. 

k§ he si bo, v. to cry with great power. 

kg or kg, Adn. conj. that = ake in Gs. S. also tse in AdA., 
Ot. se. 

k§, at the end and kSle at the beginning of^a sentence, 
conj. yet; still; though; even; (boc^, bennoc^, wennglei^, 



148 kg — k^nefdmo. 

obgIet(]^; ixcax). Eba k^, yet he came, or: K^le eba th. s. 

Eba mra, §i kSle ekpe se, he quickly came, but still he 

came too late; nakai noA kS, even so, just so; Ad. th. 

s.; bele kg (blekg) then still-. 
kg, Adii. pron. = no in GS^ that, those; but following the 

word to which it belongs; f. i. ndmlo kg, 6. no gbomo, 

that person. 
kgkalO} n. a bold man; a brave man; an adventurer = ekSilo, 

comp. this, ekS and ka. 
kgkg, v., redupl. of ke, v. to grant, 
keke, V. redupl. of ke, to say; to say repeatedly or fre- 
kgkg, adv. only, solely, but; conj. generally followed by 

„le" or ,,ni", then, comp. bele, no le. Comp. kake, 

AdA. one. Comp. also flo, pe, td, do, th. s. 
kekike, adv. repeatedly (f. i. sounding, speaking etc.) esp. 

to corroborate, ke, gbe etc. 
kekete, adv. very drily; used to corroborate verbs with the 

same notion, as: gbi, v. to be dry, gbi keketg, to be 

very dry, very stiff, hard etc. 
'kekrg, akekrg, n. wreath, crown {(frefpavog); any thing 

bound round the head, s. fai, n. 
kglo, n. one who makes presents; presenter, granter. 
kglo, n. a person rushing upon s. th. (lifting up s. th., 

crying etc.) s. kg, v. 
kele, n. length, fr. ke, to be long, 
kgle, conj. yet, still, = kg, s. this, 
k^lo, n. sayer, teller fr. ki, v. to say. » 

kglo, n. s. kg, V. (and kg, v.) person lifting s. th. heavy; 
, cryer. 

k^mo, n. saying, telling, fr. kg. v. to say; tale, 
kemo, V. inf. kgmo, to press by peeping back the breath, 

to sigh. S. kg, V. Comp. also kdmo, v.; s. also domo 

nt§oi, V. 
k§mo, n. sighing; sigh; comp. also: ntsQidomo, n. 
kgmo, n. lifting up of s. th. heavy, fr. kg, v. 
kenam, n. dry fish (esp. herring, s. man) fryed with palm- 
oil and pepper (comp. Ot. nammeat and kye, to fry), 
kenamfadlo, n. dealer in fryed fish, 
kgne, adj. barren (only used of persons, men and women, 

about animals s. sS, v.); yO kgne, a barren woman; 

kgne dgile, he (or she) is childless; fe-, to be childless, 
kgne, Ad. conj. = kgle, still, though, 
kgnefemo, n. barrenness (of persons) s. kgne, fe-. 


kenken — ki^. 149 

kenken, adj. and adv. bright; brightly; the latter esp. to 
corroborate verbs of, related notions^ as, t§e-, to be very 
pare; comp. kane, kankan, adj., ban, hen etc. 

kend, pi. kenii, n. present; grant; dash. 

k^nte, n. Ot. th. s., cotton-cloth made by the natives, con- 
sisting of narrow cotton stripes of different colours, 
sewed together. Most of it is manufactured in Ayigbe 
or Krepe. 

kentehdlQ, n. dealer in native cotton' cloth. 

kentehdmo, n. dealing in it. 

kenteld, n. weaving of it. 

kentelolo, n. cotton-weaver. 

ken ten, n. wicker-basket. 

k^redsi, adj. and 

kSredsik^redsik^redsi , adj. large, very large = kpleikplei. 

kfise, adj. (Otyi) large, great =kple in Gfi. 

kesui, n. dan. cheese. 

kesuifemo, n. cheese-making. 

kesuifelQ, n. cheese-maker. 

kesuihdlo, n. cheese-monger. 

kesuihomo , cheese-mongery. 

kete, n. a set of play-instruments; a kind of musik made 
by them; a kind of dance. 

kete, s. ke-te and ke-ya. 

ketea (and ketia, Ot. tyetia), orig. adj. and adv. short, only 
used with the verb „fo" in: „fo ketea," v. to cut short, 
i. e. to circumcise. 

keteafo, n. circumcision. It is practised by the GS- and 
Adanme- tribe and a peculiarity of theirs. It is not di- 
rectly connected with their religion, nor executed by 
persons holding religious office, though it is always 
in the keep of a certain family. The boys (and only 
they, but not girls also, as some authors affirm) are 
circumcised about the 13. year of age (comp. Gen. 17, 
25.) which time points to a Mahomedan origin. Comp. 

keteafolQ, n. the person whose business it is to circum- 
cise boys. The business comes from father to son. 

keteapopoe, n. Ad. th. s. 

k^tek^te, adj. and adv. exact; exactly; fSne ketekete = fine 
fintl, high noon; exactly in the middle of the day. Comp. 
also fltSofltso. 

keya, s. ke-ya, v. 

ki& (kyS, s. ka) and 


150 U^ luta — kitekite. 

ki^ kita, v. (ace. to HaDSon), to swear; s. kS and na, v. 

kike, adv. Adn. thus, so == neke in GL 

KlnkH (sometimes also heard KdnkS and GingS, Ot. th. s. 
Comp. GSi and nkrd) pr. n. of the town of Dutch Akra, 
the king of which is the head -king of the petty kings 
of Ga (Akra), Osu (€hristiansborg) , §ai, Krobo, Akwa- 
pim, Akyem, and some others. 

kinks, n. fine dress. Comp. kankan. 

kinka , adj. and adv. full of people, populous. 

KinkSnyo, pi. Kinkamei, pr. n. a Kink3-man, KtnkSpeople; 
Kinkdbii, pi. n. th. s. 

KlnkSwe^ pr. n. of a quarter of Osu. 

Kinkawebii, pr. n. of the people of it. 

kinta, n. s. kita, n. oath; command. 

kiri, n. only used with „fo" in fo kiri, v. to be giddy; 
and hie fo kiri, v. th. s. ^ 

(kiri, V. = gli, gri, kri, v. to be in a rage; to be road; 
also used of animals). 

kirifo, n. giddiness. 

(kirilo, n. enraged, maddened person or animal). 

(kirimo, n. rage). 

kitd, sometimes kinta, n. (Ot. ntam) oath (perh. fr. ky@ 
nta, to cut in Olyi, comp. the hebr. {niD nns) sworn 
agreement betwixt two persons (comp. p5n, kpSn); the 
matter agreed or sworn to, therefore: commandment; 
command; (comp. mra, mla) ka kita, to swear; =na, v. ; 
ka m. k. or n. k. kita , to swear by s. b. or s. th. ; ka 
kita fd m. k. no, to swear and cast it upon s. b., i. e. 
to bind s. b. by an oath; td kita, to break an oath; to 
transgress a commandment or agrisement sworn to etc. 
to kita no, th. s. 

kitakalo, n. swearing person. 

kitakamO) n. swearing. 

kitanotdmo, n. and 

kitatdmo» n. breaking of an oath, agreement, commandment; 

kitatdlo, -not6lo,-n. transgressor. 

kite, defective verb, v. to go on, only used in the impera- 
tive and potential mood; sometimes it is combined with 
the Otyi verb nante, to walk (= Ga nyie), as: kite nante, 
go on (and) walk; if not „nante" is a corruption from: 
ni w(5te, ni wate == that we might go. The word may 
derive from ke-te (comp. ke-lle no). 

kitekite, v. redupl. of the former. 


kilea — kla. 151 

kilea = ketea, s. this and the following words. Ad, th. s. 

kilo, n. pocket-knife. 

Words which are not found under kl must be sought 
for under kr, the former being more the pronunciation 
of the younger, the lattet that of the elder people, 

kla, a plural form of ka, v. to' be fixed; to fix, to nail; 
to bruise. 

kla, inf. klamg, v. (Ot. kra) to divine, especially used of 
the fortune telling or divining of the Alahonadans,. s, 
klamo; the word seems to be connected' with kla, n, 
s. this, perhaps the same as iaifian^sax^ai. Comp. gba 
and ka, v. 

kla si, pi. of ka si, s, this. 

'kla, okla, n. ('kra, okra, Ot. th, s.), ghost, spirit, soul 
(comp. sisa; mumo end susum^, Ot. sunsum); genius; 
• demon (comp. wohj; the slave chosen by his master to 
be his continual companion and - according to the notion 
of some tribes of western Africa — to be sacrificed over 
his grave that he may accompany him in the world to 
come. The word is one of the greatest difficulty to be 
defined. According to the notion of the natives the „kla" 
of a person exists before his birth and may be Ihe soul 
or spirit of a relation or pther person already dead (s, 
bla, v.); as soon as a woman is with child, she goes 
to a fetishpriesl (see wonlse and okomfo) and asks the 
„kla" of her child which is called by the priest, sundry 
questions, which are answered by the priest who pre- 
tends to hear the „kla" etc. In life the „kla" is con- 
sidered partly as the soul or spirit of a person (s. su- 
sum^), partly as a being apart of and without him, who 
protects him, gives him good or bad advices, s. kla, v. 
etc. (s. gbesi); receives thanks and thankofferings as a 
fetish (s. won and comp. iaifjuav). Every person is 
moreover supposed to have two „kla", a male and a 
female, the former being of a bad, the latter of a good 
disposition (s. kla and kia, n.). After death the „kla" 
becomes „sisa", s. this. In the language of Christianity 
the word „kla" has formerly been used :=zdai(jmVy after- 
wards is was left unemployed, 
'kla, okla, n. (Ot. 'kra, krawa), feniinine gender of kra, n. 

s. this. 
klS, V. to shove a business which is not agreeable, upon 
another (ein ©ef^dft auf jemanb anberS f^icbcn); ameii- 
kia, they shove their business upon eachothen 


152 Uaba — klo. 

klaba, n. s. kla. 

klabi, n. child of a spirit; a child which is bom the same 
day of the week in which its parent is born, is called 
his or her „klabi"; s. kla, n. 

klakate, n. span (measure); klo, th. s. 

klakun , klakunO (Ot. krakum), n. dan. kalkun , turkey. 

klakunbi, n. young turkey. 

krakuAwglg, pi. -wodSi, n. turkey egg. 

klala, n. white linen (comp. kpekpe); bleached calico. 

klala-atade, n. white linen or cotton dress. 

klalg, s. klamo, n. 

klalo, adj. and adv. ready; fe-, to make ready, to be ready; 
comp. gbe na, v. ; sa , v. 

klalofemo, n. making or being ready; preparation; readi- 

klSmaklSma, adj. and adv. greedy, fierce; greedily, fiercely. 

klamg, pi. orklamoi, n. lit. a person who has a „k]a^* or 
is possessed by a „kla" (= klalo from kla, v.); or perh. 
= klamo, inf. or imprs. n. „oracle"; a person by whom 
the „kla^ is called or asked (s. klatsemo); a diviner, 
soothsayer etc. Comp. okomfo and gbalo. Especially 
mahmnedan fortune-tellers are called thus. 

klamo, n. nailing, fixing; s. ka, v. 

klame, n. fortune-telling; divining; soothsaying, comp. gbale; 
fr. kla, V. 

klamgnii, pi. n. things pertaining to soothsaying or a sooth- 

kldn, pi. klddsi, n. hyena; especially the larger kind; Ad. 
gbede, n. 

klan, adj. broad? 

klanma, n. circle; adv. aroud, bo-, v. to surround. 

klanmabo, n. surrounding. 

klante (Ot. krante) n. perh. a portugie word; sword; cut- 

klata, n. ; slice (of yams etc.). 

klatafO) n. cutting in slices. 

'klati, aklati, n. cactus. 

'klati-afaban, n. cactus-fence. 

'klatihme, n. cactus-thorn. 

'klatitso, n. cactus plant. 

'klemna, n. a kind of vegetables. 

klewi (probable an Ayigbeword), n. a certain bird. 

klili, krili=glili, n. cricket; ©ritte. 

UO9 n. span. 


Uq — ko 8fi. 153 

Uo, kolo, pi. form of ko, v. to take (many little things); to 
gather; aufjefen. 

UqUq, n. bolt. 

kloklo, adj. loquacious; s. gobigobi, bleble, th. s. 

kloklo, adj. lukewarm; fe-, v. to be lukewarm; s. kulo- 
kulo, adj. 

kloklgfemg, n. lukewarmth; loquaciousness. 

kloko, s. kroko, ekroko; adj. other. 

klomo, n. taking, gathering, fr. klo, v. 

klomobi = kromobi, n. firstborn. 

'klonta, s. aklonta, n. fork. 

'klonto, s. aklonto, n. horn. 

klop^, n. dan. button. 

klop^flQ, n. buttonhole. 

Klote, pr. n. of a lagune and small rivulet N. E. of Osu; 
its spirit or fetish (woii). 

kloti^, n. boundary, limit; comp. husu, funanmaSa etc. 

klu, s. kulu, n. 

kluku, n. the hinder part of the head, occiput. 

ko, inf. komo, v. to pick; to hew stones. 

ko, n. bush, wood, forest; country if contrasted with the 
town, interior; north, s. kongbe. The G3- country is 
divided into the plain or savanna covered with grass 
(s. nS, n.) along the sea and the forest along the moun- 
tains and in the interior, called „kd''. This 'latter is 
neither, as has been supposed, the primitive forest nor 
a forest like those found in Europe, but rather, as far 
as arable land is concerned , the fallow field (s. gba ko), 
of which one portion after the other is cultivated for a 
few years and then let to itself for 10 — 30 years again. 
It is pretty well inhabited and therefore „kO^^ and „ko 
se, kose» kuse^, used = country, the towns being at the 
sea- or river -side or on the mountains (s. Sai, Krobo^ 
Osudoku, Akwapim etc.). Comp. also „akrowa^' and 
„man", n. 

kd se (kose, kuse) n. lit. behind the bush ($intermalb)> 
cultivated land and villages in the bush (see the precee- 
ding word), country in contrast to town: „ete ko se,*' 
he went into- country (for recreation of health, agricul- 
ture, pleasure etc.); plantation; „etsuo nii ye ko le se," 
he works in the plantation, comp. nmdn, abo» trom, n.; 
nS, n. Bq ko, v. to stroll about (in the bush); gba ko^ 
T. to cut bush; U ko, v. to bum hnsix etc. 


154 b) — kd na. 

ko» aaxil. verb of the negative voice of the imprt. and 
pot. mood and of the posit, subjunctive mood in Adn. 
= ka in Ga, comp. §. 27. 28; kope, do it not, do not 
do it = kafe in Gd. 

ko (comp. eko in Ga and Ot., and ekome in Ga), perhaps 
originally a radical verb in Ga and Otyi, now indef. pro- 
noun or article, pi. komei a, an (ein eine); as such it 
is less used as the indef. article in Engl, and German, 
the nouns being often left without any article and only 
if the definiteness or indefiniteness must be expressed 
connected with the definite article „le'' and the indefinite 
„ko'*; compare: Nu le eba, the man (mentioned) has 
come; nO eba, (a) man has come (not a woman); tou 
ko eba, a (certain) man has come, some man has come ; 
gbomo ko neke eba, a certain (or some) man (whose 
name I have forgotten) has come; — some; any; one; 
once ; in the latter signification (if not in a verbal) it is 
used to express the perfect tense of the negat. voice, 
indicat. mood of verbs (s. § 27, 2.) , eb^ko , he has not 
yet come (or not once come); comp. ba ko, come once 
(fomm' einmaU), come now, come then! Wether the 
negative Adii. particle „ko" (Ga ka) has any relation to 
this, is doubtful. Comp. hi in Otyi. 

ko, n. (=kon), pi. kodsi, horn, esp. some jery long horns 
of large antelopes, as the otrSm, etc. S. aklonto, the s. 

'ko, ako, n. parrot, esp. the blue kind with red tails. 

ko, pi. k{)lQ, or klo, inf. kgmo, kolomo, imperat. sing, ko, 
V. to take (up) with the fingers, the bill, the mouth; 
pi. to pick up (auf(efcii) ; to eat (of birds) ; generally 
used for taking up smaller things, comp. n6 and wo, v. 
but also used very extensively like an auxiliary verb as 
kg, Ao, wo, f. i. yako ke-ba, lit. go take and come, i. e. 
bring (it) I 

ko gbe, V. to take a road, .to enter a journey (cinen SBeg 

ko mli, pi. kolo mli, inf. mlikomo, -kolomg^ v. to pick 
out, select. 

ko noko he noko, v. to have s. th. to do with s. th. 

ko, V. negligent pronunciation of kwo, v. to climb up. 

k6, pi. kdmo, inf. kSmo, v. to stick (f. in the teeth, bill, 
mouth); to bite; to gripe; mimusuA kdmi, my belly 
gripes me, I have belly ache; to be in travails, = k6, 
k^mo, k5mo, v. 

kd na, V. to stick in the mouth, bill etc. 


16 myanyoft SiSi -• koi. 155 

kftmyanyofi SiSi, v. to bile the teeth together, 
id si, V. lit. to bite the groand; figuratively: to lie dead 
on the field of battle; comp. „xxC^ ®rad beifien'^ in 
16 y n. a kind of food made of maize -flour and eaten in 

whomQWQ.*' Comp. kpokpoi. 
'k^le, akoble, n. eur. word: copper. 
'kQbleno, pi. -nii, n. s. th. of copper, 
kobo, n. strolling or loitering about (in the bush):. wander* 
ing, s. tsomlo; running of in the bush; vagabondry; fr. 
bo ko, V. 
kobodsen, n. vagabonds life, 
kobi^fo, n. (Ot. form = kobolg) stroller; vagabond, 
kddo, V. to be crooked y inf. kdddmo; -toi, inf. toikdddmg, 

V. to bow the ear falsely. 
k5dd, k5ddii, pi. kddddsi, adj. crooked, also tropically 

used; perverted; hinmei kddon, squinting eye. 
Ikodotse, pi. -tsemei, n. a person of a crooked, perver- 
ted caracter; an unrighteous person), 
kdddmo, n. crookedness, 
(kodokodsomg, n. perverted judgement), 
kodso, V. inf. kodsomo» to judge; to dispute; ke m. k. — , 
to dispute with s. b., comp. bu ateh and dSe iiwane, v. 
kodso, pi. kodsoi, n. a kind of trees, 
kodsolo, n. judge; disputer. 
kodsolQse!, n. judgement-seat, 
kodsomo, n. judgement; justice; dispute; palaver. 
kodSomobe, n. judgement-season, 
kodgomghe, n. place of judgement, 
kodsomosei = kodSolosel. 

kof6n, n. comet of an elephant tooth used by kings for 
music and signals in war, kpS-, fli-, v. to blow the horn, 
'kofi, akofi, n. garden-bed, layer (s. kobe, in Adn.). 
kofiba, n. lit. bed-leaf, a kind of nightshade. 
kofQ, n. a kind of berries, 
kogba, n. cutting down of the bush for cultivation, fr. gba 

ko, V. 
kogbalg, n. a person cutting bush. 

.kogbe, koyigbe, n. interior, north, north-ward (lit. bush- 
way, s. nso). 
koh^Q, n. a large beautiful bird with a crown on his head, 

living near rivers. Ot. th. s. 
koi, prh. = kue> n. neck of a building, covered door- 
nva;; s. kpata, n.; second story of a house. 


156 koi — ^^kokole, 

koi, n. hoe; hQ — , to hoe, to work with the hoe. 

kol, n. bite (of a serpent f. i.). 

koihQmo, n. working with the hoe. 

koihaio, n. labourer with the boe. 

koikoi, kwoikwoi, kuikui, n. heaps, ruins; comp. kpoikpoi 

koikoi, adv. little by little, used of water etc. when spil 

ling; eCeg Si koikoi, it spills little by little; in drops 

kokoi, adv. th. s. 
koi§i, n. the place under a covered door-way, under tin 

door, s. kpataSi; lateSi etc. Si = Sikpon. 
koitso, n. handle of a hoe. 
koklo, kokro, v. to roll; to wallow, to wetter; gen«rallj 

used of round or roundish things. The word seems to 

be a natural sound, being also found in other languages: 

comp. nDiD, h:hyy xvxXogy cu^cus, jiuflel, fuflein; Stt%tl 

feflcln; Sitfcl etc. 
koklo, kokro, n. old palm-wine, i. e. such as drawn from 

trees felled a long time, which is unhealthy, 
koklo, kokrO, adj. large and round; round, 
koklogb^nting, n. lit. roll-sheep; a kind of beetles rolling 

round pieces of dung before them, s. tdni, th. s. 
koklobii, a kind, of diminutive plural of koklo, but used as 

a noun, globules, little round grains. Comp. § 25. 
koklolo, n. roller; -mo, n. rolling, 
koklolonto, kokrolonto, n. wheel; ironically, a humpback, 
koklolontoten, n. axle. 
koklodSo, kokrodso, n. the fruit of a tree, about as large 

as a coconut; the ashes of it is used for soap, togeUier 

with palmoil etc. 
koklodSotSo, pi. -tSei, n. the tree bearing it. 
koko, n. a plant with roots like yams, and eaten like it 
'koko, akoko, n. Guinea -com; the stalks of it resemble 

maize, but where maize bears the blossoms, this com 

has also the fruit, which resembles lin-seed. 
koko, n. palm of the hand (s. do), but generally when 

shut or filled, therefore fist; handful; bo koko, v. in^ 

kokobo, lit. to make or ball, a fist, therefore, to warn; 

do-koko, fist, 
kokobo, n. warning, admonition, 
kokobolo, n. admonisher. 
kokoi, adv. in drops; = koikoi, adv. 
kokodene, n. frog. 

kokokol warning interjection: stop! don't! mind! 
kokolfi, n. a seaflsh, shad-fish? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

kokons* — kologbe. 157 

kokons^, n. hypocrisy; lying; s. amale, apasa. 

kokonsajfo, n. and 

kokgnsalg, n. a liypocrite; comp. opasafo, osatofo, n. 

kokont6, n. cassada dryed in the sun and afterwards made 
into flour etc. 

kokot^, n. a very tasteful sea-fish. 

'kokos, akokos, n. europ. word, cocoanut. 

'kokosnu, n. cocoa-milk. 

*kokostso, pi. -t§ei, n. cocoatree. 

kokpo = ko-okpo, n. wild dove; bush-dove. 

kole, V. to pick with the finger-nails, with claws etc. to 

* dig with the same ; to pick out. Int kglemo. Comp. ko 
and kolo and kd, v. 

kole, conj. if; adv. perhaps; s. kule. 

Kole, pr. n. of a small rivulet with a lagune east of Akra 
qr Jamestown. 

kole, conj. then; seldom used; s. keke le; and comp. 
kule, conj. 

kolemo, n. picking, digging with s. th. sharp as claws etc. 

koli, inf. kolimo, v. = kole, v. 

koli, n. a kind of precious beads or coloured stones, worn 
as ornament by the natives of this -coast and paid by 
the same weight of gold. It is said, that they are dig- 
ged out of the ground all along the Slave -coast and 
found in ordered strings, as the bones of a decayed 
snake or as if formerly bound together, the string being 
decayed. Some suppose that they are of animal origin 
(such is the idea of the natives themselves), some that 
they were manufactured in Egypt, some thousand years 
ago and brought here by the first settlers, and some that 
they were formerly manufactured in Venice and the art 
lost. Comp. also adiakpa, adeakpa, n. 

kolimo, n. picking. 

koliko, n. gall; bile; s. ebo, n. th. s. 

kSli, n. Adfi. = kSii, shoulder. 

kdliSi, n. Adn. elbow (lit. under shoulder). 

kdlind, n. Adn. shoulder (upper shoulder). 

k61o, n. lit. bushmeat, bushflesh (comp. lo, lofld, i^Sqj^Io, 
faAlo, helo, wolo, hewulo); beast of the field, any 
quadruped, cattle, animal in general; brute; foolish per- 
son, fool; body, piece (f. i. loads, barrels etc.). ISome- 
times the word is separated as: ko len lo, meat of the 
(mentioned) bush; comp. ko, ko se, n. 

kologbe, and 


158 koloiagbe — k<«. 

koloiagbe, n. slaugbtering of beasts. 

koloiat^u, kolotSu, n. stable; yard for cattle. 

kolokwelo, koloiakwelo, n. herdsman. 

kolobi, n. little animal, — creature. 

kolobu, n. bole of a beast. 

koloniitSumo, n. foolish business, foolishness. 

kolonilyenii, n. food, fodder of beasts. 

koloniiyeniiand, n. manger. 

kolond, pi. -nii, n. s. th. pertaining to animals. 

kolo, pi. form of kg, y. to take; to hem in; inC. kolQiiK 

kolo, n. taker, gatherer. 

kolo na, koro na, inf. nakolomg, to hem in, s. bao, i 

mu, V. 
kolo> n. a kind of palms, 
koloyibii, pi. n. the fruit of it. 
kdlo, n. a biter; a biting person or animal, 
kolomo, n. taking (of many things, s. ko, t.), pickiDg up; 

'kome, ekome, num. one, alone; mikome, I alone, 
kdm, and 

kdmi, n. boiled maize-bread; used where bakmg is prohibi- 
ted by the fetish, 
kdmi, n. dan. (Jtummel) cumin; caraway; gen. osuk6mi. 
'komfo, okomfo, n. (Ot. th. s. fr. the Otyi-verb kom, v. to 

be possessed of a fetish) diyiner; soothsayer; s. gbalo 

and klamo. 
komo, n. picking of stones, 
kgrno, n. taking; comp. also kolomo, fr. ko, obj. pL kolo, 

to take; picking, eating of birds, 
kdmo, V. to bite (pi. form), to gripe; to have gripe, to 

be in travail; comp. kd, k^, k^mg and kg, v. 
kfimg, n. biting, griping; sticking, fr. kd, y. 
kdmgbg, n. time of travailing. , 

'kgmg, nkgmg, n. (Ot. the s.) sadness, grief; ye — (Ot 

di — ), V. to be sad, grieved; to relate a sad story; to 

complain; to commune with each other in confidence, to 

discourse. Ad. th. s. 
'kgmgyeli, nkgmgyeli, n. sadness, grief; sad story; storf; 

discourse. . 
'kgmgyelilg, 'kgmgyelg, nkom., n. a sad person; momn^- 
'kgmgyeli-atade, n. mourning-dress, 
'kgmgyelisane, kgmgsane, n. sad story, sad palaver, 
kon, pi. kodsi, n. comer, extreme, end, horn (comp. ko, n. 

th. s. and aklonto). 


Wn — koschilehc. 159 

kdfi, pi. kddSi, n. Adn. kdli, sbonlder; tta kdii, v. to carry 
on the shoulder, to shoulder; comp. tere, wo, Me, v.; 
nme m. k. koa no, v. to oblige one; to give one allow- 

kdn, n. dan. king (comp. maAtse); especially the king in 
Europe who has power over the natives; native kings 
are seldom or never called thus; except in Ergbg, s. 
Ad. Vocab. 

koA-atade, n. royal garment. 

kona, n. lit. outskirts of the bush (s. ko and na); privy; 
ya — , V. to go to — ; comp. nyS, wa; tsono, tsui ase, 
nsona, niiase etc. 

kon^, Adn. conj. = koni in GS, that; bamit. 

konfai, n. crown, s. mantsefai and akekre, n. 

koni, conj. (fr. ko and ni, s. both), that, so that; bamif, 
bag, bamit bag; followed by the pot. mood; comp. ni, 
th. s., and ake. By some people the word is very fre- 
quently used and must then often be given by „and" 
(s. ni) and „and so", „then"; comp. also keke ni; noni, 
bgni, dani etc. 

konim, n. (Ot.) victory; ye — , to gain the — . 

kSnimyeli, n. victory. 

konimyelilo , -yelo, n. victor. 

kdnno, n. upper shoulder. 

konse, n. place behind the shoulder-shoulderblade. 

konte, n. cornerstone. 

kontromfi (Ot. th. s.), n. a large kind of monkeys (^unb$« 

kdntfa, n. carrying on the shoulder. 

kop^, n. europ. word, cup. 

kose, kuse, n. = ko se, lit. place behind the bush, bush 

with the plantation in it; plantation, country, 
koseade, n! = kosedsen. 
koseadebo, n. plantation-life; s. adebo, n. 
kosebii, s. kosenyo. 
kosedSe, and 

kosedSen, n. state of the country, 
kosefemo, n. country-play, 
kosegbe, n. way to the country; plantation-way; byway; 

kosehlle, n. kosesihile, n. living dwelling in the country; 

couritry-life; country-dwelling, 
kosehllehe, n. country-dwelling-place;' country-seat. 


160 kosenyo — kotonio. 

kosenyo, masc. n.; pi. kosehl, roan from the plantation; 
com. n. pi. kosemei and kosebii, planter; rustic; farmer; 
peasant; boor, clown, rough person; country-man. 

kosesane, n. country -palaver. 

kosetSe, pi. -tSemei, n. country-man; owner of a planta- 
tion = AmdfttSe. 

kosetsu, n. country-room*; — house. 

kosgwe, n. country-house; — seat. 

koseyo, pi. -yei; fem. n. country-womaii, woman from the 
plantation etc. 

kdsdilkdsd, pi. -sol, Ot. th. s. n. chain. 

kOsS, n. bush-burning. 

kosikosi, adj. and adv. (fe m. k. yi — , v. to make one's 
head to go round); doubtful; at a loss. 

kota, V. inf. kotamo, to fold, to fold up (of cloth etc.). 

kotai, and 

kotaikotai, adj. folded, wringled, contracted; s. ktiatal, th. s. 

kotalo, n. folder. 

kotamg, n. folding. 

Kotei, pr. n; of males. 

koto, V. inf. kotomo, to incline, bow (s. kua Si and kula 
si) ; — m. k. to bow before s. b. ; koto toi, v. to incline 
the ear for false judgement; redupl. kctokoto, v. to be 
over-civil, servile. 

koto si, V. inf. sikotomo, to bow down. 

koto, n. bow, arch; kotomo, n. th. s. 

koto, koti, n. engl. coat. 

koto, kotonko, kototo, adj. and adv. bowed by age; old, 
very old; agedly. 

kotokotomo, n. servility. 

kotoko, n. the large kind of porcupines. 

kolQkogal, n. the quills (lit. „arrow8") of the porcupine. 

kptokoto, n. bubble, bubbling, adv. -ly; tfa — , v. to boil 
bubblingly, to bubble. 

kotoku, n. pocked, bag etc. stomach; comp. flotQ. Ot. th. s. 
wo kotoku mli, v. to pocket. 

kotokuiiduku, n. pocket-hand-kerchief. 

kotokuflmo, n. closing of a bag. 

kotokufenemo, n. opening of a bag. 

kotokukpS, n. lit. string of the stomach or of a bag; meat- 

kotokuna, n. opening, brim of a bag. 

kotomo, n. bowing, inclining; bow (i&urflinfl); arch; =8a-. 
tSoyiteil, a3ctt(>immel; tester. 


kotoiiko — kpa fai. 161 

kotonko, s. koto, th. s. 

kotose, n. back; [Rudfen. 

kotosewui, n. back-bone(s). 

kototo, s. koto. 

kotolQ, n. bower, person bowing; servile person. 

kotsa, n. sponge of the natives made of fibres of trees and 
used for washing, wiping, cleansing their teeth etc. 
Comp. bosao and nsohkotSa. 

kotSe, pi. -tsemei, n. lit. bushfather, lord of the bush, one 
of the epithets of the leopard, comp. olowo, mlantfi, 
hienmalo etc. 

kotsebi, n. young leopard. 

kotsebu, n. leopards lair. 

kotso, pi. -tsei, n. a kind of trees; s. kodso, n. 

kotsu, n. bush-house. 

kowe, Ad. s. Ad. Voc. bush-village. 

kowe, n. a plant of a strong sweet scent used for tea, put 
into soup etc. 

kowetso, n. th. s. 

kowie, n. a plant or shrub, very propable a kind of pepper = 

kowyiei, n. bush-pepper. 

koyo, n. air, wind; here koyo, v. to take the air; koyo 
tfa, V. to blow (of the wind); — nme, v. to cease blow- 
ing. Comp. ahum. 

koyoheremo, n. air- taking; airing. 

koyghumQ, n. blowing of the wind. 

kQyohme, n. ceasing of the wind. 

koyotfa, n. blowing. 

kp generally initiates words, seldom p alone; sometimes 
both are used. 

kpa, V. inf. kpa, kpamo, kpale, pi. form: kpla; to be 
moved, to move about (jie^ew; um^erjte^en), to be 
drawn, dragged; to draw; to break; to break off, to 
cease, finish; to snap; to snatch; to take off; to anoint, 
— mu, to anoint with oil; to be bald, inf. kpale; to be 
void of, to miss, want; etc. Compare gba, kpS and pa, 
pai in Otyi. The principal combinations are the follow- 
ing: hie kpa no, v. to have the face drawn off, to forget, 
s. kpa hie no, inf. hlenokpamo; yi kpa, yiten kpa, v. to 
be baldheaded, hairless, inf. yitenkpale; Nyonmo kpa, v. 
God ceases (sc. raining), s. Nyonmo ne, si etc. Ad. 
kpa and kpaka, v. 

kpa fai, v. inf. faikpamo, to draV or take off the hat (Ot. 
pa kyaw); f. i. kpa ofai, take thy hat off; to show sub- 
Zimmermann, Akra-Yocab. 11 


162 kpa gbe — kpa, 

mittance by this, to beg pardon, to beg s. th. by it, to 
beg, to pray; mikpale fai, I took my hat off for him, 
I submitted to him, I begged his pardon, begged s. th., 
prayed to him (but mikpa efai, I took his hat off, comp. 
in Otyi the difference betwixt: mepano kyaw and mepa 
nekyaw). The gesticulation used in submitting or beg- 
ging is not only to take one's hat off before the person 
begged, but sometimes to offer it to him or cast it be- 
fore his feet; though on the other hand the sensible 
origin is not at all a hinderance to the tropical use of 
the word; comp. in this respect the hebrew in the most 
part of its roots. 

kpa gbe, v. inf. gbekpamo, to go to meet s. b. = kpe, v. 

kpa he, v. inf. hekpa, hekpamo, to give interest of money; 
s. hekpa, interest. 

kpa he, v. inf. hekpamo, to anoint, s. fo andfilia; — mu, 
— with oil; to go away, turn away. 

kpa hie ye noko no, v. to withdraw the face from s. th., 
to forget, to overlook, to wink at, comp. hie kpa no, v. 

kpa mli, inf. gnlikpamo, v. to select, to make a difference; 
to be dainty, delicate; comp. ko mli, hala mli, v. 

kpa musu, v. inf. musukpamo, to take away the curse or 
calamity, f. i. sickness, witchcraft etc., it is generally 
done by a sacrifice (sometimes human), offered to the 
fetish. The sacrifices of this kind are often found in 
the roads. 

kpa na, v. inf. nakpamo, to break the mouth, i. e. fast, 
breakfast; to test == ka. 

kpa nibiian, kpa niian, = kpa nii amli, inf. niiankpamo, to 
be dainty; s. kpa mli, v. 

kpa no, V. to draw off, f. i. s. b. from a chair; kpa m. k. 
ye mantsesei le no, to dethrone s. b. 

kpa se, V. to withdrow one's-self from behind s. b., to 
deny him; to forsake; to betray s. b. comp. kpa si, kwa, 
tso, tso segbe etc., inf. sekpamo. 

kpa si, V. inf. sikpamo, to suppose (draw a conclusion); 
to draw down, to break down; to discover, to betray; 
to walk about (l)ur(!^jie^cnb); mikpaa sai, I donH think. 

kpa n. k. tere m. k. yi, v. to cast opon s. b. (guilt etc.) 

kpa, n. a want; a blemish; to kpa, v. inf. kpato, to do 
s. th. shame- ful ; deformity of body etc. (s. akpake) ; kpa 
ye he, v. to have a bleAish; kpa be he, v. to be blame- 


kpS — 'kpaki. 163 

kpS, V. inf. kpSmo, to stretch; to blow a musical instru- 
ment with the mouth, comp. "^D in Hebr. ! kpS ble, to 
play a pipe; — tetremante, — a trumpet etc. to gaggle 
(of fowls). Ad. = to cry. 

kpa ble, inf. blekpSmo, v. to pipe; s. fli, v. 

kpa mli, V. inf. mlikpSmo, to stretch, f. i. the body, the 
arm; see also sia; „ekpa enine mli", he stretched (out) 
his arm. 

kp3, n. something stretched, cord, string, line, twine, 
thread; tropically: ironical poetry or song; esp. string 
of cowries, = 40 cowries (Ot. ban), which in former 
times were put on a string. In the latter signification 
the word has fol* its frequent use's sake undergone some 
irregularity in the plural form as f. i. the engl. „ penny, 
pence"; f. i. kp5 (instead of kpS kome), one string 
(z= ^3 of a penny); kpSenyo, 2 Str., kpSete, 3 Str., 
kpSedfe, 4 Str., kpSenumo, 5 Str., kpaekpa, 6 Str., 
kpgiikpawo (= kpSi kpawo), 7 Str., kpgnkpanyo, 8 Str., 
kpenehu, 9 Sir., kpSnma (= kp3i nyonma), '10 Str., 
kpdnma k^ ekome, 1 1 Str., kpSnmai enyo, 20 Str., meo 
= 25 Str. or half a head; tsakpo = 7^ Str. or 20 
cowries, omel6 = Vi Str. or 30 cowries. Tse he kpS, v. 
to take oflf the string, i. e. to excuse, = fa he; dsie 
na etc.; ye kpa mli, v. to be in a string, i. e. to be 
bound. „M!tsu nii, koni mana kp§ lo kpSenyo," I am 
working, to get one or two pence (i. e. a few pence) 
by it. 

kpa, kpan or pSn, pSm (Ot. pam), v. inf. Ipahmo, very 
probably related to the former, to bind each other, to 
make a covenant; to plot, to conspire (this bad sense 
is more usual); < — m. k. yi no, v. yinokpSnmo, to plot 
against s. b. 

kpakpa, redupl noun. adveri)ially used: in strings, a string 
each, 8. § 22, 2. g. 

kpa wo m. k. toiian, v. lit. to blow s. b.'s ears full (comp. 
eincm bie Otjrert t)oH madden, in ben O^ren licgcn), to 
tell into s. b. ears (also in a good sense), to tire one 
by speaking; to inculcate. 

kpa feda ni — , kpako nl — , kpako feda ni t— , conj. lit. 
ceasing before now, not before now, now (at last). 

'kpagai, kpakal, s. akp. 

kpai, n. a full load (of corn etc.). 

'kpake, n. s. akpake. 

'kpaki, n. s. akpaki. 



164 'kpakcit — kpdmo. 

'kpakal, n. s. akpakal. 

'kp^pa, akpakpa, d. the pap aw -fruit 

'kpakpatso, pi. -tsei, n. the papaw-tree. 

'kpakpa» ekpakpa, adj. (Ot. pa, papa) good; real; commoil 

natural, native, homemade; adv. well, very, much, verj 

much = naakpa; Ad. = lelen, truly, verily! 
Ipakpafelo, n. a person doing good, s. edsiirdfelo, n. 
'kpakpafemo, u. doing good; good behaviour; good workj 

comp. edsurdfemo, n. 
kpdkpS, adv. quickly, =:= kplokplo, oyaya; paopao; pampam. 
kpdkpd (obscen), n. wind from the stomack. 
kpakpata, adj. and adv. good; strong; hard, stiff; wa — , v. 

to be very hard, gb! — , v. to be very dry; etc. 
kpakpatafemo , n. strength; hardness etc. 
kp^kpo, n. he-goat, gen. to-kp^po (Ot. papo), n. pr. of 

kpdkpo, n. (Ot. baka) small lake; pit; lake, lagune. 
KpakpoinehO , pr. n. of a village lit. „ninelake'' („9teun^ 

kpMa, V. s. kpla, pi. fonn of kpa; to drag; Ad. kpaka, v. 
kpale, V. inf. kpalemo, to turn, to turn back, to return; 

to call s. b. back; to turn in, to call in from the way. 

Comp. kpa, v. Adn. th. s. Comp. also gbale, v. 
kpale, n. baldness fr. kpa, v. 
kpale, and 
kpalekpale, adj. and adv. bald; baldly; ye — , v. to be 

bald; kpa — , v. to be baldly bald, i.e. very bald; comp. 

kpalemo, n. returning, turning in; recalling, calling in fr. 

kpale, V. 
kpalo, n. a person moving or walking about etc. fr. kpa, v. 

(seldom used alone, but in compounds). 
kpMo, n. player of a musical instrument, which is blown, 

f. i. blekpSlo, piper; tetrgmantrekpSlo, trumpeter; kofen- 

kpSlo, blower on horn; comp. also fli, v. and kpllo, 

Ad. n. cryer. 
kpa, and 
kpamo, n. moving, walking about; dragging, drawing, 

breaking off, ceasing, anointing, halting, taking in etc. 

fr. kpa, V. 
kpamo, n. stretching; blowing of a musical instrument; fr. 

kpa, V. 
kpamg, kpanmo, panmo, n. covenant; plot, conspiration, 

fr. kpS, kpan, v. 


kpana — kpawo. 165 

kpana, kpanaku (kpandaku accord, to Hanson), adj. strong, 

valiant, great, big; gbomo — , a valiant, strong man; a 

distinguished man; germ, ^fonbcrlic^". 
kpSinehu, kp9inma etc. s. kpS, n. 

kp^nyd, n. basket, comp. ablabutu, kafu, RoiQ, akpagal, n. etc. 
kpSn^o (perh. = kpft-enyo), num. eight. kpenkpSinyo, eight 
. strings cowries; Adn. kpanS. 
kpao! int. fyel ^)fui! 
kpasa, V. to lean; inf. kpasamo. 

kpasa he, inf. hekpasamo, to lean about. ' 

kpasa no, v. inf. nokpasamo, to lean upon, to trust upon, 
kpasa si, v. inf. sikpasamo, to lean down (on the elbow). 

Comp. bata in Otyi and the related roots kpa, kpata, fata 

in Ga and pata, fata in Otyi, pasa in both, 
kpasalg, n. leaner, 
kpasamo, n. leaning. 
kpStS, V. inf. kpatamo, to destroy; to smooth, to plain; 

to appease, to reconciliate. Comp. kpa, Ot. pata; and 

fata in both languages. Hie kpMSi, v. to perish (lit. to 

have an erased face); inf. hiekp3it§mo, s. also: 
kpata hie, v. inf. hlekpatamo, to destroy; == fite, v. Ad. 

th. s. 
kpata (Ot. pata) = kpale, adj. bald, grassless, plain, empty, 

void; fe — , to be bald etc.; comp. yikpatat§e, n. 
kpata, n. thatched roof, open shed, kitchen (s. latesi), open 

hall (s. koisi); roof, 
kpatafemo = kpalg, n. baldness, emptiness, 
kpatalo, n. appeacer, peacemaker, reconciler; fr. kpata, v. 
kpatamQ, n. appeacing; peacemaking; reconciliation, 
kpatamonii, pi. n. things given to appeace. 
kpatasi, n. roof -ground, under -roof; open place thatched 

over, s. kpata, n. 
kpatatse, yikpatatse, n. baldpated person (®{a^fo!t)f). 
kpate, n. smallpox. 

kpate sa m. k. , v. to be killed by the smallpox, 
kpate fie m. k. he or no, v. to get the smallpox. 
kpalO, n. a shameful deed, fr. to kpa, comp. fobg, th. s. 
kpatu, V. to kill violently or suddenly; to dispatch, 
kpatu, and 
kpatukpatu, adv. suddenly, unexpectedly; in a hurry; = 

kpatumo, n. murder; violent or sudden death; despatch, 
kpawo, num. seven. ^Bgni madsi kpawo kpawo toi kpawo 

h kg uqI'^ „Tbis is what the seven times seven tribes 


166 kpe — kpe. 

said!'' A phrase used by speakers at great assemblies 
of the people for political purposes. See GS-Speeches. 

kpe, Y. inf. kpe and kpemo, to meet, if the subject is 
a plural, amekpe, they met; na kpe, na kpe §i, th. s. 
ke m. k. kpe, to meet s. b. , ke m. k. yakpe, or ya m. k. 
kpemo, to go to meet; kpe m. k., to make s. b. to meet, 
to meet, to call, to invite, to call together, to assist = 
here; to meet one's teeth, to gnash with the teeth, s. 
kpe si; to knaw, gnaw f. i. bones, corn-ears, any thing 
*hard = ye, to eat, esp. nuts et6., na kpe and na kpe 
si, inf. nakpe and naSikpg, v. to meet (with the mouth, 
i. e. for consultation etc.), to come together, to be of 
one opinion. Connected with other verbs „kpe" is some- 
limes used to express „round about, altogether", f. i. 
,,kwe mei ke kpe," to look at people round about; nyle 
ke kpe, v. to go round; bole ke kpe, v. to surround. 

kpe mli, v. to meet in s. place. 

kpe na, v. to meet the mouth, the point; to sustain, to 
continue, to bear; to gain the victory (auS^altcn, t)cr* 
barren, bc^anen) = hie mli, mla h!e, v.; to reach, be 
long enough (of cord etc.); to find, to meet with, = 
yere na, v. 

kpe se, inf. sekpe, v. to remain behind, to come too late. 

kpe si, na kpe si, v. sikpe, nasikpg, to meet, become one, 
to be united. 

kpe yO, V. inf. yokpemo, lit. to meet a woman. The ori- 
ginal signification seems to be: to marry (used of the 
husband, comp. wye and gbli, gbld) in a lawful and proper 
way with many ceremonies; then to make a certain cu- 
stom or ceremony, often by already married women (an- 
swering the „butrunwO" of males), in which the woman 
adorns herself very costly, and with her companions goes 
round the town singing, dancing and visiting her good 
friends. See „butruiiwo", n., kromotSQAwd, n. th. s. 

kpe, adv. entirely; si — , v. inf. kpesi, to remain up all 
night, to watch (comp. wo, sra and bu, v.). 

kp6, n. meeting. S. kpemo; fr. kpe, v. 

kp€! int. expressing horror or the approach of danger! 

kpe (related to the former), v. inf. kpe, kpemo, pi. kple, 
inf. kplemo; to keep closely together, to cleave to, see 
kpete and na kpe he, to join, to sew; to grin, tor fix 
with the eyes, to bewitch; to be bright (of metals, stars, 
the moon etc.) as far as no warmth is connected with 
it, comp. tSo« v., f. i. hold tsoQ, si nyoiitSere kpeo, the 


kpe amane ha m. ki — kpete. 167 

mn shines, but the moon is bright; to flash, to lighten; 
to chisel, carve; na kpe he, v. inf. nakpe, henakpe, to 
be astonished, confounded, to "wonder; comp. fe y^, hie 
fe ya, V. which is weaker and he ds5 he, v., he kpleke 
he, Y. which are stronger; fe nakpe, v. the same. 

kpe amane ha m. k., y. to bring into perplexity, trouble, 

kpe bi, T. to carry a child on one's back. 

kpe mli, V. inf. mlikpe, mlikpemo, to decide, to be resol- 
ved; to chisel, to carve. 

kpe na, V. to sew together. 

kpe nyomo hS m. k., v. to bring into debts. ^ 

kpe nil, inf. niikpe, v. to sew. 

kpe, n. sewing, joining, grining etc. 

kpeete, n. AdrL = abonua, limone, lime. 

kpe sebii, v. m, to carry backchildren (s. kpe bi, v.), to 
produce ears, said of maize. 

kpekpe, n. grey or unbleached linen or colton; sack-cloth. 

kpekpe-atade, n. dress of it. 

kpekpe, n. covetousness, avarice; fe — , v. to be covetous. 

kpekpefemo, n. covetousness. 

kpekpelo, H. covetous person; miser, niggard. 

kpele, s. kple, pi. of kpe, v. 

kpelo, n. a person meeting an other; inviter; gnawer; hel- 
per, assistant (for mercies sake in earring etc.) ; „kpelQ 
ed§ee afu," prv. a helper is no humback. 

kpelo, n. joiner; okpld- kpelo, a person making tables; 
sewer, tailor, niikpelo, th. s., aspatre-kpelo , shoe-maker. 

kpemo, n. meeting, gnashing, joining, helping, assistance, 
gnawing; y5-kpemo, wedding; a certain ceremony, see 
kpe yo, V. 

kpemo, n. bewitching, brightness, shine, flash, lightening, 
s. also kplemg and kpe, n. 

kpeno, pi. -nii, v. joining-, sewing -implement. 

kpene, adj. and adv. short, small; shortly; mama — , small 

kpenkpen, adj. brittle, adv. very quickly, comp. oy^ oy^, 
mramra; abruptly. 

kpenkple, n. rabbit; hare. 

kpesu, n. a basket used to keep fowl. 

kpete, adj. and adv. open, openly. 

kpete, adj. dry,* barren, unfruitful; s. olenle andftmeAmetei 
th. s. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

168 kpete — kpla. 

kpete, v. inl kpetemo, to cleave; to be glutinoas, to stick 
to; „he kpete" or „he kpete he" or „ke he kpete he", 
v., inf. hekpetemo, to cleave to; amekpete Nyonmo he, 
or amehe kpete N., or amehe kp. N. he, or ameke 
amehe kp. N. he, they cleaved to God; kpete he, th. s. 

kpete he, v. inf. hekpetemo, to cleave to, s. he kpete etc. 

kpete mli, V. to stick in s. th. 

kpete no, inf. nokpetemo, v. to stick upon s. th.; ke — 
— , V. to fix upon. 

kpete si, V. to stick or cleave to, to the ground; 

to bear, to sustain, =^ kpe na; to continue. 

kpete §isi, V. to cleave to the ground. 

kpetetpete, adj. and adv. glutinous; soft, weak; softly; 
fe — , V. to be — . 

kpetekplebii, pi. n. a fruit in shape similar to the cashocle 

(s. enmomi); used as charm or fetish. 

kpetekplebiitso, pi. -tsei, n. the tree or shrub bearing it; 
the bark of it is used as operating medicine; the wood 
is exceedingly hard or rather tough. 

kpetenkple, corroboration of kple; pi. -kplei, adj. great, 
large, tall, big; comp. koklo; wulu, a^j. and da, v.; 
fe — , to become — ; dsi — , to be — ; kpetenkpleA, 
it is large. . 

kpl, kpitl, kpitikpiti, adj. and adv. thick; muddy (of dark- 
ness, water, mist, clouds etc.); thickly. 

kpintii^, adj. safe, sound, healthy, strong;. -ly. 

kpintinkplin, th. s. 

kpiti, V. inf. kpitimo, to pinch, to scratch = ti, titi; to 
grub, - - up; to pick up; to take up or out (used of 
sand, flour, rice etc. comp. kg, kolQ, kole, v. tSotSe, v. 

kpiti, n. Ot. piti, leprosy; ye — , to be leprous. Comp. 

kpitimo, n. pinching, scratching; grubbing, picking. 

kpitikpete, adv. conAisedly; amekamo si — , they lay about 

kpitio, adj. and adv. short, shortly; comp. akoti^; n. a short 
time, 8. fio, adj. 

kpitiokpitio, adv. frequently; shortly; often. 

kpitiyeli, n. leprosy. 

kpitiyelo, -yelilo, n. leper. 

kpla (or kpra), pi. form of the verb kpa, to be dragged, 
drawn; to strip (f. i. maize); to brush; to drag, to draw; 
to drive, f. i. cattle; to lead; inf. kplamo. Comp. Ad. 
kpaka, v. th. s. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' 

kpla-ifinie se — kpleke. 169 

kpla-nme se, double v. and kpla-De se, double v. to fake 
some body off; ekplaame efie ese, he went off with them. 

kpla, kpra, n. the armadillo; Otyi: pra. The name is very 
probable derived from the broken skin of this inter- 
esting creature. 

kpla, ady. round about; — tfem, all around; a long time; 

kplaba, n. a kind of gum; which the natives use for mend- 
ing pots. 

kplabatso, pi. -tsei, n. the tree producing it. 

kplakpayo, pi. -yei, n. whore = adfaman; s. gblagbayd, n. 

kplakpla, adj. and adv. rash, careless; rashly, carelessly; 
comp. kplekple, flefle; flafla. 

kplakplafemQ, n. carelessness. 

kplalQ, n. dragger, driver etc.; fr. kpla, v. 

kplamo, n. dragging, driving, stripping; brushing. 

kpM, adj. and adv. much, many; well; long, a long lime. 

kpland, adj. plain, even; void, desolate = kplene. 

kple (pi. of kpe, v.), v. to fill, fulfill; nine kple he, v. to 
be able; to have sufBcient hands, strength, time etc. 

kple, pi. of kpe, v. to shine. 

kple, kplei, kpleikplei, adj. large; great; high, tall; big; s. 
kpetenkple, adj. th. s. 

kpl6, V. inf. kplemo (comp. Ot. pe, pSne), to like, to agree 
to, to allow; to let; ekplee kpatamo, he would not be 
. appeased; Ad. th. s. 

kplids5, adv. full, hanging full = wodsowodsO, adv. 

kplebii, pi. n. scourge, whip (perhaps one with several tails 
and therefore plural); yi m. k. kplebii, v. to scourge, to 
whip one; kpa, n. th. s. 

kplebiiyi, n. scourging. 

kplebiiyilg, n. scourger. 

kpleke, inf. kplekemo, v. to sink, to descend; to come to 
shore (of fishermen); he kpleke he, v. inf. hekplekemo, 
to be astounded, astonished = na kpe he, he ds5 he, 
stronger than fe y5; kpleke m. k. or n. k., v. to let or 
make s. b. descend, to let down (s. the end); to give 
instruction to fetish-pupils; — won, v. to let the fetish 
descend for the purpose of asking him about unknown 
things. The fetish-priests called „okomfoi, gbaloi, kra- 
moi" use to wear an iron chain round their neck by 
which they pretend to let the fetish descend = -wontse, 
to make one a fetish -priest; from this derives: kpleke 
m. k., V. to let (the fetish descend upon) s. b.^ h e. to 


170 kpleke ^i ~ kploW. 

make him a man possessed by the fetish („okomfo, gba- 
lo, kramo, wontse"); comp. woA m6 m. k. and md 
won, V. tse won, etc. About the form comp. § 2T the 
endsyUables „dse" and „ke", and the, v. kple, v. Ad. 
kple, y. 
kpleke si, inf. sikplekemo, v. to descend, to climb down, 

to come or go down, 
kplekemo, n. descending. 

kplekple, adj. and adv. froward, unruly, unquiet; preco- 
cious, = kplakpla, flefle, krukru abomp^; fe — , v. to 
be froward. 
kplekplefemo, n. frowardness. 
kplete, adj. and adv. slimy, tough; -ly. 
kplem, n. a kind of the fruit, called sweet-sap; s. Mwyei, n. 
kplemtso, pi. -tsei, n. the tree of it. 
kplemo, n. filling, fulfilling; sufficing; finishing; s. kple, v. 
kpl^mo, n. liking, agreeing; agreement, allowance, 
kplikpli, adv. convulsively; §6 — , v. to have convulsions, 
kplim, V. inf. kplimmo, to be thick (with fat), to be hard, 

impenetrable; to be inured, accustomed; senseless, 
kplo, n. pi. kpodsi, clift; comp. kpon, kpon, 
kplg, kpro, pi. form of kpg, v. to break off, to pluck off, 
to crumble off, — down (f. i. bark, rough skin, dried ^ 
mud etc.), v. n. and a., inf. kplgmo. 
lipid, okpl6, pi. okploi, n. table, kpe —, v. to make a 
table, s. kpe; nme — , v. to spread the table, to give 
a repast, 
kploko and kplot6 (Ot. preko, prok5 from the portugie 
^porco"), n. pig, only used of the tame one, s. batafo; 
a very unclean person, 
kplokofo, n. pigs-fat. 
kplokolo, n. pork. 
kplokoniitsumvQ, n. uncleanness. 
kplokotse, m. n^ -nye, f. n. possessor of a pig. 
kplokotsu, n. pig-stile, 
kplokplo, adv. quickly, oySya, mramra; frequently, often, 

= kpitiokpitio. 
kploku, n. field- or bush-mouse, comp. kwakwe. It is of 
the size of a european rat, the african rat being much 
kplokubu, n. hole of a mouse. 

kplgmo, n. breaking off; stripping; crumbling off; k, kplg, v. 
kploto, 6. kploko, n. 


kpo — kpokpo. 171 

kpo, v. (perh. to move; to remove; to be soft; to soften) 
to refuce an offer. 

kpo, kpo no, n. yard, outside; adv. outside, out (Hebr. 
(yn jHJiin); d§e — , v. to go, or come out; inf. kpod§e; 
dSie kpo, inf. kpod§iemo, v. to take out, bring forth, 
bring to light, reveal ; fa kpo , v. Inf. kpolS , = d§e kpo 
d§ie kpo (comp. adi in Otyi). 

kpo wolo, V. to tan (leather), s. wolokpolo, n. 

kpo, int. plumb! natural sound of a fall;^ gbe si kpo, to 
fall down, plumb 1 comp. bum etc. 

'kpo, okpo, n. club; = tSokpoti, n. 

kpo, adj. and adv. quiet, simple, mild, comp. did, bled; 
fe — , V. to be quiet, mild; — mildly, simply, quietly; 
int. kpo! kpO! (sympathizingly used) be quiet! bfllbji! 

. comp. kpo, V. 

'kpo, okpo, n. dove. 

kpo, pi. kplQ, inf. kpomo, kplomo, v. n. and a. to crumble 
off; to break off (esp. of a rough skin, bark, dry sur- 
face); to strip; to pluck off; to scale etc. s. also kpoke, 
T. a. Kpo kpono si, v. to clear the throat. 

Ipo, akpo, n. decree, law, s. kita, mla. 

kpo, n. heap, hill, lump, knot, island; n§o-kpo, island in 
the sea; fa -kpo, n. river -island. Besides the reg. pi. 
kpoi also kpobii seems to be used; comp. kpoA, n. 

kp5, inf. kp6mo, v. to redeem; to buy free; to liberate. 

kpobii, duninutive, pi. of kpo, lumps = kpoi. 

kpobiikpobii, adj. and adv. consisting of small lumps, lumpy 
in small lumps. 

kpod§6, n. forthcoming; appearance. 

kpodSielo, n. revealer. 

kpodsiemo, n. revelation; apocalypsis. 

kpofdi, n. appearance. 

kpoikpoi, adj. and adv. th. s. but without diminutive mo^ 
dification; rough, uneven; hilly. 

kpoke, V. active form of kpo (§27), to crumble off. 

kpokemo, n. crumbling. 

kpoko, n. the concavity of the elbow; kpokoi ano, on the 

kpokpai, pi. n. bonndaries = klotia, husu. 

kpokpo, V. inf. kpokpomo, to shake, to tremble; to shake 
8. th., to shake off; = hoso, woso; he — , v. inf. hekpo- 
kpomo, T. to shake, tremble, be frightened; of men, by 
fear, cold etc. mibe kpokpoO) I tremble; comp. also 
liminmi, t. 


172 kpokpo — kpoto. 

kpokpo, adv. quietly, plainly, unreservedly; "wie — , v. to 

speak — . 
kpokpoi, pi. n. a kind of food made of maize -flour and 

palm-oil, and eaten to soup, 
kpokploku, kpokproku, n. new corn, 
kpokukpoku, n. a large waterbird living at the river Volta 

in size as a goose, 
kpolo, n. softener; refuser of an offer, fr. kpo, v. 
kpolo, n. a person stripping s. th. 
kpolo, n. redeemer; liberater. 
kpomg, n. crumbling off, breaking off; stripping; s. kplg- 

mo, th. s. 
kpomg, n. redeeming; redemption; liberation.* 
kpomonii, pi. n. means of redemption, 
kpomgsane, n. history of redemption. 
Kpon, pr. n. („island") a town, 40 — 50 miles up the river 

Volta near mount Yogaga; comp. pon in Otyi in Nyan- 

kopon; Akropon etc. and Kpon, n. 
kpon, n. hook; angle. 
Kpon, pr. n. of Pony betwixt Tema and Prampram (lit. hill, 

Ot. „pon"). 
Kponkpo, pr. n. of a village, 
'kpono, okp. n. (Ot. okponko), horse; Ad. so, n. 
kpono, n. the uppermost part of the throad or windpipe; 

kpono be, v. to have the throat narrowed (s. be) i. e. 

to be so sad as to wish to weep without being able to 

do it, comp. („al^ ob i^m bie Jte^Ie jugcfcj^nutt »drc"); 

inf. kpghobe. 
kpgngbg, n. great sadness, 
kpgngsi, n. place of or about the head of the wind pipe; 

kpg — , V. to clear the throat. 
kpQiigsikpg, n. ^cblfopf, head of the wind-pipe, 
kpgo, V. to get rich; to be benefitted, 
kposa, V. inf. kposamg to rub with the haqds as in washing 

cloth; to wash cloth etc., by rubbing, comp. fg; to full; 

comp. also bosao, n. 
kposalg, n. washer, rubber, fuller, 
kposamg, n. washing, rubbing, fulling, 
kpoti, n. club, knot, tsokpoti^ n. knotty stick; s. okpo, 'kpo,n. 

and ti, v. 
kpotia, n. ring, finger-ring, 
kpgtg, inf. kpgtgmg, n. and a. to be thick, muddy, doughy, 

over ripe, mellow; to rot, putrify; to knead; satyrically: 

to be very rich. 


kpotomo — kri. 173 

kpotomo, n. kneading; rotting etc. 

kpoto, adv. thickly; as mud, as dough; gbe — , v. to kill 

in heaps, 
kpotoi and kpotokpoto, adj. thick, muddy, doughy, over- 
ripe, rotten; fe — v. to be 

kpQtofemo, n. rottenness etc. 

kpotonkpoto, n. a kind of food made of yams boiled into 

a dough, 
kpotsile, n. a seafish. 

kprgke (fr. kpo, v.), inf. -mo, v. to strip off. 
kprokemo, n. stripping off. 
kpronkpron, adj. and adv. dirty; -tily. 
kpulu, pi. kpudsi, n. mug; jug; cup. 
kpunkpd, n. barrel; com. hase. 
KpukprS (or Gbugbra), n. pr. of the town Prampram of the 

KpukprSnyo, pi. -mei, -bii, -tsemei, n. Prampram -man; 


Words not found under 
kr see under kl. 
kra, V. and n. s. kla. 

'krSn, nkr§n, n. (Ot. th. s.) wandering ants, 
kra, krakra, adj. hot. 
krSdikplen, krSinodikpl^n , n. the smaller kind of hyenas 

(comp. klan, kran, n.). 
kradoa, n. padlock, 
kraka, n. cartridge; comp. gbadsa, n. The cartridges of the 

natives are made of wood, 
krakate, n. span. 

krake, inf. -mo, v. to have a crack, 
krakte, n. dan. funnel; trakte, n. th. s. 
krakuna, = klakun, n. turkey. 
krSmSkrSmS, adj. fierce, greedy, 
krana, n. silence; adj. and adv. silent; silently; this word 

has the peculiarity, that it can be used without verb, f. i. 

mitsele ahu, si (f^ fe) krSna; 1 called him a long time, 

but (all is) — silence; comp. yi fe, n. 
krata, klata, n. slice, 
krawa, n. s. kra, n. 
kre, kere, n. = kele, n. 
krede, adj. and adv. sure; clear; exact; true, genuine = 

kroii; -surely, clearly, well ,• exactly. 
krSkre , Ad. = klenklen, krenkren, first, 
kri, n. giddiness. 

d by Google 

174 kri — krafcrn. 

kri, =kli, adj. giddy; fo — , v. to be gWdy. ^ 

krifo, n. giddiness. 

krikri, krikrikri, n. adj. and adv. silence; silent; silentl^r d 

krftnd, comp. this, 
krd, V. to murmur. 

krO, adj. large. Seldom used; comp. kokrO, kokld, adj. 
kro, =kolo, klo, pi. of ko, r. 
*kro, 'koro, ekoro, adj. and adv. (fr. ko) single; simj^e 

singly, otherwise, by itself; s. kroh; kroAkron; adj- 
Krobo, pr. n. of a mountain, tribe, country and (Adanme] 

dialect N. East of Gd betuvixt the Akwapim- mountain^ 

and the river Volla. 
kroboo, n. a bark of a tree used as spices, to rub the 

body with, 
'kroko, ekroko, pi. 'krokomei, adj. other; s. ko, kro, koro etc. 
kromobi, n. first-bom (generally, if a boy, called Tete, if 

a girl Dede). Ad. krombi. 
kromobifgmo, n. ©rflflebutt; first birth, 
kromobigbena, n. right, duty of the firstborn, 
kromotsun, n. a custom, men have to make before marriage; 

yfQ — , to make this custom (s. butru); a principal part 

of it is to be put in a room (tsu, kromotSu) for a night. 
kron = kwon (Ot. th. s. seldom used adj. high; fr. ko, kwo, 

V. to be high or deap. S. also grdn, adv. 
kroh, pi. kroi adj. and adv. single, simple, pure, genuine, 

clear; holy (fr. ko, v.? and indef. art); singly, simply, 

purely etc. Comp. ekro, ekoro etc. 
kronkron , corroboration of the former, adj. and adv. simple, 

pure, clear (of water), unmixed; holy; s. he tse and 

tsu he. 
kronkronmo, pi. -mei and mokronkron, pL meikroiikroT, 

kronkronbi, pi. -bii, n. holy person, 
kronkronfelo , n. sanctificator, == hetSulo. 
krohkronfemo , n. sanctification ; holiness ; s. hetSumo , 

hetsemo, n.' 
Ironkronnfi, pi. -nii, n. a holy thing, 
kronkronsane, n. holy history, 
'kropon, okr., n. eagle? a larg bird of pray, feading on 

living animals, 
krosalo and krosado, n. Ayigbe word, perh. from the port., 

dollar, s. dale, n. 
Krote pr. n. (s. Klote) of a lagune N. E. of Osu. 
krukru, adj. and adv. unruly, unquiet, x=3: kpl^kpTle ; onquietly 

fe — , to be unruly. 


knd^rufemo — kukla. 175 

kniknifemo, n. UDquietness. 

krosalo, n. port, word?, spices. 

ku, v., inf. kamo, v. to cut into very small pieces; to poll 
the hair. 

ku, V. to break; to knuckle; to turn. The pi. form is 
kumo, redupl. kumokumg; inf. kumo or kOomo (comp. 
Adn. kuo, suo, and sumo and suomo in Gk), Mli ku, 
V. inf. ralikuorao, to be inwardly, entirely broken; nine 
ku, inf. nineku, v. = ya gbe se, ya tsu se; s» tsu se, n. 

ku able, inf. ablekuomo, v. to earn com. 

ku n. k. bQ he, v. to double s. th. 

ku hie fo n. k. no, v. to wink at some th.; to over- 
look s. th. 

ku mli, V. to break in (two); inf. mlikuomo. 

ku na, V. inf. naku and nakuomo, lit. to break the mouth, 
edge, end; to oppose, to act against. 

ku nane, v. to break a leg. 

ku nine, v. s. nine ku, under kd, v. 

ku no, V. noku and nokuomo, to break over; to transgress; 
to be over, to be much, to be superfluous == teke no, v. 

ku se, V. inf. seku sekuomo, to turn back, to return, to 
come again; to be converted; perverted; comp. tso he, 
v., th. s. 

kn si, V. inf. sikuomo, to break down; tsui le fe kumo- 
kumo si , all the houses are (every where) broken down. 

ku yi, V. yiku (s. yi), to cut the hair (of the head). 

kQ, n. (Ot. th.s.) company = akutso, heap, flock; part (piece, 
s. kuku, tsoku and tsokuku); comp. also kuikui and ob- 
serve the phrase: bua na kui kui, v. to gather in heaps; 
adj. short; weku, akutso, dsaku n. etc. 

kua, n. monkey, ape (in general, s. ofo, ho, etc.). 

kua, V. inf. kuamo, v. to bend, to contract, to wrinkle, 
to be wrinkled =: kota ; to bow = kula. 

kua si, V. inf. sikuamo, v. to bend the knees, to kneel 

kuatai, adj. = kotai, which see. 

kudo, n. helm, rudder. 

kudotse, pi. kudotsemei, n. steersman. 

kue, n. neck (comp. sen, kpono). •" 

kuenii, n. necklace or neck-ornamenls. 

kuikui, n. heaps, ruins, broken pieces ; ac|j. heapy, ruinous, 
every where broken; adv. heapily; in heaps; comp. koi- 
koi, kpoikpoi etc. 

kukla, kukra, adj. large = kokro; large and round; round. 


176 kdkd — kOmaiyelilo. 

kdkd, pi. kQmokQino, redupL of kfi, v. to break. 

kaku, kakudsi, n. piece, part, broken particle, stump; f* 
thorn = abaaa; fo — , v. to cat short, to shorten; ad 
and adv. short; shortly = kukuO. 

kakudabi, n. maize of last year, comp. kpokplokn, n. 

knkufd, n. half-fathom, i. e. yard. 

kukufo, n. short-cutting, shortening. 

kukaku, adv. boldly; quickstepped ; manly; ebote mli — 
he stepped boldly in. 

kukuli, n. ball; lump; su-kukuli, lump of clay; lo-kokid 
piece of meat. 

kukuo (pi. kukudSi kukui, knknbii?) adj. and ady. sort 

kukuo, Adn. V. = ko, to take. 

kukwe> kukwei, n. small pot for boiling things etc.; eomp 
gbe, kulo, fa, fale etc. 

kula, V. to bend, to bow; inf. kulamo; s. kCia. 

kula §i, V. inf. sikulamQ, to kneel down, to bow the knees 
= ktia si, V. 

'kulafo, ok., n. widower, widow. 

kulamo, n. bending, bowing, fr. kula, v. 

kul^, auxil. V. can, will, shall. 

kule (fr. ko le, comp. koni, noni, boni etc.) coivj. to express 
the subjunction of the sentence it initiates, f. i. kule mil- 
sumo, 1 would love it; = dSikule at the end of sen- 
tences = if, with the same mood; adv. perhaps; soever 

kali, n. a small particle of any thing; a grain, f. i. able- 
kuli, a grain of maize; a drop, nu-kuli, a drop of water; 
a mote; Adn. gu, n. 

kulikuli, adv. in drops. 

kulo, n. a kind of pots used for washing; washing-basiii. 

kulQ and kulQkulo (s. kloklo, adj.) luke-warm. 

kCilQ , n. breaker ; reaper of maize. 

kulu, n. 

kuma, Adn. n. thirst; s. kCimai. 

kCima, v. inf. kumamo to use with fragality; generally: t6 

kOma or ke-kuma. But perhaps it is Otyi adj. = little. 

kQmai, n. thirst, kumai ye, v. inf. kumaiyeli, to be thirstj; 
kumai yemi, I am thirsty. Comp. homo, fel; and Otyi 
osukum; and kuma, v.; Ad. kuma ye, v. 

kumaiyeli, n. thirsting, thirst. 

kOmaiyelilQ, -yelg, n. a thirsty person. 


kQmayeroforo — kutumpofelQ. 177 

kima^emforo, n. (Ot.) lit. bridemurder, a plant, the fruits 
of which like that of the bur cleave to the cloth. It is 
said,, that during a \?eddiDg ceremony some had come 
into contact with the skin of the bride and she being 
ashamed to remove them, was hurt by them during the 
danc^ and killed, whence the name, 
komelo, Adn. n. castor-tree = adedenkruma. 
kumi, kum, komi, n. boiled bread. 
Kumi, pr. n. of males. , 

kaml, D. rum (foreign word and satirically used, s. bg- 

bo, n.). 
Kiraikum, pr. n. of a village, also called Otyiriahantan. The 
name „Kumkum" is said to derive from the hollow 
sound of the ground there. 
kumo , pi. verb-form of ku, to break ; to break several times, 
to fold up = kota; to break all over; to have the palsy; 
to feel as if the whole body would be broken ; inf. kOmo 
and kuomo, redupl. kumgkumo. 
kumo, kdomo, kumgmo, n. breaking, brokenness; palsy; 

folding up; reaping (maize) harvest. 
kfimQbe, kuomobe, n. harvest-time. 
kumotsofS, n. medicine 'against palsy. 
kuntu, n. wool; woolen stuff, blanket. Ot. th. s. 
kura, s. kwra. 

kose, kuselo, kusenyo etc. see ko, kose, n. 
kuse! int. = beg your pardon! (Ot. th. s.) s. taflatse. 
kusO, int. halloo! hoho! 
kosQ, kusukusu, adj. and adv. thick (of foliage, darkness, 

hair etc.) dark; -ly; -ly. 
kosum, n. eur. word; costum. 
katruku, n. circle; adj. and adv. round, -about. Ot. koton- 

kotsa, kotsa, n. bundle, grape; a kind of country-sponge 

made of a bark. Comp. saw, sao; bosao, n. 
kutu, n. circle, 
kotu, adv. in heaps, 
koto, n. heap; flock, herd, 
kutu, n. a small kind of pots, s. kulo a small fence in 

which yams is preserved, 
kutumpo, kdtompo, n. Ot. th. s. false-hood, hypocrisy; 
comp. osato; apasa; unrighteousness; ye — , fe — , v. to 
be false = pasa. 
kutumpofemo, n. hypocrisy. 
katumpofelQ and 

Zimmermann, Akra-VocaK 12 


178 kuturopofo — kwe. 

kutumpofo, n. false, unrighteous person; hypocrite; = osa- 

tofo, opasafo, n. 
kuluinpoyeli, = -femo, n. falsehood, hypocrisy; unrighte- 
kuyO, adj. wide, long, large = ya, of dress etc. 
kwa, inf. kwS, kwamo, v. to abdicate; to deny; to gainsay; 

to desert; to do purposely, kwa ekwa, purposely he has 

done it; to loose the colour, 
kwa, n. abdication; denial; desertion; wilful act; SSillfitr; 

loosing colour, 
kwa, adv. entiraly; together, truly, indeed; comp. kwa, v. 

which seems to imply the orig. meaning of „to be firm"; 

s. also anokwa (ano=: na, mouth, in Otyi); = tf^m, f. i. 

fe kwa, all togeler; even, also, foflar=tel^ po. Ot. 

== without cause, GSl: yaka, yakatfa). 
Kwabenya, pr. n. of two villages, 
'kwadu, akwl, n. bananas, 
'kwafonyo, okw., pi. -foi, n. = kosenyo, hiilo, farmer, 

plantationman, boor. Ot. th. s. 
kwdkwS, n. natur. sound, duck, = dabodabo, n. 
kwakwalabite (Ot. kwakwadabi), n. raven. 
kwSkwS antrebo, n. childrens play"; hide - and - seek; = 

okeyo, n. th. s. 
kw^kwe, n. house-mouse, comp. kploku, obiSi, n. 
kwakwebu, n. and 

kwakweflo, pi. -fod§i, n. mousehole. 
kwakwrakwa, n. a kind of yams, 
kwaman and 
kwamamfo, n. the whole company of slaves belonging to 

one master (sometimes hke „familia** in latin); comp. 

Ot. ako^, slave, 
kwasafo, n. (=koa-asafo. Ot. 'koa, slave), th. s. 
kwannne (Ot.), n. way -toll; SBeggcIb (fr. kwan and ade, 

pi. nne). 
Kwantanan (Ot. lit. „four-way" place, where two ways cross 

eachother) pr. n. of a village, 
kwao, V. to besmear; to plaster. 
Kwao (Ot.), pr. n. of one bom on Thursday, 
kwaomo, n. besmearing, plastering. 
kwasiS, (Ot.) adj. and n. foolish; fool, s. bulu, kolo, n. 
kwatrekwa, Ot. th. s., n. raggamufDn; (,/8ump"), ragged 

or nearly naked person, 
kwe, imprt. s. kwe and kwemo, inf. kwemo, v. to look, 

at, to view (comp. na); to care for,^ to watch over; 


kwe bi — kwo §i. 179 

coinp. bu, sra, wo, v.; to provide for. Ot. fye (fe); 
AdA. ye, hie, v. 

kwe bi, V. to care for a child. 

kwe gbe, V. inf. gbekwemo, to look on the way, to ex- 
pect, comp. me, V. 

kwe he or hewo, v. to look about. 

kwe hie, V. inf. hlekwemo, to look in or at the face; to 
receive one's face. 

kwe h!na, v. th. s. 

kwe m. k. fe n. k., v. to do s. th. for s. body's sake; kwe 
m. k. hewo fe n. k., th. s. 

kwe mil, V. inf. mlikwemo, to look into, to search. 

kwe no, V. inf. nokwemo, to oversee, to watch, care for etc. 
to be attentive. 

kwe m. k. nd no, v. to look upon 6. body's example (s. 
nd), inf. ndnokwemo. 

kwe se, v. inf. sekwemo, to look back. 

kwe §i, V. to look down. 

kwe si§i, V. to look under s. th. 

kwe m. k. yi, v. inf. yikwemo, to care for s. b. 

kwe! behold! lo! int. 

kwg, inf. kw^, v. to grow, to spring up (of seed, plants, 
comp. da, wo, v.). 

kwS, n. growth. 

kw6 afuT, V. to foam, inf. afu!-kw6. 

'kwe!, akwel, n. ground-beans; see also aboboi, n. 

kwei, = koi, n. door-way. 

kwelo, n. looker; overseer; herdsman; provider. 

kwemo, n. looking; caring, care; watching; oversight, in- 
spection; providence. 

kwo, ko, adj. broken, cracked, comp. kQ, v. ku and kuku, adj. 

kwo (negligent pronunciation ko), v. inf. kwole and kwo, 
to be high, deep (comp. „altns** in lat.); to come or 
go up, ascend, spring (of wells), to climb, up ; kwo tso, 
to climb a tree, kwo ke-ya goA ko no, to ascend a 
mountain. • 

kwO, n. climbing, ascension. 

kwole, n. bight; depth. 

kwolo, n. climber. 

kwon and kwonkwoA (comp. kron, Ot. the s. and konon- 
konon), adj. and adv. high, deep; highly, deeply. 

kwono = kpono, s. this. 

kwQ si, n. to descend. 

kwo si = kOa Si; to kneel down, 



180 kwrft — ladSdHd. 

kwra = korfi, kura (Ot. th. s.), corroboration of kwa, adv. 

truly, fully; really; indeed; together, entirely, at all; 

ebaa kwrS, he is not at all coming, 
ky 8. under ts. 
Kyerepon, pr. n. of a language spoken by a suppressed 

tribe in the interior. 


La, pr. n. („fire") of a town 2 miles east -ward of Osu; 

generally called by Europeans Labudai, Labude; by the 

Akwapim-people Dade (comp. Late); the seat of one of 

the greatest fetishes, called LakpS. 
la, v. n. and a,, inf. la, lala, lamo, to knit together; to 

hook, to fasten (a window etc.), to catch, f. i. by words, 

to join (as the links of a chain); to dream (inf. lamo), 

to sing, inf. lamo and lala; la m. k., v. to sing s. b., 

in praise or scorn, 
la, n. hooking, joining, 
la, AdA. V. = ladse in Ga, perh. to hang some-where (s. 

the preceeding word), to err, to be lost; to lose; to 

la, n. fire, light (comp. kane); pi. lai, fuel. Comp. ogy^ 

in Ot. Do la, v. inf. lado, to be very hot; comp. also 

ho la, h!e ye la etc. 
1^, n. pronounced with a higher voice than the former, 

blood; Ot. mogya, Ad. muo; He 1^ si, v. to spiU blood; 

the pi. lal is used for much blood as in Hebr. 
la nd sa m. k., v. to sing a mock-song (s. kpS) about s. b. 
lado, n. heat; fr. do la, v. 
lad§e, V. sometimes separated la dse, comp. la, Adn. verb 

and § 27, to be lost; to disappear; to lose (Ot. yera). 

Perf. tense, neg. voice, ind. mood: ladseko and lako dSe, 

inf. ladSemo; comp. also: wpsusumai elad§e6wQ, our 

souls are never lost (for us). 
ladSe gbe, v. to lose the way; Ad. la bio, v. 
ladse h!e, v. inf. hieladsemo, to disappear out of one's 

sight; eladse mihle, he disappeared before me. 
ladselo, n. loser, 
ladsemo, n. losmg; erring; disappearing; perdition; s. hle- 

kpatamo, fitemo, n. 
ladSenS, pi. -nii, n. any thing to take fire-coals with. 
Iads5, n. spittle; ts6 — , v. inf. lads6ts6mo, to spit; — 

— fie m. k. no , — at s. b. ^ 

ladSdnd, pi. -nii, n. spitbox; ladSdtsSmond, th. s. 


ladgCHtS^mo — lalofcu. 181 

ladSotfigmo, n. spitting. 

lafQsemQ, o. issue of blood. 

lasifiemQ, n. spilling of blood. 

laho, n. wantonness, naughtiness; issue of blood; fir. hola, v. 

laholo, n. wanton, naughty, wild person. 

lai, pi. n. or collect, n. fuel; firewood; le lai, v. to gather 

fuel, firewood, inf. lailemg. Comp. tSo, n. 
lailelg, n. person gathering firewood, 
lailomg, n. gathering of firewood, 
laitso, n. firebrand; piece-firewood, 
laka, y. inf. lakamo, to persuade, to silence, to still; to 

beguile, to deceive. Comp. dgko na and sisi, v. Ot. 

dada, y. 
laka gbeke, y. inf. gbek^lakamo, to SitiU a child, to silence 

a child, 
laka he, y. inf. helakamg, to deceiye one's self, 
laka hie, y. hlelakamg, to deceiye, beguile s. b. 
laka na, y. th. s. 

laka t§ui, y. to still or silence the heart, 
lakalo, n. persuader; silencer; deceiyer. 
lakamQ, n. persuasion; silencing; deception, 
lakpa, n. excuse; to lakpa, inf. lakpatd, to make excuses; 

to deny; comp. dsie na, fa he; na ha m. k. y., abla, n. 
lakpatd, n. excusing (if untrue); denial, 
lakpatolo, n. a person excusing himself, 
lakpatse, n. tb. s. 
lakpa, n. low bush not yel sufficiently grown to b6 cut for 

cultiyation, comp. ko, kayi, n.; gba, y. hQ — , y. to cul- 
tivate such bush, in want of better. 
lakpahumQ, n. cultiyation of unripe, young bush. 
Lakpd, pr. n. of the great fetish in La. He resides in a 

drum, which is secretly renewed from time to time by 

the fetish-priests, 
lakpatsa, n. a kind of young bush, = lakpa, n. 
lala, pi. y. of la, y. to be entangled, 
lala, n. singing; song; hymn, 
lalatse, pi. -tsemei, n. singer; precentor; composer, 
lalilei, n. fire-tongue, i. e. flame, 
lalo, n. hawk. 

Lalo, n. pr. of „gbobaloi" (n. which see). 
lalQ, n. a person hooking or joining; dreamer; singer; fr. 

la, y. 
laloku, n. Adn. an animal living in the river Yolta and said 

to come to shore and eat grass. It is said to be of 


182 Lamei — latSaiSS. 

the size of a pig, the skin of it resembles tbM lyf d 
pig also. 

Lamei, pi. people of La, — towns; sing. Lanyo. 

lami, n. finger-nail; nail of the toes. 

lamiflgmo, n. cutting of the fingernails. 

lamlu, n. lit. fire-dust, i. e. ashes; ash-colour; death-colottr 
(of black people). 

lamo, n. hooking; joining; dreaming; singing; dream. 

lamo, n. steam; s. lasu. 

lamo and lemo, inf. th. s. v. to lick; s. §o, v. 

lanmo, n. navel. 

lanmonblu, lamogblu, -gbugblu, n. rupture of the narel, 
very common among the natives, because newborn chil- 
dren are negligently treated in this respect. 

lanQ, n. place over the fire. 

lao, n. dan. sheet. 

lasa = lalS6, n. a fruit. 

lasrSmi, n. spark. 

lasu, n. (comp. sit) smoke; steam; lit. fire-dust. 

lasdlele, pi. -ledsi, n. steamer; s. 1^1^, n. 

lasfiogble, n. \^hirl-wind. 

lasdj n. fire-burning. 

laSeremo, n. kindling of a fire. 

lasa, n. th. s. 

lata, V. latamo, to stitch; to base. 

latalo, n. stitcher, baser. 

latamo, n. stitching; basing. 

latamokpg, n. basing-thread. 

late, n. fire-stone, i. e. hearth. 

Late, pr. n. of a town 25 miles north of Prampram in the 
Akwapim- mountains; the inhabitants speak Kyerepon; 
Ot. Date. 

latesi, n. hearth-ground; kitchen, comp. koiSi, kpataSi, Tesi 
(and Ot. -ase in Bibiase, Odmnase etc.). 

latete, n. hearth-stone. 

latga, p. (= la tfa?, tfa, to boil) heat; sweat, perspiration; 
latsa tsa, v. to be hot; to cause sweat, perspiration, in! 
latsatsa, -tsale; latSa tSale, he is hot, heated, he per- 
spires. Adn. th. s. Comp. hdmo, ktimai, fel etc. 

lat§^, n. stir-apple; an eatable fruit. 

latsabe, n. time of heat; hot season (comp. otsokrikri); 

latsagbel, n. heat-pimples. 

latgMSd, -t§ale» n. heat; perspiration. 


latSatSo — le. 183 

Wiatso, pi. -tsei, n. stir-appletree. 

lalso, pi. -Isei, n. fire-stick; fire-brand; s. laitSo, n. th. s. 

lalso, n. sharpness, wickedness; bravery, fr. tSo la, v. 

iatsolo, D. sharp, wicked; brare fellow. 

lau, s. lao, D. sheet.. 

Lawe, Adn. pr. n. of males. 

lawo, n, heal; fr. wo la, v. to be hot; comp. also mlila; 

mli 1^0 la, V. heating; burning, kindling, 
lawolo, n. incendiary. 

le, inf, le, aor. neg. irreg. Ife with neg. voice, and regul. 
lee, V. to know, to wit; sometimes = to be able, to 
understand, f. i. mile femo, I am able, understand, know 
to do it; milee yeli, I don't understand to eat, i. e. I 
can not eat il ; le nii, v. to know things, to be learned, 
understanding, prudent, wise; inf. nile or niile; comp. 
also na, na na, na sisi, yo; nye, v. M, n.; Ot. nim; hQ. 
Adn. th. s. 
le, le, n. knowledge, wisdom; understanding, comp. niile. 
le be, V. to know the time; to be aware. 
\e dsei, v. to know there; to have been — . 
le he, inf. hele, v. to know one's self, 
le he ko, v. to know a place, 
le he nii, inf. heniile, v. to know about one's self; to be 

le se, V. to know one's back; to be circumspect, 
le, inf. le, lemo, v. n. and a. to feed; to nurse; to nour- 
ish; to raise; to bring up, inf. le; to widen, to be wide, 
broad, inf. lele and lemg. 
le he, V. hel^, to support one's self, 
le lai, inf. Memo, v. (to feed the fire?) to gather fire- 
le mli, inf. mlilemg, v. to widen (inside), 
le m. k. si, V. to stretch s. b. out; to hurt, wound, injure 

s. b. inf. silemo; to forsake, to leave one alone. 
le, n. feeding; nursing; nourishing; raising, bringing up. 
le, pi. lehi, Adn. n. vessel, ship, boat = lele, pi. ledsi, 

in Gd. 
le, pron. comp. § 21, 34; independent pers. subst. pron 
he, she (it); comp. e; Adn. le, Ot. ond; demonstrat. 
adj. pr. or defin. article, the (l)cr, bie, ba^); Ad. o, also 
used to define sentences; in this case = Adn. ng, Ot. 
nd; personal objective pronoun, combined with the verb, 
him, her (it), Ad. le, Ol. n6; f. i. Gbomo le ni nyle 
bie le$ le eyile; the person who walked here about, 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

184 le — leleya. 

(even) he flogged her, ber SWenf(^ bet ba ^erumjing, 

ber f^Iuj fie. 
h, pron. Adn. he, she; him, her; s. the former, 
lebi (formerly legbu), n. morning; adv. in the morning 

(morflend); — mra, — mankS, — maftkp^, — adem^nkS, 

early in the morning; comp. also d§e tSere, v. dsetSere- 

mo, n. 
lebibo, n. morning dew. 
lebila, n. morning light, 
lebilala, n. morning hymn, 
lebiniit^umg , n. moming-work. 
lebiniyenii, pi. n. break-fast, comp. nakpamo, n. and kpa 

na, V. 
lebind, pi. -nil, n. s. th. pertaining to morning, 
lebisolemo, n. morning-prayer; morning-service. 
lebisSne, n. morning palaver, 
ledientse (Adn. lenitsg), pron. he himself, himself; she 

herself, herself, 
legehao, n. dan. (Sdgenrid^ter; an instrument to rectify saws, 
legelege, adj. slender, thin; fe — , v. 
legelegefemo, n. slendemess. 
Ighe, n. feeding place; pasture, 
lei, n. tail, 
lekete, leketerele (s. le and tetre), adj. and adv. wide, 

broad; -ly. ♦ 

lekolo, n. fat cattle, fatling. 

lele, pi. ledsi^ n. vessel, ship, boat (comp. ahima, ahen- 
*kese, duakro, aiilese etc.). Adn. le, Ot. hyen. Lele 

md m. k., v. to be affected by sea-sickness; s. n§Q, n. 
lele, pron. corroboration of le, even he, or she, the same; 

conj. = no le, keke le, then, 
lelebii, lelenbii, pi. n, ships-crew, 
leledfs, n. ship- wreck (s. dfa). 
lelekpelQ, n. ship-wright (s. kpe, v.). 

iisrihrzuf: I »»* •' "- '»-«»■» - 

quite irregular in Ga, but frequent in Otyi, comp. dua- 
kro, one-mast (@inmafler). 

leletse, pi. -tsemei, n. ship-master, captain. 

leleA, adv. certainly, truly, verily; int. verily, truly! comp. 
asanokwa, angkwa; krede etc. 

leleo, adj. and adv. narrow; narrowly. • 

leletSo, lelentSo, pi. -tsei, n. ships-mast; a kind of cloth. 

leleya, n. going in or of a ship. 


lelo — Id. 186 

lelo, n. knoiiviDg, wise, prudent person. 

lelo, n. feeder; nurse. 

lema, n. ax. 

lemo = Iamo» inf. th. s., v. to lick. 

lemo, n. breadth; wideness, width. 

l6mo» n. licking. 

lete, y. to be frugal, moderate, to spare; inf. 

letemo, n. sparing; frugality; moderation. 

lete he, inf. heletemo, v. = lete, v. 

11, inf. UmQ, T. to scoff, to mock; stronger than ye he 
feo or gbe he guQ. 

lia, inf. liamo, v. perh. europ. word, to line. 

liamo, n. lining. 

liamotso, pi. -t§ei, n. ruler. 

lila §i, Y. inf. sililamo, to be in doubt; to be hanging about, 
to loiter; to delay, defer, tarry. Comp. dida, v. 

lilei, n. tongue; n§Q-lilei, n. sea-tongue, a kind of seafish 
(3un(je); la-Ulei, flame; — nta, double tongue, literally 
and tropically. 

LigblS, pr. n. of the great fetish in Prampram. 

linli, adj. and adv. crooked, -ly; nane liAli, a crooked leg. 

lilQ, n. scoffer. 

lio = legelege, adj. thin, slender. 

limo, n. scoffing, mocking. 

lo, v. inf. Id and loroo, to take up, to take away; gener- 
ally used of a mass of things taken up together, comp. 
ko, kolo; wo, hole; nd; dsie, v. etc. wherefore: to 
scoop up (auff(t^dpfen), f. i. sand, swish, stones etc., inf. 
lomo; to weave; to knit; to twist; to make nets, baskets, 
bags etc., inf. lo. Peculiar expressions are: nu lo m. k..; 
wo lo m. k. etc. water takes s. b. away; sleep overcomes 
s. b. Alo gbomo 1^ afie, ni ake fomgnii ba sia» the man 
(child) is cast away and the afterbirth brought home, prv. 

lo ato, inf. atulomo, to take with the arms, to embrace, 
comp. ato, here atO; lo hie, — hienmeii, v. to frown; 
lo hie wo mli, to frown at, to stare at; comp. kpe, v. 

lo n. k. ha, V. to take away in a storm, at once. 

lo la, inf. IMoniQ, v. to take up blood; to bring blood and 
its revenge upon one's self; elo man Id, he has the re- 
venge of the tribe upon him, s. man, n.; blood spilt must 
be Taken up, because it defiles the ground; this is done 
by the revenge or punishment for il. 

Id, pi. loi, n. flesh; meat; living creatures; helo, hewolo, 
flesh of man; kolo, bush-flesh, wild beast, beast; loflO, 


186 'lo ~ lokomo. 

bird; lo, nSonlo, t&hlo^ fish, sea-fish, riverfish; wolo, 
lo nkQ or nktiA, lean meat; wo lo or lol, t. to briii^ 
forth fishes (of water); losra, losla, losal^, n. lit. roiftei 
meat or fish, a kind of preserved fish etc.; gbe lo, v 
to kill (to catch) fish, hd — , y. to sell — ; §a lo» ▼-. 
to angle, etc. 

'lo, alo, conj. and interrogatory particle, or, in close con- 
nection of the sentence the na*" is cut ofiT. Also if it 
is the interrogatory particle, it may be translated yfitfi 
or, the following contradictory sentence to be left out, 
f. i. Oba lo? Are you coming or (sc. not)? Comp. 
be; nto, ani, aso, Ot. ana; lat. ne, num; greek jtfi} (tm 
©cin>abif$cn „ha"?). A very frequently used word at 
the end of enumerating sentences is „lo nd**, „or a thing" 
= „or the like**, „or so", „etc." 

lo, n. weaving, knitting, twisting etc., s. lo, v. 

lo = Ion, n. a kind of thread, twine or cord made from 
the „ adobe "-palm-tree. 

loda, n. catching of fish or game by traps. 

lofa, n. fish-river; fish-pool. 

lofine, pi. -fidsi, n. fin; s. fine. 
Jo flikilo, n. flying fish. 

loflo, pi. lofddsi, n. bird, comp. lo, kolo etc. 

lofldbi, n. young bird. 

loflobu, -flo, n. hole of a bird. 

lofldda, n. bird-catching. 

loflddulo, n. bird-catcher; s. dO. 

lofloflikimo, n. flight of birds. 

lofl5nabu, n. birdsmouth, bill. 

loflotsu, n. birds-nest. 

loflowao, pi. -wabii, n. birdsfinger, claw, talon. 

lofldwiemo, n. birds-talk. 

loflowolQ, pi. -wodsi, n. birds-egg. 

logbe, n. catching of fish fr. gbe lo, v. 

lohetolo, lotoio, n. scales of fishes. 

loholo, n. fish-monger. 

lahomo, n. fish-mongery. 

loke, inf. lokemo, v. to sprain; to disjoint, dislocate; mi- 
nane eloke, my foot is sprained; = lone, v. th. s. 

lokemo, n. spraining; dislocation; disjoint. 

loko (or logo), V. inf. lokomo, io go round, - - round 
about, astray. 

lokomo, n. going round, astray. 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

lokoliki — luino. 187 

Igkoiiki or logoligi* aclj. serpeDtlike, flef^tdngeU; fe — , v. 

loko si, iDf. SilgkomQ, v. th. s. 
loko][i, n. horn of a beast. 

lokotio, loto, pi. -bii, a^j. very small; fe — , v. to be - *. 
lokprokeroo, n. scaling of fishes, 
lolo, adv. still; yet; now; ehle'ka lolo, he is still alive; 

comp. kd he, v. 
IoIq, n. weaver, knitter etc., fr. lo, v. 
lomo, n. taking up. 
Lomo, pr. n. of males, 
lomo, inf. lomo, loroomo, v. to curse; to scold hard; to 

blaspheme; s. bg musu, v. 
lomo, lomgmo, n. cursing, scolding, Uasphaning; s. mu- 

subo, n. 
lomglo? n. cursing person, 
lomdmo, n* catching of fish, venison. 
Ion, n. a kind of thread, twine or cord made of the „ adobe ^- 

palm-tree. S. lo. It is generally used for basing only. 
lonSala, loSla, loSra, n. preserved fish, lit. rotten fish, 
lota, inf. lotamQ, v. to stir up = futa, v. tsine no — , v. 

to have stomack-ache, to be inclined to vomit. 
Igpo, n. flea = gb^henmon, s. this, 
losamg, n. angling fr. §a lo, v. 
loto = lokotio, pi. -bii, adj. very small, 
lototo, n. fish-scales. \ 

'lowQ, olowQ, n. leopard = kotSe, hleiimalo etc. 
lowu, n. fish-bone, 
loyeli, n. meat-eating, flesh-eating, 
loyelo, n. meat-, flesh-eater, 
lu, V. inf. la and lump, pi. lumo, to strike, to smite, to 

fall; to cast; lu m. k. te, to pelt s. b. with a stone; 

lumo - - tei, stones; to be dull, stupified foolish. 

Comp. tfa, V. fo, v. 
lu §i, V. inf. Silumo , to fall down, comp. tfa si, gbe si, v. 
lu, n. striking, smiting; falling; pelting; dullness, 
la, n. skylight; hole or opening in the top of a house or 

thatch; chimney. 
IuIq, n. striker, pelter. 
lulalu, adj. and adv. (imitation of the sound of flowing 

water) soft, quiet; -ly, -ly; of the flowing of a river; 

fe — , V. to be quiet; to flow quietly, 
lulalufemg, n. quietness. 
umQy n. casting, striking, pelting; fr. lu, v. 


188 lumo — ma. 

lumo, pi. lumei, n. prince; goyernor; commandant; see 
amrado; mahtsebi; ablade; ye lumo, v. inf. lumoyeli, to 

lumobi, n. prince. • 

lumohewale, n. power of government. 

lumoyeli, n. government; rule. 

lumoyelibe, n. time of government. 

lumoyelihe, n. place of government; seat of government. 

lumoyino, n. period or reign of a governor. 

lumoyinobii, pi. n. contemporaries of a governor. 

lus, n. dan. candle; comp. kane, n. 

lustso, pi. -tsei, n. candle-stick. 

lutu, inf. lutumo, v. to mix (with earth, mud etc.; s. futu); 
to dig the ground (and mix it for cultivation); comp. 

lota, futa, V. futu, v. 
lutumQ, n. mixing; digging 

Words not to be found under M. s. under nm. 

Ms, V. inf. ma, and mSmo, pi. mSmo, to lie, of hard and 
large things, to stand, used of boxes, presses etc.; comp. 
damo, V. to lay, to set, to put, to stand, v. a., generally 
„ke-mS*'; to build rr= tfa; — to borrow; to lend (not 
used of money, but of other things, s. fa, v.); to knock 
with the bones of the fist. Gomp. Ot. m3, to give; and 
Ga: damo, v. 

mS aladsa, v. to row with long sticks, where ground is to 
be found. 

m§ he, V. inf. hema, to plaster (a house etc.). 

ma hie, inf. hiemS, v. to set before ; to stand or lie before. 

ma mli, V. inf. mJima, to stand, lie, rest in; to set into; 
to plaster inside. 

ma na, v. inf. nama, to stand at etc. 

ma no, V. inf. noma, to stand on. 

ma sg, V. inf. sgma, to stand back, behind. 

ma n. k. no aduatso, v. to affirm s. th. 

ma §i, V. inf. simamo, sima, to stand, lie, rest on the 
ground; to set down, to stand down. 

ma tsu, inf. tSuma, v. to build = tfa tsu, v. 

ma yi si, v. yisima, to let the head sink down. 

ma — before verbs = mi a, mi ba, 1 will or shall, comp. 
Table VII. 


mS — mfimfi. 189 

mS, n. lending; botrowing; setting; standing; building; box 
on the ear, stroke; gba m. k. hie m5, to strike s. b. 
into his face; etc. fr. mS, v. 

mS, n. maize-flour, generally ^et, because ground with 
water; dough; to m3, to put the loaves into the oven; 

ma, Adn. v. = ba, to come; Ot. ba, Ayigbe fa. 

md, mdn, pi. m3d§i, n. building?, town, people of it, tribe, 
nation; country. In this word as in da, dan; de, den; 
te, ten, the terminaUonal augment n = mli is sometimes 
separable, sometimes inseparable, as mdn le and mi len, 
inside of the town, the town and its contents; as the 
ideas of both may also be considered separable or in- 
separable (comp. go to town, go into town, rule the 
town [together with its contents] rule in the town, Ga: 
ye man le no and ye mSi len nd). Ot. omdn; Ad. m§, 
mdm, th. s. 

maba = mawa, n. maid-ser?ant (3){agb). 

mgdse, inf. m3dsemo, v. to send (some thing, not persons, s. 
tsu, v.). Comp. m§ and § 27 about the compounds of 

madselo, n. sender; speditor. 

mddsemo , n. sending, spedition, s. mddSe and comp. tSu, v. 

mSdsi, pi. of man, n. towns, tribes. 

madsimadsi fl^, all the different towns or tribes. 

madsiasane, n. national palaver. 

magbamo, n. striking, boxing, s. gba md, v. maigblamo, 
th. s. 

magbalo, n. boxer. 

magbelemo and mawyiemo, n. grinding of flour; s. mS, n. 

mahutso, pi. -tSei, n. mahogany-wood; — tree. 

mahutso-okpld, n. mahogany table. 

m&hao! salutation (Ot. = „mannii*' in G. how is the town 
here?) answer: man d§o! the town is quiet. 

maf, n. (s. ma) boxes; gbla mai, v. to box. 

male, inf. malemg, v. to lie, comp. pasa; pecul. sentence: 
omalee, omaleko! lit. thou didst not lie, thou hast not 
lied! = it is true, thou art right! 

'male, amale, n. lie. 

'malelQ, amalelo, n. liar = opasafo. 

'malemo, amalemo, n. lying; lie. 

malo, n. setter; builder fr. ma, v. 

mam, Adn. n. = man, town etc. 

mSma, redup. v. of ma, v. 


190 mama — mSft. 

mama, n. cloth of any kind; cloth or dress upper gar- 
ment of the natives, consisting of a large square piece 
tastefully cast by men over one shoulder or fixed round 
the waist and flowing down to the feet, by women it 
is fixed above the breasts (generally when married) or 
under them (generally when unmarried) and only reach- 
ing to the knees. The latter wear a kind of shawl over 
it. See lekle, under-cloth of men and boi, n. th. s. of 
women. With poor people the „mama'' is also the 
„ cover" in the night; during hard work it is put aside; 
sometimes it is used as vessel to carry s. th. in. Comp. 
the Hebr. lustoms. Dsie mama, v. to put the cloth off; 
with men „to remove it from the chest as a sign of 
respect; bu (or ha or wo) mama, v. to dress with it, 
to wear native-dress (comp. wo atade); to cover one's 
self with cloth; lo mama, v. to weave cloth; kpe ma- 
ma, V. to sew cloth etc. lo mama mli, v. to wear a 
„mama** which is to large; to embroider. 

mamabtl, -bumQ, n. wearing of native-dress; covering. 

mamadsiemo, n. undressing; uncovering; a sign of respect. 

mamafe, n. rest of cloth; rag. 

mamaha, = mamabQmo. 

mamahefomo, n. washing of cloth; s. niiahefomo, n. 

mamahdlo, n. cloth-dealer. 

mamahSmo, n. cloth-dealing; s. hd, v. 

mamakpe, n. sewing of cloth. 

mamakpelo, n. native tailor, — seamstress; s. niikpelQ. 

mamakwamo, n. losing colour of cloth. 

mamaiolQ, n. weaver. , 

mamalo, n. weaving. 

mamalomo, mamanlomo, th. s. 

mamanlo, n. embroidering, fr. lo mama mli. 

mamawd = mamaba, -ha; but seldon» used; comp. wo 
atade, v. 

mami, n. engl. = ma*am, madam. 

mSmo, pi. form of m3; n. setting; standing; building; s. 
mS, V. and n. 

mSmpSm, mSinkpSm, m9iikp9fi, Ot. mSmpSm; n. land cro- 
codile; it is of a smaller size, than those living in water 
(ba, dseadsen), and eaten by the natives. 

mSmu, n. roasted maize-flour, a favorite food for travellers, 
warriors etc. made into pap; s. tremasugbo etc. 

mSn, pi. madsi (Ot. omSn, Adn. mam) , n. lit inside of a 
town = ma mli, s. mS, town, towns-people as a body; 


mSA — mannye. 191 

tribe; people, nation; kingdom; country (in a political 

sense); comp. akrowa; manku, asafo, ta, akutso, dsaku, 

lYcku; sikpon; akwaSdn etc. 
indn, pi. ingdsi, n. a kind of herring, the seafish roost 

frequently caught along this coast and in gre^t masses 

sold into the interior. 
mSn-akutso, pi. -tsei, n. town-quarter iivith its inhabitants; 

divided into „wekumei** or families. 
m8n-asafo, n. town-company; a military division answering 

to „akut§o", which is a civil-division, 
mdnbii, pi. of mannyo (seldom used), lit. children of a town 

(comp. the Hebr.) towns-people; citizens. « 

manbo = mSntO, n. founding or foundation of a town; 

fr. bo mati. 
manbolo = mantolo, n. founder of a town (after whom it 

is often called, f. i. ASdnman, Yaoman, Adseiman, Adu- 

maft etc.). 
mSnbu, n. towns-watch, protection of a tovra or people; 

fr. bu man, v. ^ 

mSndfa, n. breaking, destruction ^f a town, or the people; 

fr. dfa man, v. 
mShdSo, maftdSole, n. puplic safety, security, peace, s. 

dso, hedso, hedsole etc.; fr. man dso, v. 
manfo, n. walking in the town in procession; fr. fo man, v. 
'm§hf5, 'mamfd, am., n. ruins (of a town) ; s. koikoi, kuikui. 
mano, n. the mango-fruit, 
manotso, pi. -tsei, n. mangotree. 

maftg6, maAo, n. Ot. th.s. foot-stool; bench; s. sei, ablogwa. 
maAke = ademankS, and 
'mankS, am., n. (Ot.) civil war, s. mansd. 
mankp^, n. and adv. early in the morning; (at) daybreak; 

— mra, very early; lebi-mankp^, s. lebi, n. h!e f^lefute, 

— matamata, n. 

mankpa, n. walking about in the town; s. kpa, v. 

mankpagbg, n. loitering dog; loiterer. 

mankpam, s. mampam. 

mankpe, mankpemo, n. assembling or assembly of the town 
or people; s. kpe, v. 

mankralo, mailklalo, n. town -genius, s. kla; the first in 
rank after the king. 

manku, n. part of a town, tribe. 

mannii, pi. n. things belonging to a town. 

mannye, pi. -nyemei, n. lit. towns-, people's- or country- 
mother; queen, if ruling (s. mants^M) first woman in 


W2 mannyo — mfifttSeM. 

a town, who has to lead (he women in any ptAlIc binl«i 
ness or in war. She has female officers under her. This 
institution is of great services. Ye — , ?. to be queen | 
etc, inf. maAnyeyeli. Corop. mantse, n. 

mannyo, pi. maAbii n. the sing, is seldom used; citizen, 
inhabitant of a town mSnyo, th. s. 

mS6noyeli, n. government of a town; s. mSntseyeli, n. 

manse, n. back of the town, behind the town ; region far 
away; adr. afar, far away, afar ofif, -son, very far; ete 
manse, he is gone to a far country, on a journey; 
manse — , foreign; manse-wiemo, foreign language etc. 

mjnsenyo, pi. -mei, -bii, n. foreigner; stranger; s. gbo, n. 

mdhsend, pi. -nii, n. strange, foreign thing. 

manso, mans6, n. public difficulty; rivalry; guilt; rebel- 
lion, revolution; civil -war. Comp. s5, atfia. Ke m. k. 
ts6 mansd, v. to live with s. b. in rivalry. 

mansdtsd, n. enmity (of public kind), rivality; comp. nye, 
hedsd, hiekd etc. 

mSinsdtSdlo, n. rival, eneqiy; fr. \&6 mansd. 

mSAsu and 

mdnsubad, n. character of a town, nation, etc. 

mSinta, n. army of a town or people; war of a town or 
people, 8. ta, n. j 

mantabilgi, n. garrison, soldiers, warriors of a town. 

manto, n. founding of a town, fr. to man; comp. bg maft; 

mantolg, n. founder of a town = manbolo* 

mantse, pi. mantSemei or mSdsiatsemel, n. lit. towns-father; 
country-father {„ganbcdt)atcr'0 ; king; first person of » 
town; caboseer; major, (ilomg; Sutgcnncijler; S^ult^ 
fieife); ye mantse, v. to be king etc. to rule,. reign; inf. 
mantSeyeli; wo m. k. mantse, inf. mantse wo, to exalt, s.b. 
to be king, to make s. b. king; kpa mantse (sc. ye sel 
le no) inf. mantSe kpamo, to dethrone a king, s. kpa. 
Comp. mannye, n. , and kon, n. mSitSe in Adn. 

mSiitsebi, com. n. -binu, pi. bihi m. n. -biyo, pi. biyci, 
f. n. kings- child; prince; princess. 

mSntsebO, n. creation of a king; = mSntsewo, n. 

m9nt§efai, n. kings-hat, crown, diadem. Comp. akekr6, n., 
kdhfai, n. 

mahtsekpamo, n. dethroning of a king; fr. kpa nOint^e, v. 

m9ntsema4, n. Kings-town; residence. 

mgntseM, pi. mantsenamei, mantsemeianHmei, wife of a 
king; queen, comp. maAnye. 


e - 

mMtSeseYnotamo — matanwO. 193 

mfiAtSesefnotamQ, n. enthroning of a king, fr. mSMse ta 

sel no, V. 
m^tsesel, n. seat of the king, sometimes richly decorated, 

throne; mfintSe ta (sc. se!) no, the king is enthroned. 
mlMSeseiterelQ, n. throne- or stool-bearer to the king. 
mSntsesemo, pi. semei, n. the first person in rank after 

the king; s. maAkralo, semo, n., saccessor of a king. 
mSfttseseo, pi. -sebii, n. the next following or puisne 

brother of a king; the crown-prince, successor. 
mSntseta, n. royal army. 
mSntSetse, n. father of the king. 
mfthtsetSo, n. royal staf; scepter, 
maiitsewe, n. king'shouse; court; residence. 
n^SMseweku, n. royal family. 
mSntSewebii, n. rbyal household. 
mfiAtgewiemo, n. a royal word. 
mSntseyeli, n. reign; kingdom; government, 
mantseyelihe, n. kingdom; residence of the government. 
mShtseyino, n. time of government of a king; Dawid, 

mantse le yino, under the king David (gr. im c. gen.). 
manyamdnyS, adj. and adv. rough, with a rent surface, dis- 
orderly ; kagumo akutu le mSnySmSnya, take wo tSgtseo 

fufuihle, don't peel the orange roughly, as (if) a fowl 

picks the face of a pudding. 
mdnySimSnySifemo, n. roughness. 
Manya („I have found" or „I shall find"), pr. n. of one 

of the Krobo-towns (that one belonging to Odonkg Azu, 

s. Yilg, pr. n.). 
M5sa, Mansa (Ot.) pr. n. of the third daughter, 
masei, n. and adv. side; near; ba mimasei, come at my 

side; ba mind, come to me. Ad. mase, n. 
maseigbei, n. access to a person; s. nogbe, n. 
masa, n. rotten dough, i. e. leaven; comp. sa, sala, losla 

etc. wo. 
masa, inf. maSawO, v. to leaven; but comp. ffi, v. to be 

masaw(^, n. leavening. 
ma§i, n. land of a people, people, nation, 
mata, matamata, adj. and adv. mixed, slimy, soft; slimily; 

fe — , V. 
matafemo, n. softness etc. 
matan, n. interruption; wo — , v. to interrupt; = alali, 

anantaka, etc. 
matanwd, n. interruption. 

Zimmermann, Akra-Vocab. 13 


194 nM6 — memedM. 

mdto, n. putting bread into the oyen; to mi, y. to put the 
doughy bread into the oven. 

mstolo, n. person doing thi^ (in Germ. „<S^\t%tx"). 

mStse, Ad. n. = mahtse. 

mawa, n. maid-servanl, SR(igb. The word is either Otyi- 
baba, maba, mawa, female person; or dan. 

mg, inf. mg, to wait; - - for; to expect, to hope; to re- 
main, to be quiet; comp. kwe gbe; hie me, inf. hleme» 
y. to be at home, to be contant, s. h!e tSe, th. con- 

mi, n. waiting. 

m§, mM, inter, pron. what? Sometimes it is put at the 
end of inter, sentences, as: Sane ni adSadSe at§d le dsi 
me? lit. the palaver which was related is what? = what 
is thfe palaver? — 

meba,.meba, = meni ba, adv. pron. lit. what came? = 
why? JMeba okeemi? Why didst thou not tell me? = 
menihewQ ni . . .? 

mSbeyino? what time, when? 

me, Adn. pron. objectively used, them, = ame in Gft; 
n. people = mei in G3. 

mei , n. niatter coming out from the eyes esp. when sick. 

mei, n. small red beans growing at a shrub and used for 
gold weighing. 

meitso, n. the shrub of them. 

mei, me, pi. of mo which see, n. person; = people; Gerra. 
man, see a. 

meiabo nl, as many as ... . 

meididsiand, pi. -nii, n. something appertaining to black 
people; comp. blQfdnd, n. 

MeididSiasikpon, pr. n. lit. black people's land (s. mo- 
din), Africa. 

meididsiasane, n. palaver, matter of black people ; comp. 
blofdsane, n. 

mele, inf. melemo, v. dan. to inform, report, esp. one's 
self as sick etc. („mell)cn"). 

melelo, n. informer, reported; person reported as sick. 

melemo, n. report, information; report, that s. body is sick. 

m^le, adj. bad, nasty. 

ml6le, omel6, n. thirty cowries. 

mglo^ n. waiting person. 

melo and adj. stupid, lazy; dull. 

memed§i, irreg. pi. of momo, adj. old; hi medsi or h! 
memedSi, old men. 


rn^mo — mi. 195 

m^mko, n. waiting. 

mene =mone, dem* pron. this (person); pi. menemei. 
m§ne? = what (is) this? := meni dSi ene? 
meni = me, the former more used in the beginning, the 
latter more at the end of sentences and in combinations, 
int. pron. what? f. i. Meni eke? What he said? Eke 
me? th. s. Mg gbomo ba? what man came? But „ni 
(ni)" being originally also a verb = dsi, to be (comp. 
n\, rel. pron. and conj.) meni gbomo ba? can also be 
said. Sometimes „meni^ is also put at the end of a 
menimeni? whatever? used as adv. above all, best, f. i. 
Ke ele na menimeni le, elee tamo blgfdmei, if he under- 
stood art best, he does not understand like the Europeans. 
S. fe n. k. V. 
MensS and M^sd, pr. n. of the third son (Ot.); s. MansS, 

pr. n. 
mensre, n. dan. physician; doctor; comp. tsalo; tsofatSe^ n. 
mensretsu, n. docters' room; apothecarys' shop, 
niereke, n. large river-fishes with flat heads, a great article 

of trade in the Yoltaregions. 
mf6nini, mfoniri (Ot. th. s.) n. picture; s. amagd, subain, 

bend etc. 
mfuna, n. a kind of young bush; s. lakpa, n. 
mi , V. inf. mile, hunting with dogs (comp. gbobi) ; ya mile, 

v. th. s. (go ahunting). 
ml, V. inf. mimo, to submerge, to sink; to be swallowed; 
to swallow ; to make swallow ; to dip into ; to enter into 
8. business; to venture, to dare, 
mi, n. round little stones or nuts to play with; s. fobite; 

a similar stone, 
mi, m' Adn. n. inside = mli in Ga, mu in Otyi, me in 

mi, n. breast- or chest -bone; chest; heart (comp. tsitsi 
and tsui) ; ml se , inf. mlse , v. (the breast-bone reaches, 
is .large enough) to be content, happy; to rejoice, simi- 
lar to hie me, v.; sedse m. k. ml, v. transit, of the 
former (comp. $ 27 about dse) to make one's breast, or 
chest satisfied, to comfort, rejoice s. b., inf. mlSedsemo; 
ke nine fo ml na, to lay the hand upon the breast (in 
acknowledgement of guilt, accusation etc. or in giving 
a promise; Mc ^anb a«f« ^erj legen. 
mi, m-, n-, n-; -mi, -m', -n, -n, pers. pron. I; mine; 
me; comp. § 34. 



196 mim — mlsesane. 

mim-, ml-, m-, n-, A-, present augment §i3f. 

mla, V. inf. mlamo, to squeeze, to press; to gird one*s 

self; -he, v. to gird the loins, inf. hemlamQ; -sen, y. 

to throttle, to strangle; s. seA, y, and n. 
mla hTe, inf. hlemiamo, to press the face, to sustain, to 

bear (pain, labour etc.). 
mlalo, n. a person pressing etc. fr. ro!a, v. 
mlamo, n. pressing, squeezing, girding; throttUng. Comp. 

mia6, pi. mtadSi, n. mole, molewarp. 
mlamgnd, pi. -nii, n. girdle, 
mido = mikome, mikeke, I alone; only I; comp. to, eko- 

meto, th. s. 
mldsi, pi. of mils, n. drum, 
mldsiayilo, n. drummer, 
mldsiayl, n. drumming, fr. yi m!le» v. 
mikeke, mikome, I alone, I only. 

mile, n. sporting, hunting with hounds ; comp. gbobimo, n. 
mllelo, n. venison; — gbobilo, n. 
mileloniiyenii , pi. n. prepared venison, 
milo, n. sportsman, comp. gbobilQ, gbglo, n. th. s. 
m!l^, pi. midsi, n. small kind of drums; yi-, v. dram; 

s. otente, ob6nu etc. 
mlleyl, n. drumming, 
mileyilo, n. drummer, 
mlletse, n. th. s. 
mim -, s. mi-; present augment, 
mllo, n. swallower; dipper, 
mimo, n. submersion, sinking; swallowing; dipping; 

Mimpemihoasem, pr. n. of a village (Ot. = I don't like 

palaver! comp. Odomiabra = If thou love me, come! 

pr. n. of a village not far from the former), 
min = mini= midsi, it is I. 
min- = mim-, ml-, present aug. 
mina, n. chest; comp. tsitsi, fufo, n. 
mise, n. contentment; happiness; rejoicing, joy; pleasure, 

comf6rt. S. ml, n. Comp. hieme, n. 
misebe, n. joyful lime, 
misedselo, n. comforter, rejoicer, fr. sedse m. k. mi, s. 

ml, n. 
mTsedsemg, n. comforting, rejoicing; comfort; s. kpatamQ,D. 
miseSsemosane, n. comforting circumstance, 
misfisane, n. joyful news. 


mitgo — _ mli. 197 

mitSo, pi. -iSei, n. a tree bearing the Dut, called „mi", n. 

mla, mra, Ot. th. s., n. law; wo mla, v. inf. mlawo, to 
give a law; t5 mla, v. inf. mlat5, mlatdmo. to transgress 
the law; comp. kita, akpg. S. mS, v. to set. 

mla, mra, mramra, adv. quick, quickly; soon ( the 
Ot. bra, come!) 

mlantfi, n. leopard, comp. olowQ, kotSe, hleilmalo, n. 

mlatdmo, n. transgression of the law. 

mlatdlo, n. transgresser of the law. 

mlatsdlo, n. law-teacher; lawyer; vo/uxog. 

mlatsdmo , n. teaching of the law. 

mlatsdmgwolo, n. and 

mlawolo, pi. -wodSi, n. book of law. 

mlawo, n. law-giving. 

mlawolo, n. law-giver. 

mlawomo = mlawo, n. 

mle, mele, n. mushrooms, 
p-mle, mule, n. depth? s. mu mle, -mule, s. 

mlebo (Ot. berabo) n. liver (perh. europ. word). 

mlefo, n. a mild person, comp. bleO. 
. mlelo = mHelo , n. venison. 

mli (shortened m', h, n) n. inside; adv. and subs^ntive 
postposition in inside, inwardly; etc. Ot. mu, m (n, n), 
Adn. mi. m (n, n). Mli is one of the noiQis used as 
relational- or formwords to express the relation of place, 
comp. he (the contrary of mli), hewo; Me, se; no, si,' 
sisi; A6, masei; yi, t§ui, te, ten etc. Comp. §§ 24—26, 
§ 29, §§ 44—47. The most common combinations with 
mli, by which all may be sufficiently understood are the 
following: ba mli, inf. mliba, v. to come in; to be ful- 
filled; contracted baft; be mli, ben, neg. v. (s. ye mli) 
to be not in, to be not true, to be false; ben, it is not 
so! b§ mli, v. to. sweep in some place, --into; be mli, 
V. to take hold in (with pincers), to pinch in; to nar- 

* row into etc. Comp. be, v.; and be v.; ble mli, v. to 
lie in a place, s. ble; bote mli, v. to enter; dfa mli, 
inf. mhdfd, v. to break the inside. . . ^do mli, v. to bend; 
dsa mli, inf. mlidsd, v. to divide; dse mli, v. to come 
forth from; dse mli, v. th. s., dsie mli, v. to take out; 
fa mli, V. to take out; fo mli, v. pi. flo mli, to cut in 
two; fo mli, v. to wash inwardly; gba mli, pi. gbla mli, 
inf. mligba, -gbamo, -gblamo, todivule == dSa mli; gbe 
mli, inf. mllgbemo, v. to fall in; to fall into (einfaUen, 
^ineinfaden; gba mli, v. to bore through, to make hole 


198 mil be — mii le. 

into, to perforate; hi mli, y. inf. mlihile, to dwell in; 
ho mli, to lie in a cavity, to lie betwixt; to shove in, 
-into; ka mli, V. to stain; k9 mli, to lie in; ko mli, v. 
to pick out, pi. klo, k$lo mli; kSmli. v. to break into; 
kpa mli, v. to select, to be dainty; kp9 mli, v. to stretch 
one's self; kpemli, v. to decide; kp6 mli, v. to redeem 
from; lemli, v. to know the inside, i. e. about; le mli, 
V. to widen (the inside); lo mli, v. to take out from; 
lu mli, V. to strike into,^ to fall into; md mli, v. to stand 
in, to put in etc. mi mli, v. to sink into; to dip into; 
md mli, to take hold in, at, of; na mli, v. to see into, 
to have insight; nS mli, v. to press in, to squeeze out, 
to shut up; n6 mli, v. to take from; sa mli, v. to pre- 
' pare inwardly; §a mli, y. to wipe, white-wash the in- 
side; ta mli, pi. tra mli, v. to sit in; to touch the inside, 
to stir, --up; to move; t§a mli, v. to dig; t§6 mli, v. 
to turn in'; wo mli, v. to cast in, to give over and 
above; wo mli la, v. to make one angry, comp. mli wo 
la; wu mli, v. to cast one's self into (the water) to bath; 
ya mli, v. to enter =■- bote; ye mli, negat. be mli, v. 
to be in, to be true; shortened yen, yeA! = truly! yl 
mH, yin, v. to strike in; to hit; to enter upon (a jour- 
ney); eyifi ete, he went oiF, he departed; Amene miyin, 
to day I started ; yo mli , v. to perceive etc. 

mli be, V. n. to be inwardly narrow, contracted; s. be, v. 

mli dsa, v. to be divided, inf. mli, d§a, comp. dsa mli, v. 

mli dso, V. n. to be sparing, illiberal (inwardly bitter, s. d§o); 

. inf. mli-dsomg. 

mli d§Q, inf. mlidsole, v. to be kind. 

mli fe m. k. tei, = mli ta, v. to be touched, moved; 
comp. also yi mli. 

mli Hi, inf. mliflimo, v. n. (to feel inward tickling?) s.fl], v.; 
to be glad, happy; mimli flimi, I am glad; comp. mi 
s^, hie me, nyS, v. 

mli fe fla, v. to have an inward complaint. 

mli fu, V. n. inf. mlifu -mg, to swell inwardly, i.e. to get 
angry, to be angry; comp. mli wo la, gli, v. 

mli fa m: k. , v. a. to be angry with s. b. 

mli gba, pi. mH gbla, inf. mligbamo, mligblamo, v. to part 
in two, to be divided, comp. gba mli, v. 

mli gbo, V. to be without inward feeling. 

mli hi, inf. mlihile, v. to be inwardly good, to be kind. 

mli kpg, v. s. kpo, v. 

mli le, V. to be inwardly wide], roomy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

n4i nu he — roligblalQ. 1 99 

tnti nu he, v. to feel inwardly, 
mli pila, y. to be inwardly wounded, 
mli ta, V. n. inf. mlitd, to be inwardly touched or mo- 
ved; comp. yi mli, mli fe m. k. tei, v. 
mli t§e, V. n. inf. mlitSemo, to be inwardly pure, clear; 

Ol. mu tew, V. 
mli tSere, v. n. corrobor. of the former, s. t§e, tSere, to 

be inwardly rent; to be rent in two, to be divorced, 
mli tsd ye n. k. hewQ, v. to yearn about s. th. := musun 

ts6, v.; inf. mlitsd. 
mli wa, V. n. inf. mli wale » to be inwardly hard; to be 

mli wo la, v. n. to be inwardly hot (s. wo la), to be angry; 

emli wo m. k. la, he is angry about s. b. ; inf. mlilawO; 

comp. wo ro. k. mli la; mU fQ; gli v. 
mliba, n. fulfillment; fr. ba mli, v. 
mlibe, n. narrowing; fr. be mli, v. 
mlibemo, n.; sweeping in s. place; fr. be mli and mli 

be, V. 
mlibotemo, n. entering; entrance, ingress etc. 
mlidsa, n. division; part = mligbamo ; fr. dsa mli and mli 

dsa, V. I 

mlidSalo, n. divider, 
mlidse, n. coming or going forth, 
mlidsiemo, n. production fr. dsie mli, v.; exception. 
mlidsielQ, n. producer. 

mlidSomo, n. sparing; illiberality ; fr. mli d§o, v. 
mlidsolQ, n. illiberal person. 
mlidsQlg, n. a merciful person, 
mlidsgle, n. yearning. 
mlid§Q, n. th. s. 
mlifdmo = mlidsiemo , n. 
mlifi, mllHrno, n. binding into s. th. 
mliflilo, n. happy, glad person, 
mliflimg, n. happiness, gladness, fr. mli fli, v. 
mliflomo, mlifo, n. cutting into pieces; fr. fo mli, pi. flo 

mli, V. 
mlifomo, n. grudging, grudge, fr. fo mli, v. 
mlifomo, n. inward washing; fr. fo mli, v. 
mlifu, n. anger. 
mlifQlQ, n. angry person, 
mligbamo, uriigblamo, n. division; part =: mlidSa; fr. gba 

mli and mli gba; s. gba, v. 
mligbalQ, mligblalo, n. divider; s. gba, v. 

d by Google 

200 mligbe — mliteA. 

mligbe, n. ^ay into s. place, ingress; inside; comp. he^ 

and segbe, n. 
mligbemo, n. falling in or into. 

mligbomo, pi. -mei, n. inward man; soul? (ace. to Hanson), 
mligba, n. perforation, 
mliha, n. inward covering, 
mliheremg, n. taking in. 
mlihile, n. dwelling or remaining in some place fr. hi mli; 

kindness fr. mli hi, y. 
mlihilehe, = Sihilehe, n. dwelling. ^ 

mlihilo, n. inhabitant; kind person; comp. tse, n. maitoyo, n. 

tSutse, n. 
mliho, n. lying betwixt; shoving in, fr. ho mli, v. * 
mlihCimo, n. cultivating in a place, 
mlika, n. staining; stain, fr. ka mli, v. 
mlikamo, n. sticking, paving, fr. ka mli, v. 
mlikgmo, n. lying in a place, 
mliklgmg, rnhkolomo, n. picking out. 
mlikpalQ, n. a dainty person; searcher* 
mlikpamo, n. th. s.; daintiness, fr. kpa mli, v.; .distinction. , 
inlikpamoniiyenii, pi. n. dainty food, dainties. 
mliK|>2imQ, n. stretching (one's self;; resting, 
mlikpelo, n. a decisive person, 
mlikpe, mi. decision, 
mlikpemo ,' n. chiselling, 
mlikpe, n. meeting in s. place, 
mlila, n. inward fire, heat, passion; anger; wo m. k. — , 

V. to grieve s. b. 
mlilatSg, pi. -tsemei, n. a passionate person. 
mlilawO, n. grieving; making angry, 
mlimdmo, n. taking hold of s. th. ; comprehension; faith, 

trust; fr. md mli, v. 
mlifiSi, n. pressing out, squeezing, 
mlinalo, n. a person who has insight, 
mlina, n. insight, fr. na mli, v. 
mlinamo, n. treading, stepping in. 
mlinSmo, n. shutting in. 
mlinii, pi. n. inward things; bowels, 
mlisi, n. bosom, 
mlita, mlitamo, pi. form mlitramo, n. sitting in a place; 

touching ; feeling ; fr. ta mU and mli ta, s. ta, pi. tra, v. 
mlitasane, n. a touching story, 
mlitemg, n. concealing in s. place, 
mliteil, n. waist. 


mliteAbdA — mo. 201 

mlitejIibA]^, n. girdle = hefimgnd, mlamond, n. 

inliteififimQ, n. girding. 

inlitSd, n. digging (in a place). 

mlitsamo, n. inward healing; s. tsa, v. 

inlitSemQ, n. inward purity. 

mlitSemo, n. calling in. 

mlitseremg , n. (inward) separation » disunion; divorce fr. 
mli tSere and tSere mli, comp. tSe, tSere, y. 

nilitsd = musuntSd, n. yearning, mercy. 

mliisdmo, n. showing; inward change. 

mlltSumo, n. wiping out. 

mliwale, n. inward hardness; difficulty. 

mliwo, n. casting in (over and above) ; giving into the 
bargain; the thing given into the bargain; the worst, the 
outcast, etc. also used of men. Comp. „S)reingabe'' in 

mliya = mlibotemo, n. entering; ingress. 

mliyi, mliyimg, n. (ba« Stnfi^Iagen, t). yimli, cinfd^lagen); 
striking into; entering a journey, a way; touching, 

mliyomo, n. inward perception. 

mlo-, s.j&mlo-. 

mlu, n. dust. 

mlumlu, adj. dusty; adv. into dust, f. i. gble n. k. mlu- 
mlu, V. to grind s. th. into dust; inf. 

mlumlugblemo , n. grinding into dust. 

'mo, emo, pi. medSi (and moi) adj. old; f. i. nQ mo, pi. 
hi medsi, an old man; yd mo, pi. yei med§i, an old 

'momo, corrob. of the former, adj. pi. momoi and memedSi, 
old; adv. already (f(|^on, Wngfl); comp. Ot. dada, dedaw, 
Ih. s. fr. da, V. 

mo! Ot. salutation = aiko! in Gd. 

mo (mo, m9, md), pi. mei, n. man (2Kenf(d), person; some 
body; pi. people (man); comp. §§ 25, 26, 34; and ame> 
me, a. In combinations mo, pi. mei, distinguishes per- 
sons from things, s. § 48; f. i. mofon, a bad person, nd- 
foA, a bad thing ; comp. nd , pi. nii, n. Connected with 
verbs, as their subj. or object it expresses these undefined, 
though personal, as „a'S if the subject: f. i. mo ke 
ake . . . , some body said that . . . mei le ke, people 
say, or ake (man fagt), it is said; ke afe ene le, ayio 
mo, if this is done, people flog one (mm mm ^ad tf^ut^ 


302 mo — m^bonii. 

fo n)irb man gef^Iagen); agbe mei komei, some people 
were killed; comp. also moko. 

mo, Adn. pron. independ. = bo, thou. 

mo ko, pi. mei komei, s. moko. 

mo din or 

modlil, pi. meididSi, ii. black person, negro; comp. also 
mot§uru and blofonyo, n. 

mg, adv. and conj.; then; comp. mO, mon, adv.; ba mo I 
come then! 

m6, pi. mOmg, inf. mdmo, v. to hold; to catch; to take 
hold of. 

m5 he, v. to take hold at. 

m5 mil, inf. mlimdmg, v. to take hold of; to hold fast; 
to trust, believe. 

mo si, -sisi, v. to lake hold of the ground. 

m6, mdn, pi. m5dSi, n. fort; any stone-house with a flat 
top. Comp. TG^ and TIKD in Hebrew. 

mo, mon (Ol. mom), adv. rather; conj. though; jwar (in- 
deed, it is true); ekee mon; si kSig mile; though he 
did not say it, 1 know it still; cr fagte cd groat nidi^t, 
nber \6) wcig c5 io^. 

moan, muan, adv. or interrog. particle, very probably con- 
nected with the former, really, indeed; ofe nek€ noko 
moan?! thou could.est really do such a thing?! Ani ohle 
be hiegble moaA?! Is thy face really without shame?! 
Art thou really so shameless?! 

mobo, n. (Ot. th. 5.) misery; feeling of misery, mercy (mi- 
sericordia); pity; compassion; ye mobo, v. gen. nii ye 
mobo, to be pitied, pitiful, miserable; minii ye mgbo po! 
I am very miserable; eye mobo, it is a pity! na mobo, 
V. inf. mobonale, to have mercy, pity ; to have compassion ; 
(sometimes also kwe mobo, th. s.); nami mobg! have 
mercy upon me; enale mobo, he pitied him; comp. lon^ 
iXeeiv; and musun tsd, mli tsd, v. 

mobgmobo, adj. and adv. pitiful, sad; fe — , v. to be — , 

to be — . 
. mghomobofemg, n. sadness; pity. 

mgbgna and 

mgbgnale, n. mercy, pity, compassion; comp. domg; anum- 
nyam; musuntsd etc. Ot. mgbgrehQnQ and ahQmgbg, n. 

mgbgnalg, n. a merciful person. 

ingbgnanii, pi. n. things according to mercy; done for 
mercies sake; 

mgbgnii, pi. n. misery. 


UkQAeh — mra. 203 

modeA, n. (Ot. th. s.) diligence; bo — » V. inf. modeAbo, 
ta be diligent. Comp. Medg, y. 

modeAbo, n. diligence, energy; zeal. 

modeAbolo, n. diligent person. 

modeAbodiSeA, n. diligent manners. 

modin (s. mo din) pi. meididSi, n. black man; negro. 

modiAsane, n. history, state, matter of a native. 

mof^mo, mofiamo, mopiamo, pi. meifS, pron. every or any 
(body); see § 22, 2f., and comp. f6, fia, pifi; noffno. 

moi, n. a kind of seafish; s. boi, n. 

moko, mo ko (s. mo, n. and ko, pron.), pi. meikomei, n. 
but used as pron. some body (jiemanb); a body; a per- 
son. With neg. voice: no body (niemanb); f. i. moko 
be, lit. some body is not here, no body is here; but 
comp. d§ee moko, not a person; if not the verb, but 
the noun shall be negationed. Comp. noko, n. and n6ko, 
n. in Adn. 

mokomoko (pi. meikomei, not reduplicated), th. s. as the 
former, but stronger and therefore generally used with 
the neg. voice = no body at all ; comp. nokonoko, heko- 
heko, gblkogbiko etc. and § 22, 2 f. 

mokp5A, n. (accord, to Hanson); a stranger; s. gbo, n. 

mdlo» n. catcher. 

mom, mon = mo, adv. rather. Ot. th. s. 

momo, adj. corrobor. of mo, old; pi. memedSi and momoi 
(ace. to Hans.); adv. already. 

mdmo, pi. V. of md to catch, to hold fast. 

mdmg, n. catching, holding. 

momo, n. impediment in speaking; stottering; ha momo, v. inf. 

momoha, to stotter, stammer. 

momohd, n. stottering, stammering. 

momohalQ, n. a stottlerer (said to be generally a passionate 

momosa, adv. already before; a long time ago; s. sa and 
momo; comp. momo, adv. and sa, n. and adv. 

mone, mene, pi. menemei, pron. this (person); eomp. ene» 
none; mo, ne; Ad. ndne. 

moni, mo ni; pi. meini, mei ni, rel. pron. he or she, 
vrho; who (ber, ber;'ber, mcld^et; Me, bie, Me, meld^e); 
comp. noni and nl, rel. pron. 

mpldn, n. pi. mplal (Ot. mprgn) beam. 

mr — , s. under ml. 

mra, mramra, adv. quickly; soon (comp. Otyi: bra, eome!) 

mra (Ot. th. s.), mla, n. law. 


.204 mft — muhdmo. 

mA, pi. .mdinO) inf. mQmo', v. to sip. 

mQ and mOa, v. to be tidy ; he md, he mfia, y. th. s., to 

be clean, orderly; to be fat. 
mu, y. to breathe, inf. mumo; to shut the mouth and keep 

s. th. in one's mouth; to hem (cloth), inf. mQ, comp. 

ban (na) v. koro (na) v. toi. 
mu mule, y. inf. mulemumg, to diye; to conceal, be silent; 

to disappear, 
mu mle, v. th. s. 
mu na, y. inf. nama, y. to be silent, s. bu na; to hem 

in; to make to speak = dsie na wiemQ, y. 
mu si, inf. sirau, y. = mu mle, y. 
mQ toi, y. inf. toimu, to be deaf, 
'mu, emu (Ot. th. s.), adj. whole, entire (ganj). 
mQ, n. hemming, 
mu, n. oil; blQfdmu, europ. oil; mu tsuru, n. red oil, i.e. 

palmoil; pi. mui, difiTerent oil. 
mQa = bua, y. inf. muamo, to shut (the mouth), 
mua na, inf. namuamg, imprt. sing, muamo, = bu na (Ot. 

bu ano, comp. bu in 69i and bua na), to shut the mouth, 

be silent; to keep s. th. in the mouth, to mumble = mu, 

y. to fold up (f. i. an umbreUa). 
muamQ, mQmo, n. shutting the mouth; mumbling; keeping 

s. th. in the mouth, 
muan = moan, s. this, 
mube, n. time of oil, oil-season, 
mude, adj. tasteless, saltless. 
mudsi, pi. n. dirt (diff. oil, s. mu. n.). 
mufolQ, n. anointer; anointed (with oil), 
mufo, n. anointing (with oil) fr. fo mu, y.). 
mugd, inf. -mo, y. to deyour. 
'mugui, amugi^i, n. a kind of berries, 
mugu, y. to shake, to moye, to creep, inf. mugurag. 
mugn he, y. to shake one's, self; inf. heraugumo. 
mugu si, y. inf. simugumg, to creep on the ground, 
mugulo, n. a person who shakes himself; creeper, 
mugumo, n. shaking, moying, creeping, 
mugumugu, adj. fat, round; fe — , y. to be — , — . 
mugnmugufemo , n. fatness, 
mubemg, n. oil-buying, 
muhelo, n. oil-buyer, 
muhg, n. curtain, 
muhomo, n. oil-boiling. 
muhdmQ, n. oil-selling; fr. hd mu, y.; and scarcity of oil. 


mui — niHSU^fo. 205 

ami, adv. at once; eladSe mui, be at once disappeared. 
wakSiy n. measuring or trying of oil (s. ka, v.). 
mule, n. depth; mu — , v. to dive. 
aalemalo , n. diver. 
nralemaniQ, n. diving, 
mulo, n. a person breathing etc. fr. mu, v. 
moma, ^roum^, n. a kind of berries, 
mu, mum (a frequent root in afr. languages for the same 
idea) dumbness; to — , v. to be dumb; to be or be- 
come speechless; xjetflummeii. 
mumo , n. breathing ; shutting the mouth, keeping s. th. in 
the mouth ; s. mu ; breath ; spirit, s. nil , nvevficc; comp. 
kla, kra; susuma; sisa, etc. Ad. mum; Ot. homhome, n. 
mdmo, n. sipping, 
mumto , n. dumbness. 
mumu , V. redupl. of mu, v. which see. 
mumu, n. a river fish, 
mumui^ n. and adj. dumb (comp. mu, v. and momo, mo- 

mohd! mu toi, v« toimulo, toimU n.}. 
muna, v. to frown. Ot. v. 
monsle, n. dan. uniform; scarled red colour, 
mund, n. oil-vessel, 
musu, n. belly; used frequently as gram, subject or object 

= mli. 
musu file, V. inf. musufitemo, to miscarry; to have a dis- 
ordered stomach; fite musu, inf. th. s. to destroy the 
fruit in its mothers womb, 
mnsu tsd, v. to have diarrhoea; ts5 musu, v. to operate 

(of medicine), 
musun t§5 m. k. v. to yearn = mli ts6 m. k. v. ; inf. mu- 

f(untsd. Comp. Dm and (fnlDeyxvi^e^fd^ai. 
mnsu, n. (Ot. th. s.) mischief; misfortune, disaster, cala- 
mity, adversity; curse; musu eba m. k. uq, a calamity 
has befallen s. b. ; kpa musu, v. inf. musukpamo, to take 
away the curse elc. by a sacrifice to the fetish (gene- 
rally in the roads before towns); bo — , v. inf. niusubo» 
to do something abominable, cursed; to blaspheme; to 
do mischief; omusu abua ong! thy curse may gather 
over thee! (A common curse), 
mosobo, n. mischievous act; curse; blaspheming; blasphemy. 
Quisubolo, n. mischievous person; ungodly person; blas- 
nmsofo , n. Ot. a mischievous person, 
nmsu^fo = Ot. musuyefo, n. th. s. 


306 musufitemo — na n. k. he tSui, 

inu5ufitemo» n. miscarrying; disorder of the stomach, 
musugbl, n. unfortunate day. 

musukotoku, musuAkotoku, n. ht. belly-bag, i. e. stomach, 
musulileiy musunlilei, n. lil. belly-tongue; i. e. milt, spleen, 
musun gbl, y. and 

musun wa, y. to be able to sustain hunger, = ny6 hdmo, y. 
musukpalo, n. a person taking away the curse by a sacri- 
fice; fr. kpa musu, y. 
musukpamo, n. the act of taking away the curse, 
musutsd, -mo, n. diarrhoea, open bowels. 
musuAtSd, -mo, n. yearning, mercy („ bowels of mercy, 

mute, n. oil-stone; wet. 
mute = mude> adj. tastless, saltless. 
mut§uru, n. red oil, i. e. palm-oil. 
mutsurute) n. oil-stone; wet = mute y n. 
mutsuruterelo , n. palmoil-carrier. 
mutsuniteremo, n. palmoil-carrying. 
mutukutSo, n. a tree growing along the lagunes (the man- 

Words having the augment n or ii prefixed must 
be sought for under the next following consonant, if 
not found here. 
Na, y. inf. na and namo, y. to see; to find, to haye; to 
tread, to stand (comp. da, damo); to swear; — n. k., 
to swear by s. tb. Adn. th. s. It may be that diffe- 
rent yerbs are united in -this; na, to see. Ad. 1h. s., 
Ot. hQ; na, to get. Ad. na and Ot. nya; and na, to 
stand up., to tread. Ad. da (comp. GS: damo, Ot. gyina. 
Na (Ad. th. s. and Ot. nya) is used as an auxiliary yerb, 
to express the relation of time which is indicated by tiie 
ady. already; yet in Engl, (fc^ion; nod[)); with neg. yoice 
=3 not yet; positiyely it is seldom used; f. i. min4 
mik^, 1 already said it (I got to say it); minaa make, 
I did not yet say; minan make, I will not yet say it; 
miniiko make» I haye not yet said it. Besides this na 
is used to express a wish (a kind of optatiye mood) 
i. i. min^ mik^l could I say it, I wish I could say it! 
The most common combinations with the yerb na 
(comp. also na, n.) are: 
na n. k. or m. k. he tSui, y. inf. hetSuinamo , to be content 
with s. th. or s. b. 


na he tsuidSttrd — na, n. 20T 

na he tsuidSttrd, v. inf. hetSuidMrdnamo , to be pleased 
with, to be glad of; comp. na tSui, -tsuidsiird. 

na mil, y. inf. mlina, to see the inside; to have insight. 

na na, v. inf. nana, lit. to see the mouth, the beginning, 
the end (comp. na, n.) to understand; comp. na sisi, v. 

na n. k. le, double v. to see (and) know, to understand. 

na nane, v. to swear by one's leg (a rery common oath: 
„mana minane!^'). 

na nii, v. inf. niinS, niinamo, to see things, to see; to have 
sight; to get things, i. e. to get rich; s. ye nii, v. and 
niiatse, n. 

na nd, y. inf. ndna, to see something, to feel pain; to 
suffer. Mina noko! g6! J^ina noko, e6l Woe me! Woe 
me! Expression of seyere pain or grieye or moumhig. 

na no, y. inf. ngnamo, to tread upon. 

na noko, y. = na nd, y, 

na nya. Ad. y. = na na, y. 

na Nyonmo, y. to swear by God. 

na sane, t. to get a palayer. 

na se, y. to gain, to profit; inf. senamo. 

na segbe, y. to haye recourse to, to recoyer. 

na si, V. inf. sinamo, to tread the ground, to stand up, — 
upon. Comp. damQ si and te si, y.; and nana, y. nana 
si, y. 

na si§i, y. inf. sisina, -namg, to see the ground, the bot- 
tom, the reason; to understand; to discern. 

na tse, y. to sweat by one*s father; a yery common oath. 

na tsui, y. to get or take a heart; to take courage; inf. 
-namo; impert. na tsui, take courage! 

na tsuidsurd, y. inf. -namo; to take a good heart (see 
edsuro), to be of good cheer, comfort; to be happy, 
joyful; comp. mli fli, ml §e, hie me, nyS, y. 

na yi, yin, yitso, y. to get a head, to get reason etc. 
comp. yi, yiii, n. 

im, na — , see after na and before ne. 

na, n. mouth (Ot, ano); the outward, mouth (comp. da), 
opening; brim; edge (hebr. ^Q); worth, price; boundary; 
beginning or end of something, the utmost part; shore, 
nsona, sea-shore; fa-na, borders of a riyer. As da, he. 
Me, mli, no, nd, se etc. this noun is used as a post- 
position and adv. expressing the relation of place and 
by tropic use also that of time and manner (s. § 29) 
as: at, to, near, accordingly, according to; at the point 
of; along etc. German: an, weben, auf; 


208 na. 

entfang etc. In Ot. sometimes ano, sometimes hd, h5 
are. the corresp. words; Ad. nya. As the gramm. object 
it appears especially in the following combinations: bS 
na, inf. nabSmQ, lo cut the end round about (befd^neiben) ; 
be na, — nabu (s. this), to contract the mouth = na 
be, v.; bi m. k. na gb6, = ^Q bxtfi^, inf. nagbebimo, v. 
to ask the mouth (opinion) of s. b.; befragen; bu na, v. 
inf. nabumQ, to cover the mouth (with the natives a 
sign of silent astonishment), to be silent; bu ona! keep 
thy peace; bua na, v. (Ot. bo ano, comp. bu ano; and 
in G9, mu, mQa), to gather, to assemble; dSmo na, v. 
inf. nadSmo, nadamgrnQ, to stand at, near, on the brim, 
shore etc. to stand firmly, j. damo mli, damg n9d§iafi; 
doko na, v. inf. nadokomo, to sweeten the mouth of s. b. ; 
to persuade with sweet words, to flatter; dSa na, inf. 
nadsamg, to fit; comp. d§a, t§a, v.; dSe na, v. to come 
from the mouth, s. G3-Hist. (P(^ t)etne^men Taffen); dSe 
na, V. th. s. dSi6 na, v. nad§iemo, to excuse, to inter- 
pret; d§o na, V. inf. nadsO, to sharpen; fa na, ^. inf. na- 
fSimQ, to take off the mouth, the cork, uncork; to open 
(bottles and such vessels, comp. gble na); fe na, v. na- 
femo, pi. fle na, inf. naflemo, to burst open, to open 
a fester, to burst open, v. n. fi na, v. naflmo, to bind 
the opening, to bind up (a bag etc.); fo na, inf. nafo, 
pi. flo na, inf. naflgmo, y. to cut one's mouth, to report, 
accuse s. b.; to cut the end or brim; gba na, v. inf. na- 
gbamo, to trouble, pi. gbla na, v. inf. nagblamg, lit. to 
rend the mouth, to discourse; gbe na, v. inf. nagb€, lit. 
to kill the mouth, the end, to end, to finish; gble na, v. 
inf. nagblemQ, to open (doors, boxes etc., comp. f9 na, 
gbu na); gbu na, v. inf. nagbQ, to bore an opening, to 
open; h! na, v. nahlle, to abhor one's mouth, to keep 
malice, so as not to salute or speak to s. b. ; ekemi hi 
na, he does not speak with me; ho na => ho he, v. 
inf. naho, to pass over, to overrun; ka na, v. inf. na- 
kamo, to insist; kd na, v. inf. nakSmo, to lie at, near; 
kd na, v. nakd and nakdmo, to stick in the mouth or 
bill; kpa na, v. nakpamo, to break the fast, to breakfast; 
kpe na, V. nakpe, to sew up; kQ na, v. nakd, nakOmo, 
to gainsay; to speak or be against; lata na, v. inf. nala- 
tamo, to base the end (in sewing); le na, v. nale, to 

know (one's mouth, words) ; to know the number, 

price; m& na, v. namSmo, to stand at, near; to set at; 
to build at, near, at the shore etc.; md na, mtia na, v. 


na — na ba §i. 209 

to be silent, shut the iqouth; to keep s. th. in the mouth; 
s. bua na, and bu na; na na, v. inf. nana, to see the 
end, to understand; n9 na, y. inf. nanSmo, to shut the 
opening, door etc. to shut; nyle na, v. to walk along, 
at, according to; nd na, v. nandmo, to be sweet, agree- 
able (to the mouth), s. doko — ; nu m. k. na gbe, v. 
inf. nagbgnumg, to hear from one's mouth; ah\)bxen, 
an^5ren; pS, po na, s. f§, fo na; sa na, v. inf. nasd, 
to taste; misa gbele na, I tasted death; misa mina (lit, 
1 tasted my mouth, with respect to s. th.). 1 tasted (it), 
comp. sa, v.; sqo na, v. inf. nasQomo, to seal up; se 
na, V. nas$, to reach the mouth, to be sufficient, to 
satisfy; §i na, y. inf. nasimo, to knock against one's 
mouth, to act against one's word, s. kfi na and §i, v.; 
SQ na, Y. inf. na^omg (to lick one's mouth), to kiss; ta 
na, pi. tra na. inf. natamo, natramo, y. to touch the 
mouth; to dispute; to trouble with words; to tempt = 
tSd na ; to coyer the end, brim etc. to sit at, near, along ; 
to na, pi. tro na, y. inf. natO, natromo, to tire one's 
mouth; to make tired of speaking; te be tired of speak- 
ing; t5 na, y. inf. natdmo, to transgress one's word; 
comp. na td and td, y.; t§a na, y. inf. natSamo; to ad- 
join, to be in contact, to continue; s. t§a, y. ; tse na, y. 
inf. natsemo, to trouble, to teaze with words; to unseal; 
tse, y.; t§i na, y. inf. natSimo, to close the mouth, 
opening etc., to confine, imprison etc.; tSd na, y. inf. 
natSdmo, to turn one's mouth, word; inf. natSd, to tempt 
to bad words (or actions) s. ka, y. ta na etc. , wie na, y. 
inf. nawiemQ, to speak one's mouth; to salute, to inter- 
pret, comp. nadSiemo; yere m. k. na or yire m. k. na 
(s. yi na), v. inf. nayeremo, to come unawares to some 
body's speaking about one; to oyerhear unawares; ye 
na, y. inf. nayeli, to bargain; to negotiate; yi na, y. 
inf. naylmo, to intercept one's speaking; yo na gb6, y. 
inf. nagbeyomO) to know s. b. by his yoice, to know 
one's yoice, word, manner of speaking, etc. As gram^ 
mat. subject it appears especially in the following com- 
binations : 

na ba, y. inf. naba, to be sharp (of kniyes etc., comp. na 
— edge), 

-na ba si, y. inf. naSiba (Ot. ano bre ase) to let the mouth 
down (comp. ,Mn SKunb ^Sngen laffcn"), to decrease 
<in zeal, power, passion etc.), to be softened, to give in. 
Comp. ba Si, y. 

Zimmermann, Akra-Vocab. 14 


210 na be — na td. 

na be, v. inf. nabele, -mg, to h^ave a narrow, contracted 

mouth, as old persons; to have a mouth like a" pair of 

tongs, 80 ^s to pinch with, as ants, crabs, pincers etc. 
na du, V. to leak at the opening, at the cork etc. 
na d§a, v. inf. nadsale , to be straight, right in speach ; to 

have a straight end or brim; s% dsa, v. 
na dso, v. inf. nadsomo, to have a bitter mouth, to have 

a bad mouth („ein f(^arfe« obcr bfife^ Tlawl ^aben"). 
na d§o, V. to be quiet in speaking, 
na fa, v. inf. nafa, nafamg, to be open; s. fSna; of bottles 

and similar vessels, 
na fe, pi. fie, v. inf. nafemo, naflemo, to burst open, 
na gbo, V. inf. nagbele, = dangbo, to have a dead mouth ; 

to have no taste (after sickness etc.). 
na homo no, v. inf. nanghomQ or ngnahomo, to know by 

heart, to say by heart, 
na kS, V. inf. nakSmo, to be or lie open; of doors, rooms, 

houses etc. 
na ke enyoo si, v. to have scarcely finished speaking; a 

very peculiar expression, lit. „the mouth says it is fallen 

down"; „beni ena ke enyoo si", when he had finished 

na ko si, v. to bite the ground, i. e. to fall on one's mouth; 

pi. na komo si, s. ko, v. 
na kpa', v. inf. nakpamo, to say s. th. hesitatingly because 

it is amiss or wrong, to miss with the mouth; s. kpa, v. 
na kpe, v. nakpe, to be gathered; to be of one opinion; 

more frequently: 
na kpe si, v. inf. nasikpe, th. s. f. i. beni amena ekpe si, 

when they were assembled; when they had become of 

one opinion; s. kpe, v. 
na kpe he, v. to be astonished; s. nakpe, n. 
na ko, V. inf. nakQ, nakuomo; to have a broken mouth, 

edge etc., to be forward in speaking, 
na nd, v. to have a sweet, flattering mouth; s. na doko; 

to be dainty; inf. nandmo. 
na se, v. inf. nase, to be sufficient (in price); comp. se 

na, V. 
na si, V. inf. nasi and -mo, to be worth; ona si oba, thou 

art worth a hundred; comp. na, =: price and si, v. 
na td, V. inf. natOmo, to transgress with the mouth, with 

words; to make a mistake in speaking; comp. td na, v. 

and to, V. 


na t§a — nadSian. 211 

Ba tsa, V. inf. natsamo, to fit, to adjoin, to be perpetual, 

coinp. tsa na; tsa, v. 
na tse, v. inf. natsemo, to have a pure, clear mouth; to 
speak fluently and purely; ena t§eko, he can not yet 
fluently speak. 
na tsi, y. inf. natsT and natsimo, to be stopped or closed 

ap; s. tsi na, v. 
na wa, v. inf. nawale, to haye a hard mouth, to be hard; 

comp. wa, y. 
n3, n. grandmother, pi. namei. Ad. th. s. 
naakpa, ady. well, very, very much, 
naba, n. sharpness fr. na ba, v. 
nabs, and 

nabSmo , n. cutting the mouth, opening, brim, end ; s. bS, v. 
nabe , n. narrowness of mouth, as that of old men ; forma- 
^ tion of mouth like that of a pair of tongs or pincers,^ 

as ants have. 
nablemo, n. th. s. of the pi. form ble, v. 
nSbi, pi. -bii, n. grandmother-child, i.e. grand-child; comp. 

Di, n.; ni, n. nye and nyemi, n. 
nabimg, n. asking of the price, fr. hi na, v. 
nabinu, pi. -bihl, n. grandson, 
nabiyo, pi -biyei, n. grand-daughter, 
nabu, n. lit. hole or opening of the mouth (s. bu); mouth, 

often used = na, hole, opening, lip; pi. nabui, lips. 
nabualQ, n. gatherer, fr. bua na, v. 
nabuamo,n. gathering, assembling; assemble. S. kpemQ, n. 
nabuamohe, n. gathering-place. 
nabumQ, n. covering of the mouth, opening etc. silence, 

fr. bu na, v. 
nadamg, nadamomg, n. standing at, along, for etc.; fr. 

damo na, v. 
nadokolQ, n. flatterer; persuader; fr. dokg na and na doko, v. 
nadokomQ, n. flattering, persuading, 
nadokomowiemo, n.. flattering word, — speech, 
nadSd, nadSale, n. straightness of mouth, speech, opening, 

brim, end etc.; fr. na dsa and dSa na, v. 
nSd^, pi. of nane (Ot. th. s. and nan), foot. 
nSdsian = nddsiamli, n. foot-print, foot-step, stead, post- 
position = instead of, for etc. ba — , v. to come instead 
of 8. b.; damo — , v. to stand for s. b., - - surety; to 
represent s. b., inf. nSdsiandamo; d§e ngdsian, v. inf. 
nftdSiaudSe, to go out of one's way („a\x^ ben gugen 
ge|)ett"); dSie nadSian, v. to remove out of one's way, 



212 nadSiana — nafSmo. 

inf. n9dsiand§iemo ; f^ nadsiafi, v. th. s.; he nSdsian, v. 
to take recoinpence, inf. nadsiafiheino; kS — , v. to lie 
in one's place, inf. nSd§iank5rao; ke nSdgian, v. inf. 
nSd§ianke,, to grant instead, to make a present instead; 
mS nSdsian, y. inf. nSdsianmSimo, to stand in the place 
of s. th. (s. damo); na nSdsian, v. to get s. th. in ex- 
change; no nSdsian, y. to take s. th. instead of s. th., in 
exchange; ta, pi. tra nSdsian, y. to sit in one's place, 
inf. nadsiantamo, -trarao; to — , y. inf. nSdsiafitO, to 
repay, to restitute, to retaliate, to recompence; ye nai- 
dsian, y. to take s. b. place or office, inf. nSdsianyeli; 
ye — , y. to be in s. b. place, instead of etc. neg. be — ; 
yi — , y. nSdsianyimo, to remain on the same spot, to 
go in a circle (also used in argument) etc. 

nSd§iana, n. the place at the feet of s. b. foot-prints, — 
steps, postpos. at the feet, to the feet, f. i. gbe — , y. 
to fall down at s. b. feet etc. 

nSdsiasi, n. place under one's feet, standing place, situa- 
tion etc. east =r bokS; the four points of the wind are 
named from the situation of a person lying on his back 
with the head to the west and feet to the east (perh. 
from burial?); comp. yiten, yitengbe or anaigbe, nine- 
dsiirogbe or nsongbe and nine abekugbe or kongbe or 
koyigbe; and nSdsiasi, -gbe. 

nadgiasigbe, n. east-way, ady. east-ward. 

nadsiandSmo, n. surety, standing surety; representation; 
fr. damo nSdsian, y. 

nSdsiandamolo, n. surety; representant; representatiye. 

nadsiandsg, n. going out of one's way; fr. dse nad§., y. 

nSdsiand§iemo , n. remoyal out of the way, fr. dsie nSds., y, 

nSdsiantO, n. repaying; repayment; restitution; retaliation; 
fr. to nSds., y. 

nSdsiantolo, n. restituter, retaliater. 

nddsiahyeli, n. taking office for or after an other; succes- 
sion; fr. ye nSds., y. 

nadsianyelilo, -yelo, n. successor. 

nadsolo, n. person with an eyil tongue; fr. na dso, y. 

nadsomo, n. bad mouth, eyil tongue; strict, true saying. 

nadso, n. sharpening of tools, — of the mouth (for scol- 
ding etc.). 

nadsole, n. quietness of mouth, speech; kind words; fr. 
na dso, y. 

nafaio, n. opener, bottler; fr. fS na, y. 

naf^mo , n. opening of bottles etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

nafemg — namo. 21^ 

nafeniQ, nafleinQ, d. bursting open; fr. Iq na and na fe, v. 
nafi and naflmo, n. binding up, closing of bays etc.; fr. 

ft na, V. 
nafitemg, n. corruption of mouth, speech. 

nafolo, naflolo, n. reporter, accuser, talebearer; fr. fo na, 

flo na, V. 
nafo, naflomo, n. reporting, accusing; talebearing; report; 

accusation; summons, 
nagbalo, n. troubler; troublesome person, from gba na, v. 
nagbamo, n. troubling; trouble, 
nagbamosane, n. troublesome palaver, 
nagbg, n. ending, finishing; end; aim; fr. gbe na, v. 
nagbegbl, n. last day. 
nagbelo, n. finisher. 

nagblamo, n. discurse; fr. gbla na, v. but s. nasigblamg, n. 
nagbele, nagbo, n. tastlessness, fr. na gbo, v. 
nagbelo, n. opener, a person opening doors, boxes etc. 
nagblemo, n. opening, 
nagba, n. piercing (open), 
nahile, D. malice-keeping; fr. hi na, v. 
nahllo, n. malice-keeper. 

nahomg, n. knowing or saying fluently (by heart), 
nakai, pron. such; adv. thus; so; comp. neke; nakai non, 

even so;. Ad. dsa. 
nakamo, n. being open; opening; fr. na k3, v. 
nakpamg, n. break-fast; fr. kpa na, v. speaking amiss, fr. 

na kpa, v. 
nakpe,n. meeting; unity of opinion = nasikpg; fr.nakpe,v, 
nakpehe, n. meeting-place, 
nakpe, n. astonishment, fr. na kpe he; amena kpe amehe, 

or efeame nakpe, they were astonished. Comp. fe yS; 

he dso etc. 
nakpe, nakplemo, n. sewing up the ends, comp. kata na, 

ban na, v.; fr. kpe na, v. 
nakulo, n. gainsayer; forward person, 
naku and nakumo, n. gainsaying; ©position, fr. ku na, v.; 

forwardness fr. na ku, v. 
nakutso, pi. -tsei, and nakutsona, n. knee, 
nale, n. dan. fool; fe — , to make a foot of. 
nalo, n. only used in combinations, — seer; — finder, 
namo, n. finding, getting, 
namo, pi. name!, inter, pron. who? ameyi enyo le aten 

namo? who among the two? Ad. nene. 


214 D^mti — nanyo. 

namfi, namuamo , n. shutting of the mouth ; keeping of s. th. 
in the. mouth, fr. mu or mua na, v. 

nam, n. a knowing person, well-informed person (fr.namK?). 

nana, n. understanding; fr. na na, y. 

nanalo, n. an understanding person; cin tjerjicinbigcr SWenf^. 

nana, v. reduplicalion of na, v. io tread, to stand upon etc. 

nana si, = na si, v. 

nSnakansowa, n. (Ot.) great-grandchild; great-grand-parent; 
comp. na (Ol. nana) grand-mother. 

naMmo, n. shutting (of doors, boxes etc.), fr. nS na, v. 

nane (old pronunc. nande perh. = na-ade, comp. na, v. 
to tread and ade, Ot. =: thing, s. also nine, kane, fine, 
n. etc. Ot. nan, nane), pi. nadsi, n. foot; wheel. Comp. 
nadsi, nadSian, nadsiana, nadsiasi etc.; fa\iane, y. and 
wo nane no, y. to walk quickly; nyle nane no, y. to 
go on foot etc. 

naneheno, nanehintsong , n. shinbohe. 

nanehefomo, n. foot-bath. 

nanemahe, n. foot-print; footing. 

nanenonyielo, n. pedestrian; fr. nyie nane no, y. 

nanenonylemo, n. walking on foot. 

nanesi, n. sole of the foot. . 

„ „ place under foot, comp. nadsiasi, n. 

nanesimango, n. foot-stool. 

nanesimo, n. kicking; kick. 

nanesiwao, nanewao, pi. -wabii, n. toe. 

nanetSitsi, n. (comp. tsitsi) heel. 

nanetso, pi. -tsei, n. lit. foot-stick (s. tso), i! e. shin-bone. 

nanii, pi. n. dainties. 

nankutso, *pl. -tsei, knee = nakutso. 

nand, n.. etemily; ke-ate — , until eternity. Comp, da, 
Nanyonmo, n. 

nandlo = niia mlikpalo, n. dainty person. 

nanonio, n. agreeableness fr. nd na, y.; daintiness, fr. na 
no, V. 

nanetu, and 

nantu, n. calf of the leg. 

'nanu = ananu, n. spider. 

'nanukpa, n. spider-web. 

nanyo, pi. nanemei (= nanenyo nannyo, -mei, comp. damfo, 
pi. nnamfo in Otyi) n. friend; neighbour (Sla^jiet), fd- 
low, comrad; ke m. k. bo nanyo, y. inf. nanyobOy to 
make friendship with s. b. In compositions it is used 


nanyobo — natSolo. 21 S 

like the engl. fellow — , lat. com -=-; germ. Sflit — ; 
see f. i. nanyogbomo, n. 

nanyobo, n. friendship; communion. 

nanyodsulQ, n. fellow-thief. 

nanyofelo, n. fellow-agent. 

nanyogbomo, pi. -mei, n. fellow-man; person of the same 

nanyogbo, n. fellow-guest; — stranger. 

nanyoniitSulo , n. fellow-labourer. 

Nanyonmo, pr. n. of God, either = eternal God (comp. 
da, nan6 = eternity, Ot. da, pi nna, day; da, alway) 
or God of the ancestors, comp. nS, nanakansowa (Ot. 
n5, = mother; nfina = grandmother etc.). 

nanyofelo, n, playmate = febilo, n. 

nanyotsQlo, pi. -tsudsi, n. fellow-servant; pi. nanemeitSddSi. 

nasa, n. tasting, taste; fr. sa na, v. 

naso = asan (Ot. nanso), conj. also; moreover, again. 

nasQomo, n. sealing, seal; fr. sqo na, v. 

nasa, n. bad, wicked month; s. e§a, adj. 

nase, n. -sufficiency, satiety; fr. se na, v. 

nasigblamQ, n. discource with the purpose of catching one 
in speech; fir. gbla na si, v. 

nasimo,. n. worth; fr. na si, v.; act against s. b. words, 
fr. si na, V. . 

naSomo, n. kissing, kiss. 

natamQ, natramo, n. dispute; quarrel; fr. ta na, pi. tra 
na, v.; sitting at or along; covering of the end, brim etc. 

natdlQ, n. transgressor; person who makes mistakes, fr. t5 
na and na td, v. 

natomo, n. transgression of s. b. words, fr. td na, v.; mis- 
take in speaking. 

natsakemo, n. recanting. 

nalsalo, n. filter. 

natsamQ,n. fitting, adjoining, contact, continuation (comp. 
notsamQ); fr. t§a na and na tsa, v. 

natselo, n. teazer fr. tse na; person speaking correctly fr. 
na tse, v. 

natsemo,- n. teazing, troubling; fr. tse na, v.; clear speak- 
ing, correct speech; fr. na tse, v. 

natsT, n. movement; s. tsi, v. 

natsl and natslmo, n. stopping up of the mouth, opening, 
passage etc. fr. t§i na, v. 

nat§!lo, n. person hindering or stopping one's way. 

natsdlQ, n. tempter fr. tso na, v. 


216 / mm — Aa. 

nat§5, n. tempting^, temptation. 

natsdmo, n. recanting. 

natsdwiemQ, n. tempting, provoking word. 

nawale, n. hardness, harshness (of words), fr. na wa, v. 

nawalo, n. hard, harsh person. 

nawalod§en, if. hard, harsh behayiour, character. 

nawielo, n. interpreter; = nadsielo, advocate. 

nawiemo, n. interpretation, speaking for some body, salu* 

nayeli, n. bargaining, negotiation. 

nayelo, nayelilo, n. bargainer, negotiator; fr. ye na, v. 

nayelisane, n. negotiatiog palaver. 

nayeremo, n, overhearing unawares, fr. yere na, v. 

nayl, nayimo, n. interception of speech, fr. yi na, v. 

naypmo, n. knowing by the voice. 

na, nS, v. inf. n$ and pi. namo, inf. th. s., to press, 
to squeeze (= mia), (to press the hand?) to salute, to 
visit (comp. fla and sra, v.), to shut, to be shut, to 
give order, to sing out. • 

na, inf. na, v. to learn (f. i. a trade). 

na hie, v. to shut the door before s. b. 

na mli, v. inf. mlinamg, mlinS, to shut the opening, in- 
side ;4o press in; to squeeze out. 

na m. k., v. to salute, visit s. b. 

na na, v. inf. naiiamo, to shut (the opening, door etc. 
s. na, n.). 

na no, v. inf. nonamo, to press upon, to squeeze the sur- 
face, to shut the cover (s. no, n.). 

na se, v. inf. senamo, to shut behind. 

na si, V. inf. sinamo, to press down. 

na m. k. yi, inf. yinS, to give a peremptory order to s. b., 
to cry (and stamp) at s. b. („an^ertfc^cn"); inf- yinSmo, 
to shut one up oir in. 

na m. k. yi se, v. inf. yisenamg, to shut after s. b. head, 
i. e. to shut s. b, in, to close after a man; Gen. 7, J 6. 

M, n. pressing, squeezing. 

na, or M, pi. namei; when without any possessive pro- 
noun or case before it (i. e. in the vocative case or ad- 
dress (ana, anamei (comp. ate, awo, ao, anyemi, awu), 
n. wife (in her exclusive relation to her husband, comp. 
biianye, bienye and yo); espoused bride (comp. also 
siyere and ayemforo). It is custom to betroth young 
girls, even sucklings (and children in the mothers womb 


- na — Afind. 217 

on condition that they are girls) to some male, adult or 
young; from that time he has to give presents to her 
and her parents and she is hound to him and called na, 
wife, or siyere (si, promise, and yere, Ot., wife);, during 
the bridal ceremonies, when dressed and adorned as bride, 
ayemforo (s. this) and after marriage again na, ana. 
Comp. wye y5, kpe yO, v. Adn. yO, th. s., for wwife" 
and „woman"; comp. „9Belb". 
na, na, generally na no, nang, n. grassy plain, field (where 
there is no hush, s. ko, n.) savanna; esp. the level be- 
tween the sea and the mountains as far as there is no 
bush (fr. na, to press?); wilderness, 
na no or nUno, in or on the field; comp. dsa ng, asa no, 

ko se etc. Eye na le no, he is in the field. 
M, n. (Adn. gS; Ot. nyansS, comp. na, v. na, v. Ot. nya, 
to get, and na, to visit) counsel, advice; art; wisdom; 
prudence; trade; craft; cunning; trick etc. le Aa, v. to 
know wisdom, art, to have prudence; to know a trade; 
wo na, V. inf. nawo, to give counsel, advice; na mli, 
adverbially used: prudently, cunningly; secretly, 
nabi, n. step-child (lit. wife's child) of a man; comp. wubi,n. 
naisd, n. wounds betwixt the toes from perspiration, 
nal, collective n. coals; nal ke la, fire-ct)als; s. the next 

AI19, V. to dry, to shrink; inf. h3ilg. 
nalal, nlai, adj. dry; tocrfo^ft. 
Jiale, n. wisdom, knowledge, prudence (s.leiia, v.); trade, 

talo, nalo, n. visiter; a person shutting or pressing, s. na,v, 
nalo, Mnlo, n. beast of the field, s. kolo, n. 
nalo, n. artificer; prudent, wise man; counseller; trades*- 

man; master of a trade; fr. na, v. 
nalgfemo, -yeli, n. mastership, 
namo, n. shutting; pressing, squeezing; saluting, visiting; 

visit; fr. na, v. 
nana, n. rain-water gathered from thatched houses, comp. 

adsensu, n. 
nan — or nano — , prefixed to a noun, indicates wild, s. 
nanokpQiiQ etc. 
^Mnl, adj. and adv. cold; -ly. 
nankolo, n. beast of the field. 

tand, pi. nanii, n. implements or instruments of an artist* 
artificer, tradesman; machine; comp. tsdne, n. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

218 nan^kpoAo — ftelel. 

JianokpoAO) n. wild horse; a kind of antelopes, in size and 

shape like a horse, 
ftano (s. Aa, n. Aano), n. field; na le no, the field; adv. 

in or on the field; comp. dSano, n. etc. 
Aanonii, pi. n. things of the field; wild growing things; 

comp. ko-, kon- and ftanokpgfto, AangtSina etc. 
/iangtsina, nailtSina, n. a kind of buffalo, s. wuo, wO, n. 
Aasi, n. arm-hole. 
MwiewQ, n. word of advice. 

AawO, n. counselling, advice, fr. wo na, v. Ot. tu fo, v. 
nawolo, n. advicer. 
nawyiei, n. a kind of sweet fruit of a tree; sweet -sap; 

comp. aluguntugun, n. 
nawyieitso, pi. -tsei, n. tree hearing it. 
ftawye, n. living (of a man)- with a wife; married state; 

matrimony; comp. yOwye and gbla, n. 
'ni, eng, demon, pron. Ad. th. s., this; Ot. yi. Comp. 

mone> none. 
n6? int. pron. what? = mg, me?; where whence, whereto? 

= negbe? 
ne, V. to rain; always constructed with NyoAmo (which 

see) for its subject; Nyonmo neo, God rains; = it rains. 

Comp. fS, ba^ Nyonmo ba; tue etc. Nyonmone, n. rain; 

Nyonmonemo, th. s. 
fig, aux. V. in Adn. = ye, to be and hd, ke in GS, de 

in Ot., to take. S. Apendix. 
nggbe, int. pron. lit. what way, where, — to whither; 

whence, s. n6; nlgbe, th. s. 
nghu, num. nine; ameyi nghu, they are nine in number, 
nel, n. a kind of reeds, 
net and nS, Ad. = nghu. 
nfike, pi. nekemei, demonst. pron. generally followed by 

ne, this, such; neke gbomo ne, this man or such a 

man; but. if construed adjectively = certain, f. i. gbomo 
~ ko neke, a certain person (whose name 1 have forgot- 
ten); noko neke, a certain thing. Comp. also nakai and 

§ 34. Ad. kik^, th. s. 
neleno, n. (the) opposite (thing or place), nsgngbe neleno 

d§i koiigbe, the opposite (or contrary) of south is north, 
neleno, adv. opposite; ye — , inf. nelendyeli, v. to be — . 
helenond, n. opposite thing or place or direction, 
nfilenoyeli, n. oppositeness. 
nenyanke, n. saw-fish, s. nyanyanke. 
nelel, = lolfil, n. shells. 


nf — niiaAwamo* 21 d 

nf. — s. und. mf. 

'ngaA, pi. 'ngadSi, s. enan engaA, n. a kind of birds. 

nga = M, n. AdA. ga; art. 

ng- s. under A. 

ngo, n. = no, sail. 

ni, V. (Ot. Ih. s. or ne) = d§i, to be something; it is in- 
flexible and sometimes shortened into „A"; f. i. midsi, 
mini, min, it is I ; gbomo ni or gbomoA, U is a person. 
Comp. ni, pron. and conj. and ni, conj. Ad. „i'' as ter- 
minational augment; th. s. f. i. anokwaifi, Ad. anokwai, 
it is true! 

ni, rel. pron. which, who; that; (Ot. a) comp. moni, 
noni; when; comp. beni, where; comp. heni, how; 
comp. boni; conj. that, as for the purpose that, construed 
with potent, mood. Comp. ni^ v. and conj. and ake, conj. 

ni, conj. and, Adn. th. s. Ot. na; only used to combine 
sentences or verbs, but not nouns (comp. ke). Comp. 
ni, V. 

ni or nl, n. pi. nimei, grandfather; Ot. nana; comp. nS, 
nye, n. etc. 

ni, nii, nibii, pi. n. of nd (which see). The word in its 

^ sing, and pi. form is very frequently used in combina- 
tions (as mo, mei of persons), to replace an object 
wanting etc. see the sequel. 

nibi or nibi, pi. -bii, n. grand-child, grandfather-child, s. 
nabi, n. 

nibii, diminutive pi form of no, thing; n. little things, things. 

nidsi, pi. of nine. 

niiahefolo, n. washer; fr. fo nii ahe, v. 

niiahefQmQ, n. washing of cloth etc. 

niian = nii amli, n. inside of things; region; adverbially 
used: in the things; about; dSemei niiaA, there about. 

niiankpalo, n. dainty person. 

niiankpamo, n. daintiness, fr. kpa nii amli, v. 

niianye, pi. -mei, n. rich woman; s. niiatse, n. 

niiato, n. s. niito. 

niiasedi, n. desire (after things) fr. di nii ase, v. 

niiatse or niatse, pi. -tsemei, n. lit. father or possessor of 
things, rich man; used in apposition = adj. rich; na 
niiatSe, a rich man; yd niiatse, rich woman, but also 
„niianye", n. th. s. 

niiahewumo, fr. wu nii ahe, v. and 

niianwamg (fr. wu niian, v.), n. superfluity. 


220 niibfi — nilelo. 

niiba, n. production (of fruits of the field); fr. ba nii, v.; 
begging; comp. sisemo, n. 

niiboni, pi. n. things created, creatures; creation; s. bo. 

niidonii or nidonii, pi. grievous things; grief; = nii nl 
do$ mo. 

niifem^nii or nif. , pi. n. (fr. ndfemond) deeds; doing; be- 
haviour etc. Ad. niipemnii, n. th. ». 

niifodsianii (comp. ndfdn), pi. n. bad deeds, ats ; bad doing, 
acting; bad behaviour. 

niihlnii, pi. n. detestable things; things religiously unclean 
to s. b., s. h!, V. 

niikeuii (fr. nokend) pi. presents; dashes; s. ke, v. 

niikpamo, n. harvest, taking of things from sun or rain; 
^ the contr. of kamo, n., fr. kpa nii, v. 

niikpalo, n. reaper. 

niikpe, nikpe, n. sewing, tailors work or trade, fr. kpe 
nii, v.; mil€ niikp^, 1 know to sew; 1 am a tailor. 

niikpend, pi. -nii, sewing implement. 

niikpelQ, nikp., n. tailor; seamstress. 

niile, nile, n. knowledge (of things) wisdom fr. le nii, v. 

niilelQ, nil., n. knowing, wise person. 

niina, nind, n. sight fr. na nii, v. to see. 

iiiiseniianii, pi. n. ill-use, abuse; fe m. k. niiseniianii, v. to 
use one ill, to ill treat one; comp. se, v. to ill-treat. 

niiseniianiifelo, n. mischievous person; illtreater. 

niiseniianiifemo, n. ill-use, ill-usage, ill-treatment. 

niito , niiato, nito, n. putting in order; keeping things to- 

niitolo, n. a person who put things in order, or who keeps 
things together. 

niitsulg, nitsulo, n. workman, labourer, fr. tsu nii, v. 

nijtsumo, nitsumo, n. work, labour; business; calling; duty; 
ye he niitsumo, v. to be in want of; to use, to employ 
8. th. 

niitsumobe, n. time of or for labour; season of labour. 

niitsumofimQ , n. pressure of business. 

niitsumobe, n. work-place; work-shop. 

niitsumokpamo, n. rest, stoppage of labour; geierabenb; 
fr. kpa niitsumo, v. 

niitsumogbi, n. day of labour; working day. 

nikutso, pi. -t§ei, n. ell-bow = ninekutso, n. 

nIkutSoyisi, -sisi, n. ell-bow (the outer or under-part of it). 

nile, s. niile, n. 

pilelO) s. niilelOy u. 


nina — nkabolo. 321 

nina, y. inf. ninamo, to overtake. 

nina, s. niina, n. 

ninalo, n. overtaker. 

ninamo, n. overtaking. * 

nine, inf. -rao, v* to press down (f. i. a swelling); s. n8, v. 

bobg, V. 
ninemo, n. pressing, sqeezing. 
nine, old pronunc. ninde, pi. nidsi, n. arm, hand, outside 

or back of the han^T^comp. de (and Hebr. T — nine, 

and rp = de); branch; trunk (of the elephant) forefeet 

and snoulder of beasts, etc. The word is very probably 

combined of ni = di (Ot. = to eat) and nde, ade (Ot. 

thing); fe — , v. to surpass the hand;\o be too much etc. 
nine abeku, ninebeku, n. left hand; north = kongbe; see - 

n9d§iasi, n. 
nine dsiird, ninedSiiro, n. right hand; adv. to or at the 

righ hand; south. 
TiinedsiirSgbe, n. right handway, i.e. toward the right hand; 

south, southward = nsogbe. 
ninefg, -le, n. surpassing of the hand; state of being too 

much of s. th. 
ninese, n. back of the hand. 

ninewao, pi. -wabii, n. finger, s. wao, n., comp. nanewao, n. 
nitsulo, nitsumo etc. s. niitsulo, niitSumQ. 
nk^nali, nk6nale, nk^nare (Ot. th. s.), n. rust; do — , v. 

to get rusty, 
nk^nalido, n. rusting, getting rusty, 
nkani, Ot. th. s., n. a kind of yams. 
'Akatie, ri. Ot. th. s. groundnuts, 
nkatiebo, n. bearing of groundnuts, s. bo, v. 
nkatiedumo, n. groundnut-planting, 
nkatiemu, n. groundnuts-oil. 
nkatiehQmo, n. groundnut-growing, 
hkatiewonu, n. grgundnuts soup. 
nkatiedQlo, -hulo, n. groundnuts grower, 
nklon, nkrdn, n. (sound imitating snoring), snore, 
nkldnhd, n. snormg, fr. h5 — , v. 
nko, n. small heaps of ground put to the yams plant; 

bo — , V. to heap yams, 
nkoben, n. (Ot.?) or okoben, n. cloth dyed with red clay 

for mourning, redness (from clay, etc.) dirtiness; wo — ,v. 

to be dirty, red. 
nkobo, n. yams-heaping, 
nkobolo, n. yams-heaper. 


222 tkomo — nmft. 

nkomo, 'kQino, Ot. th. s., n. complaint, lamentation; stA- 
ness, grief; ^e nkomo and ^e *komo, v. to lament, be 
sad, complain. Ad. komo, n. 

nkomoyeli, n. complaining, lamentation, sadness, grief. 

ftkomoyelilo, -yelo, n. complainer; sad person. 

nkomoyclisane , n. sad story; sad palaver. 

nkSnya, nkunya (Ot. fr. kom, v. to be possessed by a spirit 
and nya, v. to get), n. a miracle done by spiritual power; 
generally used of the natural and unnatural miracles of 
fetish-priests, ye — , v. to perform such. Comp. afai; 

Akdnyayeli, n. peiformance of miracles; juggling etc. 

Ak5nyayelo, -yelilo, n. performer of miracles; juggler, con- 
jurer; kind of fetishpriests, s. okomfo, afalyelo, -felo, n. 

nkpai,n. (Ot.mpai) curse; libation; a certain fetish-ceremony; 
yi nkpai, v. to perform a libation; to take away the curse. 

nkpaiyi, n. taking away the curse; performance of a libation. 

hkpaiyilo, n. person performing this ceremony. 

Akrdn, n. wandering ants (Ot. th. s. and Akra- or GS-town, 
people and language). These ants march some times in 
great number and invest but at the same time cleanse 
houses, stables, devouring every kind of vermin. 

nku, n. shea-butter, treebutter used by the natives to anoint 
themselves after washing. It is imported from the upper 

Aku, nkuii, nkum, n. lean me^pt; adj. lean, meagre; lo nku, 
lean meat. 

nkulo, n. assembly; bo — , v. to assemble; comp. gwa, n. 
bo gwa, v.; to reason, decide. 

nkulobo, n. assembling, assembly; reasoning; decision. 

nkwaii (Ot.), n. soup; = wonu, n.; palmsoup, shortened 
from the Ot. mekwan, n. 

Alai, adj. dry, Hxto^U, s. n§la, v. 

nlai, n. a kind of knives to scrape the mudwalls smoothly. 

nlenle, adj. thin (of pap etc.). 

nma, v. inf. 6ma, pi. nmla, inf. nmlamo., to scratch, f. i. 
one's face; to make characters into or on s. th. ; to sign 
(s. kadi), lo draw; to write; — wolo, v. - - a letter, 
- - on paper. 

Ama he, v. Inf. henmamo, lit. to sign, to blame one's self 
= bo he ahora, v. 

Ama, o. scratching; drawing; writing. 


nma — nmg. 223 

nmd, n. Ad. th. s. a kind of wheat, very small and black, 
of which bread is made; food of every kind; eyee iimS, 
he does not eat. 

nm9-abol6, n. bread of this. 

nilia, n. fragrance; perfume; sweet scent; dse — , v. to be 
odorifeous, fragrant; t§o fS ke nma, n. perfumery; 

iimS, n. fish-eggs. 

nmadS, n. lit. food- wine, beer; blofo-nmfid3, european beer; 
ho hmgdS, v. to brew (beer). 

nmSdaholo, n. brewer. 

nmSddhomo, n. brewing. 

nm§dse, n. fragrancy; sweet scent. 

nmadulo, n. grower of wheat. 

nmSidumo, n. growing of wheat; s. du, v. 

nmahulo, n. = nmSdulg; s. hu, v. 

nmghumQ, n. = nmSidumo. 

nmaf!, adv. alternately; fo — , v. to bear alternately (so. 
boys and girls). 

nmafifolo, n. person bringing forth boys and girls alter- 

nmafifomo, n. bringing forth alternately. 

nmaft-nmawolo -, words used in dividing things equally ; as : 
mine — , thine — , mine — , thine — . Esp. in childrens 

nman, nma, n. a kind of large antelopes. 

nmaAma , n. a large antelope in the neighbour-hood of the 
river Volta, said to have one horn on the forehead and 
being very shy and swift, of the size of a horse; per- 
haps the unicorn of the bible (not the rhinoceros!). 

nmSitSQ, n. or 

nmStso, pi. -tsei, n. ear of wheat (see nmS) used by the 

fetish-priest for fumigating, 
nmawu, n. side (of body). 
Amawuan = nmawu amli, chest; n. insides of the sides; 

ady. at the side, 
nmawutso, pi. -tSei, n. rib. 
nme, n. palmnut (with the flesh of it, s. nme). 
nme, n. nut, kernel (f. i. of the palmnut). 
i)m6 or: Amei, n. thorn, 
nmg, inf. nme, ftm|mo (pi. iimglg or nmlg), y. to lie; to 

lay; to put (comp. ba; mS, to, ta, kSi etc); to shut; to 

lay eggs; to miss, to let, to open; to be open; to per- 


224 Amg he — iimelehosomo. 

mit; to lay out, to spread; to submit to be calm, quiet 
etc. (Comp. ba, bre in Ot.) 

ftmi he, v. inf. heAme, henmgmo to lay open; to give 
8. b. free; to liberate; to let, to let go, to loose. 

nmg mli, v. mliAm$, to put in, into; tse t§ui nme nili, 
to comfort one's self; to shut, to lock. 

iimg na, v. inf. naiime, to be shut; to shut, lock. 

nm§ m. k. nasa , v. to give s. b. a bad answer. 

nm? no, v. inf. noAme, to lay or put upon; to add. 

nmg (and nmO) okplo, v. inf. okpldAme, to spread the 
table; to make a feast. 

nmg se, v. inf. senmi, to put back; to shut behind. 

nmg si, V. inf. §inm§, to lay down; to lie down; to 

iimg Isui si, v. inf. tsuisiAme, to lay the heart down; to 
have patience ; - - ha m. k. , with s. b. ; to be pa- 
tient; comp. to tsui (si), ha tsui ny6 mli; th. s.; and 
tsui fa, mli fQ, mli wo la etc. the contrary ; Ot. to bo 
ase, V. 

nmg yi, inf. yinmgmo, v. to shut in; s. na yi, v. th. s. 

nme yi §i, v. to let the head down; inf. yiSiiime; = ntae 
tsui §i, V. 

Ame, n. laying; lying etc.; shutting, locking; fr. nme, v. 

limg, adv. open; openly; wide open; gble nmg, v. to open 

Iomega, n. a finger-ring, made from the kernel of a palm- 
nut; dso — , V. to make one by rubbing on a stone. 

nmele» pi. form, though seldom heard of the verb lame* 

nmele, nmle, pi. nmedsi n. bell; clock (comp. gbe, to 
sound; nmele tfa, v. (the bell strickes), to strike the 
bell, inf. of both: nmle-tfa, Amle enyie atfa? nmedSi 
enyle atfa? what o'clock may it be? The answer is 
somewhat curious, as the sing, or plur. is used some- 
what strangely; f. i. nmle kome (one o'clock); nmedSi 
enyo (two o'clock); Amedsi ete, -edfe, -enumo, -ekpa; 
but nmle kpawo (sev^n o'clock); ftmle kpanyo, -nebu, 
-nyonma*, -nyonma ke ekome, — nyonma ke enyo; 
but it is also sufficient to say: atfa ekome, enyo etc. (lit* 
it struck one, two etc.); or nmele ese, the clock rea- 
ches; c§e enyo, it is two o'clock; etc. hoso or woso 
nmele, v. inf. nmele hosomo, to ring the. bell. Comp. ha. 

nmelehosolQ, n. bell-ringer. 

nmelehosomQ, n. bell-ringbg. 


ftmelelsfl — nmdldkpawolo. 225 

nmeletf^, n. striking of the bell, the hours; hour; clock; 

nmeletfalo, n. time-keeper, person striking the hours on 

a bell, 
nmelewosolo, -wosomo, s. 
nmelehosolo, -hosomo, n. 

nmelo> n. layer; person laying or putting s. th. fr. nme, v. 
nm^mo, omelemo, n. missing; letting; allowing; opening 

etc. fr. lime, v. 
nmemu, nut-oil; esp. the oil made from the kernel of 

palmnuts (not palmoil, s. mutSuru). 
nmenmlebii, pi. n. brushwood, copse. 
AmenQ, -numo, n. gathering of palmnuts, fr. nu nme, v. 
nmenulQ, n. gatherer of palmnuts, fr. nu nme, v* 
fimetSo, nmeitSOy pi. -tsei, n. nuttree; any tree bearing 

nmetenmete, adj. and adv. full of small spots, spotted, 

grisled; comp. dsekedseke, damd^m, nwSlShwata etc. 
nmiamo, n. mud; s. Amoto, n. 
nmlnml, n. fear; terror, horror; — m6 m. k., v. to be 

taken hold of by fear, dread etc. to shake; comp. se, 

se gbeye; he kpokpo, etc. 
nminmimomo, n. fearing; dreading etc.; s. the former, 
iimlitsa, n. gravel, consisting of small iron-stones. 

nmd, nmO (perhaps from the former v. nme, imperf. 

form nmeo, comp. hie tSe and h!e t§d) v. to spread; 

— okpld, — the table. Comp. also k^, and ko, v., 

tse, V. Adn. = tso , v. etc. 
hmO, pi. nmOnmO and hmolo, nmlo, inf. nmO, nmQlO> 

nmlo (nmlomo), v. to laugh; — m. k., to laugh at s. b., 

to deride, sometimes also 
nmO he, v. to laugh about. 
nmO si, v. to laugh at. 
nm0, pi. nmO]$, inf. nmO, AmOlOmo, to tie, to bind; comp. 

nm|, V. 
nmo, n. laughing, laughter. 
fim^iO, fimlo, th. s.; wo m. k. na nmOlO, to make one to 

laugh; y^ — ^, v. to be laughable. 
Am$lQ, n. laugher, derider. 
AmOlOkpa, n. lit. laugh-string, laughter; wo AmolokpS, to 

raise laughter; hS m. k. r= wo m. k. na nmOiO, v. to 

make one laugh. 
nmOlOkpSwO, nmlSwO, n. causing to laugh; joke. 
nmSldkpawolg , nmlgwolo. n. joker; jester. 

ZimmermaBn) Akra-Yocab. 15 


226 iimdn — nd. 

nm5fi, or nm5, pi. nmddSi, n. planted field, plantation (comp. 
abo/ko, M, n. etc.) able-nmon, corn-field; duade-nmdn, 
cassada-field etc. 

nmon, pi. nmodsi, n. louse. 

nmonmonmo , adj. and adv. swollen; fe — , v. to be swollen. 

nmonmonmofemo, n. swelling. 

nmojimlo, n. or 

nmonmolo, pi. nmonmodSi, n. board; gba — , v. to saw 
boards; gbo — , v. to plane. 

Amonmologbamo and 

iimonmologblaino , n. boardsawing. . 

nmoAmologblalo , n. boardsawer. 

nmonmologbglo, n. carpenter; s. srenke, n. and gbo, v. 

nnoonmologbo , n. planing. 

nniQto, n. (comp. kpotg) mire. 

nmoto, adj. and 

nmotonmoto, adj. and adv. miry; mirily. 

nmui, or mdi, adv. and interj. hush! at once! Ebote tSun 
iimui, he went into the room -hush-, gone-. Comp. 
krSnl; bum etc. 

no, dem. pron. that; pi. nomei, th/)se; Ad. kg, IqIq. 

no hewo, nohewo, conj. therefore; wherefore; Ad. dsahe. 

no le, conj. then = keke le, be le. 

no mli, adv. then. 

no nOn, dem. pron. even that; pi. nomei nOn, even those; 
no gbomo le non, even that same person. 

no nOn kg, th. s., still that same. 

no, V. inf. nOrao, to wrestle, struggle, quarrel; to fight. 

n5 he, v. to struggle for or about. 

nd (nO), pi. nii (Ot. ade) n. thing, comp. §§ 24 — 26, 
29; goods, riches; property; palaver, matter, state; in- 
strument; vessel; implement; etc. one of the most frc- 

s quently used words as well as the next following, from 
which it scarcely can be distinguished. Nd, pi. nii serves 
to take the place of impersonal subjects or objects, 
if not expressed and still grammatically required, as mo, 
mei do, if they are personal. Jt is therefore often used 
like a pronoun or formword, as he, mo, mei; etc. Comp. 
esp. the follow, cases: Mind, my thing (mine), ond (thine), 
end (his, hers, its) wond, nyend, amend, and ; pi. (seldom 
used) minii, onii etc. Namo nd? Whose (Uiing, pos- 
session)? Mone nd, this one's (possession); yi or, tfa 
m. k. nd or nii, to flog or strike s. b. with some 
thing or things; nand, na nd ko (noko), to see 6. 


no. 227 

th. i. e. to suffer pain; no n 5, salt-veMel; ndnd, pL na- 
nii, instruments of art; n5fdn, something bad, a bad thing, 
n5fia, a sinful thing (comp. mofdn etc.) ndhewo, nd hewo, 
wherefore, the thing for which etc. etc. Comp. also: 
sane, n. 
no (nO), n. (pi. noi — ?) Ol. so, surface, cover, upper side, 
top etc. what is over, more th«i enough; the contrary 
of si and Si§i; used, like thii', ipd hie, he, mli, se etc. 
as postposition to express the relation of place and tropi- 
cally also of time, manner etc. and as adverb. Comp. 
up, upon, on; over; above etc. in Engl, and auf, obcn, 
ju, an, fort) tDcitcr, fiber, etc. in Germ. It is seldom 
used as grammat. subject but very frequently as gram, 
object, f. i. ba no, v. inf. nobd, to come upon etc. be 
no, neg. voice of ye no, v. which see; be no, v. inf. 
nob^mo, to sweep upon, over etc. ble no, v. inf. no- 
blemo, to stretch or cross upon, over, on^ to ceil or 
cover a room; to crucify; bu no, v. inf. nobumo, to 
cover; to defend, to watch over; damo no, v. nodamo, 
to stand upon, of men (see m3 no); do no = tsere no, 
V. inf. nodomo, to strain; d§e no, v. inf. nodSe, v. to 
come ofT, to take off; dse no, v. to come from above, 
dsie no, v. inf. nodsiemo, to take off the surface, to 
take off from s. th. , dso no , v. to bless or say a bless- 
ing over s. th., to consecrate; f^ no, v. inf. nolSmQ, 
to take off the surface, cover etc. fl no, v. inf. nofl, no- 
fimo, to-. bind up; fd no, v. to cast upon; gble no, v. 
inf. nogblemo, to open the surface, cover; ha no, v. 
noha, to cover up; hf no, v. to give over and above; 
here no, inf. noheremo, lit. to take up; to answer, 
comp. to he, v.; hi no, v. inf. nohlle, to remain, dwell 
upon; ho no, v. inf. noho, to pass over; ha no, v. to 
blow off; ka no, v. inf. nokamo, to be fixed upon, to 
cleave to; kft no, v. inf. ookSmo, to lie upon, to rest 
upon; hie ka no, v. to trust upon; kpa no, v. inf. no- 
kpamo, to draw or dri^ off (from a chair); to dethrone 
(a king); to pluck off; ku no, v. inf. noku, nokOmo, 
to break from above (lo n5, conip. alo, lo, lit. „or more" 
= and so on; and th. like etc.); ma no, v. noma, no- 
mSmo; to stand upon; to build upon; to set upon; nana 
no, and na no, v. inf. nonanamo, nonamo, v. to tread 
upon, to tread down; nyS no, v. to spueeze down; 
nmo no, v. to lay upon; sa no, v. to fit upon; si no; 
V. to knock upon; to add; to repeat; ta no, pi tra no, 


228 ' no fa — nofi. 

V. to touch the surface; to sit upon; to ride, i«f. no- 
tamo, ngtramo; te no, s. ya no; teke no, v. to leap 
over; to be over, superfluous; inf. notekemo; ti no, v. 
to stumble upon (as spiders would do, s, GS- Fables) 
to no, V. to order upon, to set upon; to repeat; inf. 
notO; to no, inf. notomo, v. to smooth: to iron; to no, 
V. inf. not5mo, to transgress; tsa no, y. inf. notsamo, 
to continue; tse no» v. to pluck from; to reduce; ts! 
no, v< to close up; tso no, t. to shine upon; tso no, 
V. te turn upon, over, up; tSumo no, v. to wipe; wo 
no, V. inf. nowomo, to lift up, to exalt; wo he no, v. 
inf. henow6mo, to lift one's self up, be proud; to exalt 
s. b.; wyie no, v. to grind upon; ya no (aor., perf. and 
fut. te no), V. inf. noya, to go on, to proceed; ye no, 
V. inf. noyeli, to rule, to have the power over — ; to 
inherit (s. ye) ; ye no (neg. voice be no) v. to be upon, 
on, up, over etc. (aux. v.); yi no, v. to come down 
upon, to strike upon; to come upon; yo no = yeo no, 
imperf. tense of ye no; «tc. etc. 

no fS, inf. nofS nofamo, v. to Be open; comp. fa no, v. 

no gble, V. inf. nogblemo, to be open, comp. gble no, v. 

no ha, V. inf. noha, to be covered; comp. ha no, v. 

no ka, V. inf. nokSmo, to be open (of boxes, covers etc.) 
comp. kft; f5, gble; nme, v. 

Ad and 

ho- see after no-, n5- and no. 

noba, n. coming upon, on, over; fr. ba no, w 

noblemo, n. stretching upon; crossing; ceiling; crucifixion; 
fr. ble no, V. 

nobumo, n. covering; lying upon; watching; defence: fr. 
bu no, V. 

nodamo, n. standing upon; fr. damo no, v. 

nodamohe, n. footing. 

nodomo, n. straining; fr. do qo, v. 

nodse, n. coming off; taking off; reducing (of price), re- 
duction, fr. dse no, v.; going off, away. 

nodselo, n. reducer; s. notselo, n. 

DOdsiemo, n. taking off;.fr. dsie no, v. 

nodsolo, blesser; consecrater. 

nodsomo, n. blessing; consecration; fr. d§o no, v. 

nofdmo, n. opening; discovering, fr. fd no and no f^, n. 

ndfgno, pi. nii fe; ndfiand, pron. every; any (thing); comp. 
fe and mofemo. 

nofi and 


DQflmQ — nomildtiudSd. 229 

mjtyao, n. binding up. 

nofo, n. casting upon, increasing,' adding. 

ndfoA, pi. niifddSi (comp. also: niifddsianii) n. bad thing, 

evil; sin; impers. noun formed by efdn, evil and n5; 

comp. mofdn, n. and § 25 and 26. 
ndfdnfelQ, = efdnfelo^ n. evil-doer; culprit; comp. esafelo> 

ndsafelo, notdlQ, mofdn etc. aoi Ot. adeboneyefo, n. 
nOfdnfemo, n. bad act or deed; m 
nogbe, n. way up to s. th. „2lufn)eg." 
nogblemo, n. opening, 
ngha, n. covering up. 
nohand, pi. -mi n. cover; shield, s. tSSn, n.; shawl and 

the like, 
noherelo, n. person answering or replying or taking up 

nQheremo, n. answering, replying, taking of the word; 

answer; response; comp. heto, n. 
nQheremQlala, n. responsc-hynm or song. 
nohewQ, conj, therefore; generally followed by le or nl, 
nohewQ hu n\ — therelM'e also — . 
ndhewQ, pron. and conj. why, whatfore, wherefore, 
nghile, n. remaining, dwelling upon. 
«Qhd, n. passing over; surpassing, 
noka and 
nokamo, n. cleaving to; custom; pr^tice; habit; use; fr. 

ka no, V. 
UQkSmo, i^ lying upon s. th. fr. kd no, v.; opening, fr. no 

ka, V. 
ndkend and 

noke, n. gift, present; s. niik^nii, pL of it. 
nokpalo, n. usurpator; person straining or clarifying s. th. 
nokpamo, n. drawing or dragging ofT; dethroning, fr. kpa 

no, v.; straining, clarification. 
nokOmo, noki^omo, n. breakmg off. 
n5lo, n. fighter, wrestler, 
nom, n. (Ot. th. s.) spoil, booty, esp. of vmr; A6 — , v. to 

spoil, plunder; to make prisoners. 
ngmS, nomdimo, n. standing, lying, building upon s. th. 
nomn5, n. spoiling, plundering; making prisoners, 
nomnd gbomo, pi. -mei, n. prisoner of war. 
nomndlo, n. plunderer; person making prisoners, 
nomndnii, pi. n. plunder, spoil, booty; prisoners of war. 
nomnOniidsa, n. dividing of the spoil. 


230 toOA — noyalo. 

non, pron. (Ot. ara) same; even; lenoft, the same, even 

he or she; nakai nOil, even so; comp. no, pron. Ad. i6, 

which see also in GS. 
nona -mo, nQnana -mo, n. treading upon, down, !r. na 

no and nana ng, v. 
n5na, n. pain, torture; torturing, suffering, fr. na nO, v. 
n5nalo, n. suffering penon. 
ndnasane, n. painful sivry, palaver, 
nonyemo, n. squeezing down; fr. nyfi no, v. 
none, demonstr. pron. this (thing); pi. nil ne or niine. 
noni (=no nl, comp. nioni, boni, koni, dSni etc.), rel. 

pron. what; which; that, only used of things; comp. 

nonmg, n. laying upon; fr. nme no, v.; being shut. 
nosuomgnS, n. will, wish, s. suomo and nd, n. 
ndsa, n. = esa, sin; evil. 
nOsafelo, n. sinner. 

n5§afemo, n. sin; sinful, evil act = esafemo. 
ngi^imo, n. knocking upon;^ding; addition; repetition fr. 

si no, V. 
notalo, n. rider, sitter, 
notamo, nolramo, n. sitting upon, riding, fr. ta no, pi. tra 

no, V. 
notekemo, n. overflowing; superfluity; fr. teke no, v. 
notimo, n. stumbling* upon fr. ti no, v. 
noto, n. putting on, „2luflegcn"; repetition, fr. to no, v. 
notomo, n. smoothing or ironing cloth;, fr. to ilo, t. 
notomo-okpl5, n. smoothing-lable. 
notonoto, adv. repeatedly. 
not6lo, n. transgressor, 
notdmo, n. transgression. 
notomonS, pi. -nii, v. transgressive act. 
notsamo, n. continuing; continuation; fr. tsa no, v. 
notsemo, n. reducing; reduction; fr. t§e no, v. 
n^Umo, n. closing up; fr. tsl no, v. concealing; keeping 

in secret, 
notsdmo^ n. tulKting upon fr. t§5 no, v. 
notsumo, n. wiping off, fr. tgumo no^ v. 
nowO and 
nowomo, n. uplifting, elevating; elevation, exaftalion fr. 

wo no, V. and no wo, v. 
nowolo, n. elevator. 

noyfi, n. going on, proceeding fr. ya no, r. 
noyalo, n. progresser. 


noyeli — 65bfi. 231 

noyeli, n. ruling, governing; government; overcoming; in- 
heriting etc. ^. ye no, v. 

noyelilo, noyelo, n. ruler, ^ governor; heir. 

noyelibe, n. time of government. 

noyelihe, n. place of government. 

noyimQ, n. coming ^r striking upon. 

AO, n. salt. 

iio-odi, Q. large basket resting on wooden sticks and 
thatched, in which salt is preserved. 

no-yiteremo, n. salt- load: a basket of salt, as they come 
into the interior. 

nd (or nO) inf. n5 and n6mo , v. to take (ne^men), (Ot, ffi), 
used like kg, as auxiliary verb, f. i. n6-ha, to (take sc. 
something) and give (to some body); nd-fe, to take and 
do, i. e. to do with ; see kg and its combinations ; to be 
agreeable (angenejim fcpn), inf. nSmp. 

nd m. k. na, v. to be agreeable to some body; inf. na- 

n6 (nO), (noun, but not frequently usfed as such) side, 
neighbourhood; contact; (Umgcbung); dwelling; comp. he, 
hewQ and masei; postposition, used like he, h!e, mli, 
na, no etc. , to express the relation of locality, as the 
prepositions : near, to, by, at etc. It is scarcely, if ever 
used as gram, subj., but very frequently as gram, object 
of locality; f. i. ba m. k. nd, to come to s. b.; inf. ndbd; 
be m. k. Ad, to be absent from, or not in possession of, 
Bome body; s. ye Ad; dse m. k. nd, v. inf. nddse, to 
go away from s. b., to leave s. b. ; dse m. k. nd, v. to 
come from s. b. (s. dSe, used as auxil. v.); gbale m. k. 
nd, V. to turn in to s. b.; ho m. k. nd, to pass by to 
s. b. or s. b. house; kS no, v. to lie by, near or with; 
mS nd, V. to stand or lie at or near (used of things); 
to build at or near s. b. house) ; se Ad , v. to reach or 
arrive at . . . ; si Ad, v. to knock at or against; ta Ad, 
V. to sit with; te Ad, s. ya Ad; to Ad, v. to 
or in; to lodge with; t§d Ad, v. to turn by, in etc. tsu 
m. k. Ad, to sleep with s. b.; ya m. k. Ad, v. perf. ao|r, 
and ful. tense te m. k. Ad, to go to s. b. ; ye m. k. Ad, 
neg. be m. k. Ad, v. to be or live with or near s. b., 
to be in possession of s. b.; imp. tense: yg m. k. Ad. 

Ad - fe ; Ad - h§ and other double verbs with Ad as auxiliary 
V. see explained in § 28 and comp. kg, v. and its com- 
binations and Ad, v. 

Adba, n. advent; arrival at or lifear s. b. 


232 Addse — nSonft. 

nddSe, n. removal froip s. b. 

ndgbe, n. access Outritt); approach. 

'noli, enoli, adj. green. 

ndlo, n. taker. 

ndmo, n. sweetness, agreeableness , fr. ft6, v. 

nsSni, n. (Ot. th. s.) balance, pair of scales. 

nsorok^, n. bush fit for cultiyation (s. ko, n.). 

nsra, n. (Ot. th. s.) camp; bo — , y. inf. nsrabo, to encamp; 
to exercise, to be drilled; bo m. k. nsra or ke m. k. bo 
nsra, v. a. to exercise, to drill (soldiers); to nsra, v. 
inf. nsralO, to encamp. Comp. sra, v. ; and asrafoyon, n. 

nsrabo, n. exercise; drilling; encamping. 

nsrabolo, n. driller; ^ncamper. 

nsrato, n. encamping; encampment. 

nsratolo , n. encamper. 

nsro, nsroh, n. faithfulness; feigned faithfiiloess; Sugeti^ 
bicn ji ; hypocrisy ; ti nsrdn, v. , inf. nsrdnti (Ot. ?) to act 
faithfully toward the master against the fellow -servants 
or labourers; to report fellow -servants, to feign faith- 
fulness; to play the hypocrite etc. 

nsrdnti, n. faithful acting towards the master, reporting; 
dissembling^ hypocrisy. 

nsrdntilo, n. faitMul servant; reporter, 9tugenbiener; hypo- 

n§Oi n« sea; sea water (comp. Ot. nsu = water; Ga nu, 
sweet water); wu nso, v. inf. nsowumo, to bath in the 
sea; nso md m. k., inf. nsomdmo, v. to be afTected by 
sea-sickness; nso mdmi, I am sea-sick (see lole m5 m. k., 
the same); nso fii, v., inf. usQfh, to be low-water-tide, 
to ebb; n§o yi, v.; inf. nsoyimo, to be high-water tide ; 
nyle n§on, and nyle nso hie, v. inf. nSoAnylemo, n§o- 
h^ienyiemo, to make a seavoyage; etc. Comp. wu, wu- 
so; Ad. wo; Ayigbe: Wo; Ot. pp, n. 

nsobe,'n. season of the sea. 

nsfibii, nsonbii, n. sea-men, sea-people. 

nsodsen, n. sea-life. 

nsof^9 B- ebb-tide, v. nso ^^ v. 

nsQgbe and nsongbe» n. south, south- ward. 

n§Qh!e, n. surface of the sea. 

nsoke, nsrokg, n. wave (s. ke). 

nsokpakpo, n. sea-lake; bay; cove. 

n§o-kpo, n. sea-island. 

^§Qn = n§o mli. 

nsona, n. sea-shore. 


nSgnamaA — nto. 233 

nSonamaA, n. sea-town. 

nSomdmo, n. sea-sickoess. 

Aso^m^, n. calmness of the sea. 

n§onkot§a, n. sponge. 

nSgnine, n. sea-arm; bay; cove. 

n§Qnlala, n. sea-song. 

n^O^lele, n. sea- vessel. 

n§onlo, n. sea^fisb. 

nSonO) n. surface of the sea == nSohle. 

nsonnylelo, n. passenger in a vessel. 

n§Qnnyiemo, n. sea-voyage. 

nsonnyo, pi. nsQnmei, n. seaman. 

nSonya, going to sea. 

n§oilisane, nSonnd, n. matter or thing pertaining to the sea. 

nSose, n. transmarine place or country; comp. kose; maAse 

etc. Noni bako dd le eye nsQse, prov. >Vhat has never 

come before is beyond the sea. 
nsQsisi, n. ground of the sea. 
n§osikpoA, n. sealand. 
n§ota» n§onta, n. sea-war; -tawu, n. th. s. 
nsQta, n. marine. 
nsQtabilo, n. mariner. 

nsQte, n. stone from the sea; rock in the sea. 
n§owale, n. power of the sea. 
nSowo, n. = nsoyimo; @teiflen fcer ©ee; = nsonmfi, n. 

calmness of the sea. 
nsowumo, n. sea-bath, fr. wu nso, v. 
nsoyimo, n. flood-tide, 
nsroke, s. nsoke; n. wave, 
nta (Ot. ata, pi. nta, twin) n. pair; any thing double; tQ- 

nta, double-gun; gbe-nta, double way, cross-way etc. 

ntanta, adv. by pairs. 
ntSn, n. a kind of nets for carrying things in; comp. ya, n. 
ntiS, n. kick; fS — , v. inf. ntia-fS, to kick, to try to kick 

in lifting the heel; si — ,-inf. ntia§imo, to kick. 
nti^fSi, n. kicking; trying to kick, 
ntiaf^lo, n. kicker. 
ntiasUg, n. th. s. 
ntiasimQ, n. kicking, 
nto, interrog. particle, not; lat. ne, greek (xrj; nto mike? 

Did I not say it? = I certainly said it. Comp. aso, 

ani; be, lo etc. 
nto, n. a kind of high and very rough grass; wild sugar- 


2U nto — - lid. 

nto, n. (Ot. the same) toll, tax, custom, duly; comp. onia; 
he nto, V. to take duty; yi nto (or Ho) v. to reeeiye or 
pay duty; comp. t§u onia, y. 

ntohelo, n. tax-gatherer; toUkee^er. 

ntohemo, n. taxing. 

ntohemohe, n. custom-place, custom-lrause. 

ntoyilg, n. tax-gatherer; tax-payer. 

ntoyi, n. tax-gathering; tax-paying. 

ntifei, n. gun-stick, rammer. 

ntfgn, n. a kind of itch; do — , v., inf. ntft§hdo, to gel 
the itch. 

ntfendo, n. itching. 

ntf^hdolo, n. a person having this itch. 

ntfemiatSe, Atf^At§e, n. th. s. 

ntsift, ntSim, n. a kind of food prepared of boiled blood 
and pepper. 

ntsuma (Ot.) n. a kind of red clay, used for dying (rooms 
etc. but also cloth, s. nkobeA, n.). 

nu, y. inf. no and numo^ to perceiye; to hear, to 
understand; 4o feel; to smell; to drink; nu iime, v. 
to gather palmnuts; nu tawa, y. to smoke tobacco; nu 
ble, y. to smoke a pipe; nu he, y. to hear about; to 
feel; nu mli, v. to hear the contents, to hear of s. 
th. etc. 

nu niiaA, y. to be inquisiiiye. 

nu, n. water, esp. sweet water or drink-water, comp. 
Dso ; any fluid as such, if only its fluidity shall be signi- 
fied, f. i. hIenmeiA-nu, eyewater, i. e. tears; wo-nu, 
fowl- water, i. e. grayy; soup; he-nu, fluid of any thing; 
mli-nu, fluid in any thing, sap; nn Am^, water fit for 
drink, cooking; nu hd, cold water; nu la, hot water; 
nu kulokulo, lukewarm water; ye nu, y. to draw water; 
nu nu, y. to drink water; fo nu, y. to weep water, i. e. 
tears, s. yafonu; fie nu, y. decent expr. to make water; 
s. s3mo; etc. PI. nui, sometimes used for different kinds 
of water, different particles of water, drops, tears etc., 
comp. dai, lai etc. 

nQ, pi. hi and hlmei, comp. § 48; n. man, male (s. also 
nyo) ; the word is used to indicate the sex of men, ani- 
mals and plants ; comp. yO, female and mo, gbomo; wu, 
M; t§e, nye, etc.; binu, son; gbekSnu , male (Md; 
okpo^ono, male horse, stallion; abolobatSonU, male bread- 
leaf-tree etc. nu mo or numo, pi. hi med§i, htoedSi; 
n. old man; used as title of honour to high persons, 


iiii*a(ua — iMiSi8l 235 

as kings etc. (Cotnp. „Sire" in French and Engl); fe. 

no, Y. to make a man, to behave as a man, to be a man 

{,Mn SSatin ntadt^lp'O. Ad. nymnu, n. Ot. obarima, n. 
nu-afua, n. flood of water, 
nuba, n. water-plant, 
nublage, n. water-tit). 

nuba, n. water-hole, tank, well; comp. hiefimei, n. 
nubudse, n. well-digging, fr. dSe nubu, v. to dig a well. 
nubudselQ, n. well-diggir. 

nndsQ, n. water-ditch; valley containing a brook ; aqueduct, 
nofemo, n. manhood, fr. fe nO, v.; bravery = ek9, n. 
Buforoo, n. weeping tears; hienmeinufomo, n. th. s. 
nuHemo, n. pouring out of- water, making water; fr. fie 

nu, V. 
nugbe, n. water-pot. 
nuhase, n. water-cask. 
nQhe, n. penis (decent expression, s. yOhe). 
nuhle, n. surface of water; D*>D^JD. 
nuhd, nu hd, n. cold water, 
nuhdmo, n. scarcity of water (lit. water-hunger), 
nuke, n. water-wave, 
nukpulu, n. water-jug; pitcher. 
nukpunkpS, water-barrel, 
nukuli, n. water-drop, 
nula or nu la (and nu ke la) n. hot wiier. 
nulo, n. drinker; hearer etc. fr. nu, v. 
numo or nu mo and iiu momo, n. pi. M medsi, old man. 
numo, n. drinking; hearing; feeling, perceiving etc. s. nu, v. 
nutk = nu mli. 
nuna, n. waters edge; shore. 
nuAlo, n. water-animal, 
nunma, n. food- water (?); drink-water. 
nuuQ, n. surface of water == nuhle, n. 
nunu, redupl. v. of nu, v. 
nunulo, n. waterdrinker. 
nunumo, n. waterdrinking. 
nuse, n. behind or beyond the water, comp. nSose, manse» 

fase, kose etc. 
nasu and 
ttQsuban, n. male-, manly character; s. hianiifemo, nu- 

femo, n. 
nufdmQ, n. sprinkling of water; watering; fr. f% nu, V. 
nu§i§i, n. ground, bottom of water; muddy water at the 



S86 naSiSikpoto -»- nwei. 

nusisikpoto, n. muddy water at the bottom. 
*^nute, n. water-stone; drip-stoiie. 

nutQ» n. water-bottle (generally a <^iIabash-flaiD ; water- 
bladder; s. samoto» 

nutsamo, n. digging for water ;j5. nubudsg, n. 

nutse, n. possessor of water (a well 4 1.). 

nQtso, pi. -tsei, n. male-rod (more decent than hSmo). 

nuwd, nunwo, n. putting in water. 

nuye, n. water-drwing , water-feting. 

nuyelo, n. water-drawer; water-carrier. 

nulami (= nwei-la-bi = high-light-child , comp. nsoroma in 
Otyi) n. star. Comp. also holami in Acto. ; and hu- 
lami, n. 

nulamiiaheniile, n. astronony. 

nulamiiaheniilelo , n. astronomer. 

nulan, pi. nulai, adj. shining, bright (perhaps connected 
with nulami; = starry). 

nwS, V. to disregard; to contemn, insult = nyafi, v. comp. 
also kwa. 

'nwan, onwan, n. fool; = bulu. 

nwane, n. doubt; difference of opinion; uncertainty; dse-, 
y. inf. nwanedse, to dispute; to doubt; k^ m. k. ds6-, 
V. to dispute with s. b. (Comp. gye akyine in Ot. and 
lise nd in Adn^ 

nwanedse, n. doM)t; dispute; difference of opinion; Ot. 

ikWanedselQ, n. doubter; disputer; sceptic. 

nwSnwa, n. wonder; astonishment (Ot.), surprise; ye — ,v. 
to be surprisiiig, astonishing; comp. fe yd, hie fe ya; 
na kpe he; he dso, v. etc. 

nwatanwSta, adj. and adv. speckled; nwetSnwgtg, adj. 
th. s. 

nwei,n. heaven (comp. Nyonmo; Ot. osoro Ad, hiom, 
hyom); height; adv. on high; up; above; upstairs 
etc.; contrary sisi; sikpon; heaven and- earth; ba — , v. 
to come to heaven; be — :, v. s. ye nwei; dse iiwei, 
V. to come from above; max. v. used = from above; 
se tfwei, v. to reach to heaven; to reach heaven; si — , 
V. to knock at heaven, to reach to heaven; comp. esp. 
the expression : keyasi nwei, = to heaven; ta nwei, v. 

to sit above, in heaven; to touch heaven; te 

nwei, s. ya iiwei; tsu — , v. to send up; wo nwei, v. 
to sleep upstrairs; ya nwei, v. pert aor. and fut. tense: 
te Aweiy to go up; to go to heaven; comp. esp. the 


iiwei-asafo — nyftflmo. 23T 

expr. ke-ya Awei, ke le nwei, ke-ale ftwei, = (go) to 
heaven; ye nwei, neg. betwei; aux. v. to be up, above,- 
in heavm; imperf, yo nwei; etc. Comp. also no, yiten, 
hie, n. 

nwei-asafo, n. host of heiiren. • 

nweiba, n coming 4o heaven; coming up. 

nweibi, n. child of heaven. 

nwcibo, n. creation of heaven. 

nweibolo, n. creator of heaven. 

nweibumo = hlebumo, n. cloudy weather fr. nwei bu, v. 

nweidsen, n. heavenly world^; heavenly life; s. dSeA, v. 

nweigbe, n. way to heaven. 

nweigbg, n. voice of heaveni 

nweiha = nweibumo. 

nweihie," n. face of heaven. 

nweila, n. heavenly light. 

nweilabi, s. nnlami, n. 

fiweimaAtseyeli, n. kingdom of heaven. 

nweimo, pi. — mei; n. heavenly per An. 

nweiniiyeli, n. heavenly inheritance. 

nweino , pi. — nii, n. heavenly thing. 

nweisihilehe, n. heavenly dwelling-place. 

nweita = nwei-asafo, n. heavenly host. 

nweilsemo, = dSentSemg, n. clear weather fr. nwei t§e, 
V. = dsen tse, v. *" 

hweiya, n. going to heaven; ascension. 

nweiyeli, n. heavenly inheritance. 

iiweiyin, n. heavenly mind. 

nwilinwitg = nwatSmvatS, adj. speckM. 

Words not found under ny- may be sought for under 
ni- and nyi-. 

ny^, V. inf. ny^mo, pronounced with elevation of voice, 
to exult, to rejoice (over s. b. or s. th.), to triumph; 
nya! rejoice!" 

nya, inf. nys, v. obscene word: cacare. See wa, wa nane, 
ya kona, tsong, ts6 he, ya dfeian, -nii ase etc. Comp. 
nyia, v. 

nya, nyanya, adv. (Ot. th. s.) slowly. * 

nyafi or nyafe, inf. nyafimo, v. to disregard, despise, con- 
temn; to use spitefully; comp. nwa; na yi, fa yi; Ifc 
gbe heguo, s. etc. 

nyafilo, n. spiteful,, disregarding person. 

nyafimo, n. disregard; spite, despite. 


138 nyilo — ny9teyd6tSalo. 

nyJlo, n. exultcr; triumpher fr. ny§, v. 

ny^mg, n. exultation; rejoicing; triumph fr. ny^, v. 

nyikmo, v. inf. th. s. to iiek; to batht, to fomeal; to bathe 
a wound, boil or sore, generally '*vith hot water; -fla, 
to bathe a sofc ^c. ; to casUifi bad look on s. b. == kpe 
m. k.; nyemo, th. s. * 

nyamo, n. bathing, fomentation; evil eye. 

nyanS, inf. nySnSmo, v. (= nyane, which see) ; to disfigure; 
— hie, to disfigure the face; to make an ugly face; to 
express disgusl; — na, v. to disfigure the mouth etc. 

nySnanyana, adv. swarmingly^ of the movement of wornas, 
vermin etc.; nyie — , v. to swarm or walk swarmingly; 
roughly = sakasaka, bisibsia ete. 

nyariamo, n. disfiguring; ei^ression of disgust. 

n^ane, inf.nyaiiemo (sometimes ny age, -mo nyanke, nyanke- 
mo), V. to be disgusting, ugly; to disgust, abhor; to ex- 
press disgust; to make ugly; he nyane m. k., v. to be 
disgusting, to disgust or abhor one's self; mihe nyaiiemi, 
I disgust myself; •yane he, inf. henyanemo, th. s.; nyahe 
hie, V. to disgust one's face. 

nyaftelo, n. a person disgusting or abhorring s. th. 

nyanemo, n. disgust, abhorrence; dirtiness; fe or ye nyane- 
mo, V, to be dirty, disgusting. 

nyankese, n. a plant with rough leaves used for cleansing 

Nyankoa (Ot. = God's slave, God's servant fr. Nyome and 
akoa), n. pr. of persons. 

nyankunton, n. a kind of trees (rainbow-tree, fr. nyankon- 
tm, Ot. rain-kiw); nyonmosat§o, th. s. 

nyanylnya, adj. and adv. sour; acid; fe — , ye — , v. to 
be sour. 

nyafemo, and 

nyanyafemo, n. slowlhiess. 

nyanyanyafemo» n. sourness; acidity. 

nyanyata, n. a plant used as medicine and charm. ' 

nyanydn, pi. nyanyddsi, n. tooth; kpe nyanySdsi aSisi, v. 
fo gnash the teeth; sa nylnyCMlSi ano, v. to cleanse the 
teeth; comp. tebi, tela, n. 

nyan3iiidsianQsam(), n. tootbcleansing ; s. ta, n. 

nyanyodSianosamokotSa, n. sponge or bark for cleansing the 
teeth; s. takotsa, n. 

nyanyodsiasisikpemo, n. gnashing of teeth. 

nyan^dnkakao, n. tooth-adie. 

pyanydntSalo, n. dentist.. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

nyonyoafS — nyebi. 235 " 

n^onyonte, nyKnyonfSiDQ, nyanyddSifamo, n. taking out of 

a tooth. 
nye, n. and adv. yesterday. 
nje sg or nyese, n. day before yesterday. 
nyey pi. nyemei (Ot. na), n. mother; generally used of 
eirery married woman in speaking to her; romp. tSe, ni, 
na, bi etc. also biianye, bienye; awo, n-. Wdnye, hftwo 
nu w^nu! aKuttcrd5)cn'! ®ibun5 ctmagSBaffcr jumSrinfen! 
nye, pron. you, ye; your; the same if standing indepen- 
dently or In the subjective, objective or possessive rela- 
tion; comp. § 21 and 34. Ad. th. s., Ot. mu. 
nyedientsemei, yourselves. ^ 

nyefe, all of you. 
nyehe, yourselves (relative), 
nyehu, you also, 
nyeno (s. no, n.), yours, 
nyenon, even you. 
Byekeke, only you. 

nye, inf. nySmo, v. to be able; to csan; to hold, to con- 
tain. The construction of this verb is somewhat diffi- 
cult, as it cannot, like „le'' be construed with the infini- 
tive of the verb expressing the action, one is able to do, 
but this verb must either stand in the same tense as 
„nye" or in another tense; the object of this action 
may stand betwixt both or follow them, comp. the fol- 
lowing instances: Minyg mife or manyg mafe, I am able 
to do or make; manye nakai mafe, or mlny^ mife nakai 
or manye ake mafe nakai, manye ak@ mifcQ nakai, I am 
able to do thus; minyen nii ,ne matsu, I cannot do this 
work ; minyge ene maye, I cannot eat this (comp. milee 
ene yeli, th. s.). 
nyg, s. nyie, v. to walk, 
nyg, nye, inf. nye, v. to hate; sometimes nye he, th. s. 

(comp. henyelo = nyelo, n. enemy), 
nyi, n. hatred; enmity, 
nyebebe, adv.' already yesterday; s. beb6, adv. 
nyebi, pi. -bii, n. motherchild (comp. tsebi and bi), full 
brother or sister (®efc()mijier). To be bom of one mo- 
ther is considered a more intimate affinity, than of one 
father; wherefore nyebi and tsebi, mother's child and 
father's child, are sometimes put into contrast. Comp. 
„nyerai"j and the very similar relations and views in 
.the old Testament and among nations, where polygamy 
exists, in general. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

240 nyebii — nyeAQyentfibolo* 

njrebii, pi. n. people of yesterday; domp. ian^nthii, n, 

nyede, n. hand, power of the mother. 

nyedsQiDQ, n. mothers blessing. 

nyegbe, n. mothers voice; s. gb6, n.; mother-murder, s, 
gbe, V. 

nyehedo, n. mothers love. 

nyelala, n. mothers song. 

nyel^, n. mothers blood. 

ny§lo, n. able, powerful person, £r. nyS, v.; comp. he- 
walo, n. 

nyglo, n. hater; enemy. 

nye^mo, n. mothers curse. 

nyemfin, n. mother-town; mothers town, home. 

nyemei, pi. of nye, mother. 

nyemeiamodenbo. n. motherly zeal, diligence, care. 

nyemi (from nyebi, which see), pi. nyemimei, n. Ad. th. s. 
^nd mami; Ot. nua; brother or sister, ®ef($n)iftet. 
Whilst nyebi excludes any other relation, nyemi includes 
relationship in general and is used for relations of the 
same age very extensively (comp. tSe, nye, bi etc.); as 
in Hebrew. Nyemi as nanyo is frequently used to indi- 
cate general brotherhood or fellowship. 

nyemibi, n. Sruber^finb, ©d^wefierfinb; -Weffe, fftii^U; ne- 
phew, niece. 

nyemihedo, n. brotherly love; (pihxieXfpux, ©tubetlieb^. 

nyemihesane, n. brothers palaver, concern. 

nyemimeiabo, n. brotherhood. 

nyemimeiabi, n. ®ef(ftn)tftetftn^ nephew or niece. 

nyeminQ, pi. nyemimeihl, n. brother. 

nyeminukpa, n. elder brother or sister. 

nyemiyO, pi. nyemimeiyei, n. sister. 

nyemiyomo, n. brotherly acknowledgement. 

nySmo, inf. ny^mo, v. to grope; s. nyiemo, v. and its 

nyemo, n. ability, power, possibility; comp. hewale; he- 
gbe, n. 

nySiho* V. = nySmo, v. to bath, foment. 

nyene, inf. -mo, v. to twist (f. i. a rope). 

nyeiinyentfi, n. bad, profligate life; bo — , v. to lead a 
profligate life; adj. profligate. 

nyennyentfibi or bi nyennyentli, n. prodigal son. 

nyennyefttfibo, n. profligacy; debauchery; comp. ahofibS.n. 
§itfiamo, n. 

nyeftnyeMfibolO) n. profligate person; debaucher. 


nyera and nyeram — ny5 mlf. 241 

nyera and nyeram, v. inf. nyeramo, to dazzle; to be bright, 
nyeram, nyeramnyer^m, adj. and adv. dazzling, bright; 

nyeramo, n. dazzling; brightness, 
nyia, v. inf. nyia, obscene (corroboration of nya, v.); to 

have diarrhoea; comp. musun t§d, v. 
nyle, inf. nytemo, v. to walk (= nante); — gbe, inf. 

gbenylemQ, v. to travel; — nSo hie, inf. n§oh!enyiemo, v. 

to travel by sea; nyle he§iba mli, v. to walk in humility; 

nyle ke-ya, v. to walk to s. place; nyie ke-ba, v. th. s. 

etc. etc.; ny!e nane ng, inf. nanenonyiemQ, v. to goon 

nyle dSale na, v. to walk straight, righteously; inf. dSale- 

nyle he, — hewo, v. to walk about; inf. henytemo. 
nyle hamo, v. to walk before, in advance; inf. hfimonylemo. 
nyle hie, v. to walk before; inf. hlenyieino. 
nyle mli, v. to walk in s. th. 
nyle na, v. to walk along, according to etc. 
nyie no, v. lo walk upon, over etc. 
nyle so, v. to walk after, to follow; to persecute; inf. se- 

nyle seso, v. to go or walk backward; inf. sesenylemo. 
nyle si, v. to walk on the ground (= nyle §ikpoin); to 

walk on the belly; — on hands and feet; to grovel, 
nyle m. k. sisi, v. inf. §i§inylemo» to speak (ill) of s. b. 

behind his back; to think or act bad against s. b.; to 

seek one's harm, fall ; ye m. k. Sisi, v. th. s. 
nylelo, n. walker; traveller, 
nylemo, v. to grope, to feel with the hands; s. nygmo, v. 

th. s. 
nylemo he, v.' to grope, to feel about, 
nylemo mli, v. to grope, to feel inside, 
nylemo si, v. to lie with hands and knees on the ground, 

to feel the ground, inf. Sinylemo. 
nyiemo SiSi, v. to grope or feel the ground ; the bottom etc. 
nylemo, n. walking; travelling, 
nylemokotoku, n. travelling bag. 

nylemot§o, pi. -tsei, n. walking-stick; = dehlemotSo, n. 
nyd, inf. ny6, nyOmo, v. to sink, to fall; to fall in battle, 

to be slain; comp. gbe, gbe si, v.; kdmo Si, v. 
ny5 hie, v. to fall on the face, 
nyd hle^e, v. to fall forward, 
nyd mli, v. to fall into, in. 

ZimmermaBn, Akra-Yocab. 16 


242 nyd no — nydn. 

nyd no, v. to M upon. 

ny6 se or sggbe, v. to fall back. 

nyfi si, V. to sink or fall down; to go down, to set (also 
used of the sun). 

nyo §isi, y. to fall under s. th. 

nyO, nyoii (pi. nyonyon?), n. night; adv. at nighttime; the 
contrary of ISne, n. 

nyodsiaholo (not used), n. slave-dealer, s. nydn. 

nySdsiatso, n. debtor; a person full of debts; s. nyomo 
and nyowiotse; possessor of slaves, s. nyon, n. 

nyd, n. falling, sinking, going down, setting; fall. 

nyomo, n. th. s. but seldom used ; s. sifiemo (fall of many). 

nyomo, pi. nyddsi, n. (lit. falling, fall, s. nyo, v.) debt; 
duty; wages; dse nyomo, v. to deduct a debt; to take 
a pledge; h!e — , v. inf. nySmohiemo, 4o owe, to be in 
debt ; mlhielo nyomo darei oh^, I .owe him hundred dol- 
lars; bo — , inf. nyfimobo, v. and m6 nyomo, v. inf. 
nyomomomo, to get indebted, into debts; ye — , inf. 
nySmoyeli, th. s.; wo nyomo, inf. nyomowo, to pay a 
debt; to pay the wages; to pay; to repay; to punish; 
ko he dse n). k. nyomo, v. to keep aloof from s. b., etc. 

nyomobimo, n. asking in debts. 

nyomodse, n. taking of a pledge (by force); s. awoba, n. 

nydmondstemo, n. deduction .of a debt. 

nyomohiemo, n. owing; indebtedness. 

nyomohlelo, = nySmotse, n. debtor. 

nyomomd, and 

nydmomomo, n. getting into debts. 

nyomotse, pi. -tsemei, n. debtor; s. nyodsiatse. 

nyomowo, n. paying; payment; wages; repayment; punish- 

nyomowobe, n. time of paying. 

nyomowodsiemo, n. deduction from payment. 

nyomowolo, n. payer. 

nyOn = nyo, n. night; = nyo mli, in the night, at night- 

nyori, pi. nyodSi (fr» the verb nyd; comp. also nyomo; the 

word seems to stand instead of nyolo, debtor, comp. 

won, n.), n. slave. It is however seldom used, slaves 

being either called tsudsi, servants, or bii, children; Ot. 

. akoa, n. 

ny6n, pi. nySdsi, n. moon; f. i. nyon edse, v. the moon 
shines; comp. nyontsere, month; nyon dse, the month 
begins; — gbo, the month dies, is finished. 


nydntISS — nyonmofiimo. 243 

nydndSe, n. moanshine; s. nyon d§e; beginning of a month. 

nyondSenii, pk monthly wages, — allowance; comp. nydfi- 
niiyenii, pi. n. Ad. hulamidsenii, th. s. 

nydngbele, n. end of a month, s. nySn gbo, v. 

nyobkpemo, n. = nyonlserekpemo , n. moon-light, SWoiibr 

nyoiim^, pi. nyonmaf, num. ten; nyonma ke ekome, eleven; 
— ke enyo, twelve; — ke ete, thirteen etc. nyonmai 
enyo, twenty; — ete, thirty etc. s. § 35. 

nyonlo, aiv. at once; mafo mibie mafe — , I will try and 
do it at once. 

Nyonmo (without plural-form), pr. n. God (Ot. Nyame 
and Nyankdpon; Adn. and Ayigbe: Mawu). As God is 
considered the spirit or soul of heaven, or heaven the 
face (s. Nyonmo hie) or outward appearance of God, 
NyoAmo is also used for heaven, f.i.. Nyonmo ke §i- 
kpoii, heaven and earth, the latter also being considered 
a personal being or deity; comp. iiwei, n.; and as rain- 
ing, lightening, thundering are considered direct (acts 
of God and therefore not expressed by impersonal 
verbs), Nyonmo seems to be used for „raio'*, though 
his personality is never lost sight of, comp. N. ne, God* 
rains, it rains; N. tue, God begins to rain; N. fa, v. 
G. drizzles; N. ba, G. (or rain) comes; N. §i, G. knocks, 
i. e. it is thundering etc. „Ani Nyonmo aba? Milee, 
led§i onukpa, efeo bofSbo ni esumog, lit. Will God 
(rain?) come? I don't know; he is the highest, he does 
whatever he likes." Instead of Nyonmo sometimes Na- 
nyohmo, sometimes Mawu and sometimes Nyonmo Mawu 
is used; here and there also Tse NyoAmo, father God 
and Ata Nyonmo, th. s., and even simple wotse, .wofe 
WQt§e, our father, the father of us all (9IHDatcr) etc. 

Many animals, plants and other things have names which 
are combinations of the name of God, in Gd as well as 
in the related languages (comp. in Germ, ^^etrgott^* 
tjogclcin", ,,®otte^tfif)cl^en", etc.). 

Nyonmo-abolo, n. the LordU supper; = nyontsoniiyenii. 

Nyonmo-bd, n. coming of rain. 

Nyonmo-bi, n. son, child of God. 

nyonmobiet^ (th. s. as the foil.), n. carrion kite (^la^geier); 
s. op^te, n. akinma, n. akpSna, n. th. s. 

nyonmobitete, n. th. s. 

nyonmgbitete, n. (lit. „God*s first bom child") swallow. 

nyonmofdmo, n. drizzling; s. N. fa, v. 



244 nyohmaUe — nyoi&tSerekpemo. 

nyonmoMe, n.lil. God's face; visible heaven, s. iiwei hie, v. 

Nyonmo-kita, n. oath by God. 

nyonmonemo, n. raining; rain. 

nyofimonkrakro, n. scorpion. 

Nyonmo-kpamo, n. ceasing of rain, fr. N. kpa, v. to cease 

Nyonmo-kpemo, n. lightening. 

nyonmoman,n. city, people or land of God; kingdom of God. 
nyoiimonte, n. (lit. God's stone) hail. 
Nyoftmo-namg, n. swearing by God; s. na, v. 
nyonmonu, n. rain-water (s. Nyoiimo); s. nana, n. 
nyonmosatso , pi. *tsei, n. (Kt. God's bedstead) a tree of 

peculiar form, s. nyankunton, n. 
nyonmoSimo, n. thundering, fr. N. §i, v. 
Nyonmo-srawa, n. lightening, Sli^. 
nyonmotsinS (lit. Gods cow), n. giant beetle, 
nyonmotuemo, n. beginning of rain, s. N. tue, v. 
Nyo6mo-s!a, n. house of God, s. s!a, n. 
Nyofimo-tSu, n. house of God, temple, f.uxog, chapel; s, 

tsu, n. 
* Nyonmo we, n. house of God, temple, including yards etc., 


Nyoiimo-wiemo , n. word of God. 

Nyonmo-yeli, n. being of God; rule of God. 

nyOnnii, and 

nyOnnii, pi. n. night-things, i. e. bribe, l)ecause given at 

night-time; things pertaining to night. 
nyOnniitsumo, n. night-work, 
nydnniiyenii, pi. n. monthly food, i. e. provision for slaves, 

bond-people and servants etc. ; s. nyoAdSenii, pi. n. 
nyonn^, pi. -nii, n. s. th. pertaining to moon, month, or 

to slaves, 
nydnna, pi. nyddsi h!, n. male slave. 
nySnnye, n. -nyemei, mother of a slave; mistress (of a 

slave), s, nydntse, nySdsiatSe, liyontSg, n. 
nyOnnylemo, n. nigbt-travelliag. 

nyonnyielo, n. person travelling at nighttime; nightwalker. 
nydntsere, n. moon, comp. nyon and dsetseremo and t§e, 

tsere, v.; nydntsere d§e, v. = nyoA dse, to be moon- 
light; — ye emu, v. to be fullmoon. 
nyontseredSe, n. moonlight. 
nyontSerekpemo, n. th. s., moonshine; s. nydnkpemo, n. 

and kpe, v. 


nyoht§6 — nyOmu. * 245 

nyoAt§e, p. father, possessor of a slave, master; s. nyS- 
dSiatSjg, n. and 

nyontSo, nunt§o, nyoAt§o, nontSo (perh. = nySntSe, slave- 
father, slave-possessor, comp. nyddSiatse), n. master, lord 
(sometimes also like mistress, lady); comp. the Otyi 
words: owura, awura, also used in GS; ye nyontso, inf. 
nyontsoyeli, to ie master, to master; to lord over; to 
rule 0,^errf(^en")» — fio, little master, young master. 
Ad. th. 8. and mav?et§e» awetse» wetse, n. 

Nyontso-ba, n. the coming of the Lord. 

nyontsobi, n. masters child; youngmaster, -mistress. 

nyontsQgbl, n. the Lords day. 

nyontsomah, n. Lords-town, — people. 

nyontsomon, n. masters house, — palace. 

nyontsoniiyenii, pl.n. the Lords supper; == Nyonmo abolo,n. 

nyontsond, pi. -nii, n. thing, possession, property of the 

nyontsQniitsumo» n. masters business, — work. 

nyontSoM, n. masters wife, mistress; s. awura, n. 

nyontSosane, n. masters palaver. 

nyontsQse, n. (behind) the back of the master. 

nyontsQsuomo, n. masters service. 

nyontSotsu, n. masters room. 

nyontSowe, n. master's house. 

nyout§oweku, n. master's family. 

nyont§QwiemQ, n. masters word. 

nyontsQwO, n. giving of the mastership; comp. wo nyontso, v. 

nyontsoyeli, n. ruling, mastership; government; lording 

nyontsoyelibe, n. time of government etc. 
nyontsoyelihe, n. govemmentsplace; — seat; s. lumoyeli, 

mantseyeli etc. 
nyontsoyelisane, n. palaver about mastership, government, 

power oyer s. th. or s. b. 
nydntSu, n. slave's room or house. 
nydnwekUi n. slaves-family, 
nyonyeli, n. slavery, 
nyonyelibe, n. time of slavery, 
nyonyelihe, n. place of slavery, 
nyfinyo, pi. nyShyei, nySdsiyei, n. female slave, 
nyu— , 8. nyo— . 
nyumu. Ad. n. = nQ, man. 
nyu, n. Adn. water = nu in Gfi. 
nyumu, Ad, n. = nubu, well. 

d by Google 

^46 * 6 — oblaA. 


The initial letter „o** is In Otyi and partly also in 
Gft used as initial augment to indicate personality, as 
„a** impersonal individuality and „n n m** collectivity; 
if a possess, pronominal augment precedes the nouns, 
„o" is generally ommitted, as also in some other cases, 
wherefore words not to be found under „o**, may be 
sought for under the next following consonant. See 
§ 13. 14. 
0! interj. oh! o! ah! alas! Added fo some names, as 

Kwatei O! = he! comp. e^T 
0-, pronominal possessive and subjective initial augment 

of the second per^. sing., thou; thine; comp. bo and 

Ol. wo, wu, Adii. and Ayigbe o; Ad. mo. 
-o, pronominal objective (terminational) augment of the sec. 

prs. sing., thee; Ad. th« s. and mo. 
*Q- := WQ, pron. we; our. 
-0 = -wo, pron. us; Ad. th. s. 
-0, Ad. definit. article = le in Gfi. 
-o, is added = dsi, dsio for the conj. whether; — 6, 

wheter-or; Ot. the s. f. i. eeba() eba^o, milee, whether 

he will come or not, I don't know. 
-0, deminutive termination, f. i. pempeo, pi. -pebii, etc. 
obentS, n. a kind of musical instrument con^sting of a 

stringed bow which is stricken in playing, 
obisi, n. rat (of a very large size)." 
obisibu, -flo, n. rats-hole. 

obisilo, n. rats-flesh (eaten by some people here), 
obla, 'bla, n. youth, youthfulness, youthful strength, beauty, 

wantonness, etc. (s. oblahian, obiayeian, obianyo, oblayo 

and the verbs bla in GSl and bra in Otyi); obla m. k. 

mli, V. to be full of pleasure and joy of youth; to be 

oblafo, n. (Ot.) executioner; assistant of fetish-priests, who 

has to kill the animals for sacrifices etc. 
oblai, n. rheumatism, rheumatil swelling. 
oblahlaA^ n. youth, age of youth, s. oblayeiaA; gbek§bii- 

asi etc. 
oblai§3, n. dislocation or distortion of a limb, 
oblahlanii, pi. n. youthful things, behaviour etc. 
oblahlaniifemo, n. youthful behaviour, -doing, -act. 
oblaA, pL obla!, n. strong, stout or large person; giant; 

d§e — and gba — , v. -to be strong etc. 


oblafids^ — odase. 247 

oblaftgbamo I "• '^'^"S^'*' stoutness. 

oblanyo, pi. oblah!, n. youth, lad, young man. 

oblanyodsen, n. character of a young man. 

oblanyofemo, n. youlhfulness, behaviour of a young man. 

oblanSimo, n. behaviour of youth; s. obla and obla §i m. k. 
mli, V. 

oblayo, pi. oblayei, n. virgin, maid, grown up girl; young 

oblayodseil, n. character of a maid, girl; s. d§e and dsen, v. 

oblayeian, n. virginhood, maidenhood, youlhful age of wo- 
men, comp. oblahlan, n. 

oblayeianS, pi. -nii, n. some thing pertaining lo girls. 

oblayeianiifemo , n. maidenlike behaviour. 

ohleku, n. a bird with a voice like a cuckoo. 

oblemp5n, n. a kind of officer of stale ; a rich, noble per- 
son, s. ablade, n. 

oblotu, n. cloudy heaven, cloudy weather; -^ wo, v. it is 
cloudy; heaven is covered. 

oblotuwO, n. cloudiness. 

obd, ob5bd, obdb5bd, the reduplication used as plur. form, 
adj. and adv. full; comp. yi, v. to, mam§m3, emu, adj. 
and adv.; n. fuldess; wo — , v. to fill; inf. 

obdwo, n. filling, fulness = yimo, n. 

obofo, 'bofo, n. (Ot.) messenger; angel; apostle; Ad. Isolo, 
n. th. s. Comp. also somafo, n. in Otyi. 

obohlma, n. a kind of sickness, producing green spots in 
the flesh; verdigris. 

ob6nu, n. the large war drum and the instruments belong- 
ing to it; s. mile, dsO, kete, obent^, ble, sankfi etc. 

obonuyi, n. drumming with the war drum. 

obubuafo, n. broken, crippled person (Ot. th. s. fr. bubu, v. 
to break). 

obudan, adj. foolish; s. bulu, kwasi^, kolo etc. 

obutu, n. load ; f . i. able — , a load of corn. 

oda (s. Ot. da, V. to lie), n. a large reddish lizard dwel- 
ling on and in the walls of seatowns; s. tsunye and 
odinmolQ, n. 

odakreo, n. a kind of lizards. 

Odale, prop, noun of females. 

odanta (Ayigbe-word), n. under-dress of women, = boi, n. ; 
also used of that of men = tekle, n. 

odase (Ot. adanse), n. witness, testimony; ye — , v. to 
witness; inf. odaseyeli. 


ii8 odasekddoii — ofoitlo. 

odase kddon, n. false (crooked) witness; = odasefdfiy n. 

odas^fo, -fonyo, pi. -foi, n. witness. 

odasefobimo, n. questioning of a witness. 

odaseyeli, n. witness, witnessing; testimony. 

odaseyelikita, n. witness-oath. 

odaseyelilo, odaseyelo == odasefo, but seldom used, n. 

odehe (Ot. dehye), n. free, noble person; comp. heyelilo 

and ye he, v. 
odehebi, n. a child of a free or nobleman, free by birth. 
odiiimolO) n. a kind of lizards living in human habitations, 

but considered poisonous; comp. odd, t§unye, inankpari, 

mampam etc. 
odol, n. a kind of sea-fish, dolphin (?); §. at!, n. 
oddno, n. smallest kind of drums; yi — , v. to drum, 
oddnli, n. cotton; wick; also = wiki, n. 
od6ntikpd, n. cotton-thread, 
oddntilo, n. cotton-weaving, 
oddntilolo, n. cotton-weaver, 
oddntimama, n. cotton-cloth; s. kente, n. 
odontitsSlo, n. cotton-spinner. 
oddntitS^mo, n. cotton-spinning. 
od6ntit§o, pi. -tSei, n. cotton-tree; -shrub, -plant, 
odse! (for men) odse ko! (for women) morning salutation; 

answ. Ya edsa! etc. 
od§ogbd, odsegba; odsogbdn, 'dsogba, adv. well, good. 
od§o, n. men-stealing; kidnapping. Ot. th. s.; tfa — , v. 

to kidnap, 
odsotfa, n. kidnapping. 
odSotfalo, n. kidnapper, 
ofe, n. and adj. (fr. fe, to be more); high, powerful, mighty, 

almighty (person); s. agb6; hewalo etc. Nyonmo of^, 

God dmighty. 
ofe, n. a fruit similar to coffee. 
ofetSo, pi. -t§ei,,n. tree bearing it. 
oflo, n. a season of the year after the harmatan and before 

the first rainy season, s. otSokrikri. 
oflote, ofrote (Ot. th. s.), n. a large antelope of the sixe 

of a hart. 
of6, n. black monkey (Ot. th. s.). 
of6, n. forage; spoil, plunder; ye — , v. inf. ofdyeli, to 

forage; to plunder (provisions); comp. h6 noip, ha, v. 
ofoi, n. horsefly; Sremfc. 
ofoiblo, n. ^tiegeniDe^el; a small broom to drive away flies. 


ofdyeli ^-^ okpl5hetamo. 249' 

ot6je^r n. foraging. 

ofdyelilo, -yelo, n. foragen 

ofie! Salutation in the evening; answ. Yfi edSa! or Ya 
ena! etc. 

Ogb6, pr. n. of children bom after a brother or sister de- 
ceased (lit. „thou diedst^); s« gbobalo, Own etc. 

ogbolele, n. shark; ^aififd&. 

Ogidigidi, n. epithet of God: Confuser, thunderer (used 
during thunder-storms); s. gidigidi, adj. 

oh^, pi. oh^i, 'ha, 'hai, num. (n.) hundred; ohai en^o, two 
hundred; ohai ete, ohai edfe etc. Comp. § 35 and huha, 
num. Ad. and Ay. lafa. 

oh^h^ (==: oh^ oh^), num. by hundreds. 

ohe, n. kind of gum; copal. 

ohehelo, n. copal-buyer. 

ohehemo, n. copal-buying. 

ohedsrayeli, n. copal-trade. 

oheterelo, n. copal-carrier. 

ohet§o, pi. -tsei, n. tree producing it. 

ohia, 'h!a, Ot. th. s., n. poverty; fr. hia, v.; ohia ehtale, 
he is pressed by poverty. 

ohiafo, Ot. th. s., n. poor man, poor person; used as ap- 
position = adj. poor. ^Ohiafo be nanyo,** the poor has 
no friend, prv. 

oho, ohoho, adv. no (comp. „hSi§'' th. s. in the suabian 
dialect of German). 

ohyeo (Ot.), n. hot bread. 

okadi, 'kadi (fr. kadi, v. to sign), n. sign; mark. 

okadiiimd, n. making signs, marking. 

okeyo, n. „hide and seek^ play of children. 

ok6§, okeSi, n. roll-tobacco, as imported by the Portuguese. 

Ok^s, Ok^si, n. Portugal; -ablotsiri, n. th.s.; -nyo, pi. bii, 

okgle, n. a large bird of the eagle kind. 

okplem (Ot. 'premo), n. cannon; tfa — , v. to fire a cannon. 

okplemte, n. cannonball. 

okplemtunte, n. th. s. 

okplemtfd, n. firing of cannon. 

okplemtfalo, n. gunner. 

okpld, n. (Ot. oprdn) table; feast; nme or iimo — , v. to 
spread the table, to make a feast; sa okpl5, v. to pre- 
pare the table; ta — he, v. to sit at table. 

okpldhetamo, -traipQ, n. sitting at table. 

d by Google 

250 okplSnin^ — on^fii. 

okpldiliin^, -nmo, n. table-spreading; making of a feast; 

okpldsamo, n. preparation of the table. 

okpo, n. club; s. kpoti, n. th. s. in tsokpoti, n. 

okp6, n. dove; pigeon; s. konkpo, kose-okpo, wiriokpo etc. 

okposansd, n. a kind of seafish. 

okpotsu, n. dove's cot. 

okropon, oklopoA, pi. okropoi, 'krop., n. (Ot. th. s.) a kind 
of eagles. 

okukuba, n. a bush-animal. 

okul^, n. widow-hood, comp. abla; Ot. okuna ; fe — , v. 
to be widowed. 

okulafemo, n. widowhood. 

okulafo, n. widower; widow. 

okulafonu, n. widower. 

okulafosane, n. palaver of a widow. 

okulafoyo and yo okulafo, n. widow. 

olewunQ, n. sand-bank. 

olenlenmo, n. dry, waste, barren place. 

olowo, n. leopard; comp. kot§e, hienmalg, mlantH etc. 
th. s. 

oman^e (Ot,?), n. peace, happiness, joy, grace, loving- 
kindness, kindness etc.; public acts of this kind; festi- 
vals, weddings, etc. The word is especially used by 
religious people and religious things. Comp. hedsQle in 
Ga and ma, v. and ye, v. in Otyi* Omanye aba or Tfa 
omanye aba! (s. tfa, v.) Let peace come! Answer: 
Omanye ba! peace come! Salutation used esp. by fetish- 
priests and priestesses, public speckers etc. 

omd, n. rice. 

omdkao, n. rice-cakes. 

omdwonu, n. rice-soup. 

omdhQmQ and 

omSdQmo, n. cultivation of rice. 

omdnmd, n. rice plantation. 

omunkuii or 

omlukun, omluga, n. cloudiness = oblotu; d§en esi omun- 
kun, it is cloudy. 

onla, or onyla, n. tribute, toll, tax; comp. nto; tsu onia, v. 
to exact, gather, or pay tribute, inf. onlatsumo. 

ohlatsu, n. custom-house. 

onlatgulo, n. tax-gatherer; — payer. 

onlatsumg, n. tax-gathering; tax-paying. 

onufu, D. serpent, snake; s. gikpS, and sin5, th. s. 


onufabQ — osai. 251 

ORitfabo, onofu-ebg, n. poison of a snake. 

onufukd, n. bite of a snake. 

onukpa, 'nukpa (perh. = nO kpakpa, good man, comp. Ot. 
opanyin, opanyini) n. old man, elder; alderman; grandee 
of a town, land or nation; principal; ruler; magistrate; 
first of a company etc. adj. old, elder, eldest; minyemi 
nukpa, my elder or eldest brother; ye onukpa, v. to be 
old, elder, eldest; ye m. k. onukpa, v. to be elder than 
s. b. ; fe onukpa, v. to be old etc. Comp. gbekS, oblanyo 
etc. and nu mo, yo mo; da, y. and dale n. 

onukpadsen, n. life, charakter, behaviour of old people, 
s. dse, n. 

onukpafemo, n. old age = dale; gbole. 

onukpagbe, n. voice, word of an old man, superior. 

onukpaniitsumo , n. work, labour of a grown up person; 
s. gbek^biianiitsumo, n. 

onukpaiasane and 

onukpasane, n. matter, palaver of old men, of the gran- 
dees, of grown up person; ye — , v. to act or do like 
old people. Comp. gbek^biiasane , n. 

onukpasaneyeli , n. acting or speaking tike old people. 

onukpayeti, n. state or business of grown up or old people, 
grandees, principals, magistrates etc. or of being elder 
than s. b. ; age. 

opAsa and ap^sa (fr. pasa, v. to lie), n. (Ot.) hypocrisy; 
lie; falsehood; ye or bo opasa, y. to act as a hypo- 
crite; to lie; to be false. Comp. amale; osato; kdtdm- 
po; n. kddon, adj. etc. 

opasabo and opasayeli, n. falsehood; hypocrisy. 

opasabolo and 

opasayelQ and 

opasafo (Ot.) n. hypocrite, liar, false person. 

opehenadi (Ot. „thoa iikest to be king'0> d. moroingstar =3 
toto, n. 

opehenadianii , pi. n. ambition; fe — , v. to be ambitions. 

opehenadianiifelo , n. ambitious person. 

opehenadianiifemo, n. ambitiousness. 

opense, n. a kind of smij}l white porcupines; comp. sade- 
boa and kotoko> n. 

op^te, n. papaw-fruit, if spoilt on the tree; s. akpakpa, n.; 
carrion kite , s. akanma , n. th. s. 

osai (fr. sa, y.), n. castrate; eimiich; used of men and 


252 o6ato — oSimalo. 

osato, n. hypocrisy (Ol. prodigality; waste); ye or fe — , 

v/ to be a hypocrite. S. opasa, th. s. 
ps^tofo, n. hypocrite, 
osatofemo and 
osatoyeli, n. hypocrisy. 
osQ, n. a kind of wild cats, in form resembling a fox; 

-akpa, n. the common one; - din, n. the black one. 
osobu, -Aq, n. hole of it. 
osofo 'sofo (Ot. perh. = sorefo, one who prays) n. priest; 

ye — , V. to be priest; comp. wontse, wolomo, okom- 

fo, n. etc. 
t)SQfo-atade , n. priestly robe; s. osofotade, th. s. 
osQfoiasane, n. matter or palaver of priests. 
osQfoniitsumo , n. priests business, 
osofond, pi. -nil, n. priests parts, -property. 
osQfoiatade, n. priestly garment. 
osQfosemo, pi. -mei, n. assistant priest. 
osQfowO, n. making s. b. priest; priestly honour, 
osofoyeli, n. priesthood; priests ofQce. 
osofoyo, n. priestess; s. woyO, n. 
osre, n. comb; -femo, -gbo, n. comb-making. 
osrefelQ, n. comb-maker, 
osregbglo, n. th. s. 
osre, osrSn, n. a kind of sea-fish. 
o§S, n. a kind of wood, 
osdtso, pi. -tSei, n. a tree used for building. 
oSdiimonmonmolo, n. board from this tree. 
osSimplan, n. beam, rafter of it. 
os^, n. a war-cry or song of women; bo — , v. to raise 

this cry. 
o§ebO, n. war-crying. 
oSebolo, n. war-crier. 

oSeku, n. backbiting; bo m. k. he oSeku, y. to backbite s. b. 
oSekubO, n. backbiting, 
osekubolo, n. back-biter, 
osl, n. short foot or leg; ml oSi, inf. oSimft, to walk on 

the toes because of a short leg. 
oSlfo, n. lame person; person with a short leg; comp. 

akpake; otSolo etc. * 

oSiki, n. dice; fd — , v. to play dice. 
oSikifd, n. dice-play; lot-casting. 
oSikifdlo, n. diceplayer. 

oSiko, n. a kind of bark used to rub the skin with, 
oSlmslQ, 8. oSlfo. 

d by Google 

oSlma — otSi. 253 

osiidS, n. haltidg because of a short leg; fr. mS oSi, v. 
oSrS, n. mishap, misfortune; -ny!e m. k. se, v. to be un- 
fortunate; -ba m. k. ng, y. something bad happened to 
s, b. etc. 
otcnte, n. kind of drum, esp. the european, s. mile, obonu 

etc.; yi — , v. to drum, 
olenleyilo, n. drummer. 
oten*eyT, n. drumming. 

otfa §i ogbo! horrible curse: fall down and die! -n. = 
pestilence (?), s. oyiahe§i, th. s. 

oti, n. aim; target, mark; tfa — , v. inf. otitfa, to shoot 
at a target, mark (Ot. = head ; it is said that the fore- 

. head of a culprit called Oti, was once made a mark of 
and from him the name derives). 

otitfa, n. shooting at a target, mark-shooting. 

otitfalo, n. target-shooter, mark-shooter. 

otQ, n. a kind of food of boiled yams mixed with palm-oil 
and eaten with eggs. 

otofo, n. a peculiar custom of the 63- and Adanme-tribe, 
but kept more strickly by the latter, according to which 
no unmarried girl ought to wear cloth, a narrow strip 
excepted; as soon as the first signs of puperly appear, 
they are to be kept at home in the town, exempt from 
hard labour, well fed and profusely covered with orna- 
ments. In Krobo they wear a peculiar straw -hat, in 
§ai a kind of black turban made of strings. Having 
performed many ceremonies, they are then exhibited in 
the town by dancing and playing as marriageable; §i — , 
V. inf. otofosi, to perform this custom; comp. atufu, n.; 
si atufu or otufu, v. 

otofoSi, m. performance of the otofo-custom. 

otofoyo, pi. -yei, n. girl under this ceremony. 

otro, n. a plant. 

otrumu, Hrumu, n. and adj. ungrateful person; ungrateful. 

otsSmd (Ol. okyame), n. speaker ;. reporter; interpreter; 
he is one of the most important servants of king and 
nation ,^ as his business is to report the different opi- 
nions and proposals of the different parties in public 
palavers. He is accompanied in this by witnesses. Ye — , 
V. to be speaker ; to act as speaker. See Ga-Speeches 
among the Specimen of the GS-language. 

otsfimSyeli, n. speaker's business. 

otSame - odasefo , n. witness accompaning the speaker. 

otSi, n. week; nmene dsi — , to day it is a week. 


2M otgo! — pabolo. 

otSo ! lit. burn thou! int. used by people in bushburning. 

otsokrikri (lit. „lhou shinest hot"); n. a short but very hot 

^season of the year in April or May just before. the first 

rainy season sets in and in ^hich the bush which is 

cut, is burnt, 
otsolo, n. lame person; fr. tso, y. to halt, 
owele, n. revenge; to — , v. to revenge, 
oweleto, n. revenging, 
oweletolo, n. revenger, 
owura (Ot.), 'wura, n. master, lord; sir; = nyontso. Comp. 

awura, mistress. By young people „owula". 
Own, n. (Ot. = „thou diedst", s. Ogbo in Ga) pr. name 

of a child bom after one deceased; s. gbobalo, Ogbo etc. 
owurayeli = nyontSoyeli, n. ruling („^errf(j^aft"). 
owyia, n. a small bush-animal, 
oy^, n. haste ; adv. sometimes redupl. oy^ya, quickly, hastily ; 

comp. mra , fe oya, inf. oyafemo , to be quick ; ye ogai, 

V. th. s. 
oyai, pi. of the former, th. s. 
oyafelo, n. a person in hurry, a quick person, 
oyafemo, n. hurry; quickness, 
oyaiyeli, n. hurry. 

oyaiyelo, oyayelilo, n. a person in a hurry, 
oy^ya, oyay^ya, = oy6. 
Oyarefa, Oyadefa, Oyadufa, pr. n. of a village of the La- 

Oy^ and 
Oy6, pr. n. of females. 


Words not to be found under p are to be sought 
for under kp or f, comp. § 7, or the vowels a, e and 
0. Pa, pe, pe, po, po, pu is the pronunciation of 
fa, fe, fe, fo, fo, fu, by old people, people of Tesi 
and the DSnme-Dialect. 

f§L, pronunciation of old people for fa, n. river; lake; 

pool of sweet water, 
pa = fa, V. to be much. 
p9 = fg, y. to take out. 
*pa, apa, n. hire; bo apa, to hire; ye — , v. to work for 

'pabo, n. hiring. 
pabolQy n. a person wbo hires. 


'pafonyo -^ pitisawa. 246 

'pafonyo, apaf.. pL 'pafoi, n. person hired; hireling. 

pam, £\dv. and 

pampamparo, adv. much, very much; = tam, po, tutu, 

t§d, naakpa, adv. 
pampas6, yiten-pampaso, n. crown of the head (S^eitel). 
pampt, n. a small stick driven perpendicularly into the 

ground; esp. the small low fences before towns to exclude 

evil spirits; obstacle, stumbling-block; offence; Ot. th. s. 
pampam and 

paopao, adv. quickly = mramra. 
papa, n. fan. 

papabQ, papam, n. towel; Ot. 
papo (Ot.) = kpakpo, n. he-goat, 
pa^a, V. to lie; to be a hypocrite, comp. opasa, apasa. 
pasarao, n. lying = amale, malerao. 
patu (Ot. th. s.) , n. owl. 
pe, old pronunc. and Adn. = fe, v. to make, 
pe, n. corn (on the foot), ^u^nerauge; to — , v. to form 

a corn, 
pe, pepepe, pepepepe, adv. Ot. th. s. just, exactly; but, 

only; perfectly, 
pese, adv. th. s. 
pei sane mli, v. to investigate, 
pei, n. dan. chisel? (Stemmeifen , ®te(i^beutel). 
pen, pen, n. engl. pen. 
penkakra, penfokakla, penkini, n. pen-knife, 
pen, adv. (Ot. n. time, s. §i and toi in G9) once; minale 

peA, I have seen him once; never, if construed with 

the neg. voice; minakole pen, I, have never seen him 

(lit. - not seen him once) ; Ad. gble. 
pesu, n. Ot. th. s. a basket or cage in which fowl are kept. 

It is generally suspended in the yard, 
pete, adv. openly, 
peteple, adv. openly = fail, 
pe (pii), Ot. th. s. adj. and adv. much, many; comp. ba- 

bao, adj. 
pia, =:fia, fS, adj. and adv. all; every, 
pla, inf. piamo, v. to stop, 
pia lele he, v. to stop a canoe by the paddles, 
pin, inf. pinmo, th. s. 

piti, n. swoon; to piti (comp. tQ) v. to faint; s. biti, th. s. 
pitito, n. fainting. 

pitipiti, adj. and adv. close; closely, 
pitisawa, n. europ. word, pistol. 


256 plamplamplam — Sa. 

plamplamplaro, adv. brightly, In flames; flamingly. 

pie, V. inf. plemo, to agonise, lo be in agony; to straggle; 

— n. k. he, to straggle for s. th. 
plemo, n. agony; straggle, 
plene, v. inf. . plen^mo , to die in multitudes; ta le plenc, 

the araoy is slain; to die by violence, by accident, 
plenemo, n. slaughter; violent death, 
ploploplo = flofloflo, adv. very far jway = Soft, 
pompi, pompo, europ. word, n. pump, 
pue,^ inf. puemo, v. Ot. th. s., to come forth, to appear = 

d§e kpo; to rise, of sun, moon and stars. Comp. gble, 

AdA. and Ot. hue, to open. 


No G5-, Adanme- or Otyi-word initiates with this 
consonant and even foreign words undergo a change, 
the r being either changed into 1 or d or pronounced 
with aspiration as in Greek (^). 

Raspe, n. dan. rasp. 

raspe, n. raspberry. 

raspe dfi, n. raspberry-vinegar. 


The letter „s** is seldom retained in Gft before „i", 
but generally becomes „§**, with which it frequently 
changes, sometimes also with ^^^9 comp. ta, v.^ and 
„ sa Y • , eic. 

Sa, V. inf. sale and samo; to be fit; to fit; to be worthy, 
ripe; to be right, due, equitable, just, inf. sale (Ot. 
fata) (comp. d§a); to fit, prepare, order, repair etc., inf. 
samo; to taste; to touch (Ot. s. th., comp. ta); to try, 
prove, estimate (s. ka); to castrate (Ot. th. s.); aux. verb, 
to express the iterat. mood: to repeat, do again;, con- 
straed with the definite form of the verb, as the auxil. 
V. na; f. i. esa eba, he came again; again he eame; 
wherefrom: asafi, asa, conj. again, more-over; asan hCi 
elee, more-over he knew it also not; comp. kpa, in 
Adn. He sa, v. inf. hesale, v. to be outwarcUy fit; hie 
sa, V. to be fit (of face, appearance) to be ripe (used 
of persons); inf. hfesale; comp. sa hie, v.; toi sa, v. 
inf. toisale , to be of fit ears, i. e. to be hard, to be fit, 
obedient, but generally used ironically: to be of hard 
ears (s. wa) , disobedient. 


sa — sakasika. 257 

sa m. k. ade, v. to clyster, = fa, v. 
sa da , V. to be tastful to the mouth, 
sa he, inf. hesamo, y. (Ot. sa M) to touch (the outside); 

to order or prepare about; to prepare one's self, 
sa hewo, v. th. s. 
sa hie, inf. hiesale and hiesamo; v. to be fit in one's face, 

to please one; esa mihle, I am pleased with it, it pleases 

me; I am content nilh^it; inf. hiesale; to prepare the 

face surface of s. th., inf. hiesamQ. 
sa na, v. inf. nasa, to taste; misa mina, I tasted (it); but: 

misa dS le na, I tasted the wine; and misa mina dg, 

th. s. to touch the end etc.; inf. -mo, v. to mend the 

end, brim, edge etc. 
sS, n. loop; iron work of doors and windows (Sifen^SSanb). 
sa, n. mat; bed. 

'sa, asa, n. hall or largest or middle room of a house, 
sa, n. former time (s. sa, aux. verb); adv. formerly, once; 

milee sa or sa le milee, formerly or once 1 did not 

know it; s. moniosa, n. 
sa dfa, V. ? 
sa, n. strong scent, smell; dse — , v. inf. sSds6, to emit 

a strong smell ; comp. f u , n. and dse fu ; nma n^ and 

dse nma v. ' 
saba, n. kidney. 
Saban, pr. n. of males, 
saba, n. antidote, 
sabld or 
sablan, n. surname, nickname; sign of a person; 9{amend' 

j^ug; seal, 
sablok, n. dan. night-gown (<5d)Iafr0(f). 
sadeboa, n. a kind of small white porcupines; comp. opense, 

kotoko. (Ot. th. s. = luck-animal). 
sSdse, n. strong smelling; strong scent; comp. sS and d§e 

sa, V. 
sadsi, pi. of sane, n. which see. 
sadsiyeli, n. settling of palavers, 
'safo, asafo, n. company, 
safro, n. a kind of sea-fish. 

'sagba, asSgba, n. a wasp dwelling in the walls of houses, 
'sai, osai, n. castrated; person or animal; s. sa. Ot. th. s. 
sal or sei, n. country-seat, chair or stool carved of one 

piece of wood; comp. gwa, ablogwa, mano, n. 
sakas^ka, adv. disorderly; Ot. th. s. Comp. bisibasa. Fe — , 

V. to be in disorder, to do disorderly. 

Zimmermann, Akra-Yocab. 17 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

258 sakasakafemo — sanefltemo. 

sakasakafeniQ, n. disorder; disorderly behaviour. 

sakasakafelo, n. disorderly person. 

sale, n. fitness, worthiness; worth; fr. sa, v. n. 

salo, n. fitter, preparer fr. sa, v. 

saman, Ot. = sisa in GS, n. spirit; ghost. 

'saman-nukpa, as., n. chimpanse. 

sanianseo, n. testament of a deceased person; s. sisamla, n. 

samf^ (Ot. th. s. or safe, safi) , n. Ytgy, 

samfle, pi. samfedsi, n. (Fanli-word= house-hole); window. 

samfle-aHfe, n. window-glass. 

samflese, n. shutter; place behind the window. 

8§ml9, n. soap; country-soap. 

samo, n. fitting; preparation; order. 

safi, adv. well, nicely; beautifully; perh. fr. sa, v. 

san (or sanno), n. monument over a grave; grave-stone; 
grave walled in. 

san, n. thatched stone-house; comp. tsu, mo; samfle, n. etc. 

sane, old. pronunc. sande (comp. sa, v. in Otyi and Ga, 
and se, v. and asem, n. in Ot.) pi. s§dsi; (Ad. th. s. pi. 
sanehl), n. thing; matter; palaver; word; cause; con- 
cern (©acifec); misane dsi no, that is my palawer, con- 
cern; edsee misane, It is not my palaver, I have nothing 
to do with it; sane eba, there is palaver; sane be, there 
is no palaver; sane le ben, the matter is false; sane 
le fite, the cause is lost; sane fon, bad thing; palaver; 
sane le egbo, the palaver died, is concluded; sane gbo- 
nyo, a rotten palaver; sane kpakpa, sane akpa, good word, 
gospel, ©Daugeltum; sane sroto, strange matter; sane le 
eladse, the cause is lost; etc. etc. hi sane (mli), to ask 
some thing to investigate, = pei sane mli, tao sane mli ; 
bo sane toi, v. tc listen to a cause, palaver; gbe s&ne 
na, V. to finish a palaver; le sane, v. to know a pala- 
ver; na -na, v. to understand a* matter; na -sisi, v. 
th. s. ; totd sane, v. to confuse a matter; ye sane, v. 
inf. saneyeli (Ot. di asem), to settle a palaver, to judge; 
to order a cause; sane ye, there is palaver; - - m. k. 
ke m. k. ten , there is s. th. betwixt two persons ; sane 
le yen, the matter is true etc. etc. 

saneakpa, sanekpakpa, n. good word; gospel. 

sanebimo, investigation; fr. bi sane-, v. 

sanemlibimo, sanemlipeimo , th. s. 

sanedsQ, -d§ole, n. settling or rest of a palaver. 

sanedSomo, n. settling, adjusting of a palaver. 

sanefitemo, n. loss of a cause. 


sanegbfi — satgo. 259 

sanegbd, n. conversation; taletelling fr. gba sane, v. to tell 
a tale. 

sanegbele, n. conclusion of a cause, s. sanenagbe, th. s., 
and saned§omo, n.; sanedSo, -le, n. 

sanenoheremo , n. taking up of a palaver. 

sanekpakpa, -akpa, n. gospel. 

sanekpakpadsadsemo ke tsomo, n. preaching of the gospel. 

sanekodsomo, n. adjusting or judging of a palaver; s. ko- 
dso, V. 

saneladsemo, n. loss of a cause. 

sanemlipeimo, -mlitaomo, n. investigation. 

sanenagbe, n. end of a palaver; fr. gbe sane na, v. 

sanenumo, n. hearing of a cause. 

sanesroto, n. strange matter. 

sanesisi, n. cause of a palaver. 

sane§isind, n. insight into a palaver; fr. na sane SiSi, v. 

sane§isitsdmQ, n. explanation of a palaver. 

sanetotdmQ, n. confusion of palaver. 

sanetdtolo » n. person who confuses a palaver (by speak* 
ing etc.). 

saneyeli (Ot. asemdi), n. palaver-settling; judging; judge- 
ment; council; etc. 

saneyelo, -yelilo, n. paltfver-settler; judge; counsellor etc. 
a person liking palavers. 

sanku , n. (Ot. and Ayigbe th. s.) musical stringed instru- 
ment; organ; forte-piano; Ifa — , v. to play it. 

sankutfa, n. organ-playing etc. 

sankutfalo, n. organplayer etc. 

sanobo, n. bed-cover. 

s&nyd, n. tin, zink; pewter. 

sanyano, n. pewter-vessel. 

sap, saomo, inf. saomo, v. to cleanse about trees. 

sarawa, srawa, n. lightening; rocket; tfe — , v. to fire rockets. 

sarawatfa, n. firing of rockets. 

sasabonsam, Ot. th. s. , n. lit. devil of the earth, a bad spi- 
rit supposed to live in the forest and to be in con- 
nection with sorcerers (s. aye); comp. also abonsam. 
Comp. in German: ©rtgeip, SBalbtcufd, SicUlh ac. 

sase, n. and adj. largeness; age; large, old; too old (comp. 
sa, v.). 

Sasabi, pr. n. of a village belonging to Tema. 

sasamo, n. bed-making. 

satgo, -tsei, n. bed-stead; s. sa, n. and tso, n. 

17 ♦ 

Digitized,by VjOOQ IC 

260 satSono — se. 

satsono, n. cover of a bed-stead; Setttimmel; s. kotomo, n. 

satsu, n. bedroom; see set§u, n. which is more used. 

saus, n. dan. sauce. 

s6, V. inf. s§, to be scarce; to be impoverished; he sS, 
inf. hesS, to be scarce. 

sei, V. inf. seimo to use despitefully ; comp. niiseniianii; 
eseimi, he used me despitefully. Comp. Ot. sei , v. 

se, sgn, n. throat; fo — , v. to cut the throat; wo sg kp§, 
V. to hang; s. sgn, v. 

se, n. back (s. kotose), hinderpart, hindpart; what follows 
after; consequence; end; last etc.; adv. behind, after; 
used as postposition : (the contrary of hie, hamo, which 
compare; see also he, hewo, mli, na, no, si, tsui, yi etc. 
and §29,44 — 47); as the preposition: after, behind, 
(na$, Winter); as gram, subj.: se fo, inf. sefo, v. to be 
cut off behind, to cease, = fo; but esp. as gram, obj., 
as: ba se, v. inf. seba, to come after, behind, late; be 
se, s. ye se; damo se, v. to stand behind; di se, inf. 
sedi (comp. the Otyi) to long after, to desire, to lust; 
to care for, fe se, aux. v. lit. to do after, be after; but 
generally used '■= afterwards , f. i. fe se le eba , after- 
wards he came (s. kpe se); h3 se, v. lit. to give hack, 
used as aux. v. „ke-ha se" == „back" backward, if the 
preceding verb is not already* Indicating a direction, f. i. 
tsi ke-ha se, to cast down backwards, to cast behind; 
ka se, V. to be fixed behind; kS se, v. inf. sek§mo, to 
lie behind; to remain behind, to be behind (compare 
kpe se, ye se, th. s.); kpa m. k. se, v. to withdraw 
from s. b., to deny s. b. (comp. kwa m. k.) ; kpe se, inf. 
sekpg to remain behind, to come too late ; kii se, v. inf. 
sekQ, sekumo or sekuomg (s. kd, v.), to turn the back; 
to return; to be converted (s. t§6 he); — m. k. se, to 
turn s. b. back, to send s. b. back; la se, v. to fasten 
the back, to hook behind; la samfle se, fasten the back, 
to hook behind; la samtle se, fasten the back of the 
window, i. e. the shutter; ma se, v. to stand behind; 
to set behind; na^ se, v. to gain the end, i. e. to profit, 
inf. senamo; na se, v. to shut behind; si se, v. to knock 
behind to leave behind; ta se, pi. tra se, v. inf. setamo, 
selramo, to touch behind; to sit behind, used of the 
relatives of kings etc. who sit behind him (in judgement 
etc.) to strengthen him or give importance to him, comp. 
setrafoi, pi. n.; s. also asetrafq, n.; te se, s. ya se; to 
se, V. to put behind; tSe se, tse yi se, v. to callback; 

d by Google 

sieba — sekefa. i6i 

tSt se, tsi yi se, v. to push behind, after (f. i. at a 

carriage); ts6 se, y. to turn behind, back; tsd m. k. 

segbe, to show the way after s. b., i. e. to betray him; 

Isu se, V. to send behind; - - back; --after, t§u-d§e 

m. k. se , V. to send after ; ya se , aor. perf. and fiit. 

tense te se, to go back, behind, after; ye se, neg. be 

se, V. to be behind; ye se, v. inf. seyeli, to deceive 

(8. §i§i, V. th. s); yo se, v. to perceive the back, end etc. 

i. e. to understand, to acknowledge; etc. 
sebd, n. coming behind, back, after, 
sebe, n. afterlime. * 

sebe, n. a kind of fruit (love apples?) used for soup; bio 

fdsebe, europ. „sebe", bon d'amour. 
sebii, pi. of seo; pi. n. younger brethren or sisters; mise- 

bii ete dsile, he is the third (brother) after me; the 

ears of maize at the stalk, 
seda, n. dan. silk, 
sedaduku, n. silk-handkerchief, 
sedakpd, n. silk-thread. 
sedamQ, n. standing back, behind; assisting, assistance, fr. 

damg se, v. 
sedi, n. longing after; care, desire, lust; fr. di se, v. to 

long, lust, desire, 
sedilo, n. desirous person; caring person, 
sefo, n. ceasing = fdmo, fr. se fo, v. 
sgfo, n. throat-cutting, fr. fo sg, v. 
sefomo, n. after-birth, 
sefomgnii, n. th. s. 

sggi, adj. and adv. sleepy, drowsy; drowsily, 
segisao, n. dan. fret-saw. 
segbe, n. after-way; way after s. b., t§6 segbe, v. to be* 

segbetsolo, n. betrayer, 
segbetsomo, n. betraying. 

segblamo, n. drawing back, fr. gbla se, v. to draw back, 
sei, n. native-stool made of one piece of wood; throne, 
seiterelo, n. stool-bearer, 
seka, n. staying behind. 
sekSmo, n. lying or staying behind, 
seke, n. anchor; f5 — , inf. sekefS, to light the anchor, 
depart (s. fa, v.); f^ — , inf. sekef5, to cast the anchor, 

to come to anchor (s. dame, v.). 
sekefa, n. lighting of the anchor, 
sekefo, n. easting of the anchor. 


282 seke — seUu. 

seke, n. madpess; ye — , y. inf. sekeyeli, to be mad; ye 

D. k. or m. k. he seke, v. to be mad about s. th. or 

s. b., i. e. to be entirely taken with; to be in lore with; 

comp. ylA t§0, yi6 kd, v. etc. 
sekeyeli, n. madness, 
sekeyelilg, sekeyelo, n. mad person, 
seki, n. women-shirt, 
s^kpfty a wind-pipe, throat; s. sg, n. 
sikpd, n. hanging rope. 
sekp6, n. latecoming. 
sekpelg, n. latecomer. • 
sekdlOy n. person returning, 
seka, sekuomg, n. returning; return; conversion; fr. ku 

se, V. 
sele, s. sere, v. to melt; to swim, 
sele, n. braces. 

semdmg, n. standing or lying behind, iir. ma se, t. 
st?mo, pi. semei, n. steward; next in office; comp. also 

seo, n. 
seimg, n. despiteful use; =s niiseniianiifemg , n. 
senalg, n. gainer. 

senamg, n. gain, profit, fr. na sg^ y. 
s^h, y. (Ot. Ih. 8.) to hang; to strangle (=mlas6, y.); 

to ceil a room. 
sSn, n. wind-pipe, throat; s. sg, n. and sSkpS, n. 
senfle, semfle, = samfle, n. 
seMmg, n. shutting behind. 
s§nd6, n. (Fanti-word) house-top. 
s§re, y. inf. seremg, to melt; to swim, 
serelg, n. swimmer, 
seremg, swimning; melting. 

sSsgo, inf. seseomg, y. to reproye; to silence (Ot.?). 
sesgoig, n. reprover, 
seseomo, n. reprof. 
sgtamg, sgtramg, n. sitting behind; assistance, fr. ta sfi» 

pi. tra sg, y. 
setrafoi (= Ot. asetrafoi, down-sitters) or 
sgtrafoi, n. lit. behind sitters ; relations and brethren of « 

king sitting behind him in judgement etc. 
sgto, n. putting away, back; retaining, keeping, fr. to se»T. 
sgtSgmg, n. calling back. 

set^img, n. pushing (after s. th. f. i. a carriage) fr. tSi sq, t. 
setSdmg, n. backtuming, returning. 
sgtSUi n. back-room, bedroom. 


sejft — 80. 263 

seya, n. going behind, — back. 

8ey61i, n. deception; from ye se, v. 

sey^lilo, n. deceiver. 

Siai, pr. n. of the Sai-mountain , its people and land, as 

pronounced by themselves; G. Sai, Ot. Siade.* 
Siako , pr. n. of a brook coming from the Akwapim-moun* 
tains near Tutu and going into the Laloi-river, near the 
sikasika, n. a kind of seafish. 
'sisS, s. asisS, n. 

sisa, n. spirit of departed men; ghost; comp. susum^; 
ira; mumo and Ot. saman; sunsum, sunsuma, kra, n. 
The word seems also to be employed for ^skeleton''; 
before birth and during life, „kra" or „kla", n. , is used 
instead of it. 
sisaman, sisaiamSin, n. town of departed spirits (supposed 

to be on the islands of or beyond the river Volla. 
s\sS, V. inf. sisemQ, to beg. 
sise, n. europ. word, subsistence, way-money. 
«iselo, n. beggar; mendicant, 
sisemo, n. begging, 
siyire, n. bride (Ot;yi). 
skaniy n. dan. shame, 
skao, n. dan. press, chest, 
skru, n. dan. screw, 
skrusi, n. dan. screw-driver. 
s\ — see under sr. 
smo, V. s. sumo, 
so, pr. n. Thursday (s. soh4). 

s5, pi. sOmo, inf. somg, v. to perch; to sit as birds do; 

to sit on one's hams; - hie, v. to sit before, - he, - - 

about; -mli, --in; - na, --at; -no, --upon; sd Si, 

to sit down; - §isi, - - under; -yiten, - - upon, on etc. 

sd atfere, pi. somo s6mg-, inf. atferesdmo, v. to box; 

8. atfere, n. fist. , 
sd WQd§i ang, v. to hedge out eggs. 
s5, inf. sd, v. to work on the anvil. 
s5, n. black-smith's work. 
SQ, V. inf. sgmo, = sa, to be right, fit. 
sg (Ot. to take hold of = md in Ga), v. only used in the 
combinations: hie sg m. k., v. to respect s. b., mihle 
sglg, I respect him (Ot. ani sg, comp. sa, v. in Ga); d§d 
sg, V. to dance hotly; d§o Ig csg, the dance is brisk, 
hot 9 frequented. 


264 s6 — solokaselo. 

sO, n. vagina (obscene; comp. gbemi). Son rofien SWenf(^cn 

aid ®cl)impfirort flcbraucbt. S. yohe, n. 
so, n. guilt; blame; suspicion; to ra. k. s5, or: ke so fo 

m. k. no, V. to accuse s. b. innocently. Comp. manso, n. 

SQbiisobii (s. sqo, pi. sobii, n.) adv. in little particles or 

soh6, pr. n. Friday (comp. so, pr. n.). 
soa no (Ot. soa so), v. to immitale, s. kase, v. 
sodsa, inf. sodsemo, v. to let s. b. sit or perch down (s. 

so, somo, v.). 
soisoi, adv. violently (?), hie m. k. soisoi, v. to treat s. b. 

violently; to illtreat s. b.; s. pi, v., sopa, v. fe niise- 

niianii, v. se, v. 
soisoihielo, n. illtreating person, 
soisoihiemo, n. ill treatment; s. pimo. 
sgkoterele, adv. continually; over and over; again and again; 

comp. notongto; ahu; etc. tediously, etc. 
sole (Ot. sore, v. to arise; 1o pray), v. inf. solemo; to 

pray; to preach; to officiate as priest or clergyman; to 

baptize, confirm, copulate, keep the burial service over 

s. b. etc. comp. kpafai; dsadse-tso; dsa; gba, tso; bap- 

tisi; wadse etc.; to care for; sole he, v. inf. hesolemo, 

and sole he no, inf. henosolemo, to take care for one's 

self; comp. hie hi he no, v. and le henosolemo, v.; 

th. s. 
solelo, n. praying, preaching etc. person; person attending 

divine service; comp. dsalo, n. 
sglemg, n. prayer; service of God; religious officiating; 

baptism, confirmation, copulation, burial service; religion 

in general, s.- dsamo, n. 
solemobe, n. prayer-time etc. 
solemohe, n. place of prayer etc. 
solemogbi, n. day of prayer or divine service, 
soleniohekpe, or 
solemokpe, n. prayer-meeting, 
solemolala, n. hymn; religious song, 
solemolamo, n. religious singing, 
solemotsu, n. prayer -room; house of prayer; chapel; 

church etc. 
solemOwe, n, chapel, church (together with the yard etc. 

8. tsu, sia, we, n.). 
solo, n. black-smith; smith, 
solokaselg, n. black-smith's-apprentice. 


solona — sopamQ. 265 

sSlona, n. blacksmith's-trade, 
solgnalo, n. master black-smilh. 
solgnanii, pi. n. blacksmilh-implements. 
solote, n. anvil; s. sonmete. 
solo-hamlo, n. blacksmith's-hammer. 
somo, n. fitness, fr. so, v. 
somo, 0. perching; sil'ing on the hams, 
somohe, n. perching-plaee. 
somo, V. s. sumo, v. and sumo, v. . 
somo, n. a kind of crabs; a worthless fellow, 
son, adj. and adv. mere; pure; full of; merely throughout, 
entirely; comp. kron, kronkron. Gbomei soft, nothing 
but men; full of men; nu son, nothing but water, mere 
son, n. a kind of river-fish. 

son, n. straw; a kind of straw from the leaves of a palm- 
tree (sohtso) used for cords, hats etc. 
sone, n. a kind of squirrel, of grey colour, 
sohfaf, n. straw-hat. 
sOnfailolo, n. straw-hat- maker, 
sonme, n. black-smith's bellows, comp. afa, n. 
sonmena, n. forge-chimney; (Sffe^ 

sonmesi, n. black-smith's shop; comp latesi; kpatasi, n. etc. 
As in Furope, the smith's shop is a kind of super- 
stitious sanctuary, where thieves can be delected; wounds 
cured, etc. 
sonmete, n. = solote, anvil, 
sontso, pi. -tsei, n. a kind of palmtrees, the leaves of which 

(„soh") are made into hats, cords etc. 
sonu, n. a fruit of a palmtree of the size of a fist and 

sonutso, pi. -tsei, n. the palm-tree bearing it. 
soo, inf. soomo, v. to be tough (of sticks); to catch up 
(f. i. a ball); to grasp; to snatch; to seal (s. sgo na); 
soo bo, V. to catch up or receive eagerly; f. i misoole 
bo, 1 eagerly received him; soo na, v. inf. nasoomg, to 
seal up. 
soolo, n. catcher etc. 
soomo, n. catching, grasping etc. 
soo, pi. sobii, n. little particle of any thing, 
sobiisobii, adv. in little particles. 

sopa, inf. «opamo, v. to disgrace; to reproach hardly etc. 
sopalo, n. reproacher. 
sopamo, n. disgrace; reproach. 


266 soro — sfi. 

soro, 8. sro, v. to be different; to esteem; Ot. sono, t. 
S0800, V. = seseo, inf. sosoomo, to reprove, reproach; 

perh. redupl. of'soo, v. 
sra, V. inf. 'sr^mo (Ot. th. s., comp. sa, of which it may 

be a corroboration) ; to watch (= bu); to spy; to visit 

(= M). 
sra,.sram, v. to overflood (of rivers); to be very ftdl; 

comp. srake (?). 
sram no, v. to be very full (of rivers), 
'srafonyoy asraf., pi. 'srafoi, n. soldier, 
'sra, nsra, n. camp, 
'sra, asra, n. snuff; a kind of fever, 
sralo, n. watch-man; spy; visitor, 
sramg, n. watching; spying; visiting, 
sre = sere, v. inf. sremo, to melt; to swim, 
srebo, n. fire-stone, flint (of guns); ehie tamo srebo, his 

face is like a flint; s. hie wa, v. The word is very 

probable Fanti; comp. also tfrebo, tserebo, n. th. s. 
srgmsrgm, adj. and adv. sweet; slimy; sweetly; =bloblo, adj. 
sro or soro, impers. v. (Ot. sond) to be different; to be 

peculiar, strange; esromi, esrole, different J, different 

he, i. e. I and he are different; common verb: to esteem, 

to prize misroo ene, I don't esteem this; nsroo, mba- 

sroo, adverbially used = much more, much less, 
sroto, adj. different; peculiar, strange; s. sro; n. difference. 

Gbomei srotoi, different men; gbomo srgto dsile or esrole, 

he is a peculiar person, 
sroto, n. lock, 
sroto-solo, n. lock-smith, 
su, inf. sQ; to shrink, to moulder, to get small, thin, 

lean; to spoil, to rot (of cloth etc.), to be ragged; to 

kindle (Ot. so), su kane! kindle a light 1 to swallow; 

nu le esumi, the water had swallowed me up (s. ml, v.); 

to hush one with the exclamation: sua! 
so, n. shrinking; mouldering, rotting; kindling; swallowing. 
, sulo, n. person doing so. 

su, n. (Ot. th. s.) shape, form; behaviour, manner (SBefen?); 

s. suban; su ke bla, manners and descent (?), su be ban, 

manners and likeness,, of a person; comp. dseh, dseA- 

ba etc. 
sO, V. inf. su, to poison ; to kill by witch-craft or fetish, 
su, n. killing by poison etc. 

Digitized by VjOO^IC 

su — ^ sumuidadetso. 267' 

su, n. swish, clay, f. i. such as fit for potters, building etc., 
ground, su akpa, good ground; comp. sikpon; mlu; 
nmiamo etc. 
sua! int. hush! be quiet! (German: bfi!); s. su, v. 
suban, n. (Ot. th. s.) form ==i. su; image; likeness, 
subantse, n.? = asrafonyo? 
'subo, s. asubo, n. 

subo, n. balling of swish to make swish- or mud-walls. 
subolo, n. labourer balling swish, 
sufo, n. wetting of swish. 
sukle and sukle, n. eur. word; sugar. 
sukleno, n. sugar-vessel. 
suklete^ n. rock-sugar. 
sukle-^ibii, n. lit. sugar-fruits, i. e. raisons. 
sukpo, n. lump of clay. 
sukpotQ, n. mud, wet clay. 

sukpQtomo, n. wetting and mixing of swish; =. sQfo, n. 
sukukuli, n. clod. 

sukusuku, adj. wrinkled; s. susui, th. s. 
sulan, adj. and adv. hairy; hairily; tsgi sulan, full of hair; 

he ye tsoi — , v. to be very hairy. 
sull, adj. and adv. dark, cloudy; -ly, -ly; trube, unfreiml)*' 

Itd^; fe — , V. to be dark etc. 
suIq, n. a person kindling a fire, light; lighter; husher; 

fr. su, V. 
sulomlomQ, n. taking up of swish; s. lo, v. 
sulo, n. poisoner, fr. su, v. ©iftmifc^cr; 3^"^^^^^- 
siimS, n. swish-building; s. fato, n. 
sumdig, n. builder of swish. 

sumanfo, sumamfo, n. a seafish; Ot., = wonts§, n. fetish- 
sumo (smo), inf. sudmo or sumomo, Adn. suo, v. tp 
love; to wish, will, agree; to like (Ot. pe); misumo, 
I like it, I agree; sumg m. k. or belter sumo m. k. sane, 
V. to love s. b., to like s. b. (Ot. pe obi asem).. Comp. 
do he, V. and kple, v. tao, v. etc. 
sum^ (smg), inf. suomo. Ot. som: v. to serve; esumg^ 

mi, he served me; Ad. sum, v. 
sumglg, n. lover. | scarcely used; see suolg, 

sumgmg, n. love, will, wish; ( and suomg. 
sumglg, n. servant; s. suglg. 
sumgmg, n. service; s. suomg. 
sumul, n. lead; s. tunte, n. 
sumuidadetso, pi. -tsei, n. leadbar. 


268 sune — sflwo. 

sune^ n. pillow (fr. sum, 01. v. lo lie on a pillow; sumi, 
Ot. n. pillow). 

sunehebo, n. pillow-case. 

suo, Adn. v., inf. sugin, to love, like. 

suolo, n. (seldom used) lover; comp. sumQlQ and hedglo, n. 

siiolo, n. (seldom used) servant; comp. iSulo, n. 

suomo, n. love; liking; wish, will; comp. suo, sumo and 

suomo, n. serving; service. 

suomona, n. loves sake; adv. for loves sake, willingly ; frei* 

suomonanii, pi. n. things according to one's wish or will. 

suomoniitsumo, n. laUuur of love. 

su5moniilsumo, n. labolir or work of a service. 

suomosane, n. matter of love, liking, will, wish. 

susu, inf. susumo, v. (Ot. th.s.) to shadow something off 
(abfcfcatten), to measure; to think; comp. su, n. and 
v.; susu-ke, v. to think and say; misusu mikele, I told 
him (as I thought or had it in remembrance); susu he, v. 
to think about; susu mli, v. to measure the contents; 
susu, na, v. to measure the brim or limit, etc. Comp. 
kpa si; bu, bu akonta; dfen, v. etc. 

susu, redupl. of su, v. to shrink very much, repeatedly etc. 

susui, adj.^ wrinkled = sukususuku; shrunk; old, moulder- 
ing (of cloth); comp. feifei. 

susulo, n. measurer; thinker. 

susumd (Ot. sunsum and sunsumma), n. shade (of a thing, 
body, comp. hoh, n.); character or impression of s. th.; 
reflection of s. th. (f. i. of the light); soul. Comp. kra, 
okra; mumo; sisa; Ot. sunsum, sun$um^, n. th. s. 

susumaheremo, n. salvation of soul; fr. here susuma, v. 

susumo, n. measuring, measurement; measure; thinking, 

susumobe, n. time for consideration. 

susumono, n. measuring-vessel; f. i. susumo-akpaki, measu- 
ring callabash; pi. -nii, abstract thing; ®el)anfenbing, 

susumotso, pi. -tsei, n. measure-stick. 

SQta, pr. n. of a village about 25 miles N. E. from Osu, 
at the foot of the Akwapim-mountains. (S, Blgfonyoman, 

suwale, n. firmness of character. 

suwadsemo, n. confirmation of character. 

suwO, n. manuring of plants with swish or ground. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

§a — SadenS. 269 

Words not to be found under s seek under f or s, 

with both which the letter § frequently changes: in 

Adanme it is frequently, in Otyi generally s; cpmp. fS 

fo and §a, so; si and si, etc. 

§a, V. inf. sa, pi sra, sla, sSla, inf. sramo, slamo, sSlamo, 

to ferment; to rot, to get sour etc. = kpoto (see 

sala, adj.); to stink = dse fu, inf. sa; to shake, to 

swing; to winnow, to fan (s. sala, n.); inf. sa; §a mh*, 

inf. nolisa, to fan or winnow out. 

sk, inf. samo, v. to draw; to pull, -lo, v. to catch fish, 

to angle; to snatch; to rub, wash, white- wash; - hie, v. 

- - the face, surface; - he, v. the outside, round about; 

- mli, V. - the inside, - - out; - no, v. - - the surface etc. 
sa nyanyodsiano, v. to cleanse the teeth; s. tfapia, n. 
Comp. also sata, soo, s5, gbla, kpla, v. 

sa si, V. inf. sisamo, to run upon, to knock upon (a rock 
f. i., used of vessels etc.), lo wreck; to go somewhere 
and return soon; f. i. eyasa si ebia, he went there and 
came back; s. also se, se si, v. 

sa, n. fermentation; rotting; stinking; swinging, winnowing, 
fanning; shaking; s. samo. 

sa, esa, adj. rotten, bad, evil, sinful. 

'sa, esa, n. mischief (something rotten), sin; comp.' niisa, 
ndsa and efon, n. Adn. yayam. 

(sa, n. relationship created by marriage, S^lt^iegcr'^'-uitt) 
(5(tn)afterf(^aft, s. sana.) 

sa, inf. s§, pi. sia siamo, v. to burn; to roast; to toast; 
to be barren (only used of animals, not of men, comp, 

sa, inf. samo, v. (obscene) to belch; to blow wind. 

sa, n. burning, roasting; conflagration; barrenness of ani- 
mals; s §iamo, th. s. fr. the pi. form sia. 

sh, pi. §ra, inf. sramo, V. to belch out. 

sabi, n. (®d)n)ie9erfc^)aftS»^inb, s. sa, n.) brother or sister 
in law (Sc^roagcr, (Sc^magertn) ; comp. sanu, sayo. 

sabii, pi. of sao, n. clusters. 

sade (Ot. sade),' n. good luck; success. 

§adeboa, sadeboa, n. (Ot. = animal of good luck) a kind 
of porcupines. 

sadegbomo, pi. -mei, n. lucky person. 

Sademo, pi. - mei, n. th. s. 

Sadeno, pi. -nii, n. lucky thing. 


270 gadSo — Se. 

SadSp, n. a large curious tree, bearing fruits of the size 
of an ostrich's egg, prh. monley-bread-tree; s. SalSo, n. 

*safemo, = eSafemo, n. sinful act. 

Saks, V. inf. gakamg, to embrace unchastely; to lift with 
both arms. 

sSkSmo, n. unchaste embrace; comp. lo atQ, v. 

s5la, sla, §ra, v. inf. sSlamo SSramo etc. pi. form of sa, v. 
to rot; to be rotten. 

sSla, §]a, sSra, sra, sran, adj. rotten, stinking; f. i. lo sMa, 
stink-fish, a favorite meat. 

sala, pi. sadsi, n. chaff, = tiilu; fr. sa, y. to winnow. 

§alo, n. winnower; puller; rubber, washer, while- washer, 
fr. sa and sa, v.; angler. 

salo, n. turner; sialg, th. s., comp. s§, pi sia, v. to bum; 
incendiary; SWorbbrcnncr; s. serelo, n. 

sSlo, n. (obscene); s. sS, inf. samo, v. 

samo, n. drawing, pulling, snatching; rubbing; white- 
washing; angling; s. he, v. 

s5mo, n. (obscene) belching, blowing wind. 

samo, inf. th. s. v. (obscene) to piss; to be slippy, slip- 
pery; s. (le nu; and comp. fS; to be wet, slippy, s. §ane. 

samo, n. pissing; piss-water; slipperiness. Comp. sOmo, n. 

samono, -nii, n. piss-pot; chamber-pot. 

samoto, n. urinary bladder; used as a scolding word for 
bed-pissing children. 

sane, V. inf. sSnemo, to slide out; to slip; to be slippery; 
s.' sSmo, V. 

§§nemo, n. sliding, shpping. 

Santse (Ot. Sankye), pr. n. of two villages, one at the foot 
of the Akwapim mountains in the Nuno-Plantations, and 
one between Akradi and Akwamu on the western bank 
of the river Volla. 

sanQ, pi. sahT, sahfmei, n. father in law, son in law; also 
used of less close relationship; s. sa, n. sabi and §ayd. 

sao, pi. sabii, n. a cluster or grape (of bananas, plan- 
tains efc). 

sStS, inf. sSt§mo, v. to drag by force along the ground, 
to pull; comp. sa, gbla, kpla, v. 

sdtdmo, n. dragging along. 

sayO, pi. sayei, n. mother in law; daughter in law; s. sanO. 

se, V. inf. se. Ad. hie, ye, to arrive; to reach; to 
be sufficient (comp. fe, v.; fa, v.); to make arrive, to 
order s. th. from afar; comp. also sedse; ml se, v. inf. 
mise, lit. the chest or breast-bone suffices, i. e. to be 


ge he — geraonS. 271 

comforted, content, joyful; comp. sedse m. k. ml; to 
shave; -yi, v. to shave one's head, as the natives some- 
times do; to shave the head after a time of mourning 
for a dead person; always connected with fetish- 
ceremonies; — 'hiena = dsie hiena, to shave the fore- 

§e he, V. to arrive about, at etc.; to shave about. 

se mil, V. to arrive in, to reach or be sufficient to fill a 

se na, V. to suffice, to satisfy (of food). 

§e no, V. to reach the surface. 

se si, V. to reach down; to reach entirely; to arrive at. 

s^-fo, pi. irreg. sere-Qe si, double verb, to cast away. 

se si - ta, and 

se - tS, double verb; to arrive, to be near, to be at hand; 
ese si eta, he is at hand; e§e etS, th. s. Ad. su - ta, 
th. s, 

se, n. arrival; sufficiency; ordering (SejielluiiCj); shaving; 
fr. se, V. 

se, V. inf. semo, to be afraid of (fcfieucn), to shy; to fear; 
to respect. 

se gbeye, v. inf. gbeyes^mo, to be afraid of, in fear of; 
to fear; comp. gbeye; misele gbeye, 1 fear him; mise 
gbeye, I am afraid; mise mihe gbeye, J am afraid of or 
for myself. 

sedse, v. inf. sedsemo, to make to, reach, to let suffice; 
comp. § 27. 28; only used in the phrase. 

sedse m. k. ml, v. inf. misedsemo, lit. to let one's chest 
or breast-bone suffice, i. e. to comfort s. b., comp. ml 
and ml se, v., and kyekye wyere in Otyi, th. s. 

sedselo, n. s. mlsedselo. 

sedsemo, n. s. misedsemo. 

s^fo, s. se - fo, double verb. 

sele, V. = sere, inf. selemo, to kindle; - la, - - a fire. 

s^le, V. = s^re, pi. of s^, v. 

s^le — fie si, double pi. verb, to cast (things) down. 

selo, n. a person arriving, ordering etc.; barber; fr. se, v. 

selo, n. a person afraid, fearing, dreading, respecting, fr. 
se, V. 

sfemo ke sifo (pi. form seremo ke sifiemo, s. s^re); n. 
casting down, away, fr. s^ - fo si, double v. 

semo,*n. shyness (Scl?eu); fear, dread; respect; s. gbeye- 

SemQno, pi. -nii, n. horiible, aweful thing. 


272 semosane — §i. 

Semosane, n. aweful palaver. 

§ena = sTna, n. door; from slana. 

§6ra si; =: sira si, §ra §i, v. to take a walk. 

Sere, inf. sereino, v. to kindle; - la, to kindle a fire (comp. 
§e, V. and su, v.). 

S^re - fie si, pi. form of s^ - fo si, double v., to cast down, 
' - away (many things); comp. fo, fd si, fie si, v. Inf. 
s^remo ke sifiemo. 

serelo, n. kindler (of a fire); incendiary. 

seremo, n. kindling (of a fire); fr. sere, v.; comp. here- 
mo, n. 

sferemo ke sifiemo, n. casting down ol* away of many things; 
from the pi. form of s^ - fo si, double v. 

sete, inf. setemo, to rend by force; s. gba, tsere, v. 

setemo, n. rending; rent. 

si, v., pi. simo, inf. si and simo (Ot^ si and tia), to 
knock; to push, kick; to stamp; to pulverize, to 
pound; to push against; to pounce; to touch, aux. v. 
to express the relation of direction ^rz: till, untill (bt§ 
ju), s. ke-yasi, aux. v., ke-basi, aux. v.; to be or act 
against (in this case used as auxiliary verb to express 
the relation of direction = against); to be worth (lit. 
to knock), esp. na si, v. to be worth, to be more worth 
than —, f. i. „ona sio mei akpei nyonma", thou art 
more worth, than ten thousand (s. Bible Hist. N. 40); 
to hoist; si aflana, v. inf. aflanasi, to hoist a flag; etc. 
si he, obscene, to commit self-pollution; si mli, v. to 
strike into; obla esi einli, he is full of youth (s. obla), 
he is full of youthful joy, pleasure, strength or also mis- 
chief; Comp. esp. phrases like: Ekwo ke-yasi nwei, it 
reaches heaven; ke-basi rimene, until to day* fe esa 
si m. L, to sin against (Ot. tia). 

si -fie si, double verb, v. to commit the sin ofOnan, Gen. 
38, 9. (s. 1 Mos, 38, 9. in the GS-translation). Ad. si, v. 

si mli, inf. mlisimo, v. to give over and above. 

si no, V. inf. nosimo, to add, to repeat. 

si si, V. pi. simQ si, inf. sisimo; to stamp. 

si, V. simo, 'to leave; esimi, he left me; site, leave 

st fo, V. inf. fosi, to get fat (of animals, s. fi, v.). 
si otofo, V. inf. otofosi, t^o perform the otofo- custom, s. 

otofo, n. - . 

si atufo, V. inf. atufosT, to bind up the atufo, which see. 
si, pi. §ii, or 


Si — Si. 273 

SI, pi. Sn, n. time {„mcL\"); to express the repetition of 
acts» but not that of numbers (s. toi) ; eba sll enyo, he 
came two times, i. e. twice; §11 ete soft oke ne, now 
already three times thou saidst this! Comp. Si ng, v. 
to add, to repeat; promise; wo — , v. inf. siwO, to 
promise; si ni ewo, the promise he gave; ewo Si, ake 
^ba, he promised that he would come. 

si, n. = sisi, Sikpon; ground; land; place; region; 
earth (comp. Ot. ase and asase); lower part; bottom 
etc. etc. but the word is seldom used as a pure noun, 
Dor has it a plural, but serves as an adverb and a post- 
position of locality (like he, hewo, h!e, mli, na, ng, se 
etc.) to express the same relation as: down, sometimes 
on, up, upon, if by these the ground is meant (comp. 
noy the contrary of it); to the ground; and the prefixes : 
de -, sub - etc. in Lat. and Engl.; Germ. nicl)er, fitxab, 
ab ; auf etc. Sometimes the original signification is scar- 
cely any more to be seen as it is also the case with 
the corresponding prepositions in other languages. As 
grammat. object it is esp. used in the following cases: 
ba Si, V. inf. Siba, to come down, low, to fall, decrease 
etc. ba m. k. Si, v. to bring s. b. down, to humble s. b. 
(s. ba he Si, v. to humble one'sself, inf. heSiba); hi Si, 
V. inf. SibimQ, to ask the ground, reason, to ask after; 
bi m. k. si, V. s. b.; to ask after s. b. (for mar- 
riage f. i.); ble Si, v. to lie on the ground (as snakes); 
bg Si, inf. Sibo, to loiter about, s. kpa Si; bu Si, pi. 
bumg Si, inf. Sibumg, to couch; to lie on the ground; 

f. i. ke hie - -, V. - - with the face ; to lie forward 

with the chest; da Si (Ol. da ase, lit. to lie down in 
thanking one), v. to thank, edami Si, he thanked me; 
dale Si, thank him! inf. Sida; damo Si, v. inf. SidamQ, 
to stand (down, upon, on the ground), dSe Si, v. inf. 
SidSe, to come out, forth; = dSe kpo; to be mischiev- 
ous, forward; but see tSe Si, v. — dSie Si, v. inf. Si- 
dSiemo, to bring forth; to reveal; = d§ie kpo; dsu Si, v. 
inf. SidSig, to do s. th. by stealth; edSu si ke-mba, he 
stiials or creeps in, he comes in by stealth; f^ Si, v. 
inf. Sifd, SifSmQ, to take out; = dsie Si; fl Si, v. inf. 
Sifimo, to stand fast; fo Si, v. inf. Sifo (s. fo, to cut), 
to go round about, lit. to ciit the ground, place; esp. 
used of public processions; fo Si, v. Sifd, to cast down, 
pi. fie Si; s. Se-f6, Se-f6 Si; tn Si, v. inf. Sifu, to 
scent, to trace by scent; to lie hid in the ground; s. 
ZimmermaDn, Akra-Yocab. 18 

d by Google 

Hi M — m. 

fQ, v.; U Si, V. Siftmo^ to scatter or be scattered on 
the ground; fie si, v. inf. Sifiemo, to pour out, to cast 
down (many things, s. fd si); gbe si, inf. gigbemo, v. 
to fall to the ground, down, to fall (comp. nyO §i, v.) 
he si, V. inf, sihemo, to settle; he §i, v. inf. Sihe, pi. 
here §i; inf. siheremo, to strike or be stricken down; 
here si, inf. siheremo, v. to start up suddenly (anfi» 
fabrcn, jufammenfal)ten); hi si, v. inf. Sihlle, to re- 
main, to dwell; 6hl §i, let it! hg si, v. inf. §iho, to stick 
under; to put under; s. ho,; v.; ka si, v. to be fixed 
down; ka si, pi. kSrao §i, y. to lie down; kSmo gi, v. 
sikSmo, to bite the ground, to fall in battle G^itf « ®ta^ 
beifeen"/ expression of war); kpa si, v. to wander about; 
kpasa si, v. to lean down; ku §i, pi. kQmo si, inf. si- 
kumo, V. to break down; lu si, v. silumo, to strike 
down, to fall down; mS si, v. to stand; to set down 
(of things; s. damo si); mo §i, v. to take hold under; 
na si, V. and nana si, v. to tread (the ground); nme 
si, V. to lay down; nyd §i, v. to fall or sink down; s6 
si, V. to sit on the ground (as birds), pi. s3mo §i; §a 
si, V. to run upon; to run aground (yessels); §e Si, v. 
to reach down, to arrive at; s. se si - ta, double v. th. s.; 
si si, pi. Simo §', v. to knock down ; to stamp ; So Si, v. 
to hang loosely in the ground; §d si, v. to rend down; 
ta §i, pi. tra si, inf. sitamo, Sitramo, to sit down; te si, 
inf. site, v. to arise, get up; te si, v. to stumble; ti 
si, V. to stumble upon; to Si, v. to set or put down; 
to tSui si; to lay the heart down, to have patience; s, 
nme yi si; tfa si, v. to strike down; to fall down; tfia 
si, V. sitfiamo, to be an outcast; to be cast down, away, 
given up; tSa si, v. to dig the ground; tse si, v. to be 
unruly; tu si, v. to jump down (wo si, v. to promise, 
s. si, sT, n.); wamo si, v. to creep, on the ground; yi 
si, V. to descend ; to let decend ; to light, alight. Comp. 
„si" in Adn. 

sia, n. sand (Ot. nwyia). 

siakuli, n. sand-grain. 

siate, n. sand-stone. 

siano, n. sea-shore. 

sia, v. inf. slamo, sometimes Sle, SleniQ, to stretch out (the 
hand etc.). Comp. ^e, v. 

sis, a kind of pi. form of sS, v. to bum. 

SIS, n. (Ot. fi, and fie) house, home; mlya S!a, I go home; 
eye Sia, he is at home; town in its contrast to the 


glabfi — Slayo. 275 

plantation-village (s. man) ; fiatlierlancl in contrast to foreign 

country; comp. we and tsu, n. adr. home, at home, 
siabfi, n. comming borne. 
s!ab6, Slablomo, n. quarrel in a bouse. 
§!abii, pi. n. (pi. of §ianyo) people at home; country-men. 
§!abtl, n. protection of a bouse. 
§lad§ole, n. house-peace. 
§!ad§omQ, n. house-blessing. 
§!agbe, n. house-dog. 

§!agbena, n. right of the house; «&au6re(tit. 
slakolo, n. cattle; ^audt^ter. 
§iakp$, n. house-meeting. 
Slaman, pL -mSdgi, n. home-town; native-town. 
§!amo; stretching out (the hand f. i.); burning, conflagra- 
tion, fr. §Ia, V. 
Siana, n. house-mouth, i. e. door, not used: s. §gna and 

81iia, n. 
Slamo = §!anyo ; pi. §!amei , n. country-man ; person at or 

from one's home; people at home. 
StaniitSumo, n. house-work; work at home; house-hold, 
gland, pi. sfanii, n. any thing of home, home-made thing; 

glanoyeli; n. house-governement ; house-keeping, 
glanye, pi. -nyemei, n. housemother; housewife; hostess; 

mistress of the house; comp. biianye, n. 
SlanyedSen, n. character, life of housemother; etc. 
Slanyo, pi. Siamei, §!abii; person, people at home; pi. -hi, 

man, men at home, 
slasamo, n. preparation of a house. 
Slasane, n. house- or home-palaver. 
§la§^, n. arrival at home, 
slasikpofk, n. house-land. 

Slata, n. home-war; hdhie-army; comp. amSnkS, n. 
slatse, pi. -tsemei, housefather, housemaster; host; pi. = 

slabii, people at home; comp. biiatse, n. 
Slatsu,. n. house at home, in town (s. kosetsu). 
SlatgulQ, n. house-servanU 
sfawebii, pi. n. domestics at home, in town; homeslaves, 

house slaves (not in the plantation or field). 
Siawiemo, n. mother's tongue; language of home; home 
• palaver. 

Slays, n. going home; home-journey, 
stayo, pi. -yei, n. women at home; town-women; comp. 

Sianyo, pi -h!; house-woman, ^^au^meib; housewife. 



276 SfayoniitSumo — Sihe. 

StayoDiitSumo, n. housewifery. , 

Siayoniifemonii , pi. n. doings of a housewife. 

Slayosane, n. housewife-palaver. 

§ibd, n. coming down; decreasing, decrease; fall; hunii- 

§ibalQ, n. a person come low. 
Sibilo, n. a person asking afer s. b. 
SibfmQ, n. asking after s. b. or s. th. 9?a^frac|e. 
siblemQ, n. lying on the ground (as snakes do), 
sibo, n. loitering about, 
sibolo, n. loiterer, louncher. 

sibumo, n. couching; lying on the ground, on the face. 
sifia, n. (Ot. aseda) thank. 
sidalQ, n. thank er. 
§idamo, n. standing, station. 
SidamQbe, n. standing-place, sta'ion; footing. 
§id§^, n. comming out, ^ appearance = kpodSS; mischiev- 

ousness, frowardness; mischief. 
Sid§elp, n. mischievous froward or forward person. 
gidSlelo, n. revealer = kpodgielo, n. 
SidsiemQ, n. bringing out, forth; revelation = kpodsiemo, n. ; 

sid§u, n. stealth. 

gidSulQ, n. person acting by stealth. 
sif^mQ, n. taking out. 
Siflmo, n. standing fast; firmness. 
Sifimohe, n. firm footing, 
sifo, n. perambulation; procession. 
SifolQ, n. perambulaler; member of a procession, 
sifd, giffl, n. s. sifulo, n. 
§ifd, n. casting down. 
§ifu, n. scent; tracing, 
sifulo, §ifddsi, n. lit. scenter, limer; epith. of the dog 

(s. gbe). 
SifSlQ, n. scatterer. 
sifdmg, n. scattering about. 
Siflemo, n. outpouring. 
Sigbemg, n. falHng, fail. 
Sigbemohe, n. place of a fall; falling place. 
Sihelo, n. settler. 
Sihemo, n. settling; settlement. 
Sihemohe, n. settlement; place of. 
sihemgheto, n. beginning of a settlement. 
§ihie, Siheremg, n. downstriking. 


Siheremo — Sikdino. 277 

Sifaeremo, ii. upstarting. 

siherelQ, n. person starting up. 

Sihile, n. remaining, dwelling. 

sihllehe, n. dwelling-place. 

siiabQ, as aften as. 

sika, T. inf. sikamo, to load a gun; s. Si, y. and ka, v. 

gika, n. (Ot. sika) gold; money; silver-money (s. trema and 

dfelei); ye — , v. to use money; wo — , v. to owe 

sika-amagg, n, golden image, 
sikafele, n. dan. whip, 
sikahelo, n. and 

gikafelQ, sikanmelo, n. gold-taker; gold-weigher, 
sikafitemo, n. money-spending, 
sikanme, n. gold-weighing, 
sikalo, n. loader of a gun. 
sikamQ, n. loading of a gun. 
§ik9mQ, n. lying down, 
sikamghe, n. lying-place, couch; ia^tx, Sagerpla^. 

K;: I "• «»»-^"'- 

sikand, pL -nii, n. any thing made of gold. 

Sikasane, n. money-matter. 

sikasuomo, n. love of money. 

SikatsakelQ, n. money-changer; banker. 

SikatsakemQ, n. money-changing; banking. 

Sikatsakemohe, n. bank; (exchange). 

sikatsalo, n. gold-digger. 

sikatsa, n. gold-digging. 

Sikatse, pi. -tsemei, n. possessor of gold; rich man; s. 

> niiatse, n. 

sikawO, n. owing of money; wearing of gold, golden orna- 
Sikayeli, n. use of money; money-spending; s. sikafitemQ. 

sikayelilo, -yelo, n- spender of money. 

siki , inf. sikimo , v. to suffocate ; to give s. b. medicine 
into his nose (a common use here). 

Siki dSo, y. inf. dsoSikimo, to dance; s. tSS dSo, y. 

sikimo, n. suffocation; putting medicine into s. b. nose. 

SikiSan (fr. Ot. sikrisam, lit. sugar-flour), n. european flour; 
flour-bread; s. akpand, n. 

SikiSanabolp, n. flour-bread. 

SikQsiko, n. hickup = hikohiko, fukofuko. 

Sikdrng, n. ground-biting; falling in war {„®xa^Uiitn% 


278 SikpA — sinasralo* 

Sikpd, n. lit. ground -cord; snake; 8. Sind and onufu, n. 
th. s. 

SikplalQ, n. (ground -brushing), broom; s. Mq, belo, Si- 
nyielo, n, 

Sikpon (lit. low-lump, comp. si and kpo, kpon, Ot. asase^ 
Adn. suban) n. pi. §ikpdd§i; earth; land; ground; floor; 
the earth is considered a person and adored, as heaven 
too (s. Nyonmo); ba — , v. = ba §i, ba Sisi, to come 
down ; gbe — , to fall to the ground = gbe §i ; hO — , 
Y. to till the ground; s. hu kO; mS — , to stand or set 
on the ground; sa — , to prepare the ground; ta --, to 
sit on the ground; t§a — , v. to dig the ground; wo — , 
to sleep on the ground ; ye — , to be on or in the earth 
or ground. 

Sikponbd, n. coming on earth. 

§ikponbii, pi. n. inhabitants of the ^arth. 

Sikponbo (= dSenbo, n.), n. globe of the earth. 

sikpohhie, -no, n. surface of the earth. 

Sikponhido, n. tiller of the ground. 

Sikpohhumo, n. tilling of the ground. 

Mkponnobii, pi. n. inhabitants of the land or earth = Si- 
kpoilbii, n. 

sJkponnd, n. something earthly; pi. 

sikponnii, earthly things. 

Sikponniitsumo , n. earthly business. 

sikponnyo, pi. -bii, n. earthly person. 

sikponnylemo, n. walking on the ground, i. e. on foot. 

sikponsamo, n. preparation of the ground. 

sikponsane, n. earthly matter. 

§rkpont§a, n. digging of the ground. 

sikpontse, n. land-possessor. 

sikpontSu, n. floor-room. 

sikumo, n. breaking down. 

silo, n. knocker, etc. fr. §i, v. 

silumo, n. falling down; striking down; = Sitfiamo, Sitfa, n. 

Simg, y. pi. of §i, to knock; n. knocking; pounding etc. 
etc. fr. si, v. 

simo or §Imo, n. leaving. 

simSmg, n. standing or setting on the ground. 

Sinmlitso, pi. -t§ei, n. hinge. 

Sift, adv. firmly. 

sin, n. a kind of bast; a kind of bread. 

glna (= §Iana, §6na) n. door; comp. agbo, n. 

Sinasralo, n. door-keeper. 


SKnaSi — siSicU^o- 279 

s!na§i, n. place under the door; - before the door. 

Sinamo, sinaQaino, n. standing up (/^^uftreten'O* 

sinatso, pi. -t§ei, n. door-post. 

slnasi§i, n. sill, threshold. 

Sinylelo, n. (ground-walker); broom = Sikplalo, Wo, n. 

siny5, n. falling, fall. 

Stra, si, v. inf. Si§Iramg, to take a walk (also with the 
eyes only). 

sisomo, n. perching on the ground. 

§i§amQ, n. running aground. 

sise, n. arrival. 

si§i, redupl. of §i, v. (Ot. sisi) inl siSimo (also §isiu, §i- 
siumo) to deceive. 

si§i, n. redupUcation of §i, n. Ot. ase; earth, ground; 
foundation, s. fanes; under part; depth bottom; dregs; 
under story ; (s. nwei, the contrary of it) : reason, mean- 
ing, signification; beginning; etc. etc. adv. down; aground; 
trough; used as postposition like the prepos. under, be- 
neath; c^mp. §i, n. Ba — » v. to come down; ba n. k. 
sisi, to come under s. th.; be — , s. ye §isi; hi — , v. 
to ask the reason, signification; bo sisi toi, v. to listen 
to the reason; bu-si§i, to lie under; d§e sisi, v. inf. §i- 
Sidse, V. to begin; d§e §i§i, v. (to come) from beneath; 
ka sisi, V. to lie under s. th.; ku — , v. to break down 
the ground; to double the seam of cloth; le sisi, inf. 
Simile, to know the reason, signification; mh sisi, v. to 
lay, the foundation; na sisi, v. to see the reason, mean- 
ing; to understand, inf. §isina, = nana; nu — , to hear 
or understand the meaning; se §isi, v. to reach to the 
ground; ta n. k. Sisi, to sit under s. th., te sisi, s. ya 
Msi; tfa m. k. §i§i, v. to be hard against s. b. , so as 
not to help him; to sisi, v. inf. §i§itO, to lay the foun- 
dation, to found; t§a sisi, v. to dig the ground; tsd 
§i§i , V. inf. §i§it§dmo, to show or teach the meaning of 
8. th., to interpret, comp. dsie na, v.; to explain, lo 
analize; ya siSi (te — ) v. to go down, - - under s. th.; 
ye sisi, neg. be — , v. to be down; to be under s. th. ; 
yo — , V. to perceive the meaning etc. Comp. sisi in 

gi§iba, n. coming down. 

§i§ibimQ, n. asking of a reason. 

Sisibumo, n. lying under s. th. 

iii^dSe, iL beginning; origin; foundation; fr. dSe sisi, v. 

§i§idselQ, n. beginner; originator; founder. 


280 Si8igbe — Siyire. 

giSigbe, n. way down- ward; descent; decliyily. 

SiSile, n. knowledge, understanding, intelligence; = SiSina^B. 

SiSilo, n. deceiver, fr. si§i, v. 

Sisimd, n. foundation; comp. §isid§e and SiSitO, n. 

SiSimalg, n. founder. 

Sisimo, n. stamping, fr. §i §i, y. 

SiiSimo, n. deception, fr. §i§i, v. 

SiSina, n. knowledge, understanding, intelligence. 

siSinamo, n. th. s. 

§i§ina , n. instruction (received about s. th.). 

si^Tralo, n. person taking a walk. 

sisiramo, n. taking a walk; ya — , = SYra Si, to take a 

SiSitfa, n. hardness. 
Sisito, n. founding, 
sisitga, n. digging of the ground. 

SiSitsdlo, n. interpreter; informator; explainer; commenter. 
si§itsdmo, n. interpretation, information; commentary. 
Si§it§6mowolo , pi. -wod§i, n. commentary, 
sisiya, n. going down; descent. 
§i§iyomo, n. perception. 

Si§iu, V. inf. SiSiumo, = SiSi (Ot. sisi, sisiw) to deceive. 
Sisiulo, n. deceiver. 
Sisiumg, n. deception; frauds 
sitamo, Sitramo, n. Sitting down; session. 
Sitamohe and 

Sitramohe, n. Sitting-place. 

Site, n. getting up; arising; resurrection, fr. te Si, v. 
Slti, n. leech, bloodsucker. 
Sitemg, n. stumbling. 
Sitemond, pi. -nii, n. stumbling block. 
SitO, n.' setting, settling down, putting down of a load; 

fr. to Si, V. 
Sitf^, n. stricking or falling down. 
Sitfialo, n. an outcast. 
Sitfiamo, n. outcasting; abjectedness. 
SitSa, n. digging the ground. 
SitSe, n. s. sidse, mischief etc. 
SiwO, n. promising, promise. 
Siwolo, n. promiaer. 
Siwulemo, n. tumbling down. 
Siyimo, n. descend; alighting. 
Siyire (Ot. siyere), n. promised wife, bride, betrothed; 

comp. ayemforo, n. 


8iu — srfike. 281 

iin, T. int Siumo, to sink; — no, to deny. 

Siolo, n. denier. 

Siumo, n. denying; sinking. 

sla, y. s. sa and §ala and sra; to rot. 

§la, adj. rotten, stinking; == sala, sra. 

§ia §i, y. s. §¥ra §i, to take a walk. 

§0, adj. and adv. quieUy, lonely; fe — , to be lonely.. 

§0, y. inf. so, to smooth; to file; to grate; niiSond, gra- 
ter; to rub; to plane; to lick; s. to nii ano; lamo, y. 

§0, n. smoothing; filing; planing. 

So, pr. n. Wednesday. 

so na, inf. nasO and naSomo, to smooth the mouth, i.e. 
to kiss; to suck at s. th.; f. i. to suck the marrow from 
a bone. 

§d, y. sdmo, to tear away, to snatch away; to rescue; Sd 
ye m. k. den, to snatch s. th. from s. b. 

sd, inf. §8, y. to form; to get stiff (f. i. by cramp) ; -kpli- 
kpli, y. to haye convulsions. 

§d gbe, n. inf. gbe§d> to make pots. 

Sfi, n. forming, form; stiffness; potters-trade; s. gbeSS* 

Sdhe, n. pottery. 

§oi, n. a kind of sea-fish. 

sqIq, n. smoother; planer; fr. So, v. 

SdlO) n. rescuer; person snatching s. th. away; potter; 
s. gbeSdlo, n. 

sdmo, n. tearing, snatching away; rescuing; fr. §d» v. 

SOmOy n. piss-water == §Smo, n. (obscene, s. nufiemo, n.). 

S5ft, adv. far away. 

§dsd§d , §dsd§6§d, adj. and adv. pointed, sharp ; na sds8§d, 
sharp point; yiten sdsdsd, dharptop; pointedly; sharply. 

Soto, n. red pepper; Cayenne pepper; wo — , v. to pep- 
per; to season with pepper. 

sotoba, n. pepper-leaf; -plant. 

^OtotSo, pi. -tsei, n. pepper-plant. 

SQtowd , n. seasoning with pepper. 

sotoyeli, n. pepper-eating. 

Sotoyelo, n. pepper-eater. 

gra = sMa, sfira, pi. v. fr. sa, y. to rot. 

Sra = §Ma, slira, adj. rotten. 

§ra §i = s£ra §i, gira Si, v. inf. sisramo, to take a walk. 

Srdke, inf. sr&kemo, v. (fr. §3, gSmo, §dne, comp. §27 
and § 12) to glide off, to slip out (by smoothness); to 
miscarry; to unstring dissolve (of beads); to come to 
shore (of fishermen). 


282 SrSfcelo — U no. 

Srftkelo, n. pereoa or aninal miscairyiDg. 

Srftkemo, n. gliding, slipping out, off; miscarrying, abor- 
tion; dissolution (of beads); landing (of fishermen). 

8re == Sire, pi. v. of §i, y. to cast away. 

Sremo = s^remo, n. casting away. 

Sroke, y. inf. Srokemo, to be half-ripe; to emit blood (from 
nose, mouth etc.); migOgd Sroke, I bled from the nose. 

Srokemo, n. state of being haKripe (of fruits); bleeding, 
emission of blood (from nose, mouth etc.). 

Before „u** the letter „«" becomes generally „f**, 
^u** being swallowed up by it, or changed into ni" 
or a sound resembling the german nU^. 

Sua, y., s. fa, y. 

Sue, y., s. fe, y. 

Sue, y., s. fe, v. etc. 


Ta, y. pL tlira or tra, inf. tft, tamo, tramo, imperat. sing, 
tal (Ot. tra, sa and te Adn. h!, which compare ako in 
Gft); to touch; to be touched, moyed; to sit; to plaster 
(set); to reach; to chew; ke n. k. ta, ta touch with s. th.; 
ke m. k. ta, to sit with s. b., i. e. to set, to haye sea- 
ted; ke m. k. ta na« to dispute with s. b.; mli ta, t. 
inf. mlita, to be inwardly touched, moyed; tSui ta, t. 
to be heartily toudhied, moyed. 

ta dan, y. to moye the mouth, i. e. to chew. 

ta de, ta den, n. to shake hands. 

ta he, pL tra he, y. inf. beta, hetamo, hetramo; to toocb, 
(outwardly), htxi^un, anrfl^ten; to sit about; ^eittm^ 

ta hewo, y. th. s. 

ta hie, y. to sit before. 

ta mli, pi. tra mli, y. inf. mlita, mlitamo, mlitramo, to 

touch the inside,, to moye 

to sit in s. th.; to set in (2 1 

i. e. to mend. Eta tSu 1 

the room; - (tli mli, y. to 
ta na, pi. tra na, y. inf. nat 

the mouth, end, brim etc. 

to dispute with s. b. ; to s 
ta no, pi. tra no, y. inf. no 

the surface; to surpass; to 

ng, to sit on horseback, t 


ta se — iafi«Ue. 283 

ta se, pi. tra set v* in'* seUmo setramo, to sit behind; 
to sit behind a higher person (king etc.) to assist, him ; 
comp. setrafoi, n. 

ta §i, pi. tra §1, y. inf. Sitamg, Satramo, to sit down, to 
sit» to be seated; ke m. k. ta si, to sit mth s. b., to 
set s. b. down ; eta M ye tSu le nodi, he sat (down being) 
in the room; con^p. eta tsu le mli, he sat in the room. 

ta §i§i, pi. tra siSi, v. §i§ita, Sisitamo, Si^tramo, to touch 
or reach the ground; to stir up the bottom; to sit under 
6. th.; ametra t§o §i§i, they sat under a tree; ame(ra §i 
ye t§o i^§i, they sat down under a tree; ta kpataSi and 
ta kpata si£i, to sit under a roof. 

ta, n. touch; war, wu — , to war, to make war, int tawu, 
warring, fighting in war; army; comp. asafo; Ol. sa, a. 

ta or ta, n. touch? only used in the peculiar phraser tSI 
ta, Y. to mention, inf. tfttSl; etSI mita, he mentioned 
me; s. tSl t9, v. 

ta, pL tra (Ot. s2), y. inf. tS; to be done, au# fepn; to 
haye an end; generally used in the perf. tense, eta, it 
is done; sometimes used as auxiliary yerb to express 
the nearness or completeness of an action; mife eta, 
1 haye quite done it, i haye almost done it; finished 
(comp. the negro -en^h of Sierra Leone: „I done do"" 
= I haye done doing, I am ready); e§e eia, e§e M 
eta, it is quite sufficient, it is quite near, it has 
quite arriyed, it is almost at hand; etc. Adn. th. s. 

ta lo or 

td lo, y. to be thin, meager; inf. lota. 

ta, taba, tawa, n. europ. word, tobacco. 

tabe, n. time of war. 

tabii tabilQi, pi. n. warriors ; members of the army. 

tabilo, pi. -tabilQi, n. warrior soldier. 

Tab5n, pr. n. (tabOn, litterally: „well"; a word of the 
Portuguese black emigrants from the Bra^s, now liying m 
Akra or Ga, perh. Portuguese, by which they are now 
called) ; the quarter of the Portuguese black emigrants or 
theoplaceln wbiche they liye; their language, their re- 
ligion, gen. mahomedan; now also applied to other black 
emigrants from the Westindies, Sierra Leone elc. 

TaboAnyo, pr. n., pi. Tabdnfoi, Tab&AtSemei , such a per* 
son; {d. Tabdiah!, such a man. 

Tabdnyo, pi. -yei, pr. n. such a woman. 

taflatSe! (Ot. tafrakyel) int. excusing exclamation = saiya 
yenia ! SRit Slefpect }u ititlt)en ! if an obscene word or 


iBi taflatfifito — tanjrft. 

expression is used; comp. kusel — to taflatSe, v. Uk 

offer an apology in such cases, 
taflatseto, n. offering of an apology, 
tafitemo, n. loss of a battle. 
taflob6nto (= plet^) n. europ. word, plate, 
tagbamo^ n. arrangement of battle, s. gba ta, y. 
tahe, n. battle-field, 
tawuhe, n. th. s. 
take (contracted from tamo ake, tanke, to be like as) = 

ake^ conj. as, just as; like as; take bgni, take beni; 

th. s. (cpmp. bo, be, boni, beni) as, according to;' mife 

take boni okemi le, I did as thou toldest me. 
Taki, pr. n. of males (very probably (Ot. = takyi). 
tako, n. pad, polster to carry something on the head; bo-, 

to roll a pad. 
takobo, n. rolling of a pad (froni a cloth), 
taku, n. a weight of gold about 6 pence worth. 
takotSa, n. sponge for cleansing the teeth, made of bark 

or fibres of a plant; s. kotsa, n. and ta» v. to chew, 
talo, n. joint of the body, 
talo, n, sitter; toucher; fr. ta, v. 
tarn, adv. = pam; much; ever since > since; f. i. tam no 

niinako le, 1 have not seen him ever since.- 
tSmi, n. a kind of sweet berries similar to ripe coffee. 
tamitSo, n. shrub bearing them, 
tamo, D- sitting; mending, patching; fr. ta, v. 
tamo 9 V. to be similar, to like, to be like; sometimes used 

as a formverb with defective forms = like, like as» as; 

f. i. tamo boni oke le, as thou saidst; comp. take, conj. 
tamomo, t&mo, n. liking; likeness, 
tan, inf. -mo, v. to swear, = na; f. i. mitSn mitse, ake 

mafe, I swear by my father, that 1 will dot it (s. Ot. 

ntam, n.). 
tan» adj. and adv. (Ot.) and 
tantaii or tantan, Si6y and adv. ugly; deformed; disgusting; 

dirty; unpleasant, bad, ill; deformedly; ye tan, to be ugly; 

fe m. k. tan, v. to <Usgust; efeomi tan, it 'liisgu^ me. 
tanagbg, n. victory fr. gbe ta na, v. 
tankpe, n. rope» rigging of vessels, 
tantanfemo, n. disgust; disgusting, 
tano, pi. -nii, n. something belonging to war or the army. 
, tantrS, n. a kind of seafish. 
tananyd, and 
tanydy n. falling in war. 

Digitized by LhOOQIC 

tao — tc. 285 

tao, neg. aor. taao and taoo, inf. taomo, y. to seek; to 
>vant; to yfish; to desire; s. Ot. td, taw, y. and fefe 
and pe, y. Adn. hara, y. 

tao mil, inf. mlitaomo, y. to inyestigate, to search. 

tao, n. dan. slate; Safcf. 

tao se, inf. setaomo, y. to seek after; tao segbe> y- th. s. 

taolo, n. seeker, wisher. 

taomo, n. seekiqg; want; desire; wish. 

tara, pi. yerb = tra, fr. ta, y. to sit, to touch. 

tasa, n. (europ. word); pe>yter-basin. 

tasamo, n. preparation of war. 

tasane, n. war palayer; casus belli. 

tatale, n. a kind of maize-cakes baked in palm-oil. 

tatata, ady. to and fro; aflana le tfa tatata, the flag floats 
to and fro. 

tatSe, n. lit. army -father; field-marshal; gelb^aulptmann; 
comp. asafoiat§enukpa, n. 

tstsi, n. mentioning, mention, fr. tSt tS, y. 

tatSUo, n. mentioner. 

tatSo, pi. -tsei, n. a tree with a bitter bark which is used 
as medicine. 

tatQ, n. war-gun. 

tawa, n. europ. word, tobacco; nu-, to smoke = nu We, y. 

tawable, pi. — bedsi, n. tobacco-pipe. 

tawanulo, n. smoker := blenulo, n, 

tawanumo, n. smoking, -= blenumg, n. 

tawiemo, n. war-sfeech; — palayer; rumour of war; and 
tahewiemo, n. 

tawu, n. warring war; fr. wu ta, y. to war, S. ta, n. 

tawulg (gen. tabilo), n. warrior. 

ta^a, n. going to war. 

tayo, pi. tayei, n. war -woman; woman attached to the 

te, defectiye yerb, to go away, to go; in the present and 
imperfect tense of the posit, yoice and in all the tenses 
of the negat. yoice „ya^ is used instead; of which also 
the infinit. form is taken. Comp. the next, word and 
bote, kite, y. etc. Combined with „ke*S ^te"* also is 
used as aux. y. = ya; ke-te, ke-ete, ke-ate (kate) = 
to, unto. 

te, inf. temo, y- (to go away) to conceal one's self; to 
hide; to conceal; ke-te, to conceal ; Ad. la, y.; te m. k., 
to — s. b., to be concealed to some body. 


286 tehe — te 8i. 

te he, inf. faelemo* v. to conceal one's self; amete amehe, 
they concealed themselves. 

te hewo, V. th. s. 

te hie, inf. htetemo , v. to conceal before s. b. ; to be con- 
cealed, to be hidden before; ete mihte, it is hidden be- 
fore my eyes; to conceal one's self = te he.. 

te mli, defect, v. s. te, def. y. to enter. 

te mli, y. inf. mlitemo, to hide or be hidden in some place. 

te na, def. v. to go at; s. te, def. y.; to get up from or 
before s. th. ; s. te si, v. 

te no, def. v. to go on or upon; s. te, def. v. 

te se, def. y. to go behind; s. te, def. y. 

te se, ke-te se, v. inf. setemo; to conceal behind. 

te Si, inf. Site, v. to get up; to arise; to stand up. 

te siSi, y. def. to go down, under s. th. 

te sisi, inf. sisitemo, y. to conceal under s. thing. 

te, n. dan. tea. 

te, ten, n. middle, midst; ady. betwixt; postposition: amidst 
among, amongst, in etc. As man, ny5n, mdn, dan, etc. 
this word is generally used with the terminational aug-. 
ment „ft** = mli, therefore lit. = middle -inside; but 
when used with the article „le" the augm. „n'* joins 
this; f. i. ameteA, in their middle, amidst of them; amete 
len, in the middle of them. As the other postpositions: 
he, hie, mli, na, no, sq, §i, etc. ten can be connected 
with many yerbs, as : ba teA (or te leA) to come betwixt, 
amidst, into or in the middle; be im, to be not in the 
middle; bu aten, to jugde (Ot. th. s.) is yery probably 
a pluralform of bu ten; «= consider between two parties; 
damo ten, to stand betwixt; dsa ten, to divide betwixt 
etc. Compare also the combination inliten, yiten, nyon- 
ten etc. 

te-ten, interrog. pron. how? te oyo ten, how art thou? 
te oke ten, how didst thou say? te fe teh? te afe 
ten? how? te afe ten n) akekomi ene da? how is it 
that this never has been told me? ' 

te, v. inf. tg temo, to stumble; to knock against; mite 

V minanewao (te), 1 knocked my toe against (a stone); 
(comp. Ot. tia); to falter; na te si, inf. naSite, to falter 
in speaking; also used of a razor, when cutting the skin. 
Sometimes the (dur. form tere is used. 

te si, pi. tere si, inf. sit^, sitemo Siteremo, with „na** as 
gram. subj. to falter; mtna tere Si, I faltered. 


t€ — teh). 287 

te» n. 8toQe; rock; compact mass, f. i. Iunte> gunstone, 
ball; burden; cataract (of the eye); tfa na. k. te, to cast 
a stone at s. b.; gba te» to break stones from a quarry, 
to quarry; sane kfi te ko no, there is something else 
behind the matter, prv. 

ti, n. stumbling, faltering; s. temo, teremo* n. 

t6 (Ot. tew), V. to get or be clear; of water; of men, 
when come to understanding; hie t6, = hie tse, v. to 
have a clear face, surface etc. to have a clear under- 

te-awale, n. tea-spoon. 

teba, u. tea-leaves. 

tgda or tefda (s. tel), n. palm-wine. 

tebi, n. new tooth (childrens language). , 

tebu, n. stone-hole, quarry. 

tedSi, n. ass; donkey. 

tedsibi, n. foal of an ass. 

ted§inu, pi. -hi, n. male-ass. 

tedfiiyO, pi. -yei, n. female-ass. 

tegbalo, n. stone-breaker, quarry-man. 

tegbamo, tegblamo, n. stone-breaking, quarrying, fr. gba 
te, V. 

ti, tgn, and 

tei (and teftSo, pi. -tsei), n. palm-tree producing the com- 
mon palmoil and palmwine; eomp. akokostSo; ametSro- 
bitso, wietSo, sontSo etc. and nmetso, n. 

tlheniitSumo, telniitsumo, n. palmtree work. 

tekamo, n. stone pavement; fr. ka te, v. to pave. 

teke, V. inf. tekemo, to jump, to leap; to be over and 
above; to overflow etc.; comp. tO, kO no, v. 

teke no, v. inf. notekemo (to jump ovex; to leap over), 
to be over, superflous; comp. kd no and tO, v. 

tekelo, n. one who jumps over. 

tekemo, n. leaping, jumping over; superfluity; s. noteke- 
mo, n. 

teketre, n. dan. tea-kettle. 

tekope, n. tea-cup. 

tekpulu, pi. -kpudsi, n. tea-jug. 

tae, v., s. tere, v. 

tele, pl.*v. of te, s. tere, pi. v. 

t^o, n. gum; flesh round the teeth. 

telo-asane, n. boil at the gum. 

telo, n. concealer. 

telo, n. person stumbling (Caterer); s. naSitolo, n. 


386 Tema — t£rema. 

Tema, pr. n. of a sea-town betwixt NuAwa and GbugbrS^ 
in the AdfiAme-country (prh. from te , n. stone and mi, 
n. building, stonebuilding, stonetown; comp. the neigh- 
bonr-town nTeSi**. There are good building stones near 
both of them). 

temo, n. concealing, hiding. 

temobe, n. hidden time. 

temohe, n. hidden place; hiding place. 

temoSihlle, n. hidden life. 

temonfi, n. hidden art. 

temosane, n. hidden matter; mystery; comp. duAsane, n. 

temowiemo, n. hidden, mysterious word. 

ten, n. middle; s. te, n. 

ten, inter, pron. s. te-teft. 

tend, pi. -nii, n. some thing of stone. 

teno, n. surface of a stone; adv. on a stone, = firmly. 

leo, =■- t6, Ot. tew (= tse), v. to be clear. 

teo, inf. teomo; Ot. tew, to plant, transplant (plants al- 
ready planted; s. dO, v.); to watch or lay in wait for; 
to float; eteo nu le hie, it floats on the water. 

teolQ, n. planter, transplanter of trees; 93aumjii(^ter; comp. 

- dQlo and hCilQ, n., and kosenyo and okwafonyo, n. 

teomo, n. planting, transplanting of trees and plants. 

teomoba, n. plant for transplanting. 

teomobS, n. time or season for transplanting. 

teomobu, n. hole for transplanting. 

teomghe, n. place „ „ 

teomgnfi, n. art of „ 

teomotSo, pi. -tsei, n. tree for transplanting. 

tSre, inf. t^remo, = ttre, tre, v. to carry on the head; 
to lift on s. body's head for carrying (,,eincm auftelfcn"); 
to eleyate itself; to swell, eheko tere, he got a swelling 
from a fall; fl^ aufbebcn, aufbdumen; to trouble or 
plague one (with words); comp. wo, hie, tfa kon, tSo- 
t§oro, V. etc. 

tere, pi v. of te, inf. teremo, to stumble frequently; to 
falter; s. na te si, v. 

t^relo, n. carrier (on the head); hammockman. 

terelo> n. stumbler, falterer, s. naSiterelo, n^; fr. tere, pi. 
of te, V. 

tSrema (tirema, trema), n. cowries; Ot. th. s.; - ke iSka, 
cowries and silver -money; - yi, one head of-; - kpa, 
one string of-; kane -, v. to count -; fite or ye -, v. 
to use or spend - ; etc. Comp. hleo, kpfi, tSakpo, n. 


tSremafitclo — tctremantreflilo. 389 


tiremafitelQ, - yelg, n, user or .spender of cowries, 
tfoemafitemo, -yeli, n. use or spending of cowries; see 

file, V. and ye, v. 
tigremakanelQ, n. cowries-counter, 
teremakanemo, n. cowries-counting. 
tSrema-akonta, n. cowries-account. 
tSrema-adeka, n. cowries box. 
t^remakotoku, -flolg, n. cowries-bag. 
tereiuasane, n. cowries-palaver. 
tSrematse, n. possessor of cowries; rich man; s. niiatge, 

sikatse, tt. 
IgremQ, n. carrying on the head; putting on s. b.'s head 

for carrying, 
teremo, n. stumbling, faltering; s. te and tere, v. 
tSretgre (and tretre), adj. and adv. quick; -ly; wie—- , v. 

to speak quickly. 
tesa, n. lit. stone-bed; rock, 
tesagon, n. stony, rocky hill or mount, 
tesahe, n. rocky place. 
Tesi, pr. n. („understone, stoneland"); of a seatown 5 miiw 

east of Osu. 
Tesinyo, pi. -h!, n. man from Tesi. 
Tesinyo, pi. -bii, -mei, n. Tesiman, -people. 
TeSiyO, pi. -yei, n. Tesiwoman. 

Tele, pr.n. of firstborn sons (Comp. Dede of firstborn girls; 
Tete, masc. and Koko, fem. of sec. children; Mesa add 
Mansa, of the 3., Anah and Tsolso, 4.; Anum and Ma- 
num, 5.; Nsia and Sasa, 6.; Ason, m. and f., 7.; Bolfe, 
ro. and t, 8.; Akron, m. and f., 9.; Badu, m. and f, 10.; 
taken with the exception of Tete, Dede, Tete, Koko 
and Tsotso, from the Otyi numerals). In Tesi are also 
other names used, perh. from the DSnme. 
Tete, pr. n. of second sons, 
teteo, V. inf. -mo, to float, to overflow (fr. teo); Me -, v. 

to be sad; comp. totOto, adj. 
tetete, adj. brackish (of water), 
tetete (s. Ot. tete, n.) = bebe, adj. and adv. old; from the 

tetfa, pi. teilfiamo, n. peting; stoning, 
telrj^, adj. and adv. wide, broad; -ly;'eomp. le, v. ga- 

dSa, adj. wuya, adj, etc. 
tetremantre, n. telremante, n. trumpet; waterplant like a 

trumpet; fli -, v. and kpa -, v. to blow the — . 
tfitremantreflilo, -kpUo, n. trumpeter, 

Zimmerman D, Akra-Vocab. 19 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

290 tetreraantreflimQ — tt. 

tetremantreffimo, -kpflmo, n. blowing of the trumpet. 

tetSo, pi. -t§ei, n. stone-tree, stone- wood; a hard wood 
of white colour. ^ 

tfa, subj. and obj. pL tfia, inf. tfa, tfiamo, y. to be stricken; 
to fall; to strike y to hit; to cast; to fire; to knock; to 
knock to and fro; to boil; to be cast away. Tfa n5, 
pi. tfia nil, Y. to strike with s. th. ; - odSo, v. inf. odSo- 
tfa, to kidnap, to catch men for sale ; - oti, inf. otitf^, r. 
to shoot at the mark; - si, inf. Sitfa, pi. Silfidmo; to 
strike down, to fall down = lu Si; to be abased, cast 
away, an outcast* (t)etn>orfen fepn); - sisi, inf. §i§itfa, to 
be hard against s. b. = fe m. k. ablo; tfa te, t. inf. 
tetfa, to cast a stone; etfami te, he cast a stone at me; 
tfia tei, inf. teitfiamo, to pelt with stones; to stone; 
tfa tSo, inf. tsotfd, v. to strike with a stick; etfami tso; 
tfa tu, inf. tOtf^, v. to fire a gun ; - okplem, - a cannon 
etc. ; h!e tfa he no , inf. henohletf^, = hie kpa he no, v. 
to forget one's self; comp. also: otfasini6gbo ! (fall down 
and die!) a curse and n. = pestilence. 

tfe, n. stroke, fall, cast; boiling; pi. tfiamo, n. 

tfa! tfia! int. fye! shame! ipfui! etc. S. also: t§a! tSia! 

tfa, tfam, adj. tough; gS^. 

tfalQ, n. striker, knocker etc. 

tfakoto, n. a kind of hose or breeches. 

tfapia, n. chewing stick to cleanse the teeth with. 

tfSm, adv. == kwa, entirely, together; f6 -, all together. 

tfere m. k., inf. tferemo (Ot. tfere or tyere, to lean); to 
perform a certain ceremony for a person violently or 
suddenly killed in leaning or setting him on a chair and 
rubbing him over with white clay. 

tfere, atfere, n. ladder; s. atf. - tfrebo, n. flint. 

tfere and tfetf^r^, adj. small and sharp (used of the human 

tf^tfe, V. inf. -mo, to be joined together by cords etc. 

tfgtf^mQ, n. joining, binding together. 

tfia (or tgia), inf. tfiamo, v. to walk, manly, proudly. 

tfiamo » n. striking, falling (of many things) etc.; s. tfa, 
pi. tfia, V. 

tfiamo, n. proud, manly walk; s. tSiamo, n. 

ti, inf. tile, ti and timo, v. to be thick, strong, palpable, 
to cloy; to touch; to scratch; to prick; to eat with the 
fingers; to pick; to sting (but s. t§^, v.), to pierce, to 
walk or stumble like spiders (in Fables); m. k. Sika ti, n. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tl hie — 'tilfa. 291 

8. b. 's gold is thick, i. e. he is rich; cotnp. kpoto. Re- 

dupl. V. titi; comp. also kpiti, v. Ot. th. s. 
tl hie, y. to scratch or prick one's face; to cast s. th. into 

some body's teeth; inf. hteti. 
tl musu, V. to prick one's belly; used as the former; inf. 

ti DO, inf. notimo, v. to stamble upon s. b. to come upon 

s. b. unexpectedly, 
ti nsrd, y. to be faithful to the master; to feign faithful- 
ness; to dissemble, to play the hypocrite; inf. nsrdtimo, 

nsrdnti, n. 
ti si, y. to stumble, to sit down as children do when they 

try to stand; s. he §i, y. 
tf, n. scratching etc. 
'ti, oti, n. head (Ot.), point, mark; tfa -, y. to shoot after 

the mark; inf. 
'titfa, otitf^, n. mark-shooting, 
ti, n. lump of any thing, as fat etc.; s. Ot. ti = head; 

a kind of medicin of the head of a snake and some 

leayes pulyerised. 
t!a, y. inf. -mo, to scratch together (money); to gather, 

spare, to hoard ; to join, accompany s. b. 
tiafi (Fanti word), n. privy; tsono, kona, n. etc. 
tlalo, n. gatherer, hoarder of money; sparing person ; com- 
panion, joiner, 
tlamo, n. scratching together, gathering, sparing; joining, 

tiki, y. inf. -mo, to burst, to open; to break through (f. i. 

a lagune or river through the sandbar); comp. fe; gbu, 

ba, y. 
tikilo, n. person bursting or opening s. th. 
tikimo, n. bursting, opening, breaking through etc. a. % 

.felemo, n. 
tile, n. thickness, fr. ti, y. 
timo, n. stumbling; thickness; strength fr. ti, y.; comp. 

tl, n. and tile* n., also titi, v., titimo, n. 
tip6, tipgn, n. contemporary; 9lUcr^geno jfe ; ke m. k. fc-, 

to be as old as s. b.; s. ye m. k. onukpa, gbekg etc. 
tipgnfemo, n. Sllter^genoffcnftS^aft; contemporariness. 
tire, v. s. tSre, v. 
tireraa, n. s. t£rema and trema, n. 
tirom, n. garden, s. trom. 

'titfa, otitis, n. shooting after the mark, fr. tfa oti, y. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

992 Hitfalo — to nane. . 

'titfolQ, .ot., D. marks-roan. 

titi, n. a small nice bird. 

till (reduplication and corroboration of ti), v. inf. titimo* 
to scratch; to pick with the fingers; to tickle; he tltl, v. 
inf. hetltlmo, v. to be tired of laziness = he hia; mihe* 
ntitimi, I am tired, lit) fu^Ie lanjc ffleile. Ot. th. s.; 
comp. also kpiti, v. and wo dokodiki, v. 

tttllo, n. scratcher, tickler. 

titlmo, n. scratching; tickling; comp. wamo, n. 

titrl, adj. thick, strong, excellent (fr, ti, v.). 

titri, adv. especially. 

tl' — see under tr. 

to, V. inf. to (Ot. th. s.), to lay; to keep; to lay down, 
to cut down, inf. tomo, to cut; to put down a load, 
to lodge — m. k. no, to lodge with s. b.; to take 
down s. b. load, s. to Si; etc.; ke hie to n. k. ng, to 
animadvert; to advert, to think. The word is very ex- 
tensively used, but can generally be explained by the 
significations mentioned; only one use is difficult, sc. 
as an aux. v. to express the relation of foresight, as 
sometimes the adv. „before", „already*% „against'' in 
Engl, f. i. mike mit6, 1 said it before; mitla sika mito 
homo, I gathered money against hunger; misa mihe 
mito wo, 1 prepared myself for to morrow etc. Comp. 
also the aux. v. na and the adv. momo. 

to aS, V. inf. afSto, to put aside, away; auf^cben. 

to afld, V. to make a sling or loop; nmO afl3, th. s. 

to fa, inf. fato, v. to build a swish-wall; mudwall, claywall. 

to he, V. inf. heto, hetomo; to lay or put about; to cut 
short; to answer (comp. here no); to compare, ke n. k. 
to n. k. he, to compare s. th. with s, th. 

to hie, V. inf. hleto, to direct the facje; - - n. k. no, - - 
- - upon 8. th.; s. kg hfe to no, v. 

to kpa, V. inf. kpato, to commit a detestable thing, to 
blame one's self; comp. kpa, n. bo f5, v., bo he 

. ahora, v. • 

to ma, inf. mStO, v. to put bread (dough) into the oven 

to mhii, inf. mantd» to found a town; to build a town. 

to mli, inf. mlito, v. to put into, to lay into^(cinlegen). 

to na, inf/ nato, to lay or put at, aniegen. 

to nadSiaft, inf. nadSianto, v. to reeompence, to retribute. 

to nane, inf. naneto, v. to walk or march in measured 
steps f. i. in carrying a hammock. 


to no -^ to. i93 

io nO, inf. noto, to lay or put upon, on; auf(egeti, btauf> 
Ifflen; to repeat; to smooth or iron cloth; to nil ano, v. 
th. s. 

to m. k. nd, t. to lodge with s. h. 

to se, inf. setd, y. to put back, aside; to delay; to put 
behind; ^intedeflen, nad^Ieflcn; t)crf(^icben; to provide for. 

to Si, inf. sito, to lay or put down, esp. the load; to rest 
in the way; to lodge; to give into s. b. charge; comp. 
hd m. k. n. k. §itO, to give s. th. into s. b. charge; to 
m. k. si, to take s. b. load down (ab^elfen); ablegcn, 
nicbcrlegen, bintcrlegen, abflfflen, etc.; to tsui §i, to yi 
§i = nme t§ui Si, to have patience; Ot. to bo ase, v. 

to §i§i, inf. §isitO, v. to lay or put under s. th.; to lay the 

to t§ui si, inf. tsuiSito, v. and 

to yi si, inf. yisito, v. to have patience. 

to , n. small cattle (Hebr. ]N!^) ; sheep or goat; f. i. to 
gwanten, sheep; to aboti^, goat; to agbo, ram; to kpa* 
kpo, he-goat; le toi, v. to keep or raise small cattle. 

'to, nto, n. toll, tax. 

'to, nto, n. a kind of grass. 

'to, interrog. particle, s. nto and te-ten. 

to, n. setting, ordering, putting away; fr. to, v. 

to, V. pi. toro, tro, inf. to. trOmo, to be full; to be sa- 
tisfied; -lima, -with food; but impersonally used: to 
be tired; f. i. mito, I am satisfied; ametro, they are -; 
etomi, lam tired, etroame, they are tired; but gbenyie- 
n>Q le etomi, the journey has tired me. 

to biti, V. = to piti,^v. to faint. 

to dd, inf. dsto, v. to be full of strong drink, to be drun- 
ken ; ametrotro dS, they were altogether or every-where 

to mu, to mum, inf. muto» v. k^erflummen ; to grow dumb, 

to owele, inf. oweleto, v. to revenge; to n. k. or m. k. 
he owele, to revenge s. b. or some thing. 

to piti, V. inf. pitito, Ot. th. s., to fall into a swoon; to 

to s5, to m. k. s6f inf. sdto, to accuse s. b. innocently = 
ke sd fd m. k. no; comp. sd, n. 

to, a. fulness; satiety; weariness; ady« fully; yi to = yi 
obdy obObdy obdbObd, to be quite full. 


294 to — toi. 

to, n. bottle, esp. calabash -bottle, bat also any simitar 
vessel; eomp. atunkpg, abgdiamo, nd, n. To ke mu, 
a bottle with oil; to ke da, - - with wine, etc. 

td, inf. tdmo (Ot. th. s.), to mistake, to make a mistake, 
to transgress; to disturb; to entangle, confuse; to be 
perplexed, to be in danger, perplexity; s. tdt5, v.; na 
td,* inf. natomo, to be perplexed, confused in speech; 
to transgress with the mouth; yiwala td, to be in danger 
of life. 

td kits, v. to transgress an oath or command; inf. kita- 

td mli, V. to disturb or confuse the inside. 

td mra, or -mla, v. to transgress the law; inf. mratdmo. 

td na, y. to transgress against the mouth, word of s. b.; 
to disturb one's words J s. tdtd na, v.. 

td nO, inf. notdmo, v. to transgress; = td; to sin or do 
wrong against; etd mino, he did wrong against me. 

toagbd, to agbdj, n. ram; s. to, n. 

togbante6, togbanten = togwanteft, sheep; s. to, n. 

tobi, n. young snoiall cattle, lamb or kid, s. to, n. 

tofe, n. dung of small cattle. 

tofd, n. bubble. 

togbe, n. slaughter of small cattle. 

tdgbi, n. appointed day, s. to, v. 

tohe, n. place where the loads are put down; restingplace ; 
place where s. th. is kept; treasury; lodging; inn; see 
gboiatohe, n. 

tohetSe, n. inn-keeper, host; s. gboiatolo, n. 

tohet§oi, n. lit. sheep- or goats-hair (sheep have scarcely 
any wool in this country); wool; s. kunt6. 

tohetsoind, pi. -nii = kuntOnd, some thing woolen. 

tohetsu, n. keeping -, treasury-room. 

toi, n. ear; ba -, v. inf. toiba, to give or bow the ear; 
be toi, to have no ear, i. e. to disobey; bo -, inf. toi- 
bo, V. to obey, to listen; bomi toi, listen to me, obey 
me; comp. nu, v.; eboole toi, he was disobedient to 
him; fd -, inf. toifd and toifamo, to take out the ear 
to listen; fe -, to make an ear, to listen; gba toi, to 
give a box, pi. gbla toii, v., toigba, -toiigblamo, lit.- to 
draw the ear, - m. k. -, to take s. b. by the ear, i. e. 
to correct, to punish him; gbe toi, scarcely used, v. to 
kill the ear, make listless, disobedient; gbo toi (s. toi 
gbo, v.), V. inf. toigbd, toigbomo, toigbele, to be dead 
in the ear^ to disobey; to be disobedient; hi toi, inf. 


toi ba — toigbft. 29ft 

toihfimOy to give ear, to hearken; to listen; ma ioU int 
toimO, V. to be deaf; sa toi, see toi sa, v.; t§i toi, y. 
pi. tlimo toii, t§i ioiii, v. inf. toitsimo, toiAtSimo, to 
stop the ear; to fill one's ear ¥^ith prattle; vra toi, inf. 
toiwale, = toi wa, v. to be of a hard ear; ivadse toi, v. 
to harden the ear, inf. toiwadSemo; wo toin, to put 
into the ear, to suggest, to wisper to; to insinuate; yi 
toi, to fill the ear (with prattle etc.); bie ODten ))o(I 
madden, kp9 yio m. k. toi, th. s. lit. to trumpet into 
s. b. ears, used like the former etc. Comp. also Ot. 
aso and asom. 

toi ba, y. s. ba toi, to listen. 

toi d§Q,*toin d§o» inf. toindsole, y. to have or beat rest 
with the ear, to hear no disturbance or palaver, to have 
peace =s he dSo; Ot. asom dyo, th. s. 

toin fe bed, the ear rings. 

toiii gbe, v. th. s. 

toi gbo, inf. toigbo and toigbele (= gbo toi), v. to have 
a dead ear, to be listless, disobedient; to disobey. 

toi mli, toimli, toin, n. inside of the ear. 

toi mu, s. mu toi, v. to be deaf; inf. toima. 

toi sa, V. inf. toisale, toinsale, to be of a fit, ripe ear 
(comp. sa, he sa, hie sa etc.), to know, to obey; but 
generally used ironically from the contrary, to be dis- 
obedient = toi wa, n. 

toi wa, inf. toiwale, toiAwale, v. to have a hard ear, to 
be disobedient = toi gbo, toi sa. 

toiasafoku, toiakutu, n. flock of small cattle. 

toiakwelo> toialelo, n. shepherd, raiser or keeper of small 
cattle = tokwelo, and 

toiatse, pL -tsemei, th. s. 

toiatSu, n. sheep- or goat-stable or yard. 

toiba, n. obedience; listening; fr, ba toi; = toibO, n* 

toibalo, n. (scarcely used) obedient or listening person = 

toibo, n. listening, hearkening; obedience. 

toibolo, n. obedient person. 

toibosane, n. matter of obedience. 

toidsole, s. toindsQle. 

toidsQ, n. sheep- or goat-stealing. 

toifUmo, n. listeni^. 

toifemg, n. th. s. 

toigba, n. box, stroke on the ear; fr. gba toi, v. 


396 toigbhmo — toI6 

toigblaiao, n. correction, chasticement; pnnishinent; fr. gba 

toi, v.; pi. gbla toi, y. 
toigbalo, -gblalo, n. chasticer. 
toigbe, D. making disobedient fr. gbe toi, v. 
toigbele, n. lit. death of the ear, disobedience, = toiwale, 

fr. gbo toi, T. and toi gbo, y. 
toigbo, n. and toigbomQ, n. th. s. 
toigbolo, n« disobedient person, 
toihdmo, n. listening, obedience, fr. hd toi, r. 
toihemoy n. buying of small cattle, 
toihomo, n. selling „ „ „ 
toiholo, n. seller ^ w » 
toima, n. deafness. 
toimulO) n. deaf person. 

toin, pi. toiiafi, = toi mli, toil amli, n. inside of the ear. 
toinnd, pi. toiiafinii, n. ornament of the ear, earring. 
toindsQle, n. peace, rest, Ot. asomdj^oe; = hedSgle, n. 
toindgglo, n. peaceful person; = hedsolg. 
toinfla, n. boil in the ear. 
toingbamg, toiiangblamo, n. stroke on the ear, box; fr. gba 

toifi, V. toin. 
toinsale, toisale, n. fitness, but generally hardness of ear; " 

disobedience; fir. toi sa, v. 
toinsalo, n. (ironically) disobedient person, 
toiiva, toiwale, toiniivale, n. hardness of ear; listlessness; 

toiwalo, n. a listless, disobedient person, 
toiwo, toinwO, n. wispering, suggestion into the ear; but 

see kpSi wo m. k. toifi; y. to admonish; to inculcate, 
toiwolo, n. wisperer, suggester. 
toinyimo, n. striking on the ear or in the face; fr. yi 

toin, V. 
toiyimo, n. filling of the ear (with prattle); fr. toiyi, y. 
toke, inf. tokemo, y. engl. from to talk; to prattle. 
tokelOt n. talker, babbler, 
tokemo, n. talk, prattle, 
tokot^, n.; pi. tokotai, 'sandals. 
tokotakpelo» n. sandal-maker, 
tokotakp^, n. sandal-making, 
tokpakpo (Ot. papo), n. he-goat; s. to, n. 
tokwelo» n* shepherd; s. toi«lelo» toiatSo, n. 
tolelo> toialelo, n. raiser of small cattle, 
tolo, n. keeper etc. fr. to, v. 
Jol6, n. moroing-star; pr. n, of women. 

d by Google 

tolo — trakte. 297 

tolo, n. a person folF of s. th., only used in compouncb.* 

tdlo, n. transgresser etc., fr. 16, v. 

't6ino, at6mo, n. batata, sweet potato. 

tomo, = to, n. cutting; felling of trees. 

tdino, n. transgression, fault; mistake; disturbance, perple* 
xity; danger; fr. t6, v. , 

tdmofa, n. forgiveness of transgression. 

t5mQn5, pi. -nii, n. act of transgression, punishment or 
fine for transgression. 

toni, n. lady-bird (?). 

tdni, n. a kind of dung-beetles, s. koklogbanting, th. ». 

tonldn, pi. -tol, n. mosquitoes. 

tdram, n. s. trom. 

toro, V. pi. form of to, v. 

toto, n. husk; bark; trash; sc^le; shell etc.; he*toto, the 
natural covering of trees, plants, seed; also of fish etc.. 

totokplomo, n. taking or breaking ofT of the husk, bark, 
scale, etc.; s. kpo, v. 

toto, to, adv. quietly. 

tgtotOto, s. to, adj. and adv. quite full, very full; fuUy; 
quite full; full to overflowing, s. J^eteo, v. 

tQtOtQ, adj. and adv. sad; sadly (of face espec); hie fe or 
hie ye -, v. to^have a sad face; comp. teteo, v.; full 
to overflowing, as the former word. 

tdtd, inf. totdmo (redupl. of td, v.), v. to entangle (thread); 
to be entangled; to disturb; to be disturbed; to perplex; 
to be in perplexity, danger etc. ; na tdtd, v. inf. natdtd- 
mo, to have a distuited mouth; to be disturbed or en- 
tangled in speaking; ohS mina et5td, thou hast disturbed 
my speech; s. also te, pi. tere, na te, v., th. s. 

tdtd he, V. inf. hetdtdmg, to disturb about. 
„ hie, V. inf. hletdtdmo, to confuse the face, 
n mli, V. inf. mlitdtdmo , to confuse the inside^ 
n na, V. inf. natdtdmo, to confuse the mouth, word. 

„ sisi, V. inf. sisitdtdmo, to confuse the meaning. 

„ yin, V. inf. yintdtdmo, to confuse the mind, 
tdtdlo, n. disturber. 

tdtdmo, n. entangling; disturbance; perplexity; danger, 
ton, or 

tow-fie no. double v. to cover one's self (with cloth), 
tra, pL form of ta, v. to touch; to sit; int tramo; 8. 

tra, V. in Ot. 
trakte, n. dan. funel. 


208 tnlQi^tXa. 

tndoi* trafoi, n. people ntting. 

traino» n. sitting of many; toach. 

trasianam (Ot.)> also talianam, n. carriage. Comp. tra 

ase, T. to sit and naft, n. foot, nam, y. to walk in Ot;i. 
tratSo, pi. -tSei, n. a kind of trees wilb beaotifal red wood; 

the timber of it. 
tre, = t6re or ttre, v. to carry on the head; to put on 

s. body's bead, 
tre = tere, pi. form of te, v. to stamble. 
trema, s. tSrema, Ot. th. s. n. cowries, 
tremasugbi^, o. a kind of sweet pap made of msAxe (perb. 

an Ayigbe-word). 
trill, adv. talkatively; wie -, to speak too much, to mske 

many words, Mt. 6, 7. 
trillwiemo, n. = tokemo, talk, prattle, 
tro, pi V. of to, to be full, satisfied, to tire, 
tro, n. satiely, fulness; tiredness (of many), 
troi, n. (europ. word) jacket, 
trgke, inf. trokemo, y. (= kproke) to loose, to lei s. th. 

fall; f. i. a piece of clothing. Comp. yeroke, Sroke, 

Srake, frake etc. § 27. 28. 
tfokemQ, n. loosing, 
trom, = t6rom, Urom, n. Oi. Ui. s. gar^ien, park, if walled 

in, comp. abo, n. timoA, n. 
tromnii, pi. n. things in or belonging to a garden, 
trdmd, adj. and adv. straight; straightly; smooth, -ly. 
trgmo, n. satiely (fr. tro, pi. of to, comp. to, n.). 
tromniitSumo, tromt§umo, n. gardening, garden-work, 
tromniit^lo, tromtsulo, n. gardener, 
tromkwelo, n. th. s. 
tromsalQ, n. th. s. 
trotro, adj. and adv. smooth; smoothly; comp. dem, defi, 

adv. th. s. fe -, v. to be smooth, 
trotrofemo, n. smoothness, 
truka, adv. at once; ))I5^Itt^. 
trutu, n. a kind of land-crocodile, s. mampam, n. 
trtimu, n. ungratefulness; adj. ungrateful; fe -> v. to be 

trumufelo, n. ungrateful person, 
trumufemo, n. ungratefulness. 
t§a, inf. tsa, v. to dig (in the ground); to excavate; i 

peculiar expr. is latsa t§a, inf. lalSatiMl, to feel heat; to 

get into perspiration; latsa tsami, 1 felt hot, i perspired; 

comp. latsa, n. 

d by Google 

tSa he ~ UaloM. 299 

tSa he, inf. het^a, y. to dig ahoi^. 

t§a §i, inf. sit§a, y. to dig up. 

tSa si§i, inf. siSitSa, y. to dig the ground, down, under 

s. th. 
tSa, n. digging; excayation. 
ihh (with eleyation of yoice), inf. tsamo, pi. tSra, inf. tSramo, 

a. and n. y. to fit, join (comp. dsa, y.); to close up 

holes etc. f . i in a wall, pot; to inent, s. sa; to plaster 

(generally in the pi. form); comp. nsi; to hall, to make 

balls or lumps (of flour etc.) = bo, y. 
\&h he, pi. tsra he, inf. hetSfimo, hetSramo, to fit, join; 

to ment; to plaster about. 
i^k hewo, V. th. s. 
t§a hie, y. hletsamo^ to join, to ment, to heal the foce 

or front. 
t§^ mli, y. inf. mlitSamo, to join, ment, plaster, heal the 

inside, inwardly, 
ts^ na, inf. natlamo, y. to join the end or edge (f. i. of 

two boards) ; to fit at ; etc. to continue. 
t§^ nine, -nidsi, inf. ninetsamo, y. to fold the hands. . 
Mk no, inf. notsamo, to join or fit upon or on; to con- 
tinue y. a. and n. 
Uk se, y. to join behind etc. 
\^k si§i, y. to join the bottom, ground; to ment the bottom 

of a pot f. i. 
tSI, ts§&, adj. and ady. tough; dry; toughly, drily; f. i. 

wui ts3, dry bones; s. also tfa, Ifan!, th. s. 
t§afut§afu, adj. and ady. soft; softly. 
t§aflo, t§afrQ and tSafrobi, n. a small kind of sharks, which 

are eaten (s. ogbolele, n.). 
tsake, inf. tSakemg, Ot. sakra, y. to change; -tsni, --the 

tSakelo, n. changer. 

tSakemo, n. change; exchange; alteration, 
tsakpo, n. half a string of cowries, or Ys part of a penny; 

20 cowries (Ot. tepo); comp. kpd, n. 
tsakpo tSakpo, half a string each, 
tiakoto, n. a kind of short trowsers; s. tfakoto, a. 
tsaka, inter, expressing contempt = tfa, tfi^! tush! 
tsakatsaka, adj. and ady. disorderly =;= sakasaka. 
tSalo, a. digger (in the ground)', fr. t§a, y. 
\hk\Qy n. joiner, fitter, mender; physician, healer; fr. tfift, y.; 

comp* tSralo and tgofat^, mensre, n. 
tSalQM, n. healing-art; medical art. 


800 tSaloAinO -- tiSe he. 

tSalQj&find, pi. -nil, n. chirurgical instruments. 

i^kmQ, n. joining, fitting; join; fitness; healing, medical art. 

t25nl, adj. = t§a,> tf§, tfani, tough; adv. toughly, 

tSdni, n. trap for fishes in rivers. 

tSatSa, n. straw-matress. 

tSatsafelo, -filo, n* matress-maker. 

t§at§afemo, n. matress-making. 

t§at§ahdlQ, n. matress-seller. 

tsatsu, pi. tSatsubii, n. a kind of black ants, biting very 
painfully; comp. gdgd, gbese, fote etc. 

tSe, v.; inf. tsemg seldom t§e), pi. tsSre» inf. tSeremo and 
t§remo and tSerem^? to come off, to get loose (comp. 
d§e, v.); to loose, take off; to pluck; to rend (v. a.), 
generally pi. form, f. i. atade le, etSere, the dress is 
rent; to rend open (of clouds), to open, to clear up 
(of the firmament, comp. tew in Ot.); to be or get clear, 
pure; holy; (comp. tSu, v.); to deduct, to fine in money 
(deducted from wages etc.; etSemi yi, he fined me for 
a head cowries. The word is most frequently used with 
grammatical subjects or objects connected with it, the 
former compounds are especially the following: daA t§e, 
inf. dantSemo, to feel an agreeable taste after having 
eaten s. th. tasteful; midan etSemi; den t§e, inf. dentse- 
mo, to have clean hands (also tropically used); d§en tse 

. and d§e tSere, inf. dsetSeremo, to become daylight (s. di^., 
d§en); to be clear or become clear (weather), inf. of 
the latter dSeAtsemo; he tse (Ot. hd tew), inf. hetSe 
and hetSemo, to be dean (about); to be pure, holy; 
hie t§e, inf. hietSemo, to have a clean, clear, pure sur- 
face or face (comp. also t€, v. and hie tg, v.); to go 
off with the face, to long for home, pastime; to be 
homesick, inf. hietSere , hietsele» comp. h!e t§d (ani dal^ 
in Ot.) V. th. s. and hie me (ani kye in Ot.) v. th. contr.; 
mli t§e, inf. mlitsemo, to be inwardly ^lean, pure; na 
t§e, inf. natSemo, to have a clear, pure mouth, to speak 
clearly, correctly; no tse, int notSemQ, to have a clean 
surface; §iSi t§e, inf. si§it§emo, to come forth or out 
with the root etc. The active verb answering to tSe, 
to be clean, is tsu, v. to 61eanse; comp. also t§otSe, tile 
and t§g. — The objective cbmbinations of tSe are espe- 
cially the following. 

tSe he, pi. tSere be, inf. hetSemg, hetSeremo> ▼• to pluck 
round about. 


Ue he kp9 — tS«. 301 

tSe he IpS, y. to excuse one's self; lit. to loose the cord 
from one's self. • 

tse mil, V. to pluck out; to take from, - - off. 

tSe na, y. inf. oatSemo, to unseal; to gainsay; to speak 
too much; etSe sane le na, he spoiled the palawer by 
much speaking. 

tse no, y. to pluck from aboye; to deduct; inf. notSemg. 

tSe §i, inf. §itse and §it§emo, to be unruly, mischieyous 
etc. (Comp. d§e si, th. s., which seems better); to shine 
brightly (of the moon). 

t§e» pi- tsere, inf. t§e and tSele, y. to stick into, to 
hook, to fasten by pins or hooks; to stab, etsemi kakla, 
he stabbed me m\h a knife; to lead eachother by the 
arms; — tekle, to bind the underdress of males around; 
see tekle , n. ; — boi , the s. of female underdress , s. 
boi n.; to hang, loiter about, to delay, to be a long 
time ago; etse ihu ye dsei, he was a yery long time 
there; sometimes used as aux. y. to express the ady. 
relation „a long time's f. i. eba etse, he came it is long, 
i. e. he came a long time ago ; comp. also dseke, tseKe, 
tfelf^, dse, y. etc. 

tse he , tse hewo , y. to be long about s. th. , to stick or 
fix about. > 

t3e mli, y. to continue in s. th., to stick or fix into. 

tSe §i, y. inf. silse, to stick down, fix down with a pin; 
to put a spade or digging instrument deep into the 
ground etc., s. tseke si, y. th. s., also technical expres- 
sion: to be fixed (of the roof of a house). 

tse 9 »• sticking; nooking; fastening; stabbing; length of 
time; fr. tse, y. 

tsfe, inf. ts^mQ, y. to call; to giye a name; yatse ot§e 
ke-ba, go call thy father to come! te alseo oten? how 
art thou called? Atsemi ake Anan, they call me Anan, 
i. e. 1 am called Anan; atSeoye! you are called! Comp. 
also dse, y. to scpld. 

t§fe m. k. t§ui nme emli, y. to call one's heart and lay it 
into him, i. e. to comfort him. 

tS6, inf. tsSmo, pi. form ts^rg, to shoot (f. i. branches, 
arrows, s. gal, n. ; comp. tse, y. and tse, y.); to begin 
to burn, kindle; to sting (of bees, needles etc.); to 
deeeiye in bargains etc. to stitch, to mend a hole by 
filling it up by stiches; to sting (used ironically of wine, 
f. i. dd tS^ mina, the wine stinged or tickled my mouth, 
to drink too much, comp. ,/anfled^en'' in Germ.); to shoot 


302 tSe dSo — tSehe. 

or fly like an arrow, to rush; to spin, to twist, lo twine; 
always in the pi. form: tsSri abui, to thread a needle; 
he t§^, y. inf. hets^mo, and hetSS (lit. the body rashes 
upon s. b. stings s. b.; germ. ,,auf einen lo^fa^reti") to 
hate; mihe tSSle, I hate him, = minyele; hie tsS, inf. 
hletsS, to awake (con^p. t§!e hie , y. to awaken); comp. 
also ti and titi, y. 

ts§ d§o, inf. dSotS^mo, y. to begin a dance; comp. Siki 
dso, y. . 

tS6 he, y. to stitch about, etc. 

t§g ladSd, lad§5t§^mo, y. to spit. 

tS6 mi, inf. mit§Smo, v. to play with the „mi" -nut; comp. 
tsS nme, y.; and mi, n. 

tsS mil, inf. mlits^mo, y. to fill up by stitching. 

tsS na, y. anfle^en, to make desire to eat or drink; dS 
tsg miqa; comp. t§S, y. 

tsS Ame. inf. nmetSSmo, y. to play with the kernel of 
the palmnut by giying it a jerk with the fingers; s. ts^ 
mi, y., a yery common game played by young men under 
the shadow-trees of the streets. 

tsS, n. chin; beard about it; = ls6n, which see. 

tse, tsgn, ady. hardly; used of bellyache; mimusu koomi 
tsg, my belly pains or gripes me hardly — ; s, also: dfi, 
adv. th. s. 

tg^e, pi. tsemei, n. father; elder person, especially rela- 
tion; possessor; author; etc. citizen of a town or place, 
f. i. Akropontsemei, citizens or peopte of AkropoA ; etc. 
comp. §§ 21 , 23 — 25. Besides these the pi. form is 
sometimes used = mei, only to indicate a personal 
plural; f. i. tabdnn^o, pi. tabdntSemei (mahomedan) emi- 
grants from the Brasils, Westindies etc. Ck)mp. also 
ata, n.; nye, n., hi n. and agya, th. s. in Ot.; 2^( and 
hy2 in Hebrew. Ad. the same. 

tse (Hanson tsa,^ comp. also dsa, y.) yerbal conj., still; 
though; notwith- standing; ekele f§, tse ewa hdle, he 
told him all, though it was hard for him. Ad. th. s. 
and „if." 

tsebele (t§e be le), yerbal conj. th. s. as the former; still, 
though notwithstanding; tod^, bennod^; l^^o^; obgfeid^; 
g(eict;n>o^( etc. Hanson: tsabele. 

tseb^, n. time of delay; staying time; 

tfiehe, n. place of delay; staying place. 


Mkhi — tSele. 30S 

t^bi, n. father-child; child of one father but of another 
mother, step-brother or sister, ®tiefgef(^»ifiet, respecting 
the mother; comp. nyebi and nyemi, n. 

ts^binu, pi. -bihl, n. step-brother of one father and a dif- 
ferent mother. 

tSebiyO, n. step-sister of one father and a different mother, 

tSebfl, n. respect to the father. 

t§ede, tseden, n. fathers hand, power. 

tSedseft, n. father*s life, character, s. dse, n. 

t§ed§Qmo, n. fathers blessing, 

tsegbe, n. father-murder. 

t§egbelo, ij. fathermurderer. 

tsemlihile, n. fathers kindness. 

tJehedo, n. fathers love. 

tSei, irreg. plur. form of tso, n. tree. 

tseiabai, n. leaves oif trees; fiaub. 

tseiayibii, pi. n. fruit of trees; Obft; comp. yibii, nibii> 
sebii, pi. n. 

ts^ke, inf. tsekemo, v. (corroboration of tse, v. to stick); 
to slick, to stick to; to stab; comp., verbs ending with 
ke, ke, § 27. 

tSeke mli, v. to stick into, stab into. 

tseke si, inf. sitsekemo, to stick down (f. i. with a spade 
or djging instrument into the ground); to stab down; 
= tse §i, V. 

tsekelo» n. a person sticking, stabbing. 

tSekemo, n. sticking, stabbing. 

tSekemo, n. fathers saying, word or command. 

tSeka, n. family or tribe of the father; comp. dSaku, n, 

tSekubii, pi. n. people belonging to it. 

tSekunyo, pi. tSekumei, n. person belonging to the family 
of the father; comp. d§akunyo, pi. -mei, -bii, n. 

tsekwg, pi. -kwemei, n. oncle; comp. nyekwg, n. An 
oncle is especially after the death of the father consi- 
dered as a father. 

tsfikwgbi, n. oncle's child, nephew or niece; ®cf($mifietfinb 
Don Of)ditC^ ©eitc; comp. nyemimeiabi, n. the s., if 
spoken of by a third person. 

tsekwgbinu, pi. -bihl, n. nephew frond oncle's side; comp« 
nyekwgbi, -binu, -biyO, n. 

tsekwgbiyo, pi. -biyei, n. niece from oncle's side. 

tSele, tSere, n. only used in the^ compound hietSele, n. 
homesickness, s. tse, v. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

S04 tSele — tS^Aeni^heU. , 

tSele, tSele, tS^k, pi. forms of t£e, tie and t^, v., »ee 

under tSere etc. 
tSele, n, length, /r. tSe, v. 
tSelo, n. plucker etc. from iSe, v. 

Iselo, n. sticker, stabber; hooker; delayer etc. from tSe, v. 
tSelo, n. caller, from tS^, ?. 
tselo, n. shooter, stitcher, stinger; deceiver; spinner; rusher 

etc. fr. tsg, V. 
tselomo, n. fathers curse. 

tSemSin, pi. -mSidsi, n. fathers town, nation, land; 93atet> 
. fiabt, Saterlanb. 

tSemQ, n. coming off; loosing; plucking; deaging; clean- 
ness; purity; holiness; deduction, fining, punishment for 

money; etc. from t§e, v.; comp. t§eremo the s. of the 

pi. form tsere, v. 
tS^mo, n. calling; call; namegiving; fr. tS^, v. 
tS^mo, n. shooting (but comp. tQtfa); kindling; Stinging; 

stitching ; flying like arrows ; rushing ; spinning, twisting, 

twining, etc. fr. tS6, v. 
tS^OtSdne, n. 'spinning masbine. 
tsSmotSo, pi. -t§ei, n. spindle. 
ts6n, t§eft, n. chin; beard about it; dSe — , inf. tSS^dSe, 

to get a beard about the chin; comp. dahetSoi, nabu- 

hetSoi, n. and kada, n. 
tsefta, pi. -nSmei, n. fathers wife. 
tSSndSeio, n. person getting or haying a beard about the 

tsSndsemo, having or getting a beard about the chin. 
tsen9, pi. -nSmei, n. great-grandmother from fathers side. 
ts§h (Ot. kyen) n. shield, 
tsene, pi. tSenei, n. common drinking-callabash, also used as 

tsMe (tsenke), inf. tsSnemo, v. to infect; to be infected; 

to kindle, to be kindled; anftctfcti, anftetfenb fepn, an* 

gefledt tDcrben; la ets^ne, the fire has kindled s. th.; 

etsehe ye m. k. mli, he was infected by s. b. : to spread 

(of a rumour; f. i. sane tsSne, the matter was known) ; 

to stain, to blot, to spot, to pollute; comp. nyane, benke; 

also: t§g, here, v. etc. 
tS6ile -md m. k., v. to inf. s. b. 
tsSnelo, n. infecting person. 

tS^nemo, n. infection, infecting; kindling; spreading. 
tSSnemohela, n. infecting sickness. 


tSenesd — tSeSla. 305 

t^enesj, n. a larger kind of flatt callabashes; comp. tSene; 
akpaki; to; bentu^; fao; adenkuA; etc. 

tsend, pi. -nii, n. fathers property. 

Ctsere — Ot. kyere, Ga: tsd, v. to show). 

ts^re, inf. t^eremg (perh. an old pi. form of t§e, v., s. tSere) 
T. to strain; = do no, v. 

ts^re DO, inf. notseremo, v. to strain. 

tsere, pi. form of tse, but frequently independly used; inf. 
tseremo, y. to loose; to get loose; to pluck; to rend, 
get ragsed, atade le et§6re, the dress is rent; to get 
clear, open etc. Here is esp. to be observed the com- 
bination d§e t§ere, inf. dset§eremo (irreg. instead of d§e 
tSere) to get davlight. Comp. tSe, v. The redupl. plur. 
fonn is tSeretSerei or tsretsrei , v. to get ragged ; comp. 
tseretserei and tserei. 

tsere (=tsere), inf. tseremo, v. only used, in the phrase: 
dSe tsere, to get daylight; s. t§e and tsere, v. 

tSere, inf. tseremo, pi. form of tse, v. to hook or be 
hooked to gether, etc. s. t§e, v. and tf^tfS, v. 

tSere, fowl -feather, etc. dSe — , v. to produce or get 

tSSrg, inf. ts^rgmo (pi. form of ts5, v. which see) v. to 
shoot, to sting, to rush etc. — abui, inf. abuitSS^imo, 
to thread a needle. Nyonmo tsSrg, y. God drizzles, to 
drizzle; comp. N. tue, fa, fie, ne. Si y. 

tsere, n. cola-nut. 

tseredsg, n. getting feathers. 

tserebo, n. flint (on guns); or: tfrebo, n. 

tSerei, tsrei and 

tSeretSerei, adj. and adv. ragged; raggedly; from tSe, tSer^, y. 
Comp. fefei, adj. th. s. 

tSeremo, n. renting etc. fr. tse, tSere, y. 

tSeremo, n. straining. 

tSeremo, n. hooking together. 

tS^rgmo. n. stinging; drissiing etc. fr. tsS, tSere, n. 

tSeretserekwan, at§eret§. (Ot. akyerekyerekwan, n. lit. show- 
way; forefinger; waymark. 

tSesa, n. father's bed 

tSesane, n. father's palayer. 

tSesegbe, n. father's way; s. gbe, n, 

tSese , n. a large carved wooden vessel to bathe little chil- 
dren in and the like. 

tSeMa, n. fathers house or home. 
ZimmermanD, Akra-Vocab. 20 


306 tSesu — tSI bleAmeli. 

i8e»u, -sabaA, n. father's character, likeness etc. 

t^esuomo, n. father's love, yfiW etc. 

t£e§ikpoDg,.n. fathers land; fatherland. 

tSetSdmo, n. father's teaching. 

t§et$o, n. father's room, house. 

tSewe, n. .father's house, family. 

ti^e^iemo, n. father's word. 

tSewO, n. honour of the father. 

t§T, inf. tslmo, v. to he heavy; et§i tsd, it is too heavy; 

roli tSl, V. to be of heavy contents; hlnmeii ISl, v. to 

have heavy eyes, to be sleepy. 
tSi, inf. t§imo, pi. tsire, imprt. t§i, redupl. t§it§i, pi. t§ire- 

t§ire, V. to move; to push; to remove; etc. 
tsi he, inf. hetSimo, v. to move one's self; jtcfc bewegen; 

mitM mihe, I move, icb betDefle mi(^; to move about; to 

live, s. he kft, hie kfi, hi Si, v. 
tSie hie, v. to push in the face; to move ahead, on, on- 
t§i hlegbe, n. to move forward, on, onward. 
t£i mli, inf. mlitSimo, v. to stir in the ashes; t§i kane m% 

make the light up! 
t8i na, v. to push one's mouth, to give one a push at 

his chin. 
tSi nine, v. to move the hand,* to be quick. 
t§i no, V. to move on. 

t§i se, pi. t§ire se, v. to push behind, after, f. i. a car- 
riage; nyetsirea se, push (youj! inf. setSimg. 
t§i Si, -§i§i, V. to move down, 
tsi yi se, pi. tsire yi se, inf. yisetsimo, yisetSiremo, to 

push one back or forward; to accelerate; to urge on etc. 
tsi, n. movement, move; push; removal etc. fr. tSi, v.; 

s. tsimo, n. 
tsi, inf. tSl and inf. pi. tslmo, pi. snbj. and obj. tSlmo, 

imperat. sing, tsi, v. to close, to fill up; to stop; to 

be stopped up. 
tSi da, -dan, v. to stop one's mouth. 
tSl gbe, inf. gbetSl, gbetslmg, v. to dose or stop a way; 

to close up; to disallow; s. gbe, n. way; and hS gbe; 

dSie gbe, v. 
tsi he, inf. hetSl hetSImo, T. to close or stop up roaod 

tsi hie, inf. hietSl, hietSlmQ, v. to blindfold; to bind up 

one's eyes or face. 
t§l hlenmeii, v. th. s. 


t§I mli — t§le hie. 307 

tSt fell, inf. mlitst, mlit§Tmo, v.; to close up; lo close 
inside; to stop inwardly up. 

tM na, inf. nat§I nat§!mo, t. to stop the mouth, egress, 
ingress, opening; to hinder = t§l gb^; to disallow; lo 
keep back, retain; to imprison; atSl amena or atSimg 
amena, they were retained, imprisoned. 

IS! no, inf. not§l notSlmo, v. to close up, to cover up; to 
shut the surface. 

t§l §e, inf. sets! setslmo, v. to close behind; to conceal 
one's back ; esp. used when the doing or way of a per- 
son shall be concealed by an other; f. i. tsi mise, t§lmo 
mise, conceal my absence, keep me or my doing etc. 
in secret („t>erfd)rrei9en, t>er^cim(id>eu"). 

tS! §i§i, inf. sisil§! §i§il§imo , v. to conceal something down. 

tsi-tS, inf. taisl, V. (a peculiar combination), to mention, 
etsl mitd, he mentioned me; etsi tdekemi,y. he mentioned 
it to me. 

tSi, n. a native sword of their own manufacture, especially 
sword of honour for kings, generals etc. generally of 
the form of a bill-hook , richly ornamented with gold etc. 
Comp. klante, dukpei, kakla etc. perh. from t§i, to push. 

ts!, n. closing up, stopping, hindering; s. tslmo, n. th. s. 
fr. t§l, V. pi. tglmo. 

tSi^ (Ot. kyi^), inf. tsiamo, v. to be crooked, bent etc. 
Comp. kodd, v., do, v.; logo, v. etc. 

tSi^lo, n. crooked person. 

tSiamo, n. crookedness. 

tSIa , inf. tsiamo , v. to walk straightly, affectedly, in mea- 
sured steps; s. tOa, v. th. s. 

t§lalo, n. person walking affectedly. 

tsiamo, n. affected walk, march. 

tsiA = tsaka! interj. of mockery: tush! pah! poh! 

tSi^, n. a tittle, especially used in Address or before na- 
mes = sir, perh. = tse, ata (Ot. agya) father (engl. 
Sire); milee, tsi^! I don't know, Sir! TSie Anum, Mr. 

tSie! interj. eh! oh! comp. ao! hao! 

tsie, inf. tslemo, a kind of active form of the neuter verb 
tS§ (comp dse and dsie; tse and tsu; gbo and gbe, etc. 
and the Hebr. Kal and Hiphil); to awaken, to arouse; 

tSle hie, inf. hietsiemo, v. the same; etSlemi and etSle 
mihle, he awakened me; comp. hie tS^, v.; mihle tS5, 
1 awoke. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

308 tStelo — tSincse. 

tSlelQ, 0. awakener, arouser. 

tslemo, n. a>vakeiiing, arousing; raising. 

t§ikit§ak9, = t§^katsSka, basabasa, bisibasd, adv. disorderly ; 

t§ukut§aka, th. s. 
t§ikit§iki, adj. and adv. = bitibiti, pitipiti, close; closely. 
tSile, V. pi. of tSi, 8. tsire. 
tSile, n. a large kind of sea-fish, cought in August and 

September in great numbers on the sandbank not far 

from the gold-coast; Ot. sire. 
tSilo, n. mover, pusher, remover, fr. tsi, v. 
tgilo, n. stopper, stayer, retainer, fr. tsl, v. 
tSimbO, = tsinmo, adj. and adv. heavy; -ly. 
tgimo. n. heaviness; gravity, fr. Isl, v. Comp. esp. ex- 
pressions as: d§at§u ke tslmQ, heavy load; noko ke tSimg, 

s. th. heavy. 
t§imo and tsl, n. movement, 
tsl and 
tSlmQ, n. stopping, staying; retaining, concealing; hinder- 

ancQ etc. fr. tsl, v. pi. t§lmo. 
tSImgnd, pi. -nii, n. some thing hindering, hinderance, 

tSine, n. innermost part of the nose; taste; guttur (CSaumen) , 

ba — , V. to be tasteful; dse — , v. to be disgusting; 

edse mit§ine tsd, it is too much disgusting to me; eba 

mitsine, I have a desire after it, it is tastful to me; 

t§ine no lota, --futa, v. to have cardialgy, heartburning; 

bad aWajjcnbrennen, ^etibrcnnen ^abeii. 
tsine, inf. tsinemo, v. to sneeze; to cleanse the nose (see 

also fg gugo, v.). 
tSineba, n. desire; tastefuIne8S5 fr. ba tSine, v.; comp. di 

8^, V. etc. 
tSinebano , pi. - nii, n. something desirable, tasteful. 
tSined§e, n. abhorrence; disgust; fr. d§e t§ine, v. comp. 

nyane, v. 
tsinedsend, pi. -nii, n. something disgusting. 
tSinemo, n. sneezing. 
tSinena, adv. according to taste. 
tSinenofutahiQ and 

tsinenolotamg , n. heartburning; cardialgy; SDtagenbtenneit, 
aKagcuiDcb, 4^ted)rcij; fr. tSine no futa m. k. v., and tSine 

no lota m. k. v. 
tSinesane, n. matter of taste. 
tSinese, n. place beneath the gutter. 


tSiAmO — t^o. 309 

tSiAmo (comp. tsl, v, to be heavy; 6m5, v. to weigh), adj. 
and adv. heavy, clumsy; heavily, clumsily (sometimes 
= tsimbd); gbekS le hk efe t§inmO, the child (she bears) 
makes her heavy or to move clumsily; fe — , v. to be 
heavy, clumsy. 

tsinmdfemo, n. heaviness, clumsiness. 

tsmt§^, n. bunch (f. i. of keys); comp. Saw, sao. 

tsfra, V. s. t§a, v. pi. tSra; v. 

tsTre, inf. tSiremo, pi. form of tsi, to move, to*^push; it 
depends on the pi. numb, of subj. and obj., but is not 
very exactly observed; tsire he, t§ire hie, t§ire mli, -na, 
ng, ^se etc. pi. forms of tsi he, t§i hie etc. a peculiar 
expression is: hie tsire m. k., inf. hiet§iremo, v. to re- 
collect one's self; mihie tsiremi, 1 recollected myself, I 
reassured myself; but it may be that it comes from t§e, 
V. = hIelsSremo, n. 

tSire, n. = tsile, a sea-fish; 01. sire. 

tsirelOj n. pusher, mover (of many things or persons). 

t§iremQ, n. moving, movement; pushing (of many things 
or persons). 

tSita, double v., s. t§t-ta, doub. v. 

tsitso, n. handle of a sword , s. tsi , n. 

t§o, V. inf. tso, to bum, to flame, to blaze; to shine 
(of fire, light-if burning, the sun; but not of the moon, 
stars, gold etc., comp. kpe, v.); when the people burn 
their cut bush, they cry: Olso! olso! comp. also: ol§o- 
krikri, n. Tso hie, v. to shine into the face; - he, 
-hewQ, V. to shine about; -mli, v. to shine in, --into 

t§0, n. flaming, blazing; flame, blaze, shine; lightening, 
enlightening; illumination. 

tSo la, inf lat§0, v. to be very sharp; bad, wicked; to 
be very bold. 

t§o no, inf. nQtSO, v. to shine upon; to illuminate, to 

tSo, inf. t§0, V. to deny; to assure the contrary 
(perhaps one word with the former, comp. the german 
„](bc\nc\\", greek: <faiveiv Bnd ^aivsCx^ai); t§0 ot§o. lo? 
doest thou really deny it; et§o, ake eba, he deni d that 
he came (^though he came); etSo ake ebaa, he denied 
that he d.A not come (though it was true). 

tSO, n. denying; denial. 

tSol t§ow! inter, of displeasure, if seeing or hearing some 
thing wrong; oh! shone! 


310 tSo — tS«. 

tSo, pi. tSei (Oi. dua), n. tree, plant, stjck, staff; wedd; 
stock; scaffold (©etufle; ©erippe); stem, stalk; pole, 
bar; handle ; etc. etc. Comp. all the names of 4rees9 
as: DSanotso, flat§o, t^tso etc. and gbomo-tSo, body; 
yi-t§o, head; sa4§o, bedstead; dfeitso, grass-stalk, able- 
t§o; corn-ear; koi-tso, handle of a hoe; adeda-t§o, -of 
a billhook; odum-t§o, odum-wood; tet§o, stone -wood 
etc. t§o-adeka, wooden box; dadeadeka, iron box etc.; 
yi m. k. t§o, tfa m. k. tso, to strike s. b. with a stick; 
about ya t§o no, see tsono, n. to tso fd si, v. to (cut 
and) fell a tree ; kwo — , v. to assend or climb a tree 
etc. etc. Comp. also lai, n. Ad. t§o, pi. tsihi, n. th.s. 

tso no, tsono, n. lit upon the tree; the common closet 
of towns made of sticks; ya — , v. to go to the closet; 
comp. ko na, tiafi etc. 

tsO, adv. very (wet), full, of water = boboll; mihe fo tsO, 
1 am wet all about (comp. „p[at^6)nai" in Germ.). 

{SQ, inf. tso and tsole» v. to halt; to limb; to be lame; 
comp. a* soke, tsulso; akpake; etc. 

tso, n. halting, limbing; lameness; tsole, th. s. 

tsO, adv. very (fat); ewo fo t§0» it is exceedingly fat. 

tso, inf- 1§0, V. to dip; to dive; to put into liquid; comp. 
ml, mu, v.; to taste fluit by taking a little out (comp. 
dsie, v.). Perhaps one word with tso, to halt. 

tso mli, inf. mlitsO, v. to dip into; to immerse. 

tso si and 

tso si§i, V. to dip down, to the bottom. 

tso, Q* dipping, diving, baptizing. 

tsd, inf. t§o nnd t§5mo (and tsole), pi. tsdmo, redupl. 
tsotsd, t§dtsdmo, v. (Ot. dan; kyer^); to twist, = tsd- 
mo, v.; turn; turn through, pass through; to change 
(comp. tsake), to become; Ot. dan); to show; to leach; 
to explain; d^adse n. k. tsd moko, to show or explain 
s. th. to s. b. (Ot. ky6re) ; to turn or change with bad 
intention, to entrap, ensnare (s. tsdne, n.); to try, to 
tempt; s. tsd na; hie tsd, inf. hletsdmo (Ot. ani gyina), 
V. to have the face turned (away?), to want pastime, 
to be homesick = hie t§e, v.; he tsd, v. to change bo- 
dily; yiA t§d, V. to have the thoughts turned (s. yi, yin), 
to turn the opinion; - to be somewhat mad; yitso tSd, 
th. s. ; about musun tsd , musun tsd m. k. , mli t§d etc. 
s. musu, mli, n. etc. (]omp. the verbs tso, tso, dso, 
d§0, d§d and roots with the consonants ds and tS, which 


t§d dan — tSoflL 311 

seem to have altogether some coimnon signification and 
to be related. 

tSd dan, v. to turn one's mouth. 

ts5 den, y. to turn one's hand. 

t§d he, inf. het§dnio» v. to turn; to turn one's self; = kQ 
se; to change one's self (fic(? befe(>rcn); to be con- 
verted; — to ease one's self, = wa nane, v. 

tSd m. k. mil, inf. mlitSd, mlit§dmo, V. to hold one fast 
(comp. to t>vist); stronger than mo mli, v.; to show the 
inside of s. b. 

t§d mli, inf. mli'&dmo, v. to turn or pass through; mitgd 
md le mli, 1 passed through the town;^ edse Abrotdire 
kg-t§d Gua ke-ba bie, he came hither from Europe 
through Cape Coast; to operate. 

tsd musu, inf. musunt§dmg, y. to operate the belly, 

t§d na, inf. natsS,.y. to tempt « try (one's mouth); to catch 
one in speaking; mitsd ena, 1 tempted, provoked him; 
to change one's speaking, to be double-tongued, deceit- 
ful; e\M6 ena, he is double-tongued; etc. to show the 
price of s. th.; to price. 

tso m. k. nine no, inf. ninenotsdmo, v. to turn over one's 
hand, to use s. b., mit§o mit§e nine ng mife ene, 1 did 
this through my father (comp. nam obi so in Otyi). 

tsd no, inf. notsdmQ^ v. to turn, walk, stumble over; to 
• overleap; to go round (of old kejs or locks, spoiled); 
to turn over one's self (Ot. fd so) , if something done 
or spoken returns to the person, so that he is caught 
by it; etsd mino, 1 am brought to silence by it; comp. 
la, v.; to get master over, to prevail = ye no, ta no, v. 

t§d se, inf. set^dmo, v. to turn back, v. a. and n. 

t§d §i, inf. sitsOmo, to turn down. 

t§d §i§i, inf. §isit§dmo, v. to show the meaning; to inter- 
pret; to explain; to state the reason; s. ^iSi, n. and 
comp. d§ie na, wie na, v. 

tSd, adv. too; much, too much = tatu, naakpa etc. efa 
ti^o, it is too much; etc. 

t§5 (and natsd), n. temptation; trap, snare (comp. tSdne). 

t§oba, n. leaf of a tree. 

t§obi , n. lit. wooden child ; doll ; generally made of wood 
and dressed according to native fashion. 

tSoboti^obo, adj. and adv. hanging about; disorderly. 

tSofa, n. lit. root of a tree, plant etc. (comp. engl. -wort, 
germ, -nourj); medicine; poison; any strong drug; pow- 


m tSofAa — tSdle. 

der of any kind, but especially gun -powder, s. tQtSofS, 
tutSufd, n. ; spices, incense etc. tSof^ ke nma, lit. medi- 
cine with sweet odour, sweet spices, incense; nu — , y. 
to take medicine, poison etc. hd — , y. to give medicine;, 
wo ra. k. na — , y. to poison s. b. ; wyie — , y. to grind 
medicine; tSa — , y. to dig medicine (roots); etc. ISofS 
t§d m. k., -tSd m. k. mli, medicine operates s. b. etc. 
Sometimes the word is shortened into tSufd. 

ti§o£dba, n. medical leaf or plant. 

t^ofafu, n. snuffing of medicine. 

tSof^hamo, n. prescription or giving of medicine. 

Uofdhemo, n. taking or buying of medicine. 

tSofihdlQ, n. seller of medicine. 

tSofdhdmo, n. sale of medicine. 

tSofal6, n. knowledge of medicine. 

t^of^nd, pi, -nii, n. some thing medical. 

tSofdnumo, n. taking of medicine. 

tSof^nulQ, n. taker of medicine. 

tiofasane, n. medical palaver. 

t§ofat§&, n. digging of medicine. 

t§ofat§e, pi. -tSemei, n. possessor of medicine; docter, 
physician; comp. tsalg and mensre, n.; apothekary. 

tSofatSenyomo, n. doctor's fee. 

t§ofdt§o, n. medical tree, - wood. 

Uofliwyiemo , n. grinding of medicine. 

tSofSiwO, n. poisoning; s. sQ, v. 

tSofdwolo, n. poisoner, s. sQIq, n. 

tSofO, n. cutting of wood; treecutting; s. tSotomg, n. 

tSofolg, n. treecutter, woodcutter; woodman. 

t^ogbamo, n. splitting of wood (^oljtpalten) ; chapping of 
wood; wood-sawing. 

tSogbalo, n. wood-cleaver; -chapper; sawer. 

t§ogbIn, pi. -gb!d§i, n. dry wood; s. egblA, adj. 

tSohetoto, n. bark of a tree. 

t§okpoti, cudgel; club. 

TSokUy pr. n. of males. 

t§6ku, n. stock of a tree remaining in the ground after 
felling; a block of a tree; a rough kind of seats made 
of a block. 

tSokuku, th s. seldom used; s. ku, kuku, adj. and n. 

tSole, inf. tSolemo, v. to put or rest the head on someth., 
f. i. a pillow ; to lake s. th. for a pillow ; Ot. sum , v. 

t§ole» n. halting; lameness fi*. i^Q, v. 

tSOlCi n. temptation, s* tSd, y. 


tSQlemo, n. resting the head on s. th., i»llowing* 

t§olif n. buttock; comp. dukui, th. s. 

tSolo, n. (europ. word?) tail-coat. 

tsolo, n. shiner, enlightener, illuminator; denier, fr. tSo, y. 

tsolo, n. dipper, immercer; lame person (s. at^gke). 

t^olo, n. shower; teacher; tempter, provoker; a person 

turning etc. fr. t§d, y. 
tSomd, n. setting or erection of a tree, post, wooden mark; 

planting of a tree, s. tSoteomo, n. 
t^omdlo, n. planter of a tree. 
t§dmQ, n. turning; twisting; showing; show; teaching; 

doctrine; tempting, temptation etc. fr. t§d, v. 
tSdmg, inf. tsdmo, v. to twist, to turn repeatedly; pi. form 

of t§6, y. ; tSdmol§dmO, redupl. of it. 
tSonane, pi. -nSidgi, n. foot of a tree, 
tsdne , n. a trap, snare (fr. tso, to entrap ; and 'de, 'ne = 

nd, thing; comp. nane, nande; nine, ninde, kane etc.); 

machine of any kind and for any purpose ; press, engine, 

artful instrument fr. t§5, v. to turn; etc. t§6 — , inf. 

tsdnet^o, to set a trap; to prepare or use a machinery 

for any purpose; du — , inf. tsdnedD, to fall into a trap, 

snare etc. to be caught.' 
tSdnemlinii, pi. n. parts of a machine. 
tlonedO, n. falling into a trap fr. du tSdne, y. ^ 

tgdnetso, n. entrapping, ensnaring; setting of a trap; setting 

up or preparation of a machine; fr. tsd t§dne, y. 
tUdnetSdlg, n. traper; tempter; machinist, engineer. 
tSonine, pi. -nidsi, n. branch of a tree, plant etc.; s. 

nine, n. 
tsonmon, pi. -inmddSi, n. green wood; s. enmdA, adj. 
tsono, n. (s.tso ng and t§o, n.) necessary, priyy; s. also 

kona, n. 
tSongyibii = tSeiayibii, pL n. fruit of trees. 
tSono, pi. -nii, n. wooden yessel, wooden thing, s. nd> n. 
t§oiit§oht§o]^, ady. rashly; efft — , to open — ; esp. used 

of the manner of walking. 
tSoro, y. inf. tSoromg; to hang; — Si, y. inf. SitSoromg, 

to hang down; s. tsot§5ro, y. 
tSorotSorO, adv. = t§ots6rot§ol§6r(5, ady. and watery, thin 

= tsretsre. 
tSosatso, pi. -tsei, n. wooden bedstead. 
tSosg, n. hind- or backpart of a tree; behind a tree. 
Ugse, inf. t§gsemg« y. to raise or bring up a child; comp.^ 

le, v.; to educate. 


814 UoielO — tiretXre. 

tSoselo, n. raiser of a cfaiM; nurse; edocirtor; pedng^gve. 

UoseniQ, n. raising of (Mdren; nursing; education; peda- 

tSo§i§i, n. place under a tree. 

ti§o§i§if&, n. root of a tree. 

tSoteolOf n. planter of trees, plants etc. 

tSoteomo, n. planting of trees, etc. fr. teo tSo^ v. 

t§otffi, B. stroke with a stick. 

tSotfalQ, n. (stickmaster, @tO(fme(f}cr?) an officer under the 
danish government. 

tSotomo, n. felling of a tree = tSofO, n. 

t^otolQ, n. woodcutter; woodman. 

t^QtSe, inf. tsoti^emo, to tweak; to {^neh; to pick, to make 
a surface disorderly by picking; kafe i^uta mdnySindnyd 
take boni wo tSotSeg fufui hie, don't make the orange 

^ disorderly (by peeliog) as a fowl uses to pick the face 
of a pudding! comp. koli, kole, ko; tSe (to pluck, of 
which tggtSe seems to be a redupl. = tietse). 

tSotselo, n. picker; tweaker. 

tSotSemo, n. picking; tweaking. 

T^otSO, pr. n. of females; s. Tete, pr. n. 

tSotso, redupl. of tsQ, to halt, s. t§ut§o> v. 

tsdro, inf. t§drpmo, mi 

t§ot§dro, inf. tsot§5romo, v. to hang = sen; — U, inf. 
Mt§ots5romo, to hang down. 

tSotsdromo, n. hanging = senmo. 

tSotsdrotSotsdrO, acL hanging full; gef^atigt )ooU (of trees 
bearing), f. i. wo — , t. to bear fruit' in dusters, in 
abundance; s. wodsowod§0 and kplitsO, adv. th. s. 

tsQtsQtso, pi. -tsei, n. a tree the bitter root of it is used 
for medicine. 

t§ot§5t§o, adj. and adv. tough; -ly; slimy; slimily. 

t§Qt§ot§o, adv. fatly, full of fat = tsO, adv. 

ihou\ tsow! = t§0! int. of displeasure; oh! shame! 

t§owo, n. bearing of a tree. 

tsoyibii, pi. n. = Iseiayibii, tSonoyibii, fruit of trees, 

tSoyiten, n. top of a tree. 

tSra, pi. V. of t§a, v. s. tsSra, to mend np holes; to jom etc. 
s. tSa, V. 

tSre, v.; s. tSfire. 

tSre, V. 8. tsSre and tSgre. 

tgrfii, ai^ 

tSreisrei, adj. rent, ragged; s. tg«rei and tSSretSSrei, a^j. 

UretSre, adj. thin, watery, = trolo, tsrotSeo, Alente. 


tSrelm -^ tgfi. Sl$ 


tSrebo = tSSr^bOy n. flint of a g\m. 

tSrotsro = tsretSre, adj. 

t§ro, tsotsro, and 

tsro Si, and tsotgro §i, v. s. tsdro imd tSotS^ro, v. to 
hang etc. 

'tSru, etSru, adv. red; s. tsuru. 

tsu, inf. tsa» tSale, v. to redden, to ripen (of fruits be- 
coming red or yellow -red, but also applied^ to other 
fruits ; comp. gbl (of corn) ; sa, v. etc, ; to be red, red- 
dish, of a reddish brown or yeHow colour^ also used of 
reddish-coloured natives, mulattoes (s. motsuru, n. and 
etsuru, 'tsuru, adv.) ; comp. abonua, afaseo, n. and ye> v., 
di, V, Aoli, V. 

tsQ, n. reddening, ripening, riping; ripeness, redness; adv. 
very red = fa. 

tsu, inf. tsQmo, v. to <;leanse (causative of the neuter v, 
tse, to be clean), to sanctify, to purify, of gold, silver, 
also men, if religiously purified; comp. dsu, v. to wash; 
t§umQ, V. to wipe etc. 

tsu, inf. t§Qmo, v. to send (a person, comp. mdidse, v.), 
to work, to labour (but always wanting an object, see 
tsu nii, v.); the word is especially used in the more 
extensive sense of the business, trade, occupation etc. 
of a person, f. i. meni otsuQ? or: meni dsi oniitsumg? 
MihOg sikpon; miye srehki etc. What is thy business? 
I till the ground; 1 am a carpenter etc. Comp. fe, v. 
and *]N^ in Hebr., and the prov.: „Noni otsuQ le, no 
non gbeQO,'' what thou labourest even that kills thee, 
i. e. by thy business or trade thou wilt die. In the 
signification: „to send'' it has the simple object follow- 
ing; f. i. mitstile Gd, 1 sent him (to) Akra etc. Adn. 
tso, V. 

tSCi he nii, inf. heniitsumo, v.* to work about or for s, th., 
to labour for; to make use of = ye he niilsum;), v. 

tsu mli nii, v. to work in s. th. 

t§Q nii, inf. niitSumQ, nitsumo, v. lit. to work things, to 
labour things; the object being added in want of an 
other (comp. tfa m. k. nd or tfia m. k. nii, v. and nd, 
pi. nii, n); tsu noko, inf. noko tsumQ, v. th. s. with 
the object in the sing, number. 

tStia, t§uere, tsuetsu^ etc. formerly written instead of tfa, 
tfere, tfetfe etc. which see. 

tsu, n. room, house, if containing only one room, f. i. 
sfilemQtSu, chapel (comp. sla, n. and we, n.); place in- 


316 tSobe — t8ul. 

closed by'walls or fences to keep cattle etc.; stable; 
sty, keonel etc., comp. okpo^QtSu, horse-stable; tSinaia- 
t§u cow -stable; toiatsu, sheep- or goat -stable or yard; 
wQt§0| fowl -house etc.; room closed up in particular, 
prison, jail, goal; comp. asa, pia, fiase; md or mon, 
saA etc.; tSun = t§u mil, inside of the room, inside 
(s. agbo na, kpo no); ba t§uA, v. to come into the room, 
to come inside; kQ t§u, y. to* break a house down; fnk 
t§u, inf. tsumS, t§um2imQ, y. and tfa tsu, inf. tSutfd, v. 
to build (a house); sa t§u or t§un, to outfit a house, 
room; to t§uA, y. to lodge in a room; wo t§u, inf. tso- 
wO, Y. to thatch; wo t§un; inf. t§uAwO, y. to put in 
prison; wo t§un, y. to sleep inside, in a room; yatsun, 
to go inside etc. 

tSabe, n. time of ripening of fruits; s. t§u, y. 

tSublamg, n. binding up the lattice-work of a room or thatch 
(building expression). 

tSufH, n. = t§ofd, which see with its compounds. 

tsuhenii, pi. n.. building material; furniture of a room; tSuA- 
nii, n. th. s. 

tSui (= rooms?), n. heart in the widest sence of the 
word; tSdin," pi. tSuiiadi, n. inside of the heart; the word 
t§ui and tsuin or tSuiian is used Mke he, hie, musu, yi, 
yil§o, as grammat. subj. or obj. of Ycrbs express moYe- 
ments of soul and spirit, as well as some bodily com- 
plaints; the most common expressions of this kind are 
the following: tsui fd, y. inf. tsuifd, lit. the heart comes 
forth' or out (s. fd, y. and t§ui nyd si, y.)^ to be cast 
down, hopeless, afraid, frightened; to dispair (Germ. 
,M^ ^^K entfaflt ibm", flopft etc ); tsui he dso m. k.. 
inf. t§uihed§ole, to have inward peace, to be at peace 
(comp. he dsOf y. toin dso, y. hie d§o» y.); tsui hao 
ro. k., inf. tSuihaomo, y. to be passionate; t§ui nyo §1, 
inf. t§uisiny5, y. (lit. the heart sinks down, gets quiet); 
to be of good cheer, comfort; to be comforted, quiet; 
etc. t§ui sa, inf. t§uisale , to haYC a fit heart, to be bold, 
braYc; hearty (,/bc^erjt"); tsui sQ, inf. tsuisu, y. to be 
out of breath; to gap for breath; t§ui §§, y. inf. t§ui§d, 
to feel heartburning; to yearn, stronger than „ musu A 
t§d, Y.*"; t§ui §i, inf. tsuiSimo, y. to have heartbeating; 
tSui tfa, Y. inf. tsuitfa, th. s. and to be afraid, frighte- 
ned etc. As gram. obj. t§ui is esp. used in the foil, 
phrases: to t§ui si, inf. tsuisitO,'Y., and fime t§ui Si, 
inf, tSuiSi^m^, y. to have patience, to be patient, f. i. 


tSuido — tSuitSakelo. 317 

Ame otSui Si ohfitni! have patience with me! — na tSni, 
inf. tSuinamo, v. to be courageous; to lake courage; na 
t§ui! take courage, take a heart! fa§' ein {)et}; ha tSui, 
inf. tSuihdmo, v. to give a heart, to encourage etc.; tSake 
tSui, inf. tSuitSakemo, v. to change the heart, to repent 
(fiUTavoHv) etc. comp. bo in Ot. and yU dfeAmo etc. in 
G5; etc. etc. 

tSuidg, tSuiAdQ, n. grief of heart. 

tSuifS, n. frightening; hopelessness; fear; despair, fr. tSui 
fa, V. 

tSuifalg, n. frightened, hopeless, despairing person. 

tguifa^ane, n. a frightful, fearful, desperate matter, news etc. 

tSuihalo, n. encourager, fr. ha t§ui, v. 

tSuihamg, n. encouraging. 

tSuihaolo, n. passionate person. 

tsuihaomo, n. heart-trouble; passion; fr. tSui hao, v. 

tsuihef'§ole, n. peace of heart; comp. hedM6» hIedSole, 
toittdSoIe; fr. ISui he dSo, v. 

t§uin, = t§ui mil, inside of heart; pi. tSuiiaA. 

tSuina, adv. heartily. 

tSuinamg, n. courage (^CT}6aftigfeil), fr. na tSui, y. 

t§uinalo, n. courageous person. 

t§uint§akelo, = t§uit§akelo, n. repenting person. 

t§uint§akemo, = t§uit§akemQ, n. repentance. 

tSuisale, n. boldness, bravoury; = tSuinamo, n. (^etjl^af^ 
ti(^feit, Sebftj^tbeit) fr. tsui sa, v. 

tSuisalo, n. bold person. 

t^uisQ, n. want of breath; gaping for breath; suffocation, 
fn tsui su, V. 

t§ui§a, n. heartburning, utmost yearning; comp. musuft- 
t§d, n. 

tSuiSimo, n. beating of the heart; pulsation, fr. t§ui si, v. 

tSuisinme, n. fr. nme t§ui si, v., and 

tSuiSitO, n. fr. to t§ui §1, v. patience; longsuffering; for- 

tSuiSnmelOy n. and 

tSuiSifolQ, n. longsuffering, patient, forbearing person. 

t$ui§iny5, n. quietness, comfort; cheerfulness (contrary of 
tSuifa, n.), fr. nme tSui §i, v. 

tSuiSinydlo, n. quiet, comforted, cheerful person. 

tSuitfa, n. heartbeating = tsuiSimo, fear, apprehension, fr.. 
t§ui tfa, V. 

tSuilSakelo, n. repenting person, fir. tSake tSui» y. 


S18 tSuitSakemo — tSQiosaDe. 

tSaitSakemOy n. change of. the heart, repentance; futsrccvoux; 
= dfeAmotSakemQ, d§^nt§akemo, n. 

tSuiwale, n. hardness of heart, fr. t§ui wa, y. 

tSuiwalQ, n. person of a hard heart. 

tSniwadSelo, n. person hardening his heart, fr. ivadSe tSul, v. 

tSuiwadSemo, n. hardening of the heart. 

t§uiwO, n. rest, recreation. 

tsuiwolo, n. person resting or recreating himself. 

tSmyeli, n. trouble, grief; hearteating; fr. tsui ye, v. and 
,ye tsui, v. 

tSuiyelo, tsuiyelilo, n. a person .grieved or grieying. 

I§ukat§uka = tsikat§ika, t§akat§aka, sakasaka, etc. ady. dis- 
orderly, in a hubbub. 

tSuko, inf. tsukomo, y. to roast or dry on life -coals, to 
smoke, as it is done ^ith meat, fish etc. for preserva- 
tion; comp. §i, §9; be, ho; ka; wo lasu mli, v. 

tSukomo, n. roasting on life-coals. 

tSukamo, tsukuomo, n. house-breaking; breaking down of 
a house. 

tSukutSuku, adj. and ady. „in a buzzle*'; busy; busily; full 
of people, lively etc.; fe — , v. to be in a buzzle, 

tSukutsukufemg , n. buzzle. 

tSulo, n. not used; comp. tsuru; fr. tsu, v. 

t§Qlo, n. cleanser,, purifier; sanctifier; fr. t§Q, v. 

t§&lo, pi. tsOloi, n. sender (comp. t§u,y.); worker, labourer, 
but only used in compounds, s. niitgulg,' n. Comp. tSglo, 
Ad. V. 

tSDlg, tsuld, tsuld, pi. tsudsi, n. servant in the most 
extensive sence; slave (a more common and less ofifensive 
expression as nydn; comp. abofra, akoa and nya, n. in 
Otyi); subject; comp. Ijy mi iovkog. See also: wenU, 
weyo; webii; bi; suolo; awoba; etc. Ad. tsolQ and tsd- 
lo, n. 

tsCilobi, n. child of a servant. 

tSulobe, n. time of a servant, 

tsulodsen, n. servants-life, — character. 

tS&logbena, n. duty, part of a servant. 

tSulohegbe, n. allowance, right pf a servant. 

tSulond, pi. -nil, n. servants part etc. 

tSuloniitlumo, n. servants business. 

HSOIquQ, pi. tsudsih!, n. male-servant. 

tSulosane, n, servants cause, matter, palaver. 


tStllotSn — tSntSiinS. 319 

tsdlotso, ii« room of a servant 

tsulowe, n. house and home of a servant. 

tSuloyo, pi. tSudM^ei, n. female-servant. 

tsulu, pi. tsudsi, adv. s. tsuni, adj. 

tsumS, tsumdmo, n. house-building; fr. mS tsu^ v. 

tsumalo, n. housebuilder, = tSutfalo, n. 

tsQmo, n. cleansing; purification; sanctification, fr. t§(l, v. 

wiping, rubbing, drying, fr. tsQmo, v. 
tsumo, inf. t.sumo, v. to wipe, to cleanse by rubbing; to 

dry by rubbing. Comp. sa; kpla he, v. etc. 
tSumo he, -hie, -mli, -no, -se etc. to wipe outside, the 

face, inside etc. 
tSumo, n. sending; business, labour, work, fr. tsO, v. 
tsun, n. = tsu mli, inside of the room; adv. inside, 
tsunba, tsunbotemo , tsunya, n. entering of a room; coming 

or going inside. 
tSuftmg, n. plastering of a room, fr. md tSu mli, v, 
tiSano, n. cover of a room, s. tsuyiten, n. 
tSunwO, n. putting in prison; imprisoning, 
tsuiisalo. tsusalo, n. outfitter of a room, 
tsunsamo, tsusamo, n. outfitting of a room, 
tsunye, n (lit. housemother); a small lizard living in rooms, 
'tsuru, etsuru, pi. tsudsi, adj. red, ripe; brown-red; yellow- 
red etc.; fr. tsu, v. motsuru, a red person. 
t8use, n. place behind the house or room; = adv. aside; 

menstruation = gbese; ya -, v. to have the — . 
tsuseyd, n. menstruation = gbeseyS. 
tsusamo, tguhsamo, n. white-washing of a room, 
tsutfa, n. housebuilding = tsumS, n. 
tsutfalo, n. builder; comp. gbogbotfalo, n. 
tsntso, inf. tsutsomo, v. to halt because of disability to 

tread or stand down; shortened reduplication of t§o, v. 
tSutsglo, n. halting, lame person; comp. tsglQ, at§ol^e, 

akpake, osifo, obubuafo, n. etc. 
tsutsomo, n. halting. 
t£ut§u, n. (but out of use) = sisi, beginning; adv. first, 

at first, in the beginning; = klenkleA, adv. 
tStttsu klenklen, adv. th. s. as t§utSu, only stronger, quite 

in the beginning, 
tsutsubii, pi. n. the first people; comp. sebii, n. etc. 
tSutsumo, pi. -mei, n. the first person, 
tsuntsumo, n. wiping of a room. 
tSulsun(^, pi. -nii, n. the first thing. 


320 tSutSusane — tuamonS. 

tSutSusane, pi. -sadSi, n^ first matter, first cause, first pa- 

tSuwO, n. thatching of a house, fr. wo tSu, y. 
tSuwolo, n. thatcher. 
tSuyitcA, n. housetop, flat or otherwise. 
tSuyO, t^unyO, pi. -yei, n. girl or woman in the same room; 

|)au^mdSd}cn, <^au$n>eib; girl or woman making a room, 

3tmmcrmab^fn, B'wimerfrau, 
iSw — see under tf — . 
to, pi. tCimO} inf. tO, tOmo, v. to jump; to jump up; to 

spring up; to let s. th. jump; etc. (Comp. tu mirik^ 

and tutu mirikd, y. to run, in Ot. and teke, v. in G&,) 
tft mil, V. to jump in. 

tu no, V. to jump upon or over = teke no. 
tu si, v. to jump down, 
td, n. (Ot. tuo) gun, musket; sika — , inf. tusikamo, to 

load a gun; tfa — , inf. tutfa, \. to discharge a gun; 

tfa m. k. —, to shoot s. b.; tu fe, inf. tufele, y. to burst 

(of a gun); — kwa, y. to miss fire etc. 
tu m. k. , Y. to cup s. b. 
to, n. cupping, 
tu and tumo, n. jumping, 
torn! interj. gone! dead! beni efg pe, tilm! when she had 

scarcely born (she was) dead! comp. a similar use of 

krSnd, bum etc., yi fe, n. 
tft, n. brasil-wood; colour of it. 
tfitso, pi. -Isei, n. brasil-tree. 
tfi, term, tutiita, tilntu, adj. and adv. dark; darkly; in the 

Yery middle, ten tOntu, th. s. 
tu, Ad. Y. to speak. 

tu and tin (Ot. th. s.), inf. tU, tumg andtiumg, v. to fol- 
low; to run after; to persecute; to hunt, after; to let 

blood; to take blood by leeches or a lancet; to bleed; 

s. b§, Y. 
tu se, Y. th. s. 

tu-wo ml k. den, y. to give something over to s.b.; inf. td. 
to, n. giving over, 
tua, inf. tuamo, y. to attack, to aggress; to come over one 

unexpectedly and by force; to clysler with pepper and 

the like; s. also fu, y. th. s. 
t^alQ, B. aggressor; person clystering. 
tuamo, n. attack; aggression; UebcrfaH; clystering. 
tuamond, n. clysterpipe; s. bentu^, th. s. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tiie — tdnte. ' 321 

t6e, inf. ti&emo, v. to draw off; wine, etc. to rain; see 

Nyonmo lue, v. 
tufemo, and 

tQfelemo, n. bursting of a gun; - - guns, 
tufelo, tOsolo, n. gunmak^r; gunsmith, 
tufle, n. (obscene word, perb. Fanti) anus; comp. duna^ n. 
tufu, V. to rot. 
*lufo (and 'tofo), and 
'tftfo, n. s. atufu, n. the pad which women wear on their 

back; si — , v. to bind up this pad. 
'tufusi, n. binding up of the bark-pad of women, 
tugblon, n. hbder part of a gun. 

tui! interj. used in driving away small cattle; tui! tui! th. s. 
tukwamo, n. missing of a gun. 
tukutuku, adj. and adv. fat, round (of limbs); enane y^ 

tukutuku tamo wolo mli mfonini nane, his foot is as 

round as that of a picture in a book, 
tulu adj. and adv. little, 
tulo, n. persecuter; follower; bleeder, lancer, 
tulo, n. jumper. 

Tumo, pr. n. of a fetish between Osu and GH, 
tOmo, n. persecution; following; hunting after, 
tu, and 

tumo, n. jumping; springing up. 
tumu, and 
tumo, n. dunghill, such as generally is found near towns 

and villages, where every kind of rubbish, dung, etc. 

is cast; liimo no,' adverbially used: on or upon the 

tumononii, pi. n. things on the dunghill or fit to be cast 

there, outcast (also used of J)er5ons). 
turn, tun, adj. and adv. see tO, dark; black. 
tQna, n. muzzle of a gun; tropically used: strength, abi* 

lity; mile etuna, 1 know his strength, 
tun, n. the pulp of a tree used by the fefishpriesl for 

powder to besmear their idols with, 
tur.i, n. smiall barrel; keg; s. akotowa, th. s. 
'tCinkpS, atunkpg, n. square bottle; comp. to, abodiamg. 
tunkun, n. new palm-wine, which comes first, after the 

tree? are felled, and operates on the bowels; comp. ko- 

kro, n. 
tonte = to mli te, n. gunstone, i.e. ball, lead in the guns. 

The natives generally cut the lead-bars into small pieces 

for this purpose. 

Zimmerniann, Akra-Yocab. 21 


322 tuntra — Wa. 

luntrl, trantra, tuntrdtuntrS, adj; and adv. speckled; spot- 
ted ;.comp. damdam; Aiivdtdni/vdtd etc. 

lunlu, tuhtu, adj. and adv. very dark, black; in the very 
middle; s. 10, adj. and adv.; and comp. dun; to^, adv. 

tOtanta, adj. very dark, black. 

tu8e» n. hinder-part of a gun. 

tfigbloA, th. s. 

tfisikamo, n. loading of a gun. 

tiitfa, n. discharge of a gun or guns; salutation with gun- 
fire; shooting. 

tutfalo, n. discharger of a gun. 

tfitsofll, tutsufd, n. gun-powder; s. tsofd, n. 

tutO, redupl. v. fr. tu, v. 

tuta, n. chaff; comp. toto, Sabii, n. 

tQtu, adv. too much; edgmi totu, it grieves me too much; 
very much; crmp. pi, t§d, naakpa, pam, tam, po etc. 

tCitutfi, adj. and adv. very dark, black; darkly; s. iH, adj. 

tdnyo, n. a kind of euphorbia. 

The vowel u does not initiate any GS-word; where it 
seems so, a scarcely audible „w^ is the initiating con- 
sonant, comp. esp. W0-, wo, wu- elc. 


The consonant ^v**, pronounced as in English, does 
not appear in proper G§- words, but in some words 
from the Ayigbe or Ewe-Language spoken beyond the 
river Volta and in Dahomey. 
Veveve, adj. and adv. hard; hardly, 
vi, adj. and adv. weak, weakly; s. gbedg, boboll etc. 
vo, adj. and adv. very deep; deeply; comp. also vo or wo 

in Ot. 
vfi, a natural sound, adv., to immitate the wind etc. 


The semiconsonant w has several peculiarities, which 
are to be observed and are referred to in the sequel. 
It resembles in general more the German w, than the 
English; but before o, q, u is nearly heard as a fall 
„u** serving as a consonant, or sometimes scarcely au- 
dible; it also changes sometimes with h and in a few 
cases with b and m. 
Wa, inf. wa, wale and wamo, v. to be hard, heavy, 
strong, difficult; to harden, strengthen, comp. wadse, v. 


Wa — wa m. k. yi. 323 

to stand still, s. wa damo si, v.; to accompany; to as- 
sist; to case one's self, inf. wamo, and wa nane, inf. 
nanei^amo, th. s. more decent expression than nyS, v., 
but compare ya kona, tso no, niiase, dfeiaA; tsd he etc. 
to creep, = wamo; etc. The word Is frequently com- 
bined iivith gran)mat. subj. and obj., to diversify its use: 
The most common are the foUoiiving: den wa, inf. den- 
wale, V. to be hardhanded, i. e. illiberal, covetous (comp. 
kpekpe, Me wa, nine §i wa, v. th. s. anf den kpQ, v. 
th. contrary); he wa, inf hewale, hewa, v. to be strong, 
well, sound, healthy; with obj. to be well, ehe ewale, 
he is well (again); s. he, n., but: he wa he (inf. he- 
wale, but scarcely used), v. to have pain all over the 
body, lit. the body is hard to the body; comp. he, n.; 
wa he, v.; hie wa, inf. hfewale, hlewfi, v. to be hard- 
faced, hard, sparing, covetous; to be strict, etc., comp. 
yi wa; hie wa he, v. to have pain in the face; hienmeii 
wa he, V. to have pain in the eyes; itso wa, s. yit§o 
wa and yi wa; mli wa, inf. mliwale, v. to be Inwardly 
hard; na wa, inf. nawale, v. to be hardmouthed; to 
speak hard, bold, tenacious; to be hard or tough in 
general; to use hard words etc.; no wa, inf. nowale, v. 
to have a hard surface; nadsian wa, inf. nSidiiafiwale, v. 
to have strong legs; to stand fast; nine si wa, inf. nine- 
§iwale, V. to be of a hard hand, = de6 wa, v. se wa, 
inf. sewale, v. to have a hard, strong back; to be hard 
in consequence; s. se; sisi wa, sisiwale, v. to be hard 
at the bottom, hard to be explained, difficult to under- 
stand, s. sisi; tsui wa, inf.tsuiwale, v. to be hardhearted; 
yi wa, yitso wa, inf. yiwale, yitsowale, v. to be hard- 
headed; to be hard, cruel, stubborn etc., s. wa yi; and 
to b^ stupid, unahje to learn (comp. „cin better ^opf" 
in both sences in German). Comp.: Ehe wa tamo ba, 
he is as hard or tough- as a crocodile; ohfa wa, poverty 
is hard etc. etc. 

wa he, inf. hewa, v. to pain (the body, s. he, n.), ewa 
mihe, it pains mi; mihe wa mihe, my body pains me; 
mimusufk wa mihe, my belly pains me; miyitso wa mi 
he, 1 have head-ache etc. 

wa — damo si, double v. to stand still. 

wa nane, inf. nanewamg, v. to ease one's self; decent ex- 
pression = wa, instead of ny§, v. 

wa m. k. yi, inf. yiwale (comp. yi wa, v. and toi gbo ani 
gbo toi, v.), v. to be hard, cruel to s. b., to illtread 



324 wa — wala. 

8. b., owale yU thou illtreadedst him; comp. fe niisenii- 

anii, v., sS, v. 
YiiSiy n. hardness, strength; pain; adj. hard, strong; gbe yfSi, 

a strong or loud voice; s. wale, n. th. s. 
wfi, n. snail, 
wa, aux. T. = ba; seldom used; mikeo waba, I mil eome 

with thee, 
wa -, sometiiftes = woba -, woQ -, we will or shall -. 
. iiva = - ba, - ma, - a, Ot. deminutive answering the GS : 

hi, mi; f. i. awur^wa or awura, little master, i.e. mistress, 
wabii, pi. of wao, n., which see. 
Wdd§e, inf. wad§emo (causative form of wa, comp. §edse, 

sddse etc.), v. to harden, strengthen; to confirm; N^^ehaa 

wowad§ea wohe krede, let us fully confirm ourselves! 

Comp. wo hewale, v. th. s. 
wadse he, inf. bewadSemo, v. to strengthen one's self, 
wadse hie, inf. hiewadsemg, v. to* harden the face, to 

harden one's behaviour; comp. hie wa, v. 
wadse mil, inf. mliwadsemg, v. to confirm inwardly; comp. 

mli wa, V. 
wadse na, inf. nawadsemo, v. to harden one's mouth, 

speech, words etc., comp. na wa, v. 
wadse nane, v. to strengthen the foot, 
wadse nine, v. to strengthen the hand, 
wadse t§ui, inf. tsuiwadsemo, v. to harden the heart; comp. 

tsui wa, V. 
wadse yi or yitso, inf. yi- or yitSowadsemQ, v. to harden 

the head; comp. yi wa, v. 
wadselo,n. hardener; strengthener; confirmer; fr. wadse, v, 
wadsemQ,n. hardening; strengthening; confirmation; comp. 

hewalewO, n. th* s. 
wadsi, pi. of wan, n. which see with its compounds, 
waduru, wadurutso, pi. -t§ei, n. the wooden mortar for 

beating or mashing „fufui'* and other food; mortar; «. 

baduru; Ot. Wgdru. 
wadurutsomlibi, n. the pestle or pounder of it; s. woma. 
wala (also woala, wola), n. life (comp. wa, u. and la, n. 

Hanson: wara, corroboration of wa, n. strength), some- 
times yiwala, life of the bead; comp. hlekSmo, hekamo,v.; 

na -, and yi na -, v. inf walanamo; yiwalanamo, to be 
^ kept alive, to ^e save, saved; 1o be preserved (comp. 

aQuog^ &w^iCx>aii^; here wala, here yiwala, inf.'wala- 

heremg, yiwalaheremo, v. to save alive, to save (cwfav. 

d by Google 

I^alabc — wamobii 325 

salvum facere); etc. comp. also: yiwala, ii. yiwala td, v. 
etc. and Akwa, gye Akwa elc. in Ou 

iivalabe, n. time of life. 

^alabu, n. "well of life. 

walaffi, n. rivei? of life. 

iivalagbe» n. way of life. 

iwalagbY, n. day of life. 

-walahdlQ, n. lifegiver. 

walahdmo, n. lifegiving. 

walaherelo, yiwalaherelo, n. saviour (Reliant, (fwrrjg); 
saver, preserver; comp.herelo, dsielo; kpolo; hefSlo,n. elc. 

walaherelogbei, n. saviours name. 

walahereloniitSumo, n. saviours work. 

walaherelosane, n. savio.urs history. ; 

walaheremo, yiwalaheremg, n. salvation (^ci(, @e^ 
it^feit, aanrjQia); saving; preservation; comp. heremo» 
dSiemo; kpdmo; heflimo, n. «tc. 

walahererngbe, n. time of salvation. 

walaheremgbi, n. child of salvation. 

walaheremgwiemo, n. word of salvation. 

walanalo, n. person saved; scarcely used. 

walanamQ, n. preservation; fr. na wala, v. 

waland, pi. -nii, n. seme thing of life. 

walasane, n. matter of life. 

wala§i§i, n. ground, foundation of life. 

wafetSo, pi. -tSei, n. tree of life. 

walal§e) n. father, possesser of life. 

walawiemo> n. word of life. 

walayi, n. head, fountain of life. 

wale, D. strength (comp. hewale); hardness; durability 
(comp. yiwale) ; power etc. ; help, assistance, strengthening, 
empowering (comp. hewalewd, b. and wadsemo); pain, 
hardship (comp. hewa, w§, n.); fr. wa, v. 

walo, n. meat of eatable snails. 

walOs n. strong, hard, powerful person; assistant, helper 
(comp. wadSelQ, hewalewolo, hefatalQ, bualg etc.); cree- 
per etc. fr. wa, v. 

wamo, n. creeping; scratching; easing, one's self, comp. 
nanewamo, n., from wamo, y.; help, fr. wa m. k. v. 

wamo, inf. wamo, v. to creep; also used of children not 
yet able to walk; Ot. wyia, v.; to scratch. 

wamgha, n. creeping plant. 

wamgbi, n. creeping child. 


326 wamoflC — wehegbe. 

iivamond, pi. -nii, n. creeping creature (comp. German: 

wamond, pi. wamonii, n. chamberpot for children. 

wamQtsu, n. privy. 

iivah, pL wadsi, n. grey hair (of old people); dSe vvadsi, 
— wan, inf. wad§id§e, wandse, v. to get grey hair. 

wafkdSe, wad§id§6, n. getting grey hair. 

wa^dselo, wad§iadselo, wantse, pi. -tSemei; wadsiatse, 
pi. -atSemei, n. person having grey hair („®raufopf"J. 
Generally an honouring tittle. 

wanoho, n. shell of a snail. 

wanwan, kukeruku wanwan, nat. sound, imautation of the 
voice of doves. 

wao, pi. wabii, n. finger; toe; claw; nine-wao, n, finger; 
nanewao, n. toe; lofld-wao, n. claw of a bird; etc. Ad; 
nwg, n. 

waolo, n. (fingerman) epithet of the leopard; comj). hle- 

. nmalo, n. 

waoselami, n. nail of finger or toe. 

wara, n. s. wala. 

ware, n. s. wale. 

waskefa, n. europ. word; basin; wash-basin. 

watere and anowatere (Ot. th. s.), n. water-melon. 

wawonu, n. soup made of eatable snails. 

wdyeli, n. eating of snails. 

wayelo» n. snail-eater. 

we, n. house (in the widest sence of the word, Ot. fi); 
house and yard, dwelling, home etc. (^an^ unb ^of) 
as one whole, with all it contains: comp. §la and tsu, 
n ; tropical: people belonging to a house, comp. weku, 
webii. The word does not accept any postposition ex- 
pressing a locality, as: hie, he, mli, na, no, se, si, Si§i» 
yiten etc., f. i. miya miwe, I go to my house (home; 
comp. sla); eye ewe, he is in his house; edse owe, it 
comes from thy house. Comp. the same rule in the 
nouns: hie, he, bo, §Ia, Awei etc. being as „we" at the 
same time adverbially used. 

webii, pi. n. people of a house; domestics (lat. familia); 
subjects; people; NyoiimQ webii, pi. n. God's people; 
mantse webii, the kings people; etc. slaves. 

wed§en, n. life, charakter of a house. 

wedSomo, n. hduse-blessing. 

wegbena, n. house-duty; houseright. 

wehegbe, n. house-liber