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Full text of "A Greek grammar"

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WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, Hon. LL.D. and D.CL. 

BLIOT PBOFE880B OF GBBEK LITEBATUBB IN 
HABYABD UNIYBB0ITY 



BEVI8ED AND ENLARGED 



BOSTON 

PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY 

1898 



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EdjucT \\\s.^3.45i- 



HAirVARD COLLEGE l^HM 

6IFT OF THE 

AMERICAN ANTtQUAinAN SOCltfY 



Copyright, 1892, 
By WILLIAM W. GOODWIN. 



ALL BIGHTS BBBEBYBD. 



Typoqbaphy by J* S. Gushing & Co., Boston. 



Prbsswobk by Ginn & Co., Boston. 



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PREFACE. 



The present work is a revised and enlarged edition of 
the Greek Grammar published in 1879, which was itself 
k revised and enlarged edition of the Elementary Greek 
Grammar of only 235 pages published in 1870. I trust 
that no one will infer from this repeated increase in the 
size of the book that I attribute ever increasing importance 
to the study of formal grammar in school. On the con- 
trary, the growth of the book has come from a more decided 
opinion that the amount of grammar which should be learned 
by rote is exceedingly small compared with that which 
every real student of the Classics must learn in a very dif- 
ferent way. When it was thought that a pupil must first 
learn his Latin and Greek Grammars and then learn to 
read Latin and Greek, it was essential to reduce a school 
grammar to its least possible dimensions. Now when a 
more sensible system leaves most of the details of grammar 
to be learned by the study of special points which arise in 
reading or writing, the case is entirely different ; and few 
good teachers or good students are any longer grateful for 
a small grammar, which must soon be discarded as the 
horizon widens and new questions press for an answer. 
The forms of a language and the essential principles of 
its construction must be learned in the old-fashioned way, 
when the memory is vigorous and retentive; but, these 
once mastered, the true time to teach each principle of 
grammar is the moment when the pupil meets with it in 
his studies, and no grammar which is not thus practically 
illustrated ever becomes a living reality to the student. 
But it is not enough for a learner merely to meet each con- 
struction or form in isolated instances ; for he may do this 
repeatedly, and yet know little of the general principle 
which the single example partially illustrates. Men saw 
apples fall and the moon and planets roll ages before the 
principle of gravitation was thought of. It is necessary, 

iii 

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iv PREFACE. 

therefore, not merely to bring the pupil face to face with 
the facts of a language by means of examples carefully 
selected to exhibit them, but also to refer him to a state- 
ment of the general principles which show the full mean- 
ing of the facts and their relation to other principles,^ In 
other words, systematic practice in reading and writing 
must be supplemented from the beginning by equally sys- 
tematic reference to the grammar. Mechanics are not 
learned by merely observing the working of levers and pul- 
leys, nor is chemistry by watching experiments on gases ; 
although no one would undertake to teach either without 
such practical illustrations. It must always be remem- 
bered that grammatical study of this kind is an essential 
part of classical study; and no one must be deluded by 
the idea that if grammar is not learned by rote it is not 
to be learned at all. It cannot be too strongly emphasized, 
that there has been no change of opinion among classical 
scholars about the importance of grammar as a basis of all 
sound classical scholarship ; the only change concerns the 
time and manner of studying grammar and the importance 
to be given to different parts of the subject. 

What has been said about teaching by reference and by 
example applies especially to syntax, the chief principles 
of which have always seemed to me more profitable for 
a pupil in the earlier years of his classical studies than the 
details of vowel-changes and exceptional forms which are 
often thought more seasonable. The study of Greek syn- 
tax, properly pursued, gives the pupil an insight into the 
processes of thought and the manner of expression of a 
highly cultivated people ; and while it stimulates his own 
powers of thought, it teaches him habits of more careful 
expression by making him familiar with many forms of 
statement more precise than those to which he is accus- 
tomed in his own language. The Greek syntax, as it was 
developed and refined by the Athenians, is a most impor- 
tant chapter in the history of thought, and even those 
whose classical studies are limited to the rudiments cannot 
afford to neglect it entirely. For these reasons the chief 
increase in the present work has been made in the depart- 
ment of Syntax. 

1 These objects seem to me to be admirably attained in the First 
Lessons in Greek, prepared by my colleague, Professor John W. 
White, to be used in connection with this Grammar. A new edition 
of this work is now in press. 

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PREFACE. V 

The additions made in Part I. are designed chiefly to 
make the principles of inflection and formation in Parts 
II. and III. intelligible. Beyond this it seems inexpedient 
for a general grammar to go. In Part II. the chief changes 
are in the sections on the Verb, a great part of which have 
been remodelled and rewritten. The paradigms and syn- 
opses of the verb are given in a new form. The nine tense 
systems are clearly distinguished in each synopsis, and also 
in the paradigms so far as is consistent with a proper dis- 
tinction of the three voices. The verbs in fu are now 
inflected in close connection with those in o, and both con- 
jugations are included in the subsequent treatment. The 
now established Attic forms of the pluperfect active are 
given in the paradigms. The old makeshift known as the 
" connecting-vowel " has been discarded, and with no mis- 
givings. Thirteen years ago I wrote that I did not venture 
"to make the first attempt at a popular statement of the 
tense stems with the variable vowel attachment"; and I 
was confirmed in this opinion by the appearance of the 
Schtdgrammatik of G. Curtius the year previous with the 
" Bindevocal " in its old position. Professor F. D. Allen 
has since shown us that the forms of the verb can be 
made perfectly intelligible without this time-honored fic- 
tion. I have now adopted the familiar term "thematic 
vowel," in place of " variable vowel " which I used in 1879, 
to designate the o or c added to the verb stem to form the 
present stem of verbs in w. I have attempted to make the 
whole subject of tense stems and their inflection more clear 
to beginners, and at the same time to lay the venerable 
shade of the connecting-vowel, by the distinction of " sim- 
ple and complex tense stems," which correspond generally 
to the two forms of inflection, the " simple " form (the fu- 
form) and the "common" form (that of verbs in w). See 
667-565. I use the term "verb stem" for the stem from 
which the chief tenses are formed, i,e. the single stem in 
the first class, the "strong" stem in the second class, and 
the simple stem in the other classes (except the anomalous 
eighth). Part III. is little changed, except by additions. 
In the Syntax I have attempted to introduce greater sim- 
plicity with greater detail into the treatment of the Article, 
the Adjectives, the Cases, and the Prepositions. In the 
Syntax of the Verb, the changes made in my new edition 
of the Oreek Moods atid Tenses have been adopted, so far 
aa is possible in a school-book. The independent uses of 

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vi PREFACE. 

the moods are given before the dependent constructions, 
except in the case of wishes, where the independent opta- 
tive can hardly be treated apart from the other construc- 
tions. The Potential Optative and Indicative are made 
more prominent as original constructions, instead of being 
treated merely as elliptical apodoses. The independent use 
of /L117 in Homer to express fear with a desire to avert the 
object feared is recognized, and also the independent use 
of fiij and firj av m cautious assertions and negations with 
both subjunctive and indicative, which is common in Plato. 
The treatment of axrrc is entirely new ; and the distinction 
between the infinitive with (aa-re fn^ and the indicative with 
oxrrc ov is explained. The use of irpCv with the infinitive 
and the finite moods is more accurately stated. The 
distinction between the Infinitive with the Article and its 
simple constructions without the Article is more clearly 
drawn, and the whole treatment of the Infinitive is im- 
proved. In the chapter on the Participle, the three classes 
are carefully marked, and the two uses of the Supplemen- 
tary Participle in and out of ora/tio obliqua are distinguished. 
In Part V. the principal additions are the sections on dac- 
tylo-epitritic rhythms, with greater detail about other lyric 
verses, and the use of two complete strophes of Pindar 
to illustrate that poet's two most common metres. The 
Catalogue of Verbs has been carefully revised, and some- 
what enlarged, especially in the Homeric forms. 

The quantity of long a, t, and v is marked in Parts I., 
II., and III., and wherever it is important in Part V., but 
not in the Syntax. The examples in the Syntax and in 
Part V. have been referred to their sources. One of the 
most radical changes is the use of 1691 new sections in 
place of the former 302. References can now be made to 
most paragraphs by a single number ; and although special 
divisions are sometimes introduced to make the connection 
of paragraphs clearer, these will not interfere with refer- 
ences to the simple sections. The evil of a want of dis- 
tinction between the main paragraphs and notes has been 
obviated by prefixing N. to sections which would ordinarily 
be marked as notes. I feel that a most humble apology is 
due to all teachers and students who have submitted to the 
unpardonable confusion of paragraphs, with their divisions, 
subdivisions, notes, and remarks, often with (a), (6), etc., 
in the old edition. This arrangement was thoughtlessly 
adopted to preserve the numbering of sections in the Syntax 

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PREFACE. vii 

of the previous edition, to which many references had already 
been made ; but this object was gained at far too great a 
cost. I regret that I can make no better amends than this 
to those who have suffered such an infliction. A complete 
table of Parallel Eeferences is given in pp. xxvi.-xxxv., 
to make references to the former edition available for the 
new sections. 

I have introduced into the text a section (28) on the 
probable ancient pronunciation of Greek. While the sounds 
of most of the letters are well established, on many impor- 
tant points our knowledge is still very unsatisfactory. With 
our doubts about the sounds of $, ^, x^ ^^'^ iy ^^ ^^^ double 
€1 and ov, not to speak of £ and iff, and with our helplessness 
in expressing anything like the ancient force of the three 
accents or the full distinction of quantity, it is safe to say 
that no one could now pronounce a sentence of Greek so 
that it would have been intelligible to Demosthenes or 
Plato. I therefore look upon the question of Greek Pro- 
nunciation chiefly as it concerns the means of communication 
between modern scholars and between teachers and pupils. 
I see no prospect of uniformity here, unless at some future 
time scholars agree to unite on the modern Greek pronun- 
ciation, with all its objectionable features. As Athens be- 
comes more and more a centre of civilization and art, her 
claim to decide the question of the pronunciation of her 
ancient language may sometime be too strong to resist. In 
the meantime, I see no reason for changing the system of 
pronunciation^ which I have followed and advocated more 
than thirty years, which adopts what is tolerably certain 
and practicable in the ancient pronunciation and leaves the 
rest to modem usage or to individual judgment. This has 
brought scholars in the United States nearer to uniformity 
than any other system without external authority is likely 
to bring them. In England the retention of the English 

1 By this the consonants are sounded as in 28, 8, except that ^ has the 
sound of e^f ^ and ^ have the sounds of x {ks) and ps ; 0, <p, and x those 
of th in thin, ph in Philip, and hard German ch in machen. The vowels 
are sounded as in 28, 1, v being pronounced like French u or Gennan 
ii. The diphthongs follow 28, 2 ; but ov always has the sound of ou in 
youth, and ei that of ei in height. I hold to this sound of ei to avoid 
another change from English, German, and American usage. If any 
change is desired, I should much prefer to adopt the soimd of % (our i" 
in machine), which ei has held more than 1900 years, rather than to 
attempt to catch any one of the sounds through which either genuine 
or spurious « must have passed on its way to this (see 28, 2). 



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viii PREFACE. 

pronunciation of Greek with Latin accents has at least the 
advantage of local uniformity. 

Since the last edition was published, Allen's new edition 
of Hadley's Grammar has appeared and put all scholars 
under new obligations to both author and editor. The new 
edition of Monro's Homeric Grammar is of the greatest 
value to all students of Homer. Blass's new edition of the 
first quarter of Kiihner is really a new work, abounding in 
valuable suggestions. From the German grammars of Koch 
and Kaegi I have gained many practical hints. I am also 
greatly indebted to many letters from teachers containing 
criticisms of the last edition and suggestions for making it 
more useful in schools, too many indeed to be acknowledged 
singly by name. Among them is one from which I have de- 
rived special help in the revision, a careful criticism of many 
parts of the book by Professor G. F. Nicolassen of Clarks- 
ville, Tennessee. Another of great value came to me with- 
out signature or address, so that I have been unable even to 
acknowledge it by letter. I must ask all who have thus 
favored me to accept this general expression of my thanks. 
Professor Herbert Weir Smyth of Bryn Mawr has done me 
the great service of reading the proofs of Parts I. and II. 
and aiding me by his valuable suggestions. His special 
knowledge of Greek morphology has been of the greatest 
use to me in a department in which without his aid I should 
often have been sorely perplexed amid conflicting views. 
All scholars are looking for the appearance of Professor 
Smyth's elaborate work on the Greek Dialects, now print- 
ing at the Clarendon Press, with great interest and hope. 

WILLIAM W. GOODWIN. 
Haryabd Universitt, 
Gambbidob, Mass., June 30, 1892. 



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CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. — The Gbbbk Language and Dialects, 3-6 



PART I. 

LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. 

BXCnONS 

1-4. The Alphabet 7, 8 

fr-lO. Vowels and Diphthongs 8, 9 

11-16. Breathings 9 

16-24. Consonants and their Divisions 9, 10 

26, 26. Consonants ending Greek Words 10 

27. Ionic and Athenian Alphabets 10, 11 

28. Ancient Pronunciation 11 

29^-33. Changes of Vowels 12, 13 

34. Collision of Vowels. — Hiatus 13 

36-41. Contraction of Vowels 13-16 

42-46. Crasis 15, 16 

47. Synizesis 16 

48-64. Elision 16, 17 

66. Aphaeresis 17 

66-63. Movable Consonants 17, 18 

64-67. Metathesis and Syncope 18, 19 

68, 69. Doubling of Consonants 19 

70-95. Euphonic Changes of Consonants 19-24 

96, 97. Syllables and their Division 24 

98-105. Quantity of Syllables 24, 26 

106-115. General Principles of Accent 26-27 

116. Anastrophe 27 

117-120. Accent of Contracted Syllables and Elided Words. . 27, 28 

121-129. Accent of Nouns and Adjectives 28, 29 

130-135. Accent of Verbs 29, 30 

136-139. Proclitics 31 

140-146. Enclitics 31-33 

147-149. Dialectic Changes in Letters 33 

160. Punctuation-Marks 33 

ix 



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CONTENTS. 



PART II. 

INFLECTION. 

SSCTIONS PAGX8 

161-164. Definitions. — Inflection, Root, Stem, etc '34 

166-163. Numbers, Genders, Cases 34-36 

NOUNS. 

164-166. Three Declensions of Nouns 36 

167. Case-endings of Nouns 36 

FIBST DECIiEXSIOiN'. 

168-170. Stems and Terminations of First Declension 37 

171-182. Paradigms of First Declension 37-40 

183-187. Contract Nouns of First Declension 40 

188. Dialects of First Declension 40, 41 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

189-191. Steins and Tenninations of Second Declension. ... 41, 42 

192-196. Paradigms of Second Declension 42 

196-200. Attic Second Declension 42, 43 

201-203. Contract Nouns of Second Declension 43, 44 

204. Dialects of Second Declension 44 

THJLKD DECIiENSION. 

206-208. Stems and Case-endings of Third Declension 44 

FORMATION OF CASES. 

209-213. Nominative Singular of Third Declension 45, 46 

214-218. Accusative Singular of Third Declension 46 

219-223. Vocative Singular of Third Declension 47 

224. Dative Plural of Third Declension 47 

PABADIGMS OF THIRD DECLENSION. 

225. Nouns with Mute or Liquid Stems. 47-50 

226-240. Nouns with Stems in S (chiefly contract) 60-52 

241-248. Stems in or 62, 63 

249-262. Stems in I or T 53-65 

263-272. Stems ending in a Diphthong 66, 66 

273-279. Syncopated Nouns of Third Declension 67, 58 

280-285. Gender of Third Declension 68, 69 

286. Dialects of Third Declension 69 

287-291. Lregular Nouns 69-62 

292-297. Endings Si, -Btv, -5e, -o-e, -0t, -ipip, etc 62 



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CONTENTS. 



XI 



ADJECTIVES. 

SXCnONS PAGES 

298-309. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions 63, 64 

310, 311. Contract Adjectives in -eos and -oos 66, 66 

312-317. Adjectives of the Third Declension 66, 67 

318-333. First and Third Declensions combined 67-69 

334-339. Participles in -uv, -ovs, -as, -6is, -Os, -wj 70-72 

340-342. . Contract Participles in -awv, -euv, -ouv, -aws 72, 73 

343-346. Adjectives with One Ending 73 

346-349. Irregular Adjectives : M^as, vokvs, irp§os, etc 73, 74 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

360-366. Comparison by -reposy -totos 74, 76 

367-360. Comparison by -luvy -mttoj 76, 76 

361-364. Irregular Comparison 76, 77 

ADVERBS AND THEIR COMPARISON. 

366-368. Adverbs formed from Adjectives, etc 77, 78 

369-371. Comparison of Adverbs 78 

NUMERALS. 

372-374. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, and Numeral 

Adverbs 78-80 

376-386. Declension of Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, etc.. . 80, 81 

THE ARTICLE. 

386-388. Declension of 6, ^, t6 81, 82 

PRONOUNS. 

389-400. Personal and Intensive Pronouns 82, 83 

401-403. Reflexive Pronouns 84 

404, 406. Reciprocal Pronoun 84, 86 

406-408. Possessive Pronouns 86 

409-414. Demonstrative Pronouns 86, 86 

416-420. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 86, 87 

421-428. Relative Pronouns 87, 88 

429-440. Pronominal Adjectives and Adverbs 88-90 

VERBS. 

441-464. Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons 90-92 

466-461. Tense Systems and Tense Stems 92, 93 

462, 463. Principal Parts of a Greek Verb 93, 94 

464-468. Conjugation. — Two Forms: Verbs in u and Verbs 

in/u 94 



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Xll 



CONTENTS. 



OONJUQATION OF VEBBS IN n. 

SBOTIONS \^vx'«uwvrAXJ.wx'« vjj v juxv£»» j_w h, PAGES 

469-473. Description of following Synopses 94, 95 

474. 476. Synopsis of Xvw 96, 97 

476. 477. Synopsis of Xcfirw 98 

478, 479. Synopsis of (paivw 99 

480. Inflection of X^ 100-104 

481. Inflection of 2 Aor., Perf., and Pluperf. of XeiTruj. . 105 

482. Inflection of (paivut (Liquid Forms) 106, 107 

483-486. Remarks on Verbs in w 108 

486-491. Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive of 

Verbs with Consonant Stems 108-111 

492, 493. Contract Verbs in aw, ew, and ow 112-114 

494. Synopsis of rlfjidu), ^tX^w, SiyXAw, Srjpdu) 115 

495-499. Remarks on Contract Verbs 115, 116 

CONJUGATION OP VERBS IN |W. 

600-503. General Character of Verbs in /u. —Two Classes, 116 
504, 605. Synopsis of Urtiiu^ ridrjfu, didcjfu, and deUvvfu in 

Present and Second Aorist Systems 116, 117 

606. Inflection of peculiar Tenses of these Verbs 117-122 

607, 608. Second Perfect and Pluperfect of the /u-form 123 

509. FuU Synopsis of these Verbs in Indicative 123, 124 

AUGMENT AND BEDUPLIOATION. 

510-612. Syllabic and Temporal Augment defined 124, 126 

513-619. Augment of Imperfect and Aorist Indicative 125 

520-628. Reduplication of Perf., Pluperf., and Fut. Perf. . . 126, 127 

629-633. Attic Reduplication 127, 128 

634-536. Reduplicated Aorists and Presents 128 

537-539. Syllabic Augment prefixed to a Vowel 128, 129 

540-646. Augment and Reduplication of Compound Verbs, 129, 130 

547-560. Omission of Augment and Reduplication 130, 131 

ENDINGS. 

561. Personal Endings 131 

552. Personal Endings of Indie, Subj., and Opt 131 

653. Personal Endings of Imperative 131 

564, 555. Endings of Infinitive, etc 132 

556. Remarks on the Endings 132, 133 

TENSE STEMS AND FORMS OF INFLECTION. 

657-560. Simple and Complex Tense Stems 133, 134 

661. Tense SuflBxes 134 

562. Optative Suffix 134 

563. Two Forms of Inflection of Verbs 134 

564. The Simple Form 135 

565. The Common Form 136, 136 



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CONTENTS. 



xui 



FOBMATION AND INFIiECTION OF TENSE SYSTEMS. 

SBCTIONS PAGES 

566. General Statement 136 

667. Formation of the Present Stem from the Verb 

Stem 136 

568-622. Eight Classes of Verbs 136-143 

623-633. Inflection of Present and Imperfect Indicative . . . 143, 144 

634-659. Modification of the Stem in certain Tense Systems, 145-140 
660-717. Formation of Tense Stems, and Inflection of Tense 

Systems in Indicative 149-158 

FORMATION OF DEPENDENT MOODS AND PABTICIPIiE. 

718-729. Subjunctive 159, 160 

730^745. Optative 160-163 

746-758. Imperative 163-165 

759-769. Infinitive 165, 166 

770-775. Participles 166, 167 

776. Verbals in -ros and -tcoj 167 

DIALECTS. 

777-783. Dialectic and Poetic Forms of Verbs in w 167-170 

784-786. Special Dialectic Forms of Contract Verbs 170-172 

787-792. Dialectic and Poetic Forms of Verbs in /u 172, 173 

ENUMERATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MI-FORMS. 

793-797. Enumeration of Presents in /it 173, 174 

/98-803. Second Aorists of the /w-form 175, 176 

804. Second Perfects and Pluperfects of the /it-form . . 176, 177 

805. Irregular Verbs of the /u-form 177 

806-821. Inflection of el/d, elfii, tri/u, 4>rifjU, rjfjMi, Ketfiai, and 

oUa 177-183 



PART III. 

FORMATION OF WORDS. 

822. Simple and Compoimd Words 184 

SIMPLE WORDS. 

828-825. Primitives and Denominatives 184, 185 

826-«31. Suffixes 185 

FOBMATION OF NOUM"S. 

832-840. Primitives 186, 187 

841-848. Denominatives 187, 188 



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XIV 



CONTENTS. 



8BCTIONS PAOSS 

849-868. Formation of Adjectives 189, 190 

869, 860. Formation of Adverbs 190 

861-868. Denominative Verbs 190, 191 

COMPOUND WORDS. 

869, 870. Division of the Subject 191 

871-877. First Part of Compound Word 192, 193 

878-882. Last Part of Compound Word 193, 194 

883-889. Meaning of Compoimds 194, 196 



PART IV. 



SYNTAX. 



890-893. 



894. 
895. 

896-898. 
899-906. 
907-910. 



911-917. 



918-926. 
927-931. 
932-934. 



936-940. 
941-968. 
959-980. 
981-984. 



986-992. 
993-997. 



Subject, Predicate, Object 196 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 

Subject Nominative of Finite Verb 197 

1. Subject Accusative of Infinitive 197 

2, 3. Subject of Infinitive omitted 197 

Subject Nom. omitted, Impersonal Verbs, etc. . . . 197, 198 

Subject Nominative and Verb 198, 199 

Predicate in same Case as Subject 199 

APPOSITION. 

Various Forms of Apposition 200, 201 

ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives agreeing with Noims 201, 202 

Adjectives belonging to omitted Subject of Infinitive, 202-204 

Adjectives used as Nouns 204 

THE ARTICLE. 

Homeric Use of the Article (as Pronoun) 204-206 

Attic Use of the Article (as Definite Article) 206-208 

Position of the Article 208-212 

Pronominal Article in Attic (A fUv ... 6 5^, etc.) . . 212 

PRONOUNS. 

Personal and Intensive Pronouns 213, 214 

Reflexive Pronouns 214, 216 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONTENTS. XV 

BBCnONB PAOBB 

998-1003. Possessive Pronouns 215, 216 

1004-1010. Demonstrative Pronouns 216, 217 

1011-1014. Interrogative Pronoun 217 

1016-1018. Indefinite Pronoun 217, 218 

1019-1025. Kelative Pronoun as related to its Antecedent. . 218, 219 

1026-1030. Kelative with omitted Antecedent 219, 220 

1031-1038. Assimilation and Attraction of Relatives 220-222 

1039. Relative in Exclamations 222 

1040-1041. Relative Pronoun not repeated in a new Case . . 222 

THE CASES. 
NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE. 

1042. General Remark on the Cases 222 

1043. Nominative, as Subject or Predicate 222 

1044. Vocative used in addressing 222 

1045. Nominative used for Vocative 223 

ACCUSATIVE. 

1046. Various Fimctions of the Accusative 223 

1047-1050. Accusative of Direct (External) Object 223 

1051-1057. Cognate Accusative (of Internal Object) 223-225 

1058, 1059. Accusative of Specification or Limitation 225 

1060, 1061. Adverbial Accusative 226 

1062-1064. Accusative of Extent of Time or Space 226 

1065. Terminal Accusative (Poetic) 226, 227 

1066-1068. Accusative after N^ and McC 227 

Two Accusatives with Verbs signifying 
1069-1072. To ask, teach, remind, clothe, conceal, deprive, 

divide, etc 227 

1073-1075. To do anything to or say anything of a person 

or thing 228 

1076. Cognate and Object Accusative together 228 

1077-1082. Predicate and Object Accusative together 228, 229 

GENirrVE. 

1083. Various Functions of the Genitive 229 

1084. Genitive after Nouns (Attributive) 229, 230 

1086-1087. Seven Classes of Attributive Genitive 230 

1688-1092. Partitive Genitive (specially) 231, 232 

Genitive after Verbs : — 

1093-1096. Predicate Genitive 232,233 

1097,1098. Genitive expressing Part 233 



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XVI 



CONTENTS. 



8ECTIOKB PAGB8 

With verbs signifying 
1099-1101. To take hold of, touch, aim at, claim, hit, miss, 

begin, etc 233, 234 

1102-1108. To taste, smell, hear, perceive, remember, for- 
get, desire, spare, neglect, admire, despise. . 234,235 

1109-1111. To rule, lead, or direct 236 

1112-1116. Fulness or Want 236 

1117-1120. Genitive of Separation and Comparison 237, 238 

1121-1126. Genitive with Verbs of AccuMng, Convicting, 

Acquitting, and Condemning (with Accus.) . . 238, 239 

1126-1128. Genitive of Cause 239 

1129. Causal Genitive in Exclamations 239 

1130. Genitive of Source 239 

1131. Genitive of Agent or Instrument (Poetic) 240 

1132. Genitive after Compound Verbs 240 

1133-1136. Genitive of Price or Value 240, 241 

1136. Genitive of Time within which 241 

1137-1138. Genitive of Place within which (chiefly Poetic) 241 

1139-1142. Objective Genitive with Verbal Adjectives 242, 243 

1143-1145. Possessive Genitive with Adjectives denoting 

Possession, etc 243 

1146. Genitive with certain Adject, of Place 243 

1147-1151. Genitive with Adverbs 243, 244 

1152. Genitive Absolute (see also 1568) 244 

1153-1156. Genitive with Comparatives 244, 245 

DATIVE. 

1167. Various Functions of the Dative 245 

Dative expressing to or for : — 

1158. Dative of Indirect Object 246 

1159-1163. Dative after certain Intransitive Verbs 246, 246 

1164. Dative with Verbs of Ruling, etc 247 

1166-1170. Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage 247, 248 

1171. Ethical Dative 248 

1172. Dative of Relation 248 

1173. Dative of Possession (with elfil, etc.) 248 

1174. Dative after Adjectives kindred to preceding 

Verbs 249 

1176-1178. Dative of Resemblance, Union, and Approach 249, 260 

1179, 1180. Dative after Compound Verbs 250, 261 

1181,1182. Dative of Cause, Manner, Means, and Instru- 
ment 261 

1183. Dative after xfM^/*a<» w«e 251 

1184, 1185. Dative of Degree of Difference (with Compara- 

261,252 



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8KCTION8 

1186, 1187. 

1188. 
1189-1191. 

1192-1196. 
1196. 
1197. 

1198. 



1199. 
1200. 
1201. 

1202-1219. 

1220. 
1221-1226. 

1227. 



1228, 1229. 



1230-1232. 

1233. 
1234-1237. 

1238. 

1239. 

1240. 

1241. 

1242-1248. 



1249. 



1250-1266. 
1267-1270. 



CONTENTS. xvii 

PAGES 

Dative of Agent (with Perfect and Pluperfect 

Passive) 262 

Dative of Agent (with Verbal in -t4os or -tcoj/) 252 
Dative of Accompaniment (sometimes with 

ovtJj) 262, 263 

Dative of Time 263 

Dative of Place (Poetic) 263 

** " " Occasional Use in Prose (Names 

of Attic Demes) 264 

Local Datives as Adverbs 264 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Prepositions originally Adverbs 254 

Improper Prepositions 254 

Prepositions with Genitive, Dative, and Accusa- 
tive 254 

Uses of the Prepositions 254-262 

Uses of the Improper Prepositions 262 

Remark on the Prepositions 262, 263 

Prepositions in Composition taking their own 

Cases 264 

ADVERBS. 

Adverbs ,qualifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Ad- 
verbs 264 

SYNTAX OF THE VERB. 

VOICES. 

Active Voice 264,265 

Passive Voice 265 

Agent after Passive Verbs (vt6 and Genitive) 265 

Dative of Agent (see also 1186-1188) 265 

Passive Construction when Active has two 

Cases 265, 266 

Cognate Accusative made Subject of Passive. . 266 

Intransitive Active forms used as Passives — 266 

Middle Voice (three uses) 267, 268 

TENSES, 

Two relations denoted by the Tenses 268 

I. TENSES OP THE INDICATIVE. 

Tenses of the Indicative (Time of each) 268-271 

Primary and Secondary Tenses 271, 272 



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XVUl 



CONTENTS. 



II, TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. 

SBOnONB ^' ^^'^ ^ INDIRBCT DISCOUBSB. PAOXS 

1271. Present and Aorist chiefly used 272 

1272. Distinction between Present and Aorist here.. . 272 
1273-1276. Perfect not in Indirect Discourse (seldom used) 272, 273 
1276-1278. Future Infinitive not in Indirect Discourse (ex- 
ceptional) 273 

B. IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

1279. Definition o£ Indirect Discourse 273 

1280-1284. Optative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse... 274 

1286. Present Infin. and Optative include Imperfect. . 274 

1286. Infinitive after Verbs of Hoping, Promising, etc. 

(two Constructions allowed) 276 

1287. Future Optative used only in Indirect Discourse 275 

III. TENSES OP THE PARTICIPLE. 

1288. Expressing time relatively to leading Verb 276 

1289. Present Participle as Imperfect.* 276, 276 

1290. Aorist sometimes denoting same time as leading 

Verb 276 

IV. GNOMIC AND ITERATIVE TENSES. 

1291. Gnomic Present, expressing Habit or General Truth 276 
1292-1294. Gnomic Aorist " " " " 276 

1296. Gnomic Perfect " ** ** " 276 

1296-1298. Iterative Imperfect and Aorist with Ap 276, 277 

THE FABTICIiE "Av. 

1299-1301. Two Uses of dv 277 

"Ai' with the Indicative : — 

1302. Never with Present or Perfect 277 

1303. With Future (chiefly Homeric) 277, 278 

1304. With Secondary Tenses 278 

1306. "Ap with the Subjunctive 278 

1306, 1307. "Ap with the Optative (always Potential) 278 

1308, 1309. "Ap with the Infinitive and Participle (Potential) 278, 279 

1310, 1311. Position ot&p 279, 280 

1312. 'Ap repeated in long Apodosis 280 

1313-1316. Special Uses of&p 280 

THE MOODS. 
GENERAL STATEMENT AND CLASSIFICATION. 

1317-1319. Various Uses of Indicative 280, 281 

1320, 1321. Various Uses of Subjunctive 281 



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CONTENTS. xix 

SKCnONB PAOIS 

1322, 1323. Various Uses of Optative 281, 282 

1324. The Imperative 282 

1326. The Infinitive, Participle, etc 283 

1326. Classification of Constractions of the Moods. . . 283 

I. POTENTIAL OPTATIVE AND INDICATIVE. 

1327-1334. Potential Optative with &v 283-285 

1335-1341. Potential Indicative with Av : . . . 286, 286 

II. IMPERATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDEPENDENT SEN- 
TENCES. — INDEPENDENT SENTENCES WITH /iiy OR OTTCOS. 

1342, 1343. Imperative in Commands, Exhortations, etc. . . 287 

1344. 1346. First Person of Subjunctive in Exhortations ... 287 

1346. 1347. Present Imper. or Aorist Subj. in Prohibitions 287 
1348, 1349. Independent Subjunctive in Homer with /xij, ex- 
pressing fear or anxiety 287, 288 

1350, 1361. Subjunctive or Indicative with /lm> or fiii oi in 

cautious assertions or negations 288 

1352-1354. Future Indicative with Ihrws and dirojs fi-ff in 

Commands and Prohibitions 288 

HI. HOMERIC SUBJUNCTIVE LIKE FUTURE INDICATIVE. — 
INTERROGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

1355-1367. Homeric Use of the Subjunctive as simple Future 288, 289 

1358. 1369. Interrogative Subjunctive (Questions of Doubt) 289 

IV. SUBJUNCTIVE AND FUTURE INDICATIVE WITH ov fi"^. 

1860, 1361. As Emphatic Future and m Prohibitions 289 

V. FINAIi AND OBJECT CLAUSES AFTER Iva, ios, OTTdi^, 6<l>pa, 

AND /Ai;. 

1362, 1363. -Three Classes of these Clauses 290 

1364. Negative Particle in these Clauses 290 

I. PURE FINAL GLAUSES (AFTER ALL THE FINAL PARTICLES) : — 

1365-1368. With Subjunctive and Optative 290, 291 

1369. 1370. With Subjunctive after Secondary Tenses 291 

1371. With the Past Tenses of the Indicative 292 

n. OBJECT GLAUSES WITH ilxw? AFTER VERBS OF Striving ETC. : — 

1372. With Future Indicative or Optative 292 

1373. Same construction with Verbs of exhorting etc. 292 
1874-1376. Present or Aorist Subjunctive or Optative here 292, 293 

1377, Homeric Subj. and Opt with Ihrw or wj 293 



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XX 



CONTENTS. 



BE0TION8 PA6BB 

III. CLAUSES WITH fi'/j AFTER VERBS OF Fearing : — 

1378. With Subjunctive and Optative 293 

1379. With Future Indicative (rare) 293 

1380. With Present or Past Tenses of Indicative 294 

VI. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

1381. Definition of Protasis and Apodosis 294 

1382. Use of &v (Horn, k^) in Protasis and Apodosis. . 294 

1383. Negative Particles in Protasis and Apodosis 294 

1384. Distinction of Particular and General Sup- 

positions 294, 296 

1385-1389. Classification of Conditional Sentences 296, 296 

I. PRESENT OR PAST CONDITIONS WITH NOTHING IMPLIED. 

1390. Simple Supposition (chiefly Particular) with 

Indicative 296, 297 

1391. Future Indicative denoting Present Intention . . 297 
1393-1396. Present and Past General Suppositions 297, 298 

II. PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS WITH SUPPOSITIONS 
CONTRARY TO FACT. 

1397. Past Tenses of Indicative (4v in Apodosis) 298, 299 

1398. Present Optative used here in Homer in Present 

Conditions 299 

1399. Optative with k4 in Homer rarely Past in Apodosis 299 
1400-1402. "Edei, xpv^i ©tc. with Infinitive in Apodosis 

without &p 299, 300 

III. FUTURE CONDITIONS, MORE VIVID FORM. 

1403, 1404. Subjunctive with idv in Protasis 300 

1406. Future Indicative with el in Protasis 300 

1406, 1407. Subjunctive with shnple el (in Homer) 301 

IV. FUTURE CONDITIONS, LESS VIVID FORM. 

1408-1412. Optative in both Protasis and Apodosis 301 

PECULIAR FORMS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

1413. Protasis contained in Participle or other Word . . 301, 302 

1414-1417. Ellipsis of Protasis or Apodosis 302 

1418. Infinitive or Participle in Indirect Discourse 

forming Apodosis 303 

1419. Infinitive (not in Indirect Discourse) forming 

Apodosis 808 

1420. Apodosis implied in Context 308 

1421. Protasis and Apodosis of different Classes 303, 304 

1422. A^ introducing an Apodosis 804 

1423, 1424. W after Verbs of Wondering (^0avfidl:w) etc 304 



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CONTENTS. 



XXI 



SSOnONB PAOES 

VII. EELATIVE AND TEMPORAL SENTENCES. 

1425. Kelative includiDg Temporal Clauses 306 

1426. Definite and Indefinite Antecedent explained . . 305 

1427. Relative with Definite Antecedent 305 

1428. Relative with Indefinite Antecedent. — Condi- 

tional Relative 305, 306 

1429. Four Forms of Conditional Relative Sentence 

corresponding to those of ordinary Protasis 

(1385-1389) 306 

1430. I. (a) Simple Present or Past Conditions 306 

1431, 1432. (6) Present and Past General Conditions .... 306, 307 

1433. II. Present and Past Unfulfilled Conditions ... 307 

1434, 1435. in. Future Conditions (more Vivid Form) .... 307 

1436. IV. Future Conditions (less Vivid Form) 307 

1437, 1438. Peculiar Forms in Conditional Relative Sentences 307, 308 

1439-1441. Assimilation in Conditional Relative Sentences 308, 309 

1442-1444. Relative Clauses expressing Purpose 309 

1446-1448. Relative Clauses expressing Result 309, 310 

1449-1469. Consecutive Clauses with wo-re or us, with 

Infinitive and Finite Moods 310, 311 

1460. 'E0* (f or i(t> (fre vnth Infin. or Fut. Ind 311 

1461, 1462. Causal Relative Sentences 312 

TEMPOBAI. PARTICLES SIGNIFYING UfUU AND Before. 

1463-1468. Constructions after ?ws, ^crre, &xph /*^XP*» ^i>P<^i 

until 312, 313 

1469-1473. Uplv with the Infinitive and the Finite Moods. . 313, 314 

1474. ILplv li, irp&repop Ij, irpdaOev 1j, etc. used like irplp 314 

VIII. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

1475. Direct and Indirect Quotations and Questions 314,315 
1476-1479. Indirect Quotations and Questions, how introduced 315 

1480. Meaning of Expression Indirect Discourse 315 

1481-1486. General Principles of Indirect Discourse. — Use 

of 4^. — Negative Particles 315, 316 

SIMPLE SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

1487. Indicative and Optative after Ihi or &s, and in 

Indirect Questions 816, 317 

1488. Pres. Opt. occasionally represents Imperfect . . . 317 

1489. Pres. and Perf. changed to Imperf. and Pluperf. 317 
1490-1492. Subjunctive or Optative in Indirect Questions, 

representing Interrogative Subjunctive 317, 318 

1493. Indicative er Optative with &p (unchanged) .... 318 

1494. Infinitive and Participle in Indirect Quotations 818, 319 



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XXll 



CONTENTS. 



SBOnOlTB PA6BB 

1495. When Infin. is said to be in Indirect Discourse 319 

1496. Negative of Infin. and Part, (sometimes /ii^) . . . 319 

INDIRECT QUOTATION OF COMPLEX SENTENCES. 

1497. Kule for Dependent Clauses in Indirect Quotation 319, 320 

1498. One Verb changed to Optative, another xm- 

changed 320 

1499. Dependent Aorist Indie, not changed to Optative 320 

1500, 1501. Special Cases 320 

1502, 1503. Single Dependent Clauses in Indirect Discourse, 

independently of the rest of the Sentence. — 

Four Classes 321, 322 

1504. Oi>x ^t» oix ^ws, /^^ ^t, /A^ fivtas 322 

IX. CAUSAL SENTENCES. 

1505. Causal Sentences with Indicative 322, 323 

1506. Optative sometimes used after Past Tenses 323 

X. EXPRESSION OP A WISH. 

1607-1510. Optative in Wishes (with or without eWe etc.) . . 323, 324 

1511. Indicative in Wishes (with etOe etc.) 324 

1512-1515. "iUpcXop with Infinitive in Wishes 324, 325 

THE INFINITIVE. 

1516. Infinitive as Verbal Noun (with and without 

Article) 325 

INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. 

1517. Infinitive as Subject, Predicate, or Appositive. . 825 

1518. Infinitive as Object of a Verb : — 
1519-1521. Not in Indirect Discourse (chiefly Present and 

Aorist) 326 

1522-1525. In Indirect Discourse (with Time of Tenses 

preserved) 326, 327 

1526-1531. Infinitive with Adjectives, Adverbs, and Nouns 828 

1532, 1533, Infinitive of Purpose (or Result, Horn.) 329 

1534, 1536. Absolute Infinitive. — 'EjkcJ^ eli^at etc 329 

1536-1540, Infinitive in Commands, Wishes, Laws, etc 329, 880 

INFINITIVE WITH THE ARTICLE. 

1541. Character of Articular Infinitive 830 

1542-1544. Infinitive with r6 as Subject or Object 380, 881 

1545. Infinitive with t6 with Adjectives and Nouns. . . 881 

1646. Infinitive with roO, t$, or r6 after Prepositions 881 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONTENTS. 



zziu 



Bscnoirs 
1547, 1648. 
1549-1553. 

1554. 
1555. 



Infin. with roC or rf in Various Constmctioiui 
Infinitive with or without roO or rod fi^, t6 or rd 
fif/j (or /i,^ od), after Verbs of Hindrance etc. 
Infinitiye (generally with r6) in Exclamations 
Infinitive with Adjuncts and r6, as Noun 



FA«BS 

881,882 

882,888 
888 
888 



1557, 1558. Participle as Verbal Adjective. — Three Uses . . 884 

ATTRIBUTIVE PABTIGIPLB. 

1559. Participle qualifying a Noun (as Adjective) 884 

1560, 1561. Participle with Article as Substantive 884, 886 

1562. Neuter Participle with Article as Abstract Noun 885 

CIRCUMSTANTIAL PABTICIPLB. 

1563, 1-8. Various Uses of this Participle 885,886 

1564r-1667. Peculiar Idioms 886,837 

1568. Genitive Absolute 387 

1569, 1670. Accusative Absolute 887 

1571. ''Qy omitted (rarely) 887,888 

1572-1577. Various Adverbs with Circumstantial Participle 888, 839 

SUPPLEMENTARY PARTICIPLE. 

1578, 1579. Showing to what the action of the Verb relates 889 

NOT IN INDIBBGT DISGOUBSB. 

1580, 1581. With Verbs signifying to begin, continue^ cease, 

repent,etc 339,840 

1582, 1583. With Verbs signifying to perceive, flndj or repre- 
sent 340 

1584. BovX6/ieyot, ifddfuwos, etc., agreeing with Dative 340 

1585. With vepu)pd<a and i4>opd<o, overlook, see, allow 340 

1586. With Xawedwa, rvyxdvuf, and tf^ediw 340, 341 

1587. With JtareX^w, ©rxo/Mu, etc 341 

IN INDIRSCT DISGOUBSB. 

1588. Participle (like Infin.) with verbs signifying to 

see, J^ar, learn, perceive, know, etc 341, 342 

1589. A^X^t or ipav€p6s elfu with Participle 342 

1590. Xvvoida and avyyiyvdxrKa with a Participle in 

Nominative or Dative 342 

1591, 1592. Verbs of 1588 with other Constructions 342 

1593. 'Os with Participle of Indirect Discourse 342 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XXIV 



CONTENTS. 



VERBAL ADJECTIVES IN -t^os AND -riov. 

8B0TI0HS PAOB8 

1694. Two Constructions 343 

1696, 1696. Personal Construction of Verbal in -rios 343 

1697-1699. Impersonal Verbal in -riov (or -r^a) 343 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 

1600. Direct and Indirect Interrogatives 344 

1601. Two or more Interrogatives with one Verb 344 

1602. Interrogative as Predicate 344 

1603. Direct Interrogatives, — apa, i5, od, /iti}, fiQv, ot>- 

Kovv 344 

1604. "AWo Tiij; or AXXo rt ; 346 

1606. Indirect Questions with el (Homeric fj or el) ... 346 

1606. Alternative Questions, — USrepov , , . fj, etc. . . . 346 

NEGATIVES. 

1607. Two negatives, o6 and fiij 346 

1608. Oi with independent Indicative and Optative . . 346 

1609. El oi or e^ fi-^ in Indirect Questions 346 

1610. MiJ with Subjunctive and Imperative 346 

1611. Negative with Infinitive 346 

1612-1614. Negative with Participles and Adjectives 346 

1616, Mi> with Infin. after Verbs with Negative Idea 346 
1616, 1617. M^ oi with Infinitive (after Negative Leading 

Verb) 347 

1618, 1619. Two or more Negatives in one Clause 347 



PART V. 

VERSIFICATION. 

1620, 1621. Foot. — Ictus. — Arsis and Thesis 348 

1622-1624. Rhythm and Metre 360 

1626. Ictus and Word-accent 360 

1626. Long and Short Syllables. — Times 360 

1627, 1628. Enumeration of Feet 360, 361 

1629, 1630. Place of the Ictus in a Foot 351 

1631. Resolution and Contraction 361, 352 

1632. Syncope 352 

1633. Irrational Time 352 

1634. Cyclic Dactyl and Anapaest 352 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 



SXCnONB PAOXB 

1635. Anacrusis 362 

1636. Syllaba Anceps 352 

1637. Rhythmical Series and Verse 353 

1638. Close of Verse 353 

1639. Catalexis 353 

1640. Pauses 353 

1641. Brachycatalectic and Hypercatalectic Verses. . . 353 
1642-1644. Caesura and Diaeresis 353, 354 

1645. Names of Verses 354 

1646. Monometers, Dimeters, etc 354 

1647. Tripodies, Tetrapodies, ete 355 

1648. Rising and Falling Rhythms 355 

1649. Distichs, Systems, Strophes, etc 355 

1650-1656. Trochaic Rhythms 355-357 

1657-1667. Iambic Rhythms 357-360 

1668-1674. Dactylic Rhythms 360-362 

1675-1678. Anapaestic Rhythms 362-364 

1679^1683. Logaoedic Rhythms 364-366 

1684, 1685. Dactylo-Epitritic Rhythms 366, 367 

1686. Rhythms with Feet of Five or Six Times 367 

1687. Choriambic Rhythms 367 

1688. Ionic Rhythms 367 

1689. Cretic and Paeonic Rhythms 368 

1690. Bacchic Rhythms 368 

1691. Dochmiacs 368 



APPENDIX. 
CataLooub op Verbs 



369-406 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PARALLEL REFERENCES 



Fbom thb Edition of 1879 to the FsBSBirr Editioit. 



OLD 


NEW 


OLD 


NEW 


OLD 


NEW 


1 


1 


11 


2, N.4 


56 


17, 1, Note 


94 


Notel 


2 




N.6 


42 


2 


95,1 


N.2 


3 


12 


1 


48 


Note 


95,3&5 


2 


5 




2 


54 


3 


95,2 


Note 


6 




N.l 


61 


18, 1, 2 


96 


3 


7 




N.2 


50 


2, Note 


97 


Note 


10 




N. 3 


53 


19,1 


98 


4,1 


11 




N.4 


52 


2 


99 


N. 1 


12 


13 


1 


56 


3 


100 


N.2 


13 




N.l 


57; 59 


N.l 


101 


2 


15 




N.2 


60 


N.2 


102 


5,1 


16 




2 


62; 63 


20 


103 


2 


18 




3 


63 


1,2,3 


104 


6 


19 


14 


1 


64 


21,1 


106 


1 


20 




2 


65 


Rem. 


107,2 


2 


21; 22 




N.l 


66 


N.l 


108 


Note 


23; 24 




N.2 


67 


N.2 


109 


7 


26 


16 


1 


68,1 


2 


110, 1-3 


Note 


26 




2 


69 


3 


110,4 


8 


34 


16 




70 


22,1 


111 


9 


35; 36 




1 


71 


2 


112 


1 


37 




N.l 


72 


N.l 


113 


2 


38,2 




N.2 


73 


N.2 


114 


Note 


39,1 




2 


74 


23,1 


115,1 


3 


38,1 




3 


75 


Note 


115,2 


Note 


39,1&2 




Note 


76; 77 


2 


116 


4 


38,4 




4, Note 


88 


24,1 


117 


N. 1 


39,3 




5 


78,1 


Note 


118 


N.2 


39, 4 & 5 




6 


78, 2 & 3 


2 


119 


5 


40,1 




N.l 


79 


3 


120 


Remark 


40,2 




N.2 


80 


25,1 


121 


10 


47 




N.3 


81 


Note 


122 


11,1 


42 




N.4 


83 


2 


123; 124 


(a) 


43,1 




7 


84 


Note 


125 


(&) 


43,2 




(a) 


84,1 


3 


127 


2 


44 




(&) 


84,3 


N.l 


128 


N.l 


45 




(c) 


84,4 


N.2 


129 


N.2 


46 




id) 


84,5&6 


26 


130 


N. 3 


47,2 


17 


1 


92; 93 


N.l 


132; 133, 1 


xxvi 















Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PARALLEL BEFERENCES. 



XXVU 



OliD 


NEW 


OLD 


MBW 


OLD 


NBW 


26 N.2 


134 


40 


189 


63, 2, N. 2 


319 


N. 3 (1) 


131,4; 


41 


190 


3 


263 




133,2 


Note 


191 


N.l 


265 


(2) 


131, 6; 


42,1 


192; 193 


N.2 


266 




131,2 


Note 


195 


N.3 


267 


(3) 


131,1; 


2 


196; 197 


N.4 


264 




133,3 


N.l 


199 


64 


268 


N.4 


135 


N.2 


200 


Note 


269; 270 


27 


140 


43 


201 


56 


242; 246 


1 


141,1 


Note 


203 


N.l 238-241; 243; 244 


2 


141,2 


44 


204 


N.2 


248 


3 


141,3 


45,1 


205 


N.3 


245; 247 


4 


141,4 


Note 


206 


66,1 


228 


28,1-3 


142; 143 


2 


207 


2 & Note 237, 1 


N. 1 


144 


Note 


167; 208 


57 


273 


N.2 


145 


46 


209 


1 


274,1 


N. 3 


146 


1 


209,4 


N.l 


274; 275 


29 


136; 137 


2 


209,1 


N.2 


276; 279 


N. 1 


138 


3 


209,2 


2 


277,1; 278 


N.2 


139 


4 


209,3 


3 


277,2; 278 


30,1 


147 


N.l 212,1; 210,1&3 


58 


280 


2 


148 


N.2 


212,2 


1-3 


281-286 


3 


149 


N.3 


213 


59 


286 


31 


150 


47,1 


214,1; 


60,1 


287 


32,1 


151 


214, 2 & 3; 216 


2 


288 


2 


152 


N.l 


217 


3 


289 


Note 


153; 154 


N.2 


218 


4 


290 


33,1 


Vi6 


48,1 


219 


5 


291 


2 


166 


2 


220-222 


61 


292-294 


N.l 


157 


3 


223 


N.l 


295 


N.2 


168 


49 


224 


N.2 


296 


N.3 


159 


60 


226 


N.3 


297 


3 


160; 161 


51,1 


226 


62, 1, 2^ 


298 


N.l 


162 


2 


208,3 


3 


299-301 


N.2 


163 


Note 


88,1; 90,3 


Note 


302 


34 


164; 165 


52,1 


227 


63 


304; 306 


Note 


166 


Note 


86; 88,1 


Note 


307 


36 


168 


2 


228; 234 


64 


305; 306 


36 


169 


N.l 


228;.230;235 


65 


310 


Note 


170 


N.2 


39,2 


66 


312; 313 


37,1 


171; 179 


N.3 


231 


N.l 


333 


2 


173-175 


N.4 


232 


N.2 


344 


N.l 


182 


53 


249; 256 


N.3 


316 


N.2 


m 


1 


249; 250 


N.4 


343; 345 


N.3, 4 


178 


N.l 


254 


67,1,2 318-320; 324; 


38 


183; 184 


• N.2 


251 


325; 328; 329 


N.l 


186 


N.3 


256 


N.l 


322; 74 


N.2 


187 


2 


257 


N.2 


332 


39 


188 


N.l 


261 


N.3 


325-327 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XXVlll 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



NEW OLD 



68 



70 



71 



72,1 
2 



Note 

Note 

N.l 
N.2 



N.l 

N.2 
N.3 

N.4 

N.5 



73,1 



N.l 
N.2 
L 
Note 



74,1 



76 



76 
77,1 



Note 

Note 

N.l 
N.2 

Note 



334; 335; 338 
336; 337 
340; 341 
342 
346 
347 
348 
350 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 
365 



N.l 
N.2 
N.3 



367 



370 
371 

372; 373 
374 
375 

376; 377 
378 
379 



N.l 381; 382,2 
N. 2 (a) 382, 1 



78 
79,1 



N.3 

N.4 
N.5 

N.l 

N.2 

N.l 
N.2 
N.3 

N.4 



(b) 



382,3 
383 
384 
385 
386 
387 



391; 392 
393 
394 



NEW OLD 



79, 1, N. 5 

N. 6 

N. 7 

2 

Note 



Note 



N.l 
N.2 

N. 1 
N.2 
N.3 



84,1 
2 



N.l 

N.2 



85 



87,1 



8,1 



N.l 
N.2 

Note 
I 
Note 

Note 
2 

Note 
89 

Note 
90,1 
2 

N.l 

N.2 

N.3 
91 

Note 
92, 1, 2 & Note 



3 



Note 



i-vn 



396 
397 
398 
i99; 989, 2 
400 
401 

402; 403 
404 
406 
407 
408 
409 
411 
412 
413 
415 
416 
417 
418 
419 
420 

421; 425 
426 

424; 428 

429; 430 
434 
436 
438 
441 
442 
443 
444 
445 
446 
447 
448 
449 
450 
451 

452; 453 

454 

458; 

459; 567 
460 
461 
459 
465-457 
462 
463 



96, 



2 {a)-ic) 
3 
Note 
94 456 

95,1 
I 
II 

m 

Note 
2,1 
II 
III 
Note 
I 

n 
m 

N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
97, 1&2 
3 
4 
N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
98 

Rem. 
N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
N.4 
N.5 
N. 6 
99,1 
2(a) 
(6) 
(c) 
Rem. 
100,1 
2 
N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
N.4 
N.6 
101,1 

Note 
2 



464 

465; 466 

467 

468 

; 468; 561 

469; 470 
474 
476 
478 
472 

474; 475 
477 
479 
473 
480 
481 
482 
483 
484 
485 
486, 1&2 
487,1 
487,2 
488 
489 
490 
492 
493 
495 
496 
497 
498 
499 
737 

510; 620 

611,1 

611,2 

621 

612; 520 
513 
616 
616 
617 
634 
636 
614 
621 
522 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXIX 



OliE 


> 




NEW 


OLD 




NEW 


OLD 


NEW 


101, 


2, N. 1 




524 


108, V, N. 1(&) 


611 


110 


, IV, (a) 698 




N. 2 ' 




625 


N.2 




612 






(l)-(6) 699- 




3 




526 


VI 




613 






702 




4 




627 


N. 1 




616 






(6) 682; 683 


102 




529-531 


N.2 




616 






(l)-(6) 684 




N. 1 




532 


N.3 




617 






Note 686; 694 




N.2 




633 


N. 4 




618 






(c) 703 


103 






618 


VII 


653 


654 






N.l 704 




Note 




519 


Note 




656 






N.2 706 


101 






637 


VIII 




621 






(d) 687; 692 




N. 1 




538 


Note 




622 






N.l 690 




N.2 




639 


Rem. 




634 






N. 2 See 693 


106, 


1 




640 


109,1 


635 


636 






N.3 691; 773 




N. 1 




641 


N. 1 


471 


638 






N. 4 774 




N.2 




643 


N.2 




639 




V 676 




N.3 




644 


2 


640 


641 






N.l 676 




2 


646,1 


3 


643 


644 






N.2 677 




Note 


546,2 


N. 1 


693 


689 






N. 3 678 




3 




546 


N.2 


See 692 




VI 707; 710 


106, 


1 


647 


548 


4 




646 






N.l 708 




Note 




560 


N. 1 




646 






N. 2, 3 709 




2 




649 


N.2 




711 




VII 712; 715 


107 






567 


5 




672 






N. 1 716 


108 






668 


6 




647 






N. 2 713 




I 




569 


Note 




648 






N. 3 714 




Note 




671 


7(a) 




649 


111 




717 




n,i 




572 


(6) 




660 


112 


1 


551 




2 




674 


(c) 


661 


662 




2 


562 




Note 


575 


642 


8 


653 


667 






Note 656 




ni 


576-678 


(a) 


668,1 




3, 


4 567-661 




IV 




579 


(&) 


658,2 


113 


1 


See 561, 1; 623 




1(a) 




680 


Note 




669 




2, 


N. 1 565, 6; 624 




Note 


582 


683 


Rem. 




661 






N.2 625 




(&) 


586 


588 


110,1 




660 






N. 3 556, 2 




N. 1 




690 


11,1 




662 






N. 5 556, 3 




N.2 




591 


2 




663 


114 




718 




2 




592 


N. 1 (a) 666, 1 




(end) 721 




(c) 




593 




(6) 665, 2 






N.l 723; 726 




(d) 


594 


696 




(c) 665, 3 






N.2 724; 727 




N. 1 




598 




(d) 665, 4 


115 




730 




N.2 




599 


N.2 




666 




1 


731 




N.3 




600 


N.3 




667 




2 


740 




3(e) 




601 


N.4 




668 




3 


739 




Note 




602 


111,1 




669 




4 


737 




v,i 




603 


N. 1 




670 






N.l 736 




2 




605 


N.2 




671 






N. 2 732 




3 




607 


2 




672 


116 


,1 


663 




4 




606 


N.l 




673 




2 


746; 747 




N. 1 


(a) 


610 


N.2 




674 




3 


757 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XXX 



PAKALLEL REFERENCES. 



NBJW OLD 



117, 1 664; 759; 766 

1 (end) 766-769 

2 770; 772; 776 
Note 337 

3 776,1 
N. 1 776, 2 
N. 2 776, 3 

118,1 721; 733 

Note 734 

2 720; 733 
l^ote 761; 748 

3 706 

5 486, 2; 701 
Note 701 

6 1254 

119, 1-9 777, 1-9 

10 778 

11 779 

12 (a) 780, 1 
(6) 780, 2 

(c) 780, 3 

(d) 780, 4 

13 781 

14 782 

15 783 

120, 1 (a) 784, 1 

(6) 784, 2 

(c) 784, 3 

(d) 784, 4 

(e) 784, 5 
• 2(a) 785,1 

(&) 785, 2 

(c) 785, 3 

(d) 785, 4 
3 (a) 786, 1 

(6) 786, 2 

Rem. before 121 

468; 500; 601 

121,1 667; 658; 627 

N. 1 801; 802,1 

N.2 629 

2(a)-(/) 664,1-6 

3 794,2 

122 602; 793 

1 794 

2 797 
N.l 630; 741 
N. 2 ■ 729; 742 
N. 3 632 



NEW OLD 



122, 2, N. 4 724 

N. 6 728; 631 

N. 6 803, 1 

123, 1 604; 606 

2 606 

3 609 
124,1 607; 608 

2 804 
126, 1, 2 794, 1, 2 

N.l 795 

N.2 796 

3 798; 799 
N.l 801 
N.2 802; 803,2 

4 804 

5 797 
126, 1-5 787, 1-6 

6 800,2 

7 (a) 788, 1 
(6) 788, 2 
(c) 788, 3 

8 789 

9 791 

10 792 
127 806 

1 806,1 
N.1,2 806,2,3; 807 

II 808,1 

N.1-3 808,2; 809 

in 810, 1 

N.1,2 810,2; 811 

IV 812 

N. 1, 2 813 

V 814-816 

Note 817 

VI 818 

Note 819 

VII 820 

Note 821 

128, 1 822 

2 (a) 823 
(&) 824 
Note 826 

3 826 
N.l 827 
N.2 828 
N. 3 829 
N.4 830 
N. 6 831 ; 



NEW 



129,1 832 

2 (a) • 833, 1; 841 
Note 841 
(b) 833, 1, 2; 841 
Note 833, 3 

3 834 
N.l 836 
N.2 836 

4 837 
Note 837 (end) 

6 838 

Note 839 

6 843 

7 842 (837) 
Note 842 

8 844 
Note 846 

9 846 
{ay{c) 846, 1-3 
Note 847 

10 848,1 
Note 848, 2 

11 849, 1 

12 860 

13 861 

14 862 
Note 863 

16 864 

16 849, 4 

17 865 

18 869; 860 
130, 1-8 861, 1-8 

N.l 868 

N.2 866 

N. 3 867 

131 . 869 

Rem. 870 

1 871 
Note 872 

2 873 
(a) 873, 1 
(&) 873, 2 

3 874 

4 (a)-(d) 876, 1-4 
N.l 876 
N.2 877 

5 878 

6 879; 881 
Note 880 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXXI 



ouc 


i 


NEW 


OLE 




NBW 


OLD 




NEW 


131, 


7 


882 


138, 


N.7 


926 


143, 


2 


964 


132 




883 




N.8 


927; 928 


144. 


1 


985 




1 


884 


139, 


1 


932,1 




Note 


986 




Note 


885 




Note 


932,2 




2(a) 


987 




2 


886 




2 


933 




<&) 


988 




Note 


887 




Note 


934 


145, 


1 


989,1 




3 


888 


140 




935 




Note 


990 




Rem. 


889 




N.l 


936 




2 


989,3 


133, 


1 


890 




N.2(aHd) 




Note 


992 




N.l 


891 






937,1-4 


146 




993 




2 


892 




N.3 


938 




N.l 


994 




Note 


893 




N.4 


939 




N.2 


995 


134 


1 


894 




N.5 


940 




N.3 


996 




2 


895,1 


141 




941 


147 




996 




3 895, 2 & 3 




N.l 


942 




N.l 


909 




N.l 


896 




(a) 


943 




N.2 


1000 




N. 1 (a)-(g) 




(&) 


944 




N.3 


1002 






897, l-nS 




(c) 


945; 946 




N.4 


1003 




N.2 


898 




(d) 


947 


148 




1004 


135, 


1 


899,1 




N.2 


949 




N.l 


1006 




2 


899,2 




N.3 


952 




N.2 


1006 




3 


900 




N.4 


953 




N.3 


1007 




N.l 


901 




N.5 


954 




N.4 


1010 




N.2 


902 




N.6 


955,1 


149, 


1 


1011 




N.3 


903 




N.7 


955,2 




2 


1012 




N.4 


904 




N.8 


956 




(last part) 


1013 




N.5 


905 


142, 


1 959, 1; 962 




Note 


1014 


136 




907 




Note 


960 


150 




1015 




Rem. 


908 




2 


959,2 




Note 


1017 




N.l 


909 




Rem. 


963 


151 




1019 




N.2 


910 




N.l 


964 




N.l 


1020 




N. 3 (a) 


927;928 




N.2 


965 




N.2 (a) 1021, a, 6 




(&) 


931 




N. 3 (a) 


966 




(b) 


1021, c 




N.4 


930 




(&) 


967 




N.3 


1023 


137 




911 




N.4 


968 




N.4 


1024 




N.l 


913 




N.5 


969 


152 


1026; 1027 




N.2 • 


914 




N.6 


970 




N.l 


1028 




N.3 


915 




3 971; 


972; 973 




N.2 


1029 




N.4 


916 




4 


974 




N.3 


1030 


138 




918 




N.l 


975 


153 




1031 




Rem. 


919 




N.2 


976 




N.l 


1032 




N.l (a) 


923 




N. 3 (a) 


977,1 




N.2 


1033 




N. 2 (a) 


924, a 




(&) 


977,2 




N.3 


1034 




(&) 


924,6 




N.4 


978 




N.4 


1035 




(c) 


925 




N.5 


979 




N.5 


1036 




N.3 


920 




N.6 


980 


154 




1037 




N.4 


921 


143, 


1 


981 




Note 


1038 




N.5 


388; 410 




N.l 


962 


155 




1039 




N.6 


922 




N.2 


963 


156 




1040 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XXXll 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



OLD 



NBW OLD 



156, Note 1041 

Rem. before 157 1042 

157, 1 1043 

2 1044 

Note 1045 

Rem. before 168 1046 

158 1047 
N. 1 1048 
N. 2 1049 
N. 3 1050 

159 1061 
Rem. 1052 
N. 1 1053 
N.2 1064 
N.3 1056 
N. 4 1076 
N. 5 1067 

160, 1 1068 

Note 1069 

2 1060 

Note 1061 

161 1062 
Note 1063; 1064 

162 1065 

163 1066; 1067 
N. 1 1067 
N. 2 1068 

164 1069 
N. 1 1070 
N. 2 1071 
N. 3 1072 

165 1073 
N. 1 1074 
N.l (last pt.) 1241 
N. 2 1075 

166 1077 
N. 1 1078 
N.2 1080 
N. 3 1081 
N. 4 1078 

Rem. before 167 1083 

167 1084 
1-5 1085, 1-5 
6 1085,7 

Note 1086 

168 1088 
N.l 1090 
N.2 1091 
N.3 1092 



NEW OLD 



169,1 

2 

] 

3 
170,1 

2 
] 
171,1 



Note 



Note 

Note 
J 

N.l 
N.2 
N.3 
Rem. 
J 
Note 



172,1 
2 



N.l 
N.2 



173,1 



2 
] 

3 
174 
175,1 



N.l 

N.2 
5 
Note 



N.l 

N.2 



2 
176,1 

2 
177 
178 

179,1 
2 

180 
1 



Note 



N.l 
N.2 



181 



Note 



182,1 



Note 



1094, 1 & 7 
1096 
1096 
1094 
1097,1 
1097,2 
1098 
1099 
1100 
1102 
.1103 
1106 
1106 
1107; 1108 
1109; 1110 
1164 
1112 
1113 
1114 
(a) 1115 

(6) 1116 

1126 
1127 
1128 
1121 
1123; 1124 
1129 
1117 
1163 
1164 
1166 
1120 
1130 
1131 
1132 
1133 
1136 
1136 
1137 
1139 
1140 
1140 
1141 
1142 
1143 
1146 
1147 
1148-1160 
1151 



183 1152 

Rem. before 184 1157 

184, 1 1168 

2 1159; 1160 
N. 1 (a) 1161 

(6) 1162 

N. 2 1163 

3 1165 
N. 1 1166 
N. 2 1167 
N.3 1168; 1169 
N. 4 1170 
N.5 1684 
N. 6 1171 

4 1173 

5 1172 
186 1174 

186 1176 
N. 1 1177 
N. 2 1178 

187 1179; 1180 
188, 1 1181 

N. 1 1182 

N. 2 1183 

2 1184; 1186 

3 1186; 1187 

4 1188 

6 1189; 1190 
Note 1191 

189 1192 
N. 1 1193 
N. 2 1194 

190 1196 
N. 1 1197 
N. 2 1198 

191 1199; 1200; 

1220 

I-VI 1201-1219 

(w. prepositions 

alphabetically) 

N.l 1221 

N. 2 1222, 1 

N. 3 1222, 2 

N.4 1223 

N.5 1224 

N.6 1226 

193 1227 

194 1228 

195 1230 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



XXXIU 



OLD 




NBW 


OLD 




NBW 


OLD 




NEW 


195, N. 1 




1231 


206,2 




1292 


218, 


N.l 


1379 


N. 2 




1232 


N.l 




1293 




N.2 


1360 


196 




1233 


N.2 




1294 




N. 3 


1380 


197,1 


1234 


;1236 


3 




1295 


219, 


1 


1381 


N. 1 




1237 


206 




1296 




2 


1382 


N.2 




1239 


Rem. 




1297 




3 


1383,1 


2 




1238 


Note 




1298 




Note 


1383,2 


198 




1240 


207 




1299 


220 


1384; 1385-1387 


199,1-3 


1242,1-3 


1 


1299,1 




Rem. 


1 1388 


Rem. 




1243 


2 1299,2 


1300 




Rem. 2 1389 


N. 1 




1244 


Rem. 




1301 


221 




1390 


N.2 




1245 


208,1 




1302 




Note 


1391 


N. 3 


1246, 


1247 


2 




1303 


222 




1397 


N.4 




1248 


3 




1304 




N.l 


1402 


200 


1250 


1251 


209,1 


1305,1 




N.2 


1400 


N. 1 




1252 


2 


1305,2 




N.3 


1398; 1399 


N.2 




1256 


210 




1306 


223 




1403 


N. 3 


(a> 


1256 


Note 




1307 




Rem. 


1404 




(&) 


1257 


211 




1308 




N.l 


1406 


N.4 




1268 


Note 




1309 




N.2 


1406; 1306,2 


N. 6 


(a) 1269, 1 


212,1 




1310 


224 




1408 




(&) 


1260 


2 




1312 




N.l 


1332; 1333 




(c) 1259, 2 


3 




1313 




N.2 


1412 


N.6 




1263 


4 




1314 


225 




1393,1,2 


N.7 




1264 


Note 




1316 




Rem. 


1394 


N. 8 




1265 


213,1 


1317 


1318 




N.l 


1396 


N. 9 




1266 


Rem. 




1319 




N.2 


1396 


201 




1267 


2 




1320 


226, 


1 


1413 


Rem. 




1268 


Rem. 




1321 




2(a) 


1329; 1340 


N. 1 




1269 


3 




1322 




(b) 


1327; 1328; 


N.2 




1270 


Rem. 




1323 






1335; 1336 


202 




1271 


4 




1324 




N.l 


1330; 1328 


1 




1272 


6 




1325 




N.2 


1337 


2 




1273 


214 




1326 




3 


1418 


N. 1 




1274 


215 




1362 




4 


1419 


N.2 




1276 


Rem. 




1363 




N.l 


1420 


3(a) 




1276 


N.l 




1364 




N.2 


1416 


(&) 




1277 


N.2 


1362 


1368 


227, 


1 


1421,1 


Note 




1278 


216,1 




1366 




Note 


1421,2 


4 




1287 


N.l 




1366 




2 


1422 


Rem. before 203 


1279 


N.2 




1367 


228 




1423 


203 


1280 


1281 


2 


1369 


1370 




Note 


1424 


N.l 




1285 


3 




1371 


Rem. before 229 1425 


N.2 




1286 


217 




1372 


229 




1426 


N. 3 




1287 


N.l 


1374 


1375 


230 




1427 


201 




1288 


N.2 




1373 


231 




1428,1 


N.l 




1289 


N. 3 




1377 




Note 


1428,2 


N.2 




1290 


N.4 


1352-1364 


232 




1429 


206,1 




1291 


218 




1378 




1 


1430 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XXXIV 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



OLD 


NBW 


OLD 




NEW 


OLD 




NEW 


232,2 


1433 


247, 


N.3 


1500 


265 




1532 


3 


1434 




N. 4 


1501 




Note 


1533 


Note 


1435 


248, 


1-4 


1502,1-4 


266, 


1 


1449 


4 


1436 




Note 


1503 




2 


1453 


233 


1431 


249, 


1 


1478, 1 




N.l 


1456 


N. 1 


1432 




2 


1478, 2 




N.2 


1449 


N.2 


1438 


250 




1505 




N.3 


1455 


234 


1437 




Note 


1506 




N.4(a) 


1458 


236,1 


1439 


261, 


1 


1507 




(6) 


1631 


2 


1440 




N.l 


1508 




N.5 


1467 


Note 


1441 




N.2 


1509 


267 




1460 


236 


1442 




N.3 


1610 


268 




1634 


N. 1 


1443 




2 


1611 


269 




1636 


N.2 


1460 




N.l 


1512 




Note 1536; 1637 


N.3 


1444 




N.2 


1513 


270 




1637 


237 


1449 


252 




1342 




Note 


1538 


Rem. 


1450 




Note 


1343 


271 




1540 


Note 


1445 


253 




1344 


272 




1554 


238 


1461 




Note 


1346 


273 




1525 


239,1 


1464 


264 




1346 


274 


1470, 


1471, 1 


2 


1465 




Note 


1347 




Note 


1474 


N.l 


1466; 1473 


256 




1355 


275 




1557 


N.2 


1467 




Note 


1356 


276, 


1 


1669 


240,1 1469; 1471,2 


256 




1358; 1359 




2 


1560 


2 


1470 


267 




1360 


277 




1563 


Note 


1474 




Note 


1361 




1 


1663,1 


241,1 


1475 


268 




1516 




2 1563, 2 & 3 


2 


1476 


259 




1517 




3 


1663,4 


Note 


1477 




Note 


1542 




4 


1563,6 


3 


1479 


260 




1518 




6 


1563,6 


Note 


1480 




1 


1519 




6 


1563,7 


242,1 


1481 




N.l 


1520 




N. 1 (a) 


1572 


Note 


1482 




N.2 


1543; 1544 




(&) 


1573 


2 


1483 




2 


1522 




N. 2 (a) 


1574 


3 


1484 




N.l 


1523 




(6) 


1675 


Note 


1485 




N.2 


1624 




N.3 1576; 1577 


4 


1486; 1496 


261, 


1 


1626 


278, 


1 


1568 


243 


1487 




N.l 


1526; 1621 




Note 


1668 


N.l 


1488 




N.2 


1646 




2 


1569 


N.2 


1489 




2 


1628 




Note 


1670 


244 


1490 




Rem. 


1629 


279 




1678 


N.l 


1492 




Note 


1630 




1 


1680 


N.2 


1491 


262, 


1 


1646 




N.l 


1681 


245 


1493 




2 


1647 




N.2 


1262 


246 


1494 


263, 


1 


1649 




2 


1582 


Note 


1495 




Note 


1560 




Note 


1683 


247 


1497 




2 


1551 




3 


1686 


N.l 


1498 




Note 


1562 




4 


1686 


N.2 


1499 


264 




1565 




Note 


1687 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PARALLEL REFERENCES. 



NEW OLD 



N.l 

N.2 
N.3 

N.4 



281 



283 



Note 



Note 



8 
9 
284,1 
2 
3 



1588 
1589 
1590 

1591; 1592 
1593 
1594 

1595; 1596 
1597-1599 
1600 
1603 
1604 
1605 
1606 
1607 
1608 
1609 
1610 
1611 
1612 
1613 
1615 
1616 
1617 
1618 
1619 
1620 
1621 
1622 



NEW OLD 



284, 3, Note 
285,1 
2 
Note 



1623-1625 
1626 



N.l 



4 

286,1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

287,1 
2 
3 
4 

288,1 

2 

] 

289,1 
2 
3 
4 

290 

291,1 
2 
3 



Note 



1627 
1628 
1629 
1630 
1635 
1631 
1626,2; 1632 
1633 
1634 
1636 
1637 
1638 
1639 
1640 
1642 
1643 
1644 
1645 
1646; 1647 
1648 
1649 
1650 
1653, 3 & 4 
1651 
1653,1 
1657 



293,1 

2 

3 

4 
294 
295,1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
Note 
296 

Note 
297,1 

2 

3 

4 
298 

Note 
299,1 

2 
300,1-7 

Note 
301,1 

2 

3 

4 
302 



1665,1 
1665,3 

1664 
1658-1662 

1668 
1674,1 
1674,2 

1674. 3 
1669 

1670; 1671 

1672; 1673 

1675 

1675 

1676,1 

1676,2 

1676, 3 

1676. 4 
1677 

1654; 1666 
1679 
1680; 1681 
1682, 1-7 
1687,2 
1687 
1688 
1689 
1690 
1691 
Catalogue of Verbs 1692 



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CITATIONS OF GREEK AUTHORS 



In Parts IV. and V. 



Menander Men. 

Monostichi Mon. 

Pindar Pind. 

Olympian Odes Ol. 

Pythian Odea Py. 

Plato P. 

Alcibiadeg i Ale. i. 

Apology ^. 

Charmidea CA. 

Crito Cr. 

Cratylus Crat. 

Critiaa Critias. 

Buthydemua Eu, 

Euthyphro EfUhyph. 

Gorgiaa O. 

Hippiaa Major H.M, 

Lachea Loch. 

Legea ..Lg. 

Lyais Lya, 

Meno .... Men. 

Menezenua Menex. 

Phaedo Ph. 

Phaedrua Phdr. 

Philebufl PhU. 

Politicua Pol. 

Protagoras Pr. 

Republic Rp. 

Sophist So. 

Symposium 8y. 

Theaetetus Th. 

Timaeus Ti. 

Sappho Sapph. 

Sophocles S. 

AJax Aj. 

Antigone An. 

Electra El. 

Oedipus at Colonus O. C. 

Oedipus Tyrannus O.T. 

Philoctetes Ph, 

Trachiniae IV. 

Stobaeus Stob. 

Theocritus Theoc. 

Theognis Theog. 

Thucydi4es T. 

Xenophon X. 

Ageailaua Ag. 

Anabasis A, 

Cyropaedla C. 

De re Bquestri Eq. 

Helleniea H, 

Hipparchicus Bip^ 

Memorabilia M. 

Oeconomicus Oe. 

De Kepublica Atheniensi. Rp. A, 

Symposium 8y, 

The dramatists are cited by Dindorf's lines, except the tragic 
fragments (frag.), which follow Nauck's numbers. The orators are 
cited by the numbers of the orations and the German sections, 
zxxvi 



Aeschines Aesch. 

Aeschylus A. 

Agamemnon Aa. 

Choephori Ch. 

Eumenides Eu. 

Persians Pe. 

Prometheus Pr. 

Septem Se. 

Supplices Sp. 

Alcaeus Alcae. 

Andocides And. 

Antiphon Ant. 

Aristophanes Ar. 

Acharnenses Ach. 

Aves Av. 

Ecclesiazusae Eccl. 

Equites Eq. 

Lysistrata Ly, 

Nubes N. 

Pax Pa. 

Plutus PI. 

Ranae R. 

Thesmophoriazusae Th. 

Vespae V. 

Demosthenes D. 

Euripides E. 

Alcestis Al. 

Andromache And. 

Bacchae Ba. 

Cyclops Cyc. 

Electra El. 

Hecuba Hec. 

Helena Eel. 

Heraclldae Her. 

Hercules Furens H. F. 

Hippolytus Hip. 

Medea Me. 

Orestes Or. 

Phoenissae Ph. 

Rhesus Rh. 

Troades Tro. 

Hesiod Hes. 

Theogonla Th. 

Herodotus Hd. 

Herondas Herond. 

Hipponax Hipp. 

Homer: — 

Iliad 77. 

Odyssey Od. 

Isaeus Isae. 

Isocrates I. 

Lysias L. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND DIALECTS. 

The Greek language is the language spoken by the 
Greek race. In the historic period, the people of this 
race called themselves by the name Hellenes, and their 
language Hellenic, We call them Ch'eeka, from the Roman 
name Chaeci, They were divided into Aeolians, Dorians, 
and lonians. The Aeolians inhabited Aeolis (in Asia), 
Lesbos, Boeotia, and Thessaly ; the Dorians inhabited 
Peloponnesus, Doris, Crete, some cities of Caria (in Asia), 
with the neighboring islands, many settlements in Southern 
Italy, which was known as Magna Chraeda, and a large 
part of the coast of Sicily; the lonians inhabited Ionia 
(in Asia), Attica, many islands in the Aegean Sea, a few 
towns in Sicily, and some other places. 

In the early times of which the Homeric poems are a 
record (before 850 B.C.), there was no such division of the 
whole Greek race into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians as 
that which was recognized in historic times ; nor was there 
any common name of the whole race, like the later name 
of Hellenes. The Homeric Hellenes were a small tribe in 
South-eastern Thessaly, of which Achilles was king ; and 
the Greeks in general were called by Homer Achaeans, 
Argives, or Danaans. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

The dialects of the Aeolians and the Dorians are known 
as the Aeolic and Doric dialects. These two dialects are 
much more closely allied to each other than either is to 
the Ionic. In the language of the lonians we must dis- 
tinguish the Old Ionic, the New Ionic, and the Attic dialects. 
The Old Ionic or Epic is the language of the Homeric 
poems, the oldest Greek literature. The New Ionic was 
the language of Ionia in the fifth century b.c, as it appears 
in Herodotus and Hippocrates. The Attic was the lan- 
guage of Athens during her period of literary eminence 
(from about 500 to 300 b.c.).^ In it were written the trag- 
edies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the comedies 
of Aristophanes, the histories of Thucydides and Xenophon, 
the orations of Demosthenes and the other orators of Athens, 
and the philosophical works of Plato. 

The Attic dialect is the most cultivated and refined form 
of the Greek language. It is therefore made the basis of 
Greek Grammar, and the other dialects are usually treated, 
for convenience, as if their forms were merely variations of 
the Attic. This is a position, however, to which the Attic 
has no claim on the ground of age or primitive forms, in 
respect to which it holds a rank below the other dialects. 

The literary and political importance of Athens caused 
her dialect gradually to supplant the others wherever 
Greek was spoken ; but, in this very extension to regions 
widely separated, the Attic dialect itself was not a little 
modified by various local influences, and lost some of its 

1 The name Ionic mcludes both the Old and the New Ionic, but not 
the Attic. Wlien the Old and the New Ionic are to be distinguished 
in the present work, Ep. (for Epic) or Horn, (for Homeric) is used 
for the former, and Hdt. or Hd. (Herodotus) for the latter. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

early purity. The universal Greek language which thus 
arose is called the Common Dialect. This begins with the 
Alexandrian period, the time of the literary eminence of 
Alexandria in Egypt, which dates from the accession of 
Ptolemy II. in 285 b.c. The Greek of the philosopher 
Aristotle lies on the border line between this and the 
purer Attic. The name Hellenistic is given to that form 
of the Common Dialect which was used by the Jews of 
Alexandria who made the Septuagint version of the Old 
Testament (283-135 b.c.) and by the writers of the New 
Testament, all of whom were Hellenists (i.e. foreigners who 
spoke Greek). Towards the end of the twelfth century 
A.D., the popular Greek then spoken in the Byzantine 
Roman Empire began to appear in literature by the side 
of the scholastic ancient Greek, which had ceased to be 
intelligible to the common people. This popular language, 
the earliest form of Modem Greek, was called Romaic ("Po)- 
fjuuicj), as the people called themselves "Pcu/imoi. The name 
Romaic is now little used; and the present language of 
the Greeks is called simply 'EXXrjviKT^y while the kingdom 
of Greece is 'EAAa? and the people are '^XXiyvc?. The lit- 
erary Greek has been greatly purified during the last half- 
century by the expulsion of foreign words and the restorar 
tion of classic forms; and the same process has affected 
the spoken language, especially that of cultivated society 
in Athens, but to a far less extent. It is not too much to 
say, that the Greek of most of the books and newspapers 
now published in Athens could have been understood with- 
out difficulty by Demosthenes or Plato. The Greek lan- 
guage has thus an unbroken literary history, from Homer 
to the present day, of at least twenty-seven centuries. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

The Greek is descended from the same original language 
with the Indian (i.e. Sanskrit), Persian, German, Slavonic, 
Celtic, and Italian languages, which together form the 
Indo-European (sometimes called the Aryan) family of 
languages. Greek is most closely connected with the 
Italian languages (including Latin), to which it bears a 
relation similar to the stiU closer relation between French 
and Spanish or Italian. This relation accounts for the 
striking analogies between Greek and Latin, which appear 
in both roots and terminations; and also for the less ob- 
vious analogies between Greek and the German element 
in English, which are seen in a few words like me, is, 
know, etc. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PART I. 



<<-. 



LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. 



THE ALPHABET. 



1. The Greek alphabet has twenty-four letters : — 



Form. 


Equivalent. 




Name 


!. 


A a 


a 




a\(f>a 


Alpha 


B 13 


b 




firfra 


Beta 


T y 


g 




ydfifia 


0-amma 


A B 


d 




BeXra 


Delta 


E 6 


e (jihorf) 


el 


^yfrlkov 


Epiilon 


z r 


z 




?7Ta 


Zeta 


H V 


e (Zon^) 




^ra 


Eta 


S » 


th 




utJTCL 


Theta 


I t 


i 




LCOTa 


Iota 


K K 


k or hard 


c 


Kairira 


Kappa 


A X 


1 




\d{ii)^ha 


Lambda 


M fi 


m 




(IV 


Mu 


N V 


n 




vv 


Nu 


H f 


X 


frf. 


f 


Xi 


O 


(^short) 


o5. 


filxpov 


Omicron 


n TT 


P 


wet. 




Fi 


P p 


r 




p(0 


Rho 


X O- 9 


s 




aiyfia 


Sigma 


T T 


t 




rav 


Tau 


T V 


(u)y 


5. 


V y^lkov 


Upsllon 


<l> </> 


ph 


^t. 


4>c 


Phi 


X X 


kh 


X"' 


Xi 


Chi 


^ ^ 


ps 


^J. 


irt 


Fsi 


XI (o 


(long^ 


&. 


& fiiya 


Omega 


2. N. At the end of a word the form 9 is used, elsewhere the 


form <r; thus, owroats. 






7 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



8 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [3 

3. N. Three letters belonging to the primitive Greek alphabet, 
Vau or Digamma (^F)i equivalent to V or W, Koppa (9)» equivalent to 
Q, and Sampi (®), a form of Sigma, are not in the ordinary written 
alphabet. They were used as numerals (384), Vau here having the 
form C, which is used also as an abbreviation of ar. Vau had not 
entirely disappeared in pronunciation when the Homeric poems were 
composed, and the metre of many verses in these is explained only 
by admitting its presence. Many forms also which seem irregular are 
explained only on the supposition that f has been omitted (see 269). 

4. N. The Athenians of the best period used the names cl for 
epsilon, od for omicron, 5 for upsilon, and <3 for omega ; the present 
names for these letters being late. Some Greek grammarians used 
e yj/Xkbv {plain e) and S yl/l\bv (plain v) to distinguish e and v from ai 
and oi, which in their time haa similar sounds. 

VOWELS AND DIFHTHONaS. 

5. The vowels are a, e, 17, t, o, w, and v. Of these, 
€. and are always short ; 17 and ca are always long ; a, i, 
and V are long in some syllables and short in others, 
whence they are called doubtful vowels. 

6. N. A, c, 17, o, and cu from their pronunciation are called open 
vowels (a being the most open) ; i and v are called close vowels. 

7 The diphthongs (Sl-<f)0oyyoii double-sounding^ are 
a^, av^ 6£, eu, o^, ov, rjv^ vi^ a, 17, <p. These (except vi) 
are formed by the union of an open vowel with a close 
one. The long vowels (a, 77, w) with i form the (so 
called) improper diphthongs a, 97, ^. The Ionic dialect 
has also odv. 

8. N. Besides the genuine et (= e + 1) and ov (=o-\- v) there are the 
so-called spurious diphthongs et and ov, which arise from contraction 
(et from ee, and ov from eo, oe, or 00) or from compensative lengthening 
(30) ; as in iiroLeL (for iiroUe), X^eiv (for Xe7eei', 666, 4), XP^^^ (for 
xpiireos), dels (for Oevrs^ 79), tov and toiJj (190). In the fourth century 
B.C. these came to be written like genuine et and ov ; but in earlier 
times they were written E and O, even in inscriptions which used H 
and Q for e and o. (See 27.) 

9. N. The mark of diaeresis (Stafpeo-ts, separation), a double dot, 
written over a vowel, shows that this does not form a diphthong with 
the preceding vowel ; as in irpoXipai (vpo-iivaC), to go forward, *ATp€tS7is, 
son of Atreus (in Homer). 

10. N. In q., 27, V, the i is now written and printed below the first 
vowel, and is called iota subscript. But with capitals it is written in 
the line ; as in THI E0M(2IAIAI, tJ Kwya^Uq., and in "Otxero, vx^^o- 
This t was written as an ordinary letter as long as it was pronounced. 



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17] BREATHINGS. — CONSONANTS. 9 

that is, until the first century B.C., after which it was sometimes 
written (always in the line) and sometimes omitted. Our iota sub- 
script is not older than the twelfth century A.D. 



BREATHINQS. 

11. Every vowel or diphthong at the beginning of 
a word has either the rough breathing (*) or the smooth 
breathing (*). The rough breathing shows that the 
vowel is aspirated^ i.e. that it is preceded by the sound 
h; the smooth breathing shows that the vowel is not 
aspirated. Thus 6p&v^ seeinff, is pronounced horon; 
but op&v^ of mountains^ is pronounced oron. 

12. N. A diphthong takes the breathing, like the accent (109), 
upon its second vowel. But ^, i;, and o) (10) have both breathing 
and accent on the first vowel, even when the i is written in the 
line. Thus ol\€toll, €v<l>p(uv(o, Ai/acdv ; but ia)(€TO or "Qixero, a8o> or 
'At&i), yBeiv or "HiSav. On the other hand, the writing of dtSu>9 
(*AiSi09) shows that a and i do not form a diphthong. 

13. N. The rough breathing was once denoted by H. When this 
was taken to denote e (which once was not distinguished from e), 
half of it I was used for the rough breathing; and afterwards the 
other half I was used for the smooth breathing. From these fragments 
came the later signs • and '. 

14. N. In Attic words, initial v is always aspirated. 

15. At the beginning of a word p is written p; as in 
prjTtop (Latin rhetor)^ orator. In the middle of a word 
pp is sometimes written pp\ as apprjTo<;, unspeakable; 
Hvppo^^ Pyrrhus (^pp = rrh'). 

CONSONANTS. 

16. The simple consonants are divided into 

labials, tt, p, if>, fi, 
palatals, k, y, ;(, 
Unguals, r, S, 0, a; X, v, p. 

17. Before k, y, x» or (, gamma (y) had a nasal sound, like that 
of n in anger or ink, and was represented by n in Latin ; as ayycXos, 
(Latin angelus), messenger; Ayicvpa, (ancora), anchor; cr^tyf, 
sphinx. 



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10 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [18 

18. The double consonants are (, ^, C B is composed of 
K and o- ; ^^ of ?r and <r. Z arises from a combination of 8 
with a soft s sound; hence it has the effect of two con- 
sonants in lengthening a preceding vowel (99). 

19. By aiiother classification, the consonants are divided 
into semivowels and mtUes. 

20. The semivowels are X, fi, v, p, and <r, with nasal y (17). 

^^® X, ft, V, and p are liquids; 

fi, V, and nasal y (17) are nasals; 

<r is a spirant (or sibilant) ; 

F of the older alphabet (3) is also a spirant. 

21. The mutes are of three orders : — 

smooth mutes ir k r 
middle mutes )8 y 8 
rough mutes <t> \ 

22. These mutes again correspond in the following 
classes:— ^^^ ^^^^ (^-mutes) ^ /3 «^ 

palatal mutes (K-mutes) k y x 
lingual mutes (r-mutes) r S $ 

23. N. Mutes of the same order are called co-ordinate; those of 
the same class are called cognate. 

24. N. The smooth and rough mutes, with <r, f, and ^, are 
called surd (hushed sounds) ; the other consonants and the vowels 
are called sonant (sounding), 

25. The only consonants which can end a Greek word are 
V, p, and s. If others are left at the end in forming words, 
they are dropped. 

26. N. The only exceptions are cic and ovk (or cwx), which 
have other forms, i( and ov. Final $ and ^ (ko- and ir&) are no 
exceptions. 

27. The Greek alphabet above described is the Ionic, used by the 
Asiatic lonians from a very early period, but first introduced officially 
at Athens in 403 B.C. The Athenians had previously used an alphabet 
which had no separate signs for 6, o, ks, or ps. In this E was used 
for e and e and also for the spurious « (8) ; O f or o and o and for spu- 
rious ov (8) ; H was still an aspirate (h) ; XS stood f oi: S, and *S for *•. 
Thus the Athenians of the time of Pericles wrote EAOXSEN TEI 
BO^EI KAI TGI AEMOI for t^So^ep ry jSovXS xal t$ 5i>^, — TO 
^ZE^IZMA TO AEMO for t6 jf/ifipurfM tov 5i(a«ov, — HB2 for i^t,— 



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28] PRONUNCIATION. H 

HEX for i, — HEMHEN for HfiTreiv, — XPTS02 for xpviroOs, — TOTTO 
for both TovTo and ro&rov, — TOS UPTTANEZ for toi>$ irpurdwis, — 
APXOSI for dpxow<rt, — AE020N for 5eov<r«>', — H0n02 for 5irws,— 
nOIEN for iroicti',— TPES for rpcts, — AHO TO *0P0 for dwb toO 
4>6poVj — X2EN0:£ for ^4yos or ^4yovs. 

Ancient Pronunciation. ^ 

28. 1. (Vowels.) The long vowels o, i;, t, and w were pronounced 
at the best period much like a in father, e in J^te (French g or 6), 
i in machine, and o in tone. Originally v had the sound of Latin u 
(our tt in prune), but before the fourth century B.C. it had come to 
mat of French u or German il The short vowels had the same sounds 
as the long vowels, but shortened or less prolonged : this is hard to 
express in English, as our short a, e, i, and o, in pan, pen, pit, and pot, 
have sounds of a different nature from those of a, e, i, and o, given 
above. We have an approach to a, e, i, and 6 in the second a in 
grand-father, French I in real, i in verity, and o in monastic, renovate, 

2. (Diphthongs,) We may assume that the diphthongs originally 
had the sounds of their two vowels, pronounced as one syllable. Our 
ai in aisle, eu in feud, oi in oil, ui in quit, will give some idea of at, 
cv, 01, and vi ; and ou in hottse of av. Likewise the genuine et and ov 
must have been pronounced originally as e + 1 and o-^v, somewhat 
like ei and ou in rein and youth (cf. Hom. 'ArpetSrfs, Attic 'Arpeldrfs). 
But in the majority of cases et and ov are written for simple sounds, 
represented by the Athenians of the best period by E and (see 8 and 
27). We do not know how these sounds were related to ordinary 
e and on one side and to et and ov on the other ; but after the begin- 
ning of the fourth century B.C. they appear to have agreed substantially 
with et and ov, since EI and OT are written for both alike. In et the 
sound of t appears to have prevailed more and more, so that by the 
first century B.C. it had the sound of t. On the other hand, ov re- 
mained (and still remains) o-\-v, with the sound of ou in youth. 

The diphthongs 9, Vj and (p were probably always pronounced with the 
chief force on the first vowel, so that the i gradually disappeared (see 
10). The rare lyv and wv probably had the sounds of 17 and <a with an 
additional sound of v. 

3. (Co7isonants.) Probably jS, 8, k, \, fi, v, t, and p were sounded 
as b, d, k, I, m, n, p, and r in English. Ordinary 7 was always hard, 
like g in go; for nasal 7, see 17. T was always like t in tin or to • 
tr was generally (perhaps always) like s in so. Z is called a compound 
of 8 and <r ; but opinions differ whether it was 5<r or (r8, but the ancient 
testimony seems to point to ^8, In late Greek, ^ came to the sound of 
English z, which it still keeps. H represents Ktr, and f represents ira, 
idtbough the older Athenians felt an aspirate in both, as they wrote 
X<r for ( and 0<r for f . The rough consonants B, Xi ai^cl in the best 
period were r, k, and t followed by h, so that t^vSa was iv-rd, d<t>lrffu 
was d-irlrffu, ix« was i-Kw, etc. We cannot represent these rough 
mutes in English; our nearest approach is in words like ho^Aouse, 
blocAr^ad, and upMll, but here the h is not in the same syllable with 
the mute. In later Greek and came to the modem pronunciation 
of ih (in thin) and/, and % to that resembling German ch in maclien. 

* For practical remarks on pronunciation, see the Preface. 

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12 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [29 

CHANaES OF VOWELS. 

29. (Lengthening,) Short vowels are often lengthened in 
the formation and the inflection of words. Here the follow- 
ing changes generally take place : — 

a becomes tf (a after e, i, or p) 

c " 17, I becomes i, 

O " Cl), V " ll. 

Thus rZ/iao) (stem rlfm-), fut. rl/Arj^ta] ia-io, fut. ia-iria ; TL-$rf-/ju, 
(stem ^c-); HSio-fu (stem &>-); ucercwoy aor. iicercvoYi; ire-^u-jca, 
perf. of <^6<i), from root <^v- (see <l>vaus), 

30. (Compensative Lengthening,) 1. When one or more 
consonants are dropped for euphony (especially before <r), 
a preceding short vowel is very often lengthened to make 
up for the omission. Here 

a becomes a, t becomes t, 

€ " €t, V " V. 

O " OU, 

Thus fic'Xas for /mcXav^ (78), lards for i<rravr9 (79), ^ts for 
OfVT^ (79), 80VS for ^vr^^ Xvovai for Xvokto-i, I^Kplva for iKpivati, 
Bcucvvs for SaKWKTs (79). Here ci and ov are the spurious diph- 
thongs (8). 

2. In the first aorist of liquid verbs (672), a is lengthened to 17 
(or a) when a is dropped ; as €<l>Tjva for i<fxiv-<ra, from iftaivio (<f>av-), 
cf. eoTcX-o-o, eorrciAo, from orcAXo) (orcX-). 

31. (Strong and Weak Forms.) In some formations and 
inflections there is an interchange in the root of ci, 01, and T, 
— of €v, (sometimes ou,) and v, — and of rj, (rarely w,) and a. 
The long vowels and diphthongs in such cases are called 
strong forms, and the short vowels weaJc forms. 

Thus Xcwr-o), \i-Xoiir-n, i-XiTr-ov; <l>€vy-ia, TrcK^cvy-o, l-^vyov; 
TyK-d), ri-rrfKHL, c-roK-iyv; prjy-vvfUy Ip-pwy-a, ip-pdy-rjv ; iXcv-iro/Juu 
(74), iX^XavO-n, rjXvOnw (see epxopm) ; so cnrcvS-o), hasten, and 
<nrovS-rj, haste ; d/DifycD, help, and dpor/os, helping. Compare English 
smite, smote, smit (smitten). (See 572.) 

32. An interchange of the short vowels a, c, and o takes 
place in certain forms ; as in the tenses of Tpear-cu, rirpwfiHXy 
i^poTr-rjv, and in the noun Tpoir-09, from stem rpetr-, (See 
643, 645, and 831.) 



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38] EUPHONY OF VOWELS. — CONTRACTION. 13 

33. {Exchange of Quantity.) An exchange of quantity some- 
times t£^es place between a long vowel and a succeeding short 
one ; as in epic vdos, temple, and Attic v€m ; epic PamXSjoiy PamXSja, 
king, Attic PcuriXiatq, PaxriXed; epic /icn^opos, in the air, Attio 
fjueritapo^] Mcv^Xao?) Attic McvcXcox (200). 



EUPHOlTSr OP VOWHLS. 

Collision op Vowels. — Hiatus. 

34. A succession of two vowel sounds, not forming a 
diphthong, was generally displeasing to the Athenians. In 
the middle of a word this could be avoided by contraction 
(35-41). Between two words, where it is called hiatus^ it 
could be avoided by crobsis (42-46), by elision (48-54) or 
aphaeresis (55), or by adding a movable consonant (56-63) 
to the former word. 

Contraction op Vowels. 

36. Two successive vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, 
may be united by contraction in a single long vowel or a 
diphthong ; ^iXccd, <f>i\Si ; ^iXcc, ^i Xci ; rtfjuu, rtfud. It seldom 
takes place unless the former vowel is open (6). 

36. The regular use of contraction is one of the charac- 
teristics of the Attic dialect. It follows these general prin- 
ciples : — 

37. I. Two vowels which can form a diphthong (7) 
simply unite in one syllable ; as r€l\€L, tcix« ; y^po^y yipoj. ; 

38. II. When the two vowels cannot form a diph- 
thong, — 

1. Two like vowels (i.e. two o-sounds, two e-sounds, or 
two o-sounds, without regard to quantity) unite to form 
the common long (a, tj, or (u). But cc gives a (8), and oo 
gives ov (8). E.g, 

Mvddf ftva. (184) ; ^iXc>/rc, ^iX^c ; SviKooi, Si/Xo) ; — but e^tXce, 
e<^t Xei ; irXoos, irXous. 



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14 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [39 

2. When an o-sound precedes or follows an a- or an e- 
sound, the two become cd. But oc and co give ov (8). E.g, 

Ai^oi^rc, 8i/Xci>re ; ^iXcoxri, ^cXann ; rlfjuaofuv, rliua^ev ; Tlfm<o/i€v, 
rl/JilofJLev ; — but voc, vov ; yei^co?, ycwws. 

3. When an o-sound precedes or follows an e-sound, the 
first (in order) prevails, and we have a or rj. E.g. 

4. A vowel disappears by absorption before a diphthong 
beginning with the same vowel, and c is always absorbed 
before ot. In other cases, a simple vowel followed by a 
diphthong is contracted with the Jirst vowel of the diph- 
thong; and a following t remains as iota subscnpt, but a 
following V disappears. E.g. 

Mvcuu, /livai; /xvooi, /av^; ^iXcei, ^tXei; <l>tX.€rj, ^iX^; ^Xooi, 
Si/Xoi; voQ>, v(p; St/Xoov, ^XoO; ^tXcoi, t^iXoi; yjA<T€OL^ XP^^^^; 
rifJuiUi, Tifiq. ; rlfmyj Ti/xfi ; rl/xaoi, rZ/Mu ; rlfjuaov, TifiS) ; <^tA,€<w, 
<^iXoi) ; Xvcoi, Xin; (39, 3) ; Xvi^ai, Xvt; ; /u/ivqoijo, /le/iv^. 

39. Exceptions. 1. In contracts of the first and second de- 
clensions, every short vowel before a, or before a long vowel or 
a diphthong, is absorbed. But in the singular of the first 
declension ed is contracted regularly to rj (after a vowel or p, to a). 
(See 184.) 

2. In the third declension ca becomes d after c, and d or ly after 
I or V. (See 229, 267, and 315.) 

3. In the second person singular of the passive and middle, cat 
(for coot) gives the common Attic form in ei as well as the regular 
contract form in i; ; as XiJcoi, Xi;?; or \va. (See 565, 6.) 

4. In verbs in ow, oci gives oi, as ^Xoas, SiyXois; oi is found 
also in the subjunctive for orj, as 37/X(%, ^\o2. 

5. The spurious diphthong ci is contracted like simple e; as 
?rXaicoci9) TrXaKow, cake. Thus infinitives in actv and ociv lose i in 
the contracted forms; as Tt/xaav, n/utdv; SiyXoav, Sr^Xovv. (See 
761.) 

40. 1. The close vowel i is contracted with a following i in the 
Ionic dative singular of nouns in ts (see 255) ; and v is contracted 
with t or € in a few forms of nouns in vs (see 257 and 258). 

2. In some classes of nouns and adjectives of the third declension, 
contraction is confined to certain cases ; see 226-263. For exceptions 
in the contraction of verbs, see 496 and 497. See dialectic forms of 
verbs in aw, e«, and o«, in 784-786. 



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42] 



CONTRACTION. — CRASIS. 



15 



41. Table of Contractions, 



a + a ^ a ycpaa, ycpa 

a -f~ cu == a£ /xvaoLi, /ivax 

a + fli = ^ /iiva^, fivf 

a -h € = d iTf/m€y irtfid 

a + €t = ^ TlfJuUl,TLflfyTl/JuUtV, 

or a Tifiav (39, 5) 
a + 17 = d TlfxdriT€, rlfiare 

O' + V =9- '^^f^V» '^W 
a + I = at y€paiy yipau. 

d + I ^ ^ ypa-t 8u)v, yp^&ov 
a + o ^0) rlfiaofuv, rl/iiafuv 

rlfMUOV, TLflSi 

yheoLy yen/ ; *Epfi€a^, 
*Epfxrj^ ; 6<rT€a, oord 
(39,1) ^ 

or at xpvcrat (39, 1 and 3) 

€ + € = €t i<l>iX£€, c^tXct 

c + ct = ei <^tXcet, ^tXct 

€ -h 17 = 17 ^tXcipc, <^tX^c 

« + 17 = I? <^«7» <^*^^ 

€ + t = CI TCtXCt, T€i;(€t 

€ + o = ou ymosy yewvs 
c + ot = ot ^tXcoty <^tAoi 
e ^ 01;= ov f^iXcov, <^tXoO 

c + <i> = o> ^tXccD, ^cActf 



a + oi = <p 
a + ov = CD 
a-f- CO = CD 
c +a =17 
ord 

e +at=:i7 



€ + ft) ^ O) OOTCft), OOTCp 

17 -f- (U = 17 X^T/at^ Xvi; 

17 + 6 =17 Tt/XI/CVTt, TlfJLTJvTL 

rj-\-€L =17 Tt/xijcis, ti/xtJs (39, 6) 

'y + * =2/ KXij-iOpov, KkyOpov 

17 + 01 = ({) p.€/lV7)0lfJi7JV, /XC/XV<p- 

t + 1 =1 Xao$> Xtos 

o -{-a ^ (o aiSoa, aiSo) ; a^rXoa, 

or d airXd (39, 1) 

o + (u = at a?rXoat, aTrXai 

O + € = ou V0€, vov 

o 4- €t = 01 &f)\6€i, &7Xo( (39, 4); 

or ov &7X0CIV, 817X01)^ (39, 
6) 

o + 17 = w Si/Xoi/TC, Si/Xwrc 

o + 17 ^ <j) &So279; StSws ; QTrXoi/, 

or 27 a7rX^(39,l) 

o + t =01 TretOoi, weiSol 

o -{-o =ov VOO^y vovs 

o + ot = ot 817X001^ 817X0? 

o +ov=^ov S17X00V, S17X0V 

o -{- (O ^ (o Si/Xoft)^ &7X0) 

o + <p = <j> oirXoQ), a7rX<^ 
Rarely the following : — 



a) + a ^ 0) 

€!> + € = Cl) 

0) + t ^ <{» 

CD-f-O ^ Cl> 



ijp<ML, rjp(o 
rjp<o€qy rjp<i)q 



Crasis. 



42. A vowel or diphthong at the end of a word may be 
contracted with one at the beginning of the following word. 
This occurs especially in poetry, and is called (yrasis (K/ado-ts, 
mixture). The coronis {■) is placed over the contracted 
syllable. The first of the two words is generally an article, 
a relative (5 or S), koi, vp6, or cS. 



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16 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [43 

43. Crasis generally follows the laws of contraction, with 
these modifications : — 

1. A diphthong at the end of the first word drops its last 
vowel before crasis takes place. 

2. The article loses its final vowel or diphthong in crasis 
before a ; the particle roC drops oi before a ; and koI drops 
ajL before all vowels and diphthongs except e and a. But ^we 
have Kd and Kd^ for koI d and koI ei9. 

44. The following are examples of crasis : — 

To ovofm, Tovvofjui] ra ayaBd, rdyaOd; to ivavriov, Touvavrtw; 
6 €K, ovK] 6 €7rt, ovTTi'j TO IfiaTLov, OolfJuoLTiov (93); a av, &v; koI av, 
K&v] KOL ctra, Kara; — 6 ain^p, ivqp] oi dSeX^ot, a8eA.<^oi; t^ iySpiy 
TdvhpC ; TO avTo, ravTo ; tov aurov, TavTOv ; — tol av, rav {fieirroL av, 
/jLfVTdiv) ; TOi apa, Tdpa ; — kcu avros, Kavros ; Kat avrrj, ')(avrq (93) ; 
Kol ioTLy KdOTL ; Kol d, Kd ; Kol ov, Kov ; Kol ol, xoi ; KCU at, )(at. So 
eyci) o?8a, €y<p8a ; w avdpanrt, iSv0p<a7r€ ; tt}" iirapyy Trfwaprj. Likewise 
we have irpovpyov, helpful, for tt/oo epyov, ahead in work ; cf . <^poi)&>s 
for irpo 6801} (93). 

45. N. K the first word is an article or relative with the rough 
breathing, this breathing is retained on the contracted syllable, 
taking the place of the coronis; as in av, iinyp. 

46. N. In crasis, credos, other, takes the form arcpo?, — whence 
Arepos (for 6 Itc/jos), ^drcpov (for tov hipov), 0&T€p<o, etc. (43, 2 ; 93). 

Stnizesis. 

47. 1. In poetry, two successive vowels, not forming a 
diphthong, are sometimes united in pronunciation for the 
sake of the metre, although no contraction appears in writ- 
ing. This is called synizesis ((rvvt^iyo-ts, settling together). 
Thus, ^€01 may make one syllable in poetry, om^^ca or 
^wriff niay make two. 

2. Synizesis may also take the place of crasis (42), when the 
first word ends in a long vowel or a diphthong, especially with 
€7r€ti since, p.y, not, rj, or, rj (interrog.), and cyw, 7. Thus, €7r€t ov 
may make two syllables, p.rj d^evcu may make three ; [Art ov always 
makes one syllable in poetry. 

Elision. 

48. A short final vowel may be dropped when the next 
word begins with a vowel. This is called elision. An apos- 
trophe (*) marks the omission. E.g, 



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66] ELISION AND APHAERESIS. 17 

At' ifjuolv for Sta ifujv ; dvr iKtivrfs for dm iKdirrp ; kiyotfi av for 
Xcyoi/u gIv ; dXA.' cv^'9 for oAAa cv^us ; ^tt* avOpwnf for cirl aySpuyirta. 
So €^* crcpo); vu;(^* oXip for vvicra oXqv (92). 

49. Elision is especially frequent in ordinary prepositions, con- 
junctions, and adverbs ; but it may also be used with short vowels 
at the end of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs. 

50. Elision never occurs in 

(a) the prepositions ircpt and irpd, except ircpt in Aeolic (rarely 
before i in Attic), 

(5) the conjunction on, 

(c) monosyllables, except those ending in c, 

(d) the dative singular in i of the third declension and the 
dative plural in <n, except in epic poetry, 

(«) words ending in ti. 

51. N. The epic and comic poets sometimes elide at in the verbal 
endings /iot, o-ot, rat, and (rdai (Oai). So ot in otfiot, and rarely in fjuoL, 

52. N. Elision is often neglected in prose, especially by certain 
writers (as Thucydides). Others (as Isocrates) are more strict in its use. 

53. (Apocope,) The poets sometimes cut off a short vowel before 
a consonant. Thus in Homer we find Av, jcdr, and rdp, for dvd, jcard, 
and irapd. Both in composition and alone, xdr assimilates its r to a 
following consonant and drops it before two consonants, and v in &p 
is subject to the changes of 78 ; as Kdppake and icdicrave, for Kar^fidKe 
and KaT^KTavc, — but Kardavetv for Karadaveiv (68, 1), k^lk Kopvfp'^tf, Kiir/ 
ydvu, jcdT iredLov ; dfi-pdWu), dX-X^^ai, &/u ireSlov, Sifi <p6voy. So ^p-fidWeip 
(once) for itiro-pdWeiv, 

64. A short final vowel is generally elided also when it 
comes before a vowel in forming a compound word. Here 
no apostrophe is used. E.g. 

*A7r-atT€(o (oLtto and alrco)), Bi-ipaXjov (Bui and ^jSoXov). So d^ 
atpco) (diro and atpccD, 92) ; Bc)^fup<K (ScKa and ^/xc/oa). 

Afhaeresis. 

66. In poetry, a short vowel at the beginning of a word is 
sometimes dropped after a long vowel or a diphthong, especially 
after firj, not, and 17, or. This is called aphaeresis (d^^tpctrts, taking 
off). Thus, /x^ 'yto for /tiiy eyw ; ttou 'ortv for wov eartv; cyw *<l>dvrjv 
for eycu i<l>dvrp^ ; iy /ixov for ?y e/jiov. 

Movable Consonants. 
66. Most words ending in -o-t (including -^t and -i/rt), and 
all verbs of the third person ending in c, regularly add v 



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18 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [67 

when the next word begins with a voweL This is csJled 

V movable. E.g. 

Uaai Bl^wti ravra ; but iraaiv ^Soiiccv iK€ivou So SiiSaxri fun. ; bat 
&i8<ixnv i/juoi, 

67. N. "EoTt takes v movable, like third persons in au 

58. N. The third person singular of the pluperfect active in -ct has 

V movable ; as yhii.(y)y he knew. But contracted imperfects in -a 
(for -ce), as ct^tXct, never take v in Attic. 

59. N. The epic kc (for civ) is generally k€v before a vowel, and 
the poetic vvv (enclitic) has an epic form mi. Many adverbs in -Bey 
(as irpoaOev) have poetic forms in -$€. 

60. N. N movable may be added at the end of a sentence or of 
a line of poetry. It may be added even before a consonant in 
poetry, to make position (99). 

61. N. Words which may have v movable are not elided in prose, 
except €OTi. 

62. Ou, not, becomes ovk before a smooth vowel, and <wx 
before a rough vowel ; as ov BiK<a, ovk avros, ovx ovros. Mi} 
inserts k in ^lyK-crt, no longer, by the analogy of ovK-m. 

63. OvTcus, thus, ii (cKs), from, and some other words may 
drop s before a consonant ; as ovrcos l[)(€i, ovra> Sokci, c^ ootccds, 

METATHESIS AND SYNCOPE. 

64. 1. Metathesis is the transposition of a short vowel 
and a liquid in a word; as in Kparfys and Koprfys, strength; 
Odpaos and Opda-o^, courage. 

2. The vowel is often lengthened ; as in )9e)9Xi7rfca (from stem 
)8aX-), rerfirf-Ka (from stem rc/ir), SpilyirKia (from stem 6op-). (See 
649.) 

65. Syncope is the dropping of a short vowel between 
two consonants ; as in iraT€pQ<s, trarpo^ (274) ; im^ofjLOA for 
werrja-ofjuii. (650). 

66. N. (a) When ft is brought before p or X by syncope or 
metathesis, it is strengthened by inserting jS ; as fj^arjfxfipid, midday^ 
for fU(rr)fi(€)pidL (fico-o? and -^fiipa)', fiifipXtoKo, epic perfect of 
/SXcuo-KO), go, from stem /aoX-, fiXo-, pX<o- (636), fie-pXio-Ko, /iie-fi/SXciMca. 
Thus the vulgar chimley (for chimney) generally becomes chimbley. 

(b) At the beginning of a word such a /ul is dropped before )3 ; 



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72] CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 19 

as in PpoToi, mortal, from stem fiop-, fjLpo- (cf. Lat. morior, die), 
fi^po-TOi, PpoToi (but the fi appears in composition, as in a-fiPpcroi, 
immortcU). So /SXtrro), take honey, from stem fjutXir- of fUXi, honey 
(cf. Latin mel), by syncope fjiXiT-, fi^Xir-, fiXir-, pXima (582). 

67. N. So 8 is inserted after v in the oblique cases of dn/p, 
man (277), when the v ifT brought by syncope before p ; as dycpo$ 
(dv-pos), di^09. 

CHANaES OF CONSONANTS. 

Doubling of Consonants. 

68. 1. A rough mute (21) is never doubled ; but ir<^, ic^, 
and t6 are always written for 4><f>, xx, and $$, Thus 2air<^ctf, 
BoKxos, Kar^aveiV; not 2a^<^a>; ^aXX^' KaMavuv (53). So in 
Latin, Sappho, Bacchus, 

2. A middle mute is never doubled in Attic Greek. In yy the 
first y is always nasal (17). 

3. The later Attic has tt for the earlier crcr in certain 
forms ; as TrparrcD for irpaaaci}, iXdrrtov for cXdcrcrow ; daXoLTTa 
for OdXaaaa, Also tt (not for o-(r) and even t6 occur in a few 
other words ; as 'Attijcos, *At6C^, Attic. See also 72. 

69. Initial p is doubled when a vowel precedes it in form- 
ing a compound word ; as in htapptirrta (ivd and ptirrw). So 
after the syllabic augment ; as in tpphrrw (imperfect of ptirria). 
But after a diphthong it remains single ; as in cvpoos, €vpo\K. 

Euphonic Changes of Consonants. 

70. The following rules (71-95) apply chiefly to changes 
made in the final consonant of a stem in adding the endings, 
especially in forming and inflecting the tenses of verbs and 
cases of nouns, and to those made in forming compounds : — 

71. {Mutes before other Mutes.) Before a T-mute (22), a 
TT-mute or a K-mute is made coordinate (23), and another 
T-mute becomes <r. E,g. 

Terpiirrai (for rtrpip-raji), Si^KTot (for ScScx-Tot), vke^O^vtu 
(for irXcK-Orfvai), i\eiij>Orp^ (for iX/eLwdrp/), ypdpSvjv (for ypa<fy-^), 
Uiireurrai (weirei^-rai), iweL<r6rp^ (iireiO'OTjv), tJotoi (i/S-toi), tore 
(iS-Tc), xoLpUcrrtpoii (yapwr-rtpoq). 

72. N. *Ek, from, in composition retains k unchanged ; as in 
€KrKptvia, €K-Bpofirj, iK-$€<ri.^. FoT TT aud r$, see 68, 3. 



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20 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [73 

73. N. No combinations of different mutes, except those in- 
cluded in 68 and in 71 (those in which the second is t, 8, or d), 
are allowed in Greek. When any such arise, the first mute is 
dropped ; as in irerr&.Ka (for ircTrct^'-Ka) . When y stands before ic, 
y, or \, as in avy-x^^ (<rvv and x^<»)> i^ ^ ^ot a mute but a nasal (20). 

74. {Mutes before %) No mute can stand before a except 
IT and K. A 7r-mute with q- forms ^, a K-mute forms $, and a 
T-mute is dropped. E.g, 

Tptij/d} (for Tpip-am), ypdypia (for y/oa<^a)), Xcfw (for Xcy-o-co), 
irtuTia (for 7rctd-<ro)), ^(rw (for ^S-cro)), atoficun (for o-cofuiT-cn), IXirCcri. 
(for ^XTTiS-crt). So <^Xo/r (for <^X€/3-s), dirt's (for eX^-tS^), vu'f 
(for vvKT-s). So xapUm (for ;(api€r-o-6, 331). See examples under 

209, 1. 

75. (ikfufes 6e/bre M.) Before fi, a ir-mute becomes /x, and 
a ic-mute becomes y. J^.gr. 

AiXa/ifWJL (for XcXciTT-fuu), Tirplfifjuu (for rcrpip-pm), yiypa/xpuu 
(for ycy/MK^/uuw), triirXtypjca (for TrCTrXcic-fuu), rcVcvy/uuii (for tc- 
t€vx-/i«m). 

76. N. But K/A can stand when they come together by metathesis 
(64) ; as in Ki-Kfiri-Ka (Kd/i-tKa), Both k and x niay stand before fi in 
the formation of nouns ; as in d«r/Lii^, edge^ dKfjLtJitf, anvils a^X/^^f spear- 
point, Spaxfi'^i drachma. 

'E/c here also remains unchanged, as in iK-fiavddvu (cf. 72). 

77. N. When 77/i or fififi would thus arise, they are shortened to 
yfiOT fifi; as i\&yx^i iX'^Xey-fMi (for iXrfXeyx'fMh iXrfXeyy-iMiL); Kdi^jLicTUf, 
KiKafAfMLi (for K€KafjLir-fxai, KCKafifi'/Mii) ; ir^/iTW, wirefifiaL (for ir6T6/uir-/Aai, 
ireirefXfX'fxai. (See 489, 3.) 

78. (N 6e/ore of/ier Consonants.) 1. Before a ir-mute v 
becomes p. ; before a K-mute it becomes nasal y (17) ; before 
a T-mute it is unchanged. E.g. 

'E/uL7r«rT0) (for cv-TrtTrro)), cru/xjScuva) (for (ruv-)3aiva)), ipKfxan^ (for 
iiMfxarrf^) ; (rvyxccu (for (tuk-xco)), oiryycviys (for crvvycKiys) ; Iv-rpiirui. 

2. Before another liquid v is changed to that liquid. iST.gf. 
"EXXctTTcu (for cv-XctTTCi)), €p.p.€y(i} (for ev^/ACvo)), avppia) (for (rvv^/DCO)), 

<rvXXoyo9 (for (rvi^-Xoyo^). 

3. N before <r is generally dropped and the preceding 
vowel is lengthened (30), a to a, c to a, o to ou. ^.^. 

McXas (for /uieXav-9)» els (for ck-s), Xvoucrt (for Xvo-vo-i): see 

210, 2 ; 556, 5. So \vov<ra (for Xvovr-ia, Xvokkju), \vO€L<ra (for 
Xv^CKT-io, Xv^ci^^ra), iracra (for iravr-UL, iray-a-a) : see 84, 2. 

79. The combinations vr, v8, v^, when they occur before 



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84] EUPHONIC CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 21 

(T in inflections, are always dropped, and the preceding vowel 
is lengthened, as above (78, 3). E,g, 

Ilao-i (for wavT-o-i), ytyds (for ytyavrs), Scticvus (for Sciicwvrs), 
Xcouo-i (for Xcovr-o-t), TiOclai (for Tti9€vr-<rt), rt^cis (for ri^cvr-s), 
Sous (for &>rr-s), (nreia-to (for {nrcvS-o-oi), fruao/juai (for irev^aofuu). 

For nominatives in cdv (for ovr-), see 209, 8 (cf. 212, 1). 

80. N. N standing alone before o-i of the dative plural is dropped 
without lengthening the vowel ; as ^fwat (for SaifuonMri), 

81. N. The preposition cv is not changed before p or o*; as 
ivpaTTTtOy ^vcnrovSos, iyarpi^to. 

^vv becomes ava- before <r and a votoel, but orv- before a and a 
consonant or before i; as aiatr^nroif av-im^fm, av-ivyo^, 

82. N. Ilav and iraXiv may retain v in composition before o- or 
change it to (r ; as vdv-aoffiOi or vaxra-offM^f iraXiv-CKUiif waXCaavroi* 

83. Most verbs in vo) have a for v before fiai in the perfect 
middle (648) ; as iJKuva), iri^Mxr-iua (for v€<f>avfiai) ; and the v re- 
appears before t and ^, as in iriifiiuhrax, iriifxivBt, (See 489, 2 ; 700.) 

84. {Changes before t.) The following changes occur when 
t (representing an original j) follows the final consonant of 
a stem. 

1. Palatals (/c, y, x) and sometimes r and ^ with such an i be- 
come <T<T (later Attic rr) ; as <^vAao-o--a> (stem ^vXaic-) for ^vXaic-i-co ; 
rja-aojv, worse, for ijic-ft-«0v (361, 2) ; Tao-a-o) (ray-), for ray-t-o) (580) ; 
TafiaxT<T-iD (rapax'), for rapaxH-«0; Kopwrfr-m {KopvO-), for icopv^-oj; 
K/9^(ra, for Kp-qT-ui. 

Thus is formed the feminine in co-aa of adjectives in cis, from a 
stem in er-, cr-ca becoming co-era (331, 2). 

2. Nr with this i becomes vo* in' the feminine of participles and 
adjectives (331, 2 ; 337, 1), in which v is regularly dropped with 
lengthening of the preceding vowel (78, 3) ; as wuvr-, Travr-io, irdvau 
(Thessalian and Cretan), iracra ; Xvovt-, Xvovr-ta, Xvov^a, Xvovoo. 

3. A (sometimes y or yy ) with i forms { ; as <ttpa4-u) (tftpaS-), for 
<f>paB-irto (585) ; KOfju^-iit (ko/u8-), for KOfu8-t-o) ; Kpa^-o) (ic/xiy-), for 
Kpafirin (589) ; fic^^wv (Ion.) or ficti^a)v (comp. of ftcyas, ^caf), 
for /mcy-i-ctfv (361, 4). 

4. A with I forms AA; as orcAA-tt) (otcX-), for orcX-t-w; 
aXXo-fuu (oA.-), leap, for (iX-t-o/iat (cf. Lat. salio) ; oXAo?) o<A«r, for 
dX-t-o9 (cf. Lat. aZtu«). (See 593.) 

5. After av or op the i is transposed, and is then contracted 
with a to at; as ^mlimo (<^v-), for <^v-i-(i); yalpna (xap-)> for 
Xap-i-(i>; pAkoMMi. (jjuiXav-), fem. of /uteAa? (326), for pjeXav-i-a^ 



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22 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. IS6 

6. After cv, cp, iv, ip, w, or vp, the i disappears, and the preced- 
ing €, t, or V is lengthened (c to a) ; as rctv-oi (rev-), for rcv-i-o) ; 
XtCptav (stem x^P")* ^orse, for x€p*^'<i>v; Kup-m {Kcp-), for Kep-i-«t>; 
icp^vo) (Kpti/-), for icpii^i-o); olKTtpta (oiicTtp-), for oiicripH-ct) ; dfivva> 
(d/LivK-), for afjLvv-i>-ft} ', avp<»>, for crvp-t-o). So adrrtipa (fem. of a-nyn^p, 
saving, saviour, stem aowcp-), for acDTcp-t-a. (See 594 and 596.) 

86. (Omission of 3 and f.) Many forms are explained by the 
omission of an original spirant {s or f), which is seen sometimes 
in earlier forms in Greek and sometimes in kindred languages. 

86. (5.) At the beginning of a word, an original s sometimes 
appears as the rough breathing. E.g, 

"laTqpjL, place, for aurrrffu, Lat. sisto ; rffiuriSy half, cf. Lat. 
semi-; c^o/luu, sit (from root €&- <rc&-), Lat. sed-eo; cirro, seven, Lat. 
septem, 

87. N. In some words both <r and f have disappeared ; as os, his, 
for <r/ros, 5wm5; i}8vs, 5M;ec< (from root aS- for <r/rd8-), Lat. suaww. 

88. In some inflections, <r is dropped between two vowels. 

1. Thus, in stems of nouns, ta- and atr- drop <r before a vowel 
of the ending ; as yeyo^, race (stem ycvco--), gen. yei^c-os for ycv€o--os. 
(See 226.) 

2. The middle endings acu and a-o often drop o- (565, 6) ; as 
Xv€-<fajL, Xvc-ot, \vy or Xvci (39, 3 ) ; c-Xvc-tro, eXvco, iXvov ; but o- is 
retained in such fu- forms as lara-trcu and ?<rra-o-o. (See also 664.) 

89. In the first aorist active and middle of liquid verbs, a is 
generally dropped before a or ofirp/; as <^va) (<^c»^), aor. Ixlrrjy-a 
for i%f>ava'-a, €<l)rp/-dfirp^ for €<f>ay<T'afirjV' So oiccAAo) (oiccX-), aor. 
(SicciA-a for (u/ccAa--a ; but poetic kc AAcu has ^KcAo'-a. (See 672.) 

90. (f.) Some of the cases in which the omission of vau (or 
digamma) appears in inflections are these : — 

1. In the augment of certain verbs ; as 2 aor. c78ov, saw, from 
root /rt3- (Lat. vid-eo), for c-/ri8ov, c-tSov, cISov: see also the exam- 
ples in 539. 

2. In verbs in eo) of the Second Class (574), where cv became 
€f and finally c; as pc-o), flow (stem pcv-, pe/r-)) ^^* p^v-ao-pM. 
See also 601. 

3. In certain nouns of the third declension, where final v of the 
stem becomes p, which is dropped; as vavs (vav-), gen. vd-69 for 
vdv-os, va/r-os (269) ; see PaaiXw (265). See also 256. 

91. The Aeolic and Doric retained p long after it disappeared 
in Ionic and Attic. The following are a few of the many words 
in which its former presence is known : — 



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96] EUPHONIC CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 23 

PdvSf ox (Lat. bov'is)^ lap, spring (Lat. ver), 8uk, divine (divus), 
^ipyov, work (Germ, werk), ItrOryi, garment (Lat. vestis), eoircpos? 
evening (vesper), Is, strength (vis), icXi/fs (Dor. KXdU), key (clavis), 
oTs, sheep (pvis), oTkos house (vicus), c^voi, wine (yinum), aKtuoi, left 
(scaevus). 

92. {(Manges in AspircUes,) When a smooth mute (ir, k, t) 
is brought before a rough vowel (either by elision or in 
forming a compound), it is itself made rough. E.g, 

^AfJHrffu (for ^n^irffu), KaSaxpiisi (for Kar-aXptiii), d^* tav (for diro 
w), vvxff okyjv (for vuWa o\i;v, 48; 71). 

93. N. So in crasis (see examples in 44). Here the rough 
breathing may affect even a consonant not immediately preced- 
ing it; as in <^poi)&>9) gone, from ir/oo 63oi); 4*povp6i, watchman 
(rrpo-opoi), 

94. N". The Ionic generally does not observe this principle in 
"writing, but has (for example) av av, dmrffu (from dTrd and trffu), 

96. The Greeks generally avoided two rough consonants 
in successive syllables. Thus 

1. In reduplications (521) an initial rough mute is always 
made smooth. E.g. 

Uc^vjca (for <^^vKa), perfect of ^vo) ; Kexqva (for x^sxrjva)^ perf. 
of x^'^^y TedrfXa (for OcOtjXo), perf. of $aXK<o, So in rC-Oyfu (for 
A-^/u), 794, 2. 

2. The ending Oi of the first aorist imperative passive 
becomes n after Orf- of the tense stem (757, 1). E,g. 

AvOrjfn. (for XvOrfSC), <f>dv0rjTi (for <l>av6rf^i) ; but 2 aor. <l>dvrf-$i 
(757, 2). 

3. In the aorist passive Ircftyv from rti^/u (^c-), and in MOrp^ 
from Ovui (Ov-\$€ and ^ become re and tv before ^. 

4. A similar change occurs in dfiV'txfo (for d/x^-cxo)) and dfiTr- 
C47XQ) (for AfKfhurxfo), clothe, and in cKc-xctpid (?x<«> ^uid x^W^ ^^''^c^' 
So an initial aspirate is lost in ?x*^ (stem l^- for o-cx", 539), but 
reappears in fut. l^u). 

5. There is a transfer of the aspirate in a few verbs which are 
supposed to have had originally two rough consonants in the stem ; 
as rpi^fna (stem rpc<^ for Op€^), nourish, fut. Bphpta (662) ; Tp€)(Ui 
(rpfX" for ^p€X")> '*'^^» ^^** ^p^iofjuu ; €Td<l>rp^, from ^aTrro) (ra*^ for 
Oaff^-), bury; see also Spwma, ri^^o), and stem ^tt-, in the Catalogue 
of Verbs. So in ^ptf (225), hair, gen. rptx^ (stem rptx- for ^ptx-)> 
and in raxv? , sioift, comparative Odaa-wv for Bax-i.tav (84, 1). Here 



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24 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [96 

the first aspirate reappears whenever the second is lost by any 
euphonic change. 

In some forms of these verbs both rough consonants appear ; as 
l-BpiffySrjv, OpeffyefivaL, T€-$pd<l>-6ai, T€-$d<l>-$aL, l-Spvii^Sriv. (See 709.) 

SYLLABLES. 

96. A Greek word has as many syllables as it has 
separate vowels or diphthongs. The syllable next to 
the last is called the penult (paen-ultima, almost last^ ; 
the one before the penult is called the antepenult. 

97. The following rules, based on ancient tradition, are now 
generally observed in dividing syllables at the end of a line : — 

1. Single consonants, combinations of consonants which can begin 
a word (which may be seen from the Lexicon), and mutes followed 
by fi or V, are placed at the beginning of a syllable. Other combina- 
tions of consonants are divided. Thus, ^x<«'> ^-y^f e-airi-pa, ve-Kvap, 
d-Kfi-q, Se-a-jJLO^, fU-KpoVf Trpd-y/ia-ros, Trpdcr-co), cA-Trti, €i^3ov, ap-fta-ra. 

2. Compound words are divided into their original parts ; but 
when the final vowel of a preposition has been elided in composi- 
tion, the compound is sometimes divided like a simple word : thus 
Trpocr-a-yo) (from irp09 and ayo)); but 7ra-pa-yo) or vap-dyta (from 
irapd and aycu). 

Quantity of Syllables. 

98. A syllable is long by nature (j^vaeC) when it has 
a long vowel or a diphthong ; as in rlfirj^ /crelvo). 

99. 1. A syllable is long by position (OeaeC) when its 
vowel is followed by two consonants or a double con- 
sonant ; as in Xaravre^t rpuTre^a, oprv^, 

2, The length of the vowel itself is not affected by position. 
Thus a was sounded as long in Trpacro-o), irpayfia, and irpo^is, but 
as short in rao-o-oi, rdyfm ; and rafts. 

3. One or both of the consonants which make position may be 
in the next word ; thus the second syllable in oSroi (ftrjaiv and in 
Kara (rropja. is long by position. 

100. When a vowel short by nature is followed by a 
mute and a liquid, the syllable is common (i.e. it may be 
either long or short) ; as in tckvov, v7rvo<;, v^pi^. But 
in Attic poetry such a syllable is generally short; in 
other poetry it is generally long. 



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106] QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES. — ACCENT. 25 

101. N. A middle mute (j3, y, 8) before fi or v, and generally 
before X, lengthens a preceding vowel ; as iu dyv(05, PipXiov, &6yfm. 

102. N. To allow a preceding vowel to be short, the mute and 
the liquid must be in the same word, or in the same part of a 
compound. Thus c iu €k is long when a liquid follows, either in 
composition or in the nezt word ; as ^icXcyo), ck vttav (both __ w __). 

103. The quantity of most syllables can be seen at once. 
Thus rf and o) and all diphthongs are long by nature ; e and o 
are short by nature. (See 5.) 

104. When a, t, and v are not long by position, their quan- 
tity must generally be learned by observing the usage of 
poets or from the Lexicon. But it is to be remembered that 

1. Every vowel arising from contraction or crasis is long ; 
as a in ycpa (for ycpaa), diccuv (for dcxcov), and icdv (for koI av). 

2. The endings as and vs are long when v or vr has been 
dropped before o- (79). 

3. The accent often shows the quantity of its own vowel, 
or of vowels in following syllables. 

Thus the circumflex on kvlo-o, savor, shows that i is long and a 
is short ; the acute on x^P^^ land, shows that a is long ; on rtves ; 
whof that I is short; the acute on PoucriXtCd, kingdom, shows that 
the final a is long, on fiaxrikaa, queen, that final a is short. (See 
106,3; 111; 112.) 

105. The quantity of the terminations of nouns and verbs will 
be stated below in the proper places. 

ACCENT. 

General Pkinciples. 

106. 1. There are three accents, 

the acute ('), as \0709, avrof;, 
the grave (^), as avTCK^ e<f>rf (115, 1), 
the circumflex (^ or *"), as tovto, rlfi&v. 
2. The acute can stand only on one of the last three 
syllables of a word, the circumflex only on one of the 
last two, and the grave only on the last. 

8. The circumflex can stand only on a syllable long 
by nature. 



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26 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [107 

107. 1. The Greek accent was not simply a stress accent (like ours), 
but it raised the musical pitch or tone (rims) of the syllable on which 
it fell. This appears in the terms r6vos and Tpo<r<fi5la, which designated 
the accent, and also ini^iJs, sharp, and /3apiJs, grave, fiat, which described 
it. (See 110, 1 and 3.) As the language declined, the musical accent 
gradually changed to a stress accent, which is now its only represen- 
tative in Greek as in other languages. 

2. The marks of accent were invented by Aristophanes of Byzan- 
tium, an Alexandrian scholar, about 200 B.C., in order to teach for- 
eigners the correct accent in pronouncing Greek. By the ancient theory 
every syllable not having eitiier the acute or the circumflex was said to 
have the grave accent ; and the circumflex, originally formed thus " ^, 
was said to result from the union of an acute and a following grave. 

108. N. The grave accent is written only in place of the acute 
in the case mentioned in 115, 1, and occasionally on the indeflnite 
pronoun rts, rl (418). 

109. N. The accent (like the breathing) stands on the second 
vowel of a diphthong (12) ; as in oTpo), fjucnkroL, tov^ avrotk. But in 
the improper diphthongs (^, jy, <j)) it stands on the first vowel even 
when the i is written in the line ; as in rtfiy, aTrXo), *Ot (^), *ih$a 
(cSfa). 

110. 1. A word is called oosytone {6(v'Tovo^, sharp-toned) 
when it has the acute on the last syllable, as jSoo-iXcvs; 
paroxytone, when it has the acute on the penult, as PaxriXcfoq ; 
proparoxytone, when it has the acute on the antepenult, as 

2. A word is called perispomenon (Trcpunriofiewov) when it 
has the circumflex on the last syllable, as iX$€iv\ properi&' 
pomenon, when it has the circumflex on the penult, as fiovau. 

3. A word is called barytone (jSapv^ovos, grave or Jktt- 
toned) when its last syllable has no accent (107, 2). Of 
course, all paroxytones, proparoxytones, and properispo- 
mena are at the same time barytones. 

4. When a word throws its accent as far back as possible 
(111), it is said to have recessive accent. This is especially 
the case with verbs (130). (See 122.). 

111. The antepenult, if accented, takes the acute. 
But it can have no accent if the last syllable is long 
either by nature or by position. Thus, ire^^/cv^, avOpoairo^. 

112. An accented penult is circumflexed when it is 
long by nature while the last syllable is short by nature ; 



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117] PRINCIPLES OF ACCENT. 27 

as fiijXov, v7J<To<:, ^Xt|. Otherwise it takes the acute; 

as \07O9, TOVTCOV. 

113. N. Final ai and ot are counted as short in determining the 
accent ; as avSpwiroL, vrjiroL : except in the optative, and in oiKoi, at 
home; as rtfii^ai, iron^oi (not TLfirj<rou. or iroLrja-ot), 

114. N. Genitives in ews and euv from nouns in is and vs of the 
third declension (251), all cases of nouns and adjectives in <as and uv 
of the Attic second declension (198), and the Ionic genitive in e« of the 
first (188, 3), allow the acute on the antepenult; as cvyetas, r^Xewj, 
Ti^p€o> (TiJ/>i7s). So some compound adjectives in ws; as inf/l-Kepm^ 
high-homed. For the acute of «<nrep, o?5e, etc., see 146. 

115. 1. An oxytone changes its acute to the grave 
before other words in the same sentence ; as rov^ ttovt)- 
pou9 av0pd)7rov<; (for tov^ 7rovr)pov<; dv0p(!)7rov<;^. 

2. This change is not made before enclitics (143) nor before an 
elided syllable (48), nor in the interrogative rts, rC (418^. It is not 
made before a colon : before a comma modern usage differs, and 
the tradition is uncertain. 

116. (Anastrophe,) Dissyllabic prepositions (regularly 
oxytone) throw the accent back on the penult in two cases. 
This is called anastrophe (dvao-rpo<^i7, turning back). It occurs 

1. When such a preposition follows its case; as in rwrtov ircpt 
(for TTcpi TovTiov), about these. 

This occurs in prose only with Trcpt, but in the poets with all the 
dissyllabic prepositions except dvo, Sidi aynfiLy and Sarri In Homer 
it occurs also when a preposition follows a verb from which it is 
separated by tmesis; as dXeo-as d^ro, having destroyed. 

2. When a preposition stands for itself compounded with coriv; 
as irapa for irapeariv, Ivi for Ivcortv (cvt being poetic for cv). Here 
the poets have ava (for dva-on^^t), up ! 

ACCBNT OP CONTBACTBD SYLLABLES AND ElIDED WoRDS. 

117. A contracted syllable is accented if either of the 
original syllables had an accent. A contracted penult or 
antepenult is accented regularly (111; 112). A contracted 
final syllable is circumflexed ; but if the original word was 
oxytone, the acute is retained. E.g. 

Tifuo/iCFo? from rlpjojoixevo^, ^^iXcirc from ^iXccrc, (fnXoipjcv from 
iJMXioifuVi <l>iXovvT<jJv from ^iAcoktcdv, rZfuo from rlpojui ; but )3c/3<tf9 
from jpePoMik. 



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28 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [118 

This proceeds from the ancient principle that the circamflex 
comes from '+^ (107, 2), never from ^ + '; so that ri/xoctf gives rt/xoi, 
but PcPatk gives )3c)3a>s. 

118. N. If neither of the original syllables had an accent, the 
contracted form is accented without regard to the contraction ; as 
ttfid for rtfjuu, e^voc for cvvooi. 

Some exceptions to the rule of 117 will be noticed under the 
declensions. (See 203; 311.) 

119. In crasis, the accent of the first word is lost and that 
of the second remains ; as rdyaOd for ra dya^a, ey<^ for cyoi 
oZSa, K^ra for xot eira; roAAa for rot oAAa; rdpa for rot dpcu 

120. In elision, oxytone prepositions and conjunctions 
lose their accent with the elided vowel; other oxytones 
throw the accent back to the penult, but without changing 
the acute to the grave (115, 1). E.g, 

'Ett' avtf for iirl avr^, dXX' cTttcv for dAAo. clircv, ^iJ/a* cyca for 
KJyrjfU cyoi, kok hnj for icaKot hnj. 

ACCENT OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

121. 1. The place of the accent in the nominative singu- 
lar of a noun (and the nominative singular masculine of 
an adjective) must generally be learned by observation. 
The other forms accent the same syllable as this nominative, 
if the last syllable permits (111) ; otherwise the following 
syllable. E.g. 

®dX[W(Ta, OaXdxT(rris, OaXcuro'av, OaKaxro'aij AiAoco'cus ; Kopai, 
KOpaKo^y KOfXLKes, KopaKcuv; Trpay/io, ?rpay/xaro9} irpdy/xarcov ; oSovs, 
oSovTO^, oSova-Lv. So ;(aptas, xapUiTna, xo^ifVj gen. \apUvTO^, etc. ; 
a^t09, o^ia, aiiovy a^UM, o^cot, iiuu 

2. The kind of accent is determined as usual (111 ; 112) ; as 
vrj<To^, mia-ov, vrjaov, vrj(roi, v)^<r(M9. (See also 123 ; 124.) 

122. N. The following nouns and adjectives have recessive accent 
(110,4):- 

(a) Contracted compound adjectives in oos (203, 2): 
(6) The neuter singular and vocative singular of adjectives in tav, 
ov (except those in 0/)«v, compounds of 0/)i^v), and the neuter of com- 
paratives in wv ; as etbaltMv^ evdaifjMv (818) ; ptXritav, plKrlov (358) ; 
but dat<f>p(i)v, datippop : 

(c) Many barytone compounds in 17s in all forms; as a^dpioys, 
airrapKes, gen. pi. aUrdpKCJv; 0iXoXi5^i7S, ^iXdXij^es (but dXiy^iJj, dXiy(9^$); 
this includes vocatives like 2(iic/)oT€s, ^TffiS<rd€ves (228) ; so some other 
adjectives of the third declension (see 314): 



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131] ACCENT OF NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, AND VERBS. 29 

(<J) The vocative of syncopated nouns in tip (273), of compound 
proper names in <av^ as * Aydfiefivovy AArbtMbov (except Aafcedai/uov), and 
of *At6XXwv, IlocretSwv (Hom. ILoffcMtav), (ruyrfip, saviour^ and (Hom.) 
ddi^/>, brother-in-law, — voc. "AiroWov, Udtreidov (Hom. Uo<reLdaov)j 
aOrep, dacp (see 221, 2). 

123. The last syllable of the genitive and dative of oxy- 
tones of the first and second declensions is circumflexed. E.g, 

TlfJirjSf rlfjiy, Tifjucuy, rlfjJav, rlfjuu^ ; $€ov, (?c^, ^ca>v, ^cois. 

124. In the^rs^ declension, W of the genitive plural (for 
co)v) is circumflexed (170). But the feminine of adjectives 
and participles in os is spelt and accented like the masculine 
and neuter. E.g, 

AiKtav, Bo$S>v (from Stioy, 3d{a), TroXlroiv (from ttoAXtt/?) ; but 
d^iW, keyofievfov (fem. gen. plur. of a£i09, Xcyo/iACvos, 302). For 
the genitive plural of other adjectives and participles, see 318. 

126. N. The genitive and dative of the Attic second declension 
(198) are exceptions ; as ve(09, gen. vco>, dat. vctu. 

126. N. Three nouns of the first declension are paroxytone in 
the genitive plural: 6.<l>vrj, anchovy, d^iW; ^xfiWrrfs, usurer, xpiy- 
uTiav ; irrjauu, Etesian winds, in^Citiv* 

127. Most monosyllables of the third declension accent 
the last syllable in the genitive and dative of all numbers : 
here <ov and oiv are circumflexed. E.g. 

01/5, servant, drjfroi, drjfrC, drjfrolv, drfrtiiv, OrjaL 

128. N. Act's, torch, Sfidk, slave, o5s, ear, Trats, child, Tpm, Trojan, 
^o>9i light, and a few others, violate the last rule in the genitive 
dual and plural ; so iras, all, in both genitive and dative plural : as 
9rais, JTOtSo^, irai&i, traJLcrC, but TnuScov; ttSs, iravTos, travri, Trdvntw, 
irocri. 

129. N. The interrogative rts, rtvos, tlvi, etc., always accents the 
first syllable. So do all monosyllabic participles ; as <Sv, ovros, 6vn, 
Bvnav, o6fn} pd%, pdvroi* 

ACCENT OF VERBS. 

130. Verbs generally have recessive accent (110, 4); 
as PovXewo, PovXevofUv, fiovXevova-tv ; irapi^do, irapt^t ; d?ro8iSa)/bU^ 
dvoSorc; PovXeuovrai, PovXeiaui (aor. opt. act.), but ficfuXeva-ai 
(aor. imper. mid.). See 113. 

131. The chief exceptions to this principle are these : — 



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30 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [132 

1. The secoud aorist active infinitive in civ and the second 
aorist middle imperative in ov are perispomena : as AajSctv, cX^ev, 
XjLirclv, kvjTOv, Aa/3ov. For compounds like Kard-Oov, see 133, 3. 

2. These second aorist imperatives active are oxytone : dwi 
iXOif €vp€f Xafie, So 18c in the sense behold ! But their compounds 
are regular ; as ^ir-eiTrc. 

3. Many contracted optatives of the /u-inflection regularly cir- 
cumflex the penult ; as larairo, &v&our$€ (740). 

4. The following forms accent the penult : the first aorist active 
infinitive, the second aorist middle infinitive of verbs in <u, the 
perfect middle and passive infinitive and participle, and all infini- 
tives in vol or /xcv (except those in /jtevai). Thus, jSovAdxrot, ycve 
aOoL, XekwrOcUf kcXvfievos, iardvcu, Bi^vaL, AcXvicei/at, hofjuev and 
Sofuvca (both Epic for Sowou). 

5. The following participles are oxytone : the second aorist 
active ; and all of the third declension in -s, except the first aorist 
active. Thus, Xittidv, Xv^cts, &3ovs, Seucv^s, XcXvkci)?, lora? (pres.) ; 
but X6a-ds and cmyo'ds (aor.). 

So itav, present participle of cl/u, go. 

132. Compound verbs have recessive accent like simple verbs; 
as avveifu (from a-uv and ci/ai), avvotSa {avv and oTSa), l[$€i/u (If 
and c7fu), irap-corc. 

133. But there are these exceptions to 132 : — 

1. The accent cannot go further back than the augment or 
reduplication ; as irap-cixov (not Trapci^ov), I provided^ irofy^ (not 
iraifyrp/), he was present, d<^tKT<u (not S.<I>ikt(u), he has arrived. 

So when the augment falls on a long vowel or a diphthong 
which is not changed by it ; as vtt-cTicc (imperfect), he was yielding; 
but V7r-«ic€ (imperative), yield ! 

2. Compounds of 8<)s, &, ^cs, and cr^^'s are paroxytone; as 
d?ro8os, irapouTxcs (not d?ro8o9, etc.). 

3. Monosyllabic second aorist middle imperatives in -ov have 
recessive accent when compounded with a dissyllabic preposition ; 
as Kard-OoVf put down, diro-SoVf sell : otherwise they circumflex the 
ov (131, 1) ; as ivOov, put in. 

134. N. Participles in their inflection are accented as adjectives 
(121), not as verbs. Thus, PovXewov has in the neuter PovXi^ov 
(not Pov\€vov) ; <^tA.€W, ^iAa)v, has ^lAeoi/ (not ^tXeov), ^cXovv. 
(See 335.) 

136. For the accent of optatives in cu and ot, see 113. Some 
other exceptions to 130 occur, especially in poetic forms. 



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141] PROCLITICS AND ENCLITICS. 31 

PROCLITICS. 

136. Some monosyllables have no accent and are closely 
attached to the following word. These are called proclitics 
(from vpoKXtvfD, lean forward), 

137. The proclitics are the articles 6, ^, ol, al ; the prepo- 
sitions €15 (cs), ii (€k), €v; the conjunctions ci and ok (so ws 
used as a preposition) ; and the negative ov (ouk, ovx)- 

138. Exceptions, 1. Ov takes the acute at the end of a sen- 
tence; as TTois yap ov; for why notf So when it stands alone as 
OS, No. 

2. *Os aDd sometimes i( and as take the acute when (in poetry) 
they follow their noun ; as /caxcov liyfrom evils; ^cos c5s, cw a God. 

3. 'Os is accented also when it means thus; as cSs cIttcv, thus 
he spoke. This use of cos is chiefly poetic ; but icai m, even thus, 
and ovS* (Ss or iirj^ ois, not even thus, sometimes occur in Attic prose. 

For a proclitic before an enclitic, see 143, 4. 

139. N. When 6 is used for the relative os, it is accented (as 
in Od, 2, 262) ; and many editors accent all articles when they are 
demonstrative, as iZ. 1, 9, o yap Paa-tXTJi xoA.a)^cts, and write o fijtv 
,.,$&€, and (M fjbku . . . oi 3c, even in Attic Greek. 

ENCLITICS. 

140. An enclitic (cyicXfvo), lean upon) is a word which 
loses its own accent, and is pronounced as if it were part of 
the preceding word ; as SvOpayiroir^ (like hdmindsque in Latin). 

141. The enclitics are : — 

1. The personal pronouns fio/v, fxoi, /xc; aov, aoC, o-c; oS, ot, 
If and (in poetry) <T^(<n. 

To these are added the dialectic and poetic forms, /icO, o-co, <r€ii, 
To4 TV (accus. for <rc), co, cv, €$€y, fuv, vtv, o-^t, o-^tv, o-^c, o-^wc, 
atfuotv, (T^cW, (T^cas, (r^9, o'<^€a. 

2. The indefinite pronoun tU, tI, in all its forms (except 
5rTa) ; also the indefinite adverbs rrov, ttoOC, try, iroi, rroOev, 
irori, irw, ttois. These must be distinguished from the inter- 
rogatives rts, irov, iroOi, irfff TTOi, TToOev, irort, irw, irm. 

3. The present indicative of ct/xt, be, and of ffyrffiC, say, 
except the forms d and <^'s. But epic ia-at and Ionic eh 
are enclitic. 



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32 LETTERS, SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS. [142 

4. The particles yc, t^ roi, irip : the inseparable -8c in o8c, 
TowrSc, etc. (not Sc, 6u^) ; and -^c and -;(i in dO^ and Wx* 
(146). So also the poetic vw (not vuv), and the epic « 
{k€v), Orjv, and pa. 

142. The enclitic always loses its accent, except a dis- 
syllabic enclitic after a paroxytone (143, 2). See examples 
in 143. 

148. The word before the enclitic always retains its own 
accent, and it never changes a final acute to the grave (115, 2). 

1. If this word is proparoxytone or properispomenon, it 
receives from the enclitic an acute on the last syllable as a 
second accent. Thus SvOpumo^ ns, SvOponroi rtvc?, ^i$6v /uuh, 
7ra£8cs Ttvcs, ovto^ iariv, 

2. If it is paroxytone, it receives no additional accent 
(to avoid two acutes on successive syllables). Here a dis- 
syllabic enclitic keeps its accent (to avoid three successive 
unaccented syllables). Thus, Xoyo^ rts (not Xoyos rts), Xoyoi 
TLV€s (not Xoyoi nvcs), Xdyoiv rivCiiv, ovT<t) <l>rf(rCv (but outos <l>rf<nv 

byi). 

3. If its last syllable is accented, it remains unchanged ; 
as Ttfjuu T€ (115, 2), rlfiiiiv yc, cro^os ns, (to^ck rtvcs, {to^hov 

TtV€5. 

4. A proclitic before an enclitic receives an acute ; as ci 
Tts, €1 (fnrfO-tv avTO^. 

144. Enclitics retain their accent whenever special emphasis 
falls upon them ; this occurs 

1. When they begin a sentence or clause; or when pronomis 
express antithesis, as ov rapa Tpaxrlv dXXa aol frnxovfuOa, we shall 
fight then not with Trojans but with you, S. Ph. 1253. 

2. When the preceding syllable is elided; as in iroAA' cortv 
(120) for TToXXa cortv. 

3. The personal pronouns generally retain their accent after an 
accented preposition ; here c/juw, c/aoi, and ipA are used (except in 
irpds /Ac). 

4. The personal pronouns of the third person are not enclitic 
when they are direct reflexives (988) ; <r^t<n never in Attic prose. 

5. 'EoTi at the beginning of a sentence, and when it signifies 
existence or possibility, becomes lort ; so after ovic, fiy, ct, the adverb 
«s, KOI, 6XK* or diXAo, and tovt or toCto. 



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150] DIALECTIC CHANGES. — PUNCTUATION. 33 

146. When several enclitics occur in succession, each takes an 
acute from the following, the last remaining without accent; as 
€t Tts tL (Tol fl>rf<nv, if any one is saying anything to you. 

146. When an enclitic forms the last part of a compound word, 
the compound is accented as if the enclitic were a separate word. 
Thus, avTivoif ^ivt, wynvtav, wnrepj clxrrc, oiSc, rouirSc, drc^ aSrtf 
/Ai/re, are only apparent exceptions to 106 ; 111 ; 112. 

DIAIiBCnC CHANQBS. 

147. The Ionic dialect is marked by the use of rj where 
the Attic has a ; and the Doric and Aeolic by the use of a 
where the Attic has 17. 

Thus, Ionic yeyei^ for ycvco, iT^ofuu for Idaofjuu (from loofuu, 
635) ; Doric rt/i.do-a> for Tifiija-ia (from riyuoM) ; Aeolic and Doric 
XaOd for Xvfiri, But an Attic d caused by contraction (as in rtfia 
from rifiac), or an Attic 1; lengthened from c (as in ^iXi^o-o) from 
<^iA,€a), 635), is never thus changed. 

148. The Ionic often has a, ov^ for Attic c, o ; and rfi for 
Attic ei in nouns and adjectives in eiosi ciov; as {ctvos for 
i€vo^, /jjovviK for flavor ; Paxnkiqioi for )3a(r£ Xcios. 

149. The Ionic does not avoid successive vowels to the 
same extent as the Attic ; and it therefore very often omits 
contraction (36). It contracts eo and cou into cv (especially 
in Herodotus) ; as iroievfiew, Troteuo-t (from ttoico/uicv, Trotcovcri), 
for Attic irowv/jLcy, irotcva-u Herodotus does not use v mov- 
able (56). See also 94 and 785, 1. 

PUNCTUATION MARKS. 

180. 1. The Greek uses the comma ( , ) and the period (.) 
like the English. It has also a colon, a point above the 
line (•), which is equivalent to the English colon and semi- 
colon ; as ovK t(T^ o y €V7rov ' ov yap w8* 3,^p<ov ^^vv, it is not 
what I said; for lam not so foolish, 

2. The mark of interrogation (;) is the same as the 
English semicolon ; as w&rc ^XOev; when did he come f 



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PART 11. 



INFLECTION. 

151. Inflection is a change in the form of a word, 
made to express its relation to other words. It includes 
the declension of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, and 
the conjugation of verbs. 

152. Every inflected word has a fundamental part, 
which is called the stem. To this are appended various 
letters or syllables, to form cases, tenses, persons, num- 
bers, etc. 

153. Most words contain a still more primitive element than 
the stem, which is called the root. Thus, the stem of the verb 

' rlfiaio), honor, is Tt/ua-, and that of the noun Tifi-^f is rZ/Ad-, that of 
TiVts, payment, is run-, that of rtfuo^, held in honor, is rlfjuo-, that 
of Ttfxrffm (rlfirjfmTo^), valuation, is rlfArffmr-; but all these stems 
are developed from one root, rir, which is seen pure in the verb 
ri-o), honor. In tl(o, therefore, the verb stem and the root are the 
same. 

164. The stem itself may be modified and assume various 
forms in different parts of a noun or verb. Thus the same verb 
stem may in different tense stems appear as Xitt-, Xcitt-, and Aocir- 
(see 459). So the same noun stem may appear as rlfm-, rlfia-, and 
Tifirf- (168). 

155. There are three numbers; the singular, the dual, 
and the plural. The singular denotes one object, the 
plural more than one. The dual is sometimes used to 
denote two objects, but even here the plural is more 
common. 

34 

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162] GENDERS, NUMBERS, AND CASES. 35 

156. There are three gendevB ; the masculine, the 
feminine, and the neuter. 

157. N. The grammatical gender in Greek is very often differ- 
ent from the natural gender. Especially many names of things 
are masculine or feminine. A Greek noun is called masculine, 
feminine, or neuter, when it requires an adjective or article to take 
the form adapted to either of these genders, and the adjective or 
article is then said to have the gender of the corresponding noun ; 
thus 6 cvpvs iroTtt/xos, the broad river (masc), ij kclX.^ wxCd, the beau- 
tiful house (fem.), rdirro to 7rpay/xa, this thing (neut.). 

The gender of a noun is often indicated by prefixing the article 
(386) ; as (6) &irrip, man; (Ji) yunj, woman; (to) irpay/xa, thing. 

168. Nouns which may be either masculine or feminine are 
said to be of the common gender: as (6, 17) ^cos, God or Goddess. 
Kames of animals which include both sexes, but have only one 
grammatical gender, are called epicene (c^rtkoivo?) ; as 6 dcros, the 
eagle; 17 aXiUnrrf^, the fox; both including males and females. 

169, The gender must often be learned by observation. But 

(1) Names of males are generally masculine, and names of 
females feminine. 

(2) Most names of rivers^ winds^ and months are masculine ; and 
most names of countries, towns, trees, and islands are feminine. 

(3) Most nouns denoting qualities or conditioris are feminine; 
as aperrj, virtue, iXirk, hope. 

(4) Diminutive nouns are neuter ; as wol&lov, child ; yvvauw, old 
woman (literally, little woman). 

Other rules are given under the declensions (see 168; 189; 
281-284). 

160. There are five cases; the nominative, genitive, 
dative, accusative, and vocative. 

161. 1. The nominative and vocative plural are always 
alike. 

2. In neuters, the nominative, accusative, and vocative 
are alike in all numbers ; in the plural these end in a. 

8. The nominative, accusative, and vocative dual are 
always alike ; and the genitive and dative dual are always 
alike. 

162. The cases of nouns have in general the same meaning as 
the corresponding cases in Latin; as Nom. a man (as subject). 



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36 



INFLECTION. 



[163 



Gen. of a man^ Dat. to or for a man^ Accus. a man (as object), 
Voc. man. The chief functions of the Latin ablative are 
divided between the Greek genitive and dative. (See 1042.) 

163. All the cases except the nominative and vocative are 
called oblique cases. 

NOUNS. 

164. There are three declensions of nouns, in which 
also all adjectives and participles are included. 

165. These correspond in general to the first three declensions 
in Latin. The first is sometimes called the A declension (with 
stems in d), and the second the declension (with stems in o). 
These two together are sometimes called the Vowel declension, as 
opposed to the third or Consonant declension (206). 

The principles which are common to adjectives, participles, and 
substantives are given under the three declensions of nouns. 

166. N. The name noun (6w/Mt), according to ancient usage, in- 
cludes both substantives and adjectives. But by modern custom noun 
is generally used in grammatical language as synonymous with stib- 
stantive, and it is so used in the present work. 



167. 



CASE-ENDINGS OF NOUNS. 





Vowel Declension. 


1 


Consonant Declension. 


SING. 


Masc. and Fern, 


Neuter] 


Masc. and Fern. 




Neuter. 


Nom. 


s or none 




V 


s or none 




none 


Gen. 


sor to 






OS 






Dat. 


I 






i 






Ace. 


V 






vord 




none 


Voc. 


none 




V 


none or like Nom. 




none 


DUAL. 














N.A.V. 


none 






c 






G.D. 


iV 






OiV 






PLUB. 














N.V. 


i 




tt 


ft 




& 


Gen. 


ttV 






ttV 






Dat. 


«rw(i8) 






ci, €r€n>i 


tfrm 




Aoc. 


vs(«) 




& 


v,,«. 




& 



The relations of some of these endings to the terminations actually 
in use will be explained under the different declensions. The agree- 
ment of the two classes in many points is striking. 



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171] 



FIRST DECLENSION. 



37 



FIRST DECLENSION. 

168. Stems of the first declension end originally in a. 
This is often modified into 77 in the singular, and it 
becomes a in the plural. The nominative singular of 
f eminines ends in a or 77 ; that of masculines ends in 
a9 or 779. There are no neuters. 

169. The following table shows how the final a or 17 of the 
stem unites with the case endings (167), when any are added, to 
form the actual terminations : — 







SINGULAR. 


PLUBAL. 




Feminine 




Masculine. 


Masc, and Fern, 


Nom. 


aor& 


1 


d-s T|-t 


a-i 


Gen. 


Or^ or T|-S 


T|-S 


a-io (Hom. oro) 


fiv(for^«v) 


Dat. 


a-i or T|-i 


T|-t 


d-i T|-i 


a-uri or a-is 


Ace. 


a-v or d-v 


T|-V 


d-V T|-V 


OS (for a-vs) 


Voc. 


dord 


1 


d dorri 


iKH 






Dual. 








Masc. and Fi 


\m. 






N.A.V. 1 d 








G.] 


D. 1 oiv 





170. N. In the genitive singular of masculines Homeric ao comes 
from o-io (169); but Attic ov probably follows the analogy of ov for 00 
in the second declension (191). Circumflexed Qv in the genitive plural 
is contracted from Ionic 4iav (188, 5). The stem in a (or a) may 
thus be seen in all cases of oUla and x^P^t ^^^ (with the change of a 
to 17 ^ the singular) also in the other paradigms (except in ov of the 
genitive). The forms ending in a and 17 have no case-endings. 



FEMININE8. 



171. The nouns (17) %(»/»«, land^ (17) rlfiri, Jumor^ 
(17) olKid, house^ (17) Movca, Muse^ are thus declined : — 



Stem, (xwpo-) 

Nom. X^P^ 

Gen. x^P^ 

Dat x^P^ 

Ace. X^P^v 

Voc. X^P* 



a land 
of a land 
to a land 
a land 
Oland 



SINGULAR. 



(oIkm-) (/bu>v<rd-) 



otxCd 
otxCds 

oUCdv 
oUCd 



Moi»<n|f 

"NLoih-av 
MoOo-a 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



38 



INFLECTION. 



[172 



DUAL. 

N. A. V. xipSk two lands rl^ oUCd McWioxL 

G. D. X^'P*^^ ^/ ^' ^ '^^ lands Ti|ia£v otKUuv Mo^w-ouv 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Aoc. 

Voc. 



X^poi lands 

X«*fl>Av of lands 

XMpoit to lands 

X«ipa« lands 

XApcu kiiMfo 



tI|iaC 

Ti|ftas 
tI|iaC 



oUUu 
oUUftv 

oiKCos 



Movo-flu 

MovfTMy 

Movorcus 

MoWus 

Movtroi 



172* The following show varieties of quantity and accent : — 
BaXatrua, sea, OaXdo'ayji, OaXdo'ay, OaXaxra-av ; PI. ddXajoraxMi, 
$aXaur(riav, BaXda'aai^, ^oAao-crds. 

y€<^vpa, bridge, yc^vpds, y€<f>vpa, y€<l>vpav ; PI. yc^vpot, etc. 
(rxio, shadow, aKW, a-Kif, aKidv ; PI. (tkuu, aKUov, aKUu^, etc. 
yviafMff opinion, yviafirp, yvtofi-Q, yvvtfirpf ; PI. yytayuax, yvta/iMv, etc. 
ireifxi, attempt, irci/>ds, n-cip^ irci/xiv; PI. n-etpcu, ireifmv, etc. 

173. The stem generally retains d through the singular 
after c, i, or p, but changes d to 17 after other letters. See 
oucid, X^pa, and rlfii; in 171. 

174. But nouns having <r, XX, or a double consonant (18) 
before final a of the stem, and some others, have a in the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and 7 in the 
genitive and dative, like Movotou 

Thus S.pjaiaj wagon; hv^a, thirst; pi^a, root; ofuXXa, contest; 
OaXaxraxL (with later Attic OaXoTra), sea. So fUpifiya, care ; BiuTmtva, 
mistress; Xeouva, lioness; rpuava, trident; also r^^m, daring; Suuto, 
living; ajcajfOa, thorn; evOdva, scrutiny, 

176. The following have a in the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative, and d in the genitive and dative, singular (after c, i, 
orp): — 

(a) Most ending in pa preceded by a diphthong or by v; as 
fjmpa^ yi^vpOL, 

(h) Most abstract noims formed from adjectives in 17s or ooi ; 
as iXrfitUL, truth (dXi/^s, true'), cSvoul, kindness (cvvoos, hind), (But 
the Attic poets sometimes have dXrjOeCd, evvoid, etc.) 

(c) Noims in cut and rpia designating females; as fiaa-ikeui, 
queen, tf/dXrpUL, female harper (but jSao-cXetd, kingdom). So pvuL, 
fly, gen. /uivtds. 

For feminine adjectives in a, see 318. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



181] FIRST DECLENSION. 39 

176. (Exceptions,) AipTfy neck, Bjxd Kopvf, girl (oTiginally Sippi, 
Kopprj), have 17 after p (173). ^Epcn;, dew, and Kopcn; (new Attic 
Koppnrj), temple, have 17 aiter cr (174). Some proper names have d 
irregularly; as Ai/Sa, Zeefa, gen. Arfid^, Both oa and 017 are 
allowed ; as jSoiy, cry, arod, parch, 

177. N. It will be seen that a of the nominative singular is 
always short when the genitive has rp, and generally long when 
the genitive has as. 

178. N. Av of the accusative singular and a of the vocative 
singular agree in quantity with a of the nominative. The quan- 
tity of all other vowels of the terminations may be seen from the 
table in 169. 

Most nouns in a have recessive accent (110, 4). 

MASCULINES. 

179. The nouns (6) rafiiw:, steward^ (0) TroAiriy?, «Yf- 
«6W, and (0) KpLTri<i, judge^ are thus declined: — 

Stem, (ra/ua-) (iroXtTo-) (irptro-) 







SINGULAE. 




Nom. 


Ta|&(a« 


iroXfnif 


Kpi-Hjf 


Gen. 


TOfiCoV 


iroXfrov 


KpiTOf) 


Dat. 


Ta|&(9 


iroXfrn 


KpiT^ 


Ace. 


raftCav 


iroXfTT|v 


Kpiiiy 


Voc. 


TOfiCa 


iroXtra 

DUAL. 


Kpird 


N.A.V. 


TOfiCa 


iroXfra 


Kpird 


G.D. 


raftCaiv 


iroXfroiv 

PLUEAL. 


KptraCv 


Nom. 


TOi&Cai 


iroXCroi 


KpiraC 


Gen. 


rayx&v 


iroXirAv 


KpiT&V 


Dat. 


raitCcus 


iroXtroiS 


icpiTatf 


Ace. 


Tai&Cas 


iroXfrois 


Kptrdt 


Voc. 


TOfiCai 


iroXtroi 


icpiraC 



180. Thus may be declined vedvtas, youth, arpariwrri^, soldier, 
TTOirgrqs, poet. 

181. The a of the stem is here retained in the singular 
after €, ly ot p; otherwise it is changed to tf : see the para- 
digms. For irregular ov in the genitive singular, see 170. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



40 INFLECTION. [182 

182. The following noans in rp have a in the vocative singular 
(like iroXJtrqs) '• those in ti;s ; national names, like Ilepai/s, Persian, 
voc. Ilepo-a ; and compounds in i^, like y€<a-fjL€Tfyrf^y geometer, voc 
yecDfierpa. Aeairorqs, master, has voc. ScWora. Other nouns in 
rys of this declension have the vocative in 17 ; as Kpovt&j^^ son of 
Cronos, Kpov&rj* 

CONTRACTS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 

183. Most nouns in aa, ca, and cas are contracted (35) in 
all their cases. 

184. Mvaa, fiva, mina, avK&i, ovk^, fig-tree, and ''EpfAids, 
*Ep/x^s, Hermes, are thus declined : — 

Stem. (fAvd- for fAvad-) (amd- for avKcd-) (^'Epfm- for *Ep/i€o-) 

SINGULAR. 



Nom. 


(^fxvdd) 


(iva 


(avK^d) 


crvK^ 


(•Ep/x^os) 


•EpHifIs 


Gen. 


(fAvddi) 


(tvas 


(ffVK^ds) 


<rvKi)s 


('Ep/A^ou) 


•Ep^Lov 


Dat. 


it^^di^) 


jiv^ 


(o-Dic^^) 


o-viqj 


CEpM^^) 


•EpuB 


Ace. 


(fAvddv) 


(tvav 


lavK4dp) 




CEp/i^d,.) 


'EpH^y 


Voc. 


(fivdd) 


l&va 


(avK^a) 


o-vKi| 


CEp,i<?a) 


'EpM 


N.A.V. 


duvdd) 


(iva 


DUAL 
((TUK^a) 


o-vKa 


CEp/i^a) 


•Ep^A 


G.D. 


(jivdaiv) (tvaCv 


(jrvK^aLv) 


o-vKaCv 


CEpAt^aiir) 


'Epi&aSv 








PLURAL. 






N.V. 


{iivdaC) 


HivaC 


(avK^aC) 


VVKOX 


CEp/i^aO 


•Epnttt 


Gen. 


(^fjLvaQv) 


|tVfl»V 


(ffVKewv) 


crvKov 


(•Ep/i€c3>') 


•EpH^v 


Dat. 


(^/jLydais) 


(tvats 


(jJVKiaii) 


O-VKOSS 


(*Ep/i^ois) 


'Epi&aCs 


Ace. 


(fAvdds) 


l&vds 


(jTVKi&s) 


o-vKas 


CEpM^ds) 


•EpjuU 



185. So yrj, earth (from an uncontracted form yc-d or ya-d), in 
the singular : y^, y^^, yrj, yrjv, yrj (Doric ya, yas, etc.). 

186. N. Bop€as, North wind, which appears uncontracted in 
Attic, has also a contracted form Boppas (with irregular pp), gen. 
Boppa (of Doric form), dat. BoppoT, ace. Boppav, voc. Boppa. 

187. N. For ca contracted to d in the dual and the accusative 
plural, see 39, 1. For contract adjectives (feminines) of this class, 
see 310. 

DIALECTS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. 

188. 1. The Ionic has rj for d throughout the singidar, even 
after c, t, or p ; as ycvei;, X'^PV^ rafurj^. But Homer has Bid, God- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



191] 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



41 



dess. The Doric and Aeolic have d unchanged in the singular. 
The Ionic generally uses uncontracted forms of contract nouns 
and adjectives. 

2. Nom. Sing, Horn, sometimes a for lys ; as Imrora for Imrorrj^, 
horsemauy sometimes with recessive accent, as firfrUra, counsellor, 
(Compare Latin poeta = TrotiyTiJ?.) 

3. Gen. Sing, For ov Homer has the original form do, as 
"ArpctSdo; sometimes <o (for co) after vowels, as Bopcca (from 
Bopeois). Hom. and Hdt. have Ionic cct> (always one syllable in 
Horn.), as 'ArpctScco (114), Trfpeia (gen. of Ti/piys) ; and ccd occurs in 
proper names in older Attic. The Doric has d for do, as 'ArpetSd. 

4. Ace, Sing, Hdt. sometimes forms an ace. in ea (for rjv) from 
nouns in -lys, as in the third declension, as Seaworea (for SeairoTrjv) 
from ^{nrorrys, master (179) : so Uip^rj^, ace. Hcpfca or U^p^rp/, 

5. Gen. PI, Hom. dtov, the original form, as icXunacav, q/* <ente ; 
sometimes Siv (170). Hom. and Hdt. have Ionic ecov (one syllable 
in Horn.), as irvXiwv, of gates, Doric dv for dwy, also in dramatic 
chorus. 

6. Dat. PI, Poetic aun (also Aeolic and old Attic form) ; Ionic 
ya-i (Horn., Hdt., even oldest Attic), Hom. also 17s (rarely cus). 

7. Ace, PL Lesbian Aeolic cus for ds. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

189. Stems of the second declension end in o, which 
is sometimes modified to co. The nominative singular 
regularly ends in 09 or ov (gen. ov). Nouns in 09 are 
masculine, rarely feminine ; those in ov are neuter. 

190. The following table shows how the terminations of nouns 
in OS and ov are formed by the final o of the stem (with its modifi- 
cations) and the case-endings : — 



SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


Masc. & Fern, Neuter, 


Masc, Fern,, 4b Neuter. 


Masc. & Fern, Neuter. 


N. o-t o-v 




N. o-i a 


G. oil (for 0-0) 


N.A.V. «(foro) 


G. ttv 


D. tf (for o-i) 


G. D. o-iv 


D. o-urt or o-is 


A. o-v 




A. ovs(foro-vs) d 


V. c o-v 




V. o-i d 



191. N. In the genitive singular the Homeric o-io becomes o-o and 
then ov. In the dative singular and the nominative etc. dual, becomes 
ia. E takes the place of in the vocative singular of nouns in os, and 
dt takes the place of in the nominative etc. of neuters. There being 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42 



INTLECTION. 



[102 



no geniUve plural In o»r, mw is not accented as a contracted syllable 
(X^Y^r, not Xo7c^r). 

192. The nouns (6) X0709, word^ (rf) vrjao^, island^ 
(0, 17) avOpornro^, man or huTnan being^ (17) oho^;, road^ 
(to) B&pov, gift, are thus declined : — 



Sum, (X070-) 



(nyo-o-) (di^pfanro-) (6do-) (darpo-) 



Nom. 


Xtf^ot a %oord 


Hk<rot 


&v6p«Mros 


686« 


8«Spov 


Gen. 


X^YOv ofaviord 


Wiotni 


ftVVpMVOV 


6Sofi 


fNipOlP 


Dat. 


X6yy to a uTord 


W|<rv 


&*«|Mi«p 


68^^ 


8-W 


Ace. 


Xtfyov a voord 


vfKrov 




^v 


SaSpov 


Voc. 


X6^ ttwrd 


vi^ 


ftVVpMVf 


hU 


S«pov 


N.A.V 


XtfY<t two words 


DUAL. 


dv0p«^« 


68« 


S.Sp. 


G.D. 


Xtfyoiv o/or to t%DO words W|flroiv 


ftVVpwVOiV 


6S0CV 


S.^r 






PLUBAL. 








Nom. 


Xtfyoi toordtf 


irC|(roi 


ftVVpMVOi 


6So( 


S^ 


Gen. 


X&'^mv of words 


Vlj^WV 




68Mr 


Sc^p^v 


Dat. 


Xd^ois to word* 


Wjo-ois 


dv6pfl»voiS 


6S0CS 


S<fpots 


Ace. 


X6Y0VS t(?ard« 






68oils 


S^pa 


Voc. 


Xdyoi toord8 


Vl|tf Oi 


ftVVpMVOl 


68o( 


Mpa 



193. Thus may be declined vofwis, law, xiv&uvos, danger, mona- 
fwi, river, jSios, /(/«, ^avarosy death, ravpos, bull, <TVKov,Jig, Iftdriw, 
outer garment, 

194. The chief feminine nouns of the second declension are 
the following : — 

1. Pdua-avoi, touchstone, PtfiXo^, book, ycpavos, crane, yvoBtK, Jaw, 
^KOi, beam, Bpoaoi, dew, Kafuvo^, oven, KapSomos, kneading-trough, 
Kifiwros, chest, voaos, disease, vXIvOoSy brick, pafihoi, rod, cropos, coffin, 
<nr686i, ashes, ra<^/909) ditch, tj/dfifjjos, sand, ^<^, pebble ; with 6S09 
and KeA.€v^09) way, a/Lux^trds, carriage-road, irpairo^, path. 

2. Names of countries, towns, trees, and islands, which are regu- 
larly feminine (159, 2) : so rpreipoq, mainland, and vQcros, island, 

196. The nominative in 09 is sometimes used for the vocative 
in c ; as (S <^tXos. ©eo^, God, has always Ocos as vocative. 

ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION. 
196. A few masculine and feminine nouns of this declen- 
sion have stems in «, which appears in all the cases. This 



jbyGooslc 



201] 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



43 



is called the Attic declension, though it is not confined to 
Attic Greek. The noun (6) veak, temple, is thus declined: — 



SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 


PLUBAL. 


Norn. 


Vi<&« 




Nom. 1 


Gen. 


viA 


N. A. V. M^ 


Gen. 1 


Dat 


W 


G. D. vf^v 


Dat. 1 


Ace. 


v%Av 




Ace. 1 


Voc. 


M^ 




Voc. 1 



197. N. There are no neuter nouns of the Attic declension in 
good use. But the corresponding adjectives, as f Xeois, propitious, 
cvyccos, fertile, have neuters in toy, as fkewv, cvycotv. (See 305.) 

198. N. The accent of these nouns is irregular, and that of the 
genitive and dative is doubtful. (See 114; 125.) 

199. N. Some nouns of this class may have cd in the accusative 
singular; as Xaym, accus. Xaywv or Xayw. So^A^ois, rov^AOiay or 
^Adia ; K(ii>s, r^v Kuiv or Kw ; and Kcois, Tcois, M^vois. *Eois, davm, 
has regularly t^k 'Ew. 

200. N. Most nouns of the Attic declension have older forms 
in aoi or i;os, from which they are probably derived by exchange 
of quantity (33) ; as Hom. Xaos, people, Att. A.cak ; Dor. vaos, 
Ion. 10709, Att. vcclk; Hom. Mcvc\ao9, Att. McvcXecos. But some 
come by contraction ; as Xaytos, hare, from Xayiaoq, In words like 
McvcAcois, the original accent is retained (114). 

CONTRACT NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 

201. 1. From stems in oo- and €.0- are formed contract 
nouns in 00s and tov. 

For contract adjectives in €09, ea, tav, and 009, oa, oov, see 310. 
2. N009, vom, mind, and oariov, oarom, bone, are thus de- 
clined : — 





SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 




PLURAL. 


Nom. 


{y6os) vofis 




Nom. 


(1^0 voC 


Gen. 


{p6ov) voO 


N.A.V.(i'6i.») vA 


Gen. 


Ip6(ov) v6v 


Dat. 


iv6v) v^ 


G.D. (i.6otO votv 


Dat. 


{v6ois) voCs 


Ace. 


(v6ov) voOv 




Ace. 


(y6ovt) voO« 


Voc. 


(l^) w« 




Voc. 


(1^0 voC 


N.A.V.(6irWoi')i«rToihf 


N.A.V.(6<rW«) ScttA 


N.A.V 


'.(6<rWo) 6<rTa 


Gen. 




G.D. (6<rWoti')6<rTotv 


Gen. 


(6<rr4(av) oo^uv 


Dat. 


(iirr^v) ^cTTt 




Dat 


(dar^ots) mrrots 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 INFLECTION. [202 

S02. So may be declined (irXoos) irXovs, voyage, (poo^y pcvg, 
stream, (kcivcov) Kavwv, basket (accented like adjectives in cosy 311). 

203. The accent of some of these forms is irregular : — 

1. The dual contracts €<o and wo into la (not (o). 

2. Compounds in oos accent all forms like the contracted nomi- 
native singular ; as irtpLirXooi, irepiTrXav^, sailing round, gen. ircpc- 
irkoav, vepiirXov, etc. 

3. For €a contracted to a in the plural, see 39, 1. 

DIALECTS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. 

204. 1. Gen. Sing. Hom. oco and ov, Aeolic and Doric o> (for 
oo) ; as OtoiOj fuydXio. 

2. Gen. and Dat. Dual. Hom. ouv for oiv ; as iTnrouv. 

3. Dat. Plur. Ionic and poetic ouri ; as iTnroio-t ; also Aeolic and 
old Attic, found occasionally even in prose. 

4. Ace. Plur. Doric cos or 09 for ovs ; as vofjuost reps Xvko^ ; Les- 
bian Aeolic ois. 

5. The Ionic generally omits contraction. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 

205. This declension includes all nouns not belonging 
to either the first or the second. Its genitive singular 
ends in 09 (sometimes ©9). 

206. N. This is often called the Consonant Declension (165), be- 
cause the stem here generally ends in a consonant. Some stems, 
however, end in a close vowel (t or u), some in a diphthong, and a few 
in or <a, 

207. The stem of a noun of the third declension cannot 
always be determined by the nominative singular ; but it is 
generally found by dropping os of the genitive. The cases 
are formed by adding the case-endings (167) to the stem. 

208. 1. For final «? in the genitive singular of nouns in tf, vs, v, 
evs, and of wOs, ship, see 249 ; 266 ; 269. 

2. For a and as in the accusative singular and plural of nouns in 
evs, see 266. 

3. The contracted accusative plural generally has e« for eds irregu- 
larly, to conform to the contracted nominative in eis for ees. (See 313.) 
So ovs in the accusative plural of comparatives in Iwv (358). 

4. The original I's of the accusative plural is seen in IxOOs (for 
IxOv'Vs) from IxOts (269), and the Ionic ir6XZs (for iroXt-w) from «-6Xt$ 
(265). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



210] THIRD DECLENSION. 45 

FOBMATION OF CASES. 
Nominative Singulak. 

209. The nuiuerous forms of the nominative singular of 
this declension must be learned partly by practice. The 
following are the general principles on which the nominative 
is formed from the stem. 

1. Masculine and feminine stems, except those in v, p, o-, 
and ovT (2 and 3), add s, and make the needful euphonic 
changes. E.g. 

^Xaiy guard, <^vXaK-09 ; yvij/, vulture, yiJir-os ; if^koj/, vein, <^Xc)8-o; 
(74) ; ikirU (for iknik), hope^ cXttiS-os; xdpLs, grace, xap*T-os ; opvts, 
bird, 6pvlO-oi ; vwf , night, kukt-os ; itAcrrii, scourge, yuaxTrly-o^ ; (roA- 
TTiyi, trumpet, <raXwtyy-o9. So Aids, Ajax, Alavr-oi (79) ; Xwd^, 
KvfravT-<ii ; tos, iravr-o^; ri$€is, nOeirr-o^; xap^<^^> xpLpCeyT-o^ ; Scikvus, 
8eiKvvirr-os> (The nctifcr* of the last five words, Xwrav, iravj riOev, 
;^tiptcvy and Seucyw, are given under 4, below.) 

2. Masculine and feminine stems in v, p, and a- merely 
lengthen the last vowel, if it is short. E.g. 

Aliav, age, aJjutvo^', ScufJMV, divinity, Sou/aov-os; Xi/ai^v, harbor, 
Xi/xcK-o9 ; 6i/jp, beast, $rfp^ ; wjp, air, dAp'^ti ; ^Kpdrry: (ScDxparco--), 
iSocraies, 

3. Masculine stems in om- drop r, and lengthen o to (o. E.g. 
Accov, /ion, Xcokt-os; Xeyoiv, speaking, Xeyorr-os; cuv, 6cm^, 

wr-os. 

4. In neuters, the nominative singular is generally the 
same as the stem. Final r of the stem is dropped (25). E.g. 

"Sfifia, body, o-oi/iar-os; fitXav (neuter of /UXd^), black, fie\av-os ; 
Xwray (neuter of Xvad^), having loosed, Xdaravr-o^ ; irav, all, iravT-os ; 
Ti$€y, placing, ri^cvr-os; x^picV) graceful, )(apUvT'Oi', &&iv, giving, 
&Sovros; Xtyov, saying, Xcyorr-os; Scikvvf, shoxoing, SeiiciaW-09. 
(For the masculine nominatives of these adjectives and participles, 
see 1, above.) 

210. {Exceptions to 209, 1-3.) 1. In vw,/oot, ttoS-os, 08s be- 
comes ovs. ^dftap, wife, BdfmpT-o^, does not add s* Change in 
quantity occurs in dXiilnnj(, fox, dXanrex-oS} Ktjpvi, herald, KrjpvK-o^, 
and ^wmi, ^oCvufroq. 

2. Stems in ly add 5 and have Is (78, 3) in the nominative ; as 
fi^, nose, plv^» These also add 5 : icrtU, comb, #ctcv-os (78, 3) ; cts, 
one, ^09; and the adjectives pitXd^, black, /uie\aK-09, and roXas, 
wretched, rdXaiMK* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



46 INFLECTION. [211 

3. '03ovs (Ionic 63o)v), tooth, gen. oSovr^-oS) forms its nominative 
like participles in ovs : for these see 212, 1. 

211. {Exceptions to 209, 4.) Some neuter stems in ar- have op 
in the nominative ; as JjinLp, liver, gen. lyTraT-os (225), as if from a 
stem in apr-. For nomis in as with double stems in ar- (or ar-) 
and ao--, as Kpcas, iripa^ (225), and rcpas, see 237. ^s (for ^Soos)? 
light, has gen. <^a)r-os; but Homer has ^aos (stem ^fxua--}. For 
irvp, ^re, gen. irup-os, see 291. 

212. {Participles,) 1. Masculine participles from verbs in wfu 
add s to ovr- and have nominatives in ovs (79) ; as StSov?) giving, 
8t8wT-os. Neuters in okt- are regular (209, 4). 

Other participles from stems in ovr- have nominatives in wf, 
like nouns (209, 3). 

2. The perfect active participle, with stem in or-, forms its 
nominative in cos (masc.) and 09 (neut.); as XcXviccos, having 
loosed, neut. XcAvkos, gen. XtXyKor-o^. (See 335.) 

213. N. For nominatives in rj^ and 09, gen. €09, from stems in 

€0--, see 227. For peculiar formations from stems in o (nom. co), 

see 242. 

Accusative Singular. 

214. 1. Most masculines and feminines with consonant 
stems add a to the stem in the accusative singular ; as 
<l>vXxii (<^vXa#c-), <l>v\aKa; Xecov (Xcovr-), lion, Xeovra. 

2. Those with vowel stems add v ; as iriXi^, state, voXxv ; 
l)(6v^,fish, i^Ovv', vav<s, ship, vavv, fiov^, ox, fiovv, 

3. Barytones in is and vs with lingual (t, 8, 0) stems 
generally drop the lingual and add v; as Ipis (ipiS-), strife, 
Ipiv; xa^t^ (xaptT-), grace, x^P^'^i ^pvZs (opvlO-), bird, 6pvlv', 
cucXxTts (cvcXxTtS-), hopeful, eveXinv (but the oxytone i\ms, 
hope, has cXxrtSa). 

215. N. icXcts (icXciS-), key, has icXetv (rarely icXciSa). 

216. N. Homer, Herodotus, and the Attic poets make accusar 
tives in a of the nouns of 214, 3 ; as Upt&i (Hom.) xap^^a (Hdt.), 
6pvl0a (Aristoph.). 

217. N. 'AttoXXcuv and JloceiSStv (nocrei&iciiv) have accusatives 
'A?rdXAa> and nocretSa), besides the forms in cova. 

For Q) in the accusative of comparatives in Icdv, see 359. 

218. N. For accusatives in ea from nominatives in 17s, in ea from 
those in evs, and in <a (for <aa or oa) from those in cu? or <a, see 228 ; 
206 ; 243. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I 



226] NOUNS WITH MUTE OR LIQUID STEMS. 47 

Vocative Singulab. 

219. The vocative singular of masculines and feminines 
is sometimes the same as the nominative, and sometimes the 
same as the stem. 

220. It is the same as the nominative 

1. In nouns with mute stems; as nom. and voc. <l>vXai 
(ffivXaK'), watchman, (See the paradigms in 225.) 

2. In oxytones with liquid stems ; as nom. and voc. voifnjv 
(ttoc/xcv-), shepherdy XifAt^v (Xiftcv-), harbor. 

But barytones have the vocative like the stem ; as Soufuuv 
(Saifwv), voc. Saiftov. (See the paradigms in 225.) 

221. {Exceptions,) 1. Those with stems in t8-, and barytones 
with stems in vr- (except participles), have the vocative like the 
stem; as ikwk (cXttiS-), hopcy voc. iXm; see Ipts, kitov, and ytyas, 
declined in 225. So Aids (A«ikt-), AJax, voc. Alav (Horn.), but 
Aids in Attic. 

2. Somyp (awrrip-), preserver, 'AiroAAdiv ('AttoAXoiv-), and Hwra- 
3o)v (IIoo-eidcuK- for IIoo'et3do1^•) shorten rj and <o in the vocative. 
Thus voc. aSiTtp, "AwakXov, Uoaei^v (Horn. noactSdov). For the 
recessive accent here and in similar forms, see 122 (d), 

222. All others have the vocative the same as the stem. 
See the paradigms. 

223. There are a few vocatives in ot from noims in (a and <uv, 
geu.ovs: see 245; 248. 

For the vocative of syncopated nouns, see 273. 

Dative Plubal. 

224. The dative plural is formed by adding o-t to the 
stem, with the needful euphonic changes. E.g. 

^^vXa$ (^vXaic-), <l>vXaii ; pTJT<op (piTTop-), prJTop<ri ; i\ms (cXttiS-), 
ikmai (74) ; iraivs (tto^), woaC] Xcow (A.cokt-), Xcovcrt (79) ; Sou/uuov 
(B(Ufjjov), SaifJtxxn (80); riOeCs (riOevr-), Tt^cto-t; x^-P^^^ (x^P*^^^y 
Xaptctrt (74); tcrrds (taravT-), wrrao-t; Sciicvits (Sct/cvwr-), 8ct#cvv(rt; Paxrir 
A.CVS (PaxriX€v-), PaxriXeva-i; fiovs (fiov-), PowrC; ypavs (y/»v-), ypavat. 

For a change in syncopated nouns, see 273. 

NOUNS WITH MUTE OR LIQUID STEMS. 

225. The following are examples of the most com- 
mon forms of nouns of the third declension with mute 
or liquid stems. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



48 



INFLECTION. 



For the formation of the cases, see 209-224. For euphonic 
changes in nearly all, see 74 and 79. For special changes in Opl^, 
see 95, 5. 

Mute Stems. 

I. Mcacvlines and Feminines. 



Stem. 


watchman 


««t'n 


(<5) croXiTiTS 

trt«mpc« 
((roXirt77-) 

SINGULAB. 


(tf) ep«i 


(0) XA.V 

lion 
(Xcoi^O 


Norn. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Voc. 




♦MP« 


lllll s 


TpiXos 

TpiXt 

Tpfxa 
•p« 


Xl«v 

Xlorros 

Xlovn 

XIOVTO 

Xlov 


N.A.V.+v'XoKi 
G.D. ^vkdKow 


♦MP« 


o^mTYC 
coXvCttoiv 


TpCX« 
TpiXOlV 


Xlovrc 
XcoVtovv 








PLURAL. 






N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


i^vXaKCS 

^XOKMV 

♦v-XoJi 


♦MP« 
4MPot 


o-dXmTYCs 
oxiXirCTYttv 
o-aXimigi 
o^iriTYOs 


TpCxfS 

TpiX«V 

Tp(xa« 


Xfovns 
Xcovrcav 

Xlorros 


Stem. 


(o) yiyas 

giant 
(yiyayr-) 


(••)9ii. 

hired tnan 

((hrr--) 


(ii)XiHiirc« 

(Xa/uirad-) 
SINGULAR. 


bird 


hope 


Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Voc. 


lllll 


•t|TOS 

9t|tci 


Xofiinis 

Xoi&iraSos 

Xap.iraSi 

Xap.ira8a 

Xoiiints 

DUAL. 


jpvcs 

^pvieos 

^pviv 
«pvis 


iXirCs 
Air(8os 
^XvCSi 
f'XirCSa 


N.A.V.YWavTf 
G.D. 7i7dvToiv 


wT|T€ 

eriTotv 


Xa|&ir<i8€ 
XoiiiraSoiv 


jpvi0€ 

dpvteoiv 


cXir^iv 








PLURAL. 






N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


^C^avTcs 
Yi-yavTcov 
7(700-1 
YC-yavrofi 


Ot|Tcs 
eTi<r( 


XoiiiroScs 
XcHtiraSttV 
Xai&irooa 
XoftiroSos 


o>ieis 
^pvte«v 

^pvuri 
^pviOos 


IXvCScB 
iXvCSttV 

Atr(8a« 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



225] 



NOUNS WITH MUTE OB LIQUID STEMS. 



49 





n. 


iVetrtert. 






St&ra, 


(Ti)<ri,ia 
60(22^ 

((TWfUXT-) 


end liver 
(repar.) (^tot-) 




snrouLAR. 






N.A.V. 

Gen. 

Dat. 


<r«|&nrot 


<^pat (237) 


4«aT0t 
i(vaTi 






DUAL. 






N.A.V. 
G.D. 


<riJ|&aTf 


«lp«rt 
mpdroiv 


i^vaxc 




-PLUHAL. 






N.A.V. 

Gen. 

Dat 




ii«Pi£t..v 


^{vara 




Liquid Stbms. 






shepherd 
Stem, (iro4/A€i'-) 


(ai«r.) 


(0) ^f^ 

leader 
(^eAior-) 


[o-)8aC,M« 

divinity 


(o')a-imip 
((Twrcp-) 




SINGULAR. 






Nom. iroii&tjv 
Gen. iroi|iivos 
Dat. voijjin 
Ace. «oi|Uva 
Voc. iroi|&T|V 


aUiK>9 
aiiSra 


ih«|i4>'va 

DUAL. 


8ai|M»v 

8aC|iovot 

SoCfiovi 

8a(|Aova 

8aS|Mv 


<rMTi|p 
<rwn{pot 
<r«*rqpi 
<r«»n{pa 
crmp (122) 


N.A.V.«oi|ilM 


ciImm 


PLUBAL. 


Scui&ovoii 


O'MTIlpi 

f a-MnipoiV 


N.V. «oi|ilKfs 
Gen. iroifAivwv 
Dat. iroiiUo-i 
Ace. irobiUvac 


aUSvcs 
oUfvwv 


tiY€|iovas 


8aC|iovcs 

SaCfMoa 
8aC|iova9 


o^mJp€« 

<rMT1|pMV 

<rMTi|po% 
o'VTiipas 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



50 




INFLECTION. 




[221 




W«T-P 


WdlXf 


(o) eiiP 


(ti)frt9 


W) ♦m" 




orator 


«a2< 


&eajf< 


no«e 


mind 


Stem, 


ih^op-) 


(riX.) 


SINGULAR. 


(^fo-) 


(«pe»-) 


Nona. 


Mt«p 


dSls 


^ 


»t* 


♦mV 


Gen. 


ptpvpot 


dXo's 


9l\fi09 


»w« 


«h>n^ 


Dat. 


^'ropi 


dXC 


•npt 


M 


♦pn-f 


Ace. 


^'ropa 


^a 


9npa 


^tM 


♦pA^ 


Voc. 


^nrop 


as 


9TIP 

DUAL. 


ft. 


•Iviv 


N.A.V 


• PTTOpf 


ai 


Oiipc 


»tv< 


♦pA-i 


G. D. 


frllTo'pOlV 


dXotv 


eripolv 

PLURAL. 


^ivotv 


^ptvotv 


N.V. 


^TOp€< 


ais 


9i\fM9 


flws 


*pi^ 


Gen. 


^TOpMV 


(£Xuv 


9r\p^ 


fivw 


<hwVM' 


Dat. 


Wropo-i 


dXa-l 


Ot|po-( 


^i(r( 


♦p«rC 


Ace. 




oXas 


Otjpas 


^vas 


♦Pft^ 



STEMS ENDING IN 2. 

The final o- of the stem appears only where there 
is no case-ending, as in the nominative singular, being else- 
where dropped. (See 88, 1.) Two vowels brought together 
by this omission of or are generally contracted. 

227. The proper substantive stems in co-- are chiefly 
neuters, which change co-- to as in the nominative singular. 
Some masculine proper names change €<r- regularly to 175 (209, 
2). Stems in a<r- form nominatives in as, all neuters (228). 

228. ^toKpari]^ (SwAcpaTeo--), Socrates^ (to) yipo^ 
(761/6(7-), race^ and (ro^ yipa*; (ryepaa--^^ prize^ are 
thus declined: — 

(yipaos) Y^pcts 
(yipaX) 7^i 



Nom. 2o»KpdTT|s 

Gen. (Zwicpdreos) Sttxpdrovs 
Dat. (^wKpdre'i) 2a»KpdTii 
Ace. (^uKpdrea) SwKpdni 
Voc. 2<&KpaTcs 



SINGULAR. 

N.A.V. y4vo9 
Gen. (7^i'eo$) Y^vovs 
Dat. ' (7^m) -y^vii 

DUAL. 

N.A.V. (7<?w€)7<v€i 
G. D. (ycif4oip) Ycvotv 

PLURAL. 

N.A.V. (7i?wa)7^vti 
Qen. -ycv^ttv ^cvfiv 
Dat. -y^vcoa 



(7^poe) Y^pd 
(yepdotv) 7cp^v 

(7^poa) Y^pd 

(yepdup) y€p&¥ 

yipaxn, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



237] STEMS ENDING IN 2. 51 

229. In the genitive plural cov is sometimes uncontracted, even 
in prose ; as reixcW from rctxos. For cca contracted ca, see 89, 2. 

230. Proper names in i^^i gen. cos, besides the accusative in i;, 
have a form in rfv of the first declension; as liOiKpdrrpf, ^ifiuxrBivvfVy 
HoKwuKTiv. 

For the recessive accent in the vocative of these nouns, see 122. 

231. Proper names in Kktrfi, compounds of kAcos, glory, are 
doubly contracted in the dative, sometimes in the accusative. 
UepiicXciTs, HcpucA^, Pericles, is thus declined : — 

Nom. {UepiKkhti) IlcpiicXfls 

Gen. (UepiKkieoi) IIcfHicXiovt 

Dat. \uepiK\iei) (IlcptirX^ei) IIcpiKXiC 

Ace. (Ile/MKX^ea) IlipiKXid (poet. IlepucX^) 

Voc. (nep/icXees) ncpCtcXivs 

232. N. In proper names in icAci^s, Homer has rfo^, ^t, rfo, 
Herodotus cos (for ccos), ci, txu In adjectives in ttf^ Homer some- 
times contracts cc to a : as, cvicXci/s, ace. plur. cvfcAcias for cvxXccas. 

233. Adjective stems in co-- change t(T- to lys in the masculine 
and feminine of the nominative singular, but leave cs in the 
neuter. For the declension of these, see 312. 

234. The adjective Tpirjprj^, triply fitted, is used as a 
feminine noun, (ij) rpii/pi/s (sc. vavs), trireme, and is thus 
declined : — 



DUAL. 

N. A.V. irpiiipee) 
rpi^pci 

G. D. (rpiifp^oiv) 
rpi^poiv 



PLURAL. 

N.V. (rpi'fipees) rpi^pcis 
Gen. (jpitipiuv) rpv^pMv 
Dat. rpi^pc<rv 
Ace. rpv^pcK 



Nom. rpi^pT|s 
Gen. (rpi'fipeos) rpv^povs 
Dat. (Tpnjpet) rpi^pci 
Ace. (rpt^pea) rpi^pT| 
Voc. rpiflpcs 

235. N. TpLT^fiTj^ has recessive accent in the genitive dual and 
plural : for this in other adjectives in ri^, see 122. 

For the accusative plural in cts, see 208, 3. 

236. N. Some poetic nominatives in as have c for a in the 
other cases ; as ovSas, ground, gen. ovSeoi, dat. ovSc'i, ov8« (Homer). 
So Ppera^, image, gen. jSpcrcos, plur. Pperrj, Ppcriiav, in Attic 
poetry. 

237. 1. Some nouns in as have two stems, — one in ar- or dr- 
with gen. aros (like Trcpas, 225), and another in ao-- with gen. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



52 



INFLECTION. 



a((r-)o5, 005, contracted m (like yipa^, 228). 
Kcpocr-), horn, is doubly declined. 



Thus K€fXK (Kcpar-k 



SINGULAR. 

N.A.V. K^pas 

Gen. K^pdros, (icepoos) K^p«»s 

Dat. K^pdn, (Kcpal) K^pov 



N.A.V. idpttTi, 
G. D. tcfparoiv 



(icepaoiw) mp^ 



PLURAL. 

N.A.V. K^pdra, 
Gen. Kcpdrwv, 
Dat. KlpouTi 



(icepaa) idpd 
{xepawy) icfpAv 



2. So rcpas, prodigy, rcpar-os, which has also Homeric forms 
from the stem in acr-, as ripaa, repdoiv, rcpoco-o-i. Uipa^, end (225), 
has only Trcpar^)?, etc. 

238. There is one Attic noun stem in oa-, alSoar-, with nomina- 
tive (17) (u8a>9, shame, which is thus declined : — 



SINGULAR. 

Nom. al8<&s 

Gen. (a^doos) atSoOs 

Dat. (aldoi) alSot 

Ace. {aldoa) alSA 
Voc. alS^s 



DUAL AND PLURAL 

wanting. 



AlBfik has the declension of nouns in ia (242), but the 
accusative in o) has the regular accent. (See also 359.) 

240. The Ionic (1/) ^q>9, dawn, has stem rjoa^, and is declined 
like 0180)9 : — gen. rfovs, dat. ^ot, ace. i^oi. The Attic cois is declined 
like vem (196) : but see 199. 

STEMS IN ft OR O. 

241. A few stems in a>- form masculine nouns in cds, gen. ohkj 
which are often contracted in the dative and accusative singular 
and in the nominative and accusative plural. 

242. A few in o- form feminines in ia, gen. aOs (for 0-09), 
which are always contracted in the genitive, dative, and accusa- 
tive singular. The original form of the stems of these nouns is 
imcertain. (See 239.) 

243. The nouns (6) rjpw^, hero, and (ij) trtiOia, perauoHony 
are thus declined : — 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



250] STEMS IN O OR 0; I AND T. 63 



sutgulas. Nom. ^pmt wvMi 

Gen. 4p«»ot (rcctfoot) ««i0o9t 

Dat. (ipMt or ^ptf (reiW:) ««i6ot 

Ace. iip«a or 4|pM (rci^oa) vftO^ 

Voc. (ip«*t «ii0p£ 



DUAL. N. A.V. 

G.D. 

PLURAL. N.V. 4lp«Mt or ^pmt 

Gen. 4|p^Mv 

Dat. ^^»o^ 

Ace. iip«Mit or (jpcif 

244. These nouns in cds sometimes have forms of the Attic 
second declension ; as gen. rjpta (like vectf), accus. ijpiiiv. Like ^/9<i)9 
are declined Tpia^f Trojan (128), and firjrpiaif mother's brother, 

245. N. The feminines in ia are chiefly proper names. Like 
TTci^o) may be declined Sa7r^<o (Aeolic ^a-n-f^o)), Sappho, gen. San^ 
^v¥, dat. SaTT^Oi^ ace. Sair^, yog. ^ir^ot. So Ai^rctf, KaA,v^o», 
and ^)(ia, echo. No dual or plural forms of these nouns are found 
in the third declension ; but a few occur of the second, as ace. plur. 
yopyov^ from yopyi, Gorgon, No uncontracted forms of nouns in 
o) occur. 

246. N. The vocative in oi seems to belong to a form of the 
stem in oi-; and there was a nominative form in <^, as ArjT<f, JfiLWffxf. 

247. N. Herodotus has an accusative singular in ovv; as 'low 
(for 'Ita) from 'lai, lo, gen. *I(ws. 

246. A few feminines in mv (with regular stems in ov-) have 
occasional forms like those of nouns in <tf ; as drf&av, nightingale, 
gen. ayfiov^, voc. arfidi', dKiav, image, gen. cikoOs, ace. cucctf ; xMhiav, 
swallow, voc. xcA.iSoi. 

STEMS IN I AND Y. 

249. Most stems in i (with nominatives in is) and a few 
in V (with nominatives in vs and v) have e in place of their 
final i or V in all cases except the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative singular, and have a)s for os in the genitive 
singular. The dative singular and the nominative plural 
are contracted. 

250. The nouns (/;) ttoXa? (TroXt-), state^ (o) Trffxv^ 
(tti/;^!/-), cubitj and (jo^ aarv (ja<rTV-)^ cityy are thus 
declined : — 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



54 


INFLECTION. 








8IK0ULAE. 




Nom. 

Geu. 

Dat 

Ace. 

Voc. 


voXiV 


«nx«« 
»nx«^ 

WTJXW 

»nx» 

DUAL. 


&rrv 
&rrc»s 

(Atf-rcl) 


N. A. V. 
G. D. 


(ir6X€e) tn^i 
woXloiv 


«i|X^v 

FLUB A L. 


(Ao-rcc) 
a^rHoiV 


N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat 
Ace. 


VoXfMV 

voXfcn 
voXiiS 


mixwF 
mixfoa 

«»lx«i« 


(A<rrco) 
Arrcwv 

OffTCOa 

(A(rrea) 



[251 



cum| 



251. For the accent of genitives in ccu^ and ccoV) see 114. For 
accusatives like iroXcis and Tn/xciS) see 208, 3. 

262. N. The dual in ce is rarely left imcontracted. 

263. N. "Aarv is the principal noun in v, gen. cq)9« Its geni- 
tive plural is found only in the poetic form d/trretaVi but analogy 
leads to Attic acrrecav. 

264. No nouns in t, gen. cco^, were in common Attic use. See 
KofijM and TTCTTcpt in the Lexicon. 

255. N. The original i of the stem of nouns in « (Attic gen. €«s) is 
retained in Ionic. Thus, ir6Xtf, ir6Xtos, (ir6Xu) ir6Xr, ir6Xii' ; plur. ir6Xce$, 
woXluv ; Horn. iroXlea-a-i (Hdt. iroXwri), iroXias (Hdt. also WXis for iroXt-ys, 
see 208, 4). Homer has also iroXet (with irroXei) and iroXecn in the 
dative. There are also epic forms irrfXi/os, v6\rft\ iroXiycs, voXrfas. The 
Attic poets have a genitive in cos. 

The Ionic has a genitive in eos in nouns in vs of this class. 

256. N. Stems in v with gen. ca)9 have also forms in cv, in 
which cv becomes cf , and drops f , leaving c ; thus m/xw-i ti7X^^> 
irrjx^f'i Tnjx^-' (See 90, 3.) 



257. Most nouns in V9 retain v ; 
j?»A, which is thus declined : — 



as ((5) 1x06^ (ixOv-')^ 



SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 


PLUBAL. 


Nom. IxeiJs 




Nom. Ix^iks 


Gen. lx®^o« 


N.A.V. 1x6^ 


Gen. lx«^«v 


Dat. IxO^i (Hom. /x^t^O 


G. D. Ixe^oiv 


Dat. IxOiNri 


Ace. Ix6<iv 




Ace. 1x60s 


Voc. 1x6^ 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



266] STEMS ENDING IN A DIPHTHONG. 56 

258. N. The nominative plural and d]ial rarely have v$ and v ; 
as ix^ (like accus.) and i;(^ (for tx^) ^^ comedy. 

259. N. Homer and Herodotus have both l)(Ova^ and l)(Ov^ in 
the accusative pluraL 'Ix^ here is for ix^m^ (208, 4). 

260. Oxytones and monosyllables have v in the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative singular: see ^x^^- Monosyllables are 
circumflexed in these cases; as fivs (fl1^), motise, /avo^, fivt, fiOv, 
/Av ; plur. fives, fiwov, fiv(rCy fiuz9« 

261. N. '^7x^v^> ^^^ ^^ declined like ix^$ ^ ^^^ singular, 
and like ir^x^s in the plural, with gen. sing. iyxtXv-09 and nom. 
plur. iyxiXjus- 

262. N. For adjectives in vs, oo, v, see 319. 

STEMS ENDING IN A DIPHTHONG. 

263. 1. In nouns in ev^, cv of the stem is retained in the 
nominative and vocative singular and dative plural, but 
loses V before a vowel; as (6) PaaiXw (PaxriXcv), king, 
which is thus declined : — 





SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 




PLURAL. 


Nom. 


PolTiXfi^S 




N.V. 


(^pacriXhs) fitUnXa% 


Gen. 


^altnXi^ 


N.A.V. poiTiX^ 


Gen. 


pa<riX^»v 


Dat. 


(jScurtX^i) poo-iXft 


G. D. pa<riXloiv 


Dat. 


poo-iXivtrv 


Ace. 


pa<riXld 




Ace. 


pa<riX^ 


Voc. 


pa<riXfO 









2. So yovcv9 (yovcv-), parent, lepcvs (Upcv-), priest, AxiAAcvs 
('Ax^AAcu-), Achilles, 'OSuo-o-cvs (^OSvaaeo-), Ulysses. 

264. Homer has cv in three cases, PaxriXev^, PaxriXev, and jSacri- 
XeOo-t ; but in the other cases paxriX^o^, patriXTji, Pa(riXrja, j3a<riX$e$, 
PacrtXrja^, also dat. plur. dpurrq-ea-ai (from apurrevs)] in proper 
names he has €09, el, etc., as Hi^Xcos, Hi^Xci (rarely contracted, as 
'AxtAXci). Herodotus has gen. cos. 

265. Nouns in evs originally had stems in rp), before vowels rjf. 
From forms in i;^ os, rfpi, rffo, etc., came the Homeric lyos, lyt, lya, 
etc. The Attic ccds, cd, cd$ came, by exchange of quantity (33), 
from 1^, rja, rja^. 

266. The older Attic writers (as Thucydides) with Plato have 
^ (contracted from ^cs) in the nominative plural; as linr^s, 
PaxriXi}^, for later Imrcis, fiaxriXei^, In the accusative plural, €d^ 
usually remains unchanged, but there is a late form in ci?* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



66 INFLECTION. [267 

967. When a vowel precedes, iias of the genitive singpilar may 
be contracted into m, and ca of the accusative singular into a; 
rarely w of the accusative plural into &, and €iav of the genitive 
plural into o»v. Thus, Ilccpcucvf, Peiraeus, has gen. Ilapauois, 
Utipaua^i dat. Ilctpaicl, IlcipaicI^ ace. Ileipatcd, Ilcipata ; Aayncvsy 
Doriauy has gen. plur. Atuptccuv, Aojpioiv, ace. Acopicas, Acuyicas- 

268. The nouns (6, ij) )3w5 ()8<w-), oa? or coto, (ij) ypav« 
(yf>a1^), oZd woman, (i^) vavs (vav-), sAtj?, and A (ol-), aheep^ 
are thus declined : — 

SINGULAR. 



Nom. 


Pov, 


Ifpft^ 


vavs 


ots 


Gen. 


Poo's 


Ypao's 


vcis 


oU^s 


Dat. 


9^ 


7pat 


vnc 


oU 


Ace. 


Povir 


•ypttw 


vavv 


otv 


Voc. 


Pov 


Ypav 

DUAL. 


vav 


ot 


N. A. V. 


96. 


Ypdc 


VTIC 


Olf 


G.D. 


pooCv 


PLUEAL. 


vfoCv 


oioSv 


N.V. 


Po'« 


7P«« 


Win 


otct 


Gen. 


Po«v 


YpoMir 


vcwv 


oUSir 


Dat 


ft--.—/ 
pOINTi 


Ypavo-C 


vavo*C 


oUrC 


Ace. 


Povs 


Ypavs 


vavs 


ots 



269. N. The stems of /3oDs, 7paD$, and raCf became /3of -, T^c^f -, and 
w/:- before a vowel of the ending (compare Latin hbvhis and ndv-ia). 
The stem of oTj, the only stem in ot-, was dpi- (compare Latin ovis). 
Afterwards p was dropped (90, 3), leaving /So-, 7pa-, w-, and o/-. Attic 
wt^s is for Kiyo's (33). 

270. In Doric and Ionic mcvs is much more regular than in Attic : — 





SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 






Doric. 


Homer. 


Herod. 


Doric. 


Homer. . 


Herod. 


Nom. 


va<)s 


Vt|«S 


vi,«s 


VOiS 


VT)€S, VCfS 


vlfS 


Gen. 


voiSs 


vi)6S) vi6s 


vc4s 


voAv 


VT|dv, Vf Av 


vcAv 


Dat. 


vdt 


vrjC 


vrjC 


vavo-C, 
voUoxri 


vT|wr(, 


voumtC 


Ace. 


vaOv 


vfja, Wa 


Wa 


vaas 


vfjtts, Wot 


Wa« 



271. Homer has yp-nvt (ypvv-) and yprfis (yprfv-) for ypaOs, He has 
^({as and pods in the accusative plural of fioOs, 

272. XoDs, three-quart measure, is declined like /SoOs, except in the 
accusatives x^* and x<^«i«» (See xo*'* in 291.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



277] 



SYNCOPATED NOUNS. 



57 



SYNCOPATED NOUNS. 

273. Four nouns in r/p (with stems in cp-) are synco- 
pated (65) in the genitive and dative singular by dropping 
€. The syncopated genitive and dative are oxytone; and 
the vocative singular has recessive accent (122), and ends 
in cp as a barytone (220, 2). In the other cases c is re- 
tained and is always accented. But in the dative plural cp- 
is changed to pa-. 

274. These are (o) wan^p (Trarcp-), father, (ij) fi-qrrfp 
(fii/Tcp-), mother, (ij) Ovydrrfp {Ovyarep-), daughter, and (ij) 
yaariQp (yaorcp-) belly. 

1. The first three are thus declined : — 







SINGULAR. 




Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat 

Ace. 

Voc. 


varvfp 
(rar^pos) irarpos 

VfftT^pCi 


|i1|Tf|p 

(finripos) |&T|rpos 
(firrripi) liifrpC 

DUAL. 


(hhraTfp 


N.A.V. 
G.D. 


iraWpc 


|it|Wpc 
|it|WpOiV 

PLUBAL. 


OvyaWpc 


N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


varlptt. 
waripmv 
varpcwa 


|lt|T|p€$ 
|it|Wpt»ir 
|«rrpc«ri 
|it|Wp«« 


vUYClTCpC9 

OvyaTpdla-i 
OvYaWpos 



2. Fflum/p is declined and accented like Trarrjp, 
276. *A<rnjp (6), star, has Aarpdcn, like a syncopated noun, in 
the dative plural, but is otherwise regular (without syncope). 

276. N. The unsyncopated forms of all these nouns are often used 
by the poets, who also syncopate other cases of dvydrrip ; as e^/arpa, 
Bvyarpei, Bvyarpdv. Homer has dat. plur. ffvyaripeacri, and irarpCay 
for Taripufp. 

277. 1. 'Anjp (6), man, drops c whenever a vowel fol- 
lows €p, and inserts 8 in its place (67). In other respects 
it follows the declension of irarrjp, 

2. ^rffiipifjp, Demeter (Ceres), syncopates all the oblique 
cases, and then accents them on the^r*^ syllable. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



68 



INFLBCTION. 



[278 



278. 'Avi;p and ^rffu^rrfp are thus declined : - 



DUAL. 



Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat 

Ace. 

Voc. 

N.A.V. 
G. D. 

N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



(dWpof) &v6p6f 

(dvipi) &v8pC 

Idvipa) &v8pa 

&vcp 

(di^pe) &v8pt 
(jiwipoiv) &v8potv 

(dy^pcf) &v6pc« 
(jivipiav) &v8p6v 

&v8pd«ri 
(dy^pas) &vSpaf 



Aiiii^nip 

(£iflfliT€p0S) A^|i1|TpOt 

(Ai7M^«P*) A^|i.t|Tpi 
(Ai7/ii^e^) A'4|i.i|Tpa 

A'4|it|TCp 



279. The poets often use the unsyncopated forms. Homer has 
avSpc<r<ri as well as avSpacn in the dative plural. 

Gender of the Third Declension. 

280. The gender in this declension must often be learned 
by observation. But some general rules may be given. 

281. 1. Masculine are stems in 
CV-; as PcunXw (jSouTiXcv-), king, 

p- (except those in ap-) ; as Kpan^p (Kparifp-), mixing-bowly if/dp 
(il/dp-), starling, 

V- (except those in Iv, yov-, Sov) ; as Kaviav (icavov-), rule, 

VT'] as oSov^ (oSovT-), tooth, 

TfT- (except those in ti;t-) ; as Xiprj^ (XcjSi/r-), kettle, 

WT' ; as IpijK (ip(»yr-)f love. 

2. Exceptions, Feminine are yaorrjp, belly, icijp, fate, x«p» hand^ 
^fyqVi mind, oXfcvW, halcyon, ttx^v, image, ^uav, shore, }fiiav, earth, 
Xtcov, snow, firfKwv, poppy, ItrBrf^ (ia^BrjT-), dress. 

Neuter are Trvp,fire, ffnos (^(or-), light • 

282. 1. Feminine are stems in 

ir and V-, with non;in. in ts and vs ; as iroXis (ttoXi-), city, i<rxys 
(l(Txv-)t strength. 

av- ; as vaus (vav-). 

&-, tf-jVi/r-; as ipls (cpiS-), strife, raxyn^ (raxwrrjT-), speed, 

Iv, yov, Sov-; as oktU (oktIv), ray, crraycov (crrayoK-), drop, 
XcXiScov (xcAfSoK-), swallow. 

2. Exceptions. Masculine are ^x*^> viper, 0^-9^ serpent, fiorpv^, 
cluster of grapes, Op^w-^, footstool, IxOi-Si fish, p.v-i, mouse, vcmy-s. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



289] IRREGULAR NOUNS. 59 

corpse, ardxy-^i €<^^ of grainf ircXcicv-s, oore, tt^x^-s, cwWf, irovs 
(7ro8-),/oo^ SeXijd^ (ScA^^tv-), dolphin, 

283. Neuter are stems in 

ft and V with nomin. in i and v ; as Treircpt, peppery darv, city, 

a5- ; as yepas, prize (see 227). 

€s-, "with nomin. in os ; as yevos (ycvco--), race (see 227). 

ap- ; as v€KToipf nectar. 

ar- ; as aSifjua. (aco/xaT-), 6o(/y. 

284. Labial and palatal stems are always either masculine or 
feminine. (See 225. ) 

286. Variations in gender sometimes occur in poetry : see, for 
example, cu^p, sky, and ^$, heap, in the Lexicon. See also 288. 

Dialects. 

286. 1. Gen, and Dat, Dual. Homeric ouv for oiv. 

2. Dat, Plur. Homeric €<rat, rarely c<rt, and <r<n (after vowels) ; 
also <ri. 

3. Most of the uncontracted forms enclosed in ( ) in the para- 
digms, which are not used in Attic prose, are found in^Homer or 
Herodotus ; and some of them occur in the Attic poets. 

4. For special dialectic forms of some nouns of the third declen- 
sion, see 232, 236, 237, 240, 247, 255, 259, 264, 270, 271, 276, 279. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

287. 1. Some nouns belong to more than one declension. 
Thus aK&ro^f darkness, is usually declined like Xoyos (192), 
but sometimes like ytvoq (228). So Ot&Vovs, OedijniSj has 
genitive OiSiVo3os or OtStVov, dative Oi8tVo8t, accusative OiSC- 
iroSa or Oi&Vow. 

See also ycXco?, Ipcos, ISpm, and others, in 291. 
2. For the double accusatives in rj and i/v of ItiaKparrj^, Ai^/xo- 
aOanrf^j etc., see 230. 

288. Nouns which are of different genders in different 
numbers are called heterogeneous ; as (6) o-iros, com, plur. 
(rot) (rira, (6) Betrfioq, chain, (ot) Seo-p^i and (ra) 8e(r/bia. 

289. Defective nouns have only certain cases; as 6vap, 
dream, ^<^€Xos, ttse (only nom. and accus.) ; (t^v) n<^, snxyw 
(only accus.). Some, generally from their meaning, have 
only one number ; as Trci^w, persuasion, to. 'OXv/xttio, the Olym- 
pic games. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



60 INFLECTION. [290 

290. Indeclinable nouns have one form for all cases. 
These are chiefly foreign words, as 'A&ifi, lapai/X; and 
names of letters, ''AX<^ B^a, etc. 

291. The following are the most important irregular 
nouns : — 

1. 'Ai&;s, Hadesy gen. ov, etc., regular. Horn. *At8i;s, gen. ao or 
€0), dat. i;, ace. lyv; also*Ai8os, *Ai8t (from stem 'AtS-). 

2. avo^ (6), idng^ c[vaKro9, etc., voc. Sivai (poet. £va, in addressing 
Gods). 

3. "Afyq^, AreSy "Apccog (poet. "Apcos), ("ApcQ 'Apa, (*Ap€a) "Aprf 
or "Afyrjv, "Apes (Horn. also^Apcs). Horn, also *Apiyos, "Aprfi, "Afnjau 

4. Stem (apv-)f gen. (tov or t^s) apvos, lamb, (j^pvt, &pva ; pi. apves, 
apvSiv, dpvaxn, apvas* In the nom. sing. ofJi^ (2d decL) is used. 

6. ydXa (to), milk, yaXcucro^, yaXcucri, etc. 

6. ye\cDS (6), laughter, yeXorros, etc., regular: in Attic poets ace 
ye\a>ra or ycXcDv. In Horn, generally of second declension, dat 
yeXo), ace. ycXo), ycXwv (ycW?). (See 287, 1.) 

7. ywv (to), ^n«c, ydvaTo?, yovart, etc. (from stem yowxi^) ; Ion. 
and poet, yovvaro^y yovvart, etc.; Horn, also gen. yowds, dat. yowC, 
pL yovva, yovVcav, yovVco-o-t. 

8. yvviy (ly) toi/e, ywoiKog, yvvaiKt, ywat/ca, yvvoi; dual yvyoixe, 
ywoiKocv; pi. yvvaiKCs, yvv€aK<ov, ywca$L, yvvatKas. 

9. Sci/8pov (to), tree, SevSpav, regular (Ion. SevSpco^); dat. sing. 
8ci/8pci ; dat. pi. 8ci/8p€<ri. 

10. Scos (to), fear, Biovs, Sect, etc. Horn. gen. Sctovs- 

11. Sdpv (to), spear (cf. ydvu) ; (from stem SopaT-) SopartK, 
Sdpan; pi. SopaTo, etc. Ion. and poet. SovpaTos, etc.; Epic alao 
gen. &>vpo9, dat. Sovpt; dual Sovpe; pi. Sovpa, ^pary, Soup&rat. 
Poetic gen. Sopo^, dat. Sopi and Bopci. 

12. ^pcDs (6), love, ip<iyros, etc. In poetry also Ipos, Ipto, Ipav, 

13. Zcvs (Aeol. Acvs), ZeiM, Aios, Ai^ Aui, Zcv. Ion. and poet. 
Ttqvo^, Zrp^i, Z^va. Rndar has Af for Au. . 

14. ®€/us (t}), justice (also as proper name, TAemw), gen. 0€^ai&>s, 
etc., reg. like Ipiq, Horn, dc/uoros, etc. Find. OipxTOi, etc. Hdt. 
gen. $€/jLLo^. In Attic prose, indeclinable in 0€/U9 ccrr^ fas est; as 
^e/us eivoi. 

15. I3pa>s (6), str«a<, iSp<l!>Tos, etc. Horn, has dat. I8p<p, ace. l&p& 
(243). 

16. Kopd (to), head, poetic ; in Attic only nom., accos., and yoc. 
sing., with dat. Kopa (tragic). Hom. Kopr), gen. KdprjToq, Kopf^roq, 
Kp&cLTOi, /cpaTOs ; dat. Kopi/Tt, Kapi/aTt, xpaaTt, Kpari ; ace. (tov) 
Kpar(i, (to) Kopiy or Kop ; plur. nom. xapa, KoprfaTu, Kp&ara ; gen. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



291] IRREGULAR NOUNS. 61 

fcparcDv; dat. Kpd<rC\ ace. Kapa with (jdv^) icpaTa$; nom. and ace. 
pi. also Kopriva, gen. ica/n/vcov. Soph, (to) xpaTa. 

17. Kpivov (to), lUyy Kpivov^ etc. In plural also xpivca (Hdt) 
and xpivco-i (poetic). (See 287, 1.) 

18. Kwav (o, i)), dog, voc. mW: the rest from stem kw, Kwoq, 

KWL, KUVa] pi. KW€S, KWiOV, Kvai, Kvvas. 

19. Aas (6), s/or»«, Horn. Xaa^, poetic ; gen. Aaos (or kdov), dat. 
Aal, ace. XSav, Xav ; dual Aac ; plur. \d5tv, \deaai, or Xdccri. 

20. Awra (Horn. AiV, generally with iXxut^ oil), fat, oil: proba- 
bly Amto is neut. accus., and Xlv is dat. for XivL See Lexicon. 

21. fidprvi (6, ^), witness, gen. puapfrvpon, etc., dat. pi. fidprwn. 
Horn. nom. fmpTvpo^ (2d decl.). 

22. fioxmi (^), tt7Atp, gen. f/wrrlyoq, etc., Hom. dat. /ia(rrl, ace. 

/iOOTiV. 

23. oTs (17), 5Ae6p, for Attic declension see 268. Hom. ^f$, ^lto$, 
oiv, oi€9, oW, oic<r<n (oi€<ri, oc(T<ri), 019. Aristoph. has dat. ot. 

24. ovcipos (6), ^€ipo¥ (to), dream, gen. ou; also orap (to), gen. 
ovtCpaTOi, dat. ovccjpart; plur. ovctparo, ovctparcov, ovci/xuTi. 

25. oKTO-c (ro)), dual, e^e«, poetic ; plur. gen. Baratav, dat. &r(rcx$ 
or ckraouri. 

26. opvi9 (6, 17), &tW, see 225. Also poetic forms from stem 
opvX-, nom. and ace. sing. 6pvi^, 6pvXv ; pi. 6pv€iq, opvtaty, ace. 6pv€t^ 
or 0/9V19. Hdt ace. opvWau Doric gen. 6pvlxp9, etc. 

27. 0S9 (ro), ear, taroq, drC; pi. (Sua, <St<ov (128), oxril Hom. 
gen. oixiro9 ; pi. owlto, waxn, and oxril Doric ais. 

28. Hv^ (ij), Pnyx, Hvicvos, Hvicvi, UvKva (also nn;x-09, etc.). 

29. irpia-pvi (6), oW man, cWer (properly adj.), poetic, ace. Trpfr 
afiw (as adj.), voc. irpiafiv ; pi. irpeaPei^ (Ep. irp€a'Prf€s), chiefs, 
elders : the common word in this sense is irpeapirrj^, distinct from 
wpeaPcvTi^. Upeap-u^ = ambassador, w. gen. npiaPem^, is rare and 
poetic in sing. ; but common in prose in plur., tt^co-jScis, irpi(Tp€iav, 
irpia-pta-i, vpia^Pa^ (like ir^x^s). Uptfrpivrrj^, ambassador, is com- 
mon in sing., but rare in plural. 

30. TTvp (to), fire (stem irup-), irvpoq, irvpC ; pi. (ra) injp6L, watch- 
fires, dat. 9rvpor9. 

31. (TTrcog or <nr€i09 (to), care. Epic; (nrctov9, oir^t, airceW, 
o-TT^o-cn or aireaa-i. 

32. TOMifc or Ta(I!>9, Attic raw? (6), peacock, like vcws (196) : also 
dat. rocovi, ToJwn, chiefly poetic. 

33. Tv^s (6), whirlwind; declined like v€a>9 (196). Also proper 
name Tv<^oi9, in poetry generally Tv^vo9, TvtfHovt, Tu^ya. (See 
287, 1.) 

34. v&tfp (to), water, v8aT09, vSaTi, etc. ; dat plur. v&wri. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



62 INFLECTION. [202 

35. vloi (6), soriy vlov, etc., reg.; also (from stem vlv-) vUoq, 
(yUi) vUi, (vIoi), vice, vicoiv; (vtecs) vUU, vUuiVf vicon, (yUas) vUh: 
also with V for vc ; as vos, vov, vcos, etc. Horn, also (from stem vi-) 
gen. vloiy dat. vli, ace. via ; dual vie ; pi. vlc9, vla^i also dat. vidat. 

36. x^tjP (^)> handf x^H^f X^H^^ ®*^*» ^"^ x^P^^ (poet. x^P^^) 
and x^P^^ (poet. xdp€iT<Ti or xci/>€<ri) : poet, also x^P^y X*P*» ®^' 

37. (xw) x*"'^ (6), mound f xw, x<>*» X*"'" (^*^® P^nsi 268). 

38. X0V9 (6), three-quart measure: see 272. Ionic and late 
nom. xoc^f ^i^^ S^^* X^^^^f X^^* ®^*> regularly like Uapoicvs 
and Acopuvs (267). 

39. XP^ (^)> ^it^V), xptoTo^, XP*^^ XP^^ i poet, also xP^y XP^ 
Xpoa] dat. xp<p (only in iv xp^t near). 

Local Endings. 

292. The endings -6i and -Otv may be added to the stem 
of a noun or pronoun to denote place : — 

1. -ft, denoting where; as SXXo-6iy elsewhere; ovpav6-0tj in 
heaven. 

2. Sev denoting whence; as ciKo-Ocv, from home; avro-dey, 
from the very spot 

293. The enclitic -8c (141, 4) added to the accusative denotes 
whither; as McyapoSe, to Megara, 'EXcvcrivaSc, to Eleusis, After 
<r, -8c becomes {c (see 18 ; 28, 3) ; as 'A^aj^c (for 'A^i/vas-^c), to 
Athens, ®i^Pai€ (for 0i;j3a9-3c), to Thebes, $vpdi€, out of doors. 

294. The ending -o-c is sometimes added to the stem, denoting 
whither; as oAXoo'c, in another direction, Trdvroac, in every direction. 

295. N. In Homer, the forms in -Ol and Stv may be governed 
by a preposition as genitives ; as *JXi66i irpo, before Ilium ; i$ dXoOcy, 
from the sea. 

296. N. Sometimes a relic of an original locative case is found 
with the ending i in the singular and <n in the plural ; as *Io^/Ao^ 
at the Isthmus; oLkoi, (oIko-i,), at hom£; UvOoi, at Pytho; ^KOrfvrfn, 
at Athens; HXaroLoj^n, at Plataea; '0Xvft7rta<rt,' ar Olympia; Oipdat, 
at the gates. These forms (and also those of 292) are often classed 
among adverbs; but inscriptions show that forms in dat and in 
rja-i. were both used as datives in the early Attic. 

297. N. The Epic ending <^ or <^v forms a genitive or dative 
in both singular and plural. It is sometimes locative, as icXicrii;^ 
in the tent; and sometimes it has other meanings of the genitive or 
dative, as pirjt^ with violence. These forms may follow preposi- 
tions ; as TTopa vav^, by the ships. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



801] ADJECTIVES -FIBST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 63 



ADJECTIVES. 

FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS (VoWBL 
Declension). 

298. 1. Most adjectives in o? have three endings, 09, 
^, ov. The masculine and neuter are of the second 
declension, and the feminine is of the first ; as a-o(f>c^^ 
a-o<f)'^j aoif>6v^ tvise, 

2. If a vowel or p precedes 09, the feminine ends in 
a; as a^409, a^id^ a^iovj worthy. But adjectives in 00^ 
have (M7 in the feminine, except those in /0009; as a7rXoo9, 
dirXoT}^ dirXooVj simple; dOpoo^^ dOpocu, dOpoov^ crowded. 

299. ^o<l>&;^ wise^ and af*09, worthy^ are thus de- 
clined : — 









SINGULAR. 








Norn. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ace. 

Voc. 


0*0^09 

<r<Mt>oS 

TO** 

0^ 




<ro<|HSv 
<ro<|KSv 

DUAL. 


&{ios 


&{Cdv 


&{u>v 

&{iOV 


N.A.V. 
G.D. 


<r«4ot* 


o-o<t»aCv 


<ro<|K>Cv 

PLURAL. 




&{Caiv 


&{Coiv 



N.Y. <ro^C <ro^a( <ro^d &{iOi &{iai &{ia 

Gen. <ro<^«ov <ro<^c0v <ro<^c0v d(C«»v &{£»¥ &{Ca»v 

Dat. <ro^C$ <ro^a£s <ro^C$ d(Cois dJCais &{Cois 

Ace. <ro^i^ <ro^d8 <ro^ &{Covf &{Ca« &{ia 

300. So fuucpo^, fuucpaj fuucpdv, long; gen. paKpolv, pjcucpaSi 
fjuiKpov; dat. fitucp^t po-f^i paicp^) ace. fioKpov, fwjcp&vy fjuoKpovt 
etc., like c^ftos (except in accent). 

301. This is by far the largest class of adjectives. All parti- 
ciples in OS and all superlatives (350) are declined like ov<^, and 
all comparatives in rcpos (350) are declined like poKpo^ (except 
in accent). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



64 INFLECTION. [302 

902. The nominatiye and genitiye plural of adjectives in 09 
accent the feminine like the masculine : thus o^ios has &$uu, dftW 
(not 6iuu, d£uavt as if from 6£ia; see 124). 

For feminines in a of the third and first declensions combined, 
see 318. 

308. The masculine dual forms in cd and oiv in all adjectives 
and participles may be used for the feminine forms in a and otv. 

304. Some adjectives in os, cMefly compounds, have only 
two endings, os and w, the feminine being the same as the 
masculine. They are declined like 0-0^09, omitting the 
feminine. 

305. There are a few adjectives of the Attic second 
declension ending in ois and ov. 

306. *AXoyo5, irrational (304), and !a.co)s, gracious (305), 
are thus declined : — 

SIKGULAR. 



Nom. 




tkM9 tXf«v 


Gen. 


aXAyov 


tKt» 


Dat. 


dX6YV 


!Xtv 


Ace. 


&X0YOV 


tkwv 


Voc. 


IXoyt &X0YOV 

DUAL. 


CVc«»« (Xm»v 


N.A.V. 


dX^« 


CVCM 


G.D. 


PLUSAL. 


tkM^y 


N.V. 


&XoYOi &XoYa 


CXcy tXca 


Gen. 


6X6y»v 


(XCMV 


Dat. 




tXt^ 


Ace. 


dX^^ovt &Xo7a 


fkM9 (Xca 



807. Some adjectives in os may be declined with either two or 
three endings, especially in poetry. 

308. Adjectives in o>s, cw, commonly have a in the neuter plural. 
But ^fCTrXcd) from iicn-ktw^ occurs. 

809. nXccDs, fully has a feminine in a : irXco)?, TrXca, irXca>v. 
The defective <rm (from o-a-os), safey has nom. am, oxuv (also fem. 
o-a), ace. aSiVt neut. pi. ca, ace. pi. a(Sk> The Attic has o-omh, acSa*, 
(jxua in nom. pi. Homer has o-oos. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



810] ADJECTIVES-FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 66 

310. Many adjectives in cos and 009 are contracted. Xflv- 
aeoi, golden, dpyvpeK, of sUver, and aTrXoo^, simple, are thus 
declined : — 

Nom. (xp^«>s) XP**^^ (xpwff'^a) XP^^ (XP^**") XP**^^ 

Gen. (xpwrA)!/) XPV0^^ (xP^ir^af) XPVo% (XPwo'A)!;) XP*^^® 

Dat. (xpwr^v) Xpvo-tf (xP»«r^«i) xP»i (xpwr^v) XP«»"¥ 

Ace. (xp&reoi') XP^^^ (XP"""^*") XP^»*^* (XP^O'coi') XP*^^^ 



Nom. (jcfivaiio) XP^^ 



(xpi/tf*^) XP^^ (xpi^^*') XP^** 
(Xpwiauf) %f^vtklv {xPVciQiv) xf^volv 



Nom. (xp^eoi) xP^^o^^ 
Gen. (xpwriwv) xpvv-Av 
Dat. (xpvir^it) xpvo^tt 
Ace. (jcpva^ovs) yj^^^ 



(XpiSff'ffai) XP^*^ (xP^ca) XP^^ 

(xpw^oif) xpvvttSt (XP^^«) XP^'^^*' 
(XP«<r^af) XP<'<^ (XPA^««) XP«^ 







SIKOULAB. 




Gen. Idpyvp^v) dpyvpoO 
Dat. Qdpyvp^v) dmfvp^ 
Ace. (dp7^0 A|»Y«po«v 


(^dpyvpia) ApYvpa 

Cdpyvpii/,) dpYvpf 
{dpnfvpiav) dfnrvpav 


(dpyipeov) &pYvpo«v 
(dpyvp4ov) ApYvpoO 
(dpyvpitfi) &PYup^ 


Nom. 
Gen« 


(dpyvpiu) &pYvp^ 


DUAL. 

(dpyvpia) dfryupa 


(dpyvpdia) &PYvp«i 
(dprfvpioiv) dpYvpoCv 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 


(^dpyvpiiay) &pYiipdv 
(^dpyvpioit) dpYvpott 
(d^i;pA)i;f ) dpYvpo<»s 


PLUBAL. 

(dpn/{,p€aC) ApYvpat (dp7«V»««) ApinV* 

(dpyvp^ait) &pYvpaCt (^dpyvpiois) dpyvpott 
Cdpyvp4as) ApYvpot (d/nr^pea) Ap^vpE 



SINOULAB. 



Nom. (airX<fof) airXo9t 

Gen. (arXifou) dirXoO 

Dat. (cfrXify) clirXip 

Ace. (drXiSov) dhrXoOv 



(oVXrfi,) cLirXf) 

(arXoiyj) airXf|« 

(iiirXrfiy) (£irX{ 

(arXrfiyir) airXf)v 



(oVXrfoi') cLvXoOv 

(c2irXJov) cLvXoO 

(aVX<f4;) dvXip 

(arX^oy) dvXoOv 



Nom. (arXiffa;) cUrXift 
Gen. (arX^oiy) oirXoCv 



(eZrX^a) dirXa 
(e2irX<faiv) cnrXaCv 



(aVX<f(.i) 



cLvX«S 
dnXoCv 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



66 






INFLECTION. 

PLUBAL. 




[311 


Nom. 


(dxUoi) 


clirXot 


(dwUai) dirXaC. 


(axXo'a) 


dirXa 


Gen. 


ldir\6(av) 


inX&v 


(airXowi') dirXttv 


(airXowi') 


dirXAv 


Dat. 


((£xXo'ots) 


dvXots 


(dxXoots) dirXats 


(dir\6oLS^ 


dirXots 


Ace. 


IdwUovs) 


dvXofis 


^dwUas) dirXas 


(dxXoa) 


dirXa 



311. All contract forms of these adjectives are perispomena ; 
except 0) for ea> and oo) in the dual (see 203, 1). 
For irregular contractions, see 39, 1. 
No distinct vocative forms occur. 



THIRD (or Consonant) DECLENSION. 

312. Adjectives belonging only to the third declen- 
sion have two endings, the feminine being the same as 
the masculine. Most of these «nd in ^9 and e? (steins 
in 60--), or in cov and op (stems in 01/-). See 233. 

313. 'AX^^if?, true, and evhatficov, happy, are thus 
declined : — 



314. For the recessive accent of neuters like ev&ufjLov and of 
many barytone compounds in lys (as avrapicq^^ auropKcs), see 122. 
"AXrfic^y indeed I is proparoxytone. 

315. In adjectives in tf;^ ca is contracted to a after c, and to a 
or ti after 4 or v ; as cvkXci/s, glorious, ace. (cvkXcca) cvxXca ; vyiijs, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Jf. F. y. 


Jf. F. If, 


SINGULAR. 




Nom. &Xt|6^s dXt|6ls 


<i8a(|fcMv c^8at|Mv 


Gen. (dXi7^<fos) &Xt|6o«s 




Dat. (dXiy^A) dXT|6ct 


fiSaCfMvi 


Ace. idXrjdia) AXifiii dXT|6l8 




Voc. dXtiOlt 




DUAL. 




N.A.V. (dXvSie) dXT|6ct 


fiSaCfiovi 


G.D. ld\v0ioLv) dXriOotv 




PLURAL. 




N.V. (d\r,e4€s) dXt|6cts (d\7,e4a) dXt|6i) 


ciSaCfMvfs c«8aC|iova 


Gen. idXrjeic^p) dXt|6<»v 


ciDScu|i6vttv 


Dat. &Xt|M<ri 




Ace. &XT|6fts (dXi^^i^a) dXT|6i) 





320] ADJECTIVES -FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS. 67 

healthy, (vyUa) vyia and vyirj ; €v<ln)T^f comely, (ew^vea) €v<^va and 
e^v?. (See 39, 2.) 

For €4s in the accusative plural, see 208, 3. 

316. N. Adjectives compounded of nouns and a prefix are 
generally declined like those nouns; as cvcAirts, cvcAiri, hopeful, 
gen. cveXiriSos, ace. cvcXirtv (214, 3), evcAiri; cvxopis, cv^afH, grace- 
ful, gen. cv^ofMrosy ace. evxapiv, cvxo/h. But compounds of iran^p 
and itrfTTjp end in (i>p (gen. opoi), and those of ^oXts in &9 (gen. 
1809) ; as dirarop, atrarop, gen. diraropo^, fatherless ; airoh^, diroXi, 
without a country, gen. airo\£&)9. 

317. For the peculiar declension of comparatives in <ap (stem in 01^), 
see 368. 

FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS COMBINED. 

318. Adjectives of this class have the masculine and 
neuter of the third declension and the feminine of the 
first. The feminine always has a in the nominative 
and accusative singular (176) ; in the genitive and 
dative singular it has a after a vowel or diphthong, 
otherwise rj. 

Qv of the feminine genitive plural is circumflezed regularly 
(124). Compare 302. 

For feminine dual forms, see 303. 

319. (^Sterns in u.) Stems in v form adjectives in 
1/9, €ta, V. The masculine and neuter are declined like 
7n)xv^ and aarv (260), except that the genitive sin- 
gular ends in 09 (not ©9) and the neuter plural in ea 
is not contracted. 

320. r\vfcv<;^ sweety is thus declined : — 





SINOULAR. 




Nom. 

Gen. 

Dat 

Ace. 

Voo. 


^XvkIos 
(yXvKiii) yXvkcC 


^XvKcta 

YXvKiCas 

YXvKiCf 

^XvKctav 

YXYKcta 

DUAL. 


^XVK^ 
^XvK^Of 

-yXvK^ 
-yXvK^ 


N.A.V. 
G.D. 


yXvKk 


YXvKcCa 
^XviccCcuv 


^XVK^ 
^XvK^OiV 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



68 



INFLECTION. 



[821 



N.V. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



^XvKcts 



yXvk<Ccu 

^XvKCiWV 

^XvKcCois 
YXvKfCos 



^XvK^a 
ykvKinv 

yXvk^ 



321. The feminine stem in cia- comes from the stem in ev- (cf-) 
by adding la: thus yXv/ccv-, yXv/cc- (256), yXvKC-ca, yXvKeia. (See 
90. 3.) 

822. N. The Ionic feminine of adjectives in vs has co. Homer 
has cvpfa (for evpvv) as accusative of cvpvs, wide. 

323. N. Adjectives in vs are oxytone, except OrjXvsy femaHe^ 
fresh, and rj/jLurvs, half. 0^Xv9 sometimes has only two terminer 
tions in poetry. 

324. 1. {Stems in av and cv.) Two adjectives have 
stems in av, /xeXa^ (/jtcXav-), /xeXouva, fifXaVf black, and raXas 
(roXav-), raXatva, roXav^ wretched. 

2. One has a stem in cv, riprjv (tc/jcv-), riptwa, ripey, tender 
(Latin tener). 

325. MeXa9 and riprjv are thus declined : — 



Nom. fiiXas fiAaiva }UXav ripni\v Wpctva r^pcv 

Gen. fUXavof |uXa(vf)s ^UXavos Wpcvos Tcpc(vt)s Wpcvos 

Dat. }UXavi |uXa(KQ fiiXavi Wpcia rcpc^v^ Wpcvt 

Ace. }UXava fjiiXaivav fiiXav Wpcva Wpctvav r^pcv 

Voc. fiiXav fUXatva fiiXav Wpcv Wpctva r^pcv 

DUAL. 

N.A.y. fiAavc |uXa(vd }UXavc Wpcvi ripcCvd Wpcvt 

G. D. (uXdvoiv (uXaCvaiv (uXdvoiv Tfp^votv TfpcCvcuv rtp^iv 



N.y. iiAavfs fiAaivai }UXava Wpcvcs T^pctvcu r^pcva 

Gen. luXdvwv luXatvwv |uXdvwv rcp^vcav Tfpctvwv Tfp4v«»v 

Dat. }UX(uri luXaCvais }UX(uri Wpco-t rcpcCvats Wpco-i 

Ace. }UXava« fjicXaCvos fiiXava Wpcva$ rcpcCvds r^pcva 

326. The feminine stems /teXouva- and repeiva- come from 
^ticXav-ia- and repev-ui- (84, 5). 

327. Like the masculine and neuter of ripi^ is declined apptrfVy 
dppev (older dpanp^, Apatv), male. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



333] ADJECTIVES -FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS. 69 

328. (^Sterns in in-.) Adjectives from stems in evr 
end in et?, eaaa^ ev. From a stem in avr comes Tra?, 
TrcuTOj irav^ all, 

329. ')(api€i<;^ graceful^ and ira^ are thus declined : — 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. x^^*^ X^i^P^^^^^ X<H*^^ '"^ trao-a iiuv 

Gen. x<H*^^^'i^S X<H>^^^^s X^P^^^^ iravr6s irdotis iravrds 

Dat. xa^Uvrx x^^^^Hi X^^^^** iravrC irdirQ iravrC 

Ace. x^^^^^ X*H*'*<''^'^^ X^^y irdvra vwrav ir&v 

Yog. X^P^ X<H^^^<^ X<H^^v 

DUAL. 

N. A.V. xof (cvTf x^P*^^^^ X*P^*''^ 
G. D. xapUyTW,v xtk^xAa-vvAV xofM'vroiv 

PLURAL. 

N.Y. x'H^^^^'i^ X^^**"^ X'H^^^^^'^ vdvTft troo-cu irdvra 

Gen. xvu^vTwv x^^^*'^^^ X*P***^**'' irdvrwv n-curwv irdvrttv 

Dat. x*'^^^'^ x^^^^^*^^ X^P^^^ troo-i irdtrais troo-t 

Ace. x<H*^*^^ x^^^^^ X^P^^^^ irdvras irdirds irdvra 

830. Most adjective stems in evr, all in arr except iran-- (iras), 
and all in ovr except c/covr- and O/cokt- (JkKiav and SiKtav, 333), belong 
to participles. (See 334.) 

331. 1. The nominatives ^apUis and ^apicv are for ^(OLpicvr-^ 
and -xapuvr-i and iras and vav for ttuvt-^ and irarr- (79). The a 
in vay is irregular; but Homer has airav and vpoirav* For the 
accent of wdvrwv and iracri, see 128. Ilao-cov is regular (318). 

2. For the feminine xoptco-aa (for yaputr-ui from a stem in ct-), 
see 84, 1 ; and for dat. plur. yapUai (for yapur-<n\ see 74. Ilcura 
is for jravr-M (84, 2). 

832. Homer occasionally contracts adjectives in i^cis, as nfirjs 
(for ri/Ai/ci9)) Tifi^vra (for TLfirjevTa), valuable. The Attic poets 
sometimes contract those in octs ; as TrXaKoOs, irXaKouvros (for irXa- 
Koas, irAa/cocKTos), ^a^ (ca^e), TrrcpoiWa (for Trrcpocvra), winged, 
aWaXowro'a (for mdoXoco-o-a), flaming, wrepmkraa (for irrcpdco-o-a), 
/icAirovrra (for fuXiToeaaoL, 68, 3), honied (cake). So names of 
places (properly adjectives) ; as *EXaiov^, *EAaiotWo9, Elaeus, 
'EAoiouo'o-a (an island), from forms in -octs, -oco-oo. So 'Pafivovs, 
*PaftyoiWo9, UAamnua (from -ocis). (See 39, 5.) 

333. One adjective in wv, e/coiv, ckovo-o, ckov, willing, gen. iKOvros, 
etc., has three endings, and is declined like participles in wv (330). 
So its compound, Akcdv (dcKcov), unwilling, Slkovou, a/cov, gen. Okoktos* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



70 



INFLECTION. 



im 



PABTICIPLBS IN (DV, 0V9, 09, e*?, U9, AND ©9. 

334. All participles, except those in 09, belong to the 
first and third declensions combined. 

335. AvcDv (XuovT-), loosing, 8i3ov? (StSorr-), giving, nOw 
(tiO€vt-), placing, ^ikvv^ (8cikvwt-), showing, loras (Icrravr-), 
erecting, wv (ovr-), 6emgr, (present active participles of Xv«, 
8i(S«D/xi, TiSrjfU, ^dcvvfii, larrjfu, and €tfit), Xvcras (Xvouvr-), ^v- 
tn^ loosed, and XcAvkco? (XcAvkot-), having loosed (first aorist 
and perfect participles of Xvo)), are thus declined: — 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. \^v X^vo>a Xvov 

Gen. XifovTOf XvoWtis X^vros 

Dat. Xvovn Xvoihtq Xvovtv 

Ace. Xifovra X<)Ovo>av Xvov 

Voc. X^v X<)ovo>a Xihv 

DUAL. 

N. A. V. XiiovTf Xvo^o-a X^vrc 
G. D. Xv6vroiv Xvovo-atv Xv6vroiv 



8i8o«s 


SiSoiNra 


SiSdv 






Si86vTos 


SiS6vri 


SiSo^ 


Si86vri 




SiSoiio-av 


Si86v 


8i8o«s 


Si8oiNra 


8iS<Sv 


Si86m 




8i8dvT« 


8i86vTOiv 


SiSoWcuv 


SiS^VTOiV 



PLURAL. 



N.V. Xvovrcs X^uo-ai X^vra 

Gen. Xv6vrwv Xvovo>«»v Xv6vtwv 

Dat. X<)ovo>i Xvo^^ats X^vo*! 

Ace. X<)ovra« Xvoiio-os Xik>vTa 



Si86vrfs SiSoiio-ai 8v86vTa 

SiS6vrwv SiSovo-ttv SvS^vtmv 

SiSovo-i SiSoWats 8iSo<Nri 

Si86vras StSoiio-os SvS^vra 



SINGULAR. 

Nom. TiOiCs TiOctora ri9iv 

Gen. TiO^vTOf TtOcCmfs tiO^vtos 

Dat. TiO^vTi TiOcUrn rtO^vri 

Ace. TiO^vra TiOcto-av ti8^v 

Voc. TbOcCs Ti6it<ra riBiv 



SciKv^ SciKiKkra Scixv^v 

SciKvifvros SciKv^o^ SciKvvvros 

SciKvifVTi SciKv^b-|] SciKvirm 

SciKvifvra Sciicvv<rav SciKvirv 

SciKv^ SciKviNra Scvicvvv 



DUAL. 

N. A.y . TiO^vTC Ti9c(<ra TtO^vrc SciKv6vTC Scikv^o^ SciKvirvrt 

G. D. TiO^vroiv TiOcCo-aiv TiO^vrotv SciKv6vT0iv SciKvil(rcuv SciKv^vreiv 

PLURAL. 

N.V. TiO^vTfs TiOcto-cu TiO^vra SciKv^vnt SctKvikrcu SciKv^rvra 

Gen. TiO^vTttv TiOiurwv nBivriav SciKviivr»v 8ciKvv<r&v SciKv6vriiv 

Dat. n.Octo'i riOcCo-cus riOctort SciKviwri SciKvvo*cu« SciicrOoa 

Ace. TiO^vros TiOcCo-os rtO^vra SciKv^vras StiKv^cras 8iiicvi»vTa 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



337] 



PARTICIPLES. 



71 



Nom. Urrds Urraca tcrrdv 

Gen. Iq^dvTOs MrrdoTris Urrdyrot 

Dat. IcrrdvTi loTdonQ loTdvri 

Ace. UrrdvTa urrcUrav Iq-rdv 

Voc. Urrds Urreura tirrdv 



X^as X^Mira Xiwrav 

X^avTos Xv^acn|s Xvcravrot 

X^avTi Xv(r(iir^ X^avri 

X^avra Xi^do-av Xikrav 

X^ds Xi^dcra Xikrav 



DUAL. 

N. A.V. loTdvTf tcrrdird lo^vn X^avrc Xvcdcrd X^avri 

G. D. UrrdvTOiv Urrdo-aiv UrrdvToirV Xvo-dvroiv Xvo-do-cuv Xvo'dvroiv 

PLUBAL. 

N.y. UrrdvTCS loTOcai UrrdvTa Xikravrcs X^dcrai X^avra 

Gen. IfrrdvTMv itrrnrw Urr6,vT»v Xv^dyrcav \wrwr&v Xv^dvr<»v 

Dat. UrrdflTi lo-rdcrais Urrdo-i X^do-i Xvo-dicrais X^dcrv 

Ace. UrrdvTas Urrdirds tcrrdvra Xikravrof Xvo-do'ds X^avra 



SINGULAR. 



Nom. &v oiio'a 5v 

Gen. 5vT0f o^icnis 5vros 

Dat. 5vTi o{ia|] ivTi 

Ace. jvra oiio-av 6v 

Voc. »v o^Jo-a iv 



XcXvK(&s XcXvKvta XcXvxds 

XiXvKdrof XcXvKvCas XcXvKdros 

XcXvK6ri XcXvicv(f XcXvK6ri 

XcXvKdra XcXvKvCav XfXvKds 

XiXvKt&s XcXvKvCa XcXvxds 



N.V. 


QVTt.% 


o^q-ou 


Gen. 


6vr»v 


f^&y 


Dat. 


O^i 


oi><r<us 


Ace. 


JVTOS 


oiio-ds 



DUAL. 

N.A.y. 5vTC oiSord 6vT€ XcXvKdrt XcXvKvCd XcXvK^rt 

G. D. 5vroiv oWatv 5vroiv XcXvk6toiv XcXvicvCaiv XcXvk6toiv 

PLURAL. 

6vra XcXvK6Tfs XcXvicvtat XcXvKdra 

6vT»v XcXvk6t»v XcXvKVi&v XcXvk6t6»v 

o^i XcXvK^o'i XcXvKvCats XcXvKdo'i 

6vra XiXvK^TOS XcXvicvCds XcXvK^ra 

336. All participles in cdv are declined like Ximv (those in o>v 
being accented like cov) ; all in ov9, V9, and o>9 are declined like 
&Sov9, Seucv^q, and XcXvko)?; all in £19 (aorist passive as well as 
active) are declined like rtdcts; present and second aorist active 
participles in ds (from verbs in fu) are declined like t<rrds, and 
first aorists in as like XvaaS' 

337. 1. For feminines in ovo-a, cura, vo-o, and ao-a (for oi^r-ca, 
ci^Ho, wT-io, avT-ia), formed by adding la to the stem, see 84, 2. 

2. Perfects in o)s (with stems in or-) have an irregular femi- 
nine in via. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



72 



INFLECTION. 



388. The full accent of polysyUabic barytone participles ap- 
pears in PovXtwav, PovXevovaa, /SovXciW, and PovXewrds, fiovXfv- 
o-ao-o, fiofvXakrav. (See 134.) 

889. For the accent of the genitive and dative of monosyllabic 
participles, see 129 and the inflection of cov above. Thus $ds has 
gen. OivTo^f Oevnav, etc. 

840. Participles in awv, cW, and dwv are contracted. 
TlfxaWf TifiStv, honoring, and tfuXiiov, <^cX(i!>v, loving, are de- 
clined as follows : — 

SINGULAR. 

(rlfidovffa) Ti|i«Mra 
(Tt/LiooiJ<n;s) Ti|MMn)S 

(Tl/JMO^ffy) TifiCMrQ 

(Ti/iiov<rav) rifjiwrav 
(rr/Adov<ra) Tiiiwra 

DUAL. 

(rt/iaoi^<ra) rl^uitra 
G. (jlfMjbvroiv) Ti|M»Kroiv (Tt/Diooi/<roti') Ti|UMrcuv (rifjMOProiy) rlfUiirroiv 

PLURAL. 

N. (rt/xdorres) rtfJiuvTfS (rt/xdovo-at) Tl|UMrcu (rlfAdovra) Ti|MVTa 

G. (Ti/JM6vT<av) Ti|ji(wvr»v (rifiaova'Qp) ri|M»(rcav (rTfio^vriav) rl|utvntv 

D. (rt/xdovirt) Tl|i«Mri (rl/xoovirais) Tl|UMrcu« (rc/Adov<rt) rifUMTi 

A. (rt/bidoi^as) Tifiavras (Ti/jMowras) TlfMMros (ri/idoi^a) Ti|MVTa 

v. (rt/udoyrcf ) rtiiiivrfs (rt/i(£ov<rat) Ti|i«Mrai (ri/udoi^a) Ti|uivTa 






N. (rifidup) Tifuitfv 

G. (rifidovTos^ rl|i«0vros 

D. (rifidovTi) rXfJKwvTi 

A. (rlfjidovTa) Ti|i<wvra 

V. (rlfidup) TifJMwv 

N. (rlfidoirre) Tifimrrf 



(rifidop) Ti|unr 

(rifidoPTOs) rl|U0VTOS 

(rlfiAotrri) ri|Mm 

(rifidoy) Ti|unr 

(rl/Adop) ri|MM> 



SINGULAR. 

N. (^tX^wi') ^iXwv (0tX^ou<ro) ^iXoOo'a (0tX^ov) ^iXoOv 

G. {<pi\4oPTOs) 4^iXoi)vTOS (^tXeovo-^s) 4>iXov<n)S (0iX^yrof) t^iXofhrros 

D. (0(X^om) i^iXoOvTi (^tXeovo-i;) ^^iXovorg (^tX^yrt) t^iXoihrn 

A. (0tX^rra) 4^oOvra (0tX^ou<raF) ^^^oiwrav (4>i\4oy) i^iXofiv 

y.(0(X^wi') ^iXwv (0tX^ov<ra) ^iXovo-a (0tX^OF) ^iXoOv 



N. (4>i\4ovT€) ^iXoOvTC {(piKeowra) ^iXovo-a (0tX^owe) ^iXoOvrc 
G. (0iXe6rroty) ^iXoiivroiv (0tX€Oi?<ratv) ^iXoifO'Cuv (^^ikedvroiv) ^iXoirvroiv 

PLURAL. 

N. (0tX^orr6s) ^iXo{)vTfs (0tX^v<rac) ^iXoikrcu (^tX^oi^a) ^iXo9rra 
G. (^iX€6vT<av) ^iXo^vrwy (0tX6ov<rMi') ^iXovorwv (0iXc<f i^wf) ^iXoirmtv 
D. (0tX^v<rt) ^iXoOo'i (0iXeoua-a(s) ^iXo^o'cus (0iX^ov<rt) ^iXoOcri 
A. (0tX^orras) ^iXoOvra$ (0(Xeoua-as) ^iXoWa« (0tX^oi^a) ^iXo9vra 
V. (0(X^Qvres) ^iXoOvTH (0iX^ov<ra() ^iXovo>cu C^OJorrci) ^iXolh^a 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



346] 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 



73 



341. Present participles of verbs in ow (contracted w) are de- 
clined like ^iXoiv. Thus &rfX.<av, &^koiv(Tay &^Xjovv, manifesting ; gen. 
^qXmfVT(K, Si^Xoun/s ; dat. SvfXmhrn, hvfXxjvarjj etc. No uncontracted 
forms of verbs in ow are used (493). 

342. A few second perfect participles in am of the fu- form 
have Qxra in the feminine, and retain o> in the oblique cases. They 
are contracted in Attic ; as Hom. coracos, eorcuocrci, iaraos, Attic 
coTcoS) 6<rra)(r<i, iaros or ccrro)?, standing, gen. coTciTos, earwoT;?, 
€OTa>T05, etc. ; pi. cotwtcs, corwo-ai, corcora, gen. eo-Ttorwv, caraKrwv, 
€<rrci>T(i)v, etc. (See 508.) 

ADJECTIVES WITH ONE ENDING. 

343. Some adjectives of the third declension have only one 
ending, which is both masculine and feminine ; as <f>vydsy <f>vya8oq, 
fugitive; dirais, airoiSo?, childless; dyv<a^y dyvaJTos, unknoum; amAxts, 
dydXjcij^, weak. The oblique cases occasionally occur as neuter. 

344. The poetic iSpis, knowing, has ace. tS/jtv, voc. iSpi, nom. 

pi. t$pi€9. 

346. A very few adjectives of one termination are of the first 
declension, ending in as or lys ; as y£vi/a3as, noble, gen. yewa&n;. 



IRREOniiAR ADJECTIVES. 

346. The irregular adjectives, /xeyas (/ixcya-, /xcyoXo-), great, 
mXvi {iroKv'y iroAXo-), muck, and Trp^(ys («*p^o-, irpdv-), or 
wpojoiy mUdf are thus declined : — 



SINGULAR. 

Nom. fiiyat ImyoX^ I'^'Y^^ 

Gen. |&rya\ov iMydXtis lu^oXov 

Dat. iicyctXy Imyo^II iMyoX^ii 

Ace. |ifyav |&ryaXTp^ lU^a 

Voc. fUTctXc |MY<^^ F^A 



iroXvs itoXXti iroXv 

iroXXov voXXfjs iroXXov 

iroXXtp iroXX^g iroXXtp 

iroXvv iroXXTJv iroXv 



N. A. V. yut^dym |MY«[Xa ^My£Km 
6. D. |UY«iXoiV iMydXcuv fUToXoiv 



N. V. luyoXoi |irycEXcu |&ryaXa 

Gen. |UYi£X«»v lu^aXttv liryaXttv 

Dat. iMyoXoit |iryaXais fUTaXoit 

Ace. fuyoXovt luyoXas |iryaXa 



iroXXoC iroXXaC iroXXd 

itoXXmv itoXXmv voXXmv 

iroXXots woXXats iroXXots 

iroXXovs iroXXdt iroXXd 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



74 






INFLECTION. 

8IKOULAK. 


I 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


wp«ov 




«pd<Ca 
vpofCos 

vpditav 

DUAL. 


1WV 


N. V. 
G.D. 


irp^v 




vpdcCd 
vpdfUuv 

PLURAL. 


irp^ 
irp^iv 


N.A. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


vp^i or irpdf ts 

irpd^v 

vp^it or irpa^i 

irp^ws 


ffpdftoi 
trpocivv 
irpocCois 
irpoiCdt 


irp^ or irpcUa 
irpd^v 

irp^it or vpo^i 
irp4<L or irfM^a 



[347 



347. N. noXXos, 1^, (fi', is found in Homer and Herodotus, declined 
regularly throughout. Homer has forms iroX^os, iroX^es, roK^tay, xoX^o-i, eta, 
not to be confounded with epic forms of iro'Xts (255) : also xovXi^s, irovX^^. 

348. N. np$os has two stems, one irp^o-, from which the masculine 
and neuter are generally formed ; and one irpav-, from which the femi- 
nine and some other forms come. There is an epic form TrpTjvs (lyric 
xpavs) coming from the latter stem. The forms belonging to the two 
stems differ in accent. 

349. N. Some compounds of tow (rod-), foot, have ow in the nomi- 
native neuter and the accusative masculine ; as rpfxovs, rplirovv, three- 
footed. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

I. COMPASISON BY -TCpOi, -TOTOS. 

350. Most adjectives add repoi; (stem repo-^ to the 
stem to form the comparative, and raro^ (stem raro-) 
to form the superlative. Stems in o with a short penult 
lengthen o to cd before T€po(; and raro^. For the declen- 
sion, see 301. U.g. 

Kot)^09 (kov^o-), light, Kov<l>6T€pos (-a, -ov), lighter, Kov<^oraro9 
(-j;, -ov), lightest. 

^o<l>6q (cro^), wise, awf^iortpo^, wiser, a-oKfxararo^, wisest, 

"Aftos (o^Mh), worthy, o^icorcpos, o^twraTos. 

I,€fiv6q (cr€fivo-), august, aefivorepo^, aefjuvoraro^, 

Uiicpos (TTLKpfh), hitter, wiKporcpo^, iriKporaros. 

*Oivs (o^), sharp, o^vrcpo?, o^vraro?. 

Me\a9 (fieXav-), black, pjeXavrepo^, /teXarraros. 

*A\rj^ (aXrjBca-), true, aXYjOiarepos, ^XrjOiaraTos (312). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



869] COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 75 

861. Stems in o do not lengthen o to ct> if the penultimate 
vowel is followed by a mute and a liquid (100). See irticpos above. 

352. Meo-oS) middle, and a few others, drop o of the stem and 
add (urcpo? and turaros ; as /ico-os (jieco-), fuamrepo^, fuauiraroS' 

353. Adjectives in 009 drop final o of the stem and add ifrrtpo^ 
and €crraro9) which are contracted with o to avartpo^ and oixrraros ; 
as (cvvoo$) cvwvs (woo-), well-disposed, fvvowrrcfXK, eivovoTaroi, 

354. Adjectives in <av add corrcpos and coraros to the stem ; as 
o-co^pcuv (ar<i}<f>poih), prxident, coiflipoviaTepo^, (roi^poveorraros* 

355. Adjectives in 09 add rcpos and raros to the stem in €T' 
(331, 2) ; as xfP^^^i graceful, fem. xopico-o-a (xop**''^)? XH^crrtpoi, 
j(aLpU(rraTOi tor xapufr-rtpo^, xoptcr-raTos (71) . 

356. Adjectives may be compared by prefixing /aoXXov, more, 
and fiaXurraL, most; as fiaXXov (ro<t>oi, more wise, fiaXurra KOKOi, most 
had. 

11. Comparison by -twy, -wros. 

357. 1. Some adjectives, chiefly in V9 and ^09, are com- 
pared by changing these endings to Itov and toTo?. ^.^. 

*H8u9, sweet, riUtav, rjSuTTOi. 

Taxjkt swift, ra^iov (rare), commonly Oofra-iav (95, 5), raxMrros. 
Alcrxpoi, base, aJur)fiav, (uaxurroi. 
"Ex^pos, hostile, ix^fuv, ^x^mttos. 
KvSpo^ (poet.), glorious, kvS^cdv KvBurroi, 

2. The terminations loiv and toros are thus added to the root 
of the word (153), not to the adjective stem. * 

358. Comparatiyes in lav^ neuter Zoi/, are thus de- 
clined : — 

BIHGULAB. PLURAL. 

Norn. ijSW yfSiov N. V. ^tiwn ifStovs ifStova i{8t» 

Gen. ijStovos Gen. ilSlovwv 

Dat. i]6tovi Dat. liSfoo-i 

Aoc. iJSfova ii8f» ^tov Ace. iJStovot ijStovt ifStova ijStM 

DUAL. 

N.A.V. ijSfovf 
G. D. liSWvoiv 

369. N. (a) The shortened forms come from a stem in oa- (cf . 
238), io and ov9 being contracted from o-a and o-€s. The accusa- 
tive plural in ov9 follows the form of the nominative (208, 8). 

(b) Homer sometimes has comparatives in Xmv. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



76 INFLECTION. [360 

(c) The vocative singular of these comparatives seems not to 
occur. 

(d) For the recessive accent in the neuter singular, see 122. 

860. The irregular comparatives in lov (361) are declined like 

III. Ikbeouulb Compabison. 

861. The following are the most important cases of 
irregular comparison : — 

1. winBoi, good, cl|uCvi»v, 

(jipeitav), £f>urros, 

pfXitwv, pi(\Turros, 

(fiiXrepos), , (jSAraros), 

icpcCo'O'i*voricpcCTr«v(ic/>^0'O'(ay), Kporrurrost 
(jpiprepoi), (Kdprurroi)^ 

2. KOicof, bad, Koitttfv {KaK(&T€pos), KOKurros, 

XcCpwv (xcpefwy), x<'PM^"»««» 

(x«prfTc/)o$, xc/)€t6Tcpos), 

'qo'Q-ttv (for iiK'i-<av, 84,1) or (^kwtos, rare); 

tjTTWV (^O'O'WI'), adv. ifKUTTO, 

least. 

3. KoXos, beaittiful, KaXXt»v, KoXXurros. 

4. lU^os , j/rea^ \kt(lav {fU^<ap for /jxy-i-wv, 84, 3) , |&fyurros. 

6. |UKpos, small, |UKpoTipos, l&ucporaros, 

(Hom. IXdxci'a, 

fern, of 4Xaxvs), tk&ra-»v or fkarrnv (84, 1), IXaxi^TOS, 

|u(mv (/ActiTTos, rare). 

6. ^XC^os, KttZe, (inr-oXl^cjv, rather less), oXC'yurros. 

7. nivi|«(irei'i7T-), poor, in WoTfpos, wiWaraTos. 

8. iroXvs, mt^cA, itXcCmv or irX4»v (neut. some- . tXcCo^tos. 

times irXeip), 



9. /^(8los, eosy, 


W«F, 


JVTTOS, 


(Ion. I^rildios), 


(^ly/repos), 


(^i;fTOT0$, 

j^'/furroi) . 


10. ijiCXos, (7ear, 




^CXraros, 




i^aCrcpos (rare), 


^iXaCraros 

(rare). 



(^iXltap, twice in Hom.) 
Ionic or poetic forms are in ( ). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



367] ADVERBS AND THEIR COMPARISON. 77 



i. Irregularities in the comparison of the following words 
will be found in the Lexicon : — 

ajur)(p6i, dA.ycivo9) ofnrai, £^^vo9, Stxapiii PoBv^j jSAo^, PpaSvi^ 
yepoto?) yXvKvs, ^iriXi^fuov, cirtxopiS) ^(TV^o?* t&os, l!(ros, XoXos, 
fjbojcap, fULKpoq, vioSf wolXoios, Traxy^t iretrtaVi rriiov, wXtfCioff irpco-j^vf, 
irpOfSpyov, irpiMOif cnrou&ubs, o^oAaux, ^cvSi/9, cJjcvs. 

363. Some comparatives and superlatives have no posi- 
tive, but their stem generally appears in an adverb or 
preposition. E.g, 

*AvwT€pfKy upper, SytlmTOi, uppermost^ from 3.v<o, up; irporcpos, 
farmer, irputroi or wpwrurroSf Jirst, from irpo, before; icaroirepos, 
lower, Karwraro^, lowest, from Kano, downward. 

See in the Lexicon dyxorepoi, SL^^aprrtpoq, KtpStujv, oTrXorcpos, 
irfXHrwT€po9i ptywv (neuter), VTrcprcpo?, vorrcpo?, {nj/iiav, f^aavrtpoq, 
with their regular superlatives ; also (Layaroii, viniros, and Krfiurroi. 

364. Comparatives and superlatives may be formed from 
nouns, and even from pronouns. E.g, 

Boo-fXcvs, Icing, PaxriXvurepoi, a greater king, PactXevranK, the 
greatest king ; icXejrrrfi, thief, KXeirriaTtpoq, jcAcTmorraTOs ; icwav, dog, 
Kwrepo^, more impudent, mWaroS) most impudent. So avros, self, 
avToraroi, his very self, ipsissimus. 



ADVERBS AND THEIR COMPARISON. 

365. Adverbs are regularly formed from adjectives. 
Their form (including the accent) may be found by 
changing v of the genitive plural masculine to 9. E.g. 

$tX<i)S, dearly, from ^tXos ; SikguW} justly (BIkojuk) ; (rotJHjl^, 
wisely (<to<I>6s) ; iJSccJs, sweetly (lySvs, gen. plur. i/ScW), aXrfiSi^, 
truly {dXriSrjs, gen. plur. dXrjOifav, d\ri6<ov) ; (ra<^9 (Ionic o-a<^c<i)s), 
plainly ((ra^9) gen. plur. (ra^ccov, (ra^cuv); iravroi?) wholly (was, 
gen. plur. iravrwv). 

366. Adverbs are occasionally formed in the same way from 
participles; as &a<^€povro>9, differently, from Sui<f>ip<iw (Bui<l>€p6v- 
Tiov) ; Tcrayfievfo^, regularly, from T€Tayfi€voi (tcuto-o), order), 

367. The neuter accusative of an adjective (either 
singular or plural) may be used as an adverb. E.g, 

UoXv and iroWd, much (iroAvs) ; fieya or /tcyoAo, greatly (/jteya?) ; 
also /uicyaA.(i>9 (365), fiovov, on/y (/iovos, alone). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



78 



INFLECTION. 



[368 



Other forms of adverbs occur with various terminations ; 
as fioAo, very^ raxo, quickly, avatf above, cyyus, near. 

369. The neuter accusative singular of the comparar 
tive of an adjective forms the comparative of the corre- 
sponding adverb, and the neuter accusative plural of the 
superlative forms the superlative of the adverb, ^-gr. 

2o^o)S ((To^os), wisely ; a^oifiiSrrtfiov, more wisely ; owf^ioraTOLj most 
wisely, 'aXi;^o>9 (dXtfOiis), truly ; dXi^^corcpov, aXrfii(Trara^ 'HSccos 
(Jfivi), sweetly, •^Siov, •^Surra^ Xaptcirrcjs (xo/xets), gracefully ; -xP-pU- 
(rrepov, ;(apico'rarou So>^pov(i)s ((rd>^pa>v), prudently; a'(i}<t>p<nf4(rT€- 
poy, (Tw^povcWaTO. 

370. 1. Adverbs in <o generally form a comparative in irifHo^ 
and a superlative in raro) ; as avta, above, dv<orcpQ>, dvo>rara>. 

2. A few comparatives derived from adjectives end in reptm', 
as j3£)9cuorcpo>9» more firmly, for PtPaxortpov, from PePalio^. 

371. N. MoAo, mticA, ver^, has comparative /xdAXov (for /AoArc-oy, 
84, 4), more, rather; superlative /idXjuTTa, most, especially. 



NUMERALS. 

372. The cardinal and ordinal numeral adjectives, and 
the numeral adverbs which occur, are as follows : — 



Sign. 


Cardinal 


Ordinal. 


Adverb. 


1 


a' 


flf , |i£a, j'v, one 


irpAros, first 


airaf, once 


2 


P' 


Svo, two 




SCs, ttince 


3 


y 


Tf^, rpCa 


TpiTOf 


TpCs 


4 


8' 


(r^opis, Wrrapci) 


riraproi 


TfTpeucis 


6 


e' 


ir^vTi 


ir^fiirros 


iriVTOKiS 


6 


^' 


n 


^KTOS 


ii&K^ 


7 


r 


iirrd 


IPS0|M>S 


iirnUiS 


8 


V 


6KTii 


6y^o9 


^Knkit 


9 


e- 


4vWa 


ivarot 


lv«iKif 


10 


i' 


84Ka 


S^Karos 


ScKOKiS 


11 


Uk 


IvScKa 


^vS^Karos 


^vSfKliKiS 


12 


ip- 


Si^cKa 


SttS^Karos 


8«»8cK(ilCI« 


13 


^y 


Tpcts Kal 8^Ka (or 
rpcuTKaCScKa) 


TpCrof Kal S^Karos 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



374] 


NUMERALS. 


79 


Sign. 


CardinaL 


Ordinal. 


^dv«r6. 


14 i8' 


rlo^ropcs Kal S^Ka 




( 


or rco-q^^Mo-KaCScKa) 






15 m' 


vivrfKaCScKa 




J 


16 ig' 


cKKaCScKa 


f KTos Kal S^Karos 




17 il- 


firraKoCScKa 


ip8o|io« Kal S^xaros 




ls iV 


<SKT»KO(8cKa 


o^ooos Kal ocKaTos 




10 tr 


iwicucaCScKa 


Ivaros Kal S^xaros 




20 k' 


cCkoo'i(v) 


<tKO<rros 


itNOOtUClS 


21 m' 


its Kal €licooa(v) or 

ctKOOri (Kal) ft« 


n-p«Tos Kal cIkootos 




80 V 


TpioKovra 


TpldKOOTOS 


TpUUCOVTOKiS 


40 |i' 


TfcnropoKOvra 


TfOVafKUCOOTOS 


TicnrapaKOVTOUcis 


60 v' 


••VT'UKWTa 


ircvTi|KO<mJs 




60 r 


^Micovra 


^Mkooto's 


i(V|M>VTaKlS 


70 o' 


^pSo|&fiKOVTa 


C poO|liT| KOOTOS 


^pSofATIKOVTOKiS 


80 »' 


vj001|Kwr~i «» 






90 9' 




CVCWIKOOTOS 


lvCV1|K0VTliKiS 


100 p' 


cKarov 




JKaTOVTOKit 


200 «r' 




Smucoo'ioo^s 




800 t' 


TpidKoViOi, av, a 


rpiOKOoruMrTos 




400 v' 


TlTpaKoo^ol, at, a 


TiTpOKOOtOiTTOS 




600 +' 


vcvTOKO^iOi, at, a 


ircvTaKOtruMTTos 




600 x' 




( {aKOtrUKTTOS 




700 +' 


jirraKo^ioi, at, a 






800 «' 


<{KraKoo-iOi, at, a 


OKTaKOO*iO(rTOS 




900®' 


lvaK^<noi, at, a 






1000 ,a 


XtXiOi, at, a 


XlXiOVTOS 


XkXiOKlt 


2000 ,P 


SurxtXioi, at, a 


Surxi^iO<rros 




8000 ,7 


Tpio^tXioi, at, a 


rpco^iXuw^S 




10000 > 


l&ijpiO^ at, a 


l&ijpioaTOf 


fAVpiobciS 


20000 ,K 


8io>^u>i 






100000 fi 


ScKOKiOll^lpiOi 






873. Above 10,000, 8w /xvpioScs, 20,000, rpci? 


/xvpiaScs, 30,000, 


etc., may be used. 






874, The dialects have the following peculiar forms : — 


1 — 4. 1 


See 377. 






5. Aeolic irc/x^c for irevrt. 






0. Herod, dvaro^ for lvaro9 ; also civoki?, etc. 




12. Doric and Ionic hvut^Ka ; Poetic hvoKaJ&€Ka, 


20. Epi 


LC €€1X00-1 ; Doric cZKari. 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



80 INFLECTION. [875 

30, 80, 90, 200, 300. Ionic Tpi'^Kovra, oyScoxomi, evnyicon-a (Horn.), 
Sii;KO(rioi, rpirjKoaruK, 

40. Herod. TcotrcpoKovra. 

Homer has TplraTos, rirparfyi, IfiSoimros, oySoaro^, avaro?, dwa- 
8cKaro9} cctKoo-Tos, and also the Attic form of each. 

375. The cardinal numbers eh^ one^ Bvo^ two^ rpek^ 
three^ and T^aa-apef; (or renape^^^ four^ are thus de- 
clined : — 

M% N. A. h^ 

ivi G. D. Svotv 



Nom. 


flf 


liCa 


Gen. 


M% 


luas 


Dat. 


c'vC 


|U$ 


Ace. 




(iCav 


Nom. 


rpla 


Gen. 




TpiMV 


Dat. 




TpiO-C 


Ace. 


Tpcl» 


rpla 



THn r cip i t Tiovnpci 
TiovdpMV 
Tlwapo*i 

TCoHrapos Tcvo'apci 

876. N. Aw, two, with a plural noun, is sometimes indeclinable. 

877. N. Homer has fem. la, t^s, iy, lav, for /xta; and i^ for wl 
Homer has hvo and Svo>, both indeclinable; and 8oio> and Bouti, 
declined regularly. Herodotus has Svcov, h)oixTL, and other forms: 
see the Lexicon. Homer sometimes has wlixvpes for rco-crapcs. 
Herodotus has rcWcpcsy and the poets have rirpaxn. 

878. The compounds ovSct? and fir^k, no one, none, are de- 
clined like cTs. Thus, ovSek, ovScfua, ov^fv ; gen. ovSevoq, ovSc/jllSs ; 
dat. ovBcvi, ovSc/ua ; ace. ovSera, ov^fuav, ovSei/, etc. Plural forms 
sometimes occur ; as ov^ves, ovSevwv, ovSiai, ovBeva^, firficvts, etc. 
When ovSc or fwySc is written separately or is separated from cTs 
(as by a preposition or by av), the negative is more emphatic ; as 
€$ ovScvos, from no one ; ovS* cf cvos, from not even one ; ovSc cts, not 
a man, 

879. Both is expressed by afi<^ct>, ambo, dfi<^v; and by d/i^ 
rcp09) generally plural, dfi^orcpot, at, a. 

880. The cardinal numbers from 5 to 100 are indeclin- 
able. The higher numbers in km and all the ordinals are 
declined regularly, like other adjectives in os. 

881. In Tpcts (rpta) koi ScKa and rco-oo/ocs (ria-aupa) koX Seica 
for 13 and 14, the first part is declined. In ordinals (13th to 19th) 
the forms rp€urxou8cKaro9 etc. are Ionic, and are rarely found in 
the best Attic. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



388] NUMERALS. -THE ARTICLE. 81 

382. 1. In compound expressions like 21, 22, etc., 31, 32, etc., 
the numbers can be connected by lau in either order ; but if kqu is 
omitted, the larger precedes. Thus, cIs icat clxocri, one and twenty^ 
or uKoai Kol cIs, twenty and one ; but (without icot) only dKoaxv cIs, 
twenty^ne, 

2. In ordinals we have irpo>ro9 koi cixootos, tvoenty-first^ and also 
ciKooTof Kol irpSiTOi, ctc. ; and for 21 cIs koll cikootos. 

3. The numbers 18 and 19, 28 and 29, 38 and 39, etc., are often 
expressed by cvos (or Svotv) ^ovtc^ eiKotn (r/ndicoKra, rco-o-apoKOKro, 
etc.) ; as In; cvos Scovra rpiaKOKra, 29 ^ear«. 

8831 1. With collective nouns in the singular, especially ij 
»nro9, cavalry, the niunerals in vol sometimes appear in the sin- 
gular; as T^v Siaicocrtav iTnrw, the (troop of) 200 cavalry (200 
horse) ; dcnris /xvpta kcu rcrpaxofrCa. (X. -4n. i, T^*^), 10,400 shields 
(i.e. TTien u;t7A shields) . 

2. Mvptoi means ^6n thousand; /jvpioi, innumerable, "Mvpio^ 
sometimes has the latter sense; as fivpioi xP^^f countless time; 
fwpCd irevid, incalculable poverty, 

384. N. The Greeks often expressed numbers by letters ; the two 
obsolete letters Vau (in the form C) and Koj^, and the character San, 

. denoting 6, 90, and 900. (See 3.) The last letter in a numerical ex- 
pression has an accent above. Thousands begin anew with a, with a 
stroke below. Thus, aw^', 1868 ; 3xKe, 2625 ; dxc, 4025 ; By', 2003 ; 
V, 540; p«', 104. (See 872.) 

385. N. The letters of the ordinary Greek alphabet are often used 
to niunber the books of the Iliad and Odyssey, each poem having 
twenty-four books. A, B, r, etc. are generally used for Uie Iliad, and 
a, /3, 7, etc. for the Odyssey. 

THE ARTICLE. 

386. The definite article o (stem to-), the^ is thus 
declined : — 





smauLAR. 




DUAL. 




PLURAL. 




Nom. 


* <i 


r6 




Nom. 


ol al 


rd 


Gen. 


Tol> TiJ9 


TOQ 


N.A. r^ (t<6) tA 


Gen. 


tAv 




Dat 


Ttp r% 


TV 


G.D. TOtV (TOtv)TOtV 


Dat. 


TOt« Tat« 


TPt« 


Ace. 


r6v T^v 


r6 




Ace. 


Toi« r<t« 


rd 



387. N. The Greek has no indefinite article; but often the 
indefinite rU (415, 2) may be translated by a or an; as dvOpwroq 
ri«, a certain man, often simply a man, 

388. N. The regular feminine dual forms rd and ratv (espe- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



82 



INFLECTION. 



cially ra) are veiy rare, and tcu and roiv are generally used for all 
genders (303). The regular plural nominatives roC and rai are 
epic and Doric ; and the article has the usual dialectic forms of 
the first and second declensions, as roto, rouv, rdosv, rtMn, rg<n, 
TiJ"?. Homer has rarely TOia^aaL or rourSeo-i in the dative plural. 

PRONOUNS. 
PERSONAL AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS. 

389. The personal pronouns are iyco^ J, otJ, thau^ and 
ov (genitive), of him, of her, of it. Auto?, himself is 
used as a personal pronoun for him, her, it, etc. in the 
oblique cases, but never in the nominative. 

They are thus declined : — 









SINGULAR. 








Nom. 


h^,I 


o^, thou 


— 


avTos 


a^' 


a^' 


Gen. 


l|iOV,|IOV 


<rov 


O^ 


avTov 


avrrts 


avTov 


Dat. 


l|ioC,|ioC 


0*0 C 


ol 


air^ 


aVTQ 


a^i 


Ace. 


lH^,Hi 


<ri 


i 


avrov 


avnjv 


aM 


N.A. 


v» 


0-+.S 


DUAL. 


avrw 


aMt 


a^^ 


G.D. 


Vifv 


0-+VV 


PLURAL. 


a^Totv 


avraCv 


aiSrolv 


Nom. 


i1|mCs, we 


v|mCs, you 


o-<|>cCs, they 


a^( 


a^a( 


aMi 


Gen. 


,i^^ 


vfJuSv 


0-+«K 


ClVTWIf 


avrwv 


a^«ir 


Dat. 


ilF^tv 


iivtv 


c^Un 


avrois 


avraSs 


a^ToSs 


Ace. 


nFfe 


v|ia8 


o-+a8 


avTovs 


a^r^ 


aMi 



390. N. The stems of the i>ersonal pronouns in the first i>er8on are 
ifjje- (cf. Latin me), vta- (cf. nos), and iifie-, iyib being of distinct forma- 
tion ; in the second i)erson, <rc- (cf. te), <ri>ia-, ifu-, with a^ distinct; in 
the third person, i- (cf . se) and <r4>e-. « 

391. AvTos in all cases may be an intensive adjective 
pronoun, like ipse, self (989, 1). 

392. For the uses of ov, ol, etc., see 987 ; 988. In Attic prose, 
ol, a-<l>€i^, a-KJHiJv, (r<^t(ri, (r<^as, are the only common forms ; ov and I 
never occur in ordinary language. The orators seldom use this 
pronoun at all. The tragedians use chiefly <r<l>iv (not <r<l>C) and 
(r<t>€ (394). 

393. 1. The following is the Homeric declension of cyai, av, and 
o5. The forms not in ( ) are used also by Herodotus. Those with 
a/A/i.- and vfifi- are Aeolic. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



400] 




PRONOUNS. 

8INGULAK. 


Si 


Nom. 


h^ (^<^o ^ 


(rtJ (T6in7) 




Gen. 


itUoy ifiev, fiev 


ffiOf ffev 


(^o) ev 




{itijeioy ifj^ev) 


(jreto, <r46ew) 


eto (idew) 


Dat. 


ifMl, fiol 


ffol, ToL (retv) 


ot (ioT) 


Ace. 


i/^,/^ 


DUAL. 


(?) W Id, 


N.A. 


(v«3l-, vc6) 


(<r0uH-, <r4>ih) 


{<r4>^4) 


G.D. 


(rQly) 


(<r0«t>, (r<t>(av) 

PLVSAL. 


(<r<t>(atv) 


Nom. 


iliuh («/*/*€$) 


u/i«tj (l/AV*€$) 


(r<f>eis (not in Horn.) 


Gen. 


ilfUtaw (iifuliaw) 


vtUiav (pftjeiwv) 


(rip4(av {<r<j>€liav) 


Dat. 


iffuv (SifAfu) 


hfuv (vfifu) 


<r4>i<rL, <r4>K^) 


Ace. 


ilfUasi^&Hfu) 


iffiias (y/AI^) 


(r<l>4as, ffipi 



2. Herodotus has also (r<^€a in the neuter plural of the third 
person, which is not found in Homer. 

394. The tragedians use cr^c and (r<^tV as personal pronouns, 
both masculine and feminine. They sometimes use (r<^€ and rarely 
o-^iv as singular. 

.396. 1. The tragedians use the Doric accusative viv as a per- 
sonal pronoun in all genders, and in both singular and plural. 

2. The Ionic /uv is used in aU genders, but only in the singular. 

396. N. The penult of ^fuov, ^fiiv, i^/iia?, ifjMv, i^/uv, and i^/iias 
is sometimes accented in poetry, when they are not emphatic, and 
ly and a$ are shortened. Thus rj/uav, ^fuv, 17/xas, vfuov, v/uvj v/xas. 
If they are emphatic, they are sometimes written ^fuv, rnuoM, v/uV, 
^/ia9. So <T<f>as is written for o-^as. 

397. N. Herodotus has avrcW in the feminine for avrtav (188, 
6). The Ionic contracts 6 avros into oivros or o>vro9, and to avrd 
into TtDvro (7). 



__ B. N. The Doric has ^(i>v\ ifUos, iiMvs, ifMvs (for ifwv^ ; ifdv for 
ifMl ; dfUs, dfidutw, dfdp, ctfid (for ijfieU, iifiCjv, iifup, iifias) ; tv for ffv ; reO 
(for rA>), T^of, reoO, reovj, revs (for o-oO); to/, tIv (for <rol); t^, tu (en- 
clitic) for ffi ; ^Ai^ and t/ld (for v/mcs and tpLoLs) ; fv for of ; ^^ for 0*0^. 
Pindar has only iy(&v, rv, rol, rlv, 

399. AvT09 preceded by the article means the same 
(idem) ; as avro? di/ijp^ the same man. (See 989, 2.) 

400. Avto9 is often united by crasis (44) with the article; as 
ravrov for rent avrcv ; Tavrcf for T<p avr^ ; ravrff for t^ avr^ (not 
to be confounded with Tovrg frpm outos). In the contracted form 
the neuter singular has ravrd or ravTov. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



84 



INFLECTION. 



[401 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

401. The reflexive pronouns are l/jLavrov^ efiavT^, of 
myself; aeavrov^ aeavrrjf;^ of thyself; and eavrov^ iavrfj^;^ 
of himself y herself^ itself. They are thus declined : — 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



Masc. Fern. 
fyjivTov liiavrrjs 

fyjivrov 4|&avnjv 



SINGULAR. 

Masc. Fern. 
ortavTOv o-cavrris 
(TcavT^ (TcavTJ or 
ortavTov (Tcavnjv 

PLURAL. 



Masc, Fern. 

<nivTov ircivTT|t 

iravTif aavrg 

ircivTOV trcuiTTiv 



Masc. 
ijlidg avrovs 



Fern. 



Masc. 
^avTov 

^avrov 



Fern. 

^aVTTJ9 

iavTQ 
cavniv 



ijiMS avrds 

SINGULAR. 

Mut. 
iavTOv 
iavTif or 
^avro 



Masc, Fern. 

vfiitv avToSs vfiitv avrals 



Masc. 
avrov 
avrip 
avTOV 



Fern, 
avTTJs 
avrq 
ovnjv 



Neut. 
avTov 

avT^ 
avro 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



^avrwv 
^avTots 
cavrovs 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 



cavTtSv 
c'avrats 
iavras 



or avTots 
avrovs 



avrwv 
avrals 
avTos 



avrwv 
avToSs 
avra 



PLURAL. 

cavrc»v 
cavTots 
cavrd 
also 
(r<^cSiv avrwv 
a-^tarw avrots a-^Unv avrats 

0*4)05 avrovs o-4>a5 avrds 

402. The reflexives are compounded of the stems of the per- 
sonal pronouns (390) and avrds. But in the plural the two 
pronouns are declined separately in the first and second persons, 
and often in the third. 

403. N". In Homer the two pronouns are always separated in 
all persons and numbers ; as a-oi avT<J, ol avT<p, i avrqv. Herodotus 
has ifjxwvTmj, acwvTav, ecovroO. 

RECIPROCAL PRONOUN. 

404. The reciprocal pronoun is dX\i]\<0v^ of one an- 
other^ used only in the oblique cases of the dual and 
plural. It is thus declined : — 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



409] 



PRONOUNS. 



85 



DUAL. PLUIUL. 

Gen. aXXtjXoiv aXXijXoiv dXXtiXoiv aXXfPUfv dWipUfv aXXiiXMv 

Dat. aXXtjXotv ifiXXtiXoiv aXXtjXoiv AXXtiXoi« f&XXtjXeut liXXiiXoit 

Ace. aXXtiXtf aXXtiXa aXXijXc* <UXiiX<»vt aXXijX&t «XXi|Xa 

405. The stem is dUi/Xo- (for dXX-oXAo-). 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

406. The possessive pronouns e/i09, wiy, cro9, ^Ay, iJ/a^ 
Tepo9, owr, vfjL^epof;^ your, <T<f>iT€pof;, their, and the poetic 
o9, Ai«, are declined like adjectives in 09 (298). 

407. Homer has dual possessives vidrtpoi, ofua two, o-^oifrcpoS) 
0/ you two ; also tcos (Doric and Aeolic, = tuus) for aoq, cos for 09, 
dfios for -^fjimpoit ^fu>9 for ^/xercpos, 0-^09 for cr^ercpo9* The Attic 
poets sometimes have afio9 or (ifu>9 for ifios (often as our for my). 

408. *09 not being used in Attic prose, his is there expressed 
by the genitive of avros, as o irarrfp avrovj his father, 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

409. The demonstrative pronouns are 0UT09 and oSe, 
this, and iicelvo^:, that. They are thus declined : — 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

CIVTV| TOVTO OvTOi aVTOi TClVTCl 

TaVTT|S TOUTOV TOvTttV TOVTttV TOVTttV 

ravTQ TOvTf Tovroit ravTOit rovroit 

TCIVT1|V TOVTO TOVTOWS TAVTCKt 

DUAL. 
N. A. TOVTM TOVTOI TOVTOI 

G. D. TOVTOiV TOVTOiV TOVTOtV 



Nom. o^Tos 

Gen. TovTot 

Dat. TovT^ 
Ace. 









SINGULAR. 








Nom. S^ 


^ 


T0'8C 


Imtvot 


iKiCvn 


iKcCvO 


Gen. 


TOIiSi 


rrio-Sc 


TOvSc 


IkcCvov 


lic€(in|« 


iiccCvov 


Dat. 


TI^SC 


Tli8€ 


T^^ 


IkcCv^ 


iKC(Kn 


imCvip 


Ace. 


TO'VSC 


Tt{v8f 


TO'SC 

DUAL. 


imCvov 


iicc(inf|v 


iKCCVO 


N.A. 


T<^ 


Tl^ 


T<^ 


IkcCv« 


Ikc(v» 


licc(v» 


G.D. 


TOtvSc 


TOtvSc 


TOtvSc 

PLURAL. 


iKcCvoiv 


^KcCvoiv 


^cCvoiv 


Nom. 


otSi 


atSi 


t6&% 


iKCtVOi 


iKCtvOU 


^KCtva 


Gen. 


rmU 


TWVOC 


TWVSC 


iKcCVMV 


iiccCvMV 


Ikc(v»v 


Dat 


TOiO-8c 


Tato-8c 


TOto-Sc 


IxcCvoit 


IkcCvois 


iKcCvois 


Ace. 


Toi^o-Sc 


T^8c 


TCISC 


lictCvovs 


lictCvdt 


^KcCva 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



86 INFLECTION. [410 

410. Feminine dual forms in a and aiv are very rare (303). 

411. 'EKCiKOf is regular except in the neater ciceivo. Kcu^os is 
Ionic and poetic. *08e is formed of the article 6 and Se (141, 4). 
For its accent, see 146. 

412. N. The demonstratives, including some adverbs (436), 
may be emphasized by adding t, before which a short vowel is 
dropped. Thus ovroat, avrvjtj rovrt ; 6St, i}8^, toS ; rovrcvi, rovrf, 
rovrctfi^. So roaovrwrt (429), wSi, cnma&t. In comedy yi (rarely 
8c) may precede this t, making yt oxU\ as rovroyt, rovroSi. 

413. N. Herodotus has rovrcW in the feminine for rovnay (cf. 
897). Homer has rc^o-Scoxri or rbicrSca-i for rourde. 

414. N. Other demonstratives will be found among the pro- 
nominal adjectives (429). 

INTEBROGATIVB AND INDBFINITB PRONOUNS. 

415. 1. The interrogative pronoun rt?, t/, who? which f 
what? always takes the acute on the first syllable. 

2. The indefinite pronoun tI?, tI, any one^ some one^ 
is enclitic, and its proper accent belongs on the last 
syllable. 

416. 1. These pronouns are thus declined : — 





Interrogative 


SINOULAB. 


Indefinite, 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


t(vos, tov 
t(vi, t^ 
T(va 


r( 


rW rl 

TiVOS, TOW 
TIV(, T^ 

Tiva Tl 


N.A. 
G.D. 


r(vf 
rCvoiV 


DUAL. 
PLURAL. 


TlVOtV 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


t(v»v 
T(va« 


T(va 
T(va 


TlWs TiVO 

rurC 

TlVOt TiVtt 



2. For the indefinite plural rtva there is a form Srra (Ionic 
ao-o-a). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



424] 



PRONOUNS. 



87 



417. OuTis and fii^is, poetic for ovSeis and firjSek, no one, are 
declined like ris. 

418. 1. The acute accent of rts is never changed to the grave 
(115, 2). The forms rU and rl of the indefinite pronoun very 
rarely occur with the grave accent, as they are enclitic (141, 2). 

2. The Ionic has t€o and rev for toIv, t€<j) for rw, tccov for tivwv, 
and rcoun for TtVi; also these same forms as enclitics, for row, 
T<o, etc. 

419. "AAAos, o^^er, is declined like avros (389), having 
SXXo in the neuter singular. 

420. 1. The indefinite Sciva, such a one, is sometimes 
indeclinable, and is sometimes declined as follows : — 





SINGULAB. 


PLURAL. 




(All Genders). 


(Masculine) 


Norn. 


8«£ya 


8ctvc9 


Gen. 


Sctvos 


ScCVMV 


Dat. 


8€tVi 




Ace. 


Sctva 


Sctvos 



2. Actva in all its forms always has the article. 
RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

421. The relative pronoun 09, ^, o, who, is thus de- 
clined : — 





SINGULAR. 




DUAL. 






PLURAL. 




Nom. 


6s 


^ 


6 






Nom. 


ot at 


& 


Gen. 


0^ 


A^ 


0^ 


N.A. <5 & 


& 


Gen. 


(^V (Sv 


<Sv 


Dat 


4 


i 


4 


G. D. otv otv 


otv 


Dat. 


ots ats 


ots 


Aoc. 


6v 


flv 


6 






Ace. 


oCs is 


& 



422. Feminine dual forms i and alv are very rare and doubtful 
(303). 

423. N. For 0$ used as a demonstrative, especially in Homer, 
see 1023. For the article (r- forms) as a relative in Homer and 
Herodotus, see 935 and 939. 

424. N. Homer has 6ov (So) and h)^ for oS and ^s. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



88 INFLECTION. [426 

425. The indefinite relative o<rr*9, ^t*?, o t*, whoever^ 
whatever^ is thus declined : — 







BINOULAS. 




Norn. 
Gen. 
Dat 
Ace. 




ifvTiva 

DUAL. 


OvTiVOS) ©TOW 

ij^Ttvi, Srtf 


N. A. 
G.D. 


olimvMv 


olimvoiv 

PLUKAL. 


olVTiVOiV 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


otnyft 

MVTVVWV, OT«V 
0l0-Ti0%, ^TOlt 




£nva, firra 

otoTiO^, ^TOI« 

QTt>Vtt) ATTA 



426. N. ^'OoTis is compounded of the relative 09 and the indefi- 
nite ri9, each part being declined separately. For the accent, see 
146. The plural arra (Ionic axraa) for ariva must not be con- 
founded with arra (416, 2). ''O ri is thus written (sometimes o, rt) 
to distinguish it from ori, that, 

427. N. The shorter forms orcVf 5t«», Stow, and orois, which 
are genuine old Attic forms, are used by the tragedians to the 
exclusion of ovrwo^, etc. 

428. 1. The following are the peculiar Homeric forms of 



SIKOULAR. 

Nom. &Tit 6 TTi 

Gen. 8t€v, Sttco, Stto* 

Dat &TC9 

Ace. &Tiva 8 tti 



PLUBAL. 

AvXTtt 

6tk»v 

MoMTi 

OTtvos mnra 



2. Herodotus has orev, orccp, orecov, orcouri, and acraa (426). 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 

429. There are many pronominal adjectives which corre- 
spond to each other in form and meaning. The following 
are the most important : — 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



436] 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 



89 



Intbbbogatiye. 



iKDEnHTTE. 



Dbmonbtratttb. 



Bblatiyb. 



wSa-os; how much? irwr6i, of some 
how many? quantity. 

quantus? 



(tScos^, Toadade, 6aoi, 6ir6<ro$, (cw 
ToaovTos, so much, as many) 

much, tantus, as, quantus. 
so many. 



wotos; of what iroi6i, of some (roios), roUMrde, 
kind? quails? kind. toioOtos, such, 

talis. 

TrrjXlKOs; ?U>W oldf (ttiXIkos), T17X1- 

how large? KScde, ttjXikov- 

ros, so old or so 
large. 

ir&repos; which of ir&repos (or totc- Hrepos, the one or 
the twof pbi), one of two the other (of 

(rare). two). 



otoi, droios, of 
which kind, 
(such) as, qualis. 

ijXlKOi, dirrjXlKos, 
of which age or 
size, (as old) as, 
(as large) as. 

bvfyrepoi, which- 
ever of the two. 



430. The pronouns ns, tIs, etc. form a corresponding 
series : — 

rlt; who? rU, any one. 6de, ovros, this, 6s, Attij, who, 

this one. which. 

431. Ti$ may be added to otoi, 00-09, owoo'og, oiroio^, and oTrorcpos, 
to make them more indefinite; as o^roios ris, of what kind soever. 

432. 1. Ovv added to indefinite relatives gives them a purely 
indefinite force ; as 6otio"ow, otwvv, any one, anything, soever, with 
no relative character. 

2. N. Rarely o^rorcpos (without o5v) has the same meaning, 
either of the two. 

433. N. Homer doubles t in many of these relative words; as 
birworcpoi, biriroios. So in 5inrws, (ytr7r6r€, etc. (436). Herodotus has 
bK6r€potf 6K6ff0Sf 6K0Vf 6k6$€v, dKore, etc., for ^Srepos, etc. 

434. N. Trf<ros and toZos seldom occur in Attic prose, rrfXlKos never. 
TocrSffde, Tot^ffde, and rriXiKSirde are declined like roVos and roTos; 
as rocrdffde, roa-iide, T0(r6vde, etc., — roioaSe, ToidScy rotovSe. Toaovros, 
ToiovTos, and rrfXiKovros are declined like ovros (omitting the first r in 
To&rov, TovTo, etc.), except that the neuter singular has or ov; as 
TOtoOrof, TotatJri;, toiovto or rouovrov ; gen. rowOrov, roia^rjs, etc. 

436. There are also negative pronominal adjectives ; as ovri^, 
fufris (poetic for ovScts, /at/Scis), ovSctc/do?, /JirjSmpoi, neither of two. 
(For adverbs, see 440.) 

436. Certain jpronommoZ adverbs correspond to each other, 
like the adjectives given above. Such are the following: — 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



90 


INFLECTION. 


[487 


iNTlBBOeATIYB. 


IKDBFIKITX. 


Dbmonbtratiyb. 


Bjilatits. 


iroO; wheref 


iroiJ, somewhere. 


ivravda, iKct, 
there. 


ov, iwov, where. 


IT J; which way? 


IT]}, some way, 


(tJ), rjSe, toiJti;, i, Urn, which way, \ 


howf 


somehow. 


this way, thus. 


as. 


Toi; vjhitherf 


Tol, to some 
place. 


iKeure, thither. 


ot, 6toi, whither. 


woOev; wJiencef 


to04p, from 


(Jipe€v\ iveivde, 


6e€v, 67r60€v, 




some place. 


ivTtvdtv, iKcWep, 
thence. 


whence. 


irwt; howf 


7r(h%yin someway^ 


(r^s),(c5s),J5e, 


(at, 6wun, in which 


» 


somehow. 


ovTWi, thtis. 


way, as. 


irrfre; when? 


Tori, at some 
time. 


t6t€, then. 


ire, ^6t€, when. 


wsjwUa; at what 




(TTfvlKa), Trjvucd' 


ifvUa, bwJivlKa, at 


timef 




5e, TrjviKavTa, 


which time. 






at that time. 


when. 



iSI. The indafinite adverbs are all enclitic (141, 2). 

438. Forms which seldom or never occur in Attic prose are 
in ( ). "'Eivda and Iv^cv are relatives in prose, where, whence ; as 
demonstratives they appear chiefly in a few expressions like hSa 
Kol ivOcL, here and there, ivOcv kol ivOev, on both sides. For cos, thus, 
in Attic prose, see 138, 3. Tws (from to-), like ovtojs (from ouros), 
thus, is poetic. 

439. 1. The poets have kuOl, k^IOcv, kcio-c for eicct; iKtiOev, and 
cKCio-c, like kcIvos for cKeivos (^H)* 

2. Herodotus has hSavra^ cv^cvrcv for hrrav^ cktcv^cv. 

3. There are various poetic adverbs ; as iroBi, iroBi, 50i (for irow, 
TTOv, ov), toOl, there, roOcy, thence. 

440. There are negative adverbs of pUice, manner, etc.; as 
ovSafMv, firf&ifjuov, nowhere, ovSafif, fxrj^ofxff, in no way, ovSofuaq, 
firj8afMi9f in no manner. (See 435.) 



VERBS. 

441. The Greek verb has three voicei^ the active, 
middle, and passive. 

442. 1. The middle voice generally signifies that the subject 
performs an action upon himself or for his own benefit (1242), but 
sometimes it is not distinguished from the active voice in meaning. 



Digitized 



byGpogk 



460J VERBS. 91 

2. The passive differs from the middle in farm in only t^ 
tenses, the future and the aorist. 

443. Deponent verbs are those which have no active 
voice, but are used in the middle (or the middle and 
passive) forms with an active sense. 

444. N*. Deponents generally have the aorist and future of the 
middle form. A few, which have an aorist (sometimes a future) 
of the passive form, are called passive deponents ; while the others 
are called middle deponents. 

445. There are four moods (properly so called), the 
indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. To 
these are added, in the conjugation of the verb, the 
infinitive, and participles of the chief tenses. The 
verbal adjectives in ro^ and reo^ have many points of 
likeness to participles (see 776). 

446. The four proper moods, as opposed to the infinitive, are 
called Jinite moods. The subjunctive, optative, imperative, and 
infinitive, as opposed to the indicative, are called dependent moods. 

447. There are seven temes^ the present, imperfect, 
perfect, pluperfect, aorist, future, and future perfect. 
The imperfect and pluperfect are found only in the 
indicative. The future and future perfect are wanting 
in the subjunctive and imperative. The future perfect 
belongs regularly to the passive voice, but sometimes 
has the meaning of the active or middle. 

448. The present, perfect, future, and future perfect 
indicative are called primary (or principal^ tenses ; the 
imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist indicative are called 
secondary (or historical) tenses. 

449. Many verbs have tenses known as the second aorist (in 
all voices), the second perfect and pluperfect (active), and the 
second future (passive). These tenses are generally of more 
simple formation than the Jirst (or ordinary) aorist, perfect, etc. 
Few verbs have both forms in any tense ; when this occurs, the 
two forms generally differ in meaning (for example, by the first 
being transitive, the second intransitive), but not always. 

450. The aorist corresponds generally to the indefinite or his- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



92 INFLECTION. [461 

torical perfect in Latin, and the perfect to the English perfect or 
the definite perfect in Latin. 

451. N. No Greek verb is in use in all these tenses, and the fall 
paradigm of the regular verb must include parts of three different 
verbs. See 470. 

452. There are three nurribers^ as in nouns, the singu- 
lar, dual, and plural. 

453. In each tense of the indicative, subjunctive, and 
optative, there are three persons in each number, the 
first, second, and third ; in each tense of the imperative 
there are two, the second and third. 

454. N. The first person dual is the same as the first person 
plural, except in a very few poetic forms (656, 2). This person is 
therefore omitted in the paradigms. 

TENSE SYSTEMS AND TENSE STEMS. 

456. The tenses are divided into nine classes or tense 
systems, each with its own tense stem. 

456. The tense systems are the following : — 

SYSTEMS. TENSES. 

including present and imperfect. 

future active and middle, 
first aorist active and middle, 
second aorist active and middle, 
first perfect and pluperfect active, 
second perfect and pluperfect active, 
perfect and pluperfect middle and 

future perfect, 
first aorist and future passive, 
second aorist and/w^wre passive. 

457. 1. The last five tense stems are further modified to form 
special stems for the two pluperfects, the future perfect, and the 
two passive futures. 

2. As few verbs have both the first and the second forms of any 
tense (449), most verbs have only six tense stems, and many have 
even less. 

458. The various tense stems are almost always formed 
from one fundamental stem, called the verb stem. These 
formations will be explained in b&^S22. 



I. 


Present, inclu( 


lin 


II. 


Future, 


(( 


III. 


First-^Lorist, 


t< 


IV. 


Second-aorist, 


(( 


V. 


Firstperfect, 


<( 


VI. 


Secondperfect, 


a 


VII. 


Perfect-middle, 


a 


VIII. 


First-passive, 


(( 


IX. 


Second-passive, 


« 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



463] TENSE SYSTEMS AND TENSE STEMS. 93 

• 

459. Before learning the paradigms, it is important to 
distinguish between verbs in which the verb stem appears 
without change in all the tense systems, and those in which 
it is modified more or less in different systems (154). 

Thus in Xeyo), speak, the verb stem Xcy- is found in Xcjo) 
(Xxy-cru)), e\.€$a, Xe-Xey-fuu, i-XexiSrfV (71), and all other forms. 
But in iJHuvo}, show, the verb stem kImv- is seen pure in the second 
aorist l-<f>a.v-rjv and kindred tenses, and in the futures ^vco and 
ilKLVovfAfu; while elsewhere it appears modified, as in present ^ouVo), 
first aorist l<^17l^a, second perfect iriffnpHi. In XciVo) the stem 
Aair- appears in all forms except in the second-aorist system 
(l-XwMW, i-Xiir-o/jLYiv) and the second-perfect system (Xi-Xoiir-a). 

460. Verb stems are called vowd stems or consonant 
stems, and the latter are called miUe stems (including labial, 
palatal, and lingual stems) or liquid stems, according to 
their final letter. Thus we may name the stems of <^tA.€a) 
(^iXc-), XctTTO) (Xciir-, Xmt-), rpipm (rptfi-), ypa^o) (y/xx<^), 
irXcico) (ttXck-), ^evyo) (^€vy-, ^vy), ircitfo) (tkiO-, in,0-), <^iVctf 

(jfJKLV-), CTTcAAw (OTCX-). 

461. A verb which has a vowel verb stem is called a pure verb ; 
and one which has a mute stem or a liquid stem is called a mute or 
a liquid verb. 

462. 1. The principal parts of a Greek verb are the first 
person singular of the present, future, first aorist, and (first 
or second) perfect, indicative active; the perfect middle, 
and the (first or second) aorist passive; with the second 
aorist (active or middle) when it occurs. These generally 
represent all the tense systems which the verb uses. E,g, 

Avo), Xvo-o), iXvfTo, XikvKo, XeXvfmi, IXvOrjv (471). 

Actiro) (Xair-, Xitt-), Xea/ro), XcXoiira, XtXcififmi, lKu,<^Oyjiv, cXmtw. 

Salvia (<l)av-), ^vw, l<j^m, ireifMyKa (2 pf. iri^yqva), wi<l>aafmi, 
l4*ov$7jv (and ^^n/v). 

n/odo-o-o) (wpay-), do, irpa^o}, iirpd$a, 2 perf. ireirpaxa and irivpaya, 
veirpaypm, lirp&)firpf, 

!SreXXo) (oTcX-), send, crrcXo), ^orciXo, ?<rraXxa, i<rraXfuu, iaraXrp^^ 

2. If a verb has no future active, the future middle may be given 
among the principal parts; as o-icowrTa), jeer, aKiMJ/ofua, ^o-iccu^o, 

463. In deponent verbs the principal parts are the pres- 
ent, future, perfect, and aorist (or aorists) indicative. E.g. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



94 INFLECTION. [464 

CHycofuu) "^yovfjuu, lead, ^yiyfrofuu, '^yqadfirfVt yyrffjuu, '^yrjOrfv 
(in compos.). 

BovAofuu, wish, jSovXi/o-ofuu, Ptporvkrjfjuu, ipovXijOrjv. 
TiyvofMoi (y€ih), become, ycvi/oofuu, ycyen/fuu, iyeuofirp^. 
(AiScofuu) (u&wfuu, respect, cuSco-ofuu, ySea-fua, •ghitrBrjiv, 
'Epyo^ofuu, u;or^, ipyaxrofua, cipyaa-dfirpf, upycurfjuu, upyaarO-qy. 

CONJUGATION. 

464. To conjugate a verb is to give all its voices, moods, 
tenses, numbers, and persons in their proper order. 

465. These parts of the verb are formed as follows : — 

1. By modifying the verb stem itself to form the differ- 
ent tense stems. (See 668-622 ; 660-717.) 

2. By affixing certain syllables called endings to the 
tense stem; as in \.eyo-/i,cv, Xcyc-rc, Xeyc-rot, \(y6-pL€$a, Xcyo- 
vrauLy Acfc-Tou, Xt^e-a-Ot. (See 551-554.) 

3. In the secondary tenses of the indicative, by also pro- 
fixing c to the tense stem (if this begins with a consonant), 
or lengthening its initial vowel (if it begins with a short 
vowel); as in l-Xeyo-v, l-Xc^ c-^iyva-To; and in ijkovo-v and 
•^Kovaa, imperfect and ^rist of oKovm, hear. This prefix or 
lengthening is confined to the indicative. 

4. A prefix, seen in Ac- of XcXvKa and Xe\ci/x/iuu, in ire- of 
ireKftaapm, and c of iaraXpm (487, 1), for which a lengthening 
of the initial vowel is found in rjXXayfuu (oAAay-) from 
aXXdxraw (487, 2), belongs to the perfect tense stem, and 
remains in all the moods and in the participle. 

466. These prefixes and lengthenings, called augment (3) and 
reduplication (4), are explained in 510-560. 

467. There are two principal forms of conjugation of 
Greek verbs, that of verbs in © and that of verbs in /jlc. 

468. Verbs in fu form a small class, compared with those in ci>, and 
are distinguished in their inflection almost exclusively in the present 
and second-aorist systems, generally agreeing with verbs in o) in the 
other systems. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN Q. 

469. The following synopses (474-478) include — 

I. All the tenses of Xva> (Xu-), loose, representing tense 
systems I., II., III., V., VII., VIII. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



473] CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN O. 96 

II. All the tenses of XctVa) (Xair-, Xnr-), leave; the second 
perfect and pluperfect active and the second aorist active 
and middle, representing tense systems IV. and VI., being 
in heavy-faced type. 

III. All the tenses of ^Vw (</>av-), sTiow; the future and 
aorist active and middle (liquid form) and the second 
aorist and second future passive, representing tense systems 
II., III., and IX., being in heavy-faced type. 

470. The full synopsis of Xvu>, with the forms in heavier type 
in the synopses of Xuirto and fjxiCvu), will thus show the full conju- 
gation of the verb in o>, with the nine tense systems ; and all these 
forms are inflected in 480-482. For the peculiar inflection of the 
perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of verbs with consonant 
stems, see 486 and 487. 

471. N. Avo) in the present and imperfect generally has v in 
Attic poetry and v in Homer; in other tenses, it has v in the 
future and aorist active and middle and the future perfect, else- 
where V. 

472. The paradigms include the perfect imperative active, although 
it is hardly possible that this tense can actually have been formed in 
any of these verbs. As it occurs, however, in a few verbs (748), it is 
given here to complete the illustration of the forms. For the rare 
perfect subjunctive and optative active, see 720. 

473. Each tense of Xva> is translated in the synopsis of 474, 
except rare untranslatable forms like the futm*e perfect infinitive 
and participle, and the tenses of the subjunctive and optative. 
The meaning of these last cannot be fully understood until the 
constructions are explained in the Syntax. But the following 
examples will make them clearer than any possible translation of 
the forms, some of which (e.g. the future optative) cannot be used 
in independent sentences. 

AvcD/ACv (or Xva-fafuv) avrov, let us loose him ; firj Xvarfs avrov, do 
not loose him, 'Eav \vm (or Xvcro)) avrov, yol^PW^'^ if ^ (shall) loose 
him, he will rejoice. iS^pxofuu, tva avrov Xvo) (or Xvco)), / am coming 
that I may loose him. Ei^c kvoifu (or Xvaaifu) avrov, that I may 
loose him. Ei Xvoi/xi (or Xvo-oi/u) avrov, x^Upoi av, if I should loose 
him, he would rejoice. 'HXtfov tva avrov Xvoi/u (or Xvo-ot/xi), / came 
that 1 might loose him. ETttov mi avrov Xioiijx, I said that I was 
loosing him ; dirov ori avrov XvcratfU, / said that I had loosed him ; 
clwov on avrov Xvo-oi/u, I said that I would loose him. For the 
difference between the present and aorist in these moods, see 1272, 
1 ; for the perfect, see 1273. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



96 



INFLECTION. 







474. 



Synopsis ( 





I. PRESENT SYSTEM, 


II. FUTURE SYSTEM. 


III. HRST-AORIST SYSH 


Active 


Present & Imperfect 


Future 


1 Aorist 


Voice. 


Active. 


Active. 


Active. 


Indie. 


X^« / loose Oram loosing 


X^w / shall loose 




(ikvov I was loosing 




SXvo-a / loosed 


Subj. 


\^ 




X^» 


Opt. 


X^i|iii 


Xiiaroi|jii 


X^otfu 


Imper. 


Xvc loose 




Xvo-ov loose 


Infin. 


\tiiv to loose 


Xvo^iv to be about to 


XOo-at to loose ortoM 






loose 


loosed. 


Part. 


X^v loosing 


Xio-Mv about to loose 


X^as honing loosed 


Middle 


Present & Imperfect 


Future 


lAori^ 


Voice. 


Middle. 


Middle. 


Middle. 




X^|iiu / loose (for my- 


X<^o|jiai / shall loose 




Indie. 


self) 


(for myself) 




IXv6|jit)v / was loos- 




IXi»<rd|M|v I loosed (Jl 




ing (for myself) 




myself). 


Subj. 


X^fjiai 




X^»|fciu 


Opt. 


XvoC|jit)v 


Xv<roC|jit)v 


Xvo-aC|Jii)v 


Imper. 


Xniov loose (for thyself) 




Xvo-oi loose (forthys^ 


Infin. 


X^o^ai to loose (for 


\ia-w9aL to be about to 


X^oo^oi to loose or 




one's self) 


loose (for one's self) 


have loosed (for om 
self) 
Xvcrdfuvos having lo<m 


Part. 


Xv6|uvos loosing (for 






one^s self) 


(for one's self) 


(for one's self) 


Passive 


Pres. & Imper f Passive. 


VIII. HRST'P 


ASSIVE SYSTEM. 


Voice. 


1 Future Passive. 


1 Aorist Passive, 


Indie. 


\^o)uu lam i (being) 
IXv6|jit)v / was I loosed 


Xv0^<ro|jiai I shall be 






loosed 


IX^v / was loosed 


Subj. 


etc. 




\vB& (for \u04w) 


Opt. 


Xv6T|(roC|jit)v 


Xv6cCt)v 


Imper. 


with same 




Xi>9i|ri be loosed 


Infin. 






Xv6l|vai to be loosed 




forms as the 


to be loosed 


to have been loosed 


Part. 


Middle Xveii<r6|&cvo$ about to be 


Xv0f Cs iMving been 




loosed 


loosed 



Verbal Adjectives : i ^^*« ^^ "^y ^ ^^^«^ 
I XvtIo« tJiat must be loosed 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SYNOPSIS OF X6w. 



97 



(Xi)-), loose. 



, FIRST-PERFECT SYSTEM. 


VII. PERFECT-^fllDDLE SYSTEM. 


Perfect db Pluperfect 

Active. 
ca I have loosed 
iXcX^KTi I had loosed 
K» or XcXvKws M 
Koi|i,fc or XfXvKc^ ctt)v 
iiK€] (472) 
k4v<u. £o Tiave loosed 

»K^s having loosed 






Perfect & Pluperfect 
Middle. 
X^v|uu / have loosed {for myself) 

iXfX^|jii)v I had loosed (for myself) 

XiXv|Uvos£ 

Xavo-o (760) 

XfXvo^at to have loosed (for one^s self) 

XiXvfUvos having loosed (for one's self) 




Perf & Pluperf Passive. 
\^v|jiai I have ^ been 
KKiik<i^'t\v I had \loosed 

etc. 

with same 

forms as the 

Middle 


Future Perfect Passive, 
\cXio-o|iai I shall have 
been loosed 

\cXv<roC|jit|v 

\cX^c<reai (1283) 

XeXv<r6|i€vo« (1284) 



475. The middle of Xim commonly means to release for one's 
self or to release some one belonging to one*s self hence to ransom 
(a captive) or to deliver (one's friends from danger). See 1242, 3. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



98 







INFLECTION. 


[476 


476. Synopsis of Xeiirto (Xeiir-, Tuw') 


, leave. 


TEN8E SYSTEM: I. 


II. 


IV. 


VI. 


Active 


Pres. <fc Impf, 


Future 


2Aorist 


2 Per/. <fc Plup. 


Voice. 


Active. 


Active. 


Active. 


Active. 


Indie. 


fKeiwow 


Xeff» 


IXmtov 


XAoiva 
IXfXoCvTi 


Subj. 


\gtwu 




XCm 


XiXoiir^S 


Opt. 


\elwoi/u 


Xe/foi/u 


XCiroifu 


XcXoCiroiiu or 
XiXoiirws cCfiv 


Imper. 


Xe?ire 




XCiri 


nOXom] 
iUXoiir^vai 


Infin. 


Xefxeti' 


Xe/^ciF 


XiiMCv 


Part. 


\eiTUfv 


\el\lffav 


XivAv 


XiXoi«i6s 


MlDDIiB 


Pres, 4b Impf, 
Middle. 


Puture 


2^or£8t 


VEL 


Voice. 


Middle. 


itfM^dZe. 


Pcr/.<ftPZtip.^ui 


Indie. 


\elTOfjLai 


\el\f/ofMi 




XAeiftfuu 


i\eiw6firiv 




^Xiv^dfLtiv 


i\e\£lfili7li^ 


Subj. 


Xe/xtf/Mii 




XCvifuai 
Xiiro^t)v 




Opt. 


XeiwolfiV^ 


\ei\l/olfiriw 




Imper. 
Infin. 


Xeixov 




XiiroO 


XAei^o 


\elir€ff0ai 


Xe%<r9at 


Xivlff^oi 


XeXei^^ai 


Part. 


\eiT6fUPos 


\ei\f/6fJi£vos 


Xiir6|itvo« 


XeXei/bi/A^vos 


Passive 


Pres. & Impf. 


VI] 


[I. 


.1 jg J^ttre 


Voice. 


Passive. 


1 Put. Pass. 


1 Aor, Pass. 


|1 P«r/6Ct. 


Indie. 




\euf>$'^ofMi 


i>^l<t>0rip 


Subj. 


same forms 




\€i</>eQ (for 


t5 


SLfl thp 




Xei^^^o;) 


^3 


Opt. 


eus biic 


\€i(l>0ri<rolfiriP 


\ei<f>$elrip 


•^ Z XeXei^olfATiv 


Imper. 


Middle 




Xe/^ip-t 


"61 


Infin. 




\ei^i/i(r€(r6<u 


\€i<f>eijvat 


^g X€Xe/^e<r^at 


Part. 




\€l<p6'nff6fJl£VOS 


\€i4>e€ls 



Verbal Adjectives: Xctxroj, XcixrAjj 

477. 1. The active of Xcitto) in the various tenses means I leave (or 
am leaving), I left (or was leaving), I shall leave, etc. The second perfect 
means / have left, or / have failed or am wanting. The first aorist iXeufra 
is not in good use. 

2. The middle of XciW means properly to remain (leave one's self), in 
which sense it differs little (or not at all) from the passive. But the second 
aorist cAxTro/iwyv often means 1 left for myself {e.g. a memorial or monument) : 
so the present and future middle in composition. *EXt7ro/xi7v in Homer 
sometimes means 1 was left behind or was inferior, like the passive. 

3. The passive of Xcitto) is used in all tenses, with the meanings / am 
left, 1 was left, 1 have been left, 1 had been left, I shall have been left, I was 
left, I shall be left. It also means 1 am inferior {left behind). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



479] 



SYNOPSIS OF 4>aln). 



99 




^ is 



■F'S 






J; ft 






» a. g »| 



«5, 



•«■ ■©•■«• •©■■©■ •«• Sj 
a s s B P < 



tt t 


JJ- 


_s 


H 


3 


1? 


< 



P 

|3 




tt 



l-l-lll.l'^ 

^ I 



I Future Passive 
wanting 



-- g < *^ < 






5. 



'gig 






I § s 






£.. ;^ 



^ Co 

'1 



■e--©- 






■©■? 

It 



p 






it 



... (« af flk Ak «v 

S "^S S3 - 




... <h *i rt> 

S P '§■ » 









2h "^ 



I 



A (« "1 d 
lift 



^ »< »< 









'g 



479. 1. The first perfect 7r€<^yKa means / have shown; the second 
perfect v€<l>rfva means / have appeared. 

2. The passive of <Ihuv<o means properly to be shown or made evident; 
the middle, to appear (show one's self). The second future passive 
ihavwrofmi, 1 shall appear or be shown, does not differ in sense from 
^vov/iot ; but €if>dvOrjv is generally passive, / was shown, while i<l>dvqv 
is 1 appeared. The aorist middle €<l>rjvdfirfv means / showed ; the simple 
form is rare and poetic ; but d7r-€<l>rfvdfirp/, I declaimed, is common. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



100 




INFLECTION. 


[480 


480. 




1. Active Voice op X^. 








Present. 


/mper/ecf. 


Ftifwrc. 


Indicative. 


rl. 

S.- 2. 


X^ 

X^is 

Xi^i 


rXvov 
Avcs 
fXvf 


Xi^ 
X^iis 




HI 


XviTOV 
XvCTOV 


iX^iTOV 
<Xv4tt|v 


X^TOV 

\vtrmv 




P. (2! 


X^H^ 
Xikrf 

XvOIMTi 


4XiioHtcv 

IX^CTf 

Avov 


XvO>0|MV 

XvtrcTf 
Xvvovot 


Subjunctive 


s.- 2. 

u. 
HI 

rl. 
P. 2. 


x«n 

X^rov 

^VV|TOV 

X^)uv • 

Xvt|T€ 

X^oNri 






Optativb. 


S.I2! 


X^HVi 

X^iS 

Xtei 




X^croi|u 

X^<rois 

X^<roi 






llliJ 

;? ^ 2 5 *< 




XwroiTov 

Xi$voi|Acir 

XiSvoiTf 

X^irouv 


Imperative. 


HI 
Ht 

p.{l: 


Xvi 

Xv^» 

X^crov 

X^€ 

Xvo VTMV or 






Infinitive. 




X^iv 




X^tmv 


Participle. 




Xiio»v, XlknMra, 
Xvov (336) 




XtMTOv (386) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



480] 



ACTIVE VOICE OF Xdw. 



101 



Indicatiyb. 


rl. 

S,- 2. 

1 3. 


1 Aorist. 
iXikra 

fXiNTf 


1 Perfect. 

X^vKa 

XikvKCUi 

X^VKi 


1 Pluperfect. 

^Xv'Kfl 
iXfXvKflS 

<XcXv'KCi(v) 




fl. 

P. 2. 
U. 


IXitawTiv 
iX^o^&luv 
iX^o^Ti 
IXiMrav 


XfXvKarov 
XcXvicofuv 

XfXvKOTf 

XcXvKooa 


^XcXvKfTOV 
iXfXvK^V 
4XiXvKC|MV 

^XcXvKcrt 


SUBJUNOTIVB 


,. fl. 

8^2. 

U. 

HI 

fl. 

P. 2. 


X<hr» 
X^s 
X^ 


XcX«K» (720) 
XfXviqi 

XtXvKONTi 




Optativb. 


rl. 
8.. 2. 


Xiio-cus, MoAWi 
X^oi, XlhrcM 


XcXiJKOit 
XcXvKOi 






1 3. 

fl. 
P. 2. 


XtNraCniv 
X<^ai.|uv 

Xi^OHUTf 

X^oicv, Xi^iav 


XfXvKOvrov 

XfXvK0CTT|V 

XcXvKOi|MV 
XcXvKOiTf 




Impbbatiyb. 


®-\3. 


Xvo^>v 
Xv<nlh-a> 


[X^vKi (472) 








XiNTOvrciV 


XfXvKfTOV 

XcXvK^rwv 






f2. 

P. 3. 


XiloHfcTi 
XvoxlvTMv or 
XtKrwrwcrciv 


XcXv'Ktn 
XcXvK^ttO'avl 





ImfUHTIYB. 

Participlb. 



XtNTOi 



XcXvKrfroi 



Xi{o^, X^oxUrOy XtXvK«0S, XfXvicvCa, 
Xinrav (335) XcXvko's (335) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



102 




INFLECTION. 


[48 






2. Middle Voice of X<^c». 








Present. Imperfect 


Future. 


Indicative. 


(1. 


XvOlJMU IXV0|1T|V 


X^o|uu 




S.. 2. 


Xikh XiH) 4X^ 


AtNTCiy AlKr|| 




u. 


X^rroi IXvcTo 


X^ioXTOi 




HI 


^vCOTvOV (AvCw UOV 


X^crccreov 




X^cireov IXv^ff«i|v 






(I. 

P.j2. 
1 3. 


XvofuOa iXvoiicOa 


Xv<ro>fOa 




AvCOTvC CAvCTwC 


X^(rf<Hlc 




X^vroi IXvovTO 


XvOVVTCU 


Subjunctive 


. fl. 


Xik*|iai 






S.. 2. 
1 3. 


Xihl 
X^rat 






Ht 


X^<reov 






xv^v 






fl. 


Xvi^ea 






P.] 2. 


X^<rec 
X^vrat 




Optative. 


rl. 


XvoCntjv 






S.- 2. 


X^to 


X^o-oio 




Is. 


X^iTO 


X^lowro 




-■{f: 


X^ourOov 






XvoOrOiiv 






fl. 


X^CfuOa 


Xv<ro(|u6a 




P. 2. 


X^Hrec 


X^<roiff0c 




U. 


X^lVTO 


X^rovvTO 


Imperative. 


«-{i 


x^ 






AVw UW 






»{^ 


x^weov 






Av«w Uwv 






f2. 
P. 3. 


X^<rec 






Xv^ctOmv or 






Xv^(r6«Mrav 




Infinitive. 




X^ctrOoi 


X^tc^at 


Participle. 




Xvofuvos, XvofUni, 


Xv<ro|MVOf, -f|, 






Xvo'iuvov (301) 


-ov (301) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



480] 



MIDDLE VOICE OF Mho. 



103 









1 Aorist 


Perfect, 


Pluperfect, 


Indicativb. 


rl. 


IXvora|fctiv 


XIXv|uu 


4XiXv|Jit|v 




S.- 2. 


IX^» 


X^vo-oi 


iX4Xv<ro 




U. 




XIXvTOi 


fiUXvro 




"(i 


IXvo^uHbv 


Xavcreov 


IX^v<rOov 






XIXiNreov 


iXcXikret|v 




f^- 


IX^Miuea 


XcXi^iuOa 


iXfXv|uOA 




p.] 2. 


IX^airec 


X^vcrOi 


iX^XiNrec 




U. 


IX^^VTO 


X^wrcu 




Subjunctive 


fl. 


Xii(rc»|Jiai 


Xdlv|iivos(S 






a- 2. 


x^ 


XcXvfjklvos lis 
XtXv|Uvos -g 






D.P- 
1 3. 




XtXv|Uvtt i(tov 








XcXvfjivM 1)T0V 






(1. 


Xv<rc^a 








P. 2. 




XtXvfjivoi i{tc 
XcXiiiUvoi Ari 




Optative. 


fl. 


XvoxiCfitpr 


XcXv|aivos ctt|V 






8.] 2. 


Xifo-cuo 

X^^HUTO 


XcXv)Uvos c{t|s 
XfXv)jivos ctt| 








2. 


X^aur6ov 


XcXvfUvw ctrov 






D.' 






or ctt|Tov 








3. 


Xva-a(irOi|v 














or cti|Ti)v 








1. 


X«a-a{|uea 


XtXvfUvoi ct|MV 
or ctt||uv 






P. 


2. 


X^ourOi 


orcti|Tf 








3. 


XikroiVTO 


or ctt|<rav 




Impbbativb. 


Mi 


XtNTOt 


XIXiNTo (750) 






AV^Qffvtt 


XtXv'<re» (749) 






Ht 


Xlhrcureov 


X^XiNrfov 






Xv<nM»v 


XfXvcrOttV 






(2. 


X^^oturei 


X^iMref 






P. 3. 


XvoxMmv or 


XcXvo^MV or 
XcXiNrOoNrav 

XfXv'<reai 










Participle. 




Xv<rd4uvos, -t|, 


XcXvfilvot, -n, 










-©V (301) 


-ov (301) 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



104 






INFLECTION. 


[480 






3. Passive Voice op X^. 








Future Perfect. 


1 ^orise. 


1 Future. 


Indicative. 


rl. 


XfXv<ro|Ma 


iXv6T)v 


Xvetfo-ojMu 




S.-^2. 


XcXi^f i, XiX^ 


4Xi;6i|s 


^Vviitrfi; AvOipT^ 




u. 


XiX^hrcrat 


ixi^ei) 






HI 




CXwl)TOV 






XcXlhr«reov 


iXwi|TI|V 






rl. 




IXiWtMuv 






P.- 2. 


XcX^o-f«r6c 








1 3. 




iXi%rav 




SUBJUNCTIVB 


rl. 

S.J2. 
1 3. 




Xv6» 

XvOg 
XvOrfrov 








XvOviTOv 






rl. 




XvOfiSfuv 






P.- 2. 




XvOlfTC 




Optative. 


S.J2! 




Xv6c(iiv 


X«ei|<ro(|itiv 




XcX^kn>io 


XvOcCtis 


XvOi{(roto 




XcX^iottiTo 


XvOcCti 


Xv6ii<roiTo 






'2. 




XvOctrov or 


Xv9i[<rQui Ooy 




"n • 






XvOcCifrov 






J-'. 


3. 




Xv6cCtt|v or 












Xv6iiiiTT|v 








1. 


XcXv(ro(|&c6a 


Xv6ct|Mv or 
Xv6cCt)|Mv 






P. 


2. 


XcX^our6€ 


XvOclTf or 
Xv6cCt|TC 


Xv9v)VOurvc 






3. 


XtX^icroiVTO 


XvOctcv or 


Xv6v(ox>iVTO 










XvOcCi)o%v 




Ihperattvjs. 


HI 




Xv'eriri 














HI 












Xv6iir»v 






(2. 

P.] 3. 




AVwT|TC 








XvOlvTMv or 












Infinitive. 




XcX^cfrOoi 


XvOrivfu 


AVv l|0 tVvCU 


Participle. 




XtXv(ro)UVOs, 










.n,H>v(301) 


Xve^v (336) 


-t|, -ov (301) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



481] 



SECOND AORIST, PERFECT, ETC. OF Xtiwu, 



105 



481. Second Aorist (Activb and Middle) and Second Perfect 
AND Pluperfect of XfCtr«>. 



2 Aorist 
Active. 

Indicative. ( 1. IXwrov 
S.J2. atirtt 

j^ r 2. IXfiirtTov 

13. IXiv^v 

r 1. IXdrofuv 

P.] 2. IXdrtTf 

U. cXmtov 

Subjunctive. ( 1. X(ir» 

S.j2. XCiqis 

U. XCiqi 

2^/2. X(in|Tov 

13. X(in|Tov 

rl. X£va»|uv 

P.p. XCin|Ti 

1. XCiroifjii 
Xfiiroif 
3. X^iroi 



Optative. 



S.J2! 



jv r2. XCvoiTov 
* l3. 






XiiroCrqv 
XCiroi|Acir 
P-J2. XCiroirc 

Imperative, g (2. Xdre 

^ 3. Xiiiiro» 

J) r2. XClTfTOV 

13. Xiir^ttv 
r2. X^irfTf 
3. XiiroVTwv 

or Xht^- 



P. 



2 Aorist 
Middle. 

IXiiro|ji.t)V 
IXCvov 

IXfivtTO 

IXhrfoeov 

IXcir^a-6T)v 

iXiirofuOa 

4XCvf<r6€ 

IXCirovro 

XCirMfMU 

XCirn 

XCtniTCii 

XCin|<r0ov 

XCin|o^ov 

Xi,trw|icOa 

XCin|<rOc 

XCtrctvrat 

XiiroC|jit)v 

XCiroio 

XCiroiTo 

XCirour6ov 

XiiroCo-6T)V 

XiiroCfuOa 

XCirour6c 

XliroiVTO 

Xiirov 

Xiir^trOtt 

XCirco^v 

Xiir^o^MV 

XCiri<rec 



2 Perfect. 2 Pluperfect. 



X^Xoiira 

X^Xoiiras 

X^iire 

XcXodrarov 

XcXoCiroTov 

XtXoCira|ifV 

XtXo£iraTc 

XcXoCirocrt 

XcXoCnw 

XcXoC«|]s 

XfXodrn 

XcXodniTOV 

XcXo(in|Tov 

XtXo(irtti|uv 

XcXo(in|Ti 

XfXo^iroMTi 

XcXoCiroi)U 

XcXoCiroiS 

XcXoCiroi 

XcXoCiroirov 

XcXoitroCTT|v 

XcXoCiroi|UV 

XfXoCiroiri 

XcXoCirouv 

X^Xoiiri 

XcXoiirlrw 

XcXolirfTOV 

XfXoiirlrttV 

XiXoCirtTf 



^XcXoCmi 

^Xo^tnis 

IXcXdCirfi (v) 

IXfXoCirfTov 

{XcXoiii4n|v 

IXcXodrcfuv 

IXfXoCiriTf 

iXfXoCirwtiv 



Infinitive. 
Participle. 



XiirlirOwv or XcXoiirlrwv 
Xiirlo^oNrav 



Xiirftv Xiirlo^au XcXourivcu 

Xiir«»v, XuroiMVOS, XcXoiiros, 
Xiirovo^ -1), -ov XiXoiirvta, 

XiWv (301) XcXoiirot 

(335) (335) 



Digitized 



byCoogle 



106 



INFLECTION. 



[482 



482. Future and First Aorist Active and Middle (Liquid 
Forms) and Second Aorist and Second Future Passiyb of ^aivm. 

Future Active.^ Future Middled I Aorist Active. 



Indicative. ( 1. 


♦av« 


^avoOfjiat 


Mniva 


S.- 2. 


4>avcCs 


♦av€t,i|«vt 


Mn,v« 


u. 


4>avct 


<^vcCr(u 


!<hv€ 


-{J 


<^vcCtov 


<^vcto4ov 




<^vcCtov 


^vcto^ov 


4»|vATt|V 


f^- 


<|»avo{)|Uv' 


<|»avo«|u6a 




p. 2. 


^vcCrf 


<|»avct(rec 


llM^Tf 


U. 


<^voikri 


^vo^vrai 


I4»i|vav 


SOBJUNCTIVB. fl. 






Wv^ 


S.- 2. 








»{i 






4»4vi|Toy 






ihviirov 














9f|V1|Tf 






^v^ 


Optative. ( 1. 


^avoCt)v or ^avot|u 


4>avo(|fct|v 


^V»|U 


S. 2. 


^voCtfs or ^voCs 


i^avoto 


^voitor^mot 


•-3. 


^avoCi) or ^avot 


^avoCro 


^voi or ^v«u 


13. 


^voCtov 


<^voto^v 


^VOiTOV 


^avoCrT)v 


^voC(r6t|v 


♦Hmtniv 


f^- 


^avoCficv 


^avoC|Jic6a 


4^vaHUv 


P. 2. 


^votrf 


^avot<rec 


^VOiTf 


u. 


<^vottv 


^VOtVTO 


^voMv or ^^^vfuiv 


Impekatitb. g f 2. 






iHivov 






^^T» 


Ml 














(2. 

P. 3. 






4^vaTf 














Infinitive. 


4>awtv 




it^fjVOi 


Participle. 


^v&v, ^avo{)(ra, 


^avo^fuvos, 


♦4va«,4^v«ra, 




i^avoih' (340) 


-t,,H)v(301) ♦4ivttv(335) 



1 The uncontracted fatares, 4>ap4u and <l>apiofjMi (478 ; 483), are 
inflected like ^tX^o; and <pik4ofULi (492). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



482] 



FUTURES AND AORISTS OF 0afw. 



107 



Ikdioativis. 



1 Aor, Mid. 

S. ] 2- ^rivw 

j^ r2. 4tiv»r6ov 
' 1 3. h^vwr^v 

3. l<^vavTo 



Subjunctive. rl. ^vtt|uii 
S.]2. ^vxi 
^ 3. ^inf|Tai 






j^ f 2. ^inf|o^ov 
13. 



Optativb. 



rl. <^VM|icOa 

i{v6»vrai 

1. ^valifctiv 
|vau> 
[vatTO 

2. ^vourOov 



fl. <|»V|V 

rl. ^v 



p. 



d. <pt|VCiUrv1|V 

1. ^vaCf&cOa 

2. ^vcuo^c 

3. ^^voivro 



Imfbbatitb. g /2. ^voi 



P.] 3. 



IWJlKA T iVa . 

Pabticipus. 



^. (plfVCUTvOV 

3. ^vvMmv 
^va«r6a»ir or 

<HvcHicvos, -n, 
-ov (301) 



2 J?^f . Pa««. 

^avr <rci, ^ayija^ 
^aytfo-CTOi 
^avrio-cirOov 

^avij(rc<rOc 
<^VT(<rovTai 



2 Aor, Pass, 

l<|)cCvt)S 

l^avi)Tov 
^avTJn^v 

♦avn 

<^aVT{TOV 
^aVTJTOV 

^aVTlTC 

^avcCt)s 

<^avcCTov or 

^avcCifrov 

^avcCn^v or 

<^avct|icv or 
^avcCi)|UV 
^avcCrc or 

<^VfCt)TC 

^avctcv or 
^avcCt)<rav 

<|>avT)6i 
<|>ainf)rov 

^VT|TMV 

^avIvTMV or 
^avrirfltorav 

^avcCo-a, -t|, -ov (301) 

4>aWv (336) 



<^avi)4ro()i,i)V 
^VTJ<rou> 
(^avriiroiTO 
(^avijirourOov 

<^vi)4roC<r6t|V 

^avTJo-ourBc 
^avT((roiVTO 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



108 



INFLECTION. 



[488 



483. The uncontracted forms of the future active and middle 
of KJHuvia (478) and of other liquid futures are not Attic, but are 
found in Homer and Herodotus. So with some of the uncon- 
tracted forms of the aorist subjunctive passive in co> (474). 

484. The tenses of Xctirco and <^Va> which are not inflected 
above follow the corresponding tenses of Xvco ; except the perfect 
and pluperfect middle, for which see 486. A^ct/x-/xai is inflected 
like TCTpi/x-fuit (487, 1), and iriKfyacr-fua is inflected in 487, 2. 

485. Some of the dissyllabic forms of Xvcd do not show the 
accent so well as polysyllabic forms, e,g, these of kcuXvcd, hinder: — 

Pres. Imper, Act. KiaXvc, KoiXvcrca, KoiXverc A or. Opt, AcL 
KO)X.vatufjLL, KoiXvo-cias (or k(dA,v(7(Us), kwXvo-cic (or Ktukvam), Aor, 
Imper, Act, KiaXva-ovy KcoXvo-aro). Aor, Inf. Act, KtuXvaxu. Aor, 
Imper, Mid. KioXvaxu, KtuXva'dadw, 

The three forms kcdXvo-cu, kcoXvo-oi, Kiakva-ai (cf. Xvo-oi, Xvcnu, 
Xwrai) are distinguished only by accent. See 130; 113; 131, 4. 

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE OF 
VERBS WITH CONSONANT STEMS. 

486. 1. In the perfect and pluperfect middle, many 
euphonic changes (489) occur when a consonant of the 
tense-stem comes before fi, r, cr, or $ of the ending. 

2. When the stem ends in a consonant, the third person 
plural of these tenses is formed by the perfect middle par- 
ticiple with ctcrt, are, and ^<rav, were (806). 

487. 1. These tenses of Tp(p<o, rub, ttX^kw, weave, iru$ti 
persuade, and (rriXXiii (oroA-), send, are thus inflected : — 

(\. rlrpi)L)Jiai 
S. -j 2. Wrpl^at 

^3. Tlrpiirrat 
jj (2. rlrpi^Oov 

13. Wrpi^Oov 

rl. rfTpf|ji|&c6a 
P. \ 2. Wrpu|>6c 

^3. rfTpi|Ji|Uvoi 
cl<rC 

Perfect Subjunctive and Optative. 
SuB«T. TCTpi|Ji|Uvos M ircirXcY|Uvos & iriiriior|jivos & l<rTaX|Uvos & 
Opt. ** fttiv '* cttfv ** rft^v " ftt^v 



Perfect Indicative. 




ir^irXfyiJiai 


ir^irfMrfjiai 


lo^aX|uu 


ir^irXcfat 


ir^irfM-ai 


trraXa-ax 


niirXfKTai 


n^irfurrat 


trraXnu 


niirXfXOov 


ii4irfur6ov 


trroKBov 


ir^XfX^ov 


ir^ur^v 


UrraXBov 




irfirfUr|u9a 


l<rrdX|uea 


ir^Xixec 


ir^iff0c 


lirroXec 




iriiriM-ijivoi 


4<rTaX)aroi 


clo-C 


cUrC 


iUrC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



487] 



VERBS WITH CONSONANT STEMS. 



109 









Perfect Imperative, 




s. 


r2. 

1 3. 


rirpl^o 


ir^Xf{o 


ir^iTfuro 


2<rTaX<n> 




Tfrp^Ott 


invX^e» 


TTCirCi^vtt 


l<rTdXe» 


D. 


f2. 
13. 




niirXfxOov 




lirroXeov 






vftrXixOMV 


vnnCo^ttv 


l<rr^e»v 


p. 


i2. 




ir^Xfxec 


ir^urBi 


lirroXec 






invX^9«»v or 


ircinCoHlttv or 


l<rr^e»v or 














Per/6c« Infinitive and Participle. 




fF. 






irfirXIx^oi 




i<rr^eai 


▲B 


T. 


rtrpi|i|Uvos 


iriirXc7|iivof 


irfiriior|Uvo$ 


l<rTaX|Uvo$ 








Pluperfect Indicative. 






1. 




imirkhiy.'t\v 


lir«irfCo>t|v 


l<rTdX|iit|v 


S. 


2. 


Mrpli^o 


MtrXfto 


MirfMTo 






1 3. 


cTfrplvTO 


lir^XcKTo 


•iTiiriwrTO 


Io^oXto 


D 


f2. 
'13. 




iit^Xcxeov 




2<rTaXeov 




CTfTpt^v1|V 


liRirXIx^v 


lvfirfC(r6t|V 


l<rr^ei|v 




1. 


lTfrpf|i|&cOa 




lvfiriUr|u9a 


l<rrdX|uea 


P 


. - 2. 


Mrpu|»6c 


lirfirXixOc 




l<rTaXe( 




U. 


rtrpl|i|Uvoi 


triirXryiUvoi 


irfiriior)Uvoi 


loYaX|Uvoi 






{o-av 


{o-av 


l|<rav 


Vv 



2. The same tenses of (tcXcw) tcXw (stem tcXc-), finish, 
iJKuvm (^K-), aAota^ dXAaa-o-Q) (dXAay-), eocchange, and cXey;(Qi 
(cXcyx"), convict, are thus inflected : — 



S. J2! 

-{^ 

P.] 2! 
1 3. 





Pcr/6C« Indicative. 




TtTlXfO-|UU 


iri^ao'iiai 


i^XXaYiJiai 


IX^XryiUM 




[ir^<f>avarai,700] ISXXa{ai 


IX<iXrrt«u 


TfT^Xfo^roi 




iiXXaKTOi 




TtrAfo^v 


ir<<^av6ov 


ijUaxeov 


ftiiXtYxeov 


TtrAfo^ov 




^iXXaxBov 


IXiiXr^eov 








IXi|X^|u9a 


TtT^X«rei 


irt^CivVf 


<|xx«xe. 


a^iXiYxB. 


TtTfXtO*|UvOi 




4iXX«YH<»«i 


IXt|Xry|Ui>oi 


iUrC 


iUrC 


tt(r( 


«(o-( 



Per/ect /SWy'ttnc^fvc and Optative. 
SuBJ. TfTiXfo^iivosw iTf ^ao-|Uvo« M ^XXa7|Uvos & iXt|Xcy|Uvof & 
Opt. " €«t|v " cti|v *' €tt|v *' ctt|v 



Digitized by VjOOQIjS 



110 



Mi 
-■{J 

HI 





INFLECTION. 


[48 




Perfect Imperative. 




TtrlXiro 


[tr^v<ro] 


^XXnt. 


iXiiXriS. 


rrnKMm 


iri^v6» 


^ixxAxe, 


tknUnim 


TfTlnitf VUV 


tr^v6ov 


iiXXaxeov 


Miktn!^ 


T«TlXM«V 




iiXXAx«»v 


«x,x<^e«. 


TrriXiv^ 


trt^ovVf 


4ixx«xe. 


ix^xrnie. 




TiXXdxtMv or 


IXi|X{yx9MV or 



INP. 

Part. 



TfTfXI(r9«io'av vi^^vOcmuv f|^Xdx6fl»arav {Xi|XIyxO«o^v 

Perfect Infinitive and Participle, 

TmXIo^oi vi^^vOeu T|XXdxOai iXt|VlYx6ai 

TtTfXia>|Uvo« vM^oo'iUvos tiXXaYiUvof iXt|Xcy|ilvos 



s. I2! 

1 3. 

-•{^ 

P. {2! 
1 3. 



iTiTiXiO'|Jlt|V 

IrfrAforo 

krtrikur^ov 

iTfTcX^ar6i|V 

lTCT<XI(r|u9a 

irfT^XioOi 

TtTfXia>|Uvoi 



[M^avov] 
M^vro 
M^av6ov 
liR^v9v)v 
Iir«^dcr|u9a 

in^ao'iUvoi 



TiXXA7|it|v 
4iXXaeo 
i|XXaKTO 
ijXXaxOov 

T|\Xd7|Jic9a 

^xfc 

ilXXaTfUvoi 
TJo-av 



{X^XfYKTO 

IX^XcYx^ov 
IXiiX^TX^v 

IX^iXrrxe« 
iXi|Xry|ilvoi 



488. N. The regular third person plural here (rer/MjS-ynu, 
ciroT/kx-Kro, etc., formed like XtXv-vraA, iXtXy-vro) could not be 
pronounced. The periphrastic form is necessary also when cr is 
added tc a vowel stem (640), as in rcrcXccr-fuu. But when final 
V of a stem is dropped (647), the regular forms in ktoi and vto are 
used ; as icAfv<o, MKXirfuu, K€KXjLVTai (not k€kXjhjl€voi. eUrC)- 

489. For the euphonic changes here, see 71-77 and 83. 

1. Thus rerplfi'fim is for rerpiP-fua (76) ; rerphlnu for TerptP- 
aai (74) ; rerplir-rax for rtrpi^aXy rfTpl<f>^ov for rerpLP-Oov (71). 
So irerrXjey-fmi is for 7reirXeic-/uuu (75) ; 7r«rXcx-^cw for 7rcirXcK-^oy 
(71). Dwrcur-Tcti is for 7reiret0-rai, and ireireuT'Oov is for ?reirei0- 
^cw (71); and iriireurpm (for weweiO-fjm) probably follows tiieir 
analogy; Triirei-frai is for irtirtid-ina (74). 

2. In reriXjE^-fwjLy cr is added to the stem before fi and r (640), 
the stem remaining pure before <r. TereXccr/uMtt and triircurfua, 
therefore, inflect these tenses alike, though on different principles. 
On the other hand, the o- before p. in ir€<l>axrpm (487, 2) is a sub- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



491] VERBS WITH CONSONANT STEMS. HI 

stitute for v of the stem (83), which v reappears before other 
letters (700). In the following comparison the distinction is 
shown by the hyphens : — 

TflTiXf-o'-|UU ii4irtiO'-|&ai irl^a(r-|&ai 

TfT^-o-Oi ii4irti-o*ai [ir^^av-o-Oi] 

TfT^-flr-TOi 'frhniv-rai irl^av-rcu 

TfT^-c^ ii4irtiO'-0c irl^av-Oc 

3. Under rjXXay-fuu, ifXXaiat is for i^XAay-o-oi, i^AAoic-rai for 
i^XAay-rot, rjXXa)^w for ^XAay^ov (74; 71). Under iXrjXey-fim, 
yy fjL (f oi yxP') drops one y (77) ; iXrjkeyicu and cAi/Aeyx-rcU are for 
cXiyXcyx-om and iXrjk^yx^rcu (74 ; 71). See also 529. 

480. 1. All perfect-middle stems ending in a labial inflect these 
tenses like rerpHfjirfjuu ; as Xcuro), \4Xafjir/juu ; ypaffno (ypaxfy), write, 
ytypa/i-fuu (75); piima (pl<t>^, P^^)y t^'r'ow, ipplix-fjuu. But when 
final fiir of the stem loses v before p, (77), the w recurs before 
other consonants; as Kdp.irr<o (xa/ATr-), bend, KiKoprfjuu, KiKopj^ffoiy 
KtiooLfMr-raJL, K€Kafi<f>-$€ ] irip^rta (TC/iiTr^), send, ireirtprpax, rretrepAl/cu, 
vvrefiir-rajL, ttcttc/a^-^c : compare wcTreprpm from iriaam (Treir-), cook, 
inflected ireTrGJ/ai, iriwarrai, iriir^ffySt, etc. 

2. All ending in a palatal inflect these tenses like Triirkty-poji and 
ijAAay-zAOi ; as irpaxro'ia (vpdy-), do, ireirpdy-pm ; rapdxr<ria (rapax-), 
confuse, rerdpay-pajL ; ^vAoovo) (^vAok-), 'jr€<f>vXay-pm. But when 
y before /i represents yy, as in iXi^Xey-pm from eXcyx^^ (489, 3), 
the second palatal of the stem recurs before other consonants (see 
487, 2). 

3. All ending in a lingual mute inflect these tenses like irtirvxr- 
pal, etc. ; as ^/m£{(i> (^paS-), tell, irii^paxT^pM, irii^par^raJL, iriffipajd'TajL ; 
c^({o> (JtBA-), accustom, dOia^pax, dOKrax, dOur-rax, dOur-Bt; pluf. 
dSur-p.riv, dOinro, dOur-ro ; cnrci/Sca (cnrevS-), pour, iawcur-pajL (like 
vfftrvAr-pta, 489, 1) for €(nr€v&-p4U, l(nrei-<rat, tfnrtur-rax, tamuarSt. 

4. Most ending in v (those in ay- and w- of verbs in oivo) or 
vw) are inflected like irii^axr-pm (see 489, 2). 

5. When final v of a stem is dropped (647), as in kXiim, 
lend, KiicXi-pm, the tense is inflected like Xc\v-/uuu (with a vowel 
stem). 

6. Those ending in X or p are inflected like itrraX-pM] as 
dyycXXa> (dyycX-), announce, ^yycX-/uuu; autpio (<if>-)) raise, rfp-pm; 
^ytipta (fytp-), rouse, lyifycp-/iai ; irtipia (ircp-), pierce, iriwap'pajL 
(646). 

481. For the full forms of these verbs, see the Catalogue. For 
^aim, see also 478. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



112 



INFLECTION. 



[492 



CONTRACT VERBS. 

48S. Verbs in a<i>, €<a, and wa are contracted in the present 
and imperfect These tenses of rt/ioai (ri/ia-), honor, ^cXcq> 
(^c-), lave, and itfkwo (&7X0-), manifest, are thus inflected : — 

ACTIVE. 






-it 



.{I 



S.I2 



(TC^(f) 

(rifiieTOp) 
(rlfiderop) 
(rlfidofjuew) 

(rlfijiowri) 

(rXfJudrtrov) 

(rlfjudrtrov) 

(rlfidcj/ji^p) 

(Tifidrtrt) 

(rifAduxri) 



TlfUt 
▼¥* 

Tlfulrov 
Tl|iarov 

Tiiiam 

Ti|i6 

Tl|iarov 

Ti|iaTOV 
Ti|JM»|UV 

Ti|iaTf 



Present Indicative, 



<|HXiCs 

<|HXit 



(^cX^erov) ^iXiCrov 
(^iX^erov) ^iXitrov 

(^tX^ere) ^iXitTi 
(^iX^vtf-c) ^iXoficrt 
jPrc«cn« Subjunctive. 



(0lX^«) 

(0tX^s) 
(^iX^) 
(0iX^ov) 

(^iX^TOv) 

(0(X^b;/i6i') 

(0iX^ifrc) 

(^tX^wo-t) 



<|>iXA 
♦iXif 

^iXf^TOV 
^iXfJTOV 

^iXfJTf 

^iXAo*i 



Present Optative (see 737). 



S.I2! 

u 



(rl/Luioi/ii) [rifi^fii 

(rt/Adots) Ti|&<ps 

(rc/Lidot) v^F^v] 

(rt/wioiTov) rifMpTOv* 

(TlfMolrriv) Ti|&^T1|V 

(rifjuioifjixp) Ti|icp|i€v 



(T«/«ioiT€) 

(ri/Miotev) 

or 
(rc/Mu>f 171^) 
(T«/ioo£i7s) 
(rc/uao/i;) 



TlfiCpTf 

or 

T7|JLcpif)V 



(jipi\4otfu) 

(0lX^O(s) 

(^iX^oi) 

(^tX^OlTOv) 

((/>i\4oifiep) 
(0tX^otre) 

(0tXA)t€l') 



^iXoCs 
<i>iXoC] 
^iXoCrov 
^iXoCn|v 

^iXotfiiV 

^iXotTi 
^iXotcv 



(rlfMolrjTOv) [Ti|JL<p1|T0V 
(rlfMOL'^TTJv) TI|JLC^TT]V] 
(TlfM0l7JfJl£p) [Tl|i^1||UV 

(rifJMotrfirav) Tl|JicpT|o-av] 



(0iXeo£i7i') ^iXoCi|v 
(0(X6O£77S) ^iXo(if)S 
(^tXeo^Tj) ^iXo(if) 
(0iXeo£ip'ov) [^iXoCif)Tov 

(0(X6o/f7/U6l/) [^iXoCT||UV 

(0(X€o£f7re) <|>i.XoCt]tc 
(0(Xeo£77<ra i^) <|>i.XoCT|0'av] 



(di7X66i) 

(«i7X6€«) 

(«i7X6cO 

(5iyXderoi') 

(SiyX^eroi') 

(5i7X6o/i6v} 

(«i|X6cr€) 

(9i;X6ov0-t) 

(aijX^w) 
(di|X6|7s) 

(«lX^) 

(517X617TOI') 

(5ijX6i7Tov) 

(di|X6«/x€f) 

(5i7X6irrO 

(5i7X6ci;a-i) 

(^Sijkiioifu) 

(Si^XJocroy) 
(SiyXoofTijv) 

(5iyX6otT€) 
(5iyX6oi€i^) 



Si|XA 
Si|Xois 

Siixoc 

Si|Xoirov 

Sl|X0VT0V 

8i|Xoi)|i€v 
St|Xo«n 

8i|XA 

SijXoSs 

8i|XoC 

oi|Xmtov 

oi|Xmtov 

8i|Xi»tuv 

6i|Xi*TC 

8i)Xfi<ri 

[&i|Xoi|u 

8t|XoCs 

8t|XoC] 

8T|XoCrov 

8T|Xo£n|v 

8T|Xot)UV 
Sl|XotTI 

Si)Xoficv 



(^driXoolrip) St|Xo£i|v 
(Brikoolris) 8i|Xo(i|s 
(517X00(17) Si|Xo(i| 
(5i7Xoo£i7roi') [Si|XoCi|tov 
(5i7Xoot'^Ti7 v) Si|Xoi^Ti|ir] 
(5i7Xoo£i7/ttei') [Si|Xo(T)|tcv 
(5i7Xoo£i7T€) Si|XoCipY 
(5i7Xoo£i70-ay) Si|Xo(i)o«v] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



402] 



CONTRACT VERBS. 



113 



->■{ 

p. 



2. (rifMe) 

3. {rlyMira) 

2. (riii&erov) 

3. {rliukirfav) 

2. (t4/«£€T«) 

3. (TifM6pT(av) 

or 
(rliuUrwrav) 



rf|ul 

Ti|&dT» 
Tl|iaTOV 
Tl|idT»V 

Ti|iaTf 

TkfU&VTttV 

or 
TifwinMrav 



Present Imperative. 



(0tX^€TOI') 
(0l\e^T«l') 

(0iX^ere) 



<|>CX€l 

^iXcCrtt 
^iXfCrov 
^iXiCrttv 
^iXctrc 



S.^2. 



°{ 



(T*/«£cti') Tifiav 
(rlfjidtav) Ti|JM»v 



(^frtfMOv) 
(fri/Aaej) 
3. (Wauw) 

2. (^r/Ltderoi') 

3. (irTiMh-rfv) 
^ 1. (irlfidofJiMp) 

2. (jhlijAere) 
- 3. QMfxaow) 



or or 

(0(Xe^r(i;(rav) ^iXcCToio*av 
Present Infinitive. 

Present Participle (see 340). 
(0(X^<tfy) ^iX&v 
/mper/cc«. 
Irffu»v ( ^0^X60 v) I^CXovv 

lrt|ids (i<pi\ees) I^CXcis 

lrt|ia (i?0a€€) 4cXfi 

^i|iaTOv (^i<ln\4€T0p) k^iKtlrov 
^l|M.TT]v (^^iXe^iyv) l^iXfCnfv 
iri|iM|uv * (i<f>CKhfi£v) l^iXoOfuv 
^i|iaTC (^0(X^6r6) li^iXctrc 

lTt)u»v (^0^X601') l<^CXow 



l3.(Tl, 



(rlfidofMi) Tifu»|&ai 
'/ideifTiijdxi) Tl|i4 
:/Miera() TifMlTai 



-J r 2. (r4/«£€tf"<?oi') Ti|uur0ov 



. 3. (jliiAe<T0ov) Ti|uur0ov 
' 1. (rZ/M^/M^a) rifu&iuOa 
P. -{ 2. (rJfideffBe) Ti|uur0c 
i/jdoprai) TlftAvTOi 



rl. (rl/i 

i 2. (T4M 

l3.(r«/i 



^{ 



1^ f 2. (rlfjulr)<rdop) 



PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. 
Present Indicative. 

(0(X^6(, 0(X^]7) <^iXct| ^iX j 
(0iX^era() t^iXctrai 
(^iX^eo-dov) ^iXcto-Ooy 
((pOi^eaBov) ^iXft<rOov 
(<f>i\€dfie6a) ^iXo^fuOa 
(^(piUeade) ^iXcto-Oc 
(^(/>i\4opTai) <^iXo{)vTai 



1. (rlfiidwfMLi) 

2. (r'tfidv) 

3. (rtfuiijrai) 



L 3. (rltjuiiiffdov) 

{1. (rtfMii/jbeBd) 
2. (Tt/«£i?(r^6) 
3. (Ti/«£eairrai) 



Present Subjunctive. 

Tk|jLA|iai ((f>i\4(aiJLai) <^iX&)Uii 

TliMtroi ((f>i\47jrai) ^iXf^rai 

Ti|uur0ov (^4)CK^rf<rdov) <^iXf\<rOov 

Tl|uur0ov (4>L\4i}<rdov) <^kXf\o^ov 

Tifu&iuOa (4>i\€(i>fi66a) <|>iX^|uOa 

Ti|M(r0f ((piK^Tjffde) ' <^iXf\<r6f 

Tk|i6vTai (^(X^wKrai) <^iXc0VTak 



(^d'^Xoe) S^Xov 

(dijXo^rw) &t)Xoi»r» 
(5iyX(^€Toi') 8if)XoiiTov 
(97;Xo^wi^) 8i|Xo^T»v 
(^ryX^crc) 8T)XoiiTf 
(^8ri\o6vT(i>v) 8t)Xot>vT»v 

or or 

(5i;Xo^fc«roi') Sif)Xo^ro><rav 

(dijX^cti') 8if)Xo{)v 

(JiyXAwv) St)Xmv 



(i?5i5Xoo»') 
(^SiJXoes) 
(^SiJXoe) 
(^5i;X6€Toi') 

lidr)\6€T€) 

(id'fiXoov) 



IS^Xovv 
IS-^Xovs 
48^Xov 
l8if)XoiiTov 

48lf)X0^TT]V 

l8iiXo{)|uv 

48T)Xoi)Ti 

48^Xovv 



(drfXdofJMi) 8if)Xo{)|&ai 
(5iyX6et, dyjXhxi) 8T|Xot 
(dyjXherai) hr\Xovrai 
QdrjXdeadov) 8if)Xo{)<r0ov 
(^dTjXdeffOov) 8T|Xov<r6ov 
(^drjXodfieda) 8T|Xo^|uOa 
(^SrjXdeffdc) 8T)Xov<r0c 
(^dfjiXdovTai) 8if)Xo0vTai 



{driXdufML) 

(dvX6v) 

(^dtiXdrjTaL) 

{priXbtiirdov) 

(^d7jiX6ri<r0ov) 

(^dTjXo(t>fJLe0a) 

ldTjX6ri<r0€) 

(3i;X<^wi^oi) 



8T|Xo|iai 

8t)Xot 

8T)X&rai 

8t|Xmo^ov 

8T|X«i<r0ov 

8tiX<&|u0a 

8T|X&o^f 

8t)XfivTai 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



114 






(TifULOlfirip) 

(ri/tdoio) 

3. (rlfidoiro) 

J 2. (rlfidoiaBoif) 

\ 3. (rlfiOolffBriw') 

' 1. {rlfMotfuBa) 

P. -( 2. (T4fld044r^«) 
^3. (TlfidotVTO) 



D. 



^•{ 



TifUpO^OV 

Ti|Mp(r6i|v 

Ti|Mp|U0a 

TS|i4p<r0c 

TlfiipVTO 



g f 2. (rcfidov) TifUt 

1 3. (rlfuiiffdia) Ti|UUr6«* 
yy / 2. (rlfid€ff$o») Ti|uur0ov 
1 3. (jlyutUffBtiiv) Ti|idir0«v 
' 2. (rifidea-de) TifMO^ 
3. (rifM^ffOuv) Ti|&dUr6»v 
or or 



(rlfjuieffBai) Tl|&oo^ai 



P. 



INFLECTION. 
Present Optative. 

(0iX^io) ^iXoCo 
(j^iKioiTo) ^iXoCro 
(jpCKiourBov) ^iXotcr^ov 
(jpCKsolffByiv) ^iXoCo^v 
(0tX€o/fie0a) ^iXo(|u0a 

(0(X^cFro) ^iXotvTO 

Present Imperative. 
(^(piXiov) ^iXo€ 

(01X^0-^01') ^iXcCo^ov 

lif>i\^(r0€) ^iXcCo^ 
(0iXe^(r^wir) ^iXcCoi^ttv 
or or 

(^tXe^o-^^bva v) ^iXiC(r0«Mrav 



Present Infinitive. 
(0(X^e(rdaO ^tXcto^Oi 



(diyXooifM^i') 

(diyXifoto) 

(dijXooiro) 

(^SriXoolaBrip) 
(diiXoolfjueOa) 

(^BriXdoirrd) 



(driXo^euv) 
(aiyXrfcir^) 

or 

irjXo^ffObHravy 



8i|Xo(|»|F 
Sf|Xo{o 

Sl|XotTO 
vV|AoS9vOV 

vi|AOurvi|v 
Si|XoC|i«9a 

Si|XioCrro 



w1|AOVVvll 

8i|XoW«i 
8i|XovrOinr 

or 

e--% - ^ • — I 
w1|A*rVUIMPUV| 



(SiyXtfefr^oi) &i|Xo9vfai 



Present Participle. 
(rlfUL&fjyevos) Tl|Ui|Mvos (tf^iKeSfixvos) ^iXoii|Mvo9 (di^XcMTiieyos) Si|Xoi|iffOi 



r 1. (Jtrliiohiknw) lri|jk^|iii|v 
S. \ 2. (^c/Luiot;) ^i)&A 

^3. (jhifiAeTo) lTi|iaTO 
jv / 2. {irTfjuieffBop) lri|uur6ov 

1 3. (frc/Aa^0-di7v){rl|ido-6i|v 
1. (frtjiMi6jueda) ^i|&^|u6a 

3. (frc/udoyro) ^i|fc6vTO 



P.I2! 
1 3. 



7wipcr/6c<. 
(^0(X€6^i;i') l<^iXoii|iii|v 
(i^iUov) 4iXo« 
(^0iX^ero) l^iXctro 
(^0(X^0-^of ) l<^iXcCa6ov 
li<ln\€4<r07ip) i^iXiCo^v 
(i<pi\e6fjx0a) i^iXoOfuOa 
(^0(X^e(r^c) l^iXctcrOc 
(^0tX^irro) l^iXoOvTO 



(^^iiXcmT^i^v) 
(^JiyXoou) 

(idfiKo6fJie0a) 
(idTi\6oirro) 



ISl|Xoi|li1|T 

l8i|Xo« 

ISi|Xo6ro 

l8i|Xo{ivfov 

l8i|XoWV 

ISi|Xo^l&c6a 

4ST|Xo«(r6c 

4Sl|XoVVT0 



493. N. The tmcontracted forms of these tenses are never used in 
Attic Greek. Those of verbs in aw sometimes occur in Homer ; those 
of verbs in cw are common in Homer and Herodotus; but those of 
verbs in ow are never used. For dialectic forms of these verbs, see 
784-786. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



498] 



CONTRACT VERBS. 



115 



494. Synopsis of rlfxdu}, <l>iX€<o, &;Ad(o, and Orfpam, hunt, 
in the Indicative of all voices. 







Active. 






Pres. 


THiA 


^& 


SiiXA 


OtipA 


Impf. 


M^v 


4<|>CXow 




i6iip«.v 


Fut 


T-i|i^<r» 


♦i\^<r« 


8T|X<&<r«» 


ei|ptfir« 


Aor. 


«,.,,«. 


l<|>CXTio-a 




Miipdo-a 


Perf. 


Ttrt|&T)Ka 


irc<^CXT)Ka 


8€^X«Ka 


Tce^pdKa 


Plup. 


Inrtii^ict, 


Middle 


I8c8t|X<&icii 


€Tf01ipttlC1l 


Pres. 


Ti|i6|iai 


<|>tXoO|Mli 


StiXoO|uu 


Oi|p«|iai 


Iinpl 


^l)i<&|&1|V 


l<|>iX<Wl|iT)V 




MniMliitiv 


Fut. 




<|>iX^|iai 


StiX<&o-o|iai 




Aor. 




«+t\i,o-d,.t,v 


48iiX«(rd)ii|v 


i6i)pa0i|fcT|v 


Perf. 


Trrti&Tiiuu 


irc^CXi||Mu 




rce^poiMU 


Plup. 




Passive. 


l8c8i|X^|iii1v 


lTte«|pd(it|v 


Pres. 


and Imp. : same as Middle. 






Fut 




^iXT)6Vj<ro}fcai 






Aor. 


^Ht^env 


^^^fi,^y 


48iiX<&ei|v 


i6i)pd0i|v 


Perf.i 


and Plup. : same as Middle. 








tn^ikfyro^ML 







485. 1. Dissyllabic verbs in cq> contract only cc and cct. Thus 
irXcQ), «aiZ, has pres. 'ttXccd, ttXcIs, ttXc^ irXciTov, irXtofifv, ^Acirc, 
irXcovo-t; imperf. ^ttAcov, ^ttXcis, ^irXci, etc.; infin. ttXciv; partic. 
irXcoiK. 

2. Acto, ^W, is the only exception, and is contracted in most 
forms ; as Sown, hovfjuUf SoiWoi, iSow, partic. Scov, Sow. Aco), want, 
is contracted like vXtat, 

496. N. A few verbs in ao) have rf for d in the contracted forms ; 
as Sul/aia, Suj/ia, thirst, &^$, Sufrg, 8u^c; imperf. ISt^, iS^, 
iSCflrq ; infin. Si^f^v. So ^aa>, Ztve, xvao), scrape, vavdit}, hunger, ayuana, 
smear, xpa«^ 9^^^ oracles, with ^(pajofWjL, use, and ^aa>, ni&. 

497. N. 'Plyoo), shiver, has infinitive /§iyo)v (with fiiyavv), and 
optative piyifrp^, 'iSpwo, sweat, has iS/iKMri, t8p<^, tSpoiKn, etc. 

AovoH U7a8A, sometimes drops v, and Aocd is then inflected like 
&;Aoo> ; as lAov for 2Xovc, Aov/uuu for Aovo/uuu. 

498. N. The third person singular of the imperfect active does 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



116 



INFLECTION. 



[499 



not take v moyable in the contracted form ; thus iifiikee or c^iXccy 
gives iifn^u (never ^^tXccv). See 58. 

489. For (oav) av and (ociv) ow in the infinitive, see 39, 5. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 

500, The peculiar inflection of verbs in /u affects only the 
present and second aorist systems, and in a few verbs the second 
perfect system. Most second aorists and perfects here included do 
not belong to presents in fu, but are irregular forms of verbs in m; 
as ifirp^ (second aorist of ^atva>), lyvwv (yiyvoMrKa)), iirrd/Jirjv (wero- 
/buu), and riOvofieVf reOvairp^, rtSvavax (second perfect of Bvrfa-Kot). 
(See 798 and 799.) 

601. Tenses thus inflected are called /jurforms. In other tenses 
verbs in /u are inflected like verbs in (i> (see the synopses, 509). 
No single verb exhibits all the possible /u-forms, and two of the 
paradigms, riOrifu and &'8(i>fu, are irregular and defective in the 
second aorist active (see 802). 

602. There are two classes of verbs in /u : — 

(1) Those in rjfu (from stems in a or c) and <a/u (from 
stems in o), as r-oriy-fu (ora-), set, ri-Orffu (^c-), place, Si-Boi-fu 
(So-), give. 

(2) Those in vvfu, which have the /u-form only in the 
present and imperfect ; these add w (after a vowel vw) to 
the verb stem in these tenses, as 8c6ic-viJ-/u (Sctic-), show, 
pio-wv-fu (/So)-), strengthen. For poetic verbs in ny/u (with va 
added to the stem), see 609 and 797, 2. 

603. For a full enumeration of the /xcrf orms, see 793-804. 



604. Synopsis of lar-qfa, riOrffu, 8t8<i)/tt, and SeUvvfu in the 
Present and Second Aorist Systems. 

Active. 
Opt. Imper. Infin. Part. 

Wrair\y t<m| lirrdvai lo-rds 



I 
1 



Indie. 


SubJ. 


tcmijtt 


Urr& 


trniv 




TC6i||ii 


Ties 


lrCOi|v 




tVbmyx 


8iS6 


<8(8ovv 




8€Ckvv)u 


8€iKvii« 







TiOcCif)v rCOci riO^voi TiOc($ 
Si8oCt|v 8C8ov 8fc86v(u 8i8o^ 

8€iKvi»0i|&l 8€CkvV 8€iKV^vai 8€iKV^ 



jbyGooslc 



606] 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



117 



04 



I 



/ndic. /S^Mftj. 


Opt. 


Imper. 


/r%;fn. 


Part. 


Itfviiv <rTw 


(rraCif)v 


<rTfjvi 


<rTf^v(u 


<rr^ 


lefTOv 06 


ecCT)v 


e^ 


ectvat 


ecCs 


dual (606) 










I80TOV S6 


8o(t)v 


8<Ss 


SoOvoi 


8aiis 


dual (606) 










l28vv(606) U» 




806i 


80vai 


8<^ 




Passive and 


Middle. 






to-rofiou. Urrdiuu 


UrraC|ii|v 


to^ocro 


to^rorOou. 


Urrdfuvos 


irrd|&T|v 










TCOcfiOi Ti86|iai 


Tiee(|ii|v 


rCec<ro 


rCOfireai 


Ti<M|UVO« 


lTie^|iT|V 










8C8o|fcai 8i8d|&ai 


8i8o£|jLT)v 


8(8o<ro 


8C8o<r6ai 


8i86|uvo$ 


4Si8^|ii|v 












V 8c£KW(ro 8cCkwo^w 


k 8€iKV^|UVC 














irpiaC|ii|v 


irpU 


irpCa<r6ou. 


irpid|uvo$ 


iM|iiT|v 9&|fcai 


9fC|iii|v 


6o« 


e^<reai 


e^iuvofi 


i86|iiiiv 86|MU 


8oC|iT)v 


8o« 


UirBai 


84S1UVOS 



I 

505. As larrrjfu wants the second aorist middle, iirpid/Jirfv, I 
bought (from a stem irpui- with no present), is added here and in 
the inflection. As Belicvvfu wants the second aorist (502, 2), i8vvf 
I entered (from Svco, formed as if from Sv-fu), is added. No second 
aorist middle in vfirp^ occurs, except in scattered poetic forms (see 
Xvo), TiTcco, (Tcvcii, and ;(€((>, in the Catalogue). 



606. Inflection of i(mjfu, TiOrjfih SlStafu, and Beucvvfu in 
the Present and Second Aorist Systems; with i^v and 
iirpuifiriv (505). 



ACTIVE. 







Present Indicative, 




fu- 


ItTTHIU 


t£9i||u 


8(8«»pit 


8c£kvv)u 


sing. -^2. 


Irrtut 


tOKis 


8(8«s 


ScCkvvs 


U. 


liTTticri 


T£9l|0-i 


8(8«<ri 


8cCicv^<ri 


^{l 




TlwiTOV 


8(8orov 






rCetrov 


8C80TOV 




fl. 


tirraiMV 


rCefiiiV 


8C801&CV 


8cClCW|MV 


Plur. . 2. 


to^rarc 


rCecTf 


8(SoTc 


8cCKVVTi 


U. 


Urr&ri 


TiOlcuri 


8t8od<ri 


8fiKVvao'i 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



118 



INFLECTION. 



[606 



Sing. 



is. 



trT1||r 



Dual 1^ 



Plur. 



Sing. 



{^ 

u 



.{I. 

D^l {I 



trraTf 

Uttw 
IotptJs 



M0CTOV 

cTiVtn|V 



4SC80UV 

4SC80VS 

l8(8ov 

4S(8oTov 

4Si8o'Ti|v 

ISCSoTf 
ISCSoo-av 



Plur. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



Dual 



Plur. 



Ut Tl|TOV 

t«^oi|ftfir 



Present Subjunctive. 

TiAgs SiSfs 

Tb6g 8k8f 

TiOtJTOV 8i8«rov 

8k8«0Tov 



nO«5|uv 8i8«i|uv 

Ti9l|Ti OkOMTf 

8k8<io-b 






Present Optative. 



13. 



to~raCi|V nOc(i|V 

t«^a(i|t Ti8cCi|t 

t«^a(i| TiOcCti 

WraLtYrov Ti9cCt|Tov 

t«^nUlJT1|V Tl0ilTJTt|V 

t«^ra(T||icy Ti9iCT||icy 

to~raCi)Tc TiOfCiiTi 

t«^a(i|<rav TiOcCi|<rav 

Commonly thus contracted : — 

t«^raCrov TiOcCrov 8i8otrov 

loraCniv TiOc£n|V 

t«^aC|ifV TiOcCfifV 

t«^ratTf TiOcCTf 

loToSiv TiScCcv 



8k8oCi|V 

8i8oCt)S 

8t8oli| 

8i8oCi|rov 

8i8obifTi|v 

8i8oCii|uv 

8i8o(i|n 

8i8o(i|o*av 



8i8o(Tt|v 
8t8oC|ifv 
8i8otrc 
8i8otiv 



Sing. I 



Dual 



Present Imperative. 
tm| rCOci 8C8ov > 

Ivt<£t<» rMriA 8i8or» 

drrarov TCOrrov 8C8otov 

Vrronav riOlrwv StSorvv 



IScCiorvv 

IScUvvs 

IScCiorv 

IScdcwTOV 

48ciKVvrqv 

48cCicw|jifv 

IScCkwtc 

IScCkvuvov 

8ciicviM» 
8cucvvi|s 
Scucvvg 

8ciKVV1|T0V 

8ciicvvipw 

8€iKVV»fMV 
0€ilCVVf|Tf 

8€iicvvMoa 

8€lKVV0l|U 
8€ilCVUOI« 
• 8€UCVV0b 

SciicvvobToy 
8€ucvvo(n|v 

8€ilCVV0i|UV 

8€llCirvOiTC 

8ciKVV0iCV 



8c(kvv 

8€iKVVTi» 

8€CKwrov 

SfiKVVTWV 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



606] 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



119 



Plnr. 



2. trrwn 


t(0cti 8C8oTf 


ScUvuTi 


3. Irrwrnv or 




SciKvvrrMV or 




Present TnflniHve. 


8ciKVvr«Mrav 


UmbMu 


TiOiiffu 8i8ovai 


Sfunnhwi 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



Sing. 






ing. I 2. 
Dual V" 

■{ 



Plur. 



jye«6n< Participle (336). 
IvT^ TiOcis 8i8ovt 

Second Aorist Indicative (802). 



1. loTqv 

2. foTiis 

3. {<mfn|v 

•U'TI|Ti 



lOcTOV 

rerrf 

f9c(rav 



cSorov 
I8o'ti|v 

f8o|icy 

fSoTf 

f8o<rav 



Second Aorist Subjunctive, 






1. vr«|MV 

2. 

3. 



fu- 
sing. i2. 

U. 

^ {J 

Plur. ] 2. 
1 3. 



8£ 

8^s 

8«rrov 

8«T0V 
8«fMV 

8«m 



Second Aorist Optative. 



9oi|ftfir 

wT|T€ 



0YaCi|v 

^ 3. o^aCii 
Dual I ^- •"«^*nT»v 

' 1. grrcUiiiMV 

OTCUTITl 

^ o. oTcuiitrciv 



OfCilv 

9cCl|TOV 

9aT|Ti|v 

OcCl||MV 
OfCtfTf 

OcCi|o*av 



8oCi|v 
8oCi|s 
8o(i| 

8oCl|TOV 

8oCi||icy 

8oCi|n 

8oCi|o«v 



8cucv^ 



I8iiv 
i^ 

I8v 
l8vrov 

I8v|ify 

fSvrc 

fSvo-av 



8v« 
8v(|f 
5v|| 



8vi|rov 
8v«»|uv 

OVt|T1 

8ii«Mri 



(See 744) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



120 



INFLECTION. 



[606 



Commonly thus contracted : — 



Dual 


1 3. 


vtoCtov 


ecCrov 


8o£tov 






•iCtiiv 


8o£ti|v 




rl. 


o"rat|Mif 


•iCfUV 


80C|uv 


Plur. 


2. 


ffToSn 


9itrf 


8o^ 




U. 


9T«fifV 


e<tfv 


8«Scy 








i^econd Aorist Imperative. 


Sing. 


r2. 

18. 


VTt|Wi 




So's 


Dual 


Is. 




Wtov 


8o'tov 




J f I| 1 ipV 


OCTW 


So't^v 




f^- 


»TTiT. 


0^ 


Scfn 


Plur. 


3. 


o^vr«tv 


or Olvr«»v or 


8o'vTt»v or 




I 


OTtfTMO'liy WTtMrOiV 


8o'iwa 








Second Aorist Infinitive. 






vnfvoi 


OcCvoi 


Sovvoi 






Second Aorist Participle (336). 






irrdt 


ecis 


M9 



PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 









tirra|uu 

UTTQirOU 

3. trraroi 

2. drrcurOov 

3. tirra(r6ov 

tcrrcurOc 
3. t/rrayrai 



Present Indicative. 
tCOc|jmu 8C8o|mu 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



13. 
1 3. 



MTTttirO 

MrrttTO 
tirra(r6ov 
IgTou Onv 

uTTCurOf 

UTTOiVTO 



rCOfo-ou 
rCOcnu 
T(0c(r6ov 
rCOccrOov 

rCeccrec 
tCOcvtcu 

Imperfect. 

IrCOccro 

IrCOccrOov 
cTt9c<r6t|V 

^C6c<rec 
IrCOcvTO 



8C8oo-(u 
8C8<mu 
8(8o<r9ov 
. 8C8o(r6ov 
8t8o|u0a 
8C8o<r0c 

SCSoVTOi 

l8i8oVfiv 

l8C8o<ro 

I8C80T0 

<8C8o<r9ov 

i8t8o'<r6T|v 

l8i8o|u9a 

i8(8o<r«c 

48(8ovTo 



8«ei 



OVTf 

8vvTwvor 



8^ 



8c(lCW|MU 

8cCicw(nu 

8€CKWTm 

8c£KiaHr0ov 

ScCkwo^ov 

8ciKvv|uOa 

8€(icw(r0f 

ScUvuvToi 



I8CIKVV|U|V 

l8c(Kvu«ro 

l8c£lCVVTO 

l8€CKvu(r9oy 

l8ciKVV96l|V 

l8ciKvv|uea 

IScCkwo^ 

l8c(KinivTo 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



606] 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



121 









PresefU SubjuncHve. 






rl. 


t«^M|IAi 


TlO<S|MU 




8«Ki^H^cu 


Sing. 


• 2. 


UrrS 


«6b 


8t8v 


8€IICVV|| 




u. 


UrnJTai 




SiSi^oi 


8cilCVV1|TIU 


Dual 


(2. 
13. 




TwrjcwOV 


8iS«o^v 


8ciKVV1)0^0V 








SiSAreov 






fl. 


Urr«S|ic6a 


TiOc^a 


SiSi^ea 


8ciKW(^6a 


Plur. 


• 2. 




TiOTi<rei 


8iS<5<r«c 






1 3. 






SiStfi^roi 


8ciicvv«ivTai 








Pre«e»« Optative. 






rl. 


UrraC,.,,v 


TiOc(|l,11V 


8t8o^|iTlv 


8€lKWO(|&T)V 


Sing. 


• 2. 


UrraSo 


nOcto 




8cucvvoio 




u. 




nOftro 


8i8oCto 




Dual 


1 3. 


t«^a£(reov 




8i8ot(reov 








TiOcCo^v 








1. 


UrraCiiiea 


ri6c(|ifea 


Si8o(|ifea 


8ciKwo(|u6a 


Plur. 


2. 


UrraCcr«c 


TiecC(r«c 


8i8ot<ref 


8€iicvvour6f 




U. 


t«^ratvTo 


TIVCtVTO 


SiSotvro 


8ciKVV0iVT0 








Present ImperaUve. 




Sing. 


f2. 
13. 


toTOW 


riAuro 


SC8o<ro 




UmicHU 


n»Mm 


8i8o<re« 




'DtiaI 


i3. 


tcrnureov 


T(ec<reov 


8C8o<reov 


8cCkvvo-6ov 


jL/um 


UrTOIllMiV 




8tSo'<re»v 


8ciKVV0^V 




r2. 


tbrnurec 


r(eccrec 


8t8<Kr«c 


8c(icwa<)c 



Plur. 



? 



toTToo^ttv or nBMwv or 8i8oo^»v or 8ciKviKr6«0V or 
UrrcMoMrav TiOlo^aio-av 8i8oo^«*o^v 8ciicvvo^»<rav 

Pre«enf Inflnitive. 
foTCM^cu t(0co^ou. 8C8o9eou. 8cCKViNriku 

Present Participle (301). 
UrrdiMvot TiO^fuvos 8i8o|AfVos 8ciicvv|uvos 

Second Aorist Middle Indicative (505). 



Dual I 



1. 

2. 
3. 


lirpMiiiiiv 
IrpCi&TO 


leov 

retro 


l8oVi,i. 

l8ov 

I80T0 


2. 
3. 


IvpCoireoir 


rettreov 


r8oo4ov 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



122 INFLECTION. [506 



..{1: 

1 3. 



IvpUifTO Idtrro ISovTo 



18. 



Second Aorist Middle Subjunctive. 

rl. wptm^Mk MfMu 8iS|icu 

Sing. -^2. vpig $£ 8ip 



{1. «pui|M0a e<i|uOa S^icOa 

2. «p(i|a«f e^crei Siiiref 

3. vpUirrai Owmu 8«frrai 

Second Aorist Middle Optative. 

{1. trpia(|&i|V Oc(|&i|V 8o(|&iiv 

2. vpCcuo ecto 8oto 

3. irp(airo Octro 8oCto 

Dual /^' "P'*"^^* 6cto-6ov SotorOov 

13. irpia(a0i|v OfCo^v , 8oC(r6T|V 

rl. vpioCfuOa 0f(|u9a 8o(|u0a 

Plur. J 2. vpCoio^ e«Cir^ 8ota«c 



3. irpCaiVTo 6itVTO 8otvro 



SI.* {|; 



jS^econd Aorist Middle Imperative. 

vp(M Oov Sov 

irpioo^tt 6M« 8o<r9M 



p^^ r2. vp(a(r6ov Olo^v 8o(r6ov 

1 3. irpioaOttv 6M«v SooH^MV 

{2. vpCoirOc MvOc 8oo^ 

3. «pui<re«vor 6M«»v or 8o<re«vor 
vpuur6«Mrav 94fr9wray 8Jo^«Mrav 

Second Aorist Middle Ir^nitive. 
irpCoo^ou. UcrBw. SooH^ot 

iSiecond Aorist Middle Participle (301). 
irp(il|Mvos M|&cvos 8o|uvos 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



609J 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MI. 



123 



507. ^larrjfii and a few other verbs have a second perfect 
and pluperfect of the fw-form. These are never used in the 
singular of the indicative, where the first perfect and plu- 
perfect are the regular forms. 

608. These tenses of Tarrffu are thus inflected : — 







Second Perfect. 




ri- 


£irTiS 


co^raCi|V 




sing. ■ 2. 
.a 


/ff-TTTir 


fo-roOi 


^OTTl 


^ o. 




Dual 
Plur. 


'2. 
3. 

1. 
2. 
3. 




ifrralnyrov 
or -atrov 

fOTCUTITIIV 

or -aCri|v 

c<rTaCT)|UV 
or -at|uv 

co^raCT)Tc 
or -atTi 

c(rTaCT|<rav 
or -atcv 


lo-rarc 


Infinitive, t (rrdvai Participle, cottms (342) 




Second Pluperfect. 




DuaL ivraroVf dvrd'n\v 

Flnr. lo^ra|uv, f (rrarc, f tmurav 






For 


an 


enumeration of these forms 


see 804. 





600. Full Synopsis of the Indicative of tarrjfUj TiOrffu, 
SiSwfu, and ScUvvfu, in all the voices. 

Active. 



Pres. 


to^Jtt, 


TCOlllil, 


8C8«|ii, 


8cCkvv)u, 




set 


place 


fifiw 


show 


Impert, 


foTTf|V 


lrCei|v 




kUiKVVV 


Put. 


9Tijira» 


Wio-« 


8<&<r« 


Uify^ 


lAor. 




letfKa 


28«Ka 


ffici{a 


2Aor. 


laTT|v, stood 


iOcTovetc. 


ISoTov etc. 





in dual and plur. in dual and plur. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



124 




INFLECTION. 


[610 


IPerf. 


lo^Ka 


ri9f\Kik 


8^8<»Ka 


SiScixa 


2Perf. 


indualandplui 
stand (608) 


•» 






1 Plupf . 


•im|ivf| 
or clo^KTi 


€TfvT|ICt| 


ISc8<6ici| 


l8c8cCxi| 


2 Plupf. 


indualandplur 
stood (608) 


•> 






FutPerf 


. 4<rii{«, shall 
stand (705) 


Middle. 






Pres. 


t<rra|&ai, stand 


rCeciiOi 




i 8cCicvu|fcai 






(trans.) 


only in pass. 


) (trans.) 


Impf. 


irrd)LT|v 


lrt6^T)v 


{SiS<S|iTiv 


l8ciKV^|liT)ir 


Fut. 




0^<ro|&ou. 






lAor. 


(tra,TiR.) 


iei|Kd)»|v (not 
Attic) 




I8<i£dyii,v 


2Aor. 




IW^v 


-IWntjv 




Perf. 


I(rra|fcai (pass.) WOcifMii 




848ciY|fcai 


Plupf. 


(?) 


(?) 
Passive. 


{8c86)LT|v 


IScScCyimiv 


Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect: 


as in Middle. 




Aor. 


icrrdetiv 


. «TfwflV 


iS6ei|v 


l8cCxet|v 


Fut. 




Tc9'^<ro|iCU> 


SoO^o-opai 


ScbxO^o-of&iu 


Fut. Peri 


I l«ni{ojiai. 












sJuill stand 






late) 



AUGMENT. 

510. In the secondary tenses of the indicative, the 
verb receives an augment (i.e. increase^ at the begin- 
ning, which marks these as past tenses. 

511. Augment is of two kinds : — 

1. Syllahid augment, which prefixes e to verbs be- 
ginning with a consonant; as Xv©, imperfect e-Xvov^ 
XetTTO), second aorist erknrov. 

2. Temporal augment, which lengthens the first syl- 
lable of verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong ; as 
07©, lead^ imperf . ^701; ; otKea)^ olxSi^ dwells aor. ^icqaou 



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619] AUGMENT. 126 

512. The augment is confined strictly to the indicative, 
never appearing in the other moods or the participle, even 
when any of these denote past time. 

Imperfect and Aorist Indicative, 

513. The imperfect and aorist indicative of verbs 
beginning with a consonant have the syllabic augment 
ۥ E.g. 

AviOj iXvov, iXvaa, iXvofirfv, ikvadfir/y, iXvOrp/; y/oa^o), umtey 
lyfMffiOv, lypa^o, cy/oa^i/v; ptTmo, throw, ipphrrov, ippCffyrpf. 

For p doabled after the syllabic augment, see 69. 

614. In Homer any liquid (especially A) may be doubled after 
the augment c ; as iXXaxw for tXaxpv, IfipaBc for ipxtBe, So some- 
times a ; as icratiovro from a€i<a. 

515. The imperfect and aorist indicative of verbs be- 
ginning with a short vowel have the temporal augment, 
which lengthens the initial vowel ; a and e becoming rj^ 
and ?, o, V becoming Z, a>, v. E.g. 

"Ayio, lead, rfyov, ffyOijv ; Ikavvia, drive, rjXavvov ; ikctcvcu, implore, 
ucerevav, iKcrcvcra ; ovet&'^o), reproach, wv€l&I^ov ; vfipL^ia^ insult, hppC- 
oBrpf ; dicoXov^coi, accompany, '^Ko\ov$rj<Ta ; 6p06<a, erect, iitpdwraL. 

616. A long initial vowel is not changed, except that a gener- 
ally becomes ri ; as iOkim, struggle, TJOXr/axL, But both d and rj are 
found in dydXta-KO} and dvdAoco, and stio (poetic), hear, has SXov. 

617. BouAofuu, wish, Svvapm, he able, and fjJXX(a, intend, often 
have 17 for c in the augment, especially in later Attic ; as ipovX6fir/y 
or ^Povkofirfv, ipovkqOijy or rjPovki^&qv; iSwdfirpf or rjSwdfirpfy 
iSwrfirfv or rj&wffirp^ ; IfuXXjov or iqfieXXoiy. 

518. A diphthong takes the temporal augment on its 
first vowel, ac or a becoming 17. E.g. 

Airifo, ask, yrrfira; tucdifo, guess, yKocra', oUefo, dwell, ^icrfaa', 
avidoHO, increase, rfiiyfroL, rfi^i^&qy ; ^8<d, sing, ^Sov. 

619. Ov is never augmented. Et and cv are often without 
augment, especially in later Attic ; but mss. and editors differ in 
regard to many forms, as cfioura or yKoxra (from dKoiio, liken), 
cSSov or i^8ov (from cv8<o, sleep), evpiOipf or yj/vpiOrjv (from evpia-Kdi, 
find), €v(dfJLrpf or rfiidfjirpf (from evxopm, pray). Editions vary also 
in the augment of auuW, dry, and of some verbs beginning with 
oc, as UdKoarpo^w, steer. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



126 IKFLECTION. [520 

REDUPLICATION. 

520. The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect, in 
all the moods and in the participle, have a reduplicor 
tion^ which is the mark of completed action. 

Perfect and Future Perfect. 

521. Verbs beginning with a single consonant (ex- 
cept p) are reduplicated in the perfect and future per- 
fect by prefixing that consonant followed by e. E.g. 

Avo), Xc-Xvfca, Xi-Xvixaji, Xc-Xvkcww, Xc-Xvkws, Xc-Xvftei^o?, Xi-Xwro^ 
fua; XctTTO), XeXonroj XeXeifAfjixiL, XcXeu/ro/Aot. So Ov<a, sacrifice, T€r$vKa] 
<Ikuvu> (<^v), show, we-KJxwfJuca, 7r€-if>dv6ai ; \(uv<ii, gape, Kir\qva. 

For the pluperfect, see 527. 

522. N. (a) Five verbs have ct in the perfect instead of the 
reduplication : — 

Xayxavo) (Xax-), obtain by lot, etXrjx^ dXrjyfJuu; 

XafjLpdvit) (Xa)3-), take, €tXrj<l>aL, etXrjfJLfJuu (poet. XiXrjfifuu) ; 

Xcyo), collect, in composition, -ctXo;(ct, -eiXey fiai with -XeXcyfuu; 
&aXcyo/MU, discuss, has ^-ciXcy/Luu ; 

fijeipofim (fup-), obtain part, fxpap^ax, it is fated ; 

from stem {p€-) dp-qxa, have said, dfyrffua, int. pf. api/frofuu 
(see tlirov). 

(b) An irregular reduplication appears in Homeric ^{Souea and 
Sc/Sto, from 8ct3o), fear, and SetiSey/xai (for SeScyfuu), ^recf, from 
a stem 8cic- (see SeiKvvfu). 

523. In verbs beginning with ^w^o consonants (except 
a mute and a liquid), with a double consonant (f, f, '^), 
or with p, the reduplication is represented by a simple 
6, having the same form as the syllabic augment. JE.g. 

SreXXo), send, ccrroXKo ; fi^rco), seek, cfi/nyica ; i/revSo), cA^at, l^ev- 
cr/MU, lil/€v<rfX€vos ; p^ttto), throw, epplfifuu, ippLif>Oai (69). 

624. 1. Most verbs beginning with a mute and a liquid have 
the full reduplication ; as ypa^o), torite, yiypa<\KL, yeypafifuu, ycypa- 
<l>OaA, yeypafifievo^. 

2. But those beginnings with yv, and occasionally a few in fiX 
or yX, have c ; as yviaplt^m, recognize, perf . iyvtapiKa ; yiTO'wo'KQi 
(yvo-), know, lyv(Ofca. See pXaordvii) and yXvifxa. 

625. N. MLfivrj<rK<i) (jiva-), remind, has fiifivrffjuu {memini), 
remember, and KToofJuu, acquire, has both K€KT7ffJuu and iKrqfua, 
possess. See also Homeric perfect passive of p^wrw and pmrwa. 



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631] ATTIC REDUPLICATION. 127 

526. Verbs beginning with a short vowel lengthen 
the vowel, and those beginning with a diphthong 
lengthen its first vowel, in all forms of the perfect and 
futui*e perfect, the reduplication thus having the form 
of the temporal augment. E.g. 

*Aya), lead, 5;(a, ^yfwi, r/yfieyo^ ; SjcoXovdiiD, follow, rfKoXov&qKOL, 
rjKokavBriKtvajL ; opOofn, erect, i^pOuifj/u ; 6pi^<t), bound, topuca, (opurpxu ; 
aTlfWO}, dishonor, yrtfitoKa, yrtfjuafijca, fut. pf. '^Ifiatarofuu. Alpeta, 
take, ypTfKo, yprjfjuca, •gprqfroiwx', eucd^fa, liken, yKaafuu', cupiaKm, Jind^ 
rfipnqKd, rfiprffuu (or evprjKo, evprfpxiL, 519). 

Long a may become rj (see 516) ; as in avaXia-KH}, pf. avrjkiOKa 
or aydXiOKa, 

Pluperfect. 

527. When the reduplicated perfect begins with a 
consonant, the pluperfect prefixes the syllabic augment e 
to the reduplication. In other cases the pluperfect keeps 
the reduplication of the perfect without change. U.ff. 

AvcD, XcXvfca, i'XjekvKTf, XiXvfuu, c-XcXv/xiyv; orcAAo), loroAxa, 
ioToXxtf, loToAfuu, coToXftiyv; XafiPdvio, €i\rf<fKL, €1X17^17; ayyiXXto, 
rjyytKKO, tfyyiXicij, rjyyfXpm, rjyyi\p.-rjv', aip€<o, yprjKo, ypyKy] cvpi- 
a-Kio, rfipTfKo, rfipigKr}, tfvprjp.yjv, (or eup-). 

528. N. From Tarrj/u (ora-), set, we have both eUrrqKrf (older 
form) and iarrrJKrj (through perf. earrfKo)] and from perf. ioLKo, 
resemble, itoKy. 

ATTIC REDUPLICATION. 

529. Some verbs beginning with a, e, or o, followed 
by a single consonant, reduplicate the perfect and plu- 
perfect by prefixing their first two letters, and length- 
ening the following vowel as in the temporal augment. 
This is called Attic reduplication. E.g. 

'Apofo, plough, dprrjpopnjL', c/aco), vomit, ifxij/UKa; cXeyxw? prove, 
IXi/Acyfuu; iXawo) (cAa-), drive, iXi^XoKo, ikyXafJuw, axovw, hear, 
d/cJKoa. For the phiperfect, see 533. 

680. N. The Attic reduplication (so called by the Greek gram- 
marians) is not peculiarly Attic, and is found in Homer. 

531. N. Other verbs which have the Attic reduplication are 
icyupio, aXuffxo, dXifo, lytLpm, ipeiSm, ipxofuu, IfrBiia, oXXvfU, Spvvfii, 
opvo'a'fa, <f>€p<i). See also, for Ionic or poetic forms, alpco), aXdopxiL, 
dXvfcrcd), dpaptcTKO), cpcnro), ixaa, yfiwo, (o^-) 68a>8vo'/uuu, 6i<o, opd/a 
(Swamrd), o/oeyo), opvvfu (6/>-). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



128 INFLECTION. 

532. N. *Ey€ifHa (^cp-), rouse^ has 2 perf . iyfy^tfyofxi (for cy-i;yop«, 
643), but perf. mid. iy^epfuu, 

633. By strict Attic usage, the pluperfect takes a temporal 
augment in addition to the Attic reduplication. Thus, dicouoi, 
hear^ dxi/icoa, plup. '^icrfKOrj ; so dir-oiXcoXci (of aTr-oAAvfit, dir-oXjoXa), 
iafiu>fWK€i (of ofivvfUf ofAtofWKo), and Si-iOfmpvKTO (of ^-opixrcras 
Si-op<apvyfuu) occur in Attic prose. See also Homeric pluperfects 
of iXawm and ipei^. 

But the M88. and the editions of Attic authors often omit the 
additional augment, as in iXriffkiyfiypf (487, 2). 

Reduplicated Aorists. 

634. N. The second aorist active and middle in all the moods 
and the participle sometimes has a reduplication in Homer; as 
v€if>pa&ov from ^po^o), tell; veiriBov from iruSm (viS-), persuade; 
T€Taf)ir6firp^ (646) from ripina, delight; KeicXofir/v and #c€#cA.d/xci/o9 
(650) from KeXofuu, command; rjpafxjv from ApapCaKio (df>-), join 
(531); wpopov from opvvfu {opr)y rouse; ircmiXuiv (partic.) from 
iroAAo) (wioA.-), shake; KeKofui} (subj.) from icofiva) {Kopr), so XcXax(» 
from Aayx<^va); rreifitJ^a'Sai, inf. from ^iSo/luu (^i£-)) spare, so 
Ac-Ao^eo^u, Xe-XaPttrBai,, In the indicative a syllabic augment 
may be prefixed to the reduplication ; as iKetcXofivp^, €W€<f^vov (from 
^ev-), i'n'€if>pa8ov* 

636. N. The second aorist of ayco, /eocf, has a kind of Attic 
reduplication (529), which adds the temporal augment in the 
indicative. Thus rjy-ay-w (dy-ay-), subj. dydyo), opt. dydyoifu, 
inf. dyayetv, part, dyayiav ; mid. "^yayofir/v, dydyiofjxu, etc., — all in 
Attic prose. See also the aorists rjvcyKa and ^vey/cov (from stem 
evcfc-, €v-€v€K-, cvcy#c-) of <f>ip<D, the Homeric dkaXxov (for dX-oA.-cic-oi') 
of dXe^d), ward off, and evm?roF or ^v^Tr-airov of ivtvrto (cvtir-), cAu/e. 
See also ipuKto, "^pvKraK-ov. 

Reduplicated Presents. 

636. A few verbs reduplicate the present by prefixing the 
initial consonant with i; as yi-yvioa-KiD (yvo-), know, rt-^/u ($€'), 
put, yi-yvopajL (for yiryev-opjiii), become. 

For these see 651 and 652, with 794, 2. 

E AS Augment or Reduplication before a Vowel. 

637. 1. Some verbs beginning with a vowel take the 
syllabic augment, as if they began with a consonant. These 
verbs also have a simple € for the reduplication. When 
another c follows, ce is contracted into «. E.g. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



643] AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION. 129 

'O^ectf (ioO-), pusJi, Icixra, twrfuu, IwrBrjv ; dXiaKOfmi, be captured^ 
edXwKo, 2 aor. coAojv (or rjktav); dyvvfu (ay-), break, la&t, 2 pf. 
cdya ; epSto, do, Ionic, 2 pf . topya ; tavf^ofuu, buy, i<ovovfirjv, etc. ; 
iOCiiOy accustom, dOurvL, eiBiKa (from ee^) ; ccud, permit, etaoo, ddKa ; 
cxw, Aauc, elxw (from €-€Xw)- 

2. These verbs are, further, cXaroro), IAko), lira), ipyddofuu, epTro) 
or cpirv^^o), eoTtao), Ii^/u (c-), with the aorists cl^ov and cI\ov (al/oco)) ; 
the perfects eiwOa (with irregular «), Ionic lo)^ (t7^-)> a^id ecHica 
(iK-, CIIC-) , and plpf . etcrryKrf (for c-cor-) of Umjfu, See also Ionic 
and poetic forms under av3avo), airrii), ei^o/xot, ^ca, ctTrov, etpca, 
cXiro), ewvfu, ti^o), and e^o/uu. 

638. N. 'OpacD, ««e, and diMxyo), open, generally take the tem- 
poral augment after c; as ca>p(ov, ccSpd/ca (or copdxa), cca/od/uoi 
(with the aspirate retained) ; di^eor/ov, dv^cw^i (rarely i7votyov, 
iTFOc^ 544). Homer has ci^&lvof from av3dv(i>, please; iwvox^^ 
imp. of (Mvoxoiio, pour wine; and 2 plpf. cwAttci and iiopy€i from 
^Xttco and cpSco. 'Eopraj^a), keep holiday (Hdt. oprd^o)), has Attic 
imp. itapraiov. 

539. N. This form is explained on the supposition that these verbs 
originally began with the consonant f or <r, which was afterwards 
dropx>ed. Thus eUov, saw, is for ifidov (cf . Latin vid-i) ; Hopya is for 
fefopya, from stem fepy-, cf. Eng. work (German Werk), So ^pirw, 
creep, is for v-epirta (cf. Latin serpo), with imperf. i-aepirop, i-ipirov, 
etfyrov (see 86); and ^x«» ^a«e, is for o-exw, whence imp. i-aexov, i-exov, 

AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION OF COIUPOUND VERBS. 

540. In compound verbs (882, 1) the augment or re- 
duplication follows the preposition. Prepositions (except 
irepl and irpo) here drop a final vowel before e. E.g. 

npocr-ypa^ci), irpofr-eypa^v, irpocr-yiypai^] eixr-dyn}, ela-rjyw 
(133, 1); €K'PdXXio, i^'ipaXXov (63); (rvX-Xcyw, oi^v-cAeyov ; avp,- 
vXacw, <TW-€ir\€KW (78, 1) ; avy-x^ia, avv-€x<^ov, ovy-KexyKa ; av- 
a-KCvaiia, avvtaKevaiov (81); d7ro-)SaAA,<o, d?r-e)9aAAov ; dva-)3cuVo), 
dv-c/Siy ; — but irepL-i^aXXjov and irpo-iXeyoy. 

641. N. Upo may be contracted with the augment; as irpou- 
Acyov and vpov^aivov, for vpoiXeyov and Trpo^jSaAvov. 

642. N. "Eic in composition becomes cf before c ; and ev and 
ow resume their proper forms if they have been changed. See 
examples in 540. 

648. N. Some denominative verbs (861), derived from nouns 
or adjectives compounded with prepositions, are augmented or 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



130 INFLECTION. [644 

reduplicated after the preposition, like compound verbs; as viro* 
htcixo (from virowTos), suspect, tnrunrrtvcv, as if the verb were from 
vird and iwT€wo ; &iroXioy€Ofmt, defend one* 8 self, dTr-eXoyrfcra/jLrp^ ; see 
also CKicXi^cna^o). Uapavofiiio, transgress law, irapTjvofjuow, etx;., is 
very irregular. Kanf/opco (from Karrjyopo^), accuse, has Karrpfo- 
pow (not iKartfyopow). See Suurdiu> and StdKoveta in the Catalogue 
of Verbs. 

Such verbs are called indirect compounds (882, 2). 

544. N. A few verbs take the augment before the preposition, 
and others have both augments; as Kojdil^ofjuu, sit, cica^e^ero; KoBCina, 
iKoBiiov ; Ka$€vS<o, sleep, iKojSevSov and KaOrjvSov (epic /ca^cvSov) ; 
dv€x<a, '^veixofXTfv, yv€<rx6fxrp^ (or ffv(Txofirp/) ; a^iirjiu, a4>triv or ^tfUrfv. 
See also ii^if>L€yvvfu, afi<f>iyvo€<o, dfuriV^o/icu, ivox^^^^ ^^^ a/JLifHO'- 
P'qriit}, dispute, impf. rui^MrPriTovv and yfiff^eaPifrovv (as if the 
last part were -o-jSifrco)). 

645. 1. Indirect compounds of ^va--, ill, and occasionally 
those of ev, weU, are augmented or reduplicated after the ad- 
verb, if the following part begins with a short vowel. JE.g. 

AvcropeoTeoi, he displeased, SuoTypeorovv ; evepyeriit}, do good, 
€vr)py€TOvv or eucpycrcwv. 

2. In other cases, compounds of 8v(r- have the augment or 
reduplication at the beginning, as Svotvxccd (from Svc-rvxiy?, 
unfortunate), iBvarvxow, ScSvorvxi/Ka ; and those of eZ generally 
omit the augment. 

646. Other indirect compounds are augmented or redu- 
plicated at the beginning; as ocicoSo/aco), build (from ocico- 
Sofwif house-builder), ^KoBofioWf ^^KoSofirfaOf <oKoS6firfTau See, 
however, oSoTroteo). 

OMISSION OF AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION. 

547. Homer and the lyric poets often omit both the syllabic 
and the temporal augment; as opiXeov, ix^v, 8a)Ke (for (ofjiXxniv, 
€lxov, e8(i>Kc). 

648. Herodotus often omits the temporal augment of the 
imperfect and aorist, and the syllabic augment of the pluperfect. 
He never adds the temporal augment to the Attic reduplication 
in the pluperfect (533). He always omits the .augment in the 
iterative forms in o-kov and <rKOfir/v ; as Xd^eaKov, ix^a-Kov (778). 

649. The Attic tragedians sometimes omit the augment in 
(lyric) choral passages, seldom in the dialogue. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



653] 



ENDINGS. 



131 



650. The reduplication is very rarely omitted. But Homer has 
d^oTot, from d^xofMi, for ded^arac, receive, and a few other cases. 
Herodotus occasionally fails to lengthen the initial vowel in the per- 
fect; as in KarappibbtiKai (for Kar-iipp-). 



ENDINGS. 

661. The verb is inflected by adding certain endm^s to 
the different tense stems. Those which mark the persons 
in the finite moods are called personal endings. There is 
one class of endings for the active voice, and another for 
the middle and passive ; but the passive aorists have the 
active endings. 

There is also one set of endings in each class for primary 
tenses, and one for secondary tenses. 

662. The personal endings of the indicative, subjunctive, 
and optative, which are most distinctly preserved in verbs 
in fu and other primitive forms, are as follows : — 



Active. 

Prifnary 
Tenses. 

Sing. 1. |u 

2. s(o-i),(Oa) 

3. o-i (ti) 

TOV 
TOV 

juv(|iis) 



Dual 2. 
3. 



Plur. 1. 

2. T€ 

3. vox (vTv), cUri 



Secondary 
Tenses. 

V 



T^V 

)uv (jus) 

TC 

V, o'av 



Middle and Passive. 



Primary 
Tenses. 

|iai 

o-ai 

Tai 

o-6ov (6ov) 
o^ov (Oov) 

(uOa 
o-Oc (Oi) 



Secondary 
Tenses. 

imv 

o-o 

TO 

o^ov (6ov) 

O^V (©1]V) 

(uOa 
o-Oi (Oc) 



663. The personal endings of the imperative are as fol- 
lows : — 





Active. 


Middle and Passive. 


Sing. 


Dual. Plur. 


Sing. Dual. Plur. 


2. et 


TOV Tf 


o-o o^ov (Oov) o^i (Oi) 


3. T« 


T«v vT«v or Tc»o-av 


(rOtt(Oa>) o-0a>v(0o>v) o^a>v(Oa>v) 
or 
o^tto-av (OoMrav) 







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132 INFLECTION. [664 

664. The endings of the infinitive are as follows : — 

Active : cv (contracted with preceding c to civ), 

voi, sometimes cvcu (probably for Fcvcu). 
Middle and Passive : o^ai (primitive 6eu). 

666. For the formation of the participles and the verbals in 
TOi and T€Oi, see 770-776. 

Remarks ok the Ekdinos. 
656. 1. Only verbs in fu have the primary endings /u and at 
in the indicative active. For fu in the optative, see 731. The 
original a of the second person singular is found only in the epic 
ia-ai, thou art (807, 1). 0a (originally perfect ending) appears in 
ottrOa (for olMa) from oT&i (820) and in ^-Ba from ct/u (806); 
whence (c)^ in many Homeric forms (780, 4 ; 787, 4), and rarely 
in Attic (as i<fnf-<rOa). In the third person singular n is Doric, 
as in tiOtJ-ti for TiOrfa-i ; and it is preserved in Attic in ia-riy is. 

2. A first person dual in fuOov is found three times in poetry : 
irtpi^fuBov, subj. of irepiSiStofUf IL 28, 485; \€X.€Lfifi£$oy, from 
XctTTO), S. EL 950 ; o/o/aco/ac^of, from opfWM, S. Ph, 1079. Generally 
the first person plural is used also for the dual. • 

3. In Homer rov and (rdoy are sometimes used for rrpf and trOrfy 
in the third person dual of past tenses. This occurs rarely in the 
Attic poets, who sometimes have rrfv for tw in the second person. 
The latter is found occasionally even in prose. 

4. In the first person plural /xcs is Doric. The poets often have 
fuaOa for fxeSa (777, 1). 

5. In the third person plural vert always drops v (78, 3) and the 
preceding vowel is lengthened ; as in Xwnxn for Xvo-vo-t. The more 
primitive vn is Doric ; as <t>€po-vn (Latin /crwn^) for <f>ipown^ 

^ A comparison of the various forms of the present indicative of the 
primitive verb he (whose original stem is as-^ in Greek and Latin e8-), 
as it appears in Sanskrit, the older Greek, Latin, Old Slavic, and 
Lithuanian (the most primitive modem language, still spoken on the 
Baltic), will illustrate liie Greek verbal endings. 

SINGULAR. 
Sanskrit. Older Greek, Latin. 

1. as-mi l|&-|i( (for kr-|ii) [e]s-um 

2. asi kr-o-C es 

3. as-ti kr-rC es-t 

PLURAL. 

1. s-mas kr-|Uv (Dor. clfUs) [e]s-u-mus 

2. 8-tha kr-W es-tis 

3. 8-a-nti I-vt( (Doric) [e]s-u-nt 



Old Slavic. 


LUhuaman. 


yes-m' 


es-mi 


yesi 


esi 


yes-t' 


es-ti 


yes-mi 


es-me 


yes-te 


es-te 


s-u-t' 


es-U 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



669] TENSE STEMS AND FORMS OF INFLECTION. 133 

6. ®t. seldom appears in the imperatiye, except in the second 
aorist active of /urforms (755), and in the aorist passive, which 
has the active forms (551). 

In the third person plural of the imperative the endings vrtav 
and (r$<i>v ($<av) are used in the older and better Attic. 

7. The primitive middle forms Oovy ^, $t, tioi, etc. appear in 
the perfect and pluperfect after consonants ; as rerplf^t (rpip-io). 
See 489. 



TENSE STEMS AND FORMS OF INFLECTION. 

SIMPLE AND COMPLEX TENSE STEMS. 

667. Tense stems are of two classes, simple and complex. 
A simple tense stem is the verb stem (often in a modified 
form), to which the endings are applied directly, A com- 
plex tense stem is composed of the verb stem (with its 
modifications) prolonged by a tense suffix (561, 6), to which 
the endings are applied. 

668. (Simple Tense Stems.) Simple tense stems are 
found 

(a) in the present and imperfect, the second aorist ac- 
tive and middle, and the second perfect and pluperfect, of 
the conjugation in /u (500), except in the subjunctive ; 

(6) in the perfect and pluperfect middle of all verbs. 

(a) From tfyrffu (stem <^-), say, come <fxi-fi€v, (JKL-ri, ifM-vax, 
€'<l>a-r€, etc. From TiOrjfu (stem $€-), put, come 2 aor. l-^e-re, 
VSfrTOy $€-{r$<i}y $e<r$ai, Si-fievoq, etc. ; and from the reduplicated 
Ti'Se- (536) come TL$€-fi€v, rCOe^t, rtSe-aai, rCOe-rai, i-riSe-vro, i-rCSt- 
<T$€, Tti9c-<ro, TLOt-odaii etc. 

(6) From Ac-Xv- (reduplicated stem of Xv-m) with the middle 
endings (552) come \t\v-fuu, XeAv-crai, XtXxHrSe, \€\v-{r6aL, XcXv- 
fievoi ; €-\€\v-firpf, c-XcAvKTO, c-XcXv-cr^c, i-Xtkv-vro. 

669. (Complex Tense Stems.) Complex tense stems are 
found in all other forms of the verb. E.g. 

Avctf (stem Av-), has (pres.) X6o-fi€v, Xvc-re, Xvo-fxeOa, Xvc-o-^e, 
Xvo-vTca, etc. ; (fut.) Xvao-fuv, Xvcrc-rc, Xvae-a^ai, etc. ; (aor.) 
i-Xv<ra'fjL€v, c-Xvcra-rc, i-Xva-a-aSe, Xvaa-oAu, etc.; (1 aor. pass.) 
c-Xvfty-v, i-Xvdrf-fUv, i-XvOrfTC, etc. 



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134 INFLECTION. [560 

660. This distinction will be seen by a comparison of the 
present indicative middle of rii^i^/u (jiOe-) with that of ifttXiw 
(^tXc-) in its uncontracted (Homeric) form : — 

rC6c-<r(u ^iX^-c-(<r)ai rCOc-crOc ^iX^-c-flrfc 

rCOc-rai ^iX^-i-reu tCOc-vtcu ^iX^-o-vrai 

661. {Tense Suffixes.) 1. In the present, imperfect, and 
second aorist active and middle of the conjugation in a>, in 
all futures, and in the future perfect, the tense stem ends 
in a variable vowel, called the thematic vowel, which is o 
before /a and v and in the optative, and is elsewhere e 
This is written %- ; as \v%-, present stem of \v-w ; Aiir%-, 
second aorist stem of Xct'ir-a). In the futures and the future 
perfect the thematic vowel is preceded by <r. To these 
prolonged tense stems the endings are added. E.g, 

Avorfievj Avc-Tc, \vov<ri for Xvo-vo-i (78, 3) ; VXatto-v, I-Aaitc-s, 
€-Xi'7ro^fjL€Vf i-\i7re-T€ ; c-AiVc-o^e, i-XiTro-vro ; Xvao-fxcvt Xvcc-rc, Xvoo- 
KTot. For the terminations o), «?, ct in the singular, see 623. 

2. The subjunctive has a long thematic vowel '^Z,-, which appears 
in both conjugations; as Xcyco-zxcv, Xcyiy-re, XcycD-o-i for XcyoM/oi 
(78, 3) ; 0&fi€v for Si-io-fitv, %€ for Oi-^tf-re. 

3. The first aorist stem has a suffix era-, the first perfect Ka-, and 
the second perfect a-. 

4. The first aorist passive has a suffix Be- (or ft^), and the 
second aorist passive c- (or rf-) ; as Xcwr-o), IXct^i^ft^v, XeiifySff-vaif 

(X€l<^^€-<0) X.€L<l>OS)] (fKUVta (<^V-), C^ttV-iy-V, ^^^V-TJ-VOX, <fMV-€rVnJ^\ 

€Xv-ft^v, IKv-Br}-^, iXv-OrffxeVf Xv-Oe-vTio^, Xv-^€-ktc?. 

The first and second passive futures have Brf<r%' and 170-%- ; as 
X£i<l>-6y<ro-fjixu, Xv-Oi^ae-aOe, <fxiv^<ro-fmi, (fKLV^fre^ca. 

5. The thematic vowels, and 0-%-, <ra-, #ca- (a-), dc- (ft^) or c- (>;-), 
Brf<r%' or 170-%-, (1-4), are called <cnsg suffixes, 

662. ( Optative Suffix.) The optative inserts a mood «w^ t- or 
11;- (i€-) between both the simple and the complex tense stem and 
the personal endings. (See 730.) 

For the subjunctive, see 718 ; 561, 2. 

TWO FORMS OF INFLECTION. 

663. To the two classes of tense stems correspond gener- 
ally two forms of inflection, — the simple form and the 
common form. 



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665] TWO FORMS OF INFLECTION. 135 

I. The Simple Form of Inflection. 
664. To this form (sometimes called the fii-iovm) belong 
all tenses which have simple tense stems (558) and also 
both passive aorists, — always excepting the subjunctives 
(561, 2.). It has these peculiarities of inflection: — 

1. The first and third persons singular of the present indicative 
active have the endings fu and o-t (552) ; as <^fu, ^fyrf-a-i'i Ti$rf-fu, 
rlOtf-in. 

2. The second aorist imperative active generally retains the 
ending $i (553) ; as firi-di^ go. So rarely the present ; as ffni-Oiy 
say. (See 752; 755.) 

3. The third person plural has the active endings ao-t and crav (552). 

4. The infinitive active has the ending vox or cvou (554); as 
TtBi'Vai, U'vai (?t7/ai), i-evai (ci/u). 

5. Participles with stems in o-vr have nominatives in ovs ; as 
&Sov9, at&>-vr-os (see 565, 5). 

6. In all forms of this class except the second aorist and the 
optative, the middle endings orai and <ro regularly retain o-; as 
TiOt-aajL, i^iOe-a-o; XeXv-crai, c-XeXv-co. But 2 aorist iOov (for 
iOt-tro); optative tcrraio (for tora-t-cro). 

7. The passive aorists, which belong here although they do not 
have simple stems (558), have the inflection of the second aorist 
active of the /u-form; Xvcd, IXv-Orf-v, <Ikuv<d (<^v-), €<fidv-7i'V, <^v«i), 
4>oy€ir/Vf ^VYf-Bi, €l>avrj-vaji, <^v€t9 (for i^k-c-kts), inflected like 
i(mjy, (TTO), ^coyv, <rrff-$ii OTrj-vax, Sek (506). 

II. The Common Fobm of Inflection. 
566. To this form belong all parts of the verb in w, ex- 
cept the perfect and pluperfect middle and the passive 
aorists, and also all subjunctives. It has the following 
peculiarities of inflection. 

1. It has the thematic vowel and the other tense suffixes men- 
tioned in 561, 1-3. For the inflection of the present and imperfect 
indicative, see 623 and 624. 

2. The imperfect and second aorist have the ending v in the 
third person plural ; the pluperfect has crav. 

3. The imperative active has no ending in the second person 
singular, except ov in the first aorist. 

4. The infinitive active has civ (for c-cv) in the present, future, 
and second aorist; e-vot in the perfect; and or-ot (or ai) in the 
first aorist 

5. Participles with stems in ovr have nominatives in wv (564, 5). 



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136 INFLECTION. [666 

6. The middle endings <rat and <ro in the second person singular 
drop (T and are contracted with the thematic vowel; as Xveooi, 
\v€ai, XvQ or Xvei ; iXveco, iXveo, iXvov (88, 2). For Ionic uncon- 
tracted forms, see 777, 2 ; 785, 2. 

FORMATION AND INFLECTION OF TISN8E SYSTEMS. 

566. To understand the inflection of the verb, we must 
know the relation ot each tense stem to the verb stem, and 
also certain internal modifications which the verb stem 
undergoes in some of the tense systems. 

FORMATION OF THE PRESENT STEM FROM THE VERB 
STEM. — EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 

667. When the verb stem does not appear as part of the 
present stem, as it does in Xv-w and Xcy-co (459), it generally 
appears in a strengthened form; as in Konr-ia (kow^), cut, 
fmvBdvfa (fJutO-), learn, ^eaK-o) (Ape-), please. In a few very 
irregular verbs no connection is to be seen between the 
present stem and the stem or stems of other tenses ; as in 
<^epo) (<^€/>-), bear, fut. oicro), aor. rjveyKa, 

668. Verbs are divided into eight classes with reference 
to the relation of the present stem to the verb stem. 

669. First Class. {Verb Stem unchanged throughotU.) 
Here the present stem is formed by- adding the thematic 
vowel %' (565, 1) to the verb stem. E.g, 

Acyo) (Xcy-), say, present stem Xcy%-, giving Xcyo-fiev, Xeyc-rc, 
Xeyo-fjuai, Xeyc-roi, Xcyo-vrot, l-Xcyo-v, l-Xcye-9, c-Xcyc-rc, c-Xeyc-o^ 
c-Xcyo-vro, etc. in the present and imperfect. For o), «?, a in the 
present active, see 623. 

570. N. Some verbs of this class have the stem variable in 
quantity in different tenses; as Sv(o, <^v(i)) SXiPn}, iMyia, rptPio, 
TVKJxa, \lwx<o. See these in the Catalogue of Verbs. For \v<a, see 471. 

571. N. The pure verbs of the first class which irregularly retain a 
short vowel in certain tenses are given in 639 ; those which insert 0- in 
certain tenses, in 640. The verbs (of all classes) which add e to the 
stem in some or all tenses not of the present system (as /Soi^XoAiai) are 
given in 667 and 658. Reduplicated presents of all classes are given in 
651 and 652. These and others which are peculiar in their inflection 
are found in the Catalogue of Verbs. For special peculiarities, see 
ylyvofiai, iOta, ^tcj, ix^* ^iirrw, tIktcj. 



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578] EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 137 

572. Second Class. (Stems with Strong Forms.) This 
class includes verbs with mute steins which have strong 
forms with ct (<h), ev, or yj (31) i^^. all tenses except in the 
second aorist and second passive systems, in which they have 
tbe weak forms in t, v, and a. The present stem adds %- 
to the strong form of the stem. E.g. 

AcoTHi), leave, 2 aor. l-AtTr-ov, 2 perf . Ae-AotTr-a ; <^cvy-a), Jlee, 2 aor. 
i-ff^vyov'i TiyKHi), melt, 2 aor. pass. c-raK-iyv; with present stems Xct7r%-, 
<l>€vy%-, rrjK%-. 

673. To this class belong aA.€6<^a), ipciw-ui, Xcwr-o), 7ret(9-<o, arcLP-cii, 
aTCtX"<*>> <^€t8-o/xa4 ; K€v$-<a, Tr€v$-oficu, revx-it), <t>€vy-<t) ; KiyS-w, Xiy^w, 
oTpr-io, rqK-<a\ with Ionic or poetic epeiVo), ipevy-ofjucuy Tfii^y-io', — all 
with weak stems in t, v, or a. See also OaTr- or ra^, stem of ri^rpra 
and €Ta<f>ov, and ciko) (lotico). T/owy-co, ^rnatr, 2 aor. l-rpay-ov, irregu- 
larly has (i> in the present. For prjy-vvyj. and cto^a (i7^-)> see 689. 

For exceptions in a few of these verbs, see 642, 2. See 611. 

674. Six verbs in eo) with weak stems in v belong by 
formation to this class. These originally had the strong 
form in cv, which became €p (90, 2) before a vowel, and 
finally dropped /:, leaving c ; as irXe-o), sail (weak stem irXv-), 
strong stem irXcv-, irXc/:-, ttXc-, present stem 7rXc%-. 

These verbs are dlna (weak stem ^), run, vc-w (w-)> «W7im, irXc-co 
(ttXv-), «m7, irvi-m (ttvu-), breathe, pe-o) (pyy-),Jlow, x€-<o (x"-),i>otir. 
The poetic o-cvw (<tv-), wr^e, has this formation, with cu retained. 
(See 601.) 

675. As verbs of the second class have the strong stem in 
almost all forms, this stem is here called the verb stem. 

576. Third Class. (Verbs in nria, or T Class.) Some 
labial (w, p, <^) verb stems add t%-, and thus form the 
present in irrw; as Konr-n) (kott-), cut (present stem icottt^-), 
pXaiwT'ta (pXaP-), hurt, piirT-ta (pt<^, pi<^), throw (71). 

577. "N. Here the exact form of the verb stem cannot be deter- 
mined from the present. Thus, in the examples above given, the 
stem is to be found in the second aorists cKOTnyv, cjSXajSiyv, and 
ippiffyrp^ ; and in KoXvirTw (KoXvp-), cover, it is seen in Kokvp^, hut. 

878. The verbs of this class are dTrT-io (d<f>-), pdirr-m (j8a</i>-), 
pXanrr-ia (PXafi-), BaTrr-ia (ra^), Spvirr-fa (rpvf^), KoXvirr-ia 
(icaXvP-), Kdiiirr-ii} (Kafiir-), kXcW-o) (kXctt-), icottt-o) (kott-), KpvTrr-m 
(#cpv)8- or Kpv^), KviTT-io (icuK^), pawT-<i) (pa^), pLirr-ta (pl<t>-, 
pi<lh), o-KaTTT-o) (crKa<^), a-KeTTTOfMU ((TKeTT-), (ncffTma (a-tcrjir-), 



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138 INFLECTION. [679 

(rxwirra) (aKunr-), rvwrm (rvir-), with Homeric and poetic yvdiLirrta 
(yvofiv^), kviima (cvtir-), and liAfnma (jukfyir-). 

679. Fourth Glass. 4^Iota Class.) In this class the 
present stem is formed by adding t%- to the verb stem and 
making the euphonic changes which this occasions. (See 
84.) There are four divisions. 

680. I. {Verbs in a-a-io or rra},) Most presents in a-a-ta 
(ttw) come from palatal stems, #c or ^ and generally y with 
I becoming air (tt). These have futures in fw; as irpawoi 
(irpay-), do, present stem Trpao-o-^- (for irpayi%-), fut. irpa^oi; 
IwXajoro'ia {fiaXaK', SCen in /ioAaicds), Soften, fut. fuiXjoiiii}', 
rapajoro'ia {rapax-f seen in rapa-)(ri)y confuse, fut. roLpaita) 
KtipiwTfria {ktjpvk-) , proclaim, fut. Ktjpviio. (See 84, 1.) 

681. So also dtcrcro) (ouk-), dAAoo-oro) (dAAay-), dpao-crco (apay-), 
Prfo-fTdi (PrjX')j Spd<r<rm (Spay-), cAxWo) (cXtK-), Opaxrao} (jBpo)^ ?), 
poo-o-o) (pay-), pva-a-ai (jivk-), opwra-ia (ppvx'), TrXiJcro-a) (-jrAiTy-, 
irAay-), 7my<rcr(o (7m)K-)f irrvaudu (Trrvy-), a-aTTia (<ray-), rdjaxroi 
(Tay-), if>pacr<r<o (<^pay-), <f>fi(r<ria (ifypuc-), if>v\a<T<rv> (<^vAa#c-). See 
also epic Sct&Vcropat, Ionic and poetic ap.vaa'ii} and irpotaa-opaiy and 
poetic df^voro-o) and vwo-o).^ 

682. Some presents in o-cro) (rr©) are formed from lingual 
stems, which have futures in o-o) or aorists in era ; as cpco-o-o), 
rot(? (from stem iper-, seen in iperrj':, rower), aor. ^pccro. So 
also appoTTii) (fut. dpp6<r<i>), pXtrrnn (pcAtr-, 66), XCaaopjcu (AiTr), 
iroo-cro), TrXocro-o), TrrtWo), with d<^do-(r(i> (Hdt.), and poetic 

tpOO-O-O), KOpVG-a-ii} {KOpvS-). 

Many presents of this kind are formed on the analogy of verbs 
with real lingual stems (see 587). 

683. N. Ileo-o-o), cooA;, comes from an old stem ttck- ; while the 
tenses ttc^w, c-n-a/^a, etc. belong to the stem weir-, seen in later 
ireTTTd) and Ionic iriirropai of Class HI. 

684. II. {Verbs in l^ia,) Presents in ^w may be formed 
in two ways : — 

685. (1) From stems in 8, with futures in o-co ; as Kop^ut 
(#copt8-, seen in KopiZ-rj), carry, fut. Kopla-oi] il>pai<o (<^paS-), 
say, fut. <l)pd<r<i}, (See 84, 3.) 

1 The lists of verbs of the fourth class are not complete, while those 
of the other classes which are given contain all the verbs in common use. 



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695] EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 139 

586. So dpfju6i<o (ap/bio8-)i df>wdC<ai ikviiw (cAttiS-), ipil^to {ipv8-'), 
^avfioifo, tlfo) (18-) with e^ofjuu (cS-), KTiiw, vo/uui^o), o^o) (o8-), TrcAo^o), 

687. N. Many verbs in fo), especially most in a^o), with futures 
in o-a>, were formed on the analogy of those with actual' stems in 8. 
(See Meyer, Gr, Gram, §§ 521, 522.) 

688. (2) From stems in y (or yy), with futures in (w ; 
as o-<^a£a> (a<l>ay), slay (a<t>dTT<o in prose), fut. o-<^a^<o; pcfw 
(pcy-), do (poetic and Ionic), fut. pc^w; KXafw (KAoyy-), 
scream (cf. dango), fut. KXay^co. (See 84, 3.) 

689. So Kpdi<a (xpay-), <TaXwi<fa) (ouX-Trtyy-), orti^^ (orty-) ; with 
poetic aAaAa{(i>, Pdito, Pptl^ta, ypvfa>, cXeXti^o), KplZ^m, fiv^o), grumble^ 

690. X. Some verbs in ^o) have stems both in 8 and y; as 
muim (7rai8-, Troiy-), play, fut. Trcu^ovpm (666), aor. iiroMra, See 
also poetic forms of dpwd^fo and vao-<rQ>. (See 587.) 

691. N. Ni^o), tro^A, fut. vu/'co, forms its tenses from a stem 
vifi-9 seen in Homeric vLirropjca and later vtTrra). 

692. III. (Ferfts «;^iA enlarged Liquid Stems.) Of these 
there are three divisions : — 

693. (1) Presents in AAw are formed from verb stems in X 
with i%- added, Xt becoming XX ; as orcXXo), send, for orcX-t-w ; 
dyycXXo), announcey for dT'ycX-i-o) ; o'<^aXX(i>, <np wj9, for o-i^aX-i-o); 
present stems o-tcXX%-, etc. (See 84, 4.) 

See aXXofuu (aX-), j^oXXo) ()3aX-), ^aXXo) (^aX-), oiceXXo) (oiccX-), 
TToXXoi (iraX-), TcXXd) {rfX'), with poetic 8(u8aXX(i>, toXXo), o-KeXXo), 
rtXXitf. 

694. (2) Presents in aivw and atpo) are formed from verb 
stems in av- and ap- with t%- added. 

Here the t is transposed and then contracted with a to at ; as 
^(uVctf (<l>av-)f show, for <f)av-i.'<o (present stem <fxuv%'), future <^vco ; 
Xo^pia (x<*P")> ^Voice, for xop-t-iO' (See 84, 5.) 

696. So €v<f>paiv<i> {€v<f>pav), #c€p8tuvo) (fC€p8av-), prnvopax (fiav-), 
pMivm (/juav), fouVo) (iav), ^palvui iirjpav), woLpjcuvio (iroipav), 
paivui (pav)y <r€uv<a (<rav-), crrjpmvtn (orrjfmv-), T€Tp(uv<a (rerpav), 
wfMLVia (vifKLV-), xpaiviii (XP^^) » ^^^^ poetic Kpalvta (Kpav), Trairnuva) 
(irairrav-), vuuv<a (iriav). Arpco (dp-), KaOaipia (Ka$ap-), TtKpmpo- 
pal (rcKfuip-), with poetic Ivacpui (cmp-), €xO<up<o (^x^op-), aoupo) 
(<rap-). 



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140 INFLECTION. [696 

696. (3) Presents in ewu), ctpo)^ Ivio, Ipwy vvfo, and vp<o come 
from stems in cv, c/o, Xv, tp, vv, and vp, with t%- added. 

Here the added i disappears and the preceding c, t, or v is 
lengthened to ci, t, or iJ ; as rctvo) (rev-), stretch, for rev-i-w; 
Kupm (ic€p-), shear, for k€/)-i-o); fcptvo) (k/hv^), judge, for icpiv-&-o); 
ofivvo) (ofivi^-), warrf oj^ for a/AV|^^-a> ; avpto (crv/j-), draw, for 

697. So ycLvofjuu (y€v-), KTctVo) (kt€v-), and poetic Beivio (Otv-) ; 
dyce/xi) (dycp-), 8cipa> (Sep-), cyecpo) (cyep-), Ifietpw (tfi€pr), fjudpopai 
ifup-), <l>OtLp(t) (^fyOep-), (TTretpo) (<nr€pr), with poetic ttcc/xd (wcp-). 
KAivo) (kXiv-), atvopai (ctik-), ato^vo) (otoxw-), Oap&vvio (Oapaw-), 
6$vv(0 (6$vv-)t *7rAvva) (ttXvv-), paprvpopjoj. (paprvp-), 6XKHf>vpopm 
(oXoKfyvp-). Oticrtpo) (owcrtp-), joiVy (commonly written oucrdpta), 
is the only verb in Zpw. 

698. N. '0<^€iXa> (o<^€A-), &€ obliged, owe, follows the analogy 
of stems in cv, to avoid confusion with 6<^eAAa> (6<^€A-), increase; 
but in Homer it has the regular present 6<^eXAa>. Homer has 
tikopjaji, press, from stem cA-. 

699. N. Verbs of this division (HI.) regularly have futures 
and aorists active and middle of the liquid form (663). For excep- 
tions (in poetry), see 668. 

600. N. Many verbs with liquid stems do not belong to this 
class ; as hip-m and Sepo) in Class I. For jSotvo) etc. in Class V., 
see 610. 

601. IV. {Stems in av.) Here belong Katw, hurriy and 
Khuiiiy weep (Attic also icaa> and KXaa>) . The stems icav- and 
icAav- (seen in fcavo-a> and KXavcropjon.) became- KapL- and KXapi-, 
whence kcu- and icAai- (90, 2). (See 574.) 

602. N. The poets form some other presents in this way ; as dalu 
(5a/r-), burn, valw (vo/r-), swim. So, from stems in o<r-, fxalofMi {/uur-, 
fMuri-, /iot-), seek, dalofMi (5a<r-), divide, *Chrvl<a, marry, luus stem irv-, 
whence fut. dirtata. 

603. Fifth Class. (N Class,) (1) Some verb stems 
are strengthened in the present by adding v before the 
thematic vowel %-; as <l>Odv-io (<^^o-), anticipate (present 
stem <l)$av%-) ; <^^tV-w (<l>Oi'), waste; Sokimo (&wc-), bite; 
Kdp.v-n) (Ka/x-), be weary; ripiv-m (rep.-), cut, 

604. So Palvm (Pa-, ^av-, 610), Trfvo) (m-, see also 621), tow 
(rt-), Swft) (with Svw), Hom. Ovvw (with Ovta), rush; for cAavKU 
liXa-), see 612. 



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612] EIGHT CLASSES OP VERBS. 141 

605. (2) (a) Some consonant stems add ay; ifMofyraiMa 
(4fytapi^), err (present stem afjuiprav%') ; ai<r$avofjuu (olcrtf-), 

perceive; pXxurravin {pXaxrr-), aprovJt, 

(6) Here, if the last vowel of the stem is short, another 
nasal {jjl before a labial, v before a lingual, y before a pala- 
tal) is inserted after this vowel; as XavBdvia (Aa^, Aav0-), 
escape notice {XavOav%-) ; Xa/iPavia (Aa/3-, XafiP-), take; $iy 
ydvia {Oiy-y OiyY-), touch. 

606. So av$diMa (with av(-<ii), SapOay-^ (SoftO-), <&ir-c;(0aiM>/4ai 
(«X^)» KoJ^ (with r{-<u), oiSaiMU (oi8-), dXurOaiMo (dXio^), 4</>Xir 
o-Kav-o) (6<^X-, o<^Aio-K-, 614) ; with poetic dXircuVofuu (dL\ir-, 01O)» 
dA.^K-(u (dX^), cpi&uV-<i> (^pt8-). With inserted v, y, or fi, dvStuMa 
(aS-), Kiyxavco, epic Kixavcu (Ki^-)* XayxaiMa (Xa^-), fuivOdiMD (fJuiS-), 
^n)v6dv-ofJLai (ttu^), Tvy\a.v-ia (tv^-)* with poetic x^Q^i^'^ (X^)» 
ipvyydy-m (ipvy-). 

607. (3) A few stems add vt : fivviia (with /3v-a>), «top wp, 
iKV€-ofjuu (with fx-o)), come, kwc-o> (kv-), X^5/ also dfiir-urxve- 
ofuu, Aav6 on, and xnr-ui^e-opjaLif promise, from r(r;(-o). 

608. (4) Some stems add w or (after a vowel) vw. These 
form the second class (in vvfu) of verbs in /u, as SciVcvv-zu 
(8e(K-), dAoti;, xcpavvv-/iu (Kcpa-), mix, and are enumerated in 
797, 1. Some of these have also presents in wot. (See 502, 2.) 

609. (5) A few poetic (chiefly epic) verbs add va to the stem, 
forming presents in vrjfu (or deponents in vapm) : most of these have 
presents in void ; as Sofivrffu (Safi-va-)^ also 8a/AvacD, subdue. These 
form a third class of verbs in /u, and are enumerated in 797, 2. 

610. N. BotVo) (fia-, fiav-), go, and 6<r^paivofuu. (6(r<^/>-, o(T<f>pay-), 
smeU, not only add v or av, but lengthen av to ouv on the principle 
of Class IV. (594). They belong here, however, because they do not 
have the inflection of liquid verbs (599). See also KcpSatvoi, paivnh 
rerfKuviOy with Homeric dXircuvo/juu (dXir-, dXtrai^-). 

611. N. Some stems of this class lengthen a short vowel (on 
the principle of Class XL) in other tenses than the present; as 
XofAfidyio (XaP-), fut. Xi^ofmi (XiyjS-) : so Soxvo), Xayxavo), Xav- 
&dyia, rvyxdtno. See also cpvyyavo), ipxofjuu, and irwOdvofua. 

Three verbs in vvfu, (608), (cvyvv/u, Tnyyvufii, p'qyvvfu, belong 
equally to Class II. and Class V. 

612. N. "EXaiW (Aa-), drive, is irregular in the present stem 
(probably for cXa-viMo). "Ok-Xv-fu (oX-), destroy, adds \v (by 
assimilation) instead of w to the stem 6X-. 

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142 INFLECTION. [613 

613. Sixth Class. (Verbs in ctko).) These add orK%- or 
ixTK%- to the verb stem to form the present stem ; as 
yyiporCKia {yrjp(i-)y grow old (present stem yiypao-K%-); cvp-^a-KUi 
(€vp'),Jind (cvpt(rK%-) ; dp^-o-Kta {ape-) , please, orcp-arKCD (otc/j-), 
depnve, 

614. These verbs are, further, dX-Ca-KOfjucu, ^pX-Ca-Kio, dfiirXoK- 
vcTKin (poetic), dvdX-io-Ko), dira<l>-LaK<o (poet.), dpoLp-urKto (poet.), 
Pa-<TK<a (poet.), Pi-Pput-a-Kta (fipo-), dlvajStcS-o-ico/xai ()3m>-), )3X<o- 
(TKO) (fioX-, )3Xo-), ycycDK-MTKO), yt-yvaj-o-KO) (7^0-), St-Spa-o-Kco (3pa-), 
iwavp-CcKto (poet.), ^jSa-aKcu, Ovrj-CKUi {$av-, 6va-), OpuMrKta (Oop-, 

OpO-), tXarO-KOpjCU, pjcO-V-CKQ}, Kt/cXiy-O-KO) (kXi;-) (poet.), KV-LO-KOfUU 

(kv-), fu-fivQ-<TK<i} (/xva-), m^-a-Kta (Ion. and Pind.), Tri-^pa-o-KO), 
in<f>av-<TKta (</>av-), declare (Hoai.), Ti-TpijMrK<o (rpo-), 4>d-irKUi, 
Xa-o-KCD. See also the verbs in 617. 'O^X-Mr/cavcD (o^X-) takes utk 
and then adds av (606). 

615. N. Many presents of this classs are reduplicated (536) ; 
as yi-yvwo-KO) (yvo-). See 652, 1. 'Ap-ap-to-Kco has a form of Attic 
reduplication (529). 

616. N. Final of the verb stem becomes 0;, and final & sometimes 
becomes o or 17; as in yiy vdxrKta (yw-), didpdffKu (Spa-); dirj<rK(a {Bar-, 
Bva-), Doric Ov^ffKut (for dva-urKbo). 

617. N. Three verbs, dXiJ-er/icw (dXufc-), avoid, Sidd-a-Ku (di8ax')i 
teach, and \d-(rK(a (Xax-), speak, omit ic or x before (r/cw. So Homeric 
HiTKb) or tijicw (^i'lc- or Ik-), liken, and rin^ffKOfiai (rvx-, twic-), for rt-rvjc- 
ffKOfuu, prepare. See also fUa-yuj (for /uy-«ricw) and irdirxw (for iro^-<ric«). 

618. N. These verbs, from their ending iricw, are called inceptive, 
though few have any inceptive meaning. 

619. Seventh Class. (Presents in fu with simple stems,) 
Here the verb stem, sometimes reduplicated (652), without 
the thematic vowel, appears as the present stem. E.g, 

^fii (<f>a-), say, ifxt-fiev, tf>a-T€; riOrjpi (Oe-), put, ri$€-p£v, 
riOc'TC, riOt'pxix, TiOi-p^Oa, i-rCOc-crOc, i-rCde-vro; ^tBtofu (80-), 
&'-8o-/ui€V. 

For the strong form of these stems in the singular of the 
active, see 627. 

620. All verbs in /u, except those in vv/u under 608, and the 
epic forms in vrffu (or vapm) with va added to the stem (609 ), are 
of this class. They are enumerated in 794. (See 502, 1.) 

621. Eighth Class. (Mixed Class.) This includes the 
few irregular verbs which have any of the tense stems so 
essentially different from others, or are otherwise so pecul- 



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624] PRESENT AND IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. 143 

iar in formation, that they cannot be brought under any 
of the preceding classes. They are the following : — 

olpcco (alp€-f cX-), take, int. aiptja-o), 2 aor. cIXov. 

d&jv (fiS-, tS-), saw, vidi, 2 aorist (no present act.) ; 2 pf. oISo, 
know (820). Mid. ct8o/iUU (poet.). EISov is used as 2 aor. of 
opofo (see below). 

^irov (ciTT-, iff, pe-), spoke, 2 aor. (no pres.) ; fut. (cpcco) ipio, 
pf. d-pnrf-Ko. The stem Ip- (pc-) is for p€p- (fpc-), seen in Lat. 
ver-bum (649). So cv-cVw. 

ipxofjuu (cpX"? eXcv^, IXv^, cX^, ^o, fut. cXeixro/xou (poet.), 
2 perf. eXi/Xv^o, 2 aor. ^X^ov. The Attic future is ct/u, «Aa/Z ^o 
(808). 

itrOCia (i(rO', eS-, <^y-), eat, fut. iSopxu, 2 aor. i<f>ayov, 

opaw (opa-, oir-, fi^), see, futl onj/opjcu, pf. ItapaKOL, 2 aor. cfSov 
(see above). 

iraxrxit) (ira6-, irfvO-), suffer, fut. veCa-ofJuiL, 2 pf. iriirovOa, 2 aor. 
cTO^w. (See 617.) 

?r^vci> (tti-, iro"), rfn'n^, fut. iriopm, pf. irewwKo, 2 aor. Ittiov. (See 
604.) 

rpixm (rpex', Spa/x-), run, fut. SpapjovpoL, pf. ScSpa/xi/Ka (657), 
2 aor. ihpapjw. 

<f}€p<o (<f>€p-, oi-, €V€K-, by reduplication and syncope €1^«v€K, 
cvcy/c-), 6ear, fero ; fut. oio-oi, aor. rfvtyKa, pf . eiM/vox-a (643 ; 692), 
€v^qv€y-p4U, aor. p. rfvi)($rp^. 

For full forms of these verbs, see the Catalogue. See also the 
irregular verbs in pi (805-820). 

622. N. Occasional Homeric or poetic irregular forms appear even 
in some verbs of the first seven classes. See d/cox^fw, dX^|«, yLyvofiai, 
and x^^^^^^ ^ the Catalogue. 

Inflection op the Present and iMPERrECT Indicative. 

623. {Common Form,) The present indicative adds the 
primary endings (652) to the present tense stem in %-, ex- 
cept in the singular of the active, where it has the termi- 
nations (0, CIS, ct, the origin of which is uncertain. The 
first person in o) is independent of that in /uu, and both the 
forms in o) and in /u were probably inherited by the Greek 
from the parent language. For the third person in overt (for 
overt), see bb^y 5. 

624. Of the two forms of the second person singular middle 
in n and ct (565, 6), that in ct is the true Attic form, which was 



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144 INFLECTION. [626 

used in prose and in comedy. But the tragedians seem to have 
preferred the form in y,^ which is the regular form in the other 
dialects, except Ionic, and in the later common dialect. This 
applies to the future middle and passive and to the future perfect, 
as well as to the present. 

625. BotJXo/Aot, wishy and ciofjuu, think, have only /SovXei and ota, 
with no forms in y. So SilfOfjuan, future of opoo), see, has only o^o. 

626. The imperfect adds the secondary endings to the 
tense stem in %-. See the paradigm of Xvo). 

627. (Mi'form,) Here the final vowel of the stem is long 
(with Tff a>, v) in the singtdar of both present and imperfect 
indicative active, but short (with a or c, o, v) in the dual and 
plural, and also in most other forms derived from the present 
stem. This change from the strong stem in the indicative 
singular to the weak stem in other forms is one of the most 
important distinctions between the /u-form and that in <». 
The endings here include /u, s, <ri in the singular of the present, 
and orav in the third person plural of the imperfect. (See 606.) 

628. The third person plural of the present active has 
the ending d<n (552), which is always contracted with a 
(but never with c, o, or v) of the stem; as urrao-c (for wrra- 
acri), but ridfrdai, 8iSo-a<ri, SeiKyv-dau 

629. The only verbs in /u with consonant stems are the irregu- 
lar clfu (co--), be, and ^fuU ('^(r-), sit. (See 806 and 814.) 

630. Some verbs in rffu and co/u have forms which follow the 
inflection of verbs in ccd and oo). Thus the imperfect forms iriOitis 
and irCOct (as if from riOiia), and iSSow, c&'Sovs, €&'8ov (as if from 
St3oa>), are much more common than the regular forms in i;^, tf and 
wv, (OS, o). So Ti0€iq for Ttft^ in the present. (See also 741.) 

631. Some verbs in vfu have also presents in vca; as SeiKvwa for 

632. AtWfuu, can, and iiriOTafua, know, often have cSvfcd (or 
rjSvvw) and ^wiaTto for iSvvaxTo and rjirLaraxro in the imperfect, and 
occasionally Svvq. and iiriarq, for SiWo-ou and iirCoToxrai in the 
present. 

633. For the present (with the other tenses) in the dependent 
moods and the participle, see the account of these (718-775). 

1 Kirchhoff and Wecklein in Aeschylus, and Bergk in Sophocles, 
give only the form in ^. 



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639] MODIFICATION OF THE VERB STEM. 145 

MODIFICATION OF THE VERB STEM IN CERTAIN 
TENSE SYSTEMS. 

634. Before discussing the other tense systems (II.-IX.), we 
must mention some modifications which the verb stem regularly 
undergoes in certain forms. Mere irregularities, such as are foimd 
only in verbs of the eighth class (621), are not noticed here. 

635. {Lengthening of Vowels.) Most stems ending in a 
short vowel lengthen this vowel before the tense suffix 
(561, 5) in all tenses formed from them, except the present 
and imperfect. A and c become -q, and o becomes oi ; but a 
after c, t, or p becomes a (29) . E,g. 

Tifidu} (rZ/ia-), honor ^ rtpn^io, Mfirf-avL, rert/JLij'KaL, Tert/jLTf-fmiy 
irlfi-Q-Oriv ; ^cXco) (^cXc-), love, ^tXi^oi, €<l>iXrfaxi, 7rc<^iXi7Ka, Tr€ff>tX.rf- 
fjuxi, €<f}iX.rj$rp^ ] SrfXoiD (8rfXo-), show, Si^qxtcd, ^^Aqxto, Sc^Xcuko, 
Saxpwa, Sajcpvcrm. But cao), cdcrcu; taofuu, idirofiai; Spoo), Spd<na, 
iSpa<Ta, ScSpa/ca. 

636. This applies also to stems which become vowel stems by 
metathesis (649); as PaXXia ()8oX-, )8Aa-), throw, pf. PtfiXtf-Ka; 
Kofivii} (Ka/u.-, Kfia-), labor, K€KfirfKa ; or by adding c (657) ; as )3ov- 
Xofuu (P<n)\', PavXx'), wish, ^SovXi^o/mt, PePovXTf-p/u, ipovXtj-^rp^. 

637. For the long stem vowel in the singular of the present 
and imperfect indicative of verbs in /uu, see 627. 

638. N. *AKpodopjca, hear, has ixpoacopai etc. ; ^^^pdm, give oracles, 
lengthens a to 17 ; as xri^^ ^^* ^ rpvf(Tia and iTprjaa from stem 
T/aa- ; see rrrpaJivia, bore. 

639. Some vowel stems retain the short vowel, contrary 
to the general rule (635); as ycXacu^ laugh, ytXaa-opm, iye- 
Xacra; opKco), suffice, dpKccra), 'qpKca'a*^ pAxppia {pjci)(€r), fightj 
pax€cropjiii (Ion.), ipja.y€<TdprjjV. 

(a) This occurs in the following verbs: (pure verbs) 3.yapai, 
auStopM, dicco/Aot, dXcco, dvvcu, dpKiio, dpoo>, Apvio, ycXcuu, cXicvo) (see 
iXico)), ipAio, ipoM, {ecu, OXd<a, #cAa(i>, break, ^co), irrwa, (nroMh rtXiia, 
rpiun, <l>Xdu}, x'zAaQ); and epic dxiT^ca), Koriat, Xocoi, vcikccd, and the 
stems (da-) and (dc-) ; — (other verbs with vowel stems) ApifTKun 
(dpe-), axOopai (dx^€-), cXawo) (iXa-), iXaxrKopm (iXa-), pjiOvvKta 
(juOv-) ; also all verbs in avyvpi and ewvpjL, with stems in a and c 
(given in 797, 1), with 6XXvpjL (dXe-) and opvvpx (opjo-). 

(b) The final vowel of the stem is variable in quantity in differ- 
ent tenses in the following verbs : (pure verbs) oIvccd, atpca>, Sccd, 



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146 INFLECTION. [640 

bind, 8v(i> (see Svv<o), ipwo (epic), Ov<a, sacrifice, koAco), \vio, /avco, 
iroBiio, woy€(t}', — (other verbs) Paivo} ()3a-), evpia-Kta C^vp-, evpe-), 
imxofjua (/Aax€-), Trtvw (irt-, 'rro-), <l>Odvia (<^^-), tpOCvw (^ft-). 

640. {Insertion of cr,) Vowel stems which retain the 
short vowel (639) and some others add <r to the final vowel 
before all endings not beginning with a- in the perfect and 
pluperfect middle. The same verbs have cr before $€ or Otf in 
the first passive tense system. E.g. 

T€k€<ji}, Jinish, T€T€X.€'a-'fjuiu, mrtKicfMfif, erfXiodrp/, reXefrOi^ofuu; 
ycXao), laugh, lyiKar<T-Brp^, ytKaxrOrfvai', XP^^^ 9^^^ oracles, ^PV^^ 
Kixfyq-Q'iwx, ixpTJ^rOrpf. 

641. This occurs in all the verbs of 639 (a), except apoai, so 
far as they form these tenses ; and in the following : dKovcD, Spam, 
Opawi), KcXevcD, /cAcuo (kXi/o)), icvactf, KvcUti}, Kpowo, KvAio) (or kvAxfSo)), 
XcvcD, v€(i>, heap, $v<t), inuw, TraXaCm, iravco, irXccu, irpitui, crcoo, rivo), Cos 
Xoo), xpo-^i XP^^j ^^d poetic pai<o. Some, however, have forms both 
with and without cr. See the Catalogue. 

642. (Strong Form of Stem in Second Glass.) 1. Verbs 
of the second class have the strong form of the stem (572), 
as XctTT- or koLT' in XctTrcD, rrfK- in TrJKiOf vcv- in (vc/ro)) v€a>, in all 
tenses except in the second aorist and second passive tense 
systems ; as <^cvycD, <^€v^oyuaXy Trcc^euya, l^vyov ; XctTrcu, Xcaffnny 
XeX.(K?ra, IXittov; tt^ko}, Tiy^co, rirrjKo, irdKrjv; p€<o (for p€/rai), 
pevaofua, ippvrfv. 

2. Exceptions are the perfect and aorist passive of reu^o) (tuX")' 
which are regular in Ionic, and most tenses of ;(€a> (x^-) and <rcvo» 
((TV-). After the Attic reduplication (529) the weak form appears; 
as in aX€i<^(tf (dXt<^-), oX-i/Xk^: see also cpctKCD and ipeano. The 
perfects ippvrjKa (pcco) and iarCPrjfjm are from stems in c- (658, 2). 

643. (E changed to o in Second Perfect.) In the second 
perfect system, c of the verb stem is changed to o. E.g. 

Srcpyo), love, earopya; irip.irta, send, w€W0fjL<f>a; KXeirrai, ste€d, 
X€kXo<^ (576 ; 692) ; Tp€<t>(o, nourish, rtrpw^ ; tikto) (j€.K'), bring 
forth, riroKa; yLyvopjca (ycv-), become, yeyova, iyeyovtf, yeyoKCi«u, 
ycyovws. 

So cyctpo) (€y€/>-), iyp-qyopa (532); ktcivo) (ktck-), ticnnm (in 
compos.); Xeyo), collect, ctXoxa; ird(rx<^ (waB-, irevO-), iretrcfifGa; 
iripSojJuu, weiropSa; rpitrio, TiTpot\>a\ <f>€pw (iy€K-), evi/voxa; ^^cipw 
i<li6€p-), €fl>Oopa; x^fw (X€^)» K«Xo8a. 

For XciVo), X€-Xoi7Mi, and ircti9-cD, iri-^otO^L, see 31 ; 642, 1. 



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649] MODIFICATION OF THE VERB STEM. 147 

644, (A lengtJiened to rf or d in Second Perfect.) In some 
verbs a of the stem is lengthened to 17 or a in the second perfect. 

These are ayvvfu (ay), edya (Ionic ciyya) ; OaXXo) (OaX-), riBrjXa ; 
KpaXfii (Kpay-), KCKpdya ; Xdurica) (XaK-), AeXaKa; fAoivofJUU (/Aav-), 
fi4fnjva; a-aipo) (o-a/j-), <T€<Trjpa; <j>aLV(o (<^i^), ire<l>rfva, 

646. (E changed to a.) In monosyllabic liquid stems, c 
is generally changed to a in the first perfect, perfect mid- 
dle, and second passive tense systems. E.g, 

SreWo) (oTcX-), send, coroAica, earaXfim, ia-raXrfv, OToAiyo-o/xcu ; 
KCtpo) (k€/j-), shear, KeKapfuu, iKoprp/ (Ion.) ; a-trcLpta {owep-), sow, 
iairoLppxu, iairdprp^. So in ^epu), kt€lv<o, pxCpopai, recvin, rcAAoi, and 

<l>0€ipdX 

646. N. The same change of c to a (after p) occurs in (rrpi^m, 
turn, toTpafipxiL, i<TTpdff>rp^, a-Tpa<]}rj(Topjcu (but 1 aor. iaTp€ff>$7fv, 
rare) ; rpiirfa, turn, riTpafifuu, Irpdirrfv (but iTpitfiBrfv, Ion. Irpd- 
if>Brpi) ; Tp€<lHa, nourish, riOpafifua, €Tpd<l>rp/ (but iOpif^Briv) ; also 
in the second aorist passive of KXiima, steal, irk^Kfo, weave, and 
ripnrm, delight, €K\aTrqv, CTrAcuciyv, and (epic) Irofyirqv (1 aor. ckXc- 
^)SrfV, lirXexOrp^, hip^Brfv, rarely epic iTdp<l>Orjv). It occurs, further, 
in the second aorist (active or middle) of kt€lvo>, kill, rifivcD, cut, 
Tp€ir<i), and ripfirm', viz., in Ixravov (poet.), Ira/xov, irafAOfirjv, irpa- 
TTOV, irpatrofjLrp/, TCTa/wro/uwyv (Hom.) ; also in several Homeric and 
poetic forms (see hipKopjox, TripSio, and Tmyo-crcD). For rctvo), ItoBtjv, 
see 711. 

647. (N of stem dropped.) Four verbs in vm drop v of the 
stem in the perfect and first passive systems, and thus have 
vowel stems in these forms : — 

Kpfvo) (Kptv), separate, Kf-KpiKo, K€Kpifmi, iKpiOrfv; kXivw (kXlv), 
incline, KiicXiKa, K€KXifmi, IkXIOtiv', ttXvvo) (ttXw-), wash, iriir\vp.ai, 
iirXvOrp/] Tctvo) (rev), stretch, riraKa (645), rirapxa, irdOrjv, €k- 
raBrjO'opjax, So KTcCvia in some poetic forms ; as iKra-Orp^, iKTd-firjv* 
See also epic stem <t>€v, <f>a-. For the regular Homeric iKXCvSrjv 
and iKpCvOrjv, see 709. 

648. When final v of a stem is not thus dropped, it becomes 
nasal y before Ka (78, 1), and is generally replaced by cr before /xai 
(83); as ^ouW (<f>o.v), TriffxiyKa, iri^jyaa-pm, i<l>dvOrjv. (See 700.) 

649. (Metathesis.) The stem sometimes suffers metathesis (64) : 

(1) in the present, as Ovya-Kto (Oav, Ova-), die, (616) ; 

(2) in other tenses, as )3aAXco ()3aA-, fiXa-), throw, pi^XrjKa, 
pipX-qpM, ipXrfOrjv', and (poetic) UpKopm (tepK-), see, 2 aor. ISpaKOV 
(SpaK-, 646). 



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148 INFLECTION. [d60 

680. (^Syncope.} Sometimes syncope (66) : 

(1) in the present, as yCyvofuu (ycv-), become, for ytry€iH>fua; 

(2) in the second aorist, as iirrofjirp^ for c-^ct-o/aitv ; 

(3) in the perfect, as trerdwvfu (Trcra-), expand, ireirrofuu for 
7rc-^cra-/iuu. See c^cpco in 621. 

661. (^Reduplication,) Sometimes reduplication, besides the reg- 
ular reduplication of the perfect stem (520) : 

(1) in the present, as yi-yv(jxrK(a, know, yt-yvofuu, ri-OrffAi. 

(2) in the second aorist, as 9reti9<o (iru^), persuade, ire^nt$o¥ 
(epic) ; so 5yctf, rjyayov (Attic). 

682. 1. The following are reduplicated in the present : — 

(a) In Class I., yi-yvofmi (for yl-yc1^ofuu) ; i<r\(ii (for a-i-<r€x-ia) ; 
lufuyw (for fU'fuvui), poetic for /levw; irtimo (for wi-jrcr-co) ; rtJcrcD 

(for Tt-TCK-Ci)). 

(6) In Class VI., Pi'Pp<MTK<a (Ppo-), yi-yvwrKia (yvo-), Si-ipaaKia 
(Spa-), fu-fivyaKUi (fiva-), 7ri-7rpa(rK(o (wpa-), rir^piaa-Kw (rpo-), with 
poetic ^t-^tcTKco and Tri-<f>av(rK<a, and opapCaKw with peculiar Attic 
reduplication (615). 

(c) In Class VII., the verbs in fu which are enumerated in 
794, 2. 

2. For reduplicated second aorists, see 534 and 535. 

683. (E added to Stem.) New stems are often formed by 
adding c to the verb stem. 

684. (1) From this new stem in € some verbs form the 
present stem (by adding %-), sometimes also other tense 
stems. E.g. 

AoKc-(o (SoK-), seem, pres. stem (Bok€%-, fut. So^o); yafie^ (y^')* 
marry, fut. yafm, pf . yeydfirfKa ; wOita (cS^), push, fut. OKr<u (poet. 
c5^o"a)). 

688. These verbs are, further, ycycji/coi, yyfiiio, Krwrita, tcvpiui, 
fiafyrvp€<t) (also pjOLprvpofmL), plirriia (also fiima), ^iXcco (see epic 
forms) ; and poetic Sotm-coi, ciXccd, iiravp€<a, KcAaScoi, xcvrco)^ titireo- 
/Luu, piyiw, OTvyco), ropito, and )(paurfJL€(a, See also ircxreco (ircic-, 

ircKT-). 

Most verbs in ceo have their regular stems in c-, as ttoccq) (iroce), 
maAre, fut. iroii/crai. 

686. N. A few chiefly poetic verbs add a in the same way to 
the verb stem. See Ppvxojopax, yodw, ^piama, fiijKajOfjuu, fjLryridw, 

ILVKWOfJUCU, 

687. (2) Generally the new stem in c does not appear in 



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661] PRESENT SYSTEM. 149 

the present. But in some verbs it forms special tenses ; in 
others it forms all the tenses except the present, imperfect, 
second perfect, and the second aorists. E.g. 

BovKofuiL (PovX-), toish, PovXijcofica (PovXe-, 636); aiaOdvofua 
(aicrO-), perceive, aJurOT^aofuu (alaSc-), ya-Orjfwi ; /icvo) (/xcv^), remain, 
/MjefjL€vrfKa (fuv€-) ; fuixofmi (fiaX"), Jight, fut. (frnx^-OfMi) /laxov/iot, 
€/juix€(rdfiriv, iJuifiAxyjfwx, 

66d. 1. The following have the stem in c in all tenses except 
those mentioned (657) : <u<rOdvofmi (al<rO-), aX€f(i>, SXOofmi (Ion.), 
a/iaprdyw (dfJLcifyr'), av&ivo) (a8-), d^r-cx^avofiuu (-€X^)» ^^^^^ (avf^)> 
&xOofiax, pXturrdvii} (jSAoor-), PovXofua, Poa-KH), Sew, want, iOiXm and 
^cXcu, ipofjuai and tlpofmi (Ion.), ipp(o, cv&o, evpto-KO), hl/o), KeXjo/mt 
(poet.), Ktxovco (Ktx-)> AocTKfti (Aax-), fmv6dv(a (fm$-), fjuixpfmi, /ic8o- 
fioi, ftcXXd), fie\(i>, fiv((i)» oiofmi, oixo/mt, oAio^avo) (oAur^), ^XA.vfu, 
o^ftXwKavio (6<^X-), irerofjuu, (rropvvfu: see poetic dfivXajaaKia and 
&mKf>C(TKia, and the stem Sa- . See also K€p8(uv<o. 

2. The following have the stem in c in special tenses formed from 
the verb stem or the weak stem (31) : BapSdva} (dap$-), fiivoi, vc/xcd, 
6a-<l>paCvofjuai (pcf^p-), irm<a, ttcto/juu, 7r€ti9a) (ttiB-), pita (pv-), crreCPw 
(j(mP-), TVYxdvta (tvx-)> X**^^ (x*^) » with ytyvo/Luu, €xw> Tpcxo*. 

3. The following form certain tenses from a stem made by add- 
ing c to the present stem without the thematic vowel: Si^dxrK(Oy 
KoOiita, fn/8(i)^ fcAoui), o^w, 6<f>€i\w, rvima, xf^P^ 

659. N. In ofivvfu, swear, the stem Spr is enlarged to o/ao- in 
some tenses, as in (ofuxm ; in dXiaKopm, be captured, oA- is enlarged 
to oXo-, as in aXwrop/u. So rpvx^ (tp^X")* exhaust, rpvxuio'to. So 
probably dLxopm, he gone, has stem oixo- for ocxc- in the perfect 
otxto^Ko. (cf. Ion. otxtf-pjoi). 

FOBMATION OP TENSE STEMS AND INFLECTION OP 
TENSE SYSTEMS IN THE INDICATIVE. 

I. Fbesent System. 

660. The formation of the present stem and the inflec- 
tion of the present and imperfect indicative have been 
explained in 668-622 and 623-632. 

661. The eight remaining tense stems (II.-IX.) are 
formed from the verb stem. This is the simplest form of 
the stem in all classes of verbs except the Second, where it 
is the strong form (675; 642). 

For special modifications of certain tense stems, see 634-659. 



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160 INFLECTION. [662 

For the inflection of the subjunctive, optative, and imperative 
in all tenses, see 718-758 ; for the formation of the infinitive, see 
759-769; and for that of the participles and verbals in -ros and 
-Tcos, see 770-776. 

n. Future System. 

662. {Future Active and Middle.) Vowel and mute stems 
(460) add <r%- to form the stem of the future active and 
middle. The indicative active thus ends in oro), acnd the 
middle in o-o/iai. They are inflected like the present (see 
480). E.g. 

TlfidiOf honor, TLiJirf(rit) (rZ/jiiyo-^-) ; Spaxo, do, Spdato (635) ; KOimo 
(kott-), cut, ko^cd; pXajn-ta (fiXa^-), hurt, pXaiffm, pXaAJ/OfJuu (74); 
ypd<l>(ti, write, ypajtf/vi, ypdaj/ofMU', irXeKio, twist, irXe^to; irpaxKno 
(irpay-), do, wpaio), wpd$ofmi; rapdjcraw (ropax-)? confuse j rapa^io, 
T€Lpaiofuu ; <l>pd^(a (<^paS-), tell, <j>paxr<a (for <^p<zd-<ra>) ; iretBia, per- 
suade, ircCa-Q) (for ir€i$-<r<a) ; XetTrcD, leave, Xcu/rw, Xcal/ofjuu (642). So 
<nr€v^ pour, <rn'€ia'<ii (for (nrcv&-o-(iJ^ 79), rpi^fxa, nourish, Bp^^ia, 
OpGl/ofjuai (95, 5). 

668. (Liquid Futures.) Liquid stems (460) add €%- to 
form the future stem, making forms in eco and co/mt, con- 
tracted to (0 and ovfjuaif and inflected like <^(o and <l>iXxn}fuu 
(492). E.g. 

^aivo) {<f>av-), show, fut. (<^v€-(i>) Kfxma, (tf>av€-ofmi) 4>avolvfuu; 
otcAAq) (oTcA.-), send, (orcXc-o)) orcXw, (crrtke-ofua) otcAov/ku; 
V€/jui), divide, (vc/mc-co) vcfm; Kpivta (Kptv-), judge, (Kpivc-co) Kptvio. 

664. N. Here €%- is for an original €<r%-, the <r being dropped 
between two vowels (88). 

666. (Attic Future.) 1. The futures of koAcoi, call, and reXcco, 
finish, KokifTia and rcXco-co (639), drop cr of the future stem, and 
contract icaXc- and rcXe- with to and o/juxt, making KaA.a>, KaXavpai, 
reXo) and (poetic) rcXovpot. These futures have thus the same 
forms as the presents. 

So oXXvfu (6A-, oXe-), destroy, has future oXco-oi (Hom.), ^Xcoi 
(Hdt.), oXo) (Attic). So pax^aoijuu, Homeric future of fu&xoiiajL 
(fjuax^-), fight, becomes fmxovfjuu in Attic. Kade^ofua (cS-), ^i^, has 
KaOeSo^fjuai. 

2. In like manner, futures in acro) from verbs in awvfu, some in 
corcD from verbs in ewvvfu, and some in ao-o) from verbs in of cu, drop 
(T and contract aco and ceo to a>. Thus (r/ccSavKi;^ (cncc&i-), scatter, 
fut. o-icc8a(r<a, (o-iccSao)) criccSa) ; aropiwvfu, (oTopc-), spread, arop&m, 
(oTopeco) oTopo) ; ^1^0^^), cause to go, Pipdxrui, (jSi/Saio) /3i)3o>. So 



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669] FIBST AORIST SYSTEM. 161 

cAawo) (cXa-), drive (612), future ikda-ia, (cAao)) iXm. For future 
iXoWf iXowa-ij etc. in Homer, see 784, 2 (c). 

3. Futures in co-o) and urofmi from verbs in i{a) of more than 
Irwo syllables regularly drop a and insert c; then uco and Uofua 
are contracted to lia and lalvfuu ; as KOfu^tOy carry, KOfiiaiHt (KOfuim) 
KOfuSiy KOfuaofuu, (^KOfuiofuu) KOfjMJVfjuUf inflected like <^iAA>, c^cXov- 
/[ixtt (492). See 785, 1 (end). 

4. These forms of future (665, 1-3) are called Attic, because the 
purer Attic seldom uses any others in these tenses ; but they are 
found also in other dialects and even in Homer. 



(Doric Future.) 1. These verbs form the stem of the 
future middle in (rc%-, and contract aiofiM to crovfjuu : irXiw, sail, 
TrXevaovfuu (574) ; irvcoi, breathe, irvevfTovfJuu ; vccd^ stoim, vevcroOfuu ; 
KXojLio, weep, KXavawfjuai (601) ; c^cvyo), Jlee, <l>€v$ovfjai ; ir^irroi, /all, 
Trecrov/juu. See also Trati^o) (590) and TrwOdvofjuai. 

The Attic has these, with the regular futures TrXevcrofjuu, irvev- 
aofjuai, KXawToiJuu, <f>€v$ofjuu (but never ir€a'Ofmi), 

2. These are called Doric futures, because the Doric forms 
futures in crcco, a-ta, and a-iofuu, (ravfiai. 

667. N. A few irregular futures drop o- of the stem, which thus 
has the appearance of a present stem. Such are x^^ ^^^ X^^l*'^ 
fut. of \i{ii, pour; toofjuai, from icOdsi (cS-), eat; iriofua, from Titvu) 
(irir), drink (621). 

668. N. A few poetic liquid stems add o- like mute stems; 
KcXXd) (kcA.-), land, kcXo-o); Kvp<a, meet, Kvp<r<o; opvvfu (op-), rouse, 
opcro). So dipofjuu, be warmed, Horn. fut. Oipa-opai ; ff>0€ip<i} (<^$tp-), 
destroy, Hom. fut. <l>0€pcr<o. For the corresponding aorists, see 
674 (b). 

ni. First Aorist System. 



(First Aorist Active and Middle.) 1. Vowel and 
mute stems (460) add o-a to form the stem of the first 
aorist active and middle. The indicative active thus ends 
in <ra, which becomes o-c in the third person singular ; and 
the middle ends in (rafitjv. E.g. 

Tifidto, irtprjatL, iTifirja-afirjv (635) ; S/ooo)^ Qpaaa ; kohtcd, tKC^fta, 
iKOHJ/dprp/ ', pXdiTTw, ipXaxj/a] ypa<^CD, typa^ffa, cypa^o/Ai/v; irXcKOi^ 
hrXt^a, iTXc^dfirfv ; irpaa-a-oi, hrpa^a, kTrpa^ap.irp/ ; rapda-a-iji, irdpaia ; 
4>pdi^ i4>paxra (for €<^pa8-(ra) ; ttciI^cd, iircura (74) ; <nrvS(ii, i<nreia-a 
(for €(r7r€v8-<ra) ; rpi^fiia, tSpoffo, kOpolfaprjv (95, 6); TqKta, melt, 
trrf^a', irXim, sail, hrXewra (574). 

For the inflection, see 480. 



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152 INFLECTION. [670 

670. Three verbs in fu, StScDfu (So-), give, hffu (c-), send, and 
TiOrffu (Oc-), put, have Ka for <ra in the first aorist active, giving 
lh<0Ka, ^K€L, and iOrfKa. These forms are seldom used except in -the 
indicative, and are most common in the singular, where the second 
aorists are not in use. (See 802.) Even the middle forms riKofuqv 
and iOrfKofirfv occur, the latter not in Attic Greek (810). 

671. N. X€(i>, pour, has aorists ^x^a (Hom. ixeva) and ixsa/irfv, 
corresponding to the futures ^cw and x^o/^uu (667). ElTrov, said, 
has also first aorist ctTra ; and ^cpoi, bear, has rjvtyK-a (from stem 
cvcyK-). 

For Homeric aorists like ipi/iffero, idttrero, t^ov, etc., see 777, 8. 

672. {Liquid Aorists,) Liquid stems (460) drop <r in era, 
leaving a, and lengthen their last vowel, a to 17 (after i or p 
to a) and € to a (89). E.g, 

^cuvw (</>av-), €<]}YpMi (for i{f>av(ra) ; otcAAq) (otcX-), iarctX-n 
(for €(rrcX-<ra) iarciX-dfirjv ', dyycAAo) (ayycX-), announce, rjyy€iXoL, 
TjyycikaiJirp^ ; ircpaivo) (Trc/oav-), finish, itripdva ; fucuv(0 (/uav-), ^tot'n, 
ifudva ; vc/io), divide, ivcfjui, ivci/mfirp^ ; Kptvm, judge, iKplva ; dfivviaif 
^66/) 0^, rjfxvva, rffivvdfirjv ; <l>0€tp<o {i^Otp-), destroy, l[<l>d€Lpa. Com- 
pare the futures in 663, and see 664. 

673. N". A few liquid stems lengthen av to dv irregularly ; as 
KcpSatvo) (KcpSai^), gain, cKcpSdva. A few lengthen pav to pi/v; as 
TCTpatvcD (rcTpav^), 6are, iT€Tprjva^ 

674. N. (a) Atpo) (dp-), rais6, has rfpa, rjpaifirjv (augmented) ; 
but d in other forms, as dpa), apov, S.pds, aptafuu, SLpalfJirjv, Apdficvos. 

(5) The poetic ice\A(o, Kvpo), and opvvpjL have aorists IkcXoo, 
iKvpaa, and cSpo-a. See the corresponding futures (668). But 
oK^XcD (in prose) has oiicctAa (see 89). 

IV. Second Aorist System. 

676. (Second Aorist Active and Middle,) The stem of 
the second aorist active and middle of the common form 
(566) is the verb stem (in the second class, the weak stem) 
with %- affixed. These tenses are inflected in the indicative 
like the imperfect (see 626). E.g. 

ActTTtt) (572), IXiTTov, IKnropLyjv (2 aor. stem XMr%-) ; XofiPayw 
(MP-), take, iXafiov, iXaP6firjv (2 aor. stem Aa^%-)- 

676. N. A few second aorist stems change c to a; as rc/iyw 
(rcfjir), cut, Ionic and poetic irafjuov, lra.pjop.Tjv, See 646. 

677. N. A few stems are syncopated (650) ; as weropm (irer-), 
fly, 2 aor. m. iirrop.rjv for €ir€T-o/uw7V ; cyc^po) (€ycp-), rouse, riypop.rjv 



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683] FIRST PERFECT SYSTEM. 153 

for yyep-ofiTfV] rjXBov, went, from stem cXv^, for rjXvBov (Horn.); 
hrofjuu (o-ciz^), follow f iairofirjVf for iacir-Ofirp/ ] ix^ (^^X")» ^^^^f 
i<rxoy for i-ircx-cV' So the Homeric iKCKXofirp/, for c-kc-kcX-o/aitv, or 
Kfj^ofirp^y from KiXjOfjuu, command; oXjoXkov, for dX-oAcic-ov, from 
dXe^o) (dXcK-), K;arcf off: for these and other reduplicated second 
aorists, see 534 ; 535. For ^yayov, 2 aor. of ayco, see 535. 

678. (Mt-/orw.) The stem of the second aorist of the 
/u-form is the simple verb stem with no suffix. The stem 
vowel is regularly long (i;, <u, or v) throughout the indicative 
active, and the third person has the ending o-av. (For the long 
vowel in the imperative and infinitive, see 755; 766, 2.) E,g, 

^larrffu (ora-), 2 aor. itrrqv, lonys, ^(my, lon/o-av, etc. For the 
inflection, see 506. For &'Sa>/u, frjfUy and riOrjfu, see 802. 

For the great variety of forms in these second aorists, see the 
complete enumeration (798 ; 799). 

679. The second aorist middle of the fu-form regularly drops 
a in CO in the second person singular (564, 6) after a short vowel, 
and then contracts that vowel with o ; as Wov for i-Bc-a-o (cdco) ; 
ISov for i-So-KTo (cSoo). 

680. Verbs in vfu form no Attic second aorists from the stem 
in V (797, 1). 

681. For second aorists middle in 17/X17V, ifirjv, and vfii/v, and 
some from consonant stems, see 800. 

V. First Pbbfbct System. 

682. (First Perfect and Pluperfect Active,) The stem of 
the first perfect active is formed by adding Ka- to the redu- 
plicated verb stem. It has Ka, Kas, k€, in the indicative 
singular, and Kaon (fbr Ka-wi), rarely Kaon in poetry, in the 
third person plural. For the infiection, see 480. E.g. 

Ai^cD, (XcXvK-) XcXvKa ; TrtCOm, persuade, weiraKa (for irt-^aS-Ko) ; 
KOfiiiw (KOfiA), carry, Kocofiuca (for Ke-KOfu^Ko, 73). 

683. 1. The pluperfect changes final a- of the perfect 
stem to C-, to which are added aoristic terminations a, as, c 
(669) in the singular, ca, cas, €c(v) being contracted to 17, 17s, 
€i(v) in Attic. The dual and plural add the regular sec- 
ondary endings (552) to the stem in c-, with crav in the third 
person plural. E.g. 

*E\gXvKrf, ^XeXvKiTS, ^XeXvKct(v), iXeXvKe-rov, cXcAvkC'/acv, iXeXv- 
Kc-T€, IXcXvKe-<rav ; orcXXw, loroXKa, iaraXKrf, eoraXKiys, €OTaXKa(v), 
iaraXK€'fuv, ioTaXKC-<rav. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



154 INFLECTION. [084 

2. Herodotus has the original ca, cas, ec, in the singular of the 
pluperfect ; and Homer has co, 17s, €i(v). In later Attic ci took the 
place of € in the dual and plural, and the singular had civ, cts, a. 

684. The stem may be modified before k in both perfect and 
pluperfect, by lengthening its final vowel (635), by changing c to 
a in monosyllabic liquid stems (645), by dropping v in a few verbs 
(647), or by metathesis (649) ; as <^iX€(i>, love, irt^iXriKa ; fftOcipto 
(<l>d€pr)y destroy, €<t>OapKa; Kptvio {Kpiy-), judge, K€KpiKa', )3aXAci> 
(PaX-), throw, pipXr^Ka (636). 

685. N. El of the stem becomes 01 in (SctSo)) Uhouca (31). 

686. N. The first perfect (or perfect in #ca) belongs especially 
to vowel stems, and in Homer it is found only with these. It was 
afterwards formed from many liquid stems, and from some lingual 
stems, T, S, or ^ being dropped before iccu 

VI. Second Pekfect System. 

687. {Secoind Perfect Active.) The stem of the second 
perfect of the common form is the reduplicated verb stem 
with a affixed ; as ypd<f>-<o, write, yeypa^a (stem yeypa^a-) ; 
€l>€vy<i}, flee, irc^euya (642). 

688. 1. For the change of c to o in the stem, see 643. For 
XtXoiTra and iretrouda, see 642, 1, and 31. 

2. For the lengthening of a to 17 or a in some verbs, see 644. 

3. For the lengthening of the stem vowel in Xay\dyia (Aax-)» 
Xofipdvui (Afl)3-)f XavOdvio (Aa^), Tvy\dv(i) (tvx-)> and some other 
verbs, see 611. 

689. N". '^ppnuya from pijyvvfu {pvpf) and duSa (537, 2) from 
lOta (riO-) change 17 of the stem to o) (31). 

690. N". Vowel stems do not form second perfects ; dm/KCHi, from 
oKoihO), hear (stem dxov-, ojcof-), is only an apparent exception. 

691. N. Homer has many second perfects not found in Attic; 
as irpo-pipavXa from fiovXofwJL, wish ; p.ip.rjXa. from pxXin, concern ; 
ioXira from ^Xtto), hope; ScSowra from SovTrcw (Sowr-), resound, 

692. {Aspirated Second Perfects,) Most stems ending in 
IT or ^ change these to <f}, and most ending in k or y change 
these to x, in the second perfect, if a short vowel precedes. 
Those in ^ and x make no change. E,g, 

BXaTTTO) (PXafi-), ^€j8Aa<^; KOJiro) (kott-), kIko^; dXXaao-w 
(dXAay-), ^XAaxa ; ^jyvXaxra-ia (<t>vXaK'), -Trc^vXaxa. 

But irXTJa-a-iDfiriTrXrjya', c^cvyo), iri^jyevya; orcpyoi, ^(rropya; Xap.ino, 
XeXa/XTra. In ayw (dy-), ^x^, iy is lengthened by reduplication. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PERFECT MIDDLE SYSTEM. 156 

693. The following verbs form aspirated second perfects : iyco, 
aXXjaura-iOf dvoiyca, pXaima, SutcvvfAi, foypvccrw, icXcirra^ KOWTCtt, Aa/i- 
Pdino, XdwruDf Xcyo) {collect), fMjCT(r<a, Tre/XTToi, irpao'a'ia, wn/aaiOf Toxraftif 
rpiiriD, rpiPio, <l>€p(i), <^vA<£(ro-a>. Of these SeiKinifU, KYipva-ato, Xofi- 
Pdyta, irifjLiTia, and im^a-a-w are exceptions to 692. *Avotya> has both 
dveor/a and dv€o>;(a, and irpafrtna has both TriirpaycLy have done, and 
Triirpaya, fare (well or t7^). 

894, N. The aspirated perfect is not found in Homer : only 
rerpoffxL (jphrta) occurs in tragedy, and only 9re?ro/ji<^ in Herodotus 
and Thucydides. It is common in comedy and in the subsequent 
prose. 

695. The inflection of the second perfect of the common form 
is the same as that of the first perfect (see 682). 

696. {Second Pluperfect Active,) The stem of the second 
pluperfect changes final a- of the second perfect stem to €-. 
It has the same inflection as the first pluperfect (683). E.g. 

*l^ir€<finjvrj, CTTC^wys, iw€<f>-qv€i{v), €'7r€<l>'qv€fifv, i'jr€<f}'ijv€a'av, etc. 

697. (Mirforms,) A few verbs have second perfects and plu- 
perfects of the simple /xirform, which affix the endings directly to 
the verb stem. They are never found in the singular of the 
indicative. E.g. 

©n/cTKO) {6va-f Oav), die, 2 perf. tc^wi-tov, reOva-fJifv, T€$vd(n; 
2 plpf. iriOvajfTav. (See 508.) 

These /u-forms are enumerated in 804. 

VII. Perfect Middle System. 

698. (Perfect and Pluperfect Middle.) The stem of the 
perfect and pluperfect middle is the reduplicated verb stem, 
to which the endings are directly affixed. E.g. 

Av<o, XcAv-fCot, XeXv-a-aty XcXv-rai, XeXv-a-Ocf XcXiM^at; c-XcXv- 
firjv, I'Xtkv-yueBoy ^-XcXv-kto; XctVo) (X«ir-), X€Xei/A-/JUU (75), XcXcm/'oi, 
XcXctTT^ai. 

For the inflection, see 480. 

699. The stem may be modified (in general as in the first per- 
fect active), by lengthening its final vowel (635), by changing c to 
a in monosyllabic liquid stems (645), by dropping v in a few verbs 
(647), or by metathesis (649) ; as ijyiXi-io, 'n'€<f>LXrf-fJtm, i-^exjuXi^ 
firp^l 4>0dpio (<l>0€p-), ixfiOap-fmi, i<l>Odp-firp^ ; Kptvw (Kpiv), K€KpL'/jm, 
i-K€Kpi-firjv'j pdXX(0 ()3aX-, )3Xa-), pi^Xrj-pM, i-fie^X'^/irju. (See 
684.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



166 INELBCTION. [700 

700. When V is not dropped before ym (647), it is generally 
replaced by o* (83), and it sometimes becomes /m (78, 2) ; as ^omt 
(<^y-), ir€ifHur'fjuu, i-^€<lMitr'fjutjv; o$vvo> (ofw-), sharpen, w$v/irfuu. 
Before endings not beginning with fi, the original v reappears; 
as wiiJM.iM-aAf trii^iavOt ; but forms in v-ktoi and v<ro (like iriifiavirai, 
€-w€<l)aiMrd) seem not to occur. 

701. In the third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect 
middle, consonant stems are compelled to use the perfect participle 
with curt and $<rav (486, 2). 

Here, however, the Ionic endings arat and aro for vrai and vro 
(777, 3) are occasionally used even in Attic prose ; as Tcrdx^rai 
and cTCTax^iTo (Thucyd.) for rcray/mei^oi curt and ycray. 

702. 1. For perfects in a/i/uuu of ot/dc^ rpeina, rpiffno, see 646. 
2. For the addition of o* to certain vowel stems before endings 

not beginning with cr, as rcrcXca/uai, see 640. 

703. {Future Perfect,) The stem of the future perfect 
is formed by adding o-%- to the stem of the perfect middle. 
It ends in aopjaxy and has the inflection of the future mid- 
dle {(0^2). A short final vowel is always lengthened before 
cofMu. JS.g, 

Avit}, \e-\v-y AcXv-oro/uot ; ypd<^, yeypatj}-, yey paxl/opai (74); 
AciTTci), AcXciTT-, XjsXeiil/opjcu; Sco), bind, SiSepm (639), ScSi/-<rofuu ; 
wpa<r(T<a (wpdy-), Tretrpay-, weirpa^opai. 

704. The future perfect is generally passive in sense. But it 
has a middle meaning in p^pvrjoropw., shall remember, and Trcirauro- 
/juu, shall have ceased; and it is active in KtKi^opax, shall possess. 
It is found in only a small number of verbs. 

706. N. Two verbs have a special form in Attic Greek for the 
future perfect active ; Ovya-K^o, die, has rcAn^^co, shall be dead, formed 
from the perfect stem rcOvrjK-; and tony/u, set, has k(Trrfiia, shall 
stand, from larr^K-, stem of perfect ItrnqKo, stand. In Homer, we 
have also Kcxapya-ta and Kcxo-p^o-opai, from )(<up(o (x^)» rejoice; 
and KCKa^ato (irreg.), from x<^«» (X"^^)» yield, 

706. N. In most verbs the future perfect active is expressed by 
the perfect participle and laopjca (future of ci/u, be) ; as cyvowcorcy 
iaopcOa, toe shall have learnt. The future perfect passive may also 
be expressed in this way ; as dirriXXaypeyoi iaopjcda^ we shaU have 
been freed, 

VIII. FiMT Passftb Ststbm. 

707. {First Aorist Passive,) The stem of the first aorist 
passive is formed by adding $€ to the stem as it appears in 



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712] SECOND PASSIVE SYSTEM. 167 

the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication). In the 
indicative and infinitive, and in the imperative except be- 
fore vT, $€ becomes Orj^ It has the secondary active end- 
ings {552) y and is inflected (in general) like the second 
aorist active in rjv of the /u-form (678). E.g. 

Avio, XeXv-fJucUf iXvOrjv (Xvfty-) ; Xeiwa), AcXci/x-zxat, cXcA^A/v 
(XeiwOrf-f 71) ; irpda-a-o} (wpdT^), iriirpdyfjuuy iirp&xOyv (irpdy-$rf-) ; 
V€i0<i}, iriweiar-fua, cwciV-^iyv; ^iXccd, irtifiiXrj-pjax, €<l}iXq^rp^ ; irXiui 
(vXv-), iriirXevar-pM, iwXevaOrp^ (641) ; tcivcd (t€v-), rira-fitu, eroBrp^ 
(647) ; fiaXXot ()3aA.-, fiXa-), JBifiXrjfua, ipXrjBrp^ ; rcXco), rer€Xco--/uuu 
(640), ctcXco^i/k; oKovta, rJKOva-fJuouLj '^kowtOtjv. 

708. N. TpcTToi has rerpafipm (646), but €Tp€<l}6riv (Ion. ^rpa- 
4^0rp^) ; rpii^Ha has riOpafipai, l$pi<f>Brp^ ; and aTp€<l}<a has llarpofir 
fjua, with (rare) iaTp€<f>Orfv (Ion. and Dor. larpa^iOyjv). ^otvo) has 
viifHurpat (700), but i<f>ayOvp^. 

709. N. N is added in Homer to some vowel stems before ^ of the 
aorist passive ; as i$/>i)(a, erec^, idpvfjMiy Idp^p-drjy, as if from a stem in 
vy (Attic ibptSriv). So Hom. iKXlpBriv and iKplvOriy (647), from original 
stems in i^. 

For iriBriv from t/^/lu (^e-), and h^Srjy from ^, «acr</lc«, see 95,8. 
For iep44>driv from Tp44>(a, nourish^ and other forms with interchange- 
able aspirates, see 96, 6. 

710. (First Future Passive.) The stem of the first fature 
passive adds <t%- to the prolonged stem (in fty) of the first 
aorist passive. It ends in BrfaopM, and is inflected like the 
future middle (^2). E.g. 

Aval, iXvOrjv, XvOTja-ofuu (stem XvOria'%-) ; XdiriOy iXutjiSrp^f Xa- 
<l>$rf(rofJua; irpaaa-ia (irpdy-), eirpayOrp^, 'jrpa)(OT^ofJuu; w€i$<o, hr€i- 
<rOrp^, ircUT&rjo'OfUU ; rttvoiy IraBrp^, ToOrja-opai ; ttAcko), iTrXexOrjv, 
irX£xBri(TopaJLy rlfjuaio^ Iripaffirp^, Tlfn/jST^OfJiaL ; rcXco), ircXeaOrp^, 
rcXeor^iycro/icu ; tcXtvo), iKXi&ijv, tcXiOi^ofua. 

711. The first passive system rarely appears in verbs with 
monosyllabic liquid stems (645). But reivto (rev^), stretch (647), 
has iroBrjv and raBrfo-opax. 

IX. Second Passfve System. 

712. {Second Aorist Passive.) The stem of the second 
aorist passive is formed by adding c to the verb stem (in 
the second class^ to the weak stem, 31). In the indicativd, 
infinitive, and imperative, except before vr (707), c becomes 
rf. The only regular modification of the stem is the change 
of € to a (645). E.g. 



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168 



INFLECTION. 



[713 



BAatto) (fiXaP')f hurt, ipXafiriv] ypa<^<i> (ypa^), write, €ypd<^\ 
ptiTTii) ipf'<l>-)i throw, ippi<l>rp^ ; <fHuvia i<t^v-)f €<f>dvr/v ; arpeifnit, turn, 
€(rTpa<^iyv(646); Tipira}, amuse, irdpirqv', crr£XA<i)(oTcX-),senrf,€OTaXip'. 

713. N. HXrjararit) (wXr/y^), strike, has 2 aor. pass. lirXiqyrjv, but 
in composition i$-cjrXdyrjv and KaT-€ir\dyrjv (from stem irAay-). 

714. N. Some verbs have both passive aorists; as pXdtma 
(fiXaP-)thurt, ipXd<f}6riv and ipXafirp^; (rrpt^^o), turn,iaTp€<f>9'qy (rare) 
and iaTpd<l)rfv (646). TpcwcD, tuim, has all the six aorists : erpofia, 
irpcil/dfirp^, tTpairov (epic and lyric), iTpairofMjv, irpiijiOTjv, irpajn/v, 

716. (Second Future Passive.) The stem of the second 
future passive adds <t%- to the prolonged stem (in rj) of 
the second aorist passive. It ends in rjaofuu and is inflected 
like the first future (710). E.g. 

BXaTTTO) (pXaP'), ipXdPriv, pXap-q-copajL ; ypd<f>(ii, cypa^v, ypa^nf- 
aofjua; Kfxuvin (<^k-), i<f>dvrfv, ^^MYq-KTopax; orcAAco (orcA.-), ifTToXrjv, 
arrakT^opjcu; arpiilHo, €<rrpdifyqv, aTpa<fyi^opjai. 

716. N. The weak stem of verbs of the second class, which 
seldom appears in other tenses except the second aorist (642), is 
seen especially in the second passive system ; as (n/Trco (<rair-), cor- 
rupt, iadwrfv, (raTn^ofJuu; n^KO) (Tax-), melt, ctokt/v; pco) (pv-), flow, 
ippvrfv, pvyaofjuu', ipcLirta (ipiir-), throw down, rjptTnjv (poetic), but 
1 abr. rjpeiifiSrjv (ipcnr-). 

717. The following table shows the nine tense stems (so 
far as they exist) of Avw, ActVo)^ irpacra-ui (Trpay-), ifxuvia 
(<^K-), and oTcAXd) (orcX-), with their sub-divisions. 

Tense System. 



Present 


^i%' 


X.i,r%- 


irpo«r<r%- 


♦«»%. 


aT.XX%- 


Future. 


\v<r%- 


X.i+%- 


irpai%- 


♦av.%- 


rnKi°/f 


I Aorist. 


Xvtra- 




trpofo- 


<tn)va- 


vmXo- 


2 Aorist. 




Xi«%- 








1 Perfect. 


XcXvKa- 






vt^^Ka- 


laraXKO- 


2 Perfect. 






iriirpo70- 
irf irpaxo- 


«+T«- 




Perf Perf. XiXv- 
^id. Fut.P.XiXwr%. 


X«Xtiir- 

X€X.l+%- 


ir«irpd7- 


m^av- 


faroX- 


(Fut. 


x»e.(t,)- 


x«i+e«(ti). irpoxe«(T))- 


♦a»».(T,)- 




(Fut. 










TTOXtC,,). 

irT«Xipr% 



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724] SUBJUNCTIVE. 159 

FORMATION OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS AND 
THE PARTICIPLE. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

718. The subjunctive has the primary endings (552) in 
all its tenses. In all forms (even in verbs in /u) it has a 
long thematic vowel "V (561, 2). 

719. {Common Form,) In the common form of inflec- 
tion, the present and second aorist tense stems change ®/«- 
to "/,r, and the first aorist tense stem changes final a to **/ir. 
All have w, 2^, y in the singular, and wn for cuvcrt (78, 3) in 
the third person plural, of the active. E.g. 

A.tL'in}, pres. subj. XeCira), XxCwmfJuu, 2 aor. Xam^ Xivnifuu; X6f0> 
1 aor. XvatOf Avcrw/uac. 

720. A perfect subjunctive active is rarely formed, on the 
analogy of the present, by changing final a of the tense stem to 
%-; as AcAvKo, AcXv#ca>; cZXi/t^ ciA.i7<^ (See 731.) But the 
more common form of the tense is the perfect active participle 
with CD (subjunctive of ci/u, be) ; as XcXvkcds <S, ciXi;<^9 cS. 

721. The perfect subjunctive middle is almost always 
expressed by the perfect middle participle and cS ; as AcXv- 
ficyos 01, g?, g, etc. 

722. A few verbs with vowel stems form a perfect subjunc- 
tive middle directly, by adding **/,,- to the verb stem ; as KTo-ofuu, 
acquire, pf . KiicnjiJua, possess, subj. KeKrStfjiai (for K€-KTa-a>fjim), k€ktq, 
KCKT^Toi; so fUfjiygaK(i>, remind, fjiifivrjfuu, remember (memini), subj. 
luimofjuuL, fUfivdlifuOa (Hdt. fUfiv€(afu$a). These follow the analogy 
of urrSifjuu, -^, -^toi, etc. (724). (For a similar optative, see 734.) 

728. (Mt'form.) In all /w-forms, including both passive 
aorists (564), the final vowel of the stem is contracted with 
the thematic vowel (w or 17), so that the subjunctive ends 
in (0 or tofjuu. 

724. 1. Verbs in ly/At (with stems in c- and a-) have a», ^s, ^, 
^/^ g> rjTca, etc., in the subjunctive, as if all had stems in c. Thus 
MTTiy/tt (ora-) has tor^s, tor^, UrrrjrojL, or^s, or^, etc., as if the 
uncontracted form were urrfna, not tora-^. These verbs have 
Ionic stems in c- (see 788, 1). 

2. The inflection is that of the subjunctives <^o> and <^a>/uuu 
(492). 



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160 INFLECTION. [725 

726. For the inflection of the aorist passive subjunctive, with 
€ of the tense stem contracted with w or ly, as XvOSt (for XvOe^), 
XvOStfiev (for XvOi-wfiev), etc., ^vto (for ^v€-o>), etc., see 480, 3. 

726. For a few subjunctives of the simple perfect of the /u- 
form, as Iotw (for eora-w), Pt^wn (for fiefia-win), see 508. 

727. Verbs in (o/u (with stem in o) have by contraction (a, ws, 
<p, etc., wfjuoiij Wy wToLf etc. (for o-<o, o^s, o^, o-iufwx, etc.) ; as SiiSoifu, 
subj. &S^, &S^9, &&p; hi^iwjL, Sc8<^, &8(i>rat, etc. 

728. Verbs in viJ/u form the subjunctive (as the optative, 743) 
like verbs in cd; as SeiKyvfu, subj. Scikiomd, SciKvv-ojpu. 

729. N. AvvoLfjm, can, CTriorafuu, understand, KpifrnfuOy hang, 
and the second aorist lirpiAiL-qv, bought, accent the subjunctive (as 
the optative, 742) as if there were no contraction ; thus SiW/iai, 
^TTtoTcofuu, Kp€fuafjj(Uj TrpLO}fuu (compare riBiOfmi), 

OPTATIVE. 

730. 1. The optative adds the secondary endings (652) 
to the tense stem, preceded by the mood suffix (562) t or ttf 
(ic); as \v<H,T€ (for Xvo-i-rc), Urrairjv (for Urra-iTf-v), Av^cuv 
(for XvOe-U'v). 

2. The form tiy appears only before active endings. It 
is always used in the singular of /u-forms with these end- 
ings (including the aorist passive, 564, 7) and of contracted 
presents in oirjv and (^rjv of verbs in cuu, ca>, and o<u. After lyj 
the first person singular always has the ending v. See ex- 
amples in 737 and 739. 

3. Before the ending v of the third person plural u is 
always used; as Xvoicv (for Xvo-u-v). 

4. In the second person singular middle, a-o drops <r (564, 
6); as ia-raio (for to-ra-t-cro, tora-i-o). 

731. {Verbs in w.) Verbs in o) have the ending /u (for v) 
in the first person singular in all tenses of the active voice. 
In the present, future, and second aorist systems, the the- 
matic vowel (always o) is contracted with i to oi, giving 
ocfu, 019^ oi, etc., oLjxrjv, oio, ocro, etc. In the first aorist sys- 
tem, final a of the tense stem is contracted with i, giving 
at/Ai, ai5, (u, etc. (but see 732), aifirjv, ato, (UTo, etc. The rare 
perfect active (like the subjunctive, 720) follows the anal- 
ogy of the present. E.g. 



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737] OPTATIVE. 161 

Aeyoe/u (for Xeyo-i-fu), Xcyois (for Xcyo-trs), Xcyot (for Xcyo-t), 
Xcyotrc (for Xcyo-t-rc), Xiyouv (for Acyo-t€-v). AciVco, 2 aor. Xliroiyj. 
(for Ai9ro-t-/ii), XiTrotev (for Xt?ro-i€-v). Aiaaifu (for At;<ra-t-/u), 
Xvootficv (for Av<ra-t-ficv), Xv(rai)uti;v (for Xvaa-irfiyv), Xva-oLa-Oe (for 
Xvcro-iro^c). Perf. tlXrjffxL, opt. €iA.i/<^oifu, etc. 

732. The Attic generally uses the so-called Aeolic terminations 
cias, etc, and ccav, for ots, at, cucy, in the aorist active ; as Xvo-ctas, 
Xvcreic, Xvcrccav. See \vo> and <^v<i) in 480, 1 and 482. 

733. The perfect middle is almost always expressed by the 
perfect middle participle and elrjv; as AcXv/xcvo? etrfv (see 480, 2). 
The perfect active is more frequently expressed by the perfect 
active participle and ctiyv than by the form in otfu given in the 
paradigms ; as XcXvKctfs elrjv. (See 720 ; 721.) 

734. 1. A few verbs with vowel stems form a perfect optative 
middle (like the subjunctive, 722) directly, by adding i-firjv or 
OHr/jLrp^ to the tense stem; as KTojofmi, pf. K€KTrf-fmi, opt. KeKTyfirfv, 
KCKTyo, KtKTQTO (for K€KTrj-i'firp^, K€KTrj-i-Of KeKTTf-L-^o), ctc. ; also 
K€KTwfirp^f k€ktSo, KeKTiOTo (for KtKTTfo-i-ixTiVy etc.) ; so fUflVya-KH), 
fUfLVT^fuUy opt. fjLefivjjfJirjv or fjLifjivwfirjv ] icoXcco, KiKXrjfmi, opt. K€KXy- 
firpTy icckX^o, KtKXyfieOa ; and pdXXio, pipXrjfWJi, opt. hjorPf.pX'Qfrd^, 
So Hom. XeXt)ro or Xekvvro (for XcXv-t-ro or XcXv-t-rro), perf. opt. of 
XvQ>. Compare Saivvro, pres. opt. of Bcuvvfu. 

2. The forms in w/uii/v belong to the common form of inflection 
(with the thematic vowel); those in rjfirjv, etc. and vto have the 
^-form (740). 

736. A few verbs have otnjv (737) in the second perfect opta- 
tive ; as CK7r€<^€vya, CKTrc^^cvyowyv. 

The second aorist optative of l[x^y have, is (Txoirjv, but the regu- 
lar crxdifu is used in composition. 

736. A very few relics remain of an older active optative with p 
for fu in the ftrst person singular; as Tp4<f>oL-v for Tp4<f>oi-fu, dfuipToi-v 
for dfxdpToi'pu, (from dfuipTdvcj), 

737. {Contract Verbs,) In the present active of contract 
verbs, forms in itf-vy 117-s, 117, etc., contracted with the the- 
matic vowel o to oirjvy 0117s, oLrjy etc., are much more common 
in the singular than the regular forms in oifu, ms, ot, but 
they seldom occur in the dual and plural. Both the forms 
in oirjv and those in ot/u are again contracted with an a of 
the verb stem to <^v and ^t, and with an c or o to oii/v and 

E.g. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



162 INFLECTION. [738 

TifMa-o-tr/'V, rlfJuoriKrfVf riifjupjv'j flnke-o-vq-Vj ^^ik/ErOtrpf, f^ikoaj^'^ 
SvfKcHH.rj-Vy &fkxhOirp^, &/Xmi;v; rZ/xa-o-i-fu, TlfjtA-oifMJi^ rlfiMfu; ^iXeo- 
i-/u, <^e«c/u, <^iAiM/u; SvjXjo-o-i'fu, &ff\o^)Lfu, Si/Xot/u. (See the 
inflection in 402.) 

It is only the second contraction which makes these contract 
forms. 

738. For the optative ply<^t ^^om pZyooi, shiver, see 497. 

789. (Mi-/orm.) 1. The present and second aorist active 
of the fU'foim, and both aorists passive in all verbs, have 
the suffix itfy and in the first person singular the ending k. 
Here a, c, or o of the stem is contracted with itf to ati/, ai;, 
or ottfl as 40Ta-ti;-v, lOToii/v; ara-n^ficy, arairjfuv', XvOe-irf-Vy 

2. In the dual and plural, forms with i for irjy and le-v for 
irfo-av in the third person plural, are much more common 
than the longer forms with iiy; as orat/Aev, otoutc, crrcucy 
(better than (rnui;/icv, crnui/re, oTcui/crav) . . See 506. 

740. In the present and second aorist middle of verbs in 
tffu and (i>/u, final a, c, or o of the stem is contracted with 
I into (u, €1, or ot, to which the simple endings firfv, etc., are 
added. E.g. 

'laTOL/Arp^ (for urra-i-firp^), urrairo, urrairo', Beifjurp^ (Oe-i-fiT/y), 
$€io (de-iriro, ^c-iro), Oetro; Sotfiffv (So-t-fii/v). See the inflection in 
506; and 730, 4. See also the cases of perfect optative middle 
in -Qfirp^ and vto in 734. 

741. N. The optatives Tudoiixrfv, riOoio, riOoiTo, etc. (also 
accented tlOoio, tlOoito, etc.) and (in composition) OoC/jirfv, &ou^ 
OoLTOf etc. (also accented avv-BoirOj irpoa-'OourOc, etc.), as if 
foi-med from ri^cco (or rt^o)), are found, as well as the regular 
riBeifjirjv OtifiriVf etc. See also wpooiTo and other forms of Ii^fu 
(810, 2). 

742. N. AiW/uuu, iwifrrafjuUf Kpifrnfuu, and the second aorists 
iwpiAfitfv (505) and dvrjfirp^ (from ovivrjfu), accent the optative as 
if there were no contraction ; Bwatfirjv, ^vvaw^ Svvoito ; cirtWcuTo, 
iwiaraurOc, Kpipauy, Trpuuo, vpuuvTO, SvaurBe. For the similar sub- 
junctives, see 729. 

748. Verbs in vvfu form the optative (as the subjunctive, 
728) like verbs in cd; as hcLKvv/u, opt. SatcvvoifUy hciKwoCfjirfw 
(inflected like Xvoi/u, XvptfJLtfv). 



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762] IMPERATIVE. 163 

744. N. Second aoiists from stems in v of the /u-form (as 
I8uv) have no optative in Attic (see 606). But Homer has a few 
forms like dvrj, Svficv (for Su-ii;, 8u-t-/x,€v), from ISuv. 

746. A few second perfect optatives of the /uurform are made 
hy adding irfv to stems in a- ; as TcOvcurfv (for T€$va-Lrf-v)f iarcurp^ 
(508). See the enumeration of ^-forms, 804. 

IMPERATIVE. 

746. {Common Form.) The present and the second 
aorist active and middle of the common form have the 
thematic vowel c (o before vrwv), to which the imperative 
endings (553) are affixed, But the second person singular 
in the active has no ending ; in the middle it drops a in ao 
and contracts c-o to ov. E.g. 

Acwrc, A€t?r€-T<i), Xcwrc-rw, X«w€-t<i>v, ActVc-rc, ActTro-vrwv ; Aciwov, 
AciTTC-o^ctf, Xeive-aOoVf XctwiHrOwvy ActVc-o-^c, Acittc-o-^wv. So X«rc 
and AiiroD. 

747. The first aorist active and middle are also irregular in 
the second person singular, where the active has a termination ov 
and the middle ai for final a of the stem. In other persons they 
add the regular endings to the stem in aa- (or a-). E.g, 

Awrov, Xvcra-To), Xvoa-rov, Xvcra-Tcov, Xrcra-TC, \v<rd-vT<ov ; Xwrax, 
Xvad-irOoh Xvara-aOe, Avo-a-o^wv. <W}vw, <^7;va-T(o, etc. ; <^vat, <^va- 
<r$(a, tfr/fva-irOe, ifyqvd-adtaV' 

748. The perfect active is very rare, except in a few cases of 
the yj^ioxm (508) with a present meaning. But Aristophanes has 
K€icp<£y€T€, screech, from Kpa^o) {Kf}aY), and kcxi/vctc, gape, from 

749. The third person singular of the perfect passive is the 
only form of perfect imperative in common use; for this see 1274. 

760. N. The second person singular of the middle occasionally 
occurs as an emphatic form ; as 'jriiravao, stop I 

761. N. The perfect imperative in all voices can be expressed 
by the perfect participle and 1<tBi, Ifrra), etc. (imperative of ci/u, 
he) ; as dprffievov Icrro), for ci/o^o^w, let it have been said (i.e. let what 
has been said stand), v€weurfJL€voL lorcov, suppose them to have been 
persuaded. 

762. (Mi'form.) The present imperative of the /u-form retains 
0i in the second person singular active only in a few primitive 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



164 INFLECTION. [753 

verbs ; as in <^-^i from <f>rjfu (<^-)' ^^^> ^"^^ from elfu (t-), go^ la^ 
from eifuy he, and from oT&t, ibioti;. (See 806 ; 808 ; 812 ; 820.) 
For Homeric forms in Ol, see 790. 

758. The present active commonly omits Oi in the first 
person, and lengthens the preceding vowel of the stem (a, 
C; 0^ or v) to 7), €if ov, or V ; as ioti/, riBei, SiSov, and Beitcvv. 
The other persons add the regular endings (653) to the 
short stem ; as tora-ro), laTa-TC, lard-vrav ; riOt-ra} ; StiSorc ; 

SciKVV-VTCOV. 

754. The present middle of verbs in tffu and a>/uu has the 
regular form in a-Oj and also poetic forms in a> (for euro) and ov 
(for €<ro and ocro), in the second person singular ; as tcmuro or 
iOTO), TtOca-o or tiOov, &&o(ro or &'8ov. But verbs in v/u always 
retain vcro ; as Seucvvfu, Sedanxro, In the other persons the inflec- 
tion is regular : see the paradigms (506). 

755. 1. In the second aorist active the stem vowel is 
regularly long (ly, ci>, v), except before vrwv (653), and $i is 
retained in the second person singular. E,g, 

'StTTfSi (<rra-), (rrrj-na, aT^-TC, crra-rroiv; Prj-Oi (/3a-), jSifroi, 
Prj^€, pd-vTH)v; yvSi-Oi, yvia-T<o, yvoi-TC, yvo-vTwy] 8v-tft, Sv-roj, SiVrc, 
Sv-rrojv. (See 678 and 766, 2.) 

2. But we have s for 6i in ^cs (from rt-Orjfu), 80s (from SiSoi/u), 
2s (from Irffu), and crxcs (from lo^ov, 2 aor. of 2x*»*)* These verbs 
have the short vowel in aU persons ; as ^es, r^e-rco, 0e-re, Oe-vrtay ; 
&)s, 8<>^a), &>^€, 8o-rr(i)v. 

3. ISaijOi and /S^^i have poetic forms ord and )3a, used only in 
composition ; as KaTor^df come downy impd-irrdf stand near, 

756. 1. In the second aorist middle, <ro drops <r in the 
second person singular after a short vowel, and contracts 
that vowel with o. IJ.g, 

"Eirpiafii/v, wpuuro (poet.), tt/bio) (for rrpui-o), iOifirp^, Ociv (for 
Bc-aOf ^€-0); iBofirjVy 8o9 (for So-ijo, &>-o). But epic Si$o (B€x<to), 

2. The other persons have the regular endings (553); as 
vpux-<r6<ii ; BfruBuiy Bi-uBnav ; 8o-€rtf o), ^6^€, So-o-^ctfv. 

757. 1. The first aorist passive adds the ordinary active 
endings {Biy tw, etc.) directly to Be- (Br/-) of the tense stem (707) 
after which Bi becomes rt (95, 2) ; as Av^t-ti, Av^iy-Tco, etc. 

2. The second aorist passive adds the same terminations 



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766] INFINITIVE. 166 

to c- (17-) of the tense stem (712)^ 61 being retained; as 
€fiayrf-Oi, ^vTy-TO); araXrj^ij crraA.i/-Tft), etc. 

3. Both aorists have c-vtwv in the third person plural ; as 
\v$€rvrtav, <liav€-vT<Jtiv, otoXc-ktcov. 

758. N. A few second perfects of the /u-form have imperatiyes 
in dt: see ^Vko), rtOvaJSh and SctSo), BiMi, in 804. 

INFINITIVE. 

769. {Common Form,) The present, second aorist, and 
future active add cv to the tense stem, the thematic vowel 
(here always c-) being contracted with cv to ctv ; as Xryeiv 
(for Acy-c-cv), ISctv (for tS-c-cv), X^av (for Acf-c-cv). 

760. N. The ending cv (without preceding c) appears in Doric; 
as ydpv-cv in Pindar (Attic yqpveiv), 

761. N. For contract presents in av (not fv) for actv, and ow 
for ociv, see 39, 5. 

762. ]^7. The second aorist in civ is probably contracted from 
€-cv, not from c-civ (759). 

763. The first aorist active substitutes ai (of uncertain 
origin) for final a of the tense stem (669) ; as Xvcroi, ffnjvax. 

764. The perfect active substitutes e-voi for final a of the 
tense stem; as AcXvK-c-vai, ycypa^^-evoi, 7rc<^i/v-€-vai, AcXot?r-€-vat. 

766. 1. The infinitive middle adds trBax to the tense stem 
in the present, future, and first and second aorists. E.g, 

Acyc-cr^at, Xi^frodai, ^fHuvt-adaXy ^vu-adai (for ifKLvit-uOax^f 
ffyqva-a'dajL, Xvaa-irBaij Xiwe-o-Otu. 

2. Both passive futures likewise add aOai. E.g. 
Av$i^€-<rOaJL, AcK^^i/o-c-o^oi, ffxanja-e-irOai, oroXiyo-c-o'^. 

3. For the perfect middle and the passive aorists, see 766, 1 ; 768. 

766. (Mt-/orms.) 1. The present, second aorist, and 
second perfect active of the /it-form, and both passive 
aorists, add vat to the tense stem in the infinitive. E.g. 

*Icrra-vat, riBi-vax, 8t8o-vat, SctKvv-voi, or^vat, yvoi-vai, Sv-vat, 
TtBvarvajL, Av^vat (707), <fHivrf-vaji (712). 

2. In the second aorist active the final vowel of the stem 
is regularly long (678 ; 755, 1) ; as to-riy/xi (crra-), or^vai ; 
Ifi-qv ifia.'), firj-vai. 



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166 ' INFLECTION. [767 

767. Some /u-forms have the more primitive ending evoi (for 
/rcvot) in the infinitive active. Such are Sawai (from old So-peyai, 
8o<v(u) ; Oelvai (for $€'f€vai) ; clvoi, 2 aor. of hffu (for t-ptvai) ; 
2 perf. Sc&crat (for Sc-S^i-^rcFtu). 

768. In all the simple forms of the middle voice (the 
present and second aorist of the /xt-form, and all perfects), 
vowel stems add o-^oi directly to the tense stem. E.g. 

"lara-irSaL, TiOe-a&ai, SCSohtOojl, Oe<rOajLy Bo^Oai, U-<r^ (from 
frffu) ; XcXv-o^i, rcrt/uiT-o^at, ^cdnffXaHrBtu, Se^o^OoL, irrd-irBajL (from 
w€T<y/jucu, irra-). 

769. Consonant stems here (768) add the more primitive 
ending Oai (554). E.g. 

^EardX-Oaiy XcXeTc^ot (71), ttcttAcx-^oi, Tcrpt^^ ir€if>ay-$aju 
So rfG-Sax, pres. inf. of fjfwx (lyo--), 5t7. 

PARTICIPLES AND VERBALS IN TO^ AND reofi. 

770. All active tenses (except the perfect) and both 
aorists passive add vr to their tense stem to form* the stem 
of the participle. Stems in avr of the common form have 
nominatives in wv ; those of the /u-f orm have nominatives 
in (W5. E.g. 

Acyw: pres. Acyo-rr-, nom. Aeycov; fut. Ac^o-kt-, nom. Ac^on^; 
1 aor. Ac^-vT-, nom. Ae^ds. ^cuvco: aor. ^^lyva-Kr-, nom. ffyqvas. 
ActVo): 2 aor. AtTro-rr-, nom. Aittcov; 1 aor. pass. Act^c-vr-, nom. 
Aa<^€(9 (79). ^SrcAAcD (oroA-) : 2 aor. pass. oraAc-rr-, nom. <rra- 
Acis. ^larrffu : pres. tora-vr-, nom. terras, 2 aor. ora-vr-, nom. otos. 
TiOrffu : pres. rt^c-vr-, nom. rt^eis ; 2 aor. ^c-rr-, nom. ^cts. AtSoi/u : 
pres. 8t&)-rr-, nom. StSovs; 2 aor. So-rr-, nom. Sows. Acticvv/uu: 
SctKw-vT-, nom. Scikvvs* Awo) : 2 aor. Sv-kt-, nom. 8vs. 

771. For the inflection of these participles and the formation 
of the feminines, see 335-337. 

772. The perfect active participle changes final a of the 
tense stem to or in the stem of the participle. E.g. 

AcAvica-, AcAvKor-, nom. AcAvkcos; Treifyrfva-, irefjyqvoT-, nom. 
9rc<^i;vci>9. 

For the inflection, and for the irregular feminine in via, see 
335; 337,2. 

773. N. Homer has many varieties of the second perfect participle 
of the ^t-form; in am, gen. aOros (sometimes a&ros), fem. avta, as 
7ryo<6j, fields ; in 17(65, gen. rjwros or 176x01, fem. i7w»o, as Te$nn&*, t§' 



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777] DIALECTIC AND POETIC FORMS OF VERBS IN O. 167 

BnjwTos or -^os, reOvrfVia (804). Herodotus has cc&s, euMra, cAy, gen. 
€<5tos, c(6<ri7s, as iffreds, etc., some forms of which (e.gr. iareCora, redveioTi) 
occur in Homer. The Attic contracts ac^s, aw<ra, a6s, to (6s, bNra, 6s 
(or (6j) (342), gen. «tos, <6<n7s, etc., but leaves Tedpet&s (2 perfect of 
BvTJaKci) uncontracted. 

774. N. The stem of the feminine of the second perfect participle 
in Homer often has a short vowel when the other genders have a long 
one ; as dprjpibs, dpdpvta ; r€^Xi6s, reddXvia. 

776. All tenses of the middle voice add fievo to the 
tense stem to form the stem of the participle. U.g, 

Avofuvoq (Xvo-ficvo-), Xvcd/xcvos (Xvao-fuvo-), Avcra/xcvos (Xva-a- 
fievo-^y UTrdfJuevoq (iOTa-/A€vo-), 0€fuy(s (Oc-fjuevo-), Tr/Ha/icvos (wpta- 
fievo-), XvjTOfjLevoi (At^o-/i€vo-), AcXv/ncvos (XcXv-ficvo-). 

For the inflection of participles in ficvo$, see 301. 

776. 1. The stem of the verbal adjectives in tos and reo^ 
is formed by adding to or reo to the verb stem, which 
has the same form as in the first aorist passive (with the 
change of <^ and x to ?r and k, 71) ; as Xvtos, \vt€o^ (stems 
Xv-To-, Av-T€o-), aor. pass. iXvO'qvj Tpltrro^, 7r«oT€os (stems 

TpiTT'TO', TrCMT-TCO-), aOI. paSS. €Tpt<l>0'qVy C^TCtO-ftyV J TOKTOS, TttK- 

rco$, from rdo'aa} (stem ray-), aor. pass. irdx-6r)Vy Openroi 
from r/9€<^a> (95, 5). 

2. The verbal in ro$ is sometimes equivalent to a perfect 
passive participle, as Kpiroq, decidedy raKTos, ordered; but oftener 
it expresses capability, as Avrds, capable of being loosed, dKovaro^t 
audible ; irpaKTo^, that may be done. 

3. The verbal in tcos is equivalent to a future passive participle 
(the Latin participle in dus) ; as Xvrcos, that must be loosed, solven- 
dus ; Tlp.ifrwy to be honored, honorandus. (See 1594.) 

For the impersonal use of the neuter in rcov in the sense of hd 
and the infinitive active, see 1597. 

DIALECTIC AND POETIC FORMS OF VERBS IN O. 

777. 1. The Doric has the personal endings ti for <n, fueq for 
ficv, rdv for -nyi/, aOdv for a^v, fmv for fxrp^, irn for vet. The poets 
have fua$a for fu$a, 

2. When o* is dropped in aai and ao of the second person 
(565, 6), Homer often keeps the uncontracted forms coi, rjai, ao, co. 
Herodotus has ecu and ao (indie), but generally rj for rjai (subj.). 
In Hdt. and sometimes in Homer, co may become cv. In Homer 
oat and ao sometimes drop a- even in the perf. and pluperf.; as 



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168 INFLECTION. [778 

fiifivrjajL for fiifAvrfoui, Io"otw) for ia-trva-o. A lingual sometimes 
becomes a before ecu; as in KiKoxrarax for Keica8-<rcu (KiKaa-fJuu). 
For Ionic contract forms, see 785, 2. 

3. The Ionic has aroi and aro for vrcu and vro in the third 
person plural of the perfect and pluperfect, and aro for vro in the 
optative. Before these endings ir, /S, k, and y are aspirated (^, x) » 
as KpvnTO) (^KpvP-)y K€Kpv<fyiiTai ; Acyw, XcX€;(-arai, AcXex-aro. Hdt. 
shortens i^ to c before area and aro ; as otxe-aTcu (pf . of oiiccco), Att. 
^Ki;-VTYii; mrlfii-aTo (plpf. of rlyuaiOi), Att. mrtfjirf-vTo. Hom. 
rarely inserts S between the vowel of a stem and aroi or aro ; as 
iXriXe-S-aTO (cAawo)) ; see also pouVo). 

The forms arai and aro sometimes occur in Attic (701). 
Herodotus has them also in the present and imperfect of verbs 
in fiL 

4. Herodotus has co, cas, €€(v) in the pluperfect active, as 
erc^ip-ca; whence comes the older and better Attic rj,*Tpj «(v). 
Homer has co, i/s, a(v), with cc in jyScc (821, 2), and rarely ov, cs, c 

5. Homer and Herodotus generally have the uncontracted forms 
of the future (in ceo and eo/uat) of liquid stems; as /icvco), Attic 
/xcvo). When they are contracted, they follow the analogy of verbs 
in €(0. 

6. The Doric has o'€a), aiofmi (contracted cto, aavfjuu or o'^vfuu) 
for o-o), aofjuai in the future. The Attic has aovfuu in the future 
middle of a few verbs (666). 

7. In Homer a is sometimes doubled after a short vowel in the 
future and aorist; as rcXcco, rcXto-o-w; KoXiw, CKoXeo-oa. In KOfu^ia, 
Hom. iKOfuaaa, iKOfua-a-dfirjVj the stem ends in 8 (see 777, 2). 

8. In Homer aorists with o- sometimes have the inflection of 
second aorists ; as I^ov, Ifcs, from iKvco/iot, come ; iprjacro (more comr 
mon than iprjanTo)f from ^aiVco, ^ro. These are called mixed aorists. 

9. In the poets rjauv of the aorist passive indicative often becomes 
cv ; as wpfJLrjOev for topfi-qOrjaav, from bppjoM, urge. So av or cv for 
•qarav or ccav in the active of verbs in pj. (787, 4). 

778. Homer and Herodotus have iterative forms in ctkov and 
o'Kop.riv in the imperfect and second aorist active and middle. 
Homer has them also in the first aorist. These are added to the 
tense stem ; as l;(<i), impf. i)(€-<rKov ; cpixo, 1 aor. ipwra-aKC ; i^cvyoi, 
2 aor. (<^try-) <f>vy€-a-KOv', t<mfpx (ora-), ora-CKC ; &^/u (So-), So^tkc. 
Verbs in ea> have ee-a-Kov or c-o-kov in the imperfect ; as KoXie^rKW ; 
iraAe-o-iccro (dropping one c). Verbs in a<i> have ooo'kov or oo'kof; 
as yoaa-o-K€, vLKoro-Kopcv. Rarely other verbs have ao-Kor in the 
imperfect ; as KpvimuTiwv from Kpv7rra>» 



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781] DIALECTIC AND POETIC FORMS OF VERBS IN O. 169 

These foiins are inflected like imperfects, and are confined to 
the indicative, and denote repetition ; as TrcaXco-Kcro, he went (regu- 
larly). They generally (in Hdt. always) omit the augment. 

For /u-forms with these endings see 787, 5. 

779. Some verbs have poetic stems, made by adding $%- to 
the present or the second aorist tense stem, in which a or c (rarely 
v) takes the place of the thematic vowel ; as dfwvaO%', Si<oKaO%-, 
<f>X€y€$%', from d/ivvo), ward offj &(i>Ka>, purstie, <^Aeya), burn. From 
these special forms are derived, — sometimes presents, as <f>\€y€$<o ; 
sometimes imperfects, as iBnaKoOov; sometimes second aorists, as 
€<rx^Ocv ((rx'^0%-) ; also subjunctives and optatives, as dKajSia, 
€iKaj9oifu, oLfiwaBoiTo; imperatives, as oLfivvdOare, dfivvdOov; infini- 
tives, as ofiwdOeiv, StcoKa^etv, cIkoB^iv, (txc^cTv; aitd participles, 
as €lKaj9<aVf (rx^^cov. As few of these stems form a present indica- 
tive, many scholars consider iSiioKajSoVf ipyaOov, etc., with the 
subjunctives, etc., second aorists, and accent the infinitives and 
participles BtuiKaOeiv, dfivvaOtiVy dKaOeiVy ciKa^cov, etc., although the 
traditional accent is on the penult. 

See in the Lexicon dAxa^ctv, dfiwdOo}, &a>Kad(i), ciKa^civ, ipydOeiv, 
rftpiOopjojiy ^yepiOopjca, pj€TaKLd6<o, crxWiHy ^^tvi^o), <^Xcy€^a). 

780. (Subjunctive.) 1. In Homer the subjunctive (especially 
in the first aor. act. and mid.) often has the short thematic vowels 
€ and o (Attic rj and <d), yet never in the singular of the active 
voice nor in the third person plural ; as ipvcraopev, dXyiytrerc, pvOif- 
(Topjoij eu^ioiy Si/Xi/o-crcu, d/icti/'crat, lytCpopxv, ipupcrax. So some- 
times in Pindar. 

2. In both aorist passive subjunctives Herodotus generally has 
the uncontracted forms in eo), ctopev, eoxn, but contracts trj and eg 
to rf and rf ; as d^^ouLp^Oiia (Att. -^), <f>av€<o(n (Att. -o>cn), but <liavy 
and ff)av^€ (as in Attic). 

3. In the second aorist passive subjunctive of some verbs. Homer 
has forms in aw, 17175, 1717, eiopjev, rjere (780, 1), as they are commonly 
written ; as Sa/icico (from iSdprjv, 2 aor. pass, of 8apvd(a, subdue), 
&)ifii7279) Sapijr), Sapijere ; rpaircLOpev (from irdpwrp^, of rcpTrco, amuse). 
It is highly probable that 17 should be written for a in all persons. 
This 18 more fully developed in the second aorist active of the 
/it-form (see 788, 2). 

4. In the subjunctive active Homer often has a>/ii, ya^ 170-1; 
as iOiXiDpA, i$€\rj<rea, iOiXyau 

781. (Optative.) 1. The so-called Aeolic forms of the first 
aorist optative active in oas, cic, ctav are the common forms in 
all dialects. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



170 INFLECTION. [782 

2. Homer sometimes has ourOa (556, 1) in the second person for 
<RS ; as KXaiour$a. For aro (for vto) see 777, 3. 

782. (Infinitive.) 1. Homer often has fievax and fiev for cf 
(759) in the infinitive active ; as d/xvvc/icvat, afivvifiev (Attic d/iv- 
v€w) ; ikOefjueyoL, iXBifJufv (kXOtlv) ; dfc^xcvot, aiiyufv (afav). For 
the perfect (only of the ^-form), see 791 : the perf. in evax does not 
occur in Homer. So Hom. /xevoi, Dor. iijev for voj. in the aorist 
passive; as ofjuouDBif-fxcvaj, (o/aoko^i/vu), Barj-fjuevcu (also So^ku), 
Hom. ; al(rxwOri-fi€v (at<rxvv^-vai), Find. (See 784, 5.) 

2. The Doric has ev (760) and the Aeolic lyv for av in the infin. ; 
thus dciScv and ydpvev (Dor.) for deiSctv and yrjpveiv; <l>iprp^ and 
€X»7V (Aeol.) for ^cpccv and Ix^iv; citd;!/ (Aeol.) for ciTrciv. 

783.* (Participle.) The Aeolic has otona for ovara, and oi?, oioa 
for acr, acra, in the participle ; as t\ouTa, BpopajL^, dpolmjujvu 

Special Dialectic Forms of Contkact Verbs. 

784. (Verbs in aco.) 1. In Homer verbs in aco are often con- 
tracted as in Attic. In a few cases they remain uncontracted ; some- 
times without change, as voieraovo't, vatcrdcov, from voterao), dwell; 
sometimes with a, as in Treivaco, hunger , Snl/a<a, thirst; sometimes with 
eov for aov in the imperfect, as /xevoiVcov from /uevoivao), long for. 

2. (a) The Mss. of Homer often give peculiar forms of verbs in 
ao>, by which the two vowels (or the vowel and diphthong) which 
elsewhere are contracted are assimilated, so as to give a double 
A or a double O sound. ^ The second syllable, if it is short by 
nature or has a diphthong with a short initial vowel, is generally 
prolonged ; sometimes the former syllable ; rarely both. We thus 
have ad (sometimes aa) for ac or arf (a^ for act or a?;), and wa 
(sometimes wo or (ixo) for ao or a<i> (wo for ooi) : 



6pd^s for opdcis 

6pd^ ^' ipdcioripdn 

^pdoo-Oc '' 6pdc<rec 

6pda<r6ak ^^ 6pdc(r0ai 

l&vdourOat ^^ |&vdc<rOai 

6pdav ^^ 6pdciv (Dor. 6pdcv) 



6p6» for 6pda> 

^pdANTi ^* 6pdov<rk (i.e. ^poovoa) 

6p6»(ra ^^ 6pdov(ra(i.6.6p«MKr-ia) 

6p6(f€v *^ ^pdoicv 

opdttVTOb ^^ ^pdovrat 

alruScpo ^^ alndoio 



(6) The lengthening of the former vowel occurs only when the 
word could not otherwise stand in the Homeric verse; as in 

1 Although these forms are found in all editions of Homer, yet most 
Homeric scholars are agreed that they are not genuine, but are early 
substitutes for the regular forms in au etc. which they represent. See 
Monro, Homeric Grammar (2 ed.), pp. 60-64. 



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785] SPECIAL FORMS OF CONTRACT VERBS. 171 

^jSctforrcs for iJ/Saoires, '^^(mk/u for rfPajoLfUj fwaaa^ai for /lydkaSatf 
fjwwovro for (i)fjivdovTO. In this case the second vowel or diph- 
thong is not lengthened. Bnt it may be long in a final syllable, 
as in fAcvocvda (for -act), or when oxm or okti comes from ovna or 
avat, as in i^/Sajctxro, SpcdCMri, for i^/Sa-oirrco, Spa-ovai. The assimila- 
tion never occnrs unless the second vowel is long either by nature 
or by position ; thus opdofuv, opajere, opacro) cannot become opoiofuvf 
6paaT€y opcuiTO. 

(c) These forms extend also to the so-called Attic futures in 
auraty ao>, (a (665, 2) ; as cXoo), ik6<i)(nf Kpe/moo), Safjuiq.f ^xfuxixri, for 
cAocro) (cXao)), etc. 

3. The Doric contracts ae and arj to rj; as oprjre for opaere, 
opy for opdei and opdrj. A peculiar form (of contraction?) occurs 
in the dual of a few imperfects in Homer, as wpwravBvjrrp^ (from 
irpoaavSaa)), <l>oiTijTriv (<^Tao)), (rvh^rrfv (<n;Aaa)). So Hom. oprfu 
(or 6p^) for opaccu (Attic opf) in the pres. ind. middle of opoo). 
(See 785, 4.) 

4. Herodotus sometimes changes ao), ao, and aov to co), co, and 
cov, especially in opoco, etpcDrao), and <^oiraci>; as opeo), bpiavrtq, 
6p€ov<n, tLpioreov, €<I>olt€ov. These forms are generally uncoutracted. 

In other cases Herodotus contracts verbs in aoi regularly. 

5. Homer sometimes forms the present infinitive active of verbs 
in CUD and ecu in rjfuucu; as yon^fuvai (yoao)), irairqp.evai (irctvoo)), 
<f>iX,rin€vai (<^tX€a)). (See 785, 4.) 

786. (^Verbs in co).) 1. Verbs in eo) generally remain uncou- 
tracted in both Homer and Herodotus. But Homer sometimes 
contracts cc or ea to a, as rap^ci (rdpPee). Hdt. has generally 
&Z, must, and Sciv, but impf. iSce. Both Homer and Herodotus 
sometimes have cv as a contract form for eo; as dyvoeiWcs, &a- 
voctWo : so in the Attic futures in aro), uro/iat (665, 3), as KOfuevfieSa 
(Hdt). Forms in cu for €0Vf like oixi^evox, Trotcixri, are of very 
doubtful authority. 

2. Homer sometimes drops c in cot and €o (for ccrat, coo, 777, 2) 
after e, thus changing ccoi and ieo to eat and co, as ixvOeai for fivOicax 
(from fiv$€opm), airoaipio (for dTrooupeco) ; and he also contracts 
eeoi and ceo to cuu and etb, as fivOeuu, ouSeio (for oiSeeo). Herodotus 
sometimes drops the second c in eco ; as <t>opio, ahio, liyjyio. 

3. Homer sometimes has a form in tua for that in eco ; as vetjcao) 
(vcucco)). So in ^rcXeiero from reXeio) (reXco)). 

4. For Homeric infinitives in 17/iAemi, see 784, 5. ^pco>, carry, 
has <tK>pvjfjLevai and f^p^vax. Homer has a few dual imperfects like 
opiapTrifrqv (ppapT€ia) and caraXiiTrp/ (dirc(Ac<i>). (See 784, 3.) 



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172 INFLECTION. [786 

786. (Verbs in oco.) 1. Verbs in oco are always contracted in 
Herodotus, and his Mss. sometimes have cv (for ou) from oo or oovj 
especially in StKotdcD, think just, 

2. They are always contracted in Homer, except in the few 
cases in which they have forms in oo) or oo> resembling those of 
verbs in ao) (784, 2) ; as apdoxri (from dpoo), plough) ; &p6<o€v and 
(impf.) ^idcDvro (from ^iocd). 

DIALECTIC FORMS OF VERBS IN MI. 

787. 1. Homer and Herodotus have many forms (some doubt- 
ful) in which verbs in rjfu (with stems in c) and (nfu have the 
inflection of verbs in co) and o<i) ; as TiSely &&h9, SiSot So in com- 
pounds of iiy/tt, as dnci? (or dvUis), fuSiel (or -/«) in pres., and 
vpdtiLVy Trpottt?, avtci, in impf. Hom. has imperat. KaB-ixrra (Attic 
-ly). Hdt. has uTTot (for l(mj(rC)y vTrep-CTiSea in impf., and irpoa- 
$i(H.TO (for -^ctTo), etc. in opt. For cStSow, etc. and MOa^f ItLBg, 
(also Attic), see 630. 

2. In the Aeolic dialect most verbs in ao), €0), and oco take the 
form in fu ; as <f>L\rjfu (with <f>i\€urOa, <I>l\€l) in Sappho, for 
^iXco), etc. ; oprjfu (for opao)), koXtjiu, alvr^fu. 

3. A few verbs in Hom. and Ildt. drop cr in a-ai and cro of the 
second person after a vowel ; as imperat. vapiarao (for -aao) and 
impf. ifjLopvao (Hom.) ; cfcTrtOTCoi (for -axrai) with change of a to c 
(Hdt.). So Oiot imperat. for 0€<ro (Att. Oov) and ivOeo (Hom.). 

4. The Doric has rt, m for <n, vo-i. Homer sometimes has a6a 
(556, 1) for o- in 2 pers. sing., as StSoxrAi (StSowrfti or SiSourfti), 
TiOrj(rOa. The poets have v for <rav (with preceding vowel short) 
in 3 pers. plur., as tarav (for conyoav), lev (for Teoiav), vportOcy (for 
irpo€TiOe<rav) ; see 777, 9. 

5. Herodotus sometimes has area, aro for ktoi, vro in the pres- 
ent and imperfect of verbs in fu, with preceding a changed to c ; as 
TTpoTiOeaTcu (for -cvrat), cSwcaro (for -arro). For the iterative end- 
ings (TKov, (TKOfirp^f see 778 ; these are added directly to the stem of 
verbs in /lu, as lOTa-crKOv, So-o-kov, {(ditv-ckcto, c-o-kov (ec/u, 6c). 

6. For poetic (chiefly Homeric) second aorists in rjfirp^, i/irfyt 
vfirp^y and from consonant stems, see 800. 

788. 1. Herodotus sometimes leaves €<o uncontracted in the 
subjunctive of verbs in rffu; as Oiwfiev (Att. ^Sifuv), hvoBitayrajL 
(-^wKToi), aTT-uWi (Att. d<^(!)(ri, from a<l>-irjfu). He forms the 
subj. with €0) in the plural also from stems in a; as dTro-are-cixn 
(-OTtoo-t), €7riOT€-ci)VTcu (for iirLaTa-ovTaif Att. cwtOTaiKTou). Homer 
sometimes has these forms with ccd ; as $€Q}fuv, crreiofjxv (724, 1). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



793] DIALECTIC FORMS OF VERBS IN MI. 173 

2. Grenerally, when the second aorist Bubjanctiye actiye is 
uncontracted in Homer, the final vowel of the stem is lengthened, 
€ (or a) to ); or ci, o to a>, while the short thematic vowels e and o 
are used in the dual and plural, except before en (for vai). Thus 
we find in Homer : — 



(Stems in a.) 
pcC«> (Attic pA) 

'"'ni» P^» P^» ♦•^ 


0t{O|Ulf 

(Stems in o.) 


(TT^oiuv, o*TfCo|uv, rrimfuv 

(Stems in c.) 


YWttNTi, OCtCMTi 



The editions of Homer retain ci of the Mss. before o and oi; but 
probably rf is the correct form in all persons (see 780, 3). 

3. A few cases of the middle inflected as in 2 occur in Homer ; 
as pX-q-troJL ()3aXAa>), SX-trai (aXXo/xcu), dvo^uofuu, KaraSuoiua', 
80 KarorSriaJL (Hesiod) for Karadt-rjoA (Att. Kara$]j). 

789. For Homeric optatives of SauvvfUy Sv<o, \v<o, and (^tva>, — 
^vvTo, hvrf and SvfuVf XcXvro or k€\vvTo, <f>$tfiriv (for <f>$i-ifiriv), — 
see these verbs in the Catalogue, with 734, 1 ; 744. 

790. Homer sometimes retains Oi in the present imperative, as 
&'Mi, ofiwOi (752). Pindar often has 8t&H. 

791. Homer has fjuevtu or fuv (the latter only after a short 
vowel) for vol in the infinitive. The final vowel of the stem is 
seldom long in the present ; as lora-ficvat, U-fnevaXf fuOUrfuVf opvv- 
fievaij 6pvv-fuv, riOt-fuvt but ri^/Acmi. In the second aorist active 
the vowel is regularly long (766, 2), as <mj-fjLevaif yviUk-fuvai; but 
nOrjfUj ScSco/uu, and t7)fu have BiyuEvax and ^c/acv, 8oficvai and hoixeVf 
and {lijufv) fuO-€fuv. (See 802.) In the perfect of the fUriorm 
we have iard-fuvaij iard-fuvi TeOvd-fjuevtu, reOvd-fJiev. 

792. Homer rarely has rffuyo^ for c/uvos in the participle. For 
second-perfect participles in cos (aws, cws, t/cos), see 773. 

ENUMERATION OF THE MI-FORMS. 

The forms with this inflection are as follows : — 

793. I. Presents in fu. These belong to the Seventh and 
the Fifth Class of verbs (see 619 and 608). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



174 INFLECTION. [794 

794. Those of the Seventh Class are 

1. Verbs in fu with the simple stem in the present. 
These are the irregular elfjit, be, cr/Ai, go, <l>rffUf say, 17/iat, sit, 
and K€ifmL, lie, which are inflected in 806-818 ; with ij/i^ say, 
and the deponents ayaficu, Bvvafiai, iirLcrrafmi, ipafjuu, KpifjuoLfjuaJL 

See these last in the Catalogue, and also Ionic or poetic (chiefly 
Homeric) forms mider 0(7^/11, Sea/xoi, Stc/nat (stem Sec-), St'^iy/iot, cSoi, 
IkrjfU, Kixdvd), ovofjuUy pvofuu and ipvofJuxL, (reuo), OTcv/uai, <f>€p<o. 

For hipvqpJL and other verbs in vrifo, see 797, 2. 

2. Verbs in /ai with reduplicated present stems (651). 
These are l<TTrifu, rCBriiu, and hl^fu, inflected in 506, fiy^u, 
inflected in 810, 8t8iy/xt (rare for Sew), hind, Kixpr/t^ (xp<*")j 
lend, ovLvrffU (ova-), benefit, mfnrXrjfii (TrXa-), fill, TrCfJLTrpijfU 
(irpa-), bum, (For the last five, see the Catalogue.) 

See also hrrafmi (late), and Hom. )3i)3as, striding^ present par- 
ticiple of rare pCPripjL, 

796. N. HifiwXrjfu and irifiTr prjfu insert p, before ir ; but the /u, 
generally disappears after p (for v) in lp-irun\-qpi and kpririTrprqpjL ; 
but not after v itself, as in Iv-^Trip.irXxumv. 

796. N. 'OvLVTffpi (of uncertain formation) is perhaps for 6v- 
ovq-px, by reduplication from stem ova-. 

797. Those of the Fifth Class are 

1. Verbs in vvpx, which add w (after a vowel, wv) to the 
verb stem in the present (608). These are all inflected 
like hiUvvpi (506), and, except (rphnnjpx, quench (803, 1), 
they have no Attic /uti-forms except in the present and 
imperfect. The following belong to this class : — 

(Stems in a), Kepd-wvpjLj Kpepd-wvpL, Trtrd-wvpjL, CTKthd-wvpjL^ — 
(stems in c for cor), l-wvpi, Kopi-wvpjL, a-pi-wvpjL'j — (stems in o)), {oh 
wvfu, pio-wvpuL, crTpio-wvpjL'y — (consonant stems), ay-vvpx, dp-wpiu 
SeiK-vvpjLj elpy-vvpLL, {cvy-vufu, anro-KTiv-vvpjL (KTCtvco), pty-vupJh ciy- 
vvpjL (in compos.), 6\-\vpj,, op-vvpx, opuopYvvpx, oprvvpA, irqy-vvpA 
(way-), irrap-wpmy prjy-vvpjL (pr/y-), (rrop-vvpif <l>pdy-vvpjL, See these 
in the Catalogue, and also Ionic or poetic (chiefly Homeric) forms 
under autwpai, axw/uuzt, yawpai, halvvpi, KoiwpajL, ktwpax, opty-vvpi, 
rdwpjcu (see rctvo)), tivvpax (see Ttvco). 

2. Verbs in vqpi (chiefly epic), which add va to the verb stem 
in the present (609). These are SdLpvrjpjL, KLpvrjpjL, Kpvfpvqpx, papva- 
pjan, iripvqpjL, TrtXva/xat, Trmoyfw, CKiBvrfpj. or KiSvrjpLL' Many of these 
have also forms in vaco. (See the Catalogue.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



800] ENUMERATION OF THE MI-FORMS. 176 

798. II. Second Aorists of the fu-Form. The only second 
aorists formed from verbs in fu are those of Itffu (810), of 
larrffu, riOrffu, and &^/m (506), of apiyvvfu (803, 1) ; with 
cTrpto/xi^v (505) ; also the irregular titnifirfv (later liyd^rjv), of 
ovLVtffUf and ivXi^firfv (poetic) of wifnrXrffu, 

See also Homeric aorist middle forms of fdyyvfu, opyv/Aiy and 
irqyvvfUy in the Catalogue. 

799. The second aorists of this form belonging to verbs 
in o> are the following: — 

'AXiaKOfjuai (aX-), be taken: iaX<ay or '^kwv, was takeriy dXm, 
dWi/v, dkutvai, oAou?. (See 803, 2.) 

BaiVo) ()8a-), go: tPi/fVj )8a), )3atV> P^^ (*^so fid in comp.), 

Bioo) (j3m>-), Ztrc ; €)8iW, )8ia», ^vwrfv (irregular), Pimvaji^ Purk» 
(Horn, imper. /Suoro).) 

TrjpdirKio (yrjpa')^ grow old, 2 aor. inf. yqpdvax (poet.), Hom. part. 

rtyvaKTiccii (yvo-), know: lyvuxvy yvti, yvoirp^, yvtotft, yvtimt, yvovg. 

AiSpacTKCii (3pa-), run: cSpav, ^8pa9, cS/oa, etc., subj. Spco, ^p^s, 
Sp^T, etc., opt. Spon/v, ^pavat, 8pas. Hdt. ^Spi/v, Sp^iwu, Spas. Only 
in composition. (See 801.) 

Ai5a) (8v-), enter: ISiJv, cn/ererf (506), Siw, (for opt. see 744), SvOi, 

SwU, Sv9. 

KraVo) (*cTCi^-, icra-), kill: act. (poetic) ^icrav, ^Kras* ^KTa, licrdfuv 
(3 pL iicrdv, subj. KriiDfuv, inf. icra/xcvou, Krdfievt Horn.), ktcIs. 
Mid. (Hom.) iKrdfirp^, was killed, KTdtr&cu, KTafievoi. 

Tlerofim (irra-f tttc-), ^y ; act. (poetic) limyv, (ttto), late), irrairp^ 
{irnjOL, TTTTJvaL, late), Trras. Mid. eTrrdfiriv, irrdadai, irrdfuvo^. 

[TAaco] (rXa-), endure : Irhrjv, tXw, rXtiLirjv, rX^^t, tX^voi, rXd?. 

MoFO) (^^a-), anticipate : i^^Orfv, </>^o), fl>$airp^, c^^TVcu, </>^ds. 

^0) (<^v-), produce: i<l>vv, was produced, am, <fiVio, <f>vvaJL, <f>vs 
(like H^v), 

Add to these the single forms, ojro^KXrjvai, of dTroo-KcXXo), rfry 
^/^> ox^^f imperat. of i^^, have, irlBi, imperat. of tt^vco, drink, and 
epic forms of ^/A)3aXXa> (800, 1) and of Kiyxdvo) (wxava)). 

800, 1. Some poetic (chiefly Homeric) second aorists of the 
/u-form in r^Jiyp^, ifirp^, and v/irp^ are formed from stems in a, t, and 
V belonging to verbs in co. E.g, 

BaXXo) (fiaXr, pXa-), throw, 2 aor. act. (^j^Xi/v) (vfi-jShirrfy 
(dual) ; mid. (ipX^lir/v) ipXriro; <^lvo} {4>$ir), waste, 2 a. m. i^^eC- 
W*» o'cvco (orv-), ur^e, icrtrvfirpr (in Attic poets ^ovro, crvftcvos); 
Xco) ()^), ;>owr, €xv/iw;v, x^Mcvos. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



176 INFLECTION. [801 

See these verbs in the Catalogue. For other Homeric aorists 
see cto), aTravpdoit fiiPpiUxrKta, kAvo), icrii^ci), Xva>, ovraco, ireAo^^o), vkw^ 
irvco), im^cr<o. 

2. Some are formed from consonant stems, with the simple 
ending firp^. E.g. 

"AXXofJuai (aX-), leapf 2 a. m. (d\-firp^) oXo-o, oXto; 8e^o/uu (Sc^-), 
receive, (iSiy-fi-qv) Sckto; (i\€y-firp^) ikcKTOj laid himself to rest (see 
stem Xcx")' 

Besides these, see apapicrKO), yevro, grasped, ttoXXco, v€pOo>. 

3. For the inflection, see 803, 3. 

801. N". Second aorists in lyv or afirjv from stems in a are inflected 
like loTrjv or iirpuifnjv', but iSpdv substitutes a (after p) for rf, 
and cKTav is irregular. 

802. 1. The second aorists active of rtOrffXL, frjfu, and &'iSa)/tu have 
the short vowel (c or o) of the stem (678 ; 755) in the indicatiye 
(dual and plural) and imperative (cItov, elfiey, etc., being augmented): 
in the infinitive they have Oelvai, elvai, and Sovvat, and in tiie second 
person of the imperative $€^, U, and 809* 

2. As these tenses have no forms for the indicative singular, 
this is supplied by the irregular first aorists IOtjko, ^ko, and IScoxa 
(670) ; so that the actual aorist indicative active is as follows : — 

iOrjKa, iOrjKa^, iOrjK€, iOerov, IBirrjv, i$€fuv, ISere, i$€crav. 

fJKo, ^Ka^, ^K€, cItov, €LTrjv, €l/xtv, cTtc, cIcTav. 

cScoKo, l8ci)Ka5, iSii}K€, iSoTov, iSorrp/, IBofUv, iSore, iSoaav. 

803. 1. The two other second aorists active from stems in c are 
i<rPr)v, went out (a-piwvfiL, quench), inflected like lon/v, and dutxy- 
<TKXrjvaL, dry up (otkcXXo)). See 797, 1 ; 799. 

2. The other second aorists, from stem in o, are inflected like 
lyvo)v, as follows : — 

Itidic. cyvcDV, cyvcos, lyvo), Hyvwrov, cyvcori/v, iyvmfiev, cyvorrc, 
lyvoxrav. Subj. yvw (like 8a)). Opt, yvoa/v (like Soltjv). Imper, yvioOtt 
yv(OTO), yvwTOv, yviliyrwv, yvtare, yvovrtov (755). Injin. yvwvac 
Partic, yvovs (like 8ov^) . 

3. The second aorists <jovqfjir}v and lirXriprffv (798), and the poetic 
aorists in 17/A17V, ifiTfv, and v/uti/r (800, 1) or in /ai;v from consonant 
stems (800, 2), are inflected like the pluperfect middle (698). 

804. III. Second Perfects and Pluperfects of the fu-Form, 
The following verbs have forms of this class in Attic Greek, 
most of them even in prose : — 

"larrffu (crra-) ; see 508 (paradigm). For Ionic forms of the 
participle, see 773. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



806] IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 177 

BoiVQ) ()3a-), go; poetic 2 pf. fitPaxri. (Horn. Pepdaa-i), subj. 
P^Pwri, inf. PePdvoL (Horn. Pepd/iev), part. Pefiias (Horn. ^e)3aa>$, 
fifPavld); 2 plup. (Horn, ^c^ao-av). 

Ttyvofmi {ytv-y ya-), become y 2 pf . ycyova, am ; (Horn. 2 pf . ycyaao-i, 
2 plup. dual yeydrriv, iaf . ycya/x,€v, part, ycyaai?, ycyavui), Att. ycyci)?, 
yeyuHra (poetic). 

©vj/oTKO) (dav^, ^-), rfw ; 2 pf. riOvarovy rcft/a/ACv, Tcft/fio-t, opt. 
reOvturp^f imper. riOvaOi, r^Ovdrn), inf. renvoi (Horn, re^a/xevoi 
or re^c^iTv), part, renews (773), rc^veokra (Horn. rtOvr^, with 
Tcdn/vn^s), 2 plup. iriOvturaV' 

Aei&D (8ct-, &-), epic in pres., year, Attic 2 pf . Sc&o, Sc&as, Se&c, 
plur. Sc&fiev, Sc&rc, Se&ao-i ; 2 plup. cSe&av, cScSurav ; subj. ScSi}}, 
ScStoKTi, opt. 8e3ic»;, imper. Se&tfi, inf. 8c&ei«cu, part Sc&cus. (Horn. 
2 pf. Sct'Sea, 8€6'&as, Sct'Ste, pi. 8a'8t/ii£v, imper. SciSt^t, SctSirc, inf. 
&4&/iiCF, part. SctStcos ; plup. cSct V^'* cSctSMrar, rarely SctStc (777, 4). 

[EiKO)] (ciK-, tic-), 2 pf. loLKo, seem; also 2 pf. loty/xcv, ctfaoi (for 
ioucdcn), inf. ctKcwt, part, cticcos (Horn. 2 pf. ciktov, 2 plup. liKrrjv), 
used with the regular forms of Iocko, cwjo; (see Catalogue). 

Ot&t (t8-), A:now; see 820 (paradigm). 

See also poetic, chiefly Homeric, forms under the following verbs 
in the Catalogue : dvcoyo), j3i)8p(o<ric(i), iyccpai, Ipxo/jucu, Kpo^o), fucuofjixu, 
voffXiOy TTtiOuiy irtirrtHy [tAoo)], <^ijci), and stem (8a-). 

IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 

805. The verbs dfd, he, dfu, go, Irjfii, send, </>7y/xt', say, rjfica, 
sit, Keifjm, lie, and the second perfect oI8a, know, are thus 
inflected. 

806. 1. etfiL (stem eo--, Latin es-se')^ be. 

Present. 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


Optative. 


/mperaeit?e. 


rl. cl|iC 
Sing.. 2. ct 
1 3. h^l 




ctT|V 

cIt|s 


Ctrei 


Dual ^2. Icrrtfv 
13. Icrrdv 


4|T0V 


ftrnv or cl^rnv 


l<rT»v 


fl. l<r|Uv 
Plnr. 2. i(rT4 
1 3. cUrC 


lire 


ctfuv or ctT)|uv 
ctrc or fttiTc 
ctiv or ctT|(rav 


l<rTC 

l<rTMv, lirrwrav, 

6vr»v 



Infin. eTvai. Partic. w, o&ra, 3v, gen. l^vro^, ovo^9, etc. 
Verbal Adjective, larw (jaw-tariov). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 







INFLECTION. 




[807 




Imperfect. 




Future. 






Indicative. 


Indicative. 


Optative. 


/>t/lni«w. 


1. 


iiOT^V 


l(ro|i(u 


IcroCHttiv 


2(rf<r«ai 


2. 


Tl^vCi 


««i,fen, 


2roio 




3. 


V 


Itrroi 


IVOiTO 




2. 




liri<reov 


2rourOov 


Partic. 


3. 


i|OTT|v or tj-niv 


liTKreov 






1. 


iiiuv 




l<roC|uea 




2. 


ijTf or ij<rT€ 


Icrcirec 


I<roia0c 




3. 


^o-av 




IcroiVTO 





178 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plur. 



2. Ei/tt is for icr-fu (footnote on 556, 5), d for ia-o-i (cox), for 
i<rTL see 556, 1 ; cS is for lo) (^cr-o)), cii/f for ^ct-iit-v), tlvai for co'-hu, 
(uv for iatv (cor-cuv). 3. For the accent, see 141, 3 and 144, 5. The 
participle my keeps its accent in composition, as mipa>v, irapcvau, 
irofiovro^f etc. ; so corcu (for ^o-crat), as irapifrrai, 

807. Dialects. 1. Present Indie. Aeolic ififUy the most primi- 
tive form, nearest to icr-fu (806, 2). Hom. iaa-i and cTs (for cT), dfih 
(for icrfjL€v)f lacri. Hdt. cTs and cc/aci^. Doric 17/u^ kacriy dficy and 
ct/x€s (older rffiey), hrrC (for ctcrt). 

2. Imperfect. Hom. ^a, fo, fov; ^i/o-fti, ^cv, eiyi/, iti/v; ^o-av (for 
rjuav). Hdt. la, las, larc. Ionic (iterative) Ictkov. Later ^ for 
^(T^ Doric 3 sing, ^s, 1 pi. ^/xcs. 3. Future. Hom. icra-ofjuu, etc., 
with lorcrctTai and lo-crat ; Dor. €cr<rff, icra-etrai, icrcrcvyrcu. 

4. Subj. Ionic lo), li;s, I77 (fycri, yci), etc., laxrt; Hom. also doi. 
5. Op<. Ionic lots, lot. 6. Imper. Hom. Icr-o-o (a regular middle 
form). 7. /n/?n. Hom. l/m/Acvai, ifjucvai, Ificv, ififuv; Dor. 17/uicvor 
cT/mcv; lyric l/m/xev. 8. Partic. Ionic and Doric cwv. 

808. 1» eZ/At (stem t-, Latin i-re), go. 

Present. 



Sfaig.j 
Dual I 
Plur. J 



Indicative. 


/S'MdJwnciiw. 


Opfafivg. 


/mpera^v6. 


1. Ct|ii 


Co 


toi|&i or U>lr\v 




2. €t 


tffi 


tOi« 


COi 


3. ct<ri 


«TI 


Cot 


Ct«> 


2. Itov 


tT|TOV 


tOiTOV 


Itov 


3. tTOV 


Ci)rov 


(oCrnv 


trmv 


1. C|uv 


Ctt|uv 


(OifUV 




2. tTC 


Xr\r€ 


COITC 


trt 


3. Cdo-i 


Coo-i 


tOiCV 


Uvrmv or trmvw 



Infin. ievoju Partic. cojv, unxra, lov, gen. ioktoS) Iowit/^, etc. 
Fcr&aZ Adjectives, itos, trcos, itt/tcos. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



810] 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 



179 



Impebfect. 
Sing. Dual. Plural 

1. Ba or xfciv f|uv 

2. xfcis or ^curOa ^rov ^tc 

3. {ci or {civ •qTqv ^trav or {« 

Imperfect forms gfet/xcv and ijetrc are rare and doubted. 

2. In compounds the participle Iwv keeps the accent of the 
simple form ; as irapKav, irapiovcra, TrapcovroS) Traptowrt. (See 806, 3.) 

3. The present dfu generally (always in Attic) has a future 
sense, shall go, taking the place of a future of ipxofuUf whose future 
iXewrofua is rarely (or never) used in Attic prose. 

809. Dialects. 1. Present Indie, Horn. cMa for cT. 2. Imperf, 
Horn. 1 p. rj'ia, rjlovy 3 p. ijie, ^€, U; dual itt^v; pi. 1 p. rjofiev, 
3 p. Tf'iov, rfio'av (rjauv), Icrav* Hdt. rfijaL, rjle, TJlaav. 3. Subj. Horn. 
lyfrOof trja-u 4. Opt, Horn, ictiy (for lot), 5. Injin. Horn. t-/x€wu, 
or l-fuv (for i-crai), rarely tfifuvat. 

6. Future, Horn, ctcropat; Aorist, Horn, cio-o/xi/v or ieurdfirp^, 

1. fiy/Ltt (stem e), «end. 
ACTIVE. 
Present. 
/ndicatit^e. Subjunctive. Optative. 

CtTOv tfJTOv iitrov or if (t|tov 

tiTOv ti^rov ti£Tt|v or ifi^Tt|v 

1. Cifuv tA|uv iftfuv orif(T)|uv 

2. CtTi ti^ iftrc or tf Ci)tc 

3. tSuax iAo-i iftcv or if Ctio-av 



810. 



ing. "j 2 



Sing. 



"""^il 



Plur.j 



Sing. 



Dual 



Plnr. 



Imperfect. 

tits 
tii 

Crrov 
ilnjv 

Ci|UV 

Ctrl 

{fO'ttV 





Infin. 


t^o 


t^vat 


tfTOV 




t^rov 


Partic, 




iiCs 


tcTC 


tiCtra, i^v 


f^VT»V 




or i^CMTMV 





13. 



Future, rja-ta, etc., regular. 

/'^iV«< -4om<, ^Ko, lyKas, rJKe, only 
in indie. (802). 

Perfect (in composition), ctioi, 
etc., regular. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



180 



INFLECTION. 



[810 



Dual 



Second Aobist (generally in composition). 
Indicative. Subjunctive, Optative. Imperative. 



1. (802) (S 






Plur. 



2. 
3. 

cItov 

1. ctfuv 

2. clrc 

3. cto-civ 



13. 



1* 
if 

i|tov 
i}tov 

(5|UV 



ctiiv 

ittn 

ctt, 
ctrov or ctT|rov 
ctn|v or cl'^n|v 
clfuv or ctT)|uv 
ilTf or ittirt 
ctcv or ctT^o'Civ 



h 

Itov 
irttv 

frc 

IvTOV 

or irwrav 



Infin. 
ctvoi 

Partic. 
cts, tla-a, 



MIDDLE. 

Present. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. Optative. Imperative, 



Sing, j 
Dual I 
Plur. j 



1. {c|&ai 

2. Ua-w, 

3. CfTcu 

2. fco^v 

3. ffo-Oov 

1. t^iuOa 

2. tccrOc 

3. {cVTOi 



Imperfect. 



Sing, 







Dualj^- 
1 3. 



Plur, 



Cfo-o 
3. tcro 

2. Cio^ov 
U<r6t|v 

1. UiuOci 
ef<r6€ 

3. fcvTO 



tS|&cu if(|&t)v Infln. 

ti tcto tco-o tcfrOfu 

ii^rai ifCro UerOw 

ifjo^ov tcCo^v tco^ov 

tfjo^v ifC(rOi|v U(rO«>v Partic. 

t^|M6ci tc(|uOci UfiCVOt 

tfj<r6c ifC<rec {c<r6c 

Uvrcu iftvTO Uir6«v 

or iMmvav 



Future (in composition), rjcrofjuai, etc., regular. 
Ftr«f ^orisf (in composition), ^kci/xt/v (only in indie), 670. 
Perfect (in composition), clfuu. Imper, €l(rO<o, Infin. €l<r$ai. 
Partic, ci/xckos. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



812] IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 181 

Second Aobist (generally in composition). 
Indicative. Subjunctive, Optative. Imperative, 

rl. ct|&1)V «|MU ct|fc1|V 

Sing, j 2. ct<ro ^ clo o^ Infin, 

^^3. cIto i{toi ctro fo^« fo^oi 

Dual 1 1' 
1 3. 

1. ctii^ea (S|ic6ci ctii^ea <|Mvot 

Plur. 






€t|il|V 

ct<ro 
ctro 


• 

ifroi 


Ct|i1|v 

clo 
ctro 


cUrOov 
ct<rei|v 


tf<reov 
tftrOov 


cUrOov 
cto^v 


ctlicOa 
cl(r6c 

€lvTO 




ctiicea 

cta6c 

ctvro 



lo^civ Panic. 



fo^ttvorfo^MO'Civ 



Aorist Passive (in composition), ^lOrjv. Subj. iSui, Partic. iOtk, 
Future Passive (in composition), iO^ofJuu. 
Verbal Adjectives (in composition), ctos, crcos. 

2. The imperfect active of a<l>tr}fu is d<^^i7v or ^<l>trp^ (644). 
The optatives d^otre and d^occv, for d</>Zcirc and d^tcicv, and 
TrpooiTo, irp6our$€y and TrpooiKro (also accented wpooLTo, etc.), for 
TTpociro, wpoeurde, and irpoeiKro, sometimes occur. For similar forms 
of TiOrffAi, see 741. 

811. Dialects. 1. Hom. «//uu (with initial i) ; imp. Uiv for 
ti/v ; 1 aor. hjKa for i^Ka ; 2 aor. co-av, IfiT/v, erro, by omission of aug- 
ment, for cloav, tlfirp^y flvro ; infin. 2/xcv for cimi. In dvirjfu, Hom. 
fut. dveo-o), aor. dvecra. 

2. Hdt. perf. mid. di^ccuvroi for dv^ivrai, and perf . pass, partic. 
lU'fjLfT'irfifvosj for fjue0-€tfi€yo9y summoned. 



812. 




^fii (stem ^a-), 8ay. 


FrB8. 




Impebf. 






♦til*' 




«^v 




iSttfty. </»ci, <^5, <^, etc. 


♦nsor 


¥l* 


«4>i|<r«aor 


«+n« 


Opt. ^xUrjjVj <l>airp, etc. 


♦,«■( 




%h 




Imper. <j^L or <^^t, <^ro}, 


^Tiv 




^arev 




etc. 


^a-niv 




4^T1|, 




Infin. <l>dvaJL. 


4«p^ 




l^iur 




Partic. ^as, ^aoa, <^v, — in 


♦«w 




It^i* 




Attic prose ^oo-koiv is used. 


^i 




{^orav 







Future, ifnicriaj ^lycrctv, ^rjcrnxv- 
Aorist, tffytja-Oy ^rjcriHi ^rfcraxyx, ffnjauij <f>'qcrdi. 
Verbal Adjectives, <l>aT69t iJKLTW. 
A perfect passive imperative (3 pers.) 7rc<^do^o) occurs. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



182 INFLECTION. [813 

813. Dialects. 1. Present, Ind. Doric <f>afUf ^ri, 4^vti; 
Horn. ffy^crOa for <^i/s. Injin, poet. if>dfi€y. 

Imperfect. Horn. ff>rjv, ^^5 or ff>rj(rOa, <lnj (Doric €<^a and <^), 
iijiav and ^v (for c<^Kurav and ^crav). 

iloris^ Doric <^aor€ for €<l>ri(r€, 

2. Homer has some middle forms of <^/u; pres, imper. ff>do, 
ffiojcrOiji, ffioxrOe; infin. ffMxrOcu; partic. <^a/ui€vos; imperf. i<l>afirpf or 
ff>dfirjv, €<l>aTo or flniTo, €<l>avTo and ^vro. Doric /wf. Kjiaa-ofjuu. 
These all have an active sense. 

814. fffiai (stem i7<r-), «i^. 

(Chiefly poetic in simple form : in Attic prose KoS-rffJua is 
generally used.) 

Present. Indie, fjfjua, fj<rai, ^crrcu', ^<rOov; ijfuBa, ^crOe, ^yrcu, 
Imper. ijo-o, rja-Oaiy etc. Injin. ^(rOca. Partic. rjfJLevo^. 

Imperfect. rffiriVi ijoro, rj<rTO ; ^crOoVf rjcr&qy ; rjfJLfOcL, ^<t6€, ^vto. 

815. Kd$7)fuu is thus inflected : — 

Present. Indie. Ka&rjfmLy KajSrj<TaL, KdOrjrraJi', KajBrfoOcfy ; KoBrnuBa, 
KoBrfcrOe, KdSrfvrca. Subj. KaSSifuu, koB-q, KajOtjraif etc. Opt. KoSoCfiriw, 
KaOolo, koJOwto, etc. Imper. Kdj9rf<ro (in comedy, KaBav)y koJSi^^*^ 
etc. Infn. KoBrjaOaJL. Partic. Ka$T^fjL€yoi, 

Imperfect. iKojBTJfnjv, iKaBrfcro, iKoBrjro, etc., also Ka0rj/irp/y kolO^oo, 
KaOrjfTTO and KaOrjTO^ etc. 

816. N. The cr of the stem is dropped except before rai and to, 
and in KaBrj-rai and (€)KaB7j-ro even there. The middle endings 
added directly to a consonant stem or to a long vowel or diphthong 
(as in K€lftjax) give the present and imperfect the appearance of a 
perfect and pluperfect (803, 3). 

817. Dialects. Homer has ciarat, rarely laToi, for i^rrou; and 
ecaro, rarely caro, for fjvro. Hdt. has xarcarcu and Karla.ro. 

818. Kelfiai (stem Kei-^ ^e-), lie. 

Present. Indie. Kei/miy k€i*tcu, KctTat; KetaOov; KtifuOoy kuo^ 
KeivTau SubJ. and Opt. These forms occur: Kerjfrax, Sui'K€rf(T&€, 
K€OLTO, Trpo(r-K€oivro. Imper. Kcicroj KcicrOia, etc. Infn. kuxtBoi. 
Partic. KUfJLcyoi. 

Imperfect. kKtCfirfv, I^kcuto, ^kcito; iK€taBov, iKU<r9rfv; cicei/uAi, 
iKturOty tKtivTo. 

Future. KtUroftM, regular. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE MI-FORM. 



183 



819. Dialects. Homer has k&ltcu, kcuxtoi, and Kcovrat, for 
iccivrot ; kcckcto (iterative) for Ik€lto ; kulto and KeCaro for tKavro ; 
subj. lajiTaJu Hdt. has ^cecrai, KeicrOtDj kUctOcUj and €K€€Ta, for jccZrai, 
etc. I and always Ktarax and cKcaro for kcivtou and iKtivro* 

820. otSa (stem tS-), A^ie^ti^. 
is a second perfect of the stem 1&-: see cZSov in 



the Catalogue, and 804.) 








Second Perfect. 




Indicative. 
rl. otSa 
Sing. 2. ot<reci 
U. otSi 


Subjunctive. 
cl86 

€l8t 


Optative. 
clScCi)v 
clSc(i)s 

€lSc(l) 


Ccrro 


Dual/ 2. t^TTOv 

1 3. tOTTOV 


etc. 
regular 


etc. 
regular 


to-TOV 

CcrTMV 


1. t(r|Affv 
Plur. 2. IcTTf 
3. to-oUrt 






C(rTC 
Co-T»v or to-Too-av 



7n/n. ct84vai. Par/tc. clS<6s, clSvta, ct86s, gen. €t8oro$, ctSvias (335). 

*», 
Second Plupehfect. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

1. {Sil or iqSciv B^|uv 

2. 'QStio^d or {ScurOci f o^rov f o*Tf 

3. i^^(v) Xl^^* B^*" or tfSio-av 
Future, etcrofim etc., regular. Verbal A djective, torco?. 

821. Dialects. 1. The Ionic occasionaUy has the regular 
fornjs oTSas, ot&i/xev, ocSdcri ; and very often tS/xcv for t<r/uicv. Ionic 
fat. dfiTo-Q) (rare and doubtful in Attic). 

2. Ionic ^Seo, ^Sec, 'gSiare, Horn. ^ctSi/s and ijfSi;?, ^ciSi;, {(mv, 
in pluperfect. The Attic poets rarely have 'gSefuv and yiere (like 
^Sccmv). 

3. Horn. dSofuv etc., for ctSoificF in subj. ; tSfjuevtu and {Sficv in 
infin. ; iSuia for etSvui in the participle. 

4. Aeolic Boeotian frro) for foro) in imperative. 

5. For Doric Icrafu (= oT&t), see Catalogue. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PART III. 



FORMATION OF WORDS. 

822. (Simple and Compound Words,) A simple word 
is formed from a single stem ; as Xdyos (stem Xey-), speech, 
ypa</>a> (ypa</>-), write, A compound word is formed by com- 
bining two or more stems ; as Xoyo-ypa<^o9 (Aoyo-, ypa^), 
speech-writer; Sucpo^oXi's, citadel (upper city), 

FORMATION OF SIMPLE WORDS. 

823. (Primitives and Denominatives,) (a) Nouns or adjec- 
tives formed directly f roqi a root (153) or from a verb stem 
are called primitives; as apxj (stem apxa-), heginningj from 
df)X-; stem of aipx^i ypa<^cvs (ypa<^cv-), writer, ypa<f>k (ypa<f>i8-), 
style (for writing), ypafifii^ (ypafifia- ioi ypafft-fid-), line (828), 
ypdfifm (ypafifmr-), written document, ypa<^tK09 (ypafftiKo-), able 
to write, all from ypaff^-, stem of ypa<^a), write; votTj^nj^, poet 
(m^ker), iroirj-a-i^, poesy (making), woiTj'fjjoL, poem, iroirf^LKOi, 
able to make, from wote-, stem of Troiiio, make. So Stioy (Suca-), 
justice, from the root 8iic- ; icokos, 6ad, from kox-. 

824. Nouns, adjectives, and verbs formed from the stems 
of nouns 6r adjectives, are called denominatives; as jSourcr 
Acta, kingdom, from )8a<nXc(v)- (263); dpx«iw, ancient, from 
dpx^^" (stem of dpxrj), StKoMxrvvyj, justice, from Suouo-; rlfwrw, 
honor, from rl/Aa-, stem of the noun tZ/ai/. 

825. N. (1) The name verbal is often applied to primitive words, 
because generally their root or stem actually occurs as a verb stem. 
This, however, does not show that the noun or adjective is derived 
from the verb, but merely that both have the same root or stem. Thus 
the root ypatp- contains only the general idee^ write, not as yet devel- 
oped into a noun, adjective, or verb. By adding a it becomes ypa^-, 

184 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



831] FORMATION OF SIMPLE WORDS. 185 

the stem of ypaip-fj, a writing^ which stem generally appears as ypa^pd- 
in the plural, and is modified hy case-endings to ypa<f>d-L, ypaipd-s, etc. 
(See 168; 170.) By adding the thematic vowel % (661, 1), ypd(f>- is 
developed into ypa(/>%-, the present stem of the verb ypd^xo, write, 
which is modified by personal endings to ypd^po-fiev, we write, 7pd^e-Te, 
you write, etc. 

(2) Even a noun or adjective derived from the stem of a denominar 
tive verb is called primitive ; as adXiyTiJj, flute-player, from adXe-, the 
stem of aitXiwy play the flute; the latter, however, is formed from the 
stem of aifkb-s, flute (829). 

826. {Suffixes,) Roots or stems are developed into new 
stems by the addition of syllables (not themselves stems) 
called suffixes. Thus, in the examples in 823, final a- in 
dpx^'f *^ ^^ ypo-^^v-, iS- in ypa<^iS-, /xa- in ypa/x/xa-, fuiT- in 
ypafjLfWT-, iKo- in ypaffiiKQ-y etc. are sufl&xes. 

827. N. Rarely a noun stem has no suffix, and is identical with the 
verb stem ; as in 0t)Xa|, guard, from stem <t>v\aK', seen also in ^vXdtrtrw, 
I guard (680) ; <f>\6^ (^^o7-), flame, from same stem as <f>\4y-(a (831). 

828. N. The final consonant of a stem is subject to the same eu- 
phonic changes before a suffix as before an ending ; as in ypdfi-fM for 
ypa4>-fia, \4^is for Xey-tris, SiKacr-TiJs for SiKad-rris, (See 71 ; 74 ; 76.) 

829. N. A final vowel of the stem may be contracted with a vowel 
of the suflBx; as in dpxaios, ancient, from dpxa- and to-$ (860). But 
such a vowel is sometimes dropped; as in oipdv-ios, heavenly, from 
oipavo- and to-s, ^afftX-iKds, kingly, from patriX^vy and iko-s; evvo-ia, 
good-will, from eivoo- and ta (842). 

A final stem vowel is sometimes changed ; especially from o to e in 
denominatives, as in oUi-ta, dwell (plKo-Sy house), oUi-rris, house-servant, 
and oUeios (pUe-ios), domestic; — sometimes from a to w, as in ffTpamb- 
r VIS, soldier {arpaTid-), StKeXtc^-rryy, Sicilian (rreeA; (StKeXto-); — some- 
times from d to 77, as in vXiJ-«s, woody, from t\r] (v\d-). 

830. N. (1) Many vowel stems (especially verb stems) lengthen 
their final vowel before a consonant of the suffix, as in verbs (636) ; 
as irolvf-fUL, trolrj-ffis, troiri-TiKds, irotry-TlJs, from iroie-. 

(2) Many add a before fi and r of a suffix, as in the perfect and 
aorist passive (640) ; as KcXev-a-T'^s, commander, KiXev-a-fxa, command, 
from KcXev- (iccXciJw), KeK^Xev-tr-fiai. 

(3) Others add 0, as ffTaO-fjis, station, from <rra- (tfrrrifu). 

(4) Others drop a final consonant, as <r<o<f>po-ai^irfi, temperance, from 
CbHppop-, 

831. N. In many nouns and adjectives, especially those in os and 17, 
the interior vowel of the stem is lengthened or otherwise modified, as 
in the second perfect (643; 644). A change of € to (« and ev to 01 
and ov) is especially common (31). Thus MOti, forgetfulness, from Xa^- 
(cf . XiXitBa) ; 76 wj, offspring, from yep- (cf . yiyova) ; Xoiir6s, remaining, 
from Xetir- (cf. \i\oiira) ; ffropyf/, affection, from trrepy- (cf. iffropya) ; 
rofiiT'^, sending, from irc/Lwr- (cf. iriTrofKpa) ; rpbiros, turn, from rpeir- ; 
<t>\6^, flxime, gen. 0X076$, from 0Xe7- ; <n^ov^, haste, from cnrcu-. So 
also in adverbs; see irvX-X-ft^-^-nv (Xa/S-) : see 860, 2. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



186 FORMATION OF WORDS. [832 

I. FORMATION OF NOUNS. 

PRIMITIVE NOUNS. 

832. The simplest and most common sufl&xes in nouns are o- 
(nom. OS or ov) and d- (nom. a or -q). Nouns thus formed have 
a great variety of meanings. The change of c to o (831) is here 
regular. E*g. 

Aoyo-s (Aoy-o-), speech, from Acy-, stem of Acyo) (831) ; Tpomsj 
turn, from Tp€ir- (stem of rpeino, turn); aroko^, expedition, and 
oToXi}, equipment, from orcX- (stem of orcAXo), send) ; paxv (/^X^')» 
battle, from pax- (stem of pAxopm, fight). 

833. (il^en/.) 1. The following suffixes denote the a^gn/: — 
fv- (nom. cvs) : ypa^v-s, writer, from ypa^ (ypa^na) ; yoi^cv^, 

parent, from ycv-. 

TT|p- (nom. Tiyp) : awrrjp, saviour, from (ro)- (ctomd, (rcp^oi, save). 

Top- (nom. TcDp) : prfniip, orator, from pc- (^pcco, Ip^, shall say). 

TO- (nom. Tiys) : Tronynys, j9oe/ (wa^er), from woie- (umim) ; opXT 
(T-nys, dancer, from opx^- {opx^opuax, dance). (See 830, 1, 2.) 

2. To these correspond the following feminine forms : — 
Tcipd- (nom. rcipa) : crcurcipa, fern, of awrrjp. 

rpio- (nom. rpta) : irotrfTpui, poetess ; opxTJorpui, dancing-girl. 

TptS- (nom. Tpts) : opxfjoTpCs, dancing-girl, gen. -tiSo?. 

TtS- (nom. Tts) : vpo<f>rJTi^, prophetess ; oIk€ti^, female servant. 

3. Verbals in rrjp and Tpts are oxytone : those in rotp, rpia, and 
Tctpa have recessive accent (110, 4). 

834. {Action,) These suffixes denote action: — 

Ti- (nom. TtS, fem.) : mV-rts, belief, from iriB- (wtiOio, believe). 

<rt- (nom. cts, fem.) : Av-(rts, loosing, from Av- (Avco). 

o-td- (nom. o-ui, fem.) : SoKipxi-iTid, testing {SoKipaifa, test). 

|JM>- (nom. /Lios, masc.) : oSvpfios, wailing (68vp-o/xai, toat/) ; oTrnur- 
/Aos, spasm {irtrarm, draw) ; pvBpuo^ (830, 3), rhythm (peoi, yZoto, stem 
pv). (See 574.) 

835. N. The suffix /wa- (nom /xiy, fem.) has the same force as simple 
a- (832) ; as yvibfiri, knowledge (yvo-); dS/jn/i, odor (p^ta, 65-). 

836. N. From stems in ev (e/r) of verbs in euw come nouns in ela 
denoting action ; as paaiXeLa, kingly power, kingdom, iraideia, education. 

For feminines in eid of nouns in cvs, see 841. 

837. (Result.) These suffixes denote the result of an action : — 
littT- (nom. pun, neut.) : wpay-pa, thing, act, from wpdy (irpaa-ina, 

do) ; prjpjai, saying (thing said), from pc- (fut. ipla) ; rprj-pa, section, 
gen. Tprjparo^, from t/llc-, tc/wt (rip,via, cut). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



842] DENOMINATIVE NOUNS. 187 

CO*- (Dom. 09) neut.) : Xaxoi (Aaxc(r-), loty from Aax- (Xayxovnh 
gain by lot) ; c^os XiStfr-), custom^ from ^0- (ctcoAi, am accustomed) ; 
ycKOs (ycveo--), race, from yev- (ye-yoiKi, 831). 

In some primitiyes this suffix eo-- denotes quality ; tLspdOos (fiaBw-), 
depth (from root /3a^-) ; §6.po% {papea-), weight (from root /9ap-); ^dXiroi 
^^aXTco--), ^ea« (^dXir-w, toarm). 

838. {Means or 77Mfrum«n^) This is denoted by 

Tpo- (nom. rpovy Latin <rum) : iporpov, plough, aratrum, from 
df)o- {dp6<o, plough) ; Av^/oov, ransoTO, from Av- (Avoi) ; Aov-rpoF, 
b<ithy from Aov- (Aovco, toasA). 

839. N. The feminine in rpd sometimes denotes an instrument, as 
X^P^f earthen pot, from xw- (x^«» pour) ; ^t-a-rpd, scraper (^t-w, scrape) ; 
sometimes other relations, e.g. place, as Ta^al-a-rpd, place for wrestling, 
from TaXat- (iroXo£w, Wrestle, 640). 

840. Some primitives are formed from stems in 
avo-, as OT€^-avo-S) crown (orc^-oi, crown) ; 
ova-, as 178-0107, pleasure (rjS-ofjtai, be pleased) ; 

ov- or mv, as ciic-aiv, image, from ctic- (iouai, resemble), kXvS-cdV) 
toave, from kXvS- (icXv^^cd, dash), 

DENOMINATIVE NOUNS. 

841. {Person Concerned.) A person concerned with an3rthiDg 
may be denoted by the following suffixes : — 

CV-, masc. (nom. cvs), sometimes cia- (for ef-ui), fem. (nom. 
cca) : icp-cvs, priest, from Icpo-s, sacred (829), fem. Icp-cto, priestess; 
)3ao-iX-€vs, king (derivation uncertain), fem. paxrCK-tuji, queen; 
trod yL'€v%, ferryman, from vopOfio^, ferry, 

TO-, masc. (nom. nys), Tt8-, fem. (nom. tis) : rroXt-rrj^, citizen, 
from ttoAa-s, <?i7y, fem. fl-oAi-rts, female citizen ; olKi-rrj^, house-servant, 
from 6[ko-^, house, fem. oUc-ris, housemaid; (rrpfirivk^nfi, soldier, 
from orpaTia, army (829). 

842. (Qua/iV^.) Nouns denoting quality are formed from adjec- 
tive stems by these suffixes : — 

TT|T- (nom. T17S, fem.) : vcd-nys (veorrjr-), youth, from vco-s young ; 
IxTO^rq^ (liTorrrjT-), equality, from to-o^s, equal (cf. Latin Veritas, gen. 
veHrtdtis, and mr^fi*, gen. vir-tutis). 

oMvA- (nom. (Tvioy, fem.) : SiKcaoravvrf, justice, from Socoio-s, yu«< / 
<Tii}<l>po-<rvvrf, temperance, from (rco^pov (crox^poK-), temperate. 

ia- (nom. id or ea, fem.): o'o^ta wisdom (ao<l>6-s), KaKid, vice 
(koko-s), dXiy^cia, frufA, for dXiT^ecr-ia (dXiy^, <ruc), cvvoco, AriW- 
ncM, for evvo-ia (cvi/oo^, evvovs* A:tnrf). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



188 FORMATION OF WORDS. [843 

MS. (Place.) This is denoted by these suffixes : — 

1. M- (nom. iov, neut. ) with the termination* Trjp-iov : Sucaxmqp- 
uj¥t court-house f dxpoa-n/p-cov, place of hearing (auditorium). These 
are probably from old stems in nyp- (Babrius has SiKojirr^piov, from 
huaumip, for ^iKxurrwv, of judges). So arffmv^p-iov, seal (place of 
sealing), from urffjavn^p. 

ilo- for C-CO-: kov/dciov, barber's shop, from Kovpev-s, barber; so 
Xoy-€iov (Aoyos), speaking-place, Movcr-ctov (Mowra), ^aun/ q/" the 
Muses. 

2. mv- (nom. wv, masc.) : dvSpa>v, men'^s apartment, from ain^p, 
gen. dvSp-os, man ; dfitrtXtav, vineyard, from dfiireXosj vine. 

844. (Diminutives.) These are formed from noon stems by 
the following suffixes : — 

to- (nom. iOF, neut.) : inu$-u>v, little child, from irax^ (wtus, 
child)] Kypr-Cov, little garden (Hr/iroi). Sometimes also tSto-, op^o-, 
vSpio-, vXXbo- (all with nom. in tov) ; ocK-tStov, little house (cSko^) ; 
Tnu^dpujv, little child ; /neX-vSpiov, little song (pAXjo^) ; hr-vKKuov, little 
verse, versicle, Latin versiculus (cttos). Here final or- of the stem 
is dropped. 

lo-Ko- (nom. io-ico9) masc.) and urxd- (nom. CvK-q, fern.) : vaj^ 
ifTKo^, young boy, TraiS-C(TKrf, young girl ; so vcavio-Kos, vidvCcTKq, from 
stem v€av- (nom. vcav, youth). 

845. N. Diminutives sometimes express endearment, and some- 
times contempt; as varpihuov, papa (Tmrrjp, father), ^KpartSioy, 

EvpiTTlSlOV. 

846. (Patronymics.) These denote descent from a parent or 
ancestor (generally a father), and are formed from proper names 
by the suffixes 8d- (nom. &;s, masc. parox.) and 8- (nom. s for 8s, 
fem. oxytone) ; after a consonant t8d- and t8- (nom. t8i;s and &). 

1. Stems (in a-) of the first declension shorten a and add 8a- 
and 8- ; as Bop€d-^, son of Boreas, and Bopcd-s, gen. Bopea-8os, 
daughter of Boreas, from Bopw, Boreas. 

2. Stems of the second declension drop the final o and add i8a- 
and i8- ; as Upuifi-tSijs, son of Priam, Uptafi-k, gen. npca/Lu8o9» 
daughter of Priam, from Hpuifw-^. Except those in to-, which 
change o to a, making nominatives in 108179 and las (as in 1) ; as 
0eoTia8i7s and ©cortas, son and daughter of Thestius (0€<rr«)-s). 

3. Stems of the third declension add e8&- and 18-, those in cv 
dropping v before i ; as KcKpoTr-tSv)^, son (or descendant) of Cecrops, 
KcKp07r-i9) gen. tSos, daughter of Cecrops, from K.€Kpoiff, gen. 
KcKpOTT-os ; 'ArpctSi/s (Horn. 'ArpctSiys), son of Atreus, from 
'Arpcvs, gen. 'Arpc-cos ; HiyXctSiys (Horn. ni;Aet8i7s), son of Peleus, 



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861] ADJECTIVES. 189 

from UrfXtv-Sy gen. UrfKe-ia^, Horn, also UrfkrfiaSvp (as if from a 
form IIiJAiytos). 

847. N. Occasionally patronymics are formed by the sufl&x lov- 
or Uiv- (nom. i»v); as Kpovtiov, gen. Kpovioivos or Kpoidovoq (to 
suit the metre), son of Cronos (Kpdi/o-s)* 

848. (Gentiles,) 1. These designate a person as belonging to 
some country or toion, and are formed by the following suffixes : — 

tv- (nom. CVS, masc.) : *Ep€Tpt-cvs, Eretrian (*Ep€Tpta) ; Mcyap- 
cvs, Megarian (Meyopo, pi.) ; KoXa>vevs, o/ Colonos (KoXwvo-^), 

Td- (nom. n/s, masc. parox.) : Tcyca-n/s, o/ 2'e^ea (Tcyea), 
*H7rcipo>-Ti;s, o/ Epirus (*H7rapos), ]^iccAt(o-n^, Sicilian Greek 
(StKcA/a). (See 829.) 

2. Feminine stems in iS- (nom. /;, gen. (dos) correspond to mascu- 
lines in eu- ; as Meyapls, Megarian woman ; and feminines in nS- (nom. 
Tis, gen. TL^oi)^ to masculines in ra-, as DiKeXtw-rif, Sicilian woman. 

ADJECTIVES. 

849. 1. The simplest suffixes by which primitive adjectives 
(like nouns) are formed from roots or stems are o- and a- (nom. 
masc. OS ; fem. rf, a, or os ; neut. ov) : cro^-os, (To<f>y, <to<I>6v, toise ; 
KOK-o^, bad; Xotir-os, remaining (Actir-, AotTr-, 831). 

2. Some have v- (nom. vs, eui, v), added only to roots : ^8-vs, 
tnceet, from ^8- (rjSofim, be pleased) ; )3ap-us, ^eawy (root fiap-, cf. 
Pdp-oi, weight) ; Ta;^^, «M;ty^ (root rax", cf. raxKy swiftness). 

3. Some have to-- (nom. i;s, cs) : ^cvhrj^ (If/fv^tT-), false (if/evB- 
ofuu, lie) ; oti^-i/s (cra^ccr-), joZain (root <7a^). 

Most adjectives in rj^ are compounds (881). 

4. Some expressing inclination or tendency have |iov- (nom. ^ov, 
fuw) : fitrrj-fjuavt mindful^ from ^va- (fi€rfiirrf-ijucu) ; tAi7-/ludv, suffering, 
from rAa- (see rXao)) ; €ir6-Ai7<r-/jutfv, forgetfuly from Aa^ (Aav^avo))^ 

850. Adjectives signifying belonging or related in any way to a 
person or thing are formed from noun stems by the suffix io- 
(nom. los) : ovpav-ios, heavenly (ovpavo^), ouccibs, domestic (oTico-S) 
see 829) ; &xaios, just (3iKa-), 'A^^vaios, Athenian ('A^vat, stem 

•av*-)- 

861. 1. Denominatives formed by lko- (nom. eicos) denote rela- 
tion, like adjectives in los (850), sometimes j'fm^s^ or ability. Stems 
in i drop i before iko-. ^.^. 

'Apx-ucoq, Jit for rule ((!px^> ^^^^) J ^oAc/i-iKOs, warlike, of war 
(iroXcfu>-«) ; ^iw-CKOs, natural (^vort-) ; PaxriX-iKoq, kingly (fiaxriXr 
cus); ypa<^iK0S) capable of writing or drawing (ypa^fyq). 

2. Similar adjectives are formed directly from verb stems by 



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190 FORMATION OF WORDS. [862 

TtKO- (nom. reicos) : vpaK-ruco^, Jit for action, practiced, from irpdy- 
(irpao-(ro)) ; oifTBrf-riKO^, capable of feeling. 

852. Adjectives denoting material are formed by 

tvo- (nom. ivos, proparoxytone), as XlO^vo^y of stone {\i6c^)\ 
€o- (nom. €09, contr. ous), as xpvcreoS) XP^^^» golden (xp^o'o^). 

853. N. Adjectives in ivbt (oxytone) denote time, as iap-tpSi, vernal 
{llapy spring), vvKrep-ipSs, by night (I'l)^, night, vvKrcpoiy by night). 

864. Those denoting fulness (chiefly poetic) are formed by crr- 
(nom. €ts, co-o-o, cv); x^^ptets, graceful (xapi-s), gen. x(>iM'^i^os> 
uXiy-cts (872), woorfy ; cf . 829. Latin gratiosus, sUvosus. 

855. Other adjectives with various meanings are formed by 
various suffixes besides the simple o- ; as vo-, Xo-, po-, i|jio-, |m-, or 
(ri|io-, rr|pu>-, all with nom. in os: 8ei-vos (3ci-), terrible, Sei-Xoq, 
timid, <f>0ov€-p6^, envious {<f>0ov6s, envy), pAx-ipa^, warlike, XPV" 
o-i/xoS) useful, iTTTra-o-t/xos, ft for riding (or for cavalry) (from iinrar 
Copm), ireto--Ti;ptos, persuasive {irtiB-tii). Verbals in Aos are active, 
those in vos are passive; those in p6<: are generally active but 
sometimes passive, as <t>oPt-p6q, both frightful and afraid, 

856. N. Most adjectives in vo$, X09, and pos are oxytone. 

857. All participles are primitive (verbal) adjectives: so the 
verbals in tos and rcoq. 

858. Comparatives and superlatives in repos and raros are 
denominatives; but those in i<av and itrroq are primitives, adding 
these terminations directly to the root (357, 2). 

ADVERBS. 

859. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives (see 365-367). 

860. Adverbs may be formed also from the stems of nouns or 
verbs by the following suffixes : — 

1. 86v (or 8d), rfi6v: dva'if>av'd6v, openly (dva-if>alp<a, tpaw-), poet 
also dva<f>av5d ; Kvv-ri56vy like a dog {KwaPy gen. kvv-^), 

2. 8t|v or d8T|v: Kpvp-SriVy secretly (jcpxnmay conceal); trvWi/jfi-SriVy 
collectively {avWafjifidvta, Xa^-, 611) ; awop-ddriv, scatteredly (artlpu, 
sovOy scatter, stem <nrcp-) ; dvi-^y^Vy profusely (dp-irffu, let out, stem i-). 

3. t£ : dvofMa-rly by name (iro/uifw) ; iWrfPur-rl, in Greek {iWrfpl^ia). 

4. See also the local endings di, Btv, Se, etc. (292-296). 

DENOMINATIVE VERBS. 

861. A verb whose stem is derived from the stem of a noun 
or adjective is called a denominative (824). The following are the 
principal terminations of such verbs in the present indicative 
active : — 



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870] COMPOUND WORDS. 191 

1. CM» (stem in a-) : rlfidd), honor, from noun tI/jw; (rlfid-), honor, 

2. CO (c-) : dptd/Aeoi, county from dpiOfio-s, number (829). 

3. OM (o-) : fua-OoQ), lei for hire, from fuaOo-s, pay, 

4. cv«» (cv) ; PaaiXiwoj be king, from )8ao-iA.cv-s, king (see 863). 

5. a|c» (aS-) : SiKaf w, Judge, from SiKiy (StKci-), justice (862). 

6. bt«> (i^) • cAirt^oj, ^o/>e, from cAttis (eXTrtS-), Ao/>e (862). 

7. aiv« (av-) : (rr}/juuv(o, signify, from (rrjfjia {(Trjfmr-), sign (865). 

8. vvo» (vK-) : 178^^01, sweeten, from lySv-s, 5t^^«< (865). 

862. Verbs in af w, tf oj, aLvta, and iJ vcu are of the fourth class : 
for their formation, see 579-596. Some denominatives of this 
class end in AAw, atpta, etpw, and vpw; as dyyeWu) (ayycXo-s), 
announce, KaBaipo) (KaOapo-s;), purify, tficipti} (?/A€po-s), long for, 
fULprvpofWj, (papTv^, stem fjuapTvp-), call to witness, 

863. Many verbs in evta are formed merely by the analogy of those 
(like ficuri\€v-u)) with stems in ev: thus ^ovXevw, take counsel, from 
povX-fi ; dXiy^evw, be truthful, from dXriB-^s. 

864. Likewise many in i^ta and most in afw merely follow the 
analogy of those like Airffw (AirtS-) and 0/>dfw {ippab-), which have 
actual stems in 5 (see 587). 

865. The stems in av and i/i* of verbs in aivw and vvw come from 
nominal stems without v. see the examples above. 

866. Some verbs in eta come from adjectives in lys by dropping eer- 
of the stem; as eirrvx^^, be fortunate, from ejJruxiJs (ei/ruxecr-). 

867. N. Verbs formed from the same noun stem with different 
endings sometimes have different meanings ; as ToXe/i^u) and (poetic) 
vo\efd^(a, make war, voXendu), make hostile, both from vSXcfw-s, war; 
dov\6u), enslave, SovXevu, be a slave, from dovXo-s, slave. 

868. (Desideratives,) 1. Verbs expressing a desire to do any- 
thing are sometimes formed from other verbs and from nouns by 
the ending acio) (stem in act-), sometimes a<o or lao) (a- or la-) ; as 
hpa-KTtCw, desire to do (Spd-(o) ; ycXa-o-cto), desire to laugh (ycXa-oi) ; 
^oi^a<o, be blood-thirsty (<^vo5) ; KXav-cr-taw, desire to weep {KXaia), 
stem jcXav-). 

2. Some verbs in iaa> denote a bodily condition ; as 6<f>0aXfiidu), 
have diseased eyes (ophthalmia), iaxpi-oLd), be pale, ipvOpuid), blush, 

COMPOUND WOEDS. 

869. In a compound word we have to consider (1) the 
first part of the compound, (2) the last part, and (3) the 
meaning of the whole. 

870. N. The modifications which are necessary when a compound 
consists of more than two parts will suggest themselves at once. 



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192 FORMATION OF WORDS. [871 

I. FIRST PART OF A COMPOUND WORD. 

871. 1. When the first part of a compound is a noun or 
adjective, only its stem appears in the compound. 

2. Before a consonant, stems of the first declension gen- 
erally change final a to o ; those of the second declension 
retain o; and those of the third add o. Before a vowel, 
stems of the first and second declensions drop a or o. E,g, 

OhXafTfTo-Kpanap (AiAao-o-a-), ruler of the sea^ xopo-&&xo-KaAo; 
(Xop(y)i chorus-teacherj iraxSo-TpCprj^ (ttcuS-), trainer ofhoySy K€<fMk- 
oXyiys (Kc<^aA.d-), causing headache, Xop-rjyo^ (x^po-)j (o"g.) chorus- 
director; so tx^vo-c^ayos (tx^^)> fah-eaier, <j^vo-to-Xayos, enquiring 
into nature. The analogy of the second (or o-) declension prevails 
throughout. 

872. N. There are many exceptions. Sometimes ^ takes the place 
of o; as xoV'<f>^pos (xo'^f libation), bringer of libations, Aa0i7-/36Xot 
(Js\a<f>0's), deer-slayer. Stems in e<T (226) often change €<r to o; as 
rcixo'fiaxia (reixea-), wall-fighting. The Stems of voOs, ship, and /Sow, 
ox, generally appear without change (vav- and /Sou) ; as yau-fiax^a, sea- 
fight, Pov-k6\os, herdsman. Sometimes a noun appears in one of its 
cases, as if it were a distinct word ; as vedxr-oiKos, ship-house, vav<rl-irof>os, 
traversed by ships. 

873. Compounds of which the first part is the stem of 
a verb are chiefly poetic. 

1. Here the verbal stem sometimes appears without change 
before a vowel, and with c, t, or o added before a consonant. E.g. 

TlctO-apxo^, obedient to authority; /ACi/-c-irToX€/xos, steadfast in 
battle; dpx-t-reKTcov, master-builder; Xt7r-6-ya/xos, marriage-cleaving 
(adulterous). 

2. Sometimes <n (before a vowel &) is added to the verb 
stem. E.g. 

Au-at'-TTOvos, toil-relieving; (rrpojfL-^Ko^ (jcrrpt^), justxce-twisting; 
T€pil/C-voo^ (tc/ott-), soul-delighting; TrXiJf-iTnros (wXiyy-), horse-lashing. 

874. 1. A preposition or an adverb may be the first part of a 
compound word ; as in irpo-PaXXfa, throw before (882, 1), dUt-Xoyia, 
continual talking, €v-y€vrjs, well-born. 

2. Here no change of form occurs, except when a final vowel is 
elided, or when ^rpo contracts o with a following c or o into ow, as 
in irpovxfa (irpo, €xw)> hold before; irpovpyov (irpo, Ipyov), forward ^ 
ijypofi^ (vpo, 68ov), gone (93). 

3. Euphonic changes occur here as usual; as in €y;(<i»pcos (h 
and x^apa.) : see 78. 



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881] COMPOUND WORDS. 193 

875. The following inseparable prefixes are never used 
alone : — 

1. av- (a- before a consonant), called alpha privative, with a 
negative force, like English un-, Latin in-. It is prefixed to noun, 
adjective, and verb stems, to form adjectives ; as dv-cAcv^cpos, unfree, 
diKuSiTS) shameless, dv-o/xoios, unlike, d-7rats, childless, a-ypa<t>o<:, un- 
written, a-0€(y:, godless, d-(/r)otvos, wineless. 

2. Svo*-, Ul (opposed to cv, well), denoting difficulty or trouble; 
as hwT-Tro(>o<i, hard to pass (opposed to cv-7ropos) ; Sv(T'Tvxt]s, unfor- 
tunate (opposed to cvTv^iys). 

3. vt|- (Latin ne), a poetic negative prefix; as nJ-Trotvos, un- 
avenged; vrf-fUpTys, unerring (for vr^-a/xcpTiys). 

4. ijitt- (Latin semi-), half; as i^/lii-^co^, demigod, 

876. N. A few intensive prefixes are found in poetry, — apt-, 
ipi', &1-, {a-, as dpt-yvcuTOs, well-known; 3a-<^(Mvo9, bloody, 

877. N. The prefix a- is sometimes copulative (denoting union) ; 
as in a-\oxo$, bedfellow (from Xcxos). 

n. LAST PART OF A COMPOUND WORD. 

878. At the beginning of the last part of a compound 
noun or adjective, a, c, or o (unless it is long by position) 
is very often lengthened to ri or o>. E.g. 

S-ypar-ifyd? (orparo-s, dyw), general; vtt-'^koo^ (yno, olkovw), 
obedient; KaT-rjp€<t>'ijs (Kara, ipiffxa), covered; iir-tawpo^ (eirt, ovopa), 
naming or named for; KaT-rjyopos (Kara, dyopa), accuser; but dv-oXfSo^, 
unblesi. 

879. The last part of a compound noun or adjective 
is often changed in form before the suffix. This takes 
place especially in compound adjectives, and when an 
abstract noun forms the last part of a compound noun. 
E,g, 

^(Xo^ifios (rlprj), honor-loving; €v-<t>piav (<f>prjv), joyous; iroXv- 
rrpaypAov {irpaypa), meddlesome; Xt^o-/8oXta (XlOo^, /SoXiy), stone- 
throwing, vav-paxtd (vavs, paxfj), sea-fight; cv-Trpd^ta (^rpa^ts), success 
{doing well), 

880. N. An abstract noun compounded with a preposition may 
retain its form ; as irpo-jSouXi^, forethought. 

881. Compound adjectives in rjs (849, 3) are especially 
frequent. 

1. The last part may be a noun, generally a neuter in os (stem 



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194 FORMATION OF WORDS. 

in c<r-); as cv^ckits (yews), well bom, Scica-criTS (iros}, often years; 
fv^ryxV^ (Tvxrf)f fortunate, 

2. The last part may be formed from a verb stem ; as 0-^01^79 
(^v)t unseen, i^fu-Oanii (Oav), half -dead. 

882. 1. A compound verb can be formed directly only by 
prefixing a preposition to a verb ; as vpoa-dyw, bring to, 

2. Indirect compounds (denominatives) are formed from 
compound nouns or adjectives. E.g. 

AiOoPoKiio, throw stones, denom. from XiOo-PoXos, stone-thrower; 
v6fJL0$€T€ii}, make laws, from voyuoSirrj'i, law-maker; dTret^eco, disobey, 
from aTrce^, disobedient; KaTriyopiia, accuse, from icar-ifyopos (878), 
accuser. See 543. 

ni. MEANING OF COMPOUNDS. 

888. Compound nouns and adjectives are of tliree classes, 
distinguished by the relation of the parts of the compound 
to each other and to the whole. 

884. (1) Objective compounds are tljose composed of a 
noun and a verb, adjective, or preposition, in which the 
noun (as first or second part) stands to the other part in 
some relation (commonly that of object) which could be 
expressed by an oblique case of the noun. E.g. 

Aayo-ypa<^os, speech-writer (Aoyovs ypa^cov); fiw-dvOpanro^, man- 
hating {pxfTiav dv^powroug); Xva^C-irovo^, toil-relieving; (TTpar-rpfo^, 
general {army-leading, (tt par ov ay mi)', d^to-Xoyos, worthy of mention 
(d^ios Xoyov)', dpapT'L-voo^ (873, 1), erring in mind (dpaprv^v vov) ; 
1(t6-$€o<s, godlike (t(TOS Oew) ; Tcpir-t-#c€pawo5 (873, 1), delighting in 
thunder (repTro/uievog K€pavv(Si) ; Bu>-Tp€Kf>7fs, reared by Zeus (cf . 8u- 
TCTiys, fallen or sefit from Zeus, and Att-rpcc^ijs, a proper name). 
So with a preposition : €Y-;(aipio9, native (cv x<*>P^)> ^^tTnrtos, belong- 
ing on a horse (i<l> iTnTO)); cc^-eWtos, on the hearth {i<f> coria). 

885. N. When the last part of an objective compound is a transitive 
verbal in 0$ formed by the suffix 0- (832), it generally accents the 
penult if this is short, otherwise the last syllable. But if the last part 
is intransitive or passive (in sense), the accent is recessive. Thus 
\oyo-ypd<f>os, speech-writer ; \ido-fi6\os, thrower of stones, but \id6-fio\oi, 
pelted with stones ; firjTpo-KTdvos, matricide, matricidal ; but <rTpaT-riy6s, 
general ; Xoyo-iroiSs, story-maker, 

886. (2) Determinative compounds are nouns or adjec- 
tives in which the first part, generally as adjective or 
adverb, qualifies (or determines) the second part. E.g. 



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MEANING OF COMPOUNDS. 196 

*A#c/»a^o\is, citadel (dicpa TrdXts); fi€(T-rjfiPpCa (fuarf 17/Acpa, 66), 
midday; ij/evSo-fjuiynSf false prophet; ofio-^ovXjo^f fellow-slave (ofjuov 
SovXcveov) ; hwr-paO-q^, learning tvith difficulty; aJjawrcTi;?, swift-flying; 
TTpo-PovXjjy forethought; Afufyi-Oiarpov, amphitheatre {theatre extending 
all round) ; ot-ypa^os, untoritten. Here belong adjectives like /acAi- 
17817s (iJ8vs)> honey-sweet, *Aprf(-6ooi, sicift as Ares (Ares-swift). 

887. N. Here belong a few compounds sometimes called copulative, 
made of two nouns or two adjectives, and signifying a combination of 
tiie two things or qualities. Strictly, the first part limits the last, like 
an adjective or adverb. Such are laTp6-/MVTis, physician-prophet (a 
prophet who is also a physician) ; ^upo-jjdxaipa, sword-sabre ; dvdp6^au, 
man-child; yXvKv-TiKpos, sweetly bitter; dc6-ravpos, god-bull (of Zeus 
changed to a bull). 

888. (3) Possessive or attributive compounds axe adjec- 
tives in which the first part qualifies the second (as in 
determinatives), and the whole denotes a quality or attri- 
bute belonging to some person or thing. E.g. 

'Afyyvpo^o^o^i with silver-how {dpyvpovv to^ov €x<«>v) ; Kaico-&u/LWi)v, 
ill-fated (jcokov Saifwva ^x^^) > Tt#cpo-ya/xos, vyretchedly married (iriKpov 
ydfiov €xwv) ; o/xo-vo/xos, having the same laws; cKaroy-Ke^oXos, hundred- 
headed; 8€Ka-cn;9, of ten years (duration); aya$o-€v8i^^, having the 
appearance (etSo^) of good; ivOeo^f inspired (having God within) ; 
(Mcv^jTOv^, swift-footed ((dKcIs woSas cxwv), — but ttoS-cokits (TroSas 
coicvc), foot-swift, is a determinative. 

889. N. In compound verbs, the original verb remains the funda- 
mental part, modified more or less in meaning by the preposition 
prefixed. Other compounds than those here mentioned present no 
difficulties in respect to meaning. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



PART IV. 



SYNTAX. 



DEFINITIONS. 



890. (^Subject and Predicate.') Every sentence must 
contain two parts, a mbject and 2k predicate. The subject 
is that of which something is stated. The predicate is 
that which is stated of the subject. Thus in the sentence 
Aa/>6to9 fiaaiXevei r&p Jl€p(r&v^ Darius is king of the 
Persians^ Aapelo^ is the subject and /SaaiXevei r&v 
Hepa&v is the predicate. 

891. 1. When any part of cl/u, he, connects the subject with a 
following noun or adjective, the verb is called the copula (i.e. 
means of coupling)^ and what follows is called the predicate ; as 
Aapcio$ iart PaatXeiSj Darius is hing, ^Aq)V iarl a(Hf>6^, Solon is 
wise, where iarl is the copula. The copulas iarC and cio-i are often 
omitted, especially in proverbial sayings, as x^A.^^ Tot koAo, Jine 
things are hard, P. Rp. 435'', with nouns like dydyici^, necessity, mpa, 
time, and with the impersonal verbal in -rcov. For copulative verbs, 
see 908. 

2. "Elfu, however, can form a complete predicate, as in curt Ocoi, 
Gods exist. 

892. (Object.') That upon which the action of a verb 
is exerted is called the object. The object may be either 
direct or indirect: thus, in eSoDxe ra j^prjfiara to5 avhpi^ 
he gave the money to the man^ 'xprffiara is the direct 
object and avZpl is the indirect (or remote) object. 

893. Verbs which can have a direct object are called 
transitive; those which cannot are called intransitive. 

106 



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SUBJECT. 197 

SUBJECT AND PEEDICATE. 
SUBJECT. 

894. The subject of a finite verb (446) is in the 
nominative ; as 6 dvffp ^XBev^ the man came. 

895. 1. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusa- 
tive ; as (fyrfal rov^ avhpas direkdelv^ he say 9 that the men 
went away, 

2. But the subject of the infinitive is generally 
omitted when it is the same as the subject or the object 
(direct or indirect) of the leading verb; as fiovXerai 
direXffelv^ he wishes to go away; (fyrfcrl ypd<f)€Lv^ he says 
that he is writing ; irapaivovfiev aoi fiiveiv^ we advise you 
to remain. 

3. So when it is the same with any important adjunct of the 
leading verb ; as KaKovpyov cort KpiOevr &7roOav€Lv, it is like a male' 
factor to die by sentence of the law (928, 2), D.4,47. 

896. The subject nominative of the first or second person is 
omitted, except when special emphasis is required. 

897. The nominative of the third person is omitted : — 

1. When it is expressed or implied in the context ; as o KOpos 
irpaar(T€t a PovXcrax, Cyrus does what he (Cyrus) pleases ; 

2. When it is a general word for persons ; as Acyovcre, they say, 
it is said ; 

3. When it is indefinite ; as in oxj/k $v, it was late ; koXios ^x^^ ^ 
is well; hrjKol, it is evident (the case shows) : so in the impersonal 
construction with the verbal in reW, as in irctoTcW (cort) t<5 vofu^ 
we must obey the law (1597). 

4. When the verb implies its own subject, as KrjpwracL, the her- 
ald (Krfpv$) proclaims, €o-a\iriy^c, the trumpeter sounded the trumpet, 
KokXvci, a hindrance occurs. In passive expressions like irapeaKev- 
axrrai fUH, preparation has been made by me (I am prepared), the 
subject is really the idea of preparation etc. contained in the verb. 
See 1240. 

6. With verbs like vet, it rains, dorpaTrrct, it lightens, o-ctct, there 
is an earthquake (it shakes), where, however, some subject like Zcvs 
or ^eos was originally supplied. 

898. Many verbs in the third person singular have an infini- 
tive or a sentence as their subject. These are called impersonal 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



198 SYNTAX. 

verbs. Such are irpmi and ^rpooi/iccc, it is proper, Ii/cotc and i$e{m, 
it is possible, 3oicet, it seems good, avfiPaCvti., it happens, and the like ; 
as cf coTtv vfALv TovTO TToUiv, it is in your power to do this (to do this 
is possible for you). So also Set and ^(piy, it is required, we ought: 
as Bel 17/ias dircX^ctv, we must go away. 

The name impersonal is applied with greater propriety (though 
less frequently) to the verbs of 897, 3 and 4. 

SUBJECT NOMINATIVE AND VEBB. 

899. 1. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in 
number and person ; as (67a)) \€7g>, I «ay, ovro^ Xeye^ 
this man say 8^ oi avBpe^ Xeyova-cv^ the men say, 

2. But a nominative in the neuter plural regularly 
takes a singular verb; as ravra iyevero^ these things 
happened^ ret oiKrjfiaTa eireaev^ the buildings fell. So 
ahvvaTa ia-TC (or dBvvarSv earC)^ it is impossible. 

Exceptions sometimes occur, especially with nouns denoting 
persons. Several are found in Xenophon ; as in ^. 1,7". 

900. A singular collective noun denoting persons may 
take a plural verb; as to irXrjBo^; iylrff<f>ia'avTo 7ro\€fi€ivj 
the majority voted for war^ T. 1,125. 

901. N. When several subjects are connected by and, they 
generally have a plural verb. But the verb may agree with one 
of the subjects (generally the nearest), and be understood with 
the rest. The latter generally happens when they are connected 
by or or nor, E.g, 

'S(0<l>ol cyw Tc Koi (TV ?/A€v, you and I were wise, P. Th, 154* ; 
fmxovfuOa kolvq cyw rt koX (tv, you and I will fight together, F,Rp, 335«; 
ov (TV fJLOvo^ oiBk oi col <f>L\oi irpwTov ravrrp/ Bo^v ^cxcTC, it was not 
you alone nor your friends who first took up this notion, P. Lg. 888*». 
*E/x€ ovTC KOLpo^ ovT iXirU ovT€ <l>6po^ ovT oXXjo ovBcv linjpev, 
neither opportunity nor hope nor fear nor anything else incited me, 
D. 18, 298. 

902. N. If the subjects are of different persons, the verb is in 
the first person rather than the second or third, and in the second 
rather than the third. (See examples under 901.) 

903. N. A verb in the dual may follow two subjects in the 
singular, or even a plural subject denoting two persons or things. 
But even a subject in the dual may have a verb in the plural. 
(See II, 4, 453; 5, 10, 275; 16, 218.) 

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910] PREDICATE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE. I99 

904. N. Sometimes a verb agrees with the predicate nomina- 
tive; as (u Sc eur^poi #cat \opvf^(ajL ev3ai/iovta9 Ikovov (Trjfieiov 
ianvyhis taxes and payments for choruses are a sufficient sign of 
prosperity, Ant. 2, y. 8. 

905. N. Rarely a singular verb has a masculine or feminine 
subject in the plural; as lort 8c cTrrot (ttoSuk ii 'AjSvSov h rrjv 
dTravTiayf and there is a distance of seven stades from Abydos Co the 
apposite coast, Hd. 7, 34. In such cases the plural form often seems 
to have arisen from an afterthought, especially when the subject 
follows the verb. 

See also the phrases lortv ol etc., 1029. 

906. N. A preposition with a numeral may represent the sub- 
ject of a verb ; as dvWavov avrwv irepl TpvoKoa-iov^, about three hun- 
dred of them perished, X. H, 4, 6^^. 

PREDICATE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE. 

907. With verbs signifying to 6e, to become^ to appear^ 
to be named, chosen, made, thought or regarded, and the 
like, a noun or adjective in the predicate is in the same 
case as the subject. I!,g. 

Ovro9 coTi jSacriXcus, this man is king; 'AAc^v^pos $c6s (Jvofia- 
{croy Alexander was named a God; yp^Orj arparyyo^, he was 
chosen general; w iroXi^ ^povpiov Karifrrri, the city became a for- 
tress, T.7,28; avro^ l<mv €v8aifuav, this man is happy; 17 iroXi^ 
/MjeyaXrf iyeyero, the city became great; rjv$rjT<u fieyas, he has groum 
(to be) great ; vo/u{crai iroil>6^, he is thought wise, 

908. The verbs which are here included with the copula dpi 
(891, 1) are called copulative verbs. The predicate nominative 
with the passive verbs of this class represents the predicate accusa- 
tive of the active construction (1077). 

909. The predicate adjective with these verbs agrees with the 
subject in gender and number, as well as in case. (See 919.) 

910. The predicate of an infinitive with its subject accusative 
expressed (895, 1) is in the accusative ; as fiovXtrai tov vlov ctvoi 
(To^ov, he wishes his son to be wise. So when the participle is 
used like the infinitive in indirect discourse (1494) ; as ySea-av 
Toy Kvpoy paaiXia yevopjfvov, they knew that Cyrus had become 
king. 

For such a predicate with the subject omitted, see 927 and 
928. 



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200 SYNTAX. . [911 

APPOSITION. 

911. A noun annexed to another noun to describe it, 
and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it 
in case. This is called appoiition^ and the noun thus 
used is called an appositive. E.g, 

^ap€UK 6 PaxriKwj Darius the king, ^AOvjvai, fjueyaXrf iraXts, 
Athens, a great city, *Yfia^ rots cro^ous, you, the wise ones, *H./juiiv 
rwv *AOrpfaiiuv, of us, the Athenians. ^/uotokA^ rjKio (sc. cycti) 
wapa. o-c, /, Tkemistocles, am come to you, T. 1,137. ^iAtctcos koI 
AvfCttiy oi *Axaioi, PhUesius and Lycon, the Achaeans, X.^. 5, 6^. 

912. N. A noun in apposition with two or more nouns is gen- 
erally plural (or dual) ; as virvo? irovog re, icvpiot (wiofwrai, sleep 
and toil, lordly conspirators, A,Eu.l27; &dppos kcu 4mPov, dtf^powc 
(vfiPovku>, daring and fear, two senseless counsellors, P. Ti, 69^. 

913. N. An adjective may have a genitive in apposition with 
a genitive which it implies ; as *A^i;ya?o9 &v, iroketaq r^s fjuEyum^^ 
being (a citizen) of Athens, the greatest city, F,Ap.29\ 

For a genitive in apposition with the genitive implied in a 
possessive pronoun, see iOOl. 

914. N. A noun which might stand in the partitive genitive 
(1088) sometimes takes the case of the words denoting its parts, 
especially when the latter include the whole of the former; as oucuu 
a! fiky iroXXal 7r€7maK€<rav, oXCyai Sk ircpirjaxiy, most of the houses had 
fallen, but a few remained (where we might have rfiv ohcuav), T. 1, 
89. So ovToi SXXxH SXXa, Aeycc, these men aU say different things^ 
X.A,2, 1". This is called partitive apposition. 

915. K. A noun may be in apposition with a whole sentence, 
being in the nominative when it is closely connected in thought 
with the subject of the sentence, elsewhere in the accusative ; as 
Kcivroi TTCO-di^cs, ttiotis ov <T/uLKpa TToAcc, they lie prostrate, — no small 
(cause of) confidence to the city, E.i2A.415. *EA.cio/v Krdviopjev, 
MevcAcip Xvmp^ irucpdv, let us kill Helen, (which will be) a bitter grief 
to Menelaus, E. Or. 1105. 

916. N. A noun may be in apposition with the subject or the 
object of a sentence, where we use as or 2k like word; as imrot 
T^yovTO ^fta T<p *HA/<j», horses were brought as an offering to the Sun 
(in active, Imrov^ Syav Ovfm, to bring horses as an offering), X. C. 8, 
3^; i$€(mv vfuv i7fia9 Aa^eiv (vfifiaxov^, you can gain us as allies, 
X. -4.5,4'. So Tvxctv Ttvos <f>iXov, to gain some one as a friend; 
-XpSiiwx TOVT<fi <l>Oij^ I treat him as a friend. So rtvos Si&MrxaAoi 
rJK€T€; as teachers of what are you comef F.Eu.2S7k See 1080. 



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921] AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 201 

917. N. Homer often adds an appositive denoting a part to a 
noun or pronoun denoting a person ; as ^yfunrvnjv ovraxrey Sfiov, 
he wounded Z>. in the shoulder, /;.11,420; dlXA.' ouk 'Arpct^ 'Aya- 
fufjwoyi i^v&ivc $vfiM, but he was not pleasing to the heart of Agamemr 
non, son of Atreus (lit. to ^., Ais heart), IL 1,24. 

For 6 Sc in Homer followed by a noun in apposition, see 937, 1. 



AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

918. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, 
number, and case. This applies also to the article and 
to adjective pronouns and participles. U,g. 

'O a'o4>^ ^^rrjp, the wise man ; rov aotfxnj dv8po9j rw a-ofiHa dv8pt, 
ray axHJ^ov dvSpoj ra>v aoffnav aySp&v, etc. Ouros 6 dviqpy this man; 
TovTOv rcfv a^poi, tovtiov t(ov dvS/D«i)v. At irpb tov <tt6/juito^ vrjes 
vav/juixofvaxa, the ships engaged in battle before the mouth (of the 
harbor), T.7,23. 

This includes predicate adjectives with copulative verbs, the case 
of which has akeady been considered (907) ; as at apurrai 8oKownu 
ttvoL Kf^vati^, the natures which seem to be best, X. M. 4, 1^ 

919. The adjective may be either cUtributive or predicate. An 
attributive adjective simply qualifies the noun, without the inter- 
vention of any verbal form (like all the adjectives in 918, except 
dpurroi). The predicate adjective may be connected with its noun 
by the copula (891) or by a copulative verb (908) ; as 6 avvp 
&ya$6s i(mv, the man is good; KoXeiToL dya^os, he is called good. It 
may stand to its noun in any relation which implies some part of 
ci/u; as Trrqvas Sicokcis ras c\irt8a9, you are pursuing hopes which are 
winged (i.e. hopes being winged), E. frag. 273; aJSayarov t^f /unrjfirp^ 
KOLToXuilfova-w, immortal is the memory they wiU leave behind them (i.e. 
r^ fjLinjfirp^ oSaav aOayarov), 1.9,3; iroui rois M.'q^ov^ airOeyei^, 
he makes the Medes (to be) weak. Every adjective which is not 
attributive is classed as a predicate. 

A predicate adjective is often known by its position with 
respect to the article ; see 971, and the examples. 

920. N. A collective noun in the singular denoting persons 
may take a plural /)articip/e/ as Tpouiv iXovres *Apy€iW crroAo?) 
the Ar gives* army having taken Troy, A. A g. 677, 

921. N. An adjective may conform to the real rather than the 
grammatical gender of a noun denoting a person ; as ^iXc tIkvov^ 
dear child I 1122, U. 



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202 SYNTAX. [922 



N. Avo, tioo, is often used with a plural noun; as eSpos 
Bvo irXidpm (1085, 5), of two plethra in breadth, X. A. 1, 228. 

923. N. An attributive adjective belonging to several nouns 
generally agrees with the nearest or the most prominent one, and 
is understood with the rest; as rov koXov KayaOov av^pa kcu ywcuKo, 
the honorable man and woman, P. G, 470«; Travri kcu Xoyw kcu tMfXov^, 
by every word and device, 

924. N. (a) A predicate adjective (like a verb, 901) is regu- 
larly plural if it belongs to several singular nouns, or dual if it 
belongs to two. K the nouns are of different genders, the adjec- 
tive is commonly masculine if one of the nouns denotes a male 
person, and commonly neuter if all denote things. Thus, ctSc 
iraripa t€ koI firjfripa Kat dScX^ous kcu t^v kavrov ywaxKa ai\fi.a' 
X(i)rov9 ycyevrffievov^, he saw that both his father and his mother, his 
brothers, and his own wife had been made captives, X. C 3, 1^ ; Sofa 
8^ KCU ImfiiktUL Koi vcHk kcu rixyrj kcu vofixys a-KXrfpiav k<u fjuaXoKSiv 
IT port pa Av tlrj, P.Z^. 892*>. 

(b) But it sometimes follows both the gender and number of 
the nearest or most prominent noun ; as ?rp op pt{o9 avros, -ij ywr/, 
ra wmSto, kokixtt atroXjOLfirp^, may I perish most wretchedly root and 
branch, myself, my wife, my children, Ar. R. 587. 

926. N. A masculine or feminine noun in the singular, deoot- 
ing a class rather than an individual, may have a neuter predicate 
adjective, which is used as a noun; as KaXov i/ dXrjOaxi, a beau- 
tiful thing is truth, P.Z^.663«; AOdvarov apa 17 ^jroxfly is the soul 
then immortal (an immortal thing) t P. Ph, 105®. 

926. N. A predicate adjective is sometimes used where we 
should use an adverb or adverbial phrase; as cKovrcs ^kOov, they 
came willingly; opKio^ Si col Xcycu, 1 say it to you on my oath, 
S.^n.305; Trpwros 8' iiepietvc Ncoroip, and first, Nestor inquired, 
7/. 10, 543. There is often, however, a great distinction between 
the adjective and the adverb; as Trpwros avrous cTSov, I was the 
first to see them; vpiarov^ avrovs eTSov, they were the first whom I 
saw; irpCiTov (adv.) avrovs ttSov, first (pi all that I did) / saw 
them, 

ADJECTIVES BELONGING TO THE OMITTBD SUBJECT 
OP AN INFINITIVE. 

927. When the subject of an infinitive is omitted because 
it is the same as the subject nominative of the leading verb 
(895, 2), adjective words and nouns which would agree 



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r 



OMITTED SUBJECT OF AN INFINITIVE. 203 

with the omitted subject are assimilated to the preceding 
nominative. E.g, 

BouXcToi crowds Civai, he wishes to be wise; Heparj^ l<^77 civoi, 
he said he was a Persian, X.^.4,4". Ov^ ofuoXoyi^ii} aKkrjTos 
yKeiVj / shaU not admit that I am come unbidden, P.jSy.174:^; ovk 
tifni avTos dXX* Ikclvw <tt pamriytlv, he (Cleon) said that not (he) 
himself J but he (Nicias) was general; he said ovk (cycu) avro^ (<rrpa- 
TtiyQi) aXX iKclvoi (rrparyfytt, avrds being adjective (989, 1) and 
€ic£iFos substantive ; T. 4, 28. Such adjective words or nouns may 
be in the predicate with copulative verbs (907) or in other con- 
structions. The assimilating nominative may be either expressed 
or understood. 

928. But when the subject of an infinitive is omitted 
because it is the same as the object or other adjunct (895; 3) 
of the leading verb, — 

1. If this adjunct is a dative, adjective words and nouns 
may either be assimilated to the dative, or stand in the 
accusative in agreement with the omitted subject of the 
infinitive. E,g. 

TLpiirtL (TOi clvoi wpoOvfiw (or irpoOvfiov), it becomes you to 
he zealous; vuvaoi ^fcoriv SivSpl yeviirOca, now it is in your power 
to show yourself a man, X. -4 . 7, 1^ ; Travrt TrpocnyKCt apyavri i^povLp.*^ 
dvQi, it becomes every ruler to be prudent, X. Hip, 7, 1 ; (rvfi<^ep£i avrois 
^iXov9 clvoi, it is for their interest to befriends, X.Oe. 11,23. ^ESofcv 
avroi9 (rvcnccvacra/xcvois a €T)(ov k<u i^oirXiaap.ivois irpotivaLif 
they decided to pack up what they had and arm themselves completely, 
and to advance, X. -4. 2, 1^ ; but i^cv avrots 7r/x><^vAaxa9 Karao-Ti/- 
(ravras ovyKoXetv tois arpariwra^, they decided to station pickets 
and to assemble the soldiers (ib. 3, 2^) ; in 1, 2\ we find two datives 
and an accusative. 

2. If the adjunct is a genitive, predicate adjectives are 
generally assimilated to it ; but other adjective words and 
all nouns stand in the accusative. E.g, 

Kvpov i^ovTo (09 irpoOvp.oTarov ytvixrOax, they asked Cyrus to 
he as devoted to them as possible, X.^.1,6^; but (with a noun) 
kdrfvaitav iSei^Orjfrav a'fl}L<n PoijOov^ yeviaSai, they asked the AthC' 
nians to become their helpers, Hd.6,100; KOKOvpyov iarl KpiOivr 
dvo^vciv,. (yrparyjyov 8i p.a\6p.€vov tois iroXtpIoi^, it is like a 
tnalefactor to die by the sentence of a court, but like a general (to die) 
fighting the enemy, D.4:,47; ^opxu vpMv p.tp.vqp.ivov^ twv €lprjp.e- 
WW TO, Slkoul \lnff<l>LaturOajL, I beg of you to remember what has been 
said, and to vote what is Just, 1.19,51. 

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204 SYNTAX. [929 

929. Words in the construction of 928 which refer to a preced- 
ing accusative are of course in the accusative ; as oAXovs ^reiroxa 
avfifkaOifrds fUH ifxMTay, I have induced others to go cis my feUow- 
pupiUyF.Eu.27'2^. 

930. N. The principles of 927 and 928 apply also to a predicate 
with <Sk or with the participle of a copulative verb; as ijfdcoay 
ao4>oi OKTCs, they knew that they were wise (but yhcxra.v tovtois 
ao^wvs 6ms, they knew that these men were wise), 

931. N. When an infinitive depends on a participle which sup- 
plies its omitted subject, predicate words take the case of the par- 
ticiple; as ^A^or iirC riva toiv SoKovvnov clvoi <TO^SiVy I went to one 
of those who seemed to he wise, P. Ap, 21*> ; toiv wpofnroujvfjieyuw dvai 
<ro^i<rr(tfv nvas, some of those who profess to be sophists, 1.15,221. 
So TOLi ioKovatv €ivai ao<t>oli, to those who seem to be wise. 

ADJECTIVE USED AS A NOUN. 

932. 1. An adjective or participle, generally with the 
article, may be used as a noun. E.g. 

*0 StVcoioS) the just man; 6 i)(0p6i, the enemy; ^iXos, a friend; 
Kojcij, a base woman; ro fiiaov or pAa-ov, the middle ; ot kolkoC, the bad; 
TOis dyaSois, to the good; twv KparovvTwy, of those in power; Kojcd, 
evils ; ra Ovrjrd, mortal things ; ol ypa^a/icvoi 'S^tKpdrqv, the accusers 
of Socrates. 

2. In some cases, a noun is distinctly implied ; as ry wrepal^ 
(sc. rifjiipff), on the next day; 17 Scfidt (sc. x^^p)* ^^ ^9^^ hand; ij 
€vOaa (sc. bho^), the straight road; 6 aKparo^ (sc. oivoi), unmixed 
wine ; cs rrfv cavTwv (sc. y^), into their own land. 

933. The neuter singular of an adjective with the axticle 
is often used as an abstract noun; as to koXov, beauty 

(= KoXXos), TO iiKOWVf justice (= SlKOUKTUVrf) . 

934. N. The participle, which is a verbal adjective, is occasion- 
ally thus used for the infinitive, which is a verbal noun; as to 
Sehioq, fear (=t6 ScStcmi), T.1,36; Iv tw firj fieXeriaim, in the want 
of practice (in the not practising) (=€v t<J firf fjueXerav), T. 1,142. 
So in Latin, opus est maturate, there is need of haste. 



THE ARTICLE. 

HOMERIC USE OF THE ABTICLB. 

935. In Homer the article appears generally as a demon- 



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939] HOMERIC USE OF THE ARTICLE. 205 

strative or personal pronoun; sometimes (in the forms 
beginning with t) as a relative. E.g, 

Trpf S* cyw ou Xxkno, but I toUl not free her, J 1. 1,29 ; tw Sk kXvc 
$oi/3os ^AttoXXwv, and Phoebus Apollo heard him, /Z.1,43; 6 yap 
^XBe tfoas iirl v^as 'Axomov, for he came to the swift ships of the 
Achaeans, /Z.1,12. As relative, Trvpa TroAAa ra kol^to, many fires 
which were burning, /Z.10,12; Sutpa rd ol ^elvos XtKC, gifts which a 
stranger gave him, Od,2\, 13. 

936. N. Even in Homer, adjectives and participles used as 
nouns (932, 1) have the article, as in Attic Greek; as oi ya/> 
apUTTOi €v vrpHTiv K€aT<u,for the bravest sit by the ships, /Z.11,658; oL 
oXXm, the others; to, t iovra rd r kcrcroyxva, both things that are and 
things that are to be, II. 1, 70. 

937. 1. When the article is used with nouns in Homer, it is 
generally a pronoun (especially 6 Ss), with which the noun is in 
apposition; as 6 8* ippax^ x^*^^^ ^Apiy?, and he, brazen Ares, 
roared, II. 5, 859 5 17 8* diKova afta Toto-t y vv^ kUv, and she, the woman, 
went with them unwilling, IL 1, 348. 

2. Nearer the Attic use of the article are examples like these : 
avrap 6 roTxri yipwv 68ov lyyc/xwcvcv, but he, the old man, showed them 
the way, Od. 24, 225 ; tov 8* oTov jrarip ^pov, and they found him, the 
father, alone, ib. 226. 

3. Hardly, if at all, to be distinguished from the Attic article is 
that found in examples like these : arc 8^ rrjv vrjaov d<t>t.K6fjijcff, when 
now we came to the island, Od. 9, 543 ; to t€ aOho^ 'Opoovos, and the 
might of Orion, II, 18, 486 ; al 8c yvvaiKcs uTrdpxvax OavpaJ^ov, and the 
women stood and wondered, II. 18, 495. 

4. It is, therefore, often difficult to decide the exact force of an 
article in early Greek. The above examples show a gradual tran- 
sition, even in Homer, from the original pronoim to the true defi- 
nite article. 

938. N. The examples in 937, 3, are exceptional ; and in such 
cases the nouns usually stand without the article in Homer, as in 
Latin. Thus 8€tv^ 8c icAayy^ ycVcr* dpyvpiow ^loio, and terrible 
came the clang from the silver bow, IL 1, 49, would in Attic Greek 
require ^ icXayy^ and tov fiwv. 

'939. Herodotus generally uses the forms of the article begin- 
ning with T in the place of the ordinary relative, — of which he 
uses only the forms os, rj, ol, and at, except after prepositions. 
Thus a\Xo9 opns lpo<s, tw ovvopa ^olvti, another sacred bird, whose 
name h Phoenix, 2, 73. In other respects, he uses the article as it 
is used in Attic prose. 



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206 SYNTAX. [WO 

940. N. The lyric poets follow the Homeric usage with respect 
to the article more closely than Herodotus ; and the tragic poets, 
especially in the lyric chorus, admit the Homeric use of the article 
as a relative or a personal pronoun. 

ATTIC USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

941. In Attic Greek the article generally corresponds 
to our article the; as o dvrjp^ the man; r&v iroXeoiV^ of 
the cities; roU '^EWrjacv^ to the Grreeks; ra hexa errj^ 
the (well known) ten years (at Troy), T.1,11. 

942. The Greek may use the article in certain cases in 
which the English omits it. Such are the following (943- 
951): — 

943. Proper names may take the article; as 6 2<oxpan79 or 
So>Kpan79) Socrates. 

944. Abstract nouns oftei^ take the article ; £& i/ dfiery^ virtue, 
1/ SiKaioavvrj, justice ; 17 evXaj^eio, caution. But dpen/ etc. are also 
used in the same sense. 

946. 1. Nouns qualified by a demonstrative pronoun regularly 
take the article ; as ouro? o dnyp, this man ; Iv raio-Sc rm? TrdXeoriy, 
in these cities. (For the position, see 974.) 

2. But the article may be omitted with proper names, as wt(k 
NcoTTToXc^uios, this NeoptolemuSf D. 18,114; also where the demon- 
strative is equivalent to here or there, as bpStfjuEv oXtyovs rovrov^ 
dvOptjinrov^, we see few men here, X.-4.4,7*; so ovroai aanip, this man 
here, and ovto^ Svijp used contemptuously; see also vrjes iKeiyai 
imirXiova-i, ships are sailing up yonder, T. 1, 51. 

3. The tragedians often omit this article with demonstratives. 

946. 1. Nouns with a possessive pronoun take the article when 
they refer to definite individuals, but not otherwise; as 6 ifJLOi 
irarrip, my father, b a-o^ Kwvinvb^, your partner, D.18,21; but <ros 
K(Mva)vo9 would mean a partner of yours. (For predicates, see 956.) 

2. So also with nouns on which a possessive genitive of a per- 
sonal, demonstrative, or reflexive pronoun depends; as 6 iran^ 
fujv, my father; 6 Ipavrov Trarrjp, my own father; 6 ravrasv traTvjfh, 
their father ; 71 lavrlavyrj, their own land. But mits cavrou, a child 
of his own. 

947. ToiovTos, Toamrroi, TOLoaSe, Tcxroo-Sc, and n;XiKoOro9 may 
take the article ; as tov toixwtov avhpa, such a man. It is always 
used with Selva, such a one (420). 



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964] ATTIC USE OF THE ARTICLE. 207 

948. A numeral may have the article, (a) to distinguish a part 
of a number ; (b) to express a round number, especially with dft<^t, 
irepiy viript or cis ; (c) to express merely a number in the abstract. 
Thus, Tutv irfvrt ras Svo /toipa? ve/xovrat, they hold two of the five 
parts, T.l, 10; c/xeivav ^/xepa? d/x</>c ras rpuxKovra, they remained 
about thirty days, X.^.4,822; ^^^^ ^^ IpCi^ 5rt larl rot SwScKa 8ts If, 
cfon'i «ay <Aai ^we/i^e is twice six, P. i?!/?. 337^. • 

949. The article is often used, where we use a possessive pro- 
noun, to mark something as belonging to a person or thing men- 
tioned in the sentence; as ipxerai avrrj tc i^ MavSdvr) irpos tov 
iraripa koI tov Kvpov rov viov txprva-a, Mandane comes to her father 
(lit. to the father) herself, and with her son Cyrus, X. 0.1,3^. 

960. The article may have a generic force, marking an object 
as the representative of a class ; as o av^powros, man (in general) ; 
ot yeporrcs, the aged (as a class). 

961. The article sometimes has a distributive force, where we 
should use each or a; as vTrtcrxvcirat 8a)(reiv rpia i//LU&ip€tKa tov 
firp^oi T^ OTpaTKOTy, he promises to give three half-darics a month to 
each soldier, X. A . l', 321. 

962. 1. An adverb, a preposition with its case, or any similar 
expression, may be used with the article to qualify a noun, like an 
attributive adjective ; as ot t6t€ avOptiyiroi, the men of that time ; Tciv 
vaXoL Kaj&fiov, of ancient Cadmus, S. O.T.I; oi iv aoTCi ^AOrjvaloL, the 
Athenians in the city. 

2. Here a noun denoting men or things is often omitted ; as ot iv 
SioTet, those in the city ; rots rort, to those of that time ; ol d/x<^t HA-d- 
Tisjva, those about Plato (generally Plato and his school, or simply 
Plato). 

963. The nouns yrj, land, irpdyimra, things or affairs, vtos, son, 
and sometimes other nouns which are readily suggested by the 
context, may be omitted after the article, when a qualifying adjec- 
tive or genitive is added ; as cts rrjv iavrStv (sc. y^v), to their own 
land; cic t^s 7r£ptotKt8os, from the neighboring country ; ra r^s wo- 
Xc(tfs, the affairs of the state ; rot to)v iroXefuoyv, what belongs to the 
enemy; HtpiKXrjs 6 'BavOCwirov {sc. vtds), Pericles, the son of Xan- 
thippus ; TTjv TaxLOTyjv (sc. ohov), the quickest way. Expressions like 
TO, (or to) Tryi Tvxqs, to. Trjq opyrjs, with no definite nouns under- 
stood, sometimes do not differ from Tvxrjf Fortune, and opyij, wrath. 

964. Instead of repeating a noun with new adjuncts in the 
same sentence, it may be sufficient to repeat its article ; as ot ro)v 
ttoXitSw TTOtScs Kol ol tS)v oAAcov, the children of the citizens and those 
of the others. 

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208 SYNTAX. [©56 

966. 1. The infinitive, as a verbal noun (1516), may take a 
neuter article; as to dBivcu, the knowing; aoi to firf atyrja-ajL Xmvov 
yVf it remained for you not to be silent, D. 18, 23. 

2. In like manner, a neuter article may precede a whole clause 
considered as a noun; as to yvw^t aavTov 7ravTa)(ov *<m xri^^' 
fwvi the saying " know thyself" is everywhere useful, 

966. A predicate noun or adjective seldom has the article ; as 
vvi 17 "^f^^PV ^y^VcTo, the day became night, Hd. 1, 103 ; koXcitvu ^ 
oKpoTToXc? €Tt VTT *A07jvcuiiiv TToXjL^, the citodel is still called " dty ** by 
the Athenians, T.2,15. So when it has a possessive pronoun; as 
ovTOi Iftos CTatpos ^v, he was my companion, P. Ap. 21». 

But when the predicate refers definitely to distinct persons or 
things, it may have the article ; as elm ^ ovtoi oi eiSorcs TdXrjSis; 
and are these those (whom I mean) who know the truth f P. H.M. 284«. 

957. N. Ba<rtA.€v9 is generally used without the article to desig- 
nate the king of Persia; as tovtov^ ajroTrifxirci P a or ikci, he sends 
these to the King, T. 1,128. But the article is sometimes found: 
compare 1. 4, 166 and 179. So sometimes fiiyaq PaxnXev^ ; as fuya- 
\oy )8a<nX€a)s ^SactXcio, a palace of the Great King, X.-<4. 1,2*. 

958. N, The article is often omitted in some familiar expressions 
of time and place, which are probably older than the Attic use of 
the article; as ajm la>, at daybreak; wktos, by night; ofta ^pi, at the 
opening of spring ; iv dyopa, in the market-place ; KaT aypov, in the 
country ; Kara y^v, by land ; Kara OdXaarcrav, by sea ; €k B€$w, from 
the right; etc. 

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 

959. (^Attributive Position,^ 1. An attributive adjective 
which qualifies a noun with the article commonly stands 
between the article and the noun ; as 6 ao^o^ dvrjp^ the 
wise man; r&v fieydXcov iroXeoov^ of the great cities. 

2. The noun with the article may be followed by the 
adjective with the article repeated. The first article is 
sometimes omitted. In these cases the noun has greater 
emphasis than in the preceding form (1). E.g. 

*0 avrjp 6 (ro<^os, sometimes avrip 6 (ro<^o9, the wise man (but not 
6 dvrfp a'ofl}6's, see 971 ) ; ai woXeis at SrjiJuoKpaTavfUvai, the states which 
are under democracies ; dvOpoyiroi ol aSiKwrarot, men who are the most 
unjust ; TTois ^ aKpaTo^ BtKoxoavvrj Trpos ctStKtav ty^v aKpaTOv €X€i, (the 
question) how pure justice is related to pure injustice, P. Rp, 645». 



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966] POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 209 

960. This applies to possessive pronouns and all expressions 
which have the force of attributive adjectives, when they are pre- 
ceded by the article (952, 1), and to dependent genitives (except 
partitives and the genitive of the personal pronoun); as 6 c/aos 
Trarrjp, my father ; ri (rq pip'rjp, thy mother ; o ifjuavrov irarjp, my oum 
father (but 6 iraTyp /mw, my father, see 977) ; ol iv axrra avOpiowoc 
or oc SvOpwTTOi 04 €v ttOTci, the men in the city ; ovScis twv T6rr€ *EAXi/- 
viav, none of the Greeks of that time ; to t<S ovn \l/ev^, the real 
falsehood; cis lifv iKtCvaw iroAiv, into their city; ol twv €>i;j3cuW 
arpaTTiyoi, the generals of the Thebans; cv ry avaPaxra ry fura 
Kvpov, in the upward march toith Cyrus, j^,A,5,l\ For participles, 
see 969. 

961. N. Two or even three articles may thus stand together ; 
as TOL yap rrj^ rSiv woXX<ov ^/^X75 ofipaTo^ the eyes of the soul of the 
multUude, P.^"o.254». 

962. An adjective in either of these positions with reference to 
the article (959) is said to be in the attributive position, as opposed 
to the predicate position (see 971). 

963. N. Of the three attributive positions, the first (e.g. 6 a'o<l}6^ 
Sivrjp) is the most common and the most simple and natural ; the 
second (6 avrjp 6 cro<^d9) is the most formal; the third (&vrjp 6 
(To^o?) is the least common. 

964. N. The article at the beginning of a clause may be sepa- 
rated from its noun by fiey, 8c, re, yc, yap, &J, ovv, and by ris in 
Herodotus. 

965. The partitive genitive (1088) rarely stands in either of the 
attributive positions (962), but either precedes or follows the gov- 
erning noun and its article ; as ol KaKcH twv woXirSiv, or to)v woXtroiv 
oi Kojcot, the bad among the citizens (rarely ol rSiv 7roXtro)v Kaxot). 

Even the other forms of the adnominal genitive occasionally 
have this position, as Sta t6v oXeOpov twv oT^o-rpaTtairoiv opyd^opuEvoL, 
angered by the death of their fellow soldiers, 'K..A.\,2^. 

966. 1. *0 a\Xo9 in the singular generally means the rest, seldom 
the other; oc oXAxm means the others: as ^ aXKri irohM, the rest of the 
state (but aXXij ttoAis, another state) ; ot oAXoi "EAAitvcs, the other 
Greeks. 

2. Both 6 aXyjoi and oAXos (rarely Ircpos) may have the mean- 
ing of besides; as cv8atfun/i{ofieFOs vtto rcov ttoXitcuv kxu rtav akX<i>v 
ieyuw, congratulated by the citizens and the foreigners besides, P.(t.473°; 
ou yap rjv xoproi o^ SiXXo ovSkv Stv&pov, for there was no grass, 
neither any tree (lit. nor any other tree), X.-4.1,5*. 



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210 SYNTAX. [967 

967. N. IIoXvs with the article generally (though not always) 
means the greater part, especially in ol iroXKoC, the mtUtitude, the 
majority, and to ttoKv, the greater part. So ol irkeiove^, the majority, 
TO irkeiov, the greater part, ol irActcrrot and to vkeioTov, the greatest 
number or part. 

968. N. When a noun has two or more qualifying words, each 
of them may take an article and stand in either attributive posi- 
tion (959), or all may stand between one article and its noun; as 
Kara ttjv ^Attlktjv ttjv TraXoiav <^a)n/v, according to the old Attic dia- 
lect, P. Cra/. 398*; to. T€Lxq ra kavTm to. fJxiKpd, their own long walls, 
T. 1,108; ir€fJiTrovT€% as rots oAAas ^ApKaSiKa^ ttoAcis, sending to the 
other Arcadian cities, X. H. 7, 4*^ ; ttjv vtt ^ApcTrj's 'H/oaicXcovs votScv- 
aiv, the instruction of Hercules by Virtue, X.il/.2,1**. Occasionally 
one stands between the article and the noun, while another follows 
the noun without an article ; as ol o/tto twv cv Ty *AorCa voXeun^ 
'EAAiyvtScoF, those (coming) from the Greek cities in Asia, X.H.4,3^. 

969. N. tVhen an attributive participle (919) with dependent 
words qualifies a noun with the article, either the participle or the 
dependent words may follow the noun; as tov piovTa irorofiov 
8ia T^s» TToA-ccos, the river which runs through the city, X. H. 5, 2* ; tov 
iKJiecTrjKOTa klvSvvov t^ troXti, the danger impending over the city, 
D. 18, 176; tJ iv t^ 'I(r^/u.<p iirifjuovrj y€vofi€vrj, the delay which 
occurred at the Isthmus, T.2,18. But such expressions may also 
take either of the attributive positions (959, 1 or 2). 

970. N. The Greeks commonly said the Euphrates river, tov Ev- 
<l>pdTrjv TTorapjov, etc., rather than the river Euphrates. So sometimes 
with names of mountains (rarely with those of cities or islands). 

971. (^Predicate Position.') When an adjective either 
precedes the article, or follows the noun without taking 
an article, it is always a predicate adjective (see 919). E,g. 

*0 ai^p (ro<^09 or (ro<l>69 6 dvyp (sc. iariv), the man is wise, or 
wise is the man; iroXXol ol wavovpyoi, many are the evil-doers; iijnffjLt' 
povs yc rots Tvxa^ KeKTi^fieOa, we possess our fortunes for a day (sc. 
oucas), Gnom. 

972. N. The predicate force of such adjectives must often be 
expressed by a periphrasis; as wTrjva^ SitoKCi^ tos cA.ir(8a$, the 
hopes you are pursuing are winged, lit. you are pursuing hopes (being) 
winged, E. frag. 273; ^yov/xcvM airrovopMiv Ttov ivfijJMXWi being 
leaders of allies who were independent, T.1,97; \l/iXrjv Ix*"*' '"P^ 
ice<^aA.i7V, having his head bare, X.^.1,8^ So iroaov aya to orpo- 
Tcvfw.; how great is the army he is bringing? 



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979] POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. 211 

973. The position of such an adjective (971) with reference to 
the article is called the predicate position. 

974. When a demonstrative pronoun agrees with a 
noun, it takes the article, and stands in the predicate 
position (971). II.ff. 

OvTos 6 dvqpf this maUf or 6 dvrjp ovroi (never 6 ovto^ Sanip). 
Ilcpt rovruw rwv TroAccDv, about these cities. (See 945, 1-3.) 

975. N. But if an adjective or other qualifying word is added, 
the demonstrative may stand between this and its noun; as i} 
<rT€vrf avTTj 6809, this narrow road, X.^.4,2*; r<p d^ucofici^ rour^i 
faw, to this stranger who has come, P.Pr. 31 3^ (See 977, 2.) 

976. N. ^xcurros, CKarcpos, 3ifi<fxii, and ainfkortpo^ have the 
predicate position like a demonstrative, as iKwm^ 17 ^pj^po^ ^och 
day; but with licacrros the article may be omitted. Tocovros, 
ToaovTOi, roioo'Sc, roaoaie and n;Xixoi)ros, when they take the 
article, have the first attributive position (959, 1). 

977. 1. A dependent genitive of the personal pronoun (whether 
partitive or not) has the predicate position (971), while that of 
other pronouns (unless it is partitive) has the first attributive 
position (959, 1) ; as i^/xcu v 1) iroXis or ^ vokis iJftcSv, our city (not 
'^ '^fjLwv ToAis); tJ tovtwv iroki^, these men's city (not 1) ttoXis rov- 
Ta)v) ; fureirifjalKLTO *A<rrvayrfi t^v IIlvtov Ovyarepa koI tov muSa 
avr^9f Astyages sent for his own daughter and her son, X. C.1,3^ 

2. But if a qualifying word is added, the personal pronoun may 
stand between this and the noun; as 1} 8oKov(ra ^p.Siv wportpoy 
a-Q}<t>po(ruvrf, what previously seemed to be our modesty, T. 1, 32. (See 
976.) 

978. 1. The adjectives &Kpo9, fuvoi, and ia^ro^, when they 
are in the predicate position (971), mean the top (or extremity), the 
middle, the last, of the thing which their nouns denote ; as 1} dyopa 
fiiarf or p.€<Trj 17 dyopo, the middle of the market (while ^ fUfrrj dyopd 
would mean the middle market) ; dxpa rj x^tp, the extremity of the 
hand. 

2. When no article is used, as in the older poetry, the context 
must decide the meaning. Compare summus, medius, extremus, and 
vltimus in Latin. 

979. Ila? and avp.ira'i, all, and oXos, whole, generally have the 
predicate position ; as ^ravres ol HvSpe^ or oi dvSpe^ irdvre^, all the 
men ; okrj ij ttoAis or 1} woXjl^ oX.rj, all the city. But they can also 
be used like attributive adjectives, preceded by the article ; as 19 
Tracra SiKcAia, the whole of Sicily^ to 0A.0V y€vos, the entire race. 



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212 SYNTAX. [980 

The distinction here was probably no greater than that between 
all the city and the whole city in English. We find even oc vayrei 
SvOpiinroij all mankind, X. ^ . 5, 6"^. 

980. Avros as an intensive pronoun, ipse (989, 1), has the 
predicate position ; as avros 6 avrjp, the man himself. But 6 avro9 
dn;p, the same man (989, 2). 

PRONOMINAL ARTICLE IN ATTIC GREEK. 

981. In A-ttic prose the article retains its original 
demonstrative force chiefly in the expression 6 fj^iv . . . 
o Se, the one . . . the other.^ JE,g, 

Oi /Acv avrwv kroicoov, ot ^ ia-Kffevhoyawy same of them shot tdth 
bowSf and others used slings, X.-4.3,3''. Act tou5 fuv ctvai Suomv 
X^ts, Tous 8* €vrvx^^5> «ome must be unfortunate, and others fortunate, 
E. frag. 207. To>v woXemv at fikv TvpawovvroL, at Sk BrffioKparovyrai, 
at 8c d/Ho-roKparowrai, some states are governed by tyrants, others 
by democracies, and others by aristocracies, P. Rp, 338*. 

982. N. The neuter to fitv . . . to 8c may be used adverbially, 
partly . . . partly. For twto fiey . . . tovto 8c in this sense, see 1010. 

983. N. (a) *0 Sc etc. sometimes mean and he, but he, etc., even 
when no 6 fiev precedes; as *Ivapo>9 *AOrp/cLiov^ CTnyyaycTo* ot Sk 
^XOov, Inaros called in Athenians; and they came, T. 1,104. 

(b) With prepositions these expressions are generally inverted ; 
as TToAXa /acv . . . Iv Sk rots, P. Eu. 303« ; Trapa ficv tov ivXa, irapa Sk 
Tov ariSripo^, X..Rp.A.2,ll. 

984. A few other relics of the demonstrative meaning of 
the article are found in Attic, chiefly the following : — 

Tov xat TOV, this man and that; to koX to, this and that; to, koI to, 
these and those; as ^8ct yap to koI to woirjaoj., Ktu to fir) iroLrjavx, for 
we ought to have done this thing and that, and not to have done the 
other, I>.9,QS. 

ILpo TOV (or wpoTov), before this, formerly. 

Kot TOV or Kot n/v, before an infinitive; as Kot tov KfXjMrai 
Soluvai (sc. Xcycrat), and (it is said) he commanded him to give it, 
X.C.1,3». 

So occasionally rep, therefore, which is common in Homer. 

1 In this use, and in other pronominal uses of the article (as m 
Homer), the forms 6, if, ol, and al were probably oxytone (5, ^, ot, aX). 
They are printed here without accents in conformity with the prevail- 
ing usage in school editions of Greek authors. See 139. 



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989] PERSONAL AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS. 213 

PRONOUNS. 
PERSONAL AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS. 

985. The nominatives of the personal pronouns are 
seldom used, except for emphasis. (See 896.) 

986. The forms ifum, i/jjoi, and c/xc are more emphatic than the 
enclitics gjuov, /tot, fi€. The latter seldom occur after prepositions, 
except in irpo^ fie. 

987. Of the personal pronouns of the third person, o5, ot, 
etc. (389), only ol and the plural forms in <r<^- are used in 
Attic prose. There they are generally indirect reflexives, 
that is, in a dependent clause (or joined with an infinitive 
or participle in the leading clause) referring to the subject 
of the leading -verb. JE.g. 

*EA€^av oTi TTCfu/^ctc (r<^a9 6 'IvSwv /SatxriXevs, they said that the 
king of the Indians had sent them, X. C. 2, 4'^. 'Eirpcc^cvovTO iyKXrj- 
fjuvra iroLOvyucvoL, ottois (r<^t<riv on fieyla-Trj 7rp6<^>axn*i ely tov woXc- 
fieXv, they sent embassies, making charges, that they might have the 
strongest possible ground for war, T. 1, 126. *Errai;^a Xiyerca 'AttoX- 
XcDV iKSelpcu Mapcrvav vt#oy<ras ipi^ovrd ol irepl (ro<^ai$, here Apollo 
is said to have flayed Marsyas, having beaten him in a contest (with 
himself, ol) in skill, X.-4.1,2^ 

For the restricted use of these pronouns in Attic Greek, see 
also 392. 

988. In Homer and Herodotus, and when they occur in 
the Attic poets, all these pronouns are generally personal 
pronouns, though sometimes (direct or indirect) reflexives. 
JS.g. 

"Ek yap a-<t>€<i)v <^p€vas ctXero IlaAAa? * KOrivq, for Pallas Athena 
bereft them of their senses, iZ.18,311; rov Kpiov oltto €o (144, 4) 
irefiirt OvpaJ^t, he sent the ram forth from himself through the door, 
(9df.9,461. AvrUa 8c ot evSovrt liriar-q ovupo^, and soon a dream 
came to him in his sleep, Hd.1,34; ovSapjola-L rwv vvv o"<^cas wcptot- 
KeovTtov €lai ofwyXuxra-oi, they have the same speech with none of their 
present neighbors, Hd. 1,57. Ttvt rpoirto Oavetv (r</>€ ^s; in what 
manner do you say she died f S. Tr. 878. 

989. Avt6<; has three uses : — 

1. In all its cases it may be an intensive adjective pro- 
noun, himself i herself ^ itself ^ themselves (like ipse'). E,g, 



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214 SYNTAX. [990 

AvTos 6 (TTparrfyo^, the general himself; iv avrots tow <uyca- 
XmSi on the very coasts, T.1,7 ; iTrumjfirf avrrj, knowledge itself. 

2. AiT09 in all its cases, when preceded by the article, 
means the same (idem). E.g. 

*0 avros dvqp, the same man; tov avrov ttoXc/xov, the same war; 
ravrd, the same things (42). 

3. The oblique cases of avro^; are the ordinary personal 
pronouns of the third person, him, her, it, them. E.g. 

SrpaTiyyov avrov dWSct^c, he designated him as general. See 
four other examples in X.^. 1,1,2&3. 

It will be noticed that the nominative of avros is never a per- 
sonal pronoun. 

For o-t^c, o-t^iV, VLV, and fuV, see 394 and 395. 

990. N. A pronoun with which avros intensive agrees is often 
omitted ; as ravra liroLelre avroC (sc. vfUL^)j you did this yourselves; 
irXevirriov cis ravra? avTols ifijSaa-iv (sc. vfuv), you must sail, 
embarking on these yourselves (in person), D.4,16. So avrof 1^ 
(ipse dixit), himself (the master) said it. 

991. N. Avros with an ordinal numeral (372) may designate 
a person as the chief of a given number; as 'gpiOrj 9rpco-)3evr^ 
8cKaros avro9, he was chosen ambassador as the chief of ten (himself 
the tenth), X.H.2,2^^. 

992. N. The oblique cases of avros are often used where the 
indirect reflexives (987) might stand, and sometimes even where 
the direct reflexives (993) would be allowed; as dirXuts rrp^ € avrov 

, yvw/Lw/v d'7r€<lxuv€T0 liiiiKpaTrf^ irpos rois ofuAoDvras avr<u, Socrates 
used to declare his own opinion plainly to those who conversed with him, 
X.MA,7\ where ol might have been used; but in 1,2', we have 
ikwL^eiv iiroia tov^ oTv8tarpt)8ovras lavrcu. The union of an inten- 
sive and a personal pronoun in avros explains this freedom of 
usage. 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

993. The reflexive pronouns (401) refer to the subject 
of the clause in which they stand. Sometimes in a de- 
pendent clause they refer to the subject of the leading 
verb, — that is, they are indirect reflexives (987). E.g. 

TvioOi a-avTov, know thyself; e^rco'^a^ev cavrdv, he slew him- 
self. ^L^fii (Tot, ifiavTov ^Xov, I give myself to you as a slave, 
X. C.4,62. Ot ^rrw/ncvot ^avrovs re kcu to. iavrStv Trcurra dwo. 
fiaXXovari.v, the vanquished lose both themselves and all that belongs to 



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1001] POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 215 

thenij X. C.3,3*^. ^Ettcwtcv 'Aftyvaiovs €avTov Kardyciv, he per- 
stuxded the Athenians to restore him (from exile), T. 1,111. 

994. N. Occasionally a reflexive refers to some emphatic word 
which is neither the leading nor a dependent subject; as aaro 
(ravTov *y<i) are BiSd^w, 1 will teach you from your own case (^from 
yourself) y Ar.i\r.385. In fact, these pronouns correspond almost 
exactly in their use to the English reflexives, myself thyself him- 
self etc. I 

996, N. The third person of the reflexive is sometimes used 
for the first or second; as Sci i^fias ipiarOai cavrovg, we must ask 
ourselves, T.Ph.7S^. 

996. N. The reflexive is sometimes used for the reciprocal 
(404); '^fjLLv auTOt? SvaXc^ofieOa, we will discourse with one another 
(i.e. among ourselves), D. 48, 6. 

997. N. A reflexive may be strengthened by a preceding avros ; 
as olos re avros avrw Ponrfitiv, able (himself) to help himself 
P. G. 483*. To ytyvwcKCM/ avrov kavrov, for one (h imself) to know 
himself Y.Ch.lQ^K 

For the personal pronouns ov, ot, etc. as direct and indirect 
reflexives, see 987 and 988. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

998. 1. The possessive pronouns (406) are generally 
equivalent to the possessive genitive (1085, 1) of the 
personal pronouns. Thus o 0-09 irarrjp = iranjp aov^ 
your father. 

For the article with possessives, see 946, 1. 

2. For cfios and cro? here the enclitic forms /aoC (not e/tov) and 
(Tov may be used; rjpjSiv and vpJSiv for "^fiirepo^ and v/uercpos are 
less frequent. These genitives have the predicate position as 
regards the article (971). 

999. The possessive is occasionally equivalent to the objective 
genitive of the personal pronoun ; as 17 ifirf evvoia, which commonly 
means my good-will (towards others), rarely means good-will (shown) 
to me; as ewoug. yap ipio ry ay, for I shall speak out of good-will to 
you, P. G. 486» (See 1085, 3.) 

1000. N. S^€repos, their, and (poetic) os, his, her, its, are regu- 
larly (directly or indirectly) reflexive. 

1001. N. An adjective or an appositive in the genitive may 
refer to the genitive implied in a possessive; as ra/xot Svo'ti^vov 



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216 SYNTAX. [1002 

KOKo, the woes of me, unhappy one, S. 0. C. 344 ; t^ vfjueripav tSw 
cro<f>i(TTU)v T€xyrjv, the art of you Sophists, P. H, M. 281^. See 913. 

1002. N. By the possessive pronouns and the possessive geni- 
tive, the words my father can be expressed in Greek in five forms : 
6 €/xos irarrip, 6 irarrfp 6 ifw^, Trarrfp 6 c/xds, 6 iran^p fjuav, and 
(after another word) /lov 6 Trarrfp (as l^iy /lov 6 wuTTyp). So 6 <ro9 
irarrfp, etc. 

1003. N. (a) Our own, your owrk (plural), and their awn are 
generally expressed by ^p.mpo^, vfierepo^, and cr<f>€Ttpo^, with 
avrctfv (989, 1) strengthening the iJ/lUuf, vpMv, or o-^f implied in 
the possessive; as rov 'qfimpov avrSiv iraripa, our own father; tq 
vfuripijf. avrSiv p.rjfrpC, to your own mother; rau^ a-ffieripovs avnav 
Trai&ts, their own children. For the third person plural GivrSny can 
be used ; as tov^ cavrcuv TraiSas (also cr^v avro>v TrotSas, without 
the article) ; but we seldom find '^pMv (or vfuov) avroiv. 

(b) Expressions like rov ijjuov avrov iraripa. for rov ipavrov 
iraripa, etc., with singular possessives, are poetic. In prose the 
genitive of the reflexive (c/iavrov, a-eavrov, or cavrov), in the 
attributive position (959), is the regulai* form ; as /MrcTrc/m^ro t^ 
iavTov Svyaripa, he sent for his (own) daughter, X. CI, 3^. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1004. 05to9 and oSe, this^ generally refer to what is 
near in place, time, or thought ; iicelvof;^ that^ refers to 
what is more remote. 

1006. N. The distinction between ovto^ and oSc, both of which 
correspond to our this, must be learned by practice. In the histo- 
rians, <WT09 (with ToujvTOi, ToaovTo^, and ouTa)s) frequently refers 
to a speech just made, while o8c (with rotocrSc, too-oo-Sc, and «&) 
refers to one about to be made ; as toSc cIttcv, he spoke as follows, 
but Tavra dirtv, thus he spoke (said after the speech) : see T.1,72 
and 79, 85, and 87. But elsewhere ovro^ (especially in the neuter) 
often refers to something that follows; as poTov yap rovroiv irpoar 
fnjlifvuiv imiJ9t^€1, for you will mxtre easily understand it when this 
(the following) is premised, P. Rp, 510**. 

1006. N. Ovros is sometimes exclamatory, as ovt(k, ri iroicis ; 
You there ! what are you doing f A. R. 198. 

1007. N. The Greek has no word exactly corresponding to the 
unemphatic demonstrative which is often used in English as the 
antecedent of a relative, as I saw those who were present. Here a 
participle with the article is generally used ; as cISov tov^ vapoyra^ ; 



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1016] INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 217 

if a demonstrative is used (c78ov tovtov^ oS irap^av, 1 saw these men 
who were present), it has special emphasis (1030). A relative with 
omitted antecedent sometimes expresses the sense required; as 
cISov ovs lAajScv, / saw {those) whom he took (1026). 

1008. N. The demonstratives, especially oSc, may call attention 
to the presence or approach of an object, in the sense of here or 
there; o8c yap 8^ fiaxrtXw X*^P^^* f^ ^^'"^ ^^^ *• '** ^""^S ^f ^* 
land, S.^n.l55; for i^cs CKCtvot (T.1,51) see 945, 2. 

1009. N. OvTos sometimes repeats a preceding description for 
emphasis in a single word; as 6' yap to (nripiux, irapaxTxiav, ovtos 
To>F if^vvTiov axTioiy foT he who supplied the seed — that man is respon- 
sible for the harvest, D. 18, 159. 

1010. N. Tovro fA€v . . . rovTo Si, first , . . secondly, partly . . . 
partly, is used nearly in the sense of to fiiy . . . ro Sc (982), espe- 
cially by Herodotus. 

For ovToai, oBi, iKUvoai, onynMri, cu8^ etc., see 412. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 

1011. The interrogative ti<;; who? what? may be 
either substantive or adjective ; as Tiva^ elhov ; whom 
did I see? or rlva^: avSpa^ elSov ; what men did I see? 

1012. T/9 may be used both in direct and in indirect 
questions; as rl fiovkerai; what does he want? ipwra ri 
fiovKeaOe^ he asks what you want. 

1013. N. In indirect questions, however, the relative ootis is 
more common ; as ipityrf o n )8ovXc<r^c (1600). 

1014. N. The same principles apply to the pronominal adjec- 
tives TTOcros, irduKi etc. (429). 

INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

1015. 1. The indefinite rU (enclitic) generally means 
some^ any^ and may be either substantive or adjective ; 
as TovTo Xeyei rt?? some one says this; dvffpayirSs rt?, 
some man. 

2. It is sometimes nearly equivalent to the English a 
or an ; as elBov avOpcoirov tlvo^ I saw a certain man^ or 
I saw a m^n. 

1016. N. TI9 sometimes implies that the word to which it is 



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218 SYNTAX. [1017 

joined is not to be taken in its strict meaning; as kXcttti/s tis 
dvairiKfxLvraLif he has been shown up as a sort of thief y P.iJp.334»; 
fitya^ Tts, rather large; TpuxKovrd rtvas dwcKTcivav, they killed some 
thirty, T.8,73. 

So with the adverbial tI (1060) ; as (txc'W ti, very nearly, T. 3, 68. 

1017. N. Occasionally rls means every one, like Tras ns ; as ev 
fifv rts 8opv 07fidfT$u), let every one sharpen well his spear, 7Z.2,382. 

1018. N. The neater rt may mean something important; as ciavnu 
Ti clvai, oKTcs ov8€vo9 Si^uK, they think they are something, when they 
are worth nothing, P. Ap, 41®. 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

1019. A relative agrees with its antecedent in gender 
and number ; but its case depends on the construction 
of the clause in which it stands. U.g. 

E78ov Tovs av8pas oi ^\0ov, 1 saw the men who came; cl dvSp€s 
ovs c?8cs d.in}k$ov, the men whom you saw went away. 

1020. N. The relative follows the person of the antecedent ; as 
v/uict9 ot TovTO TTOtctTC, you who do this; cyw Ss tovto iwo iff (toj 
I who did this, 

1021. N. (a) A relative referring to several antecedents follows 
the rule given for predicate adjectives (924) ; as Trcpl iroXefwv koI 
€tpi}v»ys, a fuyCaTTjV cx^t ^vvafxiv Iv T<p )8to) twv avOpwfirwv, about war 
and peace, which have the greatest power in the life of men, 1. 8, 2 ; 
diroAAayeKTCS TroXe/uwav kojL Kivhvvdiv kojL rapaxj^, cts yv vvv irpo9 
oAAi/Aov? KaSiarafiev, freed from wars, dangers, and confusion, in 
which we are now involved with one another, 1. 8, 20. 

(b) The relative may be plural if it refers to a collective noun 
(900); as TrXiy^ct olirtp SiKwcrovaiv, to the multitude who are to judge, 
'P,Phdr.2Q0^. 

(c) On the other hand, ocrns, whoever, may have a plural ante- 
cedent ; as Travra o ri PovXovtojl, everything, whatsoever they want, 

1022. N. A neuter relative may refer to a masculine or femi- 
nine antecedent denoting a thing; as &a rriv irXeoi^CoLv, o ?raaa 
^ixris &Q)Ke(v iriffiVKev, for gain, which every nature naturally follows, 
P.i2j5.359^ (See 925.) 

1023. 1. In Homer the forms of the relative are sometimes 
used as demonstrative pronouns, like the article (935) ; as 09 yap 
Scvraros ^XBev, for he came second, Orf. 1,286; ykp yipas ^ori 
$av6vTiov,for this is the right of the dead, 1 1,23,9. 



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1027] RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 219 

2. A few similar expressions occur in Attic prose, especially the 
Platonic § 8* os, said he (where ^ is imperfect of 17/Lu, say). So km 
09, and he, kou ot^ and they, and (in Hdt.) 09 km 09, this man and 
that. (Compare tov km tov, 984.) So also os /a€v ... Ss 8c, in the 
oblique cases, are occasionally used for 6 fxiv . . . 6 8e; as TrdActs 
'EAXiyvtSas, a s fuv avatp(ov, cts a 5 Sc tov^ ^vyoSas Karaycov, destroy- 
ing some Greek cities, and restoring their exiles to others, I). 18, 71. 

1024. N. (a) In the epic and lyric poets re is often appended 
to relative words without affecting their meaning ; as ovk dtci? a 
T€ <fnj<n Sid; dost thou not hear what the Goddess saysf 7/. 15, 130. 
Sometimes it seems to make the relative more indefinite, like ns 
in ooTis, whoever, quicumque. 

(h) But olos T€ in Attic Greek means dbley capable, like Swaro^, 
being originally elliptical for rotoOros olos, such as, ri having no 
apparent force. 

1025. {Preposition omitted.) When the relative and its ante- 
cedent would properly have the same preposition, it is usually 
expressed only with the antecedent; as oltto rrj^ avr^s dyvouK 
rjfrir^p TroAXa irpoUfrBt rmv Kowm, by the same want 0/ sense by which 
(for i,<f> lyoTTcp) you sacrifice many of your public interests, D. 18, 134. 

Omission of the Antecedent. 

1026. The antecedent of a relative may be omitted 
when it can easily be supplied from the context, espe- 
cially if it is indefinite (1426). E.g. 

'^Xafiiv a iPavXero, he took what he wanted; iireiOev mroaon)^ 
cSiWro, he persuaded as many as he could. ^A fxy o7&i ovSk oce/xai 
CiScrai, what I do not know I do not even think 1 know, P. Ap. 21^. 
*Ey(tf Koi &v cy<o Kparm fuvovfMv irapa (toi, I and those whom I com- 
mand will remain with you, X. C. 5, 1^. 

1027. N. In such cases it is a mistake to say that ravra, cicetvoi, 
etc., are understood; see 1030. The relative clause here really 
becomes a substantive, and contains its antecedent within itself. 
Such a relative clause, as a substantive, may even have the article ; 
as Ixowra rrjv iTnaw fuav t^v tov o Icrriv, having the name of the 
absolutely existent {of the ''what is'*), P. PA. 92*; cKcmw op^eycToi 
TOV o €<rTivlcroy, they aim at that absolute equality {at the ''what is 
equal"), ibid.76^^ r^ a-fUKpS fiepti, t<} o ^px^ ^^ avr^ through the 
small part, which was shown to be the ruling power within him {the 
"what ruled"), P.i2p.442«. Here it must not be thought that rav 
and r<^ are antecedents, or pronouns at all. 



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220 SYNTAX. [1028 

102& N. Most relative adverbs regularly omit the antece- 
dent; as ^A^ev otc tovto eTScv, he came when he saw this (for therij 
when), 

1029. N. The following expressions belong here: — ccrrtv ot 
((tfv, ols, ous), some (905), more common than the regular eialv 
01, sunt qui, there are (those) who; cortv otTtvcs (especially in ques- 
tions); €Vtot (f rom Ivt, = €V€OTi or Iveuri, and ot), some; iviore 
(evi and ore), sometimes; iariv ov, somewhere; co-tiv ?/> ^^ ^^^^^'^ 
way; t<mv oirnti^, somehow, 

1030. N. When a clause containing a relative with omitted 
antecedent precedes the leading clause, the latter often contains a 
demonstrative referring back with emphasis to the omitted ante- 
cedent ; as a €)3ovAcro ravra tXaPev, what he wanted^ that he took, 
entirely different from ravra a ipovXvro HXa^cy, he took these (definite) 
things, which he wanted; a iroulv al<r)(pov, ravra vofu^e fAtjSk Acyctv 
cTvai KoAov, what it is base to do, this believe that it is not good even to 
say, 1. 1, 15 (here ratrra is not the antecedent of a, which is indefinite 
and is not expressed). See 1007. 

Assimilation and Attraction. 

1031. When a relative would naturally be in the ac- 
cusative as the object of a verb, it is generally assimi- 
lated to the case of its antecedent if this is a genitive or 
dative. E,g. 

*Ek rm iroktiav wv cx^i, from the cities which he holds (for & 
l^ct); Tots ayaOoi^ ols exofJi^y with the good things which we have 
(for a l^x'^fxcv), "k^ua rrj% IXwStpta'i ^s K€Krri<r0€, worthy of the 
freedom which you have, X.^.l,?^; ci t<3 lyyc/Aovt wurrewrofiev w &v 
Kvpos &8w, if we shall trust the guidit whom Cyrus may give us, X.^. 
1, 3^®. This assimilation is also called attraction, 

1032. N. When an antecedent is omitted which (if expressed) 
would have been a genitive or dative, the assimilation still takes 
place ; and a preposition which would have belonged to the ante- 
cedent passes over to the relative ; as cSi^Aoxre rdvro ots hrparrt, 
he showed this by what he did (like iKeivoi^ a) ; avi' ol^ fxaXMrra 
ffiiXehj with those whom you most love (avv cicetvoi? ovs), X.^.1,9**; 
d/AcAi^o-as wv fu Sei irpdrr€iv, having neglected what (ckciVcov a) / 
ought to do, X. C5,l*; ols evrvxi^Keauv cv Acvicrpois ov fjuerpitoi 
iKcxfyqvro, they had not used moderately the successes which they had 
gained at Leuctra (rots evrvxritMiTtv a cvrvxrJKeauv, see 1054), 
D.18,18. 



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1038] RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 221 

1033. N. A relative is seldom assimilated from any other con- 
struction than that of the object accusative, or into any other case 
than the genitive or dative. Yet exceptions occur; as irap* «Sf 
^onfi^M ovK AiroX.i^a, x^^* V^^ *^'^^ 9^^ '^ thanks from those whom 
(jrap iKCiviuv oU) you help^ Aesch.2,117. Even the nominative 
may be assimilated; as pXanrev^au, a<f>* <av rjfiiv irapfxrKVoajjraiy 
to he injured by what has been prepared by us (like ^ir iK€LViav a), 
T.7,67. 

1034. N. A like assimilation takes place in relative adverbs ; 
as SuKOfuf^ovTo €vOv<: 60 €v v7r€$€0€VTO iralSa^ koI ywaticas, they 
immediately brought over their children and women from the places in 
which they had placed them for safety (where oOevyfrom which, stands 
for iKciOev ol, from the places whither), T. 1, 89. 

1035. N. The antecedent occasionally is assimilated to the 
case of the relative, when this immediately follows ; as 2\cyov ori 
irdvTmv cJv hiovTox ir€irpay6r€% c7cv, they said that they had done all 
things which (iravra wv) they needed, X.Jr.1,4^. T^ ovcrtav ^v 
icarcAxire ov wXeiovo^ aiCa iarlv if rtTrdpaw kolL Scxa raXavrfov, the 
estate which he left is not worth more than fourteen talents, L. 19, 47. 
Compare urbem quam statu© vestra est, Verg.-4«n. 1,573. Such 
expressions involve an anacoluthon. 

This inverted assimilation takes place inovSet? oarri.^ ov, every- 
body, in which ovSct? follows the case of the relative; as ovScfi 
oT<^ OVK &iroKpiv6fjL€voi (for ov3ct9 ioTiv or<|p), replying to everybody, 
P.ilfcn.70«. 

1036. N. A peculiar assimilation occurs in certain expressions 
with o^; as xapiiofuvov olt^ o-oi dvBpi, pleasing a man like you 
(for roiovrcp otos crv), X.3f,2,9'; Trpos avSpas roX/xi/povs oTovs kcll 
*A$rp^aLOv^, against bold men like the Athenians, T.7,21. 

1037. The antecedent is often attracted into the rela- 
tive clause, and agrees with the relative. U.g. 

Mrf a<f>i\yf(T$t vfjulay avrtov rjv Sta iravrh^ dct rav xpovofv S6$av 
K€KTri<r6€ KoXi^v, do not take from yourselves the good reputation which 
(what good reputation) you have always had through all time (for 
rrp^ KoXrp^ B6$av rjv KiKTrfo-Oe), D. 20, 142: notice the omission 
of the article, which regularly occurs. 

The subject of a verb is rarely thus attracted ; as oLx^rojL <^€vyaw 
ov c7xe? /idpTvpa, the witness whom you had (for o fidpTv^ ov ^Ix^si) 
has run away, Ar.PZ.933. 

1038. N. This attraction may be joined with assimilation 
(1031) ; as ApjoBifrraroC i<rr€ (5v cyco oT8a 'EAXi^vcof, you are the most 



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byGoogk 



222 SYNTAX. [1089 

ignorant of the Greeks whom I know (for rlav 'EXX-qviov ov? oTSa), 
T.6,40; i^ 17s to irpSnov €(rx€ ywaxKO^^fr&m the wife which he took 
firsts D.57,37; iiropckro (rvv n clxc Swoftct, he marched with ike 
force which he had (for <tvv tq Ovvo/aci yv cix^v), X. HA, 1^. 

Belatiyb in Exclamations. 
1039. Otos, oorosy and cSs are used in exclamations ; as ocm 
Trpdyfmra cx^ts, ^oto mucA trouble you have! X.C1,3*; <a9 

Relative not repeated. 

lOiO. A relative is seldom repeated in a new case in the 
same sentence, but a personal or demonstrative pronoun 
commonly takes its place. E.g. 

"EKcivot ToiwVf ols ovK iyapil^ovff ol Xeyovrcs <wS* €<f>iXjovv a vtovs 
id<nr€p vfjLGS oJroi vvv, those men, then, whom the orators did not try to 
gratify, and whom they did not love as these now love you (lit. nor 
did they love them as etc.), D. 3, 24. Here avrovs is used to avoid 
repeating the relative in a new case, ous. 

1041. N. Sometimes, however, a new case of the relative is 
understood in the latter part of a sentence ; as 'Apiatbs 3c, Sv i/ftcis 
^$€X.ofUv PaxTiXioL KaOurrdvcu, km iStaKafiev kojl IXafiofUv irurrdj and 
Ariaeus, whom we wished to make king, and (to whom) we gave and 
(from whom) we received pledges, etc., X.^.3,2*. 



THE CASES. 

1042. The Greek is descended from a language which had 
eight cases, — an ablative, a locative, and an instrumental, besides the 
five found in Greek. The functions of the ablative were absorbed 
chiefly by the genitive, partly by the dative ; those of the instru- 
mental and locative chiefly by the dative. 

NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE. 

1043. The nominative is used chiefly as the subject 
of a finite verb (894), or in the predicate after verbs 
signifying to be^ etc. (907). 

1044. The vocative, with or without c5, is used in 
addressing a person or thing ; as & avhp&; 'AOrjvaZoi^ men 
of Athens ! a/covec^^ Alcxivrf ; dost thou hear^ Aeschines f 



1 



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1061] ACCUSATIVE. 223 

1045. N. The nominative is sometimes used in exclamations, 
and even in other expressions, where the vocative is more com- 
mon; as cS/toi cya» SciAos, wretched me! So ^ TLpoKvri tK^axv^^ 
ProcnCf come out! Ar.^i7.665. 

ACCUSATIVR 

1046. The primary purpose of the accusative is to denote the 
nearer or direct object of a verb, as opposed to the remoter or 
indirect object denoted by the dative (892). It thus bears the same 
relation to a verb which the objective genitive (1085, 3) bears to a 
noun. The object denoted by the accusative may be the external 
object of the action of a transitive verb, or the internal (cognate) 
object which is often implied in the meaning of even an intransi- 
tive verb. But the accusative has also assumed other functions, 
as will be seen, which cannot be brought under this or any other 
single category. 

ACCUSATIVE OP DIRECT (EXTERNAL) OBJECT. 

1047. The direct object of the action of a transitive 
verb is put in the accusative ; as tovto atp^ei rjfia^^ this 
preserves us ; ravra iroiovfiev^ we do these things, 

1048. N. Many verbs which are transitive in English, and 
govern the objective case, take either a genitive or a dative in 
Greek. (See 1099 ; 1160 ; 1183.) 

1049. N. Many verbs which are transitive in Greek are intran- 
sitive in English ; as o/xoO/luu roiv^ Seov^, I will swear by the Gods ; 
Trdarra^ HXaBey, he escaped the notice of all ; alayyvtrajL rov irarepa, 
he feels shame before his father ; ariya (or auauu) n, he keeps silent 
about something, 

1050. N. Verbal adjectives and even verbal nouns occasionally 
take an object accusative instead of the regular objective genitive 
(1142; 1085, 3), as iTrun-qfwye^ ^av ra irpofTrJKOVTa, they were 
acquainted with what was proper ^ X. C3,3*. So ra fi€T€wpa 
^povTiony?, one who ponders on the things above (like <^porrt<fa)v), 

COGNATE ACCUSATIVE (INTERNAL OBJECT). 

1051. Any verb whose meaning permits it may take 
an accusative of kindred signification. This accusative 

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224 SYNTAX. 

re[)eats the idea already contained in the verb, and may 
follow intmnsitive as well as transitive verbs. £.g. 

Uaa-a^ ^Sova^ rjSea&ai, to enjoy all pleasures, P.PAi/.63». 
Evryxiycnw' rovro to evrvxVH'^ ^^^V ^^joyed this good fortune, 
X.-4.e,3«. So irco-ctv irTw/xara, to suffer {to fall) falls, A.Pr.919. 
N(xroy voktuv or vwrciv oxrBevuy or vo<rov Ka/ivetv> to suffer under a 
disease; dftaprrffm dfjutfyrdvav, to commit an error {to sin a sin)\ 
Sovk^vay &>vAcveiv, to be subject to slavery ; apx^ dpxeiv, to hold an 
office ; dycova dyit>v(i€aOai, to undergo a contest ; ypa^rp^ ypafftioBoL, 
to bring an indictment; ypatjnfv SicoKCtv, to prosecute an indictment; 
&K7/V 6<f>kdv, to lose a lawsuit ; vUrfv viKoy, to gain a victory ; iw.x^ 
viKoy, to gain a battle ; iro/x'rnpf v€fiir€iv, to form or conduct a proces- 
sion; irAiyy^ TVTrTctv, to strike a blow; i$^\$oy €$6Sov^, they went 
out on expeditions, X.H,1, 2". 

1062. N. It will be seen that this construction is far more 
extensive in Greek than in English. It includes not only accosa- 
tives of kindred formation and meaning, as vucrp^ viKav, to gain a 
victory ; but also those of merely kindred meaning, as paxqv mcavy 
to gain a battle. The accusative may also limit the meaning of the 
verb to one of many applications; as '0Xv/A7rea viKav, to gain an 
Olympic victory, T. 1,126; corcav ydfjuov^, to give a wedding feast. 
At, ^v. 132 ; iJrqilHa-fm vik^, he carries a decree (gains a victory wUh 
a decree), Aesch. 3, 68 ; povj^pofua irc/A7rciv, to celebrate the Boedromia 
by a procession, D. 3, 31. So also (in poetry) Paivuv (or IkBuv) 
TTO&i, to step (the foot) : see E,^/.1153. 

For the cognate accusative becoming the subject of a passive 
verb, see 1240. 

1053. The cognate accusative may follow adjectives or 
even nouns. E.g, 

KaKol iracrav KaKiav, bad with all badness, F.i2/).490^; SovXoi 
ras /Acyioras BovXeCas, a slave to the direst slavery, ibid, 579*^. 

1054. A neuter adjective sometimes represents a cognate 
accusative, its noun being implied in the verb. E.g. 

McyaXa dfjuoLprdveLV (sc. dfULpTT^fjuara), to commit great faults; 
ravra kvirela-SajL koX ravra xaCpuv, to have the same griefs and 
the same joys, D. 18,292. So tl xfiWOfuu tovtw; (=Tiva xp^lmf 
'XPV^opuaj.;), what use shall 1 make of this f and ov$^ xfn^opm rovna, 
I shall make no use of this (1183). So xPW^f-^ ov8cf, good for 
nothing (1053). See 1060. 

1055. 1. Here belongs the accusative of effect, which 



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1059] ACCUSATIVE. 225 

expresses a result beyond the action of the verb, which is 
effected by that action. E.g, 

Upea-^evav r^ etfyqvrjv, to negotiate a peace (as ambassadors, 
vpea-pti^ ), D. 19, 134 ; but irpca-peveiv Trpco-jScwtv, to go on an embassy. 
Compare the English breaking a hole, as opposed to breaking a 
stick, 

2. So after verbs of looking (in poetry) ; as^Api; ScSopKO/oi, to 
look war (Ares) (see A. 56.53); ^ fiovXrj ipX^pt vairv, the Senate 
looked mustardy Ar. Eq. 631. 

1056. N. For verbs which take a cognate accusative and an 
ordinary object accusative at the same time, see 1076. 

1057. N. Connected with the cognate accusative is that which 
foDow verbs of motion to express the ground over which the motion 
passes; as 68ov ievax {IKBtlv, iropvkirBai, etc.), to go (over) a road; 
vkuif 6aXaxT<Tav, to sail the sea ; opo^ Karaficuveiv, to descend a moun- 
tain ; etc. These verbs thus acquire a transitive meaning. 

ACCUSATIVE OP SPECIFIC ATION. — ADVBRBIAIi 
ACCUSATIVE. 

1058. The accusative of specification may be joined 
with a verb, adjective, noun, or even a whole sentence, 
to denote a part^ character^ or quality to which the 
expression refers. E.g. 

Tv<^Ao5 Ta SfjLfWT cI, you are blind in your eyes, S.0,T.S7l; 
koXk to dSo9, beautiful inform; airtipoi ro ir\rjBo<i, infinite in num- 
ber; Sucaui^ Tov Tpaircv, just in his character; Seivol fwxrjVi mighty in 
battle ; KOfiya} rrp^ kc^oAi/v, 1 have a pain in my head ; ra9 4^p€va% 
vyioivetv, to be sound in their minds; ^KJiipei rrfv <f>va'iv, he differs 
in nature. Ilorafios, Kv8i/os 6vofia, eZpa 8uo TrXe^pcov, a river, 
Cydnus by name, oftwoplethra in breadth (922), X. ^ . 1, 228. "EAXiyvc? 
€10-1 TO yei/o9, they are Greeks by race. T€V€<t$€ rtfv Siavotav fitf 
€v T<f &,KaxrTrfpt<^, dXX* cv T<p B^arpf^ imagine yourselves (become in 
thought) not in court, but in the theatre, Aesch.3,153. ^ETrCaraaBe 
(fu) ov fwvov TO. fi€yd\a oAXa koI to. fJLLKpa Trcipcu/Acvov ad &iro 
Stm opfiojcrBauL, you know that, not only in great but even in small 
things, I try to begin with the Gods, X. C. 1, 5^*. 

1059. N. This is sometimes called the accusative by synecdoche, 
or the limiting accusative. It most frequently denotes a part ; but 
it may refer to any circumstance to which the meaning of the 
expression is restricted. This construction sometimes resembles 
that of 1239, with which it must not be confounded. 



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226 SYNTAX. [106O 

1060. An accusative in certain expressions has the 
force of an adverb. E.g. 

TovTOv rov TpoTTOv, in this way, tht^ ; rqv ra\C(mjv (sc. oSov), in 
the quickest way ; {rqv) apxi^Vy at first (with negative, not at all) ; 
reXjKy finally ; TrpoiKa, as a gifty gratis; ya^Vyfor the sake of; &X17F, 
in the manner of; ro irpSiTov or irpSyroVj at first ; to XoiTrw, for the 
rest; irdvra^ in all things; roAAo, in other respects ; oivSev, in nothing, 
not at all; rt; in what, whyt rt, in any respect, at all; ravra, in 
respect to this, therefore. So tovto fxev . . . rovro 8c (1010). 

1061. N. Several of these (1060) are to be explained by 1058, 
as TaXXa, tl; whyf ravra, tovto (with /ulcf and 8c), and sometimes 
ov8ei' and tI. Some are to be explained as cognate accusatives 
(see 1053 and 1054), and some are of doubtful origin. 

ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT. 

1062. The accusative may denote extent of time or 
space. E.g. 

At oTTOvSal cvtavTov IfTovrai, the truce is to he for a year, T. 4, 118. 
*E/xctvci/ ^/ACpas TTcWc, he remained five days. *Air€)(€t '^ UXdrauui 
rwv QhjPiiiv o-TaStovs ipSofjLT^Kovra, Plataea is seventy stakes distant 
from Thebes, T.2,5. ^AirixpvTa 'StvpaKOva'u>v ovtc irXovv ttoAw 
ovT€ 680V, (Megara) not a long sail or land-journey distant from 
Syracuse, T.G,49. 

1063. N. This accusative with an ordinal number denotes how 
long since (including the date of the event) ; as ifiSofirp^ rnkipoLV rrf^ 
Bvyarpo^ avrw rtrtXtvryjKvia^, when his daughter had died six days 
before (i.e. this being the seventh day), Aesch. 3, 77. 

1064. N. A peculiar idiom is found in expressions like rpcrw 
iroi TovTL (this the third year), i.e. two years ago; as d^n/yycA^ 
OtXtmros rpiTov ^ rirapTov ctos tovtI 'Hpatoi^ reixoi ^roXiopicwv, 
two or three years ago Philip was reported to be besieging Heraion 
Teichos, D.3,4. 

TERMINAL ACCUSATIVE (POBTIC). 

1065. In poetry, the accusative without a preposition 
may denote the place or object towards which motion is 
directed. E.g. 

Mvi^o-T^pas a<t>CK€To, she came to the suitors, 0</. 1,332. *Ay€pif 
fiiyav ovpavov OvAv/ulttov t€, she ascended to great heaven and 



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1072] ACCUSATIVE. 227 

Olympus J //.1, 497. To koiAok "Apyos fias ^nr/as, going as an exile 
to the hoUoto ArgoSy S.O.C.378. 

In prose a preposition would be used here. 

ACCUSATIVE IN OATHS WITH inj AND /jA. 

1066. The accusative follows the adverbs of swearing 
VI] and fidf by. 

1067. An oath introduced by vi^ is affirmative ; one intro- 
duced by /m (unless ku, V^^^ precedes) is negatiye ; as V7 rov 
Ato, yes, by Zeus; /la rov Aia, no, by Zeus; but rat, /m Ami, 
yes, by Zeus, 

1068. N. Ma is sometimes omitted when a negative precedes ; 
as ov, rov3* ''OXv/i?roK, no, by this Olympus, S.^n.«758. 

TWO ACCUSATIVES WITH ONE VERB. 

1069. Verbs signifying to ask^ to demand^ to teach^ to 
remind^ to clothe or unclothe^ to conceal^ to deprive^ and 
to take away^ may take two object accusatives. E,g. 

Ov TWT ipuyrta <r€, I am not asking you this, Ar. N, 641 ; ovSci^ 
T^s oruvovo-wts apyvpuw Trparra, you demand no fee for your teaching 
from any one, X. M. 1, 6" ; iroOev rjp^aro ae StBaxTKCiv r^ arpanyytav; 
with what did he begin to teach you strategy f ibid, 3, 1* ; rrjv $vfifm- 
Xuiv dvafUfJvgarKovT€^ tov^ *k.Orpmov%, reminding the Athenians of 
the alliance, T. 6, 6 ; rov fuv iavrov (xiTwva) Ikuvov 'q/x^Uo'e, he put 
his oum (tunic) on the other boy, X. Cy, 1, 3" ; IkSwov ifu xpvfarrfpuLv 
IfrOrjra, stripping me of my oracular garb, A.Ag, 1269 ; TTyv Ovyaripa 
iKpvTTTt Tov OayaTov rov ayBpo^, he concealed from his daughter her 
husband's death, L. 32, 7 ; rouroyv t^ Tip.rp^ aTroorcpct /u, he cheats 
me out of the price of these, D.28, 13 ; tov Trovra 8* oKPov ^pap ev /jl 
d<t>€C\.€To, but one day deprived me of all my happiness, E. Hec, 285. 

1070. N. In poetry some other verbs have this construction; 
thus XP^ vtifcTo a\p,rp^, he washed the dried spray from his skin, 
Od.Q, 22^; so Ti.pMp€ur$ai rtva alpa, to punish one for blood (shed), 
seeE.^Z.733. 

1071. N. Verbs of this class sometimes have other construc- 
tions. For verbs of depriving and taking away, see 1118. For the 
accusative and genitive with verbs of reminding, see 1106. 

1072. N. The accusative of a thing with some of these verbs 
is really a cognate accusative (1076). 



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228 SYNTAX. [1073 

1073. Verbs signifying to do anything to or to say any- 
thing of a person or thing take two accusatives. E.g. 

TavTi fie iroLova-tVy they do these things to me ; ri fi elpyaxria ; what 
didst \hou do to me f Kaxa woAXa iopyev Tploa^y he has done many 
evils to the Trojans^ IL 16,42^* 'Ekcivov tc kcu rdv^ KopivOiov^ iro\Aa 
re xcu KOKOL lAeyc, of him and the Corinthians he said much that vms 
had, Hd. 8, 61 ; ov ^povrurriov rC ipowriv 61 iroXXoi "^fiSst ^^ must 
not consider what the multitude will say of us, P. CrAS\ 

1074. These verbs often take cv or Kakm, well, or Koxioq, ill, 
instead of the accusative of a thing ; tovtov^ cv Trotct, he does them 
good; vfMi^ KaK&s TroLei, he does you harm; KaKws ^/xas Xcyci, he 
speaks ill of us. 

For ev iraxrxuv, cv dKoveiv, etc., as passives of these expressions, 
see 1241. 

1075. N. npoo-o-o), do, very seldom takes two accusatives in this 
construction, Trotco) being generally used. Ev tt/ooo-o-q) and kojccos 
vpaaa-o) are intransitive, meaning to be well off, to be badly off, 

1076. A transitive verb may have a cognate accusative 
(1051) and an ordinary object accusative at the same 
time. E,g, 

McAi/Tos /u cypoi/^aro t^ ypa<fnp/ ravrrfv, Meletus brought this 
indictment against me, T.Ap. 19^; MtAriaSi^? 6 rrfv iv Mapad«i>yt 
fidxqy Tov^ Papfiapovs vticiy<ras, Miltiades, who gained the battle at 
Marathon over the barbarians, Aesch.3, 181; wpKinvav Travras rau^ 
aTpartuiTa^ revs /Acyarrov? opKOv^, they made all the soldiers swear 
the strongest oaths, T. 8, 75. 

On this principle (1076) verbs of dividing may take two accusa- 
tives ; as TO orpaTCv/Att icarevct/Lic 3a>3eKa fiiprj, he made twelve divis- 
ions of the army, X. C.7, 5^'. 

1077. Verbs signifying to name^ to choose or appoint^ 
to mahe^ to think or regard^ and the like, may take a 
predicate accusative besides the object accusative. E.g. 

Tt rqv TToXiLv irpo(Tayoptv€us ; what do you call the state f Trfv 
TOULvnjv Svvafuv av^peiav iyayyc KoXta, such a potoer I call courage, 
P. i2/). 430*». 'S,Tparqyov avrov direBei^e, he appointed him general, 
X.-4.1,l^; cvcpycTiyv tov ^ikvinrov ^yowro, they thought Philip a 
benefactor, D. 18, 43 ; .Travrwv ScoTronyv cavTov 'ireiroiyKcy, he has made 
himself master of all, X. C. 1, 3^^. 

1078. This is the active construction corresponding to the 
passive with copulative verbs (908), in which the object accusative 



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1084] GENITIVE. 229 

becomes the subject nominative (1234) and the predicate accusa- 
tive becomes a predicate nominative (907). Like the latter, it 
includes also predicate adjectives; as tovs avfifrnxov^ TrpoSvfJuov^ 
-TTOuurOiU, to make the allies eager; rets a/xaprias /AcyaXas i^yev, he 
thought the faults great. 

1079. N. With verbs of naming the infinitive clvot may connect 
the two accusatives; as fTOifiurrqv ovofJLaiavat tov 5v8pa ctvat, they 
name the man (to be) a sophist, P. Pr, 311®. 

1080. N. Many other transitive verbs may take a predicate 
accusative in apposition with the object accusative ; as cAa/^c tovto 
3a)povy he took this as a gift; Iinrov^ ayctv Ovfw, t<3 *HA/o), to bring 
horses as an offering to the Sun, X. (7.8,3^2 (g^e 916). Especially an 
interrogative pronoun may be so used; as rtvas tovtov^ opta; who 
are these whom 1 see f lit. / see these, being whom f (See 919 ; 972.) 

1081. N. A predicate accusative may denote the effect of the 
action of the verb upon its direct object ; as TnuScvctv riva (To<f>6v 
(or KaKov), to train one (to be) wise (or bad) ; tovs vUis tTnroras 
eSiSaiev, he taught his sons to be horsemen. See 1055. 

1082. N. For one of two accusatives retained with the passive, 
see 1239. 

For the accusative absolute, see 1569. 

GENITIVXS. 

1083. As the chief use of the accusative is to limit the meaning 
of a verb, so the chief use of the genitive is to limit the meaning 
of a noun. When the genitive is used as the object of a verb, it 
seems to depend on the nominal idea which belongs to the verb : 
thus iiriOvfJixo involves iinOvfiiav (as we can say iTnOvfjuui iiriOvfjimv, 
1051); and in iinOvfjM) tovtov, I have a desire for this, the nominal 
idea preponderates over the verbal. So PaxriXtvei r^s X'^P^^ (1109) 
involves the idea PaxriKto^ cort r^s x^ipa";, he is king of the country. 
The Greek is somewhat arbitrary in deciding when it will allow 
either idea to preponderate in the construction, and after some verbs 
it allows both the accusative and the genitive (1108). In the same 
general sense the genitive follows verbal adjectives. It has also 
uses which originally belonged to the ablative ; for example, with 
verbs of separation and to express source, (See 1042.) 

GENITIVE AFTER NOUNS (ATTRIBUTIVE GENITIVE). 

1084. A noun in the genitive may limit the meaning 
of another noun, to express various relations, most of 



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230 SYNTAX. [1086 

which are denoted by of or by the possessive case in 
English. 

1086. The genitive thus depending on a noun is called 
attributive (see 919). Its most important relations are the 
following: — 

1. Possession or other close relation: as ^ rov warpos 
(HKLa, the father^ s house; ^/utwv ij Trarpt?, our country; t6 twf 
dvSpiov ycvos, the lineage of the men. So ^ rov Aids, the daugh- 
ter of Zeus; ra twv OeStv, the things of the Gods (953). The 
Possessive Genitive. 

2. The Subject of an action or feeling : as ^ rov Si/fiov 
cvvouij the good-will of the people (i.e. which the people fed). 
The Subjective Genitive. 

3. The Object of an action or feeling : as &a to IXavoa- 
vCov fuao^, owing to the hatred of (i.e. felt against) Pausanias, 
T. 1,96; TTpo'i ToLs rov ;(€t/x,a)vo9 Kaprepijo'ei^, as regards his en- 
durance of the winter, P. Sy, 220*. So 61 0€mv opKoi, the oaths 
(sworn) in the name of the Gods (as we say 0€ovq 6p,vwaif 
1049), X. ^.2, 57. The Objective Genitive. 

4. Material or Contents, including that of which any- 
thing consists: as Po5>v ayik-q, a herd of cattle; ^0-09 'q/iipw 
So'Spwv, a grove of cultivated trees, X,A,6,3^', Kp-qirq ^Uk 
vSaros, a spring of fresh water, X.^.6,4*; Svo xoiWcs aA.<^roiv, 
two quarts of meal. Genitive of Material. 

5. Measure, of space, time, or value: as rpuav -^fitpm 
6S6i, a journey of three days; oktu} oraStwv rcixos, a wall of 
eight stades (in length) ; TpiaKovra ToXavrtov oxhtul, an estate 
of thirty talents; fiiaOo^ rtrrapaiv fjir^vtov, pay for four months; 
irpaypxxra iroKkitiv raXdvrtav, affairs of (i.e. involving) many 
talents, Ar.iV^.472. Genitive of Measure. 

6. Cause or Origin: /icyaXwv ahK-qpAnav opyi/, anger at 
great offences; ypa<fyq axrtPtta^i, an indictment for impiety. 

7. The Whole, after nouns denoting a part : as ?roXXoc 
Twv prfTopwv, many of the orators; dvrjp rtav iXevOipiav, a m4in 
(i.e. one) of the freemen. The Partitive Genitive. (See 
also 1088.) 

These seven classes are not exhaustive ; but they will give a gen- 
eral idea of these relations, many of which it is difficult to classify. 



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1091] GENITIVE. 231 

1066. N. Examples like ttoXjls "Apyov^, the city of Argos, Ar. 
£5^.813, TpoM/s TTTokLeOpov, the city of Troy, Od. 1,2, in which the 
genitive is used instead of apposition, are poetic. 

1067. Two genitives denoting different relations may depend 
on one noun ; as hnrov Spofiov •^fjL€pa^, within a day*s run for a horse, 
D. 19, 273 ; &a ttjv to9 dv€fwv dTrtixnv avrtov h to TriXayos, by the 
toind^s driving them (the wrecks) out into the sea, T. 7, 34. 

1088. (^Partitive O^enitive.^ The partitive genitive 
(1085, 7) may follow all nouns, pronouns, adjectives 
(especially superlatives), participles with the article, 
and adverbs, which denote a part. U.g. 

01 dycSoL Twv dvOp<i>7r(i)v, the good among the men; 6 -qpMrvs 
Tov ApiOfiov, the half of the number ; dvSpa otSa tov Srj/xov, I know 
a man of the people; rot? OpavCrca^ r^v vavr^v, to the upper benches 
of the sailors, T.6,31; ov^U twv iratSwv, no one of the children; 
TravTiov Twv prjropwv Sctvoraros, the most eloquent of all the orators; 
6 PovXofuvo^ Kol doTwv /cat $€v<tiv, any one who pleases of both citizens 
and strangers, T.2,34; 82a yvvai Kiav, divine among women, OdA, 
305; irov rrj^ yrj^; ubi terrarum? where on the earth f tls tw ttoXi- 
Tctfv; who of the citizens? 8ts rrj^ "^fiipa^, twice a day; cts tov to 
dvoLa^, to this pitch of folly ; iirl fieya Svvdfiews, to a great degree 
of power, T. 1,118; iv tovtw irapaa-Kevrjs, in this state of prepara- 
tion. *A fuv StwKci TOV il/rj<l)L<rfJLaTO^ Tavr iariv, the parts of the 
decree which he prosecutes are these (lit. what parts of the decree he 
prosecutes, etc.), D.18,56. 'Ev<t}rffi6TaT dvOpatirwy, in the most 
plausible way possible (most plausibly of men), D.19,50. *Otc Scivo- 
TttTos (ravTOv ravra rjaOa, when you were at the height of your power 
in these matters, X. M. 1, 2*^. (See 965.) 

1089. The partitive genitive has the predicate position as 
regards the article (971), while other attributive genitives (except 
personal pronouns, 977) have the attributive position (959). 

1000. N. An adjective ,or participle generally agrees in gender 
with a dependent partitive genitive. But sometimes, especially 
when it is singular, it is neuter, agreeing with fUpo^, part, under- 
stood; as Twv woXc/LuW TO TToXv (for ol TToAAot), the greater part 
of the enemy. 

1091. N. A partitive genitive sometimes depends on rts or 
fUpoi understood; as iL<j)axTav iirifuyvvvai a'<f><av T€ Trpos €/c€tv<ws 
Koi iK€iv<ov 7r/oo9 iavTov^, they said that some of their own men had 
mixed with them, and some of them with their own men (rivas being 
understood with o-c^w and ckciVwv), X.^.3,5". 



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232 SYNTAX. [1002 

1098. N. Similar to each phrases as mv yrjs ; ct? to/vto dma9, 
etc., is the use of Ix^ ^^^ ^^ adverb with the genitive; as ina^ 
Ix^ts ^o(ifq ; in what state of opinion are youf P.iJj9.456*; ev 
aotfiaTOs ix^^i ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^oot/ condition of body, ibid. 404:^; ok ^x^ 
rdxovSf 08 fast as he could (lit. in the condition of speed in tohich he 
toas), T.2,90; so cos TroStav cTxov, Hd.6,116; ev Ix^v f^pevviv, to he 
right in his mind (see E.Hip. 462). 

GENITIVE AFTER VERBS. 
Predicate Genitive. 

1093. As the attributive genitive (1084) stands in the 
relation of an attributive adjective to its leading substan- 
tive, so a genitive may stand in the relation of a predicate 
adjective (907) to a verb. 

1094. Verbs signifying to be or to become and other 
copulative verbs may have a predicate genitive express- 
ing any of the relations of the attributive genitive 
(1085). U.g. 

1. (Possessive.) *0 vo/ios iarlv o^ro^ ApaKovro^, this law is 
Draco's, D. 23, 51. Utvuiv f^iptiv ov TravTos, dAA* avSpoi o'OKl>oVf 
to bear poverty is not in the power of every one, but in that of a wise 
man, Men. Af on. 463. To 9 ^cciiv vopA^erajL (6 x***P^) > ^^ whcU God 
is the place held sacred f S. 0. C. 38. 

2. (Subjective.) Olpai avrh (ro prjpa) Tl€pidvSpov cIvojl, I 
think it (the saying) is Periander's, P. Rp. 336*. 

3. (Objective.) Ov rtav KaKOvpycjv oT/ctos, oAAA t^s BiKrf^, 
pity is not for evil doers, but for justice, E. frag. 272. 

4. (Material.) "Epvp/iXiOwv iren-oirjpevov, a wall built of stones, 
T.4, 31. Ot OepiXioL iravroLiov XiOwv xnrOKeivrai, the foundations 
are laid (consisting) of all kinds of stones, T. 1,93. 

6. (Measure.) (Tct reixr)) oraStW rjv 6kt(o, the walls were eight 
stades (in length), T.4, 66. *E7rct8dv irwv y ns TpiaKovra, when 
one is thirty years old, P. Lg. 721*. 

6. (Origin.) Totovrcov iare Trpoyovwv, from such ancestors are 
you sprung, X.-4. 3, 2^*. 

7. (Partitive.) Tovtcdv ycvov /Aot, become one of these for my 
sake, Ar.iV. 107. ^SoXcor twv CTrra (TOf^ifTrSiv itcXi^Orf, Solon was 
called one of the Seven Wise Men, 1. 15, 235. 

1095. Verbs signifying to namey to choose or appoint^ 



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1099] GENITIVE. 233 

to make^ to think or regard^ and the like, which gener- 
ally take two accusatives (1077), may take a genitive 
in place of the predicate accusative. E.g. 

T^v *Ao"«iv kavTUiv itowvvtqjl, they make Asia their oum, ^Ag, 
1,33. "E/ic Oks raiv irtirtLa-fieyiDv, put me doton as (one) of those 
who are persuaded^ P./Jp.424«. (Touro) t^s "qfuripa^ dfieXciaf 
av rts ^cti; &Kcu(i)9, any one might justly regard this as belonging to 
our neglect, D. 1, 10. 

1096. These verbs (1095) in the passive are among the copula- 
tive verbs of 907, and they still retain the genitive. See the last 
example under 1094, 7. 

Genitive expressing a Part. 

1097. 1. Any verb may take a genitive if its action 
affects the object only in part. E.g. 

Uifiirei rci)v AvScov, he sends some of the Lydians (but jrefiTra 
TOV9 Av&yv9> he sends the Lydians). UCvei rov olvov, he drinks of 
the wine. T^« yrj^ ircfwy, they ravaged (some) of the land, T.1,30. 

2. This principle applies especially to verbs signifying 
to share (i.e. to give or take a part) or to enjoy. E.g. 

Mcrctxov rrjs Xcia?, they shared in the booty; so often fjuerairoid- 
oBaX Tivos, to claim a share of anything (cf . 1099) ; diroXavoficv twv 
dyad Sty, we enjoy the blessings (i.e. our share of them); ourcos 
ovaurBt rovrmv, thus may you enjoy these, D.28,20. So ov irpfxriQKtL 
fWH T^s A/ox^*' ^ ^^^^ ^^ concern in the government; ficrcoTt fjtM 
TQvrov, 1 have a share in this (1161). 

1098. N. Many of these verbs also take an accusative, when 
they refer to the whole object. Thus lAaxc tovtov means he 
obtained a share of this by lot, but IXa^c tovto, he obtained this by lot. 
Mcrexo) and similar verbs may regularly take an accusative like 
fUpo^f part; as rwr KivSvviav trXeunov fiipos fuOiiovanv, they will 
have the greatest share of the dangers, 1. 6, 3 (where fiipov^ would 
mean that they have only a part of a share). This use of fjLifios 
shows the nature of the genitive after these verbs. 

In awTpiPciv T^s icc^kiX^s, to bruise his head, and Karcayemi t^s 
xc<^aA:^, to have his head broken, the genitive is probably partitive. 
See At. ^cA. 1180, Pa. 71; 1.18,62. These verbs take also the 
accusative. 

Genitive with Various Verbs. 

1099. The genitive follows verbs signifying to take 

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234 SYNTAX. [1100 

hold of^ to touchy to claim^ to aim at^ to hit^ to attain^ to 
miss^ to make trial of^ to begin. E.g. 

*EXal3€ro rrjs x^*f>05 avrov, he took his hand, X.^.4, 1*^; irvpo^ 
loTt Oiyovra firj tu$i)^ KcueaOca, it is possible to touch fire and not 
be burned immediately, X. (7.5,1^^; ttjs fwcVco)? furairoieurOajL, to 
lay claim to sagacity, T. 1,140; rjKiaTa twv dWoTpioiv opeyovrai, 
they are least eager for what is another's, X. 5^.4,42 ; ovSk fjirjv aXXov 
aTO\ai6fi€vo^ Hrvx^ tovtov, nor did he aim at another man and hit 
this one, Ant. 2 a, 4; t^s dpcrrj^ €<t}LK€aOai, to attain to virtue, 1.1,5; 
oSov €V7r6pov Tvx^tv, to find a passable road, X. ff.6, 5^^. ttoXAaw 
Kol xaA.€7r<i>v x^P^^^ iTTtkdPovTO, they took possession ofmxiny rough 
places, ibid,; ravrr)^ dTroa-fJKiXevTa rrj^ cXttiSos, disappointed in this 
hope, Hd. 6,5; o-^aA.669 t^s dXiy^cta?, having mifsed the truth, 
P.-RJ0.451*; TO ixl/axrOai rrj^ 6.\rf$€ia^, to be cheated out of the 
truth, ibid, 413» ; irctpacravTC? tov x<«>ptov, having made an attempt on 
the place, T. 1,61; clko^ dpx'^^v ftc \6yov, it is proper that I should 
speak first, X. C 6, 1^ 

1100. N. Verbs of taking hold may have an object accusative, 
with a genitive of the part taken hold of ; as lAaySov t^s ^wvit? tov 
*Op6vrav, they seized Orontas by his girdle, X.-4.1,6^^ 

1101. 1. The poets extend the construction of verbs of taking 
hold to those of pulling, dragging, leading, and the like ; as oAAov 
ftev x^^^^V^ €pv(i)v oAAov Sk x'twvo?, pulling one by the cloak, 
another by the tunic, /Z. 22, 493; ^wv dyirqv K€pd(ov, the two led 
the heifer by the horns, Od. 3, 439. 

2. So even in prose : ra injina irai^ia Scovat tov ttoSos (nrdpria, 
they tie the infants by the foot with a cord, Hd. 5, 16 ; /xiyTroTc dyav 
T^s ijvtas TOV MTTTOv, ncvcr to lead the horse by the bridle, 'K,Eq,d,9. 

3. Under this head is usually placed the poetic genitive with 
verbs of imploring, denoting the part grasped by the suppliant; 
as ipk Xur<T€<rKtro yovvmv, she implored me by (i.e. clasping) my 
knees, //.9,451. The explanation is less simple in Xla-a-ofuu Zrfvo^ 
*0\vfjLVLOv, I implore by Olympian Zeus, Od, 2, 68 : compare vvv 8e 
o"€ Trpos waT/oos yovvd^ofmL, and now I implore thee by thy father, 
Orf.13,324. 

1102. The genitive follows verbs signifying to taste^ 
to smsll, to hear ^ to perceive^ to comprehend^ to remember, 
to forget, to desire, to care for, to spare, to neglect, to 
wonder at, to admire, to despise. E.g. 

*^XevO€pLrf^ y€va-dfi€i/oi, having tasted of freedom, Hd.6,5; 
KpofifJLV(ov 6(r<l>paLvopjiu, 1 smell onions, Ar./2.654; fjxavrji dxcvav 



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1108] GENITIVE. 236 

/MX SoK<ay methinks 1 hear a voices Ar. Pa. 61; aurOai^a$(u, fUfJOf^ 
cr6ai, or c^riAai^avccr^ tovtwv, to perceive f remember, or forget 
these; oo-oc akki^Xiay (wita-av, all who comprehended each other's 
speech, T.1,3 (1104); rovrcav riov fiadrffidnay ivt$vfjuii, I long for 
this learning, X.Af.2,6**; ;(pi;/iAarctfv <^€i8c(r^(u, to be sparing of 
money, xbidA,2'^', rrjs i,ptrrj^ aiuXjuvy to neglect virtue, 1.1,48; d 
ayaaxu to^ irarpog, if you admire your father, X. C. 3, l^*. M 17 8 c v o s 
ovy oXiyatpeire firjSk KoraifipovtiTt T<av irpocrrerayiuviav, do not then 
neglect or despise any of my injunctions, 1.3,48. Twv Karrjyopiov 
OavfjLaiio, I am astonished at my accusers, L.25, 1. (For a causal 
genitive with verbs like GavfjuSJ^ta, see 1126.) 

1103. N. Verbs of hearing, learning, etc. may take an accusa- 
tive of the thing heard etc. and a genitive of the person heard 
from; as tovtihv tolovtov^ Axowa Xoyov^, I hear such sayings 
from these men ; in)$€<T$ai tovto vpJSxv, to learn this from you. The 
genitive here belongs under 1130. A sentence may take the place 
of the accusative; as tovtcdv ctKovc ri Xiyonxnv, hear from these what 
they say. See also aTroScxofuu, accept (a statement) from, in the 
Lexicon, 

1104. N. Verbs of understanding, as imara/jm, have the accu- 
sative. '!S,wirffu, quoted above with the genitive (1102), usually 
takes the accusative of a thing. 

1105. The impersonals ficXct and ficraficXci take the geni- 
tive of a thing with the dative of a person (1161) ; as /acXci fUM 
TovTOv, I care for this ; fjuerafifkei croc tovtov, thou repentest of this. 
II/Mxr^Kci, it concerns, has the same construction, but the genitive 
belongs under 1097, 2. 

1106. Causative verbs of this class take the accusative of a 
person and the genitive of a thing ', sa firj fi dm/xio/o^s KojcSiv, do 
not remind me of evils (i.e. cause me to remember them), E. Al. 1045 ; 
Tovs muSas ytvariov aifiaros, we must make the children taste blood, 
V.Rp.6Z7K 

But verbs of reminding also take two accusatives (1069). 

1107. N. "OJ^fii, emit smell (smell of), has a genitive (perhaps by 
an ellipsis of oa-fi'qv, odor) ; as liJ^ova 6^Ppo<Tui^ koL vcicrapoS) they 
smeU of ambrosia and nectar, Ar.^ 0^.196. A second genitive may 
be added to designate the source of the odor; as ci 7^9 icc^oX^s 
ofcu fivpov, if my head smells of perfume, Ar. Eccl. 524. 

1108. N. Many of the verbs of 1099 and 1102 may take also 
the accusative. See the Lexicon. 



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236 SYNTAX. [1109 

1109. The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, to 
lead, or to direct. JE.g. 

*Epa)s Twv Ooiiv Paa-iXevei, Love is king of the Gods, "P.Sy.ld&^i 
UoXvKpaTrj^ 'Stdfiov TvpawS)v, Polycrates, while he was tyrant of 
Samos, T. 1,13; MiVcd? t^? vw 'EAAiyvtK^? OaXaaarf^ iKpdrrjat xot 
Twv KvKXdBaiv vrjo-mv rjp^c, Minos became master of what is now 
the Greek sea, and ruler of the Cyclades, T. 1,4; ^8ovo>v iKpaxGL, 
he was master of pleasures, X. M. 1, 5* ; i^yov/mevot avrovofjuav rm ivfi- 
liAxaxv, leading their allies (who were) independent (972), T. 1, 97. 

1110. N. This construction is sometimes connected with that 
of 1120. But the genitive here depends on the idea of king or 
ruler implied in the verb, while there it depends on the idea of 
comparison (see 1083). 

1111 . N. For other cases after many of these verbs, see the Lexi- 
con. For the dative in poetry after '^yiofim and dvoo-o-o), see 1164. 

1112. Verbs signifying fulness and want take the 
genitive of material (1085, 4). U.g. 

'KprjfiaTiov €V7r6p€L, he had abundance of money, D. 18,235; 
<r€<rayfJL€vo9 irXovrov rrjv ^XO^ Io-o/luu, 1 shall have my soul loaded 
with wealth, X. Sy, 4, 64. Ovk ay airopoi trapaSeiyfidrmv, Tie would 
be at no loss for examples, P. iJjo. 557*^ ; ov^v Berjaei ttoXXwv ypafifAo- 
TO)v, there will be no need of many writings, 1.4,78. 

1113. Verbs signifying to fill take the accusative of 
the thing filled and the genitive of material. E.g. 

Aaxpvcov ^ttAi/o-cv €/x€, he filled me with tears, E. Or. 368. 

1114. N. Aiofiai, I want, besides the ordinary genitive (as 
Tovrwv i^€ovTO, they were in want of these), may take a cognate 
accusative of the thing; as ^i^aofuu vfiatv fierpiav Sci^iv, / will 
make of you a moderate request, Aesch.3,61. (See 1076.) 

1115. N. Act may take a dative (sometimes in poetry an 
accusative) of the person besides the genitive; as Set /xoi T€ivToev, 
I need this ; avrov yap at Set UpOfiijOecj^, for thou thyself needest a 
Prometheus, A.Pr.86 (cf. ov Set fi€ iXOelv). 

1116. "N. (a) Besides the common phrases iroXXov Seiy it is 
far from it, oXiyov Set, it wants little of it, we have in Demosthenes 
ovBk iroXXov 8ct (like ttuvtos Set), it wants everything of it (lit. 
it does not even want much), ' 

(b) By an ellipsis of Sew (1534), oXtyov and pjucpav come to 
mean almost; as oAtyov woktc?, almost all, P.iJp.552*. 



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1120] GENITIVE. 237 

Gekitiyb of Sepabatioi7 and CoifPARisoir. 

1117. The genitive (as ablative) may denote that 
from which anything is separated or distinguished. On 
this principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to 
remove^ to restrain^ to release^ to cease ^ to fail^ to differ^ 
to give up\ and the like. E,g. 

*H vrja-o^ ov iroKv SUx^l Tijs ^Trctpov, the island is not far dis- 
tant from the main-land, ^'Eirurr-qfirj x^P^^f^*^ BiKaioavvrji, 
knowledge separated from jusiicey P. Afencx. 246^ ; \wr6v fu itafiSiv, 
release me from chains ; iw^.a^ov t§s rcixi/ccco?, they ceased from 
building the wall; tovtovs ov wuwro) t^s o,pxrj^, I will not depose 
these from their authority ^ X. C.8,6*; ov iravea-Oe ttjs fiox$rfplaSt 
you do not cease from your rascality ; ovk iil/euaOtf t§s iXiriSo^y he 
was not disappointed in his hope, X.^.7,5^; ov&v &ourcis Xatpc- 
<f><ovTO<s, you will not differ from Chaerephon, Ar.i\r.503; t^5 iXev- 
$€pCa% irapax^pff<rai ^Odmno, to surrender freedom to Philip, D. 
18,68. So cTttov (avT«5) rov KtjpvKo^ firj Xcwrccrfttt, they told him 
not to be left behind the herald (i.e. to follow close upon him), T. 1,131 ; 
-^ iiruTToXTj rjv outos iypaif/cy d?ro\c6<^^cU ^fiaiv, the letter which this 
man wrote without our knowledge (lit. separated from us), D.19,36. 

Transitive verbs of this class may take also an accusative. 

1118. Verbs of depriving may take a genitive in place of the 
accusative of a thing, and those of taking away a genitive in place 
of the accusative of a person (1069; 1071); as c/xc rwv irarpi^fov 
a7r€aT€p7jK€, he has deprived me of my paternal property, D.29,3; rwv 
SiWdiv a^Kupoivpjevoi xprfP^To, taking away property from the others, 
X.ilf.1, 5*; TTOo-cttv iLir€xrripij(T$€, of how much have you been bereft! 
D.8,63. 

1119. N. The poets use this genitive with verbs of motion; as 
OvAv/XTTOto Kan/A^o/jicv, we descended from Olympus, /Z. 20, 125; 
UvOlovo^ l^pa^, thou didst come from Pytho, S. 0. r.l52. Here a 
preposition would be used in prose. 

1120. The genitive follows verbs signifying to sur- 
pass^ to be inferior^ and all others which imply com- 
parison. U,g. 

CAvOpwTTo^) $w€a-€t vTTtpix^i Twv aWiov, man surpasses the 
others in sagacity, P. ilf en«a:. 237* ; CTrtSct^yrcs t^v apeniv rciv irXi/- 
$ov^ TrcpLyLyvofievrp/, showing that bravery proves superior to numbers, 
1.4,91 ; 6p(ov vaT€pL^ova-av rrjv ttoXiv rtav Kaipwv, seeing the city too 
late for its opportunities, D. 18, 102 ; ifMreipLO. ttoXv 7rpo€p(CT€ twv 



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238 SYNTAX. [1121 

aXXa>v, in experience you far excel the others, X.H.7, 1*; ovScy 
vXiy^ct y€ ^fiStv Xuff>$€VT€s, when they were not at all inferior to 
(left behind by) you in numberSj X.^.7,7^. So roiv l^pSiv yucSxrOaL 
(or i^croirAu), to be overcome by one's enemies ; but these two verbs 
take also the genitive with xnro (1234). So twv IxBfmv KpaT€Lv, to 
prevail over one's enemies, and r^ ^akaxTfrrfi Kparelv, to.be master of 
the sea. Compare the examples under 1109, and see 1110. 

Genitive with Vebbs op Accusing etc. 

1121. Verbs signifying to accuse^ to prosecute, to con- 
vict, to acquit, and to condemn take a genitive denoting 
the crime, with an accusative of the person. S,ff. 

AlrtSifjuiu avTov rdv f^ovov, I accuse him of the murder ; iypwiparo 
avTov vapavofKDVj.he indicted him for an illegal proposition ; Suokcl 
fu Biop<j}v, he prosecutes me for bribery (for gifts). KXecDya Btoptav 
cXovres KoX kXott^s, having convicted Cleon of bribery and theft. 
At, N, 591, ^<^cvyc TrpoSoa-Ca,^, he was brought to trial for treachery, 
but air€<\>vy€ irpol^oauu^, he was acquitted of treachery, ^cv8o- 
p.aprvpiSiv dXiaatfrSaJL irpoaSoKSiv, expecting to be convicted of false- 
witness, D.39,18. 

1122. 'Of^XuTKavo), lose a suit, has the construction of a passive 
of this class (1239) ; as co^Xc kXott^?, he was convicted of theft. It 
may also have a cognate accusative ; as cS^Xc KXjoir^i BCicrfv, he was 
convicted of theft (1051). For other accusatives with o<^Xio-icav(tf, as 
pMplav, folly, aJxrxyvrfv, shame, xpiy/waro, money (fine), see the Lexicon. 

1123. Compounds of Kara of this class, including Kartf 
yopctf (882, 2), commonly take a genitive of the person, 
which depends on the Kara. They may take also an object 
accusative denoting the crime or punishment. E.g. 

OvScl? avros avrov Karriyoprja-t irvnrore, no man ever himself 
accused himself D.38,26; KaTefiwav twv 'A^iyratwv, they decried 
the Athenians, T. 1,67; Odvarov KaTeyvoKjav avrov, they condemned 
him to death, T.6,61; vpxav Seofjuca p.^ Karayvwfoi StopoBoKiav ipiov, 
I beg you not' to declare me guilty of taking bribes, L. 21, 21 ; ra 
TrXeiara xarci/rcixraro pov, he told the most lies against me, D. 18,9; 
Xcyo) irpbs rov^ Ipov Karwffrj<f>UTap€vov^ Bavarov, I speak to those 
who voted to condemn me to death, P. Ap. 38*. 

1124. N". Verbs of condemning which are compounds of icara 
may take three cases; as iroWltiv oi warcpc? "^pwv prfBio-pov 
Odvarov Kariyvwaav, our fathers condemned many to death for 
Medism, 1. 4, 1 67. 

For a genitive (of value) denoting the penalty, see 1133. 

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1130] GENITIVE. 239 

1125. N. The verbs of 1121 often take a cognate accusative 
(1051) on which the genitive depends; as ypa<\n}v ypaj^^xrOax 
vPptio^y to bring an indictment for outrage; ypa<l>rjv (or Stici^v) vttc- 
X^v, ^€uy«v, arro<l>€vy€iv, 6<f>\€iv, aXwvtUf etc. The force of this 
accusative seems to be felt in the construction of 1121. 

GENITIVE OF CAUSE AND SOURCE. 

1126. The genitive often denotes a cause^ especially 
with verbs expressing emotions, as admiration^ wonder^ 
affection^ hatred^ pity^ anger ^ envy^ or revenge. E.g, 

(Tovrov^) T^s luv roXfirj^ ov Oavfjudf^tDt t^s Sk d$vv€<riasy I 
wonder not at their boldness, but at their folly, T. 6, 36 ; iroXXoKi^ cc 
evSojLfjLOvura rov rpoirov, I often counted you happy for your char- 
acter, P. Cr.43*>; ^i/Xo) <r€ T<]fv vov, Trj% Sc SciAta? arvyto, I envy 
you for your mind, but loathe you for your cowardice, S, EL 1027 ; 
fjLTJ fwi KJiOovT^cry^ tw fiaO-qfiaro^, donH grudge me the knowledge, 
P. ^ti.297^; ovyyiyvwcTKav avrot? Xf*^ '^^ iiriOv/iia^, we must for- 
give them for their desire, ibid, 306® ; /cat o"<^€a5 TLfKoprjaofjm rrjs 
ivOa&e &7ri$Lo^, and 1 shall punish them for coming hither, Hd.3, 145. 
Tourovs obcTipto rrj^ voaov, I pity these for their disease, 'K.SyA^; 
Twv dSt/ciy/utarcDv opyti^c<r0ai, to be angry at the offences, L.31,11. 

Most of these verbs may take also an accusative or dative of the 
person. 

1127. N. The genitive sometimes denotes, a purpose or motive 
(where &cxa is generally expressed) ; as ttjs rwv 'EXXiyvwv IXevOe- 
pias,for the liberty of the Greeks, D. 18, 100 ; so 19,76. (See 1548.) 

1128. N. Verbs of disputing take a causal genitive ; as ov 
^axnXu avniroiovfuBa rrjs apxv^f ^^ ^^ ^^^ dispute with the King 
about his dominion, X. -4. 2, 328; Etj/ioXttos ^iJL<f>UTl3'qTrfa'€v 'Epcx^ct 
T^s 7roXco)$, Eumolpus disputed with Erechtheus for the city (i.e. 
dispiUed its possession with him), 1. 12, 193. 

1129. The genitive is sometimes used in exclamationa, to 
give the cause of the astonishment. E.g. 

*0 IloarciW, T^s T€xvi7S, Poseidon, what a trade ! Ar. Eq. 144. 
*0 7t^ fiojo'iXa), T^s XeiTTorrjTo^ twv <l>p€vm! King Zeus! 
what subtlety of intellect ! Ar. N, 1 53. 

1180. 1. The genitive sometimes denotes the source. E.g, 

Touro irvxoy trov, I obtained this from you. MdOc fiov toSc, 
learn this from me, X. C. 1, 6**. Add the examples under 1103. 

2. So with yiyvopxu, in the sense to be bom; as AapeCov /cat 
UapwrdriSo^ yCyvovrax TratScs 8w, of Darius and Parysatis are born 
two sons, X. -4. 1,11. 

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240 SYNTAX. [1131 

1131. In poetry, the genitive occasionally denotes the 
agent after a passive verb, or is used like the instrumenJtal 
dative (1181). E.g. 

*Ev ^AiS^ 87 Kcunu, <ras diXoxov cijxLyds Aiyia-Oov tc, Moa 
liest now in Hades, slain by thy toi/e and AegisthuSj E.J&/.122. 
TLfiqaajL wvpos 8171010 Ovperpa, to bum the gates with destructive 
>€,//. 2, 415. 

These construcdous would not be allowed in prose. 

GENITIVE AFTER COMPOUND VERBS. 

1132. The genitive often depends on a preposition 
included in a compound verb. U.g. 

UpoKtiTOJL 7TJ^ ;(a)pas ^fjuav 6p7j /JijeyaXa, high mountains lie in 
front of our land, X.Af.3,52*; vTr€p€<^vrf(rav roO X6<f>ov, they ap- 
peared above the hill, T.4,93; oJrois vfitov vrrcpaXySi, I grieve so 
for yon, Ar.ilt;.466; diror/ocTrct fjL€ tovtov, it turns me from this, 
P. i4j3. 31*; T<5 liriPavri irpun-f^ rov reixovs, to him who should first 
mount the wall, T.4,116; ovk avBp^irmv \nr€p€<^p6vtt, he did not 
despise men, X. -4 5^. 11, 2. 

For the genitive after verbs of accusing and condemning^ com- 
pounds of Kara, see 1123. 

GBNITIVB OF PRICE OR VALUE. 

1133. The genitive may denote the price or value of 
a thing. E.g, 

Tevxe afieiPev, xpwrca ;(aXK€to)v, eKarofi/Soi €vv€aPoi<av,he 
gave gold armor for bronze, armor worth a hundred oxen for that 
worth nine oxen, 7/. 6, 235. Ad^ xPVf''^'^^'^ ®^* iavqnj (sc. iariv), 
glory is not to be bought with money, 1.2, 32. 11 oo-ov ScSao-icet; ireirre 
fivwv. For what price does he teach f For five minae, F,Ap.20K Ovk 
Slv dirc8o/i.i;v iroXXov ra? iXirCSa^, 1 would not have sold my hopes for 
a great deal, P.PA. 98*»; /xci^ovos avra ripimrox, they value them 
more, X. C. 2, 1^*. (But with verbs of valuing irepC with the geni- 
tive is more common.) 

In judicial language, rifiav tlvC rtvos is said of the court's judg- 
ment in estimating the penalty, ripJoLcSai rivl rivos of either party 
to the suit in proposing a penalty; as dXAA ^ <^vyrj^ TifMnjafofuu; 
lartoi yap av /lot tovtov Tifi-qorouLTe, but now shall 1 propose exile as 
my punishment f — you (the court) might perhaps fix my penalty at 
this, F.Ap.S7^. So TifJLaTOjL 8* ovv /xot 6 dvrfp OavaTov, so the man 
estimates my punishment at death (i.e. proposes death as my punish- 



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1138] GENITIVE. 241 

ment), T.Ap.^Q^. So also 'S,<l>o8ptav vir^yov Oavdrov, they imr 
peached Sphodrias on a capital charge (cf. 1124), X.-ff.5,42*. 

1134. The thing bought sometimes stands in the genitive, 
either by analogy to the genitive of price, or in a causal sense 
(1126); as rov ^oSeica firas TLoxtlo. (sc. o^tlXw) ; for what (do I 
owe) twelve minae to Pasiasf Ar.^.22; ov^em t^s avvova-ias 
dpyvpioy Trparrci, you ask no money of anybody for your teaching, 
X.3f.l,6u 

1135. The genitive depending on o^tos, worth, worthy, and its 
compounds, or on d^idcD, think worthy, is the genitive of price or 
value; as a^ios itrri Savdrov, he is worthy of death; ov 0€/Aio-roicA.€a 
Twv fityio-Tiiiv ScD/ocw ^^Cdxrav; did they not think Themistocles 
worthy of the highest gifts? 1.4,154. So sometimes ari/ios and 
drifto^Q) take the genitive. (See 1140.) 

GENITIVE OF TIME AOT) PLACE. 

1136. The genitive may denote the time within which 
anything takes place, ^.g. 

UoCov \p6vov 8c KOI TTtiropOriTcu rroXis; well, how long since 
(within what time) was the city really taken f A,Ag.27S, Tov cirtyi- 
yvofievov xctfi(i>V0 9, during the following winter, T.8,29. Tavra 
Tijq -^fiepa^ lyivtro, this happened during the day, X. J..7,4^* (t^v 
ijfUpav would mean through the whole day, 1062). AcKa irtov ovx 
rj^ijva-i, they will not come within ten years, P. Lg. 642*. So Spaxp-rfv 
iXafifiave t§s ^/xcpas, he received a drachma a day (951). 

1137. A similar genitive of the place within which or at 
which is found in poetry. E.g. 

*H avK *A/oy€Os rjcv *AxattKoi); was he not in Achaean Argosf 
Ocf.3,251; Ol-q vvv ovk cort yvvrf Kar 'AxaitSa yaiav, ovre HvXov 
ic^9 ovT^Apyeos ovre MvKrjvrj^, a woman whose like there is not 
in the Achaean land, not at sacred Pylos, nor at Argos, nor at 
Mycenae, Od. 21, 107, So in the Homeric ircSi^oio Bieiv, to run on 
the plain (i.e. within its limits), 11,22, 23, Xovea-Oai it or a fio to, to bathe 
in the river, 11. 6, 508, and similar expressions. So dpioTc/9^9 X^^P^' 
an the left hand, even in Hdt. (5,77). 

1138. N. A genitive denoting place occurs in Attic prose in a 
few such expressions as lewu tcIv it p 6 or (d, to go forward, 'K,A,1,^\ 
and iirerdxyvov t^s oSov rovq (rxoXairepov irpoaiovra^, they hurried 
over the road those who came up more slowly, T.4,47. These genitives 
are variously explained. 



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242 SYNTAX. [1139 

GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES. 

1139. The objective genitive follows many verbal 
adjectives. 

1140. These adjectives are chiefly kindred (in meaning 
or derivation) to verbs which take the genitive. E.g. 

M€TOxo^ o"o<^wx9, partaking of wisdom, P. Lg. 689** ; ia-ofjuoipoi rtov 
TT a r /o (0 0) V, sharing equally their father* s estate, Isae. 6, 25. (1097, 2.) 

'ETTio-TiJ/utiy? Iwrj^cXoL, having attained knowledge, P. ^m.289**; 
$a\d<r(Trj^ c/utirciporaTOi, most experienced in the sea (in naviga- 
tion), T.\, SO. (1099.) 

'Yiriyicoo? Twv yov€<i}v, obedient (hearkening) to his parents, P.iJp. 
463**; dfivT^fKov rciv klvBvv<ov, unmindful of the dangers, Ant. 2 a, 7; 
aycvoTos Kaxwv, without a taste of evils, S.-4n.582; iirifuXrii Aya- 
OSiv, d/AcA.^9 KaK<Sv, caring for the good, neglectful of the bad; 
<^etSa)Aoft xpiy/^ttTwv, sparing of money, P. Rp. 548*>. (1102.) 

Twv ^Sovwv irao-wv cyKparcoraros, most perfect master of all pleas- 
ures, X.ilf. 1,2"; rcws dpxiLKO^, ft to command a ship, P.RpASS^; 
eavrov wv aKpdrwp, not being master of himself, ibid. 679^. (1109.) 

McoTo? KaKwv, full of evils; iiria-ri^firfi k€v6^, void of knowl- 
edge, P. /2/?.486«; XrjOtf^ <Sv ttXcws, being full of forgetfulness, ibid.; 
7rActo"ro)v €v8€€(rraTos, most wanting in most things, ibid. 579«; ^ 
i/rvx^ yvfivrj tov a-tLfiaro^, the soul stript of the body, P. Crot. 403*»; 
KaOapa irdvnov twv irepl to o-aJ/xa /caKcov, free (pure) from all the 
evils that belong to the body, ibid. 40Z^; rotovrwv dvSpSv ofxlMurq, 
bereft of such men, L.2,60; iiriaTrjfirf iirLo-Ti^fir]^ Sta^Kipos, knowl- 
edge distinct from knowledge, "P. Phil. 61*; Irtptw ro lySu rav d,yaOov, 
the pleasant (is) distinct from the good, P. G. 500*. (1112 ; 1117.) 

'^voXiK SctXtas, chargeable with cowardice, L.14,5; rovroir 
(uri09, responsible for this, P. (t.447*. (1121.) 

"A^io^ iroXXSv, worth much, genitive of value (1135). 

1141. Compounds of alpha privative (875, 1) sometimes take a 
genitive of kindred meaning, which depends on the idea of sepa- 
ration implied in them; as diraLs dppfvmv iratScov, destitute (child- 
less) of male children, X. C4,62; riprj^ dripoq Traxrrf^, destitute of 
all honor, P.Z^.774*>; xp^/^^cov dScD/ooTaros, most free from taking 
bribes, T.2, 65; dirijvcp.ov Trdvrmv xtipLiavisiv, free from the blasts of 
all storms, S.O. C.677; dil/6<t}rfT0^ o^eW KdiKvpArtiiv, without the 
sound of shrill waUings, S. Aj. 321. 

1142. Some of these adjectives (1139) are kindred to 
verbs which take the accusative. E.g. 

'E7ricm7/i.(i>v rrj^ rixvr)^, understanding the art, P. (?.448*» (1104); 



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1147] GENITIVE. 243 

iTttrq^cvfm iroXeio^ dvarpcirriicov, a practice subversive of a state, 
T. Rp. ZS9^', Koxov/syos twv aW<ov, eavrov 8c ttoXv KOKOvpyortpoij 
doing evil to the others, hut far greater evil to himself X.Af. 1,5*; 
avyyvoifxfifv t<ov dvOpwfiTLVdiv dfiaprrffidnov, considerate of human 
faults f X. C. 6, l'*^ ; <rvfMlnrj<f>69 <rot ci/u rovrov rov vofiov, I vote with 
you for this law, P.i?p.380«. 

1143. The possessive genitive sometimes follows adjec- 
tives denoting poasessicm. E,g. 

OI KLvSwoi ro)v i<f>€<rrrfK6r<i}v iSuk, the dangers belong to the 
commanders, D.2,28; Upo^ 6 x^P^ ''^^ 'Aprc/xiSos, the place is 
sacred to Artemis, X.j..5,3i8. xotvov irdvTwv, common to all, 
P.5y.205*. 

For the dative with such adjectives, see 1174. 

1144. 1. Such a genitive sometimes denotes mere connection; 
as ovyycv^ avrov, a relative of his, X. 0.4,1^2; ^cDK/oarovs 
ofifowfws, a namesake of Socrates, P. So, 218^. 

The adjective is here really used as a substantive. Such adjec- 
tives naturally take the dative (1175). 

2. Here probably belongs ^vay^s rov ^ATroXXiovos, accursed 
(one) of Apollo, Aesch.3,110; also ivaycls Kal aXinjpioi rrj^ Oeov, 
accursed of the Goddess, T. 1, 126, and €k t<ov aXiTrjpLwv rm rij^ Otov, 
At, Eq.^5 ; — ivayji etc. being really substantives. 

1145. After some adjectives the genitive can be best explained 
as depending on the substantive implied in them; as r^s oLpxiJ^ 
vircv^wo9, responsible for the office, i.e. liable to evOwaifor it, D. 18, 
117 (see SeSctffca yc evOvva^ ckciWv, in the same section) ; impOeyoi 
ydfi<ov iipaUa, maidens ripe for marriage, i.e. having reached the age 
(<apa) for marriage, Hd. 1,196 (see is ydfiov ^p-qv diriKopLfyrp^, 
Hd. 6, 61); <f>6pov vrroriXeis, subject to the payment (tcXos) of 
tribute, T,l,19. 

1146. N. Some adjectives of place, like Ivavrios, opposite, may 
take the genitive instead of the regular dative (1174), but chiefly in 
poetry; as ivavrioL lorav 'Axatwv, they stood opposite the Achaeans, 
//.17,343. 

See also rov Uovrov liriKapauu, at an angle with the Pontus, 
Hd.7,36. 

GENITIVE WITH ADVERBS. 

1147. The genitive follows adverbs derived from ad- 
jectives which take the genitive. U.ff. 

01 ifitreipios avTov ^xo'^^^, those who are acquainted with him; 
dva^Cios rrjs iroXecos, in a manner unworthy of the state, Ta>v oAAcuv 



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244 SYNTAX. [1148 

'ABrfvaioiv aTrdvT(ov &ui<f>€p6vnai, beyond all the other AthenioM, 
P. Cr. 52*>. *E/Aa;(ovro d^tcos \6yov, they (the Athenians at Mara- 
thon) /ou^Ai in a manner worthy ofnote^ Hd. 6, 112. So evavrtov (1146). 

1148. The genitive follows many adverbs of place. S.g. 
El ana tov ipvfmro^, toithin the fortress; ^^o) t6v Tct'xovs, outside 

of the wall; cktos r<av optov, without the boundaries; xtapls rav 
arutfULTo^f apart from the body; iripav tov vorapjov, beyond the river, 
T.6,101; 7rp6a-$€v tov orpaTcwrcSou, in front of the camp, X-fT. 
4, 1^2 ; ^fi<l>oT€p(oO€v T^s oSov, on both sides of the road, ibid. 5, 2* ; 
ev$v TTJs ^otJXiSos, straight towards Phaselis, T.8,88. 

1149. N. Such adverbs, besides those given above, are chiefly 
ivro^, within; 8txa» apart from; iyyv^, ayXh ^tXas, and TrXifrifWy 
near; ir6pp<o {irpwui), far from; oTrurOcy and Karoiriv, behind; and 
a few others of similar meaning. The genitive after most of them 
can be explained as a partitive genitive or as a genitive of separa- 
tion; that after €v$v resembles that after verbs of aiming at (1099). 

.11 60. N.Aa^/o^ (Ionic XaBprj) and k p v <^ a, without the knowledge 
of sometimes take* the genitive; as \aBpri Aao/iiBovroq, without the 
knowledge of Laomedon, 11, 5,269 ; KpwjxL tcov 'AftywuW, T. 1, 101. 

1161. N.^Avcv and arcp, without, &xpi. and fiixph until, €V€Ka 
(ovvcKa), on account of, fiera^v, between, and vkijv, except, take the 
genitive like prepositions. See 1220. 

GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. 

1162. A noun and a participle not grammatically con- 
nected with the main construction of the sentence may 
stand by themselves in the genitive. This is called the 
genitive absolute. JE.g. 

TavT* iTTpdxOrf Kovcoro? crTpariyyovvros, this was done when 
Conon was general, 1.9,56. Ov8cv rcSv Scovrcov Troiovvrtov vfJLwv 
KOKfjk Tflt TTpdyfmTa Hx^l, affairs are in a bad state while you do nothing 
which you ought to do, D.4,2. ®co)v 8i8ovro)v ovk av ^K<^vyoi 
Koxd, if the Gods should grant (it to be so), he could not escape evils, 
A,Se.719. "OvTOi yc t/f£v8ovs Ictiv dirany, when there is false- 
hood, there is deceit, P. So. 260«. 

See 1568 and 1563. 

GENITIVE WITH COMPARATIVES. 

1153. Adjectives and adverbs of the comparative de- 
gree take the genitive (without ^, than). E.g. 

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1169] DATIVE. 245 

KpctTTQJv ioTi TovTO)v, he is better than these. Neocs to ctyav 
KpeiTTOv ioTt Tov AaXcir, for youth silence is better than prating, 
Men. Af on. 387. (Ilony/ota) Barrov Oavdrov Bei, wickedness runs 
faster than death, P.^p.39*. 

1154. N. All adjectiyes and adverbs which imply a comparison 
may take a genitive : as erepoi rovrcov, others than these; varepoi t^s 
fjiaixrfs, too late for (later than) the battle; rg vorcpoiljt t^s /^X^» ^^ 
the day after the battle. So T/oiTrAacrtov '^fjulov, thrice as much as we. 

1155. N. The genitive is less common than r} when, if rj were 
used, it would be followed by any other case than the nominative 
or the accusative without a preposition. Thus for i$e<m S* ^/uttv 
/xoAAov €T€p(i}v, and we can (do this) better than others (T.1,85), 
fjLoWoy rj CT€p<K9 would be more common. 

1156. N. After irXiov (irXctv), more, or l[Xa<rarov (fulov), less, rj 
is occasionally omitted before a numeral without affecting the case; 
as irifjAj/w opvl^ iir avrbv, irActv i^aKoaiov^ tov ApiOfwv, I wUl 
send birds against him, more than six hundred in number, Ar.Av. 1251. 

DATIVE. 

1157. The primary use of the dative case is to denote that to or 
for which anything is or is done : this includes the dative of the 
remote or indirect object, and the dative of advantage or disadvan- 
tage. It also denotes that by which or with which, and the time 
(sometimes the place) in which, anything takes place, — i.e. it is not 
merely a dative, but also an instrumental and a locative case. (See 
1042.) The object of motion after to is not regularly expressed by 
the Greek dative, but by the accusative with a preposition. (See 
1065.) 

DATIVE EXPRESSING TO OR FOR. 

Dative of the Indirect Object. 

1158. The indirect object of the action of a transitive 
verb is put in the dative. This object is generally in- 
troduced in English by to. E.g. 

AiSoxri fiKT&ov T<f (TTpaTevfiaTi, he gives pay to the army; inrur- 
XycLTai <roi Seica raXavra, he promises ten talents to you (or he prom- 
ises you ten talents); paqBtULv irifjol/ofuv rois a-vfifidxoi^, we will 
send aid to our allies; Vsxyov rt^ fiaonXti to, yey evrjfiiva^ they told 
the king what had happened. 

1159. Certain intransitive verbs take the dative, many 



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246 SYNTAX. [1160 

of which in English may have a direct object with- 
out to. E.g. 

Toi$ tfcois tvxofjuu, I pray {to) the Gods, D.18,1 ; XvoxtcXovvtw 
Ixovri, advantageous to the one having it, P.i2p.392® ; ciKoucr' dmyici; 
r^Sc, yielding to this necessity, A. A g, 1071; roi^ vo/jlol^ iruBavTai, 
they are obedient to the laws (they obey the laws), X.M.4,4^; Porfiuv 
Sixaioo-vvi;, to assist justice, F,RpA27^, Ei rois irXcoo-tv ape- 
tTKOvri^ iafjucv, rotaS* av fioyoi^ ovk opSia^ aimpeo'KOifJLey, if toe are 
pleasing to the majority, it cannot be right that we should be displeasing 
to these alone, T.1,38. "Efl-tarcvw avrc3 al iroXets, the cities trusted 
him, X.i4.1,9^. Tots 'AOrjvaioi^ wapyvti, he used to advise the 
Athenians, T. 1,03. Tov fJuaXurra imrifJMivTa rots ireirpayfiivoiq 
ij^iiof av ipoi/ir/v, I shoxdd like to ask the man who censures most 
severely what has been done, D.18, 64. Tt cyKoAcuv 17/11 v ^Trixopcw 
17/iAas i.iroWvvai; what fault do you find with us thai you try to destroy 
usf P. Cr. 50*. TovTOts fi€fi<l>€i ri; have you anything to blame 
these for f ibid. 'Em^pco^ovo-iv aWrjkoi^ koI ffSavcewnv cavrois 
yuaXKov ^ rots oAXots dv^p<i>9rots, they revile one another, and are 
more malicious to themselves than to other men, X. M. 3, 6^*. "E^oAe- 
TTotvov Tots aTparrjyoi^, they were angry with the generals, X.i4.1, 
4^; ifiol opyCl^ovraL, they are angry with me, F.Ap.2S^. So irpeira 
fiot Xcyetv, it is becoming {to) me to speak; TrpwTrjKO. [loi, it belongs 
to me; &>KCt p. 01, it seems to me; SoKta fiot, methinks. 

1160. The verbs of this class which are not translated 
with to in English are chiefly those signifying to benefit, 
serve, obey, defend, assist, please, trust, satisfy, advise, exhort, 
or any of their opposites ; also those expressing friendli- 
ness, hostility, blame, abuse, reproach, envy, anger, threats. 

1161. N. The impersonals Set, p.irt<Tri, ficXci, pjerapjfXa, 
and irpo<rqK€i take the dative of a person with the genitive of a 
thing ; as Set fiot rovrofVi I have need of this ; pArcarC /xot rovrov, 1 
have a share in this; /xeA.ct /lot rovrov, 1 am interested in this; vpo- 
OTjKa pjoL rovrov, 1 am concerned in this. (For the genitive, see 
1097,2 ; 1105; 1115.) ^E^cori, it is possible, takes the dative alone. 

1162. N. Act and xp^ take the accusative when an infinitive 
follows. For 8et (in poetry) with the accusative and the genitive, 
see 1115. 

1163. N. Some verbs of this class (1160) may take the accusa- 
tive; as ovSct9 avrov9 c/xc/x<^cro, no one blamed them, X.il.2,6'^. 
Others, whose meaning would place them here (as pjurim, hate), 
take only the accusative. AotSopco), revile, has the accusative! but 



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1168] DATIVE. 247 

XoiSopeofuu (middle) has the dative. 'OvctSt^o), reproach, and iirtTi- 
fjuia, censurCy have the accusative as well as the dative ; we have also 
ovciS^ccv (cTTiTi/wiv) Tt TLVLy to cost any reproach (or censure) on any 
one, Tifjuji>p€iv rivi means regularly to avenge some one (to take ven- 
geance for hint) ; nftcopcio^ai (rarely TLfKopelv) riva, to punish some 
one (to avenge oneself on him) : see X. C. 4, 6^, TipwpT^eiv col tov 
inuSo^ TOV <l>ov€a vTrurxyovpai, I promise to avenge you on the mur- 
derer of your son (or /or your son, 1126). 

1164. Verbs of ruling and leading (as dvoo-o-co and •^yeopm), 
which take the genitive in prose (1109), have the dative in poetry, 
especially in Homer; as TroXXya-Lv viyo-oto-i kcu "Apyel Travrl 
aofoxraav, to rule over many islands and all Argos, /Z.2,108; viyccra* 
lyyiJcaT* *Ax<Ma>v> he guided the ships of the Achaeans, II. 1,71 ; 8apbv 
ovK ap$€t €019, he will not rule the Gods long, A. Pr. 940. KeXevo), 
to command, which in Attic Greek has only the accusative (gener- 
ally with the infinitive), has the dative in Homer, see II, 2, 50. 

Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage. 

1165. The person or thing for whose advantage or dis- 
advantage anything is or is done is put in the dative 
{dativu9 commodi et ineommodi). This dative is gener- 
ally introduced in English hy for. E.g, 

TLas dvrjp avT<J irovct, every man labors for himself, S.^y. 1366. 
SoXctfv *AOr)vaioiq vopjovs l[6rjK€, Solon made laws for the Athenians, 
Kocpoi irpoeivTOL ry ttoXci, lit. opportunities have been sacrificed for 
the state (for its disadvantage), D. 19, 8. 'Hyctro avrwv Ikootos ov^t 
T<5 irarpl koI ry firjrpl puovov yeyevrjoOai, dAAa kcu rrj irarp&L, 
each of them believed that he was born not merely for his father and 
mother, but for his country also, D. 18, 205. 

1166. N. A peculiar use of this dative is found in statements 
of time; as tw yhrj hvo ycvcat €<i>Otaro, two generations had already 
passed away for him (i.e. he had seen them pass away), iZ. 1,250. 
*H/x€pat fuiXicrra ^crav ry MyriXyvy iaKioKviq, kwra,for Mitylene 
captured (i.e. since its capture) there had been about seven days, T. 3, 29. 
*Hv yip^poL vifiTTTTf iiriTrXiovcn rots *A$yvaioi^, it was the fifth day 
for the Athenians sailing out (i.e. it was the fifth day since they began 
to8aUout),X,H,2,l^. 

1167. N. Here belong such Homeric expressions as Town 8' 
oyifTTq, and he rose up for them (i.e. to address them), II, 1, 68 ; roto-t 
IvuOiov 5pX^> ^^ began to speak before them (for them), Od. 1,28. 

1168. N. In Homer, verbs signifying to ward off take an 



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248 SYNTAX. [1169 

accusative of the thing and a dative of the person ; as Aavaoio't 
Xotyov dfivvov, ward off destruction from the Danai (lit. for the Danai), 
11. 1, 456. Here the accusative may be omitted, so that AavaouFt 
d/Aw«v means to defend the Danai, For other constructions of 
dfivvdi, see the Lexicon. 

1169. N. Acxo/xai, receive, takes a dative in Homer by a 
similar idiom ; as Sc^aro ol a-K^wTpov, he took his sceptre from him 
(lit./orAim), //.2,186. 

1170. N. Sometimes this dative has a force which seems to 
approach that of the possessive genitive ; as yXoxrcra Se ol SeSerot, 
and his tongue is tied (lit. /or him), ThBog.178; bl Zmroi avrois 
SeSoToi, they have their horses tied (lit. the horses are tied for them), 
X. -4. 3, 4**^. The dative here is the dativus incommodi (1165). 

1171. N. Here belongs the so-called ethical dative, in which the 
personal pronouns have the force oi for my sake etc., and some- 
times cannot easily be translated; as rC <toi iiaBrjO-oiiajL ; what am 
I to learn for you f At,N, 111 ; rovrto irdw fi oi irpwT€X€T€ rov vow, 
to this, I beg you, give your close attention, D. 18, 178. 

For a dative with the dative of PovXofievoi etc., see 1584. 

Dative op Relation. 

1172. 1. The dative may denote a person to whose case 
a statement is limited, — often belonging to the whole sen- 
tence rather than to any special word. JE.g, 

^AiravTa T(a (^o^ov/xcvo) i/ro^ct, everything sounds to one who 
is afraid, S. frag. 58. 2<^<5v /xcv €vToX,rf Ato5 cxct T£\o5, as regards 
you two, the order of Zeus is fully executed, A. Pr. 12. 'YiroXafipd' 
v€iv Set T^ Toiovrw, oTi cvT^Orfs Tis dvOpiOTTO^, with regard to such a 
one we must suppose that he is a simple person, P. Rp, 59S\ TtOvrix 
vfilv TToAat, 1 have long been dead to you, S. PA. 1030. 

2. So in such expressions as these : iv 8c^ta iairXiovri, on the 
right as you sail in (with respect to one sailing in), T. 1,24; crvve- 
XovTi,or<os crvvcXovTi cittciv, concisely, or to speak concisely (lit. 
for one having made the matter concise). So eSs €/io4 *♦* ^y opinion. 

Dative of Possession. 

1173. The dative with elfii^ yLyvo/iai^ and similar verbs 
may denote the possessor. E,g, 

Eto-tv c/moi €K€i ievoi, I have (sunt mihi )/n€nd'« there, P. Cr. 45*; 
Tts (vfifwxoi yci/iycrcTat fioi; what ally shall 1 fndf Ar. ^^.222; 
aXXoi? /A€v 'Xprjpard Icrri TroAAot, yifilv^ ^fifjuaxoL dyoBoC, others 
have plenty of money, but we have good allies, T. 1, 86. 



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1175] DATIVE. 249 

DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 

1174. The dative follows many adjectives and ad- 
verbs and some verbal nouns of kindred meaning with 
the verbs of 1160 and 1165. E.g. 

Ava/xcv^s <f>iXM'Sj hostile to/riendsj E. il/e.ll51; vwoxo^ rot? 
vofUMs, subject to the laws; iviKiyBwov rg wdXct, dangerous to the 
state; pXa^tpov t<5 n^fmri^ hurtful to the body; cvvov? cavrcS, 
kind to himself; Ivavrios avrtSj opposed to him (cf. 1146); roto-ff 
airaai kolvov^ common to all these, A.^l^. 523. ^v/x^cpovro)9 
avr(0, profitably to himself; ifjLTrqhwv €fwC in my way. 

( With Nouns.) Tot Trap' i/fiaii/ 8<opa rois OtoU, the gifts (given) by 
us to the Gods, P. Euthyph. 15*. So with an objective genitive and 
a dative; as iirl icara&yuXaxrcc twv 'EAXiJvwv 'A^i/vtuW, for the 
subjugation of the Greeks to Athenians, T.3,10. 

DATIVE OF RESEMBLANCE AND UNION. 

1175. The dative is used with all words implying, 
likeness or unliheness^ agreement or disagreement^ union 
or approach. This includes verbs, adjectives, adverbs, 
and nouns. E.g. 

2«ciat$ ioLKOTts, like shadows; to ofMUwv iavrbv d\\(o, to make 
himself like to another, F.Rp.S9S^', tovtois ofuotorarov, most like 
these, P. (7.513**; w^XurfUvoi tois avrots Kupw oTrXots, armed with 
the same arms as Cyrus, X. C7, 1^; yj ofioiov ovros toutois ^ 
dyo/iocov, being either like or unlike these, P. Ph. 74^^ ; opjoda^ Slkoiov 
d8tKa» pXaAf/tLv, that he wUl punish a just and an unjust man alike, 
T.Rp.BQ4i^; Uvom diiXrj Xoi^ dvofwCta^, to move unlike one another, 
P. ri.36*; Tov ofjL^wfwv ifxavna, my namesake, D.3.21. Ovrc 
iavTOLS ovrc dWijXoii ofwKoymxnv, they agree neither with them- 
selves nor with one another, P. PAc/r. 237*^ ; afnl>url3rjTova-L oi ^iXoi 
rois <l>iXois, ipiiovaL 8c ol ixOpol dXXi/Xot?, friends dispute with 
friends, but enemies quarrel with one another, P. Pr. 337^ ; rois 
vovrfpoi^ Bui<f>€p€aOai, to be at variance with the bad, X.il/.2,9B; 
rfv avT<f ofioyvwfuuy, he was of the same mind with him, T.8,92. 
Kaxois 6fjLiXS)v, associating with bad men, Men.il/on.274:; rots 
^povi/xa>Tdrot9 vXrfa'Cai€,draw near to the wisest,I.2,lS; i/ro^otg 
irXiTcrid^eiv (rov hnrov), to bring him near to noises, 'K.JSq.2,5', 
cKXXotg Kotvo)mv, to share with others, P./2jd.369«; t6 cavrov Ipyov 
diracrt kolvov KaranOtvai, to make his own work common to all, ibid.; 
Seo/ACFOC Toiv^ <l>€vyovras $vvaXXaicu a'<l>L<n, asking to bring the exiles 



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250 SYNTAX. [1176 

to terms with them, T.1.24:; PovXojJuaji <rc avT<3 SiaXcycordai, / toant 
you to converse with him, P.Ly5.211*. 

{With Nouns.) ^Atotto? i; ofJUHonys rovrtov €K€lvoisj the likeness 
of these to those is strange, F.ThA6S^*, ixa. KOLvtoviav dXXi/Xois, 
they have something in common with each other, P. <So.257*; ?rpoo-^oAas 
TTOtov/AcvcM T<o T€LX€i, making attacks upon the wall, iwiBpo/irpf ru 
T€ixto'f''0'Ti, an assault on the wall, T.4,23; Aios Ppovraia-Lv cis 
cpiv, in rivalry with the thunderings of Zeus, E. Cyc.328; CTravocrraais 
fiipovi Tivos T<5 oXo) T^s ^XO^j ^ rebellion of one part of the soul 
against the whole, P. Rp. i4AK 

1176. The dative thus depends on adverbs of place and time; 
as aifjua xy VI^^PT'^ ^^ daybreak, X.-4.2, 1^; vS<op ofxav t<o ttyjX^ 
yfjuiTwfiivov, water stained with blood together with the mud, T. 7, 84 ; 
Ttt TovTois i<l>€$rjs, what comes next to this, P. Tt.30^', TOtcS* cyyvs, 
near these, E. Her. 37 (cyyvs generally has the genitive, 1149). 

1177. To this class belong fidxofiai, iroXcfiioy, and others 
signifying to contend or quarrel with; as fjuax^aOca rols ©oy/Satois, 
to fight with the Thebans; iroke/iovo'Lv tJ/xiv, they are at war with us. 
So €5 x^upa^ IkOtiv Ttvt, or €s Xoyovs IXdtiv nvt, to come to a conflict 
(or to words) with any one; also 8ta ^lAia? ievai rivC, to be friendly 
(to go through friendship) with one : see T. 7, 44 : 8, 48 ; X. -4. 3, 2*. 

1178. N. After adjectives of likeness an abridged form of 
expression may be used; as KOfjuu 'KapCreao'iv ofwuu, hair like 
(that of) the Graces, //. 17,51; ras toas Trkriyas efiot, the same 
number of blows with me, Ar.72. 636. 

DATIVE AFTER COMPOUND VERBS. 

1179. The dative follows many verbs compounded 
with ev<i arvv^ or 67r/; and some compounded with Trpo?, 
irapd^ 7repl<i and ^tto. E.g. 

Tots opKOLi ip^fievei 6 8^pjcys, the people abide by the oaths, 'K.H. 
2,4*'; ai . . . 'qBovcu ij/vxy iTriarrrjfirjv ov^fitav ipvounxriv, (such) 
pleasures produce no knowledge in the soul, X. M. 2, 1** ; €v€k€ivto t« 
UepiKktt, they pressed hard on Pericles, T.2, 59; ip^avrw (nnnjUff 
ovSkv i'jru(TTafi€v<a, I was conscious to myself that I knew nothing (lit. 
with myself), P. -4^. 22**; rjdirj ttotc <roL irr^XOey; did it ever occur to 
youf X.M.4,38; wpoa-ipaXXov toJ TctxiV/xaTi, they attacked the 
fortification, T.4, 11 ; a8cX<^os dvSpl irapeLtj, let a brother stand by a 
man (i.e. let a man*s brother stand by him), P.i2!p.362**; rots Kaxois 
TrepnrCiTTovaLv, they are involved in evils, X.M.4,2^; vTroicciroi to 
TTC&W Tw t€p<3, the plain lies below the temple, Aesch.3,118. 



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1184] DATIVE. 251 

1180. N. This dative sometimes depends strictly on the prepo- 
sition, and sometimes on the idea of the compound as a whole. 

CAUSAL AND INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE. 

1181. The dative is used to denote cause^ manner^ and 
mean% or instrument. E.g. 

Cause: Noo-o) avoOaviav, having died of disease^ T.8,84; ov 
yap KaKovoia tovto ttoici, oAA' dyvoiGi,ybr he does not do this from 
Ul-will, hut from ignorance, X. C.3, 1^; Pui^ofievoi rov tticiv iinOv/JLLii., 
forced by a desire to drink, T. 7, 84 ; alaxyvofmi tol rais irp&repov 
dfJLapriaiSj I am ashamed of (because of) my former faults, Ar.N. 
1355. Manner : ApofKa Tevro h tovs PapPdpov^, they rushed against 
the barbarians on the run, Hd.6, 112 ; Kpavyrj iroWy iiruwiv, they will 
advance with a loud shout, X.-4.1,7*. Ty SXriOtiq., in truth; T<f 6vtl, 
in reality; jSia, forcibly ; ravny, in this manner, thus; Xoyo), in word; 
ipyto, in deed; ry ifiy yvw/xiy, in my judgment; tSta, privately; 
hqpjo(T[a, publicly; Koivy, in common. Means or Instrument: 
'Opcoficv Tots o^OaXpoLs, we see with our eyes; yvtoa-Oevr^s ry 
fTKtvy Toiv ottXcov, recognized by the fashion of their arms, T.1,8; 
KaKol^ VajfrBax KaKo, to cure evils by evils, S. frag. 75; ov8eis l?ratvov 
i^Sovais iKTTjauTo, no one gains praise by pleasures, Stob.29,31. 

1182. N. The dative of respect is a form of the dative of man- 
ner; as Tot5 a-fopao'iv dSwarot, . . . rats iI/vxolls avorjroiy incapable 
in their bodies, . . . senseless in their minds, X. M. 2, 1*^ ; varepov ov 
TQ ra^et, irpprepov ry Bwdpei kol Kpeirrov iariv, although it is 
later in order, it is prior and superior in power, D. 3, 15. So ttoAxs, 
€ka^#cos ovopari, a city, Thapsacus by name, X.^. 1,4^1. 

This dative often is equivalent to the accusative of specification 
(1058). 

1183. Xpdo pal, to use (to serve one's self by), takes the dative 
of means; as )(pSivTcu dpyvpCta, they use money, A neuter pronoun 
(e.g. rC, rl, 6 rt, or rovro) may be added as a cognate accusative 
(1051); as ri x/^^-crat iror avT<S; what will he do with himf (lit. 
what use will he make of him t), Ar. A ch. 935. No/wf w has sometimes 
the same meaning and construction as xpdopxu. 

1184. The dative of manner is used with comparatives 
to denote the degree of difference. E.g. 

noXX<^ KpeiTTOv iariv, it is much better (better by much) ; cav ry 
K€^a\y pjEL^ovd riva fjyys ctvai koI IXama, if you say that anyone is 
a head taller or shorter (lit. by the head), F.Ph. 101». ndXt XoyipM 
17 'EXXas y€yov€ axT$€v€.(TT€pq, Greece has become weaker by one 



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252 SYNTAX. [1185 

illustrious city, Hd. 6, 106. Too-ovrw ^hwv f oi, / live so much the more 
happily, X. C.8,3*^; rexyrj 8* avdyKrjs axrOeveoTipa fjLaKpiS, and art 
is weaker than necessity by far, A. Pr. 514. 

1185. So sometimes with superlatives, and even vv^ith other 
expressions which imply comparison ; as opOorara p/ucpm, most 
correctly by far, F.Lg,7QS^', (rxeBov ScKa Itco-i irpb ttjs ev liaXaplvi 
vavpja.\ia^, about ten years before the sea-fight at Salamis, ibid. 698^ 

DATIVE OF AGENT. 

1186. The dative sometimes denotes the cbgent with the 
perfect and pluperfect passive, rarely with other passive 
tenses. E.g, 

"E^CTcurat rC iriirpaKTOj. rots aXXots, to ask what has been done by 
the others, D. 2, 27 ; €7rct8^ avrois iraptcrKevaoTo, when preparation had 
been made by them (when they had their preparation made), T.1,46; 
iroXXal Oepaireiax rots la r pots evprprrai, many cures have been dis- 
covered by physicians, 1. 8, 39. 

1187. N. Here there seems to be a reference to the agent's 
interest in the result of the completed action expressed by the 
perfect and pluperfect. With other tenses, the agent is regularly 
expressed by vwo etc. and the genitive (1234) ; only rarely by the 
dative, except in poetry. 

1188. With the verbal adjective in -rw, in its personal 
construction (1595), the agent is expressed by the dative; 
in its impersonal construction (1597), by the dative or the 
accusative. 

DATIVE OF ACCOMPANIMENT. 

1189. The dative is used to denote that by which any 
person or thing is accompanied, E.g, 

*^X06vT<uv Ucpo-wv TrafnrXrjOci a-ToXta, when the Persians came 
with an armyinfullforce,^.A.3,2^^', '^fitis koI i^ttoi? toT? dvyaro)- 
TttTots Kol avSpda-L TroptvwpcOa, let us march both with the strongest 
horses and with men, X. C. 5, 3^ ; ol AaiceSoi/xdvuM T<a t€ Kara yffv 
(rrpar^ irpoaipoXKov T<a TUXLO-pari kcu rats vavaiv, the Lacedae- 
monians attacked the wall both with their land army and with their 
ships, T.4,11. 

1190. This dative is used chiefly in reference to military forces, 
and is originally connected with the dative of means. The last 
example might be placed equally well under 1181. 



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il96] DATIVE. 253 

1191. This dative sometimes takes the dative of avro9 for 
emphasis; as /uav (vaw) avrots avSpda-iv clXov, they took one 
(ship) men and all, T.2,90. Here no instrumental force is seen, 
and the dative may refer to any class of persons or things; as 
Xafuu pdKe SevSpta fuiKpa axr^aiv pi^yo-i kojL avrois avOtcri 
fii/Xcov, he threw to the ground tall trees, with their very roots and their 
fruit-blossoms, 7^.9,541. 

DATIVE OP TIME. 

1192. The dative without a preposition often denotes 
time when. This is confined chiefly to nouns denoting 
day^ nighty months or year^ and to names oi festivals. E,g. 

T^ airr-Q i^/xep^ airiOavfv, he died on the same day; ('Eppm) fxif 
vvktI oi ttXciotoi irtpuKVirtjauv, the most of the Hermae were muti- 
Ictted in one night, T.6,27; cl 'Sidfuoi i$€iro\topici^OYfa'av €vaT<p 
/JLrfvi, the Samians were taken by siege in the ninth month, T. 1,117; 
8eicar^ Irti ^ejSi/o-av, they came to terms in the tenth year, T.l, 
103; ijxnrtpel ®€a'fio<f>opioi^ vrj<TT€vofuv, we fast as if it were 
(on) the Thesmophoria, At,Av, 1519. So ry vcrrcpatlji (sc. -^fiipti,), on 
the following day, and ^evripq., TpCrrj, on the second, third, etc., in 
giving the day of the month. 

1193. N. Even the words mentioned, except names of fes- 
tivals, generally take cv when no adjective word is joined with 
them. Thus cv wkti, at night (rarely, in poetry, wktC), but /of 
wktC, in one night, 

1194. N. A few expressions occur like varipta xpov^ in after 
time ; xtipJmo^ cSp^, in the winter season ; votvpjqviq. (neto-moon day), 
on the first of the month; and others in poetry. 

1195. N. With other datives expressing time iv is regularly 
used ; as iv T<f avr<^ xtipJuivi, in the same winter, T. 2, 34. But it is 
occasionally omitted. 

DATIVE OF PLACE. 

1196. In poetry, the dative without a preposition 
often denotes the place where. E.g. 

*EXXa8t ocKML valiav, inhabiting dwellings in Hellas, /Z. 16, 595; 
alOipi vouW, dwelling in heaven, //.4,166; ovpcai, on the moun- 
tains, //.13,390; Tof <ifioL(riv ix^y having his bow on his shoulders, 
//.1, 45; /ufiva dyp<S, he remains in the country, Orf.11,188. *H<rAtt 
^ftMi, to sit at home, A.^^.862. Nw dypoiai riryxava (sc. wv), 
now he happens to be in the country, S. El. 313. 



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254 SYNTAX. [1197 

1197. In prose, the dative of place is chiefly confined to the 
names of Attic demes; as ij Mapa^cUvt fMXVy ^^^ battle at Maror 
ihon (but €v 'A^oyvats): see yua, Toin Mapatfcuvt ir/90#ctv8wcv- 
(ravras tcdv irpoyovcov kojL tou^ iv IlXaratai? iraparoi^iafievovs fciu 
rovs iv '^aXafilvi vavfuxxiyonavras, no, by those of our ancestors who 
stood in the front of danger at Marathon, and those who arrayed them- 
selves atPlataea, and those who fought the sea-fight at Salamis, D. 18,208. 

Still some exceptions occur. 

1198. N. Some adverbs of place are really local datives; as 
ravry, t^Sc, here; oLkol, at home. So kvkA.o>, in a circUy all around, 
(See 436.) 

PEEPOSITIONS. 

1199. The prepositions were originally adverbs, and as 
such they appear in composition with verbs (see 882, 1). 
They are used also as independent words, to connect nouns 
with other parts of the sentence. 

1200. Besides the prepositions properly so called, there are 
certain adverbs used in the same way, which cannot be com- 
pounded with verbs. These are called improper prepositions. For 
these see 1220. 

1201. 1. Four prepositions take the genitive only: SlvtC, diro, 
cf (ck), Trpo, — with the improper prepositions ivcv, arc^ axp*» 
ficxpt, fieraiv, Ivcko, ttXt^v. 

2. Two take the dative only : Iv and crw. 

3. Two take the accusative only: iva and ds or cs, — with the 
improper preposition <os. For dm in poetry with the dative, see 
1203. 

4. Four take the genitive and accusative: Sia, Kara, /lerdt and 
inrip. For /xerd with the dative in Homer, see 1212, 2. 

5. Six take the genitive, dative, and accusative : dfiffn (rare with 
genitive), iiri, irapa, irtpC, irpoi, and vird. 

USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS.^ 

1202. &^i (Lat. amb-, compare Bm^, both), originally on both 

sides of; hence abovt. Chiefly poetic and Ionic. In Attic 
prose vepl is generally used in most senses of dfupL 
1. with the GENITIVE (very rare in prose), abotit, concerning: 
dfjt^l yvpaiK6s, about a woman, A,Ag.62, 

^ Only a general statement of the various uses of the prepositions 
is given here. For the details the Lexicon must be consulted. 



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1206] USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 255 

2. with the dative (only poetic and Ionic), about^ concerning ^ 

on account of: dfji4>' ufiourij about his shoulders, /Z. 11, 627 ; 
dfj4>l TV yofup ro<fT(fi, concerning this law, Hd. 1, 140 ; dfiL(ftl 
<t>6^(fi through fear, E. Or. 825. 

3. with the accusative, about, near, of place, time, number, 

etc. : diit0* &\a, by the sea, II. 1,409 ; djAtpl deiXriv, near even- 
ing, X. 0. 6, 416 ; diji,<i}l U\€id5(av dvcriv, about (the time of) 
the Pleiads^ setting, A.Ag.S2Q. So d/Mpl deiTrvov elx^p, ht 
was at supper, X. C. 5, 5**. Oi d/*0£ nva (as ol dpi^l UXdrujva) 
means a man with his followers. 

In coMP. ; about, on both sides, 

1803. dvd (cf. adv. &v», above), originally up (opposed to xard). 

1. with the DATIVE (only epic and lyric), up on: dvd a-KiJirrpy, 

on a staff, U, 1, 16. 

2. with the accusative, up along ; and of motion over, through, 

among (cf. Kard): — 
(a) of place: dvd rbv iroTafibv, up the river, Hd.2,96; dvd 

arparov, through the army, II. 1, 10 j oUeiv dvd rd 6pri, to 

dwell on the tops of the hills, X.A. 3, 5i<*. 
(6) of time: dvd rbv TrdXefMv, through the war, Hd.8, 123 ; dvd 

xpovov, in course of time, Hd.6,27. 
(c) In distributive expressions: dvd iKarov, by hundreds, 

X. A. 6, 412 ; dvd TTwaav ^tiip-nv, every day, Hd. 2, 37 (so X. C. 

1» 2 ). In coMP. : up, back, again. 

1204. AvtC, with genitive only, instead of, for : dvrl iro\4fMv elp'/j- 

vriv iXd^fi^da, in place of war let us choose peace, T. 4, 20 ; 
dv£^ (Sv, wherefore, A. Pr. 31 ; dvr dd€\<f>ov, for a brother^ 8 
sake, S. EL 637. Original meaning, over against, against. 
In coMP. : against, in opposition, in return, instead. 

1205. Air6 (Lat. ab), with genitive only, from, off from, away 

from ; originally (as opposed to ix) denoting separation or 
departure from something : — 

(a) of PLACE : d<f> tirircov aXro, he leaped from the car (horses), 
H. 16, 733 ; dir6 da\d(r<rris, at a distance from the sea, T. 1, 7. 

(b) of time : dirb roirov rod xp^yov, from this time, X.A. 7, 5^. 

(c) of CAUSE or origin: dird rovrov rov ToXfi'^iJMTOS hr'Qvid'ri, 
for this bold act he was praised, T.2, 26 ; rb ^y d-jrb irdkifMv, 
to live by war, Hd. 6, 6 ; dir ov ijfieU yeyovafiev, from whom 
we are sprung, Hd. 7, 160 ; sometimes the agent (as source): 
hrpdxOri dir a&rQv oid4v, nothing was done by them, T. 1, 17. 

In COMP. : from, away, off, in return. 

1206. 8id, through (Lat. dl-, dla-). 
1. with the genitive : 

(a) of PLACE : 8id datridos 1j\$€, it went through the shield, 
72.7,261. 



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256 SYNTAX. [1207 

(6) of TiMB : 9(d wKTrfj, through the night, X. A, 4, 6^2. 

(c) of INTERVALS of time or place : 5tA iroXXoO xp^^ov, after a 

long timet Ar.P/.1045; 5tA rp^Tiyj ijfi^pris, every other day, 

Hd.2,37. 

(<i) of MEANS : aXeye di ipfiriv^w, he spoke through an inter- 
preter, X.A2,3". 

(6) in various phrases like 5t* oUrov ix^iv, to pity ; did ^iXias 

Uvai, to be in friendship (with one). See 1177. 
2. with the accusative : 

(a) of AGENCY, on acQount of, by help of, by reason of: 5tA 

rovTo, on this account; dt 'Adifivriv, by help of Athena, Od. 

8, 520 ; oj> 5t* ifi^, not owing to me, D. 18, 18. 
(6) of PLACE or TIME, through, during (poetic) : 5tA Stifiara, 

through the halls, IL \, 600 ; did v(fKra, through the night, 

Od. 19, 66. 
In coMP.: through, also apart (Lat. dl-, dla-). 

1207. €ls or Is, with accusative only, into, to, originally (as op- 

posed to iK) to within (Lat. in with the accusative) : €/f 
always in Attic prose, except in Thucydides, who has is. 
Both eh and is are for ^I's ; see also iu. 

(a) of place: Siipriffap is ^iKcXlav, they crossed over into 
Sicily, T. 6, 2 ; els Uipaas ivopeveTo, he d^arted for Persia 
(the Persians), X. (7.8, 5^0; t6 is UaWifjprjp retxos, the wall 
towards (looking to) Pallene, T. 1, 56. 

(b) of TIME : ^j ^w, until dawn, Od. 11, 375 ; so of a time 
looked forward to : wpoetire rots iavrov els rplrrjw iifUpaw 
TrapeTvai, he gave notice to his men to be present the next day 
but one, X. C 3, 1*^. So f^ros els iros, from year to year, 
S.^W.340. So is 6, until; els rhv AiravTa XP^^^^ /w ^'^ 
time. 

(c) of NUMBER and measure: els SiaKoalovs, (amoUf^ng) to 
two hundred; els dvva/jnp, up to one^s power. 

(d) of PURPOSE or reference:, vatdeveip els t^p Aper-^p, to 
train for virtue, P. G. 519® ; els irdpra vpOrop eJpai, to be first 
for everything, P. Ch. 158*; xp'h^'-l^^ ^^^ ^t» useful for anything. 

In coMP. : into, in, to. 

1208. Iv, with DATIVE only, in (Horn, ipl), equivalent to Lat. in 

with the ablative : 

(a) of place: ip Sirdpri;, in Sparta; — with words implying 
a number of people, among : ip yvpai^l AXxifMs, brave among 
women, E. Or. 754; ip irao-t, in the presence of all; iw Suca- 
ffrats, before (coram) a court. 

(b) of time: ip Tovr(p t$ l^rei, in this year; ip x^'-M^^h *•* 
winter ; ip ireai irepr-fiKopra, within fifty years, T. 1, 118. 

(c) of other relations: rhp ILepiKkia ip 6pyi elxov, they were 
angry with P. (held him in anger), T.2, 21 ; ^i^ t$ detp rb 
TovTov rikos ^p, o^K ip ifiol, the issue of this was with (in the 



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12103 USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 257 

power of) God^ not loith me, D. 18, 193 ; iv iroXXj diropl^ 
^aav, they were in great perplexity, X. A3, 1^. 
As iv (like els and is) comes from iys (see els), it originally allowed 
tlie accnsatiye (like Latin in), and in Aeolic iv may be used like els ; 
as iy KaXMffTav, to Calliste, Pind. Py. 4, 268. 
In coMP. : in, on, at. 

1209. I£ or Ik, with genitive only (Lat. ez, e), from, out of; 

originally (as opposed to dvo) from within (compare els). 
(o) of PLACE : iK ^Trdprrjs 4>evyei, he ia banished from Sparta. 

(b) of TIME : iK va\atoTdTov,from the most ancient time,T. 1,18. 

(c) of ORIGIN : 6vap ix Atrfj iariv, the dream comes from Zeus, 
n. 1, 63. So also with jMWfitve verbs (instead of inr6 with gen.) : 
iK ^ol^v SafieLs, destroyed by Phoebus, S. Ph. 335 (the agent 
viewed as the source), seldom in Attic prose. (See 1205.) 

(d) of GROUND for a judgment : ifiovXevovro iK tQp irapovrtap, 
they took counsel with a view to (starting from) the present 
state of things, T.3,29. 

In coMP. : out, from, away, off. 

1210. lirC, on, upon. 

1. with the GENITIVE : 

(a) of PLACE : ivl irvpyov Icrriy, h£ stood on a tower, H. 16,700; 
sometimes towards: ir\e6aavTes irl ^dftov, having sailed 
towards Samos, T. 1, 116 ; so ivl rrjs Totothnyj yevi<r0ai yv(S>- 
liris, to adopt {go over to) such an opinion, D. 4, 6. 

(&) of time: i<f> iiiuav, in our time; ir elp'^mis, in time of 
peace, 11.2,797. 

(C) of RELATION OT REFERENCE tO an ObjCCt : Todj ivl tQp 

vpayfjukruv, those in charge of (public) chairs, D. 18, 247; ivl 
A(/3i}i7s (ix^tv rb 6pofia, to be named for Libya, Hd.4,45 ; ivl 
TITO? \iy<av, speaking with reference to some one, see P. Ch. 
155*; so iirl ax^^Vh «* leisure; iv t<ras (ac. fwipas), in equal 
measure, S.^Z.1061. 

2. with the dative : 

(a) of PLACE : rjvT ivl vi5py(p, they sat on a tower, II. 3, 153 ; 
v6\is ivl ri eakdTT'd olKovfiimj, a city situated upon (by) the 
sea, X. A 1,41. 

(b) of TIME (of immediate succession) : ivl tovtois, thereupon, 
X. a 5, 521. 

(C) of CAUSE, PURPOSE, CONDITIONS, ctC. ! ivl irat5€v<r€t fiiya 

4>povowTes, proud of their education, P. Pr. 342** ; iv i^a- 
7W75> for exportation, Hd. 7, 156 ; ivl ToT<r5e, on these con- 
ditions, Ar.^t?. 1602 ; ivl ry tcry Kal bpjolq., on fair and equal 
terms, T. 1, 27. So i<p* <? and i<f> <f re (1460). 
(d) Likewise over, for, at, in addition to, in the power of; and 
in many other relations : see the Lexicon. 

3. with the accusative : 

(o) of place: to, up to, towards, against: dva^h.s ivl rhv 



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268 SYNTAX. [1211 

tvvop, mounting his horse, X. A 1, 8* ; iirl Se^id, to the right, 
on the right hand, X.A,6,4^; irl ^affCKia Uvai, to march 
against the King, X. A 1, S^. 

(&) of TIME or SPACE, denoting extension : hrl S^Ka iri}, for 
ten years, T. 3, 68 ; Iv hvia kcito iriXedpa., he covered {lay 
over) nine plethra, Od.11,677 ; so iirl iroXv, loidely; t6 iirl 
vo\v,for the most part; iK rod ivl irXeiffrotf, from the remot- 
est period, T. 1,2. 

(c) of an OBJECT aimed at: KarijXdop hrl iroirjT^fjy, I came down 
here for a poet, Ar. B. 1418. 
In coMP. : upon, over, after, toward, to, for, at, against, besides, 

1211. Kard (of. adverb xdrw, below), originally down (opposed to 

&vd). 

1. with the GENITIVE : 

(a) down from : dWofievoL jcotA riji irh-pas, leaping down from 

the rock, X.AA,2^\ 
(6) down upon : ti<tpov kotA t^j K60aX^s Karax^cLvres, pouring 

perfumes on his head, P. Mp. 398». 
(c) beneath : Kard x^oy6$ I^Kpvxf/e, he buried benecUh the earth, 

S. ^71.24; ol Kard, x&ovbs Beol, the Gods below, A.Pe.689. 
((?) against : Xiytap KaS* ijfiQv, saying against me (us), S. PA. 65. 

2. with the accusative, down along ; of motion over, through, 

among, into, against; also according to, concerning. 

(a) of place: kctA l>ovv, down stream; Kard, yiji^ xal jcarA 
ddXaTTav, by land and by sea, X.A.S,2^^; icotA Stvc^ifi' 
ir6\Lv, opposite the city Sinope, Hd.l, 76. 

(b) of TIME : /cord rby Tr6\€fioy, during (at the time of) the 
war, Hd.7,137. 

(c) DisTRiBUTivELY : /COT A Tp«j, by thrccs, thrcc by three; KoJBt 
ijfiipav, day by day, daily. 

(d) according to, concerning: Kard robs vofiovs, according to law, 
D. 8, 2 ; t6 Kar ifi4, as regards myself, D. 18, 247 ; so jcard 
irdvTa, in all respects ; rd /card iroXcfiov, military matters. 

In coMP. : down, against. 

1212. lurd, vjith, amid, among. See ir^v. 

1. with the GENITIVE : 

(a) vnth, in company with : /ner* &\\<av Xi^o h-alptav, lie down 
with the rest of thy companions, Od. 10, 320 ; /xerd l^i&rruw, 
among the living, S. Ph. 1312. 

(6) in union with, with the cooperation of: fjuerd Mo^rtr^wr 
^vveTToXi/jjovv, (hey fought in alliance with the Mantineans, 
T. 6, 106 ; otde fier airrov ^aav, these were on his side, T. 3, 56 ; 
*tir4p^o\ov diroKTelpovffi /lerd Xapfdpov, they put Hyperbolus 
to death by the aid of Charminus, T. 8, 73. 

2. with the dative (poetic, chiefly epic), among: juerd W rpird- 

TOLo-iu &va<T<T€v, aud he wa^ reigning in the third generation, 
/Z. 1,262. 



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1214] USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 259 

3. with the accusativb : 

(a) into (the midst of), after {in quest of), for (poetic) : 
/xerA ffrparbv rjXatr ^AxaiQv, he drove into the army of the 
Achaeans, H, 5, 680 ; irXiup fisrd x^Xko i', sailing after {in 
quest of) copper, Od. 1, 184. 
(6) generally ctfter, next to : fj^erd, rbv troXcfiov, after the war; 
niyurrot /nerd "Icrpov, the largest {river) next to the Ister, 
Hd.4,63. 
In COMP. : with (of sharing), among, after {in quest of) : it also de- 
notes change, as in fjueravoiu}, change one^s mind, repent, 

1213. trapd (Horn, also irapal), by, near, alongside of (see 1221, 2). 

1. with the GENITIVE, from beside, from : irapA rriQp dirowo-rij- 

ffctv, to return from the ships, /M2.114; trap iniQv djrdy- 
yeXXe rdSe, take this message from us, X,A.2, V^, 

2. with the dative, loith, beside, near: vapd nptdfjLoio $(fpxi(n,v, 

at Priam* s gates, /Z.7,346; irapd <roi KariXvoy, they lodged 
with you {were your guests), D.18,82. 

3. with the accusative, to {a place) near, to ; also by the side 

of, beyond or beside, except, along with, because of 
(a) of place : rphpai irdp Trorafi/tp, turning to the {bank of 

^e) river, J7.21,603; ^<rt6i^e$ irapd toi>s 4>l\ovs, going in to 

{visit) their friends, T.2,51. 
(6) of TIME : vapd wdvra rbv xp^wv, throughout the whole 

efmc, D.18,10. 
(c) of CAUSE : irapA r^v ijfj^T^pap d^Aetar, on account of our 

neglect, D.4,11. 
{d) of coMPA BISON : iropA T&Wa fyo, compared with {by the 

side of) other animals, X.M. 1,41*. 
{e) with idea of beyond or beside, and except : o^k %<rTL vapd 

ravT &\\a, there are no others besides these, Ar.iV.698; 

irapd t6p pS/jjov, contrary to the law (properly beyond it). 
In COMP. : beside, along by, hitherward, wrongly {beside the mark), over 
(as in overstep). 

1214. inpC, around (on all sides), about (compare dfj^C). 

1. with the GENITIVE, about, concerning (Lat. de) : n-epl irarpbi 

ipiffSai, to inquire about his father, Ot2.3,77; be^L^a irepl 
airov, fearing concerning him, P. Pr. 320». Poetic (chiefly 
epic) above, surpassing : xparepbi vepl irdprup, mighty above 
all, II, 21, 666. 

2. with the dative, about, a'tound, concerning, of place or 

CAUSE (chiefly poetic) : tvbvve irepl a-r'^deffai x^^^w, h>e put 
on his tunic about his breast, /Z. 10,21 ; USSeicep trepl Mew- 
Xdy, he feared for Menelaus, II. 10, 240 ; deltrapres irepi tJ 
X<6p^, through fear for our land, T. 1,74. 

3. with the accusative (nearly the same as dfA^l), about, near: 

ia-rdfuyaL irepl toixop, to Stand around the wall, II. 18, 874 ; 
7rep2 ^^Wiiffiroprop, about {near) the Hellespont, D.8,8; irepl 



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260 SYNTAX. [1215 

To^ovs To^s xp^wv»» about these times^ T.3,89; iap vepl 
raOro, being about (engaged in) this, T.7, 31. 
In coMP. : around, about, exceedingly. 

1215. irp6 (Lat. pro), with the genitive only, before : 
(a) of PLACE : TTpb BvpQv, before the door, S.^.109. 
(6) of TIME : Tpb Selvpov, brfore supper, X. C.6, 6*®. 

(c) of DEFENCE : fjtdxcffOai TTpb iraldujv, to fight for their chil- 
dren, Ih 8, 67 ; SiaKivdvveveiv irp6 patrik^tas, to run risk in 
behalf of the king, X.C.8,8*. 

((2) of CHOICE or preference: KipZoi alpijaai irph dixas, to 
approve craft before justice, Pind.Py.4, 140 ; irpb ro&rov 
reOvdvoA hv fKoiro, before this he would prefer death, 
-p. Sy, 179^. 

In coMP. : before, in defence of, forward, 

1216. irp6« (Horn, also irporl or votI), at or by (m front of). 

1. with the genitive : 

(a) in front of, looking towards : Ketrai vp6s Op4kiis, U lies 
over against Thrace, D. 23, 182. In swearing: irpbi OeQw, 
before (by) the Gods. Sometimes pertaining to (as char- 
acter) : ^ Kdpra trpbs yvpauc6s, surely it is very like a woman, 
A. Ag. 692. 

(b) from (on the part of) : ti/a^jv vpbs Zrjvbs Ixovtcj, having 
honor from Zeus, Od. 11, 302. Sometimes with passive verbs 
(like inrd), especially Ionic : drifid^effdai vpbs Ueururrpdrov, 
to be dishonored by Pisistratus, Hd.1,61; dZo^vvrai, irp^ 
tQv Trb\€<av, they are held in contempt by states, X.06c.4,2. 

2. with the dative : 

(a) at: hrel irp6i Ba^vXQvi Ijy 6 Kvpos, when Cyrus teas at 
Babylon, X. 0.7,61. 

(b) in addition to : irpbs ro&rois, besides this ; irp6s roTs dXXocs, 
besides all the rest, T.2,61. 

8. with the accusative : 

(a) to : elfjL o^i; irpds "OXvfjLTTOp, I am going myself to Olym- 
pus, n. 1, 420. 

(b) towards : irpbt Boppav, towards the North, T. 6, 2 ; (of 
persons) trpbt dXXi^Xovs ijavxiav elxoy, they kept the peace 
towards one another, 1. 7, 61. 

(c) with a view to, according to: vpbs rl fu ravr ipiorqs, (to 
what end) for what do you ask me this? X.3f.3, 7*; irp6f 
riip irapovaap S^pafup, according to their power at the time, 
D.16,28. 

In COMP. : to, towards, against, besides, 

1217. o^v, older Attic J^v (Lat. cum), with dative only, with, 

in company with, or by aid of 2vi» is chiefly poetic; it 
seldom occurs in Attic prose except in Xenophon, pjeri^ 
with the genitive taking its place. 



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1219] USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 261 

(a) in company with : ijXvee eifv MepcXd^, he came with Mene- 

ZaM«, /Z.3,206. 
(6) hy aid of: ai>y 0€(f, with God* 8 help, 7Z.9,49. 

(c) in accordance with : ebv 5k^, with justice, Find. Py.9, 96. 

(d) sometimes instrumental (like simple dative) : /ia^oi/ irXou- 
Tov iKTiffffb) ^ifv alxfiVy thou didst gain great wealth by (with) 
thy spear, A. Pe. 766. 

In coMP. : vjith, together, altogether. 

1218. itr^p (Horn, also inrelp), over (Lat. super). 

1. with the GENITIVE ; 

(a) of PLACE : arij inrkp jce^aX^s, it stood over (his) head, 
7^.2, 20; of motion ot^er : inrkp 0a\d(rarjs Kal x^o»^s «"otw/a^- 
voLs (sc. vfup), as we flit over sea and land, A. J^.676. 

(6) for, in behalf of (opposed to Kard) : $v6fieva inrkp t^s 
ir6X€wj, sacrificed in behalf of the city, X. M. 2, 2^8 ; inrkp 
trdpTwp iyibv, a struggle for our all, A. Pe. 406. Some- 
times with Tov and inifin., like tva with subj. : itirkp rod tA 
avir^0Tj fi^ ylypeadai, to prevent what is customary from 
being done, Aesch.3, 1. 

(c) chiefly in the orators, concerning (like vepi) : t^p inrip 
TOV voXifiov ypiifirip lxo»^«s> having such an opinion about 
the war, D. 2, 1. 

2. with the accusative, over, beyond, exceeding: ifvkp o^Sbp 

i^-flffero St&fMTos, he stepped over the threshold of the house, 
Od.l, 136 ; inrelp &\a, over the sea, Od. 3, 73 ; inrip rb /3Ari- 
arop, beyond what is best, A.Ag.SlS; itirkp Sj^pafup, beyond 
its power, T.Q,16. 
In COMP. : over, above, beyond, in defence of, for the sake of. 

1219. W6 (Hom. also inral), under (Lat. sub), by. 

1. with the QBNiTiYB : 

(a) of PLACE : tA inrb yr^s, things under the earth, P. Ap. 18*». 

Sometimes from under (chiefly poetic) : ovs inrb x^o^^ ^i^^ 

4>6<aa8e, whom he sent to light from beneath the earth, 

Hes. 27^.669. 
(6) to denote the aqent with passive verbs : ef rts iripLaTo {fvb 

rod ^iMv, if any one was honored by the people, X.£r.2,3i^ 
(c) of cause: inrb Siovs, through fear; if(l> ^5o»^s, through 

pleasure ; inr dr\oias, by detention in port, T. 2, 86. 

2. with the dative (especially poetic) : tQp inrb roaal, beneath 

their feet, II. 2, 784 ; t&p dapbprup ifv 'IXfy, of those who 
fell under (the walls of) Ilium, E. Hec. 764 ; ^^6 ry dKpo- 
ir6\i, under the acropolis, Hd. 6, 106 ; ol inrb ^aaiKei 6pt€s, 
those who are under the king, X. (7.8,1^. 

3. with the accusative t 

(a) of PLACE, under, properly to (a place) under: inch arios 
rfXaffc firj\a, he drives (drove) the sheep into (under) a cave. 



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262 SYNTAX. [1220 

/Z.4,279; ijxeee' inrb Tpolrjv, you came to Troy (Le. to 
besiege it), Od. 4, 146 ; rdde Trdm-a inrb <r^as woieiaBai, to 
bring all these under their sway, T.4,60. 
(6) of TIME, towards (entering into) : inrb vvxra, at nightfdU 
(Lat. sub noctem), T. 1, 115. Sometimes at the time of, 
during: xnrh rhv aeurfjb&p, at the time of the earthquake, 
T.2,27. 
In coMP. : under (in place or rank), underJiand, slightly, gradually 
(like BUb). 



{Improper Prepositions.) These are avcv, arep, a}(pit 
fiixph fJi-eraiv, cvc/co, ttXtJv, and <us (see 1200). All take the geni- 
tive except ok) which takes the accusative. They are never used 
in composition. 

1. &VCV, withoutj eoccept, apart from: Aveu dKoXovOov, without an 
attendant, P.5y.217*; Avev rod KaX^y 56^a¥ iveyKeiv, apart from (be- 
sides) bringing good reputation, D. 18, 89. 

2. &Tfp, without, apart from (poetic) : Arep Ziyi^j, loithout (the 
help of) Zeus, IL 16,292. 

8. &XP''> ^ntil, as far as : dypi rifs TcXeur^s, until the end, D. 18, 
179. 

4. \Uxp^, until, as far as : fUxp^ rr^s ir6Xe«s, as far as the city, 
T.6,96. 

6. fUTofir, between : /lera^^ ao4>las Kal Afxadlas, between wisdom and 
ignorance, F.Sy. 202*, 

6. IvcKa or Ivckcv (Ionic etvcxa, ctpcKcv), on account of, for the sake 
of (generally after its noun) : u;3pios ctveKo. rvifflie, on account of this 
outrage, /?. 1,214; /irjd^va KoXaKeveiv Iwica 'fu<r0oO, to flatter no one for a 
reward, X.H.b,V, Also ovvexa (ov li^xa) for Ipc/ca, chiefly in the 
dramatists. 

7. irX^v, except: xXifiv y i/wO xal aov, except myself and you, 
S. JET?. 909. 

8. MS, to, used with the accusative like cis, but only with personcU 
objects : d(/>lK€To US UcpdiKKav xal is t^¥ XaXxiSuc^p, he came to Per- 
diccas and into Chalddice, T.4,79. 

1221. 1. In general, the accusative is the case used with prepo- 
sitions to denote that towards which, over which, along which, or 
upon which motion takes place ; the genitive, to denote that from 
which anything proceeds ; the dative, to denote that in which any- 
thing takes place. 

2. It will be noticed how the peculiar meaning of each case 
often modifies the expression by which we translate a given prepo- 
sition : thus TTopa means near, by the side of; and we have irapa tov 
j^acriXco)?, from the neighborhood of the king; irapa r^ PatriXel, 
in the neighborhood of the king; Trapa tov fiaa-iXta, into the neigh' 
borhood of the king. 



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1226] USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 263 

1222. 1. The original adverbial use of the prepositions some- 
times appears when they are used without a noun ; this occurs 
especially in the older Greek, seldom in Attic prose. Thus ircp4 
round about or exceedingly, in Homer; and irpo^ 8c or kol irpo^, 
and besides; ev Sc, and among them; im 8c, and upon this; fjuera 8e, 
and next; in Herodotus. 

2. The preposition of a compound verb may also stand sepa- 
rately, in which case its adverbial force plainly appears; as iirl 
KV€<fxvi riXBtv (icv€<^s €inj\$€y)y darkness came on, II. 1,475 ; ^/aiv diro 
Aoiyov a fiv vat (dira/ivvcu), to ward off destruction from us, IL 1, 67. 

This is called tmesis, and is found chiefly in Homer and the 
early poets. 

1223. A preposition sometimes follows its case, or a verb to 
which it belongs ; as vtm diro, ttqu^os iripi. ; dXccra? Sjto (for airoki- 
cms), Oif.9,534. For the change of accent (anastrophe), see 116, 1. 

1224. N. A few prepositions are used adverbially, with a verb 
(generally iarC) upderstood; as trdpa for irdpeart, iirt and /a era 
(in Homer) for In-cari and /Acrcort. So ivt for Ivcort, and poetic 
avot, up I for avdara (dvcumy^i). For the accent, see 116, 2. 

1226. 1. Sometimes ek with the accusative, and iK or dn-o with 
the genitive, are used in expressions which themselves imply no 
motion, with reference to some motion implied or expressed in the 
context; as ai (vyoSoi €9 to Upov iyiyvovro, the synods were held 
in the temple (lit. into the temple, involving the idea of going into the 
temple to hold the synods), T.1,96; rot? cic UvXov Xrfif>$ei<Ti 
(coucorcs), like those captured (in Pylos, and brought home) from 
Pylos, ie. the captives from Pylos, Ar.i\r. 186; Bn^pTraaro kol avrd 
ra aaro ro)v oiKiSiv (vXa, even the very timbers in the houses (lit. 
from the houses) had been stolen, X.-4.2,2i'. 

2. So cv with the dative sometimes occurs with verbs of motion, 
referring to rest which follows the motion ; as cv t<J irorafju^ iveaov, 
they fell (into and remained) in the river, X. -4 5^.1,32: h yovvaxn 
. Trivre ^uavrp, she fell on Diane's knees, IL 5,370 : see S.E/. 1476. 

These (1 and 2) are instances of the so-called constructio praegnans, 

1226. N. Adverbs of place are sometimes interchanged in the 
same way (1225); as Siroi KojOiara/jLty, where we are standing, lit. 
whither having come we are standing, S.O. C.23; rk dyvoci rbv 
€K€lO€v woXefjMv Sivpo rjiovra; who does not know that the war that 
is there will come hither f D. 1, 15. 

So hOey kclL hS€v, on this side and on that, like Ik 8c^ia9 (a dextra), 
on the right. 



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264 SYNTAX. [1227 

1227. A preposition is often followed by its own case 
when it is part of a compound verb. E.g. 

UapeKOfuCwTo Ttjv 'iToAaxv, they sailed along the coast of Italy, 
T. 6, 44 ; ia^X$€ /xc, it occurred to m€, Hd. 7, 46 ; i$€X$€Tio ns 8a>/ia- 
Tdiv, let some one come forth from the house, A. Ch, 663 ; (wetrpaxrfnv 
avr(^ *Afi.<f>ura7J^, Amphisseans assisted him, T.3, 101. For other 
examples of the genitive, see 1132; for tiiose of the dative, see 
1179. 

ADVERBS. 

1228. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other 
adverbs. E.g. 

OvTia^ direvf thus he spoke; cos Bvvofuu, as I am able; irpcorov 
&7nj\0€, he first went away; to aXrfSSt^ kokov, that which is truly 
evil; avToi <r* oSi/yiyo-oucri icat fwiX.* d^ftA'cos, these will guide you even 
most gladly, A.Pr, 728. 

1229. N. For adjectives used as adverbs, see 926. For adverbs 
preceded by the article, and qualifying a noun like adjectives, see 962. 
For adverbs with the genitive or dative, see 1088 ; 1092 ; 1148 ; 1174 ; 
1176. For adverbs used as prepositions, see 1220. 



THE VERB. 

VOICES. 

ACTIVB. 

1230. In the active voice the subject is represented 
as acting; as rpeiraa to\)<; 6<l>0a\fiov^y I turn my eyes; 

Trarrjp ^&\€t rov TratSa, the father loves the child ; o 
Ttttto? rp€X€h ^he horse runs. 

1231. The form of the active voice includes most intransitive 
verbs ; as rptxia, run. On the other hand, the form of the middle 
or passive voice includes many deponent verbs which are active 
and transitive in meaning ; as PovXjopm TovrOf I want this. Some 
transitive verbs have certain intransitive tenses, which generally 
have the meaning of the middle voice, as lon/ica, / stand, tarrfVy 

1 stood, from tarrfpx, place ; others have a passive force, as <|yc<m7- 
<rav VTT avTov, they were driven out by him, T. 1, 8. 

1232. The same verb may be both transitive and intransitive ; 



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1239] THE VERB. — VOICES. 266 

83 IXawco, drive (traus. or intrans.) or march ; ix^ havty sometimes 
hold or stay (as l)(€ &;, stay now, F.Pr, 349**) ; with adverbs, fcc, as 
€v ix^iy it is well, bene se habet. So irpdmo, do, c^ (or Koxm) 
irparro), / am well (or badly) off, I do well (or badly). The intransi- 
tive use sometimes arose from the omission of a familiar object ; 
as iXaweiv (mhtov or apfw.), to drive, rcXcvrav (tov Piov), to end 
(life) or to die. Compare the English verbs drive, turn, move, in- 
crease, etc. 

PASSIVE. 

1233. In the passive voice the subject is represented 
as acted upon; as 6 7rat9 irrrb rov irarpo^ i^ikelrai^ the 
child 18 loved by the father. 

1234. The object of the active becomes the subject 
of the passive. The subject of the active, the personal 
agent, is generally expressed by utto' with the genitive 
in the passive construction. 

1236. The dative here, as elsewhere, generally expresses 
the inanimate instrument ; as PaWovrai \i$oiSj they are pelted 
by stones. 

1236. Even a genitive or dative depending on a verb in the 
active voice can become the subject of the passive ; as Kara^povctroi 
xnr ifjjov, he is despised by me (active, Karaifipovia avrov, 1102) ; 
vuTT€vcT€a vTTo Ttiiv dpxofJL€v<i)v, he is trusted by his subjects (active, 
TTMrrcixnwnv avT<o, 1160) ; SpxcvroLi vtto jSaciXcW, they are ruled by 
kings (active, j^acriXe?? apxovinv avrwv). "Yt^^^IAAo^vXcdv /jloXXov 
iwcPovXevovTo, they were more plotted against by men of other races, 
T. 1, 2 (active, €irc)9ovXcvov ovrois). 

1237. N. Other prepositions than vtto with the genitive of the 
agent, though used in poetry, are not common in Attic prose : such 
are vapa, wpoq, ck, and dird. (See 1209, c.) 

1238. 1. The perfect and pluperfect passive may have 
the dative of the agent. 

2. The personal verbal in -rcos takes the dative (1595), 
the impersonal in -rebv the dative or accusative, of the 
agent (1597). 

1239. When the active is followed by two accusatives, 
or by an accusative of a thing and a dative of a person, 
the case denoting a person is generally made the subject of 



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266 SYNTAX. [1240 

the passive, and the other (an accusative) remains un- 
changed. E.g. 

Ovhkv cEXXo &&uriccrcu StvOpanriKy a man is taught nothing else 
(in the active, ovScv SWo StSaxTKovat dvOpt»nroy), P. Men, 87«. "AXXo 
re /uH€¥ imraymtFtirB^y you will have some other greater command 
imposed on you (active, SXKo ri fjuel^ov vfiiv hnrdiowriVj they ujiU 
impose some other greater command on you), T. 1, 140. OI imreTpapr 
fiCKH T^v t^vXaKtjv, those to whom the guard has been intrusted 
(active, hnrpmiv r^v ^vAojc^ tovtol^), T. 1,126. ^i^Oepav 
irrifJLpLWOif clad in a leathern jerkin (active, cvairreiv ri rcvt, to Jit a 
thing on one), Ar. N. 72. So iKKom-caOta tov 6<f>0aX,fjLOv, to have his 
eye cut out, and dircripveaOai r^ KCt^oAi/v, to have his head cut off, 
etc., from possible active constructions cKKonreiv ri rivt, and aanrre- 
fiytw ri rivu This construction has nothing to do with that of 1058. 

The first two examples are cases of the cognate accusative (1051) 
of the thing retained with the passive, while the accusative or dative 
of the person is made the subject. 

1840. 1. A cognate accusative (1051) of the active form, or a 
neuter pronoun or adjective representing such an accusative, may 
become the subject of the passive. E.g, 

'O iciv8wo9 KivhwcvtraJL, the risk is run (active, rov kCvSwcv kivSv- 
vcvo, he runs the risk) : see F,Lach. 187^ Et ovSev '^fJudprrircLi pjot, if 
no fault has been committed by me (active, ov8cv '^paprrfKa), And. 1, 33. 

2. The passive may also be used impersonally, the cognate sub- 
ject being implied in the verb itself; as cttciS^ avrots irapco-jccv- 
acrro, when preparation had been made, T. 1, 46 ; ovre rj<r€PrjT€U cure 
f^pa\6yrp•aA (sc. ipjqi), no sacrilege has been done and no confession 
has been made {hy me). And. 1, 71. 

3. This occurs chiefly in such neuter participial expressions as 
TO. aoi^KapM jSc/Stoficva, the lives passed by you and by me, D. 18, 
265; (u ToJv ircTroXircv/AcvcDV evBwai, the accounts of their public 
acts, D. 1, 28: so ra ritr^Prfpiiva, the impious acts which have been 
done; ra KivBvvevdivTo, the risks which were run; ra 'qp,aprrf 
p,iva,the errors which have been committed, etc. Even an intransitive 
verb may thus have a passive voice. 

1241. N. Some intransitive active forms are used as passives 
of other verbs. Thus cv iroudv, to benefit, ^ iracrx'^iv, to be benefited; 
eZ Xeyciv, to praise, cZ Akovclv (poet, kkveiv), to be praised; oipctv, to 
capture, dXSivai, to be captured; SLtroKrtCvtiv, to kill, aTroAo/cricctv, to 
be killed; cicjSaXXctv, to cast out, cjorwrrciv, to be cast out; &di#ceiv, 
to prosecute, <^cvyciv, to be prosecuted (to be a defendant) ; dvoXvu, 
to acquit, d?ro^€vy(i), to be acquitted. 



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1246] VOICES. 267 

MIDDLE. 

1242. In the middle voice the subject is represented 
as acting upon himself, or in some manner which con- 
cerns himself. 

1. As acting on himself. U.ff. 

"ErpaTroKTo 7rpo9 Xj/OTCuiv, they turned themselves to piracy, T. 1, 5. 
So vavofjuu, cease (stop one's self), iretOecrSca, trust (persuade one's 
self^y (JMuvofuu, appear (show one's self). This most natural use of 
the middle is the least common. 

2. As acting for himself or with reference to hiwr 
self. Kg. 

*0 8$/i09 TiBtTox vofwv^, the people make laws for themselves, 
whereas riOrjcn vofjuov^ would properly be said of a lawgiver ; tovtov 
furaTrifiiro/ua, I send for him (to come to me) ; dTTCTrcfiTrcTO avrovs, 
he dismissed them; TrpojSaXAcrcu r^v dcnriSa, he holds his shield to 
protect himself. 

3. As acting on an object belonging to himself E.g. 
*HX^€ Xvcro/Acvos Ovyarpa, he came to ransom his (own) daughter, 

11. 1, 13. 

1243. N. The last two uses may be united in one verb, as in 
the last example. 

1244. N. Often the middle expresses no more than is implied 
in the active ; thus Tpomaov la-TacrOai, to raise a trophy for themr 
selves, generally adds nothing but the expression to what is implied 
in rpoTraiov IcrrdvaL, to raise a trophy; and either form can be 
used. The middle sometimes appears not to differ at all from the 
active in meaning ; as the poetic iSeo-^at, to see, and tSetv. 

1245. N. The middle sometimes has a causative meaning; as 
iStSaidfirfv <r€, I had you taught, Ar.iV^1338; but i^tSaidfi'qv 
means also / learned. 

This gives rise to some special uses of the middle ; as in Savcti^oi, 
lend, 8avei{ofuu, borrow (cause somebody to lend to one's self) ; fjjxrOia, 
let, fjLurBovfim, hire (cause to be let to one^s self) ; / let myself for pay 
is ifULVTov /JuuT$(o. So TLVfo, pay a penalty, rivoftm, punish (make 
another pay a penalty). 

1246. N. The middle of certain verbs is peculiar in its meaning. 
Thus, alfHo, take, aipovfuu, choose ; d^TroStSoi/uu, give back, &7ro&LBofiai, 
»eU; iTTTfa, fasten, airrofuu, cling to (fasten myself to), so l^x^fuu^ hold 
to, both with genitive ; ya/jJa rivo, marry (said of a man), yofujvfiai 



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268 SYNTAX. [1247 

Tivi, marry (said of a woman) ; ypa^co, wrUe or propose a vote, ypa^to- 
fua, indict; Tifnnpio tivi, 1 avenge a person, TLfuapov/wX riva, 1 avenge 
myself on a person or / punish a person ; </>vAarr(i) tivo, / guard 
some one, <t>vXdTTOfm[ tivo, / am on my guard against some one. 

1247. N". The passive of some of these verbs is used as a pas- 
sive to both active and middle; thus ypa<t>rjvaL can mean either 
to be written or to he indicted, atpe^vat either to he taken or to he 
chosen. 

1248. N. The future middle of some verbs has a passive sense ; 
as d8i/c(o, / wrong, ahLKqaofuax, I shall he wronged. 

TENSES. 

1249. The tenses may express two relations. They may desig- 
nate the time of an action as present, past, or future ; and also its 
character as going on, as simply taking place, or as finished. The 
latter relation appears in all the moods and in the infinitive and 
participle ; the former appears always in the indicative, and to a 
certain extent (hereafter to be explained) in some of the dependent 
moods and in the participle. 

I. TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE. 

1250. The tenses of the indicative express action as 
follows : — 

1. Present, action going on in present time : ypaffna, 1 
am writing. 

2. Imperfect, action going on in past time: lypd^, 
I was writing. 

3. Perfect, action finished in present time : ycypa^, I 
have written. 

4. Pluperfect, action finished in past time: cycypa^i/, 
I had written. 

5. Aorist, action simply taking place in past time: 

lypai/ra, / wrote. 

6. Future, future action (either in its progress or in 
its mere occurrence) : ypcu/rw, I shall write or / shaU be 
writing. 

7. Future Perfect, action to be finished in future time : 
ycypo^crai, it will have been written. 



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1267] TENSES. 

1251. This is shown in the following table : - 



269 





Present Time. 


Past Time, 


Future Time, 


Action going ) 
on / 


Fhesext 


Imperfect 


Future 


Action simply 'i 
taking place / 




AORIST 


Future 


Action \ 
flTiiRhed 1 


Perfect 


Pluperfect 


FuT. Perfect 



For the present and the aorist expressing a general truth 
(jgnomic'), see 1292. 

1252. In narration, the present is sometimes used vividly 
for the aorist. E.g. 

KcAcvci wifJulmLL £v3pas* airoo'TiWovaiv o^y koI Trcpt avrcovo 
0c/AUrro#cX^s Kpv^ itc/aitci, he bids them send men: accordingly they 
dispatch them, and Themistocles sends secretly about them, T. 1, 91. 

This is called the Historic Present. 

1253. 1. The present often expresses a castomai*y or repeated 
action in present time; as (Aro^ fih^ v8o>p, cyw 8c otvov irivm, he 
drinks boater, and I drink wine, D. 19, 46. (See 1292.) 

2. The imperfect likewise may express customary or repeated 
past action; as ScoKpan;? Zairtp iyCyvmcrKtv ovrta^ IX eye, as 
Socrates thought, so he used to speak, X. ilf. 1, 1*. 

1254. The present /acAAcu, with the present or future (seldom 
the aorist) infinitive, forms a periphrastic future, which sometimes 
denotes intention or expectation ; as fteXXei tovto irottiv (or iron/- 
crctv), he is about to do this ; d /leWei ij TroXireui {rt^^ctrOajL, if the 
constitution is to be saved, 'P.RpA12\ 

1255. The present and especially the imperfect often express 
an attempted action; as Trci^ovortv v/iias; they are trying to persuade 
you, Isae.1,26 ; ^AXowrfaov iSCSov, he offered (tried to give) Halon- 
nesus, Aesch.3,83; a lirpajCTcrcro ovk lyivtro, what was attempted 
did not happen, T. 6, 74. 

1256. The presents rjKio, 1 am come, and olxofiat, I am gone, 
have the force of perfects; the imperfects having the force of 
pluperfects. 

1257. The present clfu, 1 am going, with its compounds, has a 
future sense, and is used as a future of Ipxoiua, iXewrofmi not being 
in good use in Attic prose. In Homer e?/uu is also present in sense. 



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270 SYNTAX. [1268 

1268. The present with n-aAat or any other expression of past 
time has the force of a present and perfect combined ; as vdkai 
TWTO Xeyo), / have long been telling this (which I now tell), 

1269. 1. The aorist takes its name (dopioT09> unlimited, unquali- 
Jied) from its denoting a simple past occuirence, with none of the 
limitations (opoi) as to completion, continuance, repetition, etc., which 
belong to the other past tenses. It corresponds to the ordinary 
preterite in £nglish, whereas the Greek imperfect corresponds to 
the forms / was doing, etc. Thus, cttoici tovto is he was doing this 
or he did this habitually; itcttoii/icc tcvto is he has already done 
this; iireiroLT^Kci tcvto is he had already (at some past time) done 
this; but iTroCrfcre tovto is simply he did this, vdthout qualification 
of any kind. The aorist is therefore commonly used in rapid nar- 
ration, the imperfect in detailed description. The aorist is more 
common in negative sentences. 

2. As it is not always important to distinguish between the 
progress of an action and its mere occurrence, it is occasionally 
indifferent whether the imperfect or the aorist is used; compare 
IXcyov in T. 1,72 (end) with clirw, Vu$av, and Vuie in 1,79. The 
two tenses show different views (both natural views) of the same 
act of speaking. 

1260. The aorist of verbs which denote a state or condition may 
express the entrance into that state or condition ; as w\ovtu>, I am 
rich; i'^XovTow, I was rich; iirXovrqira, 1 became rich. So ipaari- 
Xcvcre, he became king; rjp$e, he took office (also he held office), 

1261. After ciret and cttci^;, after that, the aorist is generally to 
be translated by our pluperfect ; as CTretS^ Air^Xdov, after they had 
departed, Com'p&rQ postqiiam venit, 

1262. N. The aorist (sometimes the perfect) participle with 
ixfo may form a periphrastic perfect, especially in Attic poetry; as 
Bav/iacrai ^x® '*'*^> ^ *^^^ wondered at this, S. PA. 1362. In prose, 
lx<o with a participle generally has its common force ; as t^ wpouoa, 
Hx^i XaPiav, he has received and has the dowry (not simply he has 
taken it), D.27,17. 

1263. N. Some perfects have a present meaning ; as Ovj^a-KUVf 
to die, T€$vrjK€vai, to be dead; yCyv€<r$ajL, to become, ycyovcvai, 
to be; fUfurga-Keiv, to remind, fi€fivrj<r$ai, to remember; jcoXcTv, to 
call, KCKX^aOai, to be called. So otSa, I know, novi, and many 
others. This is usually explained by the meaning of the verb. 

In such verbs the pluperfect has the force of an imperfect; as 
^Srf, I knew. 



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1270] TENSES. 271 

1264. N. The perfect sometimes refers vividly to the future ; 
as €4 fic oMr&i^erai, 6\<o\a, if he shall perceive m«, / am ruined 
(perii), S. Ph. 75. So sometimes the pi'esent, as dTroAAvfuu, / perish/ 
(fori shall perish) y 11,12,14:; and even the aorist, as diro)Xd/Ai;v 
€t /AC Acti/^cts, I perish if you leave me, E.il/.386. 

1265. N. The second person of the future may express a per- 
mission, or even a command; as Trpa^eis olov 6,v OfkQ^, you may 
act as you please, S. 0. C956 ; Trarrois 8c tovto Spda-eiSj and by all 
means do this (you shall do this), Ar. N, 1352. So in imprecations ; 
as aTToAeior^c, to destruction with you! (lit. you shall perish). 

For the periphrastic future with fjJXXua and the infinitive, see 
1254. 

1266. N. The future perfect is sometimes merely an emphatic 
future, denoting that a future act will be immediate or decisive ; as 
^po^c, KoX ir€irp antral, speak, and it shall be (no sooner said than) 
done, Ar.P/.1027. Compare the similar use of the perfect infini- 
tive, 1274. 

1267. 1. The division of the tenses of the indicative 
into primary (or principal) and Becondary (or historical) 
is explained in 448. 

2. In dependent clauses, when the construction allows 
both subjunctive and optative, or both indicative and 
optative, the subjunctive or indicative regularly fol- 
lows primary tenses, and the optative follows second- 
ary tenses. U.g. 

UpaTTOva-iv a av jSovAoivrat, they do whatever they please; 
lirparrov a fiovXoLVTo, they did whatever they pleased. Aiyovcriv 
OTt Tovro fiovXovTai, they say that they wish for this; lAe^av otl 
TOVTO fiovXoLVTo, they said that they wished for this. 

These constructions will be explained hereafter (1431 ; 1487). 

1268. N. The gnomic aorist is a primary tense, as it refers to 
present time (1292) ; and the historic present is secondary, as it 
refers to past time (1252). 

1269. The only exception to this principle (1267, 2) occurs in 
indirect discourse, where the form of the direct discourse can always 
be retained, even after secondary tenses. (See 1481, 2). 

1270. 1. The distinction of primary and secondary tenses ex- 
tends to the dependent moods only where the tenses there keep the 
same distinction of time whicli they have in the indicative, as in 
the optative and infinitive of indirect discourse (1280). 



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272 SYNTAX. [1271 

2. An optative of futui*e time generally assimilates a dependent 
conditional relative clause or protasis to the optative when it might 
otherwise be in the subjunctive : thus we should generally have 
TTpdrroufv &v a PovXoivto, they would do whatever they (might please). 
See 1439. Such an optative seldom assimilates the subjunctive or 
indicative of a final or object clause (1362) in prose ; but oftener in 
poetry. It very rarely assimilates an indicative of indirect discourse, 
although it may assimilate an interrogative subjunctive (1358). 

II. TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. 
A. Not in Indirect Discourse. 

1271. In the subjunctive and imperative, and also in 
the optative and infinitive when they are not in indirect 
discourse (1279), the tenses chiefly used are the present 
and aorist. 

1272. 1. These tenses here differ only in this, that the 
present expresses an action in its duration, that is, as 
going on or repeated, while the aorist expresses simply its 
occurrence^ the time of both being otherwise precisely the 
same. E.g, 

*Eav iroiy rduroy if he shall he doing this, or if he shall do this 
(habitually), iav woirjay toOto, (simply) if he shall do this; cc 
V 01 oCrf TovTo, if he should be doing this, or if he should do this 
(habitually), ci iroirjoeie tovto, (simply) if he should do this; voiei 
TovTO, do this (habitually), TroCtfo-ov rovro, (simply) do this, Outm 
viKija-aifii T cyco kol vofii^oC/Jirfv (ro^09» on (his condition may 
I gain the victory (aor.) and be thought (pres.) wise, Ar.N.SQO. 
BovXeroi tovto iroteiv, he wishes to be doing this or to do Ais (habit- 
ually), /SovXerai rovro iroirjaai, (simply) he wishes to do this. 

2. This is a distinction entirely unlmown to the Latin, which has 
(for example) only one form, si facial, corresponding to ci woioiii 
and ci iroii;(rci€v. 

1278. The perfect, which seldom occurs in these con- 
structions, represents an action as finished at the time at 
which the present would represent it as going on. E.g. 

AeSoiKa fitf XrjOrjv vcTronJKtf, I fear lest it may prove to ham 
caused forgetfulness (/xrf Trocg would mean lest it may cause), D.19,3. 
MrjSevl Porfieiv os &v /irf wporepo^ ffePorfOtfKta^ vfuv ^, to help no 
one who shall not previously have helped you (o^ &v /irj . , . PotfSf 
would mean who shall not previously help you), D. 19, 16. Ovk 4v &A 



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1279] TENSES. 273 

rovTO y tltv ovk €v6v^ ScScokotcs, they would not (on enquiry) 
prove to have failed to pay immediately on this account (with 3i3oi€v 
this would mean they would not fail to pay), D.30,10. Ov fiovXcv- 
€(r$ai Htl wfKL, aXX.a fiefiovXevcrSai, it is no longer time to he 
deliberating^ hut (it is time) to have finished deliherating, P. Cr.46*. 

1274. N. The perfect imperative generally expresses a command 
that something shall be decisive And permanent ; as ravra tlprfcrBia, 
let this have heen said (i.e. let what has heen said he final), or let this 
(which follows) he said once for all; fi^xpi toOSc <apLcr6<ii v/xcov ^ 
Ppahrnj^, at this point let the limit of your sluggishness he fixed, T. 1, 71. 
Tliis is confined to the third person singular passive; the rare 
second person singular middle being merely emphatic. The active 
is used only when the perfect has a present meaning (1263). 

1275. N. The perfect infinitive sometimes expresses decision or 
permanence (like the imperative, 1274), and sometimes it is merely 
more emphatic than the present; as eTirovTr^v Ovpav iceicXcto-^ai, 
they ordered the gate to he shut (and kept so), X. H, 5, 4''. ^HAavvcv 
iirl Tous Mei/an/09, wot* eicctVov$ cKTrCTrA^x^*** '^^ Tpi\€.iv lirl ra 
OB-Ao, so that they were (once for all) thoroughly frightened and ran to 
arms, X.-4.1,5". The regular meaning of this tense, when it is 
not in indirect discourse, is that given in 1278. 

1276. The future infinitive is regularly used only to 
represent the future indicative in indirect discourse (1280). 

1277. It occurs occasionally in other constructions, in 
place of the regular present or aorist, to make more 
emphatic a future idea which the infinitive receives from 
the context. E.g, 

*^^rfirj(rav twv McyapccDv vaval cr^a? fvfi7rpoir€/A^€iv, they 
asked the Megarians to escort them with ships, T. 1,27. Ovk airoKio- 
Xvcrctv Svvaroi Jrrcs, not heing ahle to prevent, T.3,28. In all such 
cases the future is strictly exceptional (see 1271). 

1278. One regular exception to the principle just stated is 
found in the periphrastic future (1254). 

B. In Indirect Discoubse. 

1279. The term indirect discourse includes all clauses depending 
on a verb of saying or thinking which contain the thoughts or words 
of any person stated indirectly, i.e, incorporated into the general 
structure of the sentence. It includes of course all indirect quota- 
tions and questions. 



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274 SYNTAX. [1280 

1280. When the optative and infinitive stand in indirect 
discourse, each tense represents the corresponding tense of 
the same verb in the direct discourse. E.g, 

^Acycv ort ypd4>0L, he said that he was writing (he said ypa^ot, 
1 am writing) \ IXcyev ori ypdipoi, he said that he would write (he 
said ypa^ft), I will write) ; iXcyev on ypa^cicv, he said that he had 
written (he said cy/oo^); lAcycv ori yeypa<^(i)s eii/, he said that 
he had already toritten (he said yeypa<^). *Hp€To d ris iyuciv ctiy 
a-o<ti<iiT€poq, he asked whether any one was wiser than I (he asked com 
Tis;), P.i4i?.21*. 

^hfol ypdif>€iVfhe says that he is writing (he says ypasfno) ; ^ifffn 
ypdij/eiVfhe says that he will write (ypa^ai) ; tfyrfoi ypd\l/atj he says 
that he wrote (eypo^); <t>rf(n y€ypa<^€vat, he says that he has 
written (yeypaffKi), For the participle, see 1288. 

EIttcv ore dvSpa dyot, ov ctp^ca Scoi, he said that he was bringing a 
man whom it was necessary to confine (he said dvhpa ctyco ov dp^ 
Set), X.H^5,4*. 'EXoytifovro c5s, ci /a^ /iaxotvro, dirocrri^crotvro 
at 7roA.c49, ^A^y considered thaty if they should not fight, the cities would 
revolt (they thought iav prf fiax^M^^ dirocmycrovTot, if we do 
not fight, they will revolt), ibid, 6, 4:^. 

1281. N. These constructions are explained in 1487, 1494, and 
1497. Here they merely show the force of the tenses in indirect 
discourse. Compare especially the difference between ifnjal ypdr 
<l>€iv and ifirfGl ypdi/rai above with that between fiovX/irai ir oielv 
and Povkerai TroLrjaai under 1272. Notice also the same distinc- 
tion in the present and aorist optative. 

1282. N. The construction of 1280 is the strictly proper use of 
the future infinitive (1276 ; 1277). 

1283. .N. The future perfect infinitive is occasionally used 
here, to express future completion ; as FOfu!£erc iv rffie tig "i/i^ 
ipk KaraKeKo^eaOai, believe that on that day 1 shall have been 
already (i.e. shall he the same as) cut in pieces, X.il.1,6^*. 

1284. N. The future perfect participle very rarely occurs in a 
similar sense (see T.7,25). 

1285. 1. The present infinitive may represent the imperfect as 
well as the present indicative; as tiw5 cvxas viroAa/AjSavcT* cvx*- 
(T^ai rov ^(Ximrov or Icnrevicv; what prayers do you suppose Philip 
made when he was pouring libations? (i.e. rim? rfixtro;), D. 19,130. 
The perfect infinitive likewise represents both perfect and pluper- 
fect. In such cases the time of the infinitive must always be 
shown by the context (as above by or' ^(nrevSev). See 1289. 

2. For the present optative representing the imperfect, see 1488. 

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TENSES. 276 

1286. Verbs of hoping^ expecting, promising^ swearing, and a few 
others, form an intermediate class between verbs which take the 
infinitive in indirect discourse and those which do not (see 1279) ; 
and though they regularly have the future infinitive (1280), the 
present and aorist are allowed. E.g. 

'HAiri^ov fJMxrp^ ccrccr^ai, they expected that there would be a 
battle, T.4,71 ; but a oSiroTt rfXirurev Tra^ctv, what he never expected 
to suffer, E.fr.F.746. Xenophon has vttco^cto firfxavviv Trapi^tiv, 
C 6, 1^, and also vTrccrxero /JovXcvo-ac^ai, -4.2,3**. 'O/tooroKrcs 
ravrcus ^/i/xcvctv, having sworn to abide by these, X.^T. 5,3*®; but 
OfioaajL elvat fikv r^v ap)^ koiv^v, iravTaq 8* vfuv diroSovvai r^ 
XUipav, to swear that the government should bfi common, but that all 
should give up the land to you, D. 23, 170. 

In English we can say 1 hope (expect or promise) to do this, like 
iroceiv or irot^o-cu ; or 1 hope I shall do this, like ttoii/o'civ. 

1287. N. The future optative is never used except as the 
representative of the future indicative, either in indirect discourse 
(see 1280), or in the construction of 1372 (which is governed by 
the principles of indirect discourse). Even in these the future 
indicative is generally retained. See also 1503. 

ni. TENSES OF THE PARTICIPLE. 

1288. The tenses of the participle generally express the 
same time as those of the indicative ; but they are present, 
past, or future relatively to the time of the verb with which 
they are connected. E.g. 

*AfiapTaiv€i tovto irouov, he errs in doing this ; '^fidprave tovto 
vouoVf he erred in doing this; dfiaprrj O'er at tovto wouaVf he will 
err in doing this, (Here ttouuv is first present, then past, then 
future, absolutely; but always present to the verb of the sentence.) 
So in indirect discourse: oT&i tovtov ypd<f>ovTa (ypat^avra, 
ypd^ovTO, or ycypa^ora), / know thai he is writing (that he 
wrote, will write, or has written). Ov ttoXXxh. ffKuvovrai cX^dvTcg, 
not many appear to have gone (on the expedition), T.1,10. (For 
other examples, see 1588.) 

Tavra cittovtcs, cLtt^X^ov, having said this, they departed* *lEnrQ- 
vtaav T0V9 clptfKOTa^, they praised those who had (already) spoken, 
Tovto ttoii/o-cdv IpxtTox, he is coming to do this; tovto ttoii/o-wv 
^A0cv, he came to do this, ^AttcX^c ravra XafitLv, take this and be off 
(XafiiUxv being past to oEircA^c, but absolutely future). 

1289. The present may here also represent the imperfect ; as 



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276 SYNTAX. [1290 

olSa KOKCtVo) cn»><f>povovvT€f core "SiiaKparei (rvvrfcmjv, I know that 
they both were temperate as long as they associated with Socrates (i.e. 
i<r(oil>pov€CT7iv), X. M. 1, 2^8. (See 1285.) 

1290. N. The aorist participle in certain constructions (gen- 
erally with a verb in the aorist) does not denote time past with 
reference to the leading verb, but expresses time coincident with 
that of the verb. See examples in 1563, 8 ; 1585 ; 1586. See Greek 
Moods, §§ 144-150. 

IV. GNOMIC AND ITERATIVE TENSES. 

1291. The present is the tense commonly used in 
Greek, as in English, to denote a general truth or an 
habitual action. E.g. 

Tlktcl tol KOpos vfipiv, orav KaK^ oX^os hrrjTai, satiety begets 
insolence, whenever prosperity follows the wicked, Theog.153. 

1292. In animated language the aorist is used in this 
sense. This is called the gnomic aorist^ and is generally 
translated by the English present. E.g. 

lAv ns TOVTinv TL TnipaPoLvrj, ^rjfuav avrois iwiOecrav, i.e. they 
impose a penalty on all who transgress, X. Cl,22. Mt* ^ft^ tw 
fuv KaO€i\€v vij/oOev, rov 8* ^p' avo), one day (often) brings down 
one man from a height and raises another high, E. frag. 424. 

1293. N. Here one case in past time is vividly used to repre- 
sent all possible cases. Examples containing such adverbs as 
iroXKoKL^, often, rfirq, qlready, ovtto), never yet, illustrate the construc- 
tion; as d,6vfJMvvT€^ avSpes outto) rpOTroMv ia-rrjcrav, disheartened 
m£n never yet raised (i.e. never raise) a trophy, P. Critias, 108*. 

1294. N. An aorist resembling the gnomic is found in Homeric 
similes; as i^piire 8* ws ore rts 8pvs "^piirtv, and he fell, cu when 
some oak falls (lit. as when an oak once fell), //.13,389. 

1295. The perfect is sometimes gnomic, like the aorist. 
E.g.^ 

To Sk fiTf ifiwo^v &vavTaywvi(rr<^ cvvoea rcTLfiriTai, but those who 
are not before men's eyes are honored with a good wiU which has no 
rivalry, T.2,45. 

1296. The imperfect and aorist are sometimes used with 
the adverb 3v to denote a customary action. E.g. 

Ati/pcorcov Slv avrovs ri Xvyouev, I used to ask them (/ would 
often ask them) what they said, P.^j9.22*'. UoXXjoxl^ '^Kovaafxev 
av vfia9} we used often to hear you, Ar. Lys. 611. 



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1803] THE PARTICLE "AN. 277 

1297. N. This iterative construction must be distinguished 
from that of the potential indicative with av (1335). It is equiva- 
lent to our phrase he would often do this for he used to do this, 

1298. N. The Ionic has iterative forms in -o-kov and -<TKOfirfv 
in both imperfect and aorist. (See 778.) Herodotus uses these 
also with av, as above (1296). 

THE PARTICLE 'AN. 

1299. The adverb av (epic «^, Doric ko) has two 
distinct uses. 

1. It may be joined to all the secondary tenses of the 
indicative (in Homer also to the future indicative), 
and to the optative, infinitive, or participle, to denote 
that the action of the verb is dependent on some cir- 
cumstances or condition, expressed or implied. Here 
it belongs strictly to the verb. 

2. It is joined regularly to et, z/, to all relative and 
temporal words, and sometimes to the final particles w, 
o7ra>9, and o<f>pa^ when these are followed by the sub- 
junctive. Here, although as an adverb it qualifies the 
verb, it is always closely attached to the particle or 
relative, with which it often forms one word, as in eay, 
orav^ eireiidv. 

1300. N. There is no English word which can translate c[v. 
In its first use it is expressed in the would or should of the verb 
(fiovXoiTo 3.V, he would wish; €\oCfirp^ av, / should choose). In its 
second use it generally has no force which can be made apparent 
in English. 

1301. N. The following sections (1302-1309) enumerate the 
various uses of Sv : when these are explained more fully elsewhere, 
reference is made to the proper sections. 

1302. The present and perfect indicative never take 3v. 

1303. The future indicative sometimes takes 3v (or kc) 
in the early poets, especially Homer ; very rarely in Attic 
Greek. E,g, 

Kai K€Ti,q £&* ip€€ij and some one will (or may) thus speak, 11,^, 
176 ; ^[AAm oi kc /ic Tifiiiaovin, others who will {perchance) honor me^ 



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278 SYIJTAX. [1804 

//. 1, 174. The fntnre with Sv aeema to be an intermediate form 
between the simple future, will honor, and the optative with av, 
would honor. One of the few examples in Attic prose is in 
P.i4p.29«. 

1304. 1. The past tenses of the indicative (generally 
the imperfect or aorist) are used with av in a potential 
sense (1335), or in the apodosis of an unfulfilled condition 
(1397). E,g. 

OvSky &v Kojcbv ^iroci/aav, they could (or would) have done no 
harm; ^XjSev Av d ckcXcvcjo, he would have come if 1 had commanded 
him. 

2. The imperfect and aorist indicative with 3y may also 
have an iterative sense. (See 1296.) 

1305. 1. In Attic Greek the subjunctive is used with Sv 
only in the dependent constructions mentioned in 1299, 2, 
where 5v is attached to the introductory particle or relative 
word. 

See 1367; 1378; 1382; 1428,2. 

2. In epic poetry, where the independent subjunctive 
often has the sense of the future indicative (1355), it may 
take K€ or &/, like the future (1303). E,g. 

El 8c ICC ixri Scin^ortv, cycu Sc k€v avros cA.a)/uia-i, and if he does noi 
give her up, 1 will take her myself, IL 1, 324. 

1306. The optative with av has a potential sense 
(1327), and it often forms the apodosis of a condition 
expressed by the optative with eU denoting what would 
happen if the condition should be fulfilled (1408). 

1307. N. ThQ future optative is never used with Slv (1287). 

1308. 1. The present and aorist (rarely the perfect) 
infinitive and participle with Sv represent the indicative 
or optative with Sv] each tense being equivalent to the 
corresponding tense of one of these moods with av, — the 
present representing also the imperfect, and the perfect also 
the pluperfect (1285; 1289). 

2. Thus the present infinitive or participle with 5v may 
represent either an imperfect indicative or a present opta- 
tive with Sy\ the aorist, either an aorist indicative or an 



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1311] THE PARTICLE 'AN. 279 

aorist optative with av; the perfect, either a pluperfect 
indicative or a perfect optative with 3y. E.g. 

{Pres.) <h^iv avrovs i\€v$€pov^ av elvai, el tovto iirpa^aVf he 
says that they would {now) he free (^crav av), if they had done this; 
itnfnv avrov9 iX^vOipovs Av cTvai, ci tovto irpditiav, he says that 
they would (hereafter) be free (elcv av), if they should do this, OlSa 
avrovs ikevOipovs &v ovras, ci tovto lirpa^av, I know that they 
would (now) he free (§crav av), if they had done this ; of&i avrous 
eXcv^cpovs &v ovras, d ravra irpafciav, / krww that they would 
(hereafter) he free (cicv iv), if they should do this. IIoAA* av ^x*^ 
€T€p* € ITT CIV, although I might (= exoLfu av) say many other things, 
D. 18, 258. 

(Aor,) ^oortv avrov iX.$€iv Av (or oTSa avrov iXOovra &v), d 
tovto iyivcTo, they say (or 1 know) that he would have come (y\$€v 
av), if this had happened; kIxutIv avrov iXOelv av (or oT&x avrov 
cA^ovra Av), ci tovto ycvotro, they say (or / know) that he would 
come (liXBoi Sv), if this should happen. *P^&a}s Av d^c^cts, irpocC- 
XxTo d'TToOaveiv, whereas he might easily have been acquitted (d^ct^ 
av), he preferred to die, X. M. 4, 4*. 

(Perf) Ei fitf Tas operas CKCtvas rrapia-xovro, iravTa ravff vtto rojv 
Papfiap^av av caAoyKcvai (^i/o-eeev dv rii), had they not exhibited 
those exploits of valor, we might say that all this would have heen cap- 
tured by the barbarians (coAcokci dv), D. 19, 312. Ovk dv lyyov/uuu 
avTOVi hCicqv 6£uiv BeSwKevai, ti avrcov KaTa\l/rf<l>{a-awO€, I do not think 
they would (then, in the future, prove to) have suffered proper punish- 
ment (8c3(tfKor€9 dv e7cv), if you should condemn them, L.27,9. 

The context must decide in each case whether we have the equiva- 
lent of the indicative or of the optative with dv. In the examples 
given, the form of the protasis generally settles the question. 

1309. The infinitive with dv is used chiefly in indirect dis- 
course (1494) ; but t!ie participle- with dv is more common in other 
constructions (see examples above). 

As the early poets who use the future indicative with dv (1303) 
seldom use this construction, the future infinitive and participle 
with dv are very rare. 

1310. When dv is used with the subjunctive (as in 
1299, 2), it is generally separated from the introductory 
word only by monosyllabic particles like /xcv, 8c, re, ydp, etc. 

1311. When dv is used with the indicative or optative, or in 
any other potential construction, it may either be placed next to 
its verb, or be attached to some other emphatic word (as a nega- 



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280 SYNTAX. [1312 

tive or interrogative, or an important adverb); as raxMrr' av re 
voXiv 01 TOiovTOL cTcpovs TrcMTavTCs aTTokiaciaVf such meriy if they 
should get others to follow them, would very soon destroy a slate, 
T.2,63. 

1312. In a long apodosis 3y may be used twice or even 
three times with the same verb. E.g. 

OvK Av riyuxrff avrov kSlv imSpafielvy do you not think that he 
would even have rushed thither f D.27,56. In T.2,4:l, av is used 
three times with irap€)(€(rBai. 

1818. "kv may be used elliptically with a verb under- 
stood. E.g. 

01 oiKiraJL pcyKOvaiv oAA' ovk av wpo tw (sc. IppeyKov), the 
slaves are snoring; hut in old times they wouldn't have done so, 
Ar. N. 5. So in <f>oPovfi€vo^ iairep &v el Trais, fearing like a child 
(Ja(Tirep Av €^o^ctTO d ^ais ^v), P. G^.479». 

1814. When an apodosis consists of several co-ordinate 
verbs, Sv generally stands only with the first. E.g. 

OvScv Av huiifiopov Tov erepov iroiot, dAA' iirl ravrov loiev afijff>6- 
repot, he would do nothing different from the other, but both would aim 
at the same object {av belongs also to toLev), F. Rp. 3Q0^, 

1816. "Av never begins a sentence or a clause. 

1316. N. The adverb rdxa, quickly, soon, readily, is often pre- 
fixed to Sv, in which case rax* ov is nearly equivalent to uros, 
perhaps. The 5v here always belongs in its regular sense (1299,1) 
to the verb of the sentence; as rax' ^v iXOoi, perhaps he would 
come ; rax °-^ ?A^cv> perhaps he would (or might) have come. 

THE MOODS. 

1317. The indicative is used in simple, absolute asser- 
tions, and in questions which include or concern such 
assertions; as ypd^et^ he writes; eypayjrevy he wrote; 
ypdylrei^ he will write; yey pa<f>ev^ he has written; ri 
eypdyfrere ; what did you write f eypa^^e tovto ; did he 
write this? 

1318. The indicative has a tense to express every variety 
of time which is recognized by the Greek verb, and thus 
it can state a supposition as well as make an assertion 
in the past, present, or future. It also expresses certain 



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1322] THE MOODS. 281 

other relations which in other languages (as in Latin) are 
generally expressed by a different mood. The following 
examples will illustrate these uses : — 

Et TovTo dAi7^€$ co-Ti, x°^P^f if ^^^ ^ ^^^^i ^ rejoice (1390) ; el 
€ypa\l/€Vf^\6ov avt if he had written^ I should have come (1397) ; 
ci ypa^ci, yvtaarofuu, if he shall write (or if he writes) ^ 1 shall know 
(1405). *E?rt/xcA.ctr(u ottcds nnyro ycvijo-crai, he takes care that this 
shall happen (1372). Acyet ori rovro iroitl, he says that he is doing 
this; sometimes, cwrcv otl tovto ^otc?, he said that he was doing this (he 
said iroiSi). (1487.) Et^c /x€ ^KreivaS) ws fi'qTrorc rovro iiroCrfaa^ 
O that thou hadst killed m«, that 1 might never have done this I (1511 ; 
1371). Et^c Tovro dAiy^h ^ v, that this were true I (1511). 

1319. N. These constructions are explained in the sections 
referred to. Their variety shows the impossibility of including 
all the actual uses even of the indicative under any single funda- 
mental idea. 

1320. The various uses of the subjunctive are shown 
by the following examples : — 

"liafiev, let us go (1344). Mtf Oav/xdarfrt, do not wonder 
(1348). Tt uma; what shall I say f (1358). Ov firj tovto ycviyrai, 
this (surely) will not happen (1360). OiSk t^fuu (Homeric), nor 
shall I see (1366). 

*Epx€Tat iMi rovro ISrff he is coming that he may see this (1365) ; 
<l>oPelrajL fi^ rovro ycviyrai, he fears lest this may happen (1378). 
*iBav ikOrjf rovro Tronyo-o), if he comes (or if he shall come), I shall do 
this (1403) ; cw ti? I^XOrf, rovro woua, if any one (ever) comes, 1 
(always) do this (1393,1). "Orav i\$rj, rovro iron^ia, when he comes 
(or when he shall come), I shall do this (1434); Srav ns i^Otf, 
rovro iroula, when any one comes, I (always) do this (1431, 1). 

1321. N. The subjunctive, in its simplest and apparently most 
primitive use, expresses simple futurity, like the future indicative ; 
this is seen in the Homeric independent construction, t^fjuu, I 
shall see; dtrriari ns, one will say. Then, in exhortations and pro- 
hibitions it is still future ; as 7a)/xcv, let us go ; fitf iron^<T7jr€ rovro, 
do not do this. In final and object clauses it expresses a future 
purpose or a future object of fear. In conditional and conditional 
relative sentences it expresses a future supposition; except in 
general conditions, where it is indefinite (but never strictly pres- 
ent) in its time. 

1322. The various uses of the optative are shown by 
the following examples : — 



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282 SYNTAX. [1828 

Evrv^OiiTSf may you be fortunate; fuj yivoiro, may it not be 
done; d$€ firj dvokoivrot that they may not perish (1507). 
'^XBoi av, he may go, or he might go (1327). 

*HA^cv Iva TovTo i Sot, Ac came that he might see this (1365); 
€<^^etro fly TOVTO yivoiTO, he feared lest this should happen (1378). 
El I A 001, TOVT av iroiijaaifiiy if he should come, 1 should do this 
(1408); €l Tts ikOoi, tovt ivoiow, if any one (ever) came, 1 
(always) did this (1393,2). 'Ore i\$oi^ tovt' &v ironjaaLfit, 
whenever he should come (at any time when he should come), I should 
do this (1436) ; ore Tts iXOoi^ tovt liroLovv, whenever any one came, 
I (always) did this (1431, 2). 'ETrc/jicXctTo ottws tovto yev^aoiTo, 
he took care that this should happen (1372). Elircv oTt tovto woioirf 
(ironja-Qi or iroiija-tie), he said that he was doing (would do or Jiad 
done) this (1487). 

1323. N. The optative in many of its uses is a vaguer and 
less distinct form of expression than the subjunctive, indicative, 
or imperative, in constructions of the same general character. 
This appears especially in its independent uses ; as in the Homeric 
'EA.en/v ayoiTo, he may take Helen away, 7/. 4, 19 (see yvvfum 
ay iarOo), 7/.3,72, referring to the same tiling, and koi mri rtg 
eiTrrfiriv, and sometime one will say, 1303, above); loLfxev, may we 
go (cf. t(i)/xcv, let us go); fitf ytvoiTo, may it not happen (cf. fjoi 
yevrjTcu, let it not happen) ; €X.oito Siv (Hom. sometimes ^Xmto alone), 
he wopld take (cf. Hom. IAi/tou sometimes with kc, he wiU take). 
So in future conditions; as ci ykvovro, if it should happen (cf. coy 
yhhtfrai, if it shall happen). In other dependent clauses it is gen- 
erally a correlative of the subjunctive, sometimes of the indicative; 
here it represents a dependent subjunctive or indicative in its 
changed relation when the verb on which it depends is changed 
from present or future to past time. The same change in relation 
is expressed in English by a change from shall, will, may, do, is, 
etc. to should, would, might, did, was, etc. To illustrate these last 
relations, compare ipx^Toi iva i8y, <^/3ctTai /xrj yhrrfrax, lay ns 2X% 
TOUTO irouii, iwifJueXtiTai &jr<ai tovto ycvqatTajL, and Xiyu &n tovto 
TTOuij with the corresponding forms after past leading verbs given 
in 1322. 

For a discussion of the whole relation of the optative to the 
subjunctive and the other moods, and of the original meaning of 
the subjunctive and optative, see Moods and Tenses, pp. 371-389. 

1324. The imperatiye is used to express commands 
and prohibitions; as tovto wolei, do this; /tt^ <f>evy€T€^ 
do not fly. 



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1827] THE MOODS. 283 

1326. The infinitive, which is a verbal noun, and the 
participle and the verbal in -rm, which are verbal adjec- 
tives, are closely connected with the moods of the verb in 
many constructions. 

1326. The following sections (1327-1615) treat of all 
constructions which require any other form of the finite 
verb than the indicative in simple assertions and questions 
(1317). The infinitive and participle are included here 
so far as either of them is used in indirect discourse, in 
protasis or apodosis, or after dxrrc (cos, ^<^' <^ or ^^' <^rc) and 
wpiv. These constructions are divided as follows : — 

I. Potential Optative and Indicative with 3y. 
II. Imperative and Subjunctive in commands, exhorta- 
tions, and prohibitions. — Subjunctive and Indica- 
tive with fjLij or firf ov in cautious Assertions. — "Oirws 
and o9rcii9 fiTJ with the independent Future Indicative. 
III. Independent Homeric Subjunctive, like Future In- 
dicative. — Interrogative Subjunctive. 
IV. Ov fxrj with Subjunctive and Future Indicative. 
V. Final and Object Glauses with im, cos, oircos, 6<l>pa, 
and firj, 
VI. Conditional Sentences. 
VII. Eelative and Temporal Sentences, including consecu- 
tive sentences with oxrrc etc. 
VIII. Indirect Discourse or Oratio Obliqua, 
IX. Causal Sentences. 
X. Expressions of a Wish. 

I. POTENTIAL OPTATIVE AND INDICATIVE WITH &v. 
POTENTIAL OPTATIVE. 

1327. The optative with av expresses a future action as 
dependent on circumstances or conditions. Thus i\Ooi av 
is he may go, he might (could or would) go, or he would be 
likely to go, as opposed to an absolute statement like he will 
go. E,g, 

*Eti yof> Kfv dXviaifitv KaKov ^/mp, for (perhaps) we may still 
escape the evil day, Orf.10,269. Ilav yap &v vvBoio fwvt for you 



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284 STNTAX. [1828 

can learn anything you please from mc, A. Pr. 617. Ti rov^ h» 
tliroi^ AXo; rohaX else could you say of this man? S.^n.646. Ovic 
&v \€i<f>0€irfv, I would not be left behind (in any case"), Hd.4,97. 
Ais €s rov avrov wora/xov ovk av ifJiPairjs, you cannot (could not) 
step twice into the same river, P. Cra/. 402*. 'HSccos Av ipoifiriv 
AcTTTtnyv, / would gladly ask (/ should like to ask) Leptines, D. 20, 
129. Ilot ovv Tpairoifieff &v €ti,; in what other direction can we 
(could we) possibly turnf P.^u.290*. So fiovXjOLp.rp^ av, velim, I 
should like : cf . iPovXofirp^ dv, vellem (1339). 

1328. The optative thus used is called potential, and corre- 
sponds generally to the English potential forms with may, can, 
might, could, would, etc. It is equivalent to the Latin potential 
subjunctive, as dicas, credas, cernas, putes, etc., you may say, believe, 
perceive, think, etc. The limiting condition is generally too indefi- 
nite to be distinctly present to the mind, and can be expressed 
only by words like perhaps, possibly, or probably, or by such vague 
forms as if he pleased, if he should try, if he could, if there should be 
an opportunity, etc. Sometimes a general condition, like in any 
possible case, is felt to be implied, so that the optative with av 
hardly differing from an absolute future; as in ovk Av fjLeSeifirjv 
Tw Opovov, 1 will not (would never) give up the throne, Ar./2.830. 
See the examples in 1330. 

1829. The potential optative can express every degree 
of potentiality from the almost absolute future of the last 
example to the apodosis of a future condition expressed by 
the optative with ct (1408), where the form of the condi- 
tion is assimilated to that of the conclusion. The inter- 
mediate steps may be seen in the following examples : — 

Ovk Av StKatW h KaKov iricroifxi rt, / could not justly faU into 
any trouble, S.-4n.240, where ^kcucds points to the condition if Jus- 
tice should be done, Ovrc ia-OLOva-i. ?rAcai) rj 8iWvrai <f>€pav 8 tap- 
pay etc v yap av, nor do they eat more than they can carry, for (if 
they did) they would burst, X,C.8,2^\ where d icrOCoiev is implied 
by the former clause. 

1880. N. The potential optative of the second person may 
express a mild command or exhortation ; as x«>po?s ^^ eUrfo, you 
may go in, or go in, S. Ph, 674 ; kXvoi^ Av ^S?;, hear me now, S. EL 037, 
See i328. 

1881. N. The potential optative may express what may here- 
after prove to be true or to have been true; as ij ifirj ((To^ta) 
fJMvkrf Ti9 Av €lrf, my wisdom may turn out to be of a mean kind, 



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1337] THE MOODS. 285 

P.5y.l75®; ttou S^t' Slv ctcv oi ^evoi; where may the strangers bef 
(i.e. wJiere is it likely to prove that they are) f S.^/.1450; etrjo'av 8* 
av ofJroi K/j^cs, and these would probably prove to be (or to have been) 
Cretans f Hd.1,2; avroi Sk ovk av ttoAAo* ctrjarav, and these (the 
islands) wovld not prove to be many, T. 1, 9. 

1332. N. Occasionally av is omitted with the potential optative, 
chiefly in Homer; as av tl KaKdrrcpov aXko TrdOotfii, I could suffer 
nothing else that is worse, IL 19, 321. 

1333. I^. The Attic poets sometimes omit 3iv after such indefi- 
nite expressions as lo-rtv oorts, lortv ottcds, lortv ottw, etc. ; as lor* 
€jvv OTTCD? "AXkt^otis €§ jrjpa^ fi6\oL; is it possible then that Alcestis 
can come to old agef E.^Z.52; so 113, and A.Pr.292. 

1334. N. For the potential optative in Homer referring to 
past time, see 1399. 

POTENTIAL INDICATIVE. 

1336. The past tenses of the indicative with av express 
a past action as dependent on past circumstances or condi- 
tions. Thus, while yXOev means he went, TJXOev av means he 
would have gone (under some past circumstances). 

1336. This is called the potential indicative ; and it probably 
arose as a past form of the potential optative, so that, while eXBoi 
av meant originally he may go or he would be likely to go, ^XOev av 
meant he may have gone or he would have been likely to go» It is the 
equivalent of the Latin forms like diceres, you would have said, 
crederes, you would have believed, cerneres, putares, etc., which are 
past potential forms corresponding to dicas, credas, cernas, putes, 
etc. (1328). Thus putet and putaret are equivalent to otoiro av, 
he would be likely to think, and ^cro av, he would have been likely to 
think. 

1337. The potential indicative sometimes expresses (in its 
original force) what would have been likely to happen, i.e. might have 
happened (and perhaps did happen) with no reference to any 
definite condition. E.g. 

"Ytto k€v TaXa(ri<l>povd irtp hw €,l\€v,fear might have seized (i.e. 
would have been likely to seize) even a man of stout heart, //.4,421. 
*HX^€ TOVTO r<Avti^ Td\ Av opy^ PuwOiv, this disgrace may per- 
haps have come from violence of wrath, S. 0. T. 523. *Ev ravrry r^ 
'fjXiKiq, XcyovTCs wpoi vfios iv y av fuxkurTa CTricPTcvcarc, talking 
to you at that age at which you would have been most likely to put 
trust in them, F.Ap.lS^. 



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286 SYNTAX. [1838 

1338. Generally, however, the potential indicative implies a 
reference to some circumstances different from the real ones, so 
that ^\$€y av commonly means he would have gone (Jf something had 
not been as it was). The unreal past condition here may be as 
vague and indefinite as the future condition to which the potential 
optative refers (1328). E.g, 

Ov yap K€v &vvdfi€ar$a (impf.) ^paet>v aTrtixraxr^ai XiBov, for 
we could not have moved the stone from the doorway , Od, 9, 304. Com- 
pare ovSkv ^v KOKov iroiT^acuLv, they could do no harm (if they shotdd 
try), with ovSkv Av KaKov iiroCtfo-av, they could have done no harm 
(if they had tried). Tovtov rk &v aoi rav&po^ ofuuvioy evpiOrf; 
who could have been found better than this man t S.Aj, 119. 'Oi/f€ §k, 
KOI ra$ x^H^^ ^^'^ &v Ka$€(ap<av, it was late, and they would not have 
seen the show of hands, X. -ff. 1.7^. IlotW Av ipywv dvco-nyo-ay; 
from what labors would they have shrunk f 1. 4. 83. 

1339. When no definite condition is understood with the poten- 
tial indicative, the imperfect with av is regularly past, as it always 
is in Homer (1398). See the examples in 1338. 

The imperfect with Siv referring to present time, which is com- 
mon in apodosis after Homer (1397), appears seldom in purely 
potential expression, chiefly in ipovXofi-qv av, vellem, / should wish, 
I should like (which can mean also 1 should have wished) ; as 
iPovXofiTjv &v avrovs 6XriO^ Xeyctv, / should like it if they spoke 
the truth, L.12,22. 

1340. The potential indicative may express every degree 
of potentiality from that seen in 1337 to that of the apodosis 
of an unfulfilled condition actually expressed. (Compare 
the potential optative, 1329.) Here, after Homer, the im- 
perfect with &v may express present time (see 1397). The 
intermediate steps to the complete apodosis may be seen in 
the following examples : — 

^ycTC TTfV dprpnffv ofitoq* ov yap ^v o ri &v CTrotctrc, you still 
kept the peace; for there was nothing which you could have done 
(if you had not), D. 18,43. IIoXXoi) yap Slv to, opyava §v o&o, 
for the tools would be worth much (if they had this power) ^ F.Rp, 
374d. 

For the full conditional sentences, see 1397. 

1341. N. For a peculiar potential expression formed by imper- 
fects denoting obligation etc., like ISei, XP^> ^^*> ^^h the infinitives 
see 1400. 



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1348] THE MOODS. 287 

II. IMPERATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE IN COMMANDS, EX- 
HORTATIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS. -SUBJUNCTIVE AND 
INDICATIVE WITH |i^ OR |&^ oi IN CAUTIOUS ASSER- 
TIONS. -"Oirws AND 6ir«»s |i^ WITH FUTURE INDICATIVE 
IN COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS. 

1342. The imperative expresses a command, exhorta- 
tion, or entreaty; as Xeye, speak thou; ^evye^ begone! 
iXOera)^ let him come ; j(^aip6vTCi)v^ let them rejoice, 

1343. N. A combination of a command and a question is found 
in such phrases as oia-ff o Bpacov; dost thou know what to dot 
Ar.-4t7.54, where the imperative is the verb of the relative clause. 
So (it(T$a vvv a fJM ytviaOia ; do you know what must he done for met 
E./.T.1203. 

1344. The first person of the subjunctive (generally 
plural) is used in exhortations. Its negative is iirj, E,g. 

^Idifiev, let us go; l&iofiev, let us see; fitf tovto Trotco/Acv, let us 
not do this. This supplies the want of a first person of the imperative. 

1346. N. Both subjunctive and imperative may be preceded by 
aye (aycTc), <li€p€, or l$i, come! These words are used without 
regard to the number or person of the verb which follows ; as c[ye 
fii/xv€T€ iravTcs, i/.2,331. 

1346. In prohibitions, in the second and third pei> 
sons, the present imperative or the aorist subjunctive is 
used with fiij and its compounds. JE,g. 

M^ iroUi TOVTO, do not do this (habitually), or do not go on doing 
this; fi^ iroiriarys tovto, (simply) do not do this. Mrf Kara t<ws 
vofujv^ SiKaorjTt' firj PorjO'^orjTc t<J ireTroiSori Sctva* /a^ cvop- 
K€LT€, ^*do not Judge according to the laws; do not help him who has 
suffered outrages; do not abide by your oaths," D. 21, 211. 

The two forms here differ merely as ;>re«en< and aorist (1272). 

1347. N. The third person of the aorist imperative sometimes 
occurs in prohibitions ; the second person very rarely. 

1348. In Homer the independent subjunctive with /xiy 
(generally in the third person) may express fear or anxiety, 
with a desire to avert the object of the fear. E.g, 

M^ 8tf v^as IXoxri, may they not seize the ships (as I fear they may), 
IL 16, 128. Mi; ti x^^'^^i''^^^^ fi ^^V 'caf w vlas 'Axcuoiv, may he 
not (as I fear he may) in his wrath do any harm to die sons of the 
Achaeans, II 2, 195. 



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288 SYNTAX. [1349 

1349. N. This usage occurs also in Euripides and Plato. 
See Moods and Tenses, §§ 261-264. 

1360. An independent subjunctive with fiij may express 
a cautious assertion, or a suspicion that something may be 
true ; and with firj ov a cautious negation, or a suspicion that 
something may not be true. This is a favorite usage with 
Plato. E.g, 

Mrf aypoiKorepov y to aXrfik^ ctirctv, / suspect that the truth may 
he too rude a thing to tell, P. G, 462®. 'AAAa liiq ov ronrr y ;(aXe?rov 
but I rather think that this may not be a difficult thing, P. Ap, 39». 

1361. The indicative may be thus used (1350) with fiij or ^ 
ov, referring to present or past time. E.g. 

*AAAa firj TovTo ov koXcos (OfioXoyy a a fi€v, but perhaps we did 
not do well in assenting to this, P. Men. 89®. (Compare if>ofiovpuu fof 
HiraOtv, I fear that he suffered, 1380.) 

1362. In Attic Greek ottws and ottws /xij are used collo- 
quially with the future indicative in commands and prohi- 
bitions. E.g. 

Nvv ovv OTTO)? (T<a(r€i<s fx€, so now save me, Ar.iV. 1177. KwraBov 
TO. <TK€vrq, ^wTTcos €p€is ivTavOa fiYfSiv if/oj&o^, put down the packs, 
and tell no lies here, Ar. 72.627. "Orrws ovv ia-eaOe o^lol t^ cXcv- 
$€pLa<s, (see that you) prove yourselves worthy of freedom^ X. -4.1,7*. 
^Oircos fWL firj ip€L<s oTi cort ra StaScKa 8ls If, see that you do not tell 
me that twelve is twice six, P. Rp, 337*». 

1363. N. The construction of 1352 is often explained by an 
ellipsis of a-Koirei, or o-KOTreirc (see 1372). 

1364. N. The subjunctive occasionally occurs here with arais 
firj, but not with oircos alone. 

III. HOMERIC SUBJUNCTIVE LIKE FUTURE INDICATIVE. 
-INTERROGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

1366. In Homer, the subjunctive in independent sen- 
tences sometimes has the force of a future indicative. E.g. 

Ov yap iTio Totovs tW dvcpa?, ovSk tSatfiai, for I never yet saw 
nor shall I ever see such men, //. 1,262. Kcu ttotc rts eiTrrja-iv, and 
one will (or may) some time say, 11. 6, 459. 

1366. N. This subjunctive may, like the future indicative, take 
K€ or av in a potential sense. (See 1305, 2.) 



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1361] THE MOODS. 289 

1357. N. The question Tt wajS<o ; what will become of me t or 
what harm will it do me f (literally, what shall I undergo f) carries 
this use even into Attic Greek. E.g. 

"Q fJuoL €yw, rC iraBm; Od.5,465. Tt wdOo) tXtj/juov; what will 
become of me,, wretched one f A. P. 912. To /acAAov, ci )(prj, Tr^la-ofjuu • 
TL yap irdOw; I shall suffer what is to come, if it must be; for what 
harm can it do me f E. PA. 895. 

1358. The first person of the subjunctive may be 
used in questions of appeal, where a person asks him- 
self or another what he is to do. The negative is fnj. 
It is often introduced by fiovXec or fiovXeaffe (in poetry 
deXei^ or OeXere^. Kg. 

EiTTO) Tavra; shall I say this? or PovXei citto) ravra; do you 
wish that I should say thisf Hol Tpdirtofiai; troi tropevOCi; 
whither shall I turn? whither shall I got E.Hec.l099. Uov ^ 
PovXet KaOi^opjEi/oi avayv<ofi€v; where now unit thou that we sit 
dawn and read? P.PWr.228«. 

1359. N". The third person is sometimes found in these ques- 
tions, chiefly -when rU has the force of we; as Tt rts cTvat rovro 
ifty ; what shall we say this is f D. 19, 88. 

IV. (H |i^ WITH SUBJUNCTIVE AND FUTURE INDICATIVE. 

1360. The subjunctive (generally the aorist) and 
sometimes the future indicative are used with the 
double negative ov fiTj in the sense of an emphatic 
future indicative with ov. E.g. 

Ov firf iriOrfTai, he will not obey, S. PA. 103. Ovtc yap ytyvcrtu 
OUTC yeyovevj ovSe o&/ fjutf yivrfrat, for there is not, nor has there 
been, nor will there ever be, etc., P.-RJ0.492®. Ov wot i^ ifjuov ye firj 
irdOjjs ToSe, you never shall suffer this at my hands, S.El.1029. Ov 
TOi fiTfirori <rc . . . aKovrd rts d$€i, no one shall ever take you against 
your will, etc., S. 0. C. 176. 

1361. In the dramatic poets, the second person singular 
of the future indicative (occasionally of the aorist subjunc- 
tive) with ov prj may express a strong prohibition. E.g. 

Ov firj KaraPrjarct, don't come down (you shall not come down), 
Ar.F.397. Ov firj rdBc yrjpvarei, do not speak out in this way, 
E.Ht>.213. Ov pifi (TK6\l/ri^,do not Jeer, Av.N.29Q. 

This construction is not interrogative. 



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290 SYNTAX. 

V. FINAL AND OBJECT CLAUSES AFTER fva, «^, &Tt^, 5^pa, 

AND ifc^. 

1362. The final particles are tW, «b9, ott®?, and (epic 
and lyric) o<f>paj that^ in order that. To these must be 
added fitjy lest or that, which became in use a negative 
final particle. The clauses which are introduced by 
these particles may be divided into three classes : — 

1. Pure jJnaZ clauses, expressing a purpose or motive; 
as epx^rai Xva rovro lirf^he i% coming that he may see 
this. Here all the final particles are used (see 1368). 

2. Olject clauses with ottw? after verbs signifying to 
strive for, to care for, to effect ; as axiirei oirto^ rovro 
yevijaerai, see to it that this is done. 

3. Clauses with fii] after verbs of fear or caution; as 
<f>o/3€traL fit) rovro yivrfrai, he fears that (or lest^ this 
may happen. 

1363. The first two classes are to be specially distinguished. 
The object clauses in 2 are the direct object of the leading verb, 
and can even stand in apposition to an object accusative like 
TonjTO'f as (TK&jra rovro, oira>9 /u»/ <r€ Sufftrax, see to this, namely, that 
he does not see you. But a final clause could stand in apposition 
only to rovrov €V€Ka,/or the sake of this, or &a rovro, to this end; as 
tpxerax rovrov Ivcko, Iva. rnjuas iSiy, he is coming for this purpose, 
namely, that he may see us. 

For the origin of the clauses in 3, and the development of final 
clauses, see Moods and Tenses, §§ 307-316. 

1364. The negative in all these clauses is fiij; except 
after /xiy, lest, where ov is used. 

I. PURB FINAL CLAUSES. 

1365. Final clauses take the subjunctive after primary 
tenses, and the optative after secondary tenses, ^.g. 

AoKct fiM KaraKavaxa r^s ifLoifK, Iva firi rh. icvyrj ^/iu»v arpa- 
Ttfyg, I think we should bum our wagons, that our cattle may not be 
our commanders, X. ^ . 3, 2^. 'Eliro) ri S^ra koAA*, iv opy Co- y wAew ; 
shall I speak stUl further, that you may be the more angry f S. 0. T. 
364. UapaKoXei's larpov^, ottcos fitf aTToOdvy, you call in physicians, 
that he may not die, X.M.2, lO^. AwnreKei eoom ly rtf irapovn, luj 



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1370] THE MOODS. 291 

Kxu TovTcv iroXcfuov wpoa-ddifJLeSa, it is expedient to allow it for 
a tirnef lest toe add him to the number of our enemies^ X. C 2, 4^. 
^iXos ifiovXjeTO Civat rols fieyurra SvvafievoiSi Iva d&#co)v firj Si 80117 
BiKTfV) he toished to be a friend to the most powerful, that he might do 
wrong and not be punished, X. -4. 2, 6^1. Tovrov lv€.Ka <l>iXwv <wcto 
Seur^ou, cus <rw€pyovs ^X®^ ^ thought he needed friends for this pur- 
pose, namely, that he might have helpers, X.2l.l,9^. *A<f>iK6firp/, orrcos 
aov irpos 80/Aovs i\66vTOi c^ irpd^aifiC ri, 1 came that I might gain 
some good by your return home, S. O, T. 1005. 

K.€<l>aX.y KaTovcwrofJuuL, ^pa. veiroiOyst I will nod my assent, that 
you may trust me, 7Z. 1,522. "EvOa Kariaxer, o<f>p Irapov 6 air r 01, 
he tarried there, that he might bury his companion, Od, 3, 284. 

1366. N. The future indicative is rarely found in final clauses 
after oiroig, gk^/xx, cu$, and /jlt^ This is almost entirely confined to 
poetry. See Orf. 1, 56, 4, 163 ; //. 20, 301 ; Ar. EccL 495. 

1367. N. The adverb ay (kc) is sometimes joined with c5s, 
O3r<09» and 6<f>pa before the subjunctive in final clauses ; as cos £v 
fJUMBrjs, SarroKotxTCfV, hear the other side, that you may learn, X.^.2,5^^ 

For this use, see Moods and Tenses, §§ 325-28. The final opta- 
tive with av is probably always potential (1327). 

1368. N. ^0<f>pa is the most common final particle in Homer, 
cSs in tragedy, and iva in comedy and prose. But ottcds exceeds Iva 
in Thucydides and Xenophon. 'O? was never in good use in prose, 
except in Xenophon. 

1369. As final clauses express the purpose or motive of 
some person, they admit the double construction of indirect 
discourse (1481,2; 1503). Hence, instead of the optative 
after past tenses, we can have the mood and tense which 
would be used when a person conceived the purpose; 
that is, we can say either rjXOev Iva IS 01, he came that he 
might see (1365), or rjkOev tva tSjy, because the person 
himself would have said ipxofjuu tva I Boy, I come that I may 
see. E.g. 

'BiVVcPovkevc roi$ oAAoi? cfcirXcvaai, o7r<09 M wXeov 6 0*1x09 
4vTfcox27> he advised the rest to sail away, that the provisions might 
hold out longer, T. 1, 65. Ta irXjoia Karixavacv, Iva firj Kvpoq Bia^'Q, 
he burned the vessels, that Cyrus might not pass over, X.-4.1,4". 

1370. N. The subjunctive is even more common than the 
optative after past tenses in certain authors, as Thucydides and 
Herodotus ; but much less so in others, as Homer and Xenophon. 



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292 SYNTAX. [1371 

1371. The past tenses of the indicative are used in final 
clauses with Tva, sometimes with ottcos or ws, to denote that 
the purpose is dependent on some act which does not or 
did not take place (as on some unfulfilled condition or 
some unaccomplished wish), and therefore is not or was 
not attained. E.g. 

Tt fi ov Xafiwv CKTCtvas evOvSt o>s cSctf a fi-qirore, k.t.\.; why did 
you not take me and kill me at once^ that I might never have shown 
{as I have done)^ etc.? S. O. T.lSOl. Ocv, <^cv, to fi^ to. TrpdyfuiT 
dv^pa>7roc9 ^X^*'' <^a)v^v, iv ^aav firj^v ol Sctvoi Xoyoi, Alas! alas! 
that the facts have no voice for men^ so that words of eloquence might 
be as nothing f E. frag. 442. 

II. OBJECT CLAUSES WITH OTTG)? AFTER VERBS OF 
STRIVING, ETC. 

1372. Object clauses depending on verbs signifying 
to strive for, to care for, to effect, regularly take the 
future indicative with ott®? or ott®? m after both pri- 
mary and secondary tenses. 

The future optative may be used after secondary 
tenses, as the correlative of the future indicative, but 
commonly the indicative is retained on the principle of 
1369. E.g. 

^povTL^ OTToys firjSkv dvafiov t^s rifXTJ^ ravr-qs irpd^ei^y take heed 
that you do nothing unworthy of this honor ^ 1.2,37. "EircficXctTo mna/i 
firj aa-LToCiroTC tL<roivTO,he took care that they should never he without 
foody X. C 8, 1** (here larovrax would be more common). '^Yjirpaxr- 
a-ov OTTCDS Tis PoyOeuL rj(€L, they were trying to effect (this), that some 
assistance should come, T. 3, 4. 

For o7ra)9 and ottco? fwy with the future indicative in com- 
mands and prohibitions, often explained by an ellipsis of o-icoirci 
or (rK(m€LT€ in this construction, see 1352. 

1373. The future indicative with ottcos sometimes follows verbs 
of exhorting, entreating, commanding, and forbidding, which com- 
monly take an infinitive of the object; as ^axeXeijovrai ottcas 
TLfiiopT^o'eraL TrdvTa^ rov^ rotovrovs, they exhort him to take ven- 
geance on all such, T.Rp. 549«. (See 1377.) 

1374. 1. Sometimes the present or aorist subjunctive 
and optative is used here, as in final clauses. E.g. 



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1379] THE MOODS. 293 

"AXXov Tov cirtficXi/crct y otto)? 6 ri pikruTroL itoXltcu Zfi€v; 
will you care for anything except that toe may be the best possible citi- 
zens? F. (r.515^ *Eir€fieX.€TO avrwv, ottcds det avBpaTroSa Siare- 
\oi€v, he took care that they should always remain slaves, X. C8,l**. 

2. Xenophon allows ws with the subjunctive here. 

1375. N. Ml}, lest, may be used for oircos /A17 and the subjunctive. 

1376. N. "Av or K€ can be used here, as in final clauses (1367), 
with O7r<o9 or cos and the subjunctive. 

1377. In Homer the construction of 1372 with ottcos and 
the future is not found ; but verbs signifying to plan, con- 
sider, and try take ottcos or w and the subjunctive or opta- 
tive. E.g. 

^fiai<afA€ff O7r(09 ox Sipurra yivrjrai, let us consider how the very 
best may be done, Orf. 13,365. ^pda-areToj, ws KevirjTai, he will plan 
for his return, Od A, 205. BovXevov oircos 6x dpurra ycvotro, they 
deliberated that the very best might be done, Od. 9, 420. So rarely with 
Xiaa-ofjtjca, entreat (see 1373). 

m. CLAUSES WITH fMi] AFTER VERBS OF FEABING^ ETC. 

1378. After verbs denoting fear^ caution^ or danger^ 
fi7]^ that or lest^ takes the subjunctive after primary 
tenses, and the optative after secondary tenses. The 
subjunctive may also follow secondary tenses, to retain 
the mood in which the fear originally occurred to the 
mind. H.g. 

^Povfjuu firj Tovro ycvryrat (vereor ne accidat), I fear that this 
may happen; <^Povfua firj ov rovro yivrjrai (vereor ut accidat), 
J fear that this may not happen (1364). ^povrCl^iii /x^ Kparurrov -g 
/iot (Tiyav, / am anxious lest it may be best for me to be silent, X. M. 
4,2''. OvKfTL iirerCOevro, ^Siorc^ fiy diror fn^OeiT^a-av, they no 
longer made attacks, fearing lest they should be cut off, ^.A.S,4^. 
*^^Povvro ix-q Tt irdO-g, they feared lest he should suffer anything 
(1369), X.5y.2,ll. 

1379. N. The future indicative is very rarely used after firj in 
this construction. But ^o>s /A17 is sometimes used here, as in the 
object clauses of 1372, with both future indicative and subjunc- 
tive ; as SiioiKa o3ra>9 firj avdyKrj ycvi/o-croi, 1 fear that there may 
come a necessity, D. 9, 75. ^Orr<a^ firj here is the equivalent of /xi^, 
thcU or lest, in the ordinary construction. 



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294 SYNTAX. [1380 

1380. Verbs oi fearing may refer to objects of fear which 
are present or past Here fii^ takes the present and past 
tenses of the indicative. E.g. 

AcSoixa firj irXtfylov Sect, I fear that you need blows, Ar.N.iQS. 
^PovfuBa firj afi<f>OT€pit)v c[fui •qfiapTrJKafitVy we fear that we have 
missed both at once, T.3,53. ActS<o firj ^ Trdvra Sea vrjfiefyria €lv€v, 
1 fear that all which the Goddess said was true, Od. 5, 300. "Opa /i^ 
TTOtifcDv ^Xcycv, beware lest he was speaking in jest, P. Th. 145*>. 

VI. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

1381. In conditional sentences the clause containing 
the condition is called the protasis, and that containing 
conclusion is called the apodosis. The protasis is intro- 
duced by some form of et, if. 

At for d is sometimes used in Homer. 

1382. The adverb av (epic kg or Kev) is regularly 
joined to el in the protasis when the verb is in the 
subjunctive; ei with av forming Idv^ &/, or fjv. (See 
1299, 2.) The simple el is used with the indicative 
and optative. The same adverb av is used in the 
apodosis with the optative, and also with the past tenses 
of the indicative when it is implied that the condition 
is not fulfilled. 

1383. 1. The negative adverb of the protasis is regu- 
larly /i?;, that of the apodosis is ov. 

2. When ov stands in a protasis, it generally belongs to some 
particular word (as in ou iraKXoCfew, ov <^fu, / deny), and not to 
the protasis as a whole; as Idv rt <tv koI ^Awro9 ov <f>rJT€ idv re 
<fnjr€, both if you and Anytus deny it and if you admit it, P.-4/>.25*. 

1884. 1. The supposition contained in a protasis may 
be either particular or general, A particular supposition 
refers to a definite act or to several definite acts, supposed 
to occur at some definite time or times ; as i/ ^e {now) has 
this, he mil give it; if he had it, he gave it; if he had had 
the power, he would have helped me; if he shaU receive it (or 
if he receives it), he will give it; if he should receive it, he 
would give it A general supposition refers indefinitely to 
any act or acts of a given class, which may be supposed to 



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byGoogk 



1387] 



THE MOODS. 



296 



occur or to have occurred at any time ; as if ever he receives 
anything, he {always) gives it; if ever he received anything, 
he {always) gave it; if {on any occasion) he had had the power, 
he would {always) have helped me; if ever any one shall (or 
sTiould) wish to go, he will (or would) always be permitted, 

2. Although this distinction is seen in all classes of conditions 
(as the examples show), it is only in the present and past conditions 
which do not imply non-fulfilment, i.€. in those of class I. (below), 
that the distinction affects the construction. Here, however, we have 
two classes of conditions which contain only general suppositions. 

CLASSIFICATION OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

1385. The classification of conditional sentences is based partly 
on the time to which the supposition refers, partly on what is 
implied with regard to the fulfilment of the condition, and partly 
on the distinction between particular and general suppositions 
explained in 1384. 

1388, Conditional sentences have four classes, two (I. 
and II.) containing present and past suppositions, and two 
(III. and IV.) containing future suppositions. Class I. 
has two forms, one (a) with chiefly particular suppositions 
(present and past), the other {b) with only general suppo- 
sitions (1. present, 2. past). 

1387. We have thus the following forms : — 
I. Present and past suppositions implying nothing as to 
fulfilment of condition : 

' {protasis) d with indicative ; {apodosis) any 
form of the verb. Et irpda-a-ti, rovro, KoXm 
I^X€i, if he is doing this, it is well, Et lirpa^t 
rovro, KoXm Ixti, if he did this, it is well (See 
'w 1390.) — In Latin: si hocfacit, bene est, 
' 1. {prot,) €av with subjunctive; (apod) pres- 
ent indicative. 'Eav rts xXcTrTiy, xoXo^crai, 
if any one {ever) steals, he is {always) pun- 
ished. (See 1393, 1.) 
2. {prot.) el with optative ; {apod.) imperfect 
indicative. E? n? kXcVtoi, iKoXaiero^ifany 
one ever stole, he was {always) punished. 
(See 1393, 2.) —For the Latin, see 1388. 



(a) Chiefly 
Particiilar: 



{h) General: 



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296 SYNTAX. [1388 

II. Present and past suppositions implying that the 
condition is not fulfilled : 

{protasis) d with past tense of indicative ; {apodosis) 
past tense of indicative with ay, Et Ivpait tcvto, 
KoXtas av ccxcv, if he had done this, it would have been 
well, Ei iirpaa-a-e tovto, koXcus av cixcv, if he were doing 
this, it would (iiow) be well, or if he hod done this, it 
would have been well (See 1397.) 

In Latin : si hoc faceret, bene esset (present) ; si hoc 
fecisset, benefuisset (past). 

III. Future suppositions in more vivid form : 

(prot) idv with subjunctive (sometimes d with future 
indicative) ; (apod,) aoy future form. 'Eav nrpdatr-g 
(or rrpdiy) rovro, KaXS)^ Ifct, if he shall do this (or if 
he does this), it will be well (sometimes also ci vpdiei 
ToivTo, etc.). (See 1403 and 1405.) 

In Latin: si hoc faciei (oifecerit), bene erit. 

IV. Future suppositions in less vivid form ; 

(prot.) d with optative; (apod.) optative with ay. 
El vpdar a- 01 (or irpd^tit) rmjTo, Ka\a>$ av c^oe^ if he 
should do this, it would be well, (See 1408.) 
In Latin: si hoc facial, bene sit, 

1388. N. The Latin commonly agrees with the English in not 
marking the distinction between the general and the particular 
present and past conditions by different forms, and uses the indica- 
tive in both alike. Occasionally even the Greek does the same (1395). 

1389. N". In external form (cav with the subjunctive) the gen- 
eral present condition agrees with the more vivid future condition. 
But in sense there is a much closer connection between the general 
and the particular present condition, which in most languages (and 
sometimes even in Greek) coincide also in form (1388). On the 
other hand, cav with the subjunctive in a future condition agrees 
generally in sense with d and the future indicative (1405), and is 
never interchangeable with ci and the present indicative. 

I. PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS WITH. NOTHING 
IMPLIED. 
(a) Simple Suppositions, Chibplt Particular. 

1390. When the protasis simply states a present or 



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1393] THE MOODS. 297 

past particular supposition, implying nothing as to the 
fulfilment of the condition, it has the indicative with el. 
Any form of the verb may stand in the apodosis. ^.g. 
Et '^(Tvxiav ^iXnnro^ o-y^h ovk€ti Set Xcyciv, if Philip is keeping 
peace (jujith us), we need talk no longer, D. 8,5. Ei cyw ^alhpw 
dyvoco, xot ifULVToiv €7riX€Xrja'fJuu ' aXXa yap ovScVepa corn rovrotv, 
if I do not know Phaedrus, 1 have forgotten myself; hut neither of these 
is so, P. Phdr, 228*. Et Oeov yv, ovk rjv at(7XpoK€p8i;s, if he was the 
son of a God, he was not avaricious, P. iJjj. 408^ 'AAA' ci 3oxe^ 
irXcfo/icv, hut if it pleases you, let us sail, S. Ph, 526. Kaxtor' dirokoC- 
fjirp^, 'BoLvOlav d firj <pi\St, may 1 die most wretchedly, if I do not love 
Xanthias, Ar.iJ.579. 

1391. N. Even the future indicative can stand in a protasis of 
this class if it expresses merely a present intention or necessity that 
something shall hereafter be done ; as atpe irXrjKTpov, tl fiax^l, 
raise your spur, if you are going to fight, Ar.^v.759. Here d fxiXXa^ 
fmx^a^ax would be the more common expression in prose. It is 
important to notice that a future of this kind could never be changed 
to the subjunctive, like the ordinary future in protasis (1405). 

1392. N. For present or past conditions containing a potential 
indicative or optative (with av), see 1421, 3. 

(6) Pkesent and Past General Suppositions. 

1393. In general suppositions, the apodosis expresses 
a customary or repeated action or a general truth in 
present or past time, and the protasis refers in a general 
way to any of a class of acts. 

1. Present general suppositions have edv with the 
subjunctive in the protasis, and the present indicative 
(or some other present form denoting repetition) in the 
apodosis. E.g. 

*Hv €yyus tXdri Odvaro^, ov8ci9 jSovAcrai Ovj^a-K€tv, if death 
comes near, no one is (ever) willing to die, E.i4Z.671. ^Airas Aoyo9, 
Av Avy TO. vpaypjoLTo^ paracov ri <f>aiv€Tai koI k€v6v, all speech, if 
deeds are wanting, appears a vain and empty thing, D. 2, 12. 

2. Past general suppositions have ei with the opta- 
tive in the protasis, and the imperfect indicative (or 
some other form denoting past repetition) in the 
apodosis. JE.g. 



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298 SYNTAX. [1394 

Et Ttvas OopvPovficvovs at a- 6 oi to, Karaa-fSevvvvai t^v rapo)^ 
CTTCtpaTo, if he saw any falling into disorder (or whenever he saw, 
etc.), he (always) tried to quiet the confusion, X. C, 5, 3^. ET rvs 
d V T € I TT o t, €vOvs r€6vrJK€i, if any one refused, he was immediaiely 
put to death, T. 8, 66. This construction occurs only once in Homer. 

1394. N. The gnomic aorist, which is a primary tense (1268), 
can always be used here in the apodosis with a dependent sub- 
junctive; SkSrjv Tis wapaPaivrj, l^rjfuav avrots iTrideaav, if any 
one transgresses, they (always) impose a penalty on him, X. C 1,2^. 

1395. N. The indicative is occasionally used in the place of the 
subjunctive or optative in general suppositions ; that is, these sen- 
tences may follow the construction of ordinary present and past 
suppositions (1390), as in Latin and English; as c? rts Svo ^ km 
ttXcovs Tis rjfiipas Xoyi^erai, fmrcuo^ ia-TLv, if any one counts on 
two or even more days, he is a fool, S. TV. 944. 

1396. N. Here, as in future conditions (1406), el (without of) 
is sometimes used with the subjunctive in poetry. In Homer this 
is the more frequent form in general conditions. 

n. PRESENT AND PAST CONDITIONS WITH SUPPOSI- 
TION CONTBART TO FACT. 

1397. When the protasis states a present or past sup- 
position, implying that the condition is not or was not 
fulfilled^ the secondary tenses of the indicative are used 
in both protasis and apodosis. The apodosis has the 
adverb av. 

The imperfect here refers to present time or to an 
act as going on or repeated in past time, the aorist to 
a simple occurrence in past time, and the (rare) pluper- 
fect to an act completed in past or present time. JE.g. 

Tavra ovk av Hvvavro Troteiv, d firf Suurrf furptq. ixp^vro, 
they would not be able (as they are) to do this, if they did not lead an 
abstemious life, X. CI, 2^^ HoXv av Oavfrnarrorepav §v, diriftSiVTo, 
it would be far more wonderful, if they were honored, P.^j?.480^ 
Et ^a-av avSpe? ayaOol, c5s ov <fyg^, ovk av irore ravra lirao'xoy, 
if they had been good men, as you say, they would never have suffered 
these things (referring to several cases), P. (t.516®. Ko* t(ro»s &v 
airiOavov, el fxrj 17 dpxv KareXvOrj, and perhaps I should have 
perished, if the government had not been put down, P.ilj>.32*. £1 



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1401] THE MOODS. 299 

dircKptvcD, ucavut^ &v rjSrf ifi€fia$TJKrj, if you had answered^ I 
should already have learned enough {which noto I have not done), 
T.Euthyph, 14f. Et fiy vfici^ rjXOere, iiropevofieOa &v irrl rov 
PaxriXta, if you had not come (aor.), we should now he on our way 
(impf.) to the King, X.i4.2,l*. 

1398. N. In Homer the imperfect in this class of sentences is 
always past (see //.7,273 ; 8, 130) ; and the present optative is used 
where the Attic would have the imperfect referring to present time ; 
as M iJL€v ri$ rov 6v€ipov oAAos Ivunrev, ij/fvSoq kcv <l>aifi€v koX 
voo-<^i{oifie^a /ioXAov, if any other had told this dream (1397), we 
should call it a lie and rather turn away from it, i/.2,80 : see 24, 222. 

1399. N. In Homer the optative with xe is occasionally past in 
apodosis; as kolC v6 kcv ivff dwoXoiTo Aii/eias, ei fxt) vorfo-e *A<^po- 
SiTTf, and now Aeneas would there have perished, had not Aphrodite 
perceived him, /Z.5,311. (Here dTrcoXero would be the regular form 
in Homer, as in other Greek.) 

Homer has also a past potential optative : see //. 5, 85. 

1400. 1. The imperfects ^8ct, XPV^ ^^ ^XPV^f ^iv^, ^Iko^ 
vjvy and others denoting obligation, propriety, possibility, and 
the like, are often used with the infinitive to form an 
apodosis implying the non-fulfilment of a condition. *Av 
is not used here, as these phrases simply express in other 
words what is usually expressed by the indicative with otv. 

Thus, I8ci <T€ TouTov i^iXciv, you ought to love him (but do not), 
or you ought to have loved him (hut did not), is substantially equivsr 
lent to you would love him, or would have loved him (c^^Xci? &v 
TOVTw), if you did your duty (ra Scovra). So €$^v croi tovto 
'jroirjaai, you might have done this (hut you did not do it) ; eUos $v 
<r€ TcivTo TTOi^a-ai, you would properly (cixorois) have done this. 
The actual apodosis is here always in the infinitive, and the reality 
of the action of the infinitive is generally denied. 

2. When the present infinitive is used, the construction 
refers to the present or to continued or repeated action in 
the past ; when the aorist is used, it refers to the past. E.g, 

ToixrSc firj i^v IScl, these ought not to be living (as they are), 
S. PA. 418. Mevciv yap e^^v, for he might have stood his ground 
(but did not), D. 3, 17. ©avei v o-c XPV^ irdpo^ tckvcdv, you ought to 
have died before your children, E.^n(f.l208. Ei i/SovXero SCkomk 
cFfou, iffjv avrcp fiio'dlaa'aL rov cXkov, he might have let the house, if 
he had wished to he Just, L.32,23. 

1401. N. When the actual apodosis is in the verb of obligation, 



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300 SYNTAX. [1402 

etc., c8a av cau be used ; as cl ra Bicvra ovtm awePovkevaavy ovSkv 
Slv v/*as vvy I Set PovXevecrOauL, if these men had given you the advice 
you needed, there would now be no need of your deliber4iting, D.4.1. 

1402. 1. Other imperfects, especially ipovXofirp^, sometimes 
take the infinitive without av on the same principle with cSci etc. ; 
as ipovkofiTfV ovK epi^eiv cv^oSc, 1 would I were not contending 
here (as I am), or / would not be contending here, Ar. R. 866. 

2. So wt>€Xov or QM^cXXov, ought, aorist and imperfect of o^cXXtti, 
owe (epic for o<^iX<i)), in Homer ; whence comes the use of wfxXjov 
in wishes (1512); as<i!><^cXc Kvpo? J^ijv, would that Cyrus were alive, 
X.^.2,1*. 

3. So IfjutKkov with the infinitive; as KfiSia-ecrOai, ifieWov, d ftjf 
Unr€i, I should have perished (was about to perish), if thou hadst not 
spoken, Od. 13, 383. So D. 19, 159. 

m. FUTURE CONDITIONS, MORE VIVID FORM. 
Subjunctive ts Protasis with Future Apodosis. 

1403. When a supposed future case is stated dis- 
tinctly and vividly (as in English, if I shall go, or if I 
go), the protasis has the subjunctive with Idv (epic el 
/ce), and the apodosis has the future indicative or some 
other form of future time. E.g. 

El fi€v Key McvcAaov *AXe^av8po9 Kara7r€<l>vrj, avroi hraff 
"EXcnyv l^irta xat KTijfjuiTa iravra^ if Alexander shall slay Menelatts, 
then let him have Helen and all the goods himself, II, 3, 281. "Av tw 
avOio'TrJTai, ir€ifKur6fjue0a \ekpdv<rOax, if any one shall stand opposed 
to us, we shall try to overcome him, X.-4.7,3^. 'Eav ouv ti/s fw, 
vore iar€i oIkol ; if therefore you go now, when will you be at home t 
X.C.5,32'. 

1404. N. The older English forms if he shall go and if he go 
both express the force of the Greek subjunctive and future indica- 
tive in protasis ; but the ordinary modem English uses if he goes 
even when the time is clearly future. 

1405. The future indicative with ct is very often used 
for the subjunctive in future conditions, as a still moie 
vivid form of expression, especially in appeals to the feel- 
ings, and in threats and warnings. E.g. 

El firj KaOi^eis yXSxra-av, Harai <roi KaKo, if you do not (shaU 
not) restrain your tongue, you will have trouble, E. frag. 5. This com- 
mon use of the future must not be confounded with that of 1391. 



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1413] - THE MOODS. 301 

1406. N. In Homer ei (without av or kc) is sometimes used 
with the subjunctive in future conditions, apparently in the same 
sense as ^ kc or ijfv; as ct Sik vrj* iOiXy oXco-cu, but if he shall wish to 
destroy our ship, Od, 12, 348. This is more common in general con- 
ditions in Homer (see 1396). The same use of ci for idv is found 
occasionally even in Attic poetry. 

1407. N. For the Homeric subjunctive with kc in the apodosis 
of a future condition, see 1305,2. 

IV. FUTURE CONDITIONS, LESS VIVID FORM. 
Optative in both Protasis ani> Apodosis. 

1408. When a supposed future case is stated in a less 
distinct and vivid form (as in English, if I should go)^ 
the protasis has the optative with et, and the apodosis 
has the optative with av. E.g. 

Eii/s ^prqro% ovk av, ei irpda-a-ois koAws, you would not be 
endurable, if you should be in prosperity, A. Pr. 979. Ov iroXXrj &v 
aXoyCcL clrj, €i <^o)3oiro rbv ddvarov 6 tchovtos; would it not be a 
great absurdity, if such a man should fear death? F,Ph,6SK Oiko? 
S* avro5, a <fiOoyyYfv Xd^oi, caKftearaT av Xcfctcv, but the house 
itself, if it should find a voice, would speak most plainly, A.Ag,S7. 

1409. The optative with ay in apodosis is the potential opta- 
tive ; see 1329. 

1410. N. The future optative cannot be used in protasis or 
apodosis, except in indirect discourse representing the future in- 
dicative after a past tense (see the second example under 1497, 2). 

1411. N. El K€ is sometimes found with the optative in Homer, 
in place of the simple ci (1408) ; as ct 8e kcv *Apyos iKolfuff, . . . 
yofjiPpoq K€v fJUK ioi, and if we should ever come to Argos, he would be 
my son-inrlaw, iZ.9, 141. 

1412. N. For the Homeric optative used like the past tenses of 
the indicative in unreal conditions, see 1398 and 1399. 

PECULIAR FORMS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 
Ellipsis and Substitution in Pbotasis ok Apodosis. 

1413. The protasis sometimes is not expressed in its 
regular form with el or edv^ but is contained in a parti- 
ciple, or implied in an adverb or some other part of the 
sentence. When a participle represents the protasis, 



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302 SYNTAX. [1414 

its tense is always that in which the verb itself would 
have stood in the indicative, subjunctive, or optative, — 
the present (as usual) including the imperfect. S.g, 

Ilais $6/079 ov(rrfS 6 Zfvs ovk diroXwkey ; how is it that Zeus has 
not been destroyed, if Justice exists? (ct BiKrj ccttiv), Ar.J\r.904. "Sv 
8c kXvcuv €i(rct Tttxa, but you will soon know, if you listen (=€oy 
kXvj/s), AwAv. 1390. 'AttoXoO/luu firj tovto fxaOwvy I shall be ruined 
unless I learn this (iav fi-q /mOta). Totavra t&v ywaiil avvvaiiav 
l;(0C9) such things would you have to endure if you should dwell among 
women (i.e. ct avwaiois), A. 56.195. 'HTricmyo-cv av rts aKOvaa^, 
any one would have disbelieved (such a thing) if he had heard it (i.e. cj 
iJkovo-cv), T.7,28. "NLaixfiav S* Slv alnja-avTo^ (sc. crov) ^icw croi 
<l>€pwv av apTov, and if you (ever) cried for food (d oln/o-cias, 
1393, 2), / used to come to you with bread (1296), Ar.i^. 1383. 

Ala yc vfias oLvrov^ TroAai av dwoXwActTC, if it had depended on 
yourselves, you would long ago have been ruined, D. 18,49. Owtc* 
yap ovK€Ti. Tolv XoMTOv 7rdarxoiiJL€v &v KaK(os, for in that case we should 
no longer suffer harm (the protasis being in outco), X.-4.1,1**. 
OvS* &v &ica/a>9 es /caicov iria-otfu Tt, nor should I justly (i.e. if I had 
justice) fall into any trouble, S. iln.240. 

1414. 1. There is a (probably unconscious) suppression of the 
verb of the protasis in several phrases introduced by ci fiij, except. E.g. 

T19 TOL oAAos ofjuoioi, ei fxrj HdrpoKXo^ ; who else is like you, except 
Patroclus (i.e. unless it is P.)f 7/. 17,475. Ei firj 8ta tov irpvraviv, 
cvcTTCo-cv fltv, had it not been for the Prytanis (except for the P.), he 
would have been thrown in (to the Pit), P. G.516*. 

2. The protasis or the apodosis, or both, may be suppressed 
with the Homeric (os ci or (i>9 ct t€ ; as rwv vccs cmccuu 009 a vripov 
rj€ voTffm, their ships are swift as a wing or thought (as they would be 
if they were, etc.), Od.7,36. 

For the double ellipsis in (uoTrcp £v ct, see 1313. 

1415. N. In neither of the cases of 1414 is it probable that any 
definite verb was in the speaker's mind. 

1416. N. The apodosis is sometimes entirely suppressed for 
rhetorical effect ; as d /jmv SiLa-ova-i ycpas^ if they shall give me a 
prize, — very well, 11. 1, 135 ; cf . 1, 580. 

1417. N. El 8c ik-q without a verb often has the meaning other- 
wise, even where the clause would not be negative if completed, or 
where the verb if supplied would be a subjunctive ; as /a^ iroirf(nfi 
ravra • ci 8c fi^, alriav cfcis, do not do this; otherwise (if you do not 
do what I say) you tvUl be blamed, X. An.7, V. 



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1421] THE MOODS. 303 

1418. The apodosis may be expressed by an infinitive or 
participle in indirect discourse, each tense representing its 
own tenses of the indicative or optative (1280; 1285). If 
the finite verb in the apodosis would have taken av, this 
particle is used with the infinitive or participle. E.g, 

"Hyov/icu, ei tovto wouiTe, irdvra xoAcos cx^tv, / believe that, if 
you are doing this, all is well; '^yovfjuu, iav rovro ttoi^tc, iravra 
KoXws €^€i,Vy I believe that, if you {shall) do this, all will be well; otSa 
VfJLois, iav ravra yivrjfrax, cv irpaiovra%, 1 know that you will prosper if 
this is (shall be) done. For examples of the infinitive and participle 
with 5v, see 1308. 

1419. The apodosis may be expressed in an infinitive 
not in indirect discourse (1271), especially one depending 
on a verb of wishingy commanding, advising, etc., from which 
the infinitive receives a future meaning. E.g, 

BovXeroi cX^civ lav rovro yivrirai^he wishes to go if this (shall) 
be done; xcXevo) v/xas €av hvvrjarSt airtXOtivy I command you to 
depart if you can. For the principle of indirect discourse which 
appears in tl[i% protasis here after past tenses, see 1502, 1. 

1420. N. Sometimes the apodosis is merely implied in 
the context, and in such cases €t or Idv is often to be 
translated supposing thai,, in case that, if perchance, or if 
haply. E.g. 

"Akowtov koX ifjixjiv, idv (roc ravra SoKy, hear me also, in case the 
same shall please you (i.e. that then you may assent to it), P. 72/?. 358^. 
So irpo9 rrp^ woXxv, d iirLporjOoiev, i^tiipow, they marched towards 
the city, in case they (the citizens) should rush out (i.e. to meet them 
if they should rush out), T.6,100. On this principle we must 
explain al k€v ira>5 PovXtrax, if haply he may wish (i.e. in hope that 
he may wish), //.1, 66; al k iOiXya-Ba, Orf.3,92; and similar pas- 
sages. For this construction, both in Homer and elsewhere, see 
Moods and Tenses, §§ 486-491. 

Mixed Constructions. — A^ in Apodosis. 

1421. The protasis and apodosis sometimes belong to 
different forms. 

1. Especially any tense of the indicative with d in the 
protasis may be followed by a potential optative with w in 
the apodosis. E,g. 

El Kar ovpavw ciXijXovOa^, ovk &v Ocoioi fia.)(^oiiJLrfv, if you 



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304 SYNTAX. [1422 

have come down from heaven^ I would not Jight against the Gods, 
i/.6, 128. El vuv ye Svorvxovficv, ink rdLvavrC av 7rpdrTovT€s ov 
a-i^^oifieff av; if we are now unfortunate, how could we help being 
saved if we should do the opposite f Ar. R. 1449 (here vpaTTovres = u 
irpaTTOifUv)' Et ovroi 6p6(a<: airiarrriarav, vfiei^ av ov ^(pewv apxoirc, 
if these had a right to secede, you cannot (could not) possibly hold your 
power rightfully, T. 3, 40. 

2. Sometimes a subjunctive or a future indicative in the 
protasis has a potential optative in the apodosis. E.g. 

*Hv i<l>rjs fwi, Xe^aifi av, if you {wUl) permit me, I would fain 
speak, S.£/. 554; ovSc yap &v TroAAai yi<f)vpajL uxriv, cxoc/iev &y 
oirot <f>vy6vT€9 a-(oO<afjL€v, for not even if there shall be many bridges, 
could we find a place to fly to and be saved,X.A.2,4}^', dSticoii^/Acv 
av, ci fi^ aTToSwo-o), i should be guilty of wrong, should 1 (shall 1) 
not restore her, E. Hel. 1010. 

3. A potential optative (with av) may express a present condi- 
tion, and a potential indicative (with av) may express a present or 
past condition ; as elirep aXX<o no irct.doip.'qv Av, fcat acii irclBopuajL, 
if there is any man whom 1 would trust, I trust you, P. Pr. 329*, ci 
TOVTO i(rxypov §v &v tovto) T€KfnjpLov, KOfUH y€v€<T$o) T€Kfnjpiov, if this 
would have been a strong proof for him, so let it be also a proof /or 
mc, D.49,58. 

1422. The apodosis is sometimes introduced by Se, dAXa, 
or avrap, which cannot be translated in English. E.g. 

El Sc K€ fjirj ScjoKTiv, eyco Be xev avro9 eXtapM, but if they do not give 
her up, then I will take her myself, 11. 1, 137. 

El AFTER Verbs of Wondering, etc. 

1423. Some verbs expressing wonder, delight, contentment, 
disappointment, indignation, etc. are followed by a protasis 
with €1 where a causal sentence would often seem more 
natural. E.g. 

©av/ia^o) 8' lyioy€ ct /xi/Seis vpMv p-yjfT evOvpjurai p.'qr opyC^erai, 
and I wonder that no one of you is either concerned or angry (lit. ly 
no one of you is, etc., 1 wonder), D. 4,43 ; dyava#cra) ci a vow prf otos 
T ct/u ciTTCiv, / am indignant that (or if) I am not able to say what I 
mean, P. Lach. 19i\ See also 1502, 2, for the principle of indirect 
discourse applied to these sentences. 

1424. N. Such verbs are especially Oavfid^o), alcrxvvo/uuu, Ayar 
Trao), and dyavaKrco), with Seivov Iotlv. They sometimes take Sn, 
because, and a causal sentence (1505). 



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1428] * THE MOODS. 305 

VII. RELATIVE AND TEMPORAL SENTENCES. 

1426. The principles of construction of relative clauses include 
all temporal clauses. Those introduced by €(os, irpiv, and other 
particles meaning until, have special peculiarities, and are there- 
fore treated separately (1463-1474). 

Relative clauses may be introduced by relative pronouns or 
adverbs. 

1426. The antecedent of a relative is either definite 
or indefinite. It is definite when the relative refers to 
a definite person or thing, or to some definite time, 
place, or manner ; it is indefinite when no such definite 
person, thing, time, place, or manner is referred to. 
Both definite and indefinite antecedents may be either 
expressed or understood. E.g. 

(^Definite.) Tavra a €\ui opa^, you see these things which I have; 
or a €xo} opfs. 'Ore ipovXcTO rjXOevt {once) when he wished, he came. 

(^Indefinite.) Hdvra a av jSovXcovroi Ifovctv, they will have every- 
thing which they may want ; or a av PovXinvrax €$ovcnv, they will have 
whatever they may want. ''Orav I^XBy, tovto irpaim, when he shall come 
(or when he comes), I will do this. 'Ore PovXoiro, tovto iTrpaororev, 
whenever he wished, he (always) did this. *12? av citto), ttouo/jicv, as I 
shall direct, let us act. *A Ixc* PovXoyjox XaPeiv, I want to take what- 
ever he has. 

DEFINITE ANTECEDENT. 

1427. A relative as such has no effect on the mood 
of the following verb. A relative with a definite ante- 
cedent therefore may take the indicative (with ov for 
its negative) or any other construction which could 
occur in an independent sentence. H.g. 

Tis ^(T^ o x^po? S^t' €v w /SePiJKaiJi^v ; what is the place to which 
we have comef 8.0.0.52. ^Eois cori xaipos, dvnXdpeaOt twv 
vpayfJuoLTiov, (now) while there is an opportunity, take hold of the busi- 
ness, D. 1, 20. Tovto ovk iwoLrfaev, iv <S tov S^fiov irCfirjatv S.v, he did 
not do this, in which he might have honored the people, D. 21, 69. So 
o lui yivoLTO, and may this not happen, D. 27, 67. 

INDEFINITE ANTECEDENT. — CONDITIONAL RELATIVE. 

1428. 1. A relative clause with an indefinite antece- 
dent has a conditional force, and is called a conditional 
relative clause. Its negative is always firj. 



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306 SYNTAX. [1429 

- 2. Relative words, like el, if, take ay before the subjunc- 
tive. (See 1299,2.) With Sre, 67ror£, iirei, and ^ira^, Sy 
forms orav, OTrdrav, i'lrdv or iirqv (lonic CTrcav), and iira8dy. 
"A with av may form av. In Homer we generally find ore 
K€ etc. (like el k€j 1406), or ore etc. alone (1437). 

1429. Conditional relative sentences have four classes, 
two (I. II.) containing present and.jc?a«^, and two (III. 
IV.) containing future conditions, which correspond to 
those of ordinary protasis (1386). Class I. has two 
forms, one (a) with chiefly particular suppositions, the 
other (J) with only general suppositions. 

1430. I. (a) Present or past condition simply stated^ 
with the indicative, — chiefly in particular suppositions 
(1390). E.g. 

"O Ti PovXerai Swo-o), 1 will give Mm whatever lie (now) wishes 
(like €t Ti jSovXcTttt, Swcro), if he now wishes anything j I will give it). 
*A firi otSo, ov8€ oiofjuajL elhivca, what I do not knoWj I do not even think 
I know (like et riva firj oT&i, if there are any things which I do no/ 
know), P.^jo.21*; ovs fJitf cvptcrKov, KCvora<^iOV avroi? ifrotrjaay, 
for any whom they did not find (= ct Ttvas /a^ evpuTKov), they raised 
a cenotaph, X. 6, 4®. 

1431. (J) 1. Present general condition, depending on 
a present form denoting repetition, with subjunctive 
(1393,1). 

2. Past general condition, depending on a past form 
denoting repetition, with optative (1393, 2). JS.y. 

" O rikv PovXrir ai StSw/u, 1 (always) give him whatever he wants 
(like idv ri Povkrfrax, if he ever wants anything)] 6 n fiovXoiro 
cSiSovV) I (always) gave him whatever he wanted (like el tl PovXmto). 
l,v/JLfmx<uv TovTOLg iOeXovaiv awan-cs, ous Av opiacri irapecrKCvaur/jue- 
vovq, all wish to he allies of those whom they see prepared, D. 4, 6. 
*HvtV av otKoi ycvcovrat, ^fmaiv ovk avaxTxeri, when they get home, 
they do things unbearable, Ar. Pa. 1179. Ou? /u£v iSot cvrcucro)? 
tOKTas, TtVcs T€ ctcv ^puiTa, Kal iwel irvOoiro CTnyvct, he (always) 
asked those whom he saw (at any time) marching in good order, who 
they were; and when he learned, he praised them, X. C5,3". "EirciS^ 
8i dvoixBeCri, el(rg€ifiev irapa rov ScoKpan;, and (each morning) 
when the prison was opened, we went in to Socrates, P. PA. 59*. 



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byGoogk 



1437] THE MOODS. 307 

J.432. N. The indicative sometimes takes the place of the sub- 
junctive or optative here, as in other general suppositions (1395). 
This occurs especially with o<TTts, which itself expresses the same 
idea of indefiniteness which os with the subjunctive or optative 
usually expresses; as oar is firj riav dpioTtov airrtrai PovXcvfm- 
Tiov, KoKiaTOi etvoL hoK€Ly whoevev does not cling to the best counsels 
seems to he most base, S.^n.l78. (Here os av /a^ aimjTai would be 
the common expression.) 

1433. 11. Present or past condition stated so as to 
imply that the condition is not or was not fulfilled 
(^supposition contrary/ tofact^^ with the secondary tenses 
of indicative (1397). U.ff. 

*A firf cjSovAcTo Sovvcu, ovk av tSaiKcVf he would not have given 
what he had not wished to give (like el riva firj ipovXero Sovvoll, ovk 
av c&oKcv, if he had not wished to give certain things, he would not 
have given them) . Ovk a v iir€)(eipovfjuev irpdrreiv a fiY^ rf Trier rd fie Oa^ 
we should not (then) be undertaking to do (as we now are) things which 
we did not understand (like et nva fjLtf ^urrdfJieOa, if there were any 
things which we did not understand, the whole belonging to a suppo- 
sition not realized), P. Ch. 171«. So ov yrjpas irerfiev, Od, 1, 218. 

This case occurs much less frequently than the others. 

1434. III. Future condition in the more vivid form, 
with av and the subjunctive (1403). U.g. 

^O Ti av PovXrfrai, Scocro), / will give him whatever he may wish 
(like idv Ti PovXTfroL, Bmaa), if he shall wish anything, 1 will give it), 
^Orav firf aOivm, treirdvo-ofmi, when I {shall) have no more strength, 
I shall cease, S. An.^l. 'AAoxovs koL vt^ul T€Kva aiofiev iv vrj^acriv, 
€Tnpf TnoXltBpcfv €\<i}fi€v,we will bear off their wives and young chil- 
dren in our ships, when we (shall) have taken the city, 11. 4c, 238. 

1436. N". The future indicative cannot be substituted for the 
subjunctive here, as it can in common protasis (1405). 

1436. IV. Future condition in the less vivid form, 
with the optative (1408). JE,g. 

^O Tt PovXoiTo, hoCrfv Slv, 1 should give him whatever he might 
wish (like u tl PovXmto Sovrfv av, if he should wish anything, I should 
give it). iXctvcov ff>dyoi av ^irore PovXolto, if he were hungry, he 
would eat whenever he might wish (like ct ttotc PovXmto, if he should 
ever wish), X.M.2,l^f^. 

1437. Conditional relative sentences have most of the peculi- 
arities and irregularities of common protasis. Thus, the protasis 



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SYNTAX. [1438 

and apodosis may have different forms (1421) ; the relative with- 
out av or K€ is sometimes found in poetry with the subjunctive 
(like €1 for idv or u k€, 1396 ; 1406), especially in general condi- 
tions in Homer ; the relative (like ct, 1411) in Homer may take k€ 
or av with the optative; the relative clause may depend on an 
infinitive, participle, or other construction (1418; 1419) ; and the 
conjunction 3€ may connect the relative clause to the antecedent 
clause (1422). 

1438. Homeric similes often have the subjunctive with wq are 
(occasionally 0*5 or' av), sometimes with ok or d>9 re; as <tfs ore 
Kivrjo-rf Zi<l>vpoq ^aOv A.1710V, as (Jiappens) when the west wind moves 
a deep grain-field, IL2, 147 ; oJs ywr} KXairjcri . . . (Ss'OSvo-ev? 8dxf3ivo¥ 
eljSev, as a wife weeps, etc., so did Ulysses shed tears, Od, 8, 523. 

ASSIMILATION IN CONDITIONAL RELATIVE CLAUSES, 

1439. When a conditional relative clause expressing 
either a future or a general supposition depends on a sub^ 
junctive or optative, it regularly takes the same mood by 
assimilation. E.g. 

'Eav Ttves ot av Svvwvrat tovto voitaa-i, KoXlog cfet, if any who 
maybe able shall do this, it will be well; u Tives <h SvvatvTo rmrro 
woioltv, KaXws av ^xoi, if any who should be (or were) able should 
do this, it would be well. Et^c wavrcs ot Svvat vto rcfuro iroioicv 
that all who may be (or were) able would do this. (Here the opta- 
tive woiolev [1507] makes ot Swatvro preferable to oS av Svvovroi, 
which would express the same idea.) 'ETretSav cSv ov vpirfrai 
Kvpuoq yevrjTca, when (in any case) he becomes master of what he has 
bought, D.18,47. 'Qs dwoAotro Kat aXXos, 6 Tts rocavra ye pefot, 
that any other might likewise perish who should do the like, Od. 1, 47. 
TeOvairfv ore fwi fJirfKeri ravra fieXoi, mxiy I die whenever 1 shaU 
no longer care for these (orav fi-ekri would express the same idea), 
Mimn. 1, 2. So in Latin: Injurias quas ferre nequeas defngiendo 
relinquas. 

1440. Likewise, when a conditional relative sentence 
depends on a secondary tense of the indicative implying 
the non-fulfilment of a condition, it takes. by assimilation 
a similar form. E.g. 

Et Ttvcs otcSvvavTO TOVTO ewpaiav, Kokm av ei)(ev, if any who 
had been able had done this, it would have been well. Et iv eKelvvf tq 
ffiiixvy T€ Kat tw Tpovia eXeyov iv oTs iTeOpdfifirjv, if I were speak- 
ing to you in the dialect and in the manner in which I had been 



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1447] THE MOODS. 309 

brought up (all introdaced by el ^€vo^ irvyxavov w, if I happened to 
be a foreigner) f F,Ap, 17^. So in Latin : Si solos eos diceres miseros 
quibus moriendum esset, nemineni tu quidem eorum qui viverent 
exciperes. 

1441. N. All clauses which come under this principle of assimila- 
tion belong (as conditional forms) equally under 1434, 1436, 1431, or 
1433. This principle often decides which form shall be used in future 
conditions (1270, 2). 

RELATIVE CLAUSES EXPRESSING PURPOSE. 

1442. The relative with the future indicative may ex- 
press 3, purpose. E.g. 

Upeo-peiav Tri/JLireLv i]TL^ ravr ipei Koi Trap cor at rots irpdyfJUKTiVf 
to send an embassy to say this, and to be present at the transactions, 
D.1,2. Ov yap €<m fwi xpTj/juiTa, biroBtv iKTL(r(i),for 1 have no 
money to pay the fine with, F.Ap.^7^. 

The antecedent here may be definite or indefinite; but the 
negative particle is always /at}, as in final clauses (1364). 

1443. N. Homer generally has the subjunctive (with kc joined 
to the relative) in this construction after primary tenses, and the 
optative (without kI) after secondary tenses. The optative is 
sometimes found even in Attic prose. The earlier . Greek here 
agrees with the Latin. 

1444. N. In this construction the future indicative is very 
rarely changed to the future optative after past tenses. 

RELATIVE CLAUSES EXPRESSING RESULT. 

1445. The relative with any tense of the indicative, or 
with a potential optative, may express a result. The negar 
tive is ov. E.g. 

Tti ovTo) fjuuverai wttls ov PovXerai crot <I>lXo^ ctvai; who is so 
mad that he does not wish to be your friend f X.A.2, 5^'-^. (Here 
(SoTC ov PovXerai would have the same meaning.) Ov8€i$ av yeyoiTo 
ovTO)? a&Lfmvnvos, os av fieivcuv iv rrj Sticatoorvia;, no one would ever 
become so like adamant that he would remain firm in his justice 
(= (SoTC fULV€i€v av), V.Rp. 360^. 

1446. N. This is equivalent to the use of cSotc with the finite 
words (1450; 1454). It occurs chiefly after negative leading 
clauses or interrogatives implying a negative. 

1447. The relative with a future (sometimes a present) 



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310 SYNTAX. [1448 

indicative may express a result which is aimed at. The 
negative here is /tiy. E.g. 

Ei);(€TO firjScfuav ol avvTvxtrjv ycvco^ot, rj fuv iravcrei Karaarpe- 
ij/aKTOcu T^v EvpwTnyv, he prayed that no such chance might be/all him 
as to prevent him from subjugating Europe (= wore fuv Travoxu), Hd. 
7,54. 'BovXrfieU toiovtov fivr^fjueiov KaraXiireiv o firj r^ avOpinnrivrji 
<^vo-c(os coTtv, when he wished to leave such a memorial as might be 
beyond human nature ( = (Sore firj ctvat), 1.4,89. 

1448. N. This construction (1447) is generally equivalent to 
that of w<TT€ with the infinitive (1450). 

CONSECUTIVE CLAUSES WITH THE INFINITIVE AND 
THE FINITE MOODS. 

1449. "Ho-Te (sometimes w), so as^ so that^ is used 
with the infinitive and with the indicative to express 
a result. 

1450. With the infinitive (the negative being /atJ), the 
result is stated as one which the action of the leading verb 
tends to produce; with the indicative (the negative being 
ov)y as one which that action actually does produce. E.g. 

Uav •jTOiovo'Lv (Sore &K17V firj Sihovai, they do everything so as 
(i.e. in such a way as) not to be punished, i.e. they aim at not being 
punished, not implying that they actually escape ; P. (r.479^ (But 
irav irouyva-Lv wa-rc SUrp/ ovStSdacrtv would mean they do everything 
so that they are not punished.) Outws dyva)/xdvo)s ^x^re, oxrrc iXirt- 
i€T€ avra xpV^'^o. yein^a-eaOau, are you so senseless that you expect 
them to become goodf D.2,26. (But with wore ikTrC^tivihe mean- 
ing would be so senseless as to expect, i.e. senseless enough to expect, 
without implying necessarily that you do expect.) 

1451. N. These two constructions are essentially distinct in 
their nature, even when it is indifferent to the general sense 
which is used in a given case ; as in ovtws iarl Seivos wore Sucij¥ 
pJrj SiSovaL, he is so skilful as not to be punished, and ovra>s cort 
SeLvos cSoTC SUrp/ ov SiSioaiv, he is so skUfulthat he is not punished. 

The use of /tiy with the infinitive and of ov with the indicative 
shows that the distinction was really felt. When the infinitive 
with (SoTc has ov, it generally represents, in indirect discourse, an 
indicative with ov of the direct form (see Moods and Tenses, 
§§ 594-598). 

1452. The infinitive with taa-re may express a purpose like a 



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1460] THE MOODS. 311 

final clause : see tLare SiKrjv firj &8ovai (= iva firf &3aKri), quoted in 
1450. It may also be equivalent to an object clause with mr<oq 
(1372) ; as in ix-qxavas evp-qaoficv, wot' €« to irav 0"€ twvS* &miXXdiai 
iroviiWy we will find devices to wholly free you from these troubles 
(= OTTCDS <T€ AiraWaiofuv), A,Eu.S2. 

1453. The infinitive after ware sometimes expresses a 
condition, like that after €<^' w or €<^' wre (1460). E.g, 

*Ef ov avToi5 Twv XoiTTW apxc^v 'EAXiyvcDv, wo't' avrous viraKOveiv 
fiaucriXcL, it being in their power to rule the rest of the Greeks, on condi- 
tion that they should themselves obey the King, D.6, 11. 

1454. As w<TT€ with the indicative has no effect on the mood 
of the verb, it may be used in the same way with any verbal form 
which can stand in an independent sentence; as Jot' ovk av ovtov 
yvwpLcraifjLij so that I should not know him, E. Or. 379; wotc firf 
Xujuy crT€V€, so do not lament overmuch, S.-E/. 1172. 

1455. N". *09 T€ (never cSotc) in Homer has the infinitive only 
twice ; elsewhere it means simply as, like ia<nr€p. 

1456. *Os is sometimes used like ojottc with the infinitive 
and the finite moods, but chiefly in Aeschylus, Sophocles, 
Herodotus, and Xenophon. 

1457. N. Verbs, adjectives, and nouns which commonly take 
the simple infinitive occasionally have the infinitive with (Sotc or 
<5s ; as ^<^ura/Jievoi (iSorc dfivvciv, having voted to defend them, T. 6, 
88 ; TreCOovo-iv (aare ivL^eiprjo-aL, they persuade them to make an 
attempt, T. 3, 102 ; <l>fyovi,fjLWT€fyoi wore fmOeiv, wiser in learning, 
X. (7.4, 3^1; oXtyoi aJs iyKparcLS ctvat, too few to have the power, 
X. C. 4, 5^^ ; AvdyKYf cSotc Kiv8vv€v€Lv, a necessity of incurring risk, 
1.6,51. 

1458. N. In the same way (1457) cSotc or c5s with the infinitive 
may follow the comparative with rj (1531) ; as cXarro) €XovTa 
Svvafuv ^ (Sotc tov^ <^iXovs w<^€\ctv, having too little power to aid his 
friends, X, HA, S^, 

1459. N. ^'Qare or cfc is occasionally followed by a participle ; 
as (Sotc a-Keil/aaOai Scov, so that we must consider, D.3, 1. 

1460. "Ei^' ^ or €<^* ^re, on condition thaty is followed by 
the infinitive, and occasionally by the future indicative. E.g. 

*A<l>Ufi€v crc, iwl rcfUTfo /jlcvtoi, i<t>* wre firjKirL <l>L\ocro<t>eLv, we 
release you, but on this condition, that you shall no longer be a philoso- 
pher, 'P,Ap.29^', iTTL TOVT(0 VTre^LOTafmi, €<^' (0T€ VTT OV^O^ V/JL€(i}V 

dpiofJi.ai, I withdraw on this condition, that 1 shall be ruled by none 
of you, Hd.3,83. 

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312 SYNTAX. [1461 

CAUSAL RELATIVE. 

1461. A relative clause may express a cause. The verb 
is in the indicative, as in causal sentences (1505), and the 
negative is generally ov. E.g. 

©avfJucuTTov wotcts, OS rffuv ovSev 8i Scosj you do a strange thing in 
giving us nothing (like on av ovSev 818(05), X. Af.2,7^^; 80^9 oLftaBfa 
;c7vat, OS . . . €K€A,cv€, believing him to he unlearned, because he 
commanded, etc., Hd. 1, 33. 

Compare causal relative sentences in Latin. 

1462. N. When the negative is fi-q, the sentence is conditional 
as well as causal ; as TaXatirtopo^ ct, w fjLtJTe $€ol irarpwH, elm, ^Lrfi 
Upd, you are wretched, since you have neither ancestral gods nor tem- 
ples (implying also if you really have none), P. J^w. 302*>. Compare 
the use of siguidem in Latin. 

TEMPORAL PARTICLES SIGNIFYING UNTIL AND 

BEFORE. 

'^(i»s, 2a-Tc, ftxpi*) H^P*') ^^^ £^pa. 

1463. When Iws, icrre, dxph H-^XPh ^.Tid the epic 6<l>pa mean 
while, so long as, they are not distinguished in their use 
from other relatives. But when they mean until, they have 
many peculiarities. Homer has eitys or ctws for Ico?. 

1464. When ۩99 ea-re^ ^XP^^ f^^XP^'* ^^^ o(f>pcu, until, 
refer to a definite past action they take the indicative, 
usually the aorist. JS.gf. 

'Srjxov ttoXlv, cIos iirvjkOov cts irorafiov, I swam on again, untU 
I came into a river, Od. 7, 2S0. Tavra i-jroLOw, i*'^xp^ ctkotois iye- 
v€To, this they did until darkness came on, X.^.4,2*. 

This is the construction of the relative with a definite antece- 
dent (1427). ^ 

1465. These particles follow the construction of con- 
ditional relatives in both forms of future conditions, in 
unfulfilled conditions, and in present and past general 
suppositions. U.gi, 

"EttiVxcs, i^(TT av Kol TO, Xotwd irpoKTyLaBri^, wait until you (shall) 
learn the rest besides (1434), A. Pr. 697. 'Eliroip! &v . . . lo)? irapa- 
TCLvaifii TovTov, 1 should tell him, etc., until I put him to torture 
(1436), X.C 1,311. 'HSccDs av rovrt^ tri hifX^yoprqv, Ita^ aimS . . . 
SiTriBtoKa, I should (in that case) gladly have continued to talk toith 



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1471] THE MOODS. 313 

him until I had given him back, etc. (1433), P. G. 506 . ''A S* &v 
acrvvTOJCTa ^, AvdyKrf ravra act TrpdyfAara irape^eiVy ea)$ Slv xtapav 
XdPy, whatever things are in disorder , these must always make trouble 
until they are put in order (1431, 1), X.C4, S*'. Hepufievofuv 
cKooTorc, co)s avoi\B€.iri to SccrfKOTi^pLov, we waited each day until 
the prison was opened (1431, 2), P. Ph. 59^. 

1466. N. The omission of av after these particles, when the 
verb is in the subjunctive, is more common than it is after d or 
ordinary relatives (1406), occurring sometimes in Attic prose ; as 
fUxpf' vAoSs yeKiyrai, until the ship saHs, T. 1, 137. 

1467. Clauses introduced by cws etc. frequently imply a pur- 
pose; see the examples nnder 1465. When such clauses depend 
upon a past tense, they admit the double construction of indirect 
discourse (1502, 3), like final clauses (1369). 

1468. N. Homer uses cts o kc, until, like Iws k€ ; and Herodotus 
uses h 6 and h ov like ccds. 

npCv, before, until. 

1469. npiv is followed by the infinitive, and also 
(like ew?) by the finite moods. 

1470. In Homer irpiv generally has the infinitive without 
reference to its meaning or to the nature of the leading 
verb. But in other Greek it has the infinitive chiefly when 
it means simply before and when the leading clause is 
affirmative; it has the finite moods only when it means 
urUU (as well as before), and chiefly when the leading verb 
is negative or implies a negative. It has the subjunctive 
and optative only after negatives. 

1471. 1. Examples of irpiv wffch the infinitive : — 

Noic Se HrfSawy irpiv iXOeiv vlas *Axauav, and he dwelt in 
Pedaeum before the coming of the sons of the Achaeans, //. 13,172 
(here wpiv iXOciv = irpo tov iXBeiv) . Ov p! airorrpi^pu^ irpXv x«Ak<j? 
p^axicraa-Bai, you shall not turn me away before (i.e. untU) we have 
fought together, 11.20,267 (here the Attic would prefer Trptv Av 
fAax€(nopjeOd). 'AiroTrip^irovcriv avrov irplv d koO era t, they send him 
away before hearing him, T.2, 12. Mco-oTynyv ctXo^Acv vplv Ilepcras 
Xafieiv Tiyv jSooriXcuzv, we took Messene before the Persians obtained 
their kingdom, 1.6,26. Hplv ta^ " A<l>oPov cX^civ pXav •^p.ipav ovk 
€xrip€V(r€v, she was not a widow a single day before she went to Apho- 
bus, D. 30, 33 (here the infinitive is required, as irpiv does not mean 
until). 

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314 SYNTAX. [1472 

2. Examples of irptV, untUy with the indicative (generally 
after negatives), and with the subjunctive and optative 
{always after negatives), the constructions being the same 
as those with co)? (1464-1467) : — 

OvK Yfv dXi^rffi ovSky, irptV y cyw (r<^wrtv eSet^o, etc., there was 
no relief, until I showed them, etc. (1464), A.Pr.479. Ov ^xri f^ 
ivOivSc aTr€\$€iVt irpiiv &v 8«i> &X17V, 1 miLst not depart hence until I am 
punished (1434), X. An. 5, 7^. Ovk &v ct&ii;^ vpiv ir€ip7f$ei7f^, you 
cannot know until you have tried it (1436), Theog.125. '£;(p^ /i^ 
wporepoy avfifiovX€v€iv, irpiv i^/tas cSiSafav, etc., they ought not to 
have given advice until they had instructed us, etc. (1433), 1.4,19. 
'Opoxri T<ns irp€a'l3vT€pov9 ov irpoaOev airiovTas, irpiv &v d^a»o-£y 01 
apxavrt^, they see that the elders never go away until the authorities 
dismiss them (1431, 1), 'K,Cy, 1, 2^ 'ATnyyopcvc firf^eya jSoAXciv, irpiv 
Kvpoq ifnrXrjorO €17) Orjpiov, he forbade any one to shoot until Cyrus 
should be sated with the hunt (1467; 1502, 3), X.C. 1,4". 

1472. N. In Homer irpiv y ore (never the simple irpiv) is used 
with the indicative, and jrpCv y or av (sometimes irptv, without 
av) with the subjunctive. 

1473. N. IIpiV, like €<jk etc. (1466), sometimes has the subjunc- 
tive without dv, even in Attic Greek ; as prj orcwfc wplv fm&gsy do 
not lament before you know, S. Ph. 917. 

1474. Uplv Tj (a developed form for irpCv) is used by Herodotus 
(rarely by Homer), and irpcrtpov tj, sooner than, before, by Herodo- 
tus and Thucydides, in most of the constructions of irpiv. So 
irdpoi, before, in Homer with the infinitive. Even varepoy ^, later 
than, once takes the infinitive by analogy. E.g. 

Uplv yap ^ OTTiO-io crff^ias avairXiiia'ai, ijAco 6 Yipoifro^, for before 
they had sailed back, Croesus uxis taken, Hd. 1,78. OvSc rjBeaay 
irporepov rj irtp lirvBovro Tprfxt-vtinv, they did not even know of it 
until they heard from the Trachinians, Hd. 7, 175. M^ airavurraxr&ai 
diro TTJs 'TToAios irporepov ^ cfcXwcri, not to withdraw from, the city^ 
until they capture it, Hd.9,86. TLporepov ^ alfrOiirOai avrous, be- 
fore they perceived them, T. 6, 58. See T. 1, 69 ; 2, 65. Titcva ii€ikovTo 
Trap OS v€T€rjva y€V€cr$ai, they took away the nestlings before they 
were fledged, Od.16,218. So also Irtoiv varepov CKarov rj avnns 
oliaja-aL, a hundred years after their oion settlement, T.6,4. 

VIII. INDIRECT DISCOURSE OR ORATIO OBLIQUA. 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

1475. A direct quotation or question gives the exact 



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1481] THE MOODS. 315 

words of the original speaker or writer (i.e. of the oratio 
recta). In an indirect quotation or question (oratio 
obliqim) the original words conform to the construction 
of the sentence in which they are quoted. 

Thus the words ravra PovXofiai may be quoted either 
directly, Acyct tis "raOra jSovAo/tat," or indirectly, Acyct ns ort 
ravra PovXerat or iftrfcri ns ravra PovXeaOoL, some one says that he 
wishes for this. So ipittrf " rt PovXci ;" he asks, " what do you want f " 
but indirectly iporra rC PovXeroL, he asks what he wants, 

1476. Indirect quotations may be introduced by ort 
or C09, that^ with a finite verb, or by the infinitive (as 
in the above example) ; sometimes also by the participle. 

1477. N. 'Ort, that, may introduce even a direct quotation ; as 
cTttov OTi iKavoi i<T/jL€v, they said, " we are able," X,A. 5,4^^ 

1478. 1. "Ottois is sometimes used like cSs, that, especially in 
poetry; as tovto /jltJ jjuol <t>paCi oirmq ovk ct xaxo?, S.O.T.SdS. 

2. Homer rarely has o (neuter of os) for an, that; as Xewiirvrt 
yap TO ye irdvres, o fwt yipa% IpxtTai aXKrj, for you all see this, that 
my prize goes another way. It. 1, 120 ; so 5, 433. 

8. OvvcKa and o^owcko, that, sometimes introduce indirect quo- 
tations in poetry. 

1479. Indirect qitestions follow the same principles as 
indirect quotations with on or a)9, in regard to their 
moods and tenses. 

For the words used to introduce indirect questions, see 1605 
and 1606. 

1480. The term indirect discourse applies to all clauses (even 
single clauses in sentences of different construction) which indi- 
rectly express the words or thought of any person, even those of 
the speaker himself (see 1502). 

1481. Indirect quotations after on and 0)9 and indirect 
questions follow these general rules : — 

1. After primary tenses, each verb retains both the mood 
and the tense of the direct discourse. 

2. After past tenses, each indicative or subjunctive of the 
direct discourse may be either changed to the same tense 
of the optative or retained in its original mood and tense. 
But all secondary tenses of the indicative in unreal condi- 
tions (1397 ; 1433) and all optatives remain unchanged. 

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316 SYNTAX. [1482 

1482. N. The imperfect and pluperfect, having no tenses in 
the optative, generally remain unchanged in all kinds of sen- 
tences (but see 1488). The aorist indicative likewise remains 
imchanged when it belongs to a dependent clause of the direct 
discourse (1497, 2). (See 1499.) 

1483. When the quotation depends on a verb which 
takes the infinitive or participle, its leading verb is changed 
to the corresponding tense of the infinitive or participle (of 
being retained when there is one), and its dependent verbs 
follow the preceding rule (1481). 

1484. "Av is never omitted with the indicative or optative 
in indirect discourse, if it was used in the direct form ; but 
when a particle or a relative word has av with the subjunc- 
tive in the direct form, as in idv, orav, os &/, etc. (1299, 2), 
the 3v is dropped when the subjunctive is changed to the 
optative after a past tense in indirect discourse. 

1485. N". "Av is never added in indirect discourse when it was 
not used in the direct form. 

1486. The negative particle of the direct discourse is 
regularly retained in the indirect form. (But see 1496.) 

SIMPLE SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

Indicative and Optative after Stx and ms, and in Indirect 
Questions. 

1487. After primary tenses an indicative (without av) 
retains both its mood and its tense in indirect discourse. 
After past tenses it is either changed to the same tense 
of the optative or retained in the original mood and 
tense. U^g. 

Acyct oTi ypd<l>€i, he says that he is writing; Xeyet ori iypa<l>€v, 
he says that he was tvriting; Acyct ori lypai/rcv, Ae says that he torote; 
\€$€i oTt y€ypa<l>evj he will say that he has written, *Epcjr^ ri 
fiovXovrai, he asks what they want; dyvoSi ri woi'ja-ova'iv, I do 
not know what they will do. 

Etircv OTt ypd<l>0L OT &riypd<l>€L, he said that he teas wridng (he 
said ypd<l><o). Etwcv on ypdif/oi or ori ypdipet, he said that ht 
would write (he said ypaxj/w). ETirev on ypdij/eiev or ori l[ypatp€v, 
he said that he had written (he said (Lypaxj/a, I wrote), Etircv &n 
yeypafjxas ctrj or on y€ypa<f>€v, he said that he had written (he 
said ycypa^o^ / have written). 

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1490] THE MOODS. 317 

(Opt.) ^EireLpiOfirfv avr<5 hciKyvvoA, on o tot to fuv ctvai <T0<t>09i elrf 
8* ov, / tried to show him that he believed himself to he wise, hut was 
not so (i.e. otcrot jjuev . . . cart 8* ou), P.^p.21°. 'Yirenruiv ort avros 
TOKCi Trpd^oL, ^X^ro, hinting that he would himself attend to things 
there, he departed (he said avros TcUct irpaini), T. 1,90. "EXt^av ort 
ir€fi.\l/ei€ o-c^as o 'IvSwv ^ao-tXcvs, Kiktviav Ipunav €^ orov 6 voA.€/xos 
ctiy, /^cy sai<i ^Aai the king of the Indians had sent them, command- 
ing them to ask on what account there was war (they said cttc^cv 
ripJas, and the question was ck rtVos co-rtv 6 woXc/xos;), X. (7.2.4'^. 
*Hp€TO €? Tts tpxyc €ir) arofjyiaTepo^, he asked whether there was any one 
wiser than I (i.e. lort ns o'o<^a)r€po? ;), P. Ap. 21*. 

(Indic.) ■''EAcyoi/ ort cX-Trtfovo-t o-c Kat t^v ttoAxv Ifctv /tot 
Xopcvj <^«y saic? <Aa^ <Acy Aoperf you anrf ^Ae state would he grateful to 
me, 1 . 5, 23. *Hkc 8* dyy cAAwv rts cos 'EAarcta k a t c t X iy w t a t, some 
one was come with a report that Elatea had been taken (here the per- 
fect optative might have been used), D.18, 169. 'Awo/cptm/Licvot ort 
IT € puf/ ov a- 1 -Trpco-jScts, €vOvs ajn^XXaiav, having replied that they 
would send ambassadors, they dismissed them at once, T. 1, 90. 'Hwo- 
povv Ti TTOTC Acyct, / was uncertain what he meant (tl wore Xcyct;), 
P. Ap. 21*'. 'E)8ov\€W)rro tlv avrau KaraXeCil/ovaLv, they were 
considering {the question) whom they should leave here, D. 19, 122. 

1488. N. Occasionally the present optative represents the im- 
perfect indicative in this construction; as airtKpivavro ort ovSets 
fjuiprvs trap €171, they replied that there had been no witness present 
(o^ts 7ra/5^v), D.30,20 (here the context makes it clear that Trapeitf 
does not stand for Trdpcari). 

1489. 1. In a few cases the Greek changes a present indicative 
to the imperfect, or a perfect to the pluperfect, in indirect discourse, 
instead of retaining it or changing it to the optative; as iv dvoptq. 
^crav, cvi'oovfievot ort cwt rats ^ao-tXcws Ovpaig ^a-av, 'TrpovScSo)- 
icco'av 8c avrous ot pdpfiapoi, they were in despair, considering that 
they were at the King's gates, and that the barbarians had betrayed 
them, X.i4.3. l^. (See the whole passage.) This is also the Eng- 
lish usage. 

2. In Homer this is the ordinary construction : see Od.3,166. 

Subjunctive or Optative representing the Interrogative 
Subjunctive. 

1490. An interrogative subjunctive (1358), after a 
primary tense, retains its mood and tense in an indirect 
question ; after a past tense, it may be either changed 



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318 SYNTAX. [1491 

to the same tense of the optative or retained in the sub- 
junctive. E.g. 

BovAcvo/iiu oirois €rt d'troipSij I am trying to think how I shcUl 
escape you (ink o-c avo&pSi;), X.C.1,4". Ovk oTS* ct Xpycavr^ 
TovTif 8u), I do not know whether I shall give (them) to Chrysantcu 
here, i6k/.8,4". Ovk Ix<»> ^^' ctiro), / do not know what I shall say 
(tC dw(of)f D.9,54. Cy. Non habeo quid dicam. "EinypovTO ci 
iropoSoicv rrp^ iroXiv, they asked whether they should give up the city 
(Trapa&Sifijev rrfv iroXiv; shall we give up the cityf), T.1,25. 'HTropct 
o Ti xpi^aaiTo Ti} irpdyfWTi, he was at a loss how to deal with the 
matter (ji XPW^M^ Oi X.fr.7,4'®. *E)8ov\cwrro ciTf KaraKav- 
(Toxrtv etrc ri aXXo ;(pi^(To>vrat, they were deliberating whether 
they should bum them or dispose of them in some other way, T.2,4. 

1491. N. In these questions d (not idv) is used for whether, 
with both subjunctive and optative (see the second example in 
1490). 

1492. N. An interrogative subjunctive may be changed to the 
optative when the leading verb is optative, contrary to the general 
usage of indirect discourse (1270, 2) ; as ovk Av ix^^ otlxpv^^^^ 
(rayrtf, you would not know what to do with yourself, P. 6r.486^ 

Indicative or Optativb with &v. 

1493. An indicative or optative with av retains its mood 
and tense (with av) unchanged in indirect discourse after 
oTi or ws and in indirect questions. E.g. 

Acyct (or l^eyev) oTi tovto Av iyivero, he says (or said) that 
this would have happened; iXeyev &n ovro^ ^icaicos av awoOdvoLj he 
said that this man would justly die. *Hpo>T(i)v d SoZcv av to, irurrd, 
they asked whether they would give the pledges (BoCqTe av;), X.-4.4,8^ 

Infinitive and Participle in Indirect Discourse. 

1494. Each tense of the infinitive or participle in in- 
direct discourse represents the tense of the &iite verb 
which would be used in the direct form, the present 
and perfect including the imperfect and pluperfect. 
Each tense with av can represent the corresponding 
tenses of either indicative or optative with dv. E.g. 

'Appmareiv vpotfxurLl^erai, he pretends that he is sick, i(iifUHT€y 
App<i}<TT€tv TovTovC, he took an oath that this man was sick, D. 19, 124. 
Karaax^iv ffyqin tovtovs, he says that he detained them, t6uf . 39. 



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1497] THE MOODS. 319 

'E<^ XprilUMff lavrt^ raui ®ijl3atov^ iwiKtKTfpvx^vai, he said that 
the Thehans had offered a retoardfor him, ibid, 21. *E?rayycXAcr<u tcI 
StKOM voi'jaeiVfhe promises to do what is right , ibid, 4b. 

''HyyciXc Tovrous ipxofiivovs, he announced that these were 
coming (pvroi Ipxcnrrax) ; dyyeXXu tovtov% i\6ovra^,he announces 
that these came (ovrot ^X^ov) ; dyyeXXet rcmro y€vrf<r6fi€vov, he 
announces that this unit be done; rjyytike tovto yivrjaofitvoVf 
he announced that this tpotdd be done; ijfyyciXc tovto ytytvrffiivoVf 
he announced that this had been done (tovto yeycn/rot). 

See examples of av with infinitive and participle in 1308. For 
the present infinitive and participle as imperfect, see 1285 and 1289. 

1495. The infinitive is said to stand in indirect discourse, and 
its tenses correspond to those of the finite moods, when it depends 
on a verb implying thought or the expression of thought, and when 
also the thought, as originally conceived, would have been expressed 
by some tense of the indicative (with or without Siv) or optative 
(with av), so that it can be transferred without change of tense to 
tiie infinitive. Thus in PovXerai iXOelv, he wishes to go, iX$€Lv 
represents no form of either aorist indicative or aorist optative, 
and is not in indirect discourse. But in <l}rfalv i\0€lv, he says that 
he went, iXOeiv represents r}XOov of the direct discourse. (See Greek 
Moods and Tenses, § 684.) 

1496. The regular negative of the infinitive and participle in 
indirect discourse is ov, but exceptions occur. Especially the 
infinitive after verbs of hoping, promising, and swearing (see 1286) 
regularly has fiiq for its negative ; as wfivuc fii/Scv tlfyrfKcvai, he swore 
that he had said nothing, D.21, 119. 

INDIRECT QUOTATION OP COMPLEX SENTENCES. 

1497. 1. When a complex sentence is indirectly 
quoted, its leading verb follows the rule for simple 
sentences (1487-1494). 

2. After primary tenses the dependent verbs retain 
the same mood and tense. After past tenses, dependent 
primary tenses of the indicative and all dependent sub- 
junctives may either be changed to the same tense of 
the optative or retain their original mood and tense. 
When a subjunctive becomes optative, dv is dropped, edv^ 
Brav, etc. becoming et, Xre, etc. But dependent second- 
ary tenses of the indicative remain unchanged. JE.ff, 

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320 SYNTAX. [1498 

l.*Av v/icis \4yrfTe, iroirjo'tiv (<l>rfalv) o fkiffr aJurxyvrp^ iJi'qT 
dSo${av avTiD <l>€p€L, if you (shall) say so, he says he will do whatever 
does not bring shame or discredit to him, D. 19, 41. Here no change 
is made, except in ironTo-civ (1494). 

2. 'AireKpCvaro art fiav$dvoi€v a avK iiricrraivTo, he replied, 
that they were learning what they did not understand (he said fiavOd- 
vova-iv a ovk cVtoTavrat, which might have been retained), F,Eu. 
276^ £i Tiva <^cvyoyra Ai/i/^oiro, vpovjyopevfv on ais iroAc/u<u 
XpTJcoiTo, he announced that, if he should catch any one running 
away, he should treat him as an enemy (he said a Ttva k-qij/ofuu, -xpnfj- 
(TOfuu), X. C 3, 1' (1405). No/u^on/, otra Trj% Troktio^ irpoXdfioi, 
irdvra ravra ^€^0X0^: ticiv, believing that he should hold all those 
places securely which he should take from the city beforehand (oc* av 
'7rpoXdp<a, cf<i)), D. 18, 26. *^^k€1 fwt Tavrrj trtipaffBai afoO^vax, ivOv- 
fjLovfjLcyi^ on, iav filv XdOio, (ruyOrjcofiai, it seemed best to me to try 
to gain safety in this way, thinking that, if I should escape notice, 
I should be saved (we might have had £t XuBotfu, crtaOrjaoifirp/), 
L. 12,15. '^<f>axrav roiis avS/oas dwoKTeveiv oSs (-XOVfTi {^(uvTas> 
they said that they should kill the men whom they had alive (airoKTc- 
vovp.€v ai^ exofJAVi which might have been changed to diroKTcveiv 
ous €xoi€v), T.2,5. Upo&YfXov rjv (tovto) ifroficvoVf d piq kcdAv- 
€r€T€, it was plain that this would be so unless you should prevent 
(JLiTTajL, €t pri KiiiXv<T€T€, which might have become £i p,rf KcuXixroirc), 
Aesch.3,90. 

'HXTTtfov Toiv^ "SiLKeXoiv^ Tavrrj, ous /ucrcTrc/xi/favro, oTravrrj- 
or€aOai, they hoped the Sikels whom they had sent for would meet them 
here, T. 7, 80. 

1498. One verb may be changed to the optative while another 
is retained; as hqkoiora^ ori eroLpjot €l<n pdx'^o-Oai, c? rt$ ^^ipxoiroy 
having shown that they were ready to fight if any one should come 
forth (eroipjoi €<Tp£v, idv tis €$€pxrirai), X. C. 4, 1^. This sometimes 
causes a variety of constructions in the same sentence. 

1499. The aorist indicative is not changed to the aorist opta- 
tive in dependent clauses, because in these the aorist optative gen- 
erally represents the aorist subjunctive. 

The present indicative is seldom changed to the present optative 
in dependent clauses, for a similar reason. 
For the imperfect and pluperfect, see 1482. 

1500. N. A dependent optative of the direct form of course 
remains unchanged in all indirect discourse (1481, 2). 

1501. N. Occasionally a dependent present or perfect indica- 
tive is changed to the imperfect or pluperfect, as in the leading 
clause (1489). 

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1602J THE MOODS. 321 

1502. The principles of 1497 apply also to all depen- 
dent clauses after past tenses, which express indirectly 
the past thought of any person. This applies especially 
. to the following constructions : — 

1. Clauses depending on an infinitive after verbs of wish- 
ing, commanding, advising, and others which imply thought 
but do not take the infinitive in indirect discourse (1495). 

2. Clauses containing a protasis with the apodosis implied 
in the context (1420), or with the apodosis expressed in a 
verb like tfavfu££w (1423). ^ 

3. Temporal clauses expressing a past intention, purpose, 
or expectation, especially those introduced by lens or irpCv, 

4. Even ordinary relative sentences, which would regu- 
larly take the indicative. 

(1) *EPcv\ovTo iXOelv, ci tovto ycvoiro, they wished to go if this 
should happen, (We might have cotv tovto yivrjrai, expressing 
the form, if this shall happen^ in which the wish would be conceived). 
Here cX^civ is not in indirect discourse (1495). *EKeA.€vo-cv o ti 
SvvaivTo Xaj3oKra9 /xcTa&cjKCiv, he commanded them to take what 
they could and pursue (we might have o ri av Swwvrai, represent- 
ing o Ti av 8wi/o"tfc), X. C. 7, 3'^. TLpotiirov avrois /i^ vavyjuxuv 
"KopivOioi^, yv firj CTTt KcpKvpav irXioxri koL /acXXcdo-if dTrojSotVav, 
they instructed them not to engage in a sea-fight with Corinthians, 
unless these should be sailing against Corcyra and should be on the 
point of landing (we might have €i fi^ TrXeotcv kcI /acXXoicv), 
T.1,45. 

(2) ^XaKa9 av/iTTC/ATTCi, oiroxs <l>v\tLTToi€v avTovy Kcl CI T<av dypuuv 
Ti ^av€irf Bripiiov, he sends (sent) guards, to guard him and (to be 
ready) in case any of the savage beasts should appear (the thought 
being idv ti <l>avS), X.C.1,47. TSXXa, ^v in vavpaxdv ot 'A^ 
wubi ToXftiJo-wo-t, irap^fTKevaCovro, they made the other preparations, 
(to be ready) in case the Athenians should still venture a naval battle, 
T.7,59. "CkKTCipov, a aXwo-otvTo, they pitied them, if they were 
to be captured (the thought being we pity them if they are to be 
captured, el dXiaa-ovrai, which might be retained), X.-4.1,4''. 
*E;^poF dyaTWV et Tts Ida-oi, I rejoiced^ being content if any one 
would let it pass (the thought was ayairS) el Tts cao-ci), P.-R/?.450». 
*E0avfwi€v d Tis dpyvpcov irparroiro, he wondered that any one 
demanded money, X. M. 1, 2' ; but in the same book (1, 1") we find 
iOavfJuaie 8* ei fi^ fftavepov avrois ia'Tiv,he wondered that it was not 
plain. 



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322 SYNTAX. [1603 

(3) Sirov8a9 ciroii/aavro lutq d-irayycX^cii; rot Xt^hna as Aojce- 
&ufu>i^ they made a truce, (to continue) until what had been said 
should be reported at Sparta (their thought was ecus av Sltt ay ycXOy), 
X.ir.3,2» Ov yap ^ ericas airUi 6 $€0^ r^ ^iroLKlyfi, vplv ^ 
SuriKiavrai is avrrjv Aip-uTjVffor the God did not mean to release 
them from the colony untU they should actually come to Libya (we 
might have a'triKOivTo), Hd.4,157. Mei/ovrcs earajo-av oirtrore irvp- 
yo9 Tpcuoiv 6piArj(r€i€, they stood waiting until (for the time when) 
a column should rush upon the Trojans, 11. 4, 334. 

(4) Km yT€€ urjpa iS^aOajL, otti pa oi yafiPpoio irapa Upoiroio 
<l>€poiTo, he asked to see the token, which he was bringing (as he 
said) /rom Proetus, 11. Q, 17 Q, KaTrjyoptoy rm AlyiyTfritav ra ire- 
voirJKOi€v TTpoSoKTcs TTfv '^XXdBo, they accused the Aeginetans for 
what (as they said) they had done in betraying Greece, Hd. 6, 49. 

For the same principle in causal sentences, see 1506. 

1503. N. On this principle, clauses introduced by Iva, ottco?, ios, 
6<l>pa, and p.y admit the double construction of indirect discourse, 
and allow the subjunctive or future indicative to stand unchanged 
after past tenses (see 1369). The same principle extends to aU 
conditional and all conditional relative and temporal sentences 
depending on clauses with Iva, etc., as these too belong to the in- 
direct discourse. 

1504. These expressions, by the ellipsis of a verb of 
saying, often mean I do not speak of or not to speak of. 
With ovx an indicative (e.g. Xeyw) was originally under- 
stood, and with /iij an imperative or subjunctive (e.gr. Xiyc 
orctTnys). E.g. • 

O^x OTTCDS ra, a-K€vrj aTriSoa-Oe, dAAa koL ai Ovpai ^^^rjpiraxrOria^av, 
I do not mention your selling the furniture (i.e. not only did you sell 
the furniture), but even the doors were carried off, Lys.19,31, M^ 
OTt Btos, dAAoL KoX avOptHTToi . . . ov <l>tX(nkrL revs aTrtoroiWas, not only 
God (not to speak of God), but also m£n fail to love those who distrust 
them, X. C. 7, 2". IIcTrav/Ltcd' ^/^ts, ovx oirtos <rc irwoaopuev, we have 
been stopped ourselves ; there is no talk of stopping you, S. El. 796. 

When these forms were thus used, the original ellipsis was prob- 
ably never present to the mind. 

IX. CAUSAL SENTENCES. 

1505. Causal sentences express a cause^ and are intro- 
duced by oTi^ 0)9, because^ eVet, CTre^S?;, 2t€, oirore^ since^ 



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1509] THE MOODS. 323 

and by other particles of similar meaning. They have 
the indicative after both primary and secondary tenses. 
The negative particle is oi. E.g. 

KiySero yap Aai/ouuv, on pa OvyaKOvra^ ofiaro, for she pitied the 
Danai, because she saw them dying^ 11. 1, 56. ''Ore rwtff ovrois ^X**» 
TrpoaiJKei wpo&vfJiM^ c^cXciv ojcoveiv, since this is so, it is becoming that 
you should be willing to hear eagerly, D. 1, 1. 

A potential optative or indicative may stand in a causal sen- 
tence : see D.18,49 and 79. 

1506. N. On the principle of indirect discourse (1502), a 
causal sentence after a past tense may have the optative, to imply 
that the cause is assigned on the authority of some other person 
than the writer; as rov XlepucXca cxaKt^ov, on oTparriyb^ wv ovk 
CTTcfayoi, they abused Pericles, because (as they said) being general 
he did not lead them out, T.2,21. (This assigns the Athenians* 
reason for abusing Pericles, but does not show the historian's 
opinion.) 

X. EXPRESSION OF A WISH. 

1507. When a wish refers to the future, it is expressed 
by the optative, either with or without eWe or el yap 
(Homeric also atOe^ at ydp)', that^ if. The nega- 
tive is /Lt?;, which can stand alone with the optative. Mg. 

*Y/Luv $€01 801 ev iKiripa-ai Uptdfioio iroXiv, may the Gods grant ^0 
you to destroy Priam's city, 11, 1, 18. At yap ipxn. too-ot/Jv^ tfcot 81W- 
fuv ir€piO€t€v, that the Gods would clothe m£ with so much strength, 
Orf. 3,205. To ftcv vuv TavraTrpiycro-ots rairtp iv X^P^'- ^X^^^ffi^ 
the present may you continue to do these things which you have now in 
handf Hd.7,5. Et^c <^(Xo9 '^fiiv yivoio, that you may become 
our friend, 'K.HA,!^. Mt/kcti {cj»t;v cyw, may 1 no longer live, 
Ar.i\r. 1256. TtOvairjv, ore /iot fArfKeri, ravra /xeXoi, may I die 
when I shall no longer care for these things (1439), Mimn.1,2. 

The force of the tenses here is the same as in protasis (see 1272). 

1508. In poetry ei alone is sometimes used with the optative in 
wishes ; as e? /lot yivoiro <l>06yyo^ iv Ppaxioaw, that I might find 
a voice in my arms, E. Hec, 836. 

1609. N. The poets, especially Homer, sometimes prefix cos 
(probably exclamatory) to the optative in wishes ; as cos ^itoXolto 
Kfol SXKk Stl^ Totavrd yc pe{(H, likewise let any other perish who 
may do the like, Od. 1,4:7. 



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324 SYNTAX. [1510 

1510. In poetry, especially in Homer, the optative alone some- 
times expresses a concession or permission, sometimes a command or 
exhortation; as a^i? 'Apyciiyv 'EXcn/v McvcXaos ayoiTo, Menelaus 
may take hack Argive Helen, J/. 4, 19. TtOvairj^, c5 IlpoiT,y kot 
tcTav€ B€AAcpo<^dm/v, either die, or kill Bellerophontes, IL 6, 164. 
Here, and in wishes without d, d yap, etc., we probably have an 
original independent use of the optative ; while wishes introduced 
by any form of d are probably elliptical protases. 

(See Appendix I. in Greek Moods and Tenses, pp. 371-389.) 

1611. When a wish refers to the present or the past, 
and it is implied that its object is not or was not at- 
tained^ it is expressed in Attic Greek by a secondary- 
tense of the indicative with eWe or ei ydp^ which here 
cannot be omitted. The negative is fii]. The imper- 
fect and aorist are distinguished here as in protasis 
(1397). Kg. 

'EX$€ TovTo ivoUi, that he were doing this, or that he had 
done this. Et^c Toivro iiroLrja-ev, that he had done this; d yap pif 
cycvcTO TOVTO, that this had not happened. ¥16* ctX^^ )3cA.Ttovs 
<l>p€va^, that thou hadst a better understanding, E. EL 1061. Et yap 
Toa-avrrjv Svmfuv ctxov, that I had so great power, E. -4/. 1072. 
Et^c <roi t6t€ (rvv€y€v6pYfv, that I had then met with you, 
X.3f.l.2^. 

*1512. The aorist cw^cXov, ought, of oc^ctXcu, debeo, owe, and 
in Homer sometimes the imperfect a)<^cAAov, are used with 
the infinitive, chiefly in poetry, to express a present or past 
unattained wish (1402, 2). E.g. 

^12<^eX€ TOVTO TTOiCiv, would that he were doing this (lit. he ought 
to he doing this), or would that he had done this (habitually) ; a)<^eXe 
TonjTo Troirj<r ai, would that he had done this, (For the distinction 
made by the different tenses of the infinitive, see 1400, 2). T^ 
o<^€X* €v vT^€(T(Tt KaTaKTaptv ^ApTc/its, would that Artemis had 
slain her at the ships, II. 19, 59. 

1613. N. "QflieXov with the infinitive is negatived by /iiy (not 
ov), and it may even be preceded by ci^c, d yap, or ws; as /iiy wot 
Q>^cXov XiTTCtv Tr}v 'SiKvpov, that I had never left Scyros, S. PA. 969; 
ci yap (5<^cXoF oloL t€ ctvat, that they were able, P. Cr. 44*; 
c5s o><^cXcs oXia-Oai, would that you had perished, II. 3, 428. 

1514. In Homer the present optative (generally with et$€ or ct 
yap) may express an unattained wish in present time ; as dB* ws 



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1517] THE INFINITIVE. 326 

riPiaoifiL pCrf 8c /*ot l/ATTcSos cti/, O that I were again as young and 
my strength were firm, II. 11,670. 

This corresponds to the Homeric use of the optative in unreal 
conditions and their apodoses (1398). In both constructions the 
present optative is commonly future in Homer, as in other Greek. 

1515. Homer never uses the indicative (1511) in wishes. He 
always expresses a past wish by the construction with ol^cAov 
(1512), and a present wish sometimes by cS^cAof and sometimes 
by the present optative (1514). 

1516. 1. The infinitive is originally a neuter verbal 
noun, with many attributes of a verb. Thus, like a 
verb, it has voices and tenses ; it may have a subject or 
object ; and it is qualified by adverbs, not by adjectives. 

2. When the definite article came into use with other 
nouns (see 937, 4), it was used also with the infinitive, 
which thus became more distinctly a noun with four cases. 
For the subject of the infinitive, see 895. For the case of predi- 
cate nouns and adjectives when the subject is omitted, see 927 
and 928. 

INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. 
As Subject, Pbedicate, Object, or Appositive. 

1517. The infinitive may be the subject nominative 
of a finite verb (especially of an impersonal verb, 898, 
or of 6<rTt), or the subject accusative of another infini- 
tive. It may be a predicate nominative (907), and it 
may stand in apposition to a noun (911). Mg. 

^wiprj avT<S i\$€iVf it happened to him to go; c^vftcvciv, it 
was possible to remain; iJSi; ttoAAov? ixOpm)^ ^^X^f-v; is it pleasant to 
have many enemies? ^hjalv kittvai ro\yroi.fi fi€V€iv, he says it is possi- 
ble for these to remain (ficvav being subject of cfctvat). To yvwvai 
iTTia-TTJfirp/ XajSctv cortv, to learn is to acquire knowledge, F.Th.209^. 
To yap Odvarov 8e8t€va( ovSkv aXXo cortv rj Soicctv a'<xl>6v cTvai 
fjLtj 6vra, for to fear death (the fear of death) is nothing else than to 
seem to be wise without being so, 'P.Ap.29\ Els olmvo^ optoros, 
dfivv€(r$ai TTCpt Trdrprf^j one omen is best, to fight for our country, 
11, 12, 243. For the subject infinitives with the article, see 1542. 



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326 SYNTAX. [1518 

1518. The infinitive may be the object of a verb. It 
generally has the force of an object accusative, some- 
times that of an accusative of kindred signification 
(1051), and sometimes that of an object genitive. 

1619. The object infinitive not in indirect discourse 
(1495) follows verbs whose action naturally implies another 
action as its object, especially those expressing wishy com- 
mand, advice, cause, attempt, intention, prevention, ability, ft- 
nesB, necessity, or their opposites. Such verbs are in general 
the same in Greek as in English, and others will be learned 
by practice. The negative is fiij. E.g. 

BouXcrai iXOelv, he wishes to go; ^ovXerajL tous TroA/ras iroXe- 
fUKov^ etvat, he wishes the citizens to he warlike; irapajLvcvfJLCv croc 
fi€V€iv, we advise you to remain; irpocA-cro woXefirja-aif he pre- 
ferred to make war; iceXcvci <rc fjJq aTreXOtiVjhe commands you not 
to depart; aiuwaiv &p\€i.Vi they claim the right to n-ule; diunrroL 
Oav€iv, he is thought to deserve to die; Bio/uu vfjuov ovyyv<afJLrpf yuoi 
iX€LVf I ask you to have consideration for me. So kcdXvci ce )3a8t- 
{ctv, he prevents you from marching; ov Tri<f>vK€ SovXevetv, Ad is 
not horn to he a slave; dvajSoXXeroi tovto Troitlvyhe postpones doing 
this; KivBw€vei Oav€Lv, he is in danger of death. 

1520. N. "The tenses here used are chiefly the present and 
aorist, and these do not differ in their time (1272). In this con- 
struction the infinitive has no more reference to time than any 
other verbal noun would have, but the meaning of the verb gener- 
ally gives it a reference to the future ; as in aitovrai $av€Lv (above) 
6av€iv expresses time only so far as Bavarov would do so in its 
place. 

1521. The infinitive may depend on a noun and a verb 
(generally ia-ri) which together are equivalent to a verb 
which takes an object infinitive (1519). E.g. 

*AvdyKrj iarl iravras dTrcX^ctv, there is a necessity that all 
should withdraw; #ctv8vi/os §v avr^ 'iraOeiv riyhe was in danger of 
suffering something; cXTrtSas l^" rovro irot^crai, he has hopes of 
doing this. "Clpa d?ricvai, it is time to go away, P.^j».42». Tots 
OTparicuTats opfi^ Iviirto't €KT€i\t(rai to '^(iapCov, an impulse to 
fortify the place fell upon the soldiers, T. 4, 4. 

For the infinitive with rcnj depending on a noun, see 1547. 

1522. 1. The infinitive in indirect discourse (1496) is 



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1625] THE INFINITIVE. 327 

generally the object of a verb of saying or thinking or some 
equivalent expression. Here each tense of the infinitive 
corresponds in time to the same tense of some finite mood. 
See 1494, with the examples. 

2. Many verbs of this class (especially the passive of 
Aeyco) allow both a personal and an impersonal construction. 
Thus we can say Xeycrai 6 Kvpo? IkO^lv, Cyrus is said to have 
gone, or Xeycrac rov Kvpov IkOtivj it is said that Cyrus ioent 
AoK€fo, seem, is generally used personally ; as Sokci cTvot a-oifyo^, 
he seems to be wise, 

1523. 1. Of the three common verbs meaning to say, — 

(a) <l}rjfu regularly takes the infinitivfe in indirect dis- 
course ; 

(b) dirov regularly takes ort or cos with the indicative or 
optative ; 

(c) Xeyo) allows either construction, but in the active 
voice it generally takes on. or w?. 

Other verbs which regularly take the infinitive in indirect 
discourse are olofj^n, 'qyiofM.i, vofiC^in, and SoKiw, meaning to 
believe, or to think, 

2. ExceptioDal cases of cTttov with the infinitive are more com- 
mon than those of ^/u with ori or ok (which are very rare). 

For the two constructions allowed after verbs of hoping^ expect- 
ing, etc., see 1286. 

1524. N. A relative clause depending on an infinitive in indi- 
rect discourse sometimes takes the infinitive by assimilation; as 
€ira^ 8^ ycvccrtfai cttI tq oLkio, (t<i>rj) dvet^fieirrjv KaToXafifidveLV 
Ttp^ Oilipav, and when they came to the house, (he said) they found the 
door open, P.5y.l74<i. Herodotus allows this assimilation even 
after ci, if, and Siotl, because. 

1525. In narration, the infinitive often seems to stand 
for the indicative, when it depends on some word like 
Acycrat, it is said, expressed or even implied in what pre- 
cedes. E.g, 

* k.iriKOiL€vav% 8^ h TO *Apyos, SiarCOca-Oai rov <l>6pTov, and 
having come to Argos, they were (it is said) setting out their cargo for 
sale, Hd.l, 1. Aultl6€(t0cu is an imperfect infinitive (1285, 1) : see 
also Hd. 1, 24, and X. C. 1, 3». 



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328 SYNTAX. [1526 

IirFiHiriYB WITH Adjectives. 

1526. The infinitive may depend on adjectives cor- 
responding in meaning to verbs which take an object 
infinitive (1519), especially those expressing ability^ 
fitness^ deserty willingness^ and their opposites. E.g. 

Awaroc woieiv roDro, able to do this; 8civos Xcyciv, skilled in 
speaking; aJ^vos toIvto XajSctv, worthy to receive this: irpoOvfw^ Xe- 
yciv, eager to speak, MoAoicoi k a prep civ, (too) effeminate to 
endure, P.iJp.SSC**; iirwrrjiuav Xcyctvrc lau crtyav, knowing how 
both to speak and to be silent, P. Phdr.27Q\ 

So ToujvToi oloi vovqpofo Tivos Ipyov i<l>i€a'$aij capable of aiming 
(such as to aim) at any vicious act, X. C.1,2*; also with olos alone, 
olbs det irorc fi€ra 0dX\€a-$ai, one likely to be always changing, 
X.ir.2,3« 

1627. N. Aonuog, Just, and some other adjectives may thus be 
used personally with the infinitive; as Stfouos co-ri roOro Troictv, 
A« h€u a right to do this (equivalent to Buauw i<mv avrov tovto 
vouiv). 

Limiting Infinitive with Adjectives, Adverbs, and Nouns. 

1528. Any adjective or adverb may take an infinitive 
to limit its meaning to a particular action. H.g. 

(d&Lfm aUrxpov 6 par, a sight disgraceful to behold ; Xoyoi vfuv 
)(prj<rifuaTaToi dKovaai, words most useful for you to hear; ra X**^^" 
TrwraTa €vp€2v, the things hardest to find, IloXireia '^Kurra ^aXcir^ 
a-vl^rjv, a government least hard to live under, P.Po/.302*». OlxCa, 
iJSomy ivBiairda-Oat, a house most pleasant to live in, X.M.3,8^ 
KoXXiora (adv.) iSclv, in a manner most delightful to behold, 
X.C.8,36. 

1529. N. This infinitive (1528) is generally active rather than 
passive; as irpdypa xoXcttov iroitlv, a thing hard to do, rather than 
XoXcTTov TTOtcio-^ai, hard to be done, 

1530. N". Nouns and even verbs may take the infinitive as a 
limiting accusative (1058); as davpa iSco-^ai, a wonder to behold, 
Orf.8,366. *Ap«rrcuc<rKC fidx^o'Oai, he was the first in fighting 
(like fmxqv), J^.6,460. AokcTs &a<^epeiF avrous iBeiv; do you think 
they differ in appearance (to look at) f P.JRp.495*. 

1531. N. Here belongs the infinitive after a comparative with 
7J, than; as vdcn/pa fjud^ov rj <j>€p€iv, a disease too heavy to bear, 
S.O.r.l293. 

For cttOTc with this infinitive, see 1458. 



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1636] THE INFINITIVE. 329 

Infinitivb op Pusposb. 

1532. 1. The infinitive may express a purpose. E.g, 
OI apxovre^, ov9 etXco^c apx€iv fiov, the rulers^ wham you chose 

to rule me, P.-4/>.28«. T^v iroKiv <l>vXdTT€iv avrots wapiSiUKav, 
they delivered the city to them to guard, H, 4, 4^*. ®€aj(rcur$ai iraprjv 
TOLS ywaiwis TTtciF (fyepovcra^, the women were to be seen bringing 
them (something) to drink, X. H. 7, 2*. 

2. Here, as with adjectives (1529), the infinitive is active rather 
than passive; as Kxavctv c/Aot viv eSocrav, they gave her to me to 
Ml (to be killed), E. Tro. 874. 

1533. N. In Homer, where wrre only rarely has the sense of so as 
(1455), the simple infinitive may express a result; as rts <r<^(i)c $vv€rjK€ 
lidxta-Bai.; who brought them into conflict so as to contend? 7/. 1,8. 

Absolute Infinitive. 

1534. The infiinitive may stand absolutely in parentheti- 
cal phrases, generally with cos or o<rov. E.g. 

The most common of these is (09 cttos ciTrciv or cos cittciv, so to 
speak. Others are <o$ <rwrofui>s (or (rvvekovri, 1172, 2) cIttciv, to speak 
concisely; to (vfAirav e in- civ, on the whole; oSs dTrcucacrai, to judge 
(Le. cufar as we can judge) ; oaov yi fi ci 8c vat, as far as I know; 
W9 ifioL SoKciv, or ifjuoi Soicctv, as it seems to me ; m ovrw y oLkov- 
<rai, at first hearing (or without <bs). So oXiyov Sciv and fUKpov 
8'ctv, ^0 want little, i.e. a^mo^^ (see 1116, 6). 

Herodotus has <o$ Xoyt^ ciirciv and ou 7roXA<p Xdy<{> cittciv, noi 
to maike a long story, in short. 

1536. N. In certain cases clmt seems to be superfluous ; espe- 
cially in 6#c<ov cTvai, uniting or willingly, which generally stands in 
a negative sentence. So in ro vvv civae, a^ present; to n^fjuepov 
ctFae, to^ay; to Itt ImCvol^ clvat and similar phrases, a« far as 
depends on them; tt^v irpijyrqv cTvai, at first, Hd. 1,153; Kara tvvto 
cTvai, so far as concerns this, P.Pr.317»; ws n-oXoia cTvai, consider- 
ing their age, T. 1, 21 ; and some other phrases. 

Infinitive in Commands, Wishes, Laws, etc. 

1536. The infinitive with a subject nominative is some- 
times used like the second person of the imperative, espe- 
cially in Homer. E.g. 

M^ iroTC KOI <Tv ywatKt irtp fprvo^ el vat, be thou never indulgent 
to thy wife, Orf.11,441. OIs /i^ ttcXo^civ, do not approach these 
(=/i^7rcXa£0, A. Pr. 712. 

For the third person, with a subject accusative, see 1537. 

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330 SYNTAX. [1637 

1537. The infinitive with a subject aamsdtive sometimes 
expresses a wish, like the optative (1507) ; and sometimes 
a command, like the third person of the imperative. E.g. 

Zcv Trarcp, ^ Alavra Xaxciv ^ TvSco? viov, Father Zeus, may the 
lot fall either on Ajax or on the son of Tydeus (= Atlas \axpi, etc.), 
//.7,179; ^€01 iFoAirai, fti/ /i€ SovAoixs rvx^'lvy ye Gods who hold 
our city, may slavery not he my lot, A. Se, 253. Tpoias hreiff ^'EXevrpf 
d?ro&nWi, let the Trojans then surrender Helen (=d?ro&>tci/), II. 3,285. 

1538. N. This construction (1537) has been explained by sup- 
plying a verb like 80s, grant (see 86s rUraxTdajL, grant that I may take 
vengeance, Ik 3, 351), or ycwHTo, may it be. 

1539. N. For the infinitive in exclamations, which generally 
has the article, see 1554. 

1540. In laws, treaties, and proclamations, the infinitive 
often depends on iSoic or SiSoKrai, be it enacted, or KeXeverai, 
it is commanded; which may be expressed in a previous 
sentence or understood. E.g. 

AtKafeiv 8€ r^v cv 'Ap€i<^ irdyto <l>6vov, and (be it enacted) that 
the Senate on the Areopagus shall have jurisdiction in cases of murder, 
D.23,22. *Eti7 8€ clvai rets cr7rov8as iram^Kovra, and that the treaty 
shall continue ffiy years, T. 5, 18. 'Akouctc Xc<^ • rows oTrAxras 
airiivai woXlv olko&c, hear ye people! let the heavy armed go back 
again home, Ar.^t;.4:48. 

INPINITIVB WITH THE ARTICLE. 

1541. When the infinitive has the article, its character 
as a neuter noun becomes more distinct, while it loses none 
of its attributes as a verb. The addition of the article ex- 
tends its use to many new constructions, especially to those 
with prepositions; and the article is sometimes allowed 
even in many of the older constructions in which the infin- 
itive regularly stands alone. 

Infinitive with t^ as Subject or Object. 

1542. The subject infinitive (1517) may take the article 
to make it more distinctly a noun. E.g. 

To y voivai €Trurrqfirfv Xa)3cti/ cortv, to learn is to acquire knowl- 
edge, P.rA.209«. Tovro cart to aSiKeiv, this is to commit injustice, 
P. G. 483c. T^ y^p Odvarov 8c8t€Vai ovSev "SlXko i<rrlv If SokcIv 
a-o<l}bv ctvat fitf 6vTa,for to fear death (the fear of death) is nothing 



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1647] THE INFINITIVE. 331 

else than to seem to be ttnse toithotU being so, F,Ap, 29». The predi- 
cate infinitives here omit the article (1517). See 956. 

1643. The object infinitive takes the article chiefly after 
verbs which do not regularly take the simple infinitive (see 
1519), or when the relation of the infinitive to the verb is 
less close than it usually is. E.g. 

To TcXcvT^o-at Travrwv ij irtvptofiemrj KarcKpivcv, Fate adjudged 
death to all (like Oayarov Travriav KarcKpLvey), 1.1,43; d to KtoXvo'ai 
rrp^ T<av 'EAAi/voiv KoiviDvCav iir€irpax€iv eya> ^iXimn^ if I had sold to 
Philip the prevention of the unity of the Greeks (i.e. had prevented this 
as Philip* s hireling), D.18,23. To ^wodcciv t^S* ofwv ri^ &v yuv^ 
hvyaiTO ; to live with her — what woman could do it f S. TV. 545. 

1544. N. Sometimes in poetry the distinction between the 
object infinitive with and without to is hardly perceptible ; as in 
rXi/o-o/uu TO KarOavuv, I shall endure to die, X.Ag,12^', ro Spav 
ovK '^OeXrfOuv, they were unwilling to act, S. 0. C. 442. 

Infinitivb with t^ with Adjectives and Nouns. 

1646. N. The infinitive with ro is sometimes used with 
the adjectives and nouns which regularly take the simple 
infinitive (1626). E.g. 

To p(q. iroXiTwv 8pav l<l>vv d/xi/x^vos, / am helpless to act in defi- 
ance of the citizens, S.i4n.79. To h t^v y^v i^/uuv €o-)8aXXctv... 
iKavol cio-e, they have the power to invade our land, T. 6, 17. 

Infinitive with toO, rtf, or t^ in Various Constructions. 

1646. The genitive, dative, or accusative of the in- 
finitive with the article may depend on a preposi- 
tion. E.g. 

Ilpo T€fv TOW 6pKovq diToBovvai, before taking the oaths, D. 18,26 ; 
irpos T<p iL-q^ €K T^s 'irp€<rP€vas Xa^Sciv, besides receiving nothing by 
the embassy, D. 19, 229; &a ro $€vo9 cTvai ovk &v ota AhiKrjOrjvai ; 
do^ you think you would not be wronged on account of your being a 
stranger? X.3f.2,li*. 'Yrrcp tov to, p.irpui firj yiyvco-tfai, that 
moderate counsels may not prevail (=iva firj yCyvrfrojC), Aesch.3,1. 

1547. The genitive and dative of the infinitive, with 
the article, can stand in most of the constructions be- 
longing to those cases ; as in that of the attributive 
genitive, the genitive after a comparative or after verbs 



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332 SYNTAX. [1548 

and adjectives, the dative of cauBe^ manner^ or mean%^ 
and the dative after verbs and adjectives. E.g. 

ToO TTiciv iinOvfjua, a desire to drink, T.7,84; fcois to myav 
Kpelrrov iari tov XaXctV) for youth silence is better than prating, 
Men. Mon, 387; ifrefrxofuv tov BaKpvtiv, we ceased our weeping, 
P. PA. 117®; di7^€i9 Tov KaraKovciv Ttvos cicrtv, they are unused to 
obeying any one, D.1,23. T(p <l>av€p6^ elvai toiovto^ w, by having it 
evident that he was such a man, X.JW. 1,2*; t<5 Koo-fuoi^ ^rjv Trurrcv- 
«v, to trust in an orderly life, 1.15,24; laov t<S Trpoarivciv, equal 
to lamenting beforehand, A. -4 ^r. 253. 

1648. The infinitive with rov may express a purpose, 
generally a negative purpose, where with ordinary genitives 
htKa is regularly used (see 1127). E.g. 

*Kr€ixifrOrf ' AraXaKny, tov firj Xiy orots #caKOvpyctv rrp/ ^vfioiay, 
Atalante was fortified, that pirates might not ravage Euboea, T.2,32. 
M(VQ>s TO Xya-TiKov KaOypei, tov tois vpoa-oSov^ fiSWov tcvai avrw, 
Minos put down piracy, that his revenues might come in more abun- 
dantly, T.1,4. 

1549. Verbs and expressions denoting hindrance or free- 
dom from anything allow either the infinitive with rov 
(1547) or the simple infinitive (1519). As the infinitive 
after such verbs can take the negative firj without affecting 
the sense (1615), we have a third and fourth form, still 
with the same meaning. (See 1551.) E.g. 

Etpyci ac tovto irotctv, elpyei o-c tov tovto ttoiciv, upya <rc /JOf 
TovTO TTOtciV) ctpyct ac TOV firj Tonrro Trotciv, all meaning he pre- 
vents you from doing this. Tov ^[Xxtnrav irapikOtlv ovk idruyavro 
KtaXwrai, they could not hinder Philip from passing through, D.5,20. 
Tou SpttTTCTCvciv diTrctpyovo-i ; do they restrain them from running 
awayf X.3f.2,li^ "OTrcp ia^€ firj r^v IIcXoirovnTO-ov vop$€iv, 
which prevented (Atm) from ravaging Peloponnesus, T.1,73. Avo 
3ivSpa^,l$€i TOV firf Kara&vvai, it will keep two men from sinking, 
X. .4. 3, 511. 

1550. N. When the leading verb is negatived (or is interrogative 
implying a negative), the double negative fi^ ov is generally used 
with the infinitive rather than the simple fi-q (1616), so that we 
can say ovk clpyct o"€ ft^ ov tovto Trot civ, Ac does not prevent you 
fr<m doing this. Tov/x^ovTrotctvis rarely (if ever) used. 

1551. The infinitive with to fii^ may be used after expres- 
sions denoting hindrancey and also after all which even imply 



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1656] THE INFINITIVE. 333 

prevention, omission, or denial. This infinitive with to is 
less closely connected with the leading verb than are the 
forms before mentioned (1549), and it may often be con- 
sidered an accusative of specification (1058), and sometimes 
(as after verbs of denial) an object accusative. Sometimes 
it expresses merely a result. E.g. 

Tov SfuXov dpyov to firj to. ^yyvs rrj^ ttoXcq)? KaKovpyelv, they 
prevented the crowd from injuring the neighboring parts of the city, 
T.3,1. KifjLwva irapa Tp€is d<^€ta'av ^<^oi;s rb fi^ Oavdria J^rJflluh 
a^al, they allowed Cimon by three votes to escape the punishment of 
death (they let him off from the punishment of death), D. 23, 205. 
^ofioi dv^ vTTvov -jrapacrTaTCi, to firj p\4<t>aLpa (rvfiPaXtiv, fear stands 
by me instead of sleep, preventing me from closing my eyelids, A.Ag,16. 

Thus we have a fifth form, eipyci <r€ to ft^ tovto n-otciv, added 
to those given in 1549, as equivalents of the English he prevents 
you from doing this. 

1552. N. Here, as above (1550), firf ov is generally used when 
the leading verb is negatived ; as ovS^ yap avrw Tavr' iirapK€(r€i to 
firf ov TTCo-civ, for this will not at all suffice to prevent him from 
falling, A.Pr.918. 

1663. N. The infinitive with tov fi-q and with to ftiy may also 
be used in the ordinary negative sense ; as ov^fiia irpoKJxjuns tw 
firj Bpav Tavra, no ground for not doing this, P. Ti, 20^. 

1654. 1. The infinitive with to may be used in exclama- 
tions, to express surprise or indignation. E.g. 

T^s fiiiipia^' TO Ata vofii^ttv, ovra TrfXxKovTovt, what folly f to 
believe in Zeus, now you are so big ! Ar. N. 819. So in Latin ; Mene 
incepto desistere victam 1 

2. The article here is sometimes omitted ; as toiovtovI Tp€<^ctv 
Kvva, to keep a dog like that ! Ar. V. 835. 

1665. The infinitive with its subject, object, or other 
adjuncts (sometimes including dependent clauses) may be 
preceded by to, the whole standing as a single noun in any 
ordinary construction. E.g. 

To 8c p:rirr€ wdXai tovto TrtirovOivai., ir €<l>rjv ivai T€ Tiva '^fuv 
avfipjoLXULV TOVTfov dvTLppOTTOv, ttV jSovAcu/Acdtt )(prja-OaL, T^s Trap' iK€l- 
vctfv CVV0U19 €V€py€Trjfi av lycuyc OeLrjv, but the fact that we have not 
suffered this long ago, and that an alliance has appeared to us to 
balance these, if we (shall) wish to use it, — this I should ascribe as a 
benefaction to their good-will, D.1,10. (Here the whole sentence 
TO . . . xf^frBai is the object accusative of BtCrfv.) 



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334 SYNTAX. [1656 

1S5& 1. For the infinitiye as well as the finite moods with 
Jhrrc, cos, /<^' i and l<^* ^e, see 1449-1460. 

2. For the infinitiye and finite moods with vpiv, see 1469-1474. 

3. For the infinitive with £v, see 1308. 



THE PARTICIPIaB. 

1557. The participle is a verbal adjective, and has three 
uses. First, it may express an (Utrilmte, qualifying a noun 
like aji ordinary adjective (1559-1562) ; secondly, it may 
define the circumstances under which an action takes place 
(1563-1577); thirdly, it may be joined to certain verbs to 
supplement their meaning, often having a force resembling 
that of the infinitive (1578-1593). 

1568. N. These distinctions are not always exact, and the 
same participle may belong to more than one class. Thus, in 6 /jl^ 
8a/}€is avOpvnro^, the unflogged marif Sopcis is both attributive and 
conditional (1563, 5). 

ATTRIBUTIVB PARTICIPLE. 

1559. The participle may qualify a noun, like an 
attributive adjective. Here it may often be translated 
by a relative and a finite verb, especially when it has 
the article. II,g, 

'O iraptav Kcufw, the present occasion^ D.3,3; $€oi a£ev iovrtSj 
immortal Gods, J/. 21, 518; ttoXis icoAXci 8ta<^€/30i;<ra, a city excel- 
ling in beauty; dvrfp koXcos TrciraiScv/xcvos, a man who has been 
well educated (or a well educated man} ; ol wpia-fiei.^ ol xnro ^tXimrov 
TTCfiKliOivTti, the ambassadors who were sent by Philip; dvSpcs oc 
TCVTO iroiiJcrovTCs, men who are to do this. 

1560. 1. The participle with the article may be used 
substantively, like any adjective. It is then equivalent 
to he who or those who with a finite verb. E.g. 

Ot KparoiWes, the conquerors; ol irevaa-fiivoi, those who have 
been convinced; irapa rots optorois BoKovaiv clvoi, among those who 
seem to be best, X.Af.4,2®; 6 t^v yvcu/Aiyv ravTrjv €lir<av, the one who 
gave this opinion, T.8,68; rots 'ApKa8cDv (T<l>€T€poi^ ovcri (vp^x^^ 
vpodirov, they proclaimed to those who were their allies among the 
Arcadians, T.5,64. 



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1568] THE PARTICIPLE. 336 

2. The article is sometimes omitted; as iroAc/uunWcDv itoXk, a 
city of belligerents, X. C 7, S'*. 

1561. N. Sometimes a partiaiple becomes so completely a 
noun that it takes an object genitive instead of an object accusa- 
tive ; as 6 cKCiVov rcxcov, his father (for 6 ckcIvov tckcov), E. £/.d35. 

1562. N. The neuter participle with the article is sometimes 
used as an abstract noun, like the infinitive ; as ro hihuo%,feary and 
TO Bapaovv, courage, for to Sc&ei/ai and to Oapativ, T. 1, 36. Com- 
pare TO KoXw for TO KoXXjoi, beauty. In both cases the adjective is 
used for the noun. 

CIRCUMSTANTIAIi PARTICIPLE. 

1563. The participle may define the circumstances of 
an action. It may express the following relations : — 

1. Time; the tenses denoting various points of time, which 
is relative to that of the verb of the sentence (1288). E.g. 

Tavra eirpaTTC (TTpaTrjySiv, he did this while he was general; 
ravTa Trpofei (TTpaTrjyioVi he will do this while he is general. 
Tvpavvtvaa^ Se irrj Tpva 'iTnrCas cx&ipei cs ^tyctov, and when he 
had been tyrant three years, Hippias withdrew to Sigeum, T. 6, 59. 

2. Cause. E.g. 

Aeyco Sk tovS* cvcko, fiovX6fi€vo^ 8o£di <roi ewrcp ifwi, and I 
speak for this reason, because I wish that to seem good to you which 
seems so to me, P. Ph. 102<*. 

3. MeanSj manner, and similar relations, including man- 
ner of employment. E.g. 

TLpotlXtTO pJaXKjov rots vopMS ifip,iv<av airoOavtiv fj irapavo- 
ftwv (^rjv, he preferred to die abiding by tbe laws rather than to live 
transgressing them, X. 3f.4,4:*. Tovro ^Troo^crc Xa^cuv, he did this 
secretly. 'A7r€^/iCi Tpvrjpdpx^Vi he was absent on duty as trierarch. 
Arfi6fi€voi ^Sknv, they live by plunder, X. C.S,2^. 

4. Purpose or intention ; generally expressed by the fut- 
ure participle. E.g. 

llXtfc Xvo-o/Aevo9 Ovyarpa, he came to ransom his daughter, II. 1, 13. 
nc/i,irciv irpiaPa^ ravra ipovvra^ koj. AixravSpov aiTiJ<rovTas, 
to send ambassadors to say this and to ask for Lysander, X. H.2, 1^ 

6. Condition; the tenses of the participle representing 
the corresponding tenses of the indicative, subjunctive, or 
optative, in all classes of protasis. 

See 1413, where examples will be found. 



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396 SYNTAX. [1«64 

6. Opposition, limitation, or concession; where tlie par- 
ticiple is generally to be translated by although and a 
verb. E.g. • 

*OXtya Svvd/JL€voi vpoopay iroXXa hn\€iLpavfijev irpdrreLv, although 
we are able to foresee few things, we try to do many things, X.C.3,2". 

7. Any attenda7it circumstance, the participle being 
merely descriptive. This is one of the most common re- 
lations of this participle. E.g. 

TSpx^Tai Tov vlbv Ixovcroy she comes bringing her son, X. CI, 3*. 
lIapaXap6vT€q Boudtois carparcvaav iiri ^dpaakov, they took 
Boeotians with them' and marched against Pharsalus, T. 1,111. 

The participle here can often be best translated by a verb, as 
in the last example. 

8. That in which the action of the verb consists. E.g. 
TdS* €Tir€ ifxDvSiv, thus he spake saying, A. ^^.205. Ev y iTTOirf 

oas dvafivT^aas fjx, you did well in reminding me, P.PA.60®. 
For the time of the aorist participle here, see 1290. 

1564. N. Certain participles of time and manner have almost 
the force of adverbs by idiomatic usage. Such are apx^iJuevo^, at 
first; reXcvrcov, at last, finally; SazAiiraiv Xfiovov, after a while ; ^iptav, 
hastily; <f>€p6/j£voi, with a rush ; Kararuva^, earnestly; <f>Odxrast sooner 
(anticipating); XaOiov, secretly; €Xwv, continually; dnxmg, quickly 
(hastening); icXaLiav, to one*s sorrow; xaipiav, to one*s joy, with imr 
punity. E.g. 

^Aircp apxofi€vo^ ttirav, as I said at first, T.4,64. 'Eo'eireo'ov 
<f>€p6fi€vok €9 rov$ *EAAi;i/a$, they fell upon the Greeks with a rush, 
Hd.7,2L0. Tt KVTTTafets ix*^^i ^^V ^^ V^^ keep poking about f 
At. N. 509. KXatcov aij/ci TS)v8e, you will lay hands on them to your 
sorrow, E. Her.270. 

1566. N. TS^cov, 4i€p<ov, Siyiav, Xafiii^v, and xp<i>ficvo9 may often 
be translated with. E.g. 

MuL ^xero Trpccr^eis ayovaa, one (ship) was gone with ambassa- 
dors, T.7,25. See X.C.l,3i, in 1563,7. Bog x/><^A*€voi, with a 
shout, T. 2,84c. 

1566. N. T4 TraOutv ; having suffered what f or what has happened 
to himf and tC fjuaOatv; what has he taken into his headf are used in 
the general sense of why f E.g. 

Tt T(WTo fiaOtav irpoa-iypail/ev ; with what idea did he add this 
clause f D. 20, 127. Tt iraOova-ai ^vrfTois ctfocri ywaiiCv; what 
makes them look like mortal women f At. N. 340. 



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1671] THE PARTICIPLE. 337 

1567. N. The same participle may sometimes be placed under 
more than one of these heads (1558). 

Genitive and Accusativb Absolute. 

1568. When a circumstantial participle belongs to a 
noun which is not grammatically connected with the 
main construction of the sentence, they stand together 
in the genitive absolute. E.g. 

'Av€)3i/ ov8evo$ KcoXiWros, lie made the ascent with no one inter- 
fering, X.^. 1,222. See 1152, and the examples there given. 

Sometimes a participle stands alone in the genitive absolute, 
when a subject can easily be supplied from the context, or when 
some general subject, like dv0p<i!nrtov or irpayfmTdw, is understood ; 
as ot iroX.efuoiy irpoo-tovTCDv, t€0)s fi€v '^avxaiov, but the enemy, as they 
(men before mentioned) came on, kept quiet for a time, X.^.5,4i*. 
OvTio S* ixovTwv, CIX05 (ioTiv), K.T.X., and this being the case (sc. Trpay- 
fmT<ay), it is likely, etc. X. A. 3, 2io. So with verbs like v« (897, 5) ; 
as vovroi irokX^, when it was raining heavily (where originally Aios 
was understood), X. H. 1, 1^*. 

1569. The participles of impersonal verbs stand in the 
accusative absolute^ in the neuter singular, when others 
would be in the genitive absolute. So passive partici- 
ples and 01/, when they are used impersonally. U.g. 

Tt ^, vfias i$6v aTToXecrai, ovk cttI tovto rjXOofJLCv; why now, when 
toe might have destroyed you, did we not proceed to do itf X. A. 2, 522. 

Ot ^ ov PorqOijcravTe^ Biov vy6C49 air^XOov ; and did those who 
brought no aid when it was needed escape safe and sound f 'P.AlcA. 
115**. So €^ Sk wapacrxov, and when a good opportunity offers, 
T. 1,120; ovirpocrriKov, improperly (it being not becoming), T.4,95; 
Tvxov, by chance (it having happened); vpoa-TaxOiv /a<h, when I 
had been commanded; ^Ip-qyiivov, when it has been said ; aSvvaTov 
ov iv WKTi arf/jajvoL, it being impossible to signal by night, T.7,44. 

1670. N. The participles of personal verbs sometimes stand 
with their nouns in the accusative absolute; but very seldom 
unless they are preceded by cos or cocnrcp. E,g, 

SiMnrg i&eiTrvow, wcnrcp tovto TrpoaTeray/ievov avroZs, they were 
supping in silence, as if this had been the command given to them, 
X.5y.l,ll. 

1671. N. "Qv as a circumstantial participle is seldom pmitted, 
except with the adjectives Ikcov, willing, and Jdccov, unwilling, and 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



338 SYNTAX. [1572 

after are, ola, cp$, or Kolirtp, See €fioi) ovx €k6vto^, against my willy 
S. Aj\ 455 ; Zcvs, Koiircp avOdBrj^ <l>p€mv, Zeus, although stubborn in 
mind, A. Pr. 907 ; also airopprjrov TrdXa, when it is forbidden to the 
state, S.AnA^. See 1612. 

Adverbs with Circumstantial Participlb. 

1572. N. The adverbs afia, fi€Ta$v, evOv^, avTLKo, aprt, 
and €$aL<f>vrj^ are often connected (in position and in sense) 
with the temporal participle, while grammatically they qualify 
the leading verb ; as afia #caraAa)3ovr £9 Trpoa-tKearo crtjuy as soon 
as they overtook them, they pressed hard upon them, Hd. 9, 57. Ncicws 
fi€Ta$v 6pv(Ta-(t}v iirawraTo, Necho stopped while digging (^the 
canal), Hd.2,158. 

1573. N. The participle denoting opposition is often strength- 
ened by #ccu or Kcuwcp, even (Homeric also koi. . . vep), and in nega- 
tive sentences by ov$€ or firfii ; also by kcu raOro, and that too ; as 
iwoucTLpd) viv, KaCir^p ovra hvcfievvj, I pity him, even though he is 
an enemy, S. Aj. 122. Ovk av wpoSoirp/, ovSc irep irpaxra-Kov koku^, I 
would not be faithless, even though I am in a wretched state, E. Ph. 1624. 

1674. Circumstantial participles, especially those denot- 
ing cause or purpose, are often preceded by (is. This shows 
that they express the idea or the assertion of the subject of 
the leading verb or that of some other person prominent in 
the sentence, without implying that it is also the idea of the 
speaker or writer. E.g, 

T6v HipucXia iv otTtot c?xov ws veCcravTa cr<l>as TroXc/ACtv, they 
found fault with Pericles, on the ground that he had persuaded them to 
engage in war, T.2,59. *AyavaKTOwrtv <os /xcyoAwv nviov dirccTTC- 
ptffiivoL, they are indignant, because (as they say) they have been 
deprived of some great blessings, P.i2p.329». 

1676. The causal participle is often emphasized by arc and 
otov or old, as, inasmuch as; but these particles have no such force 
as <Js (1574)'; as arc Trais &v, iJSerOi inasmuch as he was a child, he 
was pleased, X. C 1, 3*. 

1576. 'Otnrcp, as, as it were, with the participle expresses 
a comparison between the action of the verb and that of 
the participle. E.g, 

*QpXovvTo fLdirep 3XKoi% iiriSeiKvvfievoii they danced as if they 
were showing off to others (i.e. they danced, apparendy showing off), 
X. i4.5,.4^. Tt TovTO Xcyct?, <S<rv€p ovk iirl (rot ov o nhv Povkg 
Acyetv; why do you say this, as if it were not in your power to say what 



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1681] THE PARTICIPLE. 339 

you please f X,M,2,Q^, Although we find as if & convenient 
translation, there is really no condition, as appears from the nega- 
tive av (not fiiy). See 1612. 

1677. N. ''CUnrep, like other words meaning as, may' be fol- 
lowed by a protasis ; as t^fnr^p ci Trapcorareis, as (it would be) if 
you had lived near, A,Ag, 1201. For tScnrep av d, see 1313. 

SUPPLEMENTARY PARTICIPLE. 

1578. The supplementary participle completes the 
idea expressed by the verb, by showing to what its 
action relates. It may belong to either the subject or 
the object of the verb, and agree with it in case. U.g. 

Havofitv crc \4yovTa, we stop you from speaking; iravofieOa 
\iyovT€%, toe cease speaking, 

1679. This participle has many points of resemblance to the 
infinitive in similar constructions. In the use of the participle (as 
in that of the infinitive) we must distinguish between indirect 
discourse (where each tense preserves its force) and other con- 
structions. 

Pabticiplb not in Indirect Discourse. 

1680. In this sense the participle is used with verbs sig- 
nifying to begin, to continue, to endure, to persevere, to cease, 
to repent, to he weary, to he pleased, displeased, or ashamed; 
and with the object of verbs signifying to permit or to cause 
to cease, E,g, 

*Hp;(ov ;(aXe9raiV(i>v, 1 was the first to he angry, 7Z. 2,378; ovk 
iy€$ofjuu {(1)0-0, / shall not endure my life, E, Hip, 364: ; cTrra '^fiipaq 
/ia\6fX€voi &€TcX,€0'av, they continued fighting seven days, X.-4.4, 3*; 
Tifiia/xcvoi 'xP^LpavcLv, they delight in being honored, 'E,Hip.S; cXey- 
Xo fi€v oi rJxOovro, they were displeased at being tested, X.jBf.1,2*'; 
roOro OVK cuux6vo/juu Xiymv, I say this without shame (see 1581), X. 
C 5, 1^ ; T^ ^iXocro^uiv irav<Tov ravra. \iyov(Tav, make Philosophy 
stop talking in this style, P. G.482»; Travcrot Xeywv, he stops talking, 

1581. Some of these verbs also take the infinitive, but gener- 
ally with some difference of meaning; thus, aiaxyveTon tovto Xe- 
y€iv,he is ashamed to say this (and does not say it), — see 1580; 
&jroKdfJV€i TOVTO iroieiv, he ceases to do this, through weariness (but 
AiroKOfivei tovto woiiov, he is weary of doing this). So ^px^Tcu Xe- 
y€iv,he begins to speak (but Apx^rai. X€y<ov,he begins by speaking 
or lie is at the beginning of his^ speech) ; irauo> crc fidx^o-Oai, I pre- 



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340 SYNTAX. [1682 

vent you from fighting (but Travo) trt fia\6fi€vov, I stop you while 
fighting). 

1582. The participle may be used with verbs signifying 
to perceive (in any way), to find, or to represent, denoting an 
act or state in which the object is perceived, found, or rep- 
resented. E.g. 

'Opctf ere KpvnTovra xupcL, I see you hiding your hand, E. Hec. 342 ; 
rfKOvad (tov Xcyovros, / heard you speak; evp€ KpoviSiffv &T€p 
ijfjLcvov oXXoiv, he found the son of Cronos sitting apart from the 
others, II. 1, 498 ; fiaa-iXia^ 7r€TroLrfK€ tov^ cv^AtSov Tifi<opovfi€vov^, 
he has represented kings in Hades as suffering punishment, P. (t.525*. 

1583. N. This must not be confounded with indirect discourse, 
in which opla ae KpvnTovra would mean / see that you are hiding; 
oKovo) (T€ AcyovTo, / hear that you say (okovu) taking the accusative). 
See 1588. 

1584. The participles fiovXofievo^, wishing, ^So/ievos, pleased, 
7rpoo'8c;(o/jicvos, expecting, and some others, may agree in case with 
a dative which depends on el/u, ycyvopjcu, or some similar verb. E.g. 

T<3 irXrjOa ov )SovA.o/i.€VQ) ^v, it wa^ not pleading to the majority (it 
was not to them wvihing it), T.2,3; 7rpoo'8c;(o^€vci> /xot to. rrj^ 
opyrj^ vfuav h c/xc yeyevyjrai, I have been expecting the manifestations 
of your wrath against me, T.2,60. 

1585. With verbs signifying to overlook or see, in the 
sense of to allow or let happen {irtpiopSi and i<l>op<o, with 
ffcptcTSov and iirtlSov, sometimes el^v), the participle is used 
in a sense which approaches that of the object infinitive, 
the present and aorist participles differing merely as the 
present and aorist infinitives would differ in similar con- 
structions. E.g. 

Mrj TTCpLiSijDfiiv vfipitrBtltrav ryjv AaKtSaufWva Kal xara^povi;- 
Oelaav, let us not see Lacedaemon insulted and despised, 1.6,108. 
Miy /A iBeiv OavovO* xnr dorwv, not to see me killed by citizens, 
E. Or. 746. nepaSeiv rrjv yrjv TfiTfOeiaaVfto let the land be ravaged, 
i.e. to look on and see it ravaged, T.2,18; but in 2,20 we have 
TTcpaSciv T7fv yr\v TfiTjOrjvai, to permit the land to be ravaged, refer- 
ring to the same thing from another point of view, TfirjOrjvai being 
strictly future to TrcpuSciv, while TfiTjOeurav is coincident with it. 

1686. The participle with XxivOdvto, escape the notice of, 
Tvyxdvo), happen, and €f>Odvo}, anticipate, contains the leading 
idea of the expression and is usually translated by a verb. 



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1588] THE PARTICIPLE. 341 

The aorist participle here coincides in time with the verb 
(unless this expresses duration) and does not denote past 
time in itself. (See 1290.) E.g. 

<^eoi Tciv TratSos iXay$av€ PocrKfaVyhe vxis unconsciously support- 
ing the slayer of his son, Hd.l)44; Itvxw KaOi^fievos ivravOa, 1 
happened to be sitting there (= tvxq iKodiifirfv hrravOa), 'P. Eu, 272*; 
avToi ^^o-oKTot Tovro Spdaavrc^, they will do this themselves first 
(rzTovTO Spoo-ovo-t wpoTepoi), P.i2jo.376«; rots S* iXaff cio-cX^cov, 
and he entered unnoticed by them (=€i(T^XO€ XajSpq,), 11.24:, 4:77 \ 
t^iOrfrav ttoAX^ rcivi Hipcraq dTTiKOfievoi, they arrived long before 
the Persians, Hd.4, 136; tous AvOptawovs Xja-ofuy CTriircorovTCs, to« 
shall rush in unnoticed by the men, 'K.A.7, 3*®. 

The perfect participle here has its ordinary force. 

1587. N. The participle with BiareXioi, continue (1580), ot^o- 
fiai, be gone (1256), Oafxt^to, be wont or be frequent, and some 
others, expresses the leading idea ; but the aorist participle with 
these has no peculiar force ; as oL^erai <l>€vywv, he has taken flight, 
Ar.PZ.933 ; ov Sa/xtfcis KaraPaCvtav m rov Ueipaia^ you don't come 
down to the Peiraeus very often, P. Rp. 328c. 

So with the Homeric firj and Hfiav or pdv from jSouVo) ; as pij 
<l>€vywv, he took flight, /Z.2,665; so 2,167. 

Participle in Indirect Discourse. 

1588. With many verbs the participle stands in indi- 
rect discourse, each tense representing the corresponding 
tense of a finite mood. 

Such verbs are chiefly those signifying to see^ to hear 
or learn^ to perceive^ to know^ to he ignorant of^ to remem- 
ber^ to forget^ to ahoWy to appear^ to prove^ to acknowledge^ 
and ayyiWay^, announce. U.g. 

'Opctf hi fjL Ipyov Scivov i^eLpyaa-fiivTfv, but I see that I have 
done a dreadful deed, S. TV. 706; r}Kov<r€ Kvpov iv KiXiKia 6vTa,he 
heard that Cyrus was in Cilicia (cf. 1583), X.-4.1,4*^; Srav kXvq 
r}$ovT *Op€aTrp^, when she hears that Orestes will come, S.-BZ.293. 
OlSa ovSev €Trt<rTa/x€vos, / know that I understand nothing; ovk 
y^aav avrbv tcOvtjkoto, they did not know that he was dead, 
X.-4.1,10i*; €7r€iSav yvSxnv St.'7ria'TOVfX€voi, after they find out that 
they are distrusted, X. C 7, 2"; fiifivrffiai iXO<av, I remember that 
1 went; fiifivripjOLL avrbv tXOovra, I remember that he went; &€i$<o 
rovTov ex^pbv ovra, I shall show that this man is an enemy (passive 



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342 SYNTAX. [1589 

oSroc Setx0i7<r€rat c^^pos w). Avr^Kvpoy iirifTrparcvovra 
wfiwroi fjyyeiXa, I Jirst announced to him that Cyrus ums on his march 
against him^ X. il . 2, 3^*. 

See 1494; and 1308 for examples of the participle with ar 
representing both indicative and optative with av. 

1589. N. A^Xo9 ci/it and <^avcpo9 ci/xt take the participle 
in indirect discourse, where we use an impersonal construc- 
tion ; as ^Xoi rjv oLo/jLtvo^y it was evident thai he thought (like 

^XOV fjy OTl MOITO). 

1590. N. With crvvoiSa or avyyiyviacrKw and a dative of 
the reflexive, a participle may be in either the nominative or the 
dative; as (tvfoc&x ifwvrw rihiK-qikivti^ (or i^StKi/fievos), 1 am 
conscious to myself that 1 have been wronged. 

1591. Most of the verbs included in 1588 may also take 
a clause with on or as in indirect discourse. 

1592. 1. Some of these verbs have the infinitive of indii-ect 
discourse in nearly or quite the same sense as the participle. 
Others have the infinitive in a different sense : thus iJMiverai credos 
cSv generally means he is manifestly wise^ and ftHuverax cro^^o^ ctvai, 
he seems to he wise ; but sometimes this distinction is not observed. 

2. Others, again, may be used in a peculiar sense, in which they 
have the infinitive not in indirect discourse. Thus otSa and iiri- 
ora/iot regularly have this infinitive when they mean know how ; as 
o7&i Tovro TTOirjcrai, 1 know how to do this (but oTSa tovto iroLrf- 
o-as, / know that I did this), MavOdvWf fiifivrf/jjUy and iinXavBd- 
vofjuuy in the sense of learnj remember, or forget to do anything, take 
the regular object infinitive. See also the uses of yiyvuKTKio, Sct- 
Kwfu, 8rfXut, fJKuvofmL, and cvpurico) in the Lexicon. 

1693. 1. 'fls may be used with the participle of indirect 
discourse in the sense explained in 1574. E.g, 

*Os firjK€T ovra #c€ivov iv ^oct voci, think of him as no longer living, 
S.PA.415. See 1614. 

2. The genitive absolute with ws is sometimes found where we 
should expect the participle to agree with the object of the verb ; 
as CDS TToXc/xov ovTos Trap* vpMV ajrayyeXSi ; shall I announce from 
you that there is warf (lit. assuming that there is war, shall I announce 
it from you .*), X. ^. 2, V\ — where we might have iroXc/xov OKra with 
less emphasis and in closer connection with the verb. So cos coS" 
ixovTwv TcivS* iwtaraiTBai crc XPV^ V^^ ^^^ understand that this 
is so (lit. believing this to be so, you must understand it), S,Aj\2Sl, 



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1599] VERBAL ADJECTIVES. 343 

VERBAL ADJECTIVES IN -Wos AND -rlov. 

1594. The verbal in -reo^; has both a personal and an 
impersonal construction, of which the latter is more 
common. 

1595. In the personal construction it is passive in 
sense, and expresses necessity^ like the Latin participle 
in -duSy agreeing in case with its subject. .E,g. 

*[l<f>€XrjT€a croi ij woXi? ccrrtV, the city must he benefited by you, 
X. M. 3, 6*. *AAAas yktrairtfiirria^ ctvai (eifyq), he said that other 
(ships) must be sent for, T.6,25. 

1696. N. The noun denoting the agent is here in the dative 
(1188). This construction is of course confined to transitive verbs. 

1597. In the impersonal construction the verbal is 
in the neuter of the nominative singular (sometimes 
plural), with earl expressed or understood. The ex- 
pression is equivalent to SeZ, (owe) mvst^ with the in- 
finitive. It is practically active in sense, and allows 
transitive verbals to have an object like their verbs. 

The agent is generally expressed by the dative, some- 
times by the accusative. ^,ff. 

Tavra i//«v (or ^/xa?) iroiyjriov 1(ttiv, we must do this (equiva- 
lent to Tavra 'qfias Sc? Troi^crat). Oiorcov raSe, we must bear these 
things (sc. ^/aiv), E. Or. 769. Tt av avr<5 iroLrjriov drj; what would 
he he obliged to dof (= tl Scoi Slv avrov iroirjaai), X.MA,7^ (1598). 
"Ei^^uravro voXefirfria elvai, they voted that they must go to war 
(= ScZv TixAcfulv), T.1,88. Uvfifjuaxoi, ov9 ov irapahoria toZs 
* k.Orfvaioi.% itrriv, allies, whom we must not abandon to the Athenians, 
T.1,86. 

1598. N. Though the verbal in -riov allows both the dative 
and the accusative of the agent (1188), the equivalent Set with the 
infinitive allows only the accusative (1162). 

1699. N. The Latin has this construction (1597), but generally 
only with verbs which do not take an object accusative ; as Eun- 
dum est tibi (Iriov iarl <roi), — Moriendum est omnibus. So Bello 
utendum est nobis (t«5 iroKifM^ 'xpnfj(TTicfv Icrnv "^fuv), we must go to 
war. The earlier Latin occasionally has the exact equivalent of 
the Greek impersonal construction ; as Aeternas poenas timendum 
est, Lucr. 1,112. (See Madvig's Latin Grammar, § 421.) 



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844 SYNTAX. [1600 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. 

1600. All interrogative pronouns, pronominal adjectiyes^ 
and adverbs can be used in both direct and indirect ques- 
tions. The relative oori? (rarely os) and the relative pro- 
nominal adjectives (429) may be used in iiidirect questions. 

Ti Xeyei ; what does he say f Ilorc ^X$€v ; when did he come f 
Hoau cI3e9; how many did you seef *Hpovro tC Xeyoc (or o ti 
Xcyw)) they asked what he said. ''Hpovro ttotc (or oirorc) ^XBey, they 
asked when he came. 'Opas i^fias, oaoi icrfiev ; do you see how many 
of us there are t P. Rp. 327«. 

1601. N. The Greeks unlike the English^ freely uses two 
or more interrogatives with the same verb. E.g. 

'H rCcnrC diroSiSoiW rixyrj Sucaioavvrf Av icaXotro ; the art which 
renders what to what would be called Justice? P.i2!j5.332*. Seethe 
five interrogatives (used for comic effect) in D.4,36: irpooc^ev 
2fcaoT09 Tts X^PVy^f • • • ""OTc icat irapa tov koI ti XaPoyra ri 8a 
TTOuiVf meaning everybody knows who the xopnrjpfo^ is to be, what he is 
to getf when and from whom he is to get it, and what he is to do with it 

1602. N. An interrogative sometimes stands as a predicate 
with a demonstrative ; as ri tovto iX€$a^; what is this that you saidf 
(= ^Ae^as TOVTO, tI ov; lit. you said this, being whatt) ; Tivas rowS 
dxropSi ; who are these that 1 see f E. Or, 1347. 

Such expressions cannot be literally translated. 

1603. The principal direct interrogative particles are apa 
and (chiefly poetic) rj. These imply nothing as to the 
answer expected ; but apa ov implies an affirmative and apa 
fi-j a negative answer. Ov and /mi; are used alone with the 
same force as with apa. So fiSiv (for firf otu) implies a nega- 
tive answer, and ovK<njv, therefore (with no negative force), 
implies an aflirmative answer. E.g. 

*H oxoXrf coral ; will there be leisure f *Ap' cici rtves of loc ; are 
there any deserving ones f 'Ap* ov Pov\€<r$€ iXOeiv ; or ov PouXieafie 
IXBciv; do you not wish to go (i.e. you wish, do you not) ? *Apa /n^ 
PorSKtirBt IkOtiv; or yai (or pm) /SovXco^c A^etv; do you wish to go 
(you dorCt wish to go, do you) ? Ovkovv o-ot Sokci <rvfx<l>opav tLvai; 
does it not seem to you to be of advantage f X. C. 2, 4^. This distinc- 
tion between ov and fi'q does not apply to questions with the inter- 
rogative subjunctive (1358), which allow only fii;. 



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1609] INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. — NEGATIVES. 346 

1604. *AXXo Tt rj; is it anything else than? or (more fre- 
quently) aXXo Ti ; is it not f is sometimes used as a direct 
interrogative. E.g. 

*AXXo Ti ff ofioXjoycvficv ; do toe not agree f (do we do anything 
else than agree f), P. GA70^. "AXXo ti oh^ &vo ravra 2Xcyes; did 
you not call these two f ibid, 495<^. 

1605. Indirect questions may be introduced by €t, whether; 
and in Homer by r} or ci. E.g. 

'Hpilrrrfaa d PovXoito iXOelv, I asked whether he wished to go. 
^Chx^TO irevcrofuvo^ rj ircfv ir urj^, he was gone to inquire whether you 
were still living, Oe?. 13,415. Ta CKTrcofuira ovk <^8a ci to6t<^ Sw 
(1490), / do not know whether 1 shall give him the cups, X. 0.8,4^*. 
(Here ei is used even with the subjunctive: see 1491.) 

1606. Alternative questions (both direct and indirect) 
may be introduced by irorepov (irorepa) ... 17, whether . . . or. 
Indirect alternative questions can also be introduced by ei 
... 17 or dT€ . . . are, whether . . . or. Homer has ? (?«) . . . 
? (^c) in direct, and rj (rfi) . . . ^ (ijc) in indirect, alterna- 
tives, — never irorepov. E.g. 

UoTtfiov ifq apxtiv rj aXXov KaOtarr^ ; do you allow him to rule, 
or do you appoint another? X.C.S,V^. *E^ovXevero ci ir€fi7roi€v 
Ttvas rj TravTcs loicv, he was deliberating whether they should send some 
or should all go, X.^. 1, 10^ 

NEGATIVES. 

1607. The Greek has two negative adverbs, ov and iirj. 
What is said of each of these generally applies to its com- 
pounds, — ov8ci9, ovSc, €njT€, ctC., aud /irj&ekf firjSe, fii^rey etc. 

1608. Ov is used with the indicative and optative in all 
ind^endent sentences, except wishes; also in indirect dis- 
course after Sri and (09, and in causal sentences. 

1609. N. In indirect questions, introduced by ci, whether, fn^ 
can be used as well as ov ; as ^ovXo/acvo? ipia&ai el im$(av rts ri 
fUfivrf/JL€voi firf oTBev, wishing to ask whether one who has learnt a 
thing and remembers it does not know it f V.Th. 163<*. Also, in the 
second part of an indirect alternative question (1606), both ov and 
yjj are allowed; as a-Komiiifuy el i^/uv irpeirei 17 ov, let us look and see 
whether it suits us or not, P. 12/7. 451^ ; el Sk &Krfih v fJi-rj^ Treipaxrofuu 
IJtaBeiv, but I will try to learn whether it is true or not, ibid. 339*. 



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346 SYNTAX. [1610 

1610. Mi; is used with the subjunctive and imperative 
in all constructions, except with the Homeric subjunctive 
(1355), which has the force of a future indicative. MiJ is 
used in all final and object clauses after tva, ottws, etc., with 
the subjunctive, optative, and indicative; except after /Ltiy, 
lest, which takes ov. It is used in all conditional and con- 
ditional relative clauses, and in the corresponding temporal 
sentences after Icos, irptv, etc., in relative sentences express- 
ing a purpose (1442), and in all expressions of a wish with 
both indicative and optative (1507; 1511). 

For caasal relative clauses with firj (also conditional), see 1462. 
For ci ov occasionally used in protasis, see 1383, 2. 

1611. Mrj is used with the infinitive in all constructions, 
both with and without the article, except in indirect dis- 
course. The infinitive in indirect discourse regularly has 
oif, to retain the negative of the direct discourse ; but some 
exceptions occur (1496). 

For wore ov with the infinitive, see 1451. For fArj with the 
infinitive after verbs of hoping, promising, swearing, etc., see 1496. 

1612. When a participle expresses a condition (1563, 5), 
it takes fiiy; so when it is equivalent to a conditional rela- 
tive clause ; as ot /a^ Povko/xevoi, any who do not wish. Other- 
wise it takes <w. In indirect discourse it sometimes, like 
the infinitive, takes fi-q irregularly (1496). 

1613. Adjectives follow the same principle with partici- 
ples, taking /aiJ only when they do not refer to definite per- 
sons or things (i.e. when they can be expressed by a rela- 
tive clause with an indefinite antecedent) ; as ot /u.^ ayaBoL 
TroXLrajLf {any) citizens who are not good, but ot ovk ayaOoL iroXt- 
Tox means special citizens who are not good. 

1614. Participles or adjectives connected with a protasis, a 
command, or an infinitive which would be negatived by firf, gener- 
ally take /Lwy, even if they would otherwise have ou. 

1616. When verbs which contain a negative idea (as 
those of hindering, forbidding, denying, concealing^ and dis- 
trustin>g) take the infinitive, ftiy can be added to the infini- 
tive to strengthen the negation. Such a negative cannot 
be translated in English, and can always be omitted in 
Greek. For examples, see 1549-1551. 



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1619] NEGATIVES. 347 

1616. An infinitive which would regularly be negatived 
by /x^, either in the ordinary way (1611) or to strengthen a 
preceding negation (1615), generally takes the double negSr 
tive firj ov if the verb on which it depends itself has a negative. 

Thus Blkollov i(m firj tovtov d<t>€iv€U, it is just not to acquit him, if 
we negative the leading verb, generally becomes ov &Kaidv icrri firj 
ov TOVTOV dipeivai, it is not Just not to acquit him. So co? ovx oatov 
(Toi ov fJLTf ov Ponrfitiv SiKouxrvvi^, since (as you said) it was a failure 
in piety for you not to assist justice, P. i2/>.427«. Again, ctpyei o-c fxrj 
TOVTO 7rotC4v (1550), he prevents you from doing this, becomes, with 
dfyytL negatived, ovk clpy€L cr€ firj ov tovto ttouIv, he does not pre- 
vent you from doing this, 

1617. N. (a) M^ ov is used also when the leading verb is 
interrogative implying a negative; as rt ifiiroSoiv firj ovx* vfipiio- 
fitvov^ diro$av€iv ; what is there to prevent (us) from being insulted 
and perishing f X. A n. 3, 1^. 

(b) It is sometimes used with participles, or even nouns, to 
express an exception to a negative (or implied negative) statement ; 
as TToXcis ^aXeiral Xafielv, firj ov irohjopKUf., cities hard (i.e. not easy) 
to capture, except by siege, D. 19, 123. 

1618. When a negative is followed by a simple negative 
(ov or fwy) in the same clause, each retains its own force. 
If they belong to the same word or expression, they make 
an affirmative; but if they belong to different words, each 
is independent of the other. E,g, 

OvSl Tov ^opfuiova ovx ^P^^ ^^^ ^^^* ^^ ^^^ ^^^ Phormio (i.e. 
he sees Phormio well enough), D. 36, 46. Ov St* direipiav ye ov <^i7o-c4s 
ixetv 6 Ti elwr^, it is not surely through inexperience that you will 
deny that you have anything to say, D. 19,120. Ei firj Ilp6$€vov ovx 
inreSiiavTo, if they had not refused to receive Proxenus (had not not- 
received him), D.19,74. So pJrj otv . . . 8ta ravra pJr) Sorw SiKrfv, do 
not then on this account let him escape punishment (do not let him not 
be punished), D. 19, 77. 

1619. But when a negative is followed by a compound 
negative (or by several compound negatives) in the same 
clause, the negation is strengthened. E.g, 

Ov8c49 €1$ ovScv ovSevos av '^fmv ovBiwoTC ycWro ^109, 
no one of us (in that case) would ever come to be of any value for 
anything, P.P^.19»>. 

For the double negative ov fi'q, see 1360 and 1361. For ovx ^*» 
p,rf oTi, ovx wroi^, p-tf otto)?, see 1504. 



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PART V. 



VERSIFICATION. 

RH7THM AND METRE. 

1620. Every verse is composed of definite portions called 
feet. Tlius we have four feet in each of these verses : — 

Fdr from | indrtal | cdres re|tredting. | 

1621. In each foot there is a certain part on which falls 
a special stress of voice called ictus {stroke), and another 
part on which there is no such stress. The part of the foot 
on which the ictus falls is called the arsis, and the rest of 
the foot is called the thesis} The regular alternation of arsis 
and thesis in successive feet produces the rhythm (harmonious 
movement) of the verse. 

1622. In this English verse (as in all English poetry) the 
rhythm depends entirely on the ordinary accent of the words, 
with which the ictus coincides. In the Greek verse, how- 
ever, the ictus is entirely independent of the word-accent ; 
and the feet (with the ictus marked by dots) are <ly^o, — 
/i€v ^po9, — Tov^ crrpa, — riyyov?. In Greek poetry a foot 
consists of a regular combination of syllables of a certain 

1 The term A/xrts (raising) and eiais (placing), as they were used by 
nearly all the Greek writers on Rhythm, referred to the raising and 
putting down of the foot in marching, dancing, or beating time, so that 
eiait denoted the part of the foot on which the ictus fell, and 4/w-ts the 
lighter part. Most of the Roman writers, however, inverted this use, 
and referred arsis to the raising of the voice and thesis to the lowering 
of the voice in reading. The prevailing modem use of these terms 
unfortunately follows that of the Roman writers, and attempts to 
reverse the settled usage of language are apt to end in confusion. 
348 



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1624] RHYTHM AND VERSE. 349 

length; and the place of the ictus here depends on the 
quantity (i.e. the length or shortness) of the syllables 
which compose the foot, the ictus naturally falling upon a 
long syllable (1629). The regular alternation of long and 
short syllables in successive feet makes the verse metriccU, 
i.e. mecisured in its time. The rhythm of a Greek verse 
thus depends closely on its metre, i.e. on the measure or 
quantity of its syllables. 

1623. The fundamental distinction between ancient and most 
modern poetry is simply this, that in modern poetry the verse con- 
sists of a regular combination of accented and unaccented syllables, 
while in ancient poetry it consists of a regular combination of long 
and short syllables. The rhythm is the one essential requisite in the 
external form of all poetry, ancient and modern ; but in ancient 
poetry, rhythm depends on metre and not on accent ; in modem 
poetry it depends on accent, and the quantity of the syllables (i.e. 
the metre) is generally no more regarded than it is in prose. Both 
are equally rhythmical ; but the ancient is also metrical, and its metre 
is the basis of its rhythm. What is called metre in English poetry 
is strictly only rhythm. 

1624. The change from metrical to accentual rhythm can best 
be seen in modem Greek poetry, in which, even when the forms of 
the ancient language are retained, the rhythm is generally accentual 
and the metre is no more regarded than it is in English poetry. 
These are the first two verses in a modem translation of the 
Odyssey : — 

^dXXf t6v I avSpa, Oc|(&, rov iro|\^Tpoirov, | ^o-rts ro|o^TOvs 
T6irov9 8i|f|\0f, trop|e^o-a9 ri)s | TpoCas niv | lfvSo(ov | irdXtv. 
The original verses are : — 
"AvSpa |M>i I Ifwcirf, | MoOo-a, irojXih'poirov, | os |idXa | iroXXd 
nXdYX®^) 4|irfl Tpo(|i|s lf|p^v trroXClfOpov Ijirfpo-fv. 

If the former verses set our teeth on edge, it is only through 
force of acquired habit ; for these verses have much more of the 
nature of modem poetry than the Homeric originals, and their rhythm 
is precisely what we are accustomed to in English verse, where 
Still stands the | forest pri|meval; but | under the | shade of its | branches 
is dactylic, and 

And the oljive of peace | spreads its branchjes abroad 
is anapaestic. 

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350 



VERSIFICATION. 



[1625 



It is very difficult for us to appreciate the ease with which 
the Greeks distinguished and reconciled the stress of voice which 
constituted the ictus and the raising of tone which constituted the 
word-accent (107, I). Any combination of the two is now very 
difficult, and for most persons impossible, because we have only 
stress of voice to represent both accent and ictus. In reading 
Greek poetry we usually mark the ictus by our accent, and either 
neglect the word-accent or make it subordinate to the ictus. Care 
should always be taken in reading to distinguish the toordsy not 

the feet 

FEBT. 



1. The unit of measure in Greek verse is the short 
syllable (w), which has the value of ^ or an ^ note in music. 
This is called a time or mora. The long syllable (— ) has 
generally twice the length of a short one, and has the value 
of a i note or J in music. 

2. But a long syllable sometimes has the length of three shorts, 
and is called a triseme (l-), and sometimes that of four shorts, and 
is called a tetraseme (i_j). The triseme has the value of J. in music, 
and the tetraseme that of J. 



1627. Feet are distinguished according to the number of 


times which they contain. 


The most common feet are the 


following : — 






1. Of Three 


Times (^in f time). 




Trochee __ ^ 


€f)axv€ 


J/ 


Iambus ^ 


I4np> 


-rj 


Tribrach w w v> 


XcycTC 


/jV 


2. Of Four Times (in i or i time] 


1. 


Dactyl _ v> v> 


<^ycrc 


J/J 


Anapaest w w __ 


cre^ofuu 


nj 


Spondee 


ciTTcav 


J J 


3. Of Five Times (in f Hme). 




Cretic _ w __ 


<^(Uvero> 


j-r.j " 


Paeon primus _ ^ w w iKrparerc 


J//3 


Paeon quartus w w w - 


KaraXcyo) 


-n/j 


Bacchius ^ 


i.4^yyn^ 


-rj J 


Antibacchius ^ 


<lxuvrjT€ 


J j-r 



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1031] FEET, ETC. 361 

4. Of Six Times (in f or f time)- 

Ionic a maiore \^ \^ lifXiuirtrt J J fH 

Ionic a minore kj ^ vpoatJ^a^ai ^J J J 

Choriambus __ w v^ _ itcrparofuu J fH J 

Molossus (rar«) PovXevwv J J J 

5. A foot of four shorts (wv^ww) is called a proceleusmatic, 
and one of two shorts (ww) a pyrrhic. 

For the dochmios, w v^^ _, see 1691. For the epitrite, see 

1684. 

1628. The feet in } time (l)? in which the arsis is twice as long 
as the thesis, form the doMe class (yiyo^ SivXaauw), as opposed 
to those in } time (2), in which the arsis and thesis are of equal 
length, and which form the eqtial class (yivoi laov). The more 
complicated relations of arsis and thesis in the feet of five and six 
times are not considered here. 

1629. The ictus falls naturally on a long syllable. The 
first syllable of the trochee and the dactyl, and the last 
syllable of the iambus and the anapaest, therefore, form 
the arsis, the remainder of the foot being the thesis; as 

1630. When a long syllable in the arsis is resolved into two 
short syllables (1631), the ictus properly belongs on the two taken 
together, but in reading it is usually placed on the first. Thus a 
tribrach used for a trochee (jL\j) is v^ v^^ w ; one used for an 
iambus (\j _£) is w 6 ^* Likewise a spondee used for a dactyl is 

j1 ; one used for an anapaest is ^. So a dactyl used for an 

anapaest (_ \^ w for for w w _) is __ v^ w The only use 

of the tribrach and the chief use of the spondee are (as above) to 
represent other feet which have their arsis naturally marked by a 
long syllable. 

RESOLUTION AND CONTRACTION. -- IRRATIONAL 
TIBAE. -- ANACRUSIS. — STLLABA ANCEPS. 

1631. A long syllable, being naturally the metrical equiv- 
alent of two short ones (1626), is often resolved into these ; 
as when a tribrach v^ v^ v^ stajids for a trochee _ w or an 
iambus v^ — On the other hand, two short syllables are 
often contracted into one long syllable ; as when a spondee 



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352 VERSIFICATION. 

stands for a dactyl — v^ ^ or an anapaest \j kj — The 

mark for a long resolved into two shorts is ^^^ ; that for 
two shorts contracted into one long is vx?. 

1632. 1. When a long syllable has the measure of three 
or four short syllables (1626, 2), it may represent a whole 
foot : this is called syncope. Thus a triseme (l_ = J^) may 
represent a trochee {-^^), and a tetraseme (i_j = J) may rep- 
resent a dactyl (— w w). 

2. An apparent trochee (l- v/), consisting of a triseTne (l_) 
and a short syllable, may be the equivalent of a dactyl or a 
spondee, that is, a foot of four times. This is called a long 
trochee, or a Doric trochee (see 1684). 

1633. On the other hand, a long syllable may in certain 
cases be shortened so as to take the place of a short syllable. 
Such a syllable is called irrational, and is marked >. The 
foot in which it occurs is also called irrcUioncU (irous olXoyos). 
Thus, in WC air l^Spm {^\j-^>), the apparent spondee 
which takes the place of the second trochee is called an 
irrationcd trochee; in Sowat StKiyv (>-^v^-^) that which 
takes the place of the first iambus is called an irrcUional 
iambus. 

1634. A similar shortening occurs in the so-called cydic 
dactyl (marked -\jw) and cyclic anapaest (marked w v^— ), 
which have the time of only three short syllables instead of 
four. The cyclic dactyl takes the place of a trochee — v/, 
especially in logaoedic verses (1679). The cyclic anapaest 
takes the place of an iambus w _, and is found especially in 
the iambic trimeter of comedy (1668). 

1635. An anacrusis (dvaicpauo-cs, upward beat) consists of 
a single syllable (which may be long, short, or irrational) 
or of two short syllables, prefixed to a verse which begins 
with an arsis. 

1636. The last syllable of every verse is common, and 
it may be made long or short to suit the metre, without 
regard to its usual quantity. It is called syUaba anceps. 
But the continuous systems described in 1654, 1666, and 
1677 allow this only at the end of the system. 



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1642] RHYTHMICAL SERIES, ETC. 363 

RH7THMICAL SHEUES. -- VERBS. — CAT ALEXIS. ~ 
PAUSE. 

1637. A rhythmical aeries is a continuous succession of 
feet of the same measure. A verse may consist of one such 
series^ or of several such united. 

Thus the verse 

TToXXa ra Suva, KovSkv dv||0p(i>irov ^eivorcpoy ireXci 

consists of a First Glyconic (1682, 4), -w w I — w I _ w I l- (at the 
end of a verse, -\j vy I _ v^ I — w I — a)» followed by a Second 
Glyconic, _ ^ I — v^* w I — w I -_ /\. Each part forms a series, the 
former ending with the first syllable of dvOptlnrov (see above) ; and 
either series might have formed a distinct verse. 

1638. The verse must close in such a way as to be dis- 
tinctly marked off from what follows. 

1. It must end with the end of a word. 

2. It allows the last syllable (sylldba anceps) to be either 
long or short (1636). 

3. It allows hiatus (34) before a vowel in the next verse. 

1639. A verse which has an unfinished foot at the close 
is called cataJectic (icaroXi/icriicos^ stopped short), A complete 
verse is called acatalectic. 

1640. 1. If the omitted syllable or syllables in a catalectic 
verse are the thesis of the foot (as in trochaic and dactylic verses), 
their place is filled by a pause. A pause of one time, equivalent to 
a short syllable (w)> is marked A (for A, the initial of Xcififia) ; 
a pause of two times (_) is marked X- 

2. But in catalectic iambic and anapaestic verses, the thesis of 
the last foot is lost, and the place is filled by prolonging the pre- 
ceding arsis : thus we have \jdLjL (not vy — vy a) ^ *^® catalectic 
form of vy — w — ; and \j\jl^^ (not \j \j jL \j \^ 7\) as that of 
v/ w _ w vy — . (See 1664 and 1665.) 

1641. A verse measured by dipodies (1646) is called brachy- 
catalectic if it wants a complete foot at the end, and hypercatalectic 
if it has a single syllable beyond its last complete dipody. 

CAESURA AND DIAERESIS. 

1642. 1. Caesura (i.e. cutting) of the foot occurs whenever 



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364 VERSIFICATION. [1643 

a word ends before a foot is finished ; as in three cases in 
the following verse : — 

2. This becomes important only when it coincides with 
the caesura of the verse (as after it^ifwv^). This caesura is 
a pause within a foot introduced to make the verse more 
melodious or to aid in its recital. In some verses, as in 
the iambic trimeter acatalectic (1658) and the heroic hexsr 
meter (1669), it follows definite principles. 

1643, When the end of a word coincides with the end of a 
foot, the double division is called diaeresis {Buuptxn^f division)-, 
as after the first foot in the line just quoted. Diaeresis 
becomes important only when it coincides with a natural 
pause produced by the ending of a rhythmic series ; as in 
the trochaic tetrameter (1651) and the dactylic pentameter 
(1670). 

1644. The following verse of Aristophanes (iViufc. 519), in tro- 
chaic (i) rhythm, shows the irrational long (1633) in the first, 
second, and sixth feet ; the cyclic dactyl (1634) in the third ; syn- 
cope (1632) in the fourth; and at the end catalexis and pause 
(1639; 1640), with syllaba anceps (1636). 

rd\rf\$^ VTf I Tov At6\wi<rw rbv \ ^ic0pc|^vra | fu. 
_>l_>l-vyvylL-ll— wl«>l— vyl— A 
A rhythmical series (1637) ends with the penult of Aiovuirov. This 
is a logaoedic verse, called Eupolidean (1682, 7). 

VERSES. 

1646. Verses are called TrocJiaiCf Iambic^ Dactylic, etc., 
from their fundamental foot. 

1646. In most kinds of verse, a monometer consists of 
one foot, a dimeter of two feet, a trimeter, tetrameter, pentor 
meter, or hexameter of three, four, five, or six feet. But in 
trochaic, iambic, and anapaestic verses, which are measured 
by dipodies (i.e. pairs of feet), a monometer consists of one 
dipody (or two feet), a dimeter of four feet, a trimeter of 
six feet, and a tetrameter of eight feet. 



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1651] TROCHAIC RHYTHMS. 355 

1647. When trochaic or iambic verses are measured by single 
feet, they are called tripodies, tetrapodies, hexapodies, etc. (as having 
three, four, six, etc. feet). Here irrational syllables (1633) seldom 
occur. (See 1656.) 

1648. Rhythms are divided into rising and falling rhythms. 
In rising rhythms the arsis follows the thesis, as in the iambus 
and anapaest ; in falling rhythms the thesis follows the arsis, as in 
the trochee and the dactyl. 

1648. In Greek poetry, the same kind of verse, may be 
used hy the line (xara (ttCxov), that is, repeated continuously, 
as in the heroic hexameter and the iambic trimeter of the 
drama. Secondly, similar verses may be combined into 
distichs (1670) or into simple systems (1654). Verses of 
both these classes were composed for recitation or for simple 
chanting. Thirdly, in lyric poetry, which was composed to 
be sung to music, verses may be combined into strophes of 
complex rhythmical and metrical structure, with anti- 
strophes corresponding to them in form. A strophe and 
antistrophe may be followed by an epode {after-song) in 
a different metre, as in most of the odes of Pindar. 

TROCHAIC RHYTHMS. 

1660. Trochaic verses are generally measured by dipodies 
(1646). The irrational trochee -L > (1633) in the form of 
a spondee can stand in the second place of each trochaic 
dipody except the last, that is, in the even feet (second, 
fourth, etc.), so that the dipody has the form j1w-£^. 
An apparent anapaest {\^\j> for — >) is sometimes used 
as the equivalent of the irrational trochee. The cyclic 
dactyl A>w (1634) sometimes stands for the trochee in 
proper names in both parts of the dipody, except at the end 
of the verse. 

The tribrach (v^ w w) may stand for the trochee (1631) 
in every foot except the last. 

1661. The chief trochaic verse which is used by the line 
(1649) is the tetrameter catalectic, consisting of seven 
feet and a syllable, divided into two rhythmical series (1637) 
by a diaeresis (1643) after the second dipody. E.g, 



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356 



VERSIFICATION. 



(1) ctt (TO^wraroi OeaTca, 
— \j \j —\j > 

(2) fcarot o-cXiJnyv co? ayciv yjpii\ 

\j \j \j >" \j !> 

(3) fvyyovov t* € /a^v IIvAa^v tc 

\^ W —v-/ v^ W 



ScvpO TOV VoOv 

Tou j3tou Tas 



Trpoo^CTC.^ 



_ w _ > 



— ^— A 
3p<i>vra ftoc* 

— v^ — A 



Notice the tribrach in the first place of (2), and the cyclic 
dactyl in the third place of (3). 

This verse is familiar in English poetry, as 

Tell me not in mournful numbers, life is but an empty dream. 

1662. The lame tetrameter ((rxa^cov), called Hipponactean from 
Hipponax (see 1663), is the preceding verse with the last syllable 
but one long. E.g. 

afJL<l>i^€iio^ yap dfjx kovx a^prdvun Koimov^ 

__v^ wl W V-/I \J V-/I 

1653. The following are some of the more important 
lyric trochaic verses : — 

1. Tripody acatalectic (the Ithyphallic) : 

_ w _ w _ v^ (1647) 



fiiJTroT iKTaKeiYf,^ 

2. Tripody catalectic: 

OS yc (rav Xittcov.* 

3. Tetrapody or dimeter acatalectic 

TOUTO TOU fl€V ^/909 ttcl 

PXaardveL Kai ovKOifMvrtV 

4. Tetrapody or dimeter catalectic: 

Sfivot irpdyfJMT ctSoftcv.^ 

dtTTTiSas KJivXXoppoei.^ — w 

5. Hexapody or trimeter catalectic: 

ap^rayat Sc BuiBpefiav 6fuu/AOvc9.^ 

V-/ \y \ \J \J \J KJ \ V^ A 



— w — w _ A 



\J >■ I KJ \J 



w — >l \j A 



iAr.JV:676. 
2 ibid. 626. 
8 E. Or. 1636. 



* Hippon. 83. 
6 A. Pr. 636. 
« S. Ph. 1216. 



7 Ar. Av. 1478, 1479. 

8 ibid. 1472. 
» ibid. 1481. 



10 A. ^.361. 



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1668] IAMBIC RHYTHMS. 357 

1654. A stanza consisting of a series of dimeters acata- 
lectic (1653, 3), rarely with an occasional monometer 
(— w — w), and ending in a dimeter catalectic (1653, 4), 
is called a trochaic system. E.g. 

ravra /xcv irpo^ dvSpo^ ioTi — ^ — w I — ^ w 

vow €XOVTO^ Kal <^pei/a$ koL — w — > I — w — > 
TToXXa TrcptirCTrXcuKOTOs.^ — v> owwl — \j — /\ 

For iambic and anapaestic systems, formed on the same prin- 
ciple, see 1666 and 1677. See also 1636. 

1666. The following contain examples of syncopated 
trochaic verses (1632, 1) : — 

vvv KaTaxJTpo<l>al v€wv — ^ — w l_w — /\ 

0€a'fu<i)Vf ci KparrjO'tL Slko. re koI )SXa)Sa 

— wi I \j \ I w \j I w /\ 

TOvSe iirjTpOKTOvov.^ — w I— I — w — A 

SiOfwrdiv yap elXofidv — y^ — v> I w — /\ 

dvarpoTras, orav^AprfS tiBojo-o^ wv ifiCXjov eXiy.^ 

1666. In lyric trochaic and iambic verses, the irrational syllable 
is found chiefly in comedy, and is avoided in tragedy. 

IAMBIC RHYTHMS. 

1667. Iambic verses are generally measured by dipodies 
(1646). The irrational iambus > -^ (1633) in the form of 
a spondee can stand in tlie first place of each iambic dipody, 
that is, in the odd places (first, third, etc.), so that the 
dipody has the form xd -^\j ^. An apparent dactyl (> w w 
for > -^) is sometimes used as the equivalent of the irra- 
tional iambus ; and the cyclic anapaest ^ \j-^ (1634) is used 
for the iambus in both parts of the dipody, except in the 
last foot, especially by the Attic comedians (1658). The 
tribrach {y y^ \j^ may stand for the iambus in every foot 
except the last. 

1668. The most common of all iambic verses is the 
TRIMETER AC AT A LECTIO, in which most of the dialogue of 

1 Ar. B. 634 ff. 2 A. Eu, 400 ff. » ihid. 364 ff. 



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358 VERSIFICATION. [1659 

the Attic drama is composed. It never allows any substi- 
tution in the last foot. With this exception it may have 
the tribrach in any place. The irrational iambus > -^ in 
the form of a spondee can stand in the first place of every 
dipody. The tragedians allow the (apparent) dactyl > <jkj 
only in the first and third places^ and the cyclic anapaest 
only in the first place ; but in proper names they allow the 
anapaest in every place except the last. The comedians 
allow the dactyl > w w in all the odd places, and the cyclic 
anapaest in every place except the last (1657). The most 
common caesura is that after the tJiesis of the third foot. 

1659. The following scheme shows the tragic and the 
comic iambic trimeter compared, — the forms peculiar to 
comedy being enclosed in [ ]. 



\j jL \j — 


W W 




w-^ ^ 


>_ 


>_ 




>_ 


KJ \J \J \J \J \J 


v> w w \j yj \J 




www 


> \J \J 


> w w 




[>wv^] 


\j \j— Ikj w— ] 


[w w— ] l\J vy- 


-] 


[v^v^] 



1660. When the tragic trimeter ends in a word forming a cretic 

( w ), this is regularly preceded by a short syllable or by a 

monosyllable.^ In general the tragedians avoid the feet of three 
syllables, even where they are allowed. 

1661. The following are examples of both the tragic and 
the comic form of the iambic trimeter ; — 

(Tragic) ^(Oovo^ fuv cis | rrjXovpov tjlKOfjuev iriSoV) 

'^KvOrp^ I €s oTj/Aov, aparov cis | iprrffuav* 

*H<^atoT£, <rot | 8c xph f^^^^v \ ^irurroXas. A.Pr. 1-3. 
(Comic) S} Zfv )3a<rtXd) * | ro XPVt^ '''^'^ I vvktSw oaov 

dvipavTov' ou|8ejro^ riyApa. \ yein^erai; 

diroXmo 8^*, \ co irokefu, no\\X(av ou ve/ca. Ar. N. 2, 3, 6. 

1 This is known as " Porson's rule." '* Nempe hanc regulam ple- 
rumque in senariis observabant Tragici, ut, si voce quae Creticum 
pedem efficeret terminaretur versus, eamque vocem hypermonosyl- 
labon praecederet, quintus pes iambus vel tribrachys esse deberet." 
Suppl. ad Praef. ad Hecubam. 



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1666] IAMBIC KHYTHMS. 359 

1662. The Iambic Trimeter appears in English as the 
Alexandrine^ which is seldom used except at the end of a 
stanza ; — 

And hope to m^r|it Heiven by mikling E^rth a H^. 

1663. The lame trimeter (crx(£{(t>v), called the Choliambxis and the 
Hipponactean (see 1652), is the preceding verse with the last syl- 
lable but one long. It is said to have been invented by Hipponax 
(about 540 b.c), and it is used in the newly discovered mimes of 
Herondas. E.g. 

djcowraff 'iTnrcovoicros * ov yap dXX* ijficw.* 

ovTia ri aoi Sovria'av at ^lAoi Mowrau* 

\J \J I \J w — I v-/ — . 

1664. The tetbameteb catalectig, consisting of seven 
feet and a syllable, is common in Attic comedy. There is 
a regular dicLeresis (1643) after the second dipody, where 
the first rhythmical series ends (1637) . 



dwep Tov &vSp* 



vir€pPak€i, 



\j 



JLkj 



Kai p.'tj ycAcDT 



8 



o^XiTcrcis.' 
wl£_ (1640,2) 



In English poetry we have 

A captain bold | of Halifax, || who lived in conn | try quarters. 

1666. The following are some of the more important 
lyric iambic verses : — 

1. Dipody or monometer : 

TL Srjff OpoTs/* KJ — w — 

2. Tripody (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

Tt TCtfvS* Syev Kojclav;^ w — w — \j — 
iir* SXXo Tnjoa.' w __ w i 

3. Dimeter (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

ioAros €K Sofuov ifiaivJ \j — yy — I \j jL \j — 

Kttl TOV \6yOV I TOV fjTTia.* > __ ^^ — I \J \ (1640, 2) 

1 Hipp. 47. * ibid. 1098. f A. Ch. 22. 

a Herond. 3, 1. » A. Ag. 211. s at. Ach. 1008. 

8 Ar. N. 1035. « Ar. N. 703. » Ar. N. 1452. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



360 VERSIFICATION. [1666 

4. Hexapody or trimeter catalectic : 

irpeiru mfnfU ^vuks d/ivyfUMs.^ 

1666. Iambic systems are formed on the same principle as 
trochaic systems (1654), of acatalectic dimeters with an •ccasional 
monometer, ending with a catalectic dimeter. E.g. 

"^mififff • cS pivovfuvoif >__w — I > — Kj — 

irpos Twv OtStv Sfi(ur$€ /lov > — ^ — l> — w — 

OotfAOTWV, a>s > w w w __ 

i(avTOfjuoXm wpos vfiais* > — ^ >-'— I w i 

These verses end a long iambic system in Ar. Nub. 1090-1104 : 
see also Nub. 144&.1452, and Eq. 911-940. 

1667. For the irrational syllable in lyric verse, see 1656. 

DACTYLIC RHYTHMS. 

1668. The only regular substitute for the dactyl is the 
spondee, which arises by contraction of the two short syl- 
lables of the dactyl (-^ — from ^\j \j). 

1668. The most common of all Greek verses is the heboig 
HEXAMETEB, the Homcric verse. It always has a spondee 
in the last place, often in the first four places, seldom in the 
fifth (the verse being then called spondaic). There is com- 
monly a caesura in the third foot, either after the arsis or 
(rather more frequently) dividing the thesis. There is 
sometimes a caesura after the arsis of the fourth foot, and 
rarely one in the thesis. The caesura after the arsid is 
called masctdinef that in the thesis femin^e or trochaic. A 
diaeresis after the fourth foot, common in bucolic poetry, is 
called bucolic E.g. 

dvSpa yuoL lw€tr€, Movcro, iroXirpoTrovy os /aoAa iroAAA 

WW I I i KJ Kj\ \J\J I KJKJ I ^ 

lA. Ch.2i. a 05. 1,1 and 2. 



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1672] DACTYLIC RHYTHMS. 361 

TtuT* aCr*, ouytoxoco Atos rcicos, CiXi;XovAis/ * 

I WV^ I \JKJ I \JKJi I I ^ 

w\j I WW I \j\j I \j\Ji I wwl ^ 

1670. The elegiac distich consists of an heroic hexam- 
eter followed by the so-called Elegiac pentameter. This 
last verse consists really of two dactylic trimeters with 
syncope (1632, 1) or catalexis in the last measure ; as — 

noXXas 'A\erfvai\rf || X€<pas v\v€pO€v i\x€i.^ 

WW I IL-JII W W I WW I 7^ 

At the end of the pentameter verse the pause (X) takes the 
place of syncope (l_i) in the middle. The verse probably arose 
from a repetition of the first penthemim (vcvO-Tjfu-fupis, Jive half- 
feet^ of the hexameter. But syllaba anceps a,nd hiatus are not 
allowed after the first trimeter, but only at the end of the verse 
(1638). The last two complete feet are always dactyls. A diaeresis 
(1643) divides the two parts of the verse. The pentameter is 
never used by itself. 

1671. The following is an Elegiac Distich : — 

Tts Sk )3t|os rC Sk I refnrvov &\v€v XP^Whl^ *A^po|8fTi;s / 
T€$vaC\iiv ore | fioc || fMfjKcn \ ravra fA€\Xoi^ 

WW I WW I — WW I I WW I 

I WW IljII WWI WW I 7^ 

1672. In the Homeric verse a long vowel or a diphthong in the 
thesis (not in the arsis) is often shortened at the end of a word 
when the next word begins with a vowel. This sometimes occurs 
in the middle of a word. E,g, 

S iroiroc, I 9 fidXa, \ Svf fiierc|/3ovXcv|(rav tfcoc | cUXcds.* 
"Xpvirftf d|va o-m/lirrpo), kcu \ kura-ero \ vdvras *A\)(aujv9 (see 47, 1).* 

But i^/Acrcp^ ivl o7iccp iv^Apyti, rr^ioOi, mrpTfi.^ 

1 II. 1, 202. * Mimn. 1, 1 and 2. f U. 11, 380. 

« Theoc. 4, 1. • Od. 5, 286. » U. 1, 80. 

» Solon, 4, 4. « n. 1, 16. 



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362 VERSIFICATION. [1673 

1673. When a skort vowel stands in Homer where a long one 
is required by the verse, it may be explained in various ways. 

1. By supposing X, /a, v, p, or o* to be doubled at the beginning 

of certain words ; as iraXAa kurfro/ifyui ( w w __), //. 22, 91 

(we have (XXunrero in //. 6, 45). 

2. By the original presence of f making position (see 3 ; 90 ; 91) ; 

as TOW fOL vvp ( ), //. 5, 7. So before SciiSo), feary and 

other derivatives of the stem 8/:ci-, and before Sn^v (for &frp^)- 

3. By a pause in the verse (1642, 2) prolonging the time; as in 

^vyco/Acv' ^Ti yap iccv dXu^oi/ACV kokov ^fmp,^ 
,\j\j Kj \j \j \j 

1674. The following are some of the chief lyric dactylic 
verses : — 

1. Dimeter : 

/AV(rro8d{KOs Sd^ios' — w w I — \j \j 
fioipa &|a)Ka' — w w I 

2. Trimeter (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

wafivpeiTToi^ iv ISpcuortv.* I — w w I 

irapOhoL I 6p,Ppo<l>6\poi'^ __ wwl—wwl — A 
With anacrusis (1635) : 

lyttvaro pkv pjopov avn^ ^ i ww ^ \j 

irarpoKTOvov Ot&iro8av.* w: — \j \j w kj A 

3. Tetrameter (acatalectic and catalectic) : 

vtfiva. (ifv Sopl KoX x€pl irpaxTopiJ l__wwl — \j kj I — ^ \j 

ovpavi|ois T€ 0e|oi9 Scolpiy/xaTa.* — \j \j \ \j kj \ I ww 

ikOer* e|7ro^dfic{vai 8iW|/uv.' — ww l_w<u^l_iww I — X 

ANAPAESTIC BHYTHMS. 

1876. Anapaestic verses are generally measured by dipo- 
dies (1646). The spondee and the dactyl (— -^ and — v/ vy) 
may stand for the anapaest. 

The long syllable of an anapaest is rarely resolved into two 
short, making \j ^ y^ \j for \j \j _£. 

1 Od. 10, 269. * A. Ag. 117. » A. Ag, 111. 

aAr.iV.SOS. «Ar.i\r.299. 8Ar.i\r.805. 

» E. Her. 612. • A. Se, 751, 752. » Ar. R. 879. 



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1677] ANAPAESTIC RHYTHMS. 363 

1676. The following are the most common anapaestic 
verses : — 

1. The monometer: 

rpoiroF ai|yviria)v.* \j kj — \ \j \j — 

avfA<f}Ui\vo9 ofijov* i \u \j — 

2. The dimeter acatalectic : 

fj.€yav €ic I $vfunj \ KAa{ov|rcs *A/»iy.* ww I I I ww — 

otT* iic{^ariois I 3\y£<n | vai&iovJ^ I kj \j — I — \j \j I 

And the dllive of peice | sends its brtochjes abrolUl. 

3. The dimeter catalectic, or paroemiac : 

^pav I <rrparui)|nK dpwlyijv.* I wv/_-l wOl_iI — (1640, 2) 

ovTio I vkovn^laere vdvlre^J I I wwi_il — 

The Ldrd | is adyi(nc|ing. Prepare | ye ! 

4. The TETRAMETEB CATALECTic, consisting of seven feet 
and a syllable, or of the two preceding verses combined. 
There is a regular diaeresis after the second dipody. This 
verse is frequently used by the line (1649) in long passages 
of Aristophanes. 

irpoaxtrt rov vow | rocs oBavarovi || ijfitv, rots oI|€v ^ovo-t, 

TOts alBtpCxH,^, I ToixTiv oyi^pi^y H Tots a<l>OiTa fji.rf\Sofi€voi(ri,v^ 

— \^ oc _ I __ c?o S^ _|| Ca>_-I WWI_I — 

1877. An ANAPAESTIC SYSTEM cousists of a series of 
anapaestic dimeters acatalectic, with occasionally a mono- 
meter, ending always with the paroemiac (or dimeter 
catalectic). These are very frequently employed in both 
tragedy and comedy. E,g. 

Hxarov fuv I[to9 t6^ iwtl Upuifjuov \j \u -^ \j \j I \j \j J!i w \j mm, 

fJLvyas dvrtSucoi, w w _ w w — 

Mcvc\ao9 3.va( ^8' 'Aya/Dic/xvQ>v, \j kj ww— I \^ \j — 

&.0p6vov Ato^cv Kol Surm/irrpov \j \j \j \j I — 

Tifjajq oxvpov ^cvyos 'ArpeiSav, ww__l— v^vy— «- 

OToKov *ApyaW x^^Mwavrav 

T^cff diro Xfapa^ 

^pav, (TTpaTUaTiv dpar/rfVo^ \j \j I \j \j \-j 

^A.AgA9, 8Ar.il«.221. ^ ibid. 50, fAr.Av.7S6. ^A.Ag.40-41. 
^ ibid. 9S. *A.Jflr.48. ^ ibid. ^7. H6id.689. 



\.j \j I ^ \.j \j . 

\j \j 



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364 VERSIFICATION. [1678 

1678. Anapaestic systems are especially common in march 
movements in tragedy, where they were probably chanted by the 
leader of the chorus, as in the iropoSog. 

LOOAOEDIG RHYTHMS. 

1679. Logaoedic rhythm is a rhythm in f time, having 
the trochee as its foundation^ but admitting great freedom 
of construction. Besides the trochee — o, it admits the 
irrational trochee — >, the tribrach ^ ^ kj, the cyclic dactyl 
-\y \j, and the triseme (1632, 1) or syncopated trochee i— . 
These are all equivalent feet, of three times (= w ^ w). 

1680. The first foot of a logaoedic verse allows special freedom. 

It may be a trochee or an irrational trochee >, and sometimes 

a tribrach w w w> An apparent iambus (probably with ictus 
C — ) sometimes occurs (1682, 7). Great license is here per- 
mitted in using different forms in strophe and antistrophe, even 
in verses which otherwise correspond precisely : see 1682, 7. 

When a logaoedic verse has more than one rhythmical series 
(1637), the first foot of each series has this freedom of form (see 
1682, 7). 

1681. An anacrusis (1635) may introduce any logaoedic verse. 

1682. The following are some of the most important 
logaoedic verses which have special names : — 

1. Adonic: tromtayp^ laa-o^ —^ w I w This is the final 

verse of the Sapphic stanza (6). 

2. First Pherecratic : kirraTrvXjourL ©ly^ots.^ — w w I w I _ v/ 

Catal. as Tpefjuofuv Xeyciv.' —^ w I kj \ /\ 

3. Second Pherecratic: ttcuSo^ Bwr<l>opov ardv.* > \-au\j I w 

Catal. €K fjiJev ^ vokifjiMvJ^ > \—\j\j I /\ 

4. Glyconic : (Three forms) : 

(a) ImrC avai HwrvZov, «.* — ^^ w I _ v/ I w I y\ 

(6) ®i7)3^ Twv 7rpoT€pwv <^aos.'' __ > I -\^\j I _ w I /\ 

(c) <^aira fiaarra Travcrayto.® \j \ \j \ —\^ \j \ /\ 

1 Sapph. 1, 28. * S. Aj. 643. » S. An. 101. 

« Pind. Py. 11, 11. 6 S. An. 160. « t6td. 107. 

»S. 0.ai29. 6 Ar. j:g.661. 



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1683] LOGAOEDIC RHYTHMS. 365 

5. Three Alcaics, which form the Alcaic stanza (a, a, h, c) : 

(a) aavvirrjfu twv dve/xoiv orcunv * 

<Z7 : \j I w I —\j \j \ w I /\ 

(a) TO /Acv yap l^vOev KVfta tcvXiv^rax 

\D \ \j \ > I —\J \J \ w I A 

(6) TO 8* €vd€V • ^/X/AC$ 8' aV TO fi€(r<rov 

\J : \j \ V-/I v^ I Kj 

(c) vat <lH>pi^fJLe$a avv ficXmva.^ 

— w v^ I — v-/ v^* I v-/ I w 

Compare in Horace (Od. 1,9): 

Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee iam sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto. 

6. Sapphic: iroiKi\\6epov \ dOamr \^A<l>po\8iTd.^ 

w I w I — V^ W I V^* I v^ 

I -> I 

Three Sapphics and an Adonic (1) form the Sapphic stanza. 

7. Eupolidean: w ^c{(o/x€|voi, KaTe\pta || Trpos ^{fJiSs i\k€v$€\p<o^.^ 

w w — \> v^ |l II w wl — v^l /\ 

(See 1644.) 

The Eupolidean verse is used by the line in comedy ; as in Ar. 
iV^uft. 518-562. 

1683. The first strophe of the first Olympic ode of 
Pindar is given as an example of the free use of logaoedics 
in lyric poetry. 

apurrov pkv vhmp, 6 S^ || ypvao^ aWo/ievov irvp 

vy : L_ I — vy \j I \j I i II Kj I -\j \j \ \j 

art Sunrpeirei, \\ wktI fieyavopo^ Hox"^ ttXovtov ' 

\J KJ \J I W I L_ II — V-' \J I — V^ \J I — V-' W I KJ 



€1 y SxOXa yapvcy 




^ 


\j 1 w 1 \j 


-A 




1 Alcae. 18, 1-4. 


2 Sapph. 1, 1. 


» Ar. N. 618. 



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366 VERSIFICATION. [1«84 

IXScOt, ^iXoF ^TOjpy 

fnfK€r dcXtov a-KOirti 

v^l v^ I v-' I A 

fllXXo AiXirvorcpoK cv a/ic||p^ ^ocwov aarpav cpi7||/xa9 &* alOifXK, 

W I V-' I V-' V-' V-^ I KJ il KJ I W I — vyv^ I L— II \J I V-' I A 

fiiJS* 'OXvfiirias dywva || 4>iprtpav avSdoroficv • 

\j I \^ I v^ I v^ II — w w I L_ I \j \ A 

odfv 6 iroKwlHiTOi v/xvo9 dfi^jSaAAerat 

\j:\j\^\j \ \jkjkj I \j I \^ I — \j 1 — A 

axHJHav fir/Titcrcri, KcAaSeiv 

v:^^:^!— v-r il_i ^^v^I— a 

Kpovov iroi^; €s a<l>V€av ucofievov^ 

\j :L^\ \j \ KJ \ L^\ \j\j\j \ A 

fjMKtupav 'I^a>vo9 coTtav. 

\J ': \ I KJKJKJ I KJ I w I A 

DACTYLO-EPITEinC RHYTHMS. 

1684. 1. About half of the odes of Pindar are com- 
posed in a measure called dactylo-epUritic, which consists 
of dactyls, with their equivalent spondees and syncopated 
forms (lj), and epitrites. The epitrite (i— w ) is com- 
posed of a long (or Doric) trochee (i— w, see 1632, 2) and 
a spondee. The dactylic parts of the verse generally have 
the form J-\j \j jL\j kj^^ ot (catalectic) ^kj\j^\j\j jL1\, 
The epitrite also may be catalectic, i_ w _ X. The verse 
may have an anacrusis. 

2. It will be noticed that in this verse the long trochee (l_ w) 
has the same length as the dactyl and the dactyl has its full time, 
while in logaoedic verse the trochee has its ordinary time and the 
dactyl is cyclic (equivalent in time to the trochee). 

1685. The first strophe of Pindar's third Olympic ode 
is an example of this measure : — 

TwSapiSais rt <I>l\o(€ivoi^ dSciv KaA.||Xi7rA.OKa/Aa) ff 'E^ci'a 

^ KJ I Wwl Il W II KJ \J I WV> I 7^ 

icXcivav *AKpdyavTa yepaipwv cvxofuu, 
— : v^v^ I WW I Il w_«X 



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1688] FEET OF FIVE OR SIX TIMES. 367 

0i7pa>vos *Okvfi'inovtKdv \\vfivcv opOwroA^, dLicafiaFroird&ov 

: \jKj\ \j\^\ II I— v-' I — wyj I — KJw\ — X 

Zjnrtav acDTOv. || Moura ovro) fUK irap€(rraj|Koc vcoo^yoXov cvpOFTc rpoirov 

ll^KJ Wl^KJ — |l— W il KJKJ I V-'W I 1 L—W — 7^ 

Ao>pt(p ^o)||Fav ivapfi6$ai irtBtXtf^ 

I W II l_ KJ I L— O 

BHYTHMS WITH FEET OF FIVE OR SIX TIMES. 

1686. Some of the more important rhythms with feet of 
five or six times (1627, 3 and 4) are the following : — 

1687. 1. Choriambic rhythms, with the choriambus 
— w w — as the fundamental foot : — 

iroiSa /A€v avjras irwriy av|r^ $€fi€va^ 

WW l^ww — I — \j \j — 

Sciva fuv o2v, 8eiva rapaaraa cro^os oco)vo^eras.' 

KJ KJ I WW I — WW I WW 

2. Choriambic verges of this class are rare. Most verses formerly 
called choriambic are here explained as logaoedic (1682). 

1688. 1. Ionic rhythms, with the ionic a minore w w 

as the fundamental foot, admitting also the equivalent 
wwL_i (1626,2): — 

ir€jr€paK€v\fj^v 6 ircpcrclTrroXis rjSTf 

paaikeioi \ orrparos eis dvjriTropoK y€i|rova \iapav, 

•AAi/Liav|Tt8os'^XX5s.» 



WW 

WW 

WW L-l 



WW— 

WW 

WW 

WW 



W W -1- 

WW I w w . 

WW __ 



2. A double trochee _ w — w often takes the place of the two 
long syllables and the two following shorts. This is called anaclasis 
(dmicAa(ris, breaking up)^ as it breaks up the feet. E.g, 

Tis 6 Kpaiirv^ I iroSi Tn/Si/j/xaros €virc|TOvs dvao-crwv / * 

WW I WW I W W — w I w 

iA.i^e.»29. 2S.O.r.484. «A.P«.66-70. *i6id. 96. 



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368 VERSIFICATION. [1689 

1689. Gretic rhythms, in which paeons occur by resolu- 
tion of long syllables (— ov^v/ or www— for — w — ) : — 

cvK dva|o^(70'Ofuu ' | firfik Acyc | /juol av Aoyov * 
(US fi€iit\<TrfKd ore KAe{<i>vo$ Irt | /uiaAXov, ov 
jcararc/AO) | rouriv (ir|9rcvo'C icar|rvfiaTa.^ 

w I w I www I www 

w I www I — www I w 

www — I W I w I w 

1890. Bacchic rhythms, with the bacchius w as the 

fundamental foot : — 

Tis axco, I Tis oSfxa \ irfHKrhrra \ /i d^eyyi^ / ' 

w |w |w |w 

OTCvafo) / I Ti p€i<o ; I y€viafuu | Svorotbra | troXtrajL^ ; * 

w I w I w I w I w : 

DOCHMIACS. 

1691. Dochmiac verses, which are used chiefly in tragedy 
to express great excitement, are based upon a foot called 
the dochmius, compounded of an iambus and a cretic (or a 

bacchius and an iambus) w _ I — w — (or w 1 w _ ). This 

peculiar foot appears in nineteen different forms, by re- 
solving the long syllables and admitting irrational longs 
in place of the two shorts. Its most common forms are 
w — I — w — and w w w I — w _, As examples may be given 

SvcroXyci ryx^**^ ^ ^ — 

nrcpo^opov Sc/tas.' www — w — 

fua6$€ov fjukv ow.* > w w »_ w — (for > w ) 

fjLeydXa. fuydXa, koiJ w w w w w w — (for w w — ) 

^€poifidv pofTKov iriafuoLTOi ifwrtrctrov? w > — I >ww — w 

luOuroi arpdroif oTpariireSov Xiinav.^ w w — | www w 

1 Ar. Ach, 290-301. * A. Ag. 1165. ^ E. Ba. 1198. 

a A. Pr. 115. «i6id. 1147. ^A.Eu.2Se. 

• A. Eu, 788. • ibid. 1090. • A. 5e. 79. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



APPENDIX. 



CATALOGUE OF YEEBS. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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APPENDIX. 



1692. CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 

Note. — This catalogue professes to contain all verbs in ordinary 
use in classic Greek which have any such peculiarities as to present 
difficulties to a student. No verb is introduced which does not occur 
in some form before Aristotle ; and no forms are given which are not 
found in writers earlier than the Alexandrian period, except some- 
times the present indicative of a verb which is classic in other tenses, 
and occasionally a form which is given for completeness and marked 
as later. Tenses which are not used by Attic writers, in either prose 
or poetry, or which occur only in l3rrical parts of the drama, are 
enclosed in [ ], except occasionally tiie present indicative of a verb 
which is Attic in other tenses. 

The verb stem, with any other important forms of the stem, is 
given in ( ) directly after the present indicative, unless the verb 
belongs to tie first class (569). The class of each verb in w is given 
by an Arabic numeral in ( ) at the end, unless it is of the first class. 
Verbs in /u of the Seventh Class (619), enumerated in 794, are marked 
with (I.) ; those of the Fifth Class in vD/u (608), enumerated in 797, 1, 
with (n.) ; and the poetic verbs in vrifu or vafMi (609), enumerated in 
797, 2, which add va to the stem in the present, with (HI.). A few 
epic peculiarities are sometimes disregarded in the classification. 

The modification of the stem made by adding c in certain tenses 
(663) is marked by prefixing (c-) to the first form in which this 
occurs, unless this is the present. Presents in ecu thus formed have 
a reference to 664. A hyphen prefixed to a form (as 4dpdv) indicates 
that it is found only in composition. This is omitted, however, if the 
simple form occurs even in later Greek ; and it is often omitted when 
the occurrence of cognate forms, or any other reason, makes it prob- 
able that the simple form was in use. It would be extremely difficult 
to point out an example of every tense of even the best English verbs 
in a writer of established authority within a fixed period. 

The imperfect or pluperfect is generally omitted when the present 
or perfect is given. 

371 



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372 APPENDIX. [1092 

A. 

[(da-)i injure, infatuate, stem, with aor. daaa (Aeura), ao-a; a. p. 

ddaSriy; pr. mid. darai, aor. daadfiriVj erred. Vb. daros, Aw-aros. 

Epic] 
'AYQfMu, admire, [epic fut. dydirofiai, rare,] iiydce-nv, fycurd/irip. (I.) 
'AyyiXXw (d77cX-), announce, dyyeXCi [dyyeX^w], ^77etXa, ^77cXira, 

^77cX/Luit, ^77A^i', fut. p. dyyeXB'^ao/iai ; a. m. ifyyeikd/irip. Second 

aorists with X are doubtful. (4.) 
'A^Cp«» (dy€p-)f collect, a. -iyeipa ; [ep. plpf. p. dynyiparo ; a. p. -/fyipOrfw, 

a. m. (ijyeipdfAriy) avv-ayelparo, 2 a. m. dyefibfuriv with part. dyp6ft£90s. 

See i>7cp^^o/uit.] (4.) 
'Ayvviu (/:a7-), in comp. also dyv6<a, break, A^uj, ia^a (637, 1) [rarely 

epic ^^a], 2 p. ^d7a [Ion. ^irya]» 2 a. p. ^a7i?>' [ep. idyrip or 47ifi']. 

(n.) 

'Ayw, lead, A^a, Ij^a (rare), ^x«> ^yf^h ^X^^?"* dxH^ofiai ; 2 a. ihra- 

70V, 1^076^171' ; fut. m. A^/jMi (as pass.), [Horn. a. m. d^d/iriw, 2 a. 

act. imper. A^rrc, inf. d^4fieyai (777, 8).] 
[(&Sc-), &e sated, stem with aor. opt. ad'^acuv, pf. part. adi7ic<^. 

Epic] 
[(d<-), rest, stem with aor. Aetra, atra. Epic] 
'AiSw, 8?n^, 4^ofjMi {q.<r<a, rare), jjca, ^ffBiiv, Ion. and poet. dcCSii, 

delffdi and del<rofMi, r^eura, 
["A^ : Hom. for av^o;.] 
["Aiifii (de-), blow, ArfToy, Aeuri, inf. d^Mit, diffieyai, part, defs ; imp. 

Ariy. Mid. imperf. din"o, part, dij/ncvos. Poetic, chiefly epic] (I.) 
Al8lo|iai, poet. tUdofmi, respect, aidiffofuii, -ideafuu, i^iffByiw (as mid.), 

ideffdfiriy (chiefly poet.), [Hom. imperat. aldeto]. 639 ; 640. 
Aivim, praise, alv4<r(a [a/i^tra;], ^veaa [JQvyi<r<i], vv^ko., ^vrifiai, ^r^^y, 639. 
[ACwiMu, take, imp. alvdfirfv. Epic] (11.) 
Alp4tt (aipe-, ^X-), take, cdp^auj, VpifKa, VPVM^'- [Hdt. dpalpriKa, dpaifnf- 

fjMi], ypiSriP, alpeOi/fffOfjMi ; fut. pf. ijpi^irofiai (rare) ; 2 a. etXow, IXw, 

etc.; €l\6firip, i\u}fMi, etc. (8.) 
Atpw (^p-), ^aA:e up, ipw, Ijpa (674), i^pira, i^p/uai, ^p^y, apB-^i^ofuu; 

ijpdfAtip (674). Ion. and poet. d<Cp« (dep-), i^eipa, iiipByi^, \ji€piuu 

(late), Hom. plpf. Aiapro for riepro ; a. m. deipd/iiyy.] Fat. dpovAuu 

and 2 a. •tipbp.iip (with dpcu/uii (d) etc.) belong to Appvfuu (dp-). (4.) 
Ato*6dvo|Mii (al(r$-), perceive, (c-) al<r$i/i<rofjMt, •jfrOniftai ; i(r96fiiiw. Pies. 

ataBofjMi (rare). (5.) 
*At<r<rtt (dlV-), rush, dt^uj, if'i^a, ijtx^Vt iji^/irip. Also ^'vm or fm» 

(also Acircj or drrw), ^f^w, {^a. Both rare in prose. (4.) 
Alox^v^ (.^^^X^^)i disgrace, al<rxvvQ, ^a-xvpa, [p. p. part. ep. io^x^f^" 

M^yo$,] v<fX^^Vi'i fslt ashamed, alaxvv&^<rofMi ; fut. m. tUffxywoOftat, 

(♦■) 



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1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 373 

*At«*, hear, imp. iioy, [aor. -^IVra.] Ionic and poetic. 
[*At«»f breathe outy only imp. dl'ov. Epic. See Arifu.'] 
[*AKaxCtw (dx; see 687), c^ict, redupl. pres., with dx^ and &x<^«*f 

be grieved (only in pr. part, dx^fay, dx^^^)^ ^^^ ^X^V^^i ^^ grieved; 

fat. dxax'^o'ta, aor. dicdxi^o'a ; p. p. dxdxVM^f' {dKrix^^aTai) , d«ccixi70'^ai, 

djcaxi^/Aeyof or diciyx^/Aevos ; 2 aor. ^«caxov, dicaxV^>'* See dxwAUK 

and dxo/LMi. Epic] (4.) 
fAxaxH^vos, sharpened, epic perf. part, with no present in use.] 
'AjdofiOi, AeaZ, aor. ijKeffdfiriv. 
*Ain|8^, neglectj [aor. dic^deo-a epic]. Poetic. 
*Akov«* (dicov- for dKOf-), hear, dKo(nrofMi, iiKov^a [Dor. pf. Hkovko], 2 

pf, dici^icoa (for dK-riKOfa, 690), 2 plpf. iiKTiKhyi or dicijicdiy ; iJKoi6a6riy, 

dxovcB^iffOftai, 
*AXaXdtw (dXaXa7-), raise war-cry, dXaXd^/uai, ^XdXa^a. (4.) 
*AXdo|Mii, wander, [pf. dXdXtitMi (as pres.), w. inf. dXdXi^ir^ai, part. 

dXoXiJ/ti6ws], a. dXiJ^ijv. Chiefly poetic. 
'AXSaUtf (dXdai'-), nourish, [ep. 2 aor. ^Xda^oi'.] Pres. also dXdVirw. 

Poetic. (4.) 
*AXcC^ (dX6i0-), anoint, dXef^w, ^Xei^a, dXTjXt0a, dXi^Xt/i/Mi', ^X6/0^i7y, 

dX€(0^(ro/Mi( (rare), 2 a. p. ii\i<l>7iv (rare). Mid. f. dXel^o/Mit, a. 

ifXeiypdfiriy. 629. (2.) 
'AXIftt (dX6^, dXcic-), toard off, fut. dX^^o/xat [ep. (c-) dXe^iJo-w, Hd. 

dXefiJo-o/iai] ; aor. (c-) ij\4^riaa (^Xe|a, rare), iJXe^d/iiyv ; [ep. 2 a. 

dXaXicoy for dX-aXeic-or.] 667. 
[*AXIo|iai, avoid, epic ; aor. i)X6d/A>7v.] 
*AX<^, avert, dX€i^<rw, ^X6v<ra. Mid. dXe^fuu, avoid, aor. '/jXevdfiJiv, 

with subj. ^^-aXet^o-cu/Luii. Poetic. 
'AXitf, ^Wnd, ^Xe<ra, dXi^X€<r/Mii or dXi^Xe/Mii. 639 ; 640. 
[*AX6o|Mii, be healed, (c-) dX^i^o-o/Mit.] Ionic and poetic. 
*AXUrKO|iai (aX-, aXo-), be captured, dXdxrofMi, rjXaKa or iakuKa, 2 aor. 

{Xciiy or id\<av, dXQ [epic aXc^o;], dXolrjv, dXwvai, dXoi^f (799) ; all 

passive in meaning. 669. No active dXl(rKUf, but see dv-oXCo-Kw. 

(6.) 
fAXiraCvoiiOi (dXir-, dXirav-), with epic pres. act. dXirpaCvtt, sin; 2 

aor. riXiTov, dXir6/Arip, pf. part. dXir-^fievos, sinning, ep.]. Poetic, 

chiefly epic. (4. 5.) 
'AXXdovtt (dXXo7-), cJiange, dXXd^w, ^XXofa, ^XXaxa, rjXXayfMi, ijXXd- 

X^v and iiXXdyriv, dXXax^^<ro/Luii and dXXa7i^(ro/Mii. Mid. fut. dXXd- 

^fJMi, a. ifXXa^firiv. (4.) 
'AXXo|MU (a'X-), leap, dXoO/ww, ijXdfivi' '» 2 a. ijX6firip (rare). [Epic 2 a. 

ttXiro, JXto, AXfievos, by syncope.] 800, 2. (4.) 
[*AXvicTdttt and dXvxWtt, &6 excited, imp. dX(^«rra^>i' Hdt. pf. dXaXd- 

KTrifioi Horn. Ionic] 



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374 APPENDIX. 

'AXioiCM (dXvjc-), avoids d\6^u [and dX^|o/uai], tfXv^a (rarely -a/iiyv). 

Poetic. 'AXiJjTicw is for dXuK-a-icw (617). (6.) 
'AX^vM (dX0-), ^i»d, ocgutre, [epic 2 aor. ^X^ov.] (5.) 
'A|Mfyrdvt» (afta/>r-), err, (i-) dfiapT'^ofJMt, ijfidfiTriKa, rifiAprrifiau, ijfiap^ 

Ti^p ; 2 aor. rf/Mproy [ep. ^^t/Sporoy]. (5.) 
'A|ipXUrKi» (d/A/3X-), d/A^X6w In compos., miscarry, [dA</3X(6(rb;, late,] 

4/A/3XaM-a, i7/A/3Xwira, ^^i/SXw/iat, ini^Kdidviv. (6.) 
'A|uCp«» (dAiep-) and &|Up8«i, deprive^ rnuepaa, '/jfiipSjip. Poetic. (1. 4.) 
'A|iv4x« and d|iv-(o^tt (dfupl and fx<^)f t(7rap about j clotJie, dfjb^^^ 

2 a. 4/iiriHrxoy ; [epic imp! . d^rexov.] Mid. dfiTixofMi^ d/arlaxofuti, 

dfivia'X''^ofjMi ; imp. ijfiTrtix^jiriv ; f. dfuf^i^fMi ; 2 a. ^/Jori-irxifJ^V^ and 

i^/iv-etf'x^M^''* ^44. See lx« and tirxtt. 
'AfivXaKCcKM (d/ixXaic-), err, mi89, ^/ixXdxi^/uii ; 2 a. ^/ATXaxoy, part. 

dfixXaic(i>y or dTXa«cc6y. Poetic. (6.) 
[*A|&irwf, dfiTPVpOrfp, 4ftx vwro, all epic: see dvarir^w.] 
'Afivvt* (dfivi^), ward off; fut. d/Avvc!), d/ivivO/iat; aor. j/ivwi, 'fifutwdijaip, 

'AfiiwHrM (d/Aux-)f 8cra^, [d/bU^^to, ^/xv^a (Theoc), ^ftv^d/ii/y]. Poetic 

and Ionic. (4.) 
'Afi^i-TvolM, douhty iitufnypUov and '/jfufteyvdeovj 'fiti^4>€yvlniaa ; aor. pass. 

part. dfuf>Lyporiecls, 544. 
*A|i^i-^vvv|u (see (vnffu), clotke^ fat. [ep. d/A^i^trcii] Att. dfu/>iQ ; iffupUffa, 

ilfupUafMt ; dfufniffofjtai, dfupieffdfifjv (poet.). 544. (H.) 
'A|i^urPi|Ww, dispute^ augmented iffn^ur- and ijfupeff- (544) ; otherwise 

regular. 
'AvaCvo|MU (dray-), refuse^ imp. iivaip^firip, aor. '/jpripd/irip, dp-iiPoaBax, (4.) 
AvoXCo-Ktt (aX-, dXo-, 650), and dvaXdtt, eosjpend, draXc6<ra;, dy^Xowa, 

and di^Xwo-a (fcar-^ydXaytra), dpi\(aKa and dm^Xciiica, dv^Xw/iat and 

dpifktafMi. (Kar-ripdXuffJMi), dpaXii&rip and din7X(i>^i7y, dpa\u}0i/j<rofiAi. 

See dXUrKoiiOi. (6.) 
'AvairWw, take breath; see ry^w (x^v-). [Epic 2 aor. imperat. a/nrpve, 

a. p. dfATpOpOtiP, 2 a. m. dfiirpvTo (for d/iTvtJero).] 
'AvSdvM (fad-, ad-), please [impf. Horn, ^vdayoy and ^vdaFoy, Hdt. 

ijydarav and iiipdapop ; fut. (c-) adi^<rw, Hdt. ; 2 pf. ^dda, epic] ; 

2 aor. ddop [Ion. ladoy, epic evador for iffaSop,] Ionic and poetic. 

See aa-fieposj pleased, as adj. (5.) 
'Av^tt, hold up ; see lx», and 544. 
fAWjvoBc, defect. 2 pf., springs, sprung ; in 72. 11, 266 as 2 plpf. 

(777,4). Epic] 
'Av-oIyvviu and dvoCYM (see oiypvfu), open, imp. dpitpyop (^potyop, 

rare) [epic dp^yop]; dpol^w, dp4<p^a (fjpotla, rare) [Hdt. 4w«{o], 

dy^VXa, dp4(pyfjMi, dw^x^^?" (subj. dwtx^w, etc.) ; fut. pf. dpeif^fuu 

(2 pf. dp4(fya late, very rare in Attic). (II.) 



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CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 376 

*Av-op06i», set uprigJUf augment dvtap- and ijiKap-, 644. 

'AvvM, Attic also &yvT«, accomplish; fut dvi^w [Horn, di^w], dv6ao- 

fiai ; aor. imxra, iiwadfirip ; pf. ^ia;«ra, iwufffuu, 639. Poetic also ctMiy. 
"Avct^a, 2 peil. as pres., command [w. 1 pL Aytayfuw^ sub. dwiiyw^ opt. 

dy(67oiAu], imper. dy(i;7e (rare), also di^x^c (with dy<&x^»t di^wx^)} 

[inf. d»'w7^M€»'] J 2 plpf. i^v<^€a, i^ir<^et (or dir<67ei), [also {rtiryor 

(or dyw7ov), see 777, 4]. [Present forms drtiyei and dpiSr^erov 

(as if from dvt^cu) occur ; also fut. dvc6(w, a. ^wtf(a.] Poetic and 

Ionic, 
f Av-avpd«», taA;e at<7ay, not found in present ; imp. drri^pufv (as aor.) ; 

kindred forms are epic fut. dirovpi^w, and aor. part, dirot^par, dTov- 

pd/Mwos,'] Poetic. 
fAvo^Co-KM (dir-a0-), deceive, ^rd^i^a (rare), 2 a. ^ira^ov, m. opt. 

dira0o/fti|v]. Poetic. (6.) 
'Avfx04vo|iai (^x^-)i &« Aa^€d, (c-) direx^<ro/wM, aViJx^i?/Mit ; 2 a. 

din7x^6/Ai7y. Late pres. dxix^ofmi. (5.) 
fAvdcpo-c, «<?ep« ojf, subj. dTo4paii, opt. drodpacic (only in 3 pers.). 

Epic] 
'AvoKrCwviii and -^«, forms of diroKrcri»w. See KnCvo). 
'Av6xpir\, it suffices, impersonal. See %fi^\. 
"AvTw (a0-), ^oucA, fut. d^w, &\l/ofiafy aor. 17^0, ^^d/Aijy; pf. 17/u/Mii ; 

a. p. ij^^y (see id</>$'n). ' (3.) 
'ApdofiAi, pra^, dpdaofuu, ijpdadfiriv, ijpafjMt. [Ion. dpifaofMi, iipt^d- 

I17IV. Ep. act. inf. api^/teMii, to i>ra^.] 
'ApapCo-Ktt {dp-) J fit, rfpaa, rjp^riv; 2 p. dpdpa, [Ion. d/M7pa,plpf. dpi^p€i(i') 

and i)pi^pe((v) ;] 2 a. ripapov ; 2 a. m. part, dpfieyoi (as adj.),^m'n^. 

With form of Attic redupl. in pres. .(616). Poetic. (6.) 
'ApdovM or dpdTTtt (dpa7-), strike, dpd^w, ijpo^a, ijpdxS'nv. (4.) 
'Ap^Kc» (dpe-), please, dpiau, ifpeira, iip4(r0rip; dp4aofMi, ifpeadfirfv. 

639. (6.) 
["AfMiii^vot, 02>pr6M6d, perf. pass. part. Epic] 
'ApK^, assist, dpKiffta, •ijpK€<ra, 639. 
'Ap|fcdTTtf, poet, dpifcdttf (dpfAod-), fit, dppjbaw, ripfMca (avpdpfw^a Pind.), 

ripfjbOKa (Aristot.), rfpfuxrpjtu, i^pfA6a'0'nv, fut. p. dpfioaOi/iaofMi ; a. m. 

lipfMadfirip, (4.) 
"Apwi&oi (dp-), win, secure, fut. dpoOfmi, 2 a. '/jpdfirip {dphiitiv). Chiefly 

poetic. See aXpta. (11.) 
'Apdtt, plough, ripoaa, [p. p. Ion. dpi^/Bo/tot], iipdOiip, 639. 
'Apirdttt (apira7-), 8et>e, dptrdtrta and dprdaofiaL [ep. efprd^w], ipwaaa 

[ijlpro^a], ^piraica, ripirafffiai (late ^pira7/Mit), "ipTdaBriP [Hdt. ijpird- 

X^i7>'], dpiraff$^<rofMi, For the Attic forms, see 587. (4.) 
'Ap^tt and Ap^rai, drato water, aor, TJpvaa, -fipvird/irfP, ijpvdrip [ijpv- 

ffOrip, Ion.]. 639. 



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376 APPENDIX. [1692 

'A^M, begin, rtrfe, ipiu, ^/>^i, (5px«) VpntfMi (mid.), 5px^^ «*/>x^ 

irofuii (Aiistot.), ap^iuUf lipf^tiriv, 
"Atom and f rrt* : see itvvw, 

fArvriXXi* (driraX-), tend; aor. dr/rijXa. Epic and lyric] . (4.) 
AicUvti (a^r-) or a^aCvti ; fut. tktawQ ; aor. ifinivay rftdvB^v or aMi^r, 

ater^i^o/buu ; fut. m. atevovfiai (as pass.). Augment rfv- or av- 

(519). Chiefly poetic and Ionic. (4.) 
A^vti or aiS{« <a^.)» increase, (c-) tLd^ot, ad^i^o-o/Mit, i7v^7<ra, ijv^ica, 

lyu^fuu, lyd^^^v, ad^i^^^o-o/uai. [Also Ion. pres. di^ta, impf. de^p.j 

fA4^mn» (see 582 and 587), /eeZ, AandZe, aor. ^^cura; used by Hdt. 

for ii^du or d4>dwJ] (4.) 
'A^tiiiu, Zet (^ro, impf. d</>trfy or i)^f i?!* (544) ; fut. d^p'ffiru, etc. See the 

inflection of fn/u, 810. (I.) 
fA^^wvM (d0v7-), drow, i)owr, d^v^w. Poetic, chiefly epic. See 

d0«J«.] (4.) 
fA^^M, drat«, ^0v<ra, ^ipvadfitiu. Poetic, chiefly epic] 
'Ax^fMU) be displeased, (c-) dx^^o/ww, iixOiaBriv, dx^effOi/jcofMi, 
[^Axwfiai (dx-), 6e troubled, impf. dxi^M^* Poetic. (H.) Also 

epic pres. &x<>K^<)^-] ^^ &Kax4«*. 
CAm, satiate, itna, a<ra ; 2 aor. subj. Iw/iei' (or iQfiev), pr. inf. d/cerai, 

to satiate one^s self. Mid. (ao/uai) aarai as fut. ; f. iaofjMi, a. io-d- 

Ail?!'. Epic] 

B. 

Bdttt (/9a7-)i speaA;, utter, pd^<a, [ep. pf. pass, pipaicrai]. Poetic. (4.) 
BaCvtt (/9a-, /Sai'-), go, fi-^aofiat, fiiprixa, ^i^aiuu, ifidB-nv (rare) ; 2 a. 

Ii9i7v (799) ; 2 pf ., see 804 ; [a. m. epic ipriirdixriv (rare) and ipria'6/ji.7fp, 

777, 8.] In active sense, cause to go, poet. /Si^tf-w, ^/3i;<ro. See 610. 

The simple form is used in Attic prose only in the pres. and perf. 

active. (5. 4.) 
BdXXtt (/9oX-, /9Xo-)> throw, f. [/9oX^«] /SaXw, rarely (•-) /SaXXi^o-w, 

p4fi\riKa, fi4fi\rifuu, opt. d(a-/3€/3Xg<r^6 (734), [epic /Se/S^XijAiai], ^/3Xi^ 

^v, p\ij$iiffOfJMi ; 2 a. ^/SaXor, i^aXS/iriv ; fut. m. ^aXovfiai ; f . p. 

p€p\^ofiai. [Epic, 2 a. dual ^v/a-/3Xi^i7I' ; 2 a. m. ip\^/ivv, with 

subj. /SXiJerot, opt. /9Xjo or /SXeco, inf. /SX^o-^at, pt. fiXi/ifUPos ; fut f u/*- 

p\'^<reai, pf. p. /S^/SXiyat.] (4.) 
BdvTtt (/9a0-), dti>, /9d^w, ^/Sa^a, pi^fi/iai, ipd4>7ip and (poet.) ^/Sd^^v; 

fut. m. pd^o/tai, (3.) 
Bdo-Kw (^a-), poetic form of /Safw, go, (6.) 
Boo^rdtM (see 587), carry, paordaia, ipdaraura. (Later forms from 

stem peurray-,') Poetic. (4.) 
B^cro-M (/3i7x-)» Att. /S^ttw, cotigrA, /SiJ^w, ^/Sij^. (4.) 
[BCPuju (/3a-), flro, pr. part. /3t/3rfj. Epic] (I.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ia»] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 377 

BtPp^KM O/Do-), eat, p. pippufKay pi^pwftai, [^/9p(6^iyy ; 2 a. tippwv ; fut. 

pf. /3e/3p(6<roAiai] ; 2 p. part. pi. /Sc/Spc^res (804). [Horn. opt. /3€/3p<6- 

^f.] (6.) 
Bi6«, Zii76, /3i(i>(roAMU, ^/SioNra (rare), pefilwKa, fiefilwftai ; 2 a. ^/Sfwv (799). 

(For i^toMrd/ifjp^ see pubffKOfMiJ) 
Bu&vKoiiai (/3co-), revii76, ifiitaa-dfiifp, restored to life. (6.) 
BXdvTw (i3Xa/3-), i^re, /SXii^w, ^/SXa^a, /3^i3Xa^, pifiXa/ifMi, i^Xd^d-nv ; 

2 a. p. ip\d^rfvj 2 f . /3Xa/3^0-OAiai ; fut. m. p\dif/ofjMi ; [fut. pf . /Se/SXd- 

^o/MU Ion.]. (3.) 
BXourrdvti (/SXcurr-), «prOtt^, (c-^ /SXeurri^a-w, ^^XA^rriKa and ifiXd^riiKa 

(524); 2 a. l/3Xa<rTov. (5.) 
BXIvw, 866, p\4r//ofMi [Hdt. dya-/3X^(tf], llfi\e\//a, 
BXCttm or pXCow (^Xtr-, /SXtr-, 66), «oA» Aoney, aor. IjSXwa. (4.) 
BX^KM (moX-, fiXo-, /9Xo-, 66), (^ro, f. /AoXoOfuu, p. fUfifiXtaxa, 2 a. l^fulXov. 

Poetic. (6.) 
Bod«, «Aot<^, /3oi^o/Mii, ip&naa. [Ion. (stem j8o-), ^tixrofuu, ^/9w(ra, 

ipwrdtAfjy, (/9^/3w/Aat) pt^utfjJvoSj i^(SHre^v,'\ 
B6o-iCi», /eed, (c-) ^tcfyrta. 
So^Xo|MU, mZZ, t(^^, (augm. ^^ovX- or i^jSovX-) ; (c-) /SovXi^a-o/uii, /Se/Soi^- 

Xi7/iat, ^/Soi/XiJ^v; [2 p. t/h)-jS^j8oi/Xo, jwe/er.] [Epic also jS6Xo/wii.] 

517. 
[(PpaxOi stem, with only 2 aor. tppax* and /Spdxe, resounded. Epic] 
BpCttf (see 587), de drowsy, aor. ^/3pi^. Poetic. (4.) 
BptOii, &6 Aeavy, ^fA<na, %pplira, p4fipT$a, Rare in Attic prose, 
[(ppox-)) stem, swallow, aor. Uppo^a (opt. -ppd^it), 2 aor. p. dm- 

ppoxcls ; 2 pf. Am-^ippoxev, 77.17,54. Epic] 
Bpirx^liOi (i3pvx-> 656), roar, p. fiippvxa ; ippvxv<rd/ivp ] ^pincnStls, 
Bvi4» or piPM (/Si;-), 8top up, ^taia, i^vira, pipwrnai, 607. Chiefly 

poetic. (5.) 

r. 

Fofiic* (7afiO) fnarry (said of a man), f. yafiQ, a. ^717/Mi, p. yeyd/iriKa ; 
p. p. yeyd/ifjuai (of a woman). Mid. marr^ (of a woman), f. 70/40U- 
/LMi, a. iyjifidfiriw. 654. 

rdyvfioi, rejoice f [epic fut. 7ai^(r(ro/uac.] Chiefly poetic. (II.) 

Tiymva (ywr-), 2 perf. as pres., shoiU, sub. yeydpw, imper. yiywve, 
[ep. inf. y€ywy4fi£Vj part, yeyiavdi ; 2 plpf. iyeydfpei, with 4y4yiav€ 
and 1 sing, iyeyi&vevp for -€ov (777, 4).] Derived pres. yeytavicj, 
w. fut. yeytap^irw, a. iyey<&pfiffa. Chiefly poetic. Present also 7e7fcH 
y((rirw. (6.) 

rcCvofiOi (7«»'-)» ^^ 60m; a. iyeipdfiijp, begat. (4.) 

FcXAm, tou^A, yeXdaontu, iyiXoffa, iyeXdaSriP. 639. 

[FivTO, ae<«ed, epic 2 aor., II. 18, 476.] 



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378 APPENDIX. [16©2 

ri|Mi» (yvS-), rejoice^ [7i|^«, iy^Sriaa ;] 2 p. y^ynSa (as pres.). 664. 
ri|pd0'Ki» and Yi|p^ (7^pa-)i ff^ow old, yvpdirta and yripdirofuu, iyi/jpaaa, 

yey^pdKa {am old) ; 2 a. (799), inf. yvp^wai, [Horn. pt. yvp^s"]. (6.) 
r(Yvo|MU and yivoiuii (7«»'-)» 66Com€ (651), yerfta-ofuii, yeyivrifMi, 

liytr^&riw Dor. and Ion.], ycwriBiliaofiai (rare); 2 a. iy€v6/iifp [epic 

7^rro for fy^ivro] ; 2 p. y4yopa, am (for 7«7c£a<rt, 7e7<i»s, and other 

Au-forms, see 804). 
Tv^v^MrKm (7Jw-)i nosco, know, yp<i^ofjuu, [Hdt. di»-^wwro,] %ypiaKa, 

HyiwafjMi, iyvibffBriv; 2 a. ^71'wv, perceived (799). Ionic and late 

Attic ylwt&ffKw, (6.) 
rXi»^, ctti, grave, [^f-^Xu^o, Hdt., iyXwI/dfitiP, Theoc.,] y^Xvfifuii 

and llyXvfjifMi (624). 
rvdiivrtt (ypa/nT'), bend, yvd/irj/w, lliypafjoffa, iyvdy^djiv,'] Poetic, 

chiefly epic. (3.) 
[Fodct (70-, 666), bewail, 2 a. ybov, only epic in active. Mid. 7odo/Luii, 

poetic, epic f . 7oiJ<ro/Luit.] 
rpd^, write, ypd\J/<a, typayf/a, yiypa</>a, yiypafifuu, 2 a. p. iypd<fyiiv 

{iypd4>$rip is not classic) ; 2 f . p. ypa^aonai ; f ut. pf . yey pd^f/o/JLtu, 

a. m. iyparl/dfiriv, 
Fp^ltt (7pi;7-), flTwnt, 7p«?^w and ypO^pai,, %ypv^. Chiefly poetic. (4.) 



[(Sa-), stem, teach, learn, no pres., (c-) ^aiivofuu, ^eHtiKa, 9e8diffuu; 

2 a. m. (?) inf. deddaaBai; 2 pf. pt. dedads (804); 2 a. l^daop or 

84daop, taught; 2 a. p. iddrip, learned, Horn, di^cu, 8^{2 Jfiid.] 

Poetic, chiefly epic. 
[AoiSdXXtt (datdaX-), decA; out, ornament, epic and lyric. Pindar has 

pf . p. part. dedaidaXfiipoi, a. pt. daidaXOcls ; also f . inf. datdaXwrifup, 

from stem in 0- (see 669).] (4.) 
[Aattw (dai'7-), rend, daf^o^, iSdi^a, Seddiyfuu, i^atx^yiv* Epic and 

lyric] (4.) 
Aa£vv|ii (Pai-), entertain, dalau, Uaura, (idaUrSrip) dtu^eels. [Epic 

dalvv, impf . and pr. imperat.] Mid. dalpvfiai, feast, SaUrofMi,, idai- 

adfArfPi [epic pr. opt. daipvro for daiwi-ro, daip6aT for d€UPVt-aro 

(777, 3) : see 734.] (H.) 
AaCo|Mii (dcur-, daai-, dai-, 602), divide, [epic f. ddtro/uat,] a. iScurdfitjp, 

pf. p. MaafjMi [epic d^dai/xat]. (4.) See also Sarlofiai. 
AaCtt (So/:-, 5a/: 1-, «ot-, 602), kindle, [epic 2 p. d48ria, 2 plpf. 3 pers. 

ded'^ip; 2 a. {i8a6fxrip) subj. Jdiyrat.] Poetic. (4.) 
AdKvw (aijK-, «oK-), bite, d-^^opxii, dddrfyftat, id^x^v, drfxB'^ffOfULi ; 2 a. 

HdaKOP. (5. 2.) 
Ad(ivii)ii (609) and 8a|ivdtt («a/*-, SfM-, dafia-), also pres. 8a|&dtM 

(687), tame, subdue, [fut. dafid^u), dafidat, da/iQ (with Horn. daA^d^, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 379 

dafi^&<a<ri) , a. iddfrnaa, p. p. didfxrifiai^ a. p. iSfi'^Sriy'] and idafid<r$riv ; 
[2 a. p. iddfiffp (with Sd/juev) ; fut. pf . Bedfi-^a-ofMi ; fut. m. da/xdo-o/Mit,] 
a. idafjMffd/Ariy. In Attic prose only da/xd^cu, idafidffdrjPj iSafunrdfiriv. 
666,2. (5.4.) 

AopOdvM (^dapd-), sleep, 2 a. i^apdov, poet. ibpaBov ; (c-) p. Kara-deSap- 
0rfK(Mfs, Only in comp. (usually Kara-hapBdvu), except 2 aor.). (5.) 

Aar^liOi, divide, w. irreg. daHairBai (?). See dalo/iai. 

[A^e^Mu, o^ear, only in impf . 84aTo, Od, 6, 242.] 

AlSia, /ear .* see d^dotxa. 

AiSoiKa, perf. as pres. (5/:ct-, 5/:ot-, 5/:i-, 31), [epic «eWot<ca,] /ear. 
[Epic fut. 5c£<rojtcai,] a. ^^eio-a ; 2 pf. 5^3ia [epic SefSio,] for full 
forms see 804. See 522 (&). [From stem bpi- Homer forms impf. 
Uo9, 8U, feared, fled.'] [Epic present ScCSo, fear.'] See also 
UeiMi, (2.) 

AcCKvv|ii (j^eiK"), show: for synopsis and inflection, see 504, 506, and 
509. [Ion. (d€K-), 84^<a, ede^a, 548€y/jLai, id^x^ijv, ide^dfxiiu.] Epic 
pf. m. dcLSeyfjMi (for dideyfuii), greet, probably comes from another 
stem d€K-, (n.) 

[A^|u» (de/i-, 8 fie-), build, l^Seifm, SiSfiri/iai, ideifidfjiriv.] Chiefly Ionic. 

A^KO|iai, see, iS4pxSriv; 2 a. i^paKov, (^iSpdKriy) SpaKcls (649, 2; 646); 
2 p. d48opKa (643). Poetic. 

Aip», flay, depQ, ideipa, 54dap/jLai ; 2 a. iSdprfv. Ionic and poetic also 
8iCp« («6p.). (4.) 

Alx^H^t receive, di^fuit,, 845€y/mi [Hom. d^xcLrat for 8e8ixo-'rcLi], 484- 
X^V^i 48€^/A7iv; [2 a. m., chiefly epic, i84yfirip, d4KTo, imper. d4^o 
(756, 1), inf. 84xBai, part. 84yiJLevos (sometimes as pres.).] 

AIm, &in<2, di/fffu), l^drjffa, d4d€Ka (rarely d4driKa), d4d€fuii, id4$riv, beOii- 
a'o/ULi ; fut. pf . deSi/fffOfiai, a. m. idriadfirip. 

Aim, want, need, (c-) de^au, ib4ii(ra [ep. ib7}<ra,] d€d4riKa, d€d4ri fuii, 
iSe^Orip, Mid. d4oficu, ask, de-^aofuu. From epic stem dev- (c-) come 
lideArjaa, Od. 9, 540, and de^ofiai, dcvi^aofjuu.] Impersonal Set, debet, 
t?iere is need, (one) ought, dc-^a-ei, i54ri<r€. 

[Ai)pid», act. rare (dripi-, 656), contend, aor. ib-fiplaa (Theoc.), aor. p. 
9iiplv$riv as middle (Hom.). Mid. drjpidofMi and drjpiofMi, as act., 
dtfptaofiai (Theoc), idrfpladfiriv (Hom.).] Epic and lyric. 

[A^tf, epic present with future meaning, shall find,] See (8a-). 

Auurdct, arbitrate, w. double augment in perf. and plpf. and in com- 
pounds (543 and 544); dtairi^trw, diiJTrfaa (dir-edt^fri/tra), SediiJTriKa, 
Sedi'iryifMi, Sijir'^Briv (i^-eSijiT^Byiv, late) ; diairi^ffo/un, KaT'ciiyrria'dfiriv, 

AmucoWm, minister, idiaxdvovp; didKov^auj (aor. inf. dia/coi^crai), SeSia- 
K6vrifMi, idiaKorfidtiv, Later and doubtful (poetic) earlier forms with 
augment dii;- or dedti^-. See 543. 

AiSdflTKtf (5t5ax-)» ^or ^t^ax-o-fw (617), reacA, «t«4^«, ^5f«a^a [epic 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



380 APPENDIX. 

ididdffKiiffaly deSlSaxo-i SeSldayfMi, iStddx^vy ; SiBd^fiai, idiBaid/iriw, 

See stem Sa-. (6.) 
A£8i||u, bind, chiefly poetic form for S4<a. (I.) 
AiSpctd-Ktf (dpa-), only in comp., run away, -dpdarofMi, -BidpaKa; 2 a. 

•4Bpa¥ [Ion. -iBptiv], -SpQ, -Bpairtv, -Bpdvai, -Spas (799). (6.) 
A(8«»|u (do-), give, Stbacj, HBcaKa, BiBuKa, etc. ; see synopsis and inflec- 
tion in 604, 606, and 609. [Ep. B6fA€vai or B6fiev for BoOvai, fut. 

Bi.B(bffia for Btixnaj] (I.) 
ACciiOi (5te-), he frightened, jlee (794, 1), inf. BUffBai, to flee or to drive 

\cha8e) ; dfcu/uat and Bu>ip.-nv (of. BvvwfMi 729, and neolfnip 741), 

chase, part. di6/Li€vo9, chasing, Impf. act. iv-BUtrav, set on (of dogs), 

27.18,684. (I.) 
[ACli)|iai, seek, with 17 for e in present ; Bi^-Ziffofiai, iBiiyftrdfiriw. Ionic 

and poetic] (I.) 
[(8iK-), stem, with 2 aor. I^Sikov, threw, cast. In Pindar and the 

tragedians.] 
AitjrdM, thirst, Bi^-^auj, iSl\l/riaa. See 496. 
AokIm (doK-), se67», e^mA;, d6{w, I^Bo^a, SiSoypuu, iSdxBrjv (rare). Poetic 

BoK'fyruf, iBdKrfffa, BeBiKrika, SeBdKrifMi, iBoK^iOriv, Impersonal, SoiccC, 

it seems, etc, 664. 
Aomr^tt (dovir-), sound heavily, iBovTrrjaa [epic Bovwriira and (in tmesis) 

hrL-yBo^nrriira, 2 pf. BiBovira, BeBovirds, fallen.'] Chiefly i)oetic. 654. 
Apdo-o-oiMii or Spdrrofiai (^Bpay-), grasp, aor. iSpa^dfirfv, pf. B4Spa- 

7/«it. (4.) 
Apd«», do, Bpda<a, (lBpa<ra, BiBpaxa, B^Bpafiai, (rarely S4Bpdafiai), (JBpd- 

aSriy) BpdffBels. 640. 
A^vafiOi, be able, augm. iBw- and i/Bvp- (617) ; 2 p. sing. pres. (poet.) 

Bj^vq, [Ion. di^v];], impf. iBjjvaao or ^di^vay (632) ; Bujr^<rofMi, SeB^nifuu, 

iBvirfjOriy {iBwdaSriy, chiefly Ionic), [epic iBwrfadfirfv,] (I.) 
Aiiw, enter or cause to enter, and S^vtf (dv-), enter; Bikrut, HBwra, 

B4BvKa, B4BvfMi, iBj^Siip, f . p. BvO-^iffofMi ; 2 a. iBw, inflected 606 : see 

604 and 799 ; f. m. Bikrofiai, a. m. iBwrdfjuiu [ep. iBvaBfiriv (777, 8)]. 

E. 

['Ed^Oi) (77.13,643; 14,419), aor. pass, commonly referred to dwrw; 

also to ivofMi and to Idima.'] 
"E6m [epic eldca], permit, idata, etdaa [ep. ild<ra], efaica, etaptai, eidBiip; 

idaofjML (as pass.). Eor augment, see 637. 
'EYYvdtt, pledge, betroth, augm. 1J771/- or ivcyv- (^7«7v-), see 643 ; 544. 
'EyfCptt (^ep-), raise, rowse, ^cpcB, ^76t/Mi, iy/jyep/iai, ilyipBiir; 2 p. 

iyp'/fyopa, am awake [Hom. iypriy6p6d<n (for -dpaai), imper. iy/Hj- 

yop0€ (for -6paTc), inf. iyp'^yopSai or -Ap^ai] ; 2 a. m. ijypBfirfw [ep. 

iypbp.riv']. (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 381 

"BSw, eat, (poetic, chiefly epic, present) : see lo^U*. 

"^toi&oi, (Jb- for v€i' ; cf. sed-eo), 8it, [fat. inf. ifp-4vfftffBai (Horn.) ;] 
aor. eltrdfirfv [epic itr^dfAriv and ieaadfiifp'], [Active aor. etca and 
^<r<ra (Horn.).] 86. Chiefly poetic. (4.) See ttti and KaMtofuu. 

'E^w and <MX«, wish, imp. ^^eXov ; (c-) i0€\'/f<no or ^eXi^w, i)tf Ai^a, 
^^Ai^ica. *E0i\<a is the more common form except in the tragic 
trimeter. Impf. always ^^eXor; aor. (probably) always i^^Ai^a, 
but subj. etc. i6€\i/i<r<a and OeXi/jcfa, i0e\ijffai and $€\if(r(u, etc. 

'EO((w (see 687), accustom, iBlffta, ^Staa, eftfiica, ^eifffuu, elBlveri?. 
The root is a fed- (see 637). (4.) 

fEOwv, Hom pres. part.] : see etuOa. 

Et8ov (19-, /ri«-), vid-i, 2 aor., «aio, no present (see 639) : raw, tdoi/u, 
td€ or 184, ISeTy, liiiv. Mid. (chiefly poet.) cCSofuu, seem, [ep. elffd- 
firip and ^€ur- ;] ^ a. et86fjaiv (In prose rare and only in comp.), saw, 
= eUop, OtSa (2 pf. as pres.), know, pip. j'17, knew, f. eCo-o/Aai; 
see 820. (8.) 

Elxdtw (see 687), maibe like, efica^)i' or ^ica^y, e^icdo-w, efKoaa or jiceM-a, 
etKOfffjuLL or iKcurfMi, eUdaOrfv, eUacB^ofJuu, (4.) 

(EtKti) not used in pres. (e^/c-, U-), resemble, a^ear, imp. elicoy, f. cf^w 
(rare), 2 p. loixa [Ion. ofica] (with ioiyfup, {jUktop,'} et^dvi, eUipai, 
eUds, chiefly poetic) ; 2 pip. ^^ici? [with itKrrjp'], Impersonal lotm, 
it seems, etc. For ^oiica, see 637, 2. (2.) 

[EIXI» (A-, c^-), press, roll (664), aor. ^Xo-a, pf. p. leX/uii, 2 aor. p. 
idXrip or AXi}!' w. inf. dX-fffiepai, Pres. pass. efXo/uat. Epic. Hdt. 
has (in comp.) -dfXi7<ra, -efKrffiai, -elX'/fdrfp. Find, has plpf. idXci,"] 
The Attic has elXiofiai, and efXXw or efXXoy. 698. See tXX«» (4.) 

El|fcC, be, and Et|fci, ^0. See 806-809. 

Etirov (e/ir-), said, [epic tfeixoy], 2 aor., no present ; efxw, efxoi/iu, e^x^, 
e/ireri», elirt&p; 1 aor. elira [poet, ^eiiro,] (opt. etvaifu, imper. tlwop or 
elirdp, inf. elirat, pt. efirdf), [Hdt. dx-etird/Aiji']. Other tenses are 
supplied by a stem ip-, />€- (for /rep-, /r/>e-) : [Hom. pres. (rare) 
ef/Ki;], f. ip4a), ipQ; p. efp'i^ica, etprifiai (622); a. p. ipp'/fBrfp, rarely 
ipp40Tfp [Ion. elp40rip'\ ; fut. pass. l>Tf$'^<rofMi ; fut. pf. etpT/jvofuu. See 
Mir». (8.) 

Etp7vv|u and clpYvvw, also efpYw (elp7-), sAut in/ etp^oy, efp^a, etpyfuii, 
etpx^tiv. Also fp^w, ^p^w, ^p^a, [Hom. (Jlpyfiai) 3 pi. ^pxarai w. 
plpf. ^pxaro, ^px^i?!'] . (n.) 

Etp^w, sAti^ Ot^<, etp^o), elp^a, etpyfML, etpx^lPi etp^ofiai. Also [SpYti, 
4pfa, 4pyiML, Ionic] ; tp^otun. (Soph.). [Epic also iipyo.'] 

[Etpo|tai (Ion.), ask, fut. (c-) €lpi/i<ro/iai. See 2po|tai.] 

[Etp«» (ip-), say, epic in present.] See ctirov. (4.) 

(^p-), sero, join, a. -elpo [Ion. -^po-a], p. -elpico, elp/iat [epic 
^ep/uat]. Bare except in compos. (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



382 APPENDIX. 11692 

f EtoTKw (AVc-), liken, compare, (617) ; poetic, chiefly epic : pres. also 
fo-Kw.] 617. Upoff-'/jfC^ai, art like, [and epic jlVcro or liVro], some- 
times referred to cfico;. See etKw. (6.) 

ECiiOa [Ionic Ifwda] (ijO' for trfne-, 637, 2, and 689), 2 perf., am accus- 
tomed, 2 plpf. 6^(6^17. [Horn, has pres. act. part $0iavJ] (2.) 

'£KicXi|oridt«i, call an assembly; augm. 'f/KKXri- and ^l^/cXi^- (543). 

'EXavvtt, for Aa-w-w (612), poetic i\d<a (i\a-), drive, march, fat. 
{iXdffta) Aw (666, 2) [epic i\d(r(r<a, A6w ;] 5Xa<ra, AiJXajca, AiJ- 
Xa/Atti [Ion. and late i\i/i\a<r /mi, Horn. plup. Ai^X^daro], ^Xd^r, 
'^\a<rdfirjv. (5. ) 

'EX^YX^t C0f^ftrf6, i\4y^ta, v^ey^a, iX'^XeyfMi (487, 2), ^X^x^"* ^Xey- 
X^o'Ofiac. 

*EX(4ro-t» and clXUrorc* (Aiic-), roll, i\l^<a and elXl^ct, efXi^ ctXiY/uu, 
elXlxBv^* [Epic aor. mid. At^d^iyy.] (4.) 

"EXkh (late i\ic6(a), pull, IX^w (Ion. and late Att. iXtcOffta), eVucvaa, 
etkKVKa, etXicvcfMi, elXtcT^ffBrfv, 637. 

'EXirCt« (Ati«-), hope, aor. ^Xxwra ; aor. p. part. i\iria$4p, (4.) 

fEXirw, cause to hope, 2 p. ^oXira, hope; 2 plpf. ^c^Xxeii^ (3 pers. sing.). 
643. Mid, iXTOfMi, hope, like Attic Aw^fw, Epic] 

'E|Ua>, vomit, fut. ifiQ (rare), ifMVfiai ; aor. rjfieffa, 639. 

'EvaCptt (^wp-), M?, 2 a. ^m/wi'. [Hom. a.m. ^j^paro.] Poetic. (4.) 

'Evlir«i (^i' and stem o-ex-) or Iw^ira, say, tell, [ep. f. ipi-ffw/faw (•'ex-) 
and ^W^w;] 2 a. ivi-airov, w. imper. li^Mrire [ep. ivtaves], 2 pi. tmrere 
(for iv-ffirere), inf. ipunretv [ep. -^/*€if]. Poetic. See elxov. 

'EvCirrw (^wir-), c/iide, [epic also ivl<r<r<a, 2 a. ivhlirov and i^i^xas-oy 
(536). (3.) 

'Ewviu (^- for /:e<r-), ves-tio, clothe, pres. act. only in comp.; [f. tarv, 
a. tiTva, iffffdfiiiv or ^e<r<r- ; pf . ifffiai or er/uu,] elfUvoi in trag. In 
comp. -^o-w, -lira, -itrdfirjv. Chiefly epic : dfi4>L-4ppviu is the common 
form in prose. (II.) 

'EvoxX^w, TMirass, w. double augment (544) ; ^viifx><ovp, ipoxMfffu, 
^j'c6xXi7<ra, ifPibx^vifJiai, 

"EoiKa, seem, 2 perfect : see ef/cw. 

'EopTd^M (see 587), Ion. dprd^o), keep festival ; impf. iibpra^op (538). 
(4.) 

'Eir-avp4a> and lir-avpCo-Kv (ai^p-), both rare, enjoy, [2 a. Dor. and ep. 
ivavpop ; f. m. hravpi/iaofjuu,'] a. iTVfvpdfirfP, 2 a. hrrfvpdfjirip. Chiefly 
poetic. 654. (6.) 

['Eir-cWjvoOc, defect. 2 pf ., sit on, lie on ; also as 2 plpf. (777, 4). Epic] 
See dp'/ipo0e, 

"StnUrra^ax, understand, 2 p. sing, (poet.) evlvrq. [Ion. kirlffTmu,'] imp. 
'fjiriaTdfiTiv, 2 p. sing. iiviffTaao or ijiriffTta (632); f. hrurr-^ofuu, a. 
^irto-TiJ^i/v. (Not to be confounded with forms of iiptrrjifju.) (I.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 383 

[*Ein» (<r€T-), he after or busy vnth, imp. elTov (poet, ivop) ; f. -^w, 

2. a. -^ffwop (for i-iretr-ov), a. p. irepi-iipdiriv (Hdt.) : active chiefly 

Ionic or poetic, and in compos.] Mid. firo|iai [poet. *<nro/«n], fol- 

low, f. hl/ofMi; 2 a. ia"ir6fi7iv, rarely poetic 'iffTd/jL-np, <nrwfiai, etc., 

w. imp. [o-xeto (for o-ireo),] o-iroO, 86 ; 537, 2. 
'Epd«*, Zove, ifpdffOriVj ipaffOi/jaofiai, lifpaadfirfp (epic)]. Poetic pres. 

Ipafuu, imp. ijpdfiijp, (I.) 
'EipYd(o|uu, work J do, augm. tip- (537) ; ipydaoftai, etpyaafMi, elpyd- 

c&jip, elpyoffdfiriPj ipyaaBi/ia'OfMi, 687. (4.) 
"^tpyn and Ifryv : see etpypvfu {etpyu)) and efpYo;. 
"EpStt and fp8w, work, do, probably for ipl^-o) = jk4^<a (by metathesis) : 

the stem is pepy- (see 539), whence fprt-, ^ey-; fut. ^/)^w, a. dp^a, 

[Ion. 2 pf. ^o/>7a, 2 plpf. i6py€a.'\ Ionic and poetic. See /^^^u. 
'EpcCS«», l>rop, ipeio^uj (later), r^peiaa, [^peixa, ip'^peurfuit, with ^/oiyp^- 

darat and -oro, 777, 3,] ijpeiffOrip ; ipcla-ofjiai (Aristot.), ijpeurdiJ.rip. 
'EpcCKw (iptiK; ipiK'), tear, burst, vp^i^o-y h'^pniMi, 2 a. rjptKov, Ionic 

and poetic. (2.) 
'EpcCirw (ipeiT-, ipur-), throw doum, ipeiyf/ta, [^/>e(^a, 2 pf. ipi/fpiira, have 

fallen, p. p. ip'/iptfAfuu (plpf. ip^ptwro, Hom.), 2 a. rjpiirop, ijplirTfp, 

a. m. dpiip€vl/d/ATip (Hom.)], a. p. 'fip€l<t>0rip. (2.) 
'EpIcoTtt (^per-), strike, row, [ep. aor. 5p€<ra.] 582. (4.) 
["EpiSaCvtt, contend, for ^p^^^ ; aor. m. inf. ipl8'^<ra(r0ai. Epic] 
'£p(tt» (^piJ-), contend, ripura, [i/purdfivip epic] (4.) 
"EfOfuu (rare or ?), [Ion. ctpoi&ot, ep. 4p4« or Ipfo^jkcu], for the Attic 

iptardtif, ask, fut. (c-) ip-HfaofMi [Ion. e^pi^o-o/uai], 2 a. iipbiMiP. See 

cCpO|MU. 

^Epirti, creej), imp. efpToi^ ; fut. ^p^w. Poetic 539. 

"Eipptf, go to destruction, (c-) ipp'^o'ta, ijpprfffa, eltr-'fipprfKa. 

'E|>vyYdv« (ipvy-), eruct, 2 a. rjpvyop. (5.) [Ion. ipe&yofML, ipeC^fuu. 
(2.)] 

'Ep^Kw, AoZd &acA;, [ep. f. ^pv^w] ^pv^a, [ep. 2 a. i^p^aicoif.] 

fEpifw and clpiiw, drato, fut. ^pvo;, aor. etpvaa and lfpv<ra, pf . p. etpvfML 
and etpvfffjMi, Mid. Ipvoffcat (0) and ctpifO|fcai, taA:e under one^s pro- 
tection, ipvffOfMt and elpj&ffofuu, ipvcdfirfp and etpv<rdfirfp ; with Hom. 
/u-forms of pres. and impf. tlpitarai (3 pi.), ipwro, tpvro and efpvro, 
dpvpTo, ipvffdaa and etpvadai. Epic] 639. See jM)0|Mu. 

'^pXOfuu (^px-» Aev^-, Autf-, A^-), gro, cowe, f. iXewrofixii (Ion. and 
I)oet.), 2 pf. AiJXu^a [ep. Ai^Xou^o and e/XiJ\ou^o], 2 a. ?\^oi' (poet. 
ri\v$op): see 31. In Attic pro«e, elfu is used for AeiJo-o/uai (1257). (8.) 

*Eff^U», also poetic <Mm and 28a> (^o-^-, id-, if>ay-), edo, ea^, fut. l[dofiai, 
p. ^Si^do/ca, id-ifdefffuu, [ep. ^5i^do/uac], if84ff0rip ; 2 a. if0a7oy ; [epic pres. 
inf. tfa/iCMit ; 2 perf. part. i8ri8iJl>t,^ (8.) 

'EoTTidM, /ea«£, augment elan- (537). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



384 APPENDIX. [1692 



», sleep^ Impf. €v9qp or riUop (619), (t-) eirB-^u, [-€w5ij<ra]. Com- 
monly in tMB-Mm. 658, 1. 

B ^ tytt i ii, do goodj w^pytr'^u, etc., regular : sometimes augmented 
dhtfry. (646, 1). 

E^(«mt» (fip-),^ild, (f-) 66pi^cir, 7fv/niKa, rfifnifMU, Tiipd&fiP, evpeO^ofiai; 
2 a. rivpopj 7fdp6firfp, 639 (6). Often found with augment ev- (619). 
(6.) 

Ei^pa h fo (ed^par-), cAeer, f. ei^papQ ; a. lyv^para, [Ion. also ev^pftfwa ;] 
a. p. fi^pdpOriP, f. p. €^pap0^ofMi ; f. m. e^papovfuu, 519. (4.) 

*£xt«Up«* (^^ap-)i ^<€« t ix^apovfiaiy a. rfxBripa. (4.) 

TBx« («'«x-)» Aar«, imp. «Ix«"' (639) ; i^v or ax'^" ('X«-)» ^«'X^«*» 
Itf-Xif/Mi^) io-x^Orip (chiefly Ion.) ; 2 a. ^fo-xor (for i-aex-op^y ^x^^ 
vxoi^p and -cxoifu^ «'X^» «'X«''» <''X*^»'> poet, iax^^op etc. (779). 
[Hom. pf. part 0i;r-oxoK(6f for ^/c-ox-»t (643 ; 529), plpf. ^-c^xaro, 
toere jAti^ II, 12, 340.] Mid. Sx^fM^f ^^^9 ^i ^^M^ and o-x Vo/mmy 
^<rx^M^r. 

nSilrti, cooA;, (c-) f. tffofjuu and i^f/i/icofitu, hl/iivta (rare), a. ^^i|<ra, 
[i^iy/uu, ^^1^^171'.] 658, 1. 

Z. 

Zoit, 2tve, w. ^f, ^, etc. (496), impf. t^iap and tf^yv ; ^w, ^0-0/iai, 

(^^a, ^^ic<i, later). Ion. ^(60;. 
Zdryvv|u (feiry-, ^^y-, cf. jug-um), yoke^ i^^^^ ^fev^a, K^einrAuu, i^ev- 

xBfiv ; 2 a. p. ^^57171'. (2. H.) 
Z^, 5oa (poet. tfU*), i4ffia, t^eva, [-Ti-eir/Aat Ion.]. 639. 
ZAvpiyx (Sia')y gird, ^^twa, If^iaafuu and if^tf/uii, i^ioadikJiP, (11.) 



'HpdflTKw (^/9a-)t C07716 to manhood^ with {|Pd«i, 56 at manhood: ^/Si^o-w, 

^/31^^a, i/317/co. (4.) 
'H'yfp40o|&ai, &e collected^ poetic passive form of dycipa (^iyep-) : see 

779. Found only in 3 pi. -fiyep^BopTaij with the subj., and infin., 

and "iiyepiBopTo. 
*T[8o|uu, he pleased; aor. p. 50-^171^, f. p. iiffd-fivopaiy [aor. m. rjaaro, Od, 

9, 363.] The act. tiSm w. impf. rjdop, aor ^o-a, occurs very rarely. 
'Hcp<Oo|Mu, &e raised, poetic passive of delpo; {dep-) : see 779. Found 

only in 3 pi. ijepieoprai (impf. iiepidopro is late). 
*H|tai, sU: see 814. 
•H|a(, «ay, chiefly in unperf. ^p d' fycA, said I, and ij «* «j, «a<a A« 

(1023, 2). [Epic ? (alone), ^ said.] 'Bfd, I say, is colloquial. 
'H|iW, bow, sink, aor. ^/iiya-a, [pf. (nr-cfip-'/ifivKM (for iM^rifiuKe, 529) 

Horn.] Poetic, chiefly epic. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CATALOGUE OF VEEBS. 385 

e. 

SdXXtt (^a\-), bloom, [2 perf. riOriXa (as present)]. (4.) 

[64b|I4u, gaze at, admire, Doric for ScdofMt, Ion. OviiofML ; Sda-ofjuu and 

0a<rovfjLat, iOdffdfiriv (Horn. opt. OriffaiaT*).'] 
[Odo|fcai, milk, inf. $Tj<r6ai, aor. idriadfiriv. Epic] 
Oair- or ro^, stem : see ^lyx-. 
Sdirrw (to^- for tfo^-), ftwry, ed^w, ^tfoi/za, rtSafifiai, [Ion. idd<p$-riv, rare ;] 

2 a. p. 4rdx^y ; 2 fut. Ta<p'fi<rofiai ; fut. pf . T€^(fi//o/iat. 95, 6. (3.) 
8av|idta» (see 687), li;on(2er, eavfidcrofiai {Oavfidtru?), idavfrnva, reOav- 

fjuuca, iBavfida&rjp, davfiaurBiifroficu, (4.) 
B%lv» (^cv-), smite, $€pw, [^^civa Horn.], 2 a. tdtvov, (4.) 
d^tt, toisA, (c-) 0€\'fi&a> : see lO^w. 
8^|i4u, toarm one's seZ/, [fut. e4p<rofitu, 2 a. p. (46ipriv) subj. dep^w.] 

Chiefly epic. 
6i», («€u-, tf«/:-, aw-), rwn, fut. $€6irofiai, 574. (2.) 
(6nir-, ^ax-, or to^-), ostontsA, stem with [2 perf. TiOriira, am aston- 
ished, epic plpf. h-cS'^Tca ; 2 a. iTa4>ov, also intransitive]. 31 ; 96, 6. 
OiTYdyw (^t7-.), touch, Oi^oficu, 2 a. idiyov. Chiefly poetic. (5.) 
[6Xd«», bruise, id\wa, rc0\afffiai (Theoc), 40Kd(r9riP (Hippoc). Ionic 

and poetic. See <f)\du,'] 
6Xip» {0\IB', 0\L$'), squeeze, 0Xtt^(u, ^0Aii//a, r40?afifiai, i0\t4>0-nv ; 40x1- 

$7iv ; fut. m. 0\t\lfOfMi, Horn. 
OWjoTKw, earlier form OiqgorKM [Doric and Aeolic ai»^<r/c«] (^ov-, tfvo-), 

die, Bavovfuu, r40priKa; fut. pf. T€0trfi^a (706), later reMloMtt*; 2 a. 

iftfavoy ; 2 perf. see 804 and 778. In Attic prose always dTo-Bavovfiai 

and d-iT'iBavov, but ri0vnKa, 616. (6.) 
6p4<nr« and ^PcCttw (rpox-j 0pax')i disturb, aor. ^Bpa^a, 40pdx0'nv (rare) ; 

[2 pf. T^Tprixa, be disturbed, Hom.] See rapdaffu, (4.) 
Bpa^, bruise, 0pa6(ro», t0pav(ra, Tf0pav<rficu and riBpavfiai, i0pava0riy 

(641). Chiefly poetic. 
Op^VTW (rpv^- for 0pv<f)-), crush ll^0pwffa Hippoc.], r40pvfifiai, i0p64>07iv 

[ep. 2 a. p. ^rp<(^v], Bp^ofMi, 96, 5. (3.) 
Bp^KM and Op^VKw (0op-, ^po-), Zeop, fut. 0opovfjLai^ 2 a. Uopov, Chiefly 

poetic. (6.) 
6^ (^v-), socr^ce, imp. t0vov) 0t<rw, tBiKra, T40vKa, r40vfjLcu, ^^v ; 

06aofjtat, iffvirdfiriv. 96, 1 and 8. 
6^ or 9^vm, rage, rush. Poetic : classic only in present and imperfect. 

I. 
'IAXXm (IoX-), send, fut. -IoA«, [ep. aor. fijAa.] Poetic. (4.) 
fldxtt and lax^, shout, [2 pf. (faxo) o/x^toxwo]. Poetic, chiefly 
epic] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



386 APPENDIX. 

'I8p6«», svoeatf UpAamj Upttca : for irregolar contraction l^fAvi etc., see 

497. 
*I8plM*, place, l^p^am, tSfwffo, fS/wica, tipvfiaiy iSpd^i^v [or \ip6tf$riv (709), 

chiefly epic] ; Mpdo-o/iai, Uipvo'dfirfp, 
Ittt ({3-)) 9eat or »f£, mid. ttoiuu, st7; used chiefly in KaB-lC^t, which 

see. See also i{|uu. (4.) Also Itdvw. (5.) 
*Ii)|u (4-), «6n<2.' for inflection see 810. (I.) 
'Iki4o|uu (/«-), poet, fxai, come, T|o/iat, r7/iai; 2 a. U<J/ai}v. In prose 

usually &^i«cWo/iiai. From Uw, [ep. imp. Tkoi^, aor. 7|oy, 777, 8.] Also 

licdvai, epic and tragic. (5.) 
'IXd«rKO|MU [epie Ikdofiai] (Iha-), propitiatey i^dffofuu, t\(i<r^v, iXardfiTip. 

(6.) 
[^i)|u (/Aa-), be propitious, pres. only imper. f\rf$i or lAa^i ; pf. subj. 

and opt. Ik-tiKu, i\-fiKoifii (Horn.). Mid. TXa/xai, propitiate, epic. 

Poetic, chiefly epic] (I.) 
"IXXti and fXXoi&ot, roll, for eiKKu, See ctX<«». 
[*I|&d«r0'tt (see 582), lash, aor. T/iao-a.] (4.) 
'I|uCp«» (ifiep-^, long for, [ifitipdfiritf (epic), ifiepSritf (Ion.)]. Poetic and 

Ionic. (4.) 
'Iirra|iai (irra'),Jly, late present: see irlroitai. (I.) 
[*I(rd|u, Doric for olda, know, with i<r(f.s, iadn, iaafity, taavTiJ] 
[*Ioriu* : see itaKu.] 
1o^|u (^ffra-), set, place: for synopsis and inflection, see 504, 506, 

609. (I.) 
*IoxvaCvt» TiVxi'av-), make lean or dry, fut. urx^avetf, aor. to-xvai^A 

(673) [tffx^'^^ Ion.], a. p. iffxvdvd-ny ; fut. m. Iffxyayovfitu, (4.) 
1ox« (for a-i-a-€x»i <r«''X<^)t ^v^f AoZ(2, redupl. for l^x^ (^«X'»)* ^> 

See Sx*** 

K. 

ElaOaCptt (ica^^op-)* P^^fifi KoBapQ, iK^Bripa and iKdBdpa, KfKdBapfiat, 

ixaddpOriv; KaBapovfMi, iKaBripdfiify, (4.) 
Ka64|;o|uu (I8-), si^ doton, imp. 4Ka0€(6firip, f. koB^Soviuu. See lto|i4u. 
KoOciiSw, 8Zeep, imp. ^ir(i0ev8oi' and koBiiv^ov [epic jcatfevSor], see 544; 

fut. (c-) Ka0ev8^<rw (658, 1). See c{i8tt. 
Ka6Ct«»t «e^i «^» f. Ka9iQ (for KoBdnu), KoBiffiaofuii ; a. indefiaa or Ko^o-a 

[Hom. jra^eio-a, Hdt. Karcio-a] iKuBiadfiTiv. See t^tt. For inflection 

of KdBiifjuu^ see 815. 
Ela(w|iai, perhaps for Kad-w/jiai (wa8-)f easceZ, p. K^Kofffmi [Dor. kcicoS- 

M^yos]. Poetic, (n.) 
KaCvw (xai^-), X:t72, f. KayA, 2 a. ificai'ov, 2 p. («cicova) Kara-Keicoy^es 

(Xen.). Chiefly poetic. (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 387 

Kjolm (Kav-, leaf-, icofi-, km-, 601), in Attic prose generally Kdm (not 

contracted), bum; Kai&<rw, ^fravo-a, poet. part. K4as, [epic Imya] ; 

K^KavKa, K4Kavfiai, iKa^Briv, KavB^trofuu, [2 a. ^kc(i}1' ;] fut. mid. KaOvoyLoi 
(rare), [kvtKavHu.inv, Hdt.]. (4.) 
KoXitf (/caXe-, icA(-), ca^Z, fut. Ka\u (rare and doubtful in Attic 

icoXco-fltf) ; ^KciAeo-a, x^xAi^ica, KiKKtifiai (opt. icc«c\i70, K€K\^fi€6a), ^icA.^> 

^v, icAvd^ffo/uti ; fut. m. KoXoS/iai, a. iKa\€(rdfiriv ; fut. pf. iceicA^tf-o/Aai. 

639 (6) ; 734. 
KaXWrtt (xaXviS-), coi7er, «caA.<^», ^iccUu^a, K€Kd\vfifiu, iKoKiMpBuv, 

Ka\v^e^<rofiai ; aor. m. ^/voXi^o/iiyv. In prose chiefly in compounds. 

(3.) 
Kd|fcv« (xa/A-), 2a&or, Kafiovfiai, K^KfiriKa [ep. part. Keir/i7}i6s] ; 2 a. 

iKUfjMv^ [ep. ^ica/A^/ii}y.] (5.) 
Kd|iirrt» (ica/Air-), &en(2, ndfi^lfw, Kxa/Aif/a, ndKOfifim (77), iKdfjuf>$riv, (3.) 
Konfyoplw, accuse, regular except in augment, tcarfrySpow etc. (543). 
[(Kci4')f pane, stem with Hom. perf. part. Kcica^e^s ; cf. re9yi?(^s.] 
[Ki8dwv|u, epic for cKeBdvyv/u, SCatteVy Mdaaffo, 4K€dd(r0riP.'] (!!•) 
KitfiOi, liCy KeiffOfMi ; inflected in 818. 
KiCp«» (xep-)) ^A^^^) ^* 'ccp^T 3" ^^ft/>a [poet. Ifcepo'a], ic^icap/Aai, [(^«c^p^v) 

K€p$fts ; 2 a. p. 4Kdfnjy ;] f . m. Kfpovfiou, a. m. iKeipdnriv [w. poet. part. 

Kep^d^ci'of*] (4*) 
[K^KoSov, 2 aor. depn'vec? o/, caused to leave, K€Ka96fi'nv, retired, kcko- 

8^w, s^aZZ (deprive, reduplicated Hom. forms of x^C^-] ^^^ X^l«* 
[KfXaS^, sAout, roar, fut. K€^Mli'f|<ru, K€\aHffOfiaiy aor. ^/vcAc(8i|(ra ; Hom. 

pres. part. Ke?US<»p. Epic and lyric] 
KfXfiti, command, ir€Aci((r», 4K4\€u<ra, xtKcKcvKa, KeK^kewrfuu, iKe\€6» 

<r$iiy (641). Mid. (chiefly in compounds) KfKe^ofuu, 4ic€\ev<rdfiiiv. 
Kikkm (k6A-)) '^^n^j k4\<t<u, ^KeAo-a. 668; 674 (&). Poetic: the prose 

form is ok^XXm. (4.) 
K^Xo|fcCU, order^ [epic (c-) ircA^o-o/iaiy intKriadfiriy ; 2 a. m. 4K€Kk6fAriy 

(634 ; 677).] Poetic, chiefly epic. 
KivtIm («(cyT-, KCKTc-), prick, KtvT^ffmj 4Kivryi<ya, {KiKivrtiiuu Ion., 

iK€yr'fi&rjv later, vvyKevrnO^ffOfMi Hdt.]. [Hom. aor. inf. K^ytrat^ 

from stem K€yr: 654.] Chiefly Ionic and poetic. 

Kfpdwv|u (ic6/M(-, K/MI-), mix, 4K4paaa [Ion. ^ir/n^tf-a], KiKfAfuu [lon. 

i|/ia<], 4Kpderiy [lon. -i^^i}!'] and iit€pdff0riy ; f. pass. KpaB^iffOfuu ; a. m. 

4K€pairdfirfy, (H*) 
Kfp8a(v« (icepS-, «cc/>5ay-)> fi^ain (505 ; 610), f. K^piayA, a. 4K4p9aya (673), 

[Ion« ^K^^aiiva]. From stem iccpd- (c-) [fut. KepHaofuu and aor. 

4Kip^9a (Hdt.)] ; pf. irpov-KtMp^itain (Dem.). (5. 4.) 
KiMti (irevtf-, irv^-)i ^^» ice^a-w, [^KffU(ra;] 2 p. K4K€v$a (as pres.); 

[ep. 2 a. ic^tfov, subj. ireic^0«.] Epic and tragic. (2.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



388 APPENDIX. [low 

"Kifim (iti}8-, ica8-), vex, (c-) [m^d^o-w, -iieiiSfiffa ; 2 p. iccinySa] : active only 
epic. Mid. icfiBofiat, sorrow^ iicrideadfirii^i [epic fut. pf . KeicaS^o-o^uu.] 
(2-) 

Kiip^orti (my/wir-), proclaim, Ki|pd|«, ^ic^pv|a, iceic^/n/xa, K^tc^pvy/tai, 
dicnpdxBriy, KripuxH^ofiai ; icnpt^oyMh iKtipv^dfiriv, (4.) 

KiYX^vtff epic kix^U^w (i"X-)i ^w<^» («") «<X^OMa*» [epic ^icixi?<r4l»l»'] ; 
2 a. llKtxot'. [Epic forms as if from pres. Klxvf^i 2 agr. ixix'ii'' 
(^)k£x««» f^^XW^v, Kixhrnv^ «tX<^«> '«*X«^'»» wx^vat and jctx^/*e«u, 
irtx«^f) iftX^ficvos.] Poetic. (5.) 

[KCSvi||u (ie(8-ra-), Spread, Ion. and poetic for orici8dwv|u.] See 

[KfyvfiOi, move, pres. and imp. ; as mid. of kIWh. Epic] (II.) 
KCpvi||u (m.) and Ktpvdtt : forms (in pres. and impf.) for Kcpdvyvfu. 
KCxpT||fc^ (xpa-)» ^^^<^» [xM<^» Hdt.], (IxpV^f*, K^xpVfMu ; ixpvffd/irfy. (L) 
KXdtti (KAa77-, icAa7-), clang, Khdy^m, l^KKay^a; 2 p. KftcXarfya [epic 

ir^icAirya, part. if€«tA^70KT€j ;] 2 a. ^icXayoi'; fut. pf. iccxXiy^o/Mu. 

Chiefly poetic. (4.) 
KXaU* (jvAav-, K\a/:-, KAa/:<-, irXai-, 601), in Attic prose generally kXom 

(not contracted), weep, tcha^aoficu (rarely K\awrodfiai, sometimes 

KXewfiffu or K\d^ffui), l^KXavva and 4K?^v<rdfiriu, KfK\av/iai ; fut. pf. 

(impers.) KCKAa^tf-erat. (4.) 
KXdw, break, ^KXaaa, KiKXaafJMi, iK\da$riy ; [2 a. pt. K\tf s.] 
Kkhrrm (xAcirOf «^<>^ icX^w (rarely icAc^o/uaOt If/vAc^o, K^KKoipa (643; 

602), K€Kk€fiiJMi, (4K\4<l>0riv) K\€(l>e€is ', 2 a. p. ^/vXiixi^v. (3.) 
KXtfw, later Attic icXiU*, ^Atif, K\jf<rw, l^Khpa-a, K^KKjfKa, K^Kkr/fiat, ^KKjji- 

aBriv \ KKpaB^ffOfiai, K€K\^irofMi, dnKpirdiiifiv (also later K\fleu, $K\eiaa, 

etc.). [Ion. icAi}t», 4K\'fil<ra, K€K\iilfiai, ^KAi}t<rdi|v.] 
KXfv« (icAiir-), bend, incline, k\iv&, KKklya, K4K\inai, 4k\(0tip [epic 

4K\ty0riy, 709], K\id4\oofjMi ; 2 a. p. Uxivnv, 2 f. kKiv^o/juu ; fut m. 

KAivoO/iai, a. iK\iydfirip. 647. (4.) 
KX^, Aear, imp. llK\voy (as aor.) ; 2 a. imper. icAt^<, kAvtc [ep. tc4K\v€i, 

K4K\vr§], [Part. icA^/ievoj, renotoned] Poetic. 
KvaU», scrape (in compos.), 'Kvaivca, •f^Kyaura, 'K^kpcuko, -K^Kpeuafuu, 

»iKvaiff9riy, -KycuaB^cofuu, Also Kvdw, with ae, ari contracted to ri, 

and aei, a]7 to 27 (406). 
Ko|iCttt (^KOfud-), care for, carry, KOfilvw, 4K6iiu<ra, K€K6fiuca, K€K6fita'fiai, 

iKOfiicBriy ; KOfAiad^irofjiai ; f. m. KOfiiovfiai (665, 3), a. iKOfjuffd/iriP. (4.) 
Kd«TM («oir-), Ct««, K^if'iv, Kico^o, K4K0<l>a [2 p. ire«coT«6x Hom.], tc^KOfifttu; 

2 aor. p. iK^ffy, 2 fut. p. tcoiHivo/jiat ; fut. pf. jceK^if^oficu ; aor. m. 

iKot^dfAfiP. (3.) 
I[opivvv|u (Kope-), saticUe, [f. frop/<r« (Hdt.), «rop^(» (Hom.), a. Mptea 

(poet.)], K€K6pt(rfjLai [Ion. -ly/iai], iKop4adriy ; [epic 2 p. part. K€KopnAs% 

a. m. ^ico^fo-^iiv.] (HO 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 389 

Ko(W}«nrtt (^KopvO-), arm, [Hofti. a. part. Kopvaadfitpos, pf. pt. ireiropv^ 

fi4vos.'] Poetic, chiefly epic. (4.) 
[KoT^tt, be angry, aor. 4ic6r€(ra, dKorccdfiTjv, 2 pf. part Kttconi^s, angry, 

epic] 
Kpdtw (^Kpay-), cry otU, fut. pf. K€Kpd^ofieu (rare) ; 2 pf. KiKpaya 

(imper. ndxpax^i and KCKpdytre, At.), 2 plpf. ixeKfidyrre (Dem.) ; 

2 a. Upayoy. (4.) 
KpaCvw («r/»ay-), accomplish, Kpav&, ^Kpava [Ion. ific/Fi^ya], inpMriv, 

Kpcufd^aofioi ; p. p. 3 sing. K^Kpavrai (cf. ir^^avrac), [f. m. inf. Kpavit- 

a$at, Horn.]. Ionic and poetic. [Epic KpcuaCvw, aor. ixp^iripa, pf. 

and pip. KtKpdavrai and KtKpAavro ; iKpaiiffHiv (Theoc.).] (4.) 
Kp4|fca|&ai, han^, (intrans.), KpefiiiffOficu. See Kp^|fcvi||u and Kpc|idwi}|u. 

KpC|JLdvvv|U (frpe/ua-), suspend, Kp€/i» (for Kp^fidaoo), UpiiMoa, iKptfjidr 

9971V \ [^icpe/ua0-4^i}v.] (H.) 
Kp4|ivi||u, suspend, (^Kpfffi-pa for Kp€fia-ya, perhaps through Kprifiv6s), 

suspend; very rare in act., pr. part. KprifAvdyruy (Pind.). Mid. xp^- 

|iva|iav = Kp4fiafwt, Poetic : used only in pres. and impf . (m. ) 
KpCt» (Kpty-)) creak, squeak, [2 a. {%KptKov) 3 sing. ir/>(K€;] 2 p. 

(KiKplya) K€Kpiy6T€s, squeaking (Ar.). (4.) 
Kpfvtt (icpiv-), judge, f. KpivS, ^Kplva, K€Kpuca, K^Kpifiai, inplBriy [ep. 

^K/>fv0i7v], KpiO^trofiM ; fut. m. Kpiyovfiat, a. m. [epic iKpivdfiriy.'] 647. 

(♦•) 

Epoifw, &ea^, Kpo^vn, txpovtra, K^npovKo, K^Kpovfiau and K^Kpovcfiat, 
iKpo^ffSriy ; 'Kpoiaofuu, iKpovffdfiriy, 

Epiiirrtt (xpv^-), conceal, Kp^co, l^Kpv^a, K4KpvfifMi, 4Kp64>$riv ; 2. a. p. 
ixp^^riy (rare), 2 f. Kpvf^cofiai or Kpvfi^aofiat, (3.) 

KTdo|iai, acquire, icriivo^i, iicrriadfifiy, K^icrrifAeu (rarely l^KTfifuii), poS' 
sess (subj. K€KTufiat, opt. KtKr^fir]y or K^tcrtfti-'nv, 734), iKrijOriv (as 
pass.) ; K€KTfiffofMt (rarely ^Kr'fiaofiai), shall possess, 

KrtCvtt (/tTev^, /era-), A»7Z, f. icrci^w [Ion. icrey^u, ep. also xrav^ctf], a. 
If«cr€tira, 2 pf. iir-€KTO»'o, [ep. a. p. iKrdOfiy ;] 2 a. %Kravov (for poetic 
^wrav and iKrdfiriy, see 709) ; [ep. fut. m. Kraydofiai."] In Attic 
prose iiiro-KTelvu is generally used. 645 ; 647. (4.) 

KrC^tt (see 587), found, ktIo^v, inrufa, llicria'fiai, iicrlffdriv ; [aor. m. 
iKTiffd/iriv (rare)]. (4.) 

KrCwvifci and KTiw^w, in compos., only pres. and impf. See tenlvn, 

(n.) 

Krvir^tt (/tTuir-), sotind, cause to sound, iieriirfiffa, [2 a. Iirrwrov.] 

Chiefly poetic. 654. 
KvXitt or KvXCvStt and miXivS^co, roll, Mxiaa, K€K6MfffjLat, UvKivBriv, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



390 APPENDIX. 

Kvv4w (kv-), kiss, Iwvira. Poetic. npoo-'icvWc*, do homage, f. vpo^icv 
rtiaw, a. rpoffeK^tmiffa (poet, vpoff^tcwra), is common in prose and 
poetry. (5.) 
Klhm» (icu^), atoop, irl^^« and Kif^ofuu, aor. Kkv^o, 2 p. kc«cv^ (3.) 
K^ (icvp-), meet, chance, KifHra, tKvpaa (d68 674 6). (4.) Kvpdi 
isregula^. 

A, 

AaYx<^v«» (Aax-)i obtain by lot, f. m. x^^o/uii [Ion. xA^ofuu], 2 pi 

ctXi^xo) [Ion. and poet. \4\oyx^^ P* ^* (c'^iry/Mu) eiXiyT/Ui'os, a. p. 

^X.'hx'h^ ; 2 a. JfXaxo*' [ep. XeA<ix«, 684]. (5.) 
Aa|fcpav«» (AaiS-), take, K-fyifOfuu, ctXtj^a, §t\7ifi/juu, (poe^ A^Ai|fi/au), ^A^ 

^0f}y, K-nipe^ffOfjtai ; 2 a. ^Kafiov, i\afi6firiv [ep. inf. \€\afi4a0ai (634).] 

[Ion. Kdfii^ofiai, KtKdfifiKa, A^Aa/A/uu, 4\dfJif0rift ^OT. fat. Aa^ov- 

M«i.] (50 
Aaiiirw, sAme, \dfi}\fw, ^Ao/iif^a, 2 pf. A^Aa/iira ; [fut. m. -a«^^o/mu Hdt.]. 
AavOavw (Aa9-), Zie Au2, escape the notice of (some one), X^w, [^Aiyo^a], 

2 p. A^Ai70a [Dor. XeAatfa,] 2 a. lfAa0oi' [ep. A^Ao^oy.] Mid. forget, 

K-fiaofuu, AcAi}<r/iai [Horn, -aafiai], fut. pf. AcA^ofuu, 2 a. i\ttB6fjaiP 

[ep. AcAo^^/Ai}!'.] (5.) Poetic A^0». (2.) 
Adirrti (AaiS- or Xwp-), lap, lick, Kd^lfw, ll\a^a, 2 pf. AcAa^(603) ; f. m. 

KtHfOfiai, i\wlf<l^rip, (3.) 
AdirKw for Aax-o-icai (Aax-), speak, (c-) AaKV^/iac, ^AiUciy<ra, 2 p. AcAam 

[ep. \4\riKa w. fern. part. A€Aa«vra :] 2 a. ^Aaucpv [AeAouc^/Ai'i']* Poetic. 

617. (6.) 
[Ad«, Aw, tot8/i, A^s, Af , etc. ; infin. \rjp. 496. Doric] 
Afyw, »ay, A^|w, ^Ae|o, A^Ary/uu (di-clAe^/uai), iX^x^nV, fut. Acx^ 

o-o/iai, Ac(o/iai, \ek4^ofiat, all passive. For pf. act. cTpijica is used 

(see ctirov). 
Afyv, gather, arrange, count (Attic only in comp.), A^|«, IXe^a, 

cfAoxa, ftheyfiai or h^Keyfieu, i\4x^v (rare); a. m. i\€^ifi-n¥, 2 a. p. 

ixiyjiv, 1 A€7^ao/iai. [Ep. 2 a. m. (JxiyfiJip) \4icro, counUdS] See 

stem Xix-. 
AfCm* (Xccir-, AoiT-, Aiir-)) leave, Acfif^M, X^Xci/a/jacu, 4\§l^9 ; 2 p. 

X Aoiira ; 2 a. ^iirov, iKiw6fjiri», See synopsis in 476, and inflection 

of 2 aor., 2 perf., and 2 plpf. in 481. (2.) 
[AfXCT||iai, part. \t\iviH-4pos, eager (Horn.).] 
AmC», stone, generally irara-Aet^w ; -Ac^», -t\tvaa, iXtiirBriw (641), 

[(Xfx-) Stem (cf. A^x-o*)» whence 2 a. m. (^A^/ii|r) ^Atrro, {aid ?Um- 
self to rest, with imper. h4^o (also A^|€o), inf. Kora-K^xSai, pt. «ot«- 
xiyfievos (800, 2). Also ifAelo, 2au2 to rest, with mid. \4^ofuu, vnU 
go to rest, and Ae|(i/ii7i^, went to rest, same forms with tenses of 
Xtyu, say, and \4yw, gather. Only epic] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERB& 391 

A^f t», poetic : see Xav6dv«». 

Ai|t(t» (Ai|t8-), plunder^ act. rare, only impf. i\^i(ov. Mid. Xi)t(o|uu 

(as act.), [lut. KfiUoficu, aor. ikriiffi/ifitf, Ion.]. Eurip. has 4\jf<rd' 

fiflVf and pf. p. \4\jfafiai. (4.) 
ACovo|uu or (rare) X(to|uu (A(t-), supplicate [epic i\^ffd/a|tf^ 2 a. 4Xtr 

r6firiy,^ (4.) 
[ Ao^tt, epic for ko^ ; ko^ffaofuu^ 4x69990^ iXotoviivnv,"] 
AoC» or X6t», W(i8h, regular. In Attic writers and Hdt. the pres. 

and imperf. generally have contracted forms of A^, as Iaov, ixov- 

fievy Aovrai, Aoinr^ac, \o6fi€pos (^^7). 
A^, loose, see synopsis and full inflection in 474 and 480. Horn, also 

A^ (p) (471). [Epic 2 a. m. 4\6firiy (as pass.), \6ro and Xvro, x^rro ; 

pf. opt. AcAvro or AeAvrro (734).] 



Malvm (jJMP-), madden, a. If/iiyya, 2 pf. fi^fitiwa, am mad, 2 a. p. ifidinip. 

Mid. liaCvofiOi, be mad {jAavovfxat, ifiripdfirip, fjLtfidvrifiai.'] (4.) 
MaCofiAi (jMff', /juuTL', fieu', 602), desire, seek, [fub-o/iai, i/jMadfiritf; 2pf. 

lUfiova (/Aci^)^ (2e«ire eagerly, in sing., with /ii-forms fi^fxaroir, fi4fjM- 

fifv, fi4fULT€, fi€fuidc'i, fiffjidrct, fi€fiau&s, plpf* fi^/jLoffav, Also (/uio/iat) 

Doric contract forms fiArai, fi&yrai, fu»<ro, fA&aOat, fi^fi€yos,'] Poetic, 

chiefly epic. (4.) 
Mav6av« (jjmB-), learn, (c-) fiaHHiffofuu, fi§fidBriKa ; 2 a. %im9ov, (5.) 
Mapva|uu (jxap'va'),flg?U (BTih], fidpywfiat, imp. fUfP^^Ap); a. 4fMppda0riv, 

Poetic. (HI;) 
McCpvTti (jjMpir-), seize, fidpit^m, ^/Mp^a [epic 2 pf. fiifULpra, 2 aor. fi4fia/f 

vop (634), with opt. fitfidvoiep, fjMvt7p,'] Poetic. (3.) 
Moovti (/Aa7-), A;nea(7, fid^v, etc., regular ; 2 a. p. 4fidyrip, (4.) 
Maxofuu [Ion. fiax^ofiai], fight, f. fULXOviJuu [Hdt. fiax^vofjuu, Horn, /mi- 

X^ofuu or /Mix^'«A*«0» P» /*«A"^X^A*«"» *• ^f^x^vd/irip [ep. also 4fjLax'n' 

adfirip ; ep. pres. part, fxax^i^t^^vos or fiaxeo^/icvos]. 
[M^l&oi, e^iinifc o/, pton, (t-) Aie«<<ro/*ai (rare). Epic] 
Mcf-fi||u, «en<i atoay; see l-ntJ^t (810). [Hdt. pf. pt. /ic/ieri/iA^i'oj.] 
MciKlorKM (/ufau-), waifce drwnA;, 4fx49vffa, Pass. /ueetJo-ico/Aai, 6« wade 

drunk, a. p. 4fi€eifferip, became drunk. See |u(Klt». (6.) 
McM«, be drttnk, only pres. and impf. 
[McCpofiat (/i«p-)> o6tofn, epic, 2 pf. 3 sing. <Imm»P«;] impers. ^Xftaprai, 

it is fated, €lfAapfi4pri (as subst.), Fate, (4.) 
MiXXif, intend, augm. ^^i- or V- (^17) ; (t-) AicAA4<rw, 4fi4xkv<'a. 
IlLiKm, concern, care for, (t-) ficxiicu [ep. fit^ffofteu, 2 p. /u^/aijAo] ; 

fitfi4\'nfAai [ep. fi4fA0\trat, fi4fifi\€T0, for /ic/uAerat, ;*«juAfTO (66, a)]; 

(^/ieA^^v) fA€\v9fls. Poetic. M^t, it concerns, impers. ; ftcA^o-ci, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



392 APPENDIX. 

4ti4Kfi^€, ii€iU\tiK€^ —used in Attic prose, with iirifi4\ofiai and #«-i^«- 

MI|Mv« (/lAffy-), desire^ 2 perf. with no present. See |&a(o|uu.. 

Mlvt», remaifij t. fi€vA [Ion. m«»'^«']» ^^m**"* («-) ft^^t^^vriKa, 

M<p|fci|p(t« (see 687 and 690), ponder, [jieptiript^u, ifAcpfi^pi^a], ox- 
tfAtpfi'fipiffa (At.). Poetic. (4.) 

M48o|uu, (2et7i8e, fjAivopMij 4/nfadfiiiy. Poetic. 

Mi)inlo|uu (/ii|ic-, A«««-i <^)» ft^««^ [Horn. 2 a. part. fMKi&y ; 2 p. part. 
fitfinitAsf fifftaicvta ; 2 pip. i/i4firiKoy (777, 4).] Ciiiefly epic. (2.) 

[Mi|T*A«» (/iirri-, 666), p?a». Mid. |fci|Tuao|uu, |fct|T£o|fcat (Pind.), fjLrrrtao- 
fiat, ifiiirlffdfifip, £pic and lyric] 

Mia(v« (/iiav-), Stoin, fuaywi ifdSLva [Ion. ^/idyra], fiefilaafmi, ifjudpSriy, 
fuay$4iffofMi, (4.) 

Mi^vviu (Auy-), Ionic |iCo^«, miae, /if|«, ^/ur|a, fi4fdyfJMty ipix^^i A^X^ 
0-o/Aai ; 2 a. p. ifiiynv, [ep. fut. luyhaofuu. ; 2 a. m. ifuKTo and /uIkto ; 
fut. pf. /ic/if|o/uu.] (n.) 

Mi|fcv^K« and (older) |U|iv||orKt» (/Ara-)i remind; mid. remember; 
/u^o-oi, llfipri<ray fidfiyfipai, remember, ifip^iaOriy (as mid.) ; fivri<rO{i<rofKUi 
furfi<ro/tM^ fi€fiv^aofi€u i ifivTicdp.riy (poet.). M^|fcvi||fcai (memini) has 
SUbj. fi€fit>&fuui (722), opt. fi€fiy<^fJL7iv or fiefiyrffiriy (734), imp. /jL4fAy7i<ro 
[Hdt. /i^/M^eo], inf. fi€fiyij<r0ai, pt. fi€fiyiifi4yos. 616. (6.) 
[From epic fiydofuu come dfiy^oyro, fjLvw6pL€vos, (?) etc. (784, 2).] 

MC|fcvt» for fu-fi^yoe (662, 1), remain, poetic form of fievw. 

MCo^ti for fAiy-iTKoo (617), mias, pres. and impf. See ^iyvv^i. (6.) 

M^w, awe*, [Ion. fiv(4wy aor. -ifi^Criaa (Hom.)]. 

Mi»t» (jivy-)i grumble, mutter, aor. Ilui;|a. Poetic. (4.) 

MvKdo|uu {fivK-, fjLvK", 666), bellow, [ep. 2 pf. fidfivxa; 2 a. /ai^icov;] 
ifiuxv^dfiiiy. Chiefly poetic. (2.) 

Miiorortt or |fci)TTc» (/iw/t-), tctpe, oiro-/ii;|i{/*€i'oy (Ar.). Grenerally itiro- 

Ml^w, s/iirf (the lips or 6ye«), aor. tfivoa, pf. ficfivKa. 

N. 
Na(« (vo/:-, vo/ri-, vat-, 602), «w'»i, be full, impf. volov, Od. 0,222. 
NaU (yaff-, ya-, 602), drocW, [^»'o<r<ra, caused to dwell, iyoffadnviy, came 

to dwell,"] iydtrdrip, was settled, dwelt. Poetic. (4.) 
Ndo-o-M {pad-, yay), stuff, [llyc^a,] y4yafffi€u or y^yayfiou. 682; 690. 

[NciK^w and vciKcU, chide, veiK^aa, iytUwa. lonic, chiefly epic] 
NfyM, distribute, f. yefm, tyutia, (c-) yey^finKo, y€y4firifiai, iy^/jL^iOriy ; 

ytfiov/iai, 4vtifUfiriy, 
Nlo|uii, go, come, also in future sense. Chiefly poetic See vCa-ov|Mu. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 393 



1. Nl« (vew-, V€/:-, vw-), swim, h€Vffa, v4vwKa\ f . m. {yevaovfxai^ 
v€v<ro6fievos» 574. (2.) 

2. Ni«, heap up^ ^vi^o-a, v^yrifuu or y4vri<rfjuu. [Epic and Ion. vi|i«, 
trfirura, ivrifiirdfAriP,'] 

3. N^ and WjOti, ^in, k^0-«, ^yi}0-a, ivi^Bfiv ; [ep. a. m. Hio-avro.] 
NC^tt, later vimm, Horn, ylrrofiai (ftfi-), wash^ vl^to^ ivv^a^ ptyififuiiy 

l'iifl4>0iiy ;] vl^ofuuf iyi}lfdfi'ny, 591. (3. 4.) 
Ntvo-o|Mu or vi<ro|Mu, gOy fat. idcofxai. Nttrofiou, probably the correct 

form of the present, is, ace. to Meyer (§ 500), for vi-w-i-o/Aot, from 

a stem vt<r- with reduplication. (See pres. vi<rcTou, Find. 01. 8, 34.) 

Poetic. (4.) 
Nol», think, perceive, va<<ro», etc., regular in Attic. [Ion. ^v«<ro, vivwKa, 

yevoofMi, iyuvdfiriy,^ 
No|fc£t« (see 587), believe, fut. vofuw lyofxiaa late], aor. iy6/jLt(ra, pf. 

P€y6fUKa, yfy6fua'fMi, aor. p. iyofiUrdriy, fut. p. yofiKrOiiffofjtai, [f. m. 

irofiioD/iiai (Hippoc.).] (4.) 

B. 

g^tt, scrape, [aor. ^|f<ra and |^<ra-a, chiefly epic], t^fvfiai. 639, 640. 
gilpaCvw (|7}paK-), dry, ^ripopw, i^^pdya [Ion. -ijca], i^'fipafffiai and ^|^ 

paM/uai, i^updyOny, 700. (4.) 
giW, polish, ^vva, mvfffim,^ 4^6<r0riv ; aor. m. i^vffdfiiiy, 640. 

O. 

*08oiroU«», maA;e a ti^ay, regular ; but pf . part. &ioir€Toi7ifi4yos occurs. 

So sometimes with 6honrop4<e, travel. 
(oSv-)) he angry, stem with only [Hom. wdv<rdfjLriy, 69i&9v(rfjLai]. 
"Olti (3^-), smell, (f-) oC<<r«, 4SCi7<ra [Ion. o^i^<ra>, &(€ffa, late 2 pf. 68uha, 

Hom. pip. a8<686»(0]. 658, 3. (4.) 
OtYtt, open, poetic of|w and 4^|a [epic also &r|a], a. p. part. oixO^is. 

OtYvvfu, simple form late in active, [imp. p. myy^firiy Hom.], com- 
mon in composition : see iiv^lyyvfii. (II.) 
Ol84tt, swell, ^briffa, cpSriKa. Also otSdvM. (5.) 
Olicrtptt (oiKTip-), commonly written oUrtipu, pity (597), aor. ^xrlpa 

ivKretpa). (4.) 
0(voxo4«) pour loine, olyox<yfi<rw, [otVoxo^o-ai (epic and lyric)]. [Impf. 

ep. 3 pers. olyox^eh ^^f'^X^^h ^^vox^^cf'] 
Otofuu, think (625), in prose generally ol/uai and ^/i7}y in 1 per. sing. ; 

(€-) ol4\9oiiai, <^ii0riy. [Ep. act. otw (only 1 sing.), often 6ta ; otofuu, 

6ladfAfiy, oci<r0riy.'] 
OCxofuu., be gone, (c-) olx'fiffoficu, oTx«f « or qpx*"f« (659) ; [Ion. oXxnyML 

or tjlxm^h doubtful in Attic]. 
*OkAX» (^kcA-), run ashore, aor. &Kei\a. Prose form of KcXAa*. (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



394 APPENDIX. [1682 

'OXioH^dvw, rarely 6\ur9aiyu (oAiatf-), slipt [Ion. wXiaOriffa, i»Kiff$JiKa] ; 

2 a. Axiadov (poetic). (5.) 
"OXXviu (probably for 6\-yw-Au, 612), rarely hKK{n» (oK-), destroy, lose, 

1 6\w I6\4ff«, 6\4a>]y &\€ffa, -oAe^Aefca; 2 p. 6Ko»Ka, perish^ 2 plpt 

-w\i6A97 (533). Mid. ^xxv/iat, i)emA, ^\oG/uai, 2 a. &K6fi7iy [w. ep. 

part. ovA^/icvos]. In prose dir-dXXv|u. (II.) 
'OXo^^lfcOi (oAo^i/p-), &eioat7, f. 6\o<i>vpovfjMi., nXo^vpiiiiiv^ part ^x«- 

^wpa«ry (Thuc). (4.) 
*0|fcvv|u and 6|fcviia> (ofL-, ofio-, 650), stoear, f. ofiovfuu, Afioo-Oy ofi^ftoxa, 

ifjL^fioirfxat (with 6fA^fiorai), wfUOnv and ufi6ff9riv ; 6/io<r$^ffo/iai^ a. m. 

ufjLOffdfiriv* (n*) 
'0|i^(>Yvv|U (^ofjLopry), wipe, ofiSp^ofiai, Afiop^a, wfiop^dfitiv ; &w-0fiopx9€b. 

Chiefly poetic : only epic in pres. and impl (II.) 
'OvCvi||u (ova-, 796), beneJU, 6irfi<rte, &pri<ra, &y^drip; oy^iaofiat; 2 a.m. 

wtrfifiriv (late wydfiriv), ovalfinv, 6yaff0ai (798; 803, 3), [Horn, imper. 

tyriaOf pt. oK^/ueiros]. (I.) 
[*Ovo|fccu, insult, inflected like Sliofiai, with opt Svoiro (Horn.), t 

6if6(r<rofuu, a. wpotrdfirip (J&varo, /Z. 17,25), a. p. KaT-oiro<r^s (Hdt). 

Ionic and poetic] (I.) 
'O^ih'w (o^vv-), sharpen, -h^wSi, &^va, ^&^vp.pLai^ w^^vdrip, [-^^vi^o^o/itt, 

Hippoc] 700. In Attic prose only in compos. (4.) 
'OirvCw (oirv, oirw-, 602), take to wife, fut oirv«r« (Ar.). (4.) 
'Opd«» (^dpa-, dir-), see, imperf. i^pwv [Ion. Af>«v], 6\lfOfuu, itHpaxa or 

i6paKa, kApapLM or cSfifiai, &<l>67iy, 6<p$^aofiai; 2 p. ^wra (Ion. and 

poet.). For 2 a. cTSoi' etc., see ctSov. [Horn. pres. mid. 2 sing. 

Zpri<u, 784, 3.] (8.) 
'OfryaCvw (d/>7ay-), 5e an^ry, aor. Apydya, enraged. Only in Tragedy. 

'Opfyv, reac^, op^|w, &p€^a, [Ion. pf. n. Apryfuu^ Horn. 3 plur. <{/>wp^- 

Xara/, pip. dpcep^xaro,'] iop4x^y ; dp4^0fMi, &p€^dfiriv. [Epic 3p4yyvfu, 

pr. part. oV«7»^». (n.)] 
"Opyvfu (<}p-), raise, rouse, ipaw, oSpaa, 2 p. $pwpa (as mid.) ; [ep. 2 a. 

&/>opov.] Mid. n*8e, rush, [f. opoOfiat, p. ^pe&pc/uai,] 2 a. wp6firiy [with 

J/>To, imper. ^po-o, ^po'co, 6p<r€v, inf. ^p0ai, part, ^p/ici'os]. Poetic. (H-) 
'OpWorw or opiiTTw (Vv7-)f c?t^} ^p^|«, &pi;|a, op^pvxa (rare), ^pc6- 

pvyfiai (rarely Upvypai), cjp^xBriy; f. p. KaT-6pvxH<^ofJuu, 2 f. irar- 

hpvxhcoyLai \ \_Q»pv^dpLnv, caused to dig, Hdt.] (4.) 
'Oor^paCvofiai (Jht^p; i<r<f>pay-, 610), smell, (c-) 6ff<f>piiaofAai^ »ff^pdy9fiy 

(rare), 2 a. m. iar^pdtt.'ny, [Hdt. ^o-^pavro.] (5. 4.) 
CHp4«», impf. iovpeoy, f. ohpfitro/juu, a. ioipriira, pf. MpriKa. [lonic has 

ovp- for Attic ^ovp-.] 
[(Hrdtw (587), roottnd, ohrdirtt, o1ha<ra, oUraurfAM. Chiefly epic] (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 396 

[O^tAm, wound, ofhriffa, oMiBriv ; 2 a. 3 sing. oZra, inf. oind^^vai and 
oindfiev ; 2 a. mid. oindfitvos as pass. Epic] 

*0^(Xtt (64>€\', 508), [epic reg. ^^e\\«], owe, (t-) 6<t>€i\'fi(ro», &<t>ei\riffa, 
(w^cUi^xa ?) a. p. pt. ^ij^eiKriBtis (658, 3); 2 a. &<t>€\ov, used in wishes 
(1612), O that, (4.) 

'O^iXXw (o^ex-), increase, [aor. opt. ^^^xxcic Horn.] Poetic, espe- 
cially epic. (4.) 

'O^Xicicdvtf (^0X-, 6(t>\urK'), he guilty, incur (a penalty), (c-) o^x^o-w, 
d^Xijo'a (?), &<t>KriKa, &4>\rifiau ; 2 a. cS<f>\ov (jJ^Xeiv and ^^x»y are 
said by grammarians to be Attic forms of inf. and part.). (6. 5.) 

n. 

TlaUm (raid', iraiy-), sport, wai^ovpun (666), liraKra, ir€Ta<Ka, irtTCua-fuu, 

590. (4.) 
naU», strike, xalvta, poetic (c-) xai^(rc0, Iraura, whrauca, iirtdoBriv (640). 
IlaXaU, wrestle, [vaXa^o-w,] ^irdU.aM'a, iTa\ai(r0riy (640). 
ndXXtt (toX-), &ran(2toA, Ixt^Xa, WiraX/uai; [Hom. 2 a. d/i-TCToXt^v, as 

if from T^iraXov ; 2 a. m. ^iroXro and irctxro.] (4.) 
napavofiiM, transgress law, augm. irapty6fiow and irapny6fiovp, xapa- 

wtw6firiKa (543). 
IlapoiWtt, in«iiZ£ (a« a dn^nA;en man), imp. iTOfxfvovv; iirap<pvrjaa, 

'wrwaptfvUKa, Tap<i^v^0riv (544). 
UAro^joi, fut. shcal acquire (no pres.), pf. T^va/iat, itrdffdfiiiv. Poetic. 

Not to be confounded with rdtrofMi, ivaadfiriv, etc (with o) of 

wardofAat. 
U&TO-m or irdrrti (582 ; 587), sprinkle, Td<ra>, tvaaa, iirdff0riv. Chiefly 

poetic (4.) 
ndo^tt (va0', TtvB-), for itaB'VKco (617), suffer, wtlffopuu (for irfv$-<rofuu, 

79), 2 pf. ir4irop0a [Hom. T^cnrOe for Tfir6y0aTe, and ircToeuia] ; 2 a. 

Ira^oy. (8.) 
narlofuu (xar-), eaJ, f. vdffovrou (?), ivoffdfiriv; [ep. pip. xfircio-jUT^v.] 

655. Ionic and poetic. See irdaro|Mu. 
Haiftt, fltoPf Cau«e to cease, to^u, l^travaa, xcirauKa, T^irav/ioi, iva^Brfw 

[^a^o-^y Hdt.], irav0ii<rofAM, ireTa6<rofiai. Mid. iraifO|iat, cease, 

vatVro/iOi, #irau0'c(/Ai}i'. 
HcCOti (t£i$-, iri0-), j)erdlMZ(2e, ircfo'w, ^Ttio^a, ir^etxa, ir^eMr/uii, fre(- 

0-^y (71)) wetffB^O'OfMt ; fut. m. irc(0-o/iAa< ; 2 p. trdroiOa, trust, W. 

imper. v4r€iff0i (perhaps for w4vi(r0i), A. i^u. 599, [Hom. pip. iir^ 

irt$fity for iv«irol0tfity ;] poet. 2 a. Ifiri0oy and 4iri06fifiy. [Epic (c-) 

Ti04ta«, wwiB^cm, riB^aasJ] (2.) 
[IIcCicci, epic pres. = t€kt4», comb,'] 
nciv4i», hunger, regular, except in i} for a in contract forms, inf. 

Ttivriv [epic TffiK^fieyai], etc. See 496. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



396 APPENDIX. 

IIf(p« (vcp-), pierce^ epic in pres. ; lirecfw, wfwapfjMi, \_4rdpfnv Hdt.] 

Ionic and poetic. (4.) 
IItKT4» (»€«-, iTficT-, 666), [Dor. f. »e|», a. Iire^a (Theoc), ep. iw€^a- 

/Ai}y]; a. p. Mx'h''^ See epic vcUm. Poetic. 
IIAdtM (d Waoj, iwar; see 687), [poet iriXdw (ircAo-, irAo-)»] bring 

near^ approacky f. «-cA<(a'», Att. vcAe» (605^ 2), itreKaa-a, [ireirAiiAUii,] 

iir9\iff9iiv and ^irAa^y ; [^ireXcur^ttiyv ; 2. a. m. ixxiifirivy approachedJ] 

[Also poetic presents ircAc(8», «-Ae(8», ir(A.ya/iai.] (4.) 
n^X« and «iXo|aai, &«, imp. ^ircXov, ^ir€\^/Kijv [syncop. ^«-Ae, ^irAeo 

(fvA.ev), firA.CTO, for UrtKe etc. ; 80 ^iri-TA.((/Kcyos and •K'€pi-ir\6fjL€vos'}. 

Poetic. 
n^ifcvw, send, w^fi^jftt, lir€/i^a, w4wofuf>a (643 ; 693), irtwf fifiai (77 ; 490,1), 

Mn^$riVy r9fA^6iiirofuu ; irtfolfOfiaiy iir^fi^dfxriP. 
IlfvaCvM (irciray-), maA^ «0/t, ^eirai'a(673), iwtwdvOifjVy T€Tav64iaofiai, (4.) 
[nfrapcCv, «Aoto, 2 aor. inf. in Pind. Py, 2, 67.] 
n^vporroi, ft is fated: see stem (vop-, irpo-)- 
n^pSoifcOi, Lat. pedo, 2fut. (pass.?) wap^-fiaofiai, 2 p. ireiro/>8a, 2 a. 4wapbov. 

See 643 and 646. 
n^pOtt, destroy y sack, xipam [ir4pffOfiai (as pass.) Horn.], ^vepaa^ [ep. 2 

a. HwpaBoy (646), m. iirpaB6firiv (as pass.) with inf. ircp6ai for letpO-eai.'] 

Poetic. • 

n4pvi||U (vcp-i^a-), «6ZZ, mid. wtpvafiai : poetic for TnrpdaKu. 609. (HI.) 
II^<rM or irlrrM, later ir^irrv (ir€ir-), COoA;, ir^», ^treif^a, w^wtfifxai (75 ; 

490, 1), ^c>0t}i'. See 683. (4.) 
IIiTdwv|U (ircTo-), expand, (jmJixrw') wtrSo, iwercura, wevrafiai, [ireirc- 

ratrfiai late], iireTdirOriv. See irCrvi||U. (H.) 
n^lfcoi (ir€T-, ITT'), fly (•-), m-fitrofiai (poet, irer^o-o/iai) ; 2 a. m. ^wrrf- 

/Ai}y. To ttrraifcai (rare) belong [2 a. ^ttttiv (poet.)] and irrdfjLtiy 

(799). The forms rer^iifjLai and iroT'fiOriv [Dor. -a/uat, -dOifjv] belong 

to wordofMi, 
nc^o|jMU (irv0-) : see irwOdvoiuu. (2.) 
^JUiyvv^^irriy-, tray), fasten, ir^{«, ?inj|a, iwfix^^ (rare and poet.); 

2 a. p. ijrdyriv, 2 f. p. xayfiffofiai \ 2 p. ireTrriya, be flxed ; [ep. 2 a. m. 

KOT-frriKTo ;] irrtyvvro (Plat.) pr. opt. for xirfw-i-ro (734) ; [ir^|o- 

^ai, ^in}|<£jui}i'.] (2. H.) 
IliaCvtt (iriai^), fatten, iriavw, iiriava, irerlafffiai, [^iwidpOriv]. Chiefly 

poetic and Ionic. (4.) 
[ncXvaitat (inx-yo-)i approach, only in pres. and impf. 609. Epic] 

See ircXdttt. (HI.) 
IIC|i,irXT||M (irAo-), flll, if\ff(r<o, lirAijcra, veirKriKa, v4ir\riafuii, htKifo-Briv, 

ir\ri<rBif(rofjuu ; a. m. iir\nadfiriv (trans.) ; 2 a. m. iwKiffiiiv (798), 

chiefly epic, with iv-cjrXrrro, opt. ifi"ir\iffiriy, ifi-wkfro, imp. Hfi-wKiiao, 

pt. ifi-ir\iffi€vos, in Aristoph. 796. (I.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 397 

IIC|ft«pf||fci (wpa'^, bum, wfnjaa, H-Kfrnfra, r^rfnifAoi and [ir^pi|ir/Mii Hdt.], 

iirpfijadjiv ; [Ion. f. wpijaofieu, fut. pf. Trerpifaofuu.'] 795. 01. wpifBrn^ 

blow. (I.) 
ni.v6o>K«» (irtyv-), maA;6 wise, [Horn. aor. Mtnwaa]. Poetic. See 

irW». (6.) 
nfvM (vi-, TO-), drink, fat. ir^o/iw (irtov/iM rare) ; w4rtfKa, 'w4rofuu, 

iv69iiv, TToSiiaofuu ; 2 a. Iirioi^. (5. 8.) 
[niirCo>KM (iri-), ^tve to drink, wUw, ^riffa.'] Ionic and poetic. See 

iriv«. (6.) 
Hiiirpao'Ktt (repa-, rpa-), sell, [ep. wtpdaw, Mpaa-a,'] xiirpaKa, wdrpdfuu 

[Horn. TewtpvifAdyos^ , iirpdOrjv [Ion. -rifiai, •riOrjv] ; fut. pf . wtrpdaofAM, 

The Attic uses it,rod<&(rofMi and inrMfinv in fut. and aor. (6.) 
HiiTTtt (ir€T-, iTT-o-, 669) for n-wer-w, fall, f . ir€<roG/Kat [Ion. weadofiai] ; 

p. ir^TTfliica, 2 p. part. ircTrtis [ep. irenTiyc^s, or -€165] ; 2 a. 4ir9<rov 

[Dor. 4ittTov, reg.]. 
[n(rvi||u (irir-va-), spread, pres. and impf. act. and mid. 609. Epic 

and lyric. See irfTdwv|ii.] (HI.) 
nCrvM, i>oetic for vitrrM. 
[IIXd^M (jrXayy-), cause to wander, tvXwy^a, Pass, and mid. vXA^o^jox, 

wander, irhJy^ofiai, will wander, ifrxJefxJhvt wandered."] Ionic and 

poetic. (4.) 
nXAcro-M (see 582; 687), form, \v\Airm Ion.], (^wKaaa, w^rhafffuu, 

iirXdaOriy; iirKaa-dfiriv. (4.) 
Tlkbcn, plait, knit, [ir\^{»,] /irAc^a, [ircirA.cxaOrircirA.oxa lon.], wiwXey 

fiai, iwKtx^v, wKfxHffOfiai ; 2 a. p. 4w\dicriv ; a. m. ^ir AclcCfii^y. 
HX^ (vAcv-, irAc/c-, irAv), sail, trkeiaofiM or irAffV0'oi;/uit, /irAcu<ra, 

ircirAcuiea, TivKevaiMi, iirKe^Briv (later). 674, 641. [lon. and poet. 

vK&m, x\(&<rofjLai, 4w\waa, WirAwica, ep. 2 aor. ^vAo»y.] (2.) 
TLMfro'ta or vX^ttm (irAiry-, irAo^-, 31), strike, xX^^«, ^irAi^lo, ircwAiry- 

fjMi, 4irK4\x'^v (rare) ; 2 p. ir^irAin^a; 2 a. p. ^vA^Tiyy, in comp. 

'heKdyiiv (713) ; 2 f. pass. irAiry^o/uai and -vKayhaoyuou, ; fut. pf. 

ircrA^lo/Aoi ; [ep. 2 a. ircvAir/ov (or lir^irA-), trfiw\ity6iJL'nv ; lon. a. m. 

*»Aij|<i/uijv.] (2. 4.) 
HX^M (irAvy-), wash, irKvvu, ItitKvva, w^xKvfiai, iwkiSiiv ; [fut. m. (as 

pass.) iK-wKvpovfiai, a. irKvydfiiiy.} 647. (4.) 
HXAtt, Ionic and poetic : see vXIm. 
HvIm (1ryct^•, irv€f-, irpv-), breathe, blow, wpfiiffOfuu and iryciNrov/Mit, 

eryevffa, w^TVtvKa, [epic x^Tvu/uai, &e 19^86, pt. irtirvv/idyos, wise, 

plpf. r4wyvffo ; late 4irv€6(r$riv, Hom. iifi-Tv6vBrip.'] For epic V'*'''>'< 

etc., see dva-irW«» and &|i-wvc. See viWio-km. (2.) 
Uidyt^ (rvly-, iryiy-), choke, Tyf^w [later irA^o/un, Dor. irylloO/uu]) 

fvyr|a, wdwvlyfJMi, ivyiyrjv, tryiyfiaofMi. 
TLoMm, desire, voB4\vw, woiHivofuu, iw6$7iaa; and wo$4(rofMu, M$saa> 

639 (6). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



398 APPENDIX. 

IIoWm, labor, iroviivn etc., regular. [Ionic irov4ffn and Mt^cca 

(Hippoc.).] 639 (6). 
(«op-, irpo-), give, allot, stem whence 2 a. f^iropov (poet.), p. p. rhrfxa- 

fuu, chiefly impers., vhrpwrai, it is fated (with reirp<afjL4pif, Fate), 

See irfirapcCv. Compare luCpofuu. Poetic except in perl part. 
IIpdovM or irpdrrca (irpay-), do, Tpi^<a, ^Tpafo, whrpaxa, Tr^rpaytuu, 

hrpdx^V^i TpaxBifl(roficu ; fat. pf. Teirpd^fiai ; 2 p. whrpayci, have 

fared (well or ill) ; mid. f. Tpi^fjuu, a. irpa^firip. [Ionic vp^^om 

(irpiry-)t «-/>^^tf, ^rprj^a, wirprixa, frirprnffuu, irp'/ixBrjp; TrhrpnyoL', 

wp^^/Mi, irpri^dfi'ny,'] (4.) 
(vpia-), &t<2^, stem, with only 2 aor. hrpidfArjp, inflected throughout in 

506 ; see synopsis in 604. 
UptM, saw, itrpLira, T^rpla/juu, hrpiffOtiv. 640. 
npot<ro-o|iai (irpoiK-), beg, once in Archil, (compare xpoiKo., gratis) ; 

fut. only in Kara-vpol^fiai (Ar.) [Ion. icara-irpot^/Mu]. (4.) 
nrdpvviaai (irrap-), sneeze; [f. xra/yw;] 2 aor. txrapov, {jhrraphtiriw], 

(jhrrdptiv) TTapels, (II.) 
nr^oxTM (irTi7ic-, xraic-), cower, iirrrj^a, lirTi7xo. From stem ittouc-, 

poet 2 a. (f-wTaKov) KarairraKibv. [From stem vTa-, ep. 2 a. 

KoraTritTtiv, dual ; 2 pf. pt. ir€irTi7(A$.] Poetic also irr^cnrtt. (4. 2.) 
UrCoHTM, |>ou?id, [liTTio-a], f^wria/iai, late hrTlaOrjp, (4.) 
nrinnrtt (irTU7-), /o?d, ttiw^w, ^irrv^a, ^irTvyjuu, irrvx^v; wr^/uu, 

ivTV^firiP, (4.) 
IXr^, spi't, [iTTwrw, TTVffoiMx, iTTVffdrjp, Hippoc], a. $Trvaa, 
nw6dvo|jMU (irv$-), hear, enquire, fut. vewrofMi [Dor. rev<rovfuii], pt 

ir^v0-/uii; 2 a. hrvedfiifp Iw, Hom. opt. ireirudotro]. (5.) Poetic 

also irfi^6o|fcai (wafB-, tvB-), (2.) 



'PcUvM (^a-, /^av-), 9pn'nA;Z6, papQ, tppapa, (ippdpdTjp) papBeis. [From 

stem pa- (cf. §alvia), ep. aor. ipoffira, pf. p. ($ppaafmi) tppaprtu 

Aeschyl., ep. ippddarai, plpf. ippddaro, 777, 3.] See 610. Ionic 

and poetic. (5. 4.) 
fPaCtt, strike, paltrta, Ip/xuo-a,] ippalaOrip ; [fut. m. (as pass.) ^ala-o/uu,} 

Poetic, chiefly epic. 
'PdiTTM (poL(t>-), stitch, pdypia, tppa'^a, ^ppafifuu; 2 a. p. ippd^p; a. m. 

ippayj/d/irip, (3.) 
Tdo-<rM (^ay-), = dpdaffta, throw doton, j&d^ai, fppc^a, ippdxBffP. See 

dpdo'O'tt. (4.) 
•Pfl;« (/:p€7- for /:ep7-, 649), do, ^i^w, lpe|a ; [Ion. a. p. l^exBelii, ^^/f.] 

See SpS«. (4.) 
*P4«» (^eu-, ^/r-, I^V'),flow, jtewropMi, tppwca (rare in Attic), (•-) ippOifxa ; 

2 a. p. ipphjp, ^v^ffofMu 674. (2.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 399 

(^-), stem of ef/M^Jca, efjpi^/MU, ipp'/jOriP (Jpp^v)^ ^r^BiivofMU^ elp^ofuu. 

See f tvov. 
'F^hfvv|u ifpny-y A«7-)» break; ^ij^w, lp/»i7^o, {JlpprrfMi rare, ippiix^^ 

rare ;] 2 a. p. ippdyriv ; ^ayijaofMi ; 2 p. ipp<aya, he broken (689) ; 

[/ii^^/tai,] ippri^d/ATiy. (2. 11.) 
*Pi*y^ (^t7-)f fi^tMlder, [ep. f. ^t7i^ar,] a. ippiyrfaa^ [2 p. ^/>/>t7a (as 

pres.)] Poetic, chiefly epic. 665. 
'Pi^dM, «Aii7er, fiiyiitaia^ ippiywffa ; pres. subj. ^t^f for fiyoT, opt. fiytf'nvy 

inf. /^iYwv and /^ivoOv : see 497. 
'PtiiTM (^10-, /^(0-)) t^roto, A^^^f ^PP^i^O' (poet. ipl\l/a)f ippi<t>a^ ^ppifAjuu, 

ippt<t>0rjv, jtl<t>d'fi<rofuu ; 2 a. p. ippl<t>rip, Pres. also ^tirrlM (666). (3.) 
'P^|jMu [epic also ^luu], defend, ^Arofuit, ippwrdfiriw. [Epic ^-forms : 

inf. ^wrSai for ft(/€irdai ; impf. 3 pers. lf/>/>vro and pi. ^i)aTo.'\ Chiefly 

poetic. See {pi^M. 
'Pwd«, befoul, [epic /hnr6M ; Ion. pf. pt. ^pvrufUpos']. 
*P^wv|u (/Jw-), strengthen, ipptaca, ippw/Mi (rmper, ippwao, faretoell), 

ipp(ifa0rip, (n.) 

Z. 

Sa(v(i» (<rav-),fawn on, aor. ^<n7Ka [Dor. ^<rai»o]. Poetic. 695. (4.) 
SaCp« (<ra/>-), sweep, aor. {ffftipa) pt. <r^/»a$ ; 2 p. aiirripa, grin, esp. in 

part. a€irrjp(&i [Dor. <re0'a/)(6f.] (4.) 
2aXirCt«» (<raXiri77-), sound a trumpet, aor. ^<rdXiri7^a. (4.) 
[2a6fi», sav6, pres. rare and poet., aatinru), aadaofMu, iadwra, iaa(it$rjp; 

2 aor. 3 sing, o-dw (for iffdu), imperat. irdu, as if from AeoL ffdwfu. 

For epic adt^s, <rd(fi, see <r^tM. Epic] . 

Sdrrca (<ra7-),i)acfc, Zoa(?, [Ion. <yd<yffia, aor. if<rafa,] p. p. ciirayiiai.. (4.) 
SP^vyvfu (<rj36-), extinguish, a^4<rw, iir^eaa, tv^tiKa, [lo-jSecr/iai,] ^(r/3^- 

fl'^i;*' ; 2 a. I<r/3i7v (803, 1), wen< ow«, w. inf. o-jS^wi, [pt. dwo-fffiels 

Hippoc] ; f. m. a^if<ro/Mi, (II.) 
2!4p«, revere, aor. p. M<f>6rip, w. part. <r€0^ef$, aioc-strwcA;. 
2i(«», shake, <r€la<a, lo-eura, aiaeuca, <yiff€ifffMi, iffelffOriP (640) ; a. m. 

^o-eurd^ii;!'. 
[SfifM (<reu-, <rv-), mof6, ttrgfC, a. lo-o-eva, iaaevdfirjv ; tffffvfiai, iaffi60rip 

(Soph.) or iavBrjy; 2 a. m. ia-ffi^/irfp (with l<ruTO, <rJ>TO, <riJ/Acrt)s) .] 

The Attic poets have [o-eurai], <roOKrot, fl-oOo-^e (ind. and imper.), 

ffov, ffoT^ffSta, 674. Poetic. (2.) 
2i||ia(vt» (0-17/Aav-), show, (rri/AapQ, iffi/jfiripa (sometimes itriiimva), tr^cff- 

/Mfffuu, iarjfidvBrjp, (rrjfmpOi/iffofKu ; mid. arjfiapoOfMi, iarffxrfpd/iriv. (4.) 
S^^m (<n7ir-, <roir-), ro«, <nj^w, 2 p. (riarfva (as pres.) ; aifftjfifiai 

(Aristot.), 2 a. p. iffdirijy, f. <rain(0'o/uai. (2.) 
2ivo|uu (ffLP-), injure, [aor. ialpdfirfp Ion.]. 697. (4.) 
SKdirrM ((Tica^-), d^^, ffKdfia, Itrica^a, iffKa<t>a, (^(TKafi/xai, iffKd^rip. (3.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



400 APPENDIX. [1602 

Sin8dvv«|u (o-jceda-), scatter, f. axtdQ [irKeddffw,'] iaKidaa-a, ^KiSaa/uu 

w. part iffMdaafiipos, iffKcddaBriv; iffKedaadfiriy, (H.) 
Zic4XXi» (tf'jceX-, 0'jrXe-), dry up, [Horn. a. lo-KiyXa, Ion. pf. $aK\rfKa] ; 2 

a. (l<ricXi|r) dTo-^jcX^mi (790), Ar. (4.) 
SxlvTOiaai (o-Ker-), vtet9, aK^ffOfMi, icKe^dfirjVj ^CKefifuu, fat. pf. ^o-k^- 

i^ofiai, liffK4if>^»i Ion.]. For pres. and impf. the better Attic 

writers use o-mirfd, aKowoOjuuu, etc. (see <rK(Hr^). (3.) 
SiHjvTt* («'«i7»'-), prop, ffKr^ia, tvKif^a, $aKri/jifmi, i<rKr/j<f>$rfv ; aici^ofuu, 

iffKjp/fdfiriv* (3.) 
SkCSvt||u (aKiS-pa-), mid. ffKtBva/iai, scatter, also Kl9yrifu: chiefly poetic 

for <rKi8dvvv|u. (m.) 
SkovIw, ffiew, in better Attic writers only pres. and impf. act. and mid. 

For the other tenses ok^^oimi, icKti^dfjLrjv, and llaK€/Afiat of a-Kdirro/juu 

are used. See aidwro^Mk. 
SK^hm* ((TfcctfT-)) i^C^i fTK^oiJiau, iffKM^a, ivKdfipBuv. (3.) 
21|i&M, smear, with 17 for a in contracted forms (496), o-fip for <r/i^, 

etc.; [a. m. iafniadfnip Hdt.]. [Ion. afi4» and o'/k^x^]) s^^^* P* '">>' 

trfiiixOtis (Aristoph.). 
SvAit, draw, airdaw (a), ttriraura, tffiraKa, taircurfiai, iirirdffBriv, oTrao'B^O' 

/Mi; awdffofuu, iairaadfiriy, 639; 640. 
2«iCp« (o-irep-), SOW, ffT€p&, ivTupa, $airap/Mi ; 2 a. p. iinrdfniy. (4.) 
2ir<v8«*, pour libation, air^iaw (for artyd-aw, 79), ^<rir€ura, eo-irctir/iAeu, 

(see 490, 3) ; ffxelaofuu, 4airturdfirip, 
STd^M (tf'T07-), drop, [0T«(|e»,] fo'To^a, [^0-ra7/uu, iardxBtiv.'] (4.) 
SrcCpw (<rr «ii9-, <fri)S-), tread, Hvrei^a, (c-) iarifirifiai (642, 2 ; 668; 2). 

Poetic. (2.) 
IIti(x«* (^Teix-» tf'Tix-)? fl'^^i [^o-TCila, 2 a. Iottix©*'.] Poetic and 

Ionic. (2.) 
SWXXm (o-reA-)) ^^^^d, o-rcAA [otcX^w], cirrciXa, dtrraXKa, caraX/iai ; 

2 a. p. iardKrjp ; o-raX^o-ojuai ; a. m. ^dTciX^fii?!'. 646. (4.) 
SrfvdlM ((TTcva^-), groan, (rT€vd^w, iar^ya^a* (4.) 
2t4py«», Z(WC, irrip^a, Hartp^a ; 2 pf. iirropya (643). 
Impin, deprive, o-Tcp^o'w, iaTtprfca [epic ^(rr^/yco-a], iar4pfiiKa, 4<rr4fnifuu., 

iartp-fiBriv, arepriOiia'Ofiai ; 2 aor. p. (^or^piyv) part ffrtpels, 2 fut. 

(pass, or mid.) <rr(fiiiaofiai. Also pres. o^rfpCo>KM. (6.) Pres. vW- 

po|iai, be in want, 
[(STii)|iai), pledge one*s self; 3 pers. pres. rrtdrcu, impf. crrcSro. 

Poetic, chiefly epic] (I.) 
SrCttt (<^«7-)» 1>»*5*» irrt^u, [^ori^a Hdt], ttrriyiMi, (4.) 
2rdpvv|U (o-Top-), (€-) CTTO/Mtf (jrropifffo), iardp^aa, [^o-rop^tf-tfifv], iaropt' 

adfiiiv, (H.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 401 

Srpl^, turuy tnp^Uf $(rrpv^, Hirrpe^ifiatj i<rrp4^w (rare in prOBO) 

[Ion. iffrpd^Briv^ ; 2 pf. derpoifM (late) ; 2 a. p. i^pd^p, f. arpa^- 

aofiat ; mid. arp^r^ofuu^ ierpv^^iiV' 646. 
2rp^wv|U (jrrpw)^ same as (rT6pvv|u ; erp^Wy Mvrpmaa^ ftrrpmfxai, 

iarpt&Biiv. (II.) 
Srvy^M (ffrvy-, 654), dre(id, hate, fat. aruYfiirofAai (as pass.), a. ^(rr^- 

Tijtf-o [ep. ftf-Tu^o, made terrible, Ion. pf. ^r^ira], a. p. i^rvyhBiiy ; 

[ep. 2 a. IfdTtryov.] Ionic and poetic. 
[Srv^€kH»(arv^€\iy'),da8h,a,OT.iffTv^4\i^a. Ionic, chiefly epic] (4.) 
2vp«» (iri/p-), (2rat9, aor. ^o-i/pa, iavpdfiriy, (4.) 
2^t«» (<r0a7O) ^^<i^f ^^^' prose gen. o-^^ttm; ^^», lf<r^a, IT^^ot- 

/lai, [^<r^x^>7*' (rare)] ; 2 aor. p. iv^drfnv, fut. e^ay^ao/uu ; aor. mid. 

iff^a^dfiiiy. (4.) 
S^dXXtt (o-^aA.-), tr^, deceive, apak&, $ir^\a, $a^a\tMi ; 2 a. p. ^o*^- 

Xt/i', f. pb 0r^aA^(ro/Aa< ; fat. m. <r^aAov/iai (rare). (4.) 
S^^ttm: see o-^^tM. 
21x^l« (see 587), trxd^v, lf<rxao-a, iaxiiadfifiu ; [Ion. ^<rxc(<r0i|y.] From 

pres. <rx(i«, imp. firx^v (Ar.). (4.) 
S^'^M, later <rAl», epic nsually <rA«» (o-ev, v^S-), save, [ep. pr. snbj. 

0'<^f ((ri^^f, (Tf^yf), (T^p (ircCf', ^^v)i (F^oxri] ; iroMrw, faatira, a4auKa, 

atffwfiai or viawnaiy iff^riy, awO^trofMt; a^ffOfAai, iffonrdfiiiv* See 

o-ouS«. (4.) 

T. 
(to-), take, stem with Hom. imperat. rij, 

[(ray-), seize, stem with Hom. 2 a. pt. rtray^p,'] Ct Lat tango. 
[Tav6», stretch, rcufi&ffw (y), irdyvaa, rtrdyvafiai, iray^aBriv ; aor. m. 

^rayvaffdfjifiv. Fres. pass. (/Ai-form) rdyvrau Epic form of tiCvm.] 
Tapd<r<rfi» (ra/wx-), (?i»^Wf6, rapd^u, irdpa^a, rerdpaypxit, irapdx^rfy; 

f. m. rapd^ofiai ', [ep. pf. (t^t/wjx*) T^Tpijx*^** disturbed^ pip. tc- 

Tp^X«»-] (*.) 

Td4r<rM (T07-), arrange, rd{(», cro^a, r^raxct, rtr ay fiai, irdx^i'y raxH' 

aofjuii i rd^ofiai, ira^dfiriy ; 2 a. p. irdyny 9 fut. pf. rerd^ofMi. (4.) 
(ro^-), stem with 2 aor. ira^p : see (Oi|ir-). 
Tc£vM (t€v-), dtrete^, rei^w, «rc(va, Tircuca, rirayMi, IrdBniv, ra$^aofuii; 

Tfyov/Mi, irtiydfiriy, 645 ; 647. See raviiM and rvraivn. (4.) 
TcK|fca(po|Mu (reKfULp-), judge, infer, f. reic^iopoO/AOi, a. ireKp.ripip.riy, 

Act. TfK|ia£p«, rare and poetic, a. Mnfiripa. (4.) 
Ttkiti, finish, (jtXivtio) TcA», ir4\€ffa, r€r4\€K(L, r^riXetTpai^ ir€\4a'$riy ; 

fat. m. (r€\4ofiai) reAoD/iuu, a. m. ireXtffdprjy, 639 ; 640. 
TiXXtt (reA.-), catM6 «o rtec, ri8«, aor. ^rciAa ; [plpf. p. ^^toAto.] In 

compos. iv'Ttrdkpai, 4y-€T€i\dfiriy, 646. (4.) 
[(Ti|i-), find, stem with Hom. redupl. 2 a. rtrpoy or irtrpioy (534).] 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



402 APPENDIX. [1602 

Ti^vm (rffi-, r/K«-) [Ion. and Dor. ra^im, Horn, onoe W/u»], eii^ t 
r€fi&f r^TfiriKay rfT/ArifMi, ir/xiiBriv, TfifiOiiffOfuu; 2 a. ir^ftovy ir€/i6fArf¥ 
[poet, and Ion. trafioPf irafi6firiv] ; fut. m. refiovfiai ; tat, pf. rcr/H^ 
ffofxai. See T|fci^«». (5.) 

T4pir«0, amuse, rip^u, ir^p^a, MfHpBnv [ep. irdfH^y, 2 a. p. irdfnniw 
(with subj. TpoTcfw), 2 a. m. (T)€Tapw6fifiy'], (634) ; fut. m. t^ 
^'o/iuw (poet.), [a. irtf^dfiriv epic] 646. 

[T4po^|iai, become d?^, 2 a. p. ^ripv-nv. Chiefly epic. Fat. act. r4pvm 
in Theoc] 

Tcra^^v, having seized: see stem (ra-y-)* 

[TcT(T)|iai, Horn. perf. am troifdZed, in dual rtrlri<reov and part, r^rf 

ii/i4pos ; also tctiijc^j, trotibled.'} 
[T4t|*ov or Itct|ju>v (Horn.), found, for re-rtfi-ov (634).] See (Ti|i-). 
TcrpaCvM (rcr/yaK*, ^pa-), &ore, late pres. rirpaivw and rirpdu ; [Ion. 

fut. T€Tpav4a, aor. ^rcT/yijva], irerpiivdfi'riy (673). From stem (rpa-), 

aor. frpTiffa^ pf. p. rivfnifiau 610. (5. 4.) 
Tf^X** ("""f^a-* '»'»'X")i prepare, maA;e, tcuIw, ^rew^o, [ep. r€r€vx^s as 

pass.,] rirvyiMi [ep. t€t«^x*''""*i ^tct€<Jx«''"®] » [^t^Jx^iip Hom., #t€^ 

X^i' Hippoc, f. pf. rcr€^(o/Aat Hom.] ; f. m. Tet(|o/iai, [ep. a. #rcv 

^dpLiiv, 2 a. (tuk-) T€Twice?>', rerwic^^iji'. ] Poetic. (2.) 
T^K« (tok-)» ♦we?^ [I^or. t4k«], t4|«, errjla, ir'tix^rip (rare) ; 2 a. p. 

irdiniy ; 2 p. rtrriKa, am melted. (2.) 
TC6i||u (^6-), |>i«; ; see synopsis and inflection in 604, 606, and 609. (L) 
TCktm (tcic-), for Ti-T«ic-» (662, 1 a), beget, bring forth, r4^ofuu, poet 

also T€{», [rarely reirow/uat], ir4xiiiy (rare) ; 2 p. r^roico ; 2 a. ^rc- 

TCXXtt (tiA-), pZttC*, TtX«, ^rfXa, r^riKfiai, irlXJ^v, Chiefly poetic. (4.) 
TCvM (ti-), Horn, rfvctf, |)ay, Tf<r«, ertiro, T^Tiira, r4riafuu, iri^Biiw. 

Mid. rlyoficu [ep. rfj^v/Aat], riffofuu, irtadfirip. The fut. and aor. are 

more correctly written reArw, ereuro, etc., but these forms seldom 

appear in our editions. See r(«». (5.) 
[TtraCvM (titov-), stretch, aor. (^irlrriya) TiT^vof. Epic for re^v«.] (4.) 
[Ttrpott, &ore, late present.] See Ttrpa(v». 
TiTp^<rKfi» (rpo-), wound, rp^a, trpwffo, r^rpwfuu, irp^Briv, rpof&^ofut; 

[fut. m. Tp(&ffofiou Hom.] [Barely epic r/yc^w.] (6.) 
Tt», honor, [Hom. fut. rlaw, aor. €Ti<ra, p. p. rM/uai.] After Homer 

chiefly in pres. and impf. Attic ttau, crco-a, etc., belong to rbm 

(except irpo-riads, S. An. 22). See t(v«. 
(tXo-, sync, for roAa-), erwittre, rx^tf-o/wit, r^rAijica, 2 aor. IrXifr (see 

709). [Epic /u-forms of 2 pf. T^rKofitp, rtr\edtiy, r^rXafit, TtrXdf 

fityai and TcrXctfiev, rcrAi^^^s (804). From (roAa-), Hom. aor. 

irdKaaaa,'] Poetic. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ieg2] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 403 

[T|i'4'yM (rfAiry-j r flay-') J cut, poet, for rdfAw; rfi^^w (rare), cr/ii^la, 

2 a. (Tfiayoy, irftdyny (rftdyev for irfidyriaay)*'] (2.) 
Top^M (rop-), pierce, [pres. only in ep. ivTi-ropeCvra] ; [ep. fut ropf^av], 

rerofyfiiru (Ar.), [ep. a. iT6fni<rd, 2 a. eropoy.'] 666. 
Tp^iTtt [Ion. rpdirto], turn, rp4\pw, €rpe\pa, rirpo^ sometimes r4rpa^, 

rerpafifMi, 4Tp4<^Briv [lon. 4rpd<pOifjv'] ; f . m. rp4r^ofiaif a. m. irpt^j/dfiTiP ; 

2 a. [erpairoy epic and lyric], irpdmiv, 4Tpaw6firiy. This verb has all 

the six a6ri8ts (714). 643 ; 646. 
Tpi^ (Tp€<i>- for $pt<l>', 96, 6), nourish, $p4}l/», c^pc^a, rtrpoipa, r4epafi' 

/uu w. inf. r€epiip$ai, 4ep4<f>eriv w. inf. d/)€^0^ifai (rare) ; 2 a. p. irpd- 

^v ; [ep. 2 a. irpupov as pass. ] ; f . m. $p4^ofAai, a. m. i$p€^dfiiiv, 

643; 646. 
Tp^M (t/»cx- ^oJ^ ^P«X-» ^^» 6 J ^P<^f^-)i *'ww, f. SpaAiov^ot ('ep4^ofAai only 

in comedy), c9p€|a (rare), BtBpdfuiKa, (c-) 8c$p4jU77/uai ; [2 p. B4Bpofia 

(poet.)], 2 a. Upafiov, (8.) 
Tpl» («rcm6/c), aor. irptatL. Chiefly poetic. 
Tpfpw (Tpt)8-, TpijS-), rw6, rptif^w, ^Tpr^^o, r4Tpi<pa, r4rpifAfMi (487 ; 489), 

4rpi<^p ; 2 a. p. 4rpl$riv, 2 fut. p. rpi$4iaofiai ; fut. pf . Ttrpi^jfOfMi ; 

f . m. rpi^oficu, a. m. irpi^dfiriy. 
Tptl«» (Tpt7-), squeak, 2 p. r4rpiya as present [w. ep. part. TCTpt^wrof]. 

Ionic and poetic. (4.) 
Tpvx«», exAatM^, fut. [ep. rpd{»] rpvx^tru (rpvxo; 669), a. irp^x^tffa, 

p. part. T€rpuxvp^4vos, [a. p. irpox^iiv Ion.]. 
Tp^YM, (rpa^-, 673), gnaw, rp^^ofiai [^rp»|o,] r4rpo9yixai ] 2 a. Ifrpa- 

701/. (2.) 
TvYxavM (rewx-, twx-)» ****> ^opp^n, re^^o^ai, (f-) [ep. ^t^x^«i] P^' 

TCTiJx'?*** 2 pf. T€T«VX* > 2 *• ifVXOIf. (5. 2.) 

TWtm (twit-), 8^riib6, (€-) TwnT^a-w, 4T6irT'n<ra (Aristot.), 2 a. p. 4t^v, 
fut. p* rvTT'^ao/iai or ri/iH^iro/icu. [Ionic and lyric a. crinf^a, p.p. 
r4Tv/Afjuu, 2 a. •Twrov; iTo-T^uvToi (Hdt.).] 668, 3. (3.) 

T^^ (rv<i>' or rv^, for ^t;^-), rai«6 smoke, smoke, T4$vfifiat, 2 a. p. 
ir^v, 2 f. p. rv^ffofiai (Men.). 96, 6. 



'Ywiaxvio^Mk, Ion. and poet WUrxo|Mu (strengthened from Mxa/iai), 
promise, ^rotrx'fiffoficu, 6ir4irxrifiai ; 2 a. m. \nrt<yx^t"li'» See Xnyj» and 
»X-. (5.) 

'Y^(vi» (d^ov-), weave^ (^vSo, Cf^va, {f^ao-fiat (648), h^vBriv ; aor. m. 
h^viliriv, (4.) 

"Ym, rain, vvw, So-a, Zoitm, v<r0riy, [Hdt. Sirojuat as pass.] 

*. 

^af(v«» (^o«K-), appear, shine, aor. pass. 4<padp6riv (oa- for oe-), ap- 
peared. See ^aCvM. (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



404 APPENDIX. [16&2 

4kUvi» (jpav-)^ show, f. ^ayS [^^v^v"], a. f^i^va, W^o^ica, ir^^o^^i (648), 
#^vii|ir (rare in prose) ; 2 a. p. i<i>dy7iv, 2 f. <pmrfiffofiai ; 2 p. irc^va; 
f. m. ^oyoO/KOi, a. m. i<i>npdfiriy (rare and poet.), showed, but air- 
t^vdfxiiv, declared; [ep. iter. 2 aor. ^cCyeo-fcc, appeared."] For fall 
synopsis, see 478 ; for inflection of certain tenses, see 482. From 
stem (pa- (cf. $al»w, 610), [Horn. impf. ^ete, appeared, f. pf. ir€^- 
<rerai, tot7Z appearJ] For i^»9riv, see ^acCvca. (4.) 

^oorKv (^a-), 8a^, only pres. and impf. See ^i)|iC (6.) 

#iC8e|aai (^cid-, ^8-)? ^a^^* ^c^<ro/Mit, i<p€iadfirip, [Hom. 2 a. m. irc^- 
Sii/ui^y, f. irc^S^o-o^toi.] (2.) 

(^-, ^), l»2Z, Stems whence [Hom. Tc^a/Mii, ir€<tfiico/uu; 2 a. 
redupl. w4<l>»op or I^-k^^vov (for v6-^€ir-oi') W. part. icara-T^ywy 

(or ^v).] 

^p«» (^p-| 01-, ^y€ic-, iveyx' for it^evfK-), bear, f. oferw, a. ffyryica, p. 
yj^i^oxa, irfiytyfuu, a. p. ^vix'^^ > ^* P* ^vtx'^ofjLOi and olff^O^o/aui ; 
2 a. ijpeyKov ; f. m. otffofxcu (sometimes as pass.) ; a. m. ^i/c7ic<i^i|r, 
2 a. m. imper. 4ptyKov (So.). 671. [Ion. livewa and -aAii}i', ^peiicor, 
4irfiv9iyfuii, iiPtlxOifjv ; Hdt. aor. inf. iiv-oT<rat (or &y-^<rflu) ; Hom. aor. 
imper. oVc for o7<roy (777, 8), pres. imper. ^4pT9 for ^cpcrc] (8.) 

Mryt» (^ew7-? ^^O'")* ./^^^? ^eiifofMu and ^eu^ovfuu (666), 2 p. iri^vya 
(642), 2 a. %<pvyov ; [Hom. p. part. r€<pvyfi4vos and irc^vC<^cf.] (2.) 

^|iC (^a-), sa^, ^(Ttc, $<priffa; p. p. imper. itf^aOw (ir€^Mfffi4vos be- 
longs to Mva). Mid. [Dor. fat. ^ito/mk]. For the fall inflection, 
see 812 and 813. (I.) 

^Mavv (tpSa-), anticipate, ^Heofiai (or <p9dffv), ll<i>$a(ra ; 2 a. act 
K<f>eny (like ^<mjy), [ep. 2 a. m. ^a«t/iew».] (5.) 

#9cCp« (jpB^p'), corrupt, f. ^0€^ [Ion. *l>$€p€w, ep. ^^^/m^m], a. I4<^^ipa, 
p. i^apKa, f^apfiat; 2 a. p. 4^Adpiriv, 2 f. p. ^ofi-fiaofiau ; 2 p. di- 
^^opa ; f . m. t^tpovfiai. 643 ; 646. (4.) 

#6Cvfl» [epic also ^0(»], toa^, deca^, ^/(rw, (<f>0ura, i<t>$ifiai, [ep. a. p. 
i<f>$ierip ; fut. m. <p9L<rofiai ;] 2 a. m. i<i>elfi'np, perisJied, [subj. ^imiiai, 
opt. ^^171^ for ip&i'i'fATip (734) imper. 3 sing. <f>eMv, inf. ^£(rtfa<], 
IMtrt. (peififpos, [Epic ^^j^», ^0-«, ^^^<ra.] Chiefly poetic. Pres- 
ent generally intransitive ; future and aorist active transitive. (5.) 

^iXItt (^lA-), love, <t*i\ifffa, etc., regular. [Ep. a. m. i^KdfjLtip, inf. 
pres. <i>i\'nfitpai (784, 6). 656.] 

^Xd«>, bruise, [fut. ^A<((r(v (Dor. ^Acuro-fi), aor. c^Aao'a, c^Aacr/Mu, ^^Ai- 

0-0t}y.] See 6Xd«». 
^pd^vviu (^<l>pay'), fence, mid. ^pdYwifcat; only in pres. and Impf. 

See ^pd^<rM. (11.) 
^pdlM(^pa^), to2Z, ^pdff0, i^peura, ir4<ppaKa, irt^paefuu [ep. X>art. irc^^S- 

fA^pos,'] 44>pda$riP (as mid.) ; l<l>pdffOfiai epic], i4>paffdfX7iP (chiefly 

epic). [Ep. 2 a. irt<f>patop or ^^^pa8oy.] (4.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1692] CATALOGUE OF VERBS. 406 

^pdtnrtt (jppay^^ fence^ §<f>pa^a, irf(f>pa'yfiai, i^pdxOriv; iippa^dfirty. See 

^ipdYvvfu. (4.) 
^pt(ro-M or ^pirTM (<f>piK-)j shudder, €<f>pi^a, ir4<ppiKa. (4.) 
^p^M ((f>pvy-)i roast, (f>pv^u, t^pvla, x4^pvyfxat, [Jf^ptJ^i?*']. 
^XdcnrM (^v\aK-), guard, ^vAc(|w, ^^v\a|a, irc^<(Aaxa, ire^t;Aa7/ua«, 

iipv\dx9riv; (f>vKd^ofiai, i(f>v\a^dfiriv, (4.) 
^^pm, mix, l^<f>vp(ra,'] x4<f>vpfiai, li<pipOifjy'\ ; [f. pf. irt<l>^pffOfiai Find.]. 

Mpdw, mix, is regular, ^v/xio-w, etc. 
♦ii» (0w-)» with w in Homer and rarely in Attic, produce, (f>vato, l^i/<ro, 

7r4<pvKa, be (by nature), [with 2 pf. jut-forms, ep. xep^tatri, ifi-wep^, 

we<t>v(&s; plpf. 4ir€<pvKov (777, 4)] ; 2 a. (Ipvv, be, be born (799) ; 

2 a. p. i<f>^riv (subj. <pvSi) ; fut. m. <pvffofjiai. 



Xdtc* (xo5-), /orc6 6ac*,- yicZd, (pres. only in ava-xdC^), [f. x^^f^^y 
a. -ix^^^ (Find.), a. m. kxwi.pi.riv\ from stem <ca8- (different from 
stem of mfSw), 2 a. m. KiKMp.i\v ; f. pf. iccfca^ffcra), t(n72 deprive (705), 
2 a. KCKa^oy, deprived.^ Foetic, chiefly epic; except iivaxd{ovTfs 
and diax^affdai in Xenophon. (4.) 

XaCpM (x'V'')) rejoice, (c-) x'^P^^^ (658, 3), kcx<^'7'^<=<i ic€x4p^/^' ^^^ 
KexcipfJicn, 2 a« p. ix^f'i [epic a. m. x^P^'^'^i ^ ^' ^' K^x^^f^vy > 2 P* 

pt. irexa/>^^') ^*' P^* KtX'^ri^^t f«X«P'f<''<>/*«» (^^S).] (4.) 
XoXdtt, Z008en, [xaA(((r» Ion.,] ixdKwra [-a|a Find.], 4xa\dirBrtv, 639 ; 
640. 

[XavSdvM (xo*-, X«»'5-), AoW, 2 a. Ix"*®"** f^** x<^<»'»M«* (7^)> 2 pf. 

K^xap^ (^46).] Foetic (chiefly epic) and Ionic. (5.) 
Xdo-KM, later x^Cvm (xa-, xa»'-)» fl^«P«> ^- x«»'«»'Ma'> 2 p. K^x'nva as pres. 

(644), 2 a. f^x^^y^y- Ionic and poetic. (6. 4.) 
X4m (x«^")» ^^* x*<'^®>'A*«* (rarely xcVojuai), tx^^'^i 2 p. nexo^a (643), 

2 a. ix^aov (rare) ; a. m. only in x^<fo.iro, Ar. j^g. 1067 ; p. p. part. 

Kex^^y^^vos, (4.) 
X4«» (x«i/-, x«/="-» xO» epic x«^« (785, 3), pour, f. x«« [ep. x«<5«]> a. 

^X<' [ep. ^xc*'<']f K^xvica, K€xvfJMi, ix^^V^i x^^'"!^^/^"^^* ^* ™' ^X^c^M^" 

[ep. ^x««'«fAw»i'], [2 a. m. ix^firiv (800, 1).] 674. (2.) 
[(xXci8-)i stem of 2 pf. part. wex^aSc^j, swelling (Find.), w. ace. pi. 

K€x^^Sotfras, and inf. iccxA^dc"'.] 
X6«», ^eop up, x^^i ^X'^^i iccx»«ca, iccx»(r/iai (641), ix^^^t 

X»ffH<fOfjLai, 
Xpaio-|iiM (xpauTfi-), avert, help, late in present; [Horn. xpo'^M^tf'** 

^xpoiffikiiffa ; 2 a. ^XP'^^'^'M^'']* ^^* 
XpAof&Oi, tMe, xfi^ffofiai, ixfiriff^riv, Kdxp^ifiai, ^xp^ff^P ', [fut. pf . K^xph- 

ffofiai Theoc.]. For xp^^h XP^^^^ [Hdt. xpa^ai, xf<^(r^ai], etc., 

866 496. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



406 APPENDIX. [1692 

Xpdtt, give oracles, (Attic xPV'i XPVy ®*^*» ^^) J X^«"«» ^xpi»«"«> ««X/»»i««» 
[ic^XP^MAt Hdt], 4xp^ff$rip, Mid. con8u2t an oracle, IxF^^o/juu^ 
ixtm'rdfivv''] For x/)S* and xfii = xPllif^s and xnlC^h see xplll*- 

Xp^ (impers.), probably orig. a noun meaning need (cf. xp^ia), with 
^irrf understood, t^ere t« need, (one) ottght, mustj subj. xppi opt 
xpelri, inf. x^vai, (poet x/>^»') J imperf. xp^" (prob. = xph i^^) or 
^X/*^"' '-^""^XMi ** «i#ce«, inf. diroxp^v, imperf. imtx/ni, [Ion. 
&irox/>flr, &trox/>ay, Awc'xpo ;] i.woxfyfio'fh h.vixp^^^' 

Xptit«» (687), Ion. xp^'^t<i*) toani, <»*, xPpV« [Ion. x/"?t(r«], ^XPV^ 
[Ion. ^xp^^<^<>(]* ^PP' and xpp (as if from xp^)i occasionally have 
the meaning of xp^few , XPP f«- (*• ) 

Xpt«, anoint, sting, xp^^^i ^XPl^^^ f^^XP^f^^ or ndxpiff/Mu, ixpi^^f) 
[^XpiffOfuu Horn.], ixpiadfiriy. 

Xp^ltt, poet also xpo^tw (687), coZor, 8toJn, K4xp»fffMi, ixP^irBfip. (4.) 



^d«», rti&, with 11 for d in contracted forms (496), i^, ^y, 1^^, etc. ; 

generally in composition. 
^c<>S«», deceive, if/e^», lif/ewa, i)p€v<rfiai, ^e^vBriv, ^^wrBiiaoiuu ; ^«Wo- 

fiai, hlftuffdfirip, 71 ; 74. 
^i^M (if'VX')* COoZ, i|/if|ctf, ^^i/|a, ^i|a;7/iai, i^x^" [^xH^^^M^"* lon.] ; 

2 a. p. iy^f^x^^ or (generally later) itp^y (stem i^uy-). 

n. 

'QB4» (^a>$-), push, impf. gen. 4<&Bovv (637, 1) ; Hav [poet a^<r«], ^Mra 
[Ion. ii<ra]i twrtuu [Ion. dtr/Aoi], ^c^o'^i'; wtrSiiffOfAai ; f. m. Aaofttu, 
a. m. iwadfiriv [Ion. »o't(/iii7f']. 664. 

'Ovloitat, &u^, imp. iuvo^firiv (637, 1) or &vo^fAriy; otrfiaofuu, i^^ftui, 
4wvifiriv, Classic writers use iirptdfxriy (604-606) for later mrnadfivf' 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEXES. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



N. B. — In these Indexes the references are made to the 
Sections of the Grammar, except occasionally to pages 8-6 of 
the Introduction. The verbs which are foimd in the Catalogue, 
and the Irregular Nouns of § 291, are generally not included in 
the Greek Index, except when some special form is mentioned 
in the text of the Grammar. ^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GEEEK Il^^^DEX. 



A 1 ; open vowel 5, 6 ; pronuncia- 
tion of 28^; in contaraction 38; 
becomes ri in temp, augment 516 ; 
a changed to 17 at end of vowel 
verb stems 635; added to verb 
stems (like e) 656; changed to 
17 in 2d perf . 644 ; c changed to 
& in liquid stems 645, 646 ; Aeol. 
and Dor. a for 97 147 ; as suffix 
832, 8491. 

a- or av- privative 875^ ; copula- 
tive 887. 

^ improper diphth. 7, 10 ; by con- 
traction 38*. 

A-yoO^s compared 361. 

Jkya^Mx 7941 ; w. gen. 1102. 

dYavaicHtt w. dat. 1159, 1160 ; w. 
el 1423 ; w. partic. 1580. 

dYavdtt w. dat. 1159, 1160 ; w. el 
1423 ; w. partic. 1580. 

dyy^XXtt, pf . and plpf . mid. 490^ ; 
V7. partic. 1588. 

&YC and dyiTf w. subj. and imperat. 
1345. 

dYciNrros etc. w. gen. 1141 (1102). 

&YT|p«fts, declension of 306. 

d^W^, adj. of one ending 343. 

&YX^ w. gen. 1149. 

d-ytt, augm. of ijyayov 535; iytap^ 
with 1565. 

dYMvCtfo^at d^Ava 1051. 

.^v, adv. endmg 860^. 

d8iKl», f ut. mid. as pass. 1248. 

dSipvard icrrtv etc. 899^. 

dStfpdraros XP^I'^'^'^^ 1141. 

d4ic»v : see &k«»v. 

dir6f , epicene noun 158. 



-dt«, verbs in 8616, 862 ; fut. of 

6652. 
dt)S<&v, decl. of 248. 
'Ae^vatc, -T|6fv, -T|<ri 292, 293, 296. 
ajeX4», ^e\t)<ra 516. 
dOpdos, decl. of 298^. 
"AOttf, accus. of 199. 
ai, diphthong 7 ; augmented 518 ; 

sometimes elided in poetry 51 ; 

short in accentuation (but not in 

opt.) 113. 
at, Homeric for el 1381. 
Atas, voc. of 2211. 
alSi&s, decl. of 238, 239. 
atOc or at ^dp, Homeric for etBe 

etc. 1507. 
-aCvtt, denom. verbs in 861^, 862. 
-cuos (jx-ioi), adj. in 850, 829. 
atpa> 594 ; aor. 674 ; pf. and plpf. 

mid. 490«. 
-Ois, -aura, -oura, in aor. partic. 

(Aeol.) 783. 
-<us, -aiori(v), in dat.plur. 167, 1886. 
-ats in ace. plur. (Aeol.) 188^. 
alo^dvo|iav w. gen. 1102 ; w. partic. 

1582, 1588. 
aCoxp^s compared 357, 362. 
aUrx<>vo|iai w. partic. 1580 ; w. 

infin. 1581. 
-oiTfpos, -oiTOTOs, comp. and sup. 

in 352. 
airim w. two accus. 1069. 
atrtos w. gen. 1140. 
dCc», oiov 516. 
dKoi^M, 2 perf. 529, 690; w. ace. 

and gen. 1103 ; plpf. 533 ; ed or 

KaKiot dico^a^l241. 

409 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



410 



GREEK INDEX. 



dxpoAoiiOi 638 ; w. gen.4102. 

&Kpos w. article 978. 

&KMV (^diKuv) 333 ; without &y 1671. 

dXf (<!»«> 572, 6423. 

&X^«0 658^ ; redupl. 2 aor. AXoXkop 
636, 677. 

&Xt|0^s declined 313 ; dXi7^s, in- 
deed! 314. 

dXC<rKO|iai 659 ; 2 aor. 779. 

AXiT^ptos w. gen. 1144*. 

dXXd in apodosls 1422. 

dXXdo-<rM, pf. and plpf. mid. in- 
flected 4872, 489«. 

dXX^Xttv declined 404. 

&XXo6i 2921. 

&XXo|iai, 2 aor. mid. SOO^. 

&XXos, decl. of 419 ; w. art. 966. 

&XXo<rf 294. 

&XXo Ti i) ; or &XXo n; 1604. 

&X070S declined 306. 

&\<><rKM, formation of 617. 

AXs declined 226. 

&Xd^{, epicene noun 168 ; voc.210i. 

&|ia w. dat. 1176 ; w. partic. 1572 ; 
&|Mi lip 958. 

ai&dproiv, opt. 736. 

&|ippoTOs ifwp) 66. 

d|uCp« w. gen. 1133. 

(Sf&lf , d|U, etc., Dor. for iifieis^ etc. 
398. 

d|i'4rMp 316. 

of&ds and d|i6s for iifxH-epot (^or 
ifjJn) 407. 

diimoxy^F^^^ ^^7. 

d|ii^v«0 596 ; w. ace. and dat. 

(Hom.) 1168 ; dfivvdOta 779. 
d|i^C w. gen., dat., and accus. 1202. 
d|i^Uvw|u, augment of 644 ; w. 

two ace. 1069. 
dft^iO'pTi'Htf, augment of 544; w. 

gen. and dat. 1128, 1175. 
difc^'HpttOfv w. gen. 1148. 
&|i^ and dfA^Tfpos 379 ; w. art. 

976. • 



&v (epic Ki), adv. 1299-1316: see 
Contents. Two uses 1299 ; with 
secondary tenses of indie. 1304, 
1335, 1336, 1387, 1397, 1433 ; w. 
optative 1306, 1327, 1408, 1409, 
1436, never w. fut. opt. 1307; 
w. fut. indie. (Hom.) 1303; w. 
subj. used as fut. (Hom.) 1306*, 
1356; w. infin. and partic. 1308, 
1494. In conditions w. subj. 
12992, 1305, 1382, 1387, 13931, 
1403 ; dropped when subj. be- 
comes opt. 1497*. In final clauses 
w. (Js, drctff, and 6<f>pa 1367. 
Omitted w. subj. in protasis (in 
poetry) 1896, 1406, 1487, w. 
potential opt. or in ai>od. 1332, 
1333 ; not used w. I8ei, xp^r, etc. 
1400; repeated in long apod. 
1312 ; ellipsis of verb 1313 ; used 
only w. first of several coord, 
vbs. 1314 ; never begins sentence 
1316. See Idv, i} v, &v (d), and rdxa. 

&v (a) for idp (el &y) 1299*, 1382. 

&v for dpd (Hom.) 63. 

ov- privative : see a- privative. 

dv (d &y)y by crasis 44, 1428*. 

-av for 'dwv in gen. plur. 188^. 

dvd w. dat. and ace. 1203. 

&va, up! 1162, 1224. 

&va, poet. voc. of dva^ 291. 

dvdYKTi w. infin. 1521; w. ivrl om. 
8911. 

dvaXCo>KM and dvaX6M, augment of 
616, 526 (end). 

dvoXxis, adj. of one ending 343. 

dva|iC|iWj(rK«» w. two accus. 1069. 

dvd(ios w. gen. 1135. 

dvdovw w. gen. 1109; w. dat 
(Hom.) 1164. 

dvSdw, augment of (Hom.) 688. 

dv^v 8602. 

dvtv w. gen. 1220. 

di^xM, augment of 544 ; w. partic. 
1680. 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



GREEK INDEX. 



411 



dWjp declined 278 (see 67) ; Horn. 

dat. pi. 279. dvrip 44. 
&vOp«»iros declined 192. 
dvoC^**} augment of 538; 2 pf. 

dwitfiya and dviifix^ 6^^- 
dvo|fcoU*s w. dat. 1175. 
-avos, nouns in 840. 
dvrC w. gen. 1204 ; 6.90" Jv, where- 
fore 1204. 
dvTtvoUoffcai w. gen. 1128. 
dvi»o-a«, aor. part., hastily 1564. 
&VM, dWh^pos, dv^raros 363. 
&(iot declined 299. d^tos and d^i6<i; 

w. gen. 1135. 
&vai9, adj. of one ending 343 ; w. 

gen. 1141. 
dvdrwp, decl. of 816. 
&«fipos w. gen. 1141. 
dvio^rltf w. dat. 1160. 
dirX6os, dirXoifs declined 310 ; irreg. 

contr. 391. 
dird w. gen. 1205 ; for iv w. dat. 

12251. 
dvo8lxo|Mu w. gen. 1103. 
dvoSCSwffci and dtroSC8o|iai 1246. 
dvoXaiK» w. gen. 1097^. 
dvoXcCiroffcou w. gen. 1117. 
dvoXis, decl. of 316. 
dirdXXvffci, augm. of plpf . 533. 
*AirdXXi»v, accus. of 217 ; 70c. of 

122««, 2213. 
diroXoyloffcai, augment 543. 
diro<rTfp^» w. two accus. 1069 ; w. 

ace. and gen. 1118. 
diroo-^dXXoiMu w. gen. 1099. 
diro^^tt w. gen. 1121. 
dvTtt and &irTO|iai 1246. 
&p (Hom. for dpa) 53. 
apa, apa oi, and apa ffcVj, interrog. 

1603. 
dpopCo-Ktt, 613; Att. redupl. 531, 

615, 652. 
dp^pco«, dpYvpoifs, declined 810; 

irreg. contr. 39i ; accent 311. 
dpfUfv, compar. of dyadhi 861. 



dpt|p^, dpdpvta 774. 

dpi-, intensive prefix 876. 

-(&piov, dimin. in 844. 

dpon^v or &ppt|v 327. 

dpx^V) at firsts adv. ace. 1060. 

&PX») &pxop.(u, w. partic. 1580 ; 
w. infin. 1581 ; dpx6fi£vos, at 
first 1564. 

dptt^ds 31. 

-OS, -OS, case-endings of ace. pi. 167. 

-ao-t and ifo-i, locat. and dat. 296. 

do-irCs w. fivpla 3831. 

&o-(ra or drra 416^. 

doro-a or drra 425, 426. 

dirHjp, declension of 275. 

dirrpdirrct without subject 897*. 

do-TV, declined 250, 253; gen. pi. 
of 263. 

-aroi, -aro (for -vrai, -vto) in 3 
pers. plur. 777^, 701, (Hdt.) 787*. 

drc w. partic. 1575. 

drcp w. gen. 1220. 

drcpos 46. 

drtfios and dTt|jid|;«» w. gen. 1135. 

-aro (for -vto) : see -aroi. 

drpairds, fem. 194. 

drra and drra: see do-o-a and 
dcnra. 

av, diphthong 7. 

a^aCvtt, augment of 519. 

a^rdp in apodosls 1422. 

a^dpKTis, alh-(&pKcs, accent 122<', 
314. 

airlttv for airrQv (Hdt.) 397. 

airds personal pron. in obi. cases 
389, 989*; intensive adj. pron. 
391, 9891 ; position w. art. 980 ; 
w. subst. pron. omitted 990 ; for 
reflexive 992 ; w. ordinals (5^ico- 
Tos a^6s) 991 ; joined w. reflex- 
ive 997 ; compared (a^draros) 
364. 6 a^6sj the same, 399, 
9892, 080 ; in crasis 400, 44. 

avTo{), etc., for iavroO 401. 

d^oipkt w. acc. and gen. 1118. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



412 



GREEK INDEX. 



d^Ci||u, augment of 644 ; opt. forms 

8108. 
d^^, gen. pi. dtpwav 126. 
&x9o|uu w. dat. 1160; w. partic. 

1580 ; dx0oft4p<p nvl einii 1584. 
&XPS ^ prepos. w. gen. 1220 ; as 

conj. 1463. 
-dtt, denom. verbs in 861^ ; desid- 

eratives in 868 ; contract forms 

inflected 492 ; dialectic forms 

784. 
•A»v, gen. pi. (Hom.) 1885. 

B, middle mute 21, labial 16, 22, 
and sonant 24 ; euph. changes : 
see Labials ; inserted between fi 
and X or p 66 ; changed to in 
2 perf. act. 602. 

-pd, imperat. (in comp.) 755^ 

paCvtt, formation of, 604, 610; 2 
aor. of Att-f orm 709 ; 2 pf . of fu- 
form 804 ; fialpeiy 7r6da 1052. 

PAkxos (kx) 681. 

pdXXtt 503 ; perf. opt. 734. 

Pao-OUta 175s 841 ; fiaai\eta 836. 

pcMoXc^, declined 263, 264 ; com- 
pared 364 ; used without article, 
057. 

Poo-iXtirtt, denom. 861* ; w. gen. 
1100; w. dat. (Hom.) 1164; 
aor. of 1260. 

P%fiQxori(K»9 3703. 

P^Tipos, P^raros, and PcXtCmv, 
parurros 361^. 

piPdttt, future of 665^. 

pipolg 7042. 

pcpXos, fem. 104. 

pCt|<^i 207. 

pv6tt, 2d aor. of /ii-form, 700. 

PX-, how reduplicated 524*. 

pXdirrw, aor. pass. 714. 

pXCrxtt (fie\iT-)j by syncope 66. 

poVj 176. 

fio^oi, poppov declined 186. 

poiliXo|Mu, augment of 517 ; /3ot;Xei 



in indie, (never poiXa) ^^ > /Sov- 
\olfiriv av and ipov\6fAriv Av 1327, 
1330: see ipovX4ffct|v; fiovXet or 
^v\eff$€ w. interrog. subj. 1358 ; 
fiovXofUtup Tivi ioTiw, etc. 1584. 

Poif«, declined 268; formation of 
260 ; Hom. forms of 271 ; com- 
pounds of 872 ; stem in compos. 
872. 

Pp^tos, declension of 236. 

ppords (/«>p-) by syncope 66*. 

PvWtt (/Su-w-) 607.- 

r, middle mute 21, palatal 16, 22, 
and sonant 24 ; nasal (w. sound 
of v) before jc, 7, x» or ^ 17; 
euph. changes : see Palatals. 

Yaffctt and ^atvoi^lMU 1246. 

YcurHip, declension of 274*. 

YYp, changed to y/A 77. 

yiyova as pres. 1263. 

YcXocTf C», d^iderative verb 868. 

YcwdSos, adj. of one ending 345. 

Y^vos, declined 228. 

■y^vTo, grasped 8002: see also 

yipas declined 228. 

Ycirtt w. ace. and gen. 1106 ; yev- 

ofjMi w. gen. 1102. 
•yi), declension of 185; omitted 

after article 053. 
<yt|pd(rK» 613; 2 aor. of fu-form 

700. 
yiyos declined 225. 
•yC-yvoffcOi 536, 652^ ; 2 perf. of am- 

form 804; copul. vb. 008; w. 

gen. 11302 ; w. poss. dat. 1173. 
'yi'yv^o'Ktt 614; redupL in pres. 

536, 6521 . 0; for 616 ; 2 aor. 

of Au-form 700 ; inflect, of $ywtfw 

8O32. 
<yX-, how reduplicated 524>. 
y\vK69 declined 320. 
Yv-, how reduplicated 524>. 
•yvdeof , fem. 104. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



413 



YvwpCttt, augment of 624^. 

•ypai)s» declined 268 ; formation of 

269 ; Hom. forms of 271. 
7pd^ and •ypd^fuu 1246 ; iypd- 

<f>riv 1247; ypd<pofMt w. cogn. 

accus. 1061, 1125. 
7fn)if«, Yptivs, Hom. for 7pai;f 271. 
Tviiyds w. gen. 1140. 

A, middle mute 21, lingual 16, 22, 

and sonant 24 ; euph. changes : 

see Lingoals ;' inserted in dvdp6s 

(jiviip) 67 ; before -aroi and -aro 

(in Hom.) 7778. 
8a-, intens. prefix 876. 
SaVjp, VOC. 3aep 122*'. 
SaCoiMu (fiatr-), divide 602. 
8aCw|u, pres. opt. mid. 734. 
SaCtt (da/r-), hum 602. 
8a|&ap, nom. of 210.^ 
8a|iivaa> (5a^) and 8dffcVT||u 609. 
Savf CStt and Savt C|;offcat 1245. 
8^» accent of gen. du. and pi. 128. 
8^, in 6 |Uv ... 6 84 981-983 ; in 

apodosis 1422. 
^8i, local ending 293 ; enclit. 141*. 
ScSOvoi 767, 804. 
848oiKa 685. 

Set, impers. : see 8^, v)ant. 
8cC8cYi&ai, 8cC8otKa, and 8cC8ta, 

redupl. of (Hom.) 522*; «^3to 

804. 
8cCicw|u, synopsis 604, 606, 609; 

inflection of /u-forms 606. Synt. 

w. partic. 1588 ; partic. i€iKp<n 

declined 336. 
8cCva, pron., declined 420 ; always 

w. art. 947. 
8iiv6v kmv cl 1424. 
8fX^ts (36X011^.) 210^ 2822. 
8lo|uu w. gen. or w. gen. and ace. 

1114. . 
84|n| («ep/ri;) 176. 
U^Koyjax 646, 649^ ; 'kp-n SedopKirai 

1066^. 



8c(r|i6s (-<r.) 830^ ; heterog. 288. 

8co^irdTi|s, VOC. of 182. 

S^aroi (Hom.) as perf. 660. 

S^oiAOi, 2 aor. mid. of 800»; w. 
ace. and dat. (Hom.) 1169. 

84«, bind, contraction of 4962. 

hi<», want, contraction of 496^ ; 
in Hdt. 786^. Impers. 8ct 898 ; 
w. gen. fend dat. (rarely ace.) 
1115, 1161; iroWov «e«, 6\tyov 
dei 1116 ; 6\lyov for 6\lyov deip, 
almost 1116*; d4ov (ace. abs.) 
1669 ; ip6s etc. w. diotn-es 382» ; 
Idei in apod, without &v 1400. 
See 84offcat. 

8i|Xot without subject 897". 

Si^X^s ctffct w. partic. 1689. 

8i|X6», inflect, of contract forms 492; 
synopsis of 494 ; infin. 39^, 761 ; 
pres. partic. driXQv declined 340. 

AtiffcVjnip, declined 277*, 278; ac- 
cent of VOC. 122<». 

Ai)|voa6iirq9, acc. of 230; voc. of 
122«. 

-Stjv or -d8i)v, adverbs in 860. 

-8ii«, patronym. in 846. 

8td w. gen. and acc. 1206. 

8taiTd», augm. 643. 

8iaKoWtt, augm. 643. 

8taXlY0|ii(u, pf. 622« ; w. dat. 1176. 

8iaTiXitt w. partic. 1687. 

8id^pos w. gen. 1117. 

8i8do-Ktt, formation of 617 ; w. two 
accus. 1069; causative in mid. 
1246. 

8t8pdo-Ktt 613 ; 2 aor. of /ut-form, 
npap 799, 801. 

8C8«fu, synopsis 604, 609 ; infl. of 
fu-torma 606; redupl. in pres. 
651, 7942; imperf. 630; cona- 
tive use of 1266 ; aor. in jca 
670, 8022; SoOvai 767; imper. 
dlStaSi, dldoi 790. 

8CKaio«, person, constr. w. infin. 
1627. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



414 



GREEK INDEX. 



SCicT|v, adverbial accus. 1060. 
Siop^o-tt, augm. of plpf. 533. 
8i6ti, because, w. inf. (Hdt.) 1524. 
Siv\do-iot etc. (as compar.) . w. 

gen. 1154. 
hixoL w. gen. 1149. 
Si^d«», contraction of 496. 
SiMKdOtt 779. 
SU&Ktt w. gen. and ace. 1121 ; w. 

ypa<p'^p 1051. 
S|i^, accent of gen. dual and plur. 

128. 
Som6, SoioC (Horn.) 377. 
SoK^ (doK-) 654; impers. SokcT 

898 (1522'^) ; Uo^ or S^doKrai in 

decrees etc. 1540; (ws) ifwl doKcip 

1534. 
SoKdt, fern. 194. 

-86v (-5<£) or -rid6v, adverbs in 860. 
SovXci>» and Sov\6» 867. 
Spoo^Ctt, desiderative verb 868. 
8pd», SpdiTtt 635, 641. 
8p6o-os, fern. 194. 

SifvofMu, 7941 ; augm. of 517 ; ac- 
cent, of subj. and opt. 729, 742 ; 

dvvq. and idvvu) 632. 
8^0 declined 375; indeclinable 

376 ; w. plur. noun 922. 
Svor-, inseparable prefix 875^ ; 

augm. of vbs. comp. with 545. 
Svoropco^tt, augment of 545^. 
S^ 570, 799 : see SSvv. 
8&pov declined 192. 

E, open short vowel 5, 6 ; name 
of 4 ; pronunciation of 28^ ; in 
contraction 38; as syll. augm. 
511, 613 ; before a vowel 537 ; 
becomes 17 in temp. augm. 515 ; 
length, to 17 at end of vowel verb 
stems 635 ; length, to et, when 
cons, are dropped bef. <r 30, 78", 
79, m aor. of liq. stems 672, in 
2 a. p. subj. (Hom.) 780», in 2.a. 
act. subj. of /u-forms (Hom.) 



7882 . changed to o in liq. stems 
645 ; ch. to in 2 pf . 643, also in 
nouns 831 ; 6 added to stem, in 
pres. 654, in other tenses 657, 
658; dropped by syncope 65, 273; 
dropped in eeo (Hdt) and ecai 
and eeo (Hom.) 785^; thematic 
vowel 5611, in Hom. subj. 780i. 

I, pron. 389 ; use in Attic 987, 988. 

-coi for e<rai in verbal endings, 
contr. to 17 or et 39», 666«, 624, 
7772 : see -€o. 

Ulv for el &p 12992, 1382. 

iavro{) declined 401 ; synt. 993. 

4PovX6ffci|v without dp (potentiskl) 
14021 ; i^vUiunv dp 1339. 

i^Y&s, adv. w. gen. 1149 ; w. dat. 
1176. 

fytCfH* 597 ; pf . and plpf. mid. 490^ ; 
aor. m. 677. Att. redupl. 532. 

IyxcXvs, decl. of 261. 

fy^ declined 389, Hom. and Hdt. 
393 ; generally omitted 896. 

28€i etc. without dp in apod. 1400. 

SSvv (of «ww) 505, 799; synopsis 
504; inflected 506; Hom. opt 
744. 

-<c in dual of nouns in is, vf 252. 

U for ?, Hom. pron. 393^. 

lecv for ol 3931. 

mi», pf . and plpf. mid. 4908. 

ct, diphthong 7 ; genuine and spu- 
rious 6t 8 ; pronunc. of 28^ (see 
Preface); augment of 519; as 
augm. or redupl. (for ee) 537. 

-«t for -ecrat, -eat in 2d pers. sing., 
true Attic form 624. 

€l, tyi381, 1423; whether 1606,1006, 
1491 ; in wishes, if 1508. 

-<ia, nouns in, denoting action 836. 
Nouns in eid 841. 

-cta«, -etc, -<tav in aor. opt. act 781i. 

ctSov w. partic. 1585. 

ctKoOtt, cticd0oi|u, etc. 779. 

cIk^v, decl. of 248. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



415 



ctXo|uu (Horn.) 698. 

cC|Miprcu, augm. of 522. 

ct|ja 629 ; inflection of 800 ; dialec- 
tic forms of 807 ; as copula 891 ; 
w. pred. nom. 907 ; w. poss. or 
part. gen. 1094 ; w. poss. dat. 
1173 ; (laTip ot, ttrnv o5, Io'tip i 
or dritfs 1029, w. opt. without 
dv 1333 ; ixitv eirai, r6 vvv cImu, 
jcard TovTo eJpai^ 1535; accent 
(enclitic) 141^, 144*; accent of 
(J^p, 6vTos 129. 

ct|u, inflection of 808 ; dial, forms 
of 809 ; pres. as fut. 1257. 

clo for ov 393^. 

-ctov, nouns of place in 843^. 

ctos, Hom. for Ifws 1463. 

ctira, first aorist 671. 

ctvov w. Sti or Js 1523 ; ut (liroj) 
elireiv 1534. 

cCfryw, etc. w. gen. 1117 ; w. infin. 
or infin. w. rov and fiii (5 forms) 
1549, 1551. 

cCpi|Ka, augment of 522. 

-CIS, -co-o-o, -«v, adj. in 854; decl. 
329, 331 ; compar. 355. 

-«iS in ace. pi. of 3d decl. (for eas) 
208^ ; late in nouns in ei/s 266. 

clt w. accus. 1207 ; for iv w. dat. 
12251. 

cts, ffc^'h ^v declined 375 ; com- 
pounds of 378. 

cto-tt, adv. w. gen. 1148. 

ctTf . . . ctTf 1606. 

-cCtt, Hom. pres. in, for 4<a 785^. 

ct»ea, 2 pf . 5373, 689. 

ct«s, Hom. for iw 1463. 

Ik : see l{. 

iKctOcv for iKci 1226. 

Ikootos, iKorcpos, etc. w. article 
976. 

iKfCvos 409, 411, 1004 ; iKetyoal 412. 

{Kit and iKctOcv 436. 

lKCt<ri 294, 436. 

lKirXc«»«, neut. pi. lifirXew 308. 



Iict6s, adv. w. gen. 1148. 

Ikwv ctvoi 1535. 

U6v declined 333. 

IXounrwv 361^ 

IXai>v«», form of pres. 612 ; fut. 

6652 (gee IX6«>) ; Att. redupl. 529 ; 

sense 1232. 
iX<4i|-p6Xo« 872. 
iXdxcta (Hom.), iXdxurros mi^. 
4XlYx»t pf • and plpf . inflected 487'<2, 

489«, 4902, 533. 
IXXaxov, etc. (Hom.) for iXaxoy 

514. 
'EXXt|vurrC 860^. 
0<6», Hom. fut. of i\avi^<o 7842. 
iXvCt<* etc., w. fut. infin. or pres. 

and aor. 1286. 
iXvCs declined 225, 209^; accus. 

sing. 2148. 
{|iavro{) declined 401 ; syntax of 

993. 
l}U6cv, l|uto, {|Uo, l|u{) 391. 
l|u»vToO (Hdt.) 403, 993. 
i^lv (Dor. for ifiol) 398. 
I|ii|uv or l|i|uvat, l|uv or Ifuvcu, 

Hom. infin. for elww 807^. 
c|mSs 406, 998. 

c|iiiKvX'q|fct and cffcirCirpi||u 795. 
Ifiirpoo^cv w. gen. 1148. 
-«v for -riffay (aor. p.) 777*. 
cv w. dat. 1208 ; as adv. 1222^ ; w. 

dat. for elt w. ace. 1225^ ; in 

ezpr. of time 1193 ; euphon. ch. 

before liquid 78^, but not before 

p or <r 81. 
cvavrCos w. gen. 1146; w. dat. 1174. 
cv8c^ w. gen. 1140. 
Ivf Ktt w. gen. 1220. 
c Wvtvov and tjvfirairov 535. 
Ivf<m, impers. 898. 
IvOa, IvOcv 436, 438. 
cvOoSc 436. 

cvOaOra, IvOcOrfv (Ion.) 4392. 
Iv6«v Kal IvOcv 1226. 
Ivi for Iveo-rt 1224. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



416 



GREEK INDEX. 



Iviot and cvt^rc 1029. 

Ivoxos w. gen. 1140. 

cvraOOa 486. 

lvTc«e«v 486. 

€vr6% w. gen. 1149. 

c( or CK, fonn OS; k in iK un- 
changed in compos. 72 ; e in ^ic 
long before liquid 102 ; proclitic 
187 ; accented 188^ ; w. gen. 
1209 ; for ip w. dat. 12261. 

l{aC^vT|s w. partic. 1572. 

(iftm, impers. 898 ; w. dat. 1161 ; 
i^rjv in apod, without &p 1400. 

c{6v, ace. abs. 1569. 

S(» w. gen. 1148. 

-€0 for -€<ro 5656, 7772. 

lo for Bt 8981. 

lot for or 8981. 

loiKa (ci/c-) 687a, 678; plpf. 528; 
/ui-forms 804 ; w. dat. 1175. 

-cos, adj. of material in 852. 

I6s for 6s (poss.) 407. 

c'nuv and c'ircdv (iirel &v) 14282. 

circC and ^irctS^ 1428, 1505; w. 
infin. in or. obi. 1524. 

circi8av and ciHjv 1299^ 1428^. 

ciHjpoXos w. gen. 1140. 

cvC w. gen. dat. and accus. 1210 ; 
as adverb 1222i. 

Im for ^TTCcTTi 1162, 1224. 

cmOv|U«> w. gen. 1102. 

liriKopo-kos w. gen. 1146. 

lirt\av9avo|iat w. gen. 1102. 

lin,|jiiXyjs w. gen. 1140. 

inUrraiuu 7941 ; ivlarq, and i)ir/- 
d-Tw 682 ; accent of subj. and 
opt. 729, 742; w. accus. 1104; 
w. partic. 1158. 

4irurHj|M>v w. gen. 1142 ; w. accus. 
1050. 

Iinri|uu» w. ace. and dat. 1168. 

Iirpuifii)v (irptor-) 505; synopsis 
604; inflected 506; accent of 
subj. and opt. 729, 742. • 

Ipia-a-v, stem iper- 582. 



Ipi-, intens. prefix 876. 
4pt8aCv» 606. 
{pCttt w. dat. 1175, 1177. 
Ipts, accus. of 2148. 
Ipptt-ya, 2 pf. of ^i^ypvfu 689. 
'EpiUas, 'Ep|iii)f , declined 184. 
Ip<rt| 176. 
4pv6piCM» 8682. 

Ip^KCD, TJpl^KaKOV 585. 

ipwriM w. two accus. 1069. 

CO--, stems of 8 decl. in 227.- 

h w. accus. 1207 : see cts. 

itrBU 621 ; future 667. 

-co-i in dat. plur. (Horn.) 286». 

^ao-cCovro (Hom.) 514. 

-co-o-i in dat. plur. (Hom.) 286*. 

h-a-i (Hom.) 5561, 3071. 

io-o-ttv 8612. 

ttm, until 1468. 

-4o^rcpos, -io^aros 858, 364. 

krrl w. ending ri 666I ; accented 
(fd-Tt 1445 ; takes p movable 57. 

y-riv o( (ov, a, drctfs) 906, 1029; 
^(TTLP Attu etc. with opt, with- 
out &p 1888. 

ia-T&9 (for itrraiis), io^6o-a, farrdf 
(Ion. iffrei&s) 342, 608, 773, 804. 

SkrxaTos w. article 978. 

io-tt w. gen. 1148 : see cto-«». 

It^v for mSrip 95«. 

Ircpos 429 ; w. gen. 1164 : see &n- 
po«. 

4Ti|0'Cat, IrtfO'CMV 126. 

M9i\v for iO^fSrip 96*. 

cv, diphthong 7. 

cv contr. to c (through c/r) 90^ ». 

c9, augm. of verbs compounded w. 
5451 ; W. iroU(Oy ird<rxci»9 dtcow, 
etc., 1074, 1241; w. wpdtnrv 
1075; w. *xw and gen. 1092. 

c^, pron. for ov 8981. 

ciSaCfittv declined 813; accent 
122». 

c^ms 816 ; accus. 214'. 

c^p^crltt, augm. 646i. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



417 



tdH w. gen. 1148. 
Min w. partic. 1572. 
c^kXIiis, contr. of 315. 
cfivoos, iiivovs, compared 353. 
cipCo-Ktt w. partic. 1582, 1588. 
cSpos, accus. of specif. 1058. 
€b^, toidej Horn. ace. of 322. 
-CVS, nouns in 263, 833^ 841, 848 ; 

Horn, forms of 264; original 

forms of 265 ; contracted forms 

of 267. 
ci^tWjs, contr. of 315. 
ciixopis, decl. of 316. 
•c^, denom. vbs. in 861*, 863. 
l^ofMu* w. partic. 1585. 
4^' if or 1^' 5prc w. infin. and fut. 

ind. 1460. 
Ixpfjv or xp^v in apod, without &v 

1400. 
Ix«» for <''€X-»» ®5* J w. partic. for 

perf . 1262 ; (^xofuii 1246, w. gen. 

1099; w. adv. and part. gen. 

1092 ; Ixwt f^th, 1565. 
Ix6p6s compared 357. 
-CM, denom. verbs in 861^, 866, 

867; inflection of contract forms 

492. 
4» for -dw in vbs. (Hdt.) 784*. 
4w in fut. of liquid stems 663. 
-c«* and -cc»v, Ion. gen. of 1st decl. 

188*6. 
kifKt\, plpf. 528. 
-HHf Att. 2d decl. in 196. 
I«tt dawn, accus. of 199 (see 240). 
t<»9, conj. 1463 ; while 1425-1429 ; 

until 1463-1467, expr. purpose 

1467, in indir. disc. 15028. 
4»vro{), for iavroO (Hdt) 403. 

Z, double cons. 18 ; origin of 18, 
28'; probable pronunciation of 
28* ; makes position 99^ ; e for 
redupl. before 523. 

(a-, intens. prefix 876. 

toM, contr. form of 496. 



-t€, adv. in 293. 

-t», verbs in 584; fut. of vbs. in 
a^ot) and i^cu 665. 

H, open long vowel 5, 6 ; orig. 

aspirate 13 ; in Ion. for Dor. d 
' 147 ; a and 6 length, to 17 29, 515, 

635 ; as thematic vowel in suj)j. 

5612; fem. nouns and adj. in 

832, 849. 
Tj, improper diphthong 7. 
-XI for €ffai or lycrai in 2 j)ers. sing. 

393, 565«, 624. See -«i. 
45, whetJier (Hom.), or, interrog. 

1605, 1606 ; tJhan 1155, om. 1156. 
Ti, interrogative 1603, 1606. 
TiY^oiiOi w. gen. 1109; w. dat. 

(Hom.) 1164. 
iiSoiiat w. cogn. accus. 1051. 
'q8o|Uv<p (ToC l<rTiv, etc. 1584. 
jfiv9 compared 357 ; rjdiwv declined 

358. 
ii<, ijc, interrog. (Hom.) 1606. 
iJcCStis etc. (ol5a) 8212. 
--/jets, adj. in, contracted in Hom. 

332. 
{jKurra (superl.) 3612. 
tjKc* as perf. 1256. 
t|X(kos 429. 
ifiuu 629 ; inflection of 814 ; dial. 

forms of 817. 
Tn&as or 'nfuis 396. 
-illMvos for -cfMvos in part. (Hom.) 

792. 
4||Uripos 406, 998 ; w. a^wp 1003. 
T|jiw-, insepar. particle 875*, 86. 
T||i(v, iffuv 396. 
45v for idy (€l dp) 1382. 
T|vCKa, rel. adv. 436. 
T|vtirairov 535. 
-qirap declined 225 ; form of nom. 

211. 
liirfipos, fem. 1942. 
'HpaicXIiis 231. 
iip«« declined 243, 244. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



418 



GREEK INDEX. 



-i|ff, adj. in 849", 881 ; inflection of 

312. 
'^ (for ^€j), in nom. pi. of nouns 

in -ciJf (older Attic) 266. 
^o% or Tj«, in dat. pi. 1 decl. (Ion.) 

188^ 
iiovttv (comp.) 361*. 
f|v, diphthong 7 ; augm. of ew 519. 
iiX<6 decl. 245. 
ti(6s (Ion.) decl. 240. 

e, rough mute 21 ; lingual 16, 22 ; 

and surd 24 ; euph. changes, see 

LinguaJs. 
-6a, ending (see -o^a) b56K 
OaXao-o-a decl. 172. 
Oa|iC];» w. partic. 1587. 
Odim* (ra^-), aspirates in 95^. 
Oopo^t and Opao^s 64^. 
Boovttv 357 ; aspirate in 95^. 
e&rcpov etc. 46. 
eafi|ia w. infin. 1530. 
eavfiotw w. gen. 1102, 1126 ; Oav- 

Mdr» €l 1423 ; eavfidtio dri 1424. 
O^Xcts or OcXcTi w. interrog. subj. 

1368. 
-Ocv, local ending 292^, 295. 
Ocds, vocative 195. 
M» (Bv-), 2d class 574. 
Mpo|uu, fut. of 668. 
eiiPdtc 293. 
ef|Xvs 323. 
e^p declined 225. 
O^s declined 225. 
-9T|-n for 'Bri'Si in 1st aor. pass. 

imper. 95*, 757i. 
-01, local ending 292^, 295, 860. 
OvxiVkm (^0av-) 613; metath. (Bav-y 

Ova-) 649 ; 17 for d 616 ; fut. pf. 

act. Te0tr/i^<jj 705; perf. as pres. 

1263; 2 perf. of /u-form 804; 

part. TcBpetbs 773 ; Horn. re6inn<&s 

773. 
6%-, poetic stems in 779. 
Ool|jkdTiov (by crasis) 44. 



Op{{, rpix^f aspirates in 95^ ; de- 
clension of 225. 

ep^vTM (Tpwf>-) 96*. 

Ovydnip declined 274 ; Horn, forms 
276. 

e«pa(c 293. 

e«pa0%296. 

I, close vowel 5, 6 ; rarely contr. 
w. foil, vowel 40^ ; length, to I 
29, 30 ; interchanged w. ei and 
01 31 ; I added to demonstr. 
412; mood suffix in opt. 662, 
730; in redupl. of pres. stem 
651, 652, 794«; representing j 
84, euphon. changes caused by 
84i-«, 509-602 ; subscript 10. 

-I, local ending 296. 

-ta, fern, nouns in 842. 

Ca for /Ua (Hom.) 377. 

ldo|uu635. 

-id«, desideratives in 868. 

IScCv, accent of 759, 762. 

-CSi|s and -idSi|s (fern, -ids), patro- 
nym. in 846«, 846«. 

-i8iov, diminutive in 844. 

C8u>s w. pass. gen. 1143. 

CSpis declined (one ending) 344. 

ISpdtt, contraction of 497. 

I8pi»v6f|v (Idp^), Hom. aor. p. 709. 

if- or it|- as mood suffix in opt. 562, 
730. 

Upo's w. poss. gen. 1143. 

-Ct»i denominat. vbs. in 861«, 862, 
864. 

tii|u, inflection of 810 ; dial, forms 
of 811; aor. in xa 670; opt 
7rp6oiTo etc. 741, 8102 ; etpai 767. 

t0i, come! w. subj. and imperat 
1345. 

IkWoimu 607. 

-iKos, adjectives in 851. 

tX«Ms, adj. declined 306, 197. 

'XXCoOi irptf 295. 

-iv in ace. sing. 214*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



419 



tv, Doric for oZ 398. 

tva, final conj. 1362, 1365, 1368, 
1371. 

-vvos, adj. of material in 852 ; adj. 
of time in ii/6s 853. 

-*%» pres. stem in 579. 

-iov, diminutives in 844. 

-ios, adj. in 850. 

tinrot, fem., cavalry, w. sing, num- 
erals 3831. 

imF&Td, nom. (Hom.) 1882. 

-n, feminines in 848^. 

'loOivoC 296. 

io-i, dat. case ending 167. 

-ia-K%-, pres. stems in 613. 

-Co-Kos, 'laKri, dimin. in 844. 

Xa-m w. dat. 1175. 

t<mf||ii, synopsis 504, 505, 509 ; 
inflect, of fu-iorma 506 ; redupl. 
of pres. 651, 652, 7942; f^t. 
perf. act. 705 ; partic. Iffrdt de- 
clined 335. 

iX^ declined 257-260; ace. pi. 
of 259. 

I<6, accus. 'lovv (Hdt.) 247. 

-u»v, patronym. in 847. 

-u»v, -io^ros, comp. and superl. in 
357. 

Uf for ivl 377. 

K, smooth mute 21, palatal 16, 22, 
snrd 24 ; euphon.ch., see Palatals; 
ch. to X in 2 perf. stem 692. 

K in oiK 26. 

-Ka in aor. of three vbs. 670. 

mippaXc (KarifiaXe) 53. 

Koy for Kard 53. 

KoBopos w. gen. 1140. 

KoMlofMu, augment 544 ; fut. 665^. 

KoJMStt, augment 544. 

ica0i||Aai, Inflection of 815, 816. 

KoO^tti augment 544. 

KaO(o*n||u as copul. vb. 908. 

KttC, in crasis 43*', 44 ; connecting 
two subjects 901 ; w. part, (see 



xalTcp) 1573; xal 5s, xal ot, 6s 

Kal 6s 10232; xal tSs 138>; xal 

ravra 1573 ; Kal rbv w. infin. 

.984 ; tA Kal rd, rb Kal rb 984. 
KaCirfp w. partic. 1573. 
KaU) (Att. Kdiji) 601. 
KOK (Hom.) for Kard 53. 
KOKos compared 361. 
Koicravf (jKariKTave) 53. 
KaKttS iroutv (X/yeti') 1074. 
KoX^tt, fut. in {'4(a) Ga 665 ; perf. 

opt. in jititiv 734 ; perf. as pres. 

1263. 
KoXos compared 361. 
KaXi>pT| and KoX^irro) 577. 
Ka|&irr», perf. mid. 77, 490^. 
Kav (jcal iv), k£v {ical (Lv) 44. 
Kaviov, Kavofiv 202. 
KcCv (Hom.) for Kard 53. 
kaf>rio^ros, superl. 361^ 
-KdoTi (poet, also -KdaC) in 3 pers. 

pi. perf. 682. 
Kor (Hom.) for Kara 53. 
Kaixt, prep. w. gen., dat., and 

accus. 1211; in compos. 1123; 

jcard yyjv 958. 
Kara-Pd for KaTd-PriBi, 755«. 
K^Ta {Kal elra) 44. 
KaraPooM w. gen. 1123. 
Kara'yt'yvi&o'Ktt w. gen. 1123. 
KaTayw|u w. gen. 1098. 
Kara^vSoffcat w.gen. 1123. 
Karat|rT|^C|;o|iai w. gen. 1123. 
KaTi|<yop4f«», augment of 543; w. 

gen. and ace. 1123. 
KarOavfCv (jcara^avcii') 53. 
Karoirvv w. gen. 1149. 
Karw, Kar^rcpos, Kar^arot 363. 
KioTKiv (=dO 59, 1299. 

KCteCV, KCtOt 4391. 

KctiMu, inflection of 818, 819. 

Kitvos 411. 

Kctcrc 4391. 

KCKoSVjo-tt, fut. pf . act. of x<i^*' 705. 

KiKpaYtn , perf. imper. 748. 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



420 



GREEK INDEX. 



Kiim||uu and lKTi||iai 625. 
KiXcvOos, fern. 194^ 
KcXfi>tt w. ace. and inf. 1164. 
k^XXm, fut. 668; aor. 674*. 
idXo|Mu, redupl. 2 aor. 634, 677. 
K^pas declined 237^. 
KcpSaCvtt 610 ; aor. 673. 
Kfxop^w, fut. pf. act. of x^^P<^ 

706. 
KIms, accus. of 199. 
Kfipvi 210^. 

Ki|p^(rct without subject 897^. 
Kifitms, fern. 194^. 

KCxf»niM 7943. 

icXaCw (Attic K\d(a) 601 ; fut. 666 ; 

K\al<ov 1564. 
icXavo-tcMi, desiderative verb 868. 
-icXli|s, proper nouns in, decl. 231. 
kXcCs (Ion. KXrfU), accus. of 215. 
icXiirrqs compared 364. 
icXCvtt, drops V 647; pf. mid. 488, 

490*^ ; aor. p. 709. 
icXko-Cii^t 297. 
KvoM, contraction of 496. 
KO|iC|;», future 665>. 

KOpt| (^KOpftl) 176. 

K<>pat|f KOppi| 176. 

Kparltt w. gen. 1109. 

Kp^as, nomin. 211. 

Kpf ((TO'ttv, Kparurros 361^. 

Kp^p.a|iai 794^; accent of subj. 

and opt. 729, 742. 
KpCvo), drops V 647. 
KpovCttv 847. 
Kpi)pSt)v 8603. 

KpWrtt w. two accus. 1069. 
Kpi»^a w. gen. 1160. 
KTooiiat, augm. of perf . 626 ; perf . 

subj. and opt. 722, 734. 
KTfCvtt 596, 646, 647, 799; 2 aor. 

of Att-form, 799, 801. 
KTfCs, KTcv-os, nom. 210^. 
KvSpo'f compared 367. 
K^icXip, all round 1198. 
KvWtt (icu-) 607. 



idrpw, fut. 668 ; aor. 674*. 
Kiittv, idrvTcpos, iciivTaTOs 364. 
KwX^tt, accent of certain fonns 

486 ; KU)M€L as impers. 897^. 
Kds, accusative of 199. 

A, liquid and semivowel 20; so- 
nant 24 ; XX after syllabic augm. 
(Hom.) 614. 

XaP<6v, with 1666. 

\axx!'»'Vm and Xa|ftPav«», redupl. of 
622 ; formation 606, 611. 

Xa-y^, accusative of 199. 

XaOp^w. gen. 1160. 

XoOiftv, secretly 1664. 

Xdfiirds declined 225. 

XavOdvtt (Xo^-) 606, 611 ; w. par- 
tic. 1686. 

Xdo-Kw (Xaff-), formation of 617« 

Xfy«, collect, redupl. of 622. 

XIy», say, constr. of 1523 ; Xiyovci 
897* ; X^croi or \4yovai omitted 
1626. 

XcCin», synopsis of 476; meaning 
of certain tenses 477; second 
aor., perf. and plpf. inflected 
481 ; form of \i\owa 31, 642^. 

X^, imper. 756^ 

Xi»v declined 226. 

Xi9op6Xos and Xi06PoXot 886. 

XUro-ofiai w. tas or &rm 1377. 

XoiSoplw w. ace. and XotSppioiutt 
w. dat. 1163. 

Xo^tt, contraction of 497. 

X^tt, synopsis 469, 474; conjug. 
480 ; Hom. perf. ,opt. 734 ; \^p 
and XeXujccfif declined 335 ; quan- 
tity of V 471. 

X<p'»v, X<^<rros 361^. 

M, liquid and semivowel 20; 
nasal 20, and sonant 24; pi/3X 
and fifip for /a\ and t^p 66. 

-fio, neut. nouns in 837. 

)u£, in oaths, w. ace. 1066-1068. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



421 



(Mttcr-) 602. 
fiOKpos, decl. of SOO; fMKp<p w. 

comp. 1184. 
IJuiXa comp. (^fuLXKop, fidXurra) 371. 
-|idv, Dor. ending for -firiv 777 K 
I&av6av» 605 ; w. gen. of source 

11301 J ^. infln. 15922 ; rl fmSdy 

1666. 
MopaO&vt, dat. of place 1197. 
yuaprtpo^Mi 596. 
|u(xo|uu, fut. -etrofMi, -oO/jmi 665^; 

w. dat. 1177. 
MfyopoSc 293. 

|ifya« declined 346 ; compared 361^. 
|il|;»v for fjxll^tap 361^, 84^. 
-|uOov in first person dual 5562. 
|u(t«v 361^. 

luCpoffccu, redupl. of perf. 522. 
|uC»v, futo^ros 361^. 
|UXa« declined 325 ; fern, of 326 ; 

nom. 2102. 
I^Xii w. dat. and gen. 1105, 1161. 
fUXXw, augment of 517; w. infin., 

as periph. fut. 1254. 
|U|fcVT||iai, perf. subj. and opt. 722, 

734 ; as pres. 1263 ; w. gen. 

1102 ; w. partic. 1588. 
|U|i^|iai w. dat. 1160; w. ace. 

1163. 
-|MS, -|ji4<r6a for -/acv, -fji£$a 556^, 

777^. 
^v,m6fjL4v,,.6 d4 981. 
-|uvai, -|uv, in infin. (Horn.) 782^, 

7846, 7864, 791. 
McvAcMs and McWXaos 33, 200; 

accent 114. 
|uvT&v (by crasis) 44. 
lAM^ffcPpCa 66, 

lUtros, compar. 352 ; w. art. 978. 
|Mo^os w. gen. 1140. 
|ura w. gen., dat., and accus. 

1212; as adv. 12221; fiira 

(Horn.) for fUreim 1224. 
|ura|UXii w. gen. and dat. 1105, 

1161. 



|ura(6 w. gen. 1220; w. partic. 

1572. 
|uravoUo|iab w. gen. 1099. 
lUrco^t w. gen. and dat. 1097^, 

1161. 
lar^w w. gen. 1097^, 1098. 

|i^X®s ^' 6®ii- ll*^* 

|u4) 3931 ; enclitic 141^. 

|Uxpi, as prep. w. gen. 1220; as 
conj. 1463-1467; with subj. with- 
out &v 1466. 

|i^, adv., not, 1607-1619 ; see Con- 
tents, p. xxiv. ; w. tva, &r«s, 
etc., in final clauses 1364 ; after 
ybs. of fearing, w. subj. and opt. 
1378, w. indie. 1380 ; in prota^ 
sis 1383; in rel. cond. sent. 
1428; in wishes 1507, 1511, 
1610; w. imperat. and subj. in 
prohibitions 1346, 1347 ; w. subj. 
expressing fear 1348, 1349; w. 
subj. (also fi^ od) in cautious 
assertions 1350, w. indie. 1351 ; 
w. dubitative subj. 1358 ; w. 
infin. 1611 ; w. infin. and uare 
1451 ; w. infin. after negative 
verb 1615. See oi iiVj and |it| oi. 

|il| 6rt, fi^ 6iro»s 1504. 

-ffci), fern, nouns in 835. 

^tfii, ffc^irc 1607; nvdi els 378. 

lii^ScCs 378, 1607; firid4p€s etc. 378. 

ffcilS^TCpos 435. 

ffci)Kc(offcat 666. 

fii^K^t 62. 

fi^i^p declined 274. 

fi^rvs (poet.) 435 ; accent 146. 

|ii| oi 1616, 1617 ; one syllable in 
poetry 47^; jtti) . . . oi5 in final 
cl. 1364; w. subj. or indie, in 
cautious negations 1350, 1351. 

ffc^jrc 1607. 

ffc^rpws 244. 

-|u in 1st pers. sing. 552, 556i, 
731, 793-797; Aeol. vbs. in, for 
-o«, -€w, -oca 7872. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



422 



GREEK INDEX. 



fUKpos compared 361^. 
|it|ivi|(rKtt, augment of perf . 525 ; 
17 for a 616, 614. See |UffcVT||Aflu. 
lnCv HJid vCv 303, 305. 
M(vfl»s, accus. of 100. 
ffcCirytt for fuy-vKta 617. 
yxaifa w. accus. 1163. 
Ifcio^ott, middle of 1245. 
ffcffc|i changed to aa/a 77. 
|fcvaa, ffcva, declined 184. *' 

|fcoX- in pf. of p\ii)9K(a 66«, 614. 
|fcop- in Pporbt 66^ 
-|&os, nouns in 834 ; adj. in 855. 
fvoOvos (^lijbvoi) 148. 
Mo^a declined 171. 
fivta 175«. 
ffcvptas 373. 

ffc^ptot and fivpCot 383'^. 
ffcvpCos, fivpCa 383^. 
|iif«, fivos, declined 260. 
ffcMv (Aii) o5i'), interrog. 1603. 
-|M»v, adjectives in 840*. 

N, liquid and semivowel 20 ; nasal 
20 ; sonant 24 ; can end word 25; 
movable 56-61 ; euph. changes 
before labial and palatal 78^, 
before liquid 782, before cr 78^ ; 
vr, I'd, v9^ dropped before o- 70; in 
iv and (rifv 81 ; dropped in some 
vbs. in Via 647 ; changed to <r 
before ^tai 83, 480«, 648, 700; 
dropped before <r in dat. plur. 
80; inserted in aor. pass. 700; 
in 6th class of verbs 603-612. 

va- added to verb stem 600, 707^. 

-vat, infin. in 554, 764, 766, 767. 
See -|uvat. 

vaCxt) accent 141*, 146. 

vaCtt (ya/r) 602. 

va^f , vT|6s, and vc^s 200, 106. 

vo«« declined 268; Dor. & Ion. 
decl. of 270 ; formation of 260 ; 
compounds of (fav/uax^a, vaval- 



iroposy vet&o'oiKos, etc.) 872 ; vav^ 

207. 
v8 dropped before <r 70. 
vf added to verb stem 607. 
vfiKiU) (Hom.) 785*. 
Wm (w-), 2d class 574 ; fut 666. 
vf(6s declined 106. 
Hj, in oaths, w. accus. 1066, 1067. 
vt|-, insep. neg. prefix 875*. 
vf|o^>s declined 102. 
VT|«« (for mvs) 270. 
v6 dropped before <r 70. 
v(|;w {pip') 501. 
laKdtt w. cogn. accus. 1052 ; pass. 

w. gen. 1120. 
vlv and p,Cv 305. 
vC^a (accus.) 280. 
vo|iCt» w. infin. 1523 ; w. dat. like 

Xpdofuu 1183. 
v6os, vods declined 201^. 
-vos, adject, in 855. 
v4o^, fem. 1041. 
vovp,i)vC^ 1104. 
-v« in accus. plur. 167, 169, 190, 

208*. 
•va% and -vn in 3d pers. plur. 552, 

5566, 78», 7771. 
vT- dropped before <r 79. 
-vTo in 3d pers. plur. 552. 
-vTwv in 3d pers. pi. imi)er. 553, 

746. 
w- added to vowel stems 608, 797*. 
wict6s958; wktI and iv wktI 1193. 
-vv|n, verbs in 608, 502^, 797i. 
vi»v or vi» (epic) 59 ; enclit. 141*. 
v&t, v&lv 3931. 
v»tTfpo9 407. 

S, double consonant 18 ; said 24 ; 
compos, of 18 ; how written in 
early Attic 27, 28*; can end word 
26 ; redupl. before 523. 

{ctvos. Ion. for ^4voi 148. 

ffiv for <r«Ji', w. dative 1217. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



423 



0, open short vowel 5, 6; name 
of 4 ; in contraction 38 ; length, 
to 01 29 ; to ov 30 ; interchanged 
w. o and e 31 ; f or e in 2 pf . 643, 
also in nouns 831 ; as thematic 
vowel 6611, in Hom. subj. 780i ; 
as suffix 832, 849 ; at end of first 
part of compounds 871. 

-o for -<ro in 2d pers. sing. 566^. 

6, i|, t6, article, decl. of 386 ; syn- 
tax of 936-984 : in Hom. 936- 
938 ; in Hdt. 939 ; in lyr. and 
" trag. poets 940, in Attic 941- 
9S4; 6 flip ... 6 84 981-983 ; 
proclitic forms 137 ; when ac- 
cented 139. See Article. 

5, rel. (neut. of 6s), for drt (Hom.) 
14782. 

o-yS6aTos 374. 

oyS&Kovra (Ion.) 374. 

68c, tiSc, r6Sc, demonstr. pronoun 
430 (see ovtoj); decl. 409; syn- 
tax 1004, 1006, 1008 ; w. article 
9461, 974 ; 681 412. 

6S6s declined 192 ; 686v Ihai 1067. 

oSo^, 6S^v, oSdvTos, nom. 210^ 

o€ and 00 contracted to ov 38^; 8. 

Oil contr. to ov 39^ ; to ot (in vbs. 
in 0(a) 39*. 

•6cit, adj. in, contracted 332. 

6Xit» w. two gen. 1107. 

oi| contr. to «» 38*^ ; to i; 39i, 310, 
811. 

0*11 and Oil contr. to ot (in vbs. in 
6a;) 89*. 

Mcv 436 ; by assimilation 1034. 

ftOi 439s. 

Mo^vtKa 14788. 

oi, diphthong 7 ; pronunciation of 
282; interchanged w. et and 4 
81 ; augmented to t^ 618 ; rarely 
elided 61 ; short in accent 113 ; 
Oi in voc. sing. 246. 

01, pron. 389 ; use in Attic 987, 988. 
ot, adv. 486. 



ola w. partic. 1676. 

otSa, inflection of 820 ; dial, forms 

of 821 ; w. partic. 1588 ; w. infin. 

16922 ; oUff Spoffov 1343. 
OtSCirovs, gen. and ace. of 287i. 
-oi-qv, etc. in opt. act. of contract 

vbs. 737 ; in 2 perf . opt. 736 ; 

(Txofiyv 736. 
-oiiv (ep.) for -oiv in dual 286^. 
oCkoSc, otKoOcv, otKot, otK6vSc 292- 

296; oCKOtll98. 
olKctos, form. 860; w. gen. 1144; 

w. dat. 1176. 
olK(a declined 171. 
oticrfpM and otxTfCpM 697. 
-oio in gen. sing, of 2d decl. 204i. 
otfvoi elided 61 ; accent of 146. 
otvos and vinum 91. 
olvoxo^w, augment of 638. 
otofiat or otfiKu, only otei in 2 pers. 

sing. 626 ; w. infin. 1623. 
olov or ola w. partic. 1676. 
-otv, rare for -oifu in opt. act. 736. 
olos 429 ; ot(fi ffoi, etc. 1036 ; otSs 

re, able, m Att. 1024*. See ota 

and olov. 
-oko-a for -oi/d-o in partic. (Aeol.) 

783. 
-oio-i in dat. pi. of 2 decl. 204*. 
otxofuu, perf. of 669; in pres. as 

pf. 1266 ; w. partic. 1687. 
oXC^os compared 861 ; 6\lyov (Seiv) 

1116, 1634. 
SkXv^ (6X-), form of pres. 612; 

fut. 666 ; perf. and plpf . 629, 633. 
6\os w. article 979. 
'0\i>|ima (rd) 289 ; w. vik&v 1062. 
6|iiXi» w. dat. 1176. 
£|iw|u (dfir, 6fiO') 669 ; plpf. 538 ; 

dfiyvOi 790 (762); w. accus. 1049. 
Sfvoios and 6|fcOi6» w. dat. 1175. 
6|voXoY<M w. dative 1175. 
6|u>{) w. dative 1176. 
6|i^vvtM>s w. gen. 1144^; w. dat. 

1176. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



424 



GREEK INDEX. 



OV&-, stems in 840. 

5Mip289. 

oMiSCttt w. dat. or ace. 1163. 

-ovi|, nouns in 840. 

Mvi||u (6pa-) 796, 798 ; accent of 
2 aor. opt 742 ; inflect, of cJi^- 
ftrip 803>. 

5vo|Uh by name 1058 ; 6v6fjMrt 1182. 

ovo|&dtP» w. two ace. .1077 ; in pass, 
w. pred. nom. 907, 1078. 

ovo|iAo*r( 860*. 

OVT-, partic. stems in 664^, 666^, 
770. 

o(6v«», pert and plpf . pass. 700. 

00 contracted to ov 38^, 8. 

-oot, nouns in 201 ; adj. in 310 ; 
compared 363; compounds in, 
accent of 2032. 

6ov for ov 424. 

6«||, &n|v(Ka, 6ir60cv, 6voi 436. 

JkrurOcv w. gen. 1149. 

6ir40cv 436 ; rel. of purpose 1442. 

6voi, of place where 1226. 

6irotos, 6jr6iroi 429. 

6ir^TC, relat. 436, 1426; causal 1606; 
6v6rav w. subj. 1428^, 12992. 

6ir^Tfpos 429, 432^. 

6«ov436. 

otrvCtt (6in;-), dvikru 602. 

frints, rel. adv. 436; as indir. in- 
terrog. w. subj. or opt. 1600, 
1499; as final particle 1362, 
1366, 1368 ; sometimes w. &p or 
Ki 1367; w. past. t. of indie. 
1371; rarely w. fut. ind. 1366; 
in obj. cl. w. fut. ind. 1372; 
sometimes w. &v 1376; in obj. 
cl. in Horn. 1377; 5ir«j fn/j after 
Ybs. of fearing 1379; drws and 
arwj ff/j w. fut. in commands 
and prohib. 1362; &jr<as for ws 
in indir. quot. 1478. U^ &jr<as 
and o^x ^<^^ 1604. 

6pcU» 621; augm. and redupl. of 
638; w. «Twj 1372; w. fi-^ 1378; 



w. snppL partic. 1682 ; w. i>art. 
in indir. disc. 1688 (1583). 

opt 70|uu w. gen. 1099. 

6pwi declined 226; ace. sing, of 
214», 216. See 291». 

5pw|u, fut. 668 ; aor. 674^ 

-OS, -ov, nouns in 832, 189; adj. 
in 8491, 855^ 298; neuters in -o$ 
(stems in e<r-) 837, 227. 

6s, rel. pron. 421, 430; fem. dual 
rare 422 ; Hom. forms of 424 ; 
as demonstr. 1023. 

6s, his, poss. pron. (poet.) 406,^ 
408. 

60*0$, ^voo-os 429. 

mrrcov, oo-toOv, declined 201. 

ia-ns declined 426-427; Hom. form 
428; as indir. interrog. 1013, 
1600; sing.' w. plur. antec. 
1021*. 

oo-^poXvoiuu, formation 610; w. 
gen. 1102. 

6tc, rel. 436 ; causal 1606 ; Ihav w. 
subj. 14282. 

6riv or 6ttcv, ftrcy, 6rc»v, orlourt 
428. 

6ti, that, in indir. quot. 1476, 
1487; indirect quot. 1477; cau- 
sal (because) 1606; not elided 60. 

6 Ti (neut. of Arrw) 426, 426. 

6ns, 6rtva, 6nvos, 6TTio, 6x1% 428. 

ov, diphthong 7; genuine and spu- 
rious ov 8 ; pronunc. of 27, 28^; 
length, from 30 ; for in Ion. 
148; not augmented 619. 

-ov in gen. sing. 170, 191; for -€<ro 
in 2 pers. mid. 6666, 679. 

o*, o*K, o*x ^2; proclitic 137; ac- 
cented 1381; uses of 1608-1613; 
oiK %aCt 6ir<as etc. w. opt. (with- 
out dv) 1333 ; oix ^^^ ^^^ ®*X 
5ti 1604. See oi ft^ and ft^ o*. 

ov, ol, I, etc. 389, 392; syntax of 
987, 988. 

oi5, rel. adverb 436. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



425 



o«84 1607; odd* efs and oddcfs 378; 

oiif <as 138^; o^d^ iroXXov de? 

1116«. 
oiScCs 378, 1607; o^5^w, etc. 378; 

oddeis 6<rTis o^ 1035. 
oiSfrcpos 435. 
o^K : see oi. 
o^Kln 62. 
ovK (6 e*c) 44. 
oi>KOvv (interrog.) 1603. 
oi ffcVj w. fut. ind. or subj. as strong 

fut. 1360 ; in prohib. 1361. 
-ow in ace. sing. (Hdt.) 247. 
of^vf Ka for ivexa 1220^. 
oW( (6 ^0 ^' 
oipavoOcv, oipavoOt 292. 
-ovs in ace. pi. 100, 167. 
-ovs (for -€os, -ooj), adj. in 852, 829, 

310 ; partic. in oh 564^. 
o^, ear, accent of gen. dual and 

pi. 128. 
ioiKTi for -owi 5566, 78«. 
oikc 1607. 

olh-is (poetic) 435 ; accent 146. 
ovrof declined 409, 413; use of 

430, 1004; disting. from iKcivos 

and 68€ 1005 ; toOtcl and ravraiv 

(dual) rare 410; w. article 945i' "j 

position w. art. 974 ; in exclam. 

1006; ref. to preceding rel. 

1030; TovTo lUv... TovTo 84 1010; 

ravra and roOro as adv. accus. 

1060; oi>To<rM12. 
olrrcos and oIitm 63, 436. 

o^X * ^^^ ^^' 

o^CKm (60eX-), owe, 598; wipeXov 

in wishes 14022, 1512. 
6^4XXtt, increase, 598. 
o^AXtt, owe (Horn. = 60e/Xo;) 593, 

598; Impf. w<t>€\Kop in wishes 

1512. 
l^iXos 289. 
Hi0aX|iu£» 8682. 
o^Xko-Kavtt w. gen. 1122. 



j^pa, as final part. 1362, 1365, 
1366, 1368 ; sometimes w. xi or 
di'1367, 12992; Mn(i7 1463. 

H< w. iirrl or ijir 897». 

6^o^xu (6pdu)), j^ci 625. 

-o«, denom. verbs in 861^; infl. of 
contr. forms 492. 

-o«, etc., supposed Hom. form of 
vbs. in ab; 7842; Horn. fut. in 
6(0 (for dffio, dw, w) 7842. 

n, smooth mute 21; labial 16; 

surd 24; euphon. changes, see 

Labials; w. <r forms ^ 74; ch. 

to in 2 perf. 692. 
iraCStt, double stem 590. 
irat«, nom. of 209^ ; voc. sing. 221^ ; 

accent of gen., du., and pi. 128. 
iraXat w. pres., incl. perf. 1258. 
iraXtv, before <r in compos. 82. 
itoWm, irciraXov 534. 
irav before <r in compos. 82. 
irdvTodcv 2922. 
irop (Hom.) for irapd 53. 
troikC w. gen., dat., and ace. 1213 ; 

as adv. 12212; in compos., w. 

ace. 1227; w. dat 1179. 
Wpa for irdpeari 1162, 1224. 
irapavofuo, augment of 543. 
irafMurKCVf&lM, impers. irapea-Kev' 

a<rrai, irapeffKewurro 897*, 12402; 

irapeffKcvddarai, 777'. 
irapa-<rra 755*. • 

irapct|it w. dat. 1179. 
irap09 w. infin. 1474. 
ira« declined 329; w. article 979; 

ace. of gen. and dat. pi. 128, 

3311. 
irdorx« 617, 621; rl irdBu ; 1357; 

rl Ta0dl>p ; IbQQ. 
ira'Hip declinea 274. 
iraiiw and ira^oftat w. partic. 1580. 
ircCOw 572; pf. and plpf. mid. in- 
flected 4871, 4891; ir^TiBoy 634; 

ir4Toi$a 31, 6421. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



426 



GREEK INDEX. 



inCOo^Mu, obey, w. dat. 1160. 
vtM declined 243 ; only sing. 289. 
inivoM, contraction of 496. 
ncipou^ decl. 267. 
inipoo|&ai and impcui w. gen. 1099; 

w. Swus and obj. cl. (Horn.) 1377. 
in(|M», pf. and plpf . mid. 490^^. 
iriktki w. gen. 1149. 
in'i&irw, pf. pass. 77, 490^; vifiireiv 

TOflT'^V 1061. 

irivi|s compar. 361. 

iriirav<ro, pf. imper. 750. 

WiiTtt 683 : see viinrv. 

iw'p, enclit. 141* ; w. partic. 1573. 

Wpav w. gen. 1148. 

Wpot declined 225, 237^. 

WpOtt, lirpaOov 646, 649. 

inpC w. gen., dat., and ace. 1214 ; 

as adv. 1222^; in compos, w. 

dat 1179; w. numerals as sub- 
ject 906 ; not elided in Attic 60 ; 

iripi 1161. 
inpiYCYvo|&ai w. gen. 1120. 
ncpiicX^i|S, ncpiicXijs, declined 231. 
inptopoM w. partic. 1585. 
inpiirCirrw w. dat. 1179. 
irifTO-tt (ircir-) 583; pf. pass, of 

4901. 
iriTO|&ai, 2 aor. mid. 677; 2 a. act. 

of ;u-form 799. 
irt436. 

ini, indef . 436 ; enclitic 141^. 
ni|Xi[Si|S (Hom. -etdris) 846^ 
in|X(K09 429. 
in|vCKa 436. 

irijxvs declined 250, 256. 
irC|&irXi||&i (ir\a-), redupl. 794^ ; w. 

inserted /i 795; inflection of 

irXiffiriv 8038. 
irCi&trpiiiu (irpa-), redupl. 794^ ; w. 

inserted ft 795. 
irCvw 621 ; fut. 667; irtOi 799, 7551; 

w. gen. 10971. 
irCwTw 6521; fut. 606; perf. mid. 

4901. 



iruTTc^tt w. dative 1160. 

irCo^pcs (Hom.) for r4iraapts 377. 

irXoKocis, irXaKoW, contraction of 
332. 

nXaroicUri 296. 

irXitv (for irXiop) 1156. 

irXiCttv or itXImv, irXitcrros 361^. 

irXiictt, pf . and plpf. mid. inflected 
4871, 4891. 

irXlov mthout ^ 1156. 

itXIm (irXv-), 2d class 574 ; con- 
traction of 4951 ; fut. 666 ; vXety 
0d\axr<rav 1057. 

irX^ttS, declension of 309. 

irXi)v w. gen. 1220. 

irXi|o-idttt w. dat. 1175. 

irXiio-iov w. gen. 1149. 

irX^jovtt, iirXdyrjv (in comp.) 713. 

vk^im 647. 

w4» (tw-), 2d cla^s 574 ; fut. 666. 

inSecv436. 

iroe^v 436 ; enclitic 1412. 

inSei and iro0C 439^, 1413. 

irot436. 

iroC, indef. 436 ; enclitic 1412. 

iroUw w. two accus. 1073 ; w. i>artic. 
15638 . es and Kaxiot voiQ 1074. 

iroCo$, iroids 429. 

iroXifUtt, iroXc|&(ttt w. dat. 1177 ; 
disting. from woXeftAta 867. 

irdXiS declined 250 ; Ion. forms 255. 

iroXX6s, Ion. = vo\6s 347. 

iroX^ declined 346 ; Ion. forms 347 ; 
compared 361 ; ol voXKol and rb 
voM 967; ro\^ and woWd as 
adv. 367 ; iroXXy w. comp. 1184 ; 
iroXXov del and o^di woXKov Set 
1116" ; iwl iroU 1210«. 

iro|&ii4|v ir^i&iniv 1051. 

irdpptt or trp6o-tt w. gen. 1149. 

no<rci8dttv, IIoo^iSAv, accus. 217 ; 
voc. 122<', 2212. 

irdo-of , iro(r6s 429. 

voToifciss after proper noun 970. 

tr&n 43Q, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



GREEK INDEX. 



427 



iroT^, indef . 436 ; enclitic 1412. 
irdrcpof, irdrcpos (or -pds) 429. 
irdrvpov or irdripa, interrog. 1606. 
iro9 436 ; w. part. gen. 1092. 
irov, indef. 436 ; enclitic 141'-*. 
irovs, nom. sing. 210^ ; compounds 

of 349. 
irpdYi&ara, omitted after article 

963. 
trp^ declined 346 ; two stems of 

348 ; irpavs and irprfis 348. 
irpdo-o-w (trpay-), 2d perf. 692, 693 ; 

seldom w. two accus. 1076; w. 

Ihrufs and obj. cl. 1372; eS and 

KaKus rpdffcrof 1076. 
irp^i, impers. 898. 
irpco-pcvT^S) irp€<rPvTV|S) irp^o-pvs 

291. 
irpco-pciiw, denom. verb 861* ; Tpe- 

a^eOeip elp'^vTjv 1066^. 
irpnv« (epic) 348. 
wpCv w. infin. and indie. 1469 ; w. 

infin. 1470, 14711; w. indie, 

subj., and opt. 1471^; w. subj. 

without &v 1473 ; wph ij 1474. 
trpU»|fcai and trpiaC|i.i|v, accent of 

729, 742. 
irpd w. gen. 1216; not elided 60; 

compared 363; contracted w. 

augment 641, or w. foil, e or « 

8742 ; ippoddos and 0/>ovp6s 93. 
vp6 To9 or trpoTOv 984. 
irpotica, gratis, as adv. 1060. 
trp6icci|&ai w. gen. 1132. 
irp^oiTO, etc. 741, 810^. See ti||u. 
trp6s w. gen., dat., and ace. 1216 ; 

as adv., besides 12221. 
irpo