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Ph.D., Uin*KBaiTT or OMrnotii 





'V ^ ■ ' 



^^^^'-^ PREFACE 

Thb pTOBent book, apart from ite greater extent and certain differ- 
ences of statement and arrangement, has, in general, the same plan 
as the author's Ortek Orammar ftyr Schools and Colleges. It is a 
descriptive, not an historical, nor a oomparatiTe, grammar. Though 
it has adopted many of the asaored results of Comparative Liiiguis- 
tics, especially in the field of Analogy, it has excluded much of the 
more complicated matter that belongs to a purely scientilic treat- 
ment of the problems of Morpholep. It has been my purpose to set 
forth the essential forms of Attic speech, and of the other dialects, 
as &ur as they appear in literature ; to devote greater attention to 
the Formation of Words and to the Particles than is usually given to 
these subjects except in much more extensive works ; and to supple- 
ment the statement of the principles of Syntax with information 
that will prove of service to the student as his knowledge widens 
and deepens. 

As to the extent of all amplification of the bare facts of Mor- 
phology and Syntax, probably no two makers of a book of this char- 
acter, necessarily restricted by considerations of space, will be of the 
same mind. I can only hope that I have attained such a measure of 
success as will commend itself to the judgment of those who are 
engi^ed in teaching Greek in our colleges and univeraities. I trust, 
however, that the extent of the enlarged work may lead no one to 
the opinion that I advocate the study of formal grammar as an end 
in itself ; though I would have every student come to know, and the 
sooner the better, that without an exact knowledge of the language 
there can be no thorough appreciation of the literature of Ancient 
Greece, or of any other land ancient or modem. 

In addition to the authorities mentioned on page 5, 1 have con- 
sulted with profit DelbrUck's SyrUaktisiAe Firsckungen, Gilder- 
sleeve's numeroas and illuminating papers in the American Journal 
of Philology and in the Transactions of the American Philological 
Association, Schanz's Beitra^ zitr kiatoriacJien Syntax der griechiachen 
Sprache, Biddell's Digest of Platonic Idioms, La Eoche's Oramtaa- 
tMGft« Stitdien in the Zeitschrift ftlr oeaterreichische Gymnasien 
for 1904, Forman's Sdectiont from I^to, Schulze's Quaestioties 


Epicae, Hale'e Extended and Remote Deliberatives tn Greek in the 
TransactioiiB of the American Philologies Association for 1893, 
Harry's two articles, The Omission of lAe Artide with Subitantives 
t^ter oStik, ofie, Jkcivos m Prose in the Transactions for 1898, and The 
Perfm Subjunctive, Optative, and Imperative in Oreek in the Classi- 
cal Beview for 1905, Headlam'a Qreek Prohibitioas in the Classical 
Beview for 1906, Marchant's papers on I%e Agent in the Attic Orators 
in the same journal for 1889, Miss Meissoer's dissertation on yap 
(UniTersity of Chicago), Stahl's Kritisch'iii^orisdie Syntax des 
griechischen Verbuma, and Wright's Comparative Orammar of the 
Oreek Language. 1 have eiamined many school grammars of Greek 
in English, German, and French, among which I would particularize 
those of Hadley-Allen, Goodwin, Babbitt, Goodell, Sonnenschein, 
Kaegi, Koch, Croiset et Fetitjean. I am much indebted also to 
Thompson's Oreek Syntax. 

I would finally express my thanks for helpful criticiam from Pro- 
fessor Allen B. Bennei of AndoTer Academy, Professor Haven D. 
Brackett of Clark College, Professor Hermann Collitz of the Johns 
Hopkins UnxTersity, Professor Archibald L. Hodges of the Wadleigh 
High School, New York, Dr. Maurice W. Mather, formerly Instructor 
in Harvard University, Professor Hanns Oertel of Yale University, 
and Professor Frank E. Woodruff of Bowdoin College. Dr. J. W. 
H. Walden, formerly Instructor in Harvard, haa lent me invaluable 
aid by placing at my service his knowledge and skill in the prepa- 
ration of the Indices. 



Aug. 1, 191& 




Tie Greek LangiUKe and iu DIkleeU 

Advanced Works on GnunmKr knd Dialects 



The Alpluibet 

Vowela and DiphdioDga 


CouaoDanta and (beir Divldraui 

Towel Cbaoge 
Eaphony of Vowels 

CoDtncUon . 

Crasia aa 

EtMon 28 

Aphaereeis 34 

EophoDj of Conaonaiits 24-38 

Final Consonants 88 

Movable Consonants 81 

^llables, Mid (beir Quantity Sl-86 

Accent : General Prlnciplea 87 

Accent as aSected bf Contraction, Crasts, Elision .... 40 
Change of Accent in Deoiension, Inflection, and Composition . . 41 

PiocUUca and EnditJca 41, 43 

Haika of Fnnctnatlon 43 

hrls of Speech, Stems, Roola 44 

Number, Gender, Cases 46, 4S 

Roles for Accent of Nonns, Case Eodings of Nonna ... 47, 48 


First Declenrion (Stems in a) 48-63 

Second Declension (Stems in n) 6M0 


Third Dedeiuloii (ConMmuiI Stems) fi6-Il 

FoinwUon of Cmm and Stomi, Omdw 58-60 

LabUl Sterna 00 

Dental SCama 01 

Liquid Sterna 03 

'Stama in Sigma 04 

Stami In m, w(f) 06 

Stama In i and v ST 

Sterna In ■■, au, av 09 

Stems In M TO 

Caaea In -♦.(») Tl 

Imgulat Declenalon 71 

Pbclkhkioh or AnjacTrraa 78-80 

Pint and Second Declenalona T8 

Tbtnl Declenaloii TT 

ConaoTuuit and VQwel Declenalon Combined TS 

Inegnlar Declension 86 

Comparison ol AdjeotlTsa 80 

Dad^HHioH OF FaoHOUva OO-M 

Penonal Pronouna 90 

iDtensiTS Pronoon ah-if 03 

Beflexlve PronounE, PoaaeaalTe Pronoona 93 

Redprocal Pronoun, Definite Article, Deuonitntlve Prononna . . 94 

Inlern^aUre and Indefinite Prononna 96 

IXKn, ttlra, etc., RelaUre Prononna 90 

ComlatiTe Prononna 98 

Ai>TB>B« : Origin, Comparison, CorrelatiTe Adveiita .... 99-102 

NoatKALa 102-100 

Vaasa 100-224 

Voices, Mooda, Verbal Nouns, Tenses 107 

Ifumber, Peraon, Tense^tems 108 

Principal Parts, Vertvatems 109 

flinflection, HI Inflection, Thematic Towel 110 

Paradlgma 112-143 

Vowel Verbs : Synopds and ConjugaUon of XAw . . .113 

Vowel Verba Contracted ; rlpiti, rtUu, t^Mu, etc. . . . 120 

Conaonant Verba 128 

fu- Verba : rl%u, Irnifu, JUHfu, Mirniw 134 

Accent of Verba 143 

Augment 145 

Rednpllcallon 147 

Tenae-anfflxea, Tbematio Vowel 160 

Mood-aufflsea 161 

Personal Endings 163 

Fonnatlon of Tense-ajratems ... .... 167-183 

Changes In the Vcrb-atem 167 


and Imperfect US^ITO 

nnt CliH (Simple Clan) 108 

Beoond Clas (TUi Class) 1« 

lUid Class (Iota Class) les 

Fourth Claa (Nn Class) Ifl7 

Fifth Class (n Class) IflS 

Sixth Class (Mixed Class) leo 

Fatnre, Actire and Middle 170 

Flnt Aorist, AotlTe and Middle ITS 

Seooud AoilBt, Active and Middle 174 

Flnt Ferlect and Plaperfect, AciItb 17S 

Second Perfect and Plaperfect, Active 177 

Fnieot, Flnperfeot, Fatnie Perfect, Middle 178 

First Pasrive (First Aorist and Fltet Fature) 180 

Saorad PaasiTe (Second Aorist and Second Future) .181 

Parlpbrastic Forms ite 

FIrA Conjngation or Veriw In O 183-208 

Towel Verbs 184 

Uqaid Verbm, Stop Verb) 186, 186 

Inflection of O-Vertx 188-2(a 

Present and Imperfect, AcUve and Middle 188 

Contract Verbs 190 

Fntnre Active and Middle, Fature Perfect .103 

Future Pa^ve 194 

First Aorist, Active and Middle 191 

Flnt and Second Aorist Passive 196 

Second Aorist, Active and Middle 196 

First and Second Perfect and Pluperfect, Active .... 198 

Perfect and Pluperfect, Middle 201 

Second Conjo^tlon or Verba in HI 302-218 

Present Sjalem ; Flnt or Simple Class 208 

Fourth Class 204 

InSectJon of Ml-Verbs 206-210 

l*r«eent and Imperfect 206 

FutDTes, First Aorlat, Second Aorist 308 

Flnt and Second Perfect and Pluperfect, AcUve, Perfect Middle . 210 

Irifsulai Hl-Verbe 210-218 

(V, (I^ liffu, #^^ 210^16 

jfioi, icittiitM, nifw 210 

i,Ml,XP*,M% 217 

Fecnliaritiea in tlie Use of Voice-forms 218-2^ 

Future Middle with Active Meaning 219 

Middle Deponents, Passive Deponents 220 

Deponents with Passive Meaning 231 

Active Verbs wtth Aorist Pusive in a Middle Sense . . . .223 
Hidoro ol Transitive and Intnuuitive Senses 2tt 



Prinuuy and Secondarr Stem* 236 

Primitive and Denominative Woida 226 

SnfflieB 226 

Changes in Stems 22S 

Formation of Sabalantives 229 

Formation of Adjectivw 286 

List of Noun Suffixes 28B-244 

Denominative Verbs 246 

Pint Part of a CompooDd 247-360 

Last Part of a Componud 260-251 

Accent of Compounds, Meaning of Compounds 262 

Sentences, Subject, Predicate 26G 


Subject a Substantive or an Equivalent 266 

Predicate Nouns, Attributive Adjective 266 

Apposltive, Copula, Object 257 

Expansion of Subject and Predicate 268 

The Concords 258 

The Subject 260-261 

Its Omission 269 

Impersonal Verbs, Subject of the InliniUTe 200 

Case of the Subject ; the Nominative 261 

The Predicate 261-266 

OmLsalon of tbe Verb 261 

Concoid of Subject and Predicate 262 

With One Subject 268 

With Tno or Mora Subjects 264 

Concord of Predicate Substantives 266 

Apposition 266 

Peculiarities in the Use of Number, Gender, Person .... 2B9-272 

Adjectives 272-288 

Attributive Adjectives : their Agreement 272 

Predicate Adjectives : ihelr Agreement 276 

Attraction of Predicate Nouns 278 

Comparison of Adjectives (and Adverbs) 278 

Adverbs 283 

Hie Article 284-208 

i, ii, ri In Homer 284 

A, 4, tA as a Relative and Demonstntive 285 

6, 4, rt aa the Article 286 

PosltiOD of the Article 21)S 

Pronouns SOfr-Sll 


Penoiul Pronoaiia 208 

FomowiTe Pronoana 209 

Tbe Froaoun a^ it 302 

ReflexlTe Pronouns S04 

BemoDstTfttlTe ProDonna 307 

InterrogatiTe Prononns SDO 

Indefinite Pronoona 810 

«XXot, frifM, dXX^Xmi 811 

tbs cases 

tooativb 818 

Gmititb 813-387 

Oenitire Proper with Nonu ^ ... 818 

GenitiTB of PoHseBsion 814 

GenttiTo of the Divided Whole (FartJtlTe) 316 

Genitive of Quality 817 

Genitive of Explanation 317 

Genitive of Material, Meaanre 818 

GeniUve, SnbjeoUve and Ubjectlre 818 

GeniUve of Value 819 

QeDittve Proper with Verba 830 

PartiUve Genlllre 830 

Genitive of Price and Value 82S 

Genitiva of Crime and Accountability 826 

Genitive of Connection 336 

Genitive with Compound Verba 327 

GenitlTe Proper; Free Usee 328 

AOaUval QoniUre with Verba 328 

Genitive of Se|Miation 828 

' Geni^ve of Dialjnction, Comparison 330 

Genitive of CauM 830 

^enlUve of Source 881 

GeulUve widi Adjeotivea 333 

GeniUve with Adverba 336 

Genitive o( Hme and Place 836 

D4TIT» 837-363 

Dative Proper 838 

Dative Dependent on a Sln^e Word 338 

Direct Complement 388 

Indirect Complement 840 

Direct or Indirect Complement 840 

Dative aa a Modifier of the Sentence 341 

DaUve of lotereat 341 

Dative of IteiaUon 844 

Dative with Adjectives, Adveibe, SubatanUvea 346 

Instmmeutal Dative 848 


InstrumenUl D&dve Proper 848 

ComiUUve Dative S48 

Witb AdjectlTes, Adverbs, Subsiantlvw S51 

Locative Dative ' . . 861 

Dative witb Compound Verbs 363 

ActiTBAiivB 353-365 

Accusative of Internal Ubjecl (Object Effected) 366 

Cognate Accusative 356 

Accusative of Result 357 

Accusative of Kxteiit 357 

'I'erminal Accusative 358 

Accusative of External Object (Object Affected) 356 

Free Uses of tbe Accusative 300 

Accusative of Respect 360 

Adverbial Accusative 3S1 

Two AccusMives with One Verb 802 

Two Verba witb a Common Object 30* 


Origin and Development 305 

Variation 800 

Repetition and Omission 309 

Ordinary Uses 870 

List of Prepositions 371-388 

Improper Prepcwtions 388 


Tbe Voicks 38»-3g8 

Active Voice 389 

Middle Voice 890 

Passive Voice 394 

The Moodb 398-112 

The Particle 4» .898 

Tbe Moods in Simple Seiitencea 400 

Indicative without Af 400 

Indicative witli 2r 402 

Snbjunciive without Ar 403 

Subjunctive witb 2r 400 

Optative without li 400 

Optative witli ir 407 

Imperative 400 

Infliiitive and Participle witb dr 411 

Ttm Tenhes 4I2-4!)7 

Kind nf Time, Sta^e of Action 413 

Tennes outwide of the Indicative 415 

Tenses of the Indicative 481 


Pnaent 421 

Imperfect 123 

Future 42T 

Aorfat 429 

Perfect 484 

Pluperfect 486 

Future Perfect 43S 

feriphnutic Tenaea . . . 4S0 

Thb iHriHiTiTK 487-454 

Subject and Predicate Noun with Inflnldve 438 

Pereonal and Impersonal CooatruclioD 440 

Infinittve wltboat the ArUcle 441 

As Subject, Predicate, and Appo^ve 441 

Not In Indirect Discourse 44-J 

After Verbs of will or detire 443 

After Other Verbs 446 

After Adjectives, Adverba, and SubstanllTes 446 

InfinltlTe of Purpose and Result 44tl 

Absolute InanitWe 447 

laSuitiTs in Commands, Wishes, and Ezclainatlona . . . 448 

In Indirect Discourse 449 

Infinitive nilh the Article 460 

The Pabticiplk 464-470 

Attribaiive Participle 466 

ClrcumBianttal ParUciple 466 

Genitive Absolute 469 

AccnaatiTe Absolute 461 

Adverbs used in Connection with Circumstantial Participles . 462 

Supple men tarj Participle 466 

Not in Indirect Discoune 466 

In Indb«ct Diacourse 470 

Ominion of &r 472 

it with a Participle in Indirect Dlsconrae 47S 

Verba taking either the Participle or the Inflnitive 474 

R«marlu on Some Usee of Participles 477 

Vbbbii. AtuBCTivBs IN -T^i 479-460 

Personal and Impersonal ConstnicUons 480 



Asyndeton 484 

CoOitiiuatloninPlaceof Subordination— Parataxis 486 


Genersl View 487 

Anticipation (or Prolepsis) 488 


AssiiDlktioD of Hoodi 489 

Thiee Haln CIbmm of BnbonUnato ClaniM 192 

FoapoM CLxrsBi (Fikai. Clidub) 49&-496 

EquivaleDU ol a Final Clause 496 

OancT CuTwas 490-603 

Conaeotlon of Final with Object Clauses 497 

Object ClauMB with Verbs of ESort 497 

Object ClauBoa with Verbs of Caution 500 

Object Clauses with Verba of Fearlug GOO 

CkciJLL Claubbs 60&-606 

tl instead of Sri after Verbs of Emotion 606 

Rbbdlt Clauskh (CoKiKCDTiVK Cladsks) 606-611 

AiTTE wlOk the InfinltivB 607 

fiBT. with a Finite Verb 510 

Pnovtso Cladbeb with if' i}, ip' i}t€ 612 

CONDITIOHAL Clavrkr 612-637 

CbuBlflcaUon 613 

Table of Conditional Fotma 610 

Fresent and Past Condlllona 610 

Simple Present and Past Condltiona 610 

Present and Fast Unreal Conditions 618 

Unreal Conditions — Apodo^ without if 620 

Fntnie Conditions 622 

Uore Vivid Fatnie Conditions 623 

Emotional Fatore Conditions 626 

Lees Vivid FDtme Conditions 620 

Oenenl Conditions 627 

Present General Conditions 628 

Past General CondlUons 626 

Indicative Form of General Conditions 629 

Different Forms of Conditional Sentences in the Same Sentence . 629 

Variationsfrom the Ordinary Fonnsaud Meanings of Conditional Sentences 630 

Modifications of the I>rotaBlB 630 

Modifications of the Apodosls 631 

Frota^ and Apodosis Combined 632 

Leas Usual CombinaUons of Complete Protasis and Apodosis . 534 

tC with the Optative, Apodosis a Primary Tense of the IndicatiTe, etc 636 

Two or More Frotaaes or Apodoses in One Sentence 636 

CoNCBSsiTS Clal'sbs 687-639 

TaMPOHAL Cladseb 63ft-66& 

Indicative Temporal Clauses referring to Present or Fast Time . . 641 

Temporal Clauses referring to the Future 643 

Temporal Clauses In Generic Sentences 646 

TWnpoial Clauses denoting Fuipoae 647 


Snniiiuiy ot the Coiutmcdoiis of Imi io long at and tints .... H8 

GeDBial Rnle for wflt b^ore, until 649 

rplr with the Indicative 661 

rplr with the BubjnnctlTe 662 

wplr with the Optative 663 

wpir with the iDflnlthe 663 

wptrtpor 4i v^f" 4, wplr If, ripB* 666 

CoMfAKATiTc Cladhc* 666-660 

Siioilea and CompulBonB &6& 


ReUtiie ProDouiw 661 

Concord ot Relative Pronoons 608 

The Antecedent of Relative Claueea 603 

Definite and Indefinite Anteciident 663 

Omltfion ot the Antecedent 664 

Relative not Repeated 600 

Attraction ol Relative Pronouns 607 

Caae of Uie Relative with Umitted Antecedent 668 

Inverse Attiaction of Relative Pronouns 600 

Incorporation ot the Antecedent 670 

Other Fecnliaritie* of Relative CIbuks 671 

Use of the MoodB In Relative Clauaea 673 

Cla«M« of Relative ClauseH 673 

Ordinary Relative Clauaea 678 

Relative Clatiaes ot Purpose 674 

Relative Clauses of Caiue 674 

Relative Clauaea ot Reanlt 676 

Conditional Relative Clauses 670 

Lees Usual Fonns 680 

DarBiTDCHT SnBSTARTiTB Cladsbs 680-690 

Dependent Statements with fr> or i^ 681 

Indirect Discoorge 684 

General Principles 686 

Simple Sentences in Indirect Dlsoontae 687 

Complex Sentences in Indirect Discourse 687 

Implied Indirect Discourse 689 

ReiDarlis on the Conatmctions ot Indirect Discourse .... 690 


Direct Qaeations 687 

Indirect Questions OOL 


Direct Exclamatory Sentences 006 

Indirect Exclamatory Sentences 90? 

I z::lv,G00g[c 


Dlfierence between ti luid M 608 

FoaiUoD of ot and >i4 009 

oi Adhereocent 010 

ot after il (Mr) 01 1 

oi and /i^ with IndlutiTe and Optative 012 

>t4 witb Subjunctive and Impentive 614 

HegatWea of Indirect DiscooTHe 015 

Qi and ;iii with the Infinitive B16-618 

Not in Indirect Diaconiw 615 

In Indirect DlBCOuise 617 

ai and ni with the Participle 018 

»i and fi4 with SubatBiiUvea and Adjectives lued Substantively . . 619 

•Melt, lafith 020 

Apparent Exchange of od and fii) 020 

^4 and idi oi with the InflnlUve depending on Verba of Negative Meaning . 622 

fi4 oi with the Infinitive depending on Negatived Verbs .... 024 

fi4 dd with the Participle depending on Negatived Verba .... 626 

Ii4 and /i4 ti with tbe Subjunctive nnd Indicative 626 

Bednndant ai with rXift, etc 620 

«*(»[ 626 

Negative* with Orrc and the InflnltiTe 027 

AccomulatioD of N^aUve* 628 

Some Negative PbntBes ^9 


General View 031 

Lin ol Particles 632-071 


Ust of GrommaUcol and fihetorlool Figures . ... 071-083 

Appendix : Ll« ot Verbs 084-722 

EngllBh Index 728-756 

Greek Index 767-784 




A. Greek, the language of the inhabitants of Greece, has beep 
coDstantlf spoken from the time of Homer to the present day. Th» 
inhabitants of ancient Greece and other Greeks dwelling in the 
islands ajid on the coasts of the Mediterranean called themselTes (as 
do the modern Greeks) by the name HeUenei CGAAnrat), their country 
Heilaa CEAAos), and their language the Hellmic (^ ^^XAijvuc^ yAwm). 
We call them Greeks from the Latin Graed, the name given tnem by 
the Bomans, who applied to the entire people a name pi-operly re- 
stricted to the Tpiuat, the first Hellenes of whom the Bomans had 

N, I. — Oraeei (older GraUt) contaioa a lAtin mSx -tciu; and the natM 
Tpaiai, which occura flnt in Aristotle, is Iwrrowed from Latin. The Itoman 
deaignaUoa is derived either from the rpoui, a Boeotian tribe that took port In 
the colonization ol Cyme In Italy, or from Uie Tpaw, a larger tribe ol the some 
node that Iked in Epinu. 

N. 2. — No collective name lor < oil Greece ' appeara in Homer, to whom the 
Hellenes ore the inhabitants of Hellao, a district forming part of the kingdom of 
Peleos (B 083) and situated in the 8.E. of the countr; later called Thessaly. 
'BXXdf for > all Greece ' occura first in Hedod. The Greeks In general are colled 
b; Homer 'Ax<uol, 'ipytai, Aamof, 

B. Greek is related to the languages of the Indians (Sanskrit), Fei> 
sians(Zend), Armenians, Albanians, Slavonians, Lithuanians, Bomans, 
Celts, and Germans. These various languages are all of the same 
stock, and together constitute the Indo-European family of langu^es. 
An important relation of Greek to English, which is a branch of the 
Germanic tongue, is illustrated by Grimm's law of the ' permutatioD 
of consonanta ' : 

T=/ I T = tt I « = * I p=p I a = t lT=<!(*)| * = 6 I e=d\ x = 9 

fathtr I three \ Ktart I thorp \ two 1 acre I hear \ door \ gooM 

The above English words are said to be cognate with the Greek 
words. Derived words, such as geography, theatre, are borrowed, 
directly or indirectly, from the Greek (ytuypa^a, Starpor). 



C. At the earliest known period of its history the Greek language 
vraa divided into dialects. Goiregponding to tbe chief divisions of 
the Greeks into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians (a division unknown 
to Homer), three groups of dialects are commonly distinguished : 
Aeollc, Doric, and Ionic, of which Attic is a sister dialect. Aeolic and 
Doric are more nearly related to each other than is either to Ionic. 

Aeolic: spoken in Aeolis, Lesbos, and kindred with the dialect 
of Tbessaly (except Phthiotis) and of Boeotia (though Boeotian has 
many Doric ingredients). In this book 'Aeolio' means Lesbian 

N. 1. — Aeolic letaios primitive 5 (30) ; changes r before i to r (116) ; has 
receaaive aoceut (162 D.). and many oUier pecnliaritiea 

Doric : spoken in Peloponnesus (except Arcadia and Elis), in seTeral 
of the islands of the Aegean (Crete, Melos, Thera, Bhodes, etc.), in 
parts of Sicily and in Southern Italy. 

N. 8. — Doric retains prituIUve it (30), keeps r before < (115 D.). Almost all 
Doric dialects bave -^t for -^ef (4fl2 D.), the InfiolUve In •»!*' for-roi (469 D.), 
the future in -{u from verbs in -{u (GIO D.), the fumre in -<rS, -aeOiiai (540 a). 

N. 3. — Tbe sub-dialects of Laconia, Cret«, and Southern Italy, and of their 
Mvetal colonies, are often called Severer (or Old) Doric ; the others are called 
Milder (or New) Doric. Severer Dorio has q and u where HUder Dodo has n 
and cv (69 D. 4, S ; 230 D). There are alao ditterencea in verbal forma (664). 

Itmic : spoken in Ionia, in most of the islands of the Aegean, in a 
few towns of Sicily, etc. 

N. 4. — lonio changes primitive i to ij (30) ; changes r before i to r (116) j 
has lost digamma, which is still found in Aeolic and Doric ; often refnses to con- 
tract vowels ; keeps a mute smooth before tbe rough breathing (124 D.) ; baa « 
for T in pronominal fonna (132 D.). 

N. G. — The following dialects do not tali nnderlbe above divisions : Aicadlaa 
(and the kindred Cyprian, which are often classed with Aeolic), Blean, and the 
dialects of if.W. Greece (Locris, Fbocis, Aetoila, Aoarnania, Eplras, etc). 
N.W. Qreek resembles Doric. 

N. 6. — The dialects that retain a (M) are called A dialects (Aeolto, Dorio, 
etc.); Ionic and Attio are the only B dialects. The Eastern dialects (Aeolic, 
Ionic) change n to at (115). 

N. 7. — Tbe local dlaiects, witb the exception of Tiaoonlan (a Laoonian 
Idiom), died out gradually and ceased to eilst by 800 A.n. 

D. The chief dialects that occur in literature are as follows (almost 
all poetry is composed in a mixture of dialects) : 

Aeolic : In the Lesbian lyric poets Alcaeua and Sappho (900 B.C.). NnIne^ 
ons AeollamH appear bi epic poetiy, and some In tragedy. Theocritna' idylls 
28-30 are in Aeolic. 

Doric: in many lyric poets, notably In Pindar (bom 622 a.c.) ; In the Iracollo 
(pastoral) poetjy of Tbeocrittu (about SlO^bont 245 a.c). Botli of tlieae poets 


■dopt aome epic and Aeolio lonna. The choral parts of Attlo tragedy also admit 
nine Doric lorma. There \a no Doric, as there is no Aeollc, literary proM. 

loalc: (1) Old Ionic or Bpie, the chief ingradiaut ol the dialect of Homer 
aod of Heslod (before 700 B.C.), Almoat all subeeqneDt poetry admita epio 
m»da and fonns. (2) Nete lonte (GOO-400), the dialect of Berodotus (484-425) 
tad of the medical writer Hippocrates (born 460). In the period between Old 
ind New Ionic : Archilochus, the lyric poet (about 700-060 B.C. ). 

Attic : (kindred to Tonic) was used by the great wriLera of Athene in the fltlb 
■ad fourth centorias a.c, the period of her political and literary supremac]'. In 
it are composed the works of the tragic poeta Aeschylus (&26-460), Sophocles 
(49S-40a), Eoripldn (about 480-400), the comic poet Aristopbaneo (about 4&0- 
38S), the historians Thucydides (died before 396) and Xenophon (about 434- 
aboat856), Uie oraUirs Lyslas (born about 460), Isocratea (430-338), AescbioM 
(3ra-S14), Demostbenes (383-322), and the philosopher PUto (437-34T). 

E. The Attic dialect was diatingiiislied by its refinement, precision, 
and beauty; it occupied an intermediate position between the soft 
Ionic and tbe tough Doric, and avoided the prouounced extremes of 
other dialects. By reason of its cultivation at the hands of the 
greatest writers from 500 b.o. to 300 b.c, it became the standard 
literary dialect; though Old Ionic was still occasionally employed 
in lat«r epic, and Doric in pastoral poetry. 

N. ]. — The dialect of the tragic poets and Thucydides is often called Old AtOe 
Id eornnst to New Jttte, that used by most other Attic writen. Plato stands 
on the borderline. The dialect of tragedy contains some Homeric, Doric, and 
Aeolio forms ; theae are more frequent In the choral than in the dialogue parts. 
The choral parts take over forms used in the Aeolic-Dorio lyric ; the dialogue 
parts show the influence of the Iambic poetry of the lonians. But the tendency 
of Attic speech In literature was to free ilseU from the influence of the dialect 
used by the tribe originating any literary type ; and by tbe fourth century pure 
Attic was generally used throughout. The normal language of the people 
("Standard Attic") la best seen in Aristophanes and the orators. The native 
Auic qieech as it appears in iDscriptiona shows no local differences ; the speech 
of AtUca was practically uniform. Only the lowest classes, among which were 
many foreigners, used forms that do not follow the ordinary phonetic laws. Tbe 
language of tbe religious cults is sometimes archaic in character. 

N. 2. — Old Attic wrilers use *#■ for tt (78), p^ for pp (79), fiSi. for irit viilh, 
htaitlt faio, for n (X^for Xtfn, thou looieU), -^i in the plural of substantives 
in -a^ (^ao-iX^T, 277), and oocasionally -artu and -are in the third plural of the 
perfect and pluperfect (466 f). 

With the Macedonian conquest Athens c«ased to produce great 
writers, but Attio culture and the Attic dialect were diffused far and 
wide. With this extension of its range, Attic lost its purity ; which 
had indeed begun to decline in Aristotle (384^22 b.c). 

F. Kolni or Common dialect (^ xotv^ 8u£XcKTof). The Koind took its 
rise in the Alexandrian period, bo called from the preeminence of 


Alexandria in Egypt as a centre of learning until the Roman con- 
qneet of the East ; and lasted to the end of ibe ancient world (sixth 
century a.d.). It was the language used by persons speaking Greek 
from Gaul to Syria, and was marked by numerous varieties. In its 
apoken form the Koin& consisted of the spoken form of Attic inter- 
naingled with a considerable number of Ionic words ^nd some loans 
from other dialects, but with Attic orth(^raphy. The literary form, 
a compromise between Attic literary usage and the spoken lai^uage, 
was an artificial and almost stationary idiom from which the living 
speech drew farther and farther apart. 

In the Kolnb are oomposed tLe writings ot the historiuu Polybins (about 
906-about 120 b.c), Dlodonu (under Auguatus), Ptuttu«h (about 46-abont 
120A.D.), Arrlu (about 96-176 a.d.], CsmIus Dio (about 150-about 236 i.D.), 
the rhetoricians IMonjaius of HallcarDBSHoa (under Augustus), Lucian (about 
13&-about ISO A.D.), and the geographer Strabo (about 64 b.c.-IO a.v.). Jose- 
phns, the Jewish historian (37 A.D.-about 100), also uaed the Kolab. 

N. 1.— Tbe name Atticiat is given to tbose reactlomuy writeni in the Eoin6 
dialect («.cr. Lucian) who aimed at reproducing the purity of tbe earlier Attic. 
Tbe Atticists flourished chiefly in the second centur; a.u. 

N. 2. — Some writers distinguish, as a form of tbe Koini, the Bellenistic, a 
name restricted by tbem to the language of tlie New Testament and of tbe 
Septuagint (the parti; literal, partly tolerably free, Greek translation of the Old 
Testament made by Grecized Jews at Alexandria and begun under Ptolemy 
Philadelphus 2S6-24T ac.)- The word Hellenittie is derived from 'EXXiiKim}! 
(from JUi)rl{w iptak Oreek), a term applied to persons not of Greek biriii 
(especially Jews), who bad learned Greek. Tbe New Testament is composed in 
the popular langosge of tbe time, which In that work is more or less influenced 
by olassical models. No acenrate distinction cau be drawn between the Koin^ 
and Hellenlatic 

G. Modem Oredc appears in literature certainly as early as the 
eleventh century, when the literary language, which was still em- 
ployed by scholars and churchmen, was no longer understood by the 
common people. During the middle ages and until about tbe time of 
the Greek Revolution (1821-1S31), the language was called Romaic 
CPieiuuK^, from the fact that ttie people claimed the name of 
Bomans (IPu^uuk), since the eapital of the Roman Empire had been 
transferred to Constantinople. Tbe natural language of the modem 
Greeks is the outcome of a continual development of the Koin4 in its 
spoken form. At the present day the dialect of a Greek peasant is 
still organically the same as that of tbe age of Demosthenes ; while 
the written language, and to a less extent the spoken language of 
oultiTated Athenians and of those who have been influenced by the 
University at Athens, have been largely assimilated to the ancient 
idiom. Modem Greek, while retaining in general the orthography 
of the classical period, is very different in respect of pronunciation. 



AxKBVB : De Graec&e llngnae diolectis (L Aeollo 1889, II. Doric 1S4S). GStt' 

ingen. Still serrioeable for Uoric. 
Blah : ProaanciiUion of Ancient Greek. Truulued from the third QemiAii 

edition by Puiton. Cunbridge, Eng., 1690. 
Boit404 : Les Dialectee doriens. Pul»-Lidge, ISei. 
BsuOMAint : Griecliiicbe Qrammatlk. Ate Aofl. Httnchan, 1918. Porel; com- 

C1UHD1.KK; Greek AcceDtnatioii. Sd ed. Oxford, 1881. 
GiLDBSSLBEva AHD UiLLBB I STikt&x of Clualckl Greek Irom Homer to Demoft> 

tbenei. Put i. New York, 1900. Part il, 1911. 
Goodwin : SyoUx of the Hoods Mid Tenaes of the Greek Verb. Rewritten and 

enlarged. Boston, 1S90. 
HcKST : Prfcis de Granunkire compute da Greo et du Latin. 5th ed. Faria, 

1894. Translation (from the 2d ed.) by Elliott: A Short CoinparatlTe 

Onunmar of Greek and Latin. London, 1890. 
Hiar : Handbaoh der Griechlaohen Laul- and Formenlehre. Heidelberg, 190S. 

HorFMAHH : IMe griaeliiachen Dlalekte. Tol. L Der Bfid-achUaohe Dlalekt (Ar- 
cadian, CTprlan), Odttiogen, 1B9I. Vol. 11. Der nord-achUsche Dialekt 

(Thewalian, Aeotic, Boeotian), 1898. VoL ill. Der loniache Dialekt (QQellen 

und Lautlehre), 1898. 
EkOobr : Griechische Sprachlebre. Part 1, 6te AofL, 1876. Fart il, 4te AnO., 

1862. Leipzig. Valuable for example! of syntax. 
EDhtibb : ADsfUbrlicbe Gramniatik der griechiaohen Sprache. 8te Anfl, Parti 

b7 Biass. Part ii (Syntax) by Oertb. Hannover, 1890-1904. The only 

modem complete Greek Gramoiar. The part by Blase contains good colleo- 

Uons, but Is IneoiBcient on the side of compara^Te grammar. 
HimcK : Die grlechischen Dlalekte. Vol. i. Asiatisch-kollsoh, Btiotisch, Tbe»> 

saliscb, G&ttlngen, 1882. VoL il. Elelsch, Arkadlsch, Kyprlscb, 1889. 
MBWTBKflAHS ; Giammatik der attiecben Insohrlften. 3te AnfL Berlin, 1900. 
Mbibk: Griechische Grammatik. 3te Aufl. Leipzig, 1890. Comparative, with 

due attention to inscrlptlonal forms. Deals only with sounds and forma. 
MoNso : A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. 2d ed. Oxford, 1891. Valuable, 

eepecialiy for its beatment of syntax. 
RiEMAKK AND OoBLZBB : Grammaire compaJ^ da Grec et da Latin. ToL 1. 

Phon6tiqoe et 6tude des Formes, Paris, 1901. Vol. U, 6ynt«xe, 1897. 
Shttb: The Sounds and Inflections of the Greek Dialecta. Ionic. Oxford, 1894. 
VinLBBawBH: Enchiridinm diet Ionia epicae. Lugd. Bat, 1892-94. Contatna 

a fall diacnsBlOD of forma, and aims at reconatmcting the primitive text of 

VsncK : Oreek Verbs lingular and Defective. Kew ed. Oxfoid, l&BT. 





= Aeach jlns. 








= Aescbinea. 


= ADdocidea. 


= AnUphon. 


= AnUpbane 


pint - Plata*. 
Bu, -Riua. 
TliMiD. > Thano ophorlHOMa. 

C.I.A. = Corpus In- 

Com. Fr.= Comic Frag- 

D. = I>emostbeiie8. 
Dic^. = Dioganes 

Laert, Laertius. 

E. = EnripldeB. 

Alo. • AIhmUi. 

Aad. - Andromicb*. 

Bl«cb. ' Duehia, 

Ojol. ■■ Cyelope. 

El. • Electn, 

Hoc. ' IImdIw. 

Hel. - llclani. 

H. r. - Hgrenlai (Unu. 

Hipp. - IHtipolytuL 

I. A. - l|>hlgenb AnU- 

L T. — IptalgnlB Taork*. 

Hdt = Berodotns. 
Horn. = Homer. 

The book! at tiit Hind *ra 
ieOfOMiti bj Qnek otpl- 

of tlM OdyMej bj Greek 
uniU latun (>. S. y, eto.). 

I. = Isocrat^B. 

I.G.A. = InMiiiptloDBB 

la. = Isaena 

Lye. = LycnrguB. 

L. z= LyaUs. 

Men. = Menuider. 

BenU •• BenlenlbH. 

FUlem. = Pbilemon. 
Find. = Pindar. 
P, = Plato. 

aIb. - AlotblHlee. 

Chum. — Chirmldee. 

Cr. -Crilo. 

Crmt, - CrmtrlDt. 

Ealh. — EDtbypbro. 

Hipp. M. - Hipplu Utior. 
Lwh. xLiclMS. 
L. -Lefee. 

Uen. -Meno. 


Pit. m PumuldM. 

Pta. - PbHdo. 

Plue. -PkMdnu 

Phn. - PhUtbu. 

PoL -Polltlmi. 

B. - ReepabHotk 

Ttm. — TlmMii*. 


. -Oedlpui 
. — Oedlpnl T^minu 


Stob. = Stobfteiu. 

Flor. -nortl(«1dm. 

T. = Thucydldee. 
X. = Xenophon. 

A. > AnebwiK. 

Ap. • ApokislL 

AgM. -Atredlu*. 

C. - CjTopMdta. 

The dramatlatfl are cited by Dindorfs lines. Bnl Tragic tragmenU (Fr. or 
Frag.) are cited by Nauck'a nambera, Comic fra|[ment« (eicapt Menmnder's 
Sententlae) by Kock'a Tolnmea and pagea. The Orators are died by tbe trnmben 
of the speeches and the sections in the Teabner editions. 

Other abb re viatlons : — jt.t.X. = ubI ri Xoi»i (e( cetera); »ctl. = tetHeet ; i'.B. = 
id e»t; (6. = (Mde™; e.g. = exempii gratia; I.E. = Indo-European ; )( = « 
etmtratted aith. 




1. The Greek alphabet has twenty-four letters. 

a 3X^ alpha a d: aha; A: father 

fi p^ beta b beg 

y yofH"^ gamma g go 

8 ScXm ddia d dig 

c 4 ' (' ipiXav) ip^on , 6 «aaet 

{ (Tra i&a X daze 

If ^ eta S Ft. fete 

0, » ^n thSta A thin 

( loTu idfa i' ^: meteor; {: police 

K Koanrn itof^MI C, ft kin 

X Aofo^ lam&da Z let 

It Mv mu m met 
























(u)y H 

Fr. tu; u: Fr. s* 








GeriQ. machen 

*■! (« 







(not capital) at the end of a woitl is 


elsenbere r. Tbu 

riirfifa eartKqttate. 

b. The UKines In ptventfasBes, froni wblch are derived those in current tue, 
were giveii »t ft late period, aoine m lal« as the Middle Ages. Thus, epsilon 
nmn* ' timple e,' uptllon 'ilmpl« n,' to diatloKaiiib these letteis from ai, oi, 
which were •oatided like t and ir. 



c. Labda is a bettor attested ancient name than lambda. 

2. The Oreelt alphabet aa given above originated In Ionia, and waa adopted 
at Athens In 103 b.c. The letters from A to T are derived from Phoenician and 
have Semitic names. The signs T to fl irere invented by the Greeks. From the 
Greek alphabet are derived the alphabets of most European countries. The 
anolonla used onlj the large letters, called tiu^uteult* (capitals as E, uncials as 
€}i Uie small letters (minutculei'), which were used as a literary hand In the 
ninth century, are cursive lorms of Uie uncials. 

a. Before 403 b.o. in the official Attic alphabet E stood for <, i), spurious « 
(6), O for B, u, spurious ov (6), H for the tough bi«athlng, X£ for S, #£ tot f . 
A was written tor ■/, and V for X. Thus : 

EA0X4ENTEIB0VEIKAIT0IAEM0I ffioio- rj ^So^Xp* ™i t^ Ht-v- 

XSYAAPA^ESXSYNEAPA^SAN $vyypa<f,^ ^iypa>Pay. 


3. In tbe older period there were two other letters: (1) F: paS, oau, oalled 
dlgamma (i.f. double-gamma) from its shape. It stood after ■ and was pro- 
nounced like u. f was written in Boeotian as late as 200 b.c. (2) 9: ttwira, 
k^ppa, which stood after t. Another s, called tan, is fonnd in tbe ^gn -j^ 
called tamp^, i.e. *an + pi. On these signs as numerals, see 318. 


4. There are seven vowels : a, *, nf, i, o, v, ut. Of these c and o are 
always short, and take about half the time to pronounce as ij and u, 
which are always long; <hi,v are short in some syllables, long in 
others. In this Grammar, when a, t, v are not marked as long (a, l, 
v) they are understood to be short. All vowels with the circumflex 
(149) are long. On length by position, see 144. 

a. Vowels ore said to be open at dote aoooiding as tbe mooth Is more open 

8 ]>. Vau was In uae as a genuine sound at tbe time tbe Homeric poems were 
composed, though It is found in no Mrs. o( Homer. Many apparent Irregularities 
of epic verse (such as hiatui, 4T D.) can be explained only by supposing that f 
was actually sounded. Examples of words containing f are : Ivrti tovm, Amf 
lord, kriAm pUOM, cf(u give way (cp. weak), cTicmi twtTUy (cp. vtglntfj, Iko- 
rroi each, ixtir willing, fXirofui hope (cp. voIuptEu), foura ant like. It, at, I him, ({ 

gfx, Ixot word, «Iiro» tatd, tpyar, tpSa work, tnniiu clothe. It. fta-m/u (cp. vettU), 

ip4u will »ay (cp. wrtttnt), tawtpot evening (cp. vetper), lor violet (cp. viola), 
(tqi v«ar (cp, vetui), iflii tweet (cp. suavii), IStit (Ma) know (cp. vtdere, wit), 
fi etrtngth (cp. vit), Iria willow (cp, vitit, withy), altoi house (cp. efeus), aim 
wine (cp, vlnma), Ik hit (123), Ixat carriage (cp, vrho, wain). Vau was lost 
fitat before o-sounds (ipiu tee, op, be-ware). f occurred also In the middle of 
words: i:\ffot glory, alftlalwayt, Sftt iheep (cp. ovit), xXiiflt key (Dor. iXafi, cp. 
ciavitj, tirfft ftranger, Aifi to Zeat, icaXfit beaMtfftO. Cp. 3(^ 31, 8T D, 122, 128. 


3. A diphthong (8i<^A»yyot having two Bounds) combines two vowele 
in one Hylla,ble. The second rowel is i or v. The diphthong are : 
at, (t, M, ^, 0, ({I ; au, tv, ou, 1JV, and «. The i of the so-called improper 
diphthongs, ^, g, i|i, is written below the line and is called iota S)(&- 
aeript. But with capital letters, i is written on the line (adscript), 
as THI OIAHI =: r^ ifig or 'lliS^ to the song. All diphthongs are long. 

a. In f, p. If the i cewied to be wiittea about 100 b.c. The cnstom ol 
writing t under the line is bh l&ta as about the eleventh century. 

6. et, ou are either genuine or tpurtout (apparent) diphthongs (25). Genttlne 
H, su are a combination of c -i- i, o + v, as In \ilru I leave (cp. XAwra I have left, 
3&a), yint to a race (49), diiXovdot follmeer (cp. cAevAii way). Spurious u, 
OH arise from contraction (60) or compenaatory lengthening (87). liius, /^Xci 
Ae lovtd, from /^fX«, Btlt placing from Strr-t ; i^O^vf they loved from /^JXcoc, 
wXeSt voj/age from rUot, Jwit giving from Jerr-i. 

7. The figure ot a 
triangle repreeenU the 
relations of the vowels 
and spurious diph- 
thongs to one another. 

From a to ( and 
from s to ail the eleva- 
tion of the tongae grad- 
ually Increases, v, e, 
ov, ir are accompanied 
bj romiding of the lips. 

a. DiaeresiB. — A double dot, the mark of diaeresis (Suu/xms sepa- 
miion), may be written over t or u when these do not form a diph- 
thotig with the preceding vowel: wpottrnfiu I set before, v^ttoa ship. 


9. Every initial vowel or diphthong has either the rough (') or 

the smooth (') breathing. The rough breathing (apiritus asper) is 

pronounced as h, which is sounded before the vowel ; the smooth 

ID. A diphthong tnoccuia in New Ionic ((Livrii the lame trout iaiT6t 68 T>., 
/nvvrou of myself = ifuiirrte 329 D., eavna = BaViia wonder). Ionic baa ijv for 
Attic w In some words (Horn. njOt ship). 

■ D. In poetry and' in certain dialeeta voweln are often written apart which 
later formed dlphthonga: wiu (or riXt) bog or girl, FliiXftlitf ton of Peleus, H 
(or Hi) well, 'AlSifi (or 'AIS^) Hadet, yirti to a racr. 

9D. The Ionic of Asia Minor lost the rough breatliingat an early data. So also 
betonp (13). Its occurrence in compounds ( 124 D.) IB a relic ot the period when 


breathing (aptn'tiM lenU) is not sovinded. Thus, Spot h6ros bounda}y, 
Spoi tSros mountain. 

10. Initiftl V (E sod v) ftlways has the rough breathing. 

11. DiphthongHtakethebreathing, Bathe accent (1G2), over the second Towel; 
alpiu hair6o / $eize, alpu alru / lift. But f , n, ^ take botli the breathing and 
the accent on the flrat vowel, even when t is written In the line ifi): fSw ='i.iSu 
I ling, iSip ='Aiii;i Badea, but KlnlAt Aenea». The writing ili-riKatCMSit>J>i) 
dtitroj/tng Bhowa tjiat ai does not here form a diphthong; and hence la Bome- 
times written w (8). 

13. In compound words (as in TpoopSr tofortue, from 'jij + A^r) the rough 
breathing is not written, though It must often have been pronounced ; cp. iitipa 
a hall vith KOtt, Lat. txhedra, exedra, roXvfffrwp serj/ l«am<d, laL. polyhlUor. 
On AtUo iQBcHptloQS la the old alphabet (2 a) we find ETHOPEON tM^n>v 
faitt\fvl to one'* oath. 

13. Every initial p has the rough breathing; ^f/rotp orator (Lat 
rhetor). Medial pp is written Pp in some texts : IIii^^ Pyrrkiu. 

14. The sign tor the rough breathing is derived from H, which in the Old 
Attic alfibabet (2 a) was used to denote A. Thus, HO i the. After H vras used 
to denote q, one half ()-) was used for h (about 300 B.C.), and, later, the other 
half (H) for the smooth breathing. From I- and -I cone tie forms ' and '. 


15. The seventeen consonants are divided into stops (or mutes), 
spirants, liquids, nasals, and double coDsonaats. They may lie 
arranged according to the degree of tension or slackness of the vocal 
chords ia sounding them, as follows : 

a. Voiced (sonant, i.e. sounding) consonants are produced when the vocal 
chorda vibrate. The sounds are represented by the tetters p, I, y (stops), X, p 
(liquids), It, r, 'V-Qual (19 a) (nssals), and f. (Alt the vowels are voiced.) 
p with the rough breathing is voiceless. 

b. Voiceless (surd, I.e. hushed) consonants require no exertion of the vocal 
chords. These are r, r, c, ^, 6, x (stops), r (spirant or sibilant), and f and {. 

C Arranged according to tlie increasing degree of noise, nearest to the vowels 
are the naaals, in sounding which the air escapes without friction through Ibe 
nose i next come the oemivowela u and i^ (^0 a), the liquida, and the spirants, in 

It was sUtl sounded in the simple word. Horn, sometimes has the smooth where 
Attic has the rough breathing in forms tiial are not Attic : 'AfSiji ('AiJiri), the god 
Hadei, oXto tprang (SkXo/i'u), iiuiSit togtther (cp. iiia), f/iXm mm (flXwi), liiit 
dawn (Jim), fpi7f hawk {lipa^), oiptt bonndary {Spot). But also in d^a leagon 
(Attic ftfiofa). In Laconian medial a became ' (A) : iAiiai = irixifat ht con- 

10 D. In Aeolic, u, like all the other vowels (and the dlphthonga), alvrays has 
the smooth breathing. The epic forms tmut you, Bii^u, tfifut (32S D.) are Aeolic 


snanding nhich the air eatxpeB with frlcUoD thiongh the oaritj of the month ; 
next come the stops, which are produced by a remo?al of an ohstruotioii ; and 
Snail; the double consonanU. 

16. Stops (or mutes). Stopped consonants are bo called because 
in sounding them the breath passage is for a moment completely 
closed. The stops are dirided into three dasae* (according to the 
part of the moutn chiefly actire in sounding them) and into three 
orders (according to the degree of foroe in the ezpiratorjr effort). 

Labial (Itp eonndi) ■■ ^ ^ I Smooth r r ■ 

Dental (teeth soonds) r S t \ Middle ply 

Palatal (palate Bounds) '7x1 Bongb ^ 9 x 

a. The dentals are Bometimea called linffualt. The rough stops are also 

called aipimUt (lit. breathed sounds) becanae the; were sonnded with a strong 

emisBion of breath (2S). The smooth stops are thus distiagulahed from the 

rough stops by the absence of breathing. ' (A) Is also an aspirate. The middle 

stops owe their name to their poeitfon In the above grouping, which Is that of 

tlie QreelE grammarians. 

17. Spirants. — There is one spirant: a (also called a sibilant). 

a. A spirant is heard when the breath passage of the oral oavlt; is ao nar- 
rowed that a rubbing noise is produced b; an expiration. 

1ft Idqnlds. — There are two liquids : X and p. Initial p always 
has the rough breathing (13). 

Id. Ifasala. — There are three nasals: p. (labial), v (dental), and 
y-nasal (palatal). 

a. Gsmma before ■, Ti X< f is called 7-nasal. It had the sound of n In think, 
and was represented by n in Latin. Thus, iyinipa (LaL ancora) anohor, dTYiXai 
(lAt aapeliu) mfsitiiger, aplyi iphtttx. 

b. The name liquids is often need to include both liquids and oaaala. 

20. Semivowels. — i,v, the liquids, nasals, and the spirant cr are 
often called temivowels. (1 becoming {, and f are also called spirants.) 

a. When 1 and u correspond to y and w (cp. minion, persaaie) they are said 
tn be nnsyllsblc ; and, witb a following Towel, make one syllable out of two. 
St'miTocalic 1 and v are written i and i;. Initial 1 passed into ' (A), as In frai* 
llTtT. Lat. jecur,- and into j- in (vyjr yoke, Lat. jugvtn (here It is often called 
the spinnt nn^. Initial 11 was written f (3). Medial 1, y before vowels wer» 
often lost, as in ^^-(i^V Ihonovr, ^(u)-6% gen. of poU-t ox. cow (48). 

b. The form of many words is due to the fact that the llquida, nasals, and r 
may fulfil the office of a vowel to form ayllables (cp. bri^e, even, pMi). This is 
iiijiiUBWl by X, u, f, f , jr, to be read 'syllabic X,' etc., or ■ sonant \' (seeSSb, c). 

ZL Doable Consonants. — These are I, i, and ij/. C >B a combination 
<tf vJt (or Jk) or & (26). i is written for kit, yir, yo- ; ^ for nr, /So-, ^. 




Pbjilologlal DlffenEcu 








7-naa»l (IB a) 






X p» 

gpiraiits { 




Voiceless Aspirate 

,S (middle) 
r (smootli) 
♦ (rough) 

a (middle) 
r (Bmooth) 
# (rou^) 

, (middle) 

. (KCOOth) 

X (rough) 

Double 1 






23. The proQunciation of Ancient Greek varied much according 
to time and place, and differed in many important respects from 
that of the modern lang^a^. While in general Greek of tlie classical 
period was a phonetic language, i.e. its letters represented the sounds, 
and no heard sound was unexpressed in writing (but see 108), in course 
of time many words were retained in their old form though their pro- 
nunciation had changed. The tendency of the language was thus to 
become more and more unphonetic. Our current pronunciation of 
Ancient Greek is only in part even approximately correct for the 
period from the death of Pericles (429 b.c.) to that of Demosthenes 
(322) ; and in the case of several sounds, e.g. C, ^, ^i 6, it is certainly 
erroneous for that period. But ignorance of the exat^t pronunciation, 
as well as long-eatabiished usage, must render any reform pedantical, 
if not impossible. In addition to, and in further qualification of, the 
list of sound equivalents in 1 we may note the following; 

24. Towels. — Short a, i, v differed in eoand from the correaponding long 
vowels only in being less prolon^d ; i and a probably differed from q and w also 
in being leas open, a diSerence that is imposaibie to panllel in KngllBh aa oar 
short vowels are more cpen Uian the long vowela. 2 : as a in Germ. hat. Theie 
is no true S in accented syllables in Engllati ; the a of idea, aha ia a neutral 
voweL I : as j in bonti ; somewhat similar is a in bakery. i| : as ! in flte, or 


nearly u e in where. I s neatly as the fliM e in meteor, eternal. • : as o In Fr. 
mol, iomenhat like unaccented d in obeg or phonetic (as often soonded). w : as 
in Pr. encore. Eng. 3 la prevailingly diphtliongal ((>■). s wu originally 
(onnded as u in prune, but by the flfttk century Lad become Like that of Fr. tu, 
Germ, thiir. It never had in Attic the sound of u in mnte. After v had becomo 
like Germ, il, the only means to represent the sound of the old u (oo in moon} 
was ui (25). Oboerre, however, that, In diphthongs, final u retained the old u 

29. DiphtliongB. — The diphtbongB vrere sounded nearly as follows: 
(u as in Cairo av as ou in out tpi as eh'-oo 

a as in ti«fit cv as e (met)+ oo (moon) orv asdA'-oo 

01 as in toU ov as in ourang n as in Fr. huit 

In f^ U, V ^^ '°>>S oP'i^ vowela had completely overpowered the i by 100 B.C., 
to that I ceased to be written (6 a). The t Is now generally neglected in pro- 
nmiclstloa though it may have still been sounded to some extent in the fourth 
century B.C. — The genuine diphthongs « and o» (6) were originally distinct 
doable aonnds («A'-i, oh'-oo), and as sach wet« written EI, OT in the Old Attic 
alphabet (2a): EPEIAE /rt.ait, TOYTON T«}r«,r. The spurious diphthongs 
a and o« (6) are digraphs representing the long sounds of simple i (French e) 
and oiiginal u. By 400 b.c. genuine « and ou had become simple single sounds 
pronounced as ef in vein and uu in ourang; and spuriouH » and du, which had 
been written E and (2 a), were now ofl«n written EI and OT. AfterSOOB.c. 
« gradually acquired the sound of ei in eeixe. tu was sounded like eA'-oo, t|u 
and « lilie eh'-oo, Oh'-oo, pronounced npidly but smoothly, w is now com- 
monly sounded as uf in guff. It occurred only before vowels, and the loss of 
the I in Ui ton (43) shows that the diphthongal sound was disliked. 

26- Coiuonants. — Most of the consonants were sounded as in English (1). 
Before i, k, y, r, a- never had a xA (or eh) sound heard in I^da (Auicia), Atia 
('Avis), r was usually like our sharp ■ ; but before voiced consonants (15 a) 
it probably was soft, like s; thus we And both thiiuit and K6aiiat on inscriptions. 
— \ was probably = zd, whether it arose from an original cS (as in 'A#4"{>i 
from *AAira(r)i-9c Athen»-uiar<U'), or from dz, developed from dy (as in Co-li", 
from (d)yuyiw, cp. jugum). The i in nf gradually extinguished the if, until in 
the Hellenistic period (p. 4) f sank to z (as in zeal), which is the sound in 
Modem Greek. — The aspirat(« ^, S, x ^Bre voiceless stops (15 b, 10 a) followed 
by a strong expiration : ■-'>, r'>, ('■ as in vpheaval, hothouse, backhand (though 
here A Is in a different syllable from the stop). Thus, ifiriyai was r'tiya, SAw 
was t'Am, (x" "^ '-''"■ Cp. /*' i} tor iw(t) 'f, etc Probably only one A was 
heard when two aspirates came together, as in ix^pit (inr'pit). After 800 a.d. 
(probably) ^, 8, and x became spirants, p being sounded as / (aa in ^fXmoi 
natp), e tM Ih in theatre, x as cA in German I'cA or loch. The stage between 
aspbatesand spirants is sometimes ifpresented by the writing r^ (=fi/), r9, kxi 

tt D. Aeolio has at for { in ti^floi ({{m branch). In late Laconian 9 passed 
into r (ffiipfoF = 9i)pfBr viild beott). In Laconian and some other dialects p 
became a spirant and was written for f. i became a s[diant in Attic after Christ, 




which MO affriomU. —The negteot of the ft In Latin repreientstions of 4,, e, % 
pouibly ahoWB that these sounds coDaUted of a stop + K. Thus, Patpua ^ 
Vkirraj, Etu = Mot, Aetlet = 'AxiXXf^i. Modem Greek has the spirantic soimdB, 
KOd these, thoogh at variuice with classical praaonciatiou, are now luuall; 
adopted. Bee also lOS. 

27. Qtunttt«tiT« Vowel OnidAtioii. — In the formation aad inflec- 
tion of words a, short rowel often interchanges with its correspond- 
ing long Towel. Thus 

lflO>T a 




LOiro T|(Kafter>, <,;>, 81) 




rt/id-« M-u 




/ honour /permit 


I tome 


r<pi}-ff« «-»« 




future fulure 





28. DiSerenoe in quantity between Attic and Epic words is due chiefly either 
to (1) metrical leugtheniug, or to (2) different phonetic treatment, as iia\f&t, 
Tirpit become Epic laXit/afr, rfru Ipoj/ (87 D. 1), Attic dXAi, rttti. 

29. The initial short vonel of a word forming the second part of a compound 
U often leogthenad : ffr^Tiryii gtneral (orporii army + i7«i» to lead 887 d). 

30. Attic i|, B. — Attic has n for original £ of the earlier period, 
as 0wq report (Lat. Jama). Ionic also has i; for original a. Doric 
and Aeolic retain original d (^ofui). 

SID. Metrical lengthen! Dg. — Many wotds, which would otherwise not fit 
Into the veiM, abow in the Epic n for t, ou (rarely n) for a, and a, i, ii for 
a, t, II, Thna, (frdXiet in the sea for JvdXwi, tlapirtt Bernoi for iapirit, irtlpoxot 
MMnsnt for i>r^>:<"i fMi\iiv8a have eovie fur JXiiXouAi, i>i\iian» destructive, 
OecurMed for iXi/urot, eipta mounlairu from Spot, OiMitroui of Olj/mpu* from 
*OXu/ir«. before a vowel appean as ot in mi^ breath. Similarly, ^iStet 
verg holg for dyd^cstj but 4n*>^'t tpi/id]/ (from irtiui) has the i) of ir^n/iot 
utider the aind (29), and TiS^iitm placing (for ritf/fum) borrows >i from rlflttfu. 

A short syllable under the rhythmic accent (' ictus ') is lenglheiied metrically : 
(1) in words having three or more short syllables: the tirat of three shorts 
(o^XAwot), the second of four shorts (ilnifioxoi), the third of five shorts (dxt- 
ptlna houndlesa); (2) in words In which the short ictus syllable is followed by 
two longs and a short (OAMnwavi). A short syllable not under the rhythmic 
accent la lengthened when it is preceded and followed by a long ; thus, any vowel 
preceded by f {wnlu tirealhe = wrtfu). i or u before a vowel (u-potfu^Jno-i teal). 

MD. 1. Doric and ApoHc retain original a, as in ;iaXoi< apple (cp. Lat. malum, 
Att. /i^Xsv). 'Bfiuf herald (Att. t^pui). ifut Doric and AeOlio have original q 
when 1) interchanges with t, as In rihiiu T place, rltt/ur we place, /linip iiirfpa 
mother, roi^niv rw^n thepherd. 

2. lonk has q after «, t, and p. Hiub, y«>«4, vui, ^iiiln. 

I;. Google 


«. Thia ia tra« also of the « which la tlie ntalt of eulf competuMive lengtti- 
cniDg, by which -ata-, -urX-, •vo'/i-, and -oo-v- cboDged to •ia-, -aX-, -<vi-, and 
■ir-. (See 37 b.) But in a. few cases like rdt for rin, and in riva for rdnra 
(113) wbere the conibinatioa an arose at a later period, a was not changed to q. 
t^tM tar ^9f« to weave follows rrrpam to pierce. 

b. Original a became q after u, aa #v4 growth. In some woids, however, wa 

3L In Attic aione this ij was changed back to a: 
1. When preceded bj a p ; aa ii/iipa day, x'^P' country. Thia appears to hxve 
taken place even thoogh an a interTened: aa iKpii/ta a muttcal piee», 
iBpia collected. 

EicEPTioKB : (a) Bnt ffii waa changed to pq : as ttpii for Kopfii maidtK. 
(b) Likewise /nj, when the result of contraction of pta, Tenialned : as Bpni 
from Spra mountaiia. (c) And paii was changed to ppi : as icipp^ for tipni 
(79) one of the Irmples. 
J. When preceded by t or i : aa ymi generation, rtiA thadow. 

This cbange takes place even when the it is the result of the contraction 
of •■: as iyti healthy, intti lacking, for ^i^ from i>yi((ir)a, Mtf) from 
MH(a')ii ; also, if originally a f intervened, as ria for rtfi j/oung (LaL 

EiCBFTioRS; Some exceptions are doe to analogy: liyi^ healUiS, tt^i^ 
thtgitly (292 d) follow ira^ clear. 

32. In the choruses of tragedy Doric a is often used for if. Thus, 
^rqp mother, <l^x^ ^°^> 7^ earth, hitrravat wrecked, i^av tomi. 

33. The dialects frequently show vowel sounds that do not occuz 
in the corresponding Attic worda. 

M. Transfer of Qnantlty. — rjo, 17a often exchange quantities, be- 
coming (w, <a. Thus, Aijof (Epic \a(K folk) becomes Xiius, as toXijoc 
becomes a-oXcoif of a city; rtSv-qorov Ttft'tArw dead; ptunX^ paaiXn, 

MD. afore ltt/>4i »acr«d,'A/iTafiit(for 'A/n-tjui), Tpdrw turn Dor,; (fora: 
Uprn courage Aeol., Ipa-^r male, ipiu eee, riaatptt four (— rimipn') Ion. ; • 
toro: SiuarliH (for liac^iM) 200 Dor., frd under Aeol. ; ofora: tT/tirat (arpt- 
t4i) arwttf, Br {iri) Itp Aeol., r/ropft (rirrapes) four Dor. ; • for i] : (ffcrwr (((/'eri'or 
(ttthh) Ion.; « for : 'ArAXur Dor. (also 'Air6XXu>); ■ for iii fi^fur jrreat«r 
Ion. ; i tor I : iciprir mix ( — nipHlrai for Hparriirat) Aeol. ; i for t : irrtii hearth 
Ion., UtU Dor. (for J^rtt), xp*"" (xf""") ?oI<fan Aeol,, Siii pod Boeot, 
"*)ilw aiTan|r« Dor. ; ■ for a : rlruptt four (Ttrraptt) Horn. ; » for • ; tmitm 
•MM Dor., AeoL, txi from Aeol. ; <• for on: ir aeeordingly Ion., Dor. 

HD. OfUn In Ionic : 'Arp^Seu from earlier 'ArpetSio ton of Atreus, Ik/tm* 
Irom WrSs ti^ipliiint. This ew generally makes a single syllable in poetry (00). 
The K lotoimediate between ip and w is tately found. 

I z:-:l,vG00glc 


35. QoaliUtlTe Vowel Gndition. — In the same root or suffix w^ 
find an interchange among diCerent vowels (and diphthongs) aimi- 
lar to the inteTohange in sing, sartg, sung. 

a. This Tarlatlon Appears in Mtrong grades and In a weak grade (includiiig 
actu&l expulsion ot a vonel — In diphthongs, of the flist vowel) . ThuB, ^p-u 
I carry, 4>ip-o-i IribuU, ^lip thief, tpap-i-rpi quivtr, Si-^p-a-t chariot (iwo- 
carrter), Xilr-u I leave, ^i-Xmr-d I have Itjt, Xix-ci» to leave. The interobange 
U qaaotitadve in ifiifo-t tpibp (cp. 27). 

b. When, by the expulsion of a vowel in the weak grade, an anpnxioance- 
able combination of consonants resulted, a vowel sound was developed to render 
pronunciation possible. Thos, pa or ap was developed from p between conso- 
nants, as in n-rpdrtfi from rarp-a-t (262) ; and a from r, as in aAri-/ia-ro-r for 
aira-iir^aw automaton (acting ojiU ovin will'), cp. lUr-o-t rage, iii-iior-ti tgearn. 
So in 6nitialru name for iroitr-tu ; cp. Bniia. 

C. A vowel may also take the place of an origiuai liquid or nasal after a con- 
■onaut 1 as lAiwa foi JXiw^ This p,\ it, r in b and c Is called lonant liquid 
ot sonant na«al. 


Stitmt QnlM Vtak Oiade 

Wstk grade 

f. w 

f i^n-t-ittiii I decams : yi-yar-a I ant born yl-y r-o-itat t become 
Xrpiwtt /turn : Tfi>v-ii rovt i-rpiw-^ir I wan put to flight 

b. w*l$-a Ipenvade : w4-w»i$-^ /(rui((668) wi8-arii pfrtuatlrt 

c lh»H$')9-o-iiaiI»haHgo: ik^\oiif-a I have gone JjXufro-* laent (Kpic) 
d. ^lil (Dor., 30) Ifaf : #«-n[ $peeeh ^a-iiit we sptak 

f rl-iit-iu 1 place ; ft*-/ii-i heap fc-ri-t placed, adiipted 

XfifT'tv-ia Ibreak : t-pptiy-a Ihavebroken t-ppdy-jj it woe broken 

t. tl-iit-iu I give SlSa-iitr we give 

N. 1. — Relatively few words show examples of all the above eeriea of grades. 
Some have five grades, as ■■o-nlp, ra-rip-a, tA-wd-rup, ti-wi-rop-a, wti-r p-6t. 
N. 2. — « and 1 vary in ■■cT-d»*5;u »Irni>u tpreadont. 


37. Compensatory lengthening is the lengthening of a short rowel 
to make up for the omission of a consonanL 

17 D. 1. Ionic agrees with Attic except where the omitted consonant was f, 
which in Attic disappeared after a consonant without causing lengthening. 
Thus, irirot for ifm Mtranger, tlrtm on aeeoaal of (also in Dem.) for Irtxa, 
^pm boundary tot Spoi, mOpat bof for xipat, itaOvot aiOHt for piivt. These 
forms are also used generally in poetry. 



The ahort towsIb 




are lengthened to 





tbtiB the forma 












A. Thus are formed n-ifpu I kill for rr>r-i.u, ^Stlpu I destroy for ^Stp-y*, 
Urcipqi giver for Jorcft-ja, iXlru / I«aJi for iXtr-ju, d\o^d^ / lanWTif tor dXa^p-jw. 

b. a becomes q in the ir-aorist of verbe whose stems end in X, p, or r, nhen 
not preceded bf i or p. Thug, i^r-aa. becomee (-^tih / fAotcrd, but irtpat-va 
becomes iwipAn. I finished. So atkijwii moon for at\aa-ni (afkaj gltam). 

C. The dlpbthongB « and au due to this lengthening are gpnriov* (6). 

38. • artiee from oi upon the loes of Its t (43) In itl aliaayt (from altC), 
itrit eagle {aUrit), icU« vieepa (cXofcOi '^^ oI(v«-(ree (^Xafd, cp. Lat. olim). 

a. This change took place only when tu was followed by f (_atfil, alfrrit from 
ifirroi, iXiu/-<i from >iU/-ut, 111, 128} or t (firipilt the Thebald from Big^aiiO; 
and only when f or t was not followed by >. 


39. Slurtaning. — A long vowel may be shortened before another long 
vowel : iSoviXAt* from (^oviXifaiv of kitigt, ttQr from njfif of thipe, ri^th from 
rrtrtitit dead. 

40. A long Towel before i, v, a nasal, or a liqnid + a following consonant 
was regularly shortened : rECi from original rant »hip, iidytr from i-iu-rt-rr 
irere mixed. The long vowel was often introduced again, as Ion. njCf ship. 

41. Addition, — a, t, o are sometimes prefixed before 'K, fi, p, f {prothettc 
rotoeU). Thus, d-Xtl^ anoint with oil, Xfrot fat; i-pvSpit red (cp, Lat. ruber}, 
/-cimri from t-^f')tliaMi ; t-iiipyniu vitpe ,' i-x^^i i^d x^' llM'"'<^''l'i '-"'■> weatfl 
{•mSiii leeasel'ilcin helmet) are doubtful cases. 

42. Development — A medial vowel la sometimes developed from X or r 
between two coosouanta ; tbus nX, Xs; ap, pa.; a* (36 b). Also (rarely} In 
forms like Ion. fidpayx" — Att, ppdyxoi koarseneu. 

2. Boric generally lenglhenn < and a to q snd u : f^vai, Apoi, Jtapot, ^lot. 
So iiura fnuie from /lonra for >«>rTja, riii for rin lAe, i/d am for ^iTfu, x^Uw 
1000 for x«rXu^ Ionic x«CXui. (In some Doric dialects f drops as In AtUc ((trot, 
ipm); and art, art may become it, oi ; frvrirjlt lords, rit the.) 

3. AeoiiohSBaii,m(af«nutn«dipbth,),aiifrom art,(n,ori. Thw, raiaa att 
(Cietan rirfa, AtL rio-sj, XAmo-i lAejf looM from XAom. Elsewhere Aeol. prefers 
animllated tonns (tiurra, ficXirra, {^rvDi, frrtta, Sppos, lufu, xAXin}. Bntsingle i^ 

p are also found, as in xSpi, /liroi. Aeolic lias ^Bippti, icXlrrw, dXofktppw; cp. 37 a. 
n D. In the Ionic genitive of A stema (214 D. 8) -tur is from ijuront of -iiur. 
So In Ionic partKia. from ^luriX^a king. So even before a short vowel in Horn, 
fruM, 4^1 hero (cp, H8 D, 3). 



43. DUappMnncs. — The i and v of dlphthonga often dis^ipekr btton » 
tollowing ?oweL Thus, Ut from ulji ion, p«-it gaaltive of ^sD-i oz, ecta. t sni 
« here became semlvoiveta (j^ |^, whioh are not written. Cp. 148 D. 3. 

44. a. The disappeaianoa of (before a vowel is often called AvpA<i«>v>u(fr^al- 
/xrit omUtion). Thua lonlo na»6t ehitk for rtoaabt, ipr^ for iapr^ ffitit>al ; Ucut 
fiatieuly for ift/ut. Het« < was sounded nearly lilce y and nan not written. 

b. The dUaj^peatance ot a short vowel between consonants is called ayneope 
(avymri cutting up). Thus rlirrw /all for ri-rfr-u, varpjt father for rar^pai, 
SjDcopaled forma ahow the weak grade of vowel gradation (86, 3tt). 

49. Assimilation. — A vowel may be asdmtlated to the vowel standing ta 
the following syllable : ^t^ov book from p»(Ddot (fiipXet papgnu). 

«. On aaaLmllaUon in distracted verbs (ipiu see, etc.), see 043 fl., 063. 


46. Attic more than any other dialect disliked the immediate 

succeBsion of two vowel sounds in adjoining Bjllablea. To avoid 
such succession, which often arose In the formation and inflection of 
words, various means were employed : conti-action (48 ff.), when the 
vowels collided in the middle of a word ; or, when the succession 
occurred betweeu two words (hiattit), by crasia (62 ff.), eltafon (70 ff.), 
apluKTMis (76), or by affixing a movable consonant at the ead of 
the ft)rmeT word (134). 

47. HIatna la usually avoided In prose writ«rB by elision (TO ff.) ; bnt In 
oases wbare elirion is not possible, hiatus la allowed to remain by different 
writers In different degrees, commonly after short words, sach as u, ti, 4> 'aii 
Iti, and the forms of the article. 

4S D. So In tldL t4tT»l for Itlrrai lies, ffiBia for paSiia deep. 

44 a. 0. Cp. Horn, fcol A IB (one syllable), t becomes i In Horn. xitMt (two 
■yllablee) 4 607. i rarely dlsappeais : tfj;ar for e-i/uar belottging to (As peopl* 

47 D. Hiatus la allowed la certain casea. 

1. In epie pottry ; a, Afleriandv: i^n iii^li, iri ivat. 

b. After a lung final Byllabie having the rbythmio accent : ^i tUKivttL 


c. When a long final syllable is shortened before an Initial vowel (aeak, or 
(mproper, hiatus) : drrS /#' i^iiXj (_^. -^ \j ^ -J). 

d. When the concurrent vowels are separated by the caeaura ; often affr 
the fourth foot : dX\' Ay /fid* ixfiiir iwipiitn, | S^pa tliiai ; Very often between 
the short ayllablea of the third foot (the feminine caesura) : as, dXV iKtmm 
Kihivt, I JMV i' iriweieto /Mv ; rarely after the ficM foot : ^irip i l-yr^ A S8S. 

e. Where f haa been lost. 

2. In Attic poetry hiatus la allowable, as In 1 c, and after rl vhat f if teell, 
Intarjeotiona, wtei concerning, and In eMi (>tqtl) rft (for sMrit, /f^th ho on«). 



Wl Gontraotion unites in a single long vowel or diphthong tro 
Towels or a. Towel and a diphthong standing next each other in 
snccessire syllables in the same word. 

a. Ocoaalan for oontraction la made especially bj the ooncarrence of Towel 
•ounda ffhloh wenonoe separated hj <r, g (^), and j,(lT, 20 a). 

The following ate the chief rules governing contraction : 

49. (I) Two vowels which can form a diphthong (5) unite to 
form that diphthong : yivti = yhu, aiSoi = cu&k, Kk^lSpov = xX^dpov. 

50. (II) Like Vowels. — Like vowels, whether short or long, unite 
in the common long ; a, oa become u, ov (6) : yipaa ^ y*pit <ptXi^€ 
=: ^cA^rc ; iifiiKu ^ l^nXti, 5>f Aoofuv = 8>j\oi]ficf. 

a. I ia nrely contracted with i (j^ + tSu' — iiptliar tmall makt) or v with v 
(it ton in InscripUoDS, from A(t)^ = Mt, 43). 

51. (Ill) Unlike Vowels. — Unlike vowels are assimilated, either 
the second to the first (progresnoe assimilation) or the first to the 
second (regretaive assimilation). 

a. Ano soond always prevalla over an a or e sound: • or w before or after*, 
and before n, forma ■. m and m form au (a spurioua diphthong, 0). Thai, 
Tiiii»itir =: ri/iAiur, aiSia = alSii, ^pv = 4^i tI/iJm = tIhQ, tqXAirre = ttfX^c ; 
bat ^Maiuf = ^XoCfuv, Siitiirror = 8q\aDrii*. 

b. When a and t or i| come together the vowel sound that preced J prevails, 
and we have I or i| : Spat = Spi, rtfultrrc = ri/ulrt, Bpia = Spij. 

e. « rarely eontiacta : « + 1 = u la (x^ttor from IxMSmt tmall fith ; ■ + * 
•tiictly never becomes t> (2TS). 

ax. (IV) Vowels and Diphthongs. — A vowel disappears before a 
diphthong beginning* with the same sound: /tvwu = fivu^ ^iXtusa 
^An, SfXoM = SijAoi. 

53, A vowel before a diphthong not beginning with the same 
sonnd generally contracts with the first vowel of the diphthong ; the 
last vowel, if i, is subscript (5): rviousrifif, ri/ioot^Mr = r^if ^mt, 

a. Bnt ■ + ot becomes m: ^iU« = ^iXa<i • + «i, a + i] become m: Ai|Mfis 

I = i occurs chiefly in the Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic dative Angular 
:i (MS D.}, OS In *iXu = t6)u ; also In the optaUve, as in ^A<i-ra s 





55. (V) Three Vowels. — When three vowels come together, the 
last two unite first, and the resulting diphthong may be contraeted 
with the first vowel : thus, rZ/if is from ri/ia-g out of rt^-c(o')a( ; but 
Ilc^tKXeDVf from TltpiKXatK. 

56. Irragulaiitles. — A short vowel preceding a or any long tow«I or dipb- 
tbong, In contracts of the first and second declensions, is apparently abeorbed 
(236, 290) : xpt"*^ = Xfwo (not xpi"^), ir\Aa = ir\i (not ixXfi), by analogy 
to tbe a which marks tlie neuter plural, xpiff'"" = xp"""'' (So ti/Uat — fittai 
to show the -ai of ttie accua. pi.) Only in the singular of the Srst declension 
does ttt become ij (or 5 after a Towel or p) ; xpuffWi — XP"^^% ipyupi^ = ipyvpf. 
In the third declension tia becomes w (20&) ; us or ita becomes la (ui) or it) (vq). 
See 292 d. 

Various special cases will be considered nnder their appropriate sectioDS. 

57. The contraction of a long vowel with a short vowel sometimes does not 
occur by reason of analogy. Thus, n^ (two syllables) follows rt^ii, the older 
form of Hiit (276). Sometimes the long vowel was shortened (39) or transfer 
of quantity took place (34). 

58. Vowels that were once separated by «' or | (20) are often not con- 
tracted In dissyllabic forms, but contracted In polysyllabic forma. Thna, tft(v)it 
god, but BtunvSiliii Thncydiiiei (Bt6t + euJdi gloiy). 


« + a 

5 + a 

a + a 

[An«r <• or on, Qen. mtta 
yipaa, = yipi 


tipai = ^ip« 


^fr,po< =^4r,po, 

TiM^^w =Ti^*«» 


rlfuioiM' =r^iu 


rIMw = r:*u3 


Ttlxia = Tilxv 


ifT4a =*ffTo(5e) 


4tX« = drXfl 


= 01 xp'"^* = 

( = (1 (If.) ^OJert = 

ri (in.) = ti trn.) ^\iri = 

(I (ip.) = ^ (ip.) ipiXittw = 

If = 1J ^iXhfTt = 

D =11 #iX^ = 

« = « ^iMoire = 

«;(•»■> =iiv ^XAiKTi = 

= <v it 

M = W #lX/u = 

V =V X^'V = 

m =11 X*D(ir)iM = 



U D. In Horn, teibt □/ fear from «/((ir)-Dt the jIrK two vowels unite. 


= *.»9t. 


= rt 


= .xi, 


= xa>i 


= <uso 







= <,\o<- 


= ai|XoEf 


= a,xoT. 



1 + H =1 ^>t})it« = ^i^Tf + n =01 <i)jXip = JifXul 

= If Unt = J^t 

1 + 1 =v /"/"Voil'l' = + » = " ■tx^ = itX'' 

= Ou(ip->rXAof = vXoCf 
= « ii)Ucu/icr = Jti)\iHfi«r 

ip-l = ou [■».) jqXioiKTi = (tfXoBff-1 
= u Bii\6u = SqXut 

= B IxSvlSier = IxSiSar 

= B Wi((oru!4t)=i;i 

= H Ipwa = 4pw 

= (,> 4pui = 4f>^ 

= v t<&u(Hom.}= 3A 

— The forma of ^7lci> fAfver contract from the atem ^Yt^ (yielding w or v). 

Ga In poetry two vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, belonging 
to Buccessive syllables may unite to focm a single syllable in pronun- 
ciation, but not in writing. Thus, fiiXta miaailea, toXi^k city, llTJkffior 
&« ton of Peleua, xp"<^<V golden. This is oalled Synvtisii (owi^i^ic 
tSttiitg together). ^ 

fiL Synizesis may occur between two words when the first ends 
in a long vowel or diphthong. This is eapeoially the case with 8^ 

MD. Attic contractB more, Ionic lees, than the other dialects. The laws of 
eoatnction often diHer in the different dialects. 

1. louic (Old and New) Is distinguished by its absence of contraction. Thus, 
rXJM for a-XoSt voyage, fix'^ for rtlx'i walla, iaria for Js-Ta boiut, deiji) for 
•fH tong, iMpr/6t for ipyit idle. The Mbs. of Hdt. geuerally leave «, ni nncon- 
tncled ; but this 1b probably erroneous in most cases. Itnilc rafely contracta 
where Attle doee not : iySiiiorra for tyiviitna, tighty. 

S. to, tu, tov generally remain open In all dialects except Attic. In Ionic m 
Is anally monoay liable. Ionic (and less often Doric) nuy contract <ii, mv to tut 
tti from oio o/ thet, ^iXnVt from ^iXfovrt they lovt. 

S. OB, SO, a«, OH contract to d in Doric and Aeolic. Thus, 'Arptlti from 
'ixfitii*. Dor. Y'XSm they laugh from ytXiom, x"P^' from x'f^'" ofeomttritt. 
Id Aeolic od = « In piBUrri (Ion. ^6tm) ^ Att. ffoifioCm aiding (dative). 

4. Dorie contracts w to q ; a<r to ii ; a«, an to ir- "Hiua, rlci) from ritat co*- 
tuerl ipi from ipiti and ip.ig ; but u — S (JXwi from iOun, Hom. i)Aiai sun). 

fi. The Severer (and earlier) Doric contacte n to ?i, and «, oo to w. Thus, 
M^M bom ^tirtt, RitXwrt from Stfliiirt, trra from Iwwo-a (2% D.){ t^e Milder 
(and later) Doric and N. W. Qreek contnut to «, and gv. Aeolic agrees with tbe 
"TWftr Doric. 


22 CUASIS i— 

turn, ^or,^ (interrog.), fi^ not, hnl since, tyi T, £ok ; aa ^oi 18. 
a. The Urm synlzeais la often restricted to cases nbere the first vowel la long. 
Where the firat vowel is sbort, t, < were sounded nearly like y ; u nearly like w. 
Cp. 44 a. The single syllable produced by synlzeais Is aliooet always long. 

42. Crasis {xpatrK mingling) is the contraction of a vowel or 
diphthong at the end of a word with a vowel or diphthong begins 
ning the following word. Over the syllable reaultiug from contrac- 
tion is placed a ' called cormia (Kopaivit hook), as riXXa from ra jAAa 
the other things, the rest. 

a. The coronls U not written when the rough breathing ataoda on the flisi 
word : 6 irepam = irSpuwoi. 

b. Crasis does not occur when the first vowel may be elided. (Some editors 
write TiWa, etc) 

63. Crasis occurs In general only between words that belong togetlker; and 
the flrst of the two words uiut«d by oraaia is usually the leas important ; as the 
article, relative pronoun (Jl, I), irp6, coi, ii), i. Crasts oocnrs chiefly in poetry. 

a. It Is rare In Horn., common In the dialogue parts of the drama (especially 
In comedy), and frequent in the orautts. 

64. r, T, K become ^, 0, x when the next word begins with the rough breath- 
ing (124) 1 TO 1iiiip^== ^Mv t^ <^Vi "ol <■' and the ~ x«' (S8 c). 

65. Iota subscript (5) appears in the ayUabte resulting from crasis only when 
the first syllable of the second word contains an i : tyii alja = 'yv'' / know 
(tmt r^ ipyirif = rdipyirif the irutmmtltt, S8 a). 

66. The mlee for cnsis are in general the same as those for oontraction 
(48 fl.). Thus, Ti iniia = To6roiia the name, i it - air, & irtp :^ inp oh man, 
T^ lx<*' = rpotxur excelling, ri l^riov — iel/iATiot the eloalc(M), i ty<i = ifi. 

But the following exceptions are to be noted (OT~09) ; 

67. A diphthong may lose its flnal vowel : nl tiul = aliial, rot irrl = ffobrt, 
^v UtI = laiCTl. Cp. 43, eS. 

68. The flnal vowel or diphthong of the article, and of rol, is dropped, and an 
initial a of the next word is lengthened unleaa It Is the first vowel of a diph- 
thong. The same rule applies in part to ml. 

a. Altlde. — iMp^<tr4p, ol irtptt = Itiptt, nJ iyi^nt = i-yi^al, i) i,\-^$na = 
i\tl9tM, roG iripit =^ rirSpIn, rip drlpl = rii^pf, b aiTit = a-irrit the MtM, rsC 
tirall = raAroi of tht. tame. 

b. roC. — To^ Stpa =1 ripii, pJrrai dp = /urriif. 

C HoL — (I) at is dropped : col a^in = ica^JT, ital oi = »A, col 4 = x4, ^ 
•I = x>'i ■>' l«Tc4«rc = xtnrrfcTi and ye heeeech (64). (2) bi Is contracted 
ohleflf before * and » : Kei h= nir, nil iyii = tiyii, not it = xii, ml drp = 
RfTs (not« however mt «1 = «1, ml tit = mii); also before a In mI Art = x^^^ 
«U ftrtn = x6"n (04). 


N. — The ezoeptloiu fn 68 tt-o to the lawe of oontractioa are dtie to the dedn 
to lei the Towel of the more Important word prevail : inip, not iinip, because of 

S9. Hon crams forma olfrtjMf oCAer are derived from irtpat, the earlierform : 
thnt, i Htpot = Iripdi, el trtpat = irtpoi ; but roB Mpav = Sotrfpou (04). 

70. Elision is the expulsion of a short vowel at the end of a vord 
before a word beginning with a vowel. An apostrophe (') marks the 
place where Uie vowel ia elided. 

iXX"(4) 47*. HW(a) hria, H>' i = iwl) UvraO (64), lx<»*t'(0 *'. t'-w'W 4^ 

a. ElisioQ is often not expreBsed to the eye except in poetry. Both Inacrip- 

tiona and the M««. of prose writera are very Inconsistent, but even wlieie the 

elision to not expressed, it eeems to have occurred In speaking ; i.e. SU «lr< and 

V flr« were spoken ajiiie. The Mm. are of tittle value In sncb cases. 

71. Elision affects only anlmportant nords or syllables, snch as particles, 
adverbs, prepodtions, and conjunctions of tno syllables (except rtpl, Ixf, 
fixfiL, Sri 73 b, c), and the final syllables of nouns, pronoans, and verbs. 

a. The final vowel ol an emphatic personal pronoun is rarely elided. 

72. ElislDD does not occnr in 

a. HoDosyllablea, except auch as end in e (ri, H, yf). 

b. llie conjunction Ari that (St la ht when). 

C. Tba preposiUons xpi before, ixp^ H^^TCP' unlf, and wtpl eoneernftv (except 

d. The dallve singular ending i of the third declension, and in ri, the ending ' 
of ibe dative plural. 

e. Words with final u. 

73. Except tori U, forms admitting movable r (ISl a) do not enSer elision 
In prose. (But some cases of t In the perfect occur in Demoatlienes.) 

74. at in the personal endings and the Infinitive Is elided In Aristophanes; 
Harcdy ever, If at all, in tragedy ; its ellsiOD in proes li doubtful, m is elided 
hi tngedy in ttinot alai. 

n D. Horn, has Uptrrtt = i ipi^rei, wirit =: i a^rlt. Hdt, has oirrtpoi = i 
fn^, iir^p = i (Ir4p, wvrof = ot airol, rAvrt = ri ai>ri, tAvtqu = roS airoi, luvroB 
= h ntroQ, tmipn = ol Aftpii. Doric has k4vI — ml irl. 

Tl D. Absence of elision in Homer often proves the loss of /- (8), as in 
nri irrv X 1 . Epic admits elision in ri thy, ^, in the dat. sing, of the third 
dscl, in -ai aJid -oi In the penonal endings, and in -ni, -irffat of the Infinitive, 
Mi (rarely) In iiol, vtl, rof. dra oh king, and in = indrriiBi rite vp, elide only 
ooee, lit and never. Hdt elides less often than Attic prose ; but the Mas. are 
not a sore gnlde. rtpl sometimea appears as rfp in Doric and Aeollo before 
words begfnntng with other vowels than t. idt 6Sirai A 272. Cp. 148 D. I. 

niX In poetry a vowel capable of taking movable r to often cut oft. 



75. Interior elision takes place in forming oompoaod vords. Here 
the apoBtropbe is uot used. Thus, oiiui no one from o^ tU, KaSopda 
look down upon from Kara ipdia, fiJOtijm let go from /uri ftifu (134). 

a. at, Toml this are derired from tbe demonatratire pronoutia Ut, towto 

-)- the deictic ending i (333 g). 

b. Inlerior elision does not atwaya occur In the formation of componnda. 
^UB, mnfirrai'xiiT iceptrt-beaTing from ri(i)WTO + ox>t (i.«. raxo*). Cp. S76. 

C. Un Uie accent lii elUion, see 174. 


76. Aphaeresla (i^ptau taking meat/') ts the elision of t at the heglniiiDg 
of a word after a word ending in a long vowel or diphthong. This occnra only 
in poetry, and chiefly after |») not, 4 or. Thus, fiii 'rrutSa, ll'iU, Tapi(w'iiairr6r, 
atrj) '{4\fc>>. In some texts editors prefer to adopt crasis (62) or synizeeU (60). 
« is nicely elided thos. 


77. AulmiUtion. — A consonant is sometimes assimilated to an- 
other consonant in the same word. This assimilation may be either 
partial, as in i-irt/i^-tfni' / was seiU for (82), or compile, as 
in i/xfiivia I abide by for iv-fitvi^ (^)- 

a. A preceding consomuit Is generally aaaimllated to a following consonant. 
Aaalmllatlon to a preceding consonant, as in AXXv/u / destroy for i'K-rv-iu, la rare. 


78. Attic has tt for air of Ionic and most other dialects : irparrit 
do for Tp^otru, $a\aTTa 8ea for ^oAaova, Kptirriov liTOnger for Kpturirwy. 

a. Tragedy and Thucydidee adopt XT as an lonlam. On xap(tff<ra see 114 a. 

b. rr Is used for that vv which is regularly formed by it or x and i (112), 
■ometlmes by r, e, and 1 (114), On tt in 'Attijc4i see 83 a. 

70 D. Apocope (^irrneri cutting off) occurs when a final short vowel is cut 
oil bef(«e an Initial consonant. In literature apocope Is confined to poetty, bul 
In the prose Inacriptious of the dialects it is frequent Thus, in Horn., aa gepa- 
cate words Mid in tKimponnds, Ar, tir, rdp (dr, bw rarely) for drd, tari, rapi 
(dri, !nr6). Final t is assimilated to a following consonant (but Kareanlw to tite, 
not toBBatlr, cp. 83 a) ; HO final r hy 91-96. Thus, dXMfat to pick up, kn i-inr 
into the ttrifs; iiippa\t threvs dovm, tiWirt left behijid, naaitorrt lit. lying 
doien, iauii(cut break in pltcft, for va^^dfaii = car-^dfaii, lAS H, jcaJUCuai enter- 
tng inlo, (Air rtSlaw through the plain, xiy y6r» on the knee (tag not kang"), sip 
fitr in the tcream ; ififfdWtir inlfrrupt, irwiin^ti wilt tend aviaj/. When tiiree 
consonants collide, the final consonant of the apocopate word is usually lost, aa 
■drrsK tlew, from «fittTaft out of raT{^)tTnw^. Apocope occurs rarely In Attic 
po«try. vir for wbtI (= rpii in meaning) is frequent in Doric and Boeotian. 

N. — The shorter forma may bave originated from eltrion. 


79; Later Attic has pp for ptr of oldei Attic : Bippoq courage •« 
Mpmc, ipprpr inale = SpaTjv. 

a. Bat pr does not become pp in the dative plural (fifrap-vi otntort) utd In 
wordi Mmtsining the mfflx -ru for -rit (ip^rit railing). 

b. Ionic and most other dialecta have ptf-. pv ia Attic tragedy and Thucydides 
ii protMbl J an lonism. Xenopboa has pr and pp. 

sa An initial p is doubled when a simple vowel is placed before it 
in inflection or composition. Thus, after the ayllabic augment (429)^ 
tfpa toaa flowing from iiat ; and in KoXi-ppooi fair flowing. After a 
diphthong p is not doubled : cv-pooc fair flowing. 

«. This pp, doe to assimilation of ap (t-ppti, Kakl-ppiiiii), or fp {ippiiii) wi» 
ipoJten), ia Btrictl; retained In the interior of n word ; but simplified to oiugle p 
wlien standing at the beginning, le. ^iu Ib Iot ppiu. In coropoaltlon (riL^iMf) 
angle p ia due to the inflnenoe of the Amplified Initial sound. 

b. A dlfterent pp arises Itom assimilation of pc (79) , pt (sounded like py, U, 
117), and FP (96). 

81. fi, y, S are not doabled In Attic (cp. 75 D.). In yv the flnt y is nasal 
(19 a). ^ x> Me not doubled in Attic ; Inatesd, we have t^, kxi t4 SS in 
Zar^ SoppAo, BdcxM BoetAui, 'ArHt {AtUiia) AtUe. Cp. 88 &. 


82. A labial or a palatal stop (16) before a dental stop (r, 8, 0) 
most be of the saine order (16). 

a. pT, 4t become ■wt : (rrrpi^u) rtrpiwrtu hat been rubhed from rp lfi m 
"■'i (TO'po*-''"*) ytyparT^^ Hat been written from ypi^-u write, yr, x* 
become rr: (XArt-rai') \f\iKrai ha* been laid from \iy-u sag; (fitpptx-rai) 
fUPfiam* ha* been motttened from ppix-<* noiUen. 

n D. In Hom. and even in prose p may remain single after a Towel ; (-p«{< 
ad from ^fM, nXX(-pwi. So lab-ppvrn and la^pitwn (by analogy to ^oi) 
tq-tailf balaneed. ix x«P^' pf)M ^ier M 159 representa jS/Xra p/i^v. Ci>. 146 D. 

n O. 1. Hom. bas many caaes of doubled liquids and nasals ; tKXafit took, 
lVXi|n'« uneeating, imiopm uiithovt lot in, ti\opp£iB'if fond oftmilet, dTdrri^t 
Ofry Moiey, ipytwuSt white, Uvrrt relate. These forms are due to the aasimilft- 
tlon of r and \, p, or r. Thus, Ayi-rn^t la from iym-arvpot, cp. *n in mou. 

2. Doabled rtopi : Srn (Ant (a-faS-ri), ^irirc ai ((r^oS-rirTc), tittifft feared 

3. ffv in Vffn nlMle (tor ^uAot m«dfiu, 114), 6wlaait hatJaBard, In the 
datlTea of r-slenw, bb twtaiit (2(iO D.'2), and in verbe with slema In r {rpisn'). 

4. One of these doubled consonants may be dropped without lengthening the 
ptece^ng vowel : 'OSwtit from 'Ofiwo-t^, fiArot, Arirw. So in 'Ax<^*^ from 
'AX'Mi't' On )l, AS, see 76 D. Aeollo has many doubled consonants doe to 

n (87 D. 8). 



b. «8, 4S become pt: ((Xtr-Sirr) tXtps^r bf MeoItA from xMr-r-it ttttU; 
(ypa^tir) ypipitir terapitig from ypiiMt wrtU (origliully wmteA, aavpt). 
k8 becomes yt : (rXiK-Siir) rUYSifr entieintd from w^Jk-u plaU. 

C «4, pi become ^; (^(^ir-Ai*) tr^n^fiir I wo* Mnt from r^/uT'W Mud; 
(tr/Sp-e^) trpt^ai, a wu mbbed (.Tftfi-u rub). ■!, -^ become x*: (^rlwr-^) 
IrX^xAt a uxu plaiMd (rMjrHki plait) ; ('>^-#q) Mx^ it vxu mM (Uy-w My). 

N. 1. — Cp. iwri tewn, fpSofut MdenlA, J^t^fupoi lotting teven daft. 

N. 2. — But i* out of remalDS aochuiged : htlluiu surrender, iiMu ran out 

33. A dental stop before anotber dental stop becomes cr. 
4mirT6j prarticable for dnir-rot from Ariru complete, trrt gou jtnoto for tf-rt, 

ttrBa (hou knowMt for ottSa, rtrttcTai hat been perraaded for rn-ntf-ru, 

fniirh]* / tool permaded for ^«0-4irr. 

A. rr, t8 remain uncbani^ m 'Arriiit, 'AtBU Attic, and In unrhMir dft 
(T5D., 81). So TT for iro- (78). 

84. Anjr atop st&nding before a Etop other than t, JI, «, or in other combina- 
tion tliaii «#, KXi T#(8I) is dropped, u in icfKiiu(^S)-M I have broughL •/ before 
■> Yi oc X is gMnma-nasal (16 a), not » stop. 


85. Before fi, the labial stops (r, ^, ^) become ^l ; the palatal stops 
K, X become y ; y before ;i remains imchaQged. 

<WU eye for dr-fia (Cp. (rwra), XAn/v"' / ^<IW ^n 'V^ for XiXn^-fiat from 
Ur-w leat«, rirpi/iiiai for Trrpiff-iiai from Tfitfi-oi rtib, yiy/nititat for 7(7/™^ 
fioi from 7i>d^-w UTite, r^Vy^uu for s-n-Xtc-^tat from ■'XVi-u platt, r^nry^uu 
for rerivx-^uu from ti6x-" build, 

a. ■ and x may remain uncbanged before ;i in a noun-suffix : dc-fi^ edge, 
Ipax-ni drachma, k/i remains when brought togettier by phonetic change 
(128a), as in ff-K/fit-ta am teearied (idii-tw). 

b. yyii and /vv become y/i and m^- Thos, ^X4Xrr>uu for AirXfYT-fui from 
AiiXo'X''''" C'^^X"^ cofiDi'cf), rtwuiun for Trw'«M'*>'<>' from rrri^r-fuu (r^^r-w 


86. A dental atop (r, &, ff) before /i often appears to become <r. 
Thus, t^vixTfuu for ^WT-^ioi (SyoT-to complete), riiftpairiial for m^paS-^uu 
{i^pd^io declare), wmujiuu. for mrciS-fiat (irciO-u persuade). 

87. On the other hand, since these stops are actually retained in many words, 
such as lptTii6r oar, r/rriai f<Ue. ipiSjiM numbrr, s must be explained as due 

to analogy. Thns, rinaiiai, r^parfiot, lirtisiuu bare taken on the ending -vfuu 
by analogy to -rrm where a is in place (r^^parrai for ri^pai-rsi). 80 taiur toe 
kno\e (Hom. Itiitr) follows tart you know (for tB.^t). taiiij odor stands for 6S-»iui. 

U a. D. So In Hom. hfurei favoring (lidna), ixaxi^m sharpened. 



BOl j9 regularly and ^ usually become /t before v. Thus, m/wos 
revered for at^-vot (aip-ot>ai), otu/iw Jirm for oru^vo,- ((rru0« conli-act). 

89- 7(7»/iai become, 'ii.yr\iaKu knme become ^Ito^iai, Yiriio-jru in Attic fttur 
SOD m.c., in Mew Ionic, late Doric, etc. 

90. Xv becomes AA in dAAu^ destroy for ^-i^^ 

Xr Is kept In rlXra^cu ig>proaeh. Un sigma bafore r gee 106. 


9L V before -r, /3, ^, (fr becomes ;*: tfiviima fall into for iv-rlwrm, 
tfuff^XXM throw in for (V/SoAAm, ^^i^W eaAibit for Jt^^.u»<iD, j/ifOxK 
afttie for n-^;(ot. 

93. V before k, y, xi ( becomes v-nasal (19 a) : tyieakea bring a 
dmrge for jy-KoXtai, lyypa^ inscribe for iir^paiJHa, ervy^"" yw 'off^'Aw" 
for CTw-;(«ci(, wvyfwu ^rind up for (tvv-^lw. 

93. ■> before t, i, d remaiiiB unchangod. Here r may repreaeDt /i: ppot^i 
tkuHder (fipiiirtt roar). 

94. V before fi becomes /i : l/i-ittTpot moderate for Jv/icrpof , ififiono 
abide by for j>^.^uv(tl. 

a. Verb* in -n* may form the perfect middle in -vfui (4S9 h) ; la in r/^or- 
>uu (from ^VH «Aow) for wi<par-iiai (cp. r^^aT-cs, r^i^ai). 

b. Here r dots not become c ; but the ending -v/ioi la borrowed from verbs 
witli sterna in a dental (as r4^fiaciiai, on which Bee 87). 

95. r before A, p is assimilated (AA, pp) : avKKayiK concourse for 
wf-Xoyot, mppioi fioin together for mjy-ptio. 

96. r before tr is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened 
(c to ei, o to cFv, 37) : fuXat black for pxXaif-t, «Is OM for iy-t, ri$tK plac- 
ing for TiBtv(T)-t, TOW for rm^s- 

a. But in the dative plural r before -vi appears to be dropped without com* 
peniator; lengtheulng : fi/Xaffi for /uXar-iri, ialiiori for jaifut^i divfnitte*, ^pfi 
for tpttfi mind. But see 200 N. 


97. With ff a labial stop forms ^, a palatal atop forms (. 
Xii^H sAiiU Jeave for Xnr-w (^puf AeroM for ttifvt-t 

fpi^u thall write " YpoX" ^4f couyA " 0itx-t 

90 D. Aeolio /UXXs eotiiuil, Attic ^vXi) and Doric paSA (wiili compensatory 
lengthening), probably for pt\ti. 



■, Hw only atop thU can sUnd before rlMroix, hence fi, # be«>tne w, aad 
Y, X bBOOme j[. Thiu, yptup-gu, iy-fu become ypar-ffu, dx-rM. 

Sft A dental stop before cr is assimilated (inr) and one c is 
mt/uM-t bodie* for suiiavgi out of rw>iaT-ri, voffl /e«( for roo-o'l out of wat-vi, 

tfrift bird* for ifnvei out of dpriP-fu So riax" *vffer for i-atfo'x'' im^ o( 

rod^Mw (cp. TaS-<(V and 126). 

a. I and S become r before «- : r»t-^i, ipriS-vi become war-ai, iprir-^i. 

99. ■ U dropped before » in 8i)a(c)-«'i:u teach (SiSan-rit taught). 
r is dropped before ir^ in p\a(r)a-ttiidSi evil-^^eakinff. 

100. vr, v8, v0 before a- form vito- (98), then w, finally y is dropped 
and the preceding vowel is lengthened (37). 

rfiri oil for wanr-ai out of rarr-tf-i, rifci'ri placing for rifcrr-o'i out Of TiStrr-ri. 
3o ylYai |r<anj lor 7i7arr-t, Uouirt loojinjf (or Xvorr-o-i, artlau thali tnaJte 
Ifftatton for nirS-vn, trcEffOfut sAail s^/Ter for wtuS-aaiuu (tirdtt grief). 

101. A. hr in, rbr toiiA in compoaitlon are treated aa foilowa : 

ir iMfore p, #, or f Iceepa lla »: Ir-fvfiiat tu rhythm, 4r-«iitiiitit pr^art, tr- 

ftOyn/u yoke in. 
ail before a aod a vowel becomes aw- : awr-vi^fu kelp to tave, 

Iwfore ff and a consonant or f, becomes tv- : ru-amd^ pack up, rO-i^iyti 

yoktd together. 

b. irkv, vAXlv before a either keep ■• or aaslmilate * to a- : rdr-a-a^i otI-wUc, 
Tsr-irAqtat or Taaaf^iiTot the fall moon, TtXlu-vKiot Mck-thaded, wiM«-wTot 
nuhing back. 

102. On ptf see 79 a. "Ka \m ret^ned in iXaoi preetnet. pa, Xff may become 
p, X with lengthening of the preceding vowel : Ifytipa I collected, 4tt*iX> / an- 
nouneed for iry'p^^, ihT*-''"- 


103. Si^a between consonants is dropped : ^Yyf\(<r)$( you have 
announced, ytypa<f>(<i)$ai to have written, cK(cr)^ij>«f of six morUhs (j£ 
•KB, n^ month). 

«. But in compoands r is rebuned when the second part b^lns witb r : 
fr^^roclM Included in a truce. Compounds In Siw- ill omit a before ft word 
beginning with r : Hvxiara hard to cleaee tor iua-vx*'^" ('X'i^)- 

MD. Horn. often retaEns vv : ri>rirl,Biircair9mil0TtaT-a€ic9iu(_SaTiei/icud{t{de), 
in D. Horn, has Spat Incited, tipa* cut, UKtan to copp vp, ■cAo'cu to put to 


i<t^p- eamt out, indiu aacrifiee, ixaiftu pntent from dagger (not 4<^{w), 
hiimw6int learn thoroughly. Cp. B2 h. i, 136. 

105. <r before ji or » usually dksappeais with compensiitoty tengtbening (37) 
H in tliii for to-/u. But aii stays if /i belongs to a auffiz and in compoonda d 
Jvr- ill ; IiW'^H)* hosWe. 

«. Assimilation tabes place in niXordrnio-at for IIAorei rtirm itland of 
ftlajM, f vivfu eIo(A« for ts-nitu. (Ionic (fru^), rfy« toaajloufn? for^po, SOa. 

106. ai becomes f in some adverbs denoting mo^n Uiv^rAt. Thns, 'kHf 
Hlt!or'A»4Hit-i< .a(A«n*-toards (26, S42a). 

107. Two signias brought together hy mfleotioa become a: pS>Mn 
for pikar-m missiles, hrttn for Imtr-ut words (98), rcXtmu for rAia-tnu 
(from T(Acu accmn^MA, stem rtXar-). 

a. ov when = tt (78) never becomes ?. 

108. Many of the rules for the enphony of consonants were not established 
in the classical period. Inscriptions show a much freer practice, either marking 
the etymology, as air/iaxot for rim^X'^ "^IV (M)i i'xa\ilr for tyaaXttr to lirlng 
a charge (^2), or showing ths actnsl pronunciation (phonetic spelling), as riy 
( = T*.) *<u6r (92), tJ»( (= t),,) PouXi(» (91), t4X (= T-ii-) W^or, l-rSova for fx>v 
rii ntmndtriTig (104), 4x4>ipi; ixBtu for iK^ipa, inBiu (104). 


109. NnmeroDS changes occur before the semivowel i (=p, 80) before m 
iQirel. Thia y Is often indicated by the sign i. In 110-117 (escapt In 116) 

UO. Xi becomeB XX : SXXik for iXityi Lat. alius, aXXo/uu for iX^o- 
im laL salio, t^vXXov for •^uXmf Lat. folium. 

111. After ay, ov, op, op, I is shifted to the preceding syllable, form' 
ing Qiv, otc, aip, oip. This is called Epenthesis (iTrivOfirK insertion). 
fslw s&ow for ^>>^, iiAiunt black for u«X(ir.|ii, mlf>u jjosp for awap^, luSpa 

fate for ^op-jft. (So (Xalw ue«p for «Xaf-j,u 38 a.) On t after tr, ep, ir, ip, »«, 

lU. Kt, x> become rr (=<nr 78); (^uXarrw ^uard for ^vAoK-Mt 
(cp. ^uXoK^ guard), rapama disturb for ropax-tu) (cp. TOpaxij dj'aordej^. 

IN D. r la asslinilat«d in Aeol. and Horn, f/i^roi to be for ir-iuni ((fni), 
inirrii uA((« for iprytt-m, iptptrubt dart (^/x^r-ni, cp. 'Spifiat), Ami* we, 
(H«in yoN (dr/u, fa-^Ht). Cp. SI D. 

108 D. Aeolio has at for medial f in Oa-Bot branch (dibi), /uXbdw mate 
Meto^r (/uXXl)*). 

lor D. Homer often retains aa i fiiiurai, Irtvn, rtXtvaa*. 




113. (I) rt, ^ after long rovels, diphthongs, and ( 
become a ; after short yowela ti, ^ become ao (not — tt 78), which 
Ib simplified to tr. 

alffn fate from QiT-ta,, rS^a all from warr-jft, itiftt mlddlt (Horn. lUvcat) 
from luB-ipi (cp. Lat, mcd-du), ri^ot «o great (Horn, ri^ffoi) from T»r-ipf (cp. 
L&L Iati-d«i»). 

«. In the above cases tj, pused inio rv. Tbni rarr-ta, rarrvo, wareta, rirfa 
(Cntan, TheMallan), rSaa (37 D. 3). 

114. (II) Tja 01 become tt (= <r<r 78); /ttXtrra bee from ^icXtr^ 
(cp. niXh-iTot honey), Kopvma equip from Kopv&nu (cp. icopvc, -uA>t helmet). 

C xopt*"" gfacc/ul and other feminine adjectives in -tirira are poetical, nod 
tikerefore do not assutne the native Attic prose form In rr. But see 299 0. 

b. rr from rj, Oj^ is due to analogy, chiefly of tt from ti. 

21S. r before final i often becomes <t. Thus, riJ^ifcrt ptaces for 
TiVijn; also in rAowriot riiA for itA«vt-k« (cp. irXoSrot weoAA). 

a. rrbeforefliial t becomesH-, wbichdropsr: tx'>^^t^^<'vetoTtx»"l(3^)■ 

116. {^ between vowels and y^ after a vowel form {: thus, IXritn 
hope for iXri&-i/a, wtfds on /oof for ir<S-(ot (cp. vcji-ia-r fimjund), ipraCn 
teize for Jprny^u (cp. ipvai rajxtcioua). After a consonant yn forms 
8: <Fp&u foorA; from Ipy-ioi. 

117. ri, becomes tt, as in x'^^rw oppress from xoXn-^iu. pc becomes ^ in 
BvpBi from Bofitf T £or<af. Here > was sounded nearly like g (14, 01 a). 


lia The spirant a- with a vowel before or after it is often lost 
Its former presence is known by earlier Greek forma or from the 

119. Initial <r before a vowel becomes the rough breathing. 

iwri MMn, Lat. teplem ; inuavt half, Lat. stmi- ; Iirrtrtu pM for tfi-mr-fu, Lat. 

Ml-tt-o; tlri/air I foUoietd from i-fftw-«-iiiir, Lai. aegvor. 

a. When retained, this r ie due to phonetic change (aa rdr for iir, sly^ ttUtVx 
for ffui-pr Qenn, tehweigen), or to analogy. On tbe loss of ' see 126 e. 

120. Between vowels o- is dropped. 

firwit of a race from ytrt(<!)-iit, Lftt. genrr-tt, Xfai thou looteU from Mb 'or 
XB«-(tf)(u, A^ from Aii«-(ff)a (Aou dida loeiu for thj/Klf, riSeto for tiMw-o, 
<fi)r from <ff-(ir-r Old Lat. tfem, dx4^w (ruf A from dK^ff-w. 

It from (Dot.) r/ (cp. 



1. Tat 9 appMra in some -fu formB (jlStaai, trraaa), and in 9farit = Aipa-^ 
128. a between voireU Is due to phonetic change (u a for ea 107, rXodrui (or 
Tk«*riM 116) or to»Dalo([y (ta IXin for JXua, modelled on tt*ut~t-*y, cp. S6c 

Ul. f iKUiUlj dimppean In the aorist of liquid verbs (activfl and middle^ 
with tengtiiBiiing of the preceding vonel (87): ftfrnXs / $ent for <#r<\-«v, f^Mt 
IilUtued for ifa^ita, J^htb for ^«aHraTO. Cp. 102. 

122. Digamma (3) has disappeared in Attic. 
The following tpedal cases are to be noted : 

t. In Donns of the tbtrd declension with a stem in ov, n>, or ov (48). HiiUi 
mCi Aip, gsn. rtiit from r^f-it, paaiXiit king, gen. jSoo-iX^uf from jSwiXQf-of (M). 

b. In the augment and reduplication of verbs beginning with f : tlfyatinfiw 
/wortet from t-fipyntbiair, louca am like from ftfaaa. Cp. 431, 448. 

c In Torbe in tw for i^h : ^ I flow, f nL /Kt-taiai. 

123. Some words have lost initial af iiiii nwt (Lat. nia(d)rfo), ot, it, 
t ktn, h Us (Lat. iitui), tSn etutom, liBn character (Lat. con-*ue(iM). 


IM. A Hmooth stop (v, T, ■), brought before the rough breathing 
by elision, crasis, or in forming compounds, is made rough, becom- 
ing an aspirate (^, 6, x). Cp. 16 a. 

4^' •* for 4r(A) at, rOxff <Xitr for r6icr(_a) 3Xi|r (82) ; $irtf»r tht Other (69), 
••Wtw for ri Wrur the Cloak (66) ; firflirf" M SO for ;uT(Jt) Iq^, sMUirt m^- 
ufltMl from oArit ulf and UcTr pUaae. 

a. A medial roogh breatbing, passing over f, ronghena a preceding nnootfa 
stop : tfoupit imtcAnwin from rpo-i^t, fpgSioi g^ont from rfi and iNi, rUptwrvw 
fow-kane cAariot (rtrp + fTToi). 

US. Two rough stops beginning successiye syllables of the same 
word are avoided in Greek. A rough stop is changed into a smooth 
stop when the following syllable coatains a rough stop. 

<. In redi^lcation (441) initial #, e, x &re changed to r, r, t. Thus, r^^cvr* 
for ^ ^t v -ya perfect of ^tfyttjlte, T(-Sif-(up(ae«forSi-#if->u, i<-xi|-"for x'-X'V'** 
pert of x'"" gape. 

h. In the fltet aorist paaalve imperative -ti becomes -rt after -A^, as in Xf-Ar-rt 
for Xnfffft ; elsewhere -A is retained (yrati). 

c. In ttie aorist passive, $t- and tv are changed to rt- and to- in i-ri-tifr tmu 
plated (rl#wu) and i^6^r wot laerifieed (Mw). 

d. From the .same objection to a sacoMsion of rough stops are due iiirtxm 
i^lwxt clothe for d^f-, iKt-xnfiA truce tor <x'-X<'P«t (from f;i;ij and x<'p)- 

Ul D. Hmn. ^luit pleated stands for if fait from ivfott. 

IM S. Mew lonio generally leaves w, r, k before the rough breathing : ir •>, 
■trlwu, refc-^er. Bnt In oomponnds (9 D.) ^, tf, x "Uf ^Fpear : /UMvt Btethod 
C«i*r4 qfter + iUt way). 



e. The rough breatbing, as an aspirate (IS a), oltta duappesred when either 
of the two following ayllablea contains ^, S, or %■ 'x" havt BtandB for Ixv 
= rtx" (il0i cp- l'-'XB')i t^c rough changing to the imooth breathing before a 
rough stop. The rough breathing reappeara in the future r{u. Cp. tvx" restrain 
for Irx" ttom ri-rx-w, MfffXar /ouiidation, but Hot mat, Lat. ledM. 

f. In epl( hair, gen. sing, rpix-it for ^pix^t, dat. pi. epiii ; ts^^ not/1, 
comparative raxlwr (rare) or Mrrur (dirvwr) from Saxlur (112). 

{. In Ta4r- (rd^oi tomb}, pre«. 0ciir-r-« bury, fut. Bd^u, perf. rWafi->iat (86); 
r^^^ nourish fut. Sptf/u, perL Ti-dpa/i^iiai ; Tpixu run, fat. ffp^fofwi ; rpu^ 
(t^i^ delicacy), pres. Bpirrui enfeeble, fut. Spf^u j tI)^ tniojte, perf. rf^O^i-fHu. 

N. —The two rough stops remain unchanged in the aorlst paBsive idpi^tiir 
utu nourisheH, iSpi^Biir tnu enfeeMed, i^yBtir teat thoten forth, iipS6$iir wo* 
nt upright, ieiXxB^* VKU charmed, iKoBipB^r wa* purified; in the perfect inf. 
rt^iAit, KtnaBipBai, TtM^i ; in the imperatives ypAfiiti be urilten, srpi^ifit 
(urn abouf, ^f( say. 

U6. Transfer of Aaplntion. — Aspiration may be transferted to 
a following syllabte : rda^io for ra$-<niM (cp. 98). 

137. Some rooti show variation I»tween a final smootli and ft rongh stop ; 
itxapai receive, SupoSim bribetaker; dXcf^w anoint, \itoi fat; tUkw teeave, 
•'Xax'^ braid of hair ; and in the pOTfect, as jj^o from Iyh lead. 


12a HeUtheiis {tranrpoiUion). -^ A vowel and a cooBonant often ex. 
change places : Ilnlf the Fn^x, gen. IlucrJi, rfrru bear for ti-tk-w (cp. rnr-eir). 

a. Transposition proper doee not occur where wb have to do with op, pa =/> 
(20, 36 b) as In SApsm and Bpiaoi courage ; or with syncope (44 b) due to early 
shifting of accent, as In tir-oiiaifly, rTi-p6r miag ; or where a long vowel follows 
the syncopated root, as In r/^na ri-rnii-iia I have cut. 

In p4p\-^ica I hate throten (jSdXXu Ihrovi), ^Xq is fotmed from /JcXc found in 
fif\£-imt mittile. 

129. Dissimilation. — a. X sometimes becomes p when \ appears in the 
same word : ipfiAfei painful for dX7aX«» (SXysi pain). 

b. A consonant (usually p) sometimes disappears when it occurs also in 
the adjoining syllable: Spiipainet ratting for Spv-^paKrai (Uu fenced hy wood). 

c. Syllabic dissimilation or syncope occurs when the same or two siinilar 
syllables containing the same consonant succeed each other: d/i^p*h a jar for 
ifi^i-^ptvt, Bdprvret bold for Bapvo-rviot. This is often called haplology. 

d. See also under 00, 126 b, h. 

Itt D. Hdt. has Maiha there (irraOea), MtOrir thence (Jn-fO^er), tiBAr 
tanic (x"-JO- 

19T D. Hom. and Hdt. have sffrii again (aWii), oM not (o^xO- All the 
dialects except Attic have Sin/ui. 

US D. Horn, jcpajli), jcofiafi) Atari, nipTtaToi beH ((pdrtrrst), fiiptiarn alow 
tat (fipaSii), tpurii and •iaprat from Sipu fiay, t-ipoMtr tarn from UpKoiMt see. 



130. DeralOpDMiit — 9 la dereloped between r and p, m In i.r»fU of a man 
(or irpoi from dntp (cp, eiadtr with Lat, einerii) ; p U developed between n and 
f (or X) , 08 in lunuiffpla midday, aoulk from pMati/ipia for fiw-ig/Kfiia from m^o-m 
Mfddte and 4fi^^ day (cp, chamber with LaL ramtra). 

131. Labials and dentals often cormpojid : rmri and rlaa relHbution; 
#tm murder, Bttru arike. r and t: alriXst fioat-AenI, ^viJXot ox-herd, rr 
for r iafoond in rrikiiiat tear, tt6\ii etty for ri^itn, rAXii. Cp. JVepfitofeinHt 
and Ptolemg. So x' &nd x In x^i^' trround, ^afia/ on the ground. 


133. No conaonant except v, p, or tr (iDcluding £ and if) can stand 
at the end of a Greek word. All other consonants are dropped. 

a. ExceptionB are the proclitics (17B) it out of, derived from ii (op, 104, 
136), and ait not, at which of is another form (137). 

b. Ezamptes of dropped final consonants ; o-wpa body for vuimt (gen. aiiiiar- 
m); rot oh boy for xaJ (gen. raii-di); 7ilX« n»(ft for yaXaicr (gen. i^Xairr-af ) ; 
fifitr bearing for ptporr (gen. ^porr-ei); icQ^ heart tor jnrpj, op. lo^iS-li; AXX* 
for dX^S (110), cp. Lat. oJlud,- r0(pc-(T) wa« carrying, I^po-*(t) imr« carrv> 

c. An original final m preceded by a vowel becomei v, cp. trm with LaL 
cjuum. So If one from j/i (340 a), Lat, lem-el, i^ prm. 

in D- So in Horn. /J-iifiXit-tai haee gone from |iXu from fuX- In t-tut'-o-r 

(128a). At the beginning of words this fi la dropped; thus, p\-ifficu go, 

^perit tn€>rtal for iiffpt-nt (root upo; tup~, as in mor-luia). Id composition /i 

remaina, as In i-ii^pcrn Immortal ; but i-pparej immortal is formed from pprrii, 

ISS D. T for «' : Doric t6, rof, r/, <)ujiiaTlDi (AwilrMi), ^au (tCnMri), Uom- 

Mr (n<»»i<ir). 

r *■ T : Doric aipMpar to-day (rii>upo> Attic, v^wfw Ionic). 

R " r : Ionic (not Horn.) tbrt when, xirtptt which of luo t &cMt, 

« " r: Doric ■■i«o (T*r(),ai[a (*tO- 

Y " : Doric y'Ki^afiar eyelid, tUx"' (Iob- yMxi"} pennyroyal. 

S " p: Doric JS«Xii (j/SoXit) a ^iL 

« " T : Horn, rfov^n, Aeol. wivvufi four (rirTafn) ; Aeol, r^Xvi 

far off (cp. TifXi^i), T^JiH Jloe (w-^rr-t). 

• " T : see 120 D. 

4 " ' : Horn, ^lip cemlaur mp beatt). 

f " r : (fhotaelim) : UM Laoonian, Elean rip ^eho, TbesaaL B>ipt»- 

^ •• e : late Laconian riii tot t*ti go4 (20 D.). 
» " X ; Doric irttU come. 




IM. Httrabls N may be added at the end of a word when the next 
word begins with a vowel. Movable v may be annexed to words 
ending in -tri ; to the third person singular in -c ; and to ivri it. 

Thna, rSaiw fXrycr iftina he taid that to ever^fbodfi (bat rStfi \iym)»i ravra), 
Xf)«urtv iiiol they ^tak to me (but \iyawl /lot), lanr AXXoi there U another 
(IBT b), 'A^rtfo'ii' ^rav lA«v were at Jtheiu, 

a. Ezc^C irrl, words that add v do not elide their final vowel (73). 

b. Verba In -«« never (in Attic) add -r to the 8 aing. of the ctintracted form : 
■e twalti airSr ht treated Um tMlI. Bnt ffi XKttt and plaperfecta (as iSti kneno) 
may add ». 

N. — Movable r is called r ^Xnnwruiii {dragging after). 

139. Movable r 1b usoall; wrltMnat the end of claiuee, and at the end of a 
vnw In pootty. To make a syllable long by position (144) the poeta add r 
before wotda beginning with a consonant Prose Inscriptions (reqnently oM 
w before a consonant. 

136. Uorable Z appears in ovrwt thus, l( out of, before vowela, oSrm, 
(■'before consonants. Thus, ovtok Jrout he acted thve but ovru wwu 
luactt thus; i( Ayopas but jk r^ (t7'i;f>as otU of the market-place. 

a. Mil means itraiffhtaas, ti9i ttratght toteardt. 

137. ttx not Is used before the smooth breathing, tix (cp< 124) before 
the rough brBathliig: stbc 6\lyoi, aix 4'^- Before all consonants bA Is written i 
o6 raXXof, od ^)iai. Standing alone or at the end of its clause ai is written a4 
(rarely oflit)i " »■"*» 7*P "* : M *oio not f Cp. 180 a. 

a. A longer form la oixt (Ion. ainl) used before vowels and consonaota. 

b. itii**" no longer derives Ita c from the anali^y of ottiri no fonder. 


138. There are as many syllables in a Greek word as there are 
separate vowels or diphthongs: thus, d-Aif^-a truth. 

139. The last syllable is called the ultima; the next to the last 
i^llable is called the penuU (paen-ultiina atinost last) ; the one before 
the penult is called the antepenult (ante-paen-ultima). 

IHD. Bom. baa iyiiir) I, iuiu(r) to ns, Cufu^r) to you. vpt(r) to them. The 
snlBxM -^ and -4* vary with -pn and -8tr: eci^i(v), wf6vBt(r). Also *i(r) 
= Attic <*, ri(t) nou. The Mm. of RdL avoid movable i, but it occara in Ionic 
InseriptlODH. Hdt. often has -tft for -»tr {jp^Bt before, fwirSi behind). 

1S6 D. Several adverbs often omit > without much regard to llie following 
word: i^ about, d/i^li (poet.), ;i/x^, Sxp* «nitl (rarely f^x^j, Ax^)i *t^^» 
and irpi^ guitay, raXXictt o^Isn (nXXin Uom., Hdt.). 


140. In prononncing Greelt woids and In writing (ttt the end of Ui« line) 
the nilM commoDi; obeerved are these : 

a. A single cunionant standing between two vowels in one word belongs with 
the second vowel : i-y<*, aa-^-iu. 

b, Any group of oonsonanta tbat can begin a word, and a groDp termed by 
ft Mop witb II or w, and by ur, belongs with the second vowel : rd-rru, S^toat, 
l-TTfr, f-x"" I 'fiSi-^lui, (-A«i, XJ-fin). 

C. A group of consonants that cannot begin a word is divided between two 
(Tilables; A>^4si, A-rl>, tp-y/ia. Doubled oonaonente are divided : MXarTo. 

i. Coniponnds divide at the point of union : tlir-^ipm, rpov-^pm ; di-^vw, tW- 
<>■, rvr-^H. (But the aDoients often wrote ^nAyu, tl-riyu, rpo-vtKBtZr, i-ii-t^ 

•. a, when followed by one or more consonants, is either atttcbed to the 
preceding vowel (d-pto'-roT), or, with the consonant, begins the following syllahle 
(l-^i-rTot). (Tbe ancients were not consletent, and there ia evidence for the 
prooODCiation tf-piff-<rroi.) 

t The ancients divided it tsi^tou as i-K Toi-rvu. This pracUce Is now 

1«L A syllable ending in a vowel is said to be open; one ending 
ia a consonant is closed. Thus, in fi^-n/p mother the first syllable is 
open, tbe second closed. 


142. A syllable is sbort when it contains a short vowel followed 
by a vowel or a single consonant : 6t-6i god, i-v6-far<Ta I thought. 

14a A syllable is long by nature when it contains a long vowel 
or a diphthong : x^P°- ^"■'"^i So^Aot dave. 

144. A syllable is long by position when its vowel precedes two 
consonants or a double consonant : iinm horse, H out of. 

a. One or both of the two consonanle lengthening a final eyllalile by position 
Diay belong to the next word : IXXoi riMrr)t, dXXa iT^fu. 

b. Length by position does not aSect the natural quantity of a vowel. Tbna, 
both U-{w / »haU say and X^-fw I shall ceaie have the first syUabU long b7 
posiUcn ; but tbe fliat ooimI is short In X^fu, long in Xff"- 

145. A stop with a liquid after a short vowel need not make 
the preceding syllable long by position. A syllable containing a 
short vowel before a stop and a liquid is amimon (either short 
er long). When short, such syllables are said to have weak position. 

Thus, in Bdtpv, Tatpit, SirXDr, rAcnr, rl Spi the fltst syllable Is either long or 
■hon as the verse requires. In Homer the syllable before a stop with a liquid 
is usually long ) in Attic it is usually short. 

144D. F may beoneof the twocvnsonanUi r^t (/ )al«» ( \j). 

■ oogle 

86 SYLLABLES [146 

a. The atop and the liquid making weak potltlon moat stand in the same 
word or in the same pail of a compound. Thku, in Ik-\6w I reltiue the first 
■yllable ia always loDg, but in (-■>vc he heard it 1b common. 

b. P, 7, B before it, or r, and uauaJI; before X, make tlie preceding pliable 
long by positjon. ThuH, iyr6t (_ w) P««, pip\iar (i^ ^ >j) book. 

N. — ' Coininon ' quantity hai been explained as due to a difference in sytlabio 
division. Thus, in rrnur, the first syllable is closed (T/ic-t«r); while in t^kkiv 
tbe firat syllable U open (t/-ic»f). Cp. 141. 

146. The quantity of most gyliablea is uauall; apparent. Thus, syllables 
a. with q, w, or a diphthong, are lon^ 

bi with (, B, before a vowel or a single consonant, are short. 
c with I, «, before two eonsonants, or a double consonant, are long. 
d. with a, I, v, before two (»iiBonants, or a double consonant, are long. 
N. — Bnt syllables with ; 0, or s, 1, u before a stop and a liqntd may be 
diort (14g). Cp. also 147 c. 

147. llie quantity of syllables containing a, t, v before a vowel or a single 
oonsonant must be learned by observation, especially in poetry. Note, however, 
that a, I, V are always long 

a. when they have the circumflex accent ; rSi, biiiv. 

b. when they arise from contraction (50) or crasis (62): yipa from yipaa, 
ipyit idle from i-tpyot (but ipyh bright), xiyii from nl iyii. 

c ( and V are generally short before { (except as initial Hounda in augmented 
forms, 436) and a, 1, v before f. Thus, it^paf, itipOia, x>^, iprifu, f\rtiii. 
d. BI, II, and m are long when rorrr has dropped out before t (90, 100). 
a. The accent often ahowa the qoantity (ISS, 104, ITO). 

148. A Towel standing before another vowel in a Greek word is not neces- 
■arily short (aa it usually la in classical Latin). 

146 D. In Hom. an fnlUal liquid, nsaal, and digamma (3) was probably 
doubled in pronnnciatiOD when it followed a short syllable carrying the 
rhythmic accent. Here a flnal short vowel appears In a long syllable ; iwt 
ptyipoiffi (w _:. u u .^ u), cp. 28 D. The lengthening is sometimes dae to the 

former presence ot ir or ^before the liquid or nasal ; Srt \^(titr ^j^ ^^ (cp. 

SWiirrm vneeating tor i-vXitern), rt ^iitiT ^ :. (cp. SppiiicTot unbroken tor 

irfp^trot). (Cp. 80 a, 80 D„ 81 D.) 

147 D. a, I, V In Horn. Hometimes show a different quantity than In Attic. 
Thns, AtL Kl.\it, Ttm, ^ira, Xtu, tti/u, Hoiii. nXAi, rttu, ^Mni (28), and Xuu 
and 'tiitu usually. 

148 J>. 1. In Horn., and sometimes in the lyric parts of the drama, a syllable 
ending in a longvowel or diphthong ia shortened before an initial vowel: ifu i\iit 

(.i.\J w^, rfx""" ''"" (j.^.- w-j ). itXiiflf pa ipyvpirei' (_:.w \j.:.\j\j.^\ 

Here 1 and v have become semivowels (20, 4.^) ; thus, tSxtra \ j/tln*, cp. 67.' 
■•t -Vi -v "ere shortened like a, q, u. Thus, iarirtf Spfipif (_^ u i^_: ), 

2. This shortening does not occur when the rhythmic accent falls upon the 
floal syllable: iTitt^'OSi^i (^^>j ^J^^^ ^j^^),4ln(^yj^). 


149. There are three accents in Greek. No Greek accent can 
■tand farther back than the antepenult. 

1. Acnt«('): over short or long vowels and diphthongs. It may 
stand on ultima, penult, or antepenult : xoXot, Sot^um', 3.v6pmrK. 

2. Qrcnmflez (~) : over vowels long by nature and dipfathangs. It 
m^ stand on ultima or penult : y^, Ban, SStpov, rmro. 

3. OraYe('); over short or long vowels and diphthongs. It stands 
on the ultima only i riy StSpa, rifv tv)(i)v, oi &t6i t^s 'EAAoSof. 

isa The acute marks syllables pronounced in a raised tone. 
The grave is a low-pitched tone as contraated with the acute. The 
circumflex combines acute and grave. 

151. Accented sjllables in Ancient Greek had a higher pUeh (rint) than 
nokccented aylUbles, and it was the rising and faiUiiig of the pitch that made 
Ancient Greek a musical language. The Greek word for accent is TpovySIS 
(IM. aeeenCvt: from ad-eano), i.e. 'Boug accompanying words.' Musical 
accent (elevation and depression of tone) la to be dUtingoished from quantity 
(duration of tone), and from rhythmic accent (streaa of voice at fixed intervals 
when there ia a regular aeqaence of long and short ayllables). 

N. — The accent heard in Modern Greek and English is a Hreu-atxent. 
Stress is produced by strong and weak expiration, and takes account of accented 
Billables to the neglect of the quantity of unaccented syllables. Thus, shortly 
alter Christ, SrSptnot was often pronounced like a dactyl, ^IXat like a trochee ; 
and Tpdrvrer, Irrin, were even written wp^emr, hrfyi. 

152. The marks of accent are placed over Clie vowel of the accented syllable. 
A diphthong has the accent over Its second vowel (jovro), except in the case of 
capital 9, g, v (as 'Aiiiti, 5), where the accent stands before the first vowel 

153. A breathing is written before the acuta and gt&ve (or, Jf), but under 
the circumflex (w, ovtot). Accents and breathings ate placed before capitals; 
'Qit^pat, 'Ofitu. The accent stands over a mark of diaeresis (8); icXqfji. 

IM. The grave is written in place of a final acute on a word that 
U followed immediately by another word in the sentence. Thus, 
fUTa T^ I'^Xf i/^ '^ baXtle (for fixra rqv ftajcp')' It is also some- 
times placed on ris, tI (334), to distinguish these indefinite pronouns 
from tne interrt^atives rt's, tL 

a. An oxytone (167) changes its acute to the gt&vewhen followed by another 
word, except: (1) whentheoxytoueisfollowedby an enclitic(I83a); (2) in rft, 
rl Eolarrogative, as rlt •jItdi ; who's thlt f (3) when an elided ayllable follows 

3. The shortening rarely occurs in the interior of a word. Thus, Horn. 4pwot 
(_wvj), Mr {.yj^\ In the Attic drama airift <_w_), to«B™» (u_v), 
rwd (u _), often written nS in inscriptions (cp. 43). 

S8 ACCENT [155 

th« accented syllable: rix^ tKi,r (124), not t^x^' IX^r (lT4a); (4) wlien a 
colon or period followa. (Usage varies before a ooioma.) 

155. Tbe ancienU reganlfd the grave originally as belongiog to every ajrlla- 
ble not accented wlilt tbe acute or circumflex ; and soma Mbs. abow thia in 
practice, e.g. Tkyicpitiit. LaUr it was restricted lo iu use as a substitute for a 
final acut«. 

156. The clTCumflex is formed froiu the uninn of the acute and the grave 
^r\ _ ~)^ never from ^'. Thus, raU = rilt, eB = li. Similar!;, since every long 
Towel may be reBoIved into two short units (morae), rQr may be regarded as 
= T-Mr. The clrcumfiex was thus spoken with a rising tone followed by one of 
lower pitch. fuOsa, iijiiai are Ihus =: liiian, Sii/iot ; iMianit, S^iav are ^ fiii^o-igt, 
SU/iau. In SiSaSca (f.e. SitHiaa) compared with SiSaSt the accent hu receded 
(169) one mora. 

a, "Rie whole vowel recBtves the acuie when the second short unit of a Towd 
long by nature is accented : M = Alf. 

157. Words are named according to their accent as follows ; 
Oxytone (acute on the ultima) : Ojp, xakoi, XcXvkws. 
Paroxytone (acute on tlie penult) : Afu, AuVui, XtXvHorot. 
Proparoxytone (acute on the antepenult) : ivSpanm, n 
PenspomenoQ (circumSex on the ultimii) : y^, 6tmi. 
ProperiBpomenon (circumflex on the penult) ; upo^K, iiaaaa. 
Barytone (when the ultima ia unaccented, 158) : lunxm, iLJfnfp, toXc^uk. 

196. A word is called haiytone (^opf-ront dtfp-toned, low-lonrd) when it 
haa no accent on the nltiiua. All paraiytonea, proparoiy tones, and properi- 
i^mena are also barytones. 

159. An accent is called rectMive when it moves back as far from the end 
of the word as the quantity of the ultima permiis (106). The quantity of the 
penult Ea here disregarded (r/i^u/Mr). Cp. 1TB. 

160. OxyUiJie {iiit, akarp + T6m) means ' sharp-toned,' ptrl^omenoa (rtpir 
mifunt) ' tiinied-around ' (_circutnflectuM, 156). Parozj/Ione and pTi^roxytune 
are derived from t(6Tarat with the prepositions wapi and rpi respectively. Acute 
corresponds to Lat. ocuttu (Jfcia, $cil. Tpa^vtli). 

161. The invention of tbe marks of accent ia attributed to Aristophanes of 
Byzantiam, librarian at Alexandria about 200 b. c. The use of signs served to 
fix the correct accentuation, which waa becoming uncertain in the third century 
B.C.; marked the variation of dialect usage; and rendered the acquisition of 
Oreek easier for foreigners. The signs for the accents (and the breathings) 
were not regularly employed [a Mss. till after 600 a.d. 

163. The position of the accent has to be learned by oheervation. But the 
Und of accent is determined by the following rules. 

m D. 1. Aeolic has recessive (159) accent In all words except prepoaltions 
and conjunctions. Tlnin, vi^t, ZtOt, i.t. Ziit, aSr«t, \lxtir (s Xirerr), UrvrrM 
(= XtrJrrof), i^itt (= flutU^. 

itg] ACCENT 89 

163. The antepenult, if acoented, can have the aonte only {Mp^ 
mt, fiaaiXMia qtieen, olKo^itXawK of a houM^aard). If the ultima is 
long, either h; natuce or b; position (144), tlie antepenult cannot 
tabe an accent: heuce dt^pwrm (176a), ffatriXcia kingdmn, ouco^uXof. 

a. Some nouns in -tun and -tvr admit the scaU on tlie antepenulL Thoi, 
the genitivB of nouna in -it and -vt {xiXtat, rdXiuv, itrrtut), the forma of the 
Mie declension, as IXtun (280'). Bo the lonlo ganlUve in -*u (roMrm) ; also 
lomfl compound adjectiTea in -an, as Sirtpan vnhappv in loot, it/ilKtput loft) 
aMtrtd. On Jmrot see 186. 

IH. The penult, if accented and lon^, takes the circumflex when 
the ultima is short by nature (v^trot, Tuura). In all other cases it has 
the acute (^u^Sot, XtXvKortK, ravTov). 

a. Apparent excepUons are fi^n, oCrit, ^St (proper!? ^St). See 186. 

b. A flnal Billable containing a vowel short hy nature followed by { or ^ does 
not pennit tbe acute to eland on tho antepenult (olca^tfXat) ; but the circumflex 
ma; stand on the penult (n^puf). 

169. The ultima, if accented and short, has the acute {^rom^) ; 
if accented and long, has either the acute (AtXiwiof ), or the oircnaflez 

166. When the ultima is long, the acute cannot stand on the 
antepenult, nor the circumflex on the penult Thus, ivdpvrmi and 
bpoti are impossible. 

IE7. When the ultima is short, a word, if accented 

a. on the ultima, has the acute : iro^m. 

b. on a short penult, has the acute : vo/uk- 

C on a long penult, has the circumflex : Swpor. 
d. on the antepenult, haa the acute : SvBfMwot. 
16B. When the ultima is long, a Tord, if accented 

a. on the ultima, has the acute or the circumflex : iyii, tro^wc- 

b. on the penult, has the acute : Xiav, Soifuuv. 

169. Final -ai and 41 are regarded as short: /naOtat, ^Xs/ui, rpiraXst, 
ip^fwai. But in the optative -oi and -« are long (Xtroi, ^uXcAh), bs fn con- 
tractad syllables. So also in the locative afm at hotne (but olm hou$M). 

a. The difference In tbe qaantitaUve treatment of '04 and -w dependa on an 
original difference of accentuation that may have vanished in Greek, -ai and 

2. Doric regarded Snal-ai(I69}aslong(di'#)iiir«), and probabi; ^at in nouna 
(Xiipu); made paroijtonee the E pi. act. of the past teusea (^i^pur, AArsr) and 
uch words aa vaiin, yvnlKn, rriirai ; made perinpomena the gen. masc. pi. of 
proooons (javrl^t, iXt-at) and the gen. fern. pi. of adj. In -ot (dufore^r). Tbe 
MbMitation, in the accus. pi., of -4i and -at tot -dt and -out, caused no change 
in tb« aooMit (rdrb, AfirAM). 

-w, wheD short, were prODonnced with a clipped, or limple, tone; when long, 
irith a dnwl«d, or compound, lone. 

170. The qo&ntlty of a, t, u (IIT) may ofl«u be learned from the accent. 
Thus, In MXarrs, i}>uvt>i, r^xvii J^ra^ut, ftQni, the Tovel of the last syllable 
maM be abort; In ^IXm the t mnel be short (otherwise ^iXm). Cp. 163. 


171. Contraction. — If either of the syllables to be contracted had 
an acceat, the coutracted syllable has an accent. Thus : 

a. A contracted antepenult has the acute : fi\*iiutet = ^Xoii/ufDi. 

b. A contracted penult has the circumflex when the nltima is ihoit ; the 
acal^ when the ultinia Is long : ^tXfauri = ^iXtSci, ^Xi6fTur = ^^airrttr. 

c. A contracted nltima lias the acute when the nncontracted form was 
oxytone : farsiit = irriit ; otherwise, the circnmfiex : ^\4u = ^XA. 

N. 1. — A contracted syllable has the circumflex only when, la the nncon- 
tracted form, an acut« was followed by the (unwritten) grave (156, 156). 
Thus, IIfp»X^t = n(ptiX$i, Tliiiia = rliui. In all other cases we have the acute : 
^Mirruw = ^Xotfrrwv, ptfii-it = fitfiiii. 

N. 2. — Exceptions to 171 are often due to the analogy of other forms (236 a, 
2M e, 279 a, 290 c, 309 a). 

172. If neither of the syllables to be contracted had an accent, 
the contracted syllable has no accent : ^'Xm = iftiXxt, ytvti = ytva, 
v^hVAooc = -mpiirXoav. For exceptions, see 236 b. 

173. Craals. — In crasis, the first Tord (as less important) loses 
its accent : riyadi for ra ii)>aAi, rav for ri. tv, K&ya for ko! jyw. 

a. If the second word la a dissyllabic paroiytone with short ultima, It is uncer- 
tain whether, in craHis, the parozylone remajns or changes to properispomenon. 
In this book ratprfOT, rdWa are written for rh (pYor, rd AXXa ; but many scholars 
write TaBp-ror, raXXa. 

174. Eliiion. — In elision, ozytone prepositions and conjnactions 
lose their accent: irap'(fori™pi)ffwi),(UX'(f*'''^*^)'Y"- In other oxy- 
tones the accent is thrown back to the penult : iroAA' (for iroAAa) hroBw. 

a. Obaerre that In riXX' fwaSot the acute is not changed to the grave (154 a, 
S). A circumflex does not result from the recession of the accent. Thus, #4^' 
(not ^li) iyii for ^/d tyii. riri and rori, after a word which cannot reorave 
their accent (183 d), drop their accent : ovrw wrr ijr. 


175. Anastrophe (Ayatrrpin^ turning-back) occurs in the case of 
oxytone prepositions of two syllables, which throw the accent back 
on the first syllable. 



a. Whea the prepoomon followa Ita cam : rtAriat rip* (for rtfX ntrur) 
abma tht*e thing*. No other preposition tliaii -wtpl follovre ita case in proae. 

N. 1. — In poetry anaatropbe oocura with the other diasjIUbic prepositions 
(except irrl, iit^, lii). In Homer a preposition foUoning Its verb siid sepa- 
nled from it by tmesis (1660) also admits an aatrophe (XmiffB Iro for IroXadvg). 

S. 2. — When the flnal vowel of the preposition is elided, the accent is dropped 
if so mark of pnnctnaCioD intervenes : x'ft' ^' ii/ttripjiaii B 374. 

b. When a prepoaliion staods for a compound fonnod of the prepoelUon snd 
^rl. Thus, rifia for ird^rrt U it permilUd, In for Intri it U pottlble 
{M u a poetic form of ir). 

If. — In poetiy, rdpa may stand for rip€ivt or ripti/u ; and im aritt ! apt 
h used for Artarifiu Horn, lias tn = (ntai. 


17& When a short ultima of the ooniinative is lengthened in an 
oblique case 
a. a proparoxf tone becomes paroxytone : fioAarm OtOidmii, ivSpanrot 

b. a properiepomenonbecoines paroxytone: ^unicra^ii(ri;i,SupovS(0pov. 
C an oxytone becomes perispomenon in the genitive and dative of 
the sectmd declenaion : Otot $toi 0t^ fieSiv Btott. 

177. When, for a long ultima, a short ultima is substituted in 

a a dissyllabic paroxytone (with penult long by nature) becomes 
properiapomenon : kim Xut. 

b. a polysyllabic paroxytone (vith penult either long or short) be- 
comes proparoxytone : mahtvio muSrut, rktKw vXittOfuv. 

178. In composition the accent is usually recessive (159) in the 
case of substantives and adjectives, regularly in the case of verbs ; 

a. Proper names having the form of a substantive, adjective, or participle, 
Dfoally change the accent ; 'EXrii (Arif), rXaCirai (^XavjcJt), TAwr (vcXSr). 

b. Special cases will be considered under Declension and Inflection. 


179. Ten monosyllabic words have no accent and are closely con- 
nected with the following word. They are called proditica (from 
rpoaAfrw lean fonaard). They are : 

The forms of the article beginning with a vowel (6, ft o^i >0 i th« 
prepositioDa tr, tit (It), i( (ix) ; the conjunction d if; Sk cu, that 
(also a preposition to) ; the n^ative adverb ov (ovk, ov^i 137). 

I _ I; C00g[c 


UBQ. A proclitic sometimes takes an accent, thus : 

c oAat the end of aaeuteDce: ^ifi, jof; do fou mijf to or not f r^ tV 
fi; for why Rol f Alao bB wt etaodiog alone. 

b. /;. if, &nd lit receive an acule In poetry when the; follow the word to 
whlob they belong and stand at the end of the Tene : laiOr f{ out of evtU 3 472. 

e. iit at becomes &t In poetry when It followa lie noim : Mi St a»a god. fa 
ntaniling for avr«t is written fit even in proae CoM* At not eoen tAut). 

d. When the proclitic pteoedea an enclitla (188 e): tr run. 

N. —i naed as « relative (for Bt, 1106) is written J. On I demonatrative 
■ea 11 li. 


ISL Enclitics (from iyK>Jvio lean on, upon) are woids attaching 
themselres closely to the preceding word, after which they are pro- 
nounced rapidly. Enclitics usually lose their accent. They are : 

a. The penonal pronouns fioS, /lol, /J; mu, rol, rf; oC, tt, f, and (in 
poetry) r^lri. 

b. The indeflnlte pronoun rti, t1 in all cases (including ro6, tv tor nrit, 
rti<l, but excluding Im = nrd); the Indsfinile adverbs wai (or raA), riF, mi, 
roMc, ror/, ri, Tiii. When nsed as inteiTogatives theee words are uot anclitlo 
(tIi, t(, tdB (or iMi), rS, '•J. 'Wi*, irir*, xfi, wii). 

C. All distyllablo forms of the present iadicatiTe of ilid am and #wiJ My 
(f.e. all except rf and ^i). 

d. The lortteles yi, ri, raS, rfy ; the Inseparable -it In Stt, Toairlt, etc 

K. — Enclitics, when they retain tbeir accent, are called orthotone. See 187. 

162. The accent of an enclitic, when it is thrown back upon the 
preceding word, always appeals as an acute : AJp re (not 0^ re) from 

183. The word preceding an enclitic is treated as follows: 

a. An oxytone keeps Its accent, and does not change an acute to a grave 
(IM a): JUi fiM, niXJt ^lrT^. 

b. A perispomecon keeps Its accent; ^i\li rt, rl/AQr rifuw, 

C. A proparozytone or proper! spoinen on receives, as an additional accent, 
the aCDtS on the nlUma: itSpurSt rii, irSpurol tint, ^louifd rtiur; ir^Ar fti, 
raltit Tint. 

d. A paroiytone receives no additional accent ; a inonoayllablc enclitla losee 
it* accent (x'^P^ ''"> ^''^' /">"), & dissyllabio encliUc rett^ns its accent (x>^< 
rifii, ^(Xm TiWi) except when its final vowel in elided (171 a). 

ISl D. Also encIIUc are the dialectic and poetical forms >i«0, ato, rtO, rot, ri, 
and t6 (accus. = ci), U, tl, IBto, idr, f{>, r^, <r^Ir, ai^, «^, r^wfr, aiiur, 
r^si, v^tt and <r^t, si/iia ; also the particles riotwtw (not •<■•), 1^ «l («<*), 
ftf'i ^<( ; Mid Epio ircl. Ion. elt, (Aou mt 

t, Google 


S. — Like puozTtonee are treated propertapomeiui ending in f or ^ when 
followed b; a dlBsyllablc enclitic : c^puf iarl ■ and ao probabl; i^pii( m. 

«, A procliUc (1711) takes an acute : I* nn, tt rtm. 

184. Since aa eocUtic, on losing lis accent, fonoa a part of tbe preceding 
word, the writing itSpvrn rtt would violate the rule (141)3 I^^ °° word can tie 
■ccented on a syllable before the antepenult A paroiytone recalres no addi- 
tional accent in order that two successive syUablea may not hare the acute (not 

IBS. Wlien several enclitics occur in succesion, each receives an accent 
from Ibe following, only the last having no accent : «f woi rd rin tSat Ix^pi' if 
tvtr any one mito an enems anj/where T. i. 47. 

186. Sometimes an enclitic unites with a preceding word to form a compound 
(cp. Lat. -que, -«e), wbicb is accented ss If the enclitic were sUll a separate word. 
Thna,oiT<(nato9Te), AvTf, (IVt, Kalrei.otrtrot, t^rtii, Jmwair; usually rt^(&rx(p)l 
and ttae inseparable St in Mt, reirei, ttKott; and -9t and -x' in ttBt (poetic offc), 
nlxt. (^'t ^TiH, etc., are not real exceptions to the rules of accent (163, 164). 

a. oUt re able is sometimes written tl6irrt. oik »B> is usually written sweii* 
mot tKerefore, and not ther^ore f in distinction from eimir therefore. iyA y* 
and iitat i* may become tytayt, tinaiyi. 

1S7. An enclitic retains lie accent (Is ortbotone, op. 181 N.): ■ 

a. When it Is emphatic, as in conb^wts : $ rsl ^ tv rarpl rm either to j/ou 
or to fovr father {iimS^-iiial, iiii are emphatic : tbii koI lyol t«ll me too), and 
at the beginning of a sentence or clause : ^fil yip I tay in fact. 

b. hrl is written tan at the beginning of a sentence ; when it expresaea 
existence or pontbility ; when it follows otx, ni, tl, in, ami, iXXd (or d\X'), 
T«¥To (or tiwt'}; and in tmr el some, IvTirfrf aometimee. llms, tt lirriv tur^tt 
ff a it to, TavTo S trri that vihicii eziata. 

C. In the phrases nrt /lir . . . rirri H, rirJt /lir . . . ririt tL 

d. After a word suffering elision : rsXXol f ttah (for U tlvit), raOr' #>t1L 

e. When a disqillablo enclitic follows a paroxytone (188 d). 

N. 1. — When they are used as indirect reflexives In Attic prose (1228), the 
pronouns of the third person oil and vifiUi are orthotone, ol is generally enclitic, 
while t is generally orthotone. 

N. 2. — After oxytone prepoelUons and fi«*a enclitic pronouns (except rlt) 
Dsually keep their accent (^I ral, not twl aoi ; tuta reS, not Irtti m ; fHmt tov, 
not ttvm roe), iiu^, iiui, t/ti are used after prepositions (except wp^ iim ; and 
in the dntma i^ im). 


188. Greek has four marks of punctuation. The cnmma and period have 
the same forms as in GnKlish. For the colon and semicolon Greek has only one 
sign, a point above the line ( ' ): al St ^Sfiat frtiSarra- triertuar yip a^^ and 
U«y gladly obeyed; for thry trustfd him %. A. 1. 2. 2. The mark of interroga- 
tion (i) is the same ss our semicolon : ir& tA^bC; for why notf 




109. Putt of Speaeh. — Greek ha^ the foUowiag parts of speech: 
substantives, adjectives, pi'oaouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, con^ 
iaiictloiis, and particles. lu this Crrainmar noun is oaed to include 
both the substantive and the adjective. 

190: Inflection is the change in the form of nouns, pronouns, and 
verbs which indicates their relation to other words in the sentence. 
Zkdeneion is the inflection of substantives, adjectives (including par- 
ticiples), and pronouns; conjugation is the innectioa (^ verbs. 

191. Stems, —Inflection I« Bhowa by the addition of endingg to the »tem, 
which is that part of sword which sets forth the Mm,' the endings 6t the word 
to stand In various relations to oUier words In the sentence. The «iidings 
originally had distinct meaningB, which are now seldom qtpuenL In Tsrba they 
represent the force of the personal pronouns in English ; in nonns they often 
oonespond to the Ideas expressed by of, to, for, eta. Thus, die stem \07a- 
becomes Xfryo-i tDord, the stem Xryo- becomes ifya-iur tM (oy. Whether a stem 
le nsed ss a noua or a verb depends solely on ila signification ; many stems are 
used botb tor nouns and for verbs, as rifid- in ri>i4 honour, rlpa- in ri/i^-u 
/ Aonottr; Arif- in i\vl(^S)-t hopr, Arl^n Ihope (ArtS-jM). The pure stem, 
that is, the stem without any ending, may serve as a word ; as x<^ land, X^ 
■peoifc / XAy* oh word I 

192. The stem often changes in form, but not in meaning, in nouns and 
Tertie. Thus, the stem of XAyo-' word la Xirvii- or Xdyi-, of rari)^ father is rartp- 
(strong stem) or warp- (weak stem) ; of \tlrt-iur tee Uav is X(in-, of f.XI«o- 
lur we Uft is Xiro-. The verbal stem Is also modified to Indicate change in time :<9-iur tee thail honour. 

193. Eoota. — The fundamental part of a word, which remains after the 
word has been analyzed inio alt its component parts, is called a not. When 
a stam agrees in form with a root (as in raS-it, gen. of wtii foot) It is oalled a 
root-»tem. A root contains the mere Idea of a word in the vaguest and moet 
abstract form possible. Thus, the root Xo*. and in another form iay, contains 
the idea of mginif simply. By the addition of a formative element a we arrive 
at the stems Xttd- and Xbyo- in tJyo-/ui ve Mjr, )Jn»-* word ((.<. what la aald). 

189-197] DECLENSION 46 

Words are bnllt hj adding to tiie root certain formatiTe sofflxea by vhleb the 
■tern and then the woid, ready for use, is constructed. Thus, from the root Xu 
■re formed X^4i-i lootitig, y^-rpa-t ran»on, Xu-n-ii-i able to looie, Xu-^m to 
have looted. The formation of the stem by the addition of suffixes to the root 
is treated in Pan HI. llie root itself may asBume various forms irithoat chati^ 
of meaoing, as \ty in \iy-B-iur we saj/, Xoy in Xir-o-i word. 

N. ^Since Greek is connected with the other Indo-European languages, the 
roolA whioh we establish In Greek by analysis of a word into its simplest form . 
often reappear in the connected languages (p. 1, A). Thus, the root i>tp dl ^pu 
f bear is seen in Sanskrit bhirami, LaL fero, Oerm. ffe^baren. The assomption 
of roots is merely a grammatical convenience in the analysis of word-forme, and 
their determination is part of comparative grammar. Koots and suffixes as soch 
□ever existed as independent words in Greek, or Indeed in any known period of 
the p«rent language from which Greek and the other Indo-European tongues 
are derived. The theory that all roots am monoHyUables Is ill supported. As 
far back as we can follow the history ol the Indo-European languages we find 
only compleU words; hence their analysis Into component morphological ele- 
ments is merely a soienliflc device for purposes of arrangement and clasuficaUon. 

IM. Declension deals with variations of number, gender, and case. 

195. HimibeT. — There are three numbers: singular, dual, and 
pluraL The dual speaks of ttoo or a pair, as rta o^6kiA^a) the two 
"pea; but it is not often used, and the plural (which denotes more 
than one) is frequently substituted for it (m 6^6iiXfUji the eyes). 

196. Qoider. — There ate three genders : masculine, feminine, and 

a. Q«nder strictly marks sex-distinction. Bat in Greek, as in German and 
French, many Inanimate objects are regarded as masculine or feminine. Such 
nordfl are said to have > grammatical ' gender, which is determined only by their 
form. Words denoting objects without natural gender usually show their gram- 
matical gender by the form of the adjective, as itaxpii fJiyat a long tpeeeh, 
^oxfA rfrvt a long island, iiatpAi Tcixef a long mall. 

b. ^te gender of Greek words is usually Indicated by means of the article ; 
t tor maacnUne, 4 for feminine, ri for uenter. 

197. Rule of Natural Gender. — Nouns denoting male persons are 
masculine, nouns denoting female persons are feminine. Thus, 
o vavrtp sattaan, 6 trTpaTttinp soldier, ^ yw^ woman, ^ xoptj maiden. 

a. A whole class is designated by the masculine : ol iiSpuroi men, i.e. men 
and teamen. 


■re neater (109d), as ri drSpiiruif tnantkin (_i ArBptrwat man), ri raiJloi' little 
child (male or female, i or 4 rait ekild), ri yiratar little woman (4 yi^ aoman). 
Also the words riMmr, riian child (stricdy > thing bom '), ArSpimter ec^'ae. 



. 196. Cominon Qender. — Haujr nouiu denoting persons are either meaoallne 
or feminine. Tb\iB, i nii bov, ii rait girt, 6 e4bi god, ii Srii (4 Ml poet.) ^oddeu. 
So with names o( anlaials : 6 p«vt ox, 4 ^ui cow, i rrrai horte, 4 t-rwot mare. 

.a. Some namee of dnim&ls liave only one grsmmatical gender wltboat regard 
to sex, aa i \ayiii he-hare or the-han, 4 iXi^^ he-fox or she-fox. 

199. Gender of Sezlesa Objwta. — The gender of most nouns denot- 
. ing sexless objects lias to be learned by the endings (211, 228, 255) 

and by observation. The following general rules should be noted. 

a. Maaciillne are the names of windi, months, and most tivert. Tbns, 6 Bep^it 
the NorUi Wind, i 'Enra^i^KJv Heeatombaeon, i Ki7«urri( CrphUgvt. 

N. — Tbe gender of these proper names la made (o correspond to j dn/wt wind, 
6 /i^f numth, i waTaiiM river. In the case of winds and rivers tlie gender may 
be due in part to peiHoniflcatioii. 

b. Feminine are the names of almost all countries, aia-nda, cHiet, treea, 
and plaiOa. Tlius, 4 'Arnicf AUiea, i) A^Xot Dtlos, 17 KApiiAit Corinth, 4 ittrn 
pine, ii tiMtXot vine. The gender here follows that of ^ 75 or i^ x^P^ land, 
eountr]/, i it)aot island, i> riXii cUv, 4 SpSs, originally tree in general, hnt later 
oak (t6 iiripar Is the ordinary word for tree'). 

c. Feminine are most abstract iivords, that is, words denoting aguali'iyoracoii- 
dUUin. Thus, 4 itp^li tirtue, * tSraia good-ieill, ^ raxirtii tvHflneM, ^ ftrrd hope, 

A. Neuter are diminutives (197 b), words and expressions quoted, letters of 
tbe alphabet, infinitives, and indeclinable nouns. Thiu, ri biitU the word 'yoti,' 
t4 yrQSt fffouri* the eaying ' learn to know thyself,' ri SXifia alpha, ri roiltte* 
to educitte, rh xp"^' neeettUy. 

N. — But some names of women end in -mip (IBTb): i TXvKipier Glyeerium. 

200. KematicB. — a. Moat of the exceptions to IW a-b are due to 
tbe endings j e.g. ^| Aiiftj Letlte, i) Zritf Styx (rivers of the Lower World), r4 
'Apyot Argos, 6 KaXoiiir Calydon, ri 'IXior ilium, dI AfX^I Delphi, 6 Xvr&i lotus. 

b. Change in gender ia often associated with change in forni ; i Xiirot lie-wolf, 
4 Ucura ihe-molf, t roiip-^t poet, ij ni-firpm poetest, i ffivrot and ^ pmrii life, 
4 Tpirot manner, 4 ^P^irii TOM. 

c. Tlie gender of one word may influence that of another word of like mean- 
ing. Thus 4 i^ot island and 4 ^lAit stoiut are feminine probably because of 
4 V4 ^'^ ^"<1 4 rirfi rock. 

201. CaHS. — There are five cases ■ nominative, genitive, dative, 
accusative, and vocative. The genitive denotes from aa well as of, 
the dative denotes to or for and also by, with, on, in, at, etc. The 
other cases are used as in Latin. 

a. The genitive, dative, and accusative are called oblique cases to distin- 
guiah them from the nominative and vocative. 

202. The vocative is often like the nominative in the singular ; in 
the plural it is always the same. Nominative, vocative, and accussr 
tive have the same form in neuter words, and always have « ia the 


plaial. In the dual there are two forms, one for nomioatiTe, accusor 
tive, and Tocative, the other for genitive and dative. 

203. Lott Caaea. — Greek has generally lost the formt of tbe inatnuneDtat 
and locaUve cases (nbicb have become fused with tbe dative) and of tbe ablative. 
The Greek dative is used to express by, as in pUf, Lat. vl; with, as in Ufcii vUh 
itontt; and in, on, ae in yg on the earth. From may be exprrased by the geni- 
tive : rtfpu ZwipTVf far fivm Sparta. Wlien the genitive snd dative do duty 
for tti« ablative, prepositions are often used. InstanoeB of the forms of tbe 
lost cases are given in 341. 

3(M. Dedeniioaa. — There are three declensions, which are named 
from the stems to which the case endings are attached. 

1. Blest or A-declensioD, with stems in S 1 v„„„i tw.1ot.o;™ 

2. Second or Odeclension, with stems in o f ^°^°' i«cien8ion. 

3. Third or Consonant declension, with stems in a consonant or in i 

and V. 
The nominative and accusative are alike in the singular and plural 
of all neuter nouns. The nominative and vocative are alike m the 


ate. SubstantiveB and adjectives accent, in the oblique cases, the 
same sjUable as is accented in the nominative, provided the ultima 
permits (163) ^ otherwise the following syllable receives the accent 

1 decL MXarra, SaUrriTt, taXdTrn, M\aTTar, MXaTru (16Q), eaXirraa, 

S decL did^Hrsj, ir8piirou, irSpiiwif, irepurar, lr9pvrBi (109), iti9p<irur, 

irip^Mt, irBpiliwIiai. 
3 decl. \iuw, Xhrrot, Uorrt, Xtorra, \tortn, Xcirrur. 
Adj. : Utoi (287), dflo, &{ur, dffou, dfCSi, dffv, dfl;, dfbr, AfliM*. 
X^>1<" (299), x<Vl«T0'i XopfcTi, X'^rra, xapi*"""'- 

206. The character of the accent depends on tbe general Uws (167, IAS, 
170). Thus, itmi, nm (169) ; ISpaw, Siipoii, lOpa i eupA, aiiiiarm, rw/tAritr, 

207. Oxytones of tbe first and second declemdons are perispomena In 
the genitive and dativa of all numbers : rtii, aaat, cti^, aa&r, aaali ; feit, 
(tav, 0(y, SiSr, 0niT ; ^nptt, patpoB, ^Kinpip, ^np&r, fhiMpMt, 

200. The genitive plnral of all sulwtantlves of the first declension bos the 

elrCQIDflex on the « of -ur. TliUS, rfc^ niur; MXarra SaAarrlSr; roUmt raU- 
TWF ; ftiMt nanQr. 

209. The fern. gen. ptnnl of adjectives and particlpies In -«i has the same 
accent and form as the niBSCullue and neuter. Thus, >l«u«i, gan. ^ lunlw 
(in all gei^ers) ; Xvi^inDi, gem. pL \umfiiruw (In all genden). 




TOWBL Dbclbhsioh 





none or Uke Nom. 



«. The stem ma; undergo a change npon Ibi anion with the cue ending, aa 
tn the genitive plural of the Qrat declenaioD (SIS). Cp. 258, 204, 20B, etc. 

b. In the Towel declenalon, -i of the nominative plural ia borrowed from iLe 
D ol pTononnB (tmtro-i). 


211. Stems in d are masculine or feminine. The feminine noroi- 
natire singular ends in -a, -a, or -ij; the masculine nominative eingu- 
lar adds t to the stem, and thus ends in -de or ■^. 

e any) with the 

Nom. « or£ i| I 

Gen. a-« or n^ t[-^ 

Dat. a-i or i|.<, tf^ I 

Ace S-v or 4<* i|-v I 

Voc S or& r, I 

Masc. Fbh. Pl. 

a-it or a-i«-i(») 
it (tot t^) 


Obaerre the shortening of the stem in vocative Angular and plnral, in nomi- 
native and dative plural, and genitive and dative daaL 



213. Acoeat — For ipecial mle of accent in the gaoltlve plural, see 20S. 
The genitive plonl ii always perispomenon since -Sr is contracted from -4-uf de- 
rived from original (and Horn.) -4l-ui> (&1). Final -w la treated aa abort (16S). 

c The form of the gen. pi. is taken from the pronominal adjective, Le. 
(Horn.) Mur ;odd«s*M follows the analogy of (Horn.) ri»r (832 D.) for r£- 
(«-)«>, c& 1*L iitd-rum deo-rtim. 

314. The dialects stiow various forms. 

215. D&tive Plural. — The ending -auriM occurs in Attic poetry 
(SutOMn from Si'mj rigM, Semroraun from &cnronjs lord). 

a. Attio inacripUons to 420 b.c. have --gai (written -vri), -^i, and (after f, 
I, f) -fri (written -imri) and -d*-i. Thus, tpaxjii'i and SpaxM^n drachma*, 
ra/if^i and ratiiaat fUwordt. -tro-t and -jw-i aro properly endings of the locative 
caae (341). 

214 D. 1. For i|, Doric and Aeollc have orij^al S ; ihna, itxi, rfcdt, ritg, 
rfso* 1 ToUrdt, Kpirdt, 'ArpclSat. 

2. Ionic has I) for the B of Attic even after t, t, and /> ; thus, yn4, aUlit, dY«Mt 
I'^lfi^, fw(ni (nom. ^ipA), f*qrfi)i. Tbua, iy«p^, -4ii -S> -4>> '<<r''<r>i -"i -Vi -<l>'- 
But Horn, has M goddea, 'Epiulii Sermet. 

8. The dialecU admit -i In the nom. sing, lees often than doea Attie. Thus, 
Ionic rpt/trti (tern, urtfii (ovour (Att. rpi^-wtt, cnffa). Dor. riX^ daring. Ionic 
has q for i In Ihe abstracts In -il^, -alii (iX^fit^1^ truth, ttrol^ good-vitU). Hom. 
has rtit^ oh foaidtn from rCf^. 

4. Horn. sing. masc. — Horn, has -ra for Tir> in Ivrira AorKman, frrtr)^'^ 
driver of hortet, rt^^intpira eloud-eolleOor, nianxatra donb-Aofrisd ; and, with 
receaaiTe accent, furrfrra counMlIor. So in the adj. lifiowa far-toviiding. Cp. 
IaC poeta, KTlba. 

5. Gen. slug. masc. — (a) -Bo, the original form from Sr{i)e, Is used by Hom. 
(ArpMia), It contracta In Aeolie and Doric to -a CArptfid). 

(b) -M, from ipa (= io) hy 34, la also used by Eom., who makes it a single 
ayllable by synizeais (60), as in 'ArpiiStff. Hdt. has -tm, as ToMrtv (1S3 a). 

(c) -• in Hom. after a vowel, hapiu (nom. Bep^i). 

S. Accoa. sing, masc — In proper names HdL often haa -« borrowed from 
> stoma (264), as MtXrxUn lor MJ^riiiir-r. 

7. Dual. — Bom. ttaa the nom. dual of masculines only. In the gen. and dat. 
Hom. has -ai' and also -our. 

8. Oen. plnr. — (a) -An*, the original form, occnrs in Rom. i/ieuaiuw, i.ya- 
fittr). In Aeollc and Doric -dwr contracts lo (b) -&v (iytpSr). The Doric -£r 
is found also in the choral songs of tbe drama (irer/iS* rocki). (c) -Jav, the 
Ionic form, appears In Homer, wbonsoally makes it a single syllable by synlzesls 
(60) as in ^vA^, from povX't plan, -^u* la from i^r, Ionic for -iar. (d) -Av 
in Horn, generally aft«r vowels (nXu-iftr, from jrXvhf hut). 

D. Dat. plnr. : -)i?i(i-), -jrt, generally before vowela, and (rarely) -oit in Hom. 
Ionic baa -gri, AeoHc -<uffi(»), -aa, Doric -a«. 

10. Accna. plv. : tn, -4i, di in wiooa Doric dialects, -it In Aeollo. 






















N.T. x'P<^ ***^ ^inrat |utpu yXAttu MXa-rfu 

Oen. X<*l>'^ (IkAv ^vy»v piLfidii Ykan-rAv faXaiTTAv 

DU. X'ip*^ vtKaLt ^infolf |io(^ait 'yUrraH •aX&i-ntw 

Ace. X^fA vtic&t +VY^ fuilpSi Y^ArrKt BaUrra* 

fipa (eiMon, itfi/^ day, irctd shadoa, ittx'V battle, rlx") art, yniitn judgment, ri>i^ 
Aonor, iprrii virlue, /laSfa mtise, wp&pa prow, Sfiafa wagon, tifa opSnlim. 

317. Rdlss. — a. If the nominatlTe aln^ttr ends in alplui preceded by a 
Towel (f-icid fhddow) or p (_)ielpa.), alpha U kept tbrongboat Uke singular. 

b. it the nommative singular ends In alpha preceded by a coiuonant not p, 
oIpAa is changed to ir in the genitive and dative singular. 

c U the nominative singular ends in q, q is kept in lUI the cases of tbe singater. 

d. When the genitive singular has -1^, final a of the nominative singular ia 
tUteaga short - when the genitive singular has -at, the final a is ffeiterallif long, 

Feminines fall into two classes : 

zia (I) Feminines with s or i) in all the ca^es of the singular. 

After (, t, nr p, K appears in all the oases of the singular, aa In 7c>imI roM, 
tlxli houtf; x<^l" land. Otherwise, if throughout the Bingutar, as >4inr viUorj/. 

a. After B, we find both I and i|, as aroi porch, 0bi) thoM, d(o4 hearing, 
^ current, ^pomegranate. Aft«rp we have it in ic6pti girl, tipti neek (31). 

219. (II) Feminines with a in the nominative, accnsatiTe, and 
yocative singular. The quantity of the vowel ia generally showti 
by the accent (163, 164). 

In this class are included: 
I. Substantives having r (E, f, rr, or tt), I, iX, or air before the final a show 
i In noin., accus., and voo. sing., and q In gen. and dat. alng, Thtia. 


pa9ra mwM, luiritt, ua^Vt 'Wfo vmffon, Tpd*t[)i table, yXSrra tottgiu, 
^t^ root, ifiMxi context, XibiH ttonea. Uthera ara riV daring, Starra 
mode of lift, iiaiAt thorn, itviajtg. 
t. SubsUntives in i in nom., accns., and toc ^ng., and 3 In g«u. and dsL slug, 

a. Subotantives In -ria and -rpta denotiug temalea, as paaC\tut qveen (but 

^otfiXili kingdom), fiXr^ia female harper; so the fom. of adj. Id -m, 
aa 7Xiijni», ^Xuiiria Moee*. 

b. Abstracts in -tia and -oia from adjectives in -qt and -wt, as dXiffeia truth 

(fmni i\ifi^ true), cCrata (food wl<2 (from ttnvt, eCMot jtfnd, 200). 
C Most HubaLantives In -pa aft«r a diphthong or u, as^ipa/ote, 7^^vpa 6H(^ 

230. Exceptions to 219, 1 ; ttpirri tenif>Je (later tip^), tpai) dew; to 2 b; in 
Attic poetry, dXT#((S, linla, iyroUi tgiionxnee, which owe Ihelr d to the inflnenoe 
of the genitive and dative iXifitiat, iXifiii^, etc. 

221. Moot, if not all, of the aubatantivea In K are formed by the addition of 
IbesofBx j/xQt ta (20); thus, yXflrTafrom y\ux-iP- (cp.7XM>:rKi joints), y/^pa 
from yt^vp-iM, Sbrtipa^ giver from Strrtp-tn (and so ^fpmiaa, bearing from ftparr- 
(•), >w^ from imp-^ tliiivrp-M. 





irottnn man 




gon of Atretts 








S. A. V. 













rafilil iteward, Alttlii Aentat, ~ ra&ri^ lailoT, rofinn hoirtman, aTpartilrrrfl SOl 

dter, Jw»*ni« rvler, — >ioftrr)Ji pupit, ratip-^t poet — ll^/wirt Pertiari. 
223. AGC«at — The vocative of iwrir^i tori Is i^inrora. 

I z:-:l,vG00glc 


394. K and % — In the flud syUaUe of th« stognlAr a appean after t, t, and p ; 
otherwlae we find ir- Cp. 218. 

a. ExcepUoQB are compounds in -utrfip: itv-^frp meamm- of land. 

229. 6«nitiTB alngtllar. — llie form in -«u la borrowed from the genitive 
nngulai of Ihe eecond declenHion. A few words in 41, generally nHmes of persons 
not Greeks, liare -i, tbe Doric geuitlTO (iHD. 6) : 'Arripit Htmnib^, gen. 'Arriffi. 

226. Vocative aintrtilar. — Masculines In -£t Iiare the Tocatlve In-a (>«arfd) ; 
those In-rqt bave -i (reXtra), all others in -ift have -i) ('Arpelliri Epo«l)<l son 0/ 
JTranos) except names of nations and compounds: Uipvi Pertian, XxOSi 
Sej/thian, ym-iiH-pi (noro. yttt'iiiTptis nteaturtr 0/ land), rotJo-r^IjScE gsmnattte 


227. Contracts in a or n from ta or aa have the circumflex in all 
fihe cases : nominative feminine -a, -fj, masculine -at, -^. 

S lamina 


{■Ewi^ for 




N. A.V. 






The dual and plural of 'Ep/i^i mean atatae* of HenuM. 
Other examples : 4 'A^ra jKAeno (from 'AArH(0°-)< t4 earth (7*3- or ■ya^-') 
with no plural in Attic, 4 7aX$ unuel <7aX«-), 4 dStX^iS^ nfeM (lUfX^tM-), 
d 'AT<\X^t Apellt* ('AircXXia.)' 

SST D. HdL has itrtat, urt&r, /u^ai, tQ and ytUr, "Zfii^i, Bsp^i. Horn, has 
A^*aJi|, y4 (aDdY<uk>i irGcAi, 'I^vvH* 214 D. 2, BiipA)i. 




2281 O stems in the nomiDatiye add -t to the atem in maaoulines 
and femininea ; -r in nentera. The feminises, of which there an 
few, are declined like the mitsculines. In the neuters, nominatire, 
vocative, and accusative singular have the same form (in -o-r) ; in 
the plural these oases end in -a. 

229. TABLE OP 1 

Uus. ud Win. Snt 

Nom. »-« fr 

Gen. •» (tor».(t)e) 
Dtt. ♦(foro-t) 

Voo. < o-« 

N. A. V. m 
a. D. OHV 

Dftt •-•« or •*«{.) 

Ago. «vt (for v-n) 1 


K. FlDkl ~M Is treated u short (160). 

b. The dftt. dDg. in -y repreaenta the onion of the Btem vawet -o uid al, 
the original caae eDdlng in tbe I. E. l*ngw>gaa. Fofidb in -«, &b Sinai at howe, 
m»j be locsativea (-« + (, the locAtlve ending). — The stem vowel o vuies witli t, 
which appears In the vocative Blng., and in Ta>4li)/wl (locative) in fall forte. — 
N. A. y. dual -H is for I. E. Su. — The genitive pi. -utr ia due to the union of 
-< + wr, which contracted to -wr in the earliest period of the language. — The 
neuter plural is probably the lello of a feminine oollective ending in -4^ which 
wsa ibortened to -i. 

33a The dialects shov various forma. 






■HD. 1. Gen. aing. — mo, the original form, appeara In Horn. rotJ/iati. 
By low of 1 (43) ocmea -oo, which Is aometimes read In Horn. (AUXm for Al6\mi 
1 30). By eonttacdon of w comei -vt found In Bom., Ionic, UUdei Dorlo. 
H yields m In Aeollc and Severer Doric (twru). 

Z DnaL— -«FlnHom. (firrour). 

3. Dct pi. Ha'i(r) Horn., Aeollc, Ionic. 

4. Acc pL —-on Is from -or-i (found in Cretan), that Ii, the accns. ahig. + 1. 
From -an comes -wt Severer Doric, -mi Aeoltc, -at Cretan and in Hat. postlj. 
4VT ii Horn., Ionic, and Hlldsr Doric. 


i fr««t Aorw i &v0pirrBt man H iSAt wag 

Masculine : \i7c1 teord, Sijiioi people, jDuXoi «Iae«, ilrJutvf <Janifcr, r jXt^iot loar ; 
d7^ Jlei'^ rorofidi rin«r, ipiS/iit number. Feminine: r^roi Caland, Ifwtipei 
mainland ; i(ii) rpo^i nurte. Neuier : l^rror tsoril:, TTipirutn^, IffrKftUNner. 

332. FemisiiieB. — a. See 197 for tvii dautrUer-ln-Iau; see 199 for r^aot 
Mand (cp. £00 c), A9^t (the Island of) Delot, Kiptftot Corinth, ^rri* (acorn- 
bearing) oak, d/ivfXoi Vint. 

b. Some are properly adjectives used substantively : SiAXtrrot (_Kil, tXOttb 
qiefcA) dialect, liitirrpot (_scil, Ypo*'*'^ 'i"') dfamefer, aCXiwt (Mfl, Mpa door) 
ftotue-door, r^iXirroj (scif. ^uX^ counctl) ie; idatvvt bod]/, ipium and lirttpet 
(icil. x<!'fiA country) desert and mainland. 

c. Words (or toajr ; 6Sii and icAci/Ak isay ,' and iiia(iT6i caiTiagt-road, irpawit 
foot-path, which may be adjectival (b) with AJAi omitted. 

d. Various otbar words ; pieam totich-itnne, pip^oi book, yipKio* crane, 
yuASct jau), 'yi>^iH cAalifc, Sik™ writing-tablet, Si>t6t beam, Spiaet dets, cd/uHt 
oven, tipSorai kneading-lrovgh, ci^vrii cheMt, nirpQi dvng, Xqvit tein^prtMM, 
\tBot Mtone ('200 c), r6aet diaeiue, rMrftt brick, ^dpSoi rod, vapAi e^fffln, ffrnlAi 
ash<j, rd^pot fr«ncA, x^Xif coffer, ^d^ifief sand, y^^ftet pebMc. 

333. Vocative. — The nomiuative 6t6^ is used instead of the Toctk- 
tive. iSei^ brother retracts the accent (aStXifx). 

234. Dative Plural. — The eoding •oun(v) often appears in poetry, 
ruely in Attic prose (Plato). 

ju In Old KMo inscriptlone -oit displaces -eiei^r) about 444 b.o. 


235. Stems in co and 00 are contracted according to 60, 61. « in 
the neuter becomes a (56). 

SU D. Homeric and Ionic generally bave tbe open forms, ttt^x^ wfne- 
poHr«r does not contract In Attic since it stands for tlrax^fi- 



i vD(f mtttd i mp(«Xaiit laCUng around ri bmtr boH4 

(ir(ptir\iai>) «4p[*)kov 
(rtph-Xoo-r) 'KiptwXov-v 


(in- Aw) 

(>dlHf) TOif 

(Tf^rXiut) inplvXav 

i w^oOt (T\ioi) voyage, i ^Pt (piet) Mream, 1 

(iffTia) irni 

will, 6ffTii, not 

236. ACGMiL— a. Tbeuominadveilaalialn'^uiarlr ox;U>ne: 
fA, <rTi3 Bccordtog to ITl, N, 3. 

b. nfvSv (idfHF) ba*litt receives Ita accent (not riraur) from tliat of the genl- 
lire and dative uiwEI, ica>v. Cp. 290 c. 

c. ComponndB retain the accent on the syllable that has It in the Doailnative 
•ingolar : f nrrXavt bom fn-Xaoi ; tKwXtv (not fn-Xoi) from ticrXiiHi ; fm-Xwr (not 
/nXdr) from Jn-XlwK. 


237. Some eubstantiTes ending in -tiof are placed under the Second 
Declension because thejr are derived fi'om earlier o stems preceded 
by a long Towel (-tmt from -ijot, 34). A few othera have a coasonant 
before -mc. The vocative has no special form. 

N, — This deelanaion ta called "Attic" because the words In questioQ geaei>- 
ally show -*n In Atdo and -ot in the KoluA dialect (p. 3, F). 

238. i viAt temple 

Horn. *«4^ (lonlo n|t-i) N. A. vA (Ionic rq J) Xom. My' (lonio ni*0 

Gen. M* ( " nfoO) O. D. m^*( " nfoii) Gen. raiv ( " rr^r) 
Bat .eV ( " 'W) Dat. m^ ( " Fii«-f) 

Ace. vi4r C " "»*-»•) Ace. vMlt ( " n|o^) 


A. So i X«ih people, i H»An#i Menelavt, ( Myiit Jutre. Obaerre that » It 
foDDd In ever; farm, uid that It takes 1 tubicript io tha datlrB of all nomben 
where an ordinary e stem baa 1. 

b. There are do neuter subetantlves belon^ng to the Attic declendon in 
Btandard classical literature ; but neuter adjectives (289) end in -ur. 

G. Kiii and moat vroids of this declension ovre their forma to tranater of 
quantity (34) or to sbort«nlr% (89). Thus, ttiit is from mfit ( = Doric >a6t>, 
ffiit from n)Ar ; reif is from niv- Xa7(Ai Is Contracted from Xafwit. 

d. Id the accusative siogular aome words end in -u or -at, as \ayii or \ny6r 
hare. So i 'Jtffun, 4 K/ui, 4 T/u>, 4 K"i< A Htnn. 4 f<>n dauiii always haa fu. 

339. AcMDt —a. The accent of the nominative is kept Id all caaea, Ktrt- 
)Uht (163 a) retains the accent of the earlier HciAaai. 

b. The geoilive and dative are ozytone when the final syllable is acoented. 

N. — The acoentuaUon of the words of this declension is doubtful. Some ot 
the ancients accented Xayth, XaYiifi otiiers 'ka-fHt, ^ySr, etc 


240. This declension includes stems ending in a consonant, in ■, «, 
or a diphthong, and some in w and o, representing mp and ot. 

N. — To determine whether a nonn belongs to the third declension tt is neces- 
•ary In most cases to know the ststn, which is usually found by dropping -ai of 
the genitive singalar. Stems in i and u are classed ander the consonant declen- 
sion becaose neither of these vowels admits contraction with the com endings 
beginoing with a vowel, herein being like a consonanL 


241. Masculine and feminine stems not en^ng in y, p, ^ and orr, 

a. A Ubial (r, A «) + f becomes f (97). 

b. A dental <r, »,i) + t becomes <r<r (98), which la raduoed to 1 (107). 
C. A palatal (jc, y, x) or rr + t becomes f (97). 

(The aome ebangea occur in the dative plural.) 

yt^ valtttre tmt-^ 'A/w^ Arab 'Apap-ot ; kojAtip batentt* xuirfT^i, fkwit 
hop* tKrlS-«t, Sfitii bird SptiB-ot ; ^6\ai guard ^Xai^t, /liorij teourge iidariy-at, 
#dXrtT( trvmptt ff-dXrivY-ot, Srvi nail Snix-ot, m}£ ni^At ivtr-it ; S\-i tatt i\^, 
IX^ JItIt Ix^^-^l tkiipil eiephant ftJiparr-ot. 

342. Maaonline and feminine stems ending in v, p, and t reject t 
and lengthen a preceding vowel if short (< to i;, a to w). 

ialiuar dfolnfly ialiiaw-ot, x*^!'^' wirtttr x*'^''^! Xt^4> harhowr "Kiitir-iH, 
*BXXi|> Oredt 'EXXi)r-«t ; ^ipup orator ^ip-ap-n, d4p air Up-»t, ^lip tliief ^up-h. 

1= Coo^^lc 


rptiflv trireme (Htem rfx^er-. SOS b), o/Sii) ahame (atem alSot-, 286), On >i4f 
we 860 end. For alema In n, aominativs -oi, see 203 c 

M3. Masculine stems in ovr drop r (133) and lengthea o to <*: 
yipanr oid ffiOn yiporr-^, Xi'oif lion Xiavr-ot. 

244, Neuters show the pure stem, from which final t and other con- 
sonaDts not standing at the end of a word (133) are dropped : iLpii^ 
cliariol SppjiT-iK, wpayya thing irpiyiMT-os, yaXa tniik yaXoKT-oi (133 b). 

245. Snnmuiy. — t is added to stems ending In a Ubtal, dental, palatal, 
and in srr, trr, vrr ; to some stems In t (as tU one ir-i% «iAaf black /iAa*-«i); 
to stems in «i, uu, ou ; and to maac. and fern, stems In i and u. i is not added to 
most iteniB ending in r, nor to thoae in on-, p, n, «, ot, v (neat.), w(^), <i(i). 


a4€L Masculines and feminines usually add a to stems ending io a 
consonant ; v to sterna ending in t or v. 

"yOr-a, Srvx-a, Miptirr-a, \iiilr-a, p'^o^^ Xfc(T-« ; TJXi-r, 'x'l^''t fi^f from 
rMi-t aty, 'x^^ JI*A, ^a-i oz, eow. Stems In m take a (275). 

247. Barytone stems of two syllables ending in tr, (8, \6 usually 
drop the dental and add y. 

xift grace (stem x<V"-) X^'t fp'* ttrfft (fptt-) tpa>. Sprit btrd (ipinS-) SpKr, 
So (OfXirtf lu^fiil (dtfXrij.) ibXTir (202). Ozy tosee end in ■ : Ai-U-a, >r*piymi 
(tr^piytt seal). 

a. cXni iey (cX«S-)> Old Att *\<tt, bas jcX*:* (late cXcaa), soo. pi. >X(ik (lat« 



ata The Tocative of masculines and feminines is usually tiie pure 

wtlu (tUu-) eitf), PtB (^ff-i ox, CDU), ZiiKfwm (ZuxfidTqi). Stems In it and 
FT cannot retain final S and r (133), bence 'A^(m< fnim 'Afrtiut {'Afr^uS-), ru 
froin roll boy, girl (ruj-), hSh from rrSni mcitden (rfSnS-) ; T'/"" from yipu* 
old man (tv9w-), yl-i^r from 7(7i( (riant (7i7«'>"-)> 

249. The vocative is the same as the nominative : 
a. In stems ending in a stop (16) consonant (except those in it, ii,X9\ rr in 
noDiM): i> ^dXof vsatchman. (Afii Ajax (A/arr-) ts nom. and voc.) 

MS D. Hdt has Uiiw tooth iiirr-ot. Attio Mo£t bas the tnflecUon of a par- 
ticiple in .«w (307). 

M7 D. The aoc. In a (xilfHTo. 'fJlo, SprFffa) occurs in Horn., HdL, and In Attlo 
poetry. Bo icipvAa and riput (icbpm helmef) in Horn. 

HB D. Hom. has An oh ktng as wel) as dmf (inur-)] Afar from Alorr-. 
OwXvJdfia, AdoSdfui (from stems In arr) are later forms dne to analogr- 



b. In ozjtone stemi ending fn a liquid and not taking t to fonn tlieir nomi- 
native (242): u TdiM* ^lepherd (rot>M*-); bnt ii^p man, rarihi /other ban 
ittp, rirtp (202). Barytones use the Btem M the vocative i Jo^io^ Pfn^ 
fiom Sal/iur divinUg, p-^rap orator. 

c In all parlicipiea. 

390. The dative plural adds -at to the stem. 

'Apivf C^f^'^ '^f^f^ iiiiaTt( (/uurrir-] /idari^i, ^Xa{ (^uXojc-) fWXafi, irfifia 
(eutia,T-) B^iuuTi (9B), ^Xirif (AriJ-> iXirliri (98), j^rit (dpr»-) J^fiiri (V8), /U^ju 
(/X(^rr-) ft;*5iri, *ii,> (*»-) %wL 

a. Stems in rr drop rr and Jengtben tbe preceding vowel (100) i Uwr (Xwit>) 
Udhti, 7(701 (7i7aiT-) ylyivi. 

b. Stems in t drop • withonC lengthening the preceding vowel (If iluM)! 

loJ/wT (Saiitar-) laffuxri, toi/i^v (roifut-) iiai/itei, 4ip^r mind (#p«i-) ^ptrL 

N. — StricUy > Ih not dropped, but since the stem of the dat. pi. is weak In 
form (263 a) the v stood originally between two conBOnania and should become 
a (36 b). Tlius, #piwf in Findor is for ^pgti. Attic ^ptal borrovra ite « from 
•ppirti, ^fitrur, etc. So wm/Uri, for roqtavi from waiigji, because of woiiUm, etc. 

c. ^ is not changed to pp (79 a). 


251. a. The ending -at is prodaced by adding rt to the stem (t becoming a 
between two consonants by 35 b). Thns ^t\tu-at Is from ^Xac-{;i. This •« 
may be added even to t and v stems : Horn. viXi-oi, lx96~a.i, Hdu r^x'-^- Hom. 
»iW» is from fiXi-rt (Cretan), 

b. Tbe nominatiTe pi. masc. or fem. is sometimes used Instead of tbe acoiua> 
tive pL : rpiiipia 2d4, rdXcn and v4x"> ^& 


292. Accent. — Stems of one syllable accent the case ending in the 
eenitive and dative of all numbers ; and -uv and -01* take the circum- 
flex accent. Thus, <^At^ vein, <f>A(jS-(is, <t>XtP-Siv ; $^p wUd beaat, $^p-6t, 
Oiffroiv, 6i)f^v; 9pli hair, rpix-6i, rpixiov. 

a. Exceptions. Tbe ending of tbe gen. dual and pi. Is not accented la the 
case of i, 4 rait boy, gtrl, i S/uis tlauf, i Biit jackal, i Tpiit TYojaa, i) S^> torch, 

SBO D. I. Horn. hHR only -our in the gen. and dat. dnal. 

2. In tbe dat. pi. Hom. has 171 (p/\te-at, i&rvr-gi'), and in a few oases -wi, 
reduced from -taat (itditT-mi) ; -iriri occurs after vowels (yitv-<rai ; for yirivi ?). 
•iirai was added both to atcms not ending In «■ (rii-tvin, pi-tm, drSp-tcvi, it-tim, 
274 D.), and even to Bl^ms in o- i,rt-,?-(ff(r.)- Horn, has also mvcl, wtrl; Find. 
XiplTiirai, Biiiurau Tragedy has this -ttrii i_impi6-wri), and SO AeoUc, and the 
Doric of Corinth. 



ri ^Ht tight, ri oBi ear. Thus, ralSv* (but v<uri). Tpiiwr, Arwr, eto. Bo fi* 
brin^r. >"•*• (306). 

b. A trisyllabic form, if contracted, does not sbow tbe accent on the case 
endiug : 4p-«i for lap-at, ijp-i for lap-i, from ri tap tpring. 

253. TuiKtion of Stem Foinutlon. — Maaj words of the third declension 
■tiow tt«ceB of an original variation of stem that is due to the influence of a 
shifting accent whlob IB aeen in some of the cognate languages. Id Greek this 
varlatioD has often been obaoured by the analogy of other forms. Thos warfpur, 
in conpariBon with Horn, rarp^r, Lat patrum, gets its < from raripii. 

a. Variation of stem is seen in ar, er {269} ; i)p, cp, pa (262) ; qi, «r- (204) ; 
in stems in •., « (2T0) ; u, n> (2T0) ; rv, i,ii (278) ; ot, u (279), etc. Words in uw, 
^r show a middle form or, er, and a weak form in v (260 N.). 

b. Several words ending in p show a parallel stem in r ; tbns, iisp wattr 
(lar-M, ^TBp livtr frar-ot, ^p^ap (amt ippiiT-ot (but poet. M/iop le^^s Jd>u^-oi). 
The reason for this change is nnceitain, but ar is derived from vt after a con- 
sonant (36 b) : Afrroj, ^i-rot, cp. Lat. jecitiorU, nom. jtcur. fjrap fs prohably 
derived from itrofrr (138). 

c -arn was transferred from sacb genitives as driparat, Ifrarot to other nonter 
words : yirarot from yin knee, instead ot yntf-ni, whence Horn. 'iovw6%. pQt 
Ugkt, for 4An (stem ^aw-}, has token on the t inflection (0vr-jt, etc.). 

d. Neuter stems in -<t show -at in tbe nominative. Cp. (rot gear (stem trta-') 
with LMt. vtttu, veter-it (for cete*-f>). 

394. Tariation of Qnantitr. —a- In poetry the qoantttf of i in words In 
•a may differ from tJiat of prose ; as in tragedy Sptli bird, iMt dust, 9fii terpenf 
(in proae 6pr!i, eirfj, K^It) ; so in Find. /xBEt (prose (xS*>) fi«h. 

\>. ic^V herald, *oif!i Phoenician, pdrrli whip have long u and i in the 
oblique cases except the dat. pi. (fipimi, ^ItiKi, iidtTiya, etc.). iXdr^^ fox has 
( in tbe gen. dXiirinH, etc., by analogy to such words as iriiiui|i>, woii/Jrot (dXif- 
ritut occurs in Ionic). wOp fire has rfipji, wSpl, etc. (28S, 26). 

259. Oender. — The gender of substantives of the third declension 
is frequently known by the last letters of the stem. 

1. Masculine are stems ending in 

•- rr : iteii tooth (6iarT-), ipitvr serpent (Jpamn-.). 

b. V"! •"■= »/"?» day-lahower (jtrtfT-), yiXut laughter (-/tXarr-). 

EzMptions. Stems in -rirr (2, b) ; 4 irSit dre»i (hSvr-), ri ^Qt light (^tn-). 
C v: yMfuit meadote (Xn^r-). 

Exceptions. Fem. : sl«ms In 70*, aor (2, a), and fpp^r mind (#fM»-), Ii 
ttreji0h (tr-), fiU note (fiir~), ixrU raff (iicrir-), ^Xiux'i arroK-point (y\v- 
Xir-), iiStt birth-pang (Mip-), tliiir image (tJiet-), fiJit ghore (#<»^)i x^'^' 
etirtft(x«i^), x"i' 'now (x""-)i iXtiii* halcgon (iXimoi^), etc., i, i> xi' 
goose (x^w). 
L p: e^p wild beoMt (fiip-), «<ip thief (#wp-)- 

EscepUons. Pern. : x^p hand (x<p-)i lelipfaU (itijp-), ywT'ip bellg (yavrt^y ; 
nent.: stems In ofi (3, a), rSp fire (i-u/b), and the indeclinable a-Aup mon- 
ster, Titprnp (Horn.) taken, etc. 
k «•: ytrtit parent, ^rt6t murderer. 




2. Fsminine are stems ending in 

a. K»», Bwi cTToyii* drop («Ta7ei^), x*U<<ir nMlIoic (x'MAn^). 

b. »^, 8, •: Kiutinf baseiuu (outonr-), 'p*> »<iV« Cp"*-)! '^''i Aop< (<X«-i*-). 
Bxceptioiu. Hue : rai^ foot (rot-), i, 4 fprii &inl (^n^). 

C (, « with nom. fa -if, -m : riXt-t eitjf, Ifx^ tlrtngth. 

Exoeptlona. Maao. : l^t-i terpent, Ixf (nper, Vx<-* teittele; fiirput dutter 
0/ j^(Q)M, ix**-* .to^i fi'J-' "Wiwe, •*««-• corpie, frixif-i ear of earn, 
»fKaai-t axe, "-flxi^ fore-arm ; and i, 4 ffO-t or 6-f metne. 

4. M : t)x^ scAo, rti0ii jMrruofvon. 

3. yeuter are stems ending in 

a. mr,Mf: rp8^iMthbig{rfiiiiMT-),ftKTafneiiar(,MKTafi-). Bm t fip starling. 
]>••■,•§ (with nom. In -m) : itfi^i jImA (_*ptat-), y4rot race (ftrw). 
C >i V wIUi nom. in -ii-v : vlrtn mustard, Arrv ettv. 
N.— No 8t«m ending In r, js, ^ or «, 7t x is neuter. 

aS6. STEMS IN A LABIAL (t, j8, ^) OB IN A PALATAL (<e, 7, x> 











WtJ ( 




































N.A.r. AU[«r-< 4Up^ fAaK-« ^>YY-< o^Y-* vplX"* 

O. D. AM(i«^«t* 4}up-«ti> ^dXAn-oi* 4aX&YY-aiv alT-oCo rpix-ot* 

N. V. ACI(o«-ti fU^ ^Am-m ^AXaYT^i atr« Tfilx-*> 

Dat. Al«o+iW ♦X.+l(.) ♦A.tM +4Xa,K') *lt'(0 •P'tt(») 
Aoc. AM(e«>«« ^UP-M ^Am-w ^dXayy-w aXy-ma rptx-W 

UMOuline: xXd^ «*£«/ («Xi*r-), 7*f otiKum (-)*»-), 'Ap»* Arab CA^h^-). 
#iipi{ breiutplato (A^c-), Sni nail (irvx-). FeniiniDe: (\i^ ladder (lU- 
fiat-), /uUtQ h&^ (iia^riy-, 2U b), vihrryf frunvet (v-oXrrvY-), ur^Xi^ 
t4)p«r <toni (itoTT(Xif-). 


BTEHS IN A DENTAL (t, &, ff) 

A*4i 4A«<i 4ix<f4 i^Vt* tyliU 



































l<^-«t* IXv(S-MV X*f^- 

N.V. tHr^ O-'wd-n X**^"** *pt*«i if'ir*"'-*" Tf^p""-*! 

Gen. I«|r-AT DItCS-iiv xf'''''** ifM-mo fiY^rr-sv y'P'*^-*** 

D»L fc^C,) &,(«(,) xApw^C") Vl^CO Tf*»«"('') T^P^-^C') 

Ace. HtT-M fiUrK-M x^'^'M <p*tt-ot flyvfr-iti ylfitrt-t 

UiKuline: tAwi lau^Ater (ytXur-), fiJ^t elephant (/Xe^rr-), X/ut lion 
(X«vr-), JJ««t (OOCA (Usrr-), VOC Uo^. Femlulne : /irAti ctotMnir (Arff^-), 

a. In roit/oot, Doric rih (aUiii »S-) m U ItregoUr. 


rBfa hod^ frof liver T<pa« portent k4pm Aotm 

(rofiar-) (i^mT-) (t«p«t-) (mpir-, i^mo^) 

1I.A.T. «4|ia ^..(1 T^NM K^W 

Gen. «4f(aT-«i ii««r-ot - t4pvf^«l idpSr-M (^lo-oi) R^pM 

l>U. v£|iaT-i Jlv<vr4 tipvr-i k^t-i (c^p»4) K^pu 

SSI D. xp^ 'l^i" (xpv-) lid BOme otbet wordfl often ihow a stem with do 
r. ThoB, Horn, xpf^i X'"' (also Hdt.), xp^i ^i"! ^o, bat rarely, xp^^^t 

XPwra. Horn, hu Itpv, fAy, fpy for AtL lipwri (llpi&t nOMt)! 7'XwTi (tAmi 
lavglUer), (pwrt ((pwt lom). Horn, baa bIbo mc, lipfl, y^w (or vAwr), f^F 
(from IpM). Some Nenu in -iS ara generally i stems In Ionic, Doric, and Aeolioi 
»T». e^iM (but etritet 8 870), ndp<i, ndfwi. 

W D. Tbe other dialects raraly shov the r [onus. Horn, has ripu, ripa* 
(rilff.), Tifi^r, TtpA*rrt, xtpai, xipaat, xipai, xtfo,, upiur, Kipurt and «ydBm> 

1= Cookie 



«%« body ^Mf liter TipM poHetU K^pM Aorn 

(ifUHOT-) {««"T-) (T«paT-) (MpiT-. «P«»-) 

N. A. V. <r4^T-« ^kT-t Tip*T-< KipBT-« (i/po-c) K^pB 

O. D. nap^T-oiv ^rdr-OLv Ttpdr-SL* KifAr-^iv (iKf>ii-mi>) Kip^p 

N. V. ir^Var-a tpitir-a. rtpa/r-a. K^r-« (''/»-<>) «4« 

Geo. trmyAr-mv ffwir-ttv rnpin-mv K<pir-w (ttpi-vt) MpAr 

Dat. a-A|iaa-i(*) 1l«ua-i(») Hpar i(r) i[^>Sn(() 

Ace <r<i|UkT-a l(«aT-a rtpor-a KipSr-« (c^pa-s) K^pS 

Jlto>ia nant« (jmiut-), ffr6>ia ntout/t (v-to^t ), ^i honeg (iu\ir-), -yiiM mOk 

(raXoxT-, 133 b), «ut llglu (»uit-), cqp Aearf (for ajpS-, 133 b). 

a. Stems ib « (264) dnip r before the endings and contract as, w u> ■, 

b. i^pai, mennlng toiup of an ami/, '^ declined from the stem lapar- (trl 
t/pm in single file) ; in the memiing horn, from the stem Ktpir-. 

C For the inflectinn I/rap, ffrar-oi, Bee 2f>3 b. Of Uhe iDllectlon an iXa^af 
fat: ppdp rialern, S4\tap bait, nlid poetic ^fup da;r> liiap food, rtlpap «<td. 

d. T^/wii lipai fnrm tlielr iioiiiicative from a stem in 1. 80, tOO, wipat end 
W/nr-oi, ^wt light (contiacied from ^doi) ^ur-dt (253 c). 

2S9. STEMS IN A LIQUID (\, /)) OB A NASAL (v). 



















































Hdt. lias t for a before a TOWel (cp. 2ft4 D. 8) in r/pnj, r/pca (also r/paroi, ripara), 
K4pt9t, Kipti, Klpta, Ktpiur. Hom. haa wtipai rilpariK for ripai ir^jm-at. From 
^> (04wt), whence ^Ot, he haa dat. ^1, pi. «<lca, #iist is used in tragedy. 

169 D. Lat« Gree)( shows St\4,lr, ^tr, Mv shore (Hom. «>)■ f^^n loorm In 
Hippocrates has Its r from ttie oblique cases. Hom. Iiaa i}^pi, Vpa from ditp air; 
from Kpttiitr Hom. has KporTuMi and Kfwrbmt. fidnofit is Doric for i^dmp Aoppy. 
rind, has ^paal (2S0 K.). Ionic >uli, Doric p-^t are Irom lun for «ii)n (10, 87 D. 
I, 3). Aeolic gen. itijnat is from /uttv-^i. 

t, Google 


STIiaiB IN A LIQUID (X, p) OE A NASAL {p) — Ooiuluded 

wtl(f6eiut orator noie leado' contett thephtrd 

S. A. V. titp^ ^4ro|M ^1^ ^Ii4^ iyOt-t ««>|U^ 

G. D. tiip^rt* ^ir^» fiiv-Mr J|Y<|td*-M* Ay^v-oi* «m|U>^*' 

Gen, tv-Ac k^f^P^' i^r^r ^yqtdv-sy &Y'i>^* woi|i<im»» 

Dmt. ►n^HTiC.) Mt<»P^(») *Kr(CO ^rWAr^C") Ay*<"('') ■«K|'i«aC») 

Ace Htp-M W™p-«^ fI»-M 4|Y<|i4i-at l^v-ot vbliUi^-M 

i aMtf "fper air (alOcp-), i jc^r^p mixing btnel ^Kpirtip-), i ^lip thief (pup-}, ri 
vfcro^ nectar (kcti^i-}, j aiX^fi dofpAfn (j(X0t>^), 1 'EXXi^v Orrrit ('EXXi|r-) , 
i Saiiiitr divinity (faMiof), Toc. ttdiu; 249 b. The only X hUui Is 4 AXi call 
(pi. yndiM of tall) ; 4 A'^' (poelJc) means tea. i n^w month was origlDolIy a, 
rigma stem (mqw-, cp. tnenrii). 

260. AccnutlTe Slug. — 'AcAXXu and ttoanSa are foand as well aa 'AriX- 
Xtrio, DM-nJuio. The shorter forma are regular In InBcriptiona, and occur eipe- 
ciall; in ezpreadons of eweariog after ri) rir, >id rir (1696 b). 

261. Vocaiin. — rurtfi prttfrcer, 'AirjXXur, Tlaotiiur (from IIo<r«>/wf, -iwr, 
■ifitr') have toc rArt^, 'AxaXXor, nimJer wltb receBsive accent. ReceMlTe 
acceot alao occdti Incompoand proper names in -ur; as'A7afi^fL»wr, 'A7d^/i»r; 

>, Ai>rj>u3(ii> ; 4iXijfiwp, fcXq^wr ; but not In thow in -^ptti (EMt^ptr). 


363. Several words In -rqp show three forms of stem gradation : -rw strong, 
-Tcp middle, -rp weak, p between consoniuiU becomes pa (36 b). The Tocatlve 
has receasive accent dnSp man~BaB-Uieweak form In p even before vowels; 
between » and p, J is inseiled by 130. ^"^--^^ 

S0D D. mittit potion usuall; baa naCt for niHwra, 

tt> D. Poetry often has rt-Tipat, raTipt, ixtiripot, ^'T'P'i ^^- I'oettoal an 
twrpAr; 9<rfwripi, 9&y<tTpa. BOyarpti, SayaTpdii, Buyariptrai, Biyarpat, ytBrtpot, 
elc ; and iripat, i»ip>, i'^ptt, irtpti, iripur, iwipai all with long a. Horn, baa 
l*lpM#i and irfpdri (with -a«i only in this word), ^^larrpot and &^M^tpot. 



wtoAer Amgkttr amio 

















4. The Moent In the wmk (onni of fuKwi A^tw In tlifl geo. and dat. 

■Ing. foUoTC that ol i-arpAt, var^, 

b. 'Y<wT^ b«JIy, hu -/arTph, etc. &i|^)^i|p la inflected AitfifrfiM, A4l>f ^ 

C. <Ut4p *t(tr baa gen. dar/pot, dat. iaript, dat, pL irrpiai. 

BTBHB IN SIOHA (r, 09, 09) 

asa. StamB in sigma are oontracted where a falla out between the 
Towel of the stem aod the vo-wel of the ending (120). Thna, ycros 
race, geo. rn<i(ir)-<K ro'ovc, dat. ytyt{<T)-i. ywa, cp. Lat genua gener-ia (for 
9«»M>f>), gener4. 

A. The lUMculine and famtolae accimtlTe plaml, when it la eontracted, bor- 
row! tbe form of the contracted nominatlTe plural, -ih is not derived from -ni. 
In the datlTB plorat tbe union of a- of the stem and t of the ending produces irv, 
which is reduced to a withont lengthening tbe ptsoeding towbI (107). 

b. Uaacnline atenu in n with tbe nomioative In -^t are proper names; the 
feminine rpufn* trireme Is an adjective used snbstanUveljr (properi;, trfp^ 
pud; 4 TpfiiPnt (niSi) 'ship with three banks of oan'). 

c. Neuters with stems in n have -ot in the nomlnativa, aooaaatlre, and 
vocative singular ; ueut«n with stems In at bave -at in tbeae caiH. 

d. Some stems in at bave alao a stem In sr or ir (9C8). 



36«. iZMif4n)( Boerattt 

Gen. (Zwvir»«t) SmcpArow (AitM<rMM-«f) A^pmW>mi 

Aea. Is-Kpirt-m) SmcpAn) (AirfMrMn-a) Ai||M*««i| 

(Tp«tp«r-) (tow-) (TV* 

MrmM roec jirl* 

H.A.V. Ct(w(p«-»> iFV» (l''^^) Tf*« C7^(-M> lrfp« 

G. D. (r/»w*^0 Trt<tro» (irt.*«F) t***!.- (w<l-~0 wt* 

N,T. C'M>«) »P«Vw <-^''«') yH Ct'p**) -rt* 

Gen. (rpB»rf-«r) rpUJfMn' (r,irt^r) ytrir (ypd^t) Ttpftr 

DU. C»p*).#^i) rfH4p«n(>) (Thw-f.) T'v-nC'') Ct^P"-") ■»**<"(») 

Ace. Tpt^fW (t'**) ■l('»n (7'f«-") 1*» 

Awv'nft IHogene*, 'Irroi^r^ ^P}M«ra(M. Neaten : frof T^ar, itpei wfdIA, 
{I^M neord, rnxoi tMlI, y^pm old age, uptat fiUh (for t^fai horn see 268). 

t. Pt«iMr names In hk faftve leoMiive accent in tbe TocUive. 

b. Pnqter names in -yinit, -npinn, iiiw^, -^r^, etc., m&jr bKve an aeons, 
in -^ deriTed from the fint deolendan. Thua, Zwupdrirv, 'Apu-ro^r^r, like 
'ArftU^ (822, 283 N.). But names In -t\^t (866) have only -tfi. 

c Proper nainea in -ip often show -cm, •«! In Uie lytic parts ot tngedy. 

d. Neatcov in -oi often show open forms (especially -«»•) In Attic poetry. 
■«wr ta frequent In Xenophon. 

e. rpciptir and rptip^w hare irregular accent by analogy to Die other forms. 

f. A preceding f does not prevent the contraction of *a to i), M Vi from 
Ti Ifmt mownlotn (cp. SI. 1). 

g. The dat. sing, of at stems la properly -It ; but -« la oflen wrilUn <m 
the aatliority of the ancient grammarians. This f may poaeltily be doe to the 
■naJogy of f in i stems. 

IM D. 1. Horn, nses the open or the closed forms according to coDTenlenoe. 
•<*i oecnis in the gen. ol a tew words in -«i (^Atvi) } -cwc i* often a monosyk 



269. Wlitti -«r- of the Mem Is preceded by «, the toimi ue inflected u fot 
Imn i fi Um faar (tnv-}, n<pwX9t from IliptKtj^ Parieit* (HqiuXnv-) : 






(a*^) Nm 


(W.^) Sbi 









So 'H/)a«X9t J7«nKte«, Z>^X4t SopkoOet. 

A. After (, n oontnctfl to d (H). On the contraction of -mm, see SB. 
b. lift !■ nncontnoled beoanae the form was originally Iim (68). - 


966. 4 aI8(k Aame U the only oc stem in Attic. It is inflected 
in the singular only. ISom. •tbh, Qen. >(Ss«i {oMik), D&t «tM (a{$»4), 
Aoc. «IU (oI&Mi), Voo. ftlSAa. 

STEMS IN «(f) 

267. Stems in m^ hare lost iwru and appear as w stems. This m 
oontraota with the case endings in the dative and accusative singu- 
lar and in the nominative and accusative pluraL Stems in mf are 

■able (60), aa la the sgoiib. aing. and pL -m from nom. -^ot-iH. Bdt hM cqten 
•m, -m, -**«(?), -<a. Id the dat. pL Horn, baa fiiKtavi, po^t, and fiOJtm 
(2e0 D. 9) from pA« mlttM«. 

2. Sterna In ai are generalljr nncontracted In Hom. {yipaat, yiipal), hut we 
find -at in the dat alng., KptQr and Kpn&i' in the goo. pL In the nom. and ace 
pi. B la abort (yipt), and tliia la aometimee the oaae even In Attle poetir {Kptfj. 
The explanation Is obaoan (y4p)l does not stand for yip*'). Hom. haa ltnr*i 
and J«vd<m (tirat cup). 

S. Id Hom. and HdL several words In -^t show.i for ■ before a vowel (op. 
iftu In HdL for ipdv). Hom. : oUoi ground, alttat, otM and nfSn ; (Oaf Jleeee, 
nSca, Kiitet ; Hdt. : Y^pst, yipti, bnt tpiai, tpiut, tpt&f. In AtUc poetry : ppirmt 
(moire, pptrit, fipim, etc. Cp. 26B D. 

985 D. Rom. has iXfc (for (XAt' ?), and from iX^t ; ~^, -^ ; Hdt. : -in (tot 
-itn) , -A', -ti. For -^, -Qs the open -^t, -^« may be read. Attic poetxy often 
has the open tonna -^ (alao in prose Inacrlp,), -ia, -hi. 

MS D. Hom. and Ion. 4 i)(it <IaiDm (fotf-) is inflected liite aUdt. For aUoSi, 
4fi we may r«ad afliot, i)fa and aome other open forma in Hom. The Altlo form 
lift U declined according to S3S ; bnt the accua. is (w (238 d). Hom. haa UfU 
fiom ISpiit natat (usually a r stem). Cp. 267 D. 

MT D. Bom. huipui (for ^py read 4^>)> ^P^ (oi* 4p^)> 4p*Mt 4^mi, MbM 
and Mlw. Hdt has Uie gen. Utm and KtMMt, the aco. rirpu; ^pur, bnt mtrmr*. 


Horn. %M hero N. A. V. %m»-< N. V. 4p»4i (mrelr 4|pm) 

Oen. 4p»«c Q. D. V'^' Q«d- V^> 

DkL V»^(wull7Vv) Pat- %M>«i(*) 

Aoe. V » (aanally fym) Acq. V»-«i(™«l7Vw} 

I^ Trcffan (268 »), vdrptit foAer't btvther, it^pm mo(Acr'« &rolA«r, lit*i 
rime (poetto, op. 263 a). 


aea Moet stems in t and some stems in v shov the pure stem vowel 
only in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. In the 
other oases they show an c in place of t and v, and -^ut instead of -o« 
in Uie genitive singular. Contraction takes place when this < stands 
before c, t, or a of the case ending. 

^vtXxei^r I'w^tK't forearm Tftbrvtotm *[r^$aa Htfitfiih 

(T.X^) C*TO'-) C<i^O C"-) CxA^) 

Hon. viXi-t «4l»4 trr* w^ lxli« 

Om. vA*^ «4x*-«t Um-m r»^ lx*<-H 

D«*. (tM*«) -a* ('*(•-') w<ix«* (fcru) *»ni «4 IX««-( 

Aoc. «Ai-v «^*-' Brrv rt-v txM-v 

Toe «A» -wifKt ttrr* r« Ixtf 

a. D. ««Xi-«(* *i|Xi«u' ini«ii> c»«tr IfJU-tvt 

K.r. (rAMt) *tfX«f (r4x>-n)w1)X(i (<«T«-a)&rn| v^-n IxM^i 

OaiL «4KtHti> v^x*-" ig w -«»p r»^ txH^t* 

D*L «A»«^v) -r^xiMnCv) brcmCv) <rv^(v) lxW-n(v} 

Am. *tfX«t ^X<>* (A'Tt->)lrn| rti txHl 

M D. 1. » Stoma, a. Doric, Aeolic uid New Ionic ratafn the i stem with- 
ovt nriaUoD In all cans : rUuf , tjXim, riU (from roXt-t} and rarelT tIXm Id 
Hdt., w»M, tMi, tAu«, roXIwr, r4W(, viUi bom *-iXwi (CrMan), and riXiai, 


2ra. Stoma 1b i«Bd vu*of tmt kinda; — 
1. m. Stems In i, with geoitlTe in —n, aa (maac.) iiArra M«r, Ix" ^^^i (fam.) 
rUif eily, ralifiu vottrg, tira^ut potMT, rriffu faction, vffpa outrage. 
Neuter DomlnatiTes In -i an not uaed in claaaical proae. 
b. Stems In i, wttb genitive in -<o>, aa A di loeeeil, gen. li-it, dat. jii^ ; And 
BO in proper names In -ii, bb A^io^t Lj/gdamit, gen. Airvlii/uaf. 
S. a. Stems In ■, with genitive in -vof ; ss (maac.) iiSt moute, pir/m clutter 
<lfgTapt*, lx9*t Jlah ; (tem.) S^f ooi, 6<pptt eyebroa, 1^%*^ /one. 
b. Stems in v, with genitiTe In -mt: (niasc.) r^x"' /°''^"^ rAiivt axe; 

(neat) Itv town. 
N. 1. — In the nom., MM., and too. sing. baiTtone etema in v have short u ; 
ozjione anbatajittTea (uanallr) and monosyUables Imto u ; and monoejUablea 
oinninflex the ii (rvt, cSr, tO), 

N. 2. — 4 fyx'^'^ m' follows ixMt in the alngular (iyxOiV-ot, eto.), bnt r4x>^ 
in tlie ploral (^xAn>i ete.}. But thia does not hold for Aristotle. 

270. Stems in land v vuy with atrooger stems, of which* in ttie cases other 
than nom., ace, and toc. sing, ia a surrival. Thus : 

a, 1, u, aa in r JXi-i, t4x<^- 

b. «, til, which I>efore vowels lost their i and v (48), as In rsX<(£)-t, r>X((i)-CT, 

rinL'(x)-tt ; which oontrsrct te rtKa, iti\iu, Tix'"- 
C lliere ia aJao a stem In ir, aa hi Horn, ri^i^-at (368 D. 1, c), whence riXt-wt. 

K. 1. — TiA«-nlD Attic poetry for the sake of the metre is due to the analogy 
<tf II stems with gen. in -t-n (^lilt-n, 297> Hom. t^x*-« 'b the regular form (from 
"DC'dt)"")- Attic rix*-^ follows r^Xfwt. riXt^i and wTixf-" ^'>'' 'i^'-v' and 
a^Xi*^' MB dfs to ^B '^"f^'ofy of 'o""B from stems in n, (u (TiXf-w, T^X*-"', Bte- )■ 

N. 2. —The dual T^Xn occais In some Hsa. 

371. Accent — Final -m ot the genitive singular does not prevent the 
Mate from staadlDg on the antepennlt (163 a). Thus tAXi-ui, rifxt-m, iart-ut. 
r A«-«t retains the aocent of the earlier riXir-oi, which, by transference of quantity 
(U), became riXc-wt. Tha accent of the gen. pi, foliowa that of the gen. sing. 

b. Bom. has rtXa, xUuw, wM, wSXtt or -u (lor which some read viU, aa Kin ; 
wit€ is oorrect) and rrJXfT, riUr, vt\t ; pL T6\ut, reXiwr, wiXtri (Bome read 
hMtMd riXurO or TDXkcrcri (250 D. 2) ^<iXf«r», vMit Or itIXmi (r jXi» ^tpears 
in some texts). 

C. Hom. haa also forms with q ; ri\rio%, rlXqi, r jXi^ct, riXifat. 

S. « stems. «. Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic have the open forma rixtn, l<rr«i, 
1«TM ; In the gen. sing, -ot, never -ui (ir4x*x> 1«t«i). In the dat. sing, of words 
of more than one ayltable Hom. haa -vi' or -w, as rian (rtm corpn), but Hdt. 
doss not show -w. 

b. Ttie gen. pi. has the regular acoent (rqx'^'i ^t^wt). Od Uie dat. rt\i- 
nv-rt, Wmvn, wlriirfi (some would read Wittei, rlrvti), •nrfcrrt, see 2fiO D. 2. 
Horn, has accus. txlOt and Cx^^') Hdt. haa IxMai verj rarely. 


273. ContncUon. — IxM (once) for l^Mf uid l^Mt for Ixfia ooonr in 
coDMdj. IxtS U not a legiUmEM contnction, m u cannot oontnot with t 
(61 c). IxKt (for IxBin) is tbe accug. form uied m the nom. (261 b). 

274. oh tkeqp ii declined u [oUowa : sti , o^6t, aU, a7-r, ol ; doftl, af-<, ot-ob ; 
pL a^fi, otA>, aJ-ffl, oti. Here the stem la ol, Tepraaenting ifi, wUob to 
ftofvtlf ut ( Mem : ifM, Lat. oei-t. 

Uoir old teomoo 




N. A. T. 
G. D. 

P-^<l TPiU 





Uke flariktit are declined the nuacnllne ozytones A l;r*'(^ \onemaity i Upitt 
pririt, i tottit parent, i ipowiit murderer; like paOt la declined i x'"' t&ne- 
qtiart Meoaitre (but *cc. xlii and x^bO- 

S74 D. Horn, haa fit, Jfoi and Mt, Kr, Sn, 4fuv and at&r, dttan (oewri a 380) 
Hid SwffI, ftt(I). 

STI D. 1. Horn, haa ^ariX^t, -Qi, -4a, -<{l, -^, -flwi (and -4t##i)i -9»- 
Also -/m, -a, -ts, from the item if = ijj. -«0f and -<t for ■*» and .A' an not 
common. 'krptOi, ToitH have -^/:)-«i etc. regularly (Tvif from TiHa). Hdt. 
hai -^, -« or -<>, -M, -tS, -*n, -4«», -tOn, -^it. 

S. Horn, haa y^ifit or ^^w, yptft, ypifO and t^v ; the unattic fiitvn (and 
>»rOi P^' (ud /SoOi), ^S> ace alng. H238. The Doric nom. ^. la /lOi, 

3. Itie declension of mSi In Doric, Homer, and Herodottu U a* foUowi: 



2T6. SabaUntivw In -tit piMeded bj a Towel mir ooDtnd in Uw gen. sitd 
aoe. ling, aod pL Thua, IXuOt JUurman bu gen. i,\Um or AXiOt, ace AXiM 
or i\tS, gen. pL dXt^ui or iKiHr, ace. pi. iXiAt or AXiSf. AU othei foiTiia m 
ngultr. Th« eoutracted forma were In use In die flflb centurr, but Id the 
fourth (Mpeolally ftfter 860 b.c.) the open forma are oommon. 80 are deoUned 
Stp»rtt Suboean from Sifi»u6t, IIiupiu*^ PeiraeMi, nXaraiflti IHatatan, 

277. Other Fonna. — a. In the drama from vorda Id -c^ we find mely 
-M In aoe. aing., -i3,i In ace pi. -An and -fot, -^, -^i are occaaioD^lr found. 

b. The Dom, pi. In older Attic ended In -fi (^aa-iX^i), derlred either from 
-4n by coDtractlon or from -An (once od an inacription) by 84. -^ occurs on 
InBcripUoDa till about 350 b.o., and la the form to be adopted In the texle of 
antbora of the fltth century and In Plato, -ftt oocura rarely, but ia mapBCtad. 
^HtfiX«n (regular on Inscrlptlona after 320 b.o. ) la from analogy to ^tU, 

C. ^e Bcc. pL fiariiah wsa not oaed till the end of the fourth oentory. -fi 
(tba Dom. form) ia uaed for the aoe. to a few paaaagea (261 b). 

STB. Stem Variation. — Sterna ending in tv, an, ev loae u before case «id- 
iDga beginning with a vowel, k paaaing into f (43). Sterna in « ahow the pure 
form only In the vocUire ; other forma are derived from ttie stronger stem i|v. 
i)v and air before a oonaooant become tv, iv (40) as in paviKitt, ^AAct, Md, 
nuvf from pa^iyifin, rim, eU>. From ^ar(X^(f)-m, -4(/')-t, -#(f)-«, -9(f)-"» 
oome, by transfer of quanUty (34), the Attic forms. So niit is derived from 
n(f )-^. In parAtur, rcfir, ■ Is ahortened from the ^ of ^aviX4<"i i^^' by SO. 
^»-6i, etc. are from the stem pvo- fitf, cp. Lat. boeia. 

279. Stems in ot, with nominative in -«, tnrn > into unwritten j^ (j/) 
(|43) before the endings beginning with a rowel. ^ wa$i penwuion 
is thus declined : 

V. m>W. G. «i««»i (ni«^«f). D. «Jet (wtMi). A. ««M (r«<«^). 
V. wtiM. Doal and plormi are wanting. 

Dorle Homv Hdt. DocIb Hobw 

Nom. vmi-9 nfi-t *i)S-i vt-ai HHi, 

Geo. vt-6t v^^, y*-*t — ■<> ir^Avi 

M.^ (and n|-«t r) *(-Av 

Dat. vt-t n|4 vi^ v»^(*), vi|«>v((v) 

i4 ^» rt(y) H ^ i«rOTi(F), * 

Hom. haa mivl in mwrurXvrif. 


Bo 4x^ «&o, ritrrti weH-beinff, ^iBii paring, Zar^d, Afrd, 'KaXu^ii. oi (rtetu 
■ra ehtefly used for women's luunes. 

a. A Aonger form of the stem la w, seen In the eulier fonn of the noml- 
natiTe (Zcr^, A^^l). The secasatlre haa the Moent of the nominfttlTe. 

b. When dn«l Knd ploral oocnr, they are of the second declension : nom. 
lUxiJ (1*^) from \rx,A woman In Mld-btd, aoo. yofriatt from Tvfryd gorgon. 

C. 4 *b<iv fniape, 4 d^iiv KlghUngaU, properly from Sterna In ar, tuTS certain 
tMms from this declenaion (cfnSt, tZcii, too. d^M). 

CASES nf -^(v) 

280. Cms* In -^(v) — -^(0 ^ o^*^ added to noun stems In Horn, to 
eipnai the reluiona of the lost InatrumentAl, locative, and ablative, both 
■Dgiilu' and (more commonty} plnnl ; nroly to express tbe relations of the 
geDmTe and dadve cases. From S sterna are made slngalars, from a stems 
sngDlais or plurals, from conaonant stems almost always plurals. Except In 
hb-ttraith the po<{«-^i(r) is not added to a etem denoting a person. (a)Instm- 
meatal: ptif^ hy might, tri^tt^ vUK tht other (hand), laxpU^ir vtth ttart; 
(6) Looatlve: Bifii-^ at the door, Sptr-t/n on the mountain*; (e) AUstive: 
aiaki-^/rvm oS tAe heai; eepeciall; witb ptepodliom, u U wrri^wfrom 
nithe aso, lib toSI-^ from the «A^ 

2U- Tlie gender in the singular and In the plnnl may not be the same : 
i 'iTM grain, rA «(ra ; i ittfiU chain, rd iuiiA lAaitif {A Ita/ul cose* of im- 
pritonmrnt') i ri ttiSiar Mods, Tace-CoitT»e, pL r& ariXia, and si ariSiai. 

282. Csnally tbe Imgalarity consists in a word having two different stems. 

a. Bolb Sterne have a common nomlnaUve dngolar : wthrm darkneu, rtirtv 

rtirif, tM, (lite fmir Inry) or viirovt rcirn (like -yAuM yiim). So rtr 'A$w, 
and Tir 'AAir from 'A0m (338 d) , rir Zwt^rq and rl* Zwi^r^r (304 b). Theae 
an called heteroelUe* (trt^Xcra d^ercRtlr deetiited). 

N. Ifauy oomponnd proper names in -v (eepeolally names of foreigners) 
liave forms of the 1 and 8 decL, as Tvro^pr^, -iwi, -wg and -m. Bo Swcfifn) 
(vac.) in Demosth., AikHShii and hntrOta in Hdc 

b. Certain eases are formed from another stem than that of the notn. eln- 
fnlar: t Snipo-t dream, gen. dnfpar-st (aa If from rA Srttfiop), or (less freq.) 
*tlf«; sorAr 'AriXXtHsand tA* 'AiriXXw (a80),rsOulto andTsOvteO (286,27). 
Then m called metaptoMtfe forms (/wrarXurfiit diange of formation). 

283. Oefecttree are sabstantlvee having, by reason of their meaning or nae, 
cnly <me number or only certi^n oases. Thus, sing, only : 6 i^p ettr, t attiip 
Vperatr; plnr. only : rA Autfou, tA 'OXd/iria the Dionyiiae (Oljfmpie) fettivaf, 
d frfrlat annual winde; In some cases only : S ihO'Ji my good tir or madam; 
l—f Avon,- t^lMi use only In nom. ; Xi^ Xlfia from 'Xlf ttream, Ubatton. 

384. ladecUnables are sabatantlves having one form for all cases : ri xftir, 
tW tfAf, etc fatalltg, rb £X^ aljAa, ri >Jya to apeak, moat cardinal num- 
ban (rt Mn ttn), Mvenl foreign words, aa 'laxiip Jacob, i*pit Davtd. 


1. 'Apip (4) Are», itama 'ipf-, 'Aptv ttom'Apttf-. O. 'A^km (poet. 'A^tot), 

D. 'Apfi, A, 'Afiii (poet 'Apta), 'ApTir. Epic O. 'Api)*f, 'Aptot, D. 'kptfi, 
'Ap£, A. 'A^nfo, 'Apijr. Hdt. 'Afitot,'Afiii,'Afita. Aeolic 'Apcn, 'Ajmwi, etc 
8. Ap<Ji> (i, V)) lomi, aAeep, Btems d^Mi-, l^r-, IpM-. Thus, dp>-it, ipr-l, Iprti, 
ipr~tt, ifiit-iiii, ifini-vi (Horn. Ajir-M-ri), tfif-at (declined like a anbat. in 
-w). Nom. ip^r oocniB OD liHcript.trat iiait (S decl.) Is oommonly used. 

8. ydAn (t4) ni<U: (133), yi\iucT-»t, yiXatrt, eta. 

1. fAi^ (i) laughter, 7Atn-Bf, etc. Attio poeta A. yiXuTt or -yAHr. Horn, 
has D. yf\jf, A. yi\u, ytXut or yA(i>(7) from Aeol. yi\at. Cp. 267 D. 

6. ^ni (t6) itnee, 74107-01, etc. Ionic and poeUc yetnr-et, yotmr-i, eto. Epic 

ftUo 7aur.l1, Tsuf-J, 7aCF4, pi. 7i>i>r-wr, yoi^ffi (260 D. 2). Tike fornis in 
«i aie from Totf- (37 D. 1, 263 c) ; cf. Lftt. genu. 
S. TfW^ C^) woman, 7u««-4», 7h»bui-I, 7H>«i«-a, ySnu (133) ; dlUl yuraiic-r, 
yvrauc^tr ; pi. yiirain-a, yarotK-St, yvraifl, yvfait-at. The gen. and dat. of 
all DDmbers accent the lut ifll^le (cp. 'dnjp). Comlo po«t8 have A. 
yur^r, yvrit, N. pi. yvrai, 

7. Uicpvo* (rl) tear, farpAiir, Bto., lu proae and poetr]r. Idnpv (tA) U nnudly 

poetic, D. pi. Sitpiiti. 
S. tMpo* (ri) (rM, JMpoi', Bto. Also D. alng. SMpn, pL SMp^, iMptai. Hdt. 
haa SMpor, SirSpnr and tMpat. 

9. Un (ri) /«ar (feerO. ''"n. S'n- Horn, adott, 55 D. Cp. 20G. 

10. Slpv (rt) apear, lipaT-»t, lipur-i, pi. iipar-a, etc Poetic aip-it, Sap-I (also in 
proae) and Op-ti (Uke Avrn). Ionic and poetic Jlotf/Br-«, etc., Epic also 
Baup-ii Isup-I, doal 9gup-(, pt. InSp-a, Soitp-ur, SaOpiavt (250 D. 2), The forms 

with Bv are from Sapf- (87 D. 1). 
IL ^M (4) love, IpuTit, eto. Poetical (>bi, tpif, Ipor, Cp. 267 D. 
12. Zi4t (4) Zeiu, At-4i, Ai-1, A/-B, ZfO, Znti is from Amii, Ai-4(, etc., from Aif-, 

Ionic and poetic Z^rit, Zi/rl, Z^h. 

18. M|u«(4)JiM(fceandthBgi)dde«rA«nifo(fcfu<-).^r^-«'t''f'U^'^'. Horn. 

haa Mfurr-ei, etc. Pind. Uptr-m, 84iu-r, M/ur-ct. Hdt. Miu-of. In the 
phrase Stius alnu /w earn (indio. M/ut fori), M/ui is indeclinable. 
14. KipK (t4) head (poetic) nsed in Attic only in N. A. V. sing., but dat ndpf. 
Other cases are fioro the stem rpAr-, 0. tpir-ii, D. icpo-rf ; also t4 c^r-c 
N. A. aing., xpir-at A. pi. 

Epic abowB the sterna xfiar-, nfiir-, Kopniar', mpv^-. N. tipii, O. tpiartt, 
Kpirit, tapitTM, cdjngrM, D. Kpiari, iq>iTl, ra^^o'ti ■ii^*IT'> A. tip. N. pt. 
«rf^, Kpdaro, iR^>i}ara, and inl(>vm, G. Kfidrar, jn^mv, D. *pivl, A. updra. 

16. Kfciv (J, 4) doiTt nii^i KV^ inlr4, >A>r ; xip-t, inri>-«rr ; rir-<i, Ki/r-Qr, nvl, 

19. X&w (i) atona, poetic alao Xfit, O. Xoai (01 Uoif), D. XAT, A. XBar, X£a; 

dual X£t ; pi. \i-a, U-w», U-drri, U-wi. 

17. pApTvt (i, 1^) urftneaf, ittpTvp-et, etc., but ^utpTw-vi. Hom.haaN. pipru- 

pat, pi. MpriyM. 

18. OtSlwMi (4) On^pua, O. OtStrolot, OMfrw, OUiriH (Dor,), D. OUlralt, 

A. OUlrMV, OianriaSr, V. Oiffr«vt, OUIrtv. 



19. i M tfo i (i) uid Srtipar (ri, lonio and poatio) Awm, 6rtifcv, etc., but kIso 

AidpaT-at, etc. ri flrop only in N. A. 
». <pMi (i, 4) bfnl (267). A. fr>i«> ud Jlpnr (S4T). Foetlc tpift, A. tprlwi 

pi. N. Bfutti, O. Sfntv^, A. j^mf or tprit. Dor. G. <^rix-at, etc. 
SI. Ira diul, (iDo eyM, pL G. Svvttr, D. Jrvott (-om-i). 

22. vh (ri) «ar, liT-Af, lir-l, pi. Or-a, ^-m* (262 a), d^^I; from the Btam Ar- 

contncted from ad(r)ar', whence j(u)<>t-> oh !■ from dot, whence «lso 
the Doric noin. St. Mom. O. oEaT-n, pL afoT-o, oIWi and lio-l. 

23. IIn£ (4) PnpxCiaSj.nurr^t, nuici^ HiiKi-a, and Alio n^VK-^ nnrj(-.f, nr«K-a. 

24. wpM-^tvHIt (i) encov bu In Uie pi. usaolly the forma of the poetic rp4vfim 

oU man, properly an adj., old. Thua, N. sing, tpirpirriit, 0. wptfpmtO, 
eb^, N. pi. rpiepta, Q. npiepttir, D. npiaptat, A. rpirptu (rarely r/w- 
o-^nral, etc.). npia^at meaning old man is poetic in the aing. (A. *pia^r, 
v. rptapu) and pi. {r^iapta) ; meaning eneoy rpirpvi ia poetic and rare 
in the sing, (dual rptap^ from rp€irptii). rpnpirvi old man ia used 
in prose and poelry In alt nambere. 
26. w«|i (ri) fire (rCp-, 264 b), rvp-6i, irvp-f, pi. ri rvpi wiUh-Jlrea, 2nd dccl. 

25. {Snp (ri) unter, Msr-Of, v«ar-i, pi. Har-a, iiir-uw, etc Cp. 268 b. 

iT. «Uf (i) (nn baa three atema : 1. ulo-, whence uIoG, etc., according to the 2nd 

decL 2. ulv, whence ulM, ulff, dual ultl, ulfau, pi. iJcfi, vl^wr, ulAri, ul«&. 

The stems via- and via-, naoally lose their > (43): iaO, Mii, etc. 3. vl- in 

Horn. O. ubf, D. uli, A. ufa, dual vtt, pi. ubt, uUbi, utai. 
^ X'lp (^) AoBd, X"l>^' X'V'. X'V-*; dual x«ii«. z«p-«'»i P'- X'^i^'i X'V-O', 

xtf^h X*'P-^'' Poetic alao x'f-^i X*P-^ ^^i dual, x'V-o''- Att. inacr. 

have x'f"' X'f^- Hom. agrees witb Att. prose and HdL except that 

he has also zip-f, x'tp-"" X'^P-*"- 
29. xP^(^)*''^''>>u>'"'^iX^'^~' (^t x^ In the phrase 'rxfiv)iXP>''^ Poetic 

XP^. xpo-t. XP^ U^« o'l'ii. 260. 


286. AdjecUm of Three Endings. — Most adjectives of the vowel 
declension have three endings : -ot, ij (or -d), iiv. The masculine 
and neuter are declined accoiding to the second declension, the 
feminine according to the first. 

a. When «, i, or p (SO, 218) precedes -ot the feminine ends in -<i, not in -i(. 
But adjecUTCS In -osf (not preceded by p) have n). Tbna, tylaot, iySti), Ir/Stmi 
etgUA, igpiot, iipid, i»p6or orowdtd. See 290 e. 

287. AydSot good, Siutt worthy, fuutpot long are thus declined : 

Mi D. 27. Hom. baa alao ulii, vtoO, Mr, vU, utSir, aUiai; vtht, ulfi, vHa, uUtt 
and iit<(f, uUau III somettmea makea a abort syllable In ulit, Mr, vU (148 D. S). 

NT D. In the fem. nom. sing. Ionic baa -i;, never -d ; in the fern. gen. pL 
Horn, has -dwr (leae often •4itt) ; Hdt. has -A»r in oxytone adJectlTea and pMtt- 
dplia, and ao probably In barytones. 



Nom. i.yallit tyt^ dYoM* &(ioi &{(d AfMv fmuptt KOKpA iiaxpAv 

G«n. dYolofl i.yaMtfi lYotoi &£(ab A{(a« &{loii fioiipoO p«itpat (lANpaft 

Dst. &Y«*v Ay<^ difoS^ &((f &((f dt(f |ukp4 |u>p4 fOitPV 

Ace. &YaBd* Lyat^r A^nWr &t°* &{<«> ^* fotpir frntpAr luutpdv 

Voc. 4t»N &iaht Ay«*^ ^ ^i^ &fMv fMtpi fiMpi tuucp6> 

N.A.V.4Ya<ii AyoX tia$A &{(■ &{(d &£(« pwcpA fiwipd (MxpA 
Q. D. ^Yakty iYoeaS* ATokt* iiUnr Affau* dfloiF |WU(pot* luutfwl* |uucp«tv 

N. V. Ayatol lyotal lYoti &{uh Kfuu &(» (uucpol |UutfwE )uu(p& 
Gen. irftJt&y dYOtA* dYolA* Atlav dfCav &(f«* (lOKpAr |iaKpAii |UUcpAv 
Dat. d'Y«>aCt dToSKtt dTatoIt AfloM dEfait dfloit pAnpeti |i4UipcUt |uu(p»t« 
Ace. iy«Moit dYatdt d^BU dEIovt dfl&t &fia fiwipoih (MUipit |iAKpd 

^0t)Uf good, mmii bad, o-o^ii toiie, «v^i, nxi^ii, nj>^> EilfAt, t^Xn clear; 
iiilp€iiH, irSptla, inlptuir cotirageotu, SJioui Just, Jl^wt !£!;«, o^xf^) ^^^XP^, 

atexpir bate, iXiieipai free; all participles in -at and all Huperlatlves. 

«. The accent in tlie feminine nomlnatlTe and genitive plnral follows that 
of the mascnllne : Ifiai, ^luf, not iflat, iiiHt, as would be expected according 
to the rule for subBtantirea (205), e.g. as In ntrH cau*e, otTlaL, alTiCir. 

b. All adjectlvea and participles maj use the masculine Instead of the 
feminine dual forma : tA iyaBA iHr^pt the tao good mothert. 

288. AdjectiTM of Two Endli^. — Adjectives ueing the maaou- 
line for the feminine are called adjectives of two endings. Most 
such adjectives are compounds. 

289. ti&Kot «nju»t (i- withoitt, ^Kt/ jvMxix), ^>p6vifUK pnident, and 
lAuK propitioaa are declined thua : 

M»c. ind F< 

^m. N«ul. 

Mwt. >ikd Pom. 



n. N«t 































U9 D. Hom. has TXoot or Mhf; rXiiof, ■-Xcii), rXtiai (Bdt. vXM, rX^, 
rX/sr) ; ffu>f (ont; In this form), and vtot, viv, cUr. Hom. baa N. |)K A. (ir 
ttvingt and fwit, fu4> {^' living. 




Uuo. ud Fam. 



o. NanL 






N.T. UucM 

Ace UCks^ 

A. Like Alinii are declined the compouuded d-Xo-fof frrotfonal, i-rliat dt$- 
hojioured, i-xpttot uwlew, fiimipai erperifnced, trl-^Sont envtout, td-ftnt 
hoMpitable. vr-^nst obedfenf. Like ^pdn/iot are declined Ihe uncooipouDded 
^dp^o/HH barbarian, Ijavxot quUt, li/upai taiae, XdXoi talkative. 

b. Like n«uf are declined other adjectives of the Attic declenBlon (237), aa 
ittput viithoM horat, Hi^ptttt ttrvleeable. For the accent, see 103 a. Adjeo- 
livf* In -vt, -vt have ^ in the neut. pi., but fn-Atw occurs in Xenopbon. 

C. vXJat full has three endings : r\iiin, w\fi, rXivr, pi. it\iif, irXAu, rX/a, 
bat most compound*, such as f>irX«in guCU full, have the fem. like the maac. 
rdt tafe ha* nsually sing. N. rwi masc, fem. (ntrely vS), t-iSr neut., A. o-flr; 
plur. M. ry masc., fem., ci neut.,' A. c&t maac, fem., ^a neat. Other cases 
are auppUed by *^, 9i!A, aOar. vHor also occurs In the accusative. 

d. Id poetry, and sometimes in proae, adjectives commonly of two endings 
have a feminine fonn, as wirptat patcrnoi, plaiet violent; and those commonly 
of three endings have no feminine, as irayiauai neceuary, ^l.\iot friendly. 

aao. Contracted AdjectlTH. — Most adjectives in -cot and -ok are 
contracted. Examples : j(piaaK golden, ipyvptm of ^ver, AwXoot simple 
(feminine <lirX«a). 


S.V. (»Af"t) Xl*««i {XPB'«) Xf*iHt (XP*""') XP9«™»» 

Aeo. (xptfr) xpBaut¥ (xpSff'ii-) XP^M" (XP*""') XP""™** 

N. A.V. CxpftrAt) XJ«»* Cxp5»«l WO^ Cx/riia''-) X(««* 

G. D. (»»*•*«>■) XPB"1» (xpw^O x^fi* (xfJVff/o.i') xpB<reW 

S. V. (xpfatw) XJ*r>t (XP*'«") XPW™I (XP*'"") XpOT* 

Gen. (x/>S»'"') XP0»*» (xi>«'t<"'T Xf^rAr CxP"'"') XP'>»*» 

Dat. (xpw'fe'i) XP«<rots (xpSffAuO Xl«»**» (xpwr'e'O XP""* 

Aoc. (xpi*'"") XP"**** (xpw^"') XP**"* Cxp*'") XP*** 


N. V. (ifyifuni ApYupoti (dpyvpA) &py*^ i^fy^p*"') tf-fUf^iw 

Gen. (ipyvfiiav) ^fr<fvfOi {ifnvpin) Apyvpat (dpTVp/eu) dpY>^9 

AOC (,ipyip€Qp) dfryupoS* (ifyvpH)') dpYwpa* ^ipyipa,,) i^y<,fo9r 

(d^rvp^ou') Vnpvt* (V)*^") 4pTn*»i>' ('•wp^") *pTiip»t» 

{iP7*p™') ifY-pot (ipriptoi) ApYvpat (a^n*™) *pr»* 

(i^upAB^ 4pt»P*>' (i(>vvpA(r) ip'yvp'i' (ifiyvpiitr) VrvpAv 

(ipTupAm) Apyupott (dpTfupAni) 4p7«pcrft (dpl-u^i) &ftyi^t« 

(dp7iipAiuiJ Vrvp*W (_inupai) Afryvpa* (dp7«pca) ApYvpa. 

N. V. (AtXIm) &*Xa«i (a*'Xa) 4>X1| (dirX&») A*Xa«« 

Oen. (4tX&)v) «*X«S (drXfif) AtX^i (irXitiv) d*XeS 

Dat. (drUv) 4«X# (AtU?) AwXt (irXiy) &wXf 

Aec idTX^n) 4«lia«i' (iTUdr) &*X<|* (dTUor) AvXoSv 

N. A. V. (drXiu) A«Xi C&rUa) 4>U (dirXiu) &*X4 

0. D. (AtWmO AvXoIv (&r\^») AvXotv (drXiotO AwXoW 

N.V. <&rU«) AvXot (irX^) ivXal (ArXia) &^£ 

Oen. (dirXiuf) AwXAf (A«XA<r) iwXAv (ArXi«>) JwXftv 

DM. (irXiott) IwXoIt (ArXAui) &vXa4 (iirXioii) imhttt 

Aoo. (A'X6<>n) AtXoOi (AtUSO iirXoi (ArXia) &iril& 

a. 80 xaXmCf, -41, -vGt brazen, ifmtiiaOt, -^, -oDi eHnuon, Tap^upaOt, -&, 'tBtdark 
red, atSiipelH, -i, -oCt of iron, 9trX«0t, -^, -sCr tteo/old, ftnd otlier multipli- 
oativee Id -rXiDi (354 b). Compounds of two endings (28S) : cPivui, -ovr 
((Snot) well iliipoied, ftrXouf, -ov* (IvXooi) not Tumlffablt, ttpmit, -ovr 
(tfpoot) fair-fiowing. Theee hare open oa In the neater plural. 

b. The vocative and dual of contracted ad;fectWe8 are yerj raie. 

C. Adjectives wboHe uncontracted form In tlie nom. sing, has the accent on 
the antepenult (jipiem, ro/n/iipeot) take In the contracted form a clTouniflex 
on thetr last syllable (xP^roCf, ri/npvpaSt) by analogy to the gen. and dat. sing. 
The accent of the nom. dual masculine and neater is also irt«gul&T 
(xpftrJ, not »*»»)■ 


i. For peonliarlties of contnctioa ses 66. irX^ !■ from irX/i, not from ArUf , 
». Some Bdjeotivea are not eoiitracted : ipyaXioi diffleuU, npSaMit eraflf, 
riat foung, dY'ooi eighth, i9p6at crowded (lunally). (Here <• and m wen prob- 
ably Mparatad oiigitially b; f, 8.) 


29L Such adjectives as belong only to the ooDSonaDt declension 
have tvo endings. Most such aajeotives hare stems in « (nomi* 
native ijt and -«) and m (nominative -oiv and -ov). Under ov stems 
fall comparative adjectives, as ^rtmr, piXriov better. 

a. There are some compoondB with other Btems : H. F. irirvp, N. A*-ar^ 
/atherlegt, G. dvdrapat; ItdXii iraXi mithotU a country, dvAXtSoi; airatpdrtip 
ttrtupirofi independent, a^QufiropiH ; ippv (older S-pvtit') ippir male, tpptrof ; 
ttxafia tCx'tp* affreeable, tixipirot ; tCiKra ifcXi-i hopeful, iMArilQf. For Uie ace. 
of stems In n- and iS see 247. Neut, ctfxapi and titktri for<^aptr, tttXwiS (133). 

292. iUq^(<iA)}tfccr-)tru«,n^eXn'u(cv<XiriS-)Aope/uI are thus declined: 

Som. tXyfHfl 
Gen. (dXqM^t) 
Dat. (dX,^...) 
Ace (dX,«^) AXqM 
Voc iXi|Mi 



M. A.T. (dXi,M^) 
0. D. (dX,«*.r) 



N.V. (dX4«-«t) Ui|Mi 
Gen. (dX^M-vF) 

Aoc. Ui|lA 

(dX,«^) «Xi)«<| 

fi&n&«e («A«t»« 

a. dXtran means indeed! Like dXi^t are deoUned au^iit el<ntr, (»ri>x4t 

m D. The uncontiacted forms of tt stems appear in Horn, and Udt. 
-«i and -««t are, however, sometimes coutraoted In Horn., and properlj shonld 
be written -« and -«ii in Hdt. The acc. pi. maac. and t«m. la -tat in Horn. 
Miii Hdt. From adj. in -«4i HdL has MH for Mefa, Bom. dwiXiMi tat 
fwX</af, tvppeiot for iBpf*it%. 



b. Hie aconsatln pL iXqftit has the form of the nominUlTe. 

G. CompouDd adjectivM in -t|i not accented on tbe l&st syllable show races- 
ahe accent even in tbe contracted forms, lliaf, ^tXoA^^ lover of trut\, neuL 
ptKi\g6ri, airipKtit lelf-twfflcietit, neut. atrapm, gen. pi. a^ipiivi', not ai>raf»cd>i. 

N, — Eicspt in neuter words In 'tUtt, -5XFf, -upn, and -^pa, aa riiiSn MWMt- 
amtlling, toiiipn reaching to the feet. Bat rpr^par, not Tfaipur, from rpdipiii, 264. 

d. c((v)a t»come8 «, not ni (66) : ttiiKcS,, Mti for t^Xita, /vft^a from 
f4itXr4> crforiou*, Mtijt needy (O. idic\<oDt, MtoSt). But ie(a')a and ■«(«')<> yield 
(S or iir, in or vq. Thns, fryia or iyiij (iy^^it heaUky), if^tra or tifv^ (t^v^t 
co"*^V)i ep. U, 31, 2. Tbe torma In -9 are due to the analogy of snob forms as 
ln^P^ {iit^it ntembting), 

893. Stems in w. ciStufuw happy, ^itav boter: ■ 

Norn. «4S>l|un- iUu|>ov ^itwr PATtoo 

Geo. «MB(|ioi-ot p«Xt4»i>-ot 

Dat. (*Sal|ui^i PAitovt 

Aco. tUalliav-a fCSiu|i*i> pdh-rtev-a or pAiia P&tIo* 

Voc iWuiio* tffiaifio* piXrM* ptii.Ttm' 

N. A. V. ttS^far-t pAifav-s 

O. D. ttitiif^v^v PAtUv-m* 

rfi.w {?j:!^ K?" 

lp«LTt0«t pArtm 

DM. iU«UfM^(*) PAriM-tC*) 

-..^ -».^ {Jj;;^ JJ*" 

a. Lilie (MaJfiur are declined lainutr iuf)iiar mfncj/'ul, d7RJfH>r iyruitar 
unfeeling, ttpor iippor lenieUu, wiruw titer ripe, tii4iput vO^por prudent. 

b. Like ptXriur are declined laliur fKifbr ^eatcr, imiiUai nUio* &a«er, 
Airmt IXdrrai' lets. 

c. The neuter nouitnatlTe and accusative hare recessive accent 

iL CompuatlTes am fonned from stems in or and in ot ; cp. Lat. melfi>ri( 
for meffof-b. « appears In jScXrIw for fit\Tio(a)-a, ace. sing, roasc. fern, and 
Dom. aoa neut. pL, and in ptkrlcut for ^Xrw(<r)-(t, nom. pi. masc fern. The 
accusative plural borrom the nominatire form. Cp. 261 b. The Bhortsr forms 
were more frequent In ereryday speech than in literature. 



29*. Adjectives of the conBonant declension having a separate 
fonn for the feminine inflect; the femiuine like & substantive of the 
first declension ending in -a (216). 

299^ The feminine is made from the stem of the masculine (and 
DeuterJ by adding the suffix -ux (ya), which is combined with the 
preceding syllable in different ways. The genitive plural feminine 
is always perispomenon (cp. 20S). For the feminine dual, see 287 b. 

296. Stems In v (-m, tia, -v). — The masculine and neuter have 
the inflection of v^x^ and iarv, except that the genitive singular 
masculine and neuter ends in -at (not -at) and -«a In the neuter 
plural remains uncontracted. 

397. TjSui aweet is thus declined: 





K. A.V. 
Q. D. 



(♦Ito) <|M 


So ^oMt deep, rXuRd nsMf, lipit 

broad, ii6i eharp, raxit 


a. In 4Sc(d -jc baa been added to iiltf- =" 4'<>!-i ^ sLronger form of the Bt«in 
tJv- (cp. 270). The nomlnatiTS maacallne 49>i' ix u«ed ior the accumtiTe. 

b. The adJeotlTea of this declension are oiytone, except ^lufui half, ^Xin 
ftmalt, and some contpoundB, as Sfrtixm of two cabiu. 

298. Stems in v (-Ot, -«l*«, -av; -i|', -ii*s, -n>). /tc\ac black, riprpt 
tender are declined as follows: 

M D. Horn, hu naanlly tta, -i/itt, -dp, etc ; tomeUinea -A>, -hft, -if, etc 
Tbe tomu without i (48) ue regnlar In HdU For -dv Horn, baa -fa In <4^ 
rtrrat the wtde $ta. itit and 9^\ut ara aomstimM feminine in Horn. 

■ ooj^lc 


Gen. pAoiV-ot |u\a(vi)t pAa»-ot TJpit-'«t TtpiCvi|t T4p<v-«a 

Dat. ^a*-i |iAa(vf| |i&a»-i T^piv-k ■npiCi'ii t4p(*-i 

Wpf*-« nptlvK T^v-4 

npfaMHC TIptlMU* TtpjW-OlV 

H, T. pihac-K iiAaivu |jAftv-a T^pw n i^pnw Wp<*-s 

Oen. itAivHt* p«Xuvfi* fA&r-mr rtpJiMtv npHnAv -np^v-wv 

D»U i)Aaa-i(v) |u\a(rui )iAao->(i>) TVn(i') Tafrivu* t^i(v) 

Ace. )LAaih«t )uX(Ui4[| pA«i^« rifmrmi nptliVt Wp«>-a 

Lik« liAAt is declined one adjective: ntUt, riXotro, rdXaf wretched. 
jk. >iAat is for fuXaM b? 37, 90. Wltli the exception of lUKii and rdXAt, 
ftdjectiye aienu in t reject t in the nom. ^ng. fi/Xwri for fuXai^ri 96 a, 260 N. 
The feminine forms iU\aim and t^/kih come from fuXar-ja, Tiptr^ia bj 111. 
The Tocatives liAur and riptr are nre, the nomiuattre being used instead. 

299. Stems in n- occur in a few adjectives and in many participles 
(301). jpfitiv gracefid and vm ail xre declined thus ; 

Qen. x'f'o'i^^t X>f^"P X>p(**'*M wa.vr-i9 riai^ «avT-i« 

Dat. Xfl**^-^ XOft^v^U XBf'<*'-* 'n(T-( *<Erg vavr-t 

Acc. X'P'**^'* X'P''"**-'' X"**** wi^T-a *anrv itd* 

Voc XOf'** x^P**"** X"?*** *•• "«» wSi" 

N. A. T, x'^P'*'^-* X'V^'** XVf''*'^^ 
G. D. x'H*'''''''''*'' Xf**'"'''**' X*4>*'*^^*''* 

N. v. Xft*"-*) X'P'*'''^^ X'P'***'^ Mirr-ti vfiovi wirr-s 

Gen. x^P^""** Xf**''^^y xf^^*^^* «i*rHn> *Ka4v v&vr^iv 

Dat. xf^'^^W xf^""* X^f^^^C*) wSax(_¥) t4ntt ma\(_v) 

Aoe. xf^""-** x'P'^''^ X"^**"* «Arr-ai *i«4t wii>r-« 

SOB D. Horn, hta aiiMritan bloody, aniUm jAodowv, bnt ri/i^t and rifi^- 

«it iiiilNa&I«, Tijtfli^a and rln'/nrra,. Dorio has sometimes -at, -Arrat for -dett, 
-i«rr«>, as ^Mira. Attic poetiy often has the open forms -6t(t, -Am-vb. 


Uke x'P'"* ^'B infected rrtpint wlnfftd, ^wnfm voiced, latpuiia tearflU. 
Adjflcttvsa ia -itn and -^fit aie generally poetical or Ionic. #wn|«T< meaning 
wieel* la alwaja opea. 

a. xv^*"! 'Bi are derived from xv**"***! 'irr-i by 100 ; X'V'" from xop^rr- 
by 133. The a of war (for irJ[f(T)-) la irregular and borrowed from vat, Com- 

pOonda have a : draf, iri/iwap, 

b. From xBpT- ,ia derived x<v'«"'a with (ro-, not rr, by 114 a. x^V*^ ^ ^ 
weak form of tbe stem x'P^'^- i it appeara also in x<'«>'<" for x'V**^'" (C8)> 
PaTtldplea in -«i (307) form the feminine from the strong stem -trr + m. taaa 
slanda for rarrea oat of rarr-ja (il3a). wirrttt, tSti are accented contrary 
to 2fi2 ; but rtrrit, iratrf, virOr are regular. 

c. Adjectives in -Ua contract, aa /uXiroOt, /uXiroth-ro, iitXeravr, O. /uXiraDrrot, 
^Xn-M^rrff, etc (fuXtridi Aonfsif). vr^j^tt has wTtfoSrra, xrtpaSvaa. So in 
namea of places: ' ApytntOrrat Argtimumt for -iifftu; 'Pa|uoGi, •«Orrof, lor 
'Pi^irfnt, -itrrot. 


30a Zfike iyttSoi, -^, -6» are inflected all the partioiples of the 
middle, and the future passive participle. 

aco. Faiticiples of the active voice (except the perfect, 309), 
and the aorist passive participle have stems in vt. The masculiDe 
•nd neuter follow the third declensioD, the feminine follows the 
first declension. 

a. Host Btema in trr make the uom. siog. maac without f, like ■yipui' (243). 
Bat steina In trr In the present and second aorist of >u-verbs (jtfa^, S»ii), and 
ill stems in an-, trr, urr, add i, lose rr (100), and lengthen the preceding vowel 
(•avi, -it, -tu, -ut, 87). In like manner the dal. pL ia formed : -orr-^t = -aMi, etc 

N. — The stem of participles In -ur, -«mt waa origloally wrr. y4pwii was orig- 
nally a participle. 

b. The nominative neaUr of all participle* drops flnal r of the stem (133). 

C. The perfect active participle (stem or) has -ui In the masculine, -ot in the 
neater, -wt and -ot are for -far-t, -for-x. 

d. The feminine singular ia made by adding ja to the stem. Thus, Xkiwa 

(Xiarr-iB), tAca (irr-jfl), lariffa (Is-Tair-ja), nfcwa (riStrr-ia). The perfect 

adds -v(<r)-ii(, as In cU-via. 

302. The vocative of all participles ia the same as the nominatlTe, 

303. Participles In -ar, -it, -*a, -vvi, -ui freqoenUy nse the mmwiHt|^> for 
Ibe feminine In the dual. 

304. The accent of monosyllabic participles is an excepUon to 862 : 6r, trrt 

(not 6wT6t), rrli, (trdrTM. 

309. Participles in -•*, -o«tf«, •«« (a-verbs) : Xumf loosing (stem 
krorf), w beiiig (stem itrr-). 

SM D. In the feminine of participles from stems In an-, arr (SOS), AeoUo baa 
■MTk, -ai^M (Xdawa, Mrotva), and -au in the masculine (XArut). 



M.V. Xtmw Xtowr* X«» «* o<mt <r 

Gen. yfarr-ot Xsoio^ Xiavr-ot trr-ot ainfi ttir t 

Dftt. X4srr4 XSoiro Xfcvr-t <vt-i oSrg trr* 

ACO. Xtfavr-« Xfevra-* XSov trr-a ' aiom-v fc 

If. A. v. XiovT-* Mo«v« X4ovT>« tvr-t «Cr« frr-« 

G. D. IMvr-oi* XVoBnuv XWvt-mv <*t-oi* afiotuv Jit-al* 

4. T. X^CT-tt X4ov(r(u Xtfon--a 5vt-«i ofa-oi 5vr-a 

Sen. XWrr-aF X(^sw«v XMi-r-in <>t-«i> siw-Av frr-MV 

3U. Xtfoun(*) Xootfnw Xtfaun(*) afa-iC*) oSnd aln(v} 

Ice. X4an^«« Xln*v«« XtfoiT'a tiT.<H •fad tvr-a 

So are inflecUd roiStiHw educating, ypi^ut writing, ^pur hearing. 

«. All participles in -at are inflected like \tur, Uiose In -wv Laving the 
icceiit of &r, JtTot, etc. ; as Xtviir, Xii-swa, Xtri* Aacfn; le/t. Snch pMtlclples 
kre from w-verba, in whicli a is a pan of the tense Buffix. 

b. Like participles are declined the adjecUres iniii, luaSt^ Mr wilUng, Jkuf, 
Lcaiwa, i»et unwilHttg (for Uxur, etc.), O. inrrst, ijiotei)t, Jmn-M. 

ao6. Participles in -s«, -in, ■«*: XiSvu Aavin^r {doa«d, ttrr^c setting. 

N.V. X<a<« XfaVn Xfirav U^ tor&ra trriv 

Gen. XtfravT-ot XtrtU^it Xtfrai-r-ot trrArr-Ot IvH[n|t l«-TA*t-o« 

Dat. Xtf<r«rT-i XVirAirQ Xtfravr^ tor&i-r-i I«T4ff^ lo^vr-t 

Acc. Xtfravi^a X6ra«t-v Xfaa* la^vr-a loToro-v IvtAv 


N. A. T. Xfa«tT-f XOrdrK Xtfrai-r-i Urit-r-t taitfvtt Iffrivr-c 

G. D. XB<r&vT-«i* Mta-AaxiM> Xfa-ivT.«iv Ivrivr-Mv tn^ru* (v^rr-oi* 

XfauvT-^ X4rSv<u Xfa-avT-a la^irr-«t tor&ru Urrdiv-ai 

X0«4rr-a*. X0o4o4v XfaivTHi* IvT&rr-m to"r<«4* IvtAct-mv 

Xfa«n(*) XVirdnut X&r<ffi(*) l«T£n(*) Urttntt laTWi(v) 

Xfawr.«« IUI<r^a( XtfravT4 [rr4rr-M loTdrBt (vt&*t-« 

hie declined raiStirii having educated, rT^ai Aapfng Ml, 



307. Participles Id -«i«, -•»»«, -«■; -«vt, -««ra, -ov (fu-rerbs): nflciv 
placing, &&nft giving. 

nfclt -neibm -nMr 8«Soih 8iS«ftni EiSdv 

TiB&^<«t r4((»i|t TiMrr-ot SiSd*r<«t StSovn-rgt ttSii>r<«i 

nNi-T-i Titflrig nMcr-i SiSdvT4 StSovo^ GiSd*r-i 

nNvT-a nMo-n-v nM* fcSivr-a &Eoeo-a-v 8iSdv 

H.T. -nMrr-ii -nfcbru ntfor-a SiSd*-Ttt StStSo-tu &S<*T-a 

Gen. nMiv-wr ntsvAr tiM*t-«> StUnr-av StSovrA* SiUir^vv 

Dftt nMin(v) nltlron •nli[(n(*} 8iSoen(*) SiSoAriui GiSoO<rL(v} 

Aec nNrr-M TiM«mt n«iT« tiSdyr^M Eificwif iMrr-a 

So are Inflected Mi having plaeed, raittvMt having been educated, \uitu 
kaelng been looud. Suit hminff given, 
«. In pwtidptes with bwob In an- of fu-verba the s belongs to the verb-Btem. 

aoBL Participles in -vt, -Vov, -**: fiuniSi akowing, ^tt bom. 

Swn4i Biucvfaa itaaiv ^ ffcra ^ 

Samnfrr-Of S<uiv4a-i|t Siucv«VT-at ^vrr-oi ^&n]( ^nr-ot 

Stucrvvr-t S«ii>tfa-n itunrim-^ ■ ^vvT-i ^Jo^l ♦I'rr-i 

SwonfiT-a SKK»<ra-v S«Kvifr ^i)vT-a ^{lr»-v ^v 

H. T. laxr^TT.*! SaKvtru StHccJwT-a ^ttrm ^Sru ^v>^-« 

Gen. lwnnfrr-«¥ tiunVrAv SMcnlnr^n ^Wtbv 4A«''>> ^'t-r-w 

IhU. Swc*Sn(>) SiMvArw 8HKvO<n(v) 4e<nC*} ^A-raxt ^S(n(>) 

Aec. tMtrtfrT-«« StucT^o-Bf 8>LKrvvT.a ^rr-oi 4^rKi ^m>r-a 

309. Perfect active participles in -«t, -via, -oi; A«Avk<k having 
iooted, ttii^ knowing. 

MBa. D. Hooi. bu ivraiit, iFraSra, iarait, O. ^Toirot, eU., Hdt. ^rc^, 
hndvo, i^rtSi, Q. irTtOrat, etc. Some ediliouB hftve te-Ti^a in Horn. 



N. v. XAmnh XAwcvta XAuK^ Mit itSvta ft84t 

Gen. X<XiH(dT.ot XAvmilSf XAvxtfr-ot *tEdr-ot tlMMt <lS4T-ot 

Dat. XAut^-i XiXwcirff XAinc^i «lSiT<i tlEvCf itSiri 

Acc XA«K^-« XAucvto-v XtXucit ilSir-* *t8«(»-v itSit 

N.A.T. XiXmir-i XAvkv(« XAwcAt^ itS«r^ tttaO iltAr-* 

G. D. X«XHt^-o» XtXvKvlatv X«XuK«T-«ti> (tStr^wv «tS^i» ilMr-*i« 

N.V. UlMtir-n X4XMt«t«i XAuc^-« ilSdr^ ttS«t« «t84r-a 

a«li. IuXm^-w XiXiMwA* XiXoic^-a* «(S«r.«* <lEinAr itS4r-*i* 

Dat. X<».iiKi<n(v) XiXwubu* X4\«c4o-i(v) itSdirL(v) itSvCoM tlStei(v) 

Aco. XAvKdr-M XiXwnid* XiXvKh-« )ltiT-«t iIGoMt ftS<T-a 

80 are inQeoled rrraiitiiictit, xrraiSaiiaiia, Ttriuituic6i having tducoted ; 
trjcriit, TcTsruia, Tryofjt &om. 

■. jirriii standinp (contracted from iaraiit') Ib inflected Jvriii, fffTflvs, ivrit, 
O. ^rruToi (nitb irregular accent, from irTaiTes^,imivtp,iaTan>i pLN. Jorh^ro, 
J^rOffat, iari^a, G. imliritt, irruvSr. 60 rttrtila, nSmliat, tiAkAi dead. 

N. —^jTit (the mnial Spelling in the Dent, nom.) has -^ (not-i^) in imlt&tion 
o( tfMi and ot forms in -vii, thos diatingnialiing the neuter {rom tfae maacaiine. 

3ia ContraQted Paitidptoa. — The present participle of verbs in 
■na, -cu, tMi, and the future participle of liquid veros (401) and of 
Attic futures (d38) are contracted, rifuav honouring, waio^ making, 
are thus declined : 

N. V. (rifiiw*) Ti^Av (rifidomra) Tl|iAa-« (riiidot) T[|tA* 

Qen, (Ti^n-of) Tl|iAt-T-ot (ri/iooilc-ip) Ti)tAa-qi (ripioiroi) Tl|tA*r-«fl 

Dat (Twiiem) tI|»*»»-* (rijioMtrn) tI|iWi| (ti^wi) Tl|iA>T-i 

AOO. (tI^ito) rl^Brr-Oi (rifiiawsr) Tt|iAra-v (r^idor) tI|iAi> 

W. A.V. (t(M«f«) Tl4i«»T-» (ri*HM*ri) rt|Uff« (rvcierr*) Tl|»*»t^ 

G. D. (ri/iain-air) T[|Ui>T-Mi> (rifUM^wr) T(|tAr<MI> (ruwirrBtr) Tl|i£i-v-Mv 

N. v. (t7>«Ioit«) T[|iAi>r-«t (rijiioiwat) rlpAru (rifiiorra) Tt|iA*r-a 

Gen. (rituiiimtii) TlyAnr-nir (rifco^vrwr) Tl|UMrAi' (ri^ioin'wv) Tl|uirr-«(y 

Dat. (riMowri) Tl|iAn(v) (riMOodvoii) rifuirAtt (rifufoiwi) Tl|iAaa(*) 

Acc (rliiiarm) tifiAvr-ae (ri^MO*«fit) rl|utrBi (rifidorra) t^iAvt.* 

SIO D. Awlie iM also Hfuut, nlm, I^kau from Tipipt, nlwn, S^Xoft^ 


H. V. (bWw) w*iA* (rmfciwa) wot*<«« (roifcr) vMoS* 

Gen. (roiA>rTM) vomSkt-^ (touo^i) «oi««n|i (vm^itoi) «oM9rr-ot 

D»t (mwfciTi) womOio'h (tdmo^It) «ot«i«^ (Twferrt) vaw4i>r4 

Aoc (rM^rra) *om4*t4 (rw^vuffar) TO>o O gm-» (■Woe) womS* 

N. A.V. (roc^m) votatiTH (a-fuvdra) vowirl (roiArrf) woiaAiT'I 
G. D. (TMdnviv) '■Mofar.M* (rwcofeaiv) voteWatv (roMdrreif) voto^rr-ot* 

H. V. (rtiArm) «oioftrr-«t (tmAhwu) «oia4a-u (roi&rra) «oiatvT.a 

Gen. (rsttbrtfp) vmoirTHn (ToWBUffut) wmovtAv (rooiimir) 'VOwfo>r.«M' 

DaL (toiAwvi) «mo9o^(>) (reMoAroif) wotc<y»i< (th^ivi) WMoBsa(ir) 

Acc. (roUarrat') «ote«vr4| (Towo^ai) woftjai (TMferra) *Maft»r-a 

a. The prewnt pixUoiple of Si/Xa (iigXJw) man^itte Is Inflected like waian 
thu, Ii^Ar, SqXoOffa, I^Xsur, Q. IifXoDrrDi, IqX«^^, JqXaOirof, etO. 


311. The irre^lar adjectives ftryas great (stems /icya- and /icyaAor) 
and TcAvE mucA (at«inB tdXv- and roAA^-) are thus declined : 

Horn. fh^ P*y^n r*f waMt *oXX^ *oX« 

Gen. f^iiXan p7iXi|i |MyiXe« mUlofl voXXIti woUmS 

Dtt. IMtUv ImyAXu miii<t voXXf mXXt mXXf 

Acc: ■''y** I'*T^^* p't^ voXiv v»U^v mKt 

Too. iirfttt |MifAXi| |Uy* 

p^iiXM itr^lXs hyU- 
|uyAXmv iuyAXoiv iirfdXM* 

K. T. pYiXoi (Ut^W (my'Xb «oUMt voMuU voXXd 

Gen. |MyiX«* |>(TAXm> |i«yAX«v wdXXAv woUfiv «oXX£f 

IhL (wfAXeit |trf<Uut(t ihy^Xaw «aXX«ti woUoIt voXXstt 

Aoe. |u-fAXo*t f^fiXlm p»^tiAa, «»XXo«« woXX^ nXU 

ni D. Ham. bu some forma from tbe stem t»\u- (ravXi^) wbloh are not Attio: 
Q. wtKtt, H. pL voXfe, G. reUut, D. raX^vt (250 D. 2), rnUrri uid rsMri, 

N. V. 









a. Except in the forms lUyait itfy*', ft^St t^B tdJecUve lUyat ii Inflected ■■ U 
the nominstlTe sing, humc were /irvi^- ^at Is aometiiiiea found in tbe toc 
■ing. Except in roXHi, roMr, raXtf, the adjectire r«X^ la inflected aa U the 
nominatire slug. maBC. were i-oXXit. 

b. Hie Blem i-oXXo- is from raXw-, i,e. ro\.f»-, iif being aaimilated to XX. 
C. rpvoi mild forms its masc aud neuter sing, and dnal from the Stem rpyo-; 

Its fern, in all numbers from the Btem rpdv-, as nom. rpetu for rpow-w fomted 
like ^tia (207 a). Thus rpf as, rpitls, rpfer, Q. rpfur, rpitiat, tpitv, Mc, In 
the plnial we bare 

r ipSitt wra«ta4 wpfa or vpHfa 

ir wpUa* wpbkd* vp^K or vpB^n- 

>r v^aiir\{ii) vpblAn *p4<»< <«■ «p«to*(») 

vpOilKi «p4a or «pUa 

d. Some compounds of raft foot (nS-) have -our In the nom. sing. neat. 
aod sometimes in tlia ace. Blng. maac. by analogy to irXoOi (3M). Iliiu^ 
rplrDin three-footed, rflwavr (but ace r^irota Mpod). 


312. Adjectives of one ending have the Mune termination for maaonllne and 
feminine. The neuter (lllia maso. and fern.) sometimes occurs in oblique casee. 
Examples : i,yn!ii dYrtlr-oi uninoun or vnknowing, droii AroiS-ot diUdleta, 
tprj-lit ipy^iT-et white, Afiwai Sfiray-n rapaetoui, /uini^ iid*€ip-in bleued, dcdfwi 
ixiiMrT-tt unteearUd. Here belong also certain other adjectives commoni; need 
as substantives, as yv/ir^i 7u/u4r-oi light armed, winit winrr-at poor, ^uyAt 
^v-iH-ot fugitive, fXif fXu-oi comrade, dXafdv dXaftKii Jtatterer. Some &re 
mflaculine only, aa MfXarr))i (-oO) volunteer. Adj. in -Ii -liat are feminine only i 
'BXXqvlt Greek, rarpli (eeil. yQ) fatherland, rv/iittx^* (rikit) an Mted Male. 


313. CompariMS by -npec, ^iwrot. — Ttie usual endings are: 
For the comparative : -rtpK m. -npd f. -rcpor n. 
For the superlative : -TarcK ra. -ron; f, -rarof n. 

The endings are added to the masculine stem of the positiTe. 
Comparatives are declined like a$uK, superlatives like dyo^ (2ST}. 

SllXei (&r)\o-) dear, &i|U-T)pot, ShM-tstoi ; lrx«pdt (tirxtipo-) ttrong, (rxBpd- 

(^apv) heavy, pap«-Vtpat, pafi«T«TBt; iX^t^ (iX-^ar-) true, dX«tWr v nf e s , 
dXiiMr-Tatvi ; etisXtifi (timXtta-) famOM, t< ' ' 

A. a-oUat. Horn. hM also nXUf, roXXif, raXXir (like ifraBbt), and these fonaa 
an commonly need bj Hdt irauX^ (tor woMt) ia sometimes fmn. in Horn. 


a. x'f*^*^v*i -irwrot an from x'lf'^V'i -T^Ttt (88, 299 b), from x'pi"' 
grae^M. Compoimda of x^P^ grace *dd s to tlieetem (xo^t-o-), irbeuce *r'x»' 
ttriiTtfait nxrre pleating, wtr^t poor has rtriv^tpn from warr-rtpn, witb ■ for ^. 

b. UrigiiiaUy -^tpot had no other force than lo contraat one idea with aiiother, 
and tUs funclkin la retained in aeflrepei right )( dfilartfioi Uft, iiiiirtfiot our )( 
Wtc^*i yoHr. Horn, hag several such words : Afpirtpn wild )( tamt, S^^Ortpai 
yuKutn )( men, cp. Arcadian ippirrtptt from ippj/ii male. Cp. 1082 b. 

314. Adjectives in -os with a short penult lengthen o to «> : vio^ 
new, Kw-rcfNK, Ma-roroS) ^o^^iro^ difficult, voAnrui-ruMK, x<^"'"-n>ri>t. 
An undue sucuession of short syllables ia thus avoided. 

a. If tbe penolL Is long either bj nature or by position (144), a ia not 
lengthened: itrrit lean, Xnrrir^pn, XmrrAraroi. A stop and a Itqnld almost 
alwsTs make position here (cp. 146) ; aa rupdt Mtttr, titfirtpm, rurp^arsi. 
mbt entptg and rrcvii narrow were originally atrfos, artrfot (Ionic nu4i, 

trtaii, 37 D. 1), hence utirtpot, rrtrtirtpn. 

3XS. The following drop the stem vowel o : ytpaii-t aged, ytpai-rtpet, ytpal- 
Tann; taJiMih^ ancient. TaXsf-rtfKn, raXai-rarof ; rx'Aoiiii-t tlmB^ irxB^afTf^, 
«XoAal.TBTiit ; ^IXsH (fear, i/iO^tpoj (poetic), #(X-tot(ii (316, 11). 

a. Some other adjectiTea reject the atem vowel a and end in -aertpot, 
-urarM, as fri'X** 9<<f«t, laot eqval, tptpmt earlg. These, like axa^atrrpat and 
TtpKtitpat, imitate vaXofrcpM, which is properly derived from the adverb rdXw 
long ago. So fiwaJrtpof, -alrarin imitate ittoai- in Horn. fuo-cu-irMiaf midfUe-a^ed- 

316. unpei, -«gT tt r t . — By Imitation of worda like dXifff/r-rtpaf, i\ite4a- 
Ttnt (S13), -trrtpat, -wrarn are added lo atema in oii and to aome in m (con- 
tracted to ov). Tbua, «Ual/u«t happg, tMiufar-ifTtpot, -Ararat ; drXoSt aimpU, 
iT\a6rT4pM (for itrXi>-<irr<f)Sf), drWrsroi ; tStoui VieU-ditpoied, tiroivrrpn, 
■idrrarM, and so in all others In -rom from mOi mind. (Others In -<»i have 
■arrtpei: itpoArtpot more crowded from ABpiai.') 

a. Some slenu in » aubatitute b for at ; aa (from hra^-liaiiar forgetful, hriKr^- 
tliowir-rtfoi) iwiX^ii&jraTot ; wtur fat, xiirtpat, xufror*! ; riraif ripe has wrwal- 
ri^M, rewalTHTm. Cp. 815 a. 

b. Other cases : (with loss of «) ippviJro-i ttrong, ippuiitriartpot, -ivrwrot, 
Itpiro-t wwnfxAi, ixpiTirTaTot, Sa/itrn-t glad, d^n-i aAundanl. 

317. -impoi, -nrrvrat. — By Imitation of words like ixapi^Ttpm for d^opir- 
rqm (83) from ftxcp" di^greeobU, -urrepot, -urraroi are used especially with 
adjecUvea of a bad meaning, as iXewT-lrraret («X#rTi|f thief, 821), jtamnop- 
Jrrvoi (nc^YB^Bt aAu«{M), XaX-JoTtpot (UXot taliuMee). 

3I& ComparisMi by -Xmv, -imt. — Some adjectives add to the root 
of the positive the endings -Ion' for the masculine and feminine, -iov 

n4«. D. Horn. Ji^iiraTn (but op. Att.otCM'). ^•^ai'OT (MCffxirarot?). 

Sit D. Bom. and Doric poetry tiave also -lur, which is aa old as -iwv. Forms 
in -imt, -wTM ai« much commoner in poetry than in prose. Horn, lus piBivrat 
{fiUtt d«Q>), ppdaatit iPfaxit thort), fiipSt^rm (fipaZit ihno), kMivtoi (xvi^ 
gUnioiu), Acwroi (AiAt quick). 


for tlie neuter to form the comparative, and -ttrrac -17 -or to form the 
superlative. The rowel (or the syllable /») staadii^ before s of the 
nominative is thus lost 

PouTiTi CbHTAmuira SnrBUATTTB 

tirrmv (112, 126 f) T^X-"'^^ 
lutl.r (116) lUy-urrv* 

4iS>^ (Urcet (i^ 43-ei^ pboJun) 
Tax-i-l nsifl (ri rdx-oi ■u^TI'MM) 
lUy-a-t prea< (t4 ^rfy-iAii ^eolnui) 
dX-fuvdc pafr^ul (ri dX7-M pain) 
ol^x-p^ iham^l (ri olrx-oi ihanu) 
JX*-p<-« ftoteAI, AoMfle (ri fx»H>t hate) 



Forms In -lur ■» declined like ^Xrtw* (208), those In ■i^roi like iyaSit (287). 

319. IrreKuIar Comparison. — The commonest adjectives forming 
irre^ar degrees of comparison by reason of the sound changes or 
because several Tvords are grouped under one positive, are the follow- 
ing. Poetic or Ionic forms arc in ( ). 

1. iiM,,«a 





<^Ar(,»t, notlnHom.) 

(^rsTOT, not in 



(op. „in^ «r»w«) 




(«^pT«T.t, ^purm) 

Xi(-» (X«l»^ \»lT.pM) 


2. nafcX^I 

KMtm (Kuii7-(/»l) p«{or 



(ertor (x(v*r«pet, x*/""*- 


v. V"" ('or *«-»») 

(|«wTo,, rare), adv. 

water, (iy«*w (fa™') 

JfiuTTo leatt of all 

S. nU.^<M«U 


■cdMUo-nt (ic<iXX-at 


4. |i«|Mlov 

5. i/lmrtal 

pidM 818 0*I»»»> 


SIS D. Horn, has also iup8a.\iot gainful, crafty, mpttWr, Ktptmrai ; ^yIw>^ 
ihtiam mar*, mott drta^fiit (cp. ptyat cold, ^i-r^Xit cAKHn;), df^Toi (n)<dta 
dear, jtfSoi eon). 


6. fMMf U nMB |tUp*Tipn 
{iXdxmm, L of A^c^} OUirrav, tXAwm- (for JXa- iUx»^«t 

|uC«v (/invTDi, rare) 

7. Ut|M litUa, pi. few Uw(t>v (Inscriptioiu) iUYwra* 

(frr-dX(fbr Horn, rather Utt") 

8. ««X^ MueA, pL tMny vXiCo*, vU», neuL wMtm, vJMlrm 


9. MS^ ««r W" (Ion- M*"') Hir™i 
Of«<M) «il(r<pM) tfi,(r«r«, ^^wt«) 

(jax^tpot) (tox^tbtoj) 

11. 40^ <lMr (^fXTt^f) 4arara« 

^iXcOnpof (Xenopb.) 4tX«lTaToi(Ze&oph.) 

(^iMur, rare in Hom.) 

a. ifuIiwT, dpwTot express ap(itw{«, eapaeUy or woriA (a&I«, braw, txedUnf) ; 
ptXtirn, flfkriara!, a moral idea ivirtuout) ; tpttrTur, tpdrtfret, force Mid rupert- 
oritD (atrong) (IJTTur la the oppoaile of tp^lrriiii); \iftar means tnore detirablt, 
miiTt agTteai>U{S Xyvre my good friend) ; (ajtfwr, ntcMTtt express moral percer- 
tiXf, anMTHiee ; x'^'i x'W'rcfi Iru^lllcfcnev, lack of a quality (Icm gooi) 
(iMrtUcM, gooifor nothing la ^SXbi}. 

b. Airrwr, fXiiTTar, Ai;ic'<>'''M Kter lo aliei MioUer (opposed to lulinr); 
or to maltitode ; /cto«r (opp. to rXclur), /ulwr, fuJor, ^ror, 4«trrs also belong 
botb to >upit and to itdfoi. 

c The orators prefer the longer form of rXtttai, eapeoiall; the oonbacted 
Titdt, T\ttom, bnt U>e neat. rUsr. rXciV Is not contracted from rkht. 

(wfi b^ore) rptrtpot former rpfirot ^r«t 

(twfy OMT, hejfotid} MpTtpat (poetic) htghar, Mprartt (poetic) hiffh- 

mpcrior. ett, tvpreme. 

(vX^rfer iMar) rXi^nafTtpoi rXt^cwfraTfti 

(Tpaiyyw jiErvfeAi&Ie) rpoiyrfiafrtpnt 

v«'T(pai [a(«r, Iiitt«r Errsrsi lateit, latt 

a. -arM ^qwars in wrarof JUfrftatI, Irxoroi /ortAMt, extreme (from Vf). 
321. In poetry and aometlmea In prose o 

SMD. Hom. has irUrtpat j/ounffer, IrXfrraroi. Several defectives denote 
place; hn^rtrtpot (tarar neorar), rapiIrcpDi (ripaietr b^ore), /uixoiTarot (fi«xal 
JaarKCM). -am in fi^arof, fi^irarai (/iteot middle), tA^tm ImI; >AirM hwMt, 
foe IrrarM Bom. has ^rdrwt ,' and if^aret loM from S«tfr^pn mcmmI, 


-ram (fintOitit king'), trmfirtm a dotal cotupanion (trajpat comrade), ■tfn-t^ 
nuir« doglike, -rarot (nSwr dog), nvpirwpot more Tioittiyfvi (imOpot a goulk). 
Aristophanes has rXn-rlrrsrai moit IhtevUh (cX^m)t Aitf, 817), and aMrarot 
kit vety itif, iptittimiu. 

333. Doabla CompAriaon. — A doubla cotnpuaUTe ooonn lometliiin to pnr 
duee ft comic efFect, as narrtpitrtpiH (321). A ditublB miperUtive la rpi&rwToi. 

333. Compuiaon by ftoAXov, fkaXmm. — Instead of ttie forma in 
-rtpot, -TUTOi or -lav, -urrot the adverbs fioAAof more, ^toWra moat, may 
be used with the positive; as pJaXXiw i^Duk more dear, dearer, pAXurra 
4pjK most dear, deareM. This is the only way of oomparing parti- 
dples and vorda that do not take the comparative and Baperlative 
endings (jiS^Xov Jkuv more willing). 

a. Compftrison by tuiXXar, /liWra Is coTOiDon in the case of compound 
adjeotI?Be, adjeotires nith a pieptwitional prefix, verbal adjectives in -rit, and 
adjectivra In -wt. 

334. To ezpresa egualUy or tnferioritf evru at (often in correlation with 
4»(p), frror lett, may be placed before the positive. Thoa, at good at Aand- 
tome may be eipreaaed by ovrut dYoMt Oartp lati waKit, A^rtp d-yoMt dvtm rat 
»bM), oEx 4vror raXif f (ot dToMt. 


83B. The Penonil Pronoona. — The pronouns of the first, second, 
and third person are declined as follows: 


Wa; iw* enclitic 
IpiIiluH enclitic 
V: l-onciiilo 


n9 ; ««« enclitic 
v«(; ow enclitic 
W; n enclitic 


gS; oienolitio 
t; jeocUUc 








nfi D. 1 . Homer Inflecu the penonal pronouns as f ollowa. (TIm (orm ifi^^ 
ifilt- are Aeolic). 



a- ^M encUtlo forms ;iou, /tot, fit ; roir, rot, rt are used when the inonoau 
E wrampbatlc, the longer forms tiuS, liiai, iiU vaA the accented roD, rol, ai an 






nto, rio, «s (end. 
A3M}, rrt, 

nl, ... (.aii), m. 


a., k, k (ootl.). 

rf, ft (end.), 

IN., Ih. (aid.) 
M, .t, ,11 (enel.) 
«. 1, i (end.), p.. (ennl) 


r«.«. (end.) 

Kohl JjpA, IfiM 4|utt, <|tp*t (^od toc) 

'^l r+.^(end.),r+«.. 

rV»».»«"W iiift-.^iHuW »+(«(,), r+i«W (end.), 

'^ t «4i. (end.) 

j^fV'M.'H" J|ifat,l|HM r+*M,»+M»(eneL), 

"^ 1 ir4. (oncl.) 

*«( (encI) is nsed ae kccus. of all genders and numbers. 

S. Berodotos Inflects the petaonal pronouns m followsi 

Norn. ffA v4 

G«n. 4|iife,)|ufi,pn(encL) rfe, rrt, nw(encL) «4 (eooL) 

.Dst. ^ol, |LW (enoL) ««:, thi (end.) «l (end.) 

Ace. ifi, |u (end.) r^ n (end.) 1 (enoL), )uv (encL) 

G«L iHiiw 4|i^ «4te-, tr^Mtv (ena) 

DtL V^ V* v^I^' •^'A (end.) 

Ace. \ ''''"' ''*'" 'fMi o'4*M (eucL), tMtIt 

I v-^M (end.) 

•f(rt to naed for torroii, -aft ; ff^i (end.) for adroit, -alt ; ff-^B (end.) for adri. 

8, lonlo >ur (end.) Ic uaed In all gendei* (eum, cam, id), but not in tlie 
phmL ififu, liifu oocur a few times, vMi r often, In tiagedy. 

4. The chief forma peculiar to Doric are : I. I^iir also before oonaonants ; 
0. Iniot, iiicBi, turn; D. i^w; PL N. il;iA; O. i^u,. i^,; D. itf>J>(r), '»<»; 
A ^. n. T*, T^iTi ; G. tAm, twBi, rrft, tAi, t«0, rmS ; D. rlr, rir^ ; A. ri, ri>, 
r«i PL N. l>iA; O. W>r; D. Wr, Ifur; A. i^. UL O. Mt, M; D. fJr; 
A. i(r; PL O. r^tlto, ^te>; D. ^r, f fr ; A. r^^, f ^. 


9S DECLENSIOK OF aii^T^ [3*e 

tiMd when the isonoim is emph*tic Thus, iit fMt ri pifi\tor gtv« nu the book, 
otc iiial, dXM aal irifiauXtiouvi thev are plotting Tiot ogaimt me, but againtt yoa. 
See 187 s. On the lue after preposkiona we 1S7 S. 2. 

b. For ^(i, iiial, ri the emphatic tyuyt, liioiy (186 a), riyi occur. Also 
ipaOyt, i/ityt. 

C The use of the plural j/ou for thou li unknown tn Ancient Greek ; heoiw 
ttfU is used onlf iu addreMing more than one person. 

d. OfLhe forms of the thinlpenonalproDounonlfthedMlveB>raada'^Ivi(r)&re 
OODUDOnly uBed in Attio prow, and then only aa Indlreet reflexlTeB (1228). To 
ezpreas the penooal prononna of the third penon we find osaall j : inirot, oEroi, 
etc., in the nominative (IIM), and the oblique lomui of airit in alt other cases. 

•. For the aocua. ol aC the tragic poets use nr (enal.) and r^ (end.) for 
maac and fern., both sing, and pi. (=ettm, Mm; eoi, tat). Doric so luea nr. 
r^lr ia rarely Bingular (ef) in tragsdj. 

t. iiitiir, ill*'; 4'>£'i Niui>>, b/ur, t/i&t, When uneraphaUc, are aomatimu aooented 
In poetry on the penult, and -<■' and -it are usnaU; ahortened. Thiu, ititmr, 
liur, if/iat, Bfiw'T ^'i !*«■ -*' and -ai are eometimee shortened even if the 
pronouns are emphatic, and we have Iii4i', 4>utf , Mr, t/ti*. r^t occurs for v^£t. 

326. 3tem*.~I. (OfH- (cp. Lat. nw), m- (op. UA. nJI-*), {i)iw-, 4»w-. 
t/uO It from iitio ; intiit from d^i^ic-n (37) with the rough breathing in imlta^on 
of {^uit ; -fftdr iTom iiiitur, ^M^t from 4/i/af with i not i| by 50. fyii ia not con' 
nected wltb these stems. II. rv- and rt- from Tft; to-; r^u.; i/it- from iittte- 
(37). IIL ( for e-f (cp. Lat. k), ^/ for e-tfi, oI tor o-^ir-i, and *^. ^e 
form of the stems and formation of the cases la often obacore. 

337. The IntenslTe Prononn oArit. — a&rit telf is declined thus : 

Hue. F«n. Nant. Hih. Pars. IT«t. Mun. ram. Hoot. 

Nom. a«T4| afHi aird N. A. a«rA a,M[ a»i4 Vom. •*?«( «1t«( >*tA 

Gen. att«9 «iT% airoS Q. D, •4toI* airml* atrotv Gen. alrAv atrftv aAt4« 
Dat a«r# »Iti a*T^ DaL atratt atimli airott 

Aoc atr^ aMjc afrr^ Ace. atrott nMU atri 

aaa outm is a definite adjective and a pronoun. It haa three 
a. teff: standing by itself in the noroinative, airit 6 dr^p.or i iwiip ttirit tlu 

man hlttueif, or (without the article) in agreement with a auhataatlve 

or pronoun ; as irIpAt a^rw of the man hivuelf. 

M7 D. Hdt has utrhtr in the genltiva plural. For the crsais wArit (Horn.), 
w^fa, T4i«r« (Hdt.), am 68 D. 



b. Mm, kar, O, them, eta. : Muidiiif bjr itielf In m oblique cue (nsTer in the 

nomiuLtive). The oblique cuet of airit are generally used Inataad ot at, 
at, I, etc., u 1 CBT^ ah-eS kU father, el ra2S*i atrSr AeSr ehitdrtii. 

c. •ONK : when it la preoeded by the article in any case : i airit dnjp Uis tame 

awn, ro0 atroB irIpAt of the tame num. 
N. — Hie article and a^it may uoile by cnwii (88 a) : atrrit, atr^, rch'i or 
rmtrtr; ra^roC, raJtrlfi ; ratr^, roh'g, etc. DiltlnguUh a^rT^i the MIM 1> bom 
■vr^ UUt t. ; Toh-d the tame n. bom raOra thett thing* a. ; Tttiri from To^p. 

329. SflflezlT« PronotuM. — The reflexive pronouos (referring back 
to the subject of the sentence) are formed by compounding the 
sterna of tne pereonal pronouns with the oblique cases of avroc. 
In the plural both pronouns are declined separately, but the third 
perscm has also the compounded form. The nominative is excluded 
by the meaning. There is no dual. 

mytelf thyttlf Ainwe{/; henelf, iUelf 

Gen. l|MiiT^, -i)l navToS, -f|t (rAVToS, -%) l»Ta4, -f|t,-o4(a*Ta4, -I|t,-a4) 

Aec V**t4v, -^ vmvtAv, •^v (ravriv, -l^v) kvriv, -tf, -i (sirdv, -^tv, -4) 

G«n. %iA*«liTA* ^fAta.^TAv knAv or v^* «*rAv 

Dat. V** a^tti -^ ^1^* A*Tot«, -at« kvrott, -oti, -at« or v^'"*' 

Aec 1^«««*te«t,4« V>«a*To«i, 4* kim^ 4i, -i. or a^fif a4- 

a. For JauT^f, etc, we find afrrA*, a^sTf, -oA, ahtOt, -i.t. DlsUngoleh afrroS 
o/Ainuel/frora it^roO (328). 

330. Poueulve Prononiu. — Possessive pronouns, formed from the 
steins of the pereonal pronouns, are declined like iyoBw, S^uk (287). 

V<t V4 V'* "ifi "*]' o*en; nit»« ^(Unpot -a -a* our, our otrni; ourt 

9*t ^ win thy, Qiine own; thine i^inpat -S -o* your, j/otir own; t&urt 
rit <t kv hi* (A«r, id) oun] v^npot -S -ov their own 

Sn D. Horn, never compounds the two prononna : thus, i/M** airit, col 
•dry, ol >»rv, N airht, I sh-if'. Hdl. has a few cases of the uncomponaded 

forniB ; usually i/ittniTml, -ry, -rir, rcwvroC, Ivurw), ittirrSr, -ttct, -ott, and t^tur 
mtrAt, etc. The ronns with ««n> started with ^wtry In the dative from to(T) 
■iry, and spread thence to the other oaaoe. 

no D. 1. Hom. has also rtit thy, iU for St hit, her own, kiiii our, l/iit 
tour, r^ their (rarely of the sin^ar), rutrtpei of ut two, r^Utrtpei of you 
tm>. For ifiit AtUo poetry may use ipit (sometimes printed i^ii) owr. 

2. b. Hi In Horn, may mean my own, four own (1230 a). 



a. DietiDgolah the idjectiTol from tbe pronominal use : i i/iit ^Asf or 6 ^(Xoi 
i i/iM my /Wand (adj.) from #a«f i/iit a friend of mine (pron.). See 1106 a. 

b. Ji is not used In Attic prow. For hit, her, itt, a^sfi, -Qt, -oS are tued. 

33L Red^ocal Pionoou. — The reciprocal pronoun, meaning one 
anotJier, each other, is made by doubling the stem of dAXot (dAA-oAXo-). 
It is used only in the oblique oases of the dual and plural. (Cp. alii 
cUiorum, aUer atteriw). 

Gen. UXtiXoi* dXX<pi»v dU^iXMv AXX^Xmv AXXlpuw AXXt^Xw 

DM. &U4pUH> UX^IXur UXiiXat* «U^k AXX^mm UX^iXom 
Aoe. tXkt^ t>X4^ dXX4^ UXVMvt iXM^ kXXnXa 

332. Tlte Definitft Atticto. — The definite artiele 6, 4t fo (sterna &-, 
ir, to-) is thus declined : 

Nom. i ^ Ti N. A.*iTATA Nora, at >t t& 

Oan. T«S T^ T«4 O. D. «!» ralv rotv Qen. T*ir tA* *A» 

Dm. Tf t^ t4 Dat. Toti rah *»(« 

Ago. t«» ■Hfi T* Aoc. mit t^ tA 

a. The defloite article la a weakened deraonatratlTe pronoun, and Is still used 
u a demonatratiTe in Homer (1100). 

b. tA (eepeclallf ) and toTv, the feminine forma in tbe dual, are ver; rare In 
the authon, and are nnlciiown on Attic prose inHcriptlona of tbe clasBical period. 

333. Demonatrattrft Pronoona. — The chief demoDstratiTO pronouns 
are i&t thit {here), oi>rat thia, thai, ImIihk t^at (there, yonder). 

Mom. tSi Ifii Ti6* o^TM aCn) To4ro k(t*«t tmlr^ bat** 

Gen. tbSSi iHtrEi toSSi Totro* rairT)i rairon )mC*ov iatdnit ^Mtvov 

Dat. rfSf r^Si vfBf Tetry rairQ rovrip Imlvf latlvg Imtiry 

Acc Tirt* rfyAt t4S« toAiw *«^* -reftro luttttt* tmlviiv Ixttw 

S9S D. Hom. bas also gen. t«u, gen. dat. dual rtur ; nom. pi. td[, toI ; gen. 
pi. fern, rdwr ; dat. pi. masc. reuri, fern, rfiri. t^i (Hdt. TOivt, Tnn-i). Boric are 
r£, rat, etc. ; pi. also N. toJ, rni ; O. fem. tSu. Generally poetic are rnvi, rairi. 
Tol fi^r, rol H occur rarely in tragedy for ol fi/i>, ol if. 

3St D. For Tour j( Hom. has also roiaSirai or THcriMi. Doric baa n. pL ro^oi, 
ratru, gen. pi. fem. raurif (Aeol. Tairir). airet occurs in Udt (togetber witb 
hi^rt). Dorio and AeoUo bare cQfoi. 

DECLENSION OF 8&c oStm, tK«tvo« 

Nom. »Ut aSi rABi oJtm aJroi Taftra faMtvw tatvu ImIw 
Geo. rAySt rAvSl tAvSi reim* roirHV TofrM* kifvitv iultwr lm(MM> 
Dat. rotrS* ratrSi toEo-G* to^toh r«irtti« -ninvt Intvou inliww faulmti 
Acc ntrtt ^irtt riU T«6nvi rairai Tatn ImCvom intnU faatott 

a. JUk la formed from the old demonstratire i, 4, rA tA(« or thtU, with the 
indeclinable demonatraUve (and enclitic) eodiog -It here (cp. Ai-e from hH-ee, 
Ft. ce-ef). For tbe accent of 49f, «I3(, aU< see 186. 

b. oiroi haa the rough breathing and r In the same places as the article, w 
corresponds to the o, av U> tlie a, of the arUcie. For olrrai as a TOcaUve, see 
1388 a. (ofrrti la from j + the particle 'u + the demonstiative suBlx r* + f). 

c. iicurat has a variant form mtwf in poetry, aod sometime* In pMM (De- 
moathenea). (ixtitot stands for iK*[i}-*m from iiUi there + SUfBx -ovi.) 

d. Other demonstratlTe pronoims aie 

nrdrS. To*^ r<>^i>«f SO mucA, «o 7«a<>v^ pointing forward 

TKlok rods. «.*»*. «*cA {In ^voWe) f (W whM follows). 

ntXicia'3« r^Xun}]* nfXuii^t so oM, SO ^eal J 

These are formed from St and the (nsoally) poetic rirn, rnet, nrXlxH with the 
same meaning 

e. Combinations of the above words and oDtoj are 

THoffrot r«fa*ni r«.ffr.(r) SO mwA, *o mony ■) pointing backward 

™->^„ r««fr, '"fi^W «<* (in 9«<«i«i,) ^^„^p«cede«). 

r^Xuavrot r^Xua^q 'nfWs&r>(r) SO oM, SO freat i 

Tbe forma In -> are more common than those In -e. AtUo prose inscriptiona 
have only -«», 

f. The dual rarely has separate feminine forms. 

%. The deictic snfOx -i may be added to demonstratiTOS for emphasis. 
Before It «, c, o are dropped. Thus, iSt thte nan here, 41. roSt, O. rgvjf, rtiaSt, 

etc ; nh-oirt, avr^ rovrt, a^nll, rovrigi^ So with other demonstratiTee and 
with adverba : ToravrMf, obrurt, iiit Sot -i we have, In comedy, -71 or (rarely) 
-ti formed from Y(t), 8(«) -|- 1. Thus, tirrti, TBimrvl, TamoSt. 

33ft. Intem2>UTe >nd Ind^ntte Pnmoona. — The interrogatire 
pronoun rit, ri tcho, which, what t never changes its accent to the 
grave (154). The indefinite pronoun ric, ri any one, aome one, any- 
thittg, aomething is enclitic (181 b). 

tU t, D. Hom. always, Hdt. rarely, haa the final r. 

SM D. Hom. and Hdt. have O. ric, rtO, D. riif (rji Horn.), O. rimr, D. rttm. 
These forma are alao indefinite and enclitic (gen. rtOr Hdt). Horn, has ir#s 
bx tbe indeflnlta rai. 






H. A. V. 
G. D. 



«^l, T« 


k. drra (not enollUc) Is sometimes used (or the IndefinitA ruti. Irra is 
derived from nich locutions as roXUrro, properly raXXd -|- rra (fot rja). 

335. (iXXoi. — The iadefinite pronoun SXkoi anoth^ (Lat. aliiu, op. 
110) is decliued like oArit : cEXAoc, iWij, 3\>uo (never cUAov). 

336. Aitm. — The indefloile pronoun StTm, ^wa;s used with the utlole, 
means aueh a ont. It is declined tbns : sing, i, ii, ri Seiia ; roO, r^f, reC Stimi ; 
TiJ!, Tp, TV '(IK ; r^'i Tl)r, tA iiira ; plor. (inaso.) ol San>, rSr Stlnir, Twtf ttTrat, 
Exomiile ; j Stin toS J«nf rAr Jiim (iv^ryiiXcv ntcA a one ion of ttieh a 07i€ 
mpeaehed tuch a one [D.] 13. 6. Iiin ia rarely indeclinable. Its use Is 
colloquial and it occam (in poetry) only In comedy. 

337. Other indefinite pronominal adjectives are : Irtpot, -Si -oc : with 
article, th* other, one of two, the one (Lat. alter, alteruter) ; without article, 
other, another, a second (alJuf). By crtksls (69) Irrpoj, eirtpor, etc. kinpoti 
■«, -m: each (of two) ulergue; pi. eUKer party,-iioth partiex, as vtriqur. Ika- 
«Tot, -i|, -or: each, each one, every, every one, used of more than one {qvUque). 
pLdvot, -i|, -ov : alone, onftr, »ole. wot (299) ; all, entire, every. The negatives 
sUilt, ^i[Ult (349 b) no one (poetical tKrn, iiiiTii, in proee only afri, fi^ri, 
declined like rlt ; accent 186), Lat. nemo, nuIIiM. oMiripot, jiqE^npot neither 
of two (Lat. neuter). 

33a Relative Pnmoana. — The relative pronoun St, 17, S who, 
which, that is declined thus : 

SM D. 1. Horn, uses the demonstrative forms i, 4, ri (33S) as relatives 
(IlOfi). In this case the nom. pi. has rof, rof (332 D.). 

2. Besides the forms in 38S, Bom. has gen, So (miswritten Sou) and firi. 

3. Hdt. has Ot, f|, H, ol, al, rd. In the obliqae cases he uses toG, r^, eto. ; 
though, especially after prepositions capable of elision, he has the relative tonns, 

as it ot, Top' 1}, KWT %r, Inr' Sir ; also H i. 


Noiii.tt4i8 N. A.«££ Mom. ot •! A 

Gen. •; i{l aj a. D. «{v ttb «Tv Oen. Jr 4* m 

UL 4 i 4 Dftt. olt alt at* 

Aec C« V * Aca oCt &t < 

t. Ttie bninine dual fortiu J and tlw &ie seldom, if erer, oied In Attlo. 

b. fi if DMd aa » demouatratlve In Homer and aometimee In prose (1118). 

t lie BDoUtJc particle -rtp majr be added to a relative proDonn (or adveib) 
to emphuize the eonnecUon betneen the i«UciTe and its antecedent. Tina, 
y-np, 4-rcp, l-rtp the very penon who, the very thing vihich ; so Oa^wtf jutt at. 
yttf ii declined like St. 

L Enclitic TE la added in i^' fn on eondition thtU, elit n (186 a) oMa to, 
Iti iniunmch at. 

339. The mdefinite or general relative pronoun Sarn, ^tk, i n 
wAomer (any-who, any-whicA), any one who, whatever, anything wMeh, 
indects each part {St and rtt) separately. For the accent, see 186. 

1^*1, try i**^ <fn<^ ^*T 

(mva 'l|tnMi S n 

Nnn. olnm alriMt &n*m, Inrm 

Gen. livTiva*, tnt* AiTi n iii dynvav, &tm« 

Du. aI«Tun(.), &t«tt «I«Ti«a(v) eWTivi(v), Srett 

Ace. aWnvae SaTt*at Invo, ftrra 

t. The nenter J rt is sometimes printed <,t( to avoid coofnalon with the con- 
janetiim In that, beeaute. 

b. The aborter forms are rare in prose, but slmaet nnivenal in poetry (espe- 
(iillj frn, fry). Inscriptions liKVe almost always tfrou, frif, Ittil, 

e. The plaiai Arra is to be distinguished from Irra (334 a). 

(»n«) (t m) bra 

((tTN), (5tTw) JtW (f«MV 

firff Mm** 

(tn*a) (» m) C^^vag) irm 

aamMK osam. — 7 /^^ i 




4. rli BUV be added to irtrtpot, Srot, sIm (840) to HMke thorn mora Indefliiit^ 
u iroJti Tu o/teAat«oev«r JHrut. 

«. ott, 34i Of SitrvT-t may be added to the Indefinite pronouni to make 
them M gonentl aa poaaible, m irrieaOr (or Srrtf ttr), IrrwaOr, inavc m^ out 
wAatener, any fft'iV ^Iwtevtr, and so iroww'TuBt-ovr, Irrw-Jt4-"T(, or ivrtr-tf 
Tar-oCc. In thee« oomblnationa all relatiTe or fntem^tlTe foroe Is loM. 

f. The nnoompaunded lelattrea are often uaed hi an ezolamatorj senae, 
and aometlmea aa indiraet iDtenogativML Indeflulie ralatlvM may be need aa 
Indirect InterrogatiTea. 

34a ComUtfrs Pronooiu. — Many pronominal adjectiTes oom- 
spond to each other in forra and meaning. In the following list ' 
poetic or rare forma are plaoed in ( ). 



iBdtOalM RAxlT* 








(4, 4.) sa. AiM 


Irrit tahoeMT, 



(here), ftte 




o«, aliguU. 

oCroi UM, that 





rirtpM or 

trtpn (Ac em« or 


uAiek oftwof 





two (rare) 




wifot htne 

woait of tome 

Srot <M 


mucht how 



inangf quan- 


w many at 

(tH, niim»er 

Ouf quotf 



taMiu, tot 


»«*t of tome 

•IM o/uA(cA 





o/wAateMT «or< 












which age. 





■be, (a» oW, 







HO D. Hom. haa (Aeollo) n- In twrtrtpn, Imibt, and r» In Imt) rir«M, 
•te. Hdt. haa ■ for « hk (_i}MiTtpat, (i)ii«M, (i)nibt. 



•41. Or^ln. — Adverbs, like j^vpoattfoua and cxmjaiiotione, iim ortgiDaJlj 
ease fonna, made from tbe atema of oouiu and pronouns. Some of Iheae nomi- 
nal and pronomloal stems hsTe gme oat of common use, ao that tmly petrified 
fonna ate left in the adTerba. Some of these words trere atlU {eh to be live 
eaNS ; hi otbeis no coDadoDBDees of t^ir origin anrrired. Hanj advarbs show 
old anSxea joined to the stem or to a case form (843) . It la eometimea vnoertain 
wheUier we ahonld apeak of advtrbt or of noun* toUA local endingi. 
Xominative (rare) : ri^ teiiA clenched JUl, bof once, dua^ pell-mdl. 
Gtnttive: (np doqr afltr to-ntorrow, ^ next, wtO, oE where, oAroS in (Ae very 
plaee, ArreJiir oat of lAa way (Jc + wtSQr) ■ by anali^, l/iwaliir in one^t wag, 
Dativt i huiavlt at ptiblio cost, M$pf in secret, «(■{ in common, eto. (163T bj, 

iXXf otAenriae, rg how. 
JEnuaMee: very common, especiaUy anch adrerbe aa bare the form of the 
accnaattve of neater adJectlTea, aa roU mmcA, iu*pir a little, vfon* at JInt, 
T^iit^i' to-dat, roXXi ojten. See 1008-1611. 
locirtfM.' i6n^ at home (_oIkoi hove), 'lseii«-*tt the Iithmue, nil «hitAer,ttnd 
all adverba In -«. The -< of the conaonanlal dedenaioD Is properly tbe ending 
of the locative, aa In UapaBai^ at XarathQn; -ewi (234) in O atema, In con- 
trast to -wi ; -iai (-rrt) '■> ^ stems (S16) : MpS^i at the doon, nXarauri 
ol .Rotoeo, 'AHnfti at Athene; further In rdXai long ago, /k^ there, turi^iatl 
in fltU force. 
InttmwtentiU : tut abote, Wr« Mow, etrm not yet, O-lt thut (bat the forma 

in -w may be ablatives) ; tpvp^ and \iBpA in eeeret. 
AbUMve: all adverbs In -m, aa in ae, •vtm thve, triftn otherieiee. Here, t.g. 
original trtpU (cp. Old LaL aJtSd, abl. of oUw) became irqw (183), wblcb 
look on -t from the analogy of each words as tU^li parallel to ifupL 

342. Place. — To denote place the common endings aie : — 
1, -A, -oi at, in to denote plaoe where (looative). -ou, tbe sign of the 

genitiTe, is also common, 
-ftr from to deoote the place tcAence (ablative). 
ii (-{<)> -<ra to, toward to denote place whither. 

la the following examples poetical words are bracketed. 
rfM-i (abn-h) at home alas »i» fi-otn home aInCi (eUd*6i) Aomeword 

(aiica- is an old accusative fonu.) 
UJm-«i elteuhere IXXa-tiv from elmwkere UAo-n elsewhUher 

orUX-«x-^ UX-ax-«-«n> AU-ax-^-t 

M D. Bom. baa manj caaea of the local endhigs, e.g. tipart-»i in heaven, 
*TvH'n'J^«M(iUassem6I|r; also after prepoaitiona aa a genitlvB case: 4t dU- 
tao^of the ma, 'l\ii-atTpi be/ore Ilium. Cp./fiM», rM«r,M>r,SS6D.l. -Sain 
Oa-tf to the tea, rtiur-ii to the ettf, rtf.jf^t to the plain. 'AiM^-t* (0 (the holIN 
Of) Badee, I»4t timr^ to Ue hoim. 




t^ W p»# i » from both (tyta Wy n (o both tid**) 

tide* ■ 

wvtT-*x-i-t*r from every wayr-ax-*-" *" «" 

afde dirtction* 


aird-n lo (A< Beiy place 
i|i<-m to (Ae tameplau 

atrvt in (Ae wry pbux oAr^^tt from the very 

if»i at the tame place ifi-tn from the tame 


'At^-n at Athent 'A^f^vl\-t€^ from Athene 'AUiraif to Athea* 
'GkvpaelXrw\ at Olympia 'OXv|MrCK-Str JhHnOIyn^ta 'OXv|urlat< to Oli/n^ia 

a. La -aft, -tt Is added to tlie aocaaulva (16BS), and Btanda for -a(,')t, 
the old ace. pl.,+ -tt (Gng. to). Cp. 20, 106. The other ending &re added to 
the Btem. -vi li naually added only to pronomlnid stems, -o-i forma a locatiTe 
plural. » aometiinefl take* the place of 3 of the flnt declension (^ftfv9t* front 
the root, stem ^{tU), or ia added to conaonant atema. Worda In •rtpo- lengthen 
a to H. Between atem and ending ax ia often inserted. 

b. -6tr may take the form -de in poetry, and espeeiallj when the idea of 
wAen«e ia lost, as wpiati in front (134 D.)- -#a la found in Irea In all dialects. 
-9m tor -fcf occnia In Aeolio and Doric. 

c. Some local adverba are made from prepoaltlona, as inv above, ffw ouWtde, 
tfm within, niru below, wpiadtr infroiU. 

-Adverbs of matmer eni^g in -u^ have the accent 
and foFQi of the genitive plural masculine with -t in place of -v. 



genitive plural Bumlw 





•' Ka«a* 




" farXAr 





" ra^. 





■' 4U-* 







" &XX.n> 





in eti«t7 uay 



" bTM> 



a. Adverbs in -ut are not formed from the genitive plural, hut are originally 
old ablativea from o sterna (311), and thence transferred to oilier stems. The 
analogy of the geDiCive plural aaslated the transference. 

344. Yarlona Other Sndlnga. — Adverbs have many other endings, e.g. : — 
Ht: i/ia at the tame Ume, ^Xs vera, rix» guieklg (in Attic prose perhapi). 
-emue; nXXdcit many times, often, itar-riut each time, Totavrina to often, i*i- 
*u at often at, vXnfTdni eery often, it^iyixa eeldom, rXnnUii more tfiaea. The 
'fottiia without -f (irdn, «eX\iiin) are earlier, and -t has been added by imitation 
of 111, Tptt. -ti)K : ruXXii^l^ (n thort. -So* : trior leithtn, rx<U* almott. -« : 


raftVMl In ^11 fe«y (341, looative). -rc : (r« when (Aeolic Srm, Dor. Sea), -n, 
-wn: MfXavri voluntanly, 'EXX^rirrl in Oreek (_faahion). 

345. CompAiiwin of AdTcrbi. — In adverbs derived from adjectlTes 
the comp&rative is the same as the neuter eingular of the compara- 
tive of the adjective ; the superlative is the same as tha neuter plunU 
of the superlative adjective. 

•H«l »f««'l' 



Xfirrwt graafltllji 

uXAi mil 


tfil^ jrf««a««B 



^TT«» I«« (310, 2) 


*> tMlI 



(idv. of*TU*.ffood> 

pa. wrv 


«. Admbs ol pUoe ending in » 

, and some others, letaln u In tbe oompua- 

Ure and superlative. 

b. tyyit near has fy/^tpa' {-rifti), i-rrvrirn (-t>tb lars). rp^ Mirly has 

c There aie oomB lornu In -«t from compantlTca : Itf^Xnrr^pui (Ar^aU- 
rrtp»r) more tecurely, ^XTiiwi (^Tiar) better, SaperlatiTei In -on kre usually 
poetic; as lUyvroT. 

946l CotTfllatlTe AdvertM. — Adverbs from pronominal stems often 
correspond in form and meaniug. In the nst on p. 102 poetic or 
rare words are in ( ). 

a. The demonstratlTes In ( ) are foreign to Attic prose except tn certain 
pbrsoes, as (ol Ai even thut, ttS (jfiffi di not even Ouit (op. ISO c) ; trS^ /it* . . . 
liH U here . . . there, (t«tr (^r) lal ¥•«» (») fiom thle tide and that. 
Ii«» and IfAr* are usually Telatlves, litfa taking the place of sE ahere and oI 
triUtJUr, and Irttr of iStr whence. 

b. Tori iiir . . . Tvrt U Is syuODymons with wvri lUr . . . rvri tt. 

C. ttr (339 e) may be added for Indeflniteness : iwueoSr in any wag what- 
rzrr. tntfinEr from what place toener. wari Is often used after Interrc^tlTes 
to giTe an IntenslTe force, as In rlt rtrt who in the world (as qvi tandem) ; 
also with negatives, as in oftrort never, aiwiiroTi never yet. Other negatirea 
an wlButiaB nowhere, oMo^f in no way, aMa/ifii in no manner. 

Mt D. 1. Rom. has (Aeollo) *r In tfvvwf, in-iri ; Hdt. has ■ for the r-forau, 
e.j. nQ. a4, S*ov, sArc, elo. HdL has <r<aOra, itMrtrtot imOta, 4rTMtr (126 D.}. 

2. Poetic are rWi for veO, Ui for aG, 4fu< when, 4 uJUcA tsay, teA«r«, etc. 




B«l»lT> Speelfle 




/rraiMa there 
itit tender 

»li wA«« 

iw<,« where- 



tome place 

irT*0$ir Ihenee 

«fc> trance 
((>«>r uihenee) 

IvMer uA«nM- 



Tcl to 
lomt place 

(Irfa) /.*We, 
irraSAi thither 
H<^t thither 

a vhither 

*™ wAflA«r- 


rori tone 
Wnw, WW 

t4t« then 




ritn«i3< that 

4riKa (X wAfcA 

uAJ«* time 


eg teA«A 

*lf n>m« 

(rg) rgS., r«*TB 
Mt* tmy, tAu« 

g f« (cAfcA 

tMI/, Of 

9rg fntoUa 

tear, M 


irfl. fcow? 


(T.4.), («.)«., 

b™C.) (Aw. 
JO, f» IM* wotr 


dt lu, Aow 

frwi ho» 

M7. The numeral adjectivea and corresponding adverbs are as 

S4T D. 1. For Ui« ordinals 1-4, tm 849 D. Horn, hw, for 13, JiUvb (for tfm- 
Suca), tvMtn, and SnttUitKn (alao genetsllf poetic); SO, ibnvi uid <iIm^4; 
80, rpdinvra ; 80, i^JdMrra ; flO, ^wntmmi KDd /nntusf^a ; 300 Mid 300, trv*- 
rwi, rpti|KiriM; 0000 and 10,000, <iq«<xi^ i«ir(lx<lMi (-xcAmf). He hu abo 
Um oidinaU 8d, T^rarai ; 4tb, rtrpmrti ; Ttb, J^NftarM ; 8lb, tyttmrei ; Ml, 

1 •' (U, ftm, t» oiM wpArot jlrvt (««{ ohm 

t f U» tmt fiitnpot Mcoad tit twite 

S V iT«tt, ^<> three Tptroi third vpb tAHM 

A S^ Tirrap*!, rtrTf» Wrfio t , -i|, -o* MTpfwit 

• c' It fcrot KAim 

7 r hrt4 Ifttpai twrdm* 

8 1)' i«TA lySeot WAn* 
» r frffa hotM Mm 

10 i' Sfaa S4m»i, -1), •» !«<>•« 

11 I*' Mom M^KaTPt Moidmt 
U if «Mw> 8i«Mnt t<4wi«i« 

(or rpd^KblSaim) 

U iS' T < rrf i | (Wmip*) sal iti* ^ *i imI Sfaarat ttrrn fnc wtwJMi 

16 W vd'mmlSaKa «4)«rrot xtl Uk**«i wmTiKiiiSaciKW 
U) (T* InwlhKa (for l^KalSMs br«t k^ SAwt*! inmitmimi 


17 tf imnlSiKa l p8 o^» xal Sfcoirat hrrmKuSniKit 

18 tq' i«nMtBlS«it* <Y 8 e« » mtl BArarvi tvnHtakSatin* 
111 tT lrw > «tt « « h&non 
90 ■* *w»i(v) rfmrrti, ■^, •*» 
SI ■>' «h Kol 4tMn(*) or 


M X' Tpdbtavr* ifMbMvrdi Tpi B nanTAj n i 

'•««; ISth, JMfa/urni 13th, T^>(rp««- r)w«^niroi ; SOth, fcuwri-Af; ud 
ib« AttiD (onn of eacli. 

1 Hdk bu <vM«w (>wwf/Kar«), mrtpttKattttt indeclliuible (r«rrvw""- 
Brat), T^i^CMT* (jfotuvTit), TtartpintrTt, trttAtarra, SiqcJriw (ji^mrierrti), 
r^c^iriM ! for fnn-M be hs» (Tmrn, and m etvdiaf , tlroxWnt, tlrt^i^xOuat, 

y AmJIo bas vtitri for G (op. Bom. TtiiwAp<ikatjl»e-pro%gtAfi>rk'y, gan. pinr, 
Tfarm Infleetod, aa alio Shtn, rtrrrprnxtrrttf, eto.; tor 1000, xAXih. Doric baa, 
Iw 1, 4t (ST D. S); 4, t/tw^; «, fif; Ttb, l^wi; 12, JtviMtm; 20, ftnT<, 
F<(wt; 40, TtTfAnrra {rtT^yttfTit'); 300, etc., Jwcarfn, etc.; 1000, xv^lw MKt 
IiAIr (ST D. S}i for IM, r^m. 


900 0-' StSicda^M. -m, -■ 8rfbce«taaTit BiKMviAmt 

800 t' Tp«SKte>«i lytg K oo-too-T^ rpiSMOin&Kit 














Xttwi, -<u, -• 














v«irraaoirian4t •mmucod-idKif 

SwxH^taoTit Swx^'''^*^ 

rpto^awffTilt TpiffxiXtiMt( 

|l«pWVT4l |Apl4«M 

EwiiSpioaTit EwfiBpiiittt 

SiKaKw^pw0-r4t SiKMtwfMpUkit 

N, — Above 10,000 : tie itipMn 30,000, etc., fupiiiu m^^im, i.e. 10,000 x 10,000. 

348. Notation. —The syelem of klpbabetlo natatloa came ioto use after the 
Mcond century b.c. The flm nioe letteis stand tor unitB, the mcond niue for 
lens, .the tiiird nine for hundreds (27 letters). In addition to the 24 letters of 
the alphstiet, three obsolete signs are employed : r, a form Identical with ttie 
late abbreTiatlOQ for rr, in place of the lost f (3), once used tor 6 ; 9 (koppa'), 
in the same oider as Lai. q, for 00 ; for 900, "4 aampi, probably for san, an old 
form of tigma, + pL From 1 t« 009 a stroke Btands obtuse the letter, tor 1000''b 
the same signs are used but with the stroke belou the letter (a' = !,,» = 1000). 
Only the last letter in any given serluB baa the stroke above : prt* 16T, ua' 401, 
,0%' 1010. i is sometimes used for 10,000 ; ^ for 20,000, etc. 

a. In the classical period the following system was used according to the 
Inscriptions: 1 = 1, [III = 4, f (Wrr.) = 6. Tl =6, A (i^«) = 10, AA = 20. 
H iinarir) = 100, H H = 200, X = 1000, M = 10,000, [^ {rtrrim tfai)- = SO, 
C'X (jtrriKa xtXtoi + X^t") = 6000. 

b. For the numbers from 1 to 24 the letters, used in continuous succeeeion, 
are frequcutl; tised to designate the books of the JHod (A, B, r, eu.) and of the 
dJtfiMf Cb,P, 7, etc.). 

'349. The cardinals from 1 to 4 are decHned as follows : 

8W D. Horn, has, for iiia, (a (J^i, li, far) ; tor ^fI, Jy ; Jfc, iiu (undeclined) ; 
the adj. forms S«d and pL iowJ regularly declined. Foe 4, rfwapn, (Aeolic) 
rlevfn ; Find, has rtrpaaa. Bdt. his iio sometimes undeclined, also Svuw, 
ImIti; ffrvfpn , -a, rtrtifttf, rtrrtpgi; TtrrtptcaUS4ui 14 ondecUned. Aeolic 
MfTtf 2 ; irir^upn, rivupm for 4. 


MM tiEKi thrtt four 

Kon. A pJM tf K. A. U* rptli TpCa Hrrttpn rfrropft 

Gen. Ml |u£« h6t Q. D. S*«tv rpiAv nrrifmw 

DU. M |u4 M Tpur((K) rfrrafn(i-) 

Ace. I*a jkUc h Tprti TpU Wrrafiat Tfrraf* 

L rff is for Jr-i (cp. 246). The atem Jv was OTiglnalljp ri/i (Lat. •«ut«I, lim- 
pioL, tingvli), vreak forms of nhich are irwa^, d-rXoOt, from viitt- (36 b). ;iJa 
■Unds for #f*-uu 

b. stU dt, >i^^ «tf not even one unite (with change in accent) to fonn the 
compoonds oMdi, >(^«lf no one. Theae words »re decUaed like rft : thus, otSttt, 
iKvS*, aiti>, oMftit, eMt;uai, oMirii, etc., tuid sometimes la the plural (no 
Men, none or no&odfei) oM/ki, ottirur, oiHgL, aM/mi. For emphasis the com- 
poDDcU m»j be divided, as »iii tU not ohe. A preposition or i* may separaU 
Ifae two puts, aa aM* Iri imtfrom not a tingle om, oM* ir M ne uni quidem. 

c rpArot (prfnitu) means the flrat among more than two, rpirtpoi {prior) 
the Om of two. 

d. S6o may be used with the gen, and dat. pi., as Sio /ingiwr of turn montht. 
Imu ooctus latdy with plntals : watrln . , . Suelt D. 89. 32. ivCit for ivvr does 
not appear till about SOO s.c. 

t. ln^ boA, If. A. liLtv, G. D. iiu^alr (Lat. ambo). But both is more 
commoDly d^i^Artpot, -w, -a. 

f For r^rro^n^-^KDpra, etc., eail; Attic proseand tragedy have r^ffopn, etc. 

{. The fliBt numeral la inflected In TptU nol Una 13, rfrropn ml iita, U 
rfufnUnw and lonlc Tervfpwmiten (very rare in Attic) are indeclinable. 

3Sa The caxdinala from 6 to 199 are indeclinable ; from 200 the 
cardinals, and all the ordinals from firit on, are declined like iyal^. 

a. Compound nnmbera above 20 are expressed by placing the smaller nom- 
ber first (with koI) i3t the larger number first (with or without ml). 

Ut ral (r(Dri(i-) two and twtntf Se6Ttpn kbI ttmrrbt 

■Tmri nX Mo twen^ and two, or dnri Mo ttotydf-lxoo ilrevrdt (ct ttirtpat 

&5& = Wrr( mrnl •'nr^vra «al wrraKtam or rerracJriM (ical) rerritnTB (nl) 

b. For 2lBt, Slst, etc., di (for TpAroi) kbI ilnrrii (Tpiaurrit) Is permissible, 
but otherwise the cardinal is rarely thus joined with the ordinal. 

t Compounds of 10, 20, etc., with 8 and are usually expressed by sub- 
tiacUon witb the participle of Sin lack, as 18, IS, Swir (Mt) Uomt rfrari. So 
■uwl itm loteau rrrrdpuarra viith 39 ihipi, Iwir Sfeirs rtrr^mrra frq 
M tMn; and witb ordinals irit </ar tliarrir hat 1A« 79th year. The same 
ncthod may be employed In oUier numbers than 8's or 9's : irrA iraStorra 
^fititm, i.€. 293. 

i. An ordinal followed by ^1 Sim denotes the day of the month trom the 
13th to tiie 19th, as * ^nrrg M i^n on the ISth. 

I z::lv,G00g[c 

391. WHll tJbe eolteotiTB words (996) 4 Xwm eavalrj/, 4 irrlt Dtett vrltK 
ihttld*, numenla in -wi may appear eren in the singular : SiamvIA Irroi MOO 
hone T. 1. 02, lir'li /tvplA nal TTpaucO. 10,400 hone X. A. 1. 7. 10. 

352. /id^t, the graateat Dumtwr eipressed by a single word, meuu 10,000 ; 
fUfiM, countitM, infinitt. Id tiie laUar sense the singular may b« naed, u 
fApO. iimida infinite Bolttvde P. L. 6TT B. 

353. Fractions ara expreasad In MTeial ways: Ijiuavt \, 6 lliiutvt tsO ipOiioO 

half the Humder, nJ i^/iffftiw r Ar wtOr half of the ililpt, ri {j/utv rtO erparal/ half 
the army, ii/uTdi^rTor ha^f a talent; rpta iiiuTdXarra 1} bUenU, rplro* 4/if>iHuii' 
3} mitMc; rfKni^xip"' i> re^iTTTrfi^ior f, Arfr/itrof 1^, MirtinrTot 1), tuv r/rrc ol 

Ko /uipat |. But when the numerator is less by one than the denominator, the 
genitive la omitted and only the article and it*P^ are nsed : aa ri rpla iJfr^ |, 
i«. the three parte (sell, of four). 

354. Other classes of numeral words. 

a. Distributive* proper, answering the question hour many eaehf are wanUng 
In Greek. Instead, iri, tit, and nrd, with the accus., and compounda of rtfv 
with, are used : nari jiio or airiin tiao bf two, two each (Lat. bini). The cardinala 
are often used alone, as irSpl itiarif !ii<ru rtrrt dfryvptou laSs aingulia (HtlfM&tM 
ddbo quinai argentt mina* X. A. 1. 4. 13. 

b. MuUipltcaiivf In -rXoln -fold (from ^\e<,t, LaL -plex), drXiiDi aimple, 
In-XoCt twofold, r^rXoOt threefold, raWartuaSt man\fotd. 

c Froportlonah In -r\aaan: SirMiriot twice om great or (plur.) at moiqr, 
wWarMaiai many timea ae great (manj/). 

i. Sirrii means double, rptrrSt (rebia (from Stx-iot, r^x-wi ItS). 

V. — Mult^lieation. — AdTsrha onawerlng the question how maim timeif "^^^ 
osed in multipllcBUon : rd Sit tfm S^n trrlr tuiieefive are ten. Sea also 347 N. 

e. Abitraet and Collective Numben In ~it (gen. -di-ot), all feminine; ifA% 
or itarit the number one, tinitj/, monad, Siwlt the number two, duality, rpiit 
(rin((y, (Kod, 3Mdi dccad, decade, ilidi, inttrtrrit, x<^«tii MVfxdi myriad, iKvrbr 
pSpiiSn a mittion. Also in -6t : r^trrift (-fot) (ha (Unl 0/ a tribe (properly the 
nvmAer IAtm), rtrptKit. 

t. Adjectives in -<u»t, answering the question or what dayf iturtfaJat (or rj 
IcirrtpaJf) i99i\Bt he departed on the tecond day. 

g. Adverbs of Divieion. — mvbxv singly, in one teay only, llxa, tixi in tw> 
parti, doubly, Tpixi, TiTfiaxa,eUi.,re}Aaxv tnmanywayt, rarraxi In every waff. 



3S8. The Greek verb shows distinctions of roice, mood, vn^bal 
noun, tense, number, and person. 

SM D. HdU has tttii (from SixS-m'}, rp^it for iirrlt, rprrrtii abo -w\^hm 
and -^oriM. Horn, has Blxa and IixMi >yx" *^ '^x" i 'V'^ii r*r^rXf, 


356. ValCM.— There are three voices: active, middle, and pasBive. 
a. nie middle naually denotes tbal the subject acta on hinuelf or for Aiot- 

c. Deponent verba have an active meaning but odIj middle (or middle and 
pmive) forvu. If Its aorist has the middle form, a deponent is called a mid- 
dle deponent (x'P'itVUK gratif)/, ix^pviinit); If Its aorist has ttte passive form, 
a deponent is called a psasive deponent {itKiulcpai rtjteet on, /MffilfiitATp). 
DapoDenCa omallj prefer Uie paaslve to the middle forma of the aorisL 

357. Mooda. — Four moods, the indicative, subjunctive, optative, 
imperative, are called jlnfle, because the.person is defined by tJie end- 
ii^ (366). The infinitive, atriotly a verbal noun (358), is sometimes 
classed as a mood. 

358. TertMl Hoona. — Verbal forms that share certain propertim 
of Qoana are called verbal nouna. There are two kinds of verbal 

1. Substantival: the infinitive. 

N. — The infinitive Is propetlj a case form (chiefly dative, rarely looatlve), 
hateiD being like a mbstantlve, 

2. Adjectival (inflected like adjectives): 

a. Participles : active, middle, and passive. 

b. Verbal adjectives : 

In -T^, denoting possibility, as ^tXtpoi lovable, or with the 

force of a perfect passive participle, as -ypmrTos written. 
Id -rent, denoting necessity, as yparrioi that must be written. 

399. Tmsrs — There are seven tenses in t^e indicative: present, 
Imperfect, future, aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect. 
The future perfect commonly has a passive force, but it may bt. 
active or middle in meaning (see 681). 

The subjunctive has three tenses : present, aoiist, and perfect. 

The optative aad inflnitive have five tenses : present, futuie, aorist, 
perfect, and future perfect 

The imperative has three tenses : present, aorist, and perfect. 

3G0. Primary and Secondary Tenses. — There are two olasses of 
tenses in the indicative : (1) Primary (or Principal) tenses, the pres. 
ent and perfect expressing present time, the future and future per* 
feet expressing future time; (2) Secondary (or Historical) tenses, 
the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist expresaing past time. The 
sectndary tenses have an augment (428) prefixed. 

tM D. Horn, doea not nae the totare or fntore perfect Id the optative. 

L, _ I; COOJ^IC 


361. Second Aorlsta, etc. — Some verbs have tenses called »econd 
aoristB (active, middle, ajid passive), second perfects and pluperfects 
(active only), and second futures (passive). The meaning of these 
tenses ordinarily corresponds to that of the first aorist, etc. ; but 
when a verb has both forms in any tense (which is rarely the case), 
the two forms usually differ in meaning. Sometimes one form is 
poetical, the other used in prose. 

362. No single Qreek verb shows all the tenses mentioned in 
S59 and 361; and the paradigms are therefore taken from differ- 
ent verbs. 

363. Hnmber. — There are three numbers: the singular, dual, and 

364. Fersmi.' — There are three persons (first, second, and third) 
in the indicative, subjunctive, and optative. The imperative has 
only the second and third persons. 

a. Except in » tett caBM Id poetry (406 c) the first person plural U used for 

the fint peiBon dual. 

365. Inflection. — The inflection of a verb consists in the addition 
of certain endings to the different stems. 

366. Endings. — The endings in the £nite moods (357) show 
whether the subject is first, second, or third person; and indicate 
number and voice. See 462 S. 

a. The middle hu & dlOereDt set of endings from the active. Hie paaslTe 
has th« endlnp ol the middle except In the aoriirt, which has the active eudlngi. 

b. The indicative Iiaa two sets ol endings in the setlve and In the middle : 
one for primary tenaes, the other for Beoondary tenses. 

c. The BubjuDctive uses the same endings as the primary tenses of the Indica- 
tive i the optative uses the same as those of the secondary tenses. 

367. A Greek verb has two kinds of stems: (1) the tenae-atem, to 
which the endings are attached, and (2) a common verfr-ateta 
(^80 called theme) from which all the tense-stems are derived. 
The tense-stem is usually made from the verb-stem by prefixixkg 
a reduplication-ayUable ^439), and by aflixing signs for mood (457, 
469) and tenae (455). k tens&^tem may be identical with a verb- 

368. The Tenae^tcms. — The tenses fall into nine classes called 
ten»*ytt«ma. Each tense-system has its own separate tenBe-fltem. 


I. Present, inclwimg prtttnt koA imptr/eet. 

IL FttOtre, " fulur* active uid middle. 

III. Ffnt aoriMt, " fint aorlu active and middle. 

IV. Steoitd aoritt, " tteond aoritt aclice and middU. 

V. jnrtt perfect, " jlrrt per/ec(,^r«piupei?ec(, and/ut.p^i/., ocUea, 
TI. Second perfect, " lecottd perfect and Mcond ptupcr/ect active. 
VII. Perfect middle, " perfect ^nd pluperfect middle (pati.), future perfect. 
niL ^r« jNunra, ' ' Jlnt aorixt and jlr«( /uiure patsive. 
IX. Second panivt, " tecond aariet and wcond/uturepoMliie. 
llie tenae-stams an explained In detail in 49T-GBT. 

a. Since few verbs have both the jlr«( and second form of the ume tense 
(301), moat verba have onl; six of these nine systema ; man; verbs do not even 
have tix. Scarcely any verb shows all nine sjsleme. 

b. Tliere are also secondary tense-Btema for the future passive, Ibe pin- 
perfect, and the fntore perfect. 

c. Tbe unae-atema aaaume sepanite forms in the different moods. 

369i The principal parts of a verb are the firat peraoa singular 
indicative of the tease-system b occurring in it. These are generally 
six: the present, future, first aorist, first (or second) perfect active, 
the perfect middle, and tbe first (or second) aorist passive. Tbe 
future middle is given if there is no future active. The second 
aorist (active or middle) is added if it occurs. Tbua: 

Ain* ioose, kvtra, Ikvua, AAvKO, AcXu/uu, iXi$jjti. 

Attiro leave, Xiu^u, XiXotn, XiXa/ifuu., Ikti^&ijV, 2 aor. iXarov. 

ypai^ torite, ypaip<o, lypai^ yiypaijia, yiypafi.fuu, 2 aOT. paSB. iypd^Tpi. 

OKonma jeer, aKu^mfiaij JtrKu^n, itTKW^BTjr. 

3TO. The principal jurts of deponent verbs (356 c) are tbe present, 
future, perfect, and aorist indicative. Both first and second aorists 
are given if they occur. 

poilvaiua vjiah, /SmiA^fuu, ^jSouXijfuu, i^Xr/Brp' (passive deponent). 
yiyrofuu become, -for^mtiuit, ytytrqiun, 2 aor. irftvonTiv (middle deponent). 
ifT/afpfua work, ipyaaofuu, tifr(aaaii.ifv, apyao-fiai, i\fyia0tp>. 

371. Teib-stem (or Theme). — The tense-stems are made from one 
fundamental stem called the verb-stem (or tbeme). 

lUs vecfo-atem may be a root (103) as in t1-» honour, or a root to which a 
derivative aofllx has been appended, as in ri-iHi-u Aonour. 

372. A verb forming its tense-Btems directly from a root is called 
B.pTinitive verb. A dentyminative verb farms its tense-stems from a 
longer Terb-atem, ori^nally a noun-atem ; as StniXow enslave from 
IniAvt tHave. Verbs in ^u (379), and verbs in w of two syllables 
(in the present indicative active, as Kiyv speak) or of three syllables 


(in the middle, as Sixoiuu reeeive) ue generaUy primitiTe. Odiers 
are denominative. 

373. The verb-Btem may show numerous modifications in fonn. 
Thus, correBponding to Uib gmdations In ting, tang, tuny (SS), the verb 

XcfT-w Uate showa the stems X«i^, Xoir- (2 perf. XZ-Xoir-s), Xir- (i tar. f-X(T-o-*}; 
tike verb ^f^-ujleeshovs^cvy- and pvy-(2tior. 1-^vy-a-r). lufi^miu brtak'we 
And the three stanu^i^wY (2 perf. WifVa)! ^07(3 aor. pass, ippiyiir). otAA-w 
•and haa the Menu ^tX- and traX- (perf. t-rrak-xa, 2 fut. pass, rrat^eiiai'). 

a. When the fandamental stem shows modiflcaUoiiH, it is ouatomary lot 
convenience to call tts sborter (or shorteet) form the Terh-stem, and lo derive 
tiie other fonna from it. Tbs student must, however, beware of aHBuming that 
the short forma are older than the other forma. 

374. The verb-atem may also show modifications in quantity, as 
present XSt* loose, perfect Xi-Kv-xa. 

N. — Various causes produce this vaiiation. \iu has v from analogjr to 
Xfr^-u, (-Xv4a where tbe verb-etem \e has been regularly lengthened (6S4, 643). 
For Attic ^Biru anticipate Horn, haa ^Mm for iptanfu (2B, 147 D.). 

375. II Inflection and y* Inflection. — There are two slightly djf- 
fereut methods of inflecting verbs, the first according to the common, 
the second according to the )u system. The names at-verba and fu- 
ver&A (a small class) refer to the ending of the first person singular 
active of the present tense indicative only : Xv-u loose, rCBtj-fu place. 

a. In the I* inflection the tense-stem ends in the tliema^c vowel. To this 
form belong all futures, and the presents, imperfecta, and second aorists ihowtitg 
the Utematie eowet. 

376. According to the ending of the verb^tem, ov-verbs are termed : 

1. Vowel (or pure) verbs ; 

a. Xot contracted : those that end in v or 1, as \6tii loose, -wmUi^ 

educate, -jfjit-iai anoint. Such verbs retain the final vowel 
of the stem unchanged in all their forms. 

b. Contracted: those that end in a, c, o, as Tl/ii>> honour from 

Tifia-<a, Toua make from itom-oi, &t]X5> manifest from S^XiT-ai. 

2. Consonant verbs, as: 

Liquid or nasal verbs : ^p-ajtay, /w-u remam. 
Verbs ending in a stop (or mute), as ay-<a lead, m^ persuade. 
N. — Verba ending in a stop consonant are called labial, dental, or palabd 
verba. Consonant verbs do not retain the final consonant of the stem un- 
changed in all their forms, Tbe final ccnaonant may be assltnllated to a td- 
lowlng ooneonant, or may form with it a double consonant 

377. Thematic VoveL — Some tense-stems end in a vowel which 
varies between o and c (or » and ri) in certain forms. This is called 
the thematic (or variaMe) vowel. Thus \6oim¥ Xit^n, Miwfur XAttc, 

1= Coo^^lc 


AiWficF AjWtc. The thematic vowel is written °/( <^^ Vn ^ '^/e'r 
7pa^"/T- See 456. 

378. • is used before ji or * in the indicative, and in the optative, 
• before jt or * in the subjunctive, elsewhere i is used in the indica- 
tive (i) in the subjunctive). 

379l In the /u infiection no thematic vowel is employed, and the 
eudii^ are attached directly to the tense-stem. The fu form is used 
only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist. In the other 
tenses, verbs in pi generally show the same inflection as o^verbs. 
For further explanation of the u and the >u infiectiousee602fF., 717ff. 

380. HeanlafB of the Tensu and Uooda. — In the synopsis (382) 
meanings are given wherever these are not dependent on the use of 
the various forma in the sentence. The meanings of the subjunctive 
and optative forms and the difference between the tenses can be 
learned satisfactorily only from the syntax. Some of these meanings 
may here be given : 

a. SabjancUve : Uw;wr OF Uru^f let Ui loo$e, (tin) Xtu or \tvu (if) / looft, 

(Fm) ypi^ (ttist) Imag torfM. 

b. Oirtative ; (OSt) XA«i^ or \iraiiu (would) that I may Jook I ^tl) Mo^r 

or Uraifuv (if) we thovld loott. 


L Tabs in •: 

A. Vowel verbs not contracted: 

Synopsis and conjugation of Xiu (pp. 112-118). 
Second aorist (active and middle) of \xiina (p. 119). 
Second perfect and pluperfect (active) of AciVoi. 

B. Vowel verbs contracted : 

Present and imperfect of rl/Ua, woUu, SifAou (pp. 120-123). 

C. Consonant verbs : 

Liquid and nasal verbs: future and first aorist (active and 
middle), second aorist and second future passive of ^oiVu 
(pp. 128-129). 

Labial, dental, and palatal verbs: perfect and pluperfect, 
middle (passive) of Wiru, ypa^, ■KtiBm, wparria, iXiy)(u 
(p. 130). Perfect of the liquid verbs i.yyiXXio, tpttimi ; and 
perfect of nXiw (p. 131). 
n. TertM In px. 

A. Present, imperfect, and 2 aorist of rWitfu, itrnitu, SiSutfu 

(pp. 135 ff.). 
Second aorist middle of trptafojr (p. 138). 

B. Present and imperfect of Stuanifu (p. 140). 
Second aorist : jSur (p. 140). 

■| z:-:l,vG00glc 




X. (a) vowel VBBBS: 

Stkofsis of 

n. nrrcBB mrEM m. nan aobibt ttwrSM 


Prenent lod Imperfect 


1 AoriM 


Xim 1 looie or an 

X<» / «Aa{I tooM 


IXD«^» / loOWd 










X«t lOOM 

Mvor loote 


X4<iV (o lOOM 

XAmv (0 6« oAotit (o 

\9nL to loote OP to 


have looted 


Xtfa> loosfnir 

Xtrmv aboU to loote 

X4o«t having tootd 



Xtfaiiak /loow (/or 

XAro|uu / tKall looM 



a.ii6,in> / «« 











Xtroi tooM (/br fAy- 




Xtfw«» to IDOH (/or 



»»«'( (efT) 


hare loowd {/or 

one'* mV) 




XiMriiMm having 




viu nwTPj 



1 Futurt 

1 Aorlst 




4Xiti|F / wot JommT 


Like Middle 

XvH Cfor »''^'") 


11 .< 



11 11 

Xiht" (>« 'oc*"' 


\Mffa4at. to he about 

XntfjMi to be looted OT 

to be loo$ed 

to have been loo$ed 


1. ti 

Xvlth AoDtnfT frccn 

be looted 


[ Xvriei that mutt be looted, (requlriag) to be looted 



OF 0-VERB8 1 


>im (X«, XV) loot 

XtLw^ jl or XAiKN 
ULukAi Atpi or XtXimtpi 
luhnKAf Irft or [UXvn] > 
ULiafrmt to have loomd 

Fwftst ud Plupaiftet Hlddla 
XA«|i«i I have looted (^for myieif) 

IX«X.V<|' / had loQttd (Jot mgrn^-) 

XA«n (Tia, 714) 

XiMrkt to Aaoe looaed (/or oi 

XAafUvot ftorfn^ JooMd (/or o: 

Ptrihot ud Plnpsrftvt PuitT> 

XAifMU / Jiaire / been 

ratan PdrTMt Puilv 

MAttfM,. I thatl \. 
been looted 

■ TIm almplfl fomu of the perfect Impentlve aoUve of \iti probkbly ti«m 
il Qreek (607), bat are iDcIuded to thorn the Inflection. 































, 8. 






2. Xistrm 
8. XS.lnr 


1. X<iKH» 

2. Xtfkti 
8. XiM. 


3. X«i 
8. XWm 



Votes or X4a 

In. 8. 1. ftto« tAym lkAim^ 

2. IXSroi XA«KM tKAiwyft 

8. ftSn XAvrn OLiXtKik(v) 


8. OLSr&ni* XAfauw* ftAwrfn|v 

F. 1. afc«^ X<Xi«4u* IllrtfcMpiw 

8. IXbtm XAfNln OuXfnvw 

Sttu. B. 1. Xiru ^4X«KA■ ft (Ml) or XA«kn (eOS) 

8. XWgt luXwAt^t )kAi«i|t 

D. 2. kinfrmi IuXmcAti Vm" X4XtKi|T«* 

8. Xtfn|T«v UliMdTt t[nr XAtwipvr 

P. 1. Xirm^nr ]uX«N*nf i|u* lUXAwiu* 

S. X^vwn XAwtAmtn XAfaiM'i 

On. & 1. XArwp X*Xm(^ «b|v (M4) or ]UX«kM|u, -ohi* 

2. X<rMh X<MM (008) X«Xi«At 4(ik XiX««>Lt, -sliit 

8. Xfo«s >*^*M (W0) X«X»«Ai (Ii| XAiKM, -oCn 

O. 2. XAvawn' X«X«i4r« Ottnv, *tnr XiXtKeiro* 

8. iMrotnir X«XMtdn •t^np', ifniv XiXtKoCniv 

P. 1. X4nu|u* XiXwidm (tq|u*, «t|u* XiXAcmiu* 

2. X<««m XtXvNint «Iirn, atn XiXJKOvn 

& Xtf»«ur, X^TMW (N») XiXmAtw flipmv, itn XiXinim 

Imv. a 3 


XiXvK^ (v4i (097) oi 

■ [Xftw«(097) 










XAimfct, XA«nU, 




S. HiDDLK ' 

& 1. Xtfspu 

a. Xtfn, Xdik (626) 
S. X^r<u 


D. S. X4wfc« 

P. 1. XM|u*a 

2. Xtfw«i 

3. Xtf>*r>i 



S. 1. X<«|iU 
S. Xtfiirm 

D. 3. XV«" 
3. X«^r«o« 

P. 1. X«A|u*a 
a. XA^ 


3. XA»o 
3. XtfoiT* 


D. 2. Xtfsui^M 


3. i3»Mv 


P. 1. XBolHfe 
3. XAh«4i 
3 Xfckrto 

S. 2. XAiv 

XMfMvot, Xl«|jiifnb 
Xoiftyot (287) 

XfriiMvoi, -4^ 

I Xfw Id the middla usaall; means to rtleate for on«'a aelf, get tome c 
firte, henoe to raruom, redeem, dtlloer. 


VoiCB or Xtm 



2. tkUm 



3. JXAfut* 



D. S. «^aH»v 





P. 1. tUrd|irf> 


S. Ainm*, 





8. 1. X<r-|uw 

2. Xtfru 

S. X4rirnu 


8. X^njrfcv 

P. 1. XlhrA|u«a 


2. X*T-* 


8, 1. W«(|H|» 


8. Xinm 



8. X9r«b«ri> 

P. 1. Xtombuk 

XlXv(LiK>l t(lt|UV I 


X. XW«c«. 


8. X<<r<urr« 


a 2. X«ru 

XAw« (699 g) 

& Xto4<r«. 

XAir«> (712) 

D. 3. X4aw«Dy 


8. Xte^brtov 


P. 2. Xtfirorif 


8. X«<ri«««* 



X««4fum, -n. -«>' 






8. Famitb 

VotOB or kU 



8. 1. 



D. 2. 


P. 1. 



StmraaciiTB. I 

8. 1. Ulto«l|i^* X'^lff 

8. UiAnMo X«lili|i 

8. XAtfoviTo XAtt^ \j4lim,n 

D. 2. XAimatuv Xatrirsv or Xatttirrav Xvt^owtvfcv 

8. XAV«vl«4i|* X«Vt(n)i> or Xvtti^v Xii#i|rslv4i,i> 

P. 1. XAQvo(|uI(i X«lit|>n> or X«I«(i||u* Xv*i)n(|wk 

2. Xthtfrow*! XvMrt or Xvli(i|n Xw*V««**> 

8. X«X4««i*ra Xvlit** or Xiil«[^v«v Xnl^—tw* 

iMPBkATira. S. 2. 

IxnitmTx, X<X < o-w*a> Xii H |»« XvMinvWi 

pABTiotruL X«XVrd|u*gi, XvMi, XvhUs, Xii6i|r4|uiioi, 

■^ -w (287) XiiM* (307) -ifc -w (387) 


SBL As examples of the seoond aorist and second perfect Bystems 
(368), the seooad aorist aotire and middle and the second perfect and 

pluperfect active of Ann* leave are here given. 

lAoriMAotm lloritlHUdl* 1 PMlkM IPIniMtftat 

1*11. 8. 1. |]U«*V lht*d|H|v UXaiva lUMtvi) 

3. ttkimu SllrM XOrnvw AAa(vi|( 

8. 8u*< IXImra XAomn AiXa(*M(>) 

D. 8. IUvn*v JXhnvfcv UmItatw ftiXoCmrsv 

S. IXn4n|* llu«Jp<i|* ]uX>(*«Tav IKAotmtr^ 

P. 1. lX(M|m DumifMta. XAekmiuy lUMtw^ur 

X. lUnr* IU««r4i XiXstnn ftAatw M 

8. IXmov iXIwevTo Uk»hrSn IXAohnnv 

Sow. 8. 1. XIn Xfa»|Xi XiXatv^^fi (6Mo)or hiXalnt (69S) 

2. Xt«i|l Xfvg XiXoHrAf jt XiXolvft 

3. XI>) Xlvipmi XAsHTJki ^ XAohru 
D. 2. Mvv** Xt'Tiirfcv XiXoMrin lirov XiXstvqrs* 

8. XJiwrfnv X(«i|v4»v X(Xm«4t« ^tpv X«X«lwi(t«v 

P, 1. Xtwafuv XwAfula XiXatv^ni fl|uv 

2. XlrifTt Xtrqffh XaXanrdni Ifn 

3. XlvM^ X(««*Tmi XiXowAm in 

On. a 1. X;>Mf» Xt«I)ui* XiXM«Aiili|*(69»o) 

2. X(i>oit XhrMo XfXwvAi Aifi 

8. XhrM XlvMTa XlXanAt «(i| 

D. 2. Xiw««««v X(««w4oi> XtXourin ■bfroc, ftrav XiXoIvsira* 

8. Xtvaln)* Xw«(ffti|v X«XM«4n tl^inpr, tfin\v X«X«Mr«(Ti|i' 

P. 1. X[««tp«v Xiv0[|ul» XtXoivAm ttinu*, (Iiw* XAchr«i|u* 

2. XI*aiTt Xt«ta4i X«Xoiv4t« ttip« iln X«X«(«*it« 

3. XXvaMv XXvgim XtXoMrtnt ihtsmc, •In> XiXatrouv 

Up. 8. 2. X(n Xt*a« 

8. Xvv^rw Xw4r9m 

P. 8. Xlwm X(ww«i 

8. XMrivra* Xib 4i <h> 

Xmt* XivirtM X«X«ia4Mu 

t. Xi«A*,Xmb»- Xi«d|uMi, XAm«^ -Mta, -<■ (809) 

ra, Xi«4* -il, •«¥ 
(9D6 •) tM7> 




388. Verbs ir iiu, -cu, -ou are contracted only in the present And 
imperfect. The principles of contraction are explained in 49-66. 
n/iaa (rifta.-) honour, voiiio (rou-) make, and finXooi (SifXa-) mcmijhat are 
thus inflected in th« present and imperfect oi the active, middle and 

a 1 






D. 2 





p. 1 







8. 1 





D. 2 

(«,».*,.) «|Mt.p 

P. 1 

(<«*r.) hvMtn 






D. 2 





P. 1 









AonvB— CdmIihM 

*UUHT oniTm (sM 898) 

8. 1. (ri|«(,.) 
J. (ri/-.ll) 



D.J. (,ip«lm„) 
8. (,i™tr„) 





I. (,ii™l^) 



(i.,^««) flfl^olir* 



D.J. (ri>.t.r,.) 




P. I. (riftiM^r} 
!. (rW«T.) 
8. (rijJ^) 






S. 1. C"*-) 







P. J. (rWr.) 




rmsuwT ntminiTa 

(*|Xfc.») »iiUt» 

(rllUitr) Tl|iAv (THAtv) ««tAv 

10. For the Inflnltln, m 

¥ot the tnfiectioa of contracted puticiples, see 3 
469 ■. 

AtUe pioM tiwttjB, and AtUo poetry osumlly, use tbe coDtraotad fonn& 

N. 1. — The open forma of verba tn -sw are MmeUmei found In Homer. Terba 
in -Ml oftan ahow the onoontracted forma In Homer ; la Herodotus oontiaction 
gniperlj takea t^ace ezoept before t and w. Verba In -«» nerer appear In tlMlt 
anasntraoted forma In any aatbor. 

K S. — rwA> Bometlmea loaea Ita i (43) except before o aounda. 




8. 1. (rfydtiMu} T{^A|iai 
2. (r!MB,'i*^)Tlrt 

B. CrW«-») 

.I,£ru (,«*riu) 




D. a. (r!M<U»fcO 




». (riM»r«) 

ri|.V<> (™*rf.) 

S. (trliiiM) IrtfkA (frNfcv) hraiaS (MvX&w) lfa|Xa« 

S. (MfuUTg) *rtp&n (^Mitra] fcroutn (MqXJira} ai)]u»n 

D. 3. (frvulwfcr) irt|>£««n (^ot^M-fcr) Inutvfcv (MitXWhr) ISi|Xote«ai 

3. (Vv>i«*«(} M|i&a4i (/r«i^(*«>) tnuteli (MqXinrAr) tti)Xo«r«f 

8, 1. (rifuUfiu) TtpL4|iai (roiA^fuu) TQiajtM (tifitim/ui) &i)XA|ku 


8. (TifuiHi-g) T[|t^ (imiAiira) m«ti« (AirUiHrg) 

P. 1. (rIfHoIficfa) T[^|u*B (tomI/mAi) vmoIimIs (SiXnl/tcfc) Si|X«l|u8» 



ICnnHJi AND Puura — CoMlvOti 


3. (rt^M^rtftr) Tt|i^rl» (reuMn) «wmMw <JqX«4r«w) S^Mfafa 

D. 2. (rifuiwfcr) -rtii&vtav (rxAHrfcr) -vvutefcv (Ii(XWter) fii|X««v«w 

i. Iriiuiveir) tifirtmv (rKWreWv) mulm4m» (ffWrfer) hiXAtrtMr 

P. S. Cr;*>4H«i) T[^a««t (aWfrft) <M<to«i (J^XiMtft) lqX«9Hl 

S. (riftoArfcii') rt ^r*i»r (rM^fwr) *outo«w (9if)MAr«m) Si|)M«««m 

(rifMiarAu) Tt^S««M (rw/trftu) «Mtfrtu (<«X«w<u) Bi|)m9Hm. 
imaanm PAKnoirui 

(r^i«4|i*r»i) Tt H ^fH** * (tbu^ivi) W0i«t|U*O( (J^Mfum) li^ <|Mi<| 

386. buBplM of ContTacted VhIm. 

1. VerlM In -aw : 
fcnri* dMMtvc (irdrq deetU) if^ M 1» moMm C^i Ul^Ut) 

M* fJ^o^ Ob4 fkoHt) -mpdMiuu at(«m;>t (rnjaa trial} - 

IHXtri* jmieliM (^Mrq pnuliiw) rAnriM JlnUh (nXivr^ end) 

riioiw eonqutr {Mx^ sMory) TaX|iA« dura (rtKfia Oarlnt') 

S. Vntai In -nt: 

iSurf> do NToiv (UwM »^M) •<"<> fAAoAtt (olm ftovM, pcwtlo) 

pMfN* OMtM (0a^ oaflMtiv) «oX^l4m nvLle loor (viX«(M tour) 

nvftm order (ictofm onkr) ^Vd)4« envy (fMm envj') 

plvi« Aote (/urn AoM) ^tMa Iom (^IXoi /Hmd) 

8. Votta In -«•: 

4{>4w tkiwt woriky (Iftw ivortAy) Mt6» malu valtd (idW oHOorMy) 

h»X<n etulase (3o9hM «IaM) wa)U|U«m(ii:«aiietMmy(ir(riX(fw«i«ar) 

l)Li»<if<ii ul JV (A«M^wf JVm) r M t>p<ii erowN (rr^^ivi enneM) 

t>|«* ptrt under tlu yob ({Vy^ VoJtv) TMii*4« ktmatat* (ramvii AiiMM«d) 

38T. Prtadptl puta of Contractwl Voiba. 

tl|l4a f^V* M)M)«« Trrt|U|KK TtTt|M||MU h^.tj^r 

hutm hjf^U. W^plra rrf^rbn nt^rajMi l»qfih|<> 

«M4< «mV^ )>«i<|v« wtwabi^ ««nli||ia> Ivm^^v 

l^hte Bi|Ur» tUfkmw. M^tUm B«tX-|tM O^Mt^ 

Srirorai of y^fi-m honour 


lapt A«t 

. rot Act 

AM. As*. 

I^ft Act n»p. A«t. 

Ind. 11^ 




"<i"i- . •■>«f*'n 

Sub. T{|.A 


Opt «Wv.-«l" 




Inf. ifjl&V 



Fu. Tl|iAr 








M. IHlvlu 

"rfOTI" '"'•1*11 

Sub. ifi^Apu 



Opt TlnFT 

iGip. Mid 



iDl rt|i£««u 













Verbal adiectlTM : -rtitiiTii, Tt|»|Tfat 
Stxomh or tifpA-* Aunt 

A«. Aat. Ftrt. AA Plnp. Aot. 

W^pKo-a T^pKn iTfh|p4Ni| 

ti||»<ra Titi)pSKAi £ 


Far. hiplv tifpAffw (iipirKt TrfijpdMAi 

UU. Pui. Ulddlg HIdrUg UU. Put. 

Ind. •qpAiLU tfi|pA|i^ liipAo-tiiu lli|p)to^it* -nf^tpBiiM tTrf^p<|U|* 

8iib. t^pAJiu lilpivwiuu nti|pK|J*oi ■ 

Opt. ^ffm' •w«"'l"P' •nf««»'t«1» T*||*|i,*ii*i itfi* 

Imp. 9r\pt l^pSo-iu ri04)pSn 

iDf. Ci|p&Hsi ti|piaw4u ti|pdo-av4M nh|pa«4«i 

For. fi^]in«« tiipBo^iuivi ffi|parA|Hiioi nti|pK|ii*«i 

PMiln (lata) PuiIt* 

iDd. [»i|paevni|>«] »^pd»^> Verbal adjeodnst 

Sob. Hft* ti|pBT«i 

Opt [li|pKti(ral|U)v] liipBSibiv >i|p«Tfc| 

Imp. ti|pAti)n 

Inf. [t]|pBl^nff«»] ••|pBtii*w, 

Par. [•ilpCtqrAiuvot] tiipKhlt 

I z:-:l,vG00glc 

STNOnn ov iw U n make 



Aor. A St. 

Pirf. Art. Flap. Aot 



w«™iH«a fcnndlKii 

Sob. «mA 



Opt. «««(i|., -a^u 



Imp. «te 


iDf. ->M*U 



Par. «Ma> 








OpL «M(,iv 




Imp. »»< 




Ptr. «M««|UM« 





ruU PBrf. Fmi. 














Teibftl adiMtlTeii ; ' 


Smonit or nXf-M com^iJtte 

P»>. Aot. bapC let. 

Fnt AM. 

Am. AeU 

F<rf. AsL Flop. Aot 

lad. nU Mmw 

Sabt TdL« 

Opt TA.fap.,.atHi 




IdL nXilv 


Pu. nU* 




MU. PtM. 



Snb. t.XA^ 

Opt nX«(|u,«. 



Imp. nXot 


Int TAArfn 















Stxomis or I^U-« man/lfut 

OL TdL AsL k<K. Aet P 

Ind. t^ «<tX«* SV^Wt. I»VUh« t«8^)iwM a<»i|)uhn, 

Opt SijXolifn -otfu t^^AcMfu ti|Uv«i|u S«Si|Xmi^ iCi|v 

Imp. MXm S^«m> 

InL SiiXst* S^lAmiv li|XA«mk GtSt)]lMrf>M 

lad. tV^VM t»V^^^' Si|XAn|Lai tA<tX>H«i. OrfiiUM* 


Sob. hpiAiuu EA|X-|iJmA 

Opt. Ai|X*(^i|* $i(X«n(|iV StCi^XaiiiMt «ti|* 

Imp. ti|)Mfl fahtXan 

Inf. SV^AWfai tVOrwUi t*ti|XAv«« 

PU. ll|to<|MT»» fil|]Mrl|M«0( t l t <|Xll(>< W 

PmOt* PiuIt* Fat. P«rf: P*«. 

Ind. Si)lMHm)>«. O^kMiiv St^XA««|iu 

Bub. »i|]ul« 

Opt. 6i)]M#i(««l|Uf* B^XwIibiv Mi|Xw«l|Ufv 

Imp. lqXMi|n 

Inl SVi«*Vw«M »i|Xa*4|i» 8i8<|U*w«« 

Far. Sq}M*i|r4|u**( ti|lu4il( Mi^wtfMmt 

VrabkladjMUvM: Si|Xi>T4t, SqlMrfet 


399. In the present optatiTe active there are two forms : (1) that ' 
with the modal sign -i»-, baring -v in the 1 sing., and -ow in the 3 pi. ; 
(2) that with the modal sign -l-, having -fa. in the 1 sing., and •» in 
the 3 pi. The first form is more oommon in the singular, the second 
in the dual and plural. 

Tt|u^ip> (rawly rl^iu), Ti|»^r«- (rarely Ti^nl^or), Ti|t4|u« {rwely T:,ufii^,\ 
wtatipi (nraly nw^), vatrirn* (rualy vMoi^or), *o«Dtprn> (rarely rot^tv"^, 
tqXadt* (nraly lqXoi>u), St|Xatm (nraly Stflnlirror), 6i|Xc^uv (rarely SqXotwu'')- 

SM. Ten verbs in -ob shov ^ where we expect a. These are 8u^ 
thint, {£ live, wtuA hunger, n<u Kn^M, m JpAt (^sfe)) v/ia tnuft, w>« 
five onuleM, jgA am eager far (nn)i XP"/"* "*'> *°^ ^ '^* ^^ ^^- 


aos. {■ Imm and m^* ^"^ "^ inflMted m follows in the present 
indicatiTe, sabjonetiTe and imperadTe and in the imperfeot. 

S. 1. tA 
3. til 

s- a 






D. 2. lUn, 

3. H'^ 




P. 1. K^ 
I. nn 

». t>n 







Futioipl*; tA> 


396L raiw btirti, kXiUw we^ do not ooDtnct tbe fomu In wbkh i hH dim- 
tfipe»nd (88). Tbos, Mlw, Mini, Mln, d^fwr, mUt*, Klauri. 

397. Yerbe in -tu of two syllables do not omitTact c with o or m. 
The present and imperfeot IndicatiTe of vX«w «tfl ace inflected as 

*X4| wlMtTMt wMn twkm hrXtftvo kXatn 

a. S^ neei baa Mi, MUU Meeantn, >*!, I'm. >*>>. '* M*r wtot f> aeCM- 
Mry; >J(^w wont, reqtiut, bu Ite, (ftToi, M^Sa, l^wftsi. Bat Wm btnd 1> 
wnallj Ml eXMptloD, niAkiDg l<U, ttt, M^r, ftovr bound, ri JaDr (Aol *DAfet 
Unb, filTjiiii. MIrru, bnt Sri^tvr, War ftppear in KiBia wriWn. 

b. fA( •en^M oontncts. /)«A>, f/v ud r;^ h&Te lort « ; rUw, M«, rirfw 
luan kNt i(^) ; Jfa Med to for tnvN ; Sin bind U for <^,m. 

ass. Two verbs in -on^ lipim «Ma(, jliy^ *hjver, may have «* and y 
instead of ov and ot. See 641. 
Tlioi, Indie. ^'Tfi, >fif»», ftyv (or ^fT«')> opt. ^iV^', taf. ^ItA' (or >iT«0'). 

IWt. ftyOr. So IlpOfi, opt. U^i^ (or li<Mi), put llfiur (or ItpaCr). 

a. X*«« tetuA, when ft drops its v (43), contrscu like lii\iit. Thiu, Xotfw, 
ittta, itta, bat iMCfwr (for X<(K)a-^r), XaOn, XoOri ; and ao In oiLer format aa 
fW Xafra., X«Cr<u, Xatf/Mwi. 

b. ifcfwi M^Mt (Impmieet tMf«tr) baa the parallel forma otfwi (^/iq'). 

399. Movable y is never (in Attic) added to the oonttaoted S rin^ 
imperfect (JWu, not Iroutv). 




I. (g) oonbokant vbbbs 

WOi Verbs vhose steins end in a consonant aie in gfinsral inflected 
like QOD-oontraoting <i>-Terbs in all tenseB. Tlie future satire and mid- 
dle of liquid and nasal verbs are inflected like contracted au-verbs. 

401. Liquid and Nasal Verbs : future aotire and middle of 
^n* thota. 

rntora AeUT* Futim Ulddls 

LiDHunva. S. 1. 

(♦a»*rfl4) ^>rtiw 




P. 1. 







D. 2. 




P. 1. 




S. 1. 



T>. 8. 




P. 1. 


^orfcO ^>««* -* -of) -ij, -m. 

(810 ) (987) 


4m] consonant VERBS; <fmyv 129 

W2. Liquid and Nasal Verbs: first aorist active and middle, 
second aonst and second future passive of ^Vw ahovi. 

1 Aoriit AoUts 1 AorUt Mlddla t Aoriit PlMlra t Future Puitra 

Ian. S. 1. 1^*K ^^rpii^rpi H&i^v 4>r4iro|iai 





3. lh>«rv 





, 8. I. «- 


D. >. t4.^r» 



P. 1. «Vi»' 
a. «-r< 
3. f4~« 



a 44» or M,», (UU) Mm.« 



D. 3. 4^nuTev 


♦«MtTor or 
+•«!,,. o. 


P. 1. +^"1" 

a. ^^.^T. 

a. ♦<—«+*»., 


♦—to or 




8. tir<~ 



3. tn-<'~ 



p. a. +*.„ 








..,(387) +.-1^ -»(a87) 




403. In the perfect and pluperfect middle (and passive) of stems 
eodiiig in a, consonant certain euphonic changes (409) occur upon 
the addition of the personal endings. 

404. Several verbs with stems ending in a short vowel retain 
that vowel in the perfect (and in other tenses) ; such stems originally 
ended in 17; as rtXi-at Jiniah, from rcXof end (rcXnr-). This tr appears 
in the perfect middle stem (nrcXc-ir-fuu, rcrtXc-a-nu). In the second 

Eirson singular and plural but one a is found : rtrikc-aai, rcriXt-irfft. 
y analogy some other verbs have a cr at the end of the verbal stem. 

405. In the perfect and pluperfect middle the third person plaral 
of stems ending in a consouanl or of stems adding <r consists of the 
perfect middle participle with turi are (in the perfect) and ^<nw were 
(in the pluperfect). 

406. Perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of Keiwat (Xa/w-') 
home, ypd^ (ypaij>-) write, wtlOa (tuB-) persuade, rpi-rrv (rpiy-) do. 

Perfect IndCcative 


2. XAii+ot 



8. XOmI'ov 




1. X4X<l|t|ul« 

2. UXatftt 









3. Uuht^hi* 







Perfiet SubjUTietUie and Optative 


B. 3. MXi^o 
3. Xdu(4«« 

PtTftU /mpenwiw 





Perftel Infinitive and Participle 

7*Yp&^ai v*«tt<r4ai Tnrp&x''^ 

407. Perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of jX<yx" (^A«yx*) 
confiUe, ayyiAAiu (dTTtX-) annownce, ^W (i^t^) show, rt\ia> (rekf-) 

Perfect Indicative 

S. 1. iXI^Xrriiu 

2. Ai^^ntV 

3. ft^XiYVToi 

D. 2. IXAX^tev 

3. a^iXtTX*" 

P. 1. A<|UY|U«a 

2. AijXrfxt* 

3. A^XaviUvoii iWi TiYTiXiUvoi ilo^ *f^cw)UvaL «lo{ T*n)i4-o--|UvM <M 

8. 1. ttnUrtiv 

3. AliXifim 

D. S. ft^iX.TXfc" 

P. 1. ai|X«Y|uea 

2. iX4X,«lh 

Piup«r/eet /ndfeatfre 

(n^vtiqv 4-TtnXi-r0i|v 

Perfeet Sul^netive and Optative 



Perftci Imperalixe 

s. a. a<ix.if 


D. 3. iX^Xrrxfe* 

8. ft,i»re«"' 



p. 2. ttllrrel. 
8. tt,|»i,x«.. 



ftl/ect InJtlUtlte 

and Participle 




408. The periphrastic third ptuval is used instead of the forms 
detired directly from the union of the stem with the ending. 

ThUB, ytypaiii±4rK tlrl is used foe yrypa^-rrv whlcb would become ytypi^rcu 
l^ 36 b, V between conaonanta passing into a. The peripliraatic form 1h also 
QSed in verba adding ir to their ftems, as rrreXt-f-tiim tlvl for rrreV-v-rrsi. 
Stems in r that drop » in the perfect aystem form Uieir perfect and pluperfect 
regularly ; thus, cptfu (jcpai-) judge liae Wnpttrai, UiKptrra. 

T. — On the retention of -o 

15 f. 

409. Euphonic Changes. — For the euphonic changes in these forms 
see 82-87, 103. 

■- Lablsl Stems. — XAtifi-^iai is tor XiXnT.^iai, X<\«^*ii is for Xf Xiw-c-tfav, 
XAci^ ia for XiXfir-vSi (103), In the same manner ore inflected other laUal 
Stenift, as rpt^m (,Tpip-) rub, jAtra (^iw-) (flroto ; Tfrpi/i-iMi for TtTpifi-iuu, rtrpi- 
^Bi for Trrpip-irai, etc. gt«mB ending in nw drop r before Mi '>nt retain it before 
Other conaonanta. Thus, 

rtTtiar-iuu becomes Tirtitiuu rtrt/tw-iufa becomea rtwimue* . 

b. DenUl Stems. — i^rw-roi ia tor «i™*.7-a< (8.1), rirtui^w is (or wrrt^ 
tar (83), rAreitffc ia tor Tnrnfl.(ff)e« (83, 103). The v thus prodnoed nas tnuw- 

«Q b. D. Horn, baa the original forme r«^fi^iUn>\ 



Innd to the flnt peraons rdrtut/uu, rtwitaiuBa, (86, 87). Like rirtiriiat, 
Mc, are formed and inflected IftM/uu from ^rOtv (i//ni>-) deceive, wf^aaiuu 
from #pdjt« («paff-) declare, loxiio/uu (100) from cwf^a (ox«rf-) pour a 

c Palatal Sterna. — wirfitailttorirtTpay-aai (07), r/rpiimi i»tot rtrply- 
Tot (82a}, wtrpaxf* is for vrtpiv-ffSe (103). Like rAr/n7uai are inflected 
T>Jiat (tX**-) leeace riw\ey-iuu, ayw (dy-) /eod flT/uii, iXXirru (dXXay-) «x- 
ekanfie IfKKatiiat, rBpixru (ra/mx-) conjute Ttripayimi. Sterna In -7^ change 

X before m to -r and drop one -y (as in AijXry-fUH for ^XiiXtyy-^'i 86 and 
8G b), bat keep the second palatal before other consonants (as in ^X^XD'fot 
for AitXtTx-ffiu, 07 ; iMiXr/K-rai for AqXryx-roi, 82). On the lednplication 
ne 446. 

d. Uqnid and Haaal Stems. — Sterna In X oc p are inBected like fyyiXfiui, 
u vtAXw (vt(X-, rraX-) Mruf frraX^i, atpu (dp-) raUe lipimt, tyiipu (iytp-) 
»ake ty^yip^au (446). SteroH In r retaining the naaal ore Inflected like wiifiaaiuu, 
tt r^pattu (ffi)»ia»-) tlffnif)/ wtaliitaaiiai. (For -o-fioi see 91 a and b.) Stems 
in >dK>ppli^ the nasal (669 a) are inflected like \f\viiai, as i/itni (xpir-) judge 

e. Vowel Stems addinf r. — Here the stem ends in a rowel except befors 

M and r ; tbas, rrri^t-tai, Tn-Ac.tfA»>, TtTf\»-a$t : but T€TA*-tf-/iai, TertX^«-fi«A^ 

N. — Since the stem of rtKiti is properly tiXit- (rfXcr^^u, S34), the original 
inflection is rircXHr-tfw, whence rertKt-^ai (LOT); TrrAM-rot; TrrfXtir-fAir, . 
r(rcXw-<rfe, wlience rrr^XM-ffoi, TtrfKivBt (103). rtr/Xca'/uu and TrTtJJriueu um 

doe to the analog; of the other fonhs. 

410. Hie forms ri^raai, hri^rso, ajld rl^art 

g not atleated. Cp. 

4U. The principal parts of the verbs in 406-407 are as follows ; 

persuaded, 2 perf. s^aKLta I tnttt, 

•rpApra do (»(«■»-), *pdf«, hrpBf*, 
2 perf. -v^TpBYs / hone /arrd and 
I hajie done, *^pB-y|UU, Jirp)(x(ir'- 

tAim JInUh (rAt-r-), nXA, MXto-a, 

i^riBAm announ^ (AttA-). *YT«". 
4rfn^ ^YT^'n' ^YY^V". iYY*- 

■W*+- wi(« (YP^). YPA+*. tll(»+*. 

OivX- wt/*"* (»-YX-), *WTt-. <1^«yS», 

Uiw leave (Xt*-, Xtm-, Xm*-), Xtlifw, 
2 perf. X&otv*, Xa4Hi|MU, iX«l4>i|*, 

«^l« permutde ('nl-. viJ-, «oit-), 
«l*w, hm««, 1 perf. wtwtum I have 

4alM>iA(ns(^v-),^*A, I^vo, 1 pert . 
■^^YKii I have thown, 2 perf. w4^i|*« 
I have appeared, wi^tir^JU, ^ift%¥ 
I uos thovm, 2 Kor. paaa. t^ii-y / 




CL3. The conjugation of /u-verba difEers from that of <»-verbs 
only in the present, imperfect, and second aorist active and middle; 
and (rarely) in the second perfect. The ^u forms are made by 
adding the endings directly to the tense-stem without any thematic 
vowel, except in the subjunctive of all verbs, aod in the optative of 
verl» ending in -vu>u, 

413. Verbs having second aorieta and second perfects of the 
fu form are, aa a rule, u-verbs, not fii-verbs, in the present. Thus, 
the second aorists : J^Sijv [Paiva go), iyvtav (yiyvaa-Kio ktlOV)); the 
second perfect : riSvtLfLtv {Bv^vkui die). 

414. There are two main classes of /u-verbs. 

A. The root class. This class commonly ends in -ij-nu or -to-fiL 
(from stems in «, o, or o). The present stem is usually reduplicated, 
but may be the same as the verb-stem, which is a root. 


Preeeht Stem 


riBt-, tAj- (for flifo, Atfn, 126 a) 


Urra-, urrTf (for trurro, avm], 119) 
SiSo-, SAt- 

lijfu send 
Zmj/u set 
SiSai^ give 

B. The -n/fu class. This class adds w (i^), after a vowel wu (vru), 
to the verb-stem. In the subjunctive aud optative regularly, and 
sometimes in the indicative, verbs in -vv/u are inflected like verbs 


Present Stem 



Ktpoyro; Kipavvv- 
ptryva-. fnjyi^- _ 
apiwu-, afiiwv- 

iciyvim yoke 

^ijyvviu break 
o-^nvu/u extivguiah 

C. There are ao 
e preBenl Btem ; 

me (mostly poetic) verbs in -nuu 

, which add ra-, ih to form 
' we tubdue. 

413. All the possible fu fonas do not occur in anj single verb, rlffq/u 
aod SlSu/u are Incomplete and Irregular in the second aorist active ; and Itfi-^n 
aertt o-ui from vpimm la the onlj second aorist formed from rv/u-verbs. 
trpii.11^ I bought, second aorist middle (from the stem rpui- with no present), 
is Kiven In the paradigms in place of the missing form of tartnu ; and Itvt 
/entered from adu (but formed u it from iBiu) in place of a second aorist of the 

Alt} CONJUGATION OF Ti%u, Ivr^iu, S^u/u 186 

a& (A) Root CUu. — Inflection of Ti%u place, umffxt ael, SiSufu 
give, in the present, imperfect, and second aorist tenses; and of 
JrpMi^i)!- / bought. 

Prtaent Indicative 

6. 1. Tt*j-|u t-oni-(u SUSm^ 

2. TC-hi-^ I-irTi|'« SUEh-s 

3. r(-ti|-n I-aTi)-n G[-S«-vi 
D. 2. T(-I(-Ta* t-oTo-Ta* St-So-'rov 

S. ■K-fc-T»» T-OTO-Tor S(-Eo-Tor 

P. 1. 


& 1. tTL4n-> 



2. t^[4Mi(746b) 



S. fcrt-fci 


D. 2. l-T{4<-rov 




P. 1. l-T^e.-|u» 



8. l-rl4..n 



PreMHi 5u6iunc«iie 

S. 1. T>-M 



2. TC^ 



S. Tv4fl 



D.2. «*K»" 



S. T**^™. 





2. T.*!^ 



8. -n-aA^ 



8. 1. Tl*l.|.- 


2. T.J.1.M 



S. Ti*!,, 



D.3. tv4<Pt»v 



3. Tl*l^» 



P. 1. T»*HiO. 



3. Tv4ril-t> 





AoTtvB — OoHcludad 
Frtitnt Optatlne 

or (760) or (750) or (760) 

D. 2. n-9tlt\-Tor UotuIh-tof 8i-&o(i|-t*i> 

3. Ti-4)i^-Ti|v t-<rTai^-n]r Bi-SoU^-npi 

P. 1. n-h(i|-|ui' t-ffTot^lun Si4o(i|-|u* 

2. Tt-tili|-n t-«~rali|-T« Ei-Go(i|-t( 

8. n-St(i|-<rav t-<rTa(i|-<rav Si-Sotif-v-a* 

iVMcnt Imperative 
8.3. T<-«n(T461)) I-m) St-Sm 

a n-M^« t-a~r&-TW Si-SA-tw 

D. 2. t(-6i-to* I>mi-rov 

8. •n-ti'Tmr 1-»t4-t»» 

P. % Tl^-n X-m-n 

iVeMnt /r^ln^tK 

FreuiU PartietpU 
n-Mi, -Ara, 4v (SOT) t-«T^ ■«««, -iv (300) St4o«t, ■•Sn. -4v 
Middle and Pamivb 
iVMSiiI Indteativa 

8. 1. Ttat^iw tHTTo-iuu 6U».|iai (747 f ) 

2. t(4<-««i I-«T»Hrai Gt-8»««i 

3. rHi-ni I-rro-rai Et-So-roi 
O. 2. t(-*i-«4si- t«<ra-v4o* SC-So-tftov 

8. t(4c«4o* I-«~ra-«4a* E:-S»««o* 

P. 1. ■ Tl-M-|U<> I-VT4-(Mk 

2. T[-6<-ir<< I-rTa-ff4< 

S. tI-»<-vt<u t-rro-rrai 

S. 1. t-n-U-f.'i\v i-rTd-|»|v 

2. t-T(-0f-ra f-«xa<o« l-Sl-Sa-va 

3. J-rL4i-T« t-v-TO-^a l-K-So-ro 
D. 2. l-rC-l«-«4ev f-vTo-fffm l-C(-fi»-««»v 

8. l-n-Mirtip- t-rr&-ff«i|« l-6«-Sd-a4i|* 

F. 1. i-nM-^i^ t.<rrtU|u*« l-Si-Si-piK 

S. Iwrt4<-<r«< (-m-vti UU60-v«i 

3. J-Tt-t«-iTO t-mt-m l-8(-^-t>T« 

4i«] CONJUGATION OF rflV, 'i-rrwh ««-*- 

HiDDLB AHD Pauitb — Condnded 
Frettta Sulftiiitatve 

r^4\^m. t-o-ril-Tat 

TuH«'*>' Uo^-««o» Ei-SA-irfcv 

vi-<1)-«4a« l-«-r^.««ov b4«.ff«ov 

Ti-BA-|i4t« t-ori-iMSa Ei-W-|ula 

■n-»n-**« UrHHrfc Si<EA-v«i 

Pretent (Ratine 






















fT0jenf ifnpcrdtivc 

















Sbcond AoBiar 











Iimi twfAaro 


(IbHiai)' I-So« 

(K-K.) . I^« 


















vpU-|»i (424, N, 



















ht-To, 6ot^o mill 

irpiaC-|ii|v &a(i|-v 
*p(.i^(42i,N.2) Soli|-« 
*pt>i-n> SoCil 
















or (758) 

or (746 c) 

or (768) 

ot (768) 









CONJOeATIOM OF rjtvK, EIttik S!^ 



S. i. 



.tHI-Bl «pU 



D. 2. 


P. a. 


crrfl-T. wpl<Kr«< 




ffTfy.»<M «p(aHr«» 



•id, Mrs, U-pVOf, -i|, irrdi, irraira, wpii-|MV9i, -I), Sott, So«(ra, SifMMti 
•U(307) -oy <rT4-v(300) -o* (287) 8d-v (307) -^, -ov 


417. A few verbs of the fu class have a second perfect and plu- 
perfect Only the dual and plural occur ; for the singular, the first 
perfect and pluperfect are used. The second perfect and pluperfect 
oi umiiu are innected as follows : 

Second Perfect 
iBdirailT* SDbjDDctlTB OpUUr* Impmitln 

S. 1. (lm|Ka) ((and l-rrA WTaCi|-v (poetic) 

i. (ImtKM} Wrf)-« i-ffTali)-t l«Ttt-Si (poetic) 

3. (fantn) Wr^ Wrob) 

WtoI-tov or -atifrev (Mlb) t«rTa-TO» 
3. (-vfa-Ta* t-ffTl)-TO* i-crTaUn)ir or -ai^ngv t-vrif^uv 

P. 1. l-st«-|uv i-orA-juv i-crTaC-p4« oi -a(i|p4r 

i. I-«-ra-Ti i-<rHJ-Tt i-frral-Tt or -otipt l-«T«-n 

S. l-rT&a^ WrA-m I-crr«Ct-* Ot -a(i|ra* iHrrd-vra* 

brmriVE t-rri^wu Pakticifle WrA-t, l-rrAra, l-rrdt (300 a) 
Second Plcferfbct 
S. t. (iIvtV^) KMMi D. 2. f-rro^ni* P. I. Um-fM 

S. (Arr^tafi) 3. t-<rTA-n|v 2. l-rro^ 

8. (rfv^Mt) 8. Wro-rMT 

For a list of second perfects ot the /u form, see 704-706. 

I z:-:l,vG00glc 


41S. (B) -vBiu CU«. — Inflection of the preaent sye'tem of inn^ 
Aoio and of the second aorist fSOv entered. 









8. 1. Sfk-rt-|u(T46 

a) i-Si(K-*«-v(74a&) Si(K-n-|uu 


US-* (4le^ 

2. StU-n-t 





8. SfU-»-<rL 





l<Sik-nMrov StU-nMrfov l.EiCK<ytMr$ar I-S6>t«v 

8. E>Ck-»-t«v 

l.Si»-v«-T^w GtCK-nMrkv 14<M-v«-a4ip' «-S<.Ti|f 




a. Sf(«-™-r, 







a 1. sm*«« 


S. S.«r«„« 



8. Sm«*«ii 





2. S»i»«,,T. 




2. tM*«M 

3. tMcr««i 


D. 2. GMtrtDin* 



2. tMKviom 


8. 2. 8<U-t«(T46ft) 


8. Sn«-v«<TN 



D. 2. t«(jc-vv-t» 



8. 8w-Wi-Tw- 




3. E>ui-v«-rrw 



StiK-vi-Mi (7«a) 



SMi-*4|.anh-«*(80S, T46a} S<iN-i4-|u*M, -% -M MftHn, 



4m] synopsis of t^thu, umj/u 


Stmomis of t»iiu C*«-, ftf 




Act. Ful. 4ot. Aor, Art. 

1 P*rt. Act. 1 Flap. AcL 

iDd. T{ll«U 

M»i|r IV* l*nM> 

TJHra (t<Mkn, 

Sab. TtU 



Opt. tA(v 

•^«Hu S.!^ 


Imp. rttM 


[nf. -nMnu 

»<i<r«t> «rt*<u 

Pu. TtMt 

»^«v hit 


Piw-M. P. 


M. P. Fnt. MM. 3 Aor. Mtd. 

Pert U. P. Ptap. M. P. 

Ind. tO^uu 

irJV'P' eV-l"" MVl" 

T«,4«» *,*(,tip 

Sab. T>*«|>«. 


Opt. nM|iv 


Imp. -r»«r« 

Bofi WfHOtl 

Inf. 'r(l*r«<u 

•Vwla. NHoi Til.lv4<u 

Pu. Tia^M>M 








Verbal Adjectives ; irr6,, trriot. 

420. STnoniH 

T timiiii (iTfl., fl-ri^) ie( (in perf. and 2 nor. rtand) 

Pr«. Impr. 

Ind. la-nnuf 


Iimin i«{ Iim|v itood •[aT^Ki| sCood 

Sab. LrrA 

Opt. Ia-nlT)v 

top. Irr, 

lot WtA*«4 

Imuuu ttand o-rt^|iai (intrans.) tv^E" «AaII •taild 

I«T&|i,ip' imfrd|i,i|T (IraiM.) 

Sab. Irriftu 



Int Irmrfct 



P«. i^if^ 



4.TTdh,V UKM let 








Verbal adjectives : 7T»T4t, <rT<iT(o» 

I z:-:l,vG00glc 



Stvopsih op S(S«p (So', iw-) giM 

Ind, S(&»|u 






Sub. G^ 



Opt. SiSo(i)v 



Imp. GCEoii 




Pw. GiSoH 




Pw. M. P. : 

Impf. U. P. 

Fnt. Mid. 

1 Aor. Mid. 

Pwf. M. P. 

Pl.p. M. P. 

Ind. GISoiMu 






Snb. Gi«ft|Hu 



Opt G.«.C,.n' 



Imp. 6IS»«« 



Inf. G(So<r«M 





1 FuL Ph». 














Verbid adjectives -. 

GoTdt, GOT^ 


Srwopsii OF SilRvQ|u (B.U-) gAour 

Prei, Aot. 

Impf. AoL 

1 Aor. Act, 

1 Plop. Airt. 

Ind. Gib(>v^ 






Sub. G»Kr«. 





E.S.,xte .IV 

Imp. GtlKvQ 




Pu. S<un4t 




p™. m. p. 

Impf. M. P. 

?ut. Mid. 









OpL Stun-wltinv 




Imp. EttKvwo 







\ Aor. I'M.. 












wixl^*' •<' «*■ 




, l»x«* 

Verinl adjoctives : 

6.i.t4i, StucHn 




423. Simple or «ompound verbs usually throv the accent as far 
back as the quautity of ^e last syllable permits (recessive accent, 169). 

froMM, ivAiiar ; Irtt^, /rintr/iMr, aiiupitiu, rd^ffri. 

<24. To this general rule there are exoeptioos. 

■- ■acUtlc*. — All the fonuB of ^id lay, and ti/d am, except ^it and <t 

b. ImperstlTM. — (1) Tha aecond person sing, of the aecond aorist uUve 
imperative of five verba is ozytone : tlwi tay, AM come, tlipt find. Hi see, X^M 
take. Their plorala sre accented tiairt, JXMti, etc.; compounds have reoeesive 
accent : i^tiitc, drcMf, t^npi, wofiXafit. 

(S) The second aorist middle (2 sing.) is peiispomeDon, as \apoO, rafioflaSaO, 

C. Contracted Terba are only apparent exceptions : thus, e.g., rtfif for Ti/Uti, 
I^Stfi for IiiXloMi, 0iXc?v for ^iX^ir So the subjunctive of the firat and sec- 
oad aoriat passive \utii for \v6im, ^nriS for ^Ww ; the optatives XvBtinfw from 
hM-i-iur, 3iJat;wrfrom Iii6-i-iiir; the futures ^ti3 for ipariii, ^nivifu for ^arioiiu, 
turtir for ^wtttr, ^arSt for 4>ariar ; \iTtir for \aritr ; and the present and sec- 
ond aorist active and middle aubjunctive of most /u-verbs, aa riffO for Ti$iit, 
trr-u^oi, eO/iai, perf. uiriS^wi. On iiioiwi, Tiffeiiri, see 463 d. 

N. 1. — In aUiematic optatives the accent does not recede beyond the diph- 
thong containing -i-, the sign of the optative mood : Irrata, laTaliur, b^olro, Sc- 
l*frg ; and ao In XvOttt^r, Xv0<hf. 

N. 2. — Mmiuu am aUt, hrUrafuu understand, Kpt/ia/uu Jiang, iArtau profit, 
and ^pu^F bought (749 b, 750 b, 757 a) have receaalve accent In the sabjunc- 
live and optative ({(lovuu, Hiaraiiat, liratro, KpliiaiTii). 

d. Poetic forms sometimes fail to follow the rule, aa iir being. 

435. Inflnitivea, participles, and verbal adjectives are verbal nonns (S68), 
and hence do not regolftrly show recea^ve acceut. 

a. InflnltiTes. — The following inflnicivee accent the pennlt: all inflnlUvea 

in -«, as XeXuWhi, Xvffqmi, lo-Tiimi, rrr^m (except Epic -ftnu, as rr^^umi) ; 
ill verba in w the first aorist active, as \vriu, ruScuiru, the second aorist middle, 
H XirArAu, the perfect (middle) passive, as 'KtMaBiu, rn-stlcGirAu, wttm^ffm. 

N. — The present inf. of contracted verbs and the second aorist active Inf, 
of H-verba h»ve the perispomenon b; 424 c. 

b. PartictplM. — (I) Oxytone : the maacnline and neuter sing, of the second 
aorist active, as Xii-iit, Xirir ; and of all participles of the third declension end- 
ing in -« In the masculine (except the first aorist active), aa Xufcd XvSir, XtXiwth 
XiXiFiJt, irrAi isTit, rtSefi rMr, SiBBit SiS6w, larii Irrir, ttucrtt BtutwCr (but 
Urfit, roi^a-af). Also liir going from tl|u. 


(S) F«roxjtone ; the perfect middle (passive) : \i\vpJm. 

N. — Participles are accented like tuljectives, not like verbs. The fem. 
and neuter noiti. accent the same ayllsble as the maac nam. if Ibe quantity of 
the ultima permits, thus raiSriuy, raUMovra, raiifOot (not ralSniot) ; rw^ai, 
*oilfff(iff>, roi^ac (not roliiaar) ; ^iXu*», ^tXaOfa, ^iXoOr (from ^iXfct). 

c. Verbal Adjectives. — The verbal adjective in -rat is accented on the ultima 
(\vt6i); that in -rcot on tlie penult (Xirr^t). 

N. — Prepositional compounds in -tot denoting possibility generally aooeot 
the last syllable and have thri« endings (2M), as iaiXurit dittolitbU, ittiprri- 
removafile. Such compounds as have the force of a perfect passive participle 
accent the antepenult and have two endings, as tidXwTti dimolved, i(alptT«t 
choten. All other compounds la -rsf accent the antepenult and have two end. 
ings, as ipam (mpatiobU, x'tf»^V^ arttfieial. 

426. Ezceptlons to tlie recessive accent of compound rerta. — a. The accent 
cannot precede the augment or reduplication ; St«i|u ant n&>rn(, iw^r uos abtna, 
*Jr-9XMr the]/ tnUred, dr-^at they were abunt; i^-inrtu nrrlvrd (cp. rcroi). 

N. — A long vowel or diphthong not changed by the augment receivea the 
accent : vr~ttKt vxtt yielding (indlc. vr-clm, imper. ur-cm). 

b. The accent cannot precede the last syllable of the prepoeittnn before the 
simple verb nor move back to the first of two prepositions : rtpltct pul around, 
cvriiOtt gite up together (not drtxam), (rir^jtiiflft put d"vni topeUmr (not g6y- 
KoStt). Compounds of the second aorist active imperatives S61, h. Sit, and ex** 
are thus paiozytone : tiriStt $et on, rtplStt put around, iwtaxtt hold on. 

c. When compounded with a monosyllabic preposition, monosyllabic aecoDd 
aorlat middle imperatives in -oi) from fu-verbs retain the circumflei: r^oStS 
ittray, irfieO put in. Bat the accent recedes when these Imperatives pr^Bx a 
dlssyUabto preposition ; drUou sell, EordAiu put down. The open forma alw^s 
have racetaive accent, as ItSeo, xarieto. 

S. The accent of uncompounded infinitives, participles, aorist passive, per- 
fect passive, and of the second aorist middle imperative (2. p, sing., but see 
4S6 c) is retained in composition. 

e. drforu will be far from, iwiarat wQl be upon do not have recessive accent 

f. Compound subjunctives are dltterently accentuated in the Mss. ; drotu«iat 
and irbSuiuu, twiS^Tut and ^Wirru ; the aorist of Irtiu has rpoS/ioi and r^fui. 
irtxi* has iriaxi^f^- Compound optatives retain the accent of the primlUvea: 
dnloira, as SeiTo. For evteatro, wpoveoi^et (746 c) the Mss, occasionally have 
rtfrftHTo, rp6irSotirSt ; and so wpiairo. 

437. Final -at (and -01) are regarded as long in the optative (100), eloewhera 
as short. Hence distingnisb the forms of the first aoriaL 

3. Sing, Opt. Act. InQn. Act. 2. Sing. Im|^. Ud. 

Aijw XviTiu Xvoxu XwTtu 

6xiAiai diroAvmu diroXuTat iiroXvam 

waiie&a muStunu muScCovu atuSiuoni 

4U b (2) D. Bat Horn, has dXaXitfumt (dXdo/ui wander), dirax4fw>«t or dr*- 
X'fw>M (Ix'vf"' at* di*tr«*Kd), trei/uiot (rtdv drive). 


43a The augment (increase) denotes past time. It appears only 
ID the seoondary or past tenses of the indicative mood, namely, im- 
perfect, aorist, and pluperfect. The augment has two forms, the 
syllabic and the temporaL 

429. SylUblc Augment. — Verbs beginning with a oonsonant pre- 
fix < as the augment, which thus increases the word by one syllable. 
In the pluperfect c is prefixed to the reduplication. 

AJtu loose IrXiov ^Autnx /-AtXracn 

wnAvn educate j-muSmor l-nuStucra i-rtwiuMuKif 

a. Terlw baginnlag with p doable the p after the augment, ^rw throto, 
l-ffimp, t-ffif^, *-ppi4«7iii ; f/r/fiiH break, l-ppitf«, l-ppii'^. 

N. — pfi ia het« due to asBfmllation of /:^, u In Horn, tppefa dfd (and fp<fs) ; 
of *p in Ipptot fltneed. Cp. SO a. 

430. jMXcfuu tBiMk, Sihaim am able, /JXXu intend augment nfth c or wlUi q 
(e^Mctilly in later Attic) ; thus, ^uU^v and 4^uU/i^v, ilvniiiitr and ^aunl/tqr, 
M«nf#fr and Ifiut^w. 

a. nieae fonna teem u> be due to paraUelism with ^Xo* (from MAw viih) 
■Dd fAAw (from MXh). 

431. Some rerbs beginning with a vowel take the syllabic aug- 
ment because they formerly twgan with a consonant Thus, 

ir«iu break (F*lf»B|n). •*^ »or- pw»- MSw-- 

UbicD^u on* eofXttred (FaX(a-KO|iai), Imperf. 1|]Unc4|ti|*, aor. tikmw (with tem- 

pcmJ augment) or iputv. 
4i6iM* pleOM (F»Urw), aor. fatk* (Ionic). 
1*-«(Y» ofXN (pat^iu), imperf. t-r-iifytii, 

Um permit (tfip^*)' ^^*< ^ton, itftiiv, 
ttJfMi tU (for a-iSw|iai), ato^i)*. 

IUtt* roll (F«Urn>), (DUttov, (Duta, ilXlxtn*' 

Ouu* or VXn^ draw (nXxtt), «IXko*, itkinni, tlXictetip'. 

Iw^jiw fnVna (««>opai), <tT4|i^. 

JpfitoiMt wort (F«(rY4o|uu), tlfria(r^ip>. 

lpr« crrrp («p*a), ttpvor. 

)m^ entertain (pwriaa), ■Evrbn', iltf-rfaom, <(«>rUUi|v. 

4M a. D. Hoin, hu IXXafle toot (for <-<rXii^), fntar eoam (tor <^ko»), ^- 
ftlarrt ahook (for *Tf*«)tTo), fiJeivt feared (for *-S/:««r«). (««* fournwi ia 
doe to analogr- 

Ml D. 8;Ilablo augment in Homer before a vowel Is a mire proof of Initial f 
in Utwow and some other verba. Similar Ionic and poetle forma oooor from 

t\ttr, ifXu, i^H*, fXra), friOia, tpSu, i)tnx'^''t ^^- 


146 AUGllENT 

fi||ii lend (o^o^|w), act. dn. «tt«v for M-rov, d*i|v tor t44^ 
Im|)u put (»-ioTT)(u), plup. (lo^Ki) for *- 
Apd* see (pop&a), Up«y, Upua or Upaxa. 
AM* piuA (FwH"). U«ow, Iwro, U<rfti|». 

■tSov taio, 3 HOT. of ipdu (tor J-pLSov). 
tCXoc tooA, 2 aor, of alpJa' (for t4Xe*). 

433. Since f disappeared early, many augmented forme show no tt%oe of iti 
exiatence, as, if""" ^''°''' "'''" dieell (fsiioi). Besldea c, i| was also used aa the 
syllabic augiaent. Ttiis appears in Horn. it^lBtn (-71 ?), Attic pint you jfenew. 

434. The verba iyrv/u, dUviropdi, (ir)i)fYiiCfu, ipiu, which bc^&n originallj 
with f, show foruB that appear to have a double augment; as Mwr, MX«r, 
(drVtrVDr (rarely ^voi-ygv), ^lipwr, ^iViuo (aiid ^V^a). Tbeae forms appear to 
be due to transference of quantity (34) irom^-fiyvr, ^feiyar, ^foput (cp, 43S). 

435. Temporal Augment. — Verbs begmning with a vowel take the 
temporal augment hy lengthening the initial vowel. The temporal 
augment is so called because it usually increases the time required 
to pronoimce the initial syllable. Diphthongs lengthen their first 

a becomes i| 

&Y. I^ad 




JXtQi. hope 








ifH<* mark off 




^b. ™ull 





otpJ.. gtizt 




aOJm play thefiitU 





tUi^ tiktn 



«fi)CO,uii jjroy 





olKi« ibntn 





436. InlUal f becomes f. jESw stag, gJaf. Initial it, i, P, w remain un- 
changed. Initial a usually becomes ^ : ipiariw breakfast, lipltTTfaa. iniMant 
and drUiu «zp«H(Z fonn dWtXwffa and dni\hwa, dwXii^r and dnjXiiSqr, 

437. Initial diphthongs are sometimes unaugmented : a« In afndofiw dry; 
n: (fn^r, n■'a^»' 1 <u: evp^^f and iffrp/^r from (ifilg-xu Jlnd, ed{diit)r and q^- 
/urt from (Bxoaw prai/ ,- ov is never augmented, dnce It U never a pure diph- 
thong when standing at the beginning of a verb-fonn. 

4SB D. Initial a becomes d in Doric and Aeolic ; Initial oi and an remain. 


438. OmlMlon of the Angmant. — k. In Attic ti>gedy the Angroent fs some- 
times omitted In cboiul poEaages, rarely ia Uie dialogue piirta (nieaseDgeiB' 
apeeclieH), wliich are uearer akin to prose. 

b. In xp^' (trom xp^ + 4') the augment is strictly annoceBBary, but is often 
idAeA (tx^*) since tlie compoeieion of xp^' ^^■^ forgotten. 

c In Homer and the lyric poets either the syllabic or the temporal augment 
is oflen absent ; as ^ro and l^mro, p^r and fSiir, Ixor and tlxor. IterativeB 
(496) in Horn, usually have no augment (^Ix'skow). 

N. — In Homer the absence of the augment represents the usage of the parent 
language, in which the augment was not necessarily added to mark past, time. 
It is therefore erroneous, historically, to apeak of the omiatlon of the augment 
in Homer. 

i. In Herodotus tbe syllabic augment is omitted only in the case of pluper- 
fects and itemtlves in axoF ; the temporal augment is generally preserved, but it 
la always omitted In verba beginning with oi, au, », », oi, and in iyir^w, ite>Ju, 
iRf7», (f>Ja>, iia, ipfUw, etc. ; in others it is omitted only in some forms (as d7B- 
ftiu, lya, fXiu, ifpdai), and in Others it is variable (dry^Xu, irrw, ipx"- '■'- 
tToiiai, it^ofuu} ; in cases of Attic rednplication the augment is never added. 
HdL omits the augment for the reduplication in the above verlM. 


439. Beduplication ia the doubUng of the sound standing at the 
beginning of & word. It is used in the perfect, pluperfect, and future 
perfect tenses in all the moods, to denote completed action. It ia 
sometimes found also in the present and second aorist. 

440. VeTbal)eginiungw[t]ia^nipleconsonant (except p) or with a stop and 
» liquid (X, ;i, r, p) place the initial consonant with t before the st^m. Xiv 

loote, M~\vKa, Xf-Xue/hi, X^Xvfui, \t-\iaciiai ; ypi^ui virile, yi-fpaipa ; KKlrm 
iadine, tt-KyjKn ; ^Xdrrw injure,, pi'fi\a</>a ; rptui lavi, ri'Tplirpm. 

a. Eiceptiona: verbs beginning with yr, moat of those with 7X, and some 
with fil\. Thus, yrapii;a recognize, i-yriipma ; yi^'iirKu Anoto, t-yruK» ; y^i^iu 
<anie, I-tXb^q ; 0\airTiru sprout, i-pXiartiiia (usu. (S«pXdaT)j»a). 

441. An Initial aspirate is reduplicated by the correxponding smooth stop : 
^»nj<* murder, rt-^Muxa ; Sta $acr(/tee, ri-eva. ; x'P*^" dawWi «-x*i»™«. 

442. In all other cases the reduplication la formed like the augment 

a. Verbs beginning with a short vuwel lengthen tiie vowel, as (701 lead, i)x" ! 
iffitf »pt upright, ipSuKa ; d77AXw announce, Jf77(X«a. 

b. Verba beginning with two or more consonants (except a stop with a 
llqiiid). a double consonant, and p simply prefix t. p ia here dnubled (op. 42(1 a). 

4M D. RedupHcation (or the augment for the rednplication) Is generally 
retained in Horn. Exceptions ate tpx^riu and (px«ta from (pyv shut, Aruya 
aritr, frrat from fwriiu clothe. On B^arai atoait, iSiypn' wo« expecting cp. 63*. 

44S. b. D. Horn, has ^-puruitirot (^uriui loil), Iwupc (jttlpoiuu obtain) 
for l-v/upt 446 ft, (mujKM (tevu urge) for i-K^v/tat ; Ionic has hri^iot. 


Thna, icrl[u found, t-KTuia ; t-rtlfifi law, t-anpiiat ; arparinf'* ani Sonera/, 

t-rTpQ,TliyiiKa\ ^t4u seek, 4-CiT^Ka; ftiiu tOKcA, (-^avKn ; ^Irrgg throw, tpfii^ 

N. — luiaivKti remtnd and irijtiMi acquire are exceptions; ft^finj/tw, ^-fu- 

443. The verbs mentioned in 431 which origUiallj began with a consonant 

now loat, reduplicate r^ularl;. Since the reduplicated consonant has disi^ 
peared oaly e is left, and this often contracts with the Initial vowel of the theme. 
Thua, K^B for ft-fiya, from fiymiu break; lua/uu for ft-fua/iai from fugfu 
pitth; (ffTifnB ioT iTirr^K» from Iiti|^ )et; lUa toTataexa from [i)fu (ffi-<ri|/ii) lend. 

444. Pluperfect — The pluperfect prefixes the syllabic augmeat c 
to the leduplicated perfect beginning with a consonant; when the 
perfect stem begins with a vowel the pluperfect retains the prefix of 
the perfect 

Thna perf. XAuna, XfKviiaL, plup, i~\e\ini, i-\t\iffiir ; perf. l-aTaXna, l-ffraVoi, 
plap. i-VTd\tTi, i-rrt\iLiir from otAXu. send; perf. i/yipmm, plup. iytptini from 
iyoptiii harangue; perf. n/^na, plup. jj^ni from aipiai teize. 

L Verbs showing ' Attic ' reduplication (446), In almost all caees aug- 
ment the pluperfect. 

b. The verbs of 431 follow the perfeots of HH; as U-rv (Aytv^u), tiivii'qt 
(liWu), itiii)* (Irfiu), ifp'ivi from (f)pii-ftviu, tariiiii forma de-Ti)ro) ( = (-(*■) wr^ir^), 
Ion. uid poet, trria) (rare in Att. prose). taiKa am like forms tific^. 

445. Some verba beginning with a liquid or ;i take n instead of the redaplt- 
cation; Xafi^nt (H^-) '"*«■ rf-^iJ**. rf-XijWwi, e^X^*i) ; ^yX^i* (^X") «Ma(" 
6|r lot, (r-\i7xa> iJ-MX'' i )'^*' co"ect (In composition) -tt-\oxa, -tl-ikixVr -<(-X«T^<u 
(rarely W-Xry/iai) ; |u(fw|uw receive a share, tUiiaptai it it fated, tt-napra with 
rough breathing ; also the stems ip, pi| tay, rt-ptita, tl-^ini. 

a. a\-i)t^ is from (r«-«X)j^a by 37 (cp. Hom. fWa^t for i-a\apar), dimprai 
is from fft-ffiiapTm (cp. Hom. Iii/iopt). The other forms are probably atialuguea 
of «nq^a. 

446. Attic Kednpliutloa. — Some verba whose themes begin with 
a, (, or o, followed bj a single consonant, reduplicate by repeating 
the initial vowel and the consonant and by lengthening a and c to i}, 
D to <a. Thus iytipa collect, iyqytpiai, iy-^ytpfiai ; iytipm awaken, 

444 b. D. Hdt has ttn (for Ihm), f-Sa, itiOia. ; Hom. has luBt, and ttufft. 

445 D. Hom. i«Uw /ear stands for St-Bfu from i»-Sfo(j)a (cp. ifiot'). So 
t»lS»un for J«-Jfou(a. For StlSitrt greeted we should read 3i)j«cTa with -f-reda- 
pllcallon. Hdt has bXi^ijia and -XcXb^ivi. XAi)w<a> occurs in tragedy. 

446 D. — In Hom. ' Attic ' reduplication Is even more frequent than In Attic ; 
thus, Mt)J4it from tin eat, <pi)^*« have /alien, iptp^ino (without lengthening) 
from iptlwa overthrow, ipupixarui from ip^u reach. Fur other poetical forma 
sea In the Llat oC Verbs dytlpai, ol/i/iii, dXd«fiai, ipaplana, tptlSu, tpifa, fxw, t{t». 


ly-^ytpitoi ; cXcy^w confute, iX--jXtyfuu ; SpvTriit dig, 6p-iopv}^ op-upirwuu ; 
o^-rufu smear, dfi-npMa; cEX-Ai!^ destroy, ok-oikuia. So aUo ^ipta oeaf, 

a. The name ' Attic ' was given by tike Qreek gnmnuriuis to this form of 
redaplicaCioD though it occurs in Homer and in the other dlklecta. 

b. dn^ hear hu dic-^EM for iii-iiiia(v')» ; iyit bu d^-ifaxa for d>-i)(Y)«X<>- 
Tbe pluperfect aogmenta except In tlie caae of verbs wiUi initial t ; i)ic-i|iii), 
A^ uitiei, druXiiXt) ; bnt ^X-^\^, ir^rty/ipK 

447. KednpUcatlon In the FreMnt ^- A few verba reduplicate in the praMiit 
by preBxing the initial conaooant and i, as 71-7x1^101, 71-Yriitf cu, /u-itrirKu, rf-n-v 
ftw Tt-r(*)iKii, Tf-WTU for Ti-ir{e)r«j, [-trj-ijju for oi-onj^u, rf-ffifju f or 0t-#wu (126 a), 
tf-Swfu. rl/t-rX^-iu fill (rXo-, rXir-) and rl^r^^ burn (rpa-, rf»r-) insert fi. 

a. In some verbs the reduplication belongs to the verbal stem ; pifiAtu make 

go ipifiaaa, SiSiaai leach Mllofo. 

448. Sednplication in the Second Aoriat — iyv lead forms the second aoriit 
tr-ayof, iT-d^u, it'iyatiu, Ay-ayttr, middle 47-o¥^1'' So alao iit-ryta and 
^r-tyar from ^pu. 


449. In verbs compounded with a preposition, augment and redu- 
plicatioQ stand between the prepositiou and the verb. 

Thua, ivipfiilpti pa»» over, liwtp4fiamt, bTipp4prixa ; ilrpiWu Ihroa fnto, tlt^ 

a. Before i of the augment ix regains ita fuller form ^f (133 a), and tr and 
rj' reappear in Iheii proper fonna which were modified in the present. Thus 
lipiXkm throvi out, jf^^Uov, ixfiipXiiica ; iiifiiWu throw into, MpaWor; rvX- 
X/yw collect, iriir^Xo'Bi', ffunlXoxB ; •fvpptrTu throiB together, ffuripptifia, tvrip- 
fi^ ; «-iwnvii{)d pack together, irui^mia{Bt, irvrtirnnid^STir, 

b. PrepodtloQS (except -ripi and tpi) drop their final vowel : dre^XXw throw 
iiHiijr, ir-^PaWsr ; but rtpi^dXXu throw around, jTtpiipaWer, w/nfialru Utp for- 
ward, rpoifi^r. But rpi maj contract with the augment (w/Htptiv). 

490. But some verbs, which are not often used except as compounds, are 
tnaled like nncompound verbs and tahe the augment before the preposition, as 
JoffitfiiT' tat from tiihuuu, iiti9ipir set, eat from «in{U, ■i/i^ltira clothed from 
i^ifptiriifU, itiStvSor (and (o^SJar) elepC from raStiSu, ^riffTd^iqr, V^^^' 
from twlrrai'ai undertlaiid. hiiu forms 4*f«i and ij^lei. The simple verba occur 
nuatly in poetry. But iroTmiu enjoy makes droXAauca, ^(rrdfid review ^raia. 

441 D. Hom. has many reduplicated second aorists, as ri-rtStr from rtlSti 
(ri#-) pertuade, HiXi/iiiv, Kt-K\iium from iVXn/iai command, X(-Xa0to0cu from 
XaiMiH (Xo^) eteape the nottee of, n-^ij^o-Sai from 0cl3s/iiu (^3-) ipare, ip-ap»r 
from ipaplcKa (ifi-) join, &p-opi>r from Spruiu aroute. The indicative forms may 
take the syllabic aogmeat, as in i-rt-^paitr from ^piiu {tppaS-) tell. From 
iritTu chUle and iptiat cheek come iji^sra* and Mnnt, and ipiKiutar. 


451. Doable AuKHWItt — Some verbs take two augmentB, one before and 
the other nft«r Uie prepo^tion, aa ^r^txiitVi 4'--<'xVv' fiota ir-tx'M" endure, 
^lix^Jivr from inx^ff annoy, fwrfipffiiiai from iraroptiu Bel vprigkt. So also, 
by analogy to tbe foregoing, a fvw verbH derived from compound words : 4fi^- 
tfifravr from iiuptt^Trriu dilute, -irrtiiiKi from drrtitWw (re to lato (drrilinEj. 

432. CompouDds of Svo-- ill and iS uetl. (1) iuirTuxiu am unAoppVi '-'■v- 
TiixDvv. ic^Lv-ri>x?(a. Svff-qp^ffTOUr, Sur-itp^trrigiia from 3ur-<vK(rr^ do not occur. 
(2) tttprftriu do good, titpytr^ar, titpytnim (inacrip.), ihj/ryfrqjrii (texts). 

493. Verbs derived from componnd nouns take the augment and the redupli- 
cation at the beginning ; as iii»6o\6yaar, /u^ivSoXAyi'"' from /wBaXiryiu tell legend! 
iliirSoMyoi teller of legends) ; ifKoSi/iaup, ipno^j^qua from oUoSo/idu hnild (ofieAi/un 
llOUte-builder) ; ^/tw6\wr, ^firiXijni from J^roUu trrffflc in (i/aroM trafflc). 

a. ^niXijtrid^ hold an aisembly (^jcuXiro-ia) makes i^K-iXqa-fn^r or jf-t-iXif- 
vlator. iyyviu pledge makes ti-eyiur, irtytr^ti and (better) iyytar, iyy6iiam. 

454. Verba derived from compound nouns whcoe first part is a prepoalUon 
are commonly treated as if compounded of a preposition and a dmple verb ; aa 

mriiyofiiui accUM (mrih'opoi), lanr/ipaur, loriry Jjhj™ ; ir$uiiitiiai pondtr (Irff^- 
lun) irtBvii^STif, irrtSviifjaBai ; trmpiiu) swear faleely {hrtapnt), iriiipiniica ; fy- 
X«/>(rui entrust (in x«M)' *wx»'*«'=. 

a. But several verbs are not treated as compounds, such as di-ardu deceive, 
iriariu distrust, irapiu am in diglculty, Toppiiriiitiiai speak freely. 


455. Tense-Sufflxes. — The tense-sufBxea, which are added to the verb-stem 
to form the teiise-steuis, consist of the thematic vowel and certain other letters. 
No tense-snffixes arc added Co the verb-stem (I) in the second aorjat active 
and middle, and second perfect and pluperfect, of ^-verbs ; (2) in the perfect 
and pluperfect middle of verbs in -u and -jiu. The tense-eulBxes are aa follows : — 

1. Present system, -%-, t%; -^A-, -%-, -at%-, -«%-, -»-, -™-, -(.>«5i ; 
or none, as in ^a-p4r. 

2, Future system, -a%-. 
8. First aorist sytem, -ra-. 

4. Second aorist system, -%- ; or none, as in f-ffrq-i'. 

G. First perfect system, -la- (plnpt. -kit- from -ico- ; -mi- from -nt- ; -n-^. 

0, Second perfect system, -a- (plupf. -i;-, -ci-, or ■<■) ; or none, as in t-rroTt. 

7. Perfect middle system, none (future perfect -0-%-). 

8. First passive syBlem, 0ti-, Sc- (future passive -eiis%-). 

9. Second passive Byslem, ij, -t- (future passive -vii%-). 

N. a In the aorist is properly a relic of the personal ending (806). 

4ifl. D. For the Doric future -ae"/ 
see 642 D. — For the doubling of a i 
644 b. D. 



middle of w-Terb«, and In all fnturee and future perfects. The thematlo vowel 
in ttie indicative ie e liefore >i or * (luid in tlie optative of the teases mentioned) ; 
elsewhere It la t. Thus, \ii%-, X>r^-, Xmt^-, XvAir^-, XfXuir^-; Xk-;-/u. In 
(lie BubjuDotive It ia "/i?. 

a. Attic bBciiptiona have both -M-Agv and -taSar in tlie Imperative. 

497. Subjunctive. — In the mibjunctlve of all verbs the thematic vowel !■ 

"/jf-. ThOB, XAw-fMr, W)j-Tt, Mtrti-iur, irTtt\ri-Te. 

M. Verba in -nim form their subjunctive like iiF-verbe. 

498. In the present and second norist of ju-verbe, and In the aoriet paasive, 
■/, is added to the tense stem. Tbus n^u/wt from riBi-it-iiti; BH from ei-ar, 
rrffrf from riM-ir-T<, \,vtQ from \iit4-v. 

499. Snfllz of the Optative. —The optative adds the mood suSix -i-, or i^ 
which contracts with the final vowel of the tense-Htem : Xios/u for \te^-iu, f iXoli|r 
for ^XM-l^t, riAI^t for Ti8t^j)-r, -17. occurs only before active endings. When 
the suffix is -iir-, the 1 pen. sing, ends in -r ; as riiiao-iTj-r = riiuf i/r ; when it la 
-i-, the 1 pers, sing, ends In -/u, ss Ti»ulo-i-(u = tiuviU' 

460. ii| is used as follows (in all other cases -i-) : — 

a. In contrscted verbs in the singular, rarely In the dual and plural. -I- 
^ipean in the dual and plural, isrely in the singular. 

b. In liquid verbs in the future active singular : ^ralTt-r for #ai>*a-fi}-v. In 
the dual and pluial -i- : 4>an>lnir, ipanHittr for ^arci-t-rst, •par*i-i-/itK 

C In the singular of ^i-verba : TiStiiir lor Ti9t-lii-r, StBelTir lor SiSi>4ji-r, Mqrfor 
Ir-ff-f. Here the modal sign is added to the tensu-steta without any tliematjc 
TOweL -(- is more common in the dual and plural : TiStT/uf tor riBi-i-iitt, tilal- 
^r for liBi^-fur, BfiTt for 8f-i-Tt. Verbs in -nriu inahe their optativee lilce XAu. 

d. In the aorlst passive : \v«tltir for XuSt-tii-t, <panltii- for ^ir-lti-r. In the 
dnal and plural -i- ie more common ; XvAri>ut for \M-i-iitr, ^aKiri for tpari-i-rt, 

e. In some second perfects, as spaiXiiXt^alqi, and in the second aorlst ffx"'')' 
from tx- (bnt -rxs^ in composition). 

N. — In theSpL -u- is regular before -r: Ha-tt-i, rtSc-tt-r, \u9i-U-*. 

461- 4. In the 1 aor. opt. act. of u-verbs the endings -cut, -<w, and -tiar are 
more common than -oit, -si, -vxcr. 

b. In the aor. opt. passive of all verbs and in the opt. of /u-verba and of con- 
tract verbs -iTor, -inir, -tiuw, -in, -»• are commoner than -vfrar, -titriir, -aiiu; 
ifr«, -ti|ra'. Prose writers use either the shorter or the longer forms ; poets use 
only the shorter forms. Except in contract verlm -ittrt is very common In the 2 
pL and is sometimes the only fonn in the Mas., as JdI^c, dtlnrt, ynl^t, -palvrt, 
XAdrrt, ^nlirrt ; but the forms in question occur in prose writers and their 
genuineuesa la therefore unsupported by metrical evidence. 

UT D. Horn, has -%- Instead of -"/ie, especially in the 1 aor., 2 aor. of fu- 
verbs, and 2 aor. pass. {Ifivviiiitt, iiiaii**, Tpartioiut ; also in fofur, cfSo^r). 
These forms do not occur in the sing, or 3 pi. active, Viirbs in w rarely show 
Itiii !j in the present. (Uther examples 532, (HIT D., 682 D.) 

W D. -<v- ^ ^^T '^'^ '" Uom. in the dual and plural 




462. To make the complete verbal forms, to the tense-stems in the 
TariouB moods ate attauhed the personal endings in the finite moods 
and other endings in the infinitives, participles, and verbal adjectives. 
See 366. The personal endings of the four finite moods are given 
belov. In many forms only the ;it-verbs preserve distinct endings. 
Some of the endings are due to analogy of others and many are still 
nnexplainod. The first person dual, when it is used, haa the form 
of the first person plural. 

(prlnurr taniu) (wocinduy tansM) (prlmirj t*nu>) 

Sing. 1. — OT -^ 

2. ., (for -,.), -•• (-^ 

8. -wi (for -T.) 
Dtul S. -ra* 

8. -i«v 
Pint. 1. 1UV 

2. <n 

8. -wt (for -m) 

8. -vTm ('Tttciw') -uttn (-fftfuMar) 

4n D. ]>oric bas -n for -vt, -fut for -fi», -m in 8 pi. , and -rai, -#Mr, ->ia> (or 
-T^r, sOyi*, ifi*- -Tar, -vBaf, -ii&p are also Aeolic. 

The clow agreement between Greek and Sanskrit may be illuHtrat«d bj toe 
Infleotlon ol Old Greek and Doric ^oM *a9. Skt. bhtiiii thine, l^far, Skt. 
ibharam bore. 

^fil bhi-mi «a-Ttrbhft-tte fi^tpo-r Abhara-m iiptpi^iir ibhara-liin 
^i-t bbt-al fit-ith btiB-mAa l<ttpi-t ibbarvs i^ipo-iitr ibharS-ma 

^irl bbJL-ti ^-ri bhS-tbA ttptpt-ir) &bharn-t iifiipi-Tt Abhara-I> 

*«^Ar bhfi-this ^-rrl bht-ntl iifiipt^or ibli^n-laia r^xso-f (r) &bhBn>-D(t) 



«. t Sing. ^ ia found only In »u-verb8. Verba in -w have no ending 

ud limplj lengthen the thematlo vowel (Xdu, \elru). Tbe perfect has no pet- 
jonal ending, -a taking the place of a thematic vowel. 

b. 1 Sing. — ( 1 ) -at le found in Horn, itrl lAoit art from tbe ;u-Terb tl/ii I 
am; possibly also in ^ifi thou >aye»l. Attic d thou art la derived from ^c. 
rlAf-f JB obscure. XAnt Is probably for Xut-^i, XmI', Xijci, to nhich t bis been 
added. Subj. Xdu-i follovs tlie analogy of the indicative, but with long thematic 
vowel. Ti0gi for rtM-pi. In tbe perfect -t (not for -iri) bas been added. 

(2} -Ai is a perfect ending, as In <iU9a knoviMt for el! + At (88). From the 
peifect it spread to tbe imperfects ItrSa watt, tteio-Ai uenUt, ttp-ri^Ba taidU, 
and to fiSitffffa or ^tfiaS^ knewett. The perfect boa commonly -a-t. elffftii and 
Vfci are late. 

C. 3 SlnK- Ti is found in yu-vetba: ia-rl, rlBrtai for rtftf-ri (Doric) l^ 

116. XAti is obscure, bat It cannot be derived from Xuciri for Xvcri. Xilp, rt^ 
(for TiMn) follow Xi>fi, bat with long tbematic vowel. In tbe perfect, -< with no 
personal ending. 

d. 3 PI. — Original -m is retained in Doric Xi)om, whence Attic Xtetwt 
(US a) ; irrl, Attic ttal. Subj. \6aai from Xdw-m, riB&ai from riBiut-tTL, vMOri 
from THuiTt (Dor.). Many ^u forms are derived from -an-i, as riMao-i (riii-arri), 
(lUui (iiii-arri), iaraai (jari-am;, laToai (from Irrd-arri), the accent of which 
hu been transferred to -nSttai (747 D. 1), SiieSvi from (Dor.) -rlBt-rri, ilia-rri. 
-iri from -fTi (35 b), properly the ending of tbe perfect after a consonant, ap- 
pears as -JCci in Horn. rt^tSai; bat it baa been replaced by -an out of -am, 
M In Trrpi^t^ai. 


The optative usiiAlly haa the endings of the secondary tenses of 
the indicative. 

4SS a. D. Tbe Horn. subj. MAu/u, tiJ^iivu, i-ydyuiu, are new formaliona. 
Aeolio baa ^>l\.iiiu, SoKliutfu (indie.). 

b. (1) rf< or (ff in Hom. and Hdt. ia derived from d + i. For this fonn 
^<(f} may be read in Horn. Tbeocr. bas -ct for -ta {i/idXya, etc) and perl 
Tt»WW.t(B67. 2. D.). 

b. (2) -<rfc in Hom. indio. ♦S"*". Tl0ti<r9a., ilvrda ; aubj. «Ap<r9a also writ- 
ten MAqrte; opt. (rarely) jiXaJoitfea, (MXtio-Sa, ~eBa occara also occasionally In 
Doric (r«0a^0a) and Aeolic (lx»iff«". #iXij<rflii). 

C Aeolic has tIAj, rod), (rr«*il«i, but i(iri TOyc. Subj. : Hom. iefKsat (alao 
written MiX*«i ; op. Arcad. (xi)- ^^B". B^T'. 

d. Hom. haa -»( in [a<ri (Arp gt>, tain tke^ are, and in jii^iei, ytyiavi. 
AeoUe haa Xd04«i, ^IXnai. rl^uuri. 

4M a. D. •> for -^ is very rare (^rpl^iv m Eur., i/iAfrTair in Cratinns). 

e. Doric )Ji uw for .Sr(T). 

t. -r ia regular in Doric and common in Uom, and later poetry ; •■ tfrt-r 

• oo^k 


>. I Sing.— -V Btanda tor y. (133 c), cp. l^pa-r, Skt. Abhara-m. After a 
CODsonantfi(BODaQtnaaat, 20 b, 35 c) became a: fXiwa for A wfi, Epic fa mat for 
i)(«}a from V^ In the pluperfect -1] ia frou e-n (4ff7). -r is found In the opta- 
tive when the mood suffix is -«r- ; elsewhere the optative has -lu. 

b. aSing. — On-fftaBee<03b(2). 

c 3 Siag. T dropped (133 b) in tKvt, trlgtt, and in tlie opt. \iot, tfii (cp. 

Old Lat. tied). fKHirt has its -t from the perfect (cp. olir) and shows no per- 
■onal ending. 

d. Dnol. T7)v la rarely found for -rtr In the 2 dual (tipfr^r in Plato). 

Horn, has trt^xtror SB 8 dual. 

e. 3 PL r for -it by 13S b. -aur (taken from Uie 1 aorist) la need (1) in 

the Imperf. and 2 aor. of ^-verbti, as trt9t-var, ISt-var; (2) in the aor. paas. 
Afiftf-rni', i^dmi^ar (here -i- preceded by a short vowel occurs in poetry, 
fiS6 a. D.) ; (3) in the pluperf. i\t\6a^itr ; (4) in the opt. when -«r- ii the modal 
■nffiz (460). In the opt. -aar is rare. 


«. I Sing. — Primary -irai retains its rr in the perfect of all verbs (XAu-vai), 
and ill the pres. of Mi-verba (tI^c-o-u). Elsewhere ir drops between vowels, as in 
\ijl or ttta from \it-irai, \MiaT} or -ti, tpars from ^at^-o-oi, ri/i^ from Tiitdt-aai ; 
■nbj. ^Ag from Xfiig-irat, ^4>7 from ^inr-ffai, 0^ from tf^e-o-ai, J^ from tii^-rai, f 
from Itt-«ii(, ^iXg from ^iX^i^-iriu, SiiXo!' from 3ii\iji= S'>)\.6i}-<rai. 

N. 1. — The forms -g and -« are found In the present, future, and future per- 
fect. See 02s. 

N. 2. — iil>v and Sirji for Sitoffoi, 4wtaTf and trlvTji for iwlvrafai, i^lti for 
^lirrot, are poetic and dialectic or late. 

b. a Sing. ao stays In all plupa. and In the imperf. of fu-vetbs. Else- 
where it loses its tr, as in l\6ou from fXti-ao, l\6ra from /XAffa-ro, i^ifrv from 
i^ilm-m, iXiww from i\lwt-aa, IStiii from (Sf-vo, Arpfu from frjila-«v, irlfiQ bant 
iriiidt-eo, i<pi\oO from tipi\h-ff<i. In t)ie optative, Xfou, Xirsu, rifcie, cla, ht«(uo, 
from Xilat-tfo, etc. ; rttivo from rlitioi-ffv. 

If. I. — M^Kd or iiSinv and t^rloTid are commoner than iStrc^e and itrlvraee 
from Jfra»ui am aAfe and iTlaTa/iai vndemland. 

H. 2. — After a diphthonR or a long vowel In the 2 aor, indlc. mid. -«v la re- 
tailed, as tlao (b)iu tend), &rtiao (dFlrqfu ben<fU). 

(ftTifVar), tMiht {iil9o-vnw), *(Xi|S«» (<*iXi)*ij-ffii») , r(i4^>> (<j-p(i^)jHr«»). The 
short vriwpl before r(T) is explained by 40. Horn, flj-* were became jr, used 
in Dor as 3 pi. ; in Attic it was used as 3 sing. 

466 a. D. Horn, ban Poi\iiu, perf. /i/unrai, but pres. Jdrursi, wapUraaai ; 
Si/in Is unique (for SV"") ; Bn))]' ii^f^riu- Doric often contracta, as olg lor ab-M. 
Aeollc Renerotly leaves tai open ((cfir«-si). HdU has open -tai, -^w. 

b. Horn., Doric, and AeoUc have ^ner^iUy open forms, as Horn. ^XX(-« 
(rarely jMXXni), ativtM. Iprio, fnU are from -no, Horn, has iiidpmo for AUic 
*M*(>Kwo, and Tnay drop j- even in the pluperfect (Cirffim). When Doric con- 
tracts on we have a. In UdL oo, to are open, but the writing m for to is found. 


c. Dual. — The 1 pi. is used for the 1 dual except in thi; three poetic forms 
vV'IdfMfcf, X(\il>i<u0ar, iptuiiuBor. Hom. has -fSor for -adiir in ev^atc$«*. 

d. I PI. — In epic and dramatic poetry -lUtBa is often used for -luSa for 
netrical reuonH (^uUfMsda, iTiMTiiitaea). 

e. 1 PI. —On the loBS of e in oBt {laraXBi), see \0S. 

1 3 PI. — After Towel steme -rrai, -rro are preserved. After sterna ending 
in a consonant -iTai, -rra became -arai, -aro hy 36 b. These fonns were retained 
in prose tUl (^oat 400 b,c, (_e.g. rrrix"^'"- irirdxaTt), 


1. Active. 

a. 3 Sing. — XCt, \lrt, rlSti (for riBt^) have not tost -0i. -«( is found 
in 2 aor. pesH. ^nr-4i ; la irr$-h and luTa-ei ; in some 2 aorists, like -irutSt, 
rX^-fi, Tt-di, which are /u forms though they have presents of the w form 
(687). Also in h-Bi be or know, C9i go, ^A or ipa$i say. Xtei/Ti \a for \v9^t 
by 126 b. 

b. ■* occura In Mi, tt, I6t, ax^t (and in the rai« eiyti, t(«t). This -> is not 
derived from -Bi. 

C. XOv-tr aor, act. and XC<r-ai aor. mid. are obscure in origin. 

2. Middle. 

a. s Sing. ra retains Its v in the (rai-e) perf. of all verba and In the pres. 

o( >ii-verbB (AAuro, rlStce, tirraira). Klsenhere a is dropped, as in \tva from 
U«-ra, XiTDv from Xit^o, 9av from M-00, ot from l-o-o, r^iiw from wfifo-a'a, rtjiA 
from ri/uii-iTa. 

N. — tMm>, Ura, SlSou are poetic or late. 

8. 3 PI. — For -wTww and -o-Soi* we find -Tatar and -ffSuwai' in prose after 
Thocydides, in Euripides, and in inscriptions after 300 b.c. Thus, Xii^iiKrap, Xvvd- 
riwar, Xv^rArxrar, \v«i^9itaaT, \v8-firiiisar, \nriruisar, XiritSuiray, ^Jirdafiuffar, 
^r^itrar, rliiAaBiavat, ^iXttTtiavar, ytypd^unrat, rrrtlfffiivar, Tiffiruirar, Siji- 
Tiaraw, Biruvar, nSlataaai'., SirBiarar, -JlTairar, -trBiiiatr. 

v. — lirriar for trrttr is rare. Attio inscriptiona have (very rarely) 

[TO occur in Hom. regularly in the perfect and jjlupcrfect of 
I stems, BS TtTpi^TcH, larai for ia-rrai, iaro for ijr-rro from 4/iai 
(V*""} ; also in sterna ending in -1, as ItfiSlaTo, -arai, -art were transferred to 
vocalic stems, sa pipXifaTat, pt^X^aro, Ildt. SuwfaTai. Horn, has -S-arai in iXif 
XiUariu from Aavw drive. In the opL -aro always (^ytnlaTo for tfmrro'). In 
IldL i| before -arai, -btb is ahortened, as perf. iTY^ami for 4>i^rai = ISytjrrai, 
yStJJXfaro for -jpiTO. For mln-ai, Horn. iftnTai and i.i?ar(«, Ildt. has k^otoi. In 
the opL Hdt. has -aro ; ^Xofara, JrfalarD. In Ildt. -arai, -ars occur even in the 
present ayatem, rifAirai^ iur^rui, trT^sTO. 

UB a. D. -01 is not rare in Hom. , prea. SltuBt = SlSou, fyrvBi, aor. ttidBt, pert. 
rfrXttSi. Aeolic has f^Ta, *iXij. xfei, i^xo'i S'5i>< (Pindar) are very rare. 

8. Doric has also -rru, as In raptxirrai ; Aeolic -rrsr, BB iptpti^tr, Doric 

hH -ff0w (pi.) and -v0ur. 




467. Endings of the Plnp«ifect Active.— -11, ^i, -«(>') are derived from 
■<(s')a, -t(v)tn, -((ir)(. In later Rreck the endings ate -eir, -ai, -n(,r), -«(rer, 
-cirir'i -fifar, -tirt, and very late -tiaat. 

468. The Endings -wtt, etc. —The a ol the endings -r8i, -rBai, -vSar, -v9tf, 
-aBiu. (409 N.) has no exact parallel in cognate languages, and seems to have 
vpnsA in Greek from forms like TtriKiirSt, l{uv-9t, etc., where a aigmh«tem 
was followed by original St. 


469. Inflnttire.— The following are the endings added to the tenae-Mam to 
make the inftnitive. 

a. -<v; in present and 2 aorist active of u-verbs, all futures active. Thus, \tttr, 

Ttii&r, \twttr, XJrtiv, <paKJr from Xl)t-cr, Ti/tde-tr, \ixi-tt, Xict-tr, ^aW(-fr. 

b. -«i: in 1 aor. active, as XOrai, TaiSFuvai, Stifai, 

C. -vai: (1) present, 2 perf. of fu- verbs, the two passive aorlsts, as rtSf-icu, ivri- 
mi, Xu^^nu, 0ai^'m; (2) perfect active, XtXvc^Mi, and tttf-nu fTom 
e»-* {or*.), 
N. 1.— The ending emi appears In the 2 aor. of /u-verbs,aaSoilKu from Si-iKi, 

Stlrai from M-crat. 

d. -ff4w; in other cases. 

N. 2. — The infinlUves are old cases of sabstantivea, those In -ai being datives, 
the othen locatives. 

470. Paiticiplea. — The stem of the participle is formed by adding the fcd- 
lowing endings to the tense stem. 

a. -vr- : in all active tenses except the perfect, and in 1 and 2 aor. passive (301). 

b. -or- : in the perfect active (for -for-) ; msac -lit, tern, -uid, oeut. -it (301 c). 
c- -|uva- : in the middle, and in the passive except in the aorist. 

471. Verbal Ad)«ctiTe*. — Most of the verbals In -rit and -rfci an formed 
by adding tJiese suffixes to the verbal stem of the aorist tussive (flmt or second). 

'i^lUS, ^X^ii, -rfci (i-^iMt'^r) ; irtirrit, -rfn ^i-welv-iiif) ; t«Xmt*i, -rrfm 
(/-TiU<f-#«>) ; <rra\rit, ■t4oi {i-triX-^r) ; p\irrit, -T^r (^(^i!-«irr) ' ^O the 

accent of oompomid verbals, see 426 0. 

U7 D. Hora. has -», ip, -ti or «i-r (-« onl; in fitt), -taar, and rarely -a*. 

-tt, -t ; Hdt. baa -«i, -lai, -« (-« ?), -ean, -«ra*. 

400 D. -cv appears also in Horn. IBUr (miswrilten lUtir). Horn, has no case 
of -cmt (for //hi write f/uni). For -<>• or -m Horn, often usea -|ui«i (also 
Aenllc) and -|uv (which is also Doric) ; both endings show the accent on the 
preceding syllable, as itvyiiiuwoi, l/t/ttrat (= tirat), ^Ainitm, ^r^/um, ^rd^m, 
ifi/itrat, ifioiiiMiiitrai., Sa^tum ; tiM^v, (m^*, IW», S/^wf, t\^iur, HiimK Doric 
has -fwr >n Che aorist pasaive, as alaxw'i^iiir. -lur Ix preceded by a short syllable 
and generally stands heiora a vowel, -m always fnllnws a long vowel. Doric 
haa -^r and -tr in the present. Aeolic has -ir>' in the present and 2 aorist. 

trii CHANGES m the verb-steh 157 

a. Some ue derived from other stem forma (prea. and fat.), aa ^f^ii, 

[•tAt, tun-rii ; fincrit (cp. )uri-v = /itrii fut.). 

473. Verbala in -rit, -r^, -rir either (1) have the moanlDg of & perfect ptW' 
■Ire putidple, as npvwrit hiddttt, raiScvrit educated, or (2) ezpieaa poMibUity, 
u iwfrfc MnkabU, iparbt vitible. Many have either sigDlflcatiOQ, bat Borne ace 
paadve only, as roairbt done. See 426 c. N. 

a. Usually pasHive in meaning are verbals from deponent verba, as iiiitirrit 

b. Usoally acUve in meaning are compounds derived from transitive active 
verbs; bat aome Intianaitive verba make active verbaJs, as purii flowing. 

c Many are active or paaaive, others only active ; luiirrit blamtd, blaM- 
able, Maming, rurrh fnisting la (rare), truiied, irpalcTo^ doing notMng, not 
iont, ftwyurU toimding. 

€73, Verbals In -rfoi, -r fi, -Tior expreea necetiity (op. the Lat, geraodlve in 
-silw), as a<rr^ that must be jn'oen, waiSturiot educandug, 


474. From the Terb-steui (or theme) each tense-stem is formed by 
the addition of a tense-suffix (4o£>) or of a prefix, or of both. li. 
475-495 certain modifications of the verb-stem are considered. 

475. Variation In Quantity. — Many verbs of the first class (498 ff.) 
show variation in the quantity of the vowel of the verb-stem, which is 
comroonly long in the present but fluctuates in other tenses, as Av-w, 
AiMTw, 2\u-<ra, but XtXu-Ko, XcXu-pu, Ikt-Orp'. (Other examples, 600.) 

a. Some verbs of the Fourth Class (623 c) lengthen a short vowel of the prea- 
ntt in some other l«nses. Thos, Xa/i^ru (Xa;3-) take, Xii^a^uu, rfXii^a, ttXiniiiai, 
A4*#fr, bat 2 aor. tXaptr. 

476. Towel Gndatloa (35, 36). — Yeiba of the first class show a 
variation between a strong grade (or two strong grades) and a weak 
grade. The weak grades, t, u, a, appear especially in the second 
aorist and second passive systems ; the corresponding strong grades, 
a (oi), (V (ov), i; (cd), appear usually in the other systems (ot, ov, to, in 
the second perfect). 

a. Expnislon of a short vonel between consonants (so-called syncope 498) 
prodacea a weak form of the stem of the same grade as 1, u, a (80). Cp. yt-^r-*- 
lioi bfcome (aor. t~ytr-6-iiiit), i-rr-i-titit (pi'es. t^-o-(uu fly) with l-tuw-a-f, 
l-^ir,-o-r, i'Titif-r (477 c). So t-ax-o-' got from *x-" have. 

b. a is the weak form of i| (a), as iu ri(icu iriKJir ; and of i, when t has X, Mi 
r, p before or after It, as in Tpim, trpivitr (4Td). 

477. The following examples Illustrate the principles of 476. 

a. H «4 I : Xtfiru reave, Xif^w, 2 perf. X/\Mra, UXt^v^, /Xtl^r, 2 aor. IXwraK 



N. — Tbe weak lonn appears when the verb undergoes AtUc ledtti^cMioti 

(446) ; as in iXtUpu anoint, 2 perf. dXiiXt^a, dX^XiMuu ; iptlat tear (Tonio And 
poetic), 2 perf. ip-ipiy/uu, 2 aor. Ilpuuir ; ipiira overthrow, Epic fpiipi.ra ; but 
ipMw prop, ipiiptiffuu. 

b. tv ov V : iUi(e)roiiat 1 shall go, 2 perf. tX^iXvBa (Epic iX^XovOa), 2 aor. 
(Epic *(\<iSo») ; iitiyui Jlet, ^ntfo^uu or ^(vfiiu/iw, 2 pert. t<^«u7b, 2 aor. t^irror ; 
Piufiom (for ^i«tf, 4;t), ;rti»o,iai, ^/ip4ijni (^w), 2 aor. pass. J«iii7>. 

N. — x'fjpoi"' (for X"^"i *3). 'xw (for 'x*""). ha* " ■" t^X"". ''X"*^. 'X"*- 
A|r ; 7(^ (poetic) urgt, tertoa, taniLu, irrithir or ittffiir nuhed. See also 
T*^« in the List of Verbs. 

C. n • »! fi^t'tviu break, ^^tw, (p^fa, 2 perf. f(ip"7a, 2 aor. paaa. f^pd-y^r ; 
HiK-u nttU, T^fu, IfriTfo, T#rij™, *Ti)x*i». 2 aor. pass, /rioji'. 

N. — Verbs of class c usually hare H in the 2 aorist, v in the 2 perfect (U 
there is one), elsewhere t|. « occurs iti the present in Tpiiyugnau),2 i>oi.lTp»'t»r. 

47a Qumgfl of ■ to o In the Second Perfect — In the second perfect 
( of the vetb-stem is changed to o. 

itWir-r-w Iteal i^«Xo^, (dio-)irrtf™ kill («t»*-, 519) -^ktofo, Xiy-u eolltet 
eCXsXOi 'diTX^i fnt. Tcfo-a^i (from Tir0ri>iau, 100) v^nrfa, r^^r-u semi rArofi^, 
artp^-a love laroiiya, rfcru bepel r^Dsa, Tpiw-u turn rfrpo^a, Tpi^-u nouriiA 
rirpo^Hi, ipBtlp-u corrnpt lipStpa. So in Y'7(')'i>f'o< Aeeofne ^rVt'i T^Ton ; 
fV((puauiciilen^piy7>pa(446). This change corresponds to that of « to •((477 ■), 

«79. Change of « to a. — In verb-stems containing X, /i, v, p, aa t is 
usually changed to a in the first perfect, perfect middle, and second 
passive systems. 

Tpir-a turn, rlrpaiiiiai, irfiwi)'' (1 *or. irpi^Syir) ; rpiip-w feed, rftpautMi, 
trpi^Hit (I aor. iSpi^^t) ; mlpu (awtp-) eoje, trrap/uu, ivrip^r ; ipOtlpu (^p-) 
detiroy, lipSapiiat, iipBiptir ; o-rAXu (o-tcX-) gtiid, frraXni, (irrcXfHu, itriXifr ; 
Tilra Irir-) Kretch, Ttram, riraiiai, friftjv (1 aor.). 

a. Also in the 2 aor. pass, of iX^ru tteat (^xXdirtiv), rX^mi temee (^Xdx^r), 
WpTu f7laric2en (Epic iripriiv'). Many of Cliese verbs also show o In tbe second 
perfect (478). 

4B0. 'I'hie & is also found in the second aorist active and middle of jctiIvw kill 
((icranK poetic), rt/iru cut (dialectal fratu*), rpinu turn (frpar or poetic), rfyrt 
gladden (^i^ixd/iii' poetic), poetic iipie/uu see (tSpaiat). Also wipBa, irr^rffw. 

4S1. I in the perfect middle in ir^cXe^iMw (iXArru steal), wtwXryiuu (irX/«« 
weave) is Introduced from the presenL 

482. The S. in 479, 4S0 is developed from a liquid or nasal brought betvreen 
two consonanl.' (3db). Thua, Iff-TsXfuii, Tiraiiai from trr'^iMt, Ttrpiai, Irie^t 
from irrSrit (20 b) . Here ittX, tp represent weak grades oE the stem. 

483. a. The variations t, », «k ■ appear In rpiwa turn, -rpl^v, Upnf't., 2 p«rf. 
T^fio^. rVrpOM^uii, trpi^iB^t, 2 aor. pass, trpiwiit; frequentative Tprnwiv (SAT). 

b. The variations t, o, ■ appear in Ttmiiai jty, worttfuu (poet) and freqnen 
taUve rwrdo/uu (poet., Sdl) ftg about. 


48*. i|, « in the Second Perfect — In the second perfect o of the 
verb^tem is lengthened to ij (a) : daXXm (Oak-) bloom, ri'^ijAa; ifmiyia 
i'^ar-) ahoto, wi^r/fj.; fiaiVui (jiav-) moddeii, fiiit^gva; Kpaiai {Kpay-) cry 
out, MKpa^ 

485. Addition of i — a. To the verb-sCem < la added to make the present 
uem in toKiu tetm, fuc Jifu, aor. (anfa (Jdk-) ; bo in -/aiUai marry, iiSfa pu»h. 
Unally < is added in some stem other than the preaenL 

b. In many verbs t is added to the verb^etem to form the tense-stems other 
than present, secoDd aorist, and second perfect, e.g. lii-x"/'^ ii"*X-) figl^t, naxaS- 
W C=<"X'(')<'M<")i '/"Xnr^*"!^ >^^X1*«'- So ax*"*"" am grimed, ffeiXonat 
vUk, ilymiiAi become, ttu want, (i)Si\u wish, fiAXu Intend, /iA<i it a care, 
tloiimi think. 

c. In BOme verbs t is added to lonu one or more tense-stems, as tidru (lar-y 
Ttnain, lUfJn/Ka (m"*-) to avoid ~^-ta in the perfect. So, viiua dittribitte, Ix" 
ioee, otxoiMt am gone. So also tapBittii, iaipaiKiiuii, pia, tTtifiu (poetic), ruTx*"*. 

d. Some verbs have alternative presents with or without i. Here Bometimea 
ODD is used in prose, the other in poetry, sonietiines both are poetic or both used 
in pnne. Thus, fXnui draie (Hom. also iXtiu'), ldx<» lax^a eound (both poetic), 
fOu ptHiit (both poetic), ^trrw and fiirriu throw (both in proee). 

486. Addition of a. and a. — a or o Is added to the verb-stem in some verba. 

Tims, lUHciaiiai belloV) (Epic 2 aor. /liiair), tiuiii'ifaiiair ; iXtmiuu <&\-) be cap- 
turtd, 4Xii«-»;io( from iKa- ; Siahu-iu twear (i/ir) &iMaa, dtui/iam etc (ii»-) ; 
tlxoiAoi am ffone. Epic olx<*" or ^xhko. 

Urr. Lengthening of Short Finn! VoveL — Verb-stems ending in a 
short Towel gvuerMy lengthen that vowel before the tense-sufflz 
in all tenses (except the present and imperfect) formed from them. 
Here a (except after t, i, and p) and < become jj, □ becomes to, 

Ti/ii-v (ritia-'} honour, tIa^w, trttofna, Ttrl^^-i™, Trtint-fi, ^if"S-ftl'' ', 
f^fii-<4 (ftfpo-) Aunt, evpi-vw, iPiipo-ffa, etc, (380) ; roiiia (tow-) make, »e<i)-<r«, 
^fflif-d'a, rfro/i}-fra, rtraitf-titu, iroi-/i-$ijp ; S^\6*j (S^Xo-) mantfest, Svf\tif-^vt^ 
JJitW-va, etc, ; tiv permit, iiru, etc. 

«. Note itpoiiroiuu, iinpoiirAinjv, etc., from itpoioiuii hear; XP^"' 'xw" 
from xp^" P'"^ oradea; xp4">^>, ^XPV^M" from xP^P'^ use; rpttvat and 
frn" from rtrpalm boT€ are from rpe-. 

b. Verb^tems adding (oro (486), and stems apparently recelvini; a short final 
Towel by metathesis (128), leii^alien the short final vowel, as ^dXafui (^i>X-) 
Ki'h, fiau\f)-ai>iiM (iSouX*-, 48S), idw™ ("a;i-) am weary, jt^jf^iij-ta (*;ia-). 

4t6 0. Some Ionic and poetic verbs adding! are dX^u, i\8o,uii, ytyiin^jfitfiu, 
ittrwiu, tlpotuu, iMa, travpiia, nXaHu, JtAo/uu, utrriu, loJSoi, ktuw^u, tupia, \iiiKu, 
lidiciiai, iiiiu, rar^MU, ^lylw, rriryiut, repiw, x^t*/' ^i^'w (poetic forms), XP"'' 
Vfi'w; iiarXanlfaa, dva^Io-i^ ; Epic fiitirrriva (JiSiir'w), rMjaa, rtri&^aiA. 
■i^Vai (vtWu), ri^iJI^Dfiai (^dJo/ioi), 

tS6 D. B Is added also in pfAxioim, yaiu, SiHuioimi, Xix*i^, ^uitdaiiai, fiifriiw. 
All tbeM are mainly poetic. 



48a Ratentlon of Short Final Towel. — Many veib-steins ending 
apparentiy in a short vowel retain the short vowel, contrary to 487, 
ia some or all the tenses. 

■yiXi-u laugh, yt^iao/mi, i-fif£iTe., tycXirBtif ; Tt\fia finish, r«Xi3 (iDm T«U-«, 
frAwB, rni>JKa, TtTi\teiiat, irt^iirSiir ; itiu) OKOfoplUh, irtau, <(>*r«, ^tOriMt, 

a. The foUowliig verba retain Ihe finij short vowel of the vertMitem in all 
tenflca? Ayo-^uu, alS^^/mtf iKi-cfim, A\i-af AvO-u, ipitrxtt (dpe-), ipxi-te, ip^-*^, 
ifii-a, yt\i-u, iXaitu {i\a-), i\Ki-a, and IXi-u {iXtt-}, i^-u, ipdr^, tpa-^ 
(poet), Ar«Iw (Ar0i-, U-t-, iSo-), {^u, S\i-u, tXiianfuu (IXa-), icXd-w break, tuaiTtu 
(lltSv-), (4-»i, ttA-ui (rru-, rrC-), (rri-w, tcU-w, r/>^-u, ^4Ira (0A-), ^Xd-w, 
xnXi-w, x^-" (x*^)' AIbo al! verba in -ocrii/ii and -tyrufu (eicept Iff^ijio from 
cpirwiu, txttngui^'), and SXXufu (dX-«-), S^rvfu (d^-, d>»-, dfw-), rrbpniu (orap-t). 

b. The following verba keep abort the flual vowel in the future, bat lengthen 
it in one or more other tenae^yatema, or have double future forma, one vith the 
short vowel, the other with Ibe long vowel: aMu (aMirw, ^ytaa, Jkks, grM^*, 
iniimt), S.xSi'ltat (Ix*-. *X^)- «nX^-u, I^X^I"'' (.I^X-^)< *^i *^ ("-i *<"), 
r»St-a, TOB^-ai, tp6^ (Kpic), ^Mvu (^fla-). 

C. In some verba the final abort vowel of the verb-stem remaina abort in one 
or more tense-etema, but is lengthened in the futui'e, aa U-a bind, Ji^w, (Jigvo, 
SM«B, Mtt^, iH»t]'. So cipiu, palru (^ii-)< ^"^^ (^"-)< >''"'" {»<•., Jw), 
ttn-mu, Stu (Se-, Si-), tipltia (rip-e-), txw (ittx-, "X*"). *" (**". **-). h*« 
(,*-, if), IirrriJii {ari-, ar^), \iw (\i-, \v-), rlftjju (*-, St,-), tI™ (ri-), ^ (#i>-, 
^S-), and the root ip', ^ (tlmr). 

d. Moat of the verbs retoalng to lengthen a final short vowel have verb-stems 
originally eudlng in r (624) ; as rtX^u from reXdr-Lv (cp. ri rAot). By analogy 
to tlieae, other verbs retain their short final vovrel. 

489. IiMertlon of «■. — In the perfect middle and first aorist pa»- 
sive systems, verbs which retain a short final vowel ami some others 
asoally insert <r before the personal ending. 

ThoB, T(X/iii (488d), rrrAtr/ut, ^(X/ir0irvi rvim draa, Itrratiiai, trrirBiir ; 
KtXtiv order, mtfinriiai, <«(Xnifffli)» ; 7i7»iao-«u know, tymaiuu, iyii^eipi. 

a. It the aoriat paaaive ends in -9rir and not in -v-Air, the perfect middle does 
not insert a. Thna -^t, not -aBrit, oocura In all verba in -«uu except Xc^ ttone 
to death, in alt verba in -w which have -^v preceded by 1], in all vrrbs in -9» 
except x^ fifnp "?• Bnil 1" ''1 verba in -aw except those that retain 3. Stems 
originally ending in e (S24) properly show a. 

b. If the aorist passive ends In •aSTfr, the perfect middle may or may not 
insert r. Verbs in -ntta and -1^ (stems -aS, -li) regularly have r by 83, GST, 
In the case of other vertM some always show a, some nevpr show r, and some 
are donbtfol. In many cases the later usage with a has crept into tbe Mm. of 

4n D. Here belong Epic itifiia, «t/u, Xo^h, miciu, and the forma iMu. 
-iniT, Am'b. iftt) shows i^ and tpi-. 

4S9 D. Horn, has original forms In rt^paiiiim (^pdfw), anpuBiUm (top^Tu), 
HtwiiiMt (rtlgu). 


tbe Mwriml Mithon (ho with the perfect of dX/u, fiaim, Spdu, fJIrni/u, nXclw 
(ih^»), ff^ffw, xf^< ^i"^ ^^' ^^ aorist of Twtw). 

c. lliB foUowing verbs show an inserted ir both in the perfect middle and the 
wrist pudve in classical Greetc : alSinnai, yiyiiaiiu, t\K6u, B\6lu, 9pai>ui, n\^u, 
iUh, i>a(0<'> KBpiwwVfu, ■uXto, itu, rl/arX-^iH, rploi, rTlrrw, ffpirmiii, ffelu, aa- 
Mmfu, vritt, TarAd, tiXA*, tIki, Cv, ^Xdw, x^i XPV^^' 

A. The following form only the perfect middle with r in classiceJ Greek : fivtiit, 
Irrvfu (ttfuu, bat Ibtb Hom.)i ^^i f^nviu, fAii, *dJA7BD^i, tX^, ^Xciiiii (Hdt.). 

e. The followit^ form only Uieaorlst passive with ir in classical Greek : iyattai, 
iiaiu, irtw, ipiaKW, ix^l^^i liXilw. iairviu, Jp(U>, l\iui, Ipattai, ifiiui, IX^iOMU, 
•Xt£i« (iX|fu), \t6u, iteBOatM, lunr^aita, itu, Sn>iuu (Hdt), roJu, i-aXoiu, nrdr- 
ritu, -rifi-Tf^iti, fiaUi, ^Jinniiu, cripntu, xoX^Wt XP^'I"*-! Xfi^"-! TcM"- 

t. Only in post-clasrical Grtiek U « attested both In the perfect middle and 
aorist pMrive in ipttu, {iw, iXalw, (d'o) XsiJu, Xitu, fXXii/u, a-v^w, irrafv, iriu, f aitw. 
— ^ Only in the perfect middle: iyaiiai, duotlu, d>^, 7«Xdu, Jpdu, ^^i^u, ffwfuu, 
(V<'"<'*"> »Xotfu, /uMtKw, rtilw, Ala spin, ^vfu, rofu, raXafw, Trrdrniftt (and in 
Ionic), ulinrpiiiu (Aristotle; eariier peri. T^pi)»iai), arbprviu, xf^^^i '^■*". 
When the periect middle is not attested in classical Greek some at least of 
the a fonns from the above verbs may represent classical usage, provided the 
aorist panve has -bS^p. ~ Only in the aoriat pasaire : igioiiai, i\iu, ipiu, ffalra, 
puitia, jttit, 'Diiti, tXaiKH, IfiUfiai, ifita, fiivrij/u, nfu, f^, ^x*'"") ■''' ^^'9' ^' 
*iA6ff^0iiMi^ rX/w, m^, ai^^u^ 0fttH0. 

2. Some verba have double forms (one of which may be disputed) in the 
classical period: StvofioL: iiiirlfii\r and Wu»dffflt|» (chiefly Ionic and poetic); 
n4&n«|u : ixpiBiiw and itrpiiritir ; Kpaim : fitpaviMi better than Kitpauafiai ; via : 
tnuiai and rirtiriuu ; f|i*Gp* : d/uifiu/uu (and ifLii/iacrat), liniSTir a[jd lif/^Bift. — 
Dialectal or dialectal and late are t^iiaBtit for i^oifiri* (jSodu), 4\ii\aiiiuu iJXififftjj 
(A«iH»), njcdpir^i for njcAfXir^i (mp^FH))!!), xfirft-air/uu (irrrdmiMO- 

h. Some verb-stems ending la r show -<r-^i in the perfect middle : ijHru, 
IMUr<4, raxi"*, ripalrw, itpairv, ^Iru. Thus rfipaaiuu, fjiuriuu., lUiilnsiuu. 
Dialectal or late ; S^Xdrw, mXaJm, \crTtni, Xuiialroiuii, {alru, tir^lm, riftiiafrw. 

Od -wot see 679. 

L Observe that some vowel verbs insertin); a do not lengthen the final vowel 
of the verb-stem In any tense (ytXia, riKtu) ; and that some not inserting v 
(i4u, B6u, X0w) do not lengthen the final vowel ia some tenses, iir-aitiu con^ 
"tend and rap-aiMu ^ehort do not insert a and )mve the short vowel in ali tenses, 

J. Th^ insertion of a in the perfect middle started in the 3 sing, and 2 pi. 
Before tbe endings -rai and -aBt, a was ret^ned in the case of verbs with slems 
originally ending in « (as -rtKia), or where «- developed from t, s, e (9S) before 
-TMi, -vit (wtrnaTot from wtrvera,!). See 409 b, 024. In all cases wliere the 
verb-stem did not originally end in c, the aigma forma are due to analogy; as in 
aKf>iMyaiiat (mXaSu), i/iXifa/uu (t(jltXi)/u), fyngsiim {ytynlMmw). 

490. Addition of I. — The present stems of some poetical verbs are made 
by the addition of S ; as t^-d-w »pin, irXiJ-fl-« am full (ir(^»Xij-^). Cp. B32. 

410 D. A few verbs make poetic formn hy adding -S%- 
the 2 aoriat tense-stem, in which a or * (u once) taliea the plac 

aWEMK GRAM. — 11 



a. Host of the Indloative fomu seem to be imperteote, bnt dnce eome have the 
foroe ol ftorlHta (e.^., Soph. 0. C. 662, 13,'U, O. T. S60), in certain editions tbey 
Are regarded u second aorisls, and the iDtlnitives and participles are accented 

(agtunst the Mrs.) on the ultima (SutaiStl*, tln.Bii»). 

4SL Omiaslon of v. — Some verbB ia -vio drop the v of the vertml 
stem in the first perfect, perfect middle, and first pasaive aystems. 

Kfitru (n/Hr-), judge, E^EfH-n, ttxpi-iuu, itpi^r. So alBO iXlfw incline, irXArw 

492. Hetattaeala. — The verbaJ stem may suffer metathesis (128). 

a. In the present : Briaxu die, 2 aor. fflnior, perf. TtBuita, 

b. In other tenses; ^dXXutArois (|9aX-), perf. ^^^Xi)ica, J/SXii^r (;9\^); HnimaU 

(rcft-p-), 2 aor. Irifior, peif. r^ftirca ; SipKoiiai (StpK-') see, 2 aor. ttpa- 
(or i r^fHTM delf^U, 2 aor. pasa. iri^ift and hpini* (bolb poetical). 

4S3, Syncope. — Some verbs auSer syncope (44 b). 
m. In the present : rlrTu/aliforiri-r(OT-<i.('Xu Aoldfor (ir)i.r(()x->(126e}, 
tilfitu tor lu-fiar-u. 

b. In the (ature : rr^a/iM from rfro/wi jfy. 

c. In the second aorist : Icx" toi isix-ai' Irom Ixm (,*x- tor rtx-, 126 e). 
i. In the perfect : rt-wra-iiai havt expanded from irtrd-rni^ 

N. — Syncopated forms are properly weoil: stems (4TSa). 

494. Rednpliotion. — The verb^tem may be reduplicated. 

a. In the present mlth i : yi-^rii-cnta ('yKv-) know, riS^/u plaee, l-^r^-iu ttt, 

SHu-/u give. The present reduplication may be carried over to other 
tenses r 8ii(l(«)ff«« (eacft (99), ai8d{u. With t : Tt-rpaiwv bore. 

b. In the second aorist : iyu (iy-) lead, Ihr-ay-or ; Iraiuu follow, isttn^r (foi 


c. Regularly with * in the perfect. 

495. IteratiTe Imperfects ud Aorists In -ow^-.— Homer and Herodotus 
liave iteiBiUre imperfects and aorisls in -«i»>r and -gaiaiw denoUng a customary 
or repeated past action. Homer has iterative forma in t^e imperfect and 1 and 
2 aoiist active and middle. Herodotus has no iteratives in the 1 aorist and few 

vowel of tlie simple verb. Such forms are chiefly Homeric, but occur sometimes 
in Attic poetry, very rarely In prose. Thus, ^\irti6u (^\iya burn), /iidmfc* 
(liiiiai pursue), tttx*^* (fx" have). B-fonaa are found in moods other than 
the indicative (tlxiea, lUi^lu, iiiiriBart, SaiKABnr, tUiSur). 

4M D. See the List of Verbs for poetical forms of iiutprt nt, Saptitu, epArrai. 
p\iiiriuii, Saiid(^, I/^w, Top-. 

i93 D. See the List of Verbs for poeUcai forms of iri\u, rtMlu, iitKu, iidiji- 
ttoi ; also IriTiiBr fovnd, tviiptot tine. 

IM D. Poetic ipaptatu (dp) Jit, and the iDtensiTes (867) luip-iiatpu (fwp-) 
Jtath, Top-^ipw (itvp-) prow re4, ran-^aiiiu i^r-) shine irigM.^, nir^rtm («-pv-) 
pv^. Also with q In S-it-tiK-^« greeted (Mss. Scfincrg). 



En Uw 2 aoTlat ; and only from w-Terta. Herodotna ragtilarly and Homer lunally 

omit the angnient. -aa verbs bave -aa-vimr or -a-«nr ; -ta verbs -tt-trmr, in 
Horn, also -c-fjwr. -a-ffKor Is rare in other verbs than those In -ou. The vowel 
preceding the suffix is always short. 

M. The suffix -«9j- is added lA the tense-stem. Imperf. : ^rOyt^a (^tiyu 
M^it Ix*-"" Cx" Aaoe), iiiiHrmfur (riidu eonguer'), yoiM-aa (Tsdu bewail), 
KpOrra-ria (jcp^rw ktde), KaXiKxaf (laUu coil), {wri^ntro (fwrrii/u gird); 
1 aor. : Iro-r^a-^jra (drgrp^ti) fHrn ateoif ) ; S aor. : ^iyt-vKt, rri-ca ttood. 


496. From the verb-stem (or theme) the present atem is formed 
in several ways. Alt verbs are arranged in the present system 
acoording to the method of forming the present stem from the verb- 
stem. Verba are named according to the last letter of the verb-stem 
(376) : 1. Vowel Verbs, 2. Liquid Verbs (including liquids and 
nasals), 3. Stop Verbs. 


497. The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five dif- 
ferent ways. There are, therefore, five classes of present stems. 
The verb^tem is sometimes the present stem, but usually it is 
strengthened in different ways. A sixth class consists of irregular 
verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or 
stems of other tenses. 


490. Presents of the Simple Glass are formed from the verb-stem 
with or without the thematic vowel. 

499. (I) Presents with the thematic vowel (<o-verb8). The pres- 
ent stem is made by adding the thematic vowel %- to the verb-stem, 
as Av-o, raihti-tii, vaii-fu, /liy-io, ■wtiB-w, iptvy-ai, and the denominative 
verbs rifAa-ai, ^iXi-ta, ^aatkciio. For the personal endings, see 463 ff. 
For the derivation of many of these verbs, see 522. 

500. The final vowel ot the verb-etem is long in the present indicative, but 
either long or short in the oUief tense-stems, of the followitiji verbs In -va or -ut, 

1. a. Verba in -vw generally have i in Attic in the present ; aa \du loose, Btu 
jfo timdtr, Wh nacrffiee (aimoet always), ^Aw makt groio (usually). Also in 
4X4w, ifrttt, fipttStciiai, yifptoiiiu, iatpta (once if), ISptti, lax^i KarTiti, twtu, 

SOO. 1. D. Homer has short v In IX^, ir6u, ffpvv, 9iv, ipdw, ^/liu, Taniit, 
p6M, and in all denominative verbs except ipvftmm and HltiawL, where v is 
metrically aeceasarj ; long v In {^, wrta, (w ; ancepe in ^Cu naerifice (i doubt- 


■wxOtf, (wXliiii (usually), /titMhi, iirtti (dvvlu), wria/, ^/uu, eritiiat, rptu. En ; 
posalbly in tJXihi/uu, ^lltii^, fia, iia, ^\ia ; iXiw6ai, niipioiuu, wXifSiia (once {), 
^T^. ifiu (S) 1b doubtful. 

b. -vw baa t> abort In irda, ipiu, Pp6v, iXiu (but (XiWi), tttB6u, and in all 
verbs Id -nw. 

2. Attic h&H r in primitive verbo in -iw, as rfiUt, xf^f, x^^i but t in tIv. De- 
nominaUTe verbs have i ; but tvStia. 

501. Several verbs with medial 1, u in the present, show 1 or t, S or u in some 
other tense or tenaoa. Thus, *W^u. press riBXittM, Tpf-yu choke twrlyrit, Tftfiu 
rub rirpi^ irpltiiir, rtifiu raise smoke iriinir, ^*x" COOi ^i^Xi?'. 

502. Verb-stems haviog the weak grades a, 1, v, show the strong 
glades 1;, «, CI) in the present; as n}K-<u (rtiK-) melt, kdvoi (X(«-) ieaae, 

a. To this class belong also \li9i4, ri^u, rierpia. am attonUheii, 2 aor. fro^r, 
i\tl^a, {iaoiKO., 703), (fm (foiia), {el<aea., ri63 a), /fwficu, /fKlrui, rtLBu, ariipw, 
VTtlxu, <tniSi>tiai ; iptiyo/iai, Kiiffu, rtiffc/uii, TdJx'"- 

503. Present Stems in -»%- for tv%-. — The strong form cu before tie the- 
matic vowel became tf (cu) and then 1 (20 a, 43) in the verba Um run driroiiai, 
Wat «iOim tnuaa, irXJa lafl fTXcuffn, irW« bre<UAe friwa'a, ^ jlou) fieivojuu, x^ 
pour t^x""! ''xi'*"', 'xilS^'. 

sot. (II) Presents without the thematic vowel (ju-verbs). The 
personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often 
reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong 
forms 17, 0) in the singular, weak forms < (a), o in the dual and plural. 
Thus Ti-$jf-ni, Ti-$e-iuv; t-imj-iu for iri-imj-iu (^ ot-irro-fu), T-ara-iicv ; 
81-Jtu-fu, Si-OO-fl*!'. 

a. All verbs in lu (enumerated 723 B) belong to this class except thoee in 
-w/u (628 f) and -njfu (523 g). 

505. The present stem ia formed by adding •t%- to the verb- 
stem, which ends in r, ^, or ^. The verb-stem is ascertained from 
the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same 

ful), Mu rtmh on, rage, xSu (rarely Xdu), roirniu, fiioiiai. Pindar has v short 
In Ww taarifier, Irx^"-: ^^< /""^u, ^^u, ^imi, in preaenls in -nw, and In 
denominative verbs. 

2. Horn, has i in tlie priiniUves rtoiiat and xpt" ', but rlw and rfw (riiw f ) ; 
-lu in denominativea (except ^4"' B TOO). »>(«, dlg/Mt are from i[on(v)-iw, 

3. Where Attic lias ii, i in the present, and Epic S, 1, the former are due u> 
the influence of ii, t in the future and aoriftt, 

tOS D. TlLfse veriM end In-nrw in Aeolic (wrtiu etc.). Epic rXflu.a-Hlubave 
« by metrical lengtiieuing (2H 1>.). 


lAwTu cHt. verb-Btsm tor' in 2 aor, poes. i-nlnr-itv. 

PKirTu injure, " '■ ^XojS- " " " i-fiXi^iii, 

tay^Tu crer. " " taXu^ " xaMfi-ii hut. 

^TTu throir, " " ^1*-, ^i^ " 2 iM)r. piu«. t-ppl^iir. 
1. itrpixTu litjhttH, xaWrT" oppreit may be from -iri« (117, 507). 
306. Some of the verbi of this class add f in the pneent or other tenses, u 

^iwThi tkrotn, wtcrtu contb, rihrra Urike rvrliau. 


507. The present stem is formed by adding -i!i- to the verthstem 
uid by making the necessary euphonic changes (109-116). 


soe. Dental Verb-Btemo. — VerWtems in S unite with j to form 
prenents in -fo> (116), as <*pa{ui tdl {tftpaS-ua), tkviCw hope (iXinS-), 
i^utw carry (ko^u^-ij a canying), □{u Bmell (oS-fxiJ odour), m^opu seat 
myaeif (IS-os seat). 

■■ *4{tt tave (for vlctfio) forms ita tenses partly ttom the verb-stem o-w-, 
putty from tlie verb-stem vwt-, 

509. St«mB In y. — Some verbs in -{<■) are derived from stems in 
y preceded by a vowel ; as ipmiiut seize for apmyifii (cp. ipvay^ 
mzure), itpiiai cry ovt (2 aor. «(tpovo»). See 116, other examples 
S23 V III. 

a. At*ii vhmA makes Its other tenses from the verb-stem ri^ (fut. tl'fiu, cp. 
HoDl. Arrojioi). 

510. A few Terhs with sterna In yy lose one 7 and have presents In -{^ ; as 
<U{w leream (KXa-yT-^), fut. rXiiyfu ; raXwifu sound t/u: trnmpft iai\riyia 
(tito \i{u lob, irUfte catue to wander). 

511. firytft, ipyiuyie]d fi^fu do (poetic) sinti tpSw (Ionic and poetic). See 116. 

au. Moat verbs in -{o> are not formed from stems in 8 or y, but 
are due to analogy. See 516, 623 y III, 866. 6. 


513. PaUtAl Terb-fltemi. — Steins ending in « or x unite with t 
to form presents in -ttw (-<ra\a). 

**iA.mi guard from tu^a'-iti (^vAaci) guard (112)); iniptrTu proclaim from 
Ifm^ (114^1 ft/wiw); TOpdTTW ditCurb from ropax-iu {rapax-^ eotViuion). 

I. rfrrw cook is for rtt-ita ; all other tenses are made from m--. 

tOI D. Aeolic bas -<rSw for -fu. 



S14. Several verbs showing forms in 7 seem to unite 7 with 1 to form prea- 

euu in -T7-U (-ffffw.) Thus iWiTTu change. fidj-Tu knetxd, t\^tu ttrike (with 

the 2 Aoriste pMSive iWAy-iir, iiidy-tir, ArXth^i)»), rpirTu do (i pert, ttrpiya, 
CTt}, TdfTw arrange (ray-it eommaiuUr), 

«. 80 Spimm* grotp, riTTia cvmjmm (G16 b), t&trti jmaA, rrSa— fold, 
rArrtt load, rwptrru pipe, v^rra kill, ^pdrru fence. rpArru hu the lue pert. 

SU. Soma presents in -ttu (ito-io) are formed from st«ins in r, $ 
like ttioae from k, x- 

Poet, ipiaau rota {IpiT'fp rower') aor. ^ptea ; poet. topi(rru arm (*6pvt xipi/O-ei 
Mjnet), imperf. iKi/nmat, 

a. So also /SXlrrw take honey, wirru ^prtnkU, ttIttu pound, and perhaps *'Utt» 

form; also i^ivao Udu, and poetic tfiio'vu, Xu^firrv, XIwo^ku. 

b. xiTTw eompreu (ht-, h3-) fisfa, rira^iiat and v/niTfHu. Cp. C14 a. 

516. Formatloiu by Analogy. — a. Abt + j and S -f ^ unite to form i, none 
of the verbs in -ttu can be derived from -yua or -iiui. Since the future and 
aorlM of verbs in -{iii might often seem to be derived from litems in i, x, ^^ i") '• 
unoeitatnty arose as to these tenses: thus the future v^dfu (jii^y-att) from 
Hpio ai^itu tlay (aipay-ua) was coufusad tn formation with ^vXd{w (^uXoc-fv), 
and a present ff^rru was constructed like ^vXdrrtf. Similarly, Attic i^rdfm 
(-o/uu) lor Epic dprctfw ; and so in place of (poetic) i,piiii>4 fit (ipiml-') the form 
ititinu was constructed. 


517. (I) Presenta in -XXa are formed from verb-stems in X, to 
which 1 is assimilated (110). Thus, AyyMMi aiinoujux (Ayytk-i/t), 
ariXXm send (artX-iot). 

ns. (It) Presents ia -ouho and -aipat are formed from rerb^tems 
in tw and -op, the t, being thrown back to unite with the vowel of the 
verb-stem (111). Thus, ^oivu sAow (ipav-tio), Avofuuva name {ivotmy-iflt), 
X!^i(x» rejoice (jfop-jfii). 

a. Uaay verbs add -i<d to the weak form ol the item, as iraiiMlr-u for 
dn^r-iH from in^f^iu, cp- notnen (3Sb), 

b. Horn, has luJiilru and laiSdru honour, /itXaCru blacken and /ukim grow 
Naek. Skivfairu slip is late for JXirMtu. 

c. 'nie ending -atvu has been attached, by analogy, In »tpiiairu make hot, etc 
(620 III, 866.7). Likewise -ukk (G19) in poetic iirriru prepare, parallel to iprtm 
(In composition), by analogy to pafiim weigh dnan, iiStru naeettn, 

SU D. Homer hai many caa<»i of this confusion ; as roXc^fki (n\(fut-> but 
voXi^w, In Doric the { forms from -(u verbs are especially common, as x^t" 
teparate, x<<fHffl> 'xiip^' iral{u tport has (late) fraits. 




519. (Ill) Presents in -civu, tipia, -Ivw, -ipw, -ivu, aad -ipw are 
formed from stems in m, tp, Xv, Xp, vv, vp with i%- added. Here t 
disappears and the vowel preceding v or p is lengthened b; oompoi- 
sation (e to c( ; i toi; utoC). See 37 a, 111. 

nlnt ttreleh (tii^u), ipBtlpu dtitroj/ (##*^X "f^*" ('^>-)> olftp^ pttv (bIktip-) 
genenlly writLen alimlpu, iiiirtt ward off (d^un-), iiofiripoiiai call to wOiuu 

u i^CXa (6^\~) owe, am obliged Is formed like rtlra, ^Ipv lo order to dii- 
tingiUBb It from i^iAXu (A^X-) incrtate formed Tegulftrljr, Horn, tuw asually 
Aeolic i^AXu in the sense of d^lXu. Stlpu flag i>*p-i>*) Is parallel to Up-u (406). 

520. Teib-iteraa in -av- for (w(, -ap-). — Two verba with verb-stema in -av 
hiTe prwentH in -out from -<ufv out of -tf-ivi (38 ») : Ka(« burn (lav-, kb/t.), 
FdI. m^w ; and kX«i(« uwep (cXov-, cXb^-), fnt. iXai^ofuu. Others 024 b. 

a. Attic prose often has kAh and icXi», derived from at^ before ti ((den, and, 
with a extended to the I persoD, cdw). Cp. 89S. 

521. Additlm of ■■ — The following verbs add t In one or more tenaB^flteme 
other than the pieseDt : piWu throte, mSlfii tit, cXoJw weep, S^u meU, 6^C\m 
MM, am obliged, x^^P" r^fotee. 

522. Contracted VeriM and Some Verba in -is, -im. ~ a. Verbs In -w, .«^ 
■m, wbfeh for convenience have l>een treated under the QrHt clam, properly 
baking here, ■ (y) having been lost between vowela. Thna, ti^u from ri/ia-iit 
(ri^), aUiu dtoell from tlnt-s^ (altt- alternate stem to olto-, 220 b), lifXiu from 
Jifk^^. So in denominatives, ss poetic utirlm am wroth (^ir"-(»)t ^A'» *Ote 
(^rv^«). Frfmitives In -w, -iw are of uncertain origin. Cp. 608, 824. 

S. — The rare spellloge dXvlu, Mu, /ufalu, ^u(w indicate their origin from -jw. . 

b. So with ateoiB in long vowels: tpii do from Spi-iu, [S litie from Jvw 
(cp. {^), XP^ C*"« oratiet from XP^M" (1* pera xpS'i 8M). 


523. The present stem of the N class is formed from the verb- 
stem by the addition of a suffix containing v. 

a. -w^' is added : Idi-iu bite, riii^m cut. 

So Mm, Kdfuu, rtw, vfrrw poet., rfni, ^Mru, ^Wrw. 

b. •*¥%- is added : ate9.(ip-afuu perceive, Kitafrt-ir-u err. 

So alfdfif, pKuariru, JopMw, dvexAin^., oHdiu, <)X<<rM»>, ^Xurxdw (60S). 

c -a*^- is added and a nasal (fi, *, or y naaa1) inserted in the verb^etem : 

\Mrprfi-lr-<i (Xa^) take, \a-r-e-Ar-u escape notice (Xa^-), tu-t-X'^'-" happen (tvx-). 

So irMfw p/eoM (is-), A77iini CourA (A-y-), Kinxiru find (nx-)> XaYxdw 

oMfdn 6y Io( (>"x-)< /^**l»w ''am (*ui*-), irurM»o»mi (ngufre (ri*-). 

4. -*(9f- is added : ^*i-u mop up (also ;}Ad), lie-rt-tt-im ccme (also bw), 

11* D. Aeolic has here -<rru, -ippu, -irw, -ippu, -urw, -uppw (87 D, 8); for 
icifw, it haa rraJn* ; cp. Doric t^aipu for ^A^. 



mi-ri-v Wm, dfiT-i^x-'***"' *"** ■"*) i'-wx-**-'-*'" promtte (cp. tffx-*" ^o' 

e. -«%- to added: Aoii™ dn'o* f or /Xa-iv-a», 

f. -nt (-vru after \ abort VQwel) to added (Koond class of /u-Tcrbs, 414) : 
ttlftv-m shoia (8«ir-, preBentslem Siuirv-), lt6y-iv-^ yoke (pre7-)t ■>^«»« deatroy 
(for iX-ni/u, 77 a) ; tipi-ri^iu. mix («(«-), ffiM8d-»i«-M' scMMr C™Jb-). Others 
728 ft. Some of these verba have preBenta In -vu (74(1). 

H. 1. —The forma in -wriiu apread from Umiu, opirniu, which are derived 
from iv-mfu, apta-niiu. 

H. 2, —Some verbs ia -f« are formed from -*e%- '•"■ -•n'f- ! "^ Horn. r(»*i, 
^™,*M™,({»oMa' from Tcrf-o., etc., (37 D. 1). AtUc rr™, etc dropped the f . 

%. -vn, -n) are added (third class of ^u-verbs 412); as in (poetic) iiiirr^iu 
I eonqwr, siii^ra-iitii tee conquer (jofi-), and In cttS-rif-iu (rare in prose for 
vaSitntu) acatUr. The verbs of tliia class, are chieflf poetic (Epic), and most 
liave alternative forma in -aw. See 737. 

Id two further divisions there Is a transition to the Iota Class. 

h. -iv^- for -v-j^ ia added: paim go (^o-i^u), ntpSalru gain (^apSm—itt) 
TtTptUru bore (Ttrpa-r-uii). So poetio ^Irm Bj»-inkJe. For the added v, cp. 
tdK-r-u (523 a). See 618 a. 

i. -tur%- for aii-i% is added: 6a^palninai snwll (&r4v>ar^/iai) , Hom. dXiroi- 
nvuu Bin (bIbo dXir^pu). See 618 a. 

924. A abort vowel of the verb-stem la lengthened In the case of some verbs 
to form one or more of the tense-atems other Uian the present. Thus, XomSdrw 

(\afi-) take X4V'o/uii (X<i0-) ; Jdiiw (jcuc-) biU mu {i-r,K-). So Xa^x'w. )u» 
Mrw, Tirr^dRii, x-uf^nfuu (rvtl-) inquire, fut. Triimnai (rivS-), 

a. jt^fv^ vojb«, iniyrvfu fatten, pi/yni/u brfak have the strong grade In all 
tenses except the 2 pass, system, ittlyniu tnfz (commonly written lAyAiu) has 
luy- only in tbe 2 perf. and 2 pass, systems. 

525. Addition of < sad o. — a. Many verbs add < to the verb-stem to fonu 
all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect ; as atoMioftw, i^ia^int. 
irSimi, aOfiru, iirtxSdniiicu, p\airrivw, Sap8ira, jti7x<'"'i MorAlM, 4WMni, 

d^Xio-iifEn). One or more tenses with c added are formed by apSalnt, fXXv/u, 

b. BjiuvM *wear has dfio- In all systems except the present and fatnre, as 

d^icwa, ^ftittiiOKa^ but fUt. d;iaD;uEt from d/iA>fUU. 


526. The present stem 19 formed by adding the sufBx -ck^- to the 
verb-stem if it ends in a vowel ; -wik'A- if it ends in a consonant. 
Thus, ipt-iTKia please, dp^xia find. 

a. Thto class is called inceptive (or inchoattve) because some of the verbs 
belonging to it have the BCnae of beginning or becoming (cp, Lat -aco) ; nn 
yyipifKti grow old. But very few verbn have this meaning. 

b. In fftivKti die, imi-riatui remind, -tmw was later added to vertMleiua 
ending in a vowel. The older forms are 0r4viw, luioHivtM. 


c Tbe Terl>«t«m ia ofleo rodaplk^ted in the prweiit; as fi-yni-cat know, 
ffi-fyA-€iar eat, ti-tfii^m run aaay. roetlo ip^'op-ltKii fit, poetic dr-o^i^jiw 
ieatte, bftTe tbe lotto of Attic rediiplicatloa. idayu may stand for fu-(f>)«-vt(. 

d. A slop coDSonant ia dropped before sku (OU) ; as Ji-t(i(ii)-ffinii ttaeh (cp. 
Wtu-rti), i\i'(«)-»«jr amid, \ilCjt)-»«i* tpeak. riax'^ tuffer it for ra(f)-<rcH 

e. The preaeot stem ollau ahowa the strong grades w (weak a) &nd < or ir 
(wtf«k a}. See b, c. Weak grades appear in ^dtriw toy, ^jcw /Md. 

f. Oq tiie iteratives in -omi see 4S6. 

S27. The following verba belong to this cIbbb (poetic and Ionic fonna arc 


t. Vowel stems: dX<4'">* (^Uih)T dia^u^iiaMiu* (Bto-), ip4am (dfit-), pinia^ 
(fia- (or /3»-, 35 b), ^c^^^i»ui (^po-) , ^Xtis-.w" (^X-, >t>j»-, ^\e-, 130 D.) , j34ir™ 
(^), 7»«idffiiw (cp. TtKcdw), 7J|(id£rj(u (yiipa-), -fifniirtiii (7H>-), SlUftaiHU 
fliffhien, Jt(4pdiriiw (3pa-), 4^«i> (4j3a-), fXitrcu* (fXa-), »PifrTiEu (0at-, 0ra-), 
fyifftui* (fcp-, flfW-), IXttirwifKu (i^a-), KutX^irur* (naXe-, kXtj-), nvlffnojuu' 
(m*-), luBirmn (juBu-'), luiiw^tna (^ua-), nriaicui* (wi-), iriTpi^tio (B-pB-), »mS- 
«™" (ti»u-), ^i^fiffnu* (^u-), TiTpiia-ira) (t/jo-), ^do-icu (^a-), x'i»'«i'* (X"-)- 

b. Consonant stems : i\l^to,uu (dX-o-), dXiJmu* (dXvic-), iiipXirta (du^X- d^Xo-), 
d/a-Xojrlo'iru* (d>irXajr-), dHXid-jctf (dt^X-^^-), dTo^fffcu* (drwi^), dpapi^ia^ 
(lip-}, JkJfo-mfuu* uelconw (ic-Iu-) and lirilricofuu (usnallj written Stit-) 
toeJeoRW, a>«riirn> (SiStX'), *taKu (Ac-), iwavpUmu' (adp-), (Apfiriu («f>p-«-), 
)4ett^ (Xo*-)' /"^"^ (/">-)> d^Xio-jti™ (4^X-t-), rdax" ('a*-)! ffr*pJ#it» 
(ffT,p-,-), r>T6»-«,<a.« {t.^«-). iXil"™* (ilX»«-). XPflfa"*".' (x*^). 
928. Addition of < and o. — aTtpltrKu deprive (cp. uTipoimi) makes all the 

other lensB-stenui fromirTipe- ; tbplata baa cipc' except in (he preaentaod 2 aortst 

— iUtm/Mi am eaptared (dX-) adds c in otber teus&-BCeniB, 


529. This class includes some irregular verbs, one or more of 
whose tense-steins are quite ditfereat from others, as Eng. am, 
wu, be, Lat. aunt, fuL For the full list of forms see the List 
of Verba. 

1. aipAt (aifit-, JV) tate, fut. aip^u, gpirni, etc., 2 aor, a^a^. 

2. (ttsr (,ftt-, U-) taw, vidi, 2 aorist (with no present act.) ; 3 pL otSa Jbiow 

(7M). Middle inofuu (poetic). ilSor is nsed as 2 aor. of 6piu (see below). 

3. (Iwor {tlr-, tp-, ^) upokt, 2 aor. (no pres.) ; fat. {ipiu) ipu, perf. if-pTr-ia, 

t^i ff Mi, aoT. pass, ifpii^r. The stem jp- Is for ftp-, seen In Lat. c#r-buni. 
(Cp. 492.) ^- is for fpi, hence (ffniiuii for ft-fpif-iiju. 
*■ I>x*f4ai (^x-T AtvP-, fKut-t i\8-), go. Fut. ^Xniffo^uu (usoaU^ poet.), 2 perf, 
A^XvAs, 2 aor. 4X0sr. The AUic future is ttiu »haU go (774). Tlie Im- 
pMf. and Qia moods of the pros, other than the Indlc. use the forma of tt/u. 

tM c. D. Horn, has Anu liken for frf:l(t)-«-iia>, also Imu from ^I(c)-«iw, 
tit£(i) -cestui prepare, !*-il{K)-vmiiai vxlcome. 



6. itflt (,iir9-, a-, ^sT-) eat, fat. ISomoi (Ml), pf. M^iaics, -M^SMfHu, ^iaa,,w, 

t M>r. f^a-yar- 
S. 4*^ (Vo-i ''^i f''') *M, fuL S^ofMt, perf. ^lipan or jipuo, p«rf. mid. 
itipiiioi or S/ifuu (itr-iuu), ^i^r, 2 Bor. tllov (see 3 abOTe). 

7. riffX" (»"*-. »■•»*-) siUTe'', fut. rdva/wi for rttd-aeiuu (100), 2 pf, wimrSa, 

2 aor. (tsA)!'. (See 528 d.) 

8. tIw (re, TO-) drink, from rt-r-w (62S a), fut. rto/uu (Ut), pf, ttrma, 2 aor. 

»TWF, imp. lift (466. 1, a, 6B7). 

9. Tpix't (rP'X' f or Dpex- (126 g), Spait-, Jjh/U') run, fut, SpafioG/iat, pf. icafidfiqni, 

2 aor, iBpa/tort 

10. ^^ (^p-< d'-i 'ki», by reduplication and Hjncope^r-<Kicand<K7'-) Aetc,- fut. 

sTirw, aoT, ^K-rio, perf. ^p-fnx-a (446, 478), in-iirry-iiai, aor, pass, fr^firi', 

11. AWo^uu ((in-, i-yHo-) Auy, fut. ^niire^i, perf. jtinf^t, iaitiSiji. For Aar^d- 

^i)r the form ^puifuiv is used. 

930. Apart from the irregularities cf Class VT, some verbs may, by ttie 
fonnattoQ of the verb-8t«m, belong to more thim one class, as palm (III, IV), 
6a<t,palK,uu (III, IV), d#X»«tw (IV, V). 

331. Many verbs have alternative forms, often of different claasea, as laiSitti 
iGSafru Aanour, lew Udm come, iitKir-u grow black, luXalru (^Xar-iw) blodtrn, 
■Xi^ (iXiiTY-) K^ayy-ir-u scream, ^•fidfat v^Atiu elaji (616). Cp. also iw6ti 
IfOru) aeeomplUh, ipiu ipiru draw water, Horn, iptta, J/wcdvu, ifUKOirAu 
restrain. Cp. 866. 10. 


532. Many, If not all, futUT« forms In a ara in reality aubjunctives of the 
fltst aoTlsL XAo-u, waitciru, tstlfu, ar^irti are alike future indl<»tive and aorist 
Bubjunctlve in form. In poetry and In some dialects there is no external dif- 
ference between the future indicative and the anrist subjunctive when the latter 
has (as often In Horn.) a short mood-aign (457 D.) ; e.g^ Horn, pi^o/ur, iful- 
<fitT<u, IddIc inscriptioos toiVo- 

533. The future stem is formed by adding the tense-siifftx -<t%- (tir%- 
iti liquid stems, 535) to the verb-stem : Xi-aat, I tliall (or wiQ) looae, 
Xiaofioi ; Af^u) from ri-6if-iu. place ,' Scifta from hi!jt-vu-iu shoto. 

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades (4T6) the ending is added to 
the strong stem : XtiVu Xflf u, t^iu ri}(u, t*^ THi)ra/uu (60S), Sliuiu Siiirti, 

534. Towel Tetbo. — Verb-stems ending in a short vowel lengthen 
the vowel before the tense suffix (o to jj except after e, t, p). Thus, 
riiiiai, ri/ujirai; idia, iami; tjttXioi, i^k^iTai. 

a. On xfi^ V^"^ oracleg, xP<'o*"'< ""'i A'poAnMot krar, see 487 a. 

b. For verbs retaining a ^ort fiiiAl vowel, see 488. 

5M D. Doric and Aeolic always leiiRthen a to a (rl/idv-w). 
b. In verbs with stems originally ending in -f Horn, often has «-«- In the future : 
ir^ irif ntSai, Tt\4u rcM<r<rw ; by analogy JIXXvpi i\trw (and dUr«, ik^rai). 


S3S. Liquid Terbi. — Verb-stems ending in X, fi, v, p, add -t<r%-; 
then <r drops and t conttaeta with the following vowel. 

^Hf (^ov) thuw, ^riS, ^Kij from >par-i(,tr)u, ttMr-f(ir)iti ; vtAXk ((TTcX-) 
•emt, ffrcXoEr^r, vrtXiin from «reX-^(i7)D;i(f, rrTcX-^(ff)fT(. See p. 138. 

936. a Is retalaed In the poetic lorms cAo-u (kAXu land, «X-), irriprw (lipM 
«Kf(, icifr-), WproMiu (NpofUi warm myself, Sep-), £|»-h (jpvv^ Tottit, ip-)- So 
ilao In the ftorisL See d^opJa-iw, ttXu, ntlpw, ^Ipw, iptpu In the List of Verba. 

537. Stop Verbe. — Labial (jt, ^, ^) and palatal (k, y, v) stops at 
the end of the Terb-atem unite with a to form ^ or {. Dentals 
(t, 1,0) an lost before a (98). 

icir-r-» (cmr-) cut, i^w, ici^gfioi J JJUt-t-w (fi\»$-) injure, ^Xd^w, pxi^aiAoi ; 
tfi^-v mile, ypd^u, vpd^s/ioi ; rUir-u ueiRW, rX^fai, rX/fa/uu ; JJy-ti aaf, X^, 
X/Ea^Hu ; Topdrru (ropax-) dflturb, ropdfu, Tapdfofiu ; ^pdfb (#pa>-) soy, ^piffu; 
T(Um (ri^ wnf-) pemtdJe, rifffu, ir(l«a/iw. 

•. Wben c or a Ih added to the Terb-acem, It is lengUiened to q or w : sa 
pti^tmx (pavX-*-) wish ^vX^vo/uu, dX/riofwi (iX4-) am captvrtd iXiirs^ui. So 
alio in the flist aoriat and In oUier tenaes where lengthening la regular. 

93a Attic Fntnifc — Certain formations of the future are called 
Attic because they occui especially in that dialect in contrast to the 
later language; they occur also in Homer, Herodotus, and iu other 

539. Thcw futures uaoallj occur when <r la preceded by J< or < and these 
Towels are not preceded by a ayllable long bj nature or poaltioQ. Here v la 
dropped and -d- and Ww are contracted to -£. Wben i precedes r, the ending 
it (-(r)fe which contracts to -i&. 

a. mX/w coll, TfXAi JInlth drop the r of nUffw nX^ojui, niJria rttJwtpai 

and tbe resnlting Attic forms are ai\a laXoS^uu, rtXQ (rcXoSftai poetic). 

b. Aatfrw (^Xq-) drive bas Hon). Adu, Attic AS. — taeiloiuu (taM-) ttt baa 
AUlc nM^daO^uu. — ^x^f ('"X**') J'f^ '>as Horn, imxif^t"" (and fiax'i'<''''>')i 
Attic fux^Btmi. — JXXii/u {6\-t-) destroj/ has Hom. iMtu, Attic AS. 

c All Terba in -^nv/u have futurea in -d(0)w, -ul. Tboa, ff«3d»C/u (««>»•) 
sratter, poet. ffnMrw, Attic milS. Similarly aome verba In -erreiu: iii^iirrviu 
(ifi^ir-) cliilhr. Epic iiii^iiau, Attic d^i^u) ; oriprvfu (rrap-*-) a|>rvffil, late er^ 
plw, Attic vTtpQ. 

i. A rerj few Terba fn -a^ have the contracted form, fiifidtu (fiiff^t-) 
ratue K go oaually baa Attic fii^a from fiifiiiru. So i(cTQiur = iferdtaiur from 
iftriffi (xanlne. 

«. Verba in -if* of more than two syllables drop a and Insert t, thus making 
-i(r)t-, -t(v)ioiiat, which contract to -iS and -wDfuu, aa in the Doric future (540). 

US D. These futuna are often nucontnicted In Homer (fiaXim, mirim, iyy^ 
UKtfir); regnUrly In AeoUci In Hdt. property only when coomea baton o or uk 
UT D. Doric Iiaa -fu from moat verba in -{w (516 D.). 
aa. b. D. For Hom. -en for -aa, aee 646. 



So rofilfu (niuJ) comlili-r iD&kos n«u<r<u. noiinui, naiuii and [d like manner »fu- 
tOfuv, both Inflected like raiw, wotoOfiai. Su j^wun, oUioSmi tram m(u <rccu»- 
tom, olnll^u raloniie. But g-x'ti" (''X'^-) 'pfil niakea (Tx''"- n^fi etc. are due 
to the analogy ol the liquid verbe. 

N. — Such forms In Atlic U.'xIb as i^dro, rtKiaia, n/iiffv, fftfidati are ei 

5*0. Doric Future. — Some verbs, irhich have a future middle with 
an active uieaniug, form the stem of the future middle by adding 
-irt^-, and contracting -aioiua to -umiaa. Such verbs (except vco, 
ntwrio) have also the regular future in -^ro/uu. 

(Xofu (kXou-, 620) weep nXatwoD/iai, f^u (n~, ki>-) nnim »«wo6;t«i (doubtful), 
■■Wb ("■Xi'-i wXeu-) tail rXeuiroCjiai, rii^v (irn-, irHif-) brtMhe rnwuBfuu, wtwTia 
(rcT') ftUl ri<roS/im, rvrBdro/tiu ^rv$-, Tti^) mweifuu (ODCCi), ^tiyi i^vy-, 

a. The iuflectioD of the Doric future is as follows : — 

Xftrfl, -ffoOfUU 

\iw.6,«., -«,*,««« 

«•«., -ffS 

XSfffiTf, -ffeurfc 

Xftnir, -iriurftu 

XHr<r, -<rc(r« 

XviraCn-., -traSn-cu 

b. These are called Z)oric futures because Dodo usually makes all futores 
(active and middle) in -viu -vH, -aioiia* -raufioi. 

C- AtUcir(a'af'>uu(Ho[n. Tea-^^uu) from i-lrTu/oIf comes from rrrco^iot. Attic 
l»w«r Isderived from 2 aor, trtria (Dor. and Aeol,) under the influence of rtatSftai. 

541. Fnturea with Pment Fonna. — The following verbs have no 
future suffix, the future thus having the form of a present: ffio^iiu 
(jji-) eai, ntoiua (m-) drink, )(tui (xv-) and xiopM, pour. See 529. 5, 8. 

a. These are probably old subjonctlves which have retained their futare 
mesQing. In fto^t and nfo^uu tbe mood-sign is short (46T D.). Horn, has 
pioiiat or ^cla/uu live, Hiu find, ic4» (written ictlit) lie, ifariu achieoe, ip6ti droto, 
r»ii6v stretch, and dXidrrai avoid, rioitai go is for rwrofiw. 


542. The first aorist stem is formed by adding the tense suffix -ou 
to the verb-stem: l-kv-aa I loosed, Xvaa, Xutnujiu; l-^tfa / a/totoed, 
from StiK-m-iu. See 606. 

S8B D. Horn, has demu, to/uQ, irtpiu; and also rrkiai, ebUu, Adat, drriAu, 
Saiiiavi (045) , dniu, ^/)Aouiri, raRSoiwi. Ildt. always u.scs the -lu and -laC/iai forniB. 
Homeric futures in -cu have a liquid before t, and are analogous to the futures 
of liquid verbs. 

MO D. Horn, igatJrai (&Dd trvtni, tnrai, larai). lu Doilo tbere Br« thzee 
forma : (I) -a/ji (and -vS), -vfoiiai (and -aoOiiai) ; and often with cv from m ma 
-4vm, -cu^in ; (2) -r(u with 1 from e before o and u ; (3) the Attic forma. 

MS D. Mixed Aoiiita. — Hom. bos some forma of the first aorist with the tb»- 
maUo vowel (?£) of tbe second aorist; as Hrrt, IfeirAi (<7w lead), ifilirrro. 

, Coo^^lc 


a. In tqtIm ohowing atrong uid we&k gndea (476), the teiue-«iiffix h added 

10 the strong stem : wtlSie Iwturn, TiJKu frijfa, xriu Irraraa, Irr^fu (arm-, vrq-) 

N. — rlffq/u («f-, 9ih) place, Sltu/u (So-, Jlu) j^m, Iiifu ( j-, 4-) (end have aorlsU 
in IS (Iff n, ISwcB, 4ni in the singular : with i rarely in the plursl). See 756. 

543. Towel Verba. — Verb-atems ending in a. vowel lengthen a 
short final vowel before the teime-suffix (ci to ij except after t, t, p). 
Thu9, rifiaio ittfiifira, iaai cwicra (431), ^iXt'ui t^i'Xijira. 

■■ x'" (X"-, X'l^i X'f-) pour bM tbe aorJBts Ix"^ ^«i>ii)r (Epio f xn«, ^nd- 
fH») from ^(uo-a, <x"«'''i*"l'- 

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel see 488. 

544. Liquid Verba. — Verb-atems ending in X, ^ v, p lose v and 
lengthen their vowel in compenaation (37) : atori (after i or p to d), 
<toa,(toi, utoC. 

^>w C^*-) sAoui, f^m for ^awa ; ripafm (irqMr-) Jlninh, twtpiim for 
jr^uva ; rr^Uu (^-rcV) s«;ul, frrnXa f or fiTTtXiraj icpliw (iiptr-) judpe, fiviva for 
igpitrti j AXXd/iu (^^-) f^^p, i^Xd^iTfF for i^Xtro^ijr. 

a. Some verbs in -aira (~ar-) have -5™ Instead of -ijm ; ss yXvKalKit tioeeten 
/yXicdiiB. So bx'o''v maJce thin, ttpSalrw gain, coiXslrw hollow OtU, \aralru 
fatteti, ifrrmlwH be angrg, rtwaLnt make ripe. Cp. 80 a. 

b. Tlie poeClo verbs retaining v in the future (536) retain It also in the aorist. 
C ofpw iip-) raisK is treated as if its verb-stem were ip- (contracted from 

i(fK in ittpu) : aai, Upa, ipu, Ipaifu, a/itr, a/wi, ipat, and ipiiiiir, ipu/tai, ipat- 
IBIt, Spa^tai, ipiiitrat. 

d. iftyna Is used as the first aorist of 4>fpw btar. tlra is rare for tJmr (549). 

545. Stop VeriM. — Labial (w, 0, 4>) a.nd palatal (k, y, x) stops at 
the end of the verb-stem unite with ir to form ^ or (. Dentals (t, &, 
S) are loat before v (op. 98). 

rt/ir-u send Irt/i^a, iwifalidintr ; fiXiwra (^Xafi-') injure IfiXn^a ; ypd^-v 
mite (ypatfta, typaifiAnTjr ; w>i,it-w weave tr\t(a, ^Xcfd^i^r; U7-U say (X(£a ; ro- 
pdrrtt (rapax-) ditturb irdpaia, frapii(d^T|r ; poetic ip4aru ('fxr-) rou 4^'Bi 
fpafw (^paS-) tell tippaaa, /^poffduqr ; rtlB-a (ri^, ruB-, rottf-) persuade f^n^B. 

a. On forms in «- from stems in 7 see 516. 

inper. p^^n (fialrai go), iStrrrv (JiW tel), Ifov (Iiw cnme), olvc, tlirrrt, olrtp^t, 
tlrtptiut (_^pK bring), imper. Spvto rise {tpniu niuaf). 

MS a. D. Homeric i)Xeuini|r and ijUiiair avoided, Imja bamed (Att. (jtamro), 
irtna drove, also have li»<t a-. 

60 b. D. Horn, ufteii liaj< uri^'iiial ra, HH ytXda tyiXaaftt, T(XA< /rAcffffB 1 ill 
utlten by analog?, om JX\D^ S\i<r<ra, titrviu tfuiava, naUw cdXnrira. 

Hi D. Horn, has luiiiu -qra fm- -am after 1 or p. Aeolic a^imilotes r to a 
iiitnil; as (icfKrn, driartWa, ttip^a-ro, •sovippaiti (= ai/rtlpiiia). Cp. Horn. 
A^XA. {iftWt. increase). 

Mft D. Horn, often lias irir from dental steuiN, ns inbiuava Iniuasiiiiir (jco^iJfw) . 
Doric has -(a from most verbs In -fu: Horn, alsu has ( (4pira(e), See 510 D. 




M6. Dbe secoDd aorist is fonned without any tenee-suffiz and 
only from the simple verb-3t«m. Only primitive verbs (372) have 
second aorists. 

547. (I) Q-Vetba. — d-verbsmake the second aorist by adding ?£-to 
the verl>6tem, which regularly ends in a consonant Verbs showing 
rowel gradations (476) use the weak stem (otherwise there would b« 
confusion with the imperfect). 

548. A. Vowel verba raret; form aeootid aorlBU, aa the Irregulftr aipiw «eue 
(<rXoF,'S20, 1), iireiu eat (f^iar), ipiu (lUor). Iwuir draiJc (irtru) is the only 
iacoud aorist In prose from a vowel stem and having thematic inflection. 

b. Many v-verlM with stemB ending in a vowet bave wcond aorista fomed 
like those of /u-verba. These are enimierated in 687. 

M9. Verba of the First Clasa (409) adding a thematic vowel to the verb- 
•um form the second aorist (1) by reduplication (491), as iyu lead IJrtKYo*, 
and tXwar probably for i-ft-ftw-»t ; (2) by syncope (493), as -r/ra^isi fiy irritt^w, 
hftifiit (i-i*p-) TOmt ir/fiiltfl', Ittoiuu (rer-) follow irriitift, Itnperf. Arbfafr from 
<-*nro*o|», ifx* ("X-) '""'* ''X»*; (3) by using a for t (478 b) In poetic fomm 
f480), as rpiwu turn trparoT; (4) by metathesis (492), m poet Sipm/iMi tee 

SM. (II) Hi-Verba. — The stem of the second aorist of /u-verbs is 
the rerb^tem without any thematic vowel. In the indicative active 
the strong form of the stem, which ends in a vowel, is regularly em- 
ployed. The middle uses the weak stem form. 

HC D. Horn, baa more second aorista than Attic, which favoured the fiist 
aorisL Some derivative verbs have Homeric second aorists classed nnder Uiem 

for convenience only, as mtr/u eound fiTuror; iwKdoiuu roar l/umr; ttTtr</4it 
hate laroyor. These forms are derived from the pure verb-stem (48G d, 6G3). 

547 D. Hom. often has no thematic vowel in the middle voice of u-verbs 
{MiyMi* from i^ofui reneive). See 634, <tB8. 

5tt D. (1) Hom. has {r)KiK\tTo (tHo-iiai command), \fljiSor (X4«« lis hid), 
iri^paSt (ippdtu tell), rtriSrlf (riiS-u persuade) . itpitaKer {ip6t-u cAscl;), ^((n- 
tnr and Irinvtr {itlrTia chide, inw-) have unusual formation. (2) ^X-^ 
H'^y (ri\t-iuu am, come, Tt\-). (3) twpaSt* (wip6-« lack), haiior (rfa wm ad). 
(4) j9X9r« (jMXXu Ait, 128 a). 

sh] second aorist system its 

l-mt-iK (ffTQ-, oTif-) »et, second aorist tmi*, fmit, tmi, toTifra*, irrirnir, 
frr^tur, ftTifri, tcTYiQut ; middle Mi-iOft from rif^iu (flt-, ftf-) ploca, Mi-fqc 

from lUtffu (ta-, Su~) J7IM. 

551. Originally only tba dual and plural showed the weak fcrma, wMob ars 
ntained In the second aoriala of tIAj^u, m<a^, and hiiu : f««t*r, fSo^u*, «I^» (j-j- 
fur). and In Horn. ^Ti7r (also ^r^t) from l^igt went. Elsewhere the weak 
padee have beea displaced by the strong grades, which forced their way In from 
Ihe ilngalar. Thoa, f7»r, t^Sr in Pindar {■=tytu-va*, f^v-ffar), which come 
from fyntri^T), ^«v><t) by 40. So Horn. IrXit, Ipi,. Such 3 pi. forma are rare 
in tfae dramatic poeta. 

a For the alngalai of tIA|/u, I(3h/u, I)|tu, see 766 ; for the ImperatiVM, 769 ; 
faithelQfiniUTea, 700. 

552. No verb in -B/u hu a second aoilst in Attic from the stem In u, 

5M. The difference between an imperfect and an aoriat depends formallj/ on 
(be diancter of tiie present. Thus l-^ij-r tatd ia called an ■ Imperfect ' of ^ir.^ : 
but t-vrt-r Oood is a ' second aorist ' because It ahowa a different teDSfr«t«m 
than that of Irni/u. Similarly l-'Ptp-oi' is ■ imperfect ' to fipv, but (.rH-ar ' oec- 
ond aorist ' to rlrru Iwcause there Is no present rnw. lffTtx«> is Imperfect to 
nlxt, but BBCODd aoriit to rrtlxa. Cp. 646 D. 


554. a. The second aorist and the second perfect are nsually formed only 
from primitive verbs (372). These tenses are formed by adding the peiBOnlLl 
ending (Inclusive of tiie thematic or tense vowel) to the verb-stem without any 
consonant lense-sulfix. Cp. (\ira-r with IXv-a-t, trpAwiir with tTpi^-d-i/r {rptwit 
(Mrs), yt^fo^i-K with UXv-jc-a. 

b. The second perfect and second aoilst passive are hiatorically older than 
the corrBspondlng first perfect and first aorist. 

c Tptrv turn is the only verb that has three first aorlsts and three seccmd 
aorists (606). 

d. Very few verba have both the second aorist active and the second aorist 
panive. in cases where both occur, one form is rare, as Uvm* (once In poetry), 

'r^r (r^rrw itrfite). 

e. In the aame voice both ^)e first and the second aorist (or perfect) are rare, 
■s l^faffB, f^AfF (^n> anlieipaU). When both occur, the first aorist (or 
perfect) in often transitive, the second aoriat (or perfect) is InlranHitive (810); 
u far^ffB I erected, i.e. made ttand, tarift I atood. In otlier cases one aorist 
is used in prose, the other in poetry ; frttra, poet. triSar {wtl9u persuade); or 
they occur In different dialects, as Attic ^d^r, Ionic /M^Agv (6i*Tti bury); 
or one la much later than the other, as Anf a, late for (Xirar. 

t»} with i taken from fm-Xw Mid 

_ l;.C.OOg[c 


v. first (k) perfect system 
(first pbufect and pluperfect active) 

555. The stem of the first perfect is formed by adding tia to the 
reduplicated verb-stem, ki-kv-na I have loosed, l-Kt-kmii 1 had looa^. 

m. The n-peifect ia later in origin than the second perfect and seema to have 
atart«d from vetb-Htema in -k, as f-ouc-a ( = fi-foiK-a) from ttxu resemhle, 

b. Verba ahowlng tbe gradationa ti, ta : «, am i, u (476) have «, cv ; as rtl$it 
(wiB-, imB-) persuade rtrtita (660). But J^Soikb /ear hu « (cp. 564). 

556. The first perfect is fonned from verb-stema endiiig in a 
Towel, a liquid, or a dental stop (t, 8, 6). 

557. Vowel Vertw. — Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel (if 
short) before -ku, as ri/ia-u honour Tt-rlfiij-Ka, ia-ai permit ad-m, irmi-ia 
make wttniti-Ka, riAj/u {$t-, Oif) place Tt-Oij-Ko, Si.'&ufu (So-.&n-) give St-Sto-xo. 

558. Thia appliea to verbs that add i (485). For verbs that retain a abort 
final vowel, see 488. (Eicept a^ivn^ ("?«-) extinguUk, wliich has fir^^ca.) 

559. Uqoid Vertw. — Many liquid verbs have no perfect or employ 
the second perfect. Examples of t!ie regular formation are ^otW 
(^v-) show, ire<ttayKa, iyyiXXat {AyyiK-) announce, ^yytA™. 

a. Some liquid verbe drop » ; as titpma, titXum from Kplne (npir-') Judge, 
■Xlvw (itXt»-) incline, rtlm (rcf-) ttretch has Ttrana. from Ter^iMi. 

b. MonoByllablo etema change < to a ; as laraKto., tipea^to. from rr AXu (rrcX-) 
■end, ^tpu i^fftf-) corrupt. 

N. For a we expect a ; a ia derived from the middle (IsraXfiai, f^BapiiaX). 

c. All Btama in n and many others add < (486) ; as rtiua (Hfi^i-), dintribulf 
mtfit)ica, iU\u {iixK-f-) Cart for iitnfXvKO., Tvyxiru(Tux-f) ftiQipen rrrvxnica. 

A. Man; liquid verbs suffer metalhcais (402) and tlius get the form of vowel 
verbs ; as fidWa C(9oX-) tkroa pifi\tita ; Br^aKu {Bat-) die Tffl«|m ; icB.\fu (xaXt-, 
kXtj-) call KiAi)iM ; tdf/Mi («<«*-) am weary n^ifujito ; r^ftmi (t(»i-) cut rirti-^ta. 
Also rbrru (rrr-, tto-) f(Ul rdrrua. See 128 a. 

UB b. D. Hom. JeDw (uaed as a present) is for StSfo^O-a. !tiS- was writ- 
ten on account of the metra when f was lost. Hom. SiSia is for J<-3(^)i-a with 
the weak root that ia used in StSiiier. See 703 1). 

SST D. 1. Hom. has the i-perfect only in verba with vowet verb-stems. Of 
these some have the aecond perfect in -a, particularly in participles. Thoa u- 
titii<it, Attic Km/iiiiiiit (tiii't-u am weary'); utmiy^At (np^nvfu sotiate); rtfb- 
■oiri and rt^iiat (^itw prodacf). 

2. In some dialects a present was derived from the perfect stem ; m Hom. 
inirY-t, Theocr. SiSoIku, rttptm (in the 2 perf. : Theocr. rerit«u'). Int. T^gviKvr 
(Aeol.), part. unXtfarrtt (Hom.). rtitpUw (I'lnd.). 

3. From lUix-TiKtt {laiKionoL bleat) Hom. has tbe plup. iiiiiL^m*. 


56b] second perfect system 17T 

sea stop VsitM. — Dental stems drop t, S, B before -xa ; as -m^ 
imfi; wufi-, wmS-) persuade wartiKo, KOfu^w (tofuS-) earn/ KiKOfUNo. 


SO. The stem of the second perfect is formed by adding a to the 
reduplicated verb-stem ; yi-yp^ift^ I haue uiritten (ypoi^). 

562. The second perfect is almost always formed from stems end- 
it^ in a liquid or a stop consonant, and not from rowel stems. 

a. it^ma (iteiui hear) is for iKtiKo(_f)-a (dis^- = dni^, 48). 

963. Verb-HtemH ahowing variation between short and long vowels (478) 
luve long vowelB in the eecond perfect (a is thus teguUrly lengthened), Thiu, 
T^nf (tou-, r^c-) melt T^ia, xpi^u (upay-') cry out t/tpaya, ^alrw (^>^) sAow 
iri^wa have appeared (bat r/^yta have ahovin), pt/yri/u (fiay-, ji'Tt-i tify-i 4'^'' c) 
hrrtUc Ippt/yoL. 

a- rfutfa em arcuttoned (^— rt-vfuS-a) has the Mrong form w (cp. ^fct 
evftom, 123) ; Horn. ISw (Attic iSl^ aeObstom). 

964. The second perfect has a, « when Uie verb-stem variea between a, «, 

(4TS, 479) or i, «, « (477 a) : rpi^i-ta (rpt^, rpo^-, Tpa<^) nourish rirpoipa, Xefvw 
(Xir-, JWiir-, Xaiir-) leave \i\am, rtlBu {rtS-, t«9-, iriii0-) persuade r4ratH IrtMt. 

969. Similarly verbs with the variation u, at, av (470) should have su ; trot 
this occuiB only in Epic efX^Xai/Ba (=Att. A^Xuffa); cp. A«i»(«)-7(>l«u. Other 
verbs hare tu, as ^c^u JUe ri^irya. 

566. After Attic reduplication (44A) the Bt«m of the eecond perfect bas Oio 
weak form ; <iX«I^ (dXei^, dXi^) anoint dXiJXt^. 

967. Apart from the variationB in 563-666 the vowel of the verlj-stem re- 
mains onchanged: asY^^^o (,ypi^ write), k^kv^ (jcfrrru sloop, ajp-). 

966. The meaning of the second perfect may differ from tliat of Che present ; 
aa tfiriyopa am aieake from lytlfa wake up, aiainia grin from snlpa mBeep. 
The Mcond perfect often has the force of a present ; as r^oiAi trutt (v/rtun 
have persuaded). See 819. 

969. Aspirated Second Perfects. — In many stems a final t oc ^ 
changes to ^ : a final k or y changes to x. (^ and x here imitate 
verb-stems in <^ and ^i as rpt^, jpiWdi.) 

MID. Horn, has several fortliH unknown to Attic : SiSeinra ISovr-i-u sound), 
(oXra (IAt-b hope), topya (^^fu wort), xpa-^PaiiXa (^iJXop«i Wicft), iUhd^ ((iA« 

care for). 

MS D. Bnt tiSia fear from iFt-. See 656 b. D., 703. 

i69D. Horn, never aspirates r, (3, «, 7. Thus «itoiri4t = Alt. wnofiif («*r-T-i* 
aa). The aspirated perfect occurs once in Hdt. (_iwtT6n4>ri 1. 86) ; but Is mt- 
known tn Attic until the fifth century b.c. Soph. TV. 1009 (drar^po^) to Uw 
onlj example In tragedy. 

OBEEK SRAM. — 12 , 


Kitm (an-') cut WiD^n, ir/^r-w send wiwo/upa, ^Urrw (fititfi-') tnjttn p4- 

fSXd^a, Tptfiu (TfHp-) rub r/rpl^a, ^Uttw (^vXai-) (fttartl -rc0dXax> ! t^-" 
(rjx^) nouruA TtTpotpa ; ip^rru (Jpu^-) rliff 'pi&pi'XB' 

570. Host Buch stems have a sbort vowel immedlatel; before the final coa- 
tosant; a long rowel precedes t.g. in itU-ri-iu idSuxa, aipirTu (nipuc-) -uirf- 
fux"! rriflaia (rrTii-) Ivrnx"' r^/H^ and r/SXt^ Bhoir r. ^ coDtraat to i In the 
present (rpt^u, fMfiu). vripiyia, Xit^v-w do not aspirate (t^npya, poeL XAa^ra). 

571. The following Terbe have aspirated second perteolB : i7w, iXXtlrrw, 
Arotyu, pliirrti, ItUiViu, liiixw (rare), Mj9w, rniptrTa, cXArru, ic^rw, Xayx^mi, 
Xa^i/Siim, \dirra>, Xtyai collect, ^ttu, lulyiniiu, rtiiwv, rUnu, rpdrrw, xr^w, 
r^Tru, Tpiwa, Tfitfiti, ^ipa (fniiex")! ^Xdrrui. in^ya or itvofYrv^ bas two per- 
fecta : iritfx'^ &■><) Mifyt,. rplrTui du has r^/Kt7a have dont and /ar« (tMl^ or 
HI), and (generally later) r/rpaxa have done. 

573. Second Perfects of the |u-fonn. — Some verbs add the endir^ 
directly to the lediipUeated verb-stem. Such second perfects lack 
the singular of the indicative. 

Irrq/u («Ta-, (tti)-) »et, 2 perf. stem iifra- ; Ivra-iur, Irra-rt, irr&-vt, lat. 
iari^rai ; 2 plup. Ifra-rM (417). The singular Is supplied by tbe forms In -at ; 
as Imjai. Tbese second perfects are enumerated in 704. 

573. Stem Gradation. — Originally the second perfect was Inflected througb- 
ont witbout any thematic vowel (cp. the perfect middle), but with stam-grv 
dation : strong tormti in the singular, weak forms elsewbere. -a (1 singular) was 
Introduced In part from the aorist and spread to the other persons. Corre- 
sponding to the infiection of elSa (704) we expect ir/irgi0a, niirtifBa, rirntt, 
irtritTtr, trtriBiKr, ■rtwrt, rerWan (from wiriSfri), Tracea of this mode of 
inflection appear in Horn. yFyiTtir (from ycyjTttr, 35 b) yiyaiar from yiyam ; 
ri'irroi>, ttKTiir, Umii from laum ; triwiBiut ; ni)uiiitt from i/J/uira ; rtrtuSt (for 
rn-aPre = xftgert) from rixafBa (other examples 704, 705). So the maac. and 

neut. participles have Che strong forms, the feminine bas the weak forms (fw/iv- 

Kifa, iixiMtiiia, as tlSiiit, iSula). 



574. The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive 
is the reduplicated verb-stem, to which the personal endings are 
directly attached. Xikv-itai I have loosed myself or have been looted, 
^X(Xv>i»v; iiSo'tuu {Si-iio-fu give), &iSay-fiai (SciK-vii-fu ahou)). On the 
euphonic changes of consonants, see 409. 

BT4 D. A tbemstic vowel precedes tbe ending in Horn. iiiiifi\tTu (jiAm can 
for), ipiipTTM (Sfittiu route). 



STS. The stem of the perfect middle is in general the same as 
that of the first perfect active as r^ards its vowel (557), the reten- 
tion or expulsion of v (559 a), and metathesis (559 d). 

rifiik-u Konour rtri^ii^iuu im-lieifoir ; roi^-u make rcTofir-^iai ttrewai^/air ; 
ypi^-v write yfypan-iiai ; nfiltu (Kptr-) jitdge titpi-iiai ; rtirui (rir-) ttreUh rira- 
wu \ ^tttpv C^/>-} eorrvpt lipSap-iuu ; ^\\u (^X-) throw ^^Xi^uu ifii§\1iii.ii*; 
rtiSH (»iS-, Til*-, irmfl-) perauads rirtia/iai irtirtla;i^r. 

576. The vowel of the perfect middle sl«iii should show the weah form when 
there is variation between t (ei, <i>) : o (oi, su) : a (i, v). The weak form In k 
kppean r^ularly in verbs containing n liquid (4TD) : that In v, iu r^tw/ui from 
rvrMrafui {rvB-, wmt-) learn, poet. Irrv/tM hasten from vftu (iru-, tev-) urge. 

977. The vowel of the present has often displaced the weak form, a* hi 

TfrXc7;u' (,r\it-u wravK), XAci/i/ui (XcIt-w leOW), rirturiiai (wild-ti perSMOde), 
ffnrvftw {^ty-m-ia yoke). 

378. A final short vowel of the verb-stem is not lengthened in the verbs 
given In 488 a. e is added (4S5) In many verbs. For metathesis see 492 \ for 
Attic reduplication see 446. 

S79. f is retained in endings not beginning with n, aa ^m (0ai^) sAote, 
rl^rrtu, wilmtit. Before -^i, we have n in &i,Mii.iiai from i^tra (i^vr-) tharpen, 
but OBoallj V is replaced b; r. On the iiiseiiion of r, see 48S. 

sea Fotore Perfect — The stem of the future perfect is formed 
by adding -a%- to the stem of the perfect middle. A vowel imme- 
diately preceding -a%- is always long, though it may have been short 
in the perfect middle. 

\t-ti loote, X«X*-ffo>Mi / shall have been loosed (pert. mid. XAC-fioi), ti-m 
bind Stt'^eiuu (perf. mid. SiSt-iiat), ypi^-u write ytypii/i-oiMi, itoWw call m- 

581. The future perfect nmisJIj' has a passive force. The active meaning is 
found where llie perfect middle or active has an active meaning (1046, 1947). 

«<TVof«u thall poism (^nfirrviiat possess), MupdEotiai shall cry out (^nfxpiya 
erf rmf), ttt\Ay^iuu shall sereant (ii^iXa77a scream), /u^ri}va/iai shall remerti' 
ber (fi^finr/iu remember), rrro^ofiai shall have ceased (r^av/ioi have ceased). 

582- Not all verbs can form a fature perfect ; and few forms of tliis tense 
occur outside of the indicative; Btauere\tHTir6utyvf Thuo. 7. 26 is the only sure 
example of the participle in classical Greek. The infinitive iie)iriiataSai occun 
in Horn, and Attic prose. 

583. The periphraBtic conslruolion (601) of the perfect middle (passive) 
participle with Iwiuu may be used for the future perfect, as t^tutiiint f<roiuu I 
fhtiil have been dfcrived. 

ckXi}!'!), ttxa't^'iotTai \ ntKaB'^aaiiai, 


384. Future Perfect Active. — The future perfect active of most 
verbs is formed periphrastically (600). Two perfects with a present 
meaning, irr^Ka Island (*<mwju set) and TiSytjKo. I am dead (6vq<tk<o), 
focm the future perfects iirr^ I shall stand, rdSirq^ui I shall be dead. 




585. The stem of the first aorist passive is formed by adding -Ap 
(or-tfi-) directly to the verb-atem: l-kv^w I was loosed, i-<ftdf^^ I 
«HW shown ('paiyia, ^i^), i-&6-$7)-v I was given (fii^iofu. So-, Sto-). 

L -9^ appears lii the indicative, imperative (except the third plunU), and 
Intinitive ; -$€- itppears in the other moode. -0q- is found before a aingle oonso^ 
nant, -fit- before two consonants or a vowel except in tlie nom. neuter of tbe 

SS6. The verb-stem agrees with that of the perfect middle herein: 

a. Vowel verbs lengtlien tlie final vowel of the verb-atem, aa t(-tJ>ijj-^i, 
^i»M|-#ij», On verbs whicli do not lengthen their final vowel, see 488. 

b. Liquid stems of one syllable change « to a, as r^-ra-^iai, tri-ftir (rtlww 
ttrelch, r«>^). But crpi^ia turn, rpfwu turn, rp^u noarith have iaTpiipBrft, trpt- 
^6ti*, ktpi^iB^w (rare), tbougb the perfect middles are fv-rpafiwii, T^pa^i/uu, r^ 

C I^mitive verbs showing In tiieir stems the gradations < (», cu) : o (at, ov) : 
a (i, u) have a strong form, as tr^ii^v from i-p^uj {jfew-, Tptnr-, rpar-) turn, 
IM^Otii from \tlru (Xiir-, Xfii--, Xoir-) leavt, h-Xn)wftj» from xW« (r\u-, rXtv-) 

d. Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between r : ir and » : h 
have, in the first aorUt passive, the short vowel. Thus, rlA^fu (ft-, A)-) irt^n, 
m<4iu. (So-, S<a-) MWqr. 

•. Final v is dropped in some verbs : Ki-tpi-imi, inplSriii. See 4S1. 

f. The verb-stem may suffer metathesis : ffi-ffX^riiiai, i-^^Biir. See 492. 

g. Sigma is often added : le-n/Xcixr-^uu, i-ti\tia-e^r. See 48». 

587. Before & of the suffix, >■ and become iff, k and y become 

X (82 c) i T, &,$ become <t (83). i^ and x remain unaltered. 

iy-H ifX-ftr ; jiofiifw (kiimS-) imiila-diir, tilS-ia iriie'-ftjr; -ypi^nii iyfitp-Bijr, ra- 
pJTTta JTopax-') 4T apix-»V'- ^ __^_^ 

SM D. Ham. has ttxap^u and Kixapiaoneu from x^'P" (JCV*) rejtiire. 

Its a. D. For -^ar we find -Btr in Hotn., as SUKpieer. 

IMb.D. iarpi^frir is Ionic and l>ori(t ; Horn, and HdU have irpdpff^y 
from TpiriM. Horn, has tripi^eiir and MpifieTit from T^pru gladden. 

6M e. D. Mom. haa iii\ir»it and /nXiaqr, ^npfi^r and jk^iI^v ; lip6r»^r s= Att. 
I>/iMi)P (lip^ «rec(), dfivrtfrAiF (dravr^M revive). 

jm] second passive SYSTKM (H PASSIVE) 181 

588. 9 of the verb-stem becomea r in i^i-9iir for ^S^^^^, ftnd io i-ri-^Tit tea 
t4*4^w from rle^iu (fc-, A)-) plaix and eia (So-, ffii-) $acrijice. See 126 c. 


309: The stem of the first future jiassive is formed hy adding 
-ir%' to the stem of the first aorist passive. It ends in -&tfaoitat. 
Thus, miScv&Tt-m^uu. I shall be edticaied, X\£^-aoiua I shall be looaed. 

Tifutw, tri/f/iejir Tlntfiifiaiiai ; ^dw, tlABiir UBiiaaiiai. • Xcfrw, Hjl^S^r \ti^64ivoiuu ; 
iilBti, httaB^r wiur^aoiiai ; Ttlnt, triffiir Tal^o/ioi.; tAttu, irix^' ■raxH'^lfu ; 
Ttf«u, MSiir Tte^Q/uu ; tlSa)u, iSidiir IoAfra>uu ; SrUrviu, Utix'h' Anx^<W<M- 

ix. second passive system (h passive) 

(second aohist and second future passive) 

sbcond aorist passivb 

MX The stem of the second aorist passive is formed by adding 
T (or -t-) directly to the verb-stem. Thus, ^/SAa^ijv / mos tn/ured 
from yS\<Jirrw 09Xoj8-). 

a. -ir- Appears In Uie Indicative, imperative (except the third pluial), and 
inflnilive ; -t- appears in the other moods, -ir- 'fl found before a single oon- 
WDant, -t- l>efore two consoDantB or a rowel except In the nom. neat, of the 

591. The second aorist passive agrees In form with the second aorist active 
of fu-verbs ; cp. Intraositive tx^p^r rtjolced with larifr stood. The passive nse 
WIS developed from the intransitive nse. 

392. Primitive verbs showing In their stems t^ grades ■ : d : a have a. 
Tbiu an I of a monoe;llabio verb-stem becomes a, as in rUn-w weaee twMtnit, 
tUr-T-u steai ^nXdnir, ^Ipu (_^9tp-) corrupe HiSipTir, FTiWu (ortX-) ««nif 
lvTO.^r, But \iyu Collect has O^qr. 

993. Primitive verbs showing In their stems a variation between a short 
and long vowel have, In the second aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus t^iw 
(t«-, rim-) "Kit trix^w, l>^niu (^ay-, fifiy, part-') break ipfdyrir. 

a. Bnt rXi^rw (irXav-, rXry-) xtrUCe has hMyit' o"'y 'n composition, as 
iinrid-nw; otfaerwlae /vX^mr. 

594. The second aorist passive is the only aorist passive formed In Attic 
pmee bj iyri/u (Uyiir), ypi^ (iypi^lr), Sipm (Md^ifr), ddrria (^d^ifv), iciwTu 
(itit^w), iiairu (f^nfr), ri^ti {hrrty^t), fiiwTW (^ipfii^r), piu {ippiiir active), 
tfrrviu (ippiyTl*'), »iiT« (^liiriii'), at:6,wru {ivKA^v), vwilpa {itripifr), rrt\\u 

[l^tiptir pasB. and intr.), ^iu (in subj. #uw), xofp" (,*x^' active). 

IM D. Horn, has no example of the first future pasdve. To express the 
idea of the passive future the future middle is used. See 802. Doric shows tho 
active endings in both futures passive ; SaxBv^tBm, itayfo^tivtt 

HOslD. For trrai' we genanU; find trtfrom-qpr, 40) in Horn.; also in Doric. 


595. Both the flnt oorist passive bod the second aoriat psMive an iormed 

but ffu»«\^»), /idrTK (i^7i»), lul-yrv/u (^iidytir), iifTnifu [.^rdyiir), rUjcw 
(trMiTit), tXi^tu (ftr\i)7i7« anJ -<»^<'71f), fitrru (ippt^ftj^ ippl^i), artpltxit 
\ieyt(4»t,>), BTpiif^ (iarpiifiiir), TdTri* (^dxftlO. J-^™ (.fritrir), rpiru (*rpd- 
»il» pass, and intr.), Tp<^« (irpifnir pass, and intr.), Tptffui (^trplBv, irpi^^^r), 
ipalinD {i^tdrjg wwt shovm, i^irrir appeared), ^fiiyniu (ii^dxSri'), V*^" C*A*- 
Xif")- Host of these verbs use eitlier the one in prose and tbe other in poetry, 
tJie dialecu, or late Greek. Uuly the forms in common prose use are Inaened 
la biMdceis. 

996. Only those verbs which have no second aorist active shov the aeoond 
aoHst pasaive ; except rpfrw, nhich has all the norisis : active frpt^a and frpo- 
ror turned; middle irpt^Aint' put to flight, frpavVl' turned mytel/, took to 
fiight ; passive irpi^Biir vsas turned, irpimir ieat turned and turned nm»elf. 


597. The stem of the second future passive is fonoed by adding 
•v%- to the stem of the second aorist passive. It ends in tfrofiat. 
Thus, pXiffi-iiaoiim I shall be injured from ^Xarra 03Aa/3-) i-pXa^ifv. 

kAt-t-ai, iK&wyiy (ST^irii^uK ; ypi^a, iypd^r ypa^'iroiiai ; ipalru, i^r^r (q>- 
peared, ^i^v/wi ; ^iStlpa, i^6&py)r ^tfapita'afuu ; r^w/u Jlx, iniy^r iray^oiiai. 

598. Most of the verbs In 6M, 606 form second futures passive except iy^iu, 
dXel^w, ^drru, Ppix"^ ^tiyrviu, SU/Jw, eXAttu, fiafw, nirrtt, ^wrtt. 

But many of the second futures appear only In poetry or In late Qreek, and some 
Are found only in composition. 

899. Perfect — For the simple perfect and pluperfect periphrastic 
forms are often used. 

a. For the perfect or pluperfect active indicative the forms of the perfect 
active participle and ilnl or ^r may be used : as XiXumii il/u for X/Xuno, JwXunit 
<|r tor iXiXtKit. Ho /Se^^cdrcT ^aar for iffiffotfi^iturat {^Sia come to aid) ; 
tC/d Tt^ijKi^i for t49j)kb I have plai-fil ; ytypa^iii 4*' tor Jytypdipf) I had written; 
tiii<iy6t!it lir I had suffered. Such forms are more common In the pluperfect 
and in general denote state rather than adion. 

b. For the perfect active a perlpbraais of the aorist participle and tx^ I* 
Hometimes used, CHpecially when a perfect active form vrith tnnsltlve meaning 
is lacking ; as ffTifirfit lj£u / have placed (^ItrtiKa, intransitiva, etand). ipaaMt 
tx" I have loved. So often because tlie aspirated {>erfect is not used, a« fxta 
rapHai thou hait itirred up. Cp, kabeo with tiie perfect participle. 

7 D. Horn, has only Saiittai (iSi^r learned), my^'irB'u (^tulyOm mtx). 


c. In the perfect Kttive subjancdTe imd opUUve the forma In -jiiii and -mi/u 
m ntj me. In Iheir place the perfect active participle with S aud tfiir is usu- 
lUj employed : X^XvuiIif (XiXsirdii) H, ttiiii. Uther foniu tlian 3 aing. and S pL 
•lenre. Cp. 091, 694. 

d. The perfect or pluperfect passive is often paraphrased bj the perfect par- 
ticiple and irrl or 9v; as yeypaH'^i^r irrl it gtanda Vritten, iari ittoyiiint it 
Mandi reaoIiKd, ■■(VJTy7eX/i^»» fl» = » (i/j^yi'«XTo (rapoTTAXu give order*). 

e. In the third plural of the perfect and pluperfect middle (pasaive) the per- 
fect middle participle with iltl (Vi") ie used when a stem ending In a conBouant 
would come In direct contact with the endloga -ptu, -pro. Bee 408, 

f. The perfect subJunctiTe and optative middle are formed by the perfect 
middle p*iticiple with iS or tXtir : XiXu^mi S, lliir, 

%. The perfect imperative of all voices may be expresaed by combining the 
perfect participle with laBt, fa-ru (6B7), \thvKiin laSi loose, etc, tlni^ror 
Uru let U hOK been taSd, ytyiwin taru P. L. 961 o, yiyor&m tsTuaai V. L. TT» d. 

k. FeriphTasB of the Infinitive Is rare : TtSntKltTa thai to be dead X. C. 1. 4. II. 

60a Futare Perfect Active. — The future perfect active of most 
▼erbe is formed by combining the perfect a<;tive participle with itro- 
fiat ahali be. Thus, ytypai^m irroiutx I shoil have written, cp. scriptua 
ero. For the two verbs which do not use this periphrasis, see fiS4. 

a. Tbe perfect middle participle is used in the case of deponent verbe i drs- 
XiXayntivt tvtiiat And. 1. 72. 

«cn.. Patnre Perfect Pauive. — The future perfect passive may 
be erpressed by using the perfect middle (passive) participle wito 
ScrofMu bKoR be. Thus, hlitvonivm i<rax9t you mil have been deceived. 


608. Verba in -u have the thematic vowel -% (""/if-) between the 

tense-stem and the personal eudiugs iti tlie present system. The 

name " (o-conjugation," or "thematic conjugation," is applied to all 

verbs which form the present and imperfect with the thematic vowel. 

603. Inflected according to the lo-conjugation are all thematic 
presents and imperfects ; those second aorists active and middle in 
which the tense-stem ends with the thematic vowel ; all futures, all 
first aorists active and middle ; and most perfects and pluperfects 

604. Certain tenses of verbs ending in -<u in the first person 
present indicative active, or of deponent verba in which the personal 
endings are preceded by the thematic vowel, are inflected without 
the thematic vowel, herein agreeing with ^-verbs. These tenses 
are: all aorists passive; all perfects and pluperfects middle and 
passive; a few second perfects and pluperfects active; and those 
second aorists active and middle in which the tense-stem does not 
end with tbe thematic vowel. But all subjunctives are thematic. 


MS. Verbs in -«> fall into two main classes, distinguished hy the 
last letter of the rerb-atem : 

1. Vowel verbs : a. Uncontracted verbs, b. Contracted verbs. 

2. Consonant verbs : a. Liquid verbs, b. Stop (or mute) verbs. 
K. Uitder 2 fall also (c) those verba whose Bteros ended in a- or ^ (^S^)- 

606. Vowel Verba. — Vowel verbs UBually do not form second 
aorists, second perfects, and second futures in the passive. A vowel 
short in the present is commonly lengthened in the other tenses. 
Vowel verba belong to the fii-st class of present stems (498-504 ; but 
see 612). 

607. Vowel VertM not contracted. — Vowel verbs not contracted have 
verb-stems ending in f, v, or in a diphthong (at, a, av, tv, m). 

(l) ieeiia eat, wptu tme, xpt" anoint, poet. Slw fear, rtu honour (600. 8); 
(«) iriiii accorapliah, fuSiw am intoxicated, Xdu Zoom, Mm taerifiee, ^ta produce, 
tuKta hinder (find many others, 500. 1 &); (cu) traiw tcratch, -kUw strike, rrala 
Humble, raXaiu virestte, dytie/uii am indignant, ialv kindle, ialoiiai dfcfrfc, 
\Aaloiuu desire eagerly, poet. /Mla/uii desire, nfu dieell, ^atia etrfke ; (») kX^ 
(l&t«r iXifu) thM, atlto thake. Epic h(u split and rest; (au) aw ttadle, Bpaite 
break, direXa^ enjoy, ra.6u makf. cease (vate/ui eeaer), poet, taii* rut; (n) 
PaffiXttw am king, pouXtiu cotmiU {ffau\t6oiiai deliberate), fftiptiti hunt, xt^xiw 
order, \tiu stone, ToiSciiw educate, x'p'^'' dance, ^rtiw elay. Most verba in -tua 
are either denominaiivea, as part\t6w from ffafi\f6t ; or are due lo the analogy 
of such denominattvefl, as ruStiw. tt<niuu taste is a primitive. Ma> run, riu 
neim, irXAd sail, w*ia breathe, fiiu Jlow, x^^ POur have forms in (v, v ; cp. poet- 
<rt6u urge, i\r6a avert, d^c^ am grieved; (ov) itt6u hear, xoXoiadoek, rpatu 
beat, yatu teaih. 

608. Some primitive vowel verbs In -lu, -uu (622) formed their present atein 
by the aid of the sufBz i(_ji), which has been lost. DenominaUves In -<», ^k, 
•o/ui regularly added the suffix, as puet, fiijtl-u am viroth from >ii]h-jh (ji^n-s 
wrath), poet Saxpiu weep (idxpu tear), poet, ^iri-u beget from ^Iru-ju, fwAiu 
am drwik, puriKtOu am king. Poet. SripUiiai, paarlu, li^la/iai, mjiclu, dxA^, 

609. The stem of some of the uncontracted vowel verbs originally ended 
to * or f (624). 

610. Some verba with verb-stems In vowels form pteaeutB in -m (523), as 
■Ik* drink, *«™ perish ; and in -ff.w (526). 

611. Vowel Verba contracted. — Vowel verbs that contract have 
verb-steras ending in u, c, o, nith some in S., -q, «>. 

612. All contracted verba form their preiient stem by the help of the anfflx 
j(»). and properly belong to llie ThinI Clasfl (622). 

613. Some contracted verbs have verb-stems which orleinally ended In v 
or f (624). 


614. Uqnid Teiba. — Liquid verbs have verb-Btema in A, /i, f, ^ 
He present is Tarelf formed from tbe aimple veTb-stem, m in nir-<e remain; 

ordinarily tlie ButBk i (j/) is added, Ba in o-tAXu (rrtX-^) tend, xftnv (_-^fti*) 
piigr, trtlru (crei-jM) tlaj/, ^alru (^ai^isij fflow. 

615. A short vowel of the verb-atem retn^DB abort in tlis futore but ia 
leugtheaed in the first sorist (644). Thus : 

■. ■ in the future, i| in tbe aoriat: ^alta (^at^) ihoiB, 0arA, (0i|m. In tUa 
elaoa fall all verba in -oipw, -atpu, -a\Xw. 

b. « in the future, «i in tbe aonst : /Jr-a remain, iitrQ, (finm ; vtAXh (^rtX-) 

•e>d, rrcXS, fa-mXa. Here belong verba in -iXXu, -c^iu, -cfiw, -tpa, -tiftt, 

c. I in tlie future, I in the aorist; *\tr» (iXip-) ineline, cXTrS, hXim, Here 

belong verbs in -iXXu, -iw, -ipw. 

d. fi in the future, ■ In the aorist: ri^ C'vp-) drag, aOpS, tavpa. Here belong 

verbs iu -vpv, -um. 
For the formation of the fnture ateni see 636, of tbe aorist stem see 644. 

616. For tbe perfect stem see 669. Few liquid verbs make second perfects. 
On the eliange of «, a of the verb-atem to d, >i In the second perfect, see 47S, 484. 

Liquid verbs niih futures in -w do not form future perfects. 

617. Monosyllabic verb-Htems containing t have a in tbe first perfect active, 
perfect middle, first aorist and future passive and In all second aorists, but o in 
the second perfect. Thus, ^Stlpa (^Scp-) corrupt, I^Sapta, t^Bap/i^i, ii^int, but 
Jt-/^«>pa haoe dettrayed (810). 

618. A few monosyllabic stems do not change (to a in the2Bor., aer^iuwetit 
Irt/ur (but (rajuw In Hom., HdL etc.), ylynoiuu (ytii-) become iytii6iAtit. See also 
9ilm, BipojMi, itXoiuu, root ^r-, Feir liquid verl» form second aorialH. 

619. Stemsot morethanonesyUabledonotobange the vowel of the verb-stem, 

620. Llat of Liquid Verba. —The arrangement la according to the classee of 
tbe prewnt stem. Words poetic or mainly poetic or poetic and Tonic are starred. 

L /MXo^uu {fiovX-t-), IBi\ia (_ie<\t-), (JMw* (c'X-c-), rXXw*, /liXXw, piXu, 
WXo/iai*, ^Mu (Epic ^iX-). — fipi/ua*, y4iia, Siiiu', SipiuJ*, rt/ia, Tpi/ui, 
and ytiiiv (yaii-t-). — ylyniiat (_ytr-t-), liirw, id/iriii' (/«»-)> rira/iat, 
fflVrw*, frirv, and yiywriw' (yeyur^-). — Verba in -tfia and -tvu have 
cmly prea. and Imperf,, or form tbeir tenaea in part from otber atems, — 

Upn, fpOfiot (^j>-<-), fppu (_ipp-t-), Bfpo/iat*, atlpoiiat, ^pw, iwaiifiiu", 
(travp-i'), mnd xvpiifi {tvp-t-), ropiu* (rop-t), 
HL *f*XXo^. drvAXu, afiXXu*, AXXo/uu, dririXXu*, 0i\\u, ioiBdXXw*, BiWa, 
MXXu*, MdXXofui*, «WXX», i<t>ti\» ii<pt\., it^>XO. A^AXu*. rdXXu, 

TMufXXw, «AX«», irr^XXui, -tAXu, rlXXui*, r^dXXu, ^dXXui. Mva verbs 

(the following llat Includes primitives, and most of the denominaUvea In 

J Greek from eniant ir-stems, kt from atema which once contained 

olfu*, irSpalia*, i^paina*, jfi/ulm*, Spalr*J*, tt^pahu. 

■14 D. npipgifOat in Pindar is made from ^^u {4>tpu knead"). 


186 O-C0NJU6ATI0N : STOP VERBS [«*i 

AaufMln*, IoJm;*, atlnt*, xpalru', icu^lnf*, jwfwim*, XS/iaJpa/ioi, /f^rf-r 
fui, t«Jra>, iniialKa', Tigialru*, rtoliu*, ire^wJiu, jlolnf, iralru, fffioIiH, 
artfi/Mirtl*, TtnTOlrBiuu, ^airu, ^Xey/ialru, x'l*'^'''*! xp^nn. All OthOT 
deiKiminaUves In -airw are due to aualogjr ; aa drfiiairw, aAaCw, TXwahw, 
Surxcpolm, txipairu, 8tpiiaiiu, IrxraXnu, xtftoira, cDiXafm, (Malpu* XMUni, 
}in)iiain^, iiapalma, /lo^afm*, /ua(w, /udpaffU, iDpalm, ipiialra^, dv^paiit- 
lUU, TfraJw, wtpalru, wmpalru, jbvTafm, Ttrpajru, ^wfni, Mpolm*, A^oJni, 
XaXtnfni. — dXttCva', yelvo^uu*, ^pnJfw*, Dcfnn', KTeffw, impcfno", vrdnf*, 
relfU, ^adKii*. — itXtiw (<Xi-P-), Kptru (cpi-r-), ilplm*, irfNi^uu (Xmopll.), 
ditru. — alrx^, d\70rw, iprtn^, PaBiru, Pofitrw, ppaitrw; Ifltwu, 
Bnpatnii, (Mm*, Xn-rdm, Jfdru, ^/rrAtu*, rXfrw. — a[pi*, (UnraJpH, 7vh4m^, 
ttalpu^, ^0al|>u*, KaftiJpu, fWp^fpw*, /i«7Bip'>^i veipa', OKaifv, rtniialpaiMi, 
X^f (xi>J>-<-)i ^alpw- — ^Y*'f"i (UkI^'i f<ipw, iytiptt, tlpoiuu,', -ttpu 
join, ifpu* toy, Vffpu*, Ktlpa, ittipoitat, wilpw', gwilpii, rd^w*, ^ttlftt. — 
otMrtpH (mUwdtten olrrefpu). — mi^po^Lai*, >ui^iip(i>uu, im^poiMi', ittf- 
fitpi^, iiipa*, iiipoiMi, dXo^dpofUi, tropifitpai', rtpai, iptpa*, 
IT. a. nlfiiw, T^^fuj b. j^Xurnltv) (i)^X-<-) ; h. ^afiw, npJojRii, Ttrpalnt 
(tieo Clu* ni) ; i. 6rppalK>,iiu{6<r<t>p-c-), also C\aitBm. V. See 6:iT. 

621. Stop Verbs. — Many verb stems end ia a stop (or route) con- 

The present is formed either from the simple verb-stem, as in rX^-« veave, 
or by the addition of r or i (y) to the verb^tem, as in (SXirru (^Xo^) tnjure, 
4iv\iTTiii (^uXan-ju) gwird. All lenses except tbe present and imperfect are 
formed without the addition of t or ( to the verb^tem ; thus, /SXd^w from 
p\afi-r-ai, ^Xdfui from ^uXai-ff-u. 

622. Some monosyllabic slems show a variation In the quantity of the stem 
vowel 1 or u, as rp^u rub perf. Tfrplipa, •fitx" COdl 2 aor. pass, htrttxt'i ^4'*' intlt 
(Doric rlcu) 2 aor. puss. irSintr. Cp. 475, 4TT c, 600. Many In onosy liable- stems 
show qualitative vowel gradation : i«oi;sniov;ai|«;a«a. "Fot exampln 
see 477-164. 

623. Liat of Stop Verbs. — The arrangement of the examples Is by clasHs 
of the present stem. Words poetic or mainly poetic or poetic and Ionic an 
■tarred. The determination of the final consonant of the verb-stem of verbs in 
-{n, -rrw (poetic, Ionic, and later Attic -o-rw) is often impossible (616). 

V — I. ^yjvbi, Bpiwu, fXru*, Mrv', troiMi, tprlxal*, Ipru, Xdftrw, Xflrti, \irt, 
/lAroT*, wifAwu, wp^tt, pirtaf, rtpru, Tptrw, 
II. (t*Tpdrr«, 7inl^»Tiij', Sirru*, iriwri^, ip4rroiiai*i iiwru*, ni^vTw, 
jtX/ttu, irdirTtai, /uiprrbf*, fftfrrofiai, fftifTTW, aicifpiTTOitaL*^ riri^rrtf, 
XaXArrw, and 3suirf>.i* (Sainr-c-), KTowiu' (rrvr-c-), tAttw (rmr-c). 
P— I. ipttpoiiai, SUfiu, Xef^u*, ai^iuu, irrel^u*, Tfi^w, itipa^at*. 

II. ^d«TU, laXAirrw. — IV. c. Xa^dru (Xo^-]. 
ip — I- dXil^u, yX^w, 7pd|pu, ipi^w, )Uii^)tax, xl^ (^^i), rf^i fr/^, 
erpi^, Tpf^, tA^u*. 
IL drru, ;}<fTru, Spiwru', Wttu (126g), «p«rrw (12Gk), xpihrru (irp*^, 

cfiii|}-), ic«TTw, XdnTw, ^iTTW, ^Tu (ippi^^t, but ^tiT-i^), tfiArrv. 
IV. a. Wr«i" = ir(irT-«.~dX*di«»(dX«-). — V. d»«*J#K«« (d*-*-). 



T — I. l«T/e»i«i" (S«T-(-), mjtAb* («w-<-), rar/e/iBj (iroT-<-), r^fioi ("sr-, 

IIL iypi*ttfl, oifidtfvu*, ^Xfrru (^\it- from >Ait-, 130), Ppdrrit, ipUa,^, 

XJtrtfOfuu*, wvpinu (rvper-, rvpry-). 
IV. b. d^M^dm (d>ui^-f-), ^XuTTdiu (^\a.rr-(-). 
S— L f>w, a\it«w> (dXi>«-t-), inipiu*, ipta, rSu*, cfBofuu*, /rtlTw, ^Sw*, 
(ta0)ffiIiK (iM-f-), ifittiuH, K^tu* {irqi-t-), KvUrSu*, fMoiiai' {luS-f), 
fiiltaiiai', riptaiuu, nwiriu, crtiSti), ^tUaiim (also Epic 0cu)e-), ^tito- 
lioi, and mXaJ/u* (m\ai-«-). 

III. Ex&iuples of denoininatiTea from actual 3-Btems. yvittilu, SncdfiH, >i- 

Xdfle, (uTf(l{»^«u", 4*(fi>/iai«, iralfw, rtfiTiJta, ^aicdfta, — ■iXlJ*/«u, !«#- 
pllu, AirJfif, ^plfhi, npclfu, Xi^jHifiai, vrMtii, ipporrltu, ^^^({W. 

IV. drSinf* (ia-«-), «pJaiw (japSa,^, ttpl-t-), oiad«*» (o/J-c), XM^Mt 

CX«*-. Xo'S-iX**'-)- 
t— L ii»w*, aXffs^utO {i\9-t-'), dxAifw, /S/x&fw*, (Twh (^, 603 B), iptiB^. 
txii^, nieW, kXiWh*, XitAri* wtlSu, riptti', trtMo^nu*, rv«w, and 
yifiiM (Tir»*-), (iWw (<i^«-)- 
ni. nptrrw*. 

IV. b. airM><ivia<(<air»^), d>-txMH)fiai(^X'^).^<^>M>w(aap#^), JXwMh 
(JXwf-^), J^rMrti i\aS-j, «uirMru (>ui«->-), nirMK/uu (rii»-). 
V. >irx«''0TrB^Kw(ge, 126). 
K— L pptxu, l4piaiMi; Siiinu, eliu field, thai* raembU, f>jcti, iptixi^, iptKt^, 
Uku, Inu*, iriiii^, iWiKii, (i*7i:«", T^itu, tUtb (tk-) and Stiiiu (Jo«-»-), 
H^Kiaiuit (/tijK-o-), flSnia^uit (»uiic.<i-), 
IIL oiWrrafuj, ^ttw, ttBiTrafiaif Alrrv, iritriri^, Bufr^wt/^y nyp^rrtt, fiB- 
XdrTu, Mi'T^Wi v^Tw (and r^Tw), rXlss-a^uu*, ^/rirrw, rriirrw, 
- IV. ft. Mxw) a. ln^Aia<(Iii-).— V. See 62Tb. 
Y — L Atu, dfiA7*>, dfr^Tw*, twtlyu, Hpya, ipttyt/jMi*, 9iXyiii*,B^u,\iyu,\iiy<ii, 
dp/yu", iityn, arfyu, arifrju, r^lyyu, riyyu, r/i^u*, rpiirfu, ^ttyu, 
^Biyyviuu, ^\/yii, tppiyu, \I''yv, and piyiu (^y-t-), irrvyiu (rrvy-e-). 
in. Va>* and ^lu» (611). —djUfuu*, dXaXdtte", dkardj^, dfnrdfto, stadf^ 
/hwrd^lu, Kpitld, rXdfU*, arifu, artrdiu, ir^d[lH* (it^ttu). — SattM", 
Aiifii[ta*, Kf)f{1d, /uurrffw, irsXrffltf, irrijpf^ CTlfVi, irrpo^nXIfw*, irufil^, 
Tpl(ta», ^p/ijfw*. — dTli{Jijiai» 7p<ll*i, *i*f«, iJXiiXrlJW, ff^fifll. — o(/uiflil. 
IV. C teyyim (ft-y-). _ V. >ijff7« (5B0c). 
X— I- 4tX"i dpX". Ppax- !n ippa-x^, Pp^", tWxo*«u, ^^<^;«^^ 'WTK". 'PK*- 
flat, •Cxofiai, f XH (ir«x-). Mxw*, fffxw (ffurx-"). ^t'X"|^ t^X"!^' (("X"^). 
»)JX»*"i oTx^fiBi (oix-«-> o/x-«-)i i';'WX'*'i ■"'px'^'i •"■((xoi*, Tnixn*, Tjrf- 
X«*i Tptx" (rpSx-o-), f ^X", itSxu, and ppuxiapm* (3p6x-«-). 
m. d/i<ww*, ^^TTW, SpiTTu, 6p^TiMi, wrieaie, XTiiKtaa*, TopirTu. 
IV. C. <iTX*'w»(i"X-«-). ^7xd™ (XBx-).'-'O'Xi™ ('"X-*. 'OOC-)- — d- **»- 
TiffX'^»*'<''{il*"'"<X-)i i'l'tffx''"*"" ('''O:-)' — V, Jiidffjta (JJox-). 
^)^— L lX««»(dX(t+^d\«-),afft«. — IV. b. aiii>u(a6i^-y. — l. *^« (V-<-)- 

tak. Verba in «■ or pd). — Some verb-stems ended origiDally in 



a. Sigma-4teinB (cp. 4B8 d) with presents either from -«--» or -c-in). Thus 

(1) from -«-»'. lUaiiai, aiw burn, Yttlu, cvw, {Vut, fpo^, icf»fiu, rbro^cu* (n- 
ra-aiiat, op. >Ar-TOt)i f^w, «'". ■rpiui'; [2) from -<r-j» (488 d): d7a{afiw*, 
sfJ^Bfuu, dK^a^wt (Hom. imlwJti.)^ dfu^ui, TfXiu, «Ju* it/ifft, iXcIu* (i.f. 
■Xi^u) c«Iebriif«, iio^ia*, XiXaia/uu*, iiaiBiuv*, miu* (Jio«J/, rtmlu (Hom. 
Hinfu), oln^ufMlw*, oto^uu (from iUimi), rmeioi (Hom. trriStUi'), wtIttu 
^rnre-tv'), riUw (Hom. rtXtiu), and some others thst do not lengthen tLe 
vowel of the verb-stem (488). 

Also otbera, such as ipfvKtt (dpn-'), Iwniu., {tirni^u, rpinv/u (732). — » is 
retained In Tipaoiuu*. 

b. f-eUms (from -y-ju): Totu*, 3alu* kin^t, niiw (520), iXniu (620), ml^ 

«uijm, ;tou 1 222. — For the loss of /; in Mw, etc., see 43, 603. 

635. Verbs vhich end in <u in the first person present indicative ao- 
tive, and deponent verbs in which the personal endings are preceded by 
the thematic vowel, have the following peculiarities of inflection : 

a. The thematic vowel usnall; appears in all tenses except the perfect and 
pluperfect middle (passive) and the aorist pasalTe (except in the sabjonctive). 
These three tenses are inflected tike /u-verbs. 

b. The present and future singular active end in -w, -cu, -« (403). The ending 
-fu appears onlj in the optative. 

C. The thematic vowel o unites in the Indicative with the ending -rrt, and 
forms -cvirc (4a3d). 

d. The third plnral active of past tenses ends tn -t. 

e. The Imperative active has no personal ending In the second person aingn- 
1^ except -4-1 In the first aorist. 

f. Except in the perfect and pluperfect the middle endinga -av and -«o loM 
r and contract with the final vowel of the tense-stem (486 a, b). In the (^>t«live 
contraction cannot take place (Xil9i-(r)D, k6rai~{f)t). 

g. The Infinitive active has -tit (for -t-tf) in the present, future, and second 
aorist ; -c-rot in the perfect ; and -u in the aorist. 

h. Active participles with stems in -otr- have the nominative maacnlino in -h>. 

626. In 627-716 the method of inflection of all tu-verbs, both vowel 
and consonant, is described. The examples are generally taken from 
vowel verbs, but the statements hold true of oonsonant verbs. 

Forms of oi-verba which are inflected according to the non-tbematdo 
conjugation are included under the a>-rerb8. 

For the formation of the present stem see 497-631. 

627. Indicative. —Vowel and consonant verbs in -w Infect the preMnt by 
attaching the primary endings (when there am any) to ttie present stem in -^ 


(-"/tO- ^'■'i ""f^ (r(f(i-tf), ipaini, XfCrw. The imperfect &ttaabee the Moond- 
uy andinga to the pnseDt stem with the augment. See the p&radigma, pp^ lU, 
110. For the active fDmui -m, -«i, -«, see 463. 

628. -v Mid -<i ara loand in the pree. fut mid. and pa»., fnt, pert. 
[•M. *-(r)ai yieldB gj (written £1 in the Old Attic alphabet, 8 a), which ia 
luiiallj given as the proper spelling in the texts of the tragic poete, whereas ci Is 
printed in the testa of prose aiid comedy, n was often written tor v (p) after 
400 B.C., as in dyaSei tOxc'i Bince both had the sound of a close long «. It is 
often impoflsible to aettle the apelling ; but poiXa \ei$ht»t, oT^i thinkett, and 0f<i 
ihalt tee (from ipiv) have only the -<i forms, -n is sometimee called Attic and 
Ionic in contrast to -g of the other dialects, including the Eoinri. 

629. SnbjanctiTa. — The present subjunctive adds the primary endings to 
the tenae-etem with the long tlivinatic vowet. For the endings -nt, -g see 488. 
Thos, Xitu, -pi, -T), T-ifi^i (= TtiiA^t), rifi^ (= tiM-p)! ^ainaii4t, -qre, -hkti (from 
-arri). Middle Xto-fuu, Xijj (z= X6ij-o-(u), \6^^ai; rliiS^tot (= W^if-irfcv); 
^ttri'iiM0a, ^air^-aSt, ^alrv-rrat. 

630. Optatlre. — To the tense-stem ending in the thematJc vowel (always o) 
are added the mood-aiga -i- (-»-) or -iir- (450, 460) and the secondary peraonaJ 
endinga (except -lu for -r, where the mood sign is -i; 469). In the 3 pt. we 

a. The final vowel of the t^nse-stem (a) contiscta with the mood sofflx (i), 
<H becoming ot. Thus \ioiiu (Xi)(m-m<), \ton (XOo-t-i), XAo"' (XAo-n-'), Xiaf/n|> 
(Xn-t-f(i,r), Xteu (X«D-i-<ni). 

631. Impeiatire. — The present imperative endings are added to the tfinse- 
Hem with the thematic vowel t (o before -ituii). The 2 pens. sing, active has 
BO ending, but uses the tense-stem instead (tb18«w, ^ik). In the middle -aa 
loses its V (466, 2 a) ; \tav from Xitc-tfo, ^Inc from ^alut-ao. On the forms in 
-cTwra* and -taSuaaii for -errur and -taBtdt, Bee 460, 2 b. 

633. Participle. — The present participle adds -rr- to the present stem end- 
ing In the thematic vowel o. Stems in -o-rr have the nominative singular in -u*. 
Ulttsmaac. Xtfutfrom Xuarr-t, fem. Xltouo-afrom Xuorr-ja, neut. Xuor from XDaf(T). 

See 301 a and N. 

63t. A few^ a>-verbs in the present and imperfect show forms of 
the ;u-conj ligation. These are usually Epic. 

Ux^itax, 8 pi. J^xoTBi awiit for Sixgrat, part, Siy^tvat, iniperf. /8#tw But 
these are wFten regarded as perfect and pluperfect without reduplication. iiiynii» 

m D. Severer Ihiric has txv and fx" ; Milder Doi^c has tx'-^' i Aeolic has 
Ixv- Bom. baa iiitntir, iidirlium, iniriiixr. 

M D. Aeolic has fem. -etira in the present and second aorlBt (37 D. 3), 
XlW>, Xfirwtfa. 



InBomepftnogeeisAaaoondaoiist (688). — n» itol (626. 6), Inf. H/uku. — Ipin 
(Oittpiu') in tipiarmi. — Xoirrai lootA Is from Xierai, not from >oiu (cp. 898 a). — 
otuai fAinifc is probably a perfect to ofofiw (oi~o-}. — tirdtt wound in (Bra, oird- 
Ittrai Is 2 aor. — ^pu bear, Imper. <p4pTt. 


635. Verbs in -aa, -tio, -«» contract the final o, <, a of the verb-stem 
with the thematic vowel -<>/t (-"/ii) in the present and imperfect 
tenses. Thus, rZ/uu) tIiim, ■mnim irotu, SijAdbi SijXu ; tTifuuni tiinant, iroUm 
Iwwaav, i&^Kaov ^SifXow. The rules of contraction are given in 49- 
b5 ; the paradigms, p. 120. 

•. Open fonns of -*a> verba occur in the l;ric parts of tragedy. 

636. Subjunctive. — Tbe tiubjunctive adds the primaiy endingk For tba 
oontractiona aee 69. 

637. Opfaitiv*. — dM becomes f • 'ai and iot become or. Thus, -tio-i-^ = -vw, 

-ao-hr-r = Vl'i -*i>-t-»tiff = Vfl' j -/»-i-Mt = -«'*«. -«'-'i;-» = -«'l*i -«-(-fLflr = ~ol/t^v ; 
-&Hi-fu = -sifu, -o-ftr-* = -o^ifi -vo-i-HT)!' = -«lf«)i'. TbuB, Ti^i^igt (Ti>uu-Jit-F), rifiVv* 
(rf^uuW^), Ti^tf (ri^uw-'q), Ttiufiait (Ti>i4Ki-4-f«tr), xaici* (twAm-o'o) , tbwit* 

638. In the ttngular -ow verba usually end In -^>i>', -^, -<it, nrely la -fiu, 
•^i, -V. -iw verba usually end in -tlir, -«(i)t, -olq, rarely in -atju, -011, -oi (-ol 
chiefly in Plato). 

639. In the dual and plural -aw verbs usually end la -$T»r, -ifrfr, -v/itr, 
-yrt, -iftr, mrely m Vl'''"'t "V^l't -t'tftr, -<^ti, -iftrar. -na verbs OBiially 
end in -oi^'or, -olri)', -^iju"', -o^Ci -oitr, rarely in -olirroi-, -wijTift, -olii/Mr, -oiirr'i 

640. Few oasea of the optative of -«u verbs occur. In the ting, botb -ol^^ 
and -oifu are found ; in the plur. -wfier, -otrt, -our. For fily^iir from ^tydw Mver 
see Ml. 

641. Several contract verbs have stems in -a, -17, -cu. 

These are tbe verba of .304, 398 with appareDtly irregular contraction, and 
tpS do ; with presenla made from -o-ju, -17-iu, -ot-ju. Thus, from i^a, t^tt, (i^ 
and xfi^iiai, )t/i4f(ff-)ai, x/"^"' come fiS, fj'i fS 'nd W^»«"> X^5> Xpfrr"* i *" 
Si^4r, ircir^r from liifi'i-ir, rcini-ft. lSp6u, ^i^iu (SOB) derive the forms in ■ and 
y from lApw-, ^i^w- (Zfipt^, fiiyiSna from IS^wr^w, fiiyuff-^'). The fotma in -«v 
are from tbe weaker atems Itpotr-, filyaa-. 

641 D. Hum. haa Snfilior, ttiniur, rtiriianat, fiidouai, xp4v (Msa. x^fur) 
utteritig oraeleg, YtXiiw, ISpiiu. Tbe verba in 3<M, except SupQ and t«>i3, hare 
stems in i) and d (36 e) ; thue, In II<lt., xp^'^" ^""n XP^""' ^^^^ X/>'" lmper„ 
XfAlttrtt from x^. xv^T^"" br 34. Horn, and Ion. ^iu bM (Iw stMii {kt 
(^f-H»)■ Hdt. baa i^>, Jif ^r, but icrSf, viian. 




642. •«■ Verba in Homer. — Horn, leaves -ow verba open 64 times, u raurim, 
•iavsi, iXdci, dwSuUHwo, 7od«i(tfr, TqXtVilBrTat. When contracted, -aw verbs bsve 
the Attic forms, aa i^S, i|)$f, ipi ; as rtipf maJeett trial from wtipit-(r)ai from 
Tupit/iMi i 4pw didttpran from ^)pit^a)o from ipia/iai. 

643. Wben nncontractad, verbs in -aw often sbow in the Has. of Horn., not 
the original open forms, bat "assimilated" forms of the concurrent Towels, 
«, ui, aif giving a double a Bonnd b; n prevailing over the e sound ; m, att, cut, 
•or giving a doable o soiuid b> the o Bound prevailing over the a. One of the 
Towels IB commonly lengthened, rarely botli. 

at = (1) on : ipitff9-u = ifdasBat, d7ii- 

= (2) «. : ;»H»«i<» - ;»».«&<«. 

tc9t = iyiacdt. 

a«=(l) «v: 4p4«T. = V*V^'- 

= (2) »« : ^rdMrBa, = ,,,AacS<u, tyd- 

•oi, = (l>o-: i,d.»,ra = i,,Wa. W- 

M,= a) .»;M«f = *^','<t« = W». 

oiw< = Viufft, dUw (from 

= (2) ■, : j«wi«U. = VJoatA^ 

dXito imper. of i.Xi»iia^) = 

ai = (l) ^i *iB' = '«k". 


= (2) ■«= '"'v wooest 2 sing. mid. 

=: (2) — ; 4pdM*. = i,0,^a, Jpd- 

ovffi ^ tpJiasi. ax, here Is 

derived from -cw-: 4pa- 

»"■-!", 4^""--ia, iiAorri; 

!• = (1) •- : ipdu = ip4«, poiw* = 

or by contraction in dXiw 



K. — dMw from dXd«o wander is unique. 7f Xiiarrn is from yt\^ (Ml). 

644. The assimilaied forms are used only when the second vowel (In tho 
unchanged form) stood in a syllable long by nature or position. Hence hpomiur, 
ifaan, dpasTo, do not occur for ^b^uv, etc. (/ifudfunii for laiiium Is an excep- 
tion.) Tbe fint vowel is lengthened only wben the metre requires it, as in ^iflA- 
•n-tt for ifidtrra — w — \j. Tbiia two long vowels do not occur In succeaaiou 
Except to fit tbe form to the veise, as iumr\ivi for lunaijii \ but iipiiotiu, not 
W^fu. When tbe first vowel is metrically lengthened, the second vowel is not 
lengthened, though it may be long either In a final syllable (as in lumiAf) or 
whan it represents the spurious diphthong sv from -orr- (as in i^iiw^a, SpAvri 
In i^iMwo, Ipitiwi from -orrja, -am). 

645. The OMimilated forma inclnde the "Attic" futut« in -au from -avw 

(630); M l\6itvt (= AdoHTi), tptitia, ja/uif, Sa/i6aiiri. 

646. Tbe a«s{mi1at«d forms are found only in the artiflcial language of 
Homer, Heslod, and their imitators, and nowhere in the living speech. They 
ore commonly explained as derived from the contracted forma by a proesM ot 
'didtaction,' and as Inserted In the text for the sake of tbe metre. Thus ^i^ 


peQrrn, the Spoken forma wbicU bad taken the place of origlnftl V^'i Poi^rrn, 
In the text, were expanded into ip^ft, ffaburrt), by repetition of the a and s. 
While the reatoration of the original uncontraoted forms U generally possible, 
and is adopted in several modern editions, a phonetic origin of many of the forms 
In question is still sought by some scbolsis nbo regard ipio as an intermediate 
sta^ between ipia and ipS. It will be observed, however, that the forms in 
(148 can be derived only from tlie unsasiui Hated forms. 

647. In the imperfect contraction genersJIj occurs, and assimilation is raj*. 

649. Some verbs show la for ao, as Hrrtor, rphrcar, lurUrtor, ttrtorroi, 
Cp. S49, S63. 

649. -OM verba In Herodotus. — Hdt. contraota -aa verba as they are con- 
tracted in AtUc. In many cases before an sound the Mss. snbadtute c for a 
(toKiiJu, ifiar, iipolTtot). This e is never found in all the forms of the aame 
verb, and the Mss. generally disagree on each occurrence of any form. — HdL 
always has -^'i V/'V'i ^ ^ optative. 

690. Hw verbs in Homer, --a. Hom. rarely contracta ta and » (eicept In 
the participle). In a few cases tv appeara for », as rauiiair ; rarely for nu, as 
TcXtvri. When the metre allows either -a and -«i, or -«i, the open forma are 
sliglitly more common, ti is often neceasarj to admit a word into the verae (as 
iTfiiaOm, liplKti), and is often found at the verse-end. -t-t-at, i t », in the 
2 sing. mid. may become -tun, -tia, or ~iai, -la, by the expulsion of one t ; as 
(iu0(idi or luMai toy fat, aUtie shine regard. 

b. Kinfu, TcXcfw, from -ta-ia (Kijcea--, rtkiS') are older forms than kuAu, 
TtUu. See 488 d, 624. 9tia, rXtlu, wittu ahow metrical lengthening (28 D.). 

C. On -ii»wni in Horn, see OGT. 

651. -<w verbs in Herodotus. — a. Hdt. generally leaves », tu, «oir, open, 
exci'pt when a vowel precedes the t. in which case we find tu for » {iyroearrtt) . 
In the 3 plur. -/tvri is kept except in irn((wi. For -^-« in the 2 sing. mid. we find 
^D In alTfo. tr, iii, in nlems of more than one syllable, are usually uncontracted 
In the MsH., but this h prolMtbly an error. Bti it ii necestary and Stir are never 
writlpn otherwise. — The Ion. tv lor to, tov, occurs rarely in tragedy. 

b. In the optative Ildt. baa -/w after a consonant, as »>Au, but -ol after a 
vowel, as roioi^, roioi. 

eo = (1) au : Sijiion-o = 8t|i4ujpTo. I 001 = o^i : iijiioid- = IijiA^v. 

(2) wo : vrr6iyrTai = irniorrai. I oov = ooi ; iptouffi s: ipiwu 

b. Bdt. contracts -ou verba as In Attlo. Forms with tv for ai>, as aunuiGvt, 
UixaUvt, are incorrect 

6S3. Dwic. — Doric (5f) D.) contracts « and mi to v', «' &nd og to p ; ■•, 
■u, to a except in final syllables; ri^iS, rl/iit, riw^, 
rl^i7, Ti/t^w. Monosyllabic stema have w from a + o 01 
-ao have alternative forms In -cm (64S), as ip4u, ri;i/u. 


6M. Hm oontiactloiii of -at Tsibi In Doric may be illoamtod tbnsi 

BeTcnr Dorlo MDder Dork 

^Uu, ^i\u, ^iX£w ^<UH( ^A 

^iXMfMf, ^iXbfitf, ^(XlMfin, ^tXOfitt ^(XAifin, ^tXaCfiM, ^dut^ 

a. iH for M is a dipbtbong. m for m la oommon lu Theocritiu. In Cretui 
1 (s |r) for ( [a often expelled (Koaiiirra = /aaitforret). 

655. Verba in -ov contnot m and «r to « in Severer Dorio and to w in 
Milder Doric. 

656. Aeoltc. — In Aeolio contract Terbs oommcnl]r paaa into tlie ^t-conjoga- 

UoQ : TtfiaiM* I -Oiti -at, rtftifu'^ rl^re, rt/uiuft^ Imperfecti iri^iarf ^l/iaif irtfia, etc 
tnf. rtfiiw, put, rtfUnff -arroi, mid. rtfii/uuj inf. TifiA/iMrai. &0 ^IX^/u, ^IX^/i*^, 
fOtfrc, ^ilXewi, J^fXiii', inf. ^Aiir, part. ^fX«i, -crrsi. Thna 1^m< from tpiu 
= AtL ipdit, tiAiiiu, ofng^u. So alBo 34'^f"i ^ pL 94'>'«"i I'll. Iit^ur. Bealdes 
tbeae forma tre find a few examplea of the earlier inflection In -su, ~n/, -on, bnt 
tbeae forma usually contract except in a few oaaea whei« e la followed by an o 
sound (rn-ferriu). From otber tenses, t.g. tbe fut. In -^a, ^ has been traoi- 
lerred to the preseot In djtrfw, ro^w. 

657. Horn, has Beveral caaea of contract verbs inflected according to the fu- 
eoajngaUon in the 3 dual ; rvX^-riii- (rBXiw gpoit), rpwrvitir^iir (i-^wauMw 
iptak to), irtik^t-Tiir (di-ciXb threaten), i/iaprli^nir (i/ia/rriu meet); "iao "^ 
i sing, impert. (aiUa keep tafe). In Ibe Influltlve -q/unu, as yaiuurat (Tsdw), 
Tttr^pow (rcirdw, 041), fiX4/H«( (^>^^)i ^Ofi/iitrai Uld ^o^nu (j^iu). Bnt 
i^Wv luw d7;r/fUfai. 

(680 ff.) 

658. All vowel and consoDant Terbs in -<0 inflect th« future alike. 

659. Indicative. — The fntate active and middle add the primary endings, 
and ore inflected like the present ; aa \Aff«, Xfoefioi. On the two endings of tbe 
Mcond singular middle, see 628. Liquid verbs, Attic futures (638), Doric 
fatnres (640) are inflected like oontract verba in -tu; thus ^ai<£ ^ntHiiat, laXO 
nkoSfuu, and rwaC^ui, follow ■-«& rHsD^ioi (3S6). 

a. llie only tutnre perfect active from an u-verb is rtSrtiim Aall be dead 
(G84), whicb ia inflected like a future active. Ordinarily the periphrastic forma- 
tion li nsed : XiXniicdf tae/tai Aall hang iooud. Tbe f nture perfect passive (X(X^ 
racial »\all have been looted) ia inflected like the future middle. The periphrastic 
forms and the future perfect paaaive rarely occur outaide of tbe indicative. 

660. Optative. — Tbe inflection ia like the present; \tv^-iu, Xi)««-t->nrr. In 
the i^tatire lingular of liquid verba, iir-r, -n^, -a/, in the dual and plunl -i^Qr, 

I;, Google 

IM PIK8T A0RI8T pfi 

•i-ri|r, -l-ptr, -i-rt, -w-r, ue added to tbe Mem eDding In the themmtio vowel o ; 

thna ^no-Jirr = ^nJl't ^r^B-I-fWr = ifiaroiiur. So in AUio futorea in -itu, u 

^<^{te (688 d) eauae U> go : pifi^r, -^, -4ii|, pL ptfi^^r. 

661. InflnitiTV. — The future inflnitive active adde -<r, aa ti^na' from X*«'(-<j>, 
^Hir from ^W(r)»«j>. The infinitlre middle adds -vHi, as Uvcffftu, ^OKirAu, 
from ^>^(ff)(-ff^ 

662. Faitldple. — The fntore participle bas the aame endings aa the pKaent: 

Xllrwr Xfoowra XSmir, fhiFSr ^PBftrs ^ivBr ; middle, Xivj/icfat, ^MNifwmt. 


663. All ?eTb8 inflect the first and seooiid future passive alike, 
that is, like the future middle. 

664. The indicative adds -^loi to the M«m ending In -^s- or -^o-, aa \u^ 
«o-iiat, ^r^o-nai. For the two forms of tbe second penon Hingulai aee A28. 
The optative adds-t-fii|>>, as \i>titro<-ti.iir, ^nfr»4-f»i>>. The inflnlUiv adda-^Ssi, 

a Xuf^t-cBoi, ^Mw^rireat. The participle add* -/Mmt, aa XvArri-fumi, ^r^ 

669. All Towel and oonsonant a>-TerbB inflect the first aorist alike. 

666. Indicative. — Ttie aecoadarj endinga of the first aorlst active were 
originallf added to the Mem ending In -r- ; Ihna, Auva '^w-i, Hmr-r, Aw-fwr, 
Aiw-rt, Aitf-rr. From llUivfi came fXSra (_'\ij Sfi o),*the a of which spread lo 
the other forma except in the S ali^., where « was borrowed from the perfect. 

a. In the middle the aeooudar]' endinga an added to the atem ending In -«a-. 
For tlie Ion of t In -n, aee 465 b. 

667. Snbjnncttn. — In the subjunctive the long themotlo Towel -t/^ is 
BulMtitated tor tbe a of the Indicative, and theae forms ai« inflected like th4 
present Bubjunctive: Xta-w XifufMi, ^rv ^ijiatm. For the ioee of « In -rai 

668. Optative. — To the Mem ending In a the moodHiuffix i is added, making 
ai, to which tbe same endlnp are affixed as in tbe present : Xlffa-i-/u = XAo-ufu, 
Uo-o-l-zitrf = XwoJ/itr', ^n-i-fu = ^foifu. The Inflection in the middle la like 
that of the present For the loes of r in -«o see 466 b. — In the active -tuit, 
-tiM, -(ur are more common than -wt, -u, -our. 

6el D. Horn, has dt^^fw, ifiiut, Cfcir. Doric has -nr, f » ; AeoUc has -q*. 
UT D. Horn, has forms with the short thematic vowel, as ipiairoiur, i\y^ 

etri, ttiua-ljaeTt ; ito$^tiMi, i^<^tat, IXavJyiMfe, JtiXitrrrsi. In such lorms aOT- 
Ist subjunctive and Intore indicadve are alike (&32). Pindar baa ^c/ur, 
tiSi-n^i (4GT D.). 

OM D. Horn, has both aeta of endings, bnt that hi u is rarer. In the drama ; 
-wM ia very much commoner than -wt. -oit is most frequent in Plato and Xeno- 

Its] itbst and second aoeist passivx 196 

669. Impanttn. —The Tegnlir endingi (409) ue «dded to the stem In -aa 
(or-s In liquid verba) except in the active and middle S alng.. In wliiob -er and -u 
lake the [daoe ot -■ i XOvo* XurdrH, XSffot Xiirdrfw, ^xc ^rItv, «4rai ^qKlr0M. 

670. IttflaltlTe. — The aorlat aetlve Infloltlve enda in ~<u, iritlch la an old da- 
tive : Uw middle euda in -rBai : XOrot Xtea-vAu, ^Mt fi)M-«fat, a-X^ rXitu^fai. 

671. Paitidpla. — He active partleiple adda -n- like the preHent: maao. 

ntrit ttotn XSvarr-t, fern. XJrlra from Xutfirr-io, ueut. XOrar from Xwa>(r). 
See SOI. The middle enda is -fwivi: 'kuv^tum, Vfid-fmot. 


672. All Towel and consonant verbs m -a inflect the aoriats 
pasdye alike, that is, according to the fu-conjugation, except in the 

a. Vowel verba rarely form aeoond aorlala Qtat are panlve In form, m ^ 
jCoie, Ipp6vr (808). Bnt ^tu la properly not a vowel verb (aee 603). 

673. Indkattre. — Tbe bidleative adda the active aecondary endings dlTectiy 
10 the tenae atem ending In -Af- (flrat aoriat) or -if- (aecond aoriat). The liifleo- 
lion ie tbua like that of the Imperfect of a verb In -ixi. 

OMit^ fcritq-t iXMi|-T«v Mk-rev lXtti|.Ti Mh-rt 

aMi| Mti| a«Mi-Ti|* WMTit* lXM<i-ira* trlU-irm 

a. For -vof we And -r from -*(r) In poetical and dlalecUo forma before which 
1 baa been ahortened to < (40), thua lifiiffitr for £w"tAtrar from ipiiAu urgt. 

674. 8iib}ttDctira.— The BQbJnDctlTB adda t*/^ to the tense Bt«m ending 
in -it- or -•- and oontracta : Xuf ^ -gi, -g, etc., from XuWh, -^, -/p, etc ; ^fS, 
-%t, -f trom fapfa, -tt%, -tf, eto. 

675. Optative. — Hie optative adda -I- OT-«r-to the tenae-stem ending In 
-4c- (» -C-, and oontraots. In the alngular -i^ Is regular ; in tbe dasl and ploral 
-i- la generally preferred. Thus Xi^f^r from "KuSt-lii-r, ^rtli)i from ^ari4t-f, 

phOD, lea common in poetry, and very rare In the oratora. Neither Thuc nor 
Udt. baa -ail, -ai is rare in pniee, moat examples being In Plato and Demoathenea. 
Rdt. has no caae. In ArlatoUe -oi ia aa common aa -tu. -oTer \t very rare in 
poetry, in Tboc and Hdt., bnt slightly better repreaenCed in Xenopbon and the 
otaion. -tttr is probably the regular form in the drama. — Hie forms In -cuf, 
-f, -itar are called " Aeolic," but do not occnr In the remains of that dialect. 

on D. Aeolic has -oti, -oiro, -«f (37 D. 8). 

671 D. Hdt. leaves w open {alptSiu, ^niufi) but contraota tij, ig (^r£). 
Horn, baa aome forma like the 2 aor, aab], of fu-varba. Thna, from Bo/irdu (Sd- 
iirwt) MiMae ,* 3s/i4w, -ih|(, -ihi, -4«T(. So also ia^w (la- learn), vaT^g (rirru 
tmte to rot\ ^t^ (^m jAou), r^r^o/ur (r/^w OMttM). The spellingi 
«ith n {/e.g. lafMlm, Sulw) are pTOba^ It 


Xu^traw Irom XvM-i-rnv, ^nTrsF from ^r^t-rsF, Xufci^F from XsM-l-fiiF, ^mEif 

from ^F^-u-r. The inflMtton It like OiaX of the present optutre of a fu-verb. 
)L«e*-[i|-* Ti9i-ti|-i' \ii<(-t-|u* nlt-^u* 

X«(<-(l|^ Til>-(l)-f Xvlt-t-TttV Titt-t-m' XiAl-t-Tf Tlh-I-Tf 

X*f<-(i| Tih-(i| X«tf4-n|v nleUr^v Xnh-tt-v nBt-h-v 

c -(fivuF is used only In proee (but PlUo and laoeratee faare also -c^f). 
-<li|r( Ib almoet klways foond tn the Has. of proee writerB; -circ occnis 
only In poeti; (except from ;u-verb(i). -cuf la more common In proge than 


676. Imperative. — The endings of tbe imperative are added to the 
tense^tem ending In -Av or -r-- Before -rrur, -97- and -if- become -8«- and 
-«- (XtiMrruF, i/iarimjr). For -ri luBtead of -ffi In the first aorlat (Xd^i) see 
136 b. 

677. InflnitlTe. — mi la added to the tense-Atem in -6t^ or -9-: Xu04.4Bt, 

678. Paitldple. — The participle adds -rr, as masc. \uStli from Xwfcrr-t, 
fem. XiAura from Xvetrr-na, neut. XuMr from X0«tf(r). See 301. So ^anh, etc. 


679. Most verbs in ta inflect the second aorist according to the 
•Hxmjagation ; some inflect it according to the fuKsonjugation. 

680. The inflection of most second aorisu of adverbs is like that of &n 
imperfect of w-verbs in tlie indicaUve, and lilce that of a present in the other 

UuM>v l-Me-T XCn X«t 

I-Xm4-|H]v U^W-|»|v Xi*«« (424 b. 2) X&m 

X(«ti Xtm ' XwfCv (Xur4-«r, 424 o) Xtfii* (X<t^> 

Xtew-fMt Xim i^M X(«4-«4at X^-«4u 

XmH(-|ii)* XBs-{-|ii|« XmtAv Xdov 

XHr4-|uvo« XU-)u>i«t 
For the loss of r in -ra in the second person singolar see 466 b, 

6SL A namber of tr-verbs form their second aorists without a 
thematic vowel, herein agreeing with the second aorists of ^vetbn. 
Gp. j8uv p. 140. The second aorist of yt-yvi-aKia knoK is inflected 
aa follows. 

677 D. Horn, has -^wfoi, as inoiaSiiiitni, Ja^fumi (and it^^m.). Dorie has 
-litr, Aeolic-F (iit96chit = utewHlmi). 

6M D. Horn, has the inflnitivet iMiitm, dwiittr, tlniw. For faWur (Attic 
Am^f) etc., iarim should be read. ~inf in HdL is erroneooa. Doric has -^i^ 
as fiaX^r (fikiffMm go). AeoUo hw -VC) as Xi^v 


683. The indicative is inflected like iimiv (p. 138) ; the subjunc- 
tive, like S& (p. 138). 

a. We expect lyfom, tyKiur, etc, (661), bat the abcoug stem 7n(- baa been 
tnnsferred to the dual aod pluml. So alao Id Ipt/r, t^trir, MXur. — Subjunc- 
dTe ^, ^gt, pg, ^^oi>t ?^^ ?^<i ^^i. On Ibe fomution of tbe BobjunoUve 
Me m D. 
6B3. The opUtive is inflected like SmV (p- 138). 

yvstili ^fVDtmv or ipwti|T*v ipntn or yvohiTt 

7in(i| Y*^(n|v or ip«iJit^ fmiia or Yvoh)va* 

a. So Paiv, palraf 01 fialiiTor, patiitr or Paltifi4r. In tbe 2 plur. the Mra. of 

pran miten have only -tifr* (yrtlipt, -fiaiw) ; but -ii|r< fs not attested by tbe 

erUenceof vene. 

684. The- imperative ia inflected like crrijtfi (p. 139), 

a. In oompoaitlon Jiiyndi, iripiiei (1S8). For ^^ (from palm) -pi In 
compoaitlon occdtb In poeti;, aa dxt^ 

685. The inflnitlTe adds -o«u, as yvSmot from yvi»««u (like itt^ku 
from vnfoxu). In oompoBition SiayKumu (426 d). 

666. The participle adds -rr-, as masc. yvoK from yvoyr-^, fem. 
rwSoa from yvayr-ifl, neut yvdr from '}vov(t). See 301. In composi- 
tion Suxyvout (426 d). 

a. Before rr the long vowel « la regnlarly ahortened to o by 40. 

687. The following (u-verbs have second aorists of the /u form. 
Uirnfuu (AX-0-) am captured, MXur or 4Xw» (dXw, dXolifi', iXdHu, 4Xofit). 
Mw (|Sa-> {TO, l|9iti- (/Jut, jJoJit', |S^ and alao -pi In oompiwitioD, ^ku, ^t)- 
Mh (^»-) I'M, '/Jfui' (/}i£, pii^r, piatai, piett). Horn. ^(iirii> Imper. 
nfiifuM (Tfpo-) ^<no oI<l, yvpittu poet., Tvp<tt Bom. 

TrrnWicw (7«-, I"™-) tnow, (■yiMi' (Ttfl, ■yml^r, TrBtfi, ftHto.t, -ywtft). 

■JiJp^cu (3p>-) *^>t, only in compoaitlon, -itfAr {-Spii, Spalrir, -J/ianu, -Jt^t), 

Hdt. has ISpTtr, Sp^rai, ipit In compoaitlon. 
Stu ()*-) CTiler ISur entered inflected p. 140 (Jdti, opt. Horn. Shi and USSiur for 

liNfq, fra^-fur ; SOti, SSwu, «»t]. 

'z" ('x>-) Asm, rx^ imper. 

6n D. fTMr, from fr>u''(''} by 40, la found in Pind. Hom. haa Itvr, frXav, 
frru;niid. t^v». — Bom. baa ^rt)> and jSib^v. — Hom. haa p\^at, Skwni — 
Snlq. : Bom. tiaa yniu i\Au, ymiyt ytv'j T^ Y'Vi fffi^ ■''"^i y^v, ynio- 
fa rWl^ar, -fi^iur ^Mufur, yrii*ri ^rAnr pQnw 4Mttviir. 

•H D. HcHn. haa Tni^mu, IlWat, Krd/icm, and -rriiM*. 



■rftvw (KTtff KTO-) kat, lirlr, fcrlt, frri, rrrXfur, 3 pL IrrSr 661 D, Bub]. 

rTinfur, inf. xrdfWKU ir^fu*, part, icrdt ; JxTd/iigr imm AUIcif (jtrdrte, n-i- 

fwivt) ; oU poetic forma. 
wfro/iai (t»t-, tt»-, ttb-) j(|f, poet IxTifr (xraf^*, rrdf), middle jrri^qr (■ri- 

bAu, TTd/w»i), irrd, rr^St, rrQivi aie late. 
t(»* (ii-) dHnA, r»i Imper. 

rjtAXu In da-ovjcAXw (ffccX-, atlu-') dry up, dirorKX^xu- 
rXtt' mdvrt, tat, rX^ioiiai, poetlo frXq* (t\&, rMliif, T\99t, rti^wKt, rUt), 
^irv (0Ai-) andefpota, f^^ir* (f^S, ^#a(qi-, ^xu, ^Mt). 
#0w (#i!-) produce, lipir imuproduetd, am (#m eubj., ^umi, #k 308). 

688. The following u-Terba have In poetry (especially in Homer) aeoond 

aorlats of the lu form : IDMiuu (aXo-g, aXre), iraupdw (iro^pat), dfmpl^Ku (apiit- 

»0. ^ (.iv'^), ^^« C{««SX^,», rflXirO. P<PpA'<". (tpp«'), root T«<- (T^"- 
ffra^wd), Stxoiuu (Mn-d), Epic «x4™ {'«Ixl». "X'tf, "X'liJi «tx9»w* ""i «'X<f- 
fMivt, nx((i aad xixitfuiot; properly from xlx'ti*'), 'Xdu (drdiXit), kX^m (kXCA, 
irfxXiA), jcrffw (rrffuiof), root Xfx-C''"*" I(Xd Afnunl/to fMt), Uw (X^e), oArdti 
(o9ra, o^ifUMi), *iiXXu (rdXTe), rcXilfte (*irX([/iii») , r/fiffu (riptoi = r«fiHf-tfAu), 
i-Xiiu ((■■Xui'), ife- (4(iirwTg Twniued), rrfiffffw (Kororririj*), vniM (trtiiair, 
frvTO, fftffMRn), ^(w (i^(>iT|F), x*<* Ox^l"l'< X*»«*»")- 

fX«Ts, riXro are properly first acrbta (foi iX«j«-v-ro, TaX-ff-rs), r being loot 
between two consonanta (103). 


(555, 661) 

689. All Towel and consonant verbs in -<u inflect the first perfect 
alike. Some verbs in -u inflect the second perfect according to the 
•H»njugation, others inflect it according to the pi-oonj ligation. 

690. Indicative, — Originally the endings were added to the atem vithont 
any thematic vowel. Of this unthematic formation a few tracea anrrlve (673). 
In the 2. p. sing, the ending is -i, hat origlnaliy Sa ; In the S p). -non stands for 
Ko-nrt ont of Ko-n-i (100). Thus MXumi, -^i, t, r^rgfi^a, -«, -«, elc The peri- 
phras^o combination occut* In the indicative (G99 a). 

691. Snbjimcttre. —The perfect aDbluncUve Is commonly fonnrd periphrafr- 
ticaily by the perfect active participle and a, pi, p, etc. Thus \t\utiit ly*yp»- 
^ii) a, etc., XEXuitArd (yrrpa^iTn) Afuc, etc. Of the perlplu»tlc fonns only 
the 1 and 3 sing,, 2 and 3 plur. are attested. 

692. Inalancee of the simple perfect sabjimotive (XtXtfra, ytypiiiu) are very 
rare. The simple form is made by subatituting the thematic vowel m/^ for b in 
the tense-stem. Only the sing, and the 8 plur. are attested from v-verba. 

693. Besides tiaa (alia) and ^mtuni) etc., AtUc proae has only aboat 16 
occurrences of the simple perf. snhj., and from the tollowiug verbs only : ^rw. 
Mat, tytlpa, fsua, ^rjf^jcu, Xanfiinu, XaiMvH, rirxf, ratO, ^tu, HlppOCr. baa 

forma from fiifipiiaia, rtrH, ti^h. Tben an about SO oocnrrenoea In tha 

1= Coo^^lc 


poatry. AtUc pom vriten show about 26 oaws of the periphimA from kD 

694. Optative. —The perfect optative Le oommonly formed peripbntMlcally 
b; the perfect active participle and <fi;r, dip, tfi), etc Thna i^Xviij (yypai>it) 
rf^r, etc., XiXvK^R (yrfpa^u) fl*i«», etc. The dual la exceedingly r»re, 

695. Occwiionally the simple fomu are tued (XiMm/u, ytypi^iiu). These 
m lormed by adding the mood-«ign i, and the endings, to the lenee-atem wltli 
Uie thematic vowel (o). All the -«r-fonna are attested ; of the -t-forma 
only the 3 aing. and 1 and 8 plor. 

696. Of the simple optative there are abont 26 occnrrencea In Attic proee, 
ud from the following verbs only ; dvox«p<9t 'fOTaTO, tlapdkyti, wafiaSlduiu, 
louo, -tcritKtu, h-^trw, Brina, Xiuddiu, icaraXiIi-u, vtufl, rivx"' 'P^PX'/'^h 
ifiatrTu, piu. In the poeta there are about 16 occuirencee. Prose writers show 
tbmit 106 ocoonenoea of the periphrBHtlc forms. 

697. Imperattre. — The usual form of the flnt perfect ImperaUve Is peri- 
[hrastlc : XeXvinkt tir A, Ivtu, etc. No clasaloal Attio wrllei uaes the simple forma, 

690. The second perfect Is rare, and ocoura only In the eaae of verba which 
liave a present meaning. From active verba Inflected aooording to the u- conju- 
gation there occur nx't'Tr* ffupt, At. AcIl. 138 (xdo-jtw, x<>^)i Biid nip^Trrt 
KrM(A,FMp.416 (ji/>ii^). Meet second perfects ^ow the fu form and have pres- 
ent meaning, as TiBtaBi (Horn.) TiSrAru from SrjfviH iit, MiSt from Sitia fear, 
and ittxpsx^ trom KpAtv in Aristophanes. Host such second perfects are poetical, 

699. Inflnitlve. —The perfect infinitive adds -i-nt, as XtXuWnu, XtXoir^xu. 

900. Participle. —The aoCOxes of the perfect participle In the nominative 
■le -(/:)(£>, -vta, -(^)^, as \t\u^<it, X«Xawdt. See 801 o, d, 809. 

701. Plttpeitect Active. —The ploperfect la formed by adding -ca, •«at, -te, 
-rrw, ■■<r^r, -*iut, -m, -taar to the reduplicated stem. By contraction from 
AtXvna, -csi, -« come the forms AiXdnj, -v -titfy In the later language a 
^xead ttam the 8 sing, and waa used throngfaont, aa f\AAKtif, -m, -<i, -«ir«v, 
-<f^1r^ -«fwr, -«irt, and very late -tiaar. The beat Mas. of Demosthenes have -«v 
is 1 ^ng. Instead of the simple pluperfect we find perlphraatio forma, fi99 a. 


702. A few B-verba form their second perfects in the dual and 
plnral without a by adding the endings directly to the stem. Herein 
these forms agree with the second perfect of /u-verbs (417). In the 
singular « is used. 

6M S. Doric baa -^r and -ta, aa Mtfdtf = StttnUm, ■frfirui' = yriatim, 
AeoUe baa -^w, aa rcfnU^r. 

700 D. In the 2 pert. Horn, aometimea baa -Ar-oi for -ir-iit, as mx^iq^t, -Ctm 
{aiiatt AN (Mary). In the 2 pert Hom. aometlmes has a for Attic •) In the (emi- 
nbe, aa iptifiiii ipa^la from ipvp* iipttpUiiw JW). 8ee GT8. Aeolio Infiecta 
the perfect participle aa a present in -uir, -«rr*f. Thus Hom. mtx\^tTtL% for 
oAri^rat (lUfte teream), Pind, rc^ptnn-af (^ptn-u cAudder). 

I; C00g[c 


703. The second perfect Sitia I /ear dbiuU; bas the fonns of tlu flnt per- 
fect I/Ioura in the Blngolax, leai fiequently In Uke plonL 

Ptrftst FIsperfest ButttDDoUn 

SJbun or 6«w IMoIkt\ or tttSd) Mb* (rare) 

USoLKM or N&M ISaS«Ui|t or 4S«Sti|t Optitin 

tttouN or GOm ttAilMi or Urfte S«8i<(<i* (nre) 

SAm* ISSim impmuw 

Vhrw ttf8(n|» 8ai«i(poet.) 

eOiluir or Gdatmiuv WSi|mv MUmu or SiSeudvw 

Win or SiS«U«-n 

MOn or BtSeUSn 

a«H*t, -MO, -ot or 
SitoutAti -vta, -4t. 

704. Other second perfects Indected Uke Nita mre the following : 

a. palru (pa-y go, 1 perf. pipn^a hme gone, ttand fa»t regulu ; 3 perf. 3 pi ^ 

psct (poet.), Mibj. S pi. ptfiOai, inf. fitpiroi (poet. mkI Ion), put. ptp.ii 
(contracted from ptpaiit) ptpSva, gen. pip&rat. 

b. ilymiuu (yir-, yor ) become, 2 perf. yiyeiia am regnlar; 2 perf. part, poet 

1«Yih (contracted from 71701*1), yryOaa, gen. yijiirM. 

C. tr^^Kv (0av-, 9ra-) die, 1 perf. rf$niKa am dead regul&r; 2 perf.dn. rMraror, 
pi. TUtaitir, T^trart, Ttlrari, 2 plup. 3 pi. irMna'ar, 3 perl opL rcffmliT'i 
Imper. rtfriru, lot. rcflntnu, put. ntfxtit, -cOra, -c4i, gen. -*urn. 

d. hma {ft-feuc^) am like, apptar (Ik-, tU-) hu the ^ forma f0i7/i(r(poet.), 
«Qa«'i for ioix-v-iai (poet, uid in Flato). fowa {iifKii plup.) has aJao lli«^ 
foil. fomiB; ioltti, tolimiu, Amr/nu {tUinu poet,), haait (ttxiit also in Plato) . 

C EpdfW (cpBT-) CTVOut, Sperf. Wipa-ya as preeent, Imper. iE^iipij(lfi and mi[pd7cT(, 

a tlieiiiatic form (both In Aristc^.). 

705. Other Terba with second perfects of the fu-fonn (chiefly Homeric) are : 

Xxrys (aw»X*)i /ScfttAr™ (fltPpOra), ^<fp» C*7P*7«fw). MxoM" ((AiSXi*f«' ) - 

708 D. The root of SAia Is jf i-, strong forma Sfti^, I fat-. Horn, hu ilt, tier 
fearedjfted; for USoma, BUia be has JdSgucs, ttlSia, etc (once iiJlairi). Here 
tt is dne to metrical lengthening. ItlSv, a present in form, ia really a perfect 
for i«-Jfo(i)-a. 

7M a. D. Hom. hss 3 pi. ptpHvi, Inf. ptpiiur, part, ptpaiit, fitpauia, gen. 
fitPaOrat i 2 plup. pdpaaat. 

b. Hom. has 7eTdaT( and Yrydju-i, inf. ytyiiut, put. 7t7aiit, 7c7avia ; 2 plop. 

c. Hom. TiSraSi, Ttftiiurai and retrAittf, rttfnrdi -qurai and -irtrii, fem. 

d. Hom. Imperf. t\ti, 2 perf. 3 dn. JFTrrar, 2 plop, tifni flm-if*, fclcwoF, part. 
jHiih ((biii « 264), <(jnii(i and ATnu (cbiicuiu Z 41B) ; mid. JfTjcr*, n'lTTa. HdL 
has bIm, o(Kii(. 


tilBn (fmiaiif), wi^x" (v^oo-fc), rtlBti ^iriwiBiiMr), rtrra (rfWTiii), root So- 
Uam (Maih), niOt rXo- (rfrXa>ur, rtrXolqr, r^XaSi, TtrXifumi and TtrMpar, 


TO6. All vowel and consonant verbs in -<o inflect the perfect 
middle according to the /u-conji^ation. 

707. IndicatiTS. — The perfect middle ie lafleotad ^y adding the primuy 
middlo endings directly to the tense-stem, herein agreeing with the /u^ODJaga- 
tion. The pluperfect adds the secondary middle endings. In vonel verbs the 
brmulon Ib aimple, oh in XAi^;iu, tKt\6-iit)r. But in consonant verbs, the con- 
sonant U the end of Che stem comes into collision with the consonant at the 
1)^nning of the ending ; hence certain eaphonic changes described in 409. 
The peiipbiastio form occurs in t^ 8 pi. and sometimes in the 3 dng, (690 d, e). 

a. Stems in r avoid the forms -w-tai, ~r-aii; Ihus, from ^(tu, instead of 
rl^prn, tri^am the pedphrastio rt^aanirvi •!, IjaSa Were probably used. 



709. From two verba, whose perfect stem ends in ir-(a), the simple forms are 
coiutnicted. vrdAfuu (rra-) acquire, perf. t^trtnuu potUM (1M6), forms Its 
tabjanctive by adding the thematic vowel -"/if- to cf-icra ; thus iH-«-d-w-»ai = 
lerrS^wi, iw-rrd-q-iriu = nrrj, n-rrd-if^u = nerval, etc. — ^ufiv^VKW (m^-) 
remind, perf. /Uitnuuu remember (1946) ; iti-iiri-i*-imi = ik/iw&iuu, luiant-ii-iigBa = 
ffffd^ictfo. With ttmHiiat, fK^rQfuu, cp. irrHiMi, p. 187. The periphrastic rirrif- 
liim A, iiiiinj/UnH S OCCOT. 

710. Optative. —The perfect middle optative is commonly formed by Hit 
periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and (f^*, diii, ef^, etc. Tbos X*Xv- 
frfm «fi(ii, etc. 

711. Some verbs add 4-iiv', -a-f-ftirr to the tense-stem (TOQ). — a. rrioiuu 
(«■«-) acquire, perf. tiKTiiiiai pouett (1946) ; opt. tturtt-t-iiiit = Ktur-iiiiir, jhit^ 
H* = mrr^o, mmM-TB = nir-^ro. Less fiequent and doubtful are tttTtfiiiiw, 
-^, -vro, -ifiit6» from «icT^-»-f-/iij», etc 

b. luiirfrica (/im-) remfnd, pert iii^irTuuu rsmember ; opt lu/irtti-iair = »«*wif- 
iii|», fK^iHK-ffo ~ *«**»S», /M/iint-I-T-o = fK»iriro, etc. The forms lu/tn^iair, -<ft, 
■yra, etc., from ^^inr-<-t-fiitF, etc., are uncommon and suspected. 

e. laUw ((a\f-, «Xif-) call, perf. xiitXiiitai am coiled (1946) ; opt. miV^J-W. 
etc = iwXjhcq*, hkX^, mcXpre, icn'\iiie8iL, 

d. |MXXh (/SoX-, |9Xt|-) throw, perf. 8ui^^i7*«i, opt StafitfiKiirei. 

N. — The forms in -i(>iqF, etc., have the fu-fonn; Ihe doubtfol -flfiifr, etc., 
belong to tbe w-conjngation. 

TM D. Hdt hM luiimiiitBa, vid this fonn may be read in { 108. 

711 D. Horn, has XiXOn « 288 =: X«X^4-rp (op. SalrEro). PiaA. has ft^tMiaro. 
li^iuaw In Xoi. Is from itiitrtiuu. 



712. ImpentlTe. — In tbs third persoD Blnpilar the perfect meaning la itga- 
Urly retained, as tlf^Biii let It have l>een said. The 2 alng, uid pi. are genently 
found only in Ihe caae of perfects with a present meaning, u M'fqrM remevt- 
btrl ^it Ti^Afiy,eBt do not be afraid/ rtrauro ttopi See6«8. 

ft. The dual and 3 pi. are npparently wanting. The 2 Blug. in -mo from stemt 
In -I doee not occur. For wl^ana, rttpae/Unit la8i was probably used. 

T13. Attia prose writers have dn^^Xi^Su, iraunplirBu, dp^Su, iirHieBu, 
ipeHtr&Uf Ktiao, -nrlffBUf k^jct^o, //^nrrftrBt^ rtTaUrfiVf rrwtpii^^ rrwoL^tt^ Ttwpd- 
«Hi, rntiifSa, wttfii^Bt, rrrix^u, TcreXfi^Bu. 

714. Instead of the simple forms of the imperative we Snd the periphrastic 
use of the perfect participle and faA, Iffru, etc. (699 g). ThiiB el/nuUrot Irru = 

715. InfinitiTe. — The perfect InflnltiTe adds -cBai, tm \i\6-a8au Consonant 
■tetoa lose the cr by 103, as XtXitr^ffiu, wnpaxBiu (400), i\^\iyx9iu, tc^fAu 

716. Participle. — The perfect participle adds -/i^roi, as \t\ii/UpM, XcXxwiJioi, 

wrwpajiUiat (406, 407). On the r of re^nuf^m see 409 d. 


717. Verbs in -/u usually have do thematic vowel between the 
teuse-Btem and the pereonai endingB in the present system (except 
in the subjunctive). The name " fu-oon juration," or " non-thematic " 
conjugation," is applied to all verbs which form the present and 
imperfect without the thematic vowel. 

71S. Of verbs ending in- -/u the following tenses are inflected 
according to the ^u-conjugiition (except in the subjunctive) : all 
non-thematic presents and imperfects ; all aorista passive ; all per- 
fects and pluperfects middle; those second aorists active and middle 
in which the tens&^tem does not end with the thematic vowel ; one 
verb (jlimjiu) in the second perfect and pluperfect active. 

719. Certain tenses of verbs ending in -/u in the first person pres- 
ent indicative active, or in -pai in the present middle (and passive) 
when not preceded by the thematic vowel, are inflected according 
to the grconjugation. These tenses are : all futures, all first aorists 
active and middle, most perfects and pluperfects active, and all sub- 
junctives. Verbs in -vvut regularly inflect the subjunctive and the 
optative according to tne at-conjugation. Furtberraore, the 2 sing. 
ill the present and 2 and 3 sing, in the imperfect active of certain 
verbs, and some other forma, follow the lo-conjugation (746). 

72a Verbs in -fu add the endings directly either to the verb-stem 
(here a root) or after the suffixes yvoi r^ Hence three classes are 
to be distinguished. 


A. Boot olasB ; aa ^m^ ^Vi verb-stem (and root) ^, ^. This 
class often shows reduplication In the present and imperfect, as Si- 
Sw^ give. 

N. — Two verbs have vertHstema ending in a consonant: ttiU am (tv-iu) and 

B. -w class } as &i'ic-vu-;u show, verb-stem Shk-, present stem $cm^ 

C. A few verbs, mainly poetical, add w, r^-i as truS-n^/u vn^-w 
licr scatter, Scifi-i^fu Safi-ra-fuv, subdue. 

731. Deponent Terbe without the tbematlo vowel an Inflected according to 
tbe fu-oonjugatlon. 


732. Verbs in -^ belong to the first or simple class (604) or to 
the fourth class (62^. 


723. The present is made by adding the personal endings directly 
to the verb«tem, which ia a root. Tnis verb-stem may be used in 
its pure form or it may be reduplicated. 

A. Some verbe of thta clasa witli no active bave a verb-stem of more tLan one 
syllable (nsnaUy two HjlUbles). 

724. TTiiTediipUcated PreMBta: tl/U (ir-) am, itia (t-, tt-) go, ijitcu (V-) »% 
iitl lag (4 laid, 3 ling.), itTiuu (»>-) lit, ^ig^ (0b-i ^) KtS, X/"t it ^ ntMuarf 
(79S) ; and poet. 1 iffu (dtr-) Mow. 

725. Depooenta. — Afo-fuu (and dYda/wi) aimirt, iioriuu <^pear, SIi-imi fiee, 
makefiee (cp. ilti), Sira^iiat am able (737 a), irl-VTo-iiai under>taHd,tpa^iuu love 
(poet, for ipim), trroftai fit (tate, see 726 a), jcp^/ui-fuu hang (Intrans.), 6ro-iian 
\***U, vtnrpat (poet, bj-fonn of xtraiiai) fly, trpii/nir bought a second 
aorut, ^TtB/uu tifflna, 

a. Other such foims are Horn, l^iot (^fa^uu) itrive, ^pv/mi and tpv/iai retcut. 
Ion. Ulb^u talcA. ^(mfrat D 248 owes lu if to sach non-present forms as 

726. Bednplicated PreMnts. — IfS^fu bind (tare for 3/u), Sli^iu (Jo-. !»-) 
gire, lifiu (^, 4-) tend, br-^m (rro-, vnt-') eel, ntxpti" (xpo-i XP^) lend, twlmnu 
(iim-, irf-) betffil, rl/irX^u ('X*^ '^v) J^t rlitrniu (rpa-, rpii-) bum, 
rWq/u (fc-, ftf-) plaet. 

a. Also poetic ^l^>u (^a-, ^) jro, in Horn, ^fiii etriding, >l-fit;uu (also 
Ion.) leek, for It-l^^^iot by 116 (cp. f^A# Mcit)! IXw" C^^t t^i- for ri^Xo-, 
#i«X«-) am proplOoM. Iwthuu (late) for rMifwu j(y Is an analogue of Irrafuu 
and la not properly rednplicat^d. rtrfniiM bore Is late. 

727. Verba In -^reduplicate with 1 In the present. 6ee414,447. W-ft-rX^pi 
and rt-ft^^fu may lose the Inserted nual in compounds of tr, but only when 
if takes the form Jft- ; aa iiarlwXiuu, but iir^ia-\)uta: Doric haa sfTxw- In 
4-d-r^.iu tbe rednplicatlon takea place after a vowel (verb«tam ira-, '»¥-)• 


«. R«daplication to In plaoe only in preaent and impeifeol; but Horn, hu 



72a Most /It-verbs of the fourth daaa add -*v (after a vowel, 
~ryv) to the verb-stem. 

729. Verb-HtemB In -a : api-nvfi* mtx, Kpt/id-riviu hang (lutrans.), reri- 

tru/ii ipread, eKiSi-'tviu scatter. 

730. Verb-Bteme In t (for m) : l-rniia (in prose iiL^tf-nviu) clothe, apt- 
wm/u satiate, a^i-rmiu extiagitiah. 

731. Verb-BMms in u ; fti-vrEMi gird, ^li-rrviu ttrengthttt, rrpii-nvtu ipread. 

732. All the forms in -vrvfu Htarted from verb-atems ending in ir : f m^u from 
h-nv-tu, r^rrviu from apta-rv-iu, fiinvfu from ^-rv-iu. All the Other Terlis 
are analogues of these. 

733. Verb-«tenis in a consonant: iy-rv/u break, Sp-niiuu earn, StU-tviu 
ihow, ttpy-niu {= rfpY") 'hut in, itfry-w/H yoke (iro)iiTti~iviu often written 
-rrlrnifu (= jtrclH*] kill, iHly-rv/u (miawritten /ily-iviu') mix, -aly-rviu (= -ctyia') 
open, SKKv/u (i\-t} destroy, i/ii-niiu {iiii-t-, iiiro) neear, 6iiipy-rv/it viipe off, 
tp-niiu rouse, w-iy-tv/u (ray-, 1177-) Jtx, r)4y-niu (once, In iarkiyruaSai Thuc 
4, 125; op. iXiSttu), Trip-rv/uu sneeze, ^iJt-w/u (^n7-> ^ijT-i ^lO^) break, vrip- 
miu »preod, #pJ7->S^ (= ^drru) inclose, 

734. Foetlo verbs: dl-wfui take, i-niu complete (iniv), tx-nttM am 
troubled, yi-rvum rejoice, Sal-K'/u entertain, tal-ni/iai excel, Kt-niMi move my- 
Mlf (cp. Kiriu), ipiy-rviu reach, rd-nuai etretch, with ru carried into Other 
tenses (toi^b), Ti-rv/iai (cp. Epic rtru from ri-r^-u) better rtlruioL, chastitt. 

739. The verbs whose verb-stem ends in a liquid or nasal often form tbe 
tenses other than the present by adding « or a, as SXXD/u (from iXwfu) fiXcvo, 
jX<6X«a (iX-«-) , iiitviu Siiiooa (i»i-if-) . 

736, nrfu-verba form only the present and imperfect according to the lu- 
conjugation ; with the exception of afii-rmiu, which has 2 aor. lrfii)T. The 
2 aorist passive and 2 future passive are rare, aa ^i^rii/u Ippiyifi iicpa,y^oiteu. 
fifryrC,- ttiyi,'. 

737. -vifiu. class, A few verbs add vtf in the singular, va- in the 
plural, to the verb-stem. These verbs are almost entirely poetical or 
dialectical ; and show by-forms in -vam. They are : 

SiiLniiu (8a^t>i£u] tuMue, Klpnjui (Kiprdui also Epic) mix, ttpliiHiiu (mlswritten 
icp^lirtiiu) suspend, ripnuu sell, rh-nnu (rrrniu) fpread, aiclSniiu (ajod KlSnifu) 

736 D. From verbs in -rSfu seeond aorlsts middle an formed in Horn, by 
only three verbs : iiidytvia (oommonly written ftyAiu) nUx (/ucrs, tpw/u rouae 
Aprt, r^rrivu j(x nrArifxro. 


a. Only lo the middle ; iiAtmmt JtgJU, rlXpofiai (riXidu) approach. Id Si' 
■Wui am aEiI«, « has grown fast (cp. JvMrif). 

73& Stem Oradatlon. — Verbs of the root class show in the stem 
Towel a rariation between strong and weak grades in the present 
and imperfect indicative active. The singular has the strong grade, 
the dual and plural have the weak grade. The optative active and 
most middle forms have the weak grade. 
a- i| 8UtiDg (original uid Dor. a), & weak ; ^id ^tfiit, t^n* t^a/uri br^pt 

b. i| Strong, tweak: tIStuu tlBtiur, triSTii irlBtiitr; hguUiitii. 
e. m strong, o weak: iliuiu SlSaiitr. 

d. iiatrong, i weak (cp. Xclru fXinv) : tliu vill go, t/jtw. The grades ii, o^ l 
appear in eUi3, subjonctlTe ol oTSa know, pi. br/wv for fS/uv (709). 

739. In tbe aeoond aoriat IffTijr / ttood the atrong form boa been carried 
from the Hingolar through the dual and plural of the indicatlTe, llie atrong 
stem occniq aJao in tlui imperative (vtQA, ar^ri) and inflnitive (o'T^mi). 

740. The second aorlat Inflnitive abowa the weak atem: Stirai from M-iku, 
SwHi from St-*rv. Cp. 469 N. vt^mi ia, however, from ar^-cfai (460 c. N.) , 

741. A few root veriw retain the atrong grade ii throughout. Thua, poet. 

f qfu blow S^/ttr ; iirrtt ia from dqrrci by 40 ; ll^fuu Hek (poet. Sl{«ireai ia from 
il{i>liaiy, vlftw'Ktiiu fiU 2 aor. iim'Miitrir, opL ^/urXtf^if. 

742. Verba adding ni ahow the strong form of the verb-atem in the preaeut. 
iin-rv-iu break 2 aor. paaa. ippAyiir, luly-tii-iu (miawritten iitiniu) mix 2 aor. 
paaa. t/tiyi', piiy-rv-iu yoke 2 aor. paaa. ^^ih^f. 

743. The ending n variea between Strong rS and weak fS, Thua iilnrviu 

tficrflfici', iSwUrOi iStUri/ui. 


744. Verbs in -fu differ in inflection from verba in id in the present 
and second aorist systems and (rarely) in the second perfect system. 
Verbs in -^i have the following peculiarities of inflection: 

a. Tbe endinga ->u and -«-i (for ori^nal -ri) occur in tbe pieaeot indicative 

active: rtBrf-iu, Ti$it-ai; ^tf-id #ip-ff(. 

b. Tbe S plural present Indicative active baa generally tbe ending -aei, from 
t-arrt, as TiSiivi, leriai- So in the 2 perf. active tarSai. 

C The .3 plural of active past tensea haa -aar : iriBt-fur. 

d. The imperative ending -Bi is aometimea retained : ^%-el, ar^i ; aome 
fonns never had it: rlBa, ttri). 

t. The middle endings -vat and -ae regularly retain a : rlSt-jv, irtdt-aa. 

N. — But not in the subjunctive or optative ; and usually not in the second 
aorist; aa rifff for TiMir-<rai, n*a for nBi-l-re, (#ou forlfc-e-o. 

t Hie infinitive active has -wu : rM-rm, StS6->ai ; the 2 aoriat acUve haa -•»«■ 
twelj : etUot for M-enu, SaSm for Unrat, 



'- Imve the nomlnatlTe slag. mMC ia 

745. ForiuB of -lu verbs which are inflected according to the 
thematic conjugation are included under the Second Conjugation. 

746. (u-Terb8 may paas Into tbe w inflection elsewhere Lbnu in the subjaoo- 
Uve. ■. Verbs in -rOiu often iiiQect the present and imperfect active (not tht 
middle} froni a pre«eDt In -riu; u Stuttiv (but UBualt; Sittni/u), Stutrttu, ttu- 
fitt, inperf. ittiKroor, -n, ~t, etc. ; Imper. ttUn/t, int. Itucrini', part Snurtur. 

b. ri^iu, trriiiu, Ifiwfu, Iq/u, ete., show BOme u-forms in pres. (and Emperl.) 
htdic. opt. Imper. and InSn. ; but the formB riMu, lariu, SiSiu, \iu, do not occnr 
in the 1 «lng. 

c. In the present and second aotlst optative of TlBtnu and l<itu there ta a 
tiansltlon to the u.«onjugatlon bat not In the 1 and 2 singular. The accent U 
differently reported: (1) as iFlhepi«sentSwereri0fci,Uu; ('2) aa if the preeenta 
were rtSu, lu. Thua : 

Active : d^teiTC for i^tZrt, i^ur for d^cur. — Middle : TiMVe, twi9oliu0», 
avrSoira, iriStSwra (also accented rlAiiTa, iwWoirra) ; rpotiTO, rpMtr$i, Tpooirrt 

(alao accented rpioiro, rpAouTB), Hdt has -Mhtd and -tfEire. The form is 
•oire tor -tho occurs especially In Plato. 

d. The Hu. vary between t^SHimi and rWu/ui, dvoS^fut and iriftiiiai (434 1). 

e. Some other fu-verbe show alternative w-torma, aa nitwXia, -tu (rl^rX^fu), 
rarpia (rl/twpiiiu), Horn, iyitiiai (_iyx/iai), and tUafiat (IXt||u). So oft«n with 
-milM verba (737), aa 9a^ and Sd^n^t, iKlprS and npfdt. 


747. Present Indicative.— a. The primary pereonal endings are added to 
the atem with the strong form In tbe singular and the weak form In tbe dual 
and plural. 

b. In the 2 sing. rlAjt, ftp, torQi, StfurGf, etc., <r has been added tA the Stem. 
This r is obscure in origin, but cannot be derived from -ri. rifcit is tare. 
C. Bring. r(*T»., IffTije-t, etc, with -Ti for -Ti(4fl3o). 

d. 8 plur. TiMdtri, lirra^t, etc., from Ttet-am, Uri-am (483 d). 

e. For the retention of r in rlS^^ot, etc., see 406a, b, and N. 2. 

f. tlSa/tat in the middle present and Imperfect ia used only In comporition, aa 
iroSitoiuu. But the simple form occuia in the pasalve. 

746 0. The tragic poeia never have tbe w-torma ; tbe poeta of the Old Comedy 
seldom ; those of the New Comedy often have the w-fomis. — Plato usually has 
-niri. Hom. has ffl>vn>ai> (and {i^nwa*', &prvat, fijuw, i/inrfrw, etc). HdL 
uaually keeps the ^-forms, but has some w-forma in 2, 3 sing. 3 pi. present 
indie, and part., and 1 sing., 3 pi. imperfect. Doric usually has the w-fonns; 
Aeolic has fnhw, and Sunr infln. 

747 D. 1. Horn, has rf^ir^, rUiiiri and riSti, riSttffi ; MoU and tiioirfa, (1- 
Sur\ (usually) and Jilor, aitaOn, ^ttt'^i from ^iryn^Frt, Oo't (Aqr go and tUi 
they are. On bravKt see 496. Hid. iuAfiran from ^idfiratm. 

,= Cooiik 


T4a bnperfect —irWtu irtfiti, ISlStv iiltovt itlltv (for iSa«f, -m, •»> are 
Iheouitlc fonns (746 b). For Uia imperfect of Siraiiai ttnd ^iarofuu see 466 b, 
^. 1. For the retenUoD of r in irlBtro see 4«i6 b. 

749. SabjnnctlTe. — Attic Ti$ii, etc., are derived by contraction from the 
(onoB of the weak stem to wbich the tbemUic vowel u/q baa been added. Tbns 
tiWb, -^i, -fy, TiBiuiur, -iir'-i -if" ; !i44u, -i^t, -AUi iiiiuiur, -Ji)T», -Uut. laru 
is derived from Im-iu. See 748 b. Verba in -w/u regularly intlect the Bubjnnc- 
life like w-verbs ; iiutria, -iyt, -i^. 

a. Similarly Ihe middle (paMive) forntB are derived from riMtr-^uu riM^(f )a(, 
etc, iMtt-jLti SiJtiir-(a'}ai, iariu-iuu laTirf(a)at, etc. For the loss of a lu htu 
we 4fl6a. -miu verba ia&ect the mid. BubJ. like \baiuu. 

b. I^Kfiu am able, twlaraiiai understand, Kpi^a^m hang, and iyaitai admirt 
put o/q in place of the stem-vowel so thai there is no contractioo ; iiniiiai, Sfrp, 
Hr^at, luniiuea, etc. So, too, twpiinitr, Tpfufxai (T6T a). 

e. Traces of -vTiu in -riifH verbs are very rare : fi^rirai Hipponai IS; cp. 

^UtaSirriTtu K Vh. T7 b. 

TSO. Present Optatire. — The optative active baa the secondary endings 
■nd the mood sign -iif- In the aingnlar, -i- (-«- 8 pi.) In the dual and plural. In 
the dual and plural the longer (-i^) forma are rare. Tbna TiBtlt/r (TtSt-ht-'}, 
TiBiI/ar {TM-i-iitr), laraliir (lirro-lir-r) lirraur (lirrd-ic-t). The shorter fonna in 
dual and Iduial occar in poetry and prose, the longer forma only' in prtise. 

a. The middle (paaslve) has the secondary endlnga and the mood sign •<- 
throughout; rifcffiqr (ritfe4-/iiir), lirraJ/njf (Iffrn-l-fii)*), laraliitBa {ljTB-t-iti6a), 
Ii&urre (Siji-i-rro). On tiBoTto, etc.. Bee 746 o. 

b. The accent follows 424 c, N. 1 (ti0cito not rlflnro). But the verba of T4eb 
aieeicepUonal: iiraa Siraa-o ; and SO dnio Ahito fromdrln)^ benel!e(424c, M.2). 

?51. Present Impeiative. — t10» and Sllou are formed (cp. woUt and i^Xsv) 
from rOt-r, Slia-t. Urn) and itUru Bbow the atrouger stem forms. 

For the middle endings and the retention of r, see 460. 2. a. — On the forms 
TiMiuvar for Titirrar, riBiriurar for tMhSut, see 486. 2. b. 

2. Hdt. has T10EI TiBiisi ; IsT^ is doubtful ; iiSaU, JiJoT, JifoOri, Im-c Itb-i, -t^i 
KoA -ritual. Middle; -aroi and -aro (Imperf.) for -rroi, -m In rif^ariu ^iMaro, 
wT&Tsi Urtero, iurAiTu Jitiv^rg. -aT<u,-«Ta have been transferred from the per- 
fect and pluperfect of consonant stents, such aa leypiipiiTat, tytypditiaTD (430 f), 

3. Doric has tirrSfu, and a for 17 in all tensea (o'Tdru, (rrcura, frrsv); -ti in 
8 ting. tIB^i ; ~m in 3 pi. rlStrn, SlSnrri. 

4. Aeolic has rtdtit, tISii, tUcuti ; riTTai, foTa ; StSat, llSu ; H/itai, 

741 D. Horn, has ^10(i, MMew, iSlSou. — Hdt. has hrcpirl^ca 1 sing., illSmir, 
flUttv, trrd and drlo-rT) (both in Maa.). — In poetry -f occurs for -o-av as rlfcv, 
briv, tlSw (464 e. D.}. 

74B D. Dor. has riW», -4ioiu>, bat contracts « -t- 1; to q ; pi. JiJulm (and 
rVifrri). Dor. has Iiiro/wi, JariTot; Hdt. ^flrTijTu, ^trr^WFrai, Juv^WFrcu. 

750 D. Horn, has the ^fonne JoitOro and Joifdara, Plato has rtri^o. 

TBI D. Hon. has Irrq and ■ia^(«'Ta, JiJIwA, ^/irfi-Xirh, l/itv^i, (^mVi, torws and 
trroo. tWUv, brw occur in the drama. Pind. has afi« (active). 



752. pRMnt InflaitlT*. — The aotire mUU -ku, Ha middle -vAu. S«Ic(v>u 
ftdmiu the form Stun^-f. 

733. FieMnt PuUdpl*.— The tcdve addi -rr-, the middle finoi. Tbiu 
riMt (r(0*-iT-t), rigtiva (jiit'iT-ta) ; nM-/itivt. For >«ic*4« wa find hutiriwr. 


754. The tuturee of verba ia -fu do not differ in formatirai and 
infleotdon from those of verbs in -tt. 

dtlfo^uit, itixHiniiM, S*Stl(aiMi (l&te) or JfAetT^t^mf Irofui ; iitiytviu : ^ulfit, 
^X^'*"'< /UYi^v^uu (poeL), iup*HeiMi (poet.) ; r^ni|u; ■'4(*'i rsT^vofw. 

a. jrHtM i> tli« only fuloie perfect from a ;u-veTb (5tti). 


755. The verba ri^/u, [i)/u, SlSu^ form the singular active of the first 
aorisl in -r-a, thus, (^m, IShko, )('">' Tlie fomu-of the aeoond aoriat (TG0) are 
generally used In Uie dual and plural and in the other moods. 

a. The form in k rarely appears outside of the singular, chiefly In tlie 3 pL, 
as (iwmr (— ftoraf), less froqueDtly In the 1 and 2 pi., as ISAtatur, -ar*. 

b. That K was not a suffix but a part of an alternative root appears from * 
comparison of ^k- in fffqjra and perf. rMfica wmiys^ la flcL 

C tvTtiiu has tirrtira I let, placed (mid. Irriiriinir), to be distinguished from 
Saor. firrqr Ittood. 

i. ifi^itiniir ia an-AtUc ; liriit^r (in oomp.) is rare and probably found on); 
In the Indlc. ; Mwdjuq* it very late. 


756. Indicative.— TfA)/u, tnia, BlBv^ use the short grade forma in dnal and 

plural active: ISt^or, t-4ii-iiir, Itt-nt ; O^ot, thitr, a-aar (tot l-i-Tor,^^.); 
tSe-luy, tSe-rar. In the singular the x-forma, f9i)Ka, 4"i Huta, are used, 
brtim has Irrti,. Iimii, Urn (for ivntr, 464 o), lar^iur, ete. (p. 138). 

a. vfihniu exiingiiUh is the only verb in -rEfu forming a second aortat (IcPv, 

tfiS, rjJflt)*, iT^St, v^fw, aptlt). 

7BS D. Horn, has ~iitrat or -m preceded by i; In d^^vu d^rai from Stuu blou, 
Ti#4fHMu, inx4;tfni and ax^m M from slxirfu. Also Iffri/urai (and Irrd^i). 
IkvyrAxrat (and {myriittr, once {hry>4»u')- -*"' ^f^' ^ short vowel, aa riMiur, 
titifKv (once iiJoGfoi). Doric haa -riBtiaw, Sitiiut. Theognla has tiA», rvmU- 

TBS D. Horn, has ri^/uvai E 84, 

TBBD. Hom. haa f»q«i>', riwitai', <»(«;«>, »4Mro; Hdt »F*f*arrs; Fbid. 

7B6 D. Horn, haa older -* for -<raw In forlr (he oses firrq^ar abo). Dor. bw 
Uir, IrrSr, Hot. For the iterative tri^xt, ti^xot aee 4G6. 1 

Hr] inflection of W-TSRBS: SECOND A0RI8T 209 

b. The middle use* the weak stems -ft-, -i-. So- in t-6i-iia,t, -ti^,,r (tor i^iair'), 
i-th-imr (only in coniposiUoa). For the Iobb ala \a-at (JlSev, liou) see 46S b. 

C. In prose the on); uncompounded eecond aorists middle ue trpidniif bought 
(pre*. Ar/aiuu) ftnd di^i/t derived benefit (6rlr<iiu). ir^ntir keeps i| (poet, tniao, 
irilitrat). IrTi);u does not make Che form iaraii^r. 

757. Second Aoriat SubjunctiTe. — AU the forms of the 3 oor. snbj. are doe 
to contr&ctioii of the thematic yonel with the weak Hiem-vonel. Thus 9&, etc, 
from Wh, Mgi, Btji, Btufitr, etc. ; &, etc., from fu, hQt, luat ; Sa, etc., from iliu, 
J*Bt, S^ ; «T(5, etc., from ^tAij, arfjii, etc., with e from ^ before a Towel. Cp. 882. 

a. ^puljiqi' has ir^fuu with "/, In place of the final vowel of Qte stem 
(749 V). 

758. Second Aorlat Optative. — The forms o{ the optative of the second 
aorist are made and inflected like those of the present except for the reduplica- 
don. Thus, hi the active i M^r (fc-Ii|-»)i cJ-"iii» (irTo-lif-i-), Seijuw (_ii-i-iur}, 
tour (S6-ie-r). The shorter forms are preferred in the dnal and pinral, and 
poetry has only these ; prose admits either the longer or the shorter forms. 

a. In the 2 pL cases of -of^t ( Mirrt) are more nnmerous than -ere ; but Qt^ 
usually lack metilcal warrant 

b. Second aorists of stems in u lack the optative fn Attic. 

e. In the middle: etlimt (0«4-^)rr), Sof^ir" ('«-<-/"l>')t ->>>")>' C'-'-f'))')- ^"^ 
M^kOb see 746 C. For the accent of rfilaie see 424 o, N. 2. 

799. Second Aoilat Imp«atlT«.— On 9i-t, BA-t, l-i, see 466. 1. b. These 
Terbe abow the weak form of the stem (fi^-ru, Bi-rrur). rrrtr;u and r0inviu have 
-A In rr^L, r^^-A. For vr^i the poets may use -vtb in compodtlon, as ^riffrii 

a. The middle adds -vd, which loses its v after a short vowel, «s in teP for 
$^», SeS for Si^o, rplu (and poet, r^lo-ffo). «- Is not dropped alter a long 
Towel (dnfTo)- Cp. 46e b, N. 2. 

C D. Id poetry: trrdnnit (prose WrrVv') from riraiuu fig; Hom. rX^ra 
Vproaehtd, t§\fTa tea* AU (others, 688). 

TS7 D. Hie BDbJancUve shows tncea of an earlier double form of inflection : 

1. With short thematlo vowel: #4«i, ^«, 94<Tgr, ^ofttr, e^t, Bijovci, 
Homer i tfifa;icr, trrijaiuw, .«nfn'sr, nxitiiftf'i Siiofitr, ivt&iloiuu. 

2. With long thematlo vowel : ^w, «4]n, «4di AHt^'i ^"/"i ^i^t'i f4wrt. 
Horn. A(m, »iJbi, ffv, aritiii, ffr^fu, (l«hi, Siji or Silraai, 'rtptar'^wrt, iiiaei. 

By sbortenlng of the long vowel of the stem we obtain a third form : 

$. Bii, Wpt, 0^, ehrow, Stuitn, Bhri, BiuvK. Hom. d^, Biuiur, «Tiu,i**, 
Hdt. Wu, Stuiur, BfuMi, SiuitOi, ariuiuw, Araarfiaai, Aeoiic Mw. 

4. From 3 are derived Uie contracted forms Bd, Bit, 9x, etc. Hom. draorg, 
^, tv or Svri, a<Sfu> ; Dor. iQm ; Hdt. -^, -^rm ; Sufur, -J^t, flOri. 

H. — In Hom. the Hse. oft«n have « for ir of the stem, as Btlu, ptia, Btiaiitp, 

7M D. Horn, has oTai^ar F 788, the only case of -of outeide of the singular; 
>0it (for Ii^ir), iKKiar (for -tM^fitw), and ^tfn-a (for ^I-i-ro) from ipBtru perith. 
7M D. Bom. has Bio and («««. 


b. In oompoBltion riplfn, iritn, vapdo-Tiftfi, irteO, rpoMi ; bnt KKritati, rtpl- 
Sou, rtpiSoaet (120 b-C). 

C For the 3 pi. 9iT*mt, iiruvat, hSarar, Bee 466. 2. b. 

760. S«coDd Aoiist InflniUve. - 

761. Second AorUt Participle. — The active adda -n-- like llie preaent : Mt 
(fe-rr-i). S'ufa (_Bt-rr-ia), tin (Bt-rr); rrdt (irrii-rr-f), UTotra (irra-rrtB), ardi 

(VTa-rr). The middle adda -turn, aa Sf-^wat. 


762. IndlcatlTa^ — The perfect of tI^iuu !a rUtim. A later fono tMcum, not 
foand on Attio inscriptiona till alhir 200 b.c. and due to the analogy of (Tub, 
■till appean in aome texts. rWm ia Doric. For nMrrocs Attic oaed rararr^- 
#ji> Ixa (cp. 690 b). 

a. The dual and plural of the eecond perfect and pluperfect ol Ilrr^^ (41T) 
are formed without x: ItTtcror, ftfro^r (without augment In tbepluperf.), irriai 
from i-<rra-awTi, pluperf . Irra-far, The dngular ia supplied bj the I perf. farqn 

763. Subjnnctlvo. — ^s-rilcaiand trrO appear In proae and poetry, irrta^ 
A In proae, 

764. OptatlTO. — <rr4»vu occnra in comp. in prose, d^wT-Orn dtr In riato, 
Ttfhi*it ttiit and BtSuKira tltr in Demoethenes. ttraliir la poellcaL 

763. ImperatlTa. — taraffi 1b poetical. 

766. Infinitive and Participle. —inTirat and irr^ ate much more commim 
than iariiKfnu and ivT^tiii. 


767. TiStifiai even in oompoaltion la rare and la unknown on Attio inscrip- 
tlona. For the paaa. perf. aSiiai (791) waa used. Doric haa Titiiiau 

76a tiyL (iff-, cp. Lat. ea-w) am has onlj tlie preaent oad future 

780 D. Horn, haa Btiitmi, Siiur; ffritfwKu; ibtitrtu, JdfM*; and BtXwt, «T^m, 
Saint. Dor. Iiaa 9tii*r, tbiitr, vriiar. 

766 D. Horn, has ^rd^ttu and ivrA/im, tTraiit, -airat. HdU baa icniM, 

-tuToi. Doric haa -*ia lor -ufo (iaraiuia), 

TBI D. 1. Homer has the following forma : 
Pra. ind. 2 Bing. lari and th, 1 pi. tliitr, 3 pi. (dtfl, and) Urt not enctftlc 
Imperf. flo, I., !<.», 2 sing. J)ffff«, l^ff., 3 sing. i|«, f^r, «,r, «» (rare), 3 pL frav, 

Ivar; iteratire (496) Iffuni (for U-vmr). 



ladl»tl«* BnbJODiitlt* OpUUn ImpmUn 

Sbg. 1 ,1^ 

i it 

8 Irri 




S l^ri. 


■ l^np c 

,r .1— 



PhtT. 1 Wyiw 

Kir- ■ 


8 iirt An ilqra* or atf> lrr» J|«w« 

bfln. itvw Putlciple Ar, oiro, Jv, gen. <vro«, aSviif, JtvT«t> etc. (806) 
Pirecti (with middle fanra) 

IniMi, Iri (or lm()i ln«s Inrfcv, faw4»v, iv^juto, Inrfc, Ivvvnu, opt 

tral|ii|v, btf. Iffwfni, put. Io^iuvm, -i|, -a*. 

1. ThB impenUvfl 8 pL Ittrmraw occon in FlMo and DemoBlfaenea ; Jrruv In 
Plato ind on InscrlpUona. 

b. In composition fir retAlns fl8 accent, a« drdr, ivsP^o, dritrot, «tc. ; and 
io hm, as dr Amu (426 e). 

T€9. Tlie optative lorrni (rq^wr, tfTrc, «fifav* are tonnd orly in proee writen. 
•Ffwr occnn io poetry and Plato, dr* only in poetry, dtr In poetry and [WMe and 
more freqaently than dV- 

770. Ibe indioatlTfl ilid ia for *^ff-^ (37) ; il 1b for •in (originally iwi, 
463 b) ; tv-rt ntalna the original ending nj iIbI is lot (ir-)fr7-i, cp. Lat. »unt; 
h^', with r ttefore ft deepfle 106 ; the « ia due to the inQuence of irr*. The 
(abjunctire fi la for (w, from ^-w ; tlie optative tfi/i is for iB'tif-r ; il/un for ir-i- 
M't cp. Lat. almiu. Ibe infinitive ilnu la lor ic-rai ; the participle 6r is for 
'4r, from to-w*. 

Sati}. (li, fg(, 8 elng. (p, fyri, Jrt, S p). fwo-i (twice liri) ; i/Jrttm has 1 sing. /irrA>, 

mod prrtlt (with metrical lengtiiening). 
Opt-rfift, etc., also twi, (ei; Imper.2 sing, fr-ro (middle form), foru, 3pl.l«Twr. 
Int. (Imu and f^'*'** (lor fa'-^mot), If/tr, also ffum, Ifur. 
Pan iiir, Maa, Mt, etc., rarely the Attic forms. 
Tnt. often with ar : Irrsfuu and frofisi ; S sing. driTcu, frrcu, (fftfercu, also inr<U 

Tsi (aa in Dor.), ItttrSeu, tvaitmm. 

i. Berodotos lias pres.ind.S sing, rfi, 1 pi. «j^r; Imperf., the Attic formaand 
(a, i ring, f u, 2 pL lore ; Iterative Ukd* ; sabj. tu, Imrt ; opt once ir-foi, tt-^mr, 
laai beq. dtr ; part. iir. 

3. Dor. prea. ind. 1 sing. i)»tJ and iliJ, 2 sing. Arirf, 1 pi. i/Ut and (J;iA (Find. 
(WO. 8 jri. irrl ; tmperf. S atng. 4f (for V-r), 1 pi. 9*»f, 3 pi. Vtar and j^f ; inf. 
4*<'i <fiU*> ; part. i<i' and fem. (arra, pi. f rm . Fnk ^nO^ioi, -Ji '^o* or -tiTat, 
UnSpTmi (640 D.). 

4. Aeollo fwu ont of tv)u ; imper. Ivr*, port. Iwr, bra (S^^io) ; impert Im. 


2 it 



3 ,Wi 



Daaia hw 



8 Its* 


Plur. 1 Vw 



3 tn 



212 IBRKGULAB HI-VEBBS-. «T|l.l [77> 

771. Old AtUc f ta from 1)a (Horn.) = 4ru, (.«, ir- Augmented + tbe eec- 
ODdur; ending n, which becomw b by 36 o. 4i for 4tf0a is rare. The 3 p). wu 
originally i)i>, conttSrCted from 4" (Horn.) ; this 4' came to be osed as 3 ling. 
B; analogy ^a %iur fare the 1 sing, ^r iraa lortned. 

772. Inflected according to the u-conjngation are the aubjnnotive, the parti- 
ciple &¥, and eeverel dialect forme. 

773. cT|u (t-> cl- i cp. Lat. i-re) f^ has only the present system. 

Puuon IimincT 

iDdlotlTs Snbjaaiidia OpIaUn ImpecMlT* IndlaatlTa 

Sing. 1 <I|u ta lokju or tsEq* f« or ^iv 

I»v {(wfc or fai4 

It* jnit or fn 

troi" flTOir 

It» ^T. 

8 Om bri lou* UiTit* ^av or j«n* 

InfioitiTe : Uvai. Participle ; Uc, loOvm, Uv, gen. Uvtm, loio^, Uvtm, etc. 
Verbal Adjectives : 1.t6% (poet.), tr^ei, t-n|rfai. 

a. The imperatiTe 8 pL triM-ar oooura rarely In Xenopbon and Plato. 

b. The participle l<ir is accented like a second aorist. Tbe accent of the 
simple fonn of participle and infinitive is kept in compoeition, as wapuit, rapir 
oiwa, dm/rai. Otherwise the compounds have reoesrive accent so far as Uie rules 
allow : wiptiiH, Arno't, but i'ia, rpov^iur. 

774. ttw In the indicative present means Ithallgo, laruffoinf. Bee ISM. 
For I go Ipxa/tat is used in the present indicative, but not (in prose) in the 
Imperfect, or in the other moods. The scheme of moods and lenses is as fol- 
lows : Pieseot : indie. Ipxoitai, sub], fu, opt bi/u or lofir', imper. tti. Inf. Urut, 

part, liif. Imperfect : in. Futnre : d/u, iXrmtoliair, tXiinrfiu, IXnrifUMt. 

7T5. In the Imperfect the older prose writen nsnally have So, i*t»$a, {«-■>, 
the later have ittr, itu, fa. The plnral forms gn^r and iurt are not claa^caL 
Prose writers seem to prefer i-m to irar. Tbe g here is the stem n angmenied. 

778 D. Horn, has 2 sing, data (Hesiod d») ; subj. t^a and r^if, TuffiF and f|. 
to/ur and lo/itr ; opt, Ulii and r« ; tnfln. tiurat, tytr, and Um (twice). Tmperf. : 
1 sing, Ida, d»^o», 8 sing, (fft, it, fa (at the veree-end, it ?), U ; dual Ir^r, 
pi. ioiitw, Ifirai', tw^irar, bar, Ifiet. For ffio, (fif, dp^an some write j«, jn, pcr■l^ 
Fufurs ; ifro^wu (1 4d2, a 213. fiianiiai 3 8 and fti»a.Ta, iftl^ar* probably oome 
from fii,uu itrtee (778). 

Hdt. : ^a, fit, jfi'rar (Hss.), but g f or qi is ooneot 


ml mREGULAR HI-VERBS: Tl)|U 213 

777. tiliu (i; ■^) smd is inflected nearly like r^/u (p. 135). The 

inflection of tne present and second aorist systems is as follows ; 

Amiti Hiddlb (Pahitb) Hu>i>id 

IhvL Impvf. BBooDd AOf. Pna, ImperC B«oond Aor, 

B. 1 Tv' V (iIm) It|uu Uh,1|> — iTjii)* 

2 lip, tdt (746 b) tm (746 b) (^koi) ftru(466 ») Iwv _ tin 

3 bin fu (ij«) bru ftro — <It* 
D. 2 I*To* trro* — «Irsv fwfcv Cirfcv — (to^n* 

3 Itrov Un|v — ■Inp' Iivfc* Uff4ijv — ilvfiiv 

P. 1 fipt* f(|uv — it|u* tV<*> ^'••> — (Iix** 

2 Im Im —tin t«r«« Uatt — itff«« 

8 tSrtC463d) fw«v — *t««v fwrw brre — flvre 

8. 1 U 
! lil 
S 1| 




D.2 t^iw 
3 t4.«. 



P. 1 U,» 
2 titn 
s tan 


s. 1 Uir 



— d« 

— tin 


D.2 bt7«vor 

— a™, or 


777 D. 1- In Horn. A)«u nan^ly tus the Initial i ebcM. Prttent; -ItU, tfrt 
■nd -lA Iftri Itoid t»-rri, int. UfHKu and -liiar. Imperf. ; -t»», -bif, -En, 8 pL ttr. 
Fttturt! tiru, once i»-irti. PCrtt Aortat: i|<nt &Q<^ him^ iriin,iitr once, f^** 
once. Second Aorttt : tor the augmeated d-fomiB Horn, has uaoally tlie anaog- 
mented t- ; as tvm, Irro. In the miijuncUTe iitffilw, fi«Mp< i^fv< ittfUiur. 

2. Hdt baa -Ici (accented -b()i lur't Imperf. -In, peri, ^rhtrrax lOT ir^lwrat, 
pan. int-prr-t-iiitot for fwAnf^ivt. 

8. Dor. haa p«rf. fmo, Inimi. 


214 mBEGULAR HI-YERBSi f^u Znt 

P. 1 Utptv or — iliuv OT M^ck — ^IfJtm, 

2 UCn or — (tra or bto4i — dvlf 

Ul^w — ilipi (— oWfi) 

8 trtivor — fbrOt faD>ra ^dvr* 

P. 2 bn —In tia«l 

8 Utmv (460. 2, b) — fvtov Ur«M(4S6.2,b} 


falf, bt<r>, Uv — «It, — ftn, — tv t4u*oi — I|uvm 

Fntnre : — Ifrm In proee only In compoeitlon ; — Ijrofiu only In composition. 
Fint AotiBt : ■i{KM in proee nsually In comp., — J|Kd|iT|* ; both only in the Iodic 
Perfect Active : ~ tko only In composition. 
Perfect Middle (PaasiTe); — iI|L«(plnp. — iliupi], — rfv!*,— ilvfcu, — fCpJvot, 

only in compoeition. 
Aoriat Peaaive : — ■ «Iti|v, — 4M, — M|*u, — Htd, only in compoalUon. 
Future Passive : — tUfrofo^, only In composition. 
Verbal Adjectives : — trii, — Met, only in oomporiUon. 

778. Since tig^u is redapllcated (probably for rt-nHu) the Initial i ahottU be 
abort, as It is in Horn, (rarely in Attic poetry), i is probably due to confmfon 
with the i of Horn. [>>uu (^fU/uu) tbivt, a meaning that tt/ioi occasionally abowa 
In Attic U/uu meaning hatlen occurs only in the present and imperfect. 

779. « is for i + e In the second aorist active (^l-i-iur = <t^r), perfect 
active (i-i-ta = duo), perfect middle (f-i-iuu = it/uu), second aorist paatfve 
(i + i-9tir = ttBTfi). In the ooriaU / 1h the augment, In the perfects the first i is 
the reduplication of the weak stem i-. The first aorUt f-m has the strong stem 
form. Present subj. Ii3, igi, etc., are for Mu, U^i, etc ; aor. sub]. -*, -fr, etc, 
are for -*«, -f-jp, etc, 

780. Much confusion exists in the Hra. sb regards the accentuation. Thns 
tor Itit we find bn, and in Hotn. Tpotii (present), as if from im. See 740 c 

7S1. For il4tlotr>, d^Wr and Tpooim, t-pooUdt, rpooJ^ra (also aocenlMl Tft- 
am, etc) aee 740 c 


TC2. The Imperfect of i4hnu 1b either d^ti^r or if^f^v (4fi0). 

783. +T|ll{ (^-, ^, cp 
m the present as follows 

783. 4^)^ (^-, ^, cp. Lat. /3^ tHi^i sa^ yes, or assent is inflected 
' I follow 



OulS 4«^ 
8 4aT4> 


not found 

Ptor.! 4^i<. 



S ^mri +ft«n. ^at4* OT ^ifnv fdrrwv l^wra* 

Infin. : 4A>m ; Partfc. : poet. ^At, ^ar«, ^iv (Attio proH ^irxmv) ; Verbnl 

Adj. ; ^ti% (poeL), 4>tW 
Futon : ^V*>. ^^v^'i +4«^>- 

Kiat Aorist : IfipM, 4V", +1iow|u, , ^flnu, ^^ivflt. 

Pert. Fua. Imper, : m^^Aatu let it be laid. 

704. All the fonoa of the preeent Indicative except ^ift are enclitic (181 o). 
— Id compoidtlon aiii^/u, ai/i^t (but the Has. often have atip^t Uid fu/i^pf), 

7SS. In the optatire ^in does not occnt, perhape by chance (461, 683a). 
^u>(T, ^w(« are ordinary Attic ; ^alinut, ^ijrar are rare. 

786. Uiddle fotme In present, Imperfect, and future are dialectic, 

787. atf ^(u meana r^te (Lat. ntgo). In the meaning; amert, ifiiaKU la 
eoMmmilj naed outside of the Indloative. In the meaning taj/ often, ^atu la 
ued. f^^K and ^^n* itre aor. and fut. In tiie meanlnp say yes and attent. 
I^t, (^ (and ^fu) often coneepond to IM. inguan, inquit. 

788. t^r and ^fl, ^qv may have an aorisUc force. I#i|r and poet, t^iair 
an both imperfect and second aorlit. 

TM D. 1. Horn, baa ^f irAi for ^]fi ; faibj. ^4o *»d «Sri (463 c. D) for 0$ ; 
imperf. f^v, ^r, f^^rta, ^^Ba, l^tqi, ^^t, 8 a. (^qr, rarely ^fj, I pi ^a/Ur, 
3 ^ l#w«*, ^«tr«r, f^i-, ^K. 

2. Doric fifif, ^pkrl, ^n-1 ; Imperf. f^, fta ; Inf. ^/itw ; fut. ^iroi, ^e/uu ; 
aor, f««<ra. 

3. Aeolio ^a«u or ^o^ ^iirSa, 3 a. ^To-i, -S pi. 0auri. 

TM D. Middle forma cf ^fU are rare or unknown in Attic (Plato haa perf. 
imper. ri^drAt), but common In other dialects ; yet the prea. indlcatlTe middle 
is rare- Horn, has Imperf. i^avr, l^m or ^ro, etc., imper. ^lio, ^dirftd, etc, 
int. ^irt€u (and In choral poetry), part. ^fuMt (also In Hdt). These middle 
forma are MtlTe In meaning. 


789. woi (4i^) sit is inflected only in the present system. The a 
of the Yen>-steni appears only before tw, to. 

■Jj/rv* '^rfc* ^rt* 4^* 4"^ 4**°* H"^ 

4<rT<u qv4ov ^VTfu ff^t ^^ i{o~ra 4"^^ ^r^n 

The sabjunctive and optative are wanting ; present Infinitife ^v4at ; pani- 

dple 1||uvoi. 

a. Uncom pounded 4ftai occurs only In Epic, tragedj, and Herodotus. The 
miasing teuaea are supplied by I^^wt, tfu and Iftfuu. 

790. In place of ijpu we find usually KoB-ritua in Attic prose :tnd 
comedy. Ko&rjiuu sometimes is perfect in meaning (I have sat, I hare 
been sealed). The o- of the vetb-stem does not appear except before 


PiBiirt iHPRTurr 

Indlatln SabJanctlTB OptaUn Impantln IndlatlTa 

8. 1 Kdhtiuu KatA|Mt KoBol^ifr iitat^ti,i|* (450) or Ka^|H|v 

3 Ki0i|irai Kotil ksBoId nUhfro kitiin KaM^ 

8 kUtitu «al1)TU KototTO KaSfjvi* itc6My]T» KolVra at 


D. 2 aUtirtoy «a>4)94o* Kotatvfov KUi|a4ai> lKdti|««ov nM)v4m 

3 kUi|o4«v KoSl^rfe* koSbCo^v KoJUfotrnv bMUfriitr KoMiv^ii* 

P. 1 KoMjiuhi KoWiMltt imlaliufe bohJiuta (toMhuls 

2 tMtivtt KoKtarfc Koaoilrfl Kd>t)V«i licd>l)irfl< Koll)*** 

8 tMt\mj, KoAAvToi Kototvro Kot^i^itv fKd(i|Tra Kah)*T« 

InAniUvei ko^V^**; Participle; ■att^finat. 

a. He imperatlTe has xiStv in comedy for jtd^o. In the imperfect Jntff^tqt 
is used about as often as lofffii''- 

b. The missing teoees ue supplied by xaSi^iiai, «aWfw, xotfifefuu. 

79L. Kct^l (mi-) lie, am laid, regularly used in the present and 
imperfect instead of the perfect and pluperfect passive of TvE^Tfu 

7H D. Hom. has eEarsi, and fsroi (twice), tfaro, and fars once (once frro). 
V Is probably the correct spelling for *!-, 

TBO D. Hom. has 3 pi. Koftlttre (la^aTo ?). Hdt. has «iT/ar(u, xariuTa ; ca- 
»%rra not m^o. 

TBI D. Hom. hat 3 pi. pren. icfarai, jr^rai, ttarrni ; imperf. ntrrs, nlan, 
■fars, iter, tivttra ; mibj. rSriu, and ntrai for «(i)-«.tu ; fat. ntUoiuu. 

HdL faaa 3 oing. prea. c^n-oi and Ktrat, 3 pl. iAitu ; imperf. Imro, pL VWaro. 


lodlot Bntd. Opt Impw. iBdIS. 

Sing. 1 Mripu 4ki(|mp' 

3 Kdroi MCra lltaro 

8 Mtitti H^irat mkivrt Mtrlv Ikuto 

Doa] 2 ntvfcv Mt«4M knvfc* 

S Kitffhv mMb* )a(««i|v 

Finr. 1 «C|uk k<l^a 

3 Mtmu (KaTa)KiMVTai («p<Mr)KiaiiTa KtCrtvf Ikuvto 

InflnittTe : lalo^ai j Participle : ki(|uvoi. 
Future : KilropAk, KtbrQ or nlira, Ktlrrru, etc 

«. In tlie mibjunctive and optative net- becomes at- before a vowel (43), 

b. CompoandB have recessive accent in tbe present indicative and ImperaUve : 

r^dm/uUf wapdKttaa^ but raptmturffatw 

792. ^-|11 (cp- ^^ a-lo) Mf occurs only in tlie present and Imperfect 1 and 
3 sing., and Is used In parentbea<« (as LaL inquam, inquit). 

Forms: 4fii, i)rt; 4t, 4. Examples: rat, ^iiil, vai boi/, I tag, boj/t (emphatic 
tepetiUon). frf ^<S taid 1, 1) f St mM A« (1113). 

793. "Xjp^ ^ ^ neeetaary is really an indeclinable substantive meaning ntctt- 
tttf with Uie verb understood. In the present Indicative iarl Is U) be supplied. 
ElsBwhere xp4 unites with the form of the verb to be eupplied ; as subj. xn 
Otrt + 5). "Pt- X/^'i txrt + rf^), 'nf. xp^iit (xrt + 'I""), part. Indeclinable 
Jf^* Cx/>4 + '*) i Impeif. xp^* ixp*l + 401 and less commonly /xp9>' ""^th an 
ugment because the composite character ol x/>4> tfaa forgotten, fnt xji^rrai 
(Xrt + »»T»). 

a. Aw^xPI ^ n#ces has pl. dnxfiAr't part, droxp^r, -xf^a, -xp^'t Imperf. 
iaixfli fQt. iraxJl^irel, aor. dT^ji^i. 

»». otSa (18, «'&<, ofS- originally with f ; cp. Lat. wi'deo) know is a 
aecond perfect with the meaning of a present, and formed without 
reduplication. The second perfect and seoood pluperfect are in- 
flected as follows: 

T9B D. Hom has i), Doric ijrf, Aeolio ijiri. 

T9> D. Hdt. has xp<fi XP^^r XP^'f^r but iwpoxpi, inxp^'- 

TMD. 1. Bom. has alScit > 337, »;«', (^-vi (r<r<ra<r<farf<ra<ri 138); subj. «» At 

r 288 and UA# (T Z236), (fSafui- and cr^trf with short thematic vowels; inf. 

liimtu, ttiur ; part tUvia. and Uirto. Ploperf. g Jio, f^qrftt r 98, 4(M«'(-<>> f ) 

X 180 wilA q as augment (433), gSif, {>«, ijilJci t 206, 8 pL trar for ISs^r. 

FoL daoita^ int. Mytriiur and -«'(ii'. 

2. ndLhasoTtat, n^rand»r3afM>(rarel;),(>rj&ri, snbj. (liAv, plup. jStn, gSo 
(tin T), -vMari, f S«ra>, fat. dStlrw. 

3. Dor. has ba^ (pl. Uuiar, Irarri) and ofjo. Boeotian has Ittu for fm-w. 
AsoIk has fUmu and off^ 

































Plor. 1 




r .«.!,„«. 


















InfinltlreitSfofu; Participle tlSAt, ttStita, itUi (800); Verbal Adj. Ur^ot; Futon 
■(b-»|UM. Compound riniSa. an co)ueiou» of. 

795. The Tertbatem has the meaning ^nd out; hence Oie perfect onta me«n« 
Z have found out %aA hence 1 know. 

796. Id Ionic and lal« Greek we find Mat, Ma-iit*, etc. These form* Are 
rare In Attic olirSat occurs In comedy. 

797. In the optatlre dual and plural proae wiiteie have either the eliorter 
or the longer forms ; the poeta only the shorter forms. 

798. Pluperfect ySar, jitii occur in later Attic (Demosthenes}, but are 
suspicions In earlier writers. itavBa occurs in the beat Maa. of Plato and else- 
ifbere, but it la leaa correct Attic, jiqi ia incorrect. fSti la rare, iarer, jvqr 
are almoel entirely poetic. In the plural fSviur, jS«te, iStiaar are pos^lassi- 
cal. ^ttiui, iStTt occur rarely In the Attic poets. 

799. ota-9a is from olS + Sa; trrt from It + rt; taBi from H + ft (BS). r^^, 
(older ftiur) gets Ita r from tm (87). frfffi Is from B + aawrt, with • from 
(Horn.) [«-ar= JS-ru with the ending -«kv (cp. ttUfi 704 d). jSif is for ^-t^t^ 
with J, as angment (43S). 


800. Some verbs in the present appear in classical Greek in the 
active voice only, as Paivat go, Ipwu creep, t/kw trenMe; others in 
the middle only, as oXXofuu Uap, 0ov>kOfMU with, koBt^/uu Bit, xct/uu tie. 

eta.. Outside of the present some active verba show middle forms 
especially in the future, as p^<muu, thaU go, ixovvofuu ah/xU hear (803) ; 
and some verba exclusively or chiefly deponent show active forms 
especially in the perfect, as yiyvofua become yiyova, fiaivopai rage 
fUliipn, SUpKO/uu poet., 2 aor. I^kov, perf. StSupKo. 

803. For the passive voice the middle forms sufiBced in most 
cases ; many middle futures are still used passively (807), ae SSut^tm- 

■M D. Horn, has iKri/i^r teal killed, hxim' t"" ttagtd. Cp. also gSwAiiqi 
and aXStrBtr (alSia)iai reipect), dfrar* and AlaS^t (Uaitat think'), ^oXiMd^qv tuid 


fiu aAoO be wronged; and traces of the passive use of the aorist 
middle appear Id Horn., as tfiX^ro wa» hit. This use was largely 
abandoneHl when -^ and -tfi^v came to be used as s[>ecial marks ot 
the passive. Originally neither ipf iioi -A^ was passive in meaning. 

803. The second aorist in -^r is primarily intrsnslUve tad shows active 
inflection (as Imir ttocd). i/la.ny so-called pssslva fonna are in fact mereij 
inUansillTe aorists of active verbs, as ippirir from ^u fiow, itamUnrv from Ktrw- 
Mpu lie dovn, and do not dlSer in meaning from tlie aortola of deponent verbs, 
sa ipAnif from iialra/ioi rage. 

BM. The sorists in -^v that ai9 called passive are often active or middle In 
meaDing, as ^rtitr took pleatKre tn from ^ta/mi, do'x''^' fi^ luluaned from 
■irxtH* ditgraee, alaxiiBimt am luhamed; iipylaOTir became angrfi from ifyliM 


805. Fntnn Hlddk with Acdre Heaninc. — Many verbs have no 
active future, but use instead the future middle in an active sense: 
Xa^ifidyii) take XiJ^m/uu, yiyvmlKio ktiow yvuxToluu. 

a. IHost such verba denote a physical action, as the action of the vocal organs; 
tlie action of the organs of sight, hearing, smell, touch ; the action of throat, 
moath, lips ; bodily activity in general, volnntary or involnntaij ; and otbar 
aspeclB of the physical aide of human organlam. 

806. In tbe following Itat of active verbs with middle fnrarea thoM marlied • 
have also an active future ; those marked t sometimea have an active future In 
Uie Oieelc All verbs adding -a^ to form the pieaent stem (628, b, o) have a 
middle future except b^>w, XarMw, i^Xirjcdw, Verba denoting piKlse or 
blame usually have both an active and a middle future. 

■^Sh tj3a<l» d/d •k\4{u 

tcUsAf t7eUw •tfittt •j(Ww 

UoXifM 'rupAoKm "Hvitii* Kfiitt 

pail{u iiUti 'ffiyyiru Miricu 

Paint (see TOS) Siiriiu ^rBiwu 

4^iM SiSpiaKti Bpifiiiat 'writ 

'pktrit *Suiat tifiru riu moin 

a. Compounds of %<apl'm with i,-w«-, wy-, rapa.-, wpor- have both active and 
middle futures ; other compornids have only the active fntmres. 

807. Fntore Uddle with Paadve Heaninc. — In many verbs tbe 
future middle has the meaning of the future passive, as <Uiuc*u wroitg, 
^jut^crafwi ahail bearonged. 






fr\iM (JtX,.) 





























B08. The following verba commonly use the fature middle in a passive seme. 
(All ot these have the future paaedve In iMe Greek, except dfi^ur^^^w, Mu, ttpyu, 

imSp*ii», alidt, mlayiyta, TpMrroptiu, ffrp«;)X4u, rruyiu.^ 

iyto4i not to know ilri" '^i" luuTlfiu whip arptfiXiu rack 

Ay^^ltfMi contend ixwi-ifm tsosA out altiv inhabit arvyfu hate (poet.) 

illicit wronn inttpiiu lie in wait ii»>^*u Offne rofKLrTu diUurt 

itt^ur^io ditpute for iMtHlit reproach Tup^uffuard 

irUyrviu optn, C.LA, *ti^i;X.i)» plot -raaarfoliu edu- Tfii^u nourith 

2. 106* (not found againat ate rp^u rub 

in literature) tx^^" ^"'^ tdXiWw wage war iu rain 

lpX>r rvU tx" htne rpoarjopria fOTt- ^Mia love 

(iMffxai teach Btpurtia (end tell ^uXirru guard 

tilt permit kuUw preeent sroj 

soft. Some verbs use in a passive sense both a future middle form 

and a future passive form ; on the difference in meaning see 1738. 

iyt lead, Sfo^xu, ix^"!''"- iiofrvpiu bear viitneu, luprvp-iiiiotiai, 

irariw deceive, iraT'^renai, jfamr^ fia^ufn|A^o»uu. 

S^e/uu. waXaptiu balegt, raXuifiic^rofuu, r*Xi- 

«ifd>w inereaee, odfVa^uu, a^^iiaaiiM. opKtfiiiatiiai. 

fDiAwTU hurt, ^X^^ofioi, /JXa^ittfOMU. rfiTTiado,rpifopai{rwe'),'wpax9ii^»l''t. 

AfUw manifest, JirXiitfs^iai, SqXwtfi^a- aripia deprive, dTi>rT<p4ffOfu(i, iirorr*- 

IMi. pifiiftaiuu. 

{^iai fine, tiiiu^tttfuu, {>|fuw^D/wi. Ti;ulu Aonour, ri/ifo-afiai, Ti^^tf^a-ofiw. 

mUu call, jmXaO^uu (rare), K\ii6^oiMt. ifipllu iniult, i^puD/iw, ippict^QiiMt. 

nDMh-TM proclaim, iici|pit£e>ia( (rare), n)- ^pu bear, ofirBfui, ofrffilffowu, uircrr- 

piixHmiMt. xSVofHu. 

(frftw judge, KpuvBttOi, tptlHtrapai. ^partu : tara^pariicoiuu deepiee, mro- 

ijyu tag, X/fD/ioi (tragic), Xex^«/u>> ^^nrffikB^"- 

Mru leaw.'iivaXd^o/iai, iro%*t^eiitaiMi, it^t\tiii aid, d^XfrB/wi, ii^Xi)tfi(aefiai. 

aiO. Middle DeiMnenta Deponent verbs whose aorists have an 

active or middle meaning with middle forms are called middie depo- 
nents. The aonst passive of such verbs, when it occurs, has a passive 
force. Thus aiTtaaiuu accuse, ■' accused, ^Tii^ Koa accused. 
Others 813 c. 

ail. PsMive Deponenta. — Deponent verbs whose aorists have the 
passive form but the active or middle meaning are called passive 
deponenta; as ^ouXofuu tm'ah, aor. Ifimikj^. The future is usually 
middle in form. Most passive deponents express mental action of 
some sort. 

612. In the following list verba marked * have a fntnie paaalve (onn and 
also a fnture middle form ; as JiaX^^uu convene, aor. StcX^A)* converted, fuL 
IioX^^iw and tia.\txHffi>iuu thall converge. But Ijtotau take pleature in baa 
only tiaS^iau, and ^Tio/iai j/ield to, am wonted has only ip-rri^aoiuu. Vertia 
with t have also an aorist middle, but It Is less common, or poetic, or lata Qraek. 


tlyufiMi admlret +v4»*i» ^l/rrioiiat field to, imif^w 

■taJMfuu feel sAatM, iUvSt/r (iw)Kndiniat eontider, ^rtK|l.^|e^w 

IXiafiu (usu. poeC) wander, ^XiO^r (r/iii-)A>fiAvw> am eager, rfnctfiifu^v 
tVAXiofMi contend, lnuKX^evr •t(«Hi-)X*yo>iiu eonverte, JnUx^' 

liprfcftu denjr, 4^p4^r (<x^-)/ii\o/ia. care /or, irifitX^e^w 

Hxtfuu am grieved, iix8iv0<tr (jura-iiiOo/uu regret, /kti/wXi^p 

^k<f« "*«*. ipo^y^^w (480) (dT.-)»*>M" deqwfr, dr(»40,F 

Mm« WOHl, ««««5r •(8m-)w*>M»' r(yJ<!C(, Stlro^, 

itpaiMu (poet.) (M, «//)x»V' (<^)k^M"' (Afn*o/, ^re»4«,F 

ItH/uu am dbU, itur^r (430) t(Ar..)wiA>,«i (Aini on, ^(mtAfp 

^rri^ioi oppow, *»om(4tffl» t (xpc) ro^^ioi foraee, provide, rpoe- 

triarafim vnderitand, ■fptirrifiiir raifi^r 

Ifa/iai ipiw love, ipdaeti* ofufuu think, ifi/fiir 

(Mo^/KU am cautioM, DdXa^iffq* ^iXsri^i^o^uu am atnbttiout, J^tXerifiih 

tfSofui take plea»»re in, f/u&iir Ar' 

«. Some verba use either the aorlst middle or aoriat passiTe without distlno- 
tkni, as troiM^iiat bivouac, ■wpayimTtiieiiai am engaged in. 

b. Some verba use both, bat prefer the aoriat middle, as droc/iln/uu antaer, 
iMitKfftotau tpeak in d^enee, niiuf^iuu bla'oie. 

c. Some verba use the aorist passive in an active or middle Bense, as irtphiuu 
doMbt, pass, be disputed, aor. i^api}9iir ; ropdu prove, wtipAo/iai trji, sor. irtipi$tiii 
(ien often in'tipdjdn'^r), fuL ntpiifouai and mpaf^aiiat, ipiu (poeL (/xuuu) 
lave haa 4p<''^> /s" ''> ^'>^ie vn'tA, fut /pwrS^ofuu. 

813. Depments witb PasaiTe Heaning. — Some deponent verbs have 
a passive meaning. This is avoided by g^ood writers ia the present 
and imperfect or future passive, is not frequent in the aorist, but is 
common in the perfect and pluperfect passive. Thus S.vfKfivtrta (d>re- 
npiBif) Tuvra Ikis answer is (vxui) made is not good Greek. Few verbs 
show the passive meaning in most of these tenses ; as Sn/ioiuu buy, 
am bovght, lav^^ was bov^M, luyrnuu have bought, have been bought. 

a. Picaent andlmperfeet: iyurifaiiai cotOend, am contended for, pidia/ai force, 

amforeed, yj/itelitiiai tnaltreat, am maltreated, itrieiuu bup, am bouglit. 

b. Future Fasdve : iraprto/uu deny, dirapn)9^s/uu, ipyiliiitat teork, do, IpyairHt- 

t. Aoctat Faarive: These verbs (,middle deponente, 810) have also an aorist 
middle; the aorist panive la used in b paaaive aense: d7urf{b>iai contend, 
mlxltviiai harati, alth-Ttiuu epeak darkly, atnia/iai aecute, ixta/itu heal, 
PtAiaiuu force, ttx^/uu receive, taipfoiuu preeent, ipiyiioiuu work, do, ini^ 
fmi lead, dtiaiiai behold, Uo^t heal, Krieia* acquire, Xu>iai»^i maltreat, 
imflioiiai oftuse, luiUoiia^ imitate, i>t^ipeiuu lament, Tpo^arlfB/iot feign an 
etetue, xP^f" tf , dr/e^t bHg. drexplra^uu has AmfXrarQ anneered, 
irticplf^w nau. means was separated. 

i. Ferfflct and nnpertect : These verbs use the perfect middle in the middle ot 
the pMBlvfl sense: iyull!;»|M^ eonteTid, atrlTraiuu tpeak darklj/, ofridwuu 
aecuie, Awaxfliaiuu anmer, droXar^fuu make a defence, ^uijbfiai fi)rc«, 
h^ltit^ai eontider, ipyiitiat work, do, tOxeiMi pray, inio/uu lead, rrioiiai 


oeqHirt, iiHfiititai abuM, taix^'ioi'ai detiie, lu/iieitat imitate, rappqri^jiifui 
tptak boldlji, ■wnMriiaiim net at {diKharge the dvttet of) a ci'tiMn, vpa-ffia- 
Ttie/uu ant engaged in, ttiitTitiiat vfetr, xp^fu" vee, iirioiia.i bvy. 

G14. Active Verba with AorUt PsHive In » ICiddle Suae. — The 
aorist paasive of some active verbs has a reflexire or middle sense, 
either Bometimes or always. Thus cb^ptUva gladden, jfii^pavSip' re- 
joiced, Kivcui move, Jkivit^ was moved or luooetj myself, ^ouvi show, 
i^injf shouted myself, appeared {l^aydrpi usually was shoam). 

a. These verbs ue often cftlled ni(UUe patsivet. 

b. The middle and the paisive form of the future of auob verba Is often 
found, the middle being (reqaently preferred. 

815. Aorist Passive and Future Middle forms : 
•Irx'w (liegrace, irx^*^' fiU ipyit" anger, i>iriW9^r heemtte anfry, 

Cahamed, alvxvumiiai ipyioOiuu 

Atniit vex, 4"^^' felt vexed, ini^oiuu ip/idu incite, itpit^r set out, ipiK^oiioi 

twdym urge, {/rtlx^* urged, trtifoiiai rtlBu persuade, ^((o^r obeyed, rtlaa- 

ft^paitH gladden, iii^pdwff^r rejoiced, iitu 

f4#pa»0fiai irXurdw cause to Uander, frXar^Oif* 

Aritt move, UXr^hir moved (Jbettirred) mndered, rXar^ttimi 

mytti^, KlrfynjiAi woptiu eonvey, hroptMit' marthed, wv- 

KniiAu put to ileep, /irai/i^Ajr lag dotcn pticaimi 

to sleep, «Hfi4rafHu ipopiu terrifn, 4^p^r teas (tfraid, 410- 

\nrim vex, tXuriBiir grieee4, \uriiatiiai P'fyioiiai 

a. i.rii9iMt set sail, cardTo/uu land, hir\litiitu ann tnv»elf, ipidiaiitu lie al 
anchor, generally have an aorist middle. 

S16. Aorist Passive and Future Passive forms : 
lutirirtw remind, i/ii^ifB^r remembered, r^XXu trip up, deceiae, te^Xifr erred, 

linfrff^o/uu failed, v^Xiiffoyut 

Trpi^ turn, isTpi^t turned, arpa^i- rifiH cau^e to melt, trit^f ditMolved, 
ffPfiw JanpufsAed, rarfffB^uu 

817. Passive Aoriat and Middle and PaMlve Future forms : 

draXXdrTw rdease, drifXXdTi)' departed, draXXdfo^iu, iraWayirofuu. 
^Ittt ihouj, i^iiryir appeared, ^nC/uu, ^riivaiiai (B10). 
81B. Some verbs have a passiTe aorist rarely in a middle sense ; with the 
middle aorist in a different meaning. 

ntldiu brinjf, iniilvBiir betook myse\f, haiuciiatr carried off. 

r^{u save, ivMiir saved myeelf (uos soned), /vw«4m9' saved for jnjf. 

f(Mw deceioe, hftivtifw deceived myaelf (via* deceived), /fniri/iqr Ijad. 

819. lusomeverbaahowinglst and 2nd aorist, or 1st and 2nd perfect, thefiist 
tenaee are generally tr&nsitive, the second tenses generally intransitive. The 
future active of these verbs Is transitive. In aome transitive verba the perfect 
(usually the 2nd perf.) is intnnaitive. 

•ivl TRANSITIV£ AMD INtRAlfSmVfi 228 

kfMfk: (ntna. nmrtyriiu break, -mfn; intnuu. nrAyrvuM break, 3 tar. -H-nir; 

2 perf. Sya am broken. 
pultm I/O : Ukdb. ^4*1* lAofl cauM to go, 1 aor. tftifra.. Ion. and iweL ; intruiB. 

2 aor. f^r toeiU, pf. p^Pi*a have gone, ttand/att. 
tim: UftDa. eatwe to eater, eiak, pat on, Steu, tSura, SiB6*a ; lotrans. enter, pati 

under, ttoiuu. Situ, 2 aor. livr dived, uent doum, tiSim have entered, gone 

down. la proHe usually naraifu make ttuk, ttriivca, Karaltaai; caroadofiai 

link, isTBitffvfuu, tariSur. — Of another't clutties, iwSiu (Mtitfa) meUMpttt 

ON, iToStt* Mt<^ (dT/awo /fVSwa) mean take off; of oru'« own cloUies, '*- 

5A»fiu and MSuw mean put en, droJte^ioi Mtciim (iHSir itilvr) me&u 

t y lpn: tiajis. roHW, uolv up, ^pfl, 47<V<h Btc. ; intrans. iyiipeiiat wojbc, <nn 

owiJte, tiwptftyo'Bfui, 'trUpBiir, 2 aor, iiypSfi^r aieoke, 2 perf. iyfiiyapt ant aieake. 
b-n||u Ml ; tnns. imtiri* shall set, 1 aor. (vnia'a eel, JfrdA)* tOM («t, trTo/ioi 

mt for nqrwf/, *T4'a>4a(, ^TqirfifMjr. Four active tenseB are intiaiu. : 8 aor. 

Iffrvr (Bet myself) Hood, pf. Urim (have set myself) itand, om 1(0)1(1(11?, 

d^Tifini Hood, toos itanJi'np, 2 perf. (araror slonii, fuL pf, iarifya lAoII ttettd. 

So slao brofwi Mt myteXf, ttaad, crlfffaiuu. 

N. — The same dlatlnction prevalli In the compoundsi irtimiiu rai»e up, 
Atttr^r Hood vp, i^lSTiiMt let off, caiue lo revolt, irtariir Uood off, r«VOlMii, 
i^wTtfica ant dielant, am in revolt ; ^^Irnt/u >et over, htitTtiw let myuHf over, 
i^tanim am let over; n$laTT))H let down, eelablUh, tarirrtit tttabliihed m}f- 
lelf, beeame eitabllihed, taHmiiai am ettabltibed. The aorist middle hu a 
different meaning : laTes-T^aTs ettablUhed for himulf; evricriau introduce, 
uiUU, ttrtmuur banded together. ' 

Ura team : trans. Xcl^w, l\ir»r, UX«ra have left, have failed, am uianttng. 

\tirt)uu, mid. = remain (leave myielf), pan. = am left, am left behind, am 

Inferior; 2 aor. mid. i\itrt/nir left for mjfeelf(in Hum. wo* left, am Inferior), 

UfsfKu toitl leave for myaelf, xeill remain, be left. 
paint: trana. madden, innairti, -fuivfl, -iiitim; intrans. rojKi iwtnfiw, fcamOfuu, 

^/idnfr, 2 perf. fJiofim am raging. 
AXBfi: trans. lUitroy (prrdo), itriKKi/u, -«Xa, -liXM-o, -«\iiA(n have ruined 

( perdidf) ; intrans. periih {pereo'j, iriWu/uu, -oXeB/uu, 2 aor. -uX^qr, 2 perf. 

-^XifXa am ruined (_perii). 
hMm : tran*. pertuade, rtleu, frcwa, rirtuia haK periuaded, tr^t^r, rtitt^ 

geitat; intrans. (p«miade mj/ielf) obey, believe, rtlSaiiai, rcteofioi, twtiat^r, 

•wiwtitiiMi am convinced; 2 perf. rinifa I tnat (= wirrttii) la rare In proae. 
«4^yp«p* : tniu. fix, make fa^ r4fw, Iriifa, iw^xBnr ; Intrana. am fixai, 

freete, r^n/iai, rirr^rofuu, iriyiii, 2 perf . rfmrya am fixed, J^oten. 
•wtrm drink: 2 aor. friar dranJt, 1 aor. firiffa eauaed (o drfnjfc, 
vX^ttm: tnua. (erryif, iixXiirTm, unrnrX^tt, -^Xirfa; intrang, am mn't^kte^ 

ftrf do .' rfrpSxa (probably lat«) lave done, rtwpiyn have fared (well n fit) 

and fcoM done. 
^^fMlpi ; trana. brtak, -^fw, (pfifa ; intrana. break, burtt, ^iiyrviuu, -fi*yfn,Mi, 

tffiy^T, 2 perf. tppvya am broken, 
wfttitfik : tiana. extinguiih, pi« out, iraafiirniu, irivptat, drw/Mrffqr ; Intiana. 


be actingvUhed, go out, irarpim/pM, iwovfi^o/uu, iwiafiiit imiU out, ds-Af^ii 
am extiitgnUML 
«4pn> ; tmuk ntokfl rol ; intruia. rot, riraiiai, Uif^ rotted, 2 pert, ttr^ra, am 

•H[im: tnin*. eaiuc to neU; intniiB. melt, r^m/uu, trirf^w, 2 perL r^n am 

^ttbrn : tram. lAoiC, ^aru, f^^n, t^^yxs Aqd* ihenm, ri^a^/iat, i^w^r vai 
thown, made known; tnns. tiHio mKow, declare, ^nlioiuu, ^nOfitu, ^td^^> 
aJiovMd (rare and poetlo in Uie simple fonn ; di-e^fdfn)r declared U com- 
mon); Intnms. «&our orwieV, appear, ^alm/wi, ^i^ofiat and ^>«0>uu, ^n|> 
ajipearMi, 2 perf. t^^ki have thown tnyxelf, e^peartd- The middle ineaiu 
thovi onetelf, appear; the pMslve, ant thown, am made evident, ^r^raiiai 
means aAoII appear or thatl be f Aown, «nd la not very different In aense from 
^aroStai (but see 1T3S, ISll). 

4<«I f : trans, dettroy, tm^iStlpu, -^BtpSi, '4^0tipa, -i^Bapta ; Intiani. am rvinei, 
Sia4>8tlpoiuu, -t^eipiiw, -i^Sap^raiiM, 2 pert, Sii^fapa am ruined in Hom., hart 
dettroged in Attic poetry, 

4tfa : tmna. bring forth, produce, ^iw, I^Uva ; iDtrans. am produced, come into 
being, t^fiai, ^iev/iai, tipvy, 2 perf. ri^vxe, am by nature. 

830. Poetic forms : ipapi^ttt (Ip-) fit, 2 aor. ffptfior trans, and Intrans. — 
ytlmim am born, tyttrd/i^r begat. — iptUw rend, 2 aor. Ijpiiair tnuH. rent and 
lotrana. lAinered. — iptlru throw down, fifitrer trans, threw doan and InUans. 
fell. — tptv/M route, 2 aor. ipoptr tnuis. routed and Intrtins. have risen. — div- 
yiynifiat read, iniynm pertvaded Id Hdt., 2 aor. ijiytur read, recited. 

831. The following are poetic intransitive second perfecta : ipipm ft (ip— 
plftu fit, Irana.). — (oXxa hope (Epic At« cavM to hope), — tiiaitm tonvm 
(rflw frott&b). — Spupa havt artten itptv/u rouse). 




822. Inflected words generally consist of two distinct parts : a 
stem KQd an inflectional ending (191) : 

iSiptur gift, stem Supo-, inflectional ending v; 

Xvofttv we loose, stem \to-, jnflectionaL ending fuy. 
a. The inflectional endinp of nouna and Terhs, and the lormation of Terb*] 
tlems, have been treated under Inflection. Tbe formation of words, sadUcnaed 
here, deals primBTily with the formation of noan-etems, of Terbal Btems derived 
from nonns, and of compound words. Uninfected words (odverba, prepoai- 
tiona, conjanctions, and particles) are mostlj of pronominal origin and obacore ; 
(och adverbs as show case forma are mentioned In 341 fl. 

823. Some Btems are identical with roots (root-ttems, 193) to which 
only an inflectioim] ending, or no ending at all, has been added. 
^«v-t ox, cow ^iS-i mouse £-> hog, toa 

lU ome (stem it-) vai-i ihip 0U{ JIame (<f\ty-u bum) 

Up wtid &ea>t(gen. frip-ii) &(• voice (stem 5t-) x'¥ Aand (gen. x'^p-i') 

i\i^ thi^(_t^fw-T-atteal) ra6i foot (tteva rot-) x^<^'' frth (slem x*)'-) 

BM. Most fitems are derived from roots by the addition of one oi 
more formative aufQxes. 

ii-fa-T gifl, stem iupa-, root Sw (^Si-tu-m ffivt), gniflx po-, 

'ipaii-lta.T-ed-t KTibt, Item ^rpo/ifiarcv-, root ffio^, suffizee /mt and n. 

a. Moot words are therefore built up from root, aoffli, and inflectional end- 
ing by a ptooeaa of compoeitJon analogous to that seen In compounds (869 D.), 
in irtitch tbe ouioB of the various elements yields an Idea ditlereut from that seen 
in each of the parts. 

825. A stem is primary if only one suffix is added to the root 
(SvpcM') ; secondary, when more than one suffix is added to the root 

826. There are two kinds of stems : nonn-stems (substantive and 
adjective) and verb-stems. 

837. Words containing a single stem are called simple words, aa 
Avyv^ ^peecft; words containing two or more stems are called com- 
pound words, aa Aoyo-y/xl^o-f ^eech-writer. 

aaxBK OBAK. — 16 236 , 


838. According to the chantoter of the suffix words are called: 

a. PrimitiTe (or PrinMry) ; formed 1^ the addition of a suffix either 

to a root or to a verb-stem to which a vowel, usually t, has been 
added (486, 486). 

Boot ypa^ ; ypi^-u turlte, tfa4^ wrOtitg, -rpa^-ti^ wrlUr, yfitH^ 
sonttthing teriUtn, yp^irinii line. 

yeth-OMaytr-tlaftfi-ffBaibeeomt {iytriimr, yi^t^iMi.'): yht-rir* gat*- 
tU, origin ; np-t (r/fHf bore^ : ript-^po-t gimlet, inttrununt for baring. 

b, Deaomlnative (or Secondary) ; formed from a noun-stem (substan- 

tire or adjective) or adverb. 

ffoiiriMT-^ writer (stem ypaitiimr-, DOm. ypimid) ; tittup»*-Sft Aoppt- 
lUM (stem tMovwr-, nom. •MaW') i imaa-rini jui^ee, itna^tn-t jitM (Ilcf 
right); ^(X-Mi-i fliendlTi (^iXa-i dear); iouXi-w etwJam (J*SX«-i tlave); 
ToXw^i ancient, of old date, from the adverb riXm long ago. 

829. Suffixes forming primitive words are called primary suffixes } 
suffixes forming denominative words are called secondary suffixes. 

■. The distinction between primary and aecondarr snfBzes la not original 
and is often neglecl«d. Thus, in Snrit terrible (^iti- fear), k la a primary mf- 
fix i In ^nrnrit dark ("irot, 866. 11), It la aecondary. go Engllah -able Is both 
primary (readable) and aecoDdary (companionable). 

b. It is often difflcQlt to determine wbeUier a suffix is added to a Terty«tem «r 
to a nonn-atem : Iaxu-p6t Uroag (l^x^' strength, laxi-u am Urong). 

c. A primltiTe woid may be termed from a verty-stem which la ilaelf denoml- 
natlve: rofiu-riff bowman from t^i6-u tkoot with the bow, derived from rif>-r 
bow. A primitive may be formed with a aufflx derived from a denominative : 
^Xey-upt-i burning (,t\fy-u bunt) with vpe from \iyo-p6-t (Xt7*-t) MhrOl. 

i. A denominative often has no oorreepondlng prlmlUve ; someUmc* tha 
latter has been lost, HOmetimea it was prMumed for the purpose of woid-forma- 
tiOD by the imitative prooess always at work in the making of language, Tbos, 
S4ii-r-*a-r bed, from Sc/i-n-r (lin-u buHd, eomtntet). 

830. To determine the root all suffixes must be removed from the 
stem until only that part remains which contains the fundamental 

a. Hoet roots are soon-rDots or verb-roots ; bat originally a root waa nelthw 
noun or verb (198). Soroe roots are pronominal, and exprete direction or poai- 
tlon. Greek has many words whoee roots cannot be discovered. Hie form of 
a root in Greek is not necessarily tiiat which Comparative Grammar sbowi ww 
common to the cognate langnages. 

b. Since the origin of many words, even with the help of the cognate lan> 
goagea, is uncertain, we are often at a loes where to make the dividing ibia 
between root and snfflz. Suffixes are often preceded by a vowel which may be 
regarded as a part of the aofflx or aa an ezpanalon of the root (b; some soholan 
re^rded aa a part of the root Itself). 

831. Chances of the TOot-TOwel. — a. The root-vowel ia aomattiiMa antnf, 


■ weak .' «s M (wMk i) ; «, M (««ak «) ; i| or ■ (wwk ■ or «)- lk«(>-fM 
TtnvaU, Xmv-^ mnoteteff, cp. Xds'tf, f-XiT-oc ; ^lOY-ll( team, op. {k^-ri>-fu, 
{vy-dr yoiU ; ffrou^ •«aj, #n<i-w Aoatett / Xf^-it forgeffuinett, XofMrv (^«*-) 

(*<ry-, ^-, A-7-). Cp. 86. 

b. <oftenTsi{MirtUia,KimetlmM wWia; iiBometlmw v«rl» wttha. 7Jr-»4 
t^iprtng, yt^r-tiuu (t"-) ; t4>-o-i totu, r«in* (r**-) Btreteh ; rpa^-ipAt i0ell-/eil, 
rft^-i tuntritlmtent, rft^-u tumrWh ; Aptiy-^ ftclpfn^, if^iy-a help. Cp. SO. 

833. Boot-ditannliMtlTN. — A ooiuoiuuit aUodlng between root and anfflx 
(or endiDg), and not modifying the meaniDg of the root, ia called a root-detcrnitMa- 

pltpaf pedeibd, bam fimlru go (pa-) ; tr-t-m (poetical for igSlm) eat, for 
JM-H, ep. loaio It-- ; tX4-«4( (poet.) amfidl, rXft-i-at eroted, T\ri-0-^ taOelif, 
ep- r(|t-«Xf.^ ; n-B-f-fiii dtqr'* >oiinM|r, vrA-^ftif a ml«, from Irrvfu (rro-) ; 
«^4-X-4* <*4P^ ^ ffidtf le^w. — On the InoBrtion of r, we SSO. 

a. The origin of loot-deteiminatlvea U obacnre. In part Otey may he 
relica of rooti. In part doe to the analogy of worda containing the coiuonanUi la 

8331 SnffizM. — A anffiz is a formatiTe element added to a root 
(or to a stem) and standing between tlie root and the ending. 
Saffixes limit or particularize the general meaning of the root; but 
only in a few cases is the distinct meaning of the suffix known to us. 

^ The origin of the Qreek mfflzes Is often obscore ; of those Inherited 
from the parent language only Mone were employed to make new words ; otben 
were formed by Greek Itself (productive saSxeE), From the analogy of the 
modem languages we Inter that some saSxes were once Independent woida, 
whicli, on beooming a part of a compound, lost their algniflcation. Thns 'hood, 
•head in tMldhood, godhead are deriTed from Old Eng. 'hid,' Gothic 'haldns' 
ekaraeter, nature; -ehip In tnenenhip, covrtthtp, comes from a lost word meaning 
' sh^M ' ; -4 In friendly from Old Eng. ' lie ' body. So -AS^ meaning tmellia^ 
(Site) , as in iMtqt fragrant, acquired a range of meaning originally Inappropriate 
to It by passing Into the general Idea of ' full of,' ■ like,' as in rMiiiqi grang 
(nla), XoifuM^ peMtaential (Xai/iif), r^nidJirt iea^p4ike (v^). This sufOx la 
distinct from -«Iifi having the form of, like (898 a). 

CoDTRsely, many solBzea, themselven insignificant, acquired a definite meaiw 
Ing by reaaou of the root with which they were associated. — Irrespective of Iti 
meaning, <n« word may serve as a model for the creation of another word ; aa 
tiarvatton, eonttellation, etc., are modelled on eontemplation, etc 

b. Many dt«y11ahio safBxes, due to a combination of the Snal letter or 
lettoia of the itam and an original monooyllablc suffix, adapt themselves to Inde- 
pendent use. Cp. eoo-tinafore^o-inn because ot patrlot-im, -able In laughabls 
and proftoMe (from proba-bUtt). Thus, patronymics In •ttfirt, -hIJIiti 846. S, 8; 
woidsin-«(raB4Sb,((; -<ulMS68.Sa; -«£» 861. 1 ; -Arrtpot SIS ; -^i|t 848 a, S. ; 
-4>.<868.8; -4^1868. 9 b; -tbt 86B.Sa; -dm 868. 8; -Uwr863.S; -41^ 84Sa, 
N„844. 3 a; ^t|Mt86a9; -dr^t 848 a, N., 844. 2 a; and many otbera. 

c Simple mfBxea an oftao added to case fortna or adverha, thus frodoalng, 


by oontominstlon, dtnyllablc eufflxee ; as ipx'H't-t anetent 858. 2 a ; voXtu-^ 
of old dtOe ess i),4affri-t vernal B68. 12; ^v^i-ni-i natural 858. 6 b ; cp.ii-Aiu-o-t 
mariitt (AXf). 

d. Uany ootnpoimd suffixes are formed by the union of two BufSzea, new 
Rtema being creaMd by tbe additlau of a suffix U> a atem, as : Ti|p-io 851. 2, lo-s-to 
852. 6, (tfjt^u 864. See 854. 

e. Sufflzea ott«n allow gradations: n]p, ntp, np, Tp (36 K. 1) as fn So-ti)p, 
tii^vp, tirufia (out of Hvrt/^i^d) ffiver ; i^dX-rf>na harp^laper ; fii|v iiv : Xi-/ii)> 
tar&our, \(-^u-i) loJu) ,' pMp pop : Tit-fu*p, rti^-iiap goal ,' ap p : U-iiip uxUrr, 
U-pi hydra ; m av : Titr-tir oocenter, tern. rArrain, from rorav-ja ; and in 
Uwr Uon, fem. Utura (843 b. 5). 

834. OungM In ttans. — Various changes occur when a suffix is 
added to a stem. 

ju The flnal tdwbI of a stem Is contracted witb the initial vowel of a soffix : 
i^lSur tmall tnake (D^i- + i>u>r from f^i-i). 80 when a consonant is dropped at 
the end of a stem : aUa-io-i vtntrable (oJdiit reverence, stem uSiw-), ^a«iX«-i5 
kingdom (fi<uri\ri-t king, stem piuriXef tor ^wrihcv, 43), drrc-ib-i rained (Avrv 
cBj, stem d^f/r- for ivriu-, 43). Cp. 868. 2. 

b. A long final vowel of a stem m^ be shortened before the Initial vowel of 
a Buffli : Slxi-io-t jvtl, ifcir right, stem Sua-. (Properly SUoi is an old ca«e 
form, 833 o, to which -0-1 is added.) 

C A flnal Towel or diphthong may be dropped before the initial vowel of a 
mUBx : amp-li uitdom (r*^> w(«e), rtfi-io-t honoured, coMtlji (riiii honour, stem 
T(fu-), /3u'iX-M^ royal (/SiwiXed-f king), nUr-icA-f civic (voXfriri c((i«en, stem 

<L The flnal letter or letteis of a consonant stem may be dropped : viat^po-aini 
teapwanet, moderation (aii^pur temperate, stem iru^por-'), /uX-ijJpiar little aong 
(fil\-at aong, /aXeff-), i\iie-iri-t genuine (dXijff^i -^1 trae). So apparently in tlie 
case of a vowel st«m in ItarS-rvroi belonging to the matler (SeirxATiji), 

e. The finai consonant of a etem undergoes regular euphonic change before 
tbe initial consonant of a suffix ; p\in-iui glance (p\hr-w look), Juiw-riic a judge 
()m5-T^, from Saii;u}udge, stem lucat-), rla^i-i faith (= iri0^t-i, from r(itf-« 
perauade, stem n*-), WJii stgle (= \ty-irt-t, from X^-u gpeai). 

(. Stems In * have an alternative in t (cp. trro-t, voc. Jm ; 220 b). This 
t ofl«n appears in denominatives: alui-w dwell, oUi-Tip houte-tervant, oln-io-i 
domesUe (aIio-i hotiie). 

g. Derivatives of a stems may apparently show u in place of S ; as arpiirui-Tiit 
Moldier (fTpariA army),'lra\iii-Tiit an Ilaliote, Greek inhabitant of Italy ('iroXia 
Italg). See 843 a, M. Stems in a have i) in rl/iii-dt honoured (rifii), stem rlfii-). 

h. Vowel stems, especially those derived from verbs, often lengthen a final 
short vowel before a suffix beglnulnif with a consonant : roCif-fia poem, rotti-ai-t 
poelry, iM^-rif-i poet, TBH|-Ti-ii4-t creative, poetical (mJ-a make) ; Jcv^cv-r^-i 
priioner (^Btaiii-t, Sta/ii fetteri). Verbs with stems in a, 1,0 usually show in 
derivatives the stem vowel as found in the tenaes other than the present ; as 
>qX&4d man^est, f ut. IifXii-o-w, SijXu-fft-i manifntation ; ip6a plough, fnt. dfit^u, 
<P»-rt-i arable land, dpo-rifp ploughman ; tdp-UrK-u find out, int. eip-+ 
dtteovtry, bnt tlp-*-rit discovers, tip^-riii diaeaverer. 


L Vowel BtBum Eometimea insert a vowel before a saffli beginning with » con- 
■ODaul : roXi-^-riT-i, Ionic for i-sM-Tq-i citizen, rraXl-t-dfio-r (poetic) citj/. 

j. CoDBonuit sUmt, and Towel nems not ending in o, often hIiow o Iwfora a 
■offiz in denomiiuitiTeB ; a stem In -«r is tbiis replaced by one in -o : ru^pa- 
r6nf temperawx (tii^pu* temperate, ru^poir-) ; oi/ur-^ii bloody (oIm, -arot 
Uood) and irn-i-«f ahadowy {atti. ihadote) b; analog; to 4oX6-«it wll|r, 868. 3. 
Cp. 873-875. 

B3S. Several aubataDtlTes are fonned by rednpllcation ; dY-vy-if traintng 
[ti-u I«(ul)> «-«M food (Ionic rS-« eat), vi-T"!, -^rrin giant Some, by me- 
Uthesis (128 a) : r/i^t-t evtting (r/^r-u eu/). 

B3G. Insertion of aigma. — Between root (or stem) and suffix r Is often 
found, and in some cases It has become attached to the sufDx. This parasitio 
letter spread from Ibe perfect middle, where It is properly in place only in 
stems in r, 9, 0, or IT ; as in rx'-'-/'^ cleaving wltb a- from f-vxi-r-zioi by 
analogy to JFir^cur-rai for i-ax'^'"" C'x'f" cleave). In -o'-riri the transference 
was made easier by words like s^ur-rii cloven for axil-™. This a appears 
befoi« many Bofflzea, and iMually where the perfect middle has acquired it (489). 

|1A: ard-v-iia Epaam (inriiiii rend, Ivwaairtiai), tiXto-a-na eomntand (_Ktkii-ci 
command, ati\tvciiai), i/ia-a-iM ttain (^/nalni (tafn, ^w^iiair^i). — |>a : rra-v-/iit 
= cri-ff-im, nt'^tv-v-liit command. — ftij: ii-v-ii'^ setting (^Btai uf), — ti]i: jnX<v~ 
»-Ti(t tlgnal-man, ipxi-»'-"f' dancer (ipx-i-oi^ii dance), iuri-r-Tip lord (S6ra-;iai 
am able). Also in l/M-ff-riipiot yflcariou* {tpd-u do), ipx+*'-''p" dane(iiy-;)(aee, 
wWii-v-nini/ulnetg. -a-it has displaced S/i, -0-fi (832) in Jcfi^ odour (earlier iliif), 
^v-ff-iiit (and ^<i-9-iiii) rhythm. 

837. Insertion of tan. — In a tew words r is Inserted before the mifflzea ;», 

fiB, lof, /tJir. Thus, i^-e^-ioj command {itphitu, TOOt i, i), Xat-r-fui dqyth of the 
tea, iA^-iti and iu-r-^ijr breath (itiiu blovi). In iprr-iii-r oar the r may be 
part of the verb^tem {iptraw, 515), and have spread thence to the oUier words. 


83& Some enffixee have a special sigDificance ; of these the most 
important are given in 839-856. But suffixes commonly used with 
a special function (such as to denote agency, action, instrument, etc.) 
are not restricted to this function. Only a few have one function, 
as Ttpo to denote comparison. 

a. The instrument may be viewed as the agent, as in ^(u-v-rifp hammer, lit. 
tmaiher, fram fiai~a tmash. rpo (8(13. IS) may express the agent, iDSlmment, 
or place. Suffixes Dsed to denote actions or abstract ideas often make concrete 
words, as rpa^ nurture and nouriihrnent, iyyt\-la mettage (cp. Eng. dwell- 
ing, elothlng). rapStttMt means ferry, ferri/-boal, ferryman'* fee. Words 
originally denoting an agent have lost that meaning, as ro-r^p father (orig. 
protector), and in many cases the original force is changed. 

839. AOBNCV 

a. The primary suffixes to, njp, rop, rpo, ev, denoting the agent or 
doer of an action, are mascnliiie. 


1. iS (tiom. -H-)) : KtM-^^ ><l9« (KfUn decide, ifH-), iXAr-rir-i (Ai^ (icX^-t-« 
fteoO. roHfnf^ poet, i.e. nwier (rW-w maJte), nilXv-Tf-i fim«-fiaytt 
(a6\l-v play the flvie), ttat-^-rii-t pupil (/iaiMru learn, itad-t-'), iK-l-TTf-t 
tvpplUad (lt-ii*-aiuti come, it-). 

% *i|p (Dom. -r4^) : Sa-r^f giver (i(-<H-fu give, (e-, jw-), vw-rV Hvtotir (fH^ 

5. Top (Dom, -THp) ; ^i(-rup orator ('^w aAafl Kiir, //>-, ^), tt-p^-Mti Aom 

tpojfc«N, rrlr-Tup fovnder (kt1{w /owwI, rriA'), rWrrgy conugHmder, 
poet. {miuUrv give a ttgnaJ, <rifiMr-). 

4, rpo (Dom. -rpA-«) : U-rpi-t phjftUlUM (U-Ofwi Aeol). 

6. n (nom. -a^): ypa^-t6-t writer C7j>d^4 torUe)i TM-<A-t /(tfJUr (rkra 

begtt, TO-). 

b. The primaty Bufflzes rpiS, rpid, ntpd, rtS are femlnina. 

1. Tpit (oom. -rpit) ; aM^-rpff /mote jtMt04>Ja|r«r. 

2. T^ (nom. Tpuk) : wot^pim poeteu (Ute), <fii\^pit femaU \arper (f iXXit 

play the Aarp, ^'''M- 
8. TtifB (nom. Tipu from r</i-f,ii) : rii-r*!^ fein. of ctt-ri^ t6-rtifa tern, cf 

4. TiS (nom. -rii) ; Ir-i-rtt female *upplia«t fern, of U-4~tV' 

c. The ume root or verb-aCem mfty hftve dlSereot sufflxM denoting Qie agent : 
7vr-/-r^, 7ep-«^ijp, '(**4-TUf begetttr; iui$-if^plt, or f«#-iH'pu> /MHate pifpil, 
fern, of iioB-^t^rii. 

4. Words In tup, -rpii, •<vt are ozytone. Words In -rup, •rnpo, -rpia have 
leceniTe accent. Words In -r^ aie oxytone or parozytona. 
«. See also a> (nom. -tir) 861. 18. 


B. SnbstantiTee denotiug B,ctiona often express abstract ideas, 
and names of actions and verbal abstracts are often naed con- 
cretely. The following suffixes (except fio, nominatdve -/i^, and 
«r, nominatiTe -«c) form feminines; all are primary except id in 
some words. 
1. n (nom. -ri-i) : Tb'-Tt-f /attA (rtl9-tt penuade, iri#-), ^-T*-t mmour (#wiJ 
tag, ♦o-). 

5, «\ (nom. -tft-i) I Mftf «lvle (X/y-u tpeali), r«(i7-7i-t po«trv (rot^-w mojlf), 

^J-v(-t decdir (^(-v-M <f«cav), J^i-f act o/ giving or ^^ (3f-aw-f« j/m, 
)»-, Iw-), M-vi-i placing (ri-^rt-iu place, 8t-, Af-), rd-tf'i't («iufo)i (foT 
Tf-fct 86 b, from rtlm ttretch, rev-), n ia derirnd from rt after a 
vowel (116). 

8. ml (nom. -vli) : In SDbBtantlTea from verba In -«{)* out of -aS-iw ; ai 
ionftarU examination (to«M{w «xanifne, !•■ fu'O- 

4. n (nom. -rD-t 863 a. 17) : nre, poeUc and dialectic, a^if^tt eating (poeU 
M-H eat), 0oi)-rt-f «Aontfiv (tSo^-u *Aotil). 

6. |w (nom. -|i&4, maso.) : jiwv/ii-t jrnmil (liiii-M purme), rra^fii-t mue*- 

inji (wrip-nrtiM tneeMti). On #-/w see 832, ff-«w 836, r-fM SST. Cp. 
801. 1. 


6. fM (nom. -fiq) ; yni-iai knottledge (Yi-omWiw kitow), ^fot report, oMm 
(^f-fiJ M|r}, Ti-/i4 honour (poet, rf-it Aonour), fv+^q ni«monr (/u-finf-"*' 
ramfad]- SeealaoSfil. 1. 
T. pa (nom. -^) : riX-fu daring (rA^-rw dure). 
S. «r (n<Hii. -«t, nwit.): Si-»t ftar, {iiy-at cold. 

ft. il (nom. -J£] : primitive, from Teib-atems, as iiar-U madneM (^rsfioi raft, 
fmr-). DenomhubtlTe : ^ytiur-i& iovertig«tf (^yiniir leader), titprfivtm 
Und »trvie% {titinrr-ia from iiifrr4Tiit doer of good deedt). Wfthoat uiy 
iiotui4(ero: roXupcU tiege (roXupK^M btttege). Verbs in .«i>m derired 
from mbeUntiTes, as railt6-ti edHcatt (rati child), sbow abstraots In ^11 
for *(_«)'» (43) : raiitlA tdueatton, rrparfla campaign (aTpurtitiMi Mm 
tkejltld), /W(X(ia retgn, kingdom (^oriXt^Ho am king). 
10. •,«: we86». 1,8. 

k. Han^ feminine BubBtantives expressing the abstract notion of 
tbe adjectiTe are derived from adjective stems (a few from Bubstan- 
tive or verb stems). Many of these denominatives express qKoHtg, 
cp. Eng. -neu, -hood. 

1. dt (nom. -W) : from adJeetivM In ip and -not, .out, as dX^flna trtiiA for dXi|- 
fcv-ia from dXi)^t true; (ra«a wani for irS»(t)f~ia from Jidnit iM«il|ri 
44 a, SOS d ; iVmo JtJndseM for (A>«(a)-ia from ttrto-t diwvt Mnd. 
1. i> (nom. ~Ja) : )MawMr-fd AoppiceM (cMo^mt Aiqipp), rcMoxla ' ollfonca 
(jriiiiMX" Jtghting along with), va^-IA witdom (vt^i wtie). Bince r 
becomes # before u we have d^Kirla tmntortalOy (dMrarv-t (mmortol)* 
Cp. 86». 0. 
1. rni> (nom. -ritni) : StnM-vini Jvttlee (JCxaw-f futt). AbetiKCts In -vvrn are 
prcperiy fern, of adj. In -vvwn, as Tirtfg-a^ni ^ (y^86^vrei io}iftU). 
-•rini by analogy In iiarr-wtni art ofditinalion (^rri-i leer). See 866. 7. 
4. T^r (nom. -rv) : ^iXi-r-^, -r^oi friendship (#fte-« ^end), (ri-nri, -Ttrrt 
tqttalitg (b^-t eqital), rt6-nit youlA (rfc-t yoHnp), i-ax^-r^t lAJohieM 
(raxt-t thick). 
6. aS (nom. -it) : abetiact mbttantlTes of nnmber, as rpt-it, -Hot triad (rpttt). 
tnwii, -i»M *nU (jUnt afone, tingle). See also B68 b. 8. 
e. Some neuter abstracts express qnality ; rix-" Ipud (rax-^' ft^trt), 
Of-rt width (tJM-i brood). See 840 a. 8. 

d. A temfailne adjective la need sabstantively in poet, rirvn) vtidom from 
Tuvri.^ lOiK ; witfa leceaaiTe accent In f x^ enmity from ix^p^ ho»tHe, M^^ 
learmth from tipiii-i worm. 

•. Some oompoond adjectives In -iji yield (by analogy) abstracts In -U not 
in -cUj as iiruxlh misfortune from d-ri>x-4i ai^ortunaU. Pluctnatlon often 
oceuia, aa in mn^ui icumr^ld malf(iniiv from niio-4^ fU-d(«pMed,' Old Atde 
iX^fi(=Ion. iXifMlq) for dX^fftw. 


The result or effeot of an action is expressed by Ota primary 



. ft (noni. -Of, nent.) : yir^t race, famUy, stem ytf-W' (vl^c-oftai am bom, 

i-^f-^r, 7<r-), Wx-at child, stem rtx-tr- (rbrw bring forth, r«K-), 4tBi-ai 

lie, stem ^nii-<r- (^(^S-u deceive). 
': for [Dom. -ju, neuL) : ypiii^iia thing written (ypi^-u write), ri^/M thtmffht 

(n^bi thinJc), mlit-iia poem (jroti-a make), Sip-iia hide (iip-t* JloiOt T^tf-fta 

tection (riiirrw eat, Tt)ir, Tiof, 128 a). 


The instrumeDt or means of an action is expressed by the primary 

I. rpn (nom. -^pe-r, neut.) : ipo^po-r fiovgh (ifii-u plough), \i^p9-r raiuum 
(Xft-ureleoM, X5-), riI-V'Tpt-rr<UtU(rtUiithake,C3i»),!l-taic^po-rteaeker't 
pag (iiM*i« teach, SiSax-), Xm-rpiht bath (bathing-water; \a6-u VKok). 

% l-p* (nom. -Bpa-r, neut.) : K\ei-8po-r bar for closing B. door (iXif-u lAue, 832). 

8. rps (nom. -Tp3, fem.) : fuii-rpd kneadiag-trough {iiAttu knead, fwY-), fi'i-rfi 
compact (ipiie ipu shall eay, Ip-, ^c-), x^-^P^ Pot {x^w pour, x<^)- 

4. Ti|p-w- (nom. -rijp-M-r, neut.) : in a' fen words, as iro-rt)p-i»-v cup (*t*H 

drink, rv 629); eeXt-r^p-io-r «pefl, charm {Bfky-u charm). Bee 868. 14. 
6. ■« (rare ; nom. -ubr, neut.) : rpo^ia pay /or rearing. See 863 a. 8, 
6. p» (nom. -p^i neut) : rt-t-pb-r wing (riT-npai flu), 


a. The person concerned or occupied with anything is denoted l^ 
a denominative formed by one of the following secondary suf&xes : 
1. m (nom. -tC-t, masc.): -/pofi^iiaT-ti-t eecrttary (ypiMt", -btsi angthing writ- 

ten), Up-ei-t priett {ltp6-i sacred), Irr-tO-t horseman (tnro-t Aone), x"^- 

(d.1 coppertmith (xoXxA-t copper). 
8. T* (nom. -rir-i, masc.) : ra^-rir-t iailor (rau-j thip), raCi-riri bowman (rifo-p 

bow),tUi-riiii houit-tervanl(tliai-thouee,SSil), Str uti-Tti-t pritoner (9Sit). 

S. — Bj analog]' are formed: lir-irii-i bed-fellovi (fiVnj bed), following tUi- 

Tf-i ; ir\-tTift heany-armed Mldier (Sr\o-r, fa-Xa armovr) ftjlowlng TaXl-.r^-i 

from older t^~-i 1 arpari-iiTii-i toldier {arparriA armg) following ica-fui-nr-*. 

See 834 g. 

b. The following secondary snfQxes form feminine substantives: 
1. ta (nom. -i4} 1 corresponding to masculines In -ri-t, u ifptia priettett for 

l<p-*u-ia (ltp^6-t priest), fiafl\tia queen {paai\-t6-t king). See -airs below. 

5. »S (nom. -1() : tpap)taKAt torcereu (0d/i»uuni-r charm, poison, ^laptuui-ti-t lor- 

cerer), xar^iK-h female huekiter (mtijX*-! Auctifer), ^vXax-li female gMard 


8- TiS (nom. •rtt) : corresponding to mnBcuUnea in -^if' '• e'l^-rit houae-maid 
(oijt/-T),i), »aXr-T.i female citieen (xoX1-ti,i). 

4. ittS, WvS (nom. -irra, -lara) : from ja added to Stems In r or ■ (112, 1 14), 
■s e^rra female serf tram ^r-j^a (^i, ^-it serf), KlXiwa Cilicisn looman 
from KiXic-ia (Klhi^ C(Ifc£ait) ; later, by analogy, (Joo-fXirra 9U«en. 

6. OM* (nom. -oow) corresponding to masculinee In-w*: X^-am Uoikm (U-«> 


lion), ttpir-ntn handmaid {$tpdr-uw atlendant), Aix-iuri woman 0/ 

Laeoxfa (A(Ik-u( a Laeonian). Sy analogy, io o stems; \iic-aua the-teo(f 

(X£io-i). -aim Stands for -ar-ia, -an being a meak form of -wr (633 e, 36 b). 

N. — Ifunes of deaUn in aojthiiig lunallj end in -i-i&X^, -m ; fem. -rvXit, 

■iJm (thX^ Mil) I as j3(^\i(>4-<iX^ bootteller (_pip\lo-r book), airi>4(;iXi)f ^ntin- 

dtaler (iriro-( (fmi»), i^i^tiXti bread-teoman (d^o-i bread). Cp. aim xarqUt 

under lS. 


Oentiles are denominative nouns denoting belonging to or coming 
from a particular country, nation, or city. Gentiles are formed from 
proper nouns by secondary suffixes. 

1. «■ (nom. -tit, gen. -4ut, masc.), iB (nom, -It, gen. IS-oi, fem.) i 

nXsroM^ -Jut, nXBTcuh -(ioj a Flataean (^ HXdriua) ; ''Zperpirit <Ht 
ErttTian H 'BpirfHO) ; Utyaptit, Tieyapli a Megarian (ri JStyapa) ; AloXiff 
AeoKan (AfoXot, mythical ancestor of the Aeolians). 
a. -ft i-tSot) may denote a land or a dialect: ^ Aupft (7^) Doris; ^ 
A/eUt (YXitfrra) tAs .^eoltc diaUcl. 
% i< (nom. -nf-t, masc.), nS (nom. -rii, fem.) : T(7«i-nji, To^A-rii of Tegea 
(i T«7^o) ; Zra^-sA-Tiji, Sra^-ia-Tii 0/ Sparta (if Sripra) ; Xlylri^-nit, 

A(>if7-Ttt o/.^«^na (^ AP/iKt) ; Su^n/^l-nji, ru^op-i-rit Sybarite (i/ Xifiw 
pit); ZinXi-ii-Tqt, £i<«Xi-i3.-rit Sieiliote (4 SueXia). 
a. liic endings -irqt, -vri)t are due to analogy ; see 643 a. N. 
3. Other gentllea, properly adjectives, end in -wt. -iS, as 'A^ru»^, -aS of 
Athens (oJ'A^qnu), Hn^r-M-i for H:Xirr-io-t o/3fife(u> (Ht\irrat),'Ora«tT- 
im of Opus CChrab) ; (i) Kit, (i)"^ ^ 'lur-tjitf Tbnfe ('Iwr^t 7onfan>) ; 
*6.«, Wj preceded by a(Ti), i, as ZapSi-iri-t of SardU (ZifOta), Aofi^u-riri-i 
o/lrimywoctu (Ai/i^smi), Bufarr-in-i Byzantine {Bviirrar). See 863 b. 12. 


PatronTmics, ot denominatiTe proper names denoting descent 
from a father or ancestor, axe formed from proper names (^ persons 
by means of the following suffixes : 

1. U (nom. -tift, masc.), S (nom. -i, tani.) : 

B^nt-jtr-i ton of Borea* fem. Bopcit-t, -&t from Bap^o-i 

Stems in i shorten S to a ; from ancb forms arose 

i. all (nom. -ASif*, masc), aS (nom. xii, fem.) : 

OvTt-dav-i son of ThettiMi fem. 8eirrt-<it, -dSof from B/irria-i 
From this type arose a new formation : 

SL mBK (nom. -utS^i, masc.), wiS (nom. -uii, fem.) : 

ttfiwr-tiSn^ toniif Fherts fem,*<pi|T-i4t,-ti!-«tIrom Wpijt (-ttw) 
Il(iwir-ui3ir-t ton of Prrnns (fem. Utpviftt, -li-ot) from lltfiari-i 
I«\afu(HlJir-i »on 0/ Telainon from TcXa^* (-ilnt) 



4. tlB (nom. -f>%4, muo.),'ifi (noin. -It, fem.) ; 

TarraX-iSn-* won of Tantaliu fern, TarmX-ft, -IS-n from TdrraXo^ 
"SiKpoT-lt^-t ion of Ctcrrrp* fern. K<cpoir-lt, •Jt-at from K^(p*<^(-«m) 

{Mx-fJir-t ion of OeneiM tern. OJnf-tt, -U-ot from <H*(^ 

A^»-(t^ «on 0/ UiX) lem, Air<*-'<i -"-« from Afni (97*} 

Stems In o drop a ; Htemi In iv (ir") drop v ; items in ai (w) drop i. 

5. tov or Ici* (poetic and rare ; nom. -twr, maao.) : 

Kpor-lur Mil o/ Cronua (also Kpav-Utr(3i B^°> Kpor^r-ot or Epar4w»«i 
according to the metre, from Kpiro-i. 
ft. iMvS or IiB (poetic and rare ; nom. -tiini or Irq, fem.) j 

'Ax(w-<ii»^ daujfAMr of'Aicpltto-* 'Aipjjffr-fi^ dou^Ater o/ 'AS^frro-t 

846. Variations occur especially In poetr; : a. Horn. IIqX«-Uif-f« IlfXcJ)^, 
Hif'^ir-Uair-t, and IIi]X*-(«P, «on q^ IXifX*^ ; 'Ar/itJiT^, 'Arpt^S^-t, and 'Arpt-twr, 
•on q^ "Arpii-t. 

b. Two patronymic endings ; Ta\a-Mi>-lli}>i ton of ToXol-t. 
G. Ttie stem drops or adds a syllable : AivnX-Uir-i son 0/ AncoUw, t w t ; 
AofiT-*T-(i^-i wn o/AdfiTo-t. 

d. -iihri Is naed in eomio formations : ic\nT-Utr-i son o/a tAi^. 

e. -rtii Occam In the dlalacts, as 'ETo/uiviirJs-i ^lamiitondat. 

t. -toi, -CUT, may Indicate descent, as TtXa/uivu roT oh ion ttf TWobuk, Tvr- 
lo^U Arydrirfi dauptor of 7)indareiu ; cp. Tennyson's " Nlobean danghMr/' 

847. A piuronymlo may include the father, as ntiai^Tfor iSax the FtMMrr 
Mae (Peisistratm and his sons). 

848. Host gannlne patronymlce are poetioa] and belong to the older lutgnage. 
In the olssaioal period patronymics rarely Indicate descent in the case of historical 
persons ; as fldpirUirf, 'ApwrrJIi^t. 

849. Metronymice denote descent from the mother, as titorWift son of 
Alfd*, *tXvi*-M4-t son of*r\6pi. 

890. Relationship is sometimes denoted by the BofOzes iBm (nom. -iMt^ son 
of) and ita (nom. -tS^ daughter of) ; as d9iX^-i9o£>-i n^pAMS, dliX^^ nice* 
(dttX^i^ bntlier). 


851. Place may be ezpressed bj the secondiuy Buffixes 
1. to (nom. -w-r, nent.): AurAvisv (scU. Upir) tempie of Dionj/mu, 'Hpaar 

Also H-M (nom. -«(b->, neat.) : from BnbstantlTes Id -rf-i Kid hf exten- 
sion in othets ; as ^aXn-ia-r /orire (xa\it-<^ eoppertmith), 8qs'c-u* 7^ 
•Mm (e^c^), \ay-tit-r plaet for tpeattng (\irfo-t ipeeck), pwT'cia.r seat 
o/ Ms Mueee (juiva mute), 'OXv/tirnttt Otytr^Ovm ('OM/triD-t Otympiati 
n|p-i« (nom. -T4»-ie-r, neut); derived from snbstantiTes In -nip (or •r^t) ; 
aa iicpairip^a-w auditorium (itpoiT'ip or dapoAntt hearer), i/ffrntT^ m > 
loorb&op (^/rfoffT^j) loorJkman), |)ouX(vr4/Hor ssimM A«NM (fifXiwrif et 
(JovXtvnti eomwfllor, •enntor). See 668 a. & 



1 m (nom. -tir, gen. -fiv-ot, inasc,) : itip-iir aparttn4Tit for men (ir^p, irlp-ii 
«mh}, Irr-iSr Mabl« (Irro-t Aorm], wapetr-uiv maid'it'e apartment, Par(A«- 
aoa, temple of Pallaa (wa^Mm-t raaidirn), alr-iir wlne-rellar (sIhm ttine), 
lftnX-<ir vtnegaril (^S/irtXo-i viae). Forma in -tAr occur, u mpifrtp-tiiw 
ieve-cote (rtpterfpi dove), otniiF. 

4. tnS (nom. -rrct, teni.) ^ added i^ <*', Irtjmr^ni apartment /or men, itwatatf- 
rrii opuKmetU/rir uoiMn. 

fc mkB (noni. -ttirii, fern.) : ^J-wrid ra«e-fied Qii»-r rote). 

t. tfl (nre ; nom, -rpi, fem.) ; J^x4-«'Tp2 ifancinf-}>(ace (ifixf-^/"" dattee), 
nXat^-^pi wrestlinff'^roiuid (toXoI-h wrtttle). Cp. 838, 


SS2. Diminutivee are denominatiTes formed frooi the steras of 
tubataDtires by various secondary eufflxes. 

1. M (Dom. -«>-», neat.); rmS'lo-r ItttU child {riut, irtuS-h), iprtBio-r small bird 
(V><>i SpriOot), iawtl-iO-r maall ihield (do-rit, dff^U-ot). 

N.— TriayUftbic words are poroxyCone if the flnt syllable is long by nature 
1 tSis (nom. 4)M-r, neut ) : derived from sncb words as irrll-19-T ; as fi^fr-Uw-r 

dagger ((f^t *uonI,stem {1^17-), pa-liut-r tmall cow (^3-i), aluUiO'* sinaU 

kovte, elm + iSiet (oluld), IxSiSui-r »mall fish (_lxMi}. See 833 b. 
8. Bfw (nom. -dfur, neut) : TOiB-ipio-w liuU Child. 
t. iB-pw (nom. -tipier, neut.) : iu\-i3pio-r little toiig (/i^Xii), 
G. Mm (nom. -^XXmv, neut.) : Ar-£Uia-r little epic or verMtelt (frat). 
1 irwo, wKft (nom, ■(•■net, masc., -(ir<)j, fem.); di'e/i«x-io'jnM tnantHn, *ai8-i«ro-i 

jfoung fray, roil-lriinr youn; girl. From tbis comes -iiri-is in dn-ij-tono-r 

893. Many other diminutives occur, as aKi« ; in riMinr wine^for (rlAit) ; 
(t,ll;iD d^li, -Usf smal/uofron (Sftofa), rqirtt, -tSoi ii2et (r^ro-t) ; iS-«i : of Che 
young of animals, M Xw^ttfi ieo(/''« vshelp (Xfiie-i), also laStOt ton's ran, grand- 
wa (uMi) ; ix'= JprdXtx*) younn blnf (d^aUi) cAlcJt ; ix<*: cXfx*^ (f^^id xuX- 
ixn*r, KvKix^') •"mA cup (irtfXiO. Rare or late are -auMwv, 'd«'iav, -d^nar, 
•ilifin, igxApi^w, or, 801. IB, -tfXai, and over 26 oOiers. See Xd, SaO, 1, 
8M. DfrninotlTss am often combined : ruJ-tnc-d/iur stripling, luipdiMor, 

pBt»f-i*ian, itiip<ui-i\K-uif, /utpoc-i'XX-fJtti' stripling (jitipai laas), x^aT-un-liar 
tloalUet (xXarfOi {V'<'l>M>' flt*e«t ({V^' onfmaJ). 

BSS. Some words, especially such as denote parts of the body, are dliulnu- 
tlTS in form, but not la meaning; as (jmrfor skull, 9itplar beatt (= S/tp), rtifer 
pMn (vftar ground), all In Homer, who has no diminutlTes. Diminatives oft«n 
•mployed tend to lose their diminutive value, 

B54. Diminntlv«a may espren affection, familiarity, daintiness, and some- 
ttmes pity or contempt (cp. dar-Hng, lord-ling). See the examples under 862, 
lad ate rmrp-liior iaddj/ (tut^/i), iSt\^iSio-r dear little brother, Zunpar-llior 
dear Sockf, Afiptix-iBr manikiri. Some endings often have an ironical foioe, u 
rWr-ot riA Awl, yi^pttw JM^ellg. 




857, Adjectives are formed by the same sufBxes as are used in 
substantives, the same formation producing in one case a substantive, 
in another an adjective. Many words formed with certain suffixes 
(lo, /Id, vo, pa, to) are used as adjectives or as abstract substantives 
(usually feminine or neuter). Thus ^iXta friendly or friend»hip; so 
trri^vo-^ croton {irri^ut encirde^ was originally an adjective. Many 
sufiixes have no characteristic signification. 

Adjectives are either primitive (from roots or verb-stems) or 
denominative (from substantives or other adjectives). But this 
distinction is often obliterated and difiScult to determine. 

89a. The following are the chief adjectival suffixes: 
1. o, K (nom. -o-t, -If or -a, -o-») : primary ; X#i»-i-j remaittinff (\ilr-a leow, 
XiT-, \ttir-, Xoi»-), >tuK-6-1 bright (\i6trtru ihine, Xmic-jw). 

S. la, iS : a common aufflz expressing that which pertains or belong* in any 
way to a peraou or thing. By union with a preceding stem Towel we 
have aw, (ID, out, 410, vu>. 

Primary (rare) ; 47-10-* sacred (4701 eipiatlon) ; with a eomparatlre 
force: AXXot other (dX-w-t alitit), itlrat middle (iLcS-io-t mediut, 113). 

Secondary In riit^io-i toorthy, coitlj/ (ti^ii) honour) ; ^IX-um frimdlf 
(^IXo-i dear) ; ipSso-i ste'p (ipSb^ ttraight) ; r\a6a'ur-i rich (rXoSrin 
rieha, 116) ; a(«wo-i jutt (iJn-jj right, 834 h) ; oht-io-t domettic (oIjw-i 
house, 834 f) ; rirp-io-j hereditary (war^p father, rarp-, 202) j piwftt- 
i»-f roj/al (^BiriXc^ hlng) ; 0ipt-ui-t of gwnmtr (Sfpoi, Oeta 8tptr-) ; 
a»o-w-[ venerable (cJJiii Ouime, Btem aJJ«c-, 260) ; 4p{ot hcroU («pifi 
Aero, iipaf-, 267) ; iri)xi^-w-i a cubit lonff (_wflxv-t, 268). The femininee 
are often abstract aubatantlves, aa ^iX-(d frieitdthlp. 

a. The ending -au» has been transferred from 5 stems, as in xV^->»-' 

of or from dry land (x*!"-"')- "^^ 'o"n i-OHit occurs ; S/nx^iuo-i 
worth a drachma (trMx/ri). -<idi has become independent In drip-titi 
manly (if^p)- On gentiles la -lai, see 844. 3, 

b. Ionic ^io (nom, -iji'oi), properly from ateois In tu (iv), as Rom. ^^^'4-1*-* 

brazen (pertaining to a ;^aXiKi^i brazier ■ Attic x<iX«oi, -oOi, see 6fi8. 4), 
jSaffiXi^-to-t royal ; and trannferred in Ionic to other stenia, as In wAi/t- 
iio-t warlike, dj^Bpui-^io-i human (Attic irBpiircio-t), drip-^i'a-f manlf. 

8. fvr lor ^tvr (nom. -ex) forms denominative adjectives denoting /ulne** or 
abundance (mostly poetic). 

Ti/Lii-tii (Ti*i5») honoured, and by analogy SerSp-ittt woody (tirtpe-r 
tree) ; x"*"'-*" graceful (xdpi-t), 8oX4<if urflj (i*Xo-t), and by analogy 
ol/uT-^ii bloody {aXm, -ot-oi ftlood, 884 j), ix9v-i-tit full of fi*k. 
«pu-i-tn chilling (<:p«-gt cfti'ii). Also In tipi-ta moiJdy (>dp<St, -tJrct). 

4. m (nom. -co-t , -aCi, 290) forms denominative adjectives denoting moMriOI : 
xptvtn, x/iOvaOi yolden (xpv'^' gold). 


a. (0 ia derived from t-j/t, seen In XP^"^ (poetic). Een t li part of the 

stem (834 f). On -qiai see S58. 2 b. 
6. w (nom. -^it -tt) : primitive: •jitui-^t falte (^fAi-oi dtctive), ro^^t clear, 

wp^r-^t prone, ^>-4t htalthy. Very commou in compounds, u 

d-«^X-4i unAamMd, wcui'e (d-priv. + r^aX- in ff^XXw trfji). 
6. M, aKs, LSB (nom. -kbi, very common, cp. 864. 1) : nuuiy deDomlnatives 

formed by these suffiies denote rtlaUon, many otlieia jUneu or 

■.Denominatives: iMwri-xb-t prophetic {iiAm-i prophtt); ^ivi-iA-i no^ral 

(^^(-1 nature); ^Xu-ii-i /eminine (0$Xt^ /cmole); baptirt^t DariC 

(Ad^w-i i^riiu). 

b. From ^uat-ti i, etc., m vtbh taken as an independent eufflx in fiotw-ijiA-t 

atiuical (^Cffn muie) ; pappap-iiii-t barbaric (_pdftPafio-t barbarian, 
foreigner^; SiJoffiaX-iici-i ablt to leach (SildinaXo-f teac/ur); lutBiiiuer- 
uii-t fond of learning (jti0iitta,-)MTet thing learjtt); Ktpa)u-iiii-i Fotttr^ 
quarter, Ceramlctit (^apa/tii-i potter') ; ^ao'iX-iic6-f royal (^ofiX*^ 
king'); t^pw-tii-t heroic, from 4pw(/r),-(it A«ro; 'Axai-wi-t or'Axa^c&-t 
(88) Achaean ('Axui-t jlcAnean). 
N. — d^-ori-i oMe to rule (ipx-'i),ypa^-tt6-i able to write oi draw {ypa4l-^^), 
need not be derived directly from the rooL 

c Eop(t4i-<uri-i Corinthian (K»filte-a>-t Corinthian'); ffvo^Sti-oiA-t contiutng 
oftpondea (crari-t'ia-t spondee'). 

d. T-ucd represents iii added to the verbal in t6- (cp. also /wtf^/uT-iiii-i). 
Hius, X«(-riici-i mited to peaking {X^-« ipeoi); aio-fl^-riici-i capable 
o//Mlinjr (alirMrs^uu /eel)i d^d>iir-Tijil-f skilled in nrnidtering (ipiB- 
piti to number)! ipSi-riiti-i practical, able to do {ufArTo do); irtrr- 
Tiij-f reflective (anir^-oiiai look carefully, consider). Added to a 
nonn-Stem : rait-rttS-i nautical (^rait-s ship). 
T. Xa (nom. -Xo-i) : primary (uHually active) and secondary. Cp. 880. 1. 
Primary in Sti-\6-i cowardly (i^am-jro fear, !i-, )«-, Sat-) j trrptfi-\i-t 
twitted (jrrpi^-a turn) ; rv^Xi-i blind (rt^-a raite a tmoke) ; mtXst 
hollow (= (o^-iXa-f, Lat. eao-«») ; rpex-"^*-' running {Tptx-a> run) ; 
rfi-«Xii-i like (foini am like, tU-) ; cnfir-fiXo-i bent (rri/ir-r-w benii) ; 
^if-uAi-f iparfn? (^I3-aiuii epare). drar-ij-Xif deceitful ^iwirv deceit, 
irBTd^i (iecelre) may be a primitive or a denominative. Cp. 860. I. 

a-X«d denoting quality in Airr-aX^o-t attracIiM, roobAtnjr (d/nrdfw 
ftiie), tapa-aXia-t bold (Sdpv-^i boldneu). 

8. |w (nom. -lu-t, 801. 1): primary: hp-^ii-c uarra (d/p-u warm); aecondai; ' 

In fpi-o-iia-t seventh, 

9. >-|M, r-iiia (nom. -i^w-i, -<riiu-i) : often denoting able to or jif (». Adjectives 

in 1^ are primitive or denomlna^ve, and are derived from i-atems ; 
those in -aifa are denominative and come mostly from stems in o-i -f fw 
(■a xfi-"'!"'-' useful, from xp^'-i use); but vi/io has thence been 
abBtract«d aa an l[i dependent suffix. 

I&r-i/u-i approvrd (Soi-^-u trem good); >iix*>''«-< warlike (iiAxt) bat- 
tle); rift-iiio-t coiiformable to law (r6iia-t); iS-iii-i/ia-t eatable (^tt-a!-^ 
food, poet. tS-v eat); Ka6ri-ii»-t eombuttibtt (Mtv bum, caiL«t-t bum- 


In;); Ufft-fu-t abU to loott (X^^-i-t looting); IrwA^itia-i Jltforrtdiaf 
(lrri[0)iai rtde); dXii-ffifio-t MUy to (aire (iUrn^wi, MXwr). 

10. |w* (nom. -imr, -liar): primary Id iir^iimr mlnifvl (ju-it»i-cK»iMi temem- 

btr), T\4t-itar enduring, wretchtd (f-TXir-f endttrtd'). Cp. 091. 8. 

11. w (nom. -lo-t, Bbl. 11) : primuy (usually paMire) uid wcondu; (829 %). 

Sometimes denoting ilwt vhich mag, can, or mtut bt done. 

Frimaij in tfi-v^i fearfvl {tiSoi-K^ ftar, !'-< it*-, '•(-); rcft-r^^ (0 
btrtvtTtd(iii^iMiTtvtTe); riS-a.rk-s per»uaaive(rtt$-it penuadttwi^, 
■ndL,Taid^); irl«'-vr»-f (rtuHnp (vrlf-u). Secondki? in fmrci-tii-t Ani 
(=ffic»r(ff-»-f from tK^-»t darkneti). 

13. 1*0 (nom. -m-t, 861. 11); forms denomWtiTe adjecUTes of mattrial, u 

U0^pB-t inf ttont (XUo-i), fdX-i>«-) woodtft (fdXs-r); to denote lime, 
and derived from enoh forms as <a^-i^ ««nial (lap *pH>y), •■ in 
4fi<^r4-f &v dag {iiinlpa), x^"-"^ of yetterdag (.x^ii) ; other naea: 
Mfiiix-ifo-1 human {ir0pura-i man), dXir^ri-i (rtnufne (dXi)^ inu) 
(HO Id Xo-tHo-i = Xd^ra-i rionp (Xdt ((one). On -it>«i, -tivt in gen- 
tllen, see 844. 3. 
18. po, pB (nom. -p6-i, -pi) : prioiarr, ftnd secondary. Primary, In tx^-ptf 
hated, hoitile (Ix^-" hate), Xafir-pA-i sKining (Xd/tw-u thine), x'^o-p^ 
alack (xi^M-a Blacken). Secondary, in #0^1-^14.1 fearful (,^tfiot fear, 
'pap%-, 834 f), upoT-tpi-t mightu (tpir-»t tnigluy, primary or secondary 
in dnd-^i grievon* (Aria grief, int-v grieve). See 860. 8. 

14. Ti]p4o (nom. -T^pw-i) : in denoroinatives, derived from aulMantiTes In -ry 

(or -rrit) to' Uie aofBz w ; but the subetantlve is not always foand. 

au^iip-io-i preaeniag (vw-nip laviour), whence the abstract rttriipli 
(868. 2) tqfety ; fcXn-ri(p-io-f enthanCing (fltXn-r^p cAarmer, fl^i-w en- 
chant), whence fcXmtpwi' (842. 4), \v-T-ip-ut-t ddivering (Xi^4p), 
ip/iifr^pior etarting-place (^fidw, ipuQ/tar Hart). 

16. « (nom. -<)-i, -cw, -tf) : primitives are liSi-t eieeet (^S-o^iai ampleated), r>x-*^ 
•wyi (tiIx-" steiftntf), fioB-i-t deep (pdfl-oi dgXA). Cp. 869. 8. 

16. aStv (nom. -cMift, -S8«i) : in primitlveg (rare), as x/m-iii^f prt^er (rpAr-« 

b<«««m); usually in denomluatives denoting fvlnett or (inUIorfly: 
vot-iiiitf gtxufg (xofa), oJ/uT-iiJir' loojUnpifjfceUomf (a7;ia). See 833 a^ 

17. SnfBzes of Degree : lav and ur-n (318) usaally form primiUvn ; T<po and 

raro (313 fl.), denominatives. r<pa occurs also in w6-Ttpa-tvhiehoftti>of 
wp6-Ttpoi earlier, iw-rcps-i later, ini-rtpa-i each. On Uie suffix rtft 
apparently without comparative force, see 1068, 1083 b. tr~Ttpe-r is 
snbstantlvlzed (boml); from 4r in. 
18 Suffixes of PorticiplesandVetlialAdjecUves (primary): active iTiOT.SOIaiC; 
middle and passive lura. Verbal adjectives denoting completion (usu- 
ally passive) TO ; possibility and necesailj re, t» (471-478). 
On ttie formation of Adtbrbs, see 341 fL 


The llat fnoludea the cliief snfBxes used in substantives and adjeotives. Sepa- 
ration of a sofflz from the root is often arbitrary and uncertain. 



L •: nom. -«-t masc., fern., -»-r neuL A coaimon sofBi In primitiTes deDOlfng 
p«iaoiu (usually male agents) or tbings (otlen abatiBOta). 

dfiX-^' Itoder from ipx-" lead; [Vf-6-r yoke from l^Hyv-fu i/oka 
({V7-, (WT-) ; \irr-B-i sptech from My-u apeak ; rd/ir^i cuftont, law from 
»^fi-» dittribule; vriX-v-t expedition from triWu (orfX-) tend; rpo^-i-t 
(i, 4) none from Tpi^>-v novrish; •php-O'i tribute from ^f-u htar, 
K. The rootB of some words appear onl; la other languages ; oh-o-i lunut, 

Lat. vK-u-a. 
b. Tbe BufBx has the accent when the agent is denoted. < of tbe root 
nrles with o (S31 b). 
% (: nom. -■ or -q fern. A common sufBx in primitives, UBoallf to denote 
tbingH, often abstracts (octfon). 

ifX-^ brginning from ipx-" btgln; X«t^ pouring ttom \tlp~wpour; 
I'^X't fin^ from ;uix-a>uu fight; aroul-i} Aas<e from awtii-w hatttn; 
•T*v-fl r(*o/ from o-t^t-u thetter; rpo^ij nourisftmenl from rpiip-u 
novrlah; t&x-^ chance from Tvy^"''*' happen (tux-); ^V-*! *™P froi" 
#^-« 6«ar,' *«7-^ JItfAC from ^^v jfae (^it-, ♦<vt'-). 

a. The mots of some words appear onl; In other languages; yvr-ii woman 

(Eng. qiteen). 

b. Hoat sabstantlres accent the sufflx ; but many accent the penult. 

S. i: aom. -ai, ip, in a few masculines, usually compounds; TuSo-rpl^-^^ 
trainer of isoys in gymnaalica (rfitfiu rub). 

4. I, [: primary, In t^i-i mate, poet, rp&x-'-' runner (rp^-w run), :rJX-i-t eit]/ 

(originally riX-i-i), Ifr-l-t yearling. Many words with the i-sufBz liave 
taken on S or t ; as i\-*-t-t hope <\vf-j-«f (IX:r.«fuu hope), x<'p-''' graee 
xip-^-n (xttJ/K* rejoice, x<V-)- 
& m: in a few primitive Tert>al adjecUves {ij-to-t 858. 2), but common In 
denominate adjectives (858. 2), rare in substantives: rv/iifi-ia-t bride- 
groom Crifi^ bride) ; in names of things more concrete than thoee end- 
ing in -id : liaprip-m-r a tettimony (cp. /lofirip-ii teatimony) ; in gentiles 
(S14. 3) ; in diminutives (852. 1), often in combination with otlier 
diminutive sufflzes (o^u, iJu, i/XXu, etc. S62) ; often in combtnation 
with a final stem vowel (861. 1, 858. 2). 

5. i<, A: rarely primary. In 4>6ta fiight (,^<r,-<» flee) ; in verbal aiMtracta : 

liarli madneaa (810 a. 9] ; usually secondary In the fern, of adj. In 
■it : Paptia = fiaptu-ia, rfrra pitch (= iriK-ia, cp. Lat. pie-Ug), yXHrrt 
Umgne = yXufX-i" (op. yXux-t-' point, -yXix-" beards of corn), CflrTa aetf 
(843 b. 4) 1 In the nam. fem. of participles in rr, or (xisura from Xvorr-jm, 
\t\irn-ia); In denominative abstracts expressing quality (840 b. 1, 2); 
In names of persons: roft-U-t ateieard (jipr-f-ai cut, f-ra^i-oK), Nii-U-t- 
Sieiat (»fnj victory). — Often in combination with other sufflxes; wva 
84-1 b. 5 ; -*-«> 840 a. Q ; w«-a 843 b. 4 ; rpia, rtipi 8.?H b. 2, 3. 
T, pa. pi: primary, in Spot for lp(f)oi boundary, icf]i{f )6t etnpty, Xbi(/;)4i 1^ 
(Lat. laevua), iia\(_f)6t beautiful; (probably) secondary in verbals in 
T^ (Xvt/oi that muat be looaid) and In adj. in -aKht (800. 1). 



8. * (•«} : primary, io adjectivee (868. 15), in aiibBtaiitiTee : yir-v-s cAtn, 
'VX-'-' fore-arm. — B, « : primary, in feminiDea : lax-it ttremglh, 
6^p-v-t eye-bTote, rit-v-t (Horn.) corpse, at. Lac. nec-are. — 10, «■ (i|ii): 
primary of the agenl {8S9 a. 6) ; rarely of thinga : loir-c^ ehiiel 
(jiir-T-w cut) ; secondary, of the person coucenied (843 a. 1), in gentiles 
(844. 1}, rarely of ttiingBi Sorax-ri-t reed-thieket{Sirt^ reed) ; ImdimlDu- 
Uvea in -^Siit (863). — 11. oi (nom.-<i): primary In wtt9-<i rti9aSt ptr- 
tuaeiou (279), — 12. «p (Dom. -ui) : priinaiy in ^pim 4p»«t hen (267). 


1. Xo, Xb I primary, in 4iv-\a-r race, 4iu-\4 dan (^6-u prodnct), ti-^o-i /dl 
(Lat. j)f-Iu-i), (tiy-'^Ti loop 0/ a yoke (_it6y-n-iu yoke); aS-\ii-t corUett, aS- 
y^rprise, ru^-Xi-t blind (rl^^-w raiee a amoke), nrptP-Xi-t tteUtfd {rrpi^-u 
tarn). Cp. 858. T. Secondary, in vaxu-X^ thickiah (dimin.). bXo, oXS: 
primary, in i(i^a\4-i navel, «/>6T--aX*-» clapper (upAr-e-i notte"), a^-a>4 
head, Tpox-aX4-j running (jpix-ui), iri~a.\ii-t fat (lioinj fatUn) ; secondary. 
In iti-aXi-t level (i/i^t one and the tame). Developed from this ve oXw, 
•XaS: Ti-aX/o-i /at, npf-aUn-f loiVy (ic^^-oi {rafn), see 868. T. fXo, tXS: 
primary (prob.], in ett-eKo-t like (fona am like, cii-), k^-Ai; cloud (Lat. 
nebula) ; secondary, in 8v-iU-Kj) attar, ifXo, ii|XK : tdr-titto-t hucluter 
(agency), 0U'i;\i) «acr(/Ic« (B6-w), ^-ijX^t (o/ty (vjl'-oi An^'U); primai; or 
MCondkry; irarii-\6-t guileful (iui-n) guile, iiraTi-^t cheat), t-iy-v\6-i mute 
(#tT>) fOenee, aiyi-u am mute). iXo, iXs : primary, in TfMx-'Xo-t aandpipiT 
(rffx-a run) ; secondary. In d/i7-'X<n p(w»<ona(e {ipiyi). Ao, Oa : pri- 
mary, in rrpi^-iXo-i foji (arpiip-u turn) ; secondary. In i-M-iXo-f tandal 
(wiSii fetter^ rait foot). vAo, uXS : primary, in tiirr-u\ii-t finger, rra^ 
uX4 bunch of grapei. Secondary, in ^u'li-iiXo-i email (^/ua-i-t). 9\o, nXs : 
tftrS-it:^ beetle. aXo, wXB ; primary, in OS-uAo-r image (rfS-tfuu reMemble), 
t6x-"M prayer ((Ex-^caO- ^^^ forms : oXm, aXijto, iXw, i|Xio. 

S. X«: primary, in ^Xu-t female (root ^ ffee «ueJ!;}. 

S. ^, pli primary, in subetantives : dr-^i-f Jleld, Lat. iif«r(J(7-w), ivK-pA-tcoiTiw 
(cp. rlt-tM), yaiir^pi-t lon-in-laui (yati~i-v marry, for p see 130), 4x6-fi-i 
enemy, Ix^P^ hatred (fx"-" hate), {.pyu-po-t tilver, it-fa hydra (wf-fp 
water); rarely, of instrument 842. ; of place, in ti-pa eeat; primary, in 
adjecUvea (868. 13). o^ ofA: primary, in pM^-apo-w eye~lid (fitJr-u 
look), rdX-opo-T batket (tXIhi, rX^nt bear), Xtr-api-i ehiny (cp. Ur-ai 

fat). Kpo (ipo), ipS (iip«) : primary or secondary, in in-Cpbt tpievovt 
(Ifla grStf, irid-u grieve), \ur-Ti-pi-t painful (\ir^ pain, XSr^-u grieve); 
■econdary, in drS-^pi-t Jlovtery (*»fl-oi), and perhaps in ror-tip&-t toilsome 
(t4w-i, rori-oitiu toil), ipo, tpB : secondary, in ^fft-pi-t terrible (♦ifSo-t 
terror), whence rn-epi-t thady {jrtti. ehade); alM> in rtw6-tpi-i falher-in- 
lav! = lit. one who binds (cp. rti^iia = rerB-aiia cable), Ir-tpai thoie beloie 
the earth (ir). vpo, vpa; secondary, In 'Kiyu-p6-i (Xit^i) ehrill, whence 
primary lx-«po-' chc^ff, t\ty-up6-t burning (_^>Jy-ti bum). Vpa, OpS: pri- 
mary or secondary, in Isxi'-pi^ strong (Iax6^ am slroni/, bxi^ ttr^ngth); 
primary, in^ir-upo-r rind (\ir-upeel), yi^pa bridge, apaiMpS: primary. 
In dr-dpS late iiinu7i«r {ST-ioBtr at the rear, qfter). 



I. ft(nre): primary, in Sr^i-t hl{^t<(l> (dc-^s-i higher), It-pm knowing (kUtr, 

fi. f (lure) : prinuuy, in tir-pu tear; cp. Old Lat dacruma for locrtmo. 

S. ap; prim&ry, in fir-op, frsT-ot Il««r (263 b), rt-ap fat, l-ap spring. — T. «p, 
lyi primary, in i4p itf-Qi air (Ai)*" Mow, of the wind), alS'^p, ~ip-ai upper 
aiT{atB-u kindlfl. — 8. Mp: primary: gen.-sT-«i.' vS-up water ; gSD, -tupof : 
t^i^ ichor, aerma ; gen. -op» : by koalogy in a^o-npir-up pomnting full 
power* i*piT-tt power}. — 9. apB: primaiy, in r\^-$-<ipii (louioj latietg, 


1. |is, ^ (nom. fi»-« ; -pi and -rii>) : primary, in BabsCantivea denoting acUona 
or aiwtract ideas (810 a. 5-7), and in gome concreus ; x^-f^ Juiee (xA* 
pour.xOiTP"*'-'"! ''"'Ct'^*-"'*'''**'''''''"')! in adjectives (858, 8, 9), On 
T-iio -^-fK^ -$-iM -^iw., S'lio -a-pa, see 837, 83:i, 8a(t ; secondary, rarely In 
nbMantlves : tpv-pi-t coppice (ApS-i tree, oak), or adjectives ; trv-iio-t true 
(irt fit real). — i-|w: secondary, derived from i stems (868. 9). — 2. iior 
(nom. -;ia): primary, denoting result (811, 2). Here to iia frum p.f (cp, 
fre^ui name, LaL nonten ,* T^piu goal, Lat. l^rmeti) t has been added ; 
Cp eognumeTttum, — 3, iini (nom. -^n^): primary, In rot-p.'ir tkepherd, 
)u-»4r harbuvr. — 4. p4M> i primary, In partlcipleB: Xui-pxro-t. — 5. }i* 
(nre) : primary. In ^7-^-t tpeech (poet, for 0ii-/»r),^O. ^iv (nom, 
-pit): piiia.,^-pt-t turf (^-ptf-iubreak'). — 7. p,i«,^*K:prim.,in ffri-pro-i 
jar ([-ffTif-Mt ael, sfanij, aror-), 0i\t-pro-r dart (fiiWu (ftroio), rat-prii fioek, 
\t-pnilake. — 8. poir (nom. -pi)») ; primary, In i^i-fuir leader (i^^-of«i (end); 
adjectives 858. 10. —9. |u)i«; primary. In rXi7-iT-^^ /wZne** (r(>i-rX^>u 
JUI). — 10. (utv (nom, -/uiii') : primary, in x<'-*"i' winter, X(i->«i>' meadow. 

II. fo, *>: primary, in vr-m-i sleep, tar'ni-i emoke, woi-i^ punighm^nt, ♦fp-nj 

douMr C^p-w bring), Tit-n-r child (rlrru bear, t«-), in adjectives (868, 11) ; 
secondary, in adjectives (858, 11), in nXil-n) moon (— o-fXair-ni, tfXat 
gleam).— 0,99, a»a ; primary, in irT^^-aw-i crown, (rrf0-ii«i diaiUm (irriiMii 
enelrele), Spfr-aiv-t, Ipar-drq riekle (^Spir-w pluck), tpy-nno-t tiislrumeHt 
(Jfpyar work), 97n-dini whetetone (fify-w whet); in adjectives; rrty-ari-t 
(cp. <rrry-r4i) water-tight (ot^-u thelter); secondary. In pr-T-ini jodder 
(^-rft-t, p4-»it4i graze), tSp-aro-r teat (tS-pa eeal). Era (mra), IM («)•■) : 
aecondary, In gentiles (844. 8). fvo, ivK: primary, in rnpd-int-t maidtn, 
A\-ini elbow. Tp«, ip« ; primary, in ri-*^nf nufM (Sfi<r#oi yiue *ttC*). 
>*o, ivS; secondary, in ndjeclives of material and time (858. 12), and in 
fmS-ir6-i slender, pr't^lni millet, ivto, imS: secondary, in adjeciives of 
material (858, 12). ivo, in: primary, in x«^-i'*-' iridle, afKira-r part- 
try; secondary, in gentiles (844. 3); in patronymics (845. 0); In ipii0p-ira-\ 
red mullet {ipvSpi-t red) ; ^X^-lrij a kind of ^oXjS.ii (a bvlb-root). aw, 
•rS; primary, In t\-in-i battU-rout (itX-apju urge on); in abstractB, as 
ifi-or/i pleasure (_tS-apai am pleated), vra, v*((: primary, In m^nr elub, 
Tlr-vo-t reiving on {wtlB-u persuade). Bra, Brtl : primary, Jn icM-Sre t 
danger, »ltx-ini disgrace, ara, «vB; primary, in coX-wvi^ AflJ, *op-i t| 
eroto. — 12. ra (rare) : primary, tn \ci-r6t tmokyfire. 



18. at**: aecondai^, of the penon oouccraed (843 b. 6). — 14. «v: primmry, 
in fiAai iii\ar^ bliKk. — 15. » (nom. -^r): primuy, in rfy-^ ttitder, 
dpp-ii» male. — 16. n» : primaty, in T<ir#-4r inqnirer (nMnifiu, mrtirvrnt 
inquire). — 17. I* (nom. -it): pritatiTy, la iA^doIpMn, A!U traaail. — 
18. a* (nom. -ur) : prlmu7. In wordB of agency : rtxr-w earpenter, Tfiiy~iw 
tUTtla-dow (r/iiiu munnur, rpvy-), vXM-u^ tnnte (cUfM doth, KkuS-); snd 
in oU)eta,UEfi[-iirAnafre((«jiaan(Ififce,(ti^),X'-<i' now. — 19. isv: aoeond- 
aiy. In fiaXait-J»i> darling, diminutive of ^Xaii-t tofl. — lev: primu;, in 
compftratlTee; ^S-iw* tweeter (i^-^) ; secondary, in pationymica (846. G). 
— pov; primary, \a rlwr fat. — 20. av: secondary, in woids denoting 
peraona poasesaing eome ptayaical or mental quality, as yi^Tp-mr ffltitto* 
(yaar-^p belli/'); to denote place (861. 3); in names of montba : 'Attftrrir- 
piiir. — 21. p«i>: primary, in a{(f)iii' one, gen. oliJi-ai. — 22. tavi second- 
ary. In patronymica (846. 6). —23, i«i«: secondary, in patronymiea 
(846. «J. 


1. ow: primary, In ftiX^ ttake, pale (molXXw »tir up; tplit f). — 3. mn: 
primary, in lair-mft gnat.—&. ^o, ^K (rare) : primary, In c^-o^ (Ac 
ttmple», lEDpu-^ htad (_itipvt helfoet) ; uaaally In names of animals, >a 
Ipitfa-i jtfii, (Xa^t deer; secondary, In late dimlnntivea ; ^f^^t^-r f» 
eect (04/1 beaet), Ktp6-i^i»^ petty gain (tipa-ot gain). 


a. SufflzeawltbT. 

1. t: primary, atthe end of stems, aBi-Tnit,<i-^»uH--attirUnoim ('yt-T'^^n' 

8. m, tK : primary, in verbal adjectives in -ri-i (4T1) vrith the force of a 
perfect participle, as yru-ri-t knoun (-/^^^li-vKu ktioiB), aror^k-t 
placed, standing (IsTif-iii »et, place), or with the idea of possibility, 
as Xif-ri-t able to be looted; in verbal abstracts, whicli sometimes be- 
come concrete : ni-ro-i, nol-rti bed (ni-fiu lie), ppet-ri thunder [ppt/t^ 
roar), ^u-ri-i" plant (♦()« prortuee), lo-rb-r drink (t(»« drink, ra- 
£29), pio^bt, pio-rii life, means of living iplo-t life) ; in numenls, 
T/>I-ri>-» third, tt-^a-i aeXrtU'S. — In supertatives, w-to primary, tl 
^•uTTB-t laeetett (41^1) ; rare, secondary, as dXirA^<r-riiT<i-t most true 
(iXrfi^ii). — tK (nom. -rir-i): primary, to denote the s^nt (839 a. 1) ; 
secondary, to denote the person ooncemed (843 a. 2). — ore, orC: 
primary. In fti»-arn death (9irj-ffKu, en-tin die), tdft^To-i Kearinru 
(idu^fu, ta/i-tit am teeary). «to, *t* ; primary. In Ta7^T*-i fnM 
(j-iy-yu-iu mate hard) ; secondary. In tit-*rji-t bed-felloa (»ir(| bfd, 
843 a. a.). KTt SnG, ip* TpiS, I-rtl InS, htR MTkS, In gentiles (844. 2). 

8, T«T (tut) : secondary, In suhsta. denoting quality (840b.4). — 4. T»fe: 
primary, In verbal a'lject[veB(4T3). — 6. T»pS'. primary, of tbe agent 
(SSdb. 3), — 6. T<po:st^condary,incomparative8(313) ; BOtsuoUvised 
in tr-Ttpa-f bovxl. — 7. nfp: primary, to denote the agent (6.19 a. 8), 
often regarded aa the InBtrument : ^urr^p hammer (838 a), dpv-r^^ 


Indie.— e. Ti|p-to : componnd MifBx, of plaoe (S&l. 2), of mettne (842. 4), 
of nagcB (flii. 6): epcx-ri)j>io reward for rearing (tp^^-b) ; in sdjcc- 
tlvee, 668. U. — 0. n : primsaj, U> denote action or &n abeiract idea 
(840 ^ I) ; rarely, of persono i /tdr-Ti-t iter (uair-oiuu rage, am in- 
tpired, liar-).— 10. Ti8 : primary, of the agent (8391). 4). — 11. T»f : 
primary, of the agent (8S9 a. 3). — 12. TpK : primarj, ot Instrument or 
meam (B42. 8) ; of place (861. fl). — 18. rpiB (nom. -rpia) : primarr, of the 
•gent (880 b. 2) . — 14. rpiS (nora. -rplt) ; primary, of the agent (889 b. 1). 
— 15. rpw : secondary, in i\X6^p-uM belongtag to another. — 18. rps 
(-^p»4, Tpo-r) : primary, to denote the agent (8S0 a. 4), Inatniment 
(848. 1), place, as Wo-rpo-r theatre (place for seetTip), Wt-r^*-* bed.— 
17. Tv; primary, of actions or abstract ideas (840 a. 4); In ia-rv cilf, 
4i-Tv rprout (#i)-u produce) ; secondary, denoting connection with a 
numeral: rpir-ri-i third of a tribe {rpi-re-t third). 
IB. It : primary, in xipit, tlpiT-ot (and Wpwt, 268) horn. — 19. ifr : primary, 
in rinfi, -ifT-oi serf (irin-oiiat toil), rXdr-iTT-ci p7aneEi (irXaMt-w lOander). 

— 20, it: \iT\iaa.Ty,i\i iiiKi^-iT-at honey ('La.i.mei), xi-p-*t VTa6e(j(aliiu 
rejoice, xi^)- See8G9.4. — 21. [tiS (nom. -int, fern.) : secondary In 
words denoting place (851. 4). — 22. nt: primary. In yAwi, -wrat 
langhtcr (ytM-u laugh). — 23. rr : primary, In acUve participles 
(except the perfect), as XAo-rr-at ; In some adjectives inflected like 
participles (ixiir willing'), and in participial substantives: Spdt-ur ter- 
pent (tipK-aiioi gleaf», Ipair-ciV), also in \fur lion, iSd/iai adamant. 

— 24. pfVT (nom. -tit): secondary. In adjectives denoting fulneti 
(858.3), and In some proper names of pUoes : 'OiroiH Oput from 'Ont- 
ftrr-i (844. 3). 

b. SoAzes with 8. 

1. S: Recondary, in palronyinlcs (846. 1). — 2. 8-ava: secondary, tn sitri- 
Sar6-t a nohodg (sffrii nobody), properly from riS, neuter of ri, + ari-t. 
— «-6aim: primary, in^i7-*-8a»i-t cAiKiBff (^h'-^u thudder). — 8. S-an: 
secondary, in iMuiSarit foreign, properly = i\\oS, nanler of iWoi (cp. 
aliud), + ari-t. — 4. S-a : secondary, in patronymics (846. 1), — 5. S-io: 
rrd-S-io-i standing (i-ar^iu), with J prob. from a word containing th« 
ealBx>,aaifir^Su>-t public from in-^aii-r publidy. — 6. 8«v. primary, 
in iii\-t-aiir care (itf\ti is a care), i\y-rf-Siir pain (i\yi-u ruffer); sec- 
ondary, in tvro\TiBiir a etg>-shaped hnUov) (mrfX^ cup); cp. ix^tr-idr 
dittreas (ax*-»« burden). — !. 8in«i primary, in luKi-tilir^ eon (see 
S. bS: prlmaiy. In n^i, -dS-«t tnme-JlaJce (>i^-w, better wrlip-u, mow), 
^iTf-it exile (^tHy-u flee, ipuy-), \tt^»-4t torch {Xd/ir-u thine) ; second- 
ary, in abetract femlninea denoting nnniber (840b. 6).— 9. vai, 
10. ioSH : secondary, in patronymics (845. 3). — 11. alio : secondary, 
in Knr-«VMi4io-i from the sliotilder (iS^io-i), derived from lix^-ii-'o^ 
dtvlded(Sixiit,-dtet divided). — 12. \£: primary, in in-lt, -fS-ei thield, 
Ar-ff hope (f\roiiai hope) ; secondary, in adj. as tv/itMxii allied 
(riXu) from eiiLiiaxo-% allied wUh ; in words denoting the person con- 
oemed (648 b. 2) ; in gentiles (844. 1), as llipal, Pertian woman ,■ in 
leminlne patronymics (646. 4).— 18. tSs: secondary, in patronymics 


(M6. 4).— 14. iSm: secondary, In n&ioe* of relaUonahlp (860).- 
15, iSn: Becondary, in diminutives (668). — 16. iSu : secondM?, in 
dlmliintivea (B52. 2), aJid txansferred In /uup-tSio-t doomed {iialpa doom). 
— 17. 18: secondary, in rrq^Jj sfreave (rrij/i^ Ifg, (AlffA). — 18. vSb: 
secondary, in patronymics (846, e). — IB, •(«- : secondary, in adjec- 
tiveg of falneu (868. 16). 
c. SnffiieH with S. 

1. appears In safflzea that are obscnre in Telatlon to root or stem (832) : 
6prU SpyiS-ti btrd, i^iiiaBot sand, jn>aA>t eup, HXtSn ordurt ; several In -tt 
(probably not Greek), afl /p^^ir0(H ch<ci;.^ci. — 2. SXo, MiBi primaiT, 
in yfl^^-ff\o•^■, ytf-i-SKii ram (yiy-ToiMi herxnnt, 7<r-). — S. tXw : aecond- 
ary. In -)tr-4-0\iii-i belonging to one's hirlk. — 4. tpo, #pa ; prlmai;. In 
ip-Spe-f Joint {ipaplanai join, ip-), iri-fii-Spi ladder (paint go, fia^y. 


1. Ko, kS : primary (rare), in H-"i box (jl-e^iu place) ; secondary, tn »A- 
jeotiTeB(8&8.6). — o«co(rare): primary, in ^X-aii-i «o/l (Op. Lat.inoHb); 
aeoondary in adjectives (868. 8. c). — laito: secondary, in jriip-io«4-t oflit 
Lord.^wQ, lA: secondary, in adjectives (868. 0), In genUlea (844. 3). 
— 2. ma, o-kS : primary, in Sfimot quoit (= Six + axo-t from Sw-*!^ tkrott), 
Po-vt^ food (cp. pisKa feed). — lo-ico ^ secondary, In dim! natives (852. 6). 

3. ok: primary, in lutpoi laat, ptipix-io-i lad dimin. 864, t6\a( JiatUrer. — 
4. Sk: primary. In Biipii breatt-plaU. — 6. lk: primal?, in ict\tt cup, 
i^Xif comrade. — 6. Ik: primary, in Wplif, -ttei partridge. — 7, ■« : pri- 
mary, in Kfjpu^, -Cirat herald. 

8. wf : primary, in Opraf rc^aeiout, ipwny-i teixure (cp, Apuitu tetie). — 
9, lY- primary, in ii^rrti, -ir-ot uAfj>. — 10. vy: primary. In Srrut, -trT« 
rial. — 11. yy: primary, denoting something hollow. In ^XsTt pAolanx, 
gi\Tirti Irvn^et, Xdpi^f larj/nx. 
12. ixo: secondary, in ipTi\<xo-i chick, dimin, (dpraXf-f chicken). 


1. n (= n) I primary, denoting actions or abstiaot ideas (840a. 2) ; rarely ot 
persons : wi-ri-t husband. — 2. na ; primary, denoting actions or absUact 
Ideas (840 a. 8). — 3. ina 1 primary, in fKr-dp.«w-> raised /Hnn lAe groHni 
(lUT-aipu Hfl up, ip-).—4. iri|io: in adj. (S58. 0). — 6. m|*« : in «(r> 
anirc-t uttAnpj^. — 6. (m> : secondary, in Tpiaimrri-f thirtieth from rpui- 
mrr + to-i. — 7, rv*o, Twd ; secondary, in adjectives ; CouU.^'um entlavtd 
(IdSXd-i), Mpfftinf bold — eapao-vunt {9ipff-<rt onrage, 120 c), and In tlie 
feminine, to maice atietract substantives (840 b. 3). 

8. BO- : primary, in ylp-M prize ; varying with st, as in rip-m r^par-ot portent 
(268), or with tff (264 n. 3).— fi. w: primary, denoting qmUity (8*0 a. 8) 
or result (841. 1) in sdjectives (868. 6.) — 10. lo- : primary, in cins ifaK, 
foand in milw (= tnia-ia. 600.2, D). — 11, intf: secondary, in wotdi 
denoting the person concerned (843 b, 4). — 12. av : primary, in wiSii 
thame (aibOi from alSo(a)-iit, 266). ~ 13. lo^ : primary. In compantiiras 
(29S d, 818). 



866. Denominative verbs &re formed tiom the st«m3 of noims 
(substantives or adjectives). Verbs lacking such a noun-stem are 
made on the model of the ordinary denominative verb. The prin- 
cipal terminations are as follows : 

1. -mm : derived chiefly from words with d BtemH (a few from worda of the aeoond 
declenaon). Verbs In ->u denote to do, to be, or to have, that which ts 
Bzpraned by the stem. 

rZ^id-u lumovr (ri^i), stem Ti>u-), ifitfri-u brealefoM (ipwra-r brtak- 
fatC^, roXfui-u dare (r6\iut daring, stem raXwi-), is/ci-u icear long Aofr 
((jfnr Aafr). («/id-w, tuJl to tleep, has no primitive noun. 
On -tau and -ou denoting a desire or a Ixidily condlUon, see 868 b. 
L •«•: derlvedcbiefly from ?^-sMins(S3if), and thence extended loftllkiDdsof 
ateiDi. Verts In -tv denote a eondiHoa or an aetivlty, and at« often 

oUi-u dmeli (olm-i house, bU%-), ^M-a tote (^Av-i dear, ih'^%-), 
tntferiti lerce (inipintt Mervanl, liwiiptTa-), tirvx-^-a am fortunate 
(rirvx'it fortunate, tirux"-), fiff-f-i* hate (jufof liate, tiianr-y, au^per-i-a 
am temperate {viixtipur), lULftrvp-i-n bear teitneu (iidprvt, -«>>-»»). 
a Some cu-verbs from iir-Btems have older forms in -tlu (624 a). 
S. ••• : chiefly derived from o-stems. Verbs in -du are usually f acUttve, denot- 
ing to eauie or to make. 

ji|Xj-w manffeit, make clear (Sip^-t), SovU-u enalave (JtoCXo-i), {^U-m 
enmlate ({^Xo-t emulation), (^lui-v punith i!ii/ili damage), ixaariyb-m 
vMp (fiiffTi{, -iTOf vihip). i/Au plough has no primitive. 

On the formation of the present stem of verba in -ow, ~<w, -«w, 
see 622. 

4. -f«* : derived from subetautlvea from tv-iteme (007) and thence eztanded to 

other stems, cvw-verlw usually denote a condition, sometimes an aclivCtg. 
fiaaiXr6-u am king, rule (fiaai\t^t), fioii\fi-u cotintel (fiovX-i), uriv- 
rti-it venture, incur danger ^KlrSun-t), riuti6-a educate (rati boy, girl), 
Btparti-v attend {0ipitat attendant). 

5. -Sm (rare) : from v-atems, as ianpt-ti ieeep {iitpv tear). Cp. 608. 

& -Bt«, '^ ; derived originally from stems in d or -y (as 4\wlita hope = tkmS-^, 
Afnrd{i< iHzt = dpTST-iw), and thence widely extended to other eiema (cp. 
623 S, y). Snch verbs denote action. 

■yvfvdftf exercite (Yvfvdi, -iS-at itrlpptd, naked); irayxifu compel 
(dpd^jcq nccesntgf) ; dri^fu duihonouT (irliwi) ; ^td^^iai u»e force 
(pli force) i Sw/iuitu wonder (0aO^) ; •pparrlfu take Care (^/urrli) ; 

tppl{u intuit (£^pi-t ovtrage) ; n/iilu eontider (*d>i«-i custom, law) ; 
mx'i*' fortify {jiXx-vt wall, stem rtix"-); xoWi^M^ <^ " favour 
(X^P**! 't'"' favour). 


■. Verbe in -ifv and -lajti derived froni proper names expresa aa adoption of 
language, manners, opinions, oTpolUict: 

i\>.t)rl{u gpeak Greek ('EXXit>}, ^ux"i{u act like a baeehanU 
(floKxi^i), Xaiurlfw imitate Laconian mannert (Adcuv), lafilfi* tOe 
viith the Medea (M^«oi)- 
b. Verbs in -< fw, -«f)it, &nd -ufw ore rue (ri/fw preti, poet. Strrifu am Uml, 
jKouiifu cry euckoo). 
1. -ttint; originally from stems in -av +iu(518),butusaall7exl«nded to other 
stems. See 620, III. 

fuXoiKv blacken (^lAai MoeA, ^Xa*-), ti^palva gladden (tC^pnr glad, 
ti^pop-), ni/iaiiHa tign^fi/ (^v^fAO, intftar-o) sfffn), xa^'*'o''v om onjr'V 
(xaX«x4-» ftanJ, angry). 

8. 4va: from stems in vr+iu (&19). Tbe primitive words often show stems 

In V. See 620. III. 

PaBtm deepen {^aBO-t deep), Tax'fu haaten (t>x^' 'wfA), aZrx'>* 
Jft(rrae« (aFrx-ot shame), Bafipiru encourage (eip^i courage), 

9. OnotherdenominatiresinXw, vw,pw, see020, III; on inceptives see &26-528. 
10. Pai&Ilel formations are frequent, often with dLSerent meanings. 

ifiuriu take a middag meal, aptrrf^d give a mlddai/ meal; in/d-u, 
(poet.) iri/tiv, dri^iifw diihonour ; Sau\ia entlave, SouXiiai am a slave; 
t6imiior4m am happy, (Mai/uflfu aecottnt happy, eongratvlale ; Sappdia 
am eourageoue, eappim encovrage; iptitit, bptliu make one moear an 
oath; ipiiiiu urge on, ip/iairu (^poeL) ponder ; ipfiiu lie at anchor, ipiiifit 
anchor trans, lipids awihorage) ; riAttUm (roXif/I^ Epic) mage tear, 
wt\4ti6u make hoitile; viaiiiti put in thelter, mid. take up one's abode, 
tuTiriu am in camp, atririu encamp, go into quarters ; ra^ipariai am tem- 
perate, trai^ptrlS'u chasten ; Tvparriu, Tvpantiu am absolute ruler, rapw- 
fffu take the part o/ahiolute ruler, Tupamdu (late) smack of tfrattny. 
Cp. 631. 

867. FreqnentAtiTes and IntenaiTes. — These are mostly poetical, -no in 

grpv^ia turn conslantlg {mpiipa lum), Tpaxiv gallop (r/>^;i;a> run), t«tA«m<u, 
Turdofuu, and roT^B^uu, fly about (r^ro^at fly). -rrpiK In iSatTpiu drive ((Kin, 
Aai^Rii). -Tui In aiiprdu spring (_«-itlpui ikip). -mt* in i\nfTiJu drag about 
(IXku drag). With reduplication, often with change of the stem-Towel, in 
rotwrSu puff {rria breathe, rtu-), ropl-tpa gleam darkly (^pa mix), rap^alrtt 
shine brightlg (4nlrv bring to light, make appear). 

868. Deaideratives express desire. Such verbs end in -mw, -wm, and 
larely in -oh. Thus, nXc^iTia-iiui detire to wage war (rsX<;i^<d), draXXo^du wUh 
to get rtd of (iXXdrrw exchange), ye\aartu leish to laugh (yt\du) ; rTpanrr^iu 
vith to be general (ijTpariTViJi) ; ^riu wish to shed blood (^*oi murder). 

a. Verbs In -uui and -aw are formed from substantives. Those In -veiu may 
come from the future stem. 

b. -law and -aw may denote a bodily affection : i^AiX/udw suffer from oph- 
thalmia (6^a\iM), ffpvYx^'* ""t hoarse (fipayx^ hoarse). Some verbs io 
-tjTTOJ (■.«*»■«) have a. similar meaning; tu^XiIt™ am blind (rw^Xii), and even 
Xi»uiffffu am hungry (Xi^i hunger). 



8G9. A compound Tord is formed by the union of two or more 
parts ; as Aoyo-ypa^ot tgaeechFtoriler, St-ef-ojio^ outlet (lit. way out 

M. Compouikb of tliTee or more parts nsuolly foil into two aeparMe unlta ; u 
^T;pax«-/ivo— fuxli battle of the froge-and-miee. Such compouuds are oommon 
iDGomedyi aarrpri'e-Stm—riir-mrpyliratcalltfpenertioaofjuttiee. 

b. In a compound word two or more membere are united under one accent ; 
M in bliekbeny contratted witli blaclc berry. Mo«t compounds in Greek, an 
inflected language, are genuine compounds, not mere nord^roups such as are 
common In Englieli, nhlch ia for the most part devoid of Inflections. 

c. Every compound contains a deflning part and a defined part The defining 
part nsually }n«cedea : ri-Tux'}i fortunate, as opposed to iur-rtx^J unfiirturuUt. 
Ttie parts of a compound stand In various syntactical relations lo each other, aa 
that of adjective or attrihiitive genitive to a Rulmtantive, or that of adverb or 
object to a verb, etc. Compounds may iLus be regarded as abbreviated forms of 
syntax. Cp. 895 a, 897 N. 1. 


87Q. The first part of a compound may be a noun-stem, a verb- 
stem, a numeral, a preposition or adverb, or an inseparable prefix. 

a. 'Hie DM ol stems in composition is a survival of a period in tlie history 
of language in which inflections were not fully developed. 


Bn. Hiat Declension (H-stems).— The firat part may 
a. end in a or ij (rarely): dyai>a-r6iui-! cleric of the market (iyopA), tiKYt^pt-t 

brtn^ng victory (i^). 
h. end in a: Sus-^pd^o-t vriler of lavi-tpefchet (Slnr juttiee). Here a is 
■nbetitnted for 5 of tbe stem by analogy to o-stems. 
N. — Compounds of 7fl earth have ytu- (for ytit- by 34); as ytw-iiirp^t 
sureejror (Innd-meamrer,* lurptu nwosure). Doric has liriUrni. Cp. 224 a. 
c. lose iU vowel before a vowel : K^oX-aXT^* eaaaing head-ache (m^aXiJ head, 
aA7-oi pain). 
872. Second Declension (o-stenu).— The first part may 

a. end in a: Xaro-rp^^A-t qisMA-urita*. 

b. end in a or q (rarely); Aa^it-^\o-t dear-ihooting (fXo^i, PHAm), Here q 

is due to the analogy of o-stems. 
c kiae B before a vowel; lAir-afixo-' monareli (tola r«I«r: iiiro-f alone, Ipx-» 

V. — Wolds of the 'Attic' declension may end In u, as Kw-iipo-f custodian 
1^ « tensile (Mifa). 


073. Tliiid DMlenaLon (conaonant atonu). — The flnt put mkj 

a. show Ibe Btem (i, u, au, ou): M(»^>-*^^»-t i)tqrfr«d (/lim-t Msr, vArw, C{ii 

-EoXs-t, op. LaL coJo, and 131). 
N. — A few conaonant alems retain iLe coDsonant: ^Xi'y-xaXai dipped m 
Mae£ bile (fiASt, x<>M)' See also 870. 

b. add to the stem : aa)iaT-a-ili6\ai body-guard ^ffH/ia bodg, ^Urrw gttord) , 

f»rrp-i-iniXii mother-cilf, metropolii (fit^qpi riXu), ^vat-e-Mrroi natural 
j^ilogopher (^ri-t nature), lx8u-o-vi!i\v* fishmonger (fx^> rwXt^ mU). 
C add a (rarely 7) : ra^^-nirTpa-v toater/or uoaAtnp tAe/eet (raPi, nwrwj, 
XivMraJ-T)-SpiiftJ5 toreh-raee. 

874. Compoands of rSi ad asnaUy show t<*-, as rii'-ra4>o-s (and rdtf-ra^ 
101 b) all-wae, wttp-ftfaOt fnnkntu ('all-epeaking'); but bIbo warr- la wirr- 
apx" all-ruling; and ««rr-«- in io>T-o-riiXio-ii bataar (tuXA* «((). 

875, Neuter ateniH in iiar uanally show /uit-o, aa d7aXfiar-o-iriH£-t aCulptor 
(iyaXiM Statue, roi/ui mait«). Some have /la, as ^Hju-icXuri-i o/famovt name; 
noma Bhow f(D for ^rr>, as tdiu>-ppo,ylA hemorrhage (ol/u, -aroi blood, fiiiytv)u 
break, 80). 

876, Sterna In <«- (nom. -qi or -ot) usually drop tv and add ; aa ^n4-*- 
liaprvpiu false lettimuny (^tvS-^it) ; and eo stemB in aa, aa xpio-^yo-t JUA^eating 
(cp/ai, ifiaytir 52Q. 0). Some stems in eir and or retain ta and ur (In poetry), aa 
roKir-riM-t Wielding a shield {ffiKai, rdXXu), ft\ar-4^po-t light-bringing (ffAai, 

^/Kj); some add 1 (forsake of the mptre}, as dp«r-f-T/»^i mountain-bnd (Ipvi, 
r/H^^ui); these may belong to 879. 

877. Other abbrevlatians : •fa\a-Biiri-t RUfM (7aXaicT- milk, 9fi-v$<u give 
t^ck), >uXi-i)J4t honey-noeet (/uXit-), kXiu-m^ Madfc teUh eloiuif from 
»Xai>^ blaek (cp, 129 c) and W^i doud. 

B7B. Words one* begliiiiliig with p O' v. — When the second pan conslsia 
of a word beginnini; with digamma, a preceding vowel is often not alided: 
KOMo-tfrila (Epic) doing ill (lawr faxaiir,oi) from fipyo-r mork; lairt-tAlfl err»- 
cent-ehaped (fiiii^ moon, fttSot shape) ; riiii-opn (later Tifwi^) avenging (ri^ 
honour, fvpiaa observe, def'nd). — Compoands of -oxot, from ir^w hme (orig. 
cixui, -"x^) contract : iXitpnuxof holding an allotment of land («X4p*4 lot), 
ToXi-oixoi protecting a rity (for roXi-o-oxoi)- 

879. FlecUonal Compouida. — A compound whoae 8rat part la a caae 
form, not a stem, is called a flectional compound (cp. iporltinan. kin^oli): 
(1) nominative: Tptur-tal'BiKa thirteen; (2) genitive: Ai4ir-«oupot Diotntri 
(tons of Zeus), 'BXXf)a"rorrai Hell«'» sea, Tlt\orir-w7)iroi (for ITiXMTor-rqtfat, 
106a) Pelops' inland; (3) dative: Sopl-\itrTot uon by the spear; (4) locaUve: 
ji«-iripot vaufarer, IluXai-Tir^i bom fn J^ftu. — From sacb compounds deriTa- 
Uves may be formed, aa 'EXXirrrirruii of the Helltspont, tmirtx^pU hatred <tf 
the godt. 


880. Some compounds have as their first part a verb-stem (cp. 
brealcwater, pick-pocket, catch-penn;/). Such compoimds are usually 


poedo adjectiTeB. The rerb^tem is usually trauBitive and bas the 
Eonu that appears in the present or aorist. 

881. Before a vowel the vurb-stem remains micbanged or drops a final 
towel ; before a conuunant it adds i, o, ar i : ipift-avris eMeld-bearinfff iua-4.rBpi»- 
m watt-AatiNf {juri~a), U-t-xt^ptS. (12Gd) holding of bands, Iruce, Xir-o-rrpnrli 
detrtioii oftht army, rin-i-pev'hit prevailing in the Senate, ELfix-t-r'<riiii> mosler- 

882. Tho Terb-etam adds iri (before a vowel, c). Some Insert t before 
(1 (r) : nr^I.-reXit saving the state (o^^), ^tf--ajrwu Craven, lit. throwing away 
a ihieU (^tir-r-w), eiift^fwt (and SaK-i-evtioi) heartr^ating (^Sin-iMa'), VXc-c-o-l- 
raXof leitk long train, lit. trailing tlie robe (cp. Ax-e-xiruv) 

A. Th'» t Is the Towel added in many Terb-stemB (4&5). 


8831 The first part of a compound is often a numeral: SiWom 
biped, rpi-rcvt tripod {having three feet), TiBp^mrov /our-horse chariot, 
tot-^Am' contest in Jive events. 


884. A prepoaitioD or adverb is often the first part of a com- 
pound : dotiSoi entrance, dn-o-^iTyoi Jtee from, €v^rv}(^ Aappy, &u- 
iirtfTTos euer to be remembered. 

». Except when the sabstantive is treated as a verbal (as In rfr-olM m- 
tniiee,cp.*ta-iirai enter), prepositions are rarely compounded with subslaniivea. 
Hob, rir-Sev\oi /tllaw-slave, ivo^iSavtoMt (= 4 Irri nn S.) under-teaeher ; also 
iwi-\mnt tehitith. 

b. The ordinary euphonic changes occur. Obserre that »p4 before may 
«atnct witbaoretoau; rpotxii or rpoBxii hold be/ore (cp. 449 b). See 184 a. 

c q ■ometimes is inserted after a preposition or talces the place of a final 
Towel: tnp-^-tant ennqaif.voiu, /v-^^Xot having achieved. 

i. Akin to adverbial compounds are some In <pi.\-o, aa ^iXo-Mo^t one viho 
fiadlii leamM. 


BBS. Several prefixes occur only in compositinn : 
I. 4(v)- (ir- beiora a, Vowel, i- before a consonant ; alpha privative') witb a 
n^aUve force like Lat. (»-, Eng. «n- (or -l«<s) : di-djioi unaorthy (= d*» 
<{wf), dr-ifKUDt vitllke, ir-iMuHit anodyne {iSirt) pain, cp. 687), d-Htt 
•fl/y, JPrifin tmhanoared, O-dnt gndlees, yifiat iya/iot marriage that la 
no marriage, d- is also found before words once beginning with digamma 
or aigroa: d-^4t unpleasant (fvB6t), i-6paTn unseen (ftpAu), d-nrXof 
trOAouI shields (o-orXor), and, by contraction with the fallowing vowel. 
intr (irfituf vmolUlng). But ii- often appears: dr-Arurref (and 
S-t\mt') ttnhnpfd for (feX»-(i), dt-arXDi wiftftONt shifld. 
a. a-, 4r- (for J, S6 bj represent weak forma of I. E. »« 

■ ooglc 


i. \f»' half (LU. Mmf-) : liiu-KiKXiot iMti^milar (cAtXof), iiuSKfi lUiV <>* 
much again (Aot vhole), 4*u-<*iii half-dead. 

3. S«r- (opposed to «C well) ill| hk-, mfo-, deno^ng something difficulty bad, or 

lal^iut 0/ fll /ortKiw (contrast ci)-rux4Ti (^x'P'f'i (Mar/iuf), Sw-Aptarat 
m-^ttutd, Ma-wapit iU-ttarred Parii. 

4. ii- (or A-) copulotfne denotes union, likenett (cp. Lat. co»~) ; d-(J\m>#M <I^ 

tenant, agreeing with (rArvdof potA : i.e. going on the eune road), 
d-riiX«rTS( of the Mtite weight, d-rii oil together. A TulBtlon of 1-copu- 
Utive is d-(H<en«f«e: d-nirfi strttcAed (riivu «tr«teA), d-rttM leetl (Wiar 

a. i-copiilative stands for so- (from ru 20, 86 c), snd is connected wilti 

ilM, j/Mu, and i/ia- together. 

6. r^- (poetic) with the force of a negative (cp. Lat. n«} ; n)-mtM unavenged 

(Toir4 puniehment), r^-nr^i freeing from pain and eorrow (riwtm). 
In some cnsea rq- aia.y be derived from r (not) and the if of the second 
part, as vQTit not eating (poetic fJI-w, cp. 887). 
8. Ap«-, Ipi^ (poetic) with intensive force (cp. ipi-rrot beet), ift-rptwit very 
dittinguiihed (rpirtt), l^Ti/Mt preclouM. 

7. kya^ (poetic) IntenaiTe (cp. 170* verf) : iyd-itToret loud wailing {trim 

8. [K-, S«- (poetic) intensive (for Si> = lis- verg, 116) : fu-fHr^i mnr eowra^eoM* 

(/Jnt courage), Id-rmoi tftiob-fAoded (»ii). 


8Ml Componnd SsbtUntivM and AdJecdTea. — The last part of a 
noun-compouud consists of a noun-stem or of a verb-stem with a 

8S7. Nouns beginniRft with I, <, lengthen these vowels (1 and * to it, • to 
w) imleas they are long by position. ffTpar-iiyit armg'leading, general (orparit, 
Ayw), t6~-^rtfiatiiiUh fair wind (cv well, dvt^t), iir^^Xaali driving out of foreigner* 
(ffvaii Aa4m), dr-dnifui nameletM (<i»-( Sniui), dr-iiifuiX« Uneiwn (dr-, i^Ut). 

■. Some compounds of Atw Irad show a : Xox-dT^ captafn (Xix"' conipan|i). 

b. By analogy to the compound the simple form sometimes asaumee » long 
TDwel : 4Kfii«r<ra windy. Cp, 28 D. 

c Lengthening rarely occurs when a preposition or riit precedes : »ur-Mf»rli 
etMUpiraq/ (Sfinifu saiar), rar-'iyvpti general atBembly (^iyvpu = iyopi), 

d. llie lengdiening In B8T is properly the result ol early contraction (rrpars 
+ ■■>»>)■ On the pattern of such contracted forms irrational lengthening occnn 
when the fiiM part at the compound ends in a oonaona&t, as Siw-^Xrr^ (for 
l*#-aXfY^) en«I from dX^w care for. 

aaa A noun fornung tbe last part of a compound often changes 
its final syllable. 

N. Masculine or feminine nouns of the second or third declensions naoally 
lemsln unaltered : tr-9in itupired, d-rou cAJUJeu. 

1= Coo^^lc 


■■ •**, -^1 -«v : form compomid ftdjeotivM from nouns of Ibe flnt deelennon, 
n«nl«n o( Uie Hcond decleiuion, nouiu of tbe third d«cleDUon, uid from man^ 
Tail>«UDW. t-Tijiat dithtmoured (Ti>i^) , vttSttrri oontpanion at UM* ()*triv-r 
M«aO. ir-tiiMt bloodlett (_alita, 876), imriry-x'f^ hundred-handed Cx«'c). *<w*40- 
*ip« brdtyinif tribme [.*ip-*t), it<*^fi^ ffeogn^her 871 b. N. (yr-i-h-}, tx><^ 
*-ti-r^ fi*k-eiainff i^yir 620. fi). 

b. -^1, -n: lonn oomponnd adjeotlTM from noatis ol (he flnt and thiid d»- 
elenaimu, and from many Terb^tems : d-rvxift itnfortmnate (rixv), ><u-rr4i 
ofUn ftan {firat), ti-it^t htaMifal in form (dSoi), ri-yu^f qviek <a Itanting 
OwvMnr, fwtf-), A-^r^T (iwftibla (^w, im*-). 

d. Neatora in iia make adjeotiTea in -/u*r : rp&yiim thing, A-wpijiiar inactive, 
tr^r mind becomea-^pN* : tC-^^v wtlUainded, cheerful.— warip /tUAer become! 
■mimtf -. l^irmp fat&erleu, ^t^a-wiritp loving hit father. 

a. Compoimda of y4 IomiJ end In -Yiuf, -Yivt: nrA-ytm wblerranean, 
Xtwriftm of thin aoll. — Compouuda of raOt >A^, nipaj horn, yftpai old age 
end In -wt, as rtpl-ttm euperearffo, ^l-xtpm Itiftg-nnOered (IflS a), A^pm free 

889. The last member of a compoond Is often a rerbal element that Is 
BOt naed aepantely: dTaX/iar-«4'«ii stoti^'maker, tetdptor, Ar-^mvt au^jMt 
(iMmim hear, dbn^ima), \ayo-ypd^ot epetfArWriter. -^pgi bringing, -l»nat titltdlnff, 

-jpafwi rnnning are need separately in the meanlnga tribute, building, race. 

890. An abatract word can enter into oompoaltion only b; taking a deriw 
tire ending (nsoallj -u) formed from a real or asaumed compound adjectlTe : 
nf-t ik^, f(ix<t JIght =! Ht^iMX"> whence nv-fiaxls naval battle; *t tvell, 
Poii\i cowucl = iIE^vXm , whence t&-fiou\li good counttl; dr-neg., ipxi fule 
= tr-m^x"'! whence if-a^li anarchy ; rC aeU, rpSfu doing = *tiirpi$at, whence 
ti-rpiili vieB-dolng. Craitrast tt-ptvXli with *po-pav\t forethought, ti-iryla 
eutogt with i-^XoYef prologue. 

a. Only after a preposition does an abstract word remain unchanged : xf- 
peuX^fortthought. BxcepUona are rare: iuae».^ofA reee^ ofwaget(_tuf9h, ^opd). 

891. Campcrand Verba. — Verbs can be compounded directly only by pretlz- 
Ing a prepoaltion, as iriifi->idze^«i fight along toith. 

M. A prepoaltloii (wp6-$Ma) derived Its name from this use as a preflz. Origl- 
naOy all prepoaltlons were adverfas modifying the verb, and in Homer are partly 
so naod. See 1888, 1639. Cp. upheave atfd heave «fi. 

893. All oomponnd verbs not compounded with prepoaltlons are denomina- 
tlres (ending In -m) and formed from real or uaumed compound noniis. From 
•avt Mp and Mx? fight oomee rg^iuix" fighting <n «A{p«, whence ravfMx^ 
fight in ehtpa; to tbnieiUtt build a houie from oln-tifiot hvute-buHder (tint, 
Mfw), Coatrast dra-trttfa bring over, convince with irTiarim dtebelleve (<-*w- 
m); irrt-Xtym tpeok againtt with ifia-X«Yfo o^ree (iitlAafytt agreeing^, — >> 
dyYAXw announce good newt cannot fonn a verb ttay-iMm. 

a. AniiiM (trlit) a^tonouT, 9axpux*t ehed tear* are exoeptioDS. di»</ioitw 
make wiiike la not from dr> and ipiaiiit but from Ar-itiaut unlOee, 



893. Compounds generally have recessive accent, as <t>*^A^iim 
hving-honour (ri^ij). But there are many exceptions, e.g. — 

a. PrEmltiTee in -d, -4, -itt, -*6i, -itin, BJid -^ai uauolly keep tlieii accent vrben 
oompouudedi except diasyllablc words la -i, -i), -))■ whose firul part ie not a 
prepoBition. Thus, «piriit iuAge, iiroxpir-ii actor, imixitplTtp inUrprtter of dreamt. 

b. Compound adjectives in -171, -ts are ueuaUy oxytone : t6-ytrlii leell-bor*. 

894. Compounds in -oi (not •rsi or 'Koi) lonncd by tbe union of a noun 01 
adverb and the Bt«ni of H tr&nidtive verb are : 

«. oxytone, when they have a long penult and an active meaning: rr/»r-irTlt 

b. paroxytone, when tliey have short penult and an active meaning: rarpo- 

trhnt parricide, Xc0o-^Xgt thruviing-iitoneit, Xai/io-ri;uit throot-cutting, iSpo- 

ipipot mater-carrier. 
C. proparoxytone, when tliey have a ibort penult and passive meaning; nrpi- 

KTOm slain by a father, Xi9i-/^Xai pelted with stones, XoiM-^ofw* vlth 

throat cut, aiti-ipaifiiit writlen lellh one's oteii hand. 
N.~AcUve compnunils of -oxm {tx-", 67S)i -<VX<" {ipX-^')< -ffCXot (<riiXi-M 
rob), -ropdn ^ripd-u deetroy) are proparoxytone ; irl-oxtt (retn-holder) chariot- 
eer, Irw-apxoi eomma)i<ler of honea, Ufti-ruXot temple-robber, wTa\l-rop9et lacking 
ettie*. ^apSaOx't ebfjf-bearer (^t^iii) is coulfACted from ^ojHi-oxot. 


895. Compound nouns (substantives and adjectives) are divided, 
according to their meaning, into three main classeB : determtnatioe, 
posaeesive, and prepoaitional-pkrase, compounds. 

a. Tbe logical relation of the parts of compounds varies so greatly that boun- 
dary-lines between the different classes are difficult to set up, and a complete 
formal division is Imposaible. The poeU show a much wider range of usage 
than the prose-wrltets. 

896. Determinative Compounds. — In mostdeterminatirecompoands 
the first part modifies or determines the second part: the modifier 
stands first, the principal word second. 

Thus by hand-work a particular kind of work is meant, as contrasted with 
maehine-viork ; cp. apeech^wrHer and letUr-writer, race-horse and horte-raee. 

a. The fli^t part may be an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, an inseparable 
prefix, or, in a few cases, a substantive. 

897. There are two kinds of determinative compounds. 

(1) Descriptive dstermliuttve componnds. — The first part defines or ez> 
plains the second part in the sense of an adjective or adverb. (This class U 
less numerous than the second class.) 

■Up^^toXh t^tptr eiCy, citadel (i'pi riXif), i^iMtouXai felloio-tlave (AfuO Sair- 
\t6m, cp. S85. 4 a), d^f-Yont late-bom (i^ri ytwiiurM), xpa-ptv^-i forethoufkt. 

Jji^i-MSt^v av^itheatrt (a place-for-seeing round &bout), S-7fH^dt not uiritten 


t. CcipMlotice eompotindt are formed by the coordination of two substantiTM 
«»dJBctlveB : iiTfi-iiarra physician and tetr, -rKvuO^itpat neeetlg-bitleT. Similar 
ia ifeq^-mutf. So also in numemlH : Jil-Scia two {and) ten = 12. 

b. Comparative compounds (generally poetic) are iitXi-tiS^i hOBey-meeet 
OiAt, 4i^), roS^rt/iot^lpa Irig, teiik feet fiei/t a» the mind. Cp. eagle-eyed, 
gol<f/l*h, blocthead. Sncli CDtnpounds are otten poaseaaire (898), as fieta-ld- 
nviot roty-fingered, xp"""*-***"!' goldtn-haired. 

(2) Dependent deteTmlnatiTe compounds. — A substantive forming either 
the flret or the second part stands in the sense of an oblique case (with or with' 
□at a prepoBitioa) U> the other part. 

Accusative: >ayo-^pi^Mi epeeeh-WTtter (Xfrvovt tpd^r), <rTpaT-^6i army- 
leadinff, general (irTparir iyut), ^nX^repotrai tuviag manJtind (^iXAr irSpiinin), 
ttvu-irJliuii tapertUtiout (itititt rtdt Saliient) ; cp. pickpocket, tightieer, paint- 
taking, iooth»ayer, latighter-loviiig. 

Genitive ; aTpa.T6-rcSot camp {arpaTou -riiat ground on lehith an army U 
encamped'). In dfii-Xiryai worthy of mention (Afwt X£7eu) the derinlng part 
stauda second (869 c) and Is governed by ibe adjective part like a preposition 
(cp. 899). Cp. ringnxitter, law-offlcer, jeet-book. 

(Ablative): irriio-rinr^ thellering frum llf wind; cp. land-breeze, sea-breeze. 

Dative: i»-4-*ot godlike (trot fcv) ; cp. churchgoer, blood-thirsty. 

(Instramontal) : x^'P-o^'h"' made 6y htiad (x'jwl TOHjrit), xpiwW«TOt 
iouiuf uiilh gold ixP'''"? 'fii) ; cp. thunder-struck, storm-raept, slaT-sown, 

(tXKiative) : aUo-^riii born In the house (^tr oliy yrwiturtis'), iiot-ripot ieay- 
fartr (879) ; cp. heart-sick. 

5. 1. — The Greeks did not think of any actual case relation as existing In these 
componods, and the case relation that exists ia purely logical. The same form 
may be analysed in different ways, as <)yi\dy6piiir<ii ~ ipAini irSpiiwovi or = ^Xm 

K. 2. — finch compounds may oEten be analysed by a preposition and a de- 
pendent noon ; &4-)|i^TBt god-built (Jxi Tur BtQr ifDfrii). 

898. PoaseMive Coropoands, — lu possessive compounds the first 
part defines the second as in determinatives; but the whole com- 
pound ia an adjective expressing a quality, with the idea of pos- 
session understood. In most possessive compounds the idea of 
having (Ix"*) ia to be supplied. 

So, In English, redbreast is a bird having a red breast, tlie first part being an 
attribute of the second. 

itr/vpi^aiot having a silver bos; fHtKpi-x"p ftnrinff long arms, long-armed; 
ttniUli having the appearance (cTfoi) of a god, godlike; aii-ifipar having sound 
mind, temperate; TiBp-trroi having four horses; iii6-TtHroi of like character 
(ifw- ocean only in compounds, but note Sju'ct lilce); roXv-c^^Xot many-headed ; 
«*-Ti7j+i having good fortune, fortunate ; ii«B-«Ti)i lasting ten years (cp, a tteo- 
year-old) ; in^-idiai having piUars rouTid about; Ir-Bwi in^tred (having a god 
leithin : tw iavrf Mr Ix"')- 


«. AdjaetiTSB In -tiHn from ttlot form {irrtp-a-nlit ttar-lOce, IxBu-o-atM 
jUh-IU^, ^»-o-«iJ4f OTMCtrnf, nXv-«)4t of manp kind*, a^aifi-ftiSit spherical) 
an to be dtotlDguIaliMl from tboM la -Mi/t derived from «> mieU (833 a). 

b. Bngllab poncMlTe oompoands In -ed apply tbat endlog only to the <«>ni- 
ponnd u a wbole and not to either nieniber. In Hlltoo : deep-tXroatod, vMiU' 
ha»d«d, opmt-htarttd ; In Keati: tuUI^-cocbneed. Bealdes thoae in -mI there 
an others aucb as Bluebeard. 

c. Many posseesiTe oompounds b^n witb !(>)- negative or >im> iU ; aa I-twi 
cJUItficM (AaoinjT no eAlIdren or not haoiiig cAfUren, raitai sdc (ichf), i-rl/wt 
dithonowed {having no honoar), 3fo-^vXsf f/J a(l«i««d (Aatrln; evQ coHnaels). 

899. Prepoaltloiul-phraM CMBpmuida. — Many phrases made of a 
preposition and its object unite to form a compound and take or 
adjectiral inflection. Such compounds are equivalent to the phrases 
in question with the idea of being or the like added. 

tr-M»f colonbt (auail from homt : it' aTnu) ; iyxtifilSioi in the hand, dagger 
(ir x*fO i fyx'^P'^ native (in Iht eottntrj/: ir x<^pv) i triBoKiTTuit daelling on 
the eoatt (irl hUrrg) ; t<t-i«Tun on Ae hearth (^' itrUf) \ laTiytun ntlder- 
ground, cp. tvbterranean (rari yttt) ; npiSo(ot contrary to opinion (wofi 
Ufu) ; rapi-^pur out ofone't mind, La^ de-mem {rapi Tijr fpira) ; &w-tdevr«t 
under liatattg to give account (ir iMAhui) ; so ifipoOSat gone ( =rp4 iSoC ttri- 
fitrtt, cp. 121 a). 

a. From such phissw are derived verba and Hnbetantlveg : iyx^'pl!'' P"* 'nto 
one'i handt, entnut, Siax'^pifi' ^f' '" hand, manage (iii x"p^')t JianvSr 
oetam-tcale (4 Ii^ rirSr x'P^^' ru/i^i^ the concord Arovgh all the note*). 
By analogy to itrvliir ovt of the vaji (in roSOw) come tiantiir in the tony and 
i/iritiM impeding, /^troJIfte Impede. 

b. Tbe oompounds of SOB repieaent UU at syntas used so fraqnently togstber 
that tbey have become adherent. 




900. A aentence expresses a thought. Syntax (mWo^ arranging 
together) shows how the different parts of speech and their different 
iufleotional forms are employed to form sentences. 

901. Sentences are either complete or incomplete (904). 

902. EvetT complete sentence mnst contain two members ; 

1. The Subject : the person or thing about which something is said. 

2. The Predicate : what is sud about the subject. 

Tbna, ri B4pet (Bob}.) frtXt^a (pred.) the tufitmer | came to an end T. S. 109, 
fXfc (pred.) K^pvi (mbj.) a herald \ came 3. IIS. 

903. Complete sentences are simple, compound, or complex. In 
the timple sentence subject and predicate occur only once. A com- 
pound sentence (2162) consists of two or more simple sentences coor- 
dinated : ry S* vmpauf imptvorro Sti rav irf&bu, Kai Turtra^ipviTf ttwen 
but on the next day they marched through the plain and Tiaaaphemet 
iept/olknoing them X. A. 3. 4 18. A complex sentence (2173) consists 
of a main sentence and one or more subordinate sentences r tnrar* 8«m 
yi^pav BtafinXrttv, linrtaStv ivatfTot ivheneoer it mat necessary to croM a 
bridge, every one made haste 3. 4. 20. 

90t. Incomplete sentences consist of a single member only. Such 
Kntences stand outside the structure of the sentence. The chief 
classes of incomplete sentenoea are 

k. luteijecUons, mch u d, ^, aiar, offui. 

b. Anerentloufi which oerre sa a predicate to a aenUnoe spoken by another : 
tmJ|f», wurelg, 00 no, ^Xwra eertainlji, icaXui very well! 

C Headinga, titles : Ktpov 'Aripwit the Rtjiedttion of Cfrut, 'Awriyirf the 
AnUfone, rvfi^x'" 'Afnratmw tal etTTaXuv the AUianee qf the Atheniaita and 
nestaiiatu C. L A. 4. S. eo b. 

d. VocstfTes (12S8), uid nomiu&tives used in exclamation (1288). 

«. Bxclamatioiu wlthoat a verb : StBpe hither t 

R.— Examples ol snob inoompieta Heiit«ucee fn EngUab arp oh, OMtweHjf, 
■a tMHidcr, right about face, away, fin t 


903. True impersoaal verbs (932) have a grammalical subject in tbe petMoal 
CDdlog ; but the real subject is properly an idea more or lens vogue thai in present 
to the mind of the speaker. Similar in nature are inflaitivea used Id command* 


906. The most simple form of seatence is the finite verb : hr^ 
he-ia, Xtya-fLcy we-aay, hrt-<r$t you-folloui. 

Hare the subject is in tbe persoaal ending, tbe predicate in tbe verbal Btem. 
No otber single word than a verb can of itaelf form a complete sentence. 

907. The subject of a seoteDce is & substaiitive or oue of its 

908. Bqairalents of the Substantive. —Tbe function of the substantive 
ma; be assumed b; a pronoun, adjective (in masculine and feminine more fn>- 
qnentlj with the article), numeral, participle, relative clause (ot tXif^&iicKT rir 
roKittluw ra^i 4fTY<^^' tho^e of the erttmy aho were captured made (Ke aam 
report X. A. 1. 7. 13) ; b; tbe article with an adverb (ol rjrt the men nf that dag), 
or with the genitive (ni rfli rixvt the (nci"denM 0/ fortune, fortune (1299)); l^ 
a prepositional phrase (oI i/ufil rir Suipdrtr Socrates and hit foiloweri ; twl tUy* 
a great port), a preposition with a numeral (t^iuyor ttpt dn-anwlovr abotU tight 
hundred look to flight X. H. 6. 5. 10) ; by an Infinitive with or without the article 
(1QS4, 2026); and by an; word or phrase viewed merely ss a thing (tA l/nU 
Ih-ar -Kiyw, ri/w w&Xir Myw ithtn I Sag Fnu, / mean the State D. 18. SS). Cp. 
ll&3g. (Farthermore, by a clause in a complex sentence, 21S9. 1.) 

909. The predicate of a sentence is always a verb. The verb 
may either stand alone, as in IIcptKX^ AiniXBc Perides departed; or 
it may have certain modifiers, called comjAementa to the pivdieate 
(nouns, participles, adverbs), as ItepiKX^v Ssr^XSt irpwroii Jlrat (ipyii,6- 
fMKK in anger; ron then). Cp. 9M. 

910. Predicate Nouna. — Kouns (substantival nr adjectival) are 
often used as complements to the predicate. Thus, 

■. A predicate substantive is a substantive forming part of the 
predicate and asserting something of its substantive : IIcpiKX^ SP^ 
orpaTtjyoi Pericles was elected general, tlKta^ tuMvov vpttr^evr^ you 
elected Aim envoy L. 13, 10. 

b. A predicate adjective is an adjective forming part of the predicate 
and asserting something of its substantive : u iyiip &iKai6t irm the man 
i» juat, ivifiurav GtpiKkia tirro)^ they thmight I'ericles fortunate. 

911. A predicate substantive or adjective may often be distinguished from 
an attributive (012) in that tbe former implies some form of ctnu be. Thia. 
rpwfifirrir and lirvx^ In 910. After verbs signifying to name or call, dru 
is sometimes expressed (1016). 

912. Attributive Adjecdve. — An attributive adjective is an adjec- 
tive simply added to a noun to describe it, and not forming any part 
of an assertion made about it : i Stkoiot dvijp the just^man. 

im] appositivk, copula, object 257 

913. All adjectivea that are not attributive are predicate. So irptfroi i^- 
nrro lA«y loere lAt first to arrive (1042 b), roirif ^iXif xpSifuu I treat thi» man 
lu a frltnd (= tlrm, ^ xfiviiai, ^l\oi /btI), 

914. Uoder ndjecUves are included partlciplea: 6 lUSXur (atu-ib.) rAXifm 
Iht future war, TaCra droit (pred.) dTtin* Maying tkit he went off, ipm »t 
tftwrnrrt (pred.) 1 lee gou hiding. 

915. Fredicate substantivea, adjectives, and participles, in agreement eitlier 
with subject or object, are mora common in Greek ilian in Bnglish, and often 
call for special sbifta in trnnelatiim : /uriiipoui iitubiuaar rat i^ulfai they lifted 
the waffoM and carried them out X. A. 1. G. 8. Cp. 1S70. 

OT6. Apposltive. — An appositive ia a noun added to another noun 
or to a pronoun to describe or define it r MiArwSij; 5 crrporTyos Mil- 
Uades, the general, J/uTs oi Icpcts you, the prieMx, touto, 5 aii etxts, iti 
rafitari, "x^V '^''^< tohicti you visiilioned, ia alivaya i>reaeiit, (1 mean) 
Ititttrt P. Th. 172 d. 

817. CopnlA. — An indeterminate verb that serves simply to couple 
a predicate substantive or adjective to the subject is called a cojnda: 
Sov^f ^y 'A0tjyauri Xetiophon was an Athenian. 

a. The moHt common copulative verbs are tint be and yl-iMir$M becnme. 
Man; other verba serve as copulas; KaalvravBai bn-'ine, n^ui/m, irdpxuy, wtt^r 
(poetical) be, iatiir seem, ^Ixtr^ai appear, rnXfiv-Sai, iraiiijlt^at, iimitit, rX^tr 
(poetical) be en I/fd, rvyxitir, Kvpttr (poet.) hoppen, turn out, alpitrBat be chosen, 
ro/iiitaSai be regarded, uptrareai be judged, and the Utie. 

918. a. TTie copula is strictly the predicate or la a part of the predicate with 
its Bupplemeota. 

b. The above verbs may also be complete predicates : tari Btit there is a god. 
C. For the oraission of the copula, see 944. 

d. A predicate substantive or adjective stands in the same case as the subject 
when coupled U> It by a copulative verb (ffS^). 

e. For (li«i added to a copulative verb, see 1615. 

9EL9. Object — A verb may have an object on which its action is 
exerted. The object ia a substantive (or its equivalent, 908) in an 
oblique case. An object may be direct (in the accusative) or indirea 
(in the genitive or dative) : Kupw &ocr<i <f /ivSs (direct) rffl 8nii\^ (in- 
direct) Cyrua will give six minae to the ^ve, IXapoy rrj^ (mvrp (iudirect) 
Toy 'Opoyrav (direct) they took hold of Orontaa by the girdle X. A. 1. 

92a Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. — Verbs capable of taking 
a direct object are called transitive because their action passes over 
to an object Other verbs are called intransitive. 

a. But many intransitive verba, as in English, ate used transitively (1658, 
1559), and verbs usually transitive often take an indirect object (I34I S., 1460 ff., 
MTl fL). 

■ ooglf 



921. Simple sentetices h&ve six forms; Statementa; Assump- 
tiODS, Comm&ndB, Wishes ; QuestiouB ; and Exclamations. Of these, 
Assumptioiis, Commands, and Wishes express wUl. See 2163 S. 


922. The subject and the predicate may be expanded hy amplifi- 
oation or qualifioatioa : 

933. Expansion of Ute Snbjsct. — Tbe aubjact in»7 be expanded : A. Bj 
tn^ificatiaa : E«rfii lal nSiriwr dr^^^ua-ai Xenioi and Paaion tailed aieof. 
B. By qualification : 1. By an attributive adjective, i iyaSii iriip tht good man, 
an attributive subatantive denoting occupation, amdition, or age, d>H)p rrparvtii 
a captain (U66), an adjective pronoun or nanieral : ii/Jripet ^ot a fiiend of 
ovri, Sit ToEiif tiBo children, 2. By tbe genitive of a noun or BUbdtiuitive pro- 
noun (adnominal or attributive genitive): vTt^m xp^oS a ermaa of gold, t 
wKT^p ifUir ovr father. 3. By a prepositional pbrase: iJAi utiI toC Y^Xi^w 
a teaf down the hill. 4. By an adverb; ol tSr itSpwroi tbe men of the praent 
day. 6. By an appositive (910). A subsUntive in any case may be qualified 
like the mibjecl. 

924. Sxpuulon of the Predicate. — The predicate may be expanded : A. By 
ampHfieation .■ ol \axiyol di-^Xtfef (ol /rsfouf aurui the raptairts tUpaned and did 
to. B. By q«alificatiiin .• 1. By the oblique case of a noun, a Hutwtanlive pro- 
noun, or a numeral. Thia la called tbe object (9 IS, 9-JO). Thus : ipa rbr irtpa 
I aet the man, ^yur^ iKniiMi I hear a voice, ilrcro t^ ^-fiiiin h/: fallmntd tht 
guide, iy»r$ i^hsi he love* u», /^■^t tj)> iiixv he v>on the battle (ct^naie 
accusative, 1687), tlw*a Sira I gave fen. The oblique case may be fulloved by 
an adnominal genitive or a dative : ApS -woWoiit rSr voXItuIt / see mang of the 
citiient. 2. By a preposition with its appropriate caae : jJXAot ^1 rat ffnrrdi 
theywent to their tentt. 8. By an infinitive ; m\ri iri\8tir he wishe* to depart. 
4. By a participle : Ap^fisi X^ur / will bi-gin mn tpeech. G. By an adverb or 
adverbial expreaalon : rf Caru let him know leell, r^i fvirrii iXSt he tame during 
the n{ght, ir^iiBt Tpiraiet he departed on the third dag (1012). Un <M>mplemenl* 
to the predicate, see 000. 


925. There are three concords in simple setitences: 

1. A finite verb threes with its subject in number and person 

2. A word in apposition with another word agrees with it in case 

3. An adjective agrees witli its substantive in gender, number, and 
case (1020). 

(For tbe concord of relative pronouns, see 2501.) 


ni] THE SUBJECT 259 

926. Apparentviolationof the concords is to be explained either by 
A. Conttnation according to sense, where the agreement is with the 

n»i gender or number (e.g. 94tfa, 950-963, 958, 996, 997, 1013, 1044, 
1050, 1055 a, 1058 b) ; or by 

b. AUraclioa, when a word does not have its natural construction 
because of the influence of some other word or words in its clause 
{e.g. 1060 ff., 1239, 1978, 2465, 2502, 2522 ff.)- This principle 
extends to moods and tenses (2183 ff.). 


927. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative : Ki^ ifiaS 
Ognu aiUed out. 

928. The subject nominative may be replaced 

a. By a prepoakional phrase in the accusative ; iii^iitUi* ta»' intarwit r< xai 
t^arrn eoiuider individucUly and all togethtr T. T. &L 

b. ByagenlUveoI the divided nhole(13I8): ncXXijwi J« rarit etrritf t t(>4> 
IHW iiiAxorri rt ml ir xi^K twlrror itaripur the Pelleniane WhO teert Oj^iottd 
laOt Tke^iant kept up the eoiOeMt and teverai on both »idet fell on the ^ot 


929. An unemphatio pronoun of the first or second person is 
generally omitted : Xiyt tov vo/mv read the lato (spoken to the clerk 
uf the court) D. 21. 8. 

930. An empbUlc pronoun is generally expressed, as In eontraeie; ai pit 
BiVi. M^Dv, iyi) t iwtiiu do thou vrait for him, biU I will depart S. Ph. 128. 
Bnt often in poetry and Mmetlnies in prose tha pronoun Is expreHsed when no 
contrast [b Intended. Tbe ftret of two contrasted pronouns is sometimes omitt«d : 
i>M, li paiXti, lUr' t*l Tif rriMTtiiiaTi, fytli f iSfXti roptitrBat fiut, if ifdu pr^er, 
fmaia mith jfour ditutoH, lamieUUng logo X. A. 8.4.41. Cp. 1190, 1191. 

931. The nominative subject of the third person may be omitted 
t. When it is expressed or Implied In the context; i rit rariip i>offtiTai fdi ri 

UxtTi wi»ji VOW father U afraid le^t he suffer death X. C. S. 1. 22. 

b. When the subject is Indefinite, especially when it is the same person of 
UiingssUie omitted subject of it preceding IntlnltivB(987a) : ^ tdE ottsBai tiSfm 
[itatli), a bSk oMtr tht ignorance of Chinking one knoag what one doet not 
t>aw P. A. 29 b. Often In legal language : i »i/ui, gi tiXiiri ri iauroS iitinu 
taiisgoi twut &w i9f\j) the lavi, vihlch enjoins that a man has the right to dis- 
pot of his property as he withes Is. 2. 13. 

t When a particular peraon is meant, nho is easily underatood from the 
ntustion : rait liinin irayniatTai he {tJie clerk) will read the laws Aea. 3. 16. 

1 When it is a general idea of pereon, and usually in the third peraon plural 
o'lerbaof soffing a,nd thinking : iit \iyavfir as thty say D. 0. IS. So ^rl thejf 
K^. ttarrau people think; cp. aimt,fertmt, tradunt. 



e. Id deaoriptloiiBot locality; 4r jJEpiifirMn /or 11 CtIieplace)(MU«(«(^T.T.U 

f. Iq Impersonal veiba (832, 934). 

932. Impersonal Veits (905). — The subject of a true impersonal 
verb is a vi^ue notion tuat cannot be supplied from the context: 
Afn ^v it waa late, koXSo^ ix^ it is well, ■ijByj ^v ifufi^ ayopav ■rX^dmima' 
U was already about the Ihne when the markel-place isJvU X. A. 1. 8, 1, 
avT^ oil irpovj(aiptt, it (the course of events) did not go well with him T. 1, 109. 

933. An impersonal verb the subject of which may be derived from 
the context is called quasi-impersonai. 

a. When the indefinite (( anticipatea an infinitive or auliordlnato proposition 
which forms the logical subject, (1985). So nitli Jdhi it seems, tniiifialrti U hap- 
pens, IfwTi U is permitted, rpirti, tpotiiKa it is fitting, ^cdrtrai it c^ean, 
tftftrii it happened, ilr^it /u v.nit me in mentem, iii^oi it is evideM, eta. Tbun, 
tfiSi rpov/itti vpofiiurripom dm tt behooves yon to be morexealous X. A. S. 2. IS, 
tlS'in a^«>T h-ut ir ottaSt d^curru it came into their thoUfrhCI hoie thejf should 

reach home fl. 1. 17. 

b. 80 also vrith xri, '« '( is necessary ; as, ttt a ikStlr gov ought to go (111- to 
go bindsyou). The ImpeTBonal conBtmclion with -r^v teeqaivalent to itX (2162a): 
fioifiirrior iarl tdii rpiyimfir bfuw you must rescue the interests at Btakt D. 1. 17. 

934. In some so-called Impersonal verbs the person is left unexpressed be- 
cause the actor Is understood or implied In the action. So 

a. In expressions of natural phenomena originally viewed as produced \iy a 
divine agent : Pparr^ tonat, iti pluit, kI^h ningit, x«Mi«' ^ i* stormy, Irtun 
it shook, there urns an earthquake. The agent (Znit, A Mt) la often (in Horn. 
always) expressed, as Zc^ dfTT^TTci luppiter fulget. 

b. When the agent Is known from the action, which la viewed as alooe of 
Importance : iraXxl^i the trumpet »ouuAs(i.e.ica,\wiiicriita<kKwti<i thetnampetfr 
founds the trumps), ^jttipvfc proclamation loat mad» («e(I. i n^puO, 'viud"' the 
signal is given («eil. i jt^vf or & o-aXTtyiriii). 

939. In impersonal passives the subject la merely Indicated In the verbal 
ending : 'Ktyrral t« not ypi^troi ^eehes (Xiyei) and writings (Tpi«iaT«) ar» 
composed P. Phae. 281 b. This coostniction is relatively rare, but commonest 
in tiie perfect and pluperfect: etf AXXuii atrraU TrrirriTai their l(Aour has not 
been lost P. Phae. 232 a, iril a^ott raptrtiiaa^o uhen their preparattont were 
completed X. H. 1. 3. 20. 

936. Subject of the Inflnitlve. — The subject of the iofiiiitive is in 
the accusative : JkcXcvov aurout TopoiioAu CAey ordered that they lAtndd 
proceed X. A. 4.2.1. 

a. See I9T6. On the nominative snbject of the infinitive, see 1973. 

937. Omission of the Subject of ths Infinitive. — The subject of the in- 
finitive la usually not eipreesed when it Is the same as the subject or object 
(direct or Indirect) of the principal verb: f^<r iet^ur he tatd he VOM ailling 
X. A- *■ 1. 87 (contrast dixit h velle), rirrn alnBrrai rtit «wi>t rA ^oOXa Aro- 


Tptwttr emrpboOy pray* the gods to avert evil X. 8. 4. 47, 1*« w rprtt ^itipit *pj« 
•inv grant me the eorUrol of him for three days X. C. 1. 3. 11. Cp. 1060, 1078. 
■. Ad indefinite eabject ol the Infinitive (riFd, ir6piirBvi) Is luudUy omitted. 
Cp. B31 b, 1980. 


938. The Doininative ia the case of the subject ; the oblique cases, 
vith the exception of the adnominal genitive (1290 ff.) and adnominal 
dative (1502), are complements of the predicate. 

939. The nominative is the case of the subject of a finite verb and 
of a predicate noun in agreement with the subject. UpoiaiK Tmp^ 
Proxenut wag present X. A. 1. 2. 3, KA*apyof ^vyas ^v Clearchua viaa 
an exile 1. 1. 9. 

a. On the nominative subject of the Infinitive, see ISTS; in eiolamations, 138B. 

940. Independent ITominatiTe. — Tlie nominnUve may be ueed independ- 
ently in citing tbe names of persons and things i rparitXri^ rV '''^' ironipAr 
nir^i- truniiHn oiiini^mjt he received the Common appeilatton of the vile, i.e. 
'iKformer* Aea. 2. OS, t4 S' butit Bto» X^io, Xfyu tV *i^f when I tay Tou, I 
meati the State D. 18. 68. Cp. 008. (The accua. is also possible.) So in lipts 
(cp.QWc): rfffij^ a&i iroiip-iJtflirfJi) ■ Btli iiinai iuBpiawini I aatume two ktndt of 
poetry : the divine and the human P. Soph. 2M d. 

941. Aaentencenuiybegin with the nominative as the Butiject of the tbotight 

In place of an oblique case ; ol li «1X<h, it ra twlanrrai ttraii xp^^'i ''' ^^aiMt 
■iro^clrai; biU OM for frieodt, if one knotes hote to treat them, uAatthallwe call 
them t X. O. 1. 14 (for ro^ li t^Um . . . rl ip^aiur tint). 

a. On the nomlnstiTe in suspense see under Anacoluthon (Index) . 

943. In referring to blmBeU in letters a mtm may use bis own name in the 
nominative, either in appoeition to the first person contained In the verb (9T6), or 
M suliject of a verb In ^le third person : ec^iurTSii^^t tifu vopd vi I, Theiiiittocle», 
have come to you T. 1. 137, ' Jtpraiipirit K>Mf" Jrtaxerxtt think* X. H. 6. 1. 31. 

a. A speaker lefening to himself in the third person usually soon reverts 
to Die fliet person (D. 18. TO). 

943. When there Is no danger of obscurity, the sabject nuty shift without 
warning ; >iJar iiip roO* Xo^dnvfir, rai i" iXSat oix iSut^ffitrtt, dW dCD^^owir 

they eaptwed out §hlp; t?te rut they were unoAIe to capture; but they (the 

ibipa) etcaped T. 7. 2C, rOr niitur ainur itairrt rl tt\t6aM^ col t1 rapa^e^^nirir 

\tar what the lawt themtelvet command and what trantgretaioat they (my oppo- 
neals) AoM cotnwicted S.GO. US. 


(htUsion of the Verb 

944. XIllpili of the Copula. — The copulative verb c&uBt is often 
omitted, especially the forms iirri and ctiri. This occurs chiefly 


a. In general or proverbial MatemenU : mr^ 4 rCxn 'at fi f>A)kw dV3>'<" 
ehance U common to all and the future cannot be ee^nnad I.l.'ia; b. in expre*- 
aiona of uecwait;, duly, etc. : iiiyicii ^XdrrtirAu it it neeestarg to be on oar 
Ifuard D. 9. 0. So witti Spa, vupit, tU6i, xp'<i', >'«'• verbals in -rfor (2162), u 
«tpaw*vriBr rait Biait we mvK tense the godt X. M. 2. 1. 28; c. witJi Tariont 
adjectives : dfm, Svrarit, rpiSvtioi, Ilcouf , oIm, ^paMtf, frw^uii ; thua, 4 V^4 
ttvXttttr troliai t&e «oul if ready to be a aereant P. Phae. 262 a, cf ni hrtptantn 
rirtpar tptlrivi if anybodg thuuld atk whether U it better X. M. I. 1. fl. 

949. Other forms of dm are leaa commonl; omitted: loirureiw troiiiat (tcfl. 
tint), ol/uii ti ml AdxTO r6rSt (_tcil. troi/ior tlnu) I am ready to auttt jruii and 
Ithink that Lachet hfre it alio ready P. I^ch. 160 a, dA <rA X«ve7P*^ (aclf. (I)i 
are you not a speech-arUerf D. 19. 260, n>£ ir iidaif (teil. ^t) tAe n^ht (mu Aal/ 
(ron« Aee. 8. 71, irota iJytii Kal oMa>«Si rpit ffoO (Mil. 4>tb) j/ou are taUtlag 
abturdly and not at all like yourself X. M. 2. 3. IG, t«i Stm /irrlrr^ x'P" 
(aetl. (rru) to the godt let our heartiett thanka be given X. C. 7. G. 72. Cp. lOil. 

946. In lively discourse the lorm of a verb Bigaifying to do, *p<dt, come, ffo, 
etc., may be omItl«d for brevity. Tlie ellipaia is oflen imcoiisciotts aiid It is 
frequently uncertain what is to be supplied to complete the thought. Thus, W 
a\>^ (tcU. iroliiiraw) i iripsi\tvffar : uAot elie did they do except plot agatntt uat 
T. 8. 89, eiSir IXXa (tcil. roii^r) 4 ri\iw r^r a^oC iwo\iirur doiug nothing eUe «x- 
eipt leaving his native city 2. 16, lnrl(3cil. ■yinrrnj.'); to what purpose 1 0. 19.267, 
Ttfil iiir rwiraii narik irxeXijv (scil. X^(u) oAotit thi» by and by 24. 167, fi^ fial ^v 

iiMovt (,ecil. M^ir*) f>oue of your Ifgendt for me f At. Veap. 1179, d\V (itk^uM) 
hiper but consider another point L. 18. 79, A iflXt *<uSpe, a-oT H) {tell, il) >al 
t6etr (teil. <|nit} ; my dear Phaedrvt whither, I beg of yon, are you going and 
tehenee do you come ? P. Phae. 227 a, ot* h xipam (_»cil. ipp^tit) j wfll yon not be 
ofl to tAe crouw ^ Ar. Nub. 671, rpit at (setL l/ctrtiu) 7onlrw I eutreat thee bg 
thy knees E. Med. 824. Cp. 1690. 

947. Kal Tavrn and that too takes up a preceding expresaion: Aiptwripavt 
■h-sdi ittiprtrt ... (at raSr' th aiVrjii AfT made tAem more savage and that too 
(otoord* htmteV P. O. 516 c ; often with concessive participles (2063) : M/wn 
J^ obi jf^^rn, nalTairra rs/i' 'A^ufau Af to3 M^nrni t^vovAe dfd not oafc /or Jfenoa 
and tAot toaaItAottpAhecam«/t-omj4rf<i«M, .Venon'i gvett-fritnd X A. 2. 4. 16. 
Cp. 1248, 2083. 

948. A vert) that may easily be supplied from the context is often omitted. 
Tbua, ib.1 p/lBa, raiiTQiMi (icil. TsitJ*) t ft i*a>r *Diw if I leant better, / tkall 
leave off &a\-agv^at I do unintentionally P. A. 20a, d/uXVai Jin-ip si roXXal (aejl. 
Ht-pAoirrai) not earing for what mo»t men care for 3<lb, 'avaMii iiir^nrs rmSrm. 
■vTui (scil. Ix«rra) tip^rtrt if you inquire about thit later, you tetll find that it 
is 10 24 b. See under Bracliylogy (Index). 


949. . A finite Terb agrees with its subject in number and person. 
Thus, roOro rl ^if^irMi iyi'rro this hill aas passed L. IS. 6S, 1 tiSou *yA p^M 

wi^nO" I^'t loAlcA I fear lett you may itiffer D. 9. 06, iw S* di-o^F'^^wrai ol dUa^ : 


Ivi^r Irarrn T«EfmXi> 6it( ^ tA« rett vote apofnK (following), tM lAoII oO 
nlnni boot affain X. A. 1. 1. 15, tA ^iiv riUt ^Xu itrir iiiA (Amc tuo ttrangen 
an frUHda of mf m F. O. 4B7 a. 

a. Tlifl verbal predicate, wben a coptdaliTO verb (SIT), maj be attzaoted 
u the nunber of a predicate nouo, whicb often stands between aobject and 
Terb : rt x'*^* tsPti), tetp wp^tfat 'Err^ ittX JicsXoCrrD (Ate pIoM loAtcA wu 
formerly dailtd Nine Waj/M T. 4. 102, irir ri lUwr rSt mx^* ll'ar rriSm Tptt% 
IA« entire fpace bUween the wiUlt wm tAree itade* X. A. 1. 4. 4. So with the 
paiticiidea of auch eopuUdve verbs : rifr ^Sorfir Siiinrf ih dyaWF 8r (for olo-ai-) 
imcAoM ^^er;Iea«urB im ^(( were a good P. Pr. 8Mc. 


Subject in th» Singular, Verb in the Plural 

95a With singular collective BubstantireB (996) denoting persons 
and with like words implying a plural, the verb may stand in the 

Thno, T* gTpaT6wtSor h o/Tfj tx'"" rir'' kyir irtx<ipavt the army retHmed 
holdlHg Agil at fault T.6.60, TOiaoraiKoiaairaiiriXil^Ay^lt^rtftxirTO pavi\a 
Iht dttt after hearing such argvmenti, choat Agaihm* Icing X. H. 8. 3. 4. So 
with jJiwXi^ lenate, iiiptt part, rXQAit muUKude, i^iMt people, S^^' Uirong. 

991. So with (mrrot : rwr iatnaH Ixainn icul iralJtwr iml ;m>qf«iTUr ifx"""^ 

itery tiuin i» maeter of hie own children andproperty X. B. L. 6. 1. 

952. If tuoTTot, itiTipot, IXXoi are added in appoiltion to a plural iubject, 
llie verb generally remains plural : iyii ti mi vi iiaKpir Xjts' iKirtpot i-wrrtlTxiaT 
hnlh yo% and I have carried on a long controversy P.Pr. SSI a. If the verb 
Follawa the apposition, it may be lingular : oCtm iiit AXXai dXXa X^tt thae say, 
MM one thing, tome another X. A. 2. 1. 16. Cp. 082. 

953. A subject in tlie singular, followed b; a clause containing the prepo- 
Bition iitri wUA, rarely takes a plural verb: 'AXxipidliit /urd MamSiw Tr-rtni 
rfropfrarrn Arilpaaar Alcibiodes and Mantithew exaped beeaute they imtc 
M«{I provided vtlth kortee X, H. 1, 1. 10. 

Svhjea in the Dual, Verb in the Plural 

954. He first peisoD dual agreea in form with the first person plural (462). 

955. A dual subject may take a plural verb : UtyotftStyri irpoaiTptjmv 
iio ytavuTKu two yovtks ran up to Xetiophon X. A. 4. 3. 10. In the 
orators the dual verb is almost always used. 

99C The dual and plural verb may alternate; atperir dXA-ifr rt col titrpi- 
{ura the two aoolB have made their choice and put U into effect P. Pbae. 


957. The neuter dual may be followed by the dual, theplntal, orthe. 
<«tb(AlM,SOD, M4W). 


Stdtject in the Plural, Verb in the Singidar 

9sa A neuter plural subject is regarded as a collective (996), and 
has its verb in the singular: KaX» V ''<> "^y^ '^ aacrificea toert 
pn>}>Uious X. A. 4. 3. 19. 

N. — 'I'he iieuier plural seems to have been orJftimUlj' in part Identical in 
form with the feiiiinine sin^lar in a, and to have had a oollecttve meaning. 

959. A plural verb may be used when stress is laid on the fact 
that the neuter plural subject is composed of persons or of several 
parts: ra tc\>) tuiv AaKcSai/ioctW avrov fiiTrffiij/av the JjOiCedaemoniaa 
magistrates destjKUched him T. 4. 88, ^vtpa ^traf koI iTinuv koi iy9p<iviav 
'xyiTToXXd vtany traces both of horses and of men toere plain X.A.I, 7. 17. 

a. With the abovi! exception Attic regularlf uses the siiigular verb. Homer 
lueB the singular three times as often as the pluml, and the plural lets freqneDll; 
with neuter adjectives and pronouns than with subHtantives. In some cases 
(B I^-'i) the metre docidea the choice. 

960. Folloninf; the construction of Amni raCro, we find Siiar Tuiha when it 
hnd brm thug decided X. A. 4.1. IS, Mid also Sierra TaSra X. H.3.2. 1». See 
S!07S a. 

961. Pindaric Conttruetion. A maacnltne or feminine pinral sahject occa- 
sionally is lined witli ivri, l)y, 7(7nTai, aa : tan tal it rah IXXaii rdXwiv ipx""^ 
ri «al i^ittt there are in tin other cities too rulers and populace P. R.402 e. 'i'he 
verh uaiially precedes, and the Bubject Is Btill undetermined ; hence the plural 
Is added as an aftertboughL (Cp. Shakesp, " far behind his wortti | romex all 
Che praises.") In Greek poetry this construction Is rarely used with other verbs. 
On fortr oT, see 21J1S. 

a- 9' was originally pluni (4M e. D), and Heems to survive la that lue. 

Subject in the Plural, Verb in the Dual 

963. A pltiral subject may take a dual verb when the subject is a 
pair or two pairs : al, Tinnk Spo^tri^v the span of mares ran <!' 392. 

a. This is common when S6e, i/i^u, du^ipw are used with a plaral subject: 
tie iriptt xpiMrt\Mm 'A^tSi JicXry''^* m4 tdu» iidxtr tvn men eotning to Aeiit 
urged him not to fight T. h. R9. But even witli these words the plaral is pre- 
ferred. The neuter plural with S6o rarely takes the dual verb (F. Tim. Me). 


963. (I) When the subjects are different individuals or things and 
stand in the third person 

964. With two mbjeots In the tinKular, the verb may be dual or plnntl : 

CritUu and Alcibiadft were able to keep control of their i^petitea by tht hrlp 


o/Uiexantpt« X. H. 1.2.24, Ed^/t^Jav mI Zo^cX^f d^j;iwKii h Kipnpar irrpi- 
TMwar on their am'cal fn Coregra Enrjimedon and Sophoclee proceeded to make 
m aUaek T. i. 46. 

965. In Homer the verb maj intervene between the Bubjecta (Alemaitte 
Conttrvetian') : tit 'Kxiporra Hvpi<ti\eyiSar rt fifetinr Kiiidrtit Tt PgriphUnetium 
and Cocftiu fime into Acheron t 613. 

966. The verb may agree nlth the ueaieat or most important of tiro or more 
mbjecta. The verb may be placed 

a. Before both SUbjecta ; i|jc( ^r h Gtpnyipat cot i 'EfiixHrrDi di Aiafitr rol 
V«w''iM< Thertagorat and Execeetua came to Letbot and aettled there I). 28. 143. 

b. After the first subject : S tc noXi/iapxot ^h mi 'A>ti)iarrtt Hoi Nijn)jnrat 
nl £XAm Ttx/t Jt32«inarehu( eanM and Adimantua and NiceratUM and certain 
oOurt F. R. 32T b, ^\X*at ^x"' "^ '^ "^ '^V Fhaliniu and hit eompanionM 
iqiaHed X.A.2. 2. 1. 

C. After both subjects : ri PoiAivriipuiw col i S^im wapaparai the tenate and 

the pMpIe are ditregarded Aea. 3. 260. (Cp. Sb&keap. " my miatrew and har 
liMeT Bt^a.") 

967. (11) With Beveral subjects referring to different perBons the 
verb is in tne plural ; in the Jiral person, if one of the subjects is first 
person; in the second person, if the snbiecta are second aud third 
person : ifuii Si xoi iyui toSc Aryoficr but you and I nay this P. L. 661 b, 
iffuTt au. oiS( ovK oAAi^r Bji rivn huvaXfLiSa. ifSijv jljkiv we and Ihese men 
could not sing any other song 666 d, ov tni pivos ovSi ot trot ^'\oi irpaiTM 
Tavnir S6(av iir^tri not you alone nor your friends are the fir A who have 
held this opinion 888 b. 

968. But (he verb may be singular if It refers to the nearer or more tanportaitt 
or more emphatic subject ; wiptifu xaHyi nal that ^pvtl^Kot tal IlaXviiiidT'/li Ian 
praent and lo are Phri/niacut here and Polyeratei X. A. 7. 2. 29. 

969. The verb may agree in person with the nearer or more important snb- 
Ject: rirtyifi'KKkiiriltaHiiitit foryoiiareaOreekandsoareuie X. A.2, 1. 16. 

970. With subjects connected by the disjunctives v or, ^ — j eiAer — or, 
»T« — »6r< neither — nor, the verb agrees In number with the nearer subject 
when each subject is taken by itself : alrt ab otrr ir iXKn sMeli JAhit' irrurtit 
atither jrou nor anybody else could reply X. M. 4. 4. 7. 

971. When the subjects are taken together, the plural occurs : a Aq/w^<3r i 
BimwtII^ fxowi tS» ^^r vhat Demophon or Therippides have o/ my property 
D. ST. 12. This is unosual. 

973. When q than unites two rabjects, If the verb follows j, it agrees with 

the second aubject; rtxn <U1 pikTun i V)fuTt 4fii3r airur hifuWfuea /orfun« 

aluagatakubetttrcaTeofusthantBtdo o/ouraeives D.4.12. 

973. A predicate substantive agrees with ita subject in case: 
tLXriaStp fyr arper^yoi MUtiades too* a general. 


974. A predicate substantive ma; agree in gender and Dumber 
with its subject ; but this is often impossible: ry^ii r ji Cfirw irpllyfuira 
the affdira of mortals are chance Trag. fiag. p. 782, «vit' ^ 'Akiiavipos 
Alexander was everything J). 23. 120. 

975. A predicate substantive or adjective agrees with the sabject of tbe 
gOTemlng verb when the subject of the inSnitlva la omitted because tt is tbe 
same as that of the governing verb (837): nix 4;kiXo7tJom AcXirrai Ifictir 1 ghall 
not admit that I Aove come uninvited P. S. 1T< d, ttwtp dfuO^ur A(Mcp« elm if 
indeed ue claim to be free X. C. 6. 1. 4. 

On the agreement of demonatratiTO and relative pronouns with a 
predicate substantive, see 1239, 2602 e. 


9TS. Concord. — An appositive (916) agrees in case with the word 
it describes ; koAoki, Smvij 6r)p(if no* luylarg p\a0v to a flaUerer, a ler- 
rt&te beast aiid a very great source of injury P. Phae. 240 b. An 
appositive also agrees in case with. the pronoun contained in a verb: 

TaAtfv/3ios, rjKia, Aavaihay {nrnpir^ I, TaUhybius, have COTM, tM Sei-VClnl 

0/ the Danafds E. Hec. 503. (Jp. 942. 

977. An appositive to a poBWssive pronoun stands In the genitive, in 
agreement with the personal prononn implied in the possessive : ri* tpir 
(— iltoB') rsS raXaiTiipav ffUt the life of me, weteh^d one Ar. Pint. 88, t* i/ti- 
T(/i' (= tfiflr) atrdf niuiiaSt you toUI regain your own Dr4.7. Cp. 1200. S.b, 

978. An ^>posttlve Id the genitive may follow an adjective equivalent to a 
genitive: 'A^nut (_=' kSTirui) flv, riXcui t^i luylrrift being an Athenian, a 
eittMen oj the greaUtt city P. A. 26 d. 

979. Agreement in number between the appositive and its noan is unneces- 
sary and oft«n impossible 1 B^^u, riXii irrvytlTur Thebea, a neighboHriag city 
Aes. 8. 138. So with lUpa In poetry : -fd/ioi, xpo'^'' 'AfipeStrqt tOpa, auariaj/e, 
tifl of golden Aphrodite Theognis 1203. 

980. An appositive to two Hubstantives la dual or plural : Sifpai col ^ipot, 
li4ptM i<iiifio6\ii) daring and fear, bno unintelligent eountellort P. Tim. 99d, urwat 
vAivt T(, xipiai rvfttitirai tleep and toil, eupreme eonepiraton A. Eum. 127. 

9SL Pirtitive Apposition (irx^fta Kod* Skw ko! /iumc, conatrw4ion of 
the whole and part). The parts are represented by the appositives, 
which stand in the same case as the whole, which is placed first to 
show the subject or object of the sentence : ru o&u, 1) piy ds iiaxapm 
I'^crovf , ^ S' lit raprapov two roads, the one to the lalanda of the Steal, 
the other to Tartarus P. 0. 524 a {diatributive apposition). The apposi- 
tives are generally in the nominative (o fur, ^ «■' ; oi fiAi, at Ss), rarely 
in the aoouaative. 



1. 11w whole tOKJ stand In the singular : Xiytrat if'ix^ 4 t>^' '""t (x*"> 4 
KlfMar; tBith regari to the $oitl, it One laid to have iatelltgenet, tht Other fottft 

902. To the wotd denotdng the whole the appositive may be a 
collective singular (atfjunclive apposition) r oEtm /tJr iEUot SXXa. Xiyti 
theie toy, aome one thing, some another X. A.2. 1. 16(cp. ^pwrov 8< dXXoc 

oUo P. Charm. 153 C), ot trrpaTijyoi ^paviayi tKoOTiK liirtAoyiftraro eOcA 

0/ fhe generals defend&l himself b)-iefly X. H. 1. 7. 5. Cp. 952. 

963. The apposiUon may be limited to one or more parts : n<\twwriiviM at 
gj (iinuxx fi ii« M^n tum-lhtrde of the Petoponneeians and the alliet T. 9. 47. 
Often with participles : («1 'AP^mmi} iyfiii4reitr»r jtai reCSt taS fraut, ^dffnorro 
W T^tv^iiTi^ vdXu jiitffAu lAe ^tAtnldiu befAouiiAl tKemeelvee ofthie verse tOO, 
U( old m«n saving Mat 11 had been uttered long before T. 2. 54. 

9H. In pardtive'apposltion emphasis is laid on the mhale, which is slated 
*t once M the subject or object of the sentence. In tlie genitive ot the divided 
«liole(lS00)emphau8is1aldon the parts; thus, TwrTi\(uraI /i^rTupamCrroi, oJ 
N litfiMpartOrru, »l H ipioTOKpartirriu of etatet tome are deipotic, other* demo- 
craHC, othert arMoeratte P. R. SS8 d. 

965. Cooabiictlon of the Whole and Fart In Foetrr. — In Homar and 
later poeta a verb may take two objects, one denoting tbe person, the other the 
pan especially aSected by the action ; rir t' Ao^t rXljt' aix^ia him he »mote 
(■ Ihe neck vilth hU saord A 240, ^ at rUat rl^<i the v/ill math thv feet r 856. 
Bm the accusative at the pan, often explained as an appositive, was an external 
object (1654 b) that became an accusative ot respect (1801 a). Ta'AxouS"'!' f^a 
*tht tiifieX iKiarif ixpSl^ and i?ieeet mightj/ etrength In (A« Aearl of each of the 
AAatani A 11, hdory is a partitive i^jpoBitive, co/ifltl 1" l<x^ dative and gram- 
BuUcally independent of 'Ax<ua£rti'. The construction is very lare in prose : 
lA ilfrtr aAr&t iptri) w»faye»aiiilni raXt ^uxotf if virtue it imparted in the touU 
of their ton* P. I^h. 190 b. 

98L AttributlTe AppMiOan. — A substantive may be used aa ac 
attributive to another substantive. This is common with substan- 
tives denoting occupation, condition, or age (usually with iv^p, 3y6pi»- 
»ot,yOT^; iriip ^wp a pidilic speaker, Syriprvpawos a(Uspot,xptaPvnu 
ir$ptwn old men, ypav; yvirq an oid woman. So also weAratmu ^p^Ktt 
Thracian targeteen X. A. 1. 2. 9, SXtSpot iSaKt&iiiv a scoundrel of a Mace- 
donian D. 9. 31, *EXA^ (far 'EAAiji'tKot), as oi *EAAi}Mt reXrairrai the 
Qrrek targeteera X. A. 6. 5. 26. 

•■ In standard proee 'EXX^r is need as an adjective only of persons (In poetry 
also of things). 

b. The addition of Mip often implies raspeoti iripet rrpari^ui fellow tot- 
dlert X.A. 1. S. 8, J irtptt StmrToi Jurymen, gentlemen of the jury D. 27. 1. 
(Cp. ^bemcM.) Tlie addition of ittpvwot often implies contempt : intpuwot 7ifi 
• i*nltni/ faiow Am. 8. IM. 

c Hanj of the mbetantlTes thai qnallfled by an attributive subatanUve were 
Mi^inaUr pattioiplea, as yipur irip an old man P. hja. 3S8 b. 


967. Descriptive Apposition. — Here the appositire describes some- 
thing definite that has just been mentioned: ^ ^fixripa. s^!Xis, ^ K<xr4 
ta-fa^vvri tSiv 'BAAnvuf our city, the common refuge of the Greeks Aes. 

98a ExpUiutory Appoaititm. — Here the appoaitive explains a 
general or vague statement : tovtov ri/iipM, ly wpvravtitf oir^fftav I 
propose this aa the peaalti/, mainleiMnce in the Pryianeum P. A. 37 a, 
/uyivrav kokov iiraAAu-^, irov^pid^ delicerance from the greatest of evils, 
vice P. G. 478 d. So in geographical statemente : Kiivpov utavt . . . i% 
Haipoi/ she came to Cyprus, to F^phoa 6 362 ; cp. k imtpuis, Bouw to the 
territory of llie Dorians in which Boeum lies X. 1- 107. 

989. In Homer the Hubaumtivail article at the beginning of & gentenCQ mHJ 
be followed by nn appoaitive noun at or near the end 1 4 V Hkovii i/ia rouri yvrii 
titr but ghe, the vioman, w.nt unrnillingly with them A 348. 

990. Toih-a, aih-i roth-o, a^i, iKtiro ofUu introdocB emphitUcaUy a followbig 
■ubstantive (or tin equivalent, 008): ittini ttpSalrtir iV7(iTiii, tI)* ^Sontr this 
(fi»me\y) pleasure U regarda as gain P.R.eOCb. Cp. 1248. 

991. Appoiitlon to ■ Sentence. — A noun in the nominatiTe or 
accusative may stand in appositioD to the action expressed by a 
vhole sentence or by some part of it. 

>. The ftpposittve is nominative when a nnmtnative precedes: iiMvar- Uar^ 
rpt^taaa I vat tipsy, a mffleient exe.use Philemon (Com. frag. 2. 6.31). 

b. The appositive Is accusative, and states a reason, result, intention, effect, 
or the like : fibfitt diri wipyev, Xirfpir SXtSpar AoUl hurl thee from the boUIe- 
menl, a grieuous death T35, 'EXir^i m-inifitt, Ho^Xev Mr^* rixptt 
let us slay Helen and thus ca^use a sore grief to Heiietaut K. Or. 1 105, tMoifw- 
rg(T|i, luvSir iitlarwr \iyar blest be thou — a return fur thg most loelcome lidtngs 
E. El. 231. 

N. — The appodtive accusative is often co^ate (1503 f.): ipit BdpvrWi, 
dtXTTOf Ihtx* thott beholdest Eurystluus, an unexpected sight E. Heiacl. 930. 

992. An effect or result may be denoted by an appositivs in other cases: 
twiftSr rpoaitirBal fioi lout /lifun fri Tirdy me need, il seems. Some further teonls 
to act ^ a spell P. L. 903 b, 

993. From the construction In 691 b arose many adverbial accnsativfs 
(1606 S.) such AS x^P"" on account of, rp6<liaair (11 pretence, iwpedr gratis; ta 
St rit St Tpiiwr iwl nfiwl tpfyaiTo . , . x^P" 'Efropot ahorver of the TrujaM 
ntshtd at the tAfp* as a favour to Hector {for Hector's take) 744. 

994. Manv neuter words are used in apposition to a sentence or 
clause, which they usually precede. Such are ifi^ortpov, ifi^oryta 
both, TO Scti'oraTov the most dreadful thing, Svoiv $&.Tipov or O&Ttpa. one 
or the other, to ivavriav the contrary, to kc^oAjuov th£ ctiief point, to Xtyo- 
ixtvov as the saying is, oiScrtpor neither thing, o^futov hi sign, ruc^^piof 
St evidence, to nAnmuw the last thing, to r^ wap<niuat as the proverb 


r«iit, auTo rmro this very thing, nifn-a rovro this same, thing. Thus, 

Tim alii^ortpa Tavra, Koi ctHvus r^ iroXu fccu TrkoiKTunit tkose V>ho QVe both 
logal to the Utate and rich U. 18. 171, drctv on Sti Svoiy Sartpov, ^ Kiivovt 
it OXiMy fi^ autdy 17 avrov iy iioKiSoyi^ he said that one of tioo things 
was necessary — either that they should not live at Olynthus or lie him- 
lelf in Macedon 9. 11, to Sc (liyurrov, iroAc/uw ivr tlprprrji ^ovrif and 
tcW i> tcorat of all, liaving tear instead of peace T. 2. 65, AXX' 1;, ri 
Xtyofurmi, Karony iofiT^ ^ko/uv ; but have we come ' q/ter a feast ' as the 
saging is f V. G. 447 a, toSto avro to toS 'Oiijjpov in these very words of 
Homer P. A. 34 d. 

993. Very commnn are Introductory relative clanaes forming a nomlnatiTe 
predicate ol the sentence that follows : i St rirrtir tariraTer but what is moM 
(emWg o/all L. 30. 29. irrl la regnUrly omitted (944). Such relative clauses are 
loUowed by an independent sentence, a clause wllli STt,bj trt -yip, trar, Srar-Ydp, 
ri. Similarly t4 8" ((Txaror irdrr«», Sti but what U WOTtt o/ all P.Ph.66d,e(c 


996. CollectiTe Slngalar. — A noun in the singular may denote a 
number of persons or things : 6 M^Sck the Medes T. 1. 69, to 'EKk-qyiKov 
the Greeks 1. 1, to fiappaftiKov the barbarians 7. 29, ^ TcXlvOtn tlie bricks 
3. 20, rrrov ly(ti> tts )(iX!av I have abntU a lliottsand horse X. C. 4. 6. 2, 
fiiip^ dmris ten. tltousand heavy armed X. A. 1.7. 10. On the plural 
verb with collectives, see 950. Cp. 1024, 1044. 

a. So trith the neuter participle : tA iMxi/urar almost = ol paxliiwoi the <^)m- 
hntanu T. 4. 00. 

b. The name of a nation with the article may denote one peraon as the 
npreaenUtive (King, etc.) of a class : i ULaxtiiir the Macedonian (Philip) D. 7.6. 

997. The inhabitants of a place may tie implied in the name o( the place : 
AirflM ir^rrif poiAifSirra laU rpi rsO wo\4iiav Lesboi revolted, hating wished to 
do $0 even before the oar T. S. 2. 

990. IHstrflmtiTG Singular. — The singular of abstract nouns may 
be used distributively (rarely with concrete substantives) ; Suot Sikouk 
i-fiyoyro iv ru tavriy ^up all who proved themselves jjist in their lives 
P.A41a,Sia'4<M>oi t5v rpoirov different 'n charat^er T. 8.96. The dis- 
tributive plural (10fl4) is more common than the distributive singular : 
cp. ytayiu rat o^ivk youtJis in appearance L. 10. 29 with ^ScTs t^v oipty 
jieasing in appearance V. R. 452 b. 

999. Dual. — The dual is chiefly employed o( two pemons or things which, 
by nature or asaociation, (onn a pair ; i^6a.\iiii the eyes (both eyes), x*'P* the 
Anniif, Ittw a span of homes. Tbe addition of d/^w both indicates tjiat the two 
Ihin^ belong together ; ifio emptiiisizes the immber. Both i/t^ and ii!o were 
earlji used with the plural. The dual died out in the living speech of Attica by 
300 B.C. Aeolic has nn dual, and Ionic lo«t it very early. In Horn, the dual li 
used freely, and oft«n In conjunction with tbe plural. 


lOOa Ploral. — The plaial of proper names, of materiaUi, and of 
abetracta is ased to denote a olaas, (1) of proper names : 9na^ taM 
like Theaewi P. Th. 169 b. (2) of nuilerialt : here the plural denotes 
the parts, the different kinds of a thing, a mass, etc. : to^ boa Hdt 
3. 78, Tcvpoi, KplSai wheat, barley X. A. 4. 5. 26, dm vrinet 4. 4. 9, Kpia 
meat Ar. Ran. 663 {xpais piece of meat), ^kun hot days T. 7. 87, 
6Ua timber T.7.25. (3) of abstracts: here the plural refera to the 
single kinds, cases, occasions, manifestations of the idea exprefised 
1:^ the abstract substantive ; or is referred to several persons : 

rai/uxrwai misunderttandings X. K. 2. 6. 6, OaXrq degrees of heat 
M. 1. 4. 13. Used in the plural, abstract nouns may become con- 
crete, as Ta^' funeral T. 2. 34 (ra^^ sepulture), (v^pocnvtu g<ood cheer 
X. C, 7. 2. 28 (ew-^pocnJn) wiirfA), ^apiTtt proofs of good toiU, preaentt 
D. 8. 63, (iJFouu cnaes o/ benevolence, presenis D. 8. 26. 

a. Hao; concrete sabstaQtlvea are commonly UMd only In the plnral: 
WXiu gate, Sipat door, ri, 'OMnria (Ae Olympic /etttval; and tn poetry tiifwert 
Aouw, (M^ani ladder, Mm-pa bed; cp. 1006. 

b. The plutaJ, especially in poeliy, ma; coireapond to the Engliah indeflnite 
sing;ulari tirl ravsl by ihip. 

1001. In Homer the plural denotes the variouH tnrma In which a quality U 
manifsated : Ttmiiiwai the artt of the carpenter 1 2B0. In poetry, often of feel- 
ings, emotiona, etc. : /larlai (attacks of) madneei A. Pr. 879. 

1002. iMtiitt (jutSirtt) denotes clasaes of men, states, nations (D. 6. IS). 

1003. The neuter plural is often used even in reference to a single 
idea or thought in order to represent it in its entirety or in its de- 
tails, as T& i\ti6!i the truth. This is very common vritn neuter pro- 
nouns: i}(€ipot^iiow Si' ravm yip ^rurrdti-riv but I waved my arms, 
for I knew how to do this X. S. 2. 19, St^ rax<a>v quickly P. A. 32 d. 

«. Thucjdldea ia fond of the neuter plural of verbal adjectives naed im- 
petsonall; : ^ir^fimrrB ro^tiarria ilwai they voted that H tool n«eeMarit to vuke 
tear T. 1. 88, iMwara. fr it was impo$atble 4. 1. Cp. 1062. 

loot. Dlatributlve PlnnQ. — Abstract substantives are often used 
distributively in the plural : o-Iyu rw rcon-uw wapi wpetrfivripaif 
the thence of the younger men tn the preaenee of Uteir elders P. B. 426 a 

1009. Names of towns and parts of the body are sometimes plural : 
'hS^vax Atfiens, B^^ Thebes, vtt/^ and oruitn breosA (chiefly poetic). 
The name of the inhabitants is often used for the name <^ a city : 
AcA^' D. 5. 26. 

1006. Floral of Majesty (poetic). — The plural may be used to lend 
dignity: dpavt*. throne S. Ant. 1041, aic^Trrpa. scepter A. Ag. 1266, fia/iara 
dwelling t6; mu&ra favourite in prose (only in the plural form). 

lOOT. Here belongs the allusive plural by which one person is 
alluded to in the plural number : SoramW OayaToun by the death of 


our lord A. Gh. B2, nStwn rpis rwv ^tXraruv 7 (ClTtaemnestca) Ka»- 
ing ntffered at the haada of lay dearett onea (Oreates) A. Eum. 100. 

lOOa Pbml of Modesty. — A speaker in referring to himaelf may 
UBS the first person plnial as a modest form of statement. Id 
prose, of an author : tyyoid voff ^tiiy iyhtro the reflection once occurred 
to me X. C. 1. 1. 1. In tragedy, often with interchange of plural and 
aiagular : cl mtkuofiarfia fii) iiaBtlv a, jSouXo^uu if J (Oreusa) am pr^ 
MHted from teaming what I wish E. Ion 391, Ucrevofwr ifu^ irii* 
yotuiSa . . . arpatneiTyatr I entreat thee, aa I graxp &y beard E. H. F. 
1206. See 1009. 

1009. In tragedy, if a voman, speaking of herself, uses the plural 
rerb (1008), an adjective or participle, in agreement with the subject, 

is feminine singular or masculine plural; ^un- fiaprop6tuif$a, Spiov . 
a Spov oi /SouXopu I call the sun to wit-aeM, that I am acting againtt 
my mli E H. F. 868, ipxtSfuv ^/uU ol wpoOy^irKorrt^ vJfitr U i* enough 
Oiat I (Alcestis) die t'n thy stead E. Ale 383. 

1010. *lri, ^ipt, iyt ma^ Iw need as stereotyped formulas, without regard 
to lb« number of persona addressed : ttwi iim, iJ 'Ztinparit rt nU t^tt ol IXXm 
idlmt, Soerau* and Iht rat of you F. £u.2BSb. 

1011. One peiaon may be addressed aa the representative of two or more wbo 
tn pT c s o Dt, or of bis family : 'irrlne, oS rut icrt* . . . /laff' tiiur Soiwrfat 
AnUnout, itistnno uitt pouibU to /east iallh j/oa fi SIO, w rinor. If ripwrtf ; 
Mf ehadrt», are ye here t S. 0. C. 1103. So in draoiatio poetry, tfae coiyphaeDS 
■uy be rc^farded as the representMlTe of the whole chorus, as w {Aw, i>4 
■ Mn rlt (JM> Urttngen (addressed to the whole choms) do not ask (the sln- 
gulac of the coryphaeus) t»e who lam 8. 0. C. 207. 

1012. Greek writers often shift from a particular t« a general statement and 
itee ttraa, thus permltUog a free transition from singular to plural, and from 
ploial to singular] aUi rirt cvyx"^* ^ riptnos- iwStnr/pBii yifi aftri rararo- 
rifa sirals ainrrai x^Ait Rol even then does the degpot rejoice with the rest ; for 
Ounors theyartinwa»t, the more submissive he thinks to find them X. Hi. 5.4, 


1013. Crastnctian according to the Sense (026 a). —The real, not Uie 
gmnmatical, gender often determines the agreement: u ^JXrar', w rtfiiasi 
Tiintltli Tixmit O dearest, O grfatlg honoured child E. Tro. 735 (tliis use of the 
■tlributiTe adjective is poetical), ri /itipiKia rpii dX\i}Xoui JiaXryjfient the touths 
coiztrtlnjf with one another P. Lach. 180e, raSr' tXtyir i Aroii^i wni n^aX4t 
V{fXi|Xi>«^ this AaiKeless filltyw spoke thus when he eaToe out D. 21. 117. 

1014. So In perlphtases^ a Tti\tiiAx'>» f* rar/pa Itiir mightf lelemaekus, 
Ifasinff at Us foAer r 476, ri W rSr rptrpirrfyar iltO' • • • x'ip"^" ^fl tsslmr 
roiJif ne the elders delighting tn their ^ort P. L. 667 d. 

1015. Hie masculine is used for person In general : eit dr^ftroi rlrratrsf 
tMsm, atn 'x<"v' ^^ riitra unft^fful herself, she %fiU not endure that others 

1= Coo^^lc 


bear cAOdren E. Aud. 712, irirapot ir g (SiXrlu^ tiff i in)p rfT 4 Tvn) wAfel 
«Mr 0/ lAt two it superior, lehether (Ae man or the vomaa X.0. 7.27. So «l 
70M^ pareaU, ol s-oite ^ilJren. See 10&5. 

See also 1009, 1060. 


iGLd. T(f or irSf may be used in the drama with the second per- 
son of the imperative : Itv tk, dtrdyvcAAi yo, one of you, amiOnitce 

100.7. The second person singular is used to designate an imagi- 
nary person, as in proverbs : ^x^ imiuXmi rqt o-cavrou core for tky. 
own »ovl Men. Sent. 551, and in such phrases as tIScs iv you tootdd 
have seen (1784 a), ityrjmuo Sv you might think, as credideris (18^). 

t. Hdt. OBes the Kcand person In directions to travellers (2, 30). 

See also 942. 


ICOB. Adjectives modify substantives (inclnding words need suh- 
Btantively, d08), and substantive pronouns. Adjectives are either 
attra>utive (912) or predicate (910). 

1019. The eqaivftlents of an adjective are : a participle (ol rapiwra rgXiru 
the tUiiem ako are present); a noun In appoHition (A^fiwrMnrf i fr^up Demot- 
thene* the orator, i.e. not AtiimaSir^j i irrf»Ttrvii, ifuii nl 'ABifTaiai fou Mhe- 
tttaoM) ; an oblique case (ot^swi xpSffoC a croioa of gold, rflt afr$i ymiiuit ty<i 
I am tiieminded) ; an obliqae <!aBe with a prepodtlon (oI iw rg 'AvI^ 'JXri the 
eU(e* in Alia); an adverb (ol rdXai the anelente). (Furthermore, a cUme In a 
coinplez aentenoe : ri rtlxtvm, t 4' nh-Mi, olpabri (A«y captured the forirrts 
which HNU there; cp. 2642.) 

loao. Concorl — An adjective agrees with its substantive in 
gender, number, and case. This holds true also of the article, ad- 
jective pronouns, and participles : thus, A. Attributive: & Sucotat ir^ 
tke jutt man, roS &Mauni dvSpof, ru &kiuu jvSpc, oi itKaun SfSfHii etc., 
Dvroc i iy^fi this ntdn, rovrou rcSi AvipOi, etc., ^ ^tAoura tfvyiinjp the 
loving daughter. B. iVedicoCe.' mAos o dywv the ;)riz« ia glorious, 
ravr iorly ik^ these things are true, al ipumi Soxmiaju. cfrai ^uruc 
t?te natures whuA seem to be be^ X. M. 4. 1. 3. 

On the f^reement of demonstrative pronouns used adjectively with 
a predicate substantive, see 1239. For relative pronouns, see 2601. 


lOU. An attributive adjective (or participle) generallv with tlie 
article, often dispenses with its substantive, and thus itself acquins 
the value of a sumtantive. 



a- Thia occurs wbeii Uie aubstantlve may be supplisd from the context ; 
wtien It is a general notion ; or when it Ib omitt.ed In common expressions of ft 
detinite characlfr, when the ellipela [^ consdouB. 

1022. Maacaline or feminine, when the substantive is a person ; i Ilnut the 
juM man, Siicaiot a juKt man, ol 'A^qKiut the Aiheniant, ol roXXol the ntanp, 
the rabble, ol iXlym the oligarchical party, tl ^vU^roi all vsho will, i) jcoXi} the 
brauli/ul teomaa, 4 rtniva (A«>»v(Aer (poet., R. Ale. 1<)7), iicK\tiaiAlevf<u jeomen 
in OMeiitbly. 

1023. Neuter, when the sabBtantive idea Ib thing fn general : ri iyae6r the 
(highest) iTooff 1'. R.50«b (but rd iyaSd good thing* L. 12.33), ri <lXq«/i truth 
P. G. 47.'! b, tA i[«i4f the commonweallh Ant. 8. p. 3, rb ia6itmy the fatvrt Am. 
3. IG6, ri \tyiiunr aa the aaying it T. T. 68, d^t /iicar iiittpft about mid-daf 
X. A.l. 4. 1, iwlraUovera mide apace T. 1.18. 

1024. In wonta denoting a. collection (096) of peraons or facta : ri inr-iKoer 
the eabjeeU T.6.«D, t4 pa/>papix6t the barbarian force X.A. 1.2. 1, t4 iumui- 
XUiAr the allied forces T.i. TT (and many words In -k6b), tA 'EXXijnni Greek 
history T. I. tIT ; and in worila denoting /eativals (rd 'OXii/iTia (Ae Olympian 
Samea X. El. 7. 4. 2B). 

1025. With participles, especiailr la Thucydldee : ri dpyi^/um r^t ipy^t 
thrir angry feeling* T.:!. SO, r^t iriXtwi ri rt^^Mr the dignity of the State 2.68. 
The action of tlie verb is here represented as taking place under particular 
drciuDstances or at a particular time. These partici|d«e aro not dead abatrao- 
tiuiis, but abstract qualities in action. 

1026. A substantivized atljeotive may appear in the neuter plural 
as well as in the ueuter singular: ra Si^w toC Ktpdrot the right of the 
mug X, A. 1. 8. 4, r^ SiXafiTvos to voXXa the greater part of Salamia 
T. 2. 94, iwi xXfioToi- ArOpiawtav to the greatest part of ma-nkind 1. 1, 
h roCro Sucmixuit to tliis degree of misfoHun^ 7. 86 (cp. 1325). 

s. On the construction of r^t 7qt 4 'oU^ the greater part of the land T. 
2.50, see 1313. 

1027. In common expressions a definite noun is often implied 
(.such as ^iiipa daij, o8o$ may, )(tip hand). 

A. Masculine : icdXvDt gulf, & 'linim the Ionian gulf T. 6. 34, arpardt force, 
i »j4t the land force 1. 47 

b. Feminine : -yfj loitd (x*** country) — iri rgt iaurHtflrom their own country 
T. I.Io; Quf 4 'EA\iu oiie" ii pipfiapoi neither Greece nor barbaric land D.9. 27; 
■f*A|U| judgnenl : card t)|v ^fiifr according to my opinion Ar. Eccl. I&3, it r^i 
RJiiitfilt according to the prevailinf opinion X.A. 0. 1. 18; 6Cki| luit: ip^uiiir Karii- 
yopoSrrts bringing an ncciiaation tn a caae where there it no defence P.A.lSc; 
i||i^ d(ty : riir iartfalir the next day X. C. 1.2. 11, rg rpartpaif the day before 
L 18.22; ajpot wing: tIi eiimv^t the lowing T. 4. 96 ; ^tpit part: tUarii 
a nnratieth 6. 5* ; t>otpa portion : 4 -rt-rpaiUn, (1. 10. 81) or 4 AiiapiJrtt (D. 18.206) 
the allotted portion, detliny ; raO* ahip : 4 rpi^piit the ship with three t>anki of 
onrt; Hit way: tUtl^ by Ike ttraighl load P.L. 710ft, r^* roxltfrv by the 


aAofteit w^ Z. A. 1. 3. 14 ; t^*i| art : /utvuij the art of mutte P. L. OSS k : 
Xf(p hand: ir ttii* on the Tight luud X. A. 1, 5. 1, ii ipirrifAt on the left 
1. 8. 3) +<|^ oole; T^r itarrlir SUlf iOtro he voted in oppoiition to tlitiiu 

1028. The oonwzt oftan detennlnes the Hubstimtive to be supplied : nv- 
rat iiritpaior bt iySyit (rXry'i) ralniir (Asy thouted, tAof he had dealt him 
(too, lOeS) /eur blows X. A. 6. 8. 12, rplt riXawra cal x^iii {tpaxM*} tkne 

talent* an4 a (Aoutund drachmas D. 27. 84; cp. a dollar and ttoenCy (ceata). 
Cp. 1572, 

1029. From such substantivized adjectires arose manj preposi- 
tional and adverbial expressions of wliose source the Greeks them- 
selves had probably lost sight. Many of these seem to be analt^es 
of phrases once containing 48os : t^i- oXXok yjnjtftittu^t you vote to no 
purpose D. 19. 181 (i.e. the toay leading eUewliere than the goalj, 
ira T^ tfrnrifi al the very beginning T. 7. 43, 4™ T7S Unjv on on 
equtUity 1. 15, ii itttyrim from an <q^x>site diredioti, facing 7. 44. 


1030. An attributive adjective belonging to more than one sub- 
stantive agrees with the nearest : r6v kojU)' itdyafav ^S^ Kot yvnum 
ei&uuova etvai ^iffu the perfect man and woman are happy I maintain 
P. G. 470e. In some cases it is repeated with each substantive 
(often for emphasis) : tv aiofi.' i)^av koI ijiuxh" f*"' having one body and 
one aout D. 19. 227. 

1031. But occasionally the adjective agrees with the more Important mibetan- 

tlve : i ely>Mi Sinrtu iwri 6^\ait cnl it/utt^Xior 'irrmtit the aiffluM U word 

Mwn and a half AttU obolt X. A. 1. G. 6. 

1033. Of two adjectives with one substantive, one may stand in 
closer relation to the substantive, while the other qualifies the ex- 
pression thus formed : roAtt ipvhV f^r^'? ^ large deaerted-eity X. A. 

1033. If one substantive has several attributive adjectives, these 
are sometimes added without a conjunction (by Asyndeton) : xpii 
ipraa, ipi^aa, ypipva flesh of lambs, kids, sioine JC. A. 4. S. 31. This 
is commoner in poetry, especially when the adjectives are descrip- 
tive : lyxpi fipl$ii luya. tmPapor a spear heavy, huge, stoiU H 141, 

1034. Two adjectives joined by nm' may form one combined notion 
in English, which omits the conjunction. .So often with n>\ut to 
emphasize the idea of plurality : ■xaXXa Kiya$d many blessings X. A. 
fi. 6. 4, voXAA KOI Suva many dTeadfiU mifferings D. 37. 57. 

a. iraUt •clyneit means an arCHoerat (In the political aense), or b naed ol I 
a perfaet qm^itt or action na Uta moral wuw) aa T. 4. 40, F. A. 21 d. 



1035. An attributive sdjecUve is ofteo used ia poetry instead of the attribn* 
liMgeniUTo: pitt'SpiKXr^ti B668 the might of Heracle* {cp. "aNioboandangli- 
tn" Tenn;Bon); rarely in prow : toto^, «0>wi r\t8piajoi a river, aplethron in 
icUUh X. A. 4. It. 4. 

1036. An attributive adjective belonging iogicaliy to a dependent genitive is 
ollen ased in poetry witb a governing substantive : reiini AripQr {drat|tar kindred 
ttrife 0/ men S. A. "IW (for atnfe of kindred men), Karely in proae In the caee 
of tlie poHseesive pronoun : it r^i liitrtpf iaBtnZ r^t yiiofi in the vieakneit of 
lOKT pHrpose T.2.S1. 

1037. An attributive adjective ma; diapenee with its substantive wlien that 
rahsiantivB is expreased in the conleit : iirrix't ""flt nXM^Ti)! (t/x'v) rSr 
TiKfi. Ae thire* in the fairest of the arU F. Q. 448 c. 

1038. A substantivized participle may take the genitive rather than the case 
proper to the verb whence it is derived : fiatriMm rpev-iimrrit relatione of the 
ki»f T. 1. 128 ; conlraat HtptrX^t i i/ui rpoB^tuw Perieleemy relation X, H. 1. 7. 21. 

1039. Adjectives used substantively may take an sttributiTe : ol 
ifUitpn Sw/uyctE youT enemies X. H. 5, 2. 33. 


UMO; The predicate adjective ia employed 

1. With intranaitive verbs signifying to be, become, and the like (917): ^ H 
X^i llirXof yt-riiniTai the favour hae been concealed Aee.3.233. So with 
•ctlve verba which take a preposition ; Mfioui tBt^et hr' <tSi(Xo« rott UunfffoMri 
touhate enacted latex viith regard to offe.nAere who are unknoxen D. 21.30. 

b. With transitive vertw: (1) to qualify the object of the verb directly and 
immediately : rn^t taKoit xPV"^' Hf^r<" to judge bad men good S. 0. T.009, 
(S) to eipnaa the result of the action (the proieptic use, 1&79). So with aCfnr 
Unw, elpiir raite with itiyai great, /leritipot on high, ^^XAi high, iiaxpii large. 

1041. With verba of taying and thinking the predicate adjective is usually 
eonDected with Its noun by tlrai, with veT\ia of pereeiting,sho-iaing, by &r (2106): 
Mim yip aliuu Scuiiirttr ilnu Kaxir for I think no one of the godi i» bale E. I. T. 
391, lifXal fnt^ rj)r iia$^itir aitrar it thovit that the will itfalie D. 46. 34. But 
(Iniit sometimes omitted (MG), SBrnyhf xaXat npiieitiiwieit iyattt aiiayjrtiiaa- 
iHtforiBe have agreed that all honourable actions are good P. Pr.369e. On the 
oaiisslon of &r, see 2117. For dm with verbs of naming and calling, see 1616. 

lOU. Several adjectives of time, place, order of tuccesrion, ete., are 
lued as predicates where English employ? an adverb or a prepoei- 
tiou with its case: lii^KiwKnu rpiToibt they arrive on the third day 
X. A. 6. 3. 2, Kari^vw /jKirraim they deiKended in the dark 4. 1. 10. Id 
snch cases the adjective is re^rded as a quality of the subject; 
whereas an adverb would regard the manner of the action. 

a. Time, place * xp^'">t late, Spfptot in the morning, tti/rtpatoi on tAa smomI 
dof. rsoTouM how mantdayef Inraiepitt In the open air. 



b. Order 0/ tuceaeion: rpOrat, wphtpot Jlrtt, vvrtpat later, lUvot in tKt 
midst, TiXcvrauit last, wrarot last. 

N. — When one action is opposed to another in order of sequence, the 
ftdverbs rp&Tor, rpirtpoi, varanr, etc., not Che adjectives wpurot, etc., milBt be 
osed : TpOror iiir ildxput wokir xp^nr . . ■ tlra Si fXefe Toidic firit he wpl for 

a long time, then he xpoke asfolloas X. A. 1. %. 2. Heoce distingoiah 
Tpb^st rj tAXk TpDET^jSnXi he was the first to attack (A« dty. 
wpi^-g rp tAXii irpofft^a\i the city Was the first place he attacked. 

irpCrTay r^ w6\n tpeff/pii\t hit first act was to attack the cit). 
The same mie Rpplies In the case of pirut, pinr, m iiirrit Tfjr IrunoMiw f^paf » 
this it the only letter I wrote, iiinr tipoj^a riit ixcoToXi)r / only wrote (but did 
not send) the letUr. But thka distinction id not Always observed (Aes. 3. 60). 

1043. So also with adjectives of degree, mental attitude, manner, etc : 
^porrai si XMoi raWtl the Stones are thrown in great numbers X. A. 4. T. T, 
Toil rtxpoii fcroffiricJoKt i-*4SiMa.r they restored the dead under a truce T. 1. 63, 
ol 8nl tiiurnt Ttiarviivl vt the godt tend yon forth favourably X.C. 1.6.2. 
So with x^st high, ia/um gladly, itoiMuit, Utir wUHngly, Span under oaih, 
al^ritun tuddenly. On iWm, see 1272. 


1044. A circumstantial participle (2054) referring to a collectJTe noun (n96) 

may be plural ; rd ^Tpdrtiiiui iropl{(ra irfToi> utrTtrrtt roilt jSoSi t^ army pni- 
rtded itself with provisiont by killing the cattle X. A. 2, 1, 6. So after oMrit, as 
oittti iKM/i'iSTi (= rimi it dYpvri^p i^irar) to6i itroXaXtrrai TirB^Srra tut OJte 
slept because they were all bewailing the dead -V. H.2. 2.3. Cp. 950. 

1045. A plural participle may be used with a dual verb : tytWaairyir tfi^ 
fiki^arrti eit iXXifXiiut both looked of each other and bvrtt out laughing 
P. Eu. 273 d. A dual participle may be used with a plural verb : roO tot' tri 
^pilptBa i where in the world are wet E. 1. T. 777. 

1046. A dual subject may be followed by a plural predicate adjective or 
participle : il yip Ttt ^a(l) rii rJXci raira rXela-rui ilaSUr alriat ycyir^aSai if 
any one should ansert thai these two cities have been the cause of very many 
blessings 1. 12. 1.06. 

1047. A predicate adjective is neuter singular when the subject is 
an infinitive, a sentence, or a general thought: :jSv iroAAouf Ix^pmn 
tx'iv; it it pleasant to have many enemies? D. 19. 221, fi^Aov 8" o« tovt' 
ttrriv cUijtf^ it is clear tluU these things are true 2. 19. 

1048. A predicate adjective referrins; to a masculine or feminine 
singular subject is often neuter singular and equivalent to a sub- 
stantive. This occurs chiefly in statements of a general txutb, 
where the subject refers to a whole cla-sa, not to an individual thing. 
Thus, KoXov tlp^ peace is a fine tiling D. 19. 336, shrurrof this woAi- 


Titan ^ nipomt dfspotimi is an object of miatnist to free states 1. 5, 
futCwToAig ivot iv&pot the State is larger than the individual P. R. 368 6. 
So also in the plui-al (1056). 

1IM9. So with namM of places : tm Si 4 Xatpiima tcx^'ra* rijt ^wariAt 
CharroMa is on the frontier of Boeotia T. 4. 76. 

1050. A predicate Biiperlative agrees in gender either with the 
subject or (usually) with a dependent eenitive; vmnav ;^aXar<uTaroc 
^Oam envy is the most fell of diaeases Men. fr. 53o, fn!fLj9ovAo$ d^n^ 
XJ7<n/u»raTov droyruiv ruv KTrffiarmv a good cQtinsellor is the mosl useful 
of aU possessions 1. 2. 53. 

1091. For a predicate adjective used where English hM an adverb, cp, IM2. 

1092. A predicate adjective Is often ueed in the neuier plural (eapeclally 
with verbal adjectivea in -rdi and -r^oi in Thucydidea and the poets): traBli 
hti^ 4r, dnhrre vihen (all) VMU ready, he pnt ovt to sea T, 2. 56, da^rara fr 
Tth AaipoAt iiitrtc9a.i it teas impossible Co resist the Locriaas 4. 1, iSiicn ivixm- 
nrteilrai they decided to make the attempt 2.3. Cp. 1003 a. 


loss. With two or mora substantives a prediciite adjective is plural, 
except when it agrees with the nearer subject : ^ojSik koi vojuoe Uok^ 
(puTu KiaXitiw fear and the law are capable of re^mining love X. C 
5. 1. 10, ■KoXkSiv 8t Xoyon' mil 0opvffoii yiyvofiivov there arising mw;h dia- 
euititm and confusion D. 3. 4. See 968. 

1094. Wilh aubntantlves denoting persona of like ^nder, a predicate adjee- 
tlve is of the same gender : 'AydBur ul Zwcpdriri ^nral .^j^alAoit and Soeratei 
tnl^ P. a 193c 

1055. When the persons are of different gender, the maaculine prevails : wt 
wf war4pa rr Ktd lattipa taX A&eK^&j koX r^r invrov yumiita a/;)[/mXi^airf yrytnf' 
ti^povi, Uir^n when he saiB that At* fitther and moCkir and brothers and w^e 
had been laade prisoners of war, he bw»t into tears X. C. 3. 1. 7. 

a. But perHons are Bometlmes regarded as things ; txn airUt taX riKm ad 
yvrauat ^pavpo^n Ihane their ehUdren and aivea under guard X. A. 1. 4. 8. 

1056. With anbatantives denoting things of like gender a predicate adjective 
it of th« same gender and plural. A neuter plarat with the singular verh la 
nften preferred: tdyintial rt nl ivniutit ml ri^l S^Xd f«riF iy»Bi trra noble 
birth and power and honour are eteartj/ good things P. Eu. 270 b. 

1057. When the things are of diRerent gender, a predicate adjective it 
neater plural with singular verb : \i9ti rt lal rXlrAii col (6\a lai Ki/miim irdirrm 
ippililJra oUIr xri"')'^ iarit stones and hrieii and pieces o/ uiood and tltss 
throan together at random are useless X. M. 3. 1. 7. 

105B. When the Bubetantives denote both persons and things, a predicate 
uljective is — «- plural, and follows the gender of the person, it the person ia 
more important, or if the thing is treated as a person ; yp^Jia koI y/pttrM mot 


tptfiara dXlya lal ^oDt nraXtXaifui/nut old uomcn and Old men and a few tktcp 
and oxen that had freen [^ behind X. A. 6. 3. 32, 4 rixn <■•' 4JX(r**t Va' '«» 
Iftui KipuH Fortune and Phii^ loeM mael«r> i^tAe giinatUm Aw. 2. 118, 

b. or Is neuter plural if the peiBoa is treated like a thing : 4 naXXftrni wMtid 
Tf Kot i jrdXXiffroi dr^/i Xotrd ir inur rfij JwAfcti toe sAouU ttiU have to treat 9} 
eA« nobteit poli^ and tAe noUest man F. R. GOS a. 

lOSd. The verbal and the adjective predicate may agree with the first of mo 
subjects aa the more important ; BpiurJfai nal ri tX^Am irl ri lariopa, r^f siXflu 
^p<t**To /SouUfuivi nr* An/iat /Xcfv a^T^r UroeidO* toitA (Ae 6uU; <^ hi» troopt 
turned to the uf^rpart oft/^ eitf/ loithmg to e<g>lure it compUtelv T. 4. 112. 

For further uses of predicate adjectives, see 1160 S., 1168 ff., 2647. 

1060. When the subject of the infinitive ia the same aa a genitive 
or dative depending on the governing verb, it ia often omitt^ 

1061. A predicate adjective referring to a genUioe rcfcukirly stands in the 
genitive, but a predicate subetantive or participle generally stands in the accusa- 
tive in agreement with the unexpressed subject of the infinitive : Kipou MMm 
At TpoSSiioTiriiu Tcr/rAu the)/ entrtated Oyna to ahovi himaelj tu zealout ai 
pouible X. H. 1. 6. 2, tri rulr itoiUtav /lav rp<wTdTi)i' 7(i^ffAit bj/ those irAo 

begged me to become their chi^ X. C. 7. 2. 23, ifaimi u/ii3r fBtXijcal uov daoCriL., 
itraXiryiiti^Hiui tA rX^Soi tu> alriwr I beg of you that you be wiiliag to (itten to 
me, poifing heed to the number of charges Aea. 2. 1. 

1062. A predicate substantive, adjective, or participle referring to » doliie 
stands In the dative or In the accusative in agreement with the unezprMsed 
subject of the Infinitive : nr o-ai fftj-Tir iripi ytr^Sai now if is in your power to 
prove yourself a man X. A. 7. 1. 21, Aaietcu>t«fl«T f{«m> liu* ^fXout ytrialax 
i( ii in your power to become friendt to the Laeedaemoniani T. 4. 29, (Safer 
ah-DH . . . iiaw\ia^iiimi wpcUnai they decided to arm themaelvea fidly and to 
ddcan^ X. A. 2. 1. 2, tSo^r airolt rpo^ifXojrai KaTaffT^ArTai ffL>YJiaXc(v to^ 
vrpaTnirit they decided to xtation pickets aitd to agaemble the soldiere 3. 2. 1. 
aiiit^fptt o^oii ^l\ovt tlroi itSWar fl woKfiitaui U ii for their interest to befriends 
rather than enemies X. O. 11. 23. 

For predicate nouns in the nominative or accusative in agreeioent 
with omitted subject of the infinitive, see 1973-1976. 


1063. The positive, used to imply that something is not suited 
or inadequate for the purpose in question, is especi^ly oommon 
before an infinitive with or without Jort (wi) : (t6 Siup) ^ypor 


Itr^w &m Xaumurffai the footer fs too cold for bathing X. M. 3. 13. 3, 
r^ct SXiyai ifixntiv skips too few to defend T. 1. 50, iianpan Jv uif fitu 
Kr/vr it ioould taJce too long for me to state And. 2. 15. 

10G4. Apoelllve adjective followed by the genitive of the same kdjective 
hM, In poetry, the force ot a superlative : laiA ccuiSr viot of vsoe S. 0. C. 1238. 

1065. fuXAov ij rather Hum, more . . . than may be used after a posi- 
tive; rpo6&iiuK paXXoy ^ ifiiKaK more prompt than ktwUy A.Ag. 1691. 


1066. The comparative expresses coatraet or oomparison. Thus, 
itiircpot is riglu in coatrast to its opposite, Spurrtpot left. Cp. 1082 b. 
Usually comparison is expressed, as d re nu ^ipov icell or ill T. 2. 35. 

a. When the poaitive precedes, uaXKor alone may staud for the comparative ; 
as in /ninl rclfuu iralimi taXIn na\Xar(i,e, d{ii^e/wi) oJ rariptt then t"^ tsortAy 
of praite and itill more worthy are our fathers T. 2. 36. 

b. The pereona or things with which comparison is raada may Include aH 
othenof the same class; ii/iSir i ytpalripot the elder {= eldest) o/tu X. C. 6. 1.6. 

1097. The comparative is sometimes iised merely as an intensive 
and does not differ essentially from the positive: toittiov KaTa&tarrtfiot 
at a disadvantage with (inferior to) theae men D. 27. 2. 

10G& For the use otftaXXoy instead of the comparative, and iiaXurra 
iostead of the superlative, see 323. When either form can be used, 
that 'with /loAAoi' or fiaXurra is more emphatic. Thucydides some- 
times uses vXiov (tl), ro ■xkcov instead of /mAXot. 

1069. The comparative degree may be followed by the genitive 
(1431) or by rj than .* tro^iorcpot ifim or (ro^urcpM jj iyat wiser than I. 
The genitive may precede or follow the comparative. With jj, the 
persons or things compared usually stand in the same case, and 
always so when they are connected by the same verb : ^tAu yap oi 
ai paWor $ iopovi jftovs for I do not loee thee more than my own houae 
E. Med. 327. 

a. The genitive is naual If two subjects would have the same verb la com- 
mon ; as ol Kp^rn ^pax^rtpa rSr TltpvCtr frAfcvor the Cretont shot a shorter 
Uttatux than the Persian* (= f ol Uipaai) X. A. 3. 3. 7. 

b. When two objects have the same verb in common : U the object stands 
(I) In the aeeutative, the genitive is preferred, as Ifmi Sok,! KOpot, eirriraj a* 
Vf dT«*^t 4>i>^t' oMtr tJTTiiw iavToO Cyrut teeme to me to love all tehom he 
Aid* excellent quite as much as he loves htmse^ X. C. 2. 3. 12, but the accasaUve 
is not nncommon, as E. Med. 327 quoted above ; (2) in the dative, the genitive 
Is frequent, as rpoa^ta /ui ^Wnt Mpur . . . ipx*" ^ behomee m» rather than 
<HherstandeT.9.\%; (-1) in the ffenttioe, the genitive is very rare (X.M.4. 3. 10). 
Here f la preferred to the genitive for the sake of euphony: ol -yip ronfpel 
nW vXiiirvr *6tpyiTiiir ^ si xpvrrtl (not tiSf xpvrSr) Siorrat for the wicked 
need more faoourt than the good X. H. 2, S, 27. 


c. Tb« genittre is often uwd irhere 4 would be followed by BOme other 
owe Iban nominntiTe or accusative, or by a preposition : raSra toii drXlraii sfx 
V'o' Tflr MuTiS» (= Jf Toil «ifirait) xopeureXrio^uii / adiiwM IhtK exhortotUiat 
to Ae hoplitet not I'U than to the tailort V. 7. 63, {let fi\trttr) th r^r t/iwtv^w 

(ifiXXsr T^i dpn-^j { = ■( eii r^i- iptr^r) we mB#( foot ai tkill more than (>t) 
eouroire Aristotle, Polltica 1300 b 6. 

d. iHTTuv (x'^P<"t irliiaTtpot, uaripei, etc.) aiStr6t inferior to aoae, greatrr 
than all; here ^ is not used). Thus, iou\tiar iouXclai aMt/u&t Ifrtar airxfi^' '<> 
mdure a nio«( rfisj^rnce/ui ifuscry X.M. 1.5.0. 

1070. The word following fl may be the subject of a new verb (eipreased or 
nnderslood) : iiincti Wi tptiTtetat SiiavriXtu rtrtuStiiuta i) oSth tee have been 
edueated by a better teacher than they (have been) X. C. 2. 3. 13 ; but ihis word 
is more often attracted into tbe case of tlie preceding word : nrii nol U Saro- 
ripaw 4 TonJ*!* ( = i) Tiuitt iarlt) iviiSiiaar some have been rescued from danger* 
eeen greater than these T, 7. 77. The genitive la also coninion williout 4 : Myur 
Sri oBtu , . , toiJtou iiSton atnti iririxoi saying that he had tKver mtl loith ttMtttr 
toine than this X. A. 1. 9. 26. 

1071. wi for 4 la rare, and suspected by some. But cp. A. Pf.629, P. A. 
30 b, :ib d, K. G-^e c. 

1072. MoWtni q may be used though a comparative precedes ; alptrdr*^* 
irri iiaxoiiiraiit i.wa$r<jrtu* |ia\Aor 4 ^^orrat v<fiitr9ni it is more desirable fur 
men to die fighting ijaXber) than to snve Uiemselves by running ateag X.C.3.3.51. 
Kere u^XVor ^ is to be taken with the verb. 

1073. Instesd of the genitive or ^, the prepositions drrl, rjii(w. gen.) or r^, (w. acGUB.) are sometimes used with the coinpsrative : iji.Ttirfiaa.<i8iii nipt- 
riircpiiv ttrai rir iiaXii Odiarot drrl rou alaxpoS fJIou (0 make a noble death mure 
aesirable than (instead of) a shameful life X. K. L. 1). 1, ^i) ralSai ripi rXibm 
ToioO rpb Tov diiEiifai' do nol ronsider children of more account than^tietore} jutliee 
l*. Cr. Mb, x"M<i" /uift*' wapi r^r KaBtimiti/iar upar a cold too severe fur (in 
comparlaun with) the actual time of year T. 4. 6. 

1074 In statements of number and measure ^ may be omitted after the 
adverbial comparatives r\ior (itXcif) more, IXarror (ftctor) less, which do not 
alter their case and number: riitwu oix IXarrar SitA ^4p«rrax wSp he sends not 
less than ten men enrrying fire X., riXtt rWar wtmwx'*-^'** dxipwr 
a eity of more than SOOO men o. 3. 10. Even when ij is kept, r\i«t (rXtif), etc., 
remains unclian^t-cl ; Jr rXttr ( = wXtlevtr) 4 tidicMtoit trtnr in more tAan fOt) 
gears I>. 21. 141, ra^d> irXti* ^ trxotfi ;il^tdjat mors bowmen than SO myriads 
X. C. 2. 1. 6. 

a. In place of the ailverbiat TUar, etc., we find also the adjecliTal tonus 
with or witliont ij or with the gt-niiive : rofirSt w\eltvs 5 -rrrpati^x'*^* more Aow- 
men tAan iOOO X. (^. a. 1. -'i, trti yrfonln rXilai iploii^mrrt more than 70 |i*n™ 
oM r. A. 17 d, Irw&t irXtlaut rpumwfu* more (ftan 300 horse X. H. 1. 3. 10. 

1075. Tbe genitive sometimes occurs to^tber with 4, ■'■id either when the 
genitive has a separate construction, or is a pronoun to which tiie 4 clause stands 
as an appoeliive. or of which it is explanatory. Thus, rpo^u s-Mor ... 4 Sin 
vratluw he advanred m-re than ten stades X. H. 4. 6. 6 (here rhA>r is treM«d ■« a 

iota] COMPARISON 281 

solwtuitlra), rtt yifi hr •fimra Totfr^t fwrlS /ati^r # . , , 4fi& nwAi roH& ; for 
NiA<il ModneM eoKld be preoter than (tAls) . . . to Me u* (II f Is. 1.20. Cp. lOTO. 
10T6. Compendious Comparison. - — The poseessoT, rather than the 
object possessed, may be put in the genitive after a comparative : tt 
4fUK antucov KTijaaifitOa fof yiipm/ tovtiov ( = rotr Tomntv tinrlKov) hut 
if ice Aould raise a caaalry-force not inferior to theirs X. C. 4, 3. 7. 

1077. Compjulaon witb a Holm rapresentinE a cUoBe. •- When one peisoo 
or tliiof is to be compared, not with another pemou or thing in regard lo its 
qnslltj, but with on entire idea expreaaed t^ a dause (e.jf . 4 Airn with the inflni- 
tiTe, f HI with the potential optative, or 4 and a finite verb), this clause may be 
tbri<^ed into a subatatitive or a participle. Thus, rpSrriia Axltsf kimUciit an 
rttnt be/oad our expeaations (loo great to be expected) T. 2. 04, wpoaitripta nS 
Bupti wpoi6rrn adnaiKing further t/wn the proper tn«a*ur« 0.o. further than tftejr 
lAoHtd have gone} X. A. 4. iJ. 34, wi tSu yt wapdrrur oAk inrpiiami X'V" <» ^e 
Mief that they could not fare wvree than at present (< t4 xapiira iffW*) T.7,87. 

1078. Reflextre Comparison. — The compaTative followed by the 
teflexive prououo in the genitive is used to denote that an object 
displays a quality in a higher degree than usual. The degree of 
increase is measured by comparison with the subject itself. airro% is 
often added to the subject : avroi avrw ^/UMBmrtpoi yiyvarrm, thej/ learn 
vtort easily than before 1. 15. 267, wXova-toirtpoi tavrSiv yiyvopjann becom- 
tig richer'than they were before T. 1. 8. Cp. 1093. 

1079. Proportional Comparison. — After a comparative, ^ Kara with 
the accusative (1690. 2 c), or ij iaart, ^ in, rarely « alone, with the 
infinitive (not with the indicative), denote too high or too low 
a degree : ovAa in vkum ri Kark rmn vtKpmK iKij^$ti more armt 
"■ere taken than there were men slain T. 7. 45, tjio^pai nrj n fUmov ^ 
U7TI iftipay Sumtrdat kokov r^ woXti iruii^-g I fear lest there should hefall 
the Stale an evil too great for it to he able to bear X. M. 3. 5. 17 (2264). 

1080. Doable Comparlaon. — Two adjectives (or adverbs) referring 
to the same subject, when compared with each other, are both put 
in the comparative ; ^ is always used : ^ <Ip>7>^ iyayKouiripa ij ■coAAion' 
o jKoce inevitable rather than honourable Aes. 3. 69, (nvrofiwripov i} 
va^WT^Kw SuiXf}(0>jyai to discourse briefly rattier tlian, dearly I. 6. 24. 

a. ttSXXtP mny t« nsed with the flrat adjective in the pOHitlve (cp. 1065), and 
4 before the second : rpieiiiai fuXXav 4 ao^iuTtpi with more affection than prv- 
dt»ce B. Med. 4«5. 

lOSl. A compaTative majr follow a positive to mark the contrast with It : 
ml tuipi ni lulfu both tmati and great(et) D. 21. 14. 

loax The comparative may stand aIone> the second part being 

a. "nu which la exceeded is indicated by the sense only ; tl vffiirtpoi the 
vlKr (tboae wiser than the leat); trtlfiiirfai triXtit i/mltaut rat yni/iit Ix'"**' •* 


time of peace Stales are actuated bg higher eonviciiottt (thui In time of wmr} 
T. 8. 62. So T( rtilrTtpor lomething neu (mors recent th&n that already known) 
P. Pr. 310 a, (often = a ealaJnUy ur a revululionar]/ movemerU) ; umpar %Kor they 
came too late T. T. 27; EUid often where we aupply ia usual (right, fitttng, etc). 

b. The Horn. SqX^fpiu yiimtiat implies a comparison with men. In KE^ . . . 
iyry6m lirirpd^ dfiefmnt, rarpbt H inrotac-r^pov CyrHt Wat bom of a vtother of 

vaperior, but of a father of inferior race (HdL 1.91) the compariBOD is between 
the qualitiea of mother and father respectirely. Cp. 818 b. 

c. The comparative denotes eicesa: tifl!;ofirtpy9itirix>ip»0rmtiiuKptitKami 
ircpiirlrrBMi by entering upon undertatingi too great thej/ encounter no slight 
troubles X. M. 4. 2. 36. 

d. The comparaCiTe ii used to soften an expression (rather, lomewhaf) -. 
i,yfoiK&Ttptr somewhat boorithlg F. G. 480 c, iiiM\fmpar tropttrra he proceeded 
rathtr eareletslv X. H. 4. 8. 36, Here the quality Is compared with its »bsence 
or with Its opposite. 

1063. The comparetlTe la often used where English teqnlret Oie posftlTe : oi 
yip x"P" roXXdcif iimitir for 'lis not a bad thing to hear often P. Ph. 106 a. 

1084. SttenEthened forma. — The comparative may be stren^ened by tri, 
rsXX^, fuufup (ISIS), reU (1609), rsXA In, elc. /wXXor is sometimes osed with 
the cOtnpaTntive : aliTX'"r''lpOT4pw uiXXor tov Siarrn more bashfVl than thejl ought 
to be P. O. 487 b. 80 the correlative Jvy, Sfet : Sfv (^'{V"' ('v> '>> t^'u, rara^y 
fioXXor ipy^h ^io( ttai the braver they are to appeataneei, the more tAejr decree 
our aager I* 10. 29. 


lOBS. The superlative expresses either the highest degree of a 
quality (the relative superlative : A o-o^urarot Airjp the wisest man) or 
a. very high degree of a quality (the cAsolute superlative, which does 
Dot bake the article 1 ttvnp <roi^<ImiTOf a very wise man). The relative 
superlative is followed by the genitive of the person or thing sur- 
passed (1315, 1434). On the agreement, see 1050. 

a. The class to which an individual, marked by the superlative, beltHIgs, 
may be designated by a genitive of the divided whole (1316) : i ro^iiTerat rtS* 
'EXX^m' the vriteit of the Greeks. So often by rdrrut; wirruw it^piiwitr iynt- 
luriffTaTu the most senieless of all men Lye. 64. On the soperlatlve with IXXwr, 
see U34. 

b. With two the comparative eihansts all the degrees of compailson: hence 
TpArtpm and rpiSrot, va-repot and uiTTBTOt, itdrtpai each of ttBo, and ttarrat each 

of Keeral, are carefully to be distinguished. 

1086. Strengthened Forms. — The superlative may be strengtheoed by pre- 
fixing jri or wt, rarely i (also Svor or Arut in poetry) ; hi rXcfrm oi many mm 
as possible, Sri rixt^ra as qutckli/ at possible, i Ipmrew the very bet toaj/ X.C. 
7. 5. 82 (Switt tpivra A. Ag. 600). Art or & is always added when a preposition 
precedes the snperlative : in tli gT*Kira,m into as narrow eompats a* ponHtle 
X.O. IB. 8. wf and fri may l)e need together: in tri fiiXTimi i/ii ytnivtat for tne 
to become as good as may be P.S.218d. 

■om] comparison 283 

a. With in and i, isrely with Srn (not with tri) , a farm of iSra/uu or eI6t t4 
tifu, etc., uiay be Bmployed: t^■qy^<">l"> ^l"' "^ " Sininiu iii ^/MxvrdTur I will 
nlate to you in Hie britfest ternu I can 1. 21. 'i. 

1087. otoi may strengtben the superlative : tparrtt ri irpd7fiara 06% sTa 
Pfkri^Tt it rf riXtt jrra ob«en>fnp (Aat affalrt are not in the very be*t itate in 
theeiti/ L. 13. 2S. USvn OTiwivoi take the place of oTot, afonn, or a Bynonym, 
j)f timiiai is usually added: tiyayoi ■ rumidx'^ Ario'oiit rXd^-Tovt <3i>i4^i|r / 
bnmgkt the very largnt number of allUi I could X. C. 4. G. 29. b-rtlat is rare 
(Thuc., Plato). 

1068. (It drjp In apposition to the person designated may be added to 
■tnjngilien the euperlatWe : 'Am^ur T-Xfiira tU iyi)p Svrifunt i4>f\ftr Antipkon 
being able to render (most aid as one maci) aid beyond any other man T. 6.08. 

1089. ir rait is used before the superlative in all (tenders and numbeis (esp. 
hi HdL, Thuc., Plato) : li^ii 4 vrri^it . . . ISoir ^aXXor, 9i^i ti nli rp-irt) ifiiirro 
the revoluiton teemed the more cruel tince it urns the Jlrtt T. S. 81, ir roii irXii- 
«rai 14 r^i Sfi airoii htirorra they had the very largest nwaber of ships 8. 17. 

1090. /idXiffTo, or tXcu-tov, litytHTor, occurs with the superlative : el ^Wra 
dn^Arai-ai the Very stupideet P. Tim. 92 a. In poetry paBu- lias the effect of a 
niperl&tire: ^oMrXsirrat exceeding rich A. Sapp. 656. 

1091. col even, roXX^, imxixf (1G1»), faM (1009), To^d raU, nirra (rd 
rdrra), the correlatJTe Ir^ aleo Btrengthen the superlative. 

1092. In poetry (rarely in prose) a superlative may be strengthened by the 
addition of the genitive of tiie same adjecUve in tbe positive 1 S laciSr idnrri 
oh, vaett 0/ the vUe S. O. T. 834. 

1093. Reflexive comparison (cp. 1078) occurs with the superlative : i/ifiXC- 
nrs ti4r»t b^bO ipf hU tight itiUits dulled P. L. TlGd. 


1094. Adverbs &re of two kinds 

m. Ordliury «dvert», denoting manner, degree, time, place, etc. 
Ordinary adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, and (rarely) 
substantives : ottu^Scv ycro/uros getting behind X. A. 1. 8. 24, tWi^ i^oa 
ifraigktway he shovted 1. 8. 1, ^Mpdv nfiq cdready clear L. 4, 6, n-oAv 
iarrov much more quickly X. A. 1. 6. 2, cS uaXa very easily 6. 1, 1, ciko- 
rwc Tpowov nva in a way reasonably D. 8. 41, tiAXa crvfii^opa a great 
niafortune X. C. 4. 2. 5, /loAa trrparmA! an excellent general X. H. 
a 2. 39. 

b. Sentence adverba (or partides) are adverbs that affect the sen- 
tence as a whole or give emphasis to particular words of any kind. 
Greek has many sentence adverbs, some of which are treated more 
folly under Particles. 

Sneb are words of InteirogMion (4, Spa, fifit) ; of sfBrmation and confidence 
(f^ M4M0, indeed, 39" """eljr, yi at leait, even, ff really, n^|l in truth, n} aurely. 


Tol tureltf) ; ol MUtXTOinty i,litm, »(rf, rixa pefh(^); of n^^atlon (o*, n^, *Ctb., 
(i4r<>', etc.) ; of HmitaUon (fir 17dl B.). 

1095. Tbe eqaivalents of an ordinary adTerti are: an oblique case (/(SiurfXcMr 
aKoaittTi) he reigned for ttnenty yean, 1681, 1682 ; itoitit <rxovSi to listen alteu' 
eivelj/, r% ivTifial^ tropeOBm they proceeded on Che next day, tuid maDy oLher 
dalivaa, 1537 b ; in tJ(p ToxtoTij* he came iii the quicke^iC viay, aud many olhei 
ftccusatiyee, 1606-1611) ; an oblique «ase witb a prepowlion (8ii rixout ^Xfc he 
aame quickly = rax^ut, d»' ettm ipiiwuiu I start Ji-om home = ttnoetr, it ri 
in^rti dearly, JSfisu rpit ri/r i(lar he gave acevrding to merit = iiii-n, rpit 
piir forcibly — (Sial«i)[ a participle (7>Xii^ tJrt he taid aUh a laugh, laugh- 
ingly). (FurthBrmore, a clause in a complex sentence, as limfi-ifamt . . . 
eirror f fli Tif ii iftro leaping in more qukklg than one would have thought 
X.A.I. 6. 8; op. 2188. 3-) 

1096. In the attributiTe position an ordinary advert may serve afi 
an adjective ; iv riS vkrjalov TmpaStlatf in the neiglibouring park X. A. 
2. 4, 16, o ixtWtv ayyt^iK the messenger from that giutrter P. K. 619 b, 
Topa^ ^ TOT* tlie confusion of that time L. 6. 35. See 1153 e. n. 

1097. a. An ordinary adverb qualifying a verb is often bo used ttut it may 
be referred to the subject or object of the sentence where an adjective could 
stand. Thus, &rTt . . . inro\a)i^ittrBiu. tittiitun 4 lari riir ii&r to tu lo b« rr- 
garded at greater Qii. in a ffrtaler way) Utan (aaxrding to) their deaerU 1. 11.24. 

b. Six" and x^M' apart, inii far, i^yit near and some other OTdinaiy 
adverbs supply, with <[nu or -rlyrtrBat, the place of miaaing adjectlvea Thus, 
xw^t ffo^ia frrlr Aiipflit leiedom it different from courage r.Lach. lG5a. 

1098. For adjectives used adverbially, see 1042 ; for degrees of comparisoit, 
1145, 106B i for the genitive or dative aft«r adverbs, 14ST if., 1499 ft.; for adverbe 
used as prepositions, ITOO fl. ; for a relative adverb used with names of tbiiiga 
as an equivalent of a relative pronoun preceded by ir, tls, i(, see 2499. 


1099. The article o, ij, to, was origiDally a demonstrative pronoun, 

and as such supplied the place of the persona! pronoun of tne third 
person. By gradual weakening it became the definite article. It 
also served as a relative pronoun {1105}. (Cp. Germ, der, demonstra- 
tive article and relative ; French le from tile.) o as a demon strati v*^ 
is still retained in part in Attic prose (1106), while the beginnings 
of its use as the article are seen even in Homer (1102). 

i, ^ T< IN HOMER 

1100. In Homer i, ^, rd is nsually a demonstrative pronoun and 
is used sulistantively or adjectively ; it also serves as the personal 
pronoun of the third person: i)M to ^u/iofai but I marvel at this 
S 655, Tov kaifi^pa iwurPoXav this proting brawler B 275, r^ S jyw 
mr Aiio-oi bvt her I wHi not release A 29. 

ties] THE ARTICLE 285 

1101. In its tvbttantival use i either mnika a controst or recaUa the subject 
(ilie ^uuphoric uiK). But with dWd, Si, a^ip the subject Is generalljr changed. 
It »ft«n precedes aii explanalor; relative clause : rSn gl rvr ppvral ilai of tkose 
wAo are noie mortal nun A2T2. 

1102. i, T], t6 olteu approaches to its later nee as the definite article or ia 
actually so used : rir /Ur . . . rin S' trtpor E 146 (cp. 1107). a. The snbHtao- 
tive often stands in apposition, aitd ia added, as au alMrthooght, to the demon- 
strative (especially 6 ii) wljicli is stltl an Independent pronoun: atrrifi i roZrt 
flfait iSir iTTiu^nvcr but he, the old man, teas leading the way for them tg226. 
In some cases the appositive is needed to complete the sense : irtl ri yt toKit 
itauiiitr iarir iaiSoi Since thtt — to listen to anunglrel — it a good thing a370, 
b. Often with adjectives and participles used Hiibstantively, with pronouns, and 
idverba ; especially wlien a ciinirast urdistinction Is Implied ; ol dXW theothen 
*Z'l. Tiifffiiura tlie things that are to be A TO, tA rdpoi formerly N228. The 
•ttribntive adj. befure the noim : roit toit thy *672, ri iiiyurra d<0\a tfte 
grriUest priiea '1'040; and in apposition I'lp^rrArdX^rilf Irrts, the beggar ffSSS. 
Hom. bas war^ip aliixit 8360 (but dues not use 6 rar^p i i/iis). 

1103. In Horn, i contragta two ohjects, indicates a change of person, or a 
change of acUon on the part of the sane person. Attic i dfflnet. 

1104. The transition from the demonstrative to the article la so gradual that 
it is often impot«ible to distinguish between the two. Ordinarily Homer does 
not use the article where it is required in Attic prose. The Epic use is adopted 
in general by the lyric poets and in the lyric parts of tragedy. Even in tra^o 
ilialogue the article Is less common than in prose. IldL has i Si and ht, 6 yip 

6, ■^. t6 as a relative 

1105. The denionstratire o, ^, to is used as a. relative pronoun in 
}{omer only whon the antecedent ia definite (C]). that) : ro^ta 8" i^tva- 
piit, ri oi vopt xo^Kiof 'Api;« he stripped off the arms that brazen Area 
had given him H 146. Tlie tragic i>oet9 use only the forma in t-, 
and chiefly to avoid hiatus or to produce position : KTuvmitra roiit ob 
j(pil KToyur slaying those ichom it is not right to dot/ E. And. 810. 
(d => Of E. Hipp. 525.) On the use in Herodotus, see 338 D. 3. 


1106. Tlie demonstrative force of 5, i}, to' survives cliiefly in con- 
nection with pai-ticles (^ev, Si, yi, toi'; and with kiu preceding 6). 

1107. d is a dcmniutrative commonly before itfr, U, and pspecially in con- 
trasted expressionK : i ii4r . . . i Si the one, thit . . . the Other, that, as in ol ^v 
iropttorro, al e' tfwitrTt the one party proceeded, the Other follotoed 

IIOS. The reference may be indefinite ; in which case rli Is often added : 
rail iiir ArimHiM, ra^ i' t%i^a\tt mmt he pill tO death, and other/ he expelled 
K. A. 1. 1.7. cl vJr TiKf iwiSr^ator, ol 1' l-ptvyaw gome v)ere killed, but others 
tMcaped C. 8. 2. 10. 


1109. Witb prepositJoai the order Is osnallr Inverted : it /lir r^r, tit U 
rif (1863 a). 

1110. In I&t6 writeiB (but In Demosthenes) the reUtive !■ used tw in 1107: 
wiiStit, it /liw dnupAr, tit &i It ToOt ^uyiSat Kariyuw dettroyittg Mome dtieM, into 
Other* brinffing back their txiU» D. 18. 71 (the flnt instance). 

1111. Note the adverbial expreasiouB : ri (tA) ii4r , , . ri (ri) ti on IA« one 
hand . . . OH the other hand, ptvllf . . . parilji (so also roifro /Ut . . . r»Or» 
I^ 1266) ; tA Si Ti partly, ri /idw . . . rj U in thi* vay . . . in tAot uoy, ri M 
whereat (1112), rv r« there/ore. 

1112. i 3^, 4 ij, tA N (without a preceding m'f clause) often mean btit(oran<l) 
he, she, thie. In the nomiiiatlTe the person referred to is usuallf different from 
the subject of the main verb : KD|»i StSurm sh-y /liplavi tipuKoii ■ i Si \aPAr ri 
XpialB' K.T.X. Cyrut gtvei him (Clearcbus) 10,000 dariea ; and he taking the 
money, etc. X. A. 1. 1. 9, Toih-a irayyi\ijivrt roii crpartiiratt ■ TBit Si Ihrof U Ifw 
Sri ^701 rpti ^oviX/n they report this to the loldiere ; and they had a tiupSeion 
that he wu leading (them) agatnxt the king X. A. 1.3.21, tS If sdit fm TOMVTor 
vrhereae thit it not so P. A. 37 a. 


1113. Am a penonal pronoun, chiefly after ni, and in tlie DominatlTe : nl 
ft (4) and he (_ehe) : »! ot ttrer and they laid X. A. T. 6. L Also in 1) f ft and 
he said P. R. 327 c (792). So not rit (nir) osed as the accusative of taX Ot, as sub- 
ject of a following infinitive in indirect discourse: nal T6r ttreh and (he said that) 
he said P. S. 174 a. 

1114. In the nominative St, J|, are usually thus written. Some write t, f , of, 
a( when these words are used as demonstratives ; but i iiit ... A 3/ is rare. 

a. The forms St, 1, here apparently relatives with an older demonstrative 
force, may be in reality demonstratives, Si being the demonstrative (article) ( to 
which the nominative sign -t has lieen added. From this St may be derived, by 
analogy, the demonstrative use of S, and of oli, oui in fixed expreaaioQS (1110). 

1113. Also In Tir talrir thit one and thtU one L. 1.2.1, ri icai rt this and 
that D. 9. 08, tA rat rd D. 21. 141, oBrt rwt ourt rait neither to these nor to those 
P. L. 701 e. In the nom. it tal 3t such and stidi an one Hdt. 4. 08. 

1116. In an oblique case before the relativea 3f, Iret, ttm : rir rt BMAvii'c* 
. . . K9XTitatt<pititff*tTi)iTo6Tavtlriu,tiAi>Ttipa.tvapiiBiiaxa«daswitne»sIteiU 
produce both Euthyeritus and t^e man who said he teas Af> truuter L. SS. B. 
ipiyirai roD S lant Irar hi aims at that which is equal P. Ph. 76 b, and often in 
Plato in defining pliilosophiceil terms, 

1117. Harely with prepositions, except in trpl toB (or irparaS) before this time 
T. 1. 118. On iw Toft with the saperlative, see 1089. 

IN PB08B) 

1118. The article 6, 4, ri marks objects as definite and known, 
whether iudividuals (the particuUir article) or claaaes (the generic 


article). The context tnuBt determine the presence of the generic 

a. Umi* to no Indeflnlte wtkle in Greek, but a, an is a(t«ii represented by 
'h (ISBT). 


1119. The particular article denotes individual personB or things 
aa distinguished from others of the sauie kind. Thus, ^viroi 
i>4p«n>t the man is mad (a definite person, distinguished from other 
men) P.Pha6.268c 

U3a Special uses of the particular axticle. The particular article 

a. ObjecU weU Itnown ; i rUr twri r««t»raToi ZiXut Solon the witeU of the 
Srwtn (AiiK«) F- Ttm. 20 d. 

b. Objects already mentioned or in tlie mind of the speaker or writ«r (thA 
ttnaphotie article) ; ilror Sri TdXarrof ipyuplou troi/un itr)r SiCmi . . . i Si Xs^ikp 

ri riXuTsr >.t A. / »aSi that I wot readg to givt Mm a UtleiU of tilvtr . . . and 
It taking Uu taint, etc. L. 12. 0-10. 

C Objects qiecially present to the senses or mind (the deictic article) : XsjM 
t) ptfOJat tate the book V. 'I'h. 148 c, peuUium rj)r ^Xl' rai^'oi taking to 
fgkt Uu battie T. 4. 91. Hence the article Is regularly used with demonstrative 
pronouiB <117e). 

N. — llie foregoing (a-c) uses recall the old demonfitratlve force of the 
■nicle. Words that ordinarily hare no article may reoeiTe the article when this 
older force to present. 

4. Objects particularized by an attributive or by a following deecripUon : 
t Ivm i'A^Mlur the ptopU of the AthtttUmi Ae^ S. l\^, \iyriir iwiaTa\iit, qr 
twtiB^r read the letter Ihat he tent D. 18. 39. Cp. 11TB d. 

•. Ol^tB marked as tuuai or proper under the circumetances : ri lUpvt rSr 
l-^ir A IidcH* ei* fXo^r the proMeaOor did not get the (requisite) part of th« 
Met D. IS. 103. 

i. Objects representatire of tbelr class (the dittrtbutive article, which resembles 
Uk geoerie use ; oft«n translated I)y a, each) : briffx'*''"* )<^<"' ^p'b iiialipiiKt 
nS ittit6t ry rrpariiiTn he pronitea to give each soldier three half-daric* a month 
Z.A. 1.S.21. But the article maybe omitted: tal crXgrro Sha, I» iwb 0uX^ 
oad ihef ehoM Un, oneflrom (each) tribe X. H, 2. i. 28. 

U21. The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive 
pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor; Kvpo^ Kam- 
r^tiprac diro roti Sp/iariK riv Btipaiia ivi&o Cyrus leaped dovm /rom hit 
chariot and put on his breastplate X. A. 1. 8. 3. 


1132. The generic article denotes an entire claas as distinguished 
from other classes. Thus, 6 SiSpmrtK man (as distinguished from 
other being^, A ytpovm the aged; Stt rov arpartarrqv tftoPturSai /laXXaF 
Tw 3p}(ovTa ^ rovt woKi/Uoot the (a) soldier should fiat his commandar 


rather than the enemy X. A. 2. 6. 10, wo^pw o aaKo^nrr^ the informer 
in a vile thing D. 18. 242. 

1123. In tb« singular tbe generic article makea a siagle object ihe repre- 
sentative nf the entire cIbbb ; in the plural It denotes all the objects belonging lo 
a class. The generic article is especiall; common, in the plural, with adjectives 
used substantively : otli: in rts tt-rot in rait taKcipyovt mil diKioiii (Is tmraytXir no 
one could lay that he permitted the male/actor and th* uirongdoer to deride 
him X.A. 1.9. 13. 

1124. The Article with Participles. — A participle with the article 
may denote an entire cla^ : o ^ovXoiuvoi any one who wishes. Cp. 
2050, 2052. 

i Tuxiir any chance comer, i iryv^Mf*' a gvide, aix ivapiiTtTt tQt t9t\v'i'- 
Tur iwtp t/Lit Kittittittt you leill not be in team of those who teiU be teilling 
lo encounter danger for you 1). 20. 106, ol Xr/oroiaDiTd neiesmoagere 4.49. 
The same sense is expressed by rni i with a participle or adjective. On tbe 
snide with a participle In tbe predicate, see 1162. 

*. When the reference is to a particular occasion, the article ma; be particu- 
lar (2052) ; as 6 X^ut the speaker on a definite occasion. 


1129. The article may be used with cardinal numerals 

a. When tbe numeral states tbe definite part of a whole (expressed or tmder- 
stood): dr^a^ Twr Xix"* i<idira drrur el Tp«?i of the eompaiiiet, numbering 
taelet (In all), there were absent three X. H. 7.5. 10, dt rufi. roit Sita one 
man in (comparison with) ten X. O. 20. 16, T«r rim rat iio fuf/ui (too fiJVit 
T. 1. 10, tio iiifii two thirds 3. IS. (Tbe genitive is omitl«d when the denomi- 
nator eiceeds the numerator by one.) 

b. When the numeral is approximate : Ifuiiiar iiiJpai i/v^ rat rpUimrra tkt]f 
remained about thirty days X. A. 4. B, 22, 7i-r<»Arei ri r«m|i(i»Ta frit about 
fiftn yeara of age X. C. 1. 2. 13. 

C. When the number is used abstractly (without reference to any definit« 
object) : Arut nt) ifttt tri lartr ri SiiStra lit ti beware Of laying IS U twice 6 
P. B. 387 b. 

N. Ordinals nsually omit the article and regularly do so In statements of 
time In the dative (1640) : Sturipif ^iftl t4' r6\tr trtixtf' <» the aeeond month 
they fortified ift« oi* T. 8. 64. 


1126. Tbe article Is often omitl«d (1) in words and phrases which have sur- 
vived from the period when i, ft, ri wss a demonstrative pronoun ; (2) when » 
word is BufBciently definite by iteelf ; (3) when a word expresses a general con- 
ception without regard to its application to a definite person. Tbe generic article 
is frequently omitted, especially with abstracts (1132), without appreciable diBer- 
ence In meaning. Its presence or absence is often determined by the need of 
distinguishing subject from predicate (IIGO), by tbe liiylhm of tbe w 


II97. The article is omitted in many adrerHal desi^atlons of 
ftm«, mostly with prepositions (except i)/i(pat by day, rvxriK by night). 

Tbas, Tifil niirii idrrni about midnight, &ita lif juat before dayllglu, Spf Iroi/t 
at Iht Kcuoa of the year. So with 6ii9pos dai/break, icJXii ^flernoon, irripa 
nrniag, lap tpring ; and it valtur from childhood. Most of lbs above cases 
ueeurviTalH of tbe older period nhen the article had a demonstrative force. 

1128. The article is very often omitted in phrases containing a prepoaitioii : 
iwifxirel Xlryov in th4 beginning of the tptech D. 37. 23, Hu piXHv out of reach 
ofthtmiaiilet X. A. 3.4. 15, 'Hiiva rijk /rl SrpBjiiy. Eton on the Strymon T. 1. 88. 

1129. Words denoting persona, when they are used of a class, may omit tlie 
Uticle. So irBpuwoj, arpaTirti', 6tit divinity, god {i Btii the particnlar god). 
Thiu, wArrv* pjTpar irdpuTbi iani man is the measure of all things P..Th. 178b. 

1130. Adjectives and partjciplea used substantively have no article when the 
refetence is general ; /liaoe TifiifAt midday X. A. 1. 8. 8, 'f'uxpi' cold, Btp/itv heat 
P.S. 18Gd, rtta^ai rpojcaraXif^afi^nut ri iKpa tO send men to preoccupy tAe 
Mj/ht* X. A. 1.3. 14. Rarely when an adverb is used HdjecUvely : run ixBpQi 
M^r 6\)8poi the utter destruction of the enemy D. IB. 141. 


1131. Abstract substantives generally have the article: ^ iptri/ 
fuAAoF ^ i) 4n^ "¥£<* Ta$ ijiuy/it valour rather than JliylU saves men's 
lit-ts X. C. 4. 1. 6. 

1132. The names of the virtues, vices, arts, icCenees, occupations often omit 
lb* article: ri tuitpoitini, rl paria; what it temperance, what is madness t 
^ M. 1. 1. IS, ipx^ 0iMaT pir fToiwi, fx^P"' ^ i'iyi praise is the beginning of 
friendship, blame of enmity I. 1. 33. Similarly fwiwirii music, yttupyH agric^ 
tire. So also with S^ opinion, »ui mind, rix"! art, ripot laui. 

1133. The article must be used when reference U made to a definite person 
ur tiling or to an object well known : it rUr 'EWi/tur eOtain the goodtoill of lAt 
Grttks Aes. 3. 70, {tiur} 4 trxoH your utual idlenees D. 8. 63. 

1134. The article may be omitted in designations of space ; as pdftii dep^, 
'■im height; also piyt9ot size, rX^flm siee, amount, lint and tnpa, used as 
accusatives of respect (1600), maj omit the article. 

1133. The article may be omitted with some concrete words conveying ft 
ceneral idea, M ^i(x4 loul, a<ipa body (but the parts of the body regularly bavft 
the article). 


1136. Karnes of persons and places are individual and therefore 
omit the article unless previously mentioned (1120 b) or specially 
marked as well known 1 ©oukuSi'Sts 'Aftjvalos TJmcydides an Athenian 
r. 1. I, Tois arparMrav avruiv, rovs irapa 'KXiap^ov dfftAflovras, (id Kvpos 
Tor mxiap'jfm iwv their aoldiera who seceded to Clearchns, Cyrua 
alloKfid Clearchus to retain X. A. 1. 4. 7, 3 SoXuv D. 20. 90, oc "Hpa- 
^« the Seradeaes P. Th. 169 b. 


1137. Nmdm of deities omit the ertlcle, except when emphatic (r^ rbi- Ala 
byZeiu) or whea definite cults ere leferredto: ri r^'A^i^t fSot IA« tanetuert 
0/ Athena (st Athens) 1. 16. 2. HMnes of festiTsIs vary in prose wriien (do 
article in iiiscriptiooe) : nsM^nata titt Farutthtnata (but Ilaratf^iwloif twi 
fHipoi't at the Letter Panaihenaea L. 21. 4). Names of ehiines have the article. 

113B. Nsmee of nations may omit the article, hut •! 'BXXqm is usual when 
opposed to ol pAp^apM the barbariaiu. When nations are opposed, the article ia 
usually ahsent : i rixtftot 'A^qralw* col IlAawern^ltii' T. 2. 1 (but 6 riXc^i tu> 
Ili%»w»miaUir xal 'A^ralwr 1. 1). The name of a nation without the article 
denotes the entire people. Names of famiUea mi^ omit the article : 'AvKXifrid- 

a« r. R.4oeB. 

1139., Continents : 4 Elpiirq Europe, 4 'A^U Atla. Other names of coon- 
trles, except those originally adjectives (as 4 'Amn) Attiea), omit the article 
(Al^^ Lifiga). ySf and x*^ may he added only to such names as are treated 
as adjectives ; 4 Boun-tit (t^) Boeotia. The names of countries standing in 
the genitive of the divided whole (1311) usually omit the article only when the 
genitive precedes the govemlug noun : ZimXiaf rt rXttrror the tiiott of SieUf 
T. 1. 12. The article is generally used with names of monntains and rirers ; 
but is often omitted with names of itlandt, mos (but i lUn-gi the Ponttie), and 
wiitdt. Names of cities usually omit the article. Names of citiee, rivers, and 
mountains often add a-AXif, rtraitit. Spat (1142 c). The article la omitted with 
proper names joined with airii used predlcatively (1200 b): s^oAi '\9^ialovt 
th« Athenian* thtmaeltet T. 4. 78. 

1140. Several appellatives, treated like proper names, may omit the article : 
^sfftXe^ the king of Persia (i pa^iXtdt is anaphoric (1120 b) or refers expressly to 
a definite person). Titles of official persons : rpuriHu the Prj/tani, rTpartrrti 
the (Jenrralt. Names of relationship, etc. : rariifi father, dr^p hastMmd, yvrlj 
wtTe (but the article is needed when a definite Individual is spolten of). Thus: 
itar Si T0 iiit irfrrifp, rif Si yvrii tal raiStt to one there came hia miithtr, to 
another hU tpife and ehildren And, 1. 48. So also rar^i fatherland. 

1141. Similarly in the case of words forming a clsaa by themselves, and some 
others used definitely : jXiat sun, oipanti heaven, iSpai leasona, ttpavrdt Ihundfr, 
MmTef death; Srrv, r6\it cUg, iicp6ro\u cUadet, iyopi market-pliet, raxat 
oUy-VMll, rpurartior prytaneum, w^nt Uland (all used of definite places) , MXarra 
tea as opposed to the mainland, but 4 BAXaTra of a definite sea ; Mmilariy 74 
earth, land. 

1142. When the name of a. person or place is defined hj an apposi- 
tive (916) or attributive, the following distinctions are to be noted: 

a. Persons: nipSUiat ' AXriirtpou Prrdiceat, son of Alexander T. 2. 99: the 
official designation merely stating the parenta{;e. A^iuatinii t 'AXuurSirmn (the 
popular designation ) distiDguishes Demoathenee, the son of Alemhene* (T. 3. 91 ) 
from other persons named Demosthenes. (Similarly with names of notioi**-) 

h. Deities : the article is nsed with the name and with the epithet or (less 
often) with neither : rf Ail r{ 'OXvfnfy to Olympian Zeut T. 6. 31, Atl IXnStplif 
to Zeut guanUan offireedom 2.71. 

ii4«] THE ABTICLE 291 

& OMgnphkal Hunu ara nmiaUy treated u attTlbntlTef, h i Et^wn 
nrwh the river Saphratee X. A. 1. 4. 11, ^ BiXfin Uf»ir iate Bolbe T. 4. 103. 
la * Terj few cases (aix timea In Thae.) i la omitted with the noioe of a 
tlTer when worattit la inaerted ; but Hdt. oftea omits i. With the names of 
nocntaina the order is ri Il^Xtor 6pat Ml. PeiUtn Hdu T. 129 when the geodei 
igreea, bnt otberwiae h rt Spgi Tj)r 'lariiwtir la 30. Ittone T. 3. 66 (rarely aa iri 
TJ Alrrj TV jp« at tlie foot of SB. Aetna T. 3. 116). With namea of latanda, 
tDwna, etc., the order Taiies : ri UapSinor riltta/ta the town of Parthentum 
X. A. T. B. 21 ; 4 ^irrrdXtut r^n the itland of Psgttaiea Hdt. 8. 96 ; Tpayta 4 
r^TH tke itland of Tragia T. 1. 110 ; rsD Ilnpaiut rw Xifi^Hi of the harbour of 
PtiratHt T.2.g8; ri ipptipiew ri AipSa>or fort Labdaloit 7.3. The citg qf Mende 
would be H^fSq riXn, 4 HMi| 4 rihii, HJrJq i^ ri\<i. 


1143. A alngle article, used with the flnt of two or more nonna connected by 
aid. prodacea the ettecl of a sfngle notion : bI rrpanryl nJ yaxiyof the generate 
and nipteiju (the commanding offlcen) X. A. 2. 2. S, r» /itylvTit xal iXaxiarit 
nh U«(anreM and (A«*maII««tiAip« (the whole fleet) T. 1.10, 4 r^rnXXiSf iio- 
MiTtKoH^m the calvmntation and envg of the multitude P. A. 38 a. Karet; 
*bea the ntbetantireB are of different genden : rtpL rat iairrHr ^Sxai jtot ffd/utra 
coitantiitg their oisn live* and penotu X. A. 8. 2. 20. 

1144. A repeated article lays atreM on each word : 6 Op^ lol i fiipPapn the 
Tkraetaii and the barbarian D. 33. 132 (here the subject remaina the same), ol 
frptTifytl lol aj Xa;tairs{ the generaU and the captains X. A. 7. 1. 13. 

1145. Instead of repeating a noan with the article it maj solDce to repmt 
the irtlcle : i piot i rSr tiiwrtvirrut q i r^r rupormiirrur the Iffe of persons in 
a private ttatlon or that of prince* 1. 2, 4. 

1146. A anbataiitire fallowed by an attributive genitive and forming with it 
a conpoDiid idea, uenally omits the article ; rtXtin'^ raO pitu (the) end of his life 
(-life-end* •■ l(fe-tlia«) X. A. 1. 1. 1. (Lees oommonly 4 rtXnrrj) roO piau 
E.A.1.9.80.) (^1296 a. 

U47. When the genttfve dependent on a snbatantive la a proper name : 
ftfTl Ztfleiat dAiwi* i^ler the capture of Euboea T. 2. 2, and furik t4> Mepou 
Awit after the capture of Letbot 3. 51. A preceding genitive thus oftpn takes 
the place of the article : Sii xpi"" vX^ftn bg reason of the extent of time T. 1. 1. 

1148. Concrete coordinated words forming a copulative expression may omit 
Ae article : rpit ttr vaU«»' tal ■yutaut^r Urrtiu tiiai by gvur children and aivee 
I bfteeeh yov L.4.S0, rAXir lol aUtat liiur ro^Iorf surrender to us four eilf 
ltd house* T. 2. 73, Upsuu nl it/mi priestettee and priests F. lt.4t)la, Cp. man 
isd vffe, hvrte and rider. 

1149. An appoeltive to the peraonsl pronoons of the flret and aecond persons 
lu the article when the apposltive would have it (as thlr4 pei'son) with the pro- 
noun omitted : b/tsU ol ^/lim wph iiii xArrn voiipiWm do you, captains, all 
■^nfer \rith m« (•! irr'/^ti <ni>4^Mwiwi) X. C. 6. 2. 41, oi c^Mpti xp<ii^* «l 
Kri^a Tou i*nnh wti/iMtw we Ortams do not make very much km nf foreign 



IISO. A predicate noun has no article, and is thus distinguished 
from the subject ; nxAcLrat ij axporoAtt In inr 'AOipniwv xoXis the acrofo- 
lis is atUl called ' city ' by the Atheniajia T. 2. 16. 

1131. Predicate comparatives and BuperlativeB, possessiTe proDonna, and 

OldinalB liave no article : vti-Tir r4> iuainav yvratia raawv tu^ponvriTiir ilnu I 
thovght that my toi/e looi (the) most virtaoua of all L. 1. 10, Xaipt^r <«iti 
iriUpot Qr Chaerepkon totu a /riend of mine P. A. 21 a. Cp. 1 126 d. 

1152. Even in tbe predicaU the article la used with a noun reteniog to a defi- 
nite object (an indinidual or a clan) that 1b well known, previously mentiooFd 
or hinted at, or identical with tlie subject : si f ftXXst ^i^cipoOvi fiiWtn' rir 
A/firroi' draiaXovprei ri* rpaiiriji the rest try to strike Dexipput calliiig hirn 
'lAe traitor^ X. A,6.6. 7, Wh-oi Ij^ar ol ^n^jemi rir rxryx"' Ihete mtn «yrf 
thoBewho {at I have Mid) avoided the inquiry Ai\t.0,2T. ol tiW^kkm rofii >>d«wuii>J 
iaBtrtis irSpural tliri tal at rgXXol the enactors of the lava are the vteak men and tlif 
multUnde P. G. 4S3 b, iriirTeut Si clpoi rir Su^iWorra Mdrura he aiapet^d thni 
U tau Menoa who traduced him X. A. 2. 6. 28 (here aubject and predicate could 
chaoge pioces). So also witli i nh-if the lame (1209 a), eirtpor one of two (60), 
raiwarrlor the Opposite. 


1153. The article has the pow^er to make substantival any vord 
or words to which it is prefixed. 

a. Adjaotivea : i <ro^ the wige man, ri tUowv jtufi'ce. 

b. Participles (with indefinite force) : i ^uUucnt whoever un7Ja, the first 
thatoffer$. Cp. 1124. 

N. 1. — Such participial nouns appear in active, middle, and passive forms. 
andadnutthedistinctionBof lense; ol ietXivntrit /alriiii those who ahall beteHliifj 
to remain X. H.T.6.24. 

H. 2. — Thncydides often substantivizea the neuter participle to form abetract 
expressions : t^ r6\tui ri riitii^rot the dignity of the State 2. 63. Such parti- 
cipial nouns denote an action regulated by time and circumstance. Contrast t6 
Stit6t fear (in actual operation) 1.36 with tJ iAii (simply /eor In the abstract). 

C. Preposition and case: ol iriT Hi T/Ay^T-aw thoM in potter, the goBernment 
D. IB. 247, ol<Fr5*\«i? those in the prime of life T.0.24. 

d. With the eenilive, forming a noun-phrase (1209) : TdTOrarporiiiT fir the con- 
ditton of the eotdiers X, A.3.1.20, t4 riji ipyii the outbursts of teralh T,2.60. 

e. Adverbs: otr IrSoKrvrtXanfiiwirroitiUoUKTii Kartitliripraf thoKwhotrrr* 
inside utere arrested and those oulmie \rere cut rfoicn X. A. 2. ■'i. 32. Similarly 
ol rir* the men of that time, ol ittT the d'od, ol wdXoi the ancients. 

N. — An adverb preceded by the article may boused like an adjective: idpdut 
KuPtfiw^Tii, Ae good pilot P, B, 341 o. The article is rarely omitted. 

lie*] THE ARTICLE 293 

t. InfinltlTea : ■oAoilrfi'eiiicaXcM'CaiTiiMTUF^Soi^i'lpxxrAu Chej/ aalt inttm- 
peranu being ruled by one's pleasuret P. Ph. 88 e. 

J. Any single word or clause : ri bmtt Sror^^u, TJjniXt.X^u when I sag 
Tom. I mean the State D. 16. B8, Inif&itri Sluiit irtx/rv reSI 4>iroii omitting 
(Uie words) ' let Mm mbmit to judf/metU for the murder ' D. 23. 220. 

jiUr^utive Position of the Article 

IIM. A word or group of words standing between the article and 
its noun, or immediately after the article if the noun, with or without 
the article, precedes, is an attributive. IhuS, o <ro^o^ dvijp, o ivr]p 6 
<ro^, or ^fi o aoifiot (cp. 1168). 

11S9. Tbifl holds true eicept la the case of Buch poat-poaltive words as yi^r, 
•If. yi, Ti, yip, 34, dI/uu, oSr, rolni* ; and Tit in Hdt. : rUt ni Mtprtiiit one of the 
Prrsi'iiu 1. 8I>. In Attic, tIt intervenea only when an atlributWe followa the 
article : tw> fiappipuw nrit Irwtur some of the barbarian caralri/ X. A. 2. 5. 32. 

US6. Adjectives, participles, adverbs, and (generally) prepoaitions with 
their cases, if preceded by the article, have attributiix pogition. 

1137. (1) Commonly, aa in English, the article and the attributive precede 
the noun : 6 tofiln irfjp the viae man. In this arrangement the emphnsia is on 
the attributive. Thus, rg rpibrti itiiip^ on the Jlrtt day T. 3, 96, tr ry rpi toB 
Xpirv in former timet B. 53. 12, rir ix rSlr 'EW^tunlt raii fiappipovt >I^Pay IS^r 
aeeiag the terror int^red by the Oreela in the barbarians X. A. 1, 2. 18. 

IISB. (2) Less often, the article and the attributive follow the nonn preceded 
bj the article ; i ir>ip i s-o^t the wise man. Thus, ri sTpdrcu/ui tA tSp 'ABTiralur 
the army of the Athenian* T, 8. 50, ir ti roptlf t% iiAxpt *rJ MXottof on the 
jitumey at far as the sea X. A. 5. 1. 1. In this arrangement the emphasis is on 
the DDon, as something definite or previously mentioned, and the attributive ia 
added by way of explanation. So to^i xina -tBit xb>"«^ JtS^uri they tie up the 
dog*, the tallage ones (I mean) X. A. 6. 8. 24. 

1159. (3) Least often, the noun takes no article before it, when it would 
have none if the attributive were dropped ; dwijp i a»<p6t the wise man (lit. a 
vtan, I mean Me wite one). Thus, /uixo" raif rXiWi in the greater nvmber 
ofbaUlet-T. 7. 11, vimiu iiit 8teis, ritaiu It itSpiiwoii roil d^aftiii I associate 
jeich gi>d», I associate with good men X. M. 2. 1, 32. In this arrangement the 
atiribotive is added by way of explanation ; as in the laat example : with men, 
the good (I mean). 

1160. A proper name, defining a preceding noun with the article, may itself 
have the article : i lUcX^ i'A^ttfoAruit (his) brother Arethvsius D. 53. 10. Cp. 
1142 c. Ad appositjve to a proper name has the article when it designates a 
characleristic or something well known ; i Ti\uriira\a^i^n/H\iS7uun Solon of 
ancient times mat a lover of the people Ar. Nnb. 1187, Jiafffwi- 4 M«7"p«*t Fasten, 
the MeffarianX. A.. 1.4.1. 


1161. The genitive of a. stibBtantiTe limiting the meanii^ of an- 
other substantive may take any one of four positions : — 

a. ri tdD narpit ^(Oklor the father't book (very common). Tliiu, 4 ''•'' 

rtBrtiirruw iprri) the valour of the d«ad L. 12. 36. 

b. ri^i^XlarriToOrarp^ (leas common). Thaa, 1, oUlU, Xlimm the hotue 
0/ Simon L. 3. 32. 

C. roO rarpit t6 pifOJo* (to emphasize the gealtlve or when a genitive has JQit 

preceded). Thus, rfi vtinft ri iiAytSot (A« grtatniu oftht victoTy X. H. 0. 4. 19. 

d. tA fiifi^er r«£) rarpit (verj common). ThlU, i^ T6\ta rwr Xt7Anwr lAfr 

q^ntfry o/ tft« tptakera L. 13. 41. The genitive of the dividsd whole (ISOS) 
is BO placed or ae In c 

N. 1. — A Babetantlve with no arUde la HOmatimeB followed by the article 
and the attributive genitive j ^1 aair^r lirrn r^r Btm^drrai going to Ae tnw 
(namely, that) of Xenophon X. A. tl. 4. 19. Cp. 1169. 

1162. The order bringing together the Mine forma of the article (tv'*'«I>™ 
warpit /St^Uoi;) ia avoided, but two or three articles of different form may etand 
together: tA r^f raS (afrarrDt T^rqi l>Yor the wort of the art of the iOool-«iT4eT 
P. PoL 281 a. 

1163. The attribative position Is employed with the posBeaeive prononna and 
the possessive genitives of the reflexive and demonstrative prononna (1184), adrli 
meaning lame (UTS), and rfit expressing the turn total (1174). 

1164. Twoormoreattrtbutlvesof asabstantivearevariouslyplaced: (1) th 
rat dXX&i 'AptatLitii riUit to the Other Arcadian eitiet X. K. 7. 4. 38. (S) ri ir 
'Ap(s9l9 Tj tdO iiM raS Aucalou ltp6t the tanctuary 0/ Ljfcean Ze«$ In Are^ia 
P. B. 685 d, (8) ^f Til- fwl rf ariiuiTi roD Xi/iimt rTinO trrn rir (ripor wtpytt 

to the other tower at the movth of the harbovr which tnu narrow T. 8.90. 

(4) it tS oUlf tS Xo^^JIdu ri rapi rb 'OXufimur in the hotttt of OhorvMes 
by the Olj/mpieum And. 1. 16. (G) iri rur it ri 'Aalf riXntr 'EXX<rrIiu> 
from the Greek cities in Asia X. H. 4. 8. 16. (S) rpit rj)r in Tfjt £i«Xui 
Tui 'AB^raiur nryiXiiT jtaioirpi^far with regard to the great failure of the 
Atheniant in Sicily T.8.2. (7) ri t»xm ri fuufiAr ri rirwo the long eouthem 
wall And. 3. 7. 

1165. A relative or temporal clause may be treated as an attributive : 24X«r 
i/dtit Toit attt afrrot irdp^rtut Solon detested men like thte man here D. 19. 264. 

1166. Position of an attributive participle with lia modiflera (A = article, 
N =z no»n, P = participle, D = word or words dependent on P) : (1) APND : 
Tir i^Mer/it&ra tlrtvnr rg T6\tt the danger intending over the State D. 18. 176. 

(5) APDN : rc>»i npurrqiimi rg riXn nrjdroio D. 18. 179. (3) AUPN : Tir 
T4TtrSrt\«np.<rTdrraiiMunr D. 18. 188. (4) NADP: troitiorlxaSir^lurTiiw 
. . . KaraiavXiiiaoiUrrir irarrai he has in readineMt a force to enslave allO. S. U. 

1167 a. Especially after verbal sabstantlves denoting an aetton or a state an 
aitrlbatlve prepositional phrase is added without the article being repeated : rj^r 

fU7dXi)P HTpartlir 'A^nluv real tvv fuMiixM' it tJ-^vwrn the great l^ptdition of 
the Athenians and tluir allies to Egypt T. 1. 110. 

b. A word deflning a tubatantivlied participle, adjective, or inBnitive may 

ii7>] THE ARTICLE 296 

be placed befon Um utlole lor ton^iaria : jcot rtOrm rwh dS^at nXoO^r aid in 
aitl itnttntott thote who htnt lenowltdg» of this D. 67. 66, rtirtiw r*ti inrrha 
uiiA tA0 ofpotfta of that T. 7. 76. 

Predicate Position of Adjectives 

lUa A predicate adjective either precedes or follcnrs the article 
and ita noun : ov^ i iv^p or 6 &y)ip tro^ot the man is toise. 

TbnSidrtXtrrg rtcndr/rn^ar thef retirttt toUh their victory iaeompUte T. 8.27, 
f rXI|> (x"*' t4> n^oXifr wftA Ai> Aeod bare X. A. 1. 8. 6, rat rpiiptu d^tJXiwar 
xn^ thqf lowed t)/lA« •Afp« utttout their crew* T. 2. 93. 

a. This iB called tbe predicaM podtioD, which often Lentb emphasis. 

1109. A predicaM adjective or mibatantlve may tbuB be Uie equlTalent of a 
diiue ol a complex aenteDce : iSiwarar r^r ntpl alrrur ^r4uT|r naTaXfl^oimr 
tkei vUI leave behind a remembrance of themtelvet that will never die 1. 9. 3, 
iripm -wivar n Ath tA rrpdm^w ke asked about how large the force ions that 
he VKU leading (, = rifrerTi ail Tivrpimiijiiiyoi 2d47) X. C. 2. 1. 2, ra/ Juti-rMv 
riw iaiit/dx"* ^^' irf*inrli,r tXapat Aej/ received the leadership JTom their allies 
(being nilling) mho were willing to confer it 1. 1. 17, 

1170. A predicate expression may Ktand iualde an attribDlive phnse : i tfiiif 
(pred-) XrrAfuKx ytupyit he aho is caBed a sklifiil agriculturist X. O. 19. II. 
lliis is common with participles of naming with Uie article. 

1171. The predicate position is employed with the demonsuatlTea airtt, 
lit, ittiKit, and f/i^H, A^i^ipat, ixiTipoi, and Isarrot ; with th« poascMlve 
gEnitiTea of peiBOnal and relative pronouns (1186, 1106) and of aOrti (1201) ; 
witho^r^ meaning h2/ (1209 b); with the genitive of (he divided nhole (1306), 
u re^Tur «l wXttrrpi the most of these X. A. 1. 6. 13, ol ipttrei rSr rtpl atrh 
the bravest of his companions 1. 8. 27 ; and wttb *a> meaning all (1174 b). 

a. This wise man is a(rm i ito^iit drfp, h to^ Mip bCtoi (and also i ca^ 


1172. AdJectlTea of Place. — When used In the predicate poeilion (1168) 
(Npat (ht^h) means the top of, |iirot (middle) means Oie middle of, l>xai«( 
{erteeme) means Oie end of. Cp. auntmtu, mediiu, extremus. 

AttrOutttt PoMlon PridieaU PotOtm 

t4 b^r iK,, the lofty mountain *'^' '* "^ 1 "« '"-P "^ 

t4 tfot Atfior J the inoBnIaiH 

i,,a^iy.pi the central markst i^iiypi Uhe centre of 

t^ 1 • r- ^ dTopa liiini the market 

i i^X^r^ -^" the farthest Uland ''^^'' ] '*'" "^,^^"1'' °{, 

' * ^ ^ -^ 4 rijant irxirii the island 

Thos, rtpl ixpau ratt x'P'' X'V^^ gloves on the fingers (^points of the 
tanilj) X. C. 8. 8. IT, Sttt iHvoo raC rapaStlfov >ci fimvs (hrough the middle of 
ihe park X. A. 1. 2. 7. The meanhig of tbe predicate position la also ezpresMd 
by (ri) itper roO Spovt, (t4) ^ar r^i iyep&t, etc. 


1173. |i^rot, ii)uair|. — (1) Attribntive : A iiirat rait the only whi, bI liiiUtiai 

X^TEi half-favoun. (2) PredicaW : iiint 6 rait (or i raa /liroi) rmlfti the 
boy playl alone, fjnurvt i ptot (or 6 /Sfvi liiuaui) hdlfofUfe, rd Apiiara r& liiiinL 
half of the char iota. 

a.^i%: (I) Attributive: b airit dr^p tht vane man. (2) Predicate: air^ 1 
ir^p or & Ariip atrbi the man himself. 

1174. vat (and in the strengtliened forme drai, fi/irai all together), a. In 
tlie attributive powtioa irai denotes the wbole regarded aa the aum of all iu 
parts (the sum total, the eoltective body) : oJ rirrtj roXirai the tchale body of 
eitisens, i) rita 2i«\Id the whole of Sicils, droitTHMi t-o*i irarrai MuriX^ralaut 
to put to death the entire Mitylenean population T. 3. 38. 

N. — Hence, with numbera, ol nirrtt, rJt oiifwam In allt i^tiam tnX x^^*" 
Dl i-drro 1600 in all T. 1. 60. 

b. In the predicate (and uoiial) position xai means all: Tirrn at TaXiru or 
(often emphatic) ol xoXItbi rirrn all the citizens (individually), rtpl rdrrai 
Todi 0cDi)t ilatp^icairi cat tit Srie'ar rl)>> w6\iy i^fuiprilfdirir they have commitlfd 
impiety towards all the gods and have sinned against the tchole Slate I.. 14. 42. 

C. Without the article : rdms roXiTai all (conceivable) citizens, fuv^vadiit- 
m nirrat irBpiireut hiring every conceivable person L. 12. 00. 

N. 1. — In the meaning pure, nothing but, irSi U Btriclly a predicate and hu 
no article : tinXi^ •ppmipoiiuKit ini wirrur roXtnlur hemmed in by a ring of 
guards all of whom are his enemies ( = nirrtt 1/^ S>r ^poufwiriu roX^^uol tlci) 
P. R. 570 b. So wava. rnmli utter baseness. 

N. 2. — The article ts not used with rSi It the noun, standing alone, -would 
have no article. 

N. 3. — In the singular, rat often means every : air o-oi iraira iSJt rfhropoi with 
you every road Is easy to travel X, A. 2. 6, fl, rata Si\aria every sea T. 2. 41. 

1175. CXot: (1) Attributive: ri Sknr arpdreuna the ■whole army ; (2) Predi- 
cate : SXov ri tTpiTtvpa (or ri ffTpdrti/ia SXai') the army as a whole, riir rCitTa JlXiir 
the entire night. With no article : S\or trrpiTtviia a whole army, 5Xa aTpuTtiiutTt 
whole armies. 

1176. Th.e demonstratiTe pronouiiB ouros, oSe, txtivK, and oArot a^f, 
in agreement with a noun, usuallj take the article, aod Btauid in 
the predicate position (1168) : ouros a dy^p or d Av^p oCtos (never 
6 ouTos A.vrip) this -man, avri^ b hrqp or o outos the man himsetf 
(6 QVTos dvijp the same man 1173). 

1177. One or more words niaj separate the demonstrative from Its nonn: 
i TtiTcii tpat Toii d»9pi^ev the love of this man P. S. 213 c. Note also rfl* otalur 
Ttrii tUv ittlnir Some 0/ their slatxt {some of the slaves of those men) P.A.33d. 

117& ooTot, 5&t, (Kcivo« sometimes omit the article. 

a. Regularly, when the noun Is in the predicate: atrij (otgj Invj) iroXoYfi 
let this be a sufflcient defence P. A. 24 b, eluai <fiil>> rair^r rarpUa ttrat I think 
this is my native country X. A. 4. 6. 4. 

b. Usually, with proper names, except when anaphoric (1120 b): itiTrti 
e«uin>ilii|( that (well-known) Thueydides Ar. Ach. 708. S 

1= C.oo^^li.' 

iiS4] THE ARTICLE 297 

C. URully, wfUt definite nnmben: rairm rpiijam iwis lAcM thirty mtnae 
D. XT. 23. 

d- Opdoiully, wbeD a reUUve claose follows : iwl 74* Ti)rji ^Aifur, it i ol 
wmripn intuf H4Jwi> itpdrtivur tee kavt eomt againtt Ihi* land, in mhleh our 
/atherM conquered the Xedes T. 2. 74. 

e. la ihe pbnue (often contemptuous) oCtm drip P. Q. 606 c ; and in other 
eipressioiis denoting some emotion : ii^pttwot tlrrtfft D. 18. 248. 

f. Sometimes, wlten the demonatraliTe follows lla noun : hrlypaiiiia riSt T.6. 
61). So often in Udt. 

f . FieqnentLy, in poetry. 

1179. Am^i iii^iTipoi both, ixdrtpat tach (of two), horror each (of seTeral) 
ha*e the predicate poelUon. But with tuaafoi ttie article Is often omitted : csri 
T^r iiiJpir inianiw (day hg day and) every day, naS' itdariir iiiiipir every day. 

1180. The demoHBtraCives of quality tjai gKantitg, TetoCrai, roibaSe, ToanBrti, 
TMivSc, T^Xucoi^ai, when they take the article, usually follow it: rSr Tooo6rur 

lel TMoitTur iyaSaw of to many and gueh bleatngt D. 18. 306, rolh-o t6 rDuin-» 
l9ot tveh a practice as this 21. 12S. i 3«(ra lucA a one (OSQ) legnlariy takes 
the article. 

«. Bot the predicate position occurs: rcra^^ 4 rpiirni TopovMiH) irpit rir 
riKtiiar >i/rX«i 10 great teat the fint ormomcnt which croued over for the war 
T. 6. 44. 

1181. An attribatiTB, tollowing the article, may be aepanted from its noun 
by a pronoun : 4 rdXtu 4^£r iiiiaa our old nature P. B. 1B9 d, i^ mHi avri) Mk 
(for avrif 4 "(H) Ufa) tAf« narrou rood X. A.4. 2. 6. 

1182. Possessive pronouns take the article only when a definite 
persoD or thing is meant, and stand between article and noun : ri 
jfior /^jSAiW nty hook, rh. ^/lirtpa. fii^kia OUT books. 

C But nameB of relationship, r6\ti, varplt, et£., do not require the article 

1183. The article ii not used with poHseasive pronouns or the genitlTe of 
personal and reflexive pronounH (cp. I1B4, IISS) : 

a. When no particular object is meant : ifiir fiipfJar or fiipxtar /wu a book of 

b. When these pronouns belong to the predicate : fuArrl)! Y^n ah\ I Aatw 
hteome apv^il ofyourt P. Enth. 6 a, q6 \6yavt iiiauroS \iyurnot ipeaking word* 
of wty oion D. S. 41. 


1184. In the attrlbative position (llo4) stands the genitive of the demoiutra- 
tlve, reflexive, and reciprocal pronouns, ri rnfrw pifiXlar or ri pi0\lot ri rcirev 
hit book, Ti i/iavTaO ^i^Xloi or ri fiipUow rb ifiavroO my oum book; furn-^/i^aro 
Tf/r iaVToS Svyaripa mt tit ralSa alfTijt he sent for his daughter and her child 
X. C. 1. 3. 1. 

a. Hie type rb PiffUar to&tbv is rare'' and suspected except when another 
aUribntlre Is added .- rj fBr Cfipti t»6tov )). 4. 8. The types ri pifi\l»r iiuarroO 
(Udt e. 23} and t» atrtS ptftUof (T. 6. 102) are rare. 


UU. In tiM predktto portion ■ta&di 

a. The geoitin of the petaon>l prononiu (whotber partitive or not): H 
fiifiXior mn (mil, aAroD, etc), or turn (cau, ah-sO, eto.) rl PifiXIcn when othet 
voTcU precede, m tt fx« »» r^' i3(X^ifF who ko* yawr tMer (o w(r« Aod. 1. SO. 

b. Tbe genitive of the other proooona tued ptutltlvely. 

N. 1, — Homer doei not nae the article in tlie abore caaea, and often emjdoyi 
the orthotone tonna (riti ^a cXM tAf ^eot /ame r 21t). Eveu in Attio 
JfioS for ;iMr ooooTB (iiieO rd ^oprfa m|r uore* Ai. Veep. 1308). 

K. 3. —The dlHerenoea of poaitlon between IIU and 1186 ma; be thua Ulna- 

tt**^' Mt hook U pnttf : nUr Jrr< t4 JSi^Xigr «»<>. 

nUv fori fiBU t4 ^iflUar, 
Jfy prstty boot .* rft nU* /hit fitfiKlor, 

Iheil read ttefr booJ:* .* tA JowAr fiifitJa tmytynirtmiri. 


1U6. The inteiTogiitiTfls rlt, roui« ma^ take th« articlfl when a 
question is asked about an object before meotioned : SO- rw 8q 
JiMiKi, i fcZSpc, &vrdfM$a Kpivar. 4AL fi xou ; SoOB. Sow at laat we 
can decide thoie qwatiotu. P&. (The) what gueationaf P. Phae. 277 a. 

1187. So even with a peiaonal pronoun : A. iiOpa SJ) «iM i^fid* ... B. •-m 
X/v<'( *«i roftA rltai to«i Mi I A. Corns kOKer traifkt to m. B. Wkithir 
doyau nMONand wAoonyou tAal/amtoeometo (yon being who) f P.Lya,203b. 

11B8. UiAat olAer. —i lX>«i in tbe slngnlar nioaUj meana tke rtM (^ dUq 
'EXXii tA« rett o/ Oreeee); in tbe plnral, IA« otkert (ol IXXm *EVXii»(i 1A« other 
(eetert) tfreei*, hut iXXgi'EX\i|iKf oiktr (alfl) ffrMki). A subatantiTlzad adjeo- 
ttva or participle luoally ha> the article when It stands In apposition to ol IXXh : 
raXXa ri rnXirtil tke Other civic offoirt X. Hi. 0. 6. On axXoi, 1 AXXm (aotne- 
tlmea (rtpat} heeidet, see 12T2. 

1189. wsXii, ilklft : ri wb\S luually means the grtM{tr) part, •! roXXoI lie 
multitiute, tA«TOl^rcrotMl; rXilam aeveral, ol rXiIam lAc m^jorfty, tAe man; 
T\tittn eery man^r, si rXcivrai (ft« most,' dXI^w /«u, ol 4X1ym tJl« oI^jrarcAj (as 
opposed to b1 roXXel). l^ote rsX«t predicalire i ^*1 /<1^ nXXi tA xpA isAm Ac 
•aw that (Asre tso* iiAandanee ofneat X C. 1. 8. 6. 



1190. The nominative of the personal pronoun is usually omitted 
except Then emphatic, e.g. in contrasts, whether expressed or implied : 
JmI 3^t ifui. >A 0i\tTt xti'AtrAu, iyta avy i/uy ifnoM nnoe you are not 
Kiiling to obey me, I will Jbllow along with you X. A. 1. 3. 6. In con- 
trasts the first pronoun is sometimes omitted (930). 

llftl. Wliere there la nooontissfthe addition oftheinQnoan may itnngtbeii 
the *erb i *( ^iitt roOre 0ti\n Iwoxfti^tt, ri U ToirriBtn My* tfyou do not mM 
to reptf nn to thU, tell me then Z. C. fi. 6. 21. 


1192. Thitfvnmi/uGtipeljMii <fi^ and the aooented fotnu of the immonn of 
tbe ■eoond penon (S26 a) m lued when emptiMla Mid uiually after prapoal^ 
tioOB : Kol rtlrb tfii «vtA f Swicdi im lal tiffin rap tiioB and aJUr pmatUng o* 
m» jroN g<ne nw pUdgsM of faith and reeefiwd them from me X. A. 1. 0. 7. Cp. 
1ST N. 2. On the reflexive lue of the penoual prouoaaa of the Snt and secoDd 
penona, see 1821-1224. 

1193. iyii, ai (i^, ah) kre nrely used of %a Imaginary peiaon (' any- 
body ■): D. e. 17, X.B.A. 1. II. 

1194. Tbe nomlaative of the pronoun of the third penon li replaced by 
iainti (ol abeent petsoiu), Kt, atrst (of preeent pereona), i iUp . . ,i U (aX the 
be^nning of a eeutenoe), and by afrii in contnutt. Tbe oblique oaaee of tbe 
foregoing replace oE, etc., which in Attic proae are naually Indirect reflezlTes 
(1228, 1229). at and f in Attio proee oocor chiefly in poetioal paMagei of Plato ; 
in Attic poetry tbey are perwinal ptononna. The prouoiui of the third penon 
ii Teiy ntM in the oraton. 

1195. Homer oaea fe, eT, etc, m pereonal prononn* (= a<r«0, atrf, etc., in 
Attic), in which cue they are enclitic : JiA /uvrarfnrr, r^v U ripi ttifiat dy the 
aHofdivtiuUioii,vil^ehFh<MbtugaBetoMm AT2, Homer ^ao neea fa, iil,eui., 
either aa direct (= faimD, etc. , ISIB) or ■■ indiiect reOexif ea ( = otroO, etc., 1336). 
la the former caae they are orthotone ; In the latter, either enclitic or otthotone. 
Thna, at watSa fcuiira ylniTQ he begat a ton like unto hinueff S 800, ad nri 
tifir iiuJef at l/rnti AtnQf he aoy* thert U no one of the Danaane litt unto 
himtelf I 806. Hdt. agreea with Horn, except that iC, ol are not direct reflezivea 
and otthotone ; r^lvi (not r^i) la lefiexlre. 

For the article with a poaaeaalve |>rononn see 1182-118S. 

1196. The poaseflsivfl pronouns (330) of the first and seooud per- 
sons are tbe equivalents of the possessire genitive of the personal 
pronouns : tftm ^ fiov, trot '= trmi, ^fimpof ^ ^I^^Vi i/urtpos = Sfuav. 

a. When the poaaeaslTes refer to & definite, particolai thing, they have the 
article, which alwaya precedea (IIBS); the penoual pronouns have the predicate 
poeition (1186). Dlatlngoiafa 6 i/iit if-CXot, i ^IXai i Iii6t, i ^Xai ftau My friend 
from ^(Xm iiiM, ^IXsf «iau a JHtnd of mine. 

b. A word may atand In the genitive In appoaition to the peraonal pronoun 
implied in a poaKaaira prononn. See ftTT. 

1197. A pooKarive pronoun may have the force of an objective geniUve 
(cp. 1331) of the peraonal prononn : fMf rg i/tv ottt offrietuUh^for me Z. C. 
3. 1. 28. (#(XU 1, fftif nanally means mffriindghip (^for other*)). 

use. The possessive pronouns of the first and second persons are 
sometimes re&ezive (when the subject of the seuteoee and the pos- 
sessor are the same person), sometimes not refieziva. 



1. Not reflexive (adjective my, thji (your); pronoun mine, thine 

l|iAt, v^ : ipi tAw ifiir ^o* Ae tea mg friend, ipi rir ^f waripa the Me* f 0>r 
fattitT, arifyti rhr tfiir raripa he love* my father (or tJf waripa rir l/iiw or 
ror^pa ti* iiiir ; or rir rtripa luv or /lav rir vaTipa), ol iiwl i^ai^iol n*\- 
XfoKt it rUf ruf •firo-ar my ej/ei will proee to be more beautifvl than gowt 
Z. S. 6. 5. 

2. Reflexive (my ovm, thine (i/our) ornn). 

a. Vavrafi, o-t«vroe, in the attributive position (veiy oommoii) : fXofSar rir 

ilunrroO /ufBir (or Ti» /lurMv rir itiavToS") I reerived mjf (oion) pay, r6r 
iSt\<pit rir iitavroB littitfa I sent my (own) brother Aet. i. M, xirl ruil 
ravT^i nnuri iJrl rati i/iah 7(X;i; art thou laughing at thine own mimty 
and at mine f S. El. 879. 

b. iyM, vit (leas common): ari^yt rir tiiir waerip* I love my (own) father, 

cTipritn T^ir ~rj)r lapipa you love yoHr (own) tnother, 4 'm4 'V*^ nty w(fe X. 

C. 7.2.28, <lS«X*4i T^t ^rpJt rflt Mi brother of nty mother Aad. 1. 117. 
C l|iit>«4«e, rAtairoe(pofltiaftl}: rir ^/lir d^roPrar^M ((346, aO.T.416}. 
d. |W«, •«v(rere): riv rnr^ fuv Ant. 1. 83. 

N. — When the possMBor is not to be mistaken, the article alone is pUeed 
before the sabattuttlTe uid the poaaeealre or reflexive prouonn 1b omitted (op. 

1121). Thus, rr4prfiu rir var^pa gOU lOM your {OWO) father, trtpyti rirrurif^ 
he loDM hit (own) father, rr4py»vri rir wtrtfa Aey love their (own) father. 


1. Not reflexive (adjective our, your; pronoun ours, yours). 

«. %iiTip«t, ifinpat: i liiUrtpat ^IXoi our friend (more common than i ^Oot 
i^fiAr), i i)iJrtptt ^fXof yow friend (more common than i ^f\«t hiiAr), t^r^ 
«ir wMoiium 4 f'l^' 4 rQr iiurtpm nrbi making a eeareh for yom or for 
anything of your* L. 12. 80, 

2. Reflexive (our own, your own), 

a. 4|pinpoti i^irtpot (common) : aripyQiiew rbr tuiirtptr ^tXar we love o*r own 

friend, eripyrrt rir tittrtpaf ^IXar yon love your ovm friend. 

b. Usually the intensive AirOr Is used with 4/i^(pof, fyi/ripot in agreement with 

4)iur (i^af) implied in the poMCBsive lorms. This gives a stronger fonn 
of reflexive. ITiaa: 

Io«e our own friend, alxMniuw. 4 rflr ^(Xwr nvt 4 4/i^cpar a^Sr a Ao<u« 
ri(fl«r /or »oma on« of our friend* or our ow» P. Q. 6U b ; arifywrt rir 
b/Urtpar airSr ^IXov you l0V6 your own friend, SM^tirt Tobt ralSai nit 
biitrtpovt airlit teach your own childrtn 1. 3. G7. 

C. ^ipAv, ifSir (rare): alTiiiiMearoitraripu i/nAw l^ u* aeenie our (own) father* 
P. Laob. I79c. 

d. f||Ul* otrAv, jfiA* aAtAv (very raie) : SInuor 4>ia> . . . ^abwte »ir« 4fid> 

■km] possessive feonouns 801 

uirAr rfi 3if«t Mttrrtpmit it i» not right for u* to thtne ournlvei inferior 
to our OVm fame T. 2. 11, rd rflr tm» «il tA l>n&r o^fir tirXa {A« «{m4)- 

«enti bo(A (t^ |KH>r Aoncf and poMrMJnM X. C. 0. 8. 81. 


1. Kot reflezive (Ats, her, its). 

a. aiTafl, *Arf|i, «h«fi in tfae predicate poaltlon (very common) : 6pa rif ^flwr 

odroC (a^i) J «ee hit (Aer) JViend, yiyiiaKur airaS rjgv drS/xlar Jtnowjn^ 
U> eoura^e P. Pp. 810 d. 

b. kilvoa, etc., or rvtrw, etc. in tba ftUTibuti7e position (very commoD): ifid 

Tiwiiiii" ftlXa*, of rir ialrov I tee my frind, nothla, d^UfoOrrot rap' 'Apuijgi- 
Kol r^i'tolwi'ffTparulr tAey tomt upuitA ^n'oeutand Aflaimy X. A. 2. 2. 8, 
wopttiXiMi rtvai rili rv^aii /riTificlwir Ac tummoned iome of hi* /Mendt 
C t*, 4, •*, Horn. Mt, ii, Ur (poetical): rfiv T^fw Mr ttik imfXXat A« nunrfed 
her beeauM of her beautg X 282. Horn, hu <{ rarely for airev, ah-^t. 

2. Beflexive (his oum, her oton). 

M. lMi«e, kvH^i, in the atlriliutlTe position (very common): vriprfti rhii tauraO 
^Aar A« lovei hit own friend, ip^ rti* 4ai/T^i /nrripa the eee« her own motlter, 
ri/r tairroB iStX^w SlSuai Xt69ji he gtves hit own tister in marriage to Sen- 
thea T. 2. 101, A^plfti YvnTra r j)* ^avraO he mifutet hit own wife And. 4. 16. 
This \b the only way In prose to express hit own, her own. 

b. tt (Uf): poetical. Sometimes In Homer If (^ii) lisH tbe setue ol MM wUfa 
no reference to tbe third person (1230 a). 

C It aAtoS, ««rf|l (poetical): Sw a^iB rarfpa (K20i). 

1. Not reflexive (their). 

I. airAr tn the predicate position (very common): 6 ^fXat afr^r their fHend. 
b. 4Hi(M>r, *«4Tair In the attributive position (very common): i re^wr (^ittlrar) 

pDiM lAeir friend, Sid r^r iKtltuii ArvTlAr beeaHte of diatrutl of tAem 

And. 8. 2. 
C r4««r (Ionic): Hdt.6.68. 

2. Befiexire ((AeiV ovm). 

A lavrAv (very common) : rr^n^iwt roh hurar ^IXaut IA«tr Ioe« (A«fr otm 
friendt, rdc ^ovrwr nintdx'" Kan^pirovw Ihty defpittd their own alliea 
XH. 4.4, 7. 

k *4<npoi •trA*. the iotendTe aArdF agreeing with r^Of Implied In r^ifwi 
(common): o/t/Tai roOf c^rripovt air&t HuniaOrrat Ihty call their own 

tlaeet a* witnettet Ant. 1 . 30, 
C v^Av >frrAr, without the article (rare) : t1 Jfj/ura aiarpdrrBrrai ff^fiv ■^Oo 

TpM^pB^^Mi (A«v contrived that their own uamet were added L.13.T8. 

C^. 1234. Tbr t^O* a6ra* iB not ueed. 
t, •^Jrtpot (rare In pioae) : Boiurot iiipoi rb a^tpot TKptlx"ra the BoeMan* 



•; v4** lo *^ pradloMa portion, oeoaaioiiBUy In Tlincrdlde*, u i«dt £iiwidx«M 
MMur» t^Of thet wn ttfraid 0/ their oum aUUt 6. 14. Cp. 1226 N. t. 
1203. BmniiMay of poMtMlve tonna (poetical forma In panadie^). 

a. NotnflazlTe 

t\g vin BBu your 6*i/r^p«f VAf 

JUf, JUr (h Horn., iva) a^roD, -^ th«iT a^rHr 

(ct Horn., nre) { (jt^tf Ionic) 

N. — iiikhtfm and Wrqni m« more oaed than ^nx&p and £fcdr. 

b. lUflexiTO 

mv own '/lAi {ifiia ah-aB, -4i) //wirtO, -4i 
(Ay OWH ffit (fit ch-oO, -4t} ftauraO, -^i 

own (<t) (tt adroO, -^f) «ai^oO, -ft 

our own 4fi^(pa> it/i^n^poi 0^3* 

your Otn ifi^i^t v/i^tpat atrHr 
their OVn r^ipn r^tpm airSr 
(ran) taurQr, r^tl* 


N. — In the plontl 4fA> ah-Br, 6fi(>>> ah-tlti' are replaced by ^/i^rtptt ah-Sr, 
bli4rtptt ah-Sv, and theae forms are commoner than jfitirtfei, hithtfot. r^H-ip« 
abrSw la leas oommon than tairr&w. ff^tptt in poetry may mean mfne own, 
(Mm oim, yoar oun. 


UOt. aMt U used as an adjective and as a pronotm. It has three 
distinct naee : (1) aa an intensive adjective pronoun it meana telf 
(ijMs). (2) Aa an adjective pronoun, when preceded by the article, 
it meaas same (ideti^. (3) In oblique cases as the personal pro- 
noun of the thira person, Attn, her, it, them (eum, earn, id, eoa, etu, ea), 

1209. Only the firat two uam ne Homeric. In Horn, airit danotea the 
inlncipal person or thing. In opposition to what Is subordinate, and Is intensive 
by contrast : airir ml ttpdvorra the man himttlf and hU attutdant Z IB (cp. 
inhriir' sAriv col rulat P.O. 611 e and see ISOBd). On adrii as » reSexlve, see 
1228 a; on tirit emphatic with other pronouns, see 1238(L 

1206. a&TOi ia intenaive (»^f) 

a. In the notaintUive case, when standing alone: afrrqt ri^ y^r 
ItrxoK they (the Athemane) seued the land theiMdvea T. 1. 114. Here 
avrat emphasizes the word understood and is not a personal pronoun. 

b. In any case, when in the predicate position (1168) with a sub- 
stantive, or in agreement with a pronoun : airii i dyijp, 6 iyifp atmic 
ths man himtelf, atmn roC dy^wt, roC dv^poc aJfmC, etc. 

1207. WitL a proper name or a word denoting an indlvidnai, the article ii 
omitted : odrlf H/wr Mtnon AfMM^T X A. 2. 1. G, xpi ah-vC paaOJ^ in front 
of Ma Oreat KinQ himtelf 1. 7. 11. 

1206. The word empbaalMd may be an obUqna oasa whloh most be anpt^iad : 
n»T* M Ml ah-it i BpAvIMf T^ Qtrwti^Y 79 ■>! adroit (wfl. To?t eMvoXaK) ^Om 
«r Mrai and Smaidat AtewfT olnt fsid tiM A< ame at a (ritid to lh» eoaalry 

iMfl] THE PRONOUN odrw! 808 

of At Tke—aUan* ana to As nte$$aliaiu tkcmwlm* T. i. 78, 3*; ralruw toCt' 1t% 
tnrMr («ril. 4fi£t) ah-stft tM mtiM foTthviah eouidcr tAi* moUer ovrMivei D. 2. 8. 
1309. 8ped»l rendetingi of the emidiBtio ah-it : 

a. Br a»ei/. fw it»elf, unaid^, otofM, etc: a^ 1i dX^ffna (JW ncuted InilA 
Am. 3. 207, rA«Xiar raO x<^i> o^ri jto^^r ^PX* A« jfrtater part o/Aeplaet 
ma $trong in itMelf (^wUhmt utifMal fortiflostion) T. i. 4. On a^oA drS^i 
men and all, see 162fi. <i6t6 with a noun of any gender Is used by Plato to donote 
the lOitraet idea ol a thing : airi ri xaXtr ideal btantj/ B. 493 e, utri tuwurint 
Had JMMbx 472 c. 

b. Jvtl, m»relv; airi ri Nur fiut what tM mini X. A. 4. 7. 7, airi riU* 
Merely tAt* T. I. 1S9. 

C FolKMorflif .- Arlpat at ad rait /ti) irm\»uiUteu airti hicr par tioufi men 
uko uninvitsd turn tAefr anu eiMn ivalnft tAoae teAo do not ojjL tftelr owM- 
ance T. 4. 60. 

d. The Matter (Bald \ty a papil or ria*e) ; A^rii 1^ tAe JTofter (PTthagona) 
Mlita((pMd£i;it)Dlog. Laert. S. 1. 46, rlta»r«ii Ah-jf. rliA^rii, ZiM^nrt 
IF»o'* IAi»/ rft« JTotter. ir*o'» tke Mattert Sotratet Ar. Nub. 880. 

e. With ordinals : ifii»^ rfwr^tvr^t SiimTin a^it ft« uot cAown enti0|r wftA 
sbu other* (f.o. UnHelf the tenth) X. H. 8. 8. 17. 

1210. After the article, in the attributive poeitiou (1164), avr^ in 
any caae means aartu. 

Thna i BiVrit ir4/i, nu^l; ^6) dH)^ i atrii lh« same man; toO a^roO S^mw in 
tke tame mnuner T. i. 68, ri a^i ro^n tAue eame Aingt X. A. 1. 1. 7, •! tpAi 
tirwtf aid T>^ tSv sh-Ar U70V1 Urorrn lAa people viho are eonUmtaUf making 
the tome tpee^het o&owt the tame thtngi Ant. 6. SO. 

a. Soasapradloate: tr^ iiirb atrit ttfu, t^U U lurmfiiiCytTt I am the tame, 
it it gou 10AO change T. 8. 81. 

lan In Horn, ntrtt, without the article, m>; mean tA« mom : Vx' " 'V 
eirliw itir, ^rwtp si IXKtt and ka glided him by the tame loajf at the othert had 
goM # 107. 

1212. abrit when imemphatic and standing alone in the oblique 
cases means Aim, h«r, if, them. iKeXtvor aM/v iwUvai they ordend her 
to dqtart L. 1. 12. 

1213. Dnemphatio a«raD, etc., do not stand at the be^nning of a aentenoe. 

1214. o^eO, etc., usnaU; take up a preceding noan (the anaphoric use): 
loUfxit M Ad|inrrsr Xtyi *^t air'-i' luJtt «iiMDioa(n(r Damnipput, I tpeak to 
him atfollaait L. 12. 14. But an oblique oaoa of adrAi te often suppressed where 
Eogliih employs the pronoun of the third person : ^/n-irXaf iritrur rifr ftAiait 
Iwirtiae having tatlffi^ the rtUndt of aU he iiimieted them X. A. 1. 7. 8. 

121s. ohvS, etc., may be added pleonasticallj ; iropd^ o^ut Ty i-di-rv, ipirt- 
rrn A* Iwwtit, niiiiaxt'iw etri IxeUl try, tinee lam an txeellent AorMtnan, to he 
an ally to my gran^aAer X. C. 1. 3. IB. 

1216. aArsS, «us., are emphatic (= sfrsO rstfrou, etc.) in a mi^ olanae whftn 
followed by a relative clause referring to airoi, etc. : itpiiKu airi. Si tttf fvirv* 


Ti Ifii Ipyt rXtfffTDu A{iii roitlfu clrsi yon have metUiotted (Ae veiy qualUf for 
which I ootuideT my work worth the highetl price X. M. 3. 10. 14. Bnt when 
the islative clause precedes, airai, et«., are not emphatic: oui Si iiii tvputtor, 
nnrd^v airalt iwoiifiar they bultt a cenotaph for Chote ahom they coald not 

find X. A. 6. 4. 9. 

121 T. ofrsu, etc., are oft«D used where, after a oonjauction, we expect the 
oblique caae of a relative pronoun ; S fii) oISc it^S' fx« atrcS a^pir/iiv. which he 


1218. Direct ReflexlvM. — The reflexive pronouns are lued directly 
when they refer to the chief word (usually the subject) of the sen- 
tonoe or claase in which they atand. 

■ywMi atavrir learn to know thyneif P. Charm. 104 e, r^Trn iaiiriir the kitU 
herself X. C. 7. 8. 14, n9' iavrait ^vKmaiiutm rik Ar\a mxpiSaaat nil b^i a^oiii 
offer dtliberiUing apart by eAemwIoef tAey turrendtred their arm* and themtelsrt 
(their persoiu) T. 4. SB. Lew oommonly the reference is to the object, which 
often stands in a prominent place : reit Si ripMlmiii d^^cev ^1 tsi lain-ar w6\m 
but theperioeei he ditmixted to their own cititt S.. H. 6. &. 21. 

1219. The direct refleiiveB are reguUr in prose If, In the same clause, the 
pronoun refers emphatically to the subject and Is the direct object of the main verb : 
iiiavrir (not i/ii) traiva I praise myielf. The usage of poetry is freer; rWm 
ri iiiSMtaf 4 W i' mourn thee rather than myweV B. Hipp. 1409. 

1220. The refieiivaB may retain or abandon their differentiating force. 
Contrast the third Example in 1218 with wapiiogar a^t attain they turrcndered 
(themselvee) T. ?. 82. 

1222. The personal pronouns are sometimes used in a reflexive sense : 
Bpitr^rrit ri lau col X^arroi roXXl nol di>d{ia titoi wailing and aaying much 
unworthy of tnyeelf P. A. 88 e (contrast itaiati nWi ni drdfia ffurroS yau will 
hear much unworthy of yourielf P. Cr. 63 e), ioica ^i dSiimrM ctroi / (teem to 
myseff to be) think I am unable P. R. .338 b (less usually 3oi>3 inairrf'). 8o in 
Bom.i iyir ipi Xtaa^u I will ranaom myself K 378. Cp. 1195. 

1223. iftil, ei, not iiMvrit, vnvriii, are generally used as subject of the infini- 
tive ; iyii ottuu koI i/U tal ci ri dJiHiv toG iSiKiurBai rdnof itytieSai I tMak that 
both irou and I believe that it ii worse to do lerong than to be wronged P. G. 47i b. 

1224. The use In 1222, 1228 generally occurs when there is a ccwtrau 
between two persons, or when the speaker is not Chinking of himself to the 
azclnaion of oUiers. Cp. 1974. 

1335. Indirect Reflexives. — The reflexive pronouns are used indi- 
rtdly when, in a dependent clause, they refer to the subject of the 
main clause. 



'Op/tfT^ Itaan 'AtfirnJovi ittvrbf naTiytir Oregtes pertaaded lh£ AthcTliattt tO 
mCore Aiin(w(/') T. 1. lit, i^SKen i KUapxot drar rh rTpdrmiia rpit iatirir 
lx*a rjt' yinn' CUarckua vriahtd the miire army to be devoted to himielf X. A- 
3. 5. 29. Cp. sibt, se. 

1226. Wben Uie sabject of tbe leading clauae Is not Uie aaine u the subject 
of tbe subordinate clause or of che sccuHative with tbe iuflnltire (19T5), tbe 
context mDEt decide to which subject the reflexive pronoun refers : (d taT^ofai) 
(♦f . . . imTtlSarra toJi t^ui aftrir , . . oEtui SiaTiSimu rait 4airT^ rvrirrai jr.r.X. 

the accuser taid that, by penuading tht yovng, he (Socrates) so dilated hi* (i,e. 
Bocnues'} ptfpi'*, etc. X.M.I. 2.62. 

1S27. ^trroC, etc., are rarely used as indirect refleslTes in Bdjectl?al clauses: 
ri p«>d7ta, Ira rpit ri fauTSr (yi) ^r, ivtl^arro they took Vp the wreekt, at 
■uiDy at were eioae to their own land T. 2. 92. 

1238. Instead of tbe indirect iavrtv, etc.. there may be used 

a. Tho oblique caseu of a^it : irtipa7o rait 'he-iintmn r^i itatriripy^t rofm- 
Xfcir he tried to dirert the At/ieniaat from their anger againtt himtelf T. 2. Sfi, 
When JovrsG, etc. precede, airoo, etc. are usual Instead of the direct reflexive ; 
tM* JovtoC ifiinrit itt^altrro Swipdrft tpit TOitt iyu^Crrat ah'y Soeratet tBOt 
teont to tet forth hit opinion to CAow who converted with him X. M. 4. 7. 1. 

b. Of the forme of the tliird personal pronoun, ol and ftfitfi (rarely ot, a^i, 
a^Ar, and <r^i) . Thus, ■ipiira airiit tl i6e\iiaei Siitar^at al he atked her if the 
would be teilUng to do him a lervice Ant. 1. 10, redi raHat itiXtiMir roi) Kipm 
Stiadai SutT/idfM'Au r^ffif they ordered their boyi to atk Cynu to get it done for 
them X. C. 1. 4, 1, u\titvfi yip i^iui uii^ luri c<plir roKtiialt for lAey urge at 
to XMke war in eommon with them And. 3. 27, f^i; H, iwii!i) dE itp^mu rlir i-ix^r 
d^ireSrftii r^i tit rbwor rtrk jai/iifior Ae taid that when hie toul had 

departed out of him, they (he and othera) came to a mytieriotu place P. R. 014 b. 
See lies. 

N. 1. — r^ii may be employed In a dependent sentence if tbe pronoun is iueU 

tbesabJectofaHUbordinatestaCement, and when the reference to the subject of the 
leading verb is deuianded by way of contrast or enipliasis : tlvKyayiir rodi AXXoin 
rr^Ttrro^ . . . \(yar itfKtvir airoiit 5ri tiiir S» (tto* a^itit ir/iyatr tJjjp STpvTii,t 
4 Zno^Sr after bringing in the rest of the generalt he urged them to tay that 
they could lead the army jnet at well at Xenophon X. A. 7. 6. 9. Here atral 
i^i) is possible. In tbe singular ai^Ai is necessary. 

N. 2. — Thucydidea often uses the plural forms in reference to the nearest sab- 
ject: Todi iv/ifidxivt iSiSiirar eif-ur they were afraid of their own alliet (— ir^r 
■JrAr) 5. 14. 

N. 3. — favraS, etc., are either direct or indirect reflexives, «t and <r^fri are 
only Indirect reflexives. 

1329. oC, ff^i, etc., and the obliqne cases of sArii are used when the sub- 
ordinate clause does not form a part of the thought of the principal sabject. 
This is nsnal in subordinate IndicaUve clauses, and very common in St, and ut 
tlsnsM, in Indirect questions, and in general in subordinate clauses not directly 
dependent on the main verb : rUt »pArjS«o.i-, ot aplirt (1481) r«pl rUt norSUr 
(Tirx«' i^irrn, ftitft^vi thry thought no more about their ennnyt, who were abteiU 


1230. The refiexire proDoun of the third person is sometimeB used 
for that of the first or eeoond : Set ^^t ivcpiaBia iavrom we mMt oak 
ourselvea P. Ph. 78 b, mumyytXXc roit cain-ou give orders to your men 

1231. Reciprocal Reflexive. — The plural forms of the reflexive pro- 
noiiiiB are often used for the lecipiocal iXX^aw, dXXiJAoK, etc. : ^fuv 
airoii 8uiX(£ojmAi we will OMverae with (punelves) one another D. 48. 6. 

1232. But the reciprocal rnoBt be used when the idea * eEicb (or or with hlm- 
■eU ' is expreiued or implied : fiaXXnv x^lpo""" ^' ^"< dXXifXvr lamii ij rott oAr-wr 

ISfoti d^aAiM (= ij irl rofi a-lrroS luaaTot dfoflori) thep take greater pieotvre tn ont 
another' f troubles than each man in Ais own good fortune 1. 4. 198, «i>T( yif 
MvTori nvre dXXriXoii iaoltvyoSirir thr,y an in agreement neither with thenuelvet nor 
tetth one another P. I'hae. 2-'(T c. Reciprocal and reflexive may occur In the same 
senteDce without diSeience ot meaning (0.46.9). The leflexiTe is r«golarl; 
used when there is acontraat (expresBed or implied) withdXXoi; ^r^lviw iavrcSt 
/t&\\»f i roll iWoij irSpiiroi! they envj/ one another more than (tbej envy) the 
reMt 0/ mankind X. M. 3. 6. 16. 


1333. Of the plural forms, ^/lu* airQr, etc may be eltLer emphatic or 
reSeifve ; airSr 4^uiv, etc. are emphatic on); ; but npUr airiit is only reflexive 
(■fc-af a^^r is not used). In Horn. aiT6r may mean myulf, Ihytelf, or htmtelf, 
and * atrir, ol aArf , etc are either emphatic or reflexive. 

1234. iiiiSr (A/iiSv, aift&r') a^Qv often mean 'their own men,' 'their own 
side ' : t"^^' aipSir rt a<>T(iy lal Tur (u/tMxvr KaTaJiiwSrra leaving a gorrUon 
(conaistlDg) of their ou>ii men and of the alliet T. 5. 114. 

1235. air&i, in agreement with the subject, may be need in conjQDCtion 
with a reflexive pronoun for the sake of emphasis : aiVrsl t^' iavr&r fxiipmir 
they marched by thejoselvei X. A. 2. 4. 10, a^ii . . . iaur/it ir liieif tXTtriStn 
ToG rrpaTaxiiou he located hiinielf jn the centre of the camp X. C. 8. 6. 8. 

123S. airii may be added lo a personal pronoun for emphaais. The forms 
4iii airhr, airSr fu, etc. are not reflexive like iiiaarir, etc Thus, toAi raStca rtiit 
iiudt iex^f *■>' '''^ airrii i^piae he diigrao-d my children and intuited me tnj/tetf 
L.1. 4. Cp. a^4> iiai Irlaavro he sprang fipon me myself E46G. Cp. 329 D. 

1337. The force of airii thus added is to differentiate, lliiu liii o^ir 
means myself and no other, iiuarrir msana simply mytelf withnnt reference to 
others, b/iat aArot!< is the usual order in the reflexive combination ; bat the 
differentiating yoa yourselves (and no others) may be i/iSt a^fdi or adroit bpir. 


12381 The demonstrative pronouns are used substantiTely or ad- 
jectively : oStos, or ovrot h Av^pi '^'s mun. 

1239. A demonBtratire pronoun maj agree in gende^ with & substantive 
predicated of it, if cotinecced witli tlie substantive by a copMative verb (BIT) 
Mpreased or understood; alrii (for toCto) dpfirrij St3a9ta\lalhta U the be»t 
manner of leitrning X. C. 8. 7. 24, (( if tu Taiiriji' (for roSro) tfpjjnjr IniiKaiifiirti 
bui (f any one reganU this at peace n. B. 0. 

a. But tbe unaltrscted neuter is common, eepecially tn definitions wbere the 
proDoan ia the prediCEkte : roOr' fanr 4 ditatixTiint IMs fs (wbat we call} justice 
P. B. 482 b. So Bix J^pti tbBt" iarl : iB not thii intolencef Ar. Kan. 21. 

1240. ovros and SSt this usually refer to something near in place, 
time, or thought ; ixilvo^ that refers to something more remote, o&ro&l 
and iSt are emphatic, deictic (333 g) forms (this here). 

1241. Distinction between oJrot and SSi. — SSt hie pointa with emphasis to 
■n object in the immediate (actual ur mental) vicinity of the speaker, or to 
Bomething just noticed. In tlie drama It announces the approach of a new actor. 
U( is even nsed of the speaker himself as the demonstrative of the first person 
(1242). sJrot itte may refer to a person close at band, but leas vividly, as In 
sialeinents in regard to a person concerning whom a queHtiou bas been ashed. 
When Sit and otroi are contrasted, IB* refers to tbe more important, d^oi to the 
len important, object. Thus, iW lit fiaaiXtih x^P*^ bvt lo I here cornea the king 
R. Ant. 155, aurji r Ant vm) here the (the person you ask for) it near thee 8. El. 
1474, col toOt' dnxinv tin rOrS' iXyttn ao that at obey both in them thing* and 
in thingt j/et more grievout S. Ant. 64. See also 1245. olrot has a wider range 
of use than the other demonetralives. 

1242. Mils used in poetry for /7.i: t^SH= i)wS) yi t^r,, tr, while I am 
live S, Tr. 305. Also for tbe pngBesaive pronoun of the flrat person : tl tu nigi' 
initrriu Xfryouf if any one thali hear theae m^f uiorda S. EL 1004, 

1243. aurat is sometimes used of the second person : rlt ofn-M^ ; aho't thta 
hrrff ( = mho are you f) Ar. Acb. 1048. Soineiclamationa : o5rot,r( iro«Hf you 
thfTft what are you doing f Ar. Ran. l&S. 

1244. TdSt, rdit rirra (raBra irdiTa) are used Of something cloae at hand : 
oil 'Ittrtt rdSt tlrlw ttie people here are not Ionian* T. 6. 77. 

1245. mrtK (rotovrot, roo-ovrot, and trurus) generally refers to what 
precedes, oSc (rouKr&, roawrSc, nJAiKotrSe, and <>>&) to what follows. 

Thus, Toiiit IXtfir he apoke at folloiea, but raiaSra (roo-oPr-o) tlriir after 
tptaiing [Ami. Cp. 6 KOpot itoiirat to5 Tuiffpiau tomuth Toidac wpii airbr IXtfi 
Oyruanfler hearing thete winls nfGobryaa amwered him aa foil/net X. C. 6.2.31, 

1246. fat sItm meaning (\) he too, liteteiee; (2) and in fact, and that too, 
points back : 'AyIbi *»t ZutpiTTft . . . lat TD^w iTtSar^iiy Agiut and Soeratet 
. ■ . they too irfre put to death X. A. 2. 0. 30 ; dx^ur irrl . . . lal Tuirar rertipat 
it Is characterittic of men toithoM retourcea and that too worthleaa 2. 6. 21 (cp, 
1320). On ical r.Cr. see M7. 


1247. But oEtoi, etc. sometimeB (especially in the neuter) nfer to vbat 
follows, and S3t, etc, (chough much less nfwti) refer to wlint precadea : pari H 
Tolhor tlrt ToaouTor but qfl»r Mm Iv. tpoke a$ folloWM X. A. 1. 3. 14, r«taiT*vt 
Uyniif tWtr he tpoke a* follows T. 4. 68, roiiSt wap»xi\tv6iitKit exJiorting them 
(Aim (as set forth before) 7. 76, uSi dirrcuair they bury them tknt (as described 
before) 2. 34, o^TUf f^n the ccae ie as follows (often in the oratoie) . 

1248. cStm (especially in the neuter ravro) may refer forward to a word or 
sentence in apposition : in nij tootij ii&ior imdrrai, ri wilaepTai that theg mag 
not consCder litt alone (n&mely) what they shall tvffer X. A. 3. 1. 41. So also 
ovruf. intirat aUo may refer fomSird : intin tepSalnrir int'rai r^r iSai^r thii 
(namely) pleasure, it regards as gain P. H. 606 b. Cp. 090. 

1249. oEtm (roioSmt, etc.) is reKulnrly, Sit (rwiiSc, etc.) lurel]-, lued as tlie 
demonstrative untecedeiit of a. relatiii': trar Toiaura X*7!Ji, a aUtlt ir ^V"" 
4i*/)*rw» whtn yon say siich things as no one in the world would aay r.0.4T3e. 
tvTM is often used witiiout a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence. 

1250. When lit retains its full force the relative clause is to be regarded as 
a supplementary addition : oG ij) oSr tnta X^u raiiTa rdrra rif iarl but Aere'j 

tAe reason uAjr / say all this I 1*. Charm. 16t>a. 

1251. The demonstratives otret, etc., when used as anteeedenls, have an 
emphatic force that does not reproduce the (unemphatic) English demonetm- 
Uve those, e.g. in you released those who were present. Here Greek uses the 
participle (reAt rap^rrat istMiraTt L. 20. 20) or omits tbe antecedent, 

1252. 0^01 (less often 4Ktiroi) may take up and emphasize a preceding subject 
or object. In this use the pronoun generally comes first, but may be placed 
after an emphatic word ; roi^arrti (Tt^Xtjii hlni4>laa.rro fit TttSrijr draypi^tw Toh 
<\iTi|plout having made a slab they voted to inscribe on it the (names of the) 
offenders Lye. 117, t Ar cTvpi, ffi^uH rn^aii whateeer you say, hold to it 
P. R, 346 b. The anaphoric a^it in its oblique cases is weaker (1214). 

1253. Tovra, Tai>ra (and afrri) may take up a BubstantiTe idea not expressed 
by a preceding neuter word : rf Tfi^'EXXdia ^XmB^flowaip- inult it oit' luiir airiXt 
fitfiauOiar mrri (i.e. TJjr i\tu0tplif) xfho freed Greece ; whereas we cannot seeiire 
this (liberty) even for ourselves T. 1. 122. 

1234, aCrot (lees frequently iriinn) Kiined of well known persons and things. 
Thus, rojfvlot oEret this (famous) Gnrgias H, Hipp. M. 2S2 b (cp. Ule), to^tovi T»*t 
ff6»^rrat these (notorious) iiiformTS P, Cr. 4.'i a (cp. (gte). Tin 'Apt#T€lSifr 
iutrer that (famous) Aristides f). 3. -li , KaXXfar hiinr that (infamous) CoIIiaf 
3, 19. isttf^i may be used of a deceased person ( I'. H, JW8 a). 

1255. When, in the same sentence, and refcrrinu In the same object, i^ot 
(or iKtim) U used more than once, the object thiix dpsii^nated is more or less 
emphatic : 6 6t6i /(aipoi/itm Tifruir rdr mu> toiItihi x/>4''" inipirats the god 
deprives Ihetn of their senses and employs them as his mfnltfen P. Ion 634 C 
For the repeated oSrat (/letMt) an oblique case of airit is usual. 

1256. To!ho iiir . . . T«i^o H first . . . secondly, partly . . . partif haa, 
especially in Hdt., nearly tbe sense oi rb lUr . . , ri Si (1111). 


laST. iMtvoi refers back (rarely forward, 1248), but impltea re- 
motenesB in place, time, or thought. 

Kijfiit mftipf ^affiUa Kal ri itiu/i Ixttrtr ariifnt Cyrut perceives the kinff and 
the band around him X. A. 1. 8. 20, r^n /ntm ArtxXA>twu' pimder are thipi toQ- 
iH^ttptouaT. 1. 51. 

1258. Jnifot msy refer to mj person other than the speaker Euid tbe peraon 
■ddreMed ; ami may be employed of a peraon not detlnitely described, bat 
lefeired to in a supposed case. It Is even used of the person already referred 
to by a^if in an obliqua case : ir atr^ JiJyc dpyipiar lal rtlSjit iitinm if you 
ffiee hint money and pertvade him V. I'r. ^llOd. tuimt, when so used, uaaaily 
stands in a different case than n^ii. Tlie order iKtiwti . . . ahti Is found : 
wpit iiir itilrein tix tlrtr t,ii txoi 7rii*iT|i', d\A' dT^irc^ftr airait ht did not ttU 
Ihem the plan he had, but dismissed them X. H. 3. 2. 9. * 

1259. When used to set forth a contrnst to another person, intim may eren 
refer to the subject of the lending verb (apparent reflexive use) : h-ar tr rp rp 

ipSvtf ilnAt tiiaGrrit n tal tiictltat ^iBtiparrat tfftrn they (the Athenians) see V* 
(the Dorians) in their land plundering and deslraying their property ( = T-4ioifT(a») 
T. 2. 11, A(fc rsiT XaXJsfwi Sri JJisi clrt Ara\(a<u irWiiiHv itilroMf ourt nXtfuTr 
M^m he said to the Chaldaeant that he had come neither teilh the detire to 
destroy them (Uttrovt is stronger than adroit) nor because he xoanted to rear 
vUKOum 5.C.8. 2. 12. 

1260. In the phrase Si* tmmi. Sit marks a peraon or thing aa present, iuirot 
t person or tiling mentioned before or well known : S3' itiinct ^il lol I am ht 
8.O.C. 188. Colloquial eipressiona are tow ^wfw there it is! (lit. tAto U (Aat) 
Ar.Acb.41,andTU' <»;» Ituldyouso K Med. 98. 

1261. DteUactloo between olmt and iKitvo*. ~ When reference is made lo 
one of two contrasted objects, oEtoi refers to the object nearer to the speaker's 
thoagfat, or to the more important object or to the object list mentioned. Thus, 
Arr* ToU Sr iucuircpDr iuintt tdii ypiiitiaair ^ roiroa Twrtiiwrc so Aal you must 
witA more justice put your trust in those lists (not yet put in as evidence) than 
in these muster-rolls (slresdy mentioned) L. 16. 7, <l Si rs^i aat Soni luitpiii 
cIpu, tutlrt (ararjipTor bul if this appear to you unimportant, eonsider the foUou- 
la; X. C 6. 6. 29. iairet msy refer to an object tlist has fmmedlal«ly preceded : 

tal (f<r) ri ^Arirrar di(, ^j) ri ^trrsr, itarrat Xiystr ■ ir ttxtrt fiir (I.e. tA 
^f*r*r) yif 4 ^^tt airii ^oiitiTui, ^1 rairTe Si (ri pfKrtanir) Tip XJ7v Sti vpod- 
■ft^tai tiSdiricaiiTa riv iyaSbr roXtrii* it (s necessary that all should speak vihat is 
alieay* mom salutary, not uihat is most agreeable ; for to the tatter nature her- 
self atll inellne; to the former a good eltiten naist dtrea by argument and 
inmructlon D.8.T2. 

12S2. The interrogative pronouns are used substaoUTely rtt; 

vhot or adjectivelf T(s dnjp; w^ man? 
1363. The interrogativeB (pronouns and adverbs, 340, 31d) are 

used in direct and in indirect questions. In indirect qaestions 


the indefinite relatives Sotk, etc, are generally uaed instead of the 

tI j^Xcrai iiiilt xfi^'^ai; for what puTpote dott he detire to employ vif 
X. A. 1.3. 18, oiK oMb 8 ri Ir rii xp4'«Ts s^nt I do not know for ahoi Mereiee 
any one could employ tliem 3. 1. 40, A. *ifiJ«' iartr ipa r^t iiM«n ; B. twifAta ; 
A. Wliot'sthetinHofdavf S. iromuk), what time of day UU t At. A.y.l4O0. 

N. — For paculiarities of loUirogalive Sentences, aee S06Q, 266&. 

1264. tI ia nsed for rln as the predicate of a neat«r plural subject when tbe 
general reealt is sought and tlie subject Is considered as a unit : raOrs St r( tartr r 
but these things, what are theyt Aea. 3. 167. rira emphasizes the detaib: riw' 
eHw 4(rTi TtSra i D. 18.246. 

1269. t(i asks a qne^lon concerning the claae, rl concerning the nature of a 
thing : tlwi T(t li rix"> '"y nf what tort Che art is P. G. 44(1 a, t1 to^ipoatrii, t( 
nXirucJi ; viKnt is temperaaer,, lehat is a slateamanf X. M. 1. 1. 16, ^Mmv Si 
tKowHy i ri (fir eonadtring what envy is (quid tit invidla) X. M. 3. 9. S. 


U66. The indefinite pronoun rt;, rl is used both anbetantively 
(some one) and adjectively {any, »ome). ris, rl cannot stand at 
the beginning of a sentence (181 b). 

126T. Intheamgular,TtiiBUsedinacoIlectiveBeDse: Mervb(H^(for(itqrbo(^); 
cp. Germ, man, Fr. on: dXXd iuir« rit ixtiyot but everybodj/ detests him D. 4. 8. 
Uavrbt Ti», irSt ra each one, every one are genemlly used In this sense, rii 
may be a covert Bllusion to a known person : iilma tie iJtir' some one (i.e. you) 
will pay the penalty Ar. Ran, 654. It may also stand for 7or we. Even when 
added to a noun with the article, tU denotes tbe indeflritenesa of tJie person 
referred to : Srar 5* 6 cApwi -wap^ tii, i/iuv Jo-tii Irrir iiyf/uir ktX. bvt whettever 
your master arrives, whoeter he be that is your leader, el«. 8. O. C. 289. With 
a iubetanlive, rlt may often be rendered a, an, as in trepit m iuriarrit muAher 
dignitary X. A. 1. 2. 20; or, to eKpreaa indeBniteness of nature, by a sort of. 
etc., as in (t iiir Stal Tifit ttait ol Sai/ioutt if the ' daimone* ' are a tort of godt 
P. A. 27 d. 

1268. With adjectiTes, adverbs, and numerals, tIi may strengthen or weaken 
an assertion, apologize for a comparison, and in general qualify a statement : 
teirtt T» irip a very terrible man P. R. 696 c, m^u^ r.t a sort of ffod-Jly 
P. A, 30 e, rx'Sit Ti prettf nearly X. O. 4. 1 1, rpiitorri nrtt about 30 T. 8. 73, 
But in lapefinrri tiki i6o tiftt the numeral is appoaltional to rtWt (certain, 
that is, two ships joined them) T. 8. 100. 

1269. rlt, tI sometimes means somebody, or tomething, of importance: ri 
Sttilt Tifii (tni tin seeming to be somebody D. 21. 213, fiaf/ rt X^tir he teevied 
to toy tomething of moment X. C. 1. 4, 20. 

1270. t1 is not omitted in Saoiiaarbr ytyta what yov say it wonderfkl 
P. L. 667 a. 4 T» 4 aM(li meana few or none X. C. 7. 6. 46, 4 rt 4 cMlr Httle 
tr nothing P. A. 17 b. 


JtkXKf frvoc, ^kAA^Xotv 


1271. oXAoc strictly means other (of several), Jhtpof other (of two). 
On 6 £Uu>t, ol .IXAoi see 1188. 

&. Frc^M is sometimes used loosely for dXXof, liut always witli a sense ol d^- 
fmnet ; wben so used it does not take tbe article. 

1272. iXXoi, aiid Irip^j (rarely), may be used attrlbntively with a sabalao- 
tiie, which is to be regarded as an appositive. In this sense they may be 
rendered baldei, moreover, ai vrell: ol *\Xoi 'A#jjkiioi the Athenians at well 
(the athera, i.e. the Athenians} T. 7. TO, roii 6r\h-ai la) roi)i dXXoti Iwwiat the 
k'iplUes and the cavalry heiidea X. B. 2. 4. 1), yipuw x^P*^ i"^' ir/pou rtarlav an 
old man eomes viith (a second person, a yonng man) a young man besides 
Ar. Eccl. Si9. Cp. " And there were also two other malefactors led with him to 
be pat to deatb " St. Luke 23. 82. 

1273. iXXai otiier, rest often precedes the particular thing with which It la 
contrasted : ri t« i\\a trt/iriet cai /ivplavi ISuK Saptiiioit he gave me ten thou- 
sand dartes besides honouring me in other aays Oil. he both honoured me in other 

fays and etc.) X. A. 1. S. 3, ry itir AXX^i arparf iiaixaiej, iKarbt Si rcXrairrai 
xpniitra With (he rest of the army he kept quiet, but sent forward a hundred 
peltasts T, 4. 111. 

1274. dXXoi followed by another of Its own cases or by an adverb derived 
from Itself (cp. alius attud, one . . , one, another , . . another) does not require 
tlie second half of the statement to be expressed ; AXXot AXXa \iyti one says 
'■lie thing, another (soeu) another X. A. 2. 1. 16 (lit. another other things). So 
i\Xai iXXut, dXXcit IXXdMv. 

a. Similarly trrpof, na vu/t^itpa irdpa Mpoot wUiri one calamity oppreitea one, 
nniMer others E.Alc.893. 

1275. Aft«r 6 AXXoi an adjective or a participle nsed substantjvety nsuaJly 
rtqaires tbe article : raXXa tA lUyixra the other matters of the highest moment 
K A.22d. Here Ti ixiyurra lain appositiun to raXXa (1272). ol JXXoi rd'Tit oJ, 
rsXXa -wdrra rd sometimes omit the final article. 

1276. 6 axXoi otten means usiial, general: wapi rbn dXXa* Tpiwar contrary 
to my usual ditposition Ant, 3. |3. 1. 


1277. The pronoun jAA^Aoii' expresses reciprocal relation: As ff 
tiScnjr iUijXovf if ywii nui 6 'A^paiara^, ijoTrafoiTO iAAijAovt when 
Abradatas and kin wife sate each other, they mutually embraced X. C. 
6. 1. 47. 

1278. To express reciprocal relation Greek uses also (1) tlie middle forma 
(1720); (2) the rrflexive pronoun (1231); or (3) a substantive Is repeated : drjjp 
fXt» ir3pa man /ell upon man 328. 

Od Relative Pronouns see under Complex Sentences (2493 B.). 



1279. Of the cases belon^ng to the Indo-European lacguage, Grreek 
has lost the free use of three : instrumental, locative, and ablative. 
A few of the forms of these cases have been preserved (341, 1449, 
1535) ; the syntactical /wntrfioiis of the instrumental and locative 
were taken over by the dative ; those of the ablative by the genitive. 
The genitive and dative cases are therefore composite or mixed cases. 

N. ^Tbe renBODB tbat led to the foruiatiou uf composUe caaas are either 
(1) formal or (2) fanctional. Thus (!) x'^Pf '» '"'"' ila'- *n(i locj \iv«i 
repreaenia the instr. \iyoit and tJie Inc. X^im ; in oonsonaatal Htenu both Abla- 
tive and genitive ended in -at ; (2) verbs of ruling may take eilhur the dat. or 
the loc, hence the latter case would be absorbed b; Uie formet ; furthermore 
the use of prepositions especially wilb loo. and instr. naa atteadeu by a certain 
indiflerence as regards the fonn of the case. 

1280. Through the iufluence of one construction upon another it 
often becomes impossible to mark off the later from the original 
use of the genitive and dative. It must be remembered that since lan- 
guid is a natural growth and Greek was spoken and written before 
formal categories were set up by (iraminar, all the uses of the cases 
cannot be apportioned with definitenesa. 

1281. The cases fall into two main divisions. Gases of the Sub- 
ject: nominative (and vocative). Cases of the Predicate: accusa- 
tive, dative. The genitive may define either the subject (with nouns) 
or the predicate (with verbs). On the nominative, see 938 £f, 

1282. The content of a thought may b« expressed in different ways in dif- 
ferent languages, Thux, rtlBm n, but persuadeo tibi (in classical Latin); and 
even In the same language, the same verb may have varying consirucUons W 
express difCerent shades of meaning. 


1283. The vocative is used in exclamations and in direct address: 
iZcv Kot 6toi oh Zeus and ye gods P. Pr. 310d, avOpiovt ray good fellow 
X, C. 2. 2. 7, The vocative forms an incomplete sentence (904 d). 

a. The vocative is never followed immediately by ti or yif. 

1284. In ordinary conversation and public speeches, the polity w is uisaslly 
added. Without w the vocative may express astonishment, juy, contempt, a 
threat, or a warning, etc 1'hus duofeit A^xW i ^'v hear, Aachine»T D. 18. 
lai. But this distinction is not always observed, though In general & has a 
familiar tone which was unsuilcd to elevated poetry. 

1385. The vocative is usually found in the interior of a sentence. At the 
beginning it la emphatic. In prose 1^, in poetry u, may stand between the voca- 
tive and an attributive or between an attributive and the vocative ; in i>ovtr)- ^ 
may be repeated for emphaais. 


1286. In bite poetiy a predicate adjective may be attracted into the vocatlv«: 
SkfSM icdpt yinu bleited, oh boy, mayi»t (Aou bt Theocr. IT. 60. Cp. Uatutine 
paler ae« /ane libt»ti\u audit Hor. S. 2. 6. 20. 

12S7. By Uie omiagion ot ir6 or (m>< tbe nominative with the article ma; 
■tand Id apposition to a rocative : u itSptt d1 rnpAi^rj you, p'«ntl«men, who art 
pmtnt P.Pt. SSTo, w SSpi tai el iWei nipirai Ot/rusandthe rett of you Persian* 
X. C. 3. S. 20 ; and in apposition to the pronoun in the verb : i rati, dnXoMn 
b&9, attend me Ar. Kan. 521. 

1388. The nominative may be used In exclamations as a predicate vrith the 
labject unexpreBaed : u Ttjtpii Btoli oh loathed of heaven S. Ph. 2&4, #Aot i 
MtrAu ah dear Menetaus A IBS; and connected with tbe vocative by and: 
htUut koJ Bijiu oh city and people Ar. Eq.273. In exclamations about a peiMm: 
A Tmmwf oh tA« noble man F. Phae, 237 c. 

a. olkai is regular in address; ofrDt, tI rdrx«ii » Salvia; Ao (ft«r«, I tat, 
Janthiat, uAoI ii fie matter with you t Ar. Vesp. 1 ; i ofrroi, A/it Ao MeiY, 
/ni|r, 4jax S. AJ.8B. 


1389. Tbe genitive most commODly limits the in»aiiing of sub- 
Btantives, adjectives, and adverbs, less commonly that of verba. 

Since the genitive has absorbed the ablative it includeB (1) th« 
genitive proper, denoting the class to which a person or thing be- 
longs, and (2) the ablatival genitive. 

a. Tbe name genitive Is derived from ciuue genitivut, the eate of ortfftn, 
tbe insdeqoate Latin translation ot yttucii wrOtit oate denoting the clatt. 


1390: A substantive in the genitive limits the meaning of a sub- 
stantive on which it depends. 

1391. Tbe genitive limits for the time being the scope of tbe substantive on 
which it depends by referring It to a particular class or description, or by regard- 
ing tt as a part ot a whole. The genitive is akin in meaning to tlie adjective and 
tn»y otten be translal«d by an epithet. Cp. rT/^aiot xp"'^'"' with xpwrouf ari- 
^m, ^ipn raXti^u with i-aX^/iuit ^i0<it, tA (Spot rXiSfiou with t^ rSpoi T\ 
(1035). But tbe use of the adjective Is not everywhere parallel to that ot tbe 

1393. In poetry a genitive is often used with ffia, litni, aSim might, etc, 
intfead of the corresponding adjective : ^Iq Aio>i4S(at mighty Diomede E 781. 

1293. In poetry Si/iaf form, tipa and rt^aX^ head, etc. , are used with a geni- 
tive to expreas majestic or loved persons or objects : 'Ivfi^nit tipi S. Ant. 1. 

1394. xp4f(a thing Is used in prose with a Renitive to express size, strength, 
etc. : v^kcrfenfriSii rd^LroXii n xP^l''^ " '"T lifge mast of /lingers X. C. 2. 1. G. 
Cp. 1828. 


1295. The genitive with lubetantlves denotes in general a coonectioD or de- 
pendence between twowotda. Hiis connection must often bedeUrmined (I) bj 
the meaning of the words, (2) by the context, (3} by the facts presupposed u 
known (1301). The Bame conutriictlon may ofteci be placed under more than oue 
o{ the differant cloaeee mentioned below ; and the connection between the two 
■ubstantiveB ii oft«n bo loose that it is difiScnlt to include with precision all cases 
under specific grammatical classes. 

a. The two tubstantivee may be so closely connected a* to be equlTalent to a 
single compound idea : reXturi roO plov 'life-end' (cp. life-tfme) X. A. 1. 1.1. 
Cp. 1146. 

b. The genitive with Hubstantives has either the attributive (I1M), or, id the 
caaeof the genitive of the divided whole (1306), and of pemoual pronouns (1186), 
the predicate, position (1168). 

1296. Worda denoting number, especially nonierals or subetantlTea with 
nuineraU, often agree in case with the limited word luHtead of standing in the 
genitive : ipipot Hirirapa TdXon-n a tribute of four talent* T. 4. 57 (cp. IS2S), 
h TBI mDi, al i^poifnvr Hv, ■ot«0u74jt(i Jletiny to the alilpi, lIBO of which were 

keeping guard i. 1 13. So with ol /Uv, d1 Si in apposition to the subject (981). 

1297. The genitive denotes ownership, posaessioii, or belonging; 
4 oUia -^ Stfiutraf the house of Simon L. 3. 32, A Ki-pov otoXik the expe- 
dition, of Cyrus X. A. 1. 2. 5. Cp. the dativi; of possession (1476). 

1298. Here may be clasHed the genitive of origin : ol SdXuinii r6«uii the lam 
of Solon D. 20. 103, ii inffroX^ toB *iMrirDii (A-' Ifttf.r of PftiVip 18. 37, cdfura 
■watTolut dWfudv waves caused b) ait kinds of aindi B .196. 

1299. Tbe possessive genitive is used with the neuter attlcle (singular or 
plural) denoting aSaira, conditions, power, and the like : rl rur i^ipur Me 
poioer o/(AeejjAor» P. L, 712d, t6 r^t rixi^f the function of the art P.G.<60c. 
tA tqu Z6\arot the maxim of Solon V. T.ach. 188 b, SJifXa ri rUr »X^fu«r the 
chances of war are uncertain T. 2. 11, t4 t^i iriXfui the interesU of the Stale 
P. A, 38o, ri ToO Ji)^u ijiponl is on the side of the people Ar.Eq. 1216. Some- 
Umes tbie Is. almost a mere periphrasis for the thing Itself : ri r^t rixv ehaitre 
D, 4. 12 ri rgt iruT^plai safHg 23.163, ri r^i Arfai, Aridi}TDr' iinl the qualitp 
of holiness, whatever U is 21.120, ri -rHi' vpiir^vTipur iniHy we elders P. L. 667d. 
So Ti tbOtov S. Aj. 124 is almost = oDtoi, as roi^i la = iydi or i^. Cp. L. 8. IP. 

1300. The genitive of poseession may be u»cd after a demonstrative or rela- 
tive pronoun : T«i}ri fiou S.a^XXii he aUacks this action of mine D. 18. 28. 

1301. With persons the genitive may denote the relation of child to parent. 
wife to husband, and of inferior to superior: SouiiiJfJitt i '0\ipiiti ThKcydidfii. 
the son of Olorus T. 4. 104 (and bo vlin is regularly omitted In Attic official 
documents), Aiii ' kprtiut Artemis, danghter of Zeus S. Aj. 172, 4 Zjurudfuni 
MfWrlxl Melistieke wife of Smirylhinn Ar. Ecct. 46, hvSit i *tpix\/cvi Lgdus. 
the slave of Phereeles And, 1. 17, «l M^wnt the troops of Menon X. A. 1. 5. 13 
(ol roG Hlrunt arpaTiArai 1. 0. II). 

lyrj] THE GENITIVE 816 

a. In poetry we m&j have an attributive ad jeettTS : TAa/ninai Attn ( = Hit 
i TiXa^Oroi) B 6^. Cp. 846 I. 

1303. The word on whicb the poaaeBslve genitive depend* ntay be repre- 
i«nt«l by the article : dri t^i tairrar from their own country (771) 'l'. 1. 16 
(cp. 1027 b}. A word for dwelling (oUli, iiiu>% and fiiso Ufir} is perhaps omitud 
aim iw, tit, and BometimeB after t^. Thus, it 'Apl^ipom at Aripkron't F. Pr, 
320 a, ir AartroB (*c<{. le/iy) at the tkrine 0/ Dionyiui D, 6. 7, ili Sttaetii^u 
^T-ir to go to tchool X. C. 2. 3. 9, in IIaT/»(X^i>i Ip^ofuii / come from Fatro- 
clat'* At. Mnt. M. So, In Homer, tlr(_tls) 'AlSia. 

laoa Predicate Use. — The genitive may be connected with the 
noon it limits b; nie^ins of a verb. 

'Iwwatpdrtit hrl eUlit /irydXijf Hjppoeralet iM of on if^/luential home P. Pr. 
316 b, B«un-c3v 4 TiXit Irriu the eltj) leitl belong to the Bototiam L. 12.58, 4 Z^Xnii 
irrt tQi 'Afffcii ZeUa ia in Asia 1). C. 43, oiSi t^i ah'^f ep4-n,t i^inrro nor did 
tkff belong to the lane Thrace T. 2. 20, i Siti<,ti toO ^ti^f^HaTet, raOr' irrlr the 
clatue* in the bUl which he attack*, are these D. 18. M. 

1304. The genitive with tint may denote the person whow nature, duly, 
autom, etc.. It la to do that set forth in an tuflnldve subject of Uie verb: 
wirlSf ^ptir ot xarrit, AW' irSpii ao^S 'ti* the tage, not ever) oiu, vho ea* 
bfor poverty Hen. Sent. 403, Samt Smatov raOr' dm roXfrsu thU teemi to be the 
duly of a Jvlt eUttm D. 8. 72, rOr tiKiirToit ivrl cal rl iavTdr aifittr col r<k -iHr 

ifTTMit/rwr '^uffirtir it i» the eufton of conqueroTt to keep inhat is their oten and 
lo take the poateinona of Uie defeated X. A. 8. 2. 30. 

1305. With verbs signifying to refer or attribute, by thought, word, or action, 
anything to a person or cUss. Such verbs are to think, regard, make, name, 
Aooae, appotttt, etc. 

ityliiB , . . ri I* iXXa r^t T^X^t deem that the rest belongs to chance E. Ale. 780, 
Tflt iKeuftpttriTur attur n^irdcura deemed a daughter of a houte moit free E. 
And. 12, iiii ypiipe rOr Irrtitir irrtptTrieifuirrur put me down 01 one of those 
rko desire exceedingly to serve on horseback X. C, i. 3. 21, rfli Tp<lm;i riftut 
rttariiUtot assigned tn the first class L,. li. 11, t^j iyaS^t r&xv* '■fl' r6\tui <Ihu 
Titifiu I reeton as belonging to the good fortune of the State D. 16. 254, tl U 
nm r4' 'Aalir iavrir wnaDrrai but if some are claiming Asia as their ovm 
X. Ages. t. 33, M^fet tiiis iavrai tlrti he thinks that j/ou are in his power 
X. A. 2.1.11. 


1306. The genitive may denote a whole, a part of which is denoted 
l>y the nonn it limits, The genitive of the divided whole may be 
used with any word that expresses or implies a port. 

1307. Position. — The genitive of the whole ntands before or after the word 
denoting the pan : rwr BpfuSiy wiXriurral targeteers of the Thraciana T. 7. 27, 
■I SropM r Ar roXIrfl* the needy among the citix'.ns D. IS. 104 ; rarely between the 
limited nonn and its article : ol rwr AtUor i^utnintroi. those of the vnrighteovl 
mi« conw here P. 0. 5260. Cp. 1101 N. I. 



1306. Wheo all are incladcd there is no partiUoa : so in ovroi wAwrn all of 
thett, all the»t, rirrafitt i/afU It/ur tkert leere /our of u«, ri rir rX^fM rir 
jrXirwv the entire body uf Iht hopUte* T, S. 03, &r« ittri r<3r ifalur oi nMNf of 

jfou as belong to the 'pters' X. A. i. 6. 14. 

1309. The Idea of division is oft«D not explicitly stated. Bee thlnl esampla 
in 1310. 

1310. (I) The genitive of the divided whole is used with sub- 

fiipot ri r^F fiappipwr BOmt part of the larbarianM T. 1. 1, el Aupi^f ^itAr 
thoteofut mho are Dorians 4.01. Tbe governing word nuty be omitted : 'Vx'>< 
rar 'HpaxXttSAi' Archiai (one) of the HeracUdae T. 6. &. To an indefinite 
substantive without the article maj t>e added a genitive denoting tbe q>ecial 
sort : 4(paASt Il^p^qt rfif iit/ioTMc Pheraulai, a Fertiati, one of the common 
people X. C. 2. 3. 7. 

1311. Choiographlc Genitive. — r$t 'ArncQi ii Oli^r to Oenoi in Mtica 
T. 2. le (or ii OlT<n]r riji 'Arriii^i, not it tqi 'ArrtK^ 01»«ifr), T$i 'IroXfat Asiy^ 
th« Iiocrion* tn 7ta2ir 8. 80. Tlie article, wliich Is always used with the genitive 
of the country (as a place well known), is rarely added to the governing anti- 
atanUve (ri KitMior r^t EA^lEf Cenaeum in Bvboea T. 3. S3). 

1312. (II) With substantive adjectives and participles. 

«J finest Twr irSpiiwur tAe mivtt among men D. 27. OB (but always oI tr^tt 
irBpawot), iii>ro% tOf Tpurirtiir alotlt of the piytatU F. A. 32 b, iKlyot B^wr 
feiB of them X. A. 8. 1. 3, ri3v iWar 'EXXi}rur i potiXi/itrot tohoetier of the rttt 
of the Greeks so desires T. 3. 92. So rA naTamxpi atrQw nO irrqXtUov the part qf 
the cavern facing them P. R. &15 a. For nihil novi tbe Qieek aays oMiw n»ir. 

1313. Adjectives denoting magnitude, and some otben, may conform io 
gender to the genitive, instead of appearing Id tbe neuter : trt/iar r^t y^ rV 
roXXit* then ravaged most of the land T. 2. 66, rgi tQi 4 iplmi the bett of the 
land 1. 2, This construction occnrs more frequently in prone tlian in poetry. 

1314. But such adjectives, especially when singular, may be used in tlie 
neuter : tUt 'Apylur \ayiSur ri wa\6 the greater part of (he pteJcsd Argtve* T. 
6. 78, iri i-oX* t5» x<^pai "^er a great part of the land 4. 3. 

1315. (Ill) With coiiipara,tives and superlatives. 

^liOr i ytpalTtpoi the elder of us X. C.6. 1.6 (1006 b), ol rptcfiiraToi tSw rrpat- 
TityStr the oldest of the generals X. A. 3. 8. 11, atrif wirrur irtpiirar rXiltT^ 
Xpiiiuf iTTttirdKTif) ine make use of imported grain more than all other people 
D. 18. 87. So with a superlative adverb: i^ rout ipu/ri tm lr\a rawrbt r*v 
arparowiSmi mg ship teas the best sailer of the ahole squadron L. 21. 6. 

1316. In poetry this une is extended to positive adjectives : ifiiieUrrst 
itlp^f conspfeuous among men A 24S, ^ ^l\a yuraiKHr oh dear among laomen 
B. Ale. 460. lu tragedy an adjective may be emphasised by Uie addition of Um 
same adjective In the g^tive ; ififtrr' dppib'w* horrors unipeakabU S. O. T. 46& 
Cp. 1004. 

1317. (lY) With substantive pronouns and numerals. 



tlfiiPmtrar,tl f oil tome o/ them and not othera P. A. 24e, ot DrrtporlX^^Ar- 
rar rdp raJu^iJwv IhoK iif the enemy who were taken later X. A. 1. T. IS, atttlt 
irtpdnft no one in the world P. S. 220 a, rl rov rtlxtvi a part of the viatt T. 
T. 4, Til BtSr one of the godi E. Hec. 104 (rli 6*i% a god X. C. 6. 2. 12), t, rOv 
woWiw one of the many thlngr P. A. IT a ; rarely after demonstrative prononna : 
Ta&TOu rUt it0p<iwar to thete {of) nMn T. 1. 71. 

a. With SKiyvi and with numerals Ari and <£ are rarely added : it rpiOi tr 
one of three 8.Tt. 734. ii with superlatives is also rare, See also 1688. I c- 

X318. The genitive of the divided whole may do duty as the subject of a 
Suite verb (928 b) or of the inOnitive: (f^asar) iriiiciyrirat aipHi wpit 4itttovt 
Aef *aid that some of their number aisociated with them X. A. 3, 6. 16. 

1319. Predicate Ose. — ^r I' a^Sr 4aXr>oi anil among tkem viat Phalinvt 
X. A. 2. 1. T, ZiXwr ti3v iirri irn-piOTOi iii\^ Solon teas called one of the Seven 
Sages I. 16. 235, rQi iTowuriTun ir cfij it would be very Mrange D. 1. 26 ; and 
often with verbs signifying to be, become, think, tay. name, ehooee. With some 
of tbeae verbB tli with the geDitive may be used instead of the genitive olotie. 


13aa The genitive to denote quality occurs chiefly as a predicate. 

Mr Tp6wou i/ruxliiu being of a peaceful diapotition Hdt. 1. 107, ol Si nm rgt 
aii^ yrAlttis iXl-yoi naTi^irfon bat some feie of the same opinion fled T. 3. 70, 
rairra reviTAXXur iari X47u» this calU for a thorough elucusiion P. L. 642 a, 
fcup^raT atrdf, lilj hraTipou roE XAyou, dXX" twrrifov roB piov iarlt contidvr, not 
the manner of hit speech, but the manner of hit life Aos. 8. 168, tl iom mOr-a 
nl Sa-wirtit /itydXrii aai rinir roXXdi' mi rpiyitaTtlit dm if thete matters Mem 
to involve great expente and much toil and (rouble D. 8. 48. 

a. The attributive use occurs in poetry : xV^w tiSMpar Edpiirat Europe 
vttA Itt pattvrta amid fair trees B. L T. 134, Xiujc^t x'^><" rripu^ a wing white 
a««uns(of whil«anow) S.Ant. 114. 

1321. The UBS of the genitive to exprew quality, correspoDding to the Latin 
genitive, ocouis in the non-predioate poeition, only when age or tize Is exactly 
enmased by the addition of a numeral (R^nitlve of meaaure, 1326). The Latin 
genitive of qoallty in muller mirae pulchritudinit is ezpreased by yurli eavpavli 
(dXXM (or raC idXXovt), fvrti laviiaali IStXr, yiirii tx'wt Sav/iAvmr irx^^ui, etc. 


1322. The genitive of an explicit word may explain the meaning 
of a more general word. 

'IXiau riXti E642, as urbt Soma*. ftXXai warrolair ittitun blattt formed of 
wfadf of everf tort 1 202. This conntruction is chiefly poetic, but io prose 
we find Hi ititfa xP^i" a montter (great aSalr, 1204) of a boar Hdt. 1. 86, tA (pt\ 
T^t'lrrAnp Mt,Ittone T. 4.46 (ver7 nre, 1142 c). An nrlirular infinitive in 
the genjtire often defines the application of a substantivp ; iiutiia 4 roC srnrSai 
tOirtt ■ eit titStw the ignorance of thinking one known what one doe» not kruno 


a. Bat with traiia tbe penon or thing uuned U usoally In ftppoaltioa u 
liofw ; T$ ti rtttririf iSifnir tttita KaiXlvrparar I gave tA< yt/ungett the itmM 
CattUtratut D.48.71. 


1333. The genitive expresses material or contents. 

Ifimt iibiTur the fence (coaBlating) 0/ (he teeA A 850, Kp^r^ Ifiiet Starti 

a ipring 0/ sweet water X. A. 0, 4. 1, trupol atrev, ^iXur, \ltar heap* of eora, 

mood, atvnee X. II. 4. 4. 12, ifantvia riXarrti ^6ptv six hundred taient* in tatta 

T. 2. 13(cp. 1298). 

1324. Predicate Vm : ore^divut ^ut Irrat, iXX' ot x^EwIoir crouiu tkm 
were of rote*, not of gold D. 82, TO, iarpuiJini irrl Hit XlBev a road was pmed 
With ttone Hdt. 3. 138, and often with verbs ot making, which admit, also Uie 
Instruinentai datlre. Udt. haa rowwSoi iw6 and I* rmi. 


133S. The genitive denotes measure of space, time, or degree. 

drrd araSlur Tttx'i a wall eight tlade$ long T. 7. 2, rirrt ^iitpSr airla pro- 
viiinne for fhe dayt T. 43 (cp. foua pedum qutndeelm, exUivm decern annnmm). 
Leu commonly witb a neuur adJMtive or pronoun : irl lUya ixiipvar Buriiuitt 
they advanced to a great pitch of power T. 1. IIB, tI Jifiii tone honour (aliguid 
famae') 1. 6, d;i4x"V' tiiai/iorlai (_»omething i'lJlHite in tht wiff of hap}i(tteiu) 
ij\flnite happinett P. A. 41 c (with omphaaiH on the adj.). But tiie phnsea fit 
teuTo, lit TQvoOra iipiK4ffSai (4(nr, i\Be7r, rpevpalmtt, usually witli a peraoDa) 
subject) followed by tbe genitive of abstracts are common : tit ravrt »piinvt 
iipUire he reached auch a plteh of boldneu D. 21. 104, it rarri iK^t in uwr 
detpottdency T. 7. 56, ir roirif rapamcu^i fn thit itage of preparation 2. IT. 
mri tdOto iiaipoS at that critical moment T. 2. The article with this genitive is 
unusual in classical Oreek : th toEts rfji iiXnc&t to thit Itage of l^e UG.3. 
Some of these genltivea may also be explained by ISOS. 

1326. Under the bead of meature belongs amounf ; tv^t iimZt Tpiaaiat an 
income of two minae X. Vect. .3. 10. Cp. 12M, 1328. 

1327. Predicate Use. — ^ttSA* irtit J th TpiAarra. when a man it Ihlrlf 
peart old P. L. 721 a, ri Ttlxv 4' rraSUn Jrr^ the teallt were eight ttadet long 


1320. With a verbal noun the genitive may denote the subject or 

objeut of the action expressed in the nouu. 

a. Many of these genitives derive their constnii'tlon from tbat ot the kindred 

verbs : tdC vlarot iriBiiiia deeire for water T. 2. G2 (1340), x^^" ^^^ anger bt- 

eaute of hit ion 138 (1406). But the verbal Idea soinetimeB require* tbe 

accusative, or (less commonly) tbe dative. 

1339. In poetry an adjective may take the plaoe ot tbe genitive : tirmi 

jSorlXtut the return of the king A. Pen. 8. Cp. 1291. 

IJ38] THE GENmrfi S19 

1330. The SntjMtlTa OenltiTtt is active la seiue : ruti ^^pat ^^i tJiA 
ftar nf the barbariatu (nhlch they feel: si pdp^apai ^^Cn-tu] X.A. 1.2. 17, 
4 fimtAAm twwpiili the perjury of (A« king (^offiXrii iriopiitt) 8. 2. 4, t4 ipjiCi- 
umr T^t Y*uMqt their angry feeling* T. 2. 619 (such gsnltlTM with BabstantiTe 
pirtici^ &re commoa ia Tbucydidaa ; cp. 1168 b, N. 3). 

1331. The Objective Genitlre te pEtadTe lit Beme, and Is T«y common wltb 
rabcuntiTcs denoting a frame of mind or an emotioD : ipbpoj rir EiXi^iruv the 
ftar qf the Seioti (felt towards them ; ^o^rriu mii GIXuthi) T. 3. 64, 4 rflir 
'EU^wr tiroia good--v>m lowarde th« Oreekt (tinti roti 'BXXi^irt) X. A. 4. T. 20^ 
4 rAr nXS» tf'irniM'la fntercouna wMh tA« good (rirtvi roU mXoit) P. L. 888 a. 

L The objective genitive often precedes another genitive on wblob it depends : 
ftii T^t ivitiiaxlit T^i atriiatut ailh the requett for an alHanee T. 1. 82. 

1332. Various prepositions at« used In translating the objective genitive : 
I Awt wdiitiiM (Mr With the goda X. A. 2. 5.7, Spimi ttUr oathi (>f the god* 
E. Hipp. 657, Star eixtU prayer* to the god* P. Fhae. 244 a, iUiic^«u1tui> ipy^ 
anger at tnjuMtlee L. 12. 20, iyupdrtia iiSar^t moderation in pleatttre L 1. 21, 
ilTitiliarQr lixii victory oner pleamre* F.L.840c, Tp6riua pappdpur tnetnorial* 
of victory over barbarian* X. A. 7. 6. 86, rapairtatii rur ivroKXaySr exhortation* 
te reconciliation T.4. 69, ii,09ei (filXur tiding* about fiienda 8. Ant. 11, rod iiS9tt 
iptech uifA thee S. O. C. 1101. In eardrou XArii release from death t 421, 
vnarawwX^ toVmam respite from war T 201, itlBunoertain whether the genitive 
itobjecUveorabUtlval (1302). 

1333. The objective genitive is often need when a piepoBltlonal ezpresston, 
^ling greater precirion, is more usual : tA Hryo^r if-ij^iviia the decree relatfnf/ 
to (jtfl) the Megarian* T. 1. 140, dr j^oirti r^t yQi a deteera upon the land [i\ 
'4' 74>) 1. 108, driffTOtfit Tur 'AAfralwr reoolt />'ont t/w .^tA«nteiM (dri rwir 

1334. For the objective genitive a ponMsive prononm la aometlmea used: 
H|r xiptr for thy take P. Soph. 242 a, its^XJ) 4 ip.'^ ealunmiaUom o/ dm P. A. 
20e. 1 J^ ^d^ ia uaoally objective : the fear uAlcA I ijttptre. (But «v0 ftSfci 
ipeeeA triCA (Aee S. O. C. 1161.) 

1335. Predicate Uw. —od T<lr lamSp-rur oIktdt, dXX& r^i gfc^t uwyioM^O') 
(twK/orwron^-docn, but /or jtulfee E. fr. 270. 


1336. The gecitive expresses value. 

1^ Tpi&r raXdrrur offering* worth three talent* L. 30. 20, x^"' tp«x/'^* 
Hf^r ^tiyu lam defendant in an action involving a thoutand drachma* D. 66. 26. 

1337. n«dic«te Um : reit alxpaXilrrwt Toaoirnt xPVI^rar KturSai to rantom 
Ae (oftivtt at *o high a price P. 19. 222, rptUt Spax^S' roriipii &r a Ihreepenitg 
ngut IS. 200. 


1338. Two gflnitives expressing diSeceat relatioiu mar \» used 
*ith one noun. 



>I ifSfivroi Jii ri ouriSr I4at Tofl Bati-Tou taTwptMorrat by Tttuon of their frar 
<tf death nwn tell lies P. Ph. 86 a, Hartaov rptnpOriir TC'pit a eAorut of old t*e% 
in honour of Dtonyiut P. L. 666 b, ^ tou Adxi7"» tar wtur ipxti Lachet* «>«■ 
maiid of Ihe flttt T. 3. IIG, 4 4auliu^ tpatnoltr^a Tt^f KipaifAt the formtt otn- 
jpatioK of Coreyra by the Fkaeaeiant 1. 25. 


1339. The genitive may serve as the immediate complement of a , 
verb, or it may appear, as a secondary definition, along with an 
accusative which ia the immediate object of the verb (930, 1392, 

1340. The subject of an active verb governing the genitive may 
become the subject of the passive construction: tfunjpariK tpSiv r^ 
yvmiKot iamparai Niceratua, icfu) is m love v>itk kis wife, is loved in 
return X. 8. 8. 3. Cp. 1745 a. 


13tiL A verb may be followed by the partitive genitive if the 
action affects the object only in part. If the entire object i^ 
affected, the verb in question takes the accusative. 

'kipirrtat S' ly<iiu BvyaTpwt he inarried aim <tf Adrttslut' datiglUen S 121. 
rSr TiiXwT XaM^dMi he takes some of the Mlta X. A. 4. G. 35, Xafiirm to0 fioffiapi- 
KoO a-T^i-Dv taking port of the barbarian forae 1. 6. T, KXtmrrn roS ^mrt teii- 
ing part of the mountain secretly 4. 6. 16 (op. toD dpoui «X^cu n 4. fl. 11), t^i 7(1 
irtiior they ravaged put of the land T. 2. 66 (cp. rifi ySjr riaat Irt/ur 2. 67 and 
Irtiior rift 74? t1|i> xaXX^r 2. 56), taTtiyii r^i it^X^t he had a hole knocked 
somewhere in his head At, Vesp. 1428 (riif cc^aXV Kartayirai to have one'i 
head broken T). 64. a5). 

1342. With impi^raonals a partitive genitive does duty as the subject: reXi- 
limi oi iitrijr airi the hail no ehiire in var X. C. 7. 2. 28, l^l oUatMtw rparfkn 
TodTov ToO rpiyiiarot I have no part whrUener in thia affair And. 4.34. Cp. 1318. 

1343. The genitive is use*! with verbs of faring. 

wirrn lirTtixa* r^i iopr^i all took part in the festival X. A. 5. 3. 9, ^crcSI- 
Sarar iWiiKait Sr (= Toirrur *) elxor tttani they shared with each other what 
eadl had 4. 6. 8, ri ArBpiiwtrtr yini p,rrtl\i)^r iBanairlai the human race has re- 
ceived a portion of (mmortatity P. L. 721 b, itItou Koiruvttt to take a share of 
food X. U. 2. 6, 22, iiKaiorinis otSir bt^r rpoa-^m you have no concern I'n right- 
eous dealing X. H. 2. 4, 40, woXirrla, it f rfrifaip oi lUrvrrir ipx^i a form of 
government in tehlch the poor have no part in the management of affair* P. R. 
660c. So with iieTa.\ayxiti' get a share (along with somebody else), ruwl- 
pirttu and MtroiaSai take part in, iieratTtU and luraroittrSai demand a short in. 

1344. The part received or taken, if expressed, standii in tbe acoaHative. 
il rinanKit rmw iityi""' iyai^' i^ix^'Tn lUTix'""- tyrants have the smaUtatpor- 


lion in 1A« grtatMt bleninga X. Hi. 2. 6, roirur iitrtnTti rb /lipot he demtmd* 
Ail (Aare af this At. Vesp. 973, 

a. With lUrt^Ti the part may be added in the nomiiutive : itiriim x^f*' 
tiw Ktwpifiiirur /iipot ]/e too AaBS had a lAare in Viete doingt E. L T. 

1345. The genitive ia used with verbs signifying to touch, takt 
hold of, make trial of. 

(4 rirot) It^are rUr drflpiirwr the plague laid hold of the men T. 3. 48, r^f 
Tfdftqi T^ airiit fxcf^ I hold to the tanie opinion 1. 140, ir tS ix'I'^'V iimSiUrf 
on IA« eoueh next to mc F. 3. 217 d, imMptrft rUr rpiyiUrur take our public 
poHCy iit hand O. 1. 20, Srm rtipyrra Tcil Ttlxin to make an aUempt on (& 
part of) lAe IMril T. 2. 81. Sovilh^o^ir touch (rare in prose), drr^trffot elfnp 
lo, IriXa^i^Mirfci and avXttMitfiirtaBiu lay hold of. 

1346- The genitive of tbe part, with the accusative of thej)«r*on(tbenbo)e) 
who haa been touched, is clllefly poetical : rbr Si wtairra roaur fXa^ but him 
aihefia, he seized hg hit fret A 403, fXa/Jov r^t i<ir7)t Tir 'Opirrit tlUf took hold 
of OrotUa* bf the girdle X. A. 1. 6. 10 (but /wO \ap6iitrot Ttjt x«>>^ taking me 
bf the hand P. Charm. 163b), iyttr T^t iiwlat rif Irror to lead the horse by the 
bridle X. "Eti. e. fi ^cp. paSt f iyiniw apiut t&ev led tA« eote by tAe Aortu Y 439) . 

1347. Verba of beseeching take the gCDitive by analogy to verbs of touching : 
t/ii W-o-^nra fitirur she besought me by (clasping) my knees I 4G1 (cp. timIw 
bfrilurM iJaatae<u beseech bj) touching hit chin K 464). 

134& The genitive ia used witli verba of beginning. 

a. Paitittve : 1^ Ki^v ^X"" '^'><' ^if" ^' he taid that Ofrvt began the 
dlscuttlon a* followt X. A. 1. 6. 5, toO Utou 1ipxf"> ^' he began kit speech at 
foUowt 3. 2. 7. On ipx'ir as dlstingulahed from ipxtaSui see 1734. 6. 

b. Ablatival (1391) denoting the point of departure: vie S dpfa^uu / leill 
wtake a beginning with thee I 07. In this eense dri or ii is usually added : 
iftd^trot drt iroO D. IS. 297, ipioimi irb r^i Urpur^i \iyur /will make a begin- 
ning bf tpeaklng of medicine P. S. 166 b. 

1349. The genitive is used with verbs siguifying to aim at, strive 
after, desire (genitive of the end desired). 

irtpiirvm-oxitti'Bai to aim at men X. C. 1.0.S9,t^UfitttiTunapSlirdettr- 
lug gain T. 1. 6, rirrtt rdr d7a$w> tnevineOtrir all men detire wAot it good P. B. 
4S8a, TiiparTlir taXiir the pattionate love of what it noble Aea. 1. 137, rfitOri 
Xj>wulrur thfy are hungry for viealth X. S. 4. 36, viXif /Xiu^c/ifai Si^iiiraira a 
slate thirsting for freedom 1'. R. 662c. So with ttmittr shoot at (poeL), Xi- 
XaicvOu desire (poet.), yXlxtaSai detire. ^\iTr love, woBtlr long for take the 

135a The genitive is used with verbs sigtiifying to reach, obtain 
(genitive of the end attained), 

T^t iprritt i^ttteai to attain to virtue I. 1. 5, ol immoral ppax^tp^ if^rrilttr 
4 Hf ^ijcnurfat rUr a^rSonrriir the favelin-throaers did aot hurl far enough tc 
Ttaeh Ote Uingen X. A. S. 8. 7, rwarSQr fmx' he obtained a truce 3. 1. S8. 


So with n^tv obtain (poet.), cX^pan/ufi' intiertt, intruyx^'^'' f^ ^ ^^ <'>n~ 
xdmr, when compounded with ir, trl, wapd, rtpl, aod <rCr, takes Uie dkUve. 
"^■fX^""' obtain bg lot usually lakea the accoaative, 

a. This geDJtive and that of 1340 form the gtniave o/the goal. 

1351. The genitive of the thing obt^ned ma; be joined with an ablattral 
genitive (1410) ol the person : tH Si H) wirrur oli/itSa Trifwffai iwalfmi in a eatt 
where ue expect to loiii praise from all mtn X. A. 6. T. 33. But where the thing 
obtained is mpressed b; a neuter pronoun, the accusative Is empiojed. 

1352. It ig nncertain whether verba signifying to mi'ss take a partitive or an 
ablaCtvai genitive: oiitU ^iLipTnttr didfiji no one miaeed hie man X. A. 3. 4. 15, 
ff^oWirei rflj Si(in dieappointed in ejpeelaUom T. 4. 80. 

1333. Verbs of approaching and meeting take the genitive according tc 
1313 or 1349. These verbs are poetical. Thus, imiut Tadpur for the parpoMe 
of obtaining (bis share of) bulls a 26, drnto-u ToCf ir/pat Iwill encounter thit 
man If 423, wthAirtu i«A> to approach the ships S. Aj. TOO. In the meaning draa 
near to verbs of approaching take the dative (1463). 

1354. The genitive is used with verbs of smelling. 

(Jta ^pau I tmell of perfume Ar. Eccl. 624. So wrtlr lOpov to breathe (smell of) 
ptrfime S, tr. 140. 

1355. The genitive ia used with verbs signifpng to enjoy, taOe, 
eat, drxTik. 

i.'iaXsiaiier tirrar rwr iyaS^t tce eTijoy all the good things X. M. 4. 3. II, 
titixov Tou XA70V enjoy the dtscotirae V. R. 362 b, dXfir«( otrov fyiirarTo fett 
tasted food X. A. 3. 1.3. So (mrel;) with 4|jirfe< take pleature in. 

a. Here belong htltir, irtmv when thej do not signify to eat up or drink 
up.- liiiHr iaBUiw a^Ar to eat them alijie X. H. 3. 3. 6, rirttt Ukm drink some 
uinax 111 M boire dn tin (but wlviiii slnv drink wine B 6, as biiire It vin). 
Words denoting food and drink are placed in the accusative when tbey aie 
reftarded as kinds of nourishment. 

1356. The genitive ia used with verbs signifying to remeit^>er, 
remind, forget, care for, and neglect. 

rSii ir6rrur ^i\ar i/JurVo Temembt-r yOiir absent fYiends I. 1, 26, ^Xofuu I" 
lifiat iiaiirTJffai Twr iiial wtwpiriiUrat I dtsire to remind yon of my past acttont 
And. 4. 41, i^iDiiia nil iriXnetiiuSa t^j clndi Aiau I fear lest u:e may firg't the 
way home X. A. 3. 2. 25, ^i/uXi^ioi ol pir irolvylaii>, ol Si tmnar some taking 
care of the pack animals, others of the baggage 4. 3, 30, t^i ra» niXXa» Sif^t it' 
iiiiai ^porrlfeir vte must pay heed to the world's opinion P. Cr. 48 a, t( i/ur riji 
rSr wtiWQr Uftii fiAiij what do vie Care for the world's opinion? 44c, roir 
artutaioti atx <ilirrt T^i iperjii d^itXcir the Serious Cannot disregard virtue 1. 1. 48, 
litlStiii JXryufxTrt /iitii laTa^poxiTe (cp. 13S5) rUr wfotrrrKiiUmr AettAcr nrgltct 
nor demise any command laid on you 8. 46. 

1357. So with nvrtitottiut rememhtr (but usoally with the accua., especially 
uf thlnp), inrmiawta not to ^eak of, in^wAu owrefor, irrpiwevStu give heed to. 

■3(3] THE GENITITE 823 

liaiuicSai think detplg of, rpeap&r make provitUm for (in Hdt.), fvra^iAii lun 
it repentM me, jcarafuXc?* mgleet. 

13SS. M&Q7 of tbeae verba also take the iicciisatlve. With the acciu. 
ftffv^Au means to remember sonietAJnp at a whole, with the gen. Co remember 
tomelhing about a thing, bethink oneself. The accus. is usually found with 
verbs of retarmbertng aud forgetling wbeo tbey mean to hold or not to hold in 
memory, and when the ubject ia a Ibing. Neuter pronouns xansl stand la the 
•ecus. iri\ar6drtfBai forget takes either the genitive or the accusative, XaiAi- 
Mvfci (usually poetical) always takes the genitive. tti\ti it ii a care, iniUKtirem 
care for, iiturTfiicu think about may take ripl with the genitive. olSa generally 
means 1 remember when It has a person as the object (in the accusative). 

1359. Verba of reminding may take two accusatives ; raC^ hriftniir l/iSt I 
hate reminded you ofthia D. 19. 25 Q62S). 

1360. With /lAci, the subject, if a neuter pronoun, may sometimes stand 
in the nominative (the personal construction) : raCro Bt^ fuX^a Qod villi care 
fnrtKia P. Fhae. 238d. Except in poetry the subject in the nominative ia very 
rai« with other vrorda than neater pronouns : x^po' to^-i iilkavai P. L. 8H5 e. 

1361. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to bear and 
perceive: ixovtiv, kAwiv (poet,) kear, (tucpoacrftu tiaten to, altr0Avea6ai 
perceive, wvOivta^M hear, learn of, otivUW understand, 6tT^piUttsj0oi 
»cent. The person or thing, whose words, sound, etc. are perceived 
by the senaes, stands in the genitive j the words, sound, etc generally 
stand in the accusative. 

Ttrdt ^lOHir' elrirrtt I heard aomebodi/ toy D. 8. 4, dioitsarrci t^i cdXrivyot 
hearing the sound of the IrvmpeC X. A. 4. 2, 8, iKoiaami rbr Sipupon hearing 
the noiae 4.4.21, ixptninemToO 4Sorroi listening to the singer X.C. 1.3. 10, Aroi 
iXX^Xur (vrfnrar oil mho understood eadt other T. 1. 3, IwtiSir ruri^ rit ri \ty6- 
pita when one undentandt Khat i» said P. Pr. 325 c (verba of understanding, 
rvwUrat and trUravSai, usually take the accus.), tpoiiiuiu* iaifipiilniiiai I smell 
onion* Ar. Ran. 064. 

a. A supplementary participle ts often used in agreement with the genitive of 
tlie peraon from whom something is heard : \iyarm iiieG itpoiaorrai ol t^ the 
lOHng men wUl lieten vshen I speak V. A.STd. 

b. Tlie accusative is almost always used when th« thing heard is expressed 
by a snbetantlvized neuter adjective or participle, but the genitive plural in the 
caae of ntrai, U>, afirii, and St is frequent. 

1362. A double genitive, of the person and of the thing, is rare with dndtit : 
iflp irwtfi Tfli ypa^^t iimiar dmtne /loii to Ufteii to iJij jimt pleas as regards the 
iHdlftment D, IB. 9. 

1363. iaiitir, altreirvrSai, rureinirBai, meaning to bei:ome aujare of, learn, 
take the accusative (with a participle in Indirect discouTHe, 2112 b) of a personal 
or impeiHonal object : ol H XlXarat^t, liii ■ivBarra trStr t( Srrai roiVi 9i)^alain m 
tmiKmitUntr t^* ri\ir but the Plalaeans, mheii theii liframe aaare that the 
neban* were iTtside and that the city had been eapliiml T. 2. S, TvMiutnt 'ifrra- 
iipt^w TiSr^iTa having learned that Artaxerxe» was dead 4. 50. 


a. To Ji«ar a thing is usually tUoiifii n when the thing he&rd is something 
definite and when the meaDing U aimply htar, not lUlen to. 

1364. imitir, itpo&rSoi, wvneinvBai, meaning (d hear from, learn from, take 
the geoitiye of the actual source (Ull). 

1365. dmidtir, iXrinr, iBidirtaSal T\wot may mean to hear ahovt, hear of: 
it tf « Ti9»ri3roi dioArui but if you hear that he la dead a iSS, cXtfuv aoS hearing 
about thee S. O, C. 307, wt twieorre r^t n6>Mi Ka.rtt\r)mifiirtt when they heard of 
the capture of Pyloa T. 4, 6. Tor the participle (not in indirect diaoonne) 
see 2112 a. rtpl is often used with the genitive without ilte participle, 

1366. In the meaning heed, hearken, obey, verbs of hearing generally 
take the genitive : t»w rirrur, tx\iyov 3' t avii^ipa litlen to eBerythiag, 
hut cAooK that inhich u proJUable Men. Sent. 606, ri3r rrXiidar iKaiar to rubmit 
to eneniet X. C. S. 1.4. rtlStr8t.i takes tlie genitive, instead of the dative, by 
analogy to thia use (HdL 6. 13, T. 7. 7S). (On the dative with in<itt» obey 

1367. ataSiMTBaii takes the genitive, of (lees freqaentiy) the aocusitive, of 
the thing immediately perceived by the senses : rfli Kpavy^i ^aBarro they heard 
t\e nol»t a, H. A. 4. 4, ^aSno T<k fifibiitra he perceived what teat happenfng 
X. C. 8. 1. 4. The genitive is less common than the accusative when the per- 
ception is intellectual : in iadorro Tttxtibman v)hen thfy heard that they were 
progreMing with their fortijUation T. 6, 83. Cp. 1383. 

1368. Some verbs, ordinarily construed with the accusative, take the geni- 
tive by the analogy of i^BAMaBai, etc, ; tym iTova ifuiv loioOiroi he kaea that I 

was acHng obMrdlj/ X. C. 7. 2. 18, dTnoGrTci dXX^Xw* I n tJyo^r eaeA nf u* 
mistaking lehat the other »ayt P. O. 617 c. This consttniction of verfaB of 
knoaing (and shouiCng) occuie in Attic only when a participle accompanies the 

13G9. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to jUl, to he JvU 
of. The thing filled is put in the accusative. 

at* tfirX-ie-ert r^' SdXarrat rpi^pur,- will yoH not cover Ihe tea leith yovr tri- 
remeg f D. 8. 74, inr\f>atti oiTiSr (o implicate in guilt P. A. 32 c, Tp«#^t ttrrt^U 
to have plenty of provi$iom X. Vect. 6, 1, Tpiijpjij rtiay/Lfiti itepiiiur a trireme 
atoviedwith men X. 0. 8.8, ipptm ittsToBceai to be filled with pride P. L. 71.3 c. 
So with rX40(ii', rXiipsDv, yituir, wXavriir, fiptBtir (poet,), ^piitiF (poet.). 

a. Hero t>elong also x>'/> <''<'d{t> AiqX^i 'Ap<ot hie hand drips with naer^fiee to 
AreMS.'FA.U2S,ptevaetlfreS)'4irTa(Kit intoT.irfited with nectar P. S. 20Sb, 4 irrr^ 
^ti^uxpt" uisToi the Spring Jloiet with cold water P. I'hae. 230 b. The instra- 
mentai dative is sometimes used. 

1370. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to rvie, eommand, 

0ciar ri iBtliirrvr <px<" <I '* divine to rule over willing subject* X. 0. 21. IS, 
T^t Be\iTTiit hpirti he Was matter of the tea P. Menex. 2S9e, 'Bpwt tS* *iSr 
pasiXtiti Love it king ofthegodt P. S. l!)r>c. inrTra tQi i(6SM he led the eispe- 
dlUon T. 2. 10, a-rpoTTf" ^ur iirur to be general of the mereenariea X. A. 


2. 8. 28, So with Txjfiantir be abaolute maiUr of, inivcti* h» lord oj (poet.), 
ifitfortUit i>« couiiaander uf. ThU genitive ia connected with that of 1402. 

1371. SeTeral verbs of mting take tlie accusative when tbey mean to oon- 
quer, overcome (ao uparttr), or when tbey express the domain over which the 
role extends ; as riiw UiMrirwiirot mpSaBt ni) i\ittatd l^ttaBiu try not to Itnen 
four dominion over the Feloponnae T. 1, 71. iiyni^fal tik meaoB tobt a guUt 
to ang one, thow OMg one lAe tiKiy. Cp. loST. 

1373. The genitive is used with verbs signif jing to buy, seU, coat, 
value, exchange. The price foi which one gives or does anything 
stands in the genitive. 

AfyvplottMflaaS^i^i.raSiirSatiwriit tobuyortalla korte for money P. R. 8S3b, 
Bf^urracXAi rQr inyiaru* iupt&t ^iltMrat tftey Heemed Themittotlta vsorthy of 
the ffreateat gift* I. 4. 154, o&t irraWam-tiir fu)i riir ^iXori/iia* oOSitbt tipioai I 
mtut itot barter my public spirit for any price D. 10. 223. So with rdrTar rate, 
luaBair let, /us-AiiwAii hire, i/r/iiadv worjb, and with any verb of doing anything 
for a wa^, aa oi t^ rap ifiUpir x^^ror T& tUyurra rfft r6\rur dToXu^fc^ft thoMe 
w&o haoe ruined tA« Mghett trUereete uf the State to pnrchaee ^hemeral popvlarity 
I>. 8. 70, r6a*ii tiSdatti ; rfrre im^n for kmn mvch ioet he tfitch f for five minae 
P. A. 20 b, ol XoMaibt iiurBoO vrpartiowTai the Chaltlaeans terve for pay X. C. 8. 

2. 7. 

«. The inatmniental dative la also used. With verba of txchaftgtng, Atrl la 
usual (1683). 

1373. To aalue highly and lightly Is rtpl roWaO (rXclont, i-Xcb-rou) and 
rtpl iXlyou (AArrsmf, iXaxl^Tm} rl/iivSai omie(irPa> : ti rXtlarov Ifia rtpl Ao- 
XlvTou woaiToi, TJk ii ^af\^«pa rtpL i-Atfont he makeg least account of tehat tl 
most in^ortaat, and ut» higher what it leu ettimable P. A. 30a. The genitive 
of value, withoot rtpl, is rare : roXXod Tut^vt^^t i-ciiKaiwai a di^Koa Upvrayhppu I 
etteem It greatly to have heard ahat I did from Priilagora» P. Pr,328d. 

a. The genitive of cause is rarely used lo express the thing bought or that tor 
which pa; Is demanded : oiSira r^i auramlat ipyipior rpirrti you charge nobody 
anything for your teachfag X. M. 1. 0. 11, rptU /Lmi Sn/iplirKeti three minae for a 
tmall chariot Ar. Nub. 81. 

1374. In legal language TifiS> nn tutirau ia to fix the penalty at death (aald 
of the Jury, which is not Interested In the result), rlfoirStl tik ^xiTair to pro- 
pose death <u the penalty (Raid of the accuser, who Is intfreated), and Ti>uUr0ai 
TifBt to propose a penalty against oneself (said of the accused). Cp. tIiiStoI 
PS* i iriip Amtrou the man proposes death as my prnalty P. A. 36 b, dXXi tif 
4vt4i T7^4rw/uu / Trut yip it tiot to&tiiv ^'i4t^|aa,%Tt bvt shall I propose exile ai my 
peitaltyf for perhapi you (the Jury) might fix it at this 87 c So fcfdrsv with 
Vlmr, Ai^wti', bwiyttt. Cp. 1379. 


1375. With verba of judicial action the genitive denotes the crime, 
the accusative denotes ttie person accused. 


atri&tSni dXX^Xout tmI ytytnutima to aeeute one another of what had A^k 
pentd X. Ages. 1. 33, Aiiinw ^r KaKvyoplat, r^ 3* atrp )^4^V ^nv ^eiyu J brint 
an acciisalion for dtfiimation itud at the »ame trial am proaecated for murder 
L. 11. 12, i/ii i MAvToi iatjitlat ijpi^ara Jgelttut proteCUUd ia» for tmpiell 
P. Enth, 6e, IJipur iKpl^tiiriit tkry were tried for bribery L. 27. 3, On verba of 
aeai^ng lUid condemning compounded nltb card, see 13S6. 

1376. So wilh i^mrScu and noXdftir jinnieh, tlai-feir and rportoKiiaiu 
fummon (n(o court, alfiti* convict, ri/iwpturStu late vengeance on. With rliLuptlr 
avenge and \ayxdti' obtain leave to bring a suit, the person avenged and the 
person a^ln^t whom the suit is brought are put in tho dative. So with Sued- 
jtr^ol Tinl Tim to go to law With a man about nometking. 

1377. Verbs of judicial action may take a cognate tecuBUive {ilKiir.ypa^ir), 
on which the genitive of the crime depends: ipa^iii' ufip€wt lal tin^r xoKirftplii 
^frriu he usill be brought to trial on an indictment for ovtrage and on a civil 
action for slander D. 21. 32. From tlila adnominal use arose the construction 
of the genitive with this claaa of verbs. 

1378. dXfiTEwffai (ixanii) be concfcted, ^XircdKir lose a niM, ^tOycir be 
proieeuted are equivalent to passives : Air tii i\^ chor^i , . . nr ioTpaTtlii tit 
tt^V if any one be condemTied for theft . . . and if any one be convicted of deter- 
tton 1). 24. 103, d<r()3(lat ^nirarra Ini McXi^tou being tried for impiety on the 
indictment of MeJetug P. A. S5d. ^Xurndicii may take Jfirqrasaccfiuateaccus. 
(iiiti\tlifm SIkjiw to be caet in a tvit Ar. Av. 1457) ; the crime or the penalty 
may stand in the genitive (with or without Sliair), or In the accusative : ^ia« 
xXn-^i i) Siipur S^Xoier all tcho had been eonnieted of embezzlement or brilieij 
And. 1. 74, i4> tfi^r Sanirau llin}r i^Xiiw having incurred through your verdict the 
penalty of death, Irri rfjt dXqMa; li^XtiiciTci /lox^^plat condemned 6jr the truth 
to naffer (Ae penalty of wickedness P. A. 39 b. 

1379. With verbs of judicial action the genitive of the penalty may be 
regarded as a genitive of value ; Barirev xpirovai they Judge In matter* ofUfeand 
death X.C.I. 2. 14. So iritei.rTiri0atirau to impeach a man On a a^pital charge 
X. H. 2. 3. 12 J cp. rt^» tfafdTov 1374. 

a. with many verbs of judicial action rtpl is used. 


1380. The genitive may express a more or leaB dose connection 
or relation, where mpi ia sometimea added. 

With verba of laying or thinking : rl 6i Iwwur otti ; but what do yov thtnJc of 
hoTaes T P. R- 4i>9 b. Often in poetry : tlwi U |u< iroTpdi but tell me about nq 
father \ 174, toO jtooiYi'iiTou tI *ifi; vihaldotttkousay of thy brother r S. El. SIT. 

1381. The genitive is often used loosely, especinlly at the beginning of a 
construction, to stale tlie subject ot a remark : firirei <J» taiarupyi, rir IrrA Ktnl- 
iaiuf rfliW yumiitii, f( MMTom itX. if a horte it vicious, u>e lay the fault to the 
groom; but as regards a vsife, if eke conduct* henelf HI, etc X, O. 3. 11, 
(iu-a^wf St (sl Tur dXXuit rtxi-Sir and SO i*n the cate of the other arts too 
P. Charm.lS6d, t1 AJTi3vr<iXXi3vcaXwri what about the manf beautiful things t 
P. Ph. 78d. 



13S3. Tlie genitive depends on the meaning of a, compound verb aa s whole 

(1) if the almple verb takes the genitive without a preposition, as inrcintm 

teithdrmn, rapaXkir releam, wapaxaptTt *i(>Tender(1392), i^UrSat de»irt (1349); 

or (2) U the compound lias acquired through tlie preposition a Bignlflcation 
difiereal from that of the simple verb nith the preposition : thus iwayrirra 
rfi iknitplit despairing of freedom L. 2. 4t> cannot be expressed by yrirrtt 
dxi t9t JXfufcpUi. But it is often difflcult to determine whether the genitive 
depends on the compound verb as a whole or on the preposition contained in it 

1383. A verb compounded with a preposition taking the dative or accusa- 
tive may take the genitive by analogy of another compound verb wliose preposi- 
tion requires the genitive : so iiifialntir Spui' to set foot on the boundarieB S.O. C. 
400 by analogy to iripatrtir rUr Spur P.L.T78e. 

1384. Many verbs compounded with ir6, wp6, brfp, iwl, and nard take the 
genitive when the compound may be resolved into the simple verb and the prepo- 
Eilion without change in the aenae : rodi avij^idx'"" drorp^arrci T^i •ynil'itt 
dianiading the allies from their purpose And. 3. 21, rpoawttriX-iiirar t^i dro- 
trdirtttt theywere despalrhed bffnre the remit T. 3. 6, xoXXoit ii yXwrTa wpcrpix" 
T71 Staroldt in nuinjr people the tongue outruns the thought I. 1. 41, (at weXt/tioi') 
nepud^rrai iifilar the enemy are stationed above us X. A. 5. 1, D, r$ tuipirrt 
rpvrv To5 Tilxovt (o the first one setting foot on the wall T. 4. 116. This use is 
mnet frequent when the prepositionB ai-e ueed in their proper signification. 
Many compounds of 6wip take tlie accu-tiitive. 

a. This use is especially common with lard against or at ; /ii) pan icardriri 
dan't ^>eak againtC me P.Tb.l49a, xaTtjfnifari pw he $poke falsely againit 
ne D, 18. 9, fn-Sfl mxryXtiTT.f; ^u he mouthed lies at me Ar. Ach,380. The 
construction In 1384 U post-Homeric. 

1389. The verbs of accusing and enndemnlng (cp. 1375) containing nari in 
compooition (1:07 0717 riiojtrii- decide agninst., KaraiiKiitir adjudge against, nars- 
i^T^(f«rAu rote against, KaraKplmr give sentence against) lake a genitive of the 
person, and an accusative of the penally. taTityopeir arouse, ■aTa^iYviiiriEni' 
and nray^^litrdoi take a genitive of the person, an accusative of the en'me.- 
tarayrSiKU Sup^iorlar ipoS to pronounce me guilty of bribery L. 21. 21, ro^tv 
ftiUar jrara^tr^ftrAit to vote kim gailty of cotnardiee 14. 11, rUr Jia^VYirrwi 
tintor Kara-iii6rrtf having condemned the fugitives to death T. <t. 80 ; person, 
crime, and penalty : toXX^i> ol nriptt HirSi0fuv eirarct laT^Mixrar our fathers 
passed tentenee of death against nuiny for favouring thr Persians 1.4.167. The 
genitive is rarely used to express tlie crime or Uie penally : raparipan airaS 
mxtfttr to accuse him of proposing unonetitutional measures; cp. 
ii9fAwftr Kttrwf'^ipireirTur fldxiTor. men w/io fldnc been condemned to deotA 

1386. In general, prose, as distlnguislied from poeti?, repeats the preposi- 
tioD contained In the compound 1 but xari is not repeated. 

1387. Pu^-n.—BdnTotairartaTwyrUiiTtri sentence Of death teas passed on 


Hum L. 18.89 (so Kar«y^^;i^Mt 4> /lou i Mnrof X.Ap.27), tarrr'ptJr* atni 

»tx <(«w» /nf*i»*iJt ht UNM eepecidHj occmed of favouring the Ptrtiana T. 1. 96. 


1388. Hon; verba ordlnarll; coDstmed with the accoMtive are alao fol- 
lowed by a genitive of a person, ^)pareiit1y dependent od the verb but in realiiy 
governed by an accuealive, generally a neuur pronoun or a dependent clausr. 

Thus, rdi* adrtS iytiiiai I admire tkit in Mm X. Agea. 2. T, rovro iruiiSi 'A->if- 
nXlou I praiae thU in Agtsilau» 8.4, a^wr tr fflai'/iiura /ira* oilOHfaAed at uiit 
(AiBif in them P. A. 17 a, 'Aflijm&n ff*w» toSt-o oiit ilxo«(o>Ta. (A« ^fArAi'aiu wifl 
not bf satisfied aith tkera in thit T. T. 48, J ^fi^rru fidXivra V"' toAfcA lAef 
moal cemiire in lu 1. 81, tt iriaw reC irnrpii 80a i^pix* i^ you admire in 
mv/alA«r loAat h« Ao* don« (Che actions of my father) X. C. 3, 1. la, tia$€iiiaii 
airir Satir xi^P"' ^X"" eonttmplating Aou large a countrn then poi*e*t S. A. 
3. 1. 10, Baaiiilta rdp irrparijyCiw 9ti 06 wiipHrra.! ijiur iiiTapl[ttr ririjp^ist /won' 
<I«r tAoe At general^ do not try to tupply us with moneg for proBfslont 6. 2.i. 
iwiriiist Si airOr ml iit Hiipfirar dXX^Xoui ke took nott alto Aou thej/ luked ladt 
Other questioTi* X. C. 6. 2. IB. So with StttptU obttnt, Irramtir feA nupiciom 
of, IreuimrStu eonrtder, etc. 

1389. FroiD such constructions arose the use of the genitive in actuil 
dependence on the verb without an accusative word or clause : S-foa-ai afir-Bv yuii 
admire him X. M. 2. B. 33, eav/uifui rwr l/rip r^i IBiit Si£iri dirtSr^Mir McXin-ur 
/ wonder at thote who are Killing to die in defence of their per*onal opi%ioiu 
I. 8. 93. The use in 13S9 recalls that with aUrHwBoi (1367). On dY>«««. 
tfav/idfiEtr with the genitive of cause, see 1406. 

1390. A form of the genitive of poaaeasion appears in poetry with verbil 
adjectives and passive participles to denote the personal origin of an action (cp. 
1298) : alnit SiSatri taught of her S. Kl. 344, iicSitiixStlj rdr car' aim* infomt'd 
by thoee in the house S. 'fr. l);S4, irXin*l» evytrptj struck by a daughter E. Or. 487. 
Cp. tilrtsrot given of Hod; and "beloved of the Lord." 

On the genitive absolute, see 2070. 


1391. The same verb may govern botli a true genitive and an ablaiinl 
genitive. So Spxcf" to begin (1348 a) and to ttart from, lx<'^i to hold to 
(1346) and to ke^p onetelf from. In many cases it is difficult to decide whellier 
the genitive in question was originatty the Inie genitive or the ablatival genitirF'. 
or whether the two have l>een combined ; e.g. in tvtiti /HkD roiiiri} a cap mndf 
of hidt K 262, ritTfXXor M/faro 1,t d\Ax'>"> he receited a goblet from hie irift 
a 306. So with verbs to hear from, inow of (1.164, 1411), and verhn of emo- 
Uon (1406), the partitive idea, cause, and source are bard U> distinguish. Other 
cases open to doubt are verbs of misting (l3tV^), being deceived (1392) and the 
exclamatory genitive (1407). 


1392. With vei'ba signifying to •■rtme, release, remove, reatrain. 
(five up, fail, be dintatU frum, etc., the genitive denotes separatiun. 

i3M] the genitive 829 

Xihtir rAr r6rttr to etfUt from toll 1. 1. 14, iwiVTinii) x'fpt^l'^"! Sucaiovirft 
Inmltdfe divorced from jutliee P, Menei. 246 e, iitra^Tas rfli 'Aftj»o(«>' {u>i- 
jHXlai viitMrauing from the alliance with the Athenian* T. 2. 67, raOaawra 
uMr rip FrpaTtiylat removing him from hit offlce of general X. H.6, 3. 18, 
tpr/trlv T^f iyapSi to be excluded from the forum h. 6. 24, rSffai laicov to eave 
from eeU S. Pb. 919, iKiiXuar r^i roptlai aOfbr theg prevented him from paiainff 
S. Ages. 2. 2, ait dffcii S6a iripat Iftt roB ;i4 mTaJuMi «aeA sJtJn uifll Jlscp two 
wn /rom (fnjh'np X. A. 3. 5. 11, XAydu rAtttrit to end a tpeech T. 3. 6B, r^t 
Anritplttf xepaxapi^ai tMrrifi to turrender their freedom to Philip D. 18. 68, 
ti wintw i^Ure, e6 tirtitui i^rara, ti xmi^rur iifietSrrt he did not relax hU 
toil, itand aloof from dangers, or ipare hie money X Ages. 7. 1, ^nreiprti 
Tit iKrliitr diac^polnted of their expecttaiont 1. i. 68 (but cp. 13G2), i, r^rot 
ti nU Ji^vuffa T^t trtipov Iht island being not far dlttant from the main- 
land T. 8. ei. 

1393. SereiBl verbs o( sepsnitian, such m i\tu0tpouT (eapeaially with a 
penoml aabject), may take iw6 or ti when the local Idea la promiDent 
Kanj take also the accoutive. 

1394. The genitive, Instead of the accusatiTe (1628), may be used with veibs 
<^d^fming: iroartpti lu rUr xpll'^rwr he deprives me of my property I. 17 . SB, 
TuriXXur A^ipoifurai xp'^l'^ra taking aaay properly from others X. M. 1. 6. !!. 

1395. Tbe genitiTe of the place whence ia employed in poetry where a cod>- 
ponnd yerb woold be nsed in pnwe : fiiBpar taraaee rite from the step* S, O, T. 
m (cp, hwarUrTaw^iu Afcwr then ri*e from their teatt X S. 4. 31), x^f^ <U^ 
ratting f*om the ground S. AnL 417. 

1396. The genitiTe with verlffl aignifying to wmiU, ioct, empty, etc 
Buy be classed with the genitive of separation. 

t<}f tteniltlar Bin dnp^aoiu' «fe shall not want proviatont X. A. 9. 3. 11, 
'rafnv affvoT* vravffrrt you never lack praite X. Hi. 1. 14, irSpOf rAwSe wt\ir 
arini to empty thU city of iU men A. Supp. 660. So with /XXdrnr and eri- 
t<*fi lack, iptiiiwr deliver from. 

1397. Siu I lack (Ihe peraonal conatmction) ueuaJly lakes tbe geniUve of 
qtuutiCy : ToUuii) ye Sia nothing of the sort P. Pbae. 228 a, >uii/»0 IStar tr xv' 
Twf ^Urfi* (Irai they were nearly at dote qiiarterivrith the hoplites X.H. 4.6.11, 
ntttrmi iiu {^Xour lam to far from admiring D. 8. 70 (also tmto&tof Siu). 

1398. SAfioi Iwant, requeet may take the genitive, or the accusative (ifgn- 
lartf of neuter pronouns and adjectives), of the thing wanted ; and the genl- 
tire of the person : ipuriiiam Stbh Uwrn, '\vKuir, fipii, lio'x'^'"' irt/aBiMt being 
ctktd what he needed, he said * / shall have need of tmo thousand skirts ' X A. 
8. G, B, TcOra bftUr Ntpat I ask this of you P. A. 17 c. The genitive of the thing 
ud irf the person is unDBual i itAfurot 'Ktpov AXXoi ftXXifi rpAfitut petitioning 
Cy** aboMt different matters X. C. 8. 3. 19. 

1399. >tl (ImpeiHOnal) la frequently nsed with genitives of quanUty : r«X)iae 
M aWm lx«* far /"»" 'Aaf being the case ¥. A. 35d, titi roXXoC BtJ D. 8. 42 
(oDtyinD.) and afS* 6\lyev Sti no,farftomil D. 19. 164. S(7r may be omitted 
(but not with TaXXoB), Wving iMyov and futpQu in the aense of almost, all but : 


iUyov wirrti almogt all P. R. 662 d, iMyui tTXov riir r6\iw tA«|r aU but took 
eAe eUv T. 8. 85. On Situ used absolutely, see 2012 d ; oa Siur wltb numenU, 860 & 

1400. Jtei fiel tih>i unmans I ham ne^d of aomHhinff. In place of the dMln 
(1467) an accusative of the person is rarely aliened in poetry on tbe analogy 
of J(7wlth the iDfinitive (lOSS) : oi t6h>u toXXdS p« 4<t 7 Aaoe nred of no ^nal 
(oU E,Hipp,23(otleii In E.). The thing needed is rarely put in th« accnsative: 
ttn Stat Ttf x'PV if the chorus need anntMnjf Ant. 6. 12 (hem some regard rl as 
DomlnatiTe). Cp. 1602. 


1401. The genitive is used with verbs of differing. 

ipX"* ir/aBbt aiStr Siaipipti larpit AyaSoO a good rater differt in no rttpret 
from a good father X. C. 8, 1. 1. 

1402. With verba signifying to siirpnus, be inferior to, the genitive 
denotes that with winch anything is compared. 

Tl/iaTt Tofrroi* /r\roiitiiTt7ri you had the adrnntagt over them in honovra X. A. 
8. 1. 37, ViJwo Toii SanToi thfy were oeerpmeered hy the leater X. H. 6. 2. 6, 
trrtpeTrTSrlprfar to be too late for operations D, 4.38, 4fiAi- Xfi^Mrrn t^^feTior 
to »> X, A. 7. 7. 31. So with wpea^itit hold the first place, Apirrritir be bcfl 
(poet.), iixiaunBai full ihorl of, litartKTttr he Worse off, ^XarnikfAu be at a dit- 
advantage. ncSirAtf tiwi is chieSy poetic. iiTT&aBai aft«n takeg iri. Akin to 
this genitive Is that witli verbs of ruling (1370), wbich are often derived from a 
substantive signifying rnler. 

1403. Many verbs ciimpounded with rpi, rtpl, Wip denoting supeiiorit; 
take tlie genitive, which may depend on the preposition (1384); rix" rfpuy4tov 
airaO goa excelled him In gpeed X. C. 3. 1. 19, -rriiuT) rpoix'ir tSf Irarrlut to 
excel tAe enemj/ in spirit T. 2. 02, toU SirXoti ahliw iwepipipoittw tee surpass tArm 
in our Itifiiiitrp 1. SI. So with ■r/neini, Irwtfifxi"- rfioriiiar, rpgipttny, and 
rpwuptlrBoi prefer, i-pewTijit^Ku be at the head of certainly take the genitive by 
reason of the preposition. iwtp^Wtir and irtppaiKLr >urpa>» take the accoaa- 

1404. The object compared may be eipreased by rpt, irrl with the genitive, 
or by rapi, wpU with the accusative. See under Prepositions. That in which 
one thing is superior or inferior to another usually stands la the dative (1613, 


1405. "With verbs of emotion the genitive denotes the cause. Snch 
verbs are to wonder til, admire, envy, praise, blame, hate, pity, grieve 
for, be angry at, take vengeaiice on, and the like. 

/Aitffuwa T^j rbX/itii t Hr \ty6rrair 1 woiulerpd i( the hnrdihood of the tpedttr* 
L. 12. 41, ToSrav if airetli T^t rpfbriiTos admiring him for hit tnOdntMU X. C 
2.3,21, fil^aiTtnB KiD, rqi Si BtMit (rruyu / envy thee for thy prudence, I hate 
thee for Ihjf cowardice S. EL 1027, ri qMat^nva roP rp&tiev I thought you happf 


brcanae of your dispontion P.Cr.43b, rir/xalpai t Sir iiytnuUrar I ihare the joy 
at what Aoj happened D. 15. 16, df^jCCirSai rut Bltriur d/uXou/i^mr to put up leiA 
Ute neglect of mjf household affain V. A. 31 b, rif itmt titaioii aMaai rpoSviiiat 
it ii right to praise the Mlrangerfor hit zeal E. I. A. 1371, qSwot irBpl rfSt ttipi- 
mii^Tur ft^iB)/^ never XBiU thou blame me for my tidinga A. Sept. 651, roD riMit 
ifrripem^Bt he pitied him for hit miaery X.C. 6.4.32, oM' i/kAi xi'^'riit Hpeif 
aWiir nor is it reaaonable to grieve about them T. 2. 62, ointrt SimJirai iX/rraurt* 
ifii^a9€, dX\' &r alrral Xa^^ctnri x^P" f'''^ V'" "re no longer angry at their 
thefts, bat you are gratpfut for what you gel youraelves I.. 27. II, riiiap^ajrttn 
atradt T^t triStrttat to take revenge on them for their attack X.A.T.4.28. Here 
belongs, by analc^y, voy-ri'/niateii' a<To?i xph T^t frieHfilii it ia neceaaary to for- 
give them for lAeir deilre P. Eii.300c (^xmaaily ffvyyiyinirKnrTiir hriSvitSar tuI or 

a. The genitiTe of cause is partly a true genitive, parti; Bbi&tiv&i. 

1406. Witb tbe above verbs Uie peiaon stands In the accusative or datire. 
Some of tbeae verbs take tbe dutive or ^1 and the dative (f.p. A\ytir, trimr, 
txParSai, ^Kir) to express Uie cause of tbe emotion. See tbe Lexicon. 

1407. The ^nilive of cause is used in exctnmatinns and is often preceded 
by an interjection: ^S toS irSpit alai for the man I X.C. 3. 1,39, rflt T^xiTt mr 
Qllttek! 2.3.3. In tragedy, the genitive of a pronoun or adjective after ttfiBt 
or &imi refers to the second or third petson. For tbe fiist person the nominative 
is used (oTjiwi rdXmra ah me, miaerable ! S.Ant.654). 

1408. Allied to the genitive of cause is the genitive of purpose in toO with 
tbe infinitive (esp. with m4, 2032 e), and in espresaions where tutta. Is usually 
employed, as 4 t(^' drdri) vuKmiuds-Ar rsD rtpl ^wk^i 6\fdpeii the vihole fraud 
wot contrived for thepurpote of ruining the Phoeiana D. IS, 76. 

1409. Closely connected with the genitive of cause is the genitive with verbs 
of diaputing^ ei ^otfiXci imroiaiiitea r^t ipx^' ue hare no dispute with the king 
nlwNl hia empire X. A. 2. 1. 23, 4fi#iir^4Tii<r» 'B^x^' r^t w6\fat he dlaptOed 
the poaaemion of the elty isilh Erechtbeua L 12. 103, Ip' eut iiii f)iur imrrtibetrai 
Tiff i-wayw^ftt ; UMtl then he will not oppoae ua about the tvmoenl (of the army), 
vill hef X. A. 7. e. 6. dmrowi'irAu claim may follow 1349 (t^i riXiui irrt- 
ruoirTo (A«y laid claim to the city T. 4. 122). Verbs of diaputing are some- 
times referred to 1343 or 1349. 


mo Tbe genitive may denote the snuTce. 

rititwi^^irtTeelwei wine was broached from the caiki ^ 306, doptfau lol Ila^w- 
vdrdai yiytoirrai ratlin tOa of Darius and Parysalia are born two aona X.A. 
\.l,l, raSra N rav TvxiTn obtaining this of you Q.6.S2, pdBt /lau talrili leam 

thtKOtofi-omme X.C. 1.6. 44. 

1411. Wlthverbsof AMrfni7^om and the like the genitive is probably abla- 
tlval rather than partitive (13114) : i»oC itatirfret wStar t^i iX'ieeiat f)-om me you 
ihall hear the whole truth P. A. 17 b. reiriaw nreirtHuu Srt ait tparir Uri ri Ipot 

I Ifanfromtheae men UuU the mottntainit not impaasabte X. A.4.S. IT, TiHai>rd 


Tov rapirrn ItXmr »ueh a tale I heard fiom tome one teko iwu present S.E1.424, 
ilSiKu Si em XPii^ I duire to knout of thee S. El. 668. 

■. Usually (except nith TtureirtaSa^i) we h&ve wapi (di-A rarel;), ^ or wpii 
(in poetry and HiU.) with verbs of hearing from. 

b. The genitire wkb (Fnti in warpii S tt/i iyii«<iii> I am of a good father * IW. 
Taairur iiif icrt vpayimat of sucA anctntort are gou X. A, 8. 2. 13 is often re- 
gaided aa a geniUve of source, but is probably possessive. 


1412. The genitive is used with many adjectives corresponding 
in derivation or meaning to verbs taking the genitive. 

1413. The adjective often borrows tlie construction with the genitive from 
that of the corresponding verb ; but when the verb takes another case (aspecially 
the accusative), or nhen there Is no verb corresponding to the adjective, the 
adjective may govern tlie genitive to express possession, connection more or less 
close, or by analogy. Many of the genitives in queslion may be classed as objec- 
tive as well as partitive or ablatival. Rigid distinction between the undermen- 
tioned classes must not be insisted on. 

1414. PosWBsion and Belonging (1297).— -dfpunroiriiTdrruFdpe/H^wrfoFf 
common to all men P. S. 205 a (cp. miinircit 1343), Itpii raS abroO Btou sacred to 
the same god P. Ph. 85 b, dI (frfim t&i i<)itmiii6Taii tiun the dangert belong to 
the commandera D. 2. 28. So with ofnibi and iiiix<lipun peculiar to. lautit 
(usaally), ofKCwi inclined to, appropriate (o,and ISwt also take the dative (1499). 

1415. Shanng (1343). — <r<«iat v^oxoi partaking in wMom F. L. 6S9d, 
M/unpoi rirrur having an eqval thare in energthing X. C. 2. 1. 31, ifiptvt d/ui^wt 
having no part in warUonneee P. S. 181 c. So ix\iiipiii without lot in, Afitroxt 
not thariiig in. 

1416. Tonching. Desiiing, Attaining, Tasting (1346, 1^60, 1366). —If >*- 
»Toi (7X0VI not touching a apear S. 0. T. 069, x^P" ^* rpMviuu ytr/tr^iuSa grati- 
tvde for the objects of our zeal T. 3. 67, raiitiat ^it^aXoi having attained to 
(possessed of) cvUnre P. L. 724 b, i\tuecplis 47*110x01 not tasting freedom P. R. 
676 a. So Stctpui passionately desirous of. 

1417. Connection. — diciXoufln iW^Xaiv dependent on one another X. O. 

11, 12, Td Toih-wr iSt\it>i what is akin to thia X. Hi. 1. 23, t&h rpxifm^ntt tri- 
fUKu ixoStlitii ejrpo&ilions agreeing aitk what had preceded P. R. 604 b, ^f-ryat 
virmi iiiSexo' light succeeding sleep S. I'h. 867. All these adjectives take also 
the dative ; as does euyytr-^t akin, which has become a substantive. 

1418. Capacity and Fltnesa. — Adjectives in -ait from aeUve verbs, uid 
some others ; waparavacTiicii riSf tit ri' viX(>ior ri> erpOLTifyir tlrcu xf>4 i™' 'opi- 
vTiidr Tur ^iTtiafluf roTf ffrpaTitiTati the general mutt be aNe to provide tehat ta 
needed in war and to eupplg provisions for his men X. M. 3. 1.6. So StSttvwttXiiih 
able to instruct, vpimiKii able to effect. Here may belong yiiim itpoJA rip* for 
marriage X. C. 4. 6. B, 

1419. Experience (1346).— iai^v t^rtipoi acquainted with the roads X. C. 
6. 3. 86, TTtt 9a\i«avt txirT'iltar acquainted with the sea T. 1. 142, ISuiriij rvtfro* 


nStfr,mi Htutaied in thii btutnesi X. O. 3.9. So wHhrpIjJuv ikilled in, ri/^Xii 
blind, Iwtipet unacguainled, iyinwavrot unpractised, AnlStvrot uneduealed, d^iif 
nntKCuUonud, J^i^taA^i late in learning, ^iXa^0i}i fond of learning, 

14aa Hemembeiing, Caring For (1366). — jra«i)>«in)A«mt mindful of crime 
A. Eum. 382, ^i/uX1)t tu> ^IXuf attFaline to friends X. M. 2. 6. 36, dntiiMur r^r 
niltwr Hnmfnd/ul o/ <I<iR0er> Ant. 2. a. 7 ; and, by analogy, riryyuii^r T^r 
<>4kwr(furA/uif>Ti)/ulrwr/or9fD(n;Fo/Au>na>i£fror8 X.C.0.1.3T. So d>uX4t care- 
fru o/, ^iXftffuir forgetful of. 

1421. Peiception (1361). — Compounds in -^iroof from duo^ : \6yur icaXdr 
'ntuNu Aearer* of noble Kordt P. R. 409 a, &rii«wi QtaraXHr tubjeete of the 
naiaitant T. 4. 76, inr^nMt ruir yoiAj* obedtent to parents P. R. 468 d, Iriiiriw. 
luMu f^RoranJ qf culture Aea, 1, 141, So ou»i)in»i Aeai'fnp (ojefAer, *oT^in»i 
trfvyiiijr- tr^Koet, taT^mm, and frr^iwi also take tbe daUve. 

1422. PnlneM (1389). — x<<f>« 4 r^^' tFrfwrri} the cili/ieasfull of rejoie- 
% D. IS. 317, rnpdSiuret iyplwr eTiplur vXilpi,! a park full of roUd beoiU X. A. 
1. i. 7, rXouritirepoi ipporirtiin richer tn good eense P. Pol. 301 e, ^Xijupoi rA>a- 
•riii penfrtiH* o/ good-will P. S. 197 d, (■■Xijo-toj j(P1*«It«» greedy of mone)/ 
X. C 6. 2. 20. So with r^iirXmi, irtf;iirXiut. TXiJptjj may Cake the dati7e. 

1423. KaliDg (1370). — Tofrrijt ntfun t^i xiip"' miwter of this countrf 
D.3.16, itpariit iprf^ unrextratned in passion T. 3. S4. So witb ^ici»Tift mruler 
o/, ttnipirup complete masttr of, dc/idrup intemperute in. 

1424. Talne (1372). ~Tii>-ii d{fa J/ia /ir^r a rug worth ten minat X. A. 
'. 3. 27, iifci x;n|fidTur dAc linrr^ rirpufdlian is not to be bouj/Af /ormoneir 1.2.32. 
So with dn-if ut loorth, iiripporiis in equal poise with (T. 2. 42), d{>6;Kpeut (tUHcfenC, 
'rffiii HnioortAy. AfiAr rin with the infinitive deuotes it it meet for a pertott to 
da tometlUng or the litce. 

1429. Accomitabillty (1375),— afriMTo^wr aeeonntable for this P. 0.447 a, 

'mxn Xiireraflau liable to a charge of desertion L. 14. 0, iftpelit nUixot sub- 
jfitoa trial for in^iety P. L. 907 e, frirortX^t ^ipcu tul>}e.ct to tribuU T. 1. 19, 
Ti^ur Irww6«ums b/ut renpOTitible to J/oii for this Tt.S.iiO, iBv<" Tar HSiiniiiiTur un- 
pinishedfoT offences Lye. 79. (Mxet usually takes tbe dative, and bo l/wtiivm 
>i>^*niiu; dependent on or exposed to. The above Gompounda of i/ri take tbe 
lenitive by virtue oC tbe Bubstantivs contained in them. 

1436. Place. — Imrrlot opposite and a few other adjectives denoting near- 
nenoT approach (1353) may take the fjenicive, chiefly in poetry : irarriot larar 
Aj(»<i' they stood opposite the Achaeans P 343. Cp. raC Hirrov i-rmdpfiai at 
M angle aith the Pontus Ildt. 7. 36. itarrloi usually lakea tiie dative. 

1427. Separation (^l302).—<pl\uti.yaaarlp7uuii deprired of good friend* 
^ U. 4. 4. 24, f vx4 ^iX4 irii»uiToi the soul separated from the body P. L. 899 a, 
*nJi(Xal xpvi'^'r'" Sparing of money P. R, 648 b (or pertiaps under 1366), EXiff 
laSapiw clear of undergrowth X. O. 16. 13, ArauffTot yivt ttevfr erasing tamenta- 
l""u E. Supp. 82. So with AnWepof free frvnt, iTtit ptire from, innocent of, 
iW«fAi berefl of, yviirds stripped of, pimt alone. 

1428. Compounda of alpha privative. — In adilitiim to tlie adjectives wttli 
"Ipha privative which take tbe gi;nitlve by reason of tlie notion expressed in the 


verb, or by analogy, there are mikDy othen, Bome of which take tha genitive 
because of the idea □{ Beparation, especially wheo the genitive is of kindred 
meuiing and an Bttributive adjective is added for tlie purpoae of mote exact 
deflnilion. Thua, iri^i deprived of, iraf^t not offering, irt\it free from 
(1392) ; as ri^i^i drifisi depriued of honour P. L. 774 b, draij ipp^rat raiiut 
WUhout male children 1. 12. 120, to5 ifiiiiTm BiA^tos dfl^aroi not teeing the laost 
pletuant sight X. M.2. 1.31, I^ukii t^Si tQi dpai without atterinff thit cur»t 
S. O. C. 865. Tiiis ie more frequent in poetry than prose. 

a. So when the adjectives are passive : ^fXur liXai^st vnarpt bg friends 
S. Ant. 847, cp. iiKuit Juff-dXarrat niiilt no one U hard for evil fortune la capture 
8. 0. C, 1722. The genitive with adjectives in d/pAa pHvatfw is Boineliiaes called 
the genitive of relation. 

1429. Wont (I3Q6).— dp^ara KiiA 4»A;(hf charioti deprioed f(f tbeir 
drivers X. A. 1. 8. 20, Mti,, dprrfl. lackiHg virtue P. R. 381 c. So vrlth r4rv 
poor, AXiri}t and iwiSe^i lacking. 

1430. Diatinctlon (1401). — aid*opet tQi 4XX»» different from the reMt V. 
Par. 160 d, (Tcfnr rd i^i> tov i.ya»ov fdeaeure is different from what is good F. G. 
600 d, dXXa rSi Sittluw at variance with justice X. M. 4. 4. 25 (dXXoi is •Imoet 
a comparative). So with dXXsMf and dXXirpiot alien from (also with dat. 
trnfavourabte to, disinclined (o). Sii^iopat with dative means at variance toUh. 

1431. Comparison (1402). — Adjectives of the comparati re degree or imply- 
ing comparison take the geniUve. "Die genitive denotes Uie standard or point of 
departure from which the comparison is made, and often expresses a coudenaed 
comparison when actions are compared. Thus, ^ttih* dtiafl^t ro^S, 8ti\dt dr- 
Spelau an ignorant man it inferior to a wlte man, a eoteard to a frrare man 

P. Phae, 2.'J0a, tptiTTbt ian \i~tm ri icdXXoi rflt ^uwutif the beauty of tfit woman 
i* too great for description X. M, 3. 11. 1, 'Erlhifa rporifii KApov r^rrc iHi^paa 
d^n-o Epj/axa arrived five days before Cyrus X. A, 1. 2, 2G, i:aTaSttirTifii.r rj)r 
Sjfar T$[ 4\tt5iit tXn^r the reputation he acquired ffll short of hit vepeetation 
L 2. 7. So with Jfifrtpet, bartpaiet, rtpir-rht. Comiwrotives with <, 1069. 

1433. So with multiplicalives in -irXaiii and -irXd^iai : JlirXdvu Awit^nr 
Jv (Xa^cr it returned dvuble what It received X. C. 8. 3. 38. So witA rDXX«a-r4f. 

1433. The genitive with the comparative often takes the place of 4 with 

another construction ; iffKuliTtpir ian ^t) OyiaDf giiiiaTDi ( = j) fif) i>yi(7 vci/uiri) ni) 

fryMi V'i'xn 'vroiiceai it it more aretchcd to dwell with a dtsrawd *oul than a dii- 

eated bodji P. G. 470 b, irXfloir. «uffl rCr 'ABvnlut (= fl ol 'Affquun) TUft^^ 
they came leilh more ships than the Athenians T. 8. 52. 

1434. The superlative with the genitive is both partitive and ablatival ; 
the latter, whpn a tiling Is coinpari'd with many things taken singly. Thus, 
ffo^iiraroi itSfni-iuy P. A. 22c means wiffst among nirn (part.) and wiser than 
any other tingle man. The partitive idea is the stronger. The comparative 
and the supt^rlative idea are Ixith expressed in dti)/i jvKiilit vlir drsXArat of^n 
^^rTft Tffl» dXXut a reasonable man will bear the loss of a son more eaailv than 
other men (and mo^l r<mly if all men) P. It. 603 e, HTpaTtli ^icyJari) twv wpi 
afr^t ail expedition grenter than any preceding it T. 1. 10, rut dXXur urraroi the 
latt amoitg nations D.6.T2. Cp. iiim rur i\Xu* = alone of alt D.S1.3S3. 

i«39] THE GENITIVE 385 

IMS. CaOM (1406). —tiial/iur tou Tp6rov happy because of AU ditpotitton 
P.PL 6Se, MXduK r4i auiufitpit viretched because ijfthy lot S. O.T. 1347, pi\am 
hmiami rnO /uyiSovi date* wonderful for tlieir sixt X. A. 2. 3. 15, wtplipa^^ rsD 
art^pert^Ku fearful of becoming an object of contempt P. Phae. 238 b. 8o 
with Tthij And rXit^utr loretcAerf. 

143& Free Uae.— a. Compound adjectives formed of ft preposition and 
HibHuitiTe may take & geDitive depeodeDt on the subetantlTe : gK^r^ urav'Kn 
wder tile iheUer of the tent S. Aj. T96 ( = ^i ai\i). Frequent in poetiy. 

b. Some adjectiTBB are freely used witb Uie genitive in poetry, as yipjii Ililpi* 
>«i lM9piai 4>Dtur the marriage Of Porit brinffing Tuln on hU friends A. Ag. 1156. 
TliiiiinreinproBe: ri rap irticoupanl'ix'"'' fife that protecu against cold X. M. 
13.7, tamupyat /lir rOr AWai, iairroO Si icairovpybTtpot doing evU tO the othtrt 
hu r»0Te to himself 1. 6. S, h t^i 'EXXdioi dXint^iDi the curse and destroyer of 
Grrece Aes. 3. 157. These adjectives ftre practically equivalent to anbetautlvee, 
Cp. anaiu patriae. 


1437. The genitive is used with adverbs derived from adjectives 
which take the genitive, and with adverbs akin to verbs followed by 
the genitive. 

Ti TvArou ^£9f uAdt comes after this P. R. 390a (1345), ipvriKUt rx<""> roC 
oftaiMii iheg are in loee with gain X. 0. 12. IS (cp. 1340), dei AvmIov straight 
for Ae Lfceum P. Ljs. 2a3 b (cp. IBvirt nit he made straight for the ship O 893 ; 
1363), tmrrUr irdrrutin the presence of all T. 6. 26, r\t^lot e^pUr near Thebes 
D.B.2T, KciXnu rAai near tAe JV^ile A.Supp.308 {VAGS),-,t*(ui iiuXtrrtpot tx*tr 
ht too neglectful of one" a parents P. I.. 932 a (135e), t* rirrur tUt i^wtlpm ainS 
ixinitr of all those acquainted with him X. A. 2. 0. 1, littSttbt irtlpat tx'" '" ^ 
luxperienced in nothing 1. 1. 62 (1345), iftut iripbs iyaStO in a manner worthy 
o/n good man F. A. S2e, rptwirrui rSn rpi^rrar in a manner appt't^riate to 
the doers P. Menez. 239c (1372), fia^pjrrui ti3> dXXwr irBpiirur above the rest 
of men X. Hi. 7.4 (1401), raviipii e&rtoi earirnv etl 'wickedness flies faster than 
fate' P. A. 89 a (1402), wstBtx^ (xouira toQ iStXipoO mourning for her brother 
I.e. 6. 2.7 (1405). 

1438. An adverb witb fx<" o' S'sreiirSat is often oaed as a perfpbrasis for 
in idjective witb elm or tor a verb. 

1439. The genitive is used with many adverbs (a) of place, 
(b) of time, (c) of quantity. 

a. iiifloMlr Tov T^ iialiair x^^P^' to make an attack at some point of their 
amatrt X. C. «. 1. 42, ataBiiiirat ol i)» lamu perceiving what a plight he was in 
D- 23. 166, ol irpMXiiXv^ iat\ytlii to what a pitch of wanliin arrogance he has 
tone 4. 9, irraOta t^ rofdrtlai at that point of the administration 16. 62, tlSfwai 
"■n y^ 4vrir to know where In the world he is P. R. 403 e, rippa 1(1^ roC ^lov, 
hrirm 34 tyyit alreadff far advaared in life, near death P. A. 38o, ^1 rdtt 
*ati\itot o» this side of Fhasells J. 7. 60, rpbi §ap&r tuB ScAmAmv north of 
Ht. Seombrus T. 2. 06, AXXw IXXg r^ riXwrn some in one part, others in aanther 


pari 0/ the ettg 2. 4, irarriKpii r^f 'Arnit^i oppotita AUica D. 8. 36. So with 
irrit iniide, tlrm ioitMn, ixaripwBtr on both sides, iirurett bfhind, rpiaStr btfore. 

b. Tqt^K' ivrir Ipa t$i Wp«t ; at vihat time of dag f Ar. Av. 1408, rfi iuiifit 
(■pi late in the das ^- H. 2. 1. 23. 

c, rSr 7»ia6rut Aiiji' enough of such matttrs I'. Charm. 163 d, robrtit fXn 
enough of this X. C. 8. 7.26. 

1440. Moat of the genitives in 1488 ue partitive. Soioe of the adverta 
falling under 1437 talce aUo the dative (A7:t'i fyt^'i r\TitU>r in the poets, ^{$1, 

1441. The genitive is uwd with adverbs of manner, especiBlly with the 
intransitive (xu, ^cw (Hdt.). The genitive usually has no article: wi Tdxon 
tKoarat tlxtr as fast at each could (with what measure of speed he had) X. H. 

4. 6. 16, in roSUr elxor as fast as my tegs Could carry me Ildt. 0. 116, Ixorra 
ei ^frCit being in their right minds E. Hipp. 462, <£ iriifwrot tftir to be in good 
bodily cowiilion P. K. 401 d (cp. 407 c, r<ii>i v7utrut Ixorrat ri iriitiaTa those ah. 
are sound in body: with the article, 1121), xj'Vf^''"' *^ Itnorrts well off lldi. 

5. 82, Toi tbMhou iniXiSi iS6Ka i riXis KuBlaTaaffai . . . T^t ti iri ep^iiri m/iiSti. 
XP^ffui ({fir they thought that the city aas well situated for the war and teould 
prove utifnlfoT the march along Thrace T. 3. 02. 

1442. This use is probably derivfMl from that wltb adverbs of place : thns 
xui tx'« lAfirij in what state of mind are j/ouT V. R. 406d is due 10 the 
analogy of Toi; iifiis ; (cp. Sroi yniiaii S, El. t)22). 

1443. The genitive Is used with many adverbs denoting separaUoo. Hios. 
Iirr<u 1) fix*l X^P^' tou ffii^utTot the lovl will exist without the body P. Ph. Me, 
Slxa ToB t^irr^pou tXtJAiui separate from your force X. C. 6. 1, 8, vpirw tv* 
rrnUr far from the sources X. A. 3. 2. 22, iuroSiir iWi/Xott rsXXcSr ml tyaMt 
Imiitt you vail prevent one another from enjoying mnny Nettings X. C. 
8.5.24, \i8pf tHw irrpaTiuT2r leithout the knouiledge of the eoldieri X.A.I. 
3. 8. So with ffai outside, inrln without, outside, ripir atroM, nfit^ unbe- 
known to. 


1444. Time. — The genitive denotes the time within which, or a\ 
a certain point of which, an action takes place. As contrasted with 
the accusative of time (1582), the genitive denotes a portion ot time. 
Hence the genitive of time is partitive. Cp. rw pkv \aj>M»va 'ti i 
ftw, rov 8i 6ip»K xPT'^toi^'w Txp vSari durinff the (entire) n-inter Iht 
god rains, bid in (a part of) summer they need the tvater Hdt. .t. lit. 

illUpaj by day, ntrit at or by night, /uriiiifffili! at midday. StlXtp in Iht , 
afternoon, ifripii in the evening, Bipovt in summer, x"**i3"* '" winter, flfwi ; 
in spring, iviipii in autumn, tot! Xoiirai; in the future. The addiUnn of article | 
or attributive usually dellneR the tjme more exactly. Thus, aiKaSr ^iSi iiir dipnt ] 
fvx'"^'' ix'i't ^** '* x«f '*'«> iXwii^f ; Is it not pleasant to have (a honse) rool j 
In summer, and warm In ^einter f X. M. 3. 8. 9, yx""' '^^' fKrii he rfrjinrtnl 
dtiring the night X. A. 7. 2. IT. col 4^(ni Hat wjcrit iyur hei rail rtXtnlom liotk 
by day and by night Itading againut the enemy 2, 6, 7, fhrrw vt \mw»i it^tiri 


.45o] THE GENITIVE 337 

iciirtu div^i iftat thty eaid that for the fature (at any time in the futore) ft 
fhuuld no longer be permuted to let an example of lawleianeis 6. T. 34. (Dis- 
itoguUh ri Xiiirdr /or the (entire) future Z. 'J. 8.} irrit leithln is aomettmes 
ailded to tbe genitive, 

1445. The addition of the article may have a dietrEbutive sense i B/>ax^J)r 
fti»i^« T^t Ti/Upit he received a draekm a day T. S. 17. 

1446. The genitive may denote the time gince an action hu happened or the 
lime uiUiI an action wilt happen ; •>iSii% )iA wu liptirqic Katnir oiSin roXXwt trQr for 
ntattj/ yean nobodi/ haa put i iipic gneilion to me 1'. G. 448 a, ^airiXih ei naxt'To* 
Uta iiiupQw the ting v>itl not Jight for [eii days X. A. 1. T. IB. 

1447. The genitive may or tiia.y not denote a definite part of the time during 
which anytliliig takes place ; the dative (ixea the time explicitly eilber by speci- 
fying a definite point in a given period or by contracting the whole period to a 
definite point ; tbe accusative ezpreaaes the whole extent of time from beginning 
Loend : cp. Tg H iertpaif el iiiy'ABiiratot t6 ti rpaiaraur cJXor Koi TJ)v 4#i/pdt dn- 

ON the next daf the Athenians captured Che suburb and laid uxtsle the land for 
that entire dan, vhUe the three hundred Heionaeans departed in the course of the 
foUoaing night T. 4. 130 ; i/tip^ H ipii/itm rpirn in oUeBtr &pii,Tfra,f, -raOriir ri 
ilinilarTo Kal T)|f Ttriimjr nol r^t »^>«'Ti)t utxP' opIcTgv beginning on the third 
dag a/ler their departure, they continued their work (all) thU day and the fourth, 
and on thefi/lh until the mid-day meal 4.90. 

«. Tbe genitive ol time is less common tlian the dative of time (1639) with 
ordinals, or with Oii, oCrst, iKcirot ; as rairiit t^i nurii T. S. S7, P. Cr. 44 a, 
ittitou ToC M>it in the cvurse of that montii X. M.4. 8.2. For tipoai we find 
h Mptt larely and, in poetry. Bipti. T. 4. 133 has both tdv aAroC Sfpovi and it 
rf airf eipei in the Course of the game summer; cp. Iffoi ^ti It rt etpti ml x«- 
Hun 6 'ItTpet Hdt. 4. fiO and 'Itrrpoi Irrai ^« eiptm nl x">"3»i *• *^ (.('^ ^"^ 
jtoipt with the same volume in summer and lointer'). 

1448. PlAce. — The genitive denotes the place within which or at 
which an action happens. This is more frequent in poetiy than in 

rtSltf ifUKlptr to chase over the plain E 222, Iftv toIx»v toS tripem he WM 
titttng by the other viatl (lit. in a place of the wall) I 218, XiXou^rai '(taanlt 
kining bathed in Ocecnus E 8, etri JIfiXou li^i o6t' 'ipyitt ofr« Mm-iitii neither 
in saertd Pylos nor in Argos nor in Mscenae <ji 108, ritS tlmti^a rtixiw thov 
tiidit admit thl» man within the wnlli B. Phoen. 451, Uku toG rpirw to go 
foTUMtrd X. A. 1. S. 1, irtrdxirKir r^i iSoS rait ax^^trtp^' Tpambrtai they has- 
tened on their way those leho came up more slowly T. 4. 47 ; Xuiai x'V*' einowri 
they dwell on the left hand A. Pr. "14 (piissibly ablatival). 

1449. Many adrerbs of place are genitives in form (ofrroE there, leC where / 
(MtMwG noahere). Cp. 341. 


1450. The Greek dative does duty for three cases: the dfttire 
proper, and two lost cases, the instrumental and the locative. 


A. The dative derives its name (4 Smxi, rrOrn, eanu dattnu) from th« 
use with tilArai (1460). 

1451. The dative is a necessary cainplement of a verb when the 
information given b; the verb is incomplete vrithout the addition 
of the idea expressed by the dative. Thus, Wtfenu lie obeys, calls for 
the addition of an idea to complete the sense, as rots vo/mk the laics. 

1452. The dative a^ a voluntary complement of a verb adds some- 
thing unessential to the completion of an idea. Thus, airoU k 
fiipfiofxn iir^XBov the barbarians departed — for them (to their ad- 
vantage), liere belongs the dative of interest, 1474 If. 

1493. Bat the boundaiy line between the oecesdary and the voluntary 
complement ta not alivaya clearly markeii. When the idea of the actioa, niit 
the object of the action, is empliatic, a verb, usually requiring a dative to com- 
plete Its meaning, may be uaad alone, as rciBrrai he it obedient. 

1454. With many tntransitlTe verba the dative is the sole complement. 
With transitive verbe it is the indirect complement (dative of the irtdirecl or 
remoter object, usually a person) ; that ia, It farther dednes the meaning of 
a verb already defined In part by die accusative. 

1455. Many verba so vary in meaning that they may take the dative either 
alone or along with the accusative (sometimes the genitive). No rule* can be 
given, and English usage is not always the same as Greek usage. 

1456. The voice of ten determines the construction . Titua, rtUttr riti toper- : 
laade tome one, rtlBtrBat rm to perruade oneself for some one (qbej/ tome one), < 
ia\tittr rtfi raura roinr to order tome one to do Ihit, vapaiit\t6tv>ai rin ravn 

TButf to exhort some one to do thia. 


1457. The dative proper denotes that to or for which something 
is or is done. 

1456. It is either (1) used with single words (verbs, adjectives, and some- 
times with adverbs and substantives) or (2) It serves to define an entire sentence ; 
herein unlike the genitive and accusative, which usually modify single members 
of & sentence. The connection between dative and verb Is leaa intimate than 
tbM between genitive or accusative and verb. 

1459. The dative proper is largely peisonal, and denotes the pemoo who is '- 
teterested in or affected by the action ; and Incindea 1401-1473 as well as 1474 fl. 
The dative proper Is not often useil with things ; when bo used there is onall; 
peisoDiitcation or seml-penouiflcation. 


1460. The dative may be used as the sole complement of maoy 
verbs that are usually transitive in English. Such are 

i4<T] 1'HE DATIVE 889 

1461. (I) To ben^, help, injure, pleate, displeate, be frietwUy or 
hottiie, blame, be angry, threaten, envy. 

fit^UToaif^StttuJnatohe^theviTongtd E. L A. TO, a^ Ar 4nix'^' fO' ii^r 
ke vombt not now be trtmbling ut U. 3. 5, dn-i rsE auttpytlriavrali ri cn^farr* 
^WcdfMwir dXX^Xsd itutead of eo&penatng for their mutwoj interest*, they re- 
vile OKC another X. M. it. 6. 10, (t ratt rMofir ipttKuwrH iiritiw, rataf iw /linn 
ttn ifitih irapieioKiitr if lee are pleanng to the majority, it leoatd not be right 
if ut thould dUpleoMe them alone T. 1.S6, tintir roii tutSmt to be fi'Undiji to Ou 
ill-iaUntioned X. C. 6, 2. 1, i/al Vr'P>T<" tA«y are angrj/ at me P. A. 28 c, 
ry Bttfiiidfn i^tOaur theg threatened TTieramenee T. 8. 92, tt ^$»rar rait rJwv 
rwirir not eheriehing envy againet the rich X. A. 1. 9. 19. 

1462- Some verba of ben^tlng and iufnrinff talce the accusatiie (iL^XiTv, 
pXiwTtir , 1691 a) ; fiiatTr Tin Aate »ome one. XOriTtXtic, avin^ptir be (<f admm- 
lagt Uke the dative. 

1463. (II) Zb meef, approach, yield. 

t*tl Si 4»i(Fri(ffB» oJretf of iTTpttTiryal 6ii( mA«ii the gentraU met them X.A. 
S.3.IT, repiTi^x't'o ^^(p<t>'« hemeete Philoerata X. H.4. H. 24, irafwtB£xf>4 
fwiwt xt\d{»ir teAof tdid bea«tt one mutt not approach X. C. 1. 4. 7, «A I" M 
Myrg n>t 0i«i;rt /ill futx"" V'^'tf to n«e«88(tj( and v>ar not v>ith heaven E. ft. 716. 
Oa the genitive nltb verbs of approaching, aee 1353. 

1464. (Ill) To obey, serve, pardon, trust, advise, command, etc. 

T«i rSiioii rtlStv obey the taie» 1. 1. 16, rji biitripif iiiii^6fi<f Ifwamittr to be 
tubmrvienl to your interetu T. 6. 08, irnifStiui SovXiijit ruv iiSowSr if you are 
the tlave of no pltature 1. 2. 29, irlffmor airf <U ir6\nt the cities trusted him 
X. A. 1. 9. 8, rrpartryif rrpan^cui TapaiMpm a general advielng hia men 
P. Ion 640 d, T^ Hurf h^/iv" iptiy^r he onlered the Musian to fiet X. A. 5. 2. 
iS>, TV KXtApxv 'PM ty" he ehauted to Clearrhut tu lead X. A. 1. 8. 12. 

14S5. KtXf^if command (Htrictly impel) may be followed In Attic by the 
wctuallTe and (usnally) the infiDltive; in Mom. by the dative either alone or 
with the infinitive. Many verba of commanding (wapayfiWttr, iiaKitjAtsSai) 
take in Attic the acciualive, not the dative, when uaed with the inflnttlTe (1900 h.). 
Aramter (and iKotiir = obey} may take the genlUve (1366). 

1466. (IV) To be tike or unlike, compare, beJU, 

ttuUrai rwT niuii!T«i to be like lueh men I*. R. 349 d, tI oPr rpirti ipipl winrri f 
vAol then btfitM a poor man ^ P. A. 30 d. 

1467. The dative of the peraon and the genitive of the thing are uwd vrith 
the ImpeiBonala ><( (1400), ndrirTi, ;i^i, tuTatWKti, Tpoa^iat. Thiu, lusSa- 
Mpvv irSpi Tupitnf Stt a tyrant need* mfrcunarie* X, Hi. 8. 10, ut a6 iierir airoit 
'EnM^iBu ttKumucft a» they had nothing to do with Bpidamnue T. 1.29, t6x i" 
ffititura lurliu^tr abri^ he did not repent of hi* act* of violence And. 4. 17, ra^y 
T^ Bsun-laf irpoviiai ottit he has nothing to do tollh Boeotia X. A. 3. l.Sl. (fwrl 
imtHsin my poaer does nut take the genitive. For the accusative instead of 
the daUve, see 1400. Cp. 1344. 


verb taking the dative can form a peraoDal pasaiTe, 
minative Bubject of the passive. Cp. 1746. 


1469. Many verbs take the dative as the indirect object t(^ther 
with an accusative us the direct object. The indirect object is com- 
monly introduced iu English by to. 

KCpei ilJwffif afr^ (f /i'^rCir luaSir Cyru* givet him pay fiir $ix monOu X. A. 
l.lAii^ -lit 'Tptarhfi Wwot iiap^imTi) he presciUed a horse to the Hgrcanlan X.C. 
8.4.24, ri Si a\Xa Siatti/uit roli rTpartiyo'' to distribute the re»t to the gtTierali 
X.A.7.5.2, /litpdf iityd\ifi tlndaai to compare a small thing to a great thing 
T.4.36, T4iirut airv iyt'^" nentUnrj a tuMseni/er to him X.A.I. 3. 8, itux'oS- 
lial vm S4/a riXan-a / promite yoii (en talents 1. 7. 18, tovto atl S' i^Uiuu I lag 
thit charge upon thee S. Aj. 1 18, rapinti toU 'Aflijmioii rmdat he adviaed the 
Atheniant asfolhncs, iiiol inrpi^ai rairiirTtir ipxiy to rntrutt this com- 
mand to me X. A.0. 1.31, XtyftrraOra Toit arpaTiiimut to say this to the tOldien 
1. 4. 1 1 (Xtytif rpti rm lacks the personal touch of the dative, which indicates 
interest in the person addressed). A dependent clause often represents the 

1470. PaMiTe. — The accusative of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive, the dative remains; ialnf avrii 4 x>^ Mi9)t thit land teat given to 


1471. Many verbs raay take the dative either alone or with the 

aiStri liin^fuu I find fault ailk no one D. 21. 190, tI At hm n^it^oia; vAaC 
fault iBoatd you have to find with me f X. 0.2, 15; frwij^crfl reii *wTt lamattr- 
vant i>f the gods X.C.8.2.22, 'Bpwri irSr irnipirii he serves Eros in everything 
P. S. IHOc ; TSfHimXnion'ai rnlt rtpl itiirt ^luXKuiidna they exkort Uutse teho are 
$trlBinfi for ticlory 1.9.79, To&ra toii irXtrait mpanXcAi/uii I address Ihii txhor- 
tallon to the hoplitea T.7.63; imiSi^t rait dSKoSvir you reproach the guilty 
L. 27. ttl (alRo accus.), Qyi^alaLt r^r dria^lat 6ttiSlt(>uti they upbraid the Thebnns 
With their ignorance 1.10.248; tfmrt m^fd^ivi having prai/ed to the gods T.S.^, 
t^iimoi Tui Scaii riyaBi having prayed to the gods for success X. C. 2. S. I (rp. 
alrtiV Tiri ti, 1(123). So i»iTi,uir (iyta\i?r) rin to rensiire {accuse) some one. 
iwiTlnat (tyKoKtlr') tI tih •■riigure something in {bring an accusation affainsl) 
tome one. So ireiXtlr threaten. ; and iptnat, 4Wfn», Api/ycr Ward off {rirl ti 
in poetry, 14831. 

1472. ■(iitwptir (iKiet, TiiuiptTseat) Tin means (') arenge some one {lake 
vtngeanee for some one), as Tiftupiimr aoi toD vaiSit iiriffnnE^Bi / promise t- 
avenue you because of (on tlie luurUyrer of) your son X, C. 4, (J. 8, tl rl/uafHiaen 

H79] THE DATIVR 341 

}}aTpiK\if rAr ^rar if you iirenge the murder o/Patroelut F. A.2Rc. riiiufiMSal 
(rarely Tiiutpfir) nm mi'aiiK to avfniji^ iiaeaelf upon lomt one (/ixiiiVA someone). 

1473. For the lialivp of purpose {to wAo( endf), coinnioii in r,atin with a 
second dative (dvno dari'), (ireek ubch a predicate noun : iKtlKfi it x'^P^ i&ptt 
M9n the country too* giofa to him at a gift X, H.S.I, (I. The usage in Attic 
iiiMriptioiw ((Xo. TM Sifian iiaUi for the door* C. I. A, 2, add. 884 b, 1, 38) is 
siiiuewhat Bimllar to the Latin unage. Cp. 1602. 

A. Tlie inflnitive was originally, at least in part, a dative of an abstract 
■ulutantive, and served to mark purpose ; rli t ip aipiiK SiOt IptSi {vf^m 
iidxwia^ : «Ao then of the gods /wrought the twain together (for) to contend in 
strife/ A 8. Cp. " what went ye out tor to see ? " St. Matth, 11. 8. 


1474. The person for irhom something ia or is done, or in reference 
to whose case an action is viewed, is put in the dative. 

a. Han; ot the verbs in 14(11 fl. take a dative of interest. 1470 B. are Epecial 

1475. After verbs of motion the dative (usually personal) is uxed, eapeciallj 
in poetry : x<<f>Bt ^l">^ 6piyiirTat reaching out their hands to me /t 257, •f-ix" 
'AiSi rpotwfitr hurled their gouU on to Hades (a person) A 3 ; rarely, in proee, 
after verbs not conipounded nith a preposition : f-xitret {*e(l. rai raOi) 'Pirylv 
fitting in at Bhegium T. 7. 1. Cp. 1485. 

1476. Dative of tbe Possessor. — The person for wliom a. thing 
exists is put in tlie dative witli ilvxi, yi'yvtir&iii, {nnipx"v, ^"vai (j)oet.), 
etc., when he is regarded as interested in its possession. 

<XX«t litw x^^^wrd iari, ^/ur ii (6tiiiaxBi ii7atlol othera have riches, ice have 
good allies T. 1. SO, r^ jmly xa^ $tSr Sipa ylyrerai gifts are bestowed upon the 
just man bjf the godt V. R.613e, Intipx" V^' tiSi' rOr i-nrTiitlar vie hnre no 
supptg of provisions X. A. 2.2. 11, raai BriToit f#ti iikp^s death is the natural lot 
of all men S.EI.SaO. 

1477. So with verbs of thinking and perceiving: rir iyaSir ipxitra p\i- 
nrra tifioi- di^pwioii itituatr Cyrus Considered that a good ruler teas a living 
late to man X.C.8. 1.22, eappeiri /id\iara iroXi/imi, irtir Toil /wirloii wpiy/uiTa 
TinMrurTai the enemy are most courageous when then team that the forces 
opposed to them are in trouble X, Hipp. 6. 8. 

1478. In the phrase 6npA iiart') tih the name is put in the same caae as 
hvfia. Tbus, liofa dcoirriu S»^ aurf elm 'A7ri0uH I thought I heard his name 
i»u Agathon F. Pr.316e. S»/ui pol Im and Sro^a (^run/tfax) tx" Br^ treated 

IS the passives of inpdfa. Cp. 1322 a. 

1479. Here belong the phrases (1) rf (iffni) ipol tal aol; \ehat have I to do 
vUh thet f; cp. ti T^ riiuf (at T^ ^attinf; what have the law and torture in 
commonf D. 2fl. 30. (2) rl rairr' ipol; what have I to do with this t D. 54. 17. 
C3) rl/futTUorj what gain have IT 


1480. The d&tife ot the ponesaOT denoiea that sometblng ia Kt the dteponl 
of a penon or baa fallen to his abare temporarily. The genitlTe of po«se«ioD 
layi atreaa on the person who onni somethiog. Tlie dative anawsis the quenJon 
v)/tat b it theU he hat t, the genitive auswera tbe queaUon tnho U U that ha» tomt- 
thingt Tbe uses of the two caaes are often parallel, but not interchangeable. 
Thua, tn KPpot, ol ai fm rb irb riiDSt Cyrv», to whom you teill htnafvrth btloag 
X.C.0. 1.8, 4 would be iaapproprlote. With a noun in the genitive the dative 
ot the posMSBor is need (r^r iKaripou fv/i^x"' '^■^. 1) ; "1th a noun in the 
dative, the genitive of tiie poaaeaaor (roi^ iaur^t fu/i^x*" ^- i^)- 

1481. Dative of AdvanUse or DlaadTanUge {dcUieut commodi el 
incommode). — The peraon or thing for whose advantage or disad- 
vantage, anything is or ia done, ia put in the dative. The dative 
often has to be translated as if the poBseseive genitive were used ; 
but the meaning is different 

iwitHi airroii ol pdpPapoi it rljt zii^f dr^Xtfor afltT the barborUmM had dfparted 
(for them, to their advantage) from their country T. 1.69, iXXo arpiTtviia an-y 
ouHUYtTo anofAer arvty vxu being raUei for him S, A. 1, 1.O, dXXy i rouvrn 
TXavT(7, talcix iaiirf nieh a manis rich for another, and not/orhfnue//P.Menex. 
246 e, ffT(^>aElir0at t j 9cji to be crovined in honour of (Ae god X. H. 4. 3. 21, m^- 
rrUqi IwpaTTt tMwrif Philittidea una working in the inUrext of Philip D. 9. 69, 
1-6, TCf^l^'' '^^^' irfpffHi lai^F money is a eaute of mitery to nuritfcuut 
E. Ft. 0S2, ol Bpfut «1 ry iiniaaBira impifiarTtt the I^rociaiM who COMW too 
late (for, ),«.)fo help Demosthenes T. 7.29, ^t i^ i^^t/paroiV'EXXqffi/HTdXHrnuur 
Ipfft At* day xeill be to the Greeia the beginning of great lorroHS S. IS, Jr rd 
oxH rUr olMTur imtpi if any of your slaees runs away X. M. 2, 10. 1. 

a. For the middle denoting to do something tor ooeseif, see 1719. 

b. In the taat example In 1481, aa elsewhere, the dative of a per«on«l poo- 
notui ia osed where a poeaeasive pronoun would explicitly denote tho owner. 

1482. A dative, dependent on the sentence, may appear to depend on a 
aubatantive : rot H tJ^w iptpa ry Svyarpl to you 1 will give a huMband for 
four daughter X. C. 8. 4. 24. Common in Hdt. 

1483. With verbs of depriving, wafdinff off, and the lihe, the dnUve of the 
person may be osedi ri vurrpartitit d^Xtii v^lvo ndttf^ar theji diked him 
to relieve them (lit. tote away for them} ftom terving in (Aeioar X.C.7.1.44, 
AaHuwiF XoiTiv iiairor ward off ruin from (for) tAe Aiaoj A 466. So dXiEa* 
tal Ti (poet), dp. 13G2, 162a 

1484. With verba of reeeivlrtg and (myinp, the person who gimet or *eUf 
may stand In the dative. In iix'^t^l t1 rm (cbivfly poetic) the dative denotes 
Ibe interest of tlie recipient In the donor : 8^fu«Ti liirrt tiTa.% »he took the eup 
from (for, i.e. to please) TAeinfs O EST. So with tI^bu vpluiial «h rd x'V^*' i 
at what price am Ito buy the pigt of yout Ar. Ach. 812. 

1485. With verbs of motion the dative of the penon to whom la properij a 
dative of advantage or disadvantage : j)XA ratt 'Atfiffalaii 4 ^7T(\f> (As mettage 
MDM to (tor) the Athenian* T. 1.61. Cp. 1476. 

1486. Dative of FMllng (Ethical Dative). — The peraooal pro- 

i4>g] TBE DATIVE 848 

uonns of the first and second person are often nsed to denote the 
interest of the speaker, or to secure the interest of the person spoken 
to, in an action or statement. 

iidiinivfU luu liii $npufftir pray remember not to fivike a diitvrbanet P. A. 27 b, 
ifiiiurtirtp«i Yit^a-aprai i/ur ol ritt your young men will groa let* cuUtvaUd P. R. 
646 d, TDuirra ifur lari i) rvpnnlt nicA a thing, you know, is denpotitm HdL 5. 92 if, 
'ifra^pw^t t/ur "frriartii iart xoii Artaphemn, you kmtu), i» Hytta^e*' to* 
b. 30. The dative of feeling may denole nurprlBe ; & n^tp, wi «t\ii fun i rdrirM 
oh mother, hoa handsome grandpa is X. C. 1. 3, 2. With the dative of feeling 
cp. "knock ine here" Shttkeap. T. of Sh. 1.2.8, "study me how to pleue the 
eje *' L. L. L. 1, 1. 80. roi surely, often used lo iDtroduce genenU atUemenls or 
maxims, is a petriSed dative of feeling (= rot). 

M. This dative In the third person is very rare (aArg In P. R. 843 a). 

b. This constmctloD reproduces the familiar style of conversation and may 
often be translated by I beg you, please, j/ou see, lei me tell you, etc Some- 
times the Idea cannot be given In translation. This daUve is a form of U81. 

1487. fyo\ po«Xa|Urf ^rri, etc. — Instead of a sentence with a finite 
verb, a participle usually denoting inclination or aversion is added to 
the dative of the person interested, which depends on a form of Hvax, 
yiyrta&iu, etc. 

rif r'Mifu T&r U\aTai&ro6 0tv\eii/iifi Jtrrwr'A^tnlwi d^Irrarftu the Flatotaa 
denocraey did not with to revolt /rom the Athenians (= ri w\ijSei vit ipa6\rra 
i^lrraatai) T, 2. 9 (lit. it vxiB not /or them when wishing), at poviteiUteii iaitif 
i TwrTufff, finfo-tf^a-B^i if these men (the jory) desire to hear tt, I shall take the 
matter up later (= ir etrei imitif /SofiXwrrai) D. 18. 11, trnti\Buiitii, a ret ^o- 
nifv **rlt let us go hack if it is your pleasure to do so P. Ph. T8 h, tl iiii drfi/nit 
fnur l^ty/ui if 1 have come against your will T. 4. 86, 'Sinlf rpoaiexoi^'V 4' rt 
TBpArSr 'ETwrafuf Sieiotwosprepared for the news from the Egestaeana 6.46, 
4> Si o6 Ty ' KfTieiyAip i-xflaitfrif this was not displeasing to AgesilauM X. H. 
5.S. 13. Cp. quibus bellum volentibut erat. 

1488. Dative of the Agent — With passive verbs (usually in the 
perfect and pluperfect) and regularly with verbal adjectives in -to; 
and -T«of, the person in whose interest an action is done, is put in 
the dative. The notion of agency does not belong to the dative, but 
it is a natural inference that the person interested is the ^ent. 

(^ Kol ro^oit wtwparrai has been done hy (for) me and these men T>. 19. 206, 
twaiii aireU raperKiivrre tehen the]/ had got their preparations ready 'J'. 1. 40, 
Tar»rri ;tDi tlp^ffit let SO mueh have been said by me L. 24. 4, i}/iii^it0ai ri 
fifiXi let <t have been decreed by the senaU C. I. A. 2. 66. 9. 

a. With verbal adjectives In -^bt and -rfcf (2149) : rott otKoi i>iXuT^ en- 
Titd by those at home X. A. 1. 7. 4, ijiiSt y Ari/i r^t ihevBtp^i iywurrior we at 
least must struggle to defend our freedom D.9.T0. For the accoe. with -rioi; see 
8162 a. 

1489. The usual rpstrlction of the dative to teuses of completed action seems 
to be due to the fact that the agent Is represented as placed in the poeilion of 


Tiewing an &lread; oompleted acUon in tbe ligbt of ita relation to hhiiOTif (inter- 
est, advajiuge, poBsession). 

1490. The dative of the agent ia rarely employed with other tenses than 
perfect and pluperfect: \iyrTat iiplr it saiii by u« I'. L. Tl&b, tt/h Ktfimpaintaix 
iapSrro the shipe were not seen bi/ (were invisible to) tA« Corej/raeatu T. 1. 51 ; 
present, T, 4, 64, 100 ; aorial T, 2. 7. 

1491. The person bi/ whom (not for whom) an action is explicitly 
said to be done, is put in the genitive with inr6 (1698. 1. b). 

1492. The dative of the personal agent is used (1) when the subject is 
impersonal, the verb being transitive or intransitive, (2) when the subject is 
personal and the person is treated as a thing in order to express scorn (twice 
only in the oratora : D. 10. 247, 67. 10). 

1493. 6r6 with the genitive of the personal agent is used (1) when tbe iiub- 
ject is a person, a city, a country, or is otherwise quasi -personal, (2) when the 
verb is inti-anaitive even if the SLibject is a thing, as rut reixwr inri tu> ftapfiipur 
tatTiatiruir the Kails having been destroyed by the barbarians Aes. 2. 172, (3) in 
a few cases with au impersonal subject, usually for the sake of emphasis, as 
i!lt iratpa ^r . . . irh tup dXXwr alKtlwr maX inb twh ftiTtrwr iitiMpT^f^tnt that 
she was an helnera has been testified bg the rest of his relatives attd by his 
neighbours la. 3. 13. 

a. nKoaeai, ip-ri^Bu to be eoaquered may be followed by the dative of a 
person, by Inr6 rtwt, or by the genitive (1402). 

1494. When the agent Is a thing, not a person, the dative is commonly 
used whether the subject Is personal or impersonal. If the subject la pemonal, 
iri may be used ; in which case the inanimate agent is peiaonified (see 1698. 
l.N. 1). I)r6 Is rarely used when the subject Is impersonal. !ix6 ia never uaed 
with tbe impersonal perfect passive of an Intransitive verb. 


1495. The dative may be used of a person to whose case the 

statement of the predicate is limited. 

ititiytir ah-ott itt^aiJartfit ifTLt 1) Ji/dir it Is safer foT thfm to flee than for us 

X. A. 3. 2. 19, T^jfpe. ia-rlt tit 'HpiKXtiar iifjfiis ^tpas iXoCt for a (ri'renu it il 
a Ivag day's sail to Heraclea S. 4. 2. Such cases as ipiiiat lylrrro reit BTpaTuiraa 
the siildiers began tn run X. A. 1. 2. 17 belong here rather than under 147S or 1488. 
a. (■! restrictive Is often added : /latpi ii% ytporri AiAi a long road (at least) 
for an old man S. O. C. 20, auifiparintJ it ui tXi}0« oi ri. TwdJc ttiyutra; for 
the mass of men are not the chief points of temperance such as these f F. R, S89 d. 

1496. Dative of Reference. — The dative of a noun or pronoun 
often denotes the person in whose opinion a statement holds good. 

Ydfiovf rait rpiiraut iyiiui lUpirjiat 6 ^aptiot Darius Contracted marriate* 
most distinguished in the eyes of the Persians Hdt. 8.B8, wici rixir roit h^tbii 
(o be virtorious in the judgment of all t!ie judges Ar. Av. 446, ffsXXoiiriF tlrrfSt 
pitiful iu the eyes iifmany S. Tr. 1071. rapi is often used, as in iro^ Ai^ly 
uptri in the vpiiilon uf Darius Hdt. 3. 100. 


1499] THE DATTTB 845 

1497. The dative participle, without a noun or prononn, is fre- 
qaeatl; used in the singular or plural to denote indefinitely the per- 
son judging or observing. This constmction is most common with 
participles of verbs of coming or going and with participles of verbs 
of considering. 

i Bp4icil irrip frl St(ii th rit UirTor efrTXfcm TAniM t5 on tA« right ok you 
latl ittUi the Pontta X. A. 6. 4. I, t\rtat Sri if Wn Jtia/Sdm rir itoto^i' hrl 
xanr ^ipai they said that, when you had cro$ttd the rivtr, the road led to Lydia 
3. 5. 16, tit «ir drovor luXirri^p^ieif rat iuptat vivt r'Stlavi (im j ie it not itrange, 

oktRVier^et, thatgffl* are more fregiieiit nawf Aes. 3, 179, ri /lirlfuetriirro- 
M'V ruvui 'A" iyivStpiiii'l)!' ^j/ou touched the aur/aee the body was not very hilt 
T. 2. 4ft, Tpii i<pfytiar vrnwav/iinf i twatririii tou Sttalav i\i)$t6ti If you look at 
Ihe matter from the point of view of advantage, the panegyrist of justice speak* 
thf. truth P. R. 68»c So (ut) .u«X4m ,It«, (X. A. 8. 1.38) to speak briefly 
(liL/or one having brought the matter into small compass), run\im D. 4. 7. 

a. The pnrticiple of verbs ot coming or going ia commonly lued in stntementa 
of geogi^hical Bitoation. 

b. The present participle is more common than the aorist ia the case of all 
T«rbs belonging nnder 1497. 

1498. D&tlve of the Partldple expreMing Time. — In expressions 
of time a participle is often used with the dative of the person 
interested in the action of the subject, and especially to express the 
time that has passed since an action has occurred (cp. " and this is 
the sixth month with her, who was called barren" St Luke i. 36). 

d'opoSm i* air$ fpx'ri" Upaiaiteii Prometheus comes to him in his peTplexil) 
P. I'r. 33J O, S"o^Om nptva/iinf ot liwtii irruyxinvin irptirff&riui Vjhile XenO- 
phon tea* on the march, his horsemen fell in with some old men X. A. 8.3, 10. 
The idiom is often transferred from pereonB to things ; fiiUpai iiAXi^tu Ijirat tj 
VimXittv iiXuinilf irrd, tr' it ri 'E/ifiaTor jcoT^xXfuiraf about seten days had 
passed Hnee the coptitre of Mytilene, uiken they sailed into Embatum T. 3. 29. 
Thit construction is frequent lu Horn, and Hdt. The participle is lurely 
omitwd (T. 1. 13.). 

■. A t«mporal clause may take the place of the participle : rg arparif, d#' 
li HirXtvrir eti SiuXISr, <fSi] ^irrt Sie ral r(n-i}iion-a frii it is already fifty-tWO 
IKan Mtnce the exptcLUion tailed to Sicily Is. 6. 14. 


1499. Adjectives, adverbs, and substantives, of kindred meaning 
with the foregoing verbs, take the dative to define their meaning. 

jJuiXii ^IXbi friendly to the king X, A. 2. l.M, (<!nui rf SiSw we" di^osed 
to the people And. 4. 16, toii rf«o.i Itxot evbji-et to the lams O. 21. 36, ix^pir 
A<rfc^ cat rifioit itarriot hostile to liberty and opposed to law 6. 26, fuwiax'f 
TlnmH rtlflng on the alliance T. 6. 2, 4i6pif Jtijjhhm subject to tribuU 7.67, 4r 
nt^c t^ia roit X^aii if you act in accordance with yonr words 2. 72, vrparAi 
(«t ■■! raparXVMi rif rporfpf an army eqval or nearly so to the former 7. 42. 


(U<X^4 r& PviXtitMTa rcA tfyoit plant like the deed* L. 2. 84, dUi}Xo» do^iWMt 
In a tmy unlike to each other P. 'Hm. 36 d. For subataiitiveB ae« lfi02. 

«. Some adjectiTW, as ^l\at, ix^pit, may b« treated as aubataaUTea and 
take the genitive. Some adjectives often difier slightly in meaulng when tJiaf 
take the genitive. 

ISOO. With i a^T^ fA« »ame. — rii*tiiTii* ywiimr iM tx'" to be of the mitt 
mind aa lam L.3. 21, toC n^oC i/uil rin^iiit of the tame father as I am D.40. 34, 
rah-i ^parOw ifial ajfreeing v>Uh me 18. 304. 

1301. Witli adjectives and sdverbe of similarity and diselmllarily the com- 
parison is often condensed (brachylogj/) : i/ialir raU hi\an tlx' riir ivS^a 
th* had a dreu on like (that of) her tervanlt X. C. 5. 1. 4 (the poesesaor for the 

thlnft possessed, ^ rg iveifri r£r BovXSr), 'Op^ti yXOvaa ^ irarrla a tongue »nl(le 
(that of) Orpheitt A. Ag. 1629. 

a. After adjectives and adverbs of likeness we also find xat, Srrtp (Avrtp). 
Thng, waStit TaSrir ftrtp raWdai wphtpcr wnrijAirt tO tvSer the tame a* yo* 
have often tnffertd before D. 1. 8, oix i*u)(«i im-oi^icairi lal'O/iqpoi they have not 
composed their poetry at Homer did P. Ion 681 d. 

1902. The dative after Bubstantires is cblefly used when the substantive 
axpreeses the act denoted by the kindred verb requiring the dative : trtfiavXIi 
iiitl a plot affatnttme X. A. 6.6.29, SiAloxiit 'K\tiripif a meeetior to Clennder 
7,2.6, 4 t/di r^ 8tf &»vp^lA mj/ lervice to the god P. A. 80 a. But also In 
other cases; ^tXfs roi'i 'AB-itnlmi frifndahip for the Athentant T. 6. 6, vnm 
Stoit hymn* to tile goda P. \i. 607 a, iip6iia toEi aTp^Ttuo/idroit tuppliet f<ir the 
troop* D. 3. 20, 4Xst rali eipau nail* for the door* (1478). 

a. Both a genitive and a dative may depend on the same sabetantive 1 ^ riS 
M*0 lirit bfur the god'i gift to you P. A. 30 d. 


1503. The Greet dative, a.i the representative of the lo8t JDStra- 
mental case, denotes that by which or with whick an action is done 
or accompanied. It is of two kinds: (1) The instrumental dative 
proper ; (2) The comitative dative. 

1504. When iJie idea denoted by the noun In the dative is the fnstmmeHt or 
jiieant, it falla under (1) ; if it is a person (not regarded as the instruinent 
or means) or any other living being, or a thing regarded as a person. It belongs 
under (2) ; it an action, under (2). 

1505. Abstract substantives with or witbont an attributive often stand in 
the instrumental dative instead of the cognate accusative (1677). 


1506. The dative denotes instrument or means, manner, and 

1507. htattUtmutoiXtuu. — l^aWiiuMSoii hehitmewithttoueal^a.S 
tqrtrn i^rjj hehurUhiaaxMbim fjiurtt with hit ax) X. A. l.b,12,TaIi )utx*ipatt 

ijh] the dative 847 

Hrfrrn hacking them wlik their twordt 4. 6. S6, tiiir Urot toOtoh ht aetsom- 
pliilitditBtkingbvthU D.21.I(U, f^rJuwat x^4»iw» tiiqi punished hitq by a/iw 
r. i. 66, tarro, ToXXy (EiarO during a htavg rain X. H. 1. 1. 10 (9S4;. So 
«iU) Ux*flai : rSr ri\tur od Stxoi^rur atroii iyopf otU do-Tfi, viari Ai ml l^n^ 
MtkteUtadid tu)t admit them to a market nor even into the town, but (onl;) (o 
voter and anfhorage T. 0. 44. Often ir[th puslvea; iftoia/i^iiiiQt rUi^it bvUt 

>. TIm instrumental dative la often akin to the comltatlve dnttve : iXtifHvM 
nt rt KoJ trdpeict aandering teilh his thtp and eompanioni X 191, nturt* 
ilxinwrui then thall go viith thfSr shipi 731, Kifif Kal ^inti ri rXfci' tn-viiA- 
X"" 4 friT^^tg the\i fmtght aith patfionate violence and brvte /oree rathet 
than by a igitem of taetles T. 1. 4tl. 

b. Panons may be regarded as instruments : ^vXarTJ/wtM ^Aofi dtfendi»ff 
tkemtelve* bgpiekfti X. A. 6. 4. 27. OfUn in poetry (S. Ant 164). 

c. Verbs of raining or enowing talce the dative or accusative (1670 a). 
UOa Under Meuu fall : 

a. ^w dative of price (cp. 1S72) : /iJptt rQr (Uurq^rut ri> ifrlvwi i{«rpIaiTo 
IlUjr AmiI tA«m««IcM /rom the danger at the price of a part iff their itt^tut gaitu 

b. Barel7, the dative vrith verbs of filling (cp. 1860) : Idn/iivi r&r ri rrpir 
Ttti» tXhtMv the entire ar^ny being filled with Uan T. 7. 75. 

C. Tlw dative of material and eonttUuetit partt: nartaictuAtarQ S^itam 
Tptxfiii Uxvpoli he made thariott uilh strong whctU X. C. 6. 1. 20. 

'^O'* Xf^^" t(*B (strletlj employ oneself with, get tamtthing done lellh; 
cp. uU), and sometimes Knil[ar, take tlie dative. TbOB, tir* rt^ott (tsTi n/il^iMi) 
X^si »ltf olf 4 dXXir 'EXXdf nfii^i neftAer acM according to these in*tUMlo»t» 
iu>T obsertes those accepted by the rest nf Greece T. 1. 77. A predicate noun 
maj be added to the dative ; to^tdii xp^rrtu Sapv^ipoa they tnake use of them at 
a body-guard X. HI. 6. 3, The nae to which an object is put may be expressed 
by a neater prononn in tJie accua. (1573) ; tI x^vbiitSa. rairif -, what use thall 

ISIO. The instrumental dative occurs after snbstantlveai fl^^n tx^i"** 
Inflation by iHeans of gestures V. R. 397 b. 

1311. The Instmmental dative of means ia often, especially in poetry, re- 
inforced by the prepositions ir, air, Wi -. ir Xj^wt rtlBtm to persuade by words 
S. Fh. 1393, ol Aeot Jr T«f ItpoU /ir4>iqrar the godt haee shown by the victima 
X.A.6. 1. 81; ri»7ibi?;8<v«« heavy with old age S. O. T. 17; t4X« x'P»1' **" 
ittntpfaoi dX>iwa a city captwred by our hands B 374. 

1513. Datin of Stimdard of Judgment. —That by which anything is 
measnied, or judged, is put In the dadve i (v»^i*Tfn(ffinTo raSt ^vi^Xaft t*» 
rXIftor they measured the laddera dp the layers of bricks T. 8. 20, r^ IfXoi. 
%T tt was plain from what followed X. A. 2. S. 1, oli rpit toVi dAXavi m«J^n 
M ~-f.-Jp— *-■ we must judge by what he has done to the rest D. 0, 10, i-in xp4 
tfttirtmi rk jiAXarra iiiXut sfiiB^trffai ; a^ ab* ifaitipi^ ra cat ^psF^rn nl Xi7V ; 

by what standard must we judge that the judgment may be correct f Is it not by 


a^erience aiul misdom and reaeoning f F. R. 682 S. Wilb verbs of Judging /■ 

1S13. Htuiner (see also 1527). — The dative of manner is used 
with comparative adjectives and other eimresslons of comparisoD 
to mark the decree by which one thing differs from another (Dstlre 
of Measure of Difference). 

«*o^5 iUTTuy H head ahoHer (lit, by the htad) P. I'h, 101 &, oi) nXXui 
iliUpoH vartpot ij\9(>' he arrived not raaay dagi Jaur X. H. 1, 1. 1, I6rm Sits 
IllUpiut rpi aanSiiraUir cowing ten daffs be/are the Panathtnaic festival T. bA'i, 
TtHTDiiTy -fSior ^H Stf'v t\eiu K^KTittiai tkc jKore Iposaeat the more pieaaant ii mg life 
X.C.6.3.40, l■o^^li) lul^uir ftl-fpero 17 ^j) j«y i^ wXiloin tytyrortii the ihovting 
became much lotidrr as the men increased in number X, A. 4. '. 'i-i. So with 
foXXj by mucli, i\ly<fi by liUle, t^ rarrl in every reipect (by all odds). 
«. WlLh the auptrlativB : /uipy ipiara by far the belt P. L. 866 e. 
1S14. With coutparatlves the acciisntlvea (1680) rl, rl, oM^r, xqi^^ withoDt a 
substantive are alwayu used: o66ir ^rror nihilo minui X. A. 7. 6.9. In AtUc 
prose (except in Thuc. ) irsXii and d\lyor are more common than roXXy and iXtyy 
with comparatives. Horn, bas on); ir«\i laltur. 

1516. The dative of manner may denote the particular point of 
view from which a statement is made. This occurs chiefly with 
intransitive adjectives but also with intransitive verbs (Dative nf 
Respect). (Cp. 1600.) 

irilp i)\itl^ In riat a man still young in yean T. 6. 4.S, r«it aiiiuuri ri rUa* 
laxlx"""^ 4 "<• xf'^iw^* a power s( router in men than in money I. 121, dffStriyi 
Tv<rii>utri aeale in body 1). 21. Kij. tJ 4xi»i Tp&x^ harth of voice X. A. !.6. 9, 
^par/irti SuKp^pur distinguished ill underatnnding X. G. 2. 3. .'1, Ti» rtr* ivriaa 
wpaix"' superior in power to the men of that time T. I. 9, irifuiTi mwtal a 
truce so far as the name goes (I. 10. 

a. The acctisative of respfcl (1600) is often nearly equivalent to the dative 
ot respect. 

1517. Cause. — The dative, especially with verbs of emotion, ex- 
presses the occasion (external cause) or the motive (internal cause). 

Occasion : rfi rixv ^X'ijit '■onfident by reason of his good fortune T. S. 97, 
6auiid{w rg daojiXifa'n ^wti ruy ruXOr I am astonished at being shut out of the 
gates i. 86, Tdifro.t iJffSi, he was pleased at this X. A. I. 0. 26, i}xM»u«a reft 
yyeniiiiKiit we wre troubled at what had iireurrtd 6. 7. 20, x'*-"^ ♦'p* *•'» 
Ttapouin rpiypamw I am troubled at the present oecurrenees 1. 3. 3. Motive; 
#(Xl9 lal tirolf iriittm following out Of friendship and good v)iU X. A. 2. 6. 13. 
Occasion and motive: al ttit iropif iKoXaiint, al ii irtrrlf some (carried tbeir 
itwn fond) became they lacked servants, others through distrust of them T. T. T6. 
u^pti lal oit alnf to6to wtiHr doing thi» out of iiuolence and rtot beeavse he var 
drunk D. 21. 74. 


ism] the dative 349 

1518. Some verbe of emotion bike hrl (witb dat.) to denote the cMue ; bo 
alnya lUya ^tponU to plume onetelf, nnd oft^n xalpm refoice, \uvit$ai grUte, 
irftmxTtir be veced, ataxtfuSiu be atliamed. Many verbs take tbe genitive (140G). 

1519. Tbe dative of caose autiietiines approKimatM to a dative of purpose 
(UTS) : "ASijmEbi lip' iinSi fip^jjirdi Atorrinir naroiKlati lite AthsniatU have ttt 
nut agaijut »s {xeilh a vieie to) to restore thr Leiinlinea 'I'. H. 33. This conatruc- 
iton is common wiih otber verbal nounn in Tliucydidee. 

1520. Caiuie is often expressed by Jul with the accuHative, Wi witb the 
^njiive, less frequently by iitipi or ripl with the dative (poet.) or Wip with tbe 
gfniUve (poeL). 

1321. The comitative form of tbe instrumental dative denotes 
the persons or things which accompany or take part in an action. 

1522. Prepositions of accompaniment (furd with gen., ri>>) are often used, 
especially when the verb does not denote accompaniment or union. 

1523. Dative of Auoclatlon. — The dative is used witb words de- 
noting friendly or hostile association or intercourse. This dative is 
especially common in the plural and after middle verbs. 

t. laicoit ifuKui mOrii ttp^av (arit if thou auoeiate wiitli the evil, in the end 
Ihou loo wilt hecome*enil lkg$elf Men. Sent. 274, dXX^Xon SiiiXt-yiaBa we Aom 
eoaeerttd telth each other P. A. 87 ^ rf w\-iea ri. ^TiB/rra Koinirumi commwii- 
caiing to the people lehat had been said T. 2. 72. St6ium toAi ^e^rrai fuHXXdfcu 
**lai aaklng that they reconcile their exile* with them 1. 'H, tts \6r/oui m i\0nt 
(0 have an inleiviein vilh gou X. A. 2. G. 4, lurtax'^i")'" ^' CivA' toe have 
participated in t"""" feetivalg X. H. 2. 4. 20, iXXiiXoti erotSai fa-oHjo-aim they 
made a truce with one anodier 3. 2. 20, airroii Sii <fii\lat Itwai to enter inlo/riend- 
ihipwilhlhem X.A..S.2.8. ^ with verba of me^ttn^; rpatrj^x^'^aii '/"'■"'■O'Xi'- 
Kiraiid irrirtx^it'i d'arra*. 

b. nXXoii jXf-roi iiaxiitin fem JIghling mith many T. 4. 39, Ktpif roXe^ioSrrn 
vmging tear leilh Cyrus 1. IS, d^i^n-puToCffi i^iw 8i' cBroiat el <pt\ti toIi *IXdii, ipt- 
{Miri li tl iii^pot dXXi}\aii friendi diupvte with fi-lendi good-«<itureilly, hvt 
adter»arie» wrangle viilh one another P. Pr. 337b, tlrit dXX^Xwi SiKi^arrai Iheg 
bring lawtvits against one another X. M. 3. 5. IS, iM0ipta6iu roirroii to be at 
variance with these men I>. 18. 31 (and so many compounds of Bii), ait t^i) rait 
Xtrout roil Ipyta ifuKnyttr he said their words did not agree with their deeds 
T,6.&6. So also Tirl tii w<\iiitv{Sii Mxv^i '''X''/™*) ""'i "^"^ ifiiat xupitr, etc. 

N. 1. — roXe^Tv {iiAxiaSai) air Tivi ifutri Tirai) means (0 wage war in on- 
jUHFtiOH with rnimf one. 

S. 2. — Verbs of friendly or hoBlily ossociaiioii, and especially pfripbraaes with 
rmiio-eoi (wi\tiior, awoviit), oftPn take the accusative witii uph. 

1524. Dative of Accompaniment. — The dative of accompaniment 
is used with verbs signifying to M-com/ninji, fnll'iir. ptc, 

it6\i>vMr TV irr^'l^'V «> follow the leader I'. R. 474 c, Itrtreai bitt* /MXa^uu 



1525. Wttb «iTd«. — The Idw of aasompftniment Is often expresHd ^}J 
airii loined to the daUve. This use Is common when the desliuction of a per- 
son or thing Is referred to. Thus, rw> tt&f itU atrah irtpiifir one of the sAipi 
1BU\ U* crcui T. 4. 14, tlim Ijmt (It rat rdfnt atrett art^raa he bade thrM 
nome to their potts, crovrnt and oil X. C. 3. 3. 40. 'Hie anicle after ah6t \a nn ; 
uid rit is rarely added (X. C.2. 2.S). Uom. has this dative only with lifelesa 

1526. Dative of Militwrr Accomp«Dlttient — The dative Is used in the 
description of militar; movements to denote the accompaniineDt (troopH, ships. 
etc.) of a leader: iftXairti ry aTpuTtiiueri varrl ht mtavhet ovt viith alt hi* 
amy T, A. 1. 7. 14. sit Is often used with words denoting troops (T. 0. 62). 

a. An extension of this usage occurs when the persons in the dative an 
essentially (be sams as the persons forming the subject (distribntlTe nee): ^r 
l^tmiTt ol raUfuw nl Ivwiiy ml irtKriurTntv the enetnv purtued u» w£(A their 
«(tniliv and peltattt X. A. T. 6. 20. 

b. The dative of military accompaniment is often equivalent to a d^Uve of 
means when the verb does not denote the leadership of a generaL 

1327. Dative of Accompanying Ctrcumstance. — Tlie dative, nsual ty 
of an abatraot substantive, may denote acoomponying circumstance 
and manner. • 

a. The substantive has an attribute : roXXg fi»v ^pocinttrra they attacked 
Vtth loud iho^UM T. 4. 127, warrl r«Ht vdth all one's ntfgJU &.23, rixv *,t»9i 
vUh good fortune C. 1. A. 2. 17. 7. So rai^l (oM<r<, VAif, rttrif rji) rptiw^. 
Manner may be espressed by the adjective, as pmlif Amtrv drof^rimv to di* 
(by) a violent death X. HI. 4. 3 ( = pi^). 

b. Many particular subsiantives have no attribate and axe used adverbially : 
$ttf tp6iiif to run at full speed X. A. I. 8. 19, pit by foree, Jlcg jutUy, 3iXy bf 
er^A, (jif) Ipyv in faet, VvxS gaiettg, mfuS^ (witA care) entirely, ximiuf in 
order, duly, iciK\if round about, (t^J \lriif In word, wpo^Arti oitensibly, vi7~p, 
ffiwr§ fn lilence, vmujp haetily, with difflcultj/, t^ A\it9il<f in truth, rf Sm in 
realUs, ipyi in aager, livfi in hastg fiighU 

N. — When no adjective Is used, prepositional phrases or adverbs are gener- 
ally employed : rOr Kpaiiy%, air Jfig, luri Knqt, rpii ^lir (Or ^lafut). 

C. Here belongs the dative of feminine adjectives with a substantive (Uy, 
etc.) omittod, as Tintrj in Ihii wag, here, iXXj in another wag, eltewhere, w-J, § 
in what {which) wag. So tij/uirf; at public rxpenee, IS!^ privately, atif in com- 

N. — Some of these forms are [natrumental rather tlian comitatlve, e.g. rurrg. 

1S28. Space and Time. — The dative of space and time may some- 
times be regarded as comitative. 

a. Space : the way by which {qua), as twoptitra rp U$ 4' rpiripar twofJiaura 
he marched bg the road (or on the road ?) which he had made btfort T. 2. 9fi ; 
b. Time ; tarfiipii wt tKttwii tv xp^nf rtiffSttg She Charged that the had been 


Some of thew nses UK iutni- 


1529. Many adjectives and adverbs, tuid BOme BubstantiTes, take 
the instraineiital dative by the same constniction as the correspond- 
ii^ verbe. 

vtiwiax"* <»^D<i tArfr allj/ D. 9. 68, xi^ S/iapei rp AaKctufwrluf a country 
horderitiff on that of the Lacedaeraoaiant 15. 22, diJXovffs retrait eoT^omtahte to 
thla tS. 267. So ntrit (cp. 1414), ^iti^miraf, au-nf^t, lurahies, aod iid^pai 

meaning at oarlanceuftA. — iro/ifrm ry iiifiv cot^ormaily (o the law F. L.B44e, 
i H^ riitat Ttirif the lain next to this B. 21. 10. Many of the adjectivea belong- 
ing here also take Ibe genitive irhen Ihe idea of posaeeaian or connection Is 
marked. — tpa chiefly in the meaning at the earae tine. — atinirli tdii iitpift 
MtcreowM wltA men P. B. 466 c, irtSpoiii, ry rtixliritaTt auack on the fort T. i. 28. 


1530. The dative aa the representative of the locative is used to 
express place and time. 

•. On the iDBtnimental dative o[ space and time, see 1626. 
1331. Dative (rf Place. — In poetry the dative without a prepoai- 
ticm is used to denote place. 

a. Where a perton or thing U : vrat itiaif fpuA taking hi* etand In the middle 
of Ike court 11300, yi titira she lay on the ground S.O.T. 1266, hIrf dpco-.t to 
dweU among the nountalng 0. T. 1461. Often of the parts of the bod; (Horn. 
H/iif, tapSiu, etc.). With persons (generally in the plural) : ipiwprwiit Tpiitaew 
eontplciioiM among the Trojani Z 477. tsio-i 9* iri^Tii A 68 ma; be row up among 
them or a dative proper (/or them). 

b. Place whfther (limit of motion) : milif win fell on the growiA E 82, oKt^ 
ifSiopMtUtii moord into Ui theath * 333. 

1532. After verbs of motion the dative, ae distinguiBhed from the locative, 
denotes direction toiatrds and la used of persons (1486), and is a form of the 
dative of interest 

1533. Many verbs capable of taking the locative dative in poetry, require, 
in prose, the aid of a prepoHitlon in composition. The limit of motion is usually 
{168B) ezprened by the accusative with a preposition (e.£r. tit, rp6<). 

1534. In prose the dative of place (chiefi; place where) is used only of 
proper names: nidiiT at Pj/tho, 'laBiiot at thf: Mhiaus, SaXafuR at Salamlt, 
'OXcfiTlui at Olf/it^ia, 'A04npri at Athent (inacr.); especially with the names 
of AUiC demes, as ^nXifpai, eopimt, MnpaeuH. But jt Mapa^ulR and it JIXo- 

Tuuioocnr. Some deme-namee require it, aa it KdIXs. 

1335. Many adverbs are genuine locatives, as ofiw, rdXai, rarjiifiiZ, feX^poT ; 
'AH"t"i nXaTatSo-i ; others are datives in form, as crlcXy, nXoraiBii. 

1536. With names of countries and places, Iw is more common than the 



locative dative, and, with the above exceptions, the place where is expressed in 
Attic prose with ir. 

1537. Verbs of ruling often take the dative, especially in Homer : Hi^^u- 
i&rtavif iroinrt A ISO, riyimttir ffairi^fvfr j) 59, ^px' i' "pa ff^i' ' XyaiUifroit 
B 134. Kaiely in prose : iiyiiirOtl rm to serve aa guide (leader) to eome one, f*i- 
vTarttrTin to be »et over one; ipx"' f'' nieana onlj = to be archon (ITvfleJiip"' 
apXO"-ot "Aff^-afon T. 2. 2). Cp. 1371. 

a. Onlj when stress is not laid on the idea of supremacy is the dative, 
instead of the genitive (1370), used with verbs of ruling. 

1938. It is not clear whether the dative with verbs of ruling is a daUve 
proper (/nr), a locative (_ainoag ; cp. it 4ali|{iv imaiit ir62), or an instrumental 
(fiy). ipx'", if/'i'iai may lake the dative proper, iriariit, jSoviXnicip, iqurcir 
may take the locative daiive. 

1539. Dative of Time. — The dative without a preposition is com- 
monly used to denote a definite point of time (chieSy day, niyht, 
mojUh, year, seaaoti) at which an action occurred. The dative contrasts 
one point of time with another, and is usually accompanied by an 

ToAriir iiiv rtir ijldpat airrai tfutnt, t% Si ifTtpulf jtrX. throughout that dof 

they teailed there, but on the day following, etc. X. H. 1. 1. 14. So rg -rporepalf 
(he dag before, r% Si-uripif the Btcond day, 'EXa^^XtAwt ;ii)>ii (xrn (4^pf } 
^Irorrot on the sixth of waning Elaphebolion Aes. 2. 90, tv^l ml Wf on lAe la*t 
Q^tfte month D. 18. 29 j rplrtf uv^ in the third motUh L. 21. l,ir«ptiim r^ Wp« 
when nanmer wat coming to an end T. 1. 30, ifijiroirT^ Ith in the tixtieth gear 
1. 13 ; also with tpf (xofiunt Hpf tn the lointer eeiuon And. 1. 137). 

1941. The names of the regular recurring festivals which serve to date an 
'occurrence stand in the dative : naraetiralai-t at the Panalhenaea D. 21. 156, 
■-ail AiDriwloii at the Dionyaia 21.1, rai'i rB/uraii at the proceK»ioiu 21.171, r«if 
raayiftBii at the repreaenlation* of the tragediei Aes. 3. 170. ir ia rarel; added. 

1542. /> is added: 

a. To words denotijig time when there is no attributive : tr ry x'V^" '■• 
winter X. 0.17.3 ; cp. 1441. b. When the attributive is apronoun (snmetlmesi) ; 
(tr) imirg ri fiiUpf. c. Tn statements of the time within the limits of which 
an event may talce place (wliere iin-6i with the genitive ia common); to state- 
ments of bow mnch time anything takes; with numheni, JXiyoi, ro\6t, etc. 
Thus, 4t Tpurlr iiiUp-w for (during) three dai/» X. A. 4. 8. 6, ai /{(Sur ri ir 
brarrt t0 xP^'V ^po-x9lrra ir lui ii/idpf StiXuS^nu U is not easy tn Ml forth tn a 
single day the acts of all time T.. 2. 04, ifiXiueai rifr iia^o\itr ir otrat S\tytf xfi^fV 
to clear myself of calumny in ^o brief a time P. A. Ifla. ^f is rarely omitted in 
prose, and chiefly when there is an attrlbutjve ; w? 'vktI T. 6. 27. d. Always 
witli adjectives or adverbs used substantively ; ir ti? iropim, it t^ rirt. e. To 
words denoting the dale of an event, not a point of lime : 4r ri rporip^ rperfitif 
in theflrtt embassy Aes.2. 123. Thuc, employs fr, as ir t^ iartp^lf inxX-trl^ ia 


1A« oMtmblj/ held the day nfttr \. 44, but urn. (lie simple dative, as /idxs '" the 
battle 3. M, ialrji ti fir0o\i in that iaetrrtSon 2. 20, t^ irpvTipf ittXTi^if in the 
fint ataembl]/ 1. 44. 


ISM. Many compouDd verbs take the dative because of their 
meaQing as a whole. So AvTi)(ttv hold out against, dp^urjSnrctv dispute 
mUk (1523 b). 

1545. The dative is used with verbs compounded with <n5c (regu- 
larly), with luaay compounded with iv, iwi, and with Bonie com- 
ponoded with impa, rcpi, wp6s, and vn-o, because the preposition keeps 
a. sense that requires the dative. 

iltfiKiiiit aitrif looking at kim P. Charm. 162 d, ArUai J^irowiV irSp^weit to 
treats exj)eeliUion$ in men X. C. 1.6. 19, a^oii htiweiri -rb 'EXX^nciv the Oreek 
force/ell upon them X. A. 4. 1. 10, hrfmrTc aOroJt theg preseed hard upon them 
5.2. 5, rvKiJiin» a^aii to be their aeeompliee in vsrong-doing 2. 6. 2T, (urisavi 
)((X^y ilitvSoiUnf they are eoneeious that Meletua ie speaking falaely (i.e. they 
know it as well as he does) P. A. 34 b, otrai du iraprttrorto fSsiriXct these did 
not join the king X. A. G. (I. 8, rapivrw bftit i t^vi let the herald come viith ut 
3. 1. 46, EfK^^tTi -KpaaiTptxa' 6<ia ninUiKw two youtha ran up to Xenophon 
4. 3. 10, WoMtiaSai r^ lp:^<irri to be subject to the ruler P. G. 510c. 

a. So especially vrlth verbs of motion and rest formed from Mmi, rtrrnr, 
TiWm, Tpix"'< dm, ylyr*a9ai, nurftii, etc. 

1546. Some verbs of motion compoanded with wapi, wpt, bwb take the 
•ccuEative (1559). 

1547. Some Terbe have an alternative construction, e.g. refipAWtm : nrl rt 

iweett a perton with something, rl nn surround something with something. 

1549. When the Idea of place Is emphatic, the preposition may be repeated : 
l)iiuirarTn in tJ 'ArriKg remaining in Attica T. 2. 23 ; but it is generally not 
repeated when the idea is (i^urative : toii IpKoa imttntt abiding by one's oath 
1. 1. 13. ficrd m»y be Used after compounds of air : iter 4poi iruv^Xti A« sailed 
IB tontpany with me L. 21. 8. 
1990. The prepositions are more frequently repeated in prose than in poetry. 

ISSL The accusative is a form of defining or qualifying the verb. 
a The accusative derives its name from a mislnui elation (casus aeeusa- 
tinu) of the Greek (* b/tioth:^ iTaiii, properly casus effectivus, 1564 a). 

1552. A noun stands in Uie accusative when the idea it expresses Is most 

( ! '■K)^[i: 


ImtDedlnUl)' (in oontraat to the dative) and most completely (in conlnwt to 
the genitive) under tlie iafluence of the verbal conceptloD (in contrast to the 

1553. The accusative ia the case of the direct object (919). The 
acGQsative is used with all transitive verbs (and witn some intransi- 
tive verba used transitively), with some verbal nouns, and with 

1554. The direct object is of two kinds : 

a. The internal object (object effected): i iivifp rarm ««AX&( 
•wXifyat Ike man strikes many blows. 

N, 1. — Mere tbe object ie already contained (or implied) In the verb, and iu 
addition ia optional. Tbe accusative ot tbe internal object is aometimes called 
tbe accusative of content. The object stands In apposition to tbe result of tbe 
verbal action. The effect produced by the verb is either (1) transient, when tbe 
object is a nomen acttonii, and disappeais with the operation of tbe verb, aa In 
/cdxT' ^x"'" to figftt a baau, or (2) permanent, and remaine aft«r the verbal 
action lias ceased, as in rtlxot rtix't^tr to bufld a wall. The latter form la the 
accusative of result (1578). 

N. 2. — Almost any verb may take one of the vsriettea of tbe internal object. 

b. The external object (^object affected): o av^p rihmt t6v 
vaiBa the man ttrikei the hoy. 

N. — Here the object is not oontaiued in tbe verb, but is neoesaary to explain 
or define tbe character of the action in question. The external object standa 
outside tbe verliai action. 

1959. Many verbs may take an accusative either ol the external or of the 
internal object : rinwar tXijr felt Umber, riiiMa rdi rplxet Cut off (A« hair, 
Tifinir 6B6r open a Toad, but arorSat or Spina riitmr, with a specialized verbal 
Idea, to make a treaty by tdaying a victim (pass. Hfinia /tm4^)i riii-rtir iSir makr 
one'i tootf (poet.), T«x'f"' x"p'<" fortify a place, bat T«.xJf«» rttxot bvild 

a mall. Cp. E. Rupp. lOflO : A. rcuvs liiv ^in ; iiaSiir xpi!** •rMcf. B. rintt 

yunlitat, itX. A. Victorious ta tehat victory t This I would learn of thte. 
B. Oeer all women. Here tbe constmctlon ehifCs from tbe internal to the exter- 
nal object. 

1596. The direct object of an active transitive verb becomes the 
subject of the passive : o mus vn-o tov dvSpos rvrrcroi the boy ia atmek 
by tiie vian. 

a. Tbe object of a verb governing tbe genitive or dative as piineipal object 
may also become the subject of tbe passive (1340). 

1597. In Greek many verba are transiUve the ordinary English eqnivaleola 
of which are intransitive and require a preposition. So nur&p rt, alyir n to keep 
silence about something. 

15SB. Many verba that are usually intransitive are alao need transitlTdy in 
Greek. Tlma, Avt^lr sin against, itiaxtpalttit be disgusted at, x*^* T^oitt at, 
^ta0ai be pleated ai, Sanftiir weep for, Cp. 1696 b. 


a Foatical : 4crnr agitfUt, wpit vita pan on her way B. HeO. 6S, irXitr laU, 
V>»XJ{iir rattle along (tportlr ttrike UdL 0. 68), iAiatttr make ihine, x^p*^" 
Mr, i\lrv4ti ttir celebrate the god by chorufea, bj/ dancing. 

1359. Hftny intniwiclve Terba are used tranaitirely when compounded with 
■ pnpcaiUon, e.g, iiaitdx'irSv fight over again. — i-wcfidxt^BM drive off, iwaeTpt- 
ftlai abandon, irvx^P*'' leave. — iio^afxif paa$ over, liarMr tail aeroie, 
litfipxtrttu go through. —ilvUttu i»nn« into the mind, tlrr^lr tail into. — ^jk^I- 
HwpoM, ^xrp/rwAu gtt oul Of the vsav of, ifarax'^f*'' ehun, ((Irravdai avoid. — 
tr^rprnTtinr march againit. — KaTataviiaxtif teat at eea, KararpX^lurr tvbdue 
tom^UMv, mranXircdcrAu reduoe bypolwy- — laripxarBai Beek,parme, utriirai 
go in quett of, — a-Kpa/JafKit tranegrtte. — wipiUnu go round, rtptlfTatSti Mur- 
nmnd. — wpoaomlr dteell in, vpoanlttiv ging in praiae of. — ivtppalrtii omit. — 
h^fX''^6*c<?>e,/'w>- — ivfpx'^^f't*^^ ""i i>nitw4(u teithetand, i>rox*>P*fi' 
(kiiK, i^laTarBai witJutand. * 

1560. Convenel;, many verba tbot are usually transitive are need iotranal- 
tirely (wUh gen., dM., or with a preposition). Some of these are nentiotied 
hi IGOl, lfi92, 1596. Sometimes there is a difference in meaning, as ipfrtnt = 
Mtitff, with acciu., ^pleaie, with dat 

IHl. The aame verb may be used transitively or intransitively, often wltli 
little diftBrBnee of signification. Cp. 1TO0. This Is generally indicated in the 
treMment of the cases, eg, aiaSdnirBai n or tik» perceive aomelhing, in^/uirSat 
n or Tin eontider lomething, nt/i^cSal Ttm or nn blame some one. 

1SC2. On >« fi«( Tint and Set ii4 timf aee 1400. With the inf. the accos. is 
uiul (daL and tnL X. A. 3. 4. 85). xp4 f^ rim is poeUcal ; vrtth the Int xpi 
takei the aocos. (except L. 26. 10, where some read SimUvi). (xM ia an old 
DO*U> ; op. XP«<ii XPel^ "M*! and 793.) 


ISM. (I) The aubstautiTe in the accusative is of the tame 
origin as the verb. 

rtXX^r 4i\uiptar ^Xvo^Drra talking much nonwnM P. A. I9c, (vti^uy* rV 
#vt4v rafT^v he ihared fn the recent exile 21 a, TJ)r it SaXofun hu/mx'"' ■■"'- 
Mxifarrn vietorimu ia the eea-flght at Salamii D. 69. 97, rai inrxfam at 
•(tm Irriaxt^rt the promitei which he made 19.47, 4 afria 4' ■iTiwrnu tAe 
ekarge they bring Ant. 8. 27. 

a. Sometimes the verb may be sappreBHed, as iii^r /tir t^st rdelt (ttxniuu) 
fw iu tkeae praj/ere A. Ch. 142. 

156S. T%e c(^nat« accusative occurs even with adjectivee of an IntronsitiTe 

dtaracter: /i+r« ti «^t &« riir intimti ao4>laf ufrt Aiiae^i riir iiia.0lir being 
neUker at altieiee after the fathion of their witdom nor ignorant (ffler the fath- 
ion of their ignorance P, A. 22 e, Mtavt 4ralitrar iriiMr rnAttt Hart nrX. 


th*V diffi^nehited them in tucit a wag that, etc. T.6. 34 (dTttievi/rBfirvarB^^^ 
rar, cp. 16UB). 

1S66. PassiTe : iriXf/ias AroXf/uirc tear teat teaged X. H. 4. 8, 1. 

1967. (II) The substantive in the acciiBative is of kindred mean- 
ing with the verb. 

<f^XA.» axXoi 48oii ikeg ieent fvrih on Other expfditlons X. H. 1.2. 17, rivl^r 
Ka,>^ii/iiarv6\tiiori<rTpdTaMraftheytef/fdtehil ii called the Sacred H'orT. I.IIS, 
I^Bfrnrt Ta&rif t^v riaor he fell ill of this ditease I. Hi. 24, drSpircv i>6aiw 0Xa- 
srir born to man'a eatate S. Aj. 700. 

1568. PauiT« : riX(/iac frapixOv ^ffar teas Mtlrred up D. 18. 161. 

1569. An extension of the cognate accusative appears in poetry with Mortal, 
ffr^rai, (o^lftiv and like verbs : riwar, Smr<L tttrai the place in tehfck he it 
lituated S. Ph. 146, tI Imia rtrpip; tehj/ ttandt nhe on the roekf E. Sapp. 987, 
Tfilrata xii0l{wt titling on the tripod B. I.>r. 960. 

1570. An attributive word is usually necessary (bat not In Iloin.) ; oUier- 
wlse the addition of the EUbetantive to the verb would be tautologous. But the 
attribute is omitted ; 

a. When the nominal Idea is specialized: ^vXanat ^Xirrtir to stand tentrg 
X. A. 2. 6. 10, <l>6por iiiptir to pag tribute b. .'1. 7. 

b. When the eubatantlTe is restricted liy the article : riw wif^nar -raXtutir 
to wage the present aar T. 8. 58, rlir To/ir^r ri/rrtiw to conduct the proceation 

c. When a plural substantive denotes repeated occarrencea : irpiiipipxv" 
rpaipapx^' '" perfomted the duty of trierarcli D. 46. 86. 

d. In various expressions : 'OXd^rta viidu to win an Olympian victorg T. I. 
12e, T^ii' rau^axliy KK^ai to be victorioiia in the ata-fight L. lU. 28, 9tttw ra 
(wtyy^Xio to offer a aacriflce in honour of good ntws X, H. 1. 6. 37. 

e. In poetry the use of a subeianlive to denote a special form of the action 
ot the verb is much extended : oriftif al^ia to drip (drops of) blood S. Ph. 7B:J, 
'kpTI'WM'ir to breathe war A. Ag.STo, nBp Stiapfiit looking (a look of ) jlre r 446. 
This use is common, especially in Aristophanes, witli verbs signifying the loot of 
another than the speaker: pxintir rSrv to look muatard Eq.6;jl, ^Uteip Arwrai 
to loot «n6e((</ 1.341 (No. 300) ; ep. "looked his faith"; llolmES. 

1971. The substantive without an attribute ia (rarely) added to the verb as 
a more emphatic form of statement ; \llpor XigpcFt to talk iheer nonaenae Ar. PI. 
617, Zppif Wplf«» to insult griei:ou$ly E. H. F. '08. Often in Euripides. 

1972. The substantive may be omitted, leaving only the adjectival attribute ^ 
ruffoi' SLTXijy (acil. rXiff^t) atrike twice (a double blow) S. El. 1415, ToCrar dW- 
Kpayar at iKlyai (sell. rXicyai) vainur Iheg called out that he had dealt him 
too (lOfiS) few blows X. A. 5. 8. 12. Cp. 1028. 

1573. ITsually an adjective, prononn, or pronominal adjective is treated as 
k neuter substantive, Cp. iiryiX' iiia/triniw tii commit grave errors i). &. 6 with 
fJyuiTa iiiapriiiiaTa anapTineiri P. <i. 52u d. 'i'lie Singular adjective is useil in 
certain comiiioii phrases in prose, but is mainly poetical ; the plural is ordinarily 
uit'd in prose. 

i58i] THE ACCrSATrVE 357 

ifii) yt)Mv poeL (= iiSir yi\t>iTa ■yj*""') to laugh tietetly, lUya (^(Mot) ^«f- 
iiTiu he it a great /tar, /i^a ^ponSffii /u-l toijtv highly elated at thli X. A. 
1. 1. 27, *«<fiiF 0poKi A« If (00 proiirf 5. 6. 8, ri lui. "EXXiJhb* tfificnif (o 6« on the 
tideofthrtirerk* l'>.U.^,iiiyurri>tUini*Tc had the grenttninfiHence L.30.U, 
iati iiffplitiv tn mnllrrat terribly X. A.U.4.2, rair^ ir/uirflt6oiuii ae /ulJUled our 
mittion a* amhagtadnri in the. (oine tvan ])• 10. 32, t1 flo6\cTai i)/iir xP^*^'! 
vAot KM (!(»•« A« uFi'sA (o make of utf X. A. 1.8. IS {= rfn ^Xcrsi xf''"' 
XP^t^h ep. XP^A>i "•( x/Klaf I'. L. 868 b). 

1374, PauiTe : roC^o ofic ij/'iiireiiirar they leere not deceived in thin X. A, 
S. i. 13, Tsfrra oMclt ftv rEnr^di) )io one uoufd {i« permotied of thin r. L. 836 d. 

1575. For & cognate accusative in conjuuctioii nkh a second object, see 1620. 

1576. NoU the expreuions jixd^v ilinir deade a case, Sudftoftit Slair nd 
JO to hue teilh aomtbodg, ttiitav ypa/p-^y nra indict somebody, #cli7n> Simir Ttr&i 
be jiut on one's trial for stimethiag; ypi^faSul Tina v/io*^» indict one for a 
public offence, ixiytir ypaip^r he put on onn's trial for a public offp.nct. Also 
iyurtfeBai iTTiiiOr (= iyUnx xTaiiov) be a contestant in the race-courae, ■icSi' 
irdJior be victorious in the race-course, nKay jfii;> V}in a case, Huar yriitet' Carry 
(t retolution (pass, yyii/rrir lirTafBai), ii^Xtir Slit)' lose a case. 

1577. The (rarer) dative (<#i(Jif) ra/iptir, fiiabf earirif dirofi^irnir, i/xtyeir 
tni) expresaee the cause (IblT), maimer (I&IS), or means (ISOT). 


IXinif sAriiviu to smite (and thus maibt) awound E331 (sooAXJ)* Aa^mr ^ 74), 
Tpicptitir T^f tliriir^r to negotiate the peace (go as ambasBadorB (rptafitii) to make 
Ibe peace) D. 10. 134, but upta^tinr vptaptlar to go on an ev^assy DinarchuB 
1.10, ritur^ iiiwTn.r to coin money Hdt. 3. 56, vrorjat, or V"' T^f K'f (1566). 

1579. Verbs signifying to effect anything (nl/xii' raise, aOfnt exalt, Siiietut 
teach, rpi^iw rear, rvStieir train) aliow the result of tJieir action upon a sub- 
itanlive or adjective predicate to the direct object ; <rt efl^ul y' ott fratSumar 
««*► Thebe* did not train thee to be base S. O. C. 919, toStoh rpiiftir rt nl oUfni- 
irfT" to nurse and exalt him into greatness P. R.MS c, tromoSoiA^arrti airi 
v^ifXirf^F raiting it higher T. T. i. Such predicate nouns are called proleptie. 
Panive ; ii^a.t it luxpod tlXiirroi irSfiFO' Philip has groan from a mean to be a 
KightfperMon D. 0.21. Cp. 1613. 


1580. The accusative denotes extent in space and time. 

1501. Space. — The accusative denotes the space or v&j over uAi'cA 
an action is extended, and the measure of the space traversed. 

Iftir (rrpsriar) rrtmt Mo6t to lead an army over narrouroadt X.C. 1.6.43, 
l(t\ttrti rraSiuit rptij, wapofdyyat tlxati nol iiv he advances three *tages, (uen^r- 


two panuangt X. A. I. 3. 6, ir4x<' 4 nUrata r^r Onp&r vrolbvi ipioitt*»rT» 
Ftataea la leventy Hadei dUtant from Thebea T. 2. 6. 

a. Tbla use la aaalogouB to the cognau accusative atter verbs ot tnotktn 
(lHUevt iiiXBiiw, r\tir MXarmr). 

ISBZ. Time. — Ttie afcusatire deaotea extent of time. 

l/Mircr ^ti4pai trri he remained lenen daj/g S. A. 1. 2. 0, iuiifiaxH' twot^atr* 
hmrirlrii EAey made an alliance for a handred i/eart T.3. 114. 

1963. The accuaatlre of time implies Ihu the action of the Teib coren the 
entira period. When empbaaia 1h laid on tbe uclnterrupted daraUon of an 
mction, rapd with tlie accusative (16»2. 8. b) and tii with the genitive (1686. 1. b) 
ftre used. The accusative of time is rarely employed where the dative (l&U) 
il properij In place : r^rtt riit iiiUpar Aes. 3. T. 

1584. Duration of life mny be expreased by yryerit : frq yryo'^ ipS«itit- 
mrra teventg yeart old P. A. 17 d. (Also by elmi and the genitive, 1337.) 

1585. To mark (a) Aoid long a situation has lasted or (b) how mneh ttnw 
has elapsed since something happened, an ordinal is used without the article, 
bat often with the addition of a^ool The cuirent day oi year la Indoded. 
^us (a) Tijw larriiia Tt^Mur^a^aw TptrortTot Tourt my mother who dtedtwojfean 
ago L. 24. 6, iriStS^iaiia Tptrifr ^i) iiiiitpir he hai been in (Ae etty tine* dag iMffOrt 

IWItenlav P. Pr. 309 d. (b) irrrrf*^ *[\iwroi Tplrar 4 Ttrafrcr fm r«wrt 
'Spaior reixot roXiafub^r tha la lAe tAird or fourth {rear tinee U WW siuiottMeed 
Mot Philip wo* benaging fort Heraeum D. 3. 1, 

1586. On the accusative of extent in degree, see 1S09. With a oompanttive 
we find iraXtf and i\l-iof as well as roXXji and i\lyif (1C14) ; arid always rl, tJ, 
»te4r with the comparative. 

1567. Time and degree ate often expressed by prepoaittons with the aeciiM- 
tlve. See Frepoeitlotu under 4^iM iwd, Sti, h-i, card, npd, rpit, dr6. 


use. In poetr7 after verbs of motion the accusative may be used 
without a preposition to express the goal. 

dffru KaSiuZor /uXiit having come to the cilg of Cadmtu S. 0. T. 36, r4p^otU* 
Xf 'EXUia ue teill eonveg her to Greece E. Tro. 883. Of perton* In Horn, (espe- 
olally with Itiiaitat, Uu, liArw = reach) and in tbe lyric parts ot the dnum: 
linirT^pat i^rrv came unto the suitor* a3S2. Cp. "arrived out coKst"; 
Shakesp. In Hdt. S. 26 ^n/i^r iiiUat Urivreai means use declare that it b^Jtf m. 

1589- Tbe limit of motion is also expressed by -tt (ArrvSt Hoa., in pnae, 
'A9i)(«^ = 'ASiJjdi + 8« J )i»»ifif« or x'>/«lf*=X«^* + *». Op. XV>»^i •'"»«) 

and, regularly in prose, by tit, trl, rupi, wpit, in (with a pecaoD) with tbe 

1S90. Of the many transitive verbs taking this actnisattve the 
following; deserve mention : 


ISSL (I) Thdo anything to or say anything of a person. 

a. <9 (mXAt) weuTr,Sp&r (rarely with irpdrMnJ, ritpytrtir, ini^nu, 6^\^ 
(tbo with dat.), $ipawr6tti; coiut renU, (axaOr, (SKOV^civ, pXiwrtit, iZistlr, ifipU 
(it, piAtw9ai, itiMlfivBoi requite, ri^iupMBai punish, Xti^mrAu (also with dat.), 
XH^ie-Au (wiao with dat.}. 

b. (f (nXviJ \iyeir, >i\oytir, imttattitir, Swriitir, irpoatvrtir, nuAi X^)w, 

U93. rv/i^/wir and XiwiT*Xe7i' profit, ^$*'w http, Xaitapiuteai raft at take 
tha dat., djinir ii^re aod (^^[^ir iiuull also tatce dt nra or rpli nn, 

1593. c> (naicat) dmrfcif, ri^x'^* are naed aa the panlTes of eO (■■«&) 
Wvc!. ""'". Cp. 1762. 

1594. Hanj' of the above-mentioned verba take a donble accusative (1623). 

1595. (II) Yerbe expreBsiD^ emotion and its manifeatationB, 

a. ^fitiaSai, BtSiiiat, rpiit, itrX^TTtrSai, itaroxX^Tirftu /ear, wrijcwr 

enveh btfore, rfXap™ftii beware of, dapptJr have no fear of (have confidence 
in), alttJftat •(and in avie of, alaxitireat feel »^ame before, Juo'x'pa''*" be dii- 
tputed at, Dtttir pity, rttdtir, BpTjHiip, SaKpttir, it\itir (cXafcif) lament, weep over. 

b. x''tp*" r^oice at and UltaSai be pleated to hear take the acciis. of a peison 
only in the poeta and only with a predicate participle (2100), al<rx6iit<reai, xbI- 
par, fSffffci, ivtf'x'PB''<>' oBUally take the dat. in prose. fapptU may take the 
InRr. dat. (Hdt. 8. 76). 

U96. (Ill) Verbs of swearing. 

i^iirat twearby (roitStait, puss. ZrAi ifuiitorai) and noearto(Tirtpinr,^tim. 
i Ifmi iiuiiutTai). So trmpttlt noear faltely by. 

a. JfinWi Toit tn6t may be an abbreviation of iiirtm Ipm (Internal object) 

b. The accusative Is used In aaaeveradons with Uie adverbs of swearing iti. 

Nay, by Zetu : ith (rir) Ala, oi /li (tIi) &la. 
Tea, by Zevs : nl M (rir) Ala, t^ (tAv ) Afa. 
lU Is n^atlve, except when preceded by tal. pA mny stand alone when a nega- 
tive preoedea (often in a question) or when a negative follows in ttie next claoae : 
M rlr 'ArJXXw, eh Ar. Thesm. 29tl. iiA is sometimes omitted after ei, and after 
ral: o« Ti¥ 'O\vitrow S. 0. T. 1088, nl rtr xtpar Ar. Vesp. 1438. 

C Hie name of the deity may be omitted in Attic under the influence i^ 
sodden aempoloasnesa : fi&rAv — oiaiyt not you, by — P, G.46ee. 

1597. (TV) Various other verbs. 

^ttytrjleefl-om, initSpirntr escape fl-om, irtSptitit lie in watt for, ^Mrar 
anOelpate, ♦uXiTrwtfai guard oneself against, intttaBiH defend oneself against, 
Xarfdmr MCope tht notice <^, pAttir wait for, iii\ttrrir and triKtlrur give out, 
faa (t4 arpirtvua i frirn irfXiwt com failed the army X. A. 1. 6, 8). 

lS9flL The accusative is rarely found after verbal nouns and adjec- 
tives, and in periphrastic expressions equivalent to a transitive verb. 
(This usage is post-Homeric and chiefly poetical.) 



xoat rporaiirit(= wpvwiiatiiaa.) etRorting tht Ubationa A. Ch. 23, rA ptriupa 
^potTdTT^t a tpeeutator about thingt abnne the earth P. A. 18 b, trMT-iiioftt f*" 
tA wpov^KowTa they loere acqvainltd taicli their duties X. C. 3. S. S, rtXtitat dropt 
ripi/nt tear providing difflcultieg (Ihinga for wliicli there U no provision) A. Pr.9(H, 
TsXXA rvrltTuifi (a buuse) full ofguiUj/ secrets A. Ag. 1090, iri ^fifut a5I« (o eaeape 
(Am S. Ant. TSTi ffBpf4iei|iu(= 'fafiMp^O ^A '^vr'^f^*" »ay'no'h) tkequettion 
P. Charm. 168 o, rfSfio-i ti? !^« roii iroo-TiXoui (fley <ir« (» mortal /ear of tht 
envoyt li.i.iB; otLer caaea 1612. 

1599. Elliptical Accautire. — The accusative is sometimes used 
elliptical ly. 

0Eto>, a at Toi (wtl. icaXw) Ao / you tAere, / am calling you I Ar. At. 274, /i^, 
Tp*i « fciSi' TXJt ;« rpoJoiHi (= >iif, ■■(lii eia» ff< alra) do not, I (mplore thee by 

the godt, have the heart to leave me / E. Ale. 2T6, ^4 /uk rflt^agir (acil. xAptxt) 
no excuse I Ar, Acb. 346. Cp. 046. 


1600. To verbs denotiag a state, and to adjectives, an acousfttivp 
may be added to denote a thing 111 resped to whicA the verb or 
adjective is limited. 

a. The accusative uiuaHy expresses a local relation or the instmnient. Thr 
word reatricted by the accusative usually denotes like or limilar to, good or 
better, bad or vioree, a physical or a menial quality, or an emotion, 

1601. The accusative of respect is employed 

a. Of the parts of the body : i iiSpiiirot rir id«TiyXo» iXYif the man A<m a 
pain in hit finger V. R. 402 d, rv^\it rd r' Sra riv re wouv ri t Shimt' tl blind 
art Uiou in earl, and mind, and eyes S. 0. T. 371, rMai dir6i 'Ax')^'"^ Horn. 

N. — The BCcuaative of the part In apposition to the tnbole (98b) belongs 
here, as is seen by the pasalve. Cp. Tdv -wXiji' aix^n htm he tmote on the neck 
A 240 (^dXc SoSpor 'A/»ra »r' nAx'™ * *00) With fiipXvai UKwM lAou Oft tmOten 

in the abdomen E 2»4. 

b. Of qualities and attributes (nature, fonii, size, name, birth, number, etc.): 
eta^fpti yvrii itSpit rV 4><^>r Woman dil/fra from man in nature P. R. 463 b. 
oMi loiKtr BrTfTat iSaviT^i S4)tat tal lUoj ipl^ir nor ia it seemly that mcrtnl 
viomen should rival the immortals in form and appearance (213, rsrau^, KMna 
Sroiuk, (Spot Bio r\iepvy a river, Cydnus by name, tao pletbra in width X. A. 
1. 2. 23 (so with v^'Dt, 0iSet, ti^ctloi), rX^^i ui SurxO^uH about two Ihovsaad iu 
number 4. 2. 2, \iior Hrrii d 7^*01 tell me of what race thou art E. Baccb.4e0. 

c. Of the sphere in general : Stint liixv terrible in battle A. Pers. '27, yirBrBt 
rj)i> Siiroiar transfer yourseliws in thought Aes. 3. 153, rb tiir hr' ipai »lx'M^>, tA 
I* Jrl ffsl (T^ufffui so far as Imytt-lf teat concerned I was lost, but through yvn 
am saved X. C. 5, 4. II. Often uf indefinite reiaUona : Tdvra naiii base in iill 
thinys S. 0. T. 1421, roirt-a d7=Wt t^ajTrm ^jiiSf, irtp ro^ii, 4 8* d/iaftji, roin-a ii 
taitii each one of us is rji-.d in iii'rilera in vhich he is skilled, but bad in thi'Sf 
in which he is ijrnuranl 1'. Lauh. I'J-I d. 


1602. Very Tarel; liter subaUtDtives: x*'f<^^<^'xiiw^^l' a forrior valiant with 
(tA|r) arm r £42, vtStlat rat (h^tii youtht by their appearance L. 10. 29. 

1603. For the mccumUvb of respect the inHtnimental datlre (1616) ia also 
employed, and also the prepoalUons eli, at-ri, rpit, e.g. iia4>if*t* if*r% or Ot 

1604. Not to be cocfiued with the BccusatlTe of respect Is the accuBaUve 
after intransitive adjectives (1606) or after the pssives of 1S32. 

1605. The accusative of respect ia probably in its origin, at least in part, on 
MGUsative of the internal object. 


1607. Host of these adverbial accusatives are accusatives of the internal 
nbject ; thus, In rAoi Si tlwt but at loM he said, tAm is to be regarded as 

standing in apposition to an uneipreased object of the verb — loordi, which tMr« 
Me end. Many adverbial accusatives are Uius accusatives in apposition (991) 
ind some are accusatives of respect (1600). It is impossible to apportion all 
cases among the varieties of the accusatives ; many may be placed under differ- 
ent heads. The use of adjectives as adverbs l^/Uya rXairms very rich) Is often 
derived from the cognate accusative with verbs (^o •■Xoi/T«r»), 

1606. Manner. — Tpiw»rTiwi inHomemay, TlmrpAwtr intehat way f rirlt 
(nvTor) rir rpinr in Ait nay, -rirrn rp&war in every viay (also warri TfAwtf), 
tIi* TsxfffT^v (iiir) in the quieke$t way, Tj)r itBtlar (isit) straightforteard, 
T^iro, titpiir grain (1016), tln^r nfter the fathlon of (Slniv Tofdrou like an 
arrher V. L. 706e), rp6ifitMif in pretence (IrXtt rfi^vit ir' "RWiiiiTirrev he 
tniltd pro/us«Uv M the Helleipont Hdt. .'j. 3;l), x^f" /'"■ '*< »a*e "/ ("t- 
fittour): oi Tiir'ABiinlwrxipiritrpartdiiyTo did tKit engage in the expedilioH out 
0/ good aill to the Atheniaw Hdt. G. Oil, roD x^p^' .fw leA-it reason f Ar. Plut. 
33. r4« rj)v Ifxu x^P" for thy gake I have ctime S. rh. U13. Cp. 093. 

1609. Measnre and Degree. ^-lUya, iityi\iL grtatly, roXiJ, TDX\d mucA, ri 

■»U, rk raWi fOT the moat part, &ra» at much as, oiSir, iiifSit not at all, 
TtnOrD* so much, ri aoraewhat, ipx^' '"' ''^J'' ^X'^' at all with oi or »ii( (ir r$ 
rtfaxpiw oil liTTit ipx^' ipBUt ^uXntnrAii i( ii utterly impostible to deliberate 
eorreetly offhand Ant. 5. T-'i). 

1610. KotlTe. — t( why f j-oBto, raura for (Ai» reason (cognate accus.) : ri 
^\»n qvid (enr) eenfsH == rf m IJic i)X#»i; toBtb xafpu (=riu>rij> riyr x<^' 
X«W) therefore t rejoice, miri tbDt-o f,Ku for this very reason have I come 
P. Pr. 310 e, tsBt' ixStrBi for this rriuoH j^r.M are rpj-ed X. A. 3. 2. 20. 

1611. Time and Succession (l-'it<2) : rl rOr now, ri vdXcu of old, rpirtper 
More, ri wpirtpoi- the former lime, rpwrot firit. rb lar' itpx'< ''< f^ begintttnff, 
'i rpwTOf in the jir»t plar.', ri rt\iirra,iat in thf last place (tor t4 StArtpor In a 
series use trura or (wart J/), ri \inrit for the future. iipH)r at the poiiU, jvU, 
tmifir fn seosoH. 



1612. A oompoDiid exprearion, coiuUting of tbe accontiTs of an abatnet 
•absUutiTs and roMi^Snt, rlBttBai, Ix'", etc., la often treated as a eimpla vett ; 
and, when transitive, goTeme the accuaaUve i t^iw x^' naToBpoiialt Xifav frouiTg 
(= iX^^ra) he ravaged the eoitrarg by hit incuTBtona T. 8. 41, 'Vdov ^Mpat 
^4^ciD( IBtrre (= iifrij^Iffawo) they voted for the destruction o/ lUum A. Ag. BH, 
/»fi0i|r (x" I' l^' rpUri w (= l» lUu^iiat) I blame thte firit fur one Ihliiff 
E. Or. 1000, ri »' if pir,f XQ^i* lexin (= 'rtXartfdHi) what lie* between thou 
hatt no memorj/ of 8. 0. C. 683. See 1698. So with other periphrases In 
poetry; rttra laixtru Xirftw {= /laxpirepeii TpM^vtS') I epeak at length to Mf 
ehildren S. O. C. 1120, tl U fi' Sf itl X^ui t(^xf (.= *in9« \h'") if (holt didt 
alieaya Qtegin to) addrtu me thvt 8. El. 660. 


1613. Verbs meaning to appofitt, caU, dtoose, consider, make, nante, 
akow, and Hke like, may take a second accusadTA as a predioato to 
the direct object 

rr^rirri* a^it iriStiff he appointed him general X. A. 1. 1. S, rartpt ipi 
InXaiV* ycu were wont to call me father 7, 0. 38, tUpttrfui odrir rir 'ItJwr 
fitvi^a Stn«Tii> to ehooie the king of the Indian* him»e{f to be arbitrator X. C. 

5. 4. 8, oi yip Sixaior otri roiti tOKoii fiirnr xf><)0'Tai>i n>iU{tir alh-i Toit x/>lf#rWt 
jKomAf for it ti not Jutt to contider bad men good at random, or good men bad 
6. 0. T. 809, Ti/iMtov irrpaTtryii' fxaporirrnrat thep elected TimoAeut general X. H. 

6. 2. 11, rj)' 'iv^' '■>■> fi'TX'^P^''" ^4^^ I $h<Ul eoneider j/our eilenee a* conaetA 
P. Cnt. 436 b, invrbw itrrbriii rnroliriHr he hne made himgelf matter X. C. 

1. 8. 18, iir l/ii abr Stpiworrn TBi^rn '/ VOX make ne jfow servaTit X. O. 7. 42, 
■It ToAf 'EXXqni irauT6ii ao^ter^if irap4xur showing yovrtetf a tophiet befort the 
Oreekt F. Pr. 812a, ti/me^ rirra rapix'" to render everything eaeg to learn 
X O. 20. U. Cp. 1570. 

1614. Tbe absence of the article generally distinguishes the predicate noon 

from the object: twvrri>'>'tre to^i cJXaiat roil a&ToB rXwa-wr^rain rflv TvXn-Ar 

TM^tir he promteed to make hit Jlatterert the richett of the cUt*en* L. 88. 4. 

1615. Especially In Plato and Herodotus, after verbs fligniryliig to iwmw, to 
ealJ, the predicate noun may be connected with the external object by (a 
redondant) tlmi (Oil); va^vriiw dfoiiitoufi rir irSpa ttmt they call the man 
a *cph((t P. Pr. 311 e, frum^r Ix't r/uicpit Tt col fiifTM (trai he it called both 
thoH and tall P. Ph. 102 c. This is due to tbe analogy of verbs signifying to 
thini or tav (.lOil). 

1616. A predloaln accusative may stand In apposition to the object : ftwm 
tupaii rikX^pa I gave them (Ac price of their rantom a» a free gift D. 19. 170^ 

1617. This use Is the source of many adverbial accusatives (993, 1600 tL). 

1618. PaaalTe : both the object and the predicate accusative of the active 
construction become nominative (1743) in the passive construction: a^lt rrpa- 


rfrh ipM^ he htmtelf wat choten general L. 12. 6fi, stral iVfiaMrw K^ifmrnrrat 
Ikei iAb/J themteleea be called lawgiver* P. L. fiSl d. 

1819. Many verba take both an internal and an external objeob 
uaoi The external object refers to a person, the internal objeot 
(cognate accnsative, 15GS fE.) refers to a thing. Here the internal 
ol^eot stands in closer relation to the verb. 

h riXiiuit dc^nfcrroir raiitt&r airvit twaltwan (Afl viaf taught thefn a Immm 
Ifccjr tntll hold In eiierla$ting rtmevibranet Aes. S. 148, rstfaiiriir IxBoj IxSalpw rt 
IJuste thee teiA meh an hate S. £1. 1034, H/Xifr jt lu ^pd^aro t^f ypa^iir rairiir 
XdHu* brought thit atxiaatton agalntt me P. A. 19 b, fXmt, ri lur pi}M the 
woHiid that he dealt htm E TBS (1578), HtXrtdSqt 6 r^r iw Mapaean /tdxvr mi' 
fifPtpiit nc^Si Mtlttadei who v>ort the battle at Marathon over tht barbariaiu 
Am. 8. 181, riw iripa T^m* rat rXtnii to ilrlke the man the blone Ant. 4. y. 1, 
aiaiet /at rsvro ri JMfta thes give m* this appellation X. 0. T. 3. 

1621. PsmItc (1T4T) i rSaan etpartar gt/Mirtuiiitm receiving every manmr 

tftervice P. PbAe, 266 fc, TtrrirSai wtrr-^Kiirra tXitT'' '" A< itrudc Jljtf blow* 
Am. 1, 139, 4 K^it, 4r iKpt»ti the aaitenee that vxit prottouneed upOD blm L. 13. 
GO, rat «idx«, tffit TUpvtu ^rr^tiirtr tS lotmtt the battle* in tehieh the Ftrtfaiu 
■ere d^tated 1. 4. 145, Sreiia If mcXq^Jmi ZinXi^u eall«(f bg tht one name qf 
meatan* T. 4. U. 

1622. So with verba Btgnifyiiig to do anything toartay anything of a person 
(IGOl) : raXXa iyath t/iit trolw he did yon mtKh good L. 6. 8, tbvtI >k m- 
ttn tkafevhat they are doing tome Ar.Vesp.e96, ri ruaOrt iwatra'AyvrCXaar 
IpralM AgeiilaH* for aucA merits X. Ages. 10. 1, roit Kopirflsif raXxi n est 
iwi IXrjrc h« Aidl nian|r bad thing* about the Corinthian* Hdt. 6. 01. For Om 
loeamtln of the thing, ril (nXOi), raxAi may be sntetftuted ; and tit and t^ 
wtth the iffntitlTft oocur. 

1623. The acctiMtlvB of the person may depend on the Idea sxptened by 
tha oomblnation of verb and acciuative of the thing (1612) ; u In n^ roXifitovi 
^n*tmi taxi to have done harm to the enemy L. 21. 8 (here ttpyitOiu at Itaelt 
doM not tnean to do anything to a penon). 

1624. When the daUve of the person Is ttaed, eomethlng Is done /or (1474), 

not to him i rirru frnlirrar roit ivoSamOrir they rendered all honour* to the 

dead X. A. 4. S. 23. «ii or rpii with the aceosuive Is also employed. 

1625. Passive of 1S23 : Sfm AXXs ^ vUui ItStnttrc oil the other wrong* that Ms 
State hoM Mti^brsd D. 18. 70. 

1626. Verba of dividing (tiiuir, ruTariimt, SuupiTr, r^^xtr) ma; take two 
secnsitivM, one of the thing divided, the other of Ita psrta (cognate scons.). 
Ibaa, K^ ri trpirm^ mr/vci^M S<M«a tUpn Cyrus divided the army into tunlvt 
dlvMmu X. C. 7. 6. 13. tit or nrd may be used with the accnsaUve of the parts. 

1627. PsMtve : liiprriu 4 iyopa Ttrra^ia iJpy, the Agora U divided into fOur 
tart* X. C. 1. 2. 4. df and nrd maj be lued with the accosative of the parts. 



1628. Verba signifying to ask, clothe or itudothe, aiii<-eul, demand, 
dejmee, pennade, remind, teach, take two objects in the accusative, 
one of a person, the other of a thing. 

nu Tovr ipwru SI that' s not the quettiait rm atking i/oii Ar.Nub.64l; x"^" 
rir iairrtO ixtitar ^fi^Iro-f he put Ai« own tunic (in him X. C. 1.3. IT, llai I* 
'AriWar alrrit itSiat i/ii-xi'V^Vpl^* Ar*^B lo Apollo himttif divert* f)i« o/mg 
oracvlar garb A, Ag. 126B ; rj)r Svyaripa ttpvwn rir Sirarar rov irip6t ht con- 
Ctaleft from hit daughter her AtMJfantTi death L. 82. 7 ; KOptr olrcir rXsw to atk 
Cyrus for boats X. A. 1, 3. 14, ui tyJt rati rtm 4 '*'fn£^i|> luvSir j) v^ifra that 
I «ver exacted or naked pay of any one F. A. 81 o ; roijm* tjiv r^j)* i.'wnvTtfA 
lu htdeprieei me of the value of thetetktngi It. 26.13 \ t/iit toStb ei wilSu lean- 
not penvade sou of this P. A, 37 ft ; dm/in^H t/iai nai roii ttrStrovt I will rtfniitd 
you of the dangers aUo X.A.S.2.11; tUMt U^a^i lu rairtir r^r rixr^' nobodf 
taught me this art X. O. tO. 16. 

1629. Both person ftnd thfng are eqcally goTsmed hj U)e verb. Tbe accusa- 
tive of the person ie tbe ezteraal object ; the acciuUlve of the ttaLng ia Bometimes 
a cogoate accuaatlve (internal accusative). 

1630. Someof these verba also take the genlttve or dative, oremplofpiflpo- 
sitions. Thus ipur&r nra rtpl rifoi, aJrcir (alriiffSal) Ti ropd ti»i, Aworrtpiiw 
or il#i>v»ar«al ri»i (tibSj ti) (1394), or rif( ti (148.3) ; dra^^rirmir rwd 
Tini (1856) ; raiSciftr riri tiki or ntik th (or rpit) with the accnsative. 

1631. The poets employ this constniction with verbe of eleaiuing (a form 
of deprisittg) : xpia A[fTo Sk/i^t he tea* waihtng the brine from hi* ^in f 2S#, 
al/ia KiS^/iar 2apriiS6ra cleanse the blood from Sarpedon H 067. And with 
other verba (in tragedy), e.g. Tl/mftiaOai avenge on, iirnXStTr seek to avenge on, 
imtiiiHu execute judgment ori, ^wtawipnett charge. 

1632. Paaaive (1747) : ihri ^niriX^wf impayiUrot rt&t ^pon having had the 
tribute demanded of him by the king T. 8. 5, tan Fttoui drWT^pirrTat <Ul who hare 
been deprived of their hor*es X. C. 6. 1. 12, oix IrtlBarTo ri in-nttMrra they 
loould not credit the neat Hilt. 8, 81, moruijr iraiStuBtii hoeing been inttmeled 
In music P. MeiLei. 2;W a (here imwriiii Is possible), a6itr dXXo iiii^icrrai Attftr- 
i-oi J) twiaT-^itiir Tnan is taught nothing else except knowledge P. Men, 87 c 

1633. Tbe accusative of extent (1680) ia freely iiaed in the same wntence 
with other ac^.LlsatLV(«, as hrtptrtyicirTtt rlr Atvxailur laB/iir rit raOt having 
lutnled the thipa across the isthmus of Leura* T. 8. 81. 

On the acousative of the whole and part, see 98f> ; on the aocusa- 
tive subject of the infinitive, see 1972 S.; on the aocusative absolute, 
see 2076. See also under Anacoluthon. 


1634. The case of an object common to two verbs is (lenpraUy that de- 
manded by the nearer ; oi itt reli itailorplpaii iyta\tTr aiS tK^iXur it tJ'f 

TJX(u> we mtMf not oetnite (Ae trainer or baniik httn from the eitie* P. O. 460 <L 


■. The farther verb ma; contain the main idea ; ^trt^ val drotenfidjki ri«( 
he cauuret tome and rtjeett them at tAe scrutiny L. 8. 83. 

1633, Tbe construction U usually ni1ed by the participle, not by the 
finite verb, when tliey have a commou object but different conatructlone, and 
tepecially when tbe object stands nearer the participle : roiirv Soii ^t)iiita 
Ti,pr6tae<u iri\tvatr V^X^t having gteeti him guidei h« ordered him to proceed 
quietly X. C. 6. 8..&3; and wlien the common object stands between, as rpQ<rtt- 
#4rr(t Tw'i rpitrraa rpfnori falling upon the foremost they put Ihem to flight 


1636. Prepositions define the relations of a substantival notion 
to the predicate. 

«. All pTspoBitions seem to have been adverbs originally and nostiy ad- 
Yerfas of place ; as adverbs they are case-forms. Several are localives, as rtpl. 

1637. Tbe prepositions express primarily notions of space, then notions of 
lime, and Anally ara used In tlguraiive rulations to denote cause, agency, means, 
nuuiner, etc. Attic often differs frnm the Epic in using the prepositions to 
denote metaphorical relations. Tbe prepositions deflns the character of tbe 
veibal action and set fortb the relations of an oblique case to the predicate with 
greater predion than U possible for the cases without a preposition. Thus, 
lunt Si iiniaT^iP fiiri he ipake among the suitors p 467 specifies tbe meaning 
oith gmt«r certainty than ^nj^r^fiiriB Icivi. So i 'EXXi^wv #i^t may mean 
the fear felt bf the Greeks or the fear caused bg the Greeks; but with if or rapi 
(cp. X. A. 1,2. IB, Lye. 130) the Utter meaning is stated unequivocally. The use 
of a prepOMtion often serves to show how a construction with a compoeita 
case (1270) is to be r^^arded (genitive or ablative ; dative, instrumental, ot 

1638. Derelopment ot tlu Use of PrepAsiticnu. — 

a. Originally the preposition was a free adverb limiting thf meaning of tha 
verb but not directly connected with it ; xar ip (ffro doom he Kale him A 101. 
In this OHe the preposition may be called a ' preposltion-advprb.' 

b. The preposition-adverb was also often uEed in senieiices in which an 
oblique case depended directly on the verb without regard to the preposition- 
advert). Here the case la Independent of the preposilion-adverb, as in ^\t^pur 
two tiKpua rtina from her eyelids, amag, tears fall f 121K Here fi\t^>ipar Is 
ablatlvai genitive and is not governed by 4ir4, wliich serves merely to define tlie 
relation between verb and [loun. 

c. Gradually the pre[M)si linn -ad verb was brought into closer connection 
ritber (1) with tbe verb, whence arose compounds such lut iiroil»T(ni, or 

•i) with the noun, the preixmition-adverb having frued itself from ilx adverbial 
relation to the verb. In this siat'e, which Is that ot Attio pnwe, the noun was 
felt to depend on the prepoaitloii. Hence arose many syntacUcal cbangeK. e.g- 


tlia aociuaUTe of the limit of taotion (1688) wu kbuidoiied in irobb for tb« 
pnpoBition nith tlie acciuaiive. 
Prepositions have three uses. 

1639. (I) Prepositions appear as adverbs defining the action of 

1640. The prepooltion-adverb oaualiy precedes the verb, from wfalch it ia 
often separated In Homer by nouns ftnd otber words ; iiiiir ir6 \iuyir i/iS^ 
to wani off destruction from (for) lu A 67, ifpi yip jm M the goddett tent b«r 
/ortA A 106, txf lira yaZi the earth held him fa*t B 69B. 

1B41. So, M links connecting sentences, rpii it ml and n! rpii and betUea, 
trl S4 and betidet, iieri Sf and next, thereupon (both in Hdt.), ir U and awwnf 
thenvwber (Hdt.). 

1643. The verb (usoalljr iarl or tint, rarely tl/tC) may be omitted : ot yi^ rti 
p4t» Ttun ir^p for no racA man U among them ^ 93. Cp. 944. 

1643. The prepodtlon-ndTerb may do duty for tlie verb In pu&Ilel clkiues: 
Srtptt ir/rrar, &r iiir tp 'Arptf^qi . . . ir f ipti MiffH^r^ the men TOte ftp, roM 
■9 Atreide*, rose up Meriona 4 860. 8o In Hdt. 

1644. (II) Prepositions connect verbs and other vords vith the 
oblique cases of nouns and pronouns. 

1643. It Is often Impoaaible to decide whether tbe preposlUon belongs to Ibe 
verb or to the noun. Thus, it Si XpDvirli "lit P^l A 439 may be Chrj/MOa vent 
Ota of the ehip oi; ChrgitU aenl^ut-from ('f'^) the eh^. When important 
words separate the prep.-adv. from the noun, tbe prep.-adv. is mote prop«riy 
regarded as belonging with the verb, which, together with the prep.-adv., |;ov- 
ems tbe noun : dfi^t Si xoXtm S/mu itrterrai and hi* mane Jloat»-aboiU hie 
thoulden Z G09. The Mss. often vary : rai^t* iyA /uB' ifUXnr (or fiato^Oitor) 
vtth thete I wot wont to aieoeiate A 269. 

1646. (Ill) Prepositions unite with verbs (less frequently vitb 
nouns and other prepositions) to form c{»mpounds. Cp. 886 B, 

a. From this use as a prefix the name ' preposition ' ^rpiStnt praepoattto) is 
derived. Tbe origin^ meaning of eome prepositions is best seen in compoonds. 

1647. Improper prspoaitloiu (1690) are adveriM nsed like prepositlona, bat 
Incapable of forming compounds. The case (usually the genitive) foUowing an 
improper preposition depends on tbe preposition alone wlthoot regard lo tin 
verb ; whereas a true preposition was attached originally, as an adverb, to a 
case depending directly on tbe verb. 

1648. The addition of a preposition (especially iii, mrd, rtfr) to a vvital 
form may mark the completion of tbe action of the verbal Idea (ptrfectin 
action). The local force of the preposition Is here oft«n lost. So lia^rtytu 
triMeed in emaptng, taraStilittir tucfeed in pumiing, vvm\tir aeeomplM, earrf 
into effect {jtlittr do, perform). 

1649. Two or more prepositions may be used with one verb, either sepa- 


ntelj, as adverbs, or in composition with the verb. Thus, vrQ Si r<ip4i (or irap' 
*E) he »tood forth hetide htm A*86. When two prepositions of like meuiing 
aitt Died Id comptwltioD, that prepoaltlon precedes which hs« the narrower 
nngB: ovfi^in'^Mr take part <n uritA, in^ijripifrilnatai to be jnit round about 
OM a erow*. Whea two prepositions are need with one nouD, the noun usuAlly 
depends on the Moond, while the first defines the second adeerhisUy ; as An^l 
r*pl v4i' round about a tpring B306. It Is often nncertsin whether or not 
two prepoaiUons dionld he written together. 

a. Bnch compound prepoaltloiia are iii^ttpl, rop^f, ^fx, irix, Mn, irarpi, 
iMWfi, rtftrpi. Improper prepoellions may be QHed with trae prepositions, U 
fi^X^ */f ri rrfurliwttnr a* far at (into) the camp X. A. 6. 4. 20. 

1C50. Tmesis (rfi^vif euittng) denotes the separation of a preposition from 
its rerb, and is a term of late origin, properly deeoripiive only of the post-epio 
tangnage, in which preposition and verb normally formed an indissoluble eom- 
ponnd. 'Rie term 'tmeeis' is Incorrectly applied to the language of Homer, 
■inc« in the Kpic the prep.-adv. was still in process of joining with the verb. 

ICSl. In Attic poetry tmesis occurs chiefly when the preposition is separated 
ttotu the verb by unimportant words (partJctes, encimca), and is employed for 
the sake of emphasis or (in Euripldea) aa a mere ornament. Aristophanes uses 
tmeala <mly to parody the style of tragic ohonisee. 

1(52. Bdt. nses tmesis f reqnently in imitation of the Epio ; the intervening 
words are At (= olr), enclitics, Bi, /Ur . . . li, etc. 

16S3. In Attic prose tmesis occurs only in special osses : irr a wait (ri- 
«^«r) and fit «8 (itMiJi) nuir (Tio-x"')- Thus, Ssavi iB »«-^aiToi ^ »4X« 
irr' *B ir*wlvi*» o" whom the city ha* requited viith beaeJUt for the senifce thtf 
rendered U D. SO. 04. Here tt rrrolipin is almost equivalent to a ringle notion. 

1C54. The addition of a preposition to a verb may have no eHect on the 
construction, as hi inp^wai rfj* rt<ii, whereas fi^nur^ rtiit originally, and still 
In poetry, can mean go frxnn-the-ihip ; or it may determine the construction, 
as In rtprytfiaeai i/me to rurpat* me D. 18. 236. Prose t«nda to repeat the pre- 
fixed pniporitlon : ixpilrai ix tQi hJh T. 1. 137. 

1635. A preposition nsiwiiy assumes the force of an adjective when com- 
pounded with substantives which do not change their forms on entering into 
composition, as virotat a national meeting (iSbt), Otherwise the compound 
nsnally gets a new termination, generally -«r, -w» neuter, or -It feminine, as 
ir^wiow dream (y*Toi), twiyovrli thigh-mueele (ytrv). 

1636. The ose of prepositions is, in general, more common In prose than In 
poetry, wliich retained the mora primitive form of expiee^n. 

1637. A noun joined by a preposition to its case without the help of a verb 
liaa a verbal meaning : irb rir&r ipx*^' iKmOtpia freedom from all rule P. L. 
MM a (Cp. i)Mttpat)n dri r.Hi ). 

16SS. In geneml, when depending on prepodUons expranlng relatJoos 
of place, the aconsatiTe denotes the place (or person] toward ahieh or the 
^ace over tohieh, along which motion t^es place, the dadve denotes rest in 


or at, tiie genitJve (ablative) paiiiiig from. Tbua, iJKu ropi ai /AaB« coRHta 
jrou T. 1. 18T, A rap iiarri} pip^apo^ fAe barbarians iu his oion tervice X. A. 

1. 1. 6, Topd PmCKim coXXdI >pii Kvpar dir^Xfc' many camt oner from |A« Mb0 

to CVt^s 1- 0' 29. Tba true genitive denotes various forms of connection. 

1659. Coostiuctio PrugDans.—a. A verb of motion isoftqn used wilti » 
prepoBltlon nith the dative to anticipate the rest titat follows the action of the 
»erb ; ir TV irora^ (riffiv they fell (into and were) in the river X. Agea. 1. SB, 
This use is common with tiS^vei, ISptar, mSirTitmi, etc., and with tenses of 
completed action which imply reat ; as ol /r tj r^if itipti Jia^^rArn the bms 
uAo A«l crowed (o (and were in) the island W 7. 71. 

b. A verb of rest is often followed by a preposition with the accnsative to 
denote motion previous to or following upon tbe action of the verb: rap^ardi 
ZipSta (they came to Sardis and were in the city) they arrived a$ Sardia X. A. 

1. 2. 2, it KZp^m- hiitTiffaw they icere aaned bg reaehing Cyrene T. 1. 110, ipitn 
irpiffiarrtit lit AtutSalfiota he teas ehoten ambaatador (to go) to Laeedaanott 
X. H.2.2. 17. Cp. 1082. 1. a. 

1660. Stress is often laid on (a) the starting-point or (b) the goal of an 

a. nrai^irSt diri SdrSpur roij Irraui tying hit hortBt to (ftom) trea 
X. H. i. 4. 10. By anticipation of tbe verbal action (attraction of the prep. 
with the article) ; r^r it6 DTpaToriBou rdfir l\irtr he deserted hia pott in Ike 
army Aea. 3. 169, ol Ik Tfit iyopai KaTa\,-r6rrtt t4 finia (^i^o» the market-peoplt 
(oJ /* TO (l7sp^) left their warea and Jlfd X. A. 1. 2. 18. 

b. With verbs of cnllpeting (depo(i».», rvWi^eir) and tnroUing {iyypiiHtr): 
tit Tiilcr iefiolloiTat they are muafred in(_to) the plain X. A. 1. 1. 2, tit ArSpti 
lyypi'pat to enrol in(to) the list of men D, 19.230. 

1661. So with adverbe: *rou AiiXi)8o/«» where (=iBMthrr, ftroi) tee kaee 
gone X. 0. 6. 1. 14, SOer irtXlrantr, irarfXeaiiiii let t(» return to the point wheiir' 
(= where, Srov) we left off P. Hh. 78 b, iyvoci t6v Ittiffm rit^iaw StOpo (|(gfTa bt 
doei not knote that the roar in that region will come hither ( = rbr itti liiW^Kr 
h»mr) D. 1. 16. 

1662. Some adverbs and adverbial phraaea meaning from are used with 
reference to the point nC view of the observer : inaTipaSeii on either tide, ttStr 
ml (leiw nn this aide and that, it jrfiai on the right (a dextra), ol dri r^t n^rip 
th€ actors, ri Ik toC t^enoO rtix"!, rd ^t rify naW-ifrvr t«xo' the wall (seen) fron 
the iathmna, tAe leall toioard (looking to) Pallene T. 1. S4 (of the same wall). 

1663. Poaition. — The preposition usually precedes its noun. It may be 
separated from it 

a. By particles (fUr, Sf, yi, ri, yip, oir) and byalMoi / think: ir air tJ »ilui 
P. R. 46fl d, tit ii yt olpat rSt axxii TiXflt to the other eitiet I think 668 c. 

Note that the order riir pir x'^P^' (1166) usnaliy bocomea, e.g. rpit pit t^f 
Xi^pir or fpit Ti)r xiip" 1^'- Demonatrative i /nit and i Si, wbeu dependent od 
a preposition, regularly follow the prepoeition, and usually with order rsTersed 
(1109) ! iw pit dps Toil 9vp^ato6p*t, if ti roii eil in some (A(np> th«n we agree, 
but not in others P. I'hae. 263 b. 


b. BratblbntlveB: (hEatrrpaunifai' lo tAepta(no/(Ae Cav>t«r X. A. 1. 2. II. 

C. By the accusative in oaths uid entreaties (with Tp6t) : rp6t m r^lt it^rptt 
(y my molAerAcre I implore (A«eB. Phoeo-ISAG; cp. per f«d«oi»rouidBM 1690, 

If . — A prepoBttloD ii usually placed before a auperlaUve and after At or >rt 
qualifying tbe superlatiTS : in irl rXiTrror rafi IfiCkav over the very grtaU$t part 
of the throng T. 2. 31. raXii, rin, iid\a may precede the prepoaltlon and lt« 
caee: nXi> ir tXiIok alrlif wUhfar better reaeon T. 1.36. 

1664- In poetry a preposition is often placed between an adjeotive and Ita 
lubstanlive; very rarely in proee (roif!* it rilfti (n the following ffiann«r 
P.Criti. 116c). * 

1665. rtpl is the ouly true preposition tiiat may be placed after ita case in 

AUic prose .- ira^fft ri/n about wUdom F. Phil. 40 a, Ar iyii atSir otri ntya tin 
lanpir w4pt tratu about vihiek I understand nothing ettW much or Ifub P. A, 
IBc. When used with two subetantiTM ripi la placed between them : t»B haf»v 
T( wipi sal T09 drarlw eonaemlng both thM vihich it holy and that whieh U ««- 
koly P. Buth. 4 e. wipi occurs very often in Plato, only once in tbe orators and 
possibly twice in Xenopbon. On anastrophe, see 176. 

a. tftta and x^P^' (usually) and Iku (sometiniea) are poatpoelUTe. The re- 
tention of tbe postposltiTe use of ttpl may be due to the influence of tuiM- 
In poetry many prepositions are postpositiTe. 


1666. The preposition In the seoond of two closely connected cIsums may 
be different from that used in the Snt clause either (1) when the relation ia 
cneutially tbe same or (2) when it is different. Thus (1) (( r« rfjt Ktpttpit 
al iri -rift i/wtlptv from CoTcgra and the mainland T.7.3S, and (2) o(lr« icari 
■nr atrt Itik 0iiMmit neither by land nor by (the help of the, the medium of 
the) Ma 1. 2. Cp. ia6& 


1667. a. ?or the sake of emphasis or to mark opposition and dilferenee, a 
preposition is repealed with each noun dependent on the preposition : card r« 
rbXi/ior nil card ri)* AXXi^ SIuTo* in the pursttit of war and in the other oeev- 
palione of life P. Tim. 18 c 

b. A preposition is used with the first noun and omitted with the second 
when the two nouns (whether similar or dissimilar in meaning) unite to tonn 
a coroi^ex : rtpl roi} Sitaltn lal iprr^t ' eoneeming the justice of our caiue and 
Hit honetty of our intentions ' T. 3. 10. 

t. In poetry a prepoeition may be used only with tbe second of two nouns 
dependent on it : AeX^uIr tiri AavUai from Delphi and Daulia S. O. T. 734. 

1668. Tn contrasts or alternatives expressed by 4i 4 • • - 4i ■■>' • ■ > "^< etc., 
the pcepoeitlon may be repeated or omitted with the second noun : ml sari y^r 
ai mrA $iyM.TTat both by land and by tea X.A.I. 1.7, rpit ixSpAr^^Oar to foe 
or friend D-21.1U. 

1669. When prepositions of different meaning are used with the same niNin, 


the Dooii is repeated ; thiia neither iipo» (tAe earth) nor under the earth Is Or 
M y^ tig iwb 74t P. Henex. 246 d. 

1670. In ezpluiatory appoeiUonsl dftiues (968) the prepoeilioD ma; b« 
repeated for the sake of oleamwi or empbacU ; aa i* ndrwr ol dto^wrTol ytytr- 
7-ai, ix rOw iwir^Stovdrrur #™«Ta the Men 0/ mark eotne from thote who hart 
praetUed each art P. Lack. 183 0, and oomuioDl; alter demonstratlTes. lite 
prepoalcioa is not repeated when Bucb an appoaltloaal clause is cloavly coQ' 
nected nlth what preoedei ; iliit |tq>l m^u rcpl Mt iiinv, SvAtlat irr 
i^4vStplit, iytrtltffiai nor thotild gou thiitk that gov are contending for a eliigU 
ieette alone: to avert slaMry inttead 0/ maintain lug jomt freedom T.2.68. A 
prepoelUon is usually not repeated before descriptive sppoBilional clausea (987): 
"W xfitMrvt MXttt, ifftpaiou vpiy/iarot gou are ialkiny abovt wealth, an 
itaelable thing Com. frag. 3. 38 (No. 128). 

1671. Before a Telative in the same oaae as a noun or pronoun dependent on 
a prepoaitloD, Uie prepoeitloa Is nsually omitted ; tari rutr^v r^r ^XuULr %* 4> 
iyii rOr hewataltiuU age at lehteh I note am D. 21. 166, ^(X«>tiu Inri iw (_= nt- 
rwv Si) ^iXciV-u U laved fiy vhotn it i» loved P. Enth. 10 o. But the pTepoeition 
is repeated if the relative precedes : wpit S rit rf^Oia, rpit roOro Im wpii tt 
ixuBTor tpyar StI miiittir it i» neeemarn to §et each individwti to tome one wort 
to which he it adti^ted by nature P. R. 423 d. 

1673. In nato a preposition Is often omitted In replies: i^ttium — ^* 
Wnf ; ^ijau, raS iyaeeO, ^i^o/wr overeome — by whatf he wUl tag. Bf the 
good, we thall eay Pr. 366 c. 

1673. The prepoaltlan Is usually omitted with the main noon or pronoon wiien 
it 1b used In a clause ol oomparlson with &t (rarely Hvrtp) at: Ittin ripi p^pii 
aal Tpo^ T^t ziipdi ^iiX(tfn0ai iheg ouffht to take thought for their countrg 
a* (A«i> mother and nurie P. R. 414 e ; so, uBually, when the two membeia are 
closely united : ut rpit M6t' tfii ei rdXif^ X^i apeak the truth to me at to o»r 
who knows At. Lye. 998. The preposition is often omitted in the clause with it 
(A»tp) at, 4 tAan ; ol rofi' iMir avrwt ut ri TMaDT-a rouir iraXMirir who om 
their ruin to nothing to much at to turh a eourte of action D. 19. 863, t^I nv 
fi^Uorroi ii&>Xor ^ovXflWtai J) roD rapiwrat to deliberate about the future rather 
than the prefenC T. 3. 44. 

1674. A preposition with its case may have the function of the subject, or 
the object, of a sentence ; or it may represent the protasis of a condition. 

Subject : l^mytf wtpt ijtriijioirfoui about eight hundred took to flight X. H. 
0. 6. 10 ; (gen. absol.) oHHiXry^rur ttpl irTatotImn, Xaflii «h-si}f jtBTa^sim 
when about wmn hundred had bef.n eoUeeted he marched down with tA«n> S. 4. G. 
Object : Sii<pe*ipttt it dircKorfwi theg killed about eight hundred T. 7. 32. PrM- 
asis: ittl Sii 7' Wt ainii rciXu Ar drwXiiXuTt for had it depended on pour 
telve* you would have pertthed long ago D. IB. 49 (cp. 2344). 


1675. Dm of the PnpoalUiHU in Attic PrON. — 
Witb the aocusaUve only : <l*d, rit. 



With Um dfttire only : ir, tit. 

With the genitive only : iwrl, drJ, ii, rpi. 

With the Mduative and genitive : dii^, Sid, nrd, iitri, bwfy. 

With Mcuntive, genitive, »nd dative : hri, t^fi, Ttpl, wpin, bwb. 

a. With the dative are also UMd in poetry : drd, iii^l (aiao in HdL), fiml, 
iri (Ar«), ii (Jt) take tbe daUre in Arcadian and Cyprian. 

b. The genitive i« either the genitive proper (of the goal, 134S, 13S0, etc.) 
or tbe ablatival genitive. 

c The datUe is nmally the locative or the InBtmmental, luely the dative 
proper (as with iwl and rpit of the goal). 

1676. Ordinaiy DiSerancea In Meaning. — 


round o&oitt, near 











otoM, in beKatf of 
arm Dativs